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The Development of Musical Ability with Special Reference to Aural Technique and Sight Reading

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THE DEVELOPMENT OP MUSICAL ABILITY
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO
AURAL TECHNIQUE AND SIGHT READING
A
THESIS
SUBMITTED TO THE
UNIVERSITY OP GLASGOW
FOR THE
DEGREE OP DOCTOR OP PHILOSOPHY
ARTHUR J .
1940
IRVINE
ProQuest N um ber: 13905616
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uest.
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i
I N T R O D U C T I O N
Prom e a r l i e s t t i m e s a n a i r o f m y s t e r y h a s s u r r o u n d e d
th e a r t and c r a f t o f th e m u s ic ia n .
To s a y t h a t m u s i c h a s
alw ays b een a s s o c i a t e d w ith p r i m i t i v e r e l i g i o n
is
sim p ly t o r e p e a t t h e s t a te m e n t ,
No d o u b t ,
w h a t may be c a l l e d
not to
e x p lain i t .
t h e d e m o c r a t i s a t i o n o f m usic
h as i n r e c e n t y e a r s done so m e th in g t o
re v e a l th e m ystery, b u t,
and magic
lift
th e v e i l and to
n e v e r t h e l e s s , man w i l l n e v e r c e a s e
t o r e g a r d w i t h aw e a n y t h i n g w h i c h m o v e s h i m p r o f o u n d l y , a n d
y e t elu d es a l l
h is
jo k in g rem ark,
"I b e lie v e , s i r ,
you a t
la st,"
ness re p lie d ,
effo rts a t an aly sis.
To Dr B u r n e y ' s
we s h a l l make a m u s i c i a n o f
t h e G r e a t Cham o f l i t e r a t u r e
"S ir,
in a l l
serio u s­
I s h a l l be g l a d t o have a new s e n s e
g i v e n t o m e."
The m u s i c i a n h i m s e l f ,
throughout th e ages,
has
undoubtedly h elp ed to m a in ta in t h i s t r a d i t i o n of m y stery .
M e d i a e v a l m u s ic w as i n e x t r i c a b l y b o u n d up w i t h m a t h e m a t i c s
and th e o lo g y ,
and t h e m u s i c i a n p r o p e r ,
the
" ra u s ic u s " , was
n o t u n w o r t h y o f some o f h i s m o d e r n d e s c e n d a n t s i n h i s
c o n t e m p t f o r s e l f - s t y l e d m u s i c i a n s who c o u l d r e p r o d u c e
m u s i c v o c a l l y o r i n s t r u m e n t a l l y , b u t who w e r e i g n o r a n t o f
th e s c ie n c e of m usic.
The d i s t i n c t i o n b e tw e e n t h e
sin g er,
t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t and t h e m u s i c i a n p r o p e r i s nowadays
l o s t s i g h t o f i n t h e g e n e r i c name " m u s i c i a n " .
But
m e d ia e v a l m u s ic ia n s were m ore c a r e f u l t o p r e s e r v e
the
d i s t i n c t i o n betw een th e s e t h r e e t y p e s , a s can be a s c e r t a i n e d
from a p e ru s a l o f Johannes T i n c t o r 's
T erm s. "
" D ic tio n a r y of M usical
*
T i n c t o r d i v i d e s m usic i t s e l f
in to th ree c la sse s:
M u s ic a A rm o n ica e s t i l i a q u a e p e r vocem p r a c t i c a t u r
humanam ( i . e . C h o r a l M u s i c ;
M usica O rg a n ic a e s t i l i a quae f i t i n i n s t r u m e n t i s
f l a t u sonum c a u s a n t i b u s ( i . e . M usic p r o d u c e d by
wind i n s t r u m e n t s l i k e t h e o r g a n )
M usica R ith m ic a e s t i l i a quae f i t p e r i n s t r u m e n t a
t a c t u s o n u m r e d d e n t i a t i . e . M u s i c p r o d u c e d by
s t r i n g and p e r c u s s i o n i n s t r u m e n t s ) .
T h e o n l y m u s i c t h a t was t r e a t e d s e r i o u s l y b y compo­
s e r s was t h e f i r s t
- M usica A rm onica.
The v o c a l t r a d i t i o n
i n m u sic was t h e r e s u l t o f a
slow e v o lu t i o n s u b j e c t to t h e law s o f n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n ,
and i t p e r s is te d u n t i l f a i r l y r e c e n tly .
*
"Term inorum M u sic a e D i f f i n i t o r i u m " , p r i n t e d a t N a p le s
a b o u t 1474.
S e v e r a l m a n u s c r i p t s o f t h i s w o r k h a v e come
down t o u s . We q u o t e h e r e f r o m C o u s s e m a k e r ' s e d i t i o n
o f T i n c t o r ' s Works - " T r a c t a t u s d e M u s i c a " , L i l l e ,
Im p rim erie L efeb u re-D u cro cq , 1875.
A r e p r i n t of
P o r k e l's E d itio n of th e D ic tio n a ry is to be found in
t h e Appendix t o " H a m ilto n 's D i c t i o n a r y o f 3 ,5 0 0 M u s ic a l
Term s, b y J o h n B i s h o p " . L ondon, R o b e r t Cocks & Co. 1849.
No E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n h a s y e t a p p e a r e d .
iii
The i n s t r u m e n t , w h e n i t w a s f i r s t a d m i t t e d
(circa
1 6 0 0 ) i n t o t h e d o m a in o f t h e a r t o f m u s i c , b e g a n by
i m i t a t i n g t h e v o i c e , a n d t h e r e was l i t t l e
d istin c tio n
betw een v o c a l m elody and i n s t r u m e n t a l m elo d y .
But i n
r e c e n t y e a r s c o m p o s e r s h a v e made m o r e a n d m o r e d e m a n d s on
t h e v o i c e , a n d we m y s a y t h a t
o u t on i t s
a rtistic
c a r e e r by f o l l o w i n g t h e v o i c e
o b s e q u i o u s l y , now c o n t r i v e s t o
The v o c a l t r a d i t i o n
re su lts
the in s tr u m e n t, w hich s e t
"lead th e voice a dan ce".
has c o m p le te ly b ro k e n down, w ith
on t h e p r o b le m s o f a u r a l t r a i n i n g a n d s i g h t r e a d ­
i n g , w h i c h we s h a l l d e a l w i t h i n t h e f i r s t f e w c h a p t e r s
of t h i s book.
T in e to r lik e w ise d iv id e s m usicians in to th r e e
classes
- C antor, S o n ito r,
h is d e fin itio n s
in th e
and M usicus.
We a p p e n d h e r e
o r ig in a l L a tin to g e th e r w ith an
E n g lish t r a n s l a t i o n .
"C an to r e s t q u i cantum voce m o d u la tu r"
(A s i n g e r i s one who p r o d u c e s m u s i c t h r o u g h h i s v o i c e )
"S o n ito r e s t qu i instrum ento a r t i f i c i a l i ,
- s i v e o r g a n i c o s i v e r i t h m i c o , m u s i c a m e x e r c e t ."
(An i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t i s o n e who p r o d u c e s m u s i c b y m e a n s
of a m ech an ical in s tru m e n t, w hether w i n d / i n s t r u m e n t a
f l a t u sonum c a u s a n t i a " , o r s t r i n g a n d p e r c u s s i o n ,
" i n s t r u m e n t a t a c t u so n u m r e d d e n t i a " ) .
But l e s t t h e s e s h o u ld c la im t h e p r i v i l e g e
o f b ein g reg a rd ed
iv
as m u s ic ia n s i n t h e t r u e s e n s e of t h e w ord,
the
he e l a b o r a t e s
fo llo w in g d e f i n i ti o n :
"M usicus e s t q u i p e r p e n s a r a t i o n e b e n e f i c i o
-s p e c u l a t i o n s , no n o p e r i s s e r v i t i o , c a n e n d i
officiu m assu m it.
H inc d i f f e r e n t i a m i n t e r
m usicum e t c a n t o r e m q u id a m su b t a l i m e tro ru m
s e rie p o su it:
M u sicorum e t c a n t o r u m magna e s t d i f f e r e n t i a :
I l l i s c i u n t , i i d i c u n t quae com ponit m u sica.
E t q u i d i c i t quod non s a p i t d i f f i n i t u r b e s t i a . "
(A m u s i c i a n i s one w h o , a f t e r i n t e n s e s t u d y o f t h e s c i e n ­
t i f i c b a s is o f m usic, ta k e s up th e p r o f e s s i o n o f m usicm aking ( c a n e n d i , n o t l i k e a s l a v e whose h a n d s a r e bound
t o h i s t a s k , b u t l i k e a m a s t e r whose mind i s f r e e t o
f o l l o w i t s own l i n e o f t h o u g h t .
T his d i f f e r e n c e b etw een
m u s i c i a n s a n d s i n g e r s h a s b een e x p r e s s e d i n rhym e as
fo llo w s:
'T w ix t m u s ic ia n a n d s i n g e r , I t h i n k y o u ' l l a g r e e ,
A m ighty g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e t h e r e alw ay s w i l l b e .
One u n d e r s t a n d s m u s i c , t h e o t h e r d o e s n o t ,
And who s p e a k s w i t h o u t k n o w i n g i s t r u l y a s o t . )
The f o l l o w i n g G e rm a n t r a n s l a t i o n b y H. B e l l e r m a n n o f t h e
above p a s s a g e , w i t h th e e x c e p tio n
se rv itio "
o f th e w o rd s "non o p e r i s
which a r e o m i t t e d i n t h e L a t i n v e r s i o n ,
found i n C h r y s a n d e r 's
"Jahrbuch,
i.
is
to be
1863."
"E in M usiker i s t e i n s o l c h e r , d e r n a ch U berlegung
d e r m u s i k a l i s c h e n V e r h a l t n i s s e rnit H iilfe d e r
w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e n B e t r a c h t u n g d a s G e s c h a f t des
S ingens ubernim m t.
D ah er h a t jemand d e n
U n t e r s c h i e d z w isc h e n e in em M u s ik e r u n d einem
b l o s s e n S a n g e r i n f o l g e n d e r R e ih e von V ersen
g e b r a c h t :Z w i s c h e n M u s i k e r n und S a n g e r n h e r r s c h t e i n
g ro sse r U nterschied.
J e n e w i s s e n un d e r k l a r e n ,
w ie G esang g e s c h a f f e n w i r d , und wer was e r
n ic h t v e rs te h t sa g t, g i l t fu r e in b lo sses T ie r."
V
We s t i l l
have a l l t h r e e
ty p e s o f m u s i c i a n w i t h us t o d a y :
t h e s i n g e r - m u s i c i a n p r i m a r i l y o r s o l e l y hy v i r t u e
of vocal tech n iq u e,
th e
in s tr u m e n ta lis t - m u sician p rim a rily or s o le ly
by v i r t u e o f i n s t r u m e n t a l te c h n iq u e ,
th e m u sic ia n p ro p e r - th e "m usicus", t h e freem an of
m usic a s opposed t o t h e h i r e l i n g s — c a n to r e s
e t s o n i t o r e s — o n e who may o r may n o t h a v e
a b e a u tif u l s in g in g voice (cf.B eeth o v en or
S c h u b e r t ) , a n d who may n o t b e a b l e t o s i n g
i n t u n e ( c f . J o a c h i m ) - one who may o r may
n o t be a n e x p e r t i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t ( c f . B e r l i o z
o r W a g n e r ) , b u t one who i s a m u s i c i a n by
v i r tu e o f h is a u r a l te c h n iq u e , a m usician
by d i v i n e r i g h t , " q u i p e r p e n s a r a t i o n e
b e n e fic io s p e c u la tio n is . non o p e ris s e r v i t i o
canendi o ffic iu m assu m it."
M usic to him
i s a n a f f a i r of t h e i n n e r e a r o r t h e m i n d ,
n o t of t h e l a r y n x (voce) o r o f t h e f i n g e r s
(tac tu ).
He c a n " s e e v / i t h t h e e a r " a n d
" he a r wi t h t h e ey e . "
Browning h a s s p o k e n ' f o r t h i s c l a s s i n t h e
w ell-k n o w n words fro m Abt V o g le r " ' T i s we m u s i c i a n s know?
I n t h e w o r l d o f m u s i c a l p e d a g o g y t h e two f o r m e r c l a s s e s —
can to res e t so n ito re s ,
sin g e rs and
"sounders"
alw ays w i l l be w e l l p r o v i d e d f o r by P r o f e s s o r s
P r o d u c tio n and P r o f e s s o r s of P i a n o f o r t e e t c .
class,
t h e "ear-m inded" -
"m usici"
- a r e and
of V oice
The t h i r d
or m usicians p roper -
a r e t o o o f t e n r e g a r d e d a s b e in g "born n o t made".
have a n e a r f o r m usic
or you h a v e n ' t ! " )
f r o m t h e work o f J o h n Curwen a n d h i s
S o l-fa pio n eers,
com p arativ ely l i t t l e
("Y ou
An d , a p a r t
l o y a l b an d o f T onic
in v estig atio n
h a s b e e n made i n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f t r a i n i n g
ch ild ren in
vi
th e fu n d am en tals of m u sic ia n s h ip ,
t h e a b i l i t y t o r e a d and
w r i t e m usic w i th o u t t h e a i d of a n i n s t r u m e n t .
No d o u b t a g r e a t d e a l
of t h e c o n f u s io n w hich e x i s t s
i n m usical pedagogy to d a y i s due to th e f a c t t h a t th e a r t
is
e n c u m b e r e d b y a v o c a b u l a r y o f t e c h n i c a l t e r m s , m an y o f
w hich a r e
cap able o f b e a r i n g q u i t e d i f f e r e n t m eanings.
F o r exam ple,
" s i g h t - r e a d i n g ” may m ean s i n g i n g a t
s ig h t or playing a t s i g h t .
And t h a t t h e s e
involve q u ite
d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s , d e p e n d e n t on e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t
m ental p ro c e s s e s ,
i s shown by t h e h i g h s t a n d a r d o f
i n s t r u m e n t a l t e c h n i q u e a n d t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y low s t a n d a r d
o f a u r a l t e c h n i q u e demanded i n D ip lom a e x a m i n a t i o n s , a n d
by th e
l a r g e number o f c a p a b l e i n s t r u m e n t a l
(esp ec ially p ia n ists)
"readers"
who a r e m o r e o r l e s s m u s i c a l l y
i l l i t e r a t e when t h e y a r e aw ay f r o m t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t .
Yet
i n s t a n d a r d S c h o o l M u s i c R e a d e r s , we f i n d t h a t m e t h o d s ,
w h i o h may b e p e d a g o g i c a l l y j u s t i f i e d
sig h t-p lay in g
in th e teach in g
of
( " s i g h t - r e a d in g can only be ta u g h t th ro u g h
s ig h t rea d in g , th e re fo re never play a s i g h t - t e s t tw ice;
e v e n a l t h o u g h y o u m ak e m i s t a k e s g o o n a n d f i n i s h t h e p i e c e
in s t r i c t tim e"),
a re a p p li e d e q u a l ly to th e te a c h in g
of
sig h t-sin g in g .
Even t h e t e r m " s i g h t - s i n g i n g "
In i t s
su g g estio n of the
is
a n u n f o r tu n a te one.
im p o rtan c e o f s i n g i n g m u sic "prim a
v i s t a " , i t c a r r i e s w ith i t
th e i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t t h e only
vii
way t o
te a c h s ig h t- s in g in g i s to p r a c tic e n o th in g but
s ig h t-s in g in g - to allo w
ch ild ren t o read each ex ercise
once and once o n ly , w i t h o u t any k in d of h e l p fro m t h e
teacher.
It
is not th u s
t h e i r n a tiv e language.
t h a t we t e a c h
c h il d r e n to r e a d
E v e n t h e way t o t h e L a t i n U n s e e n -
th e n e a r e s t approach t o th e s i g h t - s i n g i n g
ex ercise
- is
p a v ed by t h e S c a l a e P rim ae and t h e L a t i n R e ad e rs.
But t h i s
is
C lass T eacher.
o n l y one o f t h e
"id o la"
of th e S inging
F o r e x a m p l e , a p e r s o n who c a n n o t r e a d o r
w r i t e m u s i c w o u l d b e c e r t a i n l y s e t down b y a n e x a m i n e r a s
bein g d e f i c i e n t i n
" e a r - t r a i n i n g ".
W h e r e a s , a p e r s o n may
have a h ig h ly c u l t i v a t e d
" e a r " a n d y e t n o t be a b l e
to r e a d
o r w r ite a n o te of m usic
( c f . t h e f o l k s o n g s i n g e r s a t whose
f e e t C e c i l S h a r p was p r o u d t o s i t ) .
In th e s i s t e r
a r t of language t e a c h i n g , w h e th er t h e
E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e o r a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e , t h e name f o r t h e
p r o c e s s w h e r e b y we t r a n s l a t e s y m b o l i n t o s o u n d o r s o u n d
i n to symbol i s
"sp ellin g ".
fu n c tio n of s p e llin g
In th e language le s s o n th e
is du ly re c o g n ise d .
Im p o rtan t p la c e i n th e c u rric u lu m , and i t
w ith " lis te n in g "
or "ea r-tra in in g ".
th e term "sp e llin g "
S p e llin g has an
i s n ev er confused
Y et i n m usic t e a c h i n g
i s s e l d o m m et w i t h , a n d would p r o b a b l y
n o t be u n d e rs to o d by t h e a v e ra g e m usic t e a c h e r .
S p e l l i n g means t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n of e y e a n d e a r ,
c o rre latio n
of s o u n d s a n d v i s u a l s y m b o l s , a n d ,
th e
except in
viii
c a s e s w here p u p i l s a r e b e in g t r a i n e d i n
"ab so lu te p itc h " ,
th e m u sica l e q u iv a le n t of language s p e l li n g
"so l-fain g ."
today i s
The a b u s e w h i c h t h e
is
sim p ly
l a t t e r te r m s u f f e r s from
t h e s u r e s t i n d e x o f t h e c o n f u s i o n o f m ind o f t h e
a v e ra g e m usic t e a c h e r i n t h e fa c e
of t h e p s y c h o lo g ic a l and
p e d a g o g ic a l problem s o f t h e c la ss ro o m .
I t is
the purpose of th e p r e s e n t w r i t e r t o a n a ly s e
the s p e llin g
p r o c e s s , t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s and the w r i t i n g
p r o c e s s , f r o m t h e p o i n t of v ie w o f m u sic a s a l a n g u a g e ,
to p o in t
o u t t h e f a l l a c i e s u n d e r w hich th e m usic t e a c h e r of
to d ay i s
l a b o u r i n g , and t o e x p o se t h e f a l s e
p s y c h o l o g y on
w hich h i s s y s te m o f a u r a l t r a i n i n g a n d s i g h t - r e a d i n g
is
based.
The f i r s t t w o v o l u m e s o f t h e b o o k h a v e b e e n g i v e n
over to a c r itic is m
of e x i s t i n g M ethods and t o a n e x p o s i t i o n
o f a new M e t h o d o f A u r a l T r a i n i n g b a s e d o n t h e S e q u e n c e
M o d u la to r, and a d a p te d t o
th e needs of th e Singing C lass
T eacher.
In th e th ir d
volume t h e w r i t e r d e a l s w i t h v a r i o u s
o t h e r im p o r ta n t p roblem s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m usic r e a d i n g
and m u sic w r i t i n g p r o c e s s e s , w h ich c o u l d n o t be t r e a t e d i n
t h e f i r s t p a r t , e x c e p t i n a p a s s i n g way, w i t h o u t d i s t u r b i n g
th e u n ity
of th e e x p o s itio n .
t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of th e
Thus, t o t a k e
im portant q u e s tio n
one e x a m p l e ,
of th e
o rd er of
ix
d iffic u lty
o f k eys from t h e v i s u a l p o i n t of view i n s i g h t -
s i n g i n g - a q u e s t i o n w hich i s u s u a l l y d i s m is s e d w i t h an
em p h atic o p in io n and a sh ru g of th e s h o u ld e r s - l e d th e
w r i t e r t o p l a n an o b j e c t i v e e x p e r i m e n t , w h ic h w o u ld r a i s e
th e q u e s tio n once and f o r a l l above th e re a lm of o p in io n ,
and l e a v e t h e m a t t e r i n no d o u b t.
experim ent, th e i s o l a t i n g
problem , t h e p la n n in g
of t h e f a c t o r s
of t h e t e s t ,
m a te ria l, th e prelim in ary p ra c tic e
th e c la s s ,
th e
test
In carry in g
th e
out th is
in v o lv ed i n th e
se le c tio n of t e s t
on su c h n a t e r i a l b y
i ts e l f , th e co rrectin g
of t h e t e s t
p a p e rs, and t h e a n a ly s is by approved s t a t i s t i c a l
o f t h e s c o r e s , d e m a n d e d man y m o n t h s o f l a b o u r .
se ttin g
o u t of t h i s
in th is
book.
S im ilarly ,
experim ent a lo n e occu p ies
o th e r im portant a s p e c ts
c h i e f l y v i s u a l — f o r exam ple,
C ontent i n th e
And t h e
Z 8
pages
of m usic r e a d i n g ,
"Method i n r e l a t i o n t o
S c h o o l M u s i c R e a d e r " , a n d "The e f f e c t o f
th e f o r m a l la y o u t o f m usic type on th e r e a d i n g
have been d e a l t w ith a t l e n g t h i n t h e
Some o f t h i s
of m usic" -
t h i r d volum e.
m a t e r i a l has b een p u b lis h e d i n
M u s i c a l P e r i o d i c a l s , so m e o f i t
hands,
m ethods
is
still
in th e
E d ito rs’
a n d some o f i t h a s b e e n a c c e p t e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n a n d
th e n r e t u r n e d a s b eing to o
"co n tro v ersial"
in c h arac ter.
So l o n g a s M u s i c a l J o u r n a l s a r e p u b l i s h e d b y M u s i c
P u b lis h in g H ouses, so long m ust t h e s e a r c h e r a f t e r t r u t h
m u s i c a l p e d a g o g y bow down t o v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s .
in
X
These c h a p te r s of th e hook, w r i t t e n a t v a r io u s
tim es d u rin g th e p e rio d of r e s e a r c h , a re a l l
com plete in
th e m s e lv e s , a n d t h e y have heen l e f t a s t h e y w ere w r i t t e n ,
even a t th e expense of an o c c a s io n a l
In the
fin a l ch ap ter,
how ever,
o v e rla p p in g of them e.
th e w r i t e r has
endeavoured t o g a th e r to g e th e r th e v a rio u s t h r e a d s and t o
weave th e m i n t o t h e t e x t u r e
sh o w t h e p h i l o s o p h i c b a s i s
o f th e argum ent i n o r d e r to
or th e u n ify in g p r in c ip le
u n d erly in g a l l .
In h is re se a rc h e s in to
th ese su b je c ts,
th e
h a s had t h e good f o r t u n e t o be a b l e t o c o n s u l t ,
S u p e rv iso rs of S tu d ie s ,
w riter
as his
P r o f e s s o r W.G. W h i t t a k e r o f t h e
M u s i c D e p a r t m e n t a n d D r W i l l i a m Boyd o f t h e E d u c a t i o n
D e p a r tm e n t of Glasgow U n i v e r s i t y .
To b o t h o f t h e s e
l e a d e r s o f t h o u g h t i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s p h e r e s he owes h i s
w arm est thanks f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m and g u id a n c e .
To t h e H e a d m a s t e r o f N o r t h K e l v i n s i d e S e c o n d a r y
S c h o o l , Mr Wm. C a m e r o n , B . S c . , A . R . C . S . , h e i s g r a t e f u l f o r
th e
c o n s ta n t encouragem ent he re c e iv e d i n h is r e s e a r c h
work.
And t o t h e D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n , Mr R . M . A l l a r d y c e ,
an d t h e E d u c a t i o n C om m ittee of t h e C o r p o r a t i o n o f G lasgow
he is a ls o in d e b te d f o r p e rm iss io n , c o r d i a l l y g ra n te d , t o
c a r r y o u t e x p e r im e n ta l work i n s c h o o l s .
Most of t h e w ork i s
th e r e s u lt
of o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h
and e x p e r i m e n t i n o v e r t h i r t y G lasgow s c h o o l s ,
P rim ary and Secondary,
In fan t,
and where a u t h o r i t i e s a r e q u o te d
r e f e r e n c e i s ma.de t o t h e s o u r c e .
M A T E R I A
M U S I C A
A
NEW
METHOD
OP
AURAL
TRAINING
BASED
THE
SEQUENCE
ON
MODULATOR
P A R T
I
T H E
S E Q U E N C E
M O D U L A T O R
!
CONTENTS OP VOLUME I
C hapter
I
Page
A u ra l T r a i n in g i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e T echnique o f
t h e V o i c e i n P i t c h P r o d u c t i o n ...............................................
3
M en tal E f f e c t s of th e S c a le D eg rees and
D e f e c t s o f O r d i n a r y M o d u l a t o r P r a c t i c e ..........................
20
III
T h e S e q u e n c e M o d u l a t o r .................................................................
40
IV
C o n t e x t u a l P r o b le m s i n M usic S p e l l i n g and
t h e R e l a t i o n o f M usic S p e l l i n g a n d R e a d in g
t o L a n g u a g e S p e l l i n g a n d R e a d i n g .........................................
73
V
V a r i e d U s e s o f t h e S e q u e n c e M o d u l a t o r ...........................
L o n g e r S e q u e n c e P a t t e r n s ......................................................
R h y t h m i c V a r i e t y i n S e q u e n c e S i n g i n g ..........................
S e q u e n c e s w i t h A n a c r u s i s ......................................................
R h y t h m S p e l l i n g t h r o u g h S e q u e n c e S i n g i n g ................
I n v e r s i o n o f S e q u e n c e s ..............................................................
92
93
97
101
10 4
108
VI
V a r i e d Uses of t h e S e q u e n ce M o d u la to r ( C o n t d . )
Modal S e q u e n c e s
..........................................................................
S e q u e n c e s b e g i n n i n g on o t h e r Columns t h a n t h e f u s t
R e s t s i n S e q u e n c e S i n g i n g ......................................................
A n t i p h o n a l S e q u e n c e S i n g i n g .................................................
A n tip h o n al Sequence S in g in g i n C o n tra ry M otion.
M ental S in g in g
..........................................................................
N o n - S c a l i c S e q u e n c e s ................................................................
110
112
113
118
120
121
123
V a rie d Uses of t h e Sequence M o d u lato r (C o n td .)
C h r o m a t i c S e q u e n c e s .....................................................................
127
V I I I V a r ie d Uses o f t h e Sequence M o d u la to r (C o n td .)
T e t r a c h o r d a l S e q u e n c e S i n g i n g a n d Form i n M usic
M o d u l a t o r y S e q u e n c e s ................................................................
E a r - T e s t s a n d S e q u e n c e S i n g i n g .........................................
145
152
1 54
II
V II
IX
V a r ie d Uses o f t h e Sequence M o d u la to r (C o n td .)
A b s o l u t e P i t c h S e q u e n c e S i n g i n g .......................................
S t a f f R e a d i n g t h r o u g h S e q u e n c e S i n g i n g .....................
S t a f f W r i t i n g t h r o u g h S e q u e n c e s .......................................
C a n o n i c S e q u e n c e s ........................................................................
1 60
163
165
171
R ecap itu latio n
.....................................................................................
172
Appendix A T a b l e s o f S e q u e n c e F o r m u l a e .......................................................
"
B Rhythm T a b l e s f o r S e q u e n c e S i n g i n g a n d Rhythm
S p ellin g .
1 86
X
1 94
3
C H A P T E R
I
AURAL TRAINING IN RELATION TO THE
TECHNIQUE OF THE VOICE I N PITCH PRODUCTION
When, j u s t a b o u t o n e h u n d r e d y e a r s a g o , M i s s G l o v e r
a n d J o h n C urw en g a v e t o t h e w o r l d t h e
th e T onic S o l - f a L e t t e r N o ta tio n ,
S o l - f a M o d u lato r and
th e y perform ed a g r e a t e r
s e r v i c e t o m usical pedagogy th a n h as e v e r been f u l l y
re a lised .
P re v io u s to t h i s ,
the
s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s were
used o n ly i n a s s o c ia tio n w ith th e s t a f f n o ta tio n - th e y
h a d no n o t a t i o n a l e x i s t e n c e i n t h e m s e l v e s .
Some m u s i c e d u c a t i o n i s t s o f t o d a y w ou ld s e e m t o
in v ite
a r e t u r n t o t h e s e d a y s by t h e i r
en tire
a b o l i t i o n from s c h o o ls of th e t o n i c s o l - f a n o t a t i o n
(though not t h e s y l l a b l e s ) ,
in sisten ce
on t h e
a n d b y t h e i r dem an d t h a t t h e
T o n ic S o l - f a M o d u l a t o r s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d by a S t a f f
M odulator as so o n a s th e c h i l d r e n a r e f a m i l i a r w ith th e
sy llab les, th a t Is,
according to
them ,
in the e a rly s ta g e s
of school l if e .
Thus,
the l a te
S ir A rthur S o m erv ell,
I n s p e c t o r o f M u sic t o t h e
P rin cip al
Board o f E d u c a t i o n and t h e
S c o t t i s h E d u ca tio n D epartm ent,
says,
in
"The C o m p l e a t
T e a c h e r " , V o l . 2 ( B o o s e y & Co. 1 9 3 2 ) ,
"The S o l - f a s y l l a b l e s s h o u l d b e u s e d i n
- s i g h t r e a d i n g and e a r work; b u t th e
S o l- f a N o ta tio n , i . e . the w r i t t e n s c r i p t
of S o l-fa , i s n o t o n ly u n n ecessary ; in
some ways i t i s a h i n d r a n c e . . .
"When, t h e r e f o r e
th e r e a d e r cores across
a n y m e n t i o n o f S o l - f a i n t h i s b o o k , he
"m ust rem ember t h a t i t r e f e r s
to th e use o f th e s y lla b le s "
only
( p . 6)
"T h e ( S o l - f a ) M o d u l a t o r i s o f t e n s t i l l
-found i n t h e u p p e r p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l .
I f i t had been p r o p e r l y t a u g h t low er
down, i t w ould h a v e b e e n d i s c a r d e d by
the t i r e t h e c h ild r e n a re e ig h t or nine
y e a r s old a t t h e l a t e s t .
"As s o o n a s t h e c h i l d r e n h a v e w o r k e d
f o r a f e w w e e k s o n t h e S o l - f a Modu­
l a t o r t h e y s h o u l d p a s s on t o t h e
S t a f f M odulator, from w hich th e y w i l l
s in g j u s t a s e a s i l y a s th e y d id from
th e o th e r."
( i b i d p . 11)
The c h i e f r e a s o n f o r t h e
to n ic
e n t i r e p r o s c r i p t i o n o f the
s o l - f a n o t a t i o n w ould seem t o
be t h a t ,
sin ce
it
is so
easy f o r c h il d r e n t o rea d from t h i s c o n c re te n o ta tio n , th e y
w ill not tak e th e tro u b le t o
a b stra c t s ta f f n o tatio n .
le a rn to
T his argum ent m ight a p p ly to
a d u l t s u n d e r no d i r e n e c e s s i t y t o
learn , but
a p p l y to c h i l d r e n u n d e r d i s c i p l i n e
w e ll argue
th at,
r e a d f r o m t h e m ore
in sc h o o l.
s i n c e young c h i l d r e n f i n d i t
i t does not
One m i g h t a s
so e a sy to
c o u n t w i t h t h e h e l p of c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s s u c h a s s t i c k s
m arbles, th e y w i l l n o t tak e t h e tr o u b le t o
b y m eans o f t h e a b s t r a c t f i g u r e s
t o b o t h a r g u m e n ts is t h a t i t
see t h a t th e c h ild r e n a re
stage to
t h e m o r e or
12
3 etc.
learn to
or
count
And t h e a n s w e r
is th e d u ty of th e te a c h e r to
le d g r a d u a lly from the
concrete
less a b s tra c t stag e.
O n l y one who h a s h a d much e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g
young c h i l d r e n t o r e a d f r o m s t a f f n o t a t i o n can r e a l i s e
how
h ig h ly a b s tr a c t,
w ith re s p e c t to
both r e l a t i v e
r e la tiv e d u ratio n , t h i s n o tatio n i s .
p i t c h and
And s i n c e ,
p r a c t i c a l l y a l l elem en tary sc h o o l c h ild r e n ,
for
the s t a f f
n o t a t i o n c a n be a p p r o a c h e d o n l y t h r o u g h t h e m o v ab le d oh
s y s t e m of s o l - f a i n g , s u r e l y t h e p r o p e r v i e w t o
take
is
t h a t one s h o u l d n o t d i s h e a r t e n young c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r
f ir s t e ffo rts
i n m usic r e a d in g by a s k in g them t o r e a d
from
t h e h i g h l y c o m p l i c a t e d a n d am b ig u o u s s t a f f n o t a t i o n , when
t h e y c a n be t a u g h t s o e a s i l y t o r e a d f r o m t h e
sim p le,
c o n c r e t e t o n i c s o l - f a n o t a t i o n , w h ic h t h u s makes a n e a s y
ste p p in g -sto n e t o
the
staff.
"No s y s t e m w h i c h t e a c h e s a c h i l d t h a t a
• c e r t a i n s i g n r e p r e s e n t s a c e r t a i n sound,
e i t h e r a b s o l u t e l y o r r e l a t i v e l y , can in
i t s e s s e n c e be m is c h ie v o u s ."
(C.V. S t a n f o r d i n " S t u d i e s a n d M em ories"
London, A r c h i b a l d C o n s t a b l e & C o . L t d . 1908)
W ith r e g a r d t o
the s u b s t i t u t i o n o f a s t a f f m o d u la to r
f o r th e s o l - f a m o d u lato r, the q u e s tio n tu rn s
m eant by t h e q u a l i f y i n g p h r a s e ,
are f a m ilia r w ith the
on w h a t i s
"as soon a s the c h i l d r e n
so l-fa sy lla b le s."
The g e n e r a l
e x p erien c e i s t h a t v e ry few sc h o o l c h ild r e n or even c o lle g e
s t u d e n t s , u n d e r p r e s e n t - d a y m eth o d s of t e a c h i n g ,
th e
ever reach
stag e of p e rf e c t f a m i l i a r i t y w ith th e s o l - f a s y lla b le s .
T h e y may b e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s y l l a b l e s a s t h e y s t a n d i n
th e sc a le
o r i n t h e cora non c h o r d a l p r o g r e s s i o n s , a n d t h e y
may b e a b l e t o s o l - f a n o t e s o c c u r r i n g i n h o m e l y c o n t e x t s a n d
su n g a t a hom ely s p e e d .
But t h e f a c t rem a in s t h a t th e
seven s y lla b le s of the d ia to n ic
m ajor s c a l e a r e c a p a b le
o f s o many p e r m u t a t i o n s and c o m b i n a t i o n s ,
effects
and th e m ental
of t h e s e s e v e n n o t e s a r e so k a l e i d o s c o p i c
- v aried
a s t h e y a r e by p i t c h i n r e l a t i o n to
the v o ic e ,
m o d u la tio n o r harm onic p r o g r e s s i o n ,
w hether p r e s e n t or
im p lied ,
by
by s p e e d an d by t i m e a n d a c c e n t o r r h y t h m - i n
s h o r t , b y t h e i r m u s i c a l c o n t e x t , t h a t one c a n n e v e r be
c e r t a i n when c h i l d r e n o r a d u l t s
la v e p a sse d beyond th e
p e r c e p t i v e s t a g e of r e c o g n i t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r
" ra y 's "
and " m e 's " ,
c o n cep tio n of
and r e a c h e d t h e
" d o h 's " and
general stag e
of
"d o h -n ess" and " r a y - n e s s " and "m e-n ess".
A few i l l u s t r a t i o n s
Ask a n y o r d i n a r y c l a s s
w i l l make t h i s
p o in t q u ite c le a r .
to sin g
"s, l , t , d r m f s "
t o t h e s y l l a b l e s , and i t
w i l l sh a rp e n the
obvious:
w i ll p ro b a b ly be found t h a t th e y
p en u ltim ate n o te .
The r e a s o n f o r t h i s
is
t h e y h a v e s u n g s o man y s c a l e s b e g i n n i n g o n t h e
t o n i c , a n d s o f e w b e g i n n i n g on th e d o m i n a n t .
A gain, a sk a c l a s s t o
sing the
f o l lo w in g from
s o l-fa no tatio n :
Is : + :r' U
' :-
II and
tfr)
jjs
:
W
1I r 1 : t : S
Is
||
I t w i l l be found t h a t t h e y w i l l alm o st i n v a r i a b l y s in g
"lah" f o r t h e
the
"te"
"te"
in the
i n t h e f i r s t e x a m p le , and "doh " f o r
second.
The r e a s o n h e r e i s t h a t t h e s e a r e
u n g ra te fu l or unvocal m elodies,
w h i c h t r a n s g r e s s t h e Laws
of M elodic P r o g r e s s i o n a s f o rm u la te d by t h e o r i s t s
Vocal S r a .
m elodies.
in the
P a l e s t r i n a would n e v e r have w r i t t e n s u c h
But t h i s
b eg in n ers to
s i m p l y means t h a t t h e y a r e
be d i f f i c u l t t o s i n g ,
and th e
f o u n d by
ch ild ren
s i m p l i f y them u n c o n s c io u s ly .
In th e p h y sical w o rld , th e re
is
w hich s t a t e s t h a t a n y body i n a s t a t e
w i l l co n tin u e
in the s t a t e
i n t h e sa m e s t r a i g h t
ex tern al fo rce .
in th e
of re st
or m otion
of r e s t o r o f u n i f o r m m o t i o n
l i n e , u n t i l a c t e d u p o n b y some
T h ere seems t o b e a s i m i l a r law o f i n e r t i a
p h y s io lo g ic a l w o rld , so f a r a s t h e s in g in g v o ice is
concerned,
for,
down t h e s c a l e ,
it
a Law o f I n e r t i a
wh en t h e v o i c e
is m oving s t e p w i s e up o r
i t r e q u i r e s a m a r k e d m e n t a l e f f o r t t o make
l e a p i n t h e sa m e d i r e c t i o n , a s t h i s
i n e r t i a of t h e v o ic e ,
o r t e n d e n c y t o c a r r y on i n t h e sa m e u n i f o r m w a y , h a s t o
overcoire.
be
The sa m e a p p l i e s t o s t e p w i s e m ovem ent i n t h e
sa m e d i r e c t i o n a f t e r c e r t a i n l e a p s .
Composers o f t i e
Vocal E ra r e a l i s e d t h i s
and r e s ­
p e c t e d t h e s e Laws o f M e l o d i c P r o g r e s s i o n w h i c h f o r b a d e s u c h
p ro g ressio n s.
(See " C o n tr a p u n ta l T ech n iq u e i n t h e S i x t e e n t h
C e n t u r y " ( p p . 29 a n d 3 0 ) , b y R . O . M o r r i s ,
O xford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1922.
A lso "M usical C om position" by C .V .S ta n f o rd
M a c m i l l a n & C o . , 1 9 1 1 , ( p p . 1 2 7 , 1 2 8 , 147 a n d 1 4 8 ) .
S tu d en ts of s t r i c t c o u n te rp o in t,
bear these
however, m ust s t i l l
la v / s i n m i n d i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n r o o m .
And
c h i l d r e n of to d a y a r e c o n s t a n t l y p ro v in g
reading
lesso n th a t th ese
law s m u st be b a se d on n a t u r a l
t e n d e n c i e s o f t h e human v o i c e .
sig h t-read in g
sing in g ,
of w ill
in the s ig h t-
- not of course
For,
by t h e i r m is ta k e s in
i n p a t t e r n s i n g i n g o r song
vhich do es not inv olve any c r e a t i v e a c t o r a c t
- t h e y show u n m i s t a k a b l y t h a t t h e y t h e m s e l v e s a r e
p assin g th ro u g h th e
same s t a g e s i n t h e
vocal a r t as th e ra c e
ev o lu tio n of th e
has p a sse d th ro u g h i n t h e bygone
c en tu rie s.
F o rtu n ately ,
can be
overcom e.
in th e
r i g h t way.
th is
law of i n e r t i a
i n t h e hum an v o i c e
B u t we m u s t go a b o u t t h e r e m e d i a l w o r k
I n t h e exam ple q u o t e d above fro m
E x e r c i s e 2 o f "The P r o g r e s s i v e S t a f f R e a d e r " ,
Hugh H u n t e r , M u s . B . , a n d D . C . W a l k e r ,
Ferguson,
L .R .A .M .
Book B, by
(B ayley &
London & G lasgow )
w here t h e c h i l d r e n , a l t h o u g h naming t h e n o t e c o r r e c t l y ,
s i n g t h e sound
fu tile
"lah" in s te a d of
to give p r a c tic e
"te",
in sin g in g
have l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y in s in g in g
The t r o u b l e a r i s e s w h e n t h i s
p r e c e d e d b y one o r m ore s t e p s
Is
:t
:r'|.
C h ild ren
|s
:t
:r'|
by i t s e l f .
chordal p ro g ressio n is
in th e
t h e o n l y way t o m a s t e r t h e d i f f i c u l t y
p ro g ressio n - m f s t r' - to th e
to sin g th e
whole p a s s a g e t o
i t w ould be q u i t e
same d i r e c t i o n .
i s t o s i n g t h e w h o le
so l-fa sy llab les.
"lah"
And
E ven
o r any o t h e r vowel w i l l
n o t h e lp th e p u p ils g r e a t l y to meet a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n
l a t e r on, a s t h e w r i t e r h a s p ro v e d by num erous e x p e r i m e n t s ,
f o r th e s y l l a b l e s th em selv es e x e r t a ty ra n n y over th e v o ice
u n t i l th e y are m astered .
F o r exam ple,
c h ild ren ,
young c h i l d r e n ,
and even o ld e r
w i l l s in g th e f a m i l i a r psalm tu n e
"French" or
"Dundee"
t o words o r t o
to sin g
vow els, and im m e d ia te ly a f t e r w a r d s f a i l
{:dlm : f I s} f r o m t h e b l a c k b o a r d o r t h e
m odulator.
so l-fa
The s o u n d s " d o h me" s u n g t o t h e s y l l a b l e s
i n e v i t a b l y c a l l up t o t h e c h i l d r e n t h e
sound " s o h " ,
because
t h e y h a v e h a d s o much p r a c t i c e i n s p e l l i n g o r s o l - f a i n g
d m s,
and s o l i t t l e
p rac tic e
in sp e llin g
or so l-fa in g
d m f s.
(Dr S o m e r v e l l a l s o d r a w s a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s w e l l known p h e n o m e n o n i n "The C o m p l e a t T e a c h e r " Vo1 . 2 , p . 9 .
Boosey & C o . ,1932)
On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
as th e r e s u l t
o f num erous e x p e r i ­
m ents w ith v a r i o u s g r a d e s of c h i l d r e n i n o v e r f i f t y s c h o o l s ,
t h e w r i t e r h a s proved t h a t i f c h i l d r e n have b e e n t r a i n e d
s p e ll or s o l- f a th is
psalm t u n e , t h e y w i l l r e a d
a t sig h t q u ite re a d ily .
The o n l y w a y , t h e n ,
d m f s
to break th is
t y r a n n y o f t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s a n d t o make t h e m o n e ’ s
s e r v a n t s and n o t o n e 's m a s te r s
i s t o k e e p on s o l - f a i n g
s i n g i n g them i n a l l t h e i r c o n t e x t s .
to
or
It
is
probable, and,
in f a c t,
alm o st c e r t a in ,
t h a t th e c h i l d r e n have n e v er b e fo re sung th e s y l l a b l e s
s t r'
i n th e p a r t i c u l a r c o n te x t quoted above:
m \
i
P- #— - Q.r-------* i ± + U =E=f
I n t h a t c a s e , we may a s k ,
is
i t rig h t to
c h ild r e n t o co nceive m e n ta lly w ith th e a id
expect
of the sy lla b le s
and t o s i n g a t s i g h t a n u n v o c a l p a s s a g e , th e
lik e
of w h i c h
th e y have n e v e r b e fo re s o l - f a e d o r sung o r a l l y t o th e
sy llab les?
d ecid ed ly ,
And t h e a n s w e r o f t h e e d u c a t i o n i s t i s ,
"No! A l l r e a d i n g m a t t e r s h o u l d b e a n t i c i p a t e d
beforehand in
o r a l w ork.
a l o n g way a f t e r t h e
fo llo w
oral sta g e."
The m o d e r n c h i l d ,
h is sig h t-rea d in g
The s y m b o l s t a g e s h o u l d
o f c o u r s e , m u s t be p r e p a r e d i n
t o c o p e w ith a l l k in d s of m elodic
p r o g r e s s i o n s , w h e th e r v o c a l i n o r i g i n or n o t .
p a rtic u la r p ro g ressio n ,
a so n g by F r a n z A bt:
T his
f o r exam ple, i s t o be found i n
A g a in , a w e l l - l o v e d s o n g by Brahms,
V eilch en ",
begins w ith t h i s
J-
&a^., o
In t h i s
"An e i n
most u n v o c a l p h r a s e :
i*;
•
.w u
* '
‘ \ '
*
ll-iii -/dviK' .i* AtM-fn, AiaM.-*n -i'izt/ - -c£e.
s h o r t p a s s a g e o f e l e v e n n o t e s we f i n d f o u r i n f r i n g e
m e n t s o f t h e Laws of M e l o d i c P r o g r e s s i o n w h i c h g u i d e d t h e
com poser o f v o c a l m usic i n t h e d a y s of P a l e s t r i n a .
( a ) The c h o r d a l p r o g r e s s i o n
E G C * E1
c o n t a i n i n g t h r e e l e a p s i n t h e sa m e d i r e c t i o n .
"More t h a n t w o l e a p s i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n
- a r e a lm o s t alw ay s b a d ."
( b ) The t r i t o n e
G C'*.
T h is i n t e r v a l , a s i t s nicknam e " D ia b o lu s
i n M u s i c i , i m p l i e s , was s h u n n e d l i k e t h e
D evil h im se lf.
( c ) The s t e p w i s e i n t e r v a l
E 1 F'# o c c u r r i n g a f t e r
t h r e e l e a p s i n t h e sam e d i r e c t i o n .
"Two s u c c e s s i v e l e a p s ( i f t a k e n a t a l l l
s h o u l d be p r e c e d e d a n d f o l l o w e d by
m ovem ent ( p r e f e r a b l y c o n j u n c t ) i n t h e
o p p o s ite d i r e c t i o n of t h e l e a p s . "
( d ) The l e a p o f a m a j o r s i x t h , F'# A.
"The l e a p of t h e m a j o r s i x t h i s f o r b i d d e n ;
- e x c e p tio n s t o t h i s r u l e a r e r a r e enough
to n e c e s s i t a t e i t s r i g i d o b serv an ce."
(See " C o n t r a p u n t a l T echnique i n t h e
S i x t e e n t h C e n t u r y " by R. 0 . M o r r i s , o p . c i t .
p p .29 ,5 0 )
IZ
We n e e d n o t d i s c u s s h e r e t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e
e x te n s io n of th e m elodic idiom from a h o u t th e
onw ards.
y e a r 1600
These w i l l he found i n any h i s t o r y o f m u sic.
B ut u n d o u b te d ly th e m ain r e a s o n i s t h e e n t r y o f t h e m u s ic a l
instru m en t,
e s p e c i a l l y th e keyboard in s tr u m e n t,
in to th e
dom ain o f t h e m u s i c a l a r t .
S u ffice
it
t o s a y t h a t we m u s t a c c e p t t h e m u s i c a l
l a n g u a g e a s we f i n d i t
and te a c h c h ild r e n t o
and w r i t e m usic i n t h e id io m o f to d a y ,
sp e ll,
read
and n o t i n t h e id io m
o f P a l e s t r i n a and h i s a g e .
As t e a c h e r s ,
then,
p u p i l s w h a t we may c a l l
o u r a im m u st be t o p r o d u c e i n o u r
"Die W o h lte m p e r ir te Stim m e", t h a t i s
t o s a y , a v o ic e e q u a l ly tem pered i n t h e
T oledo b la d e i s
e q u a lly tem pered,
se n se i n w hich a
a b le t o g iv e and t a k e ,
to
le a p or s t e p i n any d i r e c t i o n and a t any p o i n t .
However, i t
is n o t very s a t i s f a c t o r y t o w a it u n t i l
d i f f i c u l t p i t c h problem s c ro p up i n s i g h t - r e a d i n g e x e r c i s e s ,
a nd t h e n t o m a s t e r th e m one b y o n e .
ambulando" m ethod o f t r a i n i n g
common t o d a y ,
T his
"so lv itu r
in s ta f f sig h t-rea d in g ,
i s t r u l y a m ethod o f d e s p a i r .
s i g h t - s i n g i n g i s a h i g h l y com plex p r o c e s s ,
does, th ree d i s t in c t sp e llin g a b i l i t i e s ,
so
For s t a f f
in v o lv in g ,
as i t
w hich each r e q u i r e
s e p a r a t e d r i l l i n g u n t i l t h e y be co m e m o r e o r l e s s a u t o m a t i c .
13
F o r exam ple,
in sin g in g th is
passage:
(a)
t h e c h i l d r e n m u st be a b l e t o r e c o g n i s e t h e
n o te s as v a rio u s s c a le d e g re e s , and to g iv e
th em t h e i r s o l - f a names i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y ;
(b)
t h e y m u s t be a b l e t o c o n c e i v e i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y
and sin g w ith c o r r e c t i n to n a t io n th e sounds
c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s e s o l - f a names;
(c)
th e y m ust g iv e t o t h e s e sounds th e e x a c t tim e
v a l u e s and a c c e n t u a l v a l u e s i n d i c a t e d by t h e
n o tatio n .
Thus,
th r e e s e p a ra te and d i s t i n c t a b i l i t i e s a re in v o lv e d ,
w eakness i n any o f w hich w i l l r e s u l t i n m e a n in g le s s
m eandering i n s t e a d o f m ea n in g fu l r e a d i n g .
Hence, t h e s e
t h r e e s p e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e s , w h i c h may be c a l l e d
(b)
a u r a l and
(a) v i s u a l , '
( c ) r h y t h m i c , m u s t be d e v e l o p e d i n t e n s i v e l y
by s e p a r a t e d r i l l s .
Of t h e t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s i g h t sin g in g pro cess th e re
i s no d o u b t a s t o w h ich i s t h e m ost
d i f f i c u l t of acquirem ent.
The f i r s t ,
(a)
or v is u a l tech n iq u e, does n o t re q u ire
any d i s t i n c t i v e m u sic a l a b i l i t y ,
an y more t h a n t h e m a s t e r y
of th e ty p e w r ite r keys r e q u ir e s any d i s t i n c t i v e
lite ra ry
ab ility .
The l a s t ,
( c ) o r r h y t h m i c t e c h n i q u e , may be a c q u i r e d
b y o n e who f a i l s t o d e v e l o p a u r a l t e c h n i q u e , a s i s p r o v e d bj
t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r o f p i a n i s t s who a r e e x c e l l e n t s i g h t
p lay e rs but poor s i g h t s in g e rs .
IJh
But t h e s e c o n d ( b ) o r a u r a l t e c h n i q u e ,
is m an ifestly
t h e d i s t i n c t i v e mark o f t h e m u s i c i a n qua m u s i c i a n .
And i t
i s t h i s t e c h n i q u e w i t h w h i c h we a r e m o s t l y c o n c e r n e d i n
t h i s hook,
a l t h o u g h t h e o t h e r two w i l l he d e a l t v / it h a l s o .
I t w i l l he r e a d i l y a d m itte d t h a t ,
sig h t-read in g ,
f o r purposes of
a u r a l t e c h n iq u e m ust he w e l l i n advance of
an y th in g re q u ire d i n s i g h t - s i n g i n g ,
of sig h t-p la y in g ,
ju st as,
f o r purposes
f i n g e r t e c h n i q u e m u st be w e l l i n a d v a n c e
of a n y th in g re q u ire d i n piano s i g h t - p la y i n g .
w i l l he a d m itte d t h a t t h i s
it
a u r a l t e c h n i q u e c a n o n l y he
a c q u ire d a p a r t from s i g h t - s i n g i n g ,
can o n ly be a c q u ir e d
F u rther,
j u s t as f in g e r tech n iq u e
a p a r t from s i g h t - p l a y i n g .
A g a i n , some
s y s t e m m u s t h e o b s e r v e d s o t h a t t h e r e may h e n o r e d u n d a n c y
of p ractice
o th ers,
i n some a s p e c t s a n d o m i s s i o n o f p r a c t i c e i n
and so t h a t a l l
p r o b l e m s may h e c l a s s i f i e d
arranged in order of d i f f i c u l t y .
F o r e x a m p l e , t h e c h i l d may
he t a u g h t t o m a s t e r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r m e lo d ic f i g u r e
But t h e r e a r e s t i l l
and
m f s t .
t h i r t e e n o t h e r c o n t e x t s i n w hich t h i s
sam e m e l o d i c f i g u r e may p r e s e n t i t s e l f
i n t h e a s c e n d i n g and
d e sce n d in g o r d e r o f t h e m ajor s c a l e a lo n e .
We g i v e a l l
fo u rteen here.
lotrm slp m fl
lm f s fc I f s I d' I s £ t r' II to l'm l fr oi' r ' - f '
9Wc*noU<j, jcT 1 1 f I t I 6 m II s f v Is f m d I f m r t; lw r d l , | r d
s,
II
I
How c a n we b e s u r e
o f m aking t h e
c h ild ren fa m ilia r
w ith th e s o l - f a s y lla b le s in a s s o c ia tio n w ith t h e i r
in a l l
sounds
p o s s i b l e c o n t e x t s , t h u s e n a b l i n g them t o cope w ith
t h e m on a l l
o ccasion s, a s th ey occur in e ar t e s t s ,
or s i g h t t e s t s
in e ith e r n otation?
been done i n o th e r f i e l d s
d ictation,
L e t us s e e w hat has
of m u sic a l pedagogy.
In every d epartm ent of in stru m e n tal te a c h in g th e re
a r e approved
"Methods" o r sy s te m s o f t e c h n i q u e , w h ic h a l l
s t u d e n t s m ust m a s te r ,
i f th e y a re to g a in any degree of
p r o fic ie n c y in playing a t s i g h t .
For exam ple,
t e c h n i q u e , we h a v e f i v e - f i n g e r e x e r c i s e s ,
arpeggios,
chords,
i s t h a t th e
scales,
o c ta v e s t u d i e s , d o u b le t h i r d s and s i x t h s ,
ex ercises fo r
n o tes,
in piano
c o n tr a c tio n and e x te n s io n , f o r re p e a te d
e tc .
The i d e a u n d e r l y i n g a n y s u c h s y s t e m
s tu d e n t should a n t i c i p a t e
in th e tec h n ic al
e x e rc is e s any d i f f i c u l t i e s
t h a t may c o n f r o n t h i m l a t e r
in th e stan d ard l i t e r a t u r e
of th e in stru m e n t.
o f te a c h in g e x p e r t s have a b s t r a c te d
on
G en eratio ns
th ese te c h n ic a l
problem s from t h e c u r r e n t m u s ic a l l i t e r a t u r e ,
and c l a s s i ­
f i e d th em a c c o r d in g t o t h e i r n a tu r e and d i f f i c u l t y ,
u n til
t o d a y we h a v e a " G r a d u s a d P a r n a s s u m " s y s t e m o f t e c h n i q u e
fo r every instru m en t,
a n d we c a n t e l l f r o m t h e t e c h n i c a l
s t a g e , w hich a s t u d e n t h as r e a c h e d , w hat p ie c e o r ty p e
p i e c e he s h o u l d be a b l e t o
attem p t.
of
Now, t h e hu m an v o i c e i s
but i t
a m usical in stru m e n t to o ,
has a tech n iq u e p e c u lia r to
in an im p o rta n t a s p e c t,
itse lf,
and d i f f e r i n g
t h e a s p e c t of p i t c h p r o d u c tio n ,
from t h a t o f a l l o t h e r m u sic a l in s tr u m e n ts .
The v o c a l
a p p a r a t u s f o r p r o d u c in g p i t c h i s h i d d e n fro m s i g h t and
from to u c h , and f o r t h i s re a s o n s i g h t - s i n g i n g
offers
p ro b le m s w h ic h a r e n o t met w i t h i n s i g h t - p l a y i n g .
c a n n o t exam ine,
v is u a lly or fa c tu a lly ,
the
t e c h n i c a l a p p a ra tu s f o r producing p i t c h ,
One
lary n x or th e
and e x p la in p i tc h
p r o d u c t i o n i n s p a t i a l t e r m s , a s one can do i n t h e c a s e
keyboard in s tru m e n ts ,
f o r exam ple, where t h e
p ro d u c in g d i f f e r e n t p i t c h sounds i s
sp a tia l rela tio n sh ip s.
n o tatio n
s ta f f n o tatio n is ,
b a s e d on
C onsequently, w h ile th e s t a f f
(w hich, be i t n o te d ,
of stav es),
apparatus fo r
one t h a t i s
is
a ls o based in i t s
a s p e c t on a s y s te m o f s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s
series
of
p itch
on a s t a v e
or
i s a n i d e a l one f o r i n s t r u m e n t s , t h i s
by i t s e l f ,
n o t a d a p t e d t o t h e hum an v o i c e .
For th e te c h n iq u e o f p itc h p ro d u c tio n i n th e voice i s based,
n o t o n a s y s t e m o f s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , b u t on a s e r i e s o f
e x tre m e ly d e l i c a t e m u scu lar t e n s io n s of th e v o c a l chords
w ith in th e
larynx.
We c a n n o t p l a c e a f i n g e r o n a c e r t a i n
p o i n t and be s u r e of producing a c e r t a i n p i t c h sou n d .
(From t h e p o i n t o f v ie w o f p i t c h p r o d u c t i o n t h e
n e a r e s t a p p r o a c h t o t h e hum an v o i c e i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l
w o rld i s t h e F r e n c h Horn.
The H o r n p l a y e r ,
who c a n n o t r e a d
II
his
score m en tally or a n tic ip a te
i n im a g in a tio n th e sounds
he m ust p ro d u ce on h is i n s t r u m e n t,
a good Horn p l a y e r .
w i l l n e v e r prove t o be
And e v e n t h e b e s t o f H o r n p l a y e r s f a i l
o f te n to produce th e c o r r e c t n o t e .)
It
is tru e
t h a t a few m u s i c i a n s ,
in co n stan t co n tact
from e a r l y c h ild h o o d w ith m u sic a l i n s tr u m e n ts ,
c u l t i v a t e a memory f o r a b s o l u t e p i t c h ,
c o n triv e to
b u t th e s e m usicians
c a n be o f no a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f p e o p le ,
f o r whom a " g o - b e t w e e n " m u s t b e f o u n d t o l i n k u p t h e v i s u a l
m u s i c a l s y m b o l s on t h e
stav e w ith th e m u s c u la r-a rtic u la r
or k in a e sth e tic sense,
w hich c o n t r o l s t h e
p itc h in th e vocal chords.
be found i n t h e
And t h i s
p ro d u ctio n of
"go-betw een" i s
"tim e-honoured s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s "
to
(John
H u lla h 's e p it h e t ! )
For th e s e s o l - f a
s y l l a b l e s w ith t h e i r g ra d e d system
o f c o n s o n a n t s and vow el s o u n d s , and e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r a c u t e
vowel "ee" a t e ac h of t h e s e m i t o n a l s t e p s
m inor s c a l e s
("me"
"te"
"se"),
i n t h e m a j o r and
lend th e m se lv e s r e a d i l y to
t h e c e m e n tin g o f a bond b e tw ee n m u s i c a l sound and s y l l a b l e ,
more e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e a r t i c u l a t e d
or spoken s y l l a b l e
a p p e a l s t o t h e same m u s c u l a r - a r t i c u l a r s e n s e w h i c h , a s we
saw ,
c o n tro ls p itc h p roduction in th e lary n x .
bein g them selv es speech sounds,
r e a d i l y r e c o g n is e d from th e
F u rth er,
t h e s e s y l l a b l e s c a n be
l e tte r n o tatio n - d r m f s
I t
- a n d a s r e a d i l y w r i t t e n down o n c e t h e y h a v e b e e n a p p r e h e n ­
ded as sounds.
Thus,
* S e e n o t e on page 19.
th e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s give to th e
!%
" a iry n o th in g "
of m u sica l sounds in th e t o n a l system
"a l o c a l h a b i t a t i o n and a nam e."
And t h e q u e s t i o n o f a u r a l
t e c h n i q u e i s s i m p l y one o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h r o u g h p r a c t i c e
th is
b on d o f a s s o c i a t i o n b e t v / e e n t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s a n d
th e s c a le degree sounds.
As we h a v e s e e n ,
sim ple as i t
how ever, t h e p ro b lem i s n o t so
lo o k s a t f i r s t s i g h t .
There a r e
only seven
s y l l a b l e s f o r t h e s c a l e d e g re e s of th e m ajor s c a l e ,
but
e a c h of t h e s e s c a l e d e g re e s v a r i e s in m e n ta l e f f e c t
a c c o rd in g t o t h e c o n te x t i n w hich i t
i s found,
j u s t as
c o lo u rs v ary in t h e i r m ental e f f e c t a cc o rd in g to t h e i r
co n tex t in a p ic tu re ,
according to th e
j u x t a p o s i t i o n of
o th e r c o lo u rs i n th e t o t a l com position.
T h is d o e s n o t mean,
how ever, t h a t t h e s c a l e d e g re e s
have n o t a s t r o n g i n d i v i d u a l i t y or m ental e f f e c t of t h e i r
own, b y w h i c h t h e y may a l w a y s b e r e c o g n i s e d .
o f H am let,
in the p iay,
i s s e e n i n many d i f f e r e n t l i g h t s ,
y e t H am let r e m a in s H am let t h r o u g h o u t .
effects
The c h a r a c t e r
And s o t h e m e n t a l
o f t h e s c a l e d e g r e e s i n t h e t o n a l s y s t e m may v a r y
from tim e t o
tim e,
j u s t as in d iv id u als
because of t h e i r
m em bership of s o c i e t y v a r y , r e a c t i n g d i f f e r e n t l y t o
d i f f e r e n t environm ents - th e
th e church.
B ut,
o ffic e , th e
home, t h e
club,
l i k e t h e m em bers o f a s o c i a l s y s t e m ,
th ese sc a le d eg rees,
o r m em b ers o f a t o n a l s y s t e m , r e t a i n
enough i n d i v i d u a l i t y t o p r e s e r v e t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r ego o r
th eir
id en tity .
Of c o u r s e
th is
- and th e w hole o f t h i s
p o in t - i t re q u ire s
v / i t h h u m an n a t u r e
in
one who i s
a rg u m e n t t u r n s on
in tim a te ly a cq u ain ted
a ll i t s various m an ifestatio n s to
r e c o g n i s e t h e H am let o f t h e
in d iv id u a l throughout a l l
p l a y a s t h e sa m e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d
" lif e 's
f i t f u l fe v e r."
A ch ild
w o u l d n o t u n d e r s t a n d how t h e sa m e p e r s o n c o u l d a c t i n s u c h
seem in g ly c o n tr a d ic t o r y f a s h io n .
fo r th e
sa m e r e a s o n ,
w ith th e n a tu re
it
And, i n t h e same way a n d
r e q u i r e s ' one who i s w e l l a c q u a i n t e d
and b e h a v i o u r o f m u s i c a l so u n d s i n m e lo d ic
a n d r h y t h m i c s e t t i n g s a n d who i s
in th e h a b it of c a llin g
t h e m b y name i n t h e s e v a r i o u s s e t t i n g s ,
t o re c o g n is e the
s c a l e d e g r e e s when t h e y a r e h e a r d , a n d t o r e c r e a t e t h e s e
s c a l e d e g r e e s a s s o u n d s f r o m n o t a t i o n wh en t h e y a r e s e e n ,
n o m a t t e r i n w h a t c o n t e x t t h e y may b e f o u n d .
N ote r e A b s o lu te P i t c h
"A c e r t a i n n u m b e r o f h i g h l y g i f t e d m u s i c i a n s i n e v e r y
c o u n t r y n e e d no m e t h o d i c a l t r a i n i n g i n s i g h t - s i n g i n g ;
p o s s e s s i n g a se n s e o f a b s o l u t e p i t c h , t h e y seem t o
p i c k u p t h e a b i l i t y t o r e a d b y some k n a c k o f d i r e c t
a s s o c i a t i o n betw een t h e s i g n and t h e so u n d .
Such
persons a re g e n e ra lly u se le ss a s te a c h e rs, as th ey
a re in c a p a b le of p u ttin g th em selv es in th e p o s itio n
of th e ordinary p u p il.
Where t h e y come i n t o p o s i t i o n s
o f o f f i c i a l i n f l u e n c e th e y a r e e d u c a t i o n a l l y dangerous
on a c c o u n t of t h e i r i m p r e s s io n t h a t s i g h t - s i n g i n g is
a s i m p l e m a t t e r o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g n o t a t i o n ( a m ere
i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o c e s s ) , w h e r e a s t o 99 p e r c e n t , o f
p u p ils i t i s p rim a rily a m a tte r of t r a i n i n g th e e a r.
( " T h e O x f o r d Co m p an io n t o M u s i c " b y P e r c y A . S c h o l e s ,
p a g e 867 S e c t i o n 5 .
Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,
^ondon 19 3 8 .)
Ho
C H A P T
ER
II
MENTAL. EFFECTS OF THE SCALE DEGRESS
2HB
DEFECTS OF ORDINARY MODULATOR PRACTICE
I t was p o i n t e d o u t i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r t h a t ,
e x h a u s ti v e s y s te m of a u r a l t r a i n i n g ,
s t u d i e d and m a s t e r e d a p a r t fro m t h e
them r o u n d .
in any
a u r a l p r o b l e m s m u s t he
n o t a t i o n w hich hedges
I t w a s a l s o s h o w n t h a t w h a t a r e known a s t h e
m ental e f f e c t s
of the s c a le d e g re es,
or the d i s t in c t iv e
i m p r e s s i o n s made o n t h e m i n d b y i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l s o u n d s ,
w hereby t h e s e so u n d s c a n be ap p re h en d e d , o r s e p a r a t e d i n
c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d r e c o g n i s e d b y name i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y , a r e
n o t t h e s i m p l e u n i t a r y s e n s a t i o n s t h a t many t e x t b o o k s a n d
e d u c a t i o n i s t s w o u l d make t h e m o u t t o b e .
I f t h e m e n t a l i m p r e s s i o n s made b y t h e s c a l e d e g r e e s
were u n i t a r y s e n s a t i o n s ,
alw ays
"ro u sin g ",
if
"m" a l w a y s
"d" w e r e a l w a y s
"calm ",
e tc .,
"firm ",
"r"
i t w o u l d be
d i f f i c u l t t o s e e how h u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d s o f m e l o d i e s ,
each w ith an in d iv id u a l c h a r a c te r unm istakably i t s
c o u ld h av e b e e n composed ( i . e .
from th e s e se v en
a n d how,
in s p ite
lite ra lly
own,
"put to g e th e r" )
c o n s ta n ts r e p r e s e n te d by th e s c a l e d e g re e s ;
o f J o h n S t u a r t M i l l ' s gloomy p ro p h e c y
b a s e d on a r i t h m e t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s ,
th e w e ll-s p rin g of
m e l o d i c i n v e n t i o n s t i l l s h o w s no s i g n o f e x h a u s t i o n .
" I was s e r i o u s l y t o r m e n t e d b y t h e t h o u g h t o f t h e e x h a u s t i b i l i t y of m usical com binations.
The o c t a v e c o n s i s t s
o n l y o f f i v e t o n e s a n d two s e m i t o n e s , w h ic h c a n be p u t
t o g e t h e r i n o n l y a l i m i t e d number o f w ays, o f which b u t
a s m a ll p r o p o r t io n a r e b e a u t i f u l : m ost o f t h e s e , i t
s e e m e d t o me, m u s t h a v e b e e n a l r e a d y d i s c o v e r e d , a n d
t h e r e c o u ld n o t be room f o r a lo n g s u c c e s s i o n o f M o z arts
a n ! W e b e r s , t o s t r i k e o u t , a s t h e s e ha d d o n e , e n t i r e l y
new a n d s u r p a s s i n g l y r i c h v e i n s o f m u s i c a l b e a u t y . "
( A u t o b i o g r a p h y , 7 t h E d . , d . 1 4 5 , L o n d o n , L o n g m a n s, 1882)
j
21
But t h a t t h e m en tal e f f e c t s o f th e s c a l e
degrees
a r e n o t u n i t a r y a n d c o n s t a n t p e r c e p t i o n s , may b e e a s i l y
d em o n strated .
Take t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e p h r a s e s and s i n g them a t
t h e m etronom ic r a t e
in d icated .
T h e s e p h r a s e s a r e a l l b a s e d o n t h e same s u c c e s s i o n o f
notes - m f s s f m r
- and t h e
same r h y t h m .
Yet t h e
f i r s t w o u l d b e s u n g a t s u c h a s l o w r a t e t h a t i t w o u l d h av e
no more m eaning o r m u s i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e modern
liste n er,
than th e
o ld P r o v e n c a l s e c u l a r m elody,
" L ' Homme A r m e , " h a d f o r t h e
six tee n th
liste n e rs
c e n t u r y , w hen t h e y h e a r d i t
of t h e f i f t e e n t h or
u s e d a s a C a n t o Fermo
i n one o f t h e v a r i o u s M a s s e s i n w h i c h i t
is to be found.
T he s e c o n d e x a m p l e , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , when s u n g
a t t h e s p e e d i n d i c a t e d would y i e l d t h e w e ll-k n o w n
C h o ra le M elody, " J e s u , j o y of m a n 's d e s i r i n g .
W hile t h e t h i r d would p r o d u c e t h e p o p u l a r s e a
c h a n t y , " B i l l y Boy".
n
A l l t h r e e may b e w r i t t e n
n o tatio n ,
w i t h e x a c t l y t h e same
b u t w i t h d i f f e r e n t m etronom e m ark s, a s
in d icated
below .
J c po
These t h r e e
(**■
e x a m p l e s , s u n g a t t h e s p e e d i n d i c a t e d , would
s o u n d e x a c t l y t h e sa m e a s t h e t h r e e
Now s u p p o s e we w e r e t o
p r e v io u s exam ples.
lis te n to th is
p h rase played
a t th e f i r s t r a t e and r e p e a te d a t g r a d u a lly in c re a s in g
r a t e s from J = 20
t o J = 240.
Prom a m e a n i n g l e s s s u c c e s s i o n o f n o t e s w i t h o u t
ap p aren t c o n n ectio n or d e sig n , so f a r as th e
lis te n e r is
c o n c e r n e d , t h e p h r a s e would g r a d u a l l y a c q u i r e v a l u e s o r
t a k e on m ea n in g a n d merge i n t o t h e f a m i l i a r c h o r a l e m elody
o f t h e se c o n d exam ple; and t h e n c e ,
in te g r a tio n of th e
by m e a n s o f a new
m elodic e le m e n ts,
f a m ilia r se a chanty of th e t h i r d
in to th e
exam ple.
eq u ally
That is to say,
a t some p o i n t i n t h e s c a l e o f t e m p o t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f
is o la te d sen satio n s
m ind, and t a k e
in teg rate
o r become o r g a n i s e d i n t h e
o n t h e f o r m o r m e a n i n g w h i c h we a s s o c i a t e
w ith th e c h o ra le .
And, a t some h i g h e r p o i n t i n t h e same
•23
scale,
place
a new i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e m e lo d ic e l e m e n t s t a k e s
i n t h e mind of t h e
liste n er,
and t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f
s o u n d s a c q u i r e s new v a l u e s o r a new m e a n i n g w h i c h we
a s s o c i a t e w ith th e s e a chanty.
B ut,
i f t h e m ental e f f e c t s
i n t h e mind o f t h e
co n stan ts,
"calm ",
or s e n s a t i o n s produced
l i s t e n e r b y i n d i v i d u a l n o t e s were
independent
"f" "desolate",
of te m p o , s o t h a t
"s"
"b rig h t",
e tc .,
"m" was a l w a y s
th e n th e m ental
e f f e c t o r m eaning o f e a c h p h r a s e , c o n t a i n i n g n o t e s i n th e
same o r d e r a n d d i f f e r i n g o n l y w i t h r e g a r d t o
tem p o , would
be t h e r e s u l t a n t o f a mere sum m ation o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l
sen satio n s,
and s u c h a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f u n i f i e d
p e r c e p t i o n s o r v a l u e s a s we a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e c o u l d n o t
tak e
p lace.
On t h e
o t h e r hand,
i f t h e v a l u e s or m eaning o f
m elody d e p e n d , n o t on t h e sum m ation, b u t r a t h e r on t h e
in te g ratio n ,
o r o r g a n i s a t i o n b y t h e m in d i t s e l f ,
m elodic e le m e n ts, th e n th e s e
of th e
elem en ts or i n d i v i d u a l sounds
m ust undergo a change i n v a lu e a c c o rd in g as th e y a re
c o n d i t i o n e d by v a r i o u s f a c t o r s
in th e d i f f e r e n t m usical
c o n te x ts in w hich th e y occu r.
A p o p u l a r i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s e f f e c t o f p ace or
te m p o i n m u s i c i s t o b e f o u n d i n t h e c a s e o f t h e tw o
-
w ell-know n S c o t t i s h so n g s,
" S c o t s wha h a ' e "
a n d "The Land
o' th e L ea l."
i
/ffftn
k
.
—r-----------j -— jg- U ---------- Is----- U~ - r 1 b i_
3
- - T
- i -
-------- ^
: r
?
T hese two t u n e s a r e p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l a s r e g a r d s p i t c h
and rh y th m , h u t d i f f e r
Yet t h i s
s i m i l a r i t y w i l l a l w a y s h e m ore a p p a r e n t t o t h e
than to th e
tic a lly
i n tem po and i n dy n am ic e f f e c t .
ear.
eye
’W h il e we know t h a t h o t h t u n e s a r e p r a c ­
id en tica l,
we d o n o t f e e l t h e m t o h e s o .
Burns e x p l o i t e d t h i s
p he n o m e n o n o f t h e e f f e c t o f t h e
s l o w i n g down o f t e m p o i n m e l o d y f o r many o f h i s f a v o u r i t e
songs.
As we l e a r n f r o m h i s s i s t e r ,
he p lay ed t h e f i d d l e ,
hut n ev er a tta in e d to any c o n sid e ra b le degree of tech n iq u e
on t h e
in stru m en t,
a i r S ’ (See
and had t o
confine h is
p r a c t i c e t o slow
"NOTES ON SCOTTISH SONG BY ROBERT BURNS
W r i t t e n i n a n I n t e r l e a v e d Copy o f
THE SCOTS MUSICAL MUSEUM"
(p.XXIX)
E d i t e d h y J a m e s C. D i c k
L o n d o n , H e n r y F r o w d e , 19 0 8 )
No d o u b t ,
in p lay in g over quick s tr a th s p e y tu n e s,
"Commodo", a t h i s own l e i s u r e l y p a c e , h e saw b e a u t i e s i n
th e m elodic
l in e s t h a t escaped th e n o tic e of th e dancers
i n t h e E dinburgh b a llro o m s,
or even of th e
com posers of
L
25
these tu n e s.
F o r e x a m p le , t h e t u n e f o r w h ich he w ro te
t h e words o f " th e f i n e s t l o v e - l e t t e r i n t h e E n g li s h
lan g u ag e"
0~
£ &
6^
&
lo Z ik jfcx, u iw L <m ».
j
was o r i g i n a l l y a s t r a t h s p e y t u n e w i t h t h e
9 f» X / i & t e .
title ,
OLc $em ,-iu&
"Miss
A dm iral G o rd o n 's S t r a t h s p e y " .
(V ide "The Songs o f R o b e r t B urns
w ith B ib lio g r a p h y and H i s t o r i c a l N otes"
( p p . 70 and 375)
b y J a m e s C. D i c k .
London, Henry F row de,1903)
A gain, w ith r e f e r e n c e t o
tells
u s how h e u s e d t o
one o f h i s s o n g s ,
Burns
l i s t e n t o th e p la y in g o f an o b o is t
a t D u m f r i e s , Thomas F r a s e r .
He was p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r u c k
w ith F r a s e r ' s p la y in g o f a n old S c o ts tu n e a s s o c i a t e d w ith
th e r i b a l d w ords,
"Saw y e J o h n i e c o r n i n ' , q u o '
"When he p l a y s i t
slow ,
i n f a c t h e m akes i t
she".
th e language
of d e s p a ir ."
rv
)-!■ m
.
j- r ij-
r
r
t v t .
T his t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of th e o ld s t r a t h s p e y tu n e i n t o th e
p a th e tic
Lento a i r i s
e n s h r i n e d f o r e v e r i n one o f B u r n s ' s
s a d d e s t songs ________ -«fe
f e j p y d -J-lh :
V v
I j-
f I j- .f J-
U
I t may b e i l l u m i n a t i n g now t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s a u r a l
p h e n o m e n o n by r e f e r e n c e t o a s i m i l a r p h e n o m e n o n i n t h e
v isu a l sphere,
as illu stra te d
film -.
by a sim p le
-
H ere,
lu d icro u s
by t h e
s lo w m o tio n cinem a
change o f pace or tem po, a
i n c i d e n t , s u c h , f o r exam ple, a s an old g e n tlem a n ,
w ith a t i l e
hat slip p in g
o n a b a n a n a s k i n , may be made t o
a p p e a r on t h e s c r e e n l i k e an e x e r c i s e
E u rh y th m ies.
p ictu re
i n advanced D alcroze
W hile t h e g a l l o p i n g of a h o r s e - t h e p e r f e c t
o f s p e e d a n d e n e r g y - may b e sho w n a s a s e r i e s
of
s l o w r h y t h m i c a l m o v e m e n t s , w h i c h make u p i n b e a u t y a n d
g race what th e y
lo se i n speed and energy.
S im ila rly ,
by r e s o r t i n g t o t h e d e v i c e o f f o c u s s i n g
o n one s m a l l p a r t o f a n o b j e c t a n d t h e n g r a d u a l l y e x p o s i n g
t h e o t h e r p a r t s t o v i e w , t h e c i n e m a l e n s may t r a n s f o r m w h a t
seems a t f i r s t t o be a m e a n in g le s s o b j e c t ,
rab b it
o r a chim ney p o t ,
or perhaps a
i n t o th e w ell-know n f i g u r e
of
C h a rlie C h ap lin .
T h is
i s a f a v o u r i t e d e v i c e of cinem a t e c h n i q u e ,
e sp e c ia lly a t th e
o p e n i n g o f a new s e q u e n c e o r i n t h e
i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a new s i t u a t i o n .
a tten tio n
In t h is c ase, the
i s c e n t r e d o n one p a r t o r a s p e c t o f t h e o b j e c t
and g r a d u a l l y l e d on t o
a shock of s u r p r i s e
other p a rts
or a s p e c ts , u n t i l ,
w ith
which a p p ro a c h e s t o t h e a e s t h e t i c t h r i l l
o f r e c o g n i t i o n f e l t by t h e m u s ic ia n o r t h e a r t i s t ,
whole o b j e c t i s a p p e r c e i v e d i n i t s t r u e r e l a t i o n s .
the
*7
T h i s q u e s t i o n o f p a c e o r tem po i s a n i m p o r t a n t
one i n m u s i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e - h e n c e t h e m o d e r n c u s t o m o f
i n d i c a t i n g p r e c i s e l y t h e m etronom ic r a t e a t t h e b e g in n in g
o f e a c h m ovem ent.
But t h i s
same q u e s t i o n o f p a c e i n
r e l a t i o n t o m eaning i s a l s o o f suprem e im p o rta n c e i n th e
te a c h in g of s ig h t- r e a d in g and has i t s
m ethod o f t e a c h i n g s i g h t - r e a d i n g -
b e a r i n g s on t h e
a t o p i c w h i c h w i l l be
d e a lt w ith in a l a t e r ch ap ter.
We h a v e s e e n , t h e n ,
how t h e m e t r o n o m i c r a t e a f f e c t s
t h e m e n t a l i m p r e s s i o n s p r o d u c e d b y m u s i c a l s o u n d s . Change
o f r h y t h m a f f e c t s t h e m e v e n m o re s o .
T h u s , t h e same
su ccessio n of no tes m f s s f m r
is
to be found i n t h e
o p e n in g o f t h e fam ous D m a jo r c h o r a l
t h e m e i n B e e t h o v e n ' s N i n t h Sym phony.
I t w i l l b e a d m i t t e d t h a t a n y o n e who c o u l d a s s o c i a t e t h i s
them e w i t h t h e
s e a c h a n ty and th e c h o r a l e , b e c a u s e o f t h e
same o r d e r o f p i t c h e l e m e n t s f o u n d i n e a c h , m u s t be v e r y
d e fic ie n t,
indeed,
i n t h e sen se o f rhythm .
But t h i s
ju st
am ounts t o
s a y in g t h a t rh y th m i s a f u n c t i o n o f m elody, an d ,
th erefo re,
a fu n ctio n
And no w ,
of t h e m e n ta l e f f e c t s
l e t us c o n s i d e r t h e e f f e c t s
m o d u la t io n , w h e th e r p r e s e n t or im p lie d ,
elem en ts.
o f h a rm o n y a n d
on t h e m e l o d i c
I n one c o n t e x t " r a y " , f o r e x a m p l e , may b e a
harm ony n o t e ;
in an o th er i t
c o n t e x t " r a y " may p a r t a k e ,
may b e a p a s s i n g n o t e .
i t may p a r t a k e
I n one
t o a g r e a t e r or l e s s e x t e n t ,
th e c h a r a c t e r o r m ental e f f e c t
su b m ed ian t.
of so u n d s.
of a dom inant;
of
in another
o f th e c h a r a c t e r or m e n ta l e f f e c t o f a
I n d e e d , t h e same n o t e s i n t h e
same c o n t e x t
may e v e n b e r e g a r d e d f r o m d i f f e r e n t h a r m o n i c a s p e c t s o r
p o i n t s o f view ,
j u s t a s a C a t h e d r a l may b e d r a w n f r o m
d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o r p o i n t s o f view .
The o n l y c o n d i t i o n
t h a t m u st be o b s e r v e d i s t h a t t h e p o i n t o f v iew m ust be
c o n s i s t e n t a s a w hole. T h a t i s t o
featu re
say,
i f a notable
o f a. G o t h i c C a t h e d r a l c a n n o t b e s e e n f r o m a c e r t a i n
p o i n t o f v a n t a g e i t m u st be o m it t e d fro m t h e d r a w in g .
if
And
"ray " i s t o be harm onized as a su b m e d ia n t i n a cadence,
th e n o t e s im m e d ia te ly p r e c e d in g i t must be r e g a r d e d i n th e
l i g h t o f t h i s m o d u l a t i o n o r c h a n g e o f k e y c e n t r e . Compare
B a c h ' s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e o l d German C h o r a l e s - f o r e x a m p l e ,
th e P a s s io n C horale i n h i s P a ss io n s e t t i n g s ,
where t h e
v a r i e d h a r m o n i z a t i o n s a r e made t o a c c o r d w i t h t h e g e n e r a l
f e e l i n g o f t h e moment a s r e v e a l e d i n t h e w o r d s .
z<\
Harmony s t u d e n t s would have t o d e c i d e ,
reading o r in te r p r e ta tio n
from t h e i r
of th e b e h a v io u r of th e m elodic
elem en ts, what p a r t i c u l a r fu n c tio n a c e r t a i n n o te ,
was f u l f i l l i n g
acco rd ing ly ,
i n a p a r t i c u l a r c o n te x t and harm onise i t
so a s t o r e i n f o r c e and n o t c o n t r a d i c t t h e
im p lie d m e n ta l e f f e c t of t h e n o t e .
a good t o n i c
e .g ."ra y "
T h i s i s t h e r e a s o n why
s o l - f a i s t o r M o v a b l e Doh s t a f f r e a d e r m a k e s a
good harm ony s t u d e n t .
But t h e d i c t a t i o n s t u d e n t , to o , m ust endeavour to
c u ltiv ate
a l i k e a u r a l a w a re n ess and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,
order t o rec o g n ise in i t s
in
v a r i o u s s e t t i n g s what th e
S t a f f i s t c a l l s sim p ly "th e S u p e rto n ic ."
It
i s th e lack of p r a c tic e in s o l- f a in g n o tes in a l l
th e ir variou s
recognise
c o n t e x t s , t h a t e x p l a i n s why a c h i l d may
" r a y " i n some e a r t e s t s a n d n o t i n o t h e r s .
one e a r t e s t t h e n o t e s f a l l
c h i l d ' s m ind;
In
in to a f a m i li a r p a tt e r n in the
i n a n o t h e r th e n o t e s do n o t i n t e g r a t e t o form
a fa m ilia r p attern ,
b u t d i s i n t e g r a t e and c a u s e a d i s t u r b a n c e
or c o n f l i c t i n t h e m ind, s o t h a t even e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e
elem ents l i k e
an i n i t i a l
"doh" a r e n o t a p p r e h e n d e d i n t h e
g e n e ra l m en tal confusion th a t ensues.
have e v e ry n o te c o r r e c t i n th e e a r t e s t
d
r
m
d
and e v e r y n o t e wrong i n t h e e a r t e s t
d
r
m
1.
Thus,
t h e c h i l d may
30
It
the s c a le
is,
th en , not s u ffic ie n t to
p rac tise so l-fain g
a n d t h e common c h o r d s , f o r m e l o d i e s a r e n o t a l l
made u p o f s c a l e p a s s a g e s a n d common c h o r d s .
when a common c h o r d ,
duced, t h e
lik e
" s t r " a n d "r* t
is in tro ­
i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t o f s t e p w i s e n o t e s i n t h e same
d irec tio n ,
,
— h
and,
s",
And, e v e n
a
in th e second c a s e ,
by s t e p and s k ip i n th e
of a le a p t o a h ig h n ote follow ed
same d i r e c t i o n ,
1
1
F FT
=±4=±=
t—
-
= & f\
may p r e j u d i c e t h e i s s u e
and cause a c h ild to sin g a f a m ilia r
c h o rd a l p a s s a g e w rong.
Thus,
la s t ch ap ter,
tro u b le
the
"t"
in
"s t "
a s we show ed a t l e n g t h i n t h e
and V
t" gave p a r t i c u l a r
i n som e c o n t e x t s , s o t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e c h i l d r e n
could s in g
"s t "
a n d " r 1t "
p e rfe c tly w ell, in th is
case
t h e y i n v a r i a b l y s a n g " s 1" a n d " r ' d 1" w h i l e c a l l i n g t h e
n o t e s by t h e i r
c o r r e c t names "s t "
W ith r e g a r d t o
t h e human v o i c e ,
exam ple i s
the e f f e c t
and " r ‘ t " .
of p i t c h i n r e l a t i o n t o
a l l t h a t n e e d be s a . i d i s t h a t when t h e
transposed a
fifth
'fe|
JjJiJ
1
lo w e r and su n g
i n Key F
last
31
i t h a s .heen f o u n d t h a t i t d o e s n o t p r e s e n t t h e same d e g r e e
of d i f f i c u l t y t o th e c la s s .
We h a v e u s e d t h i s one M u s i c
R ead er e x e r c i s e a s an i l l u s t r a t i o n ,
tio n s
co uld
but sim ilar i l l u s t r a ­
be f o u n d o n e v e r y p a g e , a n d a l m o s t i n e v e r y
ex ercise.
I n o r d e r , t h e n , t o t e a c h th e m ental e f f e c t s
scale degrees to
of th e
c h i l d r e n , s o t h a t t h e y may n e v e r f a i l t o
s i n g o r r e c o g n i s e n o t e s i n w h a te v e r c o n t e x t t h e y f i n d them,
we m u s t s e e t h a t t h e y h a v e a b u n d a n t p r a c t i c e i n s o l - f a i n g
th e se sc a le degrees in a l l t h e ir lik e ly c o n tex ts.
w ords, th e u n i t
of s o l - f a i n g
In other
p r a c t i c e must b e, n o t th e n o te ,
b u t th e n ote-g ro u p or phrase;
and t h e
lim it of s o l-fa in g
p r a c t i c e m u st be t h e whole r a n g e of t h e c h i l d ' s m u s i c a l
v o c a b u la ry as r e v e a le d i n his s in g in g .
F in a lly ,
th at
fro m t h e p o i n t o f view of
i s , th e reading
and
m usical l i t e r a c y ,
w r i t i n g o f m u sicw i t h o u t any
m ech an ical a id from a n in s tru m e n t,
it
i s more o r l e s s u s e ­
l e s s t o g o on s i n g i n g e x e r c i s e s o r m e l o d i e s t o ' l a a o r o t h e r
vow els.
T h is
is
j u s t w h at t h a t v a s t arm y of i l l i t e r a t e
i n s t r u m e n t a l m u sic ia n s have been d o in g a l l t h e i r l i v e s .
C e rta in ly ,
s u c h l a a - i n g does and w i l l t r a i n t h e
ear"
i n t h e s t r i c t s e n s e of t h e w o rd , a n d
does
good.
But whati t
"m usical
in so f a r i t
c e r t a i n l y d o e s n o t do i s t o t r a m
t h e s i n g e r t o t r a n s l a t e a c c u r a t e l y fro m t h e a u d i t o r y symbol
or m u s i c a l sound i n t o t h e v i s u a l symbol or s o l - f a s y l l a b l e
and s t a f f sym b o l, and v i c e v e r s a ,
i.e .
re a d m usic w ith o u t any e x t e r n a l a i d .
t o w r i t e and t o
32
T h is
t h e i r m ental
l o n g d i g r e s s i o n on t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s a n d
e f f e c t s i s , we f e e l ,
ju stifie d .
For,
a ssu m p tio n , b a se d on ig n o ran c e of t h e i r n a tu r e ,
m ental e f f e c t s
o n ly the
t h a t the
of th e s c a le degrees are th e fix e d ,
sim ple
t h i n g s t h a t t h e i r s c a l e d e g r e e names, t o n i c , s u p e r t o n i c ,
m ediant,
e tc .,
would seem t o s u g g e s t * -
o n ly t h i s assum ption
c o u l d l e a d s o f a r a s t r a y t h e many e m i n e n t m u s i c i a n s ,
d e p e n d e n t p r o b a b l y on a b s o l u t e p i t c h mem ory, who w o u l d
ad vocate th e t o t a l a b o l i t i o n of the to n ic s o l - f a n o ta tio n ,
and t h e
l i m i t a t i o n o f s o l - f a p r a c t i c e from t h e m odulator
to th e f i r s t few years of th e c h i l d 's school l i f e .
* £ t ( i . e . t o n i c s o l - f a ) b r i n g s b e f o r e t h e m in d a p i c t u r e
o f t h e n o t e ; and th e m ental r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h a t n o te , i n
r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t o n i c or k e y - n o t e , can be a c h i e v e d a f t e r
very l i t t l e p r a c tic e "
'
( E . M arkham L e e , M . A . , M u s , D . C a n t a b .
"A M u s i c C o u r s e f o r T e a c h e r a n d S t u d e n t
2nd E d i t i o n , R e v ise d and E n la rg e d ,
l p . 27;
Banks & Son, Y o rk .)
33
D e f e c ts of O rd in a ry M o dulator P r a c ti c e
Our p ro b le m , t h e n ,
we may e n s u r e , f i r s t ,
ground i n
is to fin d
o u t a m ethod whereby
t h a t a l l c l a s s e s may c o v e r t h e same
s o l - f a i n g or s p e l l i n g p r a c t i c e ,
and, second,
t h a t t h e g r o u n d c o v e r e d may be a d e q u a t e t o m e e t t h e
d e m a n d s l i k e l y t o b e made i n t h e s i g h t - r e a d i n g l e s s o n a t
th e v a rio u s sta g e s
of p ro g ress.
To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t t h e
may b e u s e d f o r t h e
o r d in a ry s o l - f a m odulator
p u r p o s e o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e bond
betw een s y l l a b l e and so u n d , and t o
ensure t h a t c h ild r e n
may b e c o m e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s i n a s many
co n tex ts as p o ss ib le .
And, i n d e e d ,
t h i s m odulator w i l l
a lw a y s p r o v e t o be a u s e f u l t o o l i n t h e hands o f t h e
te a c h e r of a u r a l t r a i n in g .
But i t
co n seq u en tly ,
has c e r t a i n in h e re n t lim i ta t io n s ,
and,
o r d i n a r y m o d u la to r p r a c t i c e m ust alw ays
s u f f e r from c e r t a i n draw backs.
( I ) Even t h e b e s t o f t e a c h e r s i s a p t to g e t i n t o r u t s
a n d t o move a l o n g w e l l - w o r n m e l o d i c g r o o v e s .
u n less th e
And s o ,
c l a s s t e a c h e r f o l l o w s a Method s y s t e m a t i ­
c a l l y from a te x tb o o k ,
t h e r e i s bo u nd t o b e s e r i o u s
r e d u n d a n c y o f p r a c t i c e on c e r t a i n t e c h n i c a l p o i n t s
( e . g . d m s and s t r 1 ) , and e q u a l l y s e r i o u s
of p ra c tic e
on o t h e r s
( e . g . d 'm f
om ission
and m f s t r
).
3/h
(II)
It
is q u ite
fo r the
im possible fo r th e
c la ss to
t e a c h e r t o p o i n t , and
f o llo w , m o d u la to r e x e r c i s e s beyond a
c e r t a i n v e r y m o d e ra te m etronom ic r a t e .
to do j u s t i c e
to sig h t-re a d in g m aterial,
Y et,
in order
c h i l d r e n may
be r e q u i r e d t o r e a d and s o l - f a a t tw o, t h r e e ,
or four
tim es t h i s r a t e .
L e t u s n o t f o r g e t t h a t s e m i q u a v e r s , f o r e x a m p l e , move
fo u r tim es f a s t e r
than c r o tc h e ts .
And, a s t h e s t r e n g t h
o f a w h o le c h a i n d e p e n d s on t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e
w eakest lin k
i n t h e c h a in , so the r a t e o f s o l - f a i n g of
a whole e x e r c i s e , w h e th e r i n s t a f f
d e p e n d on th e r a t e
of s o l-fa in g
or s o l - f a , w i l l
of t h e s m a l l e s t tim e
u n it in th a t ex ercise.
(Ill)
E xcept i n t h e hands o f a n e x p e rt, m odulator e x e r c is e s ,
b e c a u s e o f t h e i r slow tem po, a r e a p t t o
m ic a l and la c k in g
in fo rm , and so th ey f a i l to provide
ad eq u a te m o tiv a tio n f o r the
o n ly boredom .
become u n r h y t h ­
p u p ils,
and o f t e n produce
The u s u a l m o d u l a t o r v o l u n t a r y s e l d o m
g e t s beyond t h e
psalm tu n e t y p e ,
not a s p i r e even to t h a t .
B ut,
and s o m e t i m e s d o e s
in th e form er c a s e ,
even
a l t h o u g h t h e p s a l m t u n e f o r m may s t a n d o u t q u i t e c l e a r
i n t h e m i n d o f t h e t e a c h e r a s he i m p r o v i s e s and
p o in ts,
who c a n s a y t h a t t h e f o r m i s a p p r e h e n d e d e v e n
d im ly by th e
p u p i l s a s t h e y f o l l o w a f t e r and s i n g ?
T his q u e s t i o n o f t h e
m e l o d i c f o r m on t h e
train in g
in th e
one, and i t
ch ap ter,
p a r t of th e p u p ils
liv in g
in a l l th e i r aural
language o f m usic,
i s an im portant
in v o lv e s th e f u r t h e r q u e s tio n of th e r e l a t i o n
of p u lse r a t e to
As we s a w ,
n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e a p p re h e n s io n of
m elodic ap p re h en sio n .
i n th e m usical
th ere
exam ples q u o t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s
i s a m etronom ic r a t e
or p u l s e r a t e ,
below
w hich th e m e lo d ic e le m e n ts f a i l t o c o a l e s c e or t o i n t e ­
g rate
in th e
m in d o f t h e
liste n er,
so a s t o
c o n n e c t e d w h o l e , o r w h a t we c a l l a m e l o d y .
of e x p erien c ed a d u lts t h i s
l o w e r down i n t h e s c a l e
produce a
In th e case
i n t e g r a t i o n p o i n t e x i s t s much
of tem po t h a n i n t h e c a s e o f
in ex p erien ced c h ild re n .
—
‘J
---
v
a
*•
jJiaOlpj
^
^
^
C
m t h e te m p o ra l p o in t o f view , th e p h rase
C oo m
m pp aa rr ee ,, ff rr oo m
le n g th found
in the
l i v e l y r h y t h m i c t y p e of m usic which
i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w ith childhood.
3<o
Yet w h a t c o u l d b e l e s s m u s i c a l l y c h i l d l i k e t h a n th e
o r d i n a r y m o d u la to r v o l u n ta r y or th e o r d in a r y
sig h t-rea d in g
ex ercise?
(J
= 60)
C h i l d r e n l o v e s h o r t p h r a s e s and
q u i c k - m o v i n g t u n e s a s t h e y l o v e s h o r t p i t h y s e n t e n c e s and
s t o r i e s w ith
p len ty of actio n ,
i n c i d e n t and r e p e t i t i o n .
(C o m p are " T h e T h r e e B e a r s " a n d c u m u l a t i v e s o n g s a n d
jin g le s
lik e
"The T w e l v e Days o f C h r i s t m a s " ,
or "This i s
th e house t h a t Ja c k b u i l t . " )
( S e e . . E n g l i s h F o l k - S o n g : Some C o n e l u s i o n s . P p . 99 &
100.
By C e c i l J . S h a r p . L o n d o n , N o v e l l o & C o . 1907)
For,
i f t h e tem po o r p u l s e r a t e
is to o slow , t h e y cannot
k e e p t h e v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s i n s o l u t i o n i n t h e i r m in d s t i l l
th e c r y s t a l l i s a t i o n p o in t or in te g r a tio n p o in t i s reached
a n d t h e s e e l e m e n t s beco m e o r g a n i s e d r o u n d a c e n t r a l f o r m
o r m ean in g,
producing th e re b y th e a e s th e tic t h r i l l .
The
quicker th e
p u l s e , t h e m o r e b o l d l y t h e f o r m and m e a n in g
stand o u t .
(PV) The o r d i n a r y s y s t e m o f m o d u l a t o r t r a i n i n g d e p e n d s t o o much
on t h e i n v e n t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r , a n d p l a c e s t o o h e a v y a
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on h i s s h o u l d e r s .
cannot g iv e
A m usic s u p e r v is o r
o u t a n a s s i g n m e n t o f m o d u l a t o r w ork t o t h e
c l a s s t e a c h e r a n d b e s u r e t h a t i t w i l l be o v e r t a k e n b y
him , u n l e s s ,
i n d e e d , he w r i t e s o u t a l l t h e m o d u l a t o r
ex ercises h im self.
T h e r e c a n t h u s be n o c h e c k on t h e
work d o n e , a n d n o means o f e n s u r i n g t h a t c l a s s e s of t h e
31
same g r a d e c o v e r t h e sa m e g r o u n d i n s o l - f a i n g f r o m t h e
m o d u lato r,
w ith th e r e s u l t t h a t s ig h t-re a d in g
c o n s ta n tly h e ld up hy te c h n ic a l d i f f i c u l t i e s
w hich b e lo n g t o
the a u ra l tr a in in g
th e s ig h t tra in in g
or s i g h t re a d in g
is
in p itch ,
le s s o n and not to
lesson.
The u s u a l e n t r y i n t h e R e c o r d o f Work - " M o d u l a t o r
E x ercises"
- c o n v e y s n o i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d may m ean
an y th in g .
(V )P a rt-s in g in g from t h e
f a i r degree
o r d in a r y m odulator r e q u i r e s
a
of m u s i c i a n s h i p on t h e p a r t of t h e t e a c h e r ,
w ho, e v e n t h e n , c a n o n l y p o i n t
m oving a t a s lo w p a c e ,
and,
out tw o - p a r t e x e r c is e s
o ften er than n o t,
o f the
"sin g in g seconds" type.
(V I)F in a lly ,
it
is
a lm o st im po ssible
in th e circu m stan ces
f o r t h e t e a c h e r t o s e c u r e a n d m a i n t a i n command o f t h e
w hole c l a s s , w h i l e a t t h e same t im e p o i n t i n g e x e r c i s e s
on t h e m o d u l a t o r .
G enuine c l a s s a c t i v i t y i s , t h e r e f o r e , a t a d i s c o u n t .
T his
is
a stro n g
p rac tic e, but i t
p o in ts,
in d ic tm e n t of o rd in a ry m odulator
h a s b e e n n e c e s s a r y t o make a l l
th ese
s o t h a t t h e r e a d e r may b e i n a p o s i t i o n t o
f o r h i m s e l f how f a r t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s
judge
have b e e n overcome
i n t h e f o l l o w i n g Method o f s o l - f a i n g f r o m t h e S e q u e n c e
M o d u lato r.
3?
T a k i n g t h e s e s i x p o i n t s i n o r d e r , we c l a i m t h a t :
( I ) T h is m ethod o f s o l - f a i n g fr o m th e S equence
M o d u lato r w i l l p r e v e n t t h e t e a c h e r from c o n s t a n t ­
ly f a l l i n g in to m elodic r u t s d u rin g th e a u ra l
tra in in g lesson.
Thus, b o th red un dan cy of
p r a c t i c e and o m is s i o n o f p r a c t i c e on t e c h n i c a l
p o i n t s w i l l be a v o id e d , and p u p i l s w i l l b e n e f i t
from t h e s o l - f a i n g o f n o t e s or th e s p e l l i n g o f
m u s ic a l id io m s, i n a l l k in d s of c o n t e x t s , m elodic
and r h y th m ic .
( I I ) I t w i l l allo w of p u p ils s o l - f a i n g a t th e r a t e of
a b o u t 400 n o te s p e r m inute, or a b o u t fo u r tim e s
th e r a t e of s o l - f a i n g from th e o rd in a ry m o d u lato r.
(Ill)
On a c c o u n t o f t h e s p e e d o f s o l - f a i n g , t h e
s tr o n g ly rh y th m ic a l c h a r a c te r of sequence s in g in g ,
t h e c l e a r a r t i c u l a t i o n a n d sym m etry o f t h e
s e q u e n t i a l p r o g r e s s i o n b a s e d on t h e d e s c e n d i n g
and a s c e n d i n g s c a l e , en d t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r
rh y th m ic a l b r e a th in g , t h i s system w ill h e lp
to in c u lc a te i n the p u p ils th e sen se of p h rase,
and t h e f e e l i n g f o r b a la n c e o r form in m usic.
(IV ) A l l s o l - f a i n g p r a c t i c e fro m t h e Sequence
M odulator can be c a r e f u l l y g ra d e d a s i n o th e r
T e c h n i c a l M eth o d s f o r i n s t r u m e n t s , and a l l
ground c o v e r e d i n t h e v a r i o u s c l a s s e s c a n be
a c c u r a t e l y e n t e r e d i n R e c o r d Books b y m e a n s o f
s i m p l e n u m e r i c a l f o r m u l a e , e . g . 123., 1 3 , 1 3 1 ,
14, e t c .
(V) C a n o n s i n t w o , t h r e e o r f o u r p a r t s , s u i t a b l e f o r
e q u a l v o i c e s o r f o r m ixed v o i c e s , and r a n g i n g
from t h e s i m p l e s t o f harm onic p r o g r e s s i o n s to
th e m ost com plex, in c lu d in g c h ro m a tic h a rm o n ie s ,
c a n be sung w ith o u t t h e a i d of n o t a t i o n fro m
sequences le a rn e d from the M odulator.
( V I ) I n s e q u e n c e s i n g i n g f r o m t h i s M o d u l a t o r , no
p o i n t i n g i s r e q u i r e d a t a l l , so t h a t t h e t e a c h e r
c a n command t h e w h o l e c l a s s a i l t h e t i m e .
These p o i n t s w i l l a l l be b ro u g h t o u t i n th e
f o l lo w in g c h a p t e r s , and o t h e r a d v a n ta g e s d e r i v i n g from
th e
sy ste m w i l l be d e m o n s tra te d .
Many M e t h o d s d e p e n d f o r t h e i r
p e r s o n a l i t y and d r i v i n g
th is
It
power of t h e
v ita lity
on t h e
o rig in a l founder, hut
Method c a n h e a d a p t e d t o s u i t t h e n e e d s o f a n y t e a c h e r .
is th e r e s u lt
o f m an y y e a r s o f r e s e a r c h a n d e x p e r i m e n t
in the
c la s s ro o m w ith p u p i ls o f a l l a g e s and a l l t y p e s ,
and
has h een t r i e d
it
of t h e
out hy t e a c h e r s i n d i f f e r e n t p a r ts
c o u n tr y , and found to be u n if o r m ly s u c c e s s f u l .
C H A P T E R
III
THE SEQUENCE MODULATOR
The a i m o f t h i s
Sequence S in g in g i s
fain g or r e la tiv e
the
to
System of A ural T r a i n i n g
d e v e l o p s p e e d of r e s p o n s e i n s o l -
p i t c h s p e llin g , and to g iv e t h e p u p ils
o p p o rtu n ity of sin g in g the s y l l a b l e s
c o n te x ts,
through
s o t h a t t h e y may a n t i c i p a t e
in a l l
in t h is
p o ssib le
o r a l work
any co m b in atio n o f n o te s t h a t th ey a r e l i k e l y t o m eet w ith
i n e a r t e s t s , s i g h t r e a d in g and so n g s.
We h a v e s e e n t h a t e v e n s i m p l e i n t e r v a l s ,
th ird
or a second,
e.g .
a
may g i v e t r o u b l e t o c h i l d r e n b e c a u s e
o f t h e i r im m ediate c o n t e x t i n a m elo d ic p r o g r e s s i o n ,
and
a l s o t h a t e v e r y m e l o d i c f i g u r e may b e f o u n d i n a s i m i l a r
c o n t e x t on e a c h d e g r e e o f t h e s c a l e , b o t h d e s c e n d i n g and
ascen d in g ,
or fo u rte e n tim es in a l l .
F u r t h e r , we h a v e
s e e n t h a t t h e o n l y way t o d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e s e
c o n te x tu a l problem s o f p i t c h i s
to s o l - f a
or s p e l l ou t
th e notes in each o f th ese in d iv id u a l c o n te x ts.
T h is le a d s n a t u r a l l y t o
th e co nclusion t h a t a l l
m e lo d ic p r o g r e s s i o n s o r idiom s s h o u l d , a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e ,
be p r a c t i s e d s e q u e n t i a l l y t o t h e
in g and a s c e n d in g m ajor s c a l e .
fig u re,
d1 t
s
sy llab les
on t h e d e s c e n d ­
Thus, i f t h e m elo d ic
( s t e p f o l l o w e d by l e a p o f a t h i r d
sam e d i r e c t i o n ) ,
in the
p r e s e n t s d i f f i c u l t y t o young c h i l d r e n ,
t h e same d i f f i c u l t y w i l l b e f e l t ,
more o r l e s s ,
w hen t h i s
f i g u r e a p p e a r s on o t h e r s c a l e d e g r e e s ,
in in v ersio n .
o r when i t
appears
But t h e s e c a s e s w i l l a l l he c o v e re d hy th e
com plete sequence IZM-
f d ' t s I t I -f J2- s m I s -Pr l-Pmdltn r tjI r oiZ, I d - - IU r-P lr m s l m -Q lI f s t Is Jot112 t V l t d V l d ' — fl
S im ilarly ,
t h e c o n t e x t u a l problem s o f f e r e d hy t h e n o t e s i n
t h e M usic R e a d e r E x e r c i s e q u o t e d i n t h e f i r s t
(fl
in*
----!i— —------- #— TJ
\
---tf
-
-
—
•
1---#
1
—
1 --r
-6
ch ap ter,
—
«—«---* -4-----------
f
m ay h o t h b e s o l v e d a u r a l l y h y p r a c t i s i n g t h e s e q u e n c e 1 2 3 5 .
IZ3 S’
rjfi-i
H sy—r
falVlfl'frlsm Its-Fr Is-Pm^l'fmrtjur'ciljrott.sjoi--- lUrmsli' mfllw-Pstl-f s ia l'lslt rlltd'mltciV-f'U'— II
Prom t h e v o c a l p o i n t o f v ie w , a c t u a l l y ,
th is
p l a n of
e x t e n d i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ’s o r a l m u s i c - s p e l l i n g v o c a b u l a r y h y
means o f s e q u e n c e s i n g i n g i s
q u ite fe a s ib le ,
as se q u en c e
s in g in g i s g r a t e f u l t o the v o ic e , and a s sequences a re a
f u n d a m e n t a l c o n s t i t u e n t o f a l l m e lo d y , a n d more e s p e c i a l l y
o f v o c a l m elody.
The o n l y d i f f i c u l t y i s
t o know how t o
f o r m u l a t e t h e s e s e q u e n c e e x e r c i s e s , a n d how t o
to the c la ss
p r e s e n t them
w i t h a min im um o f n o t a t i o n o r o f i n t e r v e n t i o n
on t h e p a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r .
To s e t
out i n p r i n t a l l th e
se q u e n c e s t h a t m ig h t b e su n g by t h e p u p i l s , w ould,
c o u r s e , be o u t o f t h e q u e s t i o n ,
of
a p a r t from th e f a c t t h a t
s u c h a p r e s e n t a t i o n would be e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g i n p i c t o r i a l
ap p eal.
But i t
is
b eliev ed
th a t th ese d i f f i c u l t i e s
of
p r e s e n t a t i o n c a n a l l h e overcome b y t h e u s e o f t h e
Sequence M odulator,
w h i c h we s h a l l now e n d e a v o u r t o
ex p lain .
THE SEQUENCE MODULATOR
For o rd in a ry sequence s in g in g ,
b e g in t h e se q u e n c e on d'
th e
a t th e to p of the
of th e Sequence M odulator
on e a c h n o t e o f t h e
d e s c e n d i n g s c a l e o n C o lu m n 1 , f i n i s h i n g
13,
131,
14 e t c .
le ft-h a n d sid e
( s e e t h e f o l d e r a t th e end o f th e
book), and r e p e a t th e sequence f ig u r e
n u m e ric a l form u lae u sed t o
c la s s should
on d
.
The
in d ic a te th e sequences
- 123,
- r e f e r t o t h e colum ns so num bered on t h e
M odu lator.
T h e a s c e n d i n g s e q u e n c e w o u l d be s u n g f r o m t h e
c o l u m n s on t h e R . H . S . o f t h e M o d u l a t o r i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n .
F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s e q u e n c e 1 23 w o u l d p r o d u c e t r i e f o l l o w i n g i f t d ' t l I t 2 s 11 s f Is fm I f m r Im ret \r d t , \ d - - l l o t r m l r m f Im f s I f s 1 \ s l t II t o l ' l t otV | ct'— 1|
O th e r exam ples a r e g iv e n b e lo w .
13
(lol'llts
|l f
Is m I f r
\m d \ r
\ d - M m li* f
Im e I f 1 Is t
\l d' \b r \d' -
1231
llolrm^lrmf r Intfsm If s 2 f I s I t s \ltd'lltd'r'tl£ — II
{ U ' t Z i ' l t Z s t |2 s f 2 l s f ms I f mr f lmr<im |r cUjHel
14
| l m I s i- I f d
jU' s I t f
Im t;
I r I,
\d -
l|«l f
Ir s
Im 1 If t
Is d1 12 r' I f m1 Id' - III
1 43
(lot's Z I t f s 11 mf I st ' pi I f o l r Im t; c t l r i , ^ l e t - - l U f m I r s f Im I s I f t l I s o t ' f l ! r ' c t' l tmV l<t‘— II
|12 1 3 2 1|
fla l 't d‘ l t d
t o t h e r h y t h m 11
It-1 tr
(l d r d mr d | r m r
1
m Ir ^ r t A l I ^
f s 2 Is f s
m fs
I f m f r m f Inmm
f mr In i f m s f m if s f
2sf
I SI s t 1 s | I t I d ' t l It d't
s 1 1 12 s 2
r'e t't- I ct'
As w i l l b e s e e n f r o m t h e a b o v e , no s e q u e n c e f i g u r e
s h o u l d be s u n g on t h e
l a s t n o te o ft h e d e s c e n d in g and
— II
— l|
43
ascending sequence
(d an d d ' );
h e ld f o r t h e tim e v a lu e
if
b u t t h e s e n o t e s s h o u l d be
of th e sequence f i g u r e .
the sequence f ig u r e c o n ta in s
d and d 1sho u ld
2, 3 or 4 b e a ts ,
That is ,
th e f in a l
be h e l d f o r 2 , 3 o r 4 b e a t s r e s p e c t i v e l y .
T h u s, a l l o w i n g a whole b a r f o r
the sequence f i g u r e ,
co m p lete s e q u e n c e , d e s c e n d in g and a s c e n d in g ,
e x a c t l y 16 b a r s , d i v i d e d i n t o
two e q u a l
"d" o f t h e d e s c e n d i n g s e r i e s .
sung i n s t r i c t tim e ,
the
should
occupy
p a r ts by th e f i n a l
The w h o l e s e q u e n c e s h o u l d b e
and t h e c l a s s s h o u ld be en co u rag e d t o
m em orize, a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e , a l l se q u e n c e s su n g .
p r a c t ic e of sequence sin g in g i s
S ince th e
cum ulative in e f f e c t ,
th is
w i l l be found to be e a s i e r f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t h a n i t a p p e a rs
a t f i r s t sig h t.
KEYS
S u itab le
FCR
SEQUENCE SINGING-
k eys s h o u ld be c h o s e n , e . g .
C,
, D, E * ,
E o r P, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e ra n g e c o v e r e d by t h e se q u e n c e
fig u re
itse lf.
For exam ple, se q u e n c e s
121,123,
13,
1321,
1213 e t c .
n o t e x t e n d i n g b e y o n d Column 3 - may b e s u n g i n a n y k e y
b etw een C and P.
Sequences of f o u r th s
- 1234,
14, 141,
1314 e t c .
- may
b e s u n g i n k e y s C, D*, D o r E ^ .
Sequences o f f i f t h s
w hich
- 135, 15,
151, 1 53, 1235 e t c .
e x t e n d f r o m s, t o f 1, may b e s u n g i n k e y D o r D * .
B ut,
-
as t h i s range i s
to o g r e a t f o r young c h i l d r e n ,
th e d es­
c e n d i n g s e q u e n c e s on t h e L . H . S . s h o u l d he s u n g f i r s t
k e y s D,
E p,
E , P o r G*, a n d t h e n t h e a s c e n d i n g s e q u e n c e s
on t h e R .H .S . s h o u ld he sung i n keys
D escending se q u e n c e s
1641 e t c .
or
e .g .
B*
of s i x t h s
, B, C,
- 146,
- s h o u l d l i k e w i s e he s u n g i n
16,
, o r D.
161,
one k e y , e . g .
1461,
E, P
and t h e a s c e n d in g se q u e n c e s o f s i x t h s i n a low er key,
B>, B o r C.
The c h o i c e o f k e y s f o r d e s c e n d i n g s e v e n t h s
171,
in
17 5 3 e t c .
- is
fu rth er re s tric te d
- 1357,
17,
by t h e w i d e r r a n g e ,
b u t t h e s e may h e s u n g i n k e y s P o r G * , w h i l e a s c e n d i n g
s e v e n t h s may h e s u n g i n k e y s A o r Bf .
A plan f o r sin g in g sequences,
of th e r e s t r i c t i o n
ex p lain ed l a t e r
on
w hereby t h i s
d iffic u lty
o f k e y s may be o v e r c o m e , w i l l he
(se e page
The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e
g iv en as a su g g estio n .
^(o
).
of keys f o r sequence s in g in g i s
I t s h o u l d be b o r n e i n m in d ,
t h a t m ost of t h e seq u en ce s in g in g ,
e s p e c i a l l y w ith younger
c l a s s e s , w i l l be c o n fin e d t o t h i r d s and f o u r t h s ,
Columns 1 , 2 , 3 a n d 4 .
however,
i.e . to
4*
TABLE OF KEYS FOR SEQUENCE SINGING
Sequences of
2nds & 3 r d s , i . e .
.
_
n o t e x t e n d i n g beyond C o l . 3 . .C ,D ,D ,E ,E ,F .
4 th s
.............................................
...
C o l . 4 . .C ,D t, D , E t>
5ths
.............................................
...
C o l . 5 . . D , D ,>
D e s c . D E*,E,F.Cr
A s c . B*, B , C , D*( D
6ths
................
7th s
.............................................
...
C o l.7 . .D esc.P .G j.
A s c . A,Bp .
8ves
.............................................
...
C o l . 8 ..Desc.G*
A s c . Ap.
...
...
C o l . 6 . . D e s c . E P , G f’.
A s c . B * B ,C .
LAY-OUT OP SEQUENCE MODULATOR
The l a y - o u t
of t h e
Sequence M o d u lato r, w ith th e
b l a c k a n d r e d colum ns c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e l i n e s and s p a c e s
o f t h e s t a v e , makes i t
p o ssib le fo r th e c la s s to pick out
a n y m e l o d i c f i g u r e w i t h a m in im u m o f e f f o r t ,
th is fig u re
and to r e p e a t
s e q u e n t i a l l y on e v e r y d e g re e of t h e s c a l e ,
d escen d in g and a sc e n d in g , th u s e n su rin g t h a t th e f i g u r e
w i l l be su n g i n e v e r y p o s s i b l e
F u rth er,
i n s in g in g i n t e r v a l s fro m t h e M o du lator,
th e p u p il w i l l be conscious
th e
co n tex t.
of t h e
in te rv en in g notes w ith in I
i n t e r v a l , s i n c e h i s eye m ust p a ss o v er t h e s e t o r e a c h
the re q u ire d i n t e r v a l
- a s , f o r exam ple,
in singing fourths, :
th a t
is,
14
(Id 1 : s It : f
T h is i s
:m
}e tc .
a m ost im p o rtan t p o in t in a u ra l tr a i n in g ,
as th e c h ild re n ,
sa m e t i m e
ll
w hile
sin g in g hare f o u r th s , w i l l a t th e
he c o n s c i o u s o f t h e m a k e - u p o f e a c h p a r t i c u l a r
f o u r t h w ith r e g a r d to to n e s and se m ito n e s.
Sequence Form ulae
The t e a c h e r s h o u l d a l w a y s u s e f i g u r e s
in d ic a te sequences to th e c la s s ,
1231 e t c . "
found u s e f u l
" S i n g 1 2 3 . . . . 1 3 ____
T h ese f i g u r e s o r s e q u e n c e f o r m u la e w i l l be
by t h e t e a c h e r f o r p u r p o s e s o f r e c o r d i n g a l l
work d o n e i n c l a s s ,
m ent.
th u s:
to
B esides,
in te rv al - 1 to
and f o r in d ic a tin g
p r o g r e s s and a t t a i n ­
sin ce th e y in d ic a te th e s iz e
3 is
a 3rd,
1 to 5 is
of th e
a 5 th - th ey w ill
a l s o s e r v e a s an a i d i n th e s tu d y of i n t e r v a l s
n u m e r ic a l p o i n t o f view .
from th e
47 ?
O b s e r v i n g S x o r e s s i o n a n d B e a t i n g Time i n S e q u e n c e S i n k i n g
The p u p i l s s h o u l d he t a u g h t t o h e a t t i m e t o t h e
sequence s in g in g , fo llo w in g th e
lead of th e te a c h e r,
i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s s h o u ld he e n co u rag e d t o
The t e a c h e r s h o u l d a l s o
and
conduct th e c la s s .
v a ry th e e x p r e s s io n from tim e to
tim e, in tro d u c in g le g a to ,
sta c c a to , acceleran d o ,
c re s c e n d o , dim inuendo and r u h a t o .
rallen tan d o ,
Thus, n o t o n ly th e s c a le
s o u n d s b u t t h e s y l l a b l e s t h e m s e l v e s w i l l become v i t a l i s e d
by t h e r h y t h m i c a n d d y n a m i c s e t t i n g s
i n w hich t h e y a r e s u n g .
T h e y w i l l no l o n g e r a p p e a r a s s y l l a b l e s
out
on p a r a d e , d r e s s e d
in t h e i r b e s t "m ental e f f e c t " , b u t a s s y l l a b l e s
in
actio n .
W hispering o f Sequences
Sequences su p p ly th e n a tu r a l m a te r ia l f o r e x e rc is e s
in f l e x i b i l i t y ,
and, th ro u g h th e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s w ith
t h e i r f o u r open vow els and t h e i r s e v e n fo rw a rd c o n so n a n ts ,
th ey a re adm irably s u ite d f o r e x e rc is e s
and d i c t i o n .
In d e e d , se q u e n c e s sh o u ld alw ay s be re g a rd e d
as voice e x e r c is e s and t r e a t e d a s su ch .
it
in v o ice p roduction
In t h is
co n n ectio n ,
w i l l be fo u n d t h a t th e w h is p e rin g w ith o u t v o c a l to n e of
sequences,
e .g .
jld/_t l _ d ' l t _ l s _ t } e t c . ,
form s an ad m irab le
p relu d e to th e sin g in g of sequences, as w hispering n e c e s s i­
ta te s
forw ard p ro d u c tio n , and t h u s b rin g s i n to
speech organs a s s o c ia te d w ith t h i s .
p lay the
The t e a c h e r who h a s
never tr ie d
th is
th is
w ill be s u rp ris e d a t th e
p relim in ary p ra c tic e
h a s on t o n e p r o d u c t i o n .
Speed i n Sequence S in g in g
In a l l in stru m e n ta l tech n iq u e,
is
e ffe c t th at
speed of perform ance
r e c o g n is e d a s an in d ex o f power o r m a s te ry o v er th e
in stru m en t,
and e x a m in a tio n s y l l a b u s e s a r e b a s e d , on t h e
tec h n ic al s id e ,
In so l-fa in g ,
on a s l i d i n g s c a l e o f s p e e d a t t a i n m e n t .
the
im portance of t h i s
be o v e r-e m p h a s is e d .
speed f a c t o r cannot
Indeed, speed of resp o n se i n s o l- f a in g
i s a prim e f u n c t i o n o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y .
The s p e e d o f t h e s e q u e n c e s i n g i n g ,
v aried to s u it
t h e n , s h o u l d be
t h e s t a g e o f t h e c l a s s , a n d s h o u l d be
in creased g ra d u a lly ,
i f n e ce ssa ry w ith th e a id o f a pocket
m etronom e, u n t i l p e r f e c t f l u e n c y i s a t t a i n e d .
In th e
attain m en t of t h is
flu e n c y , as has been alread y
m entioned, th e eye is a id e d by th e la y - o u t
M o d u lato r,
of t h e
Sequence
i n w hich t h e s e q u e n c e p a t t e r n s s t a n d o u t c l e a r l y
o n t h e b l a c k a n d r e d c o l u m n s , much a s t h e y d o o n t h e l i n e s
and s p a c e s o f t h e s t a v e
in s ta f f n o tatio n .
F u rth e r, the
sequence p a tt e r n s a re r e a d o f f h o r i z o n t a l l y and n o t v e r t i ­
cally ,
as in th e case of the
o rd in a ry m o d u lato r.
an im p o r ta n t p o i n t , s i n c e th e m uscles o f t h e
p r i m a r i l y f o r l a t e r a l m ovement.
T h is i s
eye a r e a d a p te d
Thus,
a sp eed o f a b o u t 400 n o t e s p e r m in u te , w hich
would be q u i t e
m o d u lato r,
im p ossible w ith th e o rd in ary v e r t i c a l
i s w e l l w i t h i n t h e com pass o f a good c l a s s
re a d in g from t h e Sequence M od u lato r.
A V ocal K eyboard f o r t h e S in g in g C la s s
I t sh o u ld be rem em bered t h a t a l l
sequence sin g in g
s h o u ld be done t o t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s fro m t h e Sequence
M o d u lato r, e i t h e r th e
W all M o d u la to r ,
p u b lish ed s e p a ra te ly ,
o r t h e Hand M o d u l a t o r c o n t a i n e d i n t h e f o l d e r a t t h e e n d
of t h i s book.
T his m o d u la to r w i l l be found to s u p p ly a
l o n g - f e l t want i n th e A ural T ra in in g C la s s .
ev ery in s t r u m e n t a l is t has h is
F o r, w hile
in s tru m e n t o r keyboard to
a c t as a c o n s t a n t r e m i n d e r t h a t p r a c t i c e makes p e r f e c t ,
t h e s t u d e n t o f A u r a l C u l t u r e h a s no s u c h v i s i b l e
or v o c a l keyboard t o
sense,
s t i m u l a t e him t o a c t i o n .
in stru m en t
In th is
t h e S e q u e n c e M o d u l a t o r may b e r e g a r d e d a s a V o c a l
Keyboard f o r t h e S in g in g C l a s s .
Belo w w i l l b e f o u n d a s e l e c t i o n o f s e q u e n c e s p r i n t e d
in f u l l ,
sid e.
w ith t h e c o rre sp o n d in g sequence fo rm u lae a t the
These se q u en c es have been grouped i n b a r s ,
b ut,
s i n c e t h e y may b e s u n g t o d i f f e r e n t r h y t h m s , a s w i l l b e
ex p lain ed l a t e r ,
been in d ic a te d ,
one b e a t .
no tim e d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h e b a r have
a n d e a c h n o t e may b e r e g a r d e d a s e q u a l t o
We s h a l l c o n f i n e
o u rse lv e s here to sequences
c o n t a i n i n g a maximum o f f o u r n o t e s o n l y .
The r e a d e r s h o u l d
k eep open b e f o r e him t h e f o l d e r c o n t a i n i n g t h e Sequence
M odulator f o r r e f e r e n c e .
P la in Sequences
Seconds and T h ird s
IZ
[| cC't" | t I U s
U f- l-f" ^ |m r l»^c(.lo6— l l ot t ' I r w I r n- pl - f s I s
"t- 1"t" cC 11^ ' —I :
izi
J w i t i t i i a l s f s l M l m r m | r o ( r | d ~ l l d r d | r m r I w f m l f s f I s i s l l t r l l t ‘ot,t | c ^ - - | | |
I ZZ
I d ' t t l t l l l l s s I s f f l f m m l m r r I r d d Id — l l d r r I r mm I m f f I f s s | s l l | l - b t I td d ld '- '- jlj
//*
jjd ’d 'ir h tl I l l s I s s f I f f m L m r l r r d I d — ||d d r l r r m l m m f I f f s I s s l l i l t I t t d l l d '—l l i
I ZI Z ( I d 'td 'iltltllZ s Z s I s f s f Ifm fm lm rm rlrdrdld— IldrdririR rm lnfrnf I f s f s l s l s l I t t l t ltd td 'ld — 1||
i z x | f d W l t H t l l s s l I s f f s |P m m fU rrm |rc ld rld ---|ld rrd !rm m rlm ffm !fs s fls tls l l t t l l t d d 't l d 1---1||
II Zl [litd V d lttIt l l l s l l a s f s l f f m f Immrnilrrolrlot— llotolrctlrrmr-lmMfmI-f-Fs-fIssls l l l t l I t t d ’tld ’— 1| j
II z% jlfli'd 'ttk tU
l l l s s I s s f f |ffn m lm m rr|rrd d |d -—llddrrlrrm m llnriiff Iff s s | s s l l | U t t I
— 1|
/2 2 3 f d 't t Z l t l l s l l s s f ls ffm !fm m rlm rr< llrd d 'tj|d ---l|d rrrJ rM ftflm ffs!fs sl I s i l f l l t t d 'M d r |d'— ||
IZ3
I h ' t l ItZ s ll s f Isfm I f m r Imrd I r d t lo l--lU rm Irm f Im fs I f s i I s l t ll-fcd' l t d ' r i d ' — 1|
13
f d' I I t s | l f
/3 |
Id 'ld 1I t s t
132
J d ' t t l t s l I l f s Ism f I f rm lm dr I r t j d l d — IIdmr Irfm U s f I f t s
113
D d 'd 'l ltt s | l l f I s s m l f f r l m m d l r r t . l d —ll d d m lr r f Imm s If f Z Is s 1 1l l d 'l - t t r ' Id1—II
Ism I f r
It f I
Im d l r t, Id - Id m lr f Im s I f I
Is ms I f r f
Is i~ 11 d It r' l d - | l
Imdm | r t , r Id — lld m d lr f rlmsm If I f I s t s
l l d 'l I
I s t l l l d 't l t r d l d ! — II
ia|3 Id 'td 'lltits |ls tfIs fs iilfm frlm rm d lrd rtjid — II< d rd « !rm rfIm fm sIfsflU lstlltld 'ltd W U —J
/S/2 id'Utytstl Ilf I s lsmsflfrfmlm<W|rtrrd Id—-lldm drirfpm lm sw flftfslstsl lld'ltlfcr'frdld1— II
1313 I d 'lo l'l lts ts ll f lf Ismsmlfrfrlmdmdlr^rtjld— lldmdmlrfrf Im s m s lflflls ts t lU 'Z d 'ltrtr'Id — II
IZ3 1 I d 't l d 'l t l s t l l s f l Isfmslfmrf lmrdmlrdt,r
Id — -lldrmdlrmfr Imfswlfstf I s lts lltd 'lltd V tld 1—II
1321 ^ d l t d l t s l t l l f s l Ism fslfrm f Imatrmlrtjdr Id— lldmrdirfmr Imsfm Ifls f l* tl« lld f l ItVd'tid1— 1|
1232 fld 'tlfc ltls llls f s lsfw flfm rJm rdrlrdt,dld— lldrmr Irmfm Im fsflfsls IsZ tllZ td 'tltd iU id 1- —il
|323 l i l t l l t s l s l l f s f Ismfrtlfrnir Iwdvdlrtdijld-—lldjnrmlr-finf I m s f s lf ls ll s t lt lU ^d'ta'dV[d1---!i |
/33I J d '/ l d l t s s t l l f f l Ismmslfrrf lm d Z m !rt# rld ---fld m » d rffrU ss/iilfllflsttslZ d d Z lt'frt|d --ii
|332 ^ d 'l l t l t s s l l l f f s l swwf|frrnt|mddr lrt,fy/ld— fimmr Irffn lm s s flf lls ls tf r i lU 'd'tltrVdld1— III
51
133 | i ' l l | t s s | I f f Ismml f r r I h d d l r t f i | d - - lldmm I r f f Im ss If l l I s t t I ld 'd ltv V let--11
1131 (| d 'd 'ld lttstl U f I Iss/iislffrf I mmdmlrrtjrlcl—- lUdmollr r f r Imms t If f l f |s s ts llld 'i ( t t r 't Iof— |
1/32 U 'c fltltts llU f tf Issmf l « rm lyittndr | r
Id— llddtnrlrrfm Imwsf I f f I s I s s tllU d 'tlttr d 'U 1---| ]
1322. ! d ' l t t | t sl l | l f s s Ism fflfrm m U drrlrtjddld—-lldnirrlrfmm Imsff tf l 5 s |s tU ll d 'tt|t r d ! d |d l- - |
Ci
F ourths
/23/f-$dt2s I tta f llsfffl |s f mr
If m rdlmrdtjrdt,^ | d - ~ lldrmf
Irmfs Imfsi If s l t l sltcflltdV ItdVm1|d?
l/t
(lot's | t f U rn Is r I f d Iw t, l r 1, Id - lid f I r s |w l
I f t Is of \ l r ' I t rw' U '- ||
IM
(jd'sd1I t f t l l w l U r s I f d f Im tjiw lrljrld — j d f d l r s r U l w l f t f I s o l's llr 'l I t m t U '- l l l
/42 l i s t I f f l l l m s U r-f l f d m | m t , r | r l | d | d - - | | d f r l r s m l m l f If t s I s d 'l l l r 't l t m 'd 'l d t - l ;
IkZ
Jot's I I t f s l l m f Isrm
I f d r U ^ d lr l.t, Id -- |d f m
I r s f I ml sI f t l l s d 't l l r 'd 'l t m V Id1—
Wt-
|d 't s | t l f | l s m l s f r
|fm d | m r t j r d l, I d — l l d r f
|rm s |w f I I f s t I s l d ' l l t r 1ltd'm 'ld1—
/3f j d 'l s I t s f I l f m Ism r I f r d l m d t j r t j l , I d — f id m f lr f s l w s l If I t I s t d 'l l d r ItrW ld '—1|
/2/f J d 'td 's ltltf lls lm ls f s r lf«fd|m rm ^lrdrllld ---||d rd f Irm rslm fm ll-fsftlslsd'lltZ r'kd'tm ld'—J|
M Z jd 'sd 't|tftt|lm 1 s|srsf|fcl-fin lm tlmr|rl1T,d ld -—Ilctfd’r lr s r J m ln if I f tf s ls d 's lltr ’ltltm td ld '—1|
1311f. { d 'ld 's lts tf I lf im Ismsr If r f d Imdmt^rt,r7,1d-— llotwd-fl rfrslm sm l I f lf tla ts d 'lld 'l r Itr'tm lot— II
l/tl3 J d s d l I t f t s llm lf Isrsm l-pd-fr Imi^ndIrl.rt; Id— lldfdm lrsrf L lm s lf tf l I s d s tjlr U 'ltw tf U — ll
/4-X3 ( jd 's tlltf Is llm sflsrfm lfd w rU ^ rd lrld tld — lldf r J r s f l i f |n d f s |f t s i l s d l t |i r t d U i d v |d ' — 1|
IMh- jd 'sls Itfsflln fm lsrw rlfctrd U td -tjlrl.t.lJd — lld f m f lr s f s lm ls llf tltls d ’t d llr'd r Itm'fmU'—1|
I k ty J d 's t s l t f l f llm sm lsrfrlfd m d lm t.rtjrl^ljd —-lU frf Irs m s lm lfllfts tls d 'id llr'tr Itm'dnild'—|
/f21 S d std 'ltf I tl lm s ll s r f s IfdrnflMt^mlrl.drld--- lldf rd lrs in rIm lfiJ fts fls d 'ls ltrV l Itm d tfd '-J
! k 31 Jd«ld 'ltfst|lm flls* ,ms|fdrfl»ft;dmlrt)'tj’r ld— lldfmdlrsfr U lsm lftl-flsd'ts llr'd'l Itm'r'tld1— II
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I1U> Id'rtm ltd Z rlltisd ls^ f t |lfs(mZlL f|rsllrwldflld---lldtrllrd'm tlm rfd'lfnils r l s f lld lls tf '|tl'd s ' Id'—II j
1371 J d 'lr tlt'5 d l|lf tls|snt71f-|frslrt I* d-f,r Irti m,dId— lldint-r Irfd' rnImsr'-pIfZw'>sIs
i lld,«lt -hr r'PoL1Lt‘—li
I72Z ildrZ tltdsllllffslsZ jinf |fs(rn Im ^ d rlf^ d ld — lldtm r Ird'fm l/nr s f Ifw' 2s Is f ' t l lls'd 't ItlVd1|d'~ J
1375 |d'lrfffrsdmlZff;r Isml.dlfr^t; L d f(l1lrfyit|sjd---I|dm t‘6 Irfd'l IwsftlfZm'd'Istf'r'IldVm'ltfl'f'll'— ||
I2h>7 H dW l^d rd I Z s d t,I s f t l,|f t* L r s (f, Ird^mjd—-lld rIt Irmtd' Iwfdr |fs rV Islm'flZti s ftd sl1Id1—II
|d * r t |t r d l lldljs lst,2(f Iflflm L s^ rlr^i^d ld —-lld ltr Irtd'm Imd'r'flf r'm's Ism'f' I Ilfs t" Its1i'd1id—1|
IW
|d lSiBrltrfrd llm d t|l s r t |Z||fd l|slL tlslf1lrZ,flm1l d - - l l d f l t ‘|rstctlm ldV lftrm lsdlnilf | l r f l*|tms'Zl|dl- - |
51
I7 &
ll^dmlslil5r|fs|l |dlmfj^t'lrrnlfZl|d ---IU tZ f |rdlts|mrd'i|fmVltls f lmti,lls flf [ t i lslmldl---ll
Ib lfl fd'msrItr f d lldwtjst^r Z,[fyd^IwsjtjljIrijl.mji— I d lftlrtsd 'lin d 'lflp f tto1IWdfilfV’s'kaWl'lJ!—II
A list
o f 4 0 more s e q u e n c e s i s g i v e n b e lo w .
1112.
1121
IU 3
1125
1731
1135
llk l
1145
1744
1152
115k
1154
1151
1142
lib s
W
I1H
1211
IZ15
121b
m
1373
Ikll
14-75
1512
1515
IM
Kois
IM
1211
1251
I5k1
1341
1421
1431
14-51
1541
1112
1551
!(o3l
OCTAVES
Id!-
If
If
f d 'd I t t; 111, |s s( | f -f |m m, lr rj Id - |ld d 1 lr r Im m1 If f 1 Is s ' | l V It t '
l8l
Id 'd d ’l t l j t | l I, I |s s ,s Iff, f |mm,m|r r, r | d — ildd'd Ir r r Imm'mI f f 'f Is s's ll I ' l l t t ' t ld'--|l)
I?2
{ d 'd -tltt;! l l l ts Is s ,f I f f m Imm.r |r r;d U - - l l d d 'r Irr'm Itnm'f I f f 's | s s 'l l i f t Itt'ol1 I d —II
l?3
fd 'd l l t t (s | l l , f ls s (m l f f , r |m n\d|rr,t, !d --||d d 'm I r r 'f Imm'slff'Z I s s 't lll'd* I t t 'r
18k
fld'ds | t t ; f III,m ls s ,r I f f d lm n \tj|rr,l( U — lldd'f I r r s L m I I f f 't Iss'd 'IZ l'r' Itt'm 1 Id'—II
18b
|d 'd m l tt; r IU td lss,t, I f f l, |(nmts,lrr;-() lot— Ildd'Z l r r t Imm'd'IffV Iss'm 'IUY' I t t 's 1 Id'--II;
m
lld'clr ltt,d llZ ,t, lss,Z, If f,s, Lm,-f, Ir r, m, I d - - lld d 't lr rd'Im m V lffm 1I s s 'f 'l l l V l t t 'l * ld'--ll
13?
J ld 'Z d lts t, I l f \ I s m s jf r f , L d m jrtjr, Id — lld m d 'lrf r'Im sm 'lf I f 'I s t s ' l i d ' l ' l t r V l d ' —ll
14?
I d 's d l f f t , IlmZ, Is r s ,I f d f j m ^ m j r f r , I d - - l l d f d 'l r s r ' L W l f t f 1Is d V ll r I' Itm 't'Id'—1|;
It t
jd 'm d lf f t - \ U \ 1st, s, I f Z,f| L s.m jtf.r, I d - IldZd' I r t r ' U m 'l f r'f'Ism 's'Ilf'I* I t s ' t ' M '
Id'—|ll
M 8 Id sm d ltfrl 5llmdl1lsr'tisl|fd l1fllnft,s1i*||rl,-(jr1ld — IldfZd'IrstrImldmlftr'f'Isd'niVllr'f'i'lt'mVt'ld1—II
184k Id d m sltfrf IZ^dmlssjtjr lff(Z(d Imw^^lr t;f,ljd---lldd'if Irr'ts immd'ZlffV'tlssVdlU'f r IttVm'ld'—III
If4b | d'ds mItt, f r II f md Is s,r t(If f, d I, Im«.trs,Ir r,l,f, Id - - - 11dd'f I W s t Ln'ld1Iff Vr 1Is s'dWIll' r'f1krt'm's' Id---II
M g I d W l t r f t (IZdml,Istjrs,|fl,df Ims^mjrfl^ Id-- J ld lfd 1Irtsr'Imd'Zoi1;f r 'tf 1IsmdsllfVi'ftsm't'Id'—-II
Ikfk lld'soUltftjf lim^mlsrs^ Ifdfd Imfm^lrZir,^ Id—Jld fd 'f Irsr's Llm 'llftf'tIsd'sd'llrZ 'r1IfcmtWU--Jlj
Ibtb Id m d m ltrt.rlU ^ d ls ^ ^ tJ flflJ m s ^ ^ lrf^ L ---lld U ll!rtr'tLd'md1fr'fVllsinVmllflllf llts 'ts '|d l—1|
m I ']dW d'ltrt;t lld l(l isl,s,slfZ(f f L s^ n lrfrjr Id—-Ildld'dlrtrV ImdWmlprff IsmVslZf'Z'llfrs't'tld1—II
Im (jiU k tjftJU m lM rs, lf?i< I m , ! ^ rU — IWfcl1IrrW U W Iff'tf W J illlrT M .ftM -)
I M ilW ,c (fcr«JUllil9 ii^ ^ li^ .^ K r r J J ---llJ U J V tr r ,lmaWfr,f f ,ls »,s !‘lim llt M ,U'--J
rs r r ' IrnWlftrf-P'Isdss1llr 'U 'lt d tt1lol'— 1|
/?4-l $dd$<llt1jft l l W lss,rs Iff-df L ^ l n ^ r Id— lUdftl Irr'sr LirilJ f f ' t f I s s 'd s lU V ilttV t let— II
I8(>l Id'cimdltt^t'In.dZ Iss^s [ff,l,f U i ^ l r i ^ r Id— Ildl'Zd I r r t r Lddm Iff V f Is sV s |U*f11tort's11 W—0
1/hSb fdsdm ltft, r IZmljd Isr s/tjIf di)Z, Inrtjmfllrl,r;■(■Id — lldfd 'l Irs r 't Ulm'dllftfV Isd'smUr Z'f'Itnn t'fl'ld'---II
m
id'mdsl-t’r'tjf IZdljBi lst;s,r If ^ fd L ^ tjlr f , r,Z, Id. - - -lldld'f Irfrrs ImdWZIfr'f'fr Ism's'd'llf'lr krs'tm'ld'— II
I3 5 i
^ d 'i f d l t s r l , I s m d s , I f r f ; ^ L d ^ i 't f t i ; I d - —lldw d'lrf lrImstm Ifld'f'IstrV lldW l'ltr'fV Id1— 1|
m
fd'df I Ittjm s |U, r f Iss(dmlff,t; r U ^ d l r ^ t j l d — llddsm I r r 'lf Im ^ slffil'l I s s V t l U W d W r U J
« 3 5 f d d lf It^sm llljf r Iss.m d lffrt,U m ^Z jrr^ld - —llddlms|ri>‘fIL rfsfrlff'ld lssW IU 'd U lttV f1Id'—II
IS31 §d'f id |t* s t,llr f l, Isdms.HVfj U ty l^ rs ftrjd —- fldsm flrif r' Iftts* Ifd 'lf 1 s r ts llm'd'l'ltf r t ‘ Id'—J|
131% Id 'W d lts-H ilifllJsm ssJfrff l»»<d««1|rtjrr,ld — lltdmdLA'Irfrr*Imsww'l-PZ^fMstss'Ucl'ZZ'Hrrt-VId*— 1|
1113 $ddd'Z Ittjts IU ,lf IgSjSm Iff-fr Um ^dlrrjrtjld— Ildd'dmlrrVf Imm'mslff'f lls s 's t lU 'ld’l t t 'i r Id!—II
1%31 fd'dld'ltrt^st lll.- B ls s ^ s lf f r f Iffim.dmlr^r Id - - -lldd'mdlrrf r Un'fimlff'lf Iss'ts lll'd'l I t t V t Id1— II
1X3% |d V U Irta t,lls fj, Isfjns,l-finrf IwrdirijrdijnId-'-lldrmdlrrn-fr Imfsm'lftlf1Is i t s \ltJ.'V\bJ>r+'\j!r-4
l l 76 Id'drmlttidr llZ ^dlssJjtJffjs^ lmm,fsJri;rn,^d---||dilt l l r r d ltlini)(VdlfflmVl|ss'flm rilVfl^tt,'l's' Id'— II
I3b1 |d7m dltrsrt;llfdlllsmt,sIlfrllf Imds.Mjrtj^rjId--- Ildm W lrftr Imsdalftr'f'Istws'IZd'f'i'ltrVt1|d'— II
l lb l |d'dmZIf-tjrsll^df Iss^ m lff^ rIm m ^d lr^ tjd — IIdd'lm Ir rtfImm 'd'slffV'lIssVtll& flClttsV Id'— I
131b fld'ldttltstjrIZ-fotIs*is,t;rf,I,Imcdmls1lr't^t;-?,let— IIdmol'l 1r-frtrIm sm 'd t'lIsts'm 11Zoi1i*f1ItrVe' Id--II
13dI Hd.'ldd'ltstjtllf],] Istn^s I f r f f lmolwlmlr'^rlr ld---lldmd'dlrfrVImsm'inlfZf'flsfs's IU'1’1 (fcr't'tId'—Jlj
13%$ Jd 'ld lltsifsllfljflsm ^ n ilfrfjrlu d m ^ lrt^ ^ ld -—IldmdmlrfdP Im sm slfZ f'H ststlldl'd'lt'rtV 'ld1— 1|
\M
jdsidltfst;linjfZ.Isrms-J-ftlrf; UtjdmJrj^r, Id— -IldfmdVsfr11nism'l-pi^Z-f'IsotVslirU'i1ItmWld'— II
We a d d a l i s t
o f 4 0 more o c t a v e s e q u e n c e s i n f o r m u l a .
Ml
|3?5
mi
15/8
m s
UM
m b
I5AS
IS34
IW
im
im
izit
1511
m i
15%1
m
M l
IS5I
i« i
isn
I7M
M l
If5b
MS
mb
|5t5
132f
IVt
un
M l
IM
m
M l
m
M3
IM
m
l?2i
1f 23
NOTES ON THE ABOVE SEQUENCES
I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t a l l t h e s e q u e n c e s a b o v e
have been lim ite d p u rp o s e ly t o 4 n o t e s .
The r e s u l t o f t h i s
l i m i t a t i o n o f th e sequence to fo u r n o te s
is th a t in
s e q u e n c e s o f more e x t e n d e d r a n g e ,
e .g .,
5 th s,
6 th s,
7ths
a n d 8 V» S , m o r e a n d m o r e d i s j u n c t m o t i o n o r s k i p p i n g h a s
b e e n m ade n e c e s s a r y i n t h e s e q u e n c e f i g u r e .
th e
7,
However,
w ith
le n g th e n in g o f t h e se q u en c e f i g u r e from 4 n o te s t o 5,
8 or 9 n o t e s ,
s u c h s k i p p i n g c a n be more and more a v o i d e d
and c o n j u n c t o r s t e p w i s e m o tio n i n t r o d u c e d .
illu stra te d
T h is w i l l be
in the n e x t c h ap ter.
The a b o v e s e q u e n c e s , t h e n , e s p e c i a l l y f r o m 5 t h s
upw ards, m ust n o t be re g a rd e d a s t y p i c a l seq u en ces f o r th e
Singing C la s s .
stra te
They have b e e n g i v e n h e r e s i m p ly t o demon­
t h e m ethod a n d t o show w h a t c a n b e d o n e w i t h f o u r -
note sequences.
Indeed,
th e y do not ex h au st th e
p erm u tatio n s and com binations p o s s ib le w ith fo u r n o te s .
Thus,
i n t h e 8ve s e q u e n c e s ,
w h i l e we h a v e w r i t t e n 4 0
s e q u e n c e s , a n d g i v e n o t h e r 40 i n f o r m u la , t h i s number i s
a c t u a l l y l e s s t h a n h a l f t h e number o f tw o , t h r e e an d f o u r n o te o c ta v e se q u e n c e s w hich m ight have been g iv e n
in th is
sectio n .
T ables o f Sequences,
c l a s s i f i e d according to th e
r a n g e a n d num ber o f n o t e s i n t h e s e q u e n c e f i g u r e w i l l be
found
on p a g e s
6,
IS to- 1 ^ 3 .
4o
O c t a v e M arks
T he o c t a v e m a r k s g i v e n h e r e a n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e
hook c o rr e s p o n d t o t h e o c ta v e m arks on t h e Sequence
M odulator and n o t n e c e s s a r i l y to t h e
o c ta v e m arks o f th e
k e y s i n w h i c h t h e s e q u e n c e s may b e s u n g .
R ep eated N otes i n Sequence S in g in g
I t w i l l b e n o t e d t h a t a number o f t h e
the f i r s t se c tio n
(2nds and 3 rd s)
co n ta in rep e ate d n o te s.
T h e s e w i l l b e f o u n d t o g i v e more t r o u b l e t o
than th e o th e rs.
th a n 123.
For exam ple,
sequences in
young c h i l d r e n
1 2 2 3 i s much m o r e d i f f i c u l t
B u t , a s r e p e a t e d n o t e s a r e a coirmon f e a t u r e
m elody, e s p e c i a l l y o f c h ild h o o d t u n e s ,
of
e .g . N ursery
Rhym es - w h e r e t h e y f o r m a b o u t 25% o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r
of a l l in te rv a ls* - i t
in so l-fa in g
is very n e c e ssa ry to
or s p e llin g
i n c l u d e them
p rac tic e.
S t e p w i s s Appr o a c f t - t o _ X P t . e r v a i g
S e q u e n c e s c o n t a i n i n g new i n t e r v a l s
s h o u l d be
ap p ro ach ed f i r s t by s te p w is e m o tio n b e fo r e b e in g ta k e n by
leap .
By v a r i o u s r h y t h m i c d e v i c e s i t
is p o ssib le to t r e a t
th e in te rv e n in g n o tes as p assin g n o te s ,
s o t h a t , when t h e s e
h a v e b e e n m a s t e r e d , t h e p a s s i n g n o t e s may b e o m i t t e d a n d
we a r e
l e f t w ith th e bare i n te r v a l .
See Page
63 7
(V o l. Hi)
Thus:
_.
liiU ji'H t.iif i* .
s h 0 U l g y b ®a 8 p p £ 0 8 C h e d l i i s
L iiiv i
Ins
u .
Itisf
life.
l||s |m
|-«fe.
3
| | i U j i ' s l t f \lrn\&.
..................................
llA3^ U j d t i s
II
'j JJSi I
I l f l<<* [id'-p It m ll r l-«fe.
....................
II 6> \t* {|d-M -|fr-r-|l-d-|.cfe.
I
...
IfJMS' I/t>t (id'frls f
...
l i l f t j - 1^ (ic t'tZ s-F m -ltlsfm r- l-cfe.
jJ
IJJJj JJ J I
I I I 1 ^ | d ' - r - | t ' d - i l - t r |«fe.
.............................................
I i 2 3 » £ ^ 1 - 1 ^ [ i d t j g f m r - l ^ s f m r < i - !-<&■
The w id er i n t e r v a l s may a l s o be approached by chord or
a rp eg g io .
Thus:
.I i■
. n j
liffUfi'fltrmllrLfc.
ijj i
may be approached
by way o f
r.
|n
111 \/*s {jd'm It r l l d l-<fe.
...............................
117 l^t- {id r It" d |2 f l-efe-
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
|
h sa r L fU 'if
—
<_
i
|
I [A; I I,**, j j d s m
| 13S’ Y
U.
Its m
_
| /n. { l l l f r
Iff r
l-efc.
It s w d
I «fe.
3
|lff \p* {idd |t t, | l l ( |^£,
. . . | Uhk ? | ^ jjat'smd
I t f r t,
|
C o n t r a s t i n g Rhythms i n S e q u e n c e S i n g i n g
R h y th m ic V a r i e t y a n d Rhythm S p e l l i n g i n S e q u e n ce
S i n g i n g w i l l b e d e a l t w i t h i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r , b u t we t a k e
th is
to
o p p o r t u n i t y t o s h o w how s e q u e n c e s i n g i n g may b e u s e d
illu stra te
new r h y t h m i c
p a ttern s
o r t o c o n t r a s t new
rhythm ic p a tte r n s w ith o ld .
The f i g u r e I J. j" J J |fo r example may be a r r iv e d a t by
way o f IJ
HJ J|
a n d |J^J1 J J |
th u s:
11 d 3 'l I {1 d : d ' t 11 : d ‘11 : t . l i s : t l l : l s i f : l I s : s . f i m :S I f : f m l r : f l m : m . r i d : m l r -.r.dl-t; : r I d : - l - '.-fl-efc
u
The f i g u r e I
I may h e a p p r o a c h e d f r o m I J JTJ3I t h u s :
11 j l | j I U
- J fiflt
11 z j j j I f d
■-jtXjllt
The f i g u r e
i j
I I
0 3
I I l^ 3
••jls.tlZ
. j -j i
'.r/Lt.Ad
: k # |s
r^fm /lf
-.^m.tyflm
s-s.-f^ls
i-j-fnijsl-f ^m .rf Im :-r.d,m|r :-,ci,tu r I d
may h e d e r i v e d f r o m
IJz.
||d :-r.i*,<L\-dZ.
IJ J 2 J I
| ! d 'ld '.til
It
l l i l . s : f Is :s.f:m | f
if.m ir Im : m .r :d lr :r.d :t; Id
I
It
ll : - s r f Is
:-.m : r lm :7 l":d l r :-.d :t, |d
If
IU
l|d :d .r-.m I -efe.
: - ||d
:-.T
:m I -«&■
W h i l e t h e r h y t h m i c f i g u r e s IJ J J | a n d I J - i" JI may h e s u n g
and c o n t r a s t e d i n th e one s e q u e n c e , th u s :
U
U
Il^ll
f l d 'i t d
I t :-.Z:s l l
I jid'i-rt ; l
2 .3
It is
:S
: f Is -.Tf-.m I f - : m : r Im :-=r:d l r
I t : l ; 5 I I : - s : f I s : f : mI f
:d : t , I d
l|d : r :m I -efc-
Id
lid -.-rim l -efe.
:-m-.r |m : r '.d |r
a good p l a n t o a s k one h a l f o f t h e c l a s s
(A) t o
s i n g t h e s e q u e n c e 1 11^ 3 ! o r ld':d'.t:lI w h i l e t h e o t h e r h a l f
s i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t h e s e q u e n c e 110 3l o r | d ' : - t : l l .
o r d e r o f A and B s h o u ld he r e v e r s e d .
J a I i f ~l t
l lQ d ' M i l t
| J- J - J
i B l l v2 3
I
1
: t ! : s I a . s : f s is.fim-'
i j
c o n tra ste d w ith i t ,
b I]j
ja
Then th e
Thus:
rA \ > i t 1
( f Hfr:l t :-2 :s
!fi I / o i l
<JBM t l t d : s I ll.Slf S :s.f :mj
I l7S.-f
■■efc.
I :-s :f s
d'
I n t h e sa m e way I j
Al
(B)
I s h o u l d be d e d u c e d f r o m l - m j
I and
th us:
3 I | d’.d)t:l It.tjl.-s
ll .V tf ls.«,f:ro }•«£••
A Ijj,3 I Id 'jt.-l
| l vS : f
| 3 I f d '7t : l I t ,"l;s
ll.,S :f IS vfm }«£.
f il m s I fd'cftil lfc#:»
ll.Z,s:f Is-s^m }<£
J3 J
I 1 0 .3
r?J
i» i I J l
1
I
|
|
d '# l
fA l / j 3 1
l.l/if
|s.,f.-ni}«£
t VZ:5
1 ,5 i f
S , f :m/
t.%1 '■3
U « :f
s.s^isj
• L.
< fc.
'
d ', t : l
t 7l:S
l,5 :f
S
l i l S i l
‘
< !!& :!
Any new r h y t h m i c f i g u r e t h a t g i v e s t r o u b l e s h o u l d h e
t r e a t e d i n t h i s m anner.
Syncopatio n
The t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s o f s y n c o p a t i o n may l i k e w i s e
b e d e m o n s t r a t e d by m e a n s o f t i e d n o t e s
in sequences.
Thus:
lu ^ l (U'.t.-t.llt.l :l.s|l.S:s.f
If.m:»|.r Itfl.r-r.J. Ir.ol
llcLr :r. mInm :m
IUjt | jjd.t-:-.! | f . l s ll-sr-.-f Is.f :-.m If.m :-.r Im.rr-.dlr.cM-.tJcl
lU.rr-.mlr.m
M ental Sequence S in g in g
The s i n g i n g o f s e q u e n c e s c o n t a i n i n g w i d e i n t e r v a l s ,
e .g .,
th at
6 th s,
7 t h s o r 8 v e s , may l e n d i t s e l f t o t h e r e p r o a c h
s u c h s i n g i n g may b e h a r m f u l t o y o u n g v o i c e s .
t h e t e a c h e r who i s
sin g in g is
sin g in g .
c a re le s s of vocal tone
Of c o u r s e ,
in sequence
n o t l i k e l y t o be c a r e f u l of v o c a l to n e i n song
B u t i t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t ,
once t h e
cla ss
h a v e r e a c h e d a c e r t a i n s t a g e o f a d v a n c e m e n t, t h e y s h o u l d be
cap ab le o f re a d in g
o r s in g in g seq u en ces m e n ta lly , and they
sh o u ld r e c e iv e ev ery encouragem ent i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n .
a p p l i e s more p a r t i c u l a r l y t o
case th e re
the p r iv a te s tu d e n t.
T his
In th is
c a n b e no o b j e c t i o n e v e n t o o c t a v e s e q u e n c e s .
The T e c h n i q u e o f t h e V o i c e a n d o f t h e I n s t r u m e n t
We s a w t h a t
each m u sical in stru m e n t has i t s
own
t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s , a n d t h e human v o i c e i s n o e x c e p t i o n t o
th e r u l e .
T h e t e a c h e r w i l l s o o n f i n d t h a t among t h e
u
h a r d e s t o f seq u en ces to s in g a r e th o se o f th e type
D escending
I U3
A scending
HI 3
th at is,
I3H
, 1311
1 31^
-
14-13
IMS
13 IS
Hi 3
IM S
m s
a f i g u r e descending o r asce n d in g , th e n r e t u r n i n g
to th e f i r s t note or w ith in th e le a p ,
and d e s c e n d in g or
ascending t o a n o th e r n o te .
It
is
s u r p r i s i n g how d i f f i c u l t
S chools fin d th e sequences
-tj* - TJJ1
p u p ils
of Secondary
-
jTTT 1 ITI
rm
—
-^ -1f n ~ n h i 1J"
\ MJ 4i ir Aid
Pr
J-*4±4
13/4• »
J 1j- - I j 1
TTTi— i—
d j M U i ; LLLg-
i f t h e y have j n e v e r b e f o r e a t t e m ; p t e d t h e m .
fig u re
1 r r n ~T Yet t h i s
i s me) s t common i n mu s i c i/ v r i t t e n f o r t h e
w here i t
r J P f f P 4type of
organ p e d a ls ,
i s a d m i r a b l y a d a p t e d t<d a p a i r o f f e e t .
the Giant FOG-OE (£ACH)
-r ■<■ i - 7
i r = -L -J i
r * ft
1
ftT -T IT f »-f—«—r
— 4 4 -------- H rttl
! —>--[— H —------
-1
Fu«o e in D Minor CBACh)
Where B a c h b r e a k s
passage as a t
o f f th e fugue s u b j e c t i n a p e d a l
(a) above - i n t h i s
case th e
e n try of th e s u b je c t i n th e ped als - i t
is
f i r s t and only
n o t b e c a u s e he
c o u ld n o t have woven t h e r e m a i n i n g p a r t o f t h e s u b j e c t i n t o
th e te x tu re
o f t h e w o rk , b u t s i m p l y b e c a u s e e v e n he would
h a v e f o u n d t h e r e m a i n i n g p a r t c o n t a i n i n g a s c a l e p a s s a g e Gf)
i n sem iquavers
J"| J
very uncom fortable,
i f n o t im possible,
r e q u i r e d s p e e d on t h e p e d a l k e y b o a r d .
to play a t th e
H e n c e , he b r e a k s o f f
a b r u p t l y a n d r e s u m e s t h e c a t e r p i l l a r m o t i o n - i n v o l v i n g no
c ro s s in g of the f e e t
- w hich i s s o g r a t e f u l to th e p la y e r
on t h e P e d a l B oard.
A l l th e above a r e exam ples o f m e lo d ie s c o n c e iv e d i n
t e r m s o f a k e y b o a r d o p e r a t e d by a p a i r
R apid s c a l e p a s s a g e s ,
g ra te fu l to
on t h e
of f e e t .
o t h e r hand, w hich a re
t h e v o i c e a n d v e r y common i n v o c a l m e l o d y ,
p re s e n t co n sid erab le d i f f i c u l t y
on t h e p e d a l s , and t h e r e f o r e
a r e s e ld o m fo u n d i n t h e fu g u e s u b j e c t s o f P e d a l Organ f u g u e s .
The f a m o u s o p e n i n g o f t h e G r e a t P r e l u d e a n d F u g u e i n D,
a lt h o u g h r e n d e r e d p r a c t i c a b l e by t h e l a y o u t o f t h e p e d a ls i n
t h i s key, w i l l alw ays hold t e r r o r s f o r th e am ateu r o r g a n i s t .
(J.fz)
ftdalSslo
^ .
The hum an v o i c e m u s t .
r i p
o f c o u r s e , be p re p a re d
to adapt i t s e l f to a l l
ty p e s o f m elodic
o g re s s io n , w hether vocal o r in stru m e n ta l
in o rig in .
NOTE ON TIME NOTATIONS
USED IN MOVABLE DQH SYSTEMS
The w r i t e r h a s a d o p t e d a t i m e n o t a t i o n f o r u s e w i t h
th e n o tin g of th e sequence form u lae i n t h i s
recommends i t s
c la ss
u s e f o r p u r p o s e s o f e n t e r i n g work done i n
i n t h e R e c o r d o f Work.
I t is an a d a p ta tio n
o f t h e tim e n o t a t i o n used in
th e F re n ch G a lin - ? a r is - C h e v e System .
D i c ti o n a r y sub "C h ev e".)
12
book, and
3 e tc.
(See G r o v e 's
I n t h e Cheve s y s te m t h e num bers
stan d f o r the s c a le d e g re e s ,
m ediant e t c . ,
to n ic ,
su p erto n ic,
w h ile d o t s above o r below t h e f i g u r e s t a k e
f
the p lace of th e dash ( ')
of the to n ic
r e p r e s e n t h ig h e r o r low er o c ta v e s .
by z e ro s i g n s
(«),
R ests are rep re se n te d
and a th ic k d o t i s
u s e d t o show t h e
c o n tin u a tio n o f th e preceding sound.
n o te s a re sung to one s y l l a b l e ,
placed over th e n o te s .
Where two o r more
a c u rv e d s l u r m ark i s
The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s
"Douze C h a n ts S c o l a i r e s " ,
H ach ette,
s o l - f a system t o
G .M ic h ae lis, P a r is ,
1 9 2 0 ) w i l l make t h i s
L ib ra irie
system c l e a r .
Q U A T R E -V IN G T-D O U ZE*
M u s iq u e A e J o l i b i T i e k 'h t
f R esolu. M J r
te r
2
_ lee
.
2
4
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o
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Par
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7
6
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(from
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ji
H dlodie populaire b rclonn e.
J
nf G r a c i e u ^ e t m o d e r e .
T o n F a ]| -
4
Don 3 II 3
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3 . 4
Fi _
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T ra n q u ille e t doux
.
cham ps;
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m a m i _ g-nonne
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so is
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a
The " T o n i k a - D o " M e t h o d i s
C urw en’s T o n ic S o l - f a M ethod.
Hundoegger,
atten d ed th e
t h e German e q u i v a l e n t o f
I t s fo u n d er, th e l a t e
Agnes
Summer S c h o o l o f t h e T o n i c S o l - f a
C o l l e g e i n L o n d o n i n 1 8 9 5 , a n d on r e t u r n i n g t o H a n o v e r s h e
a t o n c e c o m m enced p i o n e e r w o r k i n t o n i c
s o l - f a m ethods,
w hich l e d e v e n t u a l l y t o t h e f o u n d in g o f t h e
" T o n i k a - D o Bund!
x
G e r m a n y h a s i t s J o h n H u l l a h i n t h e p e r s o n o f Dr E i t z ,
in s p ite
J
hut,
o f t h i s , T onika-D o h a s a l a r g e f o l l o w i n g t h e r e .
( V i d e " S o l - f a i n G erm an y " h y U r s u l a G r e v i l l e ,
"The M u s i c T e a c h e r " , F e b r u a r y 1 9 2 8 , E v a n s B r o s . )
T o n i k a - D o e x p o n e n t s i n Germ any h a v e t a k e n o v e r t h e s o l - f a
s y l l a b l e s , t h e S o l - f a M odulator and t h e t r a n s i t i o n
m o d u latio n sy stem of b rid g e -n o te s
etc.
t h e y u s e t h e Chev^ tim e n o t a t i o n .
fr o m Curwen, b u t
A Rhythm T a b le f ro m
" U b u n g s b u c h zum L e i t f a d e n d e r T o n i k a - D o - L e h r e "
V erlag , B e rlin )
i s g iv e n below .
iiberftcfytstabclle
ficr $akt-Sd)reiliart uni) iier rljijtljmifdjen flenrnnungen.
GSmije ©rfjlfffla.
O nlfie © djlrinc.
E r i t t c l © djlflgc.
S Jicrtcl ©cftlfige.
Id
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d
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1
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d il d
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Id
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Id ^ d
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Id
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Scrfjftcl ©rtjlfiflC.
(fliu e lm a lig e S r c itc ilim g .)
dd d d dd
Ita ra la terete
d d d d d d
t a r a la terete
(D rc lm a lig e g ro e ite ilu n g .)
I <1 d
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Vlrtjtrl <3rf|lfinr.
d d
te fe
or
d d
lift
dd dd dd
ta fa
te fe
tifi
(T onika-D o-
The f o l l o w i n g m u s i c a l e x a m p l e s w i l l i l l u s t r a t e
a l l th ese
p o in ts.
66.
T o n ik a F .
a
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The n o t a t i o n
used in t h i s
fo rm u lae and th e s o l - f a
Cheve' a n d t h e
r e f e r to
book f o r t h e seq u en c e
exam ples c o r r e s p o n d s
T onika-D o s y s t e m s .
The f i g u r e s
c lo se ly to the
1234 e t c .
t h e n um bered c o lu m n s on t h e S e q u e n c e M o d u l a t o r .
F ig u re s or s y l l a b l e s s ta n d in g alo n e r e p r e s e n t o n e-p u lse or
one-beat n o tes,
co n tin u atio n s
s o l - f a tim e n o t a t i o n , and t i n e
a r e shown by a d a s h a s
n o t a t i o n sym bols borrow ed
from th e s t a f f sy stem a r e p la c ed under th e f i g u r e s
The d o t h a s t h e sam e f u n c t i o n a s
in s t a f f .
Thus :
1 f
3
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to
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11 l s 1 - I * J J J
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11 1 L I 1 "
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U ' t I -J\t I s *\ = I t j j j . j
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II
The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s o f Memory T u n e s o r S p e l l i n g T u n e s ,
a s used by th e w r i t e r ,
w ill re v e a l th e m erits of t h i s
type
of lay o u t.
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T h is i s
n o t the
tim e n o t a t i o n .
m erits are to
used i n th e
defect - its
is
its
it
p la c e to d i s c u s s th e T onic S o l - f a
has i t s
m e r i t s and i t s
d efects.
its
be f o u n d c h i e f l y i n t h e t y p e o f t i m e d i v i s i o n s
e a rly stag es of read in g .
l a c k Of t h e g r a p h i c
In f a c t,
its
g reatest
or p i c t o r i a l elem ent -
c h i e f m e r i t fro m t h e p o i n t o f view o f t h e b e g in n e r
in sig h t-read in g .
For th e
in te rp re ta tio n of g rap h ical or
p i c t o r i a l e le m e n ts p r e s u p p o s e s a know ledge o f t h e t h i n g s
th u s g ra p h ic a lly or p i c t o r ia l l y re p re se n te d ,
a n d makes
c o n s i d e r a b l e d e m a n d s on t h e m e n t a l c o n t e n t o f t h e r e a d e r .
T he p r e s e n t t i m e s y s t e m i s n o t p u t f o r w a r d i n a n a t t e m p t
to
o u s t t h e T onic S o l - f a sy s te m .
B ut t h e tim e sym bols
u s e d h e r e w i l l b e e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d b y one who c a n r e a d
s ta f f n o tatio n .
I n m usic su ch a s th e a b o v e , w hich i s
a lre a d y f a m ilia r to the c la s s ,
th ey se rv e as a shorthand
and g r a p h i c method o f r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e tim e d i v i s i o n s ,
w h ile th e y a l s o have t h e i r use a s s e r v i n g f o r a n i n t r o ­
d u c t i o n t o t h e s t a f f tim e n o t a t i o n .
73
C H A P T E R
IV
CONTEXTUAL PROBLEMS IN MUSIC SPELLING
AND THE RELATION OF MUSIC SPELLING AND
READING 10 LANGUAGE SPELLING AND READING
So f a r we h a v e l i m i t e d
sequence fig u re
5,
6 , 7,
of 4 notes;
8 or 9 n o te s a r e
o u rselv es purp o sely t o
a
h u t more e x te n d e d s e q u e n c e s
of
p o s s i b l e and s h o u ld be u s e d .
For w ith t h e e x te n s io n of th e sequence f ig u r e th e re
is
a
c o r r e s p o n d in g e x t e n s i o n of th e im m ediate c o n t e x t o f th e
v a rio u s n o te s o f t h e se q u en c e, and th e
in d iv id u a l sequence
f i g u r e s a p p r o x i m a t e more c l o s e l y t o t h e t y p i c a l m e l o d i c
phrase.
The e x t e n s i o n f r o m 4 t o 9 n o t e s a l s o r e s u l t s
much g r e a t e r c h o i c e o f s e q u e n c e s .
to th e f i r s t
Thus, c o n fin in g o u rs e lv e s
t h r e e colum ns o n l y o f t h e m o d u l a t o r ,
sequences o f th ir d s ,
in a
i.e.
to
we f i n d t h a t w h i l e
a 4 n o te sequence p a t t e r n g iv es a p o s s i b i l i t y
o f 27 sequences
. 5
..
. 6
..2 4 3
. 7
..729
8
2187
. 9
656 1
.
Some o f t h e s e s e q u e n c e s ,
p r o p o r t i o n of r e p e a t e d n o t e s ,
m elodies.
of c o u rse ,
c o n ta in a high
b u t s o d o many o f o u r f i n e s t
And, when t h e s e s e q u e n c e s a r e s e t i n a r h y t h m i c
f r a m e w o r k , t h e y c a n a l l b e made v i t a l .
See page
81
For
exam ple, t h e
74-
u n p r o m i s i n g m e l o d i c s e q u e n c e f o r m u l a 1 1 1131, when u n i t e d t o
t h e r h y t h m i c s e q u e n c e f o r m u l a |s J H J]] | , g i v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g
re su lt:
f 1 f iW
^ y - ± u u -h fa
•-•I
11
i i
*
•
----- 1----- L-4--- L-S ♦
i-U =
- U
T h is p r i n c i p le
- \ &
•
•
u
# - T th F
1A
w
m
m
J »
m
of rhythm ic v a r i e t y a s a p p lie d
X
to sequence
s in g in g w i l l be d e a l t w ith i n a l a t e r c h a p te r . (S e e p ^ 'H )
A gain, t h e e x t e n s i o n o f th e rh y th m ic
f i g u r e beyond
4 n o t e s p r e v e n t s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r f r e q u e n t l e a p s , and
a l l o w s o f more c o n j u n c t m o tio n o r i n t e r v a l s
of a second,
w hich i n t e r v a l s
c o m p r i s e f r o m 5C% t o 70% o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r
of in te rv a ls
o r d i n a r y v o c a l m elody.
in
For e x am p le , t h e b a r e seq u en c e of f i f t h s , |l5 |5 - |
I 1
: f
{1^
may,
if
It-
Irn
II,
:n
|jn
Ir
w ith t h e a d d itio n
ll
-.s,
Is,
-,r
Ir
I S
: — Id
I-
of p a s s i n g
m a t r i x 14 jKLQ|j J}| , b e t r a n s f o r m e d
If
ft;
: <A. r
:s.1
l #. s/ f : m . r lm
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no tes
th u s: I
•. f -s l l / . ^ m i r . d Ir
-.tr <L M ^ s . - f , Is,
:l,
: cl
I1
-
••-fr,
ando ft h e rh y th m ic
*
i
l
: m. f 1 c i . - i - I d
: r .m
^
-
to
The f i r s t v o i c e s h o u l d
b e g in t h e se q u e n c e , and the second v o ic e sh o u ld e n t e r w ith
t h e s e q u e n c e when t h e
}
U
We h a v e e x t e n d e d t h e s e q u e n c e b e l o w t h e o c t a v e
sh o w how i t may be s u n g i n C a n o n .
If
f i r s t v oice rea ch e s bar @ ) .
II
75-
The p a u s e s f o r t h e tw o v o i c e s a r e m ark ed .
( * = ^
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jjrr ' T f
y = y ^
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The f o ] L lo w in g i s
r" 1 *fcs ■
=±±=
anc ) t h e r
i
%
v ii
r
W
r i a t i o n of tllis
L^
- j
s e q u e n c e c*
fifth s
w h i c h may a l s o be s u n g a s a Cane : n tw o i n one a t
<D1ijF
t h e un] . s o n : {Id :-t:l.s|f:«:1 |t:-.Z:S.-f In -.-P; sU:-.s f.mlr:w:-p|s
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We h a v e s a i d t h a t b y t h e u s e o f t h e S e q u e n c e Modu­
l a t o r we c a n e n s u r e t h a t p u p i l s w i l l o b t a i n p r a c t i c e
any p i t c h problem i n
illu stra te d
by t h e
every p o s s ib le
co n tex t.
i n w hich t h e t e a c h e r a s k s th e
c l a s s t o s i n g down o r u p t h e s c a l e f r o m t h e
o rd in ary
o m ittin g a c e r t a i n no te each t i n e ,
D escending
r :
d 't
1 s f m d
A scending
d m f s 1 t d'
m:
d 't
1 s f r
d
d r f s 1 t d‘
f :
d1 t
1 s m r d
d r m s 1 t d1
s:
d1 t
1 f m r d
d r m f 1 t d1
1:
d1 t
s f m r d
d r m f s t d1
t:
d' 1 s f m r d
d r m f s 1 d1
The r e a d e r i s
asked t o
compare t h i s w i t h t h e
a s a p p lie d t o t h e Sequence M odulator,
th e M odulator a t t h e
it
T h i s may b e
o ld -fash io n ed b u t u sefu l e x ercise fo r
th e A ural T ra in in g C la s s,
m o d u lato r,
th u s:
same i d e a
by o p e n in g o u t
end o f t h e book a n d s i n g i n g from
th e fo llo w in g sequences to th e rhythm ic f ig u r e
[ J333
JT11.
in
77
Key G.
L .H .S . D escending S e r ie s
ft) [1334 gt? t > .
^)l)A3ȣ1g |
..
(?) |jM4 67? I
..
CAm*7
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,. fc | JHtfrd Itlsf
ImrJt,?,sTmr1r<t$,gj;r, I<L
llsfm r t ,l , lsfmr<ll,s, Ifmroi^s.-f,
lrj$,9g,r, U
5 I^Vlsmrd l^ s l rd.fr. llsfmdfr.l, lsfmr frl.s, jfmrdl.ff; Imrdfrs.fm, lrdfrl,-frn,r, U
tflusyfcVgl
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-
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I .,
(1)1/345 tig I
l et'tif jwrolltlsw rdt; llsfrdfr.l, jsfad j&s, l-fmr^ Isf Im r ^ gffmjrAs;far,[j
|d
Key A**. R . H . S . A s c e n d i n g S e r i e s
ft)|l<34 5b2 1
$
(i
1x 345-7 ? 1
) |/ « 4
ti?
1(245 47*1
0) 1/145 67?
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I c irm f s l a t
I
t»
>.
1I r w
fs
f l d r y f s t f l l 'l r w f e
5 fld rm
Ifrr'
U
-f I fr d lrra -fs frd r
■■
..
4
"
••
3 {Ic t r - f s
..
..
2
f ir m s
l t d 'I r m f
I f r d 'l r m s l f r d V
[f s l f r f f i f
Im f o f r t r ' d
Ifs lfr d w f 'l g l j ^ ' r f s '
U
I f r d 'r '
W
s ' ll t d r W
f s l d r m 'l f s l f r j ^ f ' l s l t d 'm f s
I m - f s t d V 'r c 'If s f r d '
1I n f l f r d r W
rmf' I s V
I f s f r l V ^ T Is U
tV m fs '
U' -
Id'
h -trc lV fs l'
II t - d w ' - f s l 1
r m fs ' lltr W
fs T
is
■
[ tc i 'r '- P ' s V t r
U' -
If j d f f i ' f f i '
Id ' ■
k r ^ 'm 'f ' s l ' t
1 Id ' ■
w i l l be s e e n t h a t each o f the
( d , r , m , f , s , l and t )
of th e 12 seq u en ces.
[i1 ■
l ' If r d r m f s t '
I ttiH - P s I f r c l ' l r f s l t d V ' I m s l f r d r ' m ' I f l f r d ' r W f I s t d r m f ' s ' ly V m ' f s l '
From t h e abo ve e x am p le s i t
s c a le degrees
r
'1 s l f r d
If f l f s l t d W
o m itte d once i n e a c h
7?
T hus, in
(a ) r i s o m itte d from th e d e s c . s c a l e p a ssa g e b e g in n in g on d'
(b) r
...
t
(c) r
...
1
(d) r
...
s
(e) r
...
f
(f) r
...
m
(g) r
...
...
ascending
...
...
m
(h) r
...
f
(i) r
...
s
(j)
r
...
1
(k) r
...
t
(1 ) r
...
d
(O b v io u sly , o f c o u r s e , r cannot be o m itted from
th e d e sc e n d in g or a sc e n d in g s c a le p a ssa g e b e g in n in g
on r ) .
In th e
d m f s 1 t
same w a y , e a c h o f t h e 6 o t h e r s c a l e d e g r e e s
is
o m itted i n
to say ,
12 d i f f e r e n t s c a l e
c o n tex ts.
That is
"skipping"
a note i n a rap id
in every p o ssib le co n tex t,
th e exam ples fro m t h e
t h i s t e c h n i c a l problem of
s c a l e p a s s a g e has b e e n p r e s e n t e d
o r 84 tim e s i n a l l .
W hereas i n
o r d i n a r y m o d u l a t o r i t was p r e s e n t e d
only tw ice each w ith s i x
in a ll ,
p a s s a g e s or
of th e
scale degrees,
d b e in g o m itted a l t o g e t h e r .
o r 12 t i m e s
T h i s s h o w s w h a t was m e a n t w h e n we s a i d t h a t t h e
o r d in a r y m od u lato r sy s te m i s ,
even a t the b e st,
somewhat
h a p h a z a r d , w h ile t h e Sequence M o d u lato r System c a n be nade
fo o lp ro o f.
B u t, e v e n when t h e c h i l d r e n h a v e m a s t e r e d a l l t h e s e
sequences,
we may u s e
sam e n o t e s ,
o th e r rhythm ic form u lae w ith th e
a n d i n t h u s a l t e r i n g t h e r h y t h m i c c o n t e x t , we
a l s o a l t e r t h e p i t c h p r o b l e m t o some e x t e n t ,
ju s t as in
a l t e r i n g t h e r h y t h m o f a k e y b o a r d p a s s a g e we a l t e r t h e
f i n g e r i n g p r o b l e m t o som e e x t e n t .
F o r exam ple, w i t h t h e rh y th m ic fo rm u la , I !
the
m
o r i g in a l sequence
jQg
1
Id
~
lll r w - f a t d ’ l-tfc.
f i't& s -frd l-t-Zs -finolfjl s-P m rtjljs fm f ils ,If mrltft-filw jdtl.frnJr jjjfc.mr.U
-
1U H nfsfrl'l-tfc
{U 't i s
f r l k i s f jnl-tjlh fw rg lJ s fm rjU fl 1-tWl-tjs.f, Imrdt.l.fa, Irclfl.s.mr.
w o u l d become
I) >3 A-5781
Any c l a s s o f c h i l d r e n b y t h e i r a t t e m p t s w o u l d s o o n p r o v e
t h a t t h e s e tw o se q u e n c e s do n o t p r e s e n t e q u a l d i f f i c u l t y t o
sin g ers,
a l t h o u g h t h e y c o n t a i n t h e same se q u en c e of n o t e s .
I t s h o u l d be e m p h a s i s e d h e r e t h a t t h i s
aural tra in in g
is
to s a y ,
it
s y s t e m i s an
sy stem i n t h e p ro p e r sen se of th e term ; t h a t
i s n o t concerned w ith v i s u a l sym bols.
w e a k n e s s o f many s o - c a l l e d
a u ra l t r a i n i n g system s is
The
th at
?o
t h e y c a n n o t he d iv o rc e d fro m n o t a t i o n , w i t h t h e r e s u l t
t h a t m ost of th e
l e s s o n i s t a k e n up w i t h t h e
ex p lan atio n
and e l u c i d a t i o n o f v i s u a l sy m b o ls, and v e ry l i t t l e
singing
or a u ra l t r a in in g ta k e s place a t a l l .
ch ild ren
It
is as if
w ere b e i n g t a u g h t t o s p e a k b y means o f t h e p r i n t e d l a n g u a g e
sym bols, A B C D e t c . ,
so t h a t t h e i r p ro g re s s in th e o r a l
la n g u a g e m u st be r e g u l a t e d by t h e i r a b i l i t y t o
comprehend
t h e s e a b s t r a c t sym bols of th e w r i t t e n la n g u a g e .
In th is
sy ste m , how ever,
T h is w i l l f in d i t s
no n o t a t i o n
is re q u ire d .
due p l a c e i n t h e m u s i c - r e a d i n g l e s s o n ,
w here t h e a b s t r a c t sym bols o f t h e s t a f f n o t a t i o n w i l l t h e n
be found to r e p r e s e n t n o t s e p a r a t e sounds b u t m u sic a l
i d io m s o r s o u n d - g r o u p s , w h i c h h a v e a l r e a d y become p a r t and
p a rc e l of th e m u s ic -s p e llin g vocabulary o f th e c h ild r e n
th ro u g h th e
If it
a u ra l tr a in in g lesso n .
be o b j e c t e d t h a t t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s t h e m ­
s e lv e s a re v i s u a l sym bols,
i t may b e c l a i m e d t h a t t h e s e
sym bols d r m f s 1 t
of such a c h a ra c te r t h a t ,
th e ir
are
a s s o c i a t i o n w ith s p e e c h s o u n d s , t h e y s e t no v i s u a l
problem f o r norm al c h i l d r e n .
The r e a l p ro b le m i s n o t th e
a ss o c ia tio n of th e v isu a l s o l- f a
sym bols
s p e e c h s o u n d s o r s y l l a b l e - n a m e s , "doh"
the
through
d m s
"me"
w ith th e
"soh".
A ll
s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s a r e e q u a l l y r e c o g n i z a b l e — no c h i l d
w ould c a l l d "me", o r m " s o h " .
R ath er,
th e r e a l problem
i s th e a s s o c ia tio n o f th e s o l - f a speech-sounds
"soh")
w ith th e r e la tiv e
d om inant) —an d t h i s
is
p itc h sounds
O 'd o h "
"me"
( to n ic m ediant
p r e - e m in e n tl y a n a u r a l problem ,
w h ic h m u s t be s o l v e d on t h e a u r a l p l a n e t h r o u g h s o l - f a i n g
or m u sic-sp ellin g p ra c tic e .
A t t h e same t i m e , we m u s t t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f a n y h e l p
t h a t may b e g a i n e d o n t h e v i s u a l p l a n e t h r o u g h t h e
p r e s e n ta tio n of the s e q u e n tia l p a t t e r n s .
Hence,
graphic
i t should
be s t r e s s e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h a number o f s e q u e n c e s have been
w ritte n out in f u l l ,
th e s e seq u en ces sh o u ld a l l be sung
from th e Sequence M od u lato r.
The e f f e c t o f s u c h s e q u e n c e
sin g in g is
w i l l be found t h a t ,
cum ulative, and i t
c o n s t a n t l y s in g in g from t h i s
m odulator,
by
th e c h ild re n w ill
come t o m e m o r i z e t h e s e q u e n c e s w h i c h t h e y s i n g i n c l a s s .
T h is m em orizing o f s e q u e n c e s s h o u l d be e n co u rag e d fro m t h e
very b e g in n in g ,
fo r th e f e a t of sin g in g sequences w ithout
lo o k in g a t th e m o d u lato r i s
com parable t o t h a t o f p l a y i n g
th e piano w ith o u t lo o k in g a t the keyboard.
Of c o u r s e ,
th e in d iv id u al c h ild re n
of any c l a s s w ill
s o o n be a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f a t t a i n m e n t i n t h i s
of th e m o d u lato r k ey b o ard .
n o te,
o th ers w ill fix a te
v isu alisin g
Some w i l l h a v e t o f o l l o w e v e r y
o n ly c e r t a i n n o t e s o r colum ns o f
th e m odulator, w h ile o th e rs
w i l l be s a t i s f i e d
o c c a s i o n a l g l a n c e o r no g la n c e a t a l l .
w ith an
The r e a d e r w i l l
p ro b a b ly have n o t i c e d f o r h i m s e l f t h a t ,
in sin g in g th e
J
sequences above from th e m o d u lato r a t sp e e d , sa y
o r over 300 n o te s p e r m in u te ,
of th e sequence f ig u r e
speed.
= 100,
he d o e s n o t r e a d e a c h n o t e
- t h a t would b e i m p o s s i b l e a t t h i s
R a th e r he p ic k s o u t c e r t a i n g ro u p s o f n o t e s , o r
p e r h a p s f i x a t e s a s i n g l e c o l u m n on t h e m o d u l a t o r , a s , f o r
exam ple, w here t h e s k i p o f a t h i r d
an o c c a s io n a l g la n c e elsew h e re.
reader is ,
of course,
the
occurs, and giv es
only
The m o r e e x p e r i e n c e d t h e
f e w e r t h e s e eye m ovements w i l l b e .
T h u s, t h e Sequence M o d u la to r w i l l be found t o a n sw e r t h e
varying needs
of e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e c l a s s - a m ost
i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n when t h e c h i l d r e n a r e ,
be i n an y c l a s s ,
a t various
a s th e y m ust
stages of a tta in m e n t.
A gain, a s has been p o i n t e d o u t i n a n e a r l i e r c h a p t e r ,
th e
c o n s t a n t p r e s e n c e o f t h e Sequence W all M o d u la to r i n t h e
classro o m a c t s a s a stim u lu s t o
the c la s s
in th e ir effo rts
t o a c q u i r e a u r a l t e c h n i q u e , much i n t h e sa m e w ay a s t h e
sig h t
of a keyboard or t h e
feel
of th e keys under th e
fin g e rs stim u la te s the p ia n is t to f u r th e r e ff o r ts
tech n iq u e.
And t h i s
in fin g er
i s n o t t h e l e a s t o f t h e man y m e r i t s
th e Sequence M odulator.
For i t
is
j u s t the
la c k o f such a
v i s i b l e k e y b o a r d f o r A u r a l T r a i n i n g w h ich makes i t
d i f f i c u l t f o r th e s tu d e n t to co n tin u e h is e f f o r t s
T echnique o u t s i d e o f le s s o n h o u r s .
Thus i t
of
is,
very
in A ural
th a t aural
train in g
and th e
is too
o fte n c o n fin e d s o l e l y t o t h e classroom
aural tra in in g
th a t th is
lesso n .
It
is b eliev ed ,
how ever,
l a c k of a n A u r a l T r a i n i n g K eyboard w i l l be
fo u nd to be s u p p lie d t o a l a r g e e x te n t by th e
Sequence
M o d u la to r , and t h u s t h e m ethod w h ile a d a p t e d t o
class-
work w i l l a l s o be fo u n d s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p r i v a t e m usic
stu d e n t.
n
T he R e l a t i o n o f M u s i c S p e l l i n g a n d
R ead in g to Language S p e l l i n g and R eading
I t may b e h e l p f u l now t o s t a t e
b r ie f ly th e
problem
w h ich c o n f r o n t s t h e m usic t e a c h e r i n t e a c h i n g s i g h t - r e a d i n g
and d i c t a t i o n
b y t h e M o v a b l e Doh M e t h o d .
Q u i t t i n g i n t h e m eantim e t h e r h y t h m i c a s p e c t o f
m u sic and c o n f in in g o u r s e l v e s to
the p itc h
a s p e c t only,
we f i n d t h a t :
R eading im p lie s th e f o llo w in g se q u e n c e :
V isual s p e llin g
A ural s p e llin g
s t a f f s y m b o T - i ' s o l - f a s y l l a b l e —► m u s i c a l s o u n d
C o n v ersely , W riting or D i c ta ti o n im p lie s
th e sequence:
A ural s p e llin g
V isual s p e llin g
m u s i c a l s'^ound - ^ s o l - f a s y l l a b l e —► s t a f f s y m b o l
I n e a c h c a se t h e gap b etw een t h e v i s u a l and th e
a u d i t o r y i s b r i d g e d b y t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e , w h i c h may be
said
to belong t o b o t h th e v i s u a l and th e a u d i t o r y p la n e ,
i n a s m u c h a s i t may b e r e c o g n i s e d a u r a l l y a n d w r i t t e n a s a
m u s ic a l sym bol o r r e c o g n i s e d v i s u a l l y and sung a s a m u sic a l
sound.
In each case,
to o ,
we h a v e a v i s u a l s p e l l i n g
p ro cess and an a u r a l s p e llin g
p r o c e s s , w h ic h m ust b o t h be
b ro u g h t i n t o u se f o r th e r e a d in g and th e w r i t i n g of m usic.
Of t h e t w o s p e l l i n g
sp e llin g
tech n iq u e,
tech n iq u es in v o lv ed , th e v is u a l
o r t h e t r a n s l a t i o n fro m s t a f f symbol
15
i n t o s o l - f a s y l l a b l e and v ic e v e r s a ,
has i n i t s e l f no
i m m e d i a t e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h m u s i c - m a k i n g , a n d may be
d e v e l o p e d b y o n e who i s v i r t u a l l y t o n e d e a f .
sp e llin g is ,
in fa c t,
w h a t may b e c a l l e d
a form al s u b je c t,
and i s , t h e r e f o r e , e m in e n tly te a c h a b le .
reason teach ers are
o fte n tem pted to
T his v i s u a l
For t h i s
very
overem phasise th e
v i s u a l a s p e c t of m u sic , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e
early stag es,
and t o t e a c h m u sic a l n o ta ti o n t o t h e alm o st e n t i r e
e x c l u s i o n o f m usic i t s e l f .
B ut, w h ile t h i s
train in g
i n t h e v i s u a l a s p e c t of
m u s ic a l n o t a t i o n can be r e g a r d e d a s a fo rm a l s u b j e c t ,
c an i n no s e n s e be re g a rd e d a s a fo rm a tiv e s u b j e c t .
it
For,
u n le s s th e a u ra l a s p e c t of th e s y l l a b l e s has been
p re v io u s ly developed,
and t h e
s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s h a v e come
t o be i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w ith m u sic a l sounds,
c a n b e no i n c e n t i v e
or m o tiv a tio n f o r th e
v is u a l s p e llin g tech n iq u e,
to a u ra l sp e llin g
w h i c h owes i t s
or s o l - f a i n g .
I t is
to develop s t a f f re a d in g ,
c u l t i v a t i o n of
very r a is o n d 'e t r e
u seless,
to attem p t t o d ev elo p v isu a l te c h n iq u e ,
i.e .
lo g ic ally ,
therefo re,
to attem p t
u n t i l a good p r o f i c i e n c y i n
a u r a l tech n iq u e or s o l- f a i n g has been a s s u re d .
a lth o u g h ,
th ere
For
in th e read in g process th e v isu a l
comes b e f o r e t h e a u r a l ,
i.e .
th e v is u a l tr a n s la tio n of
t h e s t a f f sy m b o l i n t o s o l - f a s y l l a b l e comes b e f o r e t h e
a u ra l tra n s la tio n of th e s o l- f a sy llab le
i n to m u sical sound,
96
p sy ch o lo g ically ,
i n t h e a p p ro a c h to t h e s u b j e c t o f m usic
read in g th e a u ra l has p r i o r i t y over th e v is u a l.
When we come t o s o l - f a i n g
o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , we f i n d
o r a u r a l m usic s p e l l i n g ,
t h a t we a r e i n i m m e d i a t e
c o n t a c t w ith m u sic , a n d a t no p o i n t a r e t h e
s o l - f a sym bols
d iv o rc e d from the m u sic a l c o n te n t.
Not o n ly so , b u t ,
u n lik e
s p e l l e d word d o e s n o t e v en
lan g u a g e s p e l l i n g where t h e
a p p r o x i m a t e t o t h e sp o k e n word,
i n m u s i c s p e l l i n g wh en we s p e l l a t u n e
s y l l a b l e s we a c h i e v e e x a c t l y t h e
to th e s o l- f a
same r e s u l t a n t a s t h a t
obtained in re a d in g th e tu n e a t s ig h t to th e s o l - f a
sy llab les,
the o n ly d if f e r e n c e b ein g t h a t ,
the e f f o r t o f th e
sp ellin g
it
p u p ils
in s ig h t reading,
i s c r e a t i v e , w h e rea s i n m usic
i s m ore o r l e s s
im itativ e
or r e - c r e a t i v e . Thus,
w h eth er th e p u p i ls re a d from s t a f f t o th e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s
th e w ell-know n tu n e
Bobby S h a f t o e
I
o r l e a r n t o s p e l l t h e t u n e f r o m memory t o
the s y lla b le s
p r i n t e d on t h e b l a c k b o a r d ,
Key A.
f l d . d - . d . f I m . s - . m .d I s 1. s 1: s , . d l t , . r : t , . s , I
j d . t , : d . f I m . s : m . d I r . f : r .t , I d
:d
I
t h e r e s u l t a n t i n e ach c a s e i s t h e same, so f a r as t h e
a s s o c i a t i o n o f sound an d s y l l a b l e
is
concerned.
The s p e l l i n g
of th e tu n e rep ro d u c es th e tune i t s e l f
and does n o t d e s tr o y i t ,
t h e word " c a t "
as,
f o r exam ple, t h e
(alp h a b etica lly ,
C ..A ..T ,
K i-A h-T i) d e s t r o y s t h e w ord-sound
S p ellin g p ra c tic e ,
m u s t be d i s t i n g u i s h e d
or p h o n etically ,
(w hich,
of co u rse,
from a c t u a l s p o n ta n e o u s s p e l l i n g ) ,
( u s u a l l y c a l l e d m em ory t u n e s )
and seq u en ces i n th e e a r l i e s t s ta g e s
of m usic t r a i n i n g ,
as soon a s th e c h ild r e n a re a b le to re c o g n is e
n a m e s " d o h r a y me" e t c . ,
from t h e p r in te d s y l l a b l e
alo n g sid e v is u a l s p e llin g
u n t i l c o n tin u ed p r a c tic e
or
the s y lla b le
A nd, m o r e o v e r , t h i s m u s i c s p e l l i n g
should co n tin u e
of
"cat".
th erefo re
may b e g i n w i t h s p e l l i n g t u n e s
" d r m" e t c .
sp e llin g
letters
p ractice
or s t a f f read in g ,
i n m usic s p e l l i n g has d e v e lo p e d
t h e a b i l i t y t o s p e l l m usic.
As we s a i d
in th e f i r s t ch ap ter,
d e v e lo p t h e i r m usic s p e l l i n g
v e ry few c h i l d r e n
or s o l- f a in g c a p a c ity t o any
co n sid erab le degree.
When we c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e c h i l d ' s s c h o o l l i f e
begins
a t t h e age of f i v e and c o v e r s a m ost im p r e s s io n a b le p e rio d
o f from 9 t o
13 y e a r s , we may w e l l a s k why t h i s
c a n n o t blam e t h e c h i l d r e n , f o r t h e f a i l i n g
sta te
of a f f a i r s
found i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e
c alled
"ear train in g "
or
is,
so.
We
i s to o w idespread
i n s c h o o ls and c o l l e g e s th r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n tr y .
reason fo r th is
is
The r e a l
u n d o u b t e d l y , t o be
problem o f what i s
"aural train in g "
am biguously
has n ev er been
p r o p e r l y e n v is a g e d and a n a l y s e d by t h e m usic e d u c a t i o n i s t
or th e teach er.
Is i t
not s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t th e term " e a r tr a in in g "
or " a u r a l t r a in in g "
i s q u i t e unknown i n t h e l a n g u a g e c l a s s ,
w hether i t be t h e E n g lis h language or a f o r e i g n
alth o u g h e a r t r a i n i n g
is su re ly Ju st as
im portant in th e
spoken language a s i n t h e m u s ic a l la n g u a g e ?
term " lis te n in g "
An d ,
su ffices fo r a l l p ra c tic a l
actu ally , a l l
language,
There, the
purposes.
one c a n do t o t r a i n t h e e a r o r t o
d e v e lo p a u r a l te c h n iq u e i n th e language c l a s s or th e
m usic c l a s s i s
a su itab le
to
e n c o u ra g e good
lis te n i n g , by p ro v id in g
l i s t e n i n g e n v iro n m en t, by c r e a t i n g s i t u a t i o n s
i n c l a s s where good l i s t e n i n g a n sw e rs a f u n d a m e n ta l need
on t h e p a r t o f t h e p u p i l s .
B u t, no amount o f good l i s t e n i n g t o
m usic w i l l e n a b le a c l a s s t o s p e l l t h e
m usic.
language or th e
The t e a c h e r i n t h e l a n g u a g e l e s s o n r e c o g n i s e s t h i s ,
and d e v o te s a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n of t h e
s p e llin g p r a c tic e and s p e llin g t e s t s ,
w ritte n .
language o r t o
b o th o r a l and
The t e a c h e r i n t h e m u s i c l e s s o n ,
hand, b ecau se of th e m isle a d in g term s
"aural tra in in g ",
"memory t u n e s "
e tc .,
lesso n to
on t h e
other
"ear tra in in g " ,
confuses lis te n in g
and e a r t r a i n i n g w ith s p e l l i n g , w ith t h e r e s u l t t h a t ,
a l t h o u g h much e a r t r a i n i n g a n d man y s p e l l i n g t e s t s
e a r t e s t s may b e g i v e n , s p e l l i n g p r a c t i c e
or
or t r a i n i n g
has
v\
little
o r no p la c e i n th e c u r r i c u l u m .
w ill c le a r up th e co n fu sio n t h a t e x is ts
I f th e teacher
i n h i s mind o v e r
t h e ambiguous t e r m s “ e a r t r a i n i n g " a n d * a u r a l
w ill r e a lis e th e
im p o rtan ce of m usic s p e l l i n g f o r b o th
r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g ,
w i l l come i n t o
t r a i n i n g ” and
its
th e n m usic s p e l l i n g o r s o l - f a i n g
own, a n d w i l l
th e p la c e t h a t language s p e l li n g
occupy i n
the m usic l e s s o n
o c cu p ie s i n th e language
lesso n .
M usic s p e l l i n g ,
language s p e l li n g
in d eed ,
i s more e s s e n t i a l t h a n
f o r b o t h r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g .
In
l a n g u a g e r e a d i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , a c h i l d r e c o g n i s e s a word
from t h e g e n e r a l shape o r c o n to u r of th e w ord, n o t from
t h e s e p a r a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e a c h e le m e n t i n t h e word.
T h u s , i n t h e u n p h o n e t i c E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e a c h i l d may b e
a b l e t o r e a d w o rd s o f whose e l e m e n t s he h a s o n l y a h a z y
n o t i o n , a n d a b a d s p e l l e r may b e a p a s s a b l e o r e v e n a g o o d
reader.
B ut,
in the
" p h o n e t i c " m u s ic a l la n g u a g e , where
e v e r y e l e m e n t i n t h e m u s i c a l n o t a t i o n m e a n s one t i l i n g a n d
o ne t h i n g
o n l y , and w here a n y e r r o r i n
in te rp re ta tio n
th e s p e l l i n g or
of th e s e n o t a t i o n a l elem ents m ust r e s u l t
in a d isto rtio n
of t h e m eaning o f t h e w h o le , a bad s p e l l e r
c a n n o t p o s s i b l y be a good r e a d e r .
A gain,
when we come t o
l a n g u a g e w r i t i n g , a w o r d may
be w r i t t e n i n c o r r e c t l y , b u t t h i s
in c o r r e c t s p e llin g need
n o t d i s t o r t t h e m e a n in g i n t e n d e d by t h e w r i t e r ,
or h o ld up
th e te a c h in g and p r a c t i c e
cla ss.
W hile,
on t h e
of w r i t i n g and c o m p o s itio n in
c o n trary ,
i n m usic w r i t i n g ,
any
e r r o r i n s p e l l i n g m ust r e s u l t i n a n e r r o r i n w r i t i n g w hich
w i l l d i s t o r t t h e m eaning i n t e n d e d by t h e w r i t e r .
dictum ,
" W ritin g m aketh a n
ap p licab le to
e x a c t m an," i s
m usic w r i t i n g .
And t h e
B a c o n 's
esp ecially
lo w s t a n d a r d
D i c t a t i o n T e s ts i n re c o g n is e d diplom a e x a m in a tio n s
ev id en ce
in th is
of t h e
d iffic u lties
su b ject,
th e g e n eral s t a t e
A fter th is
em ployed i n
and i s
is
th a t face th e average stu d en t
a t th e
same t i m e a r e f l e c t i o n
on
o f m u sical pedagogy i n th e s u b j e c t .
e x p o s itio n of th e d i f f e r e n t tec h n iq u e s
la n g u a g e r e a d i n g and m usic r e a d i n g ,
s c a r c e ly n e c e ssa ry to add t h a t w hereas,
language,
of the
in
the
it
is
ordinary
r e a d i n g may b e commenced b e f o r e s p e l l i n g
is
a tte m p te d , and re a d in g te c h n iq u e w i l l be g e n e r a lly in
advance of s p e l l i n g te c h n iq u e ,
sp e llin g
i n th e m u sical language
p r a c t i c e m u s t come b e f o r e r e a d i n g , a n d s p e l l i n g
te c h n iq u e m ust alw ays be w e ll i n advance o f a n y th in g
req u ire d in s ig h t read in g .
Indeed,
s t a f f reading
is q u ite
o u t o f t h e q u e s t i o n u n t i l a good s p e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e h a s
been d e v e lo p e d .
The r e a d e r i s a s k e d t o r e g a r d a l l t h i s s e q u e n c e
s in g in g fro m t h e M o d u lato r a s m usic s p e l l i n g
more c o r r e c t l y , r e l a t i v e
p rac tic e,
p itc h sp e llin g p ra c tic e .
l e s t one s h o u l d s t i l l a s k why a l l t h i s
or,
And,
sequence sin g in g i s
necessary,
if
l e t us s t a t e as a g e n eral p ro p o s itio n t h a t ,
a c h ild can n o t s o l - f a or s in g to
the s y l l a b l e s a
m elo d ic idiom o c c u rrin g i n a seq u en ce
"m r
1, " ),
he i s
"f s t"
or
n o t l i k e l y to be a b le t o s o l - f a t h i s
id io m a t s i g h t from s t a f f n o t a t i o n ,
w ith i t
(e.g .
in the re a d in g le s s o n .
w hen h e i s
W hile,
on t h e
confronted
o th e r hand,
i f he h a s m a s te r e d th e s o l - f a i n g o f t h e id io m th r o u g h h i s
sequence s in g in g ,
he i s l i k e l y t o b e a b l e t o
and s o l - f a i t a t s i g h t from s t a f f n o t a t i o n ,
h is
v is u a l s p e llin g tech n iq u e,
provided t h a t
or a b i l i t y to
fro m s t a f f sym bol t o s o l - f a name,
recognise i t
tran slate
is ad eq u ate f o r th e
occasion.
As i t
is,
u n d e r p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s i n s c h o o l s , w here
p r a c t i c e i n m usic s p e l l i n g
d e m a n d s i r a d e on i t
i s w h o lly in a d e q u a te t o m eet t h e
in re a d in g and w r i t in g ,
one c a n o n l y
l a m e n t t h e num ber o f wrong a s s o c i a t i o n s f o rm e d b e tw e e n t h e
s y l l a b l e s and sounds,
to fo rce ch ild ren
owing t o
to resp o n d t o
t h e p r e m a t u r e a t t e m p t s made
d ictatio n ,
e a r t e s t s and
s t a f f r e a d in g , b e f o r e t h e y have a t t a i n e d m a s te ry over th e
sp e llin g
of th e sounds.
C H A P T E R
V
VARIED USES OF THE SEQ.UENCE MODULATOR
I n t h i s a n d t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s , we h a v e sh o w n
u n d e r t h e H e a d i n g s 1 - 2 0 how t h e
S e q u e n c e M o d u l a t o r may h e
u sed i n s o l v i n g th e v a r i o u s problem s t h a t c o n f r o n t th e
S in g in g C la ss T ea ch e r - problem s o f a u r a l t r a i n i n g ,
tra in in g ,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
and v i s u a l t r a i n i n g
rhythm ic
or s ig h t- r e a d in g .
Longer Sequence P a t t e r n s .
R hythm ic V a r i e t y i n Sequence S in g in g .
Sequences w ith A nacrusis.
Rhythm S p e l l i n g t h r o u g h S e q u e n ce S i n g i n g
In v e rs io n of Sequences.
Modal S e q u e n c e s .
S e q u e n c e s b e g i n n i n g on o t h e r Columns t h a n t h e F i r s t .
R e s ts in Sequence S in g in g .
A n tip h o n al Sequence S in g in g .
A n tip h o n a l S in g in g in C o n tr a r y M otion.
M ental S in g in g .
N on-S calic Sequences.
C hrom atic S e q u e n ce s.
T e t r a c h o r d a l S e q u e n c e S i n g i n g a n d Form i n M u s ic .
M o dulatory Sequences.
E a r - T e s t s and Sequence S in g in g .
A b so lu te P i t c h Sequence S in g in g .
S t a f f R eading th r o u g h Sequence S in g in g .
S t a f f W riting th ro u g h Sequences.
C anonic S e q u e n c e s.
93
I.
LONGER SEQUENCE PATTERNS
So f a r , we h a v e l i m i t e d
sequences.
But i t
ourselves to fo u r-n o te
is very d e s ira b le
th a t lo nger n ote-
p a t t e r n s s h o u l d he u s e d i n s e q u e n c e s i n g i n g , a s t h e
e x te n sio n of th e sequence p a tt e r n r e s u l t s
of th e
c o n t e x t u a l b a c k g ro u n d and o f t h e m elo d ic idiom s
in v o lv ed .
To s h o w t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s
we a d d a n u m b e r o f e x t e n d e d s e q u e n c e s
nine n o te s , t o
I
n
3_ i
in an e x te n sio n
be s u n g t o
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§
The S i n g i n g o f t h e m o r e E x t e n d e d S e q u e n c e s
The w i d e r r a n g e o f t h e s e q u e n c e s o f s e v e n t h s and
o ctav es p rev e n ts t h e i r use in th e
classes.
d esired ,
These se q u e n c e s ,
c o m p le te form w i t h young
h o w e v e r , may h e t a k e n ,
if
i n two s e c t i o n s :
( a ) f r o m d 1 t o s d e s c . a n d f r o m s, t o d a s c . i n Key F
and
( h ) f r o m s' t o d' d e s c . a n d f r o m d t o s a s c . i n Key C o r B r
j u n ^ f LHS'
I l M i i I?) {Id1 sm d d' It- f r fr t
ff.H .s.
\l md I, I Is
-fyC*v#L.H.S.
fl9'
If,
-
||s, dm s s, | l, r f I I, It; mst tj l<d
h o w e v er, t h e p r e s e n t m ethod
of aural
— l|
train in g
th e p u p i ls w i l l have been t r a i n e d
in th e a r t of m ental s in g in g .
And t h e o l d e r p u p i l s s h o u l d
be encouraged t o s i n g th e se sequences m e n ta lly i n t h e i r
com plete form .
H
-R.H.S.
s s ' m f f lm'tgwm'lr 'l f r r 'ld' - lid fld 'd |p gfr r'rlm U 'w'mlf trf'-f Isdm's's Id'
has been fo llo w ed o u t,
-
ft
RHYTHMIC VARIETY IN SEQUENCE SINGING
%.
When p l a i n m e l o d i c s e q u e n c e s h a v e b e e n m a s t e r e d ,
th e s e sequences sh o u ld be sung to v a rio u s rhythm ic
p attern s.
Not o n ly d o e s t h i s
h elp to
keep up th e i n t e r e s t
of the c la s s , b u t i t a ls o e n su re s th e ta c k lin g
of p itc h
p ro b lem s, i n so f a r as t h e y are a f f e c t e d by rh y th m ic
co n tex ts.
W ith r e g a r d t o
the e f f e c t o f rh y th m on p i t c h ,
th e te a c h e r w i l l soon f i n d t h a t c e r t a i n sequences a re
e a s i e r t o sing in
one r h y t h m i c f o r m t h a n i n a n o t h e r .
F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s e q u e n c e 1 2 1 3 i s much m o r e
d i f f i c u l t i n t h e f o r m j J l.n l
{I
tills if Isfsmlfi&tr lmrmJ|rcJrt;U - IldjJmload:
th an in th e
|oi' - H
f o r m I jf e j I
JalW l |tf r s ils H Isfs m Ifnfr Imrnd I rJ r t Id - IldrcU Irmrf Irofins Ifsfi l^ isf lltU ' ItdW Id' - II
B u t many o t h e r r h y t h m i c
th is
p a t t e r n s may b e u s e d w i t h
fo u r-n o te sequence.
F or exam ple
tljjm i, i m l , H j
m i
, |j.jsi,ijjjni, t i n j j i , i j j i j u j . j -j j i j j 3 j . j -i
A ll rhythm ic seq u en ces s h o u ld ,
of c o u r s e , be sung
f r o m p a t t e r n , a n d t h e r e s h o u l d be no a t t e m p t
t e a c h r h y th m names ( t a a t a i , e t c . )
train in g
at f i r s t to
o r rhythm r e a d i n g .
Such
i n rh y th m s p e l l i n g a n d r h y t h m r e a d i n g s h o u l d be
b a s e d on a s o l i d b a ck g ro u n d o f rh y th m e x p e r i e n c e ,
ex ten d in g
o v e r a c o n s i d e r a b le p e rio d of tim e , and form ing th e o r a l
s t a g e i n rh y th m w hich s h o u ld p re c e d e t h e sym bol s t a g e .
I n p i t c h t r a i n i n g we s a w t h a t t h e p e d a g o g i c a l o r d e r
should he:
(1)
P itc h E xperience (through so n g sin g in g )
(2)
P itc h S p ellin g
(th ro u g h s o l- f a in g )
(3)
P i t c h R eading
(through s t a f f n o ta tio n )
L ikew ise i n rhythm t r a i n i n g t h e p e d a g o g ic a l o rd e r
should be:
(1) Rhythm E x p e r i e n c e
(2)
Rhythm S p e l l i n g
( th ro u g h song s in g in g and sequence
singing)
(through t a a t a i - i n g )
(3)
Rhythm R e a d in g
(through
s t a f f n o tatio n )
We s e t o u t b e l o w a f e w r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s f o r u s e
w ith t h r e e - n o t e and f o u r - n o te seq u en ces,
reader to
page J ^ f o r a f u l l l i s t
and r e f e r th e
o f Rhythm T a b l e s f o r
S eq u en ce S i n g i n g , c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e number o f
n o te s i n the b a r.
'Majcl- iwfe AvyarjUi
9
2
3
8
A
A
A
/.
J3J
J 'J
%.
J
3.
J3J
A.
J J3 J
5.
L.
3
3
A
A
nn
nn
nn
J JJ J"
an
m
J J3J J3J- i-
JJ2J
j # j.
J J J jij
jsd .
j.
J3J
J^ JJJ
*
JV—'J32 J J U J J J3
r j
J1 J. J*J
a.
J J- J*
a
'—
J
w
a
j j
J. J-J3
J] J2<J
jijj
sa J JlJ
J JT
.J
5
a
J J JJ]
a
j.
m
F u r t h e r v a r i e t y may b e o b t a i n e d b y c o m b i n i n g a n y
two p a t t e r n s i n t h e above g r o u p s .
Thus,
the fo u r-n o te
s e q u e n c e , 1 2 3 1 , may b e s u n g t o a n y o f t h e
fo llo w in g
co m b in atio n s:
1231I'tU t 1st i « f i
%J.
s -Pms •f mr-P mr dmr i t j r
JJJ JJJ. J J. JJJ
m y J.J JJ jjyy J.
X
JJ] J.
X JJJJ
nn
JJJJ
nn
J] J J
i J1JJ
jjj J
J3J J
jjjJ
JH J jtJ
a
* J JJ 3
jjjj
j m
j m
J Jfl
j
2
4- L ® n n j jm
2
4 nn. J J J 1 nn.
nn
nn
J J33
jij
] JJ333 J
n jx n n
JIJJ. J
nn
j-j n
jijj
I
nn
j j -j j
j-j j i
-m
j j - jj
-m
my yjn JJJJ.
4 nn yyn nn j . j-j ]
n n J.W3 j j j j
i
t
J jm
njj
nn
JJJJ J.
JJJJ
JJJJ J.
JJ JJ J3Jj
JiJ J J J3 J.
j -j
drn\(LrmPr m-f sm f s l f
J . J J ] nyy J .J J J JJJ. J
J] J I J J J
j b i J - JJJJ. JJ-JJ- J.
JJJJ.
nn
nn
4to.
J J J J JTJ
*&
■
JJ3H
J1J3.
J I J J J-J J3 J 3 J J
JJJJ
m.
my
j.v->j m
jijj.
J. *JJJJ J.
jjm
JJJJ
j . j -j ]
J J J ] J.
n n j . j -j]
yynnn
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JJJJ J J J J
J JJ3 j j j j J J J J J J J J
J JJE
« £ ..
nn
nn
4k,.
Jc.
jA.
j -j jj A .
JJ-JJ J31J-
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J jm
jh j.
<fc.
n n
j. jjj
A.
j. j j j j i j j ^to.
J .J J ] •T3J3 J.J-J] J
W ith t h e a i d o f s u c h s im p le d e v i c e s g r e a t m e lo d ie s ha v e
o ften been b u i lt .
Thus, t h e f i r s t com bined rh y th m ab o v e,
a d d e d t o t h e s e q u e n c e 31 a s c e n d i n g o n t h e R . H . S . o f t h e
M odulator
m d f r s m l f t s d ' l r ' t m ' d 1
p r o d u c e s t h e theme o f t h e
"Enigm a V a r i a t i o n s " .
e ig h th v a r ia tio n of E lg a r's
100
T he f o l l o w i n g K h y t h m H e a d i n g e x e r c i s e may be g i v e n t o
m ore a d v a n c e d c l a s s e s .
T he p u p i l s s h o u l d be t o l d t o r e a d down o n e o f t h e c o l u m n s ,
e .g .
4 from to p to
b o t t o m , a t t h e sa m e t i m e s o l - f a i n g
to th e s e rhythm ic p a tt e r n s a f a m i l i a r sequence such
a s 1423.
Thus:
T he a s c e n d i n g s e q u e n c e
may b e r e a d i n t h e sam e o r d e r
in reverse order,
from bottom t o to p .
i.e .
L est th e c y c le of rhythm ic p a tt e r n s
th e
become t o o f a m i l i a r ,
o r d e r s h o u l d be c h a n g e d f r o m t i m e t o t i m e .
F or exam ple, t h e c l a s s
may s t a r t a t n u m b e r 6 , r e a d down
t o number 7 , an d t h e n c o n t i n u e fro m t h e t o p ,
on d a f t e r number 5 .
1213
g _ ixs\
3 _ 14.31
/*£ 3
fin ish in g
The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s w i l l make
th is clear.
£
or
AftM/
A-a^ '
I
%
■
101
3.
SEQUENCES WITH ANACRUSIS
An e x a m i n a t i o n o f f o l k s o n g a n d n a t i o n a l s o n g
c o l l e c t i o n s w i l l r e v e a l t h e f a c t t h a t in our o r d in a r y songs
s e c o n d a r y r h y t h m i s much m o r e common t h a n p r i m a r y r h y t h m ,
j u s t a s i n p o e t r y i a m b i c m e a s u r e i s much m o r e common t h a n
tr o c h a ic m easure.
I t is
im p o rtan t, th en ,
s o l-fa in g or m u sic-sp ellin g p r a c tic e ,
s h o u l d n o t be n e g l e c t e d .
t h a t i n our
se c o n d a ry rhythm
Y e t , how s e l d o m do we h e a r
s e q u e n c e s sung i n s e c o n d a ry rhythm !
I t is
tru e th a t,
in s ig h t sin g in g ,
s e c o n d a ry rhythm
p r e s e n ts g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t i e s to th e p u p ils th a n prim ary
rhythm .
But t h i s
in to
is
o ra l sin g in g .
a n o t a t i o n a l m a t t e r w hich d o e s n o t e n te r
[Ol
S equ ences i n s e c o n d a r y rh y th m c an h e su n g from t h e
Sequence M odulator j u s t a s e a s i l y a s seq u en ces i n p rim ary
rhythm , and i t
p rac tised .
is
v e r y a d v i s a b l e t h a t t h e s e s h o u l d be
The o n l y t h i n g
t o n o t e i s t h a t , v/here a
sequence begins b e fo re th e f i r s t b e a t i n th e b a r,
an acru sis,
or n o te s b efo re
the b a r l i n e ,
the
s h o u l d be r e p e a t e d
a t th e 7 t h and 1 5 th b a r s , n o t c o u n tin g t h e a n a c r u s i s ,
on
d
and d‘ .
th ro u g h o u t.
By t h i s m e a n s t h e r h y t h m i s
i.e .
preserved
T h i s w i l l b e made q u i t e c l e a r b y t h e f o l l o w i n g
e x a m p l e s , w h e r e e a c h n o t e may b e t a k e n a s r e p r e s e n t i n g a
c ro tc h e t or a quaver.
cru sis
The r e a d e r w i l l n o t e how t h e a n a ­
changes th e c h a r a c t e r of the
o rig in a l sequence.
C*)
ll 3 I
I I3
| el' I I t s 11 f Is m I f r lm d Ir t I d - Id m Ip f
lm s If I Is t
l i d ' It r 1 Id1- I
{ol'll -tr I s I I f s Ini f Ir m Id r It, d Id d lm r If m Is f ll s It I ld‘ t Ir'd ' Id' II
0
11 2 sl
1123
12b
I d 't l l U s l l s f l s f m If mr I m r d l r d t j d - - Idrm Ir mf Im -fslfsl Is i t ll td ltd V I d 1--!
{ d lltlt l l s l l s f s l f m f Im rm lrdr ld t;d ld -d lrm r Imfmlf s f I s i s lltlftd 'tld V d 'ld '-ll
[ d 't l l t l Is I s If s f Imfmlr mr I d r d ltjd tjd d r lm rm lf mf Is f s 11 s l l t l t l d 't d l r d V l d 'I
CO
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lls a l
13U 1
/ 32I 1
{|d'ltd'ltsltllfsllsinfslfrmflffldrmlr1^r|d--0dmrcUrfmrlmsfmlflsf Istlsltd 'tlltrd 'tld !--{ d lltd 'tls ttllf s ls lm f s f lr n if m ld rm rl'trd rd ld —c U m rd rlfm rm lsfitifllsfsltlslld 'tltlr'd 'id lld '-ll
Id'lltd'tsllt-lflslsmlfsfrlfflfmcllrinrtJdrdlJd-olmlrdrflmrnislfinfllsfstllsld'ltltrli'td'mU'-S
^ ( 'I t l d 't s l l t l f s l l s m f I s f rm lf m drlm rt.dlrdljljU dnirldrfm lrm sf Imf l s |f s t l |s l d t |l t r 'd '|t d m r |d 1
103
C-0
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^ 'i U l tls tl ls f ll e J W lf m r f Urdm|rdi(r Id — |drmd|rmfrlmfs«lfsZf Is lts ll+ d llfd r'tld — !
{cZltld'tllstl IsflsIfmsf|mrfm Irdmpld^rdU'-dlrindrlfflfrml-fsmf Islf slltslk d 'ltld V fcfU 1--!
/2I3 1 {d'tlidtl 1st>h IfZsfUsfmlrfmr ldmrdltjrdt:|d-drlnidrinlfrmf IsmfsllfsZltsltld^U'Ir'tdV'ld'-ll
/wll
{d'tlld'ils I tls f llsfm |sfmr Ifmrd Imritjlrdt^ |d drmldrnif Irmfs |mfs l |f s ltl s l td 'll id r (tdVm Id'l
(?)
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I d 'l d 'l t s t |l f I Isms If r f Imdm lr t,r Id- - Id m d lrf r Imsm If I f I s ts | l d ' l | t r t led--II
/b l
{JAlJlt I s t l If I s
I3|l
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I n s f Irfm ld m r |t;r d U - d lm d r
Ifrm Ismf I l f s l i s l Id 'ltl
Is f p Ifmd I m r tjlr d ljd d m ld r f
Ir ms |m f l If s t I s Z d 'llir '
C f)
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Id —
I
{ d l i Z s t | Z s f Z | s f m s l f i H p f | i n r d m l r d t j r l d ^ Z )d | d - - d | r m f p | m { :S f f l | f s l f | s l i s l l i d . ' Z | t d V i | d r ( » d | d - f l
{ d ' t | l « t l I s f l s Ifm s f I m r f m l r d m r l d t ; r d I t j ^ d t J d - d r U f r m I f s m f I s l f s l l t s l
{ a l 'i l l s i l s l f l
8f l « 3f m
( t d 'l t l d V t d 'I r m d V l d - l l
I r f m r l d w r d k j r d ^ l ^ i ^ l d d r m l f r m f I s m f s l i f s l ( f c s l t l d W l l f t d r l m d V m M 'l
(£ )
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$ lffc
Ism] If r s
/3l5( c l'l lf ts ln l f Irsm
^ 2(31
Imdf Irtjm ld l.r kftdlol- dlm sr
If lm I s i f lid 's I t r 'l U m t
I d f r k-mdll.rt, l^dl, Iddmls r f llms l i f l l d ' s i Ir'ld1U t r ' If'cL'm W|
^ftll d'jjjstlslf Isflmsjalrfaddmr^rd^d-dJmdaJfrmfls mfcllf silt sjild'Ztdlr'tdrU'-ll
U ’- tU kr-tlstll - y s - sfwslf -fiifflm-wrdnlr -rdfrld-dldU-dftdl r —rwfrlm-wfswt~P-fslf Is-$ tts\l-J Z
^w lii
drtld ttU lt I U£|l 4 sfiils f farlf wmdU r rdjlr ddl^ld -dr»|d r rgflr ■ gfelm f fellf ssitlsl&
k.
RHYTHM SPELLING THROUGH SEQUENCE SINGING
The P a r i s
Time N a m es,
o r , a s t h e y s h o u l d he c a l l e d ,
t h e P a r i s R h y t h m Names ( s i n c e h y t h e i r
graded s c a le
of
c o n s o n a n ts an d vow els t h e y i n d i c a t e r e l a t i v e a c c e n t a s
w ell as r e l a t i v e d u r a tio n ) ,
are
the rh ythm ic c o u n te rp a rt
o f t h e R e l a t i v e P i t c h Names o r S o l - f a S y l l a b l e s .
And,
j u s t as th e s e s y l l a b l e s a re used f o r p i tc h - s p e ll i n g p ra c ­
tic e,
s o t h e r h y t h m names - " t a a t a a t a i "
e tc .
- s h o u l d be
used fo r rh y th m -sp ellin g p r a c tic e .
We h a v e a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d t h e r e l a t i o n
o f rhythm
t o p i t c h i n m e l o d y , a n d s h o w n how t h e m e n t a l e f f e c t s
of
t h e p i t c h e l e m e n t s a r e a f f e c t e d b y d u r a t i o n and a c c e n t ,
by t h e r h y t h m i c c o n t e x t .
But i t
or
is e q u a lly tr u e to say
t h a t the m en tal e f f e c t s of t h e rhy th m ic elem ents a re
a f f e c t e d by p i t c h o r b y t h e m e lo d ic c o n t e x t .
i s a f u n c t i o n of rhythm ,
p itch .
j u s t a s rhythm i s
For p i t c h
a f u n c t i o n of
And s o , t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e r h y t h m n a m e s t h r o u g h
t h e t a a t a i - l n g on a m onotone
w ith o u t form o r d e s i g n ,
of l i n e s
of rh y th m sym bols
eg.
T im e S tu d ies.
I J J J- S i J
J-- S' i J3 i S I J | i- JJ—h
TVa t a a t a a - a a t a i .
ta a ta i ta a -a a ta i taa
is to
be a s h e a r t i l y c o n d e m n e d a s t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e
p i t c h sym bols th r o u g h t h e s i n g i n g o f th e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s
/oS
w ith o u t r e g a r d t o rhythm o r form .
A gain,
j u s t as t h e m ental e f f e c t s
of th e p itc h
e lem en ts a r e a f f e c t e d c o n s i d e r a b ly by t h e i r p i t c h c o n te x t,
so th e m ental e f f e c t s
of th e rhythm ic elem en ts a re a f f e c te d
by t h e i r r h y th m ic c o n t e x t .
iated
T his i s n o t g e n e r a l l y a p p r e c ­
b y some m u s i c e d u c a t i o n i s t s ,
who s e e m t o t h i n k t h a t ,
when a c h i l d h a s b een t a u g h t t o r e c o g n i s e a n d r e n d e r ,
w i t h o r w i t h o u t t h e Rhythm S y l l a b l e s , a n y r h y t h m i c m o t i f ,
e . g . J-J~or t a a - a a t a i ,
th is
p roblem h as been f i n a l l y
elem en ts
o n e-an d -a-h alf-p lu s-h alf-b eat
s o lv e d , and t h a t t h e s e rhythm ic
(J- i") w i l l g i v e n o m o r e t r o u b l e .
But n o t h i n g i s
f u r t h e r from t h e t r u t h .
e le m e n ts have t h e i r rh y th m ic c o n te x ts t o o .
in any of th e fo llo w in g c o n te x ts :
R hythm ic
J.
may a p p e a r
a
ijh T jlJ h T J l. JljT fl/lJji
t
|5 t7 j | O i
u 'j T jU 'jr j l
».
u T j - u T V I ». JTTj. f i T i
i
4
.
I ».jJ tc j j J j T j
t .1771 Jim. «. IjTwij.'Td I */O n lT w -
. jO
jj
O
j ^S T j
And j u s t a s t h e s p e l l i n g
it.
liT llJ iJ .
j -I
it j J j o j i j J j l h
o f t h e p i t c h e l e m e n t s m u s t be
m a s te r e d t h r o u g h s o l - f a i n g them i n t h e i r v a r i o u s
so th e s p e llin g
c o n tex ts,
o f th e rhythm e le m e n ts m ust be m a ste re d
t h r o u g h t h e t a a t a i - i n g o f them i n t h e i r v a r i o u s c o n t e x t s .
It
is
teach
j u s t as f u t i l e to teach
s t r ‘ alo n e.
J- f
a l o n e , a s we s a w i t
was t o
/06
H ere a g a i n s e q u e n c e s c a n p l a y a g r e a t p a r t .
The
ab o v e t h r e e - n o t e a n d f o u r - n o t e g ro u p s c a n he s u n g and
taa ta i-ed
sequences.
t o t h e s e q u e n c e s 123 o r 1 231,
or t o any o th er
Thus:
1231
IZ3
:A'\t :-.l i S : t r |l
-6.6.*.
jlol' : - t i l
I d ' r t 1^
: t IS ! : t l l
:-.sif
,S
| S :-.f I m
| 1'
tu .a b llu
1 : s I t :-:S:-p
I d! : t : - . i l t - I
i f .- .l l s :f
I I :S
Is
Is •-£
-tift W-tuifei
y
il'- .t I-.Z-.S i t :1 |-S:-F11 :s
S
)
{.Jilt :l :-Ml :s
tUtUiiiX-Mr
T his R hy th m -S p ellin g P r a c t i c e
■-■lie
-.-f
S |-f :m :-■} -efc-.
(w hich of c o u rs e i s
a n e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t t h i n g f ro m Rhythm R e a d in g o r Rhythm
T estin g ) sho u ld , lik e
P itch -S p ellin g
F ractice,
beg in e a r l y ,
a n d we s h o u l d a i m a t a R h y t h m - S p e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e w h i c h
w i l l be w e ll i n advance o f a n y th in g r e q u i r e d i n o r d in a r y
sig h t-read in g .
As h a s b e e n i n d i c a t e d i n a p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , t h e
c h i l d r e n , b e f o r e b e in g i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e rh y th m names,
sh o u ld have had c o n s i d e r a b le e x p e r ie n c e of t h e rh y th m ic
elem en ts.
And no w t h i s r e s e r v e f u n d o f r h y t h m i c
experience,
g a i n e d o r a l l y t h r o u g h r h y t h m i c s e q u e n c e s i n g i n g , s h o u l d be
u se d a s a b a s i s on w h ich t o b u i l d up a s e r v i c e a b l e r h y t h m s p e llin g vocabulary.
su b stitu te
To do s o , a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d i s
to
th e r e l a t i v e tim e and a c c e n t (or rhythm )
sy lla b le s fo r th e re la tiv e p itc h
(or s o l - f a )
the sin g in g of fa m ilia r sequences.
sy llab les
in
/o ’/
Thus, t h e f a m ilia r se q u en c e,
to
1 2 3 1 , may h e s u n g a n d t a a t a i - e d
any of th e rhythm ic p a tt e r n s
F o u r-n o te Sequences,
t a b u l a t e d on p a g e
or to an y com b in atio n of th e s e .
,f:m. a lf j.iwr.flm
ta a ^ c ta a ta i, tia jc f a t k a
I ot
i - i.S jt
-fc*- • a f'tift, f a *
|d ‘
under
A aafy- ta a ta i-
ll
:-Js,f,2 Is
i- ^ f lm
f c a - a f i d t j c Aaoj
,2 :s .t | l
Ir
Id
lot
H a h u . t a a ^ , ta jA ii, ta a ^c . taatai- ta a fr- ta a ta i, it* a - a a ,
Is
ita a tu ,
^r.cimlr :-d,^,rU : — lid :;r.md}ife.
to o . - a jo t i ^ - f a a j - a ^ a t i ^ fo a - - M i
6 If •.jm.r/Plm ,r:d.m Ir
faai-ajatZ fyi'
•.jd.^rlol
lid :jr.m,d}<fe.
~ '^ a ta t^ -fa a J ^ ja J a J . t o o - -a|aic|e. fa a ^ a fa a tiu fa u n - A ^ fa ^ n fa a ^ - fa a fa a fa a i-a ^ a fa ^ C i p a n - M a
S im ila rly , th e fa m ilia r six -n o te sequence,
fa o - - a ^ tc p i
1 2 1 3 2 1 , may be
s u n g t o t h e r h y t h m names o f t h e f o l l o w i n g :
I 1*1*21
Ifjsjjn
l l ■.-f :ot' I t :-.l : t is :l : t
t& jx - fy - iit. f a a t i i t j u ,
- tu > t k a - t a i - t n
li :-.s:l
to o --
| f :s :l
|s :- .f : s
ta a -tiita i,
ta a .- ^ - - 'tit -
121321|
I M I
| d ' . t r , d ': l , t .ot'
I t .1 ,ir s ,1 . t
ta a t a i.
W -lfe fe .
bull
|d '
. , t : d 'd - t d 'k
to ^ > . fa ja tf-
-,l
|l
. s ,1 : f , S . l
fa a a -ti^ .
|l
im : h s ] Jc.
fa a -ta i-tU .
Is . f , s
.S
tify jta i
.,s -.lyf . s / l \ s
}-cfe.
fa ^ a ta a '
. , f : s , 0i.-£ s }«fc.
I isiszil
\tm A
J uljfcct'd : t . d1It^ l.t- jS
I 2-IS2.lI
Ii J JJffll
: 1 .fa 11, S . I f : S .1 ls , f . s , m : f
.3
j-efe.
-Uafaki
!
:f
&o,
:4 ta rit
fajatifr- f a * fa *
• ^ s .i.tll
'• S
fa * P *
J^ f.S jlls
:f
^
s} < fe.
/off
5-
INVERSION OF SEQUENCES
In sequence s in g in g i t
i s custom ary to use a
d escending fig u re in d e s c e n t, and an ascending f ig u r e
ascen t.
Thus:
But t h i s
o r d e r may h e r e v e r s e d ;
th at
in
is , a r is in g fig u re
may b e u s e d w i t h t h e d e s c e n d i n g s c a l e , a n d a f a l l i n g
f ig u r e w ith t h e ascending s c a l e .
Thus, t h e above f i g u r e ,
1 2 3 , may be s u n g a s f o l l o w s :
/ 2 3 m {I dVm' l t l Vl l t cl 1! s l t l f s l | m - f s | r m f | d - - | d t 1l llr'clt;|mr cl l fmHs- fi Hl l s- f : l t i s id'— I
Any s e q u e n c e may b e i n v e r t e d i n t h i s m a n n e r .
o r d e r to
carry i t
In
out from t h e Sequence M o d u lato r, a l l
th a t is required is
t o b e g in the
descending sequence
fro m d 1 on t h e R .H .S . o f th e M o d u la to r, and to c o n t i n u e
t h e a s c e n d i n g h a l f fro m d on t h e
L .H .S.
In w r i tin g th e sequence fo rm u lae,
we s h a l l a d d t h e s i g n ™ t o i n d i c a t e t h i s
o rd e r of d e sc e n t and a s c e n t.
123, 13, e t c . ,
in v ersio n of
I& f
B e l o w , we p r i n t a f e w s e q u e n c e s , f i r s t i n t h e i r
n orm al fo rm , an d t h e n i n v e r t e d i n the manner i n d i c a t e d
above.
131
|
d 'l d 'l t
s t | l
f
I
I 3 1 a)
f d m d 'l t r t
132
fid' l t | t s I l l f s i s m f I f rmlm d r l r t , d i d - - ||d mr I r f m lm s f I f I s I s t l l l d ' t I t f d id 1- - II
l l d ' l
I s m s
I f r f
I m lm
Is f s
If I f
lm
s
ir t, r 11 - - l l d m d l r f r
m Ir f r
I d - -
lid l , d | r t; rim d m
132 ~ jjd'm'r I t r ' d ' l l d ' t l e t I If I
s
lm s f Ir f m I d - - l i d
12
m
lw
(Id1 t
I t
I
l l
s
I s
f
I f
r
I r
d
I d -
lm < m
||d
I,
r
tjl r t ; d l m d
I r
m
lm
f
If I f
Is t s
ll d ' l i t r ' t l d ' - -
ll
I f r f
Is m s
I l f I
II
I t s t
r I f rm I s m f I l f s I t s
I f
s
I s
I
l l
t
I
Id'—
Id1- -
l t d 1 I d -
|||
||;:
i
I 2 ~
| d '
r' I t
d '
11
t
I s
I
I f s
lm
f
| r m
I d -
r d m l r d ^ r l d —
| | d t ,
I r d
I m r
I f
m
Is f
l l s
I t l
|d '-
I23|
{ i d ' t l d l t l d l s f l U f m s l f m r f l m
lldrm dlrm f r l m f s m l f s l f I s l t s l l t d ' H t d p ' t l d - ' - l l
1231 m
f d V m c f l t d 'r t l l t d 'l l s l t s l f s l f I m f s m lr m f r |d - - - |ld ( ;l,d lr d ^ r I n tr d J f m r f I s f u s l l s f l
I23A-
{ i d 't l s l t l s f lls f m ls f m r
1 23/ t- n.
{ id V V flfrd V m lltd V Is ltd 'lfs lf I m f s l l r m f s l d —
Ild^l.sJrdtrlJuirdtJ-fiiird I s f m r lls f m
I t l s f I d 1- - -
II
\k%
/ I d ' s t l t f
l l l m s
I s r f
I f d m l m t j r l r l , d
I d —
l ld f r I r s m
r 't
Itm 'd lld '--
II
IJhZro
I d 'f V l t m ' d ' l l r 't
| s d ' l
I f t s
| d - -
l l d s . t j r I, d I m t ; r I f d m
I t l s t l d '— - i
l f m r d l m r d t , l r d t ; l l l d - - - | l d r i i i f I r m f s l m f s l l f s l t I s l t d ' I l t d ' r ' I t d ' f n ' Id - - - 1
| m
l f | r s m
I m l f
I f t s
I s d 'l ll
Is
r f
llm s
I t f l
I d ' - - ||
1213JI
j2l32 1m
I t w i l l b e n o t e d t h a t t h e i n v e r t e d s e q u e n c e s make g r e a t e r
demands on t e c h n i q u e t h a n t h e o r d i n a r y s e q u e n c e s , and t h a t
th e t o t a l range o f th e in v e rte d sequence is g r e a t e r .
Where t h e r a n g e i s t o o g r e a t , t h e d e s c e n d i n g a n d a s c e n d i n g
s e q u e n c e s s h o u l d b e sung s e p a r a t e l y i n d i f f e r e n t k e y s .
I
C H A P T E R
VI
VARIED USES OP THE SEQUENCE MODULATOR (COOTD.)
So f a r ,
a l l s e q u e n c e s have hegun and ended on " d o h " .
But s e q u e n c e s s h o u ld a l s o he t r e a t e d m o d ally ;
th a t is
to
s a y , t h e y s h o u l d b e s u n g b e t w e e n 1 e n d 1„ s a n d s,, r ' a n d r ,
e tc .
A few exam ples of t h i s modal t r e a t m e n t o f s e q u e n c e s
a r e g iv e n below .
I23ju» 1
{ | l s f | s - f t n
I f m r
l m r c 4 l r ^ f l U * ; l l | t ; l 1 s , l l , - - | | l 1^ c A | 1 j d / H c l r n i | r m
lm r c l I r l
..
••
S
{ i s - f m l f m r
••
-
f
{ffm
»
»
m 1
I t t i V U T r ' i ’t r l c i ' f - l | i ? I s
l i s p
Is-fm
I f m r
••
••
j 1'
| r l v
Is-pm
f f m r
lm r c 6 I r - -
rn '
I r t 'i i m l r t r ' l l
r im
t . U t j l J t l . s , ll,s,f, I s , - - l l s . l ^ l l . t , !
r d Irollj l l t,l,lt,l,s,ll,s,f, I s .^ m jf,- -
l l t l
I t I s
|ls - p
l i l t
S
{ l l m f l s
r m l f l r
{is r f l f d m
lm t;i"
|<i r J
Ilf, s , 1,1 s , I , t , U (f r i v o l r
l m - - l l i n f s l f s l ,
II r m f
I m f s
I s i t
m f I m f s l f s
|i--||j
I
Is--II
\d r m l r m f l m f s
|f--|||
Is I t
l-f s
1|
i \ s l t
llrm f r I m f s m lfs lf U I t s
l m t , l l i ' ’l',tl U s | l | H r ^ s | l l |- - | l l , r l l i ; f f l r l l f m l r
If
r
f s | f s l
|l t o l ' | t
s t l l f l l s m s l P r - P l m ' - l l m s m l f l f l s t s l l l l l t r t
I23|-|to>. P 1 { i r l t r H t l l l t l s t l l s f l l s P m s l p i i i r f I m r d m l r —
143 ^ * * 1
|t,c U
f | m
ct, r | o l ' r ' n i | r - - l !
I l ' m l V f V U ' - -
l i t J ' l l t c T r V l t A r m ' f lr'---lli
s f l m l s l f t l
Jl i U s ; t i l ^ ^ 1 , | l l ni ls l l s , - - l l s ; < i l 1l l | r ^ l ^ m ( A l i f r l r s m l h l f
I s l ' t
II--II
I f t s
Is—
I t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t t h e s e modal se q u e n c e s c a n n o t
be r e a d f r o m t h e S eq u en ce M o d u la to r l i k e
o rd in a ry sequences
f r o m t o p t o b o t t o m , b e g i n n i n g o n Column 1 .
r e a d from o t h e r colum ns,
F o r exam ple,
fa
s f
T h e y may be
of course.
d e s c e n d i n g on t h e L . H . S . , 3 45 w o u l d g i v e :
Is f m l f
m r lm r l l r l T ,
I d ^ l , I t , 1 , 5 , 1 1 , - - II
And, a s c e n d i n g o n t h e L . H . S . ,
{Z j^ol ItjoL r IcLrm Ir m f I m f s
On t h e R . H . S . ,
If s I
Is I t
||i
321 w o u l d g i v e :
l l - - I I
6 5 4 a n d 678 w o u l d g i v e s i m i l a r r e s u l t s .
II
Ill
B u t p e r h a p s t h e h e s t way f o r t h e p u p i l s
t h e s e modal se q u e n c e s i s
C o lu m n 1 ,
e .g .
1, s ,
colum n a s u s u a l .
to read
t o b e g i n o n t h e r e q u i r e d n o t e on
f,
m o rr,
a n d t o r e a d down t h e
H o w e v e r , w hen t h e y r e a c h t h e b o t t o m ,
th e y sh o u ld s t a r t to re a d from th e to p a g a in , w h ile con­
t i n u i n g t h e s e q u e n c e w i t h t h e v o i c e downw ards.
The
a s c e n d i n g s e q u e n c e w o u l d be r e a d i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n .
S u c h a c o n v e n t i o n w i l l n o t d i s t u r b p u p i l s who a r e a c c u s ­
tomed t o s e q u e n c e s i n g i n g .
Modal S e q u e n c e s s h o u l d a l s o be s u n g i n v a r i o u s
rhythm s w ith and w ith o u t a n a c r u s i s .
F o r e x a m p l e , U ’tf
%I
f r' :-rm‘: r' W
d e s c e n d i n g end a s c e n d i n g o n R . H . S .
|s
ll
l-f l-S .'f Itn -.-.f.mlr : - : - l l V :-.m;r l m l - e f c . j
C are s h o u l d be t a k e n t o c h o o s e s u i t a b l e k e y s f o r
modal s e q u e n c e s .
B ut modal p r a c t i c e
in sequence s in g in g
makes i t p o s s i b l e t o s i n g any s e q u e n c e i n a l l
k e y s , C, D,
E , F , G, A, B, w i t h o u t i n c r e a s i n g t h e a c t u a l r a n g e o f t h e
sequence.
T h i s may be s h o w n b y t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e :
123
I n o r d e r t o s i n g th e above s e q u e n c e , 125, m o d a lly ,
b eg in n in g w ith 1, s ,
f,
m or r ,
change i n im a g in a tio n t h e
n o t e s i n t h e new k e y .
Sequence,
i.e .
a l l we r e q u i r e t o d o i s t o
key s i g n a t u r e , a n d t h e n r e a d th e
I n Key G we h a v e a 12 3 L a h Mode
i n Key D a 12 3 R a y Mode S e q u e n c e , e t c .
its
7-
SEQUENCES BEGINNING- ON OTHER COLUMNS THAN THE FIRST
These se q u en c es sh o u ld be sung l i k e
o rd in ary se q ­
u e n c e s , t h e o n l y d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g t h a t t h e y b e g i n on
Column 2 ,
3 or 4,
e tc .
Such s e q u e n c e s
are u s e fu l,
as
t h e y i n t r o d u c e new m e l o d i c c o m b i n a t i o n s n o t f o u n d i n
o rd in ary sequences.
th a t th e f in a ls
A few ex am p le s a r e g i v e n b e lo w . N ote
i n t h e d e sc e n d in g and a s c e n d in g s e r i e s a r e
d a n d d‘ r e s p e c t i v e l y .
321
{I l t d ! I s i t I f s i I m f s I r m f lo ir m Itjd r lot — llm r d I f m r l s f m l l s - P I t l s I d ' t l I r ' d ' t Id'--11
31
1 1 «l' I s t
l-f I
lm s
I r -P I d m It, r
I d - II tn d I f r I s m
Il- f I t's
I d ' I I r 11 Id1- S
2 312
| tldfcl I s t i l s f l s f f t n s f |m r-fmlrdwr |d t,rd |d ---l|rm d r|m frm |fs m f|.s lfs l i t 6 l\td'lt\J,'r'tctW—II,
3121
UU’t d l s t l t l f l s l lm s f s | r fm-Pldmriiiltjclr l d - - - I U d r l |f r m r |5 mfm| I f s f l t.sls|d'lfrl |r'td't|d'---||
412.
Us d ' t l f t l I m l s Ir s f I d f m lt,« r l l . r d l d - - Ilf d r Is rm ll m f I t f s l d 's I | r ' l t | « ' t d ! | d ' - - | | ;
A34-1
^ s l s d 'l f s f t l m f m ^ l r m r s i d r d f l t j d ^ m l ^ t l r l d - - - l l f m f d ) s f s r | l s l m |t Z t f |d 't d 's |r 'd lr? |m rra t|d '--|j
4123
{ Is d 'tllf tis l m l s f l r s f i t i l d f m r l - t i m r d l l .r d t j d - —H f d r m l s r m f l l m f s l t f s l l d 's l t i r 'l t d l m 't d V 'U —III
jI
L.H.S.
D e sc en d in g
only
Ifc/fiis/tsJ I m s d t - l s f m l r f t l sfmr Idm ls f m r d l ^ r s f m rd^ l ^ f m rdljlj Is^j mr d ^ l ^ r d t ^ l d
14
[Is jn d t l s I f j : t l s f L ^d Is fm I r i f s f m r | d dj fm r d |tj ^
14 6 4 I
mrdtjl^ 4, r d t j l j l d - - - II
m s d ' - s I f r f t - f lm dm l - m Ir f r r s - r |d l , d f - d It , s , t , m- 1, l l . f . l , r - I, I d
I 4 S u 111 s £ m d 1 Ifm. r t
I m_r d l
Irdtjs
I d t j I, f
II;
I £_l, s( m l l . s. f
—
r |c t - -
d'tdd'sd'lfarf t i s t f t l wdm I s f Iml Irdtr s f msrs U tU fm r f d f ItAst mrdm tJl.sf I r d t r l r I d
{sddl
i f t l Is
t w la- { m s |lt j r f t
|l
im I s I f u * s f
i d m l Is
J,
|m
r_s I f
id f m| r
J j mr
J j d f lm
iS .tj"
Id
ir
_J. r d l t ; 1^ d t , | d
i f \ r I d -_m, ^_d |d
II
|l
ll
8.
1,0
BESTS IiM SKQ.USJMCE SINGING
E v e r y t e a c h e r k no w s t h e d i f f i c u l t y w h i c h c h i l d r e n a n d
a d u lts ex p erien ce in o bserving r e s t s
t h e m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l s t r a i n
e s p e c i a l l y when t h e s e
rests
in p lay in g .
i s much m o r e c o n s i d e r a b l e ,
o c c u r i n t h e m iddle o f p h r a s e s
or i n t h e u p p e r r a n g e o f t h e v o i c e .
t o keep t h e s t r e a m of so u n d f l o w i r g
th an t o
p u n ctu ate i t
"silen ces
In sin g in g ,
It
i s s o much e a s i e r
a l o n g e v e n l y , |J_J]J1|JJ1J3|,
p e r io d ic a lly w ith th o s e r e s t s ,
im plying sound"
or
iJ iJ-JJ l.
The p r o b l e m i s p r i m a r i l y a p h y s i o l o g i c a l o n e , a n d
sh o u ld t h e r e f o r e be a p p ro a c h e d fro m t h e
In th is
co n n ectio n ,
e f f o r t in v o lv ed in
p h y sio lo g ical s id e .
i t w i l l be found t h a t t h e
"sin ging r e s t s "
ph y sical
may w e l l b e o v e rc o m e
through in tro d u cin g r e s t s
in to f a m ilia r sequences.
to
th e sequence 1231,
ta k e one-exam ple o n ly ,
b e s u n g i n a v a r i e t y o f ways i n |
fo u r elem en ts, J . J - ,
v
1
n
j p
2
j
p j j
3
j np
4
and
h
o r d 't l d ' , may
tim e, u sin g only th e
.
P rJ2
IS
J- J J J H
y p n
lb
t
10
JiJ-P
n
JJ J J
Y
PPP
II
PJ
it
P. J
P
5
• N i t J#
m
/<?
JJ
b
PH P
13 HJ-J
10
J JJ
1
P. D r
Ifi
21
J-JJ J H
«
Thus,
4
JJ
hJ-JJJ
J JJn
PP
P
F o r exam ple, t h e te a c h e r m ig h t s i n g th e sequence t o h o . 8
p a t t e r n a b o v e , a n d t h e c l a s s w ould j o i n i n , b e a t i n g tim e :
flcT.t: d.clUt.l: : s . t |l s : :-P.l|s.f: -.w-sffii: :r.-fU.r: :otmIr.d: :t,.r lol
||ol.r:
u/t
As i n o u r d e a l i n g s w i t h p i t c h a n d r h y t h m ,
so i n our
d e a l i n g s w i t h r e s t s we m u s t s e e t h a t a n e x t e n s i v e
s ta g e p re c e d e s t h e symbol s t a g e , f o r ,
oral
a s K eats s a y s ,
“ Axioms i n p h i l o s o p h y a r e n o t a x i o m s
t i l l t h e y a r e p r o v e d u p o n our p u l s e s . "
A lso,
e ffects
we m u s t r e m e m b e r t h a t ,
of the
j u s t as th e m ental
p i tc h elem ents and rh y th m ic elem ents a re
a f f e c t e d by t h e c o n t e x t s i n w h ich th e y o c c u r ,
e ffe c ts of th e r e s t
so th e m ental
elem ents a r e a f f e c t e d by th e c o n te x ts
i n w hich th e y o c c u r .
Thus i t
is n o t reaso n ab le
c h ild r e n to observe the h a lf - b e a t r e s t
to te a c h
( w h e t h e r on t h e b e a t
or a f t e r the b e a t)
i n one o r tw o c o n t e x t s , a n d t h e n e x p e c t
th e m t o be a b l e t o
observe the h a l f - b e a t r e s t in any o th e r
co n tex t.
A r e f e r e n c e t o t h e Rhythm T a b le on t h e p r e v i o u s page
w i l l s h o w t h e r e a d e r how d i f f e r e n t t h e e f f e c t o f a h a l f ­
beat re s t
(*f) may b e a c c o r d i n g t o
its
co n tex t.
•Ro. ioAl£31
%>\%& I W
L e t t e r t o J . H . R e y n o l d s , 3 r d May 1 8 18 (The C o m p l e t e Works
of John K eats, V o l.IV .
E d . b y H . B u x t o n F o r m a n , Gowans e n d
G ra y , G lasgow , 1901)
U5
It
o ral stag e
i s v e r y n e c e s s a r y t o i n s i s t on t h i s
in a l l
o u r m usic p r a c t i c e , a s t h e r e
t e n d e n c y i n man y q u a r t e r s t o
th e
o ra l w ith th e
ex ten siv e
is
a stro n g
l i n k up p r a c t i c e w ith t h e o r y ,
sym bolic, fro m t h e v e ry e a r l i e s t s t a g e s .
W h i l e we a g r e e t h a t t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e s h o u l d a l w a y s go
hand i n hand and t h a t t h e r e s h o u ld be no t h e o r y w ith o u t
p r a c t i c e , we c a n n o t a l l o w t h e i n f e r e n c e
t h a t p r a c t i c e and
t h e o r y s h o u l d a l w a y s go h a n d i n h a n d a n d t h a t t h e r e
b e no p r a c t i c e w i t h o u t t h e o r y .
should
P ra c tic e begets th eo ry ,
th eo ry does not beget p ra c tic e .
The k n o w l e d g e t h a t a
c e rta in sig n
of h a lf - a - b e a t d u ra tio n
(*0 m e a n s a s i l e n c e
i s q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t t h i n g from th e a b i l i t y t o
f i n g e r m om entarily,
m o m en tarily ,
but
l i f t the
or t o s t o p t h e f lo w of v o c a l sound
i n o bedience t o t h a t s i g n .
And k n o w l e d g e t h a t
i s n o t b e g o tt e n of a c t i o n is m ere m e n ta l lum b er, b u t
know ledge t h a t i s b o r n o f a c t i o n i s
power.
th en ,
“u p o n t h e i r p u l s e s , "
f i r s t prove a l l m u sic a l f a c t s
L et the p u p ils,
a n d t h e y w i l l t h e n w e l c o m e a mode o f r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e
facts
by means o f t h e s y m b o l i c l a n g u a g e o f t h e s t a f f n o t a ­
tio n .
A f te r th e p u p ils have p a sse d th ro u g h t h i s
i n th e observance of r e s t s ,
be t a u g h t ,
o ra l stage
t h e s t a f f s y m b o l s f o r r e s t s may
a n d t h e R h y t h m T a b l e s a b o v e may b e u s e d i n a
v a r i e t y o f ways i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h f a m i l i a r f o u r - n o t e
sequences lik e
d‘ t
1 d‘ .
F o r exam ple, d u r i n g th e s i n g i n g
[lb
o f t h e s e q u e n c e t h e r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n m i g h t be c h a n g e d a t
t h e w o r d o f command,
upper c la ss e s,
o r by p r e v i o u s a r r a n g e m e n t.
a f te r p rac tic e
w ith th e
s e p a ra te rhythm ic
p a t t e r n s , m ig h t a t t e m p t t o s i n g s e q u e n c e s w hile
down o r u p t h e f i r s t two c o l u m n s ,
each s c a le d egree.
A gain,
reading
u s i n g a new p a t t e r n on
Seven p a t t e r n s a r e r e q u i r e d f o r the
descending sequence,
e.g .
1-7,
2-8,
3-9, 4-10 e t c . ,
and th e
same p a t t e r n s may b e r e p e a t e d f o r t h e a s c e n d i n g s e q u e n c e ,
th e f i n a l n o te s i n e a c h sequence b e in g h e ld f o r th r e e b e a ts .
T h u s, a seq u en ce b a se d on t h e
rhythm ic p a tte r n s
IbJ’f
U
«N
: t.U \
nn
r
t .l: S - t :
{ id . :r.m:d. P.m: f . r
:
6 -1 2 would r e s u l t a s f o l l o w s :
nr n
Is:
p i t c h f o r m u la , 1231, and th e
:U
m.-p: :s.m
nn
r
:
J
s.fim .s f
hJ
JI
nj
: .m : r.-P m r:d
J.
:.m r.d: .tr T
I t: d ‘ : .l
.•A s.- i f s :
cL
••II
—
!l
d'
II
F u r t h e r v a r i e t y may b e g o t b y u s i n g f o u r t e e n r h y t h m i c
p a t t e r n s f o r t h e c o m p l e t e s e q u e n c e , b e g i n n i n g a t a n y number
and c o n tin u in g th e
c y c le from N o .l w here n e c e s s a r y .
The
f o l l o w i n g b e g in s a t N o.4 and ends a t N o .3.
IIJ 1 t l t l t i
tiJ lh
{1 f l l '. t : ! :d '. t. : l . ; s . t I.
IIJ1J i t
(lol r-m
n i U it* n
■■■d r.m : . f r
.m :f :s-m
P .J lr
Jl y
S -f- n.S:
f-m
i t m
ni
n y nn
: : r .f
S .l : t
:m.r:d.m
J itJ l J.
J till J J it,
I
t <XM.
d'
:s. I :t. M
i
r :.d :t[.r d
|
-I
m
S ta cc ato .S e q u en c e S inging
The p r a c t i c e
o f s ta c c a to sequence s in g in g w ill
he found t o be a n i n v a l u a b l e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t r a i n i n g i n
th e observance of a f t e r - b e a t r e s t s .
-f—1
Thus:
iJ
E t i H - } , | -I------t—
f a
f l ! H 4 i
,
—
w
---------J-
-efe
-i—i—i----F#
t i i
Much m o r e v a r i e t y ,
o f c o u r s e , c o u l d be g o t f r o m t h e same
f o u r tim e elem ents
(J,/,r,i)
T ab les f o r Sequence S in g in g ,
by u s in g |
p a g e 1% )
tim e.
( S e e R hy thm
II?
I
ANTIPHQNAL SEQUENCE SINGING
A ntiphonal s in g in g i s
school,
not often p ra c tise d in
p r o b a b l y on a c c o u n t o f t h e
m aterial.
Yet i t
lack of s u ita b le
p ro v id e s a m ost v a lu a b le e x e r c is e f o r
th e S in g in g C lass.
It
e n c o u ra g e s good l i s t e n i n g an d d e v e l o p s t h e te a m
s p i r i t w ith i t s
"give and ta k e " .
e x c e lle n t o p p o rtu n ity f o r th e
But i t
c u l t i v a t i o n of m usical
im ag ery on t h e p a r t o f t h e p u p i l s .
at
t h i s game m u s t l i s t e n
is
sin gin g ,
a ls o p ro v id e s an
The c h i l d who p l a y s
a c t i v e l y w hile t h e o p p o site s id e
and m ust fo llo w t h e tune
im age t h e n o t e s t h a t he h e a r s su n g ,
in im ag in atio n ,
or
i n o r d e r t o be a b le
t o p i c k up t h e m e l o d i c t h r e a d and t o r e l e a s e i t a t t h e
c o r r e c t moment.
Sequences a re
an tip h o n al sin g in g .
is
to d iv id e th e
id eal f o r th is
p u rp o se of
A ll t h a t t h e t e a c h e r r e q u i r e s t o do
cla ss
i n t o tw o s e c t i o n s A a n d B.
These
would t h e n s i n g a l t e r n a t e b a r s o r a l t e r n a t e d o u b l e b a r s a s
in th e fo llo w in g sequences.
135 " { U ' l f I t sm l l - f r
Is
m < i$ - f t , I m c iljp t,
s (ld —
ll^ m s
Ir f
I
I m a i I f l«Uls t r ' l l d ' m f f c r f
U - - H
A l l A n t i p h o n a l S e q u e n c e s s u c h a s t h e a b o v e may a l s o be
c a r r i e d o u t w ith v a r i e d r h y th m ic p a t t e r n s and w ith t h r e e o r
f o u r v o i c e s , ABC o r ABCD. The s e c t i o n s may a l s o b e b r o u g h t
in , in any o rd e r, a t a s i g n from th e te a c h e r .
Thus:
(
ff
A n n o u n c i n g p h r a s e s a n d r e s p o n s i v e p h r a s e s raay b
and e x p r e s s i o n in tr o d u c e d a s i n th e above.
c o n tra sted ,'
m
i
ANTIPHONAL SINGING IN CONTRARY MOTION
10.
An e x e r c i s e t h a t m a k e s g r e a t e r d e m a n d s o n t e c h n i q u e
i s t h e s in g in g of se q u en c es a n t i p h o n a l l y and by c o n tr a r y
m o tio n .
In t h i s
c a s e S e c t i o n A would d e s c e n d o n t h e L .H .S .
»
and S e c t i o n B would a s c e n d o n th e R . H . S . o f t h e M o d u la to r
a ltern a tely ,
th us:
A
IZ3
B
3
A
A
A
A
3
3
r m l d ' t i l r m f
{ f d i
1213
£
I t - i s |r m f II s f |m f s
f d
13
a
{ j d 't i l d r m
f d m
I t
s
A
B
I t i s l m
| r f
l l
A
f s R s f
f
L
3
S
A
I s f m l f s l
B
I f s i
Is
B
A
3
I s f m I s i t
m
I f
I
A
If m r Is i t
I f
r
B
A
B
A
B
3
, A , , 3 , A„
I f m r l i t d 'l m r d l t d ' r
I s i r
A
lm r d l i t d ' l r d t j l t d ' r ' l d - -
|m d
I i d ’ | r
I r d i j l d - -
t, "ft r ‘ f d
id'—
|l|.
B,
-
„i
I d —
1|
i d 1-
II
{ f d mf d ' l I r f
f t s f m s f i f HP i f s « f s t f-f r f i d ' f a d It r' f r t , Id1- f d - |
A
3
3 ,
A
A
3
A
B
A
3
A
3
A ,
3
A 3 , , . ,
Jld'tdildrdmlt Ztslrmr-flisif UfmS | s f s m | f s f l l f h i f r l s i s t i m r i > d | i t i d I n k i r l i d ' t r | d - - - l d — II.
lU rcJm ld 'td d lrm rfltitsU -P m s lls if I f s f i |s f s m | s l s t 1 f m f r | t t i d f m r m i | t d 't r ^ r t ; £ i - - - | d - - - l l
. m m .
A
lui_ 3 2 1 1
3
A
B
A
3
I t i t
s _ i t
| r m r
{ f f m f
rm f
t j s
Im r m
d r m
\ I t l
d ’t i
I r d r
t d r
If d ’t
r ' d t ld/
-
Id '
—
jf d r d
m r d l d ' t d '
l t d ' I m r
- f a r
f t i t
slt\tn ^ m
s f a
| I s l
f s l
| £ s f
i s f
I s f s
m
Iw r w
d r m
r o t 'f l r d r
t j d r
Id*
-
t i s
If m f
r m f
Ii t l
d ' t i
| t d ’t
f s l
| m f a
I
m rd
{ (sis
| i s i
3
i t d ' l d r d
I s Z s
f m r
A
H d 'td '
s f m l s f s m f s
T h i s l a s t s e q u e n c e m i g h t be s u n g b y f o u r s e c t i o n s ,
| f s
f d
—
A, B, C
a n d D, t h u s :
A
$
£
13
5 ===8 j
A 3
f
C
e
w
C
JD
A
B
C
D
L
f #f T r r f T r
i b :
A
3
C
A
A
3
_B
C
A
£
j * j 0»t A
M
C
:d
3>
A
3
c
D
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4W
T T T - I : ^ r r f r [ r r f f f l -“TL Lt l-fa
1 i1----- f - f H f
r f f Ur -I---3"
----tb tit
m i
I I.
THE CULTIVATION OF MUSICAL IMAGERY
THROUGH THE MENTAL SINGING OF SEQ.UENCES
The m a i n d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m u s i c a l p e r s o n a n d
th e non-m usical person is not t h a t th e
a m u s ic a l in s t r u m e n t and t h e
on e i s a b l e
one c a n p e r f o r m on
o th er can n o t.
Nor i s i t
to r e a d m usic and t h e o t h e r i s u n ab le to
th at
do s o .
The m a i n d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m u s i c a l p e r s o n a n d t h e
non-m usical p e rso n i s r a t h e r t h a t th e
im agery , an d th e
im agery .
w ith th e
latter
one i s r i c h i n m u s i c a l
o t h e r i s more o r l e s s d e s t i t u t e o f m u s i c a l
W h il e t h e f o r m e r c a n h e a r " d i t t i e s
"in w ard e a r w hich i s t h e b l i s s
c a n h e a r m u sic o n l y when i t
p hysical e a r.
o f no t o n e "
of s o litu d e ,"
the
im p in g e s on th e o u t e r or
He c a n n o t c r e a t e o r r e - c r e a t e m u s i c s p o n t a n ­
e o u s l y fro m w i t h i n - he c a n n o t t h i n k
b e c a u s e he i s d e f i c i e n t
in term s of m usic,
in or d e s titu te
I t i s m ost im p o rta n t,
of m u sical im agery.
t h e n , t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be
en co u rag e d t o c u l t i v a t e t h e h a b i t of s i n g i n g m e n t a l ly , or
of im aging m u s ic a l so u n d s .
And s e q u e n c e s i n g i n g may b e u s e d
very su c c e ssfu lly to f u rth e r th is
end.
T h u s , a c l a s s may b e g i n a s e q u e n c e , b e a t i n g t i m e t o
it,
and a t a s i g n from t h e t e a c h e r s t o p s i n g i n g ;
and th e n ,
a t a n o th e r s i g n from t h e t e a c h e r , t a k e up th e sequence
a g a in from t h e p o in t reach ed .
T his i s
illu stra te d
i n t h e f o l lo w in g ex am p le s, where
m
th e d o ts in d ic a te s i l e n t b eats.
Y’d.tjcl — Hi r ml • • • I• • • I- • • |
|-frdV|d'—I
13 1 jjd’t J! I t s 1 1 • • • | ■ • • | • • -f| m
1 2 3 1 fl'tU'IHst I• •••!•• -slfmrflrn
rflm- - • I
/A-1
1■• --II
l---frlm-FstrlfsiP|s-- • | ------1- -rt|d '---||
Id'sd'lt-P + U • • I- • • I -d-Plm
d-Plm - • I- lfr l d - - l l dfdl r s • I- • • I- t f Isd'- I ■• l\tm t\c L '- - \\
/A-31 l^s^hr-Fs-t-limfll
1-----1-
r ^ r l d — Ild-fWksfHm*- - I
1 3 5 { U ' l - f Itsm
1- ■ ts\lr'J!l}tm rt\d!--\\
I • • ■I • • • Ir-fl Ims t l • • • I- • • I- ■• I t r W - l l
A f u r t h e r dem an d o n t h e m u s i c a l i m a g e r y o r m u s i c a l
a w a r e n e s s o f t h e c l a s s may b e made b y p r o h i b i t i n g t h e
b e a t i n g o f t i m e , a f t e r t h e f i r s t few b a r s o f th e se q u en ce
have been su n g .
T h is means t h a t a t a g i v e n s i g n fro m t h e
t e a c h e r b o t h t i m e a n d t u n e m u s t be i m a g e d o r f o l l o w e d
m e n ta lly by th e c l a s s .
T h o s e who h a v e t a k e n p a r t i n c o m m u n i t y s i n g i n g ,
have jo in e d i n t h e sin g in g
th is
fash io n ,
and
o f " J o h n B r o w n ' s Body" a f t e r
o m i t t i n g a new w o r d a t e a c h r e p e t i t i o n
of
t h e c h o r u s and e n t e r i n g a l l t o g e t h e r on th e l a s t l i n e , w i l l
r e a l i s e how e x h i l a r a t i n g t h i s
ex ercise can be.
From A l l ^ r # fe
IHdrltdrmld'- I
li&
IZ-
m - S C A L I C SEQUENCES
A l l t h e s e q u e n c e s g i v e n s o f a r have b e e n s u n g on
t h e descending and ascending s c a l e ;
p rac tic e,
so i t
is
b u t,
in a c tu a l
s e q u e n c e s do n o t a l w a y s f o l l o w s c a l e w i s e .
And
a d v is a b le t o accustom c h il d r e n t o th e s in g in g of
s e q u e n c e s w hich f o l lo w a t o t h e r i n t e r v a l s .
For t h i s
p u r p o s e t h e t e a c h e r m i g h t p o i n t t o v a r i o u s n o t e s on
C o lu m n 1 o f t h e S e q u e n c e M o d u l a t o r , a n d a s k t h e c l a s s t o
o r n a m e n t e a c h n o t e w i t h some m e l o d i c f i g u r e ,
121,
13,
131, 1231, 1321, 14,
fid'
L.H.S.
ll
It
121 |d' t d ‘ 11 s i
e .g .,
12,
1 4 1 , 1 43 e t c .
|w
|1
If
I
X I
It I t Im r m II s
R.H.51. 12.1 I d' r'd' 11 t 1 It J! t |rtif m | l
Is
Id
||
If m f Is f s l d - - l |
If s f Is I s | d — ||
However, t o a v o i d f o r m l e s s and u n r h y t h m i c a l s i n g i n g ,
it
is
b e tte r to
h a v e i n m in d some b a s i c f o r m u l a o f f o u r
o r e i g h t b a r s , w h ic h c o u ld be p o i n t e d on t h e m o d u l a t o r ,
w r i t t e n on t h e b l a c k b o a r d .
or
A fter p r a c tic e in em b ellish in g
n o t e s i n t h i s manner from t h e Sequence M o d u la to r, t h e
class
sh o u ld a t t e m p t t o d o s o fro m t h e b la c k b o a r d , where th e y
would h a v e no h e l p i n g a u g in g t h e i n t e r v a l s i n t h e m e lo d ic
ornam ents,
131,
143 e t c .
We s e t o u t b e l o w some b a s i c f o r m u l a e , a n d show how
th e y a p p e a r w ith v a rio u s m elodic ornam ents.
t h e f i n a l n o t e i s n o t ornam ented.
N otice t h a t
|
B a s ic Form ula
'iiue^jfep W
I
f
It
s
m i l
f
r
li
f| d ' 1 1 I s f
£mr It I s S fm m r d 11 s f -fm r r d t ,
11
I d1 I
f r
131
L.H.S. I Z 3
It s
s m
m_d
| d ' I d' I t l
f r f It s t
s ms
m dm 11f I
7^-91
| d'tld' I s f l
frcrf It l s t
5
14-3
J d' s t
JJJJ
I f
I nrf f d r It f s
|
Id
f_r
r_£
Id
frf
r t r
Id
-PmS mrdm II s f l fmr-p rdt, r Id
s rm mt,d | l m f
f dr
r l,t, Id
T he a b o v e a r e sh ow n a s t h e y w o u l d a p p e a r o n t h e L . H . S .
t h e Sequence M odulator.
We s h a l l now show t h e same s e q
u e n c e s a s t h e y would a p p e a r i f p o i n t e d o r s u n g f ro m t h e
R .H .S . of th e m o d u la to r.
B-a B ie .JF Q im L a
**
1
f
t
s
m
II
-f
r
U
R.H.S. U3
| d'rW I td' f
si
It d'r' s I t mf s I l t d 1 f si
r mf Id
—
JJ
| d m ' ] _ d | £_1 I t _ r '
s_t
m_s
Il _ d
fj_
r_£
Id
m
( ^ '
sts
ms m lld 'l
f lf
rfr
Id
I23j
| d'r'm'd' I tell I ■F s l f It d V t
sjts
m tsm I
fslf
rm fr I d
-
J J
fid fm 1 I r'd ' f t l
r sf
—
l ^ f l f l t V t
| t w'r1 s d ' t
m I s 11 r ' d ' f t l
Id
-
B a sic Form ula
|d ‘
L.H.S.
f
Itr
tji
II
r
Is
d
U3
| d11 I f m r
It I s
m rd
II s f
rdt,
Is ft m
d
m
| d' I d1 f r f
11 s t
in dm
11 f
r t r
Is m s
d
ml
| d’frd’l f m f r
It l t
S3
| d' 1 1 d1f r mf 11 s i t
fzz\
fl d 't
id! f
mrf
s
It I s t
t,
mrm d l U J J
rdr
IsJ ^
d
md r m 11 f s t
r t, d r Is mf s
d
tn r d m l y f l
r d f r Is f m s
d
/ZJ32I jd td 'ltd 1 fmf rmf I t l t s i t mrm drmIIsl f s l
rdr t d r l s f s m j j d
12$
I n o rd e r t o b r i n g out t h e c o n t r a s t b etw een seq u en ces
b a s e d on t h e L .H .S . and t h o s e b a se d on t h e R .H .S . o f th e
S e q u e n c e M o d u l a t o r , we s h a l l a l t e r n a t e L . H . S . a n d R . H . S .
s e q u e n c e s i n t h e n e x t exam ple.
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O t h e r f o r m u l a e may b e u s e d f o r p u r p o s e s o f m e l o d i c
e m b e llis h m e n t on t h e l i n e s a b o v e .
For exam ple, th e th r e e
f o r m u l a e j u s t u s e d may b e i n v e r t e d ,
|d
»n
s lr
\d
s
$d-m
s
t
f
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th u s:
Im5
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II
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II-
C H A P T E R
VII
VARIED USES OF THE SEQUENCE MODULATOR (CONTD.)
CHROMATIC SEOUSMnRS
13
We h e a r a g r e a t d e a l n o w a d a y s a b o u t c o r r e l a t i o n o f
su b je c ts and c o -o rd in a tio n of a c t i v i t i e s .
So much s o ,
i n d e e d , t h a t i n a s u b j e c t l i k e m u s i c w h e r e s o many
d ifferen t a c tiv itie s
s h i p , we o f t e n f i n d
go t o make u p w h a t we c a l l m u s i c i a n ­
a t t e m p t s b e i n g made t o c o r r e l a t e
a s p e c ts o f s tu d y and to c o -o rd in a te a c t i v i t i e s ,
w hich i n
f a c t c a n n o t be c o r r e l a t e d o r c o - o r d i n a t e d , b e c a u s e t h e y
d ep en d o n n a t i v e powers t h a t m a tu re a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s
o f grow th.
Thus, a c h ild
in tro d u ced t o
o f f i v e o r s i x may p r o f i t a b l y be
music s p e l l i n g o r s o l - f a i n g
p rac tic e - th a t
i s , t o t h e s t u d y o f m u s i c a l n o t a t i o n f r o m t h e o r a l p o i n t of
view .
W h i l e e n g a g i n g t h e p o w e r s o f mem ory, t h i s
study
d e p e n d s m o s t l y on i m i t a t i o n o r p a t t e r n s i n g i n g , a n a c t i v i t y
f o r w hich t h e
ch ild is
p ecu lia rly f i t t e d
by n a t u r e .
so m e m u s i c e d u c a t i o n i s t s , a c t u a t e d b y t h e d o c t r i n e
c o r r e l a t io n and not sto p p in g
im p o rtan t d o c trin e
of m a tu ra tio n ,
i n s i s t t h a t s o l - f a and
is t h a t th e a b i l i t y to s o l - f a ,
a f a i r l y e a rly stag e,
of
to c o n s i d e r t h e e q u a l l y
s t a f f n o t a t i o n sh o u ld be c o r r e l a t e d from th e
The r e s u l t
Y et,
o u tset.
which d e v e lo p s a t
i s s t u l t i f i e d by th e a tte m p t to
c o - o r d i n a te i t w i t h t h e a b i l i t y to
from th e s t a v e , an a b i l i t y
i n t e r p r e t m u s i c a l sym bols
w hich d e p e n d s on v i s u a l powers
t h a t d o n o t m a t u r e i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l t i l l much l a t e r .
U n fo rtu n ately , to o , th e
n o tatio n ,
tak e the
stag es,
p r e m a t u r e e m p h a s i s on
o r t h e v i s u a l a s p e c t o f m u s i c , d o e s much t o
"m usic" o u t of t h e
w here e s p e c i a l l y i t
"m usic l e s s o n "
in the e a r ly
i s so n e c e s s a r y t h a t i t s h o u l d
be p r e s e n t .
A n o t a b l e i n s t a n c e o f t h e damage c a u s e d b y t h e
a tte m p t to c o r r e l a t e a l l m u sical a c t i v i t i e s w ith s t a f f
n o tatio n i s
t o b e found i n th e c a s e of c h ro m a tic n o t e s .
In sc h o o ls today i t
is custom ary to b e g in th e s tu d y of
c h r o m a t i c n o t e s by t h e
fairly
i n t r o d u c t i o n o f " f e " and " t a " a t a
l a t e s t a g e , when t h e s t r u c t u r e
rela tio n
of t h e s c a l e and t h e
o f t h e d o m in a n t and subdorainant keys t o th e t o n i c
are under d iscu ssio n .
But c h ro m a tic n o t e s were u sed f o r m elo d ic p u rp o se s
lo n g b e f o r e t h e y w ere u s e d f o r harm onic or m o d u la to ry
purposes.
Indeed,
th ey w ere used m e lo d ic a lly i n th e old
d a y s o f M u s ic a F i c t a b e f o r e t h e r e were e v e n c h r o m a ti c
s i g n s t o r e p r e s e n t them on t h e s t a v e - lo n g b e f o r e our
p resen t scales
th e point
a n d k e y s y s t e m came i n t o v o g u e .
of view of a u r a l t r a i n i n g ,
necessary nor is
it
S o, f r o m
is n eith er
i t d e s i r a b l e to postpone th e in tr o d u c tio n
of c h ro m a tic n o te s t i l l t h e q u e s tio n of th e s t r u c t u r e
th e s c a le and th e r e l a t i o n
of
of t h e dom inant and subdom inant
k e y s t o t h e t o n i c f o r c e s us to d e a l w i t h th e m .
There i s
even no need to d e la y t h e i r in tr o d u c ti o n u n t i l the
ch ild ren
a r e o ld enough to he a h le to
i n t e r p r e t them fro m th e
s t a f f sym bols —
Young c h i l d r e n o f t o d a y a r e f a m i l i a r , t h r o u g h
p o p u la r m usic, w ith th e m elodic use of p r a c t i c a l l y a l l
c hrom atic n o te s ,
a l t h o u g h t h e y may n o t know t h e i r s o l - f a
names o r t h e i r v i s u a l s i g n s .
F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e 32 b a r s
o f t h e w e l l - k n o w n m e l o d y f r o m "The D e s e r t Song" - a m e l o d y
known t o
p ra c tic a lly a l l school c h ild ren -
f o u r out of t h e f i v e r a i s e d chrom atic n o te s occur de tw ic e , r e f i v e t im e s , f e tw ic e and se tw ic e .
I f c h i l d r e n a r e a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r w ith t h e s e chrom a­
t i c n o te s a s sounds, t h a t i s ,
i f th e s e chrom atic n o te s a re
a l r e a d y p a r t o f t h e i r o r a l v o c a b u l a r y , we m u s t assu m e t h a t
t h e o n ly r e a s o n f o r t h e d e la y i n i n tr o d u c in g them in to th e
S inging C lass i s t h a t th e y a r e very d i f f i c u l t
term s o f s t a f f sym bols.
(*
to e x p l a i n i n
The s t a f f c h r o m a t i c s y m b o l s
, b,t»b ) a d m i t t e d l y p r e s u p p o s e a n i n t i m a t e a c q u a i n t a n c e
130
w ith th e m u sical s ta v e ,
w ith th e s tr u c tu r e
c l e f s and key s ig n a tu r e s ,
of the scale
o r o f th e keyboard i t s e l f .
B u t t h e s o l - f a c h ro m a tic sym bols (d e , r e ,
ta,
la,
m a, r a )
They a r e
if not
fe, se,
le,
p r e s u p p o s e no s u c h n o t a t i o n a l k n o w l e d g e .
p s y c h o lo g ic a lly adapted t o the fu n c tio n th e y
perform , and, co n seq u en tly , a re s e lf-e x p la n a to ry .
names o f a l l t h e
Thus, th e
c h r o m a t i c a l l y r a i s e d n o t e s a r e d e r i v e d from
t h e d i a t o n i c s y l l a b l e s by s im p ly c h an g in g t h e vowel sound of
the d ia to n ic
s y l l a b l e i n e a c h c a s e t o t h e b r i g h t vowel "ee"
- doh d e, r a y r e ,
fah fe ,
soh se ,
lah le .
I t s h o u l d be
n o t e d t h a t t h e tw o m i s s i n g n o t e s - me and t e
- c a n n o t be
r a i s e d c h ro m a tic a lly , because th e y a re a lre a d y a t the
d i s t a n c e o f a sem itone
But t h i s
below t h e n e a r e s t d i a t o n i c n o t e .
i s a l r e a d y s h o w n i n t h e s o l - f a names by t h e f a c t
th a t th e s y lla b le s f o r these n o tes,
t h e same b r i g h t vowel " e e ."
me a n d t e , b o t h c o n t a i n
I n s h o r t , th e p resen c e of th e
a c u t e vowel " e e ” i n a to n ic s o l - f a s y l l a b l e , w hether
d iato n ic
o r c h ro m a tic , i n d i c a t e s to th e s in g e r t h a t the
d ia to n ic n o te above i s a t th e d ista n c e
W ith r e g a r d t o t h e
th ese a re
of a sem itone.
c h r o m a t i c a l l y low ered s y l l a b l e s ,
a l l d e riv e d from th e d ia to n ic
s y l l a b l e s by
c h a n g in g th e vowel sound o f t h e d i a t o n i c s y l l a b l e i n each
c a s e t o t h e d a r k v o w e l "aw" - t e t a w ,
ray,
raw .
Thus, t h e r i s e
of t h e chro m atic n o te to
l a h l a w , me maw,
(se la h ) and t h e f a l l
(law soh)
the n e a r e s t d ia to n ic note are
131
p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y s u g g e s t e d by t h e v o w e l c o l o u r s o f t h e
ch ro m atic s y l l a b l e s .
The m a i n r e a s o n why c h i l d r e n
should be g iv e n a n
e a r l y o p p o r tu n ity of s o l - f a i n g ch ro m atic n o te s i s , t h a t
th ro u g h s p e l li n g
o u t t h e s e c h r o m a t i c n o t e s t h e y become
a c q u a in te d a t f i r s t hand w ith th e s t r u c t u r e
o r anatom y o f
th e s c a l e from t h e p o i n t of view o f t h e t o n a l and s e m ito n a l
step s.
C h i l d r e n who h a v e b e e n e a r l y t r a i n e d i n s u c h
m e lo d ic u se of c h ro m a tic n o te s a r e i n a s t r o n g p o s i t i o n
to un d erstan d a l l th e
i t s various c le fs ,
in tric a c ie s
o f t h e music s t a v e w i t h
key s i g n a t u r e s and a c c i d e n t a l s .
H e n c e , we c o n t e n d t h a t i t
is
p s y c h o lo g ic a lly unsound
to a tte m p t to c o r r e l a t e s o l - f a and s t a f f ,
p a ri passu,
t h r o u g h o u t t h e whole c u r r i c u l u m - t o h o l d u p , a s i n t h i s
in stan ce,
the
s o l - f a i n g of ch ro m atic n o te s because c h ild r e n
a r e n o t o l d enough to u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t a f f sym bols f o r t h e s a
It
is as i f
one w e r e t o f o r b i d
c h i l d r e n t o u s e words
o r a l l y i n th e E n g lis h c l a s s , u n t i l t h e y had been f o r m a l ly
i n t r o d u c e d t o them i n t h e R ead in g L esso n !
T his a t t i t u d e
o f l o g i c a l and piecem eal p r e s e n t a t i o n of s u b j e c t - m a t t e r ,
w hich i s
a v e r y common one among m u s i c t e a c h e r s , may be
i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g i n c i d e n t , w hich o c c u r r e d a few
y e a r s a g o when t h e w r i t e r was e n g a g e d i n s u p e r i n t e n d i n g
m usic t e a c h i n g i n e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls .
He h a d b e e n
the
I3Z
encouraging th e v a rio u s c la s s e s t o s p e l l ,
or to s o l - f a
f r o m m e m o r y , f a m i l i a r hymn t u n e s a n d s o n g s f r o m t h e i r
song b o o k s.
Among o t h e r s t h a t he h a d a s k e d a T e a c h e r t o
p r e p a r e was t h e w e l l - k n o w n p s a l m t u n e
"French"
o r "Dundee":
'fcVj.F
j:d im : f is :d lr :m i f :m lr
(.s Id :t i l ;s Is
IS :U 1
|i
Id
| r :d id
1-}
|d : - | - | |
On h i s n e x t v i s i t h e a s k e d t h e c l a s s t o s o l - f a t h i s
psalm
t u n e f r o m mem ory , a n d t h e y d i d s o c o r r e c t l y w i t h t h e e x c e p ­
t i o n o f one n o t e , n a m e ly " f e " .
When t h e y c a m e t o t h i s
note
c o r r e c t sound b u t c a l l e d
" f e " , t h e y alw ays sa n g t h e
th e note
"fah".
The w r i t e r d r e w t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e
T ea ch e r to t h i s , and sh e r e p l i e d t h a t sh e had t o l d th e
c la s s to c a l l t h e note
"fah ", adding,
n o t s u p p o s e d t o know " f e " a t t h i s
beenpardoned f o r r e t o r t i n g ,
to sin g i t
a t th is
"You s e e , t h e y a r e
sta g e."
One m i g h t h a v e
"W ell, w hat r i g h t
s t a g e ...and s i n g
have th e y
i t so w e l l , too?"
S u r e l y , i n m u s ic a s i n l a n g u a g e , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n
why a n o r a l s t a g e s h o u l d n o t
c o -e x is t, a l b e i t a t a higher
l e v e l , a l o n g s i d e a symbol s t a g e .
We w o u l d p r o p o s e ,
th en ,
t h a t chrom atic sequence
s i n g i n g s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d i n c l a s s and c a r r i e d on o r a l l y ,
once t h e
p r a c t i c e o f d i a t o n i c se q u en c e s i n g i n g h as been
estab lish ed .
133
It is
q u ite unnecessary to ad o p t th e u su al procedure
o f i n t r o d u c i n g c h r o m a ti c n o t e s one a t a t i m e , d e v o t i n g
m an y m o n t h s t o
each one.
T h i s may b e n e c e s s a r y wh en we
a re e x p la in in g chrom atic n o te s i n te rm s o f s t a f f n o ta tio n .
Betw een M id d le C a n d t h e o c t a v e a b o v e ,
th e note
"fe", fo r
e x a m p l e , may a p p e a r i n s t a f f n o t a t i o n i n 15 d i f f e r e n t
g u ise s i n th e T reble C lef a lo n e ,
i.e .,
i n e a c h o f the
7 s h a r p a n d 7 f l a t k e y s and i n t h e n a t u r a l k e y . *
Vs. V
t,0 llfo n p i 5
E
p
° r (3=Eg
*0
But w h i l e m u s i c a l n o t a t i o n
is h i g h l y com plex,
m u s ic i t s e l f , a s J o h n Curwen u s e d t o r e m in d h i s a u d i e n c e s ,
i s v ery sim p le.
And we a r e c o n c e r n e d h e r e s o l e l y w i t h
m u s i c a l s o u n d s and t h e i r n a m e s, o r w i t h m u sic a s an
o ra l language.
The above a p p l i e s t o e a c h o f t h e 9 c h r o m a t i c n o t e s i n
conmon u s e .
Thus, w i t h i n t h e o ctav e and i n t h e t r e b l e
c l e f a l o n e , t h e s t a f f r e a d e r m u s t become a c q u a i n t e d
w i t h 13 5 c h r o m a t i c n o t e s a s a g a i n s t t h e 9 c h r o m a t i c
s y l l a b l e s o f t h e t o n i c s o l - f a sy stem , v i z . de r e f e
s e l e a n d t a l a ma r a .
!3 k
ch ro m a t i c
m s s
R a i s e d c h r o m a t i c n o t e s a r e much m o r e common i n
m elody t h a n lo w e re d c h ro m a tic n o t e s ,
and t h e s e sh o u ld
be
i n t r o d u c e d f i r s t b y means o f t h e s e m i t o n a l m o rd e n t f i g u r e .
I n t h e s e q u e n c e 121
t
it
d ! \t
I t
\l
slls-Psl-fm-flm
r m l r d r I d - - ||
w i l l be s e e n t h a t t h e i n t e r v a l fro m 1 t o 2 i s som etim es
a to n e an d som etim es a s e m it o n e .
I f we a r e t o make t h i s
i n t e r v a l a s e m i t o n e t h r o u g h o u t , we m u s t c h a n g e t h e v o w e l
of t h e m id d le s y l l a b l e ,
in th e case
of t e
i.e .
o f colum n 2 ,
to
" e e H, e x c e p t
a n d me, w h i c h , a s t h e nam es i n d i c a t e ,
a l r e a d y a sem ito n e below t h e d i a t o n i c n o t e .
are
Hence, t h e
s e m i t o n a l m o r d e n t f i g u r e 12 1 v/ould r u n t h u s :
|ol' t d ' l t
1 1 1 se I Is {esl-p m f l m re m Ir
In reading th is
de
r i d - -II
c h ro m a tic se q u en ce from t h e Sequence
M o d u la to r , t h e c l a s s s h o u ld be t o l d s im p ly t o c h a n g e , where
n e c e s s a r y , t h e v o w e l s o u n d s i n c o lu m n 2 t o
ex p lan atio n is re q u ire d .
I t w i l l be found t h a t c h i l d r e n
w ill respond r e a d ily to th e s e d ir e c tio n s ,
a l l the r a is e d
" e e * . No f u r t h e r
and w i l l m a s te r
c h r o m a t i c n o t e s w i t h o u t m u ch d i f f i c u l t y .
Much p r a c t i c e i n t h e s e m i t o n a l m o r d e n t f i g u r e s h o u l d
be g i v e n b e f o r e s e q u e n c e s i n v o l v i n g a l e a p t o t h e c h r o m a ti c
note are attem p ted .
S c a le s c o n ta in in g th e s e m ito n a l m ordent
may be u s e d .
F o r e x a m p l e : 121 d e s c e n d i n g a n d a s c e n d i n g on t h e L . H . S . o f
th e M odulator.
(21 $ d t d | t 1et\ I se Z |s {e s \ f m f |m « m | r d e r | d — ft<Lt,<L\r<kr Ifniemlf m - f | s - ( e s | l s B l | t ' let\d'--{
The same p r i n c i p l e c o u l d he a p p l i e d t o o r d i n a r y
m o d u lato r e x e r c is e s ,
co n tain in g o n e-b eat n o te s ,
the te a c h e r
p o in tin g w hile th e c la s s e m b e llish e d e ac h n o te w ith a low er
se m ito n a l m ordent, th u s:
Key £>
jtow fe
[I d
:m
|s
:l
If
:r
Is
: m
|s(-(es : Istl, \ f r n f |s £ cs : ^ (
C& A4
A gain, a l l
cro tch ets
|d '
: t
\cL'
:m
If
Id trd : mje
:r
lo t
•-Vtd»t r Ia t : —
in sig h t-re a d in g e x erc ises,
except those
a t t h e e n d o f a p h r a s e , m i g h t be s i m i l a r l y
ornam ented.
T h u s , t h e f o l l o w i n g e x e r c i s e f r o m "The F o l k
Song S i g h t S i n g i n g S e r i e s , "
:—
Book I
(O xford U n i v e r s i ty P r e s s )
ljin!
would be s u n g t o t h e s y l l a b l e s a s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g :
/b(o
T h is p r in c ip le
use of th e
of m elodic o rn a m e n ta tio n th ro u g h th e
l o w e r s e m i t o n a l m o r d e n t f i g u r e m i g h t a l s o be
e x te n d e d t o a l l m inim s,
e x c e p t th o s e a t t h e end of a p h r a s e .
The m i n i m d w o u l d t h e n b e t r a n s f o r m e d t h u s :
T h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e f r o m t h e same S i g h t R e a d e r ,
w ould be su n g a s i n t h e exam ple b e lo w .
p . <CM
u ne.
*
t-ii
■ . f• i l l
iu - i
1
£
We t h u s a r r i v e a t one o f t h e p r i n c i p a l t y p e s o f m e l o d i c
o r n a m e n t a t i o n u s e d b y c o m p o s e r s i n t h e V a r i a t i o n Form f r o m
H a y d n 1s d a y o n w a r d s .
The s e m i t o n a l m o r d e n t f i g u r e may a l s o b e a p p l i e d t o
o n e - b e a t n o t e s i n f a m i l i a r s o n g a n d hymn t u n e s .
T hese would
b e s o l - f a e d f r o m memory a n d o r n a m e n t e d t h u s :
" The A s h g r o v e "
Key A *
s& . I A
te fe , I
r t ■" w
•w
« sA s 1w
:
■A t *
k A r : W : rA
I W '•$"£•: W . *SM
:
r
h t e :sA s.i
-fete
II
RAISED CHROMATIC SEQUENCES
We g i v e b e l o w some e x a m p l e s o f c h r o m a t i c s e q u e n c e s .
The a c u t e a c c e n t o v e r t h e n u m b e r s i n t h e s e q u e n c e f o r m u l a e ,
121, 1232, 1343 e t c . ,
sy llab les
i n t h e s e colum ns o f t h e M o d u la to r s h o u l d , where
n e c e s s a ry , be r a i s e d .
to in d ic a te
it
i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e n o t e s and t h e
T his d e v ic e o f "a c c e n tin g '' a f i g u r e
c h r o m a t i c a l t e r a t i o n w i l l b e f o u n d u s e f u l when
i s n e c e s s a r y t o k e e p a r e c o r d o f work d o n e .
I n th e s e ch ro m atic seq u en ces,
o n l y on e s i d e o f t h e
S e q u e n ce M o d u la to r s h o u ld be u se d a t a tim e , t h e c l a s s
d e s c e n d i n g a n d a s c e n d i n g o n t h e same c o l u m n s .
E x c e p t when
t h e l e t t e r s R . H . S . a r e u s e d , i t w i l l be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t
t h e L e f t Hand S i d e o f t h e M o d u l a t o r i s
in ten d ed .
t
ii.il
I
I §(M_l Sel_| t _ s f t si I f m_£ \s m rem If y eft r U d f d I r t f ft.fr, 11 - }
Icij, s ^ l H :
[£i 3^3
|
|j d t X IstX
I m_d
Itftt s $ s \l se l
If r <k r | s_m -rem\ I f m f |t s f t s Id! - II
f wif Isfts mtcmlf m f
rdrlm wni dtjcUrdrt-l^tJd —} j
{U t . d l,se^lr<kr tj&plmttth d p d Ifinf r f t r I s f t s mreml l s e l f t n f Ifrlet s ft s | d ' - ||
jfij
If
l_^i&
I jld'tJ! t
{Icttrd t
i232l
It-let j
\l s e l s
bfs f
Iftmfm
Innem r
Ir t f t r d I d - ]
Irdr d
Imt&m r
Ifmfm
Is f t s f
It a e l s
| t f t t Z, I d ' - I I I
Ij l d t f t t d ' I t l s e l t
l l s f t s i Isfmfts
fdtf ft.tjd If d t ; d r Imr f t r m Ifmremf
I
J s d ' t d 1 If t f t f r I hi I
s U lr_s
Ifm remf Iwrft r m
lyd^lr Id - - }
Isfm fs llsftsi
| t l » l t |d '--|l
ft_s |d_F m £
l^jn n j [
| Sjji -f^d Ij^r <ftr lt-_m wm ld_f mf_ |r^_s_fts_ I m_Z s e l
I\ j ^ c L r _ Id
l £ t lejt Id' -
I
!££X^3 I jU ' t l s e - l l t l s f t - s l l s f m - f Is-fm-ffc-m If m r f t - r l m r d t - ^ lrdfc; h - t j d - }
I d-trlj s t j - l j r d t Zaftj Iwrd t - d l f m r c f t - r l s f m te-ml I s f m - f It I s f t - 5 1d - II
S e n n e n c e s w i t h l e a p t o C h r o m a t i c N o te
I 3 a |
Iis
I
Iail
(l d' Ze- t
It
se I l i f t s
Is
m f |ft re m |m eft
r I r t,
s I t st I
| d Z&, t t lr
t, d I m <de. r If
re m Is m f
|l
f d ‘ s« I I t
ft s l l
re m I f d* r
Im t j d lr- \ t,
| d sej X, I r
Ze, t, I w» t, d I f
|J d 'tftd 'ltls e -t
m f Is
<ft r I s n m 11 m f I t
J d 11 s e d I t l f t s U s
m f Is f
Isfm s
l l s ft I
ld -
Id--II
ft s
Id--}
Id -
\ l s h l Is f m s I f m r e f U r f t m l r d t . r
{ ) d - t ; 2 a , d l r d t ; r Im r e f t m I f m re f
!uJi I
-ft
d
I d — ■}
I t I s«.t I d - —II
rem I f m eft r Im r t , d lr d Z^t, I d - —}
f d-tj a U j r d f t t , I m r ^ d I f m<ftr I s f tew U s m f
I t l f t s Id'— I
IS i
IJJ7J I
j l d s e l 11 ft s l l
m-P I s t e m
I -P ol*. r Irnt,
I r ft, t;
Id--}
( id Se, I, I r ft. t; I m
tj d I f eft r
I s re m l l m f I t ft s
I d '- - I
11 *•3 |
d
I d f ft i I t m s e l l l r f t s l s d r n f l f t - ^ T e m l m l j f t r Ir s, t, d Id — }
{id f ft, t, l r s, t j d l m I, cf t r I f t - r e m l s d m f l l r f t s
l i s t 'l l
I t m s e l Id'— fl
I d ’ l f t s I t s m f I l f r e m ! s m eft r I f r t, d Im d ft, t, | r t , se, I , I d — }
(Id I, ft, s, I r t, se, I, I m d ft,t, I f
r % d I s m f t r 11 f re m I t s m f ld‘— 1|
j|3 |J J
1*11 3
{ddlse I tfttlft s ls»l I m f s-fes Ire mfm flft r mftmlt, d rftrlft, tr dfrlld - }
{^1 se, I, rdrl ft, t; miem!t , d ftn£ Ift r sfts Ire m Isell mf tfttl ft s dfrdl ci' -
L it
I
(Id m f
11 re m 11 f t r Is
tj
d
I d m, -f; I r ft, s, I m se, I, I f ft, t,
|
}
I f ft, t, I mse, I, I r -ft, s, Id - Is t, d
11 c ^ r I t re m led*—
fUi^Ctiiioma/bic_Seauejlc^s__on__^Ji^^_i__pi^_ModLu la :t o r
I j_£
I
{Idjn1r e m i t r' f t ' r ' 11 d1t d1 I s_t f t t
|
liei 323 |
d_m-re m | r f
m_£ Im_s -f es If l . ?el
Is_t f t t I l_d t_d lt_r' eft r1Id1 - I
(Idr'oT mWnltd 't r 'ftr II t I d 't d ' I s i s t f t t l f s f
J d r d mremlrmr fm f Ufm s-fes If s f Isel
|l32J43 I
| f_l s e l lm_s ft_£ lr_P m f I d - ?
Isel Imf m
s f t s lrm r fm f I d
Is i s t f t t I I t I d 'td 'li d ' t r ' f t r l d 1 - II
{Idm1rem' fnj It r 1ftr'dl' IIcl'tcL' r'd 11s t f t t d t l f l s t l t l Imsfes I s I r£ mf i f Id — i
| dm -remfin |r£ mf s f Im sftsls I f l ad t l 1 st fetdfr II d td' rU1Itr'ftr'mV Id' - - 1
|i2323i|
IdVW re'md'ltdV ftV t Il t d 1tc l'l I s l t f t t s I f s l self Imfs fesmlrmf mfr Id -
}
fldrm remdlrmf m fr Imfs ftsm If s l s e lf I s l t f t t s ll t d ' t d l ltd V f t V t ld 1-
fl
!U0
IJIQ J7] I
t
a
i
l
(Idm s Isel It r'-p sfts I I d V fm fls trVftm1f t l d y f t r 'L s t d l'td' l r f I t f t t Id - }
I
i l d j « i t a e l l r f l t f t t I n ^ d ^ l f Z d ' r ^ l s ^ ' n f ^ l Z ^ f j ^ ' l t r f ' s j f t s j l d 1- l|
IS71J7]
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j d'mse I 'f r l tr'fels'm'd'k d 'm 'f 'r 't Is t f t m d ^ If l f t ' r ' t s Im a t d ’l f Ir f f t t s m l d - }
1 d m s e i f r l r f f t frsm L s t d ' l f If led r'ts Istre'md'l lld'nt' fV'tltrfe's'm'd'ld1-
fmVdlf'm'-Pr'd't Imre m'd'tl Ir'ftV t I s I d 't d 'l s f Itle t s fm | tse I f wr I s-je s m r d l d
3 .a Ji/4
||
* }
{midlfm f f m r Isft s_£ f m . l t a e l l . s f I t l e t t ls_ I d t d d ' t l I r ^ ‘ r r ^ l ^ W r d l d ' . ||
ulHs]
fdrl mWm'd'td'lrft r't I t l d t
dll si It lets
f sl lse I f mf Isfe sm rmlf mfr dr Id -
I mre md rnilfni fr mf Isfesmf s l t a e l f s l l t f t ts
r. h
s.
lt_Idti^tdlr^rfcdVld'
}
- flj
A scending o n ly
I
H d m r d e I r f mje I w_s f_m If I g ft I s _ t I s e ll_d| t i e | t _ r ' d t I d ' - fl
I J_3 4 3 I
1 d_m f m I v f t s f I m_se I s . I f f t 1 1 I s t d ' t 1 1 f t f d | 11 re m r I d - fl
ijj s
m \\'i
{ d rJd e . r m f l r e m mfsl m f fs llfe s s i t Ise. I l ^ l f t t t d r ' l t d ' d r m l d ' -
The f i r s t f i v e h a r s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a s c e n d i n g
ch ro m a tic sequence w i l l he r e c o g n is e d a s t h e opening b a rs
of the
" M i n u e t i n G-" f r o m " S e r e n a d e f o r O r c h e s t r a " b y
Brahm s.
r
,
_
. T T T r P t f l f r F P
R.H.6.
l ‘i u l f f c -1 U
«-.r :«Ul«L : r
(Is :>d
:f-t| se : I
I r :-.n :r.f I re :n
\l
: - * : U '|f t
L
:-.f:«.slm : f
* *•- I* - d ' - t f l t :d*
I f - s - f d l f t :v .4
Id'
I
/* /
^.OWERiflJ CHRUiViATiC N u ia S
SEQUENCE S IN G IN fl
W ith r e g a r d t o f l a t t e n e d or lo w ered c h ro m a tic n o t e s ,
t h e s e a r e much m o r e awkward t o s i n g and m o r e d i f f i c u l t t o
i n t r o d u c e i n t o seq u en ce work.
H o w ev e r, we may c o n s o l e
o u r s e l v e s w i t h t h e t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y a r e f o u n d much l e s s
f r e q u e n t l y i n m elody.
Of t h e s e v e n s c a l e d e g r e e s , d a n d f ,
b e i n g t h e u p p e r n o t e s of t h e two sem i t o n a l s t e p s , a r e n e v e r
dm w cU t S
flatte n e d ^
ma a n d r a
T his
*4 'jit**
leaves only fo u r f l a t te n e d n o te s - t a ,
(pronounced taw ,
l a w , maw a n d r a w )
la,
- and o f t h e s e
r a i s v e r y r a r e l y u s e d f o r m e l o d i c p u r p o s e s a n d may be
o m itted a t f i r s t .
We g i v e b e l o w a f e w e x a m p l e s o f s e q u e n c e s w i t h
low ered ch ro m atic n o te s .
M o d ulato r, th e
1 to la,
and
I n r e a d i n g t h e s e fro m t h e Sequence
c l a s s w i l l be t o l d to change
I i 3 ^3 |
1/434-1
1323.
Lowered C h ro m a tic S e q u e n ce s
U
I fol It s 1* s 11 -P s -P Is m f m If r mar Im d r d lr t, d t,---I d -------1
f d I, 1a, I, Ir t; d t, Im d r d If r mar I s mf w l l f s f l t s k s
I d --------I
| d ' s k s l t f s f U rnfm Is r mar If d r cI Im t d - t
Id
Jd s , ^ lr
II X 3
to t a ,
m t o ma, when t h e s e n o t e s o c c u r on t h e c o lu m n
i n d i c a t e d by t h e a c c e n t e d f i g u r e , e . g .
L .H .S .
t
| {Id ta I
11 I* s
Jol fc, t, lr d t;
I m ^ d t , If d r d Is n » r 11 m f m
Isfm
I f ma. r I m r d
I r d t,
Im r d
If mar
|s f m l l s f
It 1* s
Imtjdtj rd Ifdrdnur |sr mrfm llmfmsf
}
I t f s-f I d
l l s f
(ids Is jal I t f s f Ias llmfrnsf 1stmrfm I f d t d ^ l m l j d j r d
te
lr
U
II
}
I d ------- I
I d ----- }
I t f s f jasld! - -
m
L .H .S .
D escending on ly
11 3 12 I {Id11 d ' t 11 s fo 1 11 f k s Is m s f I f r f m
li
II
3 S' i | {| d' I f d1 I t s m
3 [ | {Id I d '
I 1S 3 I I
| d' f i d '
Im d m r l r t , r d l d — - I I
11 f r la, Is m d s I -p p t, -p Imd \ m | r
I t s "fc 11 -P la/
I s m s
Itm sfeU rfla-lsdm s
I f r f
Im
5, r I d
II
d ma | p t , r
Id- —
fi
I -f ■
t , r -p Im 1, d tna, I r s, t; r I d
I
R .H .S . o f M odulator
2
I I | d 1 r 1d 1 l t d ' t
(I d r d
113 2 l I
Ir
tm
11 fc, I
Isk-s
Ifs-P
I
r Im -P m
I f s f
I s la- s
\l
| d1w i r ‘d' | t r 1d ' t
11 d11 1
Is
m -F m I r m r | d
i* I l t d ' t -Id' —
{IdVmr'd1I t d ' d d ' t l l t d t l
fld rm rd Irmfmr
Imfsfm
Is l i d s
U|
1 s I f la, 5 -p I m s - f m I r -P m r I d }
J d i w a r d I r f m r I m s - f f n IF la s f \ s i * l s 11 d ' t X
Iu32i |
}
-
II
I t r ' d 11--- I d' ----- D
Ifsksf
ImPsfm
Irmfm r
I d ----- }
|psks_-P I s ^ l U s
litd ti,
I t d r d t --- I d ' ----- I
L . H . S . R a i s e d and lo w e re d c h r o m a t i c s combined
3^3
I
[{££3 2j3 I
fld'td1Ifcl I t k t slo.s 11ad f s f l s f c s mPm Ifm-p m r Imr&m d rd Irder td t, Id
-
}
{idfd tfejl. I rdtr t d t ; Imrem d r d Ifm-P riur Isles mfm Ilsfelfs-P I t k t sh. s Id'
-
li
{ld'1 sel ial Its fts las | l f tnf s f Ism remfm l-fr dermar Imd^drd | r £ d t Id — —• }
{ Id ^ ^ fe ^ I r ^ J ^ d s Imdtd rd I£r d«r mar I ernrem fm II f mf s f Its-jesks I d ' ----- II
The tw o e x a m p l e s a h o v e may a l s o h e s u n g t o t h e r h y t h m s
IfiflJJl a n d
lm m \
resp ectiv ely .
MINOR MODE SEQUENCES
I t w i l l h a v e b e e n n o t e d t h a t we h a v e made n o m e n t i o n
o f S e q u e n c e S i n g i n g i n t h e M i n o r Mode.
O l d M i n o r o r h a h Mode w i l l ,
Sequences in th e
o f c o u r s e , be found u n d e r th e
s e c t i o n h e a d i n g "Modal S e q u e n c e S i n g i n g " , a n d t h e s e w i l l
f o r m a g o o d i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e M o dern M i n o r Mode.
\z i
ill s f I* fm Ifm r U r d ir d tld tjlj Itr IrS, il(- - ll,tjd It; d r Iot rm lr n f Itnf s If s 2 1* I f IZ—11
By s i m p l y r a i s i n g e v e r y " s " t o
a f t e r t h e manner i n d i c a t e d i n
"se" i n t h e s e seq uen ces,
"C hrom atic Sequence S in g in g " ,
we may u s e t h e s e q u e n c e s f o r p r a c t i c e i n t h e m o d e r n
Harmonic M in o r.
Thus:
123
I se-Pise ■pmIf mr Imr d lr d t, Idtjl, It;Ijsejl,-- III, t,d It, d r let rm Ir mf Imf self $2 Iself 12- - I
13
{ I lf Ise m If p U d Ir t; Id 2, It; se, 11, - III, cl It; r Id m lr f Im self 2 I* t I I - I
132
|lf » ls a m f If i>ni Iweir' Ir t;d Id2,t, It; se,1,12,-- III, dtf It; rd Idmr Irfm Imseflf Iselsefrl 1 2 --1
1234{llsefwls6fmrlfMrdUrdt;|rolt;2|ldti;l,selt;l,se(f1l2|---l|2l,f{(ir kjdrmldrmflrwfselmtellfse2tls»2td11---ll
143
{llmf Iftrm lfdr Imt.dlrl.t, Ielse,2,
— III, rdltjm r Idf mlrsef Im lsel^H lsed't|2--i
S u c h p r a c t i c e a s t h e a b o v e on t h e H a r m o n i c M i n o r S c a l e w i l l
b r i n g hone t o t h e c l a s s , a s no a m o u n t o f e x p l a n a t i o n on
h i s t o r i c a l g r o u n d s w i l l , t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r m aking t h e r o u g h
p l a c e s s m o o t h i f t h i s mode i s t o b e u s e d f o r m e l o d i c p u r ­
poses.
AM-
U n f o r t u n a t e l y , owing t o t h e a r b i t r a r y n a t u r e o f t h e
6 t h a n d 7 t h d e g r e e s * o f t h e M e lo d ic Minor S c a l e ,
i t is not
e a s y t o a d a p t th e Sequence M odulator t o sequence s i n g i n g in
t h e M elodic M inor.
H ow eve r, we h a v e t h e c o n s o l a t i o n of
k n o w i n g t h a t a s c e n d i n g s e q u e n c e s i n t h e m i n o r mode i n v o l v i n g
th e r a is e d 6th ("ba") are ra re
i n melody, w h ile th e
r e m a i n i n g p a r t o f t h e a s c e n d i n g ^ m i n o r s c a l e a n d t h e w h o le
o f th e d e s c e n d in g m elo d ic m inor s c a l e a r e c a t e r e d f o r i n
t h e O l d M i n o r o r L a h M i n o r Mode s e q u e n c e s .
S u p p le m e n ta r y work i n t h e M elodic Minor S c a l e ,
h o w e v e r , may be done f r o m t h e B l a c k b o a r d .
F o r e x a m p l e , t h e Old M i n o r
{ l l s f l s - F m If m r Im r d IrcU , l e U ^ t ; ^ , l i , - - l li. - t ^ l t ; d r id r itt Ir m f I m f 8 I f s i l s l t l l - - i
may b e c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e H a rm o nic M i n o r
f i s e f ls*f m l-Pmr I m r d I r d t , U t (l , l t ; l ls*ll2; - -
Idrm I r m f Im f f tlf s tl
a n d t h e M e l o d i c Minor
f i S-F Is f m If n r Im r d \ r d t t U-fr.V*. I , * , I I , - - H f a d It; d r I d r m Ir m f Im b»selt»se t l » l t I I - - I
*
S e e t h e " M u s i c a l T i m e s " f o r D ecem b er, 1 9 3 4 , p a g e 1 1 1 9 ,
where t h e w r i t e r d i s c u s s e s t h e d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s
p e r f o r m e d b y t h e r a i s e d 6 t h when u s e d a s a d i s s o n a n t
p a s s i n g n o t e a n d a s a c o n s o n a n t harmony n o t e , and
c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e n e c e s s i t y o f k e e p in g b o t h names,
" b a " a n d " f e " f o r t h i s one n o t e i n t h e M i n o r Mode
in order to d istin g u ish th ese fu n ctio n s.
C H A P T E R
V III
VARIED USES OF THE SEQUENCE MODULATOR ( CODTP )
I k
.
IM S
TSTRACHORDAL SEQUENCE SINGING
AND FORM IN MUSIC
We c l a i m t h a t t h e p r a c t i c e o f s e q u e n c e s i n g i n g
t e n d s t o i n c u l c a t e i n th e p u p ils a se n se of form i n m usic.
By " a s e n s e o f f o r m i n m u s i c " we d o n o t mean a
k n o w l e d g e o f t h e f o r m a l a n a l y s i s o f e x t e n d e d movem ents o f
th e kind t h a t
to d ay .
i s s o p o p u l a r i n th e A p p r e c i a t i o n L es so n of
Many r e c e n t h o o k s h a v e b e e n d e v o t e d t o t h i s f o r m a l
an aly sis
of m u sic , and m ost exam ining b o a rd s in c lu d e i t
i n t h e i r l i s t of ex am ination s u b je c ts .
reason fo r
its
No d o u b t t h e
p o p u l a r i t y i n t h e b oo k w o r l d , t h e
lectu re
w o r l d arxi t h e e x a m i n a t i o n r o o m , i s t o b e f o u n d i n t h e f a c t
th at it
is
p r e - e m in e n tl y a fo rm a l s u b j e c t , and can t h e r e ­
f o r e be expounded, t a u g h t and exam ined i n a f o rm a l m anner.
But i t
i s a s e r i o u s r e f l e c t i o n on t h e f o r m a t i v e
v alue of t h i s fo rm al s u b j e c t t h a t p u p i l s ,
who a r e c a p a b l e
o f a n a l y s i n g a f u g u e , s o n a t a o r sy m p h on y , a r e o f t e n f o u n d
t o b e e q u a l l y c a p a b l e o f c o m m i t t i n g w h a t we w ou ld c a l l t h e
" s in a g a in s t the h o ly g h o st"
of m u sic, nam ely, adding a
b e a t t o a p h rase or s u b t r a c t i n g a b e a t from a phrase
w i t h o u t b e ir g aware o f t h e f a c t t h a t a n y th in g abnorm al
has occurred.
S urely i t
i s n o t a knowledge o f t h e t e c h n i q u e o f
form al a n a l y s i s t h a t is im p o rta n t f o r th e beginner in
m usic - r a t h e r i s
i t t h i s fe e lin g fo r or sense of to n a l
b a lan ce,
p r o p o r t i o n , sym m etry, fo rm , c a l l i t what you w i l l
a se n se t h a t corresponds c lo s e ly t o t h e sense of s p a tia l
p r o p o r tio n o r balance in th e v is u a l a r t s .
I t i s a sense
t h a t c a n n o t be d e v e l o p e d f o r m a l l y , t h r o u g h t h e e y e .
on e may d e v e l o p i t
i n pupiLs i n f o r m a l l y ,
But
through th e e a r,
b y h a v i n g t h e s e p u p i l s o b s e r v e goo d f o r m i n a l l t h e i r
sin g in g ,
an d by g i v i n g them a b u n d a n t p r a c t i c e i n s i m p le
m a t e r i a l , w hich c a l l s
o u t f o r good f o r m i n t h e s i n g i n g .
The s e n s e o f k e y a n d o f t o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r e o r d e s i g n i n
m usic i s
s i m p l y t h e same t h i n g w r i t l a r g e , b u t t h i s
sense
o f f o r m i n t h e l a r g e i s a much l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t , i n t h e
i n d i v i d u a l a s in t h e r a c e , a lth o u g h i t develops n a t u r a l l y
f ro m t h e s e n s e o f fo rm i n m elody.
I t is not p o ssib le,
im plied in th is
here,
to b rin g out a l l t h a t is
"sense o f form in m usic," t h i s a b i l i t y to
h e a r t h e w hole i n t h e p a r t and t h e p a r t i n th e w hole.
One
may d e m o n s t r a t e t h e e l e m e n t s o f m e l o d i c f o r m t o a c l a s s
t h r o u g h t h e eye an d on a b a c k g ro u n d of s p a c e .
cf.
t h e F o lk s o n g Forms:
A
A
B A
A BCB
A
A'
B
ABAC
A'
ABBA
or the I r is h
B ut, t o g a i n an y r e a l i n t u i t i o n
ABBA
of m elodic form , th e
p u p i l s m u st a p p re h e n d i t f o r t h e m s e l v e s t h r o u g h t h e e a r and
on a b a c k g ro u n d o f t i m e .
Hence, a n e x t e n s i v e m e lo d ic and
/* '/
r h y t h m i c v o c a b u l a r y a n d a k e e n a w a r e n e s s o f a n d memory f o r
m u s ic a l p a t t e r n s a r e e s s e n t i a l t o t h e u n d e rs ta n d in g of
m usic.
The r e t e n t i o n of an n o u n cin g p h r a s e s and t h e i n t e l ­
l i g e n t a n ti c i p a ti o n of responsive phrases, th e d e te c tio n
o f r e p e t i t i o n s and t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f se q u e n c e s and
i m i t a t i o n s , b o t h r h y t h m i c and m e l o d i c , a l l p l a y a p a r t i n
t h e u n c o n s c i o u s w e i g h i n g o f p r o s and c o n s , w h i c h g o e s t o
t h e a p p e r c e p t io n of m usical v a lu e s,
p u t,
or, as i t
is u su ally
t o t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n of m usic.
B e sid e s c o n tr i b u ti n g l a r g e l y tow ards th e fo rm atio n
o f s u c h an a t t i t u d e o f m u s ic a l a w are n ess on th e p a r t o f
th e p u p ils ,
it
i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m of
sequence s in g in g w i l l h e lp a ls o t o develop in th e p u p ils
t h e s e n s e o f p h r a s e and t h e f e e l i n g f o r form o r f o r t h e
lo g ic of th in g s
sym m etry i s
in m usic.
For t h e a r c h e t y p e of a l l m u sic a l
t h e M a j o r S c a l e i t s e l f w i t h i t s two e q u a l
tetrac h o rd s:
d 'T T " s
t^ r n r ^ i
s 'T t 'a '
An d , i t
may be c l a i m e d t h a t i n s e q u e n c e s i n g i n g t h i s
sy m m etry o f t h e m a jo r s c a l e i s comm unicated t o t h e
s e q u e n t i a l p r o g r e s s i o n s b a s e d on t h e s c a l e .
But th e f e e l i n g f o r b a la n ce or p ro p o r tio n i n th e
s c a l e w i l l be g r e a t l y en h an ced , i f i n s i n g i n g th e s c a l e a
pause or a " h a lf c lo se "
tetrac h o rd :
i s made o n t h e f i n a l n o t e o f e a c h
_______
_________
{U,/^ T l 7 T >
d Tr^TffTTF
|
| f < T l o l ^ l ||
i— i--' I
|c t^ -~ ^ ||
H e r e we h a v e t h e p r o t o t y p e o f t h e m u s i c a l s e n t e n c e w i t h
its
a n n o u n c i n g and r e s p o n s i v e p h r a s e s , and i t s
b alancing
o f t o n a l c e n t r e s — t o n i c - d o m i n a n t - t o n i c and t o n i c - s u b d o m in an t-to n ic.
The s a m e e f f e c t may b e h a d i n s e q u e n c e s i n g i n g ,
a " h a lf clo se"
chord,
i s made o n t h e f i n a l n o t e o f e a c h t e t r a ­
th at is,
i f no s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n i s su rg o n t h e s e
_ _____
n o tes.
1
1 2, |
l l l '- t | t : l
if
ll.-s
112. 3 |
| S
I f
-m
|m -.r
|r : d
_______ ^
i d '- l
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d :r
I r.m
lm :f
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Is-. I
l l : t
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II
l 5 : - : - l f i w ^ l m : r : d l r : d ^ i d > - : - | l d : r : m | r : m : f | n i : f : S l f . - : - | s : l : t l l : - f c : e l ' l t : d l: p , | < l ! : - > l l
I t w i l l be f e l t t h a t th e s e t e t r a c h o r d a l sequences
a l m o s t de mand a n t i p h o n a l t r e a t m e n t ,
a n d s o we h a v e s e t
t h e m o u t b e l o w a n t i p h o n a l l y f o r t w o v o i c e s A a n d B.
£^ _____________ g
..a _
... __________
1/ 3,3(1
I f 31 |
1
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I
1 13 2 1 1
(I d ' t d T t s
t
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f ld 'T tltT z T lf ~ s ~ ls
| d ' T t d l t « l ‘t l 2 f s l I s —
I
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1 /4 3
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[ I c l T l l t f s
1/5 511
1 13 5 1 1
l l m f
I f V f Im d m I r
t,
- " - i f rm I m d r Ir t , d
1/41
1/5431
\s tts
f l d ' ^ l $ t l l s f l i ^ - l f i ^ f h » r d i « l r c l l i r l d - - - W r « . d l r « f r l * f s Bl f
IT l-
r i d - ^ - I l d ' m d T r T r Im s m ~ l f ^ i d - -
I f r m f Im d rm lrtjd rld —
l-foT fT m -f,m IrZ ,r
Ifd T
i d —
l l d m r l r f m l m s f l f - -
lldm rdlrfm r Im sfm lf—
l l d f d l r
s r Im
I m t j d l r 1,-t; i d - - l l d f m I r s f I m 1 s l - f
ll-frd'2 I t d ' r ' t l d 1— II
\s<f s ' \ l d l l tr 'i ? IX —
Is t l
I s t l s
l l d t
|2 d V l I tV d tl d —
I s d ' s l l
—
Itr'd! I d - -
I s d'-fc I I
r ' 2 I t m ' t id'—
r'£ i W
r ' l d 1-
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{ I d ' l C h f r m f s l l r m f U ^ - l f t y i r I m ^ d l r s . ^ l d - ' - l l d s f m l r I s f l w t Z s I f ^ - 1 s f d ' f r l I m ' r ' d ' l t f m r i d ' — - 1|
r r l l s ^ - - 1f
Ir s ^ r l d ^ - IldssdT r U r I n i t t m i f ^ -
U X r flits m t l l f r l T s - ^ - If r i j f Im d 2 |m lrtfa r i d —
U d m sd lrf I r lm s tm if ^ - -
Isr'r s lim m iH r f f V Id'—
I!
I s t r 's U d V l f t r 'f t ld '—
1|
///■'
T h is t e t r a c h o r d a l m ethod o f se q u e n c e s i n g i n g h a s
much t o
commend i t .
sequences,
but i t
young c l a s s e s ,
being u sed ,
is
I t m ay ,
o f co u rse, be a p p lie d to a l l
p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l w hen d e a l i n g w i t h
o r when l o n g e r s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n s a r e
e .g .
-
||3II
|ia a » sil
In these te tra c h o rd a l sequences, th e
phrases a re
c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d , a n d t h e sym m etry o f t h e s e q u e n t i a l
p ro g ressio n sta n d s o ut.
provided a t th e
Furtherm ore,
the
"b reath in g -sp ace"
end of e a c h p h ra s e te n d s t o d e v e lo p i n th e
sin g e r th e h a b it of c o rre c t ph rasin g .
T his i s
im portant,
f o r p h r a s in g i n m usic h a s a p h y s i o l o g i c a l a s w e ll a s a
p sy ch o lo g ical b a s is .
Hence, w ith b e g in n e r s t h e r e sh o u ld
b e much p r a c t i c e w i t h m a t e r i a l i n w h i c h t h e
i n th e above,
is
self-ev id en t;
so t h a t th e
phrase u n i t ,
p h y sio lo g ical
as
h a b i t o f c o r r e c t p h r a s i n g may d e v e l o p ,
w ith p r a c tic e ,
t h r o u g h tim e and
i n t o t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d em an d o r c r a v i n g
fo r c o rre c t p h rasin g .
I t w i l l be found a l s o t h a t
the d i v i s i o n in to
t e t r a c h o r d s o f t h e s e q u e n t i a l s e r i e s h e l p s young c h i l d r e n
to
overcome d i f f i c u l t i e s
o f i n t o n a t i o n , w hich a r e
t i m e s a p p a r e n t w hen t h e w h o l e s c a l e
f o r sequence s in g in g ,
tetrach o rd s
is
e s p e c ia lly a t th e
some­
used a s a b a s is
j o i n o f the
in th e ascending s e r i e s .
We s h a l l c o n c l u d e t h i s
s e c t i o n w i t h a few exam ples
o f rh y th m ic s e q u e n c e s b ased on t h e t e t r a c h o r d s ,
and, to
sh o w how c l o s e l y we a r e a p p r o a c h i n g t o t r a d i t i o n a l s o n g
f o r m s , we s h a l l a d d w o r d s t o t h e s e .
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-- N O P Q R S T U V V / X Y
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T h i s v e r y u s e f u l e x e r c i s e may a l s o b e s u n g t o o t h e r f o u r n o t e s e q u e n c e s ( e . g . 1321, 1213 e t c . ) . and to v a r i o u s r h y t h ­
m i c p a t t e r n s , (e.g.u.iJ3i,iJ3J3l,iJj33Jlf e t c . ) .
Or i t c o u l d b e s u n g t o n u m b e r s , t h u s :
111234 15678 11 2 3 4 15 - 11 2 3 4 15678 11 2 3 4 15 - II
MODULAT ORY SEQUENCES
MODULATORY
SEQUENCE MODULATOR
It
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
d'
t
1
s
d'
-
-
-
t
1
s
f
t
cf
r'
m'
1
s
fe
m
1
t
d'
r'
s
-
-
-
s
1
t a d'
f
m
r
d
f
-
-
-
m
r
d
\
ra
f
s
1
r
d
t,
li
r
ra
f
s .
d
-
-
-
d
r
m f
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
i s b u t a s t e p fro m t h e T e t r a c h o r d a l S eq u en ce t o t h e
M o d u l a to r y S e q u e n c e .
I n t h e d e s c e n d i n g s e r i e s a m o d u la tio n
t o t h e d om inan t may be e f f e c t e d by s u b s t i t u t i n g f e f o r f i n
Column 3 , L . H . S . o f t h e S e q u e n ce M o d u l a to r .
I n th e ascen d in g
s e r i e s , s i m i l a r l y , a m o d u la t io n t o t h e su bd om inan t may be
e f f e c t e d by s u b s t i t u t i n g t a f o r t
i n Column 3 , R .H .S .
We have p r i n t e d a Sequence M o d u la to r w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y
c h a n g e s i n s e r t e d , b u t a n y o r d i n a r y c l a s s , b r o u g h t up on t h i s
m e th o d , w o u ld e x p e r i e n c e l i t t l e
changes m e n ta lly .
d i f f i c u l t y in su p p ly in g th e s e
I t i s not p o s s ib le , of c o u rse , to in tro d u c e
t h e s e m o d u la t o r y c h r o m a ti c n o t e s i n t o a l l s e q u e n c e s , a s c a r e
m ust h e t a k e n t o s e e t h a t t h e s e n o t e s a r e a p p r o a c h e d an d
q u itte d p ro p e rly .
Some ex am p le s a r e g i v e n b elo w .
- Ifmr Imrd lr dt. Id-■ -
\ l 2 .3 I
I d
r m |r m f l m f s
| f —
16 1 t i l l t d ' l t d V
ld'--ll
I fld't It 5 lift- i s - If r |md |r t, |d - Ildm Ir f Im 6 |f - Is ft- U d1 |fr r1 Id1- ||
1/3
\ i 3 2 | K d'ltl t s l ll-fes | s - - If rm Iw drlr^dU - \ix3i
I l d m r l r f m
| {|d'tidltlstll/e£.l! s— Ifmrf |mrdin|r'dtr|d-—
I m s f
If - -
I s - f c l l k d 't
Ild fm d lrm f r l m f s m l f - - - I s i f e s
Itr'd ld '--II
| l t d ' Z | t d V t I d 1- - I I
I/2./3I Id W lltlts lls lf Is— Ifmfr Imrindlrdrtld--- Ildrdmlrmrf Imfms If— |slsfc|ltld|frdVld---III
II 3 x i |
1/4 3
|
llftsl Is— Ifrmf Imdrmlrfyir ld~ - Ildmrdlr’fmrlmsfmlf— Isfcds li-d'frilfrr'dtld—II'
fid's I Iffs llm-jels —
Ifdr Imtd lr i.t, Id- -lldfm I r s f ImZs I f - Isd'tllr'd'lt^r'IdL-ll
114231 Jd's t l Itf Is 11wsf Is — Ifdmr Iwt '"‘f IH^fld—-lldfrm lr 5mfIw Ifs If
1sdlfe 11 r'td'Itm'dVId'-- -Jl
11431 1
fldsld'ltfst llmftlls— Ifdrf Im^dmlrl.tjrld- - Ildfmd lr sf r I m IsmIf
Isdfes llr'd' iftrorfcld'—1|
| | 243|
fld'tslltifs IlsmfU — |fmdr’lm»’t|d|rdl1tlld
lldvfm IrmsflmfZs If— Isidli&lltr'd'ltdni'p'ld'—II
1
IldfdmIr s r f Imlms If— Isd'stli r'ld'ltm'tr' Id1—ij
11
|/A-/3|
$d'sd'lltfts llmlftls— Ifdf rIm^mdlrl.r'tjd
I m ^ a l
f l d V d ' s
j I
-
s
II s I
m ~ f e ls
-
Ifm f
c t - r
| m
rmt;-d- Ird
r \ - t ,
|d
II
-
r
s - f
Im f m
1 - g
If-
-
I s J j d ^fc-lU i r ' - d l t d ' t ra'-r'ld1 -
||
l o l 's d ' t - 1
I f r f t
I - s
l l m l
s - f
I s
-
If d f m - r Imtfm r - d lr l , r d - t , I<d
-
||
{ I d U
I r s r
m_- f
lit i l m
f
I f
-
Is d*s
-
II
f l d r d
l / m
f
Iui3-2na|fld'td-1
f
- m
r ^ n
Ir m
s - l t l s l Z a l
- s
£ - s h f | s
fld r d m - r d r i r il r m r f - m r m f Im fm s - f m f s I f
-
l - f c .
Id r 'l tr-d I t m ' f r
d '- r
id'
-
I f ^ t m f m r
Im rm (d ^ rrn r^-1 rd ^ r* ro l^ld
-
|sis fa-1 s i t , \Ul d'-tltd' Ifd't r'-d'tdVld'
A l l t h e a b o v e may b e s u n g t o d i f f e r e n t r h y t h m s .
-
I
B
See p a g e l %
f o r Rhythm T a b l e s c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e num ber o f
n o te s i n t h e Sequence F ig u re
-
li
/T A
1
EAR-TESTS AND SEQUENCE SINGING
The E a r - T e s t i s
featu re
p ro b a b ly th e m ost u n s a t i s f a c t o r y
of t h e m usic l e s s o n o f t o d a y .
In the f i r s t p la c e ,
th e t e s t m a te ria l u s u a lly c o n s is ts of a group o f th re e
more d i s c o n n e c t e d n o t e s ,
or
w i t h o u t r h y t h m i c c o n t e x t and
w ithout a e s t h e t i c c o n te n t o r s ig n if ic a n c e
fo r the
c h ild ren .
T h is t e s t m a t e r i a l c an h a r d ly be s a i d t o b e lo n g to th e
e v e ry d a y v o c a b u la r y o f e i t h e r p u p il or t e a c h e r - i t
belongs
t o a w orld f a r s e p a r a te d from th e w o rld o f a c tu a l m usic.
A g a i n , e v e n when t h e
correctin g
of the w r itte n t e s t s
in d iv id u al a f f a i r , th e c o rre c tiv e
beyond t h e p a p e r s th e m s e lv e s .
synonymous w i t h " m a rk in g " .
is
an
I
im pulse d oes n o t p en etrated
"C o rrectin g ,"
here,
is
T here is no a t t e m p t a t a
-
d i a g n o s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l e r r o r s , and no a t t e m p t t o c o r r e c t
t h e s e e r r o r s i n t h e t r u e s e n s e o f t h e word and i n t h e
only
q u a r t e r w h e re s u c h c o r r e c t i o n would h av e a f o r m a t i v e v a l u e ,
nam ely,
in the in d iv id u a l p u p i l 's
response.
Thus, th e
E a r-T e s t has n e it h e r an in d iv id u a l a p p e a l n o r a c la s s
a p p e a l, and th e a t t i t u d e
up in t h e w ords,
o f t h e a v e r a g e t e a c h e r i s summed
"You h a v e a n e a r f o r m u s i c ,
or you
h a v e n ' t ."
i
Much r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n d e v o t e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s t o
t h e a n a lo g o u s s u b j e c t of lan g u ag e s p e l l i n g
a n d i t may be h e l p f u l a t t h i s
b e in g done to d a y in t h i s
and d i c t a t i o n ,
p o i n t t o c o n s i d e r what i s
su b ject.
F i r s t of a l l ,
ch ild ren
/5T
a re n o t ex p ected t o
be a b l e t o s p e l l w o rd s w h ic h t h e y have
never seen b e fo re.
To a s k t h e m t o d o s o w o u l d be t o
encourage guessw ork.
from th e
And w i l d g u e s s i n g m u s t be d i s c o u r a g e d
ou tset a t a l l c o s ts ,
a s wrong a s s o c i a t i o n s
t h e r e b y b e s e t u p , w h i c h w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t
to
would
era d ica te .
"T h e e a r l i e r t e a c h i n g p r i m a r i l y l o o k e d f o r
e r r o r , w hich i t p ro m p tly assum ed to c o r r e c t ,
t h o u g h i t p e r f o r m e d e v e n t h i s t a s k l o o s e l y ____
Today t e a c h i n g i n s p e l l i n g aim s t o g e t r i d
o f e r r o r by a n t i c i p a t i n g a n d p r e v e n t i n g i t
th ro u g h a w atchful s u p e rv is io n of f i r s t
im pressions and a s s o c ia tio n s ."
("The T e a c h i n g o f S p e l l i n g , " p a g e 9 , by
Henry S u z z a l l o .
R iv e rsid e E d u catio n al
M o n o g r a p h s , H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C o . , New Y o r k , 1 9 1 3 )
S p ellin g
lists
a r e t h e r e f o r e made u p f r o m w o r d s
w hich a r e a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r th ro u g h p re v io u s c o n v e r s a t i o n a l
p rac tic e
i n c l a s s and th r o u g h t h e r e a d in g
t h e n , t h e s e words a r e p r e s e n te d ,
liv in g
lesson.
Even
as f a r as p o ssib le ,
c o n t e x t where t h e y c a n n o t f a i l t o
in a
h av e m eaning f o r
the c h il d .
"Many o f t h e p r e s e n t m e t h o d s o f t e a c h i n g
a re c a lc u la te d t o enhance th e c o n te n t
s id e of s p e l l i n g .
S upp lem en tin g l i s t s p e l l i n g w ith c o n t e x t u a l s p e l l i n g , and
t h e d e f i n i t i o n of words w ith a c t u a l
e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e use of w ords a r e
in s ta n c e s in p o in t.
A sim ila r re s u lt
i s acco m p lish ed by t h e r e c e n t i n s i s t e n c e
on c o n v e r s a t i o n a l and o t h e r o r a l w ork as
an in tr o d u c to r y b a s i s f o r form al s p e l l i n g ."
( i b i d p . 40)
When we come t o a p p l y t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s t o m u s i c
sp e llin g
or e a r-te stin g ,
e a r - t e s t m u st be r u l e d
we f i n d t h a t t h e o l d - f a s h i o n e d
out a t once.
In stead , the
m aterial
(
fo r e ar-tests
m u s t tie s o u g h t f o r i n m u s i c w h i c h a l r e a d y
form s p a r t o f t h e e v e ry d a y v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e c h i l d .
m aterial,
in f a c t,
sp e llin g tunes,
T his
i s t o b e f o u n d i n s o n g b o o k s , memory o r
r e a d i n g books and s e q u e n c e s .
th e s e , sequences a re perhaps th e
B ut,
of a l l
b est m aterial fo r th e
p u r p o s e , a s t h e y p r o v i d e us w i t h a wide r a n g e
of m a t e r i a l ,
w hich c a n b e g r a d e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a n d a s s i g n e d t o t h e
various
c lasses.
Suppose, f o r exam ple,
a cla ss
has le a rn e d
t o s o l - f a th e seq u en c e 1231,
(il'tl d'lp I s t l l s f l U f melf wrflmrdmlr dt,rl<i-- - lldrmd Irm-frlmf sitlf s l f Is i t s l i t j' ll td V t |T— U
The c l a s s
s h o u l d be t o l d f r a n k l y t h a t e a r - t e s t s w i l l b e g i v e n
from t h i s
se q u en c e w hich th e y have j u s t su n g .
These t e s t s
may b e i n c r e a s e d i n l e n g t h a n d i n d i f f i c u l t y by p a s s i n g
fro m s i n g l e f i g u r e s t o c o n j u n c t f i g u r e s an d to d i s j u n c t
f ig u r e s w ith t h e i r
ex am p les
in v ersio n s.
T his w i l l be s e e n from th e
below .
I. Ici r m d !|
7 I d r m d lr —
II
i 3 . U r m d | r m f r Im — ||
g. Im -fs m ||
8.1 s fm S I d '-—
||
/ J d ' t l d 1 U f ms 1d — || M . l d r m d l r d t tr U r m d l s —
II
i. I s l t s II
llm-fsm I d —
II ^•Is-Pws Imrdm | d - - - II ai-ltordml s - s - | s l t - s I d —
II
tld 'tld 'B
...U 't-U 'lt—
II li.ldrmd 1mfsm I f — || u . . \ d ' t l d \ t - s - l l s f I | m - - - l|
s.ls-pms II
n.lt I s t I d ' - - - II / * | t o r d m l r d t ; r | d - - - II z z .l d r m d U f s m I f s l f I d ' - - - 1
4.1 mrdm ||
I2.lfmrf Im-----||
(S.ldrmd I s f m s id.1- - - |
n l d ' t l d ' I s f m s I f m r f L -----8
i d d ’t l d ' l l s f I I f m r f Im r d - l l
The s e q u e n c e s h o u l d b e s u n g f r e q u e n t l y b y t h e c l a s s d u r i n g
th e e a r - t e s t s .
/H I
T h e s e e a r - t e s t s may l a t e r
he g i v e n
in t h e v a r i o u s rhythm s
u s e d i n s i n g i n g t h e s e q u e n c e s , a n d t h u s t h e y would fo rm
com bined p i t c h a n d rh y th m t e s t s ,
in so l-fa or s ta f f n o tatio n ,
I U , r . W | r,m:f
w hich c o u ld he w r i t t e n
or both,
e.g.
-( j M t : M lir.ls.tr 11:-: I |s .-:-||
§m : , f 5m I f o h f
I
|d
C h i l d r e n who c a n s o l - f a f r o m memory t h e w h o l e o f t h e
above s e q u e n c e ,
1231, w i l l ,
of c o u r s e , s t i l l
have d i f f i ­
c u lty in re c o g n is in g th e s e e x t r a c t s or " p a rts ” f o r i t
is
n a t u r a l l y e a s i e r t o r e c o g n i s e o r t o r e c a l l t h e whole t h a n
th e p art.
For ex am p le, c h i l d r e n w i l l sin g d i f f i c u l t i n t e r v a l s
w ith p e r f e c t in to n a tio n in a song, b u t w i l l f in d d i f f i c u l t y
in singing th e s e
song.
i n t e r v a l s a p a r t from t h e i r c o n t e x t i n th e
Thus, th e y w i l l s i n g w ith t h e g r e a t e s t of e ase th e
n u r s e r y rhym e,
"When I w a s a l a d y "
hs—r— )----- Z
1
1
L-L 4 fs o T : t : f
II:
S
:m
iS
But t h e y w i l l f i n d
th ree n o tes,
"d iabolus
th is
tune.
d' t
:-P : r
t V
£
r -
:m : s
f
M
t 0
•
-
t f =
I
*
f
>
*
b
: S : S
the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y
S
:l
:t
1
-
\
in sin gin g th e
f , ( c o n t a i n i n g a s t h e y do t h e t r i t o n e
i n m u sic a ? ) im m e d ia te ly a f t e r th e y have sung
or
However, w i t h t h e k n o w led g e t h a t a n e a r t e s t i s
t a k e n f r o m t h e whole s e q u e n c e , t h e c h i l d
w i l l be encouraged
t o a n a ly s e t h e w hole, and to s e e k f o r t h e p a r t i n t h a t
w hole.
T his
ear-tra in in g ,
ear-testin g ,
then,
fo r th e ch ild
w h e r e i t may b e f o u n d ,
an aly sin g fo r him self.
is
i n a very r e a l s e n s e
knows w h a t h e w a n t s t o g e t a n d
a n d he m u s t do t h e s e e k i n g o r t h e
T hus, by p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e r e g u l a r
and s y s te m a t i c e a r - t e s t i n g
of sequences,
we s a f e g u a r d t h e
c h i l d from t h a t i n d is c r i m in a te guessw ork of th e o ld fashioned
ear t e s t ,
sound and s y l l a b l e
early stag es.
w hich l e a d s t o wrong a s s o c i a t i o n s of
and d o e s i n c a l c u l a b l e
And a t t h e same t i m e we a f f o r d m o t i v a t i o n
f o r th e m em orising o f s e q u e n c e s ,
p u p ils
damage i n t h e
an d encourage i n th e
th e h a b it of an aly sin g ev ery th in g
th a t they sin g ,
and
m i n d , " s a y s 'W a l t e r P a t e r
f* n n o i o + o
i n h i s e s s a y o n '• S t \yr l1 cet '1 ,
c o n s i s t s fF o r +t h e
m ost p a r t i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , i n th e r e s o ­
l u t i o n o f an o b s c u r e and com plex o b j e c t i n t o
i t s component a s p e c t s . "
( " A p p r e c i a t i o n s , " 1 8 8 9 , M a c M i l l a n & Co . )
L e t u s exam ine t h i s
everyday ex p erien ce.
person,
s t a t e m e n t i n t h e l i g h t o f our
When we a r e i n t r o d u c e d t o a new
a new s c e n e , a new p i e c e o f m u s i c , we a r e l e f t ,
a cco rd in g to th e d e g re e of com plexity of th e
m ore o r l e s s h a z y i m p r e s s i o n ,
n o t p ro p erly focussed.
lik e
o b je c t, w ith a
t h a t of a l a n t e r n s l i d e
B u t, w i t h f u r t h e r f a m i l i a r i t y and
/fff
refle ctio n ,
t h i s vag u e g e n e r a l i m p r e s s io n becomes a r t i c u l a t e d
more and m o r e ,
focus,
l i k e a l a n t e r n s l i d e bein g b ro u g h t slo w ly in to
u n t i l a l l t h e d e t a i l s , w h ic h go t o f o r m t h e p i c t u r e
in
o u r m i n d , s t a n d o u t c l e a r l y a n d be co m e d e t a c h a b l e a t w i l l
from t h e g e n e r a l im p r e s s io n .
e ar-testin g ,
And i t may b e c l a i m e d t h a t
b a s e d on m a t e r i a l from f a m i l i a r s e q u e n c e s ,
encourages t h i s a n a ly s is
o f w holes and r e c a l l
" r e s o l u t i o n o f a com plex o b j e c t i n t o
on w h ic h , a s P a t e r s a y s ,
a ll tru e
t i o n i s t in th ese
r e s u l t from th e
th is
component a s p e c t s , "
p r o g r e s s o f m in d d e p e n d s .
The a n a l y t i c a l a p p r o a c h m u s t ,
th e p u p il h im self,
its
of p a r t s ,
of course,
b e made by
and n o t a n t i c i p a t e d f o r him by t h e e d u c a ­
"products of a n a ly s is "
(d s , s d , e t c . )
w hich!
a d u lt c o n cep tio n of th e l o g ic a l d i v is io n of
su b je ct-m a tte r?
T his a n a l y t i c a l ap p ro a ch i s ,
fundam ental i n a l l
l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s , a n d i n a b o o k on
m u s ic a l pedagogy t h e
indeed,
ap p lica tio n of th is p rin c ip le
t e a c h i n g m eth o d s c a n n o t be s t r e s s e d t o o much, f o r ,
had o c c a sio n to p o in t out in o th e r c h a p te r s ,
s u b je c t i n th e cu rricu lu m is
it
to
a s we h a v e
i n no o t h e r
s o much n e g l e c t e d .
* " T h o u g h h e ( P e s t a l o z z i ) was r i g h t i n i n s i s t i n g
on t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r b e g in n in g i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h
t h e e l e m e n t s o f e x p e r i e n c e , he h a d a w r o n g i d e a
o f what t h e elem en ts a r e .
In language, f o r
ex a m p le , he s a i d : 'B e g i n w i t h so u n d s a n d s y l l a b l e s . '
But t h e s e p r o d u c ts o f a n a l y s i s , th o u g h sim p le f o r
t h e a d u l t , a r e n o t sim ple f o r t h e c h i l d .
The r e a l
b eg in n in g i s w ith s e n te n c e s , not w ith sounds;
w ith w holes, n o t w ith p a r t s . "
( " H i s t o r y o f W e s t e r n E d u c a t i o n " , b y Dr 7/m.Boyd,
p . 3 4 7 , A.& C. B l a c k , L o n d o n , 1 9 2 8 )
!
C H A P T E R
XX
VARIED USES OF THE SEQUENCE MODULATOR (CONTD.)
1*1.
ABSOLUTE PITCH SEQUENCE SINGING
t(’ °
Most t e a c h e r s , w h ile u s in g t h e r e l a t i v e p i t c h s o l f a s y l l a b l e s i n a l l t h e i r e a r t r a i n i n g and s t a f f r e a d in g ,
a ls o endeavour to develop in th e p u p ils
a b so lu te p itc h .
To t h i s
a feelin g for
end, s c a le s a re u s u a lly p r a c tis e d
and m em orized t o t h e l e t t e r - n a r n e s , b u t t h i s
is
scale
p ractice
s c a rc e ly s u f f ic ie n t fo r th e purpose.
ABSOLUTS
PITCH
SEQUENCE
MODULATOR
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
c
B
A
G
F
E
D
C
C
D'
E'
F 1 G'
B
A
G
F
E
D
C
B,
B
C'
D'
A
G
F
E
D
C
B, A.
A
B
G
F
E
D
C
B,
A, G,
G
F
E
D
C
B,
A,
G,
F,
E
D
C
B,
A, G,
F,
D
C
B,
A,
G, F,
C
B, A,
G,
F,
1
2
4
5
3
5
6
7
8
A*
B'
c1
E'
F ‘ G'
A'
B'
C'
D'
E'
F ‘ G‘ A'
A
B
C'
D'
E'
F
G
A
B
C'
D‘ E1 F*
E,
E
F
G
A
B
C1 D‘ E'
E,
D,
D
E
F
G
A
3
C' D'
3,
D,
c,
C
D
E
F
G
A
B
C'
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
F'
G
I t w i l l be fo u n d , how ever, t h a t s e q u e n c e s w hich have
been used f o r p r a c tic e
i n r e l a t i v e p i t c h s p e l l i n g may
p r o f i t a b l y be u se d f o r p r a c t i c e i n a b s o l u t e p i t c h s p e l l i n g .
We h a v e s e t o u t a b o v e a S e q u e n c e M o d u l a t o r ,
in which
t h e r e l a t i v e p i t c h s o l - f a names have b e e n r e p l a c e d by t h e
a b so lu te p itc h le tte r-n a m e s,
a n d we now a d d a f e w e x a m p l e s
of a b so lu te p itc h sequences.
123
IC'BAI BAG 1AGF 1GFE I FED 1EDC 1DCB, 1C- -II
ICDEI DEF 1EFG 1FGA | GAB 1ABC'I BCDIC— 1|
13
1C1 AlB GlA F l G E l F D l E C 1D B,lc -||
1C El D F I E GIF AIG BIA C | B DMC' -II
131
IC'AC'I BGB1AFA1GEG1FDF1ECEI DSD 1C- -II
ICEC1DFD1EGE1FAF1GBG1AC'A I BDB1C'- - II
14
1C' Gl B Fl A El G D l F C 1E BjD A.IC -II
1C FID Gl E A IF BIG C'lA D'| B E'lC' -II
143
IC'GAl BFG1AEF1GDEI FCD1EBC1DAB.I C--II
ICFEI DGFI EAGI FBAI GCBI ADC'I BED'I C'--l|
15
1C' F l B El A DI G Cl F B,lE A,I D G,|C -II
|C GID AIE BIF CMG D'lA E'l B F ‘|C' -II
1 35
ICAFI BGE1AFD1GEC1FDB.I ECA.I DBG.I C--II
ICEGl DFAI EG3I FAC| GBD'I ACE'I BDF'I C‘--l|
N a t u r a l l y , t h e s e a b s o l u t e p i t c h s e q u e n c e s c a n n o t be
tra n s p o se d to s u i t the v o ice l ik e
b u t m u st be su n g a t t h e p i t c h
r e la tiv e p itc h sequences,
i n d i c a t e d by t h e l e t t e r nam es.
H o w e v e r , t h e s e s e q u e n c e s may b e s u n g b e t w e e n o t h e r n o t e s
t h a n C * a n d C, f o r e x a m p l e F 1a n d F , E 1 a n d E, D1 a n d D e t c .
T h e y may t h e n b e s u n g m o d a l l y i n Key C ( s e e Modal
Sequences,
p a g e 11 0 ) ,
or in o th er keys.
1 2 3 Key C IEDC1 D'CB I CBAI BAG I AGFIGFEI FED I E- - II
IEFGI FGAI GAB | ABC'I BCD’ICDEI DEF I E- -II
1 2 3 Key C iDCB I CBA I BAG I AGF I GFE IFED I EDCID- - II
IDEFI EFGI FGA I GAB I ABC' I BCTD'I CHE'I D- - II
1 2 3 Key D IBAG I AGF I GFE I FED I EDC IDCB.I CBAl Br -II
IB,CDI CDEIDEFI EFG I FGA IGAB I ABC' I B- - II
123 Key F IFED I EDC'IDCBI CBA I BAG IAGF I GFE I F - - II
IFGAI GAB I ABC'I BCD'I CDEl DFFI EFG'IF- - 1|
S c a l e s a n d A r p e g g i o s may a l s o b e s u n g i n a b s o l u t e p i t c h
from t h i s M odulator.
O c t a v e m a r k s may be d i s r e g a r d e d .
E .g .
Key C
L .H..S.
B o t t o m Row: C B A G F E D C
R.,H. . s
C D E F G A B C'
Key D
S e c o n d Row: D' C' B A G F E D
D E F G A B C' D'
Key E
T hird
Row: E' D* C' B A G F E
E F G A B C' D' E 1
Key F
F o u r t h Row: F' E 1D' C' B A G F
F G A B C D' E' F 1
Key G
F ifth
Row: G1 F ‘ E' D' C' B A G
G A B C' D' E' F' G'
Key A
S ixth
Row: A G F E D C B, A,
A, B, C D E F G A
Key B
S e v e n t h Row: B A G F E D C B,
B, C D E F G A B
•
A rpeggios
R .H .S .
I l 3 5 18 5 3 11 — I Key C : | C E
G E |C
- -|
"
D:ll D F AlD1 A F | d
- -II
"
E:ll E G
B G lE
- -II
"
F:|l F A C'I f ' C A | F
- -II
"
g I c'
b Ie '
G:||G B D'lG' D' BlG - -II
•
m
18
STAFF READING- THROUGH SEQUENCE SINGING
Once t h e a u r a l p r o b l e m s o f n o t a t i o n h a v e b e e n o v e r ­
come t h r o u g h t h e a u r a l s p e l l i n g o r s o l - f a i n g o f s e q u e n c e s
from th e M odulator,
t h e v i s u a l p r o b l e m s o f n o t a t i o n may be
ta c k le d through th e
visu al sp e llin g
or re a d in g
of t h e s e
sequences from t h e S t a f f N o ta tio n .
The s p e c i a l v i r t u e
undoubtedly,
of t h e t o n i c s o l - f a system
t h e m ovable doh.
i n o n e k e y do n o t r e q u i r e
oth er keys.
<4
.
„
b ete n o ire
But i t
A ural d i f f i c u l t i e s
is,
m astered
t o be m a s t e r e d i n t h e f o u r t e e n
is th is
o f th e b eg in n er
same m o v a b l e d o h t h a t i s t h e
in s t a f f n o ta t i o n .
a lth o u g h t h e r e a re f i f t e e n keys in use
However,
(7 s h a r p k e y s ,
7 flat
k e y s a n d t h e n a t u r a l k e y ) , t h e t o n i c o r d o h may a p p e a r i n
only seven d i f f e r e n t p o s itio n s
G, A a n d B.
p o sitio n s
From t h e
of th e to n ic
on t h e s t a v e
- C, D, S , F ,
v i s u a l p o in t of view t h e s e se v en
on t h e
th e p u p ils t o b eg in w ith .
stave
are a l l t h a t concerns
For i t w i l l s u r e l y be conceded
t h a t e x p l a n a t i o n s o f k e y s and' k e y s i g n a t u r e s may b e s a f e l y
d e la y e d u n t i l t h e p u p i l s a r e a b le t o s o l - f a f l u e n t l y from
th e sta v e w ith th e to n ic
th ey c an r e l a t e
theory to
in any p o s itio n - u n t i l ,
in f a c t,
p rac tic e.
W ell-know n s e q u e n c e s , t h e n ,
w ritte n in s t a f f n o ta tio n
b u t w i t h o u t a n y k e y s i g n a t u r e , may b e u s e d f o r f a m i l i a r i s i n g
th e p u p ils w ith a l l
stav e.
The p u p i l s
the se v en p o s itio n s
o f th e to n ic
w o u ld r e a d t h e s e s e q u e n c e s , s a y ,
on t h e
i n Key C,
t h e n a g a i n i n Key D, Key E, Key P e t c .
n o t e s on t h e s t a v e w o u ld
Thus, w h ile th e
rem a in f i x e d or a b s o l u te from th e
v i s u a l p o i n t of view , t h e i r r e l a t i v e
v alu es from th e
p o i n t o f vie?/ w ould ch an g e w i t h e a c h a l t e r a t i o n
p o s itio n of th e to n ic ,
aural
in th e
or w i t h e a c h c h a n g e o f k e y .
The
f o l l o w i n g exam ple w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s .
U n d e r n e a t h t h e s t a f f s e q u e n c e ll 2 1 4311 a r e w r i t t e n t h e
s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s t h a t w o u l d be r e a d a n d s u n g b y t h e p u p i l s
from th e s t a f f n o ta tio n in th e v a rio u s keys.
s U 1It i t f s t II s i m P I I s f
D {| d ' t d '
14% c
{I
I t V Id ' t d ' s
t 'o i v
d r f | w r m t d m I r dr \ t r l d — II
r ms If m f
S
It I t P s t 1i s I m PI 13 P s r m s If m f
id
d
r f I mr m t d m I r —
■ t y B fl mrm t;d m I r d r l ,t ,r l d t d s,l.dI t i t . f s,t, ll.s .l, m.P.1,1s ,f s, nm.s.l P;m,f d.r.f.l m,
A fl f m f d r f - Imrmt jdm Ir d r I t r
&■ jl
sf
t y F {I
s
m f I I s P s r m s I P mf d r P I m r m ft dt t 1 1r d r I. ft r id ft d $1, d I t . l . t . -p-s.tl I ,
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fts,1 l . t l .
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s .l .d lt; I t , p s,t. I l ts,l. m .fl.ls,— ||
p s t l I s l m f - l 1s f s r m s I P m f d_r p I m r m t . d m Ir d r l , t . r l d t , d s , l , d \ t,
t i t
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/££>
I^.
STAFF WRITING THROUGH SEQUENCES
In o ld e n d ay s m usic c o p y in g o c cu p ied an im p o r ta n t
place
in th e ap p re n ticesh ip ,
and indeed in th e
journeyraan-
s h i p o f a l l m u s i c i a n s . T h i s was n o d o u b t d u e t o t h e f a c t
t h a t m usic p r e s s e s w ere s c a r c e and m usic p r i n t i n g
Most of B a c h 's
tim e .
But
c o stly .
m a s t e r p i e c e s were n o t p r i n t e d i n h i s l i f e ­
th e r e s u l t of t h i s
l a c k o f p r i n t e d m u s i c was
t h a t t h e e a r l i e r m u s i c i a n s h a d e i t h e r t o c o m p o s e t h e i r own
m usic,
or e l s e borrow and copy o u t th e m usic o f o th e r
com posers.
And i n s o d o i n g t h e y a c q u i r e d a r a r e i n s i g h t
in to th e a r t.
Now adays, h o w e v e r, owing t o t h e m odern p r i n t i n g
press,
t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r c o p y in g m usic h a s p r a c t i c a l l y
disap p eared .
T his i s t o be r e g r e t t e d ,
g o g ical p o in t
of view th e im p o rta n c e o f t h e p r a c t i c e
m usic c o p y in g i s a s g r e a t a s e v e r .
f o r from t h e p ed a­
of
How man y m u s i c i a n s
to d ay d a te t h e i r f i r s t r e a l g rasp of
m usic from th e day
when, l i k e
th e young Jo h n S e b a s t ia n , t h e y t o o k up a pen
and s t a r t e d
l a b o r i o u s l y t o copy out a f a v o u r i t e v o c a l or
in stru m e n tal score*
Most o f o u r m u sic c l a s s e s a r e t o d a y p r o v id e d w ith
MS. M u s i c B o o k s , b u t t h e p r o b l e m i s t o
them .
A g la n c e a t the
know how t o f i l l
copybooks a t t h e end o f t h e s e s s i o n
u s u a l l y sh o w s t h a t t h e y a r e c ra m m e d w i t h m u s i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s ,
names and d a t e s o f c o m p o s e r s , n o t e s on h i s t o r y a n d fo rm -
IU
i n f a c t w ith e v e r y th in g b u t m usic i t s e l f .
is
t h a t t h e t e a c h e r h a s no t i m e
th e b lack b o ard , and th e
o r s p a c e t o w r i t e m o d e l s on
c la ss are n o t s k ille d
w r i t e m u s i c o n t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e .
w ritin g , th e re fo re ,
The d i f f i c u l t y
enough to
The t e a c h i n g o f m u sic
se ld o m g e t s beyond th e s t a g e
copying o u t o f th o se m is e r a b le s c a l e s
of th e
in sem ibreves w ith
th e s l u r s m arking th e se m ito n es!
I f th e
follow ed o u t,
p r e s e n t system o f sequence s in g in g has been
it
w i l l be found t o
p ro v id e abundance of
g ra d e d m a t e r i a l f o r p r a c t i c e i n m usic w r i t i n g ,
a ll
c la s s e s from th e youngest t o th e o l d e s t .
su itab le fo r
T his m a t e r i a l ,
a s w i l l b e s e e n f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s , may v a r y f r o m
th e co p yin g o f p l a i n se q u e n c e s,
titio n
o f a s t e p w i s e p a t t e r n , t o t h e s o l v i n g and w r i t i n g
out o f a canon f o r fo u r v o ic e s
Score.
in v o lv in g the sim ple r e p e ­
M oreover,
(S .A .T .B .)
i n Open o r C l o s e
t h i s m a t e r i a l f o r m usic w r i t i n g h as the
added advantage t h a t w r i t in g t a s k s can be a s s ig n e d by th e
t e a c h e r t o t h e v a r i o u s c l a s s e s w i t h t h e maximum o f e a s e ,
and a fte r w a r d s
c o r r e c t e d b y t h e t e a c h e r w i t h a minim um o f
effo rt.
We g i v e some e x a m p l e s o f t y p i c a l e x e r c i s e s .
(a) W rite o u t t h e
bar only.
fo llo w in g seq u en ces, giv en th e f i r s t
■efc.
f o i f f i f r i im
i
r
p
T
r
i j
Li .
I l j j j l j o i i
-efc.
f :< I f I t f ^
f e tflrr
j i0 :
S I- n .
J Hj i j i If i f U g g
(b ) W rite o u t t h e s e q u e n c e 1431 t o t h e r h y th m
i n t h e k e y o f E.
f
J.
( c ) W r i t e o u t t h i s s e q u e n t i a l f i g u r e 1 23 1 t o U - l J l l o n t h e
fo llo w in g n o tes d' f
t
m 1 r
s , e n d i n g w i t h 6 . on d .
Key G.
f.r-i r priH- W thi j- tmifm
( d ) W r i t e o u t t h e s e q u e n c e ll-gSI | z 3 A a | t o I J . i " J l I X3 J J |
on t h e fo llo w in g n o t e s d ' l f r d escen d in g and d m s t a sce n d in g .
9 -3 1
M-
f f fi + *q J — M d - -U- | 1 — •• * *
V f j f •-j
_L k
M
= -
------- f
d--------
i t t y
( e ) W r i t e o u t t h e s e q u e n c e 1 2 31 t o t h e r h y t h m | |
:
o n d1 1 f a n d r f
W rite a m inim i n t h e f o u r t h b a r
d e s c e n d i n g a n d a s c e n d i n g , i . e . o n s a n d f , a n d show
m o d u la tio n s to th e dom inant and su b d om in ant.
Key G**. ;
g
H
U
0*. X w S
jiM I F
" t-.
If f a
l-h
/ i t
(f)
W rite o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g s e m i t o n a l m o rd e n t s e q u e n c e 112l| ,
descending o n ly .
That i s , add a c c id e n ta ls to th e
m id d le n o t e o f t h e m o rd en t f i g u r e where n e c e s s a r y , i n
o r d e r t o make t h e i n t e r v a l a s e m i t o n e .
C o n t r a d i c t these
a c c id e n ta ls in th e fo llo w in g b a r.
Key E*\
ir h - r- f r -
►
i-i-l
U f
( g ) W r i t e o u t t .he a b o v e i n
-f-»r r
■ 1 *
D itto
(h)
P t"
r-H *- -t—
M-i
t he A lt o C le f.
n
Key B.
► y0
t
—
d
—
in o th e r keys and c le f s
W r i t e o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g a s c e n d i n g s e q u e n c e 11 3 2 3 I ,
making a s e m i t o n e b e tw e e n 3 a n d 2 b y r a i s i n g
w h e re
necessary.
Key D'>.
D itto
i n o th e r keys and c l e f s
(i)
W rite out th e fo llo w in g d e sc e n d in g s e q u e n c e | l 4 3 l | . T h at
i s , r a i s e 4 w h e r e n e c e s s a r y , s o a s t o make a s e m i t o n a l
s t e p b e tw e e n 4 and 3 .
Key Al>.
(j)
C ontinue t h e fo llo w in g as a t h r e e - p a r t se q u en ce:
(k) Harmonic Sequences
pH
If ? W
T f T £•
H
t o
pk=|
Iffcs
t w o bars.
—
—
t----
-i—
i-t--- ti
* +1 4W
m
w
• r « r
r " " AXU®
a u u v e , x n s e r o i n g c n r o m a ti c n o t e s wnere
s i b l e , i . e . u t i l i s i n g th e p r in c ip le of th e sem ito n al'
I'
i JjJ-— J j i . i — i ■ ■ ■
, . m ordent f i g u r e
rf + p f
g
s
s
B
p
t i i e
s
i =
3
C o n t i n u e t h e f i r s t two h a r s o f t h i s h a rm o n ic s e q u e n c e
f o r one o c t a v e .
pp
*
AA A+ A.J.. j d IAPA9ffcr rr f frmm
f
2
*
~ G — -— —
XT
1
1
d
d
2.
f r r p
u iio -Q
m
M e d iiaa n tt,,
D c q u c m ,c
w u u u x a o m
g
m
s uu p e rr t o n i c a n d R e l a t i v e M i n o r s a n d t h e
S
f
A
?
x .o
A
A
A
<U -J_
Jb=i
f ' -T f *f' - M f
f
:isl
r
i
e
Dom inant
o
■c
-e -
—:
C o n tin u e t h i s seq u en ce f o r one o c ta v e .
o
D itto .
--------
n o
C o n tin u e t h i s se q u e n c e f o r one o c t a v e .
M
- H
2
2
P
i
.
j
2
J 2
r lj' l
trr
lif e
C o n tin u e th e f o llo w in g harm onic s e q u e n c e s a s a b o v e.
A
A
J.
I
r r p f p f f
Zo.
0
CANONIC SEQUENCES *
(D
k : l l s : - |l:« || : - | s
U :t\l
:f
:mlr
fm-r l e t : - | r ; o l I t ; \ i :t, | l , l t j
I Zt: S, |-^-- Js, : f ( Iny-ll !
S olve th e f o llo w in g canons from th e above can o n ic
sequence.
CD®©
,
G><S?©©
S o lv e t h e f o llo w in g canon f o r S.A .T .B .
ju'r.ltflItUItlls
3 5
*,fo
3
5
\lt-lt\f
l&lxfl*
«y Iftsrfulr*L.flujlP- Ir.OtrlllfUr:!*!!,:- lt.lt.!Is,:- I d I I
«y
I
S o lv e t h e canon (D ©
C anonic S eq u en ce.
[ l l t v f r Iflt' --t
from t h e f o l lo w in g M odulatory
~
|s t:- l- .» - iv » l ls e ! ju ! :S l£
r -1 k j: - l-.^V ^lA tj-.ilrli.t, ll,-.-
|«:-l-.cl-.r.»lffir.£s|-f :m Ir.'-l-.tj :2jrlnu«.*fil»:ri
|se-.-k«:fc.l« lls F!^»ll1
^I
- 1 —.
W
N . B . S e e p a g e 211 f o r t h e m e t h o d o f s o l v i n g t h e s e c a n o n s .
C H A P T E R
/■/a
X
RECAPITULATION
So f a r we h a v e d e a l t w i t h t h e e x p o s i t i o n a n d d e v e l o p - j i
ment of t h e Sequence M o d u la to r and i t s
S inging C la s s .
Perhaps t h i s
a p p lic a tio n to the
is a su itab le
re c a p itu la tio n of th e su b ject.
We p r o p o s e , t h e r e f o r e ,
ta k e t h e f a m i l i a r m elodic f ig u r e
d1 t
to
1 d 1 a n d t o sh o w
how t h e v a r i o u s d e v i c e s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e
of the p rev io u s
p lace f o r a
ZO
sectio n s
c h a p t e r s may b e a p p l i e d t o t h i s s i m p l e
m e lo d ic germ .
The n u m b e r i n g h e r e c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e
num bering o f t h e s e s e c t i o n s .
1. P l a i n Sequence
(se e page $0
)
A
JrlJ J
j j
J li j'jJl p I j U i l l l h l g
3
To b e s u n g a t v a r i o u s s p e e d s a n d w i t h v a r y i n g e x p r e s s i o n ,
s ta c c a to e t c . , th e c la s s or in d iv id u a l p u p ils co n d u ctin g .
May b e u s e d a s w h i s p e r i n g e x e r c i s e .
2 . R hythm ic V a r i e t y
j
( s e e page
)
TL
S e e R h y t h m T a b l e s ( p a g e IQ(o )
r h y t h m s , e . g . |J73 J | And i ^ l j i
■ e fc .
May b e u s e d f o r c o n t r a s t i n g
q s
3. A n acru stic Sequences
4 . Rhythm S p e l l i n g
i L L u 'J u
-
' d
‘jaiify- izJ H u . fa>.
i u
(se e page / ° l )
( s e e p a g e 104-)
-qi -^
i
.
i * a U t f c J i t , f a*
n
f a*
n
i
n
wu*Id't' I
.
facf ath, f a *
O t h e r r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s may b e s p e l l e d
5. I n v e r s io n of Sequences
p
in
p
„
—
'■^
fa .- s ^ d z p . fai.-a+ . fa st-jp fcf*
i n t h e s a m e w a y.
( s e e p a g e log)
tfc
P^tTflTffnij IrjjM arti
A lso w i t h R hythm ic V a r i e t y , w ith o r w ith o u t A n a c r u s is ,
A n tip h o n ally e tc .
F o r exam ple, t o t h e R hythm ic P a t t e r n ,
i&rn j. I
6 . M o da l S e q u e n c e s
( s e e p a g e 110 )
p MiJ ILl[11If 'j 1[J tiJjj 35
lj .r j
7 . S e q u e n c e s b e g i n n i n g on o t h e r Columns t h a n t h e f i r s t
page l
31*1
i ' l J 1*' i f I ' j
aI
I
j *I
p di p
8. R e s ts i n Sequence S in g in g
p. i j
(see
12 )
i J] i j i
(see page
j!
^
i
113)
■A!
.♦fcf
9. A n tip h o n a l Sequence S in g in g (se e
page US)
s
a
1 0 . A n tip h o n a l S i n g i n g by C o n t r a r y M otion ( s e e
A
*
A
3
A
3
A
3
A
3
A
£
A
3
A^ ^ 3
A
3
A 3
A
B
A
p a g e IZo)
A
3
c
3
A
A
3
3
A
A lso w i t h R hythm ic V a r i e t y and A n a c ru s is .
1 1 .M ental S in g in g
( s e e p a g e 12-1)
T h is e x e r c i s e s h o u ld be done w h ile th e c l a s s
and l a t e r on w i t h o u t any t i m e - b e a t i n g .
b e a ts tim e
3
12. N o n -S c a lic Sequences
(see page l 2 3 )
B a s ic Form ula:
u u V
1
*
j t
:6
: ffl
11
; f
; r
«-*-
y
i t i f W i a
t
i
13. C hrom atic Sequences
Jiz£i |
=fc
a
w
im
(see page
f W
i n i
I2f)
g I g l i n i i p i , p - T n ^ r r t n --p ^
nai
n i n'r iH v
r.lp = l^
A lso w i t h R hythm ic V a r i e t y ,
14. T e tra c h o rd a l Sequences
A lso w i t h v a r i e d rh y th m s .
E x ercise f o r l i p - t r a i n i n g .
15. M o d u lato ry Sequences
W ith v a r i e d r h y th m s .
A n a cru sis, A ntiphonal S in g in g ,
etc
(se e page
H i-5)
May he u s e d a s a n A l p h a b e t
(se e page
152)
16.
Ear T e s ts from Sequences
(see page
IS4-)
(*) let r m el I r - - - 1
Id
(t)
I mr c l
ml s
I
ft)
( o ) U ' t I d 11 s f m SI r w P r l m - - - ti
mf
17.
A b so lu te P i t c h Sequences
f
( s e e page 160)
l.h .s .|c 'b a c ’ 1b as-b Ia < ^ a Ia-feg- I f e d f I e d c e Idc b;d Ic - — IIc d e c I d £ f d I e f 4 - e | f g a f I g a b £ Ia b c ’a Ibc’d 'b I c - --II
RH.s. Jc'd'e'c'Ibc'd'b I abc'a Is a b & I f g - a f |ef<3-e I d e f d I c — Hc3 a ,c |d c b /> Ie d c e |fe d fIg -fe g -Ia s -fa |b a & b |c '—
18.
S t a f f R e a d i n g ( s e e p a g e /& 3)
s = s
n
/4V$0V«'
'fy D fl ret' t V
o
i n
o
sd tty t& M , t» J h y4wn^ f c fi&A
I d ' t t c^' 1 1 1 s t l l s f i
il^C | m r d m ' I r 1d ‘ t r
U ' t l d ' 11 I s t
t y B | f m r f I m r d m I r c i ir r I d t, l t d
/<xf£ ■tfzjLy4)
- t.
.
Is f m s l - f m r - P l m r d n i l r
—
It s f l l s f
— *1
11 , I, s, t t I \ s t
m s I -f m r f l m
I, I s; f, m, s, I -P,
—
171
19,
S t a f f W ritin g
(a)
dM
( s e e p a g e lltS)
W r i t e t h e s e q u e n c e 1 2 3 1 i n Key D ^ t o t h e r h y t h m I J3J.il
f
\ l J i L i J- - p
If
1
1’ - n
-
l h -j,
D itto ascen d in g .
(h) W rite t h e c h ro m a tic se q u e n c e Il2 3 l| i n th e T enor C le f ,
Key E ( D e s c e n d i n g ) .
(c) R e -w rite th e ahove ch ro m atic sequence i n the A lto C lef
a dim inished f i f t h h ig h er.
(d) I n t h e key o f F w r i t e a n e i g h t - h a r m elody hy r e p e a t i n g
t h i s m e l o d i c f i g u r e |i ■* y k j - l t o t h e r h y t h m |J. WJ|J J I
o n d1 1 f a n d r .
A t t h e f o u r t h a n d e i g h t h b a r s w r i t e d>
-6
ij.
(e)
R e - w r i t e th e above a s a harm onic s e q u e n c e , th u s :
M odulate t o t h e d o m in a n t, i . e .
duce " fe " , a t th e t h i r d b a r.
in tro ­
f
m
I f ) R e - w r it e t h e a b o v e , m o d u la tin g to t h e r e l a t i v e m inor
(by i n t r o d u c i n g " s e " ) a t th e s i x t h b a r , and k e e p in g
up t h e q u a v e r m o v e m e n t i n o n e o r o t h e r o f t h e p a r t s
t n r oughout, t h u s :
.
Add m a r k s o f e x p r e s s i o n .
03
£
f ] |J N---------J - - M - f 1 r p T ~ — I ~
J -i-j—
*y
m
f £r
i
i
i
p
-
— nr
(f
j^aa
”==”"
(g) C ontinue t h e f o l lo w in g harm onic s e q u e n c e :
^ ^
iUitdz
U r*
r -fA— j ^
N
w
. ..^
;
J
if
>» rm
S
.
r
r
i ^
-cra4 -r
F5*"7------ ~-*v~J# r-g~.
:f f
r
n
—
^
f
f
1;
—
f
t
f
(h) R e -w rite t h e above, u s in g a c c id s n t a l s t o produce th e
s e r a ito n a 1 m o rd e n t f i g u r e i n t h e two l o w e r p a r t s w here
feasib le
■iuts
J
L
f
if
e t, , —
f V »
!■
d* g
m
if
i
t n
— : 5 P : J- “7 —
~ = m
r
r
f
f
JJP J . _ —_ i ^ - J
f
Jf
T f
j
2 0 . Canons on t h e
(i)
S e q u e n c e 1 23 1
(se e page
171
)
H I
In the key of F w rite out th e sequence
fin ish in g
on
|d‘ : t | l
|s, :f ,|m , : - | l a n d k e e p i n g t h e
c r o t c h e t s down t h r o u g h o u t .
w r i t e t h e sam e s e q u e n c e ,
eig h th b a r.
:d' },
stem s o f th e
Then, above t h e s e n o te s
stem s u p , b e g in n in g a t th e
The r e s u l t w i l l b e a C a n o n a t t h e U n i s o n
f o r tw o v o i c e s .
0
f r r T T T f
r r i
i
r
r r7
j
f
( jlF
(D
'
:t II : d It : I Is : t l l :s If : I Is i f
H -.n, | r :d It; : r \l : *, I \ :<
L \tt
lm : s If :m |r : f
| s :%It,
lm :r I
|f, ,1, Is, :f, In .,:- |l
i
a
From t h e a b o v e c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e w r i t e o u t t h e c a n o n
®(D(D , i . e . a s e q u e n c e o r " s i x - t h r e e s " e v o l v e d c a n o
i f
if
M
u
if
r
if i
i
if
i t i l J ij i - r i
y r , i f f If
f
f i i f I f f l| f ' t y r ^ f 'f
AF a
Solve
t h e f o l l o w i n g M o d u l a t o r y C a n o n : ©©
1
t I I : <i I t : 1 Iss : t 11 : S Ife : I | s : f Inf :S If :m Ir
i J c : » I r . - J It;
^
j n f r lr
** '
i
i
r
:r
1=1 :t, 11, : J It,
ii
r
i»
i
I
i
r
^
J
ij
n
i
i
i
j- r j
i
yJ
if j
r
j
r s
'
:f
Im : r
|
> .J J , ] J
H
u , j
i
f
t,T 7
|
T T
1
r
1
: l , I w . t , I I, :S, |fe, :l, | s, :f,
M
j
m
t
^
i
4
f
m
{let1
|- . t
fr
b M H jJ
: -
| - . l : s . t f T
| - . S : f . l l s
M ^ i* ;
h.V v *M
It
I-.m
•—
T
K r
•-
1
*
From t h e a h o v e c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e s o l v e
© 0 ©
j^
lm
the fo llo w in g canons.
j.
fM
,.r .h ,a -
f
(m) O C D ©
(n)G )<D © ©
to th e rhythm
IcF
J.J. J “J3
Id-,
J.-HJ- J1
§ £ F
r:..:;
a
(o)C D © @ >®
to t h e rhythm
#l g .
—
-tff-
L " J
till
*
j
—
—
a- '
p
—
-
"1
-T^-T-
g
- ^ —----- *
^
rT 1|
H i t : .*
1 *
?i- j .
[Jg -
E rrf
W
‘ F i——
vj-j—r
if
*
Qj
J ---- - r r t ' 1-------- v-i , vJ . H
W
W»
t
rj¥* p j -
i J
i.q^g
Itl
THE MUSIC LESSON AS AN ORGANIC WHOLE
T h e p r e v i o u s p a g e s do n o t b y a n y m e a n s e x h a u s t t h e
s u b j e c t - m a t t e r t h a t may b e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h i s s i m p l e
dtld*
germ , a s n e a r l y a l l
o f th e 20 s e c t i o n s
c o u ld be
e x te n d ed c o n s id e r a b ly by c o m b in a tio n w ith o th e r s e c t i o n s .
B u t e n o u g h h a s b e e n d o n e t o s h o w how s e q u e n c e s may b e u s e d
i n v a r i o u s ways t o i l l u s t r a t e
or give p r a c tic e
d i f f e r e n t b ra n c h e s o f t h e m usic l e s s o n .
in the
Prom t h e o n e
s i m p l e s e q u e n c e a n d i t s v a r i a t i o n s we h a v e d e r i v e d s u b j e c t m atter,
cum ulative in i t s
p rac tic e
effect,
to s u i t the
needs of a l l c la s s e s from th e lo w est to th e h ig h e s t.
The v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s t h a t a r e i n v o l v e d i n a u r a l work
(or the
sp e llin g
of p i t c h and rh y th m ),
th e re a d in g and w ritin g
i n v i s u a l work ( o r
of p i t c h a n d r h y t h m ) ,
p r a c t i c a l work (o r v o c a l p e r f o r m a n c e ) , a r e
c e n t r e ro un d and t o e v o lv e from t h i s
and in
t h u s made t o
one m e lo d ic germ .
T h is m ethod o f e v o l v i n g s u b j e c t - m a t t e r n a t u r a l l y
from w i t h i n r a t h e r th a n su p erim p o sin g i t m e c h a n ic a lly from
w ithout is
i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h m odern e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e .
T he w h o l e t e n d e n c y o f r e c e n t e d u c a t i o n a l t h o u g h t a n d
p rac tic e
has been away from th e o ld c o n c e p tio n of e d u c a tio n
a s so m e th in g whose m ain c o n c e rn i s w i t h t h e l o g i c a l
d iv isio n
of s u b j e c t - m a t t e r i n t o w a t e r t i g h t com partm ents,
each n arro w ly concerned w ith i t s
own s p e c i a l d e v i c e s ,
I $2.
a id e -m e m o ire s,
know ledges and s k i l l s .
Indeed, th e con­
c e p tio n o f s u b je c t- m a tte r as bein g cap ab le of l o g i c a l
d iv isio n a t a l l
is
a p u re ly a d u l t c o n cep tio n .
I t is
th e
b a c k w a r d v i e w o f o n e who h a s t r a v e l l e d a l o n g t h e r o a d o f
ex p erien ce, th e
sunm ing-up, th e
"novissim a verba"
of the
th eo rist.
But t h i s a d u l t c o n c e p tio n o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r i s q u i t e
fo reig n to th e
resu lt
ch ild .
S u c h a p r e s e n t a t i o n may b e t h e
o f e x p e r ie n c e and a n a l y s i s
teacher,
but i t
it
p a rt of the
does not m o tiv a te or g e n e ra te t h e d e s ir e
f o r e x p e rie n c e and a n a l y s i s
In f a c t,
on t h e
on t h e p a r t o f t h e l e a r n e r .
l e a v e s no room a t a l l f o r t h a t c h i l d i s h
i m a g in a tio n and w onder,
a n a l y s i s , w hich s t a r t s
o r f o r t h a t i n t r o s p e c t i o n or
w o n d e r in g ly fro m w hat seems a t f i r s t
o n l y a " b i g b u z z i n g booming c o n f u s i o n " .
•
By b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e
step s,
m u s i c c l a s s we c e r t a i n l y t a k e
boom ing c o n f u s i o n , "
The
in to
its
doh so h ,
away t h e
e tc.
in th e
"b ig buzzing
b u t we a l s o t a k e a w a y much e l s e .
" r e s o l u t i o n o f a n o b s c u r e and com plex o b j e c t
component a s p e c t s "
h as b e e n done f o r t h e c h i l d
by t h e d o c t r i n a i r e i n h i s a r m - c h a i r , a n d a l l t h a t is
f o r t h e c h i l d t o do i s
t o l e a r n by h e a r t ,
b e s t he c a n , a n a t o m i c a l f r a g m e n t s ,
th e a r t .
le ft
o r m em orize as
th e v e ry d r y b o n es of
183
The " s t e p s , ” f r o m C u r w e n 's d a y o n w a rd s,
been l a i d
out in order f o r the c h ild ,
have a l l
b u t he c a n n o t see
where t h e s e
" s t e p s " h a v e conB f r o m , n o r w h e r e t h e y l e a d t o .
And i n d e e d ,
he i s n o t e n c o u r a g e d t o e n q u i r e t o o c u r i o u s l y
in to such m atters.
H e n c e , t h e e m p h a s i s i n t h e New E d u c a t i o n h a s b e e n
s h i f t e d from th e lo g ic a l d iv is io n o f th e s u b je c t-m a tte r,
to th e p s y c h o lo g ic a l c o n s i d e r a ti o n o f t h e l e a r n e r and the
learn in g s itu a tio n .
as a process
And t h i s new c o n c e p t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n
of o r g a n i c g ro w th from w i t h i n a s opposed t o
m a t e r i a l a c c r e t i o n from w ith o u t h as a l s o perm eated th e
c o n c e p tio n o f th e l e s s o n a s an o rg a n ic w hole.
Speaking o f "P h y s ic a l I l l i t e r a c y "
and t h e p h y s i c a l
e d u c a t i o n o f t h e f u t u r e , Dr L . P . J a c k s s a y s :
" I n s t e a d o f m e c h a n ic a l movem ents, i n t e r r u p t e d
and bro k en , 'p h y s ic a l j e r k s ' a s th e y a re c a lle d ,
w h ic h e x e r c i s e t h e body a s t h o u g h i t were a
r i g i d s k e le to n m ech an ically jo in te d , th e
m o v e m e n t p r a c t i s e d w i l l be t h e u n b r o k e n a n d
c o n tin u o u s flow o f a l i v i n g th in g f a l l i n g
i n t o cad en ces and rh y th m s, o r c h e s t r a t e d
r a t h e r t h a n r e g i m e n t e d , m oving f ro m s t a r t
t o f i n i s h l i k e a p ie c e of m usic - w hich i s
e x a c t l y t h e w a y i n w h i c h a w e l l - t r a i n e d m in d
goes about i t s b u sin e ss."
( " T h e C h a l l e n g e o f L e i s u r e , " E d i t e d b y Wm.Boyd,
New E d u c a t i o n F e l l o w s h i p , L o n d o n , 1 9 3 6 )
We a r e a l l f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e o l d
lesson.
"physical jerk s"
B u t , i n m u s i c a l p e d a g o g y , h a v e we a d v a n c e d much
IU
beyond th e
"physical je rk s "
Do we n o t s t i l l
fin d
th e s in g in g le s s o n p e rio d tim ed and d iv id e d r i g i d l y
in to
su b -p erio d s,
th e a r t ,
stag e?
each e x c lu s iv e ly devoted to
one a s p e c t o f
e.g .
(a) b re a th in g ,
w ith o u t tone p ro d u c tio n .
(b) v o i c e p r o d u c t i o n , w i t h o u t r h y th m o r f o r m - "vox
e t p raeterea n ih il."
(c) rh y th m -s p e llin g p r a c tic e o r t a a t a i - i n g , w ithout
i n f l e c t i o n o f v o i c e o r p i t c h (a m o st i m p o r t a n t
elem ent in rh y th m ).
(d) p i t c h - s p e l l i n g p r a c t i c e o r s o l - f a i n g and m o d u la to r
work, w ith o u t a t t e n t i o n t o v o i c e p r o d u c t i o n ,
d i c t i o n , rhythm , e x p r e s s io n , p h r a s in g or form .
( e ) f o r m a l e a r - t r a i n i n g o r e a r - t e s t s , b a s e d on a f e w
s t e r e o t y p e d and d e ta c h e d n o te s w ith o u t m u sic a l
co n tex t.
(f) form al e y e -tra in in g o r s ig h t- r e a d in g , w ithout
a e s t h e ti c c o n te n t and, t h e r e f o r e , w ithout
a d e q u a t e m o t i v a t i o n - mere n o t e - r e a d i n g o r
sym bol t r a n s l a t i o n .
(g) song s i n g i n g , an i n v a l u a b l e p r a c t i c e f o r e x te n d in g
t h e o r a l v o c a b u l a r y i n p i t c h a n d r h y t h m , b u t one
t h a t does n o t h e lp in c u l t i v a t i n g m u sical l i t e r a c y
o r s p e l l i n g , r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g , u n l e s s used in
c o n ju n c tio n w ith s o l - f a i n g and t a a t a i - i n g in tu n e sp e llin g .
S urely,
i f m u s i c i a n s h i p i s made t o p e r m e a t e t h e w h o l e
l e s s o n , t h e r e s h o u l d be n o n e e d f o r t h i s
lo g ic al d iv isio n
of s u b je c t- m a tte r , t h i s v iv is e c tio n of a l iv i n g a r t .
I n t h e p r e c e d i n g p a g e s we h a v e e n d e a v o u r e d t o show
how t h e v a r i o u s
b r a n c h e s o f t h e a r t o f t e a c h i n g m u s i c may
!? 5
u n fo ld them selves n a t u r a l l y w ith o u t a t any p o in t lo s in g
to u c h w ith e a c h o t h e r or w ith m usic i t s e l f .
th is
p r o c e s s , t h e c h i e f em phasis h a s heen l a i d
And i f ,
on p i t c h
s p e l l i n g , we f e e l t h a t i t h a s b e e n r i g h t l y s o l a i d .
it
is
a h eig h ten ed consciousness
in
of t h e q u a l i t i e s
For
or m ental
e f f e c t s of m usical p i t c h t h a t d is tin g u is h e s th e m usician
f r o m t h e a r t i s t i n o t h e r m ed iu m s - f r o m t h e p o e t ,
(T ennyson,
R o s s e t t i o r S w i n b u r n e , f o r e x a m p l e ) , who, i n s p i t e
of a ra re
s e n s i t i v e n e s s t o vowel p i t c h or c o lo u r ,
rh y th m , p r o p o r t io n an d form ,
is
consonantal v a lu e s,
o f t e n more o r l e s s
d e a f so f a r a s t h e q u a l i t i e s of m u sical p i t c h a r e
tone
concerned.
APPENDIX
A
TABLES OF SEQUENCE FORMULAE
T e a c h e r s may s e l e c t t h e i r own f o r m u l a e f o r s e q u e n c e
s i n g i n g f ro m t h e n u m b ered colum ns o f t h e M o d u l a to r ,
12, 121,
123, 13,
131,
132,
e .g .
1231, 1 321, 1 2 1 3 , 1312
As t h e n u m b e r o f p e r m u t a t i o n s a n d c o m b i n a t i o n s
p o ssib le,
5,
6, 7 ,
e s p e c i a l l y w ith th e lo n g e r sequence p a t t e r n s of
8 or 9 notes,
l i s t here.
is very g re a t,
we c a n n o t g i v e a f u l l
We s h a l l sh o w b e l o w , h o w e v e r ,
w h i c h t h e y may b e a r r i v e d
t h e m ethod by
at.
S e q u e n c e . s _ b . a s e d on C olu m ns 1 2
o f t h e Sequence M odulator
3
U s i n g t h e nurrtoers o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e c o l u m n s 1 2 3 - we f i n d t h a t o n l y 3 t w o - n o t e s e q u e n c e s a r e p o s s i b l e
nam ely,
1 1 , 12 a n d 1 3 .
However, f o r t h r e e - n o t e g r o u p s , a l l
b e g i n n i n g w i t h C olumn 1 , t h e r e a r e
9 p o ssib ilities:
1 11
12 2
131
11 2
123
132
1 21
11 3
13 3
S t i l l keeping t o t h e f i r s t t h r e e
colum ns, a n d t a k i n g a
f o u r - n o t e g r o u p , we f i n d t h a t t h e f o u r t h f i g u r e o r c o l u m n
in th is
9x3
g r o u p may b e e i t h e r 1 2 o r 3 .
T his th e n g iv e s
o r 27 p e r m u t a t i o n s a n d c o m b i n a t i o n s o f f o u r - n o t e
sequences.
It
is tr u e t h a t th e f i r s t
on e w i l l be s h o w n a s
1 1 1 1 , b u t we s h a l l r e t a i n t h i s a s i t may b e u s e d w i t h y o u n g
c l a s s e s alo n g w ith a rhythm ic
in rep eated n o tes,
it
fo r sequence s in g in g
e .g .
-| 7 »■»»»•—- t m f —
i ill
(tyil-TTT—
\ ^ '— -L.A.U—
illi
B esides,
fig u re
"Ww
ww
4 iH -
is necessary to r e ta in
th is
■ ffl—
i
bL..:.
1
------
f o r m u l a 1111 f o r t h e
sake of th e f i v e - n o t e
g r o u p s i n w h i c h 2 o r 3 may b e a d d e d
to th is ;
11113.
th u s,
11112,
The d e r i v a t i o n
of th e f o u r - n o t e fo rm u lae from the
t h r e e - n o t e f o r m u l a e i s shown b e l o w .
(1111
1 1 1 ^1 1 12
(1 1 1 3
(1311
1 3 l)l3 1 2
(1313
r1121
112 1122
(1123
(1131
113<1132
(1 1 3 3
T his g iv e s a p o s s i b i l i t y
colum ns 1 2 3 ,
i.e .
.1331
133)1332
(1333
o f 27 f o u r - n o t e s e q u e n c e s o n
se q u e n c e s i n w hich t h e se q u en c e f i g u r e
does n o t e x te n d beyond th e
in te rv al
of a t h i r d .
F i v e - n o t e s e q u e n c e f o r m u l a e may b e o b t a i n e d i n t h e
sa m e m a n n e r b y a d d i n g a s t h e f i f t h f i g u r e u s e d e i t h e r 1 ,
2 o r 3 , t hus :
F our-note F iv e-n o te F our-note F iv e -n o te F our-note F iv e-n o te
Sequences Sequences Sequences Sequences Sequences Sequences
add
1, 2 o r 3
1 11 1
1 11 2
1113
1121
1 12 2
1123
121 1
1 21 2
1213
T h is makes a t o t a l
1221
1 22 2
1223
12 3 1
1232
1233
1 13 1
1132
1133
1,
add
2 or 3
1 31 1
1 31 2
1 31 3
1 32 1
1 32 2
1 32 3
1331
1332
1333
add
1, 2 or 3
o f 81 f i v e - n o t e s e q u e n c e s b a s e d on
colum ns 1 2 3 of t h e
Sequence M o d u lato r,
i.e .
sequences in
w hich t h e se q u e n c e f i g u r e d o e s n o t e x te n d beyond t h e
in te rv al
of a th ird .
To
each of
t h e s e 81 f i v e - n o t e s e q u e n c e s n a y be a d d e d
a s i x t h n o t e , w h i c h a g a i n may b e e i t h e r 1 , 2 o r 3 , t h u s
m aking a t o t a l o f 243 s i x - n o t e s e q u e n c e s c o n f i n e d t o
Columns 1 2
3.
S im ilarly ,
7 29 s e v e n - n o t e
s e q u e n c e s may b e o b t a i n e d f r o m
C o ls.l
2 3
2,187 e ig h t- n o te
s e q u e n c e s may b e o b t a i n e d f r o m
C o ls.l
2 3
6,561
sequences nay be o b ta in e d from
C o ls.l
2 3
nine-note
/*<?
B e l o w , we show s c h e m a t i c a l l y how a n y o f t h e s e s e q u e n c e s ,
f r o m t h e 27 f o u r - n o t e
sequences,
s e q u e n c e s up to t h e 6 ,5 6 1 n i n e - n o t e
may h e o b t a i n e d .
T h ree- 4 th note 5 t h note 6 th note
may b e
m ay b e
may b e
note
S e qu e n ce e i t h e r
e ith er
e ith er
7 th note 8 th n o te 9 th note
may be
may be
may be
eith er
e ith er
e ith er
111 1 2 o r 3 1 2 o r 3 1 2 o r 3 1 2 o r 3 1 2 o r 3 1 2 o r 3
112
0 0 0
•
•
•
1 21
1 22
1 23
113
131
1 32
1 33
•
T o tal 9
Thus,
27
th e n in e-n o te
fo rm ula
may b e
81
2 43
sequence
729
2,187
•
6,561
| l £ i 232 1 2 3 l t o t h e r h y t h m i c
If j n J73J3JI
o b ta in e d by s t a r t i n g from 1 2
1 and s e le c tin g th e
o t h e r s i x num bers i n t h e above o r d e r fro m t h e o t h e r s i x
colum ns.
•
I p
S e q u e n c e s b a s e d o n C o lu m n s 1 2
of th e Sequence M odulator
3 4
Coming t o s e q u e n c e s o f f o u r t h s , we f i n d t h a t we c a n
o b t a i n o n l y one t w o - n o t e s e q u e n c e , a n d s e v e n t h r e e - n o t e
sequences,
v iz .:
14
114
124
134
141
1 42
14 3
P o u r - n o t e s e q u e n c e s o n C olu m ns 1 2
1114
1124
1134
1144
1214
1224
1234
1244
1314
1324
1334
1344
1411
1412
1413
1414
14 2 1
1422
1423
1424
144
3 4 a r e g iv e n below :
1431
1432
1433
1434
1441
1442
1443
1444
1141 1241 1341
1142 1242 1342
1143 1243 1343
F iv e , s i x , s e v e n , e i g h t and n i n e - n o t e s e q u e n c e s of f o u r t h s
may b e o b t a i n e d b y c o n t i n u i n g t o a d d t o e a c h o f t h e s e 37
s e q u e n c e s a f o u r t h n o t e , w h i c h may b e e i t h e r 1 , 2 , 3 o r 4 , t h u s
Fournote
3equaice
1114
1124
1134
1144
1214
1224
1234
1244
1314
1324
1334
1344
1 41 1
1 41 2
1413
1414
1421
14 22
1423
1424
1 43 1
1432
1433
1434
5 th note
may b e
e ith er
6th note
may b e
ei th e r
7 th note
may b e
e ith er
8 th note
may b e
e ith er
9 th note
may b e
e ith er
1 2 3 o r 4 1 2 3 or 4 1 2 3 o r 4 1 2 3 o r 4 1 2 3 o r 4
•
C ontd.
•
•
/ <?/
Four5 th note
note
may b e
Sequences
eith er
1441
1 44 2
1443
1444
1141
1142
1143
1241
1242
1243
1341
1342
1343
6th n ote
may b e
e ith er
7 th note
may b e
e ith er
8 th note
may b e
e ith er
9 th note
may b e
e ith er
1 2 3 o r 4 1 2 3 o r 4 1 2 3 or 4 1 2 3 or 4 1 2 3 o r 4
•••
...
We t h u s h a v e a t o t a l
148
592
2368
9472
37888
of -
fiv e-n o te
six -n o te
seven-note
eight-note
n in e-n o te
sequences
sequences
sequences
sequences
sequences
of
of
of
of
of
fo u rth s
fo u rth s
fo u rth s
fo u rth s
fo u rth s
T h a t i s t o s a y , u s i n g o n l y f o u r n o t e s , f o r exam ple d ' t 1 s ,
we may o b t a i n 3 7 , 8 8 8 n i n e - n o t e p h r a s e s , e a c h b e g i n n i n g w i t h
d* a n d c o n t a i n i n g a t l e a s t on e s , b u t i n w h i c h r e p e t i t i o n s
may o c c u r - a n d a l l d i f f e r i n g i n r e s p e c t o f t h e o r d e r o f t h e
p itc h e le m e n ts, a p a r t a l t o g e t h e r from rhythm e le m e n ts.
But t h i s t o t a l d o e s n o t e x h au st th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of se q u e n ­
c e s o f f o u r t h s c o n t a i n i n g up t o n i n e n o t e s .
F o r we o b t a i n
a new s e r i e s o f f i v e - n o t e s e q u e n c e s o f f o u r t h s b y a d d i n g t h e
f i g u r e 4 t o t h e 27 f o u r - n o t e s e q u e n c e s l i m i t e d t o C o lu m n s 1
2 3, t h u s :
11114
11124
11134
12214
12224
12234
13114
13124
13134
11214
11224
11234
12314
12324
12334
13214
13224
13234
12 114
12124
12134
11314
11324
11334
13314
13324
13334
I
i p
F or ex am p le, t h e se q u e n c e 12314 sung t o
the rh y th m ic
f o r m u l a |J3J3 JI w o u l d a p p e a r a s f o l l o w s :
JjjbfTr-; ,
hffvrJ
From t h e s e
b e g i n a new s e r i e s
!
-J p O i - <1 h
-fT fli
ffffr
.
27 f i v e - n o t e s e q u e n c e s o f f o u r t h s we may
by a d d i n g 1 2 3 o r 4 f o r t h e
s ix th note.
And f r o m t h e s e 10 8 s i x - n o t e s e q u e n c e s o f f o u r t h s we
may o b t a i n 4 3 2 s e v e n - n o t e s e q u e n c e s o f f o u r t h s b y a d d i n g
to th ese
a sev en th note 1 2 3 o r 4.
And s o on w i t h e i g h t a n d n i n e - n o t e s e q u e n c e s
fo u rth s.
Even t h e n ,
of
we c a n o b t a i n a n o t h e r s e r i e s b y
s t a r t i n g f r o m t h e 81 f i v e - n o t e s e q u e n c e s o n C o lu m n s 1 2
above and addin g 1 2
fo u rth s,
3 or 4 to
3
obtain s ix -n o te sequences of
w h i c h w o u l d l e a d t o a new s e r i e s
of seven,
eig h t
and n in e - n o te se q u e n c e s.
S i m i l a r l y , we may b e g i n a g a i n f r o m t h e 2 4 3 s i x - n o t e
se q u e n c e s of t h i r d s ,
t h e 72 9 s e v e n - n o t e
a n d t h e 2187 e i g h t - n o t e
sequences of t h i r d s .
We h a v e go ne f u l l y
tio n s
sequences of th ir d s
i
in to th e p e m u t a t i o n s and com bina-j
o f n o t e s i n s e q u e n c e s up t o s e q u e n c e s o f f o u r t h s f o r
th e sake
o f c o m p l e t e n e s s , a n d a l s o t o show t h e a l m o s t
en d less p o s s i b i l i t i e s
of sequence s in g in g .
Y e t i n many
schem es of work se q u en c e s i n g i n g i s l i m i t e d t o a do zen o r
le s s sequences!
j
But i f t h e
p eim u tatio n s
and com binations
in sequence sin g in g a re alm o st e n d le ss,
p e rm u ta tio n s and com binations
of no tes
so a lso
of n o te s
are the
i n th e idiom s of
th e m usical language.
I t would be q u i t e
im p o ssib le,
of c o u rse , to
p ractise
a l l th e s e sequences in
the S in g in g C l a s s .
be q u i t e u n n e c e s s a r y .
A s t a g e i s r e a c h e d w hen a n y new
c o m b in a tio n can be sung from t h e
sin g in g o th er com binations.
be p r a c t i s e d .
e x p erien c e o b tain ed in
B ut a g o o d l y number s h o u ld
For i f p u p ils a re unable t o
th e se sequences, th ey a r e ,
I t would a l s o
ip so f a c to ,
m u s i c i a n s , a n d w i l l b e s o much t h e
sing any of
s o much t h e p o o r e r
poorer s ig h t- r e a d e r s .
What c a n n o t b e d o n e f r o m t h e f i r s t - r e m o v e s o l - f a s y m b o l s
of th e
Sequence M o d u la to r i s n o t l i k e l y to b e done from
th e second-rem ove note-syrabols of th e
sta ff-n o ta tio n .
H a v i n g s h o w n how s e q u e n c e p a t t e r n s o f f o u r t h s
varying
we l e a v e
l e n g t h s may b e w o r k e d o u t f r o m f i r s t
it
of f i f t h s ,
t o t h e T e a c h e r t o work out l i s t s
six th s
e t c . , and t o
p rin cip le s,
of sequences
s e le c t fo r h is various
c l a s s e s t h e f o r m u l a e t h a t may b e p r o f i t a b l y u s e d i n
r e la tiv e p itc h sp e llin g
of
or so l-fa in g .
m
APPENDIX
B
RHYTHM TABLES FOR SEQUENCE SINGING
------------- AND flHVTfiM SPELLING *----------The R h y t h m T a b l e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s h a v e b e e n
a r r a n g e d a c c o r d in g t o t h e number o f tim e
group, e .g .
fiv e-n o te,
six -n o te e tc .,
to t h e tim e s i g n a tu r e .
as th e com binations
elem ents in th e
and a ls o a c c o rd in g
They a r e n o t b y a n y means c o m p l e t e ,
of rhythm e le m e n ts ,
lik e
th o s e of t h e
p itc h elem en ts, a re a lm o st e n d le ss .
( I n some e x p e r i m e n t s o n t h e u s e o f s p e e c h r h y t h m s
fo r train in g
i n rhythm r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g , t h e w r i t e r has
sh o w n t h a t t h e s e n t e n c e ,
"What d o y o u r e m e m b e r ? " i s
cap ab le
o f b eing spoken r h y th m ic a lly i n over a tho u san d w ays.
a l l o f t h e s e t h o u s a n d od d s p e e c h r h y t h m s ,
And
each d if f e r in g
i n h o w e v e r s l i g h t a d e g r e e f r o m t h e o t h e r s , may b e s p e l l e d
i n r h y t h m names an d r e p r e s e n t e d b y r h y t h m s y m b o l s . )
S e q u e n c e s w h i c h h a v e become f a m i l i a r i n o n e r h y t h m i c
s e t t i n g sh o u ld be used w ith o th e r rhythm ic s e t t i n g s ,
or w ithout a n a c ru s is ,
sin g in g .
w ith
th e c la s s b e a tin g tim e d urin g th e
Then t h e s e f a m i l i a r r h y t h m i c s e q u e n c e s s h o u ld
be u s e d f o r t a a t a i - i n g
also fo r p ra c tic e
o r rh y th m s p e l l i n g t o p i t c h , and
in w ritin g or d i c t a t i o n .
I t w i l l be r e a d i l y s e e n t h a t by com bining th e n u m e r i­
c a l se q u en c e fo r m u la e i n A ppendix A w ith t h e rh y th m
f o r m u l a e I n A p p e n d i x B, a n d b y a p p l y i n g t h e v a r i o u s
d e v ic e s f o r o b ta in in g v a r ie ty in sequence sin g in g
d em onstrated in th e
n e ed n e v e r be a t
preceding 20 S e c tio n s ,
th e te a c h e r
a l o s s t o f i n d new M a t e r i a M u s i c a f o r
th e Singing C la s s.
ftv c -^ o te J^hythtQ ic G fo up
i
m
n
n
m
m
n
n
in
n
m
n m
JT3JT3
m n
.raj
J T7P.
J73 n
ni n
jjj jj .
n
m
n
yj}
7}. m
m n.
77} P..
m 7}
n w n r.
t
X
i
*
jn jj
JJJ J J
J J JJJ
J J J JJ
J7J1J
j J^J3
J. J-JJJ
J. 7} n
J JJ J- J*
JJJ J. JJ. J3JJ
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C o p y r ig h t in U . S . A . a n d a l l c o u n tr ie s , >9 3 8 , b y A r t h u r J . Ir v in e
THE DEVELOPMENT OP MUSICAL ABILITY
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO
AURAL TECHNIQUE AND SIGHT READING
A
THESIS
SUBMITTED TO THE
UNIVERSITY OP GLASGOW
FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
ARTHUR J .
IRVINE
1940
VOLUME
II
P A R T
S I N G I N G
P A R T
BY
II
MEANS
C A N 0 N I C
OP
S E Q U E N C E S
CONTENTS OP VOLUME II
C hapter
XI
P a r t Singing
.......................
206
X II
The I n f l u e n c e o f M e lo d ic
O r n a m e n ta tio n on t h e
C o n trap u n tal T e x tu re . . . .
2 27
X III
C a n o n s b a s e d on a S e q u e n c e o f D e s c e n d i n g T h i r d s . . .
239
XIV
Canons b a s e d on a S e q u e n c e o f D e s c e n d i n g T h i r d s
v
(C o n td .)
281
Canons b a se d on a Sequence o f D e sc e n d in g T h i r d s
%
(C o n td .)
299
XV
.
Page
an d C anonic S e q u e n ce s
...
XVI
C anons on C h r o m a tic S e q u e n c e s
XVII
C a n o n s b a s e d o n S c a l e s a n d S c a l e P a s s a g e s ........................... 331
X V III
Canons b a se d on S e q u e n ce s d e s c e n d in g S t e p w i s e . .
XIX
Canons on S e q u e n c e s o f D e s c e n d i n g a n d A s c e n d in g
F o u r t h s a n d F i f t h s .................. 3 7 1
XX.
The T e a c h i n g
.................................................. 3 1 4
...
350
o f H a r m o n y ...................................................................3 95
Mb
C H A P T E R
XI
CANONIC SEQUENCES
We h a v e now s h o w n how s e q u e n c e s m ay b e u s e d i n
p r a c t ic a ll y a l l branches of th e
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)
(m)
(n)
(o)
C la ss Singing Lesson:
fo r p rac tic e in p itc h sp e llin g
f o r p r a c t i c e i n rhythm s p e l l i n g
f o r b r e a t h i n g , v o ic e p r o d u c t i o n , f l e x i b i l i t y and dicticn
fo r tr a in in g in e x p ressio n
f o r tr a i n in g in th e observance of r e s t s
f o r modal s in g in g
fo r a n tip h o n a l singing
f o r th e c u l t i v a t i o n of m u sic a l im agery or m en tal s in g f o r con d u ctin g
ing.
f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of c h ro m a tic n o t e s , b o th
m e lo d ic and h arm onic
f o r d e v e lo p in g a se n s e o f p h ra s e and form
for ear-tests
fo r ab so lu te p itc h s p e llin g
fo r v isu a l s p e llin g or s t a f f read ing
fo r s t a f f w ritin g .
I t may s e e m t o b e a s k i n g m u ch o f a t e a c h e r t o
h i m t o t o u c h on a l l t h e s e p o i n t s i n t h e
c la ss.
But i t
expect
o rd in ary sin g in g
s h o u l d be rem em bered t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f s u c h
sequence p r a c tic e i s
cum ulative, and t h a t ,
w hile th e
e m p h a s i s i s b e i n g l a i d o n one p a r t i c u l a r b r a n c h o f m u s i c i a n ­
sh ip ,
o t h e r a s p e c t s of m u s ic ia n s h ip en u m erated above a re
p r o b a b l y b e i n g t o u c h e d on i n c i d e n t a l l y i n t h e p r o c e s s .
whole o f t h e t r a i n i n g ,
i t w i l l be o b served,
c e n tr e round t h e Sequence M o d u lato r,
The
i s made t o
and t h u s t h e M e t h o d
i t s e l f may b e r e g a r d e d a s a c o n c e n t r i c m e t h o d .
We now come t o a v e r y i m p o r t a n t b r a n c h o f m u s i c i a n ­
s h ip , a b ran c h , m oreover, w hich has r e c e i v e d b u t s c a n t
a t t e n t i o n fro m t h e m usic e d u c a t i o n i s t ,
and w hich,
as a r u le ,
W 1
is
allow ed to be in tro d u c e d t o c l a s s e s i n any f a s h io n
w h a te v e r, nam ely, p a r t - s i n g i n g .
I t w i l l be ag reed t h a t p a r t - s in g in g
m ental d i s c i p l i n e t h a t i s
sin g in g .
e n t i r e l y la c k in g i n a l l unison
In a r e a l sense, th e sin g e rs
c r e a t e t h e i r own m e l o d i c
provides a
lin e ,
of u n d e r - p a r ts m ust
often a g a in st th e n a tu ra l
i n c l i n a t i o n o f t h e v o ic e and i n t h e f a c e
o p p o sitio n from p a rts above.
For,
i n o r d i n a r y harm onic
w ritin g , u rxier-parts a re o fte n d ic ta te d
n o t by m e lo d ic n e c e s s i t y .
o f m u ch p h y s i c a l
by haxmonic and
Hence, p a r t - s i n g i n g
in d ep en d en ce and i n i t i a t i v e
in sin g ers.
in cu lcates
"A lto s a re slw ays
th e b e s t re a d e rs '."
But t h e a r g u m e n ts a g a i n s t o r d i n a r y p a r t - s i n g i n g f o r
young c h i l d r e n a r e s t r o n g .
F i r s t of a l l ,
v o i c e t o o much t o t h e l o w e r r e g i s t e r ;
inherent d if f ic u lty
o f ho ld in g
it
c o n fin es the
and, se co n d ly , the
an u n d e r - p a r t i s
a p t to lead
to a harsh, s e lf - a s s e r tiv e to n e.
And b o t h o f t h e s e may d o
c o n s i d e r a b l e damage t o c h i l d r e n ' s
v o ices.
I n r e c e n t y e a r s , a way o u t o f t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s
has been so u g h t by r e v e r t i n g t o th e a n c i e n t p r a c t i c e
descant sin g in g .
The a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s
fo r equal v o ices is th a t th e
low er
of
form o f p a r t - s i n g i n g
(on t h e w hole) o f t h e
two p a r t s h a s th e c o m p a r a t i v e l y e a s y t a s k
of h o ld in g the
m elody, w h ile t h e u p p e r p a r t s i n g s a s u b s i d i a r y m elody,
both p a rts
c o v e r i n g more o r l e s s t h e
sa m e r a n g e .
Thus, i n
Zog
a w e ll-w ritte n d escan t,
the a l t o
voice,
and n o t sim p ly a p a rt-s o n g w ith
p a r t tr a n s p o s e d an octave h ig h e r , th e d e s c a n t
a s t h e name I m p l i e s ,
"cantus",
s i n g s a "w hole" tu n e
and n o t j u s t a s e r i e s
d iffic u lt,
and u n i n t e r e s t i n g
of i n c o h e r e n t ,
or
and th e r e f o re
"p arts".
I n a l l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s , m odern p sy c h o lo g y t e l l s
u s , w h o le s a r e more e a s i l y g r a s p e d t h a n
in
in tro d u cin g
c h i l d r e n to
a d o p t w h a t we may c a l l t h e
w hich a l s o t u r n s
approach t o
p arts.
p art-sin g in g ,
it
And s o ,
is w ell to
"wholesom e" m eth o d o f a p p r o a c h ,
o u t t o h e t h e h i s t o r i c a l m ethod o f
the s u b j e c t .
That is to sa y ,
we s h o u l d
a p p r o a c h p a r t - s i n g i n g b y way o f c o u n t e r p o i n t o r m e l o d i c
w h o l e s , r a t h e r t h a n b y w ay o f h a r m o n y o r u n m e l o d i c p a r t s .
F u rth e r, a s i n a l l p r im itiv e a r t and i n a l l
a r t t h e em phasis i s
found t o be l a i d
ch ild
on t h e s i d e o f t h e
u n ity in th e art-w ork, so in in tro d u cin g th e a r t of p o ly ­
phony t o c h i l d r e n t h e u n i t a r y a s p e c t o f t h e c o n t r a p u n t a l
m e l o d i e s s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d .
And t h i s
s u g g e s ts a t once
t h a t t h e a p p r o a c h t o p a r t - s i n g i n g s h o u l d b e b y way o f c a n o n
sin g in g .
In th is
c o n n ectio n i t
is in te re s tin g to
th e e v o l u t i o n of th e p o ly p h o n ic a r t ,
note t h a t ,
c a n o n was one o f t h e
e a r l i e s t d e v ic e s used by com posers.
" S t r i c t c an o n , i n w hich t h e v o i c e s i m i t a t e e a c h
- o t h e r e x a c t l y and f o r l o n g s t r e t c h e s , i s a n o l d e r
device th a n f r e e im ita tio n o f a fragm entary k in d ."
( E . J . D e n t i n "The L i s t e n e r " , J u n e 1 0 , 1 9 3 6 )
in
20<j
However, o r d i n a r y c a n o n s a r e n o t a lw a y s s u i t a b l e
fo r b eg in n ers.
Some a r e t o o l o n g a n d I n t r i c a t e ,
cro ssin g of th e v oice p a rts
w h ile th e
- a n e c e s s ity in a l l canons a t
th e un iso n - o f te n g iv e s g r e a t tr o u b le to b e g in n e rs.
Indeed,
the t r a n s i t i o n from u n is o n s in g in g t o e v e n sim p le
canon s in g in g and round s in g in g i s
n a t u r a l w ith young c h i l d r e n .
n e v e r f e l t t o be q u i t e
I t i s a s i f a s t a g e betw een
u n i s o n r e a d i n g an d p a r t r e a d i n g were m i s s i n g .
A ctu ally ,
i n e v ery s u b j e c t an e x te n s i v e c o n c r e t e
s t a g e or o r a l s t a g e s h o u ld p r e c e d e t h e sym bol s t a g e .
p ractice
i n o r a l s p e e c h s h o u l d come b e f o r e
Much
language r e a d in g .
Much p r a c t i c e i n o r a l s i n g i n g s h o u l d come b e f o r e s i g h t
s i n g i n g or m usic r e a d i n g .
B u t w h a t d o we h a v e i n t h e
S in g in g L e s so n to b r i d g e t h e g u l f b e tw ee n r e a d i n g m usic In
u n i s o n and r e a d i n g m u sic i n p a r t s ?
Is
it
not tru e th a t
th e g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y t h a t c h ild re n e x p erien c e,
first
t r y to sing in p a rts ,
are attem p tin g
is due to
when t h e y
the f a c t t h a t t h e y
to do f r o m s y m b o ls s o m e t h i n g t h a t t h e y h a v e
n e v e r b e f o r e a tte m p te d w ith o u t sym bols,
th at is ,
o rally ?
U n is o n s i n g i n g c a n b e done v e r y e a s i l y b y i m i t a t i o n ,
b u t n o t so p a r t - s i n g i n g .
How t h e n c a n we c o n t r i v e t o h a v e
an o ra l sta g e i n p a r t- s in g in g , c o rre sp o n d in g to th e
sta g e in unison sin g in g
oral
- a s t a g e i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n may
b e n e f i t from th e e x p e rie n c e of e x te n s iv e s in g in g i n p a r ts
w ith o u t bein g under th e n e c e s s ity of re a d in g or i n t e r p r e t i n g
ZIO
th e s e p a r ts from n o ta tio n ?
The a n s w e r t o
th is
problem ,
i t i s b e l i e v e d , w i l l be found i n C an o n ic S eq u en ce S i n g i n g .
So f a r a s t h e w r i t e r i s a w a r e ,
t h e i d e a of u s in g
no one h a s y e t d e v e l o p e d
sequences f o r tr a in in g c h ild re n
co n trap u n tal sin g in g .
And y e t ,
seq u en ces in t h e form of
canons le n d th e m se lv e s r e a d i l y to
As w i l l b e s e e n
sequence f ig u r e ,
tw o b a r s i n
th ree n o tes.
th is
purpose.
from t h e e x a m p le s g i v e n b e lo w , t h e
on w h ic h t h e c a n o n s a r e b a s e d ,
len g th ,
in
is
only
a n d m y c o n t a i n ev en a s few a s two o r
M o r e o v e r , t h e n o t e s t h e m s e l v e s move c h i e f l y
i n s t e p w i s e f a s h i o n , a n d t h e y c a n be e a s i l y f o l l o w e d fro m
t h e Sequence M o d u lato r.
th ere
i s no c r o s s i n g
A gain,
in t h e s e sequence canons
of th e v o ic e p a r t s , and q h i te a la r g e
v a r i e t y of harm onic and c o n t r a p u n t a l p r o g r e s s i o n i s
a b l e , a s com pared w i t h t h e
o rd in ary ty p e of canon,
b e sid es in v o lv in g th e c ro ssin g
d o e s n o more t h a n r i n g t h e
of t h e v o ic e p a r t s ,
c h a n g e s on t o n i c
o b tain ­
w hich,
often
and d o m in a n t
harm onies.
I t may b e s a i d ,
to o , t h a t th e
n o t a t i o n a l problem ,
from the p o i n t of view o f b o t h p i t c h and rh y th m , d o e s n o t
e x ist,
a s t h e se q u e n c e s w i l l p r o b a b ly have a l r e a d y been
l e a r n e d by h e a r t from th e Sequence M o d u la to r .
we h a v e ,
to a rea l
So t h a t
in t h i s canonic sequence s in g in g , an ap p ro x im atio n
o ral stag e in p a rt-sin g in g .
T h i s w i l l b e com e
c l e a r a s t h e m ethod o f c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e s i n g i n g
is unfo ld ed .
211
CANONIC SEQUENCES
The f o l l o w i n g C a n o n i c S e q u e n c e s h o u l d h e e x a m i n e d
carefu lly .
Ito .
6 ,5 a
A*
3,2a.
I t w ill he n o ted t h a t th e sequence f ig u r e
Id'
:t
ll
i s tw o h a r s i n l e n g t h , a n d t h a t p l a i n n u m b e r s , CD (D
and l e t t e r e d n u m b ers ,
hars.
®
@
and ©
:-
I
and©
, are placed over c e r ta in
T hese num bers i n d i c a t e t h e
point
of e n tr y of th e
v a r i o u s v o i c e s when t h e s e q u e n c e i s t r e a t e d a s a c a n o n .
Thus:
v o i c e d ) w o u l d aivays b e g i n f i r s t ;
v o i c e d ) w o u l d b e g i n wh en v o i c e d ) r e a c h e s t h e p o i n t m a r k e d
v o i c e © w o u l d b e g i n wh en v o i c e © r e a c h e s t h e p o i n t m a r k e d
@)
©
I t w i l l b e f u r t h e r n o t e d t h a t t h e p l a i n n u m b e r s (D
and © o c c u r a t th e b e g in n in g
of t h e 3rd and 6 th r e p e t i t i o n s
of t h e sequence f i g u r e .
T h u s , v o i c e s e n t e r i n g w hen v o i c e (T) r e a c h e d ® a n d ©
would p r o d u c e w i t h t h e f i r s t
v o ic e c o n s e c u t i v e t h i r d s and
s ix th s re s p e c tiv e ly , and
a l l th ree
v o ices,
®
would p r o d u c e a s e q u e n c e
of c o n s e c u tiv e or p a r a l l e l s i x -
(3 )
th re e (f) chords, th u s:
fe
i m r
fo ;ff!f
Iffif
The f o r m u l a f o r t h i s
f?;ji
jH ;§
iljjj
Ijjl^
c a n o n w o u l d be <©(§)©.
and® ,
On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
num bers, ©
©
and© ,
i t w i l l be seen t h a t th e
o ccur a t th e m iddle of t h e se c o n d ,
f o u r t h and s i x t h r e p e t i t i o n s
of th e
sequence f i g u r e .
means t h a t a v o i c e e n t e r i n g a t t h e s e
produce p a r a l l e l m otion w i t h t h e
and© ,
T h is
p o i n t s w ould n o t
p l a i n - n u m b e r e d v o i c e s (DGD
b u t would e s t a b l i s h a k i n d o f c r o s s rh y th m w i t h t h e s e
vo ices,
w hich would l e a d t o o b l i q u e a n d c o n t r a r y m o tio n ,
t h e o n ly k in d s o f m otion a ll o w a b le ,
d istan ces.
we d e r i v e
in fa c t,
p a r a l l e l m o tio n i n t h i r d s and s i x t h s ,
num bered v o i c e s @ ©
and ©
p assin g -n o tes,
w i l l
u n d e r
T h e se
i n d i c a t e
b r in g
t h e
T h e re
is
c a n o n
n o
letter-
we d e r i v e c o n t r a r y m o t i o n a n d
of such m o tio n -
s u s p e n s i o n s , a p p o g g l a t u r a s and a n t i c i p a t i o n s .
The f o r m u l a f o r t h i s
I t
th e only
w hile from th e
o b liq u e m otion, w i t h t h e f a m i l i a r f e a t u r e s
t h a t
a t th ese
T h u s , f r o in t h e p l a i n - n u m b e r e d v o i c e s (3) a n d ©
kind of p a r a l l e l m otion a llo w e d ;
o u t ,
lettered
b e
no ted ,
c e r t a i n
t h e
to
b r e a k
i n
in
t o o ,
n o te s
p o i n t s
a
c a n o n w o uld b e
t h e
t h e r e
w h e re
t h e
s o l-fa n o tatio n lay ­
a r e
p a u s e s
v a r io u s
p r o p e r
c o n c lu s io n
a n y
t h e
o f
CD 00O
v o i c e s .
o n
a n d
v o i c e s
t h e
t o n i c
num bers.
p a u s e
t o
c h o r d .
81%
B e lo w ,
s e q u e n c e
w i l l
v a r i o u s
b e
fo u n d
f o r m u la e ,
© (D , 0 ©
p o i n t s
o f
e n t r y
I n
t r y i n g
t h e
t e a c h e r
n e e d
v o i c e © s t a r t s
v o i c e ®
e x a m p le s
,
o f
w r i t t e n
c a n o n s
o u t
0 ( 2 ) © , < D <D < © © >
of
t h e
o u t
v o ic e s
t h e s e
re m e m b e r
a t
th e
u s e d
i n
w i t h
t h e
a
c l a s s ,
a l l
a n d
. . .
c o n ti n u e s
w h en
t o
v o l c o © h a s
Q
v o ic e ©
...
0 .. •
v o ic e ©
...
© .. .
v o ic e ©
...
0...
v o ic e ©
,
p o i n t s
o f
t h e i r
t h e
a n d
b r i n g
e n t r y .
r e s p e c t i v e
f i n a l
E x
s h o u ld
t h e r e f o r e
i n
o t h e r
A l l
p a u s e
t h e
v o ic e s
m a rk s ,
n o t e .
u n o
d i s c e
oranes.
t h a t
f o l lo w
v o i c e s
w i l l
i . e . ,
a t
p a u s e
w h en
en d
...
t h e
c o u r s e
t h e i r
w h en
t h e
r e a c h e d
...
t e a c h e r
th e
c a s e .
v o ic e ©
T he
t h i s
I n d i c a t i n g
e a c h
w ith
on
t h a t :
b e g in n in g
...........................................
f u l l ,
e t c . ,
c a n o n s
i s
i n
b a s e d
r e s p e c t i v e
t h e y
v o i c e
o f
©
r e a c h
r e a c h e s
<a.U .
2. IS
I t w i l l be n o te d t h a t ,
in order to
c a r r y t h e harm onic
s e q u e n c e o r can o n t h r o u g h t h e whole o c t a v e , a r a n g e o f a n
o c ta v e and a s i x t h i s n e c e s s a r y .
compass o f o l d e r c h i l d r e n .
T his
is
q u ite w ith in th e
But w i t h y o u n g e r c l a s s e s ,
d e s i r e d , t h e c a n o n may b e b r o u g h t t o a c l o s e b e f o r e
A gain, a l l
m odally,
i.e .,
canons,
if
the end.
l i k e a l l s e q u e n c e s , may b e s u n g
t h e y may b e s u n g b e g i n n i n g o n o t h e r s c a l e
degrees th a n th e to n ic ,
e.g .
on r ,
a p p r e c ia te what i s im p lie d by t h i s
m, f ,
s and 1.
To
modal t r e a t m e n t ,
a ll
t h a t one n e e d d o i s t o r e a d t h e f o u r t e e n c a n o n s i n Key F
above a s i f
th e y w ere w r i t t e n o u t i n o th e r k e y s.
by im agining f o u r f l a t s
i n t h e Key S i g n a t u r e ,
Thus,
we g e t t h e
k e y o f A**, a n d t h e c a n o n s w o u l d t h e n a l l b e g i n on " 1 * .
S im ilarly ,
sig n a tu re ,
by im a g in in g tw o f l a t s
in
th e key
we w o u l d g e t t h e k e y o f B ^, a n d t h e c a n o n s
t h e n w o u l d a l l b e g i n on " s " .
W i t h t h e n a t u r a l k e y (C)
t h e f i r s t n o t e w ould b e " f w i t h
fiv e
flats
(K e y D*) i t
w o u l d b e "m", a n d w i t h t h r e e f i a t s
(Key E^) i t
would be *r
The t e a c h e r w i l l s o o n b e c o m e e x p e r t a t b r i n g i n g i n
th e voices a t th e v ario u s p o i n t s , © , ©
no te th e canon s t a r t s
d istan ces of th e
on - d , r ,
e tc .
m, f , s o r 1 - t h e r e l a t i v e
p o i n t s ( D © ® © ) (T) e t c . ,
T h e y may b e e a s i l y a s c e r t a i n e d , s i n c e t h e
© (2)@
No m a t t e r w h a t
e t c . , w ould o c c u r a t t h e f i r s t ,
rem ain th e sam e.
p l a i n num bers,
second, t h i r d e t c . ,
appearance of t h e s e q u e n t i a l f i g u r e , w h ile th e l e t t e r e d
num bers ©
© ©
e tc .,
w ould o c c u r a t t h e m i d - p o i n t o f
the se q u e n tia l f ig u r e , t h a t is ,
p l a i n num bers.
e x a c tly betw een th e
417
JS
<$> <9
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{Id' st II ; - l t il Is - 11:a l-f :-!#':•? I« i - ] f m |r U ir U I r ’:el If,
We g i v e
b e l o w some e x t r e m e e x a m p l e s
th e re a d e r w ith t h i s
U :f, fmj=|
in ord er to f a m ilia r ln i
id ea of sin g in g
canons fro m o r d i n a r y
sequences.
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- a sequence o f
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cpf)«.)
in v ersio n s.
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Q ©®©©- a s e q u e n c e o f " f g i ^ - t h r e e e " f
%
The v o i c e e n t r i e s a t @ © ©
ij^
a n d (D w o u l d n o t n o r m a l l y b e
u s e d , a s t h e s e w o u l d p r o d u c e w i t h v o i c e (T) c o n s e c u t i v e 4 t h e ,
5 th s,
7 t h s and 8v e s .
sake o f com pleteness.
They have b e e n a d d e d h e r e f o r t h e
Such c o n s e c u t l v e s , how ever, e r e t o
h e f o u n d m ore a n d m o r e i n m o d e r n m u s i c , a n d i n t h i s
canonic
s e q u e n c e form t h e y w i l l b e r e a d i l y t a c k l e d by c h i l d r e n .
CANONS FOR MIXED VOICES
The sam e s e q u e n c e { |d 1 : t | l
w i t h m ixed v o i c e s .
:-|
may h e u s e d I n c l a s s e s
Care m ust he t a k e n ,
how ever,
w hether th e v a rio u s e n t r i e s a r e f o r T re b le
These v o ic e s are
to see
o r Bass v o i c e s .
d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t h e c a n o n f o r m u l a e hy
m eans o f t h e l e t t e r s
S and B p la c e d o v er t h e e n t r y num bers,
S 3b IB S
S stan d in g f o r T reb le,
and B f o r B ass,
W ith c l a s s e s o f e q u a l v o i c e s
it
t h e c a n o n s f o r m i x e d v o i c e s may a l s o
be u s e d .
p arts,
F o r exam ple,
Bass p a r t ,
or
B a s s p a r t s may be p l a y e d
w hile th e v o ic e s s i n g th e T reb le
would a p p l y a l s o t o
0§)@ © .
is suggested t h a t
t h e t e a c h e r w h e r e p o s s i b l e may s i n g t h e
where a p i a n o i s a v a i l a b l e t h e
e .g .
p arts.
T h is,
E qu al V o ic e Canons i n t h r e e
where t h e t e a c h e r o r p i a n o may f i l l
of course,
or fo u r
in any p a rt.
The sa m e s e q u e n c e i s u s e d f o r E q u a l V o i c e C a n o n s a n d
f o r M ix e d V o i c e C a n o n s .
The f o r m e r a r e g r o u p e d u n d e r t h e
c a n o n ic l a y o u t m arked ( a ) ,
(b)
and
(c).
th e l a t t e r
u n d e r t h o s e m arked
I n t h e Mixed V o ic e Canons t n e s e q u e n c e h a s
been sh o rte n ed s l i g h t l y .
O therw ise i t
rem ains unchanged.
T h e r e a r e no b r e a k s i n a n y o f t h e v o i c e s ,
and t h e f i n a l
p au ses f o r t h e v a rio u s v o ic e s a r e m arked.
These pauses
o c cu r where t h e f i r s t v o ic e d ) r e a c h e s t h e
l a s t n o te.
21?
A ll th a t th e te a c h e r re q u ire s
fo llo w th e co u rse of v o ic e ©
voices (D @ ® © e tc .
to do, th e n ,
is to
and to b r in g i n th e v a rio u s
a t th e various p o in ts
of e n t r y marked
in th e canonic la y o u t.
A class
o f b a s s v o i c e s may, o f c o u r s e , u s e t h e
E q u a l V o i c e s l a y o u t (a), b r i n g i n g t h e
clo se.
W hile t h e
(c) la y o u t
canon t o an e a r l i e r
f o r m i x e d v o i c e s may a l s o
b e u s e d b y e q u a l v o i c e s f o r c a n o n s (T X g), ® ( D ©
(EXD(©(g>
in o rd er to le s s e n th e ran g e of th e
or
c a n o n by
b rin g in g i t to a c lo s e a t th e 19th b a r.
Thus
A l l t h e s e c a n o n s may b e s u n g m o d a l l y ,
th at is,
th e voices
may a l l b e g i n f r o m 1 o r s , e t c .
The c a n o n i c f o r m u l a e © d ) < @
e t c . w i l l be found
u s e f u l f o r e n t e r i n g work done i n t h e T e a c h e r ' s R e c o rd o f
Work, t h u s :
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3.25
We h a v e now s h o w n 41 c a n o n s (a)
(c )
14 tw o , t h r e e a n d f o u r - p a r t c a n o n s f o r e q u a l v o i c e s
10 f o u r - p a r t c an o n s f o r m ixed v o i c e s
17 t h r e e - p a r t c a n o n s f o r m i x e d v o i c e s ,
w h i c h may b e s u n g f r o m t h e
These canons a l l d i f f e r ,
one m e l o d i c s e q u e n c e j d ' : t l l
: -}etc,
e i t h e r i n r e s p e c t o f harm onic
p ro g ressio n ,
o r o f t h e number and d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e p a r t s
or v o ices.
It
s h o u ld be e m p h a sise d h e r e t h a t ,
although
t h e p r i n t i n g o f a l l 41 c a n o n s i n v o l v e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e a m o u n t ;
of m u sical n o ta tio n ,
is
i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e no n o t a t i o n a t a l l
r e q u i r e d i f t h e c a n o n s a r e s u n g f r o m t h e S e q u e n c e Modu­
lato r.
And, a t t h e m o s t , a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d i n t h e P u p i l ' s
Book i s
th e s o l - f a canonic
la y o u t to g e th e r w ith th e canonic
fo rm u lae.
A g a i n , a s t h e sa m e c a n o n i c f o r m u l a e a p p l y t o t h e
30 c a n o n ic s e q u e n c e s t h a t f o l l o w i n t h i s book ( a l l b a s e d
o n t h e s e q u e n c e o f d e s c e n d i n g t h i r d s (Id1 : - l l
e tc .),
: - It : - l s
t h e s e f o r m u la e need o n l y be g i v e n once a t t h e
b eg in n in g of t h i s
s e c t i o n o f canonic sequences in th e
P u p i l ' s B ook.
On t h e n e x t p a g e we s h a l l g i v e t h e c a n o n i c l a y o u t
f o r t h i s id' : t ll
:-}can o n ic sequence to g e th e r w ith th e
c a n o n ic fo rm u la e f o r a l l 41 c a n o n s d e r i v e d fro m i t .
n< c
T h e C a n o n i c S e q u e n c e {I d.1 : 1 1 1 : - J
Canons f o r E q u a l V o ic e s
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Canons f o r Mixed V o i c e s
Three and F o u r - P a r t
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w
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ZZ*J
C H A P T E R
X II
THE INFLUENCE OF MELODIC ORNAMENTION
ON THE CONTRAPUNTAL TEXTURE
A ll th e canons
th e one sequ en ce
i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r a r e b a s e d on
|d ‘ : t ll
hut th is
sequence i t s e l f
is
d e riv e d from th e p la in sequence of descending t h i r d s
Id1
It
ll
Is
}
, w h i c h may a l s o b e t r e a t e d
i n canon
form .
The g r e a t e r v a r i e t y
o b tain ed in t h e form er s e t of canons
i s due s im p ly t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a p a s s i n g n o t e i n t h e
first
lim b o f t h e s e q u e n t i a l f i g u r e
I t w i l l be s e e n t h a t t h i s
{Id1 : t | l
.
s l i g h t h o riz o n ta l or
m e l o d i c o r n a m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p l a i n s e q u e n c e l e a d s t o new
v ertical
trea te d
o r h a rm o n ic c o m b i n a t i o n s , when t h e them e i s
in canon.
One l i m b o f t h e s e q u e n t i a l f i g u r e
p lay ed o f f a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r ; m otion i s
is
opposed t o r e s t .
T h u s, t o t h e two k i n d s o f c o n t r a p u n t a l m o ti o n
e x h i b i t e d i n t h e c a n o n ic tr e a tm e n t o f t h e p l a i n se q u en c e of
descending t h i r d s ,
v iz.
s i m i l a r m otion and c o n t r a r y m o tio n ,
and, from th e c o n tra p u n ta l p o in t
i s added th e t h i r d
of v i e w , t h e more v i t a l
ZZi
k in d o f m o tio n , nam ely,
o b liq u e m otion.
I t has been by s u c h a d v e n tu re s i n m elo d ic ornam enta­
t i o n t h a t t h e harm onic t e x t u r e h a s been e n r i c h e d in th e
e v o lu tio n of th e
co n trap u n tal a r t .
Dr G e o r g e D y s o n , i n h i s a r t i c l e
on "Harmony" i n
G ro v e 's D i c ti o n a r y , t r a c e s a t l e n g t h t h i s
"in flu en ce
of
m e lo d ic d e v i c e s on t h e g ro w th o f h a rm o n ic v a r i e t y . "
He e n u m e r a t e s f o u r o f t h e s e d e v i c e s w h i c h h a v e " h e l p e d t o
expand th e s e
harm onic f o r m u l a e " , n a m e ly , p a s s i n g n o t e s ,
su sp en sio n s,
a p p o g g iatu ras and a n t i c i p a t i o n s ,
to describ e
its
"term s u sed
a m elo d ic com ponent w hich i s , w i t h r e s p e c t t o
en v iro n m en t, ornam ented,
or advanced, a s
or d e la y ed ,
or i n f le c t e d ,
t h e c a s e may b e . "
( S e e a l s o "A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f Harmony"
by C h a rle s M acpherson, page 50,
L o n d o n , K e gan P a u l , T r e n c h . )
F ollow ing t h i s
of polyphonic w r itin g ,
h i s t o r i c a l approach t o th e s u b je c t
and a d o p t i n g a s a w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s i s
t h e t h e o r y of t h e g ro w th o f harm onic c o m p le x ity th ro u g h
e x p e r i m e n t s i n m e l o d i c o r n a m e n t a t i o n , l e t u s now t a k e
th e h a s ic canonic sequence of d e sce n d in g t h i r d s ,
jd'
|l
It
Is
ap p ly th e v a rio u s ty p e s of
m elo d ic o r n a m e n ta tio n t o t h i s m e lo d ic germ , a n d n o te
t h e r e s u l t a n t harm onic c o m p le x ity t h a t t h i s
when t h e m e l o d i c s e q u e n c e i s t r e a t e d
leads to ,
i n can o n form .
We s h a l l u s e f o r o u r p r i n c i p a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s
t h e f o u r - p a r t c a n o n f o r m ixed v o i c e s h a s e d on t h e
S
form ula
3
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135
The a b o v e c a n o n s a r e
j u s t a f e w f r o m t h e many t h a t
may h e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e b a s i c s e q u e n c e o f d e s c e n d i n g
t h i r d s fid1
most p a r t ,
ll
It
Is
T h e y a r e made u p , f o r t h e
o f c o n t r a p u n t a l idiom s w hich b e lo n g to t h e
everyday v o c ab u lary of th e c o n tr a p u n tis t.
D u rin g th e lo ng h i s t o r y o f th e
a r t of co u n terp o in t,
t h e v a r i o u s c o n t r a p u n t a l a n d harm onic idiom s have a l l b een
ev o lv ed by a p ro c e s s of n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n , w hich, so lo n g as
M u s i c was a p u r e l y V o c a l A r t , p r o c e e d e d s l o w l y b u t s u r e l y .
B ut, w i t h t h e
e n try o f th e m usical in stru m e n t
(c.1600)
as an i m i t a t o r and l a t e r on a s a r i v a l o f t h e v o i c e ,
th is
p r o c e s s o f n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n h a s g a i n e d i n momentum.
And now
w i t h t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e modern p i a n o and t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n
o f o r c h e s t r a l t i m b r e i n r e l a t i o n t o d y n a m i c s , a n d m ore
e s p e c ia lly w ith th e
c o m ing o f m u s i c a l r e p r o d u c t i o n b y m e a n s
o f gram ophone and r a d i o , t h e
en ric h m e n t of t h e
harm onic
t e x t u r e h a s p ro c e e d e d by l e a p s an d bounds by a p r o c e s s o f
s e l e c t i o n w h ic h c a n s c a r c e l y a n y l o n g e r be c a l l e d n a t u r a l .
"The c h o r a l m u s i c o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , b o t h
s a c re d and s e c u l a r , r e p r e s e n ts in d eed a golden
ag e o f a l l t h a t i s n o rm a l t o c h o r a l harm ony.
M u s ic a l e d u c a t i o n i t s e l f was t h e n i n p e r f e c t t u n e
w ith t h e f r e e p ra c tic e of th e a r t .
I t began a t
t h e r i g h t m ental age w ith t h e t r a i n i n g of c h o i r ­
boys in r e a l m usic.
The r u l e s o f s t r i c t c o u n t e r ­
p o i n t w e r e t h e r e s u l t o f a t l e a s t tw o c e n t u r i e s
o f e x p e r ie n c e w ith a c o n s t a n t l y grow ing r e f in e m e n t
of p ercep tio n .
They w e r e n o t , a s t h e l a t e
W.S. R o c k s t r o m a i n t a i n e d , ' t h e p r e c e p t s t o w h i c h
|
236
I
"th e G re a t M asters gave t h e i r lo v in g
o b e d i e n c e ' ; on t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e y w e r e
g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s by s h r e w d o b s e r v e r s o f
t h e p r a c t i c e of t h e g r e a t m a s t e r s . . . .
I n th e s i x t e e n t h c e n tu r y the p a th o f
p r o g r e s s was t h e p a t h o f p u r i t y .
And
t h e r e w a s no m o t i v e f o r r e v o l u t i o n s o l o n g
a s t h e i n t e r e s t s of t h e unaccom panied c h o ru s
w ere a l l t h a t m a t t e r e d .
Can we c o n c e i v e a
more n o rm a l a n d more p u r e l y m u s i c a l c e n t r e
f o r th e a e s t h e t i c s of m usic t h a n t h e p e r ­
f e c t i o n o f t h e unaccom panied c h o ru s? "
( " N o r m a l i ty a n d Freedom i n M u s ic " ,
S i r Donald F . T ovey, page 16.
O xford, C la re n d o n P r e s s , 1936.)
I t is
the
p u r p o s e of t h e s e c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e s t o
re c re a te as fa r as is
co n d itio n s
by
p o ssib le
under w hich t h e
i n the c la ssro o m th e
c o n tra p u n ta l a r t ev o lv ed , and
t o p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l f o r o r a l p r a c t i c e i n unaccom panied
p a rt-sin g in g ,
fam ilia r a t
by means
o f w h i c h t h e p u p i l s may b e co m e
f i r s t hand w i t h t h e v a r i o u s c o n tr a p u n ta l and
harm onic id io m s.
Music
As we m e n t i o n e d i n a p r e v i o u s
ch ap ter,
th e se canonic
s e q u e n c e s a l s o make i d e a l m a t e r i a l f o r c l a s s p r a c t i c e i n
m usic w r i t i n g .
Once t h e m e t h o d o f s o l v i n g t h e c a n o n s f r o m
S i B
t h e c a n o n i c f o r m u l a e , (D®@> , CP @
i t w ill
be f o u n d t h a t t h i s
e n o u g h t o make t h e
task
S
i&
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» e t c ’ i s understood,
canon w r itin g i s
in te restin g
p le a s a n t, and d i f f i c u l t enough to
•
23 7
make i t
i n s t r u c t i v e and t o g i v e i n c e n t i v e t o t h e p u p i l s .
In f a c t ,
canon s o lv in g
c a r r i e s w i t h i t much o f t h e
f a s c i n a t i o n of crossw ord puzzle s o lv in g .
The m ix e d v o i c e c a n o n s p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l f o r a
su itab le
i n t r o d u c t i o n t o w r i t i n g i n t h e Bass C le f and i n
S h o r t S c o r e , w h i l e t h e u s e o f Open S c o r e a n d t h e C C l e f s
w ill help to f a m ilia r is e
o l d e r p u p i l s w i t h Open S c o r e
read in g .
m
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F u rth er,
a s was p o i n t e d o u t b e f o r e , s e q u e n c e w r i t i n g a n d
canon w r i t i n g a re
th eir
t o b e com mende d t o t h e c l a s s t e a c h e r f o r
ease o f assignm ent as w ell a s f o r t h e i r
rectio n .
A lth o u g h our ex am p les a r e ,
ease o f c o r ­
f o r th e sake of
c o n v e n i e n c e , a l l g i v e n i n Keys F a n d E ^ , t h e c a n o n s s h o u l d
be w r i t t e n out i n v a r i o u s k e y s .
K eybo a r d Harmony
I t need h a rd ly be s a i d t h a t canonic sequences lik e
t h e above form a d m ira b le m a t e r i a l f o r p r a c t i c e i n keyboard
harm ony.
They s h o u l d be p r a c t i s e d a t t h e p i a n o f o r t e i n a l l
k eys and t h r o u g h s e v e r a l o c t a v e s ,
u n t i l t h e v a r i o u s harm onic
a n d c o n t r a p u n t a l i d i o m s beco m e a s f a m i l i a r t o t h e p l a y e r ' s
f i n g e r s a s t h e m elo d ic idiom s a r e t o t h e s i n g e r ' s
Much e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s
vo ice.
k i n d o f work h a s show n t h a t f l u e n c y
i n th e d i g i t a l m a n ip u la tio n o f harm onic and c o n t r a p u n ta l
i d i o m s w i l l come f r o m s u c h p r a c t i c e o n t h e P i a n o K e y b o a r d ,
dust as surely as fluency in th e vocal manipulation of
m e l o d i c a n d r h y t h m i c i d i o r n s w i l l come f r o m t h e p r a c t i c e
of
s e q u e n c e s i n g i n g on t h e V o c a l K e y b o a r d o r S e q u e n c e M o d u l a t o r .
The s a m e , o f c o u r s e , a p p l i e s t o t h e k e y b o a r d p r a c t i c e
Harmonic S e q u e n c e s
of
(se e page / ) .
I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r we h a v e t a b u l a t e d a s e r i e s
o f canons a l l b a s e d on t h e se q u e n c e o f d e s c e n d in g t h i r d s ,
lid'
ll
It
|s
:-i .
As w i l l b e s e e n , f r o m 4 0
to
41 c a n o n s
may b e d e r i v e d f r o m e a c h c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e b y i r e a n s o f t h e
canonic f o r m u la e ,® ©
,G> <® ©>©
e tc .
2.3^
C H A P T E R
XIII
CANONS BASED ON A SEQUENCE OF DESCENDING- THIRDS
In t h is
c h a p te r, a t th e head o f each s e t of canons,
we s h a l l w r i t e o u t t h e c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e i n t o n i c s o l - f a
n o tatio n ,
m arking t h e p o i n t s o f e n t r y , 0 ( D ©
th e f in a l pauses fo r th e d if f e r e n t
voices.
etc.,
and
T h e n we s h a l l
giv e in s t a f f n o ta tio n fo u r b a rs of each canon begin n in g a t
th e p o in t o f e n tr y of th e l a s t v o ic e , and above t h e s e p r i n t
t h e c a n o n ic f o r m u la e i n d i c a t i n g t h e number and p o i n t o f
e n try of th e v o ices.
F irst,
Id
t h e n , th e B a s ic Sequence o f D escending T h ir d s .
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C H A P T E R
XIV
CANONS BASED ON A SEQUENCE OF DESCENDING THIRDS
(C JM 0 .J
I t w i l l b e o b s e r v e d t h a t i n so m e o f t h e a b o v e c a n o n s
t h e d i s c o r d s a r e som ew hat c l o s e ,
e s p e c ia lly in th e canons
f o r th re e and fo u r equal v o ic e s .
T h e s e c a n o n s s h o u l d be
a v o id e d w ith b e g in n e r s .
a b ility
to preserv e
B u t i t m ay b e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e
j u s t i n to n a t io n and t o a v o id h a rs h to n e
i n a c o n te x t o f c lo s e d i s c o r d s i s a m easure of th e a u r a l
te c h n iq u e
be to
of th e s in g e r s .
And s o t h e t e a c h e r ' s
a im s h o u l d
l e a d t h e p u p i l s g r a d u a l l y f r o m t h e m o re e u p h o n i o u s
c a n o n s t o t h e m o re d i s s o n a n t o n e s .
to th e se
T he m e th o d o f a p p r o a c h
d isso n a n c e s th ro u g h c a n o n ic s in g in g and th ro u g h
s t e p w i s e m o v em en t w i l l h e l p t h e p u p i l s
c o n sid e ra b ly to
o v er­
come t h e n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y t o s h r i n k b e f o r e t h e h a r s h e r
d isso n a n c e s.
Many m ore c a n o n s may y e t b e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e b a s i c
canonic sequence
e tc .
of
descending th i r d s
{Id* : -
ll
It
We s h a l l a p p e n d a f e w i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s .
Is
It
s h o u l d n o t b e n e c e s s a r y no w , h o w e v e r , t o g i v e e x a m p l e s i n
s ta f f n o ta tio n
*
o f e a c h o f t h e 4 0 o r 41 c a n o n s t h a t m ay be
sung fro m each c a n o n ic se q u e n c e .
fro m t h e
p r e v io u s e x a m p le s g i v e n .
s e lv e s w ith w r itin g
T h e s e may a l l b e i n f e r r e d
So we s h a l l c o n t e n t o u r ­
out e ac h o f th e c a n o n ic se q u e n c e s in
t o n i c s o l - f a n o t a t i o n a n d a d d in g a few t y p i c a l e x a m p le s o f
th e
(a),
(b) and
(c) s e t s .
* N . B . W here t h e e n t r y © d o e s n o t a p p e a r i n t h e t o n i c
s o l - f a l a y o u t , i t m ay b e a s s u m e d t h a t t h e c an o n ® ® ©
i s n o t p r a c tic a b le w ith t h a t p a r t i c u l a r seq u en ce.
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C H A P T E R
XV
CANONS BASED UN A SEQUENCE OF DESCENDING THIRDS
( CONTD. )
We h a v e now show n 3 0 e x a m p l e s o f c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e s ,
a l l d e r iv e d from th e p l a i n b a s i c se q u e n c e o f d e s c e n d in g
th ird s
-
{Id*
:- |l
:- |t
:- |s
:- ||
Each o f th e s e se q u e n c e s is
c a p a b le o f p ro d u c in g fro m 4 0 t o 41 c a n o n s, a l l d i f f e r i n g
fro m e a c h o th e r i n
h a rm o n ic p r o g r e s s i o n o r i n t h e num ber
o r d is p o s itio n o f th e v o ic e p a r t s ,
w ith o u t a b re a k on t h e
and a l l f in is h in g
to n ic ch o rd .
These c a n o n s , a s w i l l be s e e n , v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y i n
th e d e g re e s o f d isso n a n c e in v o lv e d , an d w i l l p ro v id e p r a c ­
tic e
i n p a r t - s i n g i n g f o r p u p ils o f a l l ag es fro m J u v e n ile s
to A d o le sc e n ts.
Even w i t h young c h i l d r e n i t
and a ls o d e s i r a b l e ,
is
p o ss ib le ,
to a tte m p t t h e m ix e d -v o ic e c a n o n s,
w h e r e t h e t e a c h e r may s i n g t h e b a s s p a r t o r p l a y t h e b a s s
p a rt or p a rts
on t h e p i a n o .
T h is p la n o f f i l l i n g
in p a rts
may a l s o b e a p p l i e d t o c a n o n s f o r e q u a l v o i c e s .
As we h a v e m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , t h e s e c a n o n s a r e
p re se n te d h e re w ith th e o b je c t o f f i l l i n g
p r e s e n t- d a y S in g in g C la ss c u rric u lu m .
im p o s sib le t h e r e ,
a gap in th e
P a rt-sin g in g is
u n le s s th e s e p a ra te p a r ts a re
"drummed"
i n t o t h e c h i l d r e n - a m o st o b j e c t i o n a b l e tim e - w a s tin g and
v o ic e -w a s tin g p ro c e ss - o r u n le s s th e p u p ils a re a b le to
re a d th e p a r t s f o r th e m se lv e s.
U n fo rtu n a te ly , under
p re s e n t c o n d itio n s re a d in g a b i l i t y
d e v elo p s so s lo w ly t h a t
m ost c h ild r e n le a v e sc h o o l w ith o u t b e in g a b le to ta k e any
g re a t sh are in p a rt-s in g in g .
3oo
H en ce t h e d ile m m a !
P a r t - s i n g i n g p r o v i d e s one o f t h e
f i n e s t m eans f o r d e v e lo p in g m u s ic a l a b i l i t y
re a d in g a b i l i t y .
and s i g h t -
B u t by p r e s e n t m eth o d s p a r t - s i n g i n g
c a n n o t be in d u lg e d i n t o a n y g r e a t e x t e n t , w i t h o u t a f a i r
d eg ree o f s ig h t- r e a d in g a b i l i t y
And e v e n w h e n p a r t - s i n g i n g i s
re a d in g ,
i.e .
on t h e p a r t o f t h e p u p i l s !
i n t r o d u c e d b y w ay o f s i g h t -
th ro u g h n o ta tio n ,
it
is
bound t o b e a slo w
a n d e x p e n s i v e p r o c e s s , b e c a u s e we a r e a s k i n g c h i l d r e n t o d o
s o m e th in g t h r o u g h sy m b o ls , w h ich t h e y h a v e n e v e r b e e n a b le
t o a tt e m p t w ith o u t sy m b o ls,
T h is o r a l
i.e .
o ra lly .
sta g e in p a r t- s in g in g
is
th e m is sin g l i n k —
a l i n k w h ic h i s h a r d l y s u p p l i e d by o r d i n a r y ro u n d an d can o n
sin g in g .
F o r,
j u s t a s a p ro lo n g e d o r a l s t a g e o f la n g u a g e
s p e a k in g s h o u ld p re c e d e t h e sy m b o lic s t a g e
o f la n g u a g e
r e a d in g , and j u s t a s a p ro lo n g e d o r a l s ta g e o f so n g s in g in g
sh o u ld p re c e d e t h e n o t a t i o n a l s ta g e o f m e lo d ic s i g h t - r e a d i n g ,
so a p ro lo n g e d o r a l s ta g e of p a r t - s i n g i n g s h o u ld p rec ed e
th e n o ta tio n a l
sta g e o f p a r t- r e a d in g .
And we b e l i e v e t h a t
t h i s n e c e s s a r y o r a l s t a g e i n p a r t - s i n g i n g may b e f i l l e d
by
c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e s i n g i n g on t h e m e th o d w h i c h we h a v e
en d eav o u red t o
expound a b o v e .
P r a c t i c a l l y no s i g h t - r e a d i n g a b i l i t y
th e sin g in g of seq u en ces.
sequences i s
is re q u ire d fo r
F u rth e r, th e e f f e c t of sin g in g
c u m u l a t i v e , a n d c h i l d r e n who a r e a b l e t o s i n g
a m e lo d ic se q u e n c e f i n d l i t t l e
sam e s e q u e n c e i n c a n o n f o r m .
d i f f i c u l t y in sin g in g th e
3ol
I t need h a r d l y be add ed , t o o , t h a t t h e s i n g i n g of
u n d e r-p a rts to th e s o l - f a s y lla b le s g r e a t ly develops the
a u r a l te c h n iq u e and th e m u s ic - s p e llin g or s o l - f a i n g a b i l i t y
o f t h e p u p i l s by e x t e n d i n g and e n r i c h i n g t h e c o n n o t a t i o n
o r m ental
effects
o f t h e sounds o f th e s c a l e d e g re e s .
m e d i a n t com es i n t o i t s
own, s o f a r a s t h e c h i l d
o n ly when he c a n s i n g i t
tex ts
o r im age i t
in i t s
i n c h o rd s and harm onic p r o g r e s s i o n s .
P r o f e s s o r W hitehead s a y s , i n
is
The
concerned,
v ario u s con­
F o r, as
" S c i e n c e and t h e Modern W o rld " :
"A t h i n g i s o n l y i t s e l f i n d r a w i n g i n t o i t s
-own l i m i t a t i o n s t h e l a r g e r w h o l e i n w h i c h
i t finds i t s e l f ."
T h i s s h o u l d be r e m e m b e r e d b y t h o s e m u s i c t e a c h e r s who t h i n k ,
when t h e y have g i v e n t h e l e s s o n o n , f o r e x a m p le ,
"t",
"fe",
o r J. J \ , a c c o r d i n g t o
■few. -
th e p r e s c r i b e d schem e o f
w o r k , t h a t t h e m a t t e r c a n now b e d i s m i s s e d a s a
a c c o m p li" , and t h a t i f t h e c l a s s s t i l l
th is
"m", " r " ,
"fait
have t r o u b l e w ith i t ,
i s s im p ly b e c a u s e t h e y have n o t been a t t e n d i n g .
We s h a l l now c o n c l u d e t h i s s e c t i o n b y g i v i n g some
e x a m p l e s o f c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e s , s t i l l b a s e d on d e s c e n d i n g
th ird s,
b u t m ore l i m i t e d i n s c o p e t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s t h i r t y
ex am p les,
i.e .
s e q u e n c e s w h i c h may n o t b e u s e d w i t h c e r t a i n
e n t r i e s b e ca u se o f t h e f o r b id d e n c o n s e c u tiv e s w hich th e s e
w o u l d i n v o l v e , b u t w h i c h may b e u s e d w i t h o t h e r e n t r i e s ,
302
e sp ecially © © .
C a n o n s on (D(D ( t h i r d s ) , 0 ( g )
(six th s)
and
©CD® ( " s i x - t h r e e s " ) m a y , o f c o u r s e , b e s u n g f r o m a n y
d escen d in g sequence w hatever.
A l t e r n a t i v e E n d in g s f o r E n n al V o ic e Canons
As h a s b e e n p o i n t e d o u t b e f o r e , o b j e c t i o n may b e
t a k e n t o t h e w ide r a n g e o f t h e c o m p le te s e q u e n c e s ,
esp ecially
i n c o n n e c tio n w ith t h e i r use w ith younger p u p i l s .
T his
o b jec tio n ,
h o w e v e r , may b e o b v i a t e d b y t h e u s e o f a n a l t e r ­
n a tiv e end in g a t th e
15th or the 19th b a r.
In th e
latter
c a s e , v o i c e © would f i n i s h a t t h e 1 9 t h b a r on "d" i n s t e a d o f
"1",
as i s
sh o w n i n t h e
3c,
e tc .
are
in d ic a te d here.
(c ) l a y - o u t of t h e
in th e previous pages.
canons,
These a l t e r n a t i v e
lc,
2c,
endings
T h i s n E t h o d o f s h o r t e n i n g t h e c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e s may
be a p p l i e d t o
a ll
c a n o n s b a s e d on d e s c e n d i n g t h i r d s .
u s e f u l f o r young c l a s s e s ,
n in th or a ten th ,
D o r C.
in th e
I t is
as i t r e s t r i c t s th e range to a
and a llo w s th e use of low er k ey s,
e . g . E,
I t s h o u l d be rem em bered t h a t t h e keys o f F , a n d ,
c a s e of m ixed v o i c e s ,
E*
th e convenience of th e r e a d e r .
a r e used h ere m erely f o r
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314-
C H A P T E R
XVI
CANONS ON CHROMATIC SEQUENCES
C h r o m a t i c n o t e s may b e u s e d i n t w o w a y s :
p u rp o se s o f m elodic g ra c e or o rn a m e n ta tio n ,
first,
for
and, seco n d ly ,
f o r p u r p o s e s o f harm ony o r m o d u l a t i o n .
As m e l o d y a n t e d a t e s h a r m o n y i n t h e h i s t o r y o f m u s i c ,
so t h e use o f c h ro m a tic n o te s as m elodic c o n s t i t u e n t s a n t e ­
d a t e s t h e i r use a s harm onic o r m o d u la to ry c o n s t i t u e n t s .
fac t,
In
a s we h a v e a l r e a d y s h o w n , f r o m t h e e a r l y d a y s o f
,i
p o l y p h o n i c m u s i c down t o m o d e r n t i m e s t h e h a r m o n i c v o c a b u ­
l a r y has been p r o g re s s iv e ly e n rich ed th ro u g h th e
t i o n o f n o t e s w hich had b e e n i n f l e c t e d
in tro d u c­
o rig in a lly fo r
I
p u r p o s e s of m elody.
I t w o u ld s e e m n a t u r a l , t h e n ,
t h a t ch ro m atic n o te s
sh o u ld be in tro d u c e d i n t h e S in g in g C lass f o r t h e i r m elodic
v i r tu e s , and n o t f o r t h e i r m e rits
and show ing t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s
in e s t a b l i s h i n g m o d u latio n
of keys.
We h a v e a l r e a d y s h o w n how c h r o m a t i c n o t e s may be
in tro d u c e d f o r m elodic purposes i n sequence s in g in g
p a g e / 34-).
In asking c h ild r e n to
t h e Sem itona.l M ordent P r i n c i p l e
(lol'.-t: cl' I t : ! : t 11 \s : l |fi : f : S lf:m
(see
a p p l y w h a t we h a v e c a l l e d
in sequences lik e
L
:P
:« I r : fll: r I i
II
w h e r e b y t h e v o w e l o f t h e m i d d l e s y l l a b l e i s r a i s e d , w hen
n e c e s s a r y , t o t h e a c u t e vowel " e e " , and a se m ito n e i s sung
3 /6 '
betw een th e u p p e r and lo w e r n o t e s , t h u s :
f y F {Id1I f :
: t | l : s e : 1 | s :£ : S I f :m : f Im:r*nt Ir.-ok-T lot
we a r e a p p l y i n g a p r i n c i p l e w h i c h w a s c a r r i e d
out, w ith o u t
a n y i n d i c a t i o n i n t h e n o t a t i o n ; b y s i n g e r s more t h a t s e v e n
hundred y e a rs ago.
I n h i s fam ous T r e a t i s e ,
J e a n de G arlande
(1190-1240)
d e a l s w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s o f " M u s i c a F i c t a " , a n d l a y s down
th e fo llo w in g ru le s .
1.
"W henever i n p l a i n s o n g ' l a s o l l a ' o c c u r s , t h e
- ' s o l ' m ust be ' a l t e r e d ' and t h e p a s s a g e su n g
' f a mi f a ' . "
(Or, i n m odern t e r m s , w henever i n p l a i n s o n g '1 s 1 '
o c c u r s , t h e ' s ' m ust be r a i s e d and th e p a ssa g e
sung '1 se 1 ' . )
2.
"When ' s o l f a s o l ' a p p e a r s , t h e ' f a ' m u s t be
- ' a l t e r e d ' , a n d t h e p a s s a g e s u n g ' f a mi f a ' . "
(Or, a s we would s a y t o d a y , when 's f s ' a p p ea rs,
t h e ' f ' must be r a i s e d and th e p a ssa g e sung ' s f e s ' . )
3.
"When t h e p l a i n s o n g i s ' r e u t r e '
t h e ' u t ' s h o u l d be
' a l t e r e d ' , a n d t h e p a s s a g e s u n g ' f a mi f a .
( T h a t i s , when t h e p l a i n s o n g i s ' r d r '
th e ' d '
s h o u ld be r a i s e d and t h e p a s s a g e su n g ’ r de r ' . )
( S e e The O x f o r d H i s t o r y o f M u s i c ,
2nd E d i t i o n , V o l . I , page 278)
Im m ediately a f t e r q u o tin g t h e above,
E d i t o r o f t h i s Volume, c o n t i n u e s :
W ooldridge, t h e
3 /6
• I t may a p p e a r , p e r h a p s , a s s o m e w h a t r e m a r k a b l e
- t h a t th e f i r s t u s e , by th e le a r n e d w r i t e r s , of
th e S o l- f a n om enclature, pro p er to the hexac h o rd a l system , sh o u ld c o in c id e w ith th e f i r s t
s e t t l e m e n t of th e r u l e s o f c h ro m a tic a l t e r a t i o n ;
f o r a lth o u g h th e hex ach o rd al sy ste m had been,
from t h e tim e of i t s c o m p le tio n , o c c a s i o n a l l y
d e s c rib e d , y e t, a p a r t from th e s e d e s c r ip tio n s ,
t h e r e i s s c a r c e l y t o be fo u n d , u n t i l t h e p e rio d
a t w h i c h we h a v e now a r r i v e d , a n y d e s i g n a t i o n o f
th e n o te s of th e s c a l e o th e rw is e t h a n by l e t t e r s .
But t h e r e a s o n f o r th e change i s t h i s , t h a t the
new c h r o m a t i c a l t e r a t i o n o f n o t e s h a d r e v e a l e d
th e e x is te n c e of a m usical p r i n c i p le , p erceiv ed
a t f i r s t e n tire ly in its p ra c tic a l asp ec t,
w hich could o n ly be a c c u r a t e l y s t a t e d by a
r e f e r e n c e t o th e h e x a c h o rd a l s y s te m , and by
t h e u s e of i t s p e c u l i a r n o m e n c l a t u r e . "
It
s h o u ld be n o te d t h a t i n th e d ays o f
th e m ental
home t o
"M usica P i e t a "
e f f e c t o f t h e s e m i t o n a l l o w e r m o r d e n t was b r o u g h t
t h e s i n g e r s by t h e u se i n e a c h c a s e of t h e s y l l a b l e s
" f a mi f a " .
The r e a s o n f o r t h e u s e o f t h e same s y l l a b l e s
fa"
i n e ac h case i s t h a t only s i x s y l l a b l e s
s o l la"
- " u t r e mi f a
- were t h e n i n use f o r p u rp o s e s of s o l - f a i n g ;
w hen t h e m u s i c e x t e n d e d b e y o n d t h e h e x a c h o r d , - e . g .
or "s"to
" f a mi
" s ”
- t h e s y l l a b l e s were t r a n s p o s e d ,
and
"d" t o
"d '
much i n t h e
same m a n n e r a s t h e y a r e t r a n s p o s e d t o d a y i n t h e T o n i c S o l - f a
S y s t e m b y m e a n s o f a b r i d g e - n o t e w hen a m o d u l a t i o n t a k e s
place.
Thus u n d e r t h e o l d " M u ta tio n " S y stem i t
th a t th e s y lla b le
"m i" w i t h i t s a c u t e
alw ays o c cu r a t th e s e m ito n a l s t e p .
c h o rd a l system o f s o l - f a i n g , th e
was a r r a n g e d
"ee" vowel s h o u ld
A ccording to th e hexa­
n o t e s f r o m C t o C1w o u l d be
s u n g " u t r e mi f a u t r e mi f a " , w h i l e t h e n o t e s f r o m G, t o G
3/7
w o u l d b e s u n g " u t r e ml u t r e mi f a s o l " .
The l e a d i n g n o t e ,
not in tro d u ced t i l l
th is
" s i " , w i t h i t s a c u t e v o w e l , was
a b o u t th e y e a r 1600, w h ile t h e use of
s e m i t o n a l " e e " v o w e l was n o t e x t e n d e d t o a l l t h e
r a i s e d ch ro m atic s y l l a b l e s
- "de r e f e s e l e "
- till
C u rw e n 's d a y .
It
is
in stru ctiv e
to n o te i n p a ssin g t h a t t h i s
p s y c h o lo g ic a lly sound p r i n c i p le
steps
o f m arking t h e s e m ito n a l
i n t h e s y l l a b l e s by t h e use o f a s p e c i a l a c u t e vowel
sound i s
to
be fo u n d i n s o l m i s a t i o n o r s o l - f a s y s te m s a s
f a r a p a r t i n tim e an d s p a c e a s t h o s e o f th e Hindus a n d t h e
a n c i e n t G reek s, a s w e ll a s i n t h e m ed iaev al G uidonian
s y s te m a n d t h e p r e s e n t day T o n ic S o l - f a System .
Greek sy s te m o f s o l - f a i n g , a s
In the
i t happens, th e sem ito n al
vowel so u n d a p p e a r s i n t h e u p p e r n o te o f t h e " d i a t o n i c ”
se m ito n e and n o t i n t h e lo w er n o te a s i n o u r s y s te m , e . g .
m f , t
d ‘.
B u t when we r e a d t h a t t h e a n c i e n t G r e e k s a l w a y s
c o n c e iv e d m elody and s c a l e fro m above downwards, so t h a t ,
f r o m t h e i r p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e s e m i t o n a l v o w e l a l w a y s came
b e fo re the a c u te i n t e r v a l ,
p sy ch o lo g ical p rin c ip le
we s e e t h a t t h e sam e f u n d a m e n t a l
i s a t work.
( S e e "The M u s i c o f H i n d u s t a n " , b y A .H . F o x - S t r a n g w a y s ,
O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , p p s8 4 a n d 8 5 , a n d G r o v e ' s
D ic tio n a ry under "so lm is a tio n " .)
I t is
im portant to
s tre s s t h is q u e stio n of th e
sem ito n al s te p in r e l a t i o n to
so l-fain g ,
for i t
is
the
3iy
p o s i t io n o f th e sem ito n es i n t h e s c a le
th e c h a ra c te r of p a r tic u la r s c a le s
o r mode t h a t d e c i d e s
or m odes, a s i s b o rn e
o u t by t h e v a g u e , n e b u lo u s c h a r a c t e r of w h o le to n e m usic
and th e
in d eterm in ate,
h etero g en eo u s c h a r a c te r o r lack of
c h a r a c t e r o f m odern t o t a l i t a r i a n c h r o m a ti c is m .
And a s w i t h s c a l e s a n d m o d e s ,
It
so w ith i n t e r v a l s .
i s th e p o s itio n o f th e sem ito n es i n th e d ia to n ic s c a le
t h a t makes one d i a t o n i c
and a n o th e r d i a t o n i c
i n t e r v a l a m ajor second or t h i r d ,
i n t e r v a l a m in o r s e c o n d or t h i r d ,
one
d iato n ic
i n t e r v a l a p e r f e c t f o u r t h or f i f t h and a n o th e r
d iato n ic
i n t e r v a l a d i m i n i s h e d or augm ented f o u r t h o r f i f t h .
I f t h e im p o rtan c e o f th e d i s p o s i t i o n o f th e t o n a l and se m i­
tonal step s
in th e s c a le i s adm itted,
one m u st t h e n a d m it
t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e a u r a l r e c o g n i t i o n by p u p i l s a t a n
e a r l y s t a g e o f t h e s e sam e t o n a l a n d s e m i t o n a l s t e p s .
th is
au ral reco g n itio n is
s o l-fa in g p ra c tic e in th e
r a is e d ch ro m atics.
p r e c i s e l y w h a t w i l l come f r o m
chrom atic n o t e s ,
e s p e c i a l l y the
F o r, a s has a lr e a d y been p o in te d o u t,
t h e s o l - f a i n g of th e chrom atic n o te s ,
th e s u rg e o n ’s s c a l p e l ,
lik e the in c is io n of
la y s bare the s t r u c t u r e
o f th e s c a le w ith r e s p e c t t o
o r anatom y
t o n a l and s e m i t o n a l s t e p s ,
no am ount o f e x p o s i t i o n o r e x p l a n a t i o n o f s t a v e s ,
key s i g n a t u r e s ,
And
sh a rp s, double sh a rp s, n a tu r a ls ,
d o u b le f l a t s w i l l do.
as
c le fs,
flats
and
Yet in s p i t e
of a ll th is ,
and i n s p i t e
of th e f a c t
t h a t even young c h i l d r e n , th o u g h i g n o r a n t o f t h e c h ro m a tic
sy llab les,
a r e f a m i l i a r w ith m ost o f th e c h ro m a tic sounds
t h r o u g h t h e h e a r i n g a n d s i n g i n g o f p o p u l a r m u s i c , we f i n d
t h a t m ost e d u c a t i o n i s t s ,
in t h e i r a u ra l t r a i n i n g and s ig h t-
re a d in g sy stem s, a re c o n te n t to
ch ro m atic n o te s ,
delay th e
in tro d u c tio n of
u n t i l t h e i r use in m o d u latio n o r in
e x p la in in g the r e l a ti o n s h i p
o f t h e k ey o f t h e D om inant and
Subdom inant t o t h a t o f t h e T onic f o r c e s th em t o
a t least
Introduce
" f e “ and " t a " .
The t y p i c a l
e x am p le o f t h i s t y p e o f l o g i c a l e x p o s i ­
tio n of s u b je c t-m a tte r in d efian ce of a l l
p sy ch o lo g ical
c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i s to be found i n t h e s i g h t - r e a d i n g s y s te m
t h a t b e g i n s w i t h Key C a n d f o l l o w s on a t i n t e r v a l s w i t h
Keys G, F , D, B^ e t c .
i n t h e key s ig n a tu r e !
in the
o rd e r of th e s h a rp s and f l a t s
Such e d u c a t i o n i s t s a r e o b s e s s e d w i t h
t h e id e a of m usic a s a w r i t t e n la n g u a g e .
sep arate
i n t h e i r m inds t h e
They f a i l t o
id e a o f m usic from th e
i d e a of
s t a f f n o t a t i o n , t h e id e a of m u s i c - s p e l l i n g from t h e i d e a of
m u sic-reading,
t h e id e a of a u r a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n from t h e
id ea of v isu a l d isc rim in a tio n ,
the id ea of s ig h t- s in g in g
f r o m t h e i d e a o f s i g h t - p l a y i n g , two d i s t i n c t p r o c e s s e s
w h i c h c a n n o t b e r e g a r d e d a s i n t h e sa m e c a t e g o r y a t a l l .
In th e present case, th e r e s u l t
c o n fu sio n i s th e attem p t to
of t h i s m e n t a l
c o o r d i n a t e two s e p a r a t e a b i l i t i e s
320
w hich m atu re a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s and a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s
o f grow th,
nam ely, m u s i c - s p e l l i n g (or s o l - f a i n g ) and s t a f f
sig h t-read in g .
Thus, s o l - f a i n g a b i l i t y
readin g a b il i ty ,
lle l
course,
m u st w a i t on s t a f f -
f o r s o l - f a and s t a f f m ust f o llo w a p a r a ­
p a ri passu.
W hile t h e
a b i l i t y to s in g and to
r e c o g n i s e by m en tal e f f e c t a c h ro m a tic sound l i k e
"fe" m ust
w a it on t h e a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o s i t i o n and n o t a t i o n a l accom panim ents on t h e s t a v e o f s u c h a n o t e i n
v ario u s keys.
And t h e r e s u l t o f a l l t h i s
c h i l d r e n e v e r g e t beyond
i s t h a t few
" f e " and " t a M i n t h e i r u se o f t h e
so l-fa sy llab les.
It
s h o u l d be r e c o g n i s e d t h a t w h i l e t h e f o l l o w i n g
chrom atic sequence in s t a f f n o ta tio n ,
makes c o n s i d e r a b l e
d e m a n d s on t h e e y e a n d o n t h e
in te lli­
g e n c e o f c h i l d r e n w i t h n o k e y b o a r d e x p e r i e n c e , t h e sa m e
chro m atic sequence in to n ic
s o l-fa n o tatio n
't i f f flol'itifll'lfile : t l i ; s e : l l s :-fe:s
makes v e r y l i t t l e
U :re:wlr.'de: r U » | |
dem an d on t h e e y e o r o n t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e
of su ch c h ild r e n , and, u n lik e the
sta ff
exam ple h o l d s good f o r a l l k e y s a n d a l l
t h e whole gam ut o f m u s ic .
exam ple, t h e s o l - f a
octaves th ro u g h o u t
321
L et us s t a t e
h e re t h a t our aim i s
id e n tic a l w ith th a t
of th e s t a f f - o b s e s s e d t e a c h e r , nam ely , t o g e t c h i l d r e n to
re a d m usic a t s i g h t from s t a f f n o t a t i o n .
in a l l
language s u b j e c t s , a n e x te n s iv e a u r a l and o r a l s ta g e
should p reced e th e
v isu a l or n o ta tio n a l stag e w ith a l l
n ecessary am b ig u ities.
p ro v isio n of th is
m usic-reading,
p rac tic e,
p arts,
But i n m u s ic , a s
And i t
fru itfu l
oral
is
in order to
stage in th e
t h a t we d r a w a t t e n t i o n t o
b o th d ia to n ic and ch ro m atic,
its
en su re the
t e a c h i n g of
m u sic-sp ellin g
in unison and in
o n t h e l i n e s w h i c h we h a v e i n d i c a t e d .
I n t h e f o l l o w i n g exam ples o f c h r o m a t i c s e q u e n c e canons,
i t w i l l b e s e e n t h a t i n some c a s e s t h e
sim p ly m e lo d ic ornam ents, w h ile
ch rom atic n o te s a re
i n o t h e r s t h e y beco m e
harm onic c o n s t i t u e n t s .
I f th e c h ild ren learn
f i r s t of a l l ,
to s i n g t h e c h ro m a tic seq u en ce
th e y w ill ex perience very l i t t l e
w ith th e canon.
d iffic u lty
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C H A P T E R
X V II
CANONS BASED ON SCA LES AND SC A LE PA SSA G ES
A l l t h e c a n o n s s o f a r h a v e b e e n b a s e d o n t h e sam e
s e q u e n c e o f d e s c e n d i n g t h i r d s {id1 : - l l
and th e
It : - l s
g r e a t v a r i e t y o f harm onic and c o n t r a p u n t a l t e x t u r e
in th ese is
o b ta in e d sim p ly by o rnam enting t h e
se q u e n c e germ m e l o d i c a l l y and r h y t h m i c a l l y .
of n o ta tio n i s re q u ire d fo r th e sin g in g
w hich th u s p ro v id e o r a l m a t e r i a l f o r
at a ll
o rig in al
No k n o w l e d g e
of t h e s e c an o n s,
p art-sin g in g
fo r p u p ils
s t a g e s of p r o g r e s s .
The a d v a n t a g e s o f s u c h o r a l p r a c t i c e
m ust be e v i d e n t to a l l .
|
e tc .,
in p a rt-sin g in g
Even s u c h a s i m p le p r o g r e s s i o n o f
chords as th e fo llo w in g :
Key P
fid ' : - t
s :- f
m :- r
,
f :- m : - r : - d : 1 :- s
m : - r : - d : - t.
s, : 1,
m, : s, : - f.
: - d : - t , : - 1.
:-
p r o v i d e s g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y f o r c h i l d r e n who h a v e n o t h a d much
experience in p a rt-s in g in g .
Yet a l l d i f f i c u l t i e s
of in to n a­
t i o n d i s a p p e a r w h e n t h e p r o g r e s s i o n i s a p p r o a c h e d b y w ay o f
canon, as in th e fo llo w in g :-
332.
And n o w , s u p p o s e we o r n a m e n t t h i s
d escending s c a le ,
th u s:
( a ) j|d'
:r' :d'lt :d‘
: t } etc.(«l) (Id1 : 1 :dr| t :s :t } e t c .
(b) jld1
: t :d'lt :1
: t } e t c . (e) jdlb:d!r':d'|t.l:t.d':t} e t c .
( c ) jd'
: t : 1 11 : 1
: s } e t c . (f) j d ' . t : t . d ' | t . 1 : 1 . t l
e tc.
T r e a t i n g t h e new s e q u e n c e i n c a n o n f o r m , a s a b o v e ,
tain ,
a t th e
e n try of th e l a s t v o ice , th e
p ro g ressio n s of § chords, a l l
we o b ­
fo llo w in g
o f w hich w i l l p r e s e n t l i t t l e
d i f f i c u l t y t o s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n t h i s form .
The r e a d e r w i l l u n d e r s t a n d t h a t a n y d e s c e n d i n g s e q u e n c e may
be sung a s a seq u en c e o f 3 r d s ,
tre a tin g
(D(D©
6th s,
i t a s a canon and u sin g t h e
or
11s i x - t h r e e s "
by
e n t r i e s CD®, ( D ©
or
resp ec tiv e ly .
As w i l l b e s e e m f r o m t h e e x a m p l e s b e l o w , much i n t e r ­
e s t i n g m a t e r i a l may b e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e p l a i n d e s c e n d i n g
scale i t s e l f .
I n t h e s e exam ples one b a r o n ly i s g i v e n t o
each s c a le d e g re e.
Hence t h e v o i c e s e n t e r i n g i n s e c o n d a r y
rh y th m m ust b e g in on t h e se c o n d h a l f o f t h e b a r ( © , ©
I t sh o u ld be n o te d ,
.
how ever, t h a t t h e p roblem of r e a d i n g th e
s c a l e o r seq u en ce i n prim ary or se c o n d a ry rhythm i s a n o ta t i o n a l p ro b lem w hich d o e s n o t a r i s e h e r e ,
i s done o r a l l y .
w ith i t s
As i n t h e
sin c e th e sin g in g
case of th e e a r l y p r i n t e d m a d rig a l
c r o s s rhythm s and i t s
absence of b a r l i n e s ,
i t w ill
3 33
be fo u n d t h a t t h e p r o b le m of c o n f l i c t i n g
i t s e l f out in th e sin g in g .
. .
•
1
.
-
-
U
(m)
^
(DO© Lent o
®<S)<©
: _
10
4,&y
i ,
■
rhythm s Sorts
-
II,
(a)
f a
t -
Is,
vy
3 ii&
i f , , -
i . , ,
vy
I
33 k
A lthough t h e s e
canons f o r e q u a l v o ic e s a r e q u i t e
co m p lete and s a t i s f y i n g
in th em selv es,
a "basso o b b lig ato "
may s o m e t i m e s b e a d d e d w i t h e f f e c t .
T h i s b a s s p a r t may be
p la y e d i n o c t a v e s on t h e p i a n o f o r t e ,
o r su n g by b a s s v o i c e s
or by t h e t e a c h e r h i r n s e lf .
We g i v e tw o e x a m p l e s b e l o w .
m
As i n d i c a t e d i n t h e a b o v e ,
th e
s i n g l e c r o t c h e t s may b e u s e d i n
b a s s p a r t o f t h e l a t t e r exam ple.
At t h i s
se ttin g
p o i n t i t rn&y b e i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t i n
o u t th e s e canons in a s in g le
jld* : t | l
:-lt
_
: l l ? : - 11 i s I f : - Is i f |m
and g i v i n g code numbers, © © , 0(f)(6)-CD0 0 ©
etc.
e t c . , f o r th e
s o l u t i o n o f th e v a r io u s ca n o n s, we have a r r iv e d q u i t e
u n c o n s c io u s ly a t t h e methods o f la y o u t adopted by th e e a r l y
com posers o f canon.
335
T h e r e i s so m e d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n a s t o t h e
d e r i v a t i o n o f t h e w ord "canon" a s a p p l i e d t o m u s ic . T hus,
a c c o rd in g to G rove’s D ic tio n a ry ,
" T h e w o r d i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e G r e e k Kdvcov,
a ru le or sta n d a rd .
A canon, th e r e f o r e ,
i s a com position w r itte n s t r i c t l y a cc o rd in g
to r u l e .
B u t , we may a s k , w h a t s p e c i a l r u l e
th e
w ritin g of can o n s,
th at i t
can he g iv en f o r
e x c e p t t h a t t h e m elody m ust he su ch
can he accom panied hy i t s e l f
a t t h e sa m e p i t c h o r
a t d i f f e r e n t p i t c h e s , and w i t h e n t r i e s a t v a r io u s
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , Hugo R i e m a n n , i n h i s
o f M u sic",
p o in ts?
"D ictio n ary
p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e word "canon" r e f e r s ,
not
to th e ru le s fo r w ritin g canons, hut to th e in s tru c tio n s
or "ru les"
f o r s o lv in g o r perform ing canons w r i t te n out
i n a s in g le m elodic l i n e .
Thus he s a y s :
"T h e o l d e r c o n t r a p u n t i s t s w e r e n o t i n t h e
h a b i t of w r itin g out t h e i r canons in sc o re
o r p a r t s , h u t m e r e l y o f n o t i n g down o n e p a r t ,
and i n d i c a t i n g t h e e n t r y of t h e o t h e r p a r t s ,
l i k e w i s e p o i n t i n g o u t t h e s p e c i a l m od es o f
i m i t a t i o n hy e n ig m a tic a l i n s c r i p t i o n s (R iddle
C a n o n ); t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n was c a l l e d a "Canon*,
t h e p i e c e i t s e l f ' P u g a ' o r ’C o n s e q u e n z a " '
( T r a n s l a t i o n b y J . S . S h e d l o c k , L o n d o n , A u g e n e r &Cq
I n o t h e r w o r d s , we may s a y , i f t h e C a n o n s o r R u l e s
f o r s o l v i n g t h e s e C anonic Sequences a r e o b s e rv e d , t h e r e s t
fo llo w s a s a Consequence.
336
We s h a l l n o w d e a l w i t h c a n o n s
scale passages.
f o r t w o v o i c e s b a s e d on
T h ese w i l l b e w r i t t e n o u t i n s o l - f a and
in s ta f f n o tatio n .
<D
cd
»-c. I p
{Id. r :m.f is-I :t.d'It.l ;s .f irn.r :d .-t; II
V
, ,
®
fla.t :T.s if ,m .d |r .m:f .8 il.t
:d
3
l l
U
QQ,
II
3
L U j >rr n :
n
(&
I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a n o n s a s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n h a s b e e n made
and a d e s c a n t h a s been a d d e d .
T h e s e d e s c a n t s may b e p l a y e d
or sung,
b u t t h e y s h o u l d n o t be i n t r o d u c e d u n t i l t h e
has been
s e t going e f f e c t i v e l y .
\D
d>
3.C.
fld.r :m.-P i s .1
<D
®
-.t.cl1ltd .-s.-f iw r :d IIid '-t .d.s if.m .v1-d Ir.m
3 Y iv
C
r . .
E
.-H. - ^ i r l A i
t3
I g p i P
canon
b f
rr
:f s id .t;d'.r I
337
I t s h o u l d he a d d e d t h a t t h e s e s c a l e c a n o n s may h e
sung m o d ally ,
e .g ., r,
i.e .
b e g i n n i n g on d i f f e r e n t s c a l e d e g r e e s ,
m, f , s a n d 1 .
I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o w r i t e t h e s e modal c a n o n s o u t
in s t a f f n o tatio n ,
as a l l
th a t is required in
them m o d a lly i s t o
change t h e key s i g n a t u r e s i n t h e
e x a m p l e s A, B, C a n d D, a h o v e .
in s o l-fa n o tatio n .
I n t h e f i r s t g r o u p , A, i t
necessary,
fe , a n d se ,.
hut i t is
.s.c.
$
H
..i t
r-m :f-s l l -t -.fll'-r d'.t -.l.s | f. m : r .d(<«) ••
- C
ra.f : s .l It.d : r'.m r . o f : t . l l *-f : m
f .s , :
••
f t
S .l
-
-r
..
I t
:t .l lr .n :f.s
%
n k.c
®
r.m :f.s
i t
r ' . d ' - . t . l l s . f :?B.r
in.f -.s.l I f - d ': r
c
m'. r' -.d'-tl l . s :f.m
f
- S
\ l . t
.-d'
r l . t l d ' V :m'
s . f .-m.r i d . t ; : l,.s, l.-tj .- d .r i m .f : s
-
u.c.
im - r
:d
•« : f.s l l . f :d.r‘ cl'.t .1.6 if.w :r
- c
m. f -.s.l It.d :r -M r'.ol' --t.l Is.f -.m
..
JBf
$ .S ,
-
f t
S.l,
-
6
1,-t, : d .r |« .f : s.l s .f : m.riol.t,: 1,
l . s :f-m 1r . d : 't r . l | t j - d : r . m l f - S : i
(9
I
(D
A
.
d ' . t : 1. s if.m : r . d r.m : f . s i l . t -.dV
V
- it
p'.oL ': t . l
|
s . f :m .r m .f : s -1 rt.d ' -.rim
1 -tld V
f
-
c
m !r ' : d'.t/ i l . s :f.m
M.l» : d. t 1lJ,.SI - f
‘
I t
f-m : r . o t |
:f.s f. ffl : r . d l i f . s ,
-
A' s . f .-m r l d . t , : I. S, 1,-ir; d - r Im .f-:s. 1
*
d- I . s r f - m l r . d - t
|d.r :«.f
- .ir A w - m
is not
d '- t : l.S if.m : r . d
E>>
* £
® <S>
d-r:tn-f Is.1 :t.d' t . l -.s.f
r
of c o u rse ,
, J t f - m : r.alltj.l, : s r f; s,-l, : t rd l r w : f
l(.tj |d.r :*- f
l.t, :d.r im.f : s-1
c
suggested
i n a c c o rd a n c e w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s of
V
£f
is
s a n d 1 m od es s h o u l d
T his c h an g e ,
M usica F i c t a . "
<D ®
A
cl-r :m.f 1S . l : t.d t . l -.s.f I m.r
••
staff
But we s h a l l w r i t e t h e m o u t
t h a t t h e f i n a l d , f,, a n d s „ i n t h e r ,
be changed t o d e ,
order to read
t . l :
f .S
:
S.f; S.l, : t . d l
. l
1
>
r .m
:f.s
t-d :r.m |f .S : l . t
33?
The f o l l o w i n g s c a l e c a n o n s n e e d n o e x p l a n a t i o n .
L ike t h e
o t h e r s , t h e y may b e s u n g d i r e c t f r o m t h e
i® ®
M o d u l a t o r , r e a d i n g down f r o m t h e L . H . S .
Sequence
|
11 2 3 4 5
^
9
1
A l t e r n a t i v e e n d i n g s a r e i n d i c a t e d by p a u s e s .
® <D ®
{Id'-t h ,
.f i
m
. P
■•'Amir.cL: t . l Is .- P i mm.r. ir li .It ;t ;
: \ s jf . n c r .d i t . l , : s .- f I m .n l . t j i I s
-.f in J r . 1 : t . l i s .- f y « . r (| d
(<*)
C/
O
I
l7) U fa .
,
i
l
t o o l Li,.
Jj w ~
I / ? 1-
l i 7 i - r T T T |r 2 u
i n i i f ^ E iiirj W
The d e s c a n t may b e s u n g i f d e s i r e d .
ch ild ren to
keep th e
ills
I t w i l l a s s i s t the
p itch .
I n t h e n e x t e x a m p l e , we h a v e t h e
w ith a l a t e r
t j j *
r ^
same s c a l e
sequence
en try .
N ote t h e a l t e r n a t i v e e n d in g s and t h e b r e a k i n v o i c e © a t t h e
f i n a l n o t e w h e r e "d" i s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r "1," i n o r d e r t o
f i n i s h on t h e t o n i c j
33<?
We s h a l l now g i v e t h e s e t w o c a n o n s i n a s c e n d i n g
-fdfC
©©
©
is.]
A ll th e
form .
I l .t : l r Iw.-f: S.l It.i'-. r’-ra If.S :I t I I V : m' II
\y
iy
C/
4
ty
a b o v e c a n o n s may a l s o b e s u n g m o d a l l y , b e g i n n i n g o n
o t h e r s c a l e d e g r e e s , a n d r e a d i n g fro m t h e Seq u en ce M odulator
The f o l l o w i n g s c a l e c a n o n may a l s o be r e a d f r o m t h e S e q u e n c e
M o d u lato r.
f and r ,
I t would a p p e a r t h u s :
lT*?»gt7*
o n d 1, 1 ,
L .H .S .
I'M*
The a b o v e c a n o n may a l s o b e i n v e r t e d , t h u s : f i m s w l T m s a i a l
/TV
f e * r 031 U r n r m
.—
i _
i r r n i f f lJ -Ti T r r r l
l^ lT n
lX»w*X&uLbf S l'/U6**6i<£jk?V^
i f f 3u f r |
N ote t h e b r e a k i n v o i c e d ) a t t h e f i n a l n o t e .
llf f rJ i i
I n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s , e a c h c a n o n may b e s u n g
s tr a ig h t th ro u g h ,
as in f in ite
or th e d iffe re n t sectio n s
may b e t r e a t e d
canons an d r e p e a t e d s e v e r a l t im e s , a s
fo ®
/
•/•
/
If.s -.1
Ifchsfi».r:i.ir, U.c.m.-fIs i
shown.
#
l.+;i.r i*.f:s l+ J
O
3
N . B . The r e s t a n d t h e n o t e s i n b r a c k e t s s h o u l d be
s u n g t h e f i r s t t i m e o n l y , t h e o t h e r n o t e s on t h e
rep e titio n s.
The f o r m u l a f o r t h e
be
I © dD
I
#"*
l
321
In i t s
,
|
c a n o n on t h e S e q u e n c e M o d u l a t o r w o u l d
I
on L . H . S . d e s c e n d i n g .
a s c e n d in g form t h i s
can o n w ould a p p e a r t h u s :
[ n m s m h f c u a z i I on R . H . S . a s c e n d i n g f r o m b o t t o m .
/
sA, •*,r,: A
,
U -lf I4 -tU '
/
»
f l . f s.lit.i.-r.mIr.litrl Is.f :m, |f.s: Ibid.* •.m.fln.rii.ty lfit ?-f, 'f
|s.l:^.(ilr.(«:f.slfm:r4lt.l-.6i f -
I-
I
- (f
N . B . The r e s t a n d t h e n o t e s i n b r a c k e t B s h o u l d be
sung t h e f i r s t tim e o n l y , t h e o t h e r n o t e s on t h e
re p e titio n s.
•
•
The w o r d s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g c a n o n w e r e s u g g e s t e d b y p u p i l s .
® i®
% F {:d’. t l l . S :f -m i r
o
\t X Is ,-f :m.r i d
g
:1.s I f . m : r .d it,
e
X =ar
•~ ~ c r
U
n
tn f n i
ilr.d .-tr .1, I s,
k &
: m .r ld .^ :l, .s,lf,
m
JjMMt
. r r
fc t
: r .d lir .1, : s,
v
-.s.flm.p
nn
g
i m,
H
d
r i
j
g
U ln J i
£
:d
rf\m }
r _________
Id
Cl
I
lA
n
g
;
g
«
\l
i
^
■We-iwo# _ _ _ _ _
The S e q u e n c e M o d u l a t o r f o r m u l a f o r t h i s
1
I
c a n o n w o u l d he-.
© ,<D
/2 .I3 4 54 7
T he f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s h o w s t h e s a m e c a n o n d i v i d e d
i n t o s e c t i o n s , w h i c h may h e t r e a t e d a s i n f i n i t e
canons and
rep e ate d se v e ra l tim es.
v W ll- * :f.M lr
:t2l S .f./ti.rld f l s I f m.-r.dlt; :s.f Im.r.d.t, ll, Ilf MI p .e ls ^ is ;
llrd ^ V ^ K ^ d -^
3 ?
/TV
&
'Tl
r,i£a k b
N .B.
The n o t e s i n b r a c k e t s s h o u l d h e s u n g Oh
th e r e p e t it i o n s only.
3^2
T h e s e c a n o n s m ay, o f c o u r s e , h e s u n g w i t h d i f f e r e n t
rhythm ic f i g u r e s ,
e . g . t J l l X l J l J t J3IU J3J
Thus, t o t h e rhythm ic f i g u r e w e
t e r *
i f
»
i
i f
—
r
-
»f « rn
f
\
oi*
g2J ^1JJ’JJ'J.
have t h e fo llo w in g
0
— —
t '
f
* 1
y
! & < » . ; • r
t
- 4
-Cfe. ending
!
f
r •#
v
i
— - -
~ t~ C T S T ----------------# ' J T l rr*n
H -iU
*
=
:— - -
--------------- ^
A l l t h e s e s e q u e n c e s may he l e a r n e d o r a l l y f r o m t h e
S e q u e n c e M o d u l a t o r , s o t h a t no n o t a t i o n a l k n o w le d g e i s
re q u ire d f o r s in g in g th ese canons.
M elodic o rn a m e n ts ,
e .g . m ordents,
may a l s o h e a p p l i e d
t o t h e s e q u e n c e a s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g exam ple.
CD
■ ttf F
®
t J f 11
: S
If t 3tf : m fm l r
: -
i
t
: I f } Is
m: r(m tr l e t
:s } f }
:-
IS4l s : f s tf l m
^ 8, :
-w
I <L ■t A t i
: *■}■?> k
:_
,yimr :
11
,SM :
11m,
: - 1£ : - II
s
«
* aA r& l.
m j j h
As i n t h e p r e v i o u s c a n o n s , e a c h f o u r - h a r s e c t i o n may b e
t r e a te d a s an i n f i n i t e canon, and re p e a te d ad l i b .
The c a n o n may De i n v e r t e d b y r e a d i n g f r o m t h e S e q u e n c e
M o d u l a t o r , R . H . S . a s c e n d i n g : i j l 34- 5 ^ 7
{4r,lm.f:sditr -.r.m, I f st
: m.-f Is.-l^.otir
IT-.t.-i.rim : s. l.lir.JL: r. ml -F :Z.tld.r>: m.f 1 s
r\ t l l l .
r\ a J I t .
E a c h t w o - b a r s e c t i o n may b e r e p e a t e d a d l i b .
O ther v a r i a n t s of t h i s
scale
canon a r e
g i v e n below .
Fo«»ola f i a f V r f t ?|
f<D
®
®
> /•
•//■
#
l U 't i .s if.m -.r.flt.l: s.-f | m .rd rlls:f.m Ir.oL:t(.rls.fm.rid.ij.-i.-olltfm:rcLh^.2:s;.tjm.r
\
®
3 ' “
A g a i n , e a c h s e c t i o n o f t w o b a r s ms.y b e r e p e a t e d a d l i b .
T h i s r e p e t i t i o n makes no d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e n o t a t i o n i n s o l f a , b u t in s t a f f i t is n ecessary to re a d th e s n a il no tes in
b r a c k e t s on t h e r e p e t i t i o n s .
T h e s e c a n o n s may a l s o b e s u n g b y T r e b l e a n d B a s s v o i c e s ,
beginning w ith e i t h e r v o ic e .
A n o t h e r c a n o n on t h e same s e q u e n c e © ©
a
is
shown b e l o w .
<ul£2-
M
N ote t h e b r e a k i n v o i c e © a t t h e l a s t n o t e ( d ) .
Any t h r e e b a r s o f t h i s c a n o n may b e u s e d a s a n i n f i n i t e
canon, and re p e a te d ad l i b .
34+
T he f i r s t
th ree
b a r s o f t h e p r e v i o u s exam ple a r e t r e a t e d
below a s a n i n f i n i t e
The f o l l o w i n g i s
sequence.
canon.
a rhythm ic
1r . d r t 5.rls
I t may be t r e a t e d
v a r i a n t of th e above c a n o n ic
.';£ ■ /i d . t : ^ i l f :;«.r all t . 1:s.i-lm
can o n ically in th e
The sa m e w i t h B a s s a n d T r e b l e .
A new e n t r y . | i
L i 1L
fo llo w in g w ays.
i!
:
3+5
T h r e e - p a r t Canon f o r S . S . B .
dL
i s
s
| ©@
©
l
\i
a
1
f r | 9«
W
j—
*
‘Q - P w ' *• -«•
©
%. p, Y \ .1
A f f f t f*r*
-*— 1—
i ‘ \ . J f e ’ -rL P i
n
"
XI f
iyt- ,>1 li.'f
.
W
~
m
A .,
o
T W »4t ~ r
------------------ m
'
m
T he B a s s p a r t may b e p l a y e d o n t h e p i a n o i n 8 v e s ,
by p u p i l s o r t e a c h e r .
^
or sung
As i n p r e v i o u s e x a m p l e s , e a c h o f t h e f o u r c a n o n s a b o v e may
be d iv id e d i n t o tw o -b a r s e c t i o n s , w hich fo rm i n f i n i t e
c a n o n s and c a n b e r e p e a t e d ad l i b .
To show
we w r i t e
how t h e s e i n f i n i t e c a n o n s work o u t
o u t i n f u l l a n exam ple b a s e d ont h e
b a rs of t h e l a s t canon.
T his
in fin ite
S
S
I® ©
| I
o r from t h i s
lin e
^ * S> ©
<S>
II
- 3 3 + 5- (. 7 5 I
on
ct
first
two
c a n o n may b e s u n g
d i r e c t from t h e Sequence M odulator t o th e
B
in p ractice,
form ula
I +
and. \ }
of s o l-fa no tatio n :
{12 ': -tr.l,s l-P.mrr.flt
Im.tvoUll
T he b a s s v o i c e © b e g i n s , a n d t h e t w o t r e b l e v o i c e s © a n d ®
e n t e r when v o i c e © r e a c h e s t h e p o i n t s ® a n d ® .
I f t h e b a s s v o i c e i s b r o u g h t t o p a u s e o n t h e f i r s t n o t e d',
t h e o t h e r t w o v o i c e s w i l l p a u s e on d a n d m, a s i n d i c a t e d .
m
_ -.--U E E
A
1
h
f
n r ? t% n
.-^ 1
1
-
lT
‘f >
^
f i t e s f t ® ; .:
C
W
A LSO
NiTH S.S.S.
I I
to o *
The f o l l o w i n g c a n o n i s
scale
a g racefu l v a ria n t of th e
canon.
Formula : Y
U
i
■fcjFl ms ^ ’t l Tf r n 1r f t l s f t or || 1m Isfin pci 1
“"
Ij^
o rig in al
i
*
f
^
j l K p p g g g g p j :
t o j y
k $
A gain, t h i s
tt>
10 'j'
J]/
®
r « r.
w
*
c a n o n may b e s u n g s t r a i g h t t h r o u g h , o r e a c h
s e c t i o n o f t w o b a r s may b e r e p e a t e d a d l i b .
In th e
latter
c a s e , t h e s m a l l n o t e s w ould be r e a d on t h e r e p e t i t i o n s .
The same c a n o n w i t h a n e n t r y a t © w o u l d a p p e a r t h u s :
„
Form ula:
i©
©
|
I <dt LI l± i i I
^*3
[f ^ 3d
i* M. P
^
I -- u^rfhJt—
i
w * ....... M i l u ' i t f l
W ith t h i s
bars,
en try at 0
T n srrz rl
rjn
ti J j n
«n
~C~-3
i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o r e p e a t e v e r y two
b u t a n y t h r e e - b a r s e c t i o n may be r e p e a t e d a d l i b .
T h u s , t h e f i r s t t h r e e b a r s may be u s e d a s a n i n f i n i t e
(| m.i-.Xt
I r.f-.fr.l Is.f .m.r U.m-.‘l.slfm:r.<A II
Read s n a i l n o t e s on r e p e t i t i o n s
These i n f i n i t e
canon.
only.
c a n o n s a r e more s u i t a b l e f o r young c h i l d r e n
because of th e r e s t r i c t e d
range.
3*7
M elodic o rn a m e n ts m y a l s o be added t o t h i s
canonic
seq u en ce a s i n t h e f o llo w in g exam ple.
r®
| CD
i
F o r m u l a : \ £ £ 4 m 2 h 2 3 2 3 * 3 4 I 5 <,
*<d
{infcslt
fy F
|r
t
itZ s is l- f
d
f
(I m r
ft
fib
*
®
lo l'
m
rm f
& I I +
$
s Z ffs flm
r
wfwi r m r I cl \ (l,t,dd r w I f m
drol-fattl ^ s, ffc.I W 1 r ot
CV
f
I
U
drd\t,
I s, f, m, VJ
li>
Tfi
ftfm fm }
1, s,l,t.t.rlr}
I —
1 ? • ff# *r*- | j
, d
----LlHjJ- #■ <*• • •••J***
-*--- 1
j
r« f f l 1'—r~ii
t 9? j. *•
!
Lti-i
- r rTi
#♦
rm r
s
—
r--f-
I
171-~
1 f
O oJi&Jr.
p
»• JQ JS-j
H i> :<
P
I f ..............
clw
" nr m
J- i
-f
m m*
I# - jj] J ^ J - i -
5 ^
f
I
•I
-g J
I f f J
—
}---- I—
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b u t i n t h e s t a f f n o t a t i o n t h e s m a l l n o t e s s h o u ld be r e a d on
each r e p e t i t i o n only.
vo ices,
bass.
1
A l l t h e s e c a n o n s may b e s u n g a l s o b y t r e b l e a n d b a s s
w ith th e f i r s t e n try e it h e r in th e t r e b l e or the
3 4 -8
T he f o l l o w i n g v a r i a n t o f t h e s a m e
proved a g r e a t f a v o u r i t e
first
sequence has
w ith a l l c l a s s e s .
We g i v e i t
i n t h e c o m p l e t e v e r s i o n , a n y 8 b a r s o f w h i c h may b e
rep eated . 0
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in fin ite
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The w o r d s w e r e s u g g e s t e d b y p u p i l s .
on
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a.
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F in a lly ,
by o m i t t i n g t h e p a s s i n g n o t e s i n t h e
o r i g i n a l canor
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th e
fa m ilia r C a rillo n sequence.
The w o r d s " D i n g d o n g " may b e u s e d a n d t h e d e s c a n t a d d e d
l a t e r on.
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C H A P T E R
X V III
CANONS BASED ON SEQUENCES D ESCEN D IN G S T E P W IS E
So f a r we h a v e d e a l t w i t h c a n o n s b a s e d o n s e q u e n c e s
of descending t h i r d s
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No e x p l a n a t i o n s h o u l d be n e c e s s a r y n o w , s o we s h a l l w r i t e
out th e canonic sequence in s o l - f a n o ta tio n ,
p o in ts of e n t r y ,© ® ©
d if f e r e n t v o ices.
e tc .,
and th e f i n a l
m arking t h e
pauses f o r the
T h e n we s h a l l g i v e f o u r b a r s
in s t a f f
n o t a t i o n o f th e v a rio u s canons from t h e p o in t of e n tr y of
th e
l a s t v o ic e , and above t h e s e p r i n t th e fo rm u la e or code
num bers i n d i c a t i n g t h e
e n t r y of t h e v a r i o u s v o i c e s .
We
s h a l l t h e n f o l l o w on w i t h a number of c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e s
b a se d on t h i s
descending ste p w ise seq uen ce.
canonic seq u en ces in t h i s
c h ap ter th e p o in ts
In a l l the
of e n tr y of
t h e v o i c e s a n d t h e c a n o n i c f o r m u l a e a r e e x a c t l y t h e sa m e
in each case.
12 c a n o n s f o r e q u a l v o i c e s a r e g i v e n u n d e r e a c h
canonic sequence in th e fo llo w in g o rd er:
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jjd' : - | l : - | t : - | s
canons).
B ut a few e x am p le s of c a n o n s
f o r m ix ed v o i c e s on d e s c e n d i n g s t e p w i s e s e q u e n c e s a r e g i v e n
i n t h i s s e c t i o n . O t h e r s may b e i n f e r r e d f r o m t h e c a n o n s f o r
Equal V oices.
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3 f '>
C H A P T E R
XX
THE TEACHING OF HARMONY
We d o n o t p r o p o s e t o
o u t l i n e a c o u r s e i n h a rm o n y
t e a c h i n g , b u t i t may n o t b e o u t o f p l a c e h e r e t o p u t f o r w a r d
som e c r i t i c i s m
o f p r e v a i l i n g m eth o d s i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f
h a r m o n y , a n d t o s u g g e s t a m o re p s y c h o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t o
th e s u b je c t.
Up t i l l
q u ite r e c e n t l y th e ap p ro ach t o
u s u a l l y b y way o f d e f i n i t i o n s
of in te r v a ls ,
t h e s u b j e c t w as
coranon c h o r d s ,
c h o r d a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s and i n v e r s io n s , t o g e t h e r w ith r u l e s
f o r m elo d ic p r o g r e s s i o n ,
lis ts
o f f o r b i d d e n h a rm o n ic
p r o g r e s s io n s , and s u g g e s tio n s f o r th e b e s t r o o t p ro g ressio n s.
T h i s w as f o l l o w e d b y f o u r - p a r t e x e r c i s e s t o b e s o l v e d w i t h
o r w ith o u t t h e h e lp of f i g u r e d b a s s e s - t h e s e e x e r c i s e s
n e c e s s i t a t i n g t h e u s e o f com non c h o r d s i n r o o t p o s i t i o n
o n ly , th e n in f i r s t in v e r s io n and second in v e r s io n ,
up t o
le a d in g
t h a t t e r r o r o f t h e D ip lo m a c a n d i d a t e , t h e c h o rd o f
t h e d o m in a n t s e v e n t h .
T h e n cam e m o d u l a t i o n t o n e a r l y r e l a t e d k e y s , u n e s s e n ­
tia l
d isc o rd s,
a u x ilia r y n o te s , p a ssin g n o te s , a n t i c i p a t ­
io n s and s u s p e n s io n s .
d o m in a n t n i n t h ,
And so o n t h r o u g h t h e c h o r d o f t h e
t h e c h o rd o f t h e d o m in a n t e l e v e n t h , a n d th e
c h o rd of t h e d o m in a n t t h i r t e e n t h .
c h ro m a tic s c a l e ,
th e se v e n th ,
A f t e r t h i s cam e t h e
c h ro m a tic t r i a d s , and c h ro m a tic ch o rd s o f
of th e n in th , o f th e
e le v e n th and o f th e
3V ’
t h i r t e e n t h - w i t h a g r a n d c l i m a x on t h e
a u g m e n te d s i x t h i n i t s
th r e e fo rm s
G erm an ) a n d P e d a l P o i n t s .
fin ish e d
th is
ch o rd o f th e
( I t a l i a n , F re n c h and
But a f t e r a l l
th e hook u s u a l ly
" n o t w ith a h a n g , h u t a w h im p ern .
g ran d c lim a x
F o r, a f t e r
cam e w h a t t h e c o m p l e a t s o l - f a i s t m u s t
a lw a y s r e g a r d a s a g ra n d a n t i - c l i m a x - v i z .
"H arm ony i n
few er th a n fo u r p a r t s " !
The a h o v e i s a s y n o p s i s o f P r o u t ' s
T h eory an d P r a c t i c e "
" H a rm o n y : I t s
(R e v ise d E d i t i o n , T w e n ty f if th
I m p r e s s io n , A ugener L t d . ) .
But t h i s
w e ll-k n o w n t r e a t i s e
was p r e c e d e d a n d h a s h e e n f o l l o w e d hy o t h e r t r e a t i s e s
a lm o st i d e n t i c a l l i n e s .
on
I n t h e s e we h a v e t h e sam e l o g i c a l
d i v i s i o n o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r a n d t h e sa m e s y n t h e t i c a p p r o a c h
t h a t we h a v e c o n d e m n e d i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f o t h e r b r a n c h e s o f
m u sic .
S u c h m e t h o d s o f h a rm o n y t e a c h i n g b e g i n a t t h e
w rong e n d , w i t h d e f i n i t i o n s , g ra m m a r a n d s y n t a x - t h e y
s h o u ld end w ith t h e s e .
The s o l - f a c h o r a l i s t know s t h e
d o m in a n t s e v e n th an d t h e n o rm al b e h a v io u r o f i t s
c o n stit­
u e n t p a r t s lo n g b e f o r e he l e a r n s th e nam es f o r t h e s e o r
th e r u le s
fo r t h e i r tre a tm e n t.
But t h e m o st s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e
o f s u c h sy s te m s of
h arm ony t e a c h i n g i s u n d o u b t e d l y t h e f a c t t h a t t w o - p a r t a n d
t h r e e - p a r t h a rm o n y a r e n o t d e a l t w i t h t i l l
f o u r - p a r t h a rm o n y h a s b e e n m a s t e r e d .
f a i r l y advanced
T he m a i n r e a s o n f o r
th is
i s n o t t h a t t w o - p a r t h a rm o n y a n d t h r e e - p a r t h a rm o n y
a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d h arm ony p r o p e r ( S . A . T . B . ) , a l t h o u g h
th is
may b e a c o n t r i b u t o r y r e a s o n .
in th is
R a th e r i t
is
h a rm o n ic s y s te m t w o - p a r t and t h r e e - p a r t w r i t i n g
d e m a n d s m ore m u s i c i a n s h i p , a n d c a n n o t b e t a u g h t t o
e x te n t th ro u g h th e
basses.
because
th e
same
e y e o r b y m eans o f r u l e s a n d f i g u r e d
In d e e d , t w o - p a r t and t h r e e - p a r t w r i t i n g
in o rd e r
t o b e e f f e c t i v e m u s t e n c r o a c h on t h e d o m a in s o f c o u n t e r ­
p o in t.
And a s c o u n t e r p o i n t i s
e s o t e r i c an d a c a d e m ic s t u d y , t o
s t i l l reg ard ed as a h ig h ly
be u n d e r t a k e n o n l y b y
t h o s e who a r e p o s s e s s e d o f a n a c a d e m i c t u r n o f m ind o r a r e
p ro m p te d b y a c a d e m ic a s p i r a t i o n s ,
are kept s t r i c t l y
c o u n t e r p o i n t a n d h a rm o n y
a p a r t and a re d e a l t w ith i n s e p a r a t e
c o u rs e s o f stu d y and in s e p a ra te te x tb o o k s.
I f i n t h e w o rld of a c t u a l m u sic-m ak in g s a t i s f a c t o r y
re s u lts
can be o b ta in e d fro m t w o - p a r t and t h r e e - p a r t
w r i t i n g , t h e r e m u st be s o m e th in g r i g i d an d m e c h a n ic a l a b o u t
a s y s te m i n w h ic h a s t u d e n t p o s s e s s e d o f a m o d e ra te am ount
of sk ill
can o b ta in s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s
p a r t w ritin g .
A nd, i n d e e d , i t
is
o n ly fro m f o u r -
j u s t because f o u r - p a r t
h a rm o n y c a n b e t a u g h t by f o r m a l a n d m e c h a n i c a l m e th o d s
th a t i t
is
ta u g h t to b e g in n e rs b e fo re tw o - p a r t and t h r e e -
p a r t h a rm o n y i s a t t e m p t e d .
C o u n t e r p o i n t on t h e o t h e r h a n d h a s a lw a y s
been
r e g a r d e d a s t h e p r e s e r v e o f t h e A c a d e m ie s a n d U n i v e r s i t i e s ,
and i t
to
h a s r e q u i r e d m uch p r e s s u r e f r o m o u t s i d e a u t h o r i t i e s
o b ta in t h e s l i g h t freed o m fro m r e s t r i c t i o n s
in c o n tra ­
p u n ta l w ritin g ,
w h ich a r e a d v o c a te d u n d e r t h e tw e lv e
h e a d in g s of th e
"Memorandum o n S t r i c t C o u n t e r p o i n t " , i s s u e d
I n 1911 by t h e C o u n c il o f t h e U n io n o f G r a d u a t e s i n M u s ic .
E v e n t h e n , t h e Memorandum s t a t e s :
b in d
our U n i v e r s i t i e s ,
su ccesso rs,
b e lo w ;
"We c a n n o t i n a n y w ay
B oards o f S t u d i e s , f e l l o w e x a m in e rs ,
o r an y p e r s o n s w h a t e v e r , t o t h e v iew s e x p r e s s e d
t h e s e v iew s a r e o f f e r e d a s o u r p r i v a t e and
u n a n im o u s o p i n i o n s i n d e f e r e n c e t o t h e a s s u r a n c e s we h a v e
r e c e iv e d t h a t s t u d e n ts and te a c h e r s f e a r l e s t
c o n s id e r e d good i n
a n o th e r."
C o u n te rp o in t
one q u a r t e r m ay b e c o n s i d e r e d b a d i n
( S e e "M o dern A c a d e m ic C o u n t e r p o i n t " ,
p .341,
b y C . W . P e a r c e , L o n d o n , G. S c h i r m e r . )
E v i d e n t l y a s u b j e c t w h ich i s a p p ro a c h e d w i t h f e a r and
t r e m b l i n g e v e n b y t h e s i g n a t o r i e s t o t h i s Memorandum,
i n c l u d i n g t h e P r o f e s s o r s o f M u s ic i n t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s o f
O x f o r d , D u b l i n , D urham a n d L o n d o n , i s n o t a s u b j e c t f o r t h e
b e g in n e r in p a r t - w r i t i n g .
The p r e s e n t w r i t e r i s among
t h o s e who w o u l d u p h o l d t h e t e a c h i n g o f S t r i c t C o u n t e r p o i n t
f o r th e sake of th e a u r a l d i s c i p l i n e
it
i m p o s e s on t h e s t u d e n t ,
d is c ip lin e
i n p a r t - w r i t i n g w h ic h
b u t he f e e l s
t h a t such a
s h o u l d come a f t e r m uch e x p e r i e n c e i n v o c a l w o rk
a n d m uch t r a i n i n g i n f r e e p a r t - w r i t i n g o f t h e t y p e sh o w n i n
th e e x a n p le s of c an o n ic se q u e n c e s g iv e n
We a l r e a d y h a v e t e x t b o o k s
on " S t u d e n t s ' C o u n t e r p o i n t , "
"C o m p o sers' C o u n te r p o in t" an d
W hat i s
req u ire d
is
in t h i s book.
"M o d e rn A c ad e m ic C o u n t e r p o i n t "
a te x tb o o k on " B e g in n e rs ' C o u n te r p o in t" ,
i n w h ic h t h e s t u d e n t , s t a r t i n g fro m t w o - p a r t w r i t i n g ,
le a rn
how t o
use su c c e ss io n s of t h i r d s
t h a t p a s s on t o
a u x ilia ry
can
o r s i x t h s , a n d from
th e use of u n e s s e n tia l d is c o rd s su c h as
n o te s,
p a s s in g n o te s , a n ti c i p a ti o n s and su sp e n ­
sio n s .
But i f
c o u n t e r p o i n t o r h a rm o n y i s t o b e t a u g h t ,
s h o u ld be t a u g h t th r o u g h t h e v o ic e and t h e e a r .
art
o f c o u n t e r p o i n t a n d h a rm o n y i s
T he r u l e s
it
For th e
in o rig in a vocal a r t.
f o r t h e a v o id a n c e o f c e r t a i n m e lo d ic an d h a rm o n ic
p r o g r e s s io n s and f o r th e p r e p a r a tio n f o r and r e s o l u t i o n of
s u s p e n s i o n s a n d d i s c o r d s a r e r u l e s b a s e d on e x p e r i e n c e o f
s u c h p r o g r e s s i o n s i n t h e hum an v o i c e .
T he s t u d e n t c a n n o t
make t h e s e r u l e s h i s v e r y own u n t i l he " f e e l s t h e m o n h i s
p u lse ", th a t i s ,
u n t i l s u c h p r o g r e s s i o n s becom e p a r t o f
h im s e l f th ro u g h h is v o ic e - n o t th ro u g h h i s f i n g e r s o r even
th ro u g h h is e a r o n ly .
T h e r e i s no n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y i n t h e
f i n g e r s t o r e s o l v e t h e t h i r d and s e v e n th o f a d o m in a n t
s e v e n th on t h e
th e re
if
k ey b o ard a c c o rd in g to te x tb o o k r u l e s .
But
i s s u c h a n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y i n t h e hum an v o i c e .
And
c u ltu re d l i s t e n e r s su b s c rib e m e n ta lly t o such r u le s i t
is
because th e y have f i r s t le a rn e d to s u b s c r ib e v o c a lly t o su c h
ko
ru le s,
e i t h e r w ith th e p h y s ic a l v o ic e
or th e
" m e n ta l" v o ic e .
T h is p h y s i o l o g i c a l h a s i s o f m u sic i s a p t t o
be l o s t
s i g h t o f i n a n a g e w h e n t h e i n s t r u m e n t m o re a n d m o re
d ic ta te s
k ey b o ard .
t o t h e v o i c e , a n d w hen c o m p o s e r s c o m p o s e a t t h e
I n d e e d , t h e c h a n g e t h a t h a s come o v e r t h e c o n c e p ­
t i o n o f m u s ic i n r e c e n t y e a r s c a n n o t be i l l u s t r a t e d b e t t e r
t h a n by q u o t i n g a n a u t h o r i t y o f a g e n e r a t i o n a g o a n d a n
a u t h o r i t y o f to d a y on t h e q u e s t i o n o f t r a i n i n g
C .V .S ta n fo rd ,
i n c o m p o sitio n
w ritin g o f th e d an g er of im p ro v isin g
w i t h o u t m eth o d , s a y s :
" I t a i d s a n d a b e t s t h a t m o s t u n d e s i r a b l e m e th o d
• o f c o m p o s in g , w r i t i n g a t t h e p i a n o f o r t e .
The
i n s t r u m e n t s h o u l d o n l y b e u s e d a s a t e s t o f w o rk
d o n e , n e v e r ( w i t h one e x c e p t i o n ) a s a s u g g e s t i v e
m edium f o r t h e m a t e r i a l s o f a w o r k .
T h at^ e x ce p ­
t i o n i s th e te c h n ic a l la y in g - o u t of p a ssa g e s
in te n d e d p r im a r ily f o r th e in s tru m e n t
No
com poser of th e f i r s t r a n k e v e r w ro te a t th e
p i a n o f o r t e , o r ham m ered o u t m e l o d i e s w i t h h i s
fin g e rs ."
( " M u s i c a l C o m p o s i t i o n " , p . 17 9
-M a c m illa n & C o ., 1911)
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , S t a n f o r d ' s s u c c e s s o r , R .O . M o r r i s ,
i
P r o f e s s o r o f H a rm o n y , C o u n t e r p o i n t , a n d C o m p o s i t i o n a t t h e
R o y a l C o lle g e o f M u s ic , s a y s o f t h e p i a n o t h a t ,
" I t s r o l e ' i n t h e e x te n s i o n an d d e v e lo p m e n t o f
-h a rm o n ic r e s o u r c e h a s b e e n of in c a lc u la b le
im p o rta n c e .
F o r m e r l y a c o m p o s e r who u s e d
t h e p i a n o i n t h i s way w as s u p p o s e d f o r som e
ob scure re a s o n n o t to be q u ite p la y in g th e
g a m e . T h i s f o r m o f s n o b b e r y i s now a t h i n g
o f t h e p a s t ; a m odern c o m p o s e r 's o b l i g a t i o n
t o h i s p ia n o i s no l o n g e r a m a t t e r f o r p r id e
o r sham e, b u t i s s im p ly t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d ."
(" A n O u t l i n e o f M o d e m K n o w le d g e " , p . 1 0 4 3 ,
-L ondon, V i c t o r G o lla n c z L t d . , 1932)
W h a t e v e r may b e s a i d o f t h e u s e o f t h e p i a n o i n
m o d e r n h a rm o n y a n d c o m p o s i t i o n , i t
say t h a t th e c h ild
s t i l l re m a in s t r u e to
c a n n o t b e g in w here t h e a d u l t
g e n e r a tio n ago l e f t o f f .
r e s o l v e d on t h e c h i l d ' s
of a
A d is c o r d ap p ro ach ed , h e ld ,
v o ic e w i l l s t i l l
or
b e w h a t i t w as t o
h i s a d u l t a n c e s t o r s , an d s o m e th in g q u i t e d i f f e r e n t fro m a
d is c o rd ap p ro ach ed , h e ld ,
o r r e s o lv e d on t h e p i a n o f o r t e ,
u n le s s , in d e e d , t h a t d is c o rd i s ta k e n up in im a g in a tio n by
t h e c h i l d m in d .
B e fo re one can r e a c h th e
I n s t r u m e n t a l c o n c e p t i o n o f m u sic w i t h i t s
s e v e n th s and i t s
th e sta g e
in h is
u n re so lv e d d is c o r d s ,
sta g e
of th e
su c c e ss io n s
of
one m u st p a s s th r o u g h
of t h e v o c a l c o n c e p tio n of m u sic .
As Z i l l e r ,
s ta te m e n t of th e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n T h eory s a y s ,
"E v ery p u p il sh o u ld p a ss s u c c e s s iv e ly th ro u g h
-ea ch of th e c h ie f epochs o f th e g e n e ra l
m e n t a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f m a n k in d s u i t a b l e t o
h is s ta g e o f d e v e lo p m e n t.
T he m a t e r i a l o f
i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , s h o u ld be draw n
fro m th e th o u g h t m a t e r i a l o f t h a t s ta g e o f
h i s t o r i c a l d e v e lo p m e n t i n c u l t u r e w h ich
r u n s p a r a l l e l w ith th e p r e s e n t m e n ta l s ta g e
of th e p u p il."
( Q u o t e d - i n "A S t u d e n t ’ s H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n "
G r a v e s , New Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n C o . , 1 9 2 6 )
P r o f e s s o r T o v e y i n h i s L e c t u r e o n "The M ain S t r e a m
o f M u s ic " p u t s f o r w a r d a s i m i l a r p l e a f o r t h i s h i s t o r i c a l
ap p ro ach to
th e te a c h in g of p a r t- w r itin g .
"T he o n l y s e r i o u s d e f e c t s i n o u r e f f o r t s
- a t a re n a sc e n c e o f m u sic a l e d u c a tio n i s
t h a t th e y a r e d i r e c t e d to s tu d e n ts of th e
w rong m e n ta l a g e .
In th e s ix te e n th c e n tu ry ,
a c a d e m i c c o u n t e r p o i n t w as a p r a c t i c a l m a t t e r
" f o r c h o irb o y s w ith un b ro k en v o i c e s .
-T he s c e p t i c a l u n d e r g r a d u a t e i s d e f i n i t e l y
to o o ld f o r i t .
And we do n o t s o l v e h i s
d i f f i c u l t i e s b y c o m b i n i n g i n one p r o c e s s
t h e e le m e n ta r y p ro b lem s of t h e in k y l i t t l e
sc h o o lb o y w itn t h e r e f in e m e n ts o f a d u l t
s c h o l a r s h i p . 1*
(F ro m t h e P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e B r i t i s h A cadem y,
V o lu m e XXIV, L o n d o n : H u m phrey M i l f o r d 1 9 3 8 ;
The m any e m i n e n t m u s i c i a n s i n E n g l a n d a n d e l s e w h e r e
who b e g a n t h e i r m u s i c a l c a r e e r a s c h o i r b o y s a r e e v i d e n c e o f
th e t r u th
of th is
s ta te m e n t.
On l o o k i n g o v e r o l d D i c t i o n a r i e s o f M u s ic a n d
G ram m ars o f M u s i c , w h a t s t r i k e s
is
th e
th e r e a d e r m o st, p e rh a p s ,
c o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e f f e c t o f m u s ic on t h e e a r .
T hus:
"C oncords a r e s u c h I n t e r v a l s a s a r e t u n e a b l e
- a n d a g r e e a b l e t o e a c h o t h e r ; t h a t i s , w hen
tw o o r m o re d i f f e r e n t t o n e s s o u n d t o g e t h e r ,
s o a s t o be h arm o n io u s a n d d e l i g h t f u l t o t h e
sm -r*
It
"D is c o rd s a r e s u c h i n t e r v a l s a s a re u n tu n e a b le ,
- j a r r i n g and d is a g r e e a b le ."
("A M u s i c a l Grammar a n d D i c t i o n a r y "
by W illia m T a n s 'u r , L ondon, 1746)
" C o n c o r d , t h e r e l a t i o n o f tw o s o u n d s w h i c h a r e
-alw a y s p l e a s i n g t o th e e a r , w h e th e r a p p li e d i n
s u c c e s s io n o r i n c o n so n a n c e ."
"D i s c o r d , t h e r e l a t i o n o f tw o s o u n d s w h i c h a r e
- o f th e m s e lv e s a lw a y s d i s a g r e e a b l e , w h e th e r
a p p lie d in s u c c e s s io n or consonance . . . .
D is c o r d s a r e a lw a y s b r o u g h t o f f so a s t o
r e n d e r th e m d e l i g h t f u l ; f o r s im p ly o f th em ­
s e lv e s th e y a re h a rsh and d is p le a s in g to th e
e a r ."
- ( " D i c t i o n a r y o f M u s ic " b y J o h n H o y l e ,
-L ondon, 1770)
" C o n c o r d a n tia e s t son o ru m d i v e r s o r u m r a ix tu r a
- a u i c i t e r a u rib u s c o n v e n ie n s ."
(A c o n c o r d i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f tw o o r m o re
sounds t h a t s tr ik e s th e e a r a g r e e a b ly .)
" D l s c o r d a n t i a e s t d iv e r s o r u m sonoru m m ix tu r a
• n a t u r a l l t e r a u re s o ffe n d e n s ."
(A d i s c o r d i s a c o m b i n a t i o n Of tw o o r m o re
sounds n a t u r a l l y o f f e n s iv e to th e e a r . )
" A rm o n ia e s t a m o e n i t a s q u a e d a m e x c o n v e n i e n t !
-so n o c a u s a t a ."
(H arm ony i s a s c e r t a i n s w e e t n e s s c a u s e d b y t h e
c o m in g t o g e t h e r o f m u s i c a l s o u n d s . )
( " T e r m in o r u m M u s i c a e D i f f i n i t o r i u m "
- by J o h a n n e s T i n c t o r
c .1 4 7 4 )
T ln c to r 's d e f i n i ti o n s
a re a ls o
of p e r f e c t and im p e r f e c t co n co rd s
i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t th e y a re d e fin e d i n te rm s of
f u n c tio n , n o t in te rm s of n o ta tio n or o f a c o u s tic s .
T hus:
"C o n c o r d a n t i a P e r f e c t s e s t q u a e c o n t i n u e p l u r i e s
-ascen d en d o v e l descen d en d o f i e r i non p o t e s t ."
(A p e r f e c t c o n c o r d i s o n e t h a t c a n n o t be u s e d
c o n s e c u tiv e ly e i t h e r a sc e n d in g o r d e s c e n d in g .)
"C o n c o rd a n tia Im p e rfe c ta e s t quae c o n tin u e p l u r ie s
-ascen d en d o v e l descendendo f i e r i p o t e s t ."
(An i m p e r f e c t c o n c o r d i s one t h a t c a n b e u s e d
s e v e r a l tim e s i n s u c c e s s io n e i t h e r a sc e n d in g
or d e s c e n d in g .)
F ro m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f h a rm o n y t e a c h i n g , s u r e l y
th is
is
a l l t h a t a s t u d e n t n e e d know .
I n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f c o u n t e r p o i n t a n d h a rm o n y t h e
e a r l y p r a c t i t i o n e r s w ere g u id e d a t e a c h s t a g e b y t h e v o i c e
and t h e
ear,
and i n th e te a c h in g of c o u n te r p o in t and
h arm ony t h e p u p i l o f t o d a y s h o u ld b e g u id e d a t e a c h s t a g e
A'U'j
by th e v o ic e and th e
ear.
So, p e rh a p s w hat i s r e q u ir e d f o r b e g in n e rs in p a r t w ritin g
i s n o t s o m uch a t e x t b o o k i n w h i c h r u l e s a n d
r e g u l a t i o n s a r e l a i d down, a s a p r a c t i c a l book o f M a te r ia
M u s ic a i n w h ic h t h e s e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s a r e d i s p l a y e d
t h r o u g h p o ly p h o n ic m u s ic o f a s im p le t y p e , an d fr o m w h ich
t h e s e r u l e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s may b e d e d u c e d t h r o u g h t h e
v o c a l p e rfo rm a n c e o f t h e m u sic b y t h e p u p i l s .
M o r e o v e r , f o l l o w i n g P r o f e s s o r T o v e y 's a d v i c e , we
m ust s e e t h a t p u p ils o f th e r i g h t m en tal a g e,
i.e .
not
" s c e p t i c a l u n d e r g r a d u a te s " b u t young c h i l d r e n w i t h u n b ro k e n
v o ic e s , a r e a b le to
p r o f i t from t h i s
p a r t - s i n g i n g , w h ic h
t h e r e f o r e m u s t n o t make t o o g r e a t d e m a n d s o n s i g h t - r e a d i n g
a b ility .
If,
a s has been su g g e ste d in t h i s
book, c a n o n ic
seq u en ces a re used f o r o ra l p r a c tic e in p a r t- s in g in g to th e
s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s and f o r n o ta tio n a l p r a c t i c e in p a r t - w r i t in g
t o t h e s t a f f s y m b o l s , t h e n we w o u ld h a v e p u p i l s who c o u l d
b e n e f i t fro m t h e s e
" p ro d u c ts of a n a l y s i s " ,
o r law s f o r
h a rm o n ic an d c o n t r a p u n t a l p r o g r e s s i o n s , w h ic h a r e to be
fo u n d i n a l l te x tb o o k s
th e se
o f c o u n t e r p o i n t a n d h a rm o n y .
For
l a w s w o u ld t h e n h a v e r e f e r e n c e t o s o m e t h i n g w i t h i n t h e
p u p i l s ’ own e x p e r i e n c e , t o w h i c h t h e y h a v e a l r e a d y s u b ­
sc rib e d
now t o
w ith t h e i r v o i c e s , an d t o w h ic h t h e y w i l l be r e a d y
s u b s c rib e w ith t h e i r i n t e l l e c t s .
T h e y w o u l d no
l o n g e r be t h e
"p ro d u c ts
of a n a l y s i s "
c o m p iled th em , b u t r a t h e r t h e
th e p u p ils th e m se lv e s,
p a rt-sin g in g
o f t h e t h e o r i s t who
"p ro d u cts o f a n a ly s is "
of
b o r n o f t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e o f
- law s s a n c t i o n e d fr o m w i t h i n ,
n o t im p o sed
fro m w ith o u t.
I t is
im p o ssib le to tr a c e
in d e t a i l th e p re c is e
c o u rs e o f th e e v o lu t i o n o f p a r t - s i n g i n g from a b o u t t h e y e a r
9 0 0 A .D . o n w a r d s .
sequences i t i s
B u t we b e l i e v e t h a t b y m e a n s o f c a n o n i c
p o s s ib le t o r e c o n s t r u c t ro u g h ly and in a
f o r m s u i t a b l e f o r t h e c la s s ro o m t h e p r o c e s s by w h ic h our
a n c e s t o r s e v o lv e d t h e h a rm o n ic l a n g u a g e .
T h e f i r s t a t t e m p t s a t O rg anum , w h i c h c o n s i s t e d
c h i e f l y o f t h e c o m b in e d s i n g i n g i n p a r a l l e l m o t i o n o f
su p e rim p o se d f o u r t h s an d f i f t h s ,
d id n o t and c o u ld n o t
l e a d a n y w h e re , f o r one p e r f e c t f o u r t h o r f i f t h i s
lik e
a n o th e r p e r f e c t f o u r t h or f i f t h :
zg.
-O
zg
-A
n —o
B ut w ith th e d isc o v e ry of th e im p e rfe c t co n co rd s, th ir d s
and s i x t h s
("qu ae c o n tin u e p l u r i e s ascen d en d o v e l d e s c e n d ­
endo f i e r i
p o s s u n t " ) , a new w o r l d o f e x p e r i e n c e w as o p e n e d
4-06
up to th e m ed iae v al m u s ic ia n s .
v irtu e
of t h e i r
sta te
T h ird s and s i x t h s ,
ofim p e rfe c tio n ,
i.e .
by
on a c c o u n t o f
t h e i r d u a l e x i s t e n c e a s m ajo r a n d m in o r I n t e r v a l s ,
a llo w e d
o f t h e i r use in
p a r a l l e l m o tio n , w h ile
th e a l t e r n a t i o n o f
m a jo r a n d m in o r
I n t e r v a l a f f o r d e d v a r i e t y o f h arm o n ic
e ffe c t.
On t h i s T e r t i a n S y s t e m o f H a rm o n y , a s i t
h as been
c a l l e d , t h e m assiv e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e o f v o c a l p o ly p h o n ic
m u sic h as b e en b u i l t .
And o n t h i s T e r t i a n S y s t e m a l l t h e c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e s
in th is
book have b een b u i l t .
We h a v e s h o w n how t h e s m o o t h f l o w o f c o n s e c u t i v e
t h i r d s end s i x t h s
<D®
has been b ro k en u p ,
0®
0(2)©
l i k e w h i t e l i g h t o n a p r i s m , by t h e
s im p le e x p e d ie n t o f b r i n g in g i n a v o ic e a t a n e a r l i e r or
l a t e r p o in t o f e n tr y in th e c a n o n ic s e q u e n c e .
T hus, to
s i m i l a r m o t i o n w as a d d e d o b l i q u e m o t i o n , c o n t r a r y m o t i o n
and p a ssin g n o t e s .
^oy
We h a v e sh o w n how a u x i l i a r y n o t e s g i v e c h a r a c t e r t o
th e c o n tra p u n ta l p a r ts ,
a n d b y p r o d u c in g f r i c t i o n b e tw ee n
th e v o ic e s h e ig h te n t h e e f f e c t
CD©
of th e consonances:
(D®©
CD©
how a n t i c i p a t i o n s , a p p o g g l a t u r a s a n d m o r d e n t s h e l p t o
k e e p u p t h e m ov em ent i n one o r o t h e r o f t h e p a r t s :
0®
i
— . y,|5 **
fL flf
how s u s p e n s i o n s w i t h p l a i n
'& 6 wS* M s iT O
1
| J r . IT] 1w:1
L iiy J
o r o r n a m e n t a l r e s o l u t i o n s add
t h e i r p o ig n a n t e f f e c t to t h e w h o le :
CD®©
U J
0X2)9
how u n p r e p a r e d d i s c o r d s u r g e t h e m o v em en t o n :
how t h e w i d e r d i s t r i b u t i o n
o f t h e p a r t s made p o s s i b l e
t h e u s e o f M ixed V o i c e s r e d u c e s t h e e f f e c t s o f d i s s o n ances:
d= fini s
P \n
J
\Itdrfiir
^
a—
3
a
_
~
j
0
»
:
±4=-ri—
r
i
- -
,
':
P
4^
by
how t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c h r o m a t i c n o t e s a s m e l o d i c c o n ­
stitu e n ts
p r o d u c e s new h a r m o n i c e f f e c t s :
a n d how t h e
i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c h r o m a tic n o t e s a s h a rm o n ic
c o n s t i t u e n t s p ro d u c e s m o d u la to ry e f f e c t s :
p©
1^
\ j r I.; II
A l l t h i s , a n d m uch m o r e , may b e a t t e m p t e d i n t h e
ro o m , w i t h o u t t h e a i d
c la ss­
o f a n i n s t r u m e n t , b y p u p i l s who h a v e
n o t m uch k n o w le d g e o f n o t a t i o n .
F o r i t sh o u ld
be re m e m b e re c ’ .
t h a t w h ile t h e s t a f f e x a m p le s o f c a n o n ic s e q u e n c e s o c cu p y
a la rg e p ro p o rtio n of th is
book, o n ly th e s o l - f a
la y o u t
of th e s e c an o n ic se q u e n c e s n eed be p r i n t e d i n th e P u p i l s '
Book, a n d c l a s s e s b r o u g h t u p on t h e S e q u e n c e M o d u la to r
M e th o d m ay s i n g p r a c t i c a l l y a l l t h e s e c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e s
I
fro m t h e M o d u la to r i t s e l f .
A ll th is
is
p a r t - s i n g i n g by m eans o f c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e s
i n t h e t r u e v o c a l t r a d i t i o n , a n d e m p lo y s c h i e f l y c o n j u n c t !
o r s te p w is e m o tio n .
The c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e s t h e m s e l v e s c a n
be g r a d e d t o s u i t th e c a p a c i t y
p ro g ress.
of c la s s e s a t a l l sta g e s o f
W h il e w i t h i n e a c h c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e t h e r e
is a
w id e c h o i c e o f c a n o n s f o r p r a c t i c e i n p a r t - s i n g i n g , p a r t w ritin g ,
o r k e y b o a r d h a rm o n y - a l l v a r y i n g i n r e s p e c t o f
h a rm o n ic p r o g r e s s i o n o r num ber an d d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e
v o ic e s.
j|
I n t h e w o r k s o f t h e g r e a t m a s t e r s m any c o m p le x
h a r m o n i c s e q u e n c e s a n d s t r e t t i may he t r a c e d b a c k t o
c an o n ic se q u e n c e ,
i.e .
a
a p l a i n sequence t r e a t e d c a n o n ic a lly .
A fam ous p a s s a g e a t t h e c l o s e
o f t h e g r e a t " D o r i a n Mode"
F u g u e f o r O r g a n , w h e r e B a c h w o rk s u p a c l o s e
stre tto
fro m
e p ls o d a l m a t t e r d e r iv e d from t h e c o u n t e r s u b j e c t , h a s n e v e r
c e a s e d t o b e a d m ired .
I — tri-rP*-
r tf u t K
P ro b a b ly , to o , i t
h as n e v e r been p r o p e r ly a n a ly s e d o r re d u c e d
to f i r s t p r in c ip le s .
be f o u n i t h a t ,
If
th is
is u n d e rta k e n i t w ill
o m ittin g th e m o d u la tio n s , t h i s
d e r iv e d fro m a p l a i n c a n o n ic
w r i t t e n i n A l l a B re v e t i m e
in tr ip le
a n a ly sis
sequence.
stre tto
c a n be
The f u g u e i s
(^ ), but th is
stre tto
is re a lly
tim e .
We s h a l l r e - w r i t e i t t h u s , w hen t h e c r o s s r h y t h m s
w ill be p la in to
th e e y e.
We s h a l l a l s o p u t t h e B** i n t h e
Key S i g n a t u r e , a s t h e f u g u e i s r e a l l y
i n D m in o r, t h e o ld
m a s te r s u s in g a f l a t l e s s i n a l l m in o r k e y s .
4-10
f#
I t w i l l be n o ted t h a t th e s e q u e n tia l p r o g r e s s io n s above a r e
b a s e d o n w h a t we h a v e c a l l e d t h e
d1 1 f r
ty p e .
T hat i s ,
th e sequences d escen d , n o t ste p w ise , b u t a t th e in te r v a l of
i
a th ir d a t each r e p e titio n .
jj
T h is c a n o n ic s t r e t t o
may b e w o r k e d o u t b y m e a n s o f a
f o r m u l a f r o m a p l a i n s e q u e n c e i n t h e sa m e m a n n e r a s a l l t h e
:ji
canons in t h i s book.
;
H o w e v e r, s i n c e t h e S o p r a n o a n d T e n o r
v o i c e s d e s c e n d on t h e d ' l
f r
se rie s,
B a s s d e s c e n d o n t h e t , s, m ,d, s e r i e s ,
it
w h ile t h e A lto and
is n ecessary to
b e g i n t h e s e q u e n c e an o c ta v e h i g h e r i n o r d e r t h a t th e
v o i c e s may come i n
" in lo c o p ro p rio " .
T he i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s o l v i n g t h e c a n o n m i g h t b e g i v e n
as fo llo w s.
U se t h r e e s t a v e s .
On t h e b o t t o m s t a v e c o n t i n u e f o r 1 7 b a r s t h e
___
f o llo w in g s e q u e n ce ;^
d e sce n d in g a t h i r d a t each r e p e t i t i o n .
A t ($) o r t h e 8 t h b a r , n o t c o u n t i n g t h e i n c o m p l e t e
b a r , b e g i n t h e s e q u e n c e a g a i n on t h e f i r s t
s t a v e (F i n A l t ) .
|
A t G J , o r t h e seco n d b e a t of t h e 1 2 th b a r ,
b e g in t h e sequ en ce on t h e secon d s ta v e in
t h e b a s s c l e r , a n d on t h e t h i r d s p a c e above
th e s ta v e .
F i n a ll y , a t ® , o r th e 1 4 th b a r, b e g in th e
seq u en ce from t h e f i f t h l i n e o f t h e to p s ta v e .
C o n tin u e a l l f o u r p a r t s
The s o l - f a c a n o n ic
fo r fo u r b a rs .
l a y o u t w o u l d b e sho w n a s f o l l o w s :
(g)
h fp
{ :i l- .tjltt.m il'
S-.s„f-s,dr^ i
d.' i f
-
l- .m /s m .l:r
w
l-.djtsdr'.-f : t
'
v
: m l-.p,gl:r.*,:d<
V
n
^ sA ' sA ' i
F o rm u la :
U se t h r e e s t a v e s .
W rite v o i c e 0
on b o t t o m s t a v e .
The se c o n d v o ic e e n t e r s a t ( D o n t h e t o p s t a v e .
E n t r y a t Q 2 # t o b e w r i t t e n tw o o c t a v e s l o w e r
on se c o n d s t a v e .
E n t r y a t (@ t o b e w r i t t e n o n e o c t a v e l o w e r
on t o p s t a v e .
W rite i n |
tim e .
We s h a l l now w r i t e t h e w h o l e c a n o n o u t i n s t a f f f r o m t h e
s o l - f a la y o u t, fo llo w in g th e
in s tr u c t i o n s g iv e n ab o v e.
The C a n o n m i g h t a l s o s t a r t i n t h e
j
B ass C le f fro m t h e l a s t h e a t o f th ef
se v e n th h a r .
In th is
c a n o n ic se q u e n c e th e p a r t - w r i t i n g from th e
p o i n t w here t h e v o i c e p a r t s a r e m arked b y p h r a s e - m a r k s
i s e x a c t l y t h e sam e a s B a c h ' s , e x c e p t f o r t h e f o u r
a c c id e n ta ls in s e rte d .
is
I t w i l l be n o te d t h a t th e b a ss
p art
w r i t t e n a n o c ta v e lo w e r t h a n i t a p p e a rs i n t h e o rg an
v e rsio n , b u t th is
i s a s i t w o u ld s o u n d on t h e p e d a l s w i t h
a 16 f o o t s t o p .
In th e
Bach fu g u e i t s e l f ,
th e c a n o n ic w r i t in g b re a k s
o f f a b r u p t l y a t t h e p o i n t w h e r e o u r e x a m p le s t o p s ,
th e s t r e t t o ,
a lth o u g h i t
and
l i k e t h e f u g u e , i s w r i t t e n i n A l l a B reve tim e ,
w o u ld b e p h r a s e d a n d p l a y e d a s i n t h e a b o v e
e x a m p le .
We d o n o t s u g g e s t ,
th is
stre tto
o f c o u r s e , t h a t B ach w orked o u t
fro m f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s , so to
have done a b o v e .
s p e a k , a s we
B u t we c l a i m t h a t p u p i l s , t r a i n e d
in
c an o n ic se q u e n c e s in g in g and c a n o n ic se q u e n c e w r i t in g
th e lin e s in d ic a te d in t h is
in s ig h t in to
on
book, b e s id e s g a in in g a r e a l
h a rm o n ic id io m s a n d c o n t r a p u n t a l p r o g r e s s i o n s ,
w i l l i n t h e i r H arm ony a n d C o u n t e r p o i n t s t u d i e s b e q u i c k t o
p r o f i t by i m i t a t i o n and c an o n ic w r i t in g i n t h e v o ic e p a r t s
w here s u c h w r i t i n g i s
p ra c tic a b le .
THE SEQUENCE MODULATOR
8
1
2
:i
4
5
G
7
8
d
d1
r1
m1
f'
s'
1'
t'
d2
d
t.
t
d1
r1
m 1
f1
s'
1' t1
d
1,
1
t
d 1
r1
m 1
f1
s'
l1
*1
d
s.
s
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d'
f1
s'
1,
r1 m 1
t,
d
1,
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f
s
1
t
r1
m1
f1
s ,
d1
t,
1,
f,
m i
f
s
1
t
d1
s.
m
r1 m 1
t,
1,
m
f
s
t
d1
r1
*,
r
1
s .
1.
1
t
d1
f,
f
s
s.
3
4
G
7
1
2
3
4
5
d'
t
1
s
f
m
r
t
1
s
f
m
r
1
s
f
m
r
s
f
m
r
f
m
r
m
r
d
r
d
d
t.
1
2
5
6
r ,
r .
d,
d
r
m
7
8
J
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
C o p y r i g h t U .S . A . and a ll a u n lrirs, 1938, by A rthur J . Irvine
THE DEVELOPMENT OP MUSICAL A BILITY
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO
AURAL TECHNIQUE AND SIGHT READING
A
THESIS
SUBMITTED TO THE
UNIVERSITY OP GLASGOW
FOR THE
DEGREE OP DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
ARTHUR J .
IRVINE
1940
VOL. I I I .
P A R T
V A R I O U S
OP
M U S I C
III.
A S P E C T S
T H E
L E S S O N .
CONTENTS O P VOLUME I I I
C h a p te r
P a g e
I
M u sic
a n d
L e i s u r e .........................................................................
I I
T he
I I I
M u s ic -T e a c h in g
R e c a p i t u l a t i o n
P e r c u s s i o n
A p p ro a c h
-
A
N ew
O r i e n t a t i o n .
. . .
i n R e l a t i o n
t o
t h e
T h e o r y .........................................................
IV
T h e
V
A C o m p a ris o n
o f
th e
P r i n c i p l e s
U n d e r ly in g
th e
T o n ic
S o l - f a a n d
th e
S t a f f
N o t a t io n .
V is u a l
t o
B and
4 17
t h e
S y l l a b l e s .
. . .
4 7 0
V II
T h e O rd e r
o f D i f f i c u l t y
o f K ey s
in
S i g h t S i n g i n g ......................................................................................
5 09
V I I I
T he
5 38
IX
A n E x p e r im e n t t o
a s c e r t a i n
th e
e f f e c t o f
f o r m a l l a y o u t o f m u s ic ty p e
on
R e a d in g
p e r f o r m a n c e ..............................................................................................
X
F re q u e n c y
X I
M eth o d
M u sic
X II
o f
o f
S t a f f
462
The
L a y o u t
t o
4 5 4
V I
F o rm a l
A p p ro a c h
S o l - f a
4 2 3
M u sic
I n t e r v a l s
i n
S i g h t - S i n g i n g . .
T y p e ...............
4 95
t h e
M e l o d y ...............
i n R e l a t i o n t o
C o n te n t
in
th e
S c h o o l
R e a d e r ......................................................................................
C o n c l u s i o n ....................................................................................................
A p p e n d ix - S a m p le s h e e t s
u s e d
i n
C la s s
f o r
t e s t i n g
a n d f o r p i t c h a n d r h y th m
s p e l l i n g
p r a c t i c e ....................................................................................................
5 77
5 8 6
612
6 52
6 75
CHAPTER I
IvlUSIC AND L E I S U R E *
Of a l l
u n iv ersal
th is
th e a r ts ,
ap p eal.
It
age of le is u r e ,
reckoned w ith .
For
m usic h a s th e m ost
is
it
if
is 'a
we w i l l
we m u s t
escape
from m u sic a l t o g e t h e r .
of th e
in flu en ce
it
is
a rt,
and
and,
in
f a c t o r w h ic h m ust he
m u sic,
th at
liv e
th e one s o c i a l
d irect
not
liv e
w i t h good
w i t h b a d m u s i c - we c a n h a r d l y
In d eed th e b e s t m easure
o f m u s ic on t h e com m unity i s
th e on ly a r t
th at
is
th e
fact
b ein g e x p lo ite d
co m m ercially .
In th e h is to r y
two m a i n s t r e a m s ,
e q u ally
sin cere
each re a c tin g
rap id ly
rad io ,
e tc.
and s a tis f y in g
- p ro vid e
song.
its
th e
try
ex ponents,
But to - d a y ,
and
w ith th e
life ,
f o l k m usic
c e le b rity .c o n c e rt
-
th e
ag en c ie s,
e n te r ta i n m e n t w hich i n fo rm er days
to
for
express
th em selv es.
Indeed,
th em selv es
i n m usic o r
They r e m a in c o n t e n t w i t h a v i c a r i o u s
ex p re ssio n ,
each
C om m ercial i n t e r e s t s
jaz z bands,
th e m asses had to p ro v id e
t h e y no l o n g e r
to
o f t h e home a n d s o c i a l
d isap p earin g .
talk ies,
t h e r e have alw ays been
a r t m usic an d f o l k m u sic,
on t h e o t h e r .
d isin te g ratio n
is
of m u sic,
purveyed fo r
them by t h e s e
se lf-
e x te rn al
a g e n c i e s . _________________________________________________
^ R e p r i n t e d from a n a r t i c l e by t h e w r i t e r i n
"The C h a l l e n g e o f L e i s u r e " , E d i t e d o n b e h a l f
o f t h e New E d u c a t i o n F e l l o w s h i p b y W i l l i a m
B o y d , M . A . , B . S c . , D . P h i l . , L o n d o n , New E d u c a t i o n
F e llo w s h ip , 1935.
it?
It
as
in
is
th e cu rse of
o th er
spheres,
th e m odern w o rld ,
th at,
a s M atthew A r n o l d p o i n t e d
o u t a s l o n g ago a s 1863,
our c i v i l i s a t i o n
larg e
and e x te rn a l,
degree
co n stan tly
"m echanical
t o become m ore s o . "
t h a t we do l i t t l e
u n c ritic a lly ,
p assiv e
activ e
for
and a re
liste n e rs
leisu re
We a c c e p t
in clin ed
r e m a in m ore o r l e s s
to
ev ery th in g
in s te a d o f b ein g
The m a c h i n e w h i c h h a s b r o u g h t u s
en jo y i t
self-ex p ressio n .
tru e progress
when s e l e c t i o n
in te re sts.
done f o r us
o u rselv es.
The l a w o f n a t u r a l
for
to a
and ten d s
h a s d e p r i v e d u s o f t h e power to
th rough a c tiv e
is
So m u c h i s
and s p e c ta to rs ,
p a rtic ip a n ts.
i n m usic
se le c tio n ,
in a r t,.n o
is
longer
w hich
is
o p erates
e sse n tia l
i n an age
d i c t a t e d and c o n t r o l l e d by v e s t e d
We a r e
thus
f a c e d w i t h one m ore v i c i o u s
c irc le .
Let u s
(1)
arts,
sta te
"An a c c u r a t e
as
th e problem b r i e f l y :
taste
in p o e try ,
as
in a l l
S ir J o s h u a R eynolds h a s o b s e rv e d ,
acq u ired ta le n t,
is
oth er
an
w h i c h c a n o n l y b e p r o d u c e d by s e v e r e
th o u g h t and a lo n g c o n tin u e d in te r c o u r s e w ith th e b e s t
m odels o f c o m p o s itio n "
(2)
m u sical
(W ordsw orth).
The a d u l t m a s s e s o f t o - d a y ,
e n terta in m e n t,
ask fo r
h av e a n im m ediate a p p e a l ,
d e e p demand f o r a c r e a t i v e
liste n e r.
in th e ir p u rs u it
of
som ething w hich w i l l
and w hich w i l l
n o t make a n y
resp o n se on th e p a r t
of
th e
(3)
Commerce, w h i c h m u s t
of th e b ig b a tta lio n s ,
supply o f
from t h e
liste n e r,
who i s
thus
d ep riv ed of
in a r t,
co n tin u ed in te rc o u rs e w ith
(T here a r e ,
a g e n c ie s w hich s ta n d f o r
do n o t
w ith o ut
of course,
th e h ig h e st
a sso c iatio n
-
in a r t ,
but
co n scio u s.
But
d o .)
of
"sch o o l" w ith
th at
c irc le
"leisu re"
id eal
age of
not
leisu re ­
is
"leisu re"
a n d no s u c h a d u l t n o t i o n a s
h a n g i n g on h i s h a n d s , "
him f o r
of course,
i f h e h a s no s u c h w ord a s
h is v o cab u lary ,
th is
is
it
not because n a tu re has
p erio d of c a re fre e
f o r new e x p e r i e n c e s ,
tr y h im self o u t,
No c h i l d w o u l d w i l l i n g l y
liste n
sin g or dance or o th erw ise
in
The l i s t e n e r - s p e c t a t o r
th irst
h im self,
se lf-re a lisa tio n ?
to m usic i f
him self
so
grow th t h a t he
w herein he can p r o je c t
and th u s ach iev e
in
"tim e
c o n s c i o u s o f n o t h i n g so much a s a n i n s a t i a b l e
it.
th ese
th e age o f ch ild h o o d .
The n o r m a l c h i l d ,
is
"a
com m ercial
break th rough t h i s v ic io u s
s u g g e s t s t h a t we s h o u l d c o n s i d e r
fitte d
n am ely,
a n Act o f P a r l i a m e n t o r a P h i l o s o p h e r - K i n g ?
The o r i g i n a l
leisu re
th e m ain
th e b e s t m odels o f
rea ch th e m asses as th e o th e rs
How a r e we t o
an in creasin g
dem anding a ch eap r e s p o n s e
s p iritu a l progress
c o m p o sitio n ."
be on t h e s i d e
produces th e re fo re
s u p e r f i c i a l m u sic,
c o n d itio n of
long
in ev itab ly
he co u ld
tak e an a c tiv e p a rt
a ttitu d e
is
fo r e ig n to
U-io
th e
ch ild .
He h i m s e l f m u s t
a lw a y s be a t
th e c e n tre
of a c tiv ity .
The s c h o o l ,
th is
it
d r i v in g pow er,
i t m ust r e v e r e n t l y
d irect
it
v itia tin g
hig h er
in to
it,
th is
to be n o ted ,
urge fo r
and w isely
does not
fu rn ish
self-ex p ressio n ,
but
ta k e adv an tag e o f i t
and
c h a n n e ls w hich,
w ill
lev e ls
is
w ith o u t
d issip a tin g
le a d th e c h i l d upw ards to
or
ever
of response.
T h e home c a n n o t b e d e p e n d e d o n n o w a d a y s t o p l a y
its
trad itio n a l p a rt.
cen tre
of a p e o p le 's
loud-speaker fo r
m usic and cheap
of fash io n ,
b asis
in to
is
rests
w ill
n u r s e r y rhym es
sing fo lk
songs or
or b a llad s.
w ith the
sch o o ls,
c u ltu re ,
th en ,
and to
to
lay
b ring
in h erita n c e
the
th e c h ild
in m usic and
w ith o u t w hich t h e y e a r s o f e n f o r c e d a d u l t
seem " w e a r y ,
sta le ,
I t has been n o ted th a t
does not
C r a d le s h av e gone o u t
P a r e n t s no l o n g e r
co n tact w ith th e n a tio n a l
leisu re
becom ing a
d is s e m in a tio n of co m m ercialised
fo r th e n a tio n a l
lite ra tu re ,
rap id ly
en tertain m en t.
fo lk ta le s
It
cu ltu re
what u se d to be th e
a n d w i t h them t h e t r a d i t i o n a l
and lu lla b ie s .
re c ite
the
Indeed,
ex ist
for
th e c h ild ,
s e lf -e x p r e s s io n he cannot
th e th in g s th a t
he is
flat
and u n p r o f i t a b l e . "
th e problem o f l e i s u r e
because
in h is urge fo r
f i n d t i m e e n o u g h t o do a l l
in te reste d
in .
But th e problem
Ml
rem ain s f o r
of
th e
a d u l t "because h e h a s l o s t
self-ex p ressio n .
th an a c tiv e .
e x p ressio n "
o nly to
He p r e f e r s
Such a n a t t i t u d e
is
fata l
to
to
of
be p a s s iv e
rath er
"im p re ssio n w ithout
a ll progress
th e fa m ilia r p re se n t-d a y
t h i s power
in a r t ,
and le a d s
c r a v i n g f o r new
e x citem en ts.
What t h e n c a n b e d o n e t o
a d u lt
b u t,
leisu re?
We c a n n o t c h a n g e a d u l t h u m a n n a t u r e ;
by d i r e c t i n g
th e e n erg ies
g en erate an a r t i s t i c
th e a d u lt
stag e,
produces w ill
s o lv e th e problem of
momentum w h i c h w i l l
w here th e
ensure
Above a l l
of ch ild h o o d ,
its
sp iritu a l
we m u s t t r y
com m unity i s
t h i s pow er;
use of
liste n e r
at h eart.
be a b le
to
at
In t h i s
the
it
c h ild w ith
age a m u sically
t h o s e who m a k e m o s t
tru e
of
in te re sts
j a z z a n d low ­
o f m usic o r
F u rn is h e d w ith t h i s pow er,
th in k f o r h im s e lf and to
what he c a n n o t r e c e i v e
in to
t h e m e r c y o f t h o s e who h a v e
th e d issem in ato rs
have not
sa tisfa c tio n
to p ro v id e th e
a s we h a v e s e e n ,
t h i s pow er,
brow m u s ic ,
w ill
and,
carry over
c o n tin u an c e.
t h e power to r e a d an d w r i t e m u sic .
illite ra te
we may
th ro u g h th e
th e
th e
c h ild
seek in books
eth er.
One o f t h e m o s t r e m a r k a b l e l e i s u r e m o v e m e n t s o f
last
c e n t u r y was t h e
six tie s
and s e v e n tie s
T onic
its
S o l - f a M ovem ent.
a ctiv e
n um bered by t h e h u n d r e d s o f
In th e
a d h e r e n t s w e re to be
th o u san d s.
It
owed i t s
A n
success
to
th e f a c t
th at,
for
th e f i r s t
tim e
in h is to ry ,
a d u l t s who h a d b e e n d e p r i v e d o f a n e a r l y m u s i c a l
t i o n w ere e n a b le d ,
co m e i n t o
share
im m ediate p e r s o n a l
w hich th e a r t
w ork.
to
fo lk
th e
for
fo sterin g
fe stiv a l
school
him .
th is
o rch estral
one in
in to
a ttitu d e
in
fo lk
and c h o ral
th e
of th e
to-day
the
song and
so c ietie s.
fact
from p u b l i c
th at
they
funds,
w hich h a s r e c e n t l y v o te d
encouragem ent o f am ateu r c h o r a l and
so c ietie s.
the
is
There e x i s t
a sso c iatio n s,
But on t h e s e
sense of v alu es
cu rricu lu m
s o c i e t i e s we m u s t
of th e
c ap acity
sa lv atio n .
s u b j e c t s on
has undergone a co m plete change,
fo r th e
th in g s
e n a b l e him i n a d u l t y e a r s
a rtistic
art
th e a t t i t u d e
sc h o o ls have th e o p p o rtu n ity
th at
to
to p r o je c t h im se lf
d ep en d en t on s u b s i d i e s
depend u n t i l
w ill
a ttitu d e
e sse n tia lly
C arnegie T ru s t,
o rch estral
c h ild
to
F o r them t h e p r o b le m o f
show t h e i r w e a k n e s s b y t h e
£ 3 0 ,0 0 0 f o r th e
and th e
is
so c ietie s,
th ese
are p a r tly
the
stu d y ,
c o n t a c t w ith m usic and to
t h in g s w hich i n t e r e s t
- m u sical
Many o f
seeks
And t h i s
dance
lik e
sa tisfa c to ry
lo v er
m an y s o c i e t i e s
a d u lt
course of
was s o l v e d .
The o n l y
ch ild
a short
in a c tu a l m usic-m aking.
leisu re
art
after
educa­
to
develop
o f th e
in the
sp irit
t o w ork o u t h i s
w hich
own
CHAPTER I I
THE PERCUSSION BAUD
A NEW ORIENTATION
Von Bulow i s r e p o r t e d t o
was R h y th m " .
B io lo g ically
m ore c o r r e c t t o s a y :
" In t h e beginning
sp e a k in g , how ever,
it
w o u l d be
" I n t h e b e g i n n i n g i s R hythm ".
w ith e v ery c h i l d born i n to t h i s
tio n of th is
have s a id :
For
w o r l d we h a v e a r e - i n c a r n a ­
m a n ife sta tio n of the s p i r i t
th ro u g h th e f le s h
w h i c h we c a l l R h y t h m .
Of t h e t w o e l e m e n t s t h a t g o t o m ak e u p m u s i c , n a m e l y ,
p i t c h and rhythm , t h e
itse lf
latter
i s t h e o n e t h a t f i r s t sho w s
in th e young, and t h a t p e r s i s t s
throughout l i f e ,
e v e n t h o u g h t h e p i t c h s e n s e may r e m a i n m o r e o r l e s s
undeveloped.
B o d ily o r outw ard r e s p o n s e t o rh y th m ic s t i m u l i
is
n a t u r a l i n norm al c h ild r e n and in p r im itiv e r a c e s , and th e
m usical p ilg r im 's p ro g re ss i s
an im al
sim ply th e
p ro g re s s from t h is
(o r ja z z band) s ta g e of crude b o d ily re sp o n se
to
t h a t h i g h e r s t a g e , w h e r e t h e s e g r o s s r e s p o n s e s be co m e
o r g a n i s e d i n a s u b t l e r k i n d o f r e s p o n s e w h e r e b y man c a n
enjoy o r r e a c t t o
m usical s tim u li w ith o u t
" w a n t i n g t o make
a b e ast of h im self".
However, t h i s
outw ard o r b o d i l y r e s p o n s e t o m usic
m ust n o t be r e p r e s s e d i n t h e young,
says,
th ere is
f o r , a s th e old ta g
"no i m p r e s s i o n w i t h o u t e x p r e s s i o n " .
Indeed,
i t would be w e l l t o r e g a r d t h i s s t a g e o f b o d i l y r e s p o n s e
as th e
stag e
oral stag e
in th o u g h t,
i n rhythm , c o rre sp o n d in g to t h e o r a l
t h e l i p movement s t a g e i n s i l e n t r e a d i n g ,
or th e f in g e r co u n tin g stag e
in a rith m e tic .
I f a c h i l d h e a r s a j o k e o r s e e s s o m e t h i n g f u n n y , he
w i l l la u g h , n o t w ith h i s f a c i a l m uscles o n ly , h u t w ith his
w hole body.
v a lv e ,
The b o d i l y r e s p o n s e
for if
is m erely n a t u r e 's
th e c h il d did n o t la u g h
safety
"he w ould b u r s t " .
B u t w h e n a n a d u l t s e e s o r h e a r s t h e sa m e f u n n y t h i n g ,
may n o t move a m u s c l e o f h i s f a c e ,
sig n s
o r b e t r a y a n y outw ard
o f h i s h a v i n g a p p r e c i a t e d t h e humour o f t h e s i t u a t i o n .
Y e t h e may h a v e s e e n t h e h u m o u r o f i t ,
th e c h ild .
In th is
su b lim ated .
as a re s u lt
of th e
" i m p r e s s i o n " , b u t we c a n s a y t h a t t h e
n o t b e en outw ard v i a t h e body.
The sa m e t h i n g i s
A m u sical c r i t i c w i ll l i s t e n to a fin e
o f "The R i d e o f t h e V a l k y r i e s "
a h a ir."
has been
We c a n n o t s a y t h e r e h a s b e e n n o " e x p r e s s i o n "
I t has been s h o r t- c ir c u ite d .
m usic.
e v e n more s o t h a n
case th e em otional re sp o n se
e x p re s s io n h a s, a t any r a t e ,
He w i l l e v e n l i s t e n
la c k in g rhythm or v i t a l i t y ,
w ithout in th e
found in
perform ance
w ithout l i t e r a l l y
"tu rn in g
to a w retch ed perform ance,
or v itia te d
by d i s t o r t e d rh y th m ,
l e a s t show ing any s i g n s o f th e v i t r i o l i c
n a t u r e o f t h e f e e l i n g s w h ic h he w i l l l a t e r t r a n s l a t e
words f o r h i s n o t i c e
But t h i s
is
he
stag e
in to
i n t h e m orning p a p e r.
of s u b l i m a t i o n o f b o d i l y r e s p o n s e s
a co m paratively l a te
one i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e r a c e a n d
m
of th e in d iv id u a l.
W ith young c h i l d r e n t h e t r a c k fro m
im p ressio n to e x p re ssio n is
no s i d e t r a c k i n g
The c h i l d
a d ir e c t one.
or sh o rt-circ u itin g
T here
is
here
of em otional re s p o n s e s .
has n o t y e t a c q u ir e d t h a t s o c i a l v e n e e r w hich
i n h i b i t s f r a n k outv/ard s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n .
t h a t t h e w h o l e man t h i n k s ,
I t has been sa id
and c e r t a i n l y i t
is
tru e to say
t h a t th e w hole c h i l d f e e l s .
Our e n d e a v o u r , t h e n , m u s t b e t o
can alise th is
n a tu ra l
e n e r g y o f t h e c h i l d , t o h a r n e s s t h e s e c r u d e r e s p o n s e s and
t o g u i d e t h e m i n t o c h a n n e l s , w h e r e t h e y may b e b r o u g h t u n d e r
proper d is c ip lin e
a n d made u s e o f f o r e d u c a t i o n a l e n d s .
So f a r a s m u s i c i s
t h e P e r c u s s i o n B a nd - t o
concerned t h i s
i s th e f u n c tio n of
c o - o r d i n a t e t h e f e e l i n g f o r rhythm ,
o r th e rhythm ic s e n s e , w ith b o d ily re s p o n se s o f th e g r o s s e r
ty p e.
The young c h i l d
or h i t h is tria n g le
speak.
on t h e
w i l l w a n t a t f i r s t t o b e a t h i s drum
in s e a s o n and o u t of s e a s o n , so to
He d o e s n o t s e e why h e s h o u l d b e a t h i s d r u m o n l y
f i r s t b e a t of th e b a r,
w hile
o th ers s tr ik e
th eir
i n s t r u m e n t s on e v e r y b e a t o f t h e b a r .
B u t i n t e a c h i n g h im
t o m ark o n ly t h e s t r o n g a c c e n t s on h i s
in stru m en t,
and to
r e m a in s i l e n t w h ile t h e w eak er i n s t r u m e n t s m ark t h e w eaker
p u l s e s , we a r e a p p e a l i n g t o
h i s s lo w ly aw akening team s p i r i t
a n d i n c i d e n t a l l y g i v i n g him h i s f i r s t
sh ip .
lesson in c itiz e n ­
/u
B esides t h i s ,
p rin cip les
runs
we a r e t e a c h i n g h i m o n e o f t h e f i r s t
o f Rhythm , n a m e ly , t h a t w h i l e a s t e a d y p u l s e
t h r o u g h a l l m u s i c , some o f t h e p u l s e s a r e s t r o n g e r
th an o th e rs.
recurrence
O therw ise,
in stead
o f having a r e g u l a r
o f g r a d e d a c c e n t s o r a t i m e p a t t e r n , we w o u l d
h av e a m onotonous s e r i e s
of h e a ts w ith o u t order or s i g n i ­
fican ce .
Pew t h e n ,
train in g
w ill d is p u te th e e d u c a tio n a l v alu e
i n p e r c u s s i o n band p l a y i n g .
of a
I t giv es an oppor­
t u n i t y f o r o r g a n i s e d m u s i c a l a c t i v i t y a t a s t a g e when p a r t sin g in g
in th e sc h o o l c h o ir or in s tru m e n ta l perform ance in
the school o rc h e stra is
q u ite out of the q u e stio n ,
o rg a n is e d m u sical a c t i v i t y , m oreover,
a e s th e tic poin t
an
w hich from th e
o f v i e w m ay c o m p a r e f a v o u r a b l y w i t h l a t e r
c h o ra l and o r c h e s tr a l a c t i v i t i e s .
The a d u l t m u s i c i a n ,
o r O r c h e s t r a o f some k i n d ,
m ade h i s
who h a s n e v e r p l a y e d i n a Band
counted h is
sm all c o n tr ib u tio n tow ards th e
s o m u ch t h e p o o r e r a m u s i c i a n f o r i t ,
th e poorer a c itiz e n .
art,
"bars o u t", and
and th e
if
general e ff e c t,
n o t i n d e e d s o much
For m usic i s p r e - e m in e n tly a s o c i a l
o r c h e s tr a or t h e
ch o ir, w ith i t s
p h ilo so p h er-
king w ie ld in g t h e b a to n w i t h b e n e v o le n t a u t h o r i t y ,
i d e a l dem ocracy,
is
i n w hich t h e s e l f - s e e k i n g
is th e
of th e in d iv id u a l
i s g l a d l y s a c r i f i c e d t o t h e good o f t h e w h o le .
Y e t , t h e p e r c u s s i o n hand, i s u s u a l l y g r o u p e d among
the
"frills"
o f th e m usic c l a s s .
c o lo u r to th e
I t may a d d a t o u c h o f
le s so n , and is u s e fu l f o r b rin g in g
o u t on a
s p e e c h d a y a lo n g w i th o u r b e s t c l o t h e s a n d our b e s t m anners!
B ut,
lik e
a ll frills ,
t h e hu m d ru m r o u t i n e
it
i s f e l t to be too expensive fo r
of th e
o r d i n a r y w orkaday l e s s o n w here
we m u s t " g e t t h i n g s d o n e " .
And i t w o u l d b e w i s e t o a d m i t
th is
fran k ly ,
if
we w o u l d s e e k o u t w a y s a n d m e a n s b y w h i c h
t h e p e r c u s s i o n b a n d c a n b e m ad e t o p a y i t s
w ay i n t h e m u s i c
c la ss.
As we h a v e s e e n ,
c h i l d r e n may o b t a i n , a t f i r s t
e x c e l l e n t rhythm ic e x p e rie n c e , w hich a t
th is
hand,
s t a g e c a n n o t be
g o t e l s e w h e r e , a n d t h e y may d e v e l o p t h e i r s e n s e o f f o r m a n d
e x p r e s s i o n t h r o u g h t a k i n g p a r t i n p e r c u s s i o n b a n d w ork.
B u t, u n d e r t h e p r e s e n t sy ste m , where e a c h p i e c e
req u ires
its
own s e p a r a t e
o rch estratio n ,
d e v e lo p c o n s i d e r a b l e pow ers o f r e a d i n g ,
d e v o te a whole te rm t o
of m usic
t h e c h i l d r e n must
o r be c o n t e n t t o
one o r tw o s h o w p i e c e s .
th e a b i l i t y to read a sin g le o rc h e stra l lin e ,
A nd, s i n c e
w i t h no
m e lo d ic i n t e r e s t a nd c o n t a i n i n g o f t e n more r e s t s t h a n n o t e s ,
is
one t h a t i s beyond t h e pow ers o f v e r y young c h i l d r e n ,
t h e l a t t e r a r e t h e r e f o r e doom ed t o d e v o t e a w h o l e t e r m t o
t h e s e f e w sh o w p i e c e s .
T h is
i s t h e w a ste o f p re c io u s tim e and e n e rg y t h a t
m u s t be c o n d e m n e d .
The p e r c u s s i o n b a n d s h o u l d n o t b e u s e d
w
p r i m a r i l y a s an i n s t r u m e n t f o r d e v e lo p in g r e a d i n g a b i l i t y
i n young c h i l d r e n .
It
a t a s t a g e when t h e r e
is
is
an e r r o r t o s t r e s s
a n a t u r a l c r a v in g and a g enuine
need f o r rhythm e x p e r ie n c e .
be a t t a i n e d
rhythm re a d in g
M a s t e r y o f r h y t h m s y m b o l s may
l a t e r o n much m o r e q u i c k l y a n d e f f e c t i v e l y
t h r o u g h t h e rh y th m names and t h e v o i c e .
( c f . Dr G e o f f r e y Shaw i n h i s a d d r e s s t o t h e
f i r s t G e n e r a l M e e t i n g o f The P e r c u s s i o n Band
A sso c ia tio n :
"Prom v e r y e a r l y s t a g e s - a s s o o n
a s p o s s ib le - c h il d r e n sh o u ld re a d from p ro p e r
o rch estral p a rts.
S ig h t- r e a d in g sh o u ld form an
i m p o r t a n t p a r t of p e r c u s s i o n band w ork."
"M usic i n S c h o o l s " ( N o v e l l o )
A p r i l , 1939)
The e r r o r h e r e i s d u e t o a n " i d e e f i x e " , w h i c h i s
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g r e a t w astag e i n t h e m usic c l a s s ,
th e id e a t h a t th e d i f f e r e n t branches
nam ely,
of m usic t r a i n i n g
s h o u ld a lw a y s be c o r r e l a t e d a t e a c h s t a g e .
T h u s , some e d u c a t i o n i s t s w o u l d t r y t o
te a c h in g w ith s i g h t rea d in g a t each s ta g e ,
c o r r e l a t e song
w ith th e r e s u l t
t h a t t h e s o n g s t a u g h t m u st r e m a in f a r below t h e
song s i n g i n g t h a t
l e v e l of
c h ild re n a re cap ab le of a t t a i n i n g .
O t h e r s would c o r r e l a t e m e lo d y - m a k in g , t h e m u s i c a l
e q u i v a l e n t of s e n te n c e -m a k in g o r s p e e c h u t t e r a n c e ,
w ith
n o t a t i o n a l know ledge and m usic w r i t i n g , t o t h e d e t r i m e n t of
m e l o d y - m a k i n g , w h i c h l i k e s o n g s i n g i n g s h o u l d be d o n e
s p o n t a n e o u s l y on t h e
oral
plane.
fcf ;
A gain, t h e a tte m p t t o c o r r e l a t e
r e a d in g w ith t h e to n ic
its
sp ecial
order
s o l - f a m ethod
of procedure
n o tatio n
of a u r a l t r a i n i n g (w ith
in th e in tro d u c tio n of the
scale
degrees
lead s
to t h e a b s u r d i ty o f a sk in g c h il d r e n t o r e a d from th e
stav e f i f t h s
- d s,
staff
d s d', d m s ,
and t h i r d s ,
step w ise p ro g re ssio n s.
s t
before th e y are
and to t r y
to
In th e
above c a s e s ,
concerned
in to s o l - f a
issu es
in v o lv ed in
and s i g h t t r a i n i n g .
case of th e p e rc u ssio n band,
th e e rro r is
q u ite d iffe re n t stag es
is th e p ra c tic a l
as i n a l l the
due t o a n a t t e m p t to c o r r e l a t e
two s u b j e c t s i n v o l v i n g s e p a r a t e a b i l i t i e s
it
-)
c o r r e l a t e t h e two m eth o d s
of approach i s to confuse th e s e p a ra te
aural tra in in g
e tc.
allow ed t o re a d
S ta ff n o ta tio n read in g is
w i t h v i s u a l p ro b le m s w hich do n o t e n t e r
no tatio n a t a ll ,
r 1, f i d ' ,
t h a t m ature a t
of g ro w th i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l .
or perform ing a b i l i t y ,
i.e .
H ere,
th e a b ility
t o k e ep tim e and to b e a t p e r c u s s io n band in s tr u m e n ts i n
tim e,
on t h e o n e h a n d , a n d ,
or read in g a b i l i t y
sym bols
on t h e o t h e r , t h e t h e o r e t i c a l
or th e a b i l i t y to
i n te rm s of rhythm f a c t s .
adherence t o th e p r in c ip le
i n t e r p r e t rhythm
T h is e r r o r o f b lin d
of c o r r e l a t io n i s due to ig n o r­
a n c e o r n e g l e c t of a n o t h e r an d more i m p o r t a n t p r i n c i p l e ,
th a t of m atu ratio n .
p rin cip le
B rie fly , t o a c t in accordance w ith th e
of m a tu ra tio n i s t o in tro d u c e the v a rio u s branches
of le a rn in g a t th e
p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o m e n t w hen p u p i l s
are
A-ZO
rip e fo r th ese
- in
o t h e r w ords, t o g a t h e r a l l f r u i t s
t h e i r d u e s e a s o n a n d n o t t o go l o o k i n g f o r
Of t h e tw o p r i n c i p l e s ,
p sy c h o lo g ic al claim
It
is
in
" n u t s i n May" .
t h a t of m a tu r a tio n has th e
prio r
on t h e t e a c h e r .
e v id e n t t h a t th e a b i l i t y to
p e r f o r m on p e r c u s ­
s i o n b a n d i n s t r u m e n t s m a t u r e s e a r l i e r a n d d e v e l o p s much
more r a p i d l y t h a n t h e a b i l i t y t o r e a d p e r c u s s i o n band p a r t s .
In f a c t ,
it
may b e s a i d t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o r e a d t h e s e
p a r t s depends on t h e p r a c t i c a l
ex p erien ce of th e f a c t s
rhythm g a in e d i n p la y in g p a r t s
in a band,
of
j u s t as th e
a b i l i t y t o r e a d p i t c h s y m b o l s d e p e n d s on t h e p r a c t i c a l
ex p erien ce
of t o n a l i t y g ain ed th ro u g h o ra l s in g in g .
A gain, t h e r e
is
n o r e a l b i o l o g i c a l u r g e i n c h i l d r e n to.
l e a r n t o r e a d and i n t e r p r e t l e t t e r s
They can e x p r e s s t h e m s e lv e s f u l l y
w ith p e rc u ss io n in stru m e n ts,
or m u sical sym bols.
in sp e ec h and song,
or
w ith o u t hav in g r e c o u r s e to
symbol i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .
At t h e m ost,
urge to
but th is
we may s a y t h a t t h e r e
m aster th e i n t r i c a t e n o ta tio n s
c u ltu r a l urge,
is n o t stro n g
in
w ith i t s
is
only a c u ltu r a l
o f la n g u a g e and m u sic ;
e m p h a s i s on f a r - o f f e n d s ,
ch ildhood, and r e q u i r e s
to be f o s t e r e d in
t h e young by p a r e n t and t e a c h e r .
M a t u r a t i o n d e p e n d s on t h e
m aturing
of th e nervous
sy ste m w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s e s and a b i l i t i e s .
I t d e v e lo p s from w i t h i n , and i n s t r u c t i o n and t r a i n i n g
c a n n o t m ak e u p f o r i t s
absence i n t h e nervous system .
Jtll
When we d i s p l a y
try in g to
im p atien ce b e fo re a c l a s s
of young c h i l d r e n
r e a d f r o m s t a f f n o t a t i o n a t an a g e when t h e y a r e
n o t p s y c h o lo g ic a lly m ature o r ready f o r s t a f f re a d in g ,
s h o u ld r e f l e c t t h a t o u r tim e and t h e i r t im e ,
v/e
t o o , w o u l d be
b e t t e r em ployed i n m u s ic a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r w h ich t h e y a r e
m ature.
T here i s
an age f o r t h e
c o a r s e r a d ju s tm e n ts of
t h e n e rv o u s sy s te m and an ag e f o r th e f i n e r a d ju s tm e n ts of
th e nervous system .
th e f a c t s
th ese are,
And t h e a u r a l a n d o r a l o b s e r v a n c e
of la n g u a g e or o f rh y th m and t o n a l i t y ,
fin e
of
as
m u s t b e c l a s s e d among t h e c o a r s e r a d j u s m e n t s ,
when c o m p a re d w i t h t h e
in te rp re ta tio n of th ese fa c ts
by
means o f a b s t r a c t s y m b o ls .
What y o u n g c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e m o s t i s
i n m usic,
n o t m ental
m usical sy m b o ls.
train in g
in th e
in te rp re ta tio n of
We h a v e a n o r a l s t a g e
v o c a l m u sic or so n g s i n g i n g ,
ponding o r a l s ta g e
sense tra in in g
i n language and in
a n d we s h o u l d h a v e a c o r r e s ­
in p e rc u s s io n band p la y in g ,
where th e
c h i l d r e n c a n im p e rs o n a te o r a c t o u t t h e rh y th m ic elem en ts
i n m usic w ith o u t h a v in g to
paper a t each s t e p .
i n t e r p r e t rh y th m sym bols fro m
B u t how i s
U n l e s s we t e a c h b y r o t e ,
t h i s t o be done?
as in fa c t
i s u s u a l l y done
i n t h e end even a lth o u g h th e c h ild r e n have th e p a r t s
in
f r o n t o f them, a c e r t a i n amount o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y i n
rh y th m sym bols i s n e c e s s a r y ,
if
the c h ild r e n a r e to
have
t h a t v a r i e d and e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f rh y th m i n m u sic o f
A-1%
v a r i o u s
w i l l
t y p e s ,
o n
w h ic h
f u r t h e r
p r o g r e s s
i n
r e a d i n g
d e p e n d .
So
th e
p ro b le m
o f
r e a d i n g
a b i l i t y
a s
m u ch
p o s s i b l e
a s
r h y th m ic
t i o n
o n
a w a y
o v e r
a n d
t o
g e t
t u n e .
We
o r
r e a d i n g
t h e
8
m u s t
t h e
r h y th m ic
tu m
w i t h
u p
s p e c i f i c
t u n e s ,
m ade
t o
th e
s a y ,
i n s t e a d
l i t e r a t u r e
t h e s e
f o r
s t a r t
fro m
a n
o r
n ew
o f
o f
t o
u s
t o
i s
a s k
w o u ld
o f
t h e
m u s ic
a n d
p e r c u s s i o n
s ta n d a r d
a n d
n o t
t h e
m a t e r i a l
to
n e x t
8
t h e
o f
t y p e s .
w eek s
p u t
t h e
b a r
o r
o r
p a r t s
16
b a r
o r c h e s t r a t i o n
i n s t r u m e n t a l
t h e
t h e
i n t e r p r e t a ­
v a r i o u s
o n ly
a l l
a s
b e t t e r
p r a c t i c e
i m p o r t a n t
l i t e r a t u r e
o f
t i o n s ?
" m a d e -to -m e a s u re "
f i t
w h e th e r ,
t h e
o r
d e s i d e r a ­
t o
s t a r t
p i e c e s
s u i t a b l e
i s
d o n e
o r
s u i t a b l e
t h e s e
a t
i n s t e a d
m e a s u re
o f
fro m
o r c h e s t r a t i o n s ?
a r r a n g e m e n ts
s e l e c t
t o
s ta n d a r d
m a k in g
b a n d ,
t o
m inim um
r e a d i n g
s p e n d in g
f r o m
m ade
b e
fro m
b a n d ,
m u s ic
o f
q u e s t i o n
s p e c i f i c
s t a r t i n g
t h i s
s t a g e .
o r c h e s t r a t i o n s
i t
t h e
t h e
w h ic h
t h i s
m u s ic
t u n e ,
f o r
t h e
th r o u g h
t h i s
e m p h a s is
p e r c u s s i o n
I f
o f
o f
c o r r e s p o n d in g l y
g o t
b a r
p a r t s
th e
m o s t
r e d u c e
b e
e n d
1 6
a t
m e a s u re
o f
t o
th e
r e d u c in g
m ay
e x p e r i e n c e ,
f r o m
i s ,
n o t a t i o n
l e a d s
s t a r t i n g
b e
s h i f t
o f
m ake
i n s t r u m e n t s
b a r
c h i l d r e n
T h is
t h a t
t h a t
s h o u ld
a n
to
w i th o u t
p e r c u s s i o n
m o n th s
i s ,
-
e x p e r ie n c e
T h e re
o f
t h e i r
T h a t
fro m
p r e s e n t ,
a r r a n g e m e n ts
o r c h e s t r a t i o n s
o r
a r e
to
o f
w hy
o r c h e s t r a t i o n s
f r o m
i s
th e
a r r a n g e m e n ts
p i e c e s
t u n e s
n o t
f o r
th e
o r c h e s t r a ­
fo u n d
t o
b e
M- 33
to o
e x p e n s iv e
f o r
y o u n g
c h i l d r e n ,
w hy
n o t
t r y
"r e a d y - m a d e "
i n
t h e
p e r c u s s i o n
o r c h e s t r a t i o n s ?
T h is
c l a s s ,
o f
i d e a
s i n c e ,
v ie w ,
d a n c e s ,
8
o r
b a r
1 6
q u a d r u p l e
f o r m u la
o r
q u ic k
a l l
o r
e a c h
c r a d l e
tu n e
T h a t
a c q u i r i n g
b a r
i n
b a n d
s t r u c t u r a l
g ro u p e d
p o i n t
fo lk s o n g s ? ,
u n d e r
d u p l e ,
f o r
p e r c u s s i o n
d o z e n s
b e
u s e d
a
f o r
4 / 4
f o r m u la
i n
s lo w
b a r
i n
t h i s
o f
1 6
a
fe w
t r i p l e
o r
a n d
1 2 /8
p i e c e ,
t o
t h e
i n
i s ,
g r e a t e r
c h i l d r e n
th e y
u s e
c a n
w ith
sam e
w h ic h
t h e
t h i s
w i l l
c o n n o ta t io n
t h i s
u s e d
b e
d e e p e n e d
u s e d
t h e
f o r
n o t a t i o n
t h i s
f o r
e a c h
a n d
A nd,
p i e c e ,
e n r i c h e d
s a t u r a t e d ,
n ew
n o t a t i o n -
p i e c e s .
p a t t e r n s
e a c h
b e
fo rm u la ,:
m e a s u re .
p u t
o t h e r
i s
b a r
f o r
s a r a b a n d e s ,
i s
f r o m
tw o
u s e d
8
m ay
m a s te r e d
o f
s t a f f
b e
a n
tim e
i n
n o t a t i o n
r h y th m ic
a n d
im m e d ia te ly
d o z e n s
o r
2 /4
f o l k s o n g s ,
m ay
m in u e ts ,
h a v e
n o t a t i o n
k n o w le d g e
tim e
a s
f o l k s o n g s
i n
tim e .
3 /4
s o n g s
t h e
o f
i n
s u c h
rh y m e s
f o r m u la ,
k in d s
6 /8
o r c h e s t r a t i o n
n u r s e r y
m e a s u r e ,
f o r m u la e ,
a n d
b a n d
b a r
a l l
m o v e m e n ts
n o t a t i o n a l
s p e a k .
o r
l u l l a b i e s ,
b e
f o r m u la e
i n
o n c e
s h o r t
n ew
c a n
d a n c e s
8
tim e
a lt h o u g h
t h e i r
rh y m e s ,
S i m i l a r l y ,
m ay
o f
a c q u i s i t i o n
e v e n
8
f o l k s o n g
T h u s ,
o ne
r h y th m ic
e t c . ,
u s e d
t i m e .
b a r
s e r i e s
w a l t z e s ,
a l
b e
s u i t e
8
t r i p l e
f o r
s im p le
m ay
o r
l u l l a b i e s
a
n u r s e r y
r h y th m ic
a
6 /8
An
o r
b r o a d
m a rc h e s ,
f o r m u la e ,
m a r c h e s
t h e
f e a s i b l e
tim e .
o r
b a r
q u i t e
a l l
b a r
T h u s ,
8
f r o m
n e a r l y
s u i t e
i s
w i l l
t u n e .
s o
b e
t o
b y
C o n s id e r a b le
f o r m u la e
m ay
b e
h a s
g o t
s h o w n
o n
t o
t h a t
g u e s s
t h e
p r i n t i n g
s c o r e s .
t h e
C l a s s i c a l
p e r c u s s i o n
i n g e n u i t y
f i t
i n
on
b e s t
We
b a n d
r h y m e s ,
w i t h
t h e
a n d
t h e
p ia n o
e t c .
a t
b e e n
a l s o
g i v e
a
t h e
m a z u r k a s ,
m e th o d
i t
i s
c a l l
r e g a r d
r o n d o s ,
to
e t c . ,
b e f o r e h a n d
t h e
n u m b e rs
w h ic h
a r e
t o
th e y
b e
e x p e n s e
b a n d
o r
t h e s e
m uch
w h ic h
f o r
tu n e s
t h e
p e r c u s s io n
c o m p le te
t h e
m any
m ay
th e
c a n
O n e ",
s u c h
w i t h
b e
n u r s e r y
u s e d
n u m b e rs
b e
e x p la i n e d
o f
u s e d .
a n d
th e
t e a c h e r
"T w o ",
s c o r e
t o
"O ne
s i t
a n d
a t
tw o " ,
p la y e d .
m o v e m e n ts,
t e a c h e r
t h e
o f
t h a t
u n d e r
p i e c e
e x te n d e d
p la y e d .
tim e .
r e q u i r e
f r o m
th e y
b e e n
e a c h
t h e
w i t h
s e e
o u t
p i e c e s
w h ic h
"N um ber
o f
to
t r i e d
s u f f i c i e n t
o f
e a c h
C o l l e c t i o n
n o t
s e l e c t i o n
h a s
o u t:
d i f f i c u l t
p e r c u s s i o n
s e r i e s
c l a s s e d
w ith
b e g in n in g
W ith
a r e
d o e s
a
c l a s s i c a l
tu n e s
b e
f o r m u la e .
h a v e
th e
a n d
i t
w h ic h
a n d
u s e d
t h a t
m e lo d ic
tre m e n d o u s
t h e
t e a c h e r
v a r i o u s
f o r m u la e
m a s te r e d ,
th e
t h e
b a n d
e f f e c t
w o u ld
c o n n e c t i o n
s c o r e ,
T h e
A f t e r
a n d
i t
F o lk s o n g
i n
o f
d i f f e r e n t
w e re
w i t h
i n
f o l k s o n g s
r h y th m ic
p a r t s
t h e
o f
p a r t s
a n d
p e r c u s s i o n
v a r i e t y
s a v e s
u s e d
o f
b e lo w ,
w e
t h e s e .
b e
p a r t
w i t h
g iv e
R hym e
s u c h
m a t r i x ,
a lo n g
f o r m u la e ,
t h e
f o r m u la e ,
s u c c e s s ,
s y s te m
N u r s e r y
b a n d
s c o r e
p a r t s
m ay
t h e
r h y th m ic
t h i s
A lb um
f r o m
w i t h
i m p o s i t i o n
sam e
p ia n o
A ny
t h e
sam e
B e s id e s ,
o f
t h a t ,
t h r o u g h
m a t e r i a l
e x p e r ie n c e
w o u ld
f o r m u la e
a n d
l i k e
w a l t z e s ,
s im p ly
t h e
a n n o u n c e
o r d e r
i n
H-6 0
F o r
m ay
b e
e x a m p le ,
p la y e d
t o
(6
S o
t h e
a n d
t h e n
p u p i l s
t h e
p l a y
w o u ld
v a r i o u s
To
a l i a
o f
C o d a
8 8
b a r s
i n
t h e
w i l l
A l l
t h a t
t w i c e ,
n e e d
t a k i n g
f r o m
t h e
a p p e a r
w i l l
o n
t h e
t h e
(F o r
o f
w r i t t e n
o u t
a s
P ia n o
a l l
6
by
C h o p in ,
w i t h
i n
8
tw ic e ,
th e
f o r m u la e
i n
w e ll
A ,
know n
c o n t a i n s
f o r
b u t
f r o m
"R ondo
1 7 6
o m i t t i n g
s t r u c t u r e .
a d m ir a b ly
u p
t h e n
p u r p o s e s
t h e
M o z a r t 's
r e p e t i t i o n s
m ade
7 ,
a b o v e .)
S o n a ta
b e
a n d
c o n c e r t
p a p e r
e x a m p le ,
t i m e ,
( 3 + 4 )
s a i d
b a r s
th e
T h is
a c c o m m o d a te d
f o r m u la e
3
t o
+
(3 + 4 )
t h e
+
c l a s s
i s :
a n d
+
b y
a n d
4
( 3 + 4 )
" P la y
4 ,
3
3 ,
p la y i n g
c u e s
e x p r e s s i o n
f r o m
n o te d
e x p r e s s i o n
f o r
3
( 3 + 4 )
c o n ti n u e
h a v e
s c o r e
w ith
s t a g e s ,
e m p i r i c a l l y ,
t h e i r
N o .3 ,
m a n n e r :-
b e
I t
e a r l y
s l i p s
f o u n d
+
th e
3 3 ,
a n d
th e
th e n
4 ,
4
t i l l
c o n d u c to r
th e
o r
p i a n o " .
p r a c t i c a b l e
t h e
a g a i n " .
to
t h e n
e n d ,
" P la y
b e
tw i c e
a n d
a n n o u n c e :
i r r e g u l a r
com m on
O p.
( 6 + 7 )
so m e w h a t
f o llo w in g
3 + 4
C ,
+
7
t w i c e
i n c l u d i n g
i s
i n
8
a n o t h e r
fro m
t im e ,
m o v e m e n t
a n d
p i e c e s
t a k e
w h ic h
+
w o u ld
6
i n
f o l l o w i n g :
r e c e i v e
T u r c a " ,
2 / 4
t h e
+ 7 )
t e a c h e r
M a z u rk a
a n d
e x p r e s s i o n
b e e n
p a r t s .
T h e s e ,
re a d y -m a d e
e x p r e s s i o n
t h a t
on
th e
t h a t
t h a t
s c o r e s .
s h o u ld
c h i l d r e n
o f
o f
t h e
c o u r s e ,
B u t
b e
a r e
o r
n o t
t h a t ,
a u r a l l y
l e a r n
i t s e l f ,
do
n o t
s u b m it
t a u g h t
s h o u ld
m u s ic
we
m a rk s
t o
to
a n d
b a s e
ta k e
i n
t h e i r
c u e s
t h i n g s
t h e
a s
fro m
b e
s i g h s
T h e
w ho
p r e p a r e d
-
c o n d u c to r .
e x p r e s s i o n
c h i l d r e n ,
w i l l
t h e
p p ,
p ,
w i l l
f o r
f ,
m a t u r a t i o n
m a rk s
f o r
h a v e
r e a l i s e d
o f
j u s t
a s
h e
r a i s o n
th e m
d im .,
fro m
m ark6
i t
b e lo n g s
to
m o v e m e n ts
o f
i r r e g u l a r
an d
c o n v e n tio n a l
r i t . O
com es
t h e
t o
d 'e t r e
b e lo n g s
a s
s u c h
hom e
t h e
a c c e l . ,
e x p r e s s i o n
f o r
b r o u g h t
t h e i r
e x p r e s s i o n
t h a t
s u r e l y
n e c e s s i t y
t h e n
a p p r e c i a t e
c r e s c . ,
c h i l d r e n
m u s ic
w i l l
i n t e r p r e t i n g
f f ,
s t a g e
T he
e
t c
.
a f t e r
to
t h e
f a c e
f a c e
o f
h u m a n ity .
W ith
b e
6
som e
n e c e s s a r y
b a r s
b e e n
a n d
o f
a
a t
b e
o f
f o r
7
T he
w h a t
+
b e
s h o r t
re a d y -m a d e
a n d
t o
sh o w
o f
e t c . ,
o f f
t h e
o f
b e
m oney
t h e
t h i s
7 )
c a n
to
b e
4
b a r s
m ay
o r
fo rm u la e h a v e
e a s i l y
e x p la in e d
I t
W a ltz
t h e
i s
o u t
m ay
a n d
b e
a l l
f r o m
O p .3 9 ,
t h e
s u g g e s t i o n
t h e s e
t h e y
f o r m
a
f o l k s o n g s ,
c la im e d
e x p e n s iv e
tim e )
A *,
f o l l o w i n g :-
m e r e ly
r e a d y - m a d e s ,
m any
i n
t w i c e .
p i e c e s
l i n e s
a n d
o n c e
f i t t e d
a r e
th a n
B u t,
p r a c t i c a l l y
b e
m e lo d ic
o n ly
f a m i l i a r
+
o f
f o r
t h e y
p l a y
p la y e d
8
l i s t
m ay
a d v a n ta g e
v ie w
t h e
o f
t o
i t
u p o n .
f o r m u la e .
a lt h o u g h
g r e a t e r
p o i n t
b a r s
p la y e d ,
d a n c e s ,
t h a t
a c t e d
w o u ld
f o l lo w i n g
m ay
c h i l d r e n ,
e x a m p le ,
(6
s u i t e
t o o ,
t h e
B ra h m s,
6 +
o f
b y
p o i n t
f o r m u la .
p r o m p tly
T h u s ,
N o .1 5 ,
c e r t a i n
c e r t a i n
m a s te r e d
w i l l
a
s t r u c t u r e ,
o f
( b o th
e i g h t
f o r
t h e s e ,
f i t
b e t t e r
th e
f r o m
m a d e - to - m e a s u r e s .
m u s ic
th e
*37
I t
a r e
b y
f o r
w i l l
s i x
som e
t o
to - m e a s u r e
H o w e v e r,
b a r s
w ho
r e a d
i n
t h e
b e
t h i s
t o
a r g u m e n t
e x p e r ie n c e
e x t e n s i v e ,
t h e i r
p a r t s
A nd,
b a n d
o f
p r o c u r i n g
w i t h
a
we
A n d ,
o f
n o t
t h e
r e a d i n g
i n
w h e re
i n
b e
a
c a s e
sa m e
n u m b e r
f o r
i n
o f
m any
y o u n g
m ad e-
j u s t .
8
b a r s
o f
w h ile
a c c o m p a n ie d
e x p e r ie n c e
to o
t e a c h i n g
q u i t e
th e
h o ld ;
m u s ic
o f
t h e
w o u ld
s e r v i c e
d o e s
c o n s i d e r e d
e x p e r ie n c e
s y s te m ,
d o
h e
h e r e
o r
d i f f e r e n t
t h e
i s
f o l l o w i n g
t h e
sam e
v a r i e t y
s h o u ld
i s
u s e
t h e
v e ry
e v e r y
s p i c e
m e a n s
o f
w i t h i n
p e r c u s s io n
o u r
p o w er
i t .
a p p e n d
s e l e c t i o n
c o m p le te
T hese P
p r o v i d
k in d
o
p r e p a r
m a d e - t
w e
now
s h a l l
h a d
m ay
a r r a n g e m e n ts
i n t e n s i v e .
s i n c e
p l a y i n g ,
We
a n d
i s
T h is
t h e
c r i t i c i s m
p r e s e n t
m ade
a l l
p a r t s .
t h e
c h i l d r e n 's
s c o r e
t h a t
h a v e
t h e i r
s c o r e s ,
c a n
p i e c e s ,
n o te d
i n s t r u m e n t s .
t e a c h e r s
c h i l d r e n
1 6
b e
o f
th e
s u i t a b l e
c o n c lu d e
w ith
e r c u s s i o
i n g
f o r
f o r a l s
i n g
th e m
o - m e a s u r
P e r c u s s i o n
w ith
m u s ic
som e
B and
f o r
u s e
e x a m p le s
t y p e s
w i t h
o f
m e lo d ie s
o f
n B an
b e g in
t a g e
f o r
e
o r c
o re F o rm u la e m ay b e r
w ith
l i t t l e
r e a d i n g
e r c u s s i o n
B and p la y i n
l a t e r
n o t a t i o n a l s t a g
r a t i o n s
m ay b e p r o f i t
d S c
n e r s
i n
P
th e
h e s t
v a r i o u s
S c o r e s
a lo n g
t h e s e ,
s c o r e s
w r i t t e n
u n d e r n e a th .
e g a r d e d
a s
a b i l i t y
a
g ,
th u s
e
w h en
a b l y
u s e d .
A 3?
fo w l
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A M
CHAPTER I I I
M U S I C - T E A C H I N G I N RELATION TO
THE R ECA PIT ULA TI ON THEORY *
A ll
e d u ca tio n ists
R e c a p itu la tio n
th e
C u ltu re
''p a r a lle l
of
th e
la te
S tag es
th e
ra c e ,"
in
T heory,
h is
dev elop m ent
and h o ld s
th e
and
fo rm u lated
it
is
T his
of
was
som etim es c a l l e d ,
w hich
in d iv id u al
each
th e
w ith, t h e
th e o ry ,
th e
th a t
race,
fa m ilia r
as
own e x p e r i e n c e
of
th u s
or,
T heory.
ex p erien ces
is
are
c h ild
seeks
w ith
to
th at
sh o u ld re c a p itu ­
su ccessiv e
cu ltu ral
foreshadow ed by H erb art,
by h i s
d iscip le,
Z iller:
"E very p u p il sh o u ld p a s s s u c c e s s iv e ly th ro u g h
each of th e c h ie f epochs of th e g en eral
m e n ta l d e v e lo p m e n t o f m an k in d s u i t a b l e to
h i s s ta g e o f d ev elo p m en t.
The m a t e r i a l o f
i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , s h o u ld be draw n from
th e th o u g h t m a te r ia l o f th a t s ta g e of
h i s t o r i c a l d ev elo p m en t i n c u l t u r e w hich
ru n s p a r a l l e l w ith th e p re s e n t m en tal stag e
of th e p u p il" .t
T his R e c a p itu la tio n
much c r i t i c i s m ,
o rie s,
it
and,
m ust n o t
break.
H ow ever,
m atters
it
co n sid er
of
has
th e
be
as a
its
T heory h a s
in d eed ,
lik e
stre tch e d
g u id in g
v alu e,
in
su b jec t-m atte r
been
an alo g ies
to o
far,
p rin c ip le
th a t
from
su b jected
it
or
to
and a lle g ­
it
w ill
in p ed ag o g ical
encourages us
th e h is to r ic a l
to
p o in t
v i e w . ________________________ _ _ ________________________________
* F r om a n a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n " M u s i c i n S c h o o l s "
( N o v e l l o ) May, 1 9 3 9 .
t Q u o t e d b y G r a v e s i n "A S t u d e n t ' s H i s t o r y o f
E d u c a tio n ."
New Y o r k :
The M a c m i l la n Company, 192o.
The l a t e
th a t
th e
or has
verb
tw o
a ll
"to
say
stu d y
a book on
(in
th a t
to
th e
to
w rite
add
to
on
th is
c lassica l
th e
m u sic,
order
and
to
stag e s
of
m u sic,
one m ust
w hich
th e
h isto ry
w ill
to
to
ages
to
g u id e
th e
teach er
th e
v ario u s
is
lik e ly
T his
th e
asp e c ts
to
it
th e o rist
lo o k s.
lo o k in g
to
be
up
in
and
in
in
fo llo w .
react
of
th e
a rt,
He w o u l d
h is
re la tio n
at
v ario u s
an a rt
J o h n 's
of
w h ich th e
order
in
schem e
lik e
an cesto rs
th e
approach
of p rio rity
an
a p o sitio n
appeared
d raw in g up a
th e
of
and n o te
h isto ric a l
order
of
in
phases
o f m usic
To
boys m u sic,"
"p h ilo so p h y "
a rt,
but
an d a book on boys,
re actio n s
th is
asp ects
in d icate
as
"teach
lik e
v ario u s
th e
a rt.
in
sim p le
teach
a b o u t m u sic,
"C h in ese p h ilo s o p h y ."
th e
stu d y
v ario u s
w ill
"to
u n d e rsta n d John
th e
it
exam ple,
R ec a p itu la tio n
to
p u p ils
accu sativ e
a ll
and e x p ec tin g
of
as
ch ild
th e
on
rem in d h i s
a d o u b le
o f m usic
exam ple)
on
to
know how J o h n w i l l
g ro w th
th ro u g h o u t
so
be a b le
a rtic le
"C h in a,"
in
not
for
o n ly
th e
th eo ry
to
an a r t i c l e
th a t,
But
is
th e
expect
en cy clo p aed ia
a rtic le
req u ires
and th a t,
John.
w ould
is
teach "
we m u s t know n o t
about
and th en
J o h n Adams u s e d
o b je cts,
John m u sic"
a lso
S ir
in
th e
to m u sic
o f w ork,
in te re sts
norm al
In
le t
us
and
see
The
T hree
th e
lig h t
co n sid er
how
a
th ey
few
th e
m u sic
S tag es
in to
its
th re e
of
h isto ry
th e
of
teach er
M u sical
H isto ry
o f m u sic,
w h ich
o f human h e in g s
v ario u s
th e m u sical
im p lic a tio n s
th e
in
re a ctio n s
in
th e
affect
The h i s t o r y
of
of
asp ects,
of
in
sim p ly
th eo ry ,
sch o o ls.
th e h is to ry
throughout
has
th is
o f m usic
is
art,
th e
ages
to
so m etim es b e e n d iv id e d
stag es:
(S e e "The S co p e o f M u s ic " , p . 30,
b y P e r c y C. B u c k , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y
P re s s, 1924)
T h is w ould
h is
in
far-o ff
th e
ad u lt
rh y th m ic
aspect
o f m u sic.
s till,
lik e
m u sic,
but
th en ,
an cesto rs,
aspect
Hence,
sh o u ld ra th e r
to
h is
beat
clap ,
m arch,
h is
or
us
share
ch o ir.
th a t
in
th e
be
ra th e r
d u rin g
th an
or
ta k e
For,
e x p re ssio n ."
aim o f
every
to
perform ance
to
in
th e
g iv e
o ld
ta g
ch ild
or
in
of
to
games
says,
"No
Lyre
S tage
sh o u ld be
e ith e r
sit
o utw ard
rh y th m ic
The t h i r d
o rg a n iz e d m u sic-m ak in g ,
th e m elo d ic
by a l l o w i n g him
part
as
in
lik e
p rim arily
e x p e c t him
th e
im p u lses
young c h ild ,
in te re sted
e n c o u r a g e him
o r p e r c u s s i o n - b a n d w ork.
rem in d s
w ill
th e
we s h o u l d n o t
rh y th m ic
im p re ssio n w ith o u t
th at
o f m usic
t h e m od ern man,
ex p ressio n
tim e,
im ply,
to
tak e
o rch estra
M usic
as
an
O ral
A lo n g
was h a n d e d
preceded
Ju n io r
seem
• chance
and
present
by
th e
w ith
e x p ressio n
or
get
g o in g
w ill
see
-
to
is
th is
oral
lan g u ag e
m ust
ra ise
th e
To c o n c e n t r a t e
is
to
b u ild
cam e w i t h
about
th e
la te r
th a t
in
th e
care
som etim es
and
m atter
of
as
to
ch ild
-
th e
v o cab u lary ,
lan g u ag e.
th e
n eg lect
T his
teach er
th e w r i t t e n
th e
of
never
th e
g ets
on w h ic h
to
is
some c l a s s e s
as w ell
of
much r o t e -
Infant
a good w orking
la tte r
great
th e
first
th e
step
forw ard
in v en tio n
It
of
in
sy stem
to n al
of
lan g u ag e.
of
th e
th a t
th e
o f M iss
G lo v er
of
so l-fa
form er
th e
cen tu ries
represent
sy stem
c ry stallize d
n o tatio n
w ere
Rev.
of
sy llab les
t h a t we
c o u l d b e made th a n
sy lla b les
N orw ich o r
n o tin g
several
to
staff
No g r e a t e r m i s t a k e
th e
so l-fa
till
attem p ts
th e
in
th e
was n o t
crude
sounds
c o m p licated
im ag in e
th a t
th e
he o n ly
fo u n d atio n
on th e
th e
to d a y f
in
th a t,
if
su p erstru ctu re
1100.
know
h im self
g en eratio n ,
T his
The f i r s t
h o ld of
year
p ic to ria lly
*"W ith th e
(of s t a f f
it
to
m usic
on sand.
m u sic
th e
re su lt
a ll.
th e
S o l-fain g
The f i r s t
in to
en th u siast
th e
w hich a l l
Hence,
n o te-sin g in g .
to m u sic
is
stag e.
so n g -sin g in g ,
to
ap p lies
d u rin g
g en eratio n
sym bol
at
get
in m u sic,
from
staff
classes,
to
and he
stag e
sh o u ld p reced e
fo rg o tten
vocal
oral
down o r a l l y
th e
sin g in g
Language
th e
John
to
in v en tio n
C u r w e n o f ________
'A rs N o v a 'p e r io d o f t h e 1 4 th c e n t u r y th e sy ste m
n o t a t i o n ) grew i n t o s o m e th in g c o lo u r a b ly l i k e
of to -d ay "
O x fo rd C om panion t o
M usic,
pp 513-19.
m
P laisto w .
Hence,
lo n g
stag e
of
so l-fa in g
o b stru c ted
by
th a t
c all
a
stav e.
w ith
th e
an o b s tru c tio n
m u sic,
b elo n g in g
is
to
g iv e
not
v io la te
le ad
th e
th e
The la w s
th e o rists
in te re sts,
observed
re a lly
sam e
to
law s
no
tim e,
of
in a ll
vocal
step w ise
th e
la tte r
era.
we s h o u l d n o t
we n e e d n o t
An o c c a s i o n a l
tra d itio n ,
p ro v id ed
co n fin e
as
leap
and w ill
th a t
it
does
of m elo d ic p ro g re s s io n .
P ro g ressio n
p r o g r e s s i o n w ere
and p ra c titio n e rs
by th e
reg ard ed as
step w ise p ro g re s sio n s,
th e v o cal
fam iliar
and in stru m e n tal
to m o notony.
of m elo d ic
d o u b t,
be
in d eed
sig h t-sin g in g
th e
w h i c h we
P ro g ressio n s
and
h arm o n ic
c h i l d much t r o u b l e ,
The Laws o f M e lo d ic
by
At
in k eep in g w ith
not
m u sic,
teach in g
fence
is
aid .
p ro g ressio n s,
th e
o f m usic
s ta v e m ust
C hordal
a
p e rfe ctly
preponderance
ex clu siv ely
bound
q u ite
and
chordal
chords.
c h ild re n
is
in
is
a p ic to ria l
early
to
go t h r o u g h
v iew
c h ild
th e
as
a great
p ro p erly
b eg in w ith
th e
S tep w ise
over
H ence,
th is
-
sh o u ld
fiv e-b arred
sy llab les,
is
p ro g ressio n s
th e
u n til
exam ples o f
th ere
him )
and not
S ig h t-sin g in g
c h ild
"before h i s
(to
For,
so l-fa
In
every
of
th e
com posers
of
th e
Vocal E ra
perform ers,
of
b a se d on an o b serv an ce
th e
day.
of
th e
fo rm u lated
in
th e
a n d th e y w ere
T hese law s w ere
n atu ral
ten d en cy
*5?
of
th e
human v o ic e
w ith
and p ro g re ssio n s.
exact
a
c ertain
But
learn in g
readers
read
are
of,
say,
four
th e
v o ice
w ith
c o n stru cte d
and
is
a p ity ,
fiv e
be
fo rb id d en p ro g ressio n s.
foods
for
grow ing
co n stru cted
a ll
m ake
a
But
b etter
sig h t-re a d in g
clo se
it
sh o u ld
seek
harvest
of
ch ild ren
stu d y
w ere
to
if
of
th e
p ro v id e
c lassica l
Many o f
today
as ad u lt
ago,
and,
ten d en c ie s
our
of
a rtific ia lly
one m ust p ro v id e
th e
form o f
one
of
m u sical
sh o u ld
fodder
of
first
readers
from t h e
a ll
of
P ro g ressio n .
such m usic
and f o lk m usic
sy n th etic
a rtific ia lly
Laws o f M e l o d i c
ed ito r
h is
of
cram m ed w i t h u n v o c a l
e x ercises,
th e
they
u n iv e rsity
ch ild ren
n atu ral
If
in
as
th e
hundred y e a rs
th e
are
in
same p o s i t i o n
resp ected .
sig h t-re a d ers
in te rv a ls
to d a y w here
is
i n m uch th e
or
c ertain
respect
b eg in n ers,
sh o u ld
to
o n ly p la c e
of
T h is
to
when d e a l i n g
th e
am ount
e x am in atio n h a l l .
respect
ages
rich
and a l l
c o u n trie s.
Leger
L in es
and
Leger
b eg in n ers.
su re ly
of
Key C
lin e s
are
A n y o n e who h a s
agree
th a t
th e
th e m u sic -c o p y ist
In
ia lly
w ith
alw ay s
th e
e arly
necessary
Key C i n
to
th e
stag es
source
of
tro u b le
to
done much m u s i c - w r i t i n g
C clefs
sim p ly
a
in
of
av o id le g e r
in tro d u ctio n
w ere u se d
order
to
in
av o id
sig h t-re a d in g
lin e s.
to
staff
th e
Y et,
it
w ill
o ld en
leg er
is
days
lin e s.
espec­
w h e n we s t a r t
sig h t-read in g ,
we
M O
are
ask in g
a to n ic
and,
ch ild ren
w h ich ,
o th er
Canons
"S trict
canon,
th an
Hence,
th e
way o f
ro u n d -sin g in g
to
by
see
to
or
tu n e,
an o ctav e
v o ices
an
and not
h ig h er
each
o ld er
frag m en tary k in d " t
F u rth er,
not
lin e,
im itate
is
p a rt-sin g in g
does
from
lin e .
s h o u ld be by
and can o n -sin g in g ,
descant
"can tu s"
tra n sp o se d
to
care
b elie
be fo llo w ed
sh o u ld be tak en
its
sim ply
name,
but
an a lto
an d b o l s t e r e d up
is
"p a r t "
by a
accom panim ent.
P a rts
w h o les.
th e ir
th an
of a
d escan t-sin g in g .
th e
th e
b earin g s
a leg er
a leg er
stre tch e s,
im ita tio n
in tro d u ctio n
th a t
a real
p ian o
free
long
to n al
o ccu p ies
in w hich
and fo r
d ev ice
la te r
th e ir
presupposes
-
e x ac tly
fin d
when p r e s e n t ,
when a b s e n t ,
P a rt-S in g in g
to
are
a lw ay s m ore
d iffic u lt
is
why r o u n d s ,
canons
That
em p h asis
a lto
z o n tal
on w hole
"p a r t s " w i t h
lin e
of
tu n es,
th e ir
c o u n terp o in t,
are
grasp
th an
and d e sc a n ts,
e asier
em p h asis,
but
to
to m aster
not
on th e
w ith
on th e h o r i­
v ertical
colum n
o f harm ony.
C o u n t e r p o i n t a n d H arm ony T e a c h in g
As c o u n t e r p o i n t p r e c e d e d h a r m o n y ,
c o u n terp o in t
teach in g
*P rof.
(not
E .J.D e n t
in
of
th e
so,
academ ic
The L i s t e n e r ,
today,
ty p e
June
but
1 0 ,1 2 3 6 .
ra th e r
of
harm ony
th e
tria l
teac h in g .
harm ony w e re
v o ices
to
and
in
th ro u g h
of
th e
n atu ral
th e
law s
of
co u n terp o in t
fo rm u lated
as
a re su lt
of
ex p erim en ts w ith
so
th ese
or
keyboard,
co m p u lsio n
to
or
th e
fa llin g .
human v o i c e
reso lv e
th e
It
lead in g
had
n o te
d o w n stairs
sev en th ,
p ian o
and l e f t
u n reso lv ed ,
tak en
th a t
th a t
poor
u n fo rtu n ately ,
are
h e art,
for
It
p rim arily
have
cannot
be
sh o u ld have
The m o t t o
harm ony,
as
it
ex p erim en ters
S o lv itu r
of
was
in
and,
in
to o
bass.
no
sev en th
in
and
sev en th
th e
sto ry
bedroom
th e
of
to
stru ck
d isp ro v e
on
th is.
a tr u e m u sician ,
to
h eart.
O th ers,
th ese m a tte rs.
resonance
th e ir
in
heart
That
th eir
to
sin g .
s tro n g ly - t h a t m usic
th erefo re,
a ll
is
m u sic-teach in g
b asis.
th e m odern
th e
g u id in g
c o u n terp o in t
C antando.
not
d isco rd
tau g h t
em p h asized
a rt,
a vocal
yet
is
That
lik e
sy m p ath etic
not
and not
someone h a d
does
m ore h e a r t l e s s
th ey
a vocal
w h ich
u n reso lv ed
is.
from h i s
M en d elsso h n ,
d i s c o r d w o u ld aw aken no
th ere
and
tau g h t
fig u red
risin g
th e re
dom inant
shows
of
a dom inant
a
m erely
ru les
on p a p e r,
reso lv e
M en d elsso h n h u r r y in g
sh o u ld be
own v o i c e s
th ro u g h
o rth o d o x m anner,
th e
law s
th ro u g h th e ir
keyboard
In
sh o u ld p reced e
as
to d ay
On t h e
ty p e)
B u t,
co m b in atio n ,
p u p ils
error
teach er
of
p rin cip le
c o u n te rp o in t and
of
a n d harm ony,
th e
early
sh o u ld be -
i
CHAPTER IV
THE APPROACH TO THE SOL-FA SYLLABLES *
S u pp ose you h a d to t e a c h someone t o b u i l d a h o u s e :
w here would y o u b e g i n ?
not!
W i t h t h e b r i c k s and m o r t a r ?
Surely
B r i c k s a n d m o r t a r m u s t r e m a i n mere b r i c k s a n d m o r t a r
t o t h e b e g i n n e r , u n t i l he knows t h e i r p l a c e a n d f u n c t i o n
in h o use-building.
And he c a n n o t p o s s i b l y know t h i s u n t i l
he s t u d i e s t h e i r p l a c e and f u n c t i o n i n a c t u a l h o u s e s .
So,
i f yo u w ould t e a c h h o u s e - b u i l d i n g , you m u s t s t a r t f ro m t h e
i d e a o r c o n c e p t o f " h o u s e , " and come down f r o m t h i s t o t h e
b r i c k s and m o r t a r .
L i k e w i s e , s u p p o s e you h a d t o t e a c h c h i l d r e n t o r e a d
m u s i c by means o f t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s , w here would you
begin?
W ith t h e b r i c k s and m o r t a r o f m u s i c , i . e . t h e s c a l e
d e g r e e s and i n t e r v a l s w i t h t h e i r nam es, "d s , "
"d d' s , " e t c . ?
S urely not!
"d s m,"
S c a l e d e g r e e s and i n t e r v a l s
m u s t r e m a i n mere s c a l e d e g r e e s and i n t e r v a l s t o c h i l d r e n ,
u n t i l t h e s e c h i l d r e n know t h e i r p l a c e and f u n c t i o n i n
m elody-building.
And t h e y c a n n o t p o s s i b l y know t h i s u n t i l
t h e y s t u d y t h e i r p l a c e and f u n c t i o n i n a c t u a l m e l o d i e s .
So, i f y o u would t e a c h c h i l d r e n t o r e a d m e l o d i e s f r o m t h e
s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s , you m u s t s t a r t f r o m t h e i d e a o r c o n c e p t
o f m e lo d y , a n d come down f r o m t h i s t o t h e s c a l e d e g r e e s
and t h e i r s o l - f a nam es.
^ R e p r i n t e d f r o m a n a r t i c l e i n "Music i n S c h o o l s " ,
March 1938, N o v e l l o & C o . L t d . -
M3
Memory Tunes
M ost c h i l d r e n know d o z e n s , p e r h a p s h u n d r e d s , o f t u n e s n u r s e r y r h y m e s and j i n g l e s , hymn t u n e s and f o l k - s o n g s and t h e s e w i l l p r o v i d e us w i t h a p o i n t o f c o n t a c t , f ro m
w h ic h we may v e n t u r e o u t f r o m t h e c o n c r e t e and f a m i l i a r
l a n d o f m e lo d y i n t o t h e a b s t r a c t and unknown r e g i o n of
s y m b o l s , w i t h t h e f u l l a s s u r a n c e t h a t we a r e c a r r y i n g t h e
c h i l d r e n a l o n g w i t h us a t e a c h s t e p .
Ask t h e c h i l d r e n ,
th e n , to s in g th ese f a m ilia r tunes to th e s o l- f a s y lla b le s
f r o m t h e b l a c k b o a r d o r f r o m p a t t e r n , a n d t r y t o g e t them
f i n a l l y t o s o l - f a them f r o m memory.
They nee d be t o l d
s i m p l y t h a t t h e y a r e l e a r n i n g t o c a l l t h e n o t e s by t h e i r
p r o p e r nam es.
Even young c h i l d r e n a r e c a p a b l e o f s o l - f a i n g
f r o m memory d o z e n s o f t h e s e l i t t l e
tu n es, f o r th e process
o f m e m o riz in g t o t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s i s c u m u l a t i v e i n
effect:
t h e more t u n e s t h e y l e a r n t o m em orize, t h e e a s i e r
t h e p r o c e s s b ec om es.
H e r e , f o r ex a m p le , i s a tune w hich
m o s t c h i l d r e n know, a n d w h ic h t h e y w i l l f i n d l i t t l e d i f f i ­
cu lty
*'Tfd
i n m e m o riz in g t o t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s :
:d
Js
:s I f
fd
:d
i s
:s
ll
:1
: f Im :m lr
|s
:s
|l
i s : - I f : f im :m
:-
Is
:1
:s
I f : f Im
Is: - I f : f Im :m
l r : r id
:m ir
1
lr : r id : - I
L e t us s u p p o s e t h e c h i l d r e n have memorized t h i s .
I n doing
s o , t h e y h av e l e a r n e d t o s o l - f a t h e c o m p le t e h e x a c h o r d o f
G uido, "d" t o " 1 " , and t h e i n t e r v a l "d s " i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r
context.
A 4>4
A nalysis
We may now p r o c e e d t o a n a l y s e t h i s t u n e from t h e
p o i n t o f v ie w o f s c a l e d e g r e e s a s s o c i a t e d i n memory w i t h
t h e i r s o l - f a nam es.
T h i s s t e p , f r o m t h e whole t o t h e p a r t ,
f r o m t h e c o n c r e t e t o t h e a b s t r a c t , i s a m ost d i f f i c u l t one
f o r c h i l d r e n , and much p r a c t i c e s h o u l d he g i v e n i n i t w i t h
d i f f e r e n t memory t u n e s .
F i r s t o f a l l , w r i t e down a l l t h e n o t e s t h a t a r e
used i n t h i s t u n e , e x p l a i n i n g , of c o u r s e , t h a t d s ta n d s f o r
doh, s f o r so h , e t c .
f i r s t lin e
These n o t e s w i l l a l l be found i n t h e
- d s l s f m r d .
By means of q u e s t i o n i n g , l e t
t h e c h i l d r e n f i n d o u t t h e i r p o s i t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o each
o t h e r f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v ie w o f p i t c h o r h e i g h t , remember­
i n g t o have p a t i e n c e h e r e , aa d i f f e r e n c e s i n p i t c h a r e n o t
a c tu a lly d iffe re n c e s in heigh t.
However, t h e c h i l d r e n w i l l
p r o b a b l y f e e l t h a t i n t h i s t u n e "1" i s t h e h i g h e s t n o t e ,
a n d t h a t f r o m "1" t h e t u n e d e s c e n d s s t e p by s t e p t o t h e
n o t e f r o m w h i c h i t s t a r t e d , n a m e ly " d " .
A fter th e children
h a v e f e l t t h i s f o r t h e m s e l v e s , l e t them se e i t on t h e b l a c k ­
b o a r d , b y making a s t a i r m o d u l a t o r , and p o i n t i n g t h e tune
from i t :
S y n th esis
T h e s e " p r o d u c t s o f a n a l y s i s " - d , s , e t c . - a r e now
shown i n t h e i r p r o p e r r e l a t i o n t o e a c h o t h e r i n t h e s c a l e
( " s c a l a " means s t a i r o r l a d d e r ) o f s o u n d ;
and we have
a r r i v e d a t t h e a b s t r a c t i d e a o f s c a l e or m o d u l a t o r , by a
p ro c e s s of a n a l y s i s , from the concrete id e a of tu n e.
B u t a n a l y s i s and s y n t h e s i s a r e c o m p le m e n ta ry p r o c e s s e s
w h ic h i l l u m i n e e a c h o t h e r , a n d so t h e c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be
t a u g h t t o g e t bac k t o t h e t u n e a g a i n , by a p r o c e s s of
s y n t h e s i s , t h r o u g h p o i n t i n g t o t h e s y l l a b l e s on t h e
m o d u lato r.
We h a v e t h u s p r o c e e d e d f r o m t h e known tu n e t o t h e
unknown s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s , f r o m t h e sim p le a n d c o n c r e t e
m e lo d y t o t h e com plex and a b s t r a c t s c a l e o r m o d u la to r and
back a g a i n , i . e . ,
f r o m h o u s e to b r i c k , and f r o m b r i c k t o
house.
Of c o u r s e ,
i t m u st n o t be t h o u g h t t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n
w i l l a r r i v e a t t h e id e a o r concept of s c a l e , or w i l l
become f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s , from t h i s one
tu n e.
The a b o v e p r o c e s s s h o u l d be gone t h r o u g h w i t h
d o z e n s of l i t t l e t u n e s , s o a s t o show t h e s c a l e d e g r e e s
i n a s many d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s a s p o s s i b l e .
The c h i l d r e n
c o u l d e a c h hav e t h e i r own m o d u l a t o r and p o i n t w h ile
s i n g i n g t h e s e memory t u n e s ;
a n d t h e m o d u la to r c o u ld be
e x t e n d e d upw ards and downwards, a s n e c e s s i t a t e d by t h e
a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e memory t u n e s .
A f t e r much p r a c t i c e i n t h i s , t h e c h i l d r e n sh o u ld be
i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e more a b s t r a c t s o l - f a l a d d e r m o d u la to r :
d*
t
1
s
f
m
r
d
T o n ic 3 o l - f a N o t a t i o n
T h e n , f l u e n c y i n t h e u s e o f t h e s y l l a b l e s s h o u l d be
g a i n e d by p r a c t i c e i n r e a d i n g f ro m t h e t o n i c s o l - f a n o t a t i o :
Much has b e e n s a i d a g a i n s t t h e u s e of t h e t o n i c s o l - f a
n o t a t i o n i n s c h o o l s , b u t much more c o u l d be s a i d i n f a v o u r
o f i t s u s e w i t h young c h i l d r e n .
We n e e d o n l y n o t e h e r e
t h a t the c r i t i c i s m o f t h i s n o t a t i o n a s a n e e d le s s preparato:
d i s c i p l i n e f o r r e a d i n g f r o m s t a f f d o e s n o t u s u a l l y emanate
from t h e c l a s s ro o m .
Most m usic t e a c h e r s i n s e c o n d a r y
s c h o o l s would hav e l i t t l e c a u s e t o w o r r y i f t h e incoming
p u p i l s o f e l e v e n t o t w e l v e y e a r s o f age c o u l d n o t r e a d s t a f ]
at a ll,
p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d r e a d f l u e n t l y from t o n i c
s o l-fa n o tatio n .
The w r i t e r , f o r o n e , would r e g a r d t h e
v i s u a l p r o b l e m s o f s t a f f , w h ich he would have t o t a c k l e ,
a s of l i t t l e
a c c o u n t compared w i t h t h e a u r a l problems of
s o l - f a i n g w h ich had b e e n s u c c e s s f u l l y m a s t e r e d i n the
elem entary sc h o o l;
f o r h i s e x p e r i e n c e i s t h a t most of the
tim e d e v o t e d t o s t a f f r e a d i n g i s t a k e n up w i t h a u r a l
p r o b le m s and n o t w i t h v i s u a l p r o b le m s .
The p r o p e r s t a g e t o b e g i n r e a d i n g from t h e s t a f f
n o t a t i o n w i l l v a r y f r o m s c h o o l t o s c h o o l , b u t i n e v e r y cm®
i t w i l l b e fo u n d t h a t t h i s s t a g e i s r e a c h e d o n l y when t h e
c h i ld r e n a r e th o ro u g h ly f a m il ia r w ith th e s o l - f a s y lla b le s .
And i t i s d o u b t f u l i f t h i s t h o r o u g h f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e
s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s w i l l e v e r be a t t a i n e d by s c h o o l c h i l d r e n
w ith o u t th e a b u n d a n t p r a c t i c e i n t h e use of t h e s y l l a b l e s
w h ic h c o n e s f r o m e x t e n s i v e and i n t e n s i v e r e a d i n g p r a c t i c e
in th e to n ic s o l- f a n o tatio n .
On th e follow ing pages we give examples of cyclosty led sh eets of Spelling Tunes (mostly fam iliar nursery
rhymes) used with Infant and Junior C lasses.
US
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M o
CHAPTER V
A CuIviPARISON UP THE P R I N C I P L E S u n d e r l y i n g t h e
TUNIC SUL-ffA AMU THB 5 TAPP NOT A f t ON----------
B o t h t o n i c s o l - f a n o t a t i o n and s t a f f n o t a t i o n a r e
m u s i c a l n o t a t i o n s b u t t h e y a r e b a s e d on t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t
p rin cip les.
They c a n by no means be r e g a r d e d a s i n t e r ­
changeable.
T h is means, t h e n , t h a t o u r method o f ap p r o a c h
t o t h e s e n o t a t i o n s w i l l be d i f f e r e n t i n e a c h c a s e and a l s o
t h a t t h e r e may b e an a g e when t h e c h i l d i s m a tu re f o r one
n o ta tio n b u t not fo r th e o th er.
Each n o t a t i o n may have i t s
p l a c e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l scheme, b u t we s h a l l n o t u n d e r s t a n d
what t h i s
p l a c e i s u n t i l we make a p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of
th e p r i n c i p l e s underlying th e s e n o ta tio n s .
therefore,
We p r o p o s e ,
t o d i s c u s s b r i e f l y t h e r e s p e c t i v e m e r i t s and
d e m e r i t s o f t h e s e n o t a t i o n s and we s h a l l d e a l f i r s t w i t h
the p itc h asp ect.
U n t i l q u i t e r e c e n t y e a r s p r a c t i c a l l y a l l Western
m u s i c h a s bee n b a s e d on a d e f i n i t e sy ste m of t o n a l i t y , of
s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e tw e e n t h e n o t e s o f t h e s c a l e and
b e tw e e n one s c a l e s e r i e s and a n o t h e r .
Where t h i s r e l a t i o n ­
s h i p o r r e l a t i v e p i t c h a s p e c t of m usic i s n o t g r a s p e d by t h e
min d, t h e m u sic m ust r e m a i n m e a n i n g l e s s , w i t h o u t r e l a t i o n
to t h e m ental co n ten t of th e l i s t e n e r .
And i t i s j u s t h e r e ,
i n t h e I n d i c a t i o n of r e l a t i v e p i t c h , t h a t t h e weakness of
w hat i s a f f e c t i o n a t e l y , b u t n o t q u i t e a c c u r a t e l y , known a s
th e "old n o ta tio n " i s r e v e a le d .
The p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l y i n g
t h e s t a f f n o t a t i o n i s t h a t o f a s y s t e m of symbols o r
4-7 /
l o z e n g e - s h a p e d n o t e s a r r a n g e d i n s p a t i a l o r d e r on l i n e s
and s p a c e s .
T h i s s y s t e m makes i t s a p p e a l p r i m a r i l y t o t h e
e y e , t h e s e n s e o r g a n , w hich t o d a y i s p r o b a b l y m ost g e n e r a l l y
and m o s t h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d .
The p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l y i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n of p i t c h i n
m u s i c a l I n s t r u m e n t s i s a l s o , f o r t h e m ost p a r t ,
sp a tia l relatio n sh ip s.
one of
To p ro d u c e t h e c o r r e c t so u n d , one
m ust know e x a c t l y where t h a t sound i s p r o d u c e d on t h e i n ­
strum ent.
On t h e m o st m e c h a n i c a l of a l l i n s t r u m e n t s , key­
b o a r d i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e p ro b le m i s s i m p l y one o f c o r r e l a t i n g
a c e r t a i n o r d e r of s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s
on t h e s t a f f w ith
a c o r r e s p o n d i n g o r d e r o f s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s on t h e key­
board.
H e r e , t h e whole t h i n g , so f a r a s p i t c h i s c o n c e r n e d ,
can b e worked o u t i n s p a t i a l te ira s i n t h e l i g h t of common
day.
I t s h o u l d , o f c o u r s e , b e s a i d t h a t some I n s t r u m e n t s
r e q u i r e a good d e a l o f m e n t a l c h e c k i n g or w hat i s c a l l e d
" e a r work".
B u t, i n t h e m ain, b e c a u s e o f t h e t e c h n i q u e of
s t a f f r e a d i n g and t h e t e c h n i q u e o f i n s t r u m e n t a l p l a y i n g ,
t h e s t a f f n o t a t i o n i s t h e i d e a l one f o r t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t .
When we come, how ever, t o s i g h t - s i n g i n g o r r e a d i n g
p r o p e r , we f i n d t h a t t h i s s y s t e m of n o t a t i o n b a s e d on
s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s d o e s n o t work so w e l l .
The r e a s o n ,
a s we hav e a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , i s t h a t s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n ­
s h i p s , b a s e d on s i g h t or t o u c h , do n o t e n t e r i n t o t h e p r o ­
d u c t i o n of p i t c h s o u n d s i n t h e v o i c e .
We c a n n o t t e l l
where a c e r t a i n p i t c h sound may b e p r o d u c e d i n t h e l a r y n x .
H e r e , i t i s r a t h e r a q u e s t i o n of d e l i c a t e m u s c u l a r t e n s i o n s
w i t h i n t h e v o i c e - b o x i t s e l f , and. t h e s e r e q u i r e t o be so
f i n e l y a d j u s t e d t h a t we can p r o d u c e t h e r e q u i r e d sounds
o n l y by t h e a i d of a h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d m u s c u l a r s e n s e c o ­
o r d i n a t e d w i t h a h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d r e l a t i v e p i t c h memory
by means o f r e l a t i v e p i t c h s y l l a b l e s l i k e t h e s o l - f a names.
Now, i n t h e s t a f f n o t a t i o n we have f i x e d l e t t e r names and f i x e d p o s i t i o n s on t h e s t a v e t o r e p r e s e n t sounds
w h ich may b e f i x e d or a b s o l u t e i n t h e p h y s i c a l s e n s e , b u t
w h ic h , a s we h a v e s e e n , a r e n o t f i x e d or a b s o l u t e i n t h e
p s y c h o l o g i c a l or m u s i c a l s e n s e , i . e . ,
effects.
i n t h e i r m e n tal
The same p i t c h sound may r e p r e s e n t any s c a l e
degree.
C
T h u s, b e f o r e t h e s i n g e r ( w i t h o u t a b s o l u t e p i t c h ) can p r o ­
d u c e t h e r e q u i r e d s o u n d , he m ust f i r s t t r a n s l a t e t h e f i x e d
p i t c h s t a f f sy m b o ls i n t o t h e r e l a t i v e p i t c h s o l - f a
sy llab les.
F o r, i n t h e end, th e s t a f f n o t a t i o n i s a fix ed
p i t c h n o t a t i o n u s e d t o r e p r e s e n t so unds which a r e meaning­
f u l o n l y when a p p e r c e i v e d i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e s e n s e , and t h e
m ovable d o h method of s i n g i n g f r o m s t a f f d o e s n o t a l t e r
t h i s f a c t b u t m e r e l y s e r v e s a s t h e o n l y method o f overcom­
ing i t .
I n m a t h e m a t i c a l la n g u a g e we m ight s a y t h a t t h e
r e l a t i v e p i t c h elem ent i n s t a f f n o t a t i o n i s a f u n c tio n of
a k e y n o t e , w hich i s a f u n c t i o n of t h e key s i g n a t u r e , which
a g a in i s a f u n c t i o n of t h e c l e f .
And, i n d e e d , i n a l l
w
c a s e s of m o d u l a t i o n w i t h o u t change o f key s i g n a t u r e , t h e
r e l a t i v e p i t c h e l e m e n t i n s t a f f n o t a t i o n i s n o t even a
f u n c t i o n of t h e c l e f , key s i g n a t u r e or k e y n o t e , b u t r a t h e r
o f a l l t h e s e p l u s t h e c h r o m a t i c sy m b o ls which change t h e
c e n t r e of t o n a l i t y .
Thus,
means n o t h i n g w h a t e v e r t o a m u s i c i a n
so f a r a s p i t c h ( r e l a t i v e o r a b s o l u t e )
is concerned.
means so m e th in g d e f i n i t e , v i z . , Middle
C a n d , i n t h e a b s e n c e of any key
s i g n a t u r e , t h e t o n i c of t h e key of
C m a jo r or t h e m e d i a n t o f A m i n o r .
means Middle C, t h e l e a d i n g n o t e o f
D m a j o r , or t h e s u p e r t o n i c o f B^minor
f
tty
■-
means M iddle C, t h e d o m in a n t o f P minor
1 1 J
A g a in , t h e c h r o m a t i c e l e m e n t i n s t a f f n o t a t i o n i s
r e p r e s e n t e d by e x t e r n a l s i g n s ( \>
* ) placed before
th e n o t e s , a n o th e r s p a t i a l arrangem ent l i k e the a r r a n g e ­
ment o f t h e c l e f and key s i g n a t u r e .
T h a t i s t o s a y , th e
chrom atic elem ent is n o t in c o rp o ra te d in t h e note i t s e l f ,
a s i t i s i n t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s ( -f
ft
s
«
s ) , where
t h e " a l t e r e d " s o u n i i n t h e music h a s i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l
c o u n t e r p a r t i n t h e " a l t e r e d 11s h a d e or t o n e c o l o u r of t h e
s y l l a b l e name.
(The word " c h r o m a t i c " means " c o l o u r e d " ) .
At t h e same t i m e , t h e s e s t a f f c h r o m a t i c s i g n s , b e i n g
p l a c e d b e f o r e t h e n o t e s and n o t b e i n g i n or of t h e n o t e s
th em selv es,
d iato n ic
re q u ire to he c o n tra d ic te d ,
n o t e r e a p p e a r i n t h e sam e b a r .
a n a tu ra l sig n
tim es i t
should th e
A gain, som etim es
) r a i s e s t h e p i t c h a s e m i t o n e a n d so m e ­
l o w e r s t h e p i t c h a se m ito n e and sonBtiraes i t
m erely a c t s as a c o u rte sy s ig n to
a l t h o u g h a n o t e was " a l t e r e d *
assum es th e s t a t u s quo.
way o f w r i t i n g t h i s
rem ind th e r e a d e r t h a t ,
in the previous b a r,
Thus,
w hile
th e re is
it
now
o n l y one
sim ple p h rase
U d . m :s.fe ( s . f :m l|
in th e
it
s o l-fa n o tatio n ,
t h e r e a r e f i f t e e n ways of w r i t i n g
i n s t a f f i n t h e T r e b l e C l e f a l o n e , a n d i f we a d d t o
th is
t h e B a s s C l e f we g e t t h i r t y w a y s o f r e p r e s e n t i n g t h i s
sh o rt phrase.
How c o u l d i t b e o t h e r w i s e w h e r e f i x e d
p i t c h sym bols a re u sed to r e p r e s e n t r e l a t i v e p i t c h sounds!
M o r e o v e r , w hen t h e
cate d e ta il s
ch ild has grasped a l l th e i n t r i ­
a n d l e a r n e d t o make a l l o w a n c e f o r a l l t h e
a n o m alies of th e s t a f f n o ta tio n ,
tran sla te
and i s a t l a s t a b l e t o
t h e f i x e d p i t c h s t a f f sym bols i n t o t h e r e l a t i v e
p i t c h s o l - f a names a t any r e q u i r e d s p e e d - a v i s u a l
s p e l l i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h may t a k e y e a r s o f s t u d y - he h a s
m erely a r r i v e d
sta rts.
a t th e s t a g e from w hich t h e s o l - f a re a d e r
For he has s t i l l
of t h e s e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s
real
to deal w ith th e tra n s la tio n
in to th e re q u ire d sounds, a
p s y c h o lo g ic a l problem of v i s u a l - i n t o - a u d i t o r y ,
com­
p a r e d w i t h w hich t h e t r a n s l a t i o n of v i s u a l s t a f f sym bols
i n t o v i s u a l s o l - f a names i s
com paratively easy.
Coming now t o t h e t o n i c
s o l - f a n o t a t i o n , we f i n d
t h a t th e problem s of c l e f s ,
k e y s i g n a t u r e s and m o d u la tio n
do n o t e n t e r i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n a t a l l .
The m u s i c a l e d i t o r
h a s s m o o t h e d o u t a l l t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r t h e r e a d e r , who
[
is
l e f t s i m p l y w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e p i t c h e l e m e n t s , a s shown
by t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s .
These r e l a t i v e p i t c h elem ents
i n s o l - f a n o t a t i o n r e s i d e i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h a p e s and
names of t h e n o t e s
(d, r ,
m, e t c . ) ,
shapes a re q u ite f a m ilia r to a l l
tra in in g ,
and a s t h e s e l e t t e r -
c h i l d r e n th r o u g h language
t h e i r m essage to t h e eye i s d i r e c t and un­
eq u iv o cal.
No c h i l d e v e r m i s n a m e s a s o l - f a s y l l a b l e i n
read in g .
T hus, t h e s o l - f a r e a d e r is f r e e d from t h e
n e c e s s i t y of t r a n s l a t i n g f i x e d p i t c h sym bols i n t o r e l a t i v e
p i t c h sym bols and c a n , t h e r e f o r e ,
c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e p r o i
blem of c o r r e l a t i n g r e l a t i v e
p itc h sounds.
T his i s v e ry i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e b e g in n e r in
m usic r e a d i n g , a s i t
se p ara te n o te,
or g u e ssin g ,
p itc h s y lla b le s w ith r e l a t i v e
e n a b l e s h im t o c o n c e n t r a t e on e ac h
a n d d o e s away w i t h t h e d a n g e r o f " l a a - i n g "
w hich i s
so f a t a l
i n a lan g u a g e i n w hich each
e l e m e n t h a s o n e v a l u e a n d one v a l u e
only.
F o r, i n an a r t
l i k e m u s i c , w h ic h i s b a s e d on a d e f i n i t e s y s t e m o f p i t c h
relatio n sh ip s
hang or f a l l
betw een t h e
to g eth er,
p arts,
and i n w h i c h a l l t h e p a r t s
th e in s is te n c e in th e
e a rly years
(and t h i s h a s r e f e r e n c e t o m ental r a t h e r th a n t o chrono­
lo g ic a l age),
s h o u l d be on t h e
au ral rela tio n sh ip s
so l-fain g ,
sp a tia l
observance of th e ex ac t
betw een t h e
r a t h e r t h a n on t h e
sounds th em selv es, a s in
observ an ce of t h e e x a c t
r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e n o t e s y m b o l s on t h e
stav e as in s t a f f read ing
And a n y t h i n g w h i c h a i d s t h e
e x ac t observance of p itc h re la tio n s h ip s
o r e a r - w o r k and
e c o n o m i s e s v i s u a l e f f o r t o r e y e - w o r k s h o u l d b e welcomed
as a u s e f u l p ed ag o g ical t o o l in th e e a rly sta g e s of read­
in g .
So,
th at i t
the
c h ie f v irtu e of to n ic s o l-fa n o tatio n is
p r o v id e s f o r b e g in n e rs a s y n t h e ti c approach to
m usic r e a d i n g ,
and i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s m usic rea d in g
sh o u ld b e approached s y n t h e t i c a l l y ,
f o r each p i t c h elem ent
i n t h e n o t a t i o n h a s o n e v a l u e , a n d one v a l u e o n l y , and t h e
w hole h an g s t o g e t h e r or f a l l s
p ic to ria l b asis
o th er hand,
read in g .
is
w ith t h e p a r t s .
o f t h e s t a f f s y s te m of n o t a t i o n ,
The r e l a t i v e p i t c h e l e m e n t i n t h e s t a f f n o t e s
o th e r and to th e
f a
it
on t h e
e n c o u r a g e s an a n a l y t i c a p p ro a c h t o m usic
a p p erce iv ed th ro u g h th e r e la tio n s h ip s
Thus,
The
is
to n ic
S
on t h e
o f n o t e s t o e ac h
stave.
i|i 1 hl l i | " nli
t h e v e ry ab sen ce of t h i s
s o l - f a n o t a t i o n w hich i s i t s
1
p i c t o r i a l elem ent in
c h i e f m e r i t from t h e p o in t
of v iew o f t h e b e g i n n e r i n m usic r e a d i n g .
Key E
I
For p ic to ria l
:-i r l-f.Wrr I m :3 I cl' :t,d 11 :3
or g r a p h ic a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ,
i II
I ft II
w ith o u t the
power of a p p e r c e p t io n o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g a in e d through
first-h an d
p erio d ,
e x p e r i e n c e of t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o v e r a long
m u st n e c e s s a r i l y r e m a i n vague and m is le a d in g and
m u s t e n c o u r a g e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f b a d h a b i t s a n d wrong
*77
a sso c ia tio n s.
Thus,
can a t t a i n
by m e a n s o f s o l - f a n o t a t i o n e v e n young c h i l d r e n
a good s p e e d i n r e a d i n g m u sic i n a l l keys and i n
a v ariety
of tim e and rh y th m .
C hrom aticism i s e a s i l y
m astered ,
m o d u la tio n p r e s e n t s very l i t t l e
d i f f ic u lt y , the
m i n o r mode f o l l o w s n a t u r a l l y f r o m t h e m a j o r mode, a n d com­
pound tim e i s
Isa
:t
no more d i f f i c u l t t h a n s im p le t i m e .
U*
I
ffl I " - f
'•
When we c o n s i d e r t h a t i n t y p i c a l c h i l d m u s i c , l i k e
n u r s e r y r h y m e s , more t h a n f i f t y
p e r c e n t of t h e tu n e s a re
i n c om pound t i m e , a n d t h a t m o d a l m u s i c , c h r o m a t i c i s m ,
m o d u latio n , v a r i e t y
o f tim e a n d i n t r i c a c y
e ssen tial
it
featu res,
is
o f rhythm a re
s u r e l y p u t t i n g the c a r t b efo re
th e h o rse t o i n s i s t
on s t a f f n o t a t i o n f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g ,
w ith t h e
r e s u l t t h a t th e sin g in g le sso n is taken
in ev itab le
u p w i t h v i s u a l n o t a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , a n d t h e c h i l d may l e a v e
s c h o o l w i t h a v e r y n a a g r e v o c a b u la r y and b e f o r e r e a c h in g
t h e m i n o r m o d e , c h r o m a t i c i s m , m o d u l a t i o n o r compound t i m e .
On t h e
o t h e r hand, th e a u ra l e x p erien c e gained in
t h e f l u e n t r e a d i n g o f s o l - f a n o t a t i o n c a n b e d r a w n u p on
f o r t h e m a s t e r i n g of t h e v i s u a l problem s of t h e s t a f f
n o t a t i o n , and th u s a s o lid
be l a i d ,
f o u n d a t i o n i n e a r la n g u age nay
o n w h i c h t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e o f t h e e _ y eO a S £ u a g e
may a f t e r w a r d s b e s a f e l y b u i l t .
n o t a t i o n owes i t s
In th e
end, t h e
unique p o s i t i o n as a s i n g e r 's n o ta tio n
to th e f a c t t h a t i t
c a n , w i t h t h e a i d o f t h e m ovable dob
s y s t e m o f s o l - f a i n g , b e made t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e
(
m
a d v a n ta g e s of th e s o l - f a sy stem w h ile s t i l l
v i s u a l a d v a n ta g e s of t h e s t a f f s y s te m .
l y i t m ust y i e l d p r i o r i t y
preserv in g th e
B ut, p s y c h o lo g ic a l
to t h e s o l - f a n o t a t i o n i n the
learn in g process.
B u t , now we m u s t o p e n l y a d m i t t h a t ,
as th e ch ief
m e r i t of s o l - f a n o t a t i o n fro m t h e p o i n t o f view o f t h e
b eg in n er i s
its
lack of th e
p icto ria l
elem en t, so i t s
d e f e c t fro m t h e p o i n t of view of t h e r e a d e r ,
e x te n d h i s e y e power o v e r t h e p r i n t e d p a g e,
la c k o f th e p i c t o r i a l elem en t.
n o tatio n ,
ch ief
who w a n t s t o
is
ju st th is
Prom t h e n a t u r e of t h e
t h e s o l - f a r e a d e r m u s t c o n c e n t r a t e on l e t t e r -
s h a p e s , a n d no m a t t e r how much h e p r a c t i s e s h e c a n n o t e x ­
ten d h is
eye s p a n and h i s
re a d in g r a t e beyond a c e r t a i n
lim it.
W hether t h e m usic r i s e s
by s t e p a lo n g
a stra ig h t
lin e
or f a l l s ,
h e m u s t move s t e p
of l e t t e r n o tes.
T h us
h e c a n n o t s e e t h e wood f o r t h e t r e e s ,
" V (I jel: m .oL : s .d
j u s t as the s t a f f re a d e r,
who h a s n o t m a s t e r e d t h e m o v a b l e
doh system of s t a f f r e a d in g
c a n n o t see t h e t r e e s fo r the
wo o d.
R eading f o r th e s o l - f a i s t m ust re m a in t o t h e
or le s s a s y n th e tic process.
end m ore
No m a t t e r how much he
p r a c t i s e s he m u s t s t i l l move a l o n g l i k e a h o r s e i n b l i n k e r s ,
n e v e r p e r h a p s making a f a l s e s t e p
or a m i s t a k e i n d e t a i l i n
h i s som ewhat l i m i t e d r a n g e o f v i s i o n ,
ta k in g in h is surroundings,
hut s t i l l never
and n e v e r a t t a i n i n g t o t h a t
f r e e d o m a n d e y e command w h i c h p r a c t i c e
in s t a f f reading
u ltim a te ly develops.
158.
J- S . Bach
FuGue.
F o r th is re a s o n n o fin g e rin g is g iv e n i n t h e le f t h a n d
w h e n t h e P e d a ls a r e p la y e d .
N . B . T h is p ie c e c a n h e p la y e d o n in s tru m e n ts
e it h e r w ith o r w ith o u t P e d a ls . I n t h e l a t t e r ca se th e
tWO low fer lin e s m u s t b e p la y e d w ith t h e le f t h a n d .
key E.
3
X
x
M anual,
m f.
o r F in g e r B o a rd .
d
:
I
:
:
1si : —
H itelet
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IH
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Hcvrm. a nd Org. Booh.
Prom "T h e H arm onium a n d O r g a n Book f o r
T o n i c S o l - f a P u p i l s ", b y J o h n Curwen a n d
E b e n e z e r P r o u t . 1 8 6 3 . T o n i c S o l - f a A g e n c y ,London.
W hile f o r t h e m ovable doh s t a f f i s t ,
who i s n o t t r o u b l e d
w i t h n o t e s h a p e s l i k e d r ra f a n d c a n t h e r e f o r e
on n o t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s
on t h e s t a v e ,
read in g
concentrate
be co m es w i t h
H o
p r a c t i c e a h ig h ly d e v e lo p e d a n a l y t i c p r o c e s s , i n w hich he
t a k e s i n a t a g la n c e w hole m elo d ic l i n e s , chords and
c o n tr a p u n ta l p a s s a g e s i n d i f f e r e n t v o ic e s and s t a v e s , ana­
l y s i n g th e d e t a i l s a s he g o e s a lo n g - t h i s p r o c e ss of
a n a l y s i s h e in g slo w and u n c e r ta in a t f i r s t , hut p o s s e s s in g
g r e a t p o t e n t i a l i t y o f d ev elo p m en t, and h ein g ca p a b le of
becom ing a lm o s t p h o to g ra p h ic i n sp eed and i n power over
d e ta il.
Adng'io a l i a B r e v e . *=«o.
m -------- ---- -------iI ^ S- c— ^ t-------------— .—
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To s u m u p , we m i g h t c o m p a r e t h e s o l - f a n o t a t i o n t o
a bare l i s t
of s ta tis tic s
and th e s t a f f n o ta tio n t o
g rap h ic al p re s e n ta tio n of th is l i s t
w ill deny t h a t ,
of s t a tis tic s
to
the
of s t a t i s t i c s .
o n e who c a n i n t e r p r e t g r a p h s ,
c o n v e y s much m o r e a c c u r a t e d e t a i l
No one
the graph
in a
s h o r t e r s p a c e o f t i m e t h a n t h e l i s t o f f i g u r e s on w h i c h t h e
graph is based.
th at,
if
B u t a t t h e sa m e t i m e i t m u s t be a d m i t t e d
t h e m eaning o f t h e s t a t i s t i c s
from t h e
c a n n o t be a p p re h e n d e d
b a r e f i g u r e s t h e m s e l v e s , i t would be q u i t e f u t i l e
t o e x p e c t t h e i r m ean in g to be ap p reh en d ed from t h e g r a p h i c a l
p resen ta tio n
of th e s e f i g u r e s .
O r, t o
use a n o th e r a n alo g y ,
we may r e g a r d s o l - f a a s t h e a r i t h m e t i c o f m u s i c a l n o t a t i o n
and s t a f f a s t h e m ath em atics o f m u sic a l n o t a t i o n ; and th e
sa m e o r d e r i n t e a c h i n g s h o u l d a p p l y t o
cognate s u b je c ts a s t o th e
t h e one p a i r
of
other.
We d o n o t w i s h t o e n t e r d e e p l y i n t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e
m erits
o f t h e s y s te m o f tim e n o t a t i o n i n s o l - f a and s t a f f ,
b u t we w o u l d p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e s t a f f t i m e s y s t e m i s p u r e l y
g r a p h i c a n d s y m b o lic , a n d h a s t h e r e f o r e t h e m e r i t s and th e
d efects
of the s t a f f p i t c h sy ste m .
b eat n o te
(o ) o c c u p i e s a b o u t th e same am ount o f s p a c e a s a
q u a rte r-b e a t note
a lm o st any n o te ,
J .j i
.
F o r exam ple, a f o u r -
A dot is
(«^).
The b e a t i t s e l f may be r e p r e s e n t e d b y
e .g . J , J ,
i'
o r by a d o t t e d n o t e ,
s o m e t i m e s e q u a l t o tw o b e a t s a s i n
e . g . d.,
o-
, and
4*1
som etim es e q u a l to a q u a r t e r - b e a t as i n £
cro tch et
.
In a d o tted
(J-) t h e d o t r e p r e s e n t s a h a l f - b e a t i n s i m p l e
t i m e a n d a t h i r d - o f - a - b e a t i n compo und t i m e , w h i l e t h e
sa m e a r r a n g e m e n t o f n o t e v a l u e s w i t h i n t h e b a r may p r o d u c e
e n tire ly d iffe re n t
" m e n ta l e f f e c t s " when p r e f i x e d by a
s i m p l e o r a compo und t i m e s i g n a t u r e ,
IIj.
u
m lw -m ili
e .g .
J-U
II
311(5 l b . j- j- j- b ij- m lj w j- |j.
I
Young c h i l d r e n n o t i c e a b s u r d i t i e s m o r e r e a d i l y t h a n
a d u lts,
and i t
is
t h e c h i e f m e r i t o f t h e t o n i c s o l - f a tim e
s y s t e m t h a t s u c h a b s u r d i t i e s h a v e no p l a c e t h e r e .
T h i s much m a l i g n e d t o n i c s o l - f a n o t a t i o n
on a d e f i n i t e s y s te m of s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,
very easy of apprehension;
rela te d
i n t h e m ind.
in terp retin g
So,
n o te,
|d
is based
and i s thus
f o r t i m e and s p a c e a r e c l o s e l y
In our d a ily l i f e
we a r e c o n s t a n t l y
t h e one i n t e r m s o f t h e o t h e r .
i n t h e t o n i c s o l - f a tim e sy ste m , a f o u r - b e a t
I- : -
o n e-b eat note
| o c c u p i e s f o u r t i m e s a s much s p a c e a s a
Id :l
.
And, w h a t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t when
d e a l in g w ith c h i l d r e n , eac h b e a t of t h e f o u r - b e a t note is
cle arly a rtic u la te d
or jo in te d .
so m e th in g t o show f o r i t s e l f ,
That i s ,
e a c h b e a t has
so t h a t th e c h il d can see as
w e l l a s f e e l e a c h b e a t o f t h e n o t e - a t h i n g which i s q u i t e
i m p o s s i b l e i n th e sy m b o lic s t a f f tim e s y s te m , where th e
tim e elem en t r e s i d e s i n th e n o te shape and n o t i n th e
amount o f sp a ce
o c c u p i e d b y t h e n o t e ( o J J J* $ ) ■
The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e b e a t s
i n a s u s ta i n e d note-sym bol l i e s
beat n o te,
f o r exam ple, i s
in the f a c t t h a t a four-
n o t i n e f f e c t a n o t e h e l d on
f o u r tim es as long as a o n e -b e at n o te .
life
T here i s a n in n e r
o r p u l s e i n a f o u r - b e a t n o t e , w h ic h t h e composer
u su a lly d efin es or a rtic u la te s
t h e accom panying p a r t s
c l e a r l y i n one o r o t h e r o f
o r v o i c e s , and w hich i s g iv e n
e x p r e s s i o n w h e r e p o s s i b l e b y t h e p e r f o r m e r , a n d f e l t by
t h e t r a i n e d l i s t e n e r even i n th e ab sen ce o f any accom pani­
m ent.
L e t a n y one s i n g t h e f i r s t b a r o f t h e m elody o f t h e
"A ir on t h e G S t r i n g " ,
and he w i l l r e a l i s e a t once w hat i s
m e a n t by t h i s
Now, i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f s i g h t - s i n g i n g t h e r e i s
on ly one v ocal l i n e ,
c h ild re n to f e e l t h i s
and t h e r e
so t h a t i t
is e s s e n tia l to g e t th e
in n e r p u lse in th e su s ta in e d n o te s,
i s n o b e t t e r way o f s h o w i n g t h i s
i n n e r p u l s e on
p a p e r t h a n t h a t a d o p te d by th e t o n i c s o l - f a i s t s .
8d
:-lm
: f|s
:-1 1 :
tId' :- it
:l|s
m
A n o t e f o u r t i n e s a s l a r g e a s a o n e - t e a t n o t e w i l l n o t do
it;
i t m u s t b e a n o t e o c c u p y i n g f o u r t i m e s a s much h o r i ­
z o n t a l sp a c e and show ing th e f o u r j o i n t s
We n e e d s c a r c e l y a d d t h a t i n t h i s
a r e no anom alous p u l s e v a l u e s r e p r e s e n te d by the
q
or a rtic u la tio n s .
tim e system th e r e
and
same f o u r - p u l s e m e a s u r e .
tim e a r e a l l
That is to
s a y , t h e s o l - f a n o t a t i o n has a f i x e d - p u l s e system f o r th e
one t h i n g t h a t i s f i x e d o r c o n s t a n t i n a l l m u s i c , n a m e l y
th e p u lse
fo r the
or b eat,
and a r e l a t i v e
one t h i n g t h a t i s r e l a t i v e
p i t c h s y l l a b l e system
in a l l m usic.
W hereas
t h e s t a f f n o t a t i o n h as a r e l a t i v e - p u l s e system f o r t h i s
sa m e c o n s t a n t e l e m e n t i n m u s i c ,
v a lu e ,
e . g . d ,J j J* o r ^
tim e s i g n a t u r e ,
e .g .
, v aries
|,
i n which t h e p u l s e o r b e a t
in r e l a t i o n to the p refix ed
g o r ^ 6 , and a f i x e d p i t c h
l e t t e r o r s t a v e system f o r t h i s
one r e l a t i v e
elem ent in
m usic, i n w hich t h e m en tal e f f e c t s of th e s t a f f p itc h
s y m b o ls v a r y i n r e l a t i o n t o a p r e f i x e d k ey s i g n a t u r e and
c le f,
a n d ,in m o d u latio n s, to a l l th e se p lu s p re fix e d
chrom atic s ig n s .
L ikew ise,
i n t h e s o l - f a t i m e s y s t e m t h e r e i s no
c o n f u s i o n o f s i m p l e a n d com pound t i m e s , a n d t h e r e a r e no
t i e d n o t e s a n d no anom alous d o t s .
H o w e v e r , we m u s t f r e e l y a d m i t t h a t i n t h e e n d t h e
s t a f f s y s t e m o f tim e n o t a t i o n
i s t h e i d e a l o n e, w hich a l l
MS
c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be l e d up t o f r o m t h e t o n i c s o l - f a tim e
system .
series
F o r, w h ile th e to n ic
s o l- f a n o ta tio n , w ith i t s
o f e x t e r n a l d o t s and d a s h e s , demands l i t t l e
eye or th e im a g in a tio n ,
it
of th e
f a i l s , f o r t h i s v e ry reason, to
d e v e l o p i n t h e r e a d e r a n y g r e a t p e r c e p t u a l p o w e r o f t h e eye
o r o f th e im ag in atio n .
w ith i t s
W hereas t h e s t a f f tim e n o t a t i o n ,
i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e tim e e le m e n t i n the p i t c h
elem en t, and w ith i t s
i n c r e a s i n g d e m a n d s on t h e
th e im a g in atio n , ten d s to
eye and
develop th e h ig h e r and h ig h e r
a n a l y t i c p o w e r s o f w h i c h t h e m in d i s c a p a b l e .
The m u s i c a l e d i t o r ,
in a b s tr a c tin g the r e l a ti v e p itc h
elem en ts and s e t t i n g th e s e out i n s p a t i a l o rd e r i n an
e f f o r t t o a s s i s t t h e r e a d e r a s much a s p o s s i b l e ,
has
a c t u a l l y d o n e t o o m u ch f o r t h e r e a d e r !
S o we come b a c k o n c e m o r e t o t h e two p r o c e s s e s o f
r e a d i n g w h i c h we s a w a t w o r k i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p i t c h
problem s o f s o l - f a and s t a f f n o t a t i o n ,
nam ely s y n t h e s i s
a n d a n a l y s i s . A n d we come t o t h e s a m e c o n c l u s i o n h e r e w i t h
r e g a r d t o t h e t i m e n o t a t i o n a s we d i d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e
p itc h n o tatio n .
I n t o n i c s o l - f a t i m e n o t a t i o n we h a v e a n
e x c e l l e n t l y d e v i s e d s y s te m f o r a p p ro a c h in g m usic r e a d i n g
by means o f s y n t h e s i s ;
a n d i n s t a f f t i m e n o t a t i o n we h a v e
an e x c e l l e n t l y d e v i s e d s y s te m f o r c u l t i v a t i n g m usic r e a d i n g
a b i l i t y by means o f a n a l y s i s .
Y e t, when a l l
to
i s s a i d a n d d o n e , c h i l d r e n nziet l e a r n
" c r e e p a f o r e t h e y g a n g " , a n d , fr o m t h e p o i n t o f view
of b eg in n ers,
th ere
of n o tatio n .
i s no d o u b t a s t o t h e e a s i e r s y s te m
C h ild r e n i n co u n tin g l e a r n to d e a l w ith
in d iv id u al o b jec ts,
I = A-
b efo re th ey
l e a r n to d e a l w ith a b s t r a c t f ig u r e s (o s/j-tu aO .
In f a c t,
th e
learn ed i s
e ase w i t h w hich th e s o l - f a n o t a t i o n i s
o n e o f t h e r e a s o n s why some e d u c a t i o n i s t s
would f o r b i d i t s
use e n tir e ly .
T h e ir argum ent i s
t a n t a m o u n t t o s a y i n g t h a t I f y o u do n o t a l l o w c h i l d r e n t o
s in g from th e s o l - f a n o ta tio n ,
n a ta tio n ,
b u t show t h e m o n l y t h e s t a f f
t h e n t h e y a r e bound t o
l e a r n to s in g from th e
s t a f f n o t a t i o n a l l t h e more r e a d i l y .
We w o u l d a n s w e r
s u c h a r g u m e n ts b y c i t i n g t h e p r o v e r b a b o u t t h e h o r s e and
th e w ell.
i
B u t, even assum ing t h a t t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s
not th e s o l- f a n o ta tio n , are tau g h t, i t
th ese
o n l y , and
is very d o u b tfu l i f
s y l l a b l e s w i l l e v e r be m a s t e r e d by t h e a v e r a g e c h i l d
w i t h o u t t h e a b u n d a n t scope f o r t h e i r u se w hich i s p ro v id e d
by t h e p r a c t i c e o f r e a d i n g from t h e t o n i c s o l - f a n o t a t i o n .
No d o u b t t h e r e a r e h u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d s o f a d u l t s who d i d
n o t g e t t h e n e c e s s a r y e y e - t r a i n i n g i n s t a f f r e a d i n g when
t h e y w e r e y o u n g , a n d who a r e now q u i t e c o n t e n t w i t h t h e
l e t t e r n o t a t i o n , a n d show no d e s i r e t o l e a r n t h e s t a f f
n o tatio n .
M iddle-aged h o rs e s ,
from a sh a llo w tro u g h ,
w hich have a l r e a d y drunk
and w hich can s t i l l
sa tisfy th eir
m o d e r a t e t h i r s t i n t h i s w a y , w i l l f e e l no i n c l i n a t i o n t o
d r i n k f r o m a w e l l , more e s p e c i a l l y i f t h a t w e l l i s a s
deep as th e problem s o f s t a f f n o t a t i o n u n d o u b ted ly a r e .
We m u s t n o t ,
th e re fo re , p ro h ib it
the use o f th e trough
a n d condemn them t o d i e o f t h i r s t ,
them to t h e i r o l d - f a s h i o n e d ways.
t h e young c o l t s ,
b u t m ust j u s t lea v e
B u t we m u s t s e e t h a t
a f t e r p re lim in a ry p r a c tic e w ith th e
tro u g h ,
a re t r a i n e d t o d r in k from th e w e ll to o , f o r , a f t e r
a ll,
the w e ll i s d e e p e r, so a ls o
if
be had t h e r e i n .
not as a n ta g o n istic
each w ith i t s
m ethod
is
th e s a t i s f a c t i o n to
L e t us r e g a r d t h e two n o t a t i o n s ,
b u t r a t h e r a s com plem entary sy s te m s,
own s p e c i f i c m e r i t s a n d i t s
of approach,
then,
own s p e c i f i c
and each w i t h I t s t a s k t o p e r f o r m i n
t h e e d u c a t i o n a l schem e.
NOTE ON COMBINED NOTATIONS.
A t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n made a t v a r i o u s t i m e s d u r i n g
the
l a s t cen tu ry to
co m b in e i n t h e one n o t a t i o n th e
a d v a n ta g e s o f b o th th e m ovable doh and t h e f i x e d s ta v e
or of s o l - f a and s t a f f .
P e r h a p s t h e m o s t p o p u l a r o f t h e s e a t t e m p t s was t h a t
made b y H a m i l t o n i n h i s
We g i v e
" P a t e n t U nion M u s ic a l N o t a t i o n " .
exam ples of t h i s
below :
121
T H E R E IS A L A D IE .
(MADRIGAL.)
Allegro.
K e y G.
T homas F ord .
K e y C.
9
iqi
1.
T here
is
a
J-U
-CD
la - die
sw eete and kind.
P
p
Oh
2.
H er
1.
Was nev - e r
face so pleas’d m y
KEYC.
ges - tu re,
T h ere
is
a
u s .- o
-0
“60-
m o - tions, and h e r smiles,
la - die
B
H er w itt, h er voyce, m y h e a rt bo-
sw eete and kind,
Was nev - e r
face so pleas’d m y
K e y 0.
a
Ki t G.
i
i
m ind,
I
did b u t see h e r pass-ing by, A nd y e t
cres.
f
I love h e r
till
Be-guiles m y h e a rt I know not why, And y e t
cres.f—
f
I love h e r
till
K e y G.
guiles;
crts
K ey O .
I
I
die.
m
H a m i l t o n ’s
pa ten t
“
o n io n ”
storm
wave
storm
secolap.
n o t a t io n
y
wave,
y
wave,
s e r ie s .
wave
th e storm
j?IHST LESSORS IN SINGING IN HAMILTON^ PATENT “ DNtON *’ NOTATION.
LET L IF E
Exercise 78.
5 s1 G‘
Lento e dolce,
L et
life
155
4t
CO GLADLY.
MENDEESSOHTT.
«/»
g o g la d - ly a s i t m ay, I n pleasant sm iles and la u g h ter gay, Som e shadow still re-
tu r n - ing, Som e shad-o w still
r e - t u r n - mg.
I t s pres-ence throw s a - cross o u r w ay, A nd
(G la s g o w , W m.H am ilton, M usic P u b l i s h e r .
1871)
S u c h a n a t t e m p t a t m i x i n g o i l a n d w a t e r was b o u n d t o
f a il for
eye i s
t h e r e a s o n s w h i c h we h a v e g i v e n a b o v e .
to tak e i n n o te -sh a p e s, i . e .
th en th e s e l e t t e r s
letters
I f the
l i k e d r m,
had b e s t be p l a c e d i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e
as in s o l-fa n o tatio n .
For th e arran g in g of th ese l e t t e r s
i n p a t t e r n s o n a s t a v e m a k e s t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n much m ore
d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e e y e , more e s p e c i a l l y a s t h e t i m e e le m e n t
i n t h i s n o t a t i o n i s n o t b a s e d on a s p a t i a l o r d e r a s i n
so l-fa,
and y e t i s n o t em bodied o r i n c o r p o r a t e d i n th e
n o te s th em selv es,
I.e .
the l e t t e r s
On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
d r in.
i f th e re a d e r a tta c k s th e n o ta tio n
fro m t h e s t a f f s i d e by a t t e m p t i n g to t a k e i n n o te
rela tio n sh ip s
or n o te-p a tte rn s,
t h e n h e w i l l n o t be a b l e
to tak e in no te-sh ap es.
As we h a v e a l r e a d y s a i d ,
th e p r o c e s s e s in v o lv e d i n the
r e a d i n g o f s o l - f a n o t a t i o n and s t a f f n o t a t i o n a r e e n t i r e l y
opposed to e a c h o t h e r .
The t a k i n g i n o f n o t e -
r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r n o t e - p a t t e r n s on a s t a v e i s h i n d e r e d by
th e ta k in g i n
o f th e in d iv id u a l note shapes
(d r m ) , a n d
t h e t a k i n g i n o f t h e s e n o t e - s h a p e s i s h i n d e r e d by th e
a t t e m p t t o com bine t h e s e w i t h n o t e - p a t t e r n s i n s p a c e .
P a tte rn s in v o lv e r e la tio n s h ip s
an aly sis.
and r e l a t i o n s h i p s
involve
Hence s t a f f r e a d i n g becomes a n a n a l y t i c p r o c e s s .
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , s h a p e s d o n o t i n v o l v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n
space.
D i f f e r e n t s h a p e s a r e r e c o g n i s e d b y t h e i r own
in d iv id u a l shapes.
H e n c e s o l - f a r e a d i n g m u s t r e m a i n more
or le s s a s y n th e tic p ro cess.
The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p le s show a s i m i l a r a t t e m p t t o combine
t h e m ovable do h w i t h t h e f i x e d s t a v e .
" H a rm o n y S i m p l i f i e d "
T hey a re ta k e n from
(P h ila d e lp h ia , John J .
Hood, 1 8 8 2 ) .
Here t h e s o l - f a
or r e la tiv e
p i tc h elem ent i n th e
n o t a t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a s e r i e s
o f s e v e n s i g n s which
are
Thus:
in c o rp o ra te d in the s t a f f n o te .
XT
I
t
of
II. 264—A Solemn Calm
.
159
M en d elsso h n .
Adagio.
cres.
A
so lem n calm , a
si - le n c e h o - ly . N ow lies o n a ll th in g s far an d n ig h ; "fhe w oods a - lo n e a re b e n d - in g
A
so lem n calm , a
si - le n c e h o - ly, N ow lies o n a ll th ings fa r a n d n ig h ; T h e w oods a - tone a re b e n d - Ing
Io w -ly , T o g re e t th e ir M ak e r pass- in g by,
T o g re e t th e ir M a k e r p a ss-in g by.
T o g re e t th e ir M ak er, g re e t th e ir
M a k - e r p a ss -in g by.
r^-
T
l o w - ly , T o g re e t th e ir M a k e r p a ssin g b y . T o g re e t th e ir M a k e r
pass - in g b y , th e ir
M a k - e r passing
by,
m
V a r i o u s o t h e r a t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n made b o t h i n E u r o p e
and A m e ric a t o a r r i v e a t a com prom ise b e tw e e n t h e
m ovable and t h e im m ovable.
Edouard J u e ,
disadvantage
a d iscip le
o f G a l i n , saw t h e
of th e fig u re s 1 2
system to in d ic a te r e l a t i v e
em b o d y t h i s r e l a t i v e
th e s t a f f sym bols.
3 4 5 6 7 used in G a lin 's
p i t c h , and a tte m p te d t o
p i t c h elem ent i n t h e n o te -h e a d of
He i n v e n t e d a n e w m u s i c t y p e i n
w h ich t h e lo z e n g e - s h a p e d s t a f f n o t e s a r e r e p l a c e d by
seven d i f f e r e n t l y shaped n o te s ,
each n o te-sh ap e stan d in g
f o r a s c a l e d e g r e e o r a s o l - f a name.
m o n o g a m m i q u e , " he c l a i m e d ,
T h is "m elo p laste
" r e d u i t t o u t e s l e s gammes e n
une s e u l e . " ( r e d u c e s a l l t h e s c a l e s t o one s c a l e . )
‘ ("L a m usique a p p r i s e s a n s m a t t r e , " 2 o . ^ d i t „
P a r i s , 1838)
T h is s c a le
i s shown b e lo w .
He a d d s f u r t h e r o n t h a t o n e m u s t a l w a y s come b a c k t o
th e
o r d i n a r y s t a f f n o t a t i o n , and t h a t h i s sy s te m i s meant
sim p ly t o
p a v e t h e w ay f o r t h i s .
J u e came t o L o n d o n l a t e r t o e s t a b l i s h h i s s y s t e m b u t
had no s u c c e s s t h e r e .
As D a v i d a n d L u s s y s a y ;
"Qui
c o n n a l t a u j o u r d ' h u i l e ' M e l o p l a s t e M o n o g a m m i q u e '?"
(Vide " H i s t o i r e d e - l a n o t a t i o n r a u s ic a le d e p u i s
s e s o r i g i n e s , " p a r E r n e s t David e t M a th is
L u s s y , a l 'I m p r i m e r i e N a t i o n a l e .1882)
The A m e ric a n " b u c k w h e a t n o t a t i o n "
sa m e p r i n c i p l e ,
i s b a s e d on t h e
w ith d i f f e r e n t l y shaped heads to
in d ic a te th e v ario u s sc a le d egrees,
1 J
m f
J
j
s
I
thus:
( S e e " O x f o r d C o m p a n i o n t o M u s i c " p . 50 7 )
D avid and L ussy rem ark w ith s u r p r i s e t h a t m ost of
t h e i n n o v a t i o n s i n m u s ic a l n o t a t i o n have been co n cern ed
w i t h th e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p i t c h , a n d n o t tim e o r rhythm .
B u t t h i s s h o u l d s u r p r i s e no o n e .
The p i t c h p r o b l e m w i l l
alw a y s be t h e m ain p ro b lem f o r t h e m usic t e a c h e r .
The e a r l y P r o t e s t a n t R e f o r m e r s w e r e t h e f i r s t t o
attem p t to
combine t h e s o l - f a s y s t e m and t h e s t a f f s y s t e m .
"B ou rgeois had a lr e a d y g r a p p le d w ith t h i s d i f f i c u l t y as
e a r l y a s 155 0 , by p l a c i n g s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s by t h e s i d e of
each n o te ,
th u s re n d e rin g a l l stu d y o f th e hexachordal
system u n n e c e ssa ry ."
( S e e a L e c t u r e b y S i r J o h n S t a i n e r "On t h e
m u sic a l i n tr o d u c ti o n s found i n c e r t a i n
M e tric a l P s a l t e r s , " i n Proceedings of th e
M u sical A s s o c i a t i o n , 1900-1901)
I n t h e f o l l o w i n g exam ple fro m " S t a n d a r d Songs
a r r a n g e d f o r two v o i c e s :
b y H. L i l l i e
I n t h e C o m b in e d N o t a t i o n " ,
( E d i n b u r g h , J o h n M e n z i e s & Co. 1 8 8 2 ) we f i n d
e x a c t l y t h e sa m e p l a n a s t h a t a d o p t e d b y B o u r g e o i s t o
s o lv e t h e u n s o lv a b le problem .
m
4 — T H E BOATIE ROWS.
W o rd s b y J ohn E w k n .
R ather quick , a n d w ith spirit.
row,
w eel
m ay
th e
b o a t - lo
ro w , T h a t
w in s t h e b a ir n s ’
W ith animation.
b re a d .
The
In h is Preface,
b o a t - le row s,
L illie
th e
b o a t - !e ro w s , t h e
b o a t - le
ro w s f a ’
says:
"T h e M u s i c a l N o t a t i o n h e r e i n e m p l o y e d h a s a d d e d
c o n sid era b ly to th e c o st of p ro d u ctio n , but i t s
e x c e ll e n c e i s g r e a t , com bining, as i t d o e s, the
a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e Old N o t a t i o n an d o f t h e S o l - f a
System .
T h i s c l a i m we d i s p u t e .
m a t t e r when t h e
I t i s q u ite a d if f e r e n t
so l-fa n o tatio n is
p rin ted in a s tra ig h t
l i n e b e l o w t h e s t a f f n o t a t i o n a s i n t h e new C h u r c h
A n t h e m Book p u b l i s h e d b y t h e O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .
But t o a tte m p t to
w ith i t s
combine t h e s t r a i g h t - l i n e n o t a t i o n
s y n t h e t i c a p p e a l t o t h e eye w ith t h e up-and-down
g ra p h ic n o ta tio n w ith i t s
a n a l y t i c a p p e a l t o th e eye i s
t o a t t e m p t t o m ix o i l an d w a t e r .
The o i l ,
lik e the
s o l - f a n o t a t i o n m u s t come t o t h e s u r f a c e a n d r e m a i n on
th e
lev e l.
have t h e i r
No c o m p r o m i s e i s
p o ssib le .
B oth n o t a t i o n s
c o n t r i b u t i o n t o make t o m u s i c r e a d i n g ,
m u s t make i t
i n t h e i r due s e a s o n ,
t h e i r own m e a n s .
b u t they
i n t h e i r own way a n d by
CHAPTER V I
THE VISUAL APPROACH TO
STAFF SIGHT-SINGING *
,s o f t h e R e a d i n g P r o c e s s
Si g i l t - s i n g i n g from s t a f f n o t a t i o n by means o f t h e
movable
doh m eth o d o f s o l - f a i n g
and d i s t i n c t
(a)
staff
sol-fa
separate
spelling a b ilitie s .
F irst,
th e c h i l d must s p e l l
the fix ed p itc h
symbols i n term s of r e l a t i v e p i t c h
symbols or
syllabie-nam es.
(b)
Secondly,
he must
in term s of r e l a t i v e p i t c h
(c)
T hirdly,
sounds r e s u l t i n g
du ratio n al values
spell
he must s p e l l
from
these
so l-fa syllables
sounds.
symbols i n term s o f r e l a t i v e
the
involves th ree
(b)
t h e rhythm o r tim e
stress
and d u r a t i o n ,
giving
t h e r e q u i s i t e a c c e n t u a l and
i n d i c a t e d by t h e
staff
tim e symbols.
Any m e a s u r e o f s i g h t - s i n g i n g a b i l i t y m u s t t a k e
all
th e above th r e e p ro c e ss e s
in to account,
i n a n y o n e o f them mea ns w e a k n e s s i n s t a f f
itself.
It
follow s,
of these
three
then,
separate
that
sight-singing
spelling-drill
spelling processes
given as a p re p a ra tio n for the fin a l a ct
in which a l l
as weakness
of
in each
s h o u l d be
sight-singing,
t h r e e a r e combined s i m u lta n e o u s ly .
B u t w h a t do we u s u a l l y f i n d i n t h e s i n g i n g c l a s s ?
The s e c o n d p r o c e s s ,
(i.e.,
th e a s s o c i a t io n of
* R e p r in t e d from an a r t i c l e
*
(b) o r r e l a t i v e p i t c h s p e l l i n g
sound and s y l l a b l e ) ,
i s ____________
p u b l i s h e d i n "M usic i n S c h o o l s "
(N o v e llo ) J u l y , 1938.
p r o v i d e d f o r by m eans o f
w ork,
sequence sin g in g ,
so l-fain g p rac tic e
m em o ry t u n e s ,
The t h i r d p r o c e s s ,
p r o v i d e d f o r by m eans o f
w ith
(c)
&c.
o r rhythm
"taa ta i-in g "
sp e llin g ,
T echnique
B ut,
d ictatio n ,
sta ff
o r rhythm d r i l l
in S ta ff-re a d in g
apart
from a c t u a l
th e f i r s t
sym bols i n t o
process,
s i g h t - s i n g in g and s t a f f
n am ely,
s o l - f a nam es,
seldom p r o v i d e d f o r
in th e
th e tr a n s la tio n of
and v ic e v e rs a ,
sin g in g c la s s ,
t h e p o i n t o f view o f p i t c h ,
th is
is
betw een s o l - f a n o t a t i o n and s t a f f
of th e
th ree processes,
m ost r e a d i l y
th e v is u a l
sp a tia l
to
is
speeding up,
field a ll
o rd er of the
th e
th is
sp a tia l
the
step
s i n c e we a r e h e r e m o v i n g i n
tim e, tr a n s la tin g
from th e
lad d er
o rd e r o f th e m odulator o r s o l - f a la d d e r
order of v isu a l
from
signs
m
s
an a u d ito ry o rd er of co n v en tio n al
and in
A lso,
th e one t h a t le n d s i t s e l f
stave or s ta f f
d
sh ip s;
from
th at
n o tatio n .
s
m
d
a n d v i c e v e r s a ; w h e r e a s i n ( b ) we a r e t r a n s l a t i n g
a sp a tia l
is
alth o u g h ,
th e on ly
stan d s
in to
is
t h e F r e n c h R h y t h m Names.
V isu al
in to
in m odulator
( c ) we a r e t r a n s l a t i n g
to n al r e la tio n ­
from a v i s u a l o r d e r
o f rh y th m
s y m b o ls
u
in to
j i n
I
"rhythm icized"
( i f we may c o i n t h e w o r d ) .
Indeed,
staff
the f i r s t
sym bols i n t o
p rocess of tr a n s la tio n
s o l - f a names,
o n ly one of th e t h r e e
need e n te r
lite ra ry
in to
is
and v ice v e rsa ,
tru e
th at
in to
ty p ew ritin g
c h ild ren are
under th e s t a f f
sym bols,
n o t much p e d a g o g i c a l v a l u e ,
speed fa c to r,
read in g .
And,
w hich i s
from a s c r i p t
som etim es a s k e d to
but th is
as i t
an e s s e n t i a l
sym bol,"
is
su rely
esse n tia l
converse,
in a l l
o f prim e im p o rtan ce to
th e tim e o r
elem ent i n a l l m u sic-
s o l - f a name" m u st h a v e p r i o r i t y
and sin c e i t s
so l-fa
e x e rc ise has
n eg lects
sin c e th e f i r s t p ro c e ss of
sin g in g ,
the
any m ore t h a n a
i n a n o d d m om ent i n a l e s s o n b y w r i t i n g t h e
le tte rs
is
s i n c e no m u s i c a l e l e m e n t
th e p ro c e ss a t a l l ,
elem ent need e n te r
It
from
t h a t may b e a c c o m p l i s n e d b y t h e
to n e - d e a f and th e rh y th m -d e af,
in to
w.
j
a t e m p o r a l a n d dynam ic o r d e r o f
sound
fill
u
"staff
in a ll
sym bol
staff
sig h t-
" s o l - f a name i n t o
sta ff
d rill
d ictatio n ,
th e c la s s
it
staff
is
in th is
p rac tic e.
V isu al
Staff-spelling
If
is
t h e f o l lo w in g m ethod o f V is u a l S t a f f D i c t a t i o n
fo llo w ed o u t,
i t w i l l be found to be a d m ira b ly s u i t a b l e
f o r c l a s s w ork, an d p r a c t i c e
in
i t w ill
le a d to ra p id
progress
in v isu a l
sta ff p itc h
sym bol,
The c l a s s
lin e s,
th e
sh o u ld be ask ed to
treb le
The t e a c h e r
and,
of an inch a p a r t,
stav e
c l e f a n d a sem ib rev e n o te
o r s p a c e named by t h e
th en d i c t a t e s ,
m etronom ic r a t e ,
sym bol t o
draw a num ber o f b a r
or th re e -te n th s
At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e
" d o h ," on any l i n e
w ith th e
from s o l - f a p i t c h
and v ic e v e rsa .
about a q u a rte r
on a s t a v e .
in sert
sp e llin g
w ithout p itc h
th e y should
to
in d ic ate
teach er,
th u s:
and a t a uniform
a number o f s o l - f a nam es,
b eg in n in g
doh w h ic h i s a l r e a d y i n s e r t e d , t h u s , f o r exam ple
Idoh jme I s o h | l a h | f a h | r a y | s o h |me | h i g h doh|
| l a h | f a h | r a y I s o h |l o w t e | d o h |
durin g th is
on t h e l i n e s
rec ita tio n ,
the p u p ils
in sert
sem ib rev es
o r s p a c e s i n d i c a t e d by t h e s p o k e n s o l - f a
sy llab les.
T h e r e m u s t b e no h e s i t a n c y o n t h e p a r t o f t h e
teach er,
o n c e h e h a s d e c i d e d on a " t e m p o , " a n d o n l y one
n o te m ust be i n s e r t e d
in
th is
try
to
e x e r c i s e we m u s t
e a c h b a r by t h e p u p i l s ,
as
in
to approach as n ear as p o s s ib le
th e a c tu a l co n d itio n s of
s i g h t - r e a d i n g from s t a f f ,
in
w h i c h t h e e y e m u s t move c o n t i n u o u s l y a l o n g t h e p r i n t e d
stav e.
n o te,
Where a p u p i l
he m ust be t o l d
is
not
sure of th e p o s itio n of a
to le a v e a b lan k b ar and to p a s s
on
to
th e next n o te.
sure th a t
he i s
an o th er b ar.
Only by t h i s m ean s c a n t h e
not
c o r r e c t i n g a n o te w hich b e lo n g s to
The p u p i l
make w i l d g u e s s e s ,
sh o u ld n o t be encouraged to
as th ese a re apt
a s s o c ia tio n s and to
to
discourage c le a r
b l a n k b a r s a r e m ore e a s y t o
view o f th e t e a c h e r ,
p o in t
t e a c h e r be
s e t up wrong
th in k in g .
co rrect,
B esides,
from t h e p o i n t o f
an d a r e m ore r e p r o a c h f u l ,
from t h e
o f view o f th e p u p i l .
The f o l l o w i n g w o u ld be t h e
so lu tio n to
th e
above t e s t :
V
A
r =
V
n ....
Of c o u r s e ,
fu lly
.0 .
It
a n d s p u r s them on t o
a
a n d much p r e l i m i n a r y
c a u s e s much am usem ent t o a
th e ir best
effo rts,
see a
"dohM in
"doh" p o s i t i o n ,
w h ile t h e t e a c h e r 's v o ic e goes on in e x o r a b ly ,
"till
to
over th e p o s itio n s
back to th e
b a r a n d c o u n t i n g up from t h e
sy llab le,
L.q.—L
a
the black b o ard h e s i t a t i n g
sy llab le a fte r
. nV
a
sh o u ld be d e m o n stra te d
" f a h , " " l a h , n & c., or r e f e r r i n g
th e f i r s t
.
- 6 ---
th e procedure
sh o u ld be g iv en .
c lassm ate a t
of
-------- - -A
V
on t h e b la c k b o a r d b e fo re h a n d ,
p rac tic e
c la ss,
S 3 -------
re c itin g
t h e l a s t syllable o f r e c o r d e d
tim e. "
W ritten
Wo r k
The w h o l e l e s s o n p r o v i d e s a c o m i c i l l u s t r a t i o n
of
Sroo
Omar K h a y y a m 1s 1 i n e s :
"The m ov in g f i n g e r w r i t e s ; a n d , h a v in g w r i t ,
Moves o n :
nor a l l thy p i e t y nor w it
S h all lu r e i t back to can cel h a l f a l in e ,
Nor a l l t h y t e a r s w a s h o u t a w o r d o f i t . "
And l e t
to
u s hope t h a t
it
en fo rces th e
"lo o k b e f o r e you l e a p . "
tongue
is
ju st
form er
is
apt
For, w h ile a s l i p
as serio u s as a s lip
to
w h ile th e l a t t e r
f a d e away i n t o
is
sam e m o r a l ,
nam ely,
of th e
of th e pen,
the
th e lim bo o f t h e p a s t ,
alw ay s w ith u s .
T ru ly ,
"W ritin g
m aketh an e x a c t m a n ."
To b e g i n w i t h ,
sh o rt,
say e ig h t
stra in
is
th en ,
th e e x e rc is e s
or te n n o tes
in length,
som etim es c o n s i d e r a b l e ,
p u p i l s who " g e t l o s t "
p e n alized ,
or to
to
be to o lo n g
p o sitio n s
th is
of the
to n ic
ex ercise,
q u a lity
d ictatio n
is
q u ite
to
sense of
to get
"k ey ,"
to c arry
and to gauge th e
to n ic
s c a le degree
to
in the key.
s h o u l d be c h an g e d from e x e r c i s e
and th e te a c h e r
of the
of course,
s c a l e d e g r e e s by r e f e r e n c e
o r t o some o t h e r
The p o s i t i o n o f t h e
to
is,
i n t h e i r m ind,
o th er
a n d we do n o t w i s h
"u nem ployed."
develop a v i s u a l
th e to n ic p o s itio n
as th e m ental
in an e x e r c i s e to be too h e a v i ly
The a i m o f t h e e x e r c i s e
th e p u p ils
s h o u ld be
sh o u ld v a ry th e o rd er and
i n t e r v a l s an d th e m etronom ic r a t e o f
su it
th e a b i l i t y
easy to a d ap t
of th e
th is v isu al
th e c a p a c i t y o f any c l a s s ,
cla ss.
sp e llin g
from i n f a n t s
Thus,
it
ex ercise
to a d u lts ,
by
to
foi
sim p ly a l t e r i n g
the
"tem po" a n d t h e k i n d o f
in te rv als
used.
In co n n ec tio n w ith th e
useful
t o h a v e a p o c k e t m etronom e o f t h e t a p e - m e a s u r e
type
( i s s u e d by Weekes & C o . ) ,
and is
q u ite u n o b tru siv e,
speed of d ic ta tio n ,
six ty )
six ty )
to e ig h ty n o tes
is
a s t h i s m ak e s no s o u n d
and i t
allo w s th e r a t e
a d v a n c e d g r a d u a l l y from a b o u t t h i r t y
of
it
n o tes
t o be
(two sw in gs
(two s w in g s o f one h u n d r e d a n d
p e r m in u te.
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f E r r o r s - t h e S u b j e c t i v e Type
The w r i t e r d e v i s e d t h i s V i s u a l S t a f f S p e l l i n g
some t i m e a g o ,
a n d em ployed c y c l o s t y l e d
stav es,
b ar l in e s and k ey n o tes,
c le fs,
ready fo r
th e p u p ils '
w ith an ear t e s t
read in g
a b ility
e n trie s.
s h e e ts w ith
a ll
com plete and
He u s e d t h e t e s t a l o n g
an d a rhythm t e s t
in an ex perim ent,
o u t w i t h som e f i r s t - y e a r
in order
to a sse ss
w h ic h h e was c a r r y i n g
secondary c la s s e s ;
m a r k i n g t h e p a p e r s h e was s t r u c k b y c e r t a i n
and in
ty p es of
errors
t h a t w ere c o n t i n u a l l y
b e i n g m ad e b y p u p i l s .
errors
c o u ld be grouped in to
tw o c l a s s e s .
In th e f i r s t
cla ss of e rro r,
w h i c h we
m ight c a l l
he fo u n d t h a t one p u p i l
w o u l d make
th e
su b jectiv e
the
sa m e m i s t a k e e a c h t i m e a c e r t a i n n o t e o r i n t e r v a l
appeared,
type,
Thes
no m a t t e r w h a t t h e k e y w a s , w h i l e a n o t h e r p u p i l
w o u ld make a n o t h e r m i s t a k e e a c h tim e a n o t h e r n o t e o r
in te rv a l
Test
appeared.
F or exam ple,
en te red a
te sts
in
"fail” f o r
every
d iffe re n t keys,
ran g in g
from
an e x ac t
so l-fa
one boy
"ray"
"lab"
a ll
b eg in n in g w ith
a b o v e down t o
short
"doh" an d
w ith th e
w h ic h w ere c a l l e d o u t,
\
I,
s,
cl
:o... '
I t w ill be seen th a t
(th e f i r s t
and th e s e
four a l l
"fah"
"lah ".
enough,
r
9,
I,
o
r
J/
o
D
— n --------0------ __ -------
•r
S,
o
o n ly ,
th is
c o n ta in e d th e
One m i g h t
sam e e r r o r ,
nam ely,
s u s p e c t from t h i s
d efect of h earin g .
he p l a c e d " la h "
tim e,
r a n g e d u p w a rd s from
c o rrectly
th a t th e
B ut,
i& a s i m i l a r
the t e s t
"doh" t o
and s ix th t e s ts
same
b e g a n on "doh" b u t
" la h ."
H ere i s a t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f h i s a n sw e rs to
first
!
f o u r w ere w rong,
s e r i e s o f t e s t s w hich he h a d j u s t w r i t t e n on th e
page;
-O
o u t o f e i g h t e e n n o t e s w hich
n o te b ein g g iv e n ),
e r r o r was due t o a c e r t a i n
w r itte n above:
__ U____
d
■■
s,
w
'
--- /“N
U-----'— e —
s/
stran g ely
of
t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f tw o o f h i s a n s w e r s ,
u i ---------------
for
in a s e rie s
H ere i s
d
he w rote
c o n sisten tly
"soh" b elow .
sy llab les,
w
f .......
(0- 0
(aged tw elv e)
o n t h e sa m e p a g e ,
a ll
the
co rrectly
answ ered,
as w ill
fit
be seen:
m
1
5
£
R em edial A c tio n th r o u g h D ia g n o sis
P r o b a b l y t h e e r r o r was due s i m p ly t o
th at
th e boy th o u g h t o f
w ith
th e
he p u t
resu lt
th at,
" l a h " below
ascending a t
the
" l a h " a s com ing a f t e r
if
(i.e .,
tim e,
sin g in g th e
scale,
f o r th e m ost p a r t ?
o u t,
a fte r
soh?"
s ix ty - th r e e n o tes
John C airn s of
tim e s,
it
above
Are n o t
so l-fa
"Come o n ,
" C o r r e c t .1"
in th a t
C lass
series
I Fc w r o t e
m ost.
it
a f t e r ) "soh?
sy llab les,
upw ards
g u i lt y of rap p in g
now.' What n o t e com es
At a n y r a t e ,
out of
of descending t e s t s ,
"fah"
for
"lah"
ten
and y e t he had f o r ty -tw o n o te s c o rre c t'.
In co n n ec tio n w ith t h i s p o in t,
th at
(i.e .,
some t e a c h e r s g u i l t y
And a r e we n o t a l l
"L ah."
th e tim e,
a f t e r ) " s o h ," an d i f he w ere
to th e
somewhat t e s t i l y :
"soh",
he w ere d e s c e n d in g a t
he p u t
C a n we b l a m e h i m ?
of
th e fa c t
is
we m i g h t n o t e
t h e a v e r a g e p u p i l s f r o m whom we c a n l e a r n
T h e v e r y b r i g h t o n e s n e e d no p h y s i c i a n ,
and th e
SOif
v e r y p o o r o n e s som etim es d e fy a l l
p h y s ic ia n to
diagnose t h e i r
p u p i l s make e x c e l l e n t
th e e f f o r t s
ills.
But t h e a v e r a g e
su b jects fo r
d iag n o sis.
A n o t h e r v e r y common t y p e o f e r r o r ,
be c l a s s e d u n d er
in
a ll keys,
in te rv a l
the
su b jectiv e
" h i g h doh"
d escending
ty p e
was t h e w r i t i n g o f
to
from "doh"
"soh" or
to
of th e
w hich m ight
since
"lah"
for
"doh"
to
it
appeared
"soh"
"low s o h " ,
and
w ould be fo u n d w r i t t e n o v er and over a g a in f o r
And s u r e l y t h e r e a s o n i s
do n o t we t e a c h e r s d i n i t
If
If
sin g in g
th e p u p ils
to
seek.
in
s ig h t - sin g in g t e s t s ;
i s a com m unity c o n c e r n ,
d iag n o se th e e r r o r s ,
as
"stu p id m ista k e s."
th e f i r e s i d e ,
of th e
and i t
It
is
it
is
j u s t as
b u t w here th e s i g h t i s much m ore d i f f i c u l t
so e a s y t o
are
then,
d ism iss
o n l y when o n e c a n s i t
them
by
and stu d y in b la c k and w h ite th e in d iv id u a l
cla ss,
t h a t one c an d iag n o se th e e r r o r s
of i n d iv id u a l p u p i ls and o f ty p e s of p u p i ls .
be se en ,
For
th at
of c o u rs e , w ould a p p e a r
to
effo rts
in to
not fa r
"h ig h d o h ,"
doh i s on a s p a c e , soh i s on a s p a c e :
doh i s on a l i n e , soh i s on a l i n e .
Such e r r o r s ,
freq u e n tly
i.e .
"so h ."
Thus
"soh".
in the
th at
th e s e v i s u a l m usic s p e l l i n g t e s t s
in v a lu a b le fo r rem ed ial p u rp o ses,
te s tin g purposes.
I t w ill
as w ell
as fo r
O b jectiv e
Type o f E r r o r
We now p a 3 S o n t o
th ese
te sts,
the
second c la s s of e rr o r
w h i c h we m i g h t c a l l
error.
H ere t h e e r r o r
ness or
i d i o s y n c r a s y on t h e p a r t
but is
due r a t h e r
th e m a te r ia l
to
itse lf,
is
the o b je c tiv e
in
type of
n o t due to a p a r t i c u l a r weak­
of
in d iv id u a l p u p ils,
som ething i n h e r e n t
e .g .,
in
the n a tu re of
th e p o s i t i o n o f th e k ey note
in c e r ta in keys.
U ndoubtedly,
t h e m o s t common a n d t h e m o s t
e r r o r made by t h e n i n e c l a s s e s o f f i r s t - y e a r
p u p ils under o b serv atio n in
serio u s
secondary
t h e s e t e s t s was due t o
the
c o n f u s i o n w h ic h e x i s t e d i n t h e m inds of t h e p u p i l s
b e t w e e n Key C a n d Key D.
b eg in n in g w ith
stav e,
p artly ,
In t e s t s w r itte n
"doh" on t h e f i r s t
i n Key C,
l e g e r - l i n e below th e
a g r e a t number o f p u p i l s w r o t e t h e i r
a n d som etim es w h o lly ,
i n Key D,
answ ers
"doh"
"me"
"soh" b e in g w r i t t e n
a n d "doh"
"ray" b ein g w r i t te n
Even a s u p e r f i c i a l e x a m in a tio n o f th e
showed c l e a r l y
o th e r key.
resu lts
t h a t Key C s c o r e d l o w e r m a r k s t h a n a n y
T h is l e d th e w r i t e r
to co n sid er
th e q u e stio n
S0(>
of th e order of d if f ic u lty
E,
F,
G, A,
sin g in g .
a c tio n ,
B - from t h e v i s u a l
So,
i n t h e m eantim e,
stan d p o in t
in sig h t-
h e t o o k no r e m e d i a l
and d id no t hand hack the p a p e rs to
but d ev ised a la r g e - s c a le
th e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s
stav e,
o f t h e v a r i o u s k e y s - C, D,
the p u p ils ,
experim ent in o rd e r to t e s t
of th e v a rio u s
as a id s or o th erw ise
to n ic p o s itio n s
on t h e
in sig h t-sin g in g .
O rd e r o f P r e s e n t a t i o n o f Keys i n
th e In tro d u c tio n to S ta ff-re a d in g
A little
sin ce
thought
sh o u ld con vince anyone t h a t ,
c h ild re n are taught
i n t h e m ovable doh m ethod t o
r e c o g n i s e t h e v a r i o u s s c a l e d e g r e e s from t h e p o s i t i o n of
t h e t o n i c on t h e s t a v e ,
the a c tu a l
p o sitio n
of
t h e t o n i c m ust be o f ex trem e im p o rta n c e , e s p e c i a l l y w ith
young c h ild r e n .
It
p o s i t i o n s on th e
stav e,
<1i
C
w ill
D
space?
It
keys,
w hile
th e
seven d if f e r e n t
....
F
to
Cr
A
3
the ey e .
does a to n ic
on a l i n e make e x a c t l y
t h e eye o f a c h i l d a s a t o n i c on a
is not lik e ly ,
beget d ifferen c e s.
keys,
£
make a n e q u a l a p p e a l
t h e same a p p e a l t o
th at
i n w h i c h t h e t o n i c m ay a p p e a r ,
M i
F o r exam ple,
fla t
is not lik e ly
for
d if f e r e n c e s a re bound to
S trin g p lay ers p re fe r
and b ra s s p la y e rs p r e f e r f l a t
sh arp keys to
keys to
sharp
t h e b e g i n n e r o n t h e p i a n o l i k e s k e y C, a n d
so 7
d islik e s
key C sh arp and key C f l a t .
on a c c o u n t
th ese
-
is
so lely
o f t h e t e c h n i q u e o f s o u n d - p r o d u c t i o n on
in stru m en ts.
How ever, w i t h b e g i n n e r s
not
But t h i s
th e
te c h n iq u e of
ch ild ren w ill
C flat,
in stru m en t or v o ice
it
is
th at m atters
reproduce a phrase w ith equal ease in
C n a tu ra l,
What m a t t e r s ,
the
in sig h t-sin g in g
C sharp,
rath er,
is
D, D f l a t ,
E flat,
th e tech n iq u e of th e
&c.
eve,
in v o lv e d in th e r e c o g n itio n of th e v a rio u s s c a le
degrees
in th e
effect,
d iffe re n t keys.
For exam p le,
from t h e v i s u a l p o i n t o f view ,
i n k e y C, w h i c h l i t e r a l l y
in to
for
a six -lin e
stav e,
th e m ost p a r t ,
lik e
what i s
the
of th e low er l e g e r - l i n e
co n v erts a f iv e - lin e
w ith th e low est l i n e
th e
lin e
stave
e x istin g
of th e eq u ato r,
in
im ag in atio n ?
From a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f s c h o o l m u s i c r e a d e r s
use,
a n d from a r g u m e n ts
ev id en t
th at
th ere
in and out of th e p re s s ,
a r e tw o s c h o o l s o f
in
it
is
t h e o r i s t s w ith
o p p o sin g v iew s on th e q u e s t io n of th e o r d e r o f p r e s e n t a ­
tio n of keys in th e
a u th o rs
Some
o f s c h o o l m u s i c r e a d e r s b e g i n w i t h key- C, a n d
f o l l o w o n w i t h G, F ,
key s ig n a tu re s ,
th e
teach in g of sig h t-s in g in g .
first
It
space,
is
D & c.; w h ile o th e r s ,
b eg in w ith
d isreg ard in g
"doh" on t h e f i r s t
lin e ,
or
&c.
im portant th a t
p r e s e n ta tio n of keys in th e
t h i s problem of th e o r d e r of
in tr o d u c ti o n to
sta ff
sig h t-
5o2
sin g in g
as
it
is
s h o u ld he s e t t l e d hy e x p e rim e n ta l m ethods,
e v id en t
th at
it w ill
n e v e r h e s e t t l e d hy
a r g u m e n t u m a d h o m in e m m e t h o d s .
The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e
p o in t
te a c h e r and th e c la s s
lie s
in the
m ust f o llo w
m usic r e a d e r
t h e M ethod.
fact
th at
the
t h e m ethod a d o p te d hy th e a u th o r of th e
in use,
for,
in th e
end,
th e Reader i s
Xo<j
CHAPTER V I I
*
THE ORDER OF DIFFICULTY OP KEYS IN SIGHT SINGING
(An e x p e r i m e n t t o a s c e r t a i n t h e o r d e r o f d i f f i c u l t y
t h e v a r i o u s keys from t h e v i s u a l p o i n t o f view i n
s ig h t sin g in g )
In th e
of
p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r t h e w r i t e r d e a l t w i t h "The
V is u a l A pproach t o
S t a f f S ig h t S in g in g " , and p o in ted out
t h a t , a p a r t a l t o g e t h e r from a u r a l and p i t c h problem s, th e r e
w ere v i s u a l pro b lem s in v o lv e d i n t h e a c t o f s i g h t - s i n g i n g ,
w hich o f t e n e sca p ed th e n o t ic e
la tter
is
too
The
o f t e n i n c l i n e d t o be c o n te n t w it h p r e s s in g
home m ax im s l i k e
lin es",
o f th e m usic t e a c h e r .
e tc .,
"If
and t o
'd * is
on a l i n e ,
leave i t
'm ' a n d
a t th at,
(i.e .
are
on
tru s tin g t h a t th in g s
w i l l s o r t th em selv es out w ith p r a c tic e .
m ents i n V is u a l S t a f f D i c t a t i o n
's '
However, e x p e r i ­
t h e w r i t i n g by th e
p u p i l s o f n o t e s on a s t a v e t o t h e d i c t a t i o n by t h e t e a c h e r
of s o l-fa sy llab les)
proved t o
t h e w r i t e r t h a t p u p i l s , who
had a lr e a d y had s e v e r a l y e a rs of p r a c tic e
sin g in g ,
a ll
s t i l l p ersisted
in s t a f f sig h t-
i n m a k i n g t h e sa m e v i s u a l e r r o r s
in
k e y s , a n d t h a t much t i m e a n d e f f o r t w o u l d h a v e b e e n
saved i f th e se
e r r o r s had b e e n d ia g n o s e d and c o r r e c t e d i n
th e e a rly sta g e s.
F u rth er,
p o sitio n s
t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s showed t h a t t h e v a r i o u s
of th e to n ic in th e
k e y s C, D, E, F , G, A, B, d i d
n o t seem t o b e o f eq u al v a lu e t o t h e p u p i l s a s v i s u a l a id s
i n g au ging o th e r i n t e r v a l s
*
in the key.
Fro m t h e n a t u r e o f __
TuUisked in " MUS'/C M S c h o o l s ' ( H o y £ llo VC o. L to)
and
J lf t- Y k A o g u s T ;
*
Y & Ju n e l % l >
5"/0
th in g s,
it
is
not lik e ly th a t a l l to n ic
eq u ally favourable to
T h is h a s ,
indeed,
sectio n of th e o rists
b eginners in s t a f f s ig h t- s in g in g .
However,
except f o r the f a c t
advo cates fo llo w in g th e
k e y s - C, G, P , D, e t c .
t h a t one
o r d e r o f the
- in th e in tro d u ctio n to s ta f f
w h i l e a n o th e r s e c t i o n denounces t h i s
favours the
w i l l he
b e e n r e c o g n i s e d by m u s i c e d u c a t i o n i s t s
f o r th e m ost p a r t .
read in g ,
p o sitio n s
o rd e r and
o r d e r o f t h e l i n e s a n d s p a c e s - E, P , G, e t c .
n o th in g , so f a r a s th e w r i t e r i s aw are,
-
h a s b e e n d o n e on
e x p e r i m e n t a l l i n e s t o f i n d o u t w hich a r e t h e f a v o u r a b le
t o n i c p o s i t i o n s from t h e v i s u a l p o in t
of view , an d w hich a r e
the u n fav o u ra b le ones.
In th e fo llo w in g t e s t th e
ra is e th e
su b jectiv e
w r i t e r has endeavoured to
p r o b le m once a n d f o r a l l a b o v e t h e p l a n e of
judgem ent or b i a s ,
of o b jec tiv e s c i e n t if i c
in p revious t e s t i n g
and to t r e a t i t
experim ent.
on t h e p l a n e
The e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d
o f t h i s t y p e was draw n on,
in order to
re p ro d u c e as f a i t h f u l l y a s p o s s ib l e i n the t e s t th e con­
d itio n s
u n d e r w hich s o l - f a i n g fro m s t a f f n o t a t i o n ta k e s
place;
a n d e v e r y e n d e a v o u r w a s made t o
c o n tro l the
c o n d itio n s of th e t e s t a s r i g i d l y a s p o s s ib le , so as to
approxim ate to th e la b o r a to r y ty p e o f experim ent.
I n a l l s i g h t - s i n g i n g by t h e m o v ab le doh m ethod t h e
p u p ils m ust f i r s t t r a n s l a t e th e s t a f f n o te s in to s o l - f a
5*/!
sy llab les
b e fo re th e y can sing th e c o r r e c t n o te .
a p u re ly v is u a l concern, and i t
sig h t-sin g in g
in th is
is th is
a s p e c t of th e
p r o c e s s t h a t h as b een i s o l a t e d and a n a l y s e d
te st.
B ut one e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r ,
which m u st b e t a k e n i n t o
account in any t e s t of s ig h t- s in g in g a b i l i t y ,
facto r.
o n e 's
T his i s
I n o rd in a ry language re a d in g ,
own r a t e
i s th e tim e
one may c h o o s e
o f r e a d i n g , a n d o n e may p a u s e o v e r w o r d s
o r p h r a s e s w i t h o u t d i s t o r t i n g t h e m eaning of t h e w h o le .
N o t so i n m usic r e a d i n g !
F o r a l l m elody i s a p r o p o r t i o n
of t h r e e e le m e n ts - p i t c h ,
tim e and i n t e n s i t y .
I f a n y one
o f th e s e elem ents i s d i s t o r t e d out of p ro p o rtio n , th e
m e a n in g o f t h e m u sic a s a whole i s so f a r d i s t o r t e d .
H ence, a n e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n a i l s i g h t s i n g i n g by th e
m o v a b le doh m ethod i s
th e a b i l i t y to t r a n s l a t e from s t a f f
sym bol i n t o s o l - f a s y l l a b l e
in stan tan eo u sly .
One m i g h t a t t e m p t t o m e a s u r e t h i s
a b i l i t y w ith the
a i d o f a t a c h i s t o s c o p e , b u t a s t h i s w o u l d n o t be s u i t a b l e
f o r u s e w i t h l a r g e num bers o f p u p i l s , t h e com plem entary
t e s t o f t r a n s l a t i o n from s o l - f a s y l l a b l e
was u s e d .
The a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s
i n t o s t a f f sy m b o l
m ethod i s t h a t t h e
a n s w e r s c a n a l l b e w r i t t e n down o n m u s i c s t a v e s w i t h o u t
th e p u p i l hav in g to r a i s e
h is eye from th e
page.
51%
W ith t h e
a id of a G e ste tn e r c y c lo s ty le , fo o lsc a p
s h e e t s w ere p r e p a r e d c o n t a i n i n g m usic s t a v e s b a rr e d o f f a t
in te rv als
of about
10
mm.
Each s t a v e
b a rs , and in th e f i r s t b ar,
co n ta in e d eleven
fo llo w in g the t r e b le
c le f sign,
i
was p r i n t e d
a s e m ib re v e which i n d i c a t e d t h e t o n i c o r t h e
p o sitio n of
"doh" f o r t h a t l i n e .
ted ,
The t e a c h e r t h e n d i c t a ­
w ith o u t p i t c h and a t a uniform r a t e ,
a number of
s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s , and w h i l e he d i d so t h e p u p i l s w r o te a
s e m i b r e v e i n e a c h b a r t o i n d i c a t e t h e s o l - f a n o t e t h a t was
c a l l e d o u t by t h e t e a c h e r .
fille d
in ,
w ith t h e d i c t a t e d s o l - f a n o te s p r in te d above.
d
A r\
2) w
s
m
o
■
The p u p i l s
in
We g i v e b e l o w a s a m p l e l i n e
one b a r ,
f
A
o
r
6
m
l
O
r
o
'
-
P
Q
W
s
p
a
.0 .1
w e r e t o l d t h a t i f t h e y w r o t e tw o o r m ore n o t e s
t h e s e w o u l d be m a r k e d w r o n g .
be e n t e r e d i n i t s
proper b a r, so t h a t th e
Each n o t e m ust
eye of t h e
pupil
m ust t r a v e l along th e s ta v e a s i n o r d in a r y s i g h t - s i n g in g .
I f a p u p i l were i n d o u b t ab o u t a n o t e ,
h e knew f r o m
p re v io u s i n s t r u c t i o n and ex p erien ce to leav e a blank bar
and p a s s on t o t h e n e x t n o t e ,
b u t t h a t t h e n o te s must a l l
be e n t e r e d i n t h e i r p ro p e r b a r s .
Some o f t h e l i n e s d i c t a t e d c o n t a i n e d 8 n o t e s ,
9 n o t e s a n d some 1 0 n o t e s .
some
The r e a s o n f o r t h i s a r r a n g e ­
ment i s t h a t i n p r e v i o u s t e s t s
i t was f o u n d t h a t some
S’13
p u p i l s w ould f i l l
le is u re ly fash io n ,
i n p e rh a p s th e f i r s t tw o n o te s in
and t h e n l i e
in w a it f o r th e p en u ltim ate
and f i n a l n o t e s , t a k i n g tim e t o r e f e r back to th e t o n i c and
t o c o u n t up t h e
l i n e s and s p a c e s f o r th e
a p r o c e d u r e t h a t would h av e d e f e a t e d t h e
te st,
for,
purpose of t h i s
g iv en tim e to count up, a l l to n ic p o s itio n s
w ould be e q u a l l y e a s y .
As t h e p u p i l s
number o f n o te s i n e a c h l i n e v a r i e d ,
do t h i s
co rre ct p o sitio n -
were t o l d t h a t t h e
t h e y c o u l d no l o n g e r
w i t h i m p u n i t y , b u t w e r e f o r c e d t o move a l o n g t h e
sta v e a t the r a t e
of d ic ta tio n .
The m u sic s t a v e s were p r i n t e d on t h e f o o l s c a p s h e e t s
in groups
p rin ted
keys,
o f s e v e n , a n d i n t h e f i r s t b a r o f e a c h s t a v e was
a sem ibreve t o r e p r e s e n t t h e
C, D, E, F , G, A, B, s o t h a t
"doh" i n t h e v a r i o u s
each group of seven
s t a v e s r e p r e s e n te d th e com plete c y c le of to n ic p o s i t i o n s .
T he f u n d a m e n t a l i d e a u n d e r l y i n g t h e t e s t was t h a t
e x a c t l y t h e same s e r i e s
of n o te s sh o u ld be w r i t t e n to
d i c t a t i o n by t h e p u p i l s i n e a c h o f t h e s e v e n k e y s and u n d e r
id e n tic a l co n d itio n s.
istere d
te sts
Such a t e s t m u st e v i d e n t l y be ad m in ­
on t h e p r i n c i p l e
of r o t a t i n g th e sequence of note
and o f k ey s so t h a t t h e p r a c t i c e e f f e c t an d t h e
f a t i g u e e f f e c t may b e d i s t r i b u t e d e q u a l l y among a l l t h e
seven keys.
H ence, s e v e n g r o u p s o r l i n e s o f n o t e s were
c h o s e n f o r d i c t a t i o n , a n d t h e s e w ere d i c t a t e d s e v e n tim e^
e a c h t i m e w i t h a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r o f k e y s , s o t h a t no k e y
should
en joy any a d v an tag e over a n o th e r from i t s
in th e s e rie s .
p o sitio n
574-
In order to t e s t th e e f f e c t of th e d if f e r e n t to n ic
p o s i t i o n s f o r n o t e s a b o v e a n d n o t e s b e lo w t h e t o n i c , two
d iffere n t series
(N o s.l to
o f n o te s w ere u sed ,
t h e f i r s t o r "Up S e r i e s "
7) c o n t a i n i n g n o t e s r a n g i n g above
a n d t h e s e c o n d o r "Down S e r i e s "
n o te s ran g in g from "r"
"d" a s f a r a s "1J
(N o s.l to V II) c o n ta in in g
or V" to th e
"s" below ,
th ese
"Up"
a n d "Down" g r o u p s b e i n g d i c t a t e d a l t e r n a t e l y .
The r a n g e o f n o t e s u s e d i n t h e t e s t t h u s r u n s a s
fo llo w s:TAEJLE
I
,
"Up S e r i e s "
f c
...... ,
i »
©
i r n
£
—I - * —
F
a-
Thus, a ran g e o f a 6 th or s i x n o te s in th e
o f a 5 t h or f i v e n o te s i n th e
o th er,
w
A
2
and t h i s ,
one s e r i e s ,
were u s e d .
bey o n d t h i s r a n g e would h av e i n v o l v e d t h e
w ritin g
and
N otes
of l e g e r
a s w i l l b e s e e n , would have r e a c t e d d i s a d -
v a n ta g eo u sly a g a in s t c e r t a i n keys,
same r e a s o n , t h e
th e t e s t ,
Q *---
t i - H -
"Down S e r i e s' "
lin e s,
!- f - f —
5 *
"d " i n t h e
as th is
e . g . C a n d D.
"Up S e r i e s "
For th e
was n o t r e p e a t e d i n
would h av e n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e w r i t i n g o f a
l e g e r l i n e i n Key C d u r i n g t h e
tests
in th is
key.
The f o l l o w i n g a r e t h e f o u r t e e n g r o u p s o f n o t e s w h i c h
were w r i t t e n t o
d i c t a t i o n i n each of t h e se v e n keys, th e
f i r s t n o te b e in g p r i n t e d on the s h e e t s
in each c ase.
TABLE
II
Up S e r i e s
1. d s 1 m f r
Down S e r i e s
1 s m f
r d
S| 1, d s, r
1,
s,
2. d r s 1 r f m 1 s
X d s, d r t, d 1, s, r
3. d m f
E d 1. t, s, d r t, d s , r
1 s m r s f 1 m
4.
d s r f 1 m s r 1
K d r s, 1, d s, r
5.
d s m f r m 1 r f s r
Z d si 1, d t, r
6. d f m s r
1 m r s f
■SXd
7. d m f s m 1 f r m 1
id
The k e y o r t o n i c
of 8-10 n o te s , and,
a s much a s p o s s i b l e ,
in th is
order:
in
1,
t, d
1, d
r
s.
r s, d 1, r t, s , d
r t, d s, 1, s, d t , r
p o s i t i o n was c h a n g e d f o r e a c h l i n e
order t o se p a ra te th e to n ic
t h e k e y n o te s were p r i n t e d
F B E A D
p o sitio n s
on t h e s h e e t s
G C.
P e r h a p s we s h o u l d e x p l a i n t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e p r i n t i n g
of th e to n ic
th is
on e a c h
ty p e th e w r ite r
stav e.
d id
In e a r lie r v isu al te s ts
not p r in t th e
to n ics
of
on t h e c y c lo -
s t y l e d s h e e t s , h u t a n n o u n c e d t h e m o r w r o t e t h e m on t h e
b l a c k b o a r d b e f o r e e a c h l i n e was d i c t a t e d .
B ut he fo u n d
t h a t w h i l e t h i s was b e i n g d o n e , some o f t h e p u p i l s w o u l d
re s o rt to
lato rs,
j o t t i n g down v a r i o u s v i s u a l a i d s ,
s t a f f modu­
e tc .
i n o r d e r t o h e l p them t o f i n d t h e i r b e a r i n g s i n t h e v a r i o u s
keys.
So, to d e f e a t t h i s
s u b t e r f u g e , and t o en su re t h a t
e v e r y p u p i l s h o u ld have an e q u a l c h an ce and e v e r y key
sh o u ld have th e
same a m o u n t o f t i m e a l l o t t e d t o i t ,
he
57k
p r i n t e d t h e k e y n o te on e v e r y s t a v e ,
th u s:•
4 L...
* h = __W----o
- e —
(4 -
The p u p i l s k e p t t h e s h e e t s d o w n , a n d d i d n o t t u r n t h e m o v e r
till
t h e y g o t t h e w o r d o f command.
The w h o l e o f e a c h s e r i e s
o f 63 n o t e s was d i c t a t e d i n
e x a c t l y t h e sa m e m a n n e r a n d i n s t r i c t t i m e a t t h e m e t r o ­
nom ic r a t e
o f 4 0 n o t e s p e r m i n u t e , a p o c k e t m etronome of
t h e ta p e m easure type
( i s s u e d b y W eek es & C o . ) b e i n g u s e d .
T h e r e was n o b r e a k i n t h e s e r i e s e x c e p t a t t h e e n d o f e a c h
l i n e , when t h e t e a c h e r c o u n te d :
"One, Two, R e a d y ! G o !" a n d
s ta r te d th e d ic ta tin g of th e next lin e .
The f i r s t
series,
f o r e x a m p le , would be g i v e n o u t
th u s:-
M=40 J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
i
J
1.
IOne | Two
i R e a d y ! | g o ! Id
|s | l
|m
|f
|r |l
|s
|m | f
2.
|One |Two
| R e a d y ! |Go! |d
| r |s
|l
|r
| f |m
|l
Is I
3.
lOne ITwo
IR ead y! |Go! Id
lm If
|l
Is Im | r
Is
If l l
and
so o n , u n t i l t h e s e v e n l i n e s i n t h e s e r i e s were
t e d , when t h e
ag ain .
|
lm
d icta­
p u p i l s w e r e o r d e r e d t o t u r n t h e s h e e t s down
Then t h e se co n d s e r i e s
o f 63 n o t e s was d i c t a t e d
l i k e m a n n e r , a n d s o on w i t h t h e r e m a i n i n g o n e s .
in
I
577
I t was p o i n t e d o u t a b o v e t b a t t h e p o s i t i o n of a l i n e
in th e
s e r ie s of seven
amount
o f work d o n e , a n d s o ,
e ffe c t of p o sitio n
it
l i n e s h a s a marked
on t h e
order to d is tr ib u te
th is
i n t h e s e r i e s among a l l t h e s e v e n k e y s ,
was n e c e s s a r y t o d i c t a t e
i n T able I I
in
effect
seven tim e s,
t h e w h o l e s e r i e s o f 12 6 n o t e s
e a c h tim e w ith a d i f f e r e n t o rd e r
of k ey n o tes,
F B
E
A
D G
C
B E
A
D
G C
P
E A
D
G
C F
B
etc.
Thus each p u p i l had t o w r i t e i n e a c h o f t h e
keys th e
sam e 1 2 6 n o t e s ,
i.e .
882 n o t e s i n a l l ,
seven
and a s f a r
a s p o s s i b l e t h e c o n d it i o n s u n d er w hich t h e n o te s i n each
k ey were w r i t t e n w ere i d e n t i c a l .
I n T a b l e I I I we show t h e
of 14 t e s t s ,
the
letters
and t h e num bers 1 2
groups
3 and
o r d e r o f t h e whole s e r i e s
P B E e tc.
H E
of n o te s i n T able I I w r itte n
r e p r e s e n ti n g th e keys,
e tc . rep re se n tin g th e
in th e s e keys.
Table III
1 st series
F.
Ba
E3
Aa
Df
Gi
Cr
2nd s e r i e s
Bi
Ex
Am
Dm
Gx
Cm
Fm
3rd s e r i e s
Ez
A3
Da
Gy
Ci
Fy
Bi
4 th s e rie s
Ax
Du
Gm
Cr
Fn
Bbl
Ex
5 th s e rie s
Di
Ga
Cy
F6
By
E
Az
6 th s e r ie s
GTL
Cm
Fx
Be
Em
Ai
Dm
7 th s e rie s
Ca
F?
Bi
Ey
Ai
Dz
Ga
8 th s e r ie s
Fm
Bx
Em
An
Dr
Ge
Cm
9 th s e r ie s
Bj
Ei
Ay
Di
Ga
C3
Fa
10th s e r ie s
Ex
An
Dm
Gx
Cx
Fm
Bm
11th s e r i e s
Ab
Dy
Gi
Cz
Fy
Ba
Ej
12th s e r i e s
Dm
Gxl
Ci
Fx
Be
Em
Ax
13th s e r i e s
Gy
Ci
Fa
Bs
E
a
Ay
Di
14th s e r i e s
Cm
Fx
Bx
Em
Am
Dx
Gjl
F ive c y c lo s ty le d fo o lsc ap s h e e ts ,
stav es, tre b le c le fs ,
f o r each p u p il,
i
c o m p le te w i t h music
k e y n o te s and b a r l i n e s , were r e q u i r e d
and t h e number of n o t e s w r i t t e n by t h e
p u p i l s i n t h e whole t e s t a m o u n te d t o n e a r l y a q u a r t e r o f a
m illio n , v iz.
244,314.
Much p r e l i m i n a r y p r a c t i c e h a d b e e n g i v e n i n a l l
in p revious t e s t s ,
T est occurred to
what to d o .
b efo re th e
id e a of t h i s
keys
"T onic P o s i t i o n "
t h e w r i t e r , s o t h a t t h e p u p i l s knew e x a c t l y
The w h o l e t e s t w a s c o m p l e t e d f u l l y b y 27 7 F i r s t Y e a r
Secondary p u p ils
p erio d s.
( a v e r a g e ag e 12+) i n tw o c o n s e c u t i v e music
The s c o r e s w e r e t h e n t a b u l a t e d u n d e r t h e r e s p e c t ­
iv e k e y s, a n d th e r e s u l t s s u b je c te d t o th e approved s t a t i s ­
t i c a l a n a l y s i s , w i t h o u t w hich n o t h i n g can be p r e d i c t e d from
such t e s t s .
We s h a l l d e a l f i r s t ,
of t e s t s ,
and C h ie fly , w ith th e
as th ese re s u lts are
"Up S e r i e s
o f m ore s i g n i f i c a n c e t o u s
in our en q u iry ,
sin c e th e u su al approach to s t a f f
s in g in g i s from
t h e to n ic upw ards.
sig h t-
I n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s we g i v e t h e A v e r a g e Mark o r
Mean f o r e a c h K e y , w i t h t h e P r o b a b l e E r r o r o f t h e Mean, a n d
th e C o e ffic ie n t of V ariatio n .
T a b l e IV . . .
g i v e s t h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e whole
g ro u p o f 277 p u p i l s .
T able V
g iv e s th e r e s u l t s f o r th e upper
q u a r t i l e , o r t h e 7 0 p u p i l s who
sc o re d t h e h ig h e s t m arks.
...
T able VI . . .
gives th e r e s u l t s f o r a l l except
t h e s e t o p 70 p u p i l s , i . e . t h e low er
75 p e r c e n t .
T able V I I . . .
g iv e s th e r e s u l t s f o r t h e low er
q u a r t i l e , o r t h e 67 p u p i l s who
s c o r e d t h e lo w e s t m arks.
Key
F
E
B
A
D
G
C
T a b l e IV ( w h o l e g r o u p o f 2 7 7 p u p i l s )
Mean
48-95 42-01 44-95 47-40 42-15 42-90 37-63
P . E . o f Mean
•5 0 5 3
•5 8 9 9
•5 8 9 9
•5 4 1 8 • 6 3 4 5
• 5 7 8 0 •7 2 41
C o e f f ^ o f Vai*1. 2 5 - 7 6 3 5 - 0 4 3 2 - 7 5 2 8 - 5 2 3 7 - 5 8 3 3 - 6 3 4 8 - 0 5
Mean
T a b l e V ( t o p 70 p u p i l s )
60-36 58-01 59-77 60-60 5 8 -6 0 59-04 57-37
P . E . o f Mean
•2 3 1 3
•3 1 3 1
•3 0 8 3
•2 1 35
•37 0 5
•30 63
•3970
4-81
6-78
6-47
4-42
7-94
6-51
8-69
C o e f f ^ o f V a r 1?
T a b l e VI ( a l l
Mean
P . E . o f Mean
e x c e p t t o p 70 p u p i l s )
4 5 -1 0 36-59 39-96 42-92 36-58 37-43 30-97
• 5 6 0 2 • 6 0 5 6 • 6 4 2 4 • 6 0 3 2 • 6 7 4 2 •58 41 • 7 3 9 6
C o e f r f o f V a r 3? 2 6 - 8 0 3 5 - 7 2 3 4 - 6 9 3 0 - 3 2 3 9 - 7 5 3 3 - 6 7 5 1 - 5 3
T able V II
( l o w e s t 67 p u p i l s )
32-78 2 3 -3 0 24-65 29-85 21-51 25-17 14-34
Mean
•8 86 7 •6 8 6 3 •6 99 8 • 8 6 3 2 • 7 0 3 3 •7 5 53 •78 07
P . E . o f Mean
C o e f f t ' o f V a r 3? 3 3 - 2 3 3 6 - 1 6 3 4 - 8 6 3 5 - 5 1 4 0 - 1 5 3 6 - 8 4 6 6 - 8 6
We s u b j e c t e d t h e a b o v e f i g u r e s t o t h e u s u a l t e s t
fo r sig n ifican ce
o f d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n means ( v i z .
d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n two m e a n s , i n o r d e r t o
the
be s i g n i f i c a n t ,
m u s t be a t l e a s t 3£ t i m e s t h e s q u a r e r o o t of t h e sum o f
t h e s q u a r e s o f th e P ro b a b le E r r o r s o f th e M eans), and
we now g i v e t h e r e s u l t o f t h i s
In s te a d of
o r d in a ry term s
e m p t y i n g t e c h n i c a l t e r m s we s h a l l u s e
in
exam ple, i n s t e a d
fu rth er a n a ly sis.
in terp retin g
of saying,
th ese r e s u lts .
For
"There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t
d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e Me ans o f X a n d Y , " we s h a l l s a y ,
"X i s s u p e r i o r t o Y" o r "X i s i n f e r i o r t o Y " ; a n d
in s te a d of saying,
"T here i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e
b e t w e e n t h e Means o f X a n d Y , " we s h a l l s a y ,
a r e more or l e s s e q u a l "
have n o t been a b le to
(in th e
"X a n d Y
sense t h a t t h e f i g u r e s
prove t h a t any d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s ) .
The o r d e r g i v e n i n T a b l e s V I I I t o X I i s t h e o r d e r
o f s u p e r i o r i t y o f Keys f r o m t h ' e v i s u a l p o i n t
w i t h i n t h e r a n g e m e a s u r e d by t h i s
"Up S e r i e s " . )
te st.
of view ,
(See T a b le I
5Z 2
T able V III
is
Key
1. P
2. A
3. E
*• {d
6. B
7. C
A
F
3,
E
l. G
5. D
i.
a.
M
i
/. F
%■ A
3.
E
fG
1■
C
su p e rio r to
Key
B E D G C
B D G C
B C
C
C
C
n il
B D G C
B D C
B C
n il
n il
n il
n il
(w hole g ro u p o f 277 p u p i l s )
i s more o r l e s s
e q u a l t o Key
is
i n f e r io r to
Key
A
F E
A D G
BED
BEG
D G
ifil
T a b l e IX ( t o p 7o p u p i l s )
F E
E A G
F A D G
F B E D C
B E G C
D G C
B D G
T ab le X ( a l l e x c e p t t o p 70
B E D G C
B D G C
C
C
c
c
n il
A
F E
B A D G
BED
E D G
BEG
n il
n il
n il
F
F A
F A
F E A
F B E A D G
n il
n il
n il
A
F A
F E A
F E A
p u p ils)
n il
n il
F
F A
F A
F A
F B E A D G
T a b l e XI ( l o w e s t 67 p u p i l s )
'• i I
3.
,
G
I E
1b
6. D
T. C
B E D G C
B E D G C
D C
C
C
C
n il
A
F
B E
B D G
E D G
B E
n il
n il
n il
F A
F A
F A
FAG
F B E A D G
A ssum ing t h a t t h i s
a b ility
t e s t m e a s u r e s t h e same v i s u a l
v iiic h i s em ployed i n r e a d i n g f ro m s t a f f n o t a t i o n
b y t h e m o v a b l e d o h m e t h o d , we a r e e n t i t l e d
fo llo w in g
co n clu sio n s.
Prom t h e v i s u a l p o i n t
of n o tes given in th is
sin g in g
t o come t o t h e
te st,
of v ie w ,
and w ith in th e range
th e e a s ie s t keys fo r sig h t
a r e F a n d A, a n d t h e h a r d e s t k e y o f a l l
t h e r e m a i n i n g k e y s we c a n n o t s p e a k w i t h t h e
i s C.
Of
same c e r t a i n t y ,
b u t we may s a y t h a t E a n d 0 a r e e a s i e r t h a n B a n d D.
As t h e p i v o t n o t e s i n t h e s c a l e , f r o m b o t h t h e a u r a l
and t h e
T able
th is
v is u a l poin t
I,
“Up S e r i e s " , w i l l
order
th ree
are
"d m s " , r e f e r e n c e
p e r h a p s e n a b l e us t o
case
of the
t w o b e s t k e y s , P a n d A, t h e p i v o t
top spaces r e s p e c t iv e ly .
o f s p a c e - t o n i c s o v e r l i n e - t o n i c s may b e
due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e
appeal to
th e
sp a c e s on t h e
eye of th e c h ild
s t a v e make a b e t t e r
th an t h e l in e s ;
be d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t w h ile t h e r e a r e
facts.
account for
"d m s " , a r e o n t h e t h r e e b o tto m s p a c e s and th e
T h is s u p e r i o r i t y
stav e,
to
of r a n k .
In th e
n o tes,
of view ,
th ere are
only 4 sp a c e s;
or i t
5 lin e s
or i t
may
on t h e
may b e d u e t o b o t h
A t t h e same t i m e we s h o u l d r e m e m b e r t h a t t h e s c h o o l
ch ild
alw ays w r i t e s and re a d s l e t t e r s and f i g u r e s r e s t i n g
on a l i n e
abed
ABCD
1224.
Nowhere d o e s he w r i t e o r r e a d l e t t e r s
or fig u r e s passing
through a lin e ,
S trictly
lin e s,
speaking,
of co u rse, th e n o tes
a r e n o t on
h u t th rough lin e s .
And t h e
c h ild ,
who h a s d o n e s o much o n - l i n e r e a d i n g a n d
w r i t i n g a n d who h a s p r o b a b l y o f t e n b e e n c e n s u r e d o r p u n i s h e d
for
th ro u g h -lin e w ritin g
( - W - ) may h a v e d e v e l o p e d a p r e f e r -
e n c e f o r o n - l i n e n o t e s o r , a s we m u s i c i a n s c a l l t h e m ,
s p a c e n o t e s .*
W hatever t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s
su p erio rity
(as r e v e a le d
in th e T est)
o f s p a c e - t o n i c s o v e r l i n e - t o n i c s may b e ,
a t any r a t e ,
not due t o th e
i t was,
com parative ease or d i f f i c u l t y
o f w r i t i n g n o t e s d u r i n g t h e t e s t on s p a c e s o r l i n e s , a s i n
t h e whole t e s t t h e nurrber o f n o t e s t h a t h a d t o be w r i t t e n
on l i n e s
to n ics
or s p a c e s i s
p r a c t i c a l l y th e sane f o r both sp ace-
and l i n e - t o n i c s .
to n ic s is a p u rely v isu a l
So t h a t t h e p r e f e r e n c e f o r s p a c e one.
The r e m a i n i n g s p a c e - t o n i c i n t h e t e s t ,
v i z . D, d i d n o t
s c o r e w e l l , b u t we m u s t b e a r i n mind t h a t D d o e s n o t s t a n d
* T h i s s u g g e s t i o n was made b y a c o l l e a g u e .
Mr J . N T M c C o n o c h i e . M . A .
;
i n a s p a c e , b u t hangs p e r i l o u s l y from a l i n e .
T his f a c t
was b r o u g h t o u t b y t h e n u m b e r o f p u p i l s wh o , i n t h e Key C
t e s t , alw ays w ro te D t h u s : -
A l t h o u g h i n t h e Key D t e s t t h e y w e r e n o t r e q u i r e d t o
w rite th is
n o te,
t h e y would s t i l l
have t o v i s u a l i z e
i t to
g e t t h e i r b e a rin g s f o r th e o th e r n o te s in th e key, and th e y
may h a v e h a d some d i f f i c u l t y i n r e a l i s i n g o r r e m e m b e r i n g
t h a t t h e t o n i c was on a s p a c e w h i c h was n o t r e a l l y t h e r e
at a ll
(|>
t h e t o n i c on t h e
.
And, a t a n y r a t e ,
the v i s u a l i z i n g of
s p a c e below t h e s t a v e makes a f i v e - s p a c e
stav e in ste a d of a four-space stav e.
W ith r e g a r d t o
the lin e to n ic s ,
E s c o r e d h i g h e r marks
t h a n G, a l t h o u g h t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e Me ans i n r e l a t i o n t o
t h e P r o b a b l e E r r o r s o f t h e Means was n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w
us to
c a ll th is
d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two s i g n i f i c a n t .
How ever, when com pared w i t h o t h e r k e y s ,
th an G in a l l except the
"d m s "
E has a hig h er rank
l o w e s t g r o u p o f 67 p u p i l s .
W ith
on t h e t h r e e l o w e s t l i n e s .
E c e r t a i n l y s e e m s t o b e b e t t e r p l a c e d t h a n G, w i t h "d m s "
on t h e t h r e e m id d le l i n e s .
W ith r e g a r d t o
r e s u l t s from th e
B ut, a s i n th e
v isu a lizin g
B, one m i g h t h a v e e x p e c t e d b e t t e r
p o sitio n
of " d m s "
on t h e t h r e e t o p l i n e s .
c a s e o f D, a n u m b e r o f p u p i l s h a d t r o u b l e i n
"1" on t h e
f o r i t , a n d w rote i t
space above,
where t h e r e
i s no s p a c e
th u s,
I n k e y s B a n d D, s u c h a m b i g u o u s n o t e s o n t h e
"spaces"
a b o v e a n d b e l o w t h e s t a v e may c a u s e a s e n s e o f c o n f u s i o n o r
i r r i t a t i o n w h ic h would a f f e c t t h e p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e key a s
a w hole.
W ith r e g a r d t o
the rem ain in g l i n e - t o n i c ,
n o t f a r to seek f o r th e rea so n s fo r i t s
a t t h e b o t t o m of t h e l i s t .
is
in use i t
creates a six -lin e
d o e s n o t a p p e a r on t h e s t a v e ,
lin e
sta v e , th e
e x isten ce in th e
appeal t o
low est l in e
o u tstan d in g place
F i r s t of a l l ,
t o n i c w hich r e q u i r e s a l e g e r l i n e .
C, we h a v e
it
When t h i s
i s th e only
leg er lin e
s t a v e , a n d even when i t
i t s t i l l presupposes a s ix -
of w h i c h e n j o y s a sh a d o w y
im ag in atio n .
If,
in t h i s key, c h ild ren
the to n ic
p o s i t i o n t o f i n d t h e i r b e a r i n g s , they
*
a p p e a l t o a v e r i t a b l e shadow.
In a d d itio n to t h i s , th e
d isa b ility ,
u n d e r w h i c h , a s we s a w , Key D s u f f e r s , w i t h i t s
t o n i c on a s p a c e t h a t i s n o t a s p a c e a t a l l , a p p l i e s a t
l e a s t e q u a l l y t o Key C, f o r h e r e we h a v e a s u p e r t o n i c , " r " ,
* Some p u p i l s i n s u r e d t h e m s e l v e s a g a i n s t t h i s a p p e a l t o a
s h a d o w b y m e a n s o f t h e p o l i c y sh o w n b e l o w .
j
5*7
on a s p a c e t h a t d o e s n o t e x i s t .
So t h a t Key C i s d o u b l y
h a n d i c a p p e d b y t h e s e l e g e r n o t e s , D a n d C.
The g r e a t e s t r e v e l a t i o n i n t h e w h o l e o f t h i s t e s t was
the f a c t t h a t ,
w i t h Key D .
i n innum erable i n s ta n c e s ,
E ig h t p u p ils out
Key C was c o n f u s e d
o f 2 77 s c o r e d n o t a s i n g l e
m ark
i n Key C o u t
T his
s c o r e o f z e r o o c c u r r e d i n no o t h e r k e y .
th e
o f t h e 63 n o t e s d i c t a t e d
63 n o t e s h a d b e e n g u e s s e d ,
a g a in s t such a r e s u l t .
E ven i f
a ll
t h e l a w s o f c h a n c e w o uld b e
But t h e s e
m e a n s among t h e p o o r e s t p u p i l s .
in t h i s key.
e i g h t p u p i l s w ere by no
I f Key C i n t h e i r c a s e h a d
b e e n c o r r e c t e d a s Key D, t h e y w o u l d h a v e h a d g o o d s c o r e s
fo r th is
key;
and t h e i r a v e r a g e marks f o r t h e o t h e r s i x
k e y s were r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
29-7
and 2 6 - 5 ,
out
46*7, 42*7, 38*5, 3 2 -2 ,
of a t o t a l
31*7, 30*5,
o f 54 m arks.
The l o w s c o r e s i n Key C w e r e n o t t h e r e s u l t o f
gu essin g , b u t r a th e r th e r e s u lt
of m is d ire c te d th o u g h t. Let
a n y t e a c h e r w r i t e M i d d l e C on t h e b l a c k b o a r d a n d a s k a
y o u n g c l a s s t o w r i t e q u i c k l y t h e whole s c a l e o r e v en " d m s "
from t h i s
to n ic p o s itio n ,
n u m b e r who d r i f t i n t o
and he w i l l be s u r p r i s e d a t t h e
Key D.
I t m u st n o t be t h o u g h t, however, t h a t t h e p la c e of
Key C i n t h e s e t e s t s was s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by t h e s c o r e s o f
th ese e ig h t p u p ils .
T h i s t e n d e n c y t o c o n f u s e Key C w i t h
Key D w a s f o u n d m o r e o r l e s s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e g r o u p , a n d
p ro b a b ly a c c o u n ts f o r the
V a ria tio n in th is
Key.
a b n o r m a l l y h i g h C o e f f i c i e n t of
And l e t
sim ple
i t n o t b e a s s u m e d t o o r e a d i l y t h a t one
black b o ard e x p la n a tio n w i l l b an ish f o r ev er th e
confusion due to th is
The c h i l d i s
an o m a lo u s s p a c e - n o t e below t h e s t a v e .
e sse n tia lly a re a lis t,
a n d w h i l e we may e x p l a i n
a n a n o m a l y t o h i m , we c a n n o t e x p l a i n i t away f o r h i m .
lo o k in g
In
o v e r t h e a n s w e r s i n Key C, o n e c o u l d s e e o v e r a n d
o v e r a g a i n how some o f t h e p u p i l s w e r e c o n s t a n t l y f i g h t i n g
a g a i n s t t h i s ten d e n c y t o drop in to
Key D f r o m Key C.
The a d u l t f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o
see th e c h i l d 's
point
i
of view , and i s
v iew on t h e
i m p a t i e n t som etim es t o f o r c e h i s p o i n t of
c h ild .
" It is
so t i r i n g , "
says,
"to stoop to th e c h ild ,
ch ild
up t o
you."
a s F r a n c i s Thompson
s o much e a s i e r t o l i f t t h e
But o n l y by s t o o p i n g t o t h e c h i l d , a n d
try in g to see
t h i n g s a s he s e e s t h e m , c a n we be o f s e r v i c e
t o him i n h i s
d iffic u ltie s.
And t h e
one t h i n g t h a t s t a n d s
o u t above a l l i n t h i s t e s t i s t h e f a c t t h a t , from th e p u re ly
v i s u a l p o in t of view ,
key f o r
the c h ild
No d o u b t ,
D ic ta tio n ,
p revious
to n ic
th e n a t u r a l key of C is
or b eg in n er in s t a f f
w ith fre q u e n t p ra c tic e
on th e l i n e s
one,
sig h t sin g in g .
in V isual S ta ff
in d icated in th is
these d iffe re n c e s ,
the u n -n a tu ra l
c h a p t e r and t h e
due to th e p o s itio n of th e
i n t h e v a r i o u s k e y s , would t e n d t o d i s a p p e a r .
To a n
e x p e r i e n c e d s i g h t s i n g e r one k e y i s a s g o o d a s a n o t h e r f r o m
th e v is u a l p o in t
of v i e w .
in th e t e s t r e s u l t s ,
upper q u a rtile
q u a rtile
We f i n d c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h i s
w h e n we c o m p a r e t h e s c o r e s o f t h e
o r b r i g h t p u p i ls w ith t h o s e of t h e low er
or poor p u p ils .
In th is
c a s e we may l o o k u p on
t h e b r i g h t p u p i l s a s b e i n g more e x p e r i e n c e d s i g h t s i n g e r s
th an th e poor p u p ils ,
i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y have b e e n a b le
t o make b e t t e r u s e o f t h e i r p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n s i g h t
sin g in g .
Thus,
th ere are
9 c a s e s o f s u p e r i o r i t y o r i n f e r i o r i t y a n d 12
cases
i n t h e to p group of p u p ils
of e q u a l i t y as b etw een t h e k e y s .
group of p u p ils
also
W hile i n t h e l o w e s t
( T a b l e X I ) t h e r e a r e 15 c a s e s o f s u p e r i o r i t y
o r i n f e r i o r i t y and o n ly 6 c a s e s
keys.
(T able IX ),
of e q u a l i t y a s betw een t h e
The c o e f f i c i e n t s o f v a r i a t i o n i n T a b l e s V a n d V I I
p o i n t to a s i m i l a r c o n c lu s io n .
P e r h a p s we s h o u l d h e r e a n t i c i p a t e p o s s i b l e c r i t i ­
cism s of t h i s
e x p e r i m e n t by s t a t i n g some f u r t h e r f a c t s .
An e x a m i n a t i o n o f S i g h t R e a d e r s ,
elem en tary s c h o o ls , b efo re
used by th e se p u p ils
in
e n t e r i n g t h e F i r s t Year of t h e
S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l , showed t h a t t h e y c o n t a i n e d n e a r l y a n
e q u a l num ber o f e x e r c i s e s i n e a c h k ey , so t h a t i t i s
lik e ly th a t
not
th e r e s u l t s were b i a s e d by p r e v io u s p r a c t i c e
or l a c k o f p r a c tic e i n c e r t a i n
sig n a tu re s, th e re s u lts ,
keys.
W ith r e g a r d t o
key
i n t h e w r i t e r ’s o p i n i o n , w ere n o t
a ff e c te d by th e n o n -in c lu sio n of th e s e in th e t e s t sh e e ts ,
$■30
I
a s a l l t h e p u p i l s h a d b e e n t a u g h t up t o t h i s
p o in t to
s o l - f a b y t h e m ovable d o h m eth o d , w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o
key s ig n a tu r e s .
A nd, a t a n y r a t e ,
the
only key w ith th e
p r o p e r k e y s i g n a t u r e was t h e u n f o r t u n a t e Key C!
A g a i n , a s we h a v e a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d ,
lik e ly th at th e re su lts
re la tiv e
ease
sp a ce-to n ic
is not
were a f f e c t e d s e r i o u s l y by th e
or d i f f i c u l t y
v i s u a li z i n g , n o tes
it
of w r i t i n g , a s opposed to
on l i n e s a n d n o t e s
on s p a c e s .
In the
k e y s , D, F a n d A, t h e r e w e r e 27 s p a c e - n o t e s
a n d 36 l i n e - n o t e s , a n d i n t h e l i n e - t o n i c k e y s ,
C, E, G a n d
B, t h e r e w e r e 36 s p a c e - n o t e s a n d 2 7 l i n e - n o t e s
in th e
n o tes of the t e s t m a te ria l.
so l-fa
L ikew ise,
th e f a c t t h a t the
s y l l a b l e s were sp o k e n and n o t sung to p i t c h i s
t h a t would a f f e c t a l l k e y s e q u a l l y .
been sung to
b esid es,
63
one
I f t h e s y l l a b l e s had
p i t c h , more g u e s s i n g w ould h av e o c c u r r e d , a n d ,
t h e t e s t m a t e r i a l w o u l d h a v e b e e n m ore l i k e l y t o
beco m e f a m i l i a r t h r o u g h r e p e t i t i o n .
not a sin g le
As i t w a s , p r o b a b l y
p u p i l r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e sam e t e s t m a t e r i a l
was b e i n g r e p e a t e d i n t h e
various keys.
The t e s t s w e r e g i v e n u n d e r v e r y f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s ,
i n a room w i t h a s e a t i n g
of p u p ils i n th e c l a s s e s .
cap acity equal to
F u rth er,
t w i c e t h e n um ber
i n t h i s s c h o o l , m arks
f o r M usic w ere e n t e r e d i n t h e R e p o r t C ards of e v e ry p u p i l
tw ice y e a rly ,
so t h a t t h e r e was s t r o n g e r m o t i v a t i o n b e h i n d
«■31
the e ffo rts
found in
of t h e s e F i r s t Year p u p i l s ,
o t h e r s c h o o ls where
"m usic d o e s n ' t c o u n t . "
We s h a l l now d e a l w i t h t h e
and g iv e th e r e s u l t s
th e
t h a n w ould he
" Down S e r i e s " o f t e s t s ,
i n t a b u l a r form a s i n t h e c a s e of
"Up S e r i e s " .
"Down S e r i e s "
T a b l e k l l ( T o t a l g ro u p o f 277 p u p i l s )
Key
B
F
E
A
D
G
C
Mean
43-81 46-03 44-62 46-23 43-87 42-94 42-24
P . E . o f Mean
•5 9 0 6 •5 4 7 5
•5 6 3 6 •5 5 6 4
•5 5 7 2
•5 44 3 •5 47 1
C o e ff? o f V ar? 33-69 29-69 31-53 30-05 31-70 31-64 32-33
One w o u l d n a t u r a l l y e x p e c t a d i f f e r e n t
th is te s t,
as
o rd e r of keys i n
compared w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s one, s i n c e th e
p i v o t n o t e s and t h e r e f o r e t h e v i s u a l p r o b le m s h e r e a r e
q u ite d iffe re n t.
The c l o s e n e s s o f a l l t h e M e a n s , P . E . ' s a n d
C o e f f i c i e n t s o f V a r i a t i o n w i l l be n o te d .
i s p r o b a b ly due t o s e v e r a l f a c t s .
T his c lo s e r e s u l t
F i r s t of a l l ,
a sm aller
r a n g e o f n o t e s was u s e d h e r e , v i z . a 5 t h , a s c o m p a r e d t o a
6t h i n t h e
the to n ic
"Up S e r i e s " .
in th e
a s t a r ti n g n ote,
one.
in th e
"Up S e r i e s " ,
did not a p p ear in th e t e s t ex cep t as the given
s ta rtin g n o te,
th e groups
A gain, w h ile ,
"Down S e r i e s " , b e s i d e s b e i n g u s e d a s
the to n ic
was r e p e a t e d t w i c e i n s i x o f
o f d i c t a t e d n o te s and once i n t h e rem ain in g
(See T a b le I I . )
T hat is to say,
in th e l a t t e r
test
?3Z
t h e r e was a good d e a l o f c r o s s i n g t h e t o n i c and r e t u r n i n g
t o p o r t , w h ile i n t h e f i r s t t e s t t h e r e was none a t a l l .
And, f i n a l l y , none o f t h e t o n i c s i n t h e "Down S e r i e s "
a p p e a r s on a l e g e r l i n e or an am biguous l e g e r " s p a c e " .
P o s s i b l y t h e t e s t was to o e a s y .
At any r a t e ,
o n l y p r e d i c t i o n we c a n make fro m th e above r e s u l t s ,
th e
on
a p p l y i n g t h e f o r m u la f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e
b e tw e e n tw o m eans, i s t h a t A i s s u p e r i o r to G and C, and
B i s s u p e r i o r t o G a n d C.
in th is
Assuming t h a t t h e p i v o t n o t e s
"Down S e r i e s " o f t e s t s a r e , a p a r t from t h e t o n i c ,
t h e n o t e s o f t h e d o m in a n t c h o r d ,
"s, t , r " ,
j u s t a s th e
p i v o t n o t e s i n t h e "Up S e r i e s " of t e s t s w ere t h e n o t e s of
t h e t o n i c c h o r d , "d m s " , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g a n d i n s t r u c t i v e
t o n o t e t h a t t h e tw o b e s t keys i n t h i s t e s t , A an d B,
c o r r e s p o n d ^ r o m t h e p o i n t o f view o f t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n
a f f o r d e d by t h e p i v o t n o t e s , t o two o f t h e good keys i n
■the
t h e "Up S e r i e s " T e s t , v i z . E and P .
W hile^two low keys
i n t h e "Down S e r i e s " t e s t , G and C, c o r r e s p o n d ,f r o m t h e
p o i n t o f v ie w o f t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n of t h e p i v o t a l n o te s ,
t o two o f t h e low k e y s i n t h e "Up S e r i e s " t e s t , v i z .
D and G.
r
Bad
Down S e r i e s
Up S e r i e s
±
S3
3
We may c o n c lu d e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t , fro m t h e v i s u a l
p o i n t o f v iew , t h e b e s t p o s i t i o n s f o r "low so h" a r e th e
f i r s t l i n e an d t h e f i r s t s p a c e ( i . e . w i t h t h e p i v o t n o t e s
"s, t, r " on t he f i r s t t h r e e l i n e s
spaces
an d t h e f i r s t t h r e e
; an d t h a t t h e w o r s t p o s i t i o n s f o r "low soh"
a r e t h e f i r s t s p a c e below t h e s t a v e ( i . e . w i t h "s, t , r "
b a s e d on a n am b ig u o u s l e g e r " s p a c e " | >o=s-~ w hich c r e a t e s
a f i v e - s p a c e s t a v e ) , a n d t h e se c o n d l i n e
( i . e . w i t h "s, t, r "
on t h e t h r e e " u n d i s t i n g u i s h e d " m id d le l i n e s
— : ).
A lth o u g h we c o u ld n o t t e s t Key P i n t h e lo w e r o c ta v e
w i t h o u t n e c e s s i t a t i n g t h e w r i t i n g by t h e p u p i l s o f a l e g e r
, and so i n t r o d u c i n g a h a n d ic a p
li n e f o r " s " , th u s
-e-
i n t h i s key, i t is alm o st c e r t a in t h a t t h i s to n ic p o s itio n
i n t h e "Down S e r i e s " would have s c o r e d ev en lo w e r marks
t h a n Key G, a s i t c a r r i e s w ith i t a l l t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s of
Key C i n t h e "Up S e r i e s " ,
L i k e w i s e , Key E i n t h e lo w e r o c t a v e ,
would
p r o b a b l y h av e s c o r e d lo w e r m arks s t i l l .
I t i s e v id e n t t h a t th e se le g e r-lin e -a n d -sp a c e -n o te s
m u st be t a u g h t t o p u p i l s a t some t i m e , b u t , ju d g in g from
t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x p e r im e n t, i t seems t h a t i t would be
w is e t o a v o id them w i t h b e g i n n e r s .
When t h e y a r e in tr o d u c e d
l a t e r o n , t h e n t h e y s h o u ld be a c c o r d e d s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t
sz/i-
a n d e x p o s i t i o n ; a n d much p r a c t i c e i n w r i t i n g th em on t h e
l i n e s i n d i c a t e d a h o v e s h o u ld be g i v e n t o t h e p u p i l s .
As we s a i d a t t h e b e g i n n in g o f t h i s c h a p t e r , th e
q u e s tio n o f th e o rd er of d i f f i c u l t y o f keys f o r b eg in n ers
i n s t a f f r e a d i n g h a s b een c o n s t a n t l y r a i s e d and i s s t i l l
b e i n g c o n s t a n t l y r a i s e d i n M u sic a l J o u r n a l s .
O u t- a n d - o u t
s t a f f i s t s a n d i n s t r u m e n t a l l y - m i n d e d m u s i c ia n s n a t u r a l l y
f a v o u r t h e o r d e r o f t h e Keys - C G P D - w h ile t o n i c
s o l - f a i s t s , a s t h e r e s u l t o f o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h e c la s s r o o m ,
h av e a lw a y s f a v o u r e d t h e o r d e r o f t h e l i n e s and s p a c e s E P G A.
The q u e s t i o n i s a n i m p o r t a n t o n e , a s i t c o n c e rn s t h e
b e g i n n i n g s o f a v e r y i m p o r t a n t b r a n c h o f m u s ic a l e d u c a ti o n ,
and a s t h e c l a s s t e a c h e r i s n o t f r e e to c h o o se h i s own
m ethod b u t m u st f o l l o w t h e method a d o p te d by th e c o m p ile r
o f t h e M usic R e a d e r u s e d i n c l a s s .
As we have s a i d b e f o r e ,
i n a v e r y r e a l s e n s e s o f a r a s t h i s q u e s t i o n i s c o n c e rn e d ,
t h e R e a d e r i s t h e M ethod.
U n f o r t u n a t e l y , many R e a d e rs have b een com piled by
p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d m u s i c i a n s , who have had l i t t l e
or no
t r a i n i n g i n a c t u a l c l a s s t e a c h i n g , b u t whose em inence i n
o t h e r b r a n c h e s o f M usic h as e a rn e d f o r them o f f i c i a l
p o s i t i o n s i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l w o rld .
£35
I n o t h e r s u b j e c t s i n t h e s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m
s u c h a n i m p o r t a n t p e d a g o g ic a l q u e s t i o n a s t h e above
w ould be s e t t l e d by o b j e c t i v e e x p e r im e n ts i n t h e
p s y c h o l o g i c a l l a b o r a t o r y a n d n o t by argum entum ad hominem
m e th o d s i n M u sic a l J o u r n a l s .
I f M usic i s s t i l l t h e
C i n d e r e l l a o f s c h o o l s u b j e c t s , p e r h a p s m u s i c ia n s have
o n l y t h e m s e l v e s t o b la m e .
We a p p e n d sa m p le s o f t h e c y c l o s t y l e d s h e e t s
a c t u a l l y used i n th e T e s t.
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CHAPTER V I I I
THE FORMAL LAYOUT OP MUSIC TYPE *
I t w i l l be g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t r e p e t i t i o n i n some
s h a p e o r o t h e r (w h e th e r o f m elody, rh y th m , harmony o r key
c e n t r e ) i s a t t h e r o o t of a l l form i n m u sic .
By means of
s u c h r e p e t i t i o n t h e s e n s e o f u n i t y i s im p a r te d , w h ile t h i s
s e n s e o f u n i t y i s p r e v e n t e d , by means o f w e l l - c o n t r i v e d
c o n t r a s t s , f r o m d e v e l o p i n g i n t o a s e n s e of monotony.
In
e a r l y f o rm s o f a r t , a s , f o r exam ple, i n t h e Greek drama,
w i t h i t s i n s i s t e n c e on t h e t h r e e u n i t i e s of tim e , p la c e
an d a c t i o n , t h e em phasis i s l a i d on t h e e le m e n t o f u n i t y ,
w h i l e i n l a t e r fo rm s , owing t o t h e more h i g h l y d e v e lo p e d
t e c h n i q u e o f b o th a r t i s t and a u d ie n c e , t h e elem e n t of
d i v e r s i t y becomes more and more p r o m in e n t.
And so i n t h e
b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e c o n t r a p u n t a l a n d harm onic a r t we f i n d
fo rm s s u c h a s c a n o n , f u g u e , ground b a s s , v a r i a t i o n , e t c . ,
whose v e r y s t r u c t u r e p r e m is e s u n i t y ;
an d i n t h e s i m p l e s t
t y p e o f t h e m e lo d ic a r t , t h e f o lk s o n g and f o l k d a n c e , we
f i n d t h i s s e n s e o f u n i t y em p h asised by t h e most obvious of
a l l m ean s, t h e r e p e t i t i o n of w hole p h r a s e s .
Now, i f we exam ine m ost S ch o ol Music R e a d e r s , we
f i n d t h a t p h r a s e r e p e t i t i o n i s c o n s p ic u o u s by i t s a b se n c e .
T h is m eans, t h e n , t h a t we a r e a s k i n g c h i l d r e n t o r e a d , and
t o t a k e a n i n t e r e s t i n , m usic o f a complex ty p e w hich i s
r a r e l y m et w i t h i n t h e m usic o f c h ild h o o d - n u r s e r y rhyme,
l u l l a b y , hymn tu n e a n d f o l k s o n g .
__________
* I n c o r p o r a t i n g p a r t of a n a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n t h e
"M usic T e a c h e r * , May 1933 (Evans B r o s . L t d . )
S3 <j
The D o c t r i n e o f " I n t e r e s t "
No d o u b t t h e r e i s a l a u d a b l e a im b e h in d t h i s a d u l t
c o n c e p t i o n o f w hat c o n s t i t u t e s t h e b e s t m a t e r i a l f o r
tr a in in g in sig h t-re a d in g .
B ut by a v o i d i n g r e p e t i t i o n o f
p h r a s e a n d by p r e s e n t i n g new and e v e r - v a r y i n g m a t e r i a l t o
t h e c h i l d f o r p u r p o s e s of e y e - t r a i n i n g , we may be d e f e a t i n g
t h e en d w hich we have i n v ie w .
F o r we s h a l l n o t g e t
c h i l d r e n t o m a s t e r a n y t h i n g r e a d i l y u n t i l we g a i n t h e i r
i n t e r e s t a n d c o - o p e r a t i o n by means o f a p r o p e r m o ti v a ti o n
of t h e i r a c t i v i t y .
And what i s n o t n e a r t o t h e h e a r t w i l l
n o t be n e a r t o t h e e y e .
M u s i c - r e a d i n g , th e n , s h o u ld aim a t to u c h in g th e
c h i l d t o t h e q u i c k , and t o t h i s end t h e r e a d i n g m a tte r
s h o u l d be i n k e e p in g w i t h h i s i n t e r e s t s an d w ith h i s m ental
c o n te n t.
F o r w h a te v e r he f i n d s n o t w o rth r e a d i n g w i l l be
re a d o n ly t o be f o r g o tt e n .
We a l l know how we ca n s h u t our
eyes and v is u a liz e th o s e f a v o u r ite p assag es of ours in
B ach, B e e th o v e n or Schumann.
I t may be o n ly a p h r a s e or a
c a d e n c e - "a d y in g f a l l " - b u t we know t h e e x a c t p a r t of
t h e page where i t
o c c u rs , we can s e e e v e r y n o t e , e v e r y d o t .
O th e r p a s s a g e s we have p la y e d o r r e a d q u i t e a s o f t e n , b u t
somehow o u r s p i r i t h a s n o t r u s h e d out t o embrace them we h a v e n o t i d e n t i f i e d o u r s e l v e s w i t h them .
Now t h i s s e l f - p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e r e a d e r i s o f supreme
im p o r t a n c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of t h e t e a c h i n g
r* o
of re a d in g .
p atch es" to o .
We m ust g i v e t h e c h i l d r e n t h e i r " p u r p le
For i t
i s n o t w hat we p u t b e f o r e a c h i l d
t h a t c o u n t s , b u t r a t h e r w h at t h e c h i l d t a k e s i n o r a s s i m i ­
l a t e s , a n d , a s th e l a t t e r word i m p l i e s , t h i s w i l l be some­
t h i n g w h ich f i n d s i n t h e c h i l d mind a c e r t a i n k i n s h i p w ith
o th e r id e a s th e re .
Form a n d C o n te n t
I t m ust be a d m i t t e d t h a t th e u s u a l ty p e o f s i g h t r e a d i n g e x e r c i s e i s n o t c a l c u l a t e d t o f i n d a r e a d y welcome
i n t h e a d u l t m ind, f a r l e s s i n t h e c h i l d m ind.
In h is
c o n s t a n t u n r a v e l l i n g o f new c o m b in a tio n s o f n o t e s , t h e c h i l d
i s s o p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e t r e e s t h a t he h as no chance to
s e e t h e wood.
To g e t t h e i d e a of t h e wood, we m ust be a b le
t o s t a n d b a c k and s e e i t a s a w h o le .
To g e t t h e id e a o r
t h e m ean in g of a t u n e , we m ust be a b l e t o s t a n d b a c k , so to
s p e a k , and s e e i t a s a w h o le .
We m ust have t h e echo o f th e
f i r s t p h r a s e i n o u r m inds w h ile we a r e s i n g i n g t h e l a s t
ph rase;
i n s h o r t , we m ust " a p p r e c i a t e " , i n t h e l i t e r a l
s e n s e , t h e a r t i s t i c u n i t y o r form o f t h e t u n e .
T h is does
n o t mean t h a t we s h o u ld be a b l e t o l a b e l and c l a s s i f y th e
p a r t s fro m t h e f o r m a l p o i n t of v ie w , b u t i t do es mean t h a t
we s h o u l d f e e l o r s e n s e i t s f o rm .
And i f i t i s a sim p le
a r t p r o d u c t l i k e a f o l k s o n g , an d n o t sim p ly a te x tb o o k
p r o d u c t w r i t t e n t o e x e m p lif y some new p o i n t i n s i g h t - r e a d i n g ,
5k\
t h e n we s h a l l f e e l i t s form a t o n c e .
F o r o f t h e s o u l t h e body fo rm d o t h t a k e ,
F o r s o u l i s fo rm a n d d o t h t h e hody make.
(S p e n se r)
We s h a l l f e e l a c e r t a i n k i n s h i p b etw een o u r in n e r
s e l v e s and t h i s a r t p ro d u c t.
As B erg so n , i n h i s " C r e a t i v e
E v o lu tio n " s a y s:
" I n a g e n e r a l way, r e a l i t y i s o r d e r e d e x a c t l y
- t o t h e d e g r e e i n w hich i t s a t i s f i e s o u r th o u g h t.
O rd e r i s , t h e r e f o r e , a c e r t a i n a g re e m e n t betw een
s u b je c t and o b je c t.
I t i s t h e mind f i n d i n g
i t s e l f a g a in in th in g s ."
( T r a n s l a t i o n by A rth u r M i t c h e l l ,
M acm illan & C o.)
Now, a s was s a i d a b o v e , t h e s i m p l e s t ty p e s o f form
a r e t o b e fo u n d i n t h e so n g s o f th e c h i l d and t h e songs of
th e f o lk .
An e x a m in a tio n o f any c o l l e c t i o n of f o l k o r
n a t i o n a l so n g s w i l l show t h a t th e g r e a t n a j o r i t y of them
c a n b e c l a s s i f i e d u n d e r some su c h fo rm s a s th e f o llo w in g :
AABA, ABA,
abb Ia , AAlBB1,
AAlBA', AA'AB, ABBA,
aa!b c , ABAC, e t c .
(H ere A1 and B' s t a n d f o r p h r a s e s w hich have b een d e r iv e d
f ro m A a n d B . )
I t w i l l be se e n t h a t i n some c a s e s one h a l f ,
m o st c a s e s
n e a r l y one h a l f o f t h e tu n e c o n s i s t s
and i n
of m a te ria l
w hich h a s a l r e a d y b e e n u s e d .
The ABCD ty p e o f f o l k s o n g i s e x c e p t i o n a l , an d t h i s is
p r o b a b l y t h e r e a s o n why s o many w r i t e r s and l e c t u r e r s have
t o f a l l b a c k on " B a rb a ra A lle n " when s e e k in g a n example of
B i n a r y Form.
T h u s, i n f o l k s o n g , th e fo rm , an d t h e r e f o r e t h e
c o n t e n t , o f t h e tu n e i s e a s i l y ap p reh e n d ed by c h i l d r e n .
They d o n o t h av e t o keep t u r n i n g th e t u n e o v er and over
a g a i n i n t h e i r m inds i n o r d e r t o f e e l th e c o n n e c tio n betw een
t h e p a r t s an d t h e w h o le , i . e . i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s ta n d i t , as
w ou ld be n e c e s s a r y i n a more com plex ABCD fo rm , and th u s
th e y f in d
im m ed ia te s e l f - r e a l i s a t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n i n i t .
Compare t h e f o l l o w i n g s im p le F re n c h N u rs e r y Rhyme, "Au c l a i r
I
de l a lu n e " , w ith t h e u su a l te x t-b o o k e x e rc is e :
JF orm al P r e s e n t a t i o n
I f t h e m u sic be s e t o u t i n t h i s f a s h i o n , t h e form ca n
be a p p re h e n d e d by t h e eye a s w e l l a s by t h e e a r .
We s h a l l
u n d e r s t a n d t h e im p o r ta n c e o f t h i s g r a p h ic p r e s e n t a t i o n of
fo rm b e t t e r i f we borrow an i l l u s t r a t i o n fro m l i t e r a t u r e .
S uppose we r e a d over t h e f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t :
"You have b e h e ld how t h e y w i t h w ic k e r a r k s
- d i d come to k i s s and b e a r away t h e r i c h e r
c o w s l ip s home."
And su p p o se now we r e a d i t a g a i n a s i t i s t o b e found i n
H e r r i c k ' s poem "To Meadows."
You have b e h e ld how th e y
W ith w ic k e r a r k s d id come
To k i s s a n d b e a r away
The r i c h e r c o w s lip s home.
Our p s y c h o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t o t h i s e x t r a c t i s q u i t e d i f f e r ­
e n t when we m e e t i t i n t h e l a t t e r fo rm .
We now s e e i t s
p h r a s e s an d i t s c a d e n c e s b e f o r e we h e a r them .
it,
I n r e a d in g
o u r m inds r e a c h o u t b ey o nd t h e p r e s e n t words t o some­
t h i n g w h ic h we know t o e x p e c t .
And th e com p ensating
s a t i s f a c t i o n w h ic h f o l l o w s t h i s s e l f - p r o j e c t i o n i s t h e
r e w a r d w h ic h a l l t r u e a r t h a s t o o f f e r t o i t s w o rs h ip p e rs .
Now, m u sic i n i t s fo rm a l a s p e c t b e a rs a c l o s e
r e s e m b la n c e t o p o e t r y .
Why, t h e n , i n d e a l i n g w ith c h i l d r e n
s h o u l d we n o t s e t o u t a p ie c e o f m usic a s we would a poem?
Of c o u r s e , we o u r s e l v e s ca n a f f o r d t o d is p e n s e w ith su ch
v i s u a l a i d s i n m u sic , b u t t h i s i s b e c a u se o u r f e e l i n g f o r
p h r a s e and fo rm , f o r t h e grammar and s y n ta x o f m u sic , i s so
d e v e lo p e d t h a t we a r e c o n s t a n t l y a n t i c i p a t i n g what i s to
come.
T h a t i s t o s a y , i n m u s i c - r e a d i n g a s i n o r d in a r y
r e a d i n g , o u r mind c o n t r i b u t e s a g r e a t d e a l o v e r and above
w h at o u r eye c o n t r i b u t e s .
Y e t, e v e n i n t h e e a r l i e s t s t a g e s o f t h e te a c h i n g of
s t a f f r e a d i n g , where we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n whose
m inds have n e c e s s a r i l y v e r y l i t t l e
r e a d i n g p r o c e s s , we ta k e l i t t l e
to c o n trib u te to th e
c a re t o l a y o u t t h e music
t y p e t o a d v a n ta g e t o show t h e fo rm o r th e b a l a n c i n g and
"rhy m ing " of t h e p h r a s e s .
su
C o n s id e r t h e f o l l o w i n g l a y - o u t , rem em bering t h a t
w h ile p h r a s e m arks h av e a n a l m o s t r i t u a l i s t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e
f o r t h e m u s i c i a n , t h e y a r e m e re ly cu rv ed l i n e s to t h e c h i l d .
B ook
,M a ,r « o / fro m
(S ta n fo rd ).
" The
N atio n al S o n g
Now s e e t h i s l o v e l y c o n c i s e example o f Bach-Handel B in a ry
#
Form, s e t o u t t o a d v a n ta g e t o show i t s " l i n e s " :
A
miM g tttm io n
in
SnlatW
Does n o t t h e t e c h n i c a l te rr a , " e x t e n s i o n , " t a k e on a
new m e a n in g when i t i s shown g r a p h i c a l l y a s i n t h e above?
Does n o t t h e m u s i c a l j a r g o n , " l e a d i n g up t o a c l o s e i n th e
d o m in a n t a t t h e end o f t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n , and l e a d i n g back
t o a f u l l c l o s e i n t h e t o n i c a t t h e end o f t h e se co n d
s e c t i o n , " b e g i n t o c o n n o te s o m e th in g more t h a n mere m u s ic a l
j a r gon t o t h e u n i n i t i a t e d ?
__________
* I l l u s t r a t i o n s t a k e n from t h e "Music T e a c h e r" a r t i c l e ^ M | y ,
F o rm a l L a y o u t I n Hymnals and P s a l t e r s
I t i s n o te w o r th y t h a t t h e o n ly e d i t o r s who have
p a i d a n y a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f o r m a l l a y o u t of t h e m usic type
a r e t h e e d i t o r s o f Hymnals and P salm Books, and th e e d i t o r s
o f t o n i c s o l - f a song books.
The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s obvious
I n b o t h c a s e s t h e s e e d i t o r s a r e c a t e r i n g f o r s i n g e r s who
h av e t o f o l l o w a t t h e same tim e b o th t h e m u sic and th e
v e r s e s p r i n t e d b elo w t h e m u s ic .
T hus, i t i s e v i d e n t l y
v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e s i n g e r s h o u ld be g iv e n th e
a d v a n ta g e o f a n y v i s u a l a i d s i n r e c o g n i s i n g t h e b e g in n in g s
a n d t h e e n d in g s o f l i n e s .
509
MELITA.
J. B.
J.
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1They cry unto the Lord. . He maketh the storm a calm, so that the waves thereof are still.’
m IN T E R N A L F a th e r, s tro n g to save, m 2 0 C hrist, w hose voice th e w aters
P i W h o se arm h a t h b o und th e re s t-
h e a rd ,
[w ord,
less w ave,
A n d h u sh e d th e ir raging a t T hy
W h o b id d ’s't th e m ig h ty ocean
W h o w a lk e d sto n th e foam ing deep,
deep
A n d calm a m id th e sto rm d id st
I t s ow n a p p o in te d lim its keep,
0 h e a r u s w h e n w e c ry to Thee
m p 0 h e a r u s w h e n w e c ry to Tlieo
mp
F o r tb o se i n p eril o n th e sea.
F o r those i n p e ril o n th e sea.
m 3 0 H oly S p irit, w ho d id s t brood
U pon th e w a te rs d ark a n d rude,
A n d bid th e ir a n g ry tu m u lt cease,
A n d give, fo r w ild confusion, peace,
mp
0 h o ar u s w h e n w e c ry to Tlieo
F o r those in p e ril o n th e sea.________ ______________________ __
-
F rom "The Church Hymnary"(1898)
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r e a d i n g p r o c e s s f o r t h e s i n g e r s by means o f t h e fo rm a l
^
l a y o u t of t h e m u sic t y p e .
B u t i t i s s u r e l y e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e b e g in n e r
i n m u s i c - r e a d i n g s h o u l d be a llo w e d t o e n jo y t h i s same
a d v a n ta g e .
I f t h e c h i l d d oes n o t g r a s p t h e form o f th e
t u n e w h ich he i s r e a d i n g , t h a t i s , i f he d o e s n o t f e e l , a s
he s i n g s , t h e b e g i n n in g s and t h e e n d in g s o f p h r a s e s and th e
r e l a t i o n s h i p s betw een t h e s e p h r a s e s , th e n t h e meaning o r
c o n t e n t o f t h e m u sic w i l l h av e e s c a p e d him .
He may r e a d
e a c h s e p a r a t e n o t e a c c u r a t e l y w i t h r e g a r d t o b o t h tim e and
p i t c h , b u t a s L and o r s a y s som ew here, "a n o te i n music i s
n o t h i n g b u t a s i t a p p e r t a i n s t o w h a t h a s gone b e f o r e and
w hat fo llo w s a f t e r . "
The c h i l d may have n o te d each
s e p a r a t e t r e e , b u t he w i l l have m is s e d t h e wood.
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f he r e c e i v e s v i s u a l a i d i n th e
a p p r e h e n d in g o f t h e f o r m o r s t r u c t u r e o f a m elody, t h i s
s h o u ld h e l p him t o a p p re h e n d t h e fo rm or s t r u c t u r e a u r a l l y .
The im portance a n d , i n f a c t , t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f su c h
t h i n g s a s p h r a s e m arks shows t h a t v i s u a l a i d s do h e l p th e
r e a d e r or perfo rm er i n h is ta s k of i n t e r p r e t i n g th e
m u s i c a l sym bols a s s e t o u t by t h e com poser.
Why t h e n s h o u ld we w i t h o l d fro m t h e c h i l d w hat we
deem n e c e s s a r y i n s i m i l a r c a s e s f o r t h e a d u l t ?
In
t h e w o rld o f a r t , t h e n e a r e s t a p p r o a c h t o melody
fro m t h e
p o i n t o f v ie w o f form o r s t r u c t u r e
poem and
t h e m u sic t o w h ich i t i s su n g b o t h c o - e x i s t i n
tim e .
I n e a r l y d a y s th e y w ere
i s p o etry . A
b o t h b o rn o f t h e same
m
s p o n ta n e o u s im p u l s e , a l t h o u g h nowadays t h e d iv o r c e betw een
t h e two i s more o r l e s s c o m p le t e .
B ut i t i s n o t
g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i s e d how im p o r t a n t fro m t h e p o i n t o f view
o f t h e p o e t o r th e r e a d e r i s t h e f o r m a l l a y o u t of th e
poem on t h e p r i n t e d p a g e .
F o rm a l L a y o u t o f P o e t r y
I n t h e w ell-k n o w n p e r i o d i c a l ,
"The London Mercury"
e d i t e d by S i r J . C . S q u i r e and d e v o te d t o l i t e r a t u r e and
l i t e r a r y m a t t e r s , one of t h e m ost i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s
was t h e m o n th ly a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Book P r o d u c tio n N otes"
by B e r n a r d H. N ew d ig a te.
In th e s e n o te s th e w r i te r
c r i t i c i s e d new b o o k s, a s t h e y a p p e a r e d , o f p r o s e and
p o e t r y , e s p e c i a l l y p o e t r y , fro m t h e p o i n t o f view o f th e
m ake-up o f t h e book a n d t h e l a y o u t o f t h e t y p e .
We g iv e
b e lo w a few e x t r a c t s fro m t h e s e "Book P r o d u c tio n N o te s " .
"The p r i n t e r who would make a comely page and a t
- t h e same ti m e make t h e p o e t ' s m essage a s c l e a r
a s p o s s i b l e t o t h e e y e , a n d th r o u g h t h e eye t o
t h e m ind, i s b e s e t w ith s p e c i a l p ro b le m s . He
may n o t r u n h i s l i n e s on - e l s e how s h o u ld we
know th em f o r p o e t r y ? - a n d lo n g l i n e s and s h o r t
p l a y havoc w i t h h i s m a r g i n s ----The page i s b e s t wide i n p r o p o r t i o n t o i t s l e n g t h ,
so t h a t t h e v e s s e l may have p l e n t y o f beam f o r
c a r r y i n g i t s mixed c a r g o . F o r a wide page w i l l
t a k e t h e s h o r t l i n e s and t h e long l i n e s t o o , and
' t u r n e d ' l i n e s s h o u ld be a s few a s p o s s i b l e . As
f o r t h e t y p e , l e t i t be a s b i g an d a s c l e a r a s
t h e page w i l l a d m i t , l e s t e y e - s t r a i n be added
to m ln a -s tra in ."
(May, 1920)
"The p r e s s - w o r k i s a d m i r a b l e , and d o e s J u s t i c e
to t h e b e a u t i f u l fa c e of th e ty p e ; b u t th e
p a g e s h av e b e e n 'made u p ' by t h e p r i n t e r ' s
g au g e r a t h e r t h a n t h e p r i n t e r ' s e y e , an d he
h a s made s a d havoc o f t h e p o e t r y . I n a f i n e
e d i t i o n s u c h a s t h i s ea c h poem sh o u ld b e g in
on a f r e s h p a g e . I n s t e a d , i n t h i s volume
e a c h b e g i n s J u s t where i t s p r e d e c e s s o r le a v e s
o f f , e v e n th o u g h t h a t be n e a r t h e v e r y f o o t of
t h e p a g e ; and th e s t a n z a i s r u t h l e s s l y d iv id e d
w hen ev er i t f a i l s t o a c c o r d w i t h t h e p r i n t e r ' s
se n se of th e r i g h t d i v i s i o n of h is pages.
P o e t r y , a n d e s p e c i a l l y Mr H a r d y 's p o e t r y ,
d e s e r v e s much more t e n d e r t r e a t m e n t . "
(December, 1 9 2 1 )'
" I n t h e ' B l a k e ' , t h e c o m p o s ito r h as made up h i s
- p a g e s t o f i t t h e poems i n s t e a d o f p a c k in g th e
p o e t r y by s h e e r f o r c e i n t o th e u n if o rm m easure
o f h i s p a g e s . Each poem b e g i n s on a new p a g e ,
a n d e v e n t h e s h o r t e s t h a s a page t o i t s e l f .
They a r e Im posed, t o o , w i t h a c a r e f u l eye to
t h e b a l a n c e o f t h e f a c i n g p a g e s , and ev en t h e
l o n g e s t l i n e s a r e n e v e r Tt u m e d ' . "
( J a n u a r y , 1922)
"To b r e a k up poems and even s t a n z a s i n o r d e r t o
- f i l l up a page i s a wanton m u t i l a t i o n of
p o e t i c fo rm i n a n a t t e m p t t o g e t a t y p o g r a p h i c a l
e f f e c t w h ich , however good i n p r o s e , i s n e i t h e r
p o s s i b l e n o r d e s i r a b l e i n p r i n t i n g a volume of
v a ry in g v e rs e f o r m s ., . .
"Each poem s h o u ld be p r i n t e d so t h a t i t s s t r u c t u r e
may b e c l e a r a t a g l a n c e . T h a t c a n n o t be i f i t
i s d i s j o i n t e d . Two poems on f a c i n g pages
s h o u l d be p r i n t e d w ith a s much t h o u g h t f o r
vm)
reminds
f .h . r u g I
£50
F orm al L a y o u t i n T o n ic S o l - f a N o t a t i o n
L e t us now exam ine some S c h o o l Music R e a d e r s , and s e e how
f a r t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s have b e e n c a r r i e d i n t o e f f e c t w ith
r e g a r d t o t h e s e t t i n g o u t o f m usic t y p e .
I n S o l - f a R e a d e rs t h e l a y o u t i s g e n e r a l l y s u p e r i o r t o
fo u n d i n S t a f f R e a d e r s .
th a t
T h is i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t ,
w h e re a s s t a f f tim e n o t a t i o n h as a p u r e l y sy m b o lic o r
p i c t o r i a l b a s i s , t o n i c s o l - f a tim e n o t a t i o n h as a s p a t i a l
b a s i s , and i s s e t o u t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e o f eq u a l
s p a c i n g f o r n o t e s and f o r b a r s o f e q u a l l e n g t h .
We g i v e below some exam ples o f e x e r c i s e s from w e ll known S i g h t R e a d e r s , a d d in g a few rem a rk s on t h e l a y o u t
of each.
From "The F o lk Song S i g h t S in g in g S e r i e s " , Books XI and X II.
X KEY G A n d a n t e
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Form AABA s t a n d s o u t c l e a r l y , and t h e p rim ary
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The f i r s t p h r a s e m ig h t have b een r e p e a t e d
i n p r i n t w ith a d v a n t a g e .
40
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Form ABAC w e l l s e t o u t . P rim a ry and
s e c o n d a r y rh y th m s o f an n o u n c in g and
r e s p o n s i v e p h r a s e s s t a n d out c l e a r l y .
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II
Form at) ab c b 1cb o r AABB'
P rim a r y and s e c o n d a r y rh y th m s s t a n d ou t w e ll,
A lso t h e s l i g h t change o f one n o t e i n t h e
p e n u ltim a te b a r o f th e t h i r d p h rase .
IO 3
R u s sia n
G m in o r
A n d a n te
( N o t e t h a t a t t h e 9 t h b a r t h e f i r s t 4 b a r s o u c u r i n t h e r e l a ti v e m ajo r)
111,
.s e jl,
.s e j l ,
:d
It,
:1,
111,
:-.s e ,ll,
.s e jl,
:d
It,
:1, lse,.t,:t,.m lm
:m
Ir
:d
,,p-—
.t, Id
"
111,
.se,ll,
lid
.t, Id
j
Ise , :-.ba,lse, t - .b a js e , : t ,
It,
.1,
It,
I d im .
.s e ll,
:d
I t,
: - .s e ,] l,
.1,
p p
:1, lsert,:t,.m !m
It,
j
:— s e j l ,
II,
:se, I
:—
I—
I
:r
Id
:—
I—
t. I
Form AABA1 c l e a r . F i r s t h a l f o f t h i r d p h ra s e
i n r e l a t i v e m a jo r c o n t r a s t s w e ll v i s u a l l y w ith
p h r a s e s above a n d below i n r e l a t i v e m in o r.
3 8 KSYG
Allegretto
IId :m
:f Is
:1
(1 crur.
lid : t,
:d Ir
lid : t .
:d Ir
(3 - b a r rh y th m )
_______________
:m 1f
F re n c h
ft? !
:r
:— T d
:r ~Ts
:f 1m :ir :m If :m
tr
I
:r ~ls
:f
Id
II
Is
:f
Im
r
Im :ir :m I f ?r
Form a b ab cb' cb o r AABB’ s t a n d s o u t c l e a r l y ,
a l s o t h r e e - b a r p jarases and p r im a r y and se c o n d a ry
rh y th m s.
H u n g a r ia n
7 2
KEY D
M o d e ra to
( T h i s i s t h e o n l y t u n e i ll t h e b o o k c o n t a i n i n g - t a a t a i - a a t a i )
.— Ir :!f lm.m:-.relrn
IIS :-.s Id’ :lI Is :f Im
/>
:— s ld ‘
:1
Is
:f
I m A -
If
:- .f
11
:t,
l^ .d t- .t.ld
:
P r im a r y rh ythm a n d Form ab cd cd o r ABB c l e a r to
th e eye. T a a t a i - a a t a i cadences sta n d out w e ll.
keye
9
Tempo
d iM e n u e tto
<d-l)
Bohemian
If .1 :1
:!? .f Im .s :d' .1 :s,
1
.d IdTTTr
ll
:t
II
.m Ir
If .I :1
is, .m :m
.d Id .tT*
fls. .m :m
%
n ’lBi---IIm :s
:
:f ~^7r
dim.(dim.)
:is
Id
:s .f Im .s ;d\T^s
.d Id .TTlr
Form ab
or
A
W ell l a i d
cadences
a
ir
,s
:
:t7 ~Td
1
D.%
II
p (PPL.
is, .m :m
j
:
ac db ac db ac
A'
B
A1 B
A1
o u t . F em inine and m a s c u lin e
c l e a r t o t h e ey e .
IOI KEY c M oderato
_
l.-d’.tll :m Im :1 ls.f:m.rld :r
British
p
Im :1 Ise :t
;
urcsu.
111 :m Im :1
lid'
111
ls.f:m .rld
.1I Id' .m'.d'ls
Im :1
:m
:r
:t.llm
Im :1
Id’.t :1 ^ I T > -
:m ld' :-.r'lm'.r':d'.t It
Is .f :m .r Id :r
Im :1
i
:1
Id'.t :1 .sell
Form AA' BA' (c f. t h e p r e v io u s example) i s
c o n c e a le d fro m t h e eye by t h e b ad l a y o u t .
By r u n n i n g on th e l i n e s i n o r d e r t o f i n i s h
o f f w i t h a c o m p le te b a r t h e p r i n t e r has
b ro k e n up t h e 2nd, 3 rd and 4 t h p h r a s e s ,
w h ile i n t h e l a s t l i n e t h e e q u a l s p a c in g
o f t h e b a r s h as b e e n abandoned i n o r d e r
t o f i l l o u t t h e l i n e , w hich c o n t a i n s one
p u l s e l e s s t h a n t h e se c o n d and t h i r d l i n e s ,
an d two p u ls e s l e s s t h a n t h e f i r s t l i n e .
The a n a c r u s i s s h o u ld have been p r i n t e d
th r o u g h o u t a s i n t h e f i r s t l i n e .
105
A minor
f:m ll
f:t
A llegro
:se II
:t
Id' :1
It
:-.m ll
ld'.m':r'.tIs :1 ll.se:1 It :m ll
lld'.m'ir'.t Is
il
:s
:t
ls.f:m
Id' :t
ll
ll .sedT^ll :m ll.se :l.t Id'.t :l.d 'It
German
_ Dc
lm .r:d I Ii
:— It :t
I
:— ll
II
Form ab ab cd cd' o r AABB
As i n t h e p r e v io u s example t h e b a r sp a c in g
i n t h e 2nd and 3 rd l i n e s h as b e e n u p s e t
t h r o u g h t h e p l a c i n g o f th e a n a c r u s i s a t
t h e end o f t h e 2nd l i n e . Thus th e 1 s t l i n e
c o n t a i n s 16 p u l s e s , t h e 2nd l i n e 17 p u l s e s ,
a n d t h e 3 r d l i n e 15 p u l s e s . The t y p o g r a p h i c a l
n r e s e n t a t i o n c o n s e q u e n t ly d o e s n o t a i d th e eye.
136
KEY A
p
G erm an
( I n th e 2 nd se t of 8 b a rs, note the 3 d ifferen t presentations of
the sam e 2 b a r id ea. Note th e clim ax a t the end of the tu nc produced by a new
—
— - cresr.
m elodic idea.)___________ ,— —
M oderato
f:s7^f,lm
, .s, : m. r Id .m
,:s, l^.d It, .r, :f, .s, :t, .r Id .m
,:s, :-.f, 1
,:s,
IIm
,.s, :m :-.r Id .m
IIs .f :r
ils
.f :r
—
v. " f ' T
.d It, .r, :f, .s, :t, .rid
.t, Id .m:s
.s
ll
.t, Id .m:s
.s
ll .s :f .s, :t, .rid
Id .m
,:s,
.r
:f .s, :t, .r Id .m:d’
f.
< < T\
:
.d It, .r, :f, .s, :t, .r Id .m
,:s,
,:s,
IIm
,.s, :m :-.r Id .m
IIin, .s, :m
.s
$ C \
^
11
ll .s :f .t, :t, .r Id
.s
Form ab a b 1cd cd1 ab ae o r AA*BBAAz
The same c r i t i c i s m a p p l i e s t o t h i s exam ple.
The m i s p l a c i n g of t h e a n a c r u s i s u p s e t s t h e b a r
s p a c;in
in g an d t h e t y p o g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n .
26
N o s . 118- 132 . M i s c e l l a n e o u s c h a n g e s o f k e y
118 k e y c M oderato
|: d '
Id'
:s
11
:m
F re n c h
|f " £ _
1
:s
ll
:- .S If
:m
Ir :7Tid
1
tf
------ ^
n r v .f i s
:d It]
1"
lid'
:m
If
1
:d
ltT > -
1
:f
Im
i r ^
1
:s
Is
:s
1
1
cresc.
IIm : - . f Is
—Ir
:
:s
:d
Is
-
7^- 1. s
:i l
Ir
s-- . s I f
::m
1r
:1r Is
:1
I r
Is
:1
If
r r f
ll
m p— :
||l,pT : |'i • :1
IIin
f r T
:1 . t Id '
Is
-.1
:r' It
:df
}
^7d
:
1
~lin
:
)
:1 . t I d H ^ - 1
II
Form ab cd ab cd e f gh o r ABABCD.
A g ain t h e m i s p l a c i n g o f t h e a n a c r u s i s s p o i l s t h e
f o r m a l l a y o u t , a n d t h e change fro m se c o n d a ry rhythm
t o p rim a ry rh y th m i n t h e l a s t two l i n e s i s l o s t to
t h e ey e .
Prom "The P h i l h a r m o n i c S o l - f a S i g h t R e a d e rs ," Books I I I
an d VI
14
Phrase thus :— = =
Keys F or G.
|d
:m.d|s,
|d
:d .r |m :s
|f
:m
|r
|d
:m
h
:si
Pi
|s
v |d :m.d|s|
|m
M k
v\
:s
|f
:m.r |
•-
M
II
15
Key D.
j
|r
Im
|m
:s
|d '
: d ' . t |1
|s
|s
:f
|m
:
It.
M
^ Is
If
|d '
: d . r |m
|t
:r
:1
Id
B
1
1
I n t h e s e e x a m p le s t h e s t r u c t u r e i s shown g r a p h i c a l l y
hy t h e l i n e d i a g r a m s .
I t would h av e h e e n b e t t e r t o
in c o rp o r a te t h i s id e a in th e la y o u t o f th e l i n e s of
m u sic t y p e .
90
Tallis.
Key E!>.
|d '
:t
ll
|1
:1
Is
:d
|m
:1
|s
V :d
|f
1:m
Id
Id
Id
:r
Im.f :s
•
•
It, ^s.
:r
Im.f :s
•
It, v :s, Id
•
Ir
:s
v :d
:r
ii
:1
Is
Im
:f
Id
;—
100
Key Ab.
:m |d
Is
:f
If
: s
\
Is
:s
|
1 -
II
v
Innsbruck.
;— lmv :m i|s
u
:r
If
;—
Im :f .m|r
lmv :m.f |s
:r
Im :f
:s
Ir :m |
\—v:m |
:s
|m :r
Ir :m |
Id ||
Form ABCABC1
No a t t e m p t made a t a v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e
fo rm w i t h i t s r e p e t i t i o n s o f p h r a s e s .
I n N o .9 0 t h e Form A B (in d o m in a n t)AB( i n to n ic )
i s q u i t e c o n c e a le d .
w
53
The 2nd and 4th phrases are alike and are three bars long.
German Chorale.
Key G.
|d
:d
Id :d
|s, :s, ll,
|r :m Ir
:t,
;—
lm :r.d lr :s
Ir :m Ir
M :r.dlt,.l,:s,
1-
M
|m :d
Ir
M
|d :d
11
Id :d |
II
Form ABCB. No a t t e m p t a t f o r m a l l a y o u t .
o r b r e a t h m a rk s . I n s t e a d o f s a y i n g t h a t
p h r a s e s a r e a l i k e an d a r e 3 b a r s lo n g " i t
b e t t e r to p r e s e n t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e
No p h r a s e m arks
" t h e 2nd and 4 t h
w ould have b e e n
eye i n t h e la y o u t.
96
Key F.
|d
:d
If
Id
Ir
:m
h
|d
[r
|m
|
J. Turle.
:r
|t ,
:f
||s
|r
:r
||d
|s
|d
1
:I
1
II
T h e re i s no a t t e m p t t o make t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s d o u b le
c h a n t (3 + 4 )+ (3 + 4 ) c l e a r .
I t s h o u ld be p r i n t e d i n two
l i n e s , sh o w in g t h e s e q u e n c e i n t h e 1 s t and 3 rd p h r a s e s .
Wm. Crotch.
Key G.
:1,
:m
:m
A
•(A•
|s,
||r
|f
|r
J.
|t,
|s
|s
|r
||r
lid
|m
:t,
:f
Id
I
|
|
Form e n t i r e l y c o n c e a l e d by t h e l a y o u t , s o t h a t th e
i n v e r s i o n s o f t h e 1 s t a n d 2nd p h r a s e s i n t h e 3 rd an d
4 t h p h r a s e s i n t h i s w e ll-k n o w n c h a n t would e s c a p e n o t i c e .
Compare t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m a l l a y o u t :
(Is
If :m Ir
||d
It, :1, |s, :m |r
|
Jr
Im :f Is
lb*
Im :s, |l, :t, Id
II
K ey E
m Is
•Si |d
110
1 vfls ^:nyd|t,
N o t too q u ic k ly
: n vd|d'
Id
fir
ill
-
-
d
If
:m
:n vd|d‘ 1 vfls ^:n yd
m Is
Il,.t,:d.r|m
H aydn
Iry d :rvn|d
Form ABAC ( w i t h e x t e n s i o n ) . No a t t e m p t made t o p r e s e n t
t h e fo rm ( w i t h i t s r e p e a t e d p h r a s e a n a i t s e x te n d e d
p h rase) v is u a lly .
Key C
|:s.,s|m
R a th e r q u ic k ly
M ozart
:s.,slm
:s .,s |f :r
: f .,f l r
:f .,f|
j|m
:d
:d.,n|s :m.,sld' :s.,d'|m1 :d ' I
:s Md1
||s
:m.,slf
:r.,f|m :
:s .,d'l
I
n ' :d ' I
:s.,d'|s
I
I
: f .,f |r
:d .,n |s
:n.,slf
:m.,sld'
: r ., s |d
I
Form ABCDCD'.
No a t t e m p t t o p r e s e n t t h e fo rm a n d show t h e r e p e t i t i o n s
ty p o g ra p h ic a lly .
13
G
B
is, d .m |m .r:d .r In :n .s s .f :n .f *is :1 .si
:n .s {
I l f .m:r .d It, .r d .m m :r 'is, :d .m n .r :d
1 .s I f .n :r .d II, .d:t, .r r
:d II
IIs .f :m.f1s
K ey
•
•-i
_s
3
ekthovkn
S in g - a g a i n
f o r
sp eed
Form ABAB1.
No a t t e m p t a t f o r m a l l a y o u t .
82
Key D.
Speed test.
Look through for repeated phrases.
:1 -
|s
:m
|r
:f :m
•— ;—
:1
:s
|m
:r
:1
:t
M1
Id' :s
Id' :s
:1
Is
:f
:1
Is
:f
:m Id* :s
:m Is :f
:1
:s
lm
:r
:d
|s
|d‘ :s
:1
|s
:f
:m Is
|s
:d
;— ;—
H ere we h av e one of t h e fe w f o r m a l l a y o u t s i n t h e Book.
E v id e n tly t h e co m p ile rs s e t i t o u t t h u s , in o rd e r t o
g iv e v is u a l a i d t o th e p u p ils i n t h e i r a tte m p t to
s in g i t a t speed.
5-5-7
M anchester.
(d)
Key Eb.
:r
|d
d
|m
d1
|s
r
|f
:m |l
t
|d ' :f
: m |f
:f
: m |1
:t
i d 1 |1
:s
:f
:d ' |m
:r
•
•
:s
:f
:m
m :r
•
•
•
h
: m :r
|s
Id
m
1-
-
Crasselius.
M
Key C.
:s
|d '
:s
11
:1
|s
:f
:m
|f
:m
Ir
:s
l«
:fe Is
:s
|d '
:r'
l m ' :d '
If'
.m
: m ‘ |d '
:1
Is
Id1
:d '
lm
Ir1
Id 1 II
I n t h e e i g h t memory t u n e s a t t h e end o f Book I I I t h e
c o m p i l e r s have s e t ou t t h e n o t a t i o n i n a f o r m a l m anner a s
i n t h e a b o v e , i n o r d e r no d o u b t t o a s s i s t t h e p u p i l s i n
t h e i r e f f o r t s t o m em orize t h e t u n e s t o t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s
I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d why t h i s p r i n c i p l e o f
t h e f o r m a l l a y o u t o f m u sic s h o u ld n o t h av e b e e n a p p l i e d
th r o u g h o u t t h e b o o k . Can i t be b e c a u s e t h e c o m p i l e r s
b e l i e v e t h a t i n a s s i s t i n g t h e eye i n t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s ,
th e y a r e n o t u sin g i t to i t s f u l l e s t c a p a c ity ?
But t h e
eye i s t h e s e r v a n t of t h e m in d , a n d a s t h e o ld G reek
p h i l o s o p h e r s a i d , " t h e eye b r i n g s w i t h i t o n ly w h a t i t
se e s ."
I f i t s e e s s i n g l e n o t e s i t w i l l b r i n g b ack t o th e
mind o n l y s i n g l e n o t e s .
I f i t s e e s o r d e r ly p a tte r n s of
n o t e s , i t w i l l b r i n g b a c k t o t h e mind t h e s e o r d e r l y
p a tte rn s.
F o r , t o q u o t e a g a i n B e r g s o n 's w o rd s: ' I n a
g e n e r a l way, r e a l i t y i s o r d e r e d e x a c t l y t o t h e d e g r e e
i n w h ic h i t s a t i s f i e s ou r t h o u g h t . O rd e r i s , t h e r e f o r e ,
a c e r t a i n a g r e e m e n t b e tw e e n s u b j e c t a n d o b j e c t .
It is
t h e mind f i n d i n g i t s e l f a g a i n i n t h i n g s . "
55%
I t w i l l b e n o te d t h a t t h e ex am p les fro m Book I I I
ab o v e a r e p r i n t e d i n a v e r y h e a v y t y p e .
T h is was d o n e on
p u r p o s e f o r t h e s a k e o f t h e y o u n g e r p u p i l s who would be
u sin g th e s e boo k s.
But s u r e l y s u c h a t y p e i s u n n e c e s s a r y
e v e n w i t h young c h i l d r e n , who a r e a c c u s to m e d i n t h e i r
o r d i n a r y r e a d i n g t o much l i g h t e r t y p e s .
The r e s u l t o f
u s in g o r d i n a r y l e t t e r p r e s s ty p e i n s o l - f a l a y o u t i s t h a t
some o f t h e l e t t e r s ,
lik e
t i o n , w h ile o th e r s , l i k e
"m" and "d", c l a i m t o o much a t t e n ­
" t" and "r" c la im t o o l i t t l e .
T h is w i l l b e s e e n f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g f i r s t - p r o o f of th e
S eq u en c e M o d u la to r , w h ic h w as b y e r r o r p r i n t e d w i t h
o rd in a ry l e t t e r - p r e s s ty p e .
1
THE SEQUENCE MODULATOR
a*#*'
2 3
r1 m1
I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
d1
t
1
s
f
m
r
d
d'
t
1
s
f
m
r
d
t,
t
d'
r1 m1
1
s
f
m
r
d
t«
1,
1
t
s
f
m
r
d
t,
1, s,
s
f
m
r
d
ti
1,
Si f,
m r
d
ti
1, s.
r
d
t.
1,
s, f.
d
t,
S|
f, m, r.
1
2
1,
3
4
5
6
4
5
6
7
8
f1
s'
1'
t'
d2
f1
s'
l1 t1
d1
r 1 m'
f'
s' r
1
t
d1
r 1 m 1 f' s'
f
s
1
t
d'
r1 m1 f 1
m,
m
f
s
1
t
d1
r1 m1
m, r.
r
m
f
s
1
t
d1
r'
d
r m
2 3
f
s
1
t
d1
6
7
8
f,
7
d,
8
1
4
C opyright in U .S .A . and a ll countries,
5
1938
.
by A r th u r J . Irvin e
$•59
J o h n Curwen i n v e n t e d a s p e c i a l ty p e f o r s o l - f a
n o t a t i o n i n w h ic h t h e w e i g h t i s d i s t r i b u t e d a s e v e n ly a s
p o s s ib le over a l l th e l e t t e r s .
I n h i s famous Memorandum*
one o f t h e p o i n t s he made a g a i n s t J o h n H u l l a h , who had
p r i n t e d t e s t s f o r T ra in in g C o lle g e s t u d e n t s i n s t a f f and
s o l - f a , was t h a t he h a d n o t u s e d t h e p r o p e r t y p e .
Curwen a lw a y s i n s i s t e d on t h e u s e o f t h i s t y p e i n
a l l t o n i c s o l - f a p u b l i c a t i o n s , a n d f r e e l y g r a n t e d t h e u se
o f i t t o o u t s i d e b o d i e s who w is h e d t o u s e s o l - f a n o t a t i o n .
#
See "The P r e s e n t C r i s i s o f Music i n S c h o o l s .
A R e p ly t o Mr H u l l a h ' s A t t a c k on t h e
Movable Doh an d T o n ic S o l - f a Methods
i n The E d u c a t i o n B lu e Book, 1 8 7 2 -7 3 .
by J o h n Curw en."
(L ondon, T o n ic S o l - f a Agency)
J o h n H u l l a h , i n a n a t t e m p t t o p ro v e t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e
F ix e d Do S t a f f S y ste m o v e r t h e M ovable Doh S o l - f a S y stem ,
h ad u s e d w i t h s t u d e n t s i n T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e s a t e s t p r i n t e d
i n s t a f f and i n s o l - f a .
In H u l l a h 's la y o u t of th e s o l - f a
t e s t Curwen p o i n t s o u t "b e tw e e n 20 and30 e r r o r s " on t h e one
p a g e — u s i n g w rong ty p e * t a k i n g away fro m t h e s o l - f a tim e
n o t a t i o n " i t s p i c t o r i a l m e asu rem en t o f tim e " by t h e u n e q u a l
s p a c i n g o f p u l s e s and b a r s , m i s p l a c i n g o r o m is s io n o f
o c t a v e m a rk s , u s e o f t r a n s i t i o n s o r m o d u la tio n s w here t h e s e
a re q u ite u n n e c e s s a ry ,e tc .
As t h i s s ix p e n n y Memorandum i s now s c a r c e we g i v e f o r
c o m p a r is o n a n d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n on t h e f o l l o w i n g page
t h e f a c s i m i l e o f H u l l a h ' s s i g h t - t e s t w i t h Curwen1s l a y o u t
o f t h e same.
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2
The L a y o u t o f S t a f f N o t a t i o n
I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d good exam ples o f t h e fo rm al
l a y o u t of m usic i n s t a f f n o t a t i o n ,
reasons.
F irst,
and t h i s
t h e r e i s no r e c o g n i s e d r u l e
fo r several
t h a t b a r s of
e q u a l l e n g th i n s t a f f should be sp aced e q u a lly .
sym bols have a p i c t o r i a l b a s i s ,
size
Where
(except as a m atter
of co u rtesy ) does not count *
A gain,
sig n a tu re
in th e
f i r s t bar of s ta ff
exam ples a tim e
i s alw ays t o be fo u n d , and t h i s
o c c u p i e s some
space and c o n seq u en tly u p s e ts th e sp a cin g of the b a rs .
W h il e i n S t a f f R e a d e r s t h e n u m b e r s o f t h e e x e r c i s e s a r e
o f te n allow ed to
type
o c c u p y s p a c e i n t h e f i r s t }.i n e o f m u s i c
in each e x ercise.
In s o l-fa n o ta tio n th e re
key s i g n a t u r e and th e n u m e ra tio n i s
sp a ce i n t h e p r i n t e d m usic l i n e
i s no
n o t a l l o w e d t o t a k e up
(com pare th e f o r e g o i n g
exam ples i n s o l - f a ) .
I n t h e f o llo w in g exam ples t h i s
t i o n and in c lu s io n
in d e n t i n g f o r num era­
o f a tim e s i g n a t u r e
is u s u a lly responsible
"A r e f o r m t h a t c o u l d b e c a r r i e d o u t b y c o n v e n t i o n
b e tw ee n p u b l i s h e r s o f d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s and
im m e d ia te ly a p p l i e d , w i t h no in c o n v e n ie n c e and
n o t h i n g b u t a d v a n t a g e t o a l l c o n c e r n e d , would be
t h e a d o p t i o n o f one n o t e - v a l u e ( s a y t h e c r o t c h e t )
a s t h e b e a t i n a l l new m u s i c .
And e x p e r i m e n t s
i n t h e s p a c in g o f m usic a c c o r d i n g t o t h e b e a t s
( a p p r o a c h i n g t h e s y s te m of t h e t o n i c s o l - f a i n
t h a t r e s p e c t ) m ig h t be f r u i t f u l . "
("T he O x f o r d C om panion t o M u s ic " by P e r c y S c h o l e s ,
- p . 621)
(B oth of th e s e a d v a n ta g e s i n th e la y o u t o f m u sic -ty p e
a re in co rp o rated in th e to n ic s o l- f a n o ta tio n .)
562
f o r t h e b a d l a y o u t , a l t h o u g h i n man y c a s e s t h i s
a lso
to t h e d e s i r e
of th e com p ositor to f i n i s h a l i n e
w ith a com plete b a r ,
last
i s due
irresp ectiv e
of th e f a c t th a t th e
b e a t i n t h a t b a r may b e t h e f i r s t b e a t o f a new p h r a s t
A f te r w hat has been s a i d o f the s o l - f a
little
layout,
very
comment n e e d be a d d e d t o t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a f f
exam ples.
P r o m "The P o l k S o n g S i g h t S i n g i n g S e r i e s " ,
Books I a n d I I .
A lle g r e tto
B ritish
P o r m ABAB
A lle g r e tto
mf
f•J t
i >j l i f j
p
i J J lf7~Tj J I j J
P o r m ABAB'
A lle g r e tt o
33
L
d im .
J
u j i§
German
Allegretto <4 + 3 , 4 + 3 )
F o r m ABAB
f rr
p
~ P
—• ~
r
pp- \ r
---------
J ? '1 #
- ' - '
dresc.
—
------- —_
d im .
1
----- z* —---------------1— — 1
1
P
In t h e f o u r exam ples above th e r e p e a t e d p h r a s e s in
t h e bottom l i n e
th e to p l i n e .
a p p e a r more o r l e s s b e lo w t h e
T h is makes f o r good form i n t h e
But th e se r e s u l t s
phrases in
lay o u t.
have b e en g a in e d th ro u g h c a r r y i n g over
t h e end o f th e seco n d p h r a s e t o t h e b e g in n in g o f t h e
second l in e .
T h e b e s t way t o s e t o u t t h e s e t u n e s w o u l d b e t o
make a l l o w a n c e f o r t h e n u m b e r a n d t h e t i m e s i g n a t u r e , a n d
in d e n t s l i g h t l y f o r th e second l i n e , so t h a t th e p h rases
i n t h e s e c o n d l i n e w ould a p p e a r e x a c t l y u n d e r t h e p h r a s e s
in th e
firs t lin e .
i
A c t u a l l y t h e num bers w ould be b e t t e r s e t o u t above
t h e m usic a s
in th e
so l-fa
exam ples.
In t h i s
c a s e only
a s l i g h t I n d e n t w ould be n e c e s s a r y i n t h e s e c o n d l i n e
a llo w f o r t h e tim e s i g n a t u r e .
to
The e x a m p l e s o n t h i s
p a g e show t h e e f f e c t
on t h e
layout
of th e in d e n tin g of the f i r s t lin e .
A l l e g r o (6 b a r r h y th m )
German
>•
F o r m AABAAB.
The f o r m a l l a y o u t h e r e i s s p o i l e d s o l e l y by t h e
in d e n tin g of the f i r s t l i n e .
A n d a n te c o n e sp r e s s io n e ( 3 phrases o f 8 bars;
Basque
94
cresc.
d im .
PP
I
F o r m ABA.
T h is l a y o u t w ould have b een e x c e l l e n t b u t f o r th e
in d e n tin g of the f i r s t l i n e .
C o n s p ir it o ( 4 bars answered by 6 )
B ritish
v
cresc.
F o r m ABAB1 ( w i t h e x t e n s i o n ) .
L a y o u t s p o i l e d by i n d e n t .
P h r a s e B' s h o u l d b e e x t e n d e d
in space ty p o g ra p h ic a lly i n th e second l i n e .
I n t h e e x a m p le s on t h i s
lin e s
p a g e a d i f f e r e n t num ber of
i n t h e l a y o u t would have a i d e d t h e v i s u a l
p e r c e p tio n o f th e form .
A lle g r o
Dutch
P
/
P o r m ABABCB.
I n o r d e r t o show t h e r e p e t i t i o n s v i s u a l l y t h i s
s h o u l d b e s e t o u t i n t h r e e l i n e s : AB
exam ple
AB
CB
C o n m o to
15
phrases of 4 bars. N ote the sequential treatment of thirds'
cresc.
k
F o r m AABBA.
A f i v e - l i n e l a y o u t w i t h o u t i n d e n t w o u l d make t h e
r e p e t i t i o n s s t a n d o ut c l e a r l y t o the eye.
57
■
4
cresc .
F o r m AABB'.
A fo u r-lin e
l a y o u t would r e v e a l t h e fo rm v i s u a l l y .
German
t5(ob
P r o m "The P r o g r e s s i v e R e a d e r " Books
C and D
SCHUMANN.
59
&
$
F o r m ABAC.
R e q u i r e s two l i n e s w i t h o u t i n d e n t a n d w i t h
equal b a r spacing.
VERDI
(L a T ra v ia ta )
( T r a n s p o B H d ).
(1813.1901.)
103.
x___
— p—. g r
»
1
r-\
................................. .....
'
r
F o r m AABC.
R eq u ires a f o u r - l i n e la y o u t w ith o u t in d e n t
F r o m "T h e C l a s s i c a l S i g h t R e a d e r " , Book 5 .
9 3 A “M e m o r y ” t u n e . It g o e s quickly.
N fTrTr J~i
G a e lic fo lk so n g
F o r m ABAC.
N ote th e 7 b a r s
and
’
t 5 lrd J-i n e , t h e 5 b a r s i n s e c o n d l i n e
th e fo u r bars
in f i r s t lin e .
Prom " M a s te r M e lo d ie s f o r S c h o o l s " ,
B o o k 2.
H.M.V. Dat7.
B eethoven - C h o ra l Symphony.
5.:
1
7
F o r m ABAB*.
\
L ay o u t s p o i l e d s o l e l y by i n d e n t .
S c h u m a n n - T r io Op. 88.
2.
I
*
£
f-
£
F o r m AA ( w i t h e x t e n s i o n ) .
Form q u i t e c o n c e a l e d fro m eye by l a y o u t .
T h i s t u n e r e q u i r e s tw o l i n e s w i t h e x t e n s i o n i n s p a c e
i n second l i n e .
“ B o rd er W idow’s L am ent’.’
F o r m AA'BA1.
T his f o u r - h h r a s e tu n e w ith i t s r e p e t i t i o n s
be s e t o u t in f o u r l i n e s w ith o u t i n d e n t .
should
'W ill y e p a e to Sh e rrifm u ir:
F o r m AABB1.
Bar s p a c in g bad.
fo r th e lay o u t.
T his tu n e r e q u i r e s fo u r
lin es
F r o m "The R h y t h m i c S t a f f R e a d e r " Book B.
T r a d itio n a l I r i s h Air.
lS L-ti T r n
M fu..
^
ft —
---------------- —
^
^
.LhLj
—
------ -
s 1 V ^ i - 11
« i j. j 11
F o r m a b a b ' c b a b 1 o r AA'BA'
L a y o u t s p o i l t by i n d e n t , due s o l e l y t o t h e
tim e s i g n a t u r e .
H aydn.
F o r m ABAC.
L a y o u t s p o i l t by i n d e n t a n d u n e q u a l b a r
sp acing.
The p h r a s e e n d i n g s s h o u l d c o i n c i d e
w ith t h e l i n e e n d in g s , r e v e a l i n g t h e G avotte
fo rm t o the eye.
T ra d itio n a l Iria h A ir.
—_
108a
T # i
■JL, <S-4-
-J J
7 ? T > " --ffl
-
J
F o r m ABBA.
No a t t e m p t made
of th is ty p ic a l
r e ite r a te d to n ic
and l a s t p h ra s e ,
...
t o show t y p o g r a p h i c a l s t r u c t u r e
I r i s h tune w ith i t s t h r i c e
a t th e cadences i n the f i r s t
a n d i t s r e p e a t e d s e c o n d p h r a s e B.
So f a r a s t h e w r i t e r i s a w a r e ,
very l i t t l e
a tte m p t has been
made b y c o m p i l e r s o f S c h o o l M u s i c R e a d e r s t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e
o f th e fo rm a l la y o u t o f m usic ty p e i n
maximum t h e r e a d e r ' s
u n til the
com prehension o f th e t e x t . 0/
(O xford U n i v e r s i ty P r e s s ) ,
Indeed,
th e q u e stio n
f o r m a l l a y o u t o f m u sic t y p e i n S i g h t R e a d e r s would
s c a r c e l y have su g g e ste d i t s e l f
till
"to a id to th e
p u b l i c a t i o n a f e w y e a r s a g o o f "T h e F o l k Song
S ig h t R in g in g S e r ie s "
of th e
order
th en ,
t o t h e m usic t e a c h e r .
Up
p r a c t i c a l l y a l l S i g h t R e a d e r s w e r e made up o f
a rtific ia lly
c o n stru c te d e x e rc is e s d ev ised to
m an y e x a m p l e s a s p o s s i b l e
in tro d u ce as
of p i t c h o r rhythm
problem s in
t h e i r o i d e r a c c o r d i n g to t h e schem e of th e c o m p ile r of th e
book.
In order to
keep t h e eye of t h e p u p i l f u l l y
engaged from b e g in n in g t o end o f e a c h e x e r c i s e ,
of th e s e R eaders c o n triv e d to
r e p e t i t i o n o f them e o r p h r a s e ,
few o r no r e p e a t e d n o t e s .
be s u n g o n ce and once
in tro d u ce
little
little
the
com piler
o r no
o r no s e q u e n c e ,
and
E a c h e x e r c i s e was i n t e n d e d t o
only.
Symbol i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r
n o t e - r e a d i n g was t h e o r d e r o f t h e d a y .
And s i n c e t h e r e was
no em p h a sis on r e a d i n g f o r c o n t e n t - and t h e
co n ten t a f t e r
a l l was q u i t e w o r t h l e s s f r o m t h e a e s t h e t i c p o i n t o f v i e w it
was q u i t e n a t u r a l t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d b e n o a t t e m p t o n t h e
c o m p ile r's
in th e
p art to rev eal th e
lay o u t
of th e m usic.
c o n t e n t or fo rm t y p o g r a p h i c a l l y
Indeed,
a id th e v is u a l p e rc ep tio n of th e
such an a tte m p t to
c o n te n t of th e s ig h t- r e a d in g
5?7o
e x e r c i s e w o u l d b e q u i t e c o n t r a r y t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s on w h i c h
t h e s i g h t - r e a d i n g m e t h o d was b a s e d .
But th e
c o m i n g o f "The P o l k S o n g S i g h t S i n g i n g S e r i e s "
has
h e r a l d e d a new a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m o f t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n
to read a t s ig h t.
ex ercise
In th is
series
is an a c tu a l fo lk song.
o f tw e lv e Books, e v e ry
These f o l k songs have
been c o ll e c t e d from v a rio u s c o u n tr ie s
i n Europe c h i e f l y ,
a s would b e e x p e c t e d , t h e A B C D t y p e o f s t r u c t u r e
ex ceed in g ly r a r e .
and,
is
Every tu n e has been c a r e f u l l y p h rased ,
an d tem po an d e x p r e s s i o n m arks h av e b een ad d ed t o a s s i s t th e
r e a d e r i n th e sy m p ath etic re n d e rin g of th e m usic.
N otes
o n a n y p e c u l i a r i t y i n t h e f o r m h a v e b e e n a d d e d i n man y c a s e s ,
and in d ic a tio n s of t h e s t r u c t u r e
o f t h e t u n e s and t h e num bers
o f b a r s i n e a c h p h ra s e have been g iv e n i n b r a c k e t s e .g .
"(3 s e ts
of 4 b a rs ),
(5 s e t s
c o n c lu d e d by one o f 6 b a r s ) ,
In an e x c e lle n t P reface to
"S uggested
of 2 b a r s ) ,
(fo u r-b a r phrases
( 4 + 4 + 4 + 2)" e tc .
e a c h B ook t h e f o l l o w i n g
P la n s f o r R eading" a r e
l a i d down f o r t h e g u i d a n c e
of th e teach er.
SUGGESTED TLANS FOR READING
I n th e early stages o f read in g it is suggested th a t each tu n e m ay b e sung
in all o f th e follow ing ways:
I -) T o solfa w ith o u t tim e.
2 ) I n m o n o to n e ( a ) to tim e n am es, ( b ) to do h .
3 ) C o m b in ed tim e a n d tu n e to solfa.
4 ) C o m b in ed tim e a n d tu n e to laa, tw ice i f necessary, a n d th e n once
a t least w ith all expression m arks observed (an d to an accom panim ent
w here th e teach er is sufficiently skilled to im provise one).
T h e class sh o u ld alw ays b eat tim e o r ta p each b eat silently. I t is d esir­
able to use ta p p in g in th e early stages b u t to p ro ceed to beating as
soon as th e class is ready.
W h e n th e class is sufficiently adv an ced each te st sh o u ld be sung
a t least th re e tim es, as follows:
1) T o solfa.
2 ) T o laa.
3 ) W ith all expression m ark s observed (an d to an accom panim ent
w here th e te a c h e r is sufficiently skilled to im p ro v ise one).
A fte r th e earlies t stages o f n o te -to -n o te readin g , classes m u st learn
*7/
to th in k in p h rases. A s an a id to th is, p h ra sin g is m arked in all tu n es,
a n d cases o f irre g u la r rh y th m ic s tru c tu re are n o ted . O b serv atio n o f these
p o in ts o f c o n stru ctio n n o t o n ly h elps tow ards m ore in te llig en t reading
b u t also increases th e in te re st o f th e lesson. All repeats sh o u ld be observed:
expression m ark s in brackets refe r to th e second tim e.
T e m p o a n d o th e r in d ic a tio n s m ay o r m ay n o t b e a tte n d e d to on a first
re a d in g a c co rd in g to th e capacity o f th e singers, b u t a t a la te r stage
all in d ic a tio n s s h o u ld b e o b serv ed in o rd e r th a t sig h t-sin g in g m ay be
lin k ed u p w ith m usical e n jo y m en t. T h e r e is too o ften a ten d e n c y to
divorce sig h t-sin g in g fro m m u sic, a n d one o b ject o f th is collection is
to p ro v id e m aterial w hich is at once m usical a n d u sefu l, a n d w hich
will h e lp to w ard s m ak in g th is p a rt o f th e sin g in g lesson a d e lig h t to th e
class.
We h a v e g i v e n i n f u l l t h i s p a r t o f t h e P r e f a c e t o
Book I ,
b e c a u s e i t i n d i c a t e s a n a l t o g e t h e r new d e p a r t u r e
i n m ethod
w ith reg ard to th e teach in g of s ig h t read in g .
As w i l l
he s e e n , th e em p h asis a l l a lo n g i s
o r m eaning,
and t h i s
is
e n tirely
on r e a d i n g f o r c o n te n t
i n k e e p in g w i t h m odern
v i e w s on t h e t e a c h i n g o f o r d i n a r y l a n g u a g e r e a d i n g .
pedagogical d ev ices or v isu a l a id s
Any
t h a t w ill h e lp the
l e a r n e r to m a in ta in c o n ti n u i ty in th e re a d in g and to e x t r a c t
m eaning fro m t h e
In th is
t e x t s h o u l d b e we l e a n e d b y t h e t e a c h e r .
co n n ectio n i t
Is
i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t up t i l l
th e begin n in g of l a s t c e n tu ry ,
s o p l e n t i f u l a s now,
when f l u e n t r e a d e r s w e re n o t
i t was c u s t o m a r y t o p r i n t a t t h e f o o t
o f each page o f l e t t e r p r e s s a "catch w o rd " ,
w h ic h would h e l p
t h e r e a d e r t o m a i n t a i n c o n t i n u i t y i n h i s r e a d i n g w h i l e he
was t u r n i n g o v e r t h e
page.
These
"catchw ords" a r e s t i l l
t o be f o u n d i n t y p e s c r i p t s a n d i n l e g a l d o c u m g n ts, w here
t h e y s e r v e a l s o a s w a r n i n g s i g n s i f t h e p a g i n a t i o n i s wrong
or i f
m ore t h a n
In m usic,
to o ,
was u s e d a t
th e
one p a g e i s t u r n e d a t a t i m e .
u n t i l f a i r l y r e c e n t tim es a s i m il a r d ev ice
ends o f l i n e s t o h e lp th e r e a d e r t o m a in ta in
5 7-2
th e re a d in g flow .
T h is took th e form o f a s ig n M
w h i c h was " s e t a t t h e
th e f i r s t
e n d o f a s t a v e t o sh o w t h e p l a c e o f
note in th e n e x t s ta v e ."
( D i c t i o n a r y o f M u sic," by J o h n H oyle,
1770)
T h i s s i g n was known v a r i o u s l y a s a D i r e c t . C u s t o s ,
M ostra o r In d ex .
Under "G uidon," R o u sse a u i n h i s
" D i c t i o n n a r e de M usique"
(1775), d e fin e s i t
th u s:
"G u i d o n . P e t i t s i g n e de M u siq u e , l e q u e l
se m et a 1 ' e x tr e m i t y de chaque P o r t a e s u r
l e Degre' ou s e r a p l a c ^ e l a Note q u i d o i t
commencer l a P o r t e e s u i v a n t e .
Si c ette
p r e m ie r e N ote e s t accom pagnee a c c i d e n t e l l e m e n t
d ' u n D i h s e d ' u n Bemol o u d ' u n B ^ q u a r r e , i l
c o n v i e n t d 1e n a c c o m p a g n e r a u s s i l e G u i d o n . "
(G u id o n . A s m a ll m u s ic a l s i g n w hich i s p la c e d
a t t h e e n d o f e a c h s t a v e on t h e l i n e o r s p a c e
o c c u p ie d by t h e f i r s t n o te o f t h e n e x t s t a v e .
I f th e l a t t e r n o te i s accom panied by a s h a r p ,
f l a t or n a t u r a l , t h i s a c c i d e n t a l m ust be
p la c e d a ls o b e fo re th e guidon o r d i r e c t . )
It
is
in te r e s tin g to note
are s t i l l
to be fo u n d a re
th a t the
i n E x e r c i s e s s e n t up b y c a n d i d a t e s
f o r U n iv e rsity honours.
u n til recen t years,
of each sta v e .
relic
o n ly p l a c e s w here d i r e c t s
In th ese
it
is s t i l l ,
o r i t was
o b l i g a t o r y t o I n s e r t d i r e c t s a t t h e end
The d i r e c t i n t h i s c a s e i s n o t j u s t a
of th e d i s t a n t p a st,
a i d f o r t h e e x a m i n e r who i s
but r a t h e r a m ost u s e fu l v is u a l
lo o k in g out fo r "eo n secu tiv e
fifth s."
B ut,
we may a s k ,
if
s u c h a v i s u a l a i d i s deemed by t h e
U n i v e r s i t y P r e f e s s o r t o be a n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e p r e s e r v i n g
o f c o n tin u ity in h is re a d in g of a m usical sc o re ,
and i f
it
was d e e m e d a n e c e s s i t y
in the
la y o u t o f m usic f o r a d u l t
r e a d e r s up tU l t h e b e g i n n i n g o f l a s t
cen tu ry ,
why. s h o u l d
we w i t h o l d s u c h a u s e f u l d e v i c e f o r p r e s e r v i n g c o n t i n u i t y
i n re a d in g from l i n e to
lin e
from t h e young c h i l d
in h is
e a rly e ff o r ts a t sig h t-rea d in g ?
The o n e c o n s t a n t i n a l l m u s i c i s
the pulse or th e b e a t.
I n o r d i n a r y l a n g u a g e r e a d i n g we may r e a d a p a s s a g e q u i c k l y
o r s l o w l y , a n d we may p a u s e o v e r a w o r d o r a p h r a s e ,
repeat i t ,
read in g .
th e end,
u n t i l t h e m eaning s i n k s i n .
o r even
But n o t so i n m usic
The o r i g i n a l p u l s e r a t e m u s t b e p r e s e r v e d u n t i l
e x c e p t i n c a s e s where i t
fo r a esth e tic
purposes.
is a lte re d d e lib era tely
W ith young c h i l d r e n i t
more e s s e n t i a l t o k e e p up a s t e a d y p u l s e ,
is
even
and a f a i r l y
q u i c k p u l s e t o o , f o r t h e y h a v e more d i f f i c u l t y t h a n
e x p erien c ed m u sician s have i n h o ld in g a tu n e i n s o l u t i o n in
t h e i r m inds, so t o sp e a k ,
An d , a s we h a v e s a i d ,
u n t i l th e l a s t n o te is re a d ie d .
u n less c h ild re n a re ab le to r e ta in
t h e ech o o f t h e f i r s t p h r a s e i n t h e i r m inds w h ile t h e y a r e
sin g in g the l a s t phrase,
th ey w ill have f a i l e d
t h e m eaning o f t h e w h o le .
H e n c e we s u g g e s t t l ^ t i n t h e
e a rly readin g e x ercises a "d ire c t"
end of each l i n e
s h o u ld be p la c e d a t th e
o f m usic e x c e p t t h e
place f o r such v is u a l a id s
th e m elodic t e x t u r e ,
to grasp
la st.
The b e s t
i s u n d o u b t e d l y a t t h e seams o f
th e endings o f p h ra s e s ;
f o r such
$74
end in gs or cadences u s u a lly c o in c id e w ith a long n o te,
w hich a llo w s tim e f o r b r e a t h i n g and r e c u p e r a t i o n w ith o u t
d istu rb in g th e
pulse r a t e .
We a d v o c a t e , t h e n ,
t h a t i n M usic R e a d e r s i n t e n d e d f o r
young c h i l d r e n :
(a)
Each e x e r c i s e sh o u ld be t r e a t e d
m erits,
on i t s
own
and s e t out ty p o g ra p h ic a lly so t h a t
i t may r e v e s . l t o
the r e a d e r i t s
form o r
s tr u c tu r e t o th e b e s t advantage.
(b)
The n u m b e r s o f t h e e x e r c i s e s s h o u l d b e
p lac ed above th e l in e
o f m usic ty p e and
sh o u ld n o t occupy space i n t h a t l i n e .
(c)
A l l o w a n c e s h o u l d b e made i n t h e s e c o n d a n d
f o l l o w i n g l i n e s f o r t h e s p a c e o c c u p ie d by
t h e tim e s i g n a t u r e a t t h e
first
lin e .
fo r th e
begin n in g o f th e
T h i s may b e d o n e b y i n d e n t i n g
l i n e s below ,
or by b e g in n in g f u r t h e r
i n w ith the f i r s t n o te in th e s e
lin e s,
so
t h a t i t w i l l a p p e a r e x a c t l y below t h e f i r s t
note
(d)
in th e
A ll lin e
f i r s t lin e .
endings sh o u ld c o in c id e w ith
phrase en d in g s,an d d i r e c ts
a t th e ends of th e l i n e s .
lin in g of th e tune in i t s
sh o u ld be used
T h is stream ­
v isu al aspect w ill
e c o n o m iz e e y e - p o w e r i n t h e r e a d e r by
p re v e n tin g u n n e c e ssa ry w aste i n h i s e f f o r t s
t o p e rc e iv e th e b e g in n in g s and endings
of phrases,
ju st
as th e s tr e a m - lin in g
of
a m otor c a r o r a e r o p l a n e econom izes
e n g in e pow er by p r e v e n t i n g u n n e c e s s a r y
fric tio n
(e)
or resistan c e to
th e a ir .
An e x t e n s i o n i n a n y m u s i c a l p h r a s e s h o u l d
b e sho w n t y p o g r a p h i c a l l y b y a n e x t e n s i o n
in space i n th e lay o u t.
(f)
In a ll
ex ercises
tempo s h o u l d b e i n d i c a t e d ,
and p h r a s e m arks and e x p r e s s i o n m arks
s h o u ld be i n s e r t e d ,
so a s t o h e lp th e
read er to b ring out a l l
t h e m eaning o f t h e
m usic.
(g)
I t goes w ith o u t s a y in g t h a t t h e tu n e s used
f o r t r a i n i n g i n m u s i c r e a d i n g s h o u l d be
r e a l t u n e s w i t h a c o n t e n t o r m eaning t h a t
w i l l rew ard th e re a d e r in h is
in te rp retin g
effo rts
at
th e m u sic a l sym bols, and n o t
sim ply a r t i f i c i a l l y
co n stru cted exercises
w i t h n o o r g a n i c u n i t y w h a t e v e r , s u c h a s we
have b een accustom ed to i n t h e p a s t i n
S c h o o l M usic R e a d e r s .
Edward E l g a r i n h i s P r e f a c e
i n M u sical N o ta tio n "
t o H. E l l i o t t B u t t o n ' s
(N oveilo) q u o te s th e p o e t,
"System
G r a y , who
i n r e f e r e n c e t o h i s own p u b l i s h e d poems w r i t e s t o a f r i e n d ;
"The p r e s s h a s i n g e n e r a l a b a d e f f e c t
on t h e
c o m p lec tio n of o n e 's w orks."
And E l g a r g o e s o n :
"Here G ra y (1 7 6 2 ) e x p r e s s e s a n o p i n i o n w h ic h ,
h o w e v e r c o r r e c t i t may b e a s t o
c e r ta in ly u ntrue as to
lite ra tu re ,
the p rin tin g
is
o f m u sic."
W ith r e g a r d t o t h e t o p i c u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n - t h e l a y o u t o f
m u s i c i s S c h o o l M u s i c R e a d e r s - we c a n n o t e n d o r s e E l g a r ' s
op in io n .
And u n t i l t h e c o m p i l e r s o f M u s i c R e a d e r s come
to recognise
th e bad "co m p le c tio n of t h e i r w orks," as th e
c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r s i g h t - r e a d i n g no d o u b t u n c o n s c i o u s l y do,
t h e r e c a n n o t b e much h o p e f o r a n i m p r o v e m e n t i n
c o m p lec tio n ."
"the
511
CHAPTER IX
An E x p e r i m e n t t o a s c e r t a i n t h e e f f e c t
o f t h e f o r m a l l a y o u t o f m u s i c t v u e on
R eading perform ance
I n an endeavour to a s c e r t a i n th e e f f e c t o f th e
fo rm a l l a y o u t of m usic type on t h e a b i l i t y
to fo llo w or
r e a d m u s i c t y p e , t h e w r i t e r p l a n n e d a n e x p e r i m e n t on
o b je c tiv e lin e s and c a r r ie d o u t a
p u p ils in a larg e
N atu rally ,
t e s t o n 3 02 F i r s t Y e a r
S econdary S chool.
i t w o u l d be q u i t e i m p o s s i b l e f o r a n
e x a m in e r t o a s s e s s a c c u r a t e l y m e r i t s o r d e m e r i t s of m usic
ty p e l a y o u t w hile p u p i l s a c t u a l l y r e a d fro m i t
a c la ss
or i n d i v i d u a l l y .
su b jectiv e
e i t h e r as
The d a y s w h e n s u c h a t y p e o f
j u d g e m e n t would b e a c c e p t e d i n r e s p o n s i b l e
q u a rte rs are gone, alth o u g h th is
l i n g e r s on i n p r a c t i c a l
m ethod o f a s s e s s i n g s t i l l
e x a m in a tio n s i n m usic and i n
M u sical F e s t i v a l s .
So t h e w r i t e r p l a n n e d a t e s t i n w h i c h t h e p u p i l s
w o u l d show b y t h e i r own m a r k i n g w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e a b l e
n o t t o f o l l o w m u s i c w h i c h was p l a y e d o n t h e
or
p ian o fo rte.
The c l a s s e s w e r e a l l w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h i s t y p e
of te s t,
as th e w r i t e r used i t r e g u l a r l y
in c la ss
i n order
t o c u l t i v a t e flu e n c y i n fo llo w in g m usic type and, a lo n g
w ith o th e r t e s t s ,
in order to a sse ss sig h t-re a d in g a b il i ty .
I n t h i s type o f re a d in g t e s t ,
him a c y c l o s t y l e d s h e e t o f m u s ic ,
various c la s s ic so u rces.
o f a p o c k e t m etronom e,
e a c h p u p il had b efo re
c o n ta in i n g m e lo d ie s from
The w r i t e r t h e n , w i t h t h e a i d
p lay ed th e s e m elodies a t a c e r t a i n
M etronom ic r a t e w i t h o u t acco m p an im en t on t h e
p ian o fo rte,
b u t s t o p p e d on c e r t a i n n o t e s u n d e r w h ich th e p u p i l s w ere
t o w r i t e a c e r t a i n num ber, e .g
lOJHupe
Jl ft
\
1 J 11J
B eethoven,
- r - 7 — T T T - f ; --------- M - f f f *' T
f j r;j
»-* *
•J? j -0*1
T * .,- r r = f -
i
H l
.jTTI
O p.5 9 ,
No 3
k
h
1 m i J—J *-j
1
f , ■,
i
*1 nmJ• •i
•
T h u s ,o n a f o o l s c a p page t h e p u p i l s w ould have t o m ark, s a y ,
20 n o te s w ith th e f i g u r e s
1 to 20.
F r o m t h e p u r e l y v i s u a l p o i n t o f v i e w i t may b e
claim ed t h a t t h i s t e s t i s q u i t e
v alid ,
and i n t h i s
e x p e r i m e n t we w e r e c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h t h e v i s u a l a d v a n ­
t a g e s o r d is a d v a n ta g e s o f d i f f e r e n t form s o f m u sic-ty p e
lay o u t.
We g i v e on t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s some e x a m p l e s o f t h e
type of m a te r ia l used i n p rev io u s t e s t s
of t h i s k in d .
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5-ZI
I n t h e F o r m a l L a y o u t E x p e r i m e n t we s e l e c t e d t w o
m e l o d i e s and p r i n t e d t h e s e i n t h e
a S c h o o l M usic R e a d e r and a l s o
a d v a n t a g e s we d e s i r e d t o
o rd in a ry la y o u t found in
i n t h e f o r m a l l a y o u t whose
assess.
A sam p le s h e e t w i l l he
found a t the en d .
The i d e a b e h i n d t h e
e x p e r i m e n t was t o s e l e c t t h e
sa m e f i v e n o t e s i n b o t h m e l o d y l a y o u t s ,
case
so t h a t i n
each
- o r d i n a r y and f o r m a l l a y o u t - t h e p u p i l s would have
t h e same t a s k t o
perform .
To p r e v e n t t h e p u p i l s f r o m n o t i n g t h e s e s t o p p i n g
p l a c e s i n t h e two l a y o u t s ,
w as p r i n t e d o n t h e
b otto m ,
one p a i r
of m elo d ies,
l a and 2a,
l e f t - h a n d s id e of t h e s h e e t from to p t o
and t h e o t h e r p a i r ,
l b and 2b, on t h e r i g h t - h a n d
s i d e fro m bottom t o t o p .
A g a in , t o overcom e t h e e f f e c t o f p o s i t i o n i n a
series
on t h e am ount o f work d o n e i n a t e s t
of t h i s k in d ,
t h e p u p i l s w e r e n u m b e r e d , a n d od d n u m b e r s s t a r t e d t h e
s e r i e s from l a ,
lb .
w h ile e v e n num bers s t a r t e d t h e s e r i e s from
T h u s , w h i l e one h a l f o f t h e p u p i l s w ere m a rk in g t h e
o rd in ary layout,
the
o t h e r h a l f w ere m arking t h e fo rm a l
lay o u t.
As t h e sa m e n o t e s w e r e m a r k e d b y e a c h p u p i l i n b o t h
th e form al and th e
sep arate
o rd in ary la y o u t,
c a r e was t a k e n t o
t h e s e n o t e s by a s w ide a n i n t e r v a l a s p o s s i b l e .
Thus,
t h e 1 s t n o t e m a r k e d 1 i n o n e l a y o u t was a g a i n n a r k e d i n
t h e o t h e r l a y o u t a s n u m b e r 11
...
2 n d .....................
• • • 3rd
...
2
...
12
3
.........
13
The o r d e r o f m a r k i n g w i l l b e s e e n f r o m t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g
sam ple s h e e t .
th a t
I t i s v e r y u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e p u p i l s knew
th e y w ere m arking th e sa n e n o te s i n each l a y o u t .
u su a lly t e l l th e
t e a c h e r i n s u c h c a s e s I)
(They
But i f any,
probably on ly th e
b r i g h t p u p i l s would h a v e n o t i c e d i t .
And t h i s ,
of m i l i t a t i n g a g a in s t th e v a l i d i t y of
in stead
t h e r e s u l t s , w o u l d o n l y make m o r e c e r t a i n a n y p o s i t i v e
r e s u l t s a tt a i n e d th ro u g h th e s t a t i s t i c a l
scores.
a n a ly s is of the
F o r su c h a n e sc a p in g from th e c o n d itio n s of th e
t e s t m ust have a te n d e n c y t o e q u a l is e th e s c o re s i n th e
c a s e o f t h e s e p u p i l s , an d i t w ould r e q u i r e a g r e a t e r
d i s c r e p a n c y i n t h e r e m a i n i n g s c o r e s t o make t h e d i f f e r e n c e
i n t h e means s i g n i f i c a n t .
N in e m ixed c l a s s e s
o r 302 p u p i l s i n a l l ,
d u rin g t h e i r
o f F i r s t Year S eco n d ary P u p i l s ,
c o m p l e t e d t h e t e s t a t one s i t t i n g
o rd in ary lesso n p e rio d s.
The p a p e r s w e r e
c o l l e c t e d , a n d t h e s c o r e s f o r t h e two l a y o u t s
each c o r r e c t n o te ),
(one m ark f o r
were s u b j e c t e d t o t h e u s u a l t e s t f o r
s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n two M e a n s .
The s t a t i s -
t i c a l a n a ly s is of th e r e s u l ts
S ta tistic a l
M easure
i s g i v e n below .
Form al Layout
Mean
O rd in ary Layout
5*97
5-21
6
3-566
3-285
P .E .
2-377
2-190
P.E.
•136
*126
V
60
f*
63
(Form al - O rd in a ry ) =
P .E .
-
Maximum p o s s i b l e s c o r e
0 ’86
.01
- 10 i n each la y o u t
Num be r o f p u p i l s t e s t e d = 302
y - (S' X 1 0 0
M
P r o b a b l e e r r o r o f d i f f e r e n c e = -1 85
D i f f e r e n c e i n means
There i s
t h e r e f o r e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b etw een th e
means, s o t h a t t h e
scoring
= -76
form al la y o u t leads to a s u p e r i o r i t y in
- a s u p e r i o r i t y t h a t i s n o t due t o c h a n c e .
That i s ,
the fo rm al la y o u t d e f i n i t e l y a id s v is u a l p e rc e p tio n i n th e
r e a d in g o f m usic t y p e .
5Y4-
It
c a n a l s o b e n o t e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s show a l i t t l e
more v a r i a t i o n i n t h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e
o rd in ary lay o u t as
com pared w i t h t h e f o rm a l l a y o u t , b u t th e d i f f e r e n c e
is
s l i g h t and p ro b ab ly n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .
The c o r r e l a t i o n v a l u e
is
co n seq u en tly a la rg e
i s h ig h and s i g n i f i c a n t .
There
o v e rla p i n t h e m ental f u n c tio n s
c o n ce rn e d w i t h p e r c e p t i o n i n t h e f o r m a l la y o u t and i n th e
o r d i n a r y l a y o u t , a n d a s h a s b e e n show n a l r e a d y ,
layout
is
easie r to
perceiv e
r e l a t i v e l y h ig h er s c o r e s .)
th e form al
( a s d e m o n s t r a t e d by
On b o t h i s s u e s
of sim ila rity
of p e rc e p tu a l p ro c e ss and ease of p e rc e p tio n , th e fo rm al
la y o u t d em o n strates i t s
su p erio rity .
A sam ple t e s t s h e e t , a s u s e d i n t h i s
be fo u n d on t h e n e x t p a g e .
experim ent, w ill
The f i g u r e s 1 - 2 0 u n d e r t h e m u s i c show t h e n o t e s w h ich
t h e p u p i l s h a d t o m a r k i n e a c h c a s e w hen t h e p l a y i n g s t o p p e d
I n a l l c l a s s e s , one h a l f o f t h e p u p i l s m a r k e d t h e
s h e e t s i n t h e o r d e r l a , 2 a , l b , 2 b , t h e n l a , 2 a , l b , 2b
a g a in , e t c . , w hile th e o th e r h a lf s t a r t e d from lb ,
f o l l o w i n g t h e o r d e r l b , 2b, l a , 2 a , and s o on.
The s a m e n o t e s s h o u l d h a v e b e e n m a r k e d o n e a c h l a y o u t ,
a l t h o u g h a w i d e i n t e r v a l s e p a r a t e d t h e n o t e s m a r k e d on t h e
o r d i n a r y l a y o u t f r o m t h e sam e n o t e s m a r k e d o n t h e f o r m a l
l a y o u t , 1 b e i n g m arked a g a i n on t h e o t h e r s i d e a s 11,
2 a s 12, 3 a s 13, e tc .
.
IA
•S he-efc / \
irz
aaamfee^fgpiagg
g-
^
CHAPTER X
FKEQUEiMCY Ob' INTERVALS liM MELUIJY,
L o r d K e l v i n o n c e s a i d t h a t we b e g i n r e a l l y t o
know a t h i n g when we a r e a b l e t o m e a s u r e i t .
And P r o f e s s o r
A. N. 7 / h i t e h e a d i n "T h e Alms o f E d u c a t i o n a n d O t h e r E s s a y s "
(New Y o r k , T h e M a c m i l l a n C o . 1 9 2 9 ) s a y s
th e w orld i s
ta lk
in f e c te d w ith q u a n tity .
- "T hrough and t h r o u g h ,
To t a l k s e n s e i s
to
in q u a n titie s" .
When
m elody,
we come t o a n a l y s e a n I m p a l p a b l e t h i n g s u c h a s
i t seem s
very d i f f i c u l t a t f i r s t to fin d
a
q u a n t i t a t i v e m e a s u r e w h i c h may be u s e d f o r c o m p a r i n g m e l o d y
w ith m elody.
Yet i t
for
exam p le,
i s p o s s ib le to fin d such a m easure.
take
th e number o f r e p e t i t i o n s
We m a y ,
or of sequences
i n m e lo d y , and t h u s be a b l e t o com pare one m e l o d i c t y p e w i t h
an o th er,
o r e v e n one c o m p o ser o r e p o ch w i t h a n o t h e r .
m easure i s a v a l i d
o f a l l m elody.
one i t
If i t is
I f the
w i l l m e a s u r e some I n h e r e n t q u a l i t y
a reliab le
one,
we s h o u l d be a b l e
to c l a s s i f y m elo dies o f d i f f e r e n t ty p e s or o f d i f f e r e n t epochs
and even o f d i f f e r e n t com posers.
F o r m elody h a s b een e v o lv e d th r o u g h t h e c e n t u r i e s
j u s t a s t r u l y a s any l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s have been ev o lv ed ,
and i t
should
be p o ssib le to fin d in i t
of its
o rig in
or of its
sta te
in tern al
evidence
of e v o lu tio n .
One c a n r e c o g n i s e a u r a l l y t h e P l a i n s o n j m e l o d y ,
t h e P a l e s t r i n a m elody, t h e Bach m elody, t h e M o z art m elody,
th e G rie g m elody, j u s t a s one c a n r e c o g n is e th e
p ecu liar
f o r a a n d m e_odic l i n e s o f f o l k s o n g s o f d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s ,
and j u s t a s one can re c o g n ise th e ty p ic a l
sig h t-read in g
5?7
e x e r c is e of th e o ld -fa sh io n e d School S ig h t R eader.
is
th e
latter
- th e product of the a r t i f i c i a l l y
It
co n stru cted
S i g h t R e a d e r - t h a t we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n a t p r e s e n t .
w ish t o a n a ly s e
it
th is
p e c u l i a r m e lo d ic t y p e and t o compare
w ith o th e r m elodic ty p e s in o rd e r to
f o r t h e work i t
to o ,
We
has to
perform .
fitn e ss
T h i s a n a l y s i s may h e l p u s ,
to r e c o n s tr u c t the p r in c ip le s
o f S i g h t R e ad e rs works i n p r e p a r i n g
su b ject-m atter to th e c la s s .
judge i t s
on w h ich t h e c o m p i l e r
and p re s e n tin g h is
As we h a v e p o i n t e d o u t ,
•
how ever, fo rm o r r e p e t i t i o n s of p h ra s e and s e q u e n c e s a re
p r a c t i c a l l y n o n - e x is te n t in such S ig h t R ead ers.
H o w e v e r , we a r e s t i l l
l e f t w ith a n o th e r m easure
w h i c h we may a p p l y i n o u r a n a l y s i s
frequency of in te r v a ls
o f m elody, nam ely, t h e
i n m elody.
I n "T h e F o u n d a t i o n s o f M u s i c "
U n iv ersity P ress,
1919,
p a g e 3 4 ) H. J .
(Cam bridge
W att q u o t e s th e
f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e f r o m C. S . M y e r s ' s e s s a y o n "The
E t h n o l o g i c a l S tu d y o f M usic".
"
I n f o l k m u sic g e n e r a l l y t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w hich
- th e v a rio u s i n t e r v a l s a re used d e c re a se s p r o p o rtio n a te ly
w ith th e ir s iz e .
"
D r. W att t e s t e d
th is
c o n c l u s i o n i n th e c a s e of
S c h u b e r t 's Songs, and found t h a t i t
h eld th e r e ,
a n d he a d d s -
"The m a t t e r h a s n o t b e e n f u l l y t r e a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y ,
f a r a s I am a w a r e ,
as
b u t i t would p r o b a b l y w e l l r e p a y t h e
tro u b le n ecessary to g a th e r th e f a c ts " .
D r. W att i n h i s
a n a ly s is o f th e S ch ub ert songs ta k e s acco u n t of th e q u a lity
of th e i n te r v a l ,
e.g.,
m inor s e c o n d , m a jo r se c o n d ,
etc.,
and
g iv es th e freq u e n cies fo r th e se .
U n fo rtu n ately ,
how ever,
he t a k e s no a c c o u n t o f t h e u n i s o n o r r e p e a t e d n o t e , a n d
th is
is
j u s t a s i m p o r t a n t a n e le m e n t i n m elody a s a n y
o th er in te r v a l.
In th e fo llo w in g a n a ly s is
m e l o d y we h a v e c o u n t e d a l l
V III,
of v a rio u s ty p es of
in te rv a ls,I
I I I I I IV V V I V I I
h u t we h a v e n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e d i n t e r v a l s f r o m t h e
p o i n t o f view o f q u a l i t y - p e r f e c t , m a jo r, m in o r,
d im i n i s h e d , augm ented.
By u s i n g t o o f i n e a m e a s u r e we
may o b t a i n s o much d e t a i l t h a t we l o s e t h e b r o a d o u t l i n e s .
F u rth er,
in th e very r a r e
i n s t a n c e s among l a t e r c o m p o s e r s
w here a n augm ented o r d i m i n i s h e d u n i s o n o c c u r s ,
e.g.,
f fe
o r m m a, we h a v e c o u n t e d t h i s a s a s e c o n d o r I I .
I n o u r a n a l y s i s we h a v e i n c l u d e d a l s o w h a t
have been c a lle d
"dead i n t e r v a l s " ,
t h a t is, i n t e r v a l s
b e tw e e n p h r a s e s s e p a r a t e d by a r e s t ,
in te rv als
provided t h a t th e s e
occu rred w ith in the space o f a b a r .
m e lo d ie s a n a ly s e d w ere s e l e c t e d
a t hand, b u t, a s w i l l be seen ,
rep re se n ta tiv e
The
fro m volum es w hich were
th e s e le c tio n i s f a i r l y
o f v a rio u s ages and c o u n tr ie s .
I n t h e f o l l o w i n g T a b l e s , we g i v e t h e r e s u l t s
o f t h e s e a n a ly s e s of m elo d ies from th e
p o i n t o f view o f
i n t e r v a l freq u en cy under th e fo llo w in g headings (l)
Sources o f m elodies a n a ly se d ,
In terv a ls
(2)
in th e m elodies a n aly sed
of th e v a rio u s in te r v a ls
a n d (3)
P ercentages
i n t h e s e m e lo d ie s from u n iso n s
t o t e n t h s u n d e r t h e Roman n u m e r a l s V I I V I I I I X X.
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III
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A s t u d y o f t h e f i g u r e s on t h e p r e v i o u s page r e v e a l s
some i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s .
m elody i s ,
n o te.
The m o s t f r e q u e n t i n t e r v a l i n
a s would he e x p e c t e d ,
the second o r the s te p w ise
U n til M o z a rt's tim e , w ith t h e e x c e p tio n of S h e p h e rd 's
M a s s , a l l t h e m e l o d i e s a n a l y s e d h a v e sh ow n a p e r c e n t a g e
s e c o n d s v a r y i n g f r o m 60% t o
in siz e ,
th e t h ir d ,
o v e r 70%.
of
The n e x t i n t e r v a l
shows a s h a r p d e c r e a s e , a n d t h i s
d e cre a se c o n tin u e s w ith each succeeding i n t e r v a l u n t i l th e
octave is
r e a c h e d , w here t h e r e i s
The r e p e a t e d n o t e , o r t h e f i r s t ,
in te r v a l of a l l .
som etim es a s l i g h t r i s e .
is
The t w o e n t r i e s
th e m ost v a r ia b le
(-01%) o f s e v e n t h s i n t h e
e a r l y e x a m p l e s may b e d i s c o u n t e d a s t h e y r e p r e s e n t tw o
"dead i n t e r v a l s ,
th at is ,
in te rv als
p h ra s e s s e p a r a t e d by a r e s t .
"E ngland
(to D u n stab le)"
pioneer s p i r i t
o c c u r r i n g betw een
The 24-2% o f t h i r d s u n d e r
a r e i n t e r e s t i n g a s show ing th e
o f E ngland i n D u n s t a b l e 's d a y .
A gain, t h e
21*5% o f t h i r d s
u n d e r " G r i e g " a r e w h a t we w o u l d e x p e c t , when
we c o n s i d e r h i s
love of f a l l i n g
cadences.
th ird s,
esp ecially a t
(See G roves D i c t i o n a r y , V o l . I I ,
page 459).
% The e x c u s e f o r t h e " d e a d " s e v e n t h i n t h e c a s e o f
W eelk es c a n be s e e n fro m t h e exam ple b elo w sh o w in g t h e
c o n t e x t i n w hich i t a p p e a r s .
S'? I
The B a c h p e r c e n t a g e s ,
i t w i l l be n o te d , r e p r e s e n t
t h o s e f o r A l t o A r i a s and R e c i t a t i v e s ,
th at
th e y w ould have b e en q u i t e
and i t
d ifferen t if
is
p robable
Soprano A ria s
had been a n a l y s e d , a s th e A lto s o l o i s t does n o t alw ay s
have t h e m elody p a r t and a s R e c i t a t i v e m elody i s d i f f e r e n t
i n c h a r a c t e r fro m o r d i n a r y m elody.
T h e S c h u m a n n f r e q u e n c i e s w i l l come a s a s u r p r i s e
38*7% a n d 3 6 - 8 % o f f i r s t s ,
That th is is
a n d 3 5 - 5 % a n d 36*4% o f s e c o n d s .
no a c c i d e n t o f s e l e c t i o n
r e s u l t o f c o n s c i o u s m a n n e r i s m s on t h e
is
-
but r a th e r the
p a r t o f th e composer
shown b y t h e f a c t t h a t i n b o t h Song C y c l e s t h e f r e q u e n ­
cies
correspond very c lo s e ly .
On t h e w h o l e , P r o f e s s o r C . S . M y e r s ' s c o n c l u s i o n
r e g a r d i n g f o l k m usic h o ld s w i th m usic g e n e r a l l y - "th e
f r e q u e n c y w ith w hich t h e v a r i o u s I n t e r v a l s a r e used
decreases p ro p o rtio n a te ly w ith t h e i r s iz e ."
a t any r a te
rise
from t h i r d s
to sevenths,
T hi6 i s t r u e ,
alth o u g h a s l i g h t
som etim es o c c u rs a t o c ta v e s .
In a l l c ase s
the t h ir d s a re h ig h e r th an th e f o u r th s ,
a n d u s u a l l y v e r y m u ch h i g h e r .
h ig h er th an f i f t h s
In a l l cases fo u rth s are
and i n n e a r ly a l l c a se s f i f t h s a re
h ig h e r th a n s i x t h s , w h ile the se v en th s a re e i t h e r a b se n t
a s i n t h e e a r l y e x a m p l e s o r much l o w e r t h a n t h e s i x t h s .
The m o st n o t e w o r t h y f e a t u r e
of a l l ,
perhaps, is
the
c l o s e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i n t h e f r e q u e n c y s c a l e among c o m p o s e r s
S1Z
o f t h e g r e a t Vocal E ra ,
m elodic l i n e
c.1 6 0 0 .
T h is hom ogeneity o f t h e
about t h i s t im e , how ever,
is
to be e x p ected ,
a s i n t h e s e d a y s m u s i c was a p u r e l y v o c a l a r t a n d m e l o d i e s
w ere d i c t a t e d by v o c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .
of th e
vocal t r a d i t i o n
i n m e l o d y h a d n o t y e t feeen i n t e r ­
f e r e d w i t h by t h e e n t r a n c e
t h e dom ain o f a r t
The s l o w e v o l u t i o n
of the m u sical in stru m e n t in to
o r by t h e com ing o f t h e h a rm o n ic c o n c e p ­
t i o n o f m usic w it h i t s
rep ercu ssio n s
on t h e
c o n cep tio n o f
m elody i t s e l f .
The tw o e x a m p l e s f r o m P a l e s t r i n a s h o w a r e m a r k a b l e
c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , a n d one m i g h t s a f e l y p r e d i c t t h a t a n y
sam ple o f a b o u t 5 0 0 i n t e r v a l s
upwards fro m P a l e s t r i n a ' s
m u s ic would r e v e a l a s i m i l a r s c a l e o f i n t e r v a l f r e q u e n c i e s .
The h i g h o c t a v e p e r c e n t a g e i n t h e tw o Gibbons
exam ples i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g .
T h is was p r o b a b l y due to
th e developm ent of in s tr u m e n ta l m usic,
and t o t h e
b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e M a j o r - M i n o r Key S y s t e m a s o p p o s e d t o t h e
Modal S y s te m a b o u t t h i s
tim e.
I n more r e c e n t t i m e s t h e g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y h a s b e e n
t o r e d u c e t h e amount o f s t e p w i s e m o tio n and t o e x p l o i t t h e
i n t e r v a l s b etw een th e t h i r d and th e o c ta v e .
But our purpose a t p re s e n t i s to stu d y th e ty p ic a l
m elodic lin e
of th e a r t i f i c i a l l y
t h e S c h o o l M usic R e a d e r .
c o n s tru c te d m elodies of
J
i T < ? 3
S o , we s h a l l now g i v e a t a b l e
cies
of f o lk m elodies
of in te rv a l freq u en ­
( H in d o s ta n m u sic , and n u r s e r y rhym es)
and of m elo d ies from School S ig h t R e a d e rs.
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o-7
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th e m ost
re m a r k a b le f e a t u r e o f f o l k m u sic and n u r s e r y rhym es i s t h e
h ig h p ercen tag e of re p e a te d n o tes o r f i r s t s ,
rem arkable f e a tu r e
m elodies from t h e
R eader,
of t h e a r t i f i c i a l l y
and th e m ost
co n stru cted
th re e S ig h t R eaders a n a ly se d
C om pleat T e a c h e r and R apid R e a d e r)
r e m a r k a b l y low p e r c e n t a g e o f f i r s t s .
is
(P ro g ressiv e
thd
The P o l k S o n g S i g h t
S i n g i n g S e r i e s B ook I i s made u p e n t i r e l y o f f o l k s o n g s o f
a ll
c o u n trie s , and i t
c o rre s p o n d s c l o s e l y w ith th e sam ples
o f f o l k m usic above i n t h i s
resp ect.
5*74-
T h is low p e r c e n t a g e o f r e p e a t e d n o t e s
i s p ro h a h ly due
to th e
f a c t t h a t th e com pilers
o f th e s e S y n th e tic S ight
Reader
ex ercises
rep e ate d n o tes or f i r s t s
co nsider t h a t
i
h a v e no e y e - t r a i n i n g v a l u e .
w a ter i n th e m ilk ,
They l o o k upon them a s t h e
and by r e d u c i n g th e p r o p o r t i o n o f f i r s t s
f
t h e y hope t o g e t a more c o n c e n t r a t e d m e n t a l f o o d f o r t h e
ch ild .
But a glance a t th e
i n t e r v a l f r e q u e n c i e s o f m o re
h ig h ly o rg a n is e d m elodies
(e .g . S ch u b ert,
or S tra u s s )
th e w a te r i s anyw here, i t
sh o w s t h a t i f
be fo u n d i n t h e s e c o n d s .
Schumann, G r i e g
I f t h e h ig h e r i n t e r v a l s from I I I
upwards a r e t o be e x p l o i t e d ,
it
suffer
in consequence,
o u t by
th e predom inant f e e l i n g
n o t th e
is
th e seco n d s t h a t should
f i r s t s . T his f a c t i s borne
o f a im le ssn e ss ands p in e ­
le s s n e s s t h a t th e re a d in g of such a r t i f i c i a l l y
m elodies produces in one.
a ll
is to
constructed
The m o s t i n s p i r i t i n g m u s ic o f
(B ugle a n d T rum pet c a l l s )
c an g e t on w i t h o u t a s i n g l e
second, b u t n o t w ith o u t f i r s t s .
In c o n s id e rin g tu n es f o r purposes of t r a in in g
c h i l d r e n i n s i g h t - r e a d i n g , t h e n , we m u s t c o n s i d e r t h e t u n e
a s a w h o le , a n d t h e t u n e a s a whole m u s t n o t s u f f e r a s t h e
9
resu lt
o f o v e r - e m p h a s i s on p a r t i c u l a r e l e m e n t s , w h e t h e r
t h e y be f i r s t s ,
seconds, th ir d s , fo u rth s ,
e tc.
T hat th e co m p ilers o f th e s e a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n stru c te d
R e ad e rs can w r i t e good m e lo d ie s,
when t h e y c a r e t o ,
cannot
be d e n ie d , b u t t h e s e m elo d ies r e v e a l a d i f f e r e n t s c a l e
of
i
in te rv a l frequency.
.Thus, S i r A r t h u r S o m e r v e l l ' s Songs
f r o m " F i f t y Modern E n g l i s h So n g s"
(Boosey) g iv e the
fo llo w in g p e rc e n ta g e of i n t e r v a l s .
X
X
nr
1*7
S i-0
/*■
IZ&2
m
M
X
k'O
1
1-7
~VTTT
o-Jt
oi
A gain, i n t h e c a s e of t h e s e S i g h t R e a d e rs ,
sam p les have h e e n t a k e n .
of m aterial fo r tra in in g
large
But i n c o n s i d e r i n g th e s u i t a b i l i t y
c h i l d r e n i n s i g h t - r e a d i n g , we
m ust c o n s id e r s m a lle r sam ples,
for,
if
c h i l d r e n a r e t o he
i n t e r e s t e d , t h e y m u st be i n t e r e s t e d a t once o r n o t a t a l l .
One may g e t a f a i r l y n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n
by a n a ly s in g
larg e s tre tc h e s
o f m elody.
of in te r v a ls
But th e c h i l d ' s
w eekly p o r t i o n i s p ro b a b ly , a t th e m o st, one page of
ex ercises.
Hence,
i t is
im p o rtan t,
f o r th e sak e o f the
m e lo d ie s th e m s e lv e s and f o r th e i n t e r e s t th e y w i l l g e n e r a te
i n t h e c h i l d , t h a t th e hom ogeneity o f t h e m elo d ic l i n e
is
p re s e rv e d even i n s m a ll sam p les.
When we a n a l y s e
these a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n stru c te d
S i g h t R e a d e r s m o r e c l o s e l y , we f i n d , a s we w o u l d e x p e c t ,
th at,
if
in to th e
f o r exam ple t h e c o m p ile r i s i n t r o d u c i n g f o u r t h s
ex ercises,
th e fo u rth s
o f t e n outnum ber t h e t h i r d s
o n t h e sa m e p a g e o f e x e r c i s e s .
A
We g i v e b e l o w a f e w p a g e s f r o m "The R a p i d R e a d e r "
show ing th e t o t a l
num bers o f i n t e r v a l s i n t h e
I
IT
ZL
is :
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Ik
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30
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Z
T he l a s t f o u r p a g e s , 2 9 - 3 2 ,
a f a i r sam p le.
in th is
3ZHL
W
3
1
..
page.
4-
1
c o n t a i n 675 i n t e r v a l s ,
q u ite
We g i v e b e l o w t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f i n t e r v a l s
sam ple.
I
l ‘{,3
Nowhere e l s e
X
nr
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I - 33
i n t h e w orld o f m usic w i l l su c h a n i n t e r v a l
f re q u e n c y be found!
F ourths,
of course,
m u st be t a u g h t ,
but th ey w ill
be t a u g h t b e t t e r t h r o u g h s a t i s f y i n g m e l o d i e s i n w h ich t h e y
o b se rv e t h e i r t r u e p r o p o r t io n i n th e m elo d ic schem e; j u s t
a s v ita m in s m ust be a b s o rb e d by th e grow ing c h i l d ,
except in p ath o lo g ical cases,
b u t,
t h e y w i l l be a b s o r b e d t o
b e t t e r a d v a n ta g e in th e orange th a n in the m ed icin al drop.
Y e t we f i n d t h a t w h e r e t h e n a t i v e m e l o d i c
the
com pilers of a r t i f i c i a l l y
le a d them to w r i t e
firsts,
in s tin c t of
c o n s t r u c t e d R e ad e rs m ight
seconds,
or t h i r d s ,
th e form al,
l o g i c a l and m is ta k e n ly p e d ag o g ica l i n s t i n c t of th e
im p e ls them t o w r i t e
In th e case
fo u rth s,
of th e School
t o a s s u r e t h a t n a t u r a l m elody
grow ing c h i l d w ith h is
fifth s
w i l l be p ro v id ed f o r th e
r e a l lo v e of m elody i s
m usic a s s o c i a t e d w ith c h ild h o o d ,
in
the
or six th s.
M u s i c R e a d e r t h e o n l y way
com piler to s e l e c t n a tu ra l tu n e s ,
of p reconceived n o tio n s
w riters
e .g .
f o r the
fo lksongs,
and
o r e l s e t o r i d h i s m in d
o f what th e
c h ild should r e c e iv e
way o f e y e f o d d e r a n d g i v e f r e e
r e i n to h is
m elodic f a n c y .
We may n o t
le a rn in g in the
fo llo w
be a b l e t o p r e s c r i b e t h e e x a c t o r d e r o f
c h i l d , b u t we
may b e s u r e t h a t i t
w ill
c l o s e l y on th e o rd e r o f l o v i n g .
The c l a s s i c e x a m p le o f t h e r e s u l t
of abnorm al i n t e r v a l
f r e q u e n c y on m e lo d y i s t o b e fo u n d i n B e c k m e s s e r 's
S e r e n a d e f ro m "Die M e i s t e r s i n g e r " .
m esser,
I n th e o p e r a , Beck-
who i s W a l t h e r ' s r i v a l f o r t h e a f f e c t i o n s
of Eva,
o v e rh e a rs W alther p r a c t i s i n g h is so n g f o r th e c o n t e s t , and
e n d e a v o u r s t o a p p r o p r i a t e t h e m u s i c a l i d e a s t o h i s own u s e .
B ut,
lik e m ost im ita to r s ,
he f a s t e n s o n t h e a c c e s s o r i e s
t h e s t y l e r a t h e r t h a n on t h e s t y l e
itse lf
c o n ta in s a high p ro p o rtio n of fo u rth s
of
- W a lth e r's song
- and produces a
l u d i c r o u s a b o r t i o n c o n t a i n i n g 22- 8% o f f o u r t h s !
T h is ex am p le fro m t h e dom ain o f a r t ,
a s p e c i a l p u rp o se i n view ,
of th e a r t i f i c i a l l y
is
composed w i t h
t h e n e a r e s t a p p r o a c h t o some
c o n s t r u c t e d m e l o d i e s , w h i c h , a s we h a v e
s e e n , w e re a l s o composed w i t h a s p e c i a l p u r p o s e i n v i e w .
The f o l l o w i n g a r e t h e p e r c e n t a g e s f o r W a l t h e r a n d
B eckm esser:
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th e tech n iq u e
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of t h e i n s t r u m e n t on t h e ty p e
it.
o f m elody w h ic h
The f o l l o w i n g p e r c e n t a g e s o f i n t e r v a l s
i n t h e s u b j e c t s of B a c h 's keybo ard a n d p e d a lb o a rd fu g u e s
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O r l a n d o G i b b o n s i n h i s D e d i c a t i o n o f "The F i r s t S e t
o f M adrigals" to h i s p a tro n , S ir C h risto p h e r H atton,
" I t i s p ro p o rtio n th a t b e a u tif ie s ev ery th in g ;
t h i s w hole U n iv e rs e c o n s i s t s of i t , and
M usicke i s m easu re d by i t , w hich I have
endeavoured to o b serv e i n t h e co m p o sitio n
o f t h e s e few A y res."
w rites,
5-? f
I n t h e w o r l d o f A r t , much h a s b e e n w r i t t e n a b o u t
th e
"G olden S e c tio n "
( s e e "The M e a n i n g o f A r t " by H e r b e r t R e a d : F a b e r )
I f s u c h a G olden S e c t i o n i s t o b e fo u n d i n m elody c o n s id e r e d
fro m t h e p o i n t o f view of i n t e r v a l f r e q u e n c y , i t
w ill
p r o b a b l y be fo u n d i n t h e m elody of t h e Vocal E ra,
e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e m elody o f P a l e s t r i n a .
T h e r e we h a v e
r e a l h o m o g e n e ity o f m elody a d a p t e d t o t h e p e c u l i a r
t e c h n i q u e o f t h e human v o i c e .
We a p p e n d a f e w e x a m p l e s o f i n t e r v a l f r e q u e n c y i n
m elody r e p r e s e n t e d by f r e q u e n c y c u r v e s .
the re a d e r t h a t t h e r e i s
th e curves th em se lv e s.
B u t we w o u l d w a r n
no m a t h e m a t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n
T h i s g r a p h i c a l mode o f r e p r e s e n ­
t a t i o n , how ever, a llo w s of th e s u p e rim p o s itio n o f a
num ber o f e x a m p le s , a n d a i d s i n t h e c o m p a r is o n of t h e s e .
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CHAPTER X I
METHOD IN RELATION TO CONTENT
IN THE SCHOOL MUSIC READER
I f one would s t r i k e a blo w a t a n a d v e r s a r y ,
one
m ust endeavour to g a in e n tra n c e i n t o h i s c i t a d e l ,
w hether i t
be a c i t a d e l o f s t e e l o r a c i t a d e l o f i d e a s .
A nd , a s i t
is our purpose h ere to
on w h ic h t h e a r t i f i c i a l l y
expose t h e f a l l a c i e s
c o n s t r u c t e d S c h o o l M usic
R e a d e r a n d t h e R e a d in g M ethods a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t a r e
b a s e d , we s h a l l f i r s t
of a l l en deav o u r t o g iv e a b r i e f
e x p o s i t i o n of t h e system o f id e a s w hich has g iv e n b i r t h
t o b o t h t h e R e a d e r a n d t h e Method.
A t t h e o u t s e t we m u s t b e c a r e f u l n o t t o
assume t h a t
t h o s e who h a v e c o m p i l e d d u l l M u s i c R e a d e r s a r e t h e m s e l v e s
d u ll fello w s.
reverse.
p eo p le,
F o r th e m ost p a r t th e y a re q u i t e
Some o f t h e m ,
the
in d e e d , have b een charm ing
who i n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n s h a v e s h o w n t h a t t h e y
possessed a n ativ e g i f t
The f a c t i s ,
o f m elody f a r ab o v e t h e a v e r a g e .
th e y have e n te r e d
th ese grim s ig h t-re a d in g
ex ercises
on t h e t a s k o f w r i t i n g
i n t h e same s o r r o w f u l
b u t d e te rm in e d s p i r i t i n w hich th e fo n d m other p r e p a r e s
th e c a s to r o i l f o r her fa v o u rite
c h ild .
The S y n t h e t i c
System of T ea ch in g
S i g h t R eading
An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e S i g h t R e a d e r s t h e m s e l v e s a n d o f
th e prefaces
or d i r e c t i o n s
given t h e r e i n r e v e a ls th e f a c t
t h a t th e c o m p ilers have adopted a l o g i c a l
approach to th e te a c h in g
about th e ir ta s k
or s y n th e tic
of m u sic -re a d in g .
They have s e t
by f i r s t o f a l l a n a l y s i n g t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e i
i n h a n d , n am ely m elody, a n d by b r e a k i n g t h i s
up i n t o
its
elem ents - e le m e n ts of p i tc h o r i n t e r v a l s , and e lem en ts of
tim e and rh y th m o r c r o t c h e t s , m inim s, s im p le d u p le t i m e ,
N ext,
th ey tak e what th e y c o n sid e r to
elem ents of p i t c h ,
w hether i t
e tc .
be t h e s i m p l e s t
be t h e t o n i c c h o r d o r s c a l e
p r o g r e s s i o n s , a n d t h e s i m p l e s t elem ents, o f t i m e , w h e th e r i t
be t h e
c ro tc h e t or t h e sem ib rev e, and s e t ab o u t c o n s tr u c tin g
r e a d i n g e x e r c i s e s on t h e s e s i m p le e l e m e n t s .
Then t h e y g o a
s t e p f u r t h e r , a n d a d d t o t h e s e a new e l e m e n t o f p i t c h o r
tim e.
And s o t h e y c o n t i n u e t h r o u g h o u t t h e b o o k o r s e r i e s
of
b o o k s , f o l l o w i n g more o r l e s s t h e l i n e s o f a l l t e x t b o o k s on
t h e R u d im en ts of M usic.
T h e i r aim i s
and t h i s
to te a c h c h i l d r e n t o r e a d m usic " a t s i g h t
aim of t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n t o r e a d
"at sig h t"
d e te r­
m ines b o t h t h e n a t u r e and c o n t e n t o f t h e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l
and t h e m ethods em ployed i n i t s u s e .
c h ild r e n should r e a d
F o r exam ple, t h e y s a y ,
each e x e r c is e o n ly once, even though
t h e y may make m i s t a k e s i n t h i s
f i r s t - s i g h t attem p t,
th e
reason fo r th is
b ein g t h a t i f
ex ercise tw ice, t h i s
th e y a tte m p t e d t o r e a d an
se c o n d a tt e m p t w ould n o t c o n s t i t u t e
sig h t-read in g .
“ The e x e r c i s e s m u s t n o t b e s u n g m o r e t h a n o n c e ,
even i f i n c o r r e c t i n p la c e s .
A m istak e in tin e
i s w o r s e t h a n one i n p i t c h .
The s i n g i n g o u g h t
n o t t o b e s t o p p e d u n l e s s t h e c l a s s s h o u l d come
h o p e le ssly to g rie f.
The c l a s s m u s t g e t t o
r e a l i s e t h a t , once a n e x e r c i s e i s s t a r t e d , the
rhythm cannot be b ro k en f o r t h e r e c t i f i c a t i o n
of e l i g h t m is ta k e s .
The e x e r c i s e s h o u l d
p r o c e e d , a n d t h e c l a s s s i n g a s much a s i t h a s
p r e s e n c e o f mind e n o u g h t o r e a d a s t h e
m usic g o e s on i t s w ay."
( “Th e R a p i d S i g h t R e a d e r " b y A r t h u r S o m e r v e l l .
Boosey a C o . L t d . , London, 1 9 3 0 .)
“T h e Wrong M e t h o d
- The p r a c t i c e u s u a l l y fo u n d i n s c h o o l s i s t o
t a k e one o r , a t t h e m o s t , two e x e r c i s e s , and
t o s tu d y them i n t e n s i v e l y
T h at i s not
s ig h t- r e a d in g : i t is in te n s iv e stu d y w ith a
v iew to p e r f o r m a n c e
(Page 14)
"An
at
be
as
ex ercise
a n y one
learn ed
a fu tu re
m u s t n o t be s u n g m o re t h a n o n c e
l e s s o n , i n o rd er t h a t i t s h a l l not
by h e a r t , th u s making i t u s e l e s s
s i g h t - r e a d i n g e x e r c i s e . " (Page 16)
("The C o m p l e a t T e a c h e r " b y A r t h u r S o m e r v e l l .
Boosey & C o . L t d . , London, 1 9 3 2 .)
"The w h o l e o b j e c t o f s i g h t - s i n g i n g e x e r c i s e s
i s t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be c a r r i e d t h r o u g h a t
f i r s t s i g h t ; n o t a t s e c o n d o r t h i r d ____
O nce t h e s i n g i n g i s s t a r t e d , i t m u s t c o n t i n u e .
S h o u l d i t g e t w r o n g i t may g e t r i g h t a g a i n :
b u t e v e r y e f f o r t s h o u l d b e made n o t t o s t o p . "
( “A t F i r s t S i g h t - S i g h t T e s t s f o r S i n g e r s 3
b y E .M a rk h a m L e e , Banks & S o n , Y o r k , 1 9 3 4 . )
<£/*•
A gain, t h e
it
com pilers of th e s e
t h a t no p h r a s e
ex ercise,
S ig h t Readers t r y to
or m elodic f ig u r e
s in c e such a r e p e t i t i o n
see to
is re p e a te d in an
of m a te ria l p rev io u sly
r e a d w ould d e f e a t t h e a im of t e a c h i n g " s i g h t - r e a d i n g . "
F o r t h e sam e r e a s o n a l l se q u e n c e s or
im ita tio n s and re p e a te d
n o te s a re avoided a s f a r a s p o s s ib le
in th e
c o m p ilin g of
th ese e x e rc ise s.
The p u r p o s e of t h e r e a d i n g
tr a in th e
in
eye, t o
order to
keep i t
fin d
in th e
engaged to
e n s u r e a maximum o f
o f space and tim e .
lesso n ,
is
is
to
f u l l e s t cap acity
ey e-train in g
And, s i n c e i t
lite ra tu re
its
in s h o rt,
i n a minimum
alm o st im p o s s ib le to
of m usic e x am p les of m e lo d ie s w hich
f u l f i l a l l th e above c o n d itio n s,
it
is a b s o lu te ly n ecessary
to c o n s tr u c t m elo d ies ad hoc.
T his a n a l y s i s
in to
its
elem en ts)
(o r b r e a k in g up o f t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r
and s y n t h e s i s
(or p ie c in g to g e th e r again
o f t h e elem en ts or p ro d u cts of t h i s
a n a l y s i s so a s t o
produce a c a r e f u l l y graded corpus of m u sic-re ad in g e x ercises),
is
u n d e r t a k e n by t h e
c o m p i l e r on t h e
assum ption t h a t the
p a r t i s e a s i e r t h a n th e w hole, and t h e r e f o r e
we s h o u l d a l w a y s p r o c e e d f r o m t h e
th e sim p le to th e
com plex.
in teach in g
p a r t to t h e w hole, from
Hence t h e a r t i f i c i a l l y
constructec
M usic R e a d e r s w h ic h a r e s o f a m i l i a r t o a l l .
2
7
8
=22
I
^
g“ J
.
10
12
1
6
/
7
I n t h e a b o v e we h a v e a t t e m p t e d a f a i r e x p o s i t i o n o f
w h a t we c o n s i d e r t o b e t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s a n d
m ethods of t h i s
s y n t h e t i c sy ste m of t e a c h i n g s i g h t - r e a d i n g .
T h e s e p r i n c i p l e s a n d m e t h o d s a r e w e l l known t o a l l
of pedagogy.
In m ost s u b j e c t s o f th e c u rr ic u lu m t h e y have
had t h e i r day an d ceased t o b e .
However,
l e t u s s e e how
t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s have worked o u t i n p r a c t i c e
su b jects,
stu d en ts
i n two c o g n a t e
th e t e a c h i n g of lan g u ag e r e a d in g and th e
teach in g
of a rt.
The S y n t h e t i c M e th od i n t e a c h i n g L a n g u a g e R e a d i n g
I n t h e b a d o l d d a y s o f t h e A l p h a b e t i c M e th od o f
teach in g re a d in g ,
th e c o m p ile r of R eading Books, l i k e
th e
c o m p ile r o f S i g h t R e a d e r s , beg an by a n a l y s i n g t h e s u b j e c t m atter,
n a m e l y l a n g u a g e , a n d by b r e a k i n g t h i s
p a rts — sen ten ces,
w ords, s y l l a b l e s ,
letters.
up i n t o
its
S t a r t i n g from
what he c o n c e iv e d t o b e t h e s i m p l e s t e le m e n ts o f la n g u a g e ,
nam ely t h e
letters
of t h e
m a te ria l f o r th e teach in g
letters
alp h ab et,
he s e t a b o u t p r o v i d i n g
of r e a d i n g by a d d in g t o g e t h e r
to form s y l l a b l e s , s y l l a b l e s t o fo rm w ords, a n d
w ords t o f o r m s e n t e n c e s - w i t h a n e y e a l l t h e t im e on t h e
e le m e n ts of th e r e a d i n g m a t t e r and not on t h e
H ire a g a i n he had t o f a l l back
tio n ,
s in c e in ev o lv in g t h e
co n ten t.
on a r t i f i c i a l
co n stru c­
language our f o r e b e a r s d id n o t
p ro c e e d by s u c h l o g i c a l s t e p s , a d d in g l e t t e r - s o u n d
to le tte r -
sound,
sy llab le
to
sy llab le,
len g th they arriv e d
Yet t h e
a n d word t o w ord, u n t i l a t
a t s e n t e n c e s c a p a b l e of b e a r i n g m eaning
com piler of th e R eader i n s i s t e d t h a t th e psycho­
l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t o l a n g u a g e r e a d i n g m u s t b e made b y way
of t h is
lo g ic a l an aly sis
of lan g u ag e.
L e t u s q u o te a few exam ples of t h i s
approach t o
R eader,
(a)
th e tea ch in g
of r e a d i n g fro m a n o ld S chool
w h ic h had a w ide c i r c u l a t i o n i n l a t e V i c t o r i a n d ay s
I n i t i a l c o n s o n a n t and v ow el.
A
Ba
Da
Pa
Ga
E
be
de
fe
ge
I
bi
di
fi
gi
a n d so on t h r o u g h a l l
we
wi
Wa
Ya
ye
yi
ze
zi
Za
(b)
0
bo
do
fo
go
th e
wo
yo
zo
U
bu
du
fu
gu
consonants
wu
yu
zu
Vowel b e tw e e n t w o c o n s o n a n t s .
ab
dab
fa b
gab
•••
• ••
eb
deb
fe b
geb
•••
•••
ib
d ib
fib
g ib
•••
•••
ob
dob
fo b
gob
•••
•••
ub
dub
fu b
gub
•••
•••
yab
zab
yeb
zeb
y ib
z ib
yob
zob
yub
zub
and so
(c)
sy n th e tic
on w i t h o t h e r f i n a l
Two s y l l a b l e s .
abby
ebby
addy
eddy
affy
effy
aggy
eggy
ibby
iddy
iffy
iggy
("R eading w ith o u t T e a r s " ,
obby
oddy
offy
oggy
consonants.
ubby
uddy
uffy
uggy
e tc .e tc .
8 1 s t Thousand,
'L ongm ans G re en & C o . , '1 8 9 0 )
London,
6 /f
(d)
S e n t e n c e s o f one s y l l a b l e
th u s le a rn e d .
b a s e d on e l e m e n t s
Rap a f a t
nag
Tap a f a t
lad
John had sop
on
Joe
has
no doe
h is
hob
I n k e ep in g w it h th e p r i n c i p l e s of t h i s
approach to
language r e a d i n g ,
sy n th etic
we f i n d t h a t a l l w o r d s
b e g i n n i n g w i t h compound c o n s o n a n t s a r e p r i n t e d w i t h t h e
c o n s o n a n ts s e p a r a t e d by th e s p a c e
of a l e t t e r f r o m t h e
vow els, t h u s : 216
READING WITHOUT TEARS.
Br a
br e
br i
br o
cr a
cr e
cr i
dr a
fr a
dr e
fr e
dr i
cr o
dr o
gr a
gre .
fr i
gr i
pr a
tr a
pr e
tr e
pr i
tr i
st a
st e
si e
s in e
sn e
st i
si i
sm i
sn i
si o
sm o
sn o
sp e
sk e
sw e
sp i
sk i
sw i
sp 0
sk o
sw o
si a
sm a
sn a
sp a
sk a
sw a
br u
cr u
fr o
dr u
fr u
gr o
pr o
tr o
gr u
pr u
tr u
st 0
st u
si u
sm u
sn u
sp u
sk u
sw u
" f r o g , t r y , t r u e , sw e e t , s t earn,
- s t i f f , sn ug, sp o t, s t u-p id " e tc .
T he fr og in the cr ock w ill not cr oak.
(oZO
W hile t w o - s y l l a h l e w ords
(w hich,
hy t h e way, a r e
first
i n t r o d u c e d o n p a g e 1 6 4 '. ) a r e a l w a y s h y p h e n a t e d o r b r o k e n
up i n t o e l e m e n t s , t h u s :
A fr og is u g -ly : so is a si u g : so is
. °
,
a crow : so is a g ru b : so is a sp l-der.
" p e p -p e r, b u t - t e r , r a b - b i t , pen-ny, p a n - t r y.
- t r a - v e l, s e - c r e t, sn ap-ped, g r u - e l, b l i s - t e r .
A s i u g i s s i ow.
I t i s s i i-m y.
I t is s t i-ck y ."
Is
i t t o b e wondered a t t h a t t h i s
m ethod o f t e a c h i n g
read in g , h in d erin g , a s i t does, the fu n c tio n a l o rg an isatio n
o f m e a n i n g f u l w h o l e s , was b l a m e d f o r c a u s i n g s l o w
in ex p ressiv e read in g ,
and e v e n s t u t t e r i n g a n d s ta m m e rin g ?
But enough h a s b e e n q u o t e d t o sh o w t h e
ap p ro ach t o language r e a d in g i n t h e
type
old s y n th e tic
I n f a n t Room, w i t h t h e
o f s y n t h e t i c f o o d , p a s s i n g by way o f n o n s e n s e
sy lla b le s to
nonsense s e n te n c e s ,
w hich was s e r v e d up t o
h e a l t h y , grow ing c h i l d r e n .
The c l o s e p a r a l l e l i s m b e t w e e n t h i s
m ethod and t h e
s i g h t - r e a d i n g m ethod i n q u e s t i o n w i l l be n o t e d .
I n m odern m e th o d s, c h i l d r e n b e g i n w i t h s h o r t b u t
i n t e r e s t i n g se n te n c e s or even s t o r i e s , w hich th e y l e a r n to
r e a d by i m i t a t i o n .
Prom t h i s
a n a ly s is to recognize th e
th e sen ten ces.
th e y a r e le d by a p ro c e s s of
elem en ts and p a r t s
That is to say , th ey s t a r t
in v o lv ed in
w ith w hat is
a c t u a l l y t h e s m a ll e s t u n i t o f th o u g h t, t h e com plete
(,Z I
sen ten ce,
p arts,
and p r o c e e d t o b r e a k t h i s
a n d t h e n to b u i l d up t h e
w holes - th e
th e sis
o r g a n i c whole i n t o
p a r t s a g a i n i n t o new
com plem entary p r o c e s s e s of a n a l y s i s and s y n ­
b eing done by t h e c h i l d r e n th e m s e lv e s , and t h e
p r i m a r y e m p h a s is b e i n g p l a c e d on t h e c o n t e n t o r t h e w h o l e .
The S y n t h e t i c A p p r o a c h i n t h e T e a c h i n g o f A r t e t c .
B u t now l e t u s t u r n f o r a m o m en t t o A r t .
Under t h e o ld d i s p e n s a t i o n i n a r t t e a c h i n g ,
o f t e n d e r y e a r s were d r i l l e d
in the
ch ild ren
elem en ts o f fre e h a n d
d r a w in g , a n d s p e n t what t o them m u st have seem ed an e t e r n i t y ,
draw ing s t r a i g h t l i n e s ,
ellip ses,
e tc .,
p a ra lle l lin e s, rectan g les,
curves,
w hen a l l t h e t i m e t h e y w e r e y e a r n i n g t o
ex p re ss t h e i r n o tio n s
o f t h e s u b j e c t (and o f t e n d i d so i n
o dd c o r n e r s o f a n e x e r c i s e
book) i n a n i m a g i n a t i v e d ra w in g
o f t h e i r v e r y own.
B ut, a c c o r d in g t o t h e pedagogue o f t h e d a y , t h e y m ust
le a r n to a tt a c k the
p a rts b efo re th e w hole.
th ey d id g rad u a te to th e
And, a l a s !
when
c o m p le te model s t a g e , t h e m odel
w as s u r e t o r e p r e s e n t a b a r e s y n t h e s i s o f a f e w o f t h e s e
p a r t s o r e le m e n ts - o f the Flow er P o t o r d e r !
Even i n t h e o ld s y s te m of p h y s i c a l
known a s
"physical
je rk s,"
t r a i n i n g , more t r u l y
we f i n d t h e sa m e t e n d e n c y t o
an aly se th e
b o d i l y m o v e m e n ts i n t o e l e m e n t s ,
t h e sa m e
s y n t h e t i c a p p r o a c h to t h e s e b o d i l y m ovem ents b y means of
m e c h a n ic a l e x e r c i s e s d e s i g n e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r t h i s m uscle
or th a t jo in t,
a n d t h e same a b s e n c e o f t h a t c o - o r d i n a t e d
m o v e m e n t i n w h i c h t h e w h o le m i n d a n d b o d y a c t a s o n e , a n d
i n w hich t h e m u sc u la r re s p o n s e s
p attern .
ph y sical
"u n ro ll"
in organised
C om pare t h i s w i t h t h e m o d e r n c o n c e p t i o n o f
e d u c a tio n , w hich f i n d s i t s
cu lm in atio n in
D a lc ro ze E urhythm ies.
The D i r e c t M e t h o d i n m o d e r n l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g
is
ju st
a n o th e r a s p e c t of t h e p r e s e n t day ten d e n cy i n pedagogy to
stre ss
Its
c o n t e n t or w ho les r a t h e r th a n s y n ta x o r e le m e n ts .
p h ilo so p h ic b a sis
i s t o be found i n t h e f o l l o w i n g
d ic tu m o f W alter P a te r :
" A l l p r o g r e s s o f m in d c o n s i s t s f o r t h e
-m ost p a r t i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , i n t h e
r e s o l u t i o n o f a n o b s c u r e and com plex
o b j e c t i n t o i t s component a s p e c t s . "
In d i r e c t c o n tr a s t w ith t h is , th e t h e s is
exponents of t h e
all* p ro g ress
o f the
S y n t h e t i c Method would s e e m t o b e t h a t
o f mind c o n s i s t s
f o r t h e m ost p a r t i n a c c r e ­
t i o n . i n th e s y n t h e s i s or g r a d u a l p ie c in g t o g e t h e r o f
com ponent p a r t s o f an o b s c u r e a n d com plex o b j e c t .
liv in g
o r g a n ic w hole l i k e
o f component p a r t s !
As i f
a m elod y w ere a mere sum m ation
Or, a s i f t h e mind c o u ld r e a c h t h e
a
s t a g e o f a p p e r c e p t i o n o f a c o m p l e x m e l o d y b y way o f t h e
sum m ation of component e le m e n t s o f p i t c h and rhythm !
Such a m e c h a n ic a l c o n c e p t i o n o f m elody a s t h e sum m ation of
component p a r t s i s t r u e
o n l y of m elo d y i n i t s
v isu a l or
n o t a t i o n a l a s p e c t , t h e a s p e c t w i t h w h i c h , a s we h a v e s e e n ,
th e com piler o f th e
S y n t h e t i c M usic R e a d e r i s c h i e f l y
concerned.
S y n th e sis and A nalysis
T his o ld s y n t h e t i c c o n c e p ti o n o f t h e l e a r n i n g
w hich assum ed t h a t t h e c h i l d s h o u ld
process,
m aster t h e p a r t s b e fo re
b e i n g a l l o w e d t o a t t e m p t t h e w h o l e , a n d w h i c h we h a v e s e e n
a t work i n t h e t e a c h i n g
of lan g u ag e r e a d i n g ,
a r t a n d p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g , was d u e t o
c h i l d m ind, and t o a f a l s e
m usic r e a d i n g ,
ig n o ra n c e of t h e
psychology of th e m en tal
processes.
The c h i l d was r e g a r d e d a s a s o r t of im m ature b e i n g ,
who s h o u l d
be " s e e n n o t h e a r d , "
f e e l th o ro u g h ly c o n sc io u s,
th is
a n d who s h o u l d
be made t o
i f n o t a c t u a l l y asham ed,
i m m a tu r ity on e v e r y p o s s i b l e
o ccasion.
supposed t o have a com plete p e r s o n a l i t y
of
He w a s n o t
of h i s
own,
or to
be c a p a b l e of p r o j e c t i n g h i m s e l f w h o l e h e a r t e d l y i n t o
ex p erien ces, lik e th e a d u lt.
On no a c c o u n t m u s t he be
a llo w e d t o show h i s p r e f e r e n c e s or t o t a k e h i s
He m u s t b e t a u g h t by f a i r m e a n s o r f o u l ,
own wa y.
th at i s ,
by
£24
rew ards o r punishm ents,
and m ust t h e r e f o r e
t o r e a l i s e t h a t he i s j u s t a c h i l d ,
he c o n t e n t t o k e e p g r u b b i n g a w ay f o r
l o n g t i m e t o come among t h e r o o t s ,
a
i n t h e h o p e t h a t he
in th e d i s t a n t f u tu r e , be i n a p o s itio n to
(nay,
p artak e of th e
fru its.
To a n a d u l t t h i s
seem s a m o st n o b le a m b itio n to
im p la n t i n t h e young m ind.
(w h ic h j u s t means a l l t h i s
f o r some d i s t a n t e n d ) i s
fo reig n to th e ch ild .
m o n stro sity !
But u n f o r tu n a te ly , am bition
"g o i n g r o u n d a n d a b o u t " a t h i n g
an a d u lt q u a l i t y
which i s q u i t e
S u re ly a n am bitious
ch ild
The n o r m a l c h i l d d o e s n o t l i v e
is a
for d ista n t
e n d s , h e i s t o o much e n g r o s s e d i n t h e i m p o r t a n t b u s i n e s s o f
grow ing up.
He l i v e s
i n a n d f o r t h e m o m e n t , a n d i s moved
o n ly by d i r e c t c o n ta c t w ith r e a l t h i n g s ,
a b stractio n s.
No c h i l d , f o r i n s t a n c e ,
s y lla b le s as such,
is
in te reste d
in
o r i n grammar and t h e p a r t s o f s p e e c h ,
a n y m o r e t h a n he i s
in in te rv als
n o t by sym bols or
and t h e
in te r e s te d in s c a le degrees as such,
" p a r t s of m usic"
-
{Id :s Is : - | s :s |d
- w h i c h we p r e s e n t t o h i m i n some o f o u r M u s i c R e a d e r s .
is
i n t e r e s t e d i n whole e x p e r i e n c e s - i n s t o r i e s ,
Of c o u r s e ,
it
or
He
in tu n es.
c a n ' t be " r o s e s , r o s e s a l l t h e w ay."
He m u s t a t some t i m e g e t down t o t h e r o o t s .
t o a n a l y s e t h e whole i n t o
its
He m u s t l e a r n
component e le m e n t s , so t h a t
t h e w h o l e may b e a p p e r c e i v e d i n a l l i t s
rela tio n sh ip s,
and
s o t h a t h e may h i m s e l f h e a b l e t o b u i l d u p new w h o l e s f r o m
th e p a r t s o r elem en ts.
I n language r e a d in g ,
h e m u s t come down t o w o r d s ,
fo r in stan ce,
s y l l a b l e s and l e t t e r s ;
m u s i c r e a d i n g h e m u s t come d o w n t o
i n t e r v a l s and s c a le
d e g r e e s , and t o t h e e le m e n ts o f tim e and rh y th m .
e ssen tial
t h i n g t o remember i s ,
But th e
t h a t we m u s t g u a r d l e s t t h e
te a c h e r h im s e lf should u n d e rta k e t h i s
an aly sis
s u b je c t- m a tte r in th e s e c lu s io n of h is
p re s e n t th e products of t h is
and in
an aly sis
of th e
own s t u d y ,
to th e
and th e n
ch ild as th e
l i f e l e s s fra g m e n ts o r a n a to m ic a l specim ens t h a t such
p ro d u c ts o f a n a l y s i s m ust n e c e s s a r i l y b e .
com piler of th e
what t h e
" b a b e b i bo b u " m e t h o d c o n t r i v e d t o d o .
And we s u b m i t t h a t t h i s
these a r t i f i c i a l l y
to do.
T his i s
is
e x a c tl y what th e c o m p ile rs of
c o n s t r u c t e d S ig h t R ead ers have c o n tr iv e d
T hey h av e t a k e n away t h e f l e s h
i n o r d e r t o b u i l d up
from t h e s k e l e t o n .
R ath er, th e process
w hole,
w hether i t
of a n a ly s is of th e liv i n g organic
be m u sic o r l a n g u a g e , m u st be c a r r i e d
out
by t h e c h i l d h i m s e l f u n d e r t h e s y m p a t h e t i c g u i d a n c e o f t h e
teach er,
a s i s done i n u p - t o - d a t e Language R e a d in g M ethods.
W o r d s w o r t h , i n o n e o f h i s s o n n e t s , r e m i n d s us t h a t
Hwe m u r d e r t o d i s s e c t . "
B u t we m u s t d i s t i n g u i s h c a r e f u l l y
betw een d i s s e c t i n g o r a n a l y s i n g , w hich i s an a c t i v e p r o c e s s ,
and th e p ro d u c ts of t h i s
d i s s e c t i o n or a n a l y s i s , w hich,
u n le s s seen in th e l i g h t of t h i s
rem ain l i f e l e s s
p ro c e s s o f a n a l y s i s , m ust
and m e a n in g le s s m a t t e r .
When t h e a n a l y s i n g
i s done i n t h e c h i l d ' s
tio n takes p lace.
own m i n d , n o s u c h m u r d e r o r m u t i l a ­
For i t
is n o t th e p ro d u cts of a n a l y s i s ,
a s s e e n fro m t h e i n s i d e by t h e
one who d o e s t h e a n a l y s i s ,
t h a t a re d e ad en in g , b u t r a t h e r th e p ro d u cts of a n a ly s is as
s e e n f r o m t h e o u t s i d e b y t h e l e a r n e r who h a s t a k e n n o p a r t
in th e a n a ly s is.
From t h e Complex t o t h e S im p le
A p r a c t i c a l e x a m p l e w i l l make t h i s
cle ar.
c o m p i l e r o f t h e M usic R e a d e r , who, re m e m b e r,
The
has ranged
o v e r t h e whole g a m u t o f m u s ic a n d h a s d r u n k d e e p o f t h e
" P i e r i a n s p r i n g " , may d e c i d e t h a t
s t a r t from is t h e i n t e r v a l
"d s " .
th e s i m p le s t e le m e n t to
And h e a c c o r d i n g l y
p r e s c r i b e s a n u m b e r o f e x e r c i s e s b a s e d on t h i s
th e type
in te rv a l,
of
We g r a n t t h a t ,
fo r the a d u lt m u sician , such tu n es re p r e s e n t
p ro b a b ly th e s i m p le s t elem ents of p i t c h ,
But c a n i t be s a i d t h a t su c h a type
in te rv al,
is
or in i t s
in th e sense t h a t
it
sim p le.
o f t u n e , b a s e d on t h i s
f o r th e c h il d th e sim ple th in g t h a t i t a p p e a rs
t o be on p a p e r ,
(or is
tim e and form .
n o ta tio n a l asp ect?
It
i s sim ple
" d a b d e b d i b d o b d u b " a n d "Rap a f a t n a g "
"Rag a f a t n a p , "
o r does i t m a tte r w hich?)
is
B u t we m u s t d i s t i n g u i s h h e r e b e t w e e n t h e s i m p l e
from t h e p o i n t of view o f e le m e n ts or p a r t s ,
and t h e sim ple
fro m t h e p o in t of view o f c o n t e n t o r m eaning.
And i n t h i s
s e n s e , a r e t h e above tu n e s a s sim p le a s , f o r exam ple, th e
n u r s e r y rhym e,
"T w inkle,
tw in k le,
h, , ^
vhf f
IS
Is i t not
little
star"?
H—t—
'+
-1 4 =
J
—
T M
0 —#-
-------
»
Hf-tJi ui um
tru e to sa y of th e form er tu n e t h a t in th u s
s i m p l i f y i n g we h a v e b e e n r a r e f y i n g ,
in th u s a b s tra c tin g
t h e e l e m e n t s o f m e l o d y we h a v e k i l l e d m e l o d y o r m u s i c a l
m eaning, f o r t h e c h i l d a t any r a t e ?
e y e may b e o n t h e n o t e s ,
And i f s o , t h e c h i l d ' s
b u t h i s h e a r t w i l l be e ls e w h e re ,
a n d , t o i n v e r t t h e o ld s a y i n g , what th e h e a r t d o e s n o t se e
th e eye w i l l n o t g rie v e f o r .
m
On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
r e a d i n g by s t a r t i n g
rhym e, t h e
i f we a t t a c k t h e s u b j e c t o f m u s i c
from v i t a l t u n e s l i k e
c h ild him self w i l l , w ith g uidance, a r r iv e a t
t h e c o n c e p t o f i n t e r v a l by the p r o c e s s
d ifferen tiatio n ,
progress
the above n u rse ry
of a n a ly s is
or
p o s t u l a t e d by P a t e r a s e s s e n t i a l f o r a l l
o f m ind.
F o r, a s L a s c e l l e s A bercrom bie s a y s i n
h is L e s li e Stephen L e c tu re o n "P ro g re ss in L i t e r a t u r e " ,
" o u r c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e w o r ld comes t o us i n m a s s e s ;
is
o n l y b y a n a l y t i c a l a t t e n t i o n t h a t we s p l i t i t
component p a r t s . "
(Cam bridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,
I n t h e above c a s e ,
m eaning f o r t h e
ch ild ,
th e in te r v a l
sin ce i t
w hole; and a c c o r d in g ly i t s
t a k e on m eaning t o o .
it
up i n t o
19 2 9 .)
"d s " w i l l h a v e a v i t a l
w i l l form p a r t of an o rg a n ic
n o t a t i o n a l accom panim ents w i l l
To p u t i t
i n o t h e r w ords,
th is
e le m e n t o f m u s ic a l th o u g h t and of m u s ic a l n o t a t i o n ,
c a n m e a n , a n d com es t o m e a n s o m e t h i n g ,
"d s " ,
only i n r e l a t i o n to
o th e r elem ents of m u sical th o u g h t and of m u sica l n o t a tio n .
I n th e l i g h t o f th e i l l u s t r a t i o n s and argum ents s e t
out above,
l e t u s now come t o
g r i p s w ith t h e problem o f th e
a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d M usic R e a d e r ,
and t r y t o i n d i c a t e
a n a l t e r n a t i v e m ethod o f t e a c h i n g m u s ic r e a d i n g ,
m ore i n
k e e p i n g w i t h t h e t e n e t s o f modern p s y c h o lo g y a n d t h e p r a c ­
tic e
o f modern p ed ag o g y .
62?
The " Q u a l i t y o f M e m o r a b l e n e s s "
The m ost s t r i k i n g
in A rt
featu re
of th ese a r t i f i c i a l l y
constructed sig h t-re a d in g exercises
th a t they are e n tir e ly
is,
lack in g in t h a t
a s we h a v e s e e n ,
" q u a lity of
%
m e m o ra b le n e ss ," w hich,
a s R o b e r t L y nd r e m i n d s u s ,
is
the
m ark o f a l l g r e a t p o e t r y , and w h ic h , a l l w i l l a g r e e ,
t h e m ark o f a l l g r e a t m u s i c .
And,
if
is
our e x p o s itio n of
t h e p r i n c i p l e s and t e a c h i n g m ethods u n d e r l y i n g t h i s s i g h t r e a d in g system i s c o r r e c t ,
of th is
we c a n u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e
" q u a l i t y o f m em orableness"
lack
is regarded as a
d esid eratu m in such re a d in g e x e rc is e s ,
and i s ,
indeed,
the
o u t c o m e o f c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t on t h e p a r t o f t h e c o m p i l e r .
(C o m p a r e Markham L e e . . . " S e v e r a l e x e r c i s e s
s h o u l d be d o n e a t e a c h l e s s o n .
A fter an
i n t e r v a l o f a few w e ek s, u n l e s s m em ories
a r e s u p e r l a t i v e , t h e y may b e t r i e d a
second tim e , p o s s ib ly even a t h i r d . " )
"At F i r s t S i g h t - S i g h t T e s t s f o r S i n g e r s "
York, Banks & Son, 1934.
In th is
system a l l th e
m echanics of r e a d in g ,
em phasis i s
on t h e t r a i n i n g
t h e s t a f f sym bols n o t e by n o t e .
laid
of th e
on t h e
eye t o f o l l o w
H e n c e , a s we h a v e s e e n ,
e a c h e x e r c i s e s h o u l d be s u n g o n l y o n c e ,
w hile i n th e
e x e r c i s e s t h e m s e l v e s t h e r e m u s t be no r e p e t i t i o n o f p h r a s e s ,
and l i t t l e
o r no s e q u e n c e , a n d t h e r e s h o u l d l i k e w i s e be a
minimum o f r e p e a t e d n o t e s .
m ethod i s
The a s s u m p t i o n o n w h i c h t h i s
based is t h a t b e t t e r pedagogical r e s u l t s ,
m ore l e a r n i n g
i.e .
on t h e p a r t o f p u p i l w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c e r t a i n
♦ in tro d u c tio n to
"An A n t h o l o g y o f M o d e r n V e r s e " ( M e t h u e n )
6 30
in te rv al,
w i l l a c c ru e from t h e r e a d i n g once th ro u g h o f a
page of a r t i f i c i a l l y
constructed ex ercises
tw e n ty exam ples o f t h a t i n t e r v a l ,
co n tain in g ,
say,
th a n from th e re a d in g
once th ro u g h o f a page o f r e a l tu n e s from f o lk s o n g or
c la ssic a l lite ra tu re
in terv al
c o n ta in in g only t e n
in q u estio n ,
exam ples o f t h e
o r from th e co n n in g o r r e a d i n g over
a n d o v e r a g a i n o f one v i t a l t u n e c o n t a i n i n g o n l y two
exam ples o f t h e i n t e r v a l .
T his i s an a ssu m p tio n t h a t i s
"tw enty i s
b a s e d on l o g i c
of th e
tw ice as g r e a t a s te n and te n tim es a s g r e a t a s
two" o r d e r , b u t i t
i s an a s s u m p t io n t h a t would be h e a r t i l y
condemned by a l l s t u d e n t s o f m odern p s y c h o lo g y .
n o t reckon w ith th e
I t does
elem ent of i n t e r e s t or a e s t h e t i c t h r i l l ,
w hich i s e s s e n t i a l i n a l l
l e a r n in g s i t u a t i o n s , and w hich i s
a b s e n t i n a p r o c e s s i n w h i c h a l l t h e e m p h a s i s i s p u t on
th e g o in g and none on t h e a r r i v i n g .
S y n t h e t i c Foods a n d S y n t h e t i c Tunes
We g r a n t t h a t a t a c e r t a i n s t a g e i t may b e n e c e s s a r y
t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e t e a c h i n g o f
"d f " ,
f o r exam ple;
but
t o c r o w d a s many a s p o s s i b l e o f t h e s e i n t e r v a l s i n t o a p a g e
o f r e a d i n g e x e r c i s e s a t t h e e x p e n se o f o t h e r i n t e r v a l s and
t h e r e f o r e o f m elody i t s e l f ,
is e q u iv a le n t to p re s c rib in g
f o r a h e a l t h y , grow ing c h i l d a d i e t o f s y n t h e t i c fo o d s
c o n t a i n i n g a maximum a m o u n t o f c e r t a i n v i t a m i n s .
S y n th etic
foods,
w h e t h e r f o r t h e b o d y o r f o r t h e m i n d , may b e n e c e s s a r y
in c e r ta in p ath o lo g ical cases,
a d u lts.
In m usic,
e s p e c ia lly in th e case of
f o r exam ple, s y n t h e t i c
ex ercises in fo u rth s, f if th s
staff-read in g
a n d o t h e r i n t e r v a l s may f o r m
e x c e l l e n t p a b u l u m f o r t h e a d u l t , who c a n a p p r e c i a t e t h e
v a l u e o f t h e m a n d who w i l l ,
th erefo re,
d i s c ip lin e him self
v o l u n ta r il y f o r th e sake of d i s t a n t ends.
B ut,
lik e
s y n th e tic foods, s y n th e tic m usic-reading e x e rc is e s
of th e
ty p e d e s c rib e d a re n o t f i t no u rish m en t f o r th e norm al,
grow ing c h i l d ,
who i n t h e n a t u r e
of th in g s
is not in terested
i n d i s t a n t e n d s , a n d who c a n n o t , t h e r e f o r e ,
summon t h a t
v o l u n t a r y a t t e n t i o n b a se d on a n a p p r e c i a t i o n o f d i s t a n t
v alu es,
w hich i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e a p p e r c e p tiv e p ro c e s s in
a s u b j e c t - m a t t e r w h i c h h o l d s no i n t r i n s i c
(T his i s n o t t o s a y t h a t d r i l l
v is u a l and a u r a l,
but ra th e r to
i n t e r e s t f o r h im .
in in te rv a l rec o g n itio n ,
both •
s h o u l d n o t be g i v e n i n t h e m u sic l e s s o n ,
say t h a t such d r i l l i n v i s u a l and a u r a l
t e c h n i q u e s h o u l d be k e p t a p a r t f r o m t h e a c t u a l r e a d i n g
lesso n ,
whose m ain f u n c t i o n i t
p u ttin g the acq u ire d tech n iq u e
is to
j
. j u s t i f y t h i s d r i l l by
t o u se f o r im m ediate o r
a e s th e tic en d s.)
The p r i n c i p a l
o b jectio n
to s y n th e tic foods i s t h a t
th e y do n o t p ro v id e t h e body w ith
necessary fo r h ealth y a ssim ila tio n .
t h a t ro u g h a g e w hich i s
And,
j u s t a s t h e body
r e q u i r e s roughage f o r t h e d i g e s t i v e p r o c e s s ,
so,
too,
the
\
i
i Z2
m ind r e q u i r e s ro u g h a g e f o r t h e a p p e r c e p t i v e p r o c e s s .
T h is roughage n a t u r e p r o v id e s i n th e form o f n a t u r a l fo o d s
and n a t u r a l tu n e s .
And i n m u s i c , t h e r o u g h a g e i s t o h e
fo u n d i n t h o s e v e ry e le m e n ts o f m elody, t h a t a r e found
in o rd in a ry or n a t u r a l tu n e s and t h a t have h een d e l i b e r a t e
ly l e f t
out in the s y n th e tic re a d in g e x e rc is e s ,
re p e titio n
nam ely,
of p h r a s e s , r e p e t i t i o n o f s i n g l e n o t e s , and
sequence or im ita tio n .
Form a n d R e p e t i t i o n
A ll c h ild r e n d e lig h t in form or r e p e t i t i o n f o r i t s
own s a k e .
T ry to "cut a lo n g s t o r y s h o r t " b y s in g in g on ly
t h e l a s t v e rs e o f a c u m u lativ e song, o r by r e c i t i n g only
th e l a s t verse
of "T his i s t h e house t h a t J a c k b u i l t "
( b o t h o f w hich v e r s e s c o n t a i n a l l t h e p r e v i o u s v e r s e s ) ,
and th e c h ild w i l l i n s i s t ,
W onderland,"
till
lik e
t h e King i n
"A lice in
o n " b e g i n n i n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , a n d g o i n g on
y o u come t o t h e e n d . "
"The T h re e B e a r s , "
Try to t e l l th e s t o r y
le a v in g out a l l the r e p e t i t i o n s
of
of
"T h e f a t h e r b e a r ................ a n d t h e m o t h e r b e a r ................... a n d t h e
little
bear
", and th e c h il d w i l l p r o t e s t a t once.
For th e c h ild t h e s e sim p le r e p e t i t i o n s have a l l t h e t h r i l l
o f a n t i c i p a t i o n and r e c o l l e c t i o n t h a t t h e r e t u r n o f t h e
f i r s t s u b j e c t i n a sy m p ho n y o r t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e s u b ­
j e c t in a fugue has f o r th e a d u l t .
I n m u s ic , w h ic h i s a t e m p o r a l a r t m oving f o r w a r d a l l
the tim e , r e p e titio n
is
of t h e v e ry e sse n c e o f f o rm , and i s
t o be fo u n d i n a i l a r t form s fro m th e f o l k dan ce or th e
f o l k s o n g t o t h e B ra h m s Symphony o r t h e W a g n e r i a n M u s i c
Drama.
Y et i n t h e s e M usic R e a d e r s i t
is
i n v a i n t h a t we
l o o k f o r a n y o f t h e v a r i o u s f o l k s o n g f o r m s - AABA, ABAC,
ABCB, ABBA, e t c .
In the d is in c lin a tio n
on t h e p a r t o f t h e c o m p i l e r s
o f t h e s e R e a d e r s t o r e p e a t a p h r a s e , we a r e r e m i n d e d o f t h e
E d ito r
(m en tio n e d by George S a i n t s b u r y i n
J o u r n a l , N o v e m b e r 1 9 2 1 ) , who i n s i s t e d
T r i o l e t a t the r a t e
b e c a u s e one l i n e
of fiv e lin e s
on p a y i n g f o r a
i n s t e a d of e i g h t l i n e s ,
o ccu rs th r e e tim e s and a n o th e r tw ice —
th e argum ent of th e s e c o m p ile rs b e in g ,
s i x t e e n b a r t u n e o f t h e AABA t y p e ,
is
"The B o o k m a n ' s
lik e
e v id e n tly ,
th at a
" D r i n k t o me o n l y , "
w orth only e i g h t b a rs from th e p e d a g o g ic a l p o i n t of
view , and is
c o n s e q u e n tly t o be a v o id e d a s w a s t e f u l in
readin g e x ercises.
* a
s h o r t poem o f e i g h t l i n e s o f t h e f o r m , a b c a d e a b ,
o r AA'BA:
" R o s e k i s s e d me t o - d a y ;
W i l l s h e k i s s me t o - m o r r o w ?
L e t t h a t b e a s i t may,
R o s e k i s s e d me t o - d a y .
B u t t h e p l e a s u r e g i v e s way
To a s a v o u r o f s o r r o w .
R o s e k i s s e d me t o - d a y ;
W i l l s h e k i s s me t o - m o r r o w ? "
A u s tin Dobson.
B u t l e t u s c o n s i d e r f o r a moment t h e n a t u r e o f a r t
and
of a r t
experience.
a l l ages has been to
B r i e f l y , t h e problem of a l l a r t
awaken i n t h e s p e c t a t o r
in
or h earer th a t
a e s t h e t i c t h r i l l w h ic h comes f r o m t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f a
u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e amid t h e c o n f l i c t o f d i v e r s e e l e m e n t s .
The r e s p e c t i v e p r o p o r t i o n ,
w hich t h e s e
two e l e m e n t s o f
u n i t y an d d i v e r s i t y assum e i n a r t w o rk s,
age to a g e,
h as v a r i e d from
a c c o rd in g t o t h e t e c h n i c a l equipm ent o f a r t i s t
and p u b lic a l i k e .
I f t o d a y some o f u s f i n d t h a t
m usic by a composer o f r e p u t e le a v e s
a p i e c e o f m odern
us w ith a s e n s e of
b e w i l d e r m e n t o r e v e n d i s g u s t , we m u s t a s s u m e ,
t o t h e com poser,
place
esis
or th e
th a t in h is e f f o r ts
o b v io u s and i n h i s
or p rin cip le
of u n ity ,
t o a v o i d t h e coirmon-
search fo r a higher sy n th ­
he h a s n o t g i v e n u s s u f f i c i e n t
c lu e s to h is t r a i n of th o u g h t.
in fa c t,
in fairn e ss
But i f t h a t composer h a s ,
s p e n t m onths o r p e r h a p s y e a r s s h a p i n g h i s m e l o d i e s ,
w eaving h i s harm onic and c o n t r a p u n t a l t e x t u r e ,
and endeav­
o u r i n g t o b r i n g t h e w h o l e u n d e r one g r e a t u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e ,
we h a v e no r i g h t t o e x p e c t t o u n d e r s t a n d i t f u l l y a t a f i r s t
h earin g .
I n d e e d , we u s u a l l y d i s c o v e r t h a t a f t e r r e p e a t e d
h e a r i n g s o f t h e sa m e w o r k we b e g i n t o s e e a g u i d i n g
p rin cip le
e lem en ts.
a t work b i n d i n g t o g e t h e r a l l t h e h e t e r o g e n e o u s
Our i n t e r e s t i s a r o u s e d .
shape i t s e l f
or to ta k e
The m u s i c b e g i n s t o
"form" i n our m in d s,
and t o
im press
us w ith t h a t
" q u a l i t y o f m e m o r a b le n e s s " w h ic h w i l l mark i t
o f f in our im a g in a tio n from a l l
o th e r m usic.
F i n a l l y t h e whole p i e c e s t a n d s
out lik e a sta tu e
b e f o r e o u r e y e s , w h i c h we c a n e x a m i n e a t l e i s u r e f r o m
d if f e r e n t an g les.
(S ee " M u s ic a l Form a n d M a t t e r " b y D .F .T o v e y ,
Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , p . 31, where he q u o te s
P r o f e s s o r A n d re w B r a d l e y ' s "A poem e x i s t s i n
i n n u m e r a b l e d e g r e e s . ")
In th e e a rly stag es of a r t ,
e a r l y b a l l a d s and t a l e s ,
t h e n , — i n G reek dram a,
f o l k song and f o l k dance — th e
e m p h a s is f o r o b v i o u s r e a s o n s h a s b e e n l a i d on t h e
elem ent
of u n ity .
T his i s
th e c h ild .
esp ecially tru e
of th e a r t t h a t ap p eals to
For th e c h ild re v e ls
in th e
be a t u n e , a game, a s t o r y o r a j o k e .
say th a t h is
obv io u s, w hether i t
And t h i s
o u tlo o k i s sim ple and d i r e c t ,
is
j u s t to
and th e r e f o r e
t h e t y p e o f a r t - w o r k w hich w i l l a p p e a l t o him and w hich
sh o u ld be used f o r r e a d in g m a t e r i a l e s p e c i a l l y i n th e e a r l y
stag es,
as i t
is
i s t h a t i n w hich t h e e le m e n t of u n i t y
is s tr e s s e d ,
i n s i m p l e f o l k s o n g fo r m s b y means o f t h e r e p e t i t i o n
o f p h r a s e s and by s e q u e n c e o r i m i t a t i o n .
R e ad in g f o r T echnique
To sum u p , t h e n , we s u b m i t t h a t t h e e m p h a s i s i n t h i s
s i g h t - r e a d i n g m ethod i s
w rongly p l a c e d on t h e m e c h a n ic s of
r e a d i n g and on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e f o r i t s
own
sake.
an eye-
The r e a d i n g l e s s o n t h u s r e s o l v e s i t s e l f
train in g
order.
or n o te -re a d in g le s s o n o f th e
S y n th e sis, w ith i t s
in to
"vab v e b v i b vob vub"
e m p h a s is on e l e m e n t s a n d i t s
n e g le c t of a e s th e tic co n ten t,
is
th e g u id in g p rin c ip le
u n d erly in g th e c o n stru c tio n of th e re a d in g m a tte r;
sy n th esis,
w ith i t s
em phasis on e y e - t r a i n i n g
and
or n o te - g e ttin g
and i t s n e g le c t of m in d - tr a in in g or th o u g h t- g e tt i n g ,
g u id in g p rin c ip le
stag es
of r e a d i n g ,
e x e r c is e s backw ards,
e s p e c i a l l y in
i s t o ask the c la s s to re a d th e
b e g in n in g a t t h e end of e a c h e x e r c i s e !
And i n some c a s e s ,
"n o te-b lo ck in g ,"
i.e .
th e cov erin g
o r b lo c k in g o u t by t h e f i n g e r o f th e n o te w hich i s
sung,
th e
u n d e r l y i n g t h e m ethod o f t r a i n i n g .
A common p r a c t i c e w i t h some t e a c h e r s ,
th e e a rly
is
i s r e c o m m e n d e d by t h e
being
c o m p i le r o f t h e r e a d i n g book!
"Note B l o c k i n g .
An a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l f a u l t i n s i g h t r e a d i n g
i s t h a t c h ild r e n a re a p t to loo k a t th e note
th e y a r e s in g in g in s te a d of lo oking ahead.
T h i s s t o p s t h e f l o w o f t h e m u s i c more t h a n
a n y th in g e ls e .
The c h i l d r e n s h o u l d l e a r n
to cover w ith t h e i r f i r s t f in g e r the note
t h e y a r e s i n g i n g ; l a t e r tw o n o t e s , a n d
later
s t i l l a whole b a r . "
(P a g e 16)
" I t i s v e ry im p o rtan t t h a t the c h ild r e n should
-n o t p o in t to th e note th e y a re s in g in g , b u t
block i t o u t."
(Page 39)
("The C o m pleat T e a c h e r" by A r th u r S o m e r v e l l,
V o l . 2 , London, Boosey & C o .L td . 1 9 3 2 .)
<*7
The p u r p o s e o f t h i s
p rac tic e
is to
ensure t h a t th e c h i l d 's
e y e w i l l c o n t i n u e t o move a l o n g t h e l i n e
to r ig h t,
of n o te s from l e f t
alw ays lo o k i n g ahead and n e v e r g l a n c in g b a ck over
th e m a tte r j u s t re a d .
M o v e m e n t o f t h e Eye i n R e a d in g ;
T his p r a c t i c e ,
w hich i s i n k e ep in g w ith t h e p r i n c i p l e s
u n d e r l y i n g t h e S y n t h e t i c M ethod, c a n n o t be t o o s t r o n g l y
condemned.
I t i s a commonplace i n m o d ern e d u c a t i o n a l
psychology t h a t th e
read in g a lin e
e y e d o e s n o t b e h a v e i n t h i s way i n
of p rin t.
E xperim ents have proved t h a t
r e a d i n g ) t h e eye does n o t t r a v e l
a t a uniform r a t e
but rath er,
each l in e
pauses.
alon g th e lin e
of p rin t
i n t h e sa m e d i r e c t i o n f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t ,
t o q u o t e f r o m Dr P a u l K l a p p e r ,
"moves a c r o s s
i n a s e r i e s of a p p ro x im ate ly rhythm ic
I t is
(in
sweeps and
a lso im portant to n o te t h a t read in g ta k e s
p la c e d u r in g th e p a u se s , n o t d u r in g th e sw eep s."
I n t h e s e movements t h e e y e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e
o f t h e r e a d i n g m a t t e r and t h e s t a g e
n atu re
of tech n iq u e a tt a i n e d ,
makes a sw eep o v e r tw o , t h r e e o r f o u r w o rd s , a n d t h e n t u r n s
b a c k an d f i x a t e s a word o r s y l l a b l e u s u a l l y a b o u t t h e c e n t r e
of t h i s
sw eep; t h e n i t
sweeps f o rw a rd a g a i n and t u r n s back
t o p a u s e o v e r a n o t h e r word o r s y l l a b l e , t h e number o f sw eeps
a n d p a u s e s v a r y i n g p e r h a p s f r o m s i x t o two a c c o r d i n g t o t h e
read in g a b i l i t y
of th e su b je ct.
6 3?
To q u o t e Dr K l a p p e r a g a i n ,
"T he c h a r a c t e r o f e y e
movement i n r e a d i n g g i v e s a d d e d w e i g h t t o t h e
t h a t we d o n o t r e a d b y j o i n i n g l e t t e r s
co n v ictio n
i n phonic s u c c e s s io n ,
b u t r a t h e r by r e c o g n i s i n g u n i t s a s l a r g e , a t l e a s t ,
w hole w o rd s.
The m ore m a t u r e we a r e ,
is t h e u n i t of v is u a l p e rc e p tio n .
n a tu ra lly ,
as
th e la rg e r
In the e a r l i e s t e x e rc is e s
c h i l d r e n m u st be t a u g h t t o r e a d w o rd s a n d s h o r t p h r a s e s a s
w h o les.
Our k n o w l e d g e o f e y e m o vem en t h a s h e l p e d t o
lav
t h e a x e t o t h e o l d s y n t h e t i c r e a d i n g m e t h o d s ."
(P a u l K la p p e r Ph.D . "T e a c h in g C h i l d r e n t o R e a d " .
A p p l e t o n & C o . , New Y o r k a n d L o n d o n , 1 9 2 6 ) .
I t w ill
be n o t e d t h a t t h e a b o v e r e f e r e n c e s
re a d in g of language,
is
tru e
but i t
o f m usic r e a d i n g ,
i s h i g h l y p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e same
and a l i t t l e
p a r t of th e m usician w i l l su p p o rt t h i s
A gain, t h e p r a c t i c e
th e
sam e e x e r c i s e t w i c e
th e exponents of t h i s
are to th e
i n t r o s p e c t i o n on t h e
view .
of n o t allo w in g
c h ild re n to read
is i n keeping w ith th e
t h e s i s of
s y n t h e t i c m u s ic -re a d in g system .
A c t u a l l y , t h e r e - r e a d i n g o f a n e x e r c i s e would s t r e n g t h e n
th e
tech n iq u e of th e
eye by e n c o u r a g i n g i t
l a r g e r and l a r g e r p a t t e r n s
e n ing o f te c h n iq u e ,
of n o tes.
to
take in
And t h e s a m e s t r e n g t h ­
o r i n c r e a s e i n th e eye sp a n l e a d i n g t o
e ffic ie n c y of v isu a l percep tio n,
in c lu s io n in the read in g
w o u l d come f r o m t h e
ex ercises of th o se fe a tu re s
of
a c t u a l m e l o d y , w h i c h a r e m o r e o r l e s s a b s e n t f r o m t h e MuSic
R e a d e rs u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n , nam ely, r e p e t i t i o n s
of phrase of
t h e AABA t y p e , s e q u e n c e s o r i m i t a t i o n s , a n d r e p e a t e d n o t e s .
L ik ew ise,
th e a d o p tio n o f r e a d in g hooks c o n ta in i n g a c t u a l
t u n e s o f t h e f o l k s o n g a n d n u r s e r y rhym e v a r i e t y would
e n co u rag e th e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i n p u p i l s , hy aw akening
th eir
in te r e s t in th e
th erefo re,
c o n te n t of th e re a d in g book, and,
in th e n o tatio n .
I n an a tt e m p t t o f i n d o u t th e f r e q u e n c y of i n t e r v a l s i n
v a r i o u s t y p e s o f m e l o d y , t h e w r i t e r made a n e x h a u s t i v e
a n a ly s is of th o u sa n d s of m elodies of d i f f e r e n t k in d s .
He
found t h a t i n t h e c a s e of u n is o n s o r r e p e a t e d n o t e s th e
p e r c e n t a g e was h i g h e s t i n N u r s e r y R h y m e s , a n d l o w e s t ( b e i n g ,
i n d e e d , a b n o r m a l l y low) i n w e ll- k n o w n M usic R e a d e r s .
Books s u r v e y e d
T o t a l number of
i n te r v a ls analysed
P ercen tag e of
R e p e a t e d Notes
N u r s e r y R h y m e s , Book 3
Gem S e r i e s , B a n k s , L e e d s .
1,938
24-8
T r a d i t i o n a l N u r s e r y Rhymes
J o h n Graham, Curwen.
2,063
26-4
N u r s e r y Rhymes, p p . 1 - 2 2 ,
M o ffa t, Augener.
1,2 2 4
25-3
P ro g re ssiv e S t a f f Reader,
Book B. H u n t e r a n d Walker,
B ayley & F erg u so n
2,688
4-2
The R a p i d S i g h t R e a d e r ,
V o l .I . A rth u r S om ervell,
B oosey & Co.
5,642
5-3
2 ,1 7 8
6-7
3 ,8 5 3
20-8
T he C o m p l e a t T e a c h e r ,
V o l . I (age 7-8)
A r th u r S o m e r v e l l, Boosey
T he F o l k S o n g S i g h t
S i n g i n g S e r i e s , Book I
Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s
( c o n s i s t i n g e n t i r e l y of
F olk Songs;
When we c o n s i d e r t h a t r e p e a t e d n o t e s a r e n e a r l y a l w a y s a
s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f s t r o n g l y r h y t h m i c m u s i c , b e i n g more o r
!
ific
l e s s t h e m u s i c a l e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e ho p o r s t a m p i n d a n c i n g
and o f t h e " r d c u l e r p o u r m ieux s a u t e r " o f t h e F re n c h
p r o v e r b , we a r e n o t s u r p r i s e d a t t h i s - h i g h p e r c e n t a g e i n
n u r s e r y r h y m e s , a n d we h a v e a n a d d e d r e a s o n t o d e p l o r e
t h e i r absence m s ig h t- r e a d in g e x e rc is e s .
P e r c e p t i o n and A p p e rc e p tio n
W ith r e g a r d t o t h e
r e l a ti o n to s ig h t-re a d in g ,
ch ild ,
im p o rtan c e o f m elo d ic form in
i t w i l l be r e a d i l y s e e n t h a t th e
i n r e a d i n g a t s i g h t a t u n e o f t h e AABA t y p e w i l l
r e c o g n i z e i n t h e s e c o n d p h r a s e , A, a n a c q u a i n t a n c e h e h a s
made i n t h e f i r s t p h r a s e ; a n d t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n w i l l b e a l l
t h e more s p o n t a n e o u s and i t s
i m p r e s s i o n a l l t h e more v i v i d ,
i f h i s h e a r t h a s warmed t o t h e m e l o d i c p h r a s e o n t h e
first
o ccasion.
Then,
when t h e c h i l d c o m e s t o
the f o u r th p h rase,
a fte r a careful
scru tin y of,
phrase,
a c q u a in ta n c e s h ip w i l l have rip e n e d in to
B, t h i s
frien d sh ip ,
a ll
A,
and a p a s s in g nod t o , t h e t h i r d
t h e m o r e s o a s h e d o e s n o t now r e q u i r e t o
exam ine c r e d e n t i a l s
and s t a n d on h i s g u a rd
a l l t h e tim e,
as
he h a d t o do on h i s
f i r s t in tr o d u c tio n to A a t the b eginning
of th e tu n e.
On a c c o u n t o f t h e a e s t h e t i c o r h e d o n i s t i c e l e m e n t
in v o lv ed i n su ch r e c o g n itio n , t h e a u r a l im p re ssio n w ill
become c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h t h e v i s u a l i m p r e s s i o n ,
so t h a t the
c h i l d s h o u l d u l t i m a t e l y a r r i v e a t t h e s t a g e when he w i l l be
a b le t o s h u t h i s eyes and
and "h ear" t h e n o t e s .
"see" th e n o t e s ,
or sh u t h is ears
HI
T h is " h e a r in g w ith th e e y es" and " s e e in g w ith t h e
e a r s ” h a s become a s o r t o f
But i t
is
s l o g a n w i t h M usic T e a c h e r s t o d a y .
very n e c e s s a r y t o s t r e s s t h e
w hich s u c h " h e a r in g " an d " s e e in g "
h a s done t h i s
fo r us.
p r i m e c o n d i t i o n on
tak es p lace.
Shakespeare
L e t him sp e a k .
"0 l e a r n t o r e a d w hat
s i l e n t love have w r it;
To h e a r w i t h e v e s b e l o n g s t o l o v e ' s f i n e w i t . "
(bonnet j u u i i )
By a c c u m u l a t i n g a s t o r e o f s u c h c o - o r d i n a t e d a u r a l
and v i s u a l im ages,
a n a l y s e d i n t h e mind a n d u n c o n s c i o u s l y
grouped a c c o rd in g t o d e g re e o f k i n s h i p ,
the c h ild w ill
g r a d u a l l y a r r i v e a t t h e s t a g e w hen h e w i l l b e i n a p o s i t i o n
t o t a k e i n a t a g l a n c e new c o m b i n a t i o n s o f p i t c h a n d r h y t h m
elem en ts, v ary in g in t h i s
o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r from th o s e
s t o r e d - u p m e n ta l im ages.
I t is
th e a e s th e tic
by s u c h u n c o n scio u s
p r o c e s s e s , m o t i v a t e d by
c o n te n t of th e re a d in g m a tte r,
ex p erien ced re a d e r has lea rn ed to
of lig h tn in g read s it"
t h a t the
"rea d a page as a f l a s h
( O l i v e r W endell H olm es).
On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
in jo u rn ey in g through t h e pages
o f t h e a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d M usic R e a d e r t h e r e i s no
su c h p l e a s a n t r e c o g n i t i o n o r i n t e r c o u r s e w ith old f r i e n d s ,
no l i g h t h e a r t e d v e n t u r i n g a lo n g f a m i l i a r p a t h s ,
a nerve-w racking
in term in ab le
"S afety F ir s t"
but in stead
p ro g re s s th ro u g h a seem ingly
s e r i e s of c r o t c h e t and quaver s ig n a ls !
P sy ch o lo g ically , th e p e rc ep tio n of m a te ria l,
each elem ent i s
u n fam iliar,
hinders th e o rg an isatio n of
is
i n w hich
not only e x h a u s tin g , b u t
"m eaningful w h o les".
C o m p ar e t h e " f u n d a m e n t a l p o s t u l a t e " o f G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g i e " t h a t t h e r e i s more i n a n y p s y c h o l o g i c a l
w h o l e t h a n t h e m e r e sum o f i t s p a r t s . . .
"The o l d v ie w t h a t l e a r n i n g comes a b o u t by s l o w
- a s s o c ia t iv e p ro c e ss e s o f t r i a l and e r r o r , d u rin g
w hich p l e a s u r a b l e o r s u c c e s s f u l r e a c t i o n s a r e
s ta m p e d i n s o a s t o become h a b i t s , w h i l e u n s u c c e s s ­
f u l o r p a i n f u l o n e s become e l i m i n a t e d , i s s u p p l a n t e d
i n F o rm a lism by a d o c t r i n e o f i n s i g h t f u l l e a r n i n g .
New w h o l e s a r e s u d d e n l y a p p r e h e n d e d ;
a new
s t r u c t u r a t i o n o c c u r s , o r a new e l e m e n t i s i n c o r ­
p o rated in to th e s i t u a t i o n , w ith consequent
changes in r e a c t i o n . . .
"The g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n o f ' G e s t a l t 1 t o
contem porary psychology i s und o u b ted ly i t s
v i g o r o u s p r o t e s t , s u p p o r t e d by a w e a l t h o f
c o m p a ra tiv e and e x p e r im e n t a l e v id e n c e , a g a i n s t
th e in s u f f ic ie n c y of a sso c ia tio n ism .
Not o nly
a re m ental o b je c ts o r i g i n a l l y p e rc eiv e d as
m e a n i n g f u l w h o l e s w h i c h g r o w by s t r u c t u r a t i o n ,
b u t t h e y a r e w holes p e r c e i v e d i n r e l a t i o n t o
o a l s t o be a t t a i n e d , a n d s o e x p l a i n b e h a v i o u r ,
hus p u r p o s e i s i m p l i e d from t h e o u t s e t o f
m ental l i f e . "
f
( " P s y c h o l o g y " b y F . A v e l i n g i n "An O u t l i n e o f
Modern K now ledge", V i c t o r G o l i a n c z L t d .
London, 1932.
P ages 330-333)
The A e s t h e t i c C o n t e n t
The q u e s t i o n o f t h e a e s t h e t i c c o n t e n t o f S c h o o l
R e a d e r s i s n o new o n e .
A rnold,
S e v e n t y - f i v e y e a r s a g o , M atthew
i n h i s c a p a c i t y o f H.M. I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l s , was
c a r r y i n g on a c ru s a d e a g a i n s t t h e c o n t e n t o f c o n te m p o ra ry
S c h o o l R e a d in g Books, w hich c o n t a i n e d f o r t h e m o st p a r t
"dry s c i e n t i f i c d i s q u i s i t i o n s and l i t e r a r y co m p o sitio n s of
an in f e r io r
o r d e r , ” a n d i n w h ic h " f a r m ore t h a n h a l f o f t h e
p o e t i c a l e x t r a c t s were t h e c o m p o s i t i o n e i t h e r o f t h e a n o n y ­
mous c o m p i l e r s t h e m s e l v e s ,
seco n d and t h i r d o r d e r . "
as,
"the c ro c o d ile is
zin c, e t c . ,
o r o f A m erican w r i t e r s o f t h e
He q u o t e s t y p i c a l s e n t e n c e s s u c h
v iv ip a ro u s,"
a re m etals,"
and so on.
" q u i c k s il v e r , antim ony,
And h e p l e a d s , i n t h e s e
O f f i c i a l R e p o rts to th e E d u catio n D e p a rtm e n t,fo r School
R eaders c a lc u la te d to
in sp ire
"quick s c h o la r s w ith a r e a l
lo v e f o r r e a d i n g and l i t e r a t u r e
i n t h e o n l y way i n w h i c h
s u c h a lo v e i s e v e r r e a l l y i n s p i r e d , by a n im a tin g and
moving t h e m . "
A g a i n i n 1 8 7 9 , he w r i t e s :
"The r e a d i n g l e s s o n s s h o u l d b e u s e d n o t o n l y t o
- s e c u r e t h e b a r e power of r e a d i n g
The p o w e r
o f r e a d i n g i s n o t i n i t s e l f f o r m a t i v e . . . But
good p o e t r y i s f o r m a tiv e ; i t h a s , t o o , th e
p r e c i o u s power o f a c t i n g by i t s e l f a n d i n a
way m a n a g e d b y n a t u r e , n o t t h r o u g h t h e i n s t r u ­
m e n t a l i t y o f t h a t som ewhat t e r r i b l e c h a r a c t e r ,
t h e s c i e n t i f i c e d u c a t o r . . . The r e a d i n g l e s s o n
s h o u ld be t r e a t e d a s i n c o n n e c tio n w i th th e
good a n d s t e r l i n g p o e t r y l e a r n e d f o r r e p e t i t i o n ,
a n d s h o u l d b e m ade t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e o p e n i n g
o f th e s o u l and im a g in a tio n , f o r w hich th e
c e n t r a l p u r c h a s e s h o u l d be fo u n d i n t h a t p o e t r y . "
(M atthew A rn o ld , " R e p o rts on E le m e n ta r y S c h o o l s " ,
M acm illan & C o . ,- 1 8 8 9 ) .
T he m u s i c t e a c h e r w o u l d d o w e l l t o s t u d y t h i s
q u o tatio n ,
and t o a p p ly i t
last
to t h e m usic r e a d i n g l e s s o n ,
w h i c h he may e a s i l y d o b y c h a n g i n g t h e u n d e r l i n e d w o r d s
above as i n
the fo llo w in g :
"The m u s i c - r e a d i n g l e s s o n s s h o u l d h e u s e d n o t o n l y
to s e c u re th e h a re power o f r e a d i n g
The p o w e r
o f r e a d i n g i s n o t i n i t s e l f f o r m a t i v e . . . But
goo d m u s i c i s f o r m a t i v e ; i t h a s , t o o , t h e p r e c i o u s
p o w e r o f a c t i n g h y i t s e l f a n d i n a w ay m a n a g e d b y
n a tu re , not th ro u g h th e in s tru m e n ta lity of th a t
somewhat t e r r i b l e c h a r a c t e r , t h e t e a c h e r o f
m u s i c a l a p p r e c i a t i o n . . . The m u s i c - r e a d i n g l e s s o n
s h o u l d b e t r e a t e d a s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e g o od
and s t e r l i n g m u sic l e a r n e d i n so n g s i n g i n g , and
s h o u l d b e made t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e o p e n i n g o f
th e s o u l a n d i m a g i n a t i o n , f o r w hich t h e c e n t r a l
p u rc h a se s h o u ld be found i n t h a t m u sic ."
As a n a p p e n d i x t o t h e a b o v e we may a d d t h e f o l l o w i n g
f r o m B is h o p Mandel C r e i g h t o n ' s
"T houghts on E d u c a tio n "
(Lon g m ans G r e e n & Co. 1 9 0 2 ) :
"The E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t h a s made a n i m p o r t a n t
- c h a n g e i n t h e c o d e , w h i c h i s t o come i n t o e f f e c t
n e x t y e a r ( i . e . 1881).
The c h i l d r e n a r e h e n c e ­
f o r t h to b e exam ined n o t o n l y i n t h e m e c h a n ic a l
e x e rc ise o f r e a d in g , b u t a ls o in th e co n ten ts~of
t h e i r R eading B o o k s."
The c o n t e n t o f t h e M usic R e a d e r s , t h e n ,
our f i r s t
s h o u l d be
c o n c e r n , f o r i f c h i l d r e n do n o t r e a d t o
th ey w ill re a d to v ery l i t t l e
purpose.
enjoy,
The e x e r c i s e s s h o u l d !
be w e l l g r a d e d , a n d s h o u l d be t a k e n f r o m s t a n d a r d m u s i c a l
lite ra tu re
- c l a s s i c a l them es and f o lk s o n g s ,
p re fe ra b ly the
latter.
Folksongs a r e v o cal in o r ig in ,
em inently s in g a b le ;
j
and a r e t h e r e f o r e
th e y a r e a l s o f o r t h e m ost p a r t sim p le
i n t im e a n d i n s t r u c t u r e , a n d dem and no g r e a t s p e e d of
execution?*
To t h o s e who o b j e c t t h a t i t w o u l d b e i m p o s s i b l e t o
g e t s i m p l e e n o u g h m a t e r i a l f o r v e r y y o u n g c h i l d r e n , we s a y
t h a t v e r y y o u n g c h i l d r e n s h o u l d n o t be a s k e d t o r e a d f r o m
s t a f f n o t a t i o n , because t h e y w i l l a s s u r e d ly n o t have m astered
th e to n ic s o l - f a s y lla b le s .
To a t t e m p t s t a f f when s o l - f a i s
weak i s t o w a s t e p r e c i o u s t i m e and t o p ro d u c e d i s g r u n t l e d
t e a c h e r s and l i s t l e s s
p u p ils.
to n ic s o l-fa n o ta tio n
(see
S eries,
Books X I a n d X I I )
stag es,
fo r in th is
sym bols i s
w ith i t s
are
can e a s i l y be found f o r th e e a r ly
(no c h i l d e v e r m i s t a k e s t h e s y l l a b l e
"r").
sp a tia l b asis
clo sely a llie d
"The P o l k Song S i g h t S i n g i n g
n o t a t i o n no e y e t r a i n i n g i n p i t c h
necessary
fo r th e sy lla b le
But s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l i n
W hile t h e t o n i c
s o l - f a tim e sy stem
f o r tim e e le m e n ts
p sy ch o lo g ically )
"d"
(and tim e and s p a c e
offers l i t t l e
d iffic u lty
even f o r v e ry young c h i l d r e n .
Id.
h alf-b eat
whole b e a t
J -
Id
l* + i
2 beat
J . J . Id
d = Id
3 beat
d- = Id
4 beat
0 = Id
:
:-.dl
I
1
I-
|
T h e f i r s t a n d s t i l l , i n s p i t e o f many i m i t a t i o n s , t h e b e s t
c o l l e c t io n of such s ig h t- r e a d in g m a te r ia l, i s undoubtedly
"T h e P o l k S o n g S i g h t S i n g i n g S e r i e s " Books I t o X I I ( O x f o r d
U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , E d i t e d b y E d g a r Crowe, A nnie L aw to n , a n d
W. G i l l i e s W h i t t a k e r .
T his f o lk s o n g m a t e r i a l i s
exem pt from a l l
the
c r i t i c i s m t h a t may h e l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t t h e s y n t h e t i c
read in g e x e rc ise s, and,
if
it
sig h t-
is w ell chosen, th e read in g
l e s s o n w i l l n o t he d iv o r c e d fro m a c t u a l m usic a s t h e c h i l d
u n d erstan d s i t .
1
S i g h t R ead in g and R eading P r a c t i c e
B ut,
in the e a r ly sta g e s
t h r o u g h o u t t h e whole c o u r s e ,
e s p e c i a l l y , and in d eed
c a r e s h o u ld be t a k e n t o d i s ­
t i n g u i s h c l e a r l y betw een r e a d i n g p r a c t i c e and r e a d in g
te s tin g or s ig h t-re a d in g .
The t e r m " S i g h t R e a d i n g " h a s
b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e more t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e
fo r le a d in g the
t e a c h e r o f m usic r e a d i n g a lo n g t h e f a l s e
p a t h s we h a v e
%
in d ic ate d .
T his i s
a t e r m t h a t i s s c a r c e l y known i n t h e
te a c h in g o f o r d in a ry language re a d in g .
T here th e c h i l d r e n
l e a r n to re a d by in te n s iv e p r a c t i c e over th e r e a d in g m a tte r ,
by r e a d i n g t h e same page i n d i v i d u a l l y , a n d b y l i s t e n i n g and
f o l l o w i n g t h e words w h ile
o th ers read i t .
Even th e
I n s p e c t o r on h i s a n n u a l v i s i t d o e s n o t a s k f o r
"sig h t-
reading!"
As we h a v e s e e n ,
i n modern m eth o d s o f r e a d i n g ,
lik e
t h e S e n t e n c e Method a n d t h e S t o r y M eth o d , t h e f i r s t s t a g e s
a re confined t o
i m i t a t i o n and t o th e a n a l y s i s by th e p u p ils
th em selv es o f th e se n te n c e s th u s
learn ed .
T h is, to o ,
should
be d o n e i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f s t a f f r e a d i n g .
Such le a rn in g
P r o b a b l y a d v o c a t e s o f t h e s e s y n t h e t i c F i r s t - S i g h t M ethods
h a v e b e e n l e d a s t r a y by a s s u m i n g t h a t s i g h t - s i n g i n g and
s i g h t - p l a y i n g i n v o l v e t h e sa m e m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s . The g r e a t
m ajo rity of s lg h t- p lav ers
are a stan d in g proof t h a t t h is
is n o t t h e c a s e .
U1
t o r e a d by p a t t e r n i s e v e n more e s s e n t i a l
th a n in language r e a d in g ,
i n m usic re a d in g
s i n c e a s t r i c t tempo and a
c e r t a i n min im um m e t r o n o m i c r a t e a r e e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r s
a l l m u sical in te r p r e ta tio n .
in
T h is l e a r n i n g by p a t t e r n
would t h u s overcom e t h e p ro b le m o f r e t a i n i n g t h e
in te rest
o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n th e r e a d i n g m a tte r and t h e sym bols a t
t h e s t a g e when r e a d i n g t e c h n i q u e i s
n e c e s s a r i l y weak.
T h u s , t h e M u s i c P r i m e r w o u l d b e c o n n e d i n t h e same
way a s t h e L a n g u a g e P r i m e r , a n d , p r o v i d e d t h e r e a d i n g
m a t t e r was s u c h a s w o u l d f u r n i s h m o t i v a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e
a esth e tic
c o n t e n t , r e a l l e a r n i n g w ould t a k e p l a c e .
we s h o u l d r e m e m b e r t h a t l e a r n i n g i s t h e c h i l d ' s
For
c o n tri­
b u t i o n t o t h e l e s s o n , and em anates from w i t h i n - th e
teach er c a n 't
" l e a r n " him.
"You w i l l e d u c a t e me, n o t a s y o u w i l l ,
-but as J _ w i l l . "
(Emerson)
The l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s ,
h o w e v e r , may b e s t i m u l a t e d f r o m
w ith o u t by th e ty p e of s u b j e c t - m a t t e r s e l e c t e d and by th e
m eth o d of p r e s e n t a t i o n .
to encourage t h is
E v e r y t h i n g s h o u l d be d o n e , t h e n ,
l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , f o r we l e a r n t o s u c c e e d
by s u c c e s s , a n d , a s a n E to n h e a d m a s te r h as p u t i t ,
learn to
l e a r n by l e a r n i n g . "
I t is
a common e x p e r i e n c e o f m u s i c t e a c h e r s i n
secondary schools t o fin d t h a t ,
read in g ,
"We
when i t
com es t o s t a f f
a l a r g e number o f t h e in co m in g p u p i l s n e v e r seem
S e e t h e c h a p t e r on "The F o r m a l L a y o u t o f M u s i c Type"f>53S.
t o h av e " g o t g o i n g " a t a l l , a l t h o u g h t h e y hav e had r e g u l a r
l e s s o n s i n s t a f f o v e r a number o f y e a r s .
T h i s i s no d o u b t
due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n s t a f f symbols has
been c o n f in e d w i t h i n t h e narrow l i m i t s of s i g h t - r e a d i n g ,
a n d t h e y hav e n e v e r l e a r n e d t o d w e l l on t h e n o t a t i o n , and
t o l o v e t h e sym bols f o r t h e s a k e o f t h e m e l o d i e s e n s h r i n e d
th erein .
(Compare Q u i l l e r - C o u c h : "Few of my c o n t e m p o r a r i e s
c a n e r a s e - o r would w i s h t o e r a s e - t h e dye
t h e i r m inds t o o k f r o m t h e l a t e Mr P a l g r a v e ' s
’Golden T r e a s u r y ' : and he who has r e t u r n e d t o
i t a g a i n and a g a i n w i t h a n a f f e c t i o n b o r n o f
c o m p a n io n s h i p on many j o u r n e y s m u st remember
n o t o n l y w h a t t h e 'G o l d e n T r e a s u r y ' i n c l u d e s ,
b u t t h e moment when t h i s o r t h a t poem a p p e a l e d
t o him, a n d e v e n how i t l i e s on t h e p a g e . "
"The O xford Book of E n g l i s h V erse 1 2 5 0 -1 9 0 0 '
-Oxford, C larendon P r e s s , 1912.)
I n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of m u s i c - r e a d i n g p r a c t i c e , e s p e c i a l l y ,
i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o g e n e r a t e a momentum o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e s e
s t a f f s y m b o l s , s o t h a t t h i s i n t e r e s t may l a t e r be c a r r i e d
o v e r i n t o t h e n a r r o w a n d somewhat a r i d s u b j e c t o f s i g h t reading.
And t h e o n l y way t o do t h i s
i s t o g i v e young
c h i l d r e n b o t h i n t e n s i v e and e x t e n s i v e p r a c t i c e i n t h e
r e a d i n g by i m i t a t i o n , f ro m s t a f f a n d t o t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s ,
o f m e l o d i e s a f t e r t h e i r own h e a r t .
For, as S tan le y H all,
t h e g r e a t American e d u c a t i o n i s t , s a y s i n h i s " L i f e and Con­
f e s s i o n s of a P s y c h o l o g i s t "
" I n t e r e s t , l i k e s t e a m i n a n e n g i n e m u st be
- d e v e l o p e d o v e r a l a r g e s u r f a c e , a l t h o u g h when
p u t t o work i t h a s t o be a p p l i e d t o a s m a l l o n e . "
T h is means, t h e n , t h a t t h e Music R e a d e r would no
l o n g e r he r e g a r d e d a s a S i g h t R e a d e r o r S i g h t T e s t e r , h u t
r a t h e r a s a C l a s s R e a d e r o r A n th o lo g y o f Melody, w here t h e
"p u r p l e p a t c h " would f i n d i t s p l a c e .
S i g h t R e a d i n g , or
S i g h t T e s t i n g a s i t s h o u l d be c a l l e d , would be r e s o r t e d t o
f r o m tim e t o t i m e , h u t i t would n o t he t h e o r d e r o f t h e
day.
The q u e s t i o n i n g on t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e r e a d i n g m a t t e r
would t a k e t h e f o rm o f c o m p a r in g a n d c o n t r a s t i n g p h r a s e s
(w hich w o u ld be i n d i c a t e d by p h r a s e marks on t h e p r i n t e d
c o p y ) , and o f s i n g i n g t h e s e a n t i p h o n a l l y , a n a l y s i n g th e m
f r o m t h e p o i n t of v ie w o f t h e e l e m e n t s of n o t a t i o n , d r a w in g
a t t e n t i o n t o s e q u e n c e s o r i m i t a t i o n s , t o r e p e t i t i o n s and
t o c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i n t e r v a l s o r m e lo d ic and r h y t h m i c
p r o g r e s s i o n s , s i n g i n g t o vow els a n d b e a t i n g t i m e , w i t h a
p i a n o f o r t e accom pan im ent o r a d e s c a n t where p o s s i b l e — i n a
word, o f l e a d i n g t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n of
t h e m u sic r e a d and s u n g .
Should any r e a d e r d o u b t t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r a l l t h i s
q u e s t i o n i n g , a n a ly s in g and r e - r e a d i n g of t h e m u s ic -re a d in g
e x e r c i s e s , l e t him p e r f o r m t h i s s i m p l e l i t t l e
experim ent,
w h ich t h e w r i t e r h a s t r i e d many t i m e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t g r a d e s
of c h i l d r e n , a n d a l w a y s w i t h t h e same r e s u l t .
Im m ediately
a f t e r t h e c l a s s h a s sung t h r o u g h a n e x e r c i s e , l e t t h e
t e a c h e r p l a y t h e same e x e r c i s e on t h e p i a n o i n s t r i c t t i m e ,
w i t h o r w i t h o u t a n a c c o m p a n im e n t, and t h e n a s k t h e c l a s s
6 50
how many have h e a r d t h a t t u n e b e f o r e .
I f , lik e the w r ite r ,
he r e c e i v e s a s h o c k on g e t t i n g a 10% c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e , l e t
him a s k h i m s e l f ,
"What a r e we m u s i c - r e a d i n g t e a c h e r s
te ach in g in t h i s m usic-reading le s s o n ? "
By s u c h m e th o d s ,
t h e n , i n t e r e s t would be a r o u s e d and
m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e whole r e a d i n g c o u r s e , a n d a
momentum g e n e r a t e d w hich would h e l p t o c a r r y t h e c h i l d r e n
o v e r t h e new d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t would a r i s e f r o m t i m e t o
tim e.
C l a s s t e a c h e r s , whose m u s i c a l a b i l i t y was n o t v e r y
m a rk e d , w o uld be a b l e t o g i v e o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g a b i l i t y t o
a s u b j e c t , w h ic h would n o t now be t e s t i n g t h e i r own r e a d i n g
powers a t e a c h s t a g e , and t h e y would b e n e f i t a s much a s t h e
c l a s s f r o m t h e new m ethods o f a t t a c k em ployed.
N e e d l e s s t o s a y , t o o , t h e r e would be c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n
b e tw e e n r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g , w hich would b e g i n w i t h s i m p l e
c o p y i n g of s e q u e n c e s o r t u n e s f r o m t h e R e a d e r , a n d would
l e a d up t o t h e w r i t i n g of f a v o u r i t e t u n e s f r o m memory.
P r o v i d e d t h a t good t u n e s ,
s u ita b le fo r the d if f e r e n t
s t a g e s , a r e c h o s e n f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f m usic to i l l u s ­
t r a t e t h e v a r i o u s new e l e m e n t s o f p i t c h , t i m e and rh y th m
a s t h e y a r i s e , t h e r e w i l l b e no s a c r i f i c e of melody t o
p e d a g o g i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s a s we f i n d t o be t h e c a s e i n th e
a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d R e a d e r , a n d t h u s t h e r e w i l l be no
is n
s a c r i f i c e of i n t e r e s t f o r t h e sake of i n s t r u c t i o n .
"Omne t u l i t punctum , q u i m i s c u i t u t i l e d u l c i . "
The t e a c h i n g o f m usic r e s d i n g would t h u s b e b r o u g h t i n t o
l i n e w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g o f l a n g u a g e r e a d i n g , a n d would
b e n e f i t f r o m t h e v a s t amount o f r e s e a r c h and e x p e r i m e n t
t h a t h a s b e e n c a r r i e d on i n t h i s s u b j e c t .
Many d a r k c o r n e r s
i n t h e p e d a g o g y o f m u s i c - r e a d i n g would b e l i t u p ,
"sw eetness
and l i g h t " would be b r o u g h t i n t o t h e m u s i c - r e a d i n g l e s s o n ,
and r e a d i n g p r a c t i c e i n s t a f f would i n t i m e d e v e l o p t h e
power o f s i g h t - r e a d i n g i n s t a f f - a power w h ich e v e r y
m u s i c i a n i n t h e l a n d w ould l i k e t o s e e t h e c h i l d r e n c u l t i ­
v a t e , i f o n l y t h a t t h e y m i g h t be s a v e d f r o m t h a t p u r g a t o r y
of e t e r n a l l i s t e n i n g and p a r r o t i n g , t o w h i c h t h e i l l i t e r a t e
a r e doomed.
We w o u ld t h e n have a r e a l m u s i c a l d e m o cracy i n s t e a d
of a m u s i c a l l y i l l i t e r a t e community, w h ic h c a n n o t r e a d ,
w r i t e o r make i t s own m u s i c , a n d s o i s d e p e n d e n t l a r g e l y
on c o m m e r c i a l i s e d a n d , t h e r e f o r e , d e m o r a l i s e d and d e m o r a l ­
i s i n g music makers.
6SZ
CHAPTER XII
CONCLUSION.
I n t h i s c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r we s h a l l e n d e a v o u r t o
show t h e p h i l o s o p h i c b a s i s o r t h e u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e
b e h i n d a l l t h e v a r i o u s c r i t i c i s m s and s u g g e s t i o n s made
i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n t b r a n c h e s o f t h e Music
Lesson.
We hav e had o c c a s i o n t o c r i t i c i s e t h e method o f
t h e d o c t r i n a i r e , who, v i e w i n g h i s s u b j e c t ‘ s u b s p e c i e
a e t e r n i t a t i s ’ a n a l y s e s t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r i n t o w hat he
c o n c e i v e s t o b e t h e s i m p l e s t e l e m e n t s , and a r r a n g e s
these
' p r o d u c t s o f a n a l y s i s ' i n a l o g i c a l o r d e r w hich
m u st n o t be d e p a r t e d f ro m .
an aly sis:
He h i m s e l f h a s done t h e
i t r e m a i n s f o r t h e p u p i l s t o do t h e s y n t h e s i s —
t o add p a r t t o p a r t , u n t i l t h e g o a l f ro m w h ich t h e
d o c trin a ire s ta rte d is reached.
T h is method i s b a s e d
on t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e p a r t s a r e e a s i e r t h a n t h e
w h o le , t h a t e v e r y t h i n g m ust be t a u g h t i n t h e e x a c t o r d e r
i n w h ich i t i s l a i d down i n t h e scheme, and t h a t t h e
s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o f a n y s t a g e m u st by no means be
a n t i c i p a t e d i n an e a r l i e r s t a g e .
L i k e w i s e , t h i s method
assum es t h a t a l l p u p i l s w i l l p r o g r e s s a t a s t e a d y
u n i f o r m r a t e , and t h a t e x a c t l i m i t s o f t h r e e m i n u t e s ,
f o u r m i n u t e s o r f i v e m i n u t e s c a n be drawn up f o r t h e
various a s p e c ts of th e s u b je c t-m a tte r in the le sso n .
The whole method r e m i n d s one f o r c i b l y o f b r i c k ­
lay in g.
One m u st n o t s t a r t f ro m t h e i d e a o f " h o u s e " ,
b u t f r o m s o l i d b r i c k s o f u n i f o r m s i z e ; an d one n e e d n o t
w o r r y a b o u t t h e h o u se i t s e l f u n t i l t h e l a s t b r i c k i s
placed i n p o s it io n .
N a t u r a l l y , one c a n n o t p u t on
b r i c k s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e f i f t h o r s i x t h row i f one i s
s t i l l w o rk in g a t t h e f i r s t o r s e c o n d row, a l t h o u g h ,
when one h a s r e a c h e d t h e f i f t h o r s i x t h r o w , one c a n go
b a c k t o t h e e a r l i e r row s t o s e e t h a t e a c h b r i c k i s w e l l
and t r u l y l a i d .
A g a in , s i n c e t h e b r i c k s a r e o f u n i f o r m s i z e one m ust
e x p e c t a u n i f o r m r a t e o f p r o g r e s s , w hich may, i n f a c t ,
be t im e d t o w i t h i n a few m i n u t e s .
The b r i c k l a y e r ,
f i n a l l y , m u st n o t c o n c e r n h i m s e l f a b o u t t h e h o u se - t h e
a r c h i t e c t h a s done t h a t f o r him.
H is s o l e d u t y i s t o
a t t e n d t o e a c h b r i c k a s he comes t o i t .
Of c o u r s e , i t
i s n e c e s s a r y t o hav e a n o v e r s e e r w i t h p l e n a r y powers t o
s e e t h a t e a c h b r i c k l a y e r i n t h e sq u a d i s a t t e n d i n g t o
h is b rick .
T h i s p i c t u r e d o e s n o t much e x a g g e r a t e t h e
S y n t h e t i c Method w i t h i t s m e c h a n i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f th e
learning process.
I n "The R h y th m of E d u c a t i o n " , a L e c t u r e i n c l u d e d i n
t h e volume, "The Aims o f E d u c a t i o n "
(New York.
The
M a c m illa n Company.1 9 2 9 ) , P r o f e s s o r A.N. W h ite h e a d h a s
many w ise t h i n g s t o s a y a b o u t t h i s l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s .
He " c h a l l e n g e s t h e a d e q u a c y o f some p r i n c i p l e s by w hich
th e su b je c ts f o r study a re o fte n c l a s s i f i e d in o rd e r."
F o r ex a m p le , t h e " c r i t e r i o n o f d i f f i c u l t y "
(the e a s ie r
before the h a rd e r), th e " c r i t e r i o n of necessary
antecedence"
(on no a c c o u n t a n t i c i p a t e w hat i s s e t down
f o r a l a t e r s t a g e ) , and t h e c o n c e p t i o n t h a t t h e p u p i l ' s
p r o g r e s s i s "a u n ifo rm s t e a d y advance u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d
by change o f t y p e o r a l t e r a t i o n o f p a c e . "
P r o f e s s o r W h ite h e a d a n a l y s e s t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s
and d e s c r i b e s i t s t h r e e m ain s t a g e s .
(1 )
The S t a g e of Romance.
" I n t h i s s t a g e knowledge i s n o t d o m in a te d
by s y s t e m a t i c p r o c e d u r e . Such s y s t e m a s
t h e r e must be i s c r e a t e d p i e c e m e a l ad h o c .
We a r e i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f i m n e d i a t e
cognisance of f a c t,'.o n ly i n t e r m i t t e n t l y
s u b j e c t i n g f a c t t o s y s t e m a t i c d i s s e c t i o n ..........
E d u c a t i o n must e s s e n t i a l l y be a s e t t i n g
in order of a ferm ent alre ad y s t i r r i n g in
t h e m ind: you c a n n o t e d u c a t e mind i n v a c u o . "
T h is i s the o r a l s ta g e , th e s ta g e of sense
i m p r e s s i o n s , when t h e c h i l d i s i n d i r e c t t o u c h w i t h
th in g s.
I t i s t h e s t a g e o f c h i l d i s h w onder.
Teachers
a s a r u l e would h a t e t o l e a v e t h e c h i l d ' s mind i n a
s t a t e o f f e r m e n t a s a r e s u l t of t h e i r t e a c h i n g .
They
p r e f e r t o t i d y i t u p , t o l a b e l and c l a s s i f y e v e r y t h i n g
a s t h e y go a l o n g .
i n a Record o f V o r k :
the c l a s s ."
How would i t lo b k t o have t o w r i t e
" C r e a t e d a f e r m e n t i n t h e minds o f
Y e t , a s P r o f e s s o r W hitehead s a y s , t h i s i s
(>55
th e f i r s t and n e c e s s a r y c o n d i ti o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l
progress'.
(2)
The s t a g e o f P r e c i s i o n .
"In t h i s s t a g e , w idth of r e l a t i o n s h i p i s
subordinated to ex actn ess of fo rm u latio n .
I t i s t h e s t a g e o f grammar."
Here t h e " b u z z i n g booming c o n f u s i o n " l e f t o v e r from
th e previous s ta g e is s e t in o rd e r.
I t is th e stag e
o f a n a l y s i s on t h e p a r t o f t h e p u p i l s , o f d i f f e r e n t i a ­
t i o n , o f . " t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f o b s c u r e and com plex o b j e c t s
i n t o t h e i r component a s p e c t s . "
(P ater).
T h i s a n a l y s i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g p r e p a r e s t h e way f o r
th e n ex t s ta g e .
(3)
The s t a g e of G e n e r a l i s a t i o n .
" T h i s s t a g e i s a r e t u r n t o R o m a n ti c is m w i t h
ad d e d a d v a n t a g e o f c l a s s i f i e d i d e a s and
re le v a n t tech n iq u e.
I t i s the f r u i t i o n
w hich h a s b e e n t h e g o a l o f t h e p r e c i s e
tra in in g ."
T hus, we have t h e f e r m e n t , t h e a c q u i r e m e n t o f
p r e c i s i o n and t h e s u b s e q u e n t f r u i t i o n .
Of c o u r s e , t h e s e t h r e e s t a g e s m ust n o t be r e g a r d e d
a s t h r e e s t a g e s i n t h e l i f e o f a p u p i l o r o f an
in d iv id u al.
As- P r o f e s s o r W hitehead s a y s :
"E ducation sh ould c o n s i s t i n a c o n tin u a l
r e p e t i t i o n of s u c h c y c l e s .
Each l e s s o n
i n i t s m in o r way s h o u l d f o r m a n eddy c y c l e
i s s u i n g i n i t s own s u b o r d i n a t e p r o c e s s .
Longer p e r i o d s s h o u l d i s s u e i n d e f i n i t e
a t t a i n m e n t s , w hich t h e n f o rm t h e s t a r t i n g ould b a n ish
?rheo u ni dd es a f oo rf far ems yh t hciyc ca ll e, s .f a r - oWfe f s hend
of
education.
The p u p i l s must he c o n t i n u a l l y e n j o y i n g some f r u i t i o n a n d s t a r t i n g a f r e s h i f th e teach er i s stim u la tin g in exact
p ro p o rtio n to h is success in s a t i s f y i n g the
rhythm ic c ra v in g s of h is p u p i l s ."
The abo ve sums up t h e p h i l o s o p h i c h a s i s on w hich
th e p r e s e n t system of m usical t r a i n i n g i s founded.
W h iteh ead 's t h r e e s t a g e s i n th e l e a r n i n g p ro c e s s (1) romance ( 2 ) p r e c i s i o n (3) g e n e r a l i s a t i o n corresponding to H e g e l's th r e e sta g e s of p ro g re ss (1 ) t h e s i s
(2) a n t i t h e s i s
(3) s y n t h e s i s - w i l l he fo u n d
re p re se n te d in t h a t order in p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the v ario u s
b r a n c h e s o f t h e m u sic l e s s o n w i t h w hich we have d e a l t .
Of t h e t h r e e s t a g e s , t h e m ost n e g l e c t e d by t e a c h e r s
a s a r u l e i s t h e f i r s t - ro m an c e.
The o t h e r two -
p r e c i s i o n and g e n e r a l i s a t i o n - a r e more am enab le t o
f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e on t h e p a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r .
The v e r y
names " p r e c i s i o n " and " g e n e r a l i s a t i o n " smack o f t h e
o l d - f a s h i o n e d d o m in ie and t h e o l d - f a s h i o n e d t e x t b o o k s
and grammars.
But t h e f i r s t s t a g e - "romance" - would s t i l l be
r e g a r d e d by m ost t e a c h e r s a s s t r a n g e l y o u t o f p l a c e i n
t h e c l a s s r o o m , where one m u st g e t t h i n g s d o n e ”
seems t o o f f e r so l i t t l e
It
i n r e t u r n i n t h e way o f p o s i t i v e
p r o g r e s s o r r e s u l t s w h ich c o u l d be e n t e r e d i n t h e R e c o r d
of Work.
A c t u a l l y , th e d i f f e r e n c e between th e o ld s y n t h e t i c
method a n d t h e modern a n a l y t i c method i s j u s t a
d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e method o f a p p r o a c h t o t h e s u b j e c t .
I n t h e S y n t h e t i c Method we b e g i n w i t h t h e a c q u i r e m e n t
o f p r e c i s i o n a n d o f t e c h n i q u e i n t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n of
e l e m e n t s o r p a r t s - i . e . s t a g e two above - and we use
t h i s a c q u ir e d te c h n iq u e t o re a c h th e t h i r d s ta g e of
s y n t h e s i s or g e n e r a l i s a t i o n - t h e f o r m u l a ti o n of
g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s and t h e b u i l d i n g o f new w h o l e s .
It
w i l l be n o t e d t h a t t h e f i r s t s t a g e i s n o t r e p r e s e n t e d
i n t h i s Method a t a l l .
o ff ends.
The e m p h a s is h e r e i s on f a r -
" L e a rn a l l t h e s e r u l e s , a c q u i r e t e c h n i q u e
i n t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e e l e m e n t s o r p a r t s , a n d some
d a y you w i l l be a b i e t o e n j o y t h e f r u i t s o f y o u r l a b o u r . "
U n fo rtu n a tely , i t i s j u s t in t h i s a c q u i s i t i o n of technique
and p r e c i s i o n t h a t t h i s
S y n t h e t i c Method f a i l s .
It
l a c k s m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h e p u p i l s b e c a u s e i t does n o t
b u i l d on r e a l e x p e r i e n c e s , on t h e f e r m e n t of ro m an c e, b u t
b e g i n s f ro m t h e p r o d u c t s o f a n a l y s i s o f t h e d o c t r i n a i r e ,
t h e a n a t o m i c a l f r a g m e n t s and e x h i b i t s o f t h e t h e o r i s t .
On t h e o t h e r h an d , t h e A n a l y t i c Method b e g i n s w i t h
w h o l e s , w i t h r e a l e x p e r i e n c e s ( i . e . Rom ance).
These
w h o le s o r e x p e r i e n c e s i t s u b j e c t s t o a n a l y s i s on t h e
p a r t o f th e p u p ils them selves ( i . e . P r e c i s i o n ) .
But
t h e p r o d u c t s o f a n a l y s i s a r r i v e d a t by t h e p u p i l s
t h e m s e l v e s a r e no l o n g e r t h e l i f e l e s s p r o d u c t s o f t h e
t e x t b o o k , b e c a u s e t h e y h av e b e e n a n a l y s e d i n t h e l i v i n g
s t a t e i n t h e c h i l d ' s own min d.
And i t
is th ese liv in g
products of a n a ly s is , th e a c q u is it io n of the c h i l d 's
i n t e l l e c t , n o t t h e m e n t a l lu m ber o f t h e c h i l d ' s memory,
t h a t w i l l be p u t t o u s e t o c r e a t e new e x p e r i e n c e s , t o
b u i l d up new w h o le s ( i . e . G e n e r a l i s a t i o n ) .
L e t u s s e e t h i s An a l y t i c Method a t work on p r a c t i c a l
Issues.
The m u s i c a l t r a i n i n g o f t h e c h i l d w i l l b e g i n ,
n o t w i t h l i n e s and s p a c e s , minims and c r o t c h e t s , dohs
and s o h s , b u t w i t h m u sic i t s e l f , w i t h r h y t h m i c r e s p o n s e
t o m u s i c , w i t h t h e s i n g i n g o f n u r s e r y rhymes a n d s o n g s .
T h i s i s t h e r e a l s t a g e o f r o m a n c e , and i t s h o u l d be an
e x t e n s i v e one.
The c h i l d r e n m ust, o f c o u r s e ,
l e a r n t o d e a l l a t e r on
w i t h t h e e l e m e n t s o r p a r t s - d o h s and s o h s , minims and
c r o t c h e t s , l i n e s and s p a c e s - b u t t h i s l e a r n i n g m ust come
a s t h e r e s u l t o f a n a l y s i s by t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s o f
th e m usical e x p e rien ce s g ain ed i n t h i s o r a l s ta g e of
r o m an c e.
Dohs and s o h s , minims and c r o t c h e t s , must come
t o be l a b e l l e d and named by t h e c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h t h e
a n a l y s i s of l i v i n g o rg a n ic w holes.
s p e l l i n g w i l l come i n .
T h is i s where t u n e
N u r s e r y rhymes a n d s o n g s w i l l
be sung t o t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s .
These may be t a u g h t
by p a t t e r n f i r s t o r , a s s o o n a s t h e c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e t o
reco g n ise the s o l- f e l e t t e r s ,
d r m, t h e y may be s o l - f a e d
from th e b la ck b o ard or from c y c lo s ty l e d s h e e t s .
In
t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i t may be s t a t e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c a t i o n
o f a Book o f S p e l l i n g T u n e s , made up o f f a m i l i a r
n u r s e r y r h y m e s , s o n g s , hymns a n d c l a s s i c a l m e l o d i e s ,
f o r m a l l y s e t o u t i n s o l - f a , i s one o f t h e c h i e f
d e s i d e r a t a o f t h e Singing C lass to - d a y .
T h i s t u n e s p e l l i n g may s t i l l be r e g a r d e d a s coming
u n d e r t h e f i r s t s t a g e - Romance - f o r c h i l d r e n f i n d
a l m o s t a s much p l e a s u r e i n s i n g i n g t u n e s t o t h e s o l - f a
s y l l a b l e s a s t o t h e w o rd s .
But a f u r t h e r s t a g e i s
marked by t h e m em orisin g o f t h e s e t u n e s t o t h e s y l l a b l e s .
T h i s m e m o ris in g p r o c e s s i s s l o w a t f i r s t b u t i t s
i s c u m u l a t i v e and i t soon g a t h e r s momentum.
effect
With t h e
s p e l l i n g f r o m memory o f f a m i l i a r t u n e s we r e a c h t h e
second s t a g e - P r e c i s i o n .
Such memory t u n e s may be
a n a l y s e d by t h e c l a s s i n t o p h r a s e s , id io m s a n d i n t e r v a l s .
The m a jo r s c a l e and t h e s t a i r - m o d u l a t o r and v e r t i c a l
m o d u l a t o r may be a r r i v e d a t by way o f s u c h a n a l y s i s .
Tunes may be s o l - f a e d and p o i n t e d on t h e m o d u l a t o r , and
used a s a b a s is fo r e a r - t e s t s .
The t h i r d s t a g e -
G e n e r a l i s a t i o n - would come w i t h t h e b u i l d i n g up o f new
t u n e s o r t h e r e a d i n g of new t u n e s f ro m t h e m o d u l a t o r o r
f ro m S o l - f a n o t a t i o n by means of t h e s p e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e
acqu ired i n the previous s ta g e s .
6 (,o
Even i n t h i s one a s p e c t o f t h e m u sic l e s s o n , o f
c o u r s e , t h e r e w i l l he c y c l e s w i t h i n c y c l e s .
At a l l
tim es th e t h r e e s ta g e s w i l l c o - e x i s t , a l h e i t a t
d iffe re n t lev els.
Some s i m p l e t u n e s w i l l have bee n
memorized a s w h o le s and t h e n a p p r o a c h e d a n a l y t i c a l l y ,
o t h e r s w i l l he t o o i n t r i c a t e f o r t h i s p u r p o s e a t t h i s
s t a g e h u t w i l l be u s e d f o r s o l - f a i n g p r a c t i c e o r r o t e s p e l l i n g , w h i l e o t h e r s w i l l be i n v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f
a c q u i s i t i o n as t h e y a r e s o l - f a e d f r o m t h e S p e l l i n g Book.
We a r e w e l l aware t h a t t h i s means t h e abandonm ent o f
t h e Curwen " s t e p s " .
But we b e l i e v e t h a t J o h n Curwen
would hav e b e e n t h e l a s t t o p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h i s , i f t h e
new p r o c e d u r e were j u s t i f i e d i n p r a c t i c e .
In a "Lecture
d e l i v e r e d i n v a r i o u s towns i n E ngland and S c o t l a n d , i n
t h e Autumn of 1 8 7 5 ," Curwen s a i d :
"T here a r e two t h i n g s w hich we s e e k t o promote
i n our T onic S o l - f a movement; t h e r e i s our
method - t h a t i s , o u r p l a n and o r d e r o f t e a c h i n g and t h e r e i s o u r n o t a t i o n .
The n o t a t i o n i s
c h i e f l y Miss G l o v e r ' s ; t h e method i s c h i e f l y
m in e . Now w h ich o f t h e s e two c a n b e s t be
d ispensed w ith?
I am g l a d t o a c k n o w le d g e , i t
i s t h e m ethod, and n o t Miss G l o v e r ' s n o t a t i o n . . .
T h i s i s my t e s t i m o n y , t h a t o f t h e s e two t h i n g s
w hich h e l p t o make m u sic e a s y , t h e method and
t h e n o t a t i o n - Miss G l o v e r ' s n o t a t i o n i s t h e
more e s s e n t i a l . "
("M usic f o r t h e P e o p le and t h e T o n ic
-S o l-fa C ollege". A L ecture P ub lish ed a t
the O ffices o f-th e C ollege, P la is to w ,
London, E . )
U l
The f i r s t e d i t i o n o f "The S t a n d a r d C ourse o f
L e s s o n s and E x e r c i s e s on t h e T o n ic S o l - f a Method" was
p u b l i s h e d i n 1361.
T h i s was t h e a g e of H e r b e r t S p e n c e r ,
whose w r i t i n g s Curwen q u o t e s c o p i o u s l y i n a l l h i s
e d u c a t i o n a l works.
B ut owing t o r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s
i n t h e b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e s a n d t h e new c o n c e p t i o n o f
th e e v o l u tio n a r y p ro cess t h a t has r e s u l t e d from t h e s e ,
S p e n c e r ' s p s y c h o l o g y i s now c o n s i d e r e d t o be q u i t e o u t
of date.
The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n f r o m M i l l e r ’ s
" P s y c h o l o g y o f T h in k i n g " e x p l a i n s t h e p s y c h o l o g y on
w h ich Curwen b a s e d h i s m e th o d , an d c o n t r a s t s t h i s w i t h
t h e modern p o i n t o f v ie w .
" A s s o c i a t i o n i s m and t h e b i o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f v ie w
i n p s y c h o l o g y c a n n o t kee p h o u se t o g e t h e r .
S p e n c e r ’ s p s y c h o l o g y , v i t i a t e d by t h e d o c t r i n e o f
a s s o c i a t i o n i s m , c o u l d n o t be t r u l y b i o l o g i c a l .
A s s o c i a t i o n i s m r e p r e s e n t s a n a t o m i c view o f mlncL
E le m e n ts i n t h e f o rm o f s e p a r a t e u n i t s o f
s e n s a t i o n a r e t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t , and a l l h i g h e r
fo rm s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s a r e b u t d i f f e r i n g com bina­
t i o n s , a g g r e g a t i o n s , o r com plexes o f t h e s e
elem ents.
The b i o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t i o n i s one o f
g r o w t h and o f d e v e lo p m e n t marked by_.gradual
d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s of s t r u c t u r e
When t h e s t r u c t u r e
h a s become complex, a l l p a r t s a r e s t i l l f u n c t i o n ­
a l l y and o r g a n i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o one a n o t h e r a n d t o
t h e w h o le .
T h ere n e v e r were s i m p l e u n i t s w i t h
w h ich t o b e g i n .
The s i m p l e s e n s a t i o n s o f t h e
a s s o c i a t i o n i s t s a r e n o t p r i m a r y e l e m e n t s o f mind
at all.
They a r e r a t h e r , t h e m s e l v e s d i f f e r e n t i a ­
t i o n s o f s t r u c t u r e w h ic h have come a b o u t i n t h e
g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e mind, a n d t h e y have
s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s t o p e r f o r m i n t h i s more complex
and more f u l l y d e v e l o p e d m in d ."
(New York, The MacM illan Company, 1 9 0 9 . )
<
'obZ
We m u s t remember, t o o , t h a t
C u r w e n ' s Method was
i n t e n d e d f o r p u p i l s , who f r o m t h e m u s i c a l p o i n t of view
d i f f e r e d a lm o s t i n kin d from th e p u p i l s of t o - d a y .
In
t h e " I n t r o d u c t i o n s to Music" o f t h e 1 7 t h and 1 8 t h C e n t u r y
b e g i n n e r s w e re a d v i s e d t o " l i s t e n t o t h e b e l l s " - t h e p o o r
m a n 's o n l y m usic
a s C o l e r i d g e c a l l s them - i f t h e y
w i s h e d t o l e a r n how t o s i n g t h e s c a l e !
This a d v ic e to
" L i s t e n t o t h e b e l l s " was s t i l l b e i n g g i v e n i n t e x t b o o k s
i n C u r w e n 's d a y - f o r e x a m p le , by Thomas Helmore
(1811-1890).
B e s i d e s , C u r w e n 's Method was i n t e n d e d f o r
a d u l t s a s much a s f o r c h i l d r e n , a n d a s a p p l i e d t o a d u l t s
i t h a s more j u s t i f i c a t i o n , s i n c e t h e a d u l t c a n s u b m i t t o
t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f t h e " s t e p s * and f o r e g o p r e s e n t p l e a s u r e
f o r t h e sake of f a r - o f f ends.
Even w i t h c h i l d r e n who had n o t a n o t e o f m u sic i n
t h e i r h e a d s t h e r e m ig h t be some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r C u r w e n 's
"steps".
B ut t h e s c h o o l c h i l d o f t h e p r e s e n t age - t h e
age o f t h e d o m e s t i c p i a n o , t h e g ram ophone , t h e " t a l k i e s "
and t h e r a d i o - i s a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t c h i l d f r o m t h e
mute c h i l d o f t h e d r a b d a y s b e f o r e t h e E d u c a t i o n Act
o f 1870.
The modern c h i l d comes t o s c h o o l w i t h s c o r e s ,
p e r h a p s h u n d r e d s , o f t u n e s i n h i s h e a d , and i f we would
s e e k h i s c o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , i t i s f ro m
s u c h t u n e s t h a t we m ust s t a r t .
With r e g a r d t o s e q u e n c e s i n g i n g t h e same t h r e e s t a g e s
*
Q u o ted
b tj HazliVb ir u
* S k e tc h e s
and
fcs-scxijs.*
M3
can be o b se rv e d .
I t w i l l be fo u n d t h a t t h e s i n g i n g o f
s e q u e n c e s evokes a r e a l team s p i r i t i n t h e c l a s s , and
t h e c h i l d r e n r e a l l y e n j o y t h e d r i l l e l e m e n t w h ic h i t
in v o lv es.
The m e m o r i s in g o f t h e s e q u e n c e , t h e
a c q u i s i t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e w i t h r e g a r d t o s p e e d and
f l u e n c y , th e c o n d u c t i n g and t h e o b s e r v i n g o f e x p r e s s i o n ,
t h e u s e o f r h y t h m i c v a r i e t y and o f a n a c r u s i s i n t h e
s e q u e n c e s i n g i n g , t h e i n v e r s i o n a n d t h e modal t r e a t m e n t
of th e sequence, the in tr o d u c tio n of r e s t s and of
a n tip h o n a l sequence s in g in g w ith or w ith o u t c o n t r a r y
m o t i o n , t h e m e n t a l s i n g i n g o f t h e s e q u e n c e , t h e nonscalic,
t e t r a c h o r d a l , chrom atic or m odulatory tr e a tm e n t
of t h e sequence - a l l a i d th e c h i l d i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of
s p e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e , a n d p r e p a r e him f o r e a r - t e s t s on t h e
s e q u e n c e , f o r s t a f f r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g , and f i n a l l y f o r
p a r t - s i n g i n g th ro u g h canonic sequence s i n g i n g .
With r e g a r d t o P a r t - S i n g i n g , t h e p l a i n s e q u e n c e ( e . g .
jlol'it I I : - m a y one f i n e day be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a t w o - p a r t ,
t h r e e - p a r t o r f o u r - p a r t canon w i t h o u t much e f f o r t on t h e
p a rt o f the c la s s .
T h i s , f o r c h i l d r e n who have n e y e r
b e f o r e sung i n p a r t s , i s Romance i n d e e d .
New t e c h n i q u e
i n p a r t - s i n g i n g may t h e n be a c q u i r e d g r a d u a l l y by t h e
p r o g r e s s i v e o r n a m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p l a i n s e q u e n c e and t h e
r e s u l t a n t p r o g r e s s i v e h a r m o n ic c o m p l e x i t y w h ic h comes
from i t s canonic t r e a t m e n t .
This a c q u ir e d te c h n iq u e
may t h e n he a p p l i e d t o new c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e s o r t o
rounds, descants or p a rt-so n g s.
When we come t o t h e T e a c h i n g o f C o u n t e r p o i n t an d
Harmony we f i n d t h e Romance s t a g e i n t h e c o n t r a p u n t a l
s in g in g o b ta in ed th rough canonic sequences.
C o n c o rd s ,
d i s c o r d s , c o n s e c u t i v e t h i r d s a n d s i x t h s and " s i x - t h r e e s " ,
s i m i l a r , o b l i q u e and c o n t r a r y m o t i o n , u n e s s e n t i a l
d is c o rd s , a u x i lia r y n o te s, passing n o te s, a n t i c i p a t i o n s
and s u s p e n s i o n s , have a l l b e e n r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e mind
through the singing voice.
They may now be a r r i v e d a t
by s e l f - a n a l y s i s on t h e p a r t of t h e p u p i l s , l a b e l l e d and
c l a s s i f i e d according to th e textbook procedure.
The
te x tb o o k in d eed w i l l m erely endorse som ething w hich t h e
p u p i l h a s a l r e a d y p r o v e d on h i s v o i c e .
T h rough tim e t h e c o n t r a p u n t a l a n d harm o n ic i d i o m s o f
t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s of c a n o n i c s e q u e n c e s - d e s c e n d i n g by
s t e p , by t h i r d ,
by f o u r t h o r by f i f t h - w i l l become p a r t
o f t h e c o n t r a p u n t a l a n d harm o n ic v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e p u p i l ,
who c a n t h e n u s e t h e s e , o u t o f t h e i r c o n t e x t i n t h e c a n o n i c
s e q u e n c e . , i n h i s c o u n t e r p o i n t and harmony e x e r c i s e s .
The
r u l e s f o r harm onic p r o g r e s s i o n o r p a r t - w r i t i n g w i l l no
l o n g e r be t h e p r o d u c t s o f a n a l y s i s o f t h e w r i t e r o f t h e
te x tb o o k , b u t th e p ro d u c ts of a n a l y s i s of t h e p u p il
&>(,$
h i m s e l f , s u b s c r i b e d t o by h i s I n t e l l e c t t h r o u g h h i s
v oice.
The same a p p l i e s t o Harmonic S e q u e n c e s .
With r e g a r d t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f Time o r Rhythm we
f i n d t h e same o r d e r - Romance, P r e c i s i o n , G e n e r a l i s a t i o n .
We b e g i n f i r s t w i t h t h e o r a l s t a g e - t h e s i n g i n g o f
f a m i l i a r sequences to v a rio u s rhythm ic p a t t e r n s .
Then,
on t h i s r e s e r v e d f u n d o f r h y th m e x p e r i e n c e we may draw
i n o r d e r t o i n t r o d u c e rh y th m s p e l l i n g o r t a a t a i - i n g .
R hythm ic p a t t e r n s may be compared and c o n t r a s t e d w i t h
e a c h o t h e r i n t h e s i n g i n g o f t h e same s e q u e n c e , e . g .
SJl
and m
, r a
and m
etc.
Rhythm s p e l l i n g
o r t a a t a i - i n g may a l s o be a p p l i e d t o f a m i l i a r s o n g s ,
and t h e r h y t h m s p e l l i n g o r t a a t a i - i n g t e c h n i q u e t h u s
a c q u i r e d may be u s e d i n a t t a c k i n g new m a t e r i a l i n
se q u e n c e s, s i g h t - r e a d i n g and d i c t a t i o n .
S i m i l a r l y t h e r a i s e d c h r o m a t i c e l e m e n t may be
in tro du ced in to a f a m il ia r sequence, e .g .
fl d ' s t : d ' l * ■ ■ l - . t ]
by means o f t h e s e r a i t o n a l m o r d e n t p r i n c i p l e .
No
e x p l a n a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d and a l l t h e r a i s e d c h r o m a t i c
n o t e s may be i n t r o d u c e d a t once i n t h e one s e q u e n c e .
The c h r o m a t i c s y l l a b l e s t h e m s e l v e s a r e s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y
and s e l f - j u s t i f i c a t o r y .
A n a l y s i s w i l l r e v e a l where a
r a i s e d c h r o m a t i c n o t e may be sung and why.
The
te c h n iq u e a c q u ir e d i n th e s e s e m ito n a l mordent sequences
may t h e n be a p p l i e d t o s e q u e n c e s i n v o l v i n g a l e a p t o t h e
c h r o m a t i c n o t e , a n d , a s we have shown, t o t h e
ornam enting o f m odulator o r s i g h t - r e a d i n g « x s r c i s e s .
I h i l e c h r o m a t i c h a r m o n ie s a n d m o d u l a t i o n s may be
i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e p a r t - s i n g i n g by t h e s e now f a m i l i a r
chrom atic sequences t r e a t e d c a n o n ic a lly .
I n t h e c h a p t e r on "Method i n r e l a t i o n t o c o n t e n t i n
t h e S c h o o l Music R e a d e r '1, we have d e a l t a t l e n g t h w i t h
th e s y n t h e t i c and th e a n a l y t i c approach to t h e te a c h in g
o f m usic r e a d i n g , and nave shown how t h e S y n t h e t i c
Method o f a p p r o a c h t o t h e s u b j e c t h a s d e t e r m i n e d t h e
v e r y c o n t e n t o f t h e S c h o o l S i g h t R e a d e r s b a s e d on t h i s
m e th o d .
I n condemning t h i s s y n t h e t i c method o f
t e a c h i n g .music r e a d i n g we have had t o condemn l i k e w i s e
th e s y n t h e t i c , a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n s tr u c te d type of s i g h t r e a d i n g e x e r c i s e and, i n f a c t ,
t h e t e r m "s i g h t - r e a d i n g "
itse lf.
Qn t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n o u r a d v o c a c y o f t h e A n a l y t i c
Method i n t e a c h i n g m usic r e a d i n g we hav e s t r e s s e d t h e
i m p o r t a n c e o f b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e whole r a t h e r t h a n w i t h
t h e .p a r ts — o f a i m i n g a t t h o u g h t - g e t t i n g o r m e a n i n g f u l
reading- r a t h e r t h a n a t n o t e - g e t t i n g o r mere symbol
t r a n s l a t i o n (.c.f. S o m erv ell's " n o te -b lo c k in g " ) .
Prom
t h i s a r i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t of t h e Music
R eader.
I f we a r e t o t e a c h c h i l d r e n t o r e a d f o r
m eaning, we m ust s e e t o i t t h a t t h e r e a d i n g m a t t e r we
u y
p r e s e n t to them i s r e a l l y w o rth r e a d i n g .
And i t
fo llo w s t h a t i f a tune i s worth r e a d in g once, i t w i l l
be w o r t h r e a d i n g more t h a n o n c e .
( C . f . D r. Markham Lee :
" N o th in g s h o u l d be done more t h a n o n c e .
To go o v e r a
t e s t t w i c e i n t h e same l e s s o n i s n o t s i g h t - r e a d i n g , b u t
l e a r n i n g .")
Hence, i n s t e a d of s y n t h e t i c , a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d
s i g h t - r e a d i n g e x e r c i s e s w i t h no r e p e t i t i o n o f p h r a s e , no
s e q u e n c e s a n d few o r no r e p e a t e d n o t e s , we m u s t have
r e a l t u n e s , p r e f e r a b l y v o c a l i n o r i g i n , w i t h t h e i r due
p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e e l e m e n t s o f m e lo d y .
t h i s q u e s t i o n o f r e a l melody w i t h i t s
Prom
o r g a n i c u n i t y and
f o r m we have t h e n a r r i v e d a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e f o r m a l
l a y o u t o f m u s i c t y p e i n S c h o o l R e a d e r s - a q u e s t i o n which
d i d n o t eve n a r i s e u n d e r t h e S y n t h e t i c Method o f t e a c h i n g
m u sic r e a d i n g , w hich e m p h a s is e d n o t e - r e a d i n g and d i s ­
couraged a n y th in g t h a t a id e d th e v i s u a l p e r c e p ti o n of
p a t t e r n s o r w h o le s .
The d o m i n a t i n g p r i n c i p l e b e h i n d a l l t h i s d e s t r u c t i v e
and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m o f t h e Music R e a d e r i s t h a t
i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n t o r e a d m e l o d i e s we m u st b e g i n f ro m
t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f m e l o d i e s a s w h o l e s , and t r a i n c h i l d r e n
t o r e a d f o r m e a n in g .
F u r t h e r , t h a t the a b i l i t y t o re a d
a t s i g h t w i l l n o t be d e v e l o p e d by s i g h t - r e a d i n g i t s e l f
w i t h i t s e m p h asis on e l e m e n t s and p a r t s ,
b u t w i l l come
n a t u r a l l y as th e r e s u l t of p r a c t ic e in read in g f o r
m eaning w i t h i t s e m p h a s i s on p a t t e r n s and w h o l e s .
T h is i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h modern methods o f t e a c h i n g
o r d i n a r y r e a d i n g ( e . g . t h e S e n t e n c e Method), a s opposed
t o t h e o l d s y n t h e t i c A l p h a b e t i c Method o f t e a c h i n g
reading.
I t f o l l o w s t h a t i n t h e v e r y e a r l y s t a g e s o f m usic
r e a d i n g t h e c h i l d r e n m u st be t a u g h t t o r e a d a t u n e o v e r
and o v e r a g a i n by p a t t e r n , a s i n l a n g u a g e r e a d i n g , and
t h e n t o a n a l y s e t h e whole i n t o i t s s e p a r a t e p a r t s , i n
order to
a c q u i r e v i s u a l t e c h n i q u e or t o a t t a i n t o t h e
v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n o f p a t t e r n s , and t o p u t t h i s t e c h n i q u e
to use i n f u r t h e r re a d in g e f f o r t s .
w h o le s i s t o b e g i n w i t h Romance.
To b e g i n w i t h
To a n a l y s e t h e s e
w h o le s i n t o t h e i r component p a r t s i s t o i n t r o d u c e
P recisio n .
And t o u s e t h e t e c h n i q u e , t h u s a c q u i r e d i n
t h e p r o c e s s o f a n a l y s i s , i n t h e a p p e r c e p t i o n o f new
w holes i s t o a r r i v e a t t h e s t a g e o f G e n e r a l i s a t i o n .
T h r o u g h o u t t h e whole s c h o o l c o u r s e t h i s v i s u a l
p e r c e p t i o n o f p a t t e r n s m u s t be e n c o u r a g e d by p r e s e n t i n g
t o t h e p u p i l s r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l i n w hich s e q u e n c e s and
r e p e t i t i o n s o f n o t e - p a t t e r n s p l a y a p r o m i n e n t p a r t , and
by t h e r e - r e a d i n g o f e a c h e x e r c i s e s e v e r a l t i m e s .
I n d e e d , t h e r e a l t e s t o f t h e e f f i c a c y of t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e S c h o o l Music H e a d e r f o r t h e p u r p o s e on
U !
hand i s t o he f o u n d i n t h e d e s i r e o f t h e p u p i l s t o r e a d
t h i s s u b j e c t - m a t t e r over and over a g a in .
I n t h e c h a p t e r on "A Com parison o f t h e P r i n c i p l e s
u n d e r l y i n g t h e T o n i c S o l - f a a n d t h e S t a f f N o t a t i o n " we
hav e shown t h a t s t a f f r e a d i n g i s a n a n a l y t i c p r o c e s s
since i t involves th e ap p ercep tio n
space.
of r e l a t i o n s h i p s in
Hence " n o t e - b l o c k i n g " , em phasis on s e p a r a t e
sym bols r a t h e r t h a n on p a t t e r n s o f n o t e s , r e a d i n g each
e x e r c i s e once t h r o u g h o n l y , and a b s e n c e o f r e p e a t e d
p h r a s e s , s e q u e n c e s and r e p e a t e d n o t e s i n s i g h t - r e a d i n g
e x e r c i s e s a l l come u n d e r t h e sam e c o n d e m n a t io n , s i n c e
th e y d isc o u ra g e th e v i s u a l p e r c e p tio n of p a t t e r n s or the
a n a l y t i c a p p r o a c h t o music r e a d i n g i n t h e r e a d e r .
I n a l l o u r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s we
hav e n o t e d one e x c e p t i o n t o t h e r u l e ,
s y n t h e s i s ."
"an aly sis before
T h i s e x c e p t i o n i s t o be f o u n d i n t h e
r e a d i n g of t o n i c s o l - f a n o t a t i o n .
In th e to n ic s o l - f a
n o t a t i o n , a s we have s e e n , t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e whole i n t o
r e l a t i v e p i t c h e l e m e n t s (drm) and r e l a t i v e tim e e l e m e n t s
-im : ? |
s
h
a
s
b e e n d o n e f o r t h e p u p i l by th e
tonic s o l - f a tr a n s c rib e r or e d ito r .
A ctu ally , reading
fro m t h e t o n i c s o l - f a n o t a t i o n i s n o t r e a d i n g p r o p e r .
I t s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d r a t h e r a s t h e se c o n d s t a g e , t h e
stag e of p r e c is io n , in a u ra l s p e llin g or s o l- f a in g , in
w h ich t h e p u p i l p u t s t o u s e t h e powers o f a s s o c i a t i o n o f
(,* fo
sound a n d s y l l a b l e w hich he h a s a c q u i r e d by a n a l y s i s
i n t h e f i r s t s t a g e o f t u n e - s p e l l i n g and s e q u e n c e sp ellin g .
In re a d in g from t h i s n o t a t i o n th e p u p il i s b ro u g h t,
by t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e s o l - f a t r a n s c r i b e r o r e d i t o r ,
s o n e a r t o t h e wood t h a t h e c a n s e e e a c h t r e e
in d iv id u ally .
(oichriemmavYb.oty
B u t t h i s v e r y p r e c i s i o n o f /the n e a r ­
v ie w p r e v e n t s him f r o m s e e i n g t h e wood i t s e l f , t h e
c o n t o u r s o r t h e p a t t e r n s form ed by t h e t r e e s .
Hence, r e a d i n g from t o n i c s o l - f a n o t a t i o n i s s i m p l y
a n e x t e n s i o n i n s p a c e o f r e a d i n g f ro m t h e o r d i n a r y
m o d u l a t o r , and i n v o l v e s s y n t h e s i s o r t h e t a k i n g i n o f
n o t e - s h a p e ( r ) a f t e r n o t e - s h a p e (d), w h i l e t h e a n a l y t i c
e l e m e n t m u st be c o n f i n e d t o t h e t a k i n g i n o f j u s t a few
n o t e s i n t h e i r n n e d i a t e s u r r o u n d i n g s on t h e s t r a i g h t l i n e
of note-shapes.
F o r t h e r e a d i n g of a s i n g l e l i n e o f
vocal m usic, t h i s s y n t h e t i c approach s u f f i c e s ;
but fo r
th e r e a d i n g of i n t r i c a t e m elodic and rhythm ic p a t t e r n s
o r f o r t h e r e a d i n g o f s e v e r a l l i n e s i n open o r c l o s e
s c o r e i t b r e a k s down c o m p l e t e l y .
One c a n n o t t a k e i n
a t one and t h e same tim e i n d i v i d u a l n o t e - s h a p e s and
c o lle c tiv e n o te-p attern s d is trib u te d in space.
The one
in v o lv e s a s y n th e tic p ro c e s s , t h e o th e r an a n a l y t i c
process.
N e v e r t h e l e s s , a s we have s e e n , r e a d i n g p r a c t i c e i n
to n ic
s o l- f a n o ta tio n has
its
c o n t r i b u t i o n t o make t o
m u sic r e a d i n g f r o m s t a f f n o t a t i o n .
One may r e g a r d i t
a s a s o r t o f o r a l s t a g e l e a d i n g up t o t h e more a b s t r a c t
symbol s t a g e o f t h e s t a f f n o t a t i o n ' - a v e r y n e c e s s a r y
o r a l s t a g e , t o o , f o r i n t h i s s t a g e we can a n t i c i p a t e a l l
p r o b l e m s o f p i t c h and r h y th m w h ich w i l l o c c u r l a t e r on
i n t h e r e a l symbol s t a g e .
H ence, s o l - f a r e a d i n g s h o u l d
come b e f o r e s t a f f r e a d i n g and s h o u l d c o n t i n u e i n s c h o o l
a l o n g s i d e s t a f f r e a d i n g , b u t a t a much h i g h e r l e v e l of
perform ance.
As we h a v e s e e n , s t a f f r e a d i n g i s m u sic r e a d i n g
p r o p e r w i t h i t s g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r demands on t h e
a n a l y t i c powers o f t h e mind t h r o u g h t h e e y e .
B u t , so
f a r a s p i t c h i s concerned th e only p ro c e s s t h a t s ta n d s
b e tw e e n s o l - f a r e a d i n g a n a s t a f f r e a d i n g i s w hat we have
c a l l e d t h e V i s u a l S p e l l i n g p r o c e s s , t h e p r o c e s s by w h ich
one r e c o g n i s e s a s s c a l e d e g r e e s , w i t h s o l - f a names,
n o te s r e l a t e d i n space to a to n ic p o s i t i o n .o n th e s ta v e .
We have made p r o v i s i o n f o r t h i s v i s u a l s p e l l i n g i n what
we have c a l l e d V i s u a l S t a f f D i c t a t i o n , and have shown
th e n e c e s s i t y f o r d r i l l i n t h i s v i s u a l s p e l l i n g , both
f o r d e v e l o p i n g s p e e d o f r e s p o n s e a s b e tw e e n s o l - f a name
and s t a f f symbol and v i c e v e r s a , and f o r c h e c k i n g up on
th e p u p ils ' responses in a c tu a l p r a c t ic e .
By means o f t h i s v i s u a l s t a f f d i c t a t i o n we hav e shown
how t h e p e r s e v e r a t i o n o v e r a number o f y e a r s o f wrong
i 7*
r e s p o n s e s on t h e p a r t o f i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s may he c h e c k e d ,
and how t h e s e wrong r e s p o n s e s m i g h t have b e e n p r e v e n t e d
i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s by b e t t e r t e a c h i n g m e th ods and by
t h e e a r l i e r u s e of t h i s v i s u a l s p e l l i n g c h e c k .
F u rth er
we have d i s c o v e r e d t h a t , b e s i d e s s u c h s u b . j e c t i v e e r r o r s
o f r e s p o n s e d u e t o p e c u l i a r i t i e s i n t h e m e n t a l make-up
o f i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s and t o u n s a t i s f a c t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n
o f t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r on t h e p a r t of t h e t e a c h e r , t h e r e
were t o be f o u n d a l s o w h a t we have c a l l e d o b j e c t i v e
e r r o r s d u e , n o t t o t h e n a t u r e of t h e p u p i l o r t o t h e
n a t u r e of t h e te a c h i n g , b u t r a t h e r to t h e n a t u r e o f the
p o s i t i o n o f c e r t a i n s c a l e d e g r e e s on t h e s t a v e .
T h u s, we fo u n d t h a t i n d e a l i n g w i t h n o t e s b e lo w t h e
s t a v e s p e c i a l p r e c a u t i o n s m u st be t a k e n , t o show t o t h e
p u p i l s , f o r e x a m p le , t h a t b e t w e e n M iddle C on t h e l e g e r
l i n e below t h e s t a v e a n d E t h e f i r s t l i n e o n t h e s t a v e
a n o te -p o sitio n D ex isted
(j^—
and t h a t t h i s
p o s i t i o n o f D m u st be r e g a r d e d as a " s p a c e " even when i t
i s n o t a c t u a l l y ' e n c l o s e d by t h e l e g e r l i n e o f m i d d l e C.
As a c o r o l l a r y t o t h i s we have f o u n d t h a t i t i s
a d v i s a b l e t o a v o i d Key C and Key D w i t h b e g i n n e r s i n
s t a f f r e a d in g , o r e l s e give v ery s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to
t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s e k e y s , rem em bering
t h a t one or two e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t .
For
t o e x p l a i n a n anomaly t o a c h i l d i s n o t t o e x p l a i n away
t h e anom aly f o r t h e c h i l d .
L ikew ise, i n th e co u rse of our i n v e s t i g a t i o n s in to
t h e e f f e c t o f t h e t o n i c p o s i t i o n on t h e s t a v e on t h e
v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n o f o t h e r s c a l e d e g r e e p o s i t i o n s , we
f o u n d t h a t f o r t u n e s r a n g i n g f r o m d t o 1 , Keys F a n d A
and t h e t h r e e t o p s p a c e s were t h e most f a v o u r a b l y p l a c e d
••
w i t h t h e t o n i c c h o r d d m s on t h e t h r e e b o t t o m s p a c e s
and t h a t Key C w i t h i t s t o n i c p o s i t i o n on t h e i m a g i n a r y
l e g e r l i n e and i t s s i x - l i n e s t a v e , a n d Key D w i t h i t s
t o n i c p o s i t i o n on t h e a m b ig u o u s " s p a c e ” below t h e s t a v e
and i t s f i v e - s p a c e s t a v e were t h e m o st u n f a v o u r a b l y
As we have p o i n t e d o u t , t h e t e a c h e r must f o l l o w t h e
R e a d e r , f o r t h e R e a d e r i s t h e M ethod.
Hence t h e
i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e r e c o g n i t l on of t h e s e f a c t s by c o m p i l e r s
o f S c h o o l Music R e a d e r s i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n o f k e y s f o r
beginners in s t a f f read in g .
The o n l y s a f e way t o e n s u r e m a s t e r y o f a l l t h e keys
i n s t a f f read in g is to develop v is u a l s p e l l i n g te ch n iq u e
in the p u p ils.
But a d e q u a t e v i s u a l s p e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e
c a n n o t be a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h m u s i c r e a d i n g , and u n t i l t h i s
v i s u a l s p e l l i n g te c h n iq u e i s a d e q u ate , i t can o n ly hold
up m usic r e a d i n g a n d d e f e a t t h e v e r y aim o f t h e music
r e a d i n g l e s s o n , n a m e ly , t o e n j o y t h e f r u i t s o f t h e
v a rio u s tech n iq u es involved i n th e c o -o p e ra tiv e e f f o r t
of the read in g process.
I f reading does not issu e in
u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d en jo y m e n t i t w i l l h av e f a i l e d i n i t s
c h ie f purpose.
But a l l t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e a d i n g
p r o c e s s - v i s u a l , a u r a l , r h y t h m i c - m u st he w e l l i n
a d v a n c e o f a n y t h i n g r e q u i r e d i n m u sic r e a d i n g , and a l l
t h r e e m u st he a c q u i r e d a p a r t f r o m m usic r e a d i n g , f o r
technique im p lies d r i l l .
Hence o u r i n s i s t e n c e
t h r o u g h o u t on s e p a r a t e d r i l l s i n v i s u a l t e c h n i q u e or
v i s u a l s t a f f s p e l l i h g , a u r a l t e c h n i q u e or s o l - f a i n g , and
rhythm ic te ch n iq u e o r t a a t a i - i n g .
APPENDIX
I n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s we g i v e ex a m ple s o f s h e e t s
w h ic h w e re u s e d i n t h e Music C l a s s f o r d r i l l i n t h e
t h r e e s p e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e music
read in g process - p itc h s p e llin g , v is u a l s t a f f s p e llin g
a n d r h y th m s p e l l i n g .
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Copyright in U .S.A. and a ll counlria,
1938
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, by Arthur J . Irrinr