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Does the Social-Civic Curriculum in the Public High Schools of Yonkers, New York, Meet Certain Fundamental Social Needs?

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1
FORDHAM UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
June 12
19-.4Q.
This dissertation prepared under my direction by
Iren e K* Palmer
entitled ..P.pes.the„.So^^
P u £ r i c u l m . . i n . . J ^ ...............
Schools o f Yonkers, New York, Meet C ertain Fundamental S ocial
Needs?
has been accepted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
Degree of PP.pI?P?....PT..FMTpspphy..................................................
(Faculty A dviser)
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DOES THE SOCIAL-CIVIC CURRICULUM IN THE PUBLIC
3-
Jr
HIGH SCHOOLS OP YONKERS, NEW YORK, MEET
CERTAIN FUNDAMENTAL SOCIAL NEEDS?
BY
IRENE K. PALMER
M.A., Fordn&m U n i v e r s i t y , *38
DISSERTATION
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
' .FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE
.DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AT FORDHAM UNIVERSITY
NEW YORK
1940
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ProQuest N um ber: 13846650
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uest
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TABLE OP CONTENTS
C h a p ter
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
Page
INTRODUCTION
................................................
1
WHAT ARE THE NEEDS. OF YOUTH WHICH
ARE THE CONCERN OP SECONDARY S C H O O L S ? ......... 9
Background o f p r e s e n t day n a t i o n a l
e x ig e n c ie s which th e s c h o o l, a s a
s o c i a l ag e n cy , must adm it i n i t s
fu n c tio n in g
THE SOCIAL-CIVICrCURRICULUM.....................................
A com plete d e s c r i p t i o n of th e
S o c ia l- C iv ic ; C urriculum ; i t s
aims and o b j e c t i v e s
The n a t u r e and c o n te n t o f c o u rse s
i n t h i s c u rric u lu m
Sample u n i t s from s e l e c t e d
c o u rse s o f s tu d y , p re p a re d
f o r t h i s c u rric u lu m
The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h i s c u rric u lu m
to th e g e n e r a l e d u c a ti o n a l problems
in th e U n ite d S t a t e s , a s shown i n
th e R eport o f th e P r e s i d e n t s R esearch
Committee, and i n v a r io u s y earbooks
of e d u c atio n al a s s o c ia tio n s
The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h i s c u rric u lu m
to th e R ep ort o f th e Board o f Regents
o f New York S t a t e
28
AN EVALUATION OP THE SOCIAL-CIVIC
CURRICULUM.
......................... 61
An e v a lu a t io n in term s o f a sound
p h ilo so p h y of e d u c a tio n
C r i t i c i s m o f p r e s e n t day e d u c a ti o n a l
p h ilo s o p h y i n i t s i n f lu e n c e upon
th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum
An e v a l u a t i o n in term s o f th e
p r a c t i c a l i t y and e f f i c i e n c y
o f th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum
CONCLUSION.
....................................
105
BIBLIOGRAPHY.
...........................................................
Ill
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DOES THS SOCIAL-CIVIC CURRICULUM IN THE PUBLIC
HIGH SCHOOLS OF YONKERS, NEW YORK, MEET
CERTAIN FUNDAMENTAL SOCIAL NEEDS?
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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
I t I s n o t th e purp ose o f t h i s stu d y to add to th e
i n c r e a s i n g a c c u m u la tio n o f r e p o r t s which d e s c r i b e v a r i ­
ous ty p e s o f c u r r i c u l a , a n d f a i l to examine c r i t i c a l l y ;
th e r e l a t i o n o f such c u r r i c u l a to th e whole of educa­
tio n .
R a th e r , i t i s th e purp ose o f t h i s stu d y to e v a lu ­
a t e th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C u rricu lu m , found in th e Yonkers
P u b lic High S c h o o ls, i n .term s o f a sound p h ilo s o p h y of
e d u c a tio n .
A s k e p t i c a l r e a d e r m ight wonder a b o u t th e
so u rce o f a sound p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a ti o n , s in c e p r e s ­
e n t day e d u c a to r s and o th e r s i n t e r e s t e d a r e e i t h e r p a r ­
t i a l l y o r t o t a l l y b e w ild e r e d , when c o n f r o n te d w ith th e
t a s k o f e v a l u a t i n g any e d u c a ti o n a l endeavor w ith in th e
s c h o o l.
A sound p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a tio n must embody c e r ­
t a i n unchanging and u n c h a n g e a b le p r i n c i p l e s o r t r u t h s ,
which a r e i n t e r p r e t a t i v e o f man’ s t r u e o r i g i n , n a t u r e ,
and d e s t i n y .
These t r u t h s a r e a p p l i c a b l e to man u n d e r
a l l c irc u m s ta n c e s and a t a l l tim e s .
C a th o lic p h ilo s o p h y
o f e d u c a tio n does embody such t r u t h s ; t h e r e f o r e , Catho­
l i c p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a tio n i s th e s ta n d a r d by which th e
S o c i a l - C i v i c C u rricu lu m , i n i t s e n t i r e t y o f o b j e c t i v e s
and c o n t e n t , w i l l be e v a lu a t e d .
The method o f i n v e s t i g a ­
t i o n w i l l be t h a t o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l in q u i r y i n t o r e l a t e d
e d u c a ti o n a l l i t e r a t u r e and o p in io n .
I n th e s tu d y , nDoes th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum in
j
2
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th e P u b lic High S chools o f Y onkers, New York, meet c e r t a i n 1
— ,
fu nd am ental s o c i a l n e e d s? 1/ an i n t r o d u c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y i n
o r d e r to r e v e a l th e purp ose and to e s tim a te th e v alu e o f
such an u n d e rta k in g *
The S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum r e p r e ­
s e n t s a re -a rra n g e m e n t of e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l a i n th e Yonkers
School system , a t th e se co n d ary l e v e l , in c lu d in g j u n i o r
and s e n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls , which was begun i n 1936 and e f f e c t ­
ed th ro u g h o u t th e s e sc h o o ls Ja n u a ry 1938*
Increased e n r o ll­
ment n e c e s s i t a t e d c u rric u lu m r e v i s i o n and r e - a d a p t a tio n *
The number of p u p i l s p r e p a r in g f o r c o l le g e was, and i s ,
n u m e r ic a lly i n s i g n i f i c a n t , a s compared w ith th e number in
a tte n d a n c e by th e f o r c e o f such c irc u m s ta n c e s a s l e g a l
com pulsion and th e l a c k of employment o p p o r tu n iti e s *
This
s i t u a t i o n i s n o t m erely a l o c a l problem a s th e f o llo w in g
s ta te m e n t i l l u s t r a t e s :
At p r e s e n t tn e r e i s g e n e r a l concern a b o u t tn e
c u r r ic u lu m . The p u b lic to some e x t e n t , though
i n a d e q u a t e l y , r e a l i z e s t h a t changes i n th e
sc h o o l p o p u la tio n and th e developm ents of modern
l i f e n e c e s s i t a t e d c o rre s p o n d in g changes in
s u b j e c t m a t t e r . • • This c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t and
a c t i v i t y , m a n ife s te d by r e c e n t numerous pub­
l i c a t i o n s i n books and. i n e d u c a ti o n a l m ag azines,
began i n th e ele m e n ta ry and norm al s c h o o ls ,
where th e problems a r e r e l a t i v e l y sim p le though
e x te n s iv e and p ro fo u n d ly d i f f i c u l t .
I t i s now
e x te n d in g t o seco nd ary s c h o o ls , l a r g e l y b ec au se
o f th e r e c e n t i n c l u s i o n of a v a s t army o f
h e te ro g e n e o u s y o u th and to some of our c o l l e g e s .
1
H o l l i s L. Caswell and Doak S. Cam pbell, In C urriculum
Development and Readings In C urriculum D evelopm ent.
1.
Thomas H. B r ig g s , C urriculum P roblem s, N. Y . , M acm illan,
1927, ( r e p r i n t e d ) , Up. 3 .
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t e s t i f y t o t h e w id esp re ad a c t i v i t y i n t h i s f i e l d .
-
One
o f th e recom mendations o f a Committee, a p p o in te d by th e
Board o f E d u c a tio n o f New York C i ty , to su rv e y t h a t c i t y ’ s
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls le a d s t o a preview o f t h e ,S o c i a l - C i v i c
C u rricu lu m , nam elyt
The e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e <pf d i v i d i n g j u n i o r h ig h
h ig h sc h o o l s tu d e n ts i n t o t h r e e g ro u p s-a ca d em ic ,
com m ercial, and i n d u s t r i a l - i s opposed. I t i s
p o in te d o u t t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e to o young w h ile
s t i l l in j u n i o r h ig h sc h o o l to d e c id e what
f u t u r e c o u rse s to ta k e . What th e s e p u p ils
a c t u a l l y n ee d , i t i s s u g g e s te d , i s a sound
g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n , c o u rse s o f s tu d y i n b a s i c
s u b j e c t s a d a p te d to t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r ­
e s t s , and e x p e rie n c e s i n th e f i e l d s o f a p p r e c i a t i o n a l , a p p l i e d , and i n d u s t r i a l a r t s . 1'
P r i o r to Ja n u ary 1936, t h e r e was l i t t l e u n if o r m ity in
th e c u r r i c u l a o f f e r e d in the*Yonkers P u b lic j u n i o r h ig h
s c h o o ls .
The o f f e r i n g s in c lu d e d any number o r v a r i e t y of
six c u r r ic u la t
c o l le g e p r e p a r a t o r y w ith L a t i n , F re n c h ,
a n d , i n some of th e f i v e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls , I t a l i a n o r
S p an ish ; com m ercial; t e c h n i c a l f o r b oy s; academic (non­
c o lle g e p r e p a r a t o r y ) ; p r a c t i c a l a r t s f o r g i r l s ; and a r t .
I n 1936, In o r d e r to a c h ie v e u n if o r m ity in seco nd ary edu­
c a t i o n , th e Committee on c u rric u lu m r e v i s i o n , u n der th e
g uidance of D r. Lloyd N. M o r r i s e t t , A s s i s t a n t S u p e r in te n ­
d e n t o f S c h o o ls, ad o p te d t h e s ta n d a r d o f o f f e r i n g on ly
two c u r r i c u l a th ro u g h o u t a l l j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls .
two a r e known as th e Academic and th e S o c i a l - C i v i c .
These
The
Academic c u rric u lu m fo llo w s th e New York S t a t e Regents
1.
The School Review, 4 7 :4 8 1 -4 8 2 , September 1939, U niver­
s i t y o f Chicago, e d i t o r i a l comment.
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R e q u ir e m e n ts f o r a S t a t e Regents High School diplo m a.
A l l s t u d e n ts t a k in g t h i s c o u rs e a r e r e q u i r e d to ta k e
R egents ex a m in a tio n s i n s e n i o r h ig h s c h o o l.
The co u rse
o f stu d y i n every s u b j e c t fo llo w s th e o u t l i n e o f th e
"State Board o f R e g e n ts.
This c o u rse i s a c o l l e g e p r e p a r a ­
t o r y c o u r s e ; c a re must be taken to e l e c t th e s u b j e c t s
r e q u i r e d f o r e n t r a n c e i n t o th e p a r t i c u l a r c o l l e g e s e ­
l e c t e d by th e p u p i l .
The S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum i s de­
s ig n e d p r i m a r i l y f o r th o s e p u p i l s who do n o t in te n d to
go to c o l l e g e .
No Regents ex a m in a tio n s a r e r e q u ir e d o f
t h e s e p u p i l s i n iany s u b j e c t i n any h ig h s c h o o l.
The
c o u rse o f s tu d y , In any s u b j e c t , does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y
f o llo w th e S t a t e S y lla b u s .
I t a llo w s th e t e a c h e r to f i t
th e s u b j e c t m a t t e r t o th e a c t u a l n e e d s , a b i l i t i e s , and
i n t e r e s t s o f th e p u p i l s so t h a t t h e i r sc h o o l work may be
”a r e a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r th e everyday d u t i e s o f a d u l t l i f e . ”
The S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum w i l l be d e s c r ib e d and
a n a ly z e d , so t h a t th e a r t i c u l a t i o n between j u n i o r and
s e n i o r h ig h sc h o o ls may, I f d e s i r e d , s e rv e a s a p a t t e r n
o f c u rric u lu m r e v i s i o n f o r i n t e r e s t e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .
S a m p le .u n its from th e c o u rse s o f stu d y w ith in th e c u r r i ­
culum w i l l be rep ro d u ced a s I l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s e l e c t ­
ed f o r th e accom plishm ent o f c u rric u lu m o b j e c t i v e s .
To f i t s u b j e c t m a t t e r to th e a c t u a l needs o f p u p i l s
I s a w o rth w ile o b j e c t i v e In th e e d u c a tiv e p r o c e s s .
a t e l y th e q u e s tio n a r i s e s , what a r e th o s e needs?
Immedi­
Does th e
term , a c t u a l , imply e s s e n t i a l n e e d s, th o s e growing o u t o f
i_
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th e p u p i l f s r e a l n a t u r e and th o se coming from the s o c i e t y
in which he l i v e s , o r does i t embrace o n ly n o n - e s s e n t i a l s ?
A p h y s ic ia n does n o t p r e s c r i b e m edicine o r re m e d ia l t r e a t ­
ments u n t i l he has c a r e f u l l y observed symptoms and d ia g n o s ­
ed th e m alady.
A c tio n on h i s p a r t w ith o u t th e s e p r e l i m i n a r i ­
es m ight prove u n f o r t u n a t e , perhaps f a t a l .
In l i k e manner,
i t i s th e p la n o f t h i s t h e s i s to examine th e a l l e g e d needs
o f y o u th to d a y , s p e c i f i c a l l y th o se of h ig h sch o o l a g e , of
which th e Yonkers sc h o o l p o p u la tio n i s an a p p r o p r i a t e sam­
p le .
A b f i e f resume o f th e b ro a d e r background of p r e s e n t
day n a t i o n a l e x ig e n c ie s which th e s c h o o l, a s a s o c i a l a g e n cy , can no t ig n o re in i t s f u n c t i o n i n g w i l l r e v e a l c e r t a i n
ag ree d -u p o n and fu nd am en tal s o c i a l n e e d s .
Consensus of
American e d u c a ti o n a l o p in io n i s n o t an i n f a l l i b l e c r i t e r i 1
on to d e te rm in e th e fu nd am en tal needs o f American y o u th .
The sho rtco m in gs o f such a c r i t e r i o n s h a l l be exposed when
v a r io u s o p in io n s a r e examined l a t e r .
P ro ceed in g from th e ex a m in a tio n o f th e s e needs in chap­
t e r I I , a ’ p r e s e n t a t i o n of th e S o c ia l- C iv ic C urriculum in
l . I n th e m a tte r of d e te rm in in g e d u c a tio n a l aims by ta k in g
;a consensus of o p in io n , Brubacher o f f e r s t h i s c r i t i c i s m :
"Because th e r e s u l t s a r e o b j e c t i v e and (s o em ulate s c i ­
e n c e, th e y o f t e n r e c e i v e g r e a t e r cred ence th a n th e y de­
s e r v e . This i s because no a tte m p t i s f i r s t made to exam­
ine i n t o th e v a l i d i t y of the method. T his i s j u s t assum­
ed, ta k e n f o r g r a n te d . The i n v e s t i g a t o r i s e a g e r to g e t
on t o th e aim s. Yet c e r t a i n l y no ev id ence he g a in s a s
to aims w i l l t e s t w hether consensus a s a method i s s o u n d .”
John B rub ach er, Modern P h ilo s o p h ie s Of E d u c a tio n , N. Y . ,
McGraw-Hill Book C o., 1939, pp. 6 - 7 .
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th e Yonkers P u b lic High sc h o o ls w i l l en ab le th e r e a d e r
t o judge th e e x te n t to which t h a t c u rric u lu m p ro v id e s f o r
m eetin g p u p ils * needs and th e demands f o r re a d ju s tm e n t w ith ­
in th e sc h o o l to th e needs of a democracy such as th e U nited
S ta te s.
How t h i s same c u rric u lu m measures up to th e demands
o f i t s l o c a l community, S t a t e , and th e N atio n w i l l be d i s ­
cussed.
U n fo rtu n a 'te ly , a l a r g e p a r t of r e a d ju s tm e n t in
e d u c a tio n r e s t s upon s h i f t i n g sa n d s, which changing t i d e s
o f th o u g h t have s c a t t e r e d , le a v in g only a g r e a t e r s t a t e o f
c o n fu sio n i n t h e i r wake.
A n oth er p u rp o se o f t h i s c h a p te r
w i l l b e , to show th e d eg ree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between th e
r e v i s i o n i n th e Yonkers seco n d ary sc h o o ls under c o n s id e r a ­
t i o n and (1) th e R eport of th e P r e s id e n t * s R esearch Commit­
t e e and (2) th e I n q u i r y o f th e Board o f Regents o f New York
S ta te .
C h apter IV c e n te r s ab o u t th e im p o rta n t t a s k o f e v a l u a t i o n
The need o f a sound p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a tio n , as a d i r e c t i v e
f o r c e , has r e c e iv e d r e c o g n i t i o n from some e d u c a to r s .
Such
a f o r c e has become conspicuous by ab sen ce from th e many
a tte m p ts t o improve e d u c a tio n in t h i s c o u n try .
F a ls e
p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s have been proposed as e x p la n a ­
to r y o f th e e d u c a tiv e p r o c e s s .
The r e s u l t has been a
d e p lo r a b le c o n fu sio n among e d u c a to r s .
E x p erim en talism
has been made a p p l i c a b l e to a l l branch es o f knowledge and
le a rn in g .
I t s method i s h eld to be th e s o le method o f t h e
e d u c a tiv e p r o c e s s .
I n consequence, many a s p e c ts o f l i f e ,
C u l t u r e , e d u c a tio n , and m o r a l i t y a r e ex c lu d e d , d e n ie d , or n
ig n o red b ecau se th e y do not s u b j e c t them selves s o l e l y to
th e e x p e rim e n ta l m ethud.
E d u c a tio n a l a c t i v i t y and e x p e r i ­
m e n ta tio n were s p r e a d in g o ut in a l l d i r e c t i o n s b ut r e a c h ­
in g no d e s t i n a t i o n b ecau se th e m a tte r o f a f i n a l g o a l had
been o v e rlo o k e d .
C o n seq u en tly , th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum
must be e v a lu a te d in term s o f a sound p h ilo so p h y o f educa­
t i o n , o th e r w is e , i t s s t a t u s may be reduced to t h a t o f a
t r a n s i e n t e x p e rim e n t.
As su p p lem en tary c r i t i c i s m s , th e t e s ­
timony o f th e A s s i s t a n t S u p e rin te n d e n t o f Schools o f Y onkers,
as a r e s u l t of h is c o n t a c t w ith th e v a r io u s p r i n c i p a l s , and
th e R eport of th e D ir e c t o r o f th e Guidance Department of th e
same sc h o o l system , w i l l be u s e d .
A program of t e s t i n g among
p u p ils e n r o l l e d in th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C u rriculum and th o s e en­
r o l l e d in th e Academic C urriculum has been p la n n ed , and w i l l
get, under way b e f o r e th e c lo s e o f th e p r e s e n t s c h o l a s t i c
y ear.
Complete d e t a i l s o f th e proposed program a r e not a v a i l ­
a b l e , b u t , a c c o rd in g t o Mr. Robert E. Carey, D i r e c t o r o f Gui­
d ance, th e C h arles E. Gorton S e n io r High School (N orth Broad­
way, Yonkers) has been s e l e c t e d as th e s t a r t i n g p o in t f o r th e
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t e s t s to t h i r d y e a r s t u d e n t s , e n r o l l e d in
th e s p e c i f i e d c u r r i c u l a .
Here i s an o p p o r tu n ity f o r r e s e a r c h
work in t e s t s and measurements o f th e outcomes o f th e newly
adopted c u r r ic u lu m .
I n summary, th e n , i t i s th e p urp ose of t h i s s tu d y to
show:
(1) how th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum meets o r f a i l s
t o meet p u p i l s 1 needs and c e r t a i n fundam ental s o c i a l
8
n e e d s; (2) how t h i s c u rric u lu m i s r e l a t e d to th e recom­
m endations of $he P r e s id e n t* s R esearch Committee a n d : th e
R eport of th e New'York S t a t e Board of R eg en ts; and (3)
how t h i s c u rric u lu m sq u a re s w ith a sound p h ilo so p h y of
e d u c a tio n .
The purpose of e v a lu a t in g th e S o c ia l- C iv ic
c u rric u lu m i s th e dominant end of th e e n t i r e i n v e s t i g a ­
tio n .
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9
CHAPTER I I
WHAT ARE THE NEEDS OF YOUTH WHICH ARE THE
CONCERN OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS?
I t may be s a i d , w ith ' l i t t l e f e a r of c o n t r a d i c t i o n , t h a t
e d u c a tio n should n o t be r e s t r i c t e d to what goes on w ith in
th e sc h o o l a t th e obvious n e g l e c t o f numerous o t h e r educa­
t i o n a l a g e n c ie s , su rro u n d in g c h i l d r e n in t h e i r everyday
l i v i n g , w hich, in and o f th e m se lv e s, e d u c a te th e c h ild *
However, a t th e p r e s e n t tim e , changes i n i n d u s t r i a l , s o c i a l ,
and economic f a c t o r s have broadened th e scope of th e sc h o o l
a s an e d u c a ti o n a l agency*
Merriam e x p r e s s e s t h i s o p in io n :
Of a l l th e a g e n c ie s of s o c i a l t r a i n i n g th e sc h o o l
emerges as by f a r th e most im p o rta n t in ou r tiiae
and country* The rem arkab le i n c r e a s e in ex p e n d i­
t u r e s , p e r s o n n e l, and i n t e l l i g e n c e d e v o te d to th e
e d u c a ti o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s p f our tim e , mark t h i s
as th e f o c a l p o i n t i n th e e f f o r t t o p re p a re th e
n e x t g e n e r a t i o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in s o c i a l l i f e .
The c h u rc h , th e f a m il y , th e group o r gang, th e c u l ­
t u r e system In th e b r o a d e s t sen se of th e term ,
a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o the t r a i n i n g of th e oncoming
g e n e r a t i o n , b u t th e h e a v i e s t burden i s l a i d i n ­
c r e a s i n g l y upon th e e d u c a ti o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f
th e l a n d • 1
C h arles H. Judd f e e l s t h a t th e i n d u s t r i a l system must
be h e ld r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e c a re o f th e c h i ld r e n whom i t
r e f u s e s to employ.
I n d u s tr y has com pelled c h i l d r e n to l i v e
in t h i c k l y p o p u la te d a r e a s and ’’i n d u s t r y f i n d s th e sc h o o ls
1. C h a rles JE. Merriam, C iv ic E d u c a tio n i n th e U nited S t a t e s ,
R eport o f th e Commission On The S o c ia l S t u d i e s , P a r t VI,
N. Y ., S c r i b n e r ’ s , 1934, p . 67.
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10
' th e b e s t means of d is c h a r g in g i t s o b l i g a t i o n s , ”
D e sp ite
th e demands, which a r e o cc a sio n e d by th e p r e s e n t p o l i c y of
economy, f o r d r a s t i c r e d u c t io n s in th e s e r v i c e s which
s c h o o ls r e n d e r , th e p u b lic must r e a l i z e t h a t th e s e sc h o o ls
s e rv e a s i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r th e c a re o f c h i l d r e n ,
Judd g iv e s
e x p r e s s io n t o t h i s v ie w p o in t i n th e f o llo w in g c i t a t i o n :
I f sc h o o ls a r e th o u g h t o f a s a g e n c ie s w hich ..the
modern s o c i a l o r d e r has s e t up f o r th e purpose
o f p r o v id in g c h i l d r e n w ith p ro p e r c o n d i tio n s of
l i f e , th e y w i l l be seen i n a much t r u e r p e r s p e c t i v e
th a n i f th e y a r e th o u g h t o f m erely a s c e n t e r s f o r
p u r e ly i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a i n i n g su p p o rte d by p u b lic
t a x e s , • . F u rth e rm o re , th e f a c t i s n o t to be
o v erlo o k ed t h a t in p e r io d s when s o c i e t y i s i n
i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r e s s th e b urden on th e sc h o o ls
i s i n c r e a s e d r a t h e r th an d e c r e a s e d . The l e s s
i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s a r e a b le to p ro v id e p r o p e r ly
f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , th e more s o c i e t y must b e a r
th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c a r i n g f o r them. From
e v e ry p o i n t of view , t h e r e f o r e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t
s c h o o ls a r e in d is p e n s a b le f a c t o r s in th e s o c i a l
l i f e o f modern com m unities, 2
Such a view o f th e f u n c t i o n o f th e sc h o o l i s e rro n e o u s .
S chools sh o u ld n o t be t r e a t e d sim ply as a g e n c ie s f o r hous­
in g o r s h e l t e r i n g c h i l d r e n d u rin g p e r io d s o f i n d u s t r i a l
d istre ss .
Nor should th e y be c o n s id e r e d c e n t e r s f o r p u re ly
in te lle c tu a l tra in in g .
The f a c t t h a t Judd a d v o c a te s g r e a t ­
e r s o c i a l c o n t r o l im p lie s th e c o n c lu s io n t h a t such c o n t r o l
i s needed becau se f a m i l i e s a r e l e s s a b le to p ro v id e p ro p e r­
ly f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n .
S chools a r e a c c e p te d as i n d i s p e n s ­
a b l e f a c t o r s in s o c i a l l i f e f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s b e s id e s
th o s e c i t e d by Judd.
Such re a s o n s a r e th e n e c e s s i t y f o r
1. C h a rles H. Judd, Problems of E d u c a tio n in th e U nited
S t a t e s , N. Y ., McGraw-Hill Book C o., 1933, pp. 17-18.
2. I b i d . , p . 18.
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11
r th e tr a n s m is s io n o f man1s s o c i a l and r a c i a l h e r i t a g e , th e
1
p e r p e t u a t i o n of s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and c a r i n g f o r th e
needs o f th e c h i l d , as evidenced by th e knowledge o f h i s
tru e n a tu re .
Thus, i t may be s a i d , in c o n s id e r in g th e a p p a re n t needs
o f y o u th , a t t e n t i o n must be d i r e c t e d to th o s e n e e d s , which
a r e h e ld to be fu nd am ental s o c i a l n e e d s , f o r which fo rm a l
e d u c a tio n makes ad e q u a te p r o v i s i o n .
No c r i t i c i s m w i l l be
made h ere o f th e needs as p r e s e n te d by v a r io u s a u t h o r i t i e s
in c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e .
The c h i e f needs o f y o u th , l i s t e d by H arl R. D ouglass a r e :
s o c i a l a c c e p ta n c e and a p p r o v a l; ad m issio n a t w i l l a f t e r th e
age o f 16, a t l e a s t upon a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s , to th e v o c a tio n ­
a l a c t i v i t i e s o f th e tim e and to p a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e re s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and jo y s o f m a rria g e and home-making; a s s u ra n c e
o f p o l i t i c a l e f f i c i e n c y , s t a b i l i t y , and j u s t i c e ; o p p o r tu n i­
t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s ; a s s i s t a n c e in
t a c k l i n g th e m en tal and e m o tio n a l c o n f l i c t s of l i f e ; and,
1
a s s u ra n c e of h e a l t h and a t t r a c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y . One may
w e ll q u e s t i o n th e a p p l i c a t i o n of the term , n e e d s , to th e
above ite m s .
Douglass h o ld s t h a t th e o b j e c t i v e s of educa­
t i o n grow o u t o f c e r t a i n ty p e s of a c t i v i t i e s , in which a l l
1. H arl R. D o u g lass, Secondary E d u ca tio n f o r Youth i n Modern
A m erica, p p . 12-28. This m a t e r i a l was p re p a re d as a R eport
to th e American Youth Commission and p u b lis h e d by th e
American C ouncil On E d u c a tio n , W ashington, D.C.-y 1937.
The R eport does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t th e p o lic y n o r
th e o p in io n s o f th e i n d i v i d u a l members o f th e Commission,
a s e x p la in e d i n th e Foreword, ( p . v i ) .
L
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12
p
i n d i v i d u a l s in American l i f e a r e c e r t a i n to engage.
S tr e n “­1
g th e n ed w ith t h i s c o n v i c t i o n , - he u rg e s th e f o llo w in g o b je c ­
t i v e s of a N a tio n a l Program of E d u c a tio n f o r Youth, i f secon­
d a r y e d u c a tio n i s to m i n i s t e r e f f e c t i v e l y to th e needs of
T w e n tie th c e n tu r y American s o c i e t y ; namely:
The program of e d u c a tio n should aim to produce
a g e n e r a tio n of a d u l t s (1) lo y a l t o t h e i r p e o p le ,
c o o p e r a tiv e i n h a b i t s and w e ll-in fo rm e d in econom­
i c , p o l i t i c a l and o th e r problem s; (2) c a p ab le of
m a in ta in in g happy* and e f f e c t i v e homes f o r t h e i r
c h i l d r e n ; (3) c a p a b le o f c a r r y in g on t h e i r v o c a tio n ­
a l a c t i v i t i e s ; (4) a b le to spend t h e i r l e i s u r e
tim e p r o f i t a b l y ; (5) sound in b o d ily h e a l t h ; (6)
m e n ta lly sound; and (7) i n t e r e s t e d in and c a p ab le
of c o n tin u in g to stu d y a l l a s p e c t s o f l i f e and
c u ltu re . 1
Such a g e n e r a tio n of a d u l t s would be most welcome i f th e
program had ta k e n i n t o ac co u n t th e m oral and r e l i g i o u s
o b j e c t i v e s n e c e s s a r y to p r e v e n t t h i s " g e n e r a tio n o f a d u l t s "
from becoming th e a c t u a l i z a t i o n of H e rb e rt S p e n c e rTs f a l s e
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of "com plete l i v i n g . "
D ouglass has no r e a l
b a s i s f o r s e t t i n g up a l i s t o f a l l a c t i v i t i e s in which
" a l l i n d i v i d u a l s in American l i f e a r e c e r t a i n to eng age1.1
At b e s t , o n ly a l i s t o f p o s s i b l e a c t i v i t i e s m ight be drawn
up, w ith no c e r t a i n t y t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s a r e g oin g to
come w ith in i t s a r b i t r a r y l i m i t s .
L ik ew ise, th e use of c e r ­
t a i n ty p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s does n o t c o n s t i t u t e an ad e q u a te
b e g in n in g f o r o b j e c t i v e s o f e d u c a tio n .
By th e p h r a s e , c e r ­
t a i n fu n d am en tal s o c i a l n e e d s , a s used i n t h i s s tu d y , i s
meant th o se n e e d s , which a r e e s s e n t i a l to th e p ro p e r d e­
velopm ent o f th e p u p i l .
This im p lie s th e s a t i s f a c t i o n of
* P*24.
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13
r th o se needs I n h e r e n t i n t h e I n d i v i d u a l , as a human b e in g ; ^
and th o s e , which a r e n e c e s s a r y from th e p o i n t o f view o f
so c ie ty .
I t may. be s a i d , th e n , such fundam ental s o c i a l
needs r e q u i r e t h a t t r a i n i n g and d i r e c t i o n , which w i l l en­
a b l e th e in d iv id u a l- t o make th e n e c e s s a r y a d ju s tm e n ts to th e
s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l , and r e l i g i o u s c o n d i tio n s o f th e
s o c i e t y of which he i s a member*
I t w i l l be e v id e n t from th e
ex am in atio n o f m a t e r i a l s , p r e s e n te d in th e rem ain der of t h i s
c h a p te r , t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s , a t p r e s e n t , a r e a l danger o f con­
s i d e r i n g s o c i a l n e e d s, as e n t i t l e s in th e m se lv e s, and impos­
in g such upon th e sc h o o l as o b j e c t i v e s i n e d u c a tio n , w ith o u t
due r e s p e c t f o r th e p ro p e r development o f th e i n d i v i d u a l w ith ­
in th e .s c h o o l.
n
I n d e a lin g w ith th e m a tte r o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f th e
s c h o o l, Casy/ell and Campbell re c o g n iz e t h i s dang er b ut s id e
s te p th e i s s u e in t h e i r argument as f o llo w s :
The p o in t of view developed does n o t imply t h a t
th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of th e i n d i v i d u a l and th e n a tu r e
o f l e a r n i n g a r e u n im p o r ta n t. . . The p o in t i s sim ply
t h a t th e n a t u r e of th e i n d i v i d u a l does n o t p ro v id e
an i n i t i a l p o in t o f o r i e n t a t i o n f o r c u rric u lu m de­
velopment . . . B r i e f l y , we might say t h a t s o c i e t y ,
th e group o p e r a t in g th ro u g h i t s o rg a n iz e d a g e n c ie s ,
d ete rm in e s th e d i r e c t i o n o f development f o r which
th e sc h o o l s h a l l s t r i v e ; w h ile th e i n d i v i d u a l , h is
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and grow th p r o c e s s e s d eterm in e how
t h i s development s h a l l be a t t a i n e d . I t fo llo w s t h a t
th }e e x te n t t o which th e i n d i v i d u a l i s c o n s id e re d a
means or an e n d - th a t i s , th e e x t e n t t o which s o c i a l
i d e a l s embody i n d i v i d u a l w e l f a r e - i s d eterm in ed by'
th e ty p e o f s o c i e t y in 'w h ic h th e I n d i v i d u a l f in d s
h im s e lf .
.
I t ' so happens t h a t the- d em o cratic i d e a l c o n c eiv e s
th e f u n c tio n o f o rg an iz ed s o c i a l l i f e as t h a t o f
f r e e i n g th e i n d i v i d u a l , o r making i t p o s s i b l e f o r
him to l i v e a f u l l e r , r i c h e r l i f e th a n he o th e rw ise
would l i v e . C o n seq u en tly , th e s c h o o l program i n a
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14
democracy must g iv e m ajor a t t e n t i o n to th e d e v e lo p - ^
ment of th e c a p a c i t i e s of each i n d i v i d u a l f o r happy
and s u c c e s s f u l l i v i n g , 1
The f a l l a c i o u s r e a s o n in g o f such an argument i s i t s p r e ­
mise t h a t th e i n d i v i d u a l i s th e p ro d u c t of w hatever s o c i e t y ,
in which "he happens to f i n d h i m s e l f . ”
I t should be remem­
b e re d t h a t th e i n d i v i d u a l i s a p ro d u c t o f th e f a m il y , and
th ro u g h th e f a m ily , i s in c o r p o r a te d i n t o th e S t a t e and b e­
comes a member o f s o c i e t y *
As su c h , th e i n d i v i d u a l has c e r ­
t a i n i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t s which ca n n o t be d e n ie d .
T h e re fo re ,
a d e n i a l of th e i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t s of th e i n d i v i d u a l s c a r c e ­
l y b e f i t s a p ro p e r co n cep t o f a d e m o c ra tic s o c i a l o r d e r o r
id e a l.
The argum ent s e rv e s to in tr o d u c e a c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e ,
common to many w r i t e r s in th e f i e l d of e d u c a tio n :
nam ely,
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of th e needs of y o u th , n o t a s an i n h e r e n t p a r t
o f human n a t u r e , b u t as p re -d e te rm in e d b y th e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l
order.
In t r u t h , E ig h te e n th c e n tu r y I n d iv id u a l is m , h e r a ld e d
2
by Rousseau, weakened th e s o c i a l f o u n d a tio n of e d u c a tio n .
T w e n tie th c e n tu r y S o c ia lis m te n d s to r e - e n f o r c e t h i s s o c i a l
f o u n d a tio n , w hich, i t i s c la im e d , sh o u ld e x i s t between th e
i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y , and by such e x c lu s iv e n e s s m i s i n t e r ­
p r e t s th e t r u e n a t u r e of th e c h i l d .
As a r e s u l t , contempor­
a r y American e d u c a ti o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , in d e a lin g w ith th e qu es­
t i o n , what a r e th e needs of y o u th w hich a r e th e concern of
seco n d ary s c h o o ls , r e l i e s g r e a t l y upon th e r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l
g a th e r e d by th e P r e s i d e n t ’ s R esearch Committees
v iz ,
1. H o llis L. Caswell and Doak S. Campbell, C urriculum Develop­
m en t. N. Y . , American Book C o., 193$, p . 36.
2 . Rev. F ranz DeHovre, P h ilo so p h y And E d u c a tio n , p p . 205-208.
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15
1
d e c e n t S o c ia l T re n d s.
n
In 1929, P r e s i d e n t Hoover asked a group of ”em inent
s c i e n t i s t s ” to examine i n t o th e f e a s i b i l i t y o f a n a t i o n a l
su rv ey of s o c i a l tr e n d s i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s .
The f o llo w in g
Committee was named«•*to conduct th e r e s e a r c h and to make a
r e p o r t : Wesley C. M i t c h e l l , eco n o m ist; C h a rle s E. Merriam,
.
p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t ; S helby M. H a r r i s o n , econom ist and s o c i ­
o l o g i s t ; Dr. A lic e H am ilton, m e d ica l i n v e s t i g a t o r o f o c c u p a tio n ­
a l d i s e a s e s ; Howard W. Odum, r e s e a r c h e x p e r t ; W illiam P. Ogbum,
s o c i o l o g i s t , and Edward E. Hunt, e x p e r t on s c i e n t i f i c manage­
m ent.
Under th e c h a irm an sh ip o f Dr. M i t c h e l l , and i n c o l l a b o r ­
a t i o n w ith numerous c o n t r i b u t o r s and ” e x p e r t s ,f a comprehen­
s iv e s tu d y of s o c i a l movements and te n d e n c ie s was made.
Such e v e n ts as th e World War, th e i n f l a t i o n and d e f l a t i o n
o f a g r i c u l t u r e and b u s i n e s s , our emergence a s a c r e d i t o r n a ­
t i o n , th e s p e c t a c u l a r i n c r e a s e in e f f i c i e n c y and p r o d u c t i v i t y ,
th e t r a g i c sp re a d of unemployment and b u s in e s s d i s t r e s s , th e
renewed i n t e r e s t i n c h i l d w e l f a r e , a r e a few of the f a c t o r s
w hich prompted th e s u rv e y .
I t was b e lie v e d t h a t a r e p o r t ,
which would i n t e r - r e l a t e th e d i s j o i n t e d f a c t o r s and elem en ts
i n th e s o c i a l l i f e of A m erica, m ight su p p ly a b a s i s f o r th e
phase o f th e n a tio n * s d e v e lo p m e n t.”
The l i m i t a t i o n s o f a
s u rv e y , which i s l a r g e l y composed of s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a as a
b a s i s f o r f o r m u la tin g n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s , a r e r e v e a le d by th e
1* Recent S o c ia l T re n d s . R eport of th e P r e s id e n t* s R esearch
Committee On S o c ia l T rends, N .Y ., McGraw-Hill Book C o.,
1934.
J
16
r
Committeef s own adm ission*
H erein th e r e a d e r is warned
n
t h a t a summary o f s o c i a l problems i n th e o r d e r o f t h e i r
s o c i a l im p ortance i s n o t fo rth c o m in g :
But to draw up such a l i s t r e q u i r e s agreem ent
upon some c r i t e r i o n o f s o c i a l im p o rta n c e , as w e ll
as sh a rp d e f i n i t i o n o f problems which assume v a ry ­
in g forms and meanings as th e y a r e viewed from
d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s . A summary p erh ap s more s e r v i c e ­
a b l e to f u t u r e t h i n k i n g , a lth o u g h l e s s d i r e c t i v e
o f immediate a c t i o n , b a n b e p ro v id ed by p o i n t i n g
o ut in a b s t r a c t form th e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
which s o c i a l problems have in common. 1
The Committee u rg e s as a s o l u t i o n to problems n o t econom­
i c p la n n in g a lo n e , n o r g o v ern m e n tal, b u t a s y n t h e s i s o f s c i e n ­
t i f i c , e d u c a t i o n a l , as w e ll as economic, in c lu d in g i n d u s t r i a l
and a g r i c u l t u r a l , and governm ental p la n n in g .
T h in k in g , p l a n ­
n in g , o r a c t i o n r e q u i r e some s ta n d a r d o r purpose i n o rd e r t o
become e f f e c t i v e .
The Committee has f a l l e n i n t o an e r r o r ,
which Pope Leo X III has th u s d e s c r ib e d :
F o r, i t Is th e o p in io n o f some, and th e e r r o r i s
a l r e a d y common, t h a t th e s o c i a l q u e s tio n i s m erely
an economic one, whereas i n p o i n t o f f a c t , i t i s
above a l l a m oral and r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r , and f o r
t h a t reaso n must be s e t t l e d by th e p r i n c i p l e s o f
m o r a l i t y and a c c o rd in g to th e d i c t a t e s o f r e l i g i o n .
. . . T r i a l and e x p e rie n c e have made i t a b u n d a n tly
c l e a r t h a t many a workman l i v e s in cramped and
m is e r a b le q u a r t e r s , in s p i t e of h is s h o r t e r hours
and l a r g e r wages, sim ply b ecau se he has c a s t a s i d e
t h e r e s t r a i n t s o f m o r a li ty and r e l i g i o n . Take away
th e i n s t i n c t which C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e has p la n te d
and n u r tu r e d in menf s h e a r t s , ta k e away p ru den ce,
tem perance, f r u g a l i t y , p a t i e n c e , and o th e r c o r r e c t ,
n a t u r a l h a b i t s , no m a t t e r how much he may s t r i v e ,
he w i l l n ev e r a c h ie v e p r o s p e r i t y . 2
The Committee b e l i e v e s t h a t th e f i n a l s o l u t i o n may be achiev
ed by f u r t h e r s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s and p r a c t i c a l in v e n t i o n s ,
1. I b i d . , p . l x x i i .
2. Pope Leo X I I I , C h r i s t i a n Democracy, The G reat E n c y c lic a l
L e t t e r s Of Leo X III,W ith P re fa c e By Rev. John J.Wynne, S . J .,
N. Y ., B enzig er B r o s ., 1903, p . 486.
j
17
(""*and th e "grow th o f new i d e a l s , id e a s and em o tio n a l v a lu e s ”1
of th e n e x t p e r i o d . ”
The v e ry d e f e c t and weakness t h a t
c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s R eport has perm eated e d u c a ti o n a l l i t e r a ­
t u r e and e d u c a ti o n a l p o l i c i e s u n der th e s p o n s o r s h ip of a
m a t e r i a l i s t i c p h ilo s o p h y o f E x p erim e n tal!sm .
S o c ia l problem s,
a c c o rd in g to t h i s Com mitteef s R e p o rt, a r e th e p ro d u c ts of
s o c i a l change.
E d u ca tio n f o r a changing w o rld , i t i s claim ed ,
f i n d s a k ey n o te in th e b e l i e f t h a t th e c lu e to u n d e r s ta n d in g
problem s of econom ics, governm ent, r e l i g i o n , f a m ily l i f e , e t c . ,
a s w e ll a s th e hope f o r improvement l i e s i n th e f a c t o f s o c i a l
change.
The Committee h o ld s t h a t two g r e a t s o c i a l o r g a n iz a ­
t i o n s , th e economic and governm ental a r e growing a t a r a p i d
r a t e , w h ile two o th e r " h i s t o r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s ” , th e Church
1
and th e f a m il y have d e c lin e d in " s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e " .
I t i s t r u e t h a t th e economic f u n c t i o n s of th e f a m ily have
been t r a n s f e r r e d to th e f a c t o r y w ith th e grow th o f m ech anical
in v e n t i o n .
P r e s e n t day homes a r e no lo n g e r th e economic u n i t s
which th e y were in c o l o n i a l Am erica.
Along w ith th e d e p a r­
t u r e o f many p ro d u c tiv e a c t i v i t i e s from th e home, l a r g e num­
b e r s of women, th ro u g h n e c e s s i t y o r c h o ic e , have e n t e r e d
v a r io u s f i e l d s o f employment.
Broken homes, e s p e c i a l l y th o se
d i s r u p t e d by d i v o r c e , have o cc asio n ed a d e c l i n e i n f a m ily
2
life .
c lin e .
Com mercialized r e c r e a t i o n has had a sh a re in t h i s d e­
Tne government has assumed a l a r g e r p r o t e c t i v e r o l e
w ith i t s p o l i c i n g f o r c e s , i t s enormously expanded s c h o o ls ,
1. Recent S o c ia l T ren d s, p . x i i i .
2 . I b i d . , C h .X I I I - TTThe F am ily And I t s F u n c tio n s " , w r i t t e n by
W illiam F. Ogburn, p p . 661-708.
18
r
i t s c o u r t s , and i t s s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n .
D e s p ite th e need
n
o f governm ental or s t a t e a id f o r f a m i l i e s , u n a b le to p r o ­
v id e f o r th em selv es under p r e s e n t c o n d itio n s i n th e s o c i a l
and economic o r d e r , i t should be emphasized that- th e p r i o r i ­
t y of fa m ily r i g h t s sh o u ld , i n no way, be je o p a r d iz e d o r
m inim ized.
The e v id e n c e , p r e s e n te d by th e R esearch Committee as to
th e " s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ’1 o f th e Church, has a n o t i c e a b l e
b ia s i n f a v o r of th e r e c e n t e f f o r t s to c o n s o l i d a t e d i f f e r e n t
P r o t e s t a n t s e c t s by a l e s s e n i n g emphasis upon th e p la c e of
and im po rtan ce of dogma in r e l i g i o n .
The su rv e y o f r e l i g i o u s
o r g a n iz a tio n s i n t h i s c o u n try concludes t h a t th e s e a g e n c ie s
" a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h ig h d eg ree o f s t a b i l i t y and p e r s i s 1
t e n c e ." S in ce t h i s m a t e r i a l d e a ls c h i e f l y w ith P r o t e s t a n t
c h u rc h e s, i t i s not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f th e C a th o lic Church
nor a p p l i c a b l e t o i t .
Let i t be s a id t h a t a s o c i e t y , a n a t i o n , and c i v i l i z a t i o n
in g e n e r a l , p r o g r e s s e s only by an a tte m p t to ap p ly unchang­
in g p r i n c i p l e s , based on t r u t h and e x p e r ie n c e , to th e con­
s t a n t l y ch an g in g , a c c i d e n t a l c o n d itio n s o f th e s o c i a l o r d e r .
As su ch , t r u e p r o g r e s s , t h e r e f o r e , must r e c o g n iz e t h a t t h e r e
a r e c e r t a i n th in g s t h a t n ev e r change, and p r i n c i p l e s , unchang­
in g i n and o f th e m s e lv e s , which a r e i n t e r p r e t a t i v e of th e
t r u e n a t u r e of man and th e t r u e n a t u r e o f s o c i e t y .
Only th e s e
p r i n c i p l e s can a d e q u a te ly s o lv e th e s o c i a l problem s, which
fa c e America to d a y .
L
" F u r t h e r s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s and
l . I b i d . , Ch.XX-”Changes In R e lig io u s O r g a n iz a tio n s ” , w r i t t e n
by C. L u th e r P ry , pp. 1009-1060.
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r
—
j
p r a c t i c a l i n v e n t i o n s ” cannot s o lv e s o c i a l problem s, as th e
P r e s i d e n t s R esearch Committee b e l i e v e .
A n a t i o n advances
n o t by t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s , b u t by an a tte m p t to a p p ly
unchanging p r i n c i p l e s , based on t r u t h , to a changing s o c i a l
order.
In k e e p in g w ith such p r i n c i p l e s , th e o b l i g a t i o n of th e
t’
f a m ily $ to p ro v id e f o r p r o p e r m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s J s o c i a l , and
C iv ic e d u c a tio n o f i t s o f f s p r i n g 'n ev er chan g es.
M oreover,
i
th e in h e r e n t r i g h t of th e f a m ily 'to d e c id e the type of edu­
c a t i o n , w hich c h i l d r e n w i l l r e c e i v e , can n e v e r be changed.
A gain, th e i n d i s s o l u b i l i t y of m a rria g e cannot be a b ro g a te d
by man.
The i changes in the f a m il y , s t r e s s e d by t,he R esearch
Committee in i t s R e p o rt, a r e of an a c c i d e n t a l n a t u r e and
d ep end en t upon tim e , p l a c e , environm ent and c irc u m s ta n c e s .
More p e r t i n e n t to th e m a t t e r of e d u c a tio n i s th e f o llo w ­
in g :
The changes in i n d u s t r i a l , economic, and s o c i a l
c o n d i tio n s vChich have ta k e n p la c e i n r e c e n t yeArs
c r e a t e a demand f o r a k in d of e d u c a tio n , r a d i c a l l y
d i f f e r e n t from t h a t which was re g a r d e d a s a d e q u a te
in e a r l i e r p e r io d s when th e s o c i a l o r d e r was compara­
t i v e l y s t a t i c . Members o f a changing s o c i e t y must
be p re p a re d to r e a d j u s t t h e i r i d e a l s and t h e i r •
h a b its of l i f e .
They must n o t o n ly be p o ss e s s e d
o f c e r t a i n ty p e s of knowledge and s k i l l which were
common a t th e time when th e y went to s c h o o l , b u t
must be t r a i n e d in such a way a s to make them
a d a p ta b le to new c o n d i t i o n s . 1
I t w i l l be seen t h a t th e r a p i d ch an g es, which have occ u red w i t h i n r e c e n t y e a r s , have th u s c r e a te d many demands f o r
new ways o f l i v i n g .
However, such demands do n o t j u s t i f y
1. I b i d . , p . l x x i .
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20
Tan e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t k in d o f e d u c a ti o n .
Man’ s n a t u r e has1
n ot changed ana th e c h i l d , "whole and e n t i r e " , "body and s o u l" ,
i s s t i l l th e s u b j e c t o f e d u c a tio n .
There a r e c e r t a i n un­
changing phases of man’ s n a t u r e , or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , which
must be in c lu d e d in th e e d u c a tiv e p ro c e s s f o r h is p ro p e r
developm ent.
The e x p r e s s io n , "a c o m p a ra tiv e ly s t a t i c s o c i a l
o r d e r " , im p l ie s , o f n e c e s s i t y , some d eg ree o f change.
t o r y ^ v e r i f i e s ' th e f a c t t h a t s o c i a l o r d e r s do change.
H is­
Yet
th e p re se n c e o f c e r t a i n permanent elem ents in c i v i l i z a t i o n ,
which have n o t changed, g iv e t r u s tw o r th y ev id en ce t h a t a l l
i s n o t change.
F o r, i f i t w ere, t h a t p ro p a g a tio n o f s o c i e t i ­
es and man’ s s o c i a l h e r i t a g e would be im p o s s ib le .
I d e a l s and
h a b i t s of l i f e a r e n o t so e a s i l y a c q u ir e d or d is c a r d e d ,
because such become d ee p ly in g r a in e d in th e n a t u r e o f the
i n d i v i d u a l , and t h e i r r e a d ju s tm e n t i s made only when d e f i n ­
i t e , new co n c ep ts o f v a lu e s a r e formed.
To g iv e e x p r e s s io n
to th e view t h a t i d e a l s and h a b i t s o f l i f e a r e c o n t r o l l e d
by new c o n d itio n s does not r e c o g n iz e man’ s power to th in k
and w i l l f o r h im s e lf .
His i d e a l s and h a b i t s o f l i f e a r e n o t
determ in ed by en v iro n m e n ta l f a c t o r s , though such f a c t o r s
may have an i n f l u e n c e upon th e i n d i v i d u a l .
R ead ju stm ent to p r e s e n t and p ro b a b le f u t u r e s o c i a l p ro b ­
lems o r c o n d i t i o n s , and th e a d a p t a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l
t h e r e t o , c o n s t i t u t e th e m ajor demands p la c e d upon e d u c a tio n .
As a d i r e c t i v e m otive i n r e a d ju s tm e n t, th e N a tio n a l Educa­
t i o n A s s o c ia ti o n p u b lis h e d a R e p o rt, I m p lic a ti o n s o f S o c ia l
Economic Goals f o r E d u c a tio n , wherein! th e s e g o a ls were
L.
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n
liste d *
1 . H e r e d ita r y s t r e n g t h ; 2 . P h y s ic a l s e c u r i t y ;
5 . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an e v o lv in g c u l t u r e th ro u g h
s k i l l s , t e c h n i c s , and know ledges; ^ P a r t i c i p a ­
t i o n in an e v o lv in g c u l t u r e th ro u g h v a l u e s ,
s ta n d a r d s , and o u tlo o k s ; 5 . An a c t i v e , ' f l e x i b l e
p e r s o n a l i t y ; 6 . S u i t a b l e o c c u p a tio n ; 7 . Economic
s e c u r i t y ; 8 . M ental s e c u r i t y ; 9 . Freedom; and,
1 0 .F a i r p la y . 1
The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a tio n , which a r i s e f r o m th e s e
g o a l s , re v o lv e around the problem o f making th e American
p eop le more v i v i d l y c o n scio u s o f th e n a tio n * s dominant
s p i r i t , f o r th e pu rpp se o f a v o id in g any w aste of th e n a t i o n ’s
energy i n i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s .
When t h i s s p i r i t i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o f g o a l s ,
th e s o c i a l and- economic p o l i c i e s b e s t d esig n ed to
a c h ie v e th o s e g o a ls must be fo rm u la te d and b ro u g h t
w ith in th e u n d e r s ta n d in g and a c c e p ta n c e o f th e
p e o p le . T hat i s th e p ro v in c e o f e d u c a tio n which
must ta k e th e le a d i n s p re a d in g among th e p e o p le ,
an u n d e r s ta n d in g o f t h e i r n a t i o n a l s o c ia l-e c o n o m ic
g o a l s , and i n c r e a t i n g an a c t i v e p u b lic o p in io n
f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t. T his in v o lv e s n o t only th e edu­
c a t i o n a l system d ev ised f o r th e young bu t c o n t in u ­
ed e d u c a tio n f o r a d u l t s as w e l l . . . Schools con­
s t i t u t e on ly a p a r t o f th e e d u c a ti o n a l w hole. But
they in c lu d e t h a t p a r t which aims c o n s c io u s ly a t
th e development o f one ty p e of c h a r a c t e r and i n ­
t e l l i g e n c e , r a t h e r th a n a n o t h e r . A ll o f th e demands
Imposed by th e s o c ia l-e c o n o m ic g o a ls of America
f o c u s , t h e r e f o r e , i n th e a c t i v i t i e s and alms o f th e
sc h o o l system i n America'.. . . . . . School e x p e r i ­
ences should be as i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to th e
r e g u l a r l i f e e x p e rie n c e s o f th e l e a r n e r as p o s s i b l e .
S o c i a l and economic s t u d i e s should have a l a r g e
p la c e i n th e c u r r ic u lu m . The p u p i l r a t h e r th a n th e
s u b j e c t m a t t e r must be th e c e n t e r o f th e t e a c h e r ’ s
i n t e r e s t s . The e v i l s o f i n d o c t r i n a t i o n must be
av o id ed by u s in g sound methods o f te a c h i n g . 2
There i s c l e a r l y spen
a s im u la te d f e a r o f th e e v i l s o f
%
1 . I m p l i c a t i o n s o f S ocial-E conom ic g o a ls f o r E d u c a tio n , A
Report o f th e Committee on S ocial-E conom ic Goals o f
America, Fred J . K e lly , Chairman, 1937, pp. 9 -1 7 .
2 , I b i d . , P. 119-121.
L
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22:
r I n d o c t r i n a t i o n f o r th o s e who n a i v e l y d i s p l a y a te n a c io u s
d i s p o s i t i o n toward t h e i r own d o c t r i n e s .
n
However, i t may he
s a i d , w ith a l l t h e i r f e a r of i n d o c t r i n a t i o n , th e y a r e them­
s e lv e s engaged in a most ra n k form o f i n d o c t r i n a t i o n .
The
T h i r t e e n t h Yearbook of th e Departm ent o f S u p e rin te n d e n c e ,
S o c ia l Change and E d u c a tio n , acknowledges th e e x i s te n c e of
d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p in io n a s to s o c i a l and economic p o l i c i e s ,
b e s t d e sig n e d o r o th e r w is e , t h a t in f lu e n c e s o l u t i o n s of
p r e s e n t day p roblem s.
Ten S o c ia l T rends, g e n e r a l l y a c c e p te d
a s s i g n i f i c a n t to d ay in America may be summarized a s f o llo w s :
1. M echanical in v e n tio n s make p o s s i b l e in c r e a s e d
tim e f r e e d from th e p ro d u c tio n of goods and
s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d f o r th e m aintenance of a
g iv e n s ta n d a r d o f l i v i n g .
2 . S o c ie ty i s to day c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s e r i o u s s t r a i n s
• due .to th e f a i l u r e o f many o f o u r i n s t i t u t i o n a l
forms and p r a c t i c e s to keep ^ a c e w ith th e r e c e n t
r a p i d r a t e o f i n d u s t r i a l change.3 . The i n c r e a s i n g amount o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and d i ­
v i s i o n o f p r o c e s s e s has in c r e a s e d th e in te r d e p e n d ­
ence among i n d i v i d u a l s , com m unities, and n a t i o n s ,
and i s r e s u l t i n g ' i n an i n c r e a s e o f c o o p e r a tiv e
a c tio n .
4 . The growing c o m p le x itie s of modern l i f e a r e r e ­
s u l t i n g i n an i n c r e a s e o f l a r g e - s c a l e , lo n g -tim e
p la n n in g .
5. The machine age red u ce s th e d i r e c t p e r s o n a l r e l a ­
t i o n s h i p betw een p ro d u c e r and consumer and th u s
, te n d s t o i n c r e a s e our dependence upon forms of
s o c ia l c o n tro l.
6. With th e i n c r e a s i n g co m p lex ity of s b c i e t y , th e
so u rce of c o n t r o l o f a social! agenc# te n d s to 1
become more remote from i t s i n d i v i d u a l b e n e f i ­
c ia rie s.
7 . The i n t r i c a c i e s o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p have
r e s u l t e d i n th e in c r e a s e d u se o f e x p e rt knowledge
, and t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p .
8. The growing r e c o g n i t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s
^ i s r e s u l t i n g i n g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f th e
p r o v is io n s made a v a i l a b l e to people i n a democracy.
1. O p . c i t . , N a tio n a l E d u ca tio n A s s o c ia ti o n , W ashington, D.C.
1935V p p . 138-139.
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9. The dynamic c h a r a c t e r of i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y ,
th e d i v e r s i t y o f c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s in modern
l i f e , th e w id er d i f f u s i o n o f knowledge, and
th e r i s e o f s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e s a r e te n d in g
to weaken a u t h o r i t a r i a n and c o n v e n tio n a l con­
t r o l s ov er human co n d u ct.
10. The developm ent o f s o c i a l c l e a v a g e s , b o th h o r i ­
z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l , i s d eepening th e s t r a i n s
and t e n s i o n s i n American l i f e . 1
S p e c i f i c recommendations i n term s of e d u c a ti o n a l p ro c e ­
d u re s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , d e r iv e d from th e stu d y of th e se
t r e n d s , a p p e a r in th e same D ep artm en t’ s F i f t e e n t h Yearbook,
p u b lis h e d in 1937, The Improvement of E d u c a tio n ;
t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r Democracy.
I t s in ­
U n iv e r s a l e d u c a tio n a t p u b lic
expense and an a d e q u a te e d u c a ti o n a l o p p o r tu n ity f o r a l l a r e
th e two u niqu e p r i n c i p l e s in American e d u c a tio n which
m o tij
v a te t h i s proposed program f o r i t s improvement?
(a) Guidance i n s o c i a l l i v i n g c u lm in a tin g in a
s o c i a l s t u d i e s program t h a t f i t s y o u th t o take
an e f f e c t i v e p a r t i n a d u l t s o c i e t y .
(b) A h e a l t h and p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n program t h a t
p r o v id e s p e r i o d i c a l ex a m in a tio n f o r a l l c h i l ­
d r e n , c o r r e c t i v e tr e a tm e n t f o r th o s e who need
i t , r e c r e a t i o n and p la y f a c i l i t i e s , and guidance
i n h e a l t h f u l l i v i n g d u rin g th e 2 4 -h o u r day.
(c) M astery o f th e common i n t e g r a t i n g knowledges
and s k i l l s needed by a l l p e rso n s who w i l l l i v e
t h e i r normal l i v e s o u ts i d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e .
(d) An a d a p t a t i o n o f th e program to th e n eeds of
c h i l d r e n who may be i n any way s o c i a l l y , p h i s i c a l l y , o r m e n ta lly h and icap ped .
(e) C orrespo n ding a d a p t a t i o n to th e n eeds of th o s e
c h i l d r e n who a r e s p e c i a l l y t a l e n t e d , in c lu d in g
em phasis upon s c h o l a r s h i p , commensurate w ith
c a p a c i t y f o r ach iev em en t.
( f ) Development o f a p p r e c i a t i o n , a b i l i t i e s , and ex­
p r e s s i o n th ro u g h c r e a t i v e a r t s .
(g) O p p o rtu n ity f o r grow th th ro u g h manual a c t i v i t y ;
p r a c t i c a l a r t s f o r younger c h i l d r e n and house­
h o ld and i n d u s t r i a l a r t s f o r o l d e r .
(h) F o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n , p r e - v o c a t i o n a l s t u d i e s le a d ­
in g to l a t e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n s k i l l e d t r a d e s ;
1. I b i d . , p p . 13-25.
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v o c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n a t th e low er l e v e l s f o r
th o s e who must seek employment a t th e c lo s e o f
th e secon dary sc h o o l p e r i o d .
( i ) O rg a n iz a tio n o f c u rric u lu m m a t e r i a l s around
th e id e a o f c h i l d grow th r a t h e r than th ro u g h
a group o f more o r l e s s u n r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s . 1
I n th e m a t t e r o f e d u c a ti o n a l p u rp o se , a f o u r - f o l d d i v i s i o n
o f o b j e c t i v e s has been su g g e ste d by th e E d u c a tio n a l P o l i c i e s
2
Commissions!
o b j e c t i v e s o f s e l f r e a l i z a t i o n ; human r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip ; economic e f f i c i e n c y ; and c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , . ;The
purpose of th e s e o b j e c t i v e s i s th e f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e d e v e lo p ­
ment o f th e i n d i v i d u a l w ith in th e "framework of o u r p r e s e n t
i n d u s t r i a l i z e d , d e m o c ra tic . s o c i e t y . ”
These o b j e c t i v e s , i n
terms of e d u c a ti o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , may be i l l u s t r a t e d by
r e f e r e n c e to th e s i x o r g a n iz in g p r i n c i p l e s to follow * which
a r e used a s c r i t e r i a to f o r m u la te a "dynamic and l i f e - c e n t e r e d "
c u rric u lu m .
Such a c u rric u lu m p ro p o ses to "harm onize youth* s
e d u c a ti o n a l developm ent w ith h i s fun dam ental needs and i n t e r 3
e s t s , w ith h i s s o c i a l en v iro n m e n t, w ith h i s whole c a r e e r . ”
A sy n o p sis of th e s e o r g a n iz in g p r i n c i p l e s w i l l summarize
t h i s C h a p te r.
The s i x o r g a n iz in g p r i n c i p l e s are*
(1) I n d i v i d u a t i o n —-the developm ent of th e i n d i v i d u a l
i n harmony w ith h i s fu n d am en tal needs and b e s t
in te re s ts ;
(2) S o c i a l i z a t i o n — th e developm ent of th e i n d i v i d u a l
’ i n harmony w ith th e -n e e d s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of
h i s s o c i a l environm ent;
1. The Improvement o f E d u c a tio n , p p . 141-150.'.
2. The Purpose o f E d u ca tio n i n American Democracy. E d u c a tio n a l P o l i c i e s Commission, 1938, p . 47.
3 . Youth E d u catio n Today, S i x t e e n t h Y earbook, American A sso c i­
a t i o n of School A d m in is tr a to r s , N a tio n a l E d u ca tio n A sso c ia ­
t i o n , 1938, p .1 5 .
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(3) I n t e g r a t i o n — tHe a t ta i n m e n t o f e d u c a ti o n a l
v a lu e s by b r in g in g t o g e t h e r and u n if y in g
th e p r o c e s s e s and outcomes of e d u c a tio n ;
(4) S p e c i a l i z a t i o n — th e p r o v i s i o n o f s p e c i a l
t r a i n i n g and s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d by in d i v i d u ­
a l s and s o c i e t y ;
(5) Dynamic a p p ro ac h — th e f a c i l i t a t i o n of p u rp o se­
f u l l e a r n i n g and dynamic te a c h i n g ;
(6) Guidance— a c u rric u lu m emphasis which c o n t r i ­
b u te s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o th e i n d i v i d u a l ' s
e d u c a t i o n a l , v o c a t i o n a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , and
so c ia l ca re er, 1
I t may be s a id t h a t th e f o r e g o in g s i x p r i n c i p l e s a r e , in
r e a l i t y , n o t p r i n c i p l e s p r o p e r ly s p e a k in g .
P rin c ip le s are
s ta te m e n ts o f t r u t h s , o r g e n e r a l l y a c c e p te d r u l e s of a c t i o n ,
o r g o v ern in g laws of co n d u c t.
Not one o f th e s i x " s o - c a l l e d ”
p r i n c i p l e s i s a p r i n c i p l e , i n th e p r o p e r meaning o f th e
term , o r even a c l e a r , com plete s ta te m e n t.
The f i r s t " p r i n ­
c i p l e ” makes no d e f i n i t e e x p la n a tio n of what c o n s t i t u t e s
th e fu nd am ental n eeds o f an i n d i v i d u a l .
Y e t, th e q u e s tio n ,
what a r e t h e s e fun dam en tal n e e d s , i s th e v e ry core o f th e
m a t t e r u n d er c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
The t r u e n a t u r e of th e i n d i v i ­
d u a l , who i s to be e d u c a te d , i s th e l o g i c a l b a s i s o f th e
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f such n e e d s.
i n d i v i d u a l ' s n a t u r e i s made.
Y e t, no a n a l y s i s o f th e
This d e f i c i e n c y w i l l be t r e a t e d
and c r i t i c i z e d in C h ap ters I I I and IV.
The second ”p r i n c i p l e ”-developm ent o f th e i n d i v i d u a l in
harmony w ith th e needs and p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f h i s s o c i a l en­
v iro n m en t- shows a c a r e l e s s u se o f words.
Does an e n v iro n ­
ment have needs and p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n i t s e l f o r in d e p en d en t
of man?
I f th e meaning i s th e needs and p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f
th e s o c i e t y , to which th e i n d i v i d u a l b e lo n g s , who i s to
L1. I b i d .
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26
d e t e r m i n e such?
The Committee on Social-E conom ic Goals
f o r America u n d e rto o k to e s t a b l i s h a program, a s we have
se e n .
The e s ta b li s h m e n t o f g o a ls f o r America i s , in i t s e l f ,
an a m b itio u s e n t e r p r i s e b e s e t w ith many d a n g e rs .
There i s
a d an ger in th e l i m i t a t i o n o f g o a ls to th e so c ia l-e c o n o m ic
alo n e.
This i s so b e c a u s e , in th e j o i n i n g o f th e te rm s,
s o c ia l- e c o n o m ic , t h e r e i s im p lie d a s o c i a l i s t i c form of
governm ent, r a t h e r th an a d e m o c ra tic form .
I t i s re c o g n iz e d
t h a t th e so c ia l-e c o n o m ic a s p e c t s predo m inate i n non-dem ocrat­
i c forms of governm ent.
Nor i s th e economic elem ent o f a
c i v i l i z a t i o n to be c o n s id e r e d synonymous w ith th e whole
of s o c ie ty .
The r e s p e c t i v e phases o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , l i n g u i s t ­
i c , m o ra l, i n d u s t r i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s and
a e s t h e t i c , can n o t be red uced to a tw o - f o ld , hyphenated
d i v i s i o n o f s o c ia l- e c o n o m ic , u n le s s t h e r e i s a d e l i b e r a t e
i n t e n t t o r e s t r i c t American c i v i l i z a t i o n t o th e s e two e l e ­
ments o n ly .
Such an i n t e n t has been a m o tiv a tin g f o r c e in th e con­
s t r u c t i o n of American e d u c a ti o n a l program s, and has been
2
a t t r i b u t e d to th e Commission On The S o c ia l S t u d ie s . This
Commission pro p o ses to have th e s o c i a l s t u d i e s ta u g h t i n
a c o l l e e t i v i s t i c " f r a m e .o f r e f e r e n c e . ”
P o l i t i c a l propagan­
da and c o l l e e t i v i s t i c i n d o c t r i n a t i o n a r e to be s u b s t i t u t e d
f o r g en u in e s o c i a l s c i e n c e .
The rem a in in g f o u r " p r i n c i p l e s 111, i n t e g r a t i o n , s p e c i a l i ­
z a t i o n , dynamic a p p ro a c h , and g u id a n c e , would r e q u i r e
1. See p p .20-21 of t h i s C h a p ter.
2 . F r e d e r ic k S. B read, E d u c a tio n And The New R e alism . '
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n
n
le n g th y tr e a tm e n t in o r d e r to c l a r i f y t h e i r meaning.
S in ce t h e s e s o - c a l l e d " p r i n c i p l e s 1* do n o t c o n t r i b u t e
to th e purpose o f t h i s s tu d y to th e e x t e n t t h a t i n d i ­
v i d u a t i o n and s o c i a l i z a t i o n d o , no c r i t i c i s m o f them
i s in c lu d e d a t t h i s time*
In th e e v a lu a t io n of th e
S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum to f o l l o w , th e s e f o u r f a c t o r s
w i l l r e c e iv e m inor m en tio n .
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28
CHAPTER" III*
THE SOCIAL-CIVIC CURRICULUM
By way of an a tte m p t to meet th e needs o f p u p i l s in
th e seco n d ary sc h o o ls o f Y onkers, New York, a r e p r e s e n t a ­
t i v e group o f p r i n c i p a l s and s u b je c t t e a c h e r s , u n der th e
g u id ance of Dr. Lloyd N. M o r r i s e t t , A s s i s t a n t S u p e rin te n d
e n t , i n ch arg e o f se co n d ary s c h o o ls , fo rm u late d a c u r r i c u
lum, which i s known as th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculu m .
This
c u rric u lu m was approved and adopted f o r u s e in th e p u b lic
h ig h s c h o o ls , e f f e c t i v e J a n u a ry 1956.
By Jan u ary 1938,
th e j u n i o r h ig h sc h o o ls had a l r e a d y r e v is e d t h e i r c o u rse s
o f stu d y i n co n fo rm ity t o t h i s new p l a n .
I n t h i s manner,
i t I s claim ed , a r t i c u l a t i o n w ith th e s e n i o r h ig h sc h o o ls
m ight be e f f e c t e d .
1
The problem o f c u rric u lu m making and i t s remaking has
been g iv e n much a t t e n t i o n by modern e d u c a to r s .
Thomas H.
B riggs g iv e s e x p r e s s io n t o t h i s f a c t i n th e f o llo w in g :
The fundam ental problem i n e d u c a tio n i s th e
c u rric u lu m . What should be ta u g h t to a la r g e
e x t e n t d ete rm in e s th e o r g a n iz a tio n of our s c h o o ls ,
th e b u ild i n g s and equipm ent, th e methods u se d ,
and th e v a lu e s o f th e sc h o o ls to th e community.
. . No s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , p r i n c i p a l , o r te a c h e r
can proceed f a r w ith i n t e l l i g e n t p l a n s —in d e e d ,
he can h a r d ly b eg in t h e m - - u n t l l he has decided
what i s t o be ta u g h t, and y e t ab o ut n o th in g i n
e d u c a tio n i s l e s s w ith c e r t a i n t y known. 2
1 .W illiam H. K i l p a t r i c k , Remaking th e C u rricu lu m , N. Y .,
Newson & C o., 1936
2 . B rig g s, o p . c i t . , p . l .
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In k ee p in g w ith th e p u rp o ses o f th e Yonkers C urriculum
r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , Judd w r i t e s :
The h ig h sc h o o l h a s , by v i r t u e o f i t s new
p o s i t i o n * a s a p a r t o f th e common s c h o o l, a c ­
q u ir e d s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s which i t d id n o t
have in e a r l i e r y e a rs when i t was a sch oo l
f o r a s m a lle r number o f s e l e c t e d p u p i l s . The
d is c h a r g e o f th e s e new o b l i g a t i o n s c a l l s f o r
a new s e r i e s of c o u r s e s and re a d ju s tm e n t of
th e t r a d i t i o n a l c o u r s e s . 1
The S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum o f Y onkers, i t may th e n be
s a i d , was d e s ig n e d to g iv e p u p ils i n th e h ig h sc h o o ls an
i n t e g r a t e d and c o o r d in a te d program of s tu d y , w h e re in , by
c a r e f u l l y p la n n ed t r a i n i n g , th e i n d i v i d u a l vd 11 be g iv e n
th e n e c e s s a r y d i r e c t i o n to so lv e p r e s e n t s o c i a l and c i v i c
p roblem s.
At th e same tim e , t h i s t r a i n i n g sh o u ld c o n t r i ­
b u te t o th e maximum d eg ree in a i d in g th e c h i l d t o meet
and s o lv e a d e q u a te ly th e problem s o f a d u l t l i f e .
The con­
t e n t of t h i s c u rric u lu m se ek s to d e v e lo p , among o th e r t h i n g s ,
w orthy and p o s i t i v e s o c i a l - c i v i c a t t i t u d e s , and a " s e n s i t i v e
s o c i a l c o n s c io u s n e s s ” .
I t a l s o seeks t o make p r o v is io n f o r
d e f i n i t e t r a i n i n g , d i r e c t e d t o th e f o rm a tio n of th o s e a t t i ­
tu d e s and s k i l l s t h a t make f o r c h a r a c t e r , c i t i z e n s h i p ,
p a t r i o t i s m , and, i n g e n e r a l , an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f American
c u ltu re .
Such, in b r i e f , i s th e C urriculum Committee’ s d e s c r i p ­
t i o n o f th e p u rp o ses o f th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C u rricu lu m .
It' is
one t h in g t o d e s c r i b e the pu rpo ses o f an u n d e r ta k in g l i k e
th is .
I t i s an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r and f a r more
1. Judd, o p . c i t . . p . 73.
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im p o r ta n t, and, i n r e a l i t y , more d i f f i c u l t , to a c h ie v e
s u c c e s s f u l l y th e p r e s c r ib e d p u rp o s e s .
I n s e t t i n g f o r t h th e aims o f th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C u rricu lu m ,
th e Committee u se s th e te rm s , p rim a ry aims and secondary*
U s u a lly , prim ary aims a r e u n d e rs to o d to mean th o s e o b je c ­
t i v e s , which ta k e n as a w hole, im ply some b a s i c p h ilo s o p h y
o f e d u c a tio n as a d i r e c t i v e f o r c e i n th e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f
a ,c u r r i c u l u m .
Secondary Sims a tte m p t th e a p p l i c a t i o n o f
t h i s b a s i c p h ilo s o p h y by v i r t u e of th e v e ry m a t e r i a l s
s e l e c t e d , which a r e I n c o r p o r a te d as components of .the
c u rric u lu m .
However, t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n i s not
made in th e sta te m e n t o f aims of th e S o c ia l- C iv ic C u r r ic u ­
lum.
The prim ary aims of th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum a r e s
(1) a d ju s tm e n t, «*r a d a p t a t i o n to environm ent w ith p r o f i t
b o th to th e i n d i v i d u a l and t o th e s o c i a l group; (20 a l t r u ­
ism, or i n s p i r a t i o n o f young p e rso n s w ith a d e s i r e f o r th e
g r e a t e s t h ap p in ess f o r th e g r e a t e s t number, w ith th e sc h o o l
assuming th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r o v id in g th e means to
a c h ie v e t h i s o b j e c t i v e ; (3) c u l t u r e , or th e u n d e r s ta n d in g ,
a p p r e c i a t i o n , and enjoyment o f knowledge, b e a u ty , and
a c t i v i t y f o r t h e i r own sa k e .
Secondary a l a s a r e s (1) r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s , which im p lie s
th e d is c o v e r y , a n a l y s i s , e v a lu a t io n and u se o f new f a c t s
f o r s e l f e d u c a tio n ; (2) l i v i n g i n th e p r e s e n t , which means
t o en a b le young p erso n s to l i v e " f u l l y * w h ile th e y a r e
l e a r n i n g ; (3) e f f i c i e n c y and economy, whose purpose i s
j
31
rt o en a b le young p erso n s to a c co m p lish th e prim ary aims w ith 1
th e g r e a t e s t e f f i c i e n c y and l e a s t c o s t i n tim e and e f f o r t *
In su c c e e d in g p a r a g r a p h s , t h e r e w i l l be p r e s e n te d a
condensed d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e newly ad o p ted C u rriculu m , a s
approved by th e Yonkers Board o f E d u c a tio n .
The m a t e r i a l s
a r e tak en and a d a p te d from a B u l l e t i n , is s u e d by th e As­
s i s t a n t S u p e r in te n d e n t o f S c h o o ls , d a te d May 11, 1937.
L et i t be rem arked t h a t our p u rp o s e , a t p r e s e n t , i s d e s c r i p ­
tiv e .
Any e v a lu a to r y rem arks a r e r e s e r v e d f o r a su b se q u en t
c h a p te r .
The aims o f th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum a r e :
(1) t o e n a b le boys and g i r l s t o c o n t r o l o r to
a d j u s t them selves to t h e i r s o c i a l en v iro nm en t;
(2) to en a b le boys and g i r l s to c o n t r o l o r t o
a d j u s t th em selv es to t h e i r p h y s i c a l en viro n m en t;
(3) to e n a b le boys and g i r l s to r e c o g n i z e , id e n ­
t i f y , a p p r e c i a t e and i n t e l l i g e n t l y so lv e th e
d a i l y problem s which f a c e them, and which w i l l
l i k e l y f a c e them in a d u lth o o d ;
(4) to e n a b le boys and g i r l s to a c h ie v e and
m a in ta in good, sound p h y s ic a l and m e n tal h e a l t h ;
(5) to e n a b le boys and g i r l s to e n jo y and p r o f i t ­
a b ly u se t h e i r l e i s u r e o r non-w orking h o u rs;
(6) to i n s p i r e boys and g i r l s to be a m b itio u s
and have a w i l l to become e c o n o m ic ally compe­
t e n t when th e time comes, and a l s o to g iv e
t r a i n i n g in th e a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s t h a t w i l l
in su re t h i s g o al;
(7) to e n a b le boys and g i r l s to e n jo y and
a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n one o r more o f th e
c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s o f our own American
so c ie ty ;
(8) to e n a b le boys and g i r l s who a r e i n t e l l e c t u a l ­
l y c u r io u s to s a t i s f y t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i ­
t y by le a d in g them i n t o new and more advanced
avenues and a r e a s o f th o u g h t and c u l t u r e . 1
1. B u l l e t i n from th e O ffic e o f th e A s s i s t a n t S u p e r in te n ­
d e n t o f S c h o o ls, a d d re s s e d to th e j u n i o r h ig h school
P r i n c i p a l s and Guidance C o u n s e lo rs, d a te d May 11, 1937.
This m a t e r i a l i s used w ith th e p e rm is s io n o f Dr. Lloyd
N. M o r r i s e t t , A s s i s t a n t S u p e r in te n d e n t o f S ch o o ls.
32
r
The S o c i a l - C i v i c C u rric u lu m th e n , e x i s t s l a r g e l y
1
f o r th o se young p eo p le who, on co m p letio n o f hig h s c h o o l,
in te n d , i f o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e , to e n t e r im m ediate­
ly some g a i n f u l o c c u p a tio n .
As such, i t s o b j e c t i v e s a r e n o t
th o s e o f th e c o l l e g e - p r e p a r a t o r y c o u r s e , b ecause such object*
iv e s a r e t h e purp ose o f th e Academic C u rricu lu m .
P u p ils who
com plete th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum and a r e recommended
by th e p r i n c i p a l o f t h e i r sc h o o l w i l l r e c e iv e a h ig h sc h o o l
diplom a, when th e f o llo w in g requirem ents: have been s a t i s f i e d
Requirem ents f o r G ra d u atio n from th e S o c i a l - C i v i c
Cours¥
P art I
R equired o f a l l p u p i l s
U n its
E n g l i s h —4 y e a rs (U n it l - 9 t h y r . )
4
American H is to r y &
S o c i a l Problems ( s e n i o r y r . only)
1
G eneral S c ie n c e ( 9 th y r . only)
,1
S o c i a l S tu d ie s ( 9 t h y r . o n ly )
1
H e a lth & P h y s ic a l E d u ca tio n
3 p e r io d s p e r week
1
G uid ance--2 p e r io d s p e r week
3
P art II
Sequence i n two d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s e l e c t e d by th e
^ p u p ils (One u n i t in e i t h e r sequence may be tak en
in th e 9 th y e a r)
Major Sequence
3
Minor Sequence
2
P art I I I
E le c tiv e s
4
T o ta l
19
E l e c t i v e sequences u n d e r P a r t I I may be chosen from
any one o f th e fo llo w in g f i e l d s :
S o c i a l S tu d ie s
E x p re s s iv e and C r e a tiv e A rt
P e rso n a lity
Music
i
S cie n ce
Commercial
S o c i a l F inance
1. I b i d .
33
M a tu re and C ontent of Courses in th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C u rrlc u - n
lum
The s u b j e c t s , o f f e r e d in t h i s c u r r ic u lu m , w i l l be s tu d ie d
w ith o u t r e g a r d f o r th e 11t r a d i t i o n and l o r e ” co nn ected w ith
th e s u b j e c t s in th e p a s t .
The t r e a t m e n t , t h e r e f o r e , w i l l
be o f a p o s i t i v e n a t u r e , and th e p ro ced u re w i l l be such as
to i n t e r e s t boys and g i r l s , by a p u r p o s e f u l a tte m p t to
a s s i s t i n s o lv i n g t h e i r p r e s e n t and p ro b a b le f u t u r e prob­
lem s.
In con seq uence, such a t t e n t i o n to problem s o lv in g
w i l l , th ro u g h a s s o c i a t i o n w ith p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t s of th e
p u p i l s , c o n t r i b u t e to th e s a t i s f a c t i o n of f u t u r e n e e d s .
The
g rad e l e v e l and th e d e g re e o f d i f f i c u l t y o f th e work w i l l be
m o d ifie d and a d j u s t e d to b e s t meet th e v a r y in g a b i l i t i e s
and c a p a c i t i e s of the p u p i l s , and, in t u r n , to d e v e lo p th o se
a b i l i t i e s and c a p a c i t i e s to th e "optimum” .
cg n g lish
Courses in E n g lis h w i l l be d e sig n e d to h e lp
p u p i l s i n s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , s o c i a l u s a g e , b u s in e s s u s a g e ,
re a d in g a p p r e c i a t i o n and c o n v e r s a tio n .
P e r s o n a l i t y Development (Years 10 and 11)
This c o u rse in
r e a l i t y one o f s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s , c u ts a c r o s s th e a r e a s of
f i n e a r t s , E n g lis h , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , c u r r e n t s o c i a l problems
and t r e n d s , s c i e n c e , s o c i a l g r a c e s , v o ic e t r a i n i n g , e t c . This
co u rse w i l l be o f f e r e d in y e a r s 10 and 11, and should be
d evelo p ed so as to a i d boys and g i r l s i n a c h ie v in g a f u l l e r
and more com plete developm ent o f a w e ll rounded p e r s o n a l i t y .
S o c ia l S tu d ie s (Years 10, 11, and 12)
The s o c i a l s t u d i e s
. co u rse w i l l be developed as a p o s i t i v e h e lp f o r boys and
i_
J
34
r"
g i r l s i n r e c o g n i z in g , a p p r e c i a t i n g , u n d e r s ta n d in g and
-i
s o lv in g th e ev ery day s o c i a l problems o f t h e i r l i v e s .
I t w i l l d e a l w ith such u n i t s a s :
consumer econom ics; th e
p la c e o f th e c a l e n d a r , a l p h a b e t and p r i n t i n g i n o u r p r e s ­
e n t w o rld ; democracy a s a way o f l i f e ; s o c i a l developm ent;
i n d u s t r y and i n v e n t i o n a s an a id to man1s achievem ent and
p r o g r e s s ; t r a d e , b a r t e r and money a s th ey a f f e c t d a i l y
l i v i n g ; s a f e t y ; l o c a l , s t a t e and n a t i o n a l governments#
S cien ce
The tr e a tm e n t and development o f th e c o u r s e s i n
s c ie n c e w i l l be made w ith a " f o r t h r i g h t a tte m p t to g iv e boys
and g i r l s th e a b i l i t y to, a d j u s t th e m selv es t o , o r to c o n t r o l
th e p h y s i c a l e n v iro n m e n t w ith which th e y come i n t o c o n ta c t
inost f r e q u e n t l y and most c lo s e ly #
The c o u rs e s o f f e r e d w i l l
be n a t u r a l environm ent i n y e a r s 10 and 11; elem e n tary voca­
t i o n a l s c ie n c e i n y e a r s 10 and 11 ; and p r a c t i c a l p h y s ic s
and c h e m istry i n y e a r s 11 and 12.
S o c ia l F in ance
T his c o u rse in c lu d e s a tr e a tm e n t o f th e
m athem atics o f th e d o l l a r ; e le m e n ta ry b u s in e s s p r i n c i p l e s ;
b u d g et making and b u d g et p r a c t i c e s ; th e m a th e m a tic a l and
s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f th e m athem atics in v o lv e d i n th e
ow nership o f l i v i n g e s s e n t i a l s as th e home, th e autom obile*
th e r a d i o , u t i l i t y a p p l i a n c e s , u t i l i t y s e r v i c e s , bu y in g on
th e i n s t a l l m e n t p l a n , I n t e r e s t on lo a n s and paym ents, e t c .
The c o u rse w i l l be d esig n e d to develop a t t i t u d e s toward
and s k i l l s i n d e a l i n g w ith m a th e m a tic a l f u n c t i o n s , which
o p e r a te i n b o th p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l l i f e o f th e av e ra g e
, in d iv i d u a l#
.
35
h e a l t h and P h y s ic a l A c t i v i t i e s
^
The i n t e n t and purpose o f t h i s c o u rse w i l l he to h e lp
boys and g i r l s a c h ie v e and m a in ta in good p h y s ic a l and
m ental h e a l t h .
The i d e a l w i l l be a h e a l t h f u l , f u n c t i o n a l
body and a f u l l y dev elo p ed p e r s o n a l i t y .
H e a lth in f o r m a tio n
w i l l be d is s e m in a te d and t r e a t e d i n p r a c t i c a l , u n d e r s ta n d s
a b l e te rm s . P h y s ic a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l l a r g e l y d i s r e g a r d the
fo rm a l a c t i v i t i e s , and emphasize th e in fo rm a l p h y s ic a l a c t i v i ­
t i e s , which b u i l d permanent h a b i t s and- a t t i t u d e s toward
p e r s o n a l developm ent, s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and th e d ev e lo p ­
ment of th e p e r s o n a l i t y .
The a c t i v i t i e s s t r e s s e d w i l l be
th o s e t h a t have a c a r r y in g - o v e r i n f lu e n c e i n l i f e a f t e r
h ig h sc h o o l g r a d u a t io n .
H e a lth and p h y s ic a l a c t i v i t i e s in
th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum sho uld d e a l in a p r a c t i c a l and
e f f e c t i v e way w ith hygiene and c o r r e c t i v e t h e r a p e u t i c s .
H e a lth can n o t be s a id to be th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of any
s i n g l e group o f t e a c h e r s o r o f any d e p a r t m e n t ., A ll te a c h e r s
and a l l d e p a rtm e n ts o f th e sc h o o l sh o u ld be h e a l t h con­
sc io u s.
U n its on h e a l t h sho u ld be f r e q u e n t l y found i n th e
s e v e r a l s c ie n c e c o u r s e s , i n s o c i a l f i n a n c e , i n p e r s o n a l i t y
developm ent, and in s o c i a l s t u d i e s .
Guidance (Years 10, 11, and 12)
Guidance i n th e S o c ia l- C iv ic C urriculum w i l l be th e
p r i v i l e g e o f a l l boys and g i r l s who ta k e t h i s c u rric u lu m
f o r two p e r io d s e a ch week, th ro u g h o u t t h e i r s e n i o r h ig h
sc h o o l c o u r s e .
Guidance a s a d e f i n i t e l y sch ed u led e d u c a tiv e
e x p e rie n c e w i l l d e a l p r i m a r i l y w ith o r i e n t a t i o n , v o c a tio n a l
i
_J
36
r
*1
in f o r m a tio n and a t t i t u d e s , e d u c a ti o n a l in f o rm a tio n and
a t t i t u d e s , s o c i a l g u id an ce and p la cem en t.
T his c o u rse w i l l
aim to r e v e a l each p u p il to h im s e lf , and la y s t r e s s upon
th e p u p i l f s a s s e t s , a b i l i t i e s , and h i s f i t n e s s f o r u s e f u l
s e r v i c e , w hich, i n th e end, sh o u ld mean p e r s o n a l , economic
competence f o r th e p u p i l .
Data r e v e a l i n g th e s e q u a l i t i e s
w i l l be c o n tin u o u s ly dev elo ped and i n t e r p r e t e d by th e
p u p ils u n d er th e g u id an ce and d i r e c t i o n o f th e t e a c h e r ,
E x p re ssiv e and C r e a tiv e A rts (Years 10, 11, and 12)
The a r t s , commonly known a s a r t , m u sic , a r t s and c r a f t s
(m an ual), home-making, and home c r a f t s f o r boys ( s o c i a l ) ,
w i l l be develop ed a s mediums to promote e x p r e s s iv e and
c re a tiv e ta le n ts .
The aims w i l l be b o th to c a r r y forw ard
p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t s and to g e n e ra te o r d ev e lo p new i n t e r e s t s .
The i n d i v i d u a l and h i s p e r s o n a l i t y w i l l be th e c h i e f c r i t e r i ­
on of a d ju s tm e n t and d i r e c t i o n .
A p p r e c ia tio n w i l l be s t r e s s ­
ed , and i n i t i a l em phasis p la c e d upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a
f i n e a r t , a s an i n d i v i d u a l o r group a c t i v i t y .
Commercial (Years 10, 11, and 12)
This c o u rse w i l l be com posite in n a t u r e and co v er th e
p r i n c i p l e s o f e le m e n ta ry b u s in e s s t r a i n i n g , ty p in g , sim ple
f i l i n g , e t c . , and be a d j u s t e d to the n e e d s , a b i l i t y and
i n t e r e s t s o f each p u p i l .
The c o u r s e , w h ile e x p l o r a t o r y
in c h a r a c t e r , w i l l be d eveloped from th e s t a n d p o in t o f
a p p l i c a t i o n and p r a c t i c a b i l i t y .
J
37
r
THE SOCIAL-CIVIC CURRICULUM
TENTH YEAR
One u n i t e q u a ls f i v e r e c i t a t i o n s p e r week f o r t h i r t y
e i g h t weeks.
F or any s u b j e c t ta k e n l e s s th an f i v e p e r io d s
p e r week, c r e d i t i s a l l o t t e d a t 1 /5 u n i t p e r weekly r e c i ­
t a t i o n p e r y e a r , i . e . t h r e e p e r io d s p e r week f o r one y e a r
eq u a ls 3 /5 u n i t s .
,
R equired
P e rio d s p e r week
E n g lis h
5
H e a lth and P h y s ic a l
A c tiv itie s
3
Guidance
2
Recommended E l e c t i v e s
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
;
P e rso n a lity
Development
N a tu ra l Environment
(S c ie n c e )
E lem entary V o c a tio n a l
S cie n ce
J S o c ia l F in ance
A rt
Music
I n d u s t r i a l A rts
Home-making
Commercial
(com posite c o u rse )
D rawring
U n it C r e d it
5
5
5
5
5
See
Note
Above
)
P e rm issiv e E l e c t i v e s (w ith th e a p p ro v a l of th e Guidance
C o u n selo r, b ased upon th e academic r e c o r d and a c h ie v e ­
ment i n th e p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t )
L a t i n , F re n c h , S p a n ish , I t a l i a n
A lgebra
P lan e Geometry
G eneral B iology
J
38
1
r
ELEVENTH YEAR AND TWELFTH YEAH
R equired
E n g lis h
H e a lth and P h y s ic a l
. A c tiv itie s
Guidance
P e rio d s p e r week
U n it C r e d i t
5
1
3)
2)
1
Recommended E l e c t i v e s
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
5
P e rso n a lity
Development
- 5
! P r a c t i c a l P h y sics and
Chem istry
5
N a tu r a l Environment
( S c ie n c e )
5
E lem entary V o c a tio n a l
S c ie n c e
5
S o c ia l F in ance
5
A rt
Music
I n d u s t r i a l A rts
Home-making
Commercial
(com posite c o u rse )
Drawing
Home C r a f t s ( s o c i a l ) Boys
See n o te on
u n it c re d it
on page 37
P e rm issiv e E l e c t i v e s (w ith th e a p p ro v a l of th e Guidance
C o u n selo r, based upon th e academ ic r e c o r d and achieve*
ment i n th e p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t )
L a t i n , F re n c h , S p a n ish , I t a l i a n
A lgebra
P lane Geometry
G eneral Biology
P h y sics
Chem istry
The m a t e r i a l , w ith in p p . 3 1 -3 8 , has been ta k e n from th e
B u l l e t i n , c i t e d on p . 31.
J
39
r
n
I t has been n e c e s s a r y to go i n t o d e t a i l in th e p r e ­
ce d in g e x p o s i t i o n , i n o r d e r to d e m o n stra te th e pu rpo ses
of and p ro c e d u re s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of th e S o c ia l- C iv ic
C u r r ic u lu m ,' w ith in th e secon dary s c h o o ls .
The program o f
s tu d y , c o n s tr u c te d f o r t h i s c u r r ic u lu m , employs th e u n i t
method of o r g a n iz in g s u b j e c t m a t t e r .
W ithin each co u rse
o f s tu d y , c e r t a i n u n i t s a r e s p e c i f i e d as r e q u i r e d , w h ile
o th e r recommended u n i t s a r e l e f t to th e d i s c r e t i o n and
1
judgment o f th e classro om t e a c h e r . By way of i l l u s t r a t i o n ,
th e S o c ia l S tu d ie s S y lla b u s s u g g e s ts th e f o llo w in g u n i t s
f o r th e se v e n th g r a d e .
I . - G e t t i n g a c q u a in te d w ith o u r j u n i o r h ig h sch o ol
II.-H ow our p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s a r e s e l e c t e d
I I I . - ( r e q u i r e d ) - I n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f man In th e
modem w orld
IV .-(re q u ire d )-T ra n sp o rta tio n
V . - ( r e q u ire d )-E x c h a n g in g th o u g h ts o r
Communication
V I.-(re q u ire d )-R o m a n c e o f Power and M echanics,
I n d u s t r i a l developm ent
V I I .- ( r e q u ir e d ) - D e v e lo p m e n t o f dem ocracy, o r
th e d e m o c ra tic way o f l i v i n g f o r us
1. The d e s i g n a t i o n of r e q u ir e d u n i t s i n each c o u rse of
stu d y i s in te n d e d to u n i f y th e work o f each grade in
a l l th e se co n d ary sc h o o ls of Y onkers, and , a t th e same
tim e , p e r m it some v a r i a t i o n in th e s e l e c t i o n o f recom­
mended U n its . Grayson N, K efau v er, An E d u c a tio n a l
P la tfo rm f o r 1930. S ta n f o rd U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , C a l i f o r n i a ,
19&6, a d v is e s freedom f o r te a c h e r s and s tu d e n ts in shaping
th e l e a r n i n g e x p e rie n c e s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r
group of s t u d e n t s , w ith in a g e n e r a l framework of "a
m ajor scope and sequence o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s t e n t a ­
t i v e l y p la n n ed in a d v a n c e .11 p p . 9-1 2 . R equired u n i t s ,
th ro u g h o u t th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C u rricu lum , m ight be th o u g h t
of as a m ajor scope and sequence o f l e a r n in g a c t i v i t i e s .
K e fa u v e rf£ u se of th e e x p r e s s io n , " l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s " ,
shows a tendency toward E x p e rim e n ta lism , w ith i t s
i n s i s t e n c e upon e x p e rie n c e s o r a c t i v i t i e s a s th e s o l e
method o f l e a r n i n g .
J
40
V I I I . - S o c i a l W e ll-b e in g (W elfare) in our community
IX .-W a ste fu l America o r C o n s e rv a tio n
X .- S a f e ty i n our community
XI.-My Heroes
X II.-O u r H e r ita g e from th e American I n d ia n 1
T h r e e ..r e la te d u n i t s , a t d i f f e r e n t g rade l e v e l s , have
been s e l e c t e d from t h i s same S y lla b u s .
These u n i t s a r e
concerned w itn th e development of th e p u p i l ’ s knowledge
and u n d e r s ta n d in g o f our American form of d e m o c ra tic govern­
ment.
A b r i e f a b s t r a c t o f t h e i r c o n te n t w i l l f o llo w .
How­
e v e r , th e o b j e c t i v e s o f such u n i t s w i l l be q u d te d in f u l l .
At th e s e v e n th g rad e l e v e l , th e r e q u i r e d u n it-"D ev e lo p m e n t
o f dem ocracy, o r th e D em ocratic way of l i v i n g f o r u s nhas th e f o llo w in g g e n e r a l o b je c tiv e s ,
To im press boys and g i r l s w ith th e f a c t t h a t
n o t th e l e a s t o f th e t h i n g s t h a t we a p p r e c i a t e
a b o u t our homeland I s th e p a r t we a l l have in
i t s governm ent. We have no d i c t a t o r to t e l l
us what t o do o r t h i n k . The army has n e v e r
p la y e d a l a r g e p a r t in^American l i f e , f o r t h i s
h as n ev er been n e c e s s a r y . In s h o r t , fwe, th e
people I have th e f i n a l power in A merica. 2
S p e c if ic o b je c tiv e s include:
1. To te a c h p u p i l s t h a t i t i s th e American b e l i e f
t h a t th e p eo ple a r e b e s t a b l e to p r o t e c t t h e i r
own l i b e r t y and promote t h e i r own h a p p in e s s ;
2. To show young p eo p le t h a t i n th e lo n g ru n th e
b e n e f i t s which we en joy u n d er a democracy a r e
s a f e a s long a s we p r e s e rv e t h a t form o f
governm ent;
3 . To im press o u r p u p i l s w ith th e f a c t t h a t
democracy a l s o te n d s toward i n t e r n a t i o n a l
p ea ce ;
4 . To show p u p i l s what l i b e r t y r e a l l y means i n
1. Taken from Revised O u tlin e of A S y lla b u s i n S o c ia l
S t u d i e s , Grades 7 , 8 , and 9, Yonkers P u b lic S c h o o ls,
W illlam W. Ankenbrand, S u p e r in te n d e n t of S ch o o ls;
Lloyd N. M o r r i s e t t , A s s i s t a n t , d a te d F e b ru a ry 1936,
p p . 18-19.
2 . I b i d . , p . 43.
J
41
o u r co m p lic ate d modern democracy;
5; To e n a b le th e s tu d e n ts to r e a l i z e t h a t our
American H e rita g e o f freedom i s n o t a p o s s e s ­
s io n l e f t to us by our a n c e s t o r s to use as we
w ish . I t i s a t r u s t which we must p r e s e r v e
f o r fu tu re c itiz e n s . 1
In th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c manner o f th e u n i t p la n of o r g a n i­
z a t i o n , t h e r e i s a d i v i s i o n o f th e m a t e r i a l s of stu d y i n t o
m ajor and m inor problem s. . The m ajor problems a r e :
X. Who was th e monarch, who was u n sc ru p u lo u s and
s e l f - i n d u l g e n t , and what was h i s p la n o f govern­
ment t h a t b ro u g h t a b o u t th e f i r s t s t e p toward
our p r e s e n t c o n s t i t u t i o n ?
I I . Why has t a x a t i o n been a bone of c o n te n tio n
th ro u g h o u t th e ag e s? How f a n r e a c h in g a r e
th e e f f e c t s o f t a x a t i o n upon our d a i l y l i v e s ?
I I I . What was th e B i l l of R ig h ts? Are t h e r e any
re a s o n s why boys and g i r l s o f to day sh o u ld
be i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s document? What a r e they?
IV. Why i s i t im p o rta n t to s a fe g u a rd our p o s s e s ­
s io n o f th e s e r i g h t s and what a r e th e o b l i g a ­
t i o n s o f e v e ry American c i t i z e n in r e g a r d to'
them? 2
A few o f th e m inor prpblem s a r e :
1. When choosing th e p r e s i d e n t o f yo ur c l a s s ,
th e mayor o f a c i t y o r th e c h i e f e x e c u tiv e
o f our n a t i o n , how im p o rta n t i s i t f o r th e
p eop le to inform th em selv es ab o u t th e type
of man who i s ru n n in g f o r o f f i c e ?
2 . How can p u b lic o p in io n c o r r e c t .abuses today
as i t d id in th e days of King John?
•
3 . Moneys r a i s e d by t a x a t i o n sh o u ld be used f o r
what p u rp o ses?
4 . In a t r u e democracy should e v e ry p erso n b e a r
h is f a i r s h a re in su p p o rt o f th e government?
Why? 3
S u gg ested a c t i v i t i e s , i n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e p u r s u i t
of t h i s u n i t , a r e : making p o s t e r s and c h a r t s , and drama­
tiz a tio n s.
In a d d i t i o n t o th e s e a c t i v i t i e s , a b i b l i o g r a ­
phy of a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l s accom panies th e u n i t , which
1. I b i d .
2 . I b i d . , p p .45-48
l3 . I b i d .
J
"42
r
I s s u g g e s tiv e o f b o th te a c h e r and p u p i l a c t i v i t i e s #
At th e e i g h t h g rad e l e v e l , th e r e q u i r e d u n i t , 11S e l e c t i n g
P u b lic
O f f i c i a l s ” , assumes s i g n i f i c a n c e i n term s o f e v e ry ­
day l i v i n g i n b o th g e n e r a l
and s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s .
The
gen eral o b je c tiv e i s :
To te a c h boys and g i r l s . t h a t one o f th e w eak est
t h i n g s i n our p o l i t i c a l l i f e i s th e way we t h i n k
o f th e government as som ething a p a r t from u s .
T h is i s wrong. We a r e th e governm ent. We sh o u ld
r e q u i r e i t to do as we w ish . 1
S p e c ific o b je c tiv e s a re :
1 . To te a c h p u p i l s t h a t i t i s a b s u rd to make a l l
th e p e o p le , o f th e town o r c i t y , pay f o r t h e i r
e d u c a tio n i f t h e i r main purp ose
i s to p r e p a r e
f o r c o l l e g e and to r i s e i n th e w o rld ;
2. To h e lp boys and g i r l s r e a l i z e t h a t we have
a government t h a t m ust be g u id e d by p u b l i c
o p in io n ;
3 . To te a c h th e p u p i l s t h a t th e p a r t y i n power
say s what th e ta x e s s h a l l b e;
4 . To show p u p i l s t h a t th e l o c a l , s t a t e and
n a t i o n a l government p la n s and spends t h e
p u b lic fu n d s;
5 . To h e lp p u p i l s u n d e r s ta n d t h a t th e M e rit System
p r e v e n ts th e v i c i o u s p r a c t i c e o f u s in g p u b lic
o f f i c e to pay p o l i t i c a l o r p r i v a t e d e b t s , and- ,
i t d e m o n s tra te s t h a t th e r e i s o n ly one way
and t h a t i s to give th e jo b to th e man who
h a s proved t h a t he can do i t . 2
The same i s p i r i t o f e a r n e s t n e s s , se en i n th e f o r e g o in g
c i t a t i o n , p r e v a i l s i n th e s ta te m e n t o f m a jo r problem s o f
.the u n i t . These f o llo w :
I . How can th e p u b lic sch o o l p r e v e n t such c r i t i c i s m
a s t h a t made by Owen D. Young t h a t th e l a s t g e n e ra ­
t i o n t h a t g ra d u a te d i s p o l i t i c a l l y h o p e le s s
b ecau se i t h a s had such poor p o l i t i c a l t r a i n i n g ?
I I . How i s p u b l i c o p in io n formed?
I I I . At l e a s t t h r e e b i l l i o n d o l l a r s i s p a id t o ap­
p ro x im a te ly t h r e e m i l l i o n employees i n th e
n a t i o n a l , s t a t e and l o c a l governm ent. F u l l y
1 . I b i d . p . 73
u2. isra .
43
r
o n e - f o u r t h o f t h i s amount i s w asted because
th e government has no c o n s ta n t o r ad e q u ate
employment p o l i c y . Why has t h i s c o n d itio n
been p e r m itte d to e x i s t in 39 o ut of 48 S t a t e s ,
t h a t i t s employees must be a p p o in te d by p o l i t i c a l
fa v o ritism f o r p o l i t i c a l se rv ic e s e n tir e ly re ­
g a rd le ss of a b i l i t y or tra in in g ? 1
"i
S uggested a c t i v i t i e s li k e w i s e become r e a l and e a r n e s ts
I n te r v ie w th e p r e c i n c t le a d e r and r e p o r t th e
r e s u l t , c o v e rin g th e s e p o i n t s : how he o b ta in e d
h i s p o s i t i o n , h i s ren u m e ra tio n and c h i e f d u t i e s .
Make a v i s t to C ity H all and r e p o r t how th e
c i t y c o u n c il conducts b u s in e s s i n Y onkers.
R eport on Boss Tweed and h i s a c t i v i t i e s . Make
a c o l l e c t i o n of* c a rto o n s r e l a t i n g to th e 1S p o il
S ystem 1•
Look up some w ell-known slo g a n s t h a t have p la y ed
a p a r t in d i r e c t i n g p u b lic th o u g h t;
In a b la c k b o a rd d i s c u s s i o n , make a l i s t of
d i f f i c u l t i e s in s e c u r in g a com plete democracy
in th e U n ite d S t a t e s . Make a n o th e r l i s t d e s c r i b ­
in g ways to overcome th e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s . 2
At th e n i n t h g rad e l e v e l , as a r e q u i r e d u n i t , f,The Con­
s t i t u t i o n o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s ” , has th e g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e
,
o f "making p u p ils r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r l i v e s a r e a f f e c t e d by
th e C o n s t i t u t i o n and th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t by th e Supreme
3
C o u rt” . S p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s u n i t , to g u id e th e l i f e
conduct o f i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t y a r e s
1. To have boys and. girl? c o n s id e r w hether i t i s
w ise to g iv e a broad or narrow i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
t o th e C o n s t i t u t i o n ;
2 . To have th e boys and g i r l s r e a l i z e t h a t a t th e
time o f th e d r a f t i n g o f th e C o n s t i t u t i o n th e re
was a d i v i s i o n o f o p in io n among th e P ou nd ers;
3 . To e n a b le p u p i l s to see th e r e a l re a s o n f o r
th e checks and b a la n c e s was th e F e d e r a l i s t s 1
f e a r of power i n th e hands of th e common p e o p le ;
1 . I b i d . , p p . 74-78.
2. I b i d .
3 . I b i d . , p . 92.
J
44
r
4 , To show th e p u p i l s t h a t th e t r e n d of American
th o u g h t tod ay i s sy m p a th e tic toward th e e x te n ­
s io n o f power to th e common man;
5. To c o n t r a s t th e r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s ac c o rd e d
th e common man u n d er our C o n s t i t u t i o n w ith
th o s e a f f o r d e d u n d e r F ascism and Communism. 1
Major and m inor problem s t h r u s t th e p u p ils r i g h t i n t o
th e c o n t r o v e r s i a l is s u e s ' t h a t f a c e America and th e whole
w o rld , a t th e p r e s e n t tim e .
F or example, ,fShould th e p r e s i ­
d e n t have power to i n i t i a t e l e g i s l a t i o n , o r should o n ly
Congress have t h i s power?
What a r e th e p a r t i c u l a r powers
of each d ep a rtm en t ( e x e c u tiv e , l e g i s l a t i v e , j u d i c i a l ) and
sh o u ld th e s e powers rem ain d e f i n i t e l y w ith th e d ep a rtm en t
2
t h a t now has them?
Why?”
A nother problem i s prefaced::
Every c o u n tr y , e x c e p t th o s e u n d e r th e r u l e of an
a b s o lu te monarch o r d i c t a t o r i s governed a c c o rd ­
in g to c e r t a i n r u l e s embodied i n a c o n s t i t u t i o n .
Why sh o u ld we be e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d in th e
C o n s t i t u t i o n a t t h i s tim e? 3
Minor p roblem s, in c lu d e d i n th e u n i t , in v o lv e such q ues­
tio n s a s:
Why do we h e a r so many o b j e c t i o n s when th e chang­
in g o f th e C o n s t i t u t i o n i s m entioned? In your
o p in io n , should th e C o n s t i t u t i o n be changed to
meet p r e s e n t day needs? Why d id th e American
p eop le f e e l t h a t a w r i t t e n C o n s t i t u t i o n was
necessary? 4
A d e s c r i p t i o n o f a day*s v i s i t to th e C a p ito l heads th e
l i s t o f s u g g e s te d a c t i v i t i e s .
Mr. Smith Goes to Washington
d e s c r i b e s a lo n g e r v i s i t to- the N a tio n a l C a p i t o l , a v i v i d
1.
2.
'3 .
4.
!_
Ib id .
Ib id .
T b l d . , p p . 93-94.
Ib id .
_I
45
Cam era s tu d y of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y w ith in th e S e n a te ;
P
Found in tn e same l i s t a r e th e f 61lowing* to b r i n g in
^
c a r t o o n s , e d i t o r i a l s and a r t i c l e s on th e C o n s t i t u t i o n .
That m ight prove to b e an i n t e r e s t i n g p a s tim e .
F o r th e
more a m b itio u s p u p i l s , th e s e s u g g e s tio n s m ight be stim u ­
l a t i n g , namely?
t e l l where you can f i n d th e names and
a d d r e s s e s of e x e c u tiv e o f f i c i a l s ; l i s t th e names o f p r e s ­
e n t o f f i c i a l s and f a c t s co n c e rn in g t h e i r r e c o r d s ; a s k
heads o f employees o f v a r io u s b u s in e s s e s how th e y l i k e
c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t i o n of t h e i r b u s in e s s by th e n a t i o n a l
governm ent.
The r e a d e r * s r e a c t i o n may be one of d i s a p p o i n t ­
ment, in t h a t so p ro m isin g a u n i t u s u a l l y m a t e r i a l i z e s
v ery p o o r ly , because many of i t s s u g g e s te d a c t i v i t i e s
l i e beyond th e i n t e r e s t s and c a p a c i t i e s of th e p u p i l s .
O r g a n iz a tio n o f u n i t s o f s tu d y in th e c o u r s e , ”S o c ia l
F in a n c e ” , p a r ta k e o f th e same p a t t e r n a s the S o c ia l S t u d ie s .
F or exam ple, th e u n i t , "B ud gets” , i s in tr o d u c e d w ith th e
fo llo w in g p r e f a c e ?
H appiness and p r o g re s s in the. home depend upon
th e e f f i c i e n t management o f th e f a m ily r e s o u r c e s .
. . . N e c e s s i t i e s a r e fo o d , c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r ;
b u t e v e ry f a m ily must p ro v id e f o r i t s f u t u r e
th ro u g h sa v in g s and advancem ent. E f f i c i e n t man­
agement must u se e f f i c i e n t l y th e r e s o u r c e s o f th e
f a m ily and p r e v e n t w aste o f tim e , en ergy and
m a t e r i a l . . . B u d g e t i n g i s a n e c e s s a r y guide to
w ise spending and s a v in g , a good guard a g a i n s t
I d l e spending and a b ig s t e p toward s y s te m a tic
s a v in g . 1
This u n i t b e g in s p r o p e r ly w ith a s tu d y of th e p u rpo ses
1. T e n ta tiv e O u tlin e Of A Course In S o c ia l F inan ce To Be
Used In The S e n io r High S chools As A P a r t Of The S o c i a l C iv ic C u rricu lu m , J u ly 1&58, p. 5.
J
46
r of th e b u d g e t.
Then f o llo w s a stu d y of incomes and e x p e n --1
s e s of f a m i l i e s o f wage e a r n e r s and v a r io u s low er s a l a r i e d
1
p e o p le , which were earn ed d u rin g th e y e a r s 1933-1935.
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of e x p e n d itu r e s i n th e Budget and v a r io u s
methods o f keep in g n e c e s s a r y r e c o r d s a r e t r e a t e d in d e t a i l .
I n s t a l l m e n t b u y in g , c r e d i t sy ste m s, and lo a n s e r v i c e s e n t e r
as ap p ro p ria te m a te ria l.
I n s t a l l m e n t buying r e c e i v e s a t t e n ­
tio n as a se p arate u n i t .
A nother u n i t i n t h i s same c o u r s e , "Emergency F in a n c in g " ,
s t r e s s e s th e f a c t t h a t sudden and u n fo re s e e n c o n d i tio n s
may u p s e t a l l o t h e r budget p l a n s , however c a r e f u l l y th e y
may have been plan ned i n ad vance.
Though n e i t h e r sudden
n o r u n f o re s e e n , i t may be s a i d t h a t o ld age ca n n o t always
be p ro v id e d f o r , an d , ih many i n s t a n c e s , becomes an emerg­
ency problem .
T his i s so b ecau se o f th e u n c e r t a i n t y o f l i f e
and o f i t s d u r a t i o n .
In modern tim e s , what i s c a l l e d " i n ­
d u s t r i a l o ld age" has come to be c o n s id e r e d som ething q u i t e
d i f f e r e n t from c h r o n o lo g ic a l o ld a g e .
This means th e a g e
a t which an i n d i v i d u a l i s e x p e c te d to r e t i r e from i n d u s t r y ,
even though he i s ca p ab le o f co n tin u e d work.
In th e t r e a t ­
ment o f emergency f in a n c e pro blem s, th e f o llo w in g t o p i c s
a r e g iven g r e a t e s t prom inence:
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
L if e In s u ra n c e in g e n e r a l
Kinds o f L if e In s u ra n c e P o l i c i e s
A bciden t In s u ra n c e
I l l n e s s In su ra n c e
Old Age ( P r o v is io n s of th e S o c ia l S e c u r i t y A ct)
Unemployment In s u ra n c e ( S o c ia l S e c u r i t y A ct)
1 . S t a t i s t i c a l in f o rm a tio n on such item s may be o b ta in e d from
th e N a tio n a l C ouncil of S o c ia l A g en cies, W ashington, D.C.
J
47
V II. P r o p e r ty Loss
V I I I . Automobile In s u ra n c e 1
The S o c ia l meaning o f ta x e s a s one o f th e o b l i g a t i o n s
and d u t i e s o f c i t i z e n s h i p c o n t r i b u t e s t o th e p u p i l f s con­
c e p t of Democracy i n th e u n i t , ttTaxes” .
The purpose of th e
u n i t i s e x p re s s e d in th e f o llo w in g manners
We a r e in d e ed f o r t u n a t e to l i v e in a Democracy
wl^ere o u r ta x e s a r e sp e n t l a r g e l y f o r e d u c a tio n .
E d u c a tio n a s a S t a t e f u n c t i o n has lo ng been one
o f th e fun dam en tal p r i n c i p l e s o f governm ent. I t
i s th e r i g h t o f e v e ry c h i l d in a democracy to be
ed u c a te d by th e S t a t e to th e maximum o f h i s
a b i l i t y o r d e s d re to l e a r n . T his fundam ental
p r i n c i p l e o f democracy i s p r e d i c a t e d on p u b lic
s u p p o r t o f e d u c a tio n , and a f a r g r e a t e r p o r t i o n
of o ur t a x money i s s p e n t on p u b lic e d u c a tio n
th an on armament and m a t e r i a l s of w ar. The
r e s u l t i s an i n t e l l i g e n t c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a te d
to th e d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of c i t i z e n ­
s h ip and an i n t e r e s t in t h e i r governm ent. S o c ia l
p r o g r e s s and a h ig h e r s ta n d a r d of l i v i n g f o r a l l
a r e i n e v i t a b l e u n d er such a system . Taxes, th e n ,
a r e th e money a government ta k e s from i t s peo p le
to s u p p o r t th e v a r io u s f u n c tio n s o f government
t h a t sh o u ld b e n e f i t th e p eo p le ta x e d .
How ta x e s a r e s p e n t w ith some d i s c u s s i o n on th e
r i g h t of ev e ry c i t i z e n to a n a ly z e c r i t i c a l l y th e
e x p e n d itu r e o f ta x money to th e end t h a t he demand
t h a t h i s ta x e s be s p e n t e f f i c i e n t l y and w ith o u t
w aste i s th e u n i t p u rp o se . 2
P r o p e r ty t a x , income, e s t a t e , i n h e r i t a n c e , e x c i s e , h i d ­
den and i n d i r e c t ta x e s a r e enum erated f o r s tu d y .
A ll of th e f o re g o in g u n i t s a r e a c t u a l m a t e r i a l s of
s tu d y , found i n th e s y l l a b i , p re p a re d f o r th e S o c i a l - C i v i c
C urriculum o f Yonkers Secondary S c h o o ls.
Because o f o u r
l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s s tu d y , th e s e may be c o n s id e re d i l l u s ­
t r a t i v e o f th e e n t i r e c o u rse o f s tu d y , and should prove
1. T e n ta tiv e O u tlin e Of A Course In S o c ia l F in a n c e , p p . 16-18.
2 . I b i d . , p.SSI
1
i
J
48
r~
s u f f i c i e n t t o a c q u a in t th e r e a d e r w ith i t s c o n t e n t s .
The
f o r e g o in g m a t e r i a l s a r e in te n d e d to f u r n i s h a b a s i s f o r
th e com parison and e v a l u a t i o n , which i s , in th e l a s t
a n a l y s i s , th e purpose o f t h i s s tu d y .
For th e p r e s e n t ,
however, th e q u e s t i o n may be a s k e d , how does th e S o c i a l C iv ic C urriculum meet th e a l l e g e d n eeds o f y o u th and th e
demands f o r r e a d ju s tm e n t w ith in th e s c h o o l, in term s o f
th e needs of American dem ocracy.
As m ight be e x p e c te d , th e aims o f th e S o c ia l- C iv ic
C u rricu lu m ; a d ju s tm e n t, a l t r u i s m , c u l t u r e , r e s o u r c e f u l ­
n e s s , l i v i n g in th e p r e s e n t , e f f i c i e n c y and economy, a r e
in agreem ent w ith th e p r i n c i p l e s of c u rric u lu m o r g a n iz a ­
t i o n , as proposed by the American A s s o c ia ti o n o f School
1
A d m i n i s t r a t o r s . F u r t h e r agreem ent i s s e e n ,w ith th e R eport
o f th e Departm ent of S u p e rin te n d e n c e , The S o c i a l S tu d ie s
C u rricu lu m .
This R ep ort s e t s f o r t h th e f o llo w in g a im st
(1) to g iv e p u p i l s th e t r u e s t and most r e a l i s t i c
knowledge t h a t i s p o s s i b l e of th e community,
s t a t e , n a t i o n , and th e w orld in which th e y
a r e to l i v e and make1 t b e i r way;
(2) to p r e p a r e p u p i l s f o r prom oting a w is e r and
more e f f e c t i v e c o o p e ra tio n among r e g i o n s ,
a r e a s , i n d i v i d u a l s , g ro u p s, communities and
n a tio n s;
(3) to d e v e lo p c h a r a c t e r — to g iv e p u p i l s a lo v e
o f t r u t h , and a w i l l and d e s i r e to use know­
le d g e f o r b e n e f i c i e n t s o c i a l en d s;
(4) to t r a i n p u p i l s in phe i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o c e s s e s
in d is p e n s a b le to th e f u n c t i o n i n g of s o c i e t y knowledge, s k i l l i n e x p lo rin g and s t a t i n g
s o c i a l i s s u e s , s k i l l in s e l e c t i n g and v e r i f y ­
in g f a c t s , and s k i l l i n d i s c u s s i n g and weigh­
in g them. 2
1. See C h apter I I , p p . 24-25.
2 . O p . c i t . , p . 9.
“1
49
r
h
The f i r s t a im -”to g iv e p u p i l s th e t r u e s t and most
r e a l i s t i c knowledge t h a t i s p o s s i b l e ” - b e a r s w ith i t an
i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t e d u c a tio n has p r e v io u s l y f a i l e d to su p p ly
such knowledge.
L et i t be remarked in r e p l y t h a t , an
unchanging aim o f e d u c a tio n i s to p u t th e c h i l d i n t o
1
p o s s e s s io n o f a body o f t r u t h . Many e d u c a to r s have evaded
t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f s u p p ly in g t r u e knowledge, much in
th e manner o f P i l a t e f s q u e s tio n - w h a t i s t r u t h ?
O ther educa-
i
t o r s deny the e x i s t e n c e of t r u t h a s an im changing, o b j e c t ­
iv e r e a l i t y .
T h is la c k o f ag ree m en t, as to th e n a t u r e of
t r u t h , s c a r c e l y can be s a i d to encourage i n c u l c a t i n g p u p i l s
w ith th e t r u e knowledge.
In a d d i t i o n , th e u se of th e te rm s ,
" t r u e s t and most r e a l i s t i c knowledge” i s p e c u l i a r .
th e t r u e s t knowledge th e most r e a l i s t i c ?
r e a l th a n th e r e a l i t y o f t r u t h ?
Is not
What can be more
Or, What can be judged a s
th e t r u e s t knowledge, i f an unchanging s ta n d a r d of t r u t h
i s la c k in g in o n e f s equipment?
In th e s o - c a l l e d p r e p a r a t i o n of p u p ils t o "promote a
w is e r and more e f f e c t i v e c o o p e ra tio n among r e g io n s , a r e a s ,
i n d i v i d u a l s ” , th e q u e s t i o n a r is e s - - h o w can such co op era­
t i o n be e f f e c t e d ?
P re s e n t day e d u c a to r s p la c e unbounded
c o n f id e n c e , even b l i n d f a i t h , in th e power of th e S o c ia l
1. S h i e l d s , o p . c i t . , I n s i s t s upon th e unchanging aim of
C h r i s t i a n e d u c a tio n as p u t t i n g th e p u p il i n t o p o s s e s ­
sio n of a body of t r u t h " d e r iv e d from n a t u r e and from
D ivine R e v e la tio n , from th e c o n c re te work o f manf s hand,
and from th e c o n te n t of human sp e e c h , i n o r d e r to b r in g
h i s conduct i n t o c o n fo rm ity w ith C h r i s t i a n i d e a l s and
w ith th e s ta n d a r d s o f th e c i v i l i z a t i o n o f h i s d a y . ” p . 171.
j
50
r & tudies to a c h ie v e t h i s end.
S o c i a l knowledge la no t
enough to s t i m u l a t e such c o o p e r a tio n .
^
N e it h e r can i t be
s a id I s th e same t r u e o f s o c i a l a c t i o n , u n le s s su ch a c t i o n
1
i s p r o p e r ly m o tiv a te d .
w i s e r and more e f f e c t i v e co o p e ra­
t io n * sh o u ld be prom oted, b u t th e Committee does n o t i n d i c a te th e p u rp o se o r o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s c o o p e r a tio n .
th e y f a i l to s p e c i f y the type o f c o o p e r a tio n .
Moreover,
By such i n d i r e c ­
t i o n , r a c k e t e e r s and g a n g s te r s may be c o n s id e r e d c o o p e r a tiv e
groups i n t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r way.
Such m form o f c o o p e ra tio n
i s n o t i n k e e p in g w ith sound m o r a l i t y and sound d em o cratic
p rin c ip le s.
The t h i r d a im -ttito d evelpp c h a r a c t e r " - i s a g e n e ra lly .
acknowledged o b j e c t i v e i n c u r r e n t e d u c a ti o n a l l i t e r a t u r e .
Two q u e s tio n s* " w h a t i s meant by good c h a r a c t e r * , and "how
i s th e sc h o o l to develop c h a r a c t e r * , have proven stu m b lin g
2
b lo c k s to many e d u c a to r s . C h a ra c te r fo rm a tio n must have aai
i t s f o u n d a tio n th e fo rm a tio n o f a p p r o p r i a t e h a b i ts o f
1.R ev. Pranz De H ov re,C a th o lic is m I n E d u c a tio n j N .Y .,
B en zlg er B r o s ., 1934 says t h i s i n c r i t i c i s m of s o c i a l
knowledge as an e f f i c i e n t m otive to s o c i a l a c t i o n s
"W ithout some s o r t o f s u p e r n a t u r a l m o tiv a tio n our id e a ls ;
o f s o c i a l w e lf a r e rem ain co n fu sed ; our w i l l to do i s
weak and v a c i l l a t i n g ; and o u r s o c i a l a c t i o n i s h a l f ­
h e a r te d and c a p r l c l o u s . * p . 151.
2 . E r n e s t R. H u ll, S . J . , The F orm ation Of C h a r a c te r , w r i t e s
as fo llo w s ? "The g r e a t o b je c t' o f our e f f o r t s i n t r a i n i n g
i s to form c h a r a c t e r . That c h a r a c t e r means l i f e dominated
by p r i n c i p l e s , and th o se p r i n c i p l e s a r e e t h i c a l t r u t h s
f i r m l y g rasp ed and a p p l ie d i n p r a c t i c e . The f ir m g r a s p ­
in g of th e s e t r u t h s and t h e i r r e g u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n to
conduct means n o th in g e l s e than t h e i r r e g u l a r fo rm a tio n
o f h a b i t s , " p . 82. "Father H u ll p o i n t s o u t t h a t th e e x c lu ­
s io n o f r e l i g i o n from s e c u l a r - e d u c a t i o n p u ts a s i d e what
from th e C h r i s t i a n view i s th e m ost e s s e n t i a l elementr
o f sound t r a i n i n g .
j
51
r
th o u g h t, v o l i t i o n , and m oral con d u ct.
The f o rm a tio n of
n
such h a b i t s i s n o t b ro u g h t a b o u t th ro u g h t h e i n f l u e n c e of
s o c io lo g y , a s th e p h ra se h i n t s - ”f o r b e n e f i c i e n t s o c i a l
l ‘
e n d s . ” I t i s r e l i g i o n , n o t s o c io lo g y , t h a t g iv e s p ro p e r
s a n c tio n to m o ti v a te , d i r e c t , and g u id e th e developm ent
o f good c h a r a c t e r .
Such c h a r a c t e r i s e s s e n t i a l l y th e o u t­
come o f r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n and m oral t r a i n i n g .
As co n cern s th e f o u r t h a im -” to t r a i n p u p i l s in th e i n ­
t e l l e c t u a l p r o c e s s e s i n d is p e n s a b le to th e f u n c t i o n i n g of
s o c i e t y ”- i t may w e ll be ask ed i f th e a d j e c t i v e , i n d i s p e n s ­
a b l e , has n o t been m is a p p lie d .
S k i l l ' i n e x p lo r in g and
i n t e r p r e t i n g s o c i a l i s s u e s , in s e l e c t i n g and v e r i f y i n g
f a c t s , in d i s c u s s i n g and ju d g in g them, means some s k i l l
in th e a p p l i c a t i o n of th e s c i e n t i f i c method.
This method
a f f o r d s a v a l i d and u s e f u l way of a c q u ir in g knowledge, b u t,
i n t r u t h , i t i s n o t th e o n ly method.
t o o l o f l e a r n i n g , r a t h e r than an end.
I t i s , in r e a l i t y , a
The s c i e n t i f i c
method cannot i n d i c a t e how s o c i a l problems a r e to be so lv e d
o r ought to be s o lv e d .
I n em phasizing th e im portance of
th e s e i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o c e s s e s , th o se e d u c a t o r s , who s t r e s s
1. S i s t e r Mary Gonzaga Welsh, The S o c ia l P hilo so p h y o f
C h r i s t i a n E d u c a tio n , W ashington, D .C ., The C a th o lic
E d u c a tio n P r e s s , 1936, c r i t i c i z e s s o c i o l o g i c a l educa­
t o r s who a r e s u b s t i t u t i n g th e means f o r th e end in
c a l l i n g th e s e r v ic e of hum anity a r e l i g i o n th u s :
”The t r u e o b j e c t o f r e l i g i o n has been l o s t s i g h t o f ;
and th e s o c i a l e f f e c t s o f r e l i g i o n , which a lo n e a r e
e v i d e n t to th e s e n s e s , have been s e iz e d upon and s e t
f o r t h a s i t g e s s e n c e . ” p . 32
j
52
r
l
"i
th e p r o b le m -s o lv in g method, em phasize, t h a t th e c h i l d
should be t a u g h t how t o th in k
r a t h e r th a n what to
th in k .
T his d i s t i n c t i o n between what
t o th in k and
how
to th in k
i s one o f mere w ords, b ec au se
th e what and
how
of t h i n k ­
in g a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d .
be s a id t h a t
r i g h t a c t i o n and
I t may
good w i l l a r e f a r more d e s c r i p t i v e o f th e term , in d is p e n s ­
a b l e , in th e f u n c t i o n i n g o f s o c i e t y th a n i s th e term ,
"in te lle c tu a lis m ” .
A com parison w ith th e o b j e c t i v e s of a N a tio n a l program
o f E d u catio n f o r Youth, as spon sored by th e American Coun­
c i l On E d u catio n r e v e a l s s i m i l a r o b je c tiv e s :-
lo y a lty ,
c o o p e r a tio n , a b i l i t y to m a in ta in happy and e f f e c t i v e homes
f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , v o c a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y , a b i l i t y to
2
spend l e i s u r e tim e p r o f i t a b l y , p h y s ic a l and m en tal h e a l t h .
The f o re g o in g o b j e c t i v e s a r e re c o g n iz e d and in c lu d e d w ith ­
in th e scope of the S o c ia l- C iv ic C urriculum o f th e Yonkers
seco nd ary s c h o o ls .
R e co g n itio n has a l s o been g iv e n to th e
demands t h a t sc h o o l e x p e rie n c e s sh ou ld be r e l a t e d as i n t i ­
m ately as p o s s i b l e to l i f e e x p e r ie n c e s ; t h a t a l a r g e p la c e
in the c u rric u lu m be g iv en to s o c i a l and economic s t u d i e s ;
and t h a t th e p u p i l r a t h e r th a n th e s u b j e c t m a t t e r must be
3
th e c e n t e r o f th e t e a c h e r ’ s i n t e r e s t . By an ex am in atio n
1 . B ru b ach er, op. c i t . , C h.X II-"The E d u c a tiv e P ro c e s s 1*- con­
t a i n s an a c c o u n t of th e o v er-em p h asis upon th e s c i e n t i ­
f i c method o r p ro b le m -so lv in g i n the e d u c a tiv e p r o c e s s .
2. See C hap ter I I , p p .1 1 -1 2 .
3 . See C hapter I I , p p .2 0 -21 .
J
53
r
"i
of th e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s S o c i a l - C i v i c C u rricu lu m , one
o b se rv e s t h a t i t conf/ftsfms w ith th e p le a f o r c e r t a i n k in d s
o f e x p e r i e n c e s , d e s ig n a te d as common e s s e n t i a l s , n e c e s s a r y
to e s t a b l i s h a "common c u l t u r e 1*.
The meaning of common c u l ­
t u r e i s n o t e x p la in e d , y e t th e f o llo w in g a r e s a i d to be
common e s s e n t i a l s :
These a r e common e s s e n t i a l s : a common lan gu ag e
and a modicum of s k i l l in u s in g t h a t language
f o r pu rp o ses of communication; a common knowledge
o f th e d i i t i e s , r i g h t s , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of
c i t i z e n s , and a d i s p o s i t i o n to d is c h a r g e th e s e
c i v i c d u t i e s i n th e i n t e r e s t s o f th e t o t a l s o c i a l
g ro up ; a c e r t a i n measure of knowledge and a p p r e c i a ­
t i o n o f th e w orld o f s c ie n c e i n which we l i v e ,
in b o th i t s p h y s ic a l and b i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s . In
a d d i t i o n to ,t h e s e , t h e r e a r e th e know ledges, s k i l l s ,
and a p p r e c i a t i o n s which a r e p r i m a r i l y v a lu a b le
to th e i n d i v i d u a l h im s e lf a s a member o f a s m a lle r
and more s p e c i a l i z e d group and i n no se n se e s s e n ­
t i a l f o r th e common s o c i a l w e lf a r e . These l a t t e r
s u b j e c t s may be r e p r e s e n te d by f o r e i g n la n g u a g e s ,
s p e c i a l i z e d and te c h n ic al* k n o w le d g e in s c ie n c e
and m a th em atic s, a r t , m usic, o c c u p a tio n a l s k i l l s ,
and r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . 1
A p p a re n tly , a common c u l t u r e , a c c o rd in g to the p re c e d in g ,
s ta te m e n t, embraces a common la n g u a g e , c i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g ,
p h y s ic a l and b i o l o g i c a l s c ie n c e .
Such a p p e a rs to be t h a t
c u l t u r e , e s s e n t i a l f o r th e "common s o c i a l w e l f a r e ” , and
p r i m a r i l y v a lu a b le to th e i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f .
,
j
C u ltu re may be d e f in e d o b j e c t i v e l y a s th e more r e f i n e d
elem en ts in c i v i l i z a t i o n , i . e . , la n g u a g e , l i t e r a t u r e , f i n e
a r t s , s c i e n c e , p h ilo s o p h y , m o r a l i t y and r e l i g i o n . .
S u b je c t­
i v e l y , o r w ith in th e i n d i v i d u a l , c u l t u r e may be d e f in e d as
1. W. B. F e a t h e r s t o n e , "New S chools F o r A New Day” , p p .64-65,
A C hallen ge to Secondary E d u c a tio n , E d ite d by Samuel
E v e r e t t , S o c ie ty f o r C urriculum S tu dy , N. Y . , D. A pp leto nCentury C o ., 1935.
,
54
n
th e b alan ce d re fin e m e n t o f a l l o f one*s c a p a c i t i e s , i . e . ,
p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , m o ra l, s o c i a l , and a e s t h e t i c .
The
common c u l t u r e , which Mr. F e a th e r s to n e deems e s s e n t i a l , i s
la c k i n g i n th e very e s se n c e o f c u l t u r e , nam ely, m o r a l i t y and
r e l i g i o n . Moreover, c i v i l i z a t i o n i s founded upon th e o b se rv ance o f m utual r i g h t s and s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s .
T h is means
t h a t r e s p e c t f o r p r o p e r l y - c o n s t i t u t e d a u t h o r i t y and w i l l i n g ­
n e s s to ab ide by th e r u l e s o f such a u t h o r i t y a r e th e founda­
t i o n sto n e s o f any c i v i l i z e d s t a t e .
Those m utual r i g h t s a re
g u a ra n te e d by th e m oral law , which i s e t e r n a l , unchanged
and unchanging b ecau se i t i s based on D ivine S a n c tio n , and
i s , t h e r e f o r e , in d e p en d en t o f man o r m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s .
I t f o llo w s , th e n , t h a t th e m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t o f
c u l t u r e i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f p r e s e n t day c i v i l i z a t i o n .
U nless t h i s m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t i s re c o g n iz e d as th e
e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f b o th c u l t u r e and c i v i l i z a t i o n , t h e r e i s
r e a s o n to be d i s t u r b e d by th e s i m i l a r i t y which e x i s t s b e­
tween our own c o u n try , w ith i t s w e a lth o f m a t e r i a l o r
te c h n o l o g i c a l im provem ents, and th e d e c a d e n t Homan Empire,
which m a t e r i a l p r o s p e r i t y could n o t sa v e.
In th e m a t t e r o f
c u l t u r e , th e m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t i s t h e v ery e s se n c e o f
c u l t u r e , and i s b a s ic to th e development and enrichm ent o f
human p e r s o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r .
be p u rsu ed f o r i t s own sa k e.
T h e r e f o r e , c u l t u r e must
However, by v i r t u e o f th e
d e f i n i t i o n g iv e n , i t may be s a id t h a t c u l t u r e , i n th e
L
55
P
I
se n se o f th e f i v e - f o l d development o f man’ s c a p a c i t i e s ,
1
has a d i s t i n c t s o c i a l v a lu e . O th erw ise , p e r s o n a l c u l t u r e
m ight be sim ply an adornm ent, a s e l f i s h p r i d e i n o n e’ si
accom plishm ent le a d in g to th e development o f a s u p e r i o r i t y
complex.
The ^gentlem an gangs t e r ”', a p e rso n of i n t e l l e c t u a l
c u l t u r e who u s e s h is i n t e l l e c t u a l acumen to v i o l a t e th e
law and c l e v e r l y evade any punishm ent, would be an example
o f a o n e -s id e d c u l t u r e .
C u l tu r e , i n e i t h e r i t s o b j e c t i v e
o r s u b j e c t i v e m eanings, m ust, o f n e c e s s i t y , in c lu d e m o r a l i ­
t y as an e s s e n t i a l p a r t , and such i n c l u s i o n o f m o r a l i t y i s
b a s i c to th e common s o c i a l w e l f a r e .
In c o n c lu d in g th e su rv e y o f e d u c a ti o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , which
has r e f e r e n c e to th e th e o ry u n d e r ly in g the S o c i a l - C i v i c
C u rriculum i n th e Yonkers P u b lic s c h o o ls , i t sho uld be
n o ted t h a t th e c r i t i c i s m o f su ch m a t e r i a l w i l l n ot be made
i n t h i s c h a p te r .
C hapter IV has f o r I t s p u rpo se th e e v a lu a ­
t i o n of t h i s c u rric u lu m , and such e v a l u a t i o n w i l l ! i n c l u d e
th e u n d e r ly in g p h ilo s o p h y , which p erm eates t h i s education**
al lite ra tu re .
S in ce th e work o f th e P r e s i d e n t ’ s B esearch Committee
was to i n q u i r e i n t o changing s o c i a l t r e n d s , th e scope o f
t h i s in * jairy was n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d to an I n d i c a t i o n of
am am m a m
am mg mm am mm §m mm mm tm
^
mm mm
mm mm
mm ^
am mm mm-mm m m mm am am -mm * m -tm ~ a am am -am mm mm m am mm-am-mm am mm am
1. P ie r r e . J . M arique, The P h ilo so p h y o f C h r i s t i a n E d u c a tio n .
N. Y ., P r e n t i c e - H a l i , I n c . , 1^5^. C h a p ter V-toE d u c a tio n a l
Aims and I d e a l s f,- - e x p l a i n s f u l l y th e s o c i a l v alu e o f
c u l t u r e , when such c u l t u r e i s made I n c l u s i v e o f th e
m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s f o u n d a tio n , which C h r i s t i a n i t y p r o v id e s .
j
56
r
of a g en e ra l p o lic y .
n
A summary, s e t t i n g f o r t h th e in d is p e n ­
s a b le p r e r e q u i s i t e s o f a c o n s t r u c t i v e p o l i c y o f s o c i a l
e f f o r t to a c h ie v e c l o s e r c o o r d in a tio n and mpre e f f e c t i v e
i n t e g r a t i o n of th e r a p i d l y changing^ c o n d itio n s i n American
s o c i a l lif e * f o l l o w s :
W illin g n e s s and d e te r m in a tio n to u n d e r ta k e
im p o rta n t i n t e g r a l changes i n th e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n
of s o c i a l l i f e , in c lu d in g th e economic and th e
p o l i t i c a l o r d e r s , r a t h e r th a n a p o l i c y o f d r i f t ;
r e c o g n i t i o n of th e r o l e which s c ie n c e must jplay
in such a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of l i f e ; c o n tin u in g
r e c o g n i t i o n o f th e in t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between
changing s c i e n t i f i c t e c h n iq u e s , v ary in g s o c i a l
i n t e r e s t s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , modes of s o c i a l
e d u c a tio n and a c t i o n and b road s o c i a l p u rp o s e s . 1
The S o c i a l - C i v i c C urricu lu m , p r e v io u s l y d e s c r ib e d has
a tte m p te d t o in c o r p o r a t e th e s e p r e r e q u i s i t e s i n th e educa­
tio n a l p o lic y .
In term s o f e d u c a ti o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , th e
2.
Commission On The S o c ia l S tu d ie s i n s i s t s upon th e f o llo w in g ,
a s a n e c e s s a r y p o i n t o f view , i n th e f o r m u l a ti o n o f any
e d u c a ti o n a l p o lic y ::
The c e n t r a l problem of o u r age i s t h a t of th e
c o n t r o l of economic r e s o u r c e s , o f p r o d u c tio n and
d i s t r i b u t i o n , in th e i n t e r e s t o f th e masses of
p e o p le ; t h a t we l i v e in a p e r io d o f t r a n s i t i o n
from an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c to a c o - o p e r a t iv e and
h ig h ly i n t e g r a t e d o r d e r ; t h a t economic f u n c t i o n s
must be b ro u g h t u n d er s o c i a l c o n t r o l in harmony
w ith o u t d e m o c ra tic t r a d i t i o n s ; t h a t th e m ajor
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of e d u c a tio n i n our tim e i s to
make i n t e l l i g e n t th e t r a n s i t i o n to th e new o r d e r ,
1. Recent S o c ia l T re n d s, I n t r o d u c t i o n , p . l x x i .
2. ih e Commission On ^he S o c ia l S tu d ie s has a p p l i e d much
o f the P r e s i d e n t s R esearch C o m m itte e s f i n d i n g s to
e d u c a t i o n a l th e o ry and p r a c t i c e in i t s own p u b l i c a ­
tio n s . ,
J
57
to red u ce tiie shock and w aste I n c i d e n t t o such
a t r a n s i t i o n ; t h a t to t h i s end th e sc h o o l should
c u l t i v a t e minds b o th a p p r e c i a t i v e and c r i t i c a l
o f our c u l t u r e and t r a d i t i o n , t h a t u n d e rs ta n d
th e n e c e s s i t i e s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f l i f e in
t h i s c o u n try in th e f u t u r e , t h a t a c c e p t th e
d e m o c ra tic i d e a l ; t h a t th e sch o ol sho u ld be
c o n t r o l l e d and a d m in is te r e d i n ac co rd an c e w ith
th e s e p u rpo ses and t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of th e
contem porary s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n ; and t h a t i t i s
t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h a t p r e s e n ts th e c e n t r a l problem
o f e d u c a tio n a l l e a d e r s h i p in o u r tim e . 1
R eferen ce was made e a r l i e r in t h i s s tu d y to th e work o f
2
th e Commission On The S o c ia l S t u d i e s .
This Commission i s so
c e r t a i n o f th e t r u t h of i t s o b s e r v a tio n s p e r t a i n i n g to th e
p r e s e n t s o c i a l o r d e r , nam ely:
an economic one.
t h a t th e c e n t r a l problem i s
In view o f t h i s b e l i e f , th e Commission has
d e c id e d to ta k e th e p r a c t i c a l s t e p o f te a c h in g th e s o c i a l
s t u d i e s a c c o r d in g to a new c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n , v i z : a c o l l e c t i v i s t i c economy.
In e v a lu a t in g t h i s te c h n iq u e , one modern
e d u c a ti o n a l p h ilo s o p h e r s t a t e s t h a t , "Such te a c h i n g , i f
p e r m it te d , would, o f c o u r s e , n o t on ly p r e p a r e th e n e x t g e n e ra ­
t i o n f o r s o c i a l i s m b u t would a l s o a c t a s a pow erful means
3
of e f f e c t i n g th e d e s i r e d r e v o l u t i o n . " The Commission, n e v e r­
t h e l e s s , h o ld s t h a t th e modern, c e n t r a l problem of educa­
t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p i n th e s o c i a l o rd e r i s t h a t o f le a d in g
America to th e Promised Land o f a c o l l e c t i v i s t i c economy
o r so c ia lism .
The f u n c t i o n o f th e s c h o o l, i t i s claim ed ,
1. J e s s e H. Newlon, E d u c a tio n a l A d m in is tr a tio n Als S o c ia l
P o l i c y , P a r t V l i l r R eport o f t h e vCommission 6n The
, S o c ia l S t u d i e s , N. Y ., S c r i b n e r ’ s , 1934, p . 77. See a l s o
C h a rles A. B eard, A C h a rte r F o r The S o c ia l S c ie n c e s and
Leon C. M a rsh a ll and Rachel M a rsh a ll G oetz, C urriculum Making In The S o c ia l S t u d i e s .
2 . See C hapter I I , p . 26.
3 . B reed, o p . c l t . , p . 178.
t_
■
J
58
r i s to p r e p a r e f o r t h i s new s o c i a l o r d e r .
s c h o o ls have m a in ta in e d th e s t a t u s quo.
H e r e to f o r e , th e n
As su ch, th e y have
f a i l e d to p r e p a r e i n d i v i d u a l s f o r s u c c e s s f u l l y m eeting th e
c o n f l i c t s i n th e s o c i a l o r d e r , b ecau se i t i s h e l d by th e
Commission, th e sc h o o ls t r a n s m i t t e d outmoded t r a d i t i o n s ,
which tend to p e r p e t u a t e d o c t r i n e s o f l a i s s e z f a i r e c a p i t a l ­
ism and in d iv i d u a li s m .
The c lo s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between th e S o c ia l- C iv ic C u rric u ­
lum and th e a tte m p t to s a t i s f y l o c a l e d u c a ti o n a l needs
may be o b se rv e d i n t h i s s ta te m e n t from th e R e p o rt o f th e
Regents* I n q u ir y i n t o th e MC h a ra c te r and Cost o f P u b lic
E d u c a tio n i n New York S t a t e 11:
What th e s e boys and g i r l s now n eed i s a b ro ad
g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n which w i l l g iv e to a l l a l i k e
a t l e a s t th e same minimum e s s e n t i a l t o o l s o f
In terco m m u n ica tio n and t h i n k i n g , th e same minimum
u p - t o - d a t e s c i e n t i f i c a c q u a in ta n c e w ith th e
w orld i n which we l i v e , b o th n a t u r a l and s o c i a l ,
an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f th e c u l t u r e and s ta n d a r d s
o f o u r c i v i l i z a t i o n , th e b e g in n in g s o f th e
a b i l i t y to work w e ll w ith o t h e r s , a common
u n d e r s ta n d in g and b e l i e f i n th e d em o c ra tic
p r o c e s s , and th e d e s i r e to p r e s e r v e and d efend
s e lf- g o v e r n m e n t. In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , boys
and g irl& need as i n d i v i d u a l s some u n d e r s ta n d in g
o f t h e i r own b o d ie s and m inds, and th e o p p o rtu ­
n i t y u n d er p r o p e r g u id ance and s t i m u l a t i o n to
d ev e lo p t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l c a p a c i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , ,
and p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r grow th. The f i r s t need
i s e s s e n t i a l to s o c i e t y . The second i s d i f ­
f e r e n t w ith ea ch , b u t i t s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s l i k e ­
w ise n e c e s s a r y to th e growth and e n ric h m e n t,
n o t o n ly o f th e i n d i v i d u a l , b u t a ls o o f s o c i e t y . 1
I t w i l l be seen t h a t th e f o re g o in g m ajor o b j e c t i v e s o f
1 . Ed u c a tio n For American Li f e , R e p o rt o f th e Regents*
I n q u ir y I n to The C h a ra c te r And Cost Of P u b lic Educa­
t i o n In The S t a t e Of New York, N. Y ., McGraw-Hill Book
C o ., 1938, p . 3. T his R epo rt i s th e Summary o f th e
In q u iry .
j
59
e d u c a tio n i n New York S t a t e , as g iv e n i n t h i s R e p o rt,
b elo n g to th e same c a te g o r y a.s th o s e o f th e S o c ia l- C iv ic
C urriculum o f Y onkers.
With a b r i e f c i t a t i o n o f th e s e o b je c ­
t i v e s , th e app ro ach to t h i s s tu d y , nam ely, th e e v a lu a t io n
o f th e S o c ia l- C iv ic C u rricu lu m , w i l l have been com pleted.
These o b j e c t i v e s o f New York S t a t e echo many s e n tim e n ts ,
t h a t ap p e ar i n a g r e a t d e a l o f modern e d u c a ti o n a l l i t e r a t u r e .
New York i s d e te rm in e d to g iv e every boy and g i r l
an eq u a l chance to go to good s c h o o ls , r e g a r d l e s s
o f economic, s o c i a l , r a c i a l , home, o r community
b a r r i e r s , and to se e to i t t h a t t h i s e d u c a tio n a l
o p p o r tu n ity i s u se d by every norm al y o u th u n t i l th ey
have a c q u ir e d a t l e a s t th e fun dam ental knowledge,
s k i l l s , and h a b i t s which w i l l e n a b le them t o b e g in
t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l l i f e and work. New York w ants
sc h o o ls which g iv e each y o u th a chance f o r grow th
b ase d upon h i s i n d i v i d u a l c a p a c i t i e s and c h a r a c t e r ,
and which p r e p a r e him i n a d em o c ra tic f a s h io n f o r
d e m o c ra tic l i f e . Above a l l e l s e , New York w ants i t s
sc h o o ls to b u i l d c h a r a c t e r . . . We, i n t h i s S t a t e ,
want y o u th to l e a r n how to work w ith o t h e r s tow ards
th e s e same e n d s , to be t o l e r a n t o f o th e rs * o p in io n s ,
s e n s i t i v e to t h e i r needs and s u f f e r i n g , and p re p a r e d
to a c t i n t e l l i g e n t l y and u n s e l f i s h l y f o r th e good o f
o t h e r s . We want y o u th to b e l i e v e i n democracy and to
know how to a c t i n a system i n which th e common man
p a r t i c i p a t e s i n d e te rm in in g th e c o u rse o f e v e n ts in
s o c i e t y , n o t th ro u g h p h y s i c a l f o r c e s , b u t th ro u g h
f r e e d i s c u s s i o n , compromise, th e r u l e o f law , th e
l o y a l a c c e p ta n c e o f group d e c i s i o n s , and th e e x e r ­
c i s e o f th e c o n tin u o u s r i g h t and d u ty o f c r i t i c i s m .
. . . New York S t a t e w ants th e e d u c a tio n g iv e n i t s
c h i l d r e n to be u s e f u l and up to d a t e . 1
The achievem ent o f th e s e ends i s to be b ro u g h t a b o u t
by an e d u c a ti o n a l program which w i l l g iv e ”a l l th e c h i l d r e n
a b ro a d u p - t o - d a t e g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n , which w i l l p r e p a r e
2
them f o r w h atever l i f e may have i n s t o r e f o r th e m .”
These o b j e c t i v e s a r e an e x p r e s s io n o f th e r e a s o n s f o r
I* I b i d . , p p . 38 -41 .
j_ 2. iblcL , p . 41.
60
r
th e e x i s t e n c e o f New York S t a t e schools*
The S o c ia l- C iv ic
h
C urriculum i n Y onkers, i n l i k e m anner, seek s to f u l f i l l th e
1
same purposes* As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , a program o f t e s t i n g
w i l l be s t a r t e d t h i s y e a r i n one o f th e Yonkers h ig h s c h o o ls ,
f o r th e e x p r e s s p u rp o se o f m easu rin g th e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h i s
c u r r ic u lu m .
From th e s ta n d p o in t o f th e cla ssro o m t e a c h e r ,
a c r i t i c a l e s t i m a t e o f th e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h i s c u r r ic u lu m ,
w ith in th e w r i t e r ' s own e x p e rie n c e i n th e L ongfellow J u n io r
h ig h s c h o o l, Y onkers, w i l l be g iv e n i n th e e v a l u a t i o n i n
C h apter IV.
By way o f sum m arizatio n, t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f th e S o c i a l C iv ic c u r r ic u lu m were p r e s e n te d .
The re q u ir e m e n ts f o r gradua­
t i o n from t h i s c u rric u lu m were l i s t e d , w ith a b r i e f d e s c r i p ­
t i o n o f th e n a t u r e and c o n te n t o f v a r io u s c o u rs e s i n th e
j u n i o r and s e n io r h ig h s c h o o ls .
Sample u n i t s , s e l e c t e d from
th e S o c ia l S tu d ie s S y l l a b u s , ^ s p e c i f i c a l l y p re p a re d f o r t h i s
c u r r ic u lu m , were u se d to i l l u s t r a t e th e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f sub­
j e c t m a tte r.
A d d itio n a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s were ta k e n from th e
S o c ia l F in an c e S y lla b u s .
F i n a l l y , an ex a m in a tio n o f N a tio n a l
e d u c a ti o n a l R e p o r ts , o f th e P r e s i d e n t 's R esearch C om m ittee's
R e p o rt, and o f th e New York S t a t e Board o f R e g e n ts ' I n q u i r y ,
r e v e a l e d a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p to th e th e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f
th e S o c ia l- C iv ic C u rricu lu m .
1 . See C h apter I , p . 7 .
L
J
61
CHAPTER IV
AN EVALUATION OF THE SOCIAL-CIVIC CURRICULUM
By way o f i n t r o d u c t i o n to th e purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r ,
two p o i n t s need c l a r i f i c a t i o n .
F i r s t , i t should be s t a t e d
t h a t th e problem o f c u rric u lu m c o n s t r u c t i o n o r r e v i s i o n can
n o t be c o n s id e r e d e x c l u s i v e l y a problem o f e d u c a ti o n a l ad­
m in istra tio n .
On th e c o n t r a r y , t h i s problem a l s o in v o lv e s
th e s e l e c t i o n o f aims and p u r p o s e s , which a r e b a s i s c r i t e r i a
i n th e s e l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s to r e a l i z e th e s e o b j e c t i v e s .
1
T h is su b seq u en t s e l e c t i o n i s a c t u a l l y th e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a
p h ilo s o p h y o f l i f e
to th e work o f e d u c a ti o n , o r an a tte m p t
to g iv e e x p r e s s io n
to c e r t a i n b a s i c c o n v i c ti o n s i n e d u c a tio n ,
on th e p a r t o f th o s e engaged i n c u rric u lu m making.
A: p e r s o n ’ s
p h ilo s o p h y o f l i f e c o n c e rn in g th e u l t i m a t e end and meaning
o f l i f e i n f l u e n c e s h i s c o n c e p t o f e d u c a tio n .
t.
The re a s o n f o r
t h i s l i e s i n th e f a c t t h a t th e sch o o l i s one o f th e a g e n c ie s
by which a s o c i e t y
se ek s to p e r p e t u a t e i t s e l f . The sch o o l i s ,
t h e r e f o r e , a means
o f t r a n s m i t t i n g a p h ilo s o p h y o f
E d u c a tio n i s b o th an i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l p r o c e s s .
life .
The aims
and p u rp o se s o f e d u c a tio n must r e l a t e to th e s o c i e t y , o f
which th e sc h o o l i s a p a r t .
They m ust r e l a t e to l i f e a s a
w hole, and, i n f i n e , must be i n co n fo rm ity w ith th e t r u e
n a t u r e o f man and th e t r u e n a t h r e o f s o c i e t y .
The second p o i n t to be c l a r i f i e d i s th e f a c t t h a t an e d u c a ti o n a l system may be b u i l t upon a f a l s e p hilosophy#
1# B ru b ac h er, o p . c l t . , "A. p h ilo s o p h y o f l i f e i s b a s i c and
prim ary to a p h ilo so p h y o f e d u c a tio n . To th e form er i s
a s s ig n e d th e e s ta b li s h m e n t o f fu nd am en tal p r i n c i p l e s ;
to th e l a t t e r , o n ly t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s . 11 p . 19.
J
62
As Dr* Mariqu© e x p l a in s :
A system o f e d u c a tio n m ight be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y
ad e q u ate and very e f f i c i e n t , th e p r i n c i p l e s under^
l y i n g i t m igh t be sound, i n s o f a r a s t h e i r a p p l i c a ­
t i o n would l e a d to th e d e s i r e end, and y e t th e
whole s p i r i t and t r e n d o f th e system m ight be
fu n d a m e n ta lly wrong, b ecau se th e y a r e d e r iv e d
from a f a l s e ph ilosophy* 1
P h ilo so p h y o f e d u c a tio n i n t h i s c o u n tr y , c h i e f l y u n d er
th e i n f lu e n c e o f John Dewey, h a s te n d e d to d iv o r c e i t s e l f
from g e n e r a l p h ilo s o p h y .
I t h a s become a s s o c i a t e d w ith th e
s o - c a l l e d s c i e n t i f i c te c h n iq u e , o r what i s g e n e r a l l y spoken
o f a s th e p h ilo so p h y o f E x p erim e n talism .
•
, *i
i.
In t h i s .c o n n e c tio n ,
Dewey’ s i n s i s t e n c e upon e d u c a tio n a s wth e l a b o r a t o r y i n
which p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s become c o n c r e te and t e s t e d ” ,
t o g e t h e r w ith h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f p h ilo s o p h y as " th e th e o ry o f
2
e d u c a tio n i n i t s most g e n e r a l p h a s e s " , have r e v e r s e d th e t r u e
r e l a t i o n , which should e x i s t between p h ilo s o p h y and e d u c a tio n .
*
L e t i t be r e p e a t e d , t h a t e d u c a ti o n a l p h ilo so p h y i s sim ply th e
a p p l i c a t i o n o f a p h ilo s o p h y o f l i f e to e d u c a tio n .
P h ilosop h y
and e d u c a tio n have t h e i r own p ro p e r o b j e c t and p o i n t o f view,
as two d i s t i n c t domains o f c u l t u r e .
However, p h ilo s o p h y and
e d u c a ti o n a l th e o ry go hand i n hand b ec au se b o th d e a l w ith
3
man a s man.
,
I n view o f th e s e fu nd am en tal p r e l i m i n a r i e s to th e p r o c e s s
o f e v a l u a t i o n , i t i s e n c o u ra g in g to f i n d an aw areness o f
1 . M arique, o p . c l t . , p . 26.
2. John Dewey, Democracy and E d u c a tio n , N. Y . , M acmillan C o.,
1916, p p . 384-365.
3. DeHovre, C a th o lic ism I n E d u c a tio n , p . 22. The same m a tte r
o f th e r e l a t i o n o f p h ilo s o p h y and e d u c a tio n i s t r e a t e d
by M ichael D em iashkevich, An I n t r o d u c t i o n To The P h ilo s o ­
phy Of E d u c a tio n , C h .I .
:
".....................
-j
65
r th e f o llo w in g d e f e c t i n American p u b lic e d u c a tio n s
Secondary e d u c a tio n i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s now,
a s i n th e p a s t , i s g u id e d , as a w hole, by no
c l e a r l y fo rm u la te d p la n ; i t r e s t s on no c a r e f u l l y
c o n c e iv e d and f u l l y e n v isa g e d e d u c a ti o n a l
p h ilo s o p h y ; i t h a s ac h ie v e d no c o n s i s t e n t
s ta n d a r d s by which to e v a lu a te i t s own en d e a v o rs. 1
As a c o r r e c t i v e m easu re, to p ro v id e e d u c a tio n w ith an
i n t e l l i g e n t , com prehensive, and l o n g - s i g h t e d p l a n , th e Com­
m i t t e e on th e O r i e n t a t i o n o f Secondary E d u c a tio n f a v o r s th e
a d o p tio n o f th e o b j e c t i v e s s e t up by th e Commission on
S ocial-E conom ic Goals o f America.
Such f a v o r in c lu d e s th e
a c c e p ta n c e o f th e l a t t e r g ro u p f s c o n c lu s io n t h a t th e c u r r i c u ­
lum h a s two m ajor concerns*
These g iv e r i s e to two m a jo r
c a t e g o r i e s u n d er which th e c o n te n t o f th e c u rric u lu m sh o u ld
be o r g a n iz e d :
The f i r s t o f th e s e should be d ev o ted to s o c i e t y ’ s
n eed f o r th e growth o f a b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s to
s u s t a i n and improve th e m u tu a lly h e l p f u l r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip s w ith o t h e r human b e in g s which a d em o cratic
p h ilo s o p h y o f l i f e assumes sh o u ld c h a r a c t e r i z e
group l i v i n g . • • The second m ajo r c a te g o r y sh ou ld
in c lu d e th o se e x p e rie n c e s concerned w ith su p p ly in g
s o c i e t y ’ s need f o r th e growth o f a b i l i t y so to
manage and u t i l i z e th e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f o u r p h y s i­
c a l environm ent t h a t i t may make i t s maximum con­
t r i b u t i o n tow ard t h e a tta in m e n t o f h ig h l e v e l s o f
human l i v i n g which a d em o cratic s o c i e t y seeks f o r
a ll. 2
I n th e above c i t a t i o n , an im p o rta n t e x p r e s s io n n eeds to
be a n a ly z e d .
The e x p r e s s io n , ”a d em o c ra tic p h ilo so p h y o f
l i f e ” , must be i n v e s t i g a t e d p r i o r to an e v a l u a t i o n o f th e
program to d e te rm in e i t s adequacy i n m e etin g s o c i e t y ’ s
1.
I s s u e s Of Secondary E d u c a tio n 5 R ep o rt o f th e Committee
on th e O r i e n t a t i o n o f Secondary E d u c a tio n , D epartm ent
o f Secondary School P r i n c i p a l s , V o l.20, No*59, p p . 2 1-22.
i 2 - I b i d *i p p . 280-281.
64
needs# What i s a d e m o cratic p h ilo s o p h y o f l i f e ?
Such
p h r a s e s a s , ”a d e m o c ra tic p h ilo so p h y o f l i f e 11, ”th e dem ocrat­
i c i d e a l ” , ” th e d em o c ra tic p r o c e s s ” , ”a d em o c ra tic s o c i e t y ” ,
and ”a d em o c ra tic Way o f l i v i n g ” , a r e f r e q u e n t l y u se d by
American w r i t e r s , e d u c a t o r s , and t h e o r i s t s .
i s democracy d e f in e d by any one o f them.
Seldom, i f e v e r ,
Since th e a d j e c t i v e ,
d e m o c r a tic , i s a common f a c t o r i n each p h r a s e , an e s s e n t i a l
q u e s tio n a r i s e s , nam ely:
what i s meant by democracy inE th e
. U n ite d S t a t e s ?
In th e Preamble to th e D e c la r a ti o n o f In d ep end ence, th e
f o llo w in g s ta te m e n t i s found:
We h o ld th e s e t r u t h s to be s e l f e v i d e n t : t h a t a l l
men a r e c r e a t e d e q u a l ; t h a t th e y a r e endowed by t h e i r
C r e a to r w ith c e r t a i n i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t s ; t h a t among
th e s e a r e l i f e , l i b e r t y , and th e p u r s u i t o f h a p p in e s s ;
t h a t to se c u re th e s e r i g h t s , governments a re i n s t i t u t e d
among men, d e r i v i n g t h e i r j u s t powers from th e c o n s e n t
o f th e governed; t h a t whenever any form o f government
becomes d e s t r u c t i v e o f th e s e en d s, i t i s th e r i g h t o f
th e p e o p le to a l t e r o r to a b o l i s h i t and to i n s t i t u t e
new governm ent, l a y i n g i t s f o u n d a tio n upon such p r i n ­
c i p l e s , and o r g a n iz in g i t s powers i n such form , as to
them s h a l l seem most l i k e l y to e f f e c t t h e i r s a f e t y
and h a p p in e s s .
I t i s e v id e n t fr©m t h i s D e c la r a ti o n t h a t th e d i s t i n c t i v e
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f American democracy h a s a t i t s fo u n d a tio n
th e acknowledgment of th e C re a to r a s th e A uthor o f man*s
r i g h t s , o f man’ s every e x i s t e n c e .
Such a view o f th e n a t u r e
o f dem ocracy, l a t e r embodied i n th e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f th e U n ite d
S t a t e s , i s a sound o ne, and th o ro u g h ly i n agreem en t, n o t o n ly
w ith s c h o l a s t i c p r i n c i p l e s , b u t a ls o w ith t r u e d em o cratic
2
p rin c ip le s.
U n f o r tu n a te ly , t h i s o r i g i n a l co n c ep t o f
J .. Rev. Moorhouse F.X. M i l l a r , S . J . , The P h ilo so p h y o f th e
C o n s t i t u t i o n , R e p rin te d from Thought, March, 1^58.
2. M i l l a r , The O rig in o f Sound D em ocratic P r i n c i p l e s i n
C a th o lic t r a d i t i o n , R e p rin te d from Thought, March, 1928.
i
65
‘democracy has been so m o d ifie d and m is c o n s tru e d , a t various"1
tim es i n th e development o f American s o c i e t y , t h a t th e p h i ­
losophy embodied i n th e C o n s t i t u t i o n cannot be re g a rd e d as
synonymous w ith t h a t u n d e r ly in g our democracy*
Evidence o f
such m o d if ic a ti o n and d i s t o r t i o n o f th e r e a l n a t u r e of demo­
c ra c y i s seen i n th e a c c e p ta n c e , by J e f f e r s o n , o f p r i n c i p l e s ,
which were d e riv e d from th e " e g a l a t a r i a n in d iv i d u a li s m o f
th e E n g lis h L e v e l l e r s , th e c h u rch -co v e n an t t h e o r i e s o f th e
S e p a r a t i s t s in England ana t h e C o n g r e g a tio n a lis t s in New Eng1
la n d , th e s o c i a l - c o n t r a c t t h e o r i e s o f Locke and R ousseau."
Such f a l s e p r i n c i p l e s a r e n ot t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of de­
mocracy as founded i n t h i s c o u n try .
On th e c o n t r a r y , th e s e
p r i n c i p l e s , which J e f f e r s o n r e c e iv e d as genuine democracy,
have g iv e n r i s e to " th e h y b rid l i b e r a l i s m o f o ur modern
democracy, w ith i t s p r e s e n t tr e n d tow ards mere p rag m atic
2
c o lle c tiv is m .”
I t i s t r u e , t h a t LincolnVs p l e a , made a t G e tty sb u rg in
1863, f o r th e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h i s "government o f th e p e o p le ,
by th e p e o p le , and f o r th e p e o p le ” , re-em p h asized th e s p i r i t
o f th e e a r l y Founders o f th e American R e p u b lic .
However, a t
th e p r e s e n t tim e, t h a t s p i r i t i s s a d ly la c k in g , ex cept in
t h e p o l i t i c a l meaning o f democracy, w hich i s a r e s t r i c t i v e
view o f th e term .
A su b seq u en t e x a m in a tio n o f American edu­
c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e w i l l r e v e a l t h a t a wide gap e x i s t s b e ­
tween th e p h ilo s o p h y o f th e F e d e ra l C o n s t i t u t i o n , which
1. M i l l a r , The P h ilo so p h y o f th e C o n s t i t u t i o n , p . 50.
2 . I b i d . , p . 56.
66
1embodied a c o r r e c t concept of man as God c r e a t e d him, o f
manf s r i g h t s th u s d e r i v e d , of th e f u n c t i o n of c i v i l g overn­
m ent, and p r e s e n t d ay , s o - c a l l e d "d e m o c ra tic p h ilo s o p h y ”
and " s o c i a l dem o cracy .”
The d i f f e r e n c e between " s o c i a l democracy”' and " C h r i s t i a n
dem ocracy” has been a d m ira b ly e x p la in e d by Pope Leo X I I I :
s
What S o c ia l Democracy i s and what C h r i s t i a n
Democracy ought to b e , a s s u r e d l y no one can d o u b t.
The f i r s t , w ith due c o n s i d e r a t i o n to th e g r e a t e r
o r l e s s in tem p eran ce of i t s u t t e r a n c e , i s c a r r i e d
to such an ex c e ss by many as to m a in ta in t h a t
t h e r e I s r e a l l y n o th in g e x i s t i n g above th e n a t u r a l
o r d e r o f t h i n g s , and t h a t th e a c q u irem e n t and en­
joyment o f c o r p o r a l and e x t e r n a l goods c o n s t i t u t e
man*s h a p p in e s s . I t aims a t p u t t i n g a l l government
in th e hands of th e p e o p le , re d u c in g a l l ra n k s to
th e same l e v e l , a b o l i s h i n g a l l d i s t i n c t i o n s of
c l a s s , and f i n a l l y in tr o d u c i n g community o f goods.
Hence, th e r i g h t of ow nership i s to be a b r o g a te d ,
and w h atev er p r o p e r ty a man p o s s e s s e s , o r w hatever
means o f l i v e l i h o o d he h a s , i s to be common to a l l .
As a g a i n s t t h i s , C h r i s t i a n Democracy, by th e f a c t
t h a t i t i s C h r is t ia n ,- i s b u i l t , and n e c e s s a r i l y so ,
on th e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of d iv in e f a i t h , and p ro v id e s
f o r th e bebtermeh't o f th e m asses, w ith the u l t e r i o r
o b j e c t of availing I t s e l f o f th e o c c a s io n to f a s h io n
t h e i r minds f o r th in g s which a r e e v e r l a s t i n g . Hence,
f o r C h r i s t i a n Democracy j u s t i c e i s s a c r e d ; i t must
m a in ta in t h a t th e r i g h t o f a c q u ir in g and p o s s e s s in g
p r o p e r ty cannot be impugned, and i t must s a fe g u a r d
th e v a r io u s d i s t i n c t i o n s and d e g re e s which a r e i n ­
d is p e n s a b le in ev e ry w e ll - o r d e r e d commonwealth.
F i n a l l y i t must endeavor to p r e s e rv e i n e v e ry human
s o c i e t y th e form and c h a r a c t e r which God e v e r
im p resses on i t .
I t i s c l e a r , t h e r e f o r e , th a t.,
th e r e i s n o th in g in common between S o c ia l and
C h r i s t i a n Democracy. 1
Democracy, p r o p e r ly u n d e r s to o d , im p lie s n o t on ly p o p u la r
governm ent, b u t a l s o conveys th e b e tte r m e n t of a l l i t s mem­
b e rs th ro u g h j u s t i c e and c h a r i t y as a b e n e v o le n t and C h r is ­
t i a n movement in b e h a lf of th e p e o p le .
The m oral law
1. Pope Leo X I I I , C h r i s t i a n Democracyt o p . c i t . , p p .481-482.
S a f e g u a r d s th e p r i n c i p l e s upon which s o c i e t y r e s t s , and
th e economic law must conform to t h a t same law.
Any con­
c e p t o f American democracy t h a t a tte m p ts to s u b s t i t u t e th e
economic law f o r th e m oral law i s l o g i c a l l y d e t r i m e n t a l to
th e t r u e n a t u r e o f s o c i e t y .
S in ce p r e s e n t day e d u c a tio n a l
th e o r y and p r a c t i c e , i n t h i s c o u n try , has a lig n e d i t s e l f
w ith th e p r i n c i p l e s o f s o c i a l democracy, th e tr e n d in
c u rric u lu m r e v i s i o n , o f which th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum
i s a p a r t , cannot s u c c e s s f u l l y p r e p a r e p u p ils f o r p a r t i c i ­
p a t i o n i n , o r th e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t r u e d em o cratic p r i n c i p l e s
The c o n fu sio n rampant to d a y i s l a r g e l y th e outcome of e rro n e
ous o p in io n s as to th e n a t u r e o f democracy.
Such c o n fu sio n
has p e n e t r a t e d American e d u c a tio n a l th e o r y and p r a c t i c e to
an a la rm in g e x t e n t , as t h i s s tu d y w i l l d i s c l o s e .
I n a R eport o f th e E d u c a tio n a l P o l i c i e s Commission, p r e ­
p ared by C h arles A. B e a r d / th e development o f American s o ­
c i e t y i s d iv id e d i n t o t h r e e g e n e r a l p e r i o d s :
(1) from th e
e s ta b lis h m e n t o f th e R epublic to the ad ven t o f J a c k s o n ia n
democracy; (2) from t h e in a u g u r a tio n o f Jackson in 1829
to th e end o f th e World War; (3) from th e World War to th e
p re se n t.
Of th e f i r s t p e r i o d , Beard p o in ts o ut t h a t th e
i
d em o cratic i d e a l , as p ro cla im ed i n th e D e c la r a ti o n o f I n ­
dependence was a c c e p te d , and " th e f a t e o f government was to
be e n t r u s t e d to th e wisdom and knowledge of a w idening mass
1
o f p e o p l e . ” A body o f c i t i z e n s , e n lig h te n e d in d em o cratic
p r i n c i p l e s by e d u c a tio n , must be formed i n o r d e r to
1. The Unique F u n ctio n o f E d ucation i n Ame r i c an Democracy,
L 1937, p . 12.
,
j
68
S a f e g u a r d su ch a governm ent.
s
With th e a d v e n t of J a c k s o n f s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i t may he
s a i d t h a t th e meaning of democracy changed.
Ehiphasis was
g iv e n t o g r e a t e r i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y in economic l i f e , i n d i ­
v i d u a l e q u a l i t y in dem ocracy, and i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s i n so­
c ie ty .
This p e r io d was one marked by th e r a p i d r i s e of ma­
ch in e i n d u s t r i e s , th e grow th o f b u s i n e s s , th e sp re a d of t r a n s ­
p o r t a t i o n , th e opening of f r o n t i e r l a n d s , and th e e x p l o i t a ­
t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s .
J e f f e r s o n * s p le a f o r an e q u a l ed­
u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r each c i t i z e n , a c c o rd in g t o h i s a b i l ­
i t y to p r o f i t th e re fr o m , was i n t e r p r e t e d a s an e q u a l i t a r i a n ism , o r th e view of th e same e d u c a ti o n a l o p p o r tu n ity f o r a l l .
With such a p le a s in g economic p r o s p e c t sp re a d out
b e f o r e them, the sp o n so rs o f p u b lic e d u c a tio n could
w ith good r e a s o n p ro c la im o p p o r tu n ity ; committed to
th e p r i n c i p l e of e q u a l i t y f o r a l l , th e y cou ld p le a d
f o r e q u a l e d u c a tio n a l f a c i l i t i e s . 1
J e f f e r s o n * s co n cep t of democracy r e c o g n iz e d th e e d u c a tio n o f an " a r i s t r o c r a c y a c c o rd in g to i n d i v i d u a l t a l e n t s ” , r a t h e r
th a n th e th e o ry o f “e q u a l i t y of e d u c a ti o n a l o p p o r tu n ity a s
a p p l i c a b l e t o e v e ry man.
The l a t t e r view i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
of th e J a c k s o n ia n c o n c e p tio n o f democracy.
, What meaning has democracy in th e p r e s e n t p e r io d o f Ameri­
can s o c ie ty ?
Beard p u ts f o r t h th e s e id e a s in r e p l y , v iz *
democracy r e s t s upon th e "m oral im p e r a tiv e ” t h a t human l i f e
has i n t r i n s i c v a lu e and cannot be used f o r p u rp o ses a l i e n
to hum anity; t h a t i t in c lu d e s l o y a l t y to th e i n s t i t u t i o n s
th ro u g h w hicir democracy f u n c t i o n s ; and t h a t
I b i d . , p .4 7 .
th a t
69
ri t r e c o g n iz e s an in e s c a p a b le r e l a t i o n between tn e forms
i
o f p r o p e r ty and th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a lth .
D e s p ite th e f a c t t h a t Beard s t a t e s p l a i n l y t h a t e t h i c s
i s a c e n t r a l co ncern of e d u c a tio n , ” s in c e e t h i c s w i l l d i r e c t
th e d is s e m in a tio n of knowledge u s e f u l i n 'the good l i f e and
1
i n th e m ain ten an ce and improvement of American s o c i e t y ” ,
h i s co ncep t of ”e t h i c s ” does n o t r e s t upon D i v in e ly - r e v e a le d
r e l i g i o n , b u t r e s t s upon an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f democracy.
In any r e a l i s t i c d e f i n i t i o n o f e d u c a tio n f o r th e
U n ite d S t a t e s , t h e r e f o r e , must a p p e a r th e whole
p h ilo s o p h y and p r a c t i c e of democracy. E d u ca tio n
c h e r i s h e s and i n c u l c a t e s i t s m oral v a l u e s , d i s ­
s e m in a te s knowledge n e c e s s a r y to i t s f u n c t i o n i n g ,
s p re a d s in f o rm a tio n r e l e v a v t to i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s
and economy, keeps a l i v e th e c r e a t i v e and s u s ­
t a i n i n g s p i r i t w ith o u t which th e l e t t e r i s dead* 2
L et i t be rem arked t h a t m oral v a lu e s a r e n o t d e r iv e d from
democracy; n o r i s ”e t h i c s ” th e s c ie n c e of how to l i v e in
a dem ocracy, a s Beard c o n c eiv e s th e U n ite d S t a t e s to b e,
a t th e p r e s e n t tim e , w ith i t s i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on th e
economic f a c t o r s .
S in ce B eard, who i s w r i t i n g f o r th e
E d u c a tio n a l P o l i c i e s Commission, f a i l s to d e f i n e democracy,
our s e a r c h f o r a d e f i n i t i o n must c o n tin u e .
Boyd H. Bode d i s t i n g u i s h e s democracy from d i c t a t o r s h i p
by i d e n t i f y i n g th e form er w ith th e p r i n c i p l e of c o n s ta n t
change, which he h o ld s in v o lv e s no a b s o l u t e s ta n d a r d of
judgm ent.
I f judgments of good and bad, o f r i g h t and wrong,
must be made i n term s o f an a n te c e d e n t "fram e o f
1. I b i d . , P .81.
2. I b i d . , P .89.
L
u M A UN/,!
j
70
r e f e r e n c e ” , in th e se n se of a f i x e d scheme or
c r e e d , th e n , th e p r i n c i p l e of d i c t a t o r s h i p i s
v i n d i c a t e d , and democracy i s p l a u s i b l e only
^because i t s b a s i c a b s o lu tis m i s k e p t from
view . The on ly l i b e r t y t h a t i s th en p e r m itte d
i s l i b e r t y w ith in th e law, as l a i d down by an
a b s o lu tis m . On th e o th e r hand, i f t h e r e i s
no a b s o l u t e s ta n d a r d of judgm ent, th e n our
judgments must be made in term s of p a r t i c i p a ­
t i o n i n common i n t e r e s t s , r e g a r d l e s s o f o t h e r
c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Conduct on th e p a r t o f com­
m u n itie s o r o f i n d i v i d u a l s must be e v a lu a te d
w ith r e f e r e n c e to i t s e f f e c t on prom oting
common i n t e r e s t s among men. L i b e r t y grows
a s th e a r e a of common i n t e r e s t s i s w idened.
Democracy th e n becomes i d e n t i f i e d w ith t h i s
p r i n c i p l e o f r e l a t i v i t y , a s c o n t r a s t e d w ith
th e a b s o lu tis m o f d i c t a t o r s h i p s . There i s no
m iddle ground. 1*
The e v a l u a t i o n of conduct w ith r e f e r e n c e to ”i t s e f f e c t
on prom oting common i n t e r e s t s among men” needs some s ta n d a r d
by which t o d e c id e th e e f f i c a c y of such i n t e r e s t s .
While
c la im in g to have e lim in a te d any a b s o lu te o f judgment by th e
r e d u c t i o n o f democracy to a m e a n in g le s s , co n tin u o u s p ro c e s s
o f change, Bode, n e v e r t h e l e s s , g iv e s e x p r e s s io n to an a b so - ,
lu te i t s e l f .
The prom otion o f common i n t e r e s t s r e q u i r e s
an a b s o l u t e s ta n d a r d of judgm ent.
Such a s ta n d a r d must com­
p r i s e d e f i n i t e , unchanging p r i n c i p l e s , i d e a l s , v a l u e s , and
norms.
tu tio n .
In American democracy th e s e a r e found in th e C o n s ti­
I t i s a d m itte d ly p o s s i b l e t h a t a m in o r it y group
m ight have a p la n o f a c t i o n , which would prove more b e n e f i ­
c i a l to th e common good, th a n t h a t approved by th e m a j o r i t y .
Democracy, however, must r e s p e c t th e w i l l of th e m i n o r i t y .
I n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t s to l i f e , l i b e r t y , and th e p u r s u i t of
1. Boyd H. Bode, Democracy As A Way Of L i f e , N. Y . , M acmillan
C o ., 1937, p .4 7 :
'
:
^
h
j
71
r~
J
~]
’ h a p p in e ss a r e th e p r o p e r ty o f a l l .
Any f a l s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f th e t r u e d em o cratic r i g h t s
o f th e i n d i v i d u a l , of n e c e s s i t y , does n o t promote th e
cause o f t r u e dem ocracty.
I n k eep in g w ith a f a l s e i n t e r p r e t - ,
a t i o n , Bode d e s c r ib e s democracy in th e fo llo w in g manner:
Democracy i s no lo n g e r a name f o r com partment­
a l i z e d p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s b u t becomes a p o in t
o f view t h a t c u ts a c r o s s th e whole mass o f our
t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s and h a b i t s . I t c a l l s f o r
a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f b e l i e f s and s ta n d a r d s i n
ev e ry m ajo r f i e l d o f human i n t e r e s t and thus
ta k e s on th e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f p h ilo so p h y and
r e l i g i o n , which i s to sa y t h a t i t becomes a
g e n e r a liz e d or i n c l u s i v e way o f l i f e . 1
By th e term , ^ r e c o n s t r u c t i o n ” , Bode means th e c o n s ta n t
change i n co nd uct and group a c t i o n , prompted by th e m ajor
needs o f a l l .
As n o ted h e r e t o f o r e , th e norm f o r American
democracy i s found i n th e D e c la r a ti o n of Independence and
th e C o n s t i t u t i o n of th e U n ited S t a t e s .
These documents a r e
b a s e d 'o n p re m is e s , which p o s t u l a t e th e e x i s te n c e of an a b so ­
l u t e s ta n d a r d o f judgm ent.
There have been many erro n eo u s
I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f th e t r u e n a tu r e o f A m erican democracy*
I t Is beyond th e scope o f t h i s s tu d y to r e f u t e them, in gen­
e r a l , o r e v e ry ohe, i n p a r t i c u l a r .
Only th o s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ,
w hic£ have a p e r t i n e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to th e c o n s t r u c t i o n
and o p e r a tio n o f th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C u rricu lu m i n Y onkers,
1. ■I b T'i —
d- . , p . 51.
J
72
r can be examined, and such ex a m in a tio n must be o f a l i m i t e d ”1
n atu re .
This i s s o , b e c au se th e e s s e n t i a l purpose of t h i s
s tu d y i s th e e v a lu a t io n of th e fo re m e n tio n e d c u rric u lu m .
There i s , a t th e p r e s e n t tim e , a p h ilo s o p h y , which i s
1
d e s c r ib e d as "an in d ig e n o u s American p h ilo s o p h y 11. This p h i l o s ­
ophy h a s , a s one o f i t s p u r p o s e s , th e a tte m p t to a c t u a l i z e
in p r a c t i c e , th e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l democracy to- which th e
4
U n ite d S t a t e s i s com m itted, th ro u g h th e medium of th e s c h o o l.
This p h ilo s o p h y claim s t h a t i t has th e unique t a s k of p r e ­
s e r v in g American democracy by means of e d u c a tio n , and th e
p a r t i c u l a r m ethods, which i t employs f o r t h a t p r e s e r v a t i o n ,
a r e known a s " P r o g r e s s iv e E d u c a tio n " .
A gain, t h i s p h i l o s o ­
phy claim s to be American in a tw o -fo ld manner:,
f i r s t , be­
cause th e men who have made th e g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to
i t s grow th and d ev e lo p m e n t-C h arle s P i e r c e , W illiam James,
2
and John Dewey-are a l l A m ericans; an d , s e c o n d ly , b ecau se o f
th e profound in f lu e n c e which i t e x e r t s n o t only on American
p u b lic e d u c a ti o n , b u t a l s o on th e contem porary l i f e of th e
3
American p e o p le . However, t h i s p h ilo s o p h y i s c o n fin e d to a
c o m p a ra tiv e ly sm all group o f e d u c a to r s .
F o r t u n a t e l y , an i n ­
c r e a s i n g r e s i s t a n c e t 9 th e s p re a d o f t h i s p h ilo so p h y in
l
American e d u c a tio n can be seen in th e e f f o r t s o f a group
1.
John L. C h ild s , iikiucatlon And The P h ilo so p h y Of E x p e ri­
m en tal ism , N. Y ., C entury C o., i$ 3 1 , p . 3
. 2 . D e s p ite th e c la im of Americanism , P ie r c e a d m its t h a t he
was i n f lu e n c e d by K an tian ism . W illiam James acknowledges
in d e b te d n e s s to John Locke. Dewey i s g r e a t l y In d e b te d
to H egel.
3. C h ild s , op . c i t . , p p . 12-14.
j
73
\
r
*
o f e d u c a to r s , known as " E s s e n t i a l i s t s . "
Upon c a r e f u l e x a m in a tio n , i t w i l l be se en t h a t th e p u r ­
pose o f t h i s s o - c a l l e d "In d ig e n o u s American p h ilo so p h y " i s
n o t to p e r p e t u a t e t r u e d em o c ra tic i d e a l s .
On th e c o n t r a r y ,
i t s p r i n c i p l e s and i n f l u e n c e s , which a r e b ein g urged upon
American s o c i e t y , i n th e name o f democracy, a r e i n s i d i o u s
f o r c e s and d e s t r u c t i v e to th e t r u e n a t u r e o f t h a t s o c i e t y .
E x p e rim e n tslism , i n i t s b e g in n in g s , p le ad ed f o r u n r e s t r a i n e d
in d iv id u a lism .
L a t e r on, i t changed i t s to n e t o i n s i s t upon
th e maximum of good f o r th e g r e a t e s t number.
While democra­
cy does connote r e s p e c t f o r th e i n d i v i d u a l andcmaxlmum s e l f
r e a l i z a t i o n as a d e s id e ra tu m , t h a t i n d i v i d u a l development
must n o t i n f r i n g e upon th e r i g h t s o f o t h e r s ; i t must be com­
p a t i b l e w ith th e r i g h t s o f a l l .
The E x p e r im e n ta lis ts * id e a
o f a d e m o c ra tic s o c i e t y can be u n d e rsto o d b e t t e r i n th e l i g h t
o f th e f o llo w in g d e f i n i t i o n s
C on seq uently a d em o cratic s o c i e t y must ever- be
a changing s o c i e t y . I t s t r a d i t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s
a r e to be s u b je c te d to c o n tin o u s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n
i n o r d e r t h a t th e y may b e t t e r s e rv e th e needs and
promote th e growth o f th o s e i n d i v i d u a l s whose l i v e s
a r e c o n d itio n e d by t h e . 2
E x p e r im e n ta l is ts have f a i l e d to d i s t i n g u i s h between th e
changing and unchanging elem ents i n s o c i e t y , and a c c e p t
change as th e o n ly r e a l i t y .
Such an a c c e p ta n c e d i s r e g a r d s
1. W illiam C. B agley, "An E s s e n t i a l i s t fs P la tf o r m For The
Advancement Of American E d u c a tio n " , E d u c a tio n a l Adminis­
t r a t i o n And S u p e r v is io n ,Vol.XXIV,1936,B a ltim o re , Warwick
and Y o r k ,I n c . I n t h i s a r t i c l e , B agley c r i t i c i z e s th e
harm ful i n f l u e n c e o f P r o g r e s s iv e E d u c a tio n upon American
p u b lic e d u c a tio n .
2 . C h ild s , oj>. c l t . , p . 229
i_
_I
74
rth e " c o n s t a n t s " o f c i v i l i z a t i o n in f a v o r o f tn e " v a r i a b l e s ” .1
D em iashkevich acknowledges as two fu n d am en tal " c o n s ta n t s "
o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , perm anent m oral t r u t h and th e e f f o r t and
a b i l i t y of man to p e r c e iv e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among th e v a r io u s
1
phenomena of th e u n i v e r s e . E x p erim en tal!sm i s a p h ilo so p h y
o f e x p e r ie n c e , which i m p l i e s 't h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f th e human
"organism " w ith i t s n a t u r a l and s o c i a l en viron m ent.
A ll
i d e a s , b e l i e f s , and i d e a l s a r e based s o l e l y on th e co nse­
quences of such i n t e r a c t i o n , as a c t u a l l y e x p e rie n c e d by th e
in d iv id u a l.
I n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y , t h e r e f o r e , i s th e p ro ­
d u c t o f e x p e rie n c e a l o n e .
Looking a t man th ro u g h th e eyes of th e b i o l o g i s t ,
th e e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t se e s an organism c h a r a c t e r i z e d
by p r e f e r e n t i a l a c t i v i t y m a in ta in in g i t s l i f e and
p r o v id in g f o r i t s grow th th ro u g h p u r p o s e f u l i n t e r ­
a c t i o n w ith i t s en v iro n m en t. Looking a t man th ro u g h
th e eyes of th e s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t , th e e x p e rim e n ta l­
i s t se e s th e b i o l o g i c a l organism d e v e lo p in g mind and
becoming a human i n d i v i d u a l th ro u g h re s p o n s e s gu id ed
by th e 'w e ig h te d s t i m u l i ' of an environm ent which
has become s o c i a l and in c o r p o r a t e s d ev elop ed meanings
in i t s la n g u a g e , custom s, i n s t i t u t i o n s , b e l i e f s , and
so c ia l h a b its . 2
This co n cep t of m an's n a t u r e , t h a t of an "o rg an ism ",
which i s c o m p le te ly dep end en t upon en v iro n m e n ta l f a c t o r s ,
3.
i n o r d e r to become a human b e in g i s th o ro u g h ly n a t u r a l i s t i c .
I t n e g a te s th e v ery e s se n c e o f man, by den ying to him, th e
q u a l i t i e s and a t t r i b u t e s which d i s t i n g u i s h man from th e
a n im a l.
I f th e e x p e r i m e n ta lis ts * co n cep t of mind i n man
1. D em iashkevich, op . c i t . , p p . 351-358,
2 . C h ild s , op . c i t . , p p . 84-88 e x p la in t h i s " e v o lu tio n " The
c i t a t i o n , used above, a p p e a rs on page 87.
3 . G eo ffrey O'Connell-, N a tu ra lism In American E d u c a tio n ,
W ashington, D*C., The C a th o lic U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1936.
75
r
n
I s a c c e p te d as t h a t o f "an I n d i r e c t re sp o n se to th e e n v ir o n 1
ment, and i t s f u n c tio n i s to develop a p la n o f a c t i o n 11, th e n ,
i t i s th e e q u i v a l e n t o f h o ld in g t h a t man has no s p i r i t u a l
q u a l i t i e s , needs norm oral code, and i s determ ined by f o r c e s
coming from w ith in and from w ith o u t.
Moreover, th e E x p e r i2
m e n t a l i s t s r e j e c t any n o tio n o f f i n a l g o a l s . They claim th e
only g o a l i s t h a t o f c o n tin u o u s grow th.
This stu d y i s concerned w ith t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of c e r t a i n
th e o r i e s t h a t r e f l e c t t h e p h ilo s o p h y o f E x p erim e n talism .
A*?y
c r i t i c i s m s o f t h i s p h ilo s o p h y w i l l be made i i r c o n n e c t i o n
w ith th e e v a lu a t io n o f such t h e o r i e s , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to
th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urricu lu m .
S in ce E x p erim en talism a s s e r t s
i t s e l f a s t h e p h ilo s o p h y u n d e r ly in g democracy, th e r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip claim ed may be se en i n th e fo llo w in g *
For i t s f u l l developm ent, E x p e rim e n ta lism r e q u i r e s
a s o c i e t y i n which freedom o f a s s o c i a t i o n , th o u g h t,
I n q u ir y , c r i t i c i s m , c o n fe re n c e and experim ent a r e
i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d —which le a d s to th e c o n c lu s io n
t h a t th e e x p e rim e n ta l mode o f l i f e and th e demo­
c r a t i c mode o f l i f e a r e i n e s se n c e n o t two, b u t one* 5
L e s t i t be charged t h a t th e E x p e r im e n ta l is ts a r e u s in g
democracy f o r t h e i r own p u rp o s e s , th e s e t h i n k e r s would argue
t h a t th e e x p e rim e n ta l mode of l i f e and th e d em o c ra tic mode
o f l i f e a r e one and th e same t h i n g .
T his a tte m p t to i d e n t i ­
fy democracy w ith E x p erim e n talism i s th e means, which i t s
1 . C h ild s , "The Meaning o f th e Term* E x p e rim e n ta lism " , F ro n ­
t i e r s - o f . Democracy, p u b lis h e d m id-m onthly by th e P r o g r e s t s i v e E d u ca tio n A s s o c ia ti o n , 221 West 57 S t . , N .Y .C ., Ja n u ­
a r y 15, 1940. Pages in t h i s magazine a r e n o t numbered.
2 . I b i d . , "A b so lu te f i n a l i t y , o r f i x e d , c lo se d system s o f
th o u g h t and a c t i o n a r e th u s in c o m p a tib le w ith th e p rem ises
and p a t t e r n s o f e x p e rim e n ta lis m ."
d.
1,3
— . I b i -in
i
76
•ad h e re n ts u s e to c o n v e rt th e American p u b lic to a c c e p t
n
th e ir d o c trin e s.
U n f o r tu n a te ly , E x perim entalism has won many c o n v e r ts in
th e f i e l d o f p u b l i c e d u c a tio n , c h i e f l y ( th ro u g h the medium
o f " P r o g r e s s iv e E d u c a tio n " .
The t i t l e i s a misnomer, b e­
cause p r o g r e s s .s i g n i f i e s movement tow ard a, d e f i n i t e , f i x e d
g o al.
"Growers" would be more a c c u r a t e , because p r o g r e s s iv e
e d u c a tio n a b h o rs f i x e d o r f i n a l g o a l s .
" P r o g r e s s iv e " educa­
t o r s b e l i e v e t h a t g o a ls c o n s t a n t l y change, and t h a t p r o g re s s
i s a co n tin u o u s grow th th ro u g h new e x p e r ie n c e s .
What a r e th e consequences f o r p u b lic e d u c a tio n t h a t
*
come from th e a d o p tio n o f E xperim entalism ? Before answ er­
in g t h i s q u e s t i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to d e term in e th e manner,
in w hich th e p h ilo s o p h y of E x p erim en talism has p e n e t r a t e d
e d u c a ti o n a l th e o r y and p r a c t i c e in th e U n ite d S t a t e s .
Through th e a tte m p te d r e a d ju s tm e n t of th e i d e a l s and l i f e
h a b i t s of th e members o f a "changing s o c i e t y " , and th e
t r a i n i n g of such i n d i v i d u a l s so as to make th e s e i d e a l s
and h a b i t s a d a p ta b l e to new c o n d i t i o n s , vfoich th e P r e s i 1
d e n t* s R esearch Committee has a d v o c a te d , t h e r e i s se e n ,
a t o n ce , an agreem ent w ith th e E x p e r i m e n t a l i s t s 1 n o t i o n
o f c o n s ta n t change.
That Committee f a i l s to make any d i s ­
t i n c t i o n between th e changing and th e un chan g eable e l e ­
ments i n o u r American s o c i e t y .
I t s purpose was to exam­
in e the changing e le m e n ts , b u t i n t h a t e x a m in a tio n , th e
u n changing elem en ts were ex clu d ed from any m ention in
1. See C h apter I I , p p . 15-20.
.L-
I
77
j—
!th e a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l t r e n d s .
*
R eadjustm ent and a d a p ta ­
"j
t i o n a r e mere te rm s, borrowed from t h e v o c a b u la ry o f th e
e v o l u t i o n i s t and .fh e e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t .
I f o n ly term s had
been borrow ed, l e s s harm would have been th e consequence,
b ecause some e d u c a to r s ^bem t o have a weakness f o r a d o p t­
in g words a s slo g a n s w ith o u t a c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y of t h e i r
meaning.
However, in t h i s i n s t a n c e , th e meanings and th e
p h ilo s o p h y , which s u p p lie d th e te rm s , have been borrow ed.
This w i l l be made c l e a r by a sub sequ en t ex am in atio n of
c u r r e n t e d u c a ti o n a l th e o ry and p r a c t i c e .
In g i v i n g e x p r e s s io n to th e f o llo w in g view, which p e r t a i n s
to the* s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the s c h o o l, Caswell and
Campbell w r i t e :
O bv io u sly, i f th e sc h o o l i s to d is c h a r g e i t s
f u n c t i o n o f h e lp in g to a c h ie v e s o c i a l i d e a l s ,
t h e r e must be a r e a s o n a b ly c l e a r concept of
th e n a t u r e o f th e s e i d e a l s . . . In a d em o cratic
s o c i a l o r d e r , on th e o t h e r hand, t h e r e i s no
c e n t r a l agency to impose a p lann ed program.
P lan s f o r a c t i o n a r e presumed to ev olve
th ro u g h th e i n t e r a c t i o n o f v a r io u s groups
and i n d i v i d u a l s u n t i l a m a j o r i t y f a v o r a
p a r t i c u l a r p ro c e d u re . In t h i s p r o c e s s , i t
i s hoped t h a t d e m o c ra tic i d e a l s w i l l work
th e m selv es i n t o p r a c t i c e . Thus, a democracy,
by i t s v ery n a t u r e , “te n d s to have n e i t h e r a
c l e a r , f i x e d s ta te m e n t o f i t s i d e a l s , n o r a
p lann ed co u rse o f a c t i o n to a c h ie v e i t s p u r­
p o se s; I n s t e a d , i t has a r e l a t i v e l y vague
co ncep t o f s o c i a l i d e a l s , s t a t e d in g e n e r a l
. te rm s , such as e q u a l i t y , l i b e r t y , and j u s t i c e ,
and a c o n tin u o u s ly e v o lv in g program o f educa­
t i o n . The r e s u l t i n g em phasis on a p la n n in g
r a t h e r th an a plan n ed s o c i a l o r d e r p la c e s
a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on th e sc h o o ls in a democ­
ra c y n o t r e q u ir e d in o t h e r ty p e s of s o c i a l
o r g a n i z a t i o n s , The s c h o o ls cannot s i t by
and w a it f o r o t h e r a g e n c ie s to d i s c o v e r and
d e f i n e d em o c ra tic i d e a l s i n u s a b le te rm s ,
j
78
b u t must u n d e r ta k e t h i s t a s k i n c o o p e r a tio n
w i t h - o t h e r s o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n s . In f a c t , th e r e
i s no o th e r i n s t i t u t i o n , f o r which i t i s so
e s s e n t i a l t o have a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l
id e a ls. 1
I t i s obvious t h a t a g re a t;d e a l o f the f o re g o in g q u o ta ­
t i o n embodies th e e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t s 1 p h ilo s o p h y .
I f , as
i t s a u th o r s co n ten d , a democracy te n d s to have no f ix e d
s ta te m e n t o f i t s I d e a l s , why, th e n , i s i t so e s s e n t i a l
f o r t h e s c h o o l to have a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l i d e a l s ?
I t , i s i n c o n s i s t e n t and f u t i l e t o a s s i g n to th e sc h o o l th e
t a s k of th e d is c o v e r y and d e f i n i t i o n o f d e m o c ra tic , when
i t i s held t h a t no c l e a r , f ix e d s ta te m e n t o f i d e a l s e x i s t s
i n a d em o c ra tic s o c i e t y .
”A c o n tin u o u s ly e v o lv in g program
o f e d u c a tio n ” i s e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t i c th o u g h t, s in c e t h a t
p h ilo s o p h y has a p p r o p r ia te d and i n c o r p o r a te d i n i t s doc­
t r i n e s th e thjblgTry o f e v o l u t i o n .
One m ight t h i n k t h a t th e
la b o r a t o r y te c h n iq u e , or t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f th e s c i e n t i f i c
method, ad v o cated by th e e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t s , would s e r v e to
p r e v e n t them from a c c e p tin g a th e o r y as a f a c t .
The a c t
of a c c e p tin g an unproven th e o r y and em ploying i t , as a
fundam ental p r i n c i p l e , ean only be e x p la in e d by i t s p r a g ­
m a tic v a l u e .
By t h i s pragm atism , i t I s cla im e d , t h a t the
u l t i m a t e t e s t of a l l ” i d e a s , p r i n c i p l e s , and e t h i c a l i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s , i s t h e i r a b i l i t y to make good” .
Hence, p u t t i n g
1 . Casw ell and Campbell, C urriculum Development, p . 29
2 . C h ild s , E d u catio n And The P h ilo so p h y Of E x p e rim e n ta lism ,
h p . 14-15
3 . I b i d . , p . 115
L
79
r to u se any id e a s f u r n is h e d by th e h y p o th e s is o f E v o lu tio n ~1
1
i s j u s t i f i e d by t h e i r own s c i e n t i f i c s ta n d a r d .
R eference h a s been made to th e R eport o f Secondary
2
School P r i n c i p a l s , w h erein a m ajor c a te g o r y , u n der which
c u rric u lu m m a t e r i a l s m ight be o r g a n iz e d , was found to i n ­
volve ”th o s e e x p e rie n c e s co ncerned w ith s u p p ly in g s o c i e t y fs
3
n e e d s " • E x perim en talism h o ld s t h a t e x p e rie n c e i s th e s o le
medium o f m eeting n e e d s.
T h is h as l e d sch o ol a d m i n i s t r a ­
t o r s to fo rm u la te c u rric u lu m a c t i v i t i e s as a means o f d i r e c t ­
in g e x p e rie n c e s tow ard th e r e a l i z a t i o n o f chosen aims o r
o b je c tiv e s.
The view i s m a in ta in e d t h a t , when th e sch oo l
i s aware o f th e m anner, i n which i t may c o n t r i b u t e to th e
w e lf a r e and p r o g r e s s o f s o c i e t y , th e n e x t s te p i s to ta k e
1 . Herman H. H orne, Free W ill and Human R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a p t l y
c r i t i c i z e s th e p rag m a tic v a lu e o f id e a s t h u s : ITf h e main
p r i n c i p l e o f pragm atism i s , t h e o r i e s t h a t work a r e t r u e .
T h is i s very d i f f e r e n t from s a y in g , t r u e t h e o r i e s work.
In th e form er c a s e , p r a c t i c a l i t y c o n s t i t u t e s th e v ery
n a t u r e o f tr u th ;" i n th e l a t t e r c a s e , i t i s o n ly one o f
th e t e s t s o f t r u t h . A ll a r e w i l l i n g to adm it t h a t t r u e
t h e o r i e s work so o ner o r l a t e r , b u t n o t a l l a r e w i l l i n g
to admit t h a t any w orking th e o r y i s t r u e . The l a t t e r
view makes t r u t h changeable,m akes i t grow,makes th e
t r u t h s o f to d a y th e f a ls e h o o d s o f tomorrow, which i s
th e p rag m a tic view, w h ile most p e o p l e , a d m itti n g o u r
views o f t r u t h may chan ge, would h o ld t h a t t r u t h i t ­
s e l f i s e t e r n a l , c h a n g e l e s s , s u b j e c t to no i d e n t i f i c a ­
t i o n , a f t e r any l a p s e o f tim e w h a ts o e v e r, w ith f a l s e h o o d ." p p . 155-15©.
2 . See p p . 64-65 o f t h i s C h a p te r.
3 . C h ild s," T h e Meaning o f th e Term: E x p erim e n talism lf. F ron­
t i e r s o f Democracy. Ja n u ary 1 5 ,1 9 4 0 , s a y s : "T his con­
c e p tio n o f t h e o r g a n ic r e l a t i o n o f th o u g h t and a c t i o n
h a s i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r th e th e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f
e d u c a tio n . I t h as l e d to th e view t h a t l i f e i n th e
sch oo l sh ou ld be a form o f e x p e r ie n c in g and t h a t c h i l ­
d re n sh o u ld have th e o p p o r tu n ity to l e a r n to t h i n k
i n term s o f th o s e a c t s whose consequences w i l l expand,
r e v i s e , t e s t t h e i r id e a s and t h e o r i e s . T h is i s th e
f i r s t commandment o f th e e x p e rim e n ta l m ethod."
80
d e f i n i t e m easures t o s t i m u l a t e th o se e x p e r ie n c e s , which
1
w i l l most e f f e c t i v e l y p roduce changes i n p u p i l b e h a v io r .
A more i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between sc h o o l e x p e rie n c e s
and th e w ider e x p e rie n c e s o f community l i f e has r e c e iv e d
Impetus from 1fche sub seq u en t c o n t e n ti o n o f t h e ex p e rim e n t­
a lists s
E d u ca tio n which i s th e co n tin u o u s r e c o n s t r u c ­
t i o n o f e x p e rie n c e s cannot go on w ith v i t a l i t y
i n th e framework of a s o c i a l o r d e r t h a t i s
i n s u l a t e d from r e c o n s t r u c t i v e e x p e rim e n ts . 2
The e x p e r i m e n ta lis ts * s u g g e s tio n , t h a t s o c i a l e v i l s
may be remedied by changing the s o c i a l environm ent,
th ro u g h ” r e c o n s t r u c t i v e e x p e rim e n ts” , i s an empty su g g es­
tio n .
T his i s so because i t la c k s any s ta n d a r d o r norm to
g u id e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n .
However, th ro u g h t h i s s u g g e s tio n ,
many e d u c a to rs have been drawn i n t o a v e x a tio u s s i t u a t i o n ,
which has developed i n t o th e p r o p o r ti o n s of a n a t i o n a l
i s s u e , namely: w hether th e sc h o o l sh o uld seek m e re ly th e
" a d ju s tm e n t” o f p u p i l s to p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l n ee d s, or seek
th e improvement o f th e p r e s e n t s o c i a l o rd e r th ro u g h th e
te a c h in g of th e s o c i a l s t u d i e s .
One ad v o c a te o f th e l a t t e r
p o l i c y goes so f a r as t o says
E d u ca tio n may f u n c tio n as an im p o rta n t g u id in g
f a c t o r in s o c i a l e v o l u tio n , e x p e c i a l l y in p e r io d s
o f c r i t i c a l t r a n s i t i o n l i k e th e p r e s e n t —not
a b s o l u t e l y , to be s u r e , b u t to a d eg ree t h a t has
n ev e r been s u f f i c i e n t l y c a p i t a l i z e d by an a s p i r ­
in g s o c i e t y . . . P o t e n t i a l l y , th e sc h o o l i s th e
1 .B e p o rt o f th e Committee on O r i e n t a t i o n , op. c i t . , p p . 154184.
2 . C h ild s , op. c i t . , p . 89.
;
J
81
r
n
s t e e r i n g g e a r of a d em o cratic s o c ie ty * • » I t
i s th e b u s in e s s of t e a c h e r s to run n o t m erely
th e s c h o o l, b u t th e w orld; and th e w orld w i l l
never be t r u l y c i v i l i z e d u n t i l th ey assume
th a t re s p o n s ib ility . 1
I f th e sc h o o l i s th e p o t e n t i a l " s t e e r i n g g e a r" of a
d em o cratic s o c i e t y , America has a number o f ready and w i l l ­
in g d r i v e r s o r l e a d e r s , who la c k two e s s e n t i a l s , nam ely:
knowledge of where to go and knowledge o f how t o g e t t h e r e .
There i s one group who w ish t o g u id e democracy i n t o a one­
way c h a n n e l— c o l l e c t i v i s t i c economy.
Such may prove to be
th e v ery a n t i t h e s i s o f t r u e dem ocracy.' To d e p a r t from r e c o g ­
n iz e d p r i n c i p l e s of d e m o cratic c i v i l i z a t i o n u s u a l l y has
d i r e r e s u l t s , i f one ta k e s R u ssia as a sample of such a c t i o n .
Those who w ish t o ' u s e th e sc h o o l f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f th e
2
p r e s e n t s o c i a l o r d e r a r e g u i l t y o f a p e r v e r s io n o f th e r e a l
f u n c tio n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e s c h o o l, as an agency,
m a in ta in e d by s o c i e t y to p e r p e t u a t e d em o cratic i d e a l s .
W ill s o c i e t y c o n tin u e to su p p o rt s c h o o ls , which a r e p la n n in g
th e " r o a s t i n g on th e r e v o l u t i o n a r y f r y i n g pan o f th e g o v ern 3
in g powers of th e s o c i e t y " ? That has been tran sfo rm ed in to
1 . F inney, 0 £ . c i t . , pp. 116-117
2 . Advocates o f su ch r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , meaning th e "improvement"
o f th e p r e s e n t s o c i a l o r d e r , in c lu d e John C h ild s , o p . c i t . , ;
John Dewey, Democracy and E d u c a tio n : George Cojunts, The
S o c i a l F o un dation s Of E d u ca tio n and The American RoaS
To C u ltu r e ; W illiam K llp a trX c k y v S du catlon and th e S o c i a l
C r i s i s , E d u c a tio n f o r a Changing C i v i l i z a t i o n , and The
E d u c a tio n a l F r o n t i e r (Bode and o th e r s c o n t r i b u t e d t"o
th e l a s t m entioned book, e d i t e d by K i l p a t r i c k ) .
3 .D em iashkevich, o p . c i t . , p . 360*S o c i a l E f f i c i e n c y and HarQ
mony a r e g i v e n / c o n s i d e r a t i o n , w ith r e f e r e n c e to American
democracy, w ith in pp. 358-368.
J
82
r
I n
a wc h a lle n g e to e d u c a tio n a l l e a d e r s h i p in our c o u n t r y . ”
The Commission On The S o c i a l S tu d ie s has en do rsed th e
view t h a t a new s o c i a l o r d e r , i n the sen se o f a b e t t e r
s o c i a l o r d e r , can i s s u e o n ly from a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n
2
toward which th e sch o o l sh o u ld work. Brubacher w is e ly
i
p o i n t s o u t , i n t h i s m a t t e r of th e scho ol and s o c i e t y ,
t h a t ”a c u rric u lu m p itc h e d i n advance o f th e s o c i e t y con­
tem poraneous t o i t , may be as u n r e a l i s t i c a s one t h a t
la g s to o f a r b e h i n d . i t .
In tim es o f r a p i d change, th e
f u n c t i o n of th e sc h o o l i s to s t a b i l i z e th e p e r io d o f t r a n ­
s i t i o n , r a t h e r th a n to a c c e l e r a t e th e f l u x of d i s t u r b i n g
fo rc e s .”
I t may be s a id t h a t a fun dam en tal f u n c t i o n o f
th e sc h o o l i s to a c t a s an agency of s t a b i l i z a t i o n w ith ­
in s o c ie ty .
The sc h o o l does n o t e x i s t f o r th e
1. Newlon, op . c i t . . p . 7 7 f f .
2. D em iashkevich, op . c i t . , p p .358-368. A lso C on clu sio n s And
Recommendations: R eport o f th e Commission On t h e S o c ia l
S t u d i e s , N. Y ., S c r i b n e r s , 1934. T his R epo rt p la c e s
e d u c a to r s between two p h ilo s o p h ie s of s o c i a l economy::
” . . . th e one r e p r e s e n t i n g th e immediate p a s t and f a d in g
o u t in a c t u a l i t y , an in d iv i d u a li s m in economic th e o ry
which has become h o s t i l e to th e development o f i n d i v i ­
d u a l i t y f o r g r e a t masses and t h r e a t e n s th e s u r v i v a l o f
American s o c i e t y ; th e o t h e r r e p r e s e n t i n g and a n t i c i p a t ­
in g th e f u t u r e on th e b a s i s o f a c t u a l t r e n d s - t h e f u t u r e
a l r e a d y coming i n t o r e a l i t y , a c o l l e c t i v i s m which may
p e rm it th e w id e s t developm ent of p e r s o n a l i t y o r le a d
to a b u r e a u c r a t i c ty ra n n y d e s t r u c t i v e o f i d e a l s o f
p o p u la r democracy and c u l t u r a l fre e d o m .” p p . 36-37.
D e s p ite th e a d m issio n t h a t c o l l e c t i v i s m may d e s tr o y
dem ocracy, e d u c a to rs a r e u rg e d to choose t h a t c o u r s e .
3 . B ru bach er, op . c i t . , C h .X .-”The School and S o c ia l P r o g r e s s ”p .2 2 0 .
J
83
i
Reform o f s o c i e t y .
A u th o rsh ip o f p la n s f o r re fo rm , o r
~1
th e improvement o f s o c i e t y , l i e s beyond th e c o n fin e s
o f th e s c h o o l.
A gain, th o s e same e d u c a to r s , who a r e
d e s ir o u s of u s in g th e sc h o o l f o r th e p u rp o se , d e s c r ib e d
1
a s th e " r e c o n s t r u c t i o n 11 o f th e s o c i a l o r d e r , have no
c l e a r - c u t o r i n t e l l i g i b l e p la n s o f a c t i o n .
In r e a l i t y ,
t h e i r p le a s f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n amount to a demand to u se
-*
th e sch oo l as a medium f o r th e t r i a l and su c c e s s o f t h e i r
own e d u c a ti o n a l t h e o r i e s .
Under th e l e a d e r s h i p o f E x p e ri­
m e n ta lism , th e s e t h e o r i s t s view th e sc h o o ls a s f r e e , p u b l i c su p p o rte d l a b o r a t o r i e s f o r e n d le s s e x p e rim e n ts , and th e
c h i l d r e n w ith in th e s e s c h o o ls , as th e s u b j e c t s of th e s e
e x p e rim e n ts .
Such a view i s e n t i r e l y in k ee p in g w ith e x p e r i ­
m e n t a l i s t p h ilo s o p h y .
E x p erim e n talism i s , by no means, th e on ly p h ilo so p h y
found in American e d u c a tio n a l th e o ry .
However, Experimen­
t a l i s m has come fo rw ard to dom inate American p u b lic educa­
tio n .
The S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum i n - t h e Yonkers Secondary
sc h o o ls has n o t escaped i t s d o m in a tio n .
The aims and o b j e c t i v e s o f th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum ,
1. M arique, op . c i t . . C h .U I - " E d u c a tio n And S o c i e t y " - c a l l s
a t t e n t i o n to t h i s p ro c e s s o f s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n .
Dr. Marique s a y s t "U n ity i n co m p le x ity , r e c o n s t r u c t i o n
th ro u g h a s s i m i l a t i o n , i d e n t i t y p r e s e rv e d th ro u g h o u t in
s p i t e o f change, th o s e a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common to
th e an im al and th e s o c i a l body, b u t t h e r e th e s i m i l a r i ­
t y c e a s e s , a t l e a s t in i t s e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s . Organic
r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s a p u r e ly m echanical p r o c e s s , whereas
s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , though c o n t r i b u t e d to by m a t e r i a l
e le m e n ts , i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p s y c h ic a l p r o c e s s ." p . 84.
J
84
1namely* a d ju stm e n t
or
o r a d a p t a t i o n to env iro nm ent; a l t r u i s m n
th e i n s p i r a t i o n o f young p e rso n s w ith a d e s i r e f o r th e
g r e a t e s t good f o r the g r e a t e s t number ( th e d em o cratic
i d e a l ? ) ; .r e s o u r c e f u ln e s s ; l i v i n g i n th e p r e s e n t ; a b i l i t y
to
s o lv e problem s; economic competence, a r e a l l r e s t r i c t e d
to
th e same sp h e re o f e x p e rie n c e as o u t l i n e d by th e e x p e r i ­
m e n ta lists.
The s o l u t i o n o f p u p ils * p r e s e n t and p ro b a b le
f u t u r e p rob lem s, by d e v e lo p in g s k i l l in th e u se of th e
s c i e n t i f i c method, a f f ir m s th e I n d i s c r i m i n a t e r e l i a n c e upon
one, and only one method o f a c q u i r i n g knowledge— t h a t of
e x p e r ie n c e .
• I t i s c l e a r , th e n , t h a t t h e s e aims and o b j e c t i v e s a r e de­
f i c i e n t in th e com plete e d u c a tio n o f th e i n d i v i d u a l , because
they f a i l to p ro v id e f o r th e most v i t a l phase o f th e ed uca1
t i v e p r o c e s s , v i z ; a m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g . This d e f i c i ­
ency i s not co n fin e d a t once to th e c u rric u lu m u n d e r con­
s i d e r a t i o n , i t ex ten d s th ro u g h o u t th e e n t i r e e d u c a ti o n a l
2
p o lic y seen in th e p u b lic s c h o o ls o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s .
1 . Herman H. Horne, The D em ocratic P h ilo so p h y o f E d u c a tio n ,
N.Y., Macmillan C o., 1932, u rg e s th e r e c o g h i t i o n o f r e l i ­
g io n as a p a r t o f e d u c a tio n i n t h i s "country t o make such
e d u c a tio n more e f f e c t i v e i n a democracy. Horne i s opposed
to th e i n f i l t r a t i o n i n t o American p u b lic e d u c a tio n of
Deweyf s agnos t l c i sm.
2 . ”Text o f th e Ppps’s Address to th e Church H ie ra rc h y i n ,
th e U n ite d S t a t e s ” , The New York Times, November 12, 1939.
The f o llo w in g s ta te m e n t i s ta k e n from t h a t ad d re s's;
”We r a i s e our v o ic e i n s t r o n g , a l b e i t p a t e r n a l , com plaint
t h a t in so many sc h o o ls of your lan d C h r i s t i s o f t e n
d e s p is e d or Ig n o re d , th e e x p la n a tio n o f th e u n iv e r s e and
mankind i s f o r c e d w ith in th e narrow l i m i t s o f m a t e r i a l ­
ism o r o f r a t i o n a l i s m , and new e d u c a ti o n a l system s a r e
sought a f t e r which can n o t b u t produce a s o rro w fu l h a r ­
v e s t i n th e i n t e l l e c t u a l and m oral l i f e o f th e n a t i o n . ”
L_
_I
85
r
The fu n dam ental need o f m o ra l, r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g , a s
th e most im p o rta n t p a r t o f th e c h ild * s t o t a l e d u c a tio n ,
i s b ased upon a t r u e co n c ep t o f man’s n a t u r e .
T his t r u e
c o n c e p t, a s o u t l i n e d in a r e c e n t Papal E n c y c l i c a l , i s
a c c e p te d a s b a s i c i n t h i s s t u d y ’ s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of th e
t r u e needs of th e i n d i v i d u a l i n e d u c a tio n s
In f a c t i t must n e v e r be f o r g o t t e n t h a t th e
s u b j e c t of C h r i s t i a n e d u c a tio n i s man whole
and e n t i r e , S v O U l u n i t e d to body i n u n i t y of
. n a t u r e , w ith a l l h i s f a c u l t i e s n a t u r a l and
s u p e r n a t u r a l , such a s r i g h t r e a s o n and Reve­
l a t i o n show him to b e ; man, t h e r e f o r e , f a l l e n
from h i s o r i g i n a l e s t a t e , b u t redeemed by
C h r i s t and r e s t o r e d t o th e s u p e r n a t u r a l con­
d i t i o n o f ad o p te d son o f God, though w ith o u t
th e p r e t e r n a t u r a l p r i v i l e g e s of b o d ily immor­
t a l i t y o r p e r f e c t c o n t r o l o f a p p e t i t e . There
rem a in , t h e r e f o r e , in human n a t u r e th e e f f e c t s
of o r i g i n a l s i n , th e c h i e f o f which a r e weak­
n e s s o f w i l l and d i s o r d e r l y i n c l i n a t i o n s . .
. D is o r d e r ly i n c l i n a t i o n s th e n must be c o r ­
r e c t e d , good te n d e n c ie s encouraged and re g u ­
l a t e d from te n d e r c h ild h o o d , and above a l l
th e mind must be e n l ig h te n e d and th e w i l l
s tr e n g th e n e d by s u p e r n a t u r a l t r u t h and by
means of g r a c e . 1
O b je c tio n s , however, w i l l be r a i s e d a g a i n s t th e !charge
t h a t American p u b lic e d u c a tio n i s d e f i c i e n t i n p r o v id in g
m oral and r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g .
The E d u c a tio n a l P o l i c i e s
Commission i n s i s t e d t h a t " e t h i c a l and moral d i s t i n c t i o n s ”
a r e th e "most p o te n t and u n i v e r s a l b ases f o r d e te rm in in g
1. C h r i s t i a n E d u ca tio n Of Y ou th . E n c y c lic a l o f His H o lin e s s , Pope P iu s XI, N. Y . , ^he America P r e s s , 1936,
pp. 1 9-20. Also Horne, The P h ilo so p h y Of E d u c a tio n , r e ­
v is e d e d i t i o n , N. Y . , Macmillan C o., ld 5 b . Horne r e p r e ­
s e n t s th e p h ilo so p h y o f I d e a lis m in e d u c a ti o n a l th e o ry .
While H orne’s co n cep t o f man’s n a t u r e i s n o t t h a t c i t e d
ab ov e, i t does d e s e rv e m ention as an ap p ro a c h to th e
t r u e n a t u r e o f m an:"E du cation i s th e e t e r n a l p ro c e s s of
s u p e r i o r a d ju s tm e n t o f th e p h y s i c a l l y and m e n ta lly
d e v e lo p e d , f r e e , c o n s c io u s , human b e in g t o God.” p . 316.
86
r e d u c a ti o n a l ohj e c t i v e s . ”
A s e a r c n f o r th e a p p l i c a t i o n of n
such d i s t i n c t i o n s i n e d u c a ti o n a l p r a c t i c e proves f r u i t ­
le s s .
tio n s ?
What i s th e s ta n d a r d in d e a lin g w ith such d i s t i n c ­
N othing more d e f i n i t e i s given th a n t h i s :
Our democracy, w ith i t s n e c e s s a r y and w hole­
some s e p a r a t i o n of Church and S t a t e , g iv e s ev e ry
man and woman com plete freedom o f r e l i g i o u s
b e l i e f and o p in io n . . . The p u b lic sc h o o ls are
r e q u i r e d by law and by ev ery elem ent of t h e i r
t r a d i t i o n s c r u p u lo u s ly tto 'r e s p e c t t h i s American
d o c t r i n e of r e l i g i o u s l i b e r t y . . . A p e rso n i s
e d u c a te d o n ly when he u n d e r s ta n d s and a p p r e c i a t e s
th e s p i r i t u a l and e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s which con­
s t i t u t e a c e n t r a l p a r t of the h e r i t a g e of th e
r a c e . . . . . eacn p e r s o n has th e p r i v i l e g e
of d e v e lo p in g h i s r e l i g i o u s p h ilo s o p h y in h i s
own way and in an atm osphere of t o le r a n c e
and freedom . 2
In t r u t h and f a c t , i t may be s t a t e d t h a t tb!ere cannot
be any s p i r i t u a l and e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , as a c e n t r a l p a r t
o f th e h e r i t a g e of th e r a c e , i f each i n d i v i d u a l e x e r c i s e s
th e p r i v i l e g e , acco rded him, o f choosing f o r h im s e lf t r u t h
o r n o tio n s of r i g h t and wrong.
A consequence of such ch o ice
would be as many s o - c a l l e d ^ i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ” o f s p i r i t u a l
and e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s as t h e r e a r e i n d i v i d u a l s .
R a tio n a l­
ism , N a tu ra lism w ith i t s th r e e main c u r r e n t s of M a te r ia lis m ,
E v o lu tio n is m , and P o s i t i v i s m , and E x p erim e n talism have r e n ­
d ered m eanin gless such term s as e t h i c a l , m o ral, and s p i r i t ­
u a l by the-- c o n c e r te d a tte m p t to d iv o r c e them from t h e i r
s a n c t i o n - a D iv in e ly r e v e a le d r e l i g i o n .
The n o tio n of an
1. The P urposes of E d u c a tio n in A m erican.Democracy, R eport of
th e E d u c a tio n a l P o l i c i e s Commission, 1938 , -op.5 -6 .
2. I b i d . , p p . 68 -69.
V
3« See P h ilo so p h y and E d u c a tio n , The Modern E d u c a tio n a l
T h eo ries of Naturalism,~ S o c ia lis m and N a tio n a lis m , w r i t t e n
by Rev. Franz De Hovre. Also O 'C onrlell, op. c i t .
,
87
i n h e r i t a n c e o f s p i r i t u a l and e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s has been
n
u nduly e x p l o i t e d i n th e in e x a c tn e s s o f everyday th o u g h t.
I t i s e a sy t o co n fu se b i o l o g i c a l i n h e r i t a n c e w ith s o c i a l
1
i n h e r i t a n c e . Each g e n e r a tio n i n h e r i t s th e knowledge and
ac h iev e m en ts o f p a s t g e n e r a t i o n s , b u t th e f a c t s t i l l r e mains t h a t such i n h e r i t a n c e m u st, of n e c e s s i t y , i n c l u d e ,
among o t h e r t h i n g s , elem en ts o f p h y s i c a l , p s y c h o lo g ic a l,
and s p i r i t u a l o r i g i n .
These must become i n f a l l i b l e g u id e s
in m oral ahd s o c i a l co n d u c t.
A f u r t h e r o b j e c t i o n to th e charge of d e f i c i e n c y , i n p ro ­
v i d i n g f o r th e i n d i v i d u a l ' s m oral t r a i n i n g , ^ .1 1 be advanced
by th o se who employ th e o b j e c t i v e s of developm ent o f th e
"whole p e r s o n a l i t y " and t r a i n i n g f o r "w orthy c i t i z e n s h i p " as
a s u b s t i t u t e f o r m oral . t r a i n i n g .
These t h e o r i s t s m a in ta in
t h a t a s o c i a l o r d e r , i n w hich ev e ry i n d i v i d u a l can r e a l i z e
a f u l l , r i c h l i f e - " t h e good l i f e " - th ro u g h r e l a t i o n s o f
u n d e r s ta n d in g and s y m p a th e tic c o o p e ra tio n w ith o t h e r s , has
been s e t up as th e d e m o c ra tic i d e a l f o r th e s c h o o l.
Such
1 . W. Kane S . J . , Some P r i n c i p l e s Of E d u c a tio n . Chicago, 1 1 1 .,
Loyola U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1§3S, pp. 16-1*7.
2 . E d u c a tio n , a s th e key to "an abundant l i f e " , a s s ig n s to
th e sc h o o l a s I t s a t t e n d i n g t a s k : " F i n a l l y , th e sc h o o ls
m u st, in th e p r e p a r a t i o n o f th e i n d i v i d u a l , s e a r c h f o r
th e ty p e s of e x p e rie n c e s t h a t w i l l make p ro b a b le th e
r e a l i z a t i o n o f h a p p in e s s . • • F o ^ w h a t i s the u s e of
e s t a b l i s h i n g a democracy g u a r a n te e in g th e r i g h t to p u r­
sue h a p p in e s s , and o f d e v e lo p in g th ro u g h p r o c e s s e s of
e d u c a tio n th e I n i t i a t i v e to s e a r c h f o r i t and th e a b i l i ­
ty to choose th e r i g h t p a t h , i f we le a v e th e p erso n
u n a b le to re c o g n iz e h a p p in e ss when he f i n d s i t , o r to
i n t e r p r e t i t s d e e p e r meanings i f he r e c o g n iz e s i t ? "
The P urposes o f E d u ca tio n in American Democracy, p . 35
P erhaps t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f democracy a s th e p u r s u i t
o f h a p p in e ss and th e sc h o o ls s e a r c h f o r e x p e rie n c e s
t h a t w i l l make p ro b a b le th e r e a l i z a t i o n of h a p p in e ss
may be r e s p o n s i b l e i n d i r e c t l y f o r th e a tte m p t to change
L sc h o o ls i n t o i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n ' s e n t e r ta in m e n t.
88
,ran i d e a l i s p r o p e lle d by " f a i t h i n i n t e l l i g e n c e as th e
n
in s tru m e n t th ro u g h which democracy r e - c r e a t e s and p e r p e t u 1
a t e s i t s e l f . 1* The a c t u a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f such an i d e a l does
r e q u i r e and needs sound m oral t r a i n i n g .
But th e s e same
a d v o c a te s have, i n r e a l i t y , r e j e c t e d th e p r o p e r s a n c t i o n
f o r m oral t r a i n i n g , by a d o p tin g a p h ilo s o p h y t h a t ad m its
o f no f i x e d , a b s o l u t e s ta n d a r d f o r e t h i c s or m o r a l i t y .
T h e ir " f a i t h in I n t e l 1ig e n c e " 9 meaning by i n t e l l i g e n c e ,
n o t a s p i r i t u a l f a c u l t y o f m a n , b u t th e c a p a c i t y o f resp o n se
to th e en v iro n m en t, i s s u p p o rte d by Dewey!s d e s c r i p t i o n o f
th o u g h t as an i n d i r e c t re sp o n se to C o n d itio n s w ith in th e
en viron m ent.
Thought and a c t i o n a r e h eld to be synonymous.
They a r e i n o rg a n ic r e l a t i o n , f o r Dewey d e n ie s f r e e w i l l .
I n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to t h i s view , i t sh o u ld be emphasized
t h a t manf s i n t e l l e c t and w i l l a r e c l o s e l y i n t e r - r e l a t e d
in e v e ry r a t i o n a l a c t i o n .
While th e i n t e l l e c t p rop oses
p la n s o f a c t i o n , which a r e apprehended as t r u e , th e i n d i ­
v id u a l re sp o n d s, when, i n l a s t a n a l y s i s , the w i l l chooses
one o f th e proposed p l a n s .
Modern p u b l i c e d u c a tio n has
p la c e d i t s f a i t h i n th e wrong f a c u l t y .
I f th e i n t e l l e c t u a l
f a c u l t y were g iv e n I t s p r o p e r p la c e as a s p i r i t u a l power
of man, and i t s p r o p e r r e l a t i o n to the, f a c u l t y of w i l l
u n d e r s to o d , th e n t h i s f a i t h would be more j u s t i f I s b l e .
1 . R eport of th e Committee On O r i e n t a t i o n , £ £ . c i t . , p . 333.
2 . See p . 74 o f t h i s C h a p te r.
L_
J
89
B rig g s v o ic e s a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t th e om ission from
e d u c a tio n o f what he term s " e m o tio n a liz e d a t t i t u d e s ” .
These a t t i t u d e s n o t o n ly p e r s i s t , ' b u t a r e h e ld to be
\ i
p o te n t f a c t o r s i n d e te rm in in g and d i r e c t i n g the co u rse
o f a c tio n *
A ccording to B rig g s , an in v e n to r y of approved
a c t i v i t i e s of men and women, who a r e s e l e c t e d a s good
1
c i t i z e n s , would be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f th e "good l i f e . ”
Thus, f o r B r ig g s , th e s ta n d a r d f o r th e good l i f e i s
th e way o f d oing t h i n g s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p te d and u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y f o llo w e d by good c i t i z e nf s .
This in c lu d e s
th e more a c c e p ta b le group a c t i o n s , th e v i o l a t i o n o f which,
" c o n s c io u s ly or u n c o n s c io u s ly , b r in g s in v a ry in g d e g re e s
2
s o c i a l d i s a p p r o b a t i o n ."
Assuming t h a t such a s ta n d a r d
3
could be made p r a c t i c a b l e , s o c i a l s a n c t i o n can n e v e r be
4
c o n s id e re d a s a norm f o r th e "good l i f e . " The s u b s t i t u ­
t i o n o f s o c i a l d is a p p r o v a l f o r th e s a n c tio n o f m o r a l i t y
1. B r ig g s , op . c i t . , p . 72. B rig g s d o e s ,n o t say on what b a s i s
"good c i t i z e n s ” w i l l be s e l e c t e d , o r by whom such s e l e c ­
t i o n i s to be made.
2. I b i d . , p. 129.
3 . P r a c t i c a b i l i t y and u t i l i t y a r e h e ld to be th e s a n c tio n s
of e t h i c s by many e d u c a to r s . Beard p o i n t s o u t t " S o c i a l
s c ie n c e cann ot ig n o re e t h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ; o th e rw is e
i t would become a b ran ch o f i n e r t s c h o l a s t i c i s m w ith ­
o u t d i r e c t i o n o r m otive f o r c e . At each g iv e n moment, i t
i s u n d er o b l i g a t i o n s to s e l e c t th e s t r i k i n g e t h i c a l p ro ­
p e n s i t i e s a p p a r e n t i n s o c i e t y , c o n s id e r t h e i r p r a c t i c a l
u p s h o t, and i n d i c a t e th e v a r io u s forms which th ey may
ta k e in th e advancement o f . th e good l i f e . " A C h a rte r
f o r th e S o c ia l S c ie n c e s . N. Y . , S c r i b n e r !s , 1932, p . 73.
4 . M arique, op . c i t . , d e s c r i b e s th e c o r r e c t s ta n d a r d f o r th e
. good l i f e r " t h e s ta n d a r d o f th e good l i f e , th e m oral law,
i s a G od-given p la n f o r th e o r d i n a t i o n of man’ s l i f e ,
and because i t i s th e e x p r e s s io n o f a Supreme R u l e r ’ s
wisdom and w i l l , t h i s p la n has c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
o f i t s o w n -u n iv e r s a l; imm utable; a b s o l u t e ; e v i d e n t ; o b l i g a ­
t o r y ; autonomous and i n v i o l a b l e . " p . 274.
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d im in is h e s to th e v a n is h in g p o in t th e t r u e p u rp o se o f
m oral e d u c a tio n s
S ta te d i n b r i e f e s t form, th e pu rpo se o f m oral
e d u c a tio n i s th e d i s c i p l i n i n g o f th e w i l l ; i t
i s ac h ie v e d th ro u g h th e fo rm a tio n o f good m oral
h a b i t s , th e te a c h in g o f th e m oral law and th e
f o r c e o f example i n th e environm ent o f th e
young. 1
I t f o llo w s , th e n , t h a t p u b l i c e d u c a tio n i n th e U nited
S t a t e s , in i t s p r e s e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n , i s in c a p a b le o f
p r o v id in g th e m o ra l, r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g r e q u ir e d by each
i n d i v i d u a l , because i t has a c c e p te d , in i t s e d u c a ti o n a l
p h ilo s o p h y , a f a l s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f m o r a li ty and o f man*s
tru e n a tu re .
Modern psy cho lo gy , in l i n e w ith th e same
f a l s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f man! s n a t u r e , has r e j e c t e d th e
2
co n cep t of man, as a c r e a t u r e composed o f body and s o u l .
I t ho ld s t h a t man i s sim ply an organism t h a t has a c q u ir e d ,
th ro u g h a p ro c e s s o f e v o l u tio n , a more h ig h ly s p e c i a l i z e d
nervous system th a n h is anim al a n c e s t o r s .
He becomes a
l . I b i d . , p . 143
2 . See Edward L. T h orn dike, A du lt L e a rn in g , N. Y. M acmillan
C o., 1936; a l s o John B. Watson, B ehav lo rism , N. Y ., N orton,
1930. C h ild s , o p . c i t . , saySI "Man, th in k i n g man, i s
w h o lly n a t u r a l i z e d w ith in n a t u r e . Mind i s h o t some
im m a te ria l e n t i t y o u t s i d e of th e c o u rse of n a t u r a l
e x i s te n c e and a n t i t h e t i c a l to i t . Man i s n o t p a r t
body and p a r t mind^ as a c e n ta u r i s h a l f h o rse and
h a l f man. R e p e a te d ly , th e e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t opposes
t h i s d u alism o f mind and body, of s u b j e c t and o b j e c t . ”
Rev. J . C a s t i e l l o , S. J . , A Humane Psychology o f Educa­
t i o n , N .Y ., Sheed & Ward, 1936, o f f e r s com prehensive
c r i t i c i s m s o f modern p s y c h o lo g ie s in r e s p e c t to t h e i r
I n f lu e n c e upon e d u c a ti o n a l p s y c h o lo g ie s .
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r human b ein g th ro u g h a p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n .
As t h i s
p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n c o n t in u e s , man i s s a id to ap pro ach
p e rfe c tib ility .
The l i m i t a t i o n s of th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of
e d u c a t i o n a l developm ent, f i x e d by th e o r i g i n a l equipment
of e a ch human bein g a r e ig n o r e d .
By th e r e f u s a l to adm it
t h a t human b e i n g s , a s a consequence of o r i g i n a l s i n , i n h e r ­
i t te n d e n c ie s to d i s o r d e r , th e n e c e s s i t y of d i s c i p l i n e has
been exclu d ed from e d u c a tio n by f a r too many t h e o r i s t s and
a d m in istra to rs.
W illiam C. Bagley p le a d s f o r , a r e t u r n t o th e r e c o g n i t i o n
of th e e s s e n t i a l need f o r d i s c i p l i n e in th e e d u c a tiv e p ro ­
cess.
That p le a i s su p p o rte d by a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f crim ­
i n a l s t a t i s t i c s , crim e r e c o r d s , and o th e r p e r t i n e n t m a t e r i a l ,
t o show th e wide p re v a le n c e and " a p p a r e n tly unchecked i n 2
c r e a s e of crim e , l a w l e s s n e s s , and c o r r u p t i o n . 11 i t i s
Bagley*s c o n te n tio n t h a t "mas e d u c a tio n " in th e U n ite d
1. Dewey d e s c r i b e s t h a t p ro c e s s t h u s : " S o c ie ty i s th e p ro c e s s
o f a s s o c i a t i n g in such ways t h a t e x p e r ie n c e s , i d e a s , em o tio n s,
v a lu e s a r e tra & m itte d and made common. To t h i s a c t i v e
p r o c e s s , b o th th e i n d i v i d u a l and th e i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y o r ­
g a n iz e d may t r u l y be s a i d to be s u b o r d in a t e . The i n d i ­
v id u a l i s s u b o r d in a te because e x c e p t in and th ro u g h
communication of e x p e rie n c e from and to o t h e r s , he rem ains
dumb, m erely s e n t i e n t , a b r u te a n i m a l .” R e c o n s tr u c tio n in
P h ilo s o p h y , N. Y ., H o lt, 1920, p . 207.
2. B agley, E d u c a tio n , Crime, and S o c ia l P r o g r e s s , N. Y . , Mac­
m i l l a n , l § 3 l . S agley w rite s -: wBy f a r th e most s i g n i f i c a n t
problem c o n f r o n tin g th e American p eo p le to -d a y l i e s in the
a p p a r e n t impotence o f o u r i n s t i t u t i o n s of law and j u s t i c e
to curb th e wide p re v a le n c e of s e r i o u s crim e . There can be
no doubt t h a t our crime r a t i o s a r e much h ig h e r th a n i n any
o t h e r com parable n a t i o n , and t h e r e i s ev id en ce t h a t th e
r a t i o s o f s e r io u s crime have been i n c r e a s i n g o v er a p e r io d
t h a t has w itn e s s e d a marked and in some c a s e s a s t r i k i n g
d e c r e a s e in s e r i o u s crime i n p r a c t i c a l l y e v e ry n a t i o n w ith
which we would w ish to be compared, in o th e r words, th e
s i t u a t i o n t h a t we a r e f a c i n g seems q u i t e p e c u l i a r to our
own c o u n t r y . ” p . 21.
92
r S t a t e s sho uld be made a " s t a b i l i z i n g f o r c e " in th e p r e 1
s e r v a t i o n o f dem ocracy, by th e i n c l u s i o n o f d i s c i p l i n e
as a n e c e s s a r y fo rc e *
I t i s o f f a r - r e a c h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t th e two
ty p e s of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n now com peting w ith
Democracy f o r w orld dom inance-Fascism and Communism-have back o f them m otives and i d e a l s t h a t
o p e r a t e a s p o w erfu l d i s c i p l i n a r y f o r c e s . A g a in s t
e i t h e r F ascism o r Communism backed by d i s c i p l i n e ,
Democracy w ith o u t d i s c i p l i n e w i l l be h e a v i l y hand­
ic a p p e d , i f n o t , in d e e d , q u i t e h e l p l e s s . 2
P a r a d o x ic a l a s i t may seem, American p u b lic e d u c a ti o n ,
i
in s p i t e of a s i n c e r e hope t o p r e s e rv e o ur dem ocracy, ad­
h e r e s to c e r t a i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s t h a t tend to be l o g i c a l ­
l y d e s t r u c t i v e of t h a t s o c i e t y ;
By v i r t u e of th e a tte m p t to
red u ce man to a p ro d u c t o f n a t u r e , t h a t o f a mere organism
i n t e r a c t i n g w ith h i s en v iro n m en t, th e i n d i v i d u a l has been
d e p r iv e d of
h i s human autonomy.
tru e n atu re
and
In consequence of -th fss,
f u n c t i o n o f human
th e
s o c ie ty are v i t i a t e d , be­
cause s o c i e t y i s an a g g r e g a tio n o f i n d i v i d u a l s .
Thus , th e
whole co n cep t o f human c i v i l i z a t i o n lo s e s p e r s p e c t i v e ,
th ro u g h th e
om ission o r d e n i a l o f th e s p i r i t u a l e le m e n ts ,
th a t lie a t
i t s v ery f o u n d a tio n .
U n t i l American p u b lic
1 . B agley, op . c i t . , d e f i n e s d i s c i p l i n e as f o llo w s : "By d i s c i ­
p l i n e I mean th e c o n t r o l o f conduct w ith r e f e r e n c e to
r e l a t i v e l y rem ote ends o r c o n s i s t e n t l y w ith w orthy r e g u ­
l a t i v e s ta n d a r d s , and in th e fa c e o f immediate i n t e r e s t s ,
d e s i r e s , and whims whenever and w herever th e s e a r e in c o n ­
s i s t e n t w ith th e ends and i d e a l s ' in q u e s t i o n . " p p . 104-105.
W illiam Kane, S . J . . Some P r i n c i p l e s o f E d u c a tio n , e x p la in s
th e need f o r d i s c i p l i n e in term s of th e d o c t r i n e of o r i g i n ­
a l, s i n , p p . 18-21. Bagley te n d s to o v er-em ph asize th e s o c i a l
v alu e o f d i s c i p l i n e .
2 . B agley, op . c i t . , p . 86.
J
93
r~'
~i
e d u c a tio n i s made to re c o g n iz e i n h e r e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s
1
which a r e th e r e s u l t s o f th e f a l s e p h i l o s o p h i e s , fo llo w e d
by i t s e d u c a to r s , t h e r e w i l l be a " s o r ro w f u l h a r v e s t in
th e i n t e l l e c t u a l and m oral l i f e o f th e n a t i o n . ”
The f o r e g o in g a n a l y s i s of th e p h ilo s o p h y , u n d e r ly in g
p u b lic e d u c a tio n in th e U n ite d S t a t e s , was prompted by th e
p o i n t , t h a t a system o f e d u c a tio n m ight be e f f i c i e n t and
s c i e n t i f i c , p o s s e s s sound p r i n c i p l e s , and y e t th e whole
system m ight be v i t i a t e d , b ecau se th o s e p r i n c i p l e s a r e de­
r i v e d from a f l a s e p h ilo s o p h y .
Prom such a n a l y s i s , th e
1. DeHovre summarizes modern p h ilo s o p h ie s a s f o llo w s :
*"Modern p h ilo s o p h ie s do n o t p r e s e n t us w ith a p ro p e r
c o n c e p tio n of r e a l i t y , o f human n a t u r e , o r of l i f e .
They p r o f e s s , i t i s t r u e to be r e a l i s t i c ; b u t r e a l i t y
can no t be e n v isag e d from one p o in t of view o n ly . They
a l s o la y claim to th e t i t l e of h u m a n is tic ; b u t human
n a t u r e i s too complex to be seen from one a n g le o n ly .
Again th e y claim t h a t th e meaning and purpose of l i f e
w i l l be m a n if e s t when we have m a s te r e d th e s c ie n c e of
b io lo g y i n i t s e n t i r e t y ; b u t , a s a m a t t e r of f a c t ,
b io lo g y i s on ly one of th e s c ie n c e s t h a t d e a l w ith
l i f e . p . 35, C a th o lic is m In E d u c a tio n , t r a n s l a t e d by
Rev. Edward "Jordan, N. Y ., B e n zig er B r o s ., 1934. E ls e ­
where i n t h i s same book, DeHovre w r i t e s : "Whether
modern e d u c a to r s a d m it i t o r n o t , 1i t can be s t a t e d
w ith the a s s u ra n c e t h a t t h e i r e d u c a ti o n a l p ro c e d u re
i s th e r e s u l t a n t of one o r th e o th e r modern c o n c e p tio n s
of l i f e .
I t i s , a s a r e th o s e modern p h i l o s o p h i e s ,
a n t i- d o g m a ti c and p o s i t i v i s t i c i n o r i g i n ; i t has
a n a rro w ly s p e c i a l i z e d m ethod; i t i s i n t e l l e e t u a l i s t i c i n s p i r i t ; n a t u r a l i s t i c in i d e a l s and o b j e c t i v e s .
I t i s based on hal;f t r u t h s a t b e s t , and even th e s e
a r e b u t p a r t i a l l y known a s th e y a r e n o t c o n s c io u s ly
r e l a t e d - t o th e whole. Thi-s ab se n c e o f a u n i v e r s a l
v ie w p o in t makes modem e d u c a tio n resem b le an o rg an­
ism d e p riv e d of th e p r i n c i p l e of l i f e .
I t la c k s
u n i t y ; i t has no s o u l , no form , no o r g a n i z a t i o n .
V a in ly have modern e d u c a to r s e ssa y e d to remedy t h i s
d e f e c t . They have endeavored to o rg a n iz e t h e i r edu­
c a t i o n a l t h e o r i e s abo u t new c e n t e r s o f r e f e r e n c e .
They have made N a tu re , o r th e I n d i v i d u a l , o r S o c i e t y ,
o r th e S t a t e , o r th e N atio n th e norm o f human l i f e . "
I b i d . , P. 133.
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94
C o n c lu s io n i s reach ed t h a t th e whole s p i r i t and tr e n d
o f American e d u c a tio n , w ith in th e p u b lic s c h o o ls , i s
fundamentsr 1-ly wrong, b ec au se o f th e f a l s e p h i l o s o p h i c a l
p r i n c i p l e s upon which ifr r e s t s .
S in ce th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum i n th e Yonkers P u b lic
Secondary Schools i s a l o c a l e x p r e s s io n o f th e s e same
p r i n c i p l e s , i t , t h e r e f o r e , f a i l s to meet th e s ta n d a r d of
a sound p h ilo s o p h y of e d u c a tio n .
This i s so b ecu ases (1)
i t p r e s e n t s a f a l s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of th e . I n d i v i d u a l 's
n a tu re .
D e fe c ts i n t h a t n a t u r e , in consequence o f o r i g i n a l
s i n , a r e ig n o r e d .
S p i r i t u a l f a c u l t i e s o r powers o f th e
i n d i v i d u a l a r e d e n ie d .
I t i s h eld t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l has
only th e c a p a c i t y to respo nd to h is environm ent; (2) i t s
aims and o b j e c t i v e s ex clu d e m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g ,
which i s th e very f o u n d a tio n o f e d u c a tio n .
U tilita ria n ism
i s made th e norm, by which to d eterm ine th e i n d i v i d u a l ' s
n e e d s.
His e x i s t e n c e i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h i s w o rld , because
e d u c a tio n i s h eld to be r e s t r i c t e d to mere s u c c e s s f u l
m a t e r i a l l i v i n g ; (3) i t s aims and o b je c t i v e s t r e a t th e
i n d i v i d u a l as a p o t e n t i a l e c o n o m ic a lly competent u n i t ,
ca p ab le o T " c o n tr ib u tin g e v e r y th in g n e c e s s a r y f o r th e com­
mon w e lf a r e ; (4) th e emphasis upon a c t i v i t i e s and
1 . The Changing C u rricul\y n, a B eport o f t h e J o i n t Committee
5n C urriculum , Henry Harap, Chairman and E d i t o r , not only
a c c e p ts th e f a l s e p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of Experimenta l i s m , b u t r e g a rd s t h a t p h ilo s o p h y in t h i s l i g h t : "The
m ajor c o n t r i b u t i o n o f s c ie n c e to e d u c a tio n i s I t s emerg1 in g o u tlo o k on l i f e , i t s metaphysics, i t s c o n c e p tio n con­
c e rn in g th e n a t u r e of th e u n iv e r s e and man's p la c e and
f u n c tio n i n i t .
T his we f in d ^ e x p r e s s e d today in e x p e r i m e n talism , which has been d e s c r ib e d as a p h ilo so p h y b o rn
u o f s c i e n c e . ” p . 34.
''
,
95
E x p e r i e n c e s , a s 'th e b e s t way of l e a r n i n g , r a t h e r th a n
n
s y s te m a tic s tu d y , weakens th e i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a i n i n g , which
e d u c a tio n sh o u ld p r o v id e ; (5) th e use of th e s o c i a l s t u d i e s ,
a s in s tr u m e n ts i n th e improvement of th e p r e s e n t s o c i a l
o r d e r , i s g u id ed by th e recom mendations of th e Commission
On The S o c ia l S tu d ie s*
T his Commission s u b s t i t u t e s c o l l e c t i -
v i s t i c i n d o c t r i n a t i o n f o r g en u in e s o c i a l s c i e n c e , which
g iv e s r e c o g n i t i o n to th e s tu d y o f man’ s p a s t and p r e s e n t
a c h ie v e m e n ts, a s se e n in th e work o f v a r io u s s o c i a l i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s and th e c o n te n t of v a r io u s s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ; (6) the
c r i t i c a l - m i n d e d n e s s , which p r o b le m -s o lv in g o r th e use of
th e s c i e n t i f i c method, i s supposed to awaken w i t h i n the
p u p i l s , a d m its no s ta n d a r d of measurement o r e v a lu a tio n *
Where t h e r e i s no f i x e d s ta n d a r d a s to what ought to b e ,
c r it,ic a l- m in d e d n e s s may become m erely d e s t r u c t i v e f a u l t ­
f in d in g *
A c o n s t r u c t i v e p la n o f a c t i o n cannot be s u p p lie d
by th e s c i e n t i f i c method alone*
That m ethod, i f p r o p e r ly
u s e d , w i l l se rv e to r e v e a l d e f i c i e n c i e s i n th e p r e s e n t
s o c i a l o r d e r , b u t i t i s in c a p a b le of su p p ly in g d i r e c t i o n s
f o r re m e d ia l m e asu res.
I t la c k s th e d e f i n i t e s a n c tio n and
m o tiv a tio n o f an e n l ig h te n e d i n t e l l e c t , and a d i s c i p l i n e d
w ill.
When t h i s c o n d i tio n i s a d m itte d , th e n , i t may be
s a id t h a t th e i n d i v i d u a l th in k s more a c c u r a t e l y and f a s h io n s
h i s conduct i n co n fo rm ity v /ith sound m oral p r i n c i p l e s .
(7)
The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , f a l s e l y Tmade, of th e " g r e a t e s t h a p p i­
n e s s f o r th e g r e a t e s t number"', means and abuhd&nce o f econom­
i c goods f o r a l l .
i
H erein th e g o a l of American democracy
J
96
r conforms w ith th e o p e r a tio n of economic la w s.
I t should
^
be r e p e a te d t h a t man, i n a l l h i s r e l a t i o n s w ith h i s f e l l o w
b e in g s , i s s u b j e c t p r i m a r i l y to th e m oral law.
In o r d e r to p ro v id e f o r th e com plete e d u c a tio n o f th e
i n d i v i d u a l , a system of e d u c a tio n must be i n t e r p r e t a t i v e of
man*s t r u e n a t u r e a s a human b e in g ,
A c u r r ic u lu m , which em­
b o d ie s a f a l s e p h ilo s o p h y , cannot meet c e r t a i n fun dam ental
s o c i a l n e e d s,
Man i s n o t o n ly an i n d i v i d u a l , b u t a s o c i a l
b ein g by n a t u r e .
He must l i v e in a c o o p e ra tiv e r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip w ith o t h e r s a s members of a s o c i a l g rou p.
As a mem­
b e r of s o c i e t y , man has s o c i a l d u t i e s and o b l i g a t i o n s to
m eet, b u t must be e d u c ate d to f u l f i l l them.
I t fo llo w s th e n ,
t h a t a c o r r e c t and p ro p e r b a la n c e must be k e p t between
th o se e d u c a ti o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , which guide group conduct and
th o se o b j e c t i v e s , which guide human b e in g s a s i n d i v i d u a l s .
The developm ent and p e r p e t u a t i o n o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s
among men depend e s s e n t i a l l y upon th e a c q u i s i t i o n of knowl1
edge and th e f o rm a tio n o f m oral and s o c i a l v i r t u e s in
i n d i v i d u a l men.
I t may be s a i d t h a t th e group cann ot be
%
im proved ex p ep t th ro u g h the improvement o f i t s i n d i v i d u a l
members.
The Committee On O r i e n t a t i o n , however,
1. Rev. Thomas J . Q u ig le y , 11C a th o lic Concepts and A t t i t u d e s
i n T r a in in g f o r C iv ic V i r t u e , ” The C a th o lic E d u catio n al
Review. 37: 6 5-8 3, F e b ru a ry , 1940, b r in g s o u t th e p o in t
t h a t wc i v i c v i r t u e ” i s n o t a C a th o lic c o n c e p t, b ut t h a t
s o c i a l v i r t u e i s , and may be d e f in e d t h u s : ”S o c ia l v i r ­
tu e i s a good h a b i t i n c l i n i n g a man to a c t in ev ery c i r ­
cumstance o f h i s s o c i a l environm ent a c c o rd in g to th e
r i g h t o r d e r t h a t has been from a l l e t e r n i t y o rd ain e d
by d iv in e l a w . ” p . 69..
L_
_I
f
97
;
e x p re s s e s th is o p in io n :
The i n t e r e s t s of th e i n d i v i d u a l and of h i s
s o c i e t y come to c o in c id e on ly a s th e i n d i v i d u a l
le a r n s to want th e th in g s which h i s s o c i e t y w an ts,
and to p u rsu e them i n th e s o c i a l l y a c c e p te d
m a n n e r .,,,- . . , I t is th e ta s k f o r e d u c a tio n a l
le a d e r s h i p to d e f in e th e v a lu e s which our s o c i e t y
i s pursuing; and to r e v e a l th e means by which
th e y a r e a t t a i n e d . . . I t should be r e a l i z e d ,
m oreover, t h a t th e h ig h v a lu e which i s p la c e d
upon i n d i v i d u a l freedom i n our s o c i e t y i s
sim ply a n o th e r of th e p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l i d e a l s
which i t becomes th e d u ty of th e sc h o o l to
i n c u l c a t e .1
Prom th e fo re g o in g q u o t a t i o n , i t i s e v id e n t t h a t th e
n o tio n of i n d i v i d u a l freedom , as "a p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l
i d e a l " , must be c a r e f u l l y i n t e r p r e t e d in terms o f th e
t r u e n a t u r e of freedom i n American dem ocracy.
Such an
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n must be made, b e f o r e th e sc h o o l can be
c a l l e d upon to I n c u l c a t e s o c i a l i d e a l s d e s ig n e d to pro-,
mote i n d i v i d u a l freedom .
By p la c in g alm o st u n lim ite d f a i t h in th e power of the
sch o o l to i n f l u e n c e th e a c q u i s i t i o n of th o s e v i r t u e s ,
n e c e s s a r y f o r " e f f e c t i v e l i v i n g " , th e t r u e f u n c t i o n and
im po rtan ce of th e f a m ily and Church, as e d u c a ti o n a l agen­
c i e s , is e x c lu d e d .
Adverse economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s ,
a t th e p r e s e n t tim e and i n many i n s t a n c e s , have p r e v e n te d
th e f a m ily from d is c h a r g in g i t s d u t i e s and o b l i g a t i o n s
f o r th e e d u c a tio n o f i t s o f f s p r i n g .
By way of su p plem en t­
ing th e e d u c a ti o n a l work of th e f a m ily , th ro u g h th e medium
of th e s c h o o l, th e S t a t e has assumed a l a r g e r §ha*re of
. r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n th e c a r e of c h i l d r e n .
i_
R e v e rtin g to
1. R eport of th e Committee On O r i e n t a t i o n , op. o i t , , p p .l4 7 s!4 9 '
-
'
— i
98
a d v e rs e economic c o n d i t i o n s , th e d e p r e s s io n o f 1929
and r e s u l t a n t f i n a n c i a l problems have d em o n strate d the
a b i l i t y o f th e F e d e r a l Government to ta k e m easures to
m i t i g a t e such s i t u a t i o n s .
I f a p h ilo s o p h y o f com plete
dependence upon N a tio n a l and S t a t e governm ental agen­
c i e s grows o u t o f th e n o tio n t h a t i t I s th e du ty of
th e government to ta k e c a re o f i t s c i t i z e n s i n e v e ry need,
th e n such i s c o n t r a r y to th e co n cep t o f I n d i v i d u a l s e l f r e l i a n c e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , which a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r t r u e
freedom and democracy and th e p e r p e t u a t i o n of th e s e i d e a l s
i n th e f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n .
By way o f a f i n a l a n a l y s i s , th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum
w i l l be e v a lu a te d i n terras o f i t s adequacy and e f f e c t i v e v e s s , as seen i n a c t u a l e d u c a ti o n a l p r a c t i c e .
This c u r r i c u ­
lum was plan n ed to answer to th e fo llo w in g c r i t e r i a s
P r o v is io n should be made f o r th e c o n s e c u tiv e ,
c u m u lativ e movement of c h i l d r e n th ro u g h th e
c u rric u lu m ; freedom i s allo w ed th e te a c h e r to
o rg a n iz e i n s t r u c t i o n around th e p u r p o s e f u l
a c t i v i t i e s o f c h i l d r e n o f v a r y in g c a p a c i t i e s
and a b i l i t i e s ; th e i n d i v i d u a l Is o r i e n t e d
to th e a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l l i f e In which he
w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e ; and a c o re f o r m a t e r i a l s
from v a r io u s s u b j e c t s i s p r o v id e d . 2
How w e ll th e S o c i a l - C i v i c c u rric u lu m meets th e fo re g o in g
1 . The Church And S o c ia l O rd e r, N a tio n a l C a th o lic W elfare
C o nference, says i n r e s p e c t to our economic system ; ”We
f a c e a problem which r e q u i r e s f o r I t s s o l u t i o n I n t e l l e c ­
t u a l v i s i o n , m oral i n t e g r i t y , and p e r s e r v ln g e f f o r t . Many
le a d e r s b o th i n th e f i e l d o f management and i n th e f i e l d
of la b o r must f i r s t be convinced t h a t economic laws and
m oral laws a re i n harmony and not in c o n f l i c t w ith one
a n o t h e r . ” p . 25 P u b lis h e d by th e N a tio n a l C a th o lic W elfare
C o n feren ce, W ashington, p . C ., n . d .
2 . Casw ell and Campbell, C urriculum Development, p . 145.
J
@9
r c r i t e r i a i s d e b a t a b l e , s in c e no o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n has
y e t been made.
The aims of th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum ,
a s su ch , co n c ern q u a l i t a t i v e f a c t o r s which a r e d i f f i c u l t
1
t o measure by means of o b j e c t i v e t e s t s . I n t h i s connec­
t i o n , th e proposed t e s t i n g program , t r e a t e d in th e i n t r o ­
d u c t i o n , d e s ig n e d to compare th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of th e
S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum w ith t h a t of th e Academic C u rric u ­
lum i n th e Yonkers P u b lic High S c h o o ls, f a c e s a r e a l c h a l­
le n g e .
S u b je c t m a t t e r o r f a c t u a l knowledge le n d s i t s e l f
to t e s t i n g .
On the o t h e r hand, th e measurement o f a t t i ­
tu d e s and s o c i a l i d e a l s s t i l l l a c k r e l i a b i l i t y , v a l i d i t y ,
and o b j e c t i v i t y which a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s t a n d a r d iz e d
te sts.
Prom th e v ie w -p o in t of a c lassro o m t e a c h e r , th e w r i t e r ,
having observed th e o p e r a t i o n o f t h i s c u rric u lu m i n a
Yonkers J u n io r h ig h s c h o o l, o f f e r s th e f o llo w in g e v a lu a ­
tio n .
(1) As a m a tte r of p o l i c y , th e p u p i l s , e n r o l l e d in
2
th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urricu lu m , a r e th o se who a r e l e s s
1. C on clusio ns And Rec ommendations, H eport o f th e Commission
On th e S o c ia l S t u d i e s , s t a t e s s' " In th e f i n a l a n a l y s i s ,
th e a c t u a l t e s t i n g o f a program of s o c i a l s c ie n c e i n ­
s t r u c t i o n i s n o t conducted by t e a c h e r s i n th e s c h o o ls ,
b u t r a t h e r by th e r e s p o n s e s o f th e i n d i v i d u a l to s o c i a l
s i t u a t i o n s th ro u g h o u t l i f e and by th e co u rse of -so c ia l
e v e n ts in which c h i l d r e n so i n s t r u c t e d p a r t i c i p a t e . Mp.lOO.
2. Guidance In A ctio n In The Yonkers Secondary S c h o o ls . Re­
p o r t of th e D i r e c t o r of G uidance, J u l y , ” 1939, c o n ta in s a
r e l e v a n t s ta te m e n ts ”I t i s to the p u p i l in th e s o c i a l c i v i c co u rse t h a t th e c o u n s e lo r must d ev ote a g r e a t
p o r t i o n of h i s tim e and e n e rg y . I t i s t h i s type of
p u p i l who w i l l in l a r g e measure f i l l th e jo b s a s b a r b e r s ,
b e a u ty c u l t u r i s t s , c l e r k s in th e ch a in o r neighborhood
s t o r e s , e t c . These p u p i l s w i l l e n t e r t h i s type o f work
due p a r t l y to la c k o f a b i l i t y i n academ ic work o r due to
s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s . ” p . 40.
.
!_
-1
100
C a p ab le s c h o l a s t i c a l l y th a n p u p i l s i n th e Academic
C u rriculum .
^
A classro o m t e a c h e r , t h e r e f o r e , must a d a p t
s u b j e c t m a t t e r to th e p r e v a l e n t l e v e l o f i n t e l l i g e n c e
m a n ife s te d by th e s e p u p i l s .
S u b je c t m a t t e r i s s a i d to
have l i t t l e v a lu e , in an d, o f i t s e l f .
I t s pu rpo se i s to
f u r n i s h e x p e rie n c e s f o r th e s e p u p i l s .
I f a p u p il i s i n t e r ­
e s te d i n , and d e r i v e s s a t i s f a c t i o n from c u t t i n g p i c t u r e s
o u t of a m agazine, o r c a rto o n s from a new spaper, such work
i s s a id to be " p u r p o s e f u l a c t i v i t y ” .
An assum ption seems
t o be made t h a t th e school 'can do l i t t l e to r a i s e th e
j& L
l e v e l of i n t e l l i g e n c e beyond t h a t d i s p l a y by a m easure­
ment of th e c h i ld f s n a t i v e a b i l i t y .
(2) The norm, by which
te a c h e r s judge p u p ils* work, i s th e d eg ree of i n t e r e s t and
e f f o r t shown by th e p u p i l .
T h e r e f o re , w ith sm all r e g a r d
f o r th e q u a l i t y of work done, p a s s in g g ra d e s a r e to be
g iv e n to th e most a c t i v e p u p i l s .
r^ he p u p i l who b r in g s in
to c l a s s a p r o f u s e l y i l l u s t r a t e d b o o k le t on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,
f o r exam ple, may n o t be a b le to answer sim ple q u e s tio n s
a b o u t th e im provem ents, which have made modem t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
p o ssib le .
Yet such work i s c o n s id e r e d t o ; j u s t i f y a p a s ­
s in g g ra d e .
(3) I f s u b j e c t m a t t e r (i s s i m p l i f i e d to c o in ­
c id e w ith th e l e v e l of th e p u p il* s a b i l i t y , th e n such f a c ­
t o r s , a s l a z i n e s s , i n d i f f e r e n c e , i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and
in d o le n c e , a r e somewhat a c c e p te d a s n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s ,
to be d e a l t w ith in th e i n t e r a c t i o n between p u p il and sub­
je c t m a tte r.
(4) Heading t e s t s were a d m in is te r e d to a l l
J u n io r High School p u p ils in th e C ity of Yonkers in
J
101
r - .
1
December, 1939.
The f in d in g s o f th e s e t e s t s r e v e a le d
t h a t a c o m p a ra tiv e ly sm a ll number o f th e p u p ils t e s t e d
had m a ste re d th e n e c e s s a r y r e a d in g s k i l l s .
However, t h i s
i s n o th in g u n e x p e c te d , b ecau se th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C u r r ic u ­
lum s e t s a s ta n d a r d , which does n o t r e q u i r e th e m a ste ry
2
o f such s k i l l s .
(5) The absence o f planned classro om
s tu d y f a i l s t o give p ro p e r em phasis to i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a i n ­
in g .
I t i s h e ld t h a t knowledge i s th e co n co m itan t which
d evelop s as a b y -p ro d u c t of a p r a c t i c a l - a c t i v l t y program.
(6) The im m a tu rity and la c k o f e x p e rie n c e i n p u p i l s , on
th e J u n io r High School l e v e l , a c t as o b s t a c l e s to l e s s e n
1 . Beading t e s t s w i l l b e a d m in is te r e d a g a in i n Ju n e, 1940.
A ll J u n io r hig h s c h o o ls had been a d v ise d to work out
and p u t i n t o imm ediate e f f e c t re m e d ia l r e a d in g program s,
a f t e r th e f i r s t t e s t s i n r e a d in g had been checked.
S t a t i s t i c a l d a ta i s n o t y e t a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c u s e .
2 .D e m ia sh k e v lc h ,o p .c i t . , s u p p o r ts th e m a ste ry o f " e s s e n t i a l ”
t o o l s of l e a r n i n g i n t h i s s ta te m e n ts llB ut, f i r s t and f o r e ­
m ost, th e sc h o o l must a m th e growing c i t i z e n w ith th e
t o o l s needed t o f a c i l i t a t e h is a c c e s s to th e w e a lth of
th e c o l l e c t i v e e x p e rie n c e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n and to a s s i s t
him o r her i n th e s e l e c t i o n o f th e b e s t o f th e re c o rd e d
p e r t i n e n t e x p e r ie n c e . I t i s e v id e n t t h a t th e s e t o o l s a r e
r e a d in g and w e l l - d i s c i p l i n e d r e a s o n i n g . ” p . 171.
3 . Breed, o p . c i t . , c o n t r i b u t e s t h i s c r i t i c i s m o f a c t i v i t y p r o ­
gram s; U n l e s s som ething more i s p ro v id e d f o r th a n m i s c e l ­
lan eou s exp osure of th e p u p i l t o p r a c t i c a l problems i n
th e narrow and o v e r t s e n s e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to see how
th e most im p o r ta n t i n t e g r a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y can ev e r
be a c h l e v e d - - t h a t u n i t y of view, t h a t c o n s i s t e n t o u tlo o k
upon th e w orld as a w hole, which should be th e crown­
in g f e a t u r e of g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . ” p . 160. B agley, "An
E s s e n t i a l i s t 1s P la tf o r m For The Advancement Of American
E d u c a tio n ” , o p . c i t . , in c lu d e s as ”Causes” f o r th e A p p a l l ­
i n g l y weak and i n e f f e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n ” ' o f p u b l i c e d u c a tio n s
(a ) The d isp a ra g em e n t of system and sequence i n le a r n i n g
and a dogm atic d e n i a l of any v a lu e i n , or even of any p o s­
s i b i l i t y o f l e a r n i n g th ro u g h th e l o g i c a l , c h r o n o n lo g ic a l,
and c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s ; (b‘) *The com­
p l e t e abandonment in many sc h o o l system s of r ig o ro u s '
s ta n d a r d s of s c h o l a s t i c achievem ent as a c o n d i tio n o f
prom otion: ( c ) The wide vogue of t h e s o - c a l l e d " A c t i v i t y
L Movement.” p p . 245-246.
-I
102
^ h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f th e s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s o f th e S o c i a l 1
C iv ic C u rricu lu m , (7) A lth ou gh an a tte m p t has been made
to a d j u s t t r a d i t i o n a l c o u rse s o f stu d y to th e a l l e g e d
!
needs o f i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s , t h e r e a r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s ,
p u p i l s , who a r e in th e h ig h s c h o o ls o n ly b ec au se of th e
com pulsory a tte n d a n c e law .
These p u p i l s cann ot p r o f i t
to any g r e a t d e g re e by th e e d u c a ti o n a l o f f e r i n g s o f th e
S o c i a l - C i v i c C u rricu lu m , b ecause th e y la c k a p p a r e n t l y th e
n e c e s s a r y c a p a c i t i e s to m a ste r th e fun dam ental s k i l l s
2
r e q u i r e d f o r such s u c c e s s .
1 . " C h ild re n because o f t h e i r im m a tu rity and la c k of e x p e r i ­
ence in c e r t a i n a r e a s o f a d u l t a c t i v i t i e s a r e in c a p a b le
o f g r a s p in g many th in g s vtfiich men a n d women should l e a r n
e a r l y i n l i f e . Examples of th e s e i n h e a l t h , home-making,
and s o c i a l s c ie n c e a r e l e g i o n . To te a c h 1 4 -o r-1 5 y e a r
o ld c h i l d r e n what e v e ry a d u l t sh o u ld know ab o u t American
h i s t o r y and governm ent, American i d e a l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s ,
and economics i s a lm o st a h o p e le s s t a s k , and we should
n o t d e c e iv e o u r s e lv e s by assum ing t h a t th e b o o k ish f a c t s
which th e y produce d u rin g e x a m in a tio n s have g r e a t s i g n i f i ­
cance f o r them ." D o u g lass, op . c i t , . , p . 82.
2 . T his a p p a r e n t i n a b i l i t y of some i n d i v i d u a l s to b e n e f i t
by fo rm a l s c h o o lin g has re a c h e d th e p r o p o r ti o n s o f a
n a t i o n a l i s s u e , v i z : " S h a ll seco n d ary e d u c a tio n seek to
r e t a i n a l l p u p i l s in sch oo l as lo n g a s th e y w ish to r e ­
main, o r s h a l l i t t r a n s f e r them to o t h e r a g e n c ie s u n der
e d u c a t i o n a l s u p e r v is io n when, in th e judgment o f th e
sc h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s , th e s e a g e n c ie s prom ise to se rv e b e t t e r
th e p u p ils * immediate and p ro b a b le f u t u r e n eed s?" In
an sw er, t h i s a p p e a r s : "The need o f a n o n -sc h o o l agency
which w i l l assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e o v e r s i g h t of
a d o l e s c e n ts who a r e n o t in sc h o o l i s u r g e n t . As soon as
such an agency can be e s t a b l i s h e d , sc h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s
sh o u ld assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t r a n s f e r r i n g to i t s
s u p e r v is io n a l l p u p i l s whose needs a r e l i k e l y to be
b e t t e r s e rv e d by o u t - o f - s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s th an by con­
tin u e d s c h o o lin g ." R eport Of The Committee On O r ie n ta ­
t i o n , op . c i t . p . 79. P a r t i c i p a t i o n in b o th scho ol and
o u t - o f - s c h o o l v o c a tio n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s b e in g u n d e r­
tak en by th e N a tio n a l Youth A d m in is tr a tio n . I t i s p os­
s i b l e t h a t th e work of th e C iv ilia n s * C o n se rv a tio n Corps
m ight be ex ten d ed to meet th e above demand f o r a non­
sch o o l agency to c a re f o r such a d o l e s c e n t s .
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The Report o f Mr* R obert Carpy, th e D i r e c t o r of Guid­
a n ce, p ro v id e s th e only o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f th e S o c i a l C iv ic C urricu lu m , a t t h i s tim e .
A s u b je c tiv e e v a lu a tio n is
seen i n th e unanimous a p p ro v a l o f th e c u r r ic u lu m , g iv en
by th e A s s i s t a n t S u p e r in te n d e n t o f S chools and th e p r i n ­
c i p a l s under h is s u p e r v i s i o n .
By way of c o n c lu s io n o f t h i s e v a l u a t i o n , th e R eport o f
th e Guidance D ir e c t o r p r e s e n t s th e case o f a g r a d u a te o f
th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum , which I s d e s c r ib e d as fo llo w s s
A g ra d u a te o f th e Yonkers High S c h o o l, I n th e
c l a s s o f 1938, found employment w ith th e Ja y
F i e l d s t o r e i n Yonkers as a c le rk * This young
la d y was com peting w ith g r a d u a te s from o th e r
sc h o o ls i n th e c i t y who had com pleted th e
academ ic or commercial h ig h sc h o o l c o u r s e s .
S ix months l a t e r , th e manager o f th e s t o r e
found i t n e c e s s a r y t o red u ce h is s t a f f . He
made a v ery c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s p f th e s e v e r a l
g i r l s so as t o keep th e p e rso n most v a lu a b le
to th e s t o r e ; th e g i r l who was g r a d u a te d from
th e S o c i a l - C i v i c c o u rs e a t Yonkers High School
was th e one k e p t on. 1
N o tw ith s ta n d in g th e H o ra tio A lg er to u c h i n th e c a s e ,
as p r e s e n te d by Mr. Carey, th e r e i s an obvious f a l l a c y o f
non s e q u i t u r .
I t does n o t fo llo w t h a t th e young l a d y fs
su c c e s s i s th e e x c lu s iv e r e s u l t o f one f a c t o r o n ly —
g r a d u a tio n from th e S o c i a l - C i v i c c o u r s e .
S in ce th e Report
s u p p li e s o n ly one c a s e , i t cannot be s a i d to c o n s t i t u t e
s a t i s f a c t o r y evid en ce o f th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a c o u rse .
1 . Guidance I n A ctio n I n The Yonkers Secondary S c h o o ls ,
J u ly 1939,. I n a l e t t e r to Mr. Carey, th e s t o r e manager
p r a i s e d s p e c i f i c a l l y th e c o u rse s i n b u s in e s s and s o c i a l
u sa g e , and p e r s o n a l i t y developm ent, ta k e n by th e young
lady i n Yonkers High S ch o o l. P e rm issio n was w ith h e ld
t o examine or u s e th e S y lla b u s on P e r s o n a l i t y D evelop­
ment in t h i s s tu d y .
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n
o r a c u rric u lu m .
However, t h i s R eport i s th e only p r e s e n t
e v a l u a t i v e so u rce a v a i l a b l e .
Before p ro c e e d in g to th e c o n c lu s io n o f t h i s s tu d y , i t
sh o u ld be r e - a f f i r m e d t h a t th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum of
Y onkers, an o f f - s p r i n g of f a l s e p h ilo s o p h y , does n o t meet
th o se fu n d am en tal s o c i a l n e e d s , which a r e i n h e r e n t i n th e
i n d i v i d u a l s n a t u r e a s i n t e r p r e t e d by sound p h ilo s o p h y .
N e it h e r can i t be s a i d , a t th e p r e s e n t tim e , t h a t th e
p r i n c i p l e s , u n d e r ly in g t h i s c u r r ic u lu m , a r e b e in g a p p l i e d
s u c c e s s f u l l y to r e a l i z e th e p r e s c r ib e d aim s.
I t may be
s t a t e d , i n th e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h a t w h atev er d eg ree of
p r a c t i c a l i t y and e f f i c i e n c y t h i s c u rric u lu m may a c q u i r e ,
n e v e r t h e l e s s , th e f a l s e p h ilo so p h y upon which i t i s b u i l t
w i l l le a d to th e e v e n tu a l r e c o g n i t i o n of i t s f a l s i t y and
in a d eq u ac y , as an agency t o p ro p a g a te t r u e democracy.
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h
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION
Through t h i s c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n o f th e
S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum i n th e p u b lic h ig h scho ols o f
Y onkers, New York, th e f o llo w in g d is a d v a n ta g e s have been
fo u n d :
(1) The i n d i v i d u a l i s n o t e d u c a te d c o m p le te ly , o r '
t
in a c c o rd a n c e w ith h i s t r u e n a t u r e . A com plete e d u c a tio n ,
in harmony w ith man’ s t r u e n a t u r e , in v o lv e s a f i v e - f o l d
d i v i s i o n o f th e e d u c a tiv e p r o c e s s , namely::
m o ra l-re lig io u s,
s o c i a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , p h y s i c a l , and a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t s .
Modern p u b lic e d u c a t i o n , j i n g e n e r a l , and th e S o c i a l - C i v i c
C urriculum of Y onkers, in p a r t i c u l a r , omit th e m o ralr e l i g i o u s s id e of th e i n d i v i d u a l ’ s t r a i n i n g .
In f a c t , th e
fo rm a tiv e phase o f e d u c a tio n i s n o t o n ly s u b o r d in a te d t o ,
b u t in many way, n e g l e c t e d in f a v o r o f th e in f o r m a tiv e
p h ase.
I n t h i s c o n n e c tio n , s o c io lo g y , i n s t e a d of r e l i g i o n ,
i s h e ld to be th e b a s i c m o tiv a tin g f a c t o r o f e s s e n t i a l
e d u c a ti o n a l t r a i n i n g .
(2) In th e d e te r m in a t io n of th e needs
o f th e i n d i v i d u a l , th e s e needs a r e b ased upon th e E x p e ri­
m e n t a l i s t p h ilo s o p h y w ith i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of human n a­
tu re .
T his p h ilo so p h y r e s t r i c t s needs to th o s e which p ro ­
v id e f o r economic s e c u r i t y , meaning an abundance o f e a r t h ­
l y goods and p l e a s u r e s .
(3) The a c c e p ta n c e of s o c i a l -
economic g o a l s , as s o c i a l needs in American s o c i e t y to d a y ,
would have e d u c a to r s p r e p a r e th e i n d i v i d u a l to become a
c o n t r i b u t o r y u n i t toward th e r e a l i z a t i o n of such g o a ls .
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r
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n
T h e r e f o r e , th e i n h e r e n t r i g h t o f th e i n d i v i d u a l to educa­
t i o n , a c c o rd in g t o h i s t r u e n a tu r e and a b i l i t y , i s d e n ie d .
(4) S in ce a sound i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e meaning o f democra­
cy i s la c k i n g i n p r e s e n t day e d u c a tio n a l l i t e r a t u r e , th e
s o c i a l s t u d i e s , as o rg a n iz e d i n t o an e d u c a ti o n a l program
by th e Commission On The S o c ia l S t u d i e s , cannot g iv e ad e­
q u ate a t t e n t i o n t o th e p rom o tion o f th e w o rth w h ile i n t e r ­
e s t s o f American s o c i e t y . (5) The a d o p tio n o f a c t i v i t y o r
e x p e r ie n c e , th e p h ilo s o p h y o f E xp erim ental ism , as th e key
to a l l l e a r n i n g , h a s l e d to a breakdown o f i n t e l l e c t u a l
t r a i n i n g . (6) By th e s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f immedi­
a t e i n t e r e s t o r p r a c t i c a l v alu e to th e i n d i v i d u a l , th e a c ­
c u m u lativ e h e r i t a g e o f th e p a s t h as been ig n o r e d . (7) The
f a l s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i t y o f educa­
t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , and th e a tte m p t to ap p ly i n p r a c t i c e t h i s
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , h a s , i n many i n s t a n c e s , red u ced e d u c a tio n
to a ’’l e v e l l e d s t a t u s ” , th e r e b y d e p r i v i n g many g i f t e d c h i l ­
d re n Qf an e d u c a tio n consonant w ith t h e i r c a p a c i t y .
It is
n e c e s s a r y t h a t e d u c a tio n f o r l e a d e r s h i p must be s u p p li e d ,
i n th e t r u e i n t e r e s t s o f American democracy.
I f p u b lic
e d u c a tio n i s red u ce d to a " l e v e l o f m e d i o c r i t y ” , such a
s i t u a t i o n i s "undem ocratic and u n e t h i c a l ” , b e c au se th e
i n d i v i d u a l s , endowed w ith s u p e r i o r a b i l i t i e s , can n o t be
g iv en an ad equ ate e d u c a tio n .
Yet such i n d i v i d u a l s m ight
w e ll become th e l e a d e r s o f s o c i e t y . (8) The i n s i s t e n c e upon
th e use o f th e s c i e n t i f i c m ethod, a s th e s o le c r i t e r i o n ,
i to a t t a i n t r u t h and c e r t i t u d e , h as b ee n a l o g i c a l
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r consequence o f th e a f f i l i a t i o n of many t h e o r i e s in modern ^
e d u c a tio n w ith f a l s e p h ilo s o p h y .
The S o c i a l - C i v i c Cu r r ic u lu m , i n s p i t e o f a l l th e f o r e ­
m entioned d is a d v a n ta g e s , may he s a id t o have t h e s e advan­
ta g e s .
(1) I t i s a p u r p o s e f u l a tte m p t to meet c e r t a i n needs
and to so lv e c e r t a i n pro b lem s, which a r e common to p u p ils
who la c k th e n e c e s s a r y a b i l i t y to p u rsu e academ ic c o u rse s
o f s tu d y .
(2) I t has p ro v id e d c e r t a i n e d u c a ti o n a l a c t i v i t i e s
and p r a c t i c e s , which n o t o n ly occupy th e tim e such p u p ils
must spend in s c h o o l, b u t , in c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s , a r e produc­
tiv e of d e s ira b le r e s u l t s .
T hereby, in c e r t a i n c a s e s , p u p i l s
enjoy a f e e l i n g o f p r o d u c tiv e n e s s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n , and
s a t i s f a c t i o n from h aving done som ething, t h a t may be c o n t r i b u ­
t o r y to i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l w e l f a r e .
In o t h e r w ords, such
p u p i l s a r e e n a b le d to p a r t i c i p a t e in sch o o l l i f e to some
e x t e n t ; th e y a r e n o t r e l e g a t e d to th e re a lm o f s o - c a l l e d
sc h o o l " m i s f i t s ” , b u t a r e e n a b le d to ta k e ad v a n tag e of th e
e d u c a ti o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , which the sc h o o l p r o v id e s .
E x p erim en talism may be shown to have c o n t r i b u t e d to th e
improvement o f methods of te a c h in g and l e a r n i n g , by empha­
s i z i n g e x p e rie n c e o r a c t i v i t y w ith in th e s c h o o l.
1'he r e s u l t ,
in some i n s t a n c e s , has been to tr a n s f o r m sc h o o ls i n t o work­
sh o p s, l a b o r a t o r i e s , l i b r a r i e s , o r even a " m in ia tu r e s o c i e t y , "
which g iv e s e x p r e s s io n to th e id e a of c o n s ta n t e d u c a ti o n a l
e x p e r im e n ta tio n .
As su c h , th e s e improvements a r e n o t enough
t o j u s t i f y th e c o n c lu s io n t h a t a l l e d u c a tio n should be
p a t t e r n e d alo n g th e l i n e s of th e e x p e rim e n ta l te c h n iq u e .
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rE d u c a tio n i s more th an t h i s .
I t m u st, of n e c e s s i t y , he
i n c l u s i v e o f ev e ry a s p e c t o f man*s t r u e n a t u r e and t h a t
o f th e s o c i a l o r d e r .
I t fo llo w s t h a t th e te c h n iq u e o f
" l e a r n i n g by d o in g " , o r e x p e r i e n c i n g , i s b u t one fundamen­
t a l method o f l e a r n i n g .
Many o f th e te c h n iq u e s , claim ed
by E x p erim e n talism a s in n o v a tio n s have been used a t v a r i ­
ous tim es by e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s , which come u n d e r, o r
were u n d er th e s u p e r v i s i o n o f the C a th o lic Ohur,ch.
For
example, th e J e s u i t "R ed u ctio n s" i n P arag u ay , T exas, and
New Mexico, th e e d u c a ti o n a l work of th e m i s s i o n a r i e s , th e
i n d i v i d u a l te a c h in g methods of Don Bosco and V i t t o r i n o
da F e l t r e , a r e i l l u s t r a t i v e of th e use of c e r t a i n te c h n iq u e s ,
which a r e claim ed to be modem.
Recent p u b l i c a t i o n s , such a s B ru b ac h erf s Modern P h ilo s o ­
p h ie s Of E d u c a tio n and B ree d f s E d u ca tio n And The New R eal­
ism , re c o g n iz e t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g e d u c a tio n a l
th e o r y and p r a c t i c e , in term s o f sound p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r i n ­
c ip le s.
Even though t h i s need may be a p p a r e n t to some,
u n t i l American e d u c a to r s b ase t h e i r aims and o b j e c t i v e s in
e d u c a tio n upon a sound p h ilo s o p h y o f l i f e , which must i n ­
clu de a c o r r e c t u n d e r s ta n d in g o f American democracy, th e r e
can be l i t t l e done to g u a r a n te e th e p r e s e r v a t i o n and p e r ­
p e tu a tio n of i t s id e a ls .
T his s tu d y has g iv e n s u f f i c i e n t
ev id en ce o f t h e la c k of agreem ent among American e d u c a to r s
in t h a t r e s p e c t .
T h e r e f o re , i n o r d e r to ed u c a te boys and
g i r l s f o r American l i f e , th e b a s i c e s s e n t i a l s a r e :
a sound
p h ilo s o p h y o f l i f e , and a c o r r e c t u n d e r s ta n d in g of
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democracy.
C a th o lic educSTors and p u b lic e d u c a to rs a l i k e aim a t
th e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f democracy i n th e U nited S t a t e s .
P u b lic
e d u c a to rs hold t h a t such p r e s e r v a t i o n i s th e s o le and u l t i ­
mate aim of e d u c a tio n . C a th o lic e d u c a to r s , in c o n t r a d i s ­
t i n c t i o n , view t h i s aim, t o p r e s e r v e democracy, as seco nd ary
to th e achievem ent o f a w ider and more com prehensive aim,
namely? th e a t ta i n m e n t of m an's e t e r n a l d e s t i n y as o rd ain e d
by God.
Moreover, i n t h i s l i g h t , democracy i s seen as a
p u r p o s e f u l means o f r e a l i z i n g in th e s o c i a l o r d e r , l i b e r t y ,
j u s t i c e , and r i g h t o r d e r , as e s t a b l i s h e d by th e m oral law.
Many p u b lic e d u c a to rs and e d u c a tio n a l t h e o r i s t s a c c e p t
E x p erlm e n talism as a g u id e , and, in term s o f i t s te a c h ­
in g s , m i s i n t e r p r e t th e t r u e concept o f democracy.
C a th o lic
e d u c a to r s i n s i s t upon th e m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s b a s i s of human
conduct and human s o c i e t y , su p p o rte d by th e immutable t e n e t s
o f th e m oral law, and, t h e r e f o r e , may be s a i d to f o s t e r
t r u e democracy.
I n th e s p i r i t of prom oting t r u e democracy,
C a th o li c e d u c a tio n g iv e s r e c o g n i t i o n to th e need f o r t h e
development o f th e i n d i v i d u a l ' s t a l e n t s and s p e c i a l a b i l i ­
tie s .
I t s e d u c a ti o n a l program i s made as v a r ie d and e x te n ­
s iv e as p o s s i b l e to p ro v id e e d u c a ti o n a l o p p o r tu n ity f o r
th e development of th e "m any-sided” powers o f man.
I n no
way can t h i s be s a id to be p r o v id in g e q u a l i t y of educa­
t i o n a l o p p o r tu n ity , in th e se n se t h a t ev ery one r e c e i v e s
th e same, i d e n t i c a l e d u c a tio n .
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^ o p p o r tu n ity , a c c o r d in g to C a th o lic t e a c h i n g , means t h a t
^
e v e ry c h i l d should he g iv e n a chance to r e c e i v e a s much
e d u c a tio n a s i s co nso nan t w ith h i s c a p a c i t y to p r o f i t
th e r e f r o m , r e g a r d l e s s o f th e i n d i v i d u a l ^ r a c e , c o l o r ,
s o c i a l o r economic s ta tu s *
Moreover, C a th o lic e d u c a tio n co n cerns i t s e l f w ith s t r e n g ­
th e n in g th e w i l l and c o r r e c t i n g d i s o r d e r l y i n c l i n a t i o n s *
In a d d i t i o n , th e i n d i v i d u a l i s g iv e n a d e q u a te p r e p a r a t i o n
f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c ie ty *
The t a s k d f C h r i s t i a n e d u c a tio n has always been
to make C h r i s t i a n i t y dynamic i n th e l i f e of th e
i n d i v i d u a l and o f s o c i e t y . . . C h r i s t i a n i t y i s
n o t o n ly a s e t of r e l i g i o u s dogmas b u t a way of
life . 1
In co n c lu d in g t h i s s tu d y , th e f i n a l c o n te n tio n of th e
w r i t e r i s t h a t th e S o c i a l - C i v i c C urriculum of Y onkers, a s
m easured by a sound p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a ti o n , i s in a d e q u a te .
However, a s a-m ethod add p la n of c a r r y in g o u t th e e d u c a tiv e
p r o c e s s , t h i s c u rric u lu m has some p r a is e w o rth y p o in ts * I t
w i l l c o n tin u e to d e v e lo p because changes in c u rric u lu m con­
t e n t w i l l be n e c e s s i t a t e d by t r i a l and t e s t i n g , and the
f i n d i n g s of e x p e r im e n ta tio n .
The w r i t e r 1s purpose has n o t
been to e v a lu a t e t h i s c u r r ic u lu m , as a method, b u t from
th e p o in t of view o f i t s b a s i c p h ilo s o p h y , and , in term s
t h e r e o f , i t s adequacy i n m eetin g th e s o c i a l - c i v i c needs
o f p u p ils i n Secondary E d u c a tio n .
1* Welsh, op . c i t . . p .8 1 .
L_
J
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r-
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i
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Youth E d u ca tio n Today
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J
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1
VITA
Name
I r e n e K athryn Palmer
D ate o f B i r t h
Ja n u ary 9, 1909
E lem entary School
G raduated
S t , P e t e r ’s , Y onkers, New York
1921
High School
G raduated
Yonkers
1925
B a c c a la u re a te Degree
C o lleg e
Date
B.S.
M t.S t. V incent
1929
O ther Degrees
C o lleg e
Date
M.A.
Fordham U n i v e r s i t y
1938
J
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