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Intraserial Inhibition as Measured by Reproduction

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FORDHAM UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
jc)40.
This dissertation prepared under my direction by
H elen E* P e ix o t t o
entitled
has been accepted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
Degree of
.......................................................
(Faculty Adviser')
INTRASERIAL INHIBITION AS MEASURED BY REPRODUCTION
BY
HELEN E . EEIXOTTO
A .B ., C o l l e g e Mount S a in t V in c e n t , f 3 J+
M .A ., C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y , *37
DISSERTATION
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQ,UIHEMENTS FOR THE DEGREE
OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY AT FORDHAM
UNIVERSITY
NEW YORK
■iUo
ProQuest Number: 10992590
All rights reserved
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uest
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r
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L
-J
iii
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TABLE OP CONTENTS
C h a p ter
P age
LIST OF TABLES........................................
LIST OF FIGURES.................................................................................................................
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I.
. .................................................
iv
v
vi
INTRODUCTION.......................................
1
II.
HISTORICAL SURVEY...................................................................................................
5
III.
PROCEDURE.......................................................................................................................
16
(A)
(B )
^C )
(D;
(E )
IV .
16
21
23
25
26
RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION............................................................................. 32
(A)
(B )
(C)
(d )
(e )
(F )
(G)
(H;
V.
M e t h o d o lo g y .
...............
P r e lim in a r y E x p erim en t I . . . . . ....................... • • • • • • • .............
P r e lim in a r y E x p erim en t I I ..........................
P r e lim in a r y E x p erim en t I I I .................................
M ajor E x p e r im e n t.• • • • • • •
••••••
................................
S c o r in g
E q u a tio n o f G ro u p s
•••••
A s s o c i a t i v e V a lu e o f S y l l a b l e s * .
•••••••
Raw S c o r e s ...................................................................
L e a r n in g G r a d i e n t ...............
C om parison w i t h F o u c a u lt * s R e s u l t s ...........................• • • • • • • • •
S e r i a l P o s i t i o n . • • • • .........................
H y p o t h e s i s . . ...............
C O N C L U S IO N S .................................................................
32
34
37
41
50
54
57
65
68
APPENDIX.....................................................................................................
BIBLIOGRAPHY......................................................................................................................... 76
69
iv
r
n
LIST OF TABLES
T a b le
P age
I* Scheme o f d o t a t i o n o f t h e S y l l a b l e s i n L e a r n in g O rder
f o r Each S e r i e s * .............
. ................................................................ . .
II.
29
Number o f S u b j e c t s P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n Each S e r i e s . . . . * . . . . . .
30
..............................
35
IV . A s s o c i a t i v e V a lu e i n R e c a l l f o r R esp o n se S y l l a b l e s .................
38
III.
S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s is o f 3 - SERIES
V . Raw S c o r e s
...................
44
V I. T o t a l A .S .T . S c o r e s f o r Each T hree T r i a l s o f Each S e r i e s . .
50
V I I . L e a r n in g O rder: A v era g e A .S .T . V a lu e s f o r 4 - SERIES.................58
V I I I . R e c i t a t i o n O rd er: A v era g e A .S .T . V a lu e s f o r 4 - S E R I E S .... 58
IX . L e a r n in g O rder:
X. R e c i t a t i o n O rder :
L_
C o r r e c te d V a l u e s .
C o r r e c te d V a l u e s .
......................
.........................
60
61
Li
r
LIST OF FIGURES
F ig u r e
I.
P age
Raw S c o r e s ....................... . ..........................................
(A)
(B )
CC)
CD)
(E )
II.
45
4 - SERIES...........................................
45
- SERIES
......................................................................................
46
47
8 - SERIES.....................
48
1 0 - SERIES...............................................................................................
1 2 - S E R I E S ....................................................................................................... 49
6
L e a r n in g G r a d i e n t . . ............................................................................................ 51
III.
F o u c a u lt C u r v e s. • • • • • • •
IVA.
L e a r n in g O rder, A .S .T . V a lu e s , 4 - S E R IE S ..............................
IVB.
R e c i t a t i o n O rd er, A .S .T . V a lu e s , 4 - S E R I E S ...
VA.
................ • • • • • • • .............
L e a r n in g O rd er, C o r r e c te d V a lu e s
56
............... 59
............................
VB. R e c i t a t i o n O rd er, C o r r e c te d V a lu e s ............................. • • • • • • • • • •
L
59
62
62
□
vi
r
n
ACKNOVfLEDGEMENT
S in c e r e th a n k s and a p p r e c i a t i o n a r e e x te n d e d t o Dr* B.R* P h i l i p
f o r t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e p r o b le m , and f o r h i s u n f a i l i n g h e lp and
en co u ra g em en t w h ic h made t h i s s t u d y p o s s i b l e *
The a u th o r i s a l s o g r a t e f u l t o M iss M iriam E . C ro w ley f o r
a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e a d m in is t r a t io n o f t h e e x p e r im e n t and t o Dr* E l i a s
L ieb erm a n , P r i n c i p a l Of Thomas J e f f e r s o n H igh S c h o o l, f o r h i s k in d n e s s
i n p r o v id in g t h e f i e l d
L
o f e x p e r im e n t a t io n *
□
r
n
INTRASERIAL INHIBITION AS MEASURED BY REPRODUCTION
!_
a
i
r
n
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Few a r e t h e p h a s e s o f a c t i v i t y , w h e th e r human o r in fra h u m a n ,
t o w h ic h t h e a t t e n t i o n and e f f o r t s o f t h e e x p e r im e n t a l p s y c h o l o g i s t
h a v e b e e n m ore f r e q u e n t l y d i r e c t e d t h a n t o t h a t o f memory*
lite r a tu r e ,
The
s i n c e t h e c l a s s i c a l w ork o f E b b in g h a u s, i s r e p l e t e w it h
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c o n c e r n in g t h i s c a p a c i t y i n some o n e o f i t s
several
p h a s e s , w h e th e r a s l e a r n i n g , r e t e n t i o n , r e c a l l o r r e c o g n i t i o n .
N ot
o n l y h a s memory b e e n t h e s u b j e c t o f a t t a c k b y t h e g e n e r a l e x p e r i ­
m e n t a l i s t , b u t t o a n e q u a l, i f n o t g r e a t e r e x t e n t h a s i t b e e n a
f a v o r i t e w it h t h e c o m p a r a tiv e p s y c h o l o g i s t , t h e e d u c a t io n a l
p s y c h o l o g i s t and t h e c r i m i n o l o g i s t .
p r e d ic a t e d on tw o f a c t o r s .
T h is l i v e l y i n t e r e s t i s
The p r im a r y i n c e n t i v e h a s p r o b a b ly b e e n
t h e p r a c t i c a l im p o r ta n c e o f t h i s a c t i v i t y i n e v e r y d a y l i f e ,
e d u c a t io n , i n i n d u s t r y ,
and i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s .
in
I t i s o p e r a tiv e in
s u c h a v a r i e t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n s in w h ic h man f i n d s h im s e l f from
b ir th t i l l
d e a th t h a t o n l y w it h d i f f i c u l t y c a n on e i s o l a t e a c t i ­
v i t i e s n o t to u c h e d t h e r e b y .
The seco n d m o t iv a t in g f a c t o r i s t h e
c a s e o f e x p e r im e n t a t io n i n memory a s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h a t i n c e r t a i n
o th e r p s y c h o lo g ic a l c a t e g o r ie s .
I n human e x p e r im e n t a t io n m a t e r i a l s h a v e b e e n a lm o s t a s v a r i e d
a s t h e s u b t o p ic s s t u d i e d ,
n o n sen se s y l l a b l e s ,
c o lo r s ,
p r o s e s e l e c t i o n s , v e r s e , m e a n in g f u l w o r d s,
g e o m e tr ic fo r m s , d i g i t s , m o to r a c t i v i t y , t o n e s ,
e v e n t s , p i c t u r e s , b o t h s t i l l and m o t io n , o d o r s and t a s t e s .
I n t h e v e r b a l f i e l d , t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e n o n s e n s e s y l l a b l e v/as
e a r l y r e c o g n iz e d ,
e lim in a tin g a s i t d oes th e p a s t a s s o c ia t io n s
i n e v i t a b l y l i n k e d w it h m e a n in g f u l w o r d s, and r e s t r i c t i n g t h e r e b y a l l
L_
a
r
le a r n i n g t o t h a t i n t h e im m ed ia te ex p e r im e n t*
Y a r ie d a l s o a r e t h e m eth o d s d e v e lo p e d f o r t h e d e t e r m in a t io n
o f t h e le a r n in g p r o c e s s *
The l e a s t s o p h i s t i c a t e d o f t h e s e i s t h a t
o f d e t a in e d M embers, i n w h ic h t h e m a t e r i a l i s p r e s e n t e d t o t h e
s u b j e c t o n c e , who t h e n a t t e m p t s t o r e p r o d u c e i t
in i t s
e n tir e ty *
The
o b v io u s d e f e c t o f t h e m eth o d , - t o w i t , th e f a c t t h a t i t g i v e s a
m ea su re o f r e c a l l e d r a t h e r t h a n r e t a i n e d m a t e r i a l l e d t o t h e d e v e lo p ­
m en t o f m ore r e f i n e d p r o c e d u r e s *
Among t h e s e a r e t h e m eth o d s i n
w h ic h t h e number o f t r i a l s t o l e a r n o r t o r e l e a r n s e r v e a s a
c r ite r io n *
The fo r m e r , known a s t h e L e a r n in g m eth o d , i n v e s t i g a t e s
t h e tim e o r t h e number o f t r i a l s
p r o fic ie n c y *
r e q u ir e d t o r e a c h a s e t s ta n d a r d o r
The l a t t e r , o r S a v in g m eth o d , t a k e s a s an in d e x o f
r e te n tio n , th e
" s a v in g ” o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t i m e , e r r o r s o r number
o f t r i a l s , b e tw e e n t h e r e l e a r n i n g and t h e o r i g i n a l le a r n in g *
A ls o
d e v e lo p e d w e r e t h e R e c o g n it io n and t h e R e c o n s t r u c t io n m e th o d s, t h e
fo rm er i n v o l v i n g t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f it e m s o n c e e x p e r ie n c e d w h ic h a r e
l a t e r p r e s e n t e d a lo n g w it h o t h e r s i m i l a r b u t p r e v i o u s l y u n e x p e r ie n c e d
ite m s *
T h is m eth od i n v o l v e s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e r e p r o d u c t io n o f a
p a t t e r n p r e v i o u s l y e x p e r ie n c e d *
F i n a l l y t o b e c o n s id e r e d a r e t h e two
m eth o d s m o st e x t e n s i v e l y em p loyed i n human e x p e r im e n t a t io n , t h e
P ro m p tin g o r A n t i c i p a t i o n m eth od and t h e m ethod o f P a ir e d A s s o c i a t e s *
I n t h e fo r m e r , t h e s u b j e c t a f t e r a p e r i o d o f f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h
t h e m a t e r i a l , u s u a l l y a s e r i e s o f w o rd s o r n o n s e n s e s y l l a b l e s ,
a tte m p t s t o
r e c ite it*
e r r o r , he i s c o r r e c te d *
When h e h e s i t a t e s h e i s p ro m p ted 5 when i n
T h is p r o c e d u r e i s r e p e a t e d u n t i l t h e r e i s
no h e s i t a t i o n and n o e r r o r *
D eg ree and p r o g r e s s o f le a r n in g may b e
m ea su red i n te r m s o f t o t a l tim e r e q u ir e d , t o t a l t r i a l s , number o f
p r o m p tin g s o r number o f c o r r e c t i o n s *
I n t h e m eth od o f P a ir e d
A s s o c i a t e s , t h e s u b j e c t a t t e m p t s t o le a r n a s e r i e s o f it e m s b y p a i r s
and t h e n t o r e c a l l t h e se c o n d o f t h e p a ir w hen o n ly t h e f i r s t i s
p r e s e n te d *
C om p arison s o f t h e m eth o d s a p a r t from r e f e r e n c e t o p a r t i ­
c u l a r p ro b lem s i s f u t i l e
s i n c e e a c h h a s c e r t a i n a d v a n ta g e s and d i s ­
a d v a n ta g e s r e l a t i v e t o p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s o f r e s e a r c h *
U sin g some one o r t h e o t h e r t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l s and one o r
s e v e r a l o f t h e a f o r e m e n tio n e d m eth o d s t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t h a s s t u d i e d
m any p h a s e s o f t h e a c t i v i t y c a l l e d memory - and from many p o i n t s o f
v ie w .
P e r s i s t e n t l y - and so m e tim e s i n g e n i o u s l y h a s h e e x p lo r e d t h e
i n f l u e n c e o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l , t h e p ro b lem s o f s p a c e d a s
o p p o se d t o c o n c e n t r a t e d l e a r n i n g p e r i o d s , p a r t a s o p p o se d t o w h o le
le a r n in g , e tc *
I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e a t t e n t i o n o f a g ro w in g number o f
i n v e s t i g a t o r s h a s b e e n t o t h e i n f l u e n c e (o n r e t e n t i o n and r e c a l l )
o f a c t i v i t i e s p r e c e d in g t h e l e a r n i n g p e r io d o r i n t e r v e n i n g b e tw e e n
t h e e l e a r n i n g and t h e r e c i t a t i o n .
The p r o b le m s h e r e i n v o lv e d h a v e
g e n e r a l l y b e e n subsum ed u n d e r t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f i n h i b i t i o n *
S in c e
t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s o n e d i r e c t e d to w a rd t h i s f a c t o r , m ore d e t a i l e d
c o n s id e r a tio n th e r e o f i s n e c e s s a r y .
D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms
R e t r o a c t iv e i n h i b i t i o n h a s b e e n d e f in e d b y s e v e r a l w r i t e r s ,
t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s b e in g , how ever,
to B r itt
it
is
e s s e n t i a l l y t h e seme*
A c c o r d in g
“t h e d e t r im e n t a l i n f l u e n c e o f s u b s e q u e n t a c t i v i t y
u p on t h e r e t e n t i o n o f p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d a c t i v i t i e s 11^
P r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n may b e d e f in e d c o n v e r s e l y a s t h e d e t r im e n t a l
i n f l u e n c e o f p r i o r a c t i v i t y upon t h e r e t e n t i o n o f s u b s e q u e n t ly
1* S*H. B r i t t , " R e t r o a c t iv e I n h i b i t i o n ; A R ev iew o f t h e L it e r a t u r e " ,
P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1 9 3 5 , v o l . 3 2 , p p . 3 8 1 -4 -4 0 .
e s ta b lis h e d a c t i v i t i e s .
S in c e ,
i n t h i s e x p e r im e n t , we in t e n d t o
u t i l i z e t h e c o n c e p t s o f Foucault-^ i t i s p e r t i n e n t t o q u o te h i s d e f i n i
tio n s .
U sin g t h e term " r e g r e s s iv e " f o r r e t r o a c t i v e and " p r o g r e s s iv e "
f o r p r o a c tiv e , he d iv id e s in h ib it io n s in to f i v e c a t e g o r ie s :
1 . E x t e r n a l r e g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n i n w h ich t h e o r i g i n i s
in d e p e n d e n t o f t h e s e r i e s .
T h is i s a l s o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f M fllle r
2 . E x t e r n a l c o n c o m ita n t i n h i b i t i o n w h ic h i s c a u s e d b y a n o t h e r
a c t i v i t y t a k in g p l a c e d u r in g m e m o r iz a tio n .
3 . P r o g r e s s i v e e x t e r n a l i n h i b i t i o n w h ic h i s c a u s e d i n m em oriz­
i n g a s e r i e s b y t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e f i r s t ite m on t h e s e c o n d , t h e
f i r s t an d se c o n d on t h e t h i r d , e t c .
4 . I n t e r n a l r e g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n w hichhass i t s
o r ig in in th e
i n t e r i o r o f t h e s e r i e s and i s c a u s e d b y t h e i n f l u e n c e o f im a g es c o n ­
s e q u e n t t o t h e a n t e c e d e n t im a g e s .
5 . I n t e r n a l p r o g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n w h ic h i s c a u s e d b y t h e
i n f l u e n c e o f a n t e c e d e n t im a g es on t h e a b i l i t y t o m em orize co n ­
s e q u e n t im a g e s .
I t i s w it h t h e t y p e s o f i n h i b i t i o n d e s c r ib e d i n t h e s e l a s t
tw o c a t e g o r i e s t h a t t h i s e x p e r im e n t i s c o n c e r n e d .
T h ere a r e tw o m eth o d s b y w h ic h i n h i b i t i o n i s
in v e s tig a te d .
In o n e m ethod t h e a c t i v i t y o f i n t e r p o l a t e d o r p r e c e d in g m a t e r i a l
c a u s e s th e t y p e o f i n h i b i t i o n d e s c r ib e d b y F o u c a u lt ’ s f i r s t and
t h i r d c a t e g o r i e s 5 i n t h e o t h e r m eth o d , t h e i n h i b i t o r y a c t i v i t y i s a
f u n c t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l le a r n in g s i t u a t i o n a s s t a t e d i n t h e f o u r t h
and f i f t h
c a te g o r ie s .
It w ill,
o f c o u r s e , b e r e c o g n iz e d t h a t
F o u c a u lt ’ s s e c o n d c a t e g o r y h as' b e e n i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e p a s t i n t h e
s o -c a lle d
“d i s t r a c t i o n " e x p e r im e n t s .
1 . M. F o u c a u lt , "Les I n h i b i t i o n s I n t e r n e s de F i x a t i o n " , L ’ a n n ee
P s y c h o lo g iq u e , 1 9 2 8 , v o l . 2 9 , p p . 9 2 - 1 1 2 .
5
r
CHAPTER I I
HISTORICAL SURVEY
E x p erim en ts on r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n h a v e c o v e r e d many p h a s e s
of* t h e p ro b lem .
In t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , h o w e v er, we a r e p r im a r ily
i n t e r e s t e d i n i n h i b i t i o n a s a f u n c t i o n o f s e r i a l p o s i t i o n and t h e r e ­
f o r e s h a l l make r e f e r e n c e o n l y t o t h o s e e x p e r im e n ts d i r e c t l y c o n ­
c e r n e d w it h s e r i a l p o s i t i o n .
It is
in t e r e s t in g t o n o te t h a t in
B r i t t * s r e v ie w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e th r o u g h 1 9 3 5 ,1 -the o n l y e x p e r im e n t
he rep o r ts th a t i s d e f i n i t e l y r e la te d to t h i s to p ic i s th a t o f
F o u c a u lt q u o te d a b o v e .
H ow ever, t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l r e c e n t e x p e r i ­
m e n ts o n s e r i a l p o s i t i o n t h a t m u st b e c o n s id e r e d a lt h o u g h t h e y
d i f f e r m a rk ed ly from t h e p r o p o s e d e x p e r im e n t c h i e f l y i n t h e i r u s e
o f t h e m eth od o f i n t e r p o l a t e d m a t e r i a l ,
McGeoch,. w o rk in g a lo n e and w it h t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f o t h e r s
h a s b e e n t h e fo r e m o s t e x p e r im e n te r i n t h e f i e l d
o f r e tr o a c tiv e
i n h i b i t i o n , a t t a c k i n g t h e p ro b lem i n a lm o s t a l l i t s p h a s e s .
Among h i s e x p e r im e n ts a r e tw o c o n c e r n e d w it h s e r i a l p o s i t i o n .
S in c e
t h e s e tw o e x p e r im e n t s , t h o s e o f McGeoch and McGeoch^ and o f KcGeoch
and S is s o n ,^
to g e th e r .
u t i l i z e t h e same p r o c e d u r e t h e y c a n b e d is c u s s e d
The m a teria l u s e d i n b o t h w as l i s t s
o f syn onym s.
The
a p p a r a tu s em p loyed w as an e l e c t r i c a l l y d r iv e n memory drum d e v is e d
1 . S .H , B r i t t , " R e t r o a c t iv e I n h i b i t i o n ; A R ev iew o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e " ,
P s y c h o lo g ic a l B u l l e t i n , 1935, v o l . 32, p p . 3 8 1 -4 4 0 ,
2 . J .A . McGeoch and G. McGeoch, " S t u d ie s i n R e t r o a c t iv e I n h i b i t i o n
V I, The I n f l u e n c e o f t h e R e l a t i v e S e r i a l P o s i t i o n o f I n t e r ­
p o la t e d Synonym s", J o u r n a l o f E x p e r im e n ta l P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 3 6 ,
v o l. 19, pp, 1 -2 3 .
3 . J .A . McGeoch and E .D . S i s s o n , " S tu d ie s i n R e t r o a c t iv e I n h i b i t i o n
X I; The- I n f l u e n c e o f t h e R e l a t i v e S e r i a l P o s i t i o n s o f I n t e r ­
p o l a t e d Synonyms i n T w en ty -Item L i s t s , " J o u r n a l o f E x p e r im e n ta l
P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 3 8 , v o l . 2 2 , p p . 5 4 7 - 5 4 .
L
n
6
b y McGeoch*
The l e a r n i n g m ethod w a s t h a t o f a n t i c i p a t i o n , and t h e
m eth od o f r e s p o n s e w as r e c a l l and r e l e a r n i n g .
The number o f s u b j e c t s
who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s e e x p e r im e n ts ra n g ed fro m e i g h t e e n t o t h i r t y s ix .
T h ese s t u d i e s in v o lv e d t h e u s e o f i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r im e n t a t io n ,
s i n c e t h i s i s t h e m o s t p r a c t i c a l w ay o f u s i n g t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n m ethod#
The a u t h o r s , h o w e v er, w ere o n ly a b le t o s t a t e t h e i r r e s u l t s a s t e n ­
d e n c i e s an d , t h e r e f o r e , we do n o t deem g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s t o b e
ju s tifie d .
McGeoch and McGeoch^ c la im t h a t i n an e x p e r im e n t i n w h ich an
a tte m p t w as made t o c h a n g e t h e o r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n no s i g n i f i c a n t
d i f f e r e n c e i n i n h i b i t i o n w as fo u n d t o accom pany c h a n g e o f p o s i t i o n .
The m eth od o f r o t a t i o n w a s, h o w e v e r , inadequ& e b e c a u s e , w h i l e t h e r e
w as ch a n g e i n t h e a b s o lu t e p o s i t i o n w i t h i n a s e r i e s , i n t r a s e r i a l
s e q u e n c e rem ain ed t h e sam e.
The c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e s e tw o e x p e r i­
m e n ts (McGeoch and McGeoch, and McGeoch and S i s s o n ) a r e c o n t r a ­
d ic to r y .
T h is c o n t r a d i c t i o n may b e e x p la in e d b y s t a t i n g t h a t t h e
le n g t h o f t h e l i s t
p o s itio n .
is
a f a c t o r in in h ib it io n as a fu n c tio n o f s e r i a l
M o reo v er, t h e c o n c l u s i o n r e a c h e d i s c o n t r a r y t o t h a t o f
an e x p e r im e n t l a t e r p erfo rm ed b y McGeoch h i m s e l f and r e p o r t e d u n d er
t h e a u t h o r s h ip o f McGeoch and M cK inney
on o r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n .
I n t h i s e x p e r im e n t, p a ir e d a s s o c i a t e s w ere u t i l i z e d ; t h e number o f
s u b j e c t s virho p a r t i c i p a t e d w as t h i r t y .
T here w e r e t h r e e e x p e r im e n t a l
p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l and t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d
1 . J .A . McGeoch and G« McGeoch, " S tu d ie s i n R e t r o a c t iv e I n h i b i t i o n ,
X : The I n f l u e n c e o f S i m i l a r i t y o f M eaning B etw een L i s t s o f P a ir e d
A s s o c i a t e s " , J o u r n a l o f E x p e r im e n ta l P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 3 7 , v o l . 2 1 ,
pp. 3 2 0 -9 .
2 . J;A * McGeoch and F . M cK inney, " S tu d ie s i n R e t r o a c t iv e I n h i b i t i o n ,
V IIIs
The I n f l u e n c e o f t h e R e l a t i v e O rder o f P r e s e n t a t i o n o f
O r ig in a l and I n t e r p o l a t e d P a ir e d A s s o c i a t e s , " J o u r n a l o f
E x p e r im e n ta l P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 3 7 , v o l . 2 0 , p p . 6 0 - 8 3 .
_l
m a te r ia l.
P r e se n te d s c h e m a tic a lly t h e s e a r e :
1 . Same o r d e r - same o r d e r , SO-SO.
2 . Changed o r d e r - ch a n g ed o r d e r , CO-CO.
3 . Changed o r d e r - same o r d e r , CO-SO.
4 . Same o r d e r - ch a n g ed o r d e r , SO-CO.
The c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s e x p e r im e n t w ere t h a t t h e amount
le a r n e d i s
a fu n c tio n o f t h e c o n sta n c y o f th e o rd er o f th e p a ir s a t
s u c c e s s iv e p r e s e n ta tio n s .
tio n s o f th e p a ir s ,
When t h e o r d e r , t h a t i s ,
i s t h e same th r o u g h o u t , m ore i s le a r n e d th a n when
th e order ( s e r ia l p o s itio n s o f th e p a ir s ) i s
p r e s e n ta tio n .
d if f e r e n t a t each
T h is i s t r u e w h e th e r t h e o r d e r i n -which t h e p a i r s
f o llo w each o th e r , r e g a r d le s s o f s e r i a l p o s it io n ,
or is
th e s e r ia l p o s i­
v a r i e d ra n d o m ly .
i s k e p t t h e same
P e r c e n ta g e o f in h ib i t i o n i s a fu n c t io n o f
t h e r e l a t i v e o r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p a i r s i n t h e o r i g i n a l and
in te r p o la te d l i s t s .
I n h i b i t i o n i s g r e a t e s t w hen b o th l i s t s
p r e s e n t e d i n a c o n s t a n t o r d e r a t e v e r y r e p e t i t i o n (SO -SO ).
n e x t h i g h e s t w hen b o t h l i s t s
each r e p e t i t io n
(CO-CO).
are
It is
are p r e se n te d in a d if f e r e n t ord er a t
The f a c t t h a t i t
a p p e a r s w it h some c o n ­
s i s t e n c y p o i n t s t o i t s v a l i d i t y i n s p i t e o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l un­
r e l i a b i l i t y o f m o st o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s .
I n h ib itio n i s v ery s lig h t
and i s p r o b a b ly a b s e n t when o n e l i s t i s p r e s e n t e d i n a c o n s t a n t
o r d e r a n d t h e o t h e r i n a c h a n g in g o r d e r (CO-SO), (SO -CO ).
T h ese
r e s u l t s a r e n o t p r im a r ily a f u n c t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e g r e e s
o f l e a r n i n g u n d er t h e tw o t y p e s o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , n o r a r e t h e y a
f u n c t i o n o f t h e i n t r a - s e r i a l o r d e r o f t h e it e m s a s s e p a r a t e from
t h e i r s e r i a l p o s itio n s *
M i t c h e l l h a s p erfo rm ed tw o e x p e r im e n ts on t h e m e m o r iz a tio n o f
L_
numbers.^*
E le v e n s u b j e c t s t o o k p a r t i n ea ch e x p e r im e n t.
o f le a r n in g em ployed w as t h a t o f a n t i c i p a t i o n .
The m ethod
B oth t h e s e f a c t s
le a v e t h e e x p e r im e n t op en t o c r i t i c i s m ; i n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s t h e
o b j e c t i o n t h a t when num bers a r e u s e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f v a r i a t i o n s
i s n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d and t h e f r e q u e n c y o f r e p e t i t i o n o f an y one
number i s n e c e s s a r i l y g r e a t .
H ow ever, t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e e x p e r i ­
m en ts i n d i c a t e "a form o f r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n w i t h i n t h e l i s t " . ^
I t w i l l b e n o t e d t h i s form o f i n h i b i t i o n w h ic h M i t c h e l l fo u n d i s
a
f u n c ii on o f t h e o r i g i n a l le a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n , n o t a f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r ­
p o la t e d m a t e r i a l a s i s t h e c a s e i n a l l t h e e x p e r im e n ts o f M cGeoch.
R e s u l t s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f M i t c h e l l w e r e o b t a in e d b y S c h m e id le r 5
who u s e d n o n s e n s e s y l l a b l e s , num bers and a n g l e s .
H ow ever, h e r
e x p e r im e n t i s u n n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p lic a t e d i n r e g a r d t o m e th o d o lo g y
and e n t i r e l y in a d e q u a te i n r e g a r d t o t h e number o f s u b j e c t s , o f
whom t h e r e w ere e i g h t , o r p o s s i b l y t h i r t e e n .
E x p e r im e n ts i n w h ic h t h e m a t e r i a l u s e d w as g e o m e tr ic fo rm s
c o n s t i t u t e a n o th e r t y p e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h i n t h e f i e l d
in h ib itio n .
of
M ost p e r t i n e n t among t h e s e a r e t h o s e o f G ib so n and
R a f f e l , - C r a f t s 5 and P h i l i p .
5
1 . D. M i t c h e l l , “E r r o r s i n t h e M em o r iz a tio n o f N um bers", A m erican
J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 3 3 , v o l . 4-5, p p . 1 - 1 6 .
D. M i t c h e l l , " A n t ic ip a t o r y P la .ce - S k ip p in g T e n d e n c ie s i n t h e
M e m o r iz a tio n o f Num bers", A m erican J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 3 4 ,
v o l . 46 , p p . 8 0 -9 1 .
2 . I b id .
3 . G .R . S c h m e id le r , " R e t r o a c t io n and P r o a c t io n i n S e r i a l L e a r n in g " ,
A m erican J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 3 9 , v o l . 5 2 , p . 4 f f .
4 . T T j. "G ibson "and G . R a f f e l , frA T ech n iq u e f o r I n v e s t i g a t i n g
R e t r o a c t iv e and o t h e r I n h i b i t o r y E f f e c t s i n Im m ed iate Memory",
J o u r n a l o f G e n e ra l P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 3 6 , v o l . 1 5 , p p . 1 0 7 - 1 6 .
5 . L.W. C r a fts^ "Prim acy and R e cen cy i n t h e L e a r n in g o f V is u a l
D iagra m s" , A m erica n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 3 2 , v o l . 4 4 ,
p p . 7 0 3 -6 7 .
6 . B .R . P h i l i p ,
" P r o a c t iv e and R e t r o a c t iv e E f f e c t i n th e R e c o g n it io n
o f Form", J o u r n a l o f E x p e r im e n ta l P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 4 0 , v o l . 2 6 .
D e s p i t e t h e d i f f e r e n t fo rm o f m a t e r i a l em p lo y ed , t h e s e
e x p e r im e n ts a r e i n t i m a t e l y c o n n e c t e d w it h t h e p r e s e n t o n e b e c a u s e
t h e m eth od o f i n t e r p o l a t e d m a t e r i a l i s n o t u sed *
T h e r e f o r e , we
sh o u ld e x p e c t s i m i l a r r e s u l t s from t h e s e e x p e r im e n ts and t h i s on e
s i n c e b o t h u t i l i z e t h e same m eth od f o r p r o d u c in g i n h i b i t o r y e f f e c t s .
Fven among t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , h o w e v e r , r e s u l t s a r e c o n t r a d i c t o r y .
C r a f t s f i n d s p r im a c y and f i n a l i t y s u f f i c i e n t t o e x p l a i n h i s r e s u l t s ;
G ib so n and R a f f e l and P h i l i p f i n d t h a t t h i s la w i s in a d e q u a te t o
accou n t fo r t h e ir r e s u lt s .
G ib son and R a f f e l c o n c lu d e t h a t i n t h e i r
e x p e r im e n t r e t e n t i o n w as an i n v e r s e f u n c t i o n o f s e r i a l p o s i t i o n w hen
f i v e fo rm s w e r e g iv e n , b u t d id n o t v a r y w it h p o s i t i o n when o n ly t h r e e
fo rm s w ere g i v e n .
They s t a t e t h a t t h e r e i s no e f f e c t o f p r im a c y a s
su c h i n t h e s e r e s u l t s ; and t h a t r e c e n c y h a s b e e n shown t o depend
p r i n c i p a l l y on su b s e q u e n c y o f s e r i a l p o s i t i o n r a t h e r t h a n on r e c e n c y
as su ch .
The r e s u l t s o f P h i l i p c a n b e p a r t i a l l y e x p la in e d i n t e r m s
o f p r o a c t i v e and r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n *
T here h a s b e e n o n ly o n e e x p e r im e n t e n t i t l e d P r o a c t iv e I n h i b i t io n #
T h is i s b y M e lto n .^
He f i n d s e v id e n c e o f p r o a c t io n b u t i t d o e s n o t
a p p ea r a s s t a b l e a phenom enon a s r e t r o a c t i o n .
S c h m e id le r ^ 2
d i s c u s s i o n o f h e r r e s u l t s in c l u d e s b o th r e t r o a c t i o n and p r o a c t io n *
H ow ever,
sh e o b t a in s n o t h in g m ore d e c i s i v e t h a n " t i l t s ” i n t h e s e
r e s u lts .
One o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s m o st
p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s e x p e r im e n t i s
1 . A.W# M e lto n , " P r o a c t iv e I n h i b i t i o n i n S e r i a l V e r b a l L e a r n in g a s a
F u n c tio n o f t h e D eg ree o f L e a r n in g o f ih e F i r s t
M a t e r i a l ”,
P s y c h o lo g ic a l B u ll e t in , 1936, v o l . 3 3 , p . 765.
2 . G.R. S c h m e id le r , ’‘R e t r o a c t io n and P r o a c t io n i n S e r i a l L e a r n in g ”,
A m erican J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 3 9 , v o l . 5 2 , p . 4 .
L
r
10
t h a t o f R o b in so n and Brown .^
p a rts,
T h e ir e x p e r im e n t w as p e r fo rm ed i n tw o
i n o n e o f Y d iic h n o n s e n s e s y l l a b l e s w ere t h e m a t e r i a l and t e n
s u b j e c t s w ere u s e d , i n t h e o t h e r t h r e e p l a c e num bers w ere t h e m a t e r i a l
and e l e v e n s u b j e c t s w ere u s e d .
The m ethod o f l e a r n in g i n ea c h i n s t a n c e
w as a n t i c i p a t i o n .
As t h i s w as n o t an e x p e r im e n t d i r e c t e d to w a rd s t h e s t u d y o f
in h ib itio n ,
i n t e r p o l a t e d m a t e r i a l i s n o t a p a r t o f t h e m eth o d o lo g y *
The c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from t h i s e x p e r im e n t a r e s u r p r i s i n g l y m o d est
c o n s id e r i n g t h e amount o f Y/ork and tr e a t m e n t o f t h e r e s u l t s .
The
c o n c lu s io n s are a s f o llo w s :
1 . The a d v a n ta g e s f o r r e c a l l o f p r im a cy and f i n a l i t y a r e p r o ­
n o u n c e d , b u t t h e e f f e c t o f p r im a c y i s g r e a t e r th a n t h a t o f f i n a l i t y *
2 . The c u r v e s c f m e m o r iz a tio n a r e n e g a t i v e l y a c c e l e r a t e d .
S.
D e c e l e r a t io n o f l e a r n i n g r a t e v a r i e s w it h t h e s e r i a l p o s i t i o n
o f t h e it e m .
T hose it e m s w h ic h a r e m ore f a v o r a b ly s i t u a t e d show
s h a r p e r d e c e l e r a t io n *
4.
T h ere i s e v id e n c e p f e a r l y p o s i t i v e a c c e l e r a t i o n i n le a r n in g
f o r t h e it e m s u n f a v o r a b ly s i t u a t e d i n v e r y lo n g l i s t s .
The e x p e r im e n t m o st i n t i m a t e l y c o n n e c te d Y fith t h e p r e s e n t one
i s t h a t o f F o u c a u lt .^
F o u c a u lt u s e d on e hu nd red c h i l d r e n a s s u b j e c t s .
The m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t e d o f l i s t s
o f m e a n in g fu l YYords, w h ic h w ere
p r e s e n t e d s e r i a l l y on a Marks memory drum.
t o r e p r o d u c e im m e d ia te ly t h e e n t i r e s e r i e s .
H is s u b j e c t s a tte m p te d
The r e s u l t s w ere
d iscussedcsfflong t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s :
1.
R e g r e s s iv e i n h i b i t i o n a s m ea su red b y f a i l u r e s f o r t h e f i r s t and
s e c o n d w ord s o f e a c h s e r i e s .
1 . E. S . R o b in so n and M.A. BroY/n, " E f f e c t o f S e r i a l P o s i t i o n Upon
M e m o r iz a tio n ”, .American J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 2 6 , v o l . 3 7 ,
p p . 5 3 8 -8 2 .
I_ 2 . M. F o u c a u lt , o p . c i t . , p p . 9 2 - 1 1 2 .
2 . P r o g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n a s m easu red b y f a i l u r e s f o r t h e l a s t
and n e x t t o t h e l a s t w ord s o f ea c h s e r i e s *
3 . P r o g r e ss o f f a i l u r e s f o r each s e r ie s o f in c r e a s in g le n g th ; t h a t
i s , p e r c e n t a g e o f f a i l u r e s w h ic h e q u a ls t h e e n se m b le o f i n t e r n a l
in h ib ito r y p r o c e sse s*
As m ea su red b y f a i l u r e s f o r t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d w ord s o f
each s e r i e s , th e r e s u lt s
i n d i c a t e a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n
s e r i a l p o s i t i o n and r e g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n ; p r o g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n as
m ea su red b y f a i l u r e s f o r t h e l a s t and n e x t t o t h e l a s t w ord s o f ea c h
s e r i e s y i e l d s an i r r e g u l a r c u r v e s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r r e g r e s s i v e
in h ib itio n *
C o n c e r n in g t h e s e r e s u l t s , F o u c a u lt s a y s :
’’R e g r e s s iv e and
p r o g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n a l s o a c t on t h e s e c o n d and t h e n e x t t o t h e
l a s t term o f a s e r i e s ; and i n a lo n g e r s e r i e s on t h e t h i r d and on
t h e a n t e p e n u lt im a t e te r m s w it h i n c r e a s i n g f o r c e ; t h a t i s , t h e com­
b in e d a c t i o n i s
s t r o n g e r t h a n t h a t from o n e a d d it io n *
The se c o n d
te r m , a t t h e moment when i t com m ences t o u n d e rg o t h e r e g r e s s i v e
i n h i b i t i o n o f t h o s e w h ic h f o l l o w i t , h a s a lr e a d y u n d e rg o n e p ro ­
g r e s s iv e in h ib it io n e x e r c is e d by th e f i r s t *
C o n s e q u e n tly t h e a c t i o n
o f p r o g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n c o n s i s t s i n s t o p p in g t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l
d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e word on w h ic h i t
r a t h e r t h e im a g ew h ich i t
is
e x e r c i s e d ; t h i s w ord , o r
l e a v e s i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s , i s a lr e a d y w eakened
o r r e p r e s s e d a t t h e moment w hen i t u n d e r g o e s t h e a c t i o n o f r e g r e s s i v e
in h i b i t i o n , th u s i t
is
l e s s c a p a b le o f r e s i s t i n g i n h i b i t o r y a c t i o n
and u n d e r g o e s i t w it h m ore f o r c e .
On t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s
e x p la in e d
th e in c r e a s in g f a i l u r e s f o r s u c c e s s iv e t e r n s in th e s e r ie s a s one
p r o c e e d s to w a r d s t h e m id d le *
In t h e seco n d h a l f o f t h e s e r i e s t h e
number o f f a i l u r e s i n c r e a s e s a s on e a p p r o a c h e s t h e l a s t te r m , t h i s
L is
e x p la in e d b y t h e d im in u t io n o f r e g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n w h ic h i s
z e r o .j
f o r t h e l a s t term " .^
The c h i e f c r i t i c i s m
o f t h i s e x p e r im e n t i s t h a t t h e r e s u l t s show
i r r e g u l a r i t i e s w h ic h t h e a u th o r a t t r i b u t e s t o t h e a s s o c i a t i v e and
a f f e c t i v e v a lu e o f t h e m a t e r i a l*
H ow ever, h e i s o b v i o u s l y b a s in g h i s
d e d u c t io n s on t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c u r v e s t o w h ic h h e a ssu m es h i s o b t a in e d
c u r v e s co n fo rm .
An e x p e r im e n t s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f R o b in so n and Brown w as p e r ­
form ed b y P a u l i and W en zl.^
The p u r p o se o f t h e i r e x p e r im e n t i s an
in v e s t ig a t io n o f th e p r im a c y -fin a lity e f f e c t .
The m a t e r i a l w h ic h
t h e y u s e d w as tw o p la c e n u m bers, w h ic h , i n on e p a r t o f t h e e x p e r im e n t
w ere p r e sen ted v is u a ll y ,
w ere p r e s e n te d in l i s t s
fifte e n
ite m s e r i e s .
in th e o th e r , a u d ito r ily .
T h ese num bers
o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s , n i n e , t w e lv e and
S ix d i f f e r e n t a rra n g em e n ts o f t h e num bers w i t h i n
e a c h s e r i e s w ere u s e d t o c o m p en sa te f o r p o s s i b l e p r e f e r e n c e f o r an y
p a r t i c u l a r num ber.
T h is i s
a form o f p a r t i a l r o t a t i o n .
s e r i e s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e p r i n c i p a l e x p e r im e n t.
The t w e lv e
Two h u n d red and f i f t y -
s i x s u b j e c t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e e x p e r im e n t % t h e r e f o r e t h e g ro u p s
f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t a rra n g em e n ts a v e r a g e s from t w e n t y t o t h i r t y i n d i ­
v id u a ls .
R e p r o d u c tio n w as c h o s e n a s t h e m eth od o f r e c a l l .
The o n ly c u r v e g iv e n and d e s c r ib e d i n d e t a i l from t h e r e s u l t s
o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t h a t f o r t h e t w e lv e s e r i e s .
It is
s im ila r
t o t h o s e o f R o b in so n and Brown and o f o t h e r s who h a v e i n v e s t i g a t e d
t h i s p r o b le m . P a u l i and Wen z l g i v e t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n and
in te r p r e ta tio n :
The p i c t u r e show s f i r s t a r a p id f a l l , t h e n a
s lo w e r o n e .
1 . M. F o u c a u lt , op* c i t .
2 . R. P a u li and a . Tfen z l , " G r u n d s& lz lic h e s zu r G e d & c h n is p s y c h o lo g ie ,
U n te r su c h u n g e n zu r iknfangs - und E n d b etn u n g51, A r c h iv e s f . d .
g e s a m te P s y c h o l o g i e , 1 9 3 5 , v o l . 9 3 , p p . 5 7 1 -6 0 3 .
L
T h is f a l l i s f o ll o w e d b y a r i s e o f r e v e r s e
r e la tio n .
The minimum p o in t i s t h e s i x t h
it e m .
The p r i m a c y - f i n a l i t y e f f e c t a p p e a r s
v e r y c l e a r l y and t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e t r a n ­
s i t i o n i s r e m a r k a b le . M o reo v er, t h i s co n ­
t i n u i t y i s shown f o r t h e f i r s t tim e w it h
r e g u l a r i t y : w h ic h i s o b v i o u s l y due t o t h e
g r e a t number o f e x p e r im e n ts and t h e p o s s i ­
b i l i t y o f c o m p e n s a tio n i n v o l v e d . 1
F u rth erm o re t h e c u r v e shows t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e
p r im a cy com pared w it h t h e f i n a l i t y d f f e c t .
fifte e n
C o n c e r n in g t h e n i n e and
s e r i e s , t h e y s t a t e t h a t t h e s e c u r v e s h a v e a lm o s t t h e same
sh ap e and p r o p o r t io n a s t h e t w e l v e , b u t t h e minimum p o i n t i s
a c c o r d in g t o t h e le n g t h o f t h e s e r i e s ,
s h ifte d
a r e s u l t w h ic h c a n b e fo u n d
t
i n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f s b b in g h a u s .
b e fo u n d .
H ow ever, no c o n s t a n t r e l a t i o n c a n
F u r th e r c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d w ere t h a t r e s u l t s from v i s u a l l y
p r e s e n t e d m a t e r i a l a r e s u p e r io r t o t h o s e f o r a u d i t o r i l y p r e s e n t e d
m a te r ia l.
The c o n c l u s i o n s v e r i f y t h o s e o f E b b in gh au s and a r e i n
o p p o s i t i o n t o t h o s e o f MiHller and P i l z e c k e r .
p
A v e r y r e c e n t e x p e r im e n t on r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n t h a t i s
a l s o p e r t i n e n t t o t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t h a t o f Sand .
3
She
m ak es u s e o f t h e u s u a l m eth od f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g i n h i b i t i o n ; t h a t o f
in te r p o la te d m a te r ia l.
th a t i t
is
Her l e a r n i n g m eth od i s , h o w e v e r , p e c u l i a r i n
a c o m b in a tio n o f t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n and p a ir e d a s s o c i a t e
m eth od w it h t h e added f e a t u r e o f c o n t r o l l e d le a r n in g a s d e v is e d b y
1 . R. P a u li and A. YTenzl, o p . c i t .
2 . H. E b b in g h a u s, l i t e r d a s G e d ffch tn is ( t r a n s l a t e d b y K uger and
B u s s e n iu s , Memory, 1 9 1 3 ) j 1 8 8 5 .
G .E. M i l l e r and A. P i l z e c k e r , Z e i t s c h r i f t P s y c h o lo g ie E r g a n g b d .,
190Q , Ho. 1 .
3 . M#C. San d, "The E f f e c t o f L en g th o f L i s t upon R e t r o a c t iv e
I n h i b i t i o n when D eg ree o f L e a r n in g i s C o n t r o lle d " , A r c h iv e s o f
P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 3 9 , v o l . 3 3 , N o. 2 3 8 .
Woodworth*
i n c o n t r o l l e d le a r n in g t h e s y l l a b l e s a r e d is c a r d e d from
t h e s e r i e s w hen t h e y h a v e b e e n r e c a l l e d c o r r e c t l y t h r e e t i m e s , t h u s
a v o id in g o v e r l e a r n in g o f t h e e a s i e r s y l l a b l e s a s i s t h e c a s e i n m o st
le a r n i n g e x p e r im e n ts *
She u s e d n o n s e n s e s y l l a b l e s from t h e G la z e
l i s t o f S0/& a s s o c i a t i v e v a lu e *
H ow ever, sh e fo u n d g r e a t d i s ­
c r e p a n c i e s i n t h e a s s o c i a t i v e v a l u e and t h e r e c a l l v a lu e among t h e s e
s y lla b le s *
The s e r i e s w ere o f t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i o u s l e n g t h s :
e i g h t , t e n , t w e lv e and f i f t e e n
s y lla b le s *
b y tw o m e th o d s, r e c a l l and r e le a r n in g *
s ix ,
The le a r n in g w as m ea su red
The f i n a l l e a r n in g c u r v e s f o r
t h i s e x p e r im e n t a r e b a s e d o n V in c e n t s c o r e s .
The c o n c l u s i o n s d e r iv e d
from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e t h a t lo n g e r l i s t s
o f p a ir e d n o n s e n s e
s y l l b l e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y m ore d i f f i c u l t t o l e a r n t h a n s h o r t l i s t s ;
d e c r e a s i n g s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n w it h i n c r e a s i n g
le n g t h o f l i s t
i s a r e s u l t o f t h e g r e a t e r o v e r l e a r n in g w h ic h i s
g iv e n lo n g e r l i s t s ;
s e r i a l p o s it io n d oes n o t in flu e n c e th e d i f f i c u l t y
o f p a ir e d n o n s e n s e s y l l a b l e s
( a s t h e y w ere le a r n e d i n t h i s e x p e r im e n t)
a s much a s i t d o e s i n f l u e n c e t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f s y l l a b l e s o f a l i s t
w h ic h i s
le a r n e d a s a w h o le ; le a r n in g c u r v e s drawn a c c o r d in g t o
Kj e r s t aid’ s m eth od o f o b t a in in g a V in c e n t c u r v e , show t h a t o n ly t h e
curve f o r th e f i f t e e n
s y l l a b l e s a p p r o x im a te s t h e n orm al o g i v e ; c u r v e s
f o r t h e o t h e r s h o r t e r s e r i e s a r e l i n e a r i n form*
The c o n t r a d i c t o r y r e s u l t s o f McGeoch e t a l * , and o f Sand
in d ic a t e th a t th e p roced u re o f in t e r p o la te d m a te r ia l i s n o t s u it a b le
t o a stu d y o f s e r i a l p o s itio n *
E s p e c ia lly i s t h i s e v id e n t in th e
l i g h t o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a in e d i n t h o s e e x p e r im e n ts w h ere i n t e r ­
f e r e n c e w as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n , - a s i n
t h e a fo r e m e n tio n e d e x p e r im e n ts o f P h i l i p , F o u c a u lt , R o b in so n and
Brown,
L_ i t
P a u l i and W en zl, G ib so n and R a f f e l , and S c h m eid le r*
T h e r e fo r e ,
i s b e l i e v e d t h a t f u r t h e r e x p e r im e n t a t io n w it h v e r b a l m a t e r i a l w as ^
r e q u ir e d t o c l a r i f y and t o f o r m u la t e a d e q u a t e ly t h e phenom ena o f
in h ib it io n as a fu n c tio n o f s e r i a l p o s itio n *
The p r e s e n t e x p e r im e n t h a s a s i t s o b j e c t t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f
r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n and o f p r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n a s f u n c t i o n s o f
s e r i a l p o s it io n w ith in a l i s t
and a s m ea su red b y r e p r o d u c tio n *
CHAPTER I I I
PROCEDURE
(A) METHODOLOGY
The p r o c e d u r e o f t h i s e x p e r im e n t m ust "be a d e q u a te t o
f o l l o w i n g phenom ena a s e x p r e s s e d b y F o u c a u l t : 1
show t h e
" If a s e r ie s o f a
c e r t a i n l e n g t h i s r e a d b y a s u b j e c t and i f t h e s u b j e c t r e c i t e s i t
im m e d ia te ly w it h o u t e r r o r w e a r e a b le t o
say th a t th e in te r n a l
i n h i b i t i o n s do n o t e x e r c i s e any a c t i o n , a t l e a s t no k n ow ab le a c t io n *
But i f t h e s e r i e s o f w ords i s in c r e a s e d b y new u n i t s ,
one a t a t im e ,
t h e r e s h o u ld come a p o i n t Y/here t h e tw o k in d s o f i n h i b i t i o n sh o u ld
b e m a n ife s t:
t h e r e g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n yjI I I b e m a n if e s t b y a d im i­
n u t io n o f t h e number o f c o r r e c t r e c i t a t i o n s f o r t h e 'word w h ic h o c c u p ie s
t h e f i r s t rank o f t h e s e r i e s , a s w e l l a s f o r t h e w ords Y /h ic h f o l l o w ;
and t h e p r o g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n w i l l b e m a n if e s t b y a d im in u t io n o f
t h e num ber o f c o r r e c t r e c i t a t i o n s f o r t h e l a s t word o f t h e s e r i e s and
f o r t h o s e w h ic h p r e c e d e it " *
T hat t h e s e phenom ena o f i n h i b i t i o n w o u ld a p p ea r t o t h e h i g h e s t
p o s s i b l e d e g r e e i t w as d e c id e d t o u s e p a ir e d a s s o c i a t e s o f n o n s e n s e
s y lla b le s .
N o n sen se s y l l a b l e s w e r e c h o s e n t o overcom e t h e p rim a ry
Yveakness o f F o u c a u l t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; and b e c a u s e , due t o t h e i r lo w
a s s o c i a t i v e v a l u e , t h e y l i m i t le a r n i n g t o t h a t w h ic h t a k e s p la c e i n
t h e e x p e r im e n t a l s i t u a t i o n .
B e s id e s t h e y h a v e b e e n u s e d a s t h e
m a t e r i a l i n many p r e v io u s s t u d i e s on m em ory, w here s u p e r i o r i t y a s
m a te r ia l i s w e ll proven .
The m eth od o f p a ir e d a s s o c i a t e s w as d e c id e d upon b e c a u s e i n
t h i s m ethod an it e m i n q u e s t i o n i s v o l u n t a r i l y a s s o c i a t e d o n ly w it h
1 . M. F o u c a u lt , op * c i t *
L
i t s p a ir e d a s s o c i a t e and n o t w it h t h e it e m s p r e c e d in g and f o l l o w i n g i t *
To s t a t e t h e i d e a d i f f e r e n t l y ,
i n t h i s m ethod we a r e d e a li n g w it h
’h o r iz o n t a l *
a s s o c i a t i o n w h ic h fo rm s b on d s b e tw e e n t h e p a i r s o f
a s s o c ia te s *
O pposed t o t h i s i s
’v e r t i c a l *
a s s o c i a t i o n w h ic h d e a ls
w i t h t h e s e r i a l l i n k a g e b e tw e e n i t e m s , and w h ic h o c c u r s i n t h e a n t i c i ­
p a t i o n m ethod*
The c o n c e p t o f i n h i b i t i o n i n a s e r i e s o f it e m s i s
c o n c e r n e d w it h t h e te m p o r a l r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e ite m s*
la w o f a s s o c i a t i o n t o o c o n c e r n s t h i s r e l a t i o n a s i s
in h e r e n tly
The b a s i c
seen by i t s
d e f i n i t i o n - t h a t when tw o it e m s a r e e x p e r ie n c e d s im u lt a n e o u s ly o r
i n im m ed ia te s u c c e s s i o n t h e l a t e r p r e s e n c e o f on e i n c o n s c io u s n e s s
w i l l ten d t o
i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e o th e r *
T h ese tw o c o n c e p t s a r e m u t u a lly a n t a g o n i s t i c , o r r a t h e r a r e o p e r a t in g
in o p p o s ite d ir e c tio n s *
The c o n c e p t o f i n h i b i t i o n h o ld s t h a t t h e
p r e s e n c e o r l a t e r s e q u e n c e p r e s e n c e o f on e o f t h e it e m s t e n d s t o
d e c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e r e c u r r e n c e o f t h e seco n d it e m ; t h a t
i s t o i n t e r f e r e w it h t h e r e c a l l o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e se c o n d t e m .
T h is b e in g s o , t h e o p e r a t io n o f i n h i b i t i o n on t h e one hand o r
o f a s s o c i a t i o n on t h e o t h e r w i l l d ep en d i n g r e a t p a r t on t h e e x p e r i ­
m e n ta l p r o c e d u r e .
That i s , b y o u r e x p e r im e n t a l s e t - u p we c a n d e v i s e
c o n d i t i o n s so t h a t e i t h e r i n h i b i t i o n i f / i l l b e t h e m ore o p e r a t i v e f a c t o r ,
o r , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , a s s o c i a t i o n w i l l b e p r e p o n d e r a n t - a lth o u g h i t
i s p r o b a b ly t r u e t h a t n o n e o f o u r known e x p e r im e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s w i l l
e n t i r e l y e l i m i n a t e t h e o p e r a t io n o f e i t h e r f a c t o r *
C o n s id e r in g t h e s e f a c t o r s i t i s
m ethod i s
o b v io u s t h a t t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n
i l l - a d a p t e d t o b r in g o u t t h e phenom ena o f i n h i b i t i o n *
In
t h i s p r o c e d u r e t h e s u b j e c t i n t e n t i o n a l l y a tte m p ts t o a s s o c i a t e e a c h
ite m w it h t h e s u c c e e d in g one*
He a t t e m p t s t o c r e a t e and s t r e n g t h e n
18
n
r
t h e a s s o c i a t i v e m ech an ism so t h a t t h e one w i l l i n c r e a s e t h e p ro b a ­
b i l i t y o f t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e seco n d *
On t h e o t h e r hand t h e m eth od o f p a ir e d a s s o c i a t e s i s i n t r i n ­
s i c a l l y a d a p te d t o t h e d e m o n s tr a tio n o f i n h i b i t i v e e f f e c t s *
m eth od t h e s u b j e c t a tte m p ts t o form a s s o c i a t i o n s , t o b e su re*
In t h i s
B ut
t h e s e a s s o c i a t i p n s a r e b e tw e e n t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d members o f ea ch
p a i r , n o t b e tw e e n t h e s e r i a l i t e m s .
As a m a t t e r o f f a c t t h e c o n c e n t r a ­
t i o n u p on t h e f o r m a t io n o f a s s o c i a t i o n s b e tw e e n t h e members o f ea ch
p a ir i s
a f o r c e t e n d in g t o p r e v e n t a s s o c i a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e s e r i a l
ite m s .
T h is i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e w h e r e , a s i n t h i s
e x p e r im e n t, t h e
it e m s i n t h e r e c i t a t i o n s e r i e s a r e c o m p le t e ly r o t a t e d *
Under su c h
c o n d i t i o n s a t t e m p t s b y t h e s u b j e c t t o le a r n t h e it e m s i n t h e s e r i a l
p o s i t i o n o f t h e le a r n in g o r d e r w i l l d e f i n i t e l y i n t e r f e r e w it h h i s
p e r fo r m a n c e i n t h e r e c i t a t i o n *
By t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n m eth o d ,
7 /h e r e
t h e le a r n i n g o r d e r and t h e
r e c i t a t i o n o r d e r m u st p e r f o r c e b e t h e sam e, v e r t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n a lo n e
o p e r a t e s and t h e s e r i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s
str e sse d *
By t h e p a ir e d
a s s o c i a t e m eth o d , w h ere t h e r e c i t a t i o n o r d e r i s v a r i e d , th o u g h t h e
le a r n in g o r d e r i s m a in t a in e d c o n s t a n t , b o th v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l
a s s o c i a t i o n s come i n t o p l a y .
From t h e fo r m e r m eth od
7 /e
can gauge th e
d i f f i c u l t y o f m e m o r iz a tio n o f t h e v a r i o u s ite m s i n t h e s e r i e s , c h i e f l y
b y t h e f a c i l i t y t o p r o d u c e t h e s e q u e n c e ; t h e l a t t e r m eth od e n a b le s u s
t o m ea su re s e r i a l d i f f i c u l t y , n o t o n l y b y t h e s e q u e n c e e f f e c t b u t a l s o
b y t h e r e p r o d u c t io n o f t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e when t h e a d e q u a te s t im u lu s
is
g iv e n *
The a n t i c i p a t i o n m eth od w o u ld n a t u r a l l y s t r e s s t h e f i r s t
members o f t h e s e r i e s s i n c e t h e y s t a r t t h e s e q u e n c e ; o n e w o u ld n o t
e x p e c t su c h s t r e s s on t h e i n i t i a l mem bers o f t h e s e r i e s i n t h e p a ir e d
a s s o c i a t e m eth o d .
L
-I
I n "the p a ir e d a s s o c i a t i o n m eth o d , t h e n , we h a v e an e x p e r im e n ta l
p r o c e d u r e i n v d iich e a c h p a i r i s
r e l a t i v e l y in p s y c h o lo g ic a l i s o l a t i o n
from t h e o t h e r s e x c e p t f o r te m p o r a l p o s i t i o n .
U nder su ch p r o c e d u r e vie
t h e r e f o r e a t t a i n t h e c o n d i t i o n s i n d i c a t e d a b o v e - an a b s e n c e o f s e r i a l
a s s o c i a t i o n and o p p o r t u n it y f o r i n t r a - s e r i a l i n h i b i t i o n t o o p e r a t e .
A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e la w s o f a s s o c i a t i o n w i l l s t i l l o p e r a t e b u t i t w i l l
b e a s s o c i a t i o n n o t b e tw e e n s e r i a l it e m s b u t b e tw e e n p a ir e d ite m s - a s
a id e d b y t h e s e c o n d a r y la w s o f a s s o c i a t i o n ahd^.as i n t e r f e r e d w it h b y
t h e i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t o f p r i o r and s u c c e e d in g it e m s .
I n t r a - s e r i a l r a th e r th a n in t e r p o la t e d m a t e r ia l,
(.th a t i s t h o s e
a c t i v i t i e s in h e r e n t i n t h e o r i g i n a l le a r n in g s i t u a t i o n ) w as u s e d t o
produce in h ib it i o n .
In t h e l i g h t o f p r e v io u s e x p e r im e n ts t h i s m ethod
s h o u ld show l a r g e r am ounts o f i n h i b i t i o n t h a n t h e m eth od o f i n t e r ­
p o la t e d m a t e r i a l .
B r itt,^
i n r e v ie w in g t h e l i t e r a t u r e , fo u n d r e s u l t s
w e r e c o n t r a d i c t o r y c o n c e r n in g t h e a f f e c t s o f te m p o r a l p o s i t i o n .
H ow ever, f o r v e r y s h o r t p e r i o d s ,
it
i s agreed th a t in h ib it io n i s
g r e a t e s t when t h e i n t e r f e r i n g a c t i v i t y im m e d ia te ly p r e c e d e s r e c a l l o r
im m e d ia te ly f o l l o w s l e a r n i n g .
M o reover c e r t a i n p r e v io u s s t u d i e s h a v e shown t h a t i n h i b i t i o n
v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w it h t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e m a t e r i a l .
t h e h i g h e s t d e g r e e o f s i m i l a r i t y w it h o u t i d e n t i t y .
H ere we h a v e
A r e v ie w o f t h i s
l i t e r a t u r e may a l s o b e fo u n d i n B r i t t * s a r t i c l e . 2
L e a r n in g w as m ea su red b y r e p r o d u c t io n .
On l y tw o m eth o d s c o u ld
b e u s e d i n group e x p e r im e n t a t io n , t o w i t , r e c o g n i t i o n and r e p r o d u c t io n .
R e c o g n it io n h a s n o t b e e n fo u n d t o b e v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y i n e x p e r im e n ts
on i n h i b i t i o n s in c e t h e amount o f i n h i b i t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll %
1 . S .H . B r i t t , o p . c i t .
2 . I b id .
L
U
20
r
n
t h e r e f o r e t h e m eth od o f r e p r o d u c t io n v/as d e c id e d upon*^
We, t h e r e f o r e , b e l i e v e t h a t i n t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r im e n t we h a v e
made u s e o f a l l t h e m e t h o d o lo g ie s w h ic h p r e v io u s e x p e r im e n t a t io n h a v e
shown t o b e m o st e f f i c a c i o u s i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e phenom enon o f
in h ib itio n .
1 . B .R . P h i l i p , " P r o a c t iv e and R e t r o a c t iv e E f f e c t i n t h e R e c o g n it io n
o f Form ," J o u r n a l o f E x p e r im e n ta l P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 4 0 , v o l . 2 6 .
O .L . Z a n g w ill, "The P ro b lem o f R e t r o a c t iv e I n h i b i t i o n i n R e la t io n
t o R e c o g n it io n " , A m erican J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 3 6 , v o l . 4 8 ,
pp. 2 7 -3 2 .
L.
_!
r
(B ) PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT
I
The f i r s t p r e l im in a r y e x p e r im e n t w as c o n d u c te d i n d i v i d u a l l y ,
fo u r su b je c ts p a r t ic ip a t in g .
N o n sen se s y l l a b l e s a l l from t h e Glaze-**
l i s t o f z e r o p e r c e n t a s s o c i a t i v e v a l u e , w ere p r e s e n t e d i n t h e same
s e r i a l o r d e r i n b o th t h e s t im u lu s and t h e r e s p o n s e l i s t s *
o f v a r y in g le n g t h s w ere u s e d .
T h ese w e r e :
t e n and t w e lv e p a ir e d n o n s e n s e s y l l a b l e s .
ta c h is tis c o p ic a lly .
th r e e , fo u r ,
S ix l i s t s
s ix ,
e ig h t,
The l i s t s w ere p r e s e n t e d
The t im e i n t e r v a l s em p loyed w ere two s e c o n d s f o r
th e le a r n in g p r e s e n t a tio n , f i v e
seco n d s f o r th e r e c a l l p r e s e n t a t io n .
The l i s t s w e r e r e p e a t e d f o r e a c h s u b j e c t u n t i l on e p e r f e c t r e c o r d i n
e a c h l i s t w as o b t a in e d .
The r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x p e r im e n t w e r e :
1 . The t im e i n t e r v a l s p r e v i o u s l y d e te r m in e d upon w ere s a t i s f a c t o r y .
2 . The t h r e e s y l l a b l e l i s t w as m em orized i n on e p r e s e n t a t i o n .
T h e r e fo r e i t w as deemed t o b e t o o e a s y f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s
e x p e r im e n t s i n c e i t w o u ld n o t show r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n .
H ence i t
w a s d is c a r d e d .
3 . The s u b j e c t s s o o n le a r n e d t o d is r e g a r d t h e s t im u lu s s y l l a b l e s
and t o le a r n t h e r e s p o n s e s y l l a b l e s i n o r d e r i n s t e a d o f le a r n in g t h e
s y l l a b l e s a s p a ir e d a s s o c i a t e s .
T h is p r o c e d u r e w as e v i d e n t o b j e c t i v e l y
and e x c l u s i v e o f a n y i n t r o s p e c t i v e r e p o r t s i n c e t h e e x p e r im e n te r w as
a b le t o o b s e r v e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t r e c o r d e d t h e e n t i r e l i s t b e f o r e t h e
r e c i t a t i o n p r e s e n t a t i o n w as c o m p le t e d .
From t h e a b o v e f a c t s a
d i f f e r e n t o r d e r i n t h e r e c i t a t i o n p r e s e n t a t i o n from t h a t i n t h e
le a r n in g p r e s e n t a t i o n w as c o n s id e r e d n e c e s s a r y .
4 . The d i f f i c u l t y t h e s u b j e c t s e x p e r ie n c e d i n p r o n o u n c in g some
1 . J .A . G la z e , nThe A s s o c i a t i v e V a lu e o f N o n se n se S y l l a b l e s ”,
J o u r n a l o f G e n e tic P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 2 8 , v o l . 3 5 , p p . 2 5 5 - 2 6 9 .
L_
22
r
n
o f th e s y l l a b l e s in d ic a t e d th e a d v is a b ili t y o f e lim in a tin g c e r t a in
o f t h e more d i f f i c u l t s y l l a b l e s .
I_
-J
23
r
n
(C) PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT
II
The se c o n d p r e lim in a r y e x p e r im e n t w as made on f i l m
and a tte m p te d
t o r e c t i f y t h e fl-aw s e v id e n t i n t h e f i r s t p r e lim in a r y e x p e r im e n t.
The f i l m p r e s e n t e d b la c k l e t t e r s on a Yrhite b a ck g ro u n d .
u n p r o n o u n c a b le s y l l a b l e s w ere e l im in a t e d ,
t o t h e 6 .6 7 ^ l i s t ,
B e c a u se t h e
i t vms n e c e s s a r y t o r e s o r t
a l s o a c c o r d in g t o G la z e , f o r t h e s t im u lu s s y l l a b l e s .
I n t h i s e x p e r im e n t t h e r e w ere f o u r ,
s i x , e i g h t and t e n p a i r l i s t s
s i n c e t h e p la n t h e n w as t o g i v e a l l f o u r l i s t s t o
every su b je c t.
T h ere w as no r o t a t i o n o f s y l l a b l e s i n t h e r e c i t a t i o n s e r i e s , b u t t h e
o r d e r o f t h e s y l l a b l e s w as d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f t h e le a r n in g s e r i e s *
No s y l l a b l e w as p r e s e n t e d t w i c e .
s e r ie s ,
T h ere w ere s i x t r i a l s f o r t h e ’ f o u r
e i g h t f o r t h e s i x s e r i e s and f i f t e e n f o r t h e e i g h t .
T here
w as a s h o r t p a u se b e tw e e n e a c h p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e c i t a t i o n and
t h e le a r n i n g s e r i e s b e c a u s e i t w as n e c e s s a r y t o r e v e r s e t h e f i l m
in
t h e p r o j e c t o r t o g i v e t h e r e q u ir e d number o f t r i a l s f o r ea ch s e r i e s .
The tim e i n t e r v a l s w ere t h e same a s i n t h e f i r s t p r e lim in a r y e x p e r i ­
m ent :
tw o se c o n d s f o r t h e l e a r n i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n , f i v e
th e r e c a ll p r e s e n ta tio n .
The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s e x p e r im e n t w ere t e n
g r a d u a te s t u d e n t s i n an E x p e r im e n ta l P s y c h o lo g y c l a s s .
e x p e r im e n t l a s t e d a l i t t l e
secon d s f o r
The e n t i r e
o v e r on e h o u r .
The r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x p e r im e n t i n d i c a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g :
1.
B la c k
le tte r s
c o n t r a s t w as g r e a t ,
o n a Y /h it e
g ro u n d w as n o t
c a u s in g e x c e s s iv e
s a tis fa c to r y .
eye f a t ig u e
2 . The t im e i n t e r v a l s w e r e s a t i s f a c t o r y ,
f o r th e
The
s u b je c ts .
ev e n f o r group p r e s e n t a ­
t i o n w it h f i l m .
3 . The p a u se b e tw e e n e a c h u n i t o f l e a r n i n g - r e c i t a t i o n c a u s e d b y
r e v e r s i n g t h e f i l m w as u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .
T ih ile t h e f i l m w as b e in g
l_ r e v e r s e d t h e r e w as t o o g r e a t o p p o r t u n it y t o ch a n g e t h e r e s p o n s e s
^
24
r
.
w h ic h had b e e n w r it t e n *
71
The s u b j e c t s becam e r e s t l e s s , t a lk e d and l o s t
i?apportpw hi 6 hv/hadhbe®d e s t a b l i s h e d d u r in g a c t u a l e x p e r im e n t a t io n ,
c o n s e q u e n t l y an a d e q u a te m e n t a l s e t had t o b e r e e s t a b l i s h e d a t e a c h
tr ia l.
4 . The m e m o r iz a tio n o f t h r e e l i s t s ,
a t l e a s t b y t h i s m eth o d , w as
fo u n d t o b e t o o lo n g a t a s k f o r o n e s i t t i n g .
The s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d
g r e a t f a t i g u e a t t h e end o f t h e e x p e r im e n t w h ic h w o u ld make c o m p a r iso n
o f th e v a r io u s s e r ie s u n j u s t if i e d .
B e s id e s on e h ou r w as t o o lo n g t o
c a r r y o u t t h e e x p e r im e n t i n a c l a s s p e r io d i n h ig h s c h o o l w h ere i t w as
in te n d e d t h e m a jo r e x p e r im e n t s h o u ld b e c o n d u c t e d .
5 . From a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e f i r s t p r e lim in a r y
e x p e r im e n t, t h i s s e c o n d p r e lim in a r y e x p e r im e n t and t h e r e s u l t s o f
R o b in so n and Brown (S e e p a g e 1 0 ) t h e number o f t r i a l s p e r s e r i e s t o
b e u s e d i n t h e m a jo r e x p e r im e n t w e r e r e d e t e r m in e d .
6
. The l e a r n in g c u r v e f o r t h i s e x p e r im e n t i n d i c a t e d a s h i f t i n
t h e le a r n i n g p r o c e s s .
T h at i s ,
ow in g t o t h e f a c t t h a t a c o n s t a n t
le a r n i n g o r d e r and a c o n s t a n t b u t d i f f e r e n t r e c i t a t i o n o r d e r w e r e
u sed ,
som ewhere i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e l e a r n i n g t h e s u b j e c t s s h i f t e d
t h e i r m eth od o f l e a r n i n g from t h e o r d e r o f t h e l e a r n in g s e r i e s t o
th a t o f th e r e c it a t io n s e r ie s .
P o s s ib ly to o , in s p it e o f th e p r e ­
c a u t i o n s t a k e n , t h e r e w as e x c e s s i v e a s s o c i a t i v e v a l u e . f o r c e r t a i n o f
th e s y lla b l e s .
The a u th o r i s
i n c l i n e d t o f a v o r a c o m b in a tio n o f t h e
tw o c o n d i t i o n s t o e x p l a i n t h e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f t h e c u r v e .
L_
25
r
n
(D) PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT I I I
I n v ie w o f t h e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f t h e c u r v e s o b t a in e d i n t h e
se c o n d p r e lim in a r y e x p e r im e n t , i t w as deemed a d v i s a b l e t o c o n d u c t a
t h i r d p r e lim in a r y e x p e r im e n t t o d e te r m in e t h e a s s o c i a t i v e v a lu e o f t h e
n o n s e n s e s y l l a b l e s i n t h e tw o l i s t s
o f G la ze we had s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s
in v e s tig a tio n .
F i r s t t h e s y l l a b l e s w ere c h e c k e d b y t h e e x p e r im e n te r f o r e a s e
o f p r o n u n c ia tio n *
A l l t h o s e w it h
1!Yn
a p p e a r in g a s t h e m id d le o r l a s t
l e t t e r w ere d is c a r d e d , a l s o t h o s e vd .th "H” a s t h e f i r s t o r l a s t
l e t t e r , a d ”Z,f a s t h e l a s t l e t t e r .
A l i s t o f t h e n i n e t y - n i n e s y l l a b l e s t h e n r e m a in in g w as p r e ­
s e n t e d t o a c l a s s o f t w e n t y - e i g h t g r a d u a te p s y c h o lo g y s t u d e n t s .
T h ese s u b j e c t s w ere a sk e d t o c h e c k t h e l i s t f o r a s s o c i a t i o n s on tw o
r e a d i n g s ; a n d , on t h e t h i r d r e a d in g , t o r e c o r d t h e a s s o c i a t i o n
s u g g e s t e d b y ea ch s y l l a b l e .
T h ese r e s u l t s w ere c h e c k e d b o t h f o r t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e and
q u a lit a t iv e v a lu e o f each s y l l a b l e .
From t h e o r i g i n a l l i s t o f
n i n e t y - n i n e , t h e t h i r t y - t w o s y l l a b l e s o f l e a s t a s s o c i a t i v e v a lu e
w ere ch o sen ,
s i x t e e n from t h e 6 . 6 7 p e r c e n t l i s t and s i x t e e n from t h e
"0 " p e r c e n t l i s t o f G la z e .
T h ose c h o s e n from t h e 6 .6 7 /S l i s t w ere
u s e d a s s t im u lu s s y l l a b l e s , t h a t i s , t h e f i r s t o f ea c h p a i r ; t h o s e
from t h e "0 " p e r c e n t l i s t a s r e s p o n s e s y l l a b l e s o r t h e se c o n d o f
each p a ir .
The a s s o c i a t i o n v a l u e s fo u n d i n t h i s e x p e r im e n t f o r t h e
r e s p o n s e s y l l a b l e s a r e g iv e n i n t h e A p p en d ix .
The f la w s t h a t w ere i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s e p r e lim in a r y e x p e r i­
m e n ts s u g g e s t e d t h e c h a n g e s made i n t h e m a jo r e x p e r im e n t .
L_
:J
r
(E ) MAJOR EXPERIMENT
The m a jo r e x p e r im e n t w as c o n d u c te d i n Thomas J e f f e r s o n H igh
S c h o o l, B r o o k ly n , New York C i t y .
B oth b o y s and g i r l s p a r t i c i p a t e d
a s s u b j e c t s s in c e p r e v io u s s t u d i e s h a v e shown t h e r e a r e no s e x d i f ­
fe r e n c e s in r e tr o a c tiv e in h ib it io n .^
T here w e r e f i v e h u nd red and f o u r
s u b j e c t s w h o se r e c o r d s w e r e u t i l i z e d f o r t h e f i n a l d a t a .
The p r o c e d u r e c o n s i s t e d o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a f i l m
t h e s y l l a b l e s a p p ea red i n w h i t e l e t t e r s on a b la c k ground*
p r o c e d u r e t h e t im e i n t e r v a l s w ere w e l l c o n t r o l l e d .
on w h ic h
By t h i s
T h ere h a s b e e n
no o t h e r e x p e r im e n t r e p o r t e d i n t h i s f i e l d , t o my k n o w le d g e , u s i n g
film p r e s e n ta tio n .
From t h i s w ork i t w as fo u n d t h a t f i l m p r e s e n t a ­
t i o n i s w e l l s u i t e d t o e l i c i t maximum c o o p e r a t i o n from s u b j e c t s .
F iv e l i s t s
o f s y lla b l e s w ere u sed c o n s is t in g o f fo u r ,
e i g h t , t e n o r t w e lv e p a ir e d a s s o c i a t e s .
s ix ,
I t m s d e c id e d t o l i m i t t h e
number o f s y l l a b l e s i n a s e r i e s t o t w e lv e b e c a u s e a f t e r t w e lv e
s y l l a b l e s t h e c u r v e s o f R o b in so n and Brown
show i r r e g u l a r i t i e s ^
m ak in g s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f them u n r e l i a b l e .
M o reo v er, t h i s
ra n g e o f s y l l a b l e s m akes t h e r e s u l t s co m p a ra b le w it h o t h e r s t u d i e s ,
p a r t i c u l a r l y R o b in so n and Brown^ and F o u c a u lt .^
t
P r in t e d p a d s w ere d i s t r i b u t e d t o e a c h s u b j e c t , c o n t a in in g a
se p a r a te page fo r each r e c it a t io n .
The p a ir e d a s s o c i a t e s a p p ea red on t h e s c r e e n o n e p a i r a t a t im e
1 . S .H . B r i t t , o p . c i t *
2 . E .S . R o b in so n and M.A. Brown, ’’E f f e c t o f S e r i a l P o s i t i o n Upon
M e m o r iz a tio n ’1, A m erican J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 3 6 , v o l . 3 7 ,
p p . 5 3 8 -5 2 *
3 . I b id .
4* M. F o u c a u lt , o p . c i t .
L
27
r i.n
t h e le a r n in g s e r i e s .
In t h e r e c i t a t i o n s e r i e s t h e f i r s t s y l l a b l e
n
o n ly o f e a c h p a i r a p p e a r e d , o n ly on e s y l l a b l e b e in g on t h e s c r e e n a t
a tim e*
In t h e r e c i t a t i o n s e r i e s t h e s u b j e c t s w ere r e q u ir e d t o w r i t e
t h e se c o n d s y l l a b l e o f e a c h p a i r , - i . e . t h e s y l l a b l e t h a t ha'd a p p ea red
w it h t h e g iv e n s t im u lu s s y l l a b l e i n t h e le a r n in g s e r i e s .
By p r e s e n t ­
in g e a c h p a i r on e a t a t im e i n t h e le a r n in g s e r i e s t h e amount o f t im e
s p e n t on le a r n i n g Was c o n t r o l l e d f o r ea ch s u b j e c t *
T here w e r e o n ly s i x t e e n p a i r s o f s y l l a b l e s .
T h is p r o c e d u r e
had t h e f o l l o w i n g ' a d v a n t a g e s :
1 . I t a llo w e d f o r r o t a t i o n o f t h e s y l l a b l e s so t h a t an y in c r e a s e d
f a c i l i t y i n r e c a l l ca n b e d e te r m in e d from p o s i t i o n ,
a s s o c i a t i v e v a lu e o f i n d i v i d u a l s y l l a b l e s .
in d e p e n d e n t o f t h e
T here w as no r o t a t i o n
w i t h i n a l e a r n i n g s e r i e s s i n c e t h i s w o u ld t e n d t o n e u t r a l i z e t h e
e f f e c t o f s e r i a l p o s i t i o n ; b u t t h e same p a i r s w ere u s e d from l i s t
to
lis t,
no p a i r o c c u r r in g t w i c e i n t h e same r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n .
Bach
p a i r a p p ea red i n a r e l a t i v e l y w eak and s t r o n g p o s i t i o n i n a t l e a s t
one l i s t .
The s t r o n g p o s i t i o n s w e r e t h e t e r m in a l o n e s , and t h e weak
p o s i t i o n s w ere t h e c e n t e r o n e s o f t h e s e r i e s ,
f i n d i n g s o f R o b in so n and Brown*^
i n c o n f o r m it y w it h t h e
The s y l l a b l e s i n t h e
6
-S e r ie s l i s t
a p p ea red i n e v e r y p o s s i b l e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n *
D i f f e r e n t g ro u p s
le a r n e d ea ch o f t h e
The 4 - S e r i e s w as
6
,
8
, 10 and 12 - S e r i e s .
g i v e n f i r s t t o ea c h group t h a t t o o k t h e o t h e r s e r i e s ,
and w as com­
p o s e d e n t i r e l y o f d i f f e r e n t s y l l a b l e s from t h o s e o f t h e o t h e r l i s t s .
2 . The u s e o f d i f f e r e n t g ro u p s m ean t t h a t a s h o r t e r t im e p e r
s e s s i o n w as r e q u ir e d , e v e n t h e l o n g e s t s e r i e s w as f i n i s h e d i n a
s i n g l e f o r t y m in u te p e r i o d .
T h is a l s o m ean t t h a t e a c h s u b j e c t t o o k
p a r t i n o n ly on e e x p e r im e n t a l s e s s i o n .
1 . E .S . R o b in so n and M.A. Brown, o p . c i t *
L
28
n
r
3.
The s h o r t e r w ork p e r io d f o r ea ch s u b j e c t h e lp e d t o e l im in a t e
t h e f a c t o r s o f f a t i g u e and boredom d u r in g t h e ex p erim en t*
The s t i m u l i s y l l a b l e s o f t h e r e c i t a t i o n
s e r i e s w ere i n d i f f e r e n t
o r d e r f o r e a c h p r e s e n t a t i o n and w ere c o m p le t e ly r o t a t e d *
T h is r o t a t i o n
in s u r e d t h a t a n y f a c i l i t y i n le a r n in g w as d e p en d en t on s e r i a l p o s i t i o n
i n t h e l e a r n in g s e r i e s r a t h e r t h a n on an y f a c t o r e x tr a n e o u s t o p o s i ­
tio n .
I t a l s o e l im in a t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f le a r n in g t h e r e s p o n s e
lis t
s e r i a l l y i n t h e l e a r n i n g p e r io d i n s t e a d o f l e a r n in g t h e p a i r s
//*
and r e s p o n d in g t o t h e s t im u lu s , t h a t i s t h e f i r s t s y l l a b l e a s i t
a p p ea red i n t h e o r d e r o f t h e l e a r n i n g s e r i e s *
T h is p r e c a u t io n w as
fo u n d t o b e n e c e s s a r y from t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e f i r s t p r e lim in a r y
ex p e r im e n t#
The number o f p r e s e n t a t i o n s p e r s e r i e s w as on e and a h a l f
t im e s t h e l e n g t h o f t h e s e r i e s ; t h u s t h e
8
- S e r i e s w as p r e s e n t e d
t w e lv e t i m e s , and t h e 1 9 - S e r i e s , f i f t e e n t i m e s .
T h is number was
d e te r m in e d b y p r e lim in a r y e x p e r im e n t a t io n , a s b e in g t h e l e a s t
number o f t r i a l s r e q u ir e d f o r an y s e r i e s t o b e le a r n e d *
l e a r n in g b y a l l s u b j e c t s w as n o t d e s ir e d ) *
t h i s number a g r e e d w it h t h e number o f t r i a l s
(C o m p lete
In g e n e r a l, m oreover,
r e q u ir e d i n t h e
e x p e r im e n t o f R o b in so n and Brown.
1 . E#S* R o b in so n and M.A. Brown, o p ♦ c i t .
1—
U
29
n
r
• TABLE
I
SCHEME OF ROTATION, OF THE SYLLABLES IN LEARNING ORDER FOR EACH SERIES
S y lla b le s
6
- S e r ie s
8
- S e r ie s
10 - S e r i e s
1
YIX-ZOJ
4 ZUV-CIJ
5 QOS-MEF
,2 -
S e r ie s
1
ZOF-GEX
1
ZOF-GEX
6
2
YAV-WUQ
2
YAV-WUQ
4 ZUV-CIJ
8
VUF-ZEQ
12
KOJ-YUF
3 GEC-VAF
3 GEC-VAF
7 MIB-QUJ
9 YIF-VUQ
10
QIM-JEX
4 ZUV-CIJ
4 ZUV-CIJ
5 QOS-MEF
2
YAV-WUQ
3 GEC-VAF
5 QOS-MEF
5 QOS-MEF
2
YAV-WUQ
6
YIX-ZOJ
1
YIX-ZOJ
8
VUF-ZEQ
1
ZOF-GEX
7 MIB-QUJ
6
YIX-ZOJ
7 MIB-QUJ
8
VUF-ZEQ
6
3 GEC-VAF
1
ZOF-GEX
ZOF-GEX
5 QOS-MEF
8
VUF-ZEQ
QIM-JEX
6
YIX-ZOJ
10
9 YIF-VUQ
7 MIB-QUJ
4 ZUV-CIJ
10
QIM-JEX
3 GEC-VAF
9 YIF-VUQ
11
QOJ-CEF
11
QOJ-CEF
12
KOJ-YUF
2
YAV-WUQ
The t im e i n t e r v a l s i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s Yfera tw o s e c o n d s f o r
e a c h p a i r i n t h e le a r n in g s e r i e s and f i v e s e c o n d s f o r ea ch s t im u lu s
s y l l a b l e i n t h e r e c i t a t i o n s e r i e s t o g i v e t h e s u b j e c t t im e t o w r i t e
h i s r e s p o n s e b e f o r e t h e n e x t s y l l a b l e a p p ea red on t h e s c r e e n .
t im e i n t e r v a l s vjere d e c id e d o n , f i r s t ,
T h ese
b y m eans o f p r e lim in a r y
e x p e r im e n t a t io n i n w h ic h t h e y w ere fo u n d t o b e a d e q u a te , and s e c o n d ly ,
b e c a u s e t h e y a r e t h e i n t e r v a l s m o st f r e q u e n t l y u s e d b y o t h e r
e x p e r im e n t e r s .
T h ere w as a tw o seco n d p a u se b e tw e e n t h e l a s t p a i r
o f s y l l a b l e s o f t h e le a r n i n g l i s t
r e c ita tio n l i s t ,
L_
and t h e f i r s t
s y lla b le o f th e
and l i k e w i s e b e tw e e n t h e l a s t s y l l a b l e o f t h e
U
30
r
r e c ita tio n l i s t ,
and t h e f i r s t p a i r o f t h e le a r n in g l i s t , when t h e r e
a p p ea red on t h e s c r e e n t h e w ord s “R eady t o W r ite " and "Turn Your P age"
r e s p e c tiv e ly .
From t h e r e s u l t s i t
h aveeb een in c r e a s e d t o f i v e
a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s e i n t e r v a l s m ig h t
seco n d s.
P r e lim in a r y i n s t r u c t i o n s w ere g iv e n b e f o r e t h e 4 - S e r i e s ; b e t ­
w een t h e 4 - S e r i e s and t h e o n e f o l l o w i n g t h e r e w as a f o u r m in u te
in te r v a l.
D u rin g t h i s p e r io d q u e s t i o n s w ere p e r m it t e d t o c l a r i f y
th e in s t r u c t io n s .
The r e s t a l s o s e r v e d t o
e l im in a t e a n y c a r r y o v e r
from t h e 4 - S e r i e s t o t h e one f o l l o w i n g i t .
T here w as a l s o e x t r a
em p h a sis p u t on c e r t a i n p h a s e s o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s and rem arks o f
en co u ra g em en t w e r e g iv e n d u r in g t h i s
in te r v a l.
The e x a c t i n s t r u c ­
t i o n s a r e g iv e n i n t h e A p p en d ix .
The e x p e r im e n te r d i s t r i b u t e d t h e p a d s and g a v e t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s
b e f o r e t h e e x p e r im e n t .
An a s s i s t a n t o p e r a te d t h e m o v ie p r o j e c t o r .
The e x p e r im e n t e r , t h e a s s i s t a n t and t h e t e a c h e r o f t h e c l a s s
a s s is t e d in p r o c to r in g .
The s u b j e c t s w ere t e s t e d a s c l a s s u n i t s i n t h e i r u s u a l c l a s s
room s i t u a t i o n .
Each s e r i e s w as g iv e n t o f o u r c l a s s e s .
The r e c o r d s
o f t h o s e who d id n o t f o l l o w i n s t r u c t i o n s and t h o s e who d id n o t c o ­
op e r t e - t h a t i s ,
g a v e no r e s p o n s e s w h a te v e r o r t o t a l l y i r r e l e v e n t
r e s p o n s e s , w e r e d is c a r d e d .
As a r e s u l t t h e r e w ere l e f t t h e
f o l l o w i n g num ber o f s u b j e c t s , o r more a c c u r a t e l y , u s a b l e r e c o r d s :
TABLE I I
S e r ie s
4
4
4
4
T o ta l
L_
6
8
10
12
G i r ls
B oys
129
115
1 39
121
95
95
48
42
34
20
91
79
504
280
224
Humber
J
31
r
n
N.B<
A l l g ro u p s t o o k t h e 4 - . S e r i e s .
A f t e r an i n t e r v a l o f f o u r
m in u t e s on e o t h e r s e r i e s v/as g iv e n t o e a c h g r o u p .
i_
CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION
(A ) SCORING
The r e c o r d s o b t a in e d from e a c h s u b j e c t w e r e s c o r e d a c c o r d in g
t o th e fo llo w in g cod e
A - C orrect str u c tu r e , c o r r e c t p o s itio n
B - C o r r e c t s t r u c t u r e , on e p o s i t i o n rem oved
C - C o r r e c t s t r u c t u r e , m ore t h a n on e p o s i t i o n rem oved
D - R eversal in s tr u c tu r e , c o r r e c t p o s it io n
E - One e r r o r i n s t r u c t u r e , c o r r e c t p o s i t i o n
F - R ev ersa l in s tr u c tu r e , in c o r r e c t p o s itio n
G - One e r r o r i n s t r u c t u r e , i n c o r r e c t p o s i t i o n
X - E n t i r e l y w rong r e s p o n s e
0 - No r e s p o n s e
E xam ples
S y l l a b l e CIJ
C orrect str u c tu r e
CIJ
In co rrec t stru ctu re
S IJ
R eversal in str u c tu r e
JIC
In o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n t h e e f f e c t o f s e r i a l p o s i t i o n , w h ic h
d i f f e r e d f o b l e a r n in g and f o r r e c i t a t i o n , t h e s c o r e s , b a s e d on t h e
a b o v e c o d e w ere t a b u l a t e d f i r s t ,
a c c o r d in g t o r e c i t a t i o n o r d e r , and
s e c o n d ly , a c c o r d in g t o l e a r n i n g o r d e r .
The r e c i t a t i o n o r d e r ta b u ­
l a t i o n s g a v e t h e p r e f e r r e d p o s i t i o n i n r e c a l l ; t h e le a r n in g o r d e r
t a b u l a t i o n s g a v e t h e p r e f e r r e d p o s i t i o n i n t h e le a r n in g *
I t w as fo u n d t h a t t h e E s c o r e s g a v e t h e same c u r v e a s t h e A
s c o r e s th o u g h w it h d im in is h e d f r e q u e n c y , and t h a t s c o r e s B, C, G, X
d id n o t a p p r e c ia b ly d i f f e r w i t h p o s i t i o n .
in fr e q u e n t.
D and F s c o r e s w ere v e r y
H ence i t w as d e c id e d f o r t h e p u r p o se o f t h i s e x p e r im e n t
t o u s e o n ly t h e A s c o r e s t h u s f o l l o w i n g t h e g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e o f
w orkers in t h i s f i e l d #
The E s c o r e s a r e , h o w e v e r , p r e s e n t e d i n t h e
A p p en d ix w it h o u t d i s c u s s i o n .
The t o t a l s c o r e s f o r e a c h p o s i t i o n i n t h e r e c i t a t i o n o r d e r and
f o r e a c h s y l l a b l e i n t h e l e a r n i n g o r d e r w ere a v e r a g e d f o r t h e number
o f s u b j e c t s who t o o k e a c h s e r i e s and f o r t h e number o f t r i a l s i n
ea c h s e r i e s .
T h is v a l u e i s r e f e r r e d t o a s Af S . T . ,
S u b je c t p e r T r i a l ) .
L_
(A v era g e p e r
34
r
n
( b ) eq uation of the group
The f o u r g ro u p s u s e d i n t h i s e x p e r im e n t w ere c h o s e n a t random
among t w e n t y - f o u r c l a s s e s i n Thomas J e f f e r s o n H igh S c h o o l.
I t w as
n e c e s s a r y t o know i f t h e s e g ro u p s w ere e q u a te d i n o r d e r t o j u s t i f y a
c o m p a r iso n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e v a r i o u s s e r i e s .
M o reo v er, e q u a t io n
o f t h e g ro u p s i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f t a s k w as d e s i r a b l e r a t h e r
th a n i n a n y e x t r a n e o u s a b i l i t i e s
su ch a s i n t e l l i g e n c e o r u n r e la t e d
f a c t o r s su c h a s a g e o r g r a d e p la c e m e n t .
For t h i s p u rp o se o f e q u a t io n an a n a l y s i s w as made o f t h e p e r ­
fo rm a n ce on t h e 4 -
S e r i e s b y ea ch o f t h e g r o u p s .
The 4 - S e r i e s
w as g iv e n f i r s t t o ea ch g r o u p , and t h e le a r n in g and t h e r e c i t a t i o n
o r d e r w e r e e x a c t l y t h e same f o r e a c h g r o u p , t h u s m ak in g r e s u l t s on
th is
s e r i e s co m p a ra b le among a l l t h e g r o u p s .
ttT
T h is a n a l y s i s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b le V I .
The c o m p a r a b ilit y
o f t h e g ro u p s w as d e te r m in e d b y f i n d i n g t h e c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f ea c h
group a c c o r d in g t o i t s
fo r m u la D if f /^ d i f f .
r e s u l t s on t h e 4 - S e r i e s b y m eans o f t h e
D i f f e r e n c e s a r e c o n s id e r e d t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t
i f th e c r i t i c a l r a tio i s
3 .0 0 *
As may b e o b s e r v e d from T a b le VI
none o f th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o s rea ch t h i s c r i t e r io n o f s ig n if ic a n c e .
H owever t h e c r i t i c a l r a t i o b e tw e e n t h e
S e r i e s grou p i s
-
S e r i e s group and t h e 1 0 -
2 .8 8 ; t h i s i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s id e r e d t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t
and t h e r e f o r e r e q u ir e s e x p l a n a t i o n .
L_
6
35
r
n
TABLE
III
TABLE OF CRITICAL RATIOS M D MEANS FOR 4 12 - S e r i e s
a
10 -
S e r ie s
SERIES
- S e r ie s
8
6
- S e r ie s
2 .0 0
a
2 .6 5 5
cr
2 .3 0 2
a
1 .8 1 9
M
2 .0 2 5
M
2 .5 8 2
M
2 .2 6 0
M
1 .7 8 3
°M
0 .8 8 2
ctM 0 .2 2 5
°M
0 .2 1 4
N
115
N
H
121
12
D /° d iff
&
139
10
10
1 .9 6 0
A
8
1 .0 3 8
0 .1 6 1
N
8
&
129
6
1 .7 8 0
or
12
&
C .R .
8
10
.9 1 9
12
&
&
6
2 .8 8 0
6
.9 9 8
I t w i l l b e n o t e d t h e 10 - S e r i e s group i s
b e s t, th e
6
- S e r i e s group d e c i d e d l y t h e p o o r e s t .
d e c id e d ly th e
I t i s o n ly b e tw e e n
t h e s e tw o g r o u p s , t h e b e s t and t h e p o o r e s t , t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t c r i ­
t i c a l r a tio o cc u rs.
th e
6
T h is may b e p a r t l y e x p la in e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t
- S e r i e s group d id n o t com prehend t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s a s r e a d i l y
a s d id t h e o t h e r g r o u p s ; many le a r n e d and r e c o r d e d t h e s y l l a b l e s i n
t h e o r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e le a r n i n g s e r i e s i n s t e a d o f r e c o r d in g
th em i n t h e r o t a t e d r e c i t a t i o n o r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n .
vras o b s e r v e d i n tw o w a y s .
and
6
-
F i r s t i n t h e i n t e r v a l b e tw e e n t h e 4 -
S e r i e s t h e s u b j e c t s a sk ed i-fi t h e o r d e r o f r e c i t a t i o n had b e e n
d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n t h e l e a r n i n g o r d e r .
e lic ite d
T h is e r r o r
An a f f i r m a t i v e a n sw er o f t e n
an e x c la m a t io n o f s u r p r i s e from some o f t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t s .
r
5£h
S e c o n d ly , t h e r e i s a m arked i n c r e a s e o f o c c u r r e n c e o f B and C s c o r e s
fo r th e
6
- S e r i e s group a s com pared w it h t h e o t h e r g r o u p s .
L e a r n in g O rder
B S cores
4 - S e r ie s
L e a r n in g O rder
C S cores
4 - S e r ie s
4 - 6
S e r ie s
210
4 - 6
S e r i e s 236
4 - 8
S e r ie s
96
4 - 8
S e r ie s
4 -1 0 S e r ie s
86
4 -1 0
S e r i e s 128
4 -1 2 S e r ie s
116
4 -1 2
S e r ie s
H ence t h e members o f t h e
6
95
81
- S e r i e s group a s f r e q u e n t l y a s t h e o t h e r s
had t h e r i g h t r e s p o n s e , b u t a s i t w as m is p la c e d , i t w as n o t co u n ted #
(The g r o u p s w ere e q u a te d on t h e A s c o r e s a l o n e ) .
It is
e v i d e n t , h o w e v er, t h a t t h i s e r r o r d id n o t c a r r y o v e r
i n t o t h e p erfo rm a n ce on t h e s i x s e r i e s ,
s in c e th e cu rv es fo r th e
6
-
S e r i e s and 10 - S e r i e s do n o t shovr much v a r i a n c e , b u t on t h e c o n ­
t r a r y , f o l l o w t h e e x p e c t e d t r e n d s a s shown b y t h e c u r v e s .
That t h i s
e r r o r d id n o t p e r s i s t w as a l s o s e e n i n m ark in g t h e r e c o r d s .
We
b e li e v e o u r s e lv e s j u s t i f i e d , t h e r e f o r e , in s t a t in g t h a t in reg ard t o
p e r fo r m a n c e i n t h i s e x p e r im e n t t h e g ro u p s vrere e q u a te d , e s p e c i a l l y
on t h e m a jo r l i s t s ,
t o v r it, s i x ,
e i g h t , t e n and t w e l v e .
In o t h e r
w o r d s, a f t e r t h e p r a c t i c e p e r io d o f t h e 4 - S e r i e s t h e g ro u p s vrere
d e f i n i t e l y e q u a te d and i n o n ly on e i n s t a n c e i s t h e r e an y q u e s t i o n o f
them b e in g e q u a te d f o r t h e p r a c t i c e p e r io d #
(C ) ASSOCIATIVE VALUE OF SYLLABLES
The i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f t h e c u r v e s d e r iv e d from t h e raw d a t a
made i t n e c e s s a r y t o a n a ly z e t h e r e s u l t s i n te r m s o f ea ch s y l l a b l e t o
f i n d i f t h e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s w ere in h e r e n t i n t h e le a r n in g s i t u a t i o n o r
ca u sed by c e r t a in ex tr a n e o u s f a c t o r s .
IV*
T h is a n a l y s i s i s
shown i n T a b le
The l a s t colum n o f t h i s T a b le g i v e s t h e a v e r a g e s p e r s u b j e c t p e r
t r i a l per l i s t ,
t o w i t , a s s o c i a t i v e v a lu e i n r e c a l l *
T h ese v a l u e s
w ere fo u n d b y d i v i d i n g t h e t o t a l s c o r e f o r e a c h s y l l a b l e b y t h e
number o f s u b j e c t s t o whom t h a t s y l l a b l e had a p p e a r e d , t h e t r i a l s
t h e s y l l a b l e had h ad , and t h e number o f l i s t s
ap p eared *
i n w h ic h i t had
From t h i s T a b le , i t i s o b v io u s t h a t f a c t o r s e x tr a n e o u s
t o s e r i a l p o s i t i o n w e r e o p e r a t in g , and t h a t a l l t h e s y l l a b l e s w ere
n o t o f equal d if f ic u lt y *
T hat t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e o t h e r t h a n s e r i a l
p o s i t i o n I s e v i d e n t b e c a u s e t h e f i n a l a v e r a g e v a l u e s fo u n d ( c o l .
do n o t d i f f e r much from t h o s e o b t a in e d i n e a c h s e r i e s ( c o l .
6
7)
) in
s p i t e o f t h e r ig o r o u s m eth od o f r o t a t i o n o f t h e s y l l a b l e s shown i n
t h i s T a b le and m ore c l e a r l y i n T a b le I .
It is
show n, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a lt h o u g h t h e s y l l a b l e s a r e o f
z e r o p e r c e n t a s s o c i a t i v e v a lu e a c c o r d in g t o G la z e , a s s o c i a t i v e
v a lu e and a s s o c i a t i v e v a lu e i n r e c a l l a r e n o t t h e sam e.
The r e a s o n s
f o r t h e s e d i s c r e p a n c i e s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l e ls e w h e r e ; t h e y a r e ,
n a m e ly , a s s o c i a t i o n e f f e c t ,
e a s e o f p r o n u n c ia t io n and c o n f u s io n
c a u s e d b y t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f common l e t t e r s .
T h is d is c r e p a n c y i s n o t o n ly i n t h e G la ze l i s t b u t a l s o i n t h e
work o f K r u e g e r ,^ who r e v a l u a t e d t h e s y l l a b l e s i n t h e G la ze l i s t .
1 . W .C .F . K r u e g e r , "The R e l a t i v e D i f f i c u l t y o f M0n s e n s e S y l l a b l e s 7',
J o u r n a l o f Expe r im e n t a l P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 3 4 , v o l . 1 7 , p p . 1 4 5 -5 4 *
L
K ru e g e r’ s a s s o c ia tio n f o r
th e
A p p e n d ix .
They d i f f e r
t h o s e fo u n d
in
v a lu e s
appear in
a ls o
s y lla b le s
th e t h ir d
th e
used in
fro m th o s e
p r e lim in a r y
th is
e x p e r im e n t a p p e a r i n
g iv e n b y G la z e ,
a n d a ls o
e x p e r im e n t r e p o r t e d
fr o m
h e r e i n , w h ic h
A p p e n d ix .
TABLE IV
TABLE OF ASSOCIATIVE VALUE IE RECALL FOR RESPONSE SYLLABLES
C o l.
1
2
S y lla b le
1
QOS-MEF
3
L is t
3
QIM-JIX
GEC-VAF
10
12
1
10
8
12
3
6
3
7
8
4
MIB-QUJ
P o s itio n
5
4
7
6
8
2
4
5
6
T o ta l
A v era g e
( p e r S u b j .)
S c o r e nbre:Sufej. A v. ( p e r T r i a l )
jOOX *j\A*-vi *
330
2 . 558
.2 8 4 2
335
2 .9 0 4
.2 4 2 0
261
.1 2 5 1
1 .8 7 7
364
3 .0 0 8
.1 6 7 1
346
408
2 .4 8 9
3 .3 7 1
.1 6 5 9
.1 8 7 2
70
113
403
298
.5 4 2
.9 8 2
2 .2 9 9
2 .4 6 2
.0 6 0 2
.0 8 1 8
.1 9 3 2
.1 3 6 7
1 .6 1 7
1 .5 0 3
1 .8 8 4
.1 0 0 2
10
10
12
4
8
10
3
9
12
6
186
209
228
11
174
1 .4 3 6
.0 7 9 7
40
187
99
87
.3 0 2
1 .6 2 6
.7 1 2
.7 1 8
.0 3 3 5
• 1355
.0 4 7 4
.0 3 9 8
12
6
ZOJ-GEX
6
1
8
8
10
6
12
5
12
2
80
.6 6 1
.0 3 6 7
46
39
78
59
• 356
.3 3 9
.5 6 1
.4 8 5
.0 3 9 4
.0 2 8 2
.0 3 7 4
.0 2 6 9
36
36
53
65
.2 7 9
.3 1 3
.3 8 8
.5 3 7
.0 3 1 0
.0 2 6 0
.0 2 5 8
.0 2 9 8
8
ZUV -C IJ
9
YAV-YyUQ
6
4
8
2
10
1
12
9
6
2
8
5
4
10
12
L
12
.1 7 6 5
.1 1 7 9
.1 1 3 2
.1 3 6 7
QOJ-CEF
KOJ-YUF
.1 7 9 6
.1 3 4 7
5
7
7
(p e r S u b j .)
(p e r T r i a l )
A v .( p e r L i s t )
.0 7 9 7
.0 6 4 0
.0 3 6 7
.0 3 2 9
.0 2 8 2
□
39
S y lla b le
L is t
P o s itio n
T o ta l
A v era g e
S c o r e pereSub.fr.
'VJ G Ju
1 0 YIX-ZOJ
11 VAF-ZEQ
12 YIF-VUQ
6
6
74
8
1
20
10
5
12
8
33
30
(p ersP )
(p e r S u b j .)
( p e r T .)
A v .( p e r T r i a l ) Av. ( p e r L i s t )
Lv i J
.5 7 3
.1 7 3
.2 3 7
.2 4 7
.0 6 3 6
.0 1 4 4
.0 1 3 8
.0 1 3 7
8
6
21
10
2
12
7
29
42
.1 8 2
.2 0 8
. o47
.0 1 5 2
.0 1 3 8
.0 1 9 2
34
27
.2 4 5 •
.2 2 3
.0 1 6 3
.0 1 2 3
10
12
3
10
.0 2 6 4
.0 1 6 1
.0 1 4 3
U sin g t h e Spearman ran k o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n m eth od t h e a s s o ­
c i a t i v e v a l u e s o f K ru eg er c o r r e l a t e .6 7 w it h t h e a s s o c i a t i v e v a lu e s
fo u n d i n t h e p r e lim in a r y e x p e r im e n t; and *36 w it h t h e a s s o c i a t i v e
v a lu e i n r e c a l l fo u n d i n t h e m a jo r e x p e r im e n t .
The a s s o c i a t i v e
v a l u e s fo u n d i n t h e p r e l im in a r y e x p e r im e n t c o r r e l a t e . 5 5 w it h t h e
a s s o c i a t i v e v a lu e i n r e c a l l .
I t can be s ta te d th e r e fo r e , th a t
a s s o c i a t i v e v a lu e a s s u c h and a s s o c i a t i v e v a lu e i n r e c a l l a r e n o t
id e n tic a l.
T h at a s s o c i a t i v e v a lu e i n r e c a l l i s
an im p o r ta n t f a c t o r c a n
b e s e e n i n n e x t t o t h e l a s t colum n o f T a b le IV , h ea d ed A v era g e p e r
S u b je c t p er T r ia l.
The c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e v a lu e s f o r t h e v a r io u s
s y l l a b l e s i n e a c h s e r i e s i s v e r y h ig h e x c e p t f o r it e m s o n e , t h r e e ,
s i x and t e n -csjhere t h e r e i s on e m arked i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n e a c h .
It is
r e a d i l y o b s e r v e d , h o v /ev e r, t h a t e a c h o f t h e s e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s o c c u r s
w hen t h e s y l l a b l e i n q u e s t i o n a p p e a r s i n a k e y p o s i t i o n - t h a t i s a
p o s i t i o n g r e a t l y in f lu e n c e d b y s e r i a l o r d e r .
In Ite m s t h r e e , s i x ,
and t e n t h i s p o s i t i o n i s t h e l a s t i n t h e s e r i e s and t h e r e f o r e t h e
v a l u e s a r e e n h a n ced ; i n ite m o n e t h e p o s i t i o n i s s e v e n t h i n t h e
S e r i e s - a w eak p o s i t i o n i n s e r i a l o r d e r and t h e v a lu e i s
L
12
-
a c c o r d in g ly
^
40
n
' low®
The s y l l a b l e s u s e d i n t h e 4 - S e r i e s do n o t a p p ea r i n t h i s
T a b le b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e n o t u s e d i n an y o t h e r o f t h e s e r i e s .
S in c e
t h e y a lw a y s o c c u p ie d t h e same s e r i a l p o s i t i o n s , no a v e r a g e s in d e p e n ­
d e n t o f p o s i t i o n c o u ld b e o b t a in e d f o r them *
However t h e y a r e n o t o f
e q u a l a s s o c i a t i v e v a l u e a c c o r d in g t o t h e K ru eg er l i s t *
T h is e x p la i n s
t h e sh arp f a l l i n g o f f o f t h e l a s t s y l l a b l e i n F ig u r e 1 $ , t h e t h i r d
s y l l a b l e h a v in g a much h ig h e r a s s o c i a t i v e v a l u e th a n t h e l a s t a c c o r d ­
in g t o t h e K ru eg er v a lu e s *
The K ru eg er a s s o c i a t i o n v a lu e s o f t h e
4 - S e r i e s a p p ea r i n t h e A p p en d ix w it h t h o s e f o r t h e o t h e r s e r i e s *
L
lJ
(D ) RAW SCORES
The su prem acy o f c e r t a i n s y l l a b l e s i n e a s e o f le a r n i n g i s co n ­
s t a n t th r o u g h o u t t h e v a r i o u s s e r i e s .
That i s ,
i n g e n e r a l , w hen t h e
t r i a l s a r e grou p ed i n t h r e e s t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f e a c h s y l l a b l e
in regard t o i t s
le a r n in g s c o r e i s m a in t a in e d .
i n T a b le IV , ^and g r a p h i c a l l y i n F ig u r e I £ .
T h ese d a ta a r e shown
The d a t a f o r t h e s e c u r v e s
a r e b a s e d on raw s c o r e s , t h e t o t a l s n o t h a v in g b e e n t r e a t e d f o r
d i f f e r e n c e s i n number o f s u b j e c t s p e r g ro u p , n o r f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n
t r ia ls per s e r ie s .
T h is c o r r e c t i o n w as n o t n e c e s s a r y h e r e s i n c e
t h e s e c u r v e s a r e o n ly f o r t h e p u r p o se o f i n t r a s e r i a l c o m p a r is o n , n o t
i n t e r s e r i a l c o m p a r is o n s .
N e it h e r h a v e t h e y b e e n c o r r e c t e d f o r
a s s o c i a t i v e v a lu e o f i n d i v i d u a l s y l l a b l e s .
meifchb’dciolf l e a r n i n g o f t h e s u b j e c t s c a n b e s e e n .
From F ig u r e I I t h e
It is
e v id e n t t h a t i n
e a ch s e r i e s a p a r t i c u l a r s y l l a b l e w a s c h o s e n b y t h e s u b j e c t t o b e
le a r n e d f i r s t ; w h i l e t h i s s y l l a b l e m a in ta in e d i t s
su prem acy i n
e a s e o f le a r n in g i t w as u s e d a s a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r t h e a c q u i­
s i t i o n o f o th e r s y lla b le s w it h in th e l i s t .
A p r o b a b ly r e a s o n f o r t h i s t y p e o f le a r n in g i s t h e ex tr e m e
d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e le a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n w h ic h w as n e c e s s a r y t o b r i n g
ou t th e in h ib ito r y p r o c e s s e s .
T h is d i f f i c u l t y w as o b t a in e d b y m eans
o f fiv e fa c to r s :
1 . S h o r t e x p o s u r e tim e o f e a c h p a i r o f s y l l a b l e s i n t h e le a r n in g
p r e s e n ta tio n .
2 . C h o ic e o f s y l l a b l e s o f z e r o p e r c e n t a s s o c i a t i v e v a lu e a c c o r d in g
t o G la z e .
C h o o sin g s y l l a b l e s o f su c h lo w v a l u e made them o f un­
u s u a l p r o n u n c ia t io n w h ic h ad d ed t o t h e i r in h e r e n t d i f f i c u l t y .
B e s id e s t h e r e i s n a t u r a l l y m ore d e v i a t i o n among t h e s y l l a b l e s o f t h i s
t_ group - t h o s e o f 0% a s s o c i a t i v e v a l u e - s i n c e t h e y a r e a t t h e en d o f
t h e G la z e d i s t r i b u t i o n th a n t h e r e i s among s y l l a b l e s n e a r e r t o t h e
m id d le o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n *
3 .Many o f t h e s y l l a b l e s w ere o f s i m i l a r p r o n u n c ia t io n and s p e l l i n g
w h ic h c a u s e d c o n f u s io n *
E xam ples a r e GEX and JEX, MEF and CEF.
O th er
ex a m p les msay b e s e e n i n t h e A p p en d ix w h ere t h e s e r i e s a a r e g iv e n *
T h ese t h r e e f a c t o r s r e s u l t e d i n t h e t e n d e n c y t o c h o o s e one
s y l l a b l e and u s e i t a s a p o i n t o f d e p a r tu r e from w h ic h t h e le a r n in g
sp r e a d t o t h e o t h e r s y l l a b l e s *
The f a c t t h a t t h e e n t i r e grou p t o
w h ic h a s e r i e s w as g iv e n c h o s e t h e same s y l l a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e
e x p la n a t io n s f o r t h e s e c u r v e s a r e in h e r e n t i n t h e s y l l a b l e s *
If it
had b e e n o t h e r w is e , t h e r e w o u ld h a v e r e s u l t e d - i r r e g u l a r c u r v e s ,
e a c h s u b j e c t c h o o s in g a d i f f e r e n t s y l l a b l e f o r h i s p o in t o f d e p a r tu r e *
4* B e s id e s t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s in h e r e n t i n t h e s y l l a b l e s , t h e
m e th o d o lo g y o f t h e e x p e r im e n t w as so d e v is e d a s t o make l e a r n in g
d iffic u lt,
as has b een p r e v io u s ly d is c u s s e d .
Thus t h e u s e o f p a ir e d
a s s o c i a t e s i n s t e a d o f a s i n g l e s y l l a b l e demanded t h e s e t t i n g up o f
b o th h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s *
5.
The f a c t o r o f r o t a t e d r e c i t a t i o n o r d e r a l s o in f lu e n c e d t h e
le a r n in g s it u a t io n *
Thus t h e s u b j e c t s w ere n o t p e r m it t e d m e r e ly t o
le a r n a s in g le l i s t ,
o r a d o u b le l i s t ,
b u t w e r e f o r c e d t o form
a s s o c i a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e le a r n in g o r d e r and t o resp o n d t o t h e
c u e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e r e c i t a t i o n o rd er*
H ow ever, no m a t t e r how p a l t r y t h e amount o f le a r n in g c o n ­
s e q u e n t u p on t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s e f a c t o r s , m i l i t a t i n g a s t h e y do
a g a i n s t a h ig h d e g r e e o f l e a r n i n g , t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d o f t h e c u r v e s
i s t h e sam e.
T h is i s t r u e b o t h i n t r a s e r i a l l y and i n t e r s e r i a l l y , ^i*©*,,
w i t h i n a s e r i e s and among t h e v a r i o u s s e r i e s .
L
Li
43
n
r
LEGEND FOR TABLE V
In o r d e r t o com pare t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e l e a r n i n g w i t h i n t h e
s e r i e s t h e t o t a l number o f A s c o r e s f o r e a c h p o s i t i o n o f e a c h l e a r n i n g
s e r ie s i s
g iv e n i n t h i s t a b l e f o r ea ch group o f t h r e e t r i a l s *
The
t o t a l s c o r e s f o r t h e f o u r s e r i e s w e r e d iv id e d b y f o u r t o make t h e s e
s c o r e s m ore co m p a ra b le w i t h t h o s e o f t h e o t h e r s e r i e s *
T h is w as
n e c e s s a r y s i n c e t h e f o u r s e r i e s w as g iv e n t o a l l t h e g ro u p s and t h e r e ­
f o r e had a p p r o x im a te ly f o u r t im e s a s many s u b j e c t s a s d id t h e o t h e r
s e r ie s *
I t m u st b e rem em bered, h o w e v er, t h a t t h e s e raw s c o r e s a r e
n o t e x a c t l y co m p a ra b le from s e r i e s t o
s e r i e s b e c a u s e o f t h e v a r y in g
number o f s u b j e c t s and t r i a l s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t s e r i e s *
In te r ­
s e r i a l c o m p a r a b ilit y i s a c h ie v e d b y t h e A*S.T* s c o r e , w h ich a p p e a r s
la te r *
l_
44
n
r
TABLE
V
TABLE OF RAW SCORES
Group o f
T h ree T r i a l s
I
II
*
I
II
III
I
II
III
IV
I
II
III
IV
V
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
L
1
4
3
2
7 .2 5 11 32
15
22.5 70
12
2
11
32
5
6
35
27
2
25
9
1
11
4
16
11
5
9
8
15
44
58
66
5
72
109
19 131
11
11
34
64
98
149
4
7
1
5
15
13
2
1
2
12
3
7
6
8
20
8
12
31
11
11
17
17
14
21
6
8
40
51
8
66
8
76
75
73
3
19
34
59
4
13
14
88
20
99
31
16
28
9
8
10
11
12
36
7 2 .5
0
29
52
77
99
87
7
6
2
7
10
2
19
16
32
1
8
18
7 33
7 52
10
5
9
17
32
34
33
44
29
75
5
13 46
41 33 31
62 50 33
63 113 54
83 104 79
7 00
13 5
19 4
42 13
58 6
17
86
13
93
59
142
110
7
3
5
0
0
0
3
7
3
20
12
6
15
25
42
62
5
16
15
3
3 12
7 16
11
22
6
4
7
10
45
FIGURE
R aw S c o r e s
NO. I- A
A c c o r d in g
LEARNING
TRIALS
To
S er ia l
P o sitio n
ORDER
GROUPED
BY THREES
FIRST THREE
SECOND THREE
40
NUMBER
CORRECT
60_
2
SERIAL POSITION
3
4
46
FIGURE NO.I-B
L e a r n in g
O r d er
NUMBER CORRECT BY THIRDS
6 - SERIES
140
120
NUMBER
CORRECT
100
60
—
/
4
SERIAL POSITION
6
4Z
FIGURE NO.I-C
L e a r n in g
NUMBER
Order
CORRECT BY THIRDS
140
8 - SERIES
NUMBER
C6RRECT
1 0 0
6 0
40
SERIAL POSITION
48_
FIGURE NO. I - D
L e a r n in g
NUMBER
O rdejr
CORRECT BY THIRDS
10 - SERIES
140 T _
IV.
NUMBER
CORRECT
1 0 0
60.
40.
20
...
\ _____
4
SERIAL POSITION
4SL
FIGURE NO. I - E
L e a r n in g
NUMBER
Or d er
CORRECT BY THIRDS
1 2 - SERIES
I .
--------
NUMBER
CORRECT
100
4 0 ___
_ y
4
SERIAL
6
POSITION
8
10
12
50
r
n
(E ) LEARNING GRADIENT
I n t h i s e x p e r im e n t l e a r n i n g w as c o n t in u o u s th r o u g h t h e e n t i r e
e x p e r im e n t, t h a t i s , t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e s t i l l
le a r n in g when t h e e x p e r i ­
m en t w as s to p p e d a s e v id e n c e d b y t h e c o n t in u o u s g a in from t r i a l t o
tr ia l*
T h is f a c t i s
e v i d e n t i n T a b le VI p r e s e n t e d b e lo w :
TABLE VI
TOTAL AST SCORES FOR EACH THREE TRIALS OF EACH SERIES
12
- S e r ie s
T o t a l A .S .T .
.0 5 1
113
.0 7 6
166
.1 1 6
253
*174
381
502
.2 3 9
.2 6 0
587
10 - S e r i e s
8 -
S e r ie s
T o tA l A. S .T .
97
.0 4 6
141
.0 6 7
.1 2 8
267
466
.2 2 3
477
.2 2 8
T o t a l A. S .T .
.0 7 8
109
.1 4 1
195
.1 8 6
257
370
.2 6 8
6 - S e r ie s
4 - S e r ie s
T o t a l A .S .T .
117
.1 0 1
200
.1 7 2
267
.2 2 9
T o t a l A .S .T .
345
.1 1 0
808
.2 6 7
T h is T a b le w as made b y d i v i d i n g t h e t o t a l t r i a l s o f t h e l e a r n ­
in g o r d e r i n t o g ro u p s o f t h r e e s .
t h e t w e lv e s e r i e s ,
T h ere a r e t h e r e f o r e s i x g r o u p s f o r
f i v e fo r th e te n , fo u r f o r th e e ig h t , th r e e f o r th e
s i x and tw o f o r t h e f o u r s e r i e s .
The t o t a l number o f A s c o r e s w ere
t a b u l a t e d f o r t h e l e a r n i n g o r d e r i n e a c h group o f t h r e e t r i a l s
5
t h e s e t o t a l s w ere t h e n c o n v e r t e d i n t o A .S .T . v a l u e s , t h a t i s ,
average
p er su b je c t, p er t r i a l .
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k in g , t h e
s h o r t e r t h e l i s t t h e m ore s y l l a b l e s t h e r e a r e r e t a i n e d f o r an y
c o r r e s p o n d in g group o f t h r e e t r i a l s .
T h is f a c t i s e a s i l y s e e n i n
F ig u r e I I w h ic h i s t h e g r a p h ic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s fo u n d i n
T a b le V I.
LIBRARY
^
v o rk
,
FIGURE NO. 2
L ea rn in g
G ra d ie n t
By
G ro u p s O f T hree
T rials
4 - s e r i e s ________________
6 - SERIES_____________
8 - SERIES _____________
10- SERIES____________
12-S E R IES _____________
0 .3 0 __
CORRECT
0.25.__
/
NUMBER
0.15
0 .1 0
0.05
4
3
SERIAL POSITION
2
L e a r n in g
O rder -
A.S.T
5
S cores
6
T h ese f i n d i n g s a r e in a c c o r d a n c e w it h t h o s e o f P e t e r s o n .
H ow ever, i n
h i s e x p e r im e n t d i f f i c u l t y w as in c r e a s e d b y m aking t h e s y l l a b l e s h a r d e r ,
w h ile in t h i s
e x p e r im e n t d i f f i c u l t y w as in c r e a s e d b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e
le n g th o f th e l i s t ,
t h a t i s t h e number o f s y l l a b l e s t o b e remembered#
T h ese c u r v e s a r e a l s o i n a c c o r d a n c e w it h t h o s e fo u n d b y M elto n
i n a s tu d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n r e p e t i t i o n s and le n g t h o f t h e l i s t . * ”
And l i k e w i s e w it h t h e r e s u l t s o f Sand^ r e l a t i v e t o t h i s p o r t io n o f h e r
ex p e r im e n t#
T h ese c u r v e s shov*- t h a t t h e le a r n in g g r a d ie n t i n c r e a s e s t h e
s h o r t e r t h e l e n g t h o f s e r i e s u s e d i n t h i s e x p erim en t#
T h is g r a d ie n t
4
i s i n a g ree m en t w it h t h e r e s u l t s o f Sand who fo u n d d i f f e r e n t l i n e a r
le a r n in g c u r v e s f o r l i s t s
o f l e s s th a n f i f t e e n s y l l a b l e s , th e f i f t e e n
s y l l a b l e l i s t a p p r o x im a te d a n orm al o g i v e .
T here i s
a p p r o x im a t e ly t h e
same amount o f l e a r n i n g , t h a t i s , t h e same number o f s y l l a b l e s le a r n e d ,
f o r r e p e t i t i o n s on e and a h a l f t im e s t h e number o f s y l l a b l e s .
It w ill
b e rem em bered i n t h e p r o c e d u r e t h a t t h e number o f t r i a l s p e r s e r i e s
w as e q u a l t o o n e and a h a l f t im e s t h e humber o f s y l l a b l e s i n t h e
s e r ie s .
I n o t h e r -words, t h e r e s u l t s i n T a b le VI shown i n F ig u r e I I
in d ic a te th a t th e r e i s
a b o u t t h e same amount o f l e a r n i n g a t t h e end
o f e a c h le a r n in g s e r i e s .
T here i s f a s t e r le a r n i n g f o r s e r i e s f o u r ,
t w e lv e i n o r d e r .
s ix ,
e i g h t , t e n and
The s m a ll amount o f o v e r la p shown i n t h e t e n and
t w e lv e c u r v e s i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t #
T h is f i n d i n g i s
i n a g ree m en t w it h
1 . G.M. P e t e r s o n , “N e g a t iv e A c c e l e r a t i o n w it h M a t e r ia l o f V a ry in g
D i f f i c u l t y ' 1, J o u r n a l o f E x p e r im e n ta l P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 2 8 , v o l . 1 1 ,
p p . 40-44-.
2* A.W. M e lto n , uThe R e l a t i o n B etw een R e p e t i t i o n and L en g th o f L i s t
i n t h e L e a r n in g o f M e a n in g le s s and M e a n in g fu l M a t e r i a l s , "
P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1 9 5 3 , v o l . 3 0 , p . 542#
3 . M.C# San d, o p . c i t . , p . 238#
4 . I b id .
L_
t h a t o f t h e o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s r e f e r r e d t o a b o v e , who s t a t e d t h a t i n
s h o r t e r o r l e s s d i f f i c u l t t a s k s t h e r e i s m ore l e a r n in g
in
th e i n i t i a l
tr ia ls .
The le a r n in g g r a d ie n t a s shown h e r e i n i s n o t i d e n t i c a l f o r
lis ts
o f v a r y in g l e n g t h s .
For t h e lo n g e r l i s t s t h e c u r v e i s
or o g iv a l; fo r th e sh o r te r l i s t s
t h e lo n g e r l i s t s
it
is
lin e a r .
s ig m o id
A ls o t h e c u r v e s f o r
show i n i t i a l p o s i t i v e a c c e l e r a t i o n .
T h is a c c e l e r a ­
t i o n i s p ro n o u n c ed i n t h e c u r v e s f o r t h e 10 and 12 - S e r ie s,#
t i v e a c c e le r a t io n appears a ls o in th e
m e r e ly a c h a n c e d e v i a t i o n .
8
P o s i­
- S e r i e s ; h u t t h i s may h e
In th e sh o r t l i s t s ,
t h e 4 and
- S e r ie s ,
6
s i n c e s o fe w p o i n t s a p p e a r on t h e c u r v e t h e r e i s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r
r e g a r d in g them a s fo r m in g o t h e r t h a n a s t r a i g h t l i n e .
In t h e two
lo n g e r l i s t s , t h e 10 and 12 - S e r i e s , t h e r e i s a t a p e r in g
t h e en d , a f l a t t e n i n g o f t h e c u r v e .
o ff at
T h is i s p r o h a h ly due t o
f a t i g u e e x p e r ie n c e d h y t h e s u b j e c t s w hen m em o rizin g t h e lo n g e r
lis ts .
It is
e v i d e n t t h a t i f t h e c u r v e s w ere e x te n d e d downward
t h e y w o u ld m e e t a t t h e o r i g i n .
^That i s
z e r o r e c a l l and z e r o t r i a l s ) .
54
n
r
(F ) COMPARISON WITH THE RESULTS OF FOUCAULT
F o u c a u lt o b t a in e d h i s c u r v e o f r e g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n b y m ea su r­
in g t h e f a i l u r e s f o r t h e f i r s t w ord o f e a c h s e r i e s *
We h a v e made
s i m i l a r c u r v e s u s i n g , h o w e v er, t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s f o r t h e f i r s t
s y l l a b l e o f e a c h s e r i e s an d , i n a d d i t i o n , f o r t h e minimum and maximum
v a l u e s o b t a in e d i n e a c h s e r i e s .
T h is p r o c e d u r e w as a l s o c a r r i e d o u t
f o r t h e r e c i t a t i o n o r d e r ; a s t h e s y l l a b l e s w ere t o t a t e d i n t h e r e c i ­
t a t io n p o s itio n .
The c u r v e s o b t a in e d i n t h i s way co n fo rm w it h F o u c a u lt ’ s
cu rve o f r e g r e s s iv e in h ib it io n .
T h ese c u r v e s o f i n h i b i t i o n a r e p r e -
ill'
s e n t e d i n F ig u r e VA.
T here w as an o b v io u s d e c r e a s e i n r e c a l l v a lu e
f o r t h e maximum p o in t a s t h e l i s t s
r e c ita tio n ord er.
g e t lo n g e r ,
Ho su c h e f f e c t i s
i n b o th l e a r n i n g and
apparent fo r th e i n i t i a l or
minimum p o i n t s .
C u rv es shown i n F ig u r e VI a r e a l s o c u r v e s o f i n h i b i t i o n .
is
T here
g r e a t e r i n h i b i t i o n on t h e l a s t s y l l a b l e o f t h e lo n g e r s e r i e s t h a n
on t h e l a s t s y l l a b l e o f t h e s h o r t e r l i s t s .
maximum o r f i n a l p o i n t on t h e
6
I t w i l l b e n o te d t h a t th e
- S e r i e s i s v e r y much h ig h e r th a n
t h e c o r r e s p o n d in g p o in t on a n y o f t h e o t h e r s , and t h a t t h e
12 - S e r i e s f o l l o w i n s u c c e s s i o n .
T h is i s
8
,
10
and
i n c o n f o r m it y w it h t h e
c o n c e p t o f F o u c a u lt c o n c e r n in g p r o g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n ,
”. . .
I f th e
s e r i e s o f w ord s i s in c r e a s e d b y new u n i t s , o n e a t a tim e . . .
th e
p r o g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n w i l l b e m a n if e s t b y a d im in u t io n o f t h e
number o f c o r r e c t r e c i t a t i o n s f o r t h e l a s t word o f t h e s e r i e s and
t h o s e w h ic h p r e c e d e i t ;:.
In t h i s e x p e r im e n t, a s may b e s e e n from
tilF ig u r e T A t h e m ore it e m s p r e c e d in g t h e l a s t ite m t h e g r e a t e r t h e
amount o f i n h i b i t i o n a f f e c t i n g t h e l a s t ite m o f t h e s e r i e s .
In
o t h e r w o r d s, t h e s h o r t e r t h e s e r i e s t h e fe w e r it e m s t h e r e a r e t o
I—
U
55
r
n
c a u s e p r o g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n on t h e l a s t it e m , and c o n s e q u e n t ly t h e
s h o r t e r t h e s e r i e s t h e h ig h e r t h e s c o r e o b t a in e d f o r t h e l a s t item *
I t m i l be n o te d , h ow ever, t h a t t h i s p r o g r e s s iv e in h ib it i o n i s
seen
w hen c o r r e s p o n d in g it e m s from s e r i e s t o s e r i e s a r e com p ared , r a t h e r
th a n when it e m s w i t h i n a n y on e s e r i e s a r e com pared*
L
J
FIGURE NO. 3
Fo u c a u l t
Cu r v e s
Of
In h ib it io n
CORRECTED VALUES
MAX. POINTS_____
FIRST POINTS_____
MIN. POINTS
..
LEARNING
ORDER
RECITATION
SERIES
57
n
r
(G) s e r ia l p o s it io n
The p ro b lem of* s e r i a l p o s i t i o n , t h e problem, of* p rim a ry i n t e r e s t
t o t h i s e x p e r im e n t, i s
shown b y an a n a l y s i s o f t h e number o f c o r r e c t
r e s p o n s e s f o r ea ch s y l l a b l e i n t h e le a r n in g o r d e r and f o r ea c h p o s i ­
t i o n i n t h e r e c i t a t i o n o rd er#
T h is a n a l y s i s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b le s
V II and V I I I f o r t h e 4 - S e r i e s ,
s e r ie s #
and T a b le s IX and X f o r t h e o t h e r
T h ese r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F ig u r e s IV (A) and B f o r t h e
4 - S e r i e s , F ig u r e s V (A ) and B f o r t h e o t h e r s e r i e s #
The v a l u e s f o r t h e 4 - S e r i e s a r e A .S .T . v a l u e s ; - t h a t i s ,
a v e r a g e p e r s u b j e c t , p e r t r i a l o f t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o b t a in e d f o r
each p o s it io n .
Ho f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s f o r t h i s
s e r i e s c o u ld b e made
b e c a u s e t h e r e w as no r o t a t i o n o f t h e s y l l a b l e s i n t h e f o u r s e r i e s
and t h e r e f o r e no a s s o c i a t i v e v a l u e i n r e c a l l c o u ld b e o b t a in e d f o r
th e s e s y lla b le s #
T h e m lu e s f o r t h e
6
,
8
, 10 and 12 - S e r i e s a r e b a s e d on t h e
A .S .T . v a l u e s and c o r r e c t e d f o r t h e a s s o c i a t i v e v a l u e i n r e c a l l f o r
each s y lla b l e .
The m ethod b y w h ic h t h i s w as d on e v a r i e s f o r t h e
l e a r n i n g and r e c i t a t i o n o r d e r s so e a c h w i l l b e d e s c r ib e d s e p a r a t e ly #
The m eth o d f o r f i n d i n g t h e a s s o c i a t i v e v a lu e i n r e c a l l h a s a lr e a d y
b e e n d e s c r ib e d i n d i s c u s s i n g T a b le IV .
In t h a t s e c t i o n i t w as
o b v io u s t h a t some c o r r e c t i o n had t o b e made f o r a s s o c i a t i o n v a lu e i n
r e c a ll,
i f t h e t r u e s e r i a l e f f e c t w ere t o b e a s c e r t a i n e d #
M ethod f o r t h e R e c i t a t i o n O rders
( 1 ) D eterm in e t h e number o f t im e s ea ch s y l l a b l e
( th a t i s t o say
t h e s t im u lu s s y l l a b l e o f e a c h paiz*) a p p ea red i n t h e f i r s t r e c i t a t i o n
p o s it io n , th e secon d r e c it a t io n p o s it io n ,
e tc .
( 2 ) F o r ea c h p o s i t i o n i n r e c i t a t i o n o r d e r s
L
□
*h
A. M u lt i p l y t h e a s s o c i a t i o n v a lu e i n r e c a l l o f ea ch s y l l a b l e
a p p e a r in g i n t h e r e c i t a t i o n p o s i t i o n b y t h e number o f t im e s
it
a p p ea red i n t h a t p o s i t i o n *
B . D eterm in e t h e average o f t h e s e v a lu e s *
( 3 ) A v era g e t h e sum m ation o f t h e t o t a l s f o r t h e s e v e r a l p o s i t i o n s *
(4 ) D iv id e t h e t o t a l s f o r
e a c h p o s i t i o n b y t h e a v e r g e fo u n d i n ( 3 ) .
( 5 ) D iv id e t h e A*S.T* f o r
ea ch p o s i t i o n b y t h e p e r c e n t
average fo r
e a c h p o s i t i o n fo u n d i n ( 4 ) t h u s o b t a in in g t h e c o r r e c t e d v a lu e *
M ethod f o r t h e L e a r n in g O rd er:
( 1 ) F in d t h e a v e r a g e o f t h e a s s o c i a t i v e v a l u e s i n r e c a l l f o r t h e
s y lla b le s o f th e l i s t *
( 2 ) D iv id e t h e a s s o c i a t i v e v a l u e i n r e c a l l f o r ea ch s y l l a b l e b y
t h e a v e r a g e o b t a in e d i n ( 1 )•
( 3 ) D iv id e t h e A .S .T . f o r
t h e c o r r e s p o n d in g s y l l a b l e a s
each s y l l a b l e b y th e p e r c e n t average f o r
o b t a in e d i n
( 2 ) . T h is g i v e s
c o r r e c te d v a lu e fo r each s y lla b le *
TABLE V I I
LEARNING ORDER
A v era g e A .S .T . V a lu e s f o r 4 - S e r i e s
1.
2.
3.
4.
.0 2 9
.0 5 2
.1 3 1
.1 4 3
TABLE V I I I
RECITATION ORDER
A v era g e a . S .T . V a lu e s f o r 4 - S e r i e s
1.
2.
3.
4.
!_
.1 5 7
.0 7 9
.0 7 9
.0 4 1
th e
59
FIGURE
Av e r a g e
A.S.T
NO. 4
S cores
For
4 - S e r ie s
INDIVIDUAL ITEMS
GROUPS OF TWO
LEARNING
RECITATION ORDER
ORDER
NUMBER
CORRECT
15
1 0
5
2
3
SERIAL
4
POSITION
60
n
r
TABLE IX
LEARNING ORDER
T a b le o f C o r r e c te d V a lu e f o r S y l l a b l e s f o r Each S e r i e s
S econ d Column A v e r a g e s Each P a ir o f Ite m s i n t h e F i r s t Column
C o r r e c te d V a lu e s
A verages
SIX SERIES
• 0391
.0 8 2 2
• 0381
.0 8 9 5
.1 1 8 4
.1 8 0 1
.0 6 0 6
.0 6 3 8
.1 4 9 2
C o r r e c te d V a lu e s
A v era g es
TEN SERIES
.0 8 7 3
.0 6 5 8
.0 8 7 5
.0 7 0 2
.0 4 0 1
.0 5 6 9
.0 5 3 4
.0 7 2 3
.0 6 7 9
.1 2 5 7
L
.0 5 0 7
.0 9 1 6
.0 6 7 4
.1 0 6 0
.0 7 8 8
.0 4 8 5
.0 6 2 8
.0 9 6 8
TWELVE SERIES
EIGHT SERIES
.0 3 9 5
.0 6 2 0
.0 8 5 8
.0 9 7 4
.0 6 6 7
.0 6 8 2
.0 5 0 1
.1 6 2 0
.1 7 6 5
.0 6 8 7
.0 7 6 9
.0 7 8 2
.0 8 5 5
.0 4 5 9
.0 6 8 1
.0 8 8 0
.0 3 8 2
.0 6 0 3
.0 6 3 4
.0 7 3 5
.0 7 8 0
.0 7 2 8
.0 8 1 8
.0 5 7 0
.0 6 3 1
.0 6 1 8
.0 7 5 7
□
61
n
r
TABLE X
RECITATION ORDER
T a b le o f C o r r e c te d V a lu e s f o r P o s i t i o n s f o r Each S e r i e s
S econd Column A v e r a g e s Each P a i r o f Item s i n t h e F i r s t Column
C o r r e c te d V a lu e s
A verages
SIX SERIES
.1 3 7 2
• 0 823
.0 9 4 0
.0 7 8 2
.0 6 8 5
.0 5 6 8
.1 0 9 7
.0 8 6 1
*0626
C o r r e c te d V a lu e s
A verages
TEN SERIES
.1 3 2 8
.0 7 7 2
• 0934
.0 6 2 9
.0 6 0 2
.0 5 9 2
• 0638
.0 4 6 7
• 0621
.0 5 7 8
L
.1 1 3 9
.0 7 2 6
.0 6 1 9
.0 6 9 9
.0 7 8 1
.0 5 9 7
.0 5 5 2
.0 5 9 9
TWELVE SERIES
EIGHT SERIES
.1 4 5 6
.0 8 2 2
.0 6 5 0
.0 8 0 2
.0 7 8 8
.0 4 5 0
• 0626
.0 7 7 2
.1 0 5 0
.1 1 5 1
.0 8 2 7
.0 8 6 4
.0 8 1 6
.0 7 6 8
.0 7 7 8
.0 4 8 8
.0 5 5 1
.0 5 6 4
.0 5 0 1
.0 6 2 1
.0 6 9 0
.0 9 8 9
.0 8 4 0
.0 7 7 3
.0 5 1 8
.0 5 3 2
.0 6 5 5
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R e g r e s s iv e i n h i b i t i o n a s e x p r e s s e d b y F o u c a u lt and q u o ted h e r e i n
on p a g e 4 - t h a t i s , t h e i n h i b i t o r y e f f e c t o f t h e c o n s e q u e n t im age on
t h e a n t e c e d e n t im age - i s d e f i n i t e l y shown i n t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s
e x p e r im e n t .
F ig u r e s HA.and
T h is r e g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n i s
shown V e r y c l e a r l y i n
t h e l a s t it e m w i t h i n e a c h s e r i e s sh o w in g an
a p p r e c ia b ly h ig h e r s c o r e t h a n an y o f t h e o t h e r p o s i t i o n s .
The e f f e c t ,
t h e r e f o r e , o f t h e c o n s e q u e n t im age on t h e a n t e c e d e n t im age i s much
s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e e f f e c t o f t h e a n t e c e d e n t im age on t h e c o n s e q u e n t
im a g e .
T h ese r e s u l t s a r e e n t i r e l y i n a c c o r d a n c e w it h t h o s e o f
F o u c a u lt - and i n d i c a t e t h e m ore c l e a r c u t ,
str o n g e r in f lu e n c e o f
r e g r e s s iv e in h ib it io n o v er p r o g r e s s iv e in h ib it io n #
T h ese phenom ena o f r e g r e s s i v e and p r o g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n a r e
n o t i n a c c o r d w it h t h o s e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o n p rim a cy and f i n a l i t y
o r r e c e n c y w h ere p rim a cy w as fo u n d i n e a c h in s t a n c e , t o b e m ore
a d v a n ta g e o u s t h a n f i n a l i t y .
T h ere i s
on e e x c e p t i o n among t h e s e
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , t h a t o f iie lc h and B u r n e t t . 1
They fo u n d f i n a l i t y t o
b e t h e m o st im p o r ta n t f a c t o r i n l e a r n i n g it e m s i n s e r i a l p o s i t i o n #
T h e ir r e s u l t s a r e , h o w e v er, a n a r t i f a c t o f t h e i r e x p e r im e n t a l p r o ­
ced u re#
T hey p r e s e n t e d n o n s e n s e s y l l a b l e s t a c h i s t i s c o p i c a l l y and
im m e d ia te ly a f t e r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n had t h e s u b j e c t s , t w e n t y - s i x i n
num ber, w r i t e down t h e s y l l a b l e s t h e y rem em bered.
record ed th o se seen l a s t , f i r s t .
S im il a r c r i t i c i s m
N a t u r a lly t h e y
o f th is
e x p e r im e n t i s made b y McGeoch#^
Such an a r t i f a c t o f e x p e r im e n t a l p r o c e d u r e i n f l u e n c i n g t h e
r e s u l t s of> t h i s e x p e r im e n t i s
im p o s s ib le b e c a u s e o f t h e r o t a t i o n i n
1 . G .B . W elch and C .T . B u r n e t t , " Is P rim a cy a F a c t o r i n A s s o c i a t i o n F o r m a tio n ? ” Amer. J o u r # P s y c h #, 1 9 2 4 , v o l . 3 5 , p p . 5 9 6 -4 0 1 *
2# J .A . McGeoch, "Memory1*, P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1 9 2 8 , v o l . 3 5 ,
L
p p . 5 1 3 -5 4 7 .
th e p r e s e n ta tio n o f r e c i t a t i o n s e r ie s #
I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e f i r s t fe w l e a r n i n g o r d e r p o s i t i o n s h a v e an
a d v a n ta g e o v e r t h e c e n t r a l l e a r n i n g o r d e r p o s i t i o n s #
fo r th e f i r s t p a rt o f a s e r ie s i s
b y R o b in so n and Brown
T h is a d v a n ta g e
s i m i l a r t o t h e p rim a cy f a c t o r fo u n d
and many o t h e r s #1 H ow ever, i t
is
i n no i n s t a n c e
i n o u r e x p e r im e n t a s h ig h n o r a s a d v a n ta g e o u s a s t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t o r s
h a v e c la im e d *
?/e w ou ld s a y , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h i s i n i t i a l r i s e i n
t h e c u r v e i s n o t t h e same phenom enon a s t h a t o f p r im a c y d e s c r ib e d i n
t h e a fo r e m e n tio n e d e x p e r im e n ts s i n c e ,
ty p e o f curve i s p r e s e n t, i t
o t h e r p r im a cy c u r v e s , t h a t i s
a lth o u g h a t e n d e n c y t o t h e same
d o e s n o t h a v e t h e same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s
a d e f i n i t e l y suprem e a d v a n ta g e o v e r an y
o t h e r p o s i t i o n vri.th.in a s e r i e s .
I t w i l l b e n o t e d t h a t t h e c u r v e s p r e s e n t e d i n F ig u r e V (A) a l l
show an i n i t i a l d e f l e c t i o n on t h e f i r s t p o s i t i o n .
T h is i s
cau sed by
t h e s h o r t i n t e r v a l o f tw o s e c o n d s b e tw e e n r e c i t a t i o n and le a r n in g
among t h e v a r i o u s t r i a l s #
It is
a p p a r e n t t h i s i n t e r v a l w as t o o s h o r t
so t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e n o t r e a d y f o r t h e f i r s t p a i r o f s y l l a b l e s
when t h e le a r n in g o r d e r w as p r e s e n t e d f o r a new t r i a l , t h e r e b y o f t e n
m i s s i n g , o r f a i l i n g t o g e t an a d e q u a te im p r e s s io n o f t h i s f i r s t
p a ir .
L_ 1# E .S . R o b in so n and M.A. Brown, op# c i t .
(H) HYPOTHESIS
Any c o m p r e h e n s iv e e x p la n a t io n o f t h e phenom ena a p p e a r in g i n
t h i s e x p e r im e n t m u st c o n s id e r t h e c u r v e s shown i n b o t h F ig u r e s VA
and VIB*
I f we r e s t r i c t o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c u r v e o f le a r n i n g o r d e r
r e l a t i v e f i n a l i t y w o u ld seem t o b e t h e c o n d i t i o n m o s t c o n d u c iv e t o
r e c a ll*
its
T h is i n t u r n Y/ould, i n te r m s o f i n h i b i t i n g i n f l u e n c e , f i n d
e x p la n a t io n i n d e c r e a s i n g am ounts o f r e g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n , a s
we move from t h e f i r s t t o t h e l a s t p o s i t i o n i n t h e s e r i e s , t h e
amount o f m a t e r i a l i n t e r p o l a t e d b e tw e e n le a r n in g and r e c it a t io n b e in g
p r o g r e s s iv e ly d ecrea sed *
P rim a cy i s o f l i t t l e moment and p r o a c t i v e
e f f e c t s a r e n o t r e a d i l y d i s c e r n a b l e e x c e p t i n t h e co m p a r iso n o f t h e
cu rv es f o r d if f e r e n t s e r ie s *
C o n s id e r in g t h e c u r v e o f r e c i t a t i o n o r d e r , h o w e v e r , i t i s
s e e n t h a t t h e s im p le c o n c e p t o f f i n a l i t y i s n o t q u it e a d e q u a te t o
a c c o u n t f o r t h e f in d in g s *
Due t o r o t a t i o n i n t h e r e c i t a t i o n s e r i e s ,
e a c h s y l l a b l e o f t h e l e a r n in g s e r i e s a p p e a r s i n e v e r y p o s i t i o n o f
t h e r e c i t a t i o n o rd er*
Y et i n t h e r e c i t a t i o n c u r v e d e g r e e o f r e c a l l
c l o s e l y fo llo w s th e r e c it a t io n o rd er, th e cu rve o f c o r r e c t resp o n se s
b e in g h i g h e s t f o r t h e i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n and d e c r e a s i n g a s 'we p r o c e e d
to w a rd t h e l a s t p o s i t i o n .
P rim a cy t h e n i n t h e r e c i t a t i o n o r d e r i s
c l e a r l y t h e c o n d i t i o n m o st f a v o r a b le t o c o r r e c t n e s s o f r e c a l l *
A n a ly z in g t h i s p r im a c y f a c t o r we n o t e t h e f o l l o w i n g :
1* The a v e r a g e te m p o r a l d i s t a n c e b e tw e e n t h e le a r n in g p o s i t i o n s
o f t h e s y l l a b l e s and t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e i n t h e f i r s t p o s i t i o n i n t h e
r e c it a t io n order i s
l e s s t h a n t h e te m p o r a l d i s t a n c e t o t h e se c o n d
p o s i t i o n and t h i s d i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e s a s we m ove t o t h e l a s t p o s i t i o n
o f t h e r e c i t a t i o n o r d e r w h ere i t
is
a t a maximum*
The f a c t o r o f
r e l a t i v e ‘tem p o ra l d i s t a n c e i s ‘th e n c e r t a i n l y a co n co m ita n t; i f n o t a
c a u sa l fa c t o r in th e r e c a ll#
2
# An i n c r e a s e i n te m p o r a l d i s t a n c e b r in g s w it h i t an i n c r e a s e o f
m a t e r i a l i n t e r p o l a t e d b e tw e e n l e a r n i n g and r e c a l l a s we p r o c e e d from
t h e i n i t i a l t o t h e l a s t p o s i t i o n o f t h e r e c i t a t i o n o rd er*
Thus t h e
r e g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i n g i n f l u e n c e s p r o g r e s s i v e l y in c r e a s e *
3# F i n a l l y t h e r e m u st b e c o n s id e r e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p r o a c t i v e
effe c ts -
s in c e th e r e c it a t io n cu rve i s
t h o s e f o r p r o a c t io n *
i n a p p ea ra n ce t y p i c a l o f
W© h a v e b e e n c o n s id e r i n g t h e i n h i b i t i n g i n ­
f l u e n c e s a s b e in g i n t e r p o l a t e d b e tw e e n t h e le a r n in g and t h e r e c i t a ­
tio n ,
tru e.
i.e .*
r e lic ® \a c tiv e i n h i b i t i o n *
And t o a l a r g e e x t e n t t h i s
is
However i f we c o n s id e r t h e m ethod u s e d i n t h i s e x p e r im e n t and
u s e t h e l e t t e r L f o r le a r n in g and R f o r r e c i t a t i o n we f i n d t h e p r o ­
ced u re to be as fo llo w s :
Lp- Rp- L g- Rg- L3 - R3 - L4 - R4 *-.
c o n c e n t r a t e f o r t h e moment on t h e t r i a l L3 - R^*
L ot u s
The i n h i b i t i n g i n ­
f l u e n c e s o p e r a t in g i n t r a s e r i a l l y a r e m a in ly o f t h e r e t r o a c t i v e t y p e
and becom e l e s s a s we p r o c e e d to w a rd t h e f i n a l s y l l a b l e i n L3 .
B ut
i f we c o n s i d e r L3 - R3 i n i t s p o s i t i o n i n t h e t o t a l s e r i e s o f t r i a l s
t h e n we m u st r e a l i z e t h e p o s s i b l e p r o a c t i v e e f f e c t upon ^ o f t h e
p r e v io u s o c c u r r e n c e o f Lp- Rp- Lg- Rg*
I f Lp, and L 2 and L3 ea ch
c o n t a in e d e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s y l l a b l e s , we w o u ld on t h e b a s i s o f
p r o a c t i o n a lo n e e x p e c t t h e l e a r n i n g i n R3 t o b e i n f e r i o r t o t h a t ofR gand
Rp*
S in c e , h o w e v er, L-^, Lg and Lg a r e t h e same t h e m ere r e p e t i t i o n
v
o f t h e s y l l a b l e s o p e r a t e s t o l e s s t h a n t h i s p r o a c t i v e e f f e c t so f a r
a s a c o m p a r is o n o f Rg w it h Rg and R^ i s c o n c e r n e d .
Y et w i t h i n t h e
s e r i e s R_ i t may b e t h a t t h e s e p r o a c t i v e i n f l u e n c e s a r e s t i l l o p e r a tin g .
Ce r t a i n l y t h e sh a p e o f t h e r e c i t a t i o n c u r v e i s c o n s i s t e n t w it h
t h i s h y p o t h e s is *
L
A g a in t h e s a id sh a p e i s c o n s i s t e n t w it h t h e i d e a o f
U
67
n
r
an i n h i b i t i n g i n f l u e n c e e x e r c i s e d on s u c c e e d in g mem bers o f t h e r e c i ­
t a t i o n s e r i e s b y t h e p r o c e s s o f r e c a l l o f e a c h p r e c e d in g mem ber.
w h ile i t
i s t h e r e f o r e o b v i o u s l y im p o s s ib le t o i s o l a t e
in t h i s
e x p e r im e n t t h e s e v e r a l c a u s a l f a c t o r s i t m u st n e v e r t h e l e s s b e h e ld i n
m ind t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s h e r e i n a r e n o t i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e s u l t s
t o b e e x p e c t e d from t h e o p e r a t io n o f te m p o r a l d i s t a n c e , r e g r e s s i v e
i n h i b i t i o n , and p r o g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n .
T h is e x p l a n a t i o n , d e v e lo p e d from t h e c o n c e p t s o f f i n a l i t y i n
t h e l e a r n i n g s e r i e s and p r im a c y i n t h e r e c i t a t i o n s e r i e s , m ig h t b e
c o n s id e r e d i n te r m s o f r e c e n c y b u t b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e v a l e n t c o n n o ta ­
t i o n o f t h i s word we p r e f e r t o d en o m in a te i t t h e rho h y p o t h e s i s .
L
-U
CONCLUSIONS
1 . T h ere i s a le a r n i n g g r a d ie n t w h ic h v a r i e s i n v e r s e l y w it h t h e
amount o f m a t e r i a l t o b e r e c a l l e d *
2 . S e r ia l p o s itio n i s
a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g R e g r e s s iv e and P ro ­
g r e s s iv e I n h ib itio n *
3* R e g r e s s iv e and p r o g r e s s i v e I n h i b i t i o n a r e e v i d e n t i n t h e
c u r v e s b o t h f o r t h e le a r n i n g o r d e r and f o r t h e r e c a l l o rd er*
4 . R e g r e s s iv e I n h i b i t i o n i s
s t r o n g e r th a n P r o g r e s s i v e I n h i b i t i o n
5* P r o a c t io n e f f e c t s a r e s e e n i n a c o m p a r iso n o f t h e le a r n in g
cu rves fo r d iffe r e n t s e r ie s .
W ith in a s e r i e s t h e r e c i t a t i o n o r d e r
c u r v e i s m ore r e a d i l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e on t h e b a s i s o f p r o a c t io n th a n
a r e t h e le a r n in g o r d e r c u r v e s .
6
. P rim a cy i n t h e l e a r n i i i g o r d e r i s o f l e s s im p o r ta n c e th a n
fin a lity .
P rim a cy i n t h e r e c i t a t i o n o r d e r , on t h e c o n t r a r y , i s
of
maximum im p o r ta n c e .
7 . The tw o f a c t o r s m o s t c o n d u c iv e t o r e c a l l a r e r e l a t i v e f i n a ­
l i t y i n t h e le a r n in g o r d e r and r e l a t i v e p r im a c y i n t h e r e c i t a t i o n
order.
That i s ,
s y l l a b l e s a r e m o st r e a d i l y r e c a l l e d a c c o r d in g t o
t h e i r p r o x im it y t o t h e l a s t s y l l a b l e o f t h e le a r n in g o r d e r and t o
th e f i r s t
8
s y l l a b l e o f t h e r e c i t a t i o n o rd er*
. T h is phenom enon i s c o n s i s t e n t w it h t h e f i n d i n g s t o b e
e x p e c t e d from t h e com b in ed a c t i o n o f te m p o r a l d i s t a n c e , r e g r e s s i v e
and p r o g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n *
9* T h is e x p la n a t io n i s h e r e d en o m in a ted t h e "rho" h y p o t h e s is *
1 0 . R e g r e s s iv e and p r o g r e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n a s fo u n d i n t h i s
e x p e r im e n t a r e i n a c c o r d w it h t h e f i n d i n g s o f F o u c a u lt*
69
r
APPENDIX
SYLLABLES AS THEY APPEARED IN LISTS
3: - S e r i e s
YOJ-QIF
ZUF-YOV
QUW-JIG
ZEQ-VUK
6
L
-
S e r ie s
8
- S e r ie s
ZOF-GEX
YAV-WUQ
GEC-VAF
ZUV-CIJ
QOS-MEF
YIX-ZOJ
YIX-ZOJ
ZUV-CIJ
MIB-QUJ
QOS-MEF
YAV-WUQ
VUF-ZEQ
GEC-VAF
ZOF-GEX
10 - S e r i e s
12 - S e r i e s
ZUV-CIJ
VUF-ZEQ
YIF-VUQ
YAV-WUQ
YIX-ZOJ
ZOF-GEX
QOS-MEF
QIM-JEX
MIB-QUJ
GEC-VAF
QOS-MEF
KOJ-YUF
QIM-JEX
GEC-VAF
ZOF-GEX
MIB-QUJ
VUF-ZEQ
YIX-ZOJ
ZUV-CIJ
YIF-VUQ
QOJ-CEF
YAV-WUQ
n
THE
“T h is i s a memory t e s t .
sen se s y lla b le s , - th a t i s ,
w o r d s.
INSTRUCTIONS
The m a t e r i a l t o b e rem embered i s non­
c o m b in a tio n s o f l e t t e r s t h a t do n o t make
You w i l l b e shown f o u r p a i r s o f s y l l a b l e s .
As t h e y a p p ea r p r o ­
n o u n ce th em t o y o u r s e l f and t r y t o remember th e m .
K-E-Z — T-O-R w o u ld b e KEZ-TOR.
fir s t
s y l l a b l e o f ea ch p a i r .
Then you w i l l b e shown o n ly t h e
As e a c h o f t h e s e f i r s t s y l l a b l e s a p p ea r
w r i t e on t h e pad t h e s y l l a b l e t h a t w en t w it h i t .
s y l l a b l e , t h e se c o n d s y l l a b l e .
b a b ly w on’t
w h o le p r o c e d u r e s e v e r a l t i m e s .
th e f i r s t page i t
W r ite o n ly one
T h is t a s k i s n o t e a s y and you p r o ­
g e t them a l l t h e f i r s t t i m e .
Look a t t h e p a d s .
For i n s t a n c e ,
So we w i l l r e p e a t t h e
T**y a s h ard a s you c a n a l l t h e t im e .
F i l l in th e co ver p age.
Nov/ t u r n t h e p a g e .
s a y s R e c i t a t i o n 1 and you s e e t h e num bers 1 t o 4 .
.as t h e f i r s t s i n g l e s y l l a b l e a p p e a r s w r i t e o p p o s i t e number
s y l l a b l e t h a t w en t w it h i t .
1
.and s o o n .
do n o t know t h e s y l l a b l e t o w r i t e down, draw a l i n e
g e t t h e n e x t one i n t h e r i g h t s p a c e .
I f you
so t h a t you w i l l
U se t h e f i r s t p a g e f o r t h e
f i r s t t r i a l , t h e s e c o n d p a g e f o r t h e se c o n d t r i a l and so o n .
s a y on t h e s c r e e n w hen y o u a r e t o t u r n t h e p a g e .
sa y s
th e
Tihen t h e seco n d s y l l a b l e a p p e a r s w r i t e
o p p o s i t e number 2 t h e s y l l a b l e t h a t w e n t w it h i t .
it
On
Turn i t
It w ill
q u ic k ly when
’ Turn y o u r p a g e ’ b e c a u s e y o u a r e g iv e n o n l y tw o s e c o n d s .
n o t w r ite u n t il i t
s a y s on t h e s c r e e n ‘ Ready t o w r i t e f *
a r e n o t w r i t i n g k eep y o u r p e n c i l s i n t h e a i r .
q u e s t io n s ?
Do
f/h en you
A re t h e r e a n y
S i l e n c e m u st b e k e p t d u r in g t h e t e s t ”.
I f t h e r e w e r e an y q u e s t i o n s t h e d i r e c t i o n s w ere r e p e a t e d u n t i l
t h e c l a s s s a id t h e y u n d e r s to o d w h a t t h e y w e r e t o d o .
m en ter s a i d
Then t h e e x p e r i ­
“R ead y” and t h e t e s t w as b eg u n .
m e n t h e f o u r s y l l a b l e l i s t w as f i n i s h e d t h e p r o j e c t o r w as
!_ s t o p p e d .
The c l a s s w as t o l d t o p u t t h e i r p e n c i l s down.
They w e r e
71
r
n
a sk ed i f t h e r e w ere an y q u e s t i o n s ,
an sw ered *
if
s o , t h e s e q u e s t i o n s w ere
T hey w ere t h e n t o l d t h a t t h e n e x t p a r t o f t h e t e s t w as
d on e i n e x a c t l y t h e same w ay e x c e p t t h a t i t w as lo n g e r *
T hey w ere
rem in d ed t o k e e p t h e i r p e n c i l s up when t h e y w ere n o t w r i t i n g and t o
draw a l i n e when t h e y d id n o t know t h e r e s p o n s e *
They w ere a l s o en -
1
c o u r a g e d t o c o n t in u e t r y i n g e v e n i f t h e t a s k seem ed v e r y d i f f i c u l t a t
fir s t*
The e x p e r im e n te r t h e n s a i d ,
“R eady", and t h e n e x t s e r i e s w as
p r e s e n te d *
L
Li
r
ASSOCIATION VALUE OP SYLLABLES
4 -
SERIES
K ru eger
.4 4 0
.3 9 0
.5 1 5
.4 1 4
.4 4 6
QIF
YOV
JIC
VUK
A verage
6
,
8
,
1 0
, 12 -
MEF
QUJ
VUQ
ZEQ
GEX
WUQ
YUF
JEX
VAF
ZUJ
C IJ
CEF
• 440
.2 2 5
.2 2 5
• 350
.3 8 5
. 445
.4 9 0
.5 8 5
.5 7 5
.4 1 0
.4 4 5
.6 4 0
P r e lim in a r y E x p erim en t*
.0 7 1
£035
.1 7 8
.0 7 1
I n Rec a!
S e r ie s
.1 4 2
.0 3 5
.0 0 0
.0 0 0
.0 7 1
.0 0 0
.1 0 7
.1 7 8
• 035
.1 0 7
.1 4 2
.1 7 8
.1 7 9 6
.1 1 3 2
.0 1 4 3
.0 1 6 1
.0 6 4 0
.0 2 8 2
.0 3 6 7
.1 7 6 4
.1 1 7 9
.0 2 6 4
.0 3 2 9
.0 7 9 7
* T h ese a r e t h e v a l u e s o b t a in e d on t w e n t y - e i g h t s u b j e c t s i n t h e p r e ­
lim in a r y e x p e r im e n t d e s c r ib e d i n t h e P ro c ed u r e#
**The v a l u e s h e r e a r e t h e A s s o c i a t i v e v a l u e s i n R e c a ll d e r iv e d i n
T a b le V*
T h ere a r e n o n e f o r t h e Four S y l l a b l e l i s t
s in c e th e s e
w e r e g iv e n i n t h e same o r d e r a l l t h e tim e and t h e r e f o r e no a v e r a g e s
c o u ld b e o b t a in e d , t o b a la n c e o u t t h e p o s i t i o n a l e f f e c t .
N .B . The G la ze v a l u e s a r e n o t r e c o r d e d i n t h e s e l i s t s
a ll zero.
s in c e th e y are
N .B . THE FIRST SYLLABLES OF EACH PAIR HAVE BEEN DISREGARDED IN THESE
LISTS BECAUSE THEY f/ERE ONLY USED AS STIMULI.
!_
73
n
r
LEARNING ORDER
TOTAL RAW SCORES AND A .S .T . VALUES
1 2 - SERIES
POSITION
8
- SERIES
6
- SERIES
4 - SERIES
N 121
T 18 N 139 £ 15 N 115 T 12
N 129 T 9
N 50^4f $
T o t a l A .S .T . T o t a l A .S .T . T o t a l A .S .T . T o t a l J . S . T . T o t. X S . T .
1
364
.1 6 7 1
78
. 0o74
20
0144
4-0
.0 3 3 5 2 2 .7 5 .0 2 9
2
80
.0 3 6 7
29
.0 1 3 8
39
0282
36
.0 3 1 0 2 0 .5 0 .0 5 2 2
3
408
.1 8 7 2
34
.0 1 6 3
186
1347
70
.0 6 0 2
4
298
.1 3 6 7
53
.0 2 5 8
335
2420
46
.0 3 9 ^ .0 9 .2 5 .1 4 2 7
5
87
.0 3 9 8
33
.0 1 3 8
36
0260
330
. .2 8 4 2
228
.1 0 4 6
99
.0 4 7 4
21
0152
74
.0 6 3 6
7
42
.0 1 9 2
261
.1 2 5 1
113
0818
8
30
.0 1 3 7
346
.1 6 5 9
187
1355
9
59
.0 2 6 9
209
.1 0 0 2
10
27
.0 1 2 3
403
.1 9 3 2
11
174
.0 7 9 7
12
65
.0 2 9 8
6
L
1 0 - SERIES
103
.1 3 1
74
r
n
RECITATION ORDER
TOTAL RAW SCORES AND A .S .T . VALUES
1 2 - SERIES
1 0 - SERIES
8
-SERIES"
6
-SERIES
4-SERIES
PO SI- N 121 T 18
N 139 T 15
N 115 T 12
I 129 T 9
N 50^4 T 6
TION T o t a l A .S .T . T o t a l A .S .T . T o t a l A .S .T . T o t a l I S . T . T o t a l X .S .T
L_
1
174
.0 7 9 9
301
.1 4 4 4
239
.1 7 3 2
14 7
2
189
.0 8 6 8
170
.0 8 1 5
133
.0 9 6 4
5
177
.0 8 1 3
2 2 0
.1 0 5 5
39
4
172
.0 7 9 0
128
.0 6 1 4
5
17 4
.0 8 0 0
124
6
179
.0 8 2 2
7
110
8
.1 2 6 6 1 1 8 .5 0
.1 5 6 6
94
.0 8 1 0
6 2 .2 5
.0 8 1 5
.0 2 3 8
97
.0 8 3 5
6 2 .0 0
.0 8 2 1
107
.0 7 7 5
109
.0 9 3 9
3 1 .7 5
.0 4 3 7
.0 5 9 5
148
.1 0 7 2
74
.0 6 3 7
153
.0 7 3 4
39
.0 2 8 3
71
.0 6 1 2
.0 5 0 5
137
.0 6 5 7
93
.0 6 7 4
127
.0 5 8 3
83
.0 3 9 8
132
.0 9 5 7
9
120
.0 5 5 1
123
• 0590
10
121
.0 5 5 6
110
.0 5 2 8
11
136
.0 6 2 4
12
161
.0 7 3 9
U
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r
n
VITA
L
Name
H e le n E* P e i x o t t o
D a te o f B ir t h
A p r il 7 , 1913
E le m e n ta r y S c h o o l
G radu ated
P u b lic S c h o o l 1 0 8 , Q u een s, N .Y . C it y
1927
H igh S c h o o l
G raduated
Thomas J e f f e r s o n II* S ., New York C it y
1931
B a c c a la u r e a t D eg ree
C o lle g e
D ate
B .A .
C o lle g e o f Mt* St* V in c e n t , N*Y* C it y
1934
M a ste r s D eg ree
U n iv e r s ity
D ate
M .A .
C olu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , New York
1937
r
L
n
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