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The Syntax of the Prepositions Ab, De, and Ex in the Commentary on Virgil Attributed to Servius

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FO R D H A M UNIVERSITY
G R A D U A TE SCHOOL
....................................................
This dissertation prepared under my direction by
...3 xQ±her...J.Q.aaph...I)joyljB.,._.E.j.£.«.C*.............................................................................
entitled Ih.0....Synta^....o.f-the-P.re.pQsi.t;ions-ab>--dey-an-d -ex-in.-tha....
....CoMiieritary....o.n...Y.irgrIl...A.t.t.rih.ut.e.d...t.o....S.e.r^l.ua....................................
has been accepted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
Degree of
.5Qo£or..o£„PM
.............................................
(Faculty A dviser)
THE SYNTAX OF THE PREPOSITIONS
AB, DE, AND I X IN THE COMMENTARY ON VIRGIL
ATTRIBUTED TO SERVIUS
BY
BROTHER JOSEPH J . DOYLE, F . S . C .
A. M*, M a n h a t t a n C o l l e g e , *30
DISSERTATION
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE
DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS AT FORDHAM UNIVERSITY
NEW YORK
1940
ProQuest N um ber: 10992532
All rights reserved
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L
J
TABLE OF CONTENTS
C hapter
Fag©
PREFACE
It
vt
M TRO D BCIIO N.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *•
*
II.
THE PREPOSITION A o r Ag. . . . . . . . . . . ..............
9
A.
The l o c a l ES 0 S o f a
b
9
B.
The as©
o f ab t o
denote
b i r t h or o rig in If
C.
T.be us©
o f ab t o
denote
c a u s e o r r e a s o n IS
B.
The u s e
o f ab t o
denote
means o r
i n s t r u m
e n t
19
E . Tb© u s e o f ab t o d e n o t e t h e m a t t e r o f
w h i c h a t h i n g I s mad©. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20'
F . The u s e o f j |b i n v a r i o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n s .
21
III.
THE PREPOSITION W --- . . .
.............
25
A. The l o c a l u s e s o f d e » . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
B*
The u s e o f d i t o d e n o t e b i r t h o r o r i g i n 35
C.
The u s e o f d e t o d e n o t e c a u s e o r r e a s o n 34
B.
The u s e o f d e t o d e n o t e means o r
i n s t r u m e n t . ♦.
................
55
E.
The u s e
o f dg, i n
p a r t i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s 35
F.
The u s e
o f de t o
denote
the m a tte r of
w hich a t h i n g i s made. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
B-. The u s e o f d© i n v a r i o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n s .
40
IF.
V.
THE PREPOSITION E o r EX
43
A# The l o c a l u s e s o f &x». . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . »
43
B.
The use o f ex: t o d e n o t e b i r t h o r o r i g i n 45
C.
The u s e o f e x t o d e n o t e c a u s e o r r e a s o n 46
D.
The u s e o f e x t o d e n o t e means o r
instrum ent
48
E . The u s e o f jsx i n p a r t i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s 50
F . The u s e o f e x t o d e n o t e t h e m a t t e r o f
w hich a t h i n g r s m
a
d
e
50
G. The u s e o f e x i n v a r i o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n s . *52
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION.. . . . . . . . . . . .
APPENDIX A . .
Index o f c ita tio n s
................
55
.......................................
58
APPENDIX B . . . .
................ . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary o f t h e u s e s o f S e r v i u s a n d o f
S ervius D an ie lis
?9
iv.
r
i
Page
L
APPENDIX C*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * . . . . . . . . . f . . # .
O ther o b s e rv a tio n s p e r t a i n i n g to th e
grammar of" S e r v i u s * Oommentary
86
BIBLIOGRAPHY. , ♦ « . • ♦ . • • # . . . * . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
90
THE SYNTAX OF THE PREPOSITIONS
DE, AND EX IN THE COMMENTARY ON VIRGIL
ATTRIBUTED TO SERVIUS
hri.
r
n
PREFACE
One o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f L a t e L a t i n i s t h e e x ­
tended use of th e p r e p o s i t i o n .
Many d i s s e r t a t i o n s ,
as w e ll
as o th e r s tu d i e s , have, a c c o rd in g ly , d e a lt w ith the p r e ­
p o s i t i o n a l usage of v a rio u s a u th o rs , e s p e c i a l l y of E c c le s 1
ia s tic a l w riters.
T h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e p r o m p te d me
t o c o n s i d e r t h e p r o b l e m i n t h e c a s e o f a w i d e l y r e a d work
o f a f o u r t h c e n t u r y n o n - C h r i s t i a n a u t h o r , t h e Commentary on
2
V i r g i l t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h S e r v iu s t h e grammarian.
B e c a u s e o f t h e s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e w h ic h t h e p r e p o s i t i o n s
a b , d e , and <b± h a v e f o r t h e s t u d y o f L a t e L a t i n ,
i t has
seemed p e r m i s s i b l e t o c o n f i n e t h i s s t u d y o f p r e p o s i t i o n a l
usage to the syntax of th e se th r e e ,
e s p e c i a l l y w h ere t h e y
a p p e a r i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s w h ic h do n o t f o l l o w C l a s s i c a l
3
norms.
I n e v e r y c a s e a n a t t e m p t h a s b e e n made t o m a tc h
1 . Some o f t h e s e s t u d i e s a r e l i s t e d i n t h e T B i b l i o g r a p h y .
2 . No e a r l i e r work d e a l s e x h a u s t i v e l y w i t h t h i s s u b j e c t .
A u g u s t u s H a b e r d a , M e l e t e m a t a S e r v i a n a , B ru n n , 1 8 9 5 ,
pp. 6 -8 , d e a l s s e l e c t i v e l y w ith th e sy n ta x of ab, de, ex,
a n d o t h e r p r e p o s i t i o n s , b u t c o n f i n e s h i m s e l f t o noTTng
t h e more u n u s u a l v a r i a t i o n s f r o m C l a s s i c a l u s a g e . E m il e
Thomas, E s s a i s u r S e r v i u s e t son Com mentaire s u r V i r g i l e ,
P a r i s , 1 8 7 ^ , pp. 218-219, m erely c a l l s a t t e n t i o n to S e rv i u s * s own r e m a r k s on t h e u s e o f c e r t a i n p r e p o s i t i o n s .
A l f r e d M o e l l e r , Q u a e s t i o n e s S e r v i a n a e , K i l i a e , 1892,
p p . 1 0 - 1 1 , d e a l s w i t h t h e p r e p o s i t i o n s o n l y a s t h e y co n ­
c e rn the m a n u scrip t t r a d i t i o n .
3 . The t e r m s E a r l y , C l a s s i c a l , S i l v e r and L a t e w i t h r e f e r ­
ence t o p e r i o d s i n th e h i s t o r y of L a t i n L i t e r a t u r e w i l l be
u s e d , i n t h e f a m i l i a r f a s h i o n , as f o l l o w s : E a r l y — a l l
L a tin b efp re C icero;
C l a s s i c a l - - th e L a t i n from C icero
to th e d e a th of S u e to n iu s ; L ate - - th e L a t i n from A p uleius
o n . By n o r m a l C l a s s i c a l u s a g e i s m e an t g e n e r a l l y s u c h
u s a g e a s i s e m ployed b y C i c e r o i n h i s more f o r m a l w r i t i n g s .
L
v ii.
rt h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s s e e n i n S e r v i u s w i t h e x a m p le s t a k e n fro m 1
h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s o f w h a t e v e r p e r i o d and f r o m . h i s c o n te m p o 1
raries.
These p a r a l l e l s have p e r m i t t e d th e draw ing o f
c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h w i l l be o f u s e i n f i x i n g S e r v i u s * s
p o s i t i o n i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l grammar o f t h e l a n g u a g e .
The t e x t o f t h e Commentary w i t h w h ic h we a r e con­
c e r n e d h a s r e a c h e d u s t h r o u g h t h e m a n u s c r i p t s i n two f o rm s —
a s h o r t e r and a l o n g e r , t h e l a t t e r g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d S e r v i u s
D a n ie lis a f t e r P i e r r e D a n ie l, i t s f i r s t e d i t o r (1600).
G eorg T h i l o , whose e d i t i o n i s r e g u l a r l y c i t e d i n t h i s w o r k , ^
h a s p r i n t e d t h e s h o r t e r commentary i n Roman t y p e , an d i n
ita lic s
th e p a s s a g e s o f t e x t fo u n d i n th e l a r g e r form b u t
w anting in the s h o r t e r .
In th e p r e s e n t study T h ilo * s r e p o r t
o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e two b o d i e s o f commentary h a s b e e n
f o l l o w e d , and an a s t e r i s k h a s b e e n p l a c e d a f t e r c i t a t i o n s
p r i n t e d b y him i n i t a l i c s .
As t o t h e o r i g i n o f t h e two f o r m s o f com m entary and
t h e r e l a t i o n s o f one t o t h e o t h e r no u n a n i m i t y o f o p i n i o n
h as as y e t been re a c h e d .
T h i l o h e l d t h a t t h e s h o r t e r com­
m e n t a r y a l o n e r e p r e s e n t s t h e g e n u i n e work o f S e r v i u s and
t h a t t h e l a r g e r was a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h a d d i t i o n s made from
*1* Most o f t h e p a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n s a r e drawn fro m
th e T h e sa u ru s L inguae L a t i n a e ( T .L .L .) and from th e
a n c ie n t but s t i l l u s e fu l T u rs e llin u s of Ferdinand
Hand.
S e r v i i g r a m m a t i c i q u i f e r u n t u r i n V e r g i l i i c a r m i n a com­
m ent a r i i , L i p s i a e , T e u b n e r , V o l s . I ( 1 8 8 1 ) , I I { 1 8 8 4 J ,
I I I , 1 ( 1 8 8 7 ) , e d i t e d b y G. T h i l o ; Vol.. I l l , 2 ( 1 9 0 2 ) ,
e d i t e d by H. H agen.
L
j
v iii,
rv a r i o u s s o u r c e s . ^ -
Rand an d o t h e r s , h o w e v e r , s e e I n t h e
1
s h o r t e r f o rm an e x t r a c t made by S e r v i u s fro m t h e l a r g e r
com mentary, w h ic h l a t t e r may r e p r e s e n t t h e e a r l i e r work
2
o f A e l i u s D o n a tu s ( f l , 3 5 0 ) ,
I t i s n o t th e purpose o f the p r e s e n t w r i t e r to p ro ­
n o u n c e upon t h e m e r i t s o f e i t h e r e a s e , y e t e v i d e n c e w h ic h
may be u s e f u l t o w a r d s u c h an a d j u d i c a t i o n may em erge fro m
a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s em plo yed
r e s p e c t i v e l y by t h e l o n g e r and t h e s h o r t e r commentary.
An
a n a l y s i s of th e r e s u l t s under t h i s head i s found in
A p p e n d ix B*
1. T h i l o , op. c l t , , I , pp. v f f . I t must be n o te d a t t h i s
p o i n t t h a t t h e e d i t i o n o f T h ilo does n o t a d e q u a te ly r e p r e
s e n t t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e m a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e two b o d i e s
o f comment. E o r a c l e a r e r i d e a o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t e v i ­
d e n c e we s h a l l h a v e t o a w a i t t h e new H a r v a r d e d i t i o n o f
t h e c o m m e n t a r i e s now u n d e r way. S e e , m e a n w h ile , t h e *
p r e lim in a r y p a p e rs m entioned in th e fo llo w in g n o te .
2 . 1 . K. Rand, " I s D o n a t u s ' s Commentary on V i r g i l L o s t ? "
C l a s s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , X (19^.6 ), 1 5 8 - 1 6 4 ;
"Une N o u v e l l e
E d i t i o n de S e r v i u s , " Academie d e s i n s c r i p t i o n s e t
b e l l e s - l e t t r e s , Comptes r e n d u s , 19 3 8 , p p . 311-524:;
Jo h n J . S a v a g e , "The M a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e Commentary o f
S e r v i u s D a n i e l i s on V i r g i l , " H a r v a r d S t u d i e s I n C l a s s i c a l
PhiMp@r. X L I I I ( 1 9 3 2 ) , 7 7 - 1 2 1 .
L
J
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
To e s t i m a t e j u s t l y t h e w o r t h o f S e r v i u s *
Commentary
one s h o u l d know t h e l i t e r a r y c a n o n s s e t f o r t h f o r s u c h a
work.
Q u in til ia n d i s t i n g u i s h e s th e tw o fo ld f u n c tio n of a
g r a m m a ria n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e
w o rk s o f a p o e t ,
TTHaec i g i t u r p r o f e s s i o ,
cum b r e v i s s i m e i n
duas p a r t i s d i v i d a t u r , r e c t e lo q u e n d i s c ie n tia m e t poetarum
1
enarrationem .
He t h u s d e f i n e s t h e s e c o n d f u n c t i o n ,
"P raecip u e vero i l i a
v irtu s,
i n f i g a t anim is,
quae i n oeconom ia
quae i n d e c o r e r e r u m , q u i d p e r s o n a e o u iq u e c o n -
v e n e r i t , q u i d i n s e n s i b u s la u d a n d u m , q u i d i n v e r b i s , u b i
2
c o p ia p r o b a b i l i s , ubi m odus.w
S t . Jerom e i s e v e n more
ex p licit:
C o m m e n ta rii q u i d o p e r i s h a b e n t ? A l t e r i u s
d i c t a e d i s s e r u n t , quae o b s c u r e s c r i p t a s u n t ,
p i a n o se rmone m a n i f e s t a n t : m u lto ru m s e n t e n t i a s
r e p l i c a n t ; e t d i c u n t : hunc lo c u m quidam s i c
ed isseru n t; a l i i sic in te rp re ta n tu r: i l l i
sensum suum e t i n t e l l i g e n t i a m h i s t e s t i m o n i i s ,
e t hac n i t u n t u r ration© f ir m a r e j u t prudens
L e c t o r , cum d i v e r s a s e x p l a n a t i o n © s l e g e r i t ,
e t m u lt o ru m v e l p r o b a n d a , v e l im p ro b a n d a
d i d i c e r i t , j u d i c e t q u id v e r i u s s i t : e t q u a s i
e z i t a , a d u l t e r i n a e m one tae p e e u n i a m
I n a d d i t i o n to conform ing to th e l i t e r a r y p r i n c i p l e s
e s t a b l i s h e d f o r s u c h a t y p e o f work S e r v i u s a l s o r e l i e d
1 . I n s t i t u t i o Q r a t o r i a , I , 4, 5 ( e d . L . R a d e r m a o h e r , V o l .
I , L i p s i a e , 1907, p . 2 1 ).
2 . 0 £ . c i t », I , 8 , 17 ( e d . R a d e r m a c h e r , I , 5 2 ) .
5 . A p o l o g i a a d v e r s u s L i b r o s R u f i n i , I , 16 ( J . P . M ig n e ,
P a t r o l o g i a L a t i n a , X X I I I , 428 B - C ) .
2
rg r e a t l y on tlie r e s u l t s o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s i n t h i s p a r t i e u - * 1
l a r f i e l d of w r itin g .
He c o u l d u n d o u b t e d l y s a y t o u s w hat
T i b e r i u s C l a u d i u s D o n a tu s s a y s o f h i s Commentary bn V i r g i l
in w r i t i n g to h i s son:
"Haec s i c a c c i p i a s v e l i m , u t e x
C o m m e n t a r iis v e t e r u m s c i a s me e s s e c o l l e c t u r u m ; a n t i q u e
enim e t f a b u l o s a a c l o n g i n q u i t a t i s c a u s a i n c o g n i t a n i s i
1
p n s e o r u m d o c e n t e m emoria non p o t u e r u n t e x p l i c a r i . "
A n o t h e r f a c t o r t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e
Commentary i s t h e demands o f t h e t i m e s - - o f t h e f o u r t h
c e n t u r y i n w h i c h a g r e a t e r p a r t o f S e r v i u s * l i f e was s p e n t . 2
As we r e a d t h e Commentary we a r e amazed a t t h e amount and
v a r i e t y of the in fo rm a tio n d is p la y e d .
But t h i s
i s accounted
f o r by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s r e q u i r e d o f a
g ram m a rian i n t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y .
The g r a m m a ria n t a u g h t
t h e e n t i r e c i r c l e o f human k n o w le d g e : p ro so d y ,, h i s t o r y ,
m u s i c , a s t r o n o m y , s y s t e m s o f p h i l o s o p h y , g e o m e t r y and
m ath em atics.^
I n a d d i t i o n to th e s e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d of a
t e a c h e r we m u st remember t h a t one o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e
e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m o f t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y was t h e e m p h a s is
p l a c e d on r h e t o r i c a l t r a i n i n g .
T h i s s y s t e m p r o d u c e d some
v e r y p r o m i n e n t C h r i s t i a n and p a g a n w r i t e r s .
But both
1. T i b e r i u s C la u d iu s D onatus, I n t e r p r e t a t i o n e s V e r g l l i a n a e
( e d , H e n r i c u s G e o r g i i , V o l . I I , L i p s i a e , 1 906, p . 6 4 3 ) .
2. I t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t t h e s p a n o f S e r v i u s * l i f e
l a y w i t h i n t h e y e a r s 350 and 425 A,D, Cf# IU G. S i h l e r ,
" S e r v i a n a " , A m erican J o u r n a l o f P h i l o l o g y , XXXI ( 1 9 1 0 ) ,
2 ; H. G e o r g i i , " Z u r Bestimmung d e r Z e i t d e s S e r v i u s , "
P h i l o l o g u s , LXXI ( 1 9 1 2 ) , 5 1 8 - 5 2 6 ; Thomas, o p . c i t # ,
p . 135.
. 3 . G, B o i s s i e r , La F i n du P a g a n i s m e , P a r i s , 1903, p p .
158, 1 8 8 ,
J
' C h r i s t i a n and p a g a n a u t h o r s r e v e a l e d t h e b e s e t t i n g f a u l t o f 1
t h e a g e , n a m e ly t h e e x c e s s i v e u s e o f r h e t o r i c .
m isap p licatio n of s tr e s s ,
U n d er t h i s
a m u l t i t u d e o f f a u l t s were
c o m m itt e d b u t p e r h a p s n onec m ore g l a r i n g t h a n t h o s e o f e x ­
c e s s i v e a t t e n t i o n t o s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e s and o r n a m e n t s an d
1
to the d is p la y of e r u d i t i o n .
The p r o g r a m o f s t u d i e s a s f a r a s c o n t e n t i s
i s notew orthy.
Every cu rricu lu m in c lu d e d V i r g i l .
2
concerned
A usonius,
S e r v i u s * o l d e r c o n t e m p o r a r y , i n a poem a d d r e s s e d t o h i s g r a n d ­
son e x p r e s s e s t h e hope t h a t t h e l a d may so o n be a b l e t o r e a d
3
V irg il.
S i d o n i u s A p o l l i n a r i s , who l i v e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g
c e n tu ry , p u ts V i r g i l f i r s t in the l i s t of L a tin a u th o rs
s t u d i e d b y him . ^
To s u c h p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e a n c i e n t p o e t
we can a t t r i b u t e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e commentary o f S e r v i u s
and o f o t h e r s w h ic h a r e e x t e n t .
th e epitom e o f a l l l e a r n i n g : a r t ,
V i r g i l was l o o k e d upon a s
s c i e n c e , m ythology, e t c . ,
an d t h e c o m m e n t a to r s e n d e a v o r e d t o p r o v e him s u c h .
Because
of t h e i r e f f o r t s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , t h e i r com m entaries a r e
more o f t e n d i s c o u r s e s on t h e v a r i e d m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d t h a n
on t h e d e e p e r i m p o r t o f t h e p o e t * s m e s s a g e .
H ow ever, i t was
i n t h e s c h o o ls o f th e grammarians t h a t a u t h o r s v i e d f o r a
p lace.
The a u t h o r s t h u s s e l e c t e d by t h e g r a m m a r i a n s w ere
1. C f. M a cro b iu s, S a t u r n a l i a , VI, 1, 2 ( e d . F r a n c i s c u s
B y s s e n h a r d t , L i p s i a e , 1 8 9 3 ) ; T, R. G l o v e r , L i f e an d
L e t t e r s i n t h e F o u r t h C e n t u r y , C am b rid g e, 1901,
pp. 181-182.
2 . G l o v e r , o p . c i t . , p . 25 1.
B p l s t . , X X II , 5 2 - 5 ? ( e d . R. P e i p e r , L i p s i a e , 1 886,
p . 264).
4 . Carm. , I I , 1 8 4 , ( e d . P . M o h r ; , L i p s i a e , T e u b n e r , 18 9 5 ,
p . 244.)
‘g e n e r a l l y a s s u r e d o f an e n d u r i n g fa m e .
The g r a m m a ria n s
g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r th e most im p o r ta n t l i t e r a r y p r o d u c tio n s
and s e l e c t e d a c a n o n o f a few w r i t e r s by w hich c o r r e c t
grammar was s t a b l i z e d and i l l u s t r a t e d ! ^
At t h i s p o i n t i t
m i g h t be w e l l t o n o t e S t . A u g u s t i n e f s t r i b u t e t o t h e
e f f i c i e n t t e a c h i n g done by t h e g r a m m a r i a n s , "Adamaveram
e n im
litte ra s
l a t i n a s , non quas p r i m i m a g i s t r i , s e d quas
2
docent qui gram m atiei v o c a n t u r . w
Such b e i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n o f l e a r n i n g and s c h o l a r s h i p
o f w h ic h S e r v i u s g r a m m a tic u s ' f o u n d h i m s e l f an h e i r , we may
n o t e t h a t b o t h h i s r e p u t a t i o n and t h e p a t e n t t e s t i m o n y o f
h i s work i t s e l f show t h a t he p l a y e d t r u e t o h i s i n h e r i t a n c e .
M a e r o b i u s , among whose g u e s t s f o r t h e S a t u r n a l i a S e r v i u s
once s a t ,
c l e a r l y shows h i s a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e l e a r n i n g o f
t h e c o m m e n t a to r .
S erv iu s h im self,
o p i n i o n s on g r a m m a t i c a l m a t t e r s ,
t o s u p p o r t h i s own
f o r e x a m p le ,
fo llo w in g a u t h o r i t i e s : A sinius P o l l i o ,
quotes th e
C. J u l i u s H y g i n u s ,
L. Annaeus C o r n u t u s , A e m i l i u s A s p e r , M. V a l e r i u s P r o b u s ,
F la v iu s C aper,U rbanus,
T e r e n t i u s S e a u ru s , A e li u s D onatus,
A v i e n u s , 4 and i n o t h e r r e a l m s he i s o n l y somewhat l e s s
1 . C f . J . K i r c h n e r , "De S e r v i a u c t o r i b u s g r a m m a t i c i s , quos
ip s e l a u d a v i t , " JahrbU cher fflr c l a s s i s c h e P h i l o l o g i e , 8 e r
S u p p l e m e n t b a n d ( 1 8 7 5 ) , 480.
2. C o n f e s s i o n e s , I , 20 ( e d . M a r t i n u s S k u t e l l a , L i p s i a e ,
T eubner, 1934).
S a t u r n a l i a , I , 2, 1 5 ; I , 24, 8 and 20; V I , 6 , 1; V I I ,
11, 2♦
4* F o r t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h ic h S e r v i u s r e l i e s on t h e s e
a u t h o r i t i e s , s e e J . M o u n t f o r d and J . S c h u l t z , I n d e x
r e r u m e t nominum i n s c h o l i i s s e r v i i e t A e l i i D o n a t i
t r a c t a t o r u m , I t h a c a , 1930, u n d e r e a c h a u t h o r f s name.
C f . a l s o A ir c h n e r , op. c i t . , p . 481.
5
rc o p i o u s #
S e r v i u s i n t u r n h a s b e e n drawn upon f o r i n f o r m a - 1
t i o n o f a l l k i n d s by s c h o l a r s o f e v e r y c e n t u r y s i n c e h i s
own^ among the m :
Aero, P r i s c i a n , J . M a la la , I s i d o r e o f S p a in ,
P om po nius S a b i n u s 1 — t o m e n t i o n some o f t h e few who h a v e
\
a c k n o w le d g e d a s w e l l a s c o n t r a c t e d a d e b t t o him*
F o r whom was t h e Commentary w r i t t e n ?
s t a t e m e n t i s made by t h e a u t h o r h i m s e l f .
and K i r c h n e r
use
No e x p l i c i t
However, Thomas
2
s a y w i t h r e a s o n t h a t i t was w r i t t e n f o r s c h o o l
h e n c e t h e r e a s o n f o r g r a m m a t i c a l comments and r e f e r ­
ence to a n t i q u i t i e s .
The m ain o b j e c t o f t h e Commentary o f
S e r v i u s h i m s e l f — t h a t i s t h e b r i e f e r commentary — i s n o t
an e x p o s i t i o n o f V i r g i l i a n p o e t r y f r o m a r h e t o r i c a l p o i n t o f
v i e w , b u t r a t h e r s u c h an e x p o s i t i o n a s was s u i t a b l e f o r t h e
s c h o o l o f . t h e gram m ati c u s .
The Commentary w h ic h i s a s s o c i a ­
t e d w i t h t h e name o f P i e r r e D a n i e l i n c l u d e s much more m a t t e r
o f a s o r t t h a t w ould h a v e b e e n a c c e p t a b l e i n t h e s c h o o l o f
4
the r h e t o r .
S in ce the s p e c ia l purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s a study
o f t h e s y n t a x o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n s a b , d e , and e x i n t h e
Commentary, i t
i s ad vantageous a t th e o u t s e t to c a l l
1 . C f. W. S u r i n g a r , H i s t o r i a O r i t i c a S c h o l i a s t a r u m
L a t i n o r u m , L u g d u n i B a t a v o r u m , 1 83 1, I I , p . 6 2 ; Thomas,
o p . c i t . , p . 292. P r i s c i a n ^ b o r r o w i n g s a r e i n d i c a t e d
i n H. K e l l , a r a m m a t i c i L a t i n i , I I I , I n d e x S c r i p t o r u m ,
j3. t?. S e r v i u s , p . 5 4 5 . F o r some o f t h e o t h e r c i t a t i o n s
o f S e r v i u s by l a t e r w r i t e r s s e e T h i l o #s t e s t i m o n i a .
2 . Thomas, o £ . c i t . , p p . 81 a n d 181
3. K ir c h n e r , op. c i t . , p . 498.
4 . Thomas, o p . c i t . , p . 182; E. B. S t e e l e , ” 0n t h e
A r c h a is m s n o t e d by S e r v i u s , ” AJP XV ( 1 8 9 4 ) , 173.
L
J
6
p
”1
a t t e n t i o n t o some f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d S e r v i u s i n s h a p i n g
h i s s y n t a x a s a w h o le and e s p e c i a l l y h i s p r e p o s i t i o n a l u s a g e .
T h a t many o f h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n s a r e due t o t h e i n ­
f l u e n c e o f t h e p o p u l a r s p e e c h i s r e v e a l e d by t h e i r l i k e n e s s
to th o se of P l a u tu s ,
L ate L a tin e r a .
C a t o , Y a r r o , and c e r t a i n w r i t e r s o f t h e
The a p p e a r a n c e i n S e r v i u s o f s u c h con­
s t r u c t i o n s was p r o b a b l y due i n p a r t t o h i s a l l y i n g h i m s e l f
w i t h an a r c h a i z i n g t r a d i t i o n i n l a n g u a g e w h i c h , i n L a t i n ,
i s as o ld as S a l l u s t ,
2
T h is p a r t i a l i t y tow ards a n t i -
q u a r i a n i s m seems i n d e e d t o h a v e b e e n a c o h e r e n t movement
from G orgias to H a d r ia n ,
I t was H a d r i a n who e s t a b l i s h e d
t h i s movement a s a f a s h i o n .
He gave t h e ex a m p le — he p r e A
f e r r e d E n n i u s t o Y i r g i l and C a to t o O i c e r o ,
T his im ita ­
t i o n o f t h e w r i t e r s o f t h e E a r l y L a t i n p e r i o d was n o t con~
f i n e d t o any p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p o f a u t h o r s b u t was a f a s h i o n
5
p r e v a l e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o le e m p i r e ,
and n o t o n l y i n
th e second c e n tu ry b u t a l s o In su c c e e d in g c e n tu r ie s #
L i k e w i s e many o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s f o l l o w t h e t e r ­
m i n o l o g y o f o f f i c i a l ( a b i r e de I t a l i a ) , m i l i t a r y ( p u g n a t u r
de t u r r l b u s ) , r e l i g i o u s
( t a c t a m de c a e l o ) , o r r h e t o r i c a l
1 . What C h a r l e s Knapp s a y s o f ^ e l l i u s m ig h t be a p p l i e d t o
S e r v i u s , who w r o t e more t h a n a c e n t u r y l a t e r : "The e x ­
c e s s i v e u s e o f p r e p o s i t i o n s i s due t o h i s p a s s i o n f o r
t h e a r c h a i c L a t i n w r i t e r s and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e
sermo p l e b e i u s . "
" N o t e s on t h e P r e p o s i t i o n s i n G e l l i u s , "
TAPA, XXV ( 1 8 9 4 ) , 5 .
2 . P . M onceaux, "Le L a t i n Y u l g a i r e , " Revue d e s Deux-Mondes,
P a r i s , CVI ( 1 8 9 1 ) , 4 5 9 .
3 . C f . t h e c h a p t e r on " A r c h a i s m " i n D. B r o c k , S t u d i e s i n
F r o n t o and h i s A ge, C a m b r id g e , 1911, p p . 2 5 - 3 5 .
4 . C f. S p a r t . , Y i t . H a d r . , 16, 2: Amavit p r a e t e r e a genus
v e t u s t u m d i c e n d i . . . C i c e r o n i Catonem, Y e r g i l i o Ennium,
l
S a l l u s t i o C a e liu m p r a e t u l i t .
j
5. A d e l a i d e D. S im p s o n , M* M i n u e i i P e l i c i s O c t a v i u s ,
New Y o r k , 1 9 3 8 , p . 2 4 .
7
r ( verbum de v e r b o e x p r e s s i t ) u s a g e s ;
1
oth ers, r e f le c tin g
i
p o p u l a r h a b i t s o f s p e e c h , r e s u l t from a d e s i r e t o be
c l e a r l y understood.
I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n we may n o t e w hat
S t , A ugustine a f f ir m s f o r C h r i s t i a n w r i t e r s
th a t p o pular
i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y i s to be p r e f e r r e d to th e ap p ro v a l o f
gram m arians.
2
And h e r e i t m i g h t b e r e m a r k e d t h a t t h e r e
a r e many s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e p r e p o s i t i o n a l u s a g e o f
S e r v i u s , S t . A u g u s t i n e and S t . Jerom e w h ic h show c l e a r l y
th e in f lu e n c e o f everyday speech.
A n o t h e r f a c t t o b e b o r n i n mind i s t h a t S e r v i u s
s o m e t i m e s comments upon t h e change i n s p e e c h h a b i t s f r o m
one p e r i o d t o a n o t h e r .
F r e q u e n t l y we m eet i n t h e
Commentary s u c h an e a p r e s s i o n a s :
a n t i q u i d ix e ru n t sed
4
hodie d ic im u s ,
S e r v i u s o f t e n n o t e s an u n u s u a l con­
s t r u c t i o n i n Y i r g i l b e c a u s e a s a com m entator he was k e e n l y
a w a re o f t h e d i f f e r e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f p r o s e and p o e t r y .
He a c c o u n t s f o r c e r t a i n Y i r g i l i a n u s a g e s w h ic h f o r t h e
m o st p a r t a r e now s e e n t o h a v e h a d a b a s i s i n t h e l a n g u a g e
o f t h e p e o p l e , b y a t t r i b u t i n g them i n s t e a d t o p o e t i c
1 . C f . A , 8 , 1 3 4 * ; A .Q.^Og;
A .3 ,6 6 2 .
2 . Aug. E n a r r . i n P s a l m , 188, 2 0 : m e l i u s e s t r e p r e h e n d a n t
n o s g r a m m a t i c i quam non i n t e l l e g a n t p o p u l i .
Cf. H e n ri
G o e l z e r , E t u d e 1e x i c o g r a p h i quo e t g r a m m a tic a l© de l a
l a t i n i t e ' " de S t .
erOme, f e a r i s , T&84, p . 3 7 . Compare
t h e c o n c e s s i o n s made b y A u g u s t u s t o p o p u l a r s p e e c h :
quod quo f a c i l i u s e f f i c e r e t a u t n e c u b i l e c t o r e m v e l a u d i t o r e m
o b t u r b a r e t ac m o r a r e t u r , neque p r a e p o s i t i o n e s u r b ib u s a d d e re
neq u e e o n i u n c t i o n e s s a e p i u s i t e r a r e d u b i t a v i t . . • .
( S u e t o n i u s , D ivus A u g u s t u s , 8 6 ; c f . 8 7 ; e d . M. Ihm,
C. S u e t o n i i T r a n q u i l l i O p e r a , V o l . I , L i p s i a e , 1 953,
pp. 9 6 - 9 7 ) .
3 . C f . i n f r a p p . 1 2 , 1 3 , 2 7 , 29 e t c .
4 . C f . A . 1 , 3 4 3 ; A.8 , 1 2 7 ; A . 1 , 7 5 . C f . R. B. S t e e l e , "On
t h e A r c h a i s m s n o t e d b y S e r v i u s , " A JP , XY ( 1 8 9 4 ) , 1 5 4 - 1 9 3 .
j
8
H L ic e n s e .^
He a l s o c i t e s on o c c a s i o n fro m o t h e r w r i t e r s —
and even f r o m o t h e r c o d i c e s o f Y i r g i l
in o rd e r to in d i-
c a t e v a r i a t i o n s i n u s a g e f r o m t h o s e o f h i s own d a y .
2
F i n a l l y , S e r v i u s , l i k e so many c o m m e n t a t o r s , i s a
c o m p i l e r who s e l e c t e d f r o m h i s v a r i o u s s o u r c e s w h a t e v e r was
p ertin en t.
T h e r e f o r e we may e x p e c t t o f i n d i n h i s Commen­
t a r y no r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e s f r o m r e c o g n i z e d l i t e r a r y
stan d ard s.
1 . C f . A . 1 1 , 8 8 6 ; A . 5 , 1 2 2 . , A. G u i l l e m i n , La P r o p o s i t i o n
de, C h a l o n , 1 9 2 1 , p . 4 4 .
—
“-------2. C f . A *7,568 on t h e g e n d e r o f s p e c u s ( B n n i u s , H o r a c e and
a n tiq u l c o d ic e s ).
C f. a l s o A *8,225 ( Y a r r o a n d L u c r e t i u s ,
a s o p p o s e d t o t h e u s a g e o f V i r g i l on t h e g e n d e r o f s i l e x i .
C f . Bdna W i e g a n d , N o t e s on t h e B i g h t h Book o f t h e
Commentary o f S e r v i u s on V e r g i l ' s A eneT dT M enashS l
W i s c o n s i n , 1 9 3 6 , p . 49"!
9
GH1PTER I I
THE PREPOSITION A o r AB
AB i n d i c a t e s p r i m a r i l y an e x t e r n a l s e p a r a t i o n o r
r e m o v a l o r d e p a r t u r e f ro m a p e r s o n o r t h i n g .
A ll uses
o f ah s p r i n g f r o m t h e p r i m a r y n o t i o n o f p l a c e and o f
t h i n g whence a n y t h i n g I s m oved, g o e s o u t o r s e t s o u t i n
an y m a n n e r . ^
V ery many c o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h ab h a v e b e e n
e s t a b l i s h e d and p r e s e r v e d t h r o u g h u s a g e , n o t a l w a y s
g
ac co rd in g to a d e f i n i t e r u l e .
W h i le e x s i g n i f i e s move­
m e n t f r o m t h e i n t e r i o r o f a p l a c e and ab p r o g r e s s i o n fro m th e l i m i t s o f a p l a c e , n e v e r t h e l e s s t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n has
3
n o t always been o b s e rv e d .
W h i le ab i s v ie w e d a s a p r e p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t i n g
s e p a r a t i o n , and a l s o g o v e r n i n g t h e a g e n t o f a p a s s i v e
v e r b n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e c l a s s i c a l a b shows a number o f new
d e v e l o p m e n t s f r o m t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f t h e l a n g u a g e down
to th e l a t e L a tin p e r io d *
D u r i n g t h e s e p e r i o d s wab t o o k
on more and more m e a n i n g s I n w h i c h f ro m t h e i d e a o f
s e p a r a t i o n one p a s s e d to. t h e i d e a o f o r i g i n ,
then cau sa4
t i o n , l o c a l p r o x i m i t y , s i d e - t a k i n g , t h e r e f o r e company
A- L o c a l Use o f eib
T h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n i s f o u n d In S e r v i u s w i t h v e r b s
1* B. B a n d , T u r s e l l i n u s , 1 8 2 9 , I , p . 8 ; Leumann-Hofmann,
L a t e i n i s c h e Gramma t i k , 1 9 2 8 , p . 5 23.
2 . H and, o p . c i t . p . 9 .
3- I b i d . , p . 12.
L 4 . H. F . M u l l e r , A C h r o n o lo g y o f V u l g a r L a t i n , 1 9 2 9 , p . 5 6 . j
10
^compounded w i t h a b , d e , e x , a s w e l l a s w i t h s i m p l e v e r b s .
1
F u r t h e r m o r e ab can i n d i c a t e t h e s e p a r a t i o n i n a f i g u r a t i v e
s e n s e and i s u s e d w i t h s u c h v e r b s a s d e f e n d e r e , p r o h i b e r e ,
lib e ra re , etc.
I n t h i s s e c t i o n th e p u r e l y l o c a l as w e l l as th e t r a n s ­
f e r r e d l o c a l u s e o f ab w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d .
T h is l i s t does
n o t i n c l u d e a l l t h e S e r v i a n u s a g e s o f ab b u t o n l y s u c h a s
do n o t a p p e a r o r a p p e a r b u t r a r e l y i n c l a s s i c a l p r o s e .
a b e s s e : A . 2 , 1 7 8 * n e dux ab e x e r c i t u d i u t i u s a b e s s e t ;
A.8 , 5 5 2 * a b e s s e a f i n i b u s .
The u s u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i n
C a e s a r and i n C i c e r o i s w i t h o u t a p r e p o s i t i o n e x c e p t , i n
g eneral,
d istan ce.
i n e x p r e s s i o n s i n v o l v i n g a d e f i n i t e measure o f
1
C o n stru c tio n s w ithout a p r e p o s i t i o n : 2
i t a q u e e t domo absum e t f o r o ( C i c . F a m . 4 , 6 ) ;
t u e a me a b e s s e u r b e m i r a r i s ( C i c . F a m . 5 , 1 5 ) ;
paulum cum e i u s v i l l a a b e s s e m u s ( C i c . A c . 1 , 1 ) ;
id tantum a b e s t o f f i c i o ( C i c . O f f . 1*45); quare
to to abessent b e llo (C a e s . B .C .7 ,6 3 ,7 ); b e llo
a b e s s e (L iv .9 ,4 4 ,2 ) ; I t a l i a ( S u e t . C aes.42);
s p e c t a c u l o ( S u e t . A u g .4 5 , 1 ) ,
C onstructions w ith ab:^
ab domo absum(Pla"uF. l p i d . 6 8 1 ) ; ab hoc c o n c i l i o
Remi a f u e r u n t ( C a e s . B . G . 7 , 6 3 , 7 ) ; q u i a n n i s
1. C f . a b e s t ( 'feanum Apulum) a L a r i n o d u o d ec im m i l i a
p a s s u u m ( C i c . P . C l u . 2 7 ) ; Hand, o p . c i t . * I , p . 62.
C f . J . C . R o l f e , "The P r e p o s i t i o n aF i n H o r a c e , " H a r v a r d
S t u d i e s i n C l a s s i c a l P h i l o l o g y , X I I ( 1 9 0 1 ) , 258: "a b
w i t h a b e s s e ~ d i v i d e r e , e t c . d e n o t e s n o t m o t i o n fro m b u t
an i n t e r v a l e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n two o b j e c t s . *
2. K tih n e r- S te g m a n n , A u s f l i h r l i c h e Cram matik d e r l a t e i n i s c h e n
S prajche, I I , p . 3 6 9.
3 . C f . H. Domke, U e b e r den C e b r a u c h d e r P r g p o s i t i o n e n a b ,
e x > un ^ de b e i J u s t i n , p . 9 ; F . E s s , Q ,u a e s tio n e s
P X i n i a n a e . p . 2*7; 0 . R o s s n e r , p e p r a e p o s i t l o n u m a b ,
d e , e x u su V a r r o n i a n o , p . 10*
L
11
r
'
n
v ig ln t i erran s a p a tr ia a f u it{ C ic .¥ e r r .4 ,3 9 );
cum ab u r b e a b e s s e t tff©P* A t t . 2 0 * l ) ; a b s i n t . . .
a s ta b u lis fY e rg . G .4 ,1 4 ).
ab i r e : A. 2 , 2 9 6 * a b e u n t m a g i s t r a t a *
T h i s i s t h e u s u a l con­
s t r u c t i o n w ith nouns d en o tin g o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s . ^
But
S e r v i u s a l s o u s e s hb w i t h a b i r e : A . 4 , 2 6 2 * a C a r t h a g i n e
ab ire.
T h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n i s f o u n d i n E a r l y L a t i n an d i n
s e n t e n c e s w hich d e a l t w ith t h i n g s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e p r i v a t e
2
and p u b l i c l i f e o f t h e Romans*
rZ
C on stru ctio n s w ith a b :
a l e g i o n e f P l a u t . A m p h .5 2 3 ) ; a p o r t u f F l a u t .Men.
5 5 3 } ; a b e a t i s ab i g n a v i a { R a e v * Com.9 2 ) ; a
m i l i t e ( T e r . B u n . 7 3 3 ) ; abeamus a f a b u l i s t C i e *
Div.2*22)*
L i v y a l m o s t a l w a y s w r o t e a. K a r t h a g i n e . 4
abno c t a r e : A. 5 , 7 3 8 a b n o e t a r e ab u r b e . f T . L . L . I ,
112,25)
a b s c e d e r e : A. 4 , 3 7 2 * a C a r t h a g i n e a b s c e d e r e ; A . 1 2 , 8 4 4 ab
e x e r c i t u c o g i t a b s c e d e r e ; G. 1 , 2 4 3 . T h i s i s a u s a g e o f the.
E a r l y , S i l v e r and L a t e L a t i n p e r i o d s .
6
C o n stru c tio n s w ith ab:
a b s c e d e ab a e d i b u s T P l e u t . M e n . 8 4 9 ) ; ab eo
haec. i r a C T e r . H e c . 7 8 1 ) ; n e e ab a m i s a u t
l o c o suo m i l e s a b s c e d e b a t C L i v . 2 4 , 3 7 , 4 ) ;
a f i n i b u s A r m e n i i e ( T a e . A n n . 1 2 , 4 8 ) ; a deo
b o n o (T e rt. Testirf)*
a v e l l e r e : A*8,,215 a v e l l e b a n t u r a p a s c u i s ; A .8 , 2 9 9 * a v u l s o
ab i l l o .
The u s e w i t h t h e p r e p o s i t i o n ab i s f o u n d c h i e f l y
1 . T h e sa u ru s L in g u ae L at in a e , 1 , 6 7 , 5 ; K uhnar-Stegm ann,
o p . c i t . , p . 370; C f. a b ie n s m a g i s t r a t u ( C i c . P i s . 6 ) .
2 . C. B e n n e t t , S y n t a x o f E a r l y L a t i n , I I , p . 28 1 ; A.
G u i l l e m i n , La P r e p o s i t i o n d e , p . 9 ; C f . a t h e r m i s
a b ire (M art.1 2 ,7 0 ,7 } .
3 . C f . R o s s n e r , o p . c i t .» p . 8 ; Domke, o p . c i t . , p . 9 .
4 . H an d , o p . c i t . , I , p . 1 0 .
5. T .L .L . 1,1457
l 6 . K uhner-Stegm ann, o p . c i t * , p . 365.
j
IE
I n t h e U a r l y and L a t e L a t i n a u t h o r s .
1
C o n s t r u c t i o n s with, a h :
ab ea e s s e d e r e p e n t e a v e l l e r e ( T e r . H e e . 5 5 4 ) ;
u t n u t r i x p u e r o s (a l a e t e j non s u b i t o a v e l l i t
a o o n su e tu d in e (Y arro L i n g .10,16) ; a c e t e r i s
( C i c . O r a t . 5 * 2 0 } ; a c o r p o r a m em bra{ SI1 . 1 * 6 7 0 ) ;
o f t e n i n T e r t u l l i a n w i t h a b : 2 quos ab e r r o r e
s u p e r s t i t l o n i s a v u l s e r i t ( T e r t . S c o r p . 3 ) ; germen
cum a s t i r p e d e t e n t a e huml r a d i u s a v e l l i t u r
(H il. in M a tth .5 ,1 1 ).
oadere:
A .
1 , 1 7 6 * a s s u l a e quae a b a r b o r l b u s c a d u n t . I n t h i s
em ployment w i t h ab t h e I d e a o f t h e p l a c e .from, w h i c h i s more
3
c l e a r l y p r e s e n t I n th e m ind.
C o n stru c tio n w ith ab:
f o l i a c a d u n t a c a c u m i n i b u s o r l g a n o ( F l i n . N.H .
19 ,1 0 0 ).
The o t h e r u s e s o f hb w i t h c a d e r e show t h a t t h e v e r b c a d e r e
A
i s synonymous w i t h m o r i , o a e d i e t c . o r w i t h d e s c i s c e r e .
c o l l l g e r e : A .1,143 a u t a n t e a v e n t i s e o l l e c t a s f u g a v i t ;
A*5 , 2 5 c u r s u s ,
qui a p e r l t i s h o ris c o l l i g i t u r .
T h i s con­
s t r u c t i o n o c c u rs i n R h e t. H e r . , t h e p o e t s and i n S i l v e r
and L a t e L a t i n . 5
f*
C o n s tru c tio n s w ith ab:
ab a u d i t o r i u m p e r s o n a b e n e v o l e n t i a c o l l i g i t u r
( R h e t . H e r . 1 , 5 , 8 ) ; s t i p e m ab t y r a n n i s . . .
c o llig e n s ( L i v .3 8 ,4 5 ,9 ) ; (V al.M ax.7 , 6 , 1 ) ;
(A ug. E p i s . 9 3 , 1 8 ) .
d e f e n d e r s : A . 7 , 4 4 2 d e f e n d e b a t a b e l l i s ; A .8 , 5 7 0 * ; A . 1 0 , 8 0 5 * .
1.
2.
3.
4.
Cf. T .L .L . I I , 1305, 47-48.
Cf. T .L .L . I I , 1306.
R o l f e , op. c i t . , p . 258.
C f . v i r ab h o s t e c a d a t ( O v . E p i s . 9 , 3 6 ) ; ab i l l o b o n i t a t i s
l u m i n e . . . c e c l d i s s e n t a n g e l i m a l l (Aug. c i v . 1 1 , 1 3 ) .
5. C f. T .L .L . 111,1606.
6 . C. L . H r d l i c k a , k S t u d y o f t h e L a t e L a t i n ¥ o p a b u l a r y and
o f t h e P r e p o s i t i o n s and D e m o n s t r a t i v e P r o n o u n s i n t h e
C o n f e s s i o n s o f S t . A u g u s t i n e , p . 151; H a n d , o p . c i t . ,
I , p . 18.
J
T h i s u s a g e o c c u r s i n V a r r o , O v , , Cic* E p i s * , S a l l u s t ,
Y erg., Y itr * , T a c ., T e r t . ,
A ug., H i l . . ^
2
C o n stru ctio n s w ith a b :
u t , * * I t a l i a m * * *ab a r m a t i s . * * d e f e n d e r e ( C ic *
Fam* 5 , 2 , 1 ) ; a p i n n i s h o s t i s d e f e n d e b a n t
(Q uadrig* H is t* G e l l * 1 9 , 1 , 1 ) ; proxim us a
t e c t i s i g n i s d e f e n d i t u r a e g r e f O v . Rem*625);
frig u s* * * a c a p ite ( R u t. L u p .2 ,7 ); defensus
e r r o r a Y e r g i l i i v e r s i b u s ( G ell.,5,8 T it* )*
d e p e l l e r e : A*5,55 ab I t a l i a
d e p e l l e r e n t u r ; G * l , 1 7 * ab
gregibus d e p e lla t*
T his use ap p e a rs in C ic*, B e ll* A fr* ,
3
Ov *, P a u l * Fe s t *, 3 i l . , G al 1 .•,H i l * * *
C o n stru ctio n s w ith a b : ^
i m p o r t u n i t a t e m * * *a f i l i i c a p i t e d e p e l l i t e
(C ic * C l u e n t * 1 9 5 ) ; ab o p e r e d e p e l l e n d o s
m i l i t e s ( B e l l , A f r * 3 9 ,2 ) ; a s e depulsum
Martem c o n v a r t i t i n i p s o s ( 0 v * Met * 7 , 1 4 Q) ;
G a l l o s a C a p i t o l i o f P a u l * F@ st*p*185)*
However ab w i t h d e p e l l e r e i s t h e u s u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n t o
i n d i c a t e t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f an a n i m a l f r o m t h e mammals o f
5
i t s m other*
I n S e r v i u s ; B * 2 ,3 0 a l a e t e d e p u l s o s *
C o n stru ctio n s w ith a b :
cum d e p u l s i s i - n t a g n i a m a t r i b u s ( Y a r r o £UB.
2 , 2 , 1 7 ) ; d e p u l s u s ab u b e r e m a t r i s { Y e r g *
G *3,187); d e p e lle r e a lacte(Y erg * B .7 ,1 5 ) .
I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s w i t h ab S e r v i u s employs
t h e s i m p l e a b l a t i v e w i t h d e p e l l e r e : A * 3 ,1 0 4 ; r e g n o
d e p e l l i ; A . 6 , 8 1 8 ; A.8 , 1 0 7 *
d e l i s t e r e : A . 1 0 ,6 8 9 a b e l l o d e s i s t e r e n t *
1. T .L .L . V ,29S , 1 2 -4 1 .
2* Hand, op * c i t * , p . 4 0 ; Brown, Sr*
t h e P r e p o s i t i o n s i n t h e Works o f
Domke, op* c i t *, p* 1 6 ; E s s , op*
o p * c i t * , p* 11*
3* T . X * L T y , 1 , 5 6 4 .
4* Brown, op* c i t *, p* 7 8 ; R o s s n e r ,
5* G u i l l e m i n , op* c i t * , p . 47*
T his usage
;
M ary, The S y n t a x o f
S t * H i l a r y , p* 8 0 ;
c i t * , p* 3 1 ; Ros s n e r ,
op* c i t * , p .
9*
14
a p p e ars in C a es., L iv , , S u l p . , -S ev ., H i l . , A ug..1
C o n s tru c tio n s w ith ah:
ab d e f e n s i o n e ( C a e s . C i v . 2 , 1 2 , 3 ) ; ab
i n c e p t o ( L i v . 3 8 , 2 8 , 9 ) ; ab h u i u s m o d i
v i r i s p r a e b i t i o d e s i s t a t {Cod. l u s t .
1 0 ,4 8 ,1 2 ,3 ); n i s i d e s is te re n t a
t a b u l i s f a c t i s (Aug. C i v . 2 1 , 2 7 ) .
d e s t i t u e r e : A . 1 1 , 4 1 3 ab a u x i l i i s d e s t l t u t i .
The p r e p o s i
t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y o m i t t e d e x c e p t w i t h t h e noun s p e s i n a
passive c o n s tru c tio n .3
C o n stru ctio n s w ith a b ;
d e s t i t u t u s ab s p e summa ( L i v . 2 2 , 1 5 , 2 ) ;
ab i n g e n t i s p e ( C u r t . 4 , 3 , 2 0 ) . B u t a l s o
w i t h o u t a b : qua s p e d e s t i t u o r (Ov.
U p is.5 ,1 4 3 ).
d e v l a r e : A . 4 , 2 2 a r i g i d o p r o p o s i t o d e v i a v i t ; P ro d e m B u c .
ab i s t a r a t i o n s d e v i a v i t .
T h i s i s a c o n s t r u c t i o n em­
p lo y e d i n L ate L a t i n . 4
C o n stru c tio n s w ith ab;^
u t a v e r o d e v i e s T Y u l g . B x o d . 2 3 , 2 ) ; a quo
( v e r o d e l c u l t u ) . . . c o l e n d o a n g e l o s (A ug.
C i v . 1 0 , 3 ) ; eorunt q u i a v e r i t a t e d e v l a v e r u n t
( R u f i n . Hi s t . 4 , 1 4 , 7 } .
d i s c e r n e r e ; A . 3 , 2 0 3 a d i e d i s c e r n e r e . The u s e o f t h e
p rep o sitio n is .e s p e c ia lly
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of L ate L a tin .
7
C o n stru c tio n s w ith ab:
a qua f a c i e d i s e e r n i t u r { Y a r r o L i n g . 6 , 7 8 ) ;
div in u s s p i r i t u s m o rta l! d is c e rn e b a tu r a
c o r p o r e f Y a l . M a x . 4 , 5 , 6 ) ; ab i n f r u c t u o s i s
fru c tu o e a d is c e r n e t f i l i u s d e i( H il. in
M atth .2 8 ,1 ),
l".'
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
T .L .L . V ,?32.
‘
B row n, o p . c i t . , p . 8 1 .
C f . T . L . L . 7 , 1 , 7 6 3 ; H and, o p . c i t . , I , p . 3 1 .
T .L .L . V ,1,864.
H r d l i c k a , op. c i t . ; p . 154.
T . L . L . Y ,1 2 9 6 - T 2 § 9 .
E s s . o p . c i t . , p . 2 8 ; B row n, o p . c i t . , p . 7 8 ; H r d l i c k a ,
o p . c i t . , p . 152; H o s s n e r, o p . c i t . , p . 10,
15
1
r
d i s c o r d a r e : A *9,685 a R u t i l i s d i s c o r d a b a n t .
B o th V e i l .
an d Q u in t* a s w e l l a s t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l w r i t e r s u s e ah
w ith t h i s v e rb .^
C o n stru c tio n s w ith a b :
a s e d i s c o r d a n t e f o r t u n e ( V e i l . 2 * 5 3 * 3 ) ; ne
vox ab o r a t i o n e d i s c o r d e t ( Q u i n t * I n s t * 11*
3 , 4 5 ) ; ab omnibus d i s c o r d a r e (Greg* Haz*
O r a t * 7 , 2 0 ) a p r a e c e p t i s p a t r i s numquam
f i l i u s d i s c o r d a v i t ( P s . R u fin . in Psalm 1 ,2 )*
e x i r e : B * 7 ,6 2 * a m are e x i s s e t * - T h i s u s a g e i s m a i n l y
p o etical.
It
i s a l s o f o u n d i n t h e S i l v e r an d L a t e L a t i n
p
p er io d s *
C o n s tru c tio n s w ith ab:
n e e x e r c i t u s ab Roma e x i r e t ( L i v . 6 , 3 1 , 7 ) ;
c a l a m u s . . * e x i t ab a r c u ( 0 v * M e t . 7 , 7 7 8 ) ;
t a l i b u s a d o m i n i s . *. n o v i s s i m u s e x i t a n u l u s
( I u v . 1 1 , 4 2 ) ; dum C l o d i u s a v i l l a s u a e x i r e t
(Q uint. I n s t .6 ,3 ,4 9 ) .
l i b e r a r e : A . 4 , 2 2 0 a t u r p i l i b e r a t f am a ; A . 4 , 6 9 9 * ; A . 8 , 2 9 1 ;
B .8 ,6 8 * ; G .3,509*
th e use of l i b e r a r e
ab lativ e.
I n C l a s s i c a l L a t i n 4 and I n E a r l y L a t i n 5
i s more f r e q u e n t w i t h t h e s i m p l e
T h e r e a r e no I n s t a n c e s i n S e r v i u s o r i n t h e
C o n fe s s io n s o f St* A u g u stin e
a.
o f l i b e r a r e w ith th e sim ple
ablative*
C o n stru ctio n s w ith a b : 7
ab omni e r r a t i o n e l i b e r a v i t mundum (C ic *
T im .6 ) ; qui a Yenere se l i b e r a v e r u n t
( C i c . D i v . C a s e . 5 5 ) ; a q u a r t a n a (C ic *
A tt .1 0 ,1 5 ,4 )*
1. T .L .L . 1 , 1 0 .
2. T .L .L . 1 ,1 0 ,2 8 ..
3* Brown, op* c i t *, p . 8 2 ; E s s * o p . c l t *, p * 1 4 ; H r d l i c k a ,
op* c i t * , P 7 I5 4 *
— — ~
4. K U hner-stegm ann, op. c i t * , 1 1 1 ,3 7 2 .
5 . B e n n e t t , op* c i t . , I I , p * 2 8 4 .
6* H r d l i c k a , op* c i t *, p . 153*
L 7* Brown, op* c i t * , p * 8 0 ; H r d l i c k a , o p . c i t . , p . 153*
d
16
r
1
p e r i r e : 1 , 1 , 9 9 * c u i c o n t l g e r l t ab A c h l l l e p e r i r e .
T his
1
n e u t e r v e rb h as in i t s e l f a p a s s i v e m eaning.
However
t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s p o e t i c a l and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f L a t e
2
L atin ,
I t i s found in th e S c r i p t u r e s , e . g . J o e l 1 ,5 ;
Ps. 9 ,4 .
C o n s t r u c t i o n s o f p e r i r e and v e r b s o f s i m i l a r
m e a n in g s w i t h a b ; ^
b i s p e r i i t a m a t o r ab r e a t q u e ab animo s i m u l
( P la u t, T ru e .1 ,1 ,2 6 ) ; d lsc ip u lo p e r i i solus
ab i p s e meo (Ov. P o n t . 3 , 5 , 4 6 ) ; o c c i d i t a f o r t i ,
s i c v o s v o l u l s t i s , A c h i l l e (Ov, M e t . 1 3 , 5 9 7 ) ;
v i c t u s c e c l d i s s e t ab h a s t a ( Y a l . F I . 8 , 3 1 7 ) ,
p ro f I d s c i t 1 .1 ,7 2 0 p r o f e c ta a n o b is,
T his i s a f i g u r a 4
t i v e use to denote o r i g i n .
But S e rv iu s a ls o u se s I t in
its
l i t e r a l s e n s e ; A . 2 , 3 2 5 * ab A r c a d i a p r o f e e t u m ; A . 3 , 7 *
a T roia p r o f i c i s e l .
S a l l u s t s o m e t i m e s , more o f t e n n o n -
c l a s s i c a l p r o s e w r i t e r s and t h e p o e t s u s e ab w i t h t h e
a b l a t i v e w i t h t h e name o f a c i t y fro m w h ic h one d e p a r t s .
5
C o n stru c tio n s w ith a b : 6
cum ab A t h e n i s p r o f i e i s c i ( S u l p . F a m . 4 , 1 2 , 2 ) ;
p r o f e c t u s ab U t i c a I n M a u r e t a n i a m { B * A f r . 2 3 , l ) .
r e d i r e : A . 9 , 3 1 * h o c e s t a c a m p is r e d i i t .
a sim ila r co n stru ctio n . 7
L iv y u s e s ab in
s u m e r e : A . 1 ,1 4 9 s u m p s i t enim t r a n s l a t i o n e m ab a n i m a l i b u s ;
A , 1 , 4 3 7 * ab i p s a r e s u m i t u r ; G . 2 , 3 5 0 sument ab h i s r e b u s
8
m agnanim itatem .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
l 8,
H and, o p . c i t . , I , p . 2 8 .
T .L .L . 1 ,2 9 ,5 0 -5 5 ,
Brow n, o p . c i t , , p . 8 2 ; H r d l i c k a , o p . c i t . , p . 1 5 4 .
Cf. quidquid a
p r o f e e t u m s i t ( C i c . F am .1 2 , 1 7 , 2 ) .
a . C. J u r e t , S y s te m s de l a s y n t a x e l a t i n e , p . 238.,
R o s s n e r , op, c i t . , p . 7.
C f . e x quo a Roma r e d i i ( L i v . 4 0 , 1 2 , 2 } .
Cf. T .L .L . 1 ,1 8 .
~
j
C o n s tru c tio n w ith ab:
a p h i l o s o p h i s , i n q u i s , i s t a sum is ( C i c .
Fam. 1 2 , 2 2 , 8 ) .
t o l l e r e : A - 4 , 4 9 7 * a memoria t o l l e r e .
T his c o n s tru c tio n
i s f o u n d i n E a r l y L a t i n and i n t h e p o e t s .
The u s u a l con­
s t r u c t i o n i n C i c e r o i s w i t h dLe and j s x ; w i t h _ab i n L ucan
and V i r g i l . ^ *
C o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h ab
h i n c ab o s t i o i a c e n t e m s u s t u l i ( P l a u t .
C i s t . 6 5 9 ) ; pueru m h i n c ab i a n u a ( T e r .
A n d r . 7 5 9 ) ; q u i d q u i d ab e x t i n c t o
l i c u i s s e t t o l l e r e b u s t o (L u c an 9 , 6 1 ) ;
i u g a t o l l i t ab u n d i s ( M a n i l . 5 , 6 8 ) .
B . The tJse o f ab^ t o D e n o te t h e B i r t h o r O r i g i n
C l a s s i c a l L a tin norm ally ex p ressed id eas of o r i g i n ,
p a r e n t a g e , e t c . , by t h e a b l a t i v e a l o n e .
However, e x i s
u s e d s o m e t i m e s , ab an d de more r a r e l y ,
Ab i s u s e d o f
3
more d i s t a n t a n c e s t o r s , and t o d e n o t e t h e c o u n t r y .
S till,
c e r t a i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h ab can b e e x p l a i n e d
o n l y by a n a l o g y w i t h t h o s e o f d i s t a n t a n c e s t r y .
I n S e r v i u s we f i n d
th e fo llo w in g uses w ith
ab:
A*4,3 2 7 * a s o r o r e n a t u m ;
A .5,343 o r t u s a g au d io ;
A .8 ,
638* a d u r i s p a r e n t i b u s o r t i s u n t ; G . 1 ,2 1 7 non a c a p i t e ,
s e d a d o r s o o r i t u r ; A*6,129 a d i i s g e n i t o s ; B . 8 , 7 1 ab
omni v e r b o p r o c r e a t u r .
Y ery many i n s t a n c e s o f ab w i t h t h e a b l a t i v e
joined
to th e e x p re s s io n o rig in em d u ce re ^ o c c u r in S e r v iu s ;
T .~ ju r e t, op. c i t ., p.
2. R ossner, op. c i t . ,
3 . H. Roby, A_ Grammar
L .-H o f ., op. c i t . ,
248.
p . 10.
of th e L a tin Language, p . I l l ;
p . 422.
JU P r a e f . ab l u l o o r i g i n e m d u e i t ; a . 1 , 2 4 3 ; A. 6 , 6 9 ; A*6*403;
A *8,6G0; e t c .
n u m e ro u s a l s o i n S e r v i n g a r e t h e v e r b s w i t h ab an d
t b e a b l a t i v e i n d i c a t i n g t h e o r i g i n o f nam es: *
A. P r a e f .
nomen ab A e n e a ; A. 1 , 2 d i c t a e s t a L a v i n o ; A. 1 , 6 0 7 ab
undarum f e r v o r © n o m in a tu m ; B . 8 , 6 5 * v i r i d i t a t e v e r b e n a ©
ap p ellan tu r; et c.
2
C o n s tr u c t io n s w i t h ab:
n o t a n s * q u i a quo o r t u s ( C o r n e l . A t t . 1 8 , 3 ) ;
a p a r e n t i b u s , i d quod n e c e s s e e r a t , p a r v u s
sum p r o c r e a t u s , a n o b i s n a t u s sum c o n s u l a r i s (Cic* p o s t R e d i t . 2 , 5 ) ; a lo v e o r t u s ( C i c ,
P l a n e * 24*59) ; ab b i s o r t i P o e n i ( C i c . S c a u r .
19,42)5 a D a rd a n o .*. o r t i ( P ll n .H * H .3 ,9 , 1 1 ) .
C. The Use o f ab t o D e n o te t h e Cause o r R e a s o n
The u s e o f t b e p r e p o s i t i o n ab w i t h t h e a b l a t i v e
t o mark t b e c a u s e b e g i n s i n p o e t r y w i t h L u c r e t i u s an d
in p ro se w itb L ivy,
i b i s c o n s t r u c t i o n i s common i n
B e c le sia stic a l L atin . 3
J u r a t considers t h i s a b la tiv e
as a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e .
Under t h i s b e a d in g be l i s t s
tb e cause as a m otive o f th e w i l l g e n e r a l l y used w ith o u t
the p re p o s itio n ;
as the cause o f a se n tim e n t o r o f a
s e n s a t i o n w i t h t h e a b l a t i v e a l o n e o r s o m e tim e s w i t h e x ,
d e, ab .^
Ab i n some o f t h e s e c o n s t r u c t i o n s shows n o t
so much t h e c a u s e a s t b e o r i g i n .
A g a in ab i s o f t e n
1. C f . T . L . L . I , 2 5 , 5 - 8 0 .
2 . Brow n, o p . c i t . , p . 8 7 ; H r d l i c k a , o p . c i t . , p . 160;
R ossner, op. c i t . , p . 19.
3 . T . L . L . I , “3 3 - 3 4 .
4. J u r a t , op. c i t . , p . 241-242.
5 . H an d , o p . c i t . , I , p . 2 7 ; R o s s n e r , o p . c i t . , p . 24.
19
r e q u i v a l e n t t o s e c u n d u m .-^-
S e r v i u s h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g u s e s : ~1
A .1 , 6 6 7 c o n c i l i a t i o a q u a l i t a t e p e r s o n a e ; A . 3,167-* a qua
o r i g o c r e v i t ; A*5 . 7 0 4 ab a e t a t e ,
a p ru d en tis,
commendat; A .8,150-* ab u t i l i t a t e
a g i t ; A .8,3 3 2 a c o lo r e
h a b u i t ; A .1 1 , 1 6 8 ; A . 1 1 , 3 9 6 ; B.8,18-*; G . 3 , 3 4 .
a relig io n e
Frequent in
S e r v i u s i s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l a u d a r e o r l a u s w i t h ab t o
d e n o t e t h e c a u s e i n s t e a d o f p r o p t e r o r ex o r t h e s i m p l e
ab lativ e* ^
A. P r a e f . Augustum l a u d a r e a p a r e n t i b u s ;
A .1 ,6 0 6 ; A .3 ,4 7 6 ; A .5 ,3 6 9 ; A .9 ,3 0 2 ; e t c .
C o n stru c tio n s w ith a b : ^
quo d e i n d e modo, s i t e m e tu m o r t i s c re d e b a m
coenara e v i t a s s e meam, non ab eodem m etu
c o m l s s a t i o n e m quoque e v i t a t u r u m e x i s t i m e b a m
( h i v .4 0 ,1 3 ,9 ); a duabis c a u sis p u n ire p r in c e p s s o l e t , s i a u t se v i n d i e a t a u t a l i u m
( S e n . de C le m .1 , 2 0 ) ; s e d i l l u d c e r t e s c i o ,
me ab s i n g u l a r ! amore ac b e n e v o l e n t i a , q u a e cumque s c r i b o , t i b i s c r i b e r e ( C i c . A t t . 9 , 6 ) ;
C e r e a l i s a m etu i n f a m i a e . . . p r e s s i t i r a s ( T a c .
H i s t .4 ,7 2 ).
D.
The Use o f ab t o D en o te t h e Means o r I n s t r u m e n t
The a b l a t i v e o f means i s o r d i n a r i l y e x p r e s s e d w i t h o u t
a p rep o sitio n .
However, e x a m p le s o f i t s u s e w i t h a
p r e p o s i t i o n a r e f o u n d i n U a e v i u s , C i c e r o 1s E p i s t l e s ,
S i l v e r and h a t e h a t i n . ^
C o n s t r u c t i o n s i n ab o f i n s t r u m e n t
o r o f m e ans, w h i c h p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t an e x t e n s i o n . o f t h e
1 . Hand, d £ . C i t . , I , p . 56; R o s s n e r , d p . c i t . , p . 27;
D ra eg er, d p . c i t . , I , p . 622.
2 . Hand, d p . c i t . , I , p . 32 .
3 . Brown, ojd. c i t . , p . 8 9 ; E s s , ojd. c i t . , p . 43; G o e l z e r ,
Op. c i t . , p . 337; H r d l i c k a , 0 £ . C i t *, p . 1 61 ; R o s s n e r ,
o p . c i t . , p . 2 4 ; L . - H o f . , ojd. c i t . , p . .524; J . R o l f e ,
7Ta , a b , a b s , 11 A r c h i v f~dr l a t o l n i s c h e h e x i c o g r a p h i e und
G ra m m a tik t X ( 1 8 9 8 ) , 504•
4 . C f . T .h.L ,. 1 , 3 4 - 3 5 ; 6 0 - 8 0 ; S a l o n i u s , V i t a e P a t r u r h ,
pp. 98-106.
L
—I
20
r
n
complement o f a g e n t , b e l o n g t o t h e f a m i l i a r l a n g u a g e .
These c o n s t r u c t i o n s a re o r d i n a r i l y found in th o s e a u th o r s
who u s e t h e f a m i l i a r s t y l e and among t h e p o e t s p a r t i c u l a r l y
Q vid.^
The f o l l o w i n g w ere n o t e d i n o u r a u t h o r :
A, 1 , 3 9
ah h a s t a e c o n c u s s i o n s ; A*1*9G* a quit)us c a e lu m c o n t o n u i s s e
s i g n i f i c a t ; A .1,1 8 3 * naves a v e l i f i c a t i o n e f a c i l e eo g n o s c i;
A* 3 ,2 4 6 * ah a l i t e a u s p ic iu m . f a c t u m d o c u i t ; A . 5 , 7 2 * a p a t r i s
g l a d i o ; A , 6 , 5 7 7 a t r e m o r e f r i g o r i s ; A ,8 , 5 4 5 * n e ah i n t e r ­
rog atio n s d e c ip e re n tu r.
C o n stru ctio n s w ith ah; 2
flu c tu m a saxo f r a n g i ( C ic. F a m .9 ,1 6 ,6 );
s a p i e n t ! non n o c e t u r a p a u p e r t a t e ( S e n .
L u c . 8 5 , 3 1 } ; a l i m u r n os c e r t i s ah r e b u s
( L u c r . 1 , 8 1 2 ) ; c l a u s u s ah u m b r o s o . . . p o n t u s
A v e r n o C P r o p . 4 , 1 7 , 1 } ; ( p i s c i s ) t e n e a t u r ah
h a m o ( 0 v .A r s 1 , 7 6 3 ) ; omni l e t u m m o l i t u r ab
e n se (S i1 .1 0 ,5 } .
In S e rv iu s th e re a re th r e e in s ta n c e s o f inanim ate o b je c ts
ta k in g th e c o n s tru c tio n of th e a b la tiv e of p e rso n a l agent
w i t h a p a s s i v e v e r b : A . l , 550 d e l a t a a O r i m i s s o f l u v i o ;
A . 1 2 ,1 8 1 * cum a T i b e r i n o f l u m i n e s i t a d m o n i t u s ; B . 2 , 2 5
a flu ctih u s d erelicts.* 5
35. The Use o f at) t o D enote t h e M a t t e r o f Which
a T h i n g i s made
The u s e o f ah w i t h f i e r i t o d e n o t e t h e m a t t e r o f
w h i c h a t h i n g i s made was n o t t h e u s u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . 4
•The a b l a t i v e a l o n e i n e v e r y e p o c h was t h e n o r m a l c o n s t r u c t i o n
1 . G u i l l e m i n , o p . c i t .., p . 6 1 .
2 . Brow n, o p . c i t . , p . 8 6 ; G o e l z e r , o p . c i t . , p . 337;
H r d l i c k a , o p . c i t . , p . 1 5 9 ; R o l f e , na , a b , a b s , n
p . 5 05; L . - H o f . , o p . c i t . , p . 5 2 4 .
3 . C f . ab a e s t u r e l i c t a e n a v e s ( C a e s . B . G . 3 , 1 3 , 9 ) .
4 . T . L . L . V I , 8 6 , 10 and 1 0 0 , 5 .
i™
j
t o d e n o t e t h e m a t e r i a l o f w hich a t h i n g I s made*
has th e fo llo w in g :
1
S erv iu s
A .8 ,3 3 * a l l n t e a t i s d eh e re f i e r i ; A *l,40
A. 6 , 1 I d e s t a l l g n i s .
C o n stru ctio n s w ith a h ;
a s p e r i t a s . . . v o c i s f i t ab a s p e r l t a t e p r i n c i p i o r u m ( L u e r . 4 , 5 5 1 ) ; quod a p p a r e t a s o l e
f i e r i (Sen. H a t .1 , 7 , 2 ) . 2
F . The U se o f a h I n V a r i o u s C o n s t r u c t i o n s
I.
The Use o f a h w i t h t h e a b l a t i v e t o d e n o t e c o m p a r i s o n .
T h i s u s e o f ah w i t h t h e a b l a t i v e r e s e m b l e s a s i m i ce
l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n f o u n d i n t h e Hebrew l a n g u a g e .
S ervius
fu rn is h e s the fo llo w in g u se s;
A . 1 , 2 3 2 e s t v a l i d i u s quam
a v o l u n t a t e ; A . 2,72*' a h i n i m l c o m a i o r ; A . 4 , 2 3 9 c i t i u s ab
omnibus p l a n e t i s ; A . 4,,646* a p p a r e t p l u r e s a t r i b u s ; A . l ,
196 p l u s ab homine h a b e n s ; A . 4 , 3 7
m alores
sunt a p r i n c i ­
p a l ! t a t e ; A . 11,,590 n e m i n o r s i t g e n e t i v u s a n o m i n a t i v e
p l u r a l i ; A . 1 1 ,8 8 6 g e n e t i v u s p l u r a l i s
a nom inative p l u r a l i
m i n o r e s s e non d e b e t ; A . 1 2 , 5 1 1 ne s i t m a i o r a n o m i n a t i v o
p l u r a l i ; G .1 , 2 0 8 o b l i q u i c a s u s n u m e r i s i n g u l a r i s a nom ina­
t i v o p l u r a l i m a i o r e s e s s e non d e b e n t .
I I . The u s e o f a h w i t h a n o u n :
secu ritas:
1
A .10,272* a b e l l i s s e c u r i t a t e m d e n u n t i a t .
4
X. J u r e t , o p . c i t . , p . 3 1 5 .
2 . Cf. T . L . L . 1 , 2 1 , and VI 1 , 123; w h i l e t h e s e e x a m p le s
a r e n o t i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h o s e o f S e r v i u s t h e y show
perhaps a s i m i l a r use of th e c o n s tr u c tio n s .
3 . R o n s c h , f c t a l a und V u l g a t a , p . 4 5 2 ; Hand, o p . c i t . ,
I , p . 4 4 ; B ro w n , o p . c i t . , p . 9 0 ; G o e l z e r , S t ." j ^ r 6 m e ,
p* 336; T . L . L . 1 , 3 9 , 4 0 - 8 0 ; S a l o n i u s , o p . c i t . ,
p . 1 17; L . - H o f . , p . 5 2 4 ; J . R o l f e , " a , a b , a b s , " p . 5 0 Q .
4 . C f . Brown, o p . c i t . , p . 8 5 .
22
r
n
XII.. The u s e o f ab w i t h a d j e c t i v e s ;
a l l e n u m ; A. 1 2 ,6 4 8 a . qua r e s e d l c i t a l i e n u m ; A . 1 2 ,1 2 0 * . 1
IT.
The u s e o f ab w i t h a n a d j e c t i v e t o f o rm an a d v e r b i a l
phrase:
c o n t r a r i o : A .4,175 l a u d a t a c o n t r a r i o .
In the T h esau ru s,
S t . A u gustine i s th e only w r i t e r c i t e d f o r t h i s
5
tio n .
con stru e-
TT C^. T . L . L . IT, 1 2 , 5 ; i n h o n e s t a a t q u e a l i e n a a b o n i s
( P l a u t . M i l . 1288); c o n s u le s a nobis a lie n 'o re s (C ic .
A tt. 3 ,2 4 ,1 ).
2.
T h i l o c i t e s i co d e x L i p s i e n s i s ) f o r t h e r e a d i n g e.
co n trario .
l 3 . Cf. T .L .L . 1 , 4 0 , 4 2 -4 6 .
23
CHAPTER I I I
THE PREPOSITION BE
I n t h e u s e o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n de S e r v i u s g o e s f a r
beyond C l a s s i c a l usage*
I n d e e d i n t h i s r e g a r d he i s on
common g r o u n d w i t h a l l t h e L a t e L a t i n a u t h o r s , 1
Be b e i n g
s i m i l a r i n m e a n in g t o ab and e x t o o k o v e r many o f t h e r e ­
l a t i o n s f o r m e r l y e x p r e s s e d by th e m .
These t h r e e p r e p o s i ­
t i o n s a r e o f t e n u s e d f o r v a r i e t y and o f t e n b e c a u s e o f
th e ir sim ila rity .
2
The e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n m e an in g
o f t h e s e p r e p o s i t i o n s h a v e b e e n somewhat a p t l y d e s c r i b e d
by F i t z Hugh.
sta tic
" De e x p r e s s e d dynamic d e p a r t u r e , ab and e x
( p a s s i v e ) d e p a r t u r e ; ab o u t e r d e p a r t u r e ; e x i n n e r
departure.
The d i r e c t i o n o f de i s a l w a y s t h e s t r a i g h t
l i n e o f g r a v i t y o r o f p u r p o s e , t h a t o f ab and e x m e r e l y
3
ce n trifu g a l.n
A. L o c a l Use o f de
T h i s u s a g e w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n b o t h i t s p r o p e r and
i t s f i g u r a t i v e s e n s e e . g . e x i r e de I n rp e rio ( T a c . H i s t . 3 , 6 8 )
i.e .
t o g i v e up o n e f s p o s i t i o n .
The S e r v i a n c o n s t r u c t i o n s
• l i s t e d h e r e a r e t h o s e w h ic h do n o t o c c u r i n C l a s s i c a l p r o s e
o r w hich o c c u r r a r e l y .
1. H enri G o e lz e r, S t . p e r d u e , p . 339.
2 . H and, o p . c i t . , I I , p . 1 8 5 ; Leumann-Hofmann, L a t e i n i s c h e
G r a m m a tik , p . 5 2 3 .
3 . Thomas F i t z Hugh, " P r o l e g o m e n a t o t h e H i s t o r y and
L e x i c o g r a p h y o f t h e P r e p o s i t i o n d e , " TAPA' ?7~'( 1 9 0 6 ) , 18 ..
24
:r
~l
ab lre:
A . 8 , 1 3 4 * de I t a l i a a b i r e . T h i s i s a u s e b e l o n g i n g
to th e p o l i t i c a l language to
denote th e d e p a rtu re o f
o f f i c i a l and c o n s e q u e n t l y t o
t h e f a m i l i a r la n guage.'*'
an
C o n s tru c tio n s w ith d e ;
de f o r o ( P l a n t . Men*599) de p r o v i n c i a ( C i c .
V e r r . 2 , 5 5 ) ; de S i c i l i a a b i t u r u m ( C i c . A t t .
1 0 , 4 , 9 ) ; de l o c o a b i i t ( C i c . F a m .1 4 , 1 , 7 ) ;
de t h e a t r e . • . c u m . . . a b i r e s ( M a r t . 4 , 6 1 , 9 ) .
b i b e r e : A . 1 ,4 6 9 * s i . . . v e l de X a n th o T r o i a e f l u v i o b i b i s s e n t .
T h is usage i s found in M ela,
P l i n . ,H i e r . , H i l . , and
in the
V u lg a te .* *
C o n s tru c tio n s w ith d e : 3
de v i n o , unde b i b e b a t i p s e ( V u l g . D a n . 1 , 5 ) ;
b ib a m u s de h u i u s m o d i f o n t i b u s ( H i e r . E p i s .
7 8 ,6 ).
c a d e r e : A . 4 , 1 7 8 * de c a e l o c a d u n t .
T his usage i s m ainly
4
p o etica l.
C o n stru c tio n s w ith d e ; 5
de c a e l o e e c i d i s s e ( O v .M e t. 2 , 3 2 1 ) ; de t u r r e . . .
cadere ( S t . T H .11,267).
c o l l i g e r e : A . 3 ,2 4 6 * de d i r i s
co llig itu r.
T his c o n s tru c tio n
i s found p a r t i c u l a r l y i n th e p o e t s and in L ate L a t i n .
ft
C o n stru c tio n s w ith d e :
c o l l i g e r e . , .myrrham de s p i n a ( P l i n . H.1T.12,
5 5 , 4 ) ; de p u r p u r e i s c o l l e c t a e v i t i b u s uvae
(O v . M e t . 8 , 6 7 6 ) ; de l i t o r e gemmas ( T i b . 3 , 8 ,
1 9 ) ; de a g r i s m u l t i t u d i n e m ( R u f . 6 ) ; a q u a
c o l l e e t a de t e c t o ( P a u l . F e s t . p . 1 0 8 ) .
d e s c e n d e r s ; G . 2 , 4 0 6 n i s i umor de c a e l o i n t e r r a s d e s c e n d e r i t ;
A .8 , 2 7 5 de uno f o n t e d e s c e n d e r e .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
L
T his c o n s tr u c tio n i s
T .L .L * V , 4 7 , 5 0 ; F i t z H ugh, o p . c i t . , p . 1 9 .
T . L . L . I I , 1936, 1 5 . ■
Brow n, o p . c i t . , p . 9 5 .
T .L .L . V ,44.
R o s s n e r , o p . c i t . , p . 32.
T .L .L * V , 4 5 , 2 5 ; A. S a l o n i u s , V i t a e P a t r u m , p . 3 7 0 .
’
J
25
r
e s p e c i a lly c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of L ate L a tin .
1
I t o c c u r s i n M in .
F e l , , T e r t., H i l , , H ie r ., A u g ..1
2
C o n stru c tio n s w ith de:
h a e c de deorum v e s t r o r u m d l s c t p l i n a d e s c e n d a n t
(M in . F e l . 3 0 , 3 ) ; n e q u e v e s t i t u s v i r i l i s n eque
a n u l u s . . . d e a l i c u i u s i d o l i honore d e s c e n d i t
( T e r t . I d o l . 1 6 ) ; sermo i n f I d e l i t a t i s . . . d e
a f f e c t u s u p e r i o r i s querim oniae d e s c e n d i t
( H i l - i n M 'atth . 1 1 , 1 8 ) .
d i s c e d e r e : A . 2 ,8 0 1 * de p a t r i a d i s c e d i t .
This is a use
b e l o n g i n g t o t h e f a m i l i a r l a n g u a g e w h ic h i s f o u n d i n C i c e r o
and r e a p p e a r s i n L a t e L a t i n . 3
D i s c e d e r e w i t h ab i s
4
C l a s s i c a l ; w i t h a b l a t i v e a l o n e i n O v id .
C o n s tru c tio n s w ith d e : 5
de G a l l i a non d I s e e s s i s s e ( C i e . P h i l , 8 , 7 , 2 1 ) ;
de p r a e d i i s d i s c e s s e r I t ( C i c . R o s e . A. 2 9 , 7 9 ) ;
ne s i n e c o r o l l a r i o de c o n v i v i o d i s c e d e r e t
( C i c . V e r r . 2 , 4 , 2 2 ) ; de r e b u s h u m a n is d i s c e d e r e
( S p a r t . S e v . 2 0 ) ; de p u b l i c a p r o f e s s i o n e
d i s c e d e r e (Aug. C o n f . 9 , 2 , 3 ) .
e b u l l i r e : A . 1 1 , 5 1 * de i p s i s f o n t i b u s e b u l l i t .
The u s e o f
th e p r e p o s i t i o n i s L ate L a t i n .
C o n stru c tio n w ith de:
f l u m i n a de m a t r e a b y s s o ite ru m . e b u l l i r e
i n c i p i u n t ( S a lo n , i n E c e l e s . p . 995°).
e g r e d i : A . 3 , 9 6 de n a v i e g r e s s u s .
T his c o n s t r u c t i o n i s
f o u n d i n F r o n t o , T e r t . , A p u l . , V u l g . , A m br., H i e r . , H i I . . 7
The g r o u p d e n a v i w i t h e g r e d i an d c e r t a i n synonyms i s
f o u n d i n P l a u t u s and i n c e r t a i n p r o s e w r i t e r s who employ
1.
2.
3.
4.
T .L .L . V ,6 ^2 ,1 9 -2 6 .
Brown, o p . c i t *, p . 9 3 ; R o s s n e r , o p . c i t . , p . 3 2 .
G u ille m in , op. c i t . , p . 43.
K uhner-S tegm ann, op. c i t . , 1 1 ,1 ,3 7 1 ; Hand, o p . c i t . ,
I*P *9.
5. R o ssn e r, op. c i t . , p . 31.
6 . T .L .L . 11716,^2780.
7. T .L .L . T , 2 ,2 8 0 .
L
J
26
t h e f a m i l i a r language.^*
2
C o n stru ctio n s w ith d e :
de b a l n e o ( F r o n t o p . 190 11 N ) ; de l a v a e r o
( T e r t . B a p t . 7 ) ; de s e p u l c h r o suo ( H i e r .
E p is.6 4 , 3 ,2 ) .
e r u e r e : A . 1 1 , 2 1 1 de c i n e r i b u s e r u e b a n t . T h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n
i s S i l v e r and L a t e L a t i n e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e S c r i p t u r e s . 3
4
C onstructions w ith d e:
c u r D e lp h o s de manu P y r r h i A p o l l o non e r u i t
( T e r t . N a t . .2,17 p . 1 3 2 , 5 ) ; de m a nib us
i n i m i c o r u m ( Y u l g . Num.1 0 , 9 ) ; s e de
c a p t i v i t a t i s malo ( H i e r . i n I s . 2 0 , 6 ) ;
de s e r v i t u t e ( Y u l g . E x o d . 6 , 6 ) .
e r u m p e r e : A .8 , 2 4 3 e r u m p e n t i b u s de c o n c a v i s t e r r i s ; A . 9 , 5 8 1
cum de t e r r a e r u m p i s s e t .
I f t h i s verb i s considered
synonymous w i t h e m e r g e r e w h ic h C i c e r o o f t e n u s e s i t i s
r a r e l y f o u n d w i t h de i n t h e L a t i n o f t h e G old en Age o r o f
5
t h e S i l v e r Age.
C o n s tru c tio n s w ith de;
cum de t e n e b r a r u n p ro f'u n d o e m e r g e r e m ( M i n . F . l , 4 ) .
e v a d e r e : A . 1 , 8 e v a s i s s e de c a s t r i s .
T his i s a c o n stru c ­
t i o n b elo n g in g to the f a m i l i a r language.
C o n stru c tio n w ith de:
de te m p lo e v a s i t H f C a p . Y e r . 8 ) .
S e r v iu s a l s o u se s th e sim p le a b l a t i v e : A .2,434 e v a s i s s e
se f a t i s
in p u tat.
1 . G u i l l e m i n , o p . c i t . , p . 8 5 ; C f . de n a v e e x e u n t i b u s
( C i c . Fam. 1 4 , 5 , T J 7 B ut C a e s a r : n a v i e g r e d i e n t i s
( B . G. 4 , 2 6 ) and e n a v i e g r e d i e n s (B . C. 3 , 1 0 6 ) .
2 . G o e l z e r , S t . J e r S m e , p . 3 3 9 ; Brown, o p . c i t . , p . 9 2.
3 . T . L . L . Y , 5 2 , 5 0 ; A. B r a e g e r , H i s t o r i s c h e S y n t a x d e r
l a t e i n i s c h e n S p ra c h e , I , 512.
4 . Brow n, o p . c i t . , p . 9 3 ; H r d l i c k a , o p . c i t . , p . 1 6 3 .
5. G u ille m in , op. c i t . , p . 27.
6. G o e lz e r , op. c i t . , ’ p . 339.
L
27
r
”i
e x c l u d e r s ; A . 2 , 3 5 7 e x c l u s i t de l a t e b r i s . Ab I s t h e u s u a l
1
c o n s t r u c t i o n w ith t h i s verb*
g
C o n s tru c tio n s w ith d e :
de c o n f i n i o p a u p e r i b u s e x c l u s i s ( C y p r . ad
Donat* 1 2 , p . 1 3 ) ; c o n t e n d i t i s u t de i s t o
nomine ( s c . C h r l s t i a n o ) e x c lu d a m u r ( T e r t *
A p o l. 2,1 8 )*
e x i r e : A-3 ,3 7 9 de A f r i c a e x i t u r u m .
The c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f
de w i t h e x i r e i n d i c a t e t h e g o i n g and t h e s e p a r a t i o n when
th ere is
q u estio n of l o c a l i t i e s , of p l a c e s , of re u n io n , of
a s s e m b l i e s w h ic h p l a y e d a r o l e i n t h e p r i v a t e and p u b l i c
3
l i f e o f t h e Romans*
The c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n d £ a l s o convey
the idea of a p u b l i c o f f i c i a l le a v in g h is p o s i t i o n . ^
Be­
s i d e s , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n d £ mark t h e d e p a r t u r e w i t h no
idea of re tu r n in g * ^
0
C o n s tru c tio n s w ith d e :
q u a n d o . * . d e t r i c l i n i o t u o e x i b i s ? ( C ic *
O r . 2 , 6 5 , 2 6 3 ) ; de b a l i n e i s e x e u n t i ( C ic *
V a t * 1 3 , 2 1 ) ; de c o n v i v i o * * . e x i r e ( C u r t .
8 ,1 ,5 1 ).
e x p e l l e r e ; B .9 ,1 1 * de p r a e d i i s f u e r a t V e r g i l i u s ex p ulsus*
The u s u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h t h i s v e r b i s ex*
However C a e s a r
u s e s b o t h t h e s i m p l e a b l a t i v e and e x ; w h i l e C i c e r o u s e s
b o t h de, and e x *
17
1* Hand, op* c i t *, X I , p* 6 1 9 ; K u h n e r - S t e g m a n n , op* c i t 7 7
p . 368*
2 . G o e l z e r , op* c i t *, p . 3 3 9 ; R o s s n e r , o p * c i t *, p . 31*
3 . G u i l l e m i n , o p . c i t *, p* 13.
4* C f. e x i s s e de p o t e s t a t e ( C i c . T u s c . 4 , 3 6 , 7 7 ) ; e x i r e de
i m p e r i o (Tac* H * 3 , 6 8 ) *
5* Cf* e i v i t a t i p e r s u a s i t u t de f i n i b u s s u i s . . . e x i r e n t
(Caes. B .G * 1 ,2 ,1 )*
6* Brown, o p . c i t * , p* 9 3 ; G o e l z e r , op* c i t * , p* 33 9 ;
R o s s n e r , q p . c i t ,., p . 3 1 ; E. L o f s t e d t T ^ e r e g r i n a t i o
A e t h e r i a e , p . 103*
7* KuHner^BTegmann, op* c i t * , p . 3 6 6 .
28
C onstructions w ith d e:
e x p e l l e r e * **de f u n d o ( C i c * Q u i n e . 2 6 , 8 3 ) ; de
a r e a f C l c * A t t * 4 , 3 , 2 ) ; de p r a e d i o ( C i c . Q u i n c *
27,85)*
S e r v i u s a l s o em ploys t h e s i m p l e a b l a t i v e : A* 3 ,7 3 t e r r i s
om nibus e x p u l s a *
l i b e r a r e ; A . 1 ,5 8 3 * de m a r l s p e r i c u l o l i b e r a t e s .
T his is
a usage of th e L ate L a t i n p e r i o d ; 2
C o n stru ctio n s w ith d e ;
heredem *.*de l e g a t o (G aius I n s t * 3 ,1 7 5 ); u t
s e de v i l a t r o n u m v e l p o p u l i l i b e r a r e t
( P a u l * S e n t * ) ; de c a p t i v i t a t e l i b e r a n d u m
( T r e b . Y a l . 7 ) ; de c o r p o r e (Aug* C o n f * 7 , 2 1 , 2 7 ) *
m a n a r e ; B * 7 ,2 1 * quae de f o n t i b u s m anat* T h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n
4
i s f o u n d i n R h e t . H e r * , Ho t *, Aug*.
5
C on stru ctio n s w ith d e :
de s i m p l i c i g e n e r e ( R h e t , H e r * 4 , 2 7 , 3 8 ) ;
l a c r i m a r u m g e n u s quod m a n at de c o n c u s s o
s p i r i t u (Aug* Conf* 9 , 1 3 , 3 4 ) *
p e l l e r e : B . 3 , 1 de suo a g r o p e l l i t u r .
T h is usage i s
p o e t i c a l and L a t e L a t i n *
C o n stru c tio n s w ith d e ; ^
p u l s i s de l i t o r e c u n c t l s . ** P o e n i s { S i l . l 6 ,
5 9 2 ) ; de l o c i s Y a l e r i a e p u l s i s u n t h o s t e s
( R u f i n . 8 ) ; p a l a n t e s e r r o r c e r t o de t r a m l t e
p e l l i t (H o r.S a t* 2 ,3 ,4 9 ).
p e n d e r e ; A *2,546 * de summo c l i p e i p e n d e r e t ; A * 4 ,2 1 6 hoc
e s t i n c u r v o p i l l e o , de quo p e n d e b a t e t i a m b u c c a r u m
teginien*
T h e s e c o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h _de a p p e a r i n t h e p r o s e
and i n t h e p o e t r y o f t h e A u g u s t a n Age o r a l i t t l e
1*
2*
3*
4*
5*
6.
after
B r o w n , op* c . i t *, p» 9 3 .
T .L .L * Y,507^CJG o e l z e r , op* c i t * , p . 3 3 9 ; H r d l i c k a , op* c i t * , p* 165*
T .L .L * Y ,4 6 ,4 T T "
H r d l i c k a , op* c i t *, p . 1 6 5 .
G o e l z e r , op* c i t . , p . 3 4 0 .
i n H o r a c e an d I n F e t r o n i u s .
1
1
p r o c e d e r e : 1 . 8 , 2 3 * quae de s o l e p r o c e d l t .
The C l a s s i c a l
a u t h o r s u s e ex w i t h p r o c e d e r e . 2
C o n s tru c tio n s w ith d e : 3
de a g r o ( T J l p . D i g . 4 3 , 1 6 , 1 ,. 2 4 ) ; Apul*
M et.3 ,2 4 .
p r o f i d s c l : A . 1 , 2 p r o f e e t u s de S i c i l i a ; A . 1 , 2 3 5 B a r d a n u s
enim de I t a l i a p r o f e e t u s e s t ; A . 3 , 1 0 4 de C o r y t h o ; A .3 , 1 0 8 *
de G r e t a .
T h ese u s e s b e l o n g t o t h e f a m i l i a r l a n g u a g e
p;
C o n stru ctio n s w ith d e : °
de f o m i a n o p r o f i c i s c e m u r ( C i c . A t t . 2 , 8 , 2 ) ;
cum .. .d e P u t e o la n o * . . p r o f i c i s c e t u r ( C ic .
A tt.1 5 ,1 ,3 ).
p u g n a r e : A . 9 , 7 0 2 p u g n a t u r de t u r r i b u s .
T h is I s a usage
b e lo n g in g to t h e m i l i t a r y language*
S
C o n stru c tio n s w ith d e ;
e t i a m s i e e c i d l t , de genu p u g n a t f s e n . D i a l .
1 , 2 , 8 } ; de m u r i s . . . p u g n a r e ( I I . L a t . 7 6 6 } ;
p u g n a r e de muro ( P a u l . P e s t . p . 1 4 4 ) .
r a p e r e : A .8 , 6 3 5 * e a s r a p I de s p e c t a c u l o f e c i t .
i s found v e r y o fte n In p o e t r y ;
T h is use
I t e x p r e s s e s a movement
d em anding f o r c e o r r a p i d i t y .
R a p e r e de i s s e l d o m met. i n
7
p r o s e e x c e p t when i t h a s a p o e t i c a l c o l o r i n g .
I t is also
found i n L a te L a t i n .
R
C o n s t r u c t i o n s with, d e : 9
n a v i u m p r a e f e c t o s . . . d e Gomplexu p a r e n t u m
su o ru m r a p u i s t l ( C i c . V e r r . 2 , 5 , 5 2 ) ; a n i m a m .. .
1.
2.
3.
4 ..
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
G u ille m in , op. c i t . , p . 8 7 .
K uhner-Stegm ann, op. c i t . , I I , 1 ,3 6 3 .
T .L .L . 1 ,4 8 ,7 0 .
G u i l l e m i h , . o p . c i t . „ p . 42.
Brown., o p . c i t . , p . 9 5 .
T .L .L . ¥74471^.
G u ille m in , op. c i t . t pp. 19-20, n o t e .
T .L .L . 1 ,5 1 ,3 0 -3 2 .
Brown, o p . c i t . . , p . 9 6 ; H r d l i c k a , o p . c i t . , p . 1 6 5 .
J
30
c a e s o de c o r p o r e r a p t a m ( O v . M o t . 15*840};
r a p e r e . . . d e l i t o r e ( S I 1 . 9 , 1 9 7 ) ; r a p u i t de
v i t i b u s u v a s (A us. R p i s . 3 , 3 ) ; d e x t e r a t u a
r a p t u r a me de e a ns'e o ( Aug. C o n f . 6 * 1 6 * 2 6 ) .
r e o e d e r e : At 3*63 r e e e d e n t e s de a l i i s .
is ra re
T his c o n s t r u c t i o n
in C la ssic a l l a t in ;
i t i s S i l v e r and L a t e Latin.**’
C o n stru ctio n s w ith de: 2 ‘
Cic,. S * R o s e . 1 1 2 ; v a n a q u e r e c e d i t ab i r a
e t ta n ta d e 'c la d e r a t i s (Y al. P I . 8,375};
de c u r i a r e c e d e r e ( C ap. M. A u r . 1 0 ) ; ( m e t u s }
r e c e s s i t d e p e c t o r e meo ( Aug. C o n f . 6 , 1 6 * 2 6 ) *
S e r v i u s a l s o em ploys t h e e x p r e s s i o n r e c e d e r e a b : A . 12*266
ab Homeri o e c o n o m i a ' r e c e s s i t ; B . 8 , 2 9 r e e e d e n t e s a t u r p i
s e rv itio '.
T his is the u su a l c o n s tr u c tio n w ith re c e d e re
r e d i r e : A . 7 , 6 9 7 * cum de H i s p a n i a r e d i r e t .
T his i s a
c o n s t r u c t i o n t a k e n fro m t h e f a m i l i a r l a n g u a g e * ,
found
It
is
i n t h e l a r l y and L ate L a t i n p e r i o d s . 4
C onstructions w ith d e ; 5
lam r e d i i de e x i l i o ( P l a u t . M e r c . 947} dum
de Cosano r e d i r e t ( C i c . A t t . 1 5 , 2 7 , 1 ) ; cum
de p r o v i n c i a A e l i u s ' r e d ' i s s e t ( S p a r t . Y e r . 4 ) ;
A u r e l i a n o de G a r r i s r e d e u n t e (Fop* F i r . 5 )
de P e r s i d e r e d i e n s v i c t o r ( R u f i n . 2 2 ) ; de
p r a n d i o r e d e u n t i b u s (Aug*' C o n f . 6 , 8 * 1 3 ) .
r e m o v e r e ; A . 4*9 de. u s u r e m o v i t .
compounded w i t h r e i s n o t u s u a l .
The u s e o f de w i t h v e r b s
However we m u st n o t e
i t s u s e i n . t h e w e l l known p h r a s e de m e d i o . ^
C o n s tru c tio n w ith de:
de q u i n c u n c e r e m o t e e s t u n c i a ( H o r . A . P . 3 2 7 ) .
1.
2.
3.
4*
5.
6*
T .L .L * Y , 4 9 , 1 0 .
H r d l i c k a , o p . c i t . , p . 1 64.
T .L .L . I,1UT
T .L .L * Y , 4 9 .
R o s s n e r , op* c i t . * p . 3 2 .
C f . d e c l a m a t i o n e s i s t a s .de. m e dio removeamus ( S e n . Luc*
8 3 , 1 4 ) ; G u i l l e m i n , op* c i t . » p . 4 2 .
31
r
1
'
r e v e H e r e : A . 9 , 4 4 6 non e s t r e v u l s u s de l o c o *
T h i s con­
s t r u c t i o n i s g e n e r a lly p o e tic a l.'* '
C o n stru c tio n s w ith d e :
r e v e l l e r e . . .de corpore r * p . t e l a {G ie*
P i s .1 1 ,2 5 ) ; titu lu m . c h a r t a e de f r o n t s
(Ov. F o n t . 4 , 1 3 , 7 ) ; av.ias de pulmone
( P e r s . 5 , 9 2 ) ; im p e riu m de s t i r p e ( C l a u d .
5 , 2 0 7 ) ; de f r o n t e r e v u l s u s ( Y e r g . A . 4 , 5 1 5 ) .
s u b r e p e r e ( s u r r i p e r e ) : A . 6 , 4 2 7 de p r i m a s u b r e p t i s u n t v i t a .
T h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n i s f o u n d i n E a r l y L a t i n and i n t h e p o e t s .
C on stru ctio n s w ith d e:
de f u n d o . . . o l e a m s u r r i p u i s s e C C a t o A g r . 1 4 5 , 2 ) ;
t e s u r r i p u i s s e . . . I o v i coronam de c a p a t e
( P l a u t . T r i . 8 3 ); s u r r i p u i s t i . . .de f o r o ( P l a u t .
M e n.4 9 1 ) ; de m i l l e f a b a e m o d i i s cum s u r r i p i s
xmum{ H o r . E p i s . 1 , 1 6 , 5 5 ) .
s u m e r e : A . 5 , 8 5 de Homero s u m p s i t .
E arly L a tin ,
T his use i s found in
i n t h e p o e t s and i n L a t e L a t i n .
C o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h de
i s t i c e s t de s o l e s u m p t u s ( E n n . S a t . 5 2 ) ;
s u m e r e . . . d e t h e s a u r o ( P l a u t . T r i . 786.) ; de
l o v i s t e m p i o to g a m (Lamp. A. S e v . 3 9 ) ; de
f l u m i n e tantumdem. ( H o r . S a t . 1 , 1 , 5 5 ) ; de
f r o n t e coronam (0v.M et. 8 , 1 7 8 ) .
s u r g e r e : G . 1 , 3 7 5 de v a l l i b u s s u r g e r e .
i s m ainly p o e t i c a l ; i t
T his c o n s tr u c tio n
5
i s a l s o found in L a te L a t i n .
C o n s tru c tio n s w ith de:
s u r g e r e de t e r r a n e b u l a s . . . v i d e m u s ( L u c r .
6 , 4 7 7 ) ; de t e r r a s u r g u n t ( n u b e s ) ( L u c r . 4 ,
1133).; s u r g e r e de a e c u s a t i o n i s s u b s e l l i o
( C i c . S . R o s e . 1 0 4 ) ; de somno s u r g e r e ( Y u l g .
ad Romanos 1 3 , 1 1 ) .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
L.
T .L .L . Y ,5 3 ,5 0 .
T .L .L . Y ,5 3 ,3 8 .
T .L .L . Y ,5 1 ,4 0 ; Y ,1087,1078.
Brown, o p . c i t . , p . 9 7 ; G o e l z e r , o p .
c i t . , p . 340.
T .L .L . Y ,44; G u ille m in , op. c i t . , p . 26.
J
2
/
n
t o l l e r e : A . 6 , 6 2 5 s u b le " tu s de Homero; A . 1 , 1 0 q u i a de T 'r o ia
su stu lit.
T his c o n s t r u c t i o n i s found c h i e f l y in t h e K arly
and h a t e L a t i n p e r i o d s . 1
C o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h de* 2
c o n e o r d i a de c i v i f a t e s u b l a t a e s t ( R h e t . H e r .
4 ,1 3 ,1 9 ) ; o le u m .. .d e c o r tin a (C a to A g r.6 6 ,2 ).
B u t S e r v i u s a l s o em ploys t h e s i m p l e a b l a t i v e : A. 11,8-0
spolium d i c i t u r q u icq u id h o s ti b u s t o l l i t u r .
u s u r p a r e : A . £ , 6 6 9 * de f e r i i s . . . u s u r p a r i . T h i s u s a g e i s
<3C
e s p e c i a l l y L ate L a t i n .
4
C o n stru ctio n w ith d e :
de a n a t h e m a t e u s u r p a r e ( ¥ u l g . I o s . 7 , 1 ) .
v e n i r e : A . 1 , 1 2 de T yro v e n i s s e .
The u s e o f de w i t h v e n i r e
m a rk s n o t o n l y t h e d e p a r t u r e b u t may a l s o d e n o t e t h e o r i g i n
o f some p e r s o n o r o f some o b j e c t .
The c o n s t r u c t i o n v e n i r e
de i s s c a r c e l y m et b e f o r e 0 v i d f s t i m e and b e l o n g s t o p o e t r y
R
an d .a lm o st e x c lu s iv e ly to th e p ro se o f L ate L a ti n .
6
C o n s tru c tio n s w ith d e :
v e n i r e . . . . i n mare de t e r r i s ( L u c r . 6 , 6 6 3 ) ; de
c o n t i o n e ve.ni.reC C i c . G l u . 3 4 , 9 3 ) ; v e n i t c a n i s
de g r e g e p r a e d a l u p i s ( Ov.Am.1 , 8 , 5 6 ) ; Camenarum
de g r e g e . . . v e n i s ( M e r t . 6 , 4 7 , 4 } ; de c a s t r i s . . .
v e n i r e ( C a p . P e r t . 4 e t 1 1 ) ; de C a m p a n i a . . .
v e n i t ( C a p . M. A u r . 1 0 ) .
v i n d i c a r e : A . 1 1 , 2 4 5 ^ de omnibus v i n d i c a r e n t u r .
7
s t r u c t i o n i s f o u n d i n S i l v e r and L a t e L a t i n .
T his con-
1. T . L . L . ¥ , 4 7 , 2 0 .
2. Brow n, o p . c i t . , p . 9 6 ; G o e l z e r , o p . c i t . , p .
R ossner, op. c i t . , p. 31.
3. T .L .L . ¥ ,5 1 ,4 5 ; 1,5 1
4 . R o s s n e r , o p . c i t . , p . 39 c i t e s ¥ a r r o L . L . 6 , 5 2 :
p o s t e r i t u s u r pandum. w h e r e he p o i n t s o u t t h a t
■» d i c e r e .
5. G u ille m in , o p . c i t . , pp. 4, 29; T .L .L . ¥ , 4 5 , 5 .
6 . Brown, o p . c i t . , p . 9 8 ; G o e l z e r , o p . c i t . , p .
7. K u h n e r -H to g m a n n , o p . c i t . , X I , 1 , 4 9 8 .
340;
de ho c
usurpare
340.
J
33
C onstructions w ith d e ; 1
v i n d i c a r e . . . de m a i l s i m p e r a t o r i b u s
( P l i n . T r a j . 5 3 , 5 ) ; u t S u l l a de M a r i o
v i n d i c a r e t u r ( F l o r . 3 , 2 1 , 1 9 ) ; de v o b i s
(Lamp. A. S e v . 5 3 ) ; de i l l i s (Aug. C o n f.
1 ,6 1 8 ).
C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f o r e g o i n g i s t h e u s e o f de
m a r k i n g t h e movement f r o m h i g h t o lo w .
T h i s u s e o f d£
i s o r d i n a r i l y reg ard ed as i t s p ro p e r f u n c t i o n .
we s e e i t s u s e i n i t s
sense.
Here to o
l i t e r a l and a l s o i n i t s f i g u r a t i v e
S e r v iu s has th e f o llo w in g :
A*1»S* t a c t a m de c a e l o ;
A . 2 , 1 6 7 * de c a e l o l a p s a m ; A .4 , 1 6 7 * de c a e l o s e r v a t u m e s t .
T h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s and s i m i l a r o n e s b e l o n g t o t h e l a n g u a g e
o f c u l t and a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y f o u n d b o t h i n p r o s e and
p o etry .^
The f o l l o w i n g i s an example o f t h e u s e o f de
i n i t s f i g u r a t i v e s e n s e ; A . 4 , 2 2 1 * de mem cria e x c i d i t .
B.
The Use o f de t o D e n o te t h e B i r t h o r O r i g i n
V erbs d e n o tin g b i r t h in i t s p r o p e r s e n s e , a s :
n a s c i , g t g n e r e , are g e n e r a l l y used in p ro se w ith th e ab­
l a t i v e alone. ( C i c e r o an d C a e s a r ) .
Tn P o e t r y t h i s u s a g e
i s f r e q u e n t , e s p e c i a l l y v^ith t h e p a r t i c i p l e s p l a y i n g t h e
r o l e of s u b s t a n t i v e s ( V i r g i l , H orace, O v i d ) . 4
The con­
s t r u c t i o n o f _de w i t h n a s c i i s t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t o f a l l ,
T . H r d l i c k a , o p . c i t . , p . 165 ; Ro s s n e r , o p . c it" . , p . 1 1 .
2. T .L .L . V ,44 -5 4 .
3 . C f. G u i l l e m i n , p p . c i t . , p . 88 l a m^moire a p p a r a i s s a i t
...c o m m e une h a u t e u r d*ou l ' o u b l i p r e c i p i t e l e s o b j e t s .
C f . de memoria l a b i (Aug. C o n f . 6 , ? , 1 2 ) .
4. V i r g i l com pletely ignored th e c o n s tr u c tio n s n a s c i d e ,
g i g n e r e d e , e t c . , b u t he c o n t r i b u t e d more t h a n a l l
o t h e r s t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e g r o u p s : de g e n t e , de
s t i r p e „ de s a n g u i n e t o s e r v e a s t h e complement o f v e r b s
in d icatin g b ir th .
G u ille m in , op. c i t . , p . 32.
34
ra s a complement w h ich d e n o t e s n o t o n l y p e r s o n s b u t a l s o
1
t h e s u b s t a n c e w hich h a s b e e n t h e p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e o f t h e
developm ent.
The c o n s t r u c t i o n a c c o m p a n i e s t h e p o e t i c
synonyms o f n a s c i , a s :
g ig n ere, e d i t a , c re a tu s, e tc .
1
P ro s e s in c e P la u tu s avoided th e s e c o n s tru c tio n s bu t i n
l a t e L a t i n de became t h e h a b i t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h n a s c i . ^
The u s e o f de w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g v e r b s f o u n d i n S e r v i u s i s
r a r e i n p r o s e and e s p e c i a l l y i n C l a s s i c a l
A. P r a e f .
nata
e s t de J u l i a ;
prose:
n asci:
A . 1 ,4 3 1 * de s i n g u l i s ; A . 2 , 4 4 *
de M e r c u r i o ; A . 2 ,2 5 0 de O ceano; A . 3 ,1 2 1 * de s e m i n e ; A . 6 , 1 0 7
de a e s t u a r i i s ; A . 7 , 6 6 2 * de s a n g u i n e ; B . 2 , 6 1 de c a p i t e
lo v is; e tc .
C o n stru c tio n s w ith d e : 3
I l i a cum L auso de N u m i t o r e s a t i (Ov. P a s t . 4*
5 4 ) ; e t i a m de C l e o p a t r a l i b e r i s i n t e r h e r e d e s
n u n c u p a tis { S u et. A ug.17); cu i (H e rc u li) t o t
e a e s a h o s t i u m c a p i t a de s a n g u i n e suo r e n a s c u n t u r ( F l o r . 1 , 1 8 , 1 9 ) ; o r t u s S a r r a n a . . . .de
g e n t e ( S i l . 1 , 7 1 ) ; magni de s t i r p e c r e a t u m
Oeneos ( S t . T h . 1 , 4 6 3 ) .
S e r v i u s u s e s de w h e r e we w o u ld o r d i n a r i l y e x p e c t a b :
A . 5 , 7 2 * g r a v i d a q u e de eo e s s e t f a c t a . 4
P l a u t u s and
T e r e n c e employ g r a v i d a e x . ^
C. The Use o f de t o D e n o te t h e Cause o r R e ason
I n C l a s s i c a l L a t i n c a u s e was u s u a l l y e x p r e s s e d by
1 . C f . g e n i t u s de s a m in e l o v i s (Ov. M e t . 1 , 7 4 8 ) .
2. Cf; n a s c i . . . d e M a r i a v i r g i n e (Aug. C o n f . 5 , 1 0 , 2 0 ) ;
G o e l z e r , o p . c i t . , p . 340.
3 . Brown, o p . c i t . , p . 9 8 ; H r d l i c k a , o p . c i t . , p . 166.
4 . C f. g r a v i d a m . . . d e se m in e m agni l o v i s ( A u s .M e t , 3 , 2 6 0 ) .
5 . F . P r a d e l , "De p r a e p o s i t i o n u m I n p r i s c a L a t i n i t a t e
v i atque u s u ," Ja h rb u e h e r fflr d l a s s i s c h e P h ilo lo g i e ,
26 ( 1 9 0 1 ) , 5 4 0 .
L
J
35
r-
~j
t h e s i m p l e a b l a t i v e e x c e p t i n a few w e l l known p h r a s e s
w ith ca u sa.
However, i n p o e t r y , i n S i l v e r an d L a t e L a t i n
de i s f o u n d w i t h a number o f o t h e r p h r a s e s t o d e n o t e cause*
In th is
are
r e l a t i o n de s o m e tim e s r e p l a c e d p e r o r ©.x*^ T h e s e
met i n S e r v i u s :
A *l,£9
a c c e n s a de h i s ;
A*1 , 9 2 de
G a lo r e e t de f r i g o r e u r e r e d i c i m u s ; A . 1 , 4 8 0 de qua r e
e u p h o n i a i u d i c a t ; A - 1 , 5 2 0 * a u c t o r i t a s de a e t a t e e t de
m oribus c r e s c a t *
C o n stru ctio n s w ith d e : ^
l a e t u s e s t de arnica (T er., Ad. 2, 2, 4 4 ) ;
de H o r t e n s i o t e c e r t o s c i o d o l e r e
(C ic ., B o r t . 6 , 6 ) ; de e a e d e c r u e n t u s
(Ov* H e r . 1 5 , 2 0 ? ) ; T h r a s y l l u s v e r o
p r a e c e p s a l i o q u i n e t de i p s o nomine
t e m e r a r i u s (A pul* M e t . 8 , 2 9 ) ; f a c i l i u s
de o d i o c r e d i t u r (Tac* H i s t . 1 , 3 4 ; ) h a e c
de v u l n e r e meo c r e v e r a n t (Aug. C o n f *7,
7 ,1 1 ).
D.
The Use o f _de t o D en o te t h e Means o r I n s t r u m e n t
T h i s i n s t r u m e n t a l u s e o f de shows a n e n c r o a c h m e n t on
t h e domain o f t h e p u r e a b l a t i v e *
I t i s thro u gh th e i n t e r ­
m e d i a r y o f t h e i d e a o f d e p a r t u r e t h a t the- p r e p o s i t i o n de
h a s b e e n a b l e t o be e x t e n d e d t o t h o s e c o n s t r u c t i o n s f o r
w h i c h , d u r i n g t h e c l a s s i c a l Age, t h e a b l a t i v e a l o n e
3
sufficed*
T h i s u s e o f _de i s met s e v e r a l t i m e s i n E a r l y
L atin ;
it
i s a l m o s t unknown i n c l a s s i c a l p r o s e ; i t became
4
fre q u e n t in L a te r L a tin .
T h is usage i s re g a rd e d as
1* H and, op* c i t *, I I , pp* 216-219*
2* T*L*L* V, 65; Brown, o p . c i t * , p . 1 0 1 ; G o e l z e r , o p * c i t *,
p* 3 4 1 ; H r d l i c k a , o p . c i t * , p . 170; L * - H o f * , op. c i t * ,
p* 526*
3* G u i l l e m i n , op * c i t *, p * 5 4 ; L * -H o f * , o p * c i t *, p * 4 3 7 , 526*
4* Cf* T*L*L* V , 6 3 , 6 0 . O v id was p r o b a b l y t h e f i r s t t o employ
t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n * C f. Hand, o p . c i t * , I I , p . 2 2 0 .
J
56
J
p.
a r c h a i c and f a m i l i a r .
S erv iu s f u r n is h e s the fo llo w in g :
A.1 * 1 6 4 de f r o n d i b u s u m b r a c u l a q u a e r e b a n t ; A . 2 ,2 9 0 * de
oulmo a e d i f i c i a c o n t e g e b a n t ; A.8 , 3 4 3 * p u e l l a e de l o r o
c a p r i c a e d u n t u r : A.8,,436 a l i i . . . d e
c o rio serpentum d i c e r e
eum arma e s s e l e v i g a t a ; B . 1 0 , 2 7 f a o i e m de r u b r i c a i n l i n u n t ;
A . 10*154* p r o p t e r porcum q u i de l a p i d e f e r i t u r ; G. 1*270
n i s i l a v e n t u r a n i m a l i a de i n r i g a t i o n e ; G.3*313 q u i a de
c i l i c i i s . . .p o liu n tu r lo r ie a e .
C o n stru c tio n s w ith d e ; 2
p e r c u s s a m q u e s u a s i m u l a t de c u s p i d e t e r r a m
(Ov, M e t . 6*.80); c o r o n a m . . . p i c t u r a t a m de
museo ( T r e b . 3 0 T . 2 4 ) ;
o s i o c c i d a s e o s de g l a d l o b i s a c u t o t (Aug.
C o n f . 1 2 * 1 4 ) ; de t e n e r o c i n g i t e f l o r e c a p u t
(Ov. F . 5 , 2 5 4 ) ; s u c i n o r u m r a p t a de manu g l e b a
( M a r t.5,.37*11).
The f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n s may be c o n s i d e r e d a s a b l a t i v e s
o f means:
A . 2 , 1 1 6 de a n i m a l i b u s e s t s a c r i f i c a n d u m ; A . 4 , 5 4 3 ;
A . 7*3 06; A . 1 1 * 6 ; A . I S , 120; B . 2 , 7 0 ; G . 1 , 3 4 4 ; G . 2 * 146; A . 9 , 6 2 4
de t a u r o non i m m o l a b a t u r ; A . 5 , 7 7 u t l i b a r e t de m e r o . 3
f
C o n s tru c tio n s w ith de:
de p a r v a . . . l i b a t a c c e r a ( o v . P o n t . 4 , 8 * 3 9 ) ;
q u i . . . s a c r i f i c a r e n t de a n i m a l i b u s (A ug. C o n f .
3 ,7 ,1 2 ).
E.
The Use o f d £ i n P a r t i t i v e C o n s t r u c t i o n s
De p a r t i t i v e , w h ic h becomes more and more f r e q u e n t ,
b e c a u s e i t p e r m i t s t h e a v o i d i n g o f an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f
1 . H. G o e l z e r , Le l a t i n de S t . A v i t , p . 186.
2 . Brown* o p . c i t . * p . 9 9; G o e l z e r , S t . J £ r 6 m e ,; p . 3 4 1 ;
H rdlicka* op. c i t . , p . 168.
3 . S e r v i u s a l s o em ploys t h e s i m p l e a b l a t i v e a s w e l l a s
t h e p r e p o s i t i o n ex. and t h e a b l a t i v e w i t h s a c r i f i c a r e :
B . 7 , 2 1 * a q u a e t l a c t e s a c r i f i c a r e s o l e t ; A . 1*632 q u i a
p a u p e r t a s m aiorum ex: c o n l a t i o n e s a c r i f i c a b a t .
37
"
g e n i t i v e s , i s found i n a l l a g e s o f t h e L a t i n l a n g u a g e .
The p r e p o s i t i o n o f t e n c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e p a r t i t i v e g e n i ­
t i v e and i s t h u s e m p lo y ed w i t h s u b s t a n t i v e s w h ic h s i g n i f y
a p a r t o r q u a n t i t y , w i t h n o u n s o f number,, p r o n o u n s , s u p e r ­
l a t i v e s , an d v e r b s . ^
becomes v e r y r a r e ,
Among t h e p r o s e w r i t e r s de p a r t i t i v e
on e m e e t s i t s p o r a d i c a l l y i n P l i n y t h e
Y o u n g e r , S e n e c a and s e v e r a l o t h e r s .
I t reappears in P e-
t r o n i u s and i s f r e q u e n t among t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l w r i t e r s .
I n g e n e r a l one may s a y t h a t i t
i s much more f r e q u e n t among
t h e p o e t s t h a n among t h e p r o s e w r i t e r s .
P a r t i t i v e de
a t t a c h e s i t s e l f t o c e r t a i n e x p r e s s i o n s and i s e s p e c i a l l y
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e serrno c o t i d i a n u s . ^
f o l l o w i n g were n o t e d :
In S ervius th e
A . 1 , 8 5 de q u i b u s n u n c t r e s p o n i t ;
A . 1 , 1 3 2 unus de T i t a n i b u s ; A . 1 ,3 4 0 * cuicum que de A f r i s
r e g i b u s n u b e r e ; A * l , 3 4 3 de h i s a l i q u i d m u t i l a t ; A . 1 , 7 3 8 ;
A . 2 , 3 5 * ; A*2 , 5 0 3 de t h a l a m i s numerum e x p r e s s i t ; A . 3 , 2 2 2
de p r a e d a d e b e t u r a l i q u i d ; A . 3 , 2 7 5 a l i q u e m de n a u t i s ;
A . 3 , 3 2 1 * n i h i l de p r a e d a ; A * 3 ,5 4 8 ; A .4 , 1 1 9 * ; A . 5 , 3 0 * ;
A . 6 ,3 2 4 * q u i s de d i i s ; G . 1 , 3 5 4 p a u c a de m u l t i s ; G . 4 , 1 0 7
q u i s q u a m de e x e r c i t u ; A * 4 ,6 5 4 n e e e s t qu icquam r e l i q u u m
* •n o m*i n e . 5
de
T . P . C l a i r i n , D u g e h i t i f l a t i n e t de l a p r e p o s i t i o n d e ,
p . 91.
2. T .L .L . V 56; S a lo n iu s , op. c i t . , p p . 8 9 -9 4 ; L .- H o f .,
p . 39 2 .
3. G uillem in, op. c i t . , p . 72.
4 . T . F i t z Hugh, nA Q u e s t i o n a b l e t r a d i t i o n i n L a t i n
H i s t o r i c a l S y n t a x , * TAPA; 28 ( 1 8 9 7 ) , 3 6 ? ; ,
5 . T h is c o n s t r u c t i o n i s found ihH farro. and r e s u l t s from
h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c b r e v i t y o f s p e e c h : r e l i q u u m e s t de
s c i e n t i a p a s t o r a l ! (R .R .2 ,1 ,1 1 ) . R o ssn er, o p . c i t . ,
p . 4.0, p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e r e i s an e l l i p s i s o f d i c a m u s , J
e . g . r e l i q u u m e s t , u t d ie a m u s d e .
38
r
"i
S e rv iu s a ls o avoids th e p r e p o s i t i o n a l c o n s tr u c tio n : A .5,
389 unum T r o i a n o r u m ; G .2 , 1 6 9 quorum unus f u i t s e p t i e s
consul*
1
C o n s tru c tio n s w ith de:
de s e n a t u . . . q u e m v i s ( P l a u t . R u d . 7 1 3 ) ; a l i q u e m
de s o c i e t a t e t u a ( C i c . R o s e . A . 3 3 , 9 3 } ; unus
de t u r b a (Aug. C o n f . 5 , 8 , 1 3 ) ; duo de numero
n o s t r o ( Y e r g . A . 3 , 6 2 5 ) ; unum d e n u m e r o . . . t u o
(Ov. T r . 5 , 3 , 4 4 ) ; d i m i d i u m . . . d e p r a e d a ( P l a u t .
P s e u d . 1 1 6 4 } ; q u a t t u o r de f l u m f n i b u s apud
i n f e r o s quae s i n t ( Y a r r o L i n g . 7 , 3 7 ) ; u n u s . . .
de i l l i s ( C i c . M i l . 2 4 , 6 5 ) ; unus de n o b i s
( P e t r . S a t . 4 4 ) ; p a u c i de n o s t r i s ( C a e s .
B .G .1 ,1 5 ,2 ).
F . The Use o f de t o D enote t h e M a t t e r o f Which a T h i n g
i s Made
The p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e o f an o b j e c t c a n b e t h e ma­
t e r i a l o f w h ich I t I s made.
T herefore I t i s n a tu r a l to
e n c o u n t e r t h e p r e p o s i t i o n de c o n s t r u e d w i t h t h e complement
of m aterial.
tio n .
D£ i s n o t a l o n e em ployed I n t h i s c o n s t r u c ­
C l a s s i c a l w r i t e r s u s u a l l y u s e ex;; t h e e p i c p o e t s
o f t e n t h e s i m p l e a b l a t i v e ; de how ever o c c u r s i n t h e
p o e t r y o f t h e S i l v e r Age and i n L a t e L a t i n . 2
The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p le s t a k e n f ro m t h e Commentary a r e
s u f f i c i e n t , I t h i n k , t o show S e r v i u s * p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h i s
u s e : A . 1 , 4 3 0 * de f l o r e e r a n t f a c t a ; A . 2 , 1 3 3 de h o r n a f r u g e
f i e b a t ; A . 3 ,5 5 3 * de navium f r a g m e n t i s c i v i t a t e m s i b i
fecisse;
fieret;
A . 5 , 6 0 7 quae f i t
de n u b i b u s ; A . 6 , 2 3 0 de l a u r o
A .8 , 6 2 3 l o r i c a de d i v e r s i s m e t a l l i s f i e r i ;
A .9,8 7
1 . Brown, o p . c i t . , p.. 9 8 ; G o e l z e r , S t . J e r o m e , p . 5.42;
H r d l i c k a , op. c i t . , p . 167; R o s s n e r , o p . c i t . , p . 40.
2 . G u i l l e m i n , o p . c i t . , p . 56; H and, o p . c i t y , I I ,
p p . 1 9 9 - 2 0 0 ; T . L . L . Y , 5 9 - 6 1 ; S a l o n i u s , o p . c i t . , p . 2 0 6;
iL . - H o f . , p . 525,529.
-j
39
r
i
de a c e r e n a v e s non f i u n t ; 3 . 8 , 3 7 * v e s t e m de l a n i s f i e r i ;
G . 2 , 4 0 8 vinum f a c t u m de u v i s ; G . 3 , 2 4 s e a e n a de l i g a i s
fieb at *
C o n stru ctio n s w ith d e : ^
l u t u m de arnurca f a c i t o ('Cato A g r * 9 2 ) ;
f a c e r e . . . d e eruo f a r i n a m (Cato A g r.1 0 9 ) ;
f a c e r e * . * i n s t r u m e n t a de c a n n a b i ( Y a r r o
R . R . 1 , 2 2 , 1 ) ; de qua o le u m ( Y a r r o R*R*1,
5 5 , 5 ) ; de f r o n d e t e c t a ( Y i t r . 2 , 1 , 2 ) ;
m a n u c io lu m de s t r a m e n t i s ( P e t r * S a t * 6 5 ) ;
f u n e s de c a p i l l i s ( C a p . M a x .1 , 7 ) ; d e f l o r e
coronam ( T i b * 2 , 1 , 5 9 ) ; de marmore s ig n u m
(Ov. M e t . 1 4 , 3 1 3 ) ; de p u l v e r e hominem
CAug. Conf * 1 0 , 3 1 , 4 5 ) .
S e r v i u s l i k e w i s e u s e s de an d t h e a b l a t i v e a f t e r c o n s t a r e «
to denote
th e com position of a t h in g .
i s found
i n L u c r e t i u s and L a t e L a t i n *
t h e f o l l o w i n g were n o t e d :
T his c o n s tru c tio n
I n t h e Commentary
A *2,272 de p l u r i b u s c o n s t a n t ;
A . 4 , 5 8 4 de a t o m i s d i c u n t c o n s t a r e ; A*6,747 c o n s t a t de
lig n o e t a e re .
C o n stru ctio n s w ith d e :
s e m p e r . . . p a r t u s d u p l i c i de s e m in e c o n s t a t
( L u c r . 4 , 1 2 2 9 ) ; q u a e ( m u s i e a ) de l o n g i s e t
b r e v i b u s a c u t i s e t g r a v i b u s c o n s t a t (Apul*
M u n d . 2 0 ) ; i l i a , de q u i b u s domus c o n s t a t
( L a c t . I n s t . 2 , 5 , 4 1 ) ; de p a r t i c u l i s i n t e r
se s i m i l i b u s * *. p u t a v i t c o n s t a r e omnia
(A ug.C iv.8 ,2 ) *
I n a d d i t i o n , S e r v i u s em ploys t h e s i m p l e a b l a t i v e a f t e r
co n stare:
P r a e f . A* q u i c o n s t a t a l t o serm one m a g n i s q u e
s e n t e n t i i s ; A .8 , 4 0 5 * f a b r i c a Y u l c a n i d uobus c o n s t a t .
1 . Brown, o p . c i t . , p . 9 9 ; G o e l z e r , op* c i t . , p . 5 4 2 ;
H r d l i c k a , o p . c i t * , p* 167*
2 . T .L .L * Y , 6 0 , 5 0 .
L.
J
G. The Use o f d e i n V a r i o u s C o n s t r u c t i o n s
I . The u s e o f de t o mark t h e r e l a t i o n ,
De i s u s e d w i t h t h e a b l a t i v e a f t e r v e r b s w h ic h show
an o p e r a t i o n o f t h e i n t e l l e c t , e . g . d l c e r e , d u b i t a r e , e t c #
I n t h i s u s e o f de t h e a c c u s a t i v e h a s b e e n r e p l a c e d .
I t is
p e r h a p s t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t u s e o f t h i s p r e p o s i t i o n co m p a r a /
b l e i n t h i s s e n s e w i t h t h e G re e k 7T<s>jo c . x t
f o u n d con­
s t r u e d w i t h a l a r g e number o f n e u t e r o r t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s
o f v a r i o u s m eanings p a r t i c u l a r l y th o s e r e l a t i n g to th o u g h t
or speech.
The C l a s s i c a l a u t h o r s o f t e n u s e d i t t o d e s i g ­
n a t e w i t h more p r e c i s i o n t h e o b j e c t w h ic h t h e y w ere t r e a t 1
in g .
T h e s e w ere n o t e d I n S e r v i u s : A . 1 , 7 , de qua r e
e t i a m L i v i u s d u b i t a t ; A . 1 , 8 ; A , 1 , 2 8 0 * ; 1 . 5 , 1 6 9 * ; A# 3 , 4 3 8 * ;
A . 4 , 3 7 ? * ; A# 6 ,779 de condend a u r b e c e r t a r e n t ; A . 5 , 8 0 9 i n t e l l e g e r e de m a t r i b u s ; A . 3 , 1 5 1 * s c i r e de l u n a p o t u i t ;
A . 1 0 , 4 2 * l a b o r a r e de s a l u t e .
R o s s n e r m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e u s e o f _de w i t h v e r b a
s e n tie n d i e t d ic e n d i belongs to th e f a m i l i a r lan g u ag e.
C i c e r o i n h i s E p i s t l e s u s e s t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n when he; was
e m p lo y in g t h e f o rm s o f d a i l y s p e e c h . ^
S e r v i u s l i k e w i s e e m p lo y s de and t h e a b l a t i v e a f t e r
v e r b s w h ic h o r d i n a r i l y t a k e t h e s i m p l e a b l a t i v e : A #2,649*
4
5
g l o r i a t u s de c o n c u b i t u ; A . 8 , 5 3 7 de v i c t o r i a f r e t u s e s t ;
1.
2.
3.
4.
C l a i r i n , op. c l t . , p . 97.
R o ssn er, op. c i t . , p . 37.
H and, o p . c i t . , I T , p . 2 1 2 .
C f . de d l v i t i i s g l o r i a r l ( C I c . V a t . 1 2 , 2 9 ) ; de t u a i n f a mia g l o r I a r l s ( H i e r . E p i s t . 1 1 7 , 9 ) ; C f . T . L . L . V I , 2 , 2 0 , 9 5 .
5 . But S e r v i u s does n o t u s e de i n A . 6 , 5 8 2 f r e t I i t a q u e
altitu d in e.
j
41
r
n
A * 4 ,2 1 2 d e f r a u d a t u s * . . d e n u p t l a r u m p r o m l s s i o n e ; A*3,75*
1
q u i u l t u s e s t matrem de T i t y o , d e N i o b e , de F y t h o n e .
I
I I . The u s e of" de e q u i v a l e n t t o s e cu n d u m *
The i d e a R e c o r d i n g t o * , i . e .
de m o r e , was e x p r e s s e d
i n p r o s e and so m e tim e s I n p o e t r y by t h e s i m p l e a b l a t i v e . ^
3
De more a p p e a r s f o r t h e f i r s t t im e i n Y e r g i l *
I t i s used
by t h e w r i t e r s o f t h e i m p e r i a l Age and o f t h e L a t e L a t i n
p e r i o d * 41
I n t h e Commentary t h e f o l l o w i n g w e r e n o t e d :
A . 1 ,7 0 6 * de v e t e r u m more d i x l s s e ; A *3,65 de more g e n t l s ;
A . 3 , 3 7 0 de s a c r l f i c a n t u m more r e q u l r i t ; A*8,395* d e u s u
d i e t u m e s t ; A*8,544* de more l e c t a s , an de m ore m a c t a t *
I I I . The u s e o f de a f t e r nouns*
T h i s u s e i s c o n f i n e d t o t h e p o e t s and t o t h e a u t h o r s
o f t h e S i l v e r and L a t e L a t i n p e r i o d s .
Hand w r i t e s t h a t
t h e p o e t s b e c a u s e o f t h e m e t e r and t h e co m e d ia n s b e c a u s e
t h e y em ployed t h e v u l g a r s p e e c h more o f t e n u s e d t h i s c o n 5
s t r u c t i o n o f de i n s t e a d o f t h e g e n i t i v e .
The f o l l o w i n g
w e re n o t e d i n S e r v i u s :
A*1»46L s o l l i c i t u d o de m o r i b u s
e s t ; A . 1 1 , 8 4 * h a b e a t p a t e r s o l a e i u m de v i c t o r i a ; A . 5 , 6 3 9
p r o d i g i u m de b o n o ; A * ? , 345 c u r a de n u p t i i s ; A*8,S76 c o r o n a
de p o p u l o ; A . 9 , 3 6 9 * e t e s t l o c u t i o de C i c e r o n e . 6
L
1 . O f. u l c l s c l . . . d e s e n a t u ( S p a r t . S e v . i l ) .
2 . C f . Romano more l o c u t u s f C i e . ] f a m . 7 , 1 6 , 5 ) ; more p a r e n t u m
t r a d i t a . . .m u n e ra C C a t . 1 0 1 , 7 ) *
3 . Hand, op* c i t . , I I , p . 215; A * 1 0 ,8 3 1 .
4 . L*~H of. , pTl>26*
5 . Hand X I , p . 2 0 2 .
6. Cf* de r e p u b l i c a curam ( C i c . F a m . 9 , 2 0 , 1 ) ; n o s t r o de
r u r e corona ( T i b * 1 ,1 ,1 5 )♦
J
I n C l a s s i c a l L a t i n a number o f a d j e c t i v e s w e r e em­
ployed w ith th e p r e p o s it io n de, e . g . c o n s c iu s . d u b iu s. e t c .
B u t i t s u s e w i t h o t h e r a d j e c t i v e s was e x t e n d e d I n S i l v e r
and L a t e L a t i n . ^
S e r v i u s u s e s de a f t e r t h e f o l l o w i n g '
p
a d j e c t i v e s : A . 1 , 3 5 0 s e c u r u s e r a t de a a o r e p
A . 1 2 ,5 8 9 *
t r e p i d a e de s u i s r e b u s .
1 . Hand, op.. _ c i t . , I I , p . 2 18; T . L . L . Y ,7 7 , 2 1 - 7 4 .
2 . C f . de c a s t i t a t e s e c u r e ( H i e r . E p l s t . 5 4 , 8 and E p i s t .
1 2 3 , 1 5 ) ; H r d l i c k a , op * c i t . , p . 1 73; w i t h _ab i n L iv y
s e c u r a e r e s ab H a n n i b a l e ( 2 4 , 1 9 , 4 } .
43
~!
CHAPTER IV
THE PREPOSITION E o r EX
The p r e p o s i t i o n ex i n d i c a t e s t h e d e p a r t u r e and i s u s e d
i
w i t h e v e r y t h i n g w h i c h was i n some p l a c e an d g o e s t h e n c e *
A. L o c a l u s e o f e x
a b s c e d e r e ; G .2,474 a b s c e d a t e t e r r i s *
T his c o n s tru c tio n i s
f o u n d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e E a r l y and L a t e L a t i n p e r i o d s *
p
C o n s tru c tio n s w ith ex;
e f o r o ( L i v . 2 7 , 5 0 , 4 ) ; ex N i n i v e (Vulg*
T o b . 1 4 , 1 4 ) ; e p a l a t i o n o s t r o (Cod.
T h e o d . 11,16:, 14} *
a v e l l e r e : A .11,19 a v e l l e b a n t u r e t e r r a . S e r v iu s a l s o uses
th e sim p le a b l a t i v e ; A .10,383 o s s ib u s a v e l l e r e *
T his i s
the usual c o n s tru c tio n .^
d e s c e n d e r e ; A . 6 , 5 1 1 ex f a t o d e s c e n d e r © ; ex v i r t u t e
d e s c e n d e r © ; A . 1 1 , 5 8 7 ; B * 3 , 2 0 ; B *4 , 3 8 .
5
C o n stru c tio n s w ith e x ;
descendere**.© c a e lo ( J u v . l l , 2 7 ); d escen d e re
ex equo ( C a t o A g r * 3 4 ) ; L i v . 2 , 2 0 , 1 0 ; e r o s t r i s
( V a l . M a x .5 , 4 , 5 ) ; e x h a c fo rm a d e s c e n d i t
n e u t r u m ( Char*G ramm *l,8 2 , 2 9 ) *
d i s c e d e r e ; A .1,568 ex urbe d i s c e s s i t .
f*
e r u m p e r e ; A . 1 , 2 9 1 c a l i d a m aquam ex eodem l o c o e r u p i s s e ;
G *4,553 u t a p e s ex bubus e r u m p e r e n t *
T his use a p p e ars
i n S e n * , P l i n * . NT H . , M a r c e l l . l t c . ’7
I*
2.
3.
4*
5*
Hand, op* c i t . , I I , p . 615*
T . L . L . I ,145,61-6.4.*
Brow n, o p . c i t * , p . 104*
T . L . L . I T , 1 3 0 5 , 60-80*
T .L .L * V , 6 5 1 , 7 5 ; Brown, o p . c i t . , p . 1Q&; R o s s n e r ,
o p * c i t *, p* 44*
6.
T . L . L . V , 1 2 8 0 , 1 9 ; G u i l l e m i n , op* c i t . , p»43 a n d p* 1 3 .
i- 7. T .L .L * V, 2 , 8 4 1 .
J
44
r
l a b o r ; G . 1 ,3 6 6 e c a e l o l a b i ; B . 4 , 7 e c a e l o l a p s i .
1
More­
1
over S e r v i u s u se s th e sim p le a b l a t i v e in s i m i l a r ex­
p r e s s i o n s : 1*2*166* c a e l o l a p s u m ; 1 * 7 * 1 8 8 ; 1 . 8 , 6 6 4 caelo....
la psum e s t .
lev are;
G . 1 , 1 0 0 * n i s i enim serenum f u e r i t , p u l v i s e t e r r a
l e v a r i non p o t e r i t .
C icero o r d i n a r i l y used ab; 2 th e p o e ts
an d t h e L a t e L a t i n a u t h o r s u s e d d e .
C o n stru ctio n s w ith d e :
de c a e s p i t e v i r g o se l e v a t { Ov. M e t * 2 , 2 4 7 } ;
q u o d .. .lu r e lia n u m a q u i l a . . . d e cunis l e v a v e r i t
CVop.Dom.4); piscem. le v a tu m de profundo ( l u g .
Conf. 1 3 , 2 1 , 2 9 ) .
B u t n o t i c e S e r v i u s * u s e i n an a n a l o g o u s e x p r e s s i o n :
A .10,272* a m a lis r e l e v a t
p e l l e r e : B * l , l ex s u i s f i n i b u s p e l l i t u r .
This usage i s
more f r e q u e n t t h a n t h a t w i t h d e .
C o n stru ctio n s w ith e x ;
p e l l e r e . . . e r o s t r i s (C ic. S e s t.3 5 ,7 6 } ; ex
urbe (C ic . C a t. 3 , 7 , 1 6 ) ; u t i . . . e x G a llia e
f in ib u s p e l l e r e n t u r (C aes. B .G .1 ,3 1 ,1 1 ) .
F u r t h e r m o r e S e r v i u s e m p lo y s t h e s i m p l e a b l a t i v e : 1 . 3 , 1 2 1
p u l s u s r e g n o ; B . 6 , 4 2 * q u i eum r e g n o p e l l e r e t .
5
u s u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n found in C ic e r o .
p e n d e r e : B . 4 , 4 e x a s t r o r u m m otu p e n d e r e .
T his i s th e
T his i s th e
usual C la s s ic a l c o n stru c tio n .^
7
C o n stru c tio n s w ith ex;
p e n d e r e . . .e x t e s t e X c i c . S c a u r .8 , 1 5 ) ; ex
c o n ie c tu re (C ic . A c.2 ,3 6 ,1 1 6 ); ex i i s
____________ c o m i t i i s ( C i c .F a m .. 1 0 , 2 6 , 5 ) . ________________________
1. T .L .L . ¥ ,1 0 9 4 ,4 3 .
2 . Gui l l e m i n , o p . c i t . , p , 26 .
3. T .L .L . ¥ ,2 ,1 0 8 9 .
4 . T .L .L . 1 ,7 .
5. K uhner-Stegm ann, o p . c i t . , p . 366.
L 6 . K uhner-Stegm ann, o p . c i t . , p . 594.
j
7 . H and, o p . c i t . , I I , p . 6 2 0 ; R o s s n e r , o p . c i t . , p . 4 6 .
Our a u t h o r a l s o u s e s t h e s i m p l e a b l a t i v e w i t h p e n d e r e ;
A*1*76* u t a u d i t o r e x p e c t a t i o n e non p e n d e a t .
In C la ssic a l
L a t i n t h i s use i s c o n s id e r e d as fig u ra tiv e ,'* *
p r o f i c i s c i : A . 1 , 5 3 2 * e x A r c a d i a p r o f e c tu m .; A*3*167* ex
E tr u r ia .. .p ro fe c ti.
rare.
These c o n s t r u c t i o n s in ex a r e v e r y
2
C on stru ctio n s w ith e x ; 3
e l u d o * . . p r o f e c t u s ( C ic,M an.1 0 ,2 8 } ; ex h a c . . .
o f f i c i n a p r o f e c t i (C ic. F i n . 5 * 3 ,7 ); p ro fe c tu s
ex H ispania (M art. 3 , 1 4 ,2 ).
In a d d i t i o n S e r v iu s uses th e sim ple a b l a t i v e ;
A . 5*489*
T ro ia p r o f e c t i s u n t ; A .1 ,3 8 * C re ta p r o f e c t i Troiam v e n e r u n t .
r e d i r e ; B.8:,69 e x u r b e r e d i i t .
4
C o n s tru c tio n s w ith e x : 5
e r u s . . . e x A lide r e d i i t ( P l a u t . C apt.1005);
dum ex t a n t o g a u d i o i n p o t e s t a t e m . n o s t r a m
redeamus (C ato O r ig . f r g . 9 5 ) ; c o n s u l ! ex
ta n ta c la d e . . .re d e u n ti (L iv .2 2 ,6 1 ,1 4 ).
r e f e r r e ; A .4,93* r e f e r r e s p o l i a ex v l e t i s .
T h i s con­
s t r u c t i o n i s l e s s f r e q u e n t t h a n t h a t I n do when t h e r e i s
q u e s t i o n o f t h e b o o t y o r s p o i l s t a k e n f r o m an enemy - a f t e r
t h e v e r b s capere . f e r r e
6
e tc ...
s u m e r e ; A . 5 , 1 e x Homero sum pta e s t ; A. 1 , 2 9 2 nomen e x v i c i n o
7
s u m p s i t ; A . 5 , 1 7 * e p i t h e t o n sumptum ex t e m p o r e .
8
C o n stru c tio n s w ith e x :
sum ere aquam ex f o n t e ( N a e v . T r a g . 4 2 ) ; e
somno p u e r o s . . .sumemus ( L u e i l . 1 0 8 ),.
1. KU hner-Stegm ann* o p . c i t .,, p . 5 9 5 ; C f . s p e e x i g u a
pendere (C ic . E l.
2. G uillem in* op. c i t . , p . 43.
3 . Brow n, o p . c i t . , p . 108; R o s s n e r , o p . c i t . , p . 4 4 .
4 . T . L . L . V , 2 , I U 9 3 , 1 080.
5. R ossner, op. c i t . , p . 44.
6 . G u ille m in , op. c i t . , p . 51.
7 . T . L . L . V, lOBY, T 0 7 8 .
8 . Brown, o p . c i t . , p . 108 ; R o s s n e r , o p . c i t . , p . 4 5 .
j
46
r
l
B . The Use o f ex. t o D e n o te t h e B i r t h o r O r i g i n
The employment o f e x w i t h v e r b s d e n o t i n g o r i g i n i s
found o c c a s i o n a lly in C l a s s i c a l L a t i n . ^
f o u n d i n t h e Commentary;
The f o l l o w i n g a r e
A - 1 ,2 7 3 * ex U l i x e e t C i r c e e d i -
turn; A. 1 , 3 8 0 e x P l e c t r a e t l o v e n a t i s u n t ; A -1 , 4 3 1 * omnes
e x omnibus n a t i s u n t ; A . 1*744* e x qua n a t a e s t ; A . 2 , 4 4 * e x
P e n e l o p e n a t u s ; A*3 , 1 0 4 n a t o s e x Rhea u x o r e f i l i o s ; A . 3 , 1 7 6 * ;
A . 4 , 5 1 6 amorem c r e a r i e x c a r n e ; A . 4 ,6 2 5 * e x o s s i b u s d i c u n t
o r i r i ; A . 6 , 2 6 7 ex t e r r i s
ealigo p r o c re a tu r.
C onstructions w ith e x ;
ex P h i l i p p a m a t r e natum ( P l a u t . E p i d . 6 3 6 ) ;
cuius ex f i l i a n a tu s e s t (C ic . F am .1 3 ,8 , 1 ) ;
f i l i o s ex l l l o n a t o s ( R e p . D i o n . 2}*
S e r v i u s a l s o h a s two c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n e x which, t h e
Thesaurus c a l l s h is p e c u l i a r u sa g e s;
A .1,71* ex p r i o r e
c o n i u g e improbos, f i l i o s A e o lu s h a b u e r i t ; A . 3 ,2 0 9 * h a b e t
#
uxorem e t ex qua d u o s f i l i o s .
C. The Use o f e x t o D en o te t h e Cause o r Reason
The u s e o f e x c a u s a l i s f o u n d o c c a s i o n a l l y i n
C l a s s i c a l w r i t e r s to in d i c a t e the e x te r n a l cause of
a n y t h i n g ; w h i l e e x i n d i c a t i n g an I n t e r n a l c a u s e i s r a r e . *
R o s s n e r c o n s i d e r s e x c a u s a l a s p a r t o f t h e sermo v u l g a r i s ,.
The f o l l o w i n g a r e f o u n d i n t h e Commentary;
4
A . 1 , 2 2 3 e x quo
s l g n i f i c a t e x i t u m i n f e l i c e m f u t u r u r a ; A . 1 ,2 4 7 e x v o t i s f a c i t
1 . Hand, o p . c i t . , 1 1 , p . ■636;""T.L~.L.~¥>2 >1Q95.
2. Cf. T . L . L . - V , 2 ,1 1 0 5 .
3 . Hand, o p . c i t . , I I , p p . 6 4 0 - 6 4 2 ; K tih n e r - S t e g m a n n ,
o g . c i t . , T x 7 1* PP* 5 0 4 - 5 0 5 ; T . L . L . ¥ , 2 , 1 1 0 2 .
4 . R o s s n e r , o p . c i t . , p . 52.
47
r
i n v i d i a m ; A. 1 , 6 4 4 quod e x a d f e c t u p a t r i s . . .n o n e x A c h a t a e
v e l o c i t a t e ; A . 1 , 6 4 7 ex l o e i d i f f i c u l t a t e
~i
commendat; A* 1 ,2 8 7
v erb a ex n e g o t i i s a c c i p i u n t s i g n i f i c a t i o n e m ; A .2,407 qui
f u r i t e x c a u s a ; A*2,717 s c i t en im G ra e c o s e x p o l l u t i o n ©
P a l l a d i i p i a c u l u m c o m m l s i s s e ; A*3,551 a u x i t e x p r o v i n c i a
c r u d e l i t a t e m ; A* 3 ,1 7 0 ne a l t e r e r r o r e x m a g n i t u d i n e l o c o r u m
p r o c r e a t u r ; A- 4 , 2 1 6 * e x h a b i t u s q u a l i t a t e m u t u a t u r i n v i d i a m ;
A .4*263* e x q u a l i t a t e a m i c t u s o r n a tu m a m a t o r i s e x p r e s s i t ;
A* 4 ,3 3 1 e x o c u l o r u m s t a b i l i t a t e noscamus q u a l i t a t e m a n i m i ;
A .4 , 4 3 6 * quae c r e d i t earn, e x amore c o n c i t a t e m i d l o q u i ;
A..4 ,6 8 3 * n e q u e m aculam b a b e a t e x homine m o r t u o ; A *5,271 e x
m u t a t i o n e c o n q u i s i v i t o r n a t u m ; A . 5*845 LABORXS ex. i n t u e n d i s
s i d e r i b u s ; A * l , 7 6 quod e x p o s t e r i o r l b u s i n t e l l i g i t u r ;
A . 3*44* e x m o r i b u s en im c u l t o r u m t e r r a e l a u d a n t u r ; A*4,181*
v i t u p e r a v i t Fama ex a c c i d e n t i b u s p e r s o n a e ; A . 4 , 1 9 7 * quas
h a b e b a t ex c o n t e m p t u ;
A *6,724 l a b o r a t e x c o r p o r i s
c o n i u n e t i o n e ; A . 6 ,7 3 3 GAUDENT^TJIT e x c o r p o r i s c o n i u n c t i o n e
e t h e b e t u d i n e ; A , 7*53 e x annorum r a t i o n e e t e x h a b i t u
co rp o ris a e ta s
c o m p r o b a t u r ; A* 7 ,1 6 7 ex s t u p o r e n u n t i i
l a u s o s t e n d i t u r ; A *7 ,195 e x vest© eo s T r o i a n o s e s s e
c o g n o s e i t ; A .7,6 7 5 ex hac com paratione equos i u i s s e
i n t e l l i g i m u s ; A*8»155 p r o b a v i t e x h a b i t u c o r p o r i s ; A . 1 0 ,2 6 6 *
T r o i a n o r u m c l a m o r e x g a u d i o ; A*1 0 , 8 6 5 e x e q u i l a u d e
c o g n o s c i m u s ; A -1 2 ,6 1 1 * e x a e t a t e p a t h o s m o v i t ; A *12,730 n u n c
L a t i n t s u n t t e r r i t i e x eo ; B . 5, 14 s o n u s v a r l u s i n v e n i t u r ex
pedum d i s s i m i l i t u d i n e *
L.
j
48
C o n struetions w ita e x : 1
nos h i e t e a d mensem i a n u a r i u m e x p e c ta m u s
e x quo dam. rumor©, an e x l i t t e r i s a d a l i o s
m i s s i s ( C ic * A t t . 1 , 5 ) ; e x n u n t i i s
cunctabundus a u t p ro p e ra n s (T ac. H i s t . 2 , 8 5 ) ;
ex n o c tu rn o v i s u stip e m q u o ta n n is d ie c e r t o
e m e n d i c a b a t a p o p u l o ( S u e t . A u g .9 1 } ;
s a t i s f a c t i o n e m e x n u l l a c o n s e i e n t i a de c u l p a
proponere d e c re v i (S a il* C a t.3 5 ,2 ) ; ex
eom m endatione P o m p e i i o r d i n e s d e d e r a t . ( S u e t .
C a e s.7 5 ); qui s u n t am ici ex causa l u s t I o r e
(Q,'iCic* de P e t . 5 , 1 6 ) ; l a b o r a t e x dolor©
( T e r . A ndr.268); l a b o r e r s . . .ex d e s i d e r i o
( C i c . Fam. 1 6 , 1 1 , 1 ) ; a d v e n t u e x co lo r© v e s t i t u s
c o g n ito ( Caes. B .G . 7 , 8 8 , 1 ) ; f a c i l e s t ex h i s
cognoscere rebus ( L u c r .6,423}.
D. The Use o f e x t o D e n o te Means o r I n s t r u m e n t
The u s e o f e x w i t h t h e a b l a t i v e t o e x p r e s s means i s
very r a r e b e fo re th e L ate L a tin p e r io d .
In S ervius t h i s
c o n s t r u c t i o n i s f r e q u e n t , b u t i n many o f t h e e x a m p le s e x
i s e q u i v a l e n t t o se cundum .
R ossner co n sid ers as ca u sal
ex and t h e a b l a t i v e w i t h s u c h v e r b s as i n t e l l e & e r e . o s t e n dere« sp e c ta re « v ld ere, e tc . 2
B u t Hand p r e f e r s t o make a
s p e c i a l c a t e g o r y b y m a k in g e x e q u i v a l e n t t o se c u n d u m .
H ow ever, he shows t h a t t h e s e u s e s b e l o n g t o t h e f a m i l i a r
language.
The e x a m p le s w h ic h h e c i t e s a r e t a k e n f r o m
C ic e ro 's L e t t e r s .
rc
The f o l l o w i n g a r e f r o m S e r v i u s :
A . 1 , 4 7 5 * u t e x eo i n p a r e m o s t e n d a t ; A . 1 , 5 4 8 e x s e q u e n t i b u s
p r o b a t ; A . 1 , 6 0 5 ex n a s c e n t u m m e r i t i s c o m p r o b a t u r ; A . 1 ,6 0 6
parentes
quos i g n o r a t l a u d a t e x l i b e r i s ; A . 1 , 6 1 5 e x T e u c r i
narratio n e
c o g n o v i t ; A♦1*726 a t r u m enim e r a t e x fumo;
1* Brown, o p . c i t . , p . 1 1 9 ; H r d l i c k a , o p . c i t . , p . 181;
L . - H o f . , o p . c i t *, p . 5 2 9 .
2. R o ssn er, op. c i t . , p . 38.
3 . H and, o p . c i t . , I I , p . 6 5 9 .
49
r
1
A . 2 ,1 9 9 ex a c c i d e n t i b ' u s d o l o s . . . e s s e f i r m a t o s ; A . 2 , 2 5 3 * e x
c o n s e q u e n t i b u s p r i o r a i n t e l l e g u n t u r ; A*2,.639 a e t a t e m s i g n i f l o a t e x s a n g u i n e ; A . 2 , 6 9 1 c o n f i r m e t u r ex s i m i l i ; A . 2 , 6 9 6
ex fumo e s t mors A n c h i s a e ; A . 3 , 2 4 a r a s c o r o n a t e x m y r t o ;
A . 3 , 5 7 1 novim us e x a q u a e motu v e n t u m c r e a r i ; A . 5 , 5 2 1 p o s s e
' e x i p s o g e s t u p e r i t i a m i n d i c a r i ; A . 6 ,7 7 3 earn e x c o l l a t e
p e c u n i a c o n s t i t u i t ; A .8 , 8 4 u t e x i t e r a t i o n © c r e s c a t a r g u mentum; A . 9 ,2 6 8 * c u i e x p r o n o m in e a d d i d i t d i g n i t a t e m ;
A . 9 , 3 1 3 e x s e q u e n t i b u s c o n p r o b a t u r ; A . 9 ,4 9 8 * ex n o m i n i b u s
fidem. a d d i t ; A . 9 , 7 7 0 * e x v e n e n a t o f e r r o v u l n u s e s t ; A . 10,
68
e x v e r b i s p r o b a m u s ; B . 7 , 3 8 non e x f o l i l s
se d e x l i g n o
c o g n o s c i t u r ; G .1,336 ex f r e q u e n t a t i v e verbo o s t e n d e r e t ;
G . 1 , 4 1 4 o b l i v i o n e m p r o b a t e t i a m ex r e b u s ; G-.2,348*
o s t e n d i t ex l a p i d e b e n e f i c i u m ; G . 4 , 3 4 1 f a c t a ex r e p e t i t i o n s
serm onis;
A .1 ,1 quaestionem hanc v o lu n t ex s e q u e n tib u s
s o l v i ; A#1 2 ,6 5 2 ex m u l t i s r e b u s i n d i c a t p e r t u r b a t i o n e m .
C o n stru c tio n s w ith ex :^
s i f o r t e ( f e r a s ) ex n are sa g a c i s e n s i t c a n is
( E n n . A n n . 3 4 1 ) ; ex eorum i n g e n i o in g e n i u m
horum p r o b a n t ( P l a u t . T r i n . 4 , 3 , 4 2 ) ; e x t u i s
v e r b i s meum f u t u r u m c o r iu m p u l c h r u m p r a e d i c a s
( P l a u t . E p i d . 5 , 1 , 1 9 ) ; ego s e i b o ex h o c q u i d
s i e t ( T e r . E u n . 4 , 4 , 5 8 ) ; ex t u i s l i t t e r i s e t
Q. f r a t r i g r a t i a s e g i e t t e a l i q u a n d o
c o l l a u d a r e po ssu m ( C i c . F a m . 7 , 1 7 , 1 ) ; c r e d o
t e e o g n o s s e ex l i t t e r i s tu o r u m ( C i c . Fam.
1 0 , 2 9 , 1 ) ; i n t e l l e x i ex t u i s l i t t e r i s t e ex
T u r r a n i o a u d i s s e a me p r o v i n c i a m f r a t r i
t r a d i t a m ( C i c . A t t . 6 , 9 ) ; odium i g i t u r
a c e r rim u m p a t r i s i n f i l i u m ex h o c , o p i n o r , o s t e n d l t u r ( C i c . R o s e , Am.1 8 , 5 2 ) ; r e x
1 . T . L . L . V 2 , 1 1 1 1 ; Brown, o p . c i t . , p . 1 1 5 - 1 1 8 ; H r d l i c k a ,
o p . c i t . , p . 1 79; Domke, o p . c i t . , p . 10; L . - H o f , ,
o p . c i t . , p.. 5 2 9 .
L.
50
ex h i s ' f e r m e v e r b i s p a t r e s c o n s u l e b a t
( L i v . 1 , 3 2 , 1 1 ) ; M in e rv a m . . - .c o r o n a t a m ex
h a c a r b o r e ( T e r t . Conon. 6 , p . 44 7 O e ) ;
corpora e x a n im a te ...© c a u te r io p ro b a t
( T e r t . N a t * 1 , 1 0 p * 8 0 , 1 4 ) ; a l i q u i d ement i r i , quod ex una v o c a s o l v e r e t
quaestionem ( H i e r , E p i s t . 2 0 , 6 ) .
E . The Use o f e x i n P a r t i t i v e C o n s t r u c t i o n s
I n C l a s s i c a l L a t i n p a r t i t i v e e x i s em ployed a f t e r
such pronouns as a l i q u i s » n u l l u s
quidam , e tc *
This use
h a s b e e n e x t e n d e d t o o t h e r w ords among t h e w r i t i n g s o f
t h e S i l v e r and L a t e L a t i n a u t h o r s . ^ "
n o ted in S e r v iu s :
unus ex p a u p e r i b u s ;
The f o l l o w i n g w ere
A . 2 , 4 3 1 * n i h i l ex ea s u p e r e s s e ; A . 3 , 5 7
A . 4 , 5 7 * a l i q u i d e x i l l i s ; A . 4 ,1 7 9 *
e l e g i t e x f r a t r i b u s m a x im o s ; A . 3 , 7 4 * e x n o b i l i t a t e
septem ;
A . 3 , 2 3 1 p r i m a ex p r o d i g i i s ; A . 1 ,6 7 * u t e r e x f r a t r i b u s ;
A .3,2 2 2 a l i q u i d ex p r a e d a d e b e a t u r .
2
C o n stru ctio n s w ith ex:
nemo i u v e n t u t e ex omni ( P l a u t . M o s t . 2 9 ) ;
n i h i l s i b i ex i s t a laude ( C i c . M a r c e l . 2 , 7 ) ;
p r a e t e r e o . . *ex g r e g e . . .neminem ( C i c . P h i l *
1 3 , 5 , 1 0 ) ; e x omni n o b i l i t a t e nemo (C ic *
F a m ' . 1 3 , 6 4 , l ) ; m i h i n u l l a iam r e l i q u a ex
a m i t i s ( P e r s . 6 , 5 2 ) ; n i l ex me r e l i c t u m
( S t . T h . 8 , 1 1 1 ) ; unus e p o p u l o ( S e n .
L u c . 1 0 , 3 ) ; ex e a ( c a r n e ) . . .q u o d non
d i r i p u i s s e n t ( P l i n . H.LT.2,57 , 2 ) .
F . The Use o f e x t o D e n o te t h e M a t t e r o f Which a
T h i n g i s Made
Ex w i t h t h e a b l a t i v e i n d i c a t e s t h e m a t e r i a l from
1* T . L . L . V 2, 11.14; H and, o p . c i t * , p . 6 2 5 ; L . - H o f . ,
p . 391,528.
2. I n t h e same n o t e S e r v i u s u s e s die i n a s i m i l a r e x ­
p r e s s i o n , cte p r a e d a d e b e t u r .
3 . Brown,■ o p . c i t . , p . 112; H r d l i c k a , o p . c i t . , p . 1 7 8 .
j
w h i c h a n y t h i n g i s made, o r i s com posed , o r i s t a k e n . ' 1’
T h is c o n s t r u c t i o n as w e ll as t h e sim ple a b l a t i v e i s
p
found in C l a s s i c a l L a t i n .
S ervius has th e fo llo w in g :
A. P r a e f .
c o n s t a t e x p e r s o n i s ; A . 1 , 5 2 8 c o n s t a t ex
p r o p o s i t i o n e ; A . 1 , 5 7 3 ; A . 4 , 5 2 5 * ; A .8,,6 8 1 * ; A . 1 1 , 1 8 6 ;
B . 8 , 5 0 ; A . 4 , 1 3 7 * e x a u r o f a c t a ; A . 8 , 6 3 4 * s i g n a ex a e r e
v e l c e ra f a c i u n t ; A .1 0 ,2 1 2 * ; A .10,228*; B .8 ,8 2 * ; G .1,332
ex n u b i b u s f i e r i ; A .1 E ,4 1 9 * e x c o m p l u r i b u s h e r b i s
c o m p o situ m ; B . 6 , 3 1 ; G . 4 , 1 7 5 * ; A . 5 ,6 9 * quod ex c o r i o d u ro
s i t ; A .8 , 6 7 7 * ex a u r o f l u c t u s e s s e d i c a t .
3
C o n stru c tio n s w ith e x ;
f a c e r e . . .hoc e f e r r o ( P l a u t . R ud.l30Q );
s t a t u s ex a e r e f a c t a ( C i c . V e r r . 2 , 2 1 , 5 0 ) ;
n i s i i n e o , q u i ex animo c o n s t e t e t c o r p o r a
c a duco e t i n f i r m o ( C i c . N a t . D . l , 3 5 , 9 8 ) ;
e x h i s ( p i s c i b u s ) panem ( " P l i n . H. N . 7 , 2 , 2 5 ) ;
e c a e s p i t e a r a s (Ov. M e t . 1 5 , 5 7 3 ) .
S i m i l a r t o t h e ab o v e u s e s a r e t h o s e w i t h e x and t h e a b l a
t i v e t o d e n o t e t h e change o f s t a t e .
T h i s was t h e u s u a l
way o f i n d i c a t i n g ch a n g e o f s t a t e i n a l l p e r i o d s o f t h e
4
^
language.
T h e s e w e r e n o t e d i n S e r v i u s : A . 2 ,7 7 3 * e x
homine deam f a c t a m ; A . 5 , 4 5 d i v o s e x h o m i n i b u s f a c t o s ;
A . 6 , 6 4 5 ; A .8 , 2 7 5 * ; A. 8 ,34 5* e x h o s p i t e f a e t u s i n i m i c u s ;
A . 7 , 7 6 1 oorvum v e r o n i g r u m f e c i t ex a l b o ; G. 2 ,1 4 6 * e x
quo b i b e n t i a p e c o r a a l b a f i u n t .
1.
2.
3.
4.
Hand, o p . c i t . , I I , p . 6 3 4 .
T .L .L . V 2 7 T 0 9 9 .
Brow n, o p . c i t . , p . 1 1 3 ; H r d l i c k a , o p . c i t . , p . 1 7 8 .
T . L . L . V 2 , 1 1 0 0 ; Hand, o p . c i t . , I I , p . 6 4 3 ; L . - H o f . ,
p . 529.
G. The Use o f e x i n V a r i o u s C o n s t r u c t i o n s
I . The u s e o f ex e q u i v a l e n t t o secu n d u m .
In C la s s ic a l L atin t h i s
c o n s t r u c t i o n was c o n f i n e d
t o s e v e r a l w e l l known e x p r e s s i o n s , a s : e x c o n s u l t o * e x
s e n t e n t i a l ex d e c r e t o * e t c . ^
B u t i n S e r v i u s we f i n d
com binations t h a t a re f o r e i g n t o C l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e :
A . 1*621* q u i e x r e s p o n s e A p o l l i n i s ; A . 3*293* e x r e s p o n s e ;
G.4*565* e x r e s p o n s o o r a c u l i ; A. 1 , 1 2 * u h i rem p u b l i c a m
h a b e a n t ex consensu suae c i v i t a t i s . . .e x consensu p u b l i c o ,
non e x s e c e s s i o n e ; A . 3 , 5 7 e x more G a l l o r u m ; a .%5 , 7 1 ex
Romano m o r e ; ^
A . 3*323* ex p r a e c e p t o A c h i l l i s ;
A .4 ,4 1 0
P a l a t i u m e x suo p r a e c e p t o a e d i f i c a t u m ; A .4 ,1 6 8 '* d i c e b a n t
e x G ra e c a c o n s u e t u d i n e ; A . 4 , 4 1 5 e x i u d i c i o p o e t a e ; B . 5 , 4 0
ex v o lu n ta te d e f u n c t! .
I I . The u s e o f e x ( e q u i v a l e n t t o i n o r sub j ^ w i t h p e r s o n a .
T h i s u s a g e i s f o u n d i n C i c e r o b u t becomes more f r e quent in th e L ate L a tin p e r io d . 3
T h ese w ere n o t e d i n
S e r v i u s : A . 1*647 I t e m e x p e r s o n a ; A . l » 7 1 0 and A . 3 , 2 4 6 * e x
p e r s o n a p o e t a e ; A .3*70 3 q u i a e x p e r s o n a n a . r r a n t u r A e n e a e ;
A. 6 , 3 5 9 s i ex p o e t a e p e r s o n a f i a t .
I I I . The u s e o f e x p a r t e e q u i v a l e n t t o i n »p a r t e .
S e r v iu s has th e f o l l o w i n g exam ples:
A . 7 , 6 7 8 de
1 . H and, o p . c i t .* I I * p . 6 51; L . - H o f . * p . $ 2 9 .
2 . Hand s t a t e s t h a t C i c e r o d oes n o t u s e e x w i t h m o r e :
o p . c i t . * II* p . 652.
3 . Hand, o p . c i t .* I I * p . 6 2 9 ; Brown* o p . c i t .* p . I l l ;
C f . narn turn e x t u a p e r s o n a e n u m e r a r e p o s s i s ( C i c . I n v .
1 * 5 2 , 9 9 ) ; n i h i l enim e x p e r s o n a p o e t a e ( V e l l . F a t . 1 , 3 , 2
53
r
1
c i v i t a t i b u s t o t i u s orb-is m u l t i e x p a r t e s c r i p s e r u n t ;
A*1,563* o p o r t e b a t e x a l i q u a p a r t e e n u n t i a r i domus c a l a m i t a t e m ; A . 2 , 1 6 6 quod e t V e r g i l l u s ex p a r t e t a n g i t ; A . 6 , 7 2 4
n a t u r a m ex p a r t e m u t a r e ; A . 8 ,3 5 7 * i n p e e u n i a e x una p a r t e
l a n i c a p u t, ex a l t e r a n a v is s ig n a t a e s t . ^
IV. The u s e o f e x e q u i v a l e n t t o p o s t .
In regard to t h i s
c o n s t r u c t i o n Hand t h i n k s t h a t t h e r e
is a c a u sa l a sp e c t a tta c h e d to i t .
in g were n o t e d ;
2
In S erv iu s the fo llo w ­
A. 8 ,4 9 r e s t a t e x l a b o r i b u s ; A . 1 1 , 2 3 8 p o s t e a
c o e p e r u n t t a n t u m e x c o n s u l i b u s s c e p t r e g e s t a r e ; G . 3 , 2 3 6 iam
s e c u r u m ex a n t e a c t a v i c t o r i a .
V.
The u s e o f ©x i n a d v e r b i a l e x p r e s s i o n s .
The u s e o f e x i n t h i s t y p e o f p h r a s e i s f o u n d o c ­
c a s io n a lly in c l a s s i c a l L a ti n .
B u t i t s u s e i s more
t e n d e d f ro m t h e t i m e o f O v id a n d T a c i t u s .
r e p l a c e d th e sim ple a d v e rb .
'S
OX­
I t u sually
S e rv iu s has th e fo llo w in g
uses;
1.
2.
3.
4.
e e o n t r a r i o A. 1 , 3 ? * ; A. 1 * 3 3 0 * ; A. 1 , 4 3 8 ; A.1 ,6 '0 5 * ;
A. 2 , 2 8 5 * ; A . 3 , 7 1 * ; A . 4 , 2 0 0 * ; e t c .
B eo n trario
u s e d by C o r n e l i u s an d Q u i n t i l i a n ; e x e o n t r a r i o
by C i c e r o . 4
H and, o p . c i t . , I I , p . 6 5 2 ; G u i l l e m i n , o p . c i t . , p . 114;
C f . quae tamen e x p a r t e r e s a d s a l u t e m e x e r c i t u s p e r t i n e b a t { C a e s . B . G. 6 , 3 4 ) ; t u a l a u s e x a l i q u a p a r t e f u e r i t
( C ic . F a m .2 ,1 8 ,6 ) ; ex p a r t e found v e r y o f t e n in V arro
(R ossner, p . 4 7 ).
Hand, o p . c i t .,, I I , p . 6 4 6 ; T .L .L .V ’ 2 , 1089; C f . a t t u l i t
m ihi ex h is m a lis s e c u r ita t e m (Q u in t. I n s t . 6 Prooem .15);
o t i u m enim e x l a b o r e ( L i v . 2 1 , 3 9 , 2 }
H and, o p . c i t . , I I , p . 6 5 4 ; L . - H o f . , p . 5 2 0 .
H and, o p . c i t . , I I , p . 6 3 1 . C o r n e l i u s may - Nepos
( S e e T . L . L . IV, 6 6 9 , 5 0 )
54
e x a b r u p t o A. 1 , 2 2 6 ; A . 3 , 1 7 6 ; A .4 , 1 ; A*.5 , 6 2 3 ;
A .12 ,2 1 .
e x a d v e r s e B . 5 , 11* F i r s t f o u n d i n P l a u t u s — common
o n l y from L i v y o n . X
e x i m p r o v i s o A . 2 , 2 0 3 * ; A. 5 , 4 4 3 ; A . 1 0 , 5 6 4 ; G . 1 , 1 0 8 ;
G . 4 , 2 4 2 . Used b y P l a u t u s and C i c e r o , L i v y and L a t e
L a tin .w rite rs. 2
e c o n tr a A .2 ,3 0 0 ; A .2 ,3 7 5 ; A .5 ,1 8 9 ; A .6 ,4 9 8 ; e t c .
e longinquo A .1 0 ,5 7 2 * ; A .1 1 ,2 0 6 ; A .11,282; A .11,532*;
A. 1 2 , 3 5 4 * .
e x a p e r t o A . 1 0 , 2 4 9 ; A* 1 2 , 9 3 5 ; A . 1 0 , 6 4 4 ; A . 1 1 , 3 3 7 ;
A .1 1 ,8 9 6 .3 T b is c o n s tr u c tio n i s found in Seneca
and L i v y .
. T . L . L . 1 , 8 6 8 - 8 6 9 ; S a l o n i u s , o p . c i t . , p . 224.
. H and, o p . c i t . , I I , p . 656.
. I b i d . ,~"Tl, p . 6 5 5 .
55
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C H A P T E R
V
n
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
T h i s summary g r o u p s t h e u s a g e s o f a l l t h r e e p r e p o s i ­
t i o n s i n b o th com m entaries w ith o u t d i s t i n c t i o n in o r d e r to
p r e s e n t the v a rio u s c o n s tru c tio n s of th e th r e e p r e p o s i t i o n s
as a u n it in t h e i r r e s p e c tiv e c a te g o r ie s ,^
I n t h e c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n s a b , d e , jex
in th e ir lo c a l uses,
t h a t i s w i t h v e r b s w h ich d e n o t e s e p a r a t i o n ,
d e p a r t u r e o r re m o v a l, we n o t e t h a t t h e p r e c i s e d i s t i n c t i o n s o f
c l a s s i c a l usage a r e n o t always o b se rv e d i n th e u se o f t h e s e
p rep o sitio n s.
Ab and de a r e u s e d w i t h v e r b s w hich w e r e , a c c o r d ­
in g t o C l a s s i c a l norms, c o n s tru e d w ith ex .
f o u n d w i t h t h o s e w h i c h r e q u i r e ab o r d e .
Ex i s s o m e tim e s
In p a r a l l e l cases
t h e p r e p o s i t i o n i s s o m e tim e s em ployed and i n o t h e r s o m i t t e d .
The p r e p o s i t i o n s a b , d £ , e x a r e f r e q u e n t l y u s e d a s com plem ents
o f v e r b s compounded w i t h t h e s e same p r e p o s i t i o n s .
A ll th re e
p r e p o s i t i o n s a r e u s e d a f t e r v e r b s w h ic h i n C l a s s i c a l p r o s e
r e g u l a r l y ta k e th e sim ple a b l a t i v e ,
i n h i s use of th e p r e p o s i ­
t i o n s i n t h i s l o c a l s e n s e , S e r v i u s seems t o h a v e f o l l o w e d i n
g e n e ra l the c o n s tr u c tio n found in the au th o rs of th e E a rly
L a tin perio d .
He seems a l s o t o h a v e made a l i b e r a l u s e o f
c o n s t r u c t i o n s borrowed from th e p o p u l a r la n g u a g e .
B i r t h o r o r i g i n i s e x p r e s s e d b y ab,. d e , e x w i t h t h e
a b l a t i v e as w e l l as by th e sim p le a b l a t i v e .
I
L
.
S ervius uses
What may s e r v e a s an i n d e x t o t h e v a r i e t i e s o f c o n l
s t r u c t i o n n o t e d h e r e u n d e r i s f u r n i s h e d by t h e T a b l e
o f C o n t e n t s ( p . i i i ) , whose o r d e r o f a r r a n g e m e n t i s
f o l l o w e d i n t h i s summary.
J
56
ra l l t h r e e p r e p o s i t i o n s w i t h n a s c i and o t h e r v e r b s o f l i k e
n
m e a n in g .
S e r v iu s uses the t h r e e p r e p o s i t i o n s to e x p re s s cau se,
Ex c a u s a l a p p e a r s more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n ab o r d e .
However,
some o f t h e s e u s e s w i t h e x r e v e a l a d d i t i o n a l i d e a s and i t
i s d i f f i c u l t a t t i m e s t o d e c i d e w h ich m e a n in g p r e d o m i n a t e s . .
The employment o f jab, d £ , ex t o e x p r e s s means o r i n ­
strum ent i s very r a r e b e fo re the L ate L a tin p e r io d .
In
S e r v i u s t h e r e a r e num erous e x a m p l e s o f a b , d £ , e x i n p l a c e
o f t h e s i m p l e a b l a t i v e o f m e an s.
B o th de and ex a r e u s e d i n p a r t i t i v e
r e p l a c e the g e n i t i v e .
co n stru ctio n s to
S e r v i u s more o f t e n em ploys de w i t h
t h e a b l a t i v e t h a n ex w i t h t h e a b l a t i v e i n p a r t i t i v e co n ­
stru ctio n s .
To d e n o t e t h e m a t e r i a l o f w h ic h a t h i n g i s made S e r v i u s
u s e s b o t h _de and e x w i t h t h e p r e f e r e n c e f o r d e .
He h a s two
uses w ith ab.
D e t a i l s o f i n t e r e s t a r e t o be o b s e r v e d i n c o n n e c t i o n
w i t h w hat a r e ab o v e c a l l e d " v a r i o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n s . w Some
of th ese follow .
S e r v i u s em ploys t h e t h r e e p r e p o s i t i o n s i n c e r t a i n
stereo ty ped ad v erb ial phrases as:
€* e o n t r a r i o e t c .
l o n g e ja, jie i n d u s t r i a l
However, he h a s c e r t a i n p h r a s e s t h a t a r e
p e c u l i a r to L ate L a ti n .
Ab w i t h t h e a b l a t i v e o f c o m p a r i s o n i s f o u n d s e v e r a l
t i m e s i n t h e Commentary,
L
The t h r e e p r e p o s i t i o n s a r e f o u n d c o n s t r u e d w i t h t h e
J
57
r a b l a t i v e a f t e r c e r t a i n n o u n s and a d j e c t i v e s ,
"i
B o t h de and ex a r e u s e d w i t h v e r b s w h i c h show t h e
o p e r a tio n of th e i n t e l l e c t .
T h e r e a r e numerous e x a m p l e s o f e x e q u i v a l e n t t o i n
o r sub p e r s o n a , i n p a r t e and p o s t .
I n S e r v i u s we a r e s t u d y i n g a w r i t e r who h i m s e l f was
f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e b e s t w r i t e r s o f L a t i n up
t o h i s t i m e and who, a s a t e a c h e r , d e s i r e d t o r e f l e c t t h i s
k n o w led g e i n h i s d i c t i o n .
When i n h i s g r a m m a t i c a l con­
s t r u c t i o n s we s t u d y w hat i s ,
t o be s u r e , b u t a s m a l l p o r t i o n
of i t ,
nam ely h i s u s a g e a s r e g a r d s a b , d £ , and e x , we f i n d ,
first,
t h a t t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f c a s e s r e v e a l him a s a
f o l l o w e r o f C l a s s i c a l s t a n d a r d s , b u t t h a t i n a number o f
c a s e s , n o t n e g l i g i b l e i n q u a n t i t y and i n c h a r a c t e r w e l l
d i v e r s i f i e d , he em ploys c o n s t r u c t i o n s w h ic h d e p a r t f ro m
those sta n d a rd s.
H i s usage i n th e s e c a s e s i s found t o
a g r e e , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , w i t h t h a t o f w r i t e r s who i n a l l
p e r i o d s o f t h e l a n g u a g e employ t h e f a m i l i a r s t y l e , f o r ex ­
ample P l a u t u s , V a r r o , an d :C i c e r o i n h i s L e t t e r s ,
T his
q u a l i t y i n t h e s y n t a x o f S e r v i u s s h o u l d n o t s e r v e t o mark
him a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e i n f i m a L a t i n i t a s b u t i n d i ­
c a t e s r a t h e r a h e a l t h y d e p e n d e n c e , i n some m e a s u r e , upon
th e l i v i n g speech of h is day.
L
J
58
r
i
APPENDIX A
INDEX OF CITATIONS
T his l i s t c o n ta in s th e c i t a t i o n s used in t h i s s tu d y *
The f i g u r e s i n p a r e n t h e s e s i n d i c a t e t h e v o lu m e , p a g e and
l i n e i n T h i l o and Hagen*s e d i t i o n and t h e f i g u r e s i n t h e
r i g h t h a n d column i n d i c a t e t h e p a g e s i n t h i s s t u d y w here
th e se c ita tio n s ap p ear*
A* P r a e f * ( I , p . 4 *1)
18
A* P r a e f .
4*5)
51
A. P r a e f * ( I p* 4 . 8 )
18
A. P r a e f *
( I p . 4 *1 1 )
19
A. P r a e f *
( I p* 4 * 1 2 )
34
A. P r a e f *
( I p* 4*13)
39
(Ip,
A * 1 ,1 ( I p . 7*9}
49
A . 1*2 ( I p . 8 . 2 )
18
A*l»2 ( I P . 8 * 2 6 )
29
A *l,7 ( I p .
13*18)
40
( I p* 14*14)
26
A *l, 8
A*1,S* ( I p . 1 4 . 1 7 )
33
A *l*8 ( I p .
40
15*9)
A * l , 1 0 { I P* 15*22}
32
A . 1 , 1 2 ( I p* 17*2}
52
A * l , 1 2 * ( I p* 17*7)
52
A*1 , 2 9 ( I p . 24*10)
35
A * l , 3 7 * ( I p . 2S*22)
53
59
r
*
A .1,38*
( I P . 27,1 0 }
A • 1 , 39 (X P .
2 8 .8 )
50
A ,1 ,71* ( I P. 4 0 .2 2 )
46
A .1 ,7 6
47
A .1,76*
(X p . 4 2 . 2 8 )
45
A ,1 ,85 ( I p . 4 5.1 1 )
37
A .1 ,90* ( I p . 4 6 .1 2 )
20
A .1 ,9 3
( I p. 46 .2 5 )
35
( I p . 4 9 .2 2 )
16
A* 1 ,1 3 2 ( I p .
58 .1 1 )
37
A .1 ,143 ( I p .
6 1 .1 8 )
12
(X p . 6 3 . 2 6 )
16
A .1,99*
A. 1,1 4 9
A ,1 ,1 6 4 ( I p . 6 7 .9 )
36
A .1 ,1 7 6 * ( i p . 7 0 .4 )
12
A .1,183* ( I p . 7 3 .2 2 )
20
A . 1 , 1 9 6 (X p . 7 7 . 1 6 )
21
A .1,223
( I p. 8 5 .1 2 )
46
A .1,226
(X p . 8 6 . 1 0 )
54
A ,1 ,232 ( I p . 8 8 .5 )
21
A . 1 » 2 3 5 (X p . 8 9 . 8 )
29
A .1 ,2 4 3 ( I p . 9 1 .1 1 )
18
A .1,247
46
( I p . 92 .2 2 )
A . 1 , 2 7 3 ’* ( I p . 1 0 2 . 1 4 )
L
20
A , 1 , 6 7 * (X P . 3 8 . 2 5 )
( X p » 4 2.1 7 )
~i
45
46
J
60
1
A.1 » 2 8 0 * ( I p .
10 4 .3 )
40
A ,1 ,2 8 7 (1 p .
26 7 .6 )
47
A .1 ,2 9 1 ( I p .
1 0 7 .1 )
43
A . 1 , 2 9 2 (X p .
108.19)
45
A . 1 , 3 2 8 (X p .
11 7 .2 2 )
51
A .1 ,3 3 0 *
{I p.
118.16)
53
A , 1 , 3 4 0 * (X P .
1 2 0 .1 4 )
37
A . 1 , 3 4 3 (X p .
1 2 1 .3 )
37
A .1 ,3 5 0
1 2 2 .1 1 )
42
1 2 6 .1 )
51
(I p.
A .1 ,3 7 3 ( I p.
A • 1 , 3 8 0 (X P • 1 2 8 . 2 2 )
•
46
A .1,430* ( I p .
141.27)
38
A .1,4 3 1 *
(I p.
1 4 2 .1 1 )
34
A .1 ,4 3 7 * ( I p .
14 3 .2 1 )
16
A .1 ,4 3 8 { I p.
143.25)
53
A .1 ,4 6 1 ( I p.
1 4 9 .7 )
41
A . 1 , 4 6 9 * (X p .
15 0 .2 1 )
24
A .1 ,4 7 5 * ( I p . 1 5 1 .1 4 )
48
A .1,4 8 0 ( I p .
152.15)
35
A .1 ,520* ( I p .
15 1 .1 )
35
A . 1 , 5 3 2 * ('I p .
163.16)
45
j
61
r
A*1*548 ( I p* 1 6 8 . 1 1 )
48
A * l , 5 5 0 ( I p. 16 9 .7 }
20
A. 1 , 5 6 3 * ( I P . 1 7 1 . 2 4 )
53
A . 1 , 5 6 8 t l p. 1 7 2 . 2 2 )
43
A a^ss*
28
(I P. 1 7 5 .1 0 )
A - 1 ,6 0 5 * (- £ p . 1 7 9 . 3 )
53
A*1 , 6 0 5 Cl p. 1 7 9 . 3 )
48
A . 1 , 6 0 6 ( I p* 1 7 9 . 7 )
19
A*1 , 6 0 6 ( I p* 1 7 9 . 8 )
48
A* 1 , 6 0 7 c i p. 1 7 9 . 1 3 )
18
A . 1 , 6 1 5 Cl p. 1 8 0 . 1 9 )
48
A . 1 ,6 2 1 * (I p . 1 8 2 . 6 )
52
A*1 , 6 3 2 c i p. 1 8 3 . 2 3 )
36
A*1,6 4 4 (I p. 1 8 6 . 5 )
47
A . 1 , 6 4 7 ( I p* 1 8 6 . 1 8 )
52
A * 1 ,6 4 7 (I p. 1 8 6 . 1 9 )
47
A*1 , 6 6 7 (I p* 1 9 2 .4 }
19
A* 1,706* ( I p . 1 9 8 . 1 )
41
A * l , 710 (I p* 1 9 8 . 2 4 )
52
A . 1 , 7 2 0 (I p* 2 0 0 . 3 )
16
A . 1 , 7 2 6 (I p. 2 0 2 . 9 )
48
1
j
62
r
37
A .1,744* {I p . 2 0 8 .4 )
46
A .2,35* ( I p . 221.17)
37
A , 2 , 4 4 * Cl P . 2 2 3 . 3 )
46
A , 2 , 4 4 * Cl P- 2 2 3 ; 5 )
34
A .2,72* ( i p .
L
i
'
A .1.73S ( I p . 205.13)
228.26)
21
A ,2 ,1 1 6 ( I p. 238.8)
36
A . 2 , 1 3 3 (X p . 2 4 0 . 1 8 )
38
A« 2 ,1 6 6 CX P ♦ 2 4 8 . 6 )
53
A . 2 , 1 6 6 * Cl P - 2 4 8 . 3 1 )
44
A , 2 , 1 6 7 * CI P . 2 4 9 . 3 )
33
A . 2 ,1 7 8 * ( I p . 2 5 0 . 2 1 )
10
A . 2 ,1 9 9 ( I p . 2 5 3 . 7 )
49
A . 2 , 2 0 3 * Cl P- 2 5 4 . 1 6 )
54
A . 2 , 2 5 0 (X p . 2 6 1 . 1 0 )
34
A .2,253* ( I p . 2 6 1 .2 2 )
49
A .2,272 ( I p . 265.10)
39
A .2,285* ( I p . 266.25)
53
A .2,290* ( I p . 267.13)
36
A . 2 ,2 9 6 * Cl P* 2 6 8 . 2 4 )
11
A .2 ,3 0 0 ( I P . 269.21)
54
J
A . 2 ,3 2 5 * ( i p .
273 .2 2 }
16
A .2,357 ( I p . 2 78.8)
27
A . 2 , 3 7 5 ( I p . 2 8 0 .1 2 }
54
A . 2 ,4 0 7 ( I p .
284.11)
47
A . 2 ,4 3 1 * ( I p . 2 8 7 . 6 )
50
A .2,434 ( I p .
26
287.13)
A .2,503 ( I p . 296.8)
37
A .2,546* ( I p . 3 0 2 .7 )
28
A . 2 ,6 3 9 ( I p . 3 1 3 . 6 )
49
A . 2 ,6 4 9 * ( I p . 3 1 5 . 6 )
40
A . 2 ,6 6 9 * ( I p . 3 1 6 . 2 8 )
32
A .2,691 ( I p . 31 9 .3 1 )
49
A .2,696 ( I p . 3 2 1 .3 )
49
A .2,717 ( I p . 323.20)
47
A . 2 ,7 7 3 * ( I p . 3 2 8 . 1 1 )
51
A . 2 , SOI* [ i p ,
25
331.22}**
A . 3 , 7 * ( I p . 3 3 5 .1 7 }
16
A .3 ,2 4 ( I p . 341.17)
49
A .3,44* (1 p . 344.12)
47
A» 3 ,5 7 Cl P* 3 4 6 . 1 2 )
50
A . 3 , 5 7 ( I P* 3 4 6 .1 3 }
52
**The t e x t o f t h e SD comment on A e n e i d I an d
I I i s b a s e d eb ie S T y on Q a s e l l a n u s ( s a e o . I X / X ) *
L.
64
r
"1
A . 3 , 6 3 (X p . 3 4 7 . 1 0 )
30
A . 3 , 6 5 { I p . 3 4 9 .1 }
41
A .3,71* ( I p . 351.3)
53
A .3 ,7 3 ( I p . 351.13)
28
A .3,74* ( I p . 352.27)
50
A .3,75* ( I p . 3 53.9)
41
A .3 ,9 6 {I p . 35S.24)
25
A . 3 , 1 0 4 (X p . 3 5 9 . 1 2 )
29
A .3 ,1 0 4 ( I p . 359.26)
13
A .3,108* ( I p . 361.16)
29
A .3,121* ( I p . 3 6 5 .7 )
34
A .3,121 U p . 365.12)
44
A .3,151* ( I p . 3 7 1 ,3 )
40
A .3,167* d
P . 373.4)
45
A .3,167* ( I p . 3 7 3 .6 )
19
A .3,169* d
40
P* 3 7 3 . 2 5 )
A .3,170 ( I p . 3 7 4 .1 )
47
A .3,176 d
54
P . 375.8)
A .3,176* ( I p . 3 7 5 .8 )
46
A .3,203 ( I p . 3 7 8 .6 )
14
A .3,209* ( I p . 379;7)
46
65
r
A .3 ,2 2 ( I p . 382.2)
37
A .3 ,2 3 1 ( I p . 383.5)
50
A . 3 , 2 4 6 * Cl
P . 385.3 )
20
A . 3 , 2 4 6 * (1
p . 385.9)
24
A .3,248* ( I
p . 385.23)
52
A .3 ,275 ( I p . 389.11)
37
A .3,293* ( I
p . 3 9 4 .2 }
52
A . 3 , 3 2 1 * Cl
P . 3 9 8.4)
37
A . 3 , 3 2 3 * (X
p . 398.19)
52
A . 3 , 3 5 1 (X
A .3,370 ( i p .
A . 3 , 3 7 9 Cl
p . 345.10)
408.1)
41
P . 410.5)
27
A .3,438* ( I p . 419.22)
40
A .3 ,4 7 6 ( I p . 4 2 5 .9 )
19
A .3,489* ( I p . 427.16)
45
A .3,548 ( I p . 435.12)
37
A . 3 , 5 5 3 * ( I P- 4 3 7 . 1 7 )
38
A . 3 , 5 7 1 Cl
P . 439.4)
49
A . 3 , 6 9 2 (X
p . 454.11)
6
A . 3 , 7 0 3 (X
p . 456.20)
52
A . 4 , 1 CX P - 4 5 9 . 7 )
L
47
54
J
66
r
A .4,9 ( I p . 462.17)
30
A . 4 , 2 2 (X p . 4 6 4 . 2 6 )
14
A .4 ,3 7 ( I p . 468.16)
21
A .4 ,5 7 * ( I p . 4 7 2 .2 2 )
50
A .4 ,9 3 * ( I p . 480.11)
45
A . 4 , 1 1 9 * {X p . 4 8 4 . 1 9 )
37
A . 4 , 1 3 7 * (X p . 4 8 8 . 1 4 )
51
A .4,167* ( I p . 4 9 3.12)
33
A .4,168* ( I p . 4 9 3 .1 8 )
52
A . 4 , 1 7 5 (X p . 4 9 4 . 1 3 ) '
22
A .4,178* ( I p . 494.28)
24
A .4,179* ( I p . 4 9 5 .9 )
50
A .4 ,1 8 1 * ( I p.' 495.16)
47
A .4 ,1 9 7 * ( I p . 498.25)
47
A . 4 , 2 0 0 * (X p . 4 9 9 . 1 5 )
53
A . 4 , 2 1 2 (X p . 5 0 2 . 1 4 )
41
A .4 ,2 1 6 ( I p . 503.17)
28
A .4,216* ( I p . 503.20)
47
A .4 ,2 2 0 ( I p . 504.24) '
15
A .4,221* ( I p . 504.27)
33
6?
r
“i
A . 4 , 2 3 9 Cl p . 5 0 7 . 2 4 )
21
A .4,262* ( I p . 513.15)
11
A .4,263* ( I p . 5 1 3 .2 3 )
47
A .4,327* ( I p . 5 22.14)
17
A .4,331 ( I p . 523.3)
47
A .4,372* { I p . '5 3 0 .1 1 )
11
A .4,377* ( I p . 5 32.9)
40
A . 4 , 4 1 0 ( I P> 5 3 8 . 6 )
52
A .4,415 ( I p . 5 3 9 .5 )
52
A .4 , 4 3 6 * Cl P- 5 4 3 . 3 )
47
A .4 ,497* ( I p . 555.9)
17
A . 4 , 5 1 6 Cl P- 5 5 8 . 1 0 )
46
A .4,525* { I P . 559,25)
51
A .4 , 5 4 3 Cl P* 5 6 1 . 1 3 )
36
A .4 ,5 8 4 ( I P . 5 6 7 .6 )
39
A . 4 , 6 2 5 * Cl P . 5 7 3 . 1 2 )
46
A .4,646* ( I P- 576.15)
21
A .4 ,6 5 4 ( I p . 577.13)
3?
A . 4 , 6 8 3 * Cl P . 5 8 1 . 4 )
4?
A .4,699* ( I p . 5 85.9)
15
A . 5 , 1 Cl P . 5 8 7 . 2 )
45
r
L
~i
A*5>17* ( I P* 5 9 0 . 1 1 )
45
A .5 ,2 5 ( i p . 592.10)
12
A.5 * 3 0 * ( i p . 5 9 3 . 1 5 )
37
A »5,45 ( i p . 5 9 5 . 1 0 )
51
A*5 , 5 5 ( i p . 5 9 7 . 1 5 )
13
A .5,69* ( i p . 599.10)
51
A .5,7 1 c i p . 599.83)
52
A *5 *72* (X p . 6 0 0 . 3 )
34
A .5,72* ( I p . 6 0 0 .5 )
20
A .5,7 7 ( I p . 600.24)
36
A . 5*85 ( I p . 6 0 3 . 7 ) •
31
A * 5 , 189 ( I p . 612."20)
54
A*5 , 2 7 1 ( I p . 6 1 7 . 1 2 )
47
A . 5*345 ( I p . 6 2 2 . 2 )
17
A. 5*359 Cl P- 6 2 2 . 1 9 )
19
A . 5 , 4 4 3 CI p . 6 2 7 . 1 1 )
54
A*5*521 c i P* 6 3 1 . 1 1 )
49
A* 5 ,6 0 7 Cl P* 6 3 7 . 2 )
38
A*5* 623 Cl p . 6 3 8 . 5 )
54
A *5 *639 Cl p . 6 3 9 . 1 8 )
41
A•5 *704 CI p . 6 4 2 . 1 7 )
19
J
A* 5 , 7 3 6 ( I P* 6 4 5 . 2 5 )
11
A. 5 ,8 0 9 ( I I
40
650.18)
47
A . 5 , 8 4 5 Cl p* 6 5 4 . 1 )
A .6 , 1 { I I p.
2
21
A*6 ,6 9 |[ I I I >. 1 7 . 5 )
18
A . 6 , 1 0 7 III P> 23 i 2 0 )
34
A . 6 , 129 { I I P . 2 8 . 1 7 )
17
A .6,230 { II P. 42.19)
38
A* 6 , 2 6 7 III P . 4 6 . 2 6 )
46
A . 6 , 324* { I I p . 5 6 . 1 )
37
A . 6 ,3 5 9 {.II P* 5 9 . 6 )
52
A . 6 , 4 0 3 ( I I P* 6 3 . 1 4 )
18
A . 6 , 4 2 7 { I I P. 6 5 . 2 1 )
31
A .6 ,498 { I I P. 73.25)
54
A- 6 , 5 1 1 ( I I P- 7 4 . 1 2 )
43
A . 6 ,5 7 7 { I I P . 8 0 . 2 5 )
20
A *6 , 58 2 ( I I P . 8 1 . 1 6 )
40
A . 6 , 6 2 5 ( I I P- 8 8 . 1 3 )
32
A* 6 ,6 4 5 ( I I P* 9 0 . 8 )
51
A . 6 , 7 2 4 ( I I P*
L.
.12)
101.1
)
47
J
70
A. 6 , 7 2 4 ( I I p . 1 0 1 t 13)
53
A . 6 *733 ( I I P . 1 0 3 t i l )
47
P. 106.2)
39
A . 6 *773 ( I I P . 1 0 9 . 7 )
49
A . 6 , 779 C l l P . 1 1 0 . 2 6 )
40
At 6 , SIS ( I I P .
13
A . 6 *747
£11
115.15)
A . 7 , 5 3 CI I p . 1 3 . 2 0 )
At 7,167 ( I I P .
L
138.5)
47
47
A . 7 , 1 8 8 ( I I P* 1 4 0 . 2 1 )
44
A . 7*195 ( I I P . 1 4 1 . 2 0 )
47
A t 7*306 ( I I P . 1 5 1 . 1 )
36
A #7 *345 { I I P* 1 5 3 . 1 9 )
41
A17 *442 ( I I P* 1 5 8 . 2 5 )
12
A.7*662* ( I I P . 1 7 8 . 1 5 )
34
A t7*675 t i l P . 1 7 9 . 2 3 )
47
A . 7*678 ( I I P . 1 8 0 . 8 )
52
A . 7 ,6 9 7 * ( I I P . 1 8 4 . 8 )
30
At7*761 ( I I P* 1 9 2 . 2 4 )
51
A .8 , 2 3 * ( I I P . 2 0 3 . 1 4 )
29
A. 8 ,3 3 * ( I I P* 2 0 4 . 1 0 )
21
A . S , 4 9 ( I I p . ;2 0 6 . 1 0 )
53
1
71
1
A .S , 8 4 (1 1 p .
811.17)
A .8 ,1 3 4 * ( I I p .
2 1 9 .2 0 )
24
A *8 , 1 5 0 * ( I I p .
2 2 2 .8 )
19
A.S ,1 5 5 ( I I p .
2 2 2 .2 6 )
47
A .8 ,1 8 7 ( I I p .
226.25)
13
A .8 ,2 1 5 ( I I p .
22 9 ,3 )
11
A .S ,2 4 3 ( I I p .
231.24)
26
A .S ,2 7 5 ( I I p .
235.20)
24
23 6 .6 )
51
A .S , 2 7 6 ( I I p .
2 3 6 .1 6 )
41
A .S ,2 9 1 ( I I p .
2 3 9 .1 4 )
15
A .8 ,275* ( I I p .
A .S ,2 9 9 * ( I I p .
A .8 ,3 3 2 ( I I p .
L
49
242.19)
11
2 4 7 .2 6 )
19
A .S ,3 4 3 * ( I I p .
2 5 0 .8 )
36
A .S ,3 4 5 * ( I I p .
251.11)
20
A .S ,3 5 7 * ( I I p .
2 53 .1)
53
A .S ,3 9 5 * ( I I p .
2 5 9 .6 )
41
A .8 ,403* ( I I p .
26Q .13)
39
A .S , 4 3 6 ( I I p . 2 6 6 . 9 )
36
A .S ,5 3 7 ( I I p .
40
27 5 .2 0 )
J
72
n
r
A* 8 ,5 4 4 * ( I I p .
276*5)
41
A* 8 ,5 5 2 * ( I I p .
2 7 7 .12)
10
A.8 ,5 7 0 *
280*13)
12
(II p.
A*8>600 ( I I p . 2 8 2 . 1 5 )
18
A . S >623 ( I I p .
38
2 8 5 .5 )
A . S , 634* ( I I p .
28 7 .4 )
51
A . S >655* ( I I p .
287;15)
29
A* 8 ,6 3 8 ( I I P .
289 .1 5 )
17
A .8>664 ( I I p .
296.1 3 )
44
A .8 , 6 7 7 * ' ( I I p .
2 9 8 .1 0 )
51
A . S >681* ( I I p .
3 0 0 .1 )
51
3 1 2.18)
16
A .9 ,3 1 * ( I I p .
A . 9 >87 ( I I P .
3 1 8 .7 )
A * 9> 2 68 * ( I I p .
3 3 4 .20)
38
49
3 3 7 .1 7 )
19
A .9>313 ( I I p . 3 3 8 .1 3 )
49
A .9>369* ( I I p .
41
A .9>302 ( I I p .
A . 9>446 ( I I p .
A .9,498*
(11 p .
3 4 3 .2 2 )
349 .2 5 )
353.19)
31
49
A . 9 >581 ( I I p .
3 5 9 .1 5 )
26
A .9 ,6 2 4 ( I I p .
3 6 4.87)
36
j
73
r
n
A . 9 , 6 8 5 (XI p .
372 .5 }
15
A . 9 , 702 ( I I p . 3 7 3 .7 )
29
A .9 ,77 0 * ( I I p .
378.14)
49
A.1 0 , 4 2 * { I I p .
3 8 9 .1 6 )
40
A .10,6 8 ( I I p .
49
3 9 3 .2 )
A .10,1 54 * ( I I p .
36
40 5 .3 )
& .10,212* { I I p . 4 1 4 .2 9 )
51
A .10,2 2 8* ( I I p .
51
A .1 0 ,2 4 9 ( I I p .
41 7 .1 )
4 1 9 .6 )
•
A .10,266* ( I I p . 4 2 0 .1 5 )
47
A .10,2 7 2 * ( I I p . 4 2 1 .2 5 )
44
A .1 0 ,2 7 2 * ( I I p . 4 2 2 .4 )
21
A .1 0 ,3 8 3 ( I I p . .4 3 2 .3 0 )
43
A .1 0 ,5 6 4 ( I I p .
54
45 0 .2 )
A. 1 0 , 5 7 2 * ( I I p . 4 5 1 . 1 1 }
L
54
*■ 5 4
A .10 ,6 4 4 ( I I p . 4 5 0 .9 )
54
A .1 0 ,6 8 9
13
( I I p . 46 0 .5 )
A .10,8 0 5 * ( I I p . 4 6 8 .2 7 )
IS
A>1 0 , 8 6 5 ( I I p .
47
4 7 3 .4 )'
A. 1 1 , 6 ( I I p . 4 7 7 . 2 4 ) "
56
A. 1 1 , 1 9 ( I I p . 4 7 9 . 3 2 )
43
J
74
r
I
A .11,5 1 *
(XI P .
A .1 1 ,8 0 ( I I p .
48 3 .6 )
48 6 .6 )
32
( I I P. 4 8 6 .2 2 )
41
A . 1 1 , 1 6 8 ( I I P* 4 9 6 . 1 7 )
19
A .11,186
51
A .11,84*
( I I P. 4 9 8 .3 }
A . l l , 2 0 6 ( I I P* 4 9 9 . 2 0 )
54
A .11,211
( I I P* 5 0 0 . 1 7 )
26
A. 1 1 ,2 3 8
( I I P* 5 0 3 , 1 )
53
A .11,243*
( I I P . 504;5)
32
A. 1 1 , 2 8 8
( I I P* 5 1 4 . 8 )
54
A .11 ,3 3 ?
( I I P* 5 2 0 . 6 )
54
A . 1 1 , 3 9 6 ( I I P* 5 2 7 ; 8 )
19
A . 1 1 , 4 1 3 ( I I P* 5 2 9 . 7 )
A .11,532*
( I I P . 54 3 .1 )
A .11,5 8 7
( I I P* 5 4 8 , 5 }
A .11 ,5 9 0
(II P.
54 8 ,1 4 )
.
14
54
43
21
A . 1 1 , 8 8 6 ( I I P* 5 7 1 . 4 }
21
A .1 1 ,8 9 6
5 7 2 .1 )
54
5 7 8 .1 5 )
54
( I I P.
A*12,21 ( I I p .
A .12,120*
A .1 2,120
L
25
( I I P . 5 8 8 .9 )
22
( I I P* 5 8 8 . 1 6 )
36
J
L
A .1 2 , 1 8 1 * ( I I p . 5 9 8 . 1 )
20
A .12,266 ( I I p . 6 0 2 .2 2 )
30
A .1 2 ,3 5 4 * ( I I p . 6 0 9 .2 )
54
A .1 2 , 4 1 9 * ( I I p . 6 1 3 . 2 1 )
51
A .12,511 ( I I p . 6 1 9 .1 5 )
21
A .12,589* ( I I p . 625.22)
42
A .1 2 ,6 1 1 * ( I I p . 6 2 7 .1 9 )
47
A .1 2 , 6 4 8 ( I I p . 6 3 0 . 1 1 )
22
A .12,652 ( I I p . 6 3 0 .1 7 )
49
A .1 2 , 7 3 0 ( I I p . 6 3 6 . 1 9 )
47
A .12,844 ( I I p . 6 4 5 .1 0 )
11
A.1 2 , 9 3 5 ( I I p . 6 4 9 . 1 )
54
Prooem. Buc. ( I l l p . 2 , 1 1 )
14
B .1 ,1 ( I I I p. 4 .2 0 )
44
B .2,25 ( I I I p. 22.17)
20
B .2,30 ( I I I p. 23.10)
13
B .2,61 ( I I I p. 2 7 .1 9 )
34
B .2 ,7 0 ( I I I p. 28.24)
36
B .3 ,1 ( I I I p. 29.14)
28
B .3 ,2 0 ( I I I p. 33.14)
43
B .4 ,4 ( I I I p. 4 5 .5)
44
76
r
']
B .4 ,7
( I I I P. 45*19)
B .4 ,3 8 ( I I I p .
B .5 ,1 1 *
5 0 .2 0 )
( I I I p . 5 5 .1 8 )
44
43
54
B .5 ,1 4 ( I I I p.
5 6 .3 )
47
B . 5 ,4 0 ( I I I p .
5 9 .3 )
52
B .6 ,3 1
6 9 .2 9 )'
51
( I I I p. 7 3 .1 6 )
44
B .6 ,4 2 *
(III p.
B .7 ,2 1 * ( I I I p . 8 5 .8 )
36
B .7 ,2 1 * ( I I I p . 8 5 .9 )
28
B . 7 , 3 8 ( I I I p . 8 8 . 2 6 ’)
49
B . 7 ,6 2 * ( I I I p .
9 1 .1 1 )
15
B .8 ,1 8 *
9 4 .3 2 )
19
B .8 ,2 9
(III p.
( I I I ’p . 9 7 .4 )
B .8 ,3 7 * ( I I I p .
30
99."10)
39
1 0 0 .2 1 )
51
(III p.
1 0 3.-5)
18
B .8 ,6 8 * ( I I I p.
10 4 .5 )
15
B .8 ,6 9
( ill" p . 1 0 4 .1 1 )
45
B .8 ,7 1
(III p.
104.16)
17
106.7)
51
1 1 0 .29)
27
B .8 ,5 0 ( I I I p.
B .8 ,6 5 *
B .8 ,8 2 *
(III p.
B .9 ,1 1 * ( I I I p .
77
p
•1
B. 1 0 , 2 7
I I I P* 1 2 3 . 2 1 )
36
G . l 17*
I I I P* 1 3 5 . 1 0 )
13
* ( I I I P . 156.29)
44
G . l 108
I I I P* 1 5 9 . 4 )
54
G . l 208
I I I P* 1 8 0 . 7 )
21
G . l 217
I I I p . 182.3)
17
G . l 243
I I I P* 1 8 7 . 2 1 )
11
G . l 270
I I I P* 1 9 4 . 8 )
36
G . l 332
I I I P* 2 0 0 . 2 4 )
51
G . l 336
I I I p . 201.24)
49
G . l 344
I I I P* 2 0 2 . 1 7 )
36
G . l 354
I I I P* 2 0 3 . 1 8 )
37
G . l 366
I I I p. 205.2)
44
G . l 375
I I I P* 2 0 5 . 2 1 )
31
G . l 414
I I I p . 209.10 }
49
G .l
100
G. 2 146 * ( I I I P . 2 3 3 . 1 9 )
G. 2 146
I I I p . 233.20)
51
36
G. 2 348* ( I I I P . 2 4 9 . 1 5 )
49
G.2 350
I I I P- 2 4 9 . 2 0 )
16
G. 2 406
I I I P* 4 0 6 . 4 )
24
G.2 408
I I I P* 2 5 6 . 1 3 )
39
U
78
r
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G . 2 , 474
(III
p.
263.11)
43
G .3,24
( I I I p.
275.£3)
39
G .3,34
(III
277.27)
19
p.
G .3,236
(III
p.
295.2)
53
G .3,313
(III
p.
301.5)
36
G .3,509
(III
p.
316.9)
15
G.4 ,1 0 7
(III
p.
327.22)
37
334.1)
51
G .4,175*
(III
G .4,242
(III
G .4,341
G .4,553
G .4,563*
p.
340.1)
54
( I I I p.
346.18)
49
(III
359.6)
43
(III
p.
p.
p.
360.4)
52
79
r
n
APPENDIX B
I . SUMMARY OF THE LOCAL USES OF SERVIUS ( S )
AND OF SERVIUS DANIELIS (SD )
a b i r e w i t h a b , d e , and t h e s i m p l e a b l a t i v e i n SD.
ab sced ere w ith
ab t w i c e i n S a n d once i n SD; w i t h e x i n S .
a b s tin e r e w ith
ab i n S and SD; w i t h
sim ple a b l a t i v e in S .
a v e l l e r e w i t h ab i n S an d SD; w i t h ex and t h e s i m p l e
a b l a t i v e i n S.
b l b e r e w i t h de i n SD; w i t h e x i n S , B . 1 , 1 2 .
p o t a r e w ith ex i n
H a u r i r e and
G . 4 , 1 9 3 and G . 2 , 3 8 2 .
2
c a d e r e w i t h ab and de i n SD.
c o l l i g e r e w i t h ab i n S ; w i t h de i n SD; w i t h $x i n S ,
A . 3 , 6 4 5 ; A . 7 , 3 7 an d i n SD, A . 4 , 4 5 3 .
defen d ere w ith
ab i n S an d SD.
d e p e lle re w ith
ab i n S and SD; w i t h
th e sim ple a b l a t i v e
in S.
descendere with de and ex in S.
d e s i s t e r e with ab in S.
d e s t i t u e r e w i t h ab i n
8
.
d l s c e d e r e w i t h de i n SD; w i t h e x i n S .
d i s c e r n e r e w i t h ab i n S .
d e v i a r e w i t h ab i n S .
I . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s summary i s t o p r e s e n t t h e l o c a l u s a g e s
o f b o t h c o m m e n t a r i e s t o g e t h e r so a s t o i n d i c a t e t h e co n ­
s t r u c t i o n s common t o b o t h and t h o s e t h a t a r e p a r t i c u l a r
to each.
2* These c i t a t i o n s o f u s a g e s w i t h h a u r i r e , e t c . , a n d o t h e r s
s u b s e q u e n t l y so l i s t e d a r e g i v e n as s u p p l e m e n t a r y ma­
t e r i a l ( CD u n d e r m a n a r e b e l o w ) .
They were n o t t r e a t e d
i n t h e body o f t h i s s t u d y .
They were a dd e d b e c a u s e t h e y
w ere a n a l a g o u s i n m e a n in g t o t h e v e r b s s t u d i e d *
L
j
80
r
‘
d i s c o r d a r e w i t h ab i n S*
"I
e b u l l i r e w i t h de i n SD.
e g r e d i w i t h de i n
s.
e r u e r e w i t h de i n s>.
e r u m p e r e w i t h de and e x in ,
s.
e v a d e r e w i t h de i n s ; w i t h s i m p l e a b l a t i v e i n S*
e x c l u d e r s w i t h de i n
s*
e x l r e w i t h ab i n S D ; w i t h de i n S and SD*
• e x p e l l e r e w i t h de i n SB ; w i t h s i m p l e a b l a t i v e i n S .
f l a r e w i t h ab i n S , A . 1 , 1 1 4 ; w i t h de -in . 3, A . S , 7 1 0 ; w i t h
ex in 3 ,
0 .3 ,4 7 8 *
l e v a r e w i t h e x i n SD*
l i b e r a r e w i t h ab i n £[ a n d S D ; w i t h d e i n gp»
m a n a r e w i t h de i n s > A . 5 , 4 1 2 a n d i n SD; w i t h e x i n SD,
A * 4 , 1 9 6 ; A . 1 0 , 1 6 3 . F l u e r e w i t h e x i n S , A*3 , 3 2 ; w i t h
the sim ple a b l a t i v e
i n S D , G . l , 1 3 1 . Fmanare w i t h e x
i n S , A*1 , 3 * F f f l u e r e w i t h e x i n S ,
3 ,3 4*
D eflu ere
w ith e x in S , G . l , 4 72.
n a v i g a r e w i t h de i n S , A . 4 , 5 6 2 ; w i t h e x in SD, A * 5 ,7 ;
A* 4 ,3 1 0 .
p e l l e r e w i t h de and e x i n S ; w i t h t h e s i m p l e a b l a t i v e
in
S and S D * ^
p e n d e r e w i t h de i n s a n d SD; w i t h e x i n S ; w i t h s i m p l e
a b l a t i v e i n S , A . 1 , 4 6 9 and i n S B .
p e r l r e w i t h ab i n S D .
p r o o e d e r e w i t h de i n SB.
L
J
81
r
•
n
p r o f I d s c o r w i t h ab I n S a n d SD; w i t h de i n S a n d SD;
w i t h e x i n SD; w i t h t h e s i m p l e a b l a t i v e i n SD.
p u g n a r e w i t h de I n S'*
r a p e r e w i t h de i n SD*
r e c e d e r e w i t h ab a n d de i n
8
.
r e d ! r e w i t h de i n SB; w i t h e x i n s ; w i t h ab i n SD.
r e f e r r e w i t h e x i n SD*
r e m o v e r e w i t h de i n S ; w i t h a b i n
r e v e l l e r e w i t h de
i n S*
sub r i p e r e w i t h de
i n S*
sum ere w i t h de i n
s ; w ith ex in
S , A*5 , 8 4 7 .
S and SD; w i t h ab i n
S an d SD*
s u r g e r e w i t h de i n S ; w i t h e x i n g , A . 2*699*
t o i l e r e w i t h ab i n SD; w i t h de i n g ; w i t h t h e s i m p l e
a b l a t i v e i n S*
u s u r p a r e w i t h de i n SD.
v e n i r e w i t h de i n s an d i n SD, A* 1 , 3 1 7 ; w i t h e x i n S ,
A . 3 , 7 3 ; w i t h e x i n SD, A * 5 , 2 j A* 8 , 3 1 9 ; A.8 , 3 2 8 *
v e r t e r e w i t h ex i n g , A . 5 , 7 9 1 *
A v e rte re w ith th e 1 sim ple
a b l a t i v e i n SD* A * 9 , 7 6 ; w i t h ab i n SD, A .2 ,2 4 3 *
d e v e r t e r e w i t h ab i n SD, A*1,567*
v i n d i c a r e w i t h de i n SD.
82
r
1
The f o l l o w i n g i s a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e l o c a l con­
s t r u c t i o n s w i t h t h e v e r b s c o l l e c t e d ab o v e an d shows t h e
r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e s e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n e a c h com m entary.
The l o c a l u s e s o f t h e t h r e e p r e p o s i t i o n s show no
e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e 3 and SD C o m m e n t a r i e s .
As a m a t t e r o f f a c t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g u n w o r t h y o f g i n t h e
SD Commentary a s Thomas ( p . 47) h a s re m a rk e d *
Idiom atic
e x p r e s s i o n s in b o th com m entaries have p a r a l l e l s i n o t h e r
L atin w riters*
T r u e , a l a r g e number o f u s a g e s i n b o t h t h e
S and SD C o m m e n ta rie s f o l l o w t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e
f a m i l i a r language.
The f a c t t h a t many c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n
e a c h commentary a r e s i m i l a r m i g h t p o i n t t o a common s o u r c e .
Then a g a i n t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f one Commentary m i g h t n o t
demand t h e u s e o f a p a r t i c u l a r v e r b , w i t h i t s a t t e n d a n t
co n stru ctio n .
The f i g u r e s below- i n d i c a t e o n l y t h e v e r b s
s t u d i e d In t h e p r e c e d i n g p a g e s . ' I n t a b u l a t i n g t h e l o c a l
u s e s o f ab t h e f o l l o w i n g f r e q u e n c i e s ( 2 3 ) w e re n o t e d ,
d i v i d e d t h u s r e i g h t c o n s t r u c t i o n s w ere common t o b o t h
S an d SD: a b s c e d e r e , a b s t i n e r e , a v e l l e r e , d e f e n d e r s ,
d ep ellere,
only in g :
lib e ra re , p ro fic isc i,
s u m e r e t s e v e n w ere f o u n d
c o llig e re , d e s is te re , d e s titu e re , d iseern ere,
d e v i a r e , d i s c o r d a r e , r e c e d e r e ; e i g h t o t h e r s w e re f o u n d
o n l y i n SD: a b i r e ,
v ertere,
cadere, e x ife , p e r i r e , r e d ir e , t o l l e r e ,
devertere.
As d e was t h e f a v o r i t e p r e p o s i t i o n o f t h e w r i t e r s
o f t h e L a t e L a t i n p e r i o d , t h e C o m m en taries r e v e a l a l a r g e r
j
83
r
n u m e r i c a l u s a g e o f t i i i s p r e p o s i t i o n t h a n o f ab o r e x .
-j
Of
th e t h i r t y - f i v e u sa g es n o t e d , th e d i s t r i b u t i o n s were as
f o l l o w s : f i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s w ere common t o b o t h S a n d SD:
e x i r e , m anare, p e n d e re , p r o f i c i s c i , v e n i r e ;
found o n ly i n S;
descendere,
s e v e n t e e n w ere
e g r e d i , e r u e r e , erum pere,
evadere, ex clu d ers , f l a r e , n av ig are, p e lle r e , p u g n a re ,
r e e e d e r e , rem overe, r e v e l l e r e ,
to llere;
cadere,
su bripere,
sumere, s u r g e r e ,
t h i r t e e n w e re f o u n d o n l y i n SD: a b i r e , b i b e r e ,
c o l l i g e r e , descendere, e b u l l i r e ,
lib e ra re , procedere, rap ere,
ex p ellere,
re d ire , u su rp a re , v in d icare.
As t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f ab and i n p a r t i c u l a r o f de i n ­
c r e a s e d , many o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n e x w ere r e p l a c e d
by t h o s e w i t h ab and j l e .
So t o o i n t h e C om m entaries t h e r e
i s a m arked d e c l i n e i n t h e u s e o f t h i s p r e p o s i t i o n .
e i g h t e e n u s e s v/ere d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s :
common t o b o t h S and SD; c o l l i g e r e ,
were found o n ly i n S;
The
t h r e e w ere
sum ere, v e n i r e ;
eleven
abscedere, a v e lle r e , descendere,
d is c e d e r e , erum pere, f l a r e , p e l l e r e , p e n d e re , r e d i r e ,
s u r g e r e , v e r t e r e ; f o u r w ere f o u n d o n l y i n SD: l e v a r e ,
navigare, p r o f i c i s c i , r e f e r r e .
j
84
r
~i
I I . SUMMARY OF THE OTHER RELATIONS DEVELOPED FROM
THE LOCAL USES IN S and SD
The f r e q u e n c y o f t h e o t h e r r e l a t i o n s d e v e l o p e d fro m
t h e l o c a l u s e i n b o t h c o m m e n t a r i e s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e body
o f t h e p r e s e n t work i s i n d i c a t e d b e l o w .
I t h a s seemed
i n a d v i s a b l e t o l i s t t h e n u m e r i c a l f r e q u e n c y o f e a c h con­
s t r u c t i o n b e c a u s e o n l y a l i m i t e d number o f t h o s e u s a g e s ,
i n some e a s e s , w a s / c i t e d .
These c i t a t i o n s a r e b e l i e v e d
t o be s u f f i c i e n t t p i l l u s t r a t e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e
various sy n ta c tic a l, r u le s .
The u s e o f a b , d e , e x t o d e n o t e b i r t h o r o r i g i n i s
f o u n d b o t h i n S and SD*
B u t i n SD t h e r e i s one i n s t a n c e
o f a u s e w i t h de w h ere we w o u ld e x p e c t a b ; l i k e w i s e i n SD
t h e r e a r et two u s e s w i t h e x .
Cause o r r e a s o n i s e x p r e s s e d i n S and SD w i t h a b , d e ,
ex.
In
s t h e u s e o f t h e s e t h r e e p r e p o s i t i o n s i s more
numerous t h a n i n SD.
To e x p r e s s means ab i s f o u n d i n
8
and SD; t h i s u s e
is
more f r e q u e n t I n SD.
is
l e s s f r e q u e n t i n s ; b u t de w i t h s a c r i f i c a r e i s f o u n d o n l y
i n s.
I n S and SD de e x p r e s s e s means b u t
Ex i s f o u n d i n S an d SD; h o w e v e r, more f r e q u e n t l y i n
S.
I n p a r t i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s de and e x a p p e a r i n
SD.
The u s e s o f
s and
de a r e n u m e r i c a l l y g r e a t e r i n S .
To i n d i c a t e t h e m a t t e r o f w h i c h a t h i n g i s made ab i s
j
85
n
f o u n d i n jS and SD.
l i k e w i s e de and ex a r e f o u n d i n £5 and
SD.
Ab w i t h t h e a b l a t i v e o f c o m p a r i s o n i n S_ and SD; more
num erous i n 15.
The u s e o f ab w i t h S e c u r i t a s and w i t h a l i e n u m i n SD;
a l i e n u m wi t h ab a l s o i n S.
G l o r i o r w i t h de i n SD; f r e t u s w i t h de i n SD, b u t w i t h
t h e s i m p l e a b l a t i v e i n B; d e f r a u d a r e w i t h de i n S ; u l c i s c o r
w i t h de i n SD.
The u s e s o f de = secundum, o f de a f t e r n o u n s and a d ­
j e c t i v e s a r e f o u n d b o t h i n S and SD*
Ex
83
secundum i n B and i n SD; more f r e q u e n t i n SD.
Ex * sub o r i n w i t h p e r s o n a i n £> and SD; ex p a r t e ■ i n p a r t e
i n S and SD.
" p o s t i n B; e x a b r u p t o i n S; ex a p e r t o i n S .
E l o n g i n q u o i n £> and SD; e c o n t r a r i o i n S_ an d SD; more
f r e q u e n t i n SD; ex i m p r o v i s o i n ^ and SD; e x a d v e r s o i n SD.
Prom an a n a l y s i s o f t h e f o r e g o i n g i t
appears th a t
t h e r e a r e no a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n g e n e r a l i n b o t h
com m entaries.
I n m o st c a s e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t t h o s e
of c o n s t r u c t i o n b u t r a t h e r of n u m e ric a l fre q u e n c y .
86
APPENDIX C
OTHER OBSERVATIONS PERTAINING TO THE
GRAMMAR OF SERVIUS' COMMENTARY
The f o l l o w i n g u s e s were n o t e d w h i l e s t u d y i n g t h e
c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n s a b , cle, e x .
The l i s t
i s b y no means e x h a u s t i v e and r e s u l t s fro m an u n u s u a l
u s a g e n o t e d h e r e and t h e r e , ' 1’
Forms : i u s s o A* 1 , 7 8 * ; p u gnantum A*2 , 3 3 5 * ; a n im ab us
A*6 , 1 3 6 ; 4 18; 7 1 4 ,
P r e p o s i t i o n s ; a b s q u e - p r a e t e r A*6 , 8 2 5 e v e r t e r u n t
urbem a b s q u e C a p i t o l i o .
Ad w i t h t h e a c c u s a t i v e t o e x p r e s s
p u r p o s e ; A*1 ,3 9 ad I n v i d i a m p o s u i t ; A . 1 , 7 3 ad o b s e q u iu m
datus e s t .
Ad w i t h a s u b s t a n t i v e r e p l a c i n g t h e g e r u n d i v e :
A . 1 , 1 1 3 ad a u x i l i u m v e n e r a n t .
in s te a d of the d a tiv e :
Ad w i t h t h e a c c u s a t i v e
A . 1 ,5 3 9 ad Didonem l o q u i t u r ;
A . 2 ,6 5 * r e s p o n d e n d o ad i l l u d ; A . 1 ,6 * ad p e r s o n a m
a d p l i c a b a n t ; A . 1 , 6 * a d omnem numerum i u n g e r e n t .
N otice
a l s o : A .1,6 3 s i ad e i u s v o lu n ta te m p o ssu n t elem ents
c o n f u n d i . C i r c a i n s t e a d o f de w i t h t h e a b l a t i v e : A . 1 ,3 0
c i r c a e x t i n c t u r n c r u d e l e m ; i n s t e a d o f e r g a : A* 1 , 4 c i r c a
T r e ^ i / a n o s ; i n s t e a d o f In w i t h t h e a b l a t i v e : A. 1 , 2 3 0 c i r c a
d e o s . , , c i r c a hom ines,
iu x ta an tiq u o s;
j u x . t a i n s t e a d o f a p u d : A, 2 ,3 7 4 *
i n s t e a d o f secundum ( a c c o r d i n g t o ) :
A , 4 , 5 9 8 * i u x t a p r a e s e n t e m usum. I n w i t h t h e a c c u s a t i v e
1 . Cf. H a b e r d a , o p , c i t „ , p p . 6 - 1 9 .
L
.
J
87
r i n s t e a d of the a b la tiv e *
A .1,173* a r t u s i n l i t u s p o n u n t; n
i n w ith th e a b l a t i v e i n s t e a d of the in s tr u m e n ta l a b l a t i v e :
A*1 ,3 1 7 * e q u i t e s i n c e l e r i t a t e v i t a r e t ;
in w ith the
a b l a t i v e i n s t e a d o f t h e a c c u s a t i v e : A - 2 ,7 6 1 * s u n t quidam
q u i d i c u n t , i d e o G ra e e o s i n t e m p l o I u n o n i s , quod a s y lu m
e r a t , praedam c o n v e x is s e v e l c a p tiv o s e o n d u x is s e ; in w ith
th e a b l a t i v e i n s t e a d of th e sim ple a b l a t i v e : A .1 ,4 ro g a to s
d e o s i n odium .
I n t r a s e i n s t e a d o f secum; A . 1 , 9 2 * .
W ith
r o g a r e , pro w ith th e a b l a t i v e in s te a d of th e a c c u s a tiv e of
th e t h i n g : A .1,487* p ro f i l i i
c o r p o r a r o g a r e t eum.
Nouns - I r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f c a s e c o n s t r u c t i o n s .
Accusa­
t i v e i n s t e a d o f t h e a b l a t i v e : A*2 ,3 3 * l a p i l l u m u t i f u i s s e
so litam .
N o m i n a t i v e and g e n i t i v e c o n f u s e d : A . 2 , 7 hoc
f a b u l a e e s t ; A . 2 , 7 * hoc f a b u l a e s t .
D ative in s t e a d o f
a c c u s a t i v e a f t e r v e rb o f m o tio n : A .1,751* a u x iliu m T r o i a n i s
f e r r e t ; A . 1 , 7 5 2 quos Aenea© s u s t u l i t .
A ccusative in s te a d
o f t h e n o m i n a t i v e : A . 1 , 6 3 * cum non i u b e r e t u r eum h o c f a e e r e
w h e re h o w e v e r , eum i s an e m e n d a t i o n by T h i l o w h e r e C a s s e l l a n u s h a s t u n c hoc f a c e r e t .
V erbs - I n d i c a t i v e i n i n d i r e c t q u e s tio n s :
A .1,8
q u a e r a t au tem quod a l i u d numen e s t l a e s u m ; A . 1 , 1 1 ; A . 1 , 2 4 6 .
Quod and q u i a w i t h t h e i n d i c a t i v e a f t e r v e r b a s e n t i e n d i e t
d eclaran d i:
A*1 , 3 6 3 s c i e n d u m quod t a n g i t ; A , 1 ,2 1 9 novimus
quod v o c a b a n t u r ; A . 1 ,2 3 0 n e s c i e n t e s q u i a e s t ; A . 1 , 2 3 2
s c ie n d a e s t quia s u n t .
In fin itiv e
l.
c o n stru c tio n s f o r su b stan tiv e clauses;
j
( a ) w i t h d a b i t a r e i A . 3 , 5 3 7 * f u i s s e n on dubium e s t : A * 2,738
non enim d u b i t a t e s s e s u b l a t a m ; A. 1 , 2 9 2 ; A*5,6 26*
( b ) w i t h f a c e r e : A*3 ,2 3 * m o r i f e c i t ; A*1 , 3 3 0 q u i f a c i t e s s e
f e l i c e m ; A * 4 ,4 5 v e n i r e f e c e r u n t ; A*4,152* f a c i t n o s I t a
A n t e n t o s ; A . 4 ,3 1 4 * *
i o ) w i t h o r a e c i o e r e : P r a e f * S* p r a e c i p i t i n c e n d i ; A* 4 ,2 5 0 *
t o l l i e t m i s c e r i p r a e c e p i t ; A .4 ,3 7 3 * ; A *4,402*;
( d ) w ith p o s t u l a r e : A .4,696* a r m a r i p o s t u l a n t i .
(e ) w ith o p t a r e : A .2 ,7 o p t a v i t t o t s i b i s o c io s e v e n ire*
( f ) w ith h o r t o r : A .2 ,69* h o rtam u r f e r i .
( g ) w i t h m i t t o : A . 2 , 3 1 8 * mi s i t D e lp h o s s c i s e i t a t u r u m *
( h ) w i t h h a b e r e : A *2,35* C a e s a r o c c i d i h a b u i t ; A* 3 ,4 57
quae v e l l e h a b e t ; A* 4 ,3 7 6 * h a b e o e x p l o r a r e ; A* 5 ,7 1 2 nam
v e l l e h a b e t ; A * 6 ,7 2 4 n e c e s s e h a b e t p u r g a r i ; A*1 0 ,3 3 1 *
s t r i n g e r © h a b u e ra n t* x B e s id e s th o s e l i s t e d above H aberda
no tes the fo llo w in g :
c o m p e l l e r e 1 . 4 , 3 2 ; tim e r© and m e t u e r e
1 * 3 , 4 ; A * 6 ,1 4 ; d e s i d e r a r e 1 * 8 , 5 9 ; m one re 1 * 6 , 4 2 ; s u a d e r e
A .8 , 3 4 5 ; A . 1 1 , 3 4 3 .
2
A d v e r b s j o i n e d t o t h e s u p e r l a t i v e : P r a e f * A * adeo
a u t e m v e r e c u n d i s s i n u s f u i t ; A * l , 2 4 3 s a e v i s s i m i admodum
p o p u li.
P ro n o u n s : h i e i s used f o r i a o r i l l e ; h i e q u i f o r
i s q u i i n A * 2 ,7 6 1 ; <2*4,125; B * 8 , 5 9 ; G . l , 8 ; G . 2 , 140* i p s e
f o r id e m i n G * l , 3 9 ; i p s e f o r i s i n A . 1 , 6 9 8 ; A . 2 , 6 1 0 ;
G .2 ,55,
3
1* O f. y . B U l h a r t , " H a b u i miV I n f i n i t i v w i e n e r S t u d i e n ,
181-183
----------------- --------
89
r
n
Vocabnl a r y :
V irg il,
1
S e r v i u s d i s c u s s e s G a l l i c w o rd s i n
o
an d u s e s w ords w h i c h o c c u r nowhere e l s e , ^ and
w o rd s w h i c h a r e f o u n d o n l y i n S e r v i u s and l a t e r
glo ssaries.* ^
F o r S e r v i u s 1 r e m a r k s on d e c l e n s i o n s , num ber, g e n d e r ,
i r r e g u l a r form s,
p ies,
g erundives,
a rc h a ic form s, d e f e c tiv e nouns, p a r t i c i - etc.
c o n s u l t E . Thomas’ E s s a i , p p . 2 1 4 - 2 1 9 .
What may be a f u l l e r c o l l e c t i o n o f S e r v i u s * s g r a m m a t i c a l
o b s e r v a t i o n s c a n be f o u n d b y c o n s u l t i n g t h e p a s s a g e s l i s t e d
i n t h e I n d e x o f M o u n t f o r d an d S c h u l t z ,
s.vv. , c a s u s , g e n u s ,
modus, t e m p u s , e t c .
1 . E. W iegand, N o t e s on t h e E j g h t h Book o f t h e Commentary
o f S e r v i u s On VergTT* S A ene'id, p . I l 3 , l i s t s t h e f o l l o w Tng G a l l i c w o r d s :
A l p e s , A . 4 , 4 4 2 ; c a t e i a e , A .7 , 7 4 1 ;
e s s e d a , G . 3 , 2 0 4 ; v o le m a , G . 2 , 8 8 .
2 . Wiegand, djd. c i t . , p . 114 l i s t s t h e f o l l o w i n g : t e t a e
(palum be sT T E . 1 , 5 7 ; t a m a r i c i u m ( m y r i c a e ) , 4 . 2 ;
o r c i t u n i c a ( s a l i u n c a ) , 5,17; i n c e s p i t a t o r e s • • • ( equi
s u f f u s i ) , A .1 1 , 6 7 1 .
3 . Thomas, d p . c i t . , p . 149 l i s t s t h e s e ; l u c i b i l e , A .V I,
725; l u p a r i u s , G . l , 139.
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T hesaurus Linguae
L atin ae ( T .L .L .)
L e i p z i g , T e u b n e r , 1900 f f .
J
n
VITA
Name
J o s e p h J o h n D o y le
(B ro th e r Cam illus Jo se p h , F .S .C .)
D a te o f B i r t h
A p r i l 2, 1905
E lem entary School
G raduated
S t . M a ry 's, P ro v id e n c e , R .I .
1919
H ig h S c h o o l
S t . J o s e p h ' s Normal I n s t i t u t e ,
P o c a n t i c o H i l l s , N.Y#
1922
G raduated
L
B a c c a l a u r e a t e D eg ree
C ollege
D a te
A.B.
M anhattan
1928
O th er Degrees
C ollege
D a te
A.M.
M anhattan
1930
J
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