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Paterson, New Jersey, the Changing Welfare of Its People and the Predominant Causal Influences Responsible for Such Change: A Study in Methods

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FORDHAM UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
.........................................Jim©... 19-ML.
This dissertation prepared under my direction by
Es.TKersnd .
...Sh&nley...........................
entitled Paterson, New Jersey, the Changing Welfare of Its...
People...and.---the..-P-redai&inant..-JCteusal-.-.In£luences...Res-pons.ible
for Such Change: A Study in Methods
has been accepted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
Degree of £optor.of ..Philosophy...........................
(F acu lty A d v is e r)
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PATERSON, NEW JERSEY, THE CHANGING WELFARE OF ITS
PEOPLE AND THE PREDOMINANT CAUSAL INFLUENCES RE­
SPONSIBLE FOR SUCH CHANGE: A STUDY IN METHODS
BY
REVEREND JOHN J. SHANLEY
A.B. , Seton Hall College,
A.M., Seton Hall College,
1938
1930
DISSERTATION
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE DEPART­
MENT OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE AT
FORDHAM UNIVERSITY
NEW YORK
1940
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ProQuest Number: 10992525
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PREFACE
'When Father Shanley selected the title for his dissertation he
indicated clearly, in the title, that the dissertation was not con­
cerned with the discrete determination of the welfare of this parti­
cular community, or of the particular groups within it.
As stated
in the title, the dissertation was "A Study in Methods.”
If, at this point, the reader will observe the phrasing of the
title, he will find that the author has disclosed in it a realiza­
tion of this, that whatever his "methods” may be, they will have to
do with and, therefore, must be applicable to a complex, dynamic
structure.
His reference, in the title, to the "changing welfare"
of the people of Paterson, and the self-e-vident fact that if the wel­
fare is changing, the "causal" influences must be changing, both
disclose the dynamic character ofr £t^?s*tructure he proposes to con­
sider.
The phrase "predominant causal influences" indicates, very
definitely, the complexity of the structure he is to consider; by
indicating, first; thAt there are a multiple number of such influences,
and second, that he proposes to consider only a selected part of these,
namely, the "predominant"ones.
At the beginning of the dissertation, the author postulates the
welfare of the community to be in part dependent on the stability of
employment of the residents of the community, and in part dependent
on the stability of the revenue of the community.1 This in my opinion
1. For, as explained in the text, on this will depend the extent and
character of the services supplied by the local government to the
community•
L
ris not only desirable, but a necessary preliminary step in the
analytic processes of the dissertation.
For since one of the objectives
of the dissertation is the determination of the causal influences respon­
sible for the changing welfare of the community, and since the influences
directly responsible for changes in stability of employment in any com­
munity differ widely in kind and in extent from those directly responsible
for changes in the stability of the state revenue in the same community,
a separate determination of the influences reacting on employment and re­
venue is essential to a quantitative determination of the effect of both
types of influences on the welfare of the community.
Consequently, the author’s division of his dissertation into two
parts, the first (page8) relative to employment opportunities, and the
second (page 43) relative to the changing revenues of the city is not
merely a convenient division but a division essential to his analytic
processes.
This preface is neither a summary or a critical analysis of Father
Shanley’s dissertation* I shall make no attempt, therefore, to brief with
any detail the methodology of the author, as he describes in Part I and II,
his ways and means for quantitatively and continuously determining and
evaluating causal influences responsible for the changing stability of
employment in the one case, and the changing stability of revenue in the
other.
It must suffice here to state that in the justification of his
methods he has primarly demonstrated that the stability of the welfare
of the people of any community, both that part of it which relates to
the stability of employment in the community, and that part of it which
relates to the stability of the revenues of the local government, is
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is goTeraad by the changing factors which lie or reside to a great, and”1
usually to a very great extent, outside the confines of the community.
In doing so he has secondarily demonstrated that any ’’methods” directed
to a determination of the influences occasioning changes of welfare in
a community must be largely extra-urban in character.
As I have previously stated, or at least implied, the title clearly
indicates the author1s realization that he is dealing: with a complex dynamic
structure.
In the text as he develops and describes his methods for the
quantitative determination of causal influences,he is, in effect, explain­
ing a system definitely analytic in character.
When one has examined the author's methods, and recognized their
analytic character, it becomes possible to make a functional classification
of the several analytic processes which collectively comprise the methods
in their entirety.
Such a functional classification whould divide the analytic processes
into four main categories:
1, The Qontinuing selection and observation of
factors of material significance to the
welfare of the community, which factors
are shown to be continuously changing in
kind and in degree,
2, A continuing selection from such factors
of those factors whose changes are affect­
ing, either positively or negatively, the wel­
fare of the community to a significant degree,
together with a quantitative determination of
the kind and extent of such effects,
3, The continuing determination and observation
of influences of significance to the factors
(item 1 above) which influences also are
shown to be continuously changing in kind
and in degree.
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4* A quantitative determination of the degree
to which, changes in the several influences
have contributed to the observed changes
in the factors which have been shown to have
had a significant effect on the community^
welfare.
In conclusion, I may say that the author has toy no means confined
himself, in this article, to a methodological description.
He has, it
would seem, either directly in the text, or by citations, adequately
indicated the material used by him in the validation of his methods.
Furthermore, though avowedly concerned with methods, he has incidentally
presented hithesis which I believe very convincingly develops both the prac­
ticality and the need of the kind of analytic approach he advocates and
describes.
Fordhara University
New York, New York
March 7, 1941>
I
The Objectives of the Dissertation
Recognizing that the Changing Welfare of a
community is dependent in part on the changing employment
opportunities available to the community, and in part, on
the changing revenues of the government or governments
administering to the community needs by means of their
expenditures directed to the maintenance of public health,
education, recreation, and the protection of the community,
this dissertation separately considers, and then relates
these two aspects of the Welfare problem of Paterson.
While the stability of employment in Paterson,
or in any community is definitely related to the stability
of its revenue,
so that a change in the one is inevitably
reflected by some change in the other,
it does not follow
that a rise (or a decline) in Paterson*s employment stabil­
ity is coincident with a rise (or a decline) in her revenue
stability.
Because certain extra-urban influences large­
ly effect employment stability in Paterson while other,
but entirely different, extra-urban influences largely
effect revenue stability in Paterson,
it follows that if
one is to evaluate the changing composite effect of the
two different types of extra-urban influences on the
material welfare of the Paterson community,
it is essen­
tial that one have a continuing knowledge of each type
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of influence, namely that which reacts on employment sta­
bility, and that which reacts on revenue stability*
It is believed that this dissertation proves
that a continuing knowledge of these two types of influen­
ces, together with the ability to give quantitative ex­
pression to their reactions on the Welfare of the community
is essential to the evaluation of adequacy of any measures,
whether political, social, or industrial, designed to main­
tain or improve the Welfare of the city. This is definitely
the primary objective of the dissertation.
The secondary objective of the dissertation is
to develop methods designed (1)
to continuously define
both the intra-urban and extra-urban influences reacting
on employment and revenue, and (2)
to quantitatively and
continuously express the magnitude of such reactions.
Obviously, the accomplishment of this secondary objective
provides a continuing measure of the changing welfare of
the communities in terms of employment and revenue stabil­
ity.
Part One of this dissertation which relates to
employment opportunities, serves two purposes. First, it
demonstrates the utter inadequacy of solely local employ­
ment studies in Paterson in any determination of employ­
ment opportunities available to the residents of Paterson,
and thus points to the need of a knowledge of the extraurban opportunities available to Paterson’s Workers.
Ill
Second, it develops methods of defining continuously
both1
the intra-urban and the extra-urban employment opportuni­
ties*
It defines these employment opportunities both by
industrial classification and geographic location*
Part Two of this dissertation relates to the
city revenues of Paterson*
These revenues are,
measure derived from local taxes.
in a large
Since such taxes can
be levied only on the local taxable wealth or income, and
since the taxing policies of the community are determined
solely by the local government or governments, the assess*ed values, tax rates and distribution of the tax levies
are all intra-urban in character.
But the revenues
actually derived from such locally determined tax poli­
cies, are definitely not determined solely by local
conditions.
great extent
influences.
As shown in Part Two, they are to a very
affected by a variety of extra-sectional
Consequently a knowledge of these extra-
urban influences, and their quantitative effect on local
revenues is requisite to a determination of revenues
derived from local taxation.
Methods for the determina­
tion of the kind and magnitude of such extra-urban
1
influences have been developed and are described in
outline in Part Two*
That the extra-sectional influences on revenue
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Barnes A. Hart, - "Tax Differentials and Emigration
of Corporations from Chicago."
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ar© entirely different in kind and in magnitude from the
extra-sectional influences on employment stability is,
we believe, made apparent in Parts On© and Two*
Methods for the continuous determination of
such influence as well as for the determination of the
intra-sectipnal influences are either developed or cited
in this study*
It then becomes possible to establish
the inter-relationship of these influences*
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PATERSOH, KSW JERSEY
«The Changing Welfare of Its People
and the
Predominant Causal Influences
Responsible for Such Change♦
PREAMBLE;
A motorist,driving in the direction of Paterson,
is often impressed by such signs on the outskirts of the
City as; "Paterson, the birthplace of American Industry"
or"Paterson, the home of on© of Americafs largest
aeronautical industries.11 Such signs are indeed
impres­
sive, but as the visitor enters the city proper, he can­
not help but observe the vacant factory buildings* and
in some sections dilapidated homes.
As a distinguished
observer stated,; "A visitor to Paterson is instantly
Impressed, often depressed, by the visual evidence of
deserted buildings"*
As one beeomes familiar with the Industrial
history of the city, the explanation beeomes apparent,
namely, the sharp decline In its predominant industry,
Textiles and In a special sense Silks*
A considerable body of literature written
on Paterson, from both economic and sociological view­
points, has developed.
_
While various reasons are alleged
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Hfor the cause of Paterson’s industrial decline, the liter - ”1
ature seems to focus or direct attention to two things:
first—
i.e.
the decline of the city’s predominant industry,
Textiles, and secondly —
the radical tendencies of
workers and the lack of industrial foresight on the part
of Manufacturers.
’’Manufacturers have "been devoid of any far sight­
ed intelligent industrial plan and, all too often laborers
have willingly followed radical leaders - leaders dominated
largely by selfish motives.
As a result, industrial policy
is characterized by confusion and instability; today the
Silk Industry must either affect a right about face or
suffer complete annihilation.
There is no other choice.”^
Much of the economic and sociological literature,
previously referred to, does not appear in works exclusive­
ly treating
other works
2
Silk.”
In
3
Paterson*
of Paterson.
The material is obtained from
of a more general character, e.g.
’’Labor and
these works copious references are made to
The works that do exist treating of Paterson,
itself, are local industry studies, but Textiles and Silk,
T*
2*
3.
(aTJ
Ruth Tierney. Decline of the Silk Industry in
Paterson. N.J. 1958. p. 67-68.
(b) Paterson Silk Strike and Supplement 1955. Harvard
Business School.
Grace Hutchins,
International Publishers Company - 1939
A good bibliography, covering economic and sociological
material on Paterson, may be obtained in the works en­
titled,
(a) Decline of the Silk Industry in Paterson. N.J.
1938 — Ruth Tierney.
(b) Available Sources for the Study of the Economic
History of Paterson, N.J. 1935. Henry Cremer,Ph.D.
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Paterson’s predominant industries are given greatest con­
sideration.
These studies consist largely of investiga­
tions into the Textiles and Silk Industry in Paterson,
and although many causes are advanced for the declining
trend in Textiles and Silk and the resulting effects upon
the community, little reference has been made to a system­
atic consideration of influences and factors outside of
the city, yet near enough to have a singular effect upon
the community’s economic welfare.
In other words, such
studies have been definitely intra-urban in character,
in view of the fact that they have concerned themselves
largely with conditions and influences lying within the
city, and are thus of a highly insular character.
The word insular is used here in a restrictive
or limited sense.
In other words, that a restrictive or
limited study of a community or industry has been made.
It does not mean that the study lacks detail or precision.
From the point of view of detail or precision, the study
may be excellent.
The study is restrictive or limited
and falls short of a consideration of all the essential
parts shea It fails to consider pertinent extra-urban
conditions and influences.
According to the essential principles of
Economic Diagnostics, which forms the basis of this
dissertation, there are five influences that must be
considered in studying an industry or a community, if one
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wishes to have a complete picture of the situation* These
influences are:
Industrial, Technical, Corporate, Politi­
cal and Physical*
Research will disclose the extent to
which each of these influences must be considered and why
the extra-urban, but pertinent influences should be invest
tigated.
There is no doubt, that this waning Silk Industry
and the sociological action referred to above, namely, radi­
cal tendencies of the workers and the short sighted indust­
rial view of the manufacturers has determined significant
reactions on the residents of this urban community. However,
the primary objective of this dissertation is to develop
the contention
that such insular studies are entirely
inadequate as indicators of the material welfare of the
community.
This city, as well as other urban communities,
has been the object of many other kinds of influences extra-urban in character,
(i.e.
lying without the limits
of Paterson,) which can and do produce important economic
and social reactions, on the people of this Silk Gity.
Such extra sectional influences may exert, either a further
depressing influence to the economic welfare of the city,
or conversely, they may be stabilising in character and
thus tend to compensate the deleterious effect of such
local Influences already mentioned.
It is the failure
to consider such extra-sectional influences that justi­
fies our opinion, that the studies of the past relating
;to Paterson are inadequate as indicators of her economic
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Stability, or in simpler words, the material welfare of
her people*
Before proceeding to the main divisions of this
dissertation, the writer feels that it is necessary to
make some preliminary remarks concerning the study.
lf
The study does not pretend to solve
Paterson’s economic problems.
£.
The study is not an elaborate and exhaustive
investigation into the city’s economic welfare.
Such an
approach would require a skilled supervisor, together with
a staff of highly trained research workers and a consider**
able appropriation.
5*
The study is directive - it sets up a for­
mula or an outline of approach.
It indicates what factors
and influence should be analysed, if an adequate picture
©f social and economic relationships is to be derived.
While the study assumes the character of an out­
line, the material suggested as pertinent matter to be
investigated, developed and correlated is not the arbi­
trary opinion or contention of the writer.
The plan rests
on statistical data and other information to be gradually
introduced in proper sequence.
4.
The study is philosophical.
Its structure
rests on the Principles of Economic Diagnostics, a prac­
tical and highly efficient system of measuring economic
trends, developed and gppliad most effectively, for a
L quarter of a century by Golonel I.M.S. Waring, Research
director, Department of Political Philosophy and Social^
Sciences, Fordham University.
It will he impossible, within the limited space
given to this dissertation, to explain all the procedures
1
of Economic Diagnostics.
However, points that are
necessary for an intelligent appreciation of the matter
presented, will be explained where the need arises.
5.
The study is dynamic.
It considers the
political economy of a community which is always dynamic
as opposed to something static.
The connotation of the
word "Dynamic" here is obviously "changing” as opposed to
something constant or inert.
Everyone knows that condi­
tions in a community are subject to change.
Children
are born; young people grow old; old people die.
New
industries are established - some fail, some progress.
The population continues to rise.
There are both popu­
lation and industrial migrations to and from communities.
The tax rate may be increased or lowered.
factors, in other words, are changing.
implies relation.
All these
Change, here,
Relation suggests trends.
Trends to be effective must be expressed quan­
titatively.
To state that Paterson has declined economi­
cally in the last twenty years, is a qualitative expres­
sion of a trend.
TZ
To set up a picture of population
For the complete application of Economic Diagnostics,
see the Economic Studies of Maryland, Parts I,II,III,
IV, 1939, directed by Colonel J.M.8. Waring, of
Fordham University. Published by the Maryland State
Planning Commission.
increase or occupational changes by statistical data, for
the same period and to indicate that data by a curve or
blocks, is giving quantitative expression of a trend.The
latter is very significant for our study.
The fact that
occupational and population trends have been referred to
frequently, the reader will obviously infer that the
approach is also statistical.
Statistics necessarily
involve comparisons.
A brief reference to the kind of comparisons
to be made will be informing.
The study will not be
satisfied with comparing the population of Paterson for
the years 1910, 1920, and 1930.
It will also compare
the population trends for New Jersey and the United
States for the same period.
The Paterson statistics
will be related to the State statistics for the twenty
year period to see if Paterson progressed or declined
in relation to the State.
The Paterson statistics will
also be related to the United States to ascertain
whether this city kept pace, increased or lost position
in reference to the National trend.
Departure either
way (i.e., positive or negative,) will show whether the
community being studied has gained or lost position,
both in relation to its section and also in reference to
the nation as a whole.
In this study the procedure has been to
consider the two major factors which determine the
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welfare of this or any other community.
These factors
”1
are
Part One.
The Changing Opportunities for
Employment of Paterson Workers.
1
Phase A.
For the period prior to 1930.
Phase B.
For the period subsequent to 1930.
Part Two.
The Changing Revenues of the city.
PART
OKS
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
In all research studies there must be a start­
ing point.
The year 1930, the year of the last decennial
census prior to the 1940 census now being compiled, is the
year chosen as the base pattern of this study.
Trends
prior to and subsequent to our base year have been set up.
In all communities, population and occupational
changes are continuously taking place and are continuous­
ly affecting the social and economic welfare of such
communities.
Consequently statistical data is presented
showing the population and occupational changes in
Paterson from 1870 to 1930.
a
Exhibit A,
a to g, and 1 to 7,
show how the
material is derived and indicates the Sources.
T~.
2.
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All trends will be supplemented by the 1940 Occupational Census as soon as available, - thus, giving
a decade subsequent to 1930, the year of our base
pattern.
See Introduction to Exhibits.
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Exhibits B-l and 2, summarise this matter while Exhibits
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C-3 and 4, express the matter in percentages, and C-l and
2, 5, and 6, giwe graphic representation.
Population Change.
Exhibit C-5 graphically shows the population
trend in the United States, New Jersey and Paterson for the
sixty year period 1870 - 1930.
This Exhibit shows that
New Jersey and Paterson progressed more rapidly than the
nation as a whole.
upward progression.
The National trend was a continuous
The Paterson curve indicates that
the population increase was very rapid from 1870 - 1910;
it then progressed at a lower rate for the decades end­
ing in 1920 and in 1930.
The New Jersey trend was lower
than the Paterson and United States trends until after
1890.
In the middle 90fs,it passed the
United States
trend and in the latter 20*s,it passed the Paterson trend.
Bates of Population Change.
Exhibit C-6 indicates graphically the rate of
population change for the same sixty year period, express­
ed in percent increase in each decade for the United States,
New Jersey and Paterson.
1.
The rate of population increase in the
nation declined for the period 1870 - 1920, except for a
slight increase in the 1900 - 1910 decade.
2,
The rate of population increase in New Jersey
[_deelined for the 1870 - 1880 decade and rose continuously -u
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rfor the 1880 - 1910 period.
It declined in the 1910 -
~1
1920 decade,
3,
The rate of population increase, for both
United States and New Jersey increased for the 1920 1930 decade.
The rate of population increase in Paterson
declined continuously from 1870 - 1930, except for a
slight increase in 1880 - 1890 decade.
It will be
noted that in the 1920 - 1930 decade the growth of
Paterson’s population was insignificant.
Exhibit C-3 shows the occupational trends
for the 1870 - 1930 period in per cent of the total
population, while Exhibit 0-4 shows the occupational
trends for the 1870 - 1930 period in per cent of total
gainfully occupied.
Both these Exhibits relate these
trends for the United States, New Jersey and Paterson.
Changes in this sixty year period are indicat­
ed in the following tabulations:
1 8 7 0
Gainfully occupied
expressed in per cent
of population
1 9 3 0
PATER------SON
U.S. N.J.
PATERSON
U.S.
N.J.
33.5
32.7
39.8
39.8
42.4
45.4
22.4
24.6
47.0
53.0
34.9
45.8
78.7
21.3
64.3
54.3
98.6
1.4
31.4
47.2
78.6
21.4
40.7
55.6
96.3
3.7
53.2
46.5
99.7
.3
Gainfully occupied in
various occupations
expressed in per cent
of total gainfully
occupied.
Non-Services
Service Industries
All Industries
Agriculture
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The per cent of the total population gainfully
occupied increased in each decade in the nation until 1910
and decreased in the next two decades.
The per cent of the total population gainfully
occupied increased in each decade in New Jersey until 1910,
decreased slightly in 1910 - 1920 decade and increased in
1920 - 1930 decade.
The per cent of the total population gainfully
occupied in Paterson increased for the 1870 - 1880 decade,
slightly decreased for the 1880 - 1890 decade, increased
continuously for the next three decades embracing 1890 1920 period, and decreased in 1920 - 1930 decade.
During this 70-30 period, Industry undoubtedly
continued to be greater in importance in New Jersey and
Paterson than in the nation as a whole.
In 1870, 78.7
per cent of New JerseyTs gainfully occupied and 98.6 per
cent of Paterson’s gainfully occupied were in the indust­
ries as against 47.0 per cent in industry for the nation.
Ih 1930 the percentages were 96.3 per cent for New Jersey,
99.7 per cent for Paterson, comparable to 78.6 per cent
for the United States.
In other words, the Nation changed
from 47 per cent to 78.6 per cent while New Jersey changed
from 78.7 per cent to 96.3 per cent, while Paterson changed
from 98.6 per cent to 99.7 per cent.
Throughout the
period the United States passed gradually from an agricul­
tural economy to an industrial economy.
In 1870, New
Jersey was predominantly industrial with 78.7 per cent of
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per cent of the gainfully occupied
in industry, one would
conclude that it was almost entirely industrial. Paterson
was industrial through the whole sixty year period.
Another factor observed in the industry trend
for this period and inviting consideration, is the chang­
ing importance of the Service Industries.
The United
States increased in importance from 24.6 per cent gain­
fully occupied in the Services in 1870 to 47.2 per cent
in 1930, while the increase in importance in the Non-Ser­
vice
was 28.4 per cent in 1870 to 31.4 per cent in 1930.
The change in importance in the Services in New Jersey and
Paterson for the same period was equally, if not more im­
portant.
New Jersey increased in importance in the Ser­
vices from 43.8 per cent in 1870 to 55.6 per cent in 1930
as contrasted with the increase in importance in the NonServices from 34.9 per cent in 1870 to 40.7 per cent in
1930.
Vsfith 55.6 per cent in the Services, 40.7 per cent
in the Non-Services and 3.7 per cent in Agriculture, it is
obvious that New Jersey’s industries were predominantly
in the Service Group in our base year 1930.
The Services in Paterson also increased in
importance during this sixty year period from 34.3 per
cent in 1870 to 46.5 per cent in 1930 in contrast with the
Non-Services from 64.3 per cent in 1870 to 53.2 per cent
in 1930.
This rise in importance in Paterson’s Service
occupations through the period in which occurred the
13
rmarked decline in importance in her Non-Service Industries suggests, as will he shown later, a profound influ­
ence tending to stabilize the employment of the residents
of Paterson,
For the United States as a whole, Exhibit C-4
shows the Non-Service Industries gradually increased in
importance until 1910.
In the 1910 - 1920
decade there
was a slight decline in importance, while in the 1920 1930 decade there was an upward trend in importance.
In New Jersey the Non-Services increased in
importance from 1870 - 1880, more or less remained con??
stant from 1880 - 1900, increased in the next three
de­
cades and declined in importance again in the 1920 - 1930
decade.
In Paterson the Non-Services increased in import­
ance from 1870 to 1880 and then declined for the
1880 to
1900 period, rose again for the decade 1900 - 1910 and
declined for the next two decades.
The importance of the Services in Paterson has
suggested a little closer observation.
In Paterson those
gainfully occupied in the Service Group represented 34.3
per cent of the total gainfully occupied in 1870.
In 1880
the Services declined in importance to 29.0 per cent. In
1890, 32.1 per cent were in the Services; 36.1 per cent in
1900; .35.0 per cent in 1910;
35.7 per cent in 1920; and
46.5 per cent in 1930.
_
1910 - 1950 Trend.
The rapidly increasing trend of 35 per cent in
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!~1910, 35,7 per cent in 1920 and 46,5 per cent in 1930 of
the total gainfully occupied in Paterson in the Service
Industries
confronts one with the consideration of three
1
alternate possibilities.
1.
ilixtremely large unemployment conditions in
2.
Industrial Migration into Paterson suffi­
Paterson.
ciently great to provide new employment opportunities and
to compensate for the loss of employment opportunities
in the Textile Industry of Paterson.
3.
Increasing employment opportunities with­
out the City of Paterson, hut within its zone of commuta­
tion, sufficient to compensate for the loss of employment
opportunities in the Textile Industry of Paterson.
In regard to the first of these possibilities
the statistical data already presented indicates that the
conditions do not exist for the following reasons:
1.
1.
Paterson’s population remained constant.
It should be recognized that the figures for those
individuals "gainfully .occupied” in the several
industry groups for the various occupations do not
indicate actual employment.
These figures are ob­
tained from the house to house census when the de­
cennial census of population is taken, and they are
listed as the avowed occupation of the person in­
terviewed.
Some may and some may not be employed.
Therefore, the trend of those gainfully occupied in
any particular industry" does not, of itself, in­
dicate a trend of employment in that industry.
15
2.
The employment opportunities, outside the
limits of Paterson but within its commuting zone were
rising at extremely rapid rates.
Our knowledge acquired from other sources pro­
vide very definite information that through the major part
of the two decades under consideration namely, the period
from 1910 to 1930, labor was at a premium within the
limits of Paterson’s commuting zone.
Regarding the second possibility, a cursory exam­
ination shows no indications of any material industrial
migration into Paterson during the 1910 - 1930 period.
Thus,
we are left with definite statistical indications
that it was the third of these possibilities which pre­
vailed during the 1910 - 1930 period.
Before immediately analyzing employment oppor­
tunities within Paterson’s commuting zone, we propose the
following method of approach.
1.
An examination of population trends of
those communities within Paterson’s commuting zone. In­
creases in population indicate greater employment oppor­
tunities .
2.
A consideration of Paterson’s Textiles inas­
much as our study is particularly concerned with this city.
3.
Consideration of increasing employment oppor­
tunities in Service Industries without the City of
Paterson but within its commuting zone.
L_
^
16
r
n
population Changes in Communities
within Paterson Commuting Zone.
The following table in introduced, giving the
rates of decadal increase in population for the political
divisions enumerated.
1. Irvington
1930
1930
114#
123#
2. East Orange
47. 5#
34.0#
3. New Jersey
24.4#
28.1#
4. Elizabeth
30. 5#
19.6#
5. United States
14,9%
16.1#
6. Bayonne
38.2%
15.9#
7. Newark
19.3%
6.7#
8, Jersey City
11.3%
6.2#
9. Camden
32.0%
2.1#
8 .2#
1.9#
11.Passaic
16.4#
1.4#
13. Hoboken
3.1#
13.1#
10.Paterson
The reader is also referred to Exhibits C - 7,
8,9,10 and 10A.
With the exception of Camden, all these
cities are within commuting distance of Paterson.
For the
decade ending in the year 1910, the rate of population
increase (change) was high in many of these cities.
Irvington with 114 per cent, East Orange 47.5 per cent
i_
J
17
^Elizabeth 30.5 per cent etc.
The city showing lowest
n
rate of change for this decade was Hoboken, Hew Jersey
which showed an actual population decline of 3.1 per cent.
It is interesting to observe more closely the
1920- 1930 decade.
In all these political divisions -
United States, New Jersey and the cities, excepting
Hoboken, the population increased.
The population of
Hoboken again declined.
The rate of change for Irvington increased from
114 per cent in 1910 - 1920 decade, to 122 per cent in
1920 - 1930 decade; for the United States from 14.9 per
cent in 1910 - 1920 decade to 16.1 per cent in 1920 1930 decade; for New Jersey from 24.4 per cent in 1920
to 28.1 per cent in 1930.
In all the other cities the rates of change
decreased, but some at a slower rate than others.
East
Orange maintained the high rate of 34 per cent, Elizabeth
19.6 per cent, Bayonne 15.9 per cent.
Hoboken was again
in the last place with an actual population decline of
13.1 per cent.
Paterson was third from last with 1.9
per cent rate of increase.
But it is extremely important
to note that Paterson’s population was rising but at a
very low rate.
Exhibit C-6 shows that Paterson’s rate of
population increase had been declining rapidly since
1890 - 1900 decade.
i_
This point conclusively emphasizes
—
I
18
r the necessity that economic studies must he continuous
and obviously demonstrates the value of Economic Diagnos­
tics.
In other words, those entrusted with Paterson's
welfare should have been studying its phenomenal rate of
population decline and endeavoring to make adjustments
back in the 1890 - 1900 decade.
Irvington and East Orange are almost exclusive­
ly residential communities.
The high rates of population
increase in these sections is due to the remarkable develop­
ment of suburban Real Estate in the prosperous 1920Ts. Many
/
people thinking they were economically secure were trying
to purchase their own homes.
The automobile made it possi­
ble for them to purchase a home in a suburban community
and still work in the city.
Attention is directed at this
point to the fact that the strikingly rapid population
growth of these twro cities even though they are in a large
measure residential communities, provide rapidly increas­
ing employment opportunities, almost entirely in the Ser­
vice Industries and more particularly in retail trade, per­
sonal and domestice service, passenger transportation and
certain of the professions.
The cities such as Greater New
1
York, Newark, Jersey City, Elizabeth and Bayonne, with
T~.
L_
We have not emphasized the fact that Greater New York
can be considered as within the commuting zone of
Paterson, and it may be said that the growth of employ­
ment opportunities in the Service Industries of that
city in the 1910 - 1920 period we have been consider­
ing appreciably exceeds those opportunities prevail­
ing in that part of New Jersey which embraces the
Paterson commuting zone.
19
r higher rates of population increase also provided rapid-
~1
ly increasing employment opportunities for residents of
the Silk City.
In these cities that is, industrial centers,
the increase in employment opportunities will be found in
both the Service and Non-Service Industries.
PATERSON’S TEXTILES
The reader’s attention is directed at this point
to a consideration of the possibilities of employment in
the City of Paterson, itself.
For generations the people
of this community depended upon the Textiles for their
support.
The magnitude of employment reached its high
point in the year 1920.
Opportunities for employment in
the Textiles were certainly best around that time. How­
ever it is important to note that Paterson Textiles
collectively and Paterson Silk began to lose competitive
position back in 1910.
See Exhibits C-ll and C-11A.
In the early 1920’s the decline of employment
in Paterson Textiles began and the downward trend still
continues.
In the year 1910, the last census year before
the World War, the industry engaged 19,814 workers in
all the Textiles of the city, while 16,338.of the above
figure were in the Silk Industry alone.
Yftiile the figure
representing all the Textile workers made up 34.7 per cent
of the total gainfully Occupied for the city, the figure
indicating Silk alone represented 28.5 per cent of the
20
rthe total gainfully occupied for the year 1910. The year
”1
1920 showed an increase in percentage for both Textiles
and Silk.
Thirty-six per cent of the total number gain­
fully occupied were employed in all the Textiles as con­
trasted with 30.8 per cent of the total gainfully occupied,
in the Silk Industry alone.
The 1930 Census data reveals a decline in the
whole Paterson Textile group.
Twenty-six point one per
cent of the total gainfully occupied were in all the
Textiles, in comparison with 18.7 per cent of the gain­
fully occupied, exclusively in the Silk Industry.
The following table depicts the performance of
all the Textiles collectively and the Silk separately for
the United States and Paterson for the 1910 - 1930
period.
See Exhibit C-ll.
All Textiles
of
■
Paterson
Change
1910
19,814 (100)
'
$
All Textiles
of
United States
1920
1930
23,057 (116.4)
16,438 (83.)
3,243
-6,619
16.4
789,953(100)
Change
961,668(121.6)
171,715
$
-
28.7
957,118(121.1)
-
4,550
21.7$
00
Silks
Paterson
Change
16,338 (100)
19,686 (120.5)
3,348
20.5$
11,821 (72.4)
- 7,865
-
39.9$
_j
1910
1920
1950
~1
Silks
United States
83,177 (100)
Change
125,801 (151.2)
42,624
$
136,848(164.5)
11,047
51.2$
8.8$
Source references from which this material is
derived are indicated on Exhibits B-3, 4, and 5.
The foregoing table presents a very enlightening
picture.
All the Textiles for Paterson for the decade end­
ing in the year 1920, show a rate of occupational increase
of 16.4 per cent over the 1900 - 1910 decade, while all
the Textiles for the United States for the same decade
showed a 21.7 per cent occupation increase. In the 1920 1930 decade the position of Paterson for all Textiles
became more distressing.
For all Textiles during this
decade Paterson shows a high rate of decline of 28.7 per
cent contrasted, with a negligible decline for all textiles
of the United States for the same decade.
In other words,
one might assert that all Textiles for the United States
were constant, while for Paterson, they had declined de­
cisively.
Silk in Paterson for the decade 1910 - 1920 show­
ed a rate of occupation increase of 20.5 per cent as con­
trasted with United States
51.2 per cent rate of occupa­
tional increase for the same decade.
In the 1920 - 1930
decade the picture in Paterson becomes more serious. For
that decade Paterson’s Silk shows an occupational rate of
22
rdecline of 39,9 per cent in contrast with United States
Silk, which shows an occupational rise of 8,8 per cent.
See Exhibits C-ll and C-11A.
These Exhibits develop a
point of extreme significance in this analysis, in that
they both clearly show in the first case, by occupation
and in the second case, by employment that both Paterson
Textiles collectively, and Paterson Silks began to lose
competitive position in their respective national groups
essentially in the year 1910,
The actual decline in
employment in Paterson’s Textiles and Silks did not begin
until ten years later.
C-ll also indicates employment
trends (red lines) for the United States in Textiles and
Silk for 1910 - 1930 period.
The direction of these
curves, while somewhat irregular, follow the occupational
curves for the United States in Textiles and Silks, and
thus indicates quite strikingly the marked decline in
Paterson’s Textiles and Silk, as is disclosed by the sharp
downward break of Paterson’s occupational curves.
Exhibit C-11A gives employment trends from
1909 to 1937 inclusive.
The source for this material is
United States Biennial Census of Manufacturers. From
this Exhibit, it is obvious that Paterson’s Textiles
collectively and Paterson’s Silk began to lose position
in the year 1909.
They
declined until 1914, rose to
their peak in 1919, and declined continuously until 1921.
Paterson’s Textiles rose to 1925, while Paterson’s Silk
_J
23
Hrose to 1923 and rapidly declined to 1935. After the year _1
1925 Paterson’s Textiles as a whole, declined continuously
to 1937.
It is especially important to note that both
Paterson’s Textiles and Silk, even at their peak in 1919
were materially below the National trend for Textiles and
Silk.
The significance and inferences based on these Ex­
hibits, we presume are apparent to the reader.
Employment Opportunities in the
Service Indus­
tries within Paterson’s Commuting Zone.
The writer
feels, at this point, certain facts
already disclosed and certainly observed by the reader,
should be recounted briefly as a preparation for the next
important part of our study.
Our brief population studies of the communities
within Paterson’s commuting distance show
that in all
sections but one (Hoboken), the population was actually
increasing and consequently these population increases
showed the possibility of employment opportunities in
these sections.
Again the study of the Textiles collect­
ively and Silk for Paterson, disclosed the fact that
in these industries employment opportunities were declin­
ing at very rapid rates.
The constancy of Paterson’s
population shows there was no evidence of any material
population migration from Paterson. The increasing employ­
ment opportunities outside of Paterson but within her
i—
_l
24
C o m m u t i n g zone, together with the constancy of her popula-^
tion, are factual arguments against extremely large unem­
ployment conditions.
A cursory examination also revealed
no industrial migration into Paterson of any material
1
significance during the period 1910 - 1930.
Thus we are
left with definite statistical indications, that there
were increasing employment opportunities without the city
of Paterson, but within its zone of commutation sufficient
to compensate for the loss of employment opportunities in
the Textile Industry of Paterson.
We shall attempt to
demonstrate this viewpoint immediately.
The appreciable rise in the importance of
Paterson’s Service Industries from 35 per cent in 1910
to 46.5 per cent in 1930 suggests that the Service Indus­
tries in the counties contiguous to Paterson increased
in importance.
To substantiate this viewpoint, the Ser­
vice Industries were observed in the county in which the
City of Paterson is located, and the contiguous counties
for the year 1930.
These counties embraced, Passaic,
Bergen, Essex, Morris and Sussex.
Exhibits B-6, 7, and 8.
In every County, the City of Paterson and the
State as a whole, ten Sub-Classifications in the Service
Industry Croup appeared as predominant.
The Sub-Classifi­
cations are, Wholesale and Retail Trade, except automobiles,
1.
_
i
See page 14 and 15 for fuller explanation.
_l
r"
other Professional and Serai-Professional Services. Other
*
Domestic and Personal Services. Industry not specified.
Steam and Street Railroads, Public Service (not elsewhere
specified,) Banking and Brokerage - Insurance and Real
Estate - Hotels, Restaurants and Boarding Houses, other
Transportation.
Closer observation revealed that Wholesale and
Retail Trade except automobiles was by far the predomin- Y
ant Sub-Classification
of the Service Industry Croup in
all the counties, the City of Paterson, and the State of
New Jersey.
Consequently this Sub-Classification was
given first consideration.
The following percentages in
per cent of all the Service Industries show the import­
ance of Wholesale and Retail Trade in each county,
Paterson and State.
Passaic
29.7$
Morris
18.7$
Bergen
23.5$
Paterson
30.0$
Essex
25.2$
New Jersey
23.5$
Sussex
22.7$
The relative importance of the other nine pre­
dominant Sub-Classifications in the Service Industry
Group in terms of percentage may be observed in Exhibit B-7.
Efforts to establish trends from the same sta­
tistical data,for these political divisions for the years
1920 and 1910 proved unsuccessful. Investigation disclosed
that the type of county information desired, first appear­
ed in the 1930 Census Volumes.
Although such information
Sras not available in 1920 and 1910 and because the principies of Economic Diagnostics demand that a relationship of
change be considered, comparable material had to be obtain­
ed,
Another procedure was therefore adopted.
From the 1930
Census material, Wholesale and Retail Trade for the twentyone counties or in .other words, the State of New Jersey as
a whole was considered.
Investigation revealed that 68.9
per cent of Wholesale and Retail Trade for the
State was
in seven northern counties, constituting Paterson’s commut­
ing zone.
See Exhibits C-13 and 14.
These counties con­
sist of Essex, Hudson, Bergen, Passaic, Union, Morris and
Sussex.
It was then assumed, and we feel evidence is avail­
able to justify the assumption that the Wholesale and Retail
Trade of the several contiguous counties was largely con­
centrated in the cities.
Hence, the study of the following
cities became the next step in the process.
(2) Bloomfield.
(6) Irvington.
(10) Orange.
(3) East Orange.
(7) Kearny.
(11) Passaic.
(14) West New York.
Newark.
(1) Bayonne.
(4) Garfield.
(8) Montclair.
(9) North Bergen.
(12) Plainfield.
(15) Elizabeth.
(5) Hoboken.
(13) Union City.
(16) Jersey City.
(17)
(18) Paterson.
The study then became a study of cities rather
than counties. But soon another difficulty arose. Newark
1
showed 29,689 occupied in Wholesale and Retail Trade for
the basic year 1930.
This figure included all persons
1. Source 15th United States Census Population 1930.
Vol. Ill, part 2. pp 211, 12, 13, 14.
27
(“connected with Wholesale and Retail Trade.
As this fig-
n
ure was not comparable with similar material for 1920 and
1910 it could not be used.
Another source'1’ aided in solving this difficulty.
Several items which the writer felt represented Wholesale
and Retail Trade were grouped together giving a total of
2
10,071 for Newark.
Because the latter figure could be
compared with similar figures for 1920 and 1910, it had
to be accepted.
The reader must remember that the figure taken
is an occupational and not an industry figure.
Therefore,
if the 1910 - 1930 trend indicated by the occupational
figure is in an ascending direction, the trend will also
be upward for the industry, and there will be greater emW
ployment opportunities than the occupational figure showrs.
Exhibits B-9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and C-15 and G-15A
present the trend of Wholesale and Retail Trade for the
cities previously mentioned, and at the same time the
relative importance of these cities becomes apparent.
Exhibit C-15 shows for the 1910 - 1930
period the cities indicated increased in importance in
Wholesale and
Retail Trade.
For example, the number
occupied in Wholesale and Retail Trade for Paterson
in 1910 was 2,473;
in 1920 the figure toras 2,883;
in 1930 the figure was 3,044.
If the reader
and
makes
17 Source 15th United States Census of Population 1930.
Vol. IV. p. 1005.
2. A- See Exhibit B-9 for items, also B-13.
B- See Exhibit C-12 for apparent conflict of sources.
_j
28
r the same
comparison for the other
cities, it will he
“1
evident that these also increased in importance. Exhibit
G-15A gives a picture of Wholesale and Retail Trade for
the same
cities in per cent of the city’s population for
the same
1910 - 1930 period, that is, it depicts the chang­
ing importance of Wholesale and Retail Trade in the several
cities.
From this Exhibit, it will be obvious to the read­
er, that the percentages for the twenty-year period remained
more or less constant, showing that Wholesale and Retail
Trade was holding its importance among the Service Indus­
tries within Paterson’s commuting zone for the period under
consideration.
Exhibit C-15 giving the numerical increase
in Wholesale and Retail Trade in the several cities, for
the 1910 - 1930 period shows there were employment oppor­
tunities in these cities, within the commuting zone of
Paterson, thus definitely establishing a contention main­
tained throughout this dissertation.
The presentation of further statistical data,
to show that the other nine Sub-Classifications of the
Service Industry Group increased in importance would be
possible and valuable for establishing more solidly the
existence of employment opportunities in the Service
Industries within Paterson’s commuting zone. However,
would such an approach be necessary? Examination will dis­
close that the type of the Services which the nine SubClassifications provide are concentrated largely in the
cities.
L-
There will, of course, be some departures from
J
rthis latter view, but they will be the exceptions. Sta-
”1
tistical data already presented and familiar to the reader
by this time, shows the remarkable upward trend in the
Service Industries for the 1910 - 1930 period. The United
States as a whole increased in importance in the Services
from 37.3 per cent in 1910 to 47.2 per cent in 1930. New
Jersey from 46.1 per cent in 1910 to 55.6 per cent in 1930.
Paterson 35 per cent in 1910 to 46.5 per cent in 1930. Con­
comitant with this increasing trend in the Service Indust­
ries, Exhibit C-10 shows population increases for the com­
munities within Paterson1s commuting zone.
The fact that
the Services of the other nine Sub-Classifications of the
Service Industry Group are concentrated pre-eminently in
the cities, and inasmuch as the population of the cities
within Paterson1s commuting zone increased, is it not a
valid argument to conclude that the types of Service
provided by the nine Sub-Classifications increased in de­
mand at the same time creating greater employment opportuni­
ties in the Service Group?
We continue to emphasize the contention we feel
already established, but now from a different process of
reasoning.
If a person should make the statement that:
f1Paterson has had difficult economic problems to face,11
this would be a qualitative statement.
The statistical
material presented gives quantitative expression to that
statement.
In other words, Paterson has had difficult
economic problems to meet.
Let us visualize this picture
ra little more closely.
Here is a city with an increasing ~1
population with few employment opportunities for that
population.
Suppose also that our contention namely,
extra sectional employment opportunities did not apply*
You would have a large population in a community, no oppor­
tunities within and no opportunities outside of the comm­
unity.
Is it not evident, under such conditions that the
city would he in dire need, and perhaps in the throes of
bankruptcy?
Paterson’s most vigorous critics
mentioned bankruptcy.
have not
Is it not expedient for us to
conclude, that while Paterson has experienced difficult
situations and has not succumbed entirely to these attacks,
there must have been influences outside the city that tend­
ed to stabilize the employment of the residents of Paterson?
Having presented statistical data and other argu­
ments to establish the contention indicated at the outset
of this dissertation - namely, the possibility of employ­
ment opportunities in the Service Industries in communities
outside of Paterson but within its commuting zone, we shall
now briefly consider the Paterson Textiles collectively and
Silk for the year of our base pattern 1930.
Throughout
our study the reader’s attention was directed so consist­
ently to population and Service Industry increases and at
the same time such emphasis has been given to the decline
of Paterson’s predominant industry, that one may conclude
that the Textiles were no longer of any significance in the
Silk City.
L-
The writer however, does not wish to convey that
J
31
ropinion.
In 1930, the year of our base pattern, the
n
Textiles and building trades were recorded as Paterson’s
predominant industries.
The predominant industries were
set up for this year for the five counties, - Passaic,
Bergen, Essex, Sussex and Morris.
Passaic, the county in
which Paterson is located showed high components for Tex­
tiles and the building trades.
Exhibits B-14 and C-16.
Notwithstanding the fact that Faterson has last
competitive position in the Textiles, the following
figures 22,310 occupied in the Textile Industry collective­
ly, and 14,638 occupied in Silk for Paterson in 1930, is a
sign that the Textiles in general were still an important
consideration to residents of this community.
At this point an explanation must be given to
clarify a relationship that might be considered conflict­
ing.
In our 1910 - 1930 trend relating Textiles and
Silk in Paterson to the National trend of the industry,
16,438 individuals are classified as being occupied in the
Textiles collectively, and 11,821 in Silk for the year
1
2
1930.
In the same year another source records the num­
ber occupied in Textiles for Paterson as 22,310, and
14,638 in Silk..
The latter figures, that is the 22,310
and the 14,638 include all workers in the Textile Industry.
1. Fifteenth United States Population Vol. IV., 1930.
pp. 1002-3.
2. Fifteenth United States Population Vol.III. Part 2.
pp. 211, 12, 13, 14.
L-
_J
- 32
r
-i
Unfortunately these figures could not he related to com­
parable material for the years 1920 and 1910 and,therefore,
were not practical for the purpose of trends.
The former
figures, that is, the 16,438 and the 11,821 could be
compared with the material for the years 1920 and 1910 and
had to be accepted in order that the 1910 - 1930 trend
could be set up.
These figures were obtained from a source
of the Census of Population indicated above, and designat­
ed as "Occupations."
While this source gives the vocations
of all those gainfully occupied, it does not identify these
vocations with an industry in such a way that all the
workers of the industry are represented.
Hence, engineers,
chemists, and other workers associated with Textiles and
Silk are classified, but not as being connected with the
Textile Industry.
For fufther discussion see Exhibit
C-12.
Having shown that Paterson Textiles and Silk
were still an important factor in 1930, we come to the
close of Phase A, the period prior to 1930.
The considera­
tion of the Textiles and other pertinent influences will
be discussed in Phase B, the period subsequent to the
year of our base pattern.
_J
33
r
n
PART QEE
PHASE B - - PERIOD SUBSBqUEET TO 1930.
This phase embraces the period subsequent to
1930, the year of our base pattern.
The subsequent
discussions will be concerned with material available
to and including the year 1937.
Beyond the latter year,
material pertinent to our study cannot be obtained. A
quality that makes for orderly arrangement in all writ­
ing and which is particularly requisite for a scienti­
fic treatise is described as continuity.
In order to
establish continuity of the pre-thirty and post-thirty
period, the reader's attention is directed to a consider­
ation of Exhibits D-l and D-1A.
Exhibit D-l represents in graphic form a signi­
ficant industrial picture, deriving Its material from
1
employment trends,
and indicating industrial importance
by index figures with the year 1921 equalling one hundred.
The statistical data, i.e. numbers of wage
earners and corresponding index numbers which support D-l
are all Incorporated in Exhibit D-1A. All the statistical
TZ
L_
The reader’s attention is particularly directed to
the fact that all trends shown in Phase B, of this
dissertation,relate to employment trends and not
occupational trends.(See foot note p.14.)
34
Material presented in both of these Exhibits is from the
Biennial Census of Manufacturers*
~1
Consequently all trends
and time series shown on Exhibits D-l and D-1A relate ex­
clusively to manufacturing industries.
The reader is
again informed that because the Census of Manufacturers
secures its statistical information directly from report­
ing plants, the trends for employment shown in these two
Exhibits, and which includes, employment trends of
Paterson Textiles, total manufacturing in Paterson, manu­
facturing other than Textiles in Paterson, all relate to
intra-sectional industry operations*
The intra-sectional industry operations of
Paterson just enumerated will, at this point, be compared
to State and National trends.
Previously it was asserted,
that Exhibit D-l gave graphic signification to an indust­
rial picture.
We propose now, to explain minutely the
significance of that picture, because practically all of
Phase B, of our study rests upon Exhibits D-l to D-1F*
For the sake of convenience we shall quote the index
percentage numbers rather than actual number of wage
earners, which if the reader should be interested in the
latter reference, can be observed in detail in Exhibit
D-1A.
Exhibit D-l traces the industry trends for all
manufacturing industries collectively in the United States,
New Jersey and Paterson.
L.
At the same time, it gives the
_J
35
!
—
Textile trends of Paterson and also the trend of the NonTextile Industries,
~I
Beginning in 1921 and then for every
two year period up to and including 1937, Exhibit D-l gives
the changing position of the industry trends already men1
tioned.
At this time the writer traces in detail the
United States and New Jersey trends of industry collective­
ly,
Beginning in the year 1921, which for the purpose of
comparison or contrast equals one hundred, the United
States rose to 126.4 per cent in 1923, a 26.4 per cent
gain, while New Jersey rose less rapidly to 117.4 per cent
in 1923, a 17.4 per cent gain; from 1923 to 1925 while the
United States declined to 120.7 per cent a 5.7 per cent
loss; New Jersey declined to 111.4 per cent, a 6 per cent
loss; from 1925 to 1927 the United States declined to
120.2 per cent practically remaining constant, while New
Jersey declined further to 106.9 per cent, a 4.5 per cent
loss; from 1927 to 1929 there was a recovery period. The
United States rose to 127.0 per cent, a 6.8 per cent gain,
while New Jersey rose to 115.9 per cent, a 9 per cent gain.
Then the fatal results of the year 1929 to industry became
apparent.
From 1929 to 1931 the United States declined to
93.7 per cent, a tremendous loss of 33.3 per cent, while
New Jersey declined to 87.7 per cent a great loss of 28.2
per cent.
T~.
>_
From 1931 to 1933 the trend continued downward.
In the Paterson trends from 1929 - 1937 intermediate
years between 1929 and 1935 were not available.
V
-J
rUnited States declined to 87.2 per cent a loss of 6.5
”1
per cent, while New Jersey declined to 77.4 per cent a
loss
of 10.3 per cent.
period.
Then there was another recovery
From 1933 to 1935, United States rose to 103.7
per cent, an appreciable gain of 16.5 per cent, while
New Jersey rose to 98.8 per cent, a 21.4 per cent gain,
a greater recovery gain than United States for the same
period.
From 1935 to 1937 United States rose to 123.4 per
cent a 19.7 per cent gain, while New Jersey
rose to 114.4
per cent, a 15.6 per cent gain.
In the overall period of
dent
1921 - 1937 it is evi­
that New Jersey lost competitive position in the
National field of manufacturing, insofar as employment is
concerned.
However, it is important to note, that with
the exception of several variations already indicated, the
New Jersey curve is somewhat similar to the National curve.
The Paterson trend for industries collectively
shows a much more distressing picture.
From 1921 - 1923,
Paterson rose to 106.1 per cent, a gain of 6.1 per cent
materially below United States and New Jersey for the
same period.
From 1923 - 1925 Paterson rose to 107.8 per
cent, a 1.7 per cent gain, while the United States and New
Jersey declined for this period.
From 1925 - 1927 Paterson
declined to 103.2 per cent, a loss of 4.6 per cent greater
than United
States, but comparable with New
1927 - 1929
Paterson
Jersey. From
rose to 104.3 per cent,a gain of
1.1 per cent as compared with 6.8 per cent gain for
37
United States and 9 per cent gain for New Jersey, It will
be noted (1) that Paterson’s manufacturing employment for
the 1921 - 1929 period lost position as compared with New
Jersey and the National Pattern.
(2)
Paterson employ­
ment gained approximately 4 per cent in that period, or in
other words, there had been no decline in Paterson’s employ­
ment during the period.
After 1929 there was no material available until
1935, the dotted lines on Exhibit D-l indicates that the
material was not obtained. In 1935 Paterson shows a 72.2
per cent for its manufacturing industries collectively.
In 1937 the index number 71.2 per cent represents a
decline of Paterson’s manufacturing of 1 per cent over
1935.
In other words, Paterson’s collective industries
began to decline in 1929 and declined to 71.2 per cent in
1937.
Once this decline began there was no recovery.
The United States and New Jersey present quite a different
picture. Both declined from 1929 until 1933; then both
began to recover, and the trend continued upward to 1937
when United States revealed 123.4 per cent, and New Jersey
114.4 per cent.
These figures contrast strikingly with
Paterson’s 71.2 per cent.
The Textiles in Paterson declined more rapidly
than all the manufacturing industries collectively.
Paterson’s Textiles increased to 101.2 per cent in the
1921 - 1923 period,a 1.2 per cent gain.
They rose to
111.2 per cent in the 1923 - 1925 period, a 10 per cent
r gain.
They declined to 105,1 per cent in the 1925 - 1927 ^
period, a 6,1 per cent loss, and continued to decline in
the 1927 - 1929 period to 101,1 per cent, a 4. per cent
loss.
After 1929 there is no further available data on
Paterson Textiles until 1937, when Paterson Textiles are
indicated by 41.8 per cent.
The facts just presented
indicate very definitely that the Paterson Textile decline
is responsible for the decline of total manufacturing for
the 1921 - 1937 period.
Since our study is concerned primarily with
Paterson, The Textile City, let us emphasize the Textile
situation more forcefully.
The reader is referred to Exhibit D-1C, which
presents employment trends in Silk, Textiles and all
industries collectively for Paterson and New Jersey. The
material is derived from Census of Manufacturers. The
trend covers the years 1909, 1919, 1929 and 1937. The
writer will explain the arrangement for the year 1909.
For this year the table shows 326,223, New Jersey's total
employment figure.
employment.
31,981 indicates Paterson's total
In other w o r d s , Paterson's employment was 9.8
per cent of the. State's employment.
Paterson's total employment,
Of this 31,981.
24,637 namely 77 per cent
of the city’s total employment were in the Textiles. Of
this 24,637,018,828 in other words, 76.4 per cent of
all the Textile workers were in Silk.
If the reader
compares the other years for this trend, the decline of
39
both the Textiles and Silk is evident at a glance. In
1937, 41.8 per cent of Paterson1s total employment were
in the Textiles, while
45.9 per cent of the total Tex­
tile workers were in the Silk.
These percentages reveal
that in 1937 the Textiles and Silk were no longer the sole
predominant manufacturing industries of Paterson, hut that
other industries were making entry into the industrial
life of the city.
This latter point is confirmed conclu­
sively from an observation of Exhibit D-l, to which the
reader is again referred.
The writer traces gradually the curve represent­
ing Non-Textiles.
This group includes all the manufactur­
ing industries collectively, other than Textiles.
From 1921 - 1923, the Paterson Non-Textiles rose
to 118.0 per cent, an 18 per cent gain, comparable with
New Jersey, but less than United States. From 1923 - 1925
Paterson Non-Textiles showed a sharp decline to 97.9 per
cent, a 20.1 per cent loss
contrasted with 5.7 per cent
loss far United States, and 6. per cent loss for New Jersey
during the same period.
From 1925 - 1927 Paterson Non-
Textiles rose to 98.6 per cent remaining constant. While
United States also remained constant, New Jersey lost
position.
From 1927 - 1929 Paterson Non-Textiles rose to
111.2 per cent an increase of 12.6 per cent greater than
United States which showed 6.8 per cent, while New Jersey
showed 9. per cent gain for this period.
After 1929, there
is no material for Paterson Non-Textiles until the year
40
1937.
For this year, the Paterson Non-Textiles show the
phenomenal index of 144.
The importance of this figure is
immediately obvious when contrasted with 123.4 per cent
for the United States and 114.4 per cent for New Jersey.
This indication of employment stability of the Non-Textiles
is practically obscured, when the Textiles are included
with the Non-Textiles to obtain Paterson’s total manufact­
uring industries.
The significant index figure of 71.2 per
cent in 1937 for Paterson’s total manufacturing operations
obscures the excellent performance of the Non-Textile manu­
facturing operations indicated by 144 per cent for the same
period.
The reader certainly observes the excellent sta­
bility of employment maintained by the Paterson Non-Textil­
es a stability of employment that transcends the stability
of employment in the manufacturing industries collectively
1
of the State and the Nation.
To relieve the monotony which generally accom­
panies statistics, the reader digresses here, to indicate
the striking progress made by one of the Non-Textile indus­
tries, the Wright Aeronautical Corporation, located in
Paterson. This corporation moved to Paterson from New
Brunswick N.J. in the year 1919.
Just a year ago, the twen­
tieth anniversary of the advent of the industry to Paterson
was celebrated, and many of the pioneers from the days
1919
TT
of
received their twenty year service pins.
Attention is particularly directed to the extent to
which the Non-Textile rise in employment has compen­
sated for the sharp decline in employment in the
Textiles.
_J
41
A Chamber of Commerce official informed the
^
writer, that nearly two hundred persons were employed by
Wright’s, when the corporation came to Paterson.
In 1930
there were in the neighborhood of 1400, and in January 1940,
around 7500.
These people live within the ten mile radius
of Paterson.
Wright’s continues to expand on a very large
scale, and is today Paterson’s most flourishing industry.
The general attitude in the city among workers is, that if
a person fortunately secures employment with this corpora­
tion, his employment worries have ceased.
Another influence, operating in the community
and achieving some measure of success, is also deserving of
consideration.
This important factor is the program of
the Industrial Commission.
The aim of this Commission is
to invite promising industries to the city to help occupy
those vacant buildings referred to at the beginning of our
dissertation.
Mayor Purrey is enthusiastic about the move­
ment, and has been very active in his endeavor to accomplish
its purpose•
The writer submits a letter from the Mayor,
Exhibits D-I-E, and D-I-P, which explains his program,
indicates the number of industries that have located in
Paterson since January 1, 1940,. and suggests the possible
number of employment opportunities available to the people.
Phase B, of our study rapidly draws to a close.
The writer however, would like to make another reference
to the stability of the total manufacturing industrial
L-
_J
"operations of Paterson, other than Textiles. At the outset of this dissertation, the writer was familiar in a
sense with
the deplorable conditions of the Textiles, but
had no knowledge or inkling of the stability of Non-Tex­
tile manufacturing operations.
Research, investigation and analysis has revealed
this pertinent fact.
Does it not indicate that the parts
(predominant influences and characteristics) of a communi­
ty are related to the whole?
Any changes in the parts‘
produces corresponding changes in the whole, and there can
be no adequate idea of the whole without some idea of its
constituent parts.
Does not this fact clearly indicate the inade­
quacy of insular studies as indicators of the economic
welfare of a community?
in themselves.
Insular studies are excellent
They may be classics, in detailed research,
but they are only small factors in the Economic stability
of a community.
Diagnostics consider insular studies when
it investigates in a very special manner a particular in­
dustry.
For Diagnostics however, this is only a prelimii
nary step.
That study must be related to the analyses
of the other predominant industries that are losing posi­
tion.
Then the complete picture of the situation is
presented.
From such pictures, Communities, Industries,
Banks, etc., can become conversant with the Economic
problems that confront them, and intelligently plan to
meet these difficulties.
43
~1
Throughout our dissertation such emphasis has
been placed on "changing position", and "continuous study"
etc#, that
the writer does not wish to leave the reader
with the impression that this study is finished. Economic
studies from point of view of Diagnostics are never complet­
ed#
Hence, we close Phase B, of our study, advising the
reader, that as soon as the decennial census of population
for 1940 is available, it is recommended that
the occupa­
tional trends for a decade following the date of the base
pattern be supplemented to our study.
PART TWO
CHANGING- REVENUES OF THE CITY
This dissertation was directed to a considera­
tion of the Changing Welfare of Paterson to be developed
in two major parts.
Opportunities
Part One - The Changing Employment
of its ?/orkers#
Revenues of the City.
Part Two - The Changing
The reader is now familiar with
the statistical data and other evidence introduced to
develops Part One, and also, the Method of Study#
At this point, we shall proceed to a considera­
tion of Part Two— The Changing Revenues of the City.
It is obvious to an observing person and expecially to taxpayers that cost of government has risen
considerably in the last twenty-five years# It should
be obvious to all observers that the Services supplied
by the Government has likewise increased In extent.
Coincidently with this rise in cost, there has been an
.
44
increase in the extent, and an improvement in the stand-
n
ards of the Services supplied by the Government to the
communities* Although a community may have various sources
from which it receives revenue to maintain its eost of
government, the greatest part of its revenue by far is
derived from taxation*
The taxes levied by the Government
of a local community such as Paterson are, of necessity,
restricted solely to taxes on the wealth and income within
such community*
These levies both in amount and in method
of distribution are determined entirely by the legislative
enactments of the local Government*
In these respects the
consideration of the changing tax policies of a city on
which so largely depends the city’s revenue is definitely
intra-urban in character.
But the factors determining
whether such local tax policies are favorable or unfavor­
able to the Economic stability of a city, which of course,
includes the stability of both employment and revenue,
lie very largely without the city.
Any study directed to a quantitative determina­
tion of such factors on the city’s Economic stability
extend far beyond the city itself, and is definitely
extra-urban in character*
Again we have an instance where we must go beyond
the city for an explanation of intra-urban conditions.
Again we see the inadequacy of insular or purely local
studies.
It is evident therefore, that a continuing know­
ledge of the effects of a city’s policies of taxing,
45
^borrowing, and spending on the industrial economy of that
city is fundamental to a determination of stable revenue,
as well as stable employment within the city#
Taxes, borrowing, and spending policies for any
city which are in maladjustment to the industrial economy
of the city manifest their effects on the local industries
by causing a loss of competitive position of the several
local industries in their respective competitive fields.
Such loss of competitive position of the local industries
may be reflected in turn by, either greater industrial
expansion (or lesser industrial decline), in the compet­
ing areas, or b y industrial migration to these areas.
Consequently, a continuance of such maladjustment results
in relative losses in the city*s revenues and employment
when these factors are compared with those of competing
areas*
James A. Hart, in his study "Tax Differentials
and Emigration of Corporations from Chicago**, develops
a method directed to the determination of such maladjust­
ments. Consequently, his methods are adaptable to the
second part of this study.
An outline of Mr. H a r t fs
dissertation follows:
Mr. Hartts study is not directed to a discrete
determination of the effect of all the changes in the
overlapping taxes of Chicago on the changes in industrial
migration to and from that city.
It is directed to a
determination of various predominant factors occasioning
46
rindustrial migration, one of which is taxes.
Xt develops ""i
methods of continuously observing the relative magnitude
of such factors, and their influence on migration as well
as revealing the highly dynamic character of both tax and
migratory trends.
While it introduces methods primarily
designed for a continuous observation and evaluation of
these changing migratory and tax trends, at the same time
it gives direction to specific types of study, requisite
to the correction of any maladjustments which the continu­
ing survey may indicate.
Mr. Hart begins his study choosing 1930, the year
of the last decennial census material available, for his
base pattern.
From the census material he acquires
statistical data from which he determines the predominant
industries of the City of Chicago.
Bight Corporations which come under the classi­
fication of the several predominant industries were sleet­
ed.
From the records of these Corporations he sets up
for each, a trend of that Corporation’s tax burden for a
given time period, identical for all Corporations which
extends from 1989 to 1937 inclusive.
The time period
defines the "Business Cycle", extending from the 1929 peals:
to the 1937 peak*
The tax trends are composite trends of
the overlapping (city, county and state) taxes of the city.
Mr. Hart then actually determines for each of
his ei$it selected
Corporations the predominant competitive
_j
4:7
r sections or areas*^
n
The character of the overlapping tax prevalent
in each of these competing areas is established for each
locality,
Mr, Hart is then in a position to establish
and does establish quite definitely for each of his select**
ed Corporations, the tax trends to which each of the
Corporations would have beeam subjected if it had been
located in any of the several competing areas. An example
will clarify the point.
Hart, Schaffner and Marx, Chicago
Clothiers, may have Milwaukee, St.
as competing sections,
Paul and St, Louis,
A comparative picture of the tax
trends to which Hart, Schaffner and Marx, would have been
subject in any of these competing sections then becomes
apparent.
The example should help the reader appreciate
the tax burdens to which each of the eight selected
Corporations would have been subjected, during 1939 1937 period, had they been located in any of the compet­
ing sections.
While the procedure described in the foregoing
paragraph definitely develops for each Corporation the
relative magnitude of the tax burdens in the several
competing areas, Mr. Hart then proceeds to develop the
following significant fact,
i. Using Methods developed in Part tl oif tke Economic ’
Studies of Maryland, by Colonel J.M.S. Waring, and
published by the Maryland State Planning Commission.
—
_i
48
r
n
It is conceivable that the comparisons of the
tax burdens of the several competing sections indicate,
for instance that Chicago*s tax burden for any of the
industries under consideration is, because of its magni­
tude in Chicago, unfavorable to such Chicago industry*
However,
in such a case, it does not follow that tax
reductions in Chicago levied against that industry would
of necessity cause any change in Industrial Migration
in this industry to some other competing section, as the
next three paragraphs will disclose.
Mr. Hart reveals, as we have previously suggests
ed,that
other influences in addition to taxes may be
operating in a community and also in its competing areas,
that would be responsible for Industrial Migration.
He then directs attention to the methods of
selection and the methods of continuously observing such
Influences as are considered in Economic Diagnostics and
previously
mentioned, namely, Political, Industrial
Corporate, Technical and Physical.
To illustrate, he then points out that if
Chicago should reduce its taxes (Political Influence) for
the purpose of stopping or lessening a migratory trend of
some industry from that city, such tax reduction might
prove entirely futile, because of an offsetting change
of some other influence occurring in the competing section,
concomitantly with the tax reduction in Chicago.
L-
For
_|
49
r
~i
Instance a downward trend in wage rates (Industrial Influ­
ence) in the cosseting section, if coincident with the
declining tax rate in Chicago might entirely nulify the
effect of the Chicago tax reduction on Industrial Migration
from Chicago to the competing section.
Broadly stated* Mr. Hart clearly points out:
1.
That a knowledge of the relative tax burdens
in the competing sections is a requisite part of the study
of the effect of taxes on Industrial Migration,
2.
That a knowledge of the relative tax burdens
of the competing seotions is, of itself, insufficient to
determine adequately the effect of taxes on Industrial
Migration.
3.
In order to develop the changing effects
of taxes on Industrial Migration adequately, one must have
in addition to a knowledge of the comparative tax burdens
of the competing sections, a clear knowledge of the other
predominant causal influences operating"1* in -fchese sections
simultaneously with the tax situation in the community
for which the study is made.
In the preceding paragraphs we have endeavored
briefly to outline Mr. Hart*s dissertation, a specialized
study, presenting the effect of taxation changes in
Chicago on Industrial Migration. It should be obvious to
the reader that the Method developed in this study could
TZ
L_
Five Influences mentioned above.
50
r be applied to any community*
Practically the same type
of study which Mr. Hart made for Chicago could he made
for Paterson.
This study would disclose* whether any
possible Industrial maladjustments resulted from
Paterson*s policies of taxing, borrowing and spending.
The Methods therefore, devised by Mr. Hart
in his study adequately suffices for the solution of
that part of our problem in Paterson, which relates to
both the changing revenues and employment of that city.
In Exhibit E~l, we have indicated trends of
overlapping taxes in Paterson, such as Mr. Hart has
established for his purposes* the overlapping taxes of
Chioago*
Proceeding from this point and following the
methods outlined
by Mr. Hart, Industrial maladjust^
ment in Paterson
would become apparent.
It must
certainly be obvious to the reader
that
policies of the city, in regard to the utilization of
revenues derived from taxes are very definitely pertinent
to the welfare of the people of this community.
Means are also available for establishing the
trends of city debt, as well as trends of expenditures
In the various departments of city government. Again
it is quite obvious that cost of city*s debt service,
and the trends of such cost are of extreme significance
to the local welfare.
Such cost of debt service, Includes of course,
provisions not only for interest but also for the
“>
51
n
amortization of its debts,
This oost of debt service
becomes just as much a part of the cityfs cost as do
the operating costs of its several departments.
In other
words, it is one of the ways of expending the city's
revenue*
However, it is not within the scope of this
dissertation to enter into the study of the changing
character of the expenditures of the Revenues of Paterson*
This is another problem, and this dissertation has been
confined insofar as Part Two is concerned, to an indi­
cation of methods suitable for evaluating the changing
stability of the cities revenues.
Our study is not
concerned in how these revenues are to be spent.
n
r
Paterson, New Jersey
The Changing Welfare of Its People
and the
Predominant Causal Influence
Responsible for Such Change
A Study in Methods
Rev, John L. Shanley
Statistics to Support Dissertation
Exhibits
L_
A - C - D
58
r
n
Introduction to the Exhibits
The A exhibits show the method used to gather
the basic material and indicate the sources.
The B exhibits summarize the material present­
ed in the A exhibits, and introduce further occupational
data for the counties and cities.
ed originally on larger sheets.
The B exhibits appear­
Hence,
in several instan­
ces it has taken three or four smaller pages to present
matter that appeared on one page.
If the text refers the
reader to Exhibit B-5 and there is more than one page
for this Exhibit, a footnote on Exhibit B-5 will inform
the reader of Exhibit B-5A, B-5B,
etc.
The C exhibits introduce several block charts
and graphs and the supporting statistical data for the
phase of the study prior to 1930.
The D exhibits present several graphs and
statistical data significant for the study of the period
subsequent to 1930.
£
The C exhibits indicate the categorical per
capita cost of government for the city of Paterson, N.J.
from 1910 to 1939 inclusive.
This material did not or
does not exist in any form that is easy to access.
It
required the writer, with the generous assistance of one
of the tax clerks, a week to collect the material and
L_
J
53
r arrange it in its present form.
prepared on larger sheets.
This material was also
1
Hence, the whole S series,
is given over to a presentation of tax material.
L
J
XIIIBITS
54
n
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EXHIBIT A-a
Occupational Data for Paterson
1670 - 1950
1870
Ninth Census of the United States - Statistics
of Population - Volume I - Tahle XXXI - Page 768 - Fiftycities for Paterson.
Total Gainfully Occupied (All Occupations) 13,375
Occupied in:
Agriculture - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
181
Non-Service - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Manufacturing & Mining
Service Industries
- - - - - - - -
8,600
- - - - - - - - - - -
Professional & Personal(Serv*) 2,917
Trade & Transportation
1,677
4,594
15.375
L
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55
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n
EXHIBIT A-b
1880
Tenth Census of the United States - 1880 Population - Volume I - Table XXXV - Pages 855 - 859 Paterson.
Total Gainfully Occupied - - - - - - - - - -
22,570
Gainfully Occupied in:
Agriculture - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
113
Non-Service Industries
Manufacturing, Mechanical & Mining Indus.15,919
Service Industries
Professional & Personal Services 3,996
Trade & Transportation
2.542
6,558
22.570
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56
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EXHIBIT A-c
1890
Eleventh Census of the United States - Report Population - Part II - Table 117 - Page 688 - Paterson.
Total Gainfully Occupied - - - - - - - -
34,071
Occupied in:
Agriculture)-*
Fisheries
Mining
)
)
)
860
)
Non-Service
Manufacturing & Mechanical - - - - - -
88,888
Service Industries
Professional Service - - - - 963
Domestic & Personal
- - - 5,143
Trade & Transportation - - 4,818
10,983
34,071
-^Agriculture, Fisheries and Mining are all lumped
in the above figure, 860*
There is no way to separate them,
to distinguish agriculture from Non-Service Industries*
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57
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n
EXHIBIT A-d
1900
Twelfth Census of the United States - 1900 - Special
Reports - Occupations - Table 42
-Paterson.
Items 8 & 11
in­
cluded in Agricultural Pursuits,
pertain to forestry and must
be deducted to get the proper Agriculture total.
Agricultural Pursuits (Total) - - - - - - - - - - Item 8 (42)
- - - - - - -
2
Item 11 (42) - - - - - - -
3
Deduct_____ ____ 5_
Agricultural
Total Gainfully Occupied
818
213
- - - - - - - - - - - - -
46,507
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
213
Occupied in:
Agriculture
Non-Service Industries
Forestry Items 8 & 11
Fishing Item 86
- -
- - - - -
Miners & Quarrymen Item 87
Mechanical & Manufacturing
5
1
6
29
29.470
29,505
Service Industries
Professional - - - - - -
1,598
Domestic & Personal
7,088
- -
Trade & Transportation L_
8.103
16.789
46.5j>7
58
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1
EXHIBIT A-e
1910
Thirteenth Census of the United States - 1910 -
Vol. IV - Population - Occupation Statistics - Page 180 - 193
Table III - Paterson.
"Agriculture, forestry and animal hus­
bandry” includes Items 16,17, 28 and 33, pertaining to fish­
ing and forestry, which must be deducted to get Agriculture
only.
Agriculture,
forestry & Animal Husbandry (Total) - - -
Item 16
- Fishing
2
Item 17
- Forestry
0
Item 28
- Forestry
0
Item 33
- Forestry
1
Total Gainfully Occupied
Deduct
Agriculture
194
3
191
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
57,397
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
191
Occupied in:
Agriculture
Non-Service Industries - - - - - - - - - - - - Fishing & Forestry - - - Extraction of Minerals
Manuf.
Sc
Mechanical
Service Industries
Transportation
Trade
--
3
41
- 37.086
37,130
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - -
2,643
6,296
Public Serv.(c2asi£??ed) 670
l
Professional Service
2,335
Domestic & Personal
4,345
Clerical Occupations
3,787
20,076
57,397'
59
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EXHIBIT A-f
1
1920
Fourteenth
Census of the United
IV - Population Occupations
States - 1920 - Vol.
- Page 204 -Table 19 - Paterson.
"Agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry” includes items 23,
35, 40 and 22, pertaining to forestry and fishing, which must
be deducted to get Agriculture only.
Agriculture,
forestry & animal husbandry
- - - - - - -
123
Deduct
Agriculture
1
122
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
63,879
Agriculture - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
122
Forestry (23) - - 0
Forestry (35) - - £)
Forestry (40), - - 1
Fishing
(22) - - 0
Total Gainfully Occupied
Occupied in:
Non-Service Industries
Forestry & Fishing
- - - - - - - - - - 1
Extraction of Minerals
- - - - - - -
Manufacturing & Mechanical
-11
- - - -40.913
40,925
Service Industries
Transportation - - -
L
--
- * - - -
3,563
Trade - - - - - - - - - - - - - Not otherwise)
Public Service (classified
) -
6,531
Professional Service
2,771
- - - - - -
1,020
Domestic & Personal Service - - -
3,350
Clerical Occupations
5,597
- - - - - -
22,832
63l"879
~
—!
60
r
EXHIBIT A-g
1930
Fifteenth Census of the United States - 1930 Population - Vol. IV - Occupation by States - Page 1,000 Paterson.
Total Gainfully Occupied - - - - - - - - - - - - -
68,860
Occupied in:
Agriculture
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
196
Non-Service Industries
Forestry & Fishing
- - - - - - - - -
2
Extraction of Minerals - - - - - - - -
55
Manufacturing & Mechanical - - - - - -
35,383
33,440
Service Industries
Transportation & Communication - - - -
4,232
Trade
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (Not elsewhere)
Public Serviced classified
) - - - -
8,579
Professional Service - - - - - - - - -
4,005
Domestic & Personal Service
5,006
Clerical Occupations
- --
- - - - --
--
-
1,301
6,101
29,224
62,860
L_
61
1
r
EXHIBIT A-l
Occupational Data for New Jersey
1870 to 1930
1870
Ninth Census of the United States - Statistics
of Population - Vol. I - Page 748 - Table XXX - New Jersey.
Total Gainfully Occupied (All Occupations)
296,036
Occupied in:
Agriculture
63,128
Non-Service Industries (#Manuf. & Mining)
103,322
Service Industries
Professional and Personal Service 83,380
Trade and Transportation
46,206
129,586
Total
296,036
-^This group includes items pertaining to all
three of the Non-Service divisions (Forestry and Fishing,
Extraction of Minerals and Manufacturing and Mechanical
Industries)*
Only two Service Occupational divisions
appear in this census.
L
62
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EXHIBIT A-2
1880
Tenth Census of the United States - Vol. I Page 712 - Table XXIX - New Jersey.
Total Gainfully Occupied
396,879
Gainfully occupied in:
Agriculture
59,214
Non-Service Industries
(#Manufactures, Mechanical & Mining) 160,561
Service Industries
Professional & Personal Serv. 110,722
Trade and Transportation
66,382
total
177,104
396,879
•^Includes items for forestry and fishing also.
L
63
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n
EXHIBIT A-3
1890
Eleventh Census of the United States - Pafct II -
Page 384 - Table 79.
Agriculture, Fisheries and Mining are grouped to­
gether and must be separated.
Agriculture
Forestry & Fishing
Mining & Quarrying
Items
Items
Items
3- 28,686
7- 3,595
10- None
4-
6
9-
107
11- 1,825
5-
352
14-
332
4,034
12-
866
2,691
6- 35,146
8-
3,668
13-
147
15-
157
68,164
570,738
Total Gainfully Occupied
Occupied in:
68,164
Agriculture
Non-Service Industries:
Forestry & Fishing
4,034
Extraction of Minerals
2,691
Manuf. & Mechanical
223.892
230,617
Service Industries:
Professional Service
22,362
Domestic & Personal Serv.
129,522
Trade & Transportation
120,672
L_
271.957
570,738
_!
64
r
EXHIBIT A-4
1900
Twelfth Census of the United States - 1900 -
Special Reports - Occupations - Table 33 - Pages 135 to 143
New- Jersey.
Items 17 and 22, included in "Agricultural
P u r s u i t s p e r t a i n to forestry and must be deducted to get
the proper Agriculture total.
Agricultural Pursuits (Total)
68,881
Item 17-135 - Forestry
Item 22-256 -
391
Agriculture 68,490
Total Gainfully Occupied
757,759
Occupied in:
Agriculture
68,490
Non-Service Industries
Forestry (Items 17 & 22-391 - 5160
Fishing ( Item 224 - 4769
Miners & Quarrymen (Item 225)
Manuf. & Mechanical
2693
298949
306,802
Service Industries:
Professional Service
34740
Domestic and Personal Serv.
167916
Trade and Transportation
179811
382.467
Total
!_
757,759
J
65
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EXHIBIT A-5
1910
Thirteenth Census of the United States - 1910 Vol.
IV - Population - Occupation Statistics - Pages 124
to 136 - Table 11, New Jersey.
"Agriculture, forestry and
animal husbandry" includes items 16, 17, 28 and 33 pertain­
ing to fishing and forestry which must be deducted to get
Agriculture only.
Agriculture,
forestry and animal husbandry (total)
Item 16
- Fishing
Item 17
- Forestry
23
Item 28
- Forestry
453
Item 33
- Forestry
22
60,155
3589
deduct
Agriculture
4.087
76,068
1,074,360
Total Gainfully Occupied
Occupied in:
76,068
Agriculture
Non-Service Industries:
Forestry & Fishing
4,087
Extraction of Minerals
6,188
Manuf. & Mechanical
502,390
492.115
Service Industries:
Transportation
93,541
129 ,549
Trade
_
~
. (Not elsewhere
Public Service?claaaified)
15,457
Professional Service
Domestic & Personal Service
L
Clerical Occupations
48,039
123,206
86,110
Total
49 5^943
1,074,360
66
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EXHIBIT A-6,
H
1920
Fourteenth Census of the United States - 1920 Vol. IV - Population - Occupations - Page 92 - Table 15,
New Jersey.
"Agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry"
includes items 23, 35 and 40 pertaining to forestry and
item 22 pertaining to fishing, which must be deducted to
agriculture only.
Agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry (total)
Item 23
- Forestry
Item 35
- Forestry
612
Item 40
- Forestry
48
Item 22
- Fishing
61,153
27
2,048_______ Deduct_________ 2. 735
Agriculture
58,418
Total Gainfully Occupied - - - - - - - - - - - -
-1,310,653
Occupied in:
Agriculture
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
58,418
Non-Service Industries - - - - - - - - - - - - Forestry & Fishing
- - - -
2,735
Extraction of Minerals - - -
3,935
Manuf. & Mechanical
- -
628,575
635,245
Service Industries - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Transportation - - - - - -
111,115
Trade - - - - - - - - - 144,593
(Not else.
Public Service (classified)
34,624
Professional
service
- -
70,119
Domestic & Personal Serv.
104,913
Clerical Occupations
151.626
- -
j
616.990
TOTAL
1,310,653
67
n
EXHIBIT A-7
“1
1930
Fifteenth Census of the United States - 1930 Population - Vol. IV - Occupations by States - Page 1,000 New Jersey.
Total Gainfully Occupied - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1,712,106
Occupied in:
Agriculture - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
64,061
Non-Service Industries
Forestry & Fishing
- - - -
Extraction of Minerals
- -
2,847
3,638
Manufacturing & Mechanical 689,715
696,200
Service Industries
Transportation & Communication - 151,438
Trade - - - - - - - - - - - - (Not elsewhere
Public Service (classified)
-
240,838
Professional Service - - - - -
126,951
Domestic and Personal Service -
173,564
Clerical Occupations - - - - -
221.017
38,037
951.845
1.712. 106
L_
J
EXHIBITS
68
n
EXHIBIT B-l
“1
Occupational Data for New Jersey and Paterson
Summary of Exhibits A - 1 - 7 and A - a - g
1870
New Jersey
1880
Paterson
New Jersey
Paterson
Populat ion
906,096
33,579
1,131,116
51,031
Total Gainfully
Occupied
296,036
13,375
396,879
22,570
63,128
181
59,214
113
Non-Service Indus.103,322
8,600
160,561
15,919
Service Industriesl29,586
4,594
177,104
6,538
Occupied In:
Agriculture
1890
New Jersey
1900
Paterson
New Jersey
Paterson
1,444,933
78,347
1,883,669
105,171
570,738
34,071
757,759
46,507
68,164
260
68,490
213
Non-^Service Indus.230,617
22,888
306,802
29,505
Service Industries271,957
10,923
382,467
16,789
Population
Total Gainfully
Occupied
Occupied In:
Agriculture
L
J
69
EXHIBIT IB-2
r
1910
1
1930
New Jersey
Paterson
New Jersey
Paterson
Population
2,537,167
125,600
3,155,900
135,875
Total Gainfully
Occupied
1,074,360
57,397
1,310,653
63,879
76,068
191
58,418
122
Non-Service Indus.
502,390
37,130
635,245
40,925
Service Industries
495,902
20,076
616,990
22,832
Occupied In:
Agriculture
1930
New Jersey
Paterson
Population
4,041,334
138,513
Total Gainfully
Occupied
1,712,106
62,860
64,061
196
Non-Service Indus.
696,200
33,440
Service Industries
951,845
29,224
Occupied In:
Agriculture
J
r
EXHIBIT B-31
n
Thirteenth Census of the United States - Population
1910 - Vol. 4 - Pages 181 - 187 - Paterson, New Jersey.
Cotton
Mills
Laborers
14
Silk
Mills
308
Woolen &
Worsted Mills
1
Other
Textiles
442
765
456-*
Loomfixers
Semi-Skilled
Operatives
Beamers)
Warpers)
Slashers)
3
1,120
Bobbin Boys)
Doffers
)
Carriers
)
11
113
Carders)
Combers)
Lappers)
1
6
Drawers )
Rovers
)
Twisters)
4
750
Spinners
24
33
Weavers
12
8.352
Winders )
Rulers
)
Spoolers)
24
Other
Occupations
Total
Total
10
1*133
60
186
25
32
48
806
244
301
3
163
8,530
2,984
4
190
3,202
20
2,672
16
1,695
4,403
113
16,338
30
2,877
19,814
2
4
-*456 Loomfix ers are rtot class ified under any of the four d a s sifications above, cc>nsequent ly this number must be added to
the total of the clasisif icati ons to arrive at the total 19,814
1. See also Exhibit B-3a.
L.
J
71
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EXHIBIT B - 3 - a
1
Fourteenth Census of Pbpulat ion - United States
1920 - Vol.
IV - Pages 208 and 212 - Paterson, New Jersey.
Laborers
Semi-Skilled
Loomfixers
603
Total
603
Carpet Mills
17
82
99
Cotton Mills
8
82
90
Knitting Mills
5
155
160
Lace and Embroid­
ery Mills
1
58
59
Textile, dyeing,
finishing and
Printing Mills
104
968
1,072
Silk Mills
251
19,435
19,686
2
16
18
Woolen and
Worsted Mills
Other Textiles
134
522
1,136________________ 1,270
21,932
603
23,057
72
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EXHIBIT B - 4
1
Fifteenth Census of Population - United States 1930 - Vol. IV - Pages 1,002 and 1,003 - Paterson, New Jersey
Loomfixers
Operatives
Laborers
383
Cotton Mills
Total
383
54
9
63
418
1
419
11,545
276
11,821
Eyeing, Finishing,
and Printing Mills
2,275
469
2,744
Woolen and Worsted
Mills
10
Knitting Mills
Silk Mills
Other Textiles
. -_________ 844_________154_____ 988
383
L.
10
15,146
909
16,438
J.
r
EXHIBIT - B -51
"1
Fifteenth Census of Population - United States 1930.
Vol. IV - Page 9 - United States Trend for 1910.
Operatives
Laborers
Loomfixers
13,254
Cotton Mills
Total
13,254
280,149
37,804
Knitting Mills
87,866
7,804
95,670
Silk Mills
79,379
3,798
83,177
Textile, Dyeing
Printing and
Finishing Mills
16,371
9,958
26,329
105,186
12,290
117,476
Woolen and Worsted
Mills
317,953
Other Textiles_______ 120,602_____ 15,492______________ 136,094
689,553
87,146
1. See also Exhibits B - 5 - a, B - 5 - b ,
13,254
789,953
B - 5 - c .
74
r
EXHIBIT - B - 5 - a
1
Fifteenth Census of Population - United States 1930.
Vol. IV - Page. - 9 - United States Trend for 1920.
Operatives
Laborers
Loomfixers
15,961
Total
15,961
Cotton Mills
302,454
76,315
378,769
Knitting Mills
107,604
11,943
119,547
Silk Mills
115,721
10,080
125,801
17,736
10,605
28,341
Woolen and Worsted
Mills
126,418
22,227
148,645
Other Textiles
122.464_____ 22,140_____________ 144,604
Textiles, Dyeing
Finishing and
Printing Mills
961,668
L
153,310
15,961
961,668
J
75
r
n
EXHIBIT B - 5 - b
Fifteenth Census of Population - TJhited States 1930.
Vol. IV - Page - 9 - United States Trend for 1930.
Operatives
Laborers
Loomfixers
19,215
Total
19,215
Cotton Mills
302,501
55,519
358,020
Knitting Mills
134,006
9,412
143,418
Silk Mills
125,770
11,078
136,848
19,613
7,571
27,184
Woolen and Worsted
Mills
101,821
13,753
115,574
Other Textiles
133.660_____ 23.199______________156.859
Textiles, Dyeing
Finishing and
Printing Mills
817,371
120,532
19,315
957,118
J
76
r
n
EXHIBIT B - 5 - c
Summary of Exhibits B - 5, B - 5 - a, B - 5 - b.
Trend of Textiles collectively and Silk specifically in
the United States for the years 1910, 1920,1930.
1910
Textiles
789,953
1920
1930
961,668
957,118
171,715
Bate of Change
Silk
Rate of Change
21.7
83,177
-
4,550
00$
125,801
156,848
42,624
11,047
51.2$
8.
J
1
EXHIBIT B - 61
r
77
n
Fifteenth Census of Population - United States 1930.
Vol.
Ill - Part 3 - Page 811.
Passaic County
Bergen County
Service Industries
Garages, greasing stations,
etc.
868
1,837
496
770
*3,786
3,700
Telegraph and Telephone
1,594
3,446
Other Transportation and
Communication
3,473
4,133
Banking and Brokerage
3,141
*6,836
Insurance and Real Estate
3,194
*5,696
Automobile Agencies and
filling stations
1,133
1,454
*16,195
*19,041
513
995
Postal Service
Steam and Street Railroads
Wholesale and Retail Trade
except automobiles
Other Trade Industries
ONot elsewhere)
Public Service (specified
)
Recreation and Amusement
Other Professional and SemiProfessional Services
Hotels,
houses
*3,567
3,679
946
1,835
*7,657
*10,846
3,331
3,549
1,566
1,006
*5,786
*9,011
restaurants, boarding
Laundries, cleaning and
pressing shops
Other Domestic and personal
service
Industry not specified
*3,_378___________ *5, 703
54,533
80,916
* Predominant Sub-Classifications of the Service Industry
G roup._________________________________________________________
l 1 . See also Exhibits B-6-a, B-6-b, B-6-c.
J
78
EXHIBIT B - 6 - a
n
Fifteenth Census of Population - United States 1930.
Vol. Ill - Part 2 - Page 211..
Essex County
Sussex County
Service Industries
3,063
198
Postal Service
1,641
69
Steam and Street Railroads
6,555
*324
Telegraph and Telephone
8,359
65
Other Transportation and
Communication
8,420
156
*9,502
75
*18,431
128
3,329
61
*52,556
*863
Garages, greasing stations,
etc.
Banking and Brokerage
Insurance and Real Estate
Automobile Agencies and
filling stations
Wholesale and Retail Trade
except automobiles
Other Trade Industries
(Not elsewhere)
Public Service (specified
)
2,623
14
8,832
124
Recreation and Amusement
3,471
104
*26,186
*600
9,256
*269
4,051
27
*30,138
*417
*11,801
208,214
*302
3,796
Other Professional and SemiProfessional Services
Hotels,
houses
restaurants, boarding
Laundries, cleaning and
pressing shops
Other Domestic and personal
service
Industry aot specified
* Predominant Sub-Classifications of the Service Industry
Gr o u p . .
79
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EXHIBIT B - 6 - b
Fifteenth Census of Population - United States -
1930 - Vol.
Ill - Part 2 - Page 211.
Morris County
Service Industries
Garages, greasing stations,
etc.
Postal Service
Steam and Street Railroads
560
231
'*1,796
Telegraph and Telephone
897
Other Transporation and Communication
831
Banking and Brokerage
1,105
Insurance and Real Estate
1,237
Automobile Agencies and filling stations
Wholesale and Retail Trade except automobiles
466
*4,631
Other Trade Industries
161
Public Service(Not elsewhere specified)
921
Recreation and Amusement
407
Other Professional and Semi-Professional
Services
*4,466
Hotels, Restaurants, Boarding houses
853
Laundries, cleaning and pressing shops
468
Other Domestic and personal service
*4,489
Industry not specified
*1.216
24,735
* P r M e m i n a n t Sub-Classifications of the Service Industry
Group.
i_
J
80
EXHIBIT B - 6 - c
r
Fifteenth Census of Population - United States 1930,
Vol. Ill - Part 2 - Page 211.
Paterson
New Jersey
Service Industries
401
13,952
235
8,072
*1,417
*57,724
749
30,220
1,126
*53,552
Banking and Brokerage
840
41,586
Insurance and Real Estate
871
*52,106
Autoinabile Agencies and
filling stations
526
15,234
8,014
*210,985
248
9,416
*1,411
41,520
426
15,555
*3,798
*110,086
1,244
46,643
793
17,176
*2,902
*106,673
*1,643
26,644
*57,492
887,992
Garages,
greasing stations,
etc.
Postal Service
Steam and Street Railroads
Telegraph and Telephone
Other Transportation and
Communication
Wholesale and Retail Trade
except automobiles
Other Trade Industries
Public Service (Not elsewhere)
(specified
)
Recreation and Amusement
Other Professional and SemiProfessional Service
Hotels,
houses
restaurants, boarding
Laundries, cleahiing and
pressing shops
Other Domestic and personal
service
Industry not specified
L*Predominant Sub-Classifications of the Service Industry
Group.
j
81
EXHIBIT B -71
r*
n
Summary of the Predominant Sub-Classifications
of the Service Industry Group, for the political divisions
indicated in the B - 6 etc.,
series, for the year 1930.
Passaic County
Wholesale and Retail Trade
except Automobiles
Bergen County
16,195
29.7
19,041
23.5
Other Professional and
Semi-Professional Service
7,657
14.0
10,846
13.4
Other Domestic and personal
Service
5,786
10.6
9,011
11.1
Industry not specified
3,278
6.0
5,703
7.0
Steam and Street Railroads
(Not elsewhere)
Public Service( spec ified
)
2,786
5.1
Banking and Brokerage
6,826
8.4
Insurance and Real Estate
5,696
7.0
2,567
4.7
Hotels:, restaurants, boarding
houses
Other Transportation and Com­
munication
_______________________________
38,269
1. See also Exhibits B - 7 a, B - 7 - b ,
L
70.1
57,123
B - 7 - c ,
70,4
B -8.
J
82
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EXHIBIT B - 7 - a
H
Summary of the Predominant Sub-Classifications of
the Service Industry Group for the political divisions in the
Exhibit of the B - 6 etc., series, for the year 1930.
Essex County
Sussex County
%
%
Wholesale and Retail Trade
except Automobiles
52,556
25.2
863
22.7
Other Professional and SemiProfessional Service
26,186
12.6
600
15,8
Other Domestic and Personal
Service
30,138
14.5
417
11.1
Industry not specified
11,801
5.7
302
8.0
324
8.5
269
7.1
Steam & Street Railroads
Public Service (not elsewhere
spec ified)
Banking and Brokerage
Insurance and Real Estate
9,502
4.6
IB,431 . 8.9
Hotels, restaurants, board­
ing houses
Other Transportation and
Communication
,________ .
________
148,614
71.5
2,775
73.1
83
r
EXHIBIT B - 7 - b
“I
Summary of the Predominant Sub-Classifications
of the Service Industry Group for the political divisions
in the Exhibits of the B - 6 etc., series for the year 1930.
Morris County
£
Wholesale and Retail Trade except Automobiles
4,631
18.7
Other Professional and Semi-Professional
Service
4,466
18.1
Other Domestic and Personal Service
4,489
18.1
Industry not specified
1,216
4.9
Steam and Street Railroads
1,796
7.3
1,237
5.0
Public Service (Not elsewhere specified)
Banking and Brokerage
Insurance and Real Estate
Hotels, restaurants and boarding houses
Other Transportation and Communication
________________
17,835
72.1
84
r
EXHIBIT
B - 7 - C & B - 8
"1
Summary of the Predominant Sub-Classifications
of the Service Industry Group for the political divisions
indicated in the Exhibits of the B - 6 etc., series for the
year 1930.
Wholesale and Retail
Automobiles
Paterson
New Jersey
%
%
Trade except
8,014
30.0
205,985 23.5
Other Professional and SemiProfessional Service
3,798
14.2
110,086 12.4
Other Domestic and Personal
Service
2,902
10.9
106,673 12.0
Industry not specified
1,643
6.2
57,492
6.5
Steam and Street Railroads
1,417
5.3
57,724
6.5
Public Service (Not elsewhere
Classified)
1,411
5.3
Banking and Brokerage
Insurance and Real Estate
52,106
5.9
52,552
6.4
Hotels, restaurants, boarding
houses
Other Transportation and Com­
munication
19,185
71.9
649,618 73.2
J
85
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H
EXHIBIT B-9
Thirteenth Census of Population - United States 1910.
Vol. IV - Occupations - Pages 176 and following.
cities of 100,000 or
For
more inhabitants.
The figure for Wholesale and Retail Trade i3 derived
in the following manner:
Jersey Gity
Male
Retail Dealers
Wholesale Dealers
Importers and Exporters
4,376
Female
406
264
4,640
413
4.640
5,053
From this point the totals only will be indicated.
Jersey City
5,053
Newark
7,071
Paterson
2,473
J
86
EXHIBIT B - 10
“I
Thirteenth Census of Population - United States 1910 - Vol. IV - Occupations - Pages 208 and following.
For cities of 25,000 to 100,000 inhabitants.
Wholesale and Retail Trade
Bayonne
East Orange
1,051
777
Elizabeth
1,379
Hoboken
1,453
Orange
Passaic
West Hoboken
Bloomfield, Garfield,
606
1,124
791
Irvington, Kearney, Montclair, Plain­
field, West New York had a population of less than 25,000,
hence the information desired was not available.
L
J
87
r
EXHIBIT B - 11
1
Fourteenth Census of Population - United States 1920.
Vol. IV - Occupations - Page 132 and following.
For cities of 100,000 inhabitants or more.
Wholesale and Retail Trade
Jersey City
5,337
Newark
8,833
Faterson
2,883
J
88
r
n
EXHIBIT B - 12
Fourteenth Census of Population - United S_tates 1920,
Vol. IV - Occupations - Pages 240 and following.
For cities having 25,000 &o 100,000 inhabitants.
Wholesale and Retail Trade
Bayonne
1,369
Clifton
338
East Orange
1,018
Elizabeth
1,683
Hoboken
1,443
Irvington
492
Kearney
338
Montclair
624
Orange
619
Passaic
1,360
Plainfield
508
West Hoboken
819
West New York
646
j
m
r~
1
EXHIBIT B - 13
Fifteenth Census of Population - United States
1930.
Vol. IV - Occupations - Page 1,005 and following.
For cities having 100,000 inhabitants or more.
Wholesale and Retail Trade
Newakk
10,071
Jersey City
5,695
Paterson
3,044
Elizabeth
2,181
For cities having 25,000 to 100,000 inhabitants
Wholesale and Retail Trade
Bayonne
Bloomfield
East Orange
Garfield
1,578
728
1,458
455
Hoboken
1,131
Irvington
1,385
Kearney
623
Montclair
840
North Bergen
Orange
Passaic
' 879
722
1,673
Plainf ield
683
Union City
1,354
West New York
880
J
90
EXHIBIT B - 141
r
“l
The material for this exhibit was obtained from
material gathered by Col. Waring for the year 1930 and avail­
able in Col. Waring*s Office.
Passaic
Bergen
Population
302,129
364,977
Employees
132,805
151,168
1,661
3,131
131,144
148,037
Service
54,950
81,635
Non-Service
76,194
66,402
Urban Non-Service
63,665
8,997
Rural Non-Service
12,529
57,405
Agricultural
Industrial
Predominant Industries
Building
2,577
Chemicals
15,376
826
Silk Mills
20,430
4,003
Other Textiles
16,786
4,074
Clothing
3,527
Other Iron and Steel
3,967
Printing, Publishing and
Engraving
3,469
Other Manufacturing
6,307
Food and Allied
Electrical Machinery and Supplies
Extraction of Minerals
Metals Sxcdpt Iron and Steel
J
1. See also Exhibit - B - 14 - a; For percentages see exhibit
0-16.
EXHIBIT B - 14 - a
“1
The material for this exhibit was obtained from
material gathered by Col. Waring for the year 1930 and
available in Col. Waring*s Office.
Essex
Sussex
Morris
Population
833,513
27,830
110,445
Employees
367,212
10,548
45,050
2,832
2,477
3,339
364,440
8,071
41,711
Service
208,241
4,080
25,301
Non-Service
156,199
3,991
16,410
Urfean Non-Service
134,917
Rural Non-Service
21,282
3,991
16,410
Agricultural
Industrial
Predominant Industries
Building
4,637
794
Chemicals
4,582
1,477
Silk Mills
356
Other Textiles
324
1,923
Clothing
Other Iron and Steel
1,897
1,588
Other Manufacturing
1,967
1,232
Food and Allied
4,348
Electrical Machinery and
Supplies
1,876
Printing, Publishing
Engraving
Extraction of Minerals
1,028
Metals except Iron and
Steel
277
638
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EXHIBIT C - 6 - a
City of Paterson1
Year
Population
Increase over Preceding Census
Number
Percentage
1320
1880
1890
1900
1910
1920
1930
33,579
51,031
78,347
105,171
125,600
135,875
138,513
13,993
17,452
27,316
26,824
20,429
10,275
2,638
71.4
52.0
53.5
34.2
19.4
8.2
1.9
State of New Jersey1
1870
1880
1890
1900
1910
1920
1930
906,096
1,131,116
1,444,933
1,883,669
2,537,167
3,155,900
4,041,334
234,061
225,020
313,817
438,736
653,498
618,733
885,434
34.8
24.8
27.7
30.4
34.7
24.4
28.1
United States^
1870
1880
1890
1900
1910
1920
1930
38,558,371
50,155,783
62,947,714
75,994,575
91,972,266
105,710,620
122,775,046
11,597,412
12,791,931
13,046,861
15,977,691
13,738,354
17,064,426
30.0
25. 5
20.7
21.0
14.9
16.1
1. Sources - United States Census of Population.
2. Economic Studies of Maryland 1939.
Part III, p. 12
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106
EXHIBIT C - 11 - b 1
Employment Indices for New Jersey and
Paterson
All Textiles (Solid Lines)
New Jersey______ Index_______ Paterson_______ Index
1909
19 14
1919
1931
1933
1935
1937
1939
1931
1933
1935
1937
68,971
73,713
84,159
71,079
83,343
84,433
75,741
73,157
56,360
47,536
66,367
53,713
100.0
105.4
122.0
103.1
119.4
122.4
109.8
104.6
81.6
68.9
96.1
77.9
24,637
20,620
27,371
22,305
22,583
24,927
23,445
22,635
100.0
83.7
111.1
90.5
91.7
101.2
95.2
91.9
9,325
37.4
Silks (Dotted Lines)
1909
1914
1919
1931
1933
1935
1937
1939
1931
1933
1935
1937
30,385
38,363
33,336
37,183
37,951
28,196
24,482
21,419
13,626
10,705
12,314
9,991
100.0
93.3
106.7
89.8
92.3
93.1
80.8
70.7
45.0
35.3
40.7
33.0
1. Statistics for C - 11 - a.
Census of Manufactures.
18,828
16,992
21,836
16,666
16,650
16,368
14,628
12,940
100.0
90.2
116.0
88.5
89.4
86.9
77.7
68.7
4,283
22.7
Sources United States Biennial
j
107
r
EXHIBIT C - 11 - c 1
“1
Employment Indices for United States
United States
1909
1914
1919
1931
1923
1925
19 27
1929
1931
1933
1935
1937
United States
1909
1914
1919
1923
1923
1925
1927
1929
1931
1933
1935
1937
All Textiles (Solid Lines) Index
940,566
995,317
1,102,303
1,036,164
1,215,880
1,161,437
1,192,760
1,171,237
948,640
1,011,468
1,113,931
1,273,871
100.0
105.8
117.2
110.2
129.3
123.5
126.8
124.5
100.9
107.5
118.4
135.4
Silk and Rayon (Dotted Lines)Index
99,037
108,170
126,782
121,378
125,234
132,509
127,643
130,467
109,225
110,322
125,908
116,839
100.0
109.2
128.0
122.6
126.5
133.8
128.9
131.7
110.3
111.4
127.1
118.0
1. Statistics for C - 11 - a; also for MRed Lines” in C - 11,
Source - United States Biennial Census for Manufactures,
J
EXHIBIT C -12
D e p a rtm e n t
o f
C o m m e rc e
BUREAU o r THE CENSUS
WASHINGTON
July 19, 1940
Dr. John J. Sbanley,
Director of Children’s Division,
Catholic Charities,
24 De Grasse Street,
Paterson, New Jersey.
Dear Dr. Shanleys
I have your letter of July 13 addressed to Mr. Edvard Mulqueen,
the Bureau's Assistant Area Manager at Jersey City, New Jersey,
relative to certain occupational figures for the Cities of
Newark and Paterson which appear in Volume III, Part 2 and
Volume IV of the Fifteenth Census. You have presented your
questions in the form of two problems, and I shall answer each
of these problems separately.
Problem 1. The figure of 29,689 persons quoted by you as oc­
cupied in wholesale and retail trade in the City of Newark, as
shown on page 213 of Volume III, Part 2, represents the number
of persons who reported to the Bureau that they were employed
in wholesale or retail trade, excepting retail and wholesale
automobile establishments. This figure includes not only wage
earners in these establishments but also the proprietors and
office employees. In other words, it includes all persons who
Indicated that they were engaged in wholesale or retail trade
(excepting those in establishments selling automobiles at retail
or wholesale).
The figure 10,071, quoted from page 1005 of Volume IV, Occupa­
tions, represents only retail and wholesale dealers and importers
and exporters. Store managers are here classed as dealers.
This figure doss not include retail store clerks, delivery men,
salesmen, and other classes of employees in retail and wholesale
stores and import and export houses. Please note that in Volume
IV each person is classified on the basis of his "occupation",
while in Volume I H the classification is on the basis of the
"industry group" in which employed. In Volume IV each occupation
is further subdivided to show the nusfcer of persons classified
in a given occupation who are employed in specific industry
Your reports to the
Census Bureau are
C O N F ID E N T IA L
Acts o f Congress males I t u n law fu l fo r t h . Bursau to disclose any facts. Inclu d in g namss o r Id e n tity ,
fro m your Csaaus reports. O nly sw orn Census em ploy ess w ill s a your statem ents. D a ta collected w ill
b . used solely fo r preparing sta tis tic al In fo rm atio n concerning th e N atio n ’s population, resources, and
activities. Y o u r Census Reports C annot be Used fo r Purposes o f T axation , Regula tion or
EXHIBIT C-12
109
Page 2
Dr. John J. Shanley
July 19, 1940
groups. The two tabulations are entirely independent, and it
is not possible from the published information to reconcile the
data published in Voluae IV for individual occupations directly
with the industry group totals published in Volume III.
Problem 2. In this problem you quote the figure 22,310 from
page 214 of Volume III, Part 2, as the employment figure for
silk mills and other textile mills in Paterson, New Jersey. As
stated in Problem 1, these figures represent all persons em­
ployed in textile mills in Paterson. It includes all employees—
machine operators, loomfixers, stockmen, office employees, and
any other persons employed in or by a silk mill or other textile
mill.
From Volume IV, pages 1002 and 1003 you tabulate certain occupa­
tional figures which show a total employment of 16,438 workers
in textile plants. As stated in Problem 1, the figures in Volume
IV represent persons classified according to occupations and not
by industry. You have selected loomfixers and cotton and other
textile mill operatives from pages 1001 and 1002, and laborers
from page 1003. Please note that the classifications of loom­
fixers, operatives, and laborers do not represent all classes of
workers in textile mills. The difference between the total figure
of 22,310 reported in Volume III and the 16,438 compiled by you
from Volume IV is represented by persons employed in textile mills
who are classified in other occupations. A large number of these
would be in clerical occupations, shown for Paterson and Newark
on page 1007, hut not classified by industry groups. Technical
engineers, chemists, and similar professional employees in the
larger textile plants would be included under professional service
occupational classifications on page 1006 for Newark and Paterson.
In addition, there are probably other occupational classifications
in which some employees of textile mills would be classified.
Again, as stated under Problem 1, you cannot reconcile the oc­
cupational data published in Volume IV as referred to in your
problem with the industry group figures published in Volume III.
I hope that this analysis answers your questions in detail and
will furnish you with satisfactory answers to the questions you
raised. If I can be of any further help, please let me know.
Very truly yours,
F. A. Gosnell,
Chief Statistician,
Statistician
Census of Business.
110
EXHIBIT C - 131-
r
n
Wholesale Trade Occupational Distribution
in Northern Jersey - 1950
% of
State
A. State Total
810,985
100.0
B. North Jersey Counties:
145,392
68.9
1. E s s e x --------- —
52,556
24.9
2. H u d s o n
37,579
17.9
3. B e r g e n ----------- 19,041
9.0
4. P a s s a i c ---------
16,195
7.7
5. U n i o n
14,527
6.9
4,631
2.2
863
0.4
6 . M o r r i s ---------7. S u s s e x ---------■-
C. Cities in the above Counties:
1. Bayonne ---------
3,728
2 . Bloomfield -------
2,184
3. East Orange -----
4,739
4. Garfield --------
936
5. Hoboken ---------
3,077
6 . Irvington -------
4,032
7. Kearny ----------
1,859
8 . Montclair -------
2,172
9. N. Bergen -------
2,461
10. Orange ----------
2,083
11. Passaic ---------
3,780
12. Plainfield ------
1,924
13. Union City ------
3,593
14. West New York --
2,406
100,206
47.4
"TI Source 1 15 Census United States - Pop. - Vol. Ill Part 2 - Page 211, 12, 13, 14.
Ill
n
EXHIBIT C - 14
C. (continued)
15.
E l i z a b e t h ---------- 3,483
16.
Jersey C i t y ------- 18,046
17.
N e w a r k -------
18.
P a t e r s o n ----------- 8,014
29,689
Rural and Urban Distribution of
Wholesale Trade bccupations in
North Jersey Counties:
1.
Urban ----------------------
100,206
2.
Rural ----------------------
45,186
68.9 of N.J.
Counties
31.1
E. Rural and Urban Distribution by Counties:
Total
Urban
Rural
2
No. of Cities
within the
& Cou;
Essex
52,556
50,846
96.1
2,070
3.9
8
Hudson
37,579
27,122
72.2
10,457
27.8
4
Bergen
19,041
3,397
17.8
15,644
82.2
2
Passaic
16, 195
11,794
72.8
4,401
27.2
2
Union
14,527
7,407
51.0
7,120
49.0
2
Morris
4,631
---
---
4,631 100.0
Sussex
863
_ —
——
863 100.0
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J
113
EXHIBIT C - 15 - a
Wholesale and Retail Trade, by Cities,
in Per-
centage of City»s Population
1910
1920
Newark
2 .2#
2 •1#
2.3#
Jersey City
1.9#
1.9#
1.8#
Paterson
2.0#
2.1#
2.2#
Elizabeth
1.9#
1.8#
1.9#
Passaic
2.0#
2.1#
2.7#
Bayonne
1.9#
1.8#
1.8#
East Orange
2.3#
2.0#
2.1#
Irvington
----
1.9#
2.4#
Union City
----
----
2.3#
Hoboken
2.1 %
2.1#
1.9#
W, New York
----
2,2 #
2.4#
N. Bergen
----
----
2.2#
Bloomfield
----
----
1.9#
Orange
2.0%
1.9#
2.0#
Plainfield
----
1.8#
2.0#
Kearny
----
1.3#
1.5#
Garfield
----
----
1.5#
W. Hoboken
2.3#
2.0#
----
2.2#
2.0#
Monte lair
L
1930
114
r
1
EXHIBIT C - 16
1930
Bergen
Essex
Sussex
Morris
5021,129
364,977
833,513
27,830
110,445
44.0
41.4
44.1
38.0
40.8
Emp. in agric.
1.3
2.1
0.8
23.5
7.4
E m p . in ind * ^
98.7
97.9
99.2
76.5
92.6
Emp. in serv.
of total ind.} 41.9
55.1
57*1
50.6
60.7
Emp. in Non serv. 58.1
49.9
42.9
49.4
39.3
Urban N.S.
83.6
13.5
86.4
Rural N.S.
16.4
86.5
13.6
100.0
100.0
Passaic
Population
Employed
(% of Pop . }
The Percents below are Percentages
of Rural Non-Service
Building
20.6
Chemicals
26.7
21.8
19.9
6.6
9.0
Silk Mills
28. 81
7.0
8.9
Other Textiles
22.01
7.1
8.1
Clothing
4.4
Other Iron and Steel
6.9
Printing & Publish -9
6.0
Other Manufacturing
11.0
Food and Allied
Elect. Machinery
Extract, of Min.
27.9
8.9
11.7
9.7
9.2
7.5
20.4
8.8
25.8
3.9
Metals except Iron
& Steel
6.9
I. Percentages indicated by footnote mone, above, are percentages
of the total Non-Service Industries of Passaic County,
115
r
n
ZXHIBIT C - 16
(continued)
Passaic County
1930
Silk Mi11s - - - - - - - - - - - - -
20,430
Other Textiles - - - - - - - - - - -
16,786
37,216
Paterson
1930
Silk Mills - - - - - - - - - - - - -
14,638
Other Textiles - - - - - - - - - - -
7,672
22,310
L
EXHIBITS
116
i
i
4:
+
r
117
r.
EXHIBIT D - 1 - a
"3
Employment Trends 1981-1937 for all Industries
EmploymentUnited States
1921
1923
1925
1927
1929
1931
1933
1935
1937
6,946,570
8,778,156
8,384,261
8,348,755
8,821,757
6,506,701
6,055,736
7,203,794
8,569,231
New Jersey
Paterson
381,773
448,069
425,377
408,093
442,328
334,691
295,574
377,078
436,745
31,345
33,247
33,779
32,354
32,686
22,617
22,302
Indices
1921
1923
1925
1927
1929
1931
1933
1935
1937
l.(a)
(b)
100.0
126.4
12017
120.2
127.0
93.7
87.2
103.7
123.4
100.0
117.4
111.4
106.9
115.9
87.7
77.4
98.8
114.4
100.0
106.1
107.8
103.2
104.3
72.2
71.2
Sources:Biennial Census of Manufactures.
For United
States figures - 1921, 23,25, 27,
H
"
”
"
1929, 31,33,
"
"
"
”
1935, 37.
Census of Manufactures 1931
"
"
"
1935
"
M
”
1937.
118
r:
EXHIBIT D - 1 - b
-|
Employment Trends 1921 - 1937 for Paterson
Total Employment
Textiles (only)
Non-Textiles
1921
31,345
22,305
9,040
1923
33,247
22,583
10,664
1925
33,779
24,927
8,852
1927
32,354
23,445
8,909
1929
32,686
22,635
10,051
9,325
12,977
1931
1933
1935
1937
22,617
22,302
Indices
1921
100.0
100.0
100.0
1923
106.1
101.2
118.0
1925
107.8
111.2 '
97.9
1927
103.2
105.1
98.6
1929
104.3
101.1
111.2
41.8
144.0
1931
1933
1935
1937
L
72.2
71.2
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J
EXHIBIT D-l-E
OFFICE
OF THE
CITY
121
MAYOR
HALL
W IL L IA M
PATERSON, NEW J E R S E Y
P. F U R R E Y
MAYOR
F R A N K J. S C I R O
SHERWOOD « - 4 l 7 *
SCCRCTARY
April 17, .1940.
H o y * Er . John J. Shanley,
24 De Grasse Street,
Paterson, -lev; Jersey.
Pear lather:
Enclosed you will find the list of new
industries that have located in the City of
Paterson since the first of the year.
Since
some of them are still in the course of
extensive alterations and repairs, it is
impossible to give a definite amount of
employees that will be engaged in the various
corporations as' outlined therein.
I believe a conservative number set forth in
the list attached would be approximately
seven hundred.
In addition, we have a three
(3) week training course which has been started
by this administration on January 4th, 1940.
This course trains boys for .rights and at the
conclusion of s six (6) month-period, we are to
put in a total of one thousand into ;.ri"d ts.
I wish to report the progress made this far,
as of April 12th, we passed the 300 mark in
placements in V rights. At the completion of
this program, it 1 111 bring a brand new pay­
roll Into this city, of approximately hi,650,000*
EXHIBIT D-l-E
OFFICE
OF THE
CITY
182
MAYOR
HALL
W IL L IA M
P. r U R W C Y
MAYOR
PATERSON, NEW J E R S E Y
F R A N K J. S C I R O
S HC R WOOD a - 4 l 7 »
tC C R IT A R Y
April 17, 1940.
Rev*- Fr-. John J. Shanley,
(2)
I wish to further state that we have approx­
imately four other good moves in the line of
new industries, which we expect to complete
in the very near future, which will employ an
additional five hundred (500) men, hut due to
the nature of the enterprise, it is impossible
to release the names of these concerns at this
time •
Trusting you can get enough from the foregoing
to complete your program, I am
Sincerely yours,
123
r
EXHIBIT D - 1 - f
n
A. B. C. Textile Engraving Company
Baer Mill, 5th Avenue, between E. 11th and E. 12th Street*
(Consolidation of three former local companies - Metro­
politan Engraving; Excello Engraving; and Triangle En- .
graving).
January, 1940.
Grand-Fairlawn Cleaners
286-300 East 18th Street (February,
1940)
Loor Laboratories, Inc.
East 11th Street
(originally located in Paterson in February, 1937,
purchasing plant at 224 Godwin Avenue; the purchase
of 20,000 square feet at East 11th Street involves
an expansion program) January, 1940;
Metalart Corporation
28 Fulton Place
(originally located in Baer Mill on 5th Avenue; company
in existence about a year and a half in Paterson.
Acquired above property about January, 1940, for ex­
pansion) .
Payne-Spiers Studios, Inc.
50 East 13th Street (January,
1940)
Ideal Dyeing and Finishing Co.
50 Spruce Street (March, 1940)
C. N. Burman Company
Johnson-Cowdin Mill (negotiations still pending)
Morton Cohen
208 Paterson Street (February, 1940)
Statler Clothing
208-210 Paterson Street (March, 1940)
Franklin Slipper Company
East 19th St. & 10th Avenue (March,
1940)
Wm. P. Laytham & Sons
809 Market Street (March, 1940) Expansion program.
Miller & Van Winkle
to start on May 1, 1940.
J
n
r
E - EXHIBITS
L
J
124
n
EXHIBIT E - 1
State Schools Tax
Amount
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
19 24
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
L
Per Capita Cost
$ 250
259
269
271
273
285
289
963.60
561.59
090,50
296.05
285.83
170.53
310.07
$ 1.998
2.066
2.07
2.16
2.175
2.27
2.30
306
320
322
357
387
402
446
492
508
555
517
645
637
648
596
567
458
4 54
523
501
488
486
150.94
594.83
543,64
224.06
301.88
915.41
009.65
162.65
965.60
931.74
640.59
083.64
935.96
954.83
230.55
087.52
765.07
596.88
116.61
882.74
264.73
653.71
2.437
1.55
1.37
1.629
1.85
1.965
3.28
3.62
3.74
3.93
3.80
4.74
4.60
4.68
4.30
4.09
3.31
3.28
3.77
3.62
3.52
3.51
n
125
EXHIBIT E - 2
"1
County Tax
Amount
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
19 18
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
19 25
1926
1927
19 28
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
19 36
1937
1938
1939
L_
Per Capita Cost
$ 290
275
310
329
393
386
379
024.60
833.92
123.70
586.71
057.28
676.93
188.15
2.30
2.49
2.46
2.62
3.12
3.07
3.01
450
466
488
583
634
602
647
701
726
859
935
1,365
1,357
1,360
1,384
1,194
1,221
1,178
1,140
1,289
1,429
1,388
490.23
844.96
037.49
103.80
385.38
881.46
787.88
916.21
673.18
379.25
329.25
678.18
518.72
748.20
289.33
467.49
351.34
424.13
330.97
223.71
506.28
773.24
3.58
3.71
3.59
4.29
4 .66
4.43
4.76
5.16
5.34
6.32
6.88
10.05
9.80
9.82
9.99
8.62
8.81
8.50
8.23
9.30
10.32
10.02
J
128
r
EXHIBIT E - 3
Local Tax
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
19 19
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
L_
1
Per Capita Cost
$1
1
1
1
1
1
1
116
145
124
222
375
545
601
274 * 10
701.53
286.34
155.13
120.14
768.57
660.60
$ 8.88
9.12
8.95
9.73
10.94
12.30
12.75
1
2
2
2
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
4
3
4
3
4
2
727
422
722
935
613
567
121
174
367
585
872
913
380
605
550
358
174
633
247
544
003
994
479.17
866.82
647.28
740.45
270.32
858.49
148.11
772.71
204.58
351.62
268.65
636.27
789.39
499.54
553.80
275.98
261.81
317.20
521.90
890.15
102.85
466.67
13.75
19.29
20.03
21.60
26.59
26.25
30.33
23.36
24.78
26.38
27.83
28.80
31.62
26.03
25.63
24.24
30.13
26.23
30.66
25.59
28.90
21.61
J
127
r
EXHIBIT E - 4
District Schools Tax
Per Capita Cost
Amount
19 10
1911
1913
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
19 19
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1952
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
L_
$
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
118
180
178
19 5
217
236
351
350
550
786
035
133
401
520
608
728
984
072
319
518
292
260
163
463
463
563
863
402
400
875
916.73
611.13
366.47
952.19
236.96
536.90
470.50
243.50
797.77
450.34
530.00
530.00
741.00
329.00
399.54
458.50
755.00
946.00
342.53
958.32
369.53
900.05
349.48
349.48
349.48
349.48
349.48
564,48
000.00
279.50
$
0 .95
1 .44
1 .42
1 .56
1 .73
1 .88
2 .80
2 .79
4 .39
6 .26
7 .63
8 .34
10 .31
11 .18
11 .84
12 .72
14 .16
15 .25
17 .06
18 .53
16 .54
16 .32
15 .61
10 .56
10 .56
11 .28
13 .45
17 .34
17 .32
20 .75
J
128
EXHIBIT E - 5
Soldiers Bonus Tax
Amount
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1920
1921
1922
19 23
19 24
1925
1926
1927
19 28
1929
1930
1931
19 32
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
39 ,401.30
38 ,137.81
37 ,138.53
38 ,409.05
38 ,006.74
37 ,217.85
32 ,233.28
31 ,652.86
32 ,157.12
32 ,385.61
32 ,314.28
30 ,038.02
29 ,014.69
24 ,159.79
28 ,891.74
32 ,233.96
35 ,391.15
33 ,712.19
36 ,971.98
Per Capita Cost
.28
.20
•27
.28
.27
.27
.23
.23
.236
.233
.233
.216
.209
.174
.208
.232
.255
.243
.266
J
129
r
EXHIBIT E - 6
“1
Bridge and Tunnel Tax
Amount
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
19 15
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
19 24
1925
1926
1927
1928
19 29
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
i_
15,760,51
41,863.69
27,192.22
36,195.77
80,741.48
76,378.92
53,073.17
Per Capita Cost
$ .115
.308
.200
.266
.594
.562
.390
J
130
1
EXHIBIT S - 7
State Institutions Tax
Amount
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1913
1919
19 20
1921
1922
1923
19 24
1925
1926
1927
1923
19 29
1930
1931
19 32
1933
19 34
1935
1936
19 37
19 38
19 39
| 90,173.50
94,235.95
97,708.38
102,688.35
124,805.51
115,477.49
117,367.90
Per
Capita Cost
$ .663
.693
.719
.755
.918
.849
.847
131
EXHIBIT E - 8
State Roads Tax
Amount
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
$ 118,140.27
119,679.24
131,151,85
142.872.02
148,736.56
164.425.18
180,347.00
188,471.90
195,417.76
205,376.70
249.611.02
230,954.97
234,735.80
217,743.65
210.345.18
165,691.87
Per Capita Cost
$ .940
.952
.965
1.05
1.09
1.21
1.327
1.387
1.438
1.51
1.837
1.699
1.694
1.57
1.518
1.196
J
132
r
EXHIBIT E - 9
1
Police and Fire Tax
Amounts
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
19 20
1921
1922
19 23
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
L_
•$
429
360
402
437
461
439
471
522
310
667
696
717
949
979
1,022
1,313
1,344
1,367
1,377
1,491
1,535
1,420
1,448
1,227
1,230
1,156
1, 135
1,172
1,248
1,427
750.00
550.00
650.00
550.00
690.00
190.00
780.50
038,00
367.50
786.09
911.60
703.60
813.60
150.00
274.75
233.25
926.57
249.98
660.48
793.66
585.77
115,70
658.50
487.83
770.50
153.50
687.00
189.00
810.50
514.00
Per Capita Cost
3.42
2.87
3.21
3.48
3.68
3.50
3.76
4.16
2.47
5.32
5.13
5.25
6.99
7.21
7.52
9.67
9.90
10.06
10.14
10.98
11.09
10.25
10.46
8.86
8.89
8.35
8.20
8.46
9.02
10.31
J
133
r.
EXHIBIT E - 10
n
Fublic Works
Amount
1910
1911
1912
1913
19 14
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
19 26
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
!_
$ 264
265
260
269
328
29 5
328
352
214
397
413
459
540
548
626
697
718
742
672
673
720
700
586
497
549
540
540
580
575
587
300.00
100*00
950.00
200.00
322.69
058.00
494.00
855.00
498.00
076.00
736.00
300.00
635.SI
990.00
300.00
110.00
070.00
380.00
750.00
995.00
295.00
316.SI
467.00
078.07
284.00
000.00
000.00
000.00
000.00
354.00
Per Capita Cbtt
2.10
2.11
2.07
2.14
2.61
2.34
2.61
2.80
1.70
3.16
3.04
3.38
3.98
4.04
4.61
5.13
5.28
5.46
4.95
4.96
5.20
5.06
4.23
3.58
3.97
3.90
3.90
4.19
4.15
4.24
J
134
EXHIBIT E - 11
Health and Charities Tax
Amount
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1930
1921
1922
19 23
19 24
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
34
37
34
34
34
38
41
49
65
93
91
102
104
111
165
218
233
251
242
246
254
257
241
201
206
216
215
240
230
476
700.00
500.00
500.00
000.00
000.00
000.00
500.00
050.00
470.00
564.00
970.00
100.00
450.00
290.00
345.00
990.00
440.00
847.16
154.20
984.50
891.62
806.80
000.00
050.00
919.80
460.00
000.00
000.00
000.00
591.00
Per Capita Cost
.27
.29
.27
.27
.27
.30
.33
.39
.52
.74
.67
.75
.76
.82
1.31
1.61
1.71
1.85
1.78
1.81
1.84
1 •86
1.73
1.45
1.49
1.56
1.55
1.75
1.66
3.44
J
135
n
EXHIBIT E - 13
n
Public Parks Tax
Amount
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
L_
| 27,504,00
22 ,304 .00
21,298,00
25,504.00
28,504.00
33,508.00
37,355.20
39,343.20
31,971.00
59,643.20
63,343.20
66,111.20
62,500.00
72,200.00
85,860.00
105,656.50
102,648.90
104,852.90.
95,051.20
94,817.20
94,992.90
94,551.90
53,641.90
38,762.58
38,317.00
50,000.00
52,000.00
60,000.00
62,438.96
63,000.00
Per Capita Cost
$ .21
.17
116
.22
.22
.26
.29
.31
.25
.47
.46
.48
.45
.53
.63
.77
.75
.77
.69
.68
.68
.68
.38
.27
.27
.36
.37
.43
.45
.45
J
136
EXHIBIT E - 13
H
Recreation Tax
Amount
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1930
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
| 7
15
14
8
17
18
20
20
25
30
31
32
32
30
33
32
32
18
10
10
11
11
12
14
14
500.00
000.00
000.00
465.00
000.00
000.00
000.00
000.00
000.00
000.00
500.00
186.00
255.00
915.00
788.44
225.00
400.00
020.00
340.00
771.00
000.00
000.00
000.00
202.78
715.18
Per Capita Cost
$ .05
.11
.11
.06
.13
.13
.14
.14
.18
.22
.23
.23
.23
.22
.24
.23
.23
.13
.07
.07
.07
.07
.08
.10
.10
J
187
EXHIBIT E - 14
1
Libraries Tax
Amount
1910
1911
1938
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1818
1919
1980
1981
1988
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1939
1930
1931
1938
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
$ 25
25
27
29
32
32
35
38
19
39
46
51
58
65
75
80
82
83
82
90
94
95
84
70
70
72
73
78
83
83
000.00
000.00
500.00
000.00
000.00
000.00
000.00
000.00
750.00
500.00
000.00
650.00
150.00
000.00
000.00
000.00
000.00
000.00
361.28
000.00
100.00
635.00
925.00
044.48
814.48
000.00
750.00
000.00
600.00
600.00
Per Capita Cost
$ .19
.19
.21
.23
.25
.25
.27
.30
.15
.31
.33
.38
.42
.47
.55
.58
.60
.61
.60
.66
.67
.69
.60
.51
.51
.53
.56
.60
.60
J
“1
Hame
Reverend John J* Shanley
Bat® or Birth
May 21, 1901
Elementary Sehool
Graduated
St* Joseph* s Sehool , Hewarlc,H*J*
1910
High School
St,
Graduated
i__
Benedictfs Preparatory
Sehool, Hewarh, H.J*
1924
Baccalaureate Degree
College
Bat®
A*B*
Seton Hall, South Orange, H.J*
1928
Other Degrees
College
Bate
A.M.
Seton Hall, South Orange, N.J,
1930
_I
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