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An Investigation of Normal Young Men Throughout a School Year

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FORDHAM UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
jJuna
19.4Q.-~
This dissertation prepared under my direction by
J M m k J L t J k m m p . ..............................................................................................................
en titled
.....
............................................................................................................................
has been accepted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
Degree of
D oetor. o f . P h ilo so p h y ...............................................................
{Faculty A d viser)
AIT INVESTIGATION OF THE ERYTHROCYTES
OF
NORMAL YOUNG MM THROUGHOUT A SCHOOL YEAR
HELEN V. DOWNEY
DISSERTATION
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF TEE REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE DEPARTMENT OF
BIOLOGY AT FORDHAM UNIVERSITY
NEW YORK
1940
ProQ uest Num ber: 10992490
All rights reserved
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a n o te will ind ica te the deletion.
uest
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Published by ProQuest LLC(2018). C opyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author.
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n
TABLE OF COOTEMS
C hap ter
Page
LIST OF TABLES............................................................................. 1
LIST OF GRAPHS............................................................................. i i
PREFACE.....................................................................................
I.
II.
..iT
UJTROSUCTIOB..........................................................................1
MATERIALS AES METHOPS.............................................
.15
III.
BISCTTSSIOB................................................................... . . . . . 1 8
it.
c o n c u rs io h ........................................................................ 31
V. BIBLIOGRAPHY....................................................................33
L
71.
TABLES........................................................................................40
711.
GRAPHS....................................................................................... 48
J
i
r
n
LIST 0? TABLES
T a b le
Page
X.
II*
L
H em oglobin o f 24 I n d iv id u a l C ases
from Oet . 19 38 th ro u g h June 1939 * ................ • • *40
R .B .C . o f 24 I n d iv id u a l O ases from
O e t. 1938 th ro u g h June 1939 • • ...........................
III*
C o lo r I n d ic e s o f 24 I n d iv id u a l C ases
from O e t. 1938 th ro u g h June 1959 • • • • .................... 42
IV .
A verage H em oglob in , R .B .C . and C o lo r
I n d ic e s f o r I n d iv id u a l C a ses from
Oet* 1 9 3 8 th ro u g h June 1 9 3 9 ......................................... 43
V*
R e la t io n s h ip o f W eight t o Hb. A v era g e,
R.B.C* A verage and C . I . A verage o f
24 I n d iv id u a l C a s e s ........................... *..........................* *44
VI*
R e la t io n s h ip o f S u r fa c e A rea t o Hb*
A v e r a g e , R *B *C • A verage and 0 • I •
A verage o f 24 I n d iv id u a l C ases*
........................... 45
V II*
Hb*, R*£«C* and 0*1* C om parisons
B etw een Employed and Unemployed
Groups o f 1 2 Bach from O e t. 1938
th ro u g h June 1 9 3 9 ................................................................. 4&
V III*
A verage Hb*, R*B*C. and C o lo r
I n d ic e s f o r a Group o f 24
I n d iv id u a ls f o r Bach Month from
O e t. 1 9 3 8 th rou gh June 1 9 3 9 .................................... • *47
41
J
LIST OP GRAPHS
Page
I n d iv id u a l H em oglob in , Red B lood C e ll s
and C o l o r I n d ic e s . . . . . ................................................................... 4 9 -6 0
Homogram o f H em oglobin A v era g es and F re q u en cy .................... 6l
Homogram o f E r y th r o c y te A v era g es and F re q u en cy ..................62
Homogram o f C o lo r In d ex and F re q u en cy ....................... ...............63
R e la t io n s h ip o f W eight t o E r y th r o c y te A verage
o f 24 I n d i v i d u a l C a s e s ................. . ....................
64
R e la t io n s h ip o f W eight t o H em oglobin A verage
o f 24 I n d iv id u a l C a s e s ................. . .......................................................63
R e la t io n s h ip o f W eight t o C o lo r In d ex A verage
............... . ♦ ............................................... 66
o f 24 I n d iv id u a l C a s e s
Homogram o f W eight and F r e q u e n c y ..................................................67
R e la t io n s h ip o f S u r fa c e A rea t o E r y th r o c y te
A verage o f 24 I n d iv id u a l C a s e s ........................................................ 68
R e la t io n s h ip o f S u r fa c e Area t o H em oglobin
A verage o f 24 I n d iv id u a l C a s e s ........................................................69
R e la t io n s h ip o f S u r fa c e A rea t o C o lo r In dex
A v e r a g e o f 24 I n d i v i d u a l C a s e s ........................................................TO
Homogram o f S u r fa c e Area and F req u en cy .....................................71
H em oglob in , E r y th r o c y te and C o lo r Index
C om parisons B etw een Employed and Unemployed
Groups o f 12 Each from O c t . 1938 th ro u g h June 1939* • • • 7 2
A verage H em oglobin, E r y th r o c y te and C o lo r I n d ic e s
f o r a Group o f 24 I n d iv id u a ls f o r Each Month from
O c t. 193 8 th rou gh June 1 9 3 9 ...............................................................73
iii
r
~i
LIST OP GEAPm
|COHI. )
Page
A verage H em oglobin and E r y th r o c y te s f o r a
Group o f 24 I n d iv id u a l C a ses f o r Each Month
from Oct* 1938 th ro u g h June 1939 w ith
I n d iv id u a l Y a r ia t io n s ........................
74
A verage C o lo r Index f o r a Group o f 24
I n d iv id u a ls f o r Bach Month from O c t. 1938
th ro u g h June 1939 w it h I n d iv id u a l T a r i a t i o n s .......................75
L
J
AH IHVE3TIGATI0H OP THE ERYTHROCYTES
OP
EORMAL YOTJHG MEH THROUGHOUT A SCHOOL YEAR
iv
r
1
PREFACE
F o r many y e a r s s t u d i e s hay© b e e n made o f t h e
b l o o d o f n o r m a l young men i n many c o u n t r i e s i n o r d e r t o
d e t e r m i n e t h e h e m o g lo b in v a l u e s and r e d b l o o d c e l l c o u n t s .
Much o f t h i s work h a s b e e n done t o e s t a b l i s h h e m o g lo b in and
re d b l o o d c u r v e s i n o r d e r t o c a l c u l a t e s t a n d a r d s f o r t h e
age g ro u p s.
A c c o r d i n g t o W i l l i a m s o n ( 5 1 ), o u r f i r s t r e a l
kno w led g e o f t h e a g e c u r v e b e g i n s w i t h t h e work o f l e i c h t e n s t e r n who i n 1878 p u b l i s h e d r e s u l t s w h ic h showed t h a t
t h e v a r i a t i o n due t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y
a g e and s e x , was a n i n d i s p e n s i b l e p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e
s t u d y o f h e m o g lo b in i n d i s e a s e d c o n d i t i o n s .
W i n t r o b e , O sgood, A n d r e s e n and M u l g r a g e , l e l s o n
and S t o k e r , G o l d h a m m e r - F r i t z e l l and B o r a e r r e p r e s e n t t h e
more r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r s a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a s t a n d ­
ard age c u r v e .
I n a d d i t i o n much s t u d y h a s b e e n made t o d e t e r ­
mine t h e d i u r n a l v a r i a t i o n i n t h e b l o o d .
This ty p e o f
i n v e s t i g a t i o n has b e e n c a r r i e d on b y w o r k e r s s u c h a s
L e a k e , Kohl and S t e b b i n s (33 )* R a b i n o w i t c h ( 4 4 ) and W a r d ( 5 0 ) .
The p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t o f p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e
on t h e h e m o g lo b in c o n t e n t and r e d b l o o d c e l l c o u n t h a s
b e e n r e p o r t e d b y B o o t h y and B e r r y (5 ) and S c h n e i d e r and
C r a m p to n (4 7 ) •
E xtensive o b s e rv a tio n s concerning th e e f f e c t of
p
c l i m a t e hav e h e e n n o t e d f o r u s by W i n t r o b e ( 5 5 ) , ari<3 H u r ­
tado (2 9 ) has p re s e n te d a v e ry thorough stu d y of th e e f ­
fe c t of a l t i t u d e .
H e l s o n and S t o k e r ( 3 8 ) made a v e r y e x t e n s i v e
s t u d y on t h e b lo o d o f n o r m a l men, i n c l u d i n g i n t h e i r r e ­
p o r t th e e f f e c t of such f a c t o r s a s a g e , se x , c o l o r , n a ­
t i o n a l i t y , o c c u p a t i o n and e n v i r o n m e n t .
The e f f e c t o f d i e t on t h e b l o o d o f n o r m a l young
m ales has a l s o b een b ro u g h t to ou r a t t e n t i o n by C o r n e ll
(10 ) i n h i s p a p e r The E f f e c t o f L i v e r E x t r a c t on t h e
Blood o f Hormal P e r s o n s .
I n t h i s s t u d y he p o i n t s o u t how
f o o d may e f f e c t t h e red b l o o d c e l l c o u n t , r e t i c u l o c y t e
p e r c e n t a g e and h e m o g lo b in v a l u e o f t h e n o r m a l .
Many o f t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s have b ee n p e r f o r m e d
on j u s t a few s u b j e c t s , and i n most o f them b u t s i n g l e
d e t e r m i n a t i o n s have b e e n r e p o r t e d .
I n some c a s e s , c a r e ­
f u l o b s e r v a t i o n s have b e e n made t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t o f
s e a s o n a l c h a n g e s on t h e h e m o g lo b in v a l u e and red b lo o d
c e l l count.
C e r t a i n i n v e s t i g a t o r s have s e l e c t e d a s few
a s t h r e e young men f o r t h e i r s t u d y , w h i l e o t h e r s o b s e r v e d
t h e e f f e c t o f s e a s o n a l c h a n g e s by u s i n g l a r g e g r o u p s b u t
a l l o w i n g t h e members o f t h e g r o u p s t o v a r y d u r i n g t h e p r e
s c rib e d tim e o f s tu d y .
H a v in g o b s e r v e d t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and g r o u p ­
in g s , I decided to s e l e c t a c o n s ta n t group o f norm al,
y o u n g , h e a l t h y m a l e s and o b s e r v e t h e h e m o g lo b in and re d
L b l o o d c e l l c o u n t o f e a c h f o r a p e r i o d o f n i n e months i n
vi
r
1
ord er to note p rim a rily th e e f f e c t of season, su rface a re a ,
and w e i g h t on t h e r e d b l o o d c o r p u s c l e and p e r h a p s t o make
some c o n c l u s i o n s i n r e g a r d t o o c c u p a t i o n , e x e r c i s e , and
d iet*
In a d d i t i o n ,
I w i s h e d t o o b s e r v e how c l o s e l y t h e
i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p o f young men ap~
p r o a e h e d t h e s t a n d a r d h e m o g lo b in v a l u e s and r e d b l o o d c e l l
c o u n t s and c o l o r i n d i c e s o f p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t o r s .
L
J
INTRODUCTION
The Human E r y t h r o c y t e
I n t h e p a s t y e a r s t h e re d b l o o d c e l l h a s b e e n
studied e x te n s iv e ly as to i t s o r ig in , s t r u c t u r e ,
size,
f u n c t i o n , r e g i o n s o f d e s t r u c t i o n and manner o f d e s t r u c ­
tio n .
The more r e c e n t s t u d i e s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e
v a r i a t i o n i n number o f red c e l l s and t h e h e m o g lo b in c o n ­
t e n t o f t h e b lo o d .
The number o f e r y t h r o c y t e s v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o
t h e number o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s .
D o w n e y d J ) s u m m a riz e s t h e f a c t o r s t h a t may i n f l u e n c e t h e
n um be r, m e n t i o n i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , d e f e c t i v e d i e t s a s p r o ­
d u c i n g a d e c r e a s e and h i g h a l t i t u d e s a s b r i n g i n g a b o u t an
in crease.
The t e r m a n e m ia i s employed t o d e s i g n a t e a n
a b n o r m a l l y low n u m b e r, and p o l y c y t h e m i a d e n o t e s a n a b ­
n o r m a l l y h i g h n u m b e r.
Sex and Age
Many i n v e s t i g a t o r s have r e p o r t e d , a f t e r a com­
p a r a t i v e s tu d y o f th e blood o f groups f a i r l y s i m i l a r in
a l l r e s p e c t s sa v e t h a t o f s e x , t h a t t h e r e i s a d e c i d e d
d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e h e m o g lo b in and r e d c e l l c o u n t b e t w e e n
the sexes.
W i l l i a m s o n r s (51 ) c u r v e s show t h a t t h e v a l u e s
up t o t h e a g e o f 15 a r e a l m o s t p r e c i s e l y t h e same f o r
b o t h s e x e s , and t h a t fro m 16 t o 17 t h e s e x d i f f e r e n c e s
make t h e m s e l v e s p l a i n l y m a n i f e s t , t h e male v a l u e s b e i n g
2
h igh er.
W i n t r o b e ( 5 3 )# a f t e r a s t u d y made on 86 men and
100 women, r e p o r t e d a n a v e r a g e o f 1 6 .0 0 grams o f h em oglo­
b i n p e r 100 c c . o f b l o o d f o r t h e m a le s and 14*10 g ra m s f o r
t h e f e m a l e s and a n a v e r a g e r e d c e l l c o u n t o f 5*48 m i l l i o n
p e r c u . mm. o f b l o o d f o r t h e m a l e s and 4 . 8 2 m i l l i o n f o r
th e fem ale.
E a d e n ( 2 6 ) foun d a g r e a t e r h e m o g lo b in d i f f e r ­
ence th a n a red c e l l count d i f f e r e n c e between th e s e x e s ,
b u t i n b o t h r e s p e c t s t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s w ere h i g h e r f o r
t h e m ale.
A more r e c e n t s t u d y by A n d r e s e n and M ulgrage
(1 ) f o l l o w i n g a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f 40 men and 40 women r e ­
v e a l r e s u l t s t h a t ag ree q u ite c l o s e ly w ith W intro be’s .
I t a p p e a r s t h a t , b y f a r , t h e g r e a t e s t amount o f r e s e a r c h
on t h e s e x v a r i a t i o n o f t h e h e m o g lo b in and r e d c e l l num­
b e r h a s b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d by e x p e r i m e n t s on b o t h s e x e s o f
t h e a g e s f r o m 17 t o 3 0 *
As y e t , no s u c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n s
hav e b e e n made b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s o f o l d e r a g e g r o u p s .
S h a t t h e h e m o g lo b in v a l u e s and r e d c e l l c o u n t s
v a r y w i t h a g e h a s b e e n k n o w le d g e o f l o n g s t a n d i n g .
Many
r e p o r t s have b e e n made on t h i s f a c t o r and i t s e f f e c t on
th e b lo o d .
P r o b a b l y Goldhammer( 2 2 ) i n 193^ was
first,
h o w e v e r, t o r e p o r t h i s r e s u l t s i n grams o f h e m o g lo b in p e r
100 c c . o f b l o o d .
P r e v i o u s t o h i s w o rk , t h e m a j o r i t y o f
r e p o r t s w ere g i v e n i n p e r c e n t w i t h no d a t a a s t o t h e v a l ­
ue o f 100 p e r c e n t i n a b s o l u t e f i g u r e s .
In h is i n v e s t i ­
g a t i o n , h o w e v e r , he l i s t s t h e h e m o g lo b in c o n t e n t i n grams
p e r 100 c c . o f b l o o d and t h e e q u i v a l e n t p e r c e n t a g e s ( u s i n g
L
J
3
r14 grams a s 100 p e r c e n t ) o f 777 h e a l t h y c h i l d r e n , 100 o f
1
w h ic h w ere c a s e s o b s e r v e d f r o m h i s s t u d y and t h e o t h e r s
c o l l e c t e d f ro m l i t e r a t u r e .
Goldham mer!2 2 ) found t h a t f o r
t h e f i r s t 10 d a y s o f i n f a n c y t h e h em o g lo b in r a n g e d fro m
2 2 .0 5 grams t o 1 2 .5 grams p e r 100 c . e . o f b l o o d w i t h a n
a v e r a g e w e l l a b o v e t h a t found i n a d u l t s .
G radually i t f e l l
t o 1 1 .9 g r a m s , b e i n g t h e l o w e s t f ro m t h e t h i r d month t o t h e
second y e a r .
H is i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a l s o showed t h a t t h e num­
b e r o f r e d c e l l s p r e s e n t a t b i r t h and f o r t h e f i r s t few
weeks f o l l o w i n g p a r a l l e l e d
t h e amount o f h e m o g l o b i n .
At
t h i s t i m e t h e c o u n t was a s h i g h a s 7 m i l l i o n p e r c u . mm. o f
blood w ith an av e ra g e o f a b o u t 5 ^ / 2 m i l l i o n .
Haden and
lT e f f ( 2 7 ) r e p o r t e d v e r y h i g h h e m o g lo b in and red c e l l v a l u e s
d u r i n g e a r l y i n f a n c y and s t a t e d a l s o t h a t t h e most marked
c h a n g e s t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h e f i r s t month when t h e r e d
b l o o d c e l l s r a n g e d f ro m 6 .2 3 m i l l i o n on t h e f i f t h
day t o
4*08 on t h e t w e n t y - f o u r t h d a y .
A c c o r d i n g t o Goldhammer(22 ), a f t e r t h e second
y e a r t h e r e was a slow r e t u r n t o t h e a d u l t l e v e l w i t h a
s l i g h t d ro p a t p u b e r t y .
He f o u n d t h e a v e r a g e r e d c e l l
c o u n t f ro m t h e f i r s t month t o t h e s i x t e e n t h y e a r t o be
4 l / 2 m illio n .
I n M a y e r * s ( 3 5 ) a c c o u n t , t h e h e m o g lo b in was
found d e c r e a s i n g f r o m 23 gram s a t b i r t h t o 18 gram s d u r ­
i n g t h e t h i r d month o f l i f e .
The r e d u c t i o n o f r e d b lo o d
c e l l s was p r o p o r t i o n a l l y l e s s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , a d e ­
c r e a s e o f o n ly 3/4
a m i l l i o n compared w i t h H a d e n 1s
4
two m i l l i o n d r o p -
M ayer(35) p o i n t s out t h a t th e f a c t t h a t
t h e h e m o g lo b in and r e d h lo o d c e l l s do n o t r u n p a r a l l e l i n
i n f a n c y may b e a s t r i c t l y n o r m a l o c c u r r e n c e o r may be due
to a d i f f e r e n t p la n of f e e d in g .
K e l s o n and S t o k e r ( 3 8 ) r e c o r d e d t h e h e m o g lo b in
and red b lo o d c e l l c o u n t s o f a g e g r o u p s o f f i v e y e a r i n ­
te rv a ls.
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e f ro m t h i s r e p o r t t h a t
t h e a v e r a g e h e m o g lo b in v a l u e f o r t h e a g e g r o u p f r o m 1 8 -2 5
was l o w e r t h a n t h a t o f a n y o t h e r a g e g r o u p and t h a t t h e
red b l o o d c e l l c o u n t was n e x t t o t h e l o w e s t .
M a y e r (35 )*
h o w e v e r, a f t e r s t u d y i n g t h e b lo o d o f humans a t d i f f e r e n t
a g e s , found a n i n c r e a s e i n h e m o g lo b in a t t h i s a g e .
H u r t a d o ( 2 9 ) examined t h e b l o o d o f 132 m a le s b e ­
tw e e n t h e a g e s o f 18 and 76 and c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was
no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e d c e l l c o u n t and a g e .
The a v ­
e r a g e num ber o f e r y t h r o c y t e s was p r a c t i c a l l y t h e same i n
young and o l d .
I n t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l number o f b l o o d e x ­
a m i n a t i o n s made o f p e r s o n s o v e r s i x t y , th® i & a j o r i t y r e ­
v e a l e d a h i g h e r h e m o g lo b in p e r c e n t a g e and r e d c e l l c o u n t
th an th o se o f th e period of a d u lt l i f e ,
fh is increase,
h o w e v e r, i s a c c o u n t e d f o r by most a u t h o r s a s due t o c e r ­
t a i n abnormal p h y s i o l o g i c a l h ap p e n in g s, a s e le v a te d
b l o o d p r e s s u r e , and c a r d i a c and r e s p i r a t o r y d i s t u r b a n c e s .
F o r two c o n s e c u t i v e months Me N a u g h t o n ( 3 6 )
s t u d i e d t h e b l o o d o f a woman 100 y e a r s o l d , i n g e n e r a l
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good h e a l t h , and s t a t e d t h a t t h e red h l o o d c e l l s were w e l l
f o r m e d , o f n o r m a l a p p e a r a n c e , and e q u a l i n number t o t h a t
o f th e normal a d u l t .
The h e m o g lo b in was 8 l p e r c e n t and
t h e r e was a c o l o r i n d e x o f 90 b o t h o f w h ic h a r e w e l l w i t h ­
in t h e normal a d u l t r a n g e .
The h e m o g lo b in v a r i a t i o n w i t h s e x and a g e w ere
f u l l y summed up by P r i c e - J o n e s (42 ).
He b e l i e v e s t h a t i t
i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t t h e r e i s no s e x d i f f e r e n c e up t o
t h e a g e o f 1 6 , and t h a t women have a l o w e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n
t h a n men.
He s t a t e s t h a t t h e h i g h h e m o g lo b in v a l u e o f
i n f a n c y i s r e d u c e d t o t h e a d u l t l e v e l a t a b o u t l 6 , and r e ­
m a in s f a i r l y c o n s t a n t up t o 60 o r 65 y e a r s o f a g e .
D iurnal V a ria tio n
I n a s t u d y o f t h e b l o o d o f h e a l t h y young m a l e s ,
W a rd (5 0 } h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d by g r a p h s t h a t t h e r e i s a d e ­
c i d e d d i u r n a l f l u c t u a t i o n o f red b l o o d c e l l s acco m p a n ied
b y a s i m i l a r h e m o g lo b in f l u c t u a t i o n .
He found t h e d i u r ­
n a l v a r i a t i o n t o be a s g r e a t a s 5 Pe r o en t .
R abinow iteh
( 44)* u s i n g a s m a l l e r g r o u p f o r a s i m i l a r s t u d y , a l s o
p o in te d out a d iu r n a l v a r i a t i o n ,
percentage.
b u t o f a much h i g h e r
Both i n v e s t i g a t o r s d is c o v e re d a v e r y d e ­
c i d e d i n c r e a s e f o l l o w i n g e a c h meal and a g r a d u a l f a l l
d u r in g th e a fte r n o o n .
L ea k e, k o h l and S t e b b i n s ( 3 3 ) made
a s im ila r r e p o r t, follo w in g t h e i r in v e s tig a tio n of d i u r ­
n a l v a r i a t i o n , and e x p l a i n e d t h e f a l l
i n red b l o o d c e l l s
and h e m o g lo b in c o n t e n t f o l l o w i n g m e a ls a s b e i n g c a u s e d
*-
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6
by blood d i l u t i o n *
D r e y e r ( 1 7 ) » r e p o r t i n g on h i e e x p e r i m e n t s on
men and g o a t s , s t a t e s t h a t a d i u r n a l v a r i a t i o n c a n f r e ­
q u e n t l y b e c o n s i d e r a b l e : a s much a s 30 p e r c e n t , a l t h o u g h
10 p e r c e n t c h a n g e s a r e more o r l e s s common o c c u r r e n c e s *
He r e p o r t s t h e h e m o g lo b in t o be l o w e s t b e t w e e n 5 an{3
7 P-M*, and t h a t seems t o a g r e e w i t h p r e v i o u s a c c o u n t s o f
a f a l l fo llo w in g a m eal.
He a l s o f o u n d , on a n a v e r a g e ,
t h e e x c u r s i o n s t o be more i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a low
h e m o g lo b in c o n t e n t .
T h u s , i t i s c o n c l u d e d by t h o s e who have made a
s tu d y o f th e d i u r n a l f a c t o r a s a normal v a r ia tio n , t h a t
t h e r e i s a d a i l y f l u c t u a t i o n o f red b l o o d c e l l s and hemo­
g l o b i n and t h a t t h e y a r e most marked f o l l o w i n g t h e i n ­
g e s t i o n o f a l a r g e m eal.
A ltitu d e
A number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s have b e e n made on t h e
c h a n g e s i n t h e e r y t h r o c y t e number b r o u g h t a b o u t b y e x p o ­
sure to high a l t i t u d e .
P ra c tic a lly a l l in v e stig a to rs a-
g r e e t h a t a n e r y t h r o c y t o s i s i s found i n most i n h a b i t a n t s
o f h i g h a l t i t u d e and t h a t i t
i s a l s o produced i n i n d i v i d ­
u a l s a f t e r b e i n g exposed t o low oxygen t e n s i o n .
An i n t e r e s t i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n was made by H u r t a ­
do ( 2 9 ) i n a m in i n g town o f P e r u a t a n a l t i t u d e o f 1 4 ,8 9 0
f e e t and h a v i n g a n a v e r a g e b a r o m e t r i c p r e s s u r e o f 4P0 E g.
Phe s u b j e c t s w ere n o r m a l male n a t i v e s w i t h a g e n e r a l a g e
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7
r
n
a v e r a g e o f t h i r t y y e a r s who had n e v e r b e e n a t s e a l e v e l .
(The mean v a l u e o f r e d b l o o d c o r p u s c l e s p e r e u . mm. o f
b l o o d was r e p o r t e d t o be 666 a .056 m i l l i o n p e r c u b i c m i l ­
l i m e t e r , w h ic h i s a l i t t l e more t h a n a m i l l i o n h i g h e r t h a n
th e av e ra g e normal v a lu e a t sea l e v e l .
He a l s o p o i n t e d
o u t t h a t a number o f t h e s u b j e c t s r e v e a l e d a r e d b l o o d c e l l
c o u n t l o w e r t h a n a v e r a g e a t s e a l e v e l and c o n c l u d e d f ro m
t h i s , t h a t a lth o u g h u s u a l l y a t high a l t i t u d e s an in c re a se d
re d blo o d c e l l c o u n t i s f o u n d , a n o r m a l s e a l e v e l c o u n t i s
n o t in c o m p a tib le w ith h e a l t h in high r e g i o n s .
As f a r a s t h e h e m o g lo b in v a l u e was c o n c e r n e d ,
t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r r e p o r t e d a mean v a l u e o f 15*93 ~
*09
gram s p e r 100 c . c . o f blood w h ich was o n l y s l i g h t l y
h ig h e r th a n th e normal av e ra g e a t sea l e v e l .
The v a r i a ­
t i o n r a n g e was f r o m 13*4 t o I 8 .9 grams w h ic h was a l m o s t
e q u a l t o t h a t found a t s e a l e v e l .
He m e n t i o n s t h a t n o r ­
m ally a t sea l e v e l t h e r e i s a c lo s e c o r r e l a t i o n between
t h e number o f red b lo o d c e l l s and t h e amount o f hem oglo­
b in contained in each c o rp u s c le , but th a t th e c o r r e l a t i o n
i s in v e rs e a t high a l t i t u d e s .
As t h e red b l o o d c e l l
c o u n t i n c r e a s e s , t h e c o r p u s c u l a r h e m o g lo b in becomes c o n ­
sisten tly le ss.
H ow ever, A n d r e s e n and M u l g r a g e 1s ( l )
e x p e r i m e n t c a r r i e d on a t D e n v e r, C o l o r a d a ( o n e m i l e ab o v e
se a l e v e l J , r e v e a l s a h ig h e r av e ra g e o f hem oglobin;
1 6 .8 4 grams p e r 100 c . c . o f b l o o d .
¥ i n t r o b e ( 5 5 , 5 6 ), on t h e o t h e r h a n d | i n v e s t i g a t e d
l
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8
t h e b lo o d o f 100 n o r m a l young men and 5 2 young women r e ­
s i d i n g in s o u th e rn U nited S t a t e s in o r d e r to determ ine
t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a n ane m ia o f p u r e l y
c l i m a t i c o r i g i n i s p r e s e n t in o th e rw ise h e a lth y p erso n s
r e s i d i n g i n t r o p i c a l and s u b t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e s w hich i s t h e
c a u s e o f t h e p a l e c o m p le x i o n o f t h e s e p e r s o n s .
The s u b ­
j e c t s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t w ere s t u d e n t s b e t w e e n t h e a g e s
o f s e v e n t e e n and t h i r t y .
c o u n t was b e t w e e n 5*7°
The a v e r a g e r e d b lo o d c e l l
5*90 m i l l i o n p e r c u . mm. o f
b l o o d , w h i l e t h e a v e r a g e h e m o g lo b in c o n c e n t r a t i o n was
3-5*87 gram s p e r ICO c . c . o f b l o o d .
T hus, t h e s e f i g u r e s
l e n d no s u p p o r t t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a p h y s i o l o g i c a l
a n e m ia e x i s t s i n a s u b t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e .
The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s d e a l i n g w i t h
c l i m a t e and a l t i t u d e a s f a c t o r s c a u s i n g a n o r m a l v a r i a ­
t i o n i n e r y t h r o c y t e number and h e m o g lo b in v a l u e o f t h e
b l o o d , seem t o p o i n t o u t t h a t a h i g h a l t i t u d e and c o l d
c l i m a t e p r o d u c e a n e l e v a t i o n i n number o f red b lo o d
c e l l s and p e r c e n t a g e o f h e m o g l o b i n , w h e r e a s a low b a r o m e t ­
r i c p r e s s u r e and warm c l i m a t e p r o d u c e no o u t s t a n d i n g
change in e i t h e r v a l u e .
E xercise
I n o b s e r v i n g t h e e f f e c t p r o d u c e d by e x e r c i s e on
t h e number o f e r y t h r o c y t e s , h e a l t h y c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s have
most f r e q u e n t l y b e e n t h e s u b j e c t s , and i n t h e s t u d y o f
t h e s e young men, we f i n d t h i s f a c t o r o f e x e r c i s e c a u s i n g
a change, f r e q u e n t l y a v ery sudden one.
B o o th y and B e r r y
(5 ) m e n tio n e d t h a t Tornaw found i n e x p e r i m e n t s on s o l d i e r s
B e f o r e and a f t e r l o n g m a rc h e s t h a t t h e r e d b l o o d c e l l s i n ­
c r e a s e d a b o u t 9 P0 r c e n t .
B o o t h y and B e r r y (5 ) s e l e c t e d
s i x young men a s t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e i r s t u d y .
These men
mounted a s t a t i o n a r y b i c y c l e and p e d a l l e d f o r o n e - h a l f h o u r
b e f o r e t h e sample o f b lo o d was draw n.
Five of th e s u b j e c t s
showed a r i s e i n h e m o g lo b in p e r c e n t a g e and i n t h e number o f
red blood c e l l s .
The s u b j e c t i n whom no i n c r e a s e i n r e d
c e l l s o r h e m o g lo b in a p p e a r e d , p e r s p i r e d v e r y l i t t l e ,
but
f i f t e e n m i n u t e s l a t e r t h e number o f r e d b l o o d c e l l s showed
a d i s t i n c t i n c r e a s e , and by t h i s t i m e t h e s u b j e c t was p e r ­
sp irin g fre e ly .
T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t o r s and o t h e r s ,
who e x p e r i m e n t e d i n l i k e m a n n e r , e x p l a i n t h i s i n c r e a s e i n
th e red blood c e l l s a s c o r r e s p o n d in g ro u g h ly to th e i n ­
c r e a s e d d e n s i t y o f t h e b lo o d a s a r e s u l t o f s w e a t c a u s e d
by t h e m u s c u l a r w o r k .
the r i s e
They a l s o a s s e r t t h a t , b e c a u s e o f
i n t h e h e m o g lo b in p e r c e n t a g e , t h e O2 c a r r y i n g c a ­
p a c i t y p e r u n i t volume o f b l o o d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l l y i n ­
creased .
T h i s i s a n i n t e r e s t i n g exam ple o f t h e i n t e r c o m -
p e n s a t o r y mechanism o f t h e human b o d y .
it
In sum m arizing,
i s e v id e n t t h a t th e purpose o f p e r s p i r a t i o n i s to keep
t h e body t e m p e r a t u r e n o r m a l u n d e r i n c r e a s e d m u s c u l a r a c ­
t i v i t y , y e t i t s f o r m a t i o n and e l i m i n a t i o n , b y i n c r e a s i n g
t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f hem oglobin, i n c r e a s e s th e c a r r y i n g c a ­
p a c i t y o f a u n i t volume o f b l o o d t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g t h e
10
r
1
s t r a i n on t h e c i r c u l a t o r y system *
S c h n e i d e r and C r a m p t o n ( 4 7 ) r e p o r t e d a n i n c r e a s e
i n h e m o g lo b in p e r c e n t a g e and re d b lo o d c e l l c o u n t s when
t h e r e was p r o f u s e s w e a t i n g in d u c e d by e i t h e r e x t e n d e d p e ­
r io d s of l i g h t l a b o r or c o n c e n tra te d p e r io d s of heavy l a ­
bor.
They m e n t i o n t h a t t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r a r e t u r n t o
n o r m a l depended on t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e m u s c u l a r a c t i v i t y .
A n o r m a l s t a t e was a r r i v e d a t w i t h i n t h r e e m i n u t e s a f t e r
f i f t e e n se cond r u n s , and r e q u i r e d t e n m i n u t e s a f t e r a
t h i r t y se cond r u n .
The g r e a t e r t h e l o s s o f w a t e r f r o m t h e
b l o o d , t h e l o n g e r t i m e was r e q u i r e d t o r e s t o r e t h e b l o o d
to i t s normal d e n s i t y .
T h e r e f o r e , t o d a t e , i t i s a g r e e d t h a t t h e re d
b l o o d c e l l and h e m o g lo b in v a l u e s a r e i n c r e a s e d a s a r e ­
s u l t o f e x e r c i s e e x p l a i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f a d i m i n u t i o n
o f b l o o d volume w h ich i s b r o u g h t a b o u t by p r o f u s e
sweat i n g .
O lix n a te , R a c e , C o l o r , O c c u p a t i o n and E n v ir o n m e n t
Y ery l i t t l e
r e s e a r c h has b e e n c a r r i e d on i n
r e g a r d t o t h e s e f a c t o r s and t h e i r e f f e c t on t h e b l o o d •
P r o b a b l y t h e most e x t e n s i v e s t u d y o f t h i s k i n d has b e e n
a c c o m p l i s h e d by XJelson and S t o k e r ( 3 8 ) .
t i g a t i o n th ey se le c te d
For t h e i r in v e s ­
s u b je c ts of varying c o lo r, en­
v i r o n m e n t , o c c u p a t i o n , c l i m a t e and a c t i v i t y and d e t e r ­
mined t h e h e m o g lo b in c o n c e n t r a t i o n and e r y t h r o c y t e
count.
L-
Where p o s s i b l e , t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o e s t a b l i s h a
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C o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t a l f a c t o r s and t h e
blood v a l u e s o b t a i n e d .
In t h e i r c o n c lu s io n s th e y p o in t
o u t t h a t t h e y f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e d
c e l l c o u n t and h e m o g lo b in v a l u e s b e t w e e n c i t y t r a f f i c
ficers,
of­
surrounded by a i r f i l l e d w ith a h igh c o n c e n t r a ­
t i o n o f m o to r c a r e x h a u s t , and s o l d i e r s w o r k i n g o u t o f
d o o r s i n t h e c o u n t r y f a r removed f ro m crowded c o n d i t i o n s .
They f u r t h e r a s s e r t t h a t , w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f h e a l t h ,
t h e s e v a l u e s a r e a p p a r e n t l y n o t a f f e c t e d by c o n g e s t i o n o f
p o p u l a t i o n o r number o f m o to r c a r s i n crowded t r a f f i c
lan es.
They a l s o made a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a g r o u p o f n e ­
g r o c a v a l r y men and d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e i r h e m o g lo b in v a l ­
u e s and r e d b l o o d c e l l c o u n t s w e re i n a l l r e s p e c t s s i m i ­
l a r t o th o s e o f th e w h ite s o l d i e r s exam ined.
T herefore,
t h e y a g r e e w i t h o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s on t h i s p o i n t t h a t
r a c e , a s s u c h , i s n o t a f a c t o r i n a l t e r i n g h e m o g lo b in
p e r c e n t a g e o r t h e number o f r e d b l o o d c e l l s .
T h e re was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n hemo­
g l o b i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n b e t w e e n u r b a n and s u b u r b a n r e s i ­
d e n t s n o r b e t w e e n men w o r k i n g i n d o o r s and t h o s e w o r k i n g
out of doors.
Seasonal V a ria tio n
On t h e w h o l e , t h e f a c t o r o f s e a s o n a l v a r i a ­
t i o n on t h e e r y t h r o c y t e h a s n o t a s y e t b e e n so t h o r o u g h ­
l y o r e x t e n s i v e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d a s have o t h e r e n v i r o n ­
m ental c o n d i t i o n s .
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“1
i n 1 8 7 7 » M a l a s s e z found more re d b lo o d c e l l s
p r e s e n t i n w i n t e r t h a n i n summer.
I n 1 9 1 1 , h o w e v e r, t h e
r e p o r t o f C h a m b e r l a i n ’ s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d no s e a s o n a l
ch a n g e w h a t s o e v e r .
In 1927> h i p p i n c o t t (34 )* u s i n g a s s u b j e c t s two
men and two women, examined t h e b lo o d once e a c h month f o r
a y e a r i n o r d e r t o o b s e r v e t h e e f f e c t o f s e a s o n on t h e red
b l o o d c e l l c o u n t and h e m o g lo b in v a l u e .
He p o i n t s o u t t h a t
t h e h e m o g lo b in was h i g h e s t i n D ecember, J a n u a r y and F e b r u ­
a r y , t h e c o l d e s t m o n t h s , and l o w e s t i n S e p t e m b e r .
It is
a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e was a s h a r p r i s e i n
A u g u s t , one o f t h e h o t t e s t m o n t h s .
The h e m o g lo b in v a l u e
was h i g h e r d u r i n g t h e s i x months fro m November t o A p r i l
t h a n d u r i n g t h e m onths f r o m May t o O c t o b e r .
The e r y t h r o c y t e c o u n t a l s o was h i g h e s t f r o m De­
ce m ber t h r o u g h F e b r u a r y and l o w e s t fro m S e p te m b e r t h r o u g h
Hovember.
He a l s o p o i n t s o u t , t h a t , on t h e w h o l e , t h e
r e d b l o o d c e l l v a r i a t i o n was n o t a s marked o r a s c o n c l u ­
s i v e a s t h e h e m o g lo b in v a r i a t i o n .
However, most o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g
t h e v a r i a t i o n i n h e m o g lo b in and r e d b l o o d c e l l s i n t h e
d i f f e r e n t s e a s o n s o f t h e y e a r h a v e , i n g e n e r a l , demon­
strated
t h a t t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e s a p p e a r i n t h e summer,
w h ic h f a c t h a s b e e n a t t r i b u t e d
to the e f f e c t o f s u n l i g h t .
The f a c t o r o f t h e s p e c i f i c e f f e c t o f t h e u l t r a v i o l e t r a y
on t h e e r y t h r o c y t e was s t u d i e d b y S a n f o r d (46 ) i n 1 9 2 8 ,
L
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when he e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h two hundred i n f a n t s and t e s t e d
t h e i r b lo o d b e f o r e and a f t e r u l t r a v i o l e t r a y t r e a t m e n t .
Some o f h i s r e s u l t s a p p e a r d e c i d e d l y s p e c t a c u l a r .
One
s u b j e c t , a f t e r f o u r t r e a t m e n t s , showed a n i n c r e a s e i n h e ­
m o g lo b in f r o m 85 p e r c e n t t o 115 p e r c e n t and a r i s e o f
a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r m i l l i o n r e d b lo o d c e l l s .
H is r e s u l t s
show, f o r t h e most p a r t , t h a t a s h o r t e x p o s u r e t o t h e u l ­
t r a v i o l e t l i g h t i n c r e a s e s t h e h e m o g lo b in and r e d c e l l s t o
a s l i g h t e x t e n t when t h e v a l u e s a r e n o r m a l , b u t t o a g r e a t ­
e r e x t e n t i n c a s e s i n w h ich t h e h e m o g lo b in and r e d c e l l s
a re low er th a n norm al.
He a l s o s t a t e s t h a t t h e n o r m a l
te n d s to r e t u r n to normal s h o r t l y a f t e r c e s s a t i o n o f th e
tr e a t m e n t , w hereas th e subnorm al, a f t e r tr e a tm e n t , te n d s
to rem ain a t th e normal l e v e l .
The s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n was v e r y t h o r o u g h l y s t u d ­
i e d by A. S o i n i ( 4 8 ) f r o m March 193^
t o r c h 1937*
^he
d e t e r m i n a t i o n s w ere made on 276 p a t i e n t s , t h e a g e s v a r y ­
i n g b e t w e e n 17 and 6 5 , t h e g r e a t e s t number b e i n g b e t w e e n
20 and 4 0 and t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e i n good
h ealth .
A l l t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s work showed a d e c i d e d l y
h i g h e r h e m o g lo b in and r e d c e l l c o u n t f ro m Hovember t o
F e b ru a ry , th e peak o c c u rrin g in Ja n u ary .
He s t a t e s t h a t
th e p r i n c i p a l so u rce o f s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n o f blood v a l ­
ues i s in th e n a tu re of th e d i e t .
I n t h e s p r i n g and e a r ­
l y summer t h e d i e t c o n t a i n e d l e s s meat and l e s s f r u i t and
v e g e t a b l e s r e s u l t i n g i n a d i m i n u t i o n o f i r o n , Y ita m in Bg»
14
and Y i t a m i n C.
In l a t e
i
summer t h e f r u i t ana v e g e t a b l e c o n ­
t e n t o f t h e d i e t i n c r e a s e d w i t h o u t a n y marked e f f e c t i n
e l e v a t i n g t h e h e m o g lo b in o r r e d c e l l s due t o t h e m a i n t a i n ­
ed d e f i c i e n c y o f meat a t t h i s t i m e .
In th e w i n t e r tim e ,
when a l a r g e q u a n t i t y o f meat was consumed, t h e r e r e s u l t e d
a decided in c r e a s e in b o th blood v a l u e s .
He d i d n o t f i n d
t h a t s u n l i g h t i n a n y way a f f e c t e d e i t h e r t h e h e m o g lo b in o r
red c e l l c o n te n t o f th e b lo o d .
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1
MATERIALS AHD METHODS
S p ecim en s o f t h e "blood o f t w e n t y - f o u r c o l l e g e
m ale s t u d e n t s r e s i d i n g i n Hew York C i t y have "been exam­
in e d t h r o u g h o u t a s c h o o l y e a r , i n c l u d i n g t h e months fro m
O c t o b e r 193$ t h r o u g h Ju n e 1939*
A h e m o g lo b in d e t e r m i n a ­
t i o n and red b l o o d c e l l c o u n t w ere d e t e r m i n e d f o r e a c h
s t u d e n t once a m o n th .
S u b je c ts
The s u b j e c t s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n were t w e n t y f o u r w h i t e men o f v a r i o u s n a t i o n a l i t i e s .
The g r o u p i n ­
c l u d e d 12 employed c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s and 12 unem ployed c o l ­
l e g e s t u d e n t s b e t w e e n 18 and 21 y e a r s o f a g e .
They w ere
i n a p p a r e n t good h e a l t h ; i f a n y m in o r a i l m e n t s o c c u r r e d ,
such a s c o l d s , a r e c o r d o f s u c h a i l m e n t s was k e p t .
Dur­
ing th e p e rio d o f o b s e r v a t i o n , each adhered to h i s c u s ­
to m a r y d i e t a n d , i n g e n e r a l , m a i n t a i n e d h i s n o r m a l r o u ­
tin e .
A s p e c im e n o f b l o o d was c o l l e c t e d f r o m e a c h
s t u d e n t once a m onth; c a r e b e i n g t a k e n t o s e l e c t t h e same
week o f t h e month and t h e same day o f t h e w e e k , a s f a r a s
p o s s i b l e , f o r each s t u d e n t .
A l l s p e c im e n s o f b l o o d w ere
drawn f ro m 1 : 3 0 P.M. t o 2 :3 0 P . M . , w h ic h t i m e w as u s u a l l y
a b o u t one h o u r a f t e r t h e l u n c h p e r i o d .
T h u s, m onth, w eek,
day and h o u r w e r e c o n t r o l l e d a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r
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16
i"
n
t o o b t a i n a t r u e m o n th l y sam ple and t o a v o i d d i u r n a l v a ­
riatio n .
T abulated f a c t s ,
in c lu d in g h e ig h t, w eig h t, age,
d i e t , s l e e p , a c t i v i t y and m e d i c i n a l t r e a t m e n t ,
i f any,
w e re c o l l e c t e d f o r ea c h member o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t .
METHODS
The f o u r t h f i n g e r o f t h e r i g h t hand was s e l e c ­
t e d f o r t h e d r a w in g o f t h e b l o o d .
Each s u b j e c t washed
h i s h a n d s i n h o t , s o a p y w a t e r and d r i e d them t h o r o u g h l y .
The f i n g e r was t h e n g e n t l y m assaged to w a r d t h e t i p f o r
a b o u t one m i n u t e .
I t was t h e n s t e r i l i z e d w i t h a b s o l u t e
A deep wound was made w i t h a s t e r i l e l a n c e t
alco h o l.
t o p r o d u c e a f r e e f l o w o f b lo o d and t o p r e v e n t f u r t h e r
squeezing.
The f i r s t d r o p o f b lo o d was d i s c a r d e d ,
s i n c e i t was l i k e l y t o be d i l u t e d by lymph o r a l c o h o l .
Hed Blood C e l l C o u n ts
Hot l e s s t h a n f o u r c o u n t s w ere made on ea c h
sp e c im e n o f b l o o d and t h e r e s u l t s were u s e d i n t h i s s t u ­
dy o n l y when t h e f o u r c o u n t s v a r i e d by l e s s t h a n 200,00.0
r e d c e l l s p e r c u . mm. o f b l o o d .
The a v e r a g e o f t h e s e f o u r c o u n t s was r e p o r t e d
in each c a s e .
Max Levy s t a n d a r d i z e d c o u n t i n g c h a m b e r s
and p i p e t t e s w ere u s e d .
The b l o o d was d i l u t e d 1 p a r t t o
200 w i t h Hayem’ s s o l u t i o n and t h e p i p e t t e s h a k e n t h o r ­
oughly.
L
I f c o u n t s w ere made t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y , t h e
J
3 .7
' p i p e t t e s were w e l l s h a k e n f o r f i v e m i n u t e s t o i n s u r e t h o r - " 1
ough m i x t u r e o f t h e b l o o d w i t h t h e d i l u t e .
An e f f o r t was
made t o u s e t h e 4 'th , 5 t h , 6 t h and 7^ ^ d r o p s f o r c o u n t i n g .
As f a r a s p o s s i b l e , a f t e r a l l o w i n g f ro m 1 t o 2 m i n u t e s f o r
s e t t l i n g , t h e c e l l s i n 80 s m a l l s q u a r e s were c o u n t e d .
If
t h e c e l l s were u n e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d o r i f d u p l i c a t e c o u n t s
d id n o t a g r e e c l o s e l y , t h e r e s u l t s v/ere d i s c a r d e d and t h e
counts rep eated .
Hemoglobin D e t e r m i n a t i o n s
Twenty c u b i c m i l l i m e t e r s o f b lo o d were drawn
i n t o a p i p e t t e w h ich was c h e c k e d by t h e U . S . B u r e a u o f
S tandards.
The h e m o g lo b in v a l u e o f t h e b l o o d was c a l ­
c u la te d in a S a h l i - H e l l i g e hem oglobinom eter, a f t e r the
b l o o d had b e e n mixed i n t h e u s u a l manner w i t h U/lQ
h ydrochloric a c id .
The a c i d h e m a t i n t h u s formed was
compared w i t h a c o l o r e d g l a s s s t a n d a r d .
U sing t h i s
method and e q u i p m e n t , 14*5 grams p e r 100 c . c . o f b l o o d
w ere e q u i v a l e n t t o 100$ h e m o g l o b i n .
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DISCUSSION
H em oglobin V a lu es
T a b l e I and g r a p h s 1 - 24 r e p r e s e n t t h e m o n th l y
h e m o g lo b in v a l u e s o f 24 i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s t h r o u g h o u t a
s c h o o l y e a r , f ro m O c t o b e r 193 ^ t h r o u g h June 1939 *
The
v a r i a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e n months was f r o m 0 t o 1 l /2
g r a m s , w i t h 50 P@r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s show ing a v a r i a ­
t i o n o f 1 /2 a g ram , 20 p e r c e n t 1 gram and 16 p e r c e n t
1 1 /2 g r a m s .
The v a r i a t i o n r a n g e f r o m 15*00 t o 1 9 . 4 0
grams p e r 100 c c . o f b l o o d i s s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n t h a t
u s u a l l y found f o r t h i s a g e g r o u p .
As i s shown by T a b le I and Graph 2 0 , s u b j e c t
20 r e p r e s e n t s t h e h i g h e s t h em o g lo b in c o n c e n t r a t i o n , w i t h
a n a v e r a g e o f 19*40 gram s and a v a r i a t i o n o f 1 gram
t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; w h i l e s u b j e c t 22
r e v e a l s t h e l o w e s t v a l u e w i t h a n a v e r a g e o f 15 gram s and
a 1 /2 gram v a r i a t i o n .
A ccording to a reco rd o f d i e t ,
s t a t e o f h e a l t h , a c t i v i t i e s , h e i g h t , a g e and w e i g h t , t h e
two s u b j e c t s do n o t d i f f e r much i n an y r e s p e c t , s a v e t h a t
of w eig h t.
S u b j e c t 20 w e ig h e d 75 p o u n d s more t h a n s u b j e c t
22 a n d , on t h e w h o l e , a p p e a r e d t o be t h e h e a l t h i e s t mem­
b e r of th e group.
I t w i l l be n o ted by c o n s u lt in g T able IV and
Homogram 25 t h a t th e a v e r a g e hem oglobin c o n c e n t r a t io n o f
th e 24 in d iv id u a l c a s e s v a r ie d b etw een 15*00 and 19*40
19
r
-i
gram s.
By com paring th© a v er a g e maximum and minimum v a l ­
u e s d eterm in ed by p r e v io u s i n v e s t i g a t o r s , th e r e s u l t s o f
t h i s s t u d y show a s l i g h t l y h ig h e r maximum and minimum in
most i n s t a n c e s , b u t ap proach most c l o s e l y J e n k in s and
BamTs ( 5 2 ) maximum and A ndresen and Iviulgrage1s (1 ) minimum.
A c c o r d i n g t o Bomogram 2J , t h e a v e r a g e h e m o g lo b in
v a l u e o f t h e e n t i r e g r o u p i s 1 6 . 9 0 gram s ^ 1 . 1 0 , w i t h 20
p e r c e n t o f t h e g r o u p above t h e a v e r a g e and 16 p e r c e n t
b e l o w t h e norm .
A c c o r d i n g t o a summary p r e s e n t e d b y
D o w n ey (1 4 ), t h e a v e r a g e s t a n d a r d h e m o g lo b in v a l u e f o r
young men o f t h i s a g e g r o u p v a r i e s f r o m 13*79 ^0 2 0 . 5 0
gram s.
A c c o r d i n g t o I f i n t r o b e and M i l l e r ( 5 6 ), r e l i a b l e h e ­
m o g l o b i n e s t i m a t i o n s have b e e n made, so f a r ,
on 317
h e a l t h y m a l e s b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 19 and 30 by s u c h i n v e s ­
t i g a t o r s a s W i l l i a m s o n , B ie and M o e l l e r , Gram and B o rg o o d ,
Haden, Brown and B o w n t r e e .
They p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e r e ­
s u l t s o f t h e s e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s show a n a v e r a g e h e m o g lo b in
v a l u e o f 1 5 - 8 8 g r a m s , w h ic h a v e r a g e i s 1 gram l o w e r t h a n
t h a t of th e group re p re s e n te d
i n t h i s s t u d y i n w h i c h 64
p er cent of th e ea ses a r e w ith in the standard d e v ia tio n .
T h is stu d y r e p r e s e n t s rep ea ted d e te r m in a tio n s
o f th e hem oglobin v a lu e o f a sm a ll gro u p , in c o n t r a s t w ith
p r e v io u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s in v o lv in g a g r e a t e r number o f
c a s e s where a s i n g l e d e te r m in a tio n was re p o r te d f o r each
case.
The a v e r a g e in t h i s stu d y a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t s t h a t
o f 240 hem oglobin d e t e r m in a t io n s .
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I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t s u b j e c t 15 who
showed no v a r i a t i o n o f h e m o g lo b in t h r o u g h o u t t h e i n v e s t i ­
g a t i o n , had a h e m o g lo b in v a l u e ( l 8 . 5 0 ) w h ic h i s much h i g h ­
e r t h a n t h e a v e r a g e f o r t h i s g r o u p and t h a t o f p r e v i o u s
s t u d y , w h e r e a s t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s , whose v a l u e s v a r i e d
m ost, p re s e n te d a low er a v e ra g e .
Red C e ll C ounts
I n t h i s s t u d y t h e red b lo o d c e l l c o u n t on t h e
24 s u b j e c t s d e s c r i b e d ab o v e h a s b een d e t e r m i n e d .
and G ra p h s 1 - 2 4
T ab lell
r e p r e s e n t th e c o u n ts o f each c a s e f o r
e a c h o f t h e t e n m onths o f s t u d y .
T a b l e IY and Nomogram
26 i n d i c a t e t h e a v e r a g e c o u n t o f e a c h s u b j e c t f o r t h e t e n
m onths.
The h i g h e s t c o u n t was o b t a i n e d on s u b j e c t 2 0 ,
700 m i l l i o n d u r i n g May; t h e l o w e s t on s u b j e c t 24 d u r i n g
O c t o b e r and F e b r u a r y , 461 m i l l i o n .
The b l o o d c o u n t o f
s u b j e c t 20 v a r i e d 1 m i l l i o n d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t , w h e r e ­
a s s u b j e c t 24 had a v a r i a t i o n o f 143 m i l l i o n .
S ubject
20 a l s o p o s s e s s e d t h e h i g h e s t h e m o g lo b in a v e r a g e (19*40
g r a m s ) , w h e r e a s s u b j e c t 24 showed a n a v e r a g e o f 15*70
g ram s w h ic h i s one o f t h e l o w e s t i n t h e g r o u p .
The
g r e a t d if fe r e n c e in ap pearance, d i e t , s t a t e of h e a lth
and h e a l t h h a b i t s m ig h t a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l d i f ­
ferences .
The mean v a l u e i s ^ 66 S 46 m i l l i o n p e r c u . mm.
f o r t h i s g r o u p , w h ic h a p p e a r s v e ry c l o s e t o t h e a v e r a g e
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made f ro m 352 c a s e s s t u d i e d i n t h e c o u n t r y on y o u n g men
o f t h e same a g e g r o u p a s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a ­
t i o n ; t h e a v e r a g e b e i n g 55 ° m i l l i o n .
The h i g h e s t r e d
b l o o d c e l l a v e r a g e (666 m i l l i o n ) f o r 132 young men h a s b e e n
o b t a i n e d by H u r t a d o ( 2 9 ) f r o m a s t u d y c a r r i e d on i n t h e
P e r u v i a n A ndes i n a m i n i n g town w i t h a n a l t i t u d e o f 1 4 , 6 9 0
feet.
A c c o r d i n g t o A n d r e s e n and M i l g r a g e ( 1 ), t h e l o w e s t
a v e r a g e (484 m i l l i o n ) h a s b een r e p o r t e d b y W a l t e r s .
This
s t u d y was made i n L aw rence on 100 m a l e s fro m t h e a g e s o f
20 t o 3 0 .
I n t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y o f young men betv/ee n t h e
a g e s o f 17 - 21, t h e r a n g e v a r i a t i o n was fro m 484 t o
668
m i l l i o n w i t h 19 p e r c e n t abo ve t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , 66
p e r c e n t w i t h i n t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , and 12 p e r c e n t
below .
The a v e r a g e v a r i a t i o n o f red c e l l c o u n t s f o r t h e
g r o u p f o r t h e t e n m onths was 540,000 c e l l s .
The g r e a t e s t
v a r i a t i o n f o r t h e t e n m onths was 1 , 4 9 6 , 0 0 0 and was o b ­
t a i n e d from s u b j e c t 14 whose a v e r a g e was 569 m i l l i o n ; t h e
le a st v ariatio n ,
2 5 ,0 0 0 was o b t a i n e d f ro m s u b j e c t 13 whose
a v e r a g e was 567 m i l l i o n , b o t h a v e r a g e s b e i n g v e r y c l o s e t o
t h e g r o u p a v e r a g e w h ic h i s 566 m i l l i o n .
The a v e r a g e maximum c o u n t o f t h i s s t u d y i s v e r y
close
t o t h a t o f E m e r s o n ( 5 2 ) and t h e minimum a v e r a g e a -
g r e e s e x a c t l y w i t h t h a t o f A n d r e s e n and M u l g r a g e ( l ) .
range v a r i a t i o n , ap p ro xim ately 2 m illio n ,
The
i s about 1/2
m illio n h ig h er th an th e m a jo rity of re p o rts s tu d ie d .
An
i
22
r
“i
e x a m i n a t i o n o f Uomogram 26 shows t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y one
t h i r d o f t h e group p o sse sse d a red hlood c e l l a v e ra g e o f
f r o m 560 t o 580 m i l l i o n , w h e r e a s , i n "both t h e l o w e s t and
t h e h i g h e s t r a n g e o n l y one i n d i v i d u a l i s r e p r e s e n t e d .
S u b j e c t 19 r e v e a l e d t h e h i g h e s t a v e r a g e c e l l
c o u n t and s u b j e c t 24 t h e l o w e s t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d a t a
co llected .
As m e n tio n e d a b o v e , t h e s t u d e n t w i t h t h e l o w e r
a v e r a g e , i n r e s p e c t t o w e i g h t , a c t i v i t y and g e n e r a l good
h e a lth appears s u p e r io r to the s tu d e n t p o sse ssin g th e
h ig h er average.
The r e c o r d o f s u b j e c t 1 9 , h o w e v e r, shows
a much more r e g u l a r r o u t i n e o f d i e t , s l e e p , and g e n e r a l
h e a l t h h a b i t s t h a n s u b j e c t 2 4 , w h ic h i s h a r d l y a c c o u n t a b l e
f o r t h e v a s t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e num ber o f c e l l s .
C o lo r Index
The c o l o r i n d e x r e f e r s t o t h e a v e r a g e amount o f
h e m o g lo b in i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e d c e l l .
T a b l e I I I and
G r a p h s 1 - 24 p r e s e n t t h e c o l o r i n d i c e s o f 24 c a s e s , f o r
each s u b j e c t , from O c to b e r th ro u g h J u n e .
T a b l e IV and
Homogram 27 r e p r e s e n t t h e a v e r a g e i n d i c e s f o r e a c h s u b j e c t
f o r t h e t e n m onths.
The h i g h e s t c o l o r i n d e x , I . 2 3 ,
d e r i v e d fro m a
h e m o g lo b in v a l u e o f 1 6 . 5 0 grams and a r a d c e l l c o u n t o f
461 m i l l i o n i s shown f o r s u b j e c t 24 d u rin g O c to b e r .
lo w e s t in d e x ,
The
. 8 1 , f o r s u b j e c t 19 w as m a n ife ste d d u rin g
O c t o b e r when t h e h e m o g lo b in v a l u e was 1 6 .0 0 grams and t h e
red b lo o d c e l l co u n t 678 m i l l i o n .
L
S in c e th e hem oglobin
J
25
c o n c e n tr a tio n f o r both s u b je c ts v a r i e s to th e e x te n t of
1 / 2 gram s, w hereas t h e v a r i a t i o n in red c e l l e x te n d s t o 0 v e r two m i l l i o n , i t
is v ery p o s s ib le th a t the stu d e n t p o s­
s e s s in g th e low er in dex r e p r e s e n t s th e m ic ro c y tic type o f
c e l l w h ile th e stu d e n t p r e s e n tin g th e h ig h e r index, p o s ­
s e s s e s t h e m a c r o c y tic form o f red c e l l .
F o r th e group s tu d ie d th e av erag e c o l o r index i s
1 . 0 2 zt .07 w i t h 62 p e r c e n t w i t h i n t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ,
20 p e r c e n t a b o v e , and 16 p e r c e n t b e l o w .
T his av era g e i s
h i g h e r t h a n most r e p o r t s r e v e a l and i s due t o t h e f a c t , a s
r e p o r t e d a b o v e , t h a t t h e a v e r a g e h e m o g lo b in v a l u e s f o r t h i s
group i s h ig h e r th a n th e a v e ra g e a r r i v e d a t f o r t h e i r p a r ­
t i c u l a r a g e g r o u p , w h e r e a s t h e r e d b l o o d c e l l a v e r a g e was
t h e same a s t h e a v e r a g e found i n p r e v i o u s e x p e r i m e n t s .
Homogram 27 shows t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 18 s u b j e c t s r e v e a l e d
a c o l o r i n d e x a v e r a g e ab o v e 1 and t h a t 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e
s t u d e n t s a r e i n t h e c o l o r in d ex ran g e from 1 .0 9 t o 1 .1 3
w h ic h r a n g e i s n e x t t o t h e h i g h e s t o f t h e g r o u p .
A lthough
th e av erag e c o l o r index r e p r e s e n t s th e normal h ig h , i t i s
i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t so many i n t h i s g r o u p p o s s e s s e d
a n a v e r a g e w h ic h i s c o n s i d e r e d a b o v e t h e n o r m a l .
The maximum a v e r a g e o b t a i n e d i s 1 .1 4 £ o r s u b j e c t
8 whose a v e r a g e h e m o g lo b in v a l u e i s 17*00 gram s and whose
a v e r a g e red c e l l c o u n t i s 5°7 m i l l i o n .
The minimum a v e r ­
a g e i s O.85 w h ic h c l o s e l y a p p r o a c h e s Goldham merTs and
F r i t z e l l fs ( 2 3 ) a v e r a g e w h ic h i s 0 .8 7 *
L.
J
24
3?iie a v e r a g e v a r i a t i o n i n c o l o r i n d e x f ro m O c to b e r" 1
th ro u g h June i s 0 . 0 9*
a t i o n ran g e(0 .1 9 )*
S u b j e c t 24 shows t h e g r e a t e s t v a r i ­
T h i s c a s e shows a n a l m o s t c o n s i s t e n t
d e c r e a s e f ro m 1 .2 3 o f O c t o b e r t o 1 .0 4 d u r i n g J u n e .
The
l e a s t v a r i a t i o n a p p e a r s f o r s u b j e c t 15 whose c o l o r i n d e x
r a n g e s f ro m 0 . 9 4 t o O.98 w h i c h v a r i a t i o n i s e q u a l t o .04*
S u b j e c t s 7 and 24 r e v e a l, t h e most marked m o n t h l y
v a r i a t i o n s a s i s shown i n T a b l e I I I and G ra p h s r[ and 2 4 ,
t h e f o r m e r , w i t h a e o l o r i n d e x d e c r e a s i n g f ro m I . 1 7 t o
I . 0 7 f r o m March t o A p r i l , t h e l a t t e r ,
f r o m O c t o b e r t o November.
f ro m 1 .2 3 t o I *13
In s u b j e c t 7 * t h i s c h a n g e i n
c o l o r i n d e x was c a u s e d b y a marked r i s e i n red c e l l s fro m
4 9 8 t o 586 m i l l i o n , t h e h e m o g lo b in v a l u e r i s i n g o n l y l / 2
a gram.
In s u b j e c t 24 t h e h e m o g lo b in rem a ined c o n s t a n t
b u t t h e r e d c e l l s i n c r e a s e d fro m 461 t o 4 9 ^ m i l l i o n .
W e ig h t and S u r f a c e A re a
I n T a b l e Y and G ra p h s 28 and 29 a r e r e p r e s e n t e d
t h e w e i g h t i n k i l o g r a m s and t h e a v e r a g e h e m o g lo b in c o n ­
c e n t r a t i o n , r e d b l o o d c e l l c o u n t s , and c o l o r i n d i c e s o f
t h e 24 i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s .
The w e i g h t v a r i a t i o n i s f ro m
60 k i l o g r a m s t o 102 k i l o g r a m s and a h e m o g lo b in v a r i a t i o n
f r o m 15*00 gram s t o 19*34 gram s p e r 100 c o . o f b l o o d .
The r e d c e l l s v a r y f ro m 485 m i l l i o n t o 668 m i l l i o n , and
t h e e o l o r i n d e x f r o m O.85 t o 1 . 1 4 *
gram 3 0 , i t
By r e f e r i n g t o $Tomo-
i s o b v i o u s t h a t a g r e a t many c a s e s f a l l i n t o
one w e i g h t r a n g e w h i c h f a c t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g i n s u c h a
i
r e s t r ic te d grou p.
The m a jo r ity o f th e s t u d e n t s o f t h i s
exp erim en t p o s s e s s e d a w e ig h t w hich i s c o n sid e r e d a v e r ­
a g e in r e s p e c t t o t h e i r h e ig h t and a g e .
T h is f a c t i s
a l s o t r u e r e g a r d in g th e s u r f a c e a r e a , a s i s in d ic a t e d in
Homogram 3 4 » where th e lo w e s t s u r fa c e a r e a range i n ­
c lu d e s th e g r e a t e s t number o f c a s e s and th e h ig h e s t range
th e fe w e st c a s e s .
A lth ou gh th e c o e f f i c i e n t c o r r e l a t i o n
f o r each f a c t o r i s p o s i t i v e , i t
i s so v e r y low t h a t
t h e r e i s in no way any s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n .
The
c o e f f i c i e n t c o r r e l a t i o n f o r w e ig h t and h em oglobin i s
. 2 6 , f o r red b lo o d c e l l s
. 0 9 , and f o r c o l o r in d e x .09*
T ab le YI and Graphs 3 2 and 33 I n d ic a t e t h e
s u r f a c e a r e a a v e r a g e f o r each o f th e 24 s u b j e c t s t o g e t h ­
e r w ith th e h em o g lo b in , red c e l l , and c o l o r in d e x a v e r ­
ages.
The s u r f a c e a r e a s range from I . 7 2 t o 2 . 24 * b u t
no c o r r e l a t i o n can be e s t a b l i s h e d .
The c o e f f i c i e n t
c o r r e l a t i o n f o r h em oglobin and s u r fa c e a r e a i s
i s even l e s s th a n f o r h em oglob in and w e ig h t .
.1 8 w hich
The red
b lo o d c e l l and s u r f a c e a r e a i s a c t u a l l y in v e r s e , b e in g
- . 0 3 , w h ile t h e c o l o r in d e x - s u r f a e e a rea c o e f f i c i e n t i s
.1 8 w hich i s h ig h e r th a n t h a t f o r c o lo r in d e x and w e ig h t .
There seem s t o be a g r e a t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e ­
tw een h em oglob in c o n c e n t r a t io n and w e ig h t th a n b etw een
red c e l l s o r c o l o r in d e x and w e ig h t; th e c o l o r in d e x - s u r ­
f a c e a r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p , h ow ever, a p p ea rs c l o s e r th a n t h a t
o f red c e l l s and h em o g lo b in .
26
r
n
A l t h o u g h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p was found t o he
g r e a t e s t b e t w e e n t h e h e m o g lo b in and w e i g h t , t h e r e s u l t s
o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n show t h a t no c o r r e l a t i o n c a n he
made r e g a r d i n g w e i g h t o r s u r f a c e a r e a and t h e f a c t o r s
o f t h e b lo o d s t u d i e d .
These r e s u l t s a g r e e , r a t h e r , w i t h
t h e meagre s t u d i e s p r e v i o u s l y made, e v e n t o t h e i n v e r s e
c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s u r f a c e a r e a and red b lo o d c e l l s .
Employed and Unemployed S u b j e c t s
T h i s g r o u p o f 24 s t u d e n t s c o n s i s t e d o f 12 young
men engaged i n more o r l e s s f u l l t i m e emx>loyment i n a d d i ­
t i o n to th e
r e g u l a r s c h o o l p r o g r a m and 12 engaged s o l e l y
in th e u su a l c o lle g e a c t i v i t i e s .
Most o f t h e w ork p e r ­
formed by t h e s e s t u d e n t s w as o f t h e manual t y p e , su c h a s ;
s h i p p i n g c l e r k s , d e l i v e r y b o y s and b a k e r s .
T a b l e Y I I and G ra ph 35 i n d i c a t e t h e m o n th l y a v ­
e r a g e s o f h e m o g l o b i n , r e d c e l l s and e o l o r i n d i c e s f o r t h e
two g r o u p s .
The h e m o g lo b in a v e r a g e f o r t h e employed
g r o u p i s 1 7 - 2 4 w h i c h i s h i g h e r t h a n f o r b o t h t h e unem­
p l o y e d g r o u p w h i c h i s 1 6 . 8 0 and t h e g r o u p a v e r a g e w h i c h
is 16 .9 0 .
Hot a t any t i m e d u r i n g t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n was
t h e w o r k i n g g r o u p a s low a s t h e n o n - w o r k i n g g r o u p , n o r
d id i t v a r y a s much a l t h o u g h ,
in a l l c a s e s , th e v a r i a ­
t i o n s w ere p r a c t i c a l l y n e g l i g i b l e .
Upon c o n s i d e r i n g t h e number o f red c e l l s , h e ­
m o g l o b i n and c o l o r i n d i c e s , h o w e v e r, t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d
a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t a s compared w i t h t h e h e m o g lo b in
27
r values.
Here we f i n d an a v e r a g e f o r t h e w o r k i n g g r o u p t o n
be 557 m i l l i o n w h ic h i s l o w e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e g r o u p a v e r ­
a g e w h ic h i s 566 m i l l i o n and l o w e r t h a n t h e n o n - w o r k i n g
g r o u p a v e r a g e w h ich i s 575 m i l l i o n .
The employed g r o u p ,
a s a g r o u p , showed t h e l o w e s t a v e r a g e , 542 m i l l i o n , f o r
O c t o b e r and t h e h i g h e s t f o r J u n e , 5^9 m i l l i o n , w h i c h i s a
v a r i a t i o n o f 270,000 c e l l s .
The u n e m p lo y e d , on t h e o t h e r
h a n d , r e v e a l e d t h e h i g h e s t c o u n t , 5&5 m i l l i o n , i n O c t o b e r
and t h e l o w e s t , $60 m i l l i o n , f o r J u n e .
T his i n d i c a t e s a
l o w e r v a r i a t i o n r a n g e b u t a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n June
t h e w o r k i n g g r o u p had a h i g h e r r e d c e l l a v e r a g e t h a n t h e
non-w orking s t u d e n t s .
The c o l o r i n d e x f o r t h e employed g r o u p i s c o n ­
s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r t h a n f o r t h e u n e m p lo y e d , t h e a v e r a g e f o r
th e form er bein g I . 0 6 , f o r th e l a t t e r 1 .0 0 , w h ile 1.02 i s
th e average f o r the e n t i r e group.
The h i g h e s t i n d e x f o r
t h e employed i s 1 .0 8 d u r i n g O c t o b e r , t h e l o w e s t 1 .04 d u r ­
ing t o y .
The h i g h e s t a v e r a g e f o r t h e employed was 1 .05
o c c u r r i n g i n June and t h e l o w e s t O.97 i n O c t o b e r .
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e unem ployed
g r o u p t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e i n h e m o g lo b in and c o l o r i n d e x
f r o m O c t o b e r t o June and d e c r e a s e i n red b lo o d c e l l s ,
w h e r e a s t h e employed s t u d e n t s t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e i n b o t h
h e m o g lo b in and red c e l l s fro m O c t o b e r t o Ju n e b u t t o d e ­
c r e a s e s l i g h t l y in c o l o r in d e x .
F o r t h e unem ployed t h i s
am o u n ts t o a n i n c r e a s e i n h e m o g lo b in c a r r i a g e p e r c o r p u s ­
c l e , w h ic h shows a t e n d e n c y to w ard a n o r m a l m a c r o c y t o s i s .
L
J
28
1
n
I n t h e em p lo y ed , t h e i n c r e a s e i n h em o g lo b in and red c e l l s
and t h e s l i g h t d e c r e a s e i n c o l o r i n d e x , shows t h a t t h e h e ­
m o g l o b i n i n c r e a s e i s l e s s t h a n t h e re d c e l l i n c r e a s e and
t h a t i n d i c a t e s a t e n d e n c y to w ard a n o r m a l m i c r o c y t i c s t a t e .
A l t h o u g h t h e g r o u p s s t u d i e d w ere r a t h e r r e s t r i c ­
t e d i n number f o r making a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f a f a c t o r
o f s u c h i m p o r t a n c e a s a c t i v i t y , and t h e r e i s p r e s e n t a l ­
ways t h e e l e m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n ,
it
is in te re s t­
i n g t o n o t e t h a t many o f t h e s t u d e n t s b u rd e n e d w i t h two
o c c u p a t i o n s m a i n t a i n e d p r a c t i c a l l y t h e same b lo o d v a l u e s
a s t h o s e s t u d e n t s who engaged i n no o u t s i d e em ploym ent,
a n d , i n some c a s e s , r e v e a l e d v a l u e s ab o v e t h e o t h e r s .
S e a so n a l V a r ia t io n
W ith t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e m onths o f J a n u a r y and
M arch, d u r i n g w h ic h t h e r e a p p e a r e d a s l i g h t d e c r e a s e i n
t h e h e m o g lo b in a v e r a g e f o r t h e 24 s t u d e n t s a s i s i n d i c a ­
t e d i n T a b l e V I I I and G ra p h s 37 an<3 3 $ . t h e r e a p p e a r s t o
be a g r a d u a l r i s e i n h e m o g lo b in fro m O c t o b e r t h r o u g h J u n e .
The most marked i n c r e a s e o c c u r s fro m May( 17*10 g r a m s ) t o
J u n e ( 1 7 *44 g r a m s ) .
The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e l o w e s t a v ­
e r a g e o f O c t o b e r and t h e h i g h e s t a v e r a g e o f June i s
grams p e r 100 c c . o f b l o o d .
.63
G ra p h s 1 - 24 r e v e a l t h a t 30
p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s p r e s e n t e d a n i n c r e a s e o f l /2 gram
o f h e m o g lo b in fro m May t o J u n e , w h i l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y J O p e r
c e n t m a i n t a i n e d t h e same v a l u e .
Only one s u b j e c t showed a
d e c r e a s e i n h e m o g lo b in d u r i n g t h e s e m o n t h s .
L
j
29
r
1
T a b le V I I I and G ra p h s 37 an<3 3& i n d i c a t e a n a l ­
most c o n s t a n t re d b l o o d c e l l a v e r a g e t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x p e r ­
im ent.
The minimum a v e r a g e ( 56 l m i l l i o n p e r c u . mm.) o c ­
c u r r e d d u r i n g A p r i l and t h e maximum a v a r a g e (571 m i l l i o n )
o c c u r r e d d u r i n g December, J a n u a r y and F e b r u a r y , w h ic h r e ­
s u l t s can h a r d l y r e p r e s e n t a s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n .
During th e p e rio d o f s tu d y , th e e o l o r index v a ­
ria tio n is
.03.
T h i s i n d e x , l i k e t h e h e m o g lo b in v a l u e ,
g r a d u a l l y in c r e a s e d from O cto b e r to J u n e .
D uring th e
month o f J u n e , when t h e r e was t h e g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e i n h e ­
m o g lo b i n and when t h e r e d c e l l s re m a in e d p r a c t i c a l l y c o n ­
s t a n t , th e re appeared the h ig h e s t e o l o r in d ex .
The g r e a t ­
e s t i n c r e a s e (.0 1 ) a p p e a r e d f r o m J a n u a r y t o F e b r u a r y and
f r o m May t o Ju n e due t o a n i n c r e a s e i n h e m o g l o b i n , w h e r e a s
t h e same i n c r e a s e f r o m F e b r u a r y t o March o f .01 was
b r o u g h t a b o u t by a s l i g h t d e c r e a s e i n t h e number o f e r y t h ­
ro cytes .
The m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e p o r t s o f p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i ­
g a t o r s , su c h a s t h o s e o f S a n f o r d (46 ) and L i p p i n c o t t (34 ) *
i n d i c a t e a r i s e i n h e m o g lo b in and c o l o r i n d e x d u r i n g t h e
s p r i n g and summer m onths and e x p l a i n t h e o c c u r r e n c e a s
caused by t h e e f f e c t s o f an i n c r e a s e in th e u l t r a v i o l e t
lig h t rays.
S o i n i ( 4 8 ) and o t h e r s who o b t a i n e d t h e h i g h ­
e s t h e m o g lo b in and e r y t h r o c y t e v a l u e s d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r
m o n t h s , c o n s i d e r t h e h i g h meat c o n t e n t o f t h e d i e t a t t h a t
tim e a s being th e c h i e f cause o f th e s e i n c r e a s e s .
l
j
50
r
~1
S in ce th e e x a m in a tio n of th e d a ta c o l l e c t e d from
t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h i s s t u d y d id n o t r e v e a l a n y s e a s o n a l
change in th e d i e t or any o th e r im p o rta n t en v iro n m e n tal
f a c t o r , e x c e p t t h a t o f a marked i n c r e a s e i n s u n l i g h t e x ­
p o s u r e f r o m A p r i l t o J u n e , i t seems v e r y l i k e l y t h a t t h e
u l t r a v i o l e t r a y s do p r o d u c e a n e f f e c t on t h e h e m o g lo b in
value of the b lo o d .
L
J
31
1
CORCLUSIOT ABD SUMMARY
Blood d e t e r m i n a t i o n s i n t w e n t y - f o u r h e a l t h y
you ng men f ro m t h e a g e s o f 17 t o 21 , r e s i d i n g i n Bew York
C i t y have b e e n c a r r i e d o u t r e p e a t e d l y once a month f o r a
p e r i o d o f n i n e m onths w i t h t h e o b j e c t o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g
t h e h e m o g lo b in c o n c e n t r a t i o n , t h e number o f red b lo o d
c e l l s , and t h e c o l o r i n d i c e s and t o n o t e t h e s t a n d a r d v a l ­
u e s , and o b s e r v e , i f p o s s i b l e , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n
t h e s e v a l u e s and w e i g h t , s u r f a c e a r e a , s e a s o n s , and t h e
f a c t o r o f em ploym ent.
The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s may be sum<m arized a s f o llo w s
(1 )
The a v e r a g e h e m o g lo b in c o n c e n t r a t i o n was 1 6 . 9 0
i 1 . 1 0 grams p e r 100 c c . o f b l o o d .
(2 )
The a v e r a g e r e d c e l l c o u n t was 5 *660,000
! 460,000
p er cubic m illim e te r of b lo o d .
c o l o r i n d e x was 1.02
(3)
The a v e r a g e
.0 7 •
(4)
There was no c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n w e i g h t ,
h e m o g lo b in c o n c e n t r a t i o n , number o f red b l o o d
ce lls,
(5 )
or color in d ic e s.
T h e re was no c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s u r f a c e a r e a
and h e m o g l o b i n , number o f re d b lo o d c e l l s ,
or
color in d ic es.
L
J
32
(6)
The unem ployed g r o u p showed a t e n d e n c y to w ard
a n o r m a l m a c r o c y t o s i s , w h e r e a s t h e employed
g r o u p showed a t e n d e n c y tow ard a n o r m a l m i c r o ­
c y t i c fo rm o f red b lo o d c e l l w h ic h i n d i c a t e s a
s u p e r i o r t y p e o f c e l l f o r t h a t g r o u p engaged i n
a n o r m a l amount o f a c t i v i t y .
(7 ) An i n c r e a s e o f h e m o g lo b in and c o l o r i n d e x was
o b t a i n e d d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g months and i s c o n ­
s i d e r e d t o be b r o u g h t a b o u t by a n i n c r e a s e i n
th e exposure to s u n l i g h t .
L
J
33
1
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p erim en tal A d m in istra­
t i o n o f E x c e s s i v e Am ounts o f W a t e r on t h e
Volume and C o n c e n t r a ­
t i o n of th e B lood” .
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p r E 2cg-f"'rg 2 7 .—
25 G u s t a f s o n . F . L . and
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in B a sal M etabolism ".
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p T 1 3 \ - T 928’:---------
26 E a d e n , R . L . ,
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1496 1922
, P.
27
and H e f f , F . C . ,
28 H o w e l l ,W .H .,
i_
.
.
"The Volume I n d e x and
- C o l o r I n d e x o f t h e Bed
Blood C o r p u s c l e i n Hew
B o r a I n f a n t s " . Amer.
J . B i s . C h i l d , 257
p 7 5557 W
Textbook o f P h y sio lo g y
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20 H u rtad o, A . 9
" S tu d ie s a t H igh A l t i ­
t u d e s : B lood O b serva­
t i o n s on In d ia n H a t iv e s
o f P e r u v ia n A nd es", Am er. I , P h y s i o l , , 1 0 0 ,
p 7 1 8 7 7 153^ --------
30 I s a a c s ,B . and G o r d o n ,B .,
"The E f f e c t o f E x e r c is e
on th e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f
C o r p u sc le s in t h e B lood
Stream ". Amer, 3 , P h y s i­
o l . , 7 1 , p T T 0 ^ ," T 9 S 4 '
31 de J o n g , J . J . ,
“Le Taux de 1 fE em oglobin e
.du Sang e t l e Yolume d e s
G lo b u le s Bouge p a r r a p ­
p o r t de l a Y a leu r G lo b u l a i r e " . Preeflse Med , ,3 2 ,
---- :
p. 7 8 9 , E924T
32 K i n g ,J .3?.,
33 L e a k e ,C . and Kohl and
S t e b b in s ,C . ,
B a s a l M eta b o lism , 1 9 2 4 .
"D iurnal V a r ia t io n s in
-th e S p e c i f i c Q u a n tity
and E r y th r o c y te Count in
H e a lth y Human A d u lt s " .
Amer. 3 . P h y s i o l . , 8 l ,
pT '39371927 .
L
34 L i p p i n c o t t , L . S . ,
"Hemoglobin and E r y th r o .o y t e s in t h e S o u th " . J .
L ab. and C lin . M e d 1 2 7
p T S 797^ P 7 T - -------- -
35 M a y e r s,L .H .,
"A Study o f t h e E r y th ro ­
c y t e Curve a t Y a rio u s
A ges in i t s R e la t io n s h ip
t o t h e H em oglobin C urve1]
A rch . I n t . M ed., 3 0 , p . 478
36 Mo H a u g h to n ,P .G .,
"The B lood a t 100 Y ears
o f A ge". B r i t . M. J . , 2 ,
p . 14,
37 H a e g e l i , 0 . ,
" B lu tk r a n k h e ite n umd
-B lu t-D ia g n o s t i k " . Ed. 5 ,
B e r l i n , 1931*
J
37
3 8 H e ls o n ,C .F . and S t o k e r .R .,
"£he H em oglobin Concen­
t r a t i o n and E r y th r o c y te
Gonnts o f H e a lth y Men11.
Amer. J o u r . C lin . P a th .
7 7 ~p p . “^85^29^7“T937".
39 O ls o n ,C .,
"Blood C e ll C ounting P i ­
p e t t e s " . J o u r , o f L ab.
and Cl i n . Med'., ~~Z2,
p : ~ Y i 6 , 195 ^ 7 -
40 O sg o o d ,B .E .,
"H em oglobin, C o lo r In d ex ,
S a tu r a t io n In dex and
Yolume In dex S ta n d a r d s" .
A rc h . I n t • Med . , 37•
p 7 6 8 3 7 19267 —
and H a s k in s ,
41
42 P r io a - J o n e s ,C . and D i l l , D . B .
and W right ,<*♦P . ,
43
"Methods o f C a lc u la t in g
R e s u lt s " . A rch . I n t .
M ed., 39 ,P .G 3 £ 5 V I W T
" fh e C o n c e n tr a tio n o f
H em oglobin in Hormal
Human B lo o d " . J . PA th.
and B a c t . ,3 4 t P « Y y 9 A 9 3 i•
and V aughn,J.M . “H a e m a to lo g io a l S tan d ard s
o f H e a lth y P e r s o n s " . J^
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5R<T GoldlrdTHTM.,
¥?~TF 9T T 9W - —
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44 R a b in o w itch ,I.M ,
" V a r ia tio n s o f P e r c e n t ­
a g e o f H em oglobin in
Man D u rin g t h e D ay". J .
D ab. and C lin . M ed.,9»
p T T 2 r r r i 9 ^ ---------------
45 R u c k e r , M . P . ,
"A Study o f th e Hemoglo­
b in a f t e r C h ild b ir th
w it h S p e c ia l R efe r e n c e
t o R esum ption o f Men­
s t r u a tio n " • 1 9 2 1 .
46 S a n fo r d ,H .,
" E ffe c t o f U lt r a V i o l e t
L ig h t on t h e Blood o f
Hewbom I n f a n t s " . Amer.
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38
L
47 S c h n e i d e r , E . C . and Crampton.C .B .
"fhe B r y th r o c y te and
Hem oglobin I n c r e a s e
in Human Blood P u rin g
and A f t e r E x e r c i s e 11.
Amer. J . P h y s i o l . ,
m —p T ^ u f r r g ^ .
48 S o in i.A in o ,
"Gibt e s von den J a h r e s z e i t e n A bhaengende Sehwankungen d es
Hae mog l ob inwe r t e s
und d er A nzahi der
R oten B lu tk o e r p e r ch en " . P uod ecim t 54»
p p . 7 2 . 74", 1938-:
49 W a l t e r s . O r v i l l e f S .
"Hormal E r y t h r o c y t e s ,
Hemoglobin and P a c k ,
ed C e l l Yolume S ta n d ards in Young Men.
A Study o f One Hun­
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E 3 ' ; ,8 5 7 ,p . 864", I9T4'.
50 W a r d , E . C . ,
"The H ou rly V a r ia ­
t i o n in th e Q u a n tity
o f Hem oglobin and in
th e Humber o f th e
C o r p u sc le s in th e
Human B lo o d ” . Amer.
P h y s io l. , 1 1 ,
p7 3 5 4 , 1 9 0 4 •
51 W illia m s o n .C .S . ,
" I n flu e n c e o f Age and
Sex on H em oglobin; a
S p e c i f i c B r o p h o to m e tr ic A n a ly s is o f
919 C a ses" . J.A .M .A .
6 5 , P . 3 0 2 , 19E5":
52 W i n t r o b e ,M.M.,
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B i o l . and Med . , 2 6 ,
p T ' 8487 T" 9^ “
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59
1
53 W introbe,M .M . f
rtA Study o f th e Cor­
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C h a r a c te r s o f th e
B lood w ith Epdy
W eig h t, S ta tu r e and
S u r fa c e A rea " . Hu­
man B i o l . , 2 , p . 2 7 7 ,
1550“
54 _______________"The E r y th r o c y te in
Man" . M e d ic in e , 9 »
195,- 1930.
P.
55
56
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»
s and M iller,M .W .
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I9 3 C .
"Hormal B lood D e t e r ­
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1959.
J
TABLE I
H em oglobin o f 24 I n d i v i d u a l C a se s
fro m O c t • 1936 t h r o u g h Ju n e 1939
H em oglobin i n Grains o f 100 e . o . Blood
jic^ s
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
15
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
O c t . H ov . P e c . J a n . F e b . Mar. A p r . May
June
1 6 . 5 1 7 . 5 1 7 .5 17*5 18
18
18
18
18
1 8 . 5 18
3-7*5 17*5 3-7*5
1 6 . 5 1 6 . 5 17
16
16
17
17
18
18
1
8
.5
18
1
8
.
5
1
8.5
18.5
16
16
16
16
16.5 16.5 16.5
17
17
17
17*5 17*5 17*5
16
16
16
17
3-7
3-7
17*5
16
1 6 . 5 17
17
17-5 3-7*5 17
18
18
18
I 8 . 5 I 8 . 5 1 8 . 5 18
17
17
3-7
17
3-7*3 3-7*5 17
1 6 . 5 1 6 . 5 1 6 . 5 1 6 . 5 1 6 . 5 1 6 . 5 16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
1 6 . 5 1 6 . 5 17
17*5 17*5 17*5 17*5
1 8 . 5 I 8 . 5 I 8 . 5 3-7*5 3-7*5 3-7*5 17*5
18
18
17
18
16.5 1 6 .5
18
18
16.5
17
17.5
17
is
17.5
16
16.5
17*5
1 7 .5
18.5
1 7 .5
16.5
3-7*5 17
17*5 1 7 .5
18.5
15.5
16.5
15
1 8 .5 I 8 .5 1 8 .5 1 8.5 18 .5 18.5 18.5 I 8 . 5
16
16
16
15 .5 15.5 16
15.5 l 6
1 6 . 5 17
1 7 . 5 1 7 . 5 17*5 17*5 3-7*5
16
19.3
17
13
16
17
17
1 9 . 3 L9-3 19
3-5
15
15
15*5 15.5
17
319
1 7 .5 17-5 3-7*5 17
3-5
3-5
1-5
15
L8
18
17-5 17-5 l8
1 6 . 5 16.15 L3 .3 1-5.5 3-5
17
19
16.5
20
20
17
15
1^.5
19*5
17
3-5
18
18
18
18
15
16
16
16
15
15
15
17
15 *5
TABLE I I
R. B . G. o f 24 I n d i v i d u a l C a s e s
fro m O c t • 1938 t h r o u g h Ju n e 1939
M i l l i o n s R . B .C . p e r o n . mm. o f Blood
f l c t s O c t . Rov.
1
2
482
3
4
545
5
P e c . J a n . F eB . M ar. A p r. May
529
542
532
550
565
547
606
6
536
581
7
472
8
476
9
563
10
549
568
565
11
12
581
586
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
521
528
511
519
556
590
549
563
612
599
526
576
522
523
544
551
494
500
583
570
503
496
580
552
569
560
552
655
554
621
676
509
615
568
549
678
614
601
555
571
461
545
515
566
564
536
553
498
512
562
580
570
520
541
562
587
560
565
564
517
553
560
556
555
562
556
516
551
555
562
512
557
514
580
561
574
561
577
564
556
539
574
509
534
557
577
521
554
565
523
507
540
497
521
520
576
589
553
598
579
578
564
570
575
608
575
575
562
551
552
556
545
654
505
661
503
652
658
536
638
524
642
535
616
574
665
601
671
526
642
534
698
604
667
535
582
648
613
559
682
610
655
607
536
560
496
453
580
524
615
542
523
542
692
600
675
522
524
581
552
556
484
461
472
688
609
696
June
644
525
612
661
525
534
649
514
549
601
700
642
526
517
515
545
503
559
524
645
626
690
42
TABLE I I I
C o lo r I n d i c e s o f 24 I n d i v i d u a l C a se s
fro m O c t. 1938 t h r o u g h Ju n e 1939
Sub­
je c ts O et.
1
2
1-17 1 . 1 3
3
4
1.00 1 .0 0
1.0 8 1.02
1 . 1 2 i . 1 4 1 . 2 1 1.13 1.06 ,1 .0 8
1 . 1 2 1 . 1 7 1-15 1 .1 6 1 .1 5 1 . 1 0
1 . 0 1 1 . 0 2 1.02 1 . 0 3 1 . 0 - 1 . 0 9
1 .0 7 1 . 0 2 .1.03 1 . 1 2 1 .1 2 1 . 1 2
5
6
1.02 1 .0 4
1 .0 0 1.01
I . 0 5 1 . 0 5 1 .0 2 1 . 0 5 1.03 1 .0 2
1 . 0 7 1 .1 1 1 . 0 8 1.06 a . 05
7
11
12
1 .1 6 1.10
1.15 1 . 1 1
1 .1 2 1.11
1.06 1.03
•97 .9 6
•93 .96
1 . 0 9 1 . 1 5 1 .1 7 1*17 1 .01 1 . 0 6
1 . 1 7 1 .1 5 1 .1 5 1 .1 4 1 - 1 ! 1 . 1 4
1 . 0 9 1 . 0 7 1 . 1 2 1 . 1 0 1 .0 6 1 . 0 8
1 . 0 6 1 .0 1 1 . 0 c 1 . 0 0 1 .0 4 1 . 0 6
•99 .97 1 . 0 c 1 . 0 2 • 97 1 . 0 2
.98
•95 .96 •99 1 . 0 2 1 . 0 1
13
14
1 . 0 2 1 .0 1
. .96 1 .0 2
15
16
.94
•97
1 .0 4 1.04
•91 .91
•90 .89
8
9
10
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
L
Hov. D e c . J a n • F e b . M a r . Apr, May
1.12 1.1 7
.8 2
.8 1
1 . 0 9 1 .1 0
•97
.92
•89
•97
1 .05 1.07
1 . 2 5 1-13
Jun e
1.05
1.10
1.00
1.12
1.07
1 .1 6
1.10
1.0 6
1.01
1 .0 1 1 .0 4 1.0 4 1 .0 7 1.04 1 .0 4 1.03
1 .0 4 1 .0 3 1.06 1 .1 0 1 .1 7 1 .1 4 1.14
.9 6
.9 8
.96
•97 •97 .99
1 .0 5 1 .0 4 1 .0 2 1 .0 5 1 .02 1 .0 0 1.04
.91
•97 •93 .97 .98 .98
_ .96
•95 •98 .92 .96 .9 6 •99
.87 •94
.85
•83 .8 5 .84
1 . 1 0 1 . 0 6 1 . 0 s 1 .0 8 1 . 0 7 •97 .99
.8 6
.86
.89
.89 .90 •91
.96
•95 • 98 •99 1 .00 1 . 0 0
1 . 0 6 1 . 0 6 1 .1 2 1 .1 1 1 . 1 9 1 . 1 3 1 . 1 0
1 . 1 6 1 .0 9 __I-aII __1 ..OS 1 . 0 6 1 ,QS_ 1.04 .
J
TABLE IT
A v e r a g e H em oglob in, R. B. C. and C o l o r I n d i c e s
f o r I n d i v i d u a l C a s e s f r o m O c t . 1938 t h r o u g h June 1939
A v . H h . Gms.
Av. B .B .C .M i l 15.A v erag e C o l o r
Indices
per 100 cc .hlo oi I p e r e u .m m .h lo o 1
18.50
668
657
1.14
1.12
18.22
18.16
654
628
1.12
1.11
17.88
17.85
17.80
17.55
17.22
17.21
17.16
17.10
621
1.11
578
1 .0 9
570
569
564
562
1.0 9
1.0 8
1.0 7
1.0 6
1.05
1.03
17.10
17.00
558
558
1.0 3
1.03
16.83
16.00
16.55
16.37
16.25
16.10
552
546
1.03
1.02
538
537
.98
• 98
535
530
15.70
15.70
520
516
• 97
• 97
• 94
• 94
15.10
15.00
Max. 19.40
M in. 15-00
Mean l o . Q o
507
1940
_
Hb £
1 .1 0
568
567
485
Max. 668
M in. 485
Mean 566
R. B. C. X 46
.89
.85
Max. 1 .1 4
M in.
.85
Mean 1 .0 2
C . I . i .07
(TABLE V
R e l a t i o n s h i p o f W eight t o Hb . A v e ra g e
R .B .C . A v e r a g e a n a C . I . A v erag e
o f 24 I n d i v i d u a l C a s e s
W e ight i n
K ilogram s
H em oglobin
A v e ra g e
Grams p e r
100 cc . b l o o d
102.
95.2
1 9 .3 4
1 7.55
88.8
81.5
8 1 -5
8 I.5
76.
17.22
1 5.70
16.11
17.16
18.50
17.80
75-5
74-5
72.8
R . E . C . Average 3A verage
Color
M illions p er
c u . mm. b l o o d
Indices
628
535
568
520
562
567
1 .0 6
1.12
1.03
1.0 3
.9 8
1 .0 3
§54
558
.97
1.0 9
17.21
15.70
558
485
1.05
1.11
18.22
17.10
578
1.0 8
.89
69.5
68.1
17 .8 3
15.00
569
536
66.
66.
17.10
15.00
621
546
64.5
63,5
17.00
17.88
507
63.5
63.1
63.
61.5
61.5
16.25
16.55
18.16
16.37
16.60
537
552
60.
16.83
84-5
71-5
657
538
570
564
668
516
1.0 7
.9 7
.94
.94
1.14
1.12
1.03
1.0 2
1.0 9
.9 8
.85
1.11
TABLB 7 1
R e la tio n s h ip
R.B.C*
24
Sur­
face
A re a
2.24
o f
S u rfa ce
A verage
and
In d iv id u a l
Av. Hb. Grams
p e r 100 e . c •
"blood
A rea
to
H b.
C.I.
A verage
A verage
o f
C ases
A verage R .B .C .
M illio n s p er
c u . mm. “b lo o d
A v erag e
C olor
Indices
x .0 6
X .12
2.13
19-34
17-55
2.08
2.07
I8 .5 0
15.70
628
535
654
520
2.04
1.95
X7-22
15 .70
568
485
X .03
x.xx
1.95
x.94
X6.XX
X 7.80
562
•98
X .09
1.9 3
1.8 8
X7 - 2X
X6.25
1.05
x.03
1.8 8
I.8 5
X7.X6
X8 .22
558
537
567
578
1.8 4
1.8 3
1.8 2
1.8 0
X5 .0 0
546
569
536
657
.94
X .0 7
.97
.89
X .7 9
X7 -X0
X7.0 0
X6.60
X6 .8 3
62 X
507
.94
X .14
-85
x.74
X7-88
X8.X6
x.72
x .7 2
16.55
16.37
538
570
552
1-7 9
1-75
1-75
1-74
17-83
X5 .0 0
X7 .X0
558
668
5x6
564
• 97
X .03
x.0 3
X .08
x.xx
X .12
X .09
X .02
.98
TABLE V I I
H b . , R . B .C . and C . I . C o m p a r is o n s B etw een
Employed and Unemployed G ro ups o f 12 Bach
f r o m O c t . 1938 t h r o u g h J u n e 1939
l.B .C . M ils, p e r
„ H b. Gms . p e r
Color In d ic e s
fionth 100 c . c . b l o o d
m . mm. b l o o d
Unem­
Unem­
Unemp
p
lo
y
e
d
Employed lo y e d
Employed 1 p l o y e d Employed
1
1 6 .6 0
542
585
1 .0 8
.97
1 6 .5 8
557
579
1 .0 5
.98
1 6 .8 7
551
583
1 .0 7
.9 9
1 7 .2 5
1 6 .9 1
561
582
1 .0 5
.9 9
1 7 .2 0
1 6 .9 5
550
582
1 .0 7
1 .0 0
M ar.
17.12
1 7 .0 0
550
572
1 .0 6
1 .0 2
A pr.
1 7 .2 5
16 .9 5
562
564
1 .0 5
1 .0 3
May
1 7 .2 9
1 6 .9 1
566
560
1 .0 4
1 .0 3
June
Max.
Min.
A vsr.
17.61
17.61
17.04
17.10
1 7 .1 2
569
569
560
1 .0 6
1 .0 5
585
1.0 8
1 .0 5
1:8#
1
O ct.
1 7 .0 4
Ho*.
1 7 .2 5
Bee.
1 7 .1 8
Jan.
I
i
i
!
17.12
l §-56
l 6 *oQ
TABLE T i l l
A v e r a g e H e m o g lo b in , R.B.C* and C o l o r I n d i c e s
f o r a Croup o f 24 I n d i v i d u a l s f o r e a c h Month
f ro m O c t . 193 8 t h r o u g h J u n e 1939
Hemoglob in
R. B . 0 .
Month Sms#per 1 0 0 c . c . M illio n s p e r
o f b lo o d
Oct.
1 6 .8 1
C o lo r
I n d ic e s
cu.mm. o f b lood
!
i
564
......... ■—
1 .0 2
....
B ov.
16.91
568
1 .0 2
Pec.
17-02
571
1 .0 2
Jan.
17.00
571
1 .0 2
P eb .
17.08
571
1 .0 3
Mar.
1 7.06
5 66
1 .0 4
A p r.
17.10
561
1 .0 4
May
17.10
563
1 .0 4
June
1 7 .4 4
565
1 .0 5
G R A PH S 1 - 2 4
INDIVIDUAL HEMOGLOBIN,
RED BLOOP CELLS AND
COLOR INDICES
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"i
VITA
Hama
H elen V ero n ica Downey
D a te o f B ir t h
O ctob er 7 t 19^4
E lem en ta ry S ch o o l
P u b lic S ch o o l 7 7 , M anhattan,
Hew York
Graduated
H igh S ch o o l
Graduated
L
1919
W adleigh H igh S c h o o l, Manhat­
t a n , Hew York
1923
B a c c a la u r e a te D egree
C o lle g e
D a te
A . B.
H unter C o lle g e , Hew York
O ther D e g r e e s
C o lle g e
D a te
M.A.
Columbia B n i v e r s i t y , Hew York
1927
1930
J
L
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