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The Effect of Definite Versus Indefinite Quantitative Terms Upon the Comprehension and Retention of Social Studies Material

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THE EFFECT OF DEFINITE VERSUS I N W I I T I T E ^ U A N T I T I T I VE
TERMS UPON THE CQMPREHEN SION iHTB ;;RETf2Jf.ION OF
SOCIAL STUDIES MATERIAL
by
O tto J a r v e s Gabel
A t h e s i s su b m itte d in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f th e r e q u ir e m e n ts
f o r th e D egree o f D o c to r o f P h ilo s o p h y , in th e Departm ent
o f E d u c a tio n , i n th e Graduate C o lle g e o f th e
S ta te U n iv e r s it y o f Iowa
A u g u st, 1940
ProQuest Number: 10805525
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
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a n o te will ind ica te the deletion.
uest
ProQuest 10805525
Published by ProQuest LLC(2018). C opyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author.
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(Lop -2-
ACOO MLEDGMENT 8
Th© p r e se n t w r ite r i s d e e p ly in d eb ted t o th e f o llo w ­
in g p e o p le : to Dr, E rn est Horn, who su g g e ste d th e problem and
d ir e c t e d th e t h e s i s ; to Dr. E, F* L in d q u is t, who d ir e c t e d th e
s t a t i s t i c a l a n a ly s is o f th e d a ta ; to Dr, Herbert F. S p itz e r ,
and e s p e c i a l l y to Dr. C h a rles E. H ow ell, who gave f r e e l y o f
t h e i r tim e and h elp in the c o n s tr u c tio n o f th e t e s t s and in
th© in t e r p r e t a t io n o f th e d a ta ; to th e r e s p e c t iv e su p e r in te n ­
d en ts o f th e s c h o o ls th a t coop erated in the ex p erim en t; and to
th e w r it e r ’ s w if e , Clara Fogg G abel, who h elp ed in th e assem bly
and in th e c o r r e c tin g o f the t e s t s .
N
oc
la
S
cC-jC
Ki
■51C955
CONTENTS
C hapter
I
II
III
IV
Page
I n t r o d u c t io n
1 . The Problem
2 . P u rp ose o f th e S tu d y
1
4
5
M ethods o f A tta c k
1 , S e l e c t i o n s Used in th e E xperim ent
2* C o n s tr u c tio n o f th e T e s t e
3« P o p u la tio n U sed in th e E xperim en t
4 . A d m in is tr a tio n o f th e T e s t s
5* S c o r in g o f th e T e s t s
6
6
9
13
13
14
T reatm en t o f th e D ata
1 . S t a t i s t i c a l A n a ly s is o f T e s t R e s u lts
2 . C o r r e la t io n s B etw een I*Q* and T e s t S c o r e s
3 . A n a ly s is o f R espon se C om binations
16
16
27
31
C o n c lu s io n s and G e n e r a liz a t io n s
181
B ib lio g r a p h y
183
A ppendix
1 . A d d itio n a l S t u d ie s B ea r in g on th e problem
2 . S u p p o r tin g T a b le s
3 . Sam ples o f T e s t s Used in th e E xperim en t
184
185'
189
210
TABLES
Number
Page
1 D is t r ib u t io n o f d e f i n i t e q u a n t it a t iv e term s used in
th e experim ent by s e l e o t i o n s and t y p e s o f q u a n tita ­
t i v e c o n c e p t s . . . . . ........................ .......................................... ....
7
2 D is t r ib u t io n o f i n d e f i n i t e q u a n t it a t iv e term s used
in th e experim ent by s e l e c t i o n s and ty p e s o f q u a n ti­
................
t a t i v e c o n o e p ta .
8
3 T o ta l raw s c o r e means by g r a d e s, t e s t form s, and
ty p e s o f q u a n t it a t iv e c o n c e p ts .....................
18
4 Summary o f S t a t i s t i c a l a n a ly s is o f v a r ia n c e o f t o t a l
s c o r e s fo r v a r io u s form s o f t e s t m a t e r ia l...........................
22
6 P er c en t o f t o t a l number o f p u p ils answ ering th e
q u e s tio n s who gave c o r r e c t r e s p o n se s in d e f i n i t e and
i n d e f i n i t e t e s t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , by ty p e s o f q u a n ti­
t a t i v e c o n c e p ts , ty p e s o f t e s t s , g r a d e s, and t e s t
form s
..................
25
6 C o e f f ic ie n t s o f c o r r e la t io n , to g e th e r w ith p rob ab le
e r r o r s , betw een I . Q . ' s and t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s (sum
o f d e f i n i t e and I n d e f in it e s c o r e s ) , by kind o f quan­
t i t a t i v e con cep t and form o f t e s t m a te r ia l; and b e ­
tween I . Q . ' s and t o t a l d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e
s c o r e s by form o f t e s t m a t e r ia l
.............
29
7 C o e f f ic ie n t s o f c o r r e la t io n , to g e th e r w ith prob ab le
e r r o r s , betw een I . Q . ' s and t e s t s c o r e s by s e le c t e d
form s, ty p e s o f t e s t s c o r e , form s o f t e s t m a t e r ia l,
and ty p e s o f q u a n t it a t iv e c o n c e p t s .. . . ...............
29
8 q u e s tio n ;
O il - 1 .....................
37
9 q u e s tio n ;
O il - 5 . .................
41
10 Q uestion:
A v ia tio n - 2 .................
45
11 Q uestion:
A v ia tio n - 5 ..........
49
12 Q u estion :
F o r e s t s - 1 .................
52
13 Q u estion :
F o r e s ts - 4 . . . ........................................
56
14 Q u estion :
Coal - l . . « * . ........................
60
15 Q u estion :
Coal - 5 ........................................
64
16 Q u estion:
S a fe ty F i r s t - 3 . . . . . ..........................
68
V
TABLES
Number
Page
17 Q u e s tio n :
H eaping T o o ls - 6 ..................................
72
18 Q u e s tio n :
H eaping T o o ls - 7 .........................................
76
19 Q u e stio n : O il - 3 . . .
.....................
20 Q u e stio n : A v ia tio n -
....................................
79
•
@3
21 Q u e stio n ;
F o r e s t s - 8 ....................................
86
22 Q u e s tio n ;
G oal - 3 . ..................................
69
23 Q u e stio n :
S a f e t y F i r s t - 7 ..........
92
24 Q u e s tio n ; H eaping
T o o ls - 1 . . ......................
96
26 Q u e stio n : H eaping T o o ls - 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26 Q u e stio n : O il - 2 . . . . .
•••••
98
102
27 Q u e stio n :
A v ia tio n - 1 . . . . .......................................
106
26 Q u e stio n :
A v ia tio n - 6 * ......................
108
29 Q u e stio n :
A v ia tio n - 7 * ...............
I ll
30 Q u e stio n :
A v ia tio n - 9 .............
114
31 Q u e stio n :
F o r e s t s - 6 . . ................................................
118
32 Q u e stio n :
G oal - 2 . ..........
121
33 q u e s t io n :
S a f e t y F i r s t - 6 ............................................................ 124
34 Q u e stio n :
S a fe ty F i r s t - 6 .
36 Q u e stio n :
H eaping T o o ls - 2 .
36 Q u e stio n :
O il - 4 .
37 Q u e stio n :
A v ia t io n - 3 . • • • • • • • • • • • ..........
137
38 Q u e stio n :
A v ia tio n - 4 . . . . . .............
140
39 Q u e s tio n :
F o r e s t s - 2 ................................
143
40 Q u e stio n :
F o r e s t s - 6 . . ..........
146
41 Q u e stio n :
C oal - 4 *
160
..................
........................................ 131
......................
.............
128
134
TABLE3
Page
42 Q u estion :
Goal -
6 . . . ........
164
43 Q u estion :
S a fe ty
F i r s t - 1 ..................
168
44 Q u estion :
S a fe ty
.
Number
F i r s t - 2 ..................................
161
46 Q u estion :
S a fe ty
F i r s t - 4 ...........
166
46 Q u estio n ; Heaping T o o ls - 3 .............
47 Q u estion : Heaping T o o ls * 4 .......................
168
• 171
T a b les in th e Appendix
1 Summary o f S t a t i s t i c a l a n a ly s is o f v a r ia n c e o f
t o t a l tim e s e o r e s fo r v a r io u s form s o f t e s t ma­
t e r i a l * . • • • • • • ............... • • • • • • • • • • ...................
189
2 Summary o f s t a t i s t l e a l a n a ly s is o f v a r ia n e e o f
t o t a l area s e o r e s fo r v a r io u s form s o f t e s t ma­
t e r i a l ............................ • • • • • ...................
190
3 Summary o f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a ly s is o f v a r ia n e e o f
t o t a l d is ta n c e s e o r e s f o r v a r io u s form s o f t e s t
m a t e r ia l................
• • • • • • 191
4 Summary o f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a ly s is o f v a r ia n c e o f
t o t a l s i s e s c o r e s fo r v a r io u s forms o f t e s t ma­
t e r i a l . ......................................................................
192
6 P er c en t o f t o t a l number o f p u p ils answ ering q u es­
t i o n s I n v o lv in g tim e c o n c e p ts who gave c o r r e c t r e ­
sp o n ses i n d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e t e s t s , r e s p e c ­
t i v e l y , by q u e s t io n s , ty p e s o f t e s t s , g r a d e s, and
t e s t fo r m s .
...............
•••••••
193
6 P er c e n t o f t o t a l number o f p u p ils answ ering ques­
t io n s in v o lv in g area c o n c e p ts who gave o o r re o t r e ­
sp o n ses in d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e t e s t s , r e s p e c ­
t i v e l y , by q u e s tio n s , ty p e s o f t e s t s , g ra d es and
t e s t fo r m s ...................
196
7 Per c e n t o f t o t a l number o f p u p ils answ ering qu es­
t i o n s in v o lv in g d is ta n c e c o n c e p ts who gave c o r r e c t
r e sp o n se s in d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e t e s t s , r e s p e c ­
t i v e l y , by q u e s tio n s , ty p e s o f t e s t s , g ra d es and
t e s t form s
..............................
197
vi i
TABL£3
Number
Page
8 P er c e n t o f t o t a l number o f p u p i l s a n sw erin g q u e s­
t i o n s in v o lv in g s i z e c o n c e p ts v&o gave e o r r e o t r e ­
s p o n s e s i n d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e t e s t s , r e s p e c ­
t i v e l y , toy q u e s t io n s , t y p e s o f t e s t s , g r a d e s , and
t e s t f o r m s * . • • • • • • • • • • • • .......... • • « • • • • • • • • • • • • • * • • • • * « 199
9 Order o f t e s t q u e s t io n s u sed i n th e e x p e r im e n t,
arran ged toy ty p e o f q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n c e p t, s e r i a l
numtoer o f q u e s t io n s , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n in th e s e l e c ­
t i o n s , and ta to le numtoer*• • « • • • « • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • *
801
10 P er c e n t o f t o t a l numtoer o f p u p i l s a n sw erin g q u es­
t i o n s who gave tooth d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e a n sw ers
c o r r e c t l y , toy g r a d e s , t e s t fo r m s, and q u e s t io n s i n ­
v o lv in g tim e c o n c e p t s *
• ............................ • • • • • • • • •
202
11 P er c e n t o f t o t a l numtoer o f p u p i l s a n sw erin g q u e s­
t i o n s who gave tooth d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e a n sw ers
c o r r e c t l y , toy g r a d e s , t e s t fo r m s, and q u e s t io n s i n ­
v o lv in g a r e a c o n c e p t s *
..............
203
12 P e r c e n t o f t o t a l numtoer o f p u p il s a n sw erin g q u e s­
t i o n s who gave tooth d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e a n sw ers
c o r r e c t l y , toy g r a d e s , t e s t fo r m s, and q u e s t io n s i n ­
v o lv in g d is t a n c e c o n c e p t s * * • • • •
.....................
204
13 P er c e n t o f t o t a l numtoer o f p u p i ls a n sw erin g q u e s­
t i o n s who gave tooth d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e a n sw ers
c o r r e c t l y , toy grad eB , t e s t fo rm s, and q u e s t io n s i n ­
v o lv in g s i z e c o n c e p t s . . . .
.....*.
205
14 P er c e n t o f numtoer o f p u p ils an sw erin g f i r s t t e s t
c o r r e c t l y who a ls o answ ered secon d t e s t o o r r e c t l y ,
toy g r a d e s , t e s t fo r m s, and q u e s t io n s in v o l v in g time
c o n c e p ts* * ................
206
15 P er c e n t o f numtoer o f
p u p ils
a n sw erin g f i r s t t e s t
c o r r e c t l y who a ls o answ ered second t e s t c o r r e c t l y ,
toy g r a d e s , t e s t fo rm s, and q u e s tio n s in v o l v in g a r e a
c o n c e p ts* • * . * ............... * ........................
207
16 P er c e n t o f numtoer o f
p u p ils
an sw erin g f i r s t t e s t
c o r r e c t l y who a l s o answ ered second t e s t c o r r e c t l y ,
toy g r a d e s , t e s t fo r m s, and q u e s t io n s in v o l v in g d i s ­
ta n c e c o n c e p ts* • • * • * ............... • • • • • • • .............
208
17 P er c e n t o f numtoer o f p u p i l s an sw erin g f i r s t t e s t
c o r r e c t l y who a l s o answ ered second t e s t o o r r e c t l y ,
toy g r a d e s , t e s t fo r m s, and q u e s t io n s in v o l v in g s i z e
co n c ep t s* * * * *............... .... ....................................................................... 209
TEE EFFECT OF DEFINITE VERSUS INDEFINITE QUANTITATIVE
TEH&1S UPON THE COMPREHENSION AND RETENTION OF
SOCIAL STUDIES MATERIAL
I n tr o d u c tio n
E f f e c t iv e rea d in g a b i l i t y l a fundam ental to s u c c e s s
in p r a c t i c a l l y a l l f i e l d s o f sc h o o l work.
C a refu l a n a l y s i s ,
how ever, r e v e a ls th a t rea d in g i s one o f our most com plex form s
o f b e h a v io r .
One o f th e most im portant s in g le f a c t o r s in
a b i l i t y to read i s com prehension.
Hence, t h i s f a c t o r h as been
th e o b je c t o f much e x p e rim en ta tio n in th e p a s t .
However, th e
s p e c i f i c d i f f i c u l t i e s th a t i n t e r f e r e w ith adequate comprehen­
s io n are s t i l l ,
to a la r g e e x t e n t , an u n solved problem .
B a s ic a lly , s k i l l in com prehension in r ea d in g r e s t s
upon s k i l l in in t e r p r e t in g w ords, th e sym bols or v e h i c l e s o f
th o u g h ts and id e a s .
Many o f th e d i f f i c u l t i e s in comprehen­
s io n are p robab ly due to th e f a c t th a t th e w r ite r or speaker
has m eanings in mind which are n o t th e m eanings which th e
read er or h e a r er a p p lie s to th e m essage con veyed .
Such d i f f e r ­
e n c e s in m eanings le a d to m isu n d erstan d in g and m is in t e r p r e ta ­
t io n .
T h is la c k o f agreement on m eanings should n o t be
c o n sid ered u n u su a l, b ecau se n e a r ly e v er y word has many u s e s
and many m eanin gs.
I . A. R ichards o f Cambridge U n iv e r s it y ,
in a le c t u r e a t th e annual m eetin g o f th e American E d u ca tio n a l
R esearch A s s o c ia tio n in S t. L o u is in F ebruary, 1940, s ta te d
th a t e v er y word i s i t s e l f a continuum o f m eanings; th a t any
g iv e n u se o f a word may r e p r e se n t any p o in t on t h i s continuum .
H en ce, u n l e s s th e r e a d e r and th e w r ite r a g r e e a p p r o x im a te ly
on th e same m eaning f o r any g iv e n word o r term , t h e r e i s d i f f i ­
c u lt y in e f f e c t i n g a c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a common u n d er­
s ta n d in g .
The m eaning w hich any p erso n g i v e s t o a word d ep en d s
to a la r g e e x t e n t upon th e way he h a s u sed th a t word in th e
I
p a s t . Bridgman s a y s t h a t "m eanings are o p e r a t io n a l."
By
t h i s he means th a t th e tr u e m eaning o f a word can he u n d ersto o d
o n ly in term s o f th e s e t o f o p e r a tio n s w hich th e u s e r h a s gone
th rou gh in a r r iv in g a t th e word i t s e l f .
H ence, when a w r it e r
s e l e c t s h i s words t o e x p r e s s h i s id e a s he m ust c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t
them on th e b a s i s o f t h e i r m eaning a s d e r iv e d from e x p e r ie n c e s
w hich he h a s r e a so n t o b e l i e v e are oommon b o th t o h im s e lf and
th e e x p e c te d r e a d e r .
On th e w h o le , h ow ever, m ost norm al p e o p le
w ith in r a t h e r broad s o c i a l g r o u p in g s are s u f f i c i e n t l y a l i k e in
e x p e r i e n t i a l background so th a t w ith enough o are in th e s e l e c ­
t io n o f w ords, a f a i r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y
d e g r ee o f com m unication
can a lw a y s be a c h ie v e d .
The m eaning o f a word a ls o i s a f f e c t e d t o some
e x t e n t by th e c o n te x t in w hich i t i s em bedded.
S in ce t h i s
c o n te x t n e v e r e x a c t l y r e c u r s , th e m eaning w hich i s g iv e n a word
depends l a r g e l y upon th e r e a d e r 1 s e x p e r ie n c e and im m ediate pu r­
p o ses.
Horn c a l l s a t t e n t i o n to th e f a c t th a t "words a s sym b ols
have no su ch d e f i n i t e u s e s a s do th e sym bols o f m a th e m a tic s.
Most o f them , a s h a s been p o in te d o u t, have many m ea n in g s; th e
sim p le word run h a s o v e r a hundred,
i n r e a d in g , th e meaning
1 Bridgm an, P. &•, The I n t e l l i g e n t I n d iv id u a l and S o c i e t y .
The M acm illan Company, l e w York, 1 9 3 8 . p . i d .
t o be a tta c h e d to any word i s determ ined by i t s se n te n c e con­
t e x t , y e t th e id e a e x p r e sse d in th e sen te n o e i s in i t s e l f in
p r o c e s s o f fo r m a tio n .
The stu d en t may n o t have any meaning o f
a word at a l l , he may have a vague or d is t o r t e d id e a o f i t ,
he
may know some o th e r meaning but n o t th e one r e q u ir e d , or knowing
th e c o r r e c t m eaning, he may f a i l to u se i t in rea d in g th e sa n 2
te n e e ."
Hence, most m eanings are l i k e l y to be a p p ro x im a tio n s,
and th e read er i s fa c e d w ith th e ta s k o f c o n s tr u c tin g th e e x a c t
shade o f meaning in ten d ed by th e w r it e r .
Numerous in v e s t i g a t o r s have shown c o n c lu s iv e ly th a t
th e u se o f t e c h n ic a l term in o lo g y which assum es to o much back­
ground on th e p art o f th e rea d er p r o v e s t o be a s e r io u s h an d i­
cap to u n d e rsta n d in g .
Hence, la c k o f adequate v o c a b u la r ly from
th e sta n d p o in t o f meaning i s an im portant in d ex to d i f f i c u l t y
in com prehension.
There i s danger, how ever, in assum ing tn a t
th e d i f f i c u l t y o f any s e l e c t i o n may be determ ined by th e employ­
es
4
ment o f words such a s may be found in th e Thorndike and Horn
word l i s t s .
These l i s t s do n o t record th e sem an tic or meaning
v a r i e t i e s o f w ords.
Furtherm ore, th e r e are words in such l i s t s
which have un usual or t e c h n ic a l m eanings in th e s o c i a l s t u d ie s ,
and th e r e are words n o t in such l i s t s th a t cannot be c la s s e d a s
2 Horn, E r n e st, Methods o f I n s t r u c t io n in th e S o c ia l S tu d ie s .
C h arles S c r ib n e r 1s Sons, New York, 1937. p. 196
3 T horndike, E. L . , & T eaoher1s tford Book o f th e Twenty Thousand
Horde Found Most F req u en tly an% ~!rdely in g e n e r a l Heading For
C hild ren and Young; P e o p le . Bureau o f P u ¥ T ic a tio n s, T eachers
C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s it y , New York, 1932.
4 Horn, E r n e st, A B a sic W riting V ocabulary. U n iv e r s ity o f Iowa
Monograph in E d u ca tio n , No. 4 , S ta te U n iv e r s ity o f Iowa,
Iowa C ity , 1926.
t e c h n ic a l.
T hese f a c t s seem to p o in t d e f i n i t e l y to th e c o n c lu s io n
t h a t mere c h o ic e o f words in a cco r d a n ce w ith sta n d a rd word
l i s t s i s i n s u f f i c i e n t in in s u r e u n d e r s ta n d in g .
M eanings c o n ­
veyed by in d i v i d u a l words or g ro u p s o f words in g iv e n s e t t i n g s ,
a s w e ll a s th e background w hich th e r e a d e r can b r in g t o such
m ea n in g s, must be c o n s id e r e d a s e q u a ll y , i f not m ore, im p o r ta n t.
The Problem
Among th e words th a t have g r e a t ran ge o f m eaning are
th o s e c o n n o tin g q u a n t it y .
S o c ia l s t u d i e s m a t e r ia ls em ploy many
c o n c e p ts o f s p a c e , tim e , d i s t a n c e , and s i z e ,
e x p r e s s e d in q u a n t i t a t i v e te r m s.
w hich must be
H ence, tn e s e term s o r e s e n t
d i s t i n c t p rob lem s to th e r e a d e r in th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f such
m a t e r ia l.
Two t y p e s o f q u a n t i t a t i v e term s a r e commonly em ployed
in s o c i a l s t u d i e s m a t e r ia l; n a m ely , d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e .
Such term s a s "1852" or " f iv e f e e t " a re c o n s id e r e d d e f i n i t e ,
and su ch term s a s "many," " few ," and "lon g ago" are c o n s id e r e d
in d e fin ite .
B ecau se th e two t y p e s o f q u a n t it a t iv e term s have
d i f f e r e n t r a n g e s o f p o s s i b l e m ea n in g s, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t th e y
o f f e r v a r y in g d e g r e e s o f d i f f i c u l t y to p u p i l s .
However, c a r e f u l
a n a l y s i s o f th e kin d o f q u a n t it a t iv e term s em ployed by most
w r it e r s o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s m a t e r ia ls r e v e a ls th e f a c t th a t
i n d e f i n i t e term s o f q u a n tit y f a r outnumber th e d e f i n i t e t y p e .
T h is r a i s e s th e im p o rta n t q u e s tio n a s t o what e f f e c t th e ty p e
5 A d d itio n a l s t u d i e s b e a r in g on th e problem are t o be found
in th e a p p en d ix .
6 Supra, p. 185
6
6
o f p r e s e n t a tio n o f c o n c e p ts o f q u a n tity has upon com prehension
and r e t e n t io n .
Purpose o f th e stud y
I t i s th e purpose o f t h i s stu d y to a tta c k one phase
o f th e g e n e r a l problem o f com prehension o f s o c i a l s t u d ie s
m a te r ia l; nam ely, what i s th e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t o f d e f i n i t e a s
compared w ith i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n o f q u a n t it a t iv e c o n c e p ts
upon com prehension and r e te n tio n ?
From t e s t d ata se c u r e d , an­
sw ers to th e fo llo w in g q u e s tio n s w i l l be so u g h t;
1.
What i s th e r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y o f d e f i n i t e a s
compared w ith i n d e f i n i t e methods o f p r e s e n t a tio n o f q u a n t it a t iv e
c o n c e p ts in s o c i a l s t u d ie s m a te r ia l?
2.
What i s the r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y o f d e f i n i t e as
compared w ith i n d e f i n i t e m ethods o f p r e s e n ta tio n a s a p p lie d to
v a r io u s k in d s o f q u a n t it a t iv e term s u se d , such as term s con n ot­
in g tim e , a r e a , d is t a n c e , and s iz e ?
3.
I s th e a b i l i t y o f p u p ils to comprehend and to
r e t a in q u a n t it a t iv e term s r e la t e d to t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e a s
measured by th e I . Q.?
4.
In the two ty p e s o f t e s t s to be em ployed, what
are th e v a r io u s com b in ation s o f r e s p o n se s made by th e p u p ils to
t e s t ite m s d e sig n e d to measure th e r e t e n tio n a s w e ll a s th e
a p p lic a t io n o f th e meaning o f q u a n tit a tiv e term s in g iv e n
s it u a t io n s ?
6
CHAPTER I I
METHODS OF ATTACH
1.
S e l e c t i o n s Used in th e E xperim ent
One o f th e e s s e n t i a l problem s in a s tu d y o f t h i s h in d
i s t o f in d s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a ls w ith vtfhich t o t e s t th e com prehen­
s io n o f q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n c e p ts o f c h ild r e n .
T hese m a t e r ia ls
sh o u ld be t y p i c a l o f th e m a t e r ia ls w ith w hich p u p i l s come i n t o
d a i l y c o n t a c t in t h e i r s c h o o l work.
For t h i s r e a s o n a c a r e f u l
s e a r c h was made f o r su ch m a t e r ia ls in r e c e n t ly p u b lis h e d t e x t ­
books*
S u ita b le m a t e r ia l was found to be p l e n t i f u l , but b e ­
c a u se c o n s id e r a b le d i f f i c u l t y was e n c o u n ter e d in u t i l i z i n g I t
f o r t e s t i n g p u r p o s e s , th e p r e s e n t w r it e r f i n a l l y found i t n e c e s ­
sa r y to w r it e th e s e l e c t i o n s h im se lf*
With th e a id o f s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s in th e s o c i a l s t u d i e s ,
th e f o ll o w i n g l i s t
o f t o p i c s was s e l e c t e d fo r th e e x p e rim en t:
o i l , a v i a t i o n , f o r e s t c o n s e r v a t io n , c o a l , s a f e t y f i r s t ,
r e a p in g t o o l s .
and
I t was f e l t th a t t h e s e t o p i c s were r e p r e s e n t a ­
t i v e o f th e u n i t s u s u a ll y ta u g h t in th e s o c i a l s t u d i e s .
Each
t o p i c was d e v e lo p e d in t o a s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o x im a te ly one t y p e ­
w r it t e n page in l e n g t h , and p r o v id e d s e t t i n g s fo r f i v e t o n in e
q u a n tita tiv e c o n c e p ts.
Four t y p e s o f q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n c e p ts
were in c lu d e d ; n a m ely , th o s e d e a lin g w ith tim e , a r e a , d i s t a n c e ,
and s iz e *
T able 1 and T ab le £ show th e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f th e
d e f i n i t e and th e I n d e f i n i t e q u a n t it a t iv e te r m s, r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
em ployed in th e s i x s e l e c t i o n s .
Each o f th e s i x s e l e c t i o n s was w r it t e n in two fo r m s.
T hese form s were I d e n t i c a l , word f o r word, e x c e p t f o r th e f a c t
f
Zable 1
Distribution of d efin ite quantitative terms used in the experiment
by selection s and types o f quantitative concepts
PK
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Total «* 40 terms
Sice
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T a b le 2
D istribution o f in d e fin ite quantitative tem a used in the experiment
by sele c tio n s and types o f qu antitative concepts
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to
- 40 term s
rl
th a t c e r t a in q u a n t it a t iv e term s employed in th e s e l e c t i o n s
were d e f i n i t e in one form and i n d e f i n i t e in th e o th e r .
For exam p le, a tim e co n cep t was e x p r e sse d d e f i n i t e l y
in one form o f th e t e s t in the fo llo w in g manner?
"There are
some community f o r e s t s in New England which have been in e x i s t ­
ence s in o e 1 7 1 0 ."
in th e o th e r form t h i s tim e co n cep t was e x ­
p r e sse d i n d e f i n i t e l y in th e fo llo w in g manner?
"There are some
community f o r e s tB in New England which have been in e x is t e n c e
s in o e c o lo n ia l d a y s."
£ . c o n s tr u c tio n o f th e T e s ts
A m u ltip le r esp o n se t e s t was employed t o t e s t th e
com prehension and r e t e n t io n o f th e q u a n t it a t iv e term s used in
th e s e l e c t i o n s m entioned ab ove.
s i b l e r e s p o n se s or f o i l s .
Each t e s t item nad fo u r p o s­
The c o r r e o t answer to each q u e s tio n
was e x p r essed in th e e x a c t words used in th e s e l e c t i o n which th e
p u p il r ea d .
Each o f th e o th er p o s s ib le answ ers to each qu es­
t io n c o n s is t e d o f q u a n t it a t iv e term s whose r e s p e c t iv e magni­
tu d e s were above or below th e magnitude o f th e c o r r e c t answ er.
Two form s o f th e t e s t were u sed .
These were a lik e in
th a t th e q u e s tio n s in th e r e s p e c tiv e t e s t ite m s in ea ch form
were th e same, ex cep t th a t in one form o f th e t e s t th e f o i l s o f
th e t e s t ite m s were s ta te d d e f i n i t e l y and in th e o th e r form in d e f ­
in ite ly .
There was no one to one corresp ondence o f th e f o i l s
in th e two form s o f th e t e s t excep t th a t in th e c o r r e c t answ ers
th e term s employed were i d e n t i c a l w ith th o se in th e o r ig in a l
s e le c tio n .
The f o llo w in g exam ples w i l l i l l u s t r a t e ;
10
Type o f q u e s t io n em ployed in th e d e f i n i t e t e s t
i
About when were community f o r e s t s f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d
in New England?
( ) About
(ac) About
( )About
{ )About
1492
1710 - ( S ta te d in o r i g i n a l s e l e c t i o n )
1800
1860
C orresp on d in g q u e s tio n em ployed in th e i n d e f i n i t e t e s t
About when were community f o r e s t s f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d
i n New E ngland?
( )When Columbus d is c o v e r e d America
( )S h o r tly a f t e r th e R e v o lu tio n
(x ) In c o l o n i a l d a y s - ( S t a t e d in o r i g i n a l s e l e c t i o n )
( ) J u s t b e fo r e th e end o f th e 1 9 th c e n tu r y
S e ts o f m a t e r ia ls were made up i n fo u r fo r m s, W, X,
Y, and Z.
ea ch fo rm .
S ix r e a d in g s e l e c t i o n s com prised th e m a t e r ia ls f o r
Each s e l e c t i o n d e a l t w ith one o f th e f o llo w i n g t o p i c s :
o i l , a v i a t i o n , f o r e s t c o n s e r v a t io n , o o a l , s a f e t y f i r s t and
r e a p in g t o o l s .
C o p ie s o f t h e s e s e t s o f m a t e r ia l may be found
in t h e a p p en d ix o f th e s tu d y .
For e a ch o f t h e s e s e t s o f m a t e r i a ls th e f o llo w i n g
t e s t i n g p ro ced u re was u s e d .
The p u p il s read th e s i x s e l e c t i o n s .
A f t e r r e a d in g e a ch s e l e c t i o n , he Im m ed ia tely to o k th e t e s t s on
th a t s e l e c t i o n .
The t e s t s co v ered two s e p a r a te p a g e s .
One
page c o n ta in e d th e t e s t q u e s t io n s w ith th e d e f i n i t e f o i l s ;
th e
o th e r page c o n ta in e d th e t e s t q u e s t io n s w ith th e i n d e f i n i t e
fo ils .
A fte r an sw erin g b o th p a g e s o f t e s t q u e s t io n s on t h i s
s e l e c t i o n , th e p u p il im m e d ia te ly tu rn ed t o th e n e x t s e l e c t i o n
and d id a s he had done w ith th e f i r s t .
He c o n tin u e d in t h i s
manner t o th e end o f th e co m p lete s e t o f m a t e r i a l s .
11
l3ft ff°rm tf th e q u a n t it a t iv e term s were p r e se n te d to
th e p u p ils in d e f i n i t e form , then t e s t e d f i r s t d e f i n i t e l y and
th en i n d e f i n i t e l y ,
in Form I th e q u a n t it a t iv e term s were p r e ­
se n te d to th e p u p ils in d e f i n i t e form , th en t e s t e d f i r s t in d e f ­
i n i t e l y and then d e f i n i t e l y .
In Form Y th e p r e s e n t a tio n was
in I n d e f i n i t e form , and th e t e s t i n g in d e f i n i t e - i n d e f i n i t e
order.
In Form 2 th e p r e s e n t a tio n was in i n d e f i n i t e form ,
and th e t e s t i n g In i n d e f i n i t e - d e f i n i t e o r d e r.
I t w i l l be n oted th a t in th e above d e s c r ip t io n s o f
s e t s o f t e s t m a t e r ia ls two v a r ia b le s are m entioned; nam ely,
method o f p r e s e n ta tio n and order o f t e s t i n g .
I t was th ought
th a t th e r e m ight p o s s ib ly be some v a r ia t io n in resp o n se i f th e
p u p il were t e s t e d f i r s t d e f i n i t e l y , th en i n d e f i n i t e l y , and
v lo e v e r s a , fo llo w in g a g iv e n method o f p r e s e n t a t io n .
For t h i s
reason eaoh method o f p r e s e n ta tio n was t e s t e d in both d e f i n i t e i n d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e - d e f i n i t e order so th a t t h i s v a r ia b le
m ight be c o n t r o lle d .
The fo llo w in g o u t lin e shows th e g e n e r a l p a tte r n o f
o r g a n iz a tio n :
Form
Type o f p r e s e n ta tio n
T e s tin g order
8
D e f in it e
D e fin ite -in d e fin ite
X
D e f in it e
I n d e fin ite -d e fin ite
Y
I n d e f in it e
D e fin ite -in d e fin ite
Z
I n d e f in it e
I n d e fin ite -d e fin ite
I t a ls o should be n o ted h ere th a t each p u p il t e s t e d
was r eq u ired t o respond to but one o f th e above d e sc r ib e d s e t s
o f m a t e r ia ls .
Hence, no s in g le p u p il read b o th d e f i n i t e and
i n d e f i n i t e s e l e c t i o n s , but a l l p u p ils were req u ir ed to respond
t o b o th d e f i n i t e and I n d e f i n i t e t e a t i t e m s . T h is t e s t i n g p r o 1
oedure f o r c e d a r e c o g n it io n or a r e t e n t i o n
o f c e r t a i n term s
p r e s e n t e d , a s w e l l a s a tra n sfer* * o r a p p l i c a t i o n o f th e m eaning
o f t h e s e term s t o th e c o r r e sp o n d in g it e m s in th e o p p o s it e s e r i e s
of te sts.
In Forms w and X , f o r ex a m p le, th e c o n c e p t, "About
1 7 1 0 ," was p r e s e n t e d d e f i n i t e l y t o th e p u p i l s in th e s e l e c t i o n s
g iv e n them t o r e a d .
I n th e d e f i n i t e t e s t t h a t f o ll o w e d , th e
I d e n t i c a l w ord s, "About 1 7 1 0 ," app eared a s one o f th e fo u r
f o i l s o f th e q u e s t io n d e s ig n e d t o t e s t t h i s c o n c e p t .
t h i s t e s t was o n ly a r e t e n t io n t e s t .
H ence,
In th e i n d e f i n i t e t e s t
th a t f o ll o w e d , th e above c o n c e p t appeared in th e w ord s, "In
o o l o n i a l d a y s ," a s one o f th e fo u r f o i l s in th a t t e s t .
In r e ­
sp on d in g t o t h i s t e s t th e p u p ils were r e q u ir e d to a p p ly th e
o r i g i n a l oon oep t to t h i s c o r r e sp o n d in g t e s t ite m .
H ence, th e
i n d e f i n i t e t e s t fo r c e d a t r a n s f e r or a p p l ic a t io n o f m ean in g,
and h a s t h e r e f o r e b een d e s ig n a te d a s a t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In Forms Y and Z th e c o n c e p t, "In c o l o n i a l d a y s ,"
f o r ex a m p le, was p r e s e n te d I n d e f i n i t e l y to th e p u p i ls in th e
s e l e c t i o n s g iv e n them to r e a d .
In th e s e form s th e i n d e f i n i t e
t e s t was th e r e t e n t io n t e s t and th e d e f i n i t e t e s t th e t r a n s f e r
1 The word " r e t e n t io n ," a s i t w i l l be em ployed h e n c e fo r th in th e
p r e s e n t s tu d y , r e f e r s t o t h a t p r o c e s s o f r e c o g n it io n i n w hich
th e p u p il i s r e q u ir e d t o d e s ig n a t e t h a t ite m w hich was p r e v io u s ­
l y p r e s e n t e d from among s e v e r a l ite m s i n a m u lt ip l e r e s p o n se
te st.
E The u se o f th e word " t r a n s f e r ," a s i t w i l l be em ployed h e n c e ­
f o r t h i n th e p r e s e n t s tu d y , i s r e s t r i c t e d to a d e s c r ip t i o n
o f th a t e x p e r ie n c e in th e t e s t i n g p ro ced u re in w hich th e
p u p il i s r e q u ir e d t o a p p ly h i s c o n cep t o f a q u a n t i t a t i v e
term , p r e s e n te d t o him d e f i n i t e l y , t o th e i n d e f i n i t e f o i l s
o f th e t e s t q u e s t io n s ; or t o th e a p p lic a t io n o f h ie co n cep t
o f a q u a n t i t a t i v e te r m , p r e s e n te d to him i n d e f i n i t e l y , to
tk® f l e f l n l t e f o i l s o f th e t e s t q u e s t i o n s .
or a p p lica tio n te a t
3 , P o p u la tio n Used in th e Experiment
The t e s t s were a d m in iste re d to p u p ils in ea ch o f th e
fo u r g r a d e s, 6 , 8 , 10, and 1 2 , in th e fo llo w in g c i t i e s in n o r th ­
ern I l l i n o i s : Aurora ( Wes t ) , DeKalb, E lg in , Geneva, Genoa, Rock­
f o r d , Sandwich, S t. C h a r le s, and Sycamore.
These s c h o o ls p ro v id ed a t o t a l o f 1627 p u p ils , or
ap p ro x im a tely 400 p u p ils in each o f th e above fo u r g r a d e s .
The
c h o ic e o f s p e c i f i c s c h o o ls and c l a s s e s w ith in s c h o o ls was made
e n t i r e l y by th e c o o p e r a tin g su p e r in te n d en t o f s c h o o ls .
4.
A d m in istr a tio n o f th e T e s ts
The p r e se n t w r ite r p r e se n ted th e m a t e r ia ls p e r s o n a lly
to a l l th e p u p ils in th e ex p erim en t.
In a l l groups th e d is t r ib u ­
t io n o f th e fo u r form s o f th e t e s t was random ized In th e f o llo w ­
in g manner:
In any g iv e n row o f p u p il s , p u p il one was g iv e n
Form i : p u p il tw o, Form X; p u p il t h r e e , Form Y; p u p il fo u r .
Form Z; p u p il f i v e . Form W; and so on.
Hence, ev ery group,
in th e a g g r e g a te , responded t o a l l fo u r form s o f th e t e s t .
In a d m in is te r in g th e t e s t , th e w r ite r read aloud th e
d ir e c t io n s on th e second page o f th e t e s t b o o k le t s a s th e p u p ils
fo llo w e d th e r e a d in g s i l e n t l y .
He s t r e s s e d e s p e c i a l l y the
paragraph o f th e d ir e c t io n s which read a s fo llo w s ;
"You are to read th e f i r s t a r t i c l e v ery c a r e f u l l y . You may
read any p a r t o f i t ag a in i f you f© e l you need t o . Then tu rn
to th e q u e s t io n s . There are two p ages o f q u e s tio n s on each
a r t i c l e . You are t o answer b o th p a g es o f q u e s tio n s w ith ou t
tu r n in g back to th e a r t i c l e . When you have f i n i s h e d w l t h th e
q u e s tio n s on th e T i r s t a r t i c l e , turn im m ed iately to th e n ex t
a r t i c l e and do a s you did w ith th e f i r s t .
C ontinue in t h i s
manner to th e end o f the t e s t . ”
14
A c o m p le te copy o f t h e s e d i r e c t i o n s i s t o he found
in e a o h form o f th e t e e t in th e a p p e n d ix .
No tim e l i m i t was p la c e d upon r e a d in g th e s e l e c t i o n s
and t a k in g th e t e s t s .
The a v e r a g e tim e r e q u ir e d by th e p u p i l s
was a p p r o x im a te ly f i f t y m in u te s ,
5* S c o r in g th e T e s t s
The in d i v i d u a l s c o r e in th e t e s t was th e number o f
t e s t it e m s answ ered c o r r e c t l y .
T h is s c o r e c o n s i s t e d o f two
p a r t i a l s o o r e s , one o f w hich was th e number o f ite m s answ ered
c o r r e c t l y i n th a t form o f th e t e s t in w hich th e f o i l s were p r e ­
s e n te d d e f i n i t e l y , and th e o th e r th e number o f ite m s answ ered
c o r r e c t l y i n th e form o f th e t e e t in w hich th e f o i l s were p r e ­
s e n te d i n d e f i n i t e l y .
in d e fin ite )
The com bined s c o r e (sum o f d e f i n i t e and
c o n s t it u t e d a m easure o f th e t o t a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s
o f th e m ethod o f th e p r e s e n t a t io n u sed in th e t e s t .
Eaoh o f t h e s e p a r t i a l s c o r e s in tu r n c o n s is t e d o f
s c o r e s r e p r e s e n t in g th e number o f it e m s answ ered c o r r e c t l y in
ea ch o f th e f i e l d s o f tim e , a r e a , d i s t a n c e , and s i z e ,
i t w ill
be n o te d upon r e f e r e n c e to any form o f th e m a t e r ia ls a s shown
i n th e a p p e n d ix , th a t ea ch ite m was d e s ig n a te d a s t o th e s e f i e l d s
by an i n i t i a l (T , A , D, S) p la c e d t o th e l e f t o f th e t e s t r e s p o n ­
ses.
T h ese I n i t i a l s were s o l e l y f o r s c o r in g p u r p o se s and were
n o t c a l l e d to th e a t t e n t i o n o f or e x p la in e d t o th e p u p i l s ta k in g
th e t e s t .
For f a c i l i t a t i o n in s c o r in g , a s c o r e form was in c lu d e d
in th e lo w e r r ig h t hand c o r n e r o f e a ch page c o n t a in in g t e s t
it e m s .
R e sp o n se s t o e a ch ite m were s c o r e d a s t o c o r r e c t n e s s or
in c o r r e c t n e s s , th en t o t a le d f o r eaoh p a g e, and f i n a l l y tr a n s ­
fe r r e d to a so o r in g form which com prised th e fr o n t cover o f eaoh
s e t o f t e s t i n g m a t e r ia ls .
R eferen ce to t h i s s o o r in g form in
the appendix w i l l make c le a r th e above d e s c r ip t io n o f th e
s c o r in g p r o c e s s .
CHAPTER I I I
TREATMENT OF THE DATA
A fte r th e t e a t had h een su b m itte d t o th e p u p i l s and
s c o r e d , a s d e s c r ib e d i n C hapter I I , th e r e s u l t a n t s c o r e s were
a n a ly s e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y .
T h is a n a l y s i s in v o lv e d : f i r s t ,
a com­
p a r is o n o f th e mean o r i t e r i o n s o o r e s o f g ro u p s s u b j e c te d t o
d i f f e r e n t e x p e r im e n ta l tr e a tm e n ts ; s e c o n d , a s tu d y o f th e r e l a ­
t i o n s h i p s o f th e t e s t s o o r e s w ith m e a su r es o f i n t e l l i g e n c e o f
th e p u p i l s ; and t h i r d , a stu d y o f th e c o r r e c t and in c o r r e c t
c o m b in a tio n s o f r e s p o n s e s .
T hese v a r io u s tr e a tm e n ts w i l l com­
p r i s e th e s u b j e c t m a tte r o f t h i s c h a p te r .
1 . S t a t i s t i c a l A n a ly s is o f T e s t R e s u lt s
The a r it h m e t ic means f o r a l l g ro u p s in v o lv e d in th e
ex p erim en t were computed d i r e c t l y from th e r e s p e c t i v e raw s c o r e s .
T hese means a re shown in T a b le 3 by g r a d e s , t e s t fo r m s, and
t y p e s o f q u a n t i t a t i v e te r m s .
I t sh o u ld be n o te d h e r e thatr th e raw s c o r e s used to
o b ta in th e v a r io u s means were th e t o t a l s c o r e s , i . e . ,
th e sum
o f th e d e f i n i t e and th e i n d e f i n i t e s o o r e s made by th e p u p i l s .
T h is combined s c o r e was a m easure o f th e t o t a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f
th e method o f p r e s e n t a t io n a s shown by t h e i r a b i l i t y b o th to
r e t a i n th e m a t e r ia l p r e s e n te d and to t r a n s f e r t h i s r e t e n t io n
t o a com parable c o n c e p t o f th e o p p o s it e ty p e ( d e f i n i t e , i n d e f ­
i n i t e ) o f m a t e r ia l.1
1 The r e s p e c t i v e d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e s c o r e s , how ever, w i l l
be d is c u s s e d from th e s ta n d p o in t o f p e r c e n t a g e s o f c o r r e c t
r e s p o n s e a t th e end o f t h i s s e c t i o n o f th e c h a p te r and sum­
m arized in T able 5 .
17
The prim ary purpose o f th e p r e se n t stu d y was to com­
pare th e e f f i c i e n c y o f th e two m ethods o f p r e s e n t a tio n a s mani­
f e s t e d in th e mean t o t a l s o o r e s o f th e groups eoneerned in any
g iv e n com parison.
The d ata in Table 3 show
mean s c o r e s , r e g a r d le s s o f grade or ty p e
th a t th e r e s p e c t iv e
o f q u a n t it a t iv e c o n c e p t,
are c o n s i s t e n t l y la r g e r in form s w and X in w hich th e p r e s e n ta ­
t io n was d e f i n i t e , than in form s Y and Z in which th e p r e se n ta ­
t io n was i n d e f i n i t e .
The d ata a ls o show th a t th e mean s c o r e s
o f th e r e s p e c t iv e groups were c o n s i s t e n t l y la r g e r in form iff
than in form X, and, w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f grade s i x , in form
Z than in form Y,
These d if f e r e n c e s are o b v io u sly due to the
v a r ia t io n s in t e s t i n g order ( d e f i n i t e - i n d e f i n i t e v e r s u s in d e f­
i n i t e - d e f i n i t e ) employed in th e r e s p e c t iv e form s.
In making th e s e com parisons, how ever, i t was r e c o g ­
n is e d th a t th e r e was a p o s s i b i l i t y o f d if f e r e n c e between th e
groups compared due t o f a c t o r s o th er than th e method o f p r e s e n ta ­
t io n which m ight have c r e a te d s y s te m a tic d if f e r e n c e s in th e e x ­
p e r im e n ta l g rou p s.
P art o f any o b ta in ed d if f e r e n c e a s between
group means m ig h t, o f c o u r se , be due to chance f a c t o r s .
I t was d e s ir e d to o b ta in an e s tim a te o f th e e r r o r o f
th e s e ob ta in ed d if f e r e n c e s whieh would ta k e in t o c o n s id e r a tio n
t h i s chance f a c t o r a s w e ll a s o th er f a c t o r s which m ight have
c o n tr ib u te d to th e d i f f e r e n c e s .
The u n c o n tr o lle d v a r ia b le s
which m ight have c re a te d r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s in th e mean s c o r e s o f
th e groups compared were th e p u p ils , g r a d e s, and s c h o o ls .
It
w i l l be r e c a lle d , how ever, th a t th e s e v a r ia b le s were randomized
by v ir t u e o f th e d is t r ib u t io n o f th e t e s t s a s d e sc r ib e d In
C hapter tw o.
18
ta b le 3
T otal raw score moans by g ra d e s, to s t form s, and types o f
q u a n tita tiv e concepts
Pom W
Form X
P re se n ta tio n d e fin ite
T esting order* d e f in ite - in d e f in ite
Types of
Concepts
Grades
12
10
P re se n ta tio n d e fin ite
Testing order* in d e f in ite - d e f in ite
Grades
10
12
14.6
15.6
17,2
14.8
6 .1
7.6
8.3
8.9
7 .7
14,5
11*0
13.9
14.8
16.0
13.9
18*9
16*5
12.6
15.7
16.7
18.2
15,8
58 »6 63.5
54.9
41.5
51.9
55.3
60.2
52.2
T
6
IE .2
16.5
11*6
9*2
9*9
8*5
14*2
15*3
16.5
12.8
16*4
17.8
43.8
53.7
6
8
Time
12.2
15.3
16*3
Area
6.9
7*8
Distance 11.8
Size
A ll
6
Form 2
Form Y
P rese n tatio n in d e fin ite
Testing order* d e fin ite -in d e fin ite
Types o f
Concepts
6
Grades
8 10
T
P resen tatio n in d e fin ite
Testing orders in d e fin ite -d e fin ite
T
6
13*9
12*0
9.5
8,1
6,9
5,9
12
3
Grades
10
13.2 13.0
12
T
14,6 12,6
Tims
10*0
11*5 12*8
Area
5*7
6,3 7 ,5
Distance
9,6
10,7 11,8
12,7
11.2
9.5
11.4 12.2
13,0 11.5
S ize
10,2
11.3 12,4
13.5
11.8
10.0
12.4 13.1
14.3 12.5
A ll
35.5
39.8 44.6
48.2
42.0
35.0
44.1 46.2
50.3 44.0
Hotes The re sp ec tiv e p o ssib le t o t a l
follow s t
Time
Area
Distance
Size
A ll
4M M M M ,
.* ,- * * « ■
■■i il ■ wiiwmW
7.1
7.8
8.4
raw scores in each form are as
22
14
20
24
80
7.3
19
A c c o r d in g ly , com parisons betw een means were made u s in g
th e a n a ly s is o f v a r ia n e e te ch n iq u e a s d e sc r ib e d in L in d q u is t 's
" S t a t i s t i c a l A n a ly s is in E d u c a tio n a l H e s e a r c h . T h i s te c h n iq u e !
in b r i e f , i s e s s e n t i a l l y a method o f a n a ly z in g the r e s u l t s from
a s e r i e s o f p a r a l l e l or d u p lic a te d e x p e rim en ts and p r o v id e s an
e s tim a te o f e rr o r which e lim in a t e s th e e f f e o t s o f s y s te m a tic
d if f e r e n c e s , such a s sc h o o l d i f f e r e n c e s , from one to a n oth er o f
th e s e d u p lic a te d e x p e rim en ts.
I t a ls o p r o v id e s an e s tim a te o f
the e r r o r s due to f a c t o r s , o th e r than the ex p e rim en ta l t r e a t ­
m ent, which c r e a te d if f e r e n c e s in the ex p e rim en ta l groups w ith in
each d u p lic a te d experim ent i f th e s e f a c t o r s have been randomized
w ith in each ex p erim en t.
In th e ev en t t h a t th e r e was an in c o n s is te n c y in th e
r e s u l t s o b ta in ed by th e s e com p arison s, i t had been in ten d ed to
break down th e s e com parisons to d e a l w ith th e p a r t i a l s c o r e s
( d e f i n i t e or i n d e f i n i t e ) in an e f f o r t to a s c e r ta in th e f a c t o r s
c a u sin g t h i s in c o n s is t e n c y .
S in ce, how ever, a s w i l l be seen in
T able 4 , r e s u l t s were c o n s is t e n t , i t was not co n sid ered n e c e s ­
sa ry to make t h i s fu r t h e r break-down.
In one s e n s e , i t might be c o n sid e re d tn a t th e data
an alyzed c o n s is t e d o f two se p a ra te but sim u lta n e o u sly conducted
e x p e rim en ts.
In one experim ent th e p h y s ic a l order o f t e s t i n g
was h eld c o n s ta n t; in th e o th er th e p s y c h o lo g ic a l order o f t e s t ­
ing was h eld c o n s ta n t.
That I s , in Forms W and X th e m a te r ia l
was p resen ted d e f i n i t e l y and th e p u p ils in th o s e groups were
t e s t e d f i r s t d e f i n i t e l y th en i n d e f i n i t e l y in Form ft, and in th e
2 L in d q u is t, IS. F . , S t a t i s t i c a l A n a ly s is in E d u ca tio n a l He s e a r c h .
Houghton M if f li n C o mp a n y B o s t o n , 1 9 4 0 . p.
20
o p p o s it e o rd er i n Form X; w h ile in Forms Y and 2 th e m a t e r ia l
was p r e s e n t e d i n d e f i n i t e l y , and th e p u p i l s in th o s e g ro u p s were
t e s t e d f i r s t d e f i n i t e l y th e n i n d e f i n i t e l y in Form Y, and i n th e
o p p o s it e o rd er in Form z .
O b v io u sly th e n , a com p arison o f Form
<1 w ith Form Y would compare th e m ethods o f p r e s e n t a t io n w ith
th e p h y s i c a l o r d e r o f t e s t i n g ( d e f i n i t e - i n d e f i n i t e ) h e ld con ­
sta n t.
The same would be t r u e in a com parison o f Form X w ith
Form Z w ith th e o p p o s it e t e s t i n g o rd er ( i n d e f i n i t e - d e f i n i t e )
h e ld c o n s t a n t .
However, i t was r e c o g n iz e d th a t th e d e f i n i t e - i n d e f ­
i n i t e t e s t i n g o r d e r , p h y s i c a l l y c o n s id e r e d , was n o t th e same
a s wha t m ight be c a l l e d th e r e t e n t i o n - t r a n s f e r ord er w hich i s
more in th e n a tu r e o f a p s y c h o l o g ic a l o r d e r .
By th e r e t a n t io n
t e s t i s meant t h a t form o f th e t e s t in w hich th e q u a n t it a t iv e
term s a r e th e same a s t h o s e in th e m a t e r ia ls p r e s e n t e d , r e g a r d ­
l e s s o f w hether th e t e s t i t s e l f i s d e f i n i t e o r i n d e f i n i t e .
S im ila r ly , th e t r a n s f e r t e s t i s th a t form o f th e t e s t in w hich
th e q u a n t it a t iv e term s a re e x p r e s s e d in th e o p p o s it e te r m in o lo g y
(d e fin ite ,
i n d e f i n i t e ) to th a t in th e m a t e r ia l p r e s e n t e d .
O b v io u sly th e n , r e g a r d le s s o f th e method o f p r e s e n t a ­
t i o n or th e p h y s ic a l o rd er o f t e s t i n g , a s d e s c r ib e d a b o v e , th e r e
is
a p s y c h o lo g ic a l f a c t o r in v o lv e d in th a t t e s t i n g o rd er w hich
s u b j e c t s t h e p u p il f i r s t t o th e ty p e o f t e s t , be i t d e f i n i t e or
i n d e f i n i t e , which c o n t a in s th e same term s a s th o s e used i n th e
p r e s e n ta tio n .
I f th e p u p il h a s an o p p o r tu n ity in th e f i r s t t e s t
t o r e t a i n th e m a t e r ia l and in th e second t e s t to r e t a i n i t and
make a t r a n s f e r t o th e o p p o s it e ty p e o f c o n c e p t, he u n d erg o es
a d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o lo g ic a l e x p e r ie n c e th an i f he i s f i r s t asked
5109& S
to r e t a in and t r a n s f e r , and in th e second t e s t sim p ly to r e t a in .
A c c o r d in g ly , Form
if
( d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n ) was a ls o
compared w ith Form Z ( i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n ) where t h i s p sy ch o l o g i c a l order ( r e t e n t io n - t r a n s f e r ) was c o n s ta n t.
S im ila r ly ,
Form X was compared w ith Form Y.
The diagram s below w i l l show more c l e a r ly th e fo u r
b a s ic com parisons made, w ith th e two v a r ia t io n s o f t e s t i n g
o rd er ( d e f i n i t e - i n d e f i n i t e ) , ( r e t e n t io n - t r a n s f e r ) h e ld c o n sta n t
in tu r n .
Diagram A
P r e s e n t a tio n
Form d
Form X
Form Y
Form Z
D e f in it e
D e f in it e
in d e fin ite
in d e fin it e
I n d .- D e f.
Comparl son
1
Comparison
Z
(P h y s ic a l ord er o f t e s t i n g c o n s ta n t)
Diagram B
Form w
Form X
Form Y
Form z
P r e s e n t a tio n
D e f in it e
D e f in it e
I n d e f i n it e
in d e fin ite
T e s tin g order
P e f .- I n d .
I n d .- D e f .
D e f .-I n d .
I n d .- D e f.
Comp a r l son 4
Comparison 3
( P s y c h o lo g ic a l order o f t e s t in g c o n sta n t)
T able 4 on th e n ex t page p r e s e n t s an a n a ly s is o f the
v a r ia n c e o f t o t a l s c o r e s fo r th e four b a s ic com parisons o f t o t a l
s c o r e s n o ted above; nam ely, Forms W-Y, Forms X-Z, Form sp^Z jlend'
Forms X-Y.
As was s ta te d ab o v e, th e a n a ly s is o f verfaiicje- t e c h -
Table 4
Summary o f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a ly sis o f variance o f t o t a l
scores fo r v a rio u s forms o f t o s t m a te ria l
Sources of
Forms
ftgffiBftgaa. v a r ia tio n
T otal
Scores
W- Y
p*
G
S
P X
P X
Gx
F x
G
S
S
Gx S
Degrees o f
freedom
"SusTof" squares
34*362*10
29*716*83
1,512*04
1,431*56
492,56
2,021*09
1,906*84
1
3
8
3
8
24
24
F r P4-(P x G x S) m 432*50 T o tal
Scores
X- Z
P
G
S
P x
P x
Gx
P x
G
S
S
Gx S
F * P-KP sc G x S) * 196*31 T otal
Scores
W- Z
P
G
S
P x
P x
Gx
P x
G
S
S
Gx S
F « P r( P x G x S)
T otal
Scores
X- I
P
G
S
P x
P x
Gx
P x
G
S
S
Gx S
1
3
8
3
8
24
24
S
121*69 •
24,300*16
11,080*31
141.20
33o*13
41.08
125.79
199.76
(5^ - 4*26 ; J f - 7*82)
21,306*54
27,614.00
1,520*47
1,122*46
639*45
1,748.71
2,167*10
F - P t(P x G x S) * 235*95 -
13,680*55
10,435 *69
147.32
173*78
54*38
134.57
69*69
(80S -4*26; 1% - 7.82)
24,308.16
33,240*94
1,129*62
999,39
328*65
3,018*92
4,794*23
1
3
8
3
8
24
24
34,362*10
9,905*61
189*00
477*18
61*57
84*24
79,45
{h% - 4*26? I f - 7*82)
13,680*55
31,307*08
1,178,60
621*33
435*03
3,229*67
1,672*58
1
3
8
5
8
24
24
Variance
21,306*54
9,204*67
190.06
374.15
79*93
72.86
90.30
(5% - 4*26} i f - 7.82)
P x S • P rese n tatio n by schools
♦Keys P - P rese n tatio n
G x S •» Grades by schools
6 - Grades
P x G x S • P r e s e n t a t i o n by grades
S - Schools
by schools
P x G - P resen tatio n by grades
F - Variance r a tio
2a
n iq u e was used t o determ ine th e s ig n if i c a n c e o f o b ta in ed d i f f e r e n e e e in th e com parisons made*
In ea ch o f th e s e t a b l e s , th e d if f e r e n c e in mean s c o r e s
f o r th e two m ethods o f p r e s e n t a tio n may be regarded a s s i g n i f i ­
can t a t th e 5 p e r cen t l e v e l i f th e r a t i o o f th e v a r ia n c e s fo r
3? and P x G x S e x c e e d s 4 .2 6 , or a t th e 1 p e r o en t l e v e l i f t h i s
r a t i o e x c e e d s 7 .8 2 , P having 1 d eg ree o f freedom , and £ x G x 3
havin g 24 d e g r e e s o f freedom .
t h i s v a r ia n c e r a t io
In each com parison made in !Tible 4 ,
(F) was many tim e s la r g e r than was n e c e s ­
sa ry to be s i g n i f i c a n t a t th e 1 per cen t l e v e l .
That i s , th e r e
are 99 or more ch an ces out o f a hundred, or p r a c t ic a l c e r t a in t y ,
t h a t th e o b tain ed d if f e r e n c e s are not e n t i r e l y due to chance
fa c to r s.
In o th e r words, th e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e
betw een means in fa v o r o f th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n in a i l com­
p a r is o n s made, i . e . , r e g a r d le s s o f e it h e r o f th e t e s t i n g o rd ers
( d e f in it e - I n d e f in it e ) , ( r e te n tio n -tr a n s fe r ).
I t seemed d e s ir a b le to fin d w hether or not th e v a r io u s
ty p e s o f q u a n t it a t iv e c o n c e p ts o ffe r e d w ith in th e m se lv e s any
e x c e p tio n s to the r e s u l t s found in th e com parisons o f means o f
th e t o t a l s c o r e s o f th e t e s t a s a w h ole.
The a n a ly s is o f th e
d ata f o r th e s e v a r io u s q u a n t it a t iv e c o n c ep ts i s found in T ab les
1 to 4 , i n c l u s i v e , in th e appendix.
Without e x c e p tio n , th e
o b tain ed v a r ia n c e r a t io (F) f o r any o f th e com parisons made b e­
tw een th e same groups a s used f o r the s c o r e s on th e t e s t a s a
whole i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t th e 1 p er cen t l e v e l .
That i s t o sa y ,
th e data in d ic a t e th a t th e d e f i n i t e method o f p r e s e n ta tio n i s
su p e r io r in e f f e c t i v e n e s s to the i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n f o r
24
c o n c e p ts in v o l v in g tim e , a r e a , d i s t a n c e , and s i z e ,
w hether ta k en
s i n g l y or in c o m b in a tio n .
For th e p u rp o se o f p r e s e n t in g th e d a ta in a form
w hich i s p e r h a p s more c o m p r e h e n sib le t o th e r e a d e r , and i n a
d e t a i l w h ich l a n o t f e a s i b l e w ith th e a n a l y s i s o f v a r ia n c e
t e c h n iq u e , th e p e r c e n t a g e s o f p u p ils m aking th e c o r r e c t r e ­
s p o n s e s t o v a r io u s form s o f t e s t m a t e r ia l, by g r a d e s , t y p e s
o f q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n c e p t, and t e s t form , i s p r e s e n te d i n T a b le 6 .
I n t h i s t a b l e i t w i l l be n o te d t h a t , f o r th e c o n v e n ie n c e o f
t h e r e a d e r , th e ty p e o f t e s t h a s been d e s ig n a te d a s " r e te n tio n "
or " t r a n s f e r ," a s th e c a s e may b e .
S in ce th e s u p e r i o r i t y o f th e d e f i n i t e method o f p r e ­
s e n t a t io n h as been d em on stra ted by th e a n a l y s i s o f v a r ia n c e
t e c h n iq u e , u s in g th e raw d a ta ( t o t a l s c o r e s , i . e . ,
d e fin ite
p lu s i n d e f i n i t e t e s t s c o r e s ) , comment h ere w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d
t o a d is c u s s io n o f some f a c t s w h ich , i n v ie w o f th e r e s u l t s o f
p r e v io u s s t a t i s t i c a l tr e a tm e n t, i t was n o t c o n s id e r e d n e c e s s a r y
t o d e a l w ith i n f u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l d e t a i l .
I t w i l l be n o te d t h a t th e p e r c e n t a g e s o f c o r r e c t r e ­
sp o n se i n th e r e t e n t i o n t e s t s were h ig h e r th an th o s e i n th e
t r a n s f e r t e s t s , r e g a r d le s s o f g r a d e s , form e o f t e s t m a t e r i a ls ,
or t y p e 8 o f q u a n t it a t iv e c o n c e p t s .
For exam p le, in T ab le &
th e p e r c e n ta g e o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n se fo r any one o f th e g r a d e s
in v o lv in g any one o f th e q u a n t it a t iv e c o n c e p ts in th e d e f i n i t e
( r e t e n t i o n ) t e s t in Form W i s h ig h e r th an t h a t f o r any o f th e
p e r c e n t a g e s in th e i n d e f i n i t e ( t r a n s f e r ) t e s t i n th e same form ,
tfh lle th e i n d e f i n i t e t e s t s in Form Y and z show h ig h e r p e r c e n t -
Table 5
Per cent of to ta l number of pupils answering the questions who gave
correct responses in d e fin ite and in d e fin ite t e s t s , re sp ec tiv e ly , by
types of q u a n tita tiv e concepts, types of t e s t s , grades and t e s t forms
Form W - P resentation d e fin ite
Testing order* D efinite (rete n tio n ) - In d efin ite (tra n s fe r)
Grade
6
8
10
12
Total
Time
TJef; ■11m .
R*
T*
Area
DeT."-" Ind.
R
T
Distanoe
TTeTr- TSBT.
R
T
Size
TTeTV" '“'In d .
T
R
62,3
78*8
83,8
90*4
78.8
61.0
70,5
81,2
85.7
75.4
65,5
80,7
87,3
94,1
81,9
59,9
78.0
85,3
91,7
78.7
48.1
59*8
64.6
75.6
62,0
36,6
40.2
50.2
53.6
45.2
50.7
60.7
65.0
70.6
61.7
46,2
57.7
63.2
65,8
58,2
Form X - P resentation d e fin ite
Testing order* In d e fin ite (tra n s fe r) - D efinite ( reten tio n )
Grade
6
8
10
12
Total
Time
Ind.
Def.
R
T
57.7
72.8
77.0
86,0
73,4
49.5
59*5
64.3
70.2
60.9
Area
Ind.
Def.
R
T
Distance
Ind.
Def.
R
T
Size
Def.
Ind.
R
T
48.7
66.4
70.5
74.2
64.9
58*6
75.9
81.6
88,9
76.3
55.3
70,0
78.7
86.0
72.5
37.8
41,3
47.5
53.3
45.0
50.1
63.5
64,8
70.8
62.3
49.3
60,7
59.7
65.5
58,8
Form Y - P resentation in d e fin ite
Testing order* D efinite (tra n s fe r) - In d efin ite (reten tio n )
Grade
6
8
10
12
Total
Time
JLXld 9
Def.
R
T
Area
Def.
Ind.
R
T
Distance
Ind.
Def.
T
R
Size
Def.
Ind.
T
R
52.1
41.2
46.7
52.6
43.1
33.6
39,6
47.0
49.5
42 .4
43.6
45.8
51,1
55.7
49.0
35.1
39.5
41.3
46.3
40.5
57,6
62.3
69,7
73.9
65.8
47.3
49,1
60.9
65.9
55.8
51,9
61.7
66.4
71,4
62.8
48.9
53,5
62,1
65.6
57.5
Form Z -* P resentation in d e fin ite
Testing order* In d efin ite (rete n tio n ) - D efinite (tra n sfe r)
Grade
6
8
10
12
Total
Time
Def. Ind.
R
T
Area
Ind.
Def.
R
T
30.4
48.8
47.7
56.1
45.0
35.3
.39.0
45.1
4}9.8
42.3
55.0
71,0
70.5
76.0
68.2
48.8
61.8
66.8
70.6
62.1
Distance
Ind.
Def.
T
R
41.9
47.6
50.9
54.2
48.7
52.6
66.8
71.0
74,9
66,4
* R « Retention* T - Transfer
Size
Ind.
Def.
R
T
33,9
42,2
45,3
47,2
42 ,2
49,2
62 .1
62.8
70,2
61.2
a g e s th a n th e d e f i n i t e t e a t s , i t
sh ou ld he remembered t h a t in
t h e s e form a th e i n d e f i n i t e t e a t i a th e r e t e n t i o n t e a t .
An
e x a m in a tio n o f t h e r e t e n t i o n p e r c e n t age a in T a b le 6 w i l l r e v e a l
a c o n s i s t e n t a d v a n ta g e f o r Forms W and X o v er th e r e t e n t i o n
p e r c e n t a g e s fo r Forma Y and Z.
The same w i l l be tr u e when th e
t r a n s f e r p e r c e n ta g e a a re s i m i l a r l y exam in ed .
T h is h o ld s t r u e
in f a v o r o f t h e d e f i n i t e method o f p r e s e n t a t io n (Forms W and X )
o v e r t h e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n (Form s Y and Z) r e g a r d le s s o f
g ra d e or ty p e o f q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n c e p t.
The s u p e r io r i t y o f th e
d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n i s n o t , how ever, a s g r e a t in th e e a se o f
t r a n s f e r t e s t s a s i n th a t o f th e r e t e n t io n t e s t s .
T h is p r e s e n t a t io n o f th e m a t e r ia l d o e s n o t p erm it a
d i r e c t com p arison o f th e t o t a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f th e m ethods o f
p r e s e n t a t i o n , a s m easured by th e a b i l i t y t o respon d t o b oth
ty p e s o f t e s t s .
The p r e v io u s s t a t i s t i c a l tr e a tm e n t d e a lt w ith
t h i s a sp ect o f th e s it u a t io n .
I t d o e s , h ow ever, p erm it a
g e n e r a l I n s p e c t io n o f grade d i f f e r e n c e s r e g a r d l e s s o f th e form
o f t e s t m a t e r ia l, th e typ e o f q u a n t it a t i v e c o n c e p t, and th e
o rd er o f t e s t i n g .
I t i s o b v io u s th a t i f m a t e r ia l i s t e s t e d
o n ly in th e manner in Which i t
i s p r e s e n t e d , th e s u p e r i o r i t y
o f t h a t method o f p r e s e n t a t io n can be d e m o n str a te d .
E vid en ce
o f t h i s can be found in T a b le 6 by n o t in g , f o r exam p le, th a t
th e p e r c e n t a g e s o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n se f o r any grade or ty p e o f
q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n c e p t i n th e d e f i n i t e t e s t e x c e e d th o s e in th e
i n d e f i n i t e t e s t i f t h e p r e s e n t a t io n was d e f i n i t e ; and th e p e r ­
c e n ta g e s o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n se in th e i n d e f i n i t e t e s t e x ce e d
t h o s e i n th e d e f i n i t e t e s t i f th e p r e s e n t a t io n was i n d e f i n i t e .
Only i f two t y p e s o f p r e s e n t a tio n are t e s t e d in th e same t o t a l wa^
can t h e i r r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s he a d e q u a te ly e v a lu a te d ,
(S ee
paragraph two o f th e s e c t io n on " S t a t i s t i c a l A n a ly s is o f T est
R e s u l t s ” in t h i s o h a p te r .)
The t r u t h o f t h i s statem en t i s a t t e s ­
ted by th e f a c t th a t th e apparent s u p e r io r it y o f th e i n d e f i n i t e
p r e s e n t a t io n (Forms Y and z) when t e s t e d i n d e f i n i t e l y , a s shown
i n T able 5 , becom es an i n f e r i o r i t y When su b je c te d t o th e t e s t o f
to ta l e ffe c tiv e n e s s .
The g e n e r a l tren d o f th e d ata shown in Table B i s
borne out by th e d e t a ile d data r e l a t i v e to s p e c i f i c q u e s tio n s
shown i n T a b les 6 and 8 , i n c l u s i v e , in th e appendix,
A c a r e fu l
exam in ation o f th e s e t a b l e s w i l l r e v e a l a few e x c e p tio n s to
th e g e n e r a l tr e n d s n oted in T able 5 , but th e s e e x c e p tio n s can
p rob ab ly be e x p la in e d in term s o f th e f a c t o r s surrounding th e
e p e o if lo item t e s t e d ,
2 , C o r r e la tio n s Between I ,Q , and T est S cores
One o f th e p u rp o ses o f th e p r e se n t stu d y was t o d e­
term ine w hether th e r e might n ot be a r e la t io n s h ip betw een ob­
ta in e d t e s t s c o r e s and i n t e l l i g e n c e .
T h is r e la t io n s h ip i s n ot
a m a tter o f major concern in the stu d y , but sin c e data on i n ­
t e l l i g e n c e were a v a ila b le on about 1125 p u p ils th a t were used
in th e s tu d y , sim ple P earso n ia n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e la tio n
were c a lc u la t e d a s a p o s s ib le g u id e to th o se who might d e s ir e
to go in to t h i s a sp e c t o f th e q u estio n f u r t h e r .
T hese c o r r e la t io n s were ob tain ed betw een th e X .Q .'s
a s r e c e iv e d from th e a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e s o f th e s c h o o ls con­
cerned and th e t e s t s c o r e s .
I t should be n o ted th a t th e s e
28
I*Q «c s were n o t d e r iv e d from th e same i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s #
They
were d e r iv e d from t e s t a a d m in is te r e d under v a r y in g c o n d it i o n s ,
a t v a r y in g t im e s in th e p a s t , and h e n c e , a r e p r o b a b ly s u b j e c t
t o more th an u s u a l amount o f u n r e l i a b i l i t y #
N e v e r t h e le s s , i t
was f e l t t h a t t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s m ight p rove o f v a lu e a s an i n ­
d i c a t i o n o f t h e n e o e s s l t y o f a more co m p lete study#
C o r r e la t io n s were c a lc u la t e d b etw een th e s e l , Q . * s and
to ta l sco res, i . e . ,
t h e sum o f th e d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e s c o r e s
f o r eaoh o f th e fo u r form s o f t e s t m a te r ia l#
C o r r e la t io n s
were a ls o c a lc u la t e d b etw een I . Q . ' s and th e t o t a l s c o r e s made
on t h e v a r io u s t y p e s o f q u a n t it a t iv e c o n c e p ts w ith in ea ch form
o f t e s t m a t e r ia l; n a m ely , tim e , a r e a , d is t a n c e , and s iz e #
in
a d d it io n , c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a lc u la t e d f o r th e t o t a l d e f i n i t e
s c o r e on ea ch o f th e fo u r form s o f t e s t i n g m a t e r ia l, and a ls o
f o r th e t o t a l i n d e f i n i t e s c o r e .
A fte r t h e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s had been o b ta in e d , a s shown
i n T able 6 , i t
appeared t h a t th e r e was n o t a s u f f i c i e n t d eg ree
o f r e l a t i o n s h i p t o w arrant o b ta in in g th e c o e f f i c i e n t s a s b etw een
I . Q . , * s and th e t o t a l d e f i n i t e ( o r I n d e f i n i t e ) s c o r e s f o r th e
t im e , a r e a , d i s t a n c e , and s i z e q u e s t io n s in eaoh form o f th e
t e s t m a te r ia l#
H owever, in o rd er t h a t a sam plin g o f such c o e f ­
f i c i e n t s m ight be o b ta in e d , th e y were c a lc u la t e d f o r one fo u r th
o f th e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s I n v o lv e d ; n am ely, th e i n d e f i n i t e
s c o r e s f o r tim e and d is t a n c e in Form fl,
th e d e f i n i t e s c o r e s fo r
tim e and d is t a n c e in Form Y, th e i n d e f i n i t e
s i z e in Form X , and t h e d e f i n i t e
Form Zm
scores
s c o r e s f o r a r ea and
f o r a r ea ands i z e i n
The r e s u l t s a re shown in T a b le 7#
Table 6
C o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e la t io n , to g e th e r w ith p ro b a b le e r r o r s ,
betw een I . Q . ' s and t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s ( sum o f d e f i n i t e and i n ­
d e f i n i t e s c o r e s ) , by fcind o f q u a n t it a t iv e con cep t and form o f
t e s t m a t e r ia l; and betw een X .Q .'s and t o t a l d e f i n i t e and i n ­
d e f i n i t e s c o r e s by form o f t e s t m a te r ia l
Type o f t e s t
m a t e r ia l
Form o f t e a t m a te r ia l
X
Y
ff
Z
T otal-T im e
.CO t .0 3
.4 6 ± . 0 3
•43 *•.03
.4 3 ± . 0 3
T o ta i-A rea
• 3 6 * .0 3
•30 * . 0 4
. 3 7 * .0 3
.3 9 1 .0 4
T o ta l-D is ta n c e
. 4 3 ± .0 3
.3 9 * . 0 3
•43 * . 0 3
• 36 1 . 0 4
T o t a l- S iz e
•49 ± .0 3
lo S a tili
C oncepts
• 63 1 ..0 3
T o ta l D e f in it e
A ll C oncepts
.4 6 £ . 0 3
T o ta l I n d e f i n i t e
•6 1 . 0 3
A ll C oncepts
.4 1 ± . 0 3
.3 3 ± . 0 4
.3 6 * . 0 4
.4 6 £ . 0 3
•64 ± .0 3
.4 6 ± . 0 3
.4 9 ± . 0 3
•47 * . 0 3
.3 6 ± . 0 4
. 3 9 * .0 3
.4 6 ± .0 3
. 4 1 ± .0 3
T able 7
C o e f f ic ie n t s o f c o r r e la t io n , to g e th e r w ith p rob ab le e r r o r s ,
betw een I . Q . ' s and t e s t s c o r e s by s e le c t e d form s, ty p e s o f
t e s t s c o r e , form s o f t e s t m a t e r ia l, and ty p e s o f q u a n tit a tiv e
c o n c e p ts
fyp«
Of
te st
sc o r e
Type o f
q u a n tit a ­
t i v e con­
cep t
Forms o f te a lfc m a t e r ia ls
X
. 1 9 * .04
Area
. 3 3 * .0 4
D ista n c e
. 2 3 * .0 4
S iz e
Time
• 63 ± .0 3
• 24 ± .0 4
I n d e f in it e Area
D ista n c e
S iz e
Z
*40 * . 0 3
Time
D e f in it e
Y
•40 ± .0 3
. 2 7 * .0 4
;jo
I t w i l l tow n o te d t h a t a l l o b ta in e d c o e f f i c i e n t s are
p o s i t i v e , w hich i n d i c a t e s th a t th e r e l a a s tr o n g p r o b a b il it y
t h a t th e more I n t e l l i g e n t i n d i v i d u a l s are l i k e l y to make b e t t e r
s c o r e s on any form o f t h i s t e s t ,
th a n l e s s I n t e l l i g e n t o n e s .
o r on any p a r t o f any form ,
T h is i s p r o b a b ly to be e x p e c t e d .
H ow ever, th e p u rp ose o f th e p r e s e n t stu d y i s n o t co n cern ed w ith
t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p p r im a r ily , but w ith w hether th e r e i s any o u t­
s ta n d in g d i f f e r e n c e in th e c o r r e l a t i o n s betw een I .Q . and p e r ­
form ance on one form o f th e t e s t ,
and th e c o r r e l a t i o n s betw een
I .Q . and p erform an ce on a n o th e r form o f th e t e s t in v o lv in g a
d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f p r e s e n t a t io n and o rd er o f t e s t i n g .
R e fe r e n c e
to T a b le 6 w i l l show th a t th e r e i s no ap p aren t o u tsta n d in g
d i f f e r e n c e b etw een th e c o r r e la t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s e i t h e r a s to
th e t o t a l s c o r e f o r th e com plete form s or f o r th e t o t a l s c o r e s
in v o lv in g tim e , a r e a , d i s t a n c e , and s i z e i n eaoh o f th e fo r m s.
T h is a ls o h o ld s t r u e f o r t o t a l d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e s o o r e s
w ith in eaoh o f th e fo r m s, a s r e s u l t s show in T able 6 .
R e fe r e n c e
to T a b le 7 w i l l i n d i c a t e some m ajor d l f f e r e n e e s , w ith th e
s m a lle s t c o r r e l a t i o n s found betw een I .Q . and t h o s e s c o r e s ,
e i t h e r d e f i n i t e or i n d e f i n i t e , in v o lv in g a rea and s i z e .
No attem p t was made to e v a lu a t e t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s in
v ie w o f th e u n r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t d a ta u s e d .
I t i s d o u b tfu l w h eth er t h e r e i s enough d if f e r e n c e b etw een th e
c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o b ta in e d f o r th e v a r io u s form s o f th e
t e s t m a t e r ia l and I . Q . ' s o f th e p u p ils s u b je c te d to t h i s m a t e r i­
a l t o w arrant any f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f th e d a t a .
I n s o fa r a s
t h i s stu d y i s co n c er n e d , ev en th e low c o r r e l a t i o n s found f o r
a rea and s i z e s c o r e s w ith i n t e l l i g e n c e are c o n s i s t e n t r e g a r d -
l e s s o f th e method o f p r e s e n t a tio n or th e ty p e o f t e s t in v o lv e d .
However, i t m ight he su g g e ste d th a t th e a p p a ren tly
h ig h e r c o e f f i c i e n t s o b ta in ed c o n s i s t e n t l y f o r tim e so o r e s over
a rea s c o r e s , f o r exam ple, m ight g iv e a h in t th a t a g r e a t e r d e­
g r e e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i s r e q u ir e d f o r th e proper in t e r p r e t a t io n
o f tim e c o n c e p ts than th a t o f a rea c o n c e p ts .
3 . A n a ly s is o f R esponse C om binations
A th ir d attem pt t o t r e a t th e d ata g a th ered in the
p r e s e n t stu d y w i l l I n v o lv e an a n a ly s is o f th e com b in ation s o f
r e s p o n se s made by th e p u p ils who to o k th e t e s t s .
I t w i l l be
r e c a lle d th a t eaoh p u p il was r eq u ir ed to respond to each t e s t
q u e s tio n d e f i n i t e l y a s w e ll a s i n d e f i n i t e l y .
Hence, h i s t o t a l
r esp o n se to any g iv e n q u e s tio n was a com bination o f two r e s p o n s e s .
In a n a ly z in g th e s e co m b in a tio n s o f r e s p o n s e s , a t t e n ­
t i o n w i l l be g iv e n o n ly to th o se com b in ation s which are common
to r e l a t i v e l y la r g e groups o f p u p ils in each g ra d e.
The r ea d er ,
how ever, w ith th e aid o f th e d e s c r ip t io n o f th e a n a ly s is p ro ­
cedure d e sc r ib e d b elo w , may I n te r p r e t any o th er com b in ation s
o f r e s p o n se s in which he may be in t e r e s t e d .
The t a b le s on th e p a g es th a t f o llo w (T a b le s 8 to 47,
i n c l u s i v e ) c o n ta in a com plete record o f e v er y resp o n se to ev ery
q u e s tio n .
In o th e r words, th e s e t a b le s show not o n ly th e
c o r r e c t resp o n se c o m b in a tio n s, but a ls o th e in c o r r e c t resp o n se
com b in ation s o f th e p u p ils .
T h is has been don® on th e assump­
t io n th a t much may be le a rn ed o f th e nature o f th e com prehension
o f q u a n t it a t iv e term s th rou gh a c a r e fu l study o f th e in c o r r e c t
a s w e ll a s th e c o r r e c t r e s p o n se s made by p u p ils to q u e s tio n s
upon su c h te r m s ,
F or th e c o n v e n ie n c e o f a n a l y s i s and s tu d y , th e r e c o r d s
o f r e s p o n s e s a r e n o t arran ged in th e o r d e r in w hich th e y appeared
i n th e t e s t , h u t a re grouped w ith r e s p e c t t o th e r e s p e c t i v e f i e l d s
o f t im e , a r e a , d i s t a n c e , and a l e e .
The r e s p o n s e s t o th e f o r t y q u e s t io n s o f th e t e s t are
p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e s p la c e d i n s e t s o f two p a g e s f a c in g ea ch
o th e r .
At th e to p o f th e f i r s t page i s s t a t e d one o f th e q u es­
t i o n s o f th e t e s t , f o llo w e d by I t s r e s p e c t i v e fo u r d e f i n i t e
r e s p o n s e s and I t s fo u r i n d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s e s .
tio n ,
B elow th e q u es­
on th e two p a g e s , are th e fo u r m ajor r e sp o n se t a b l e s ,
one f o r e a ch form o f th e t e s t ; n am ely, Forms iff, X, Y, and 2.•
S in ce t h e r e a re fo u r d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s e s and fo u r
i n d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s e s t o eaoh q u e s t io n o f th e t e s t , th e r e are
s i x t e e n p o s s i b l e c o m b in a tio n s o f r e s p o n s e s f o r p u p il s t o make.
Each o f th e r e s p o n s e t a b l e s , t h e r e f o r e , i s made up o f s i x t e e n
o n e -in c h c e l l s i n w hich t h e s e s i x t e e n p o s s i b l e c o m b in a tio n s o f
r e s p o n s e s may be r e c o r d e d .
(S e e T able 8 . )
S in ce fo u r g r a d e s ( 6 , 8 , 1 0 , IS ) f ig u r e d in th e
s t u d y , th e o n e -in c h c e l l s o f eaoh t a b l e are d iv id e d in t o fo u r
s m a lle r c e l l s .
The ty p ed f ig u r e a p p ea rin g in any o f th e s m a lle r
c e l l s r e p r e s e n t s th e number o f p u p ils o f th e d e s ig n a te d grade
making t h a t c o m b in a tio n o f r e s p o n s e s .
To i n t e r p r e t th e t a b l e s o o r r e o t ly , th e r ea d er w i l l
exam ine th e la r g e c e l l in th e upper l e f t hand c o m e r o f th e
t a b le o f Form W in T able 8 , f o r ex a m p le.
The f ig u r e "6" r e p r e ­
s e n t s th e number o f s i x t h grad e p u p i l s , out o f a p p ro x im a te ly
one hundred, who made th e r e s p o n s e co m b in a tio n c o n s i s t i n g o f
*h®
d e f i n i t e answ er, "as e a r ly a s 1066," and th e f i r s t
i n d e f i n i t e answ er, ’’About th e m iddle o f th e 1 9 th c e n t u r y .”
The f i g u r e b "3", "3", and "8" r e p r e s e n t th e number o f e ig h t h ,
t e n t h , and t w e lf t h grade p u p ils , out o f ap p ro x im a tely one
hundred, r e s p e c t i v e l y , who responded in th e same manner#
The la r g e c e l l e n c ir c le d in red in t h i s same ta b le
(form w in T able 0) r e p r e s e n ts th e resp o n se com bination e o n s i s t ­
in g o f th e c o r r e c t d e f i n i t e answ er, "As e a r ly ae 1 6 6 6 ,” and th e
c o r r e c t i n d e f i n i t e answ er, "long b e fo r e o i l was d isc o v e r e d In
Horth A m erica."
The typed f i g u r e s "36," "68," "61," and "80"
in d ic a t e th e number o f s i x t h , e ig h t h , te n t h , and t w e lf t h grade
p u p i l s , out o f ap p roxim ately one hundred, r e s p e c t i v e l y , who r e ­
sponded t o t h i s com bination o f o o r r e e t an sw ers.
The la r g e c e l l
w hich r e p r e s e n t s th e com bination o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n se s i s e n c ir c le d
in red in each o f th e o th e r t a b le s fo r th e co n v en ien ce o f th e
read er.
The words " D e fin ite " and " I n d e fin ite " , and th e numbers
from 1 to 4 p la c e d to th e l e f t o f and above eaoh o f th e t a b le s
r e f e r t o th e r e s p e c t iv e answ ers (by ty p e and number) to th e
t e s t q u e s tio n .
T hese words and numbers w i l l aid in q u ic k ly
lo c a t in g th e proper c e l l in th e ta b le which r e p r e s e n ts any g iv e n
resp o n se com b in ation .
In lo c a t in g a c e l l in the t a b le , th e rea d in g o f th e
numbers should alw ays p roceed from th e l e f t on th e t a b le to th e
r i g h t . th en down from th e t o p ,
f o r exam ple, th e com bination o f
c o r r e c t r e s p o n se s fo r form U i n T able 8 , m entioned in a paragraph
above, i s r e p re sen ted by c e l l & - 4 .
T h is c e l l i s lo c a te d by
fo llo w in g from 8 at th e l e f t , th en to th e r ig h t to the i n t e r -
VA
s e c t i o n w ith 4 from th e t o p .
In Form X o f T able 8 , th e © e ll
w hich r e p r e e e n t s t h e co m b in a tio n o f o o r r e e t r e s p o n s e s i s d e s i g ­
n a te d by th e num bers 4 - 8 .
in g from 4 a t th e l e f t ,
w ith 8 from th e t o p .
T h is © e ll i s lo c a t e d by f o l l o w ­
th en t o th e r ig h t to th e i n t e r s e c t i o n
A ll r e s p o n se c o m b in a tio n s r e f e r r e d t o in
th e a n a ly s e s on th e f o ll o w i n g p a g e s w i l l be d e s ig n a te d and
lo c a t e d i n th e t a b l e s i n a s im ila r manner.
To th e l e f t
o f ea ch t a b le a l s o appear th e f o llo w in g
words and sym bols w hich w i l l a id in i n t e r p r e t in g th e t a b le :
a . Accompanying th e d e s ig n a t io n s , "Form »" and
TPorm X", th e w ords, " D e f in it e p r e s e n t a t io n ," r e f e r t o th e
form o f th e p r e s e n t a t io n em ployed in th e s e l e c t i o n rea d by th e
p u p i l s whose r e s p o n s e s are r eco rd ed in th e s e t a b l e s .
That i s ,
th e q u a n t it a t iv e con cep t t e s t e d in Q u e stio n 1 on O il in T able
8 , f o r ex am p le, was p r e s e n te d d e f i n i t e l y t o th e p u p i ls in th e
w ords, "As e a r ly a s 1 5 5 6 ."
In th e t a b l e s o f Form Y and Form Z,
th e w ords, " I n d e f in it e p r e s e n t a t io n ," r e f e r t o th e f a c t th a t
in t h e s e form s o f th e t e s t th e q u a n t it a t iv e c o n c e p t t e s t e d in
Q u e stio n 1 on O il in T able 8 , f o r exam p le, was p r e s e n te d i n d e f ­
i n i t e l y t o th e p u p ils in th e w ords, "Dong b e fo r e o i l was d i s ­
covered in N o rth A m e r ic a ."
b . The w ords, " F ir s t t e s t d e f i n i t e , " r e f e r t o th e
f a c t t h a t , in th e o rd er o f t e s t i n g , th e f i r s t t e s t em ployed
d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s e s , th e second t e s t i n d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s e s .
L ik e w ise th e w ords, " F ir s t t e s t i n d e f i n i t e , " r e f e r to th e f a c t
t h a t th e f i r s t t e s t em ployed i n d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s e s , th e second
t e s t d e fin ite resp o n ses.
I t m i l l be r e o a l l e d t h a t th e s i g n i f i ­
ca n ce o f th e o rd er o f t e s t i n g l i e s c h i e f l y in th e f a c t th a t
th e f i r s t t e s t in Forms W and % i s a r e t e n t io n t e s t , th e second
an a p p lic a t io n or t r a n s f e r t e s t .
i s tr u e , i . e . ,
In Forms X and I th e r e v e r s e
th e f i r s t t e s t i s a t r a n s f e r t e s t and th e second
a r e t e n t io n t e s t .
For g r e a te r c l a r i t y on t h i s p o in t , th e rea d er
w i l l r e f e r a g a in to th e diagram o f th e c o n s tr u c tio n o f th e
t e s t s in th e o h a p ter on m eth odology.
o . The sym bols "R" and "3° are d e fin ed a t th e f o o t
o f eaoh second page o f th e t a b l e s .
"R" r e p r e s e n ts th e per c en t
o f th e t o t a l number o f p u p ils answ ering th e q u e s tio n who gave
b o th d e f i n i t e and I n d e f in it e answ ers c o r r e c t l y ,
"S" r e p r e s e n ts
th e p er cen t o f th e number o f p u p ils answ ering th e f i r s t t e s t
c o r r e c t ly who a ls o answered th e second t e s t c o r r e c t l y .
The
p e r ce n ta g e v a lu e s o f "H" and "S" are p la c e d to th e l e f t o f
th e t a b l e s and are g iv e n t o one decim al p la c e .
The f ig u r e s
"6", "8", "10", and "12" r e f e r to th e r e s p e c t iv e s c h o o l g r a d e s,
and "T" r e f e r s t o th e t o t a l , or a l l g ra d es combined.
In comparing com b in ation s o f r e s p o n se s or g e n e r a l
group p a t te r n s o f r e s p o n s e s , th e rea d er should be c o n s ta n tly
aware o f th e f a c t th a t each o f th e fo u r t a b le s r e p r e s e n ts an
independent group o f p u p ils .
That i s ,
th e p u p ils r e p re sen ted
in Form W, f o r exam ple, are n ot th e same p u p ils r ep re sen ted in
Form X, or Form I , or Form Z.
I t w i l l a ls o a id th e rea d er to know th a t in any g iv e n
t a b le th e number o f p u p ils r e p r e se n te d i s ap p roxim ately 100
p er grade ( 6 , 8 , 1 0 , or 1 2 ), or ap p roxim ately a t o t a l o f 400 per
form (W, X, Y, or Z ).
Im m ediately fo llo w in g each s e t o f t a b l e s i s a b r i e f
a n a ly s is o f th e resp on se com b in ation s in th o se t a b l e s .
T h is
a n a l y s i s o a l l s a t t e n t i o n c h i e f l y t o th e c o m b in a tio n s o f c o r r e c t
r e s p o n s e s a s e x p r e s s e d in th e r e s p e c t i v e "R" p e r c e n t a g e s (p er
o e n t o f p u p ils g iv in g b o th d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e a n sw ers
c o r r e c t l y ) , and to th e v a r io u s c o m b in a tio n s o f wrong r e s p o n s e s .
The r e s p e c t i v e a n a ly s e s do n o t in c lu d e an in t e r p r e ­
t a t i o n o f th e "S" p e r c e n t a g e s (p e r c e n t o f p u p i l s a n sw erin g
th e f i r s t t e s t c o r r e c t l y who a ls o answ ered th e second t e s t
e o r r e c t l y ) g iv e n i n th e t a b l e s .
For p u r p o se s o f g r e a t e r
c l a r i t y , t h e s e p e r c e n t a g e s are summarized and in t e r p r e t e d in
a t a b l e (T a b le 4 9 ) a t th e end o f t h i s s e c t i o n o f th e s tu d y .
or
Table 8
Q u estion
0 1,1 - -
l ____________
A c c o r d i n g t o the b e s t e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e ,
vvhen d i d
oeoole
in Europe f i r s t
h a v e som e k n o w le d g e o f
o il?
D e fin ite
As
ea rly
as
1856.
*As
ea rly
ea rly
ea rly
as
as
as
1556.
800.
2000 B .C .
In d e fin ite
As
As
About the m id d le o f
About the
tim e o f th
At the b e g in n in g o f
’" L o n g b e f o r e o i l ~ w a s
tne 19th
century
e A m erican R e v o l u t i o n .
the p r e s e n t c e n tu r y .
d iscovered
in N o rth A m erica.
I n d e fin ite
2
Form
6
10 .........
F ir st
te st
d e fin ite »
3
R- 6
R - 8
R -10
5 8 .1
D
e
f
i
R -12
R- T
7 9 .2
5 7 .3
n
i
5 0 .7
^
e
SSS-1
S-1
S-
6
8
0
2
T
3 4 .9
5 7 .5
6
6
u;
D e fin ite
n r e se n ta tio n .
2 ........ 1 6
2
10
13
12
2
11
12
8
1
2
36
1
4
10
LO
6
6
1
4
61
80
6
6
.'12
10
10
12
:8
6
6
8
;12
10
10
12
3
1
2
1
1
12
10
58
12
1C
2
3
4
3
6
7
4
7
12"
io"
:8
i
6 8 .2
6 5 .6
8 9 .9
69 .5
8
8
3
10
17 :
6
2
6
16 : 13
4
6
4
:8
10
6
2
4
10
:12
3
12
2
2
9 :
3
6
3
6
;8
10
2
1
Form
6
X:
D e fin ite
ore sent at io n .
F ir st te st
in d e f in it e .
7
10
6
I
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
3
4
5
7
5
5
8
7
0
2
.3
.5
.7
.3
.9
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
8 9 .9
S-
62.1
T
6 7 .9
8 1 .4
8 4 .8
6
nd 2*
f
i
n
i
t
e
2
4
c
C
6
2
5
3
6
3
12
10
[6
15
10
L
9
7
10
2
10
56 |
2
6
12
8
10
12
6
1
10
6
2
10
12
6
8
10
12
3
2
1
8
1
2
10
71
6
2
36 : 48
10
1 2 ......
1
3
;12
4 ; i
:8
io
1
7
-8
8
1
6
13
:i '2
9 j
1
6
6
1
5
:8
9 :
6
10
3
i i ;
lo
2
9
:12
10 :
6
2
D e fin ite
2
.3
6
12 :
10
5
10
e
4
1
4
1
T ab le 8 (c o n tin u e d )
O il - 1
Q u est!o n
I n d e f i n it e
F ir s t
10
6
D
e 2
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
3 5 .5
i
R -12
3 1 .3
2 7 .9
n
6 5 .7
S-12
86.1
S-
7 9 .7
:
4
i
3
|8
•
6
LO
1
L>
3
10
1
1
6
:
:
3
6
10
•8
6
\8
6
12
L0
:
:
&
22
:8
■ 23
io
38
: 12
i 31
12
10
:
14
•
6
12
1
1
13
16
:8
i 10
:12
20
io
1
11
:12
7
3
12.
i
10
-8
19
:8
8
1
:
;
io
15
1
*12
1
:
6
:
;i2
:
:
:8
io
30
3
:12
io
;8
1
-8
3
]8
6
:
11 2
1
:
3
•ii
l
:
1
4
:12
io
•8
e
8 2 .6
1°
2
•12
:
1
8
2
:8
:
6
:i2
10
2
8 4 .6
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
4
6
A
P l o
:8
f
^
t
. 8 ........ . 6
6
10
15
21.0
22.8
T
18
18
t e s t
d e f i n i t e .
6
r—1
1
pre s e n t a t i on.
T
CO
I n d e f in it e
R -
i
6
Form Y;
10
:
D e f in it e
1
Form
Zi
6
30
p r e s e n ta t ion #
F ir s t
t e s t
i
i n d e f i n i t e ,
10
n
6
8
R -10
1 1 .3
3 1 .6
e 2
f
3 4 .3
i
R -12
5 0 .0
n
R-
T
3 1 .9
S - 6
S- 8
S -10
2 0 .0
40 .3
4 1 .7
S-
T
■8
6
1
;
:
8
6
3
12
4
4
10
.8
6
2
3
10
12
2
1
4
■12
1
8
6
8
6
12
10
12
10
■8
2
: 12
10
1
4
■8
1
I12
6
8
6
8
6
:8
■12
10
12
10
12
10
.12
6 37
|8 2 8
6 11
10
•12
; 14
10
6
2
LO
e
5 7 .6
8
10
_
t 3
S -12
10
2
i
8
4
i \ o
•12
:
5
6
d
3
6
I n d e f in it e
RR -
2
;
1
2
1
4
4 8 .2
26
35
31
12
49
6
1
10
17
8 12
12
17
6
6
10
;8
6
12
6
5
K ey:
♦
—
R
- - P er
C orrect
cen t
S
b o th
- - P er
d e f i n i t e
and
in d e f i n it e an sw ers e o ir e c t ly *
cen t
o f num ber a n sw erin g f i r s t
t e s t
c o r r e c t ly
a ls o
answ er
o f
answ ered
in te s t *
t o t a l num ber
second
t e s t
a n s veering
q u e stio n
c o r r e c t ly .
who g a v e
who
R esponse A n a ly s is - Time co n cep t
Q u estio n : O il - 1
The r e s p e c t iv e R p e r c e n ta g e s 1 in th e t a b l e s o f a l l
fo u r form s o f t h i s q u e s tio n seem to in d ic a t e a f a i r l y con­
s i s t e n t p r o g r e s s io n o f a b i l i t y from grade s i x through grade
tw e lv e .
T h is p r o g r e s s io n i s a ls o e x p r e sse d roughly by th e
number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s by g r a d e s in th e red c e l l s .
Only
grade tw e lv e i n Form T seems to be a b it out o f l i n e , th e p e r ­
cen ta g e o f c o r r e c t r esp o n se fo r t h i s grade b e in g s l i g h t l y l e s s
than th a t f o r grade ten*
In g e n e r a l, both d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e answ ers
were g iv e n c o r r e c t ly by a h ig h er p e rcen ta g e o f p u p ils who had
been g iv e n th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n (Forms w and X) than by
p u p ils who had been g iv e n th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n (Forms Y
and Z )•
T h is seem s to in d ic a t e t h a t , w ith in th e l i m i t s o f th e
t e s t , th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n o f t h i s tim e concept was more
m ean in gfu l t o th e p u p ils than th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e se n ta tio n *
Two g e n e r a lly c o n s is t e n t p a t te r n s o f wrong resp o n se
are o b v io u s in Forms
and X*
In r esp o n se com bination 2 - 2
in b o th form s, th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t l y the con­
c e p t, "As e a r ly a s 1556," but seemed t o in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean
"About th e tim e o f th e American R ev o lu tio n " when resp o n d in g to
the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
2 - 1 in Form
In a s im ila r manner, In resp o n se com b in ation s
and 1 - 2 in Form X, th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ­
ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e o o n o e p t, "AS e a r ly as 1556," and seemed to
1 The 3 p e r c e n ta g e s , a s has a lr ea d y been s t a t e d above, w i l l n o t
be d is c u s s e d in th e s e r e s p e c t iv e r esp o n se a n a ly s e s , but w i l l be
summarized and in t e r p r e te d a t the end o f t h i s s e o tio n o f the
chapter*
in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About th e m iddle o f th e 1 9th century"
in th e t r a n s f e r te a t*
I t i s a ls o s i g n i f i c a n t th a t th e g e n e r a l
p a tte r n in term s o f th e number o f p u p ils in each grad e vsho made
th e s e r e s p o n s e s i s ro u g h ly th e same in both forms*
T h is i s
th e more s i g n i f i c a n t b eca u se th e p u p ils r e p r e se n te d in Form w
are n o t th e p u p ils r e p r e s e n te d in Form X*
I n Forms Y and Z, where the p r e s e n ta tio n was in d e f ­
i n i t e , th e r e are th r e e g e n e r a l p a t te r n s o f wrong r e s p o n s e ,
in
g e n e r a l, th ey are more s t r ik in g than th o se in Forms ./ and X
b eca u se th e y show t h a t , r e l a t i v e l y , more p u p ils made th e s e r e ­
sponses*
In r e sp o n se com bination 1 - 4 in Form Y and 4 - 1 in
Form Z th e p u p ils In v o lv ed r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c e p t, "hong
b e fo r e o i l was d isc o v e r e d in N orth A m erica," but seemed to i n ­
te r p r e t t h i s to mean "As e a r ly a s 1866" when resp on d in g to the
tr a n sfe r te s t*
In resp o n se com bination 4 - 4 in both form s th e
p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c ep t, "hong b e fo r e o i l
was d isc o v e r e d in N orth A m erica," but seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s
to mean "As e a r ly a s 2000 B .C ." in th e tr a n s fe r t e s t *
R esponse
com bination 1 - 1 in b o th form s seem s to I n d ic a te a d i s t i n c t
tendency fo r th e s e p u p ils t o respond e r r o n e o u sly to the answ er,
"About th e m id dle o f th e 19th c en tu r y ," in th e f i r s t t e s t and
then to t r a n s f e r c o r r e c t l y to th e corresp on d in g answ er, " as e a r ly
a s 1866," in th e second t e s t .
I t i s s ig n i f i c a n t t o n o te th a t
even though th e y ch ose th e wrong answ ers, th e s e p u p ils were con­
s i s t e n t in t h e i r e r r o r .
In o th er words, t h i s erro r was a r e ­
t e n t io n and n o t a t r a n s f e r e r r o r .
41
Table 9
■Oil
Q u estion
Then
was
k erosen e
f i r s t
used
as
-.-fi L
an
o i l
for
lig h tin g
lam p s?
D efinite
About 1 4 9 2 .
About 1 6 2 0 .
*About 1852.
About 1 9 0 0 .
I n d e fin ite
D u ring th e R e v o lu t io n .
B e fo re the tim e o f C h r is t.
*About
the m id d le o f th e
19th
cen tu ry.
Very r e c e n t ly .
In d e fin ite
Form
6
Us
D e fin ite
p r e se n ta tio n .
6
8
0
2
T
2 6 .2
4 4 .7
SSS-1
S-1
S-
6
8
0
2
T
3 7 .0
53 .5
6 2 .0
7 2 .5
5 7 .3
5 4 .3
6 4 .7
4 7 .4
2
8
6
3
6
12
10
D
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
4
8
6
8
12
10
12
4
2
F ir st
te st
d e f i n i t e .
RR R -1
R -1
R-
1
8
6
7
10
41
12
10
12
3 27
10
3
2
10
6
8
6
12
10
12
10
1
8
6
2
46
1
10
12
6
8
10
i2
2
66
8
1
3
10
10
12
57
2
23
8
2
1
8
8
8
6
1
1
37
32
6
12
6
12
10
4
5
8
6
8
6
2
1
12
10
8
I
14
1, 3
io
12
10
2
12
2
3
3
D e fin ite
2
Form
RRR -1
R -1
R-
6
8
0
2
T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
6
X:
D e fin ite
p r e sen ta tio n .
F ir st te st
in d e fin it e .
2
4
5
6
4
6
8
8
9
8
7
7
2
9
9
3
3
9
4
5
.4
.5
.0
.9
.2
.6
.9
.5
.7
.0
6
3
9
1
10
12
6
8
10
1
I
nd 2*
e
f
i
n
3
3
5
12
7
6
12
1
6
8
1
3
LO
1
2
12
6
1
25
17
2
10
8
10
12
10
12
t
e
6
8
6
8
8
28
8
10
12
10
6
47
12
51
6
10
72
6
6
4
8
1
10
3
3
12
6
12
5
8
9
10
8
5
L _
1
6
1
12
6
1
io
3
12
1
5
i
8
2
10
8
1
5
6
23
12
6
1
1
8
36
10
8
1
io
6
3
12
1
42
T able 9 (c o n tin u e d )
Q u e stio n
O il
-
5
I n d e f in it e
Form
Y:
I n d e f in it e
1
p r e s e n t a t io n .
F ir s t
t e s t
d e f i n i t e
R-
6
R - 8
R -10
R -12
R -
T
i
6 5 .7
4 7 .4
n
S- 8
S-10
6 4 .5
8 0 .6
S-12
8 3 .3
7 5 .1
S-
T
12
f
5 4 .2
6 6 .7
12
10
12
10
12
12
10
12
10
12
10
12
9
3 0 .0
3 9 .6
6
S-
10
i
t
e
12
3
10
17
12
11
30
10
12
40
10
12
58
65
17
4
10
12
10
12
12
10
12
D e f in it e
2
Form
Zl
°
I n d e f in it e
p r e se n ta tio n ®
F ir s t
t e s t
i n d e f i n i t e ,
j
n
a
e
R -10
3 4 .7
5 2 .5
5 0 .0
R -12
6 7 .0
n
R -
5 1 .0
i
5 4 .8
t
e
RR-
SS-
6
8
T
6
8
6 7 .5
S -10
S-12
6 3 .0
8 3 .3
3-
6 7 .8
T
4
4
13
12
1210
10
12
12
10
12
i°"i
10 4
12 "z
10 9
6
6
8
6
10
12
10
2
10
f
i
3
6
34
2
10
10
6
52
16
12
io,
12,6 5
10,2 5
12
12
10
12
10
12
51
19
6
2
10 '
i'o "
Key:
*
—
R
- - Per
C orrect
cen t
S
b o th
- - P er
d e f i n i t e
and
in d e f in i t e an sw ers c o r r e c t ly .
cen t
o f num ber an sw erin g f i r s t t e s t
c o r r e c t ly
a ls o
answ er
of
answ ered
in t e s t .
t o t a l num ber
second
t e s t
an sw erin g
c o r r e c t ly .
qu e s t io n
whog a v e
who
43
R esponse A n a ly s is - Time Concept
Q u estio n : O il - 6
A f a i r l y c o n s is t e n t p r o g r e s s io n o f a b i l i t y to respond
to t h i s q u e s tio n i s r e f l e c t e d in th e v a lu e s o f R in a l l fo u r
form s w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f Form Z.
In t h i s form th e e ig h th
grade seemed t o show a s l i g h t s u p e r io r it y to th e te n th g ra d e.
On th e w h ole, th e r e s p e c t iv e pt - T v a lu e s seem to i n ­
d ic a te th a t one ty p e o f p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s concep t was about
a s m ea n in g fu l to th e p u p ils a s th e o th e r .
However, th e R v a lu e s
fo r th e s i x t h grade seem to in d ic a t e th a t th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e ­
s e n t a t io n was s l i g h t l y more m ean in gfu l than th e d e f i n i t e p r e ­
s e n t a t io n .
The R v a lu e s o f g ra d es e i g h t , te n , and tw e lv e , on
th e o th e r hand, show s l i g h t in c o n s is t e n c i e s and seem to i n d i ­
c a te th a t the d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n was about as m ean in gfu l a s
th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n .
One g e n e r a lly c o n s is t e n t p a tte rn of wrong resp on se
i s o b v io u s in a l l fo u r form s, namely resp o n se com b in ation s
3 -1
and 1 - 3 .
In Forms W and X th e s e com b in ation s in d ic a t e
th a t th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c ep t, "About
1862," but seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "During th e R evolu­
tio n " when resp on d in g t o th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is typ e o f r e ­
sponse seemed to be p r o g r e s s iv e ly more tr u e o f th e younger
p u p ils than th e o ld e r o n e s .
In Forms Y and Z, In which th e
p r e s e n t a tio n was i n d e f i n i t e , the p u p ils in v o lv e d responded
e r r o n e o u sly to th e answ er, "During th e R e v o lu tio n ," and seemed
t o in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 1862" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
The grade d if f e r e n c e s in t h i s c a s e , how ever, were not as
marked a s In Forms
and X.
R esponse c o m b in a tio n s 4 - 3
and 3 - 4 in Forms Y
and Z, r e s p e c t i v e l y , in d ic a t e th a t th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ­
sponded c o r r e c t l y to the c o n o e p t, "About th e m iddle o f th e
19th c e n tu r y ," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About
1900" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
The g e n e r a l p a tte r n o f th e s e
two resp o n se com b in ation s i s v ery s im ila r and seems to in d i ­
c a te th a t t h i s e r r o r wss l e s s t y p ic a l o f grade tw e lv e than
o f th e o th e r th r e e g r a d e s.
45
Table 10
A v ia tio n
Que s t i o n
A fte r the in v e n tio n
lon g has it
taken to
how
-
2
of tne f i r s t
s u c c e s s fu l power
s o l v e many o f th e
orob lem s o f
D e fin ite
About
M ore
*L ess
About
I
*C om o
200 y ea r
th a n 75 y
than 35 y
5 y ea rs.
n d e fin ite
a ra tiv ely
p la n e,
a v ia tio n ?
s.
e a r s.
ea rs.
a
few
y e a r s.
Many y e a r s .
S everal c e n tu r ie s.
M ore th a n a l i f e t i m e .
I n d e fin ite
Form
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
4
5
6
8
6
1
7
8
5
2
.2
.3
.3
.1
.9
6 4 .6
7
8
8
7
5
0
8
8
12
10
8
6
12
10
6
10
8
8
2
9
2
i
n
i
10
12
10
8
6
12
8
3
3
3
10
8
8
10
10
12
1C
8
6
12
3
b 42
59
6 21
LO
15
12
86
6
8
12
71
.6
.7
.7
.6
6
12
12
1
6
7
1
11 3
8
6
1
1
1
D
e
f
8
6
2
2
1
1
n r e se n ta tio n .
F ir st
te st
d e f in it e .
R- 6
R- 8
R —1 0
R -12
R- T
8'
6
D e fin ite
6 10
8
10
12
9
6
3
2
18
12
10
10
1
10
1
12
10
12
2
1
6
i
12
10
i
6
8
10
12
3
10
D e f i i ijl t e
1
Form
RRR -1
R -1
R-
6
6
0
2
T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
6
X;
D e fin ite
n r e se n t at ion#
F ir st te st
in d e f in it e .
26 .5
66.6
5 8 .8
7 5 .7
5 4 .1
6 7 .8
8
8
9
8
7
2
0
2
.5
.6
.7
.2
2
e
6
4
1
10
12
10
2
6
I
8
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
10
6
1
12
6
3
12
10
8
8
12
6
1
12
8
6
15
10
12
9
78
8
6
1
25
10
2
6
6
56
57
11
LO
4
8
26
1
6
nd ^2
3
3
8 19
6
12
10
22
8
6
1
15
8
3
7
8
6
2
12
1
6
8
10
12
6
8
10
12
2
3
10
12
6
10
8
1
12
101
6
1
3
8
i u i
..
1
6
3
10
.
12
12
i
Table 10 (continued)
Q u e stio n
____ A v i a t i o n
-
2
I n d e f in it e
I
Form
6
Y;
6
8
2
I n d e f i n it e
10
12
d e f i n i t e ,
6
8
6
2 2 .8
2 8 .0
f
R -10
4 4 .8
i
R-lg
R- T
7 3 .5
n
4 2 .1
4
10
i
12
8
12
9 3 .5
4
7 5 .3
12
6
1
8
2
1
10
6
10
j
12
:i2
14
12
10
8
6
12
5
2
j
12
4
12
: 12
: 17
LO
35
1
2
3
10
1
12
1
6
:
8
1
10
:
6
39
26
10
1
10
8
7
:12
17
72
7*8
12
2
6
48
£)
:
10
1
28
LO
e
8
4
6
10
6
8
2
12
1
23
,
j
: 12
2
5
D
v o .o
7 5 .0
S -ia
S“ T
10
4
6
6
5
t
53.5
2
1
R- 8
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
.8
1
p r e s e n ta tio n *
F ir s t
t e s t
D
e 2
H~
____________2 ________________ 3
8
6
8
12
10
12
2
10
D e f in it e
3
Z%
Form
I n d e f in it e
F ir s t
t e s t
i n d e f i n i t e ,
10
2
I
45
d
8
2 3 .7
R-
8
4 0 .2
f
R -10
R -12
4 4 .5
5 0 .5
i
n
R-
4 2 .4
S“ 8
S-10
10
10
12
2
7 5 .0
6 1 .8
19
12
10
12
10
12
14
:12
LO
10
2
10
12
e
7
77
“
5 4 .3
S- T
23
.*
57.3
S -12
12
17
10
22
i
4 4 .2
2.6
22
10
60
16
e 2
t
6
39
12
10
n
R-
S“
16
23
12
10
p r e s e n t a t io n ,
T
4
e
4
■12
10'
10
2
io'
12
10
12
K ey;
*
—
R
- - Per
C orrect
b o th
S
- - P er
a lso
cen t
answ er
o f
d e f i n i t e
cen t
o f
answ ered
in t e s t ,
t o t a l num ber
and
ansv^ ering
q u e stlo n
in d e f in it e an sw ers
num ber
second
an sw erin g f i r s t
t e s t
t e s t
c o r r e c t ly ,
wno g a v e
c o r r e c t ly ,
c o r r e c t ly
who
47
R esponse A n a l y s i s - Time co n cep t
Q u estion : A v ia tio n - £
In g e n e r a l , th e r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s q u e s t io n seem to
show a s u p e r i o r i t y o f the d e f i n i t e over th e i n d e f i n i t e typ e o f
p r e se n ta tio n .
T h is i s b e s t r e f l e c t e d i n th e p e r c e n ta g e v a lu e s
o f R - T f o r eaoh form.
However, t h e r e are some o b v io u s v a r i ­
a t i o n s , most o f whieh are due a p p a r e n tly to th e order o f t e s t ­
in g r a th e r than to th e typ e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n .
For example, th e
s i x t h grade responded to Form W w ith a muoh h ig h e r p ercen ta g e
o f accu racy than t o Form X, i n s p i t e o f th e f a c t th a t the d e f ­
i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n was used in both form s.
In f a c t , th e p e r ­
c e n ta g e s f o r t h i s grade in Forms Y and Z, where th e p r e s e n t a ­
t i o n was i n d e f i n i t e , were very n e a r ly as h ig h a s th o s e o f Form
X.
T h is seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t th e r e was on ly a s l i g h t ad­
vantage o f th e d e f i n i t e c o n c e p t, "Less than 35 y e a r s , ” over
th e i n d e f i n i t e c o n c e p t, "Comparatively a few y e a r s . ”
A greater
d i f f e r e n c e in p e r c e n ta g e o f c o r r e c t respon se due to the type
o f p r e s e n t a t io n i s e v id e n t f o r grad es e i g h t , t e n , and tw e lv e
than f o r grade s i x .
However, grade tw e lv e a l s o shows e vid en ce
o f a t e s t - o r d e r i n f l u e n c e a s r e f l e c t e d In th e p ercen ta g e o f R
f o r Form Y a s a g a in s t the p e r ce n ta g e o f R f o r Form Z.
There are two g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s o f in c o r r e c t respon se
th a t are common t o a l l fo u r form s, namely com bin ations 3 - £
i n Forms s? and Y and £ - 3 in Forms X and
Z; and com bin ations
4 - 1 i n Forms W and Y and 1 - 4 in Forms X and z .
com bin ations 3 - £ and £ - 3 in Forms
Response
and X, r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
i n d i c a t e th a t th e p u p i l s in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t l y th e con­
c e p t , "Less than 36 y e a r s ," but seemed t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s to
mean "Many years" when resp o n d in g t o th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
sponse c o m b in a tio n s 3 - 2
and 2 - 3 in Forms Y and z ,
Re­
respec­
t i v e l y , i n d i c a t e th e same t r a n s f e r i n th e r e v e r s e or d e r, th e s e
p u p i l s a p p a r e n tly t h in k i n g t h a t "Many y e a rs" meant "Less than
35 y e a r s ."
In r e s p o n se co m b in a tion s 4 - 1
and 1 - 4 i n Forms
W and X, r e s p e c t i v e l y , the p u p i l s in v o lv e d responded e r r o n e o u s­
l y to th e answ er, "About 5 y e a r s ," and seemed t o I n t e r p r e t t h i s
to mean "Comparatively a few y ears" i n respon ding to th e t r a n s ­
fer t e s t .
A gain, r esp o n se com b in ation s 4 - 1
and 1 - 4 in
Forms Y and Z , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n d i c a t e the same t r a n s f e r in
th e r e v e r s e o r d e r .
In t h i s c a se th e s e p u p i l s a p p a r e n tly seemed
t o th in k th a t "Comparatively a few years" meant "About 5 y e a r s ."
40
T a b l e 11
A viation
Question
- 5
How l o n g d id t h e b r i g h t B r o t h e r s '
f i r s t
p la n e sta y in
a ir d u rin g i t s t r i a l
flig h t
a t H i t t y Hawk, N o r th C a r o lin a ?
D e fin ite
tiie
*59 secon d s.
Ten m in u t e s
About h a l f
30 h o u rs.
I n d e fin
*For o n ly a
.
a
day.
ite
very
b r ie f
A lon g tim e.
F or som e t i m e .
For a very lon g
p e r io d .
p erio d .
I n d e fin ite
I6
F ir st te st
d e fin ite *
R- 6
68.9
R
R
R
R
8
9
9
8
- 8
-10
-12
- T
SSS-1
S-1
S-
6
8
0
2
T
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
T
D e fin ite
n r e se n ta tio n .
1—1
H O
8
9
9
9
9
7
8
6
7
0
1
9
8
2
.4
.1
.1
.6
.7
.8
.0
.0
.8
Xs
D e fin ite
n resent a tio n .
F ir st te s t
i n d e f in it e .
74
8 9
92
92
87
9
9
9
9
9
3
7
6
8
6
.5
.0
.9
.3
.1
.8
.8
.8
.0
.7
6
71
90
O
D
e
f
2
*
e
:12
10
12
10
10
:8
6
:i2
10
:8
6
:8
3
2
4
12
:12
10
2
1
1
6
8
6
l
:12
3
2
i
n
i
■8
;
98
:8
6
3
LO
:12
03
Form
8
3
6
1
1
12
:8
10
■12
6
:8
10
■22
1
6
3
6
:8
10
1
1
LO
:12
:
8
3
\12
10
■Q
6
1
12
1
;8
6
6
1
1
;12
10
10
6
89
4
10
91
l----------6
1
96
6
6
6
10
7
2
4
z
D e fin ite
2
.8
6
1
:12
10
2
1
:8
LO
10
12
10
6
:12
10
■8
6
1
10
10
8
6
1
12
:8
6
8
12
10
12
8
6
1
10
•
8
1
10
1
12
1
1
‘1 0
8
12
12
6
1
1
10
8
10
■12
3
1
3
6
1
1
:12
■8
6
1
3
10
6
2
8
2
•12
6
76
:
8
6
1
12
10
•8
12
50
Table 11 (continued)
A v ia tio n - &
Q u e stio n
I n d e f in i t e
2
Form
3
8
Y;
10
p r e s e n ta tio n *
F ir s t
t e s t
8
2
44
28
I n d e f in it e
10
12
65
56
46
48
12
10
12
10
d e f in it e *
R-
6
2 7 .7
D
e
R -
6
4 .3.6
f
R -10
6 0 .7
i
n
R -12
5 6 .6
R -
T
4 7 .3
S-
6
9 3 .3
2
10
12
1 0 0 .0
S-12
1 0 0 .0
S-
12
10
12
10
IT
i
12"
33
35
~8
,
t 3 10
S- 8
S -10
IT
10
10
12
12
12 '
10
10
12
10
12
e
95.6
T
4
9 7 .5
10
12
10
10
12
12
10
12
12
10
12
D e f in it e
F o r m S :
rI n d e f i n i t e
_
F ir s t
t e s t
i n d e f i n i t e ,
53
23
12
10
p r e s e n ta tio n *
i
n
R-
6
2 3 .6
5 3 .5
6 2 .7
f
i
R -12
6 1 .0
n
R -
4 7 .8
T
e 2
6
a o .7
8
55.2
S -10
6 4 .7
S-12
S- T
6 2 .1
5 1 .9
10
8
12
10
12 '
10
12
10
12
12
10
12
10
12
10
12
6
8
10
12 '
i -
t 3
SS-
10
45
8
d
R- 8
R -10
12
32
50
64
36
40
10
LO
e
6
4
I’
d'
12
10
12
10
12
K ey:
*
—
C orrect
R
- -
P er
S
- -
cen t
answ er
o f
in t e s t *
t o t a l num ber
a n sw erin g
q u e stio n
who g a v e
b o th d e f i n it e
and i n d e f i n i t e
an sw ers c o ir e c t ly *
P er
cen t
o f num ber a n sw e rin g f i r s t
t e s t
c o r r e c t ly
a lso
answ ered
second
t e s t
c o r r e c tly *
who
Response A n a ly s is - Time Concept
Q u estion : A v ia tio n - 6
The advantage o f the d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n over the
i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s oonoept i s shown very c l e a r l y
i n th e v a l u e s o f B in a l l g r a d e s .
The B v a lu e s a l s o seem t o
i n d i c a t e th e s u p e r i o r i t y o f th e t e n t h over the t w e l f t h grade
in a l l form s, th e margin b e in g l a r g e r i n the i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ­
t a t i o n (Form Y v e r s u s Form Z) than in the d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n
(Form iff v e r s u s Form X ).
No wrong resp o n se com bination i s o u tsta n d in g in Forms
W and X.
However, com b in a tion s 1 - 3
and 3 - 1
show ev id e n c e
th a t th e younger p u p i l s in v o lv e d r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y th e con­
c e p t , "59 se c o n d s," and seemed to i n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "For
some time" when resp on d in g to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In Forms Y and z th er e seemed to be a stro n g tendency
f o r a l l g r a d e s to r e t a i n c o r r e c t l y the c o n c e p t, "For on ly a very
b r i e f p e r io d ," and t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "Ten minutes" in
the t r a n s f e r t e s t , a s r e f l e c t e d i n resp on se com binations 2 - 1
and 1 - 2 , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
r-*"i
Table 12
Question
About
New
when
were
com m unity
Forests
f o r e s t s
- 1
f i r s t
e s ta b lish e d
in
E ngland?
D e fin ite
92.
10.
00.
60.
I n d e fin ite
fthen C o l u m b u s d i s c o v e r e d A m e r i c a .
S h ortly a fte r
the D ev o lu tio n .
'In c o lo n ia l days.
J u st b efo re the c lo s e of the 1 9 th
cen tu ry.
About
*About
About
About
1
1
1
1
4
7
8
8
I n d e fin ite
Form
2
F ir st
te st
d e f i n i t e •
RRR -1
R -1
R-
6
8
0
2
T
S- 6
S~ 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
4 0 .6
6 4 .1
6 2 .8
8 8 .2
6 4 .0
6
7
7
9
7
7
5
0
0
7
.2
.9
.2
.9
.1
3
6
h;
D e fin ite
n r e se n ta tio n .
D
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
6
2
2
i o ........ 1 2 ........
1
1
LO '
6
3
8
2
12
1
6
16
23
6
6
1
LO
8
2
4
1C
90
6
4
6
5
12
4
12
1
8
3
10
12
4
6
8
6
5
io
i2
8
4
8
10
8
10
6
8
1
66
66
2
6
1 2 ........
12
6
2
12
io " "
41
LO
1
10
1
12"'
8
6
14
2
8
4
i o ......
10
1
6
2
1
10
8
6
2
4
10
8
6
1
7
10
12
2
1
12
2
D e fin ite
1
Form
R- 6
R- 6
R -10
R -12
R- T
SSS-1
S-1
6
8
0
2
S-
T
6
X;
D e fin ite
ore sent at io n „
F ir st
te st
in d e f in it e .
68.0
7 9 .8
6 0 .1
70 .0
8
8
9
8
0
3
5
4
.3
.5
.4
.0
6
3
6
6
3
1
3
4
8
2
6
nd *2 10
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
8
6
8
12
LO
8
6
6
6
5
3
10
3
12
4
3
10
9
2
8
9
10
12
6
8
57
4
83
6
101
5
6
8
6
2
1
103
2
10
8
4
12
6
9
6
8
7
10
12
r6
3
12
1
10
66
io
1
6
10
2
8
6
35
8
1
6
3
6
1
10
I
3 4 .3
5 8 .2
2
2
12
3
8
6
2
13
2
103
12
3
12
3
Table 12 (continued)
goreata - 1
Q u e stio n
I n d e f in it e
2
Form
6
Y;
5
I n d e f i n i t e
6
n r e s e n t a t i on,
F ir s t
t e s t
10
d e f i n i t e .
6
2 2 .8
3 0 .4
f
3 5 .5
i
R -12
6 0 .2
n
R -
3 7 .0
i
t
e
6
8 2 .1
S- 8
S-10
S-
8 3 .8
7 9 .2
S-12
S- T
9 6 .7
1
10
6
:
\ii
6
10
:i2
10
6
jS
6
10
•12
10
t>
:8
6
: 12
LO
1
:
8
8
i
3
:i2
:
6
i
15
12
1
8
7
2
10
12
5
8
10
2
11
12
2
3
6
11
2
2
12
6
18
4
8
5
59
10
4
6
10
8
6
5
"
12
12
1
31
6
2
10
15
23
1
3
12
£
4
:12
8
8 6 .8
10
!8
8
12
16
i
10
6
8
4
:8
8
3
CO
R - 8
R -10
T
\12
3
.8
3
1
D
e
6
1—1
R-
;8
8
4
9
10
12
11
18
12
3
3
5
D e f in it e
2
1
Form
Zs
6
5
I n d e f in it e
p r e s e n ta tio n ,
F ir s t
10
i n d e f i n i t e .
n
15. 6
5 6 .7
R -12
5 7 .6
n
R -
4 1 .0
i 3 LO
S
S
S
S
-1
-1
S-
T
6
8
0
2
T
e
2
5
6
6
:8
6
4
5 2 .1
10
*
-—
C orrect
R
- -
Per
S
- -
cen t
answ
o
b o th d e f in
P er
cen t
o
a lso
answ e
f
it
f :
re
12
1
8
10
:12
6
i
10
34
:12
: 57
:S
6
3
6
24
10
22
8
10
10
:12
6
5
8
6
9
10
12
2
9
12
8
2
•12
1
8
17
15
12
4
12
1
8
15
55
4
10
3
15
8
1
12
6
1
F ey:
10
12
6
4
6 3 .3
8
1
6
10
:12
10
4 4 .7
10
■12
6
12
6
1
2
1
4
8
2
1
10
:12
b
6 5 .5
:
3
2
t
e
3
6
6
j8
10
f
i
2 5 .4
1
1
R- 6
R - 8
R -10
Q
10
•12
6
d
3 3 .7
:8
2
t e s t
6
1
12
8
3
Response A n a l y s i s - Time Concept
Q u estion : F o r e s t - 1
The v a lu e s o f R In a l l fo u r forms seem t o I n d ic a t e
a d i s t i n c t advantage o f th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n ov er the i n ­
d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s time c o n c e p t.
In Forms W and Z,
th e R v a lu e s seem t o show th a t the e ig h t h grade was s u p e r io r
t o th e t e n t h grade on t h i s q u e s t io n .
T h is i s n o t tr u e in Forms
X and Y, and may be due to th e order o f t e s t i n g .
Apparently
the e i g h t h grade p u p i l s did
b e t t e r on t h i s q u e s tio n when the
r e t e n t i o n t e s t preceded the
tra n sfer t e s t .
The most c o n s i s t e n t e r r o r In Forms // and X seems to
be r esp o n se com bination 2 - 2 .
In t h i s case the p u p i l s in v o lv e d
r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y th e o o n e e p t, "About 1710," but seemed t o i n ­
t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean " S h o rtly a f t e r th e R e v o lu tio n ," i n the
tran sfer t e s t ,
tfith th e e x c e p t io n o f th e t w e l f t h grade the
number o f p u p i l s making t h i s e r r o r was g r e a t e r in Form W than
i n Form X.
However, on th e
whole a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f s p e c i f i c
e r r o r s seems t o be t y p i c a l o f the p u p i l s r e p r e s e n te d in Form X.
Response com bination 4 - 4 i n both Form W and Form X seems to
r e f l e c t a ten d en cy o f some s i x t h grade p u p i l s to respond e r ­
r o n e o u s ly t o th e answer, "About 1 8 6 0 , ” and to i n t e r p r e t t h i s
t o mean "Just b e fo r e th e d o s e o f th e 19th century" in r e ­
sponding t o th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
However, t h i s i s a r e c a l l
e r r o r , n ot a t r a n s f e r e r r o r .
In Forms Y and Z resp o n se com bination 3 - 3
In d ic a te s
th a t th e s e p u p i l s r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y th e c o n c e p t, "In c o l o n i a l
days," and seemed to i n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 1800" i n
th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T his seems t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y tru e o f
55
ten th graders.
In r e sp o n se com bination 1 - 3 and 3 - 1 in
Forms Y and Z, r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e s e p u p i l s r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y
the c o n c e p t, "In c o l o n i a l d ays," and seemed t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s
t o mean "About 1498" when resp o n d in g to the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
I f th e read er w i l l examine
3- 0;
and 1 - 3
t h e s e resp o n se com bin ations -
and 3 - 1 in Forms W and I , r e s p e c t i v e l y -
he w i l l n o te t h a t t h i s e r r o r i s n o t a s s e r io u s when th e p r e s e n t s
t i o n i s d e f i n i t e a s I t i s when th e p r e s e n t a t io n i s i n d e f i n i t e .
One o th e r s t r i k i n g e rr o r by s i x t h grade p u p i l s i s
r e f l e c t e d i n r esp o n se com bination 3 - 4 i n Form Z •
The p u p i l s
in t h i s c a se c o r r e c t l y r e t a in e d the c o n c e p t, "In c o l o n i a l d a y s , ”
and seemed t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About I860" in the t r a n s ­
fer t e s t .
rz
3G
T a b le
Question
How l o n g d o e s
lum ber to m ature?
it
take
m ost
13
F o r e sts
tr e e s
-
4
th a t
are
D e fin ite
About 500 y e a r s .
*From 50 t o 75 y e
About £5 y e a r s .
Not more than 5
In d e fin ite
*A l o n g p e r i o d
o f
A sh ort tim e.
S everal c e n tu r ie
J u st a few y e a r s
\i;
Form
D e fin ite
R-
T
4
7
8
9
7
SSS-1
S-1
S-
6
8
0
2
T
7
9
9
9
9
RR~
R -1
R -1
6
8
0
2
Form
R- 6
R- 6
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
9
7
4
2
6
8
0
5
4
1
.5
.7
.8
.1
.1
s.
.
.1
.9
.7
.9
.0
X:
D e fin ite
o r e se n ta tio n .
F ir st
te s t
in d e f i n i t e .
4 1
73
79
91
71
.0
.7
.6
.3
.6
70 .7
8 7 .9
88.6
3
;8
6
6
:8
1
10
12
10
6
8
3
50
89
6 10
10
V
b 4
10
6
10
10
6
12
7
2
8
1
6
3
LO
6
2
i2
£
:8
93
b
X" l
1
8
|641
12
10
78
8
6
10
3
LO
8
6
1
10
1
6
9 4 .0
8 7 .0
10
8
6
;12
10
:8
: 1
:12
;
1
6
•8
• 1
6
;i2
10
:8
6
2
:
^ 2
6
;8
1
5
:8
10
:12
10
6
:i2
10
6
■12
4
3
;’ 8
3
8
9
6 1
8
1
2
:8
6
:12
10
1
:12
10
5
3
1
1
:L2
•8
:8
02
4
3
3
7
1
•8
1
•12
1
:8
6
:8
•12
10
■12
6
58
2
10
:8
l u i
10
10
:
:8
10
5
02
1C
7
:1'2
: 95
Io
I—
:12
D e fin j. t e
2
.3 _ _
614
: 73
:
6
1
4
:i2
8
•8
2
:12
10
•12
6
2
•8
1
12
:
:12
1
6
10
:12
2
80
12
10
fo r
y ea rs.
2
n r e s e n ta tio n .
F ir s t
t e s t
d e f in it e
;8
6
used
y e a r s.
?>
8
be
a rs.
I n d e fin ite
6
to
6
2
|8
5
5
10
16
:±2
10 6
4
:12
Table 13 (continued)
Q u e s t i on
Forests - 4
I n d e f in it e
Form
6
Y;
5
I n d e f in i t e
p r e s e n t a t io n .
F ir s t
t e s t
r
e
R -12
2
3
1
2
.8
.7
.8
.2
n
R-
T
2 2 .8
i
S- 6
S- 8
S -10
7 5 .0
t
e
R - 8
R -10
S-12
S-
T
0
3
6
0
8
6
1
12
10
8
6
8
10
12
2
1
10
12
1
D
6
6
2
\12
10
d e f i n i t e „
R-
;8
:
:8
.....
! 34
6
21
10
18
.‘1 2
• 20
■8
6
10
f
8
2
6
8
5
8
1
12
5
10
6
12
10
12
8
6
8
i
6
26
: 31
•12
; 52
10
57
•8
:
6
1
4
:
:
10
8 2 .9
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
8 6 .9
10
2
12
1
1
10
2
6
2
10
10
12
10
16
12
11
8
6
8
12
1
15
10
9
10
2
4
17
3
8
2
12
6
8
3
9
12 1
12 7
D e f in it e
Form
Zl
6
2
I n d e f in it e
t e s t
i n d e f i n i t e ,
2
I
n
6
a
R
R
R
R
- 6
- 8
-10
-1E
2
2
2
3
1
9
0
4
.6
.6
.6
.3
e
f
i
n
R_
T
2 6 .5
i
S-
6
4 1 .2
e
S-
2
8
3 6 .7
2 5 .0
S-12
3 8 .6
S-
3 4 .8
T
1
10
:8
j8 2 1
829
L2 1
xs 4
i2 !
3
:8
6
:12
rio
:
6
■8
4
*41
6 i
8
10
12
8
6
1
1
4
10
8
9
10 7
2
6 6
8 e
10
12
1
1
8
6
12
10
12
10
1
6
9
8
1
3
10
6
12
H
1
6
:12
LO
i
12
6 19
1
2
t 3
3-10
2
10
p r e s e n ta t io n .
F ir s t
1
12
1
:8
6 6
•12
101
8
610
12
6
7
16
8 8
12 B
10 7
12 4
8
K ey:
*
R
—
- -
C orrect
answ er in t e s t ,
per cen t
o f t o t a l num ber
b o th
S
- -
P er
a lso
d e f i n i t e
cen t
o f
answ ered
and
a n sw erin g
qu e s t i o n
in d e f in it e an sw ers
num ber
second
an sw erin g f i r s t t e s t
t e s t
c o r r e c t ly .
whog a v e
c o r r e c t ly ,
c o r r e c tly
who
58
B esponse A n a ly s is - Time Concept
Q uestion; f o r e s t a - 4
The r e s p e c t i v e H v a lu e s seem to i n d i c a t e c l e a r l y
t h a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n o f t h i s concept was more mean­
i n g f u l t o a l l g r a d e s than th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n .
Forms
In
and X th e i n c r e a s e s i n p e r ce n ta g e o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n se s
from grade s i x through grade tw e lv e are s i g n i f i c a n t .
n o t tr u e In Forms Y and Z•
T h is i s
The p e r c e n ta g e s o f g ra d es s i x and
e i g h t are l a r g e r than grad es t e n and tw e lv e in Form Y and l a r g e r
than grade te n in Form Z.
The range o f p e r c e n ta g e s i s a ls o
much s m a lle r i n Forma Y and z than in Forms w and x .
In Forms &' and X resp o n se com bin ations 3 - 1
1- 3,
and
r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n d i c a t e th a t th e s e p u p i l s responded e r ­
r o n e o u sly t o th e answer, "About 25 y e a r s ," and seemed to i n t e r ­
p ret t h i s to mean "A lo n g p e r io d o f years" in responding t o the
tra n sfer t e s t .
In resp on se com binations 2 - 4
and 4 - 2 ,
re­
s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p i l s in v o lv e d r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y th e c o n c ep t,
"From BO to 76 y e a r s ," but seemed to I n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean
"Just a few years" i n the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In respon se combina­
t i o n 4 - 4 in both form s, the p u p ils in v o lv e d responded e r ­
r o n e o u sly to the answer, "Not more than 5 y e a r s ," and seemed
to i n t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean "Just a few years" in th e t r a n s f e r
test.
A l l th r e e o f t h e s e wrong r e s p o n se s seemed to p a r t i c u l a r ­
l y be common t o grade s i x .
In Forms Y and Z resp o n se com binations 3 - 1
1 - 3 ,
and
r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n d i c a t e th a t th e s e p u p i l s r e t a in e d cor­
r e c t l y th e c o n c e p t, "A long p e r io d of y e a r s ," but seemed to
i n t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean "About 26 years" when responding to
th e t r a n s f e r t e a t .
T h is was th e most common wrong resp on se
f o r a l l g r a d e s , hut e s p e c i a l l y f o r g r a d e s e i g h t , t e n , and
tw e lv e .
In r esp o n se co m b in ation s 3 - 4
and 4 - 3 ,
r esp e c tiv e ­
l y , th e p u p i l s in v o lv e d responded e r r o n e o u s ly t o the answer,
"Just a few y e a r s ," and seemed to i n t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean "About
£B years" i n th e t r a n s f e r t e a t .
In r esp o n se com bination 4 - 4
in both forms the p u p i l s in v o lv e d responded e r r o n e o u s ly t o the
answer, "Just a few y e a r s ," and seemed to i n t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean
"Bot more than 5 years" in respon ding to the t r a n s f e r t e a t .
60
*
Table 14
Coal
Question
A lthou gh
f i r s t
lea rn
how
coal
to
use
i s
o f
-
1
great
v a lu e,
when
did
man
it?
D e fin ite
In
In
*Iri
In
the 1 3 0 0 1s.
1648.
the 1 7 0 0 's.
1860.
I n d e fin ite
A b ou t t h e t im e o f t h e C i v i l W ar.
*About th e tim e W ash in gton was a b o y .
A fte r th e d is c o v e r y o f A m erica.
A very
short
tim e
ago.
I n d e f in i te
Form
18 .8
34 .3
RR —1 0
R -12
£
3 3 .3
6 4 .9
3 5 .4
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
2 6 .4
4 0 .2
3 5 .3
S-12
S- T
58 • 9
4 1 .1
6
.8
10
: 12
1
F ir st
te st
d e fin i te *
R- 6
8
6
.8
6
8
6
u:
D e fin ite
nre se n ta tio n .
10
D
e
f
i
n
i
*
e
12
LO
8
3
:8
6 4
2
1
12
Io
10
1
•12
10
;12
;8
6
3
1
:8
1
;12
1
1
;i2
1C
10
:12
°
1
6 23
8 23
c 19
:8 3 5
6 17
;8 1 6
10 3 6
12 2 4
L03 5
;125 6
101 5
:1 2 n
5
8
6
;8
6
:8
13
:8
: 13
3
5
10 4
7
5
10
12
;i2
6
101 3
6
i
•12
10
4
1*
4
;8
4
■12
10
2
1
3
D e fin ite
L
Form
RRR -1
R -1
R-
6
8
0
2
T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S-
T
6
X:
D e fin ite
n resen tation *
F ir st te st
in d e f in it e ,
1
2
2
4
5
6
4
0
.8
.5
.0
.2
26 .4
5 9 .3
9 2 .6
9 2 .0
93 .2
8 5 .4
6
16
I
6
nd 2*
io
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
6
12
6
12
8
4
10
8
1
3
2
to
2
;3 1
:12
3
1
6
4
6
;8 2
6
13
:8 21
.
6
102 2
|12 1 5
10 4
3 16
:8 2 5
6 8
10 2 3
;1 2 4 i
101
i1 2 *
7
6 3
:8
:1 2 1 7
10 4
•12
6 20
i8 2 0
S 8
10_
19
12
:
f t
:8
7
:12 5
;8
;12i
;8
3
:8
6 15
6
3
10
6
10
L-
12
8 1
10
6
10
:12
1
:8
12
10 U
17
;8
^
: 12
:
4
61
T a b l e 14 ( c o n t i n u e d )
Question
p Qg i . i
I n d e f in it e
1
Form
6
Y;
2
8
I n d e f in it e
p r e s e n ta tio n ,,
F ir s t
t e s t
10
d e f in it e ,,
6
D
e £ 10
f
R- 6 3 4 . 0
R- 8 4 2 . 6
R -10
5 3 .3
i
62.6
R“ T 4 8 . 1
n
R
-12
6
i 3
8- 8
S- 8
8 7 .2
8 1 .1
- S-10
e
6
93.9
2-12
4
10
2- T 8 8 . 7
8
5
8
12
2
2
4
10
1
10
10
6
17
34
10
12
5
8
6
12
6
9 0 .6
1
8
1
1
10
*
t
12
1
3
6
57
7 6 28
12
8
12
3
6
1
1
10
2
9
13
4
8
6
10
1
12
10
8
6
12
10
12
1
2
1
6
8
6
43
3
3
1
12
10
12
10
62
1
4
6
8
6
8 16
4
8
d
2 L° 15 12 10
10
10
12
1
2
2
8
2
7
2
D e f in it e
1
6
Z*
Form
I n d e f in it e
10
p r e se n t at io n «
F ir s t
t e s t
I n d e f in i t e ,
R- 8
R- 8
R- 1 0
R- T
23.5
47.5
48.0
66.7
46.5
2-
8
3i . i
2~ 8
6 7 .3
2 -1 °
S-12
2- T
59.0
R -12
1
_
2
8
6
12
f
i
i 3
t
e
1
12
10
8
6
12
1
6 1 8
4
7 6 .7
1*0
6 6 .9
6
12
1
10 1
6
LO
^
8
8 3 6 21 8 18 1 23
6
n
1
10 2
i
n
d
e 2 10
3
12
10
16
9
8
1
6 1
10
12
10
49
6
5
12
10
8
6
12
10
4
8
2
10
8
6
47
12
66
8
io
2
; 12
3 ;
*'8
24 : 14
:12
17 : 11
6
2
12
8
4 :
12
1
4
■8
:
10
.12
6
& :8 i o
3
i
10
12
3
6
12
8 :
3
6
K ey:
*
R
—
- -
C orrect
answ er in t e s t *
P er cen t
o f t o t a l num ber
b o th
S
- -
P er
a lso
d e f i n i t e
cen t
o f
and
numb e r
answ ered
a n sw erin g
q u e stio n
in d e f in i t e an sw ers
an sw erin g f i r s t
se c o n d ~ te s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly *
who g a v e
c o r r e c t ly .
c o r r e c t ly
who
Response a n a l y s i s - Time Concept
Q uestion: Coal - 1
***"’
The R v a l u e s o f a l l g r a d e s I n d ic a t e c l e a r l y th a t the
i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s concept seemed t o he more mean­
i n g f u l than i t s d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n .
In o th er words, "In the
17001 e" a s employed i n the s e l e c t i o n on C oal, seemed t o la c k
d e f i n i t e meaning and was n o t a s e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t e d a s "About
the time Washington was a h o y . ”
In Forms W and X th e wrong r e s p o n s e s seemed t o he
l a r g e l y o f th r e e t y p e s .
1 - 3 ,
In respon se com binations 3 - 1
and
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p i l s in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t l y the
c o n c e p t, "In th e 1700 ’ s ," hut seemed t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean
"About th e time o f the C i v i l War" when responding t o the t r a n s ­
fer t e s t .
grade
T h is e r r o r seemea to be p a r t i c u l a r l y t y p i c a l o f te n th
p u p ils.
In resp on se com bination 3 - 3 in both forms the
p u p i l s in v o lv e d r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y the c o n cep t, "In the 1700*s , ”
but seemed t o I n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "A fter the d is c o v e r y o f
America” when respon ding to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
com binations 3 - 4
In respon se
and 4 - 3 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , the p u p i l s in v o lv e d
r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y "In th e 1 7 0 0 's ," but seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s
to mean "A very sh o r t tim e ago" i n th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
A ll the
e r r o r s r e f l e c t e d in th e th r e e ty p e s o f wrong r e s p o n se s d escrib ed
above were o b v io u s ly t r a n s f e r e r r o r s , not r e t e n t i o n e r r o r s .
In Forms Y and Z resp on se com binations 4 - £ and £ - 4 ,
r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n d i c a t e th a t th e p u p i l s in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ­
l y the c o n c e p t, "About th e time Washington was a b o y ,” but seemed
t o in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "In 1850" when responding to the t r a n s ­
fer te s t.
T h is e r r o r seemed t o be e s p e c i a l l y tru e o f the s i x t h
grade p u p i l s .
In resp on se com bination 2 - 2 in both forms the
p u p i l s in v o lv e d r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y th e c o n c e p t, "About the
tim e Washington was a boy," but seemed to i n t e r p r e t t h i s to
mean "In 16 4 8," when r esp on d in g to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
64
Table
Q uestion
How
the
lon g
has
develop m en t
the
o f
15
Coal
U n ited
m in es
-
5
S ta te s
led
the
w orld
in
ce
ce
ce
ce
I
S in ce
and t h e
su p p ly o f c o a l?
d e fin ite
1620.
1776.
1820.
1899.
n d e fin ite
th e tim e C olum bus d is c o v e r e d
S in ce
A m eriea.
the e a r ly
S
S
S
* S
in
in
in
in
*For
For
many
ju st
1 8 0 0 's.
yea rs.
a few y e a r s .
I n d e f in i te
4
Form
6
1;
D e fin ite
n r e s e n ta tio n .
2
10
F ir st
te s t
d e fin i te »
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
20.2
20.2
4 0 .6
2 4 .5
4 4 .7
3 6 .2
6
2
i
n
i
t
e
21.6
3 2 .0
20.6
3 1.6
50 .0
5 6 .8
80 .5
S-
5 5 .4
:I2
10
:8
6
3
3
10
6
2
•8
4
6
10
•8
6
7
8
10
8
6
8
10
15
1 9 121 S
6
17
102 1
3
6
3
2
1
nd ^2 io
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
•8
4
6
LO
1
6
:8
10
13
•12
:8
6
4
16
1
2
12
13
25
£
6
8
10
12
1
8
6
20
8
10
7
6
12
LO
5
2
12
8
16
12
33
8
5
1C
2
24
21
6
:8
22
12
18
12
10
1C
8
4
•12
1
10
I
10
:8
6
1
12
1
41
11
3
1
L.
21
■12
18
4
6
1
10
:8
:12
10
5
;8
7
10
8
10
:8
10
12
2
17
6
11
1
6
2
6
4
3
11
8
1
1
6
20
1
1
6
:12
1
6
1C
3
10
I
2
2
2
5
6
6
5
:12
D e fin ite
•
1
;8
:12
7
10
14
12
10
;8
14
12
1
3
8 15
1 7 12
L0
;12
6
16
6
a2
10
X:
D e fin ite
n resen ta tio n .
F ir st
te st
in d e fin i t e .
1 6 .3
10
6
4 3 .3
1 2 .0
3
1
•12
10
12
L0
:8
4
3 7 .5
5 1 .9
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
T
D
e
f
:12
8
6
2
3
5
8
1
;8
6
o
cu
co
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
17 .2
8
6
.8
7
12
7
19
Table 15 (continued)
Quest!on
C oal
-
5
I n d e f in it e
Form
Y;
I n d e f in it e
1
p re s e n t a t i o n «
F ir s t
12
10
12
10
12
10
12
10
12.
12
10
12
10
12
10
12
t e s t
d e f i n i t e .
16
R-
2
6
9 .0
R-t 8
R -10
1 5 .7
1 7 .0
i
R -12
1 7 .2
n
R -
1 4 .7
i
S-
T
6
62*9
S- 8
S-10
5 9 *3
6 6 .7
S-12
S~ T
7 7 .3
6 4 .5
12
f
17
10
17
18
13
24
3
t
e
12
10
12
19
4
10
12
17
14
10
12
20
24
12
10
12
17
18
D e f in it e
2
Form
6
p r e s e n ta tio n ,
F ir s t
t e s t
i n d e f i n i t e ,
1 1 .3
d
e
2 2 .2
2 5 .5
f
i
R -12
3 1 .3
R -
2 2 .7
n
i
2 6 .2
t
e
SS-
10
.12
10
12
10
10
10
12
12
IQ
12
11
10
13
3
8
10
12
10
12
13
1?L6
14
6
13
HO
12
6
8
4 0 .0
6
8
S -10
S-12
4 6 .4
4 6 .3
1(5'
12
S-
4 0 .9
T
12
I
n
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
T
3
Z:
I n d e f in it e
10
10
21
11
^7
¥ l
11
10,
26
22
k
12
10
12
10
12
10
12
Key:
*
R
—
- -
C orrect
answ er in t e s t 0
Per cen t
o f t o t a l num ber
b o th
S
- -
P er
a lso
d e f i n i t e
cen t
o f
and
num ber
answ ered
an sw erin g
q u e stio n
in d e f in it e an sw ers
second
an sw erin g f i r s t
t e s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly ^
who g a v e
c o r r e c tly *
c o r r e c tly
who
66
Respouse A n a ly s is - Time Concept
Q u estio n : Coal - 5
On th e w hole, th e r e s p e c t i v e R v a lu e s seem to show
th a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s concept was s l i g h t l y
more m e a n in gfu l t o th e p u p i l s than th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a ­
tio n *
The p e r c e n t a g e s o f oo rreo t r e s p o n s e s show sm all i n ­
c r e a s e s a s t o g ra d es i n a l l forms e x c e p t Form iff,
Her© th e
R v a lu e f o r grad es e i g h t and te n are th e same.
The wrong r e s p o n s e s in a l l fo u r forms are w e ll
scattered .
In Forms iff and X resp on se com bination 2 - Z ( i n
both forms) i n d i o a t e s th a t th e p u p i l s in v o lv e d responded e r ­
r o n e o u sly to th e answer, "Since 1776," and seemed to in t e r p r e t
t h i s t o mean "Since th e e a r l y 1800*s" i n the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is e r r o r was common l a r g e l y t o grades s i x , e i g h t , and t e n .
In resp on se com bin ations 3 - 2
and 2 - 3 ,
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e
p u p i l s in v o lv e d responded e r r o n e o u s ly t o th e answer, "Since
1820," and seemed to i n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "Since the e a r ly
180 0's" i n th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
and 2 - 4 ,
In resp on se com binations 4 - 2
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p i l s in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ­
l y th e c o n c e p t, "Since 1899," but seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to
mean "Since th e e a r l y 1800's" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t *
seemed to
be common e s p e c i a l l y t o grades e i g h t , t e n ,
T h is e r r o r
andt w e lv e .
In Forms Y and Z r esp o n se combination 3 - 3 ( i n
both
forms) i n d i c a t e s th a t th e p u p i l s in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t l y
the c o n c e p t, "For many y e a r s ," but seemed to i n t e r p r e t t h i s
t o mean "Since 1820" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
b in a tio n s 3 - 2
and 2 - 3 ,
In resp o n se com­
r e s p e c t i v e l y , the p u p i l s in v o lv e d
responded e r r o n e o u s ly t o th e answer, "Since th e e a r l y 1800*8,"
and seemed t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "Sinoe 1820" i n respond­
in g to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t *
error.
T h is was a r e t e n t i o n , n ot a t r a n s f e r
In r e s p o n s e com bination 2 - 2 in both form s, the p u p i l s
in v o lv e d responded e r r o n e o u s ly t o th e answer, "Since th e e a r l y
1 8 0 0 's," and seemed to i n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "Since 1776" in
th e t r a n s f e r t e s t *
6 8
T a b le 16
Q uestion
Hov>
in
the
often
U n ited
in
, F i r a t - A J5u-
1937
did
au tom ob iles
cause
a
death,
S tates?
D e fin ite
every 4 h ou rs.
every 60 m in u tes.
e v e r y 13 m in u t e s .
every 5 secon d s.
I n d e fin ite
E very few h o u rs.
*Every few m in u te s .
O nly o c c a s i o n a l l y .
R a rely .
One
One
*One
One
In d e fin i te
F o rm
7
-1
-1
R-
6
8
0
2
T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
59 .0
8 2 .5
8 7 .6
9 5 .1
8 1 .2
8
9
9
9
6
4
5
9
.1
.4
.8
.0
9 4 .9
1
D
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
6
10
6
10
7
4
2
2
8
io
10
3
£
12
3
1
8
f 59
[°92
1
10
6
4
8
7
10
•8
6
:12
1C
12
6
1
;8
12 '
1
10
8
1
12
8
6
•
2
2
32
10
1
2
10
■12 '
:12
10
97
6
i2
6
85
12
12
1
1
5
5
1
10
12
8
6
;8
1
1
io ‘
12
8
6
1
2
8
6
8
6
3
12
10"
F ir st te s t
d e fin ite *
R
R
R
R
8
6
u;
D e fin ite
n r e se n ta tio n .
1
:8
6
8
>12
10
12
D e fin i te
2
Form
X:
D e fin ite
n resen tation *
F ir st
te st
in d e f in it e .
6
9
10
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-1E
S- T
9 8 .5
10
9 1 .6
9 5 .3
6
8 6 .4
9 4 .2
8 0 .4
9 9 .0
9 6 .1
7
12
6
66.0
7 6 .0
8
2
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -1E
R- T
3
3
6
10
3
8
3
6
’
12
6
8
LO
12
8
6
4
8
p
tJ
6
10
L_
6
4
io
8
6
10
i
i
io
12
:8
: 76
6
8
*12
10
i
4
97
:
:8
:
;12
12
3
1
6
8
10
12
1
;i2
3
6
2
:8
2
12
1
:i2
82
8
10
:
io
2
12
1
66
1
6
:8
3
3
12
3
io
7
1
10
6
1
6
1
10
12
60
Table 16 (continued.)
Q u e stio n
S a fe ty
F ir s t
-
g
I n d e f in it e
I
2
8
Form
z—
30
I n d e f in i t e
10
p r e s e n t a t io n .
F ir s t
t e s t
6 :
12
Z
-----------------
6
2 0 .0
R - 8
R -10
3 9 .0
f
4 9 .0
i
6 1 .2
4 2 .3
n
R-
R -12
R -
T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
10
10
12
10
t
e
12
9 8 .4
9 4 .5
75
10 &
12
10
12
8
—
:
10
:12
10
9
:
IE
20
I
39
52
:i2
; 60
19
25
io
9 6 .3
S-
8
10
12
12
6
i
8 3 .3
9 2 .9
S-12
T
9
10
8
5
10 1 :12 s
d e f in it e *
D
e
3
~ r ~
10
12
8
10
10
1102 4
P l 3
12
10
8
6
12
10
12
12
D e f in it e
2
Form
2 1
I n d e f in it e
6
p r e s e n ta tio n *
10
F ir s t
t e s t
i n d e f i n i t e ,
R-
6
R - 8
R -10
2 4 .2
5 2 .5
R -12
6 9 .7
f
i
n
R -
T
5 1 .8
i
SS-
6
8
4 8 .9
t
e
S-10
S-12
S-
T
5 9 .4
6
6
7
6
5
9
5
6
.
.
.
.
0
0
8
9
16
8
2
8
6
2
3
3
10
12
1
6
10
4
io
6
10
2
x 12
10
6
1
5
12
10
:8
3
3
6
:
^ i8;12
:
i i8
3
10
•12
12
6
8
8
6
7
6
3
13
3
6
10
12
5
i
n
d
e
8
5
:8
1
j12
2
10
12
1
1
|6 2 3
8 52
6 15
:8 18
[io
12
10
:12
3
7
6
|
6
8
1
10
1
;1 2
3
|8
6
;12
10
12
i
14
69
60
8
12
:
I
4
:8
6
i
10
6
•12
1
10
:8
12
Key;
*
R
S
—
- - -
C orrect
answ er in t e s t ,
Per cen t
o f t o t a l num ber
a n sw erin g
q u e stio n
whog a v e
b o th d e f i n i t e
and
in d e f in i t e an sw ers c o i r e c t l y .
P er
cen t
o f num ber a n sw e rin g
f i r s t t e s t
c o r r e c t ly
a lso
answ ered
se c o n d ~ te s t
c o r r e c tly *
who
B e 8ponBe A n a ly s is - Tims Concept
Q u estio n : S a fe ty F i r s t - 3
The r e s p e c t i v e R v a lu e s seem t o I n d i c a t e th a t the
d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s concept was more m eanin gful to
th e p u p i l s o f a l l fo u r g ra d es than th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n .
There i s a d e f i n i t e in c r e a s e o f p e r ce n ta g e o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n se s
a s t o g ra d es i n a l l fo u r forme.
However, th e range o f th e s e
v a lu e s i s g r e a t e r f o r Forms Y and z than f o r Forms I and X.
Forms W and X r e v e a l o n ly one or two ty p e s o f wrong
response.
These are o f minor s i g n i f i c a n c e .
Response combina­
t i o n 1 - 1 in both forms i n d i c a t e s th a t th e s e p u p i l s responded
e r r o n e o u s ly to th e answer, "One every fo u r hou rs," and seemed
t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "Ivery few hours" when responding to
th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is wrong resp on se was made c h i e f l y by
s i x t h and e i g h t h grade p u p i l s .
In respon se com binations 2 - 1
and 1 - 2 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , the p u p i l s in v o lv e d responded e rro n eo u s­
l y t o th e answer, "One every 60 m in u te s," and seemed to i n t e r ­
p r e t t h i s to mean"Every few hours" in the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
The wrong r e s p o n s e s In Forms Y and ?, are more w idely
s c a t t e r e d , e s p e c i a l l y f o r th e s i x t h gra d e.
tio n s 4 - 2
and 2 - 4 ,
In response combina­
r e s p e c t i v e l y , the p u p i l s in vo lved r e ­
ta in e d c o r r e c t l y the c o n c e p t, "Every few m in u tes," and seemed
to i n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "One ev er y 6 seconds" in responding
to the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In resp o n se combination 1 - 1 in both
forms t h e s e p u p i l s responded e r r o n e o u s ly to th e answer, "Every
few hou rs," and seemed t o in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "One every
4 hours" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In respon se combination £ - 2
i n b o th fo rm s, th e p u p i l s in v o lv e d r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y the
c o n o e p t, "Every few m in u te s ," and seemed t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s
to mean "One ©very 60 minutes" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
7 2
T a b le 17
Question R e a p i n g T o o l s - 5
From th e t im e
i t
ta k e to
im prove
cut grain ?
o f M cC o r m ick 's f i r s t m a c h in e , how lo n g
did
the reap er
so t h a t i t
w ould b i n d a s w e l l a s
D e fin ite
About
3 y e a r s.
A b ou t 15 y e a r s .
*About 40 y ea rs.
About 100 y e a r s .
I n d e fin ite
'M any y e a r s .
A very
short tim e.
S everal c e n tu r ie s.
Several g e n e r a tio n s.
I n d e f in i te
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
l ;
D e fin ite
p r e se n ta tio n .
F ir st
te st
d e f in it e ,
2
4
4
6
4
4 .7
4.5
4 .2
3 .7
4 .4
71 .4
75 .0
73 .0
8 3 .3
76. 7
.8
6
6
5
12
10
26
3
1
1
10
9
6
12
5
25
45
6
6
1C4 6
6
6
4
10
3
12
4
1
:12
8
6
:8
12
1C
:
6
6
8
:8
1
3
2
10
12
6
8
6
;8
12
10
■12
10
■12
2
9
•8
:i2
1
: 13
4
1
i2
11
2
10
1
10
:12
15
65
2
12
: 13
:8
6
LO
12
6
: 14
•'12
19
3
2
:8
14
10
6
10
.8
6
1
9
7 :
1
10
:
:12
10
8
6
10
1
1
2
1
D e fin ite
1
Form
X:
D e fin ite
ore se n ta tio n .
F ir st
te st
in d e fin ite *
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
2
3
4
4
3
3
3
2
3
5
.8
.3
.3
.1
.6
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
42 .1
6 0 .0
70 .7
91. 7
6 5 .1
6
2
.3
6
14
5
19
3
6
: 14
24
10
1
18
13
6
:
8
: 13
6
10
11
6
1
12
!
8
10
2
10
:12
3
3
6
13
12
13
6
8
44
10
: 15
|8
2
41
6
:12
9
6
1
6
:8
LO
12
2
7
6
33
12
7
10
4
8
10
6
10
1
12
6
:8
6
8
10
i
12
2
*12
6
2
L-
1
:8
1
10
12
•12
1
8
:12
;
;8
1
22
10
10
1
•8
2
10
4
:12
2
73
Table 17 (continued)
Q u e stio n
R ea p in g
T o o ls
-
5
I n d e f in it e
2
Form
Y;
11
I n d e f in i t e
1
p r e s e n t a t i on*
F ir s t
14
12
6
1 2 .4
e
R~ 8
R -10
1 4 .6
1 4 .9
f
i
R -12
1 3 .3
n
R-
T
1 3 .8
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
7 0 .6
10
12
20
i
12
14
t
e
16
24
12
:
25
:
-8
io
10
12
10
T
8
6
io'
12
10
12
12
10
2
12
12
14
:i2
26
6
12
10
13
-12
6 :
8
'io
6
1 :
5 4 .2
6 7 .1
T
:
6
8 2 .3
6 6 .7
S-12
28
20
18
;■
;12
10
8
18
S-
26
7
t e s t
d e f in it e *
R-
3
8
10
12
10
12
10
10
12
2
D e f in it e
2
Form
RR-
Z:
I n d e f in it e
6
p r e s e n t at ion •
F ir s t
t e s t
I
i n d e f i n i t e «
n
10
16
6
8
1 4 .1
R -10
1 2 .7
f
i
R -12
1 1 .3
n
R-
T
1 1 .9
i
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
1 9 .6
3 4 .1
3 8 .2
S-12
2 9 .7
S-
2 9 .7
T
12
6
10
8
10
6
8
LO
8
5
21
2
i
4
12
i
10
7
6
6
•12
;
:
6
:12
5
1
12
10
12
10
12
10
;12
6
8
6
8
6
8
6
•8
10
12
12
10
10
1
7
1
1 :
8
2
■8
6
6
10
31
3 i 8
11
6
12
6
10
12
13
27
6
1
t
e
8
10
18
10
17
6
14
9
18
12
6
12
8
14
24
22
s
18
2
33
3
6
7
3
d
e
9 .3
8
10
12
2
6
1
12
3 ;
2
Key:
*
—
C orrect
R
- -
per
b o th
S
- -
P er
a lso
ans
cen t
o f
d e f i n i t e
cen t
o f
and
num ber
answ ered
in d e f in i t e
an sw erin g
second
t e s t
an sw ers
f i r s t
c o r r e c t ly .
t e s t
c o r r e c t ly .
c o r r e c tly
who
74
R esponse A n a ly s is - Time Concept
Q u estio n ; Reaping T o o le - 5
The r e s p e c t i v e R v a l u e s f o r a l l g r a d e s seem t o i n ­
d i c a t e t h a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s concep t was more
m eanin gful t o th e p u p i l s than the i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n .
The d i f f e r e n c e s between R v a l u e s i n Forme Y and Z are i r r e g u l a r .
In
Form Y, R-10 i s th e l a r g e s t ; i n Form Z, R- 8 i s th e l a r g e s t .
The range o f R v a lu e s i n t h e s e forms i s a l s o sm all compared
w ith th e range o f R v a lu e s in Forms W and X.
There are fo u r t y p e s o f wrong r e s p o n s e s in Forms W
and X.
In r esp o n se co m b in a tion s 1 - 2
and 2 - 1 ,
resp e c tiv e ly ,
tn e p u p i l s in v o lv e d responded e r r o n e o u s ly to the answer, "About
3 y e a r s ," and seemed to i n t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean "A v ery short
time" i n resp on d in g t o th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
t i c u l a r l y tr u e o f the s i x t h g r a d e .
2 - 1
T h is e r r o r was p a r­
In respon se com binations
and 1 - 2 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p i l s in v o lv ed responded
e r r o n e o u s ly t o th e answer, "About 16 y e a r s , " and seemed to
i n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "Many y ears" in the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In
respon se com bination 2 - 2 in both form s, th e s e p u p i l s respon­
ded e r r o n e o u s ly t o th e answer, "About 16 y e a r s ," and seemed to
i n t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean "A very short time" in the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In respon se com bin ations 3 - 2
and £ - 3 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , the
p u p i l s in v o lv e d r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y the c o n c e p t, "About 40 y e a r s ,"
and seemed t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean "A very short time" in the
tra n sfer t e s t .
T h is seemed t o be a common t w e l f t h grade e r r o r ,
e s p e c i a l l y i n Form X.
In Forms Y and Z r esp o n se com binations 1 - 2
and 2 - 1 ,
r e s p e c t i v e l y , the p u p i l s in v o lv e d responded e r r o n e o u s ly t o the
answ er. "A v e r y sh o r t tim e," and seemed to I n t e r p r e t t h i s to
mean "About 3 y ears" in respon ding to the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In
r esp o n se com bination 2 - £ i n b o th forms th e s e p u p i l s respon­
ded e r r o n e o u s ly to th e answer, "A v e ry sh o rt tim e," and seemed
to I n t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean "About 15 years" i n the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is e r r o r was made c h i e f l y by g ra d es e i g h t , t e n , and t w e lv e .
In r esp o n se com b in atio n s 2 - 1
and 1 - 2 ,
r e s p e c t i v e l y , the
p u p i l s in v o lv e d r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y th e c o n c e p t, "Many y e a r s ,"
and seemed t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 15 years" in the
tran sfer t e s t .
T h is e r r o r was made by almost e x a c t l y the same
number o f p u p i l s in a l l g r a d e s .
An e r r o r t y p i c a l o f the s i x t h
and e ig h t h g ra d es i s shown in resp o n se com bination 1 - 1 in
both form s.
Here th e p u p i l s in v o lv e d r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y the
c o n c e p t, "Many y e a r s ," but seemed t o in t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean
"About 3 years" in the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
76
T a b le 18
Question
Ho
cut
an
a
lon g
acre
of
w ould
it
take
Re a,p lira .. T..QJLL
a
stron g
man
w ith
a
s ic k le
to
grain ?
D e fin ite
One
Two
*A w
Two
m onth.
w eeks.
hole d a y .
hours.
I n d e fin ite
A very sh ort tim e.
A lon g tim e.
*Q u ite a few h o u rs.
A very lon g p e r io d .
I n h e f in i te
Form
R-
6
R— 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
2 3 .5
2
3
3
3
6
8
9
1
.0
.1
.2
.7
12
10
3
3
4
4
3
3 .3
1 .8
4 .4
4 .4
8 .9
12
10
10
6
1
1
2
12
t
e
10
2
12
10
4
6
3
6
8
5
10
12
10
8
6
5
38
6
4
1
12
10
1
2
2
12
1
4
7
6
2
5
10
12
10
8
11
11
40
40
6
1
8
6
12
10
2
12
1
27
24
46
10
1C
ti
0
2
3
1
42
30
8
6
1
1
8
1
10
8
6
D
8
6
1
12
10
1
D
e
f
i
n
i
8
2
1
1
1
1
7
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
8
6
6
8
6
I.:
D e fin ite
n r e s e n ta tio n »
F ir st
te st
d e f in it e .
8
2
10
12
4
2
D e fin ite
L
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
6
Xi
D e fin ite
n resen tation *
F ir st
te st
in d e f in it e .
2
2
2
3
3
4
8
9
8
0
.5
.0
.6
.8
.3
7 1 .4
8 2 .3
8 5 .3
8 8 .9
8 2 .4
2
8
3
6
6
3
12
TO
6
I
8
4
a^
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
10
10
1
LO
2
4
10
43
2
12
10
2
2
6
8
6
3
1,J i
L-
4
4
3
12
8
10
12
2
15
10
3
8
6
12
4
5
40
8
6
8
6
12
9
10
12
2
28
29
10
1
3
10
8
6
2
8
36
25
10
1
6
35
12
5
1
3
6
10
8
31
10
6
2
12
3
5
1
8
10
6
1
12
6
2
4
8
3
10
'12'
1
T able 18 (c o n tin u e d )
Q u e stio n
R eap in g, T o o ls
-
7
. I n d e f in it e
Form
Y;
I n d e f in it e
10
p r e s e n ta tio n *
F ir s t
t e s t
12
12
10
12
12
10
12
d e f i n i t e .
6
3 0 .3
D
e
R - 8
R -10
2 1 .6
f
2 6 .2
i
R-
R -12
3 8 .4
n
R-
T
2 9 .1
i
SSS-1
S-1
6
8
0
2
4 7 .6
t
e
S-
T
4 4 .1
11
10
:i 2
10
20
30
21
30
10
28
28
10
11
10
12
10
12
3 2 .8
4 2 .4
5 2 .8
10
10,
12
12
D e f in it e
1
t e s t
i n d e f i n i t e ,
RR~
6
8
2 1 .4
2 1 .2
10
n
R-
T
2 5 .4
i
S- 6
S- 8
S -10
S-12
S- T
7 0 .0
e
„
2
12
6
6
6
•8
10
10
:12
2
6
3
t 3
LO
6 27
8 38
10
11
12
14
10
29
12
25
6
6
:12
7
10
6
:8
i
12
4
73 .7
10
6
10
; 12
2
:12
:
4
1
•8 1 2
6
:1 2 5
2
:8
10
6
5
4
10
12
7
3
10
8 21
8
6
2
6
;8
5
6
21
3
8
1
2
:1 2 1
6
10
2
6 1 .8
2
8
•8
1
4
10
12
2
8
3
2
3
6
<T>
i
3 0 .6
10
8
'--(
2 8 .4
R -12
1
1
n
d
e
f
6
•12
j
R -10
78*4
7 8 .7
8
6
o
p r e s e n ta t io n .
F ir s t
i
-
4
i—1
I n d e f in it e
3
i—i
6
to
i ........
Zl
Form
2
4
10
12
8
6
3
12
1
K ey:
*
R
S
—
- - -
C orrect answ er in t e s t .
per
cen t
o f t o t a l num ber
an sw erin g
q u e stio n
whog a v e
b o th d e f i n i t e
and
in d e f in i t e an sw ers c o r r e c tly *
P er
cent
o f num ber a n sw e rin g
f i r s t t e s t
c o r r e c t ly
a lso
answ ered
second
t e s t
c o r r e c t ly .
who
78
R esponse A n a l y s i s - Time Concept
Q u estion ; Reaping T o o ls - 7
On th e w hole, th e r e s p e c t i v e R v a lu e s seem to i n ­
d ic a t e t h a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s concept was
s l i g h t l y more m ea n in g fu l than the i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n #
Only R- 6 i n Form Y seems t o i n d i c a t e a s u p e r i o r i t y in fa v o r
o f the i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n #
A lthough th e wrong r e s p o n s e s are p r e t t y w e ll s c a t t e r ­
ed in Forms W and X, r esp o n se com binations 3 - 2
and 2 - 3 ,
r e s p e c t i v e l y , seem t o i n d i c a t e th e most common error#
These
com bin ations seem t o show t h a t the p u p ils Involved r e ta in e d
c o r r e c t l y th e c o n c e p t, "A whole day," but seemed to i n t e r p r e t
t h i s to mean "A lo n g time" in responding t o the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
The wrong r e s p o n s e s i n Forms Y and Z a l s o are p r e t t y
w e ll s c a t te r e d #
The most common e r r o r i s shown i n resp on se
com b in a tio n s 3 - 2
and 2 - 3 ,
r e s p e c t i v e l y , which seem to
I n d ic a t e th a t th e p u p i l s in v o lv e d responded e rr o n e o u s ly to
the answer, "A lo n g tim e," and seemed to i n t e r p r e t t h i s to
mean "A whole day" i n responding to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t *
It
should be n oted th a t t h i s i s th e same wrong respon se as de­
s c r ib e d above i n Forms if and X#
In respon se combination 2 - 2
in both forms (Y and Z) t h e s e p u p i l s responded e rr o n e o u s ly to
the answer, "A lo n g tim e ," and seemed t o in t e r p r e t t h i s to
mean "Two weeks" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t #
79
T a b l e 19
Que s t i o n
What
was
P en n sylvan ia
the
in
area
of
-Oil - 3
the
f i r s t
p rod u ctive
o i l
f ie ld
in
1860?
D e fin ite
one squ re m ile .
16 sq u are m ile s .
100 square m ile s.
3 0 ,0 0 0
square m ile s.
I n d e fin ite
A lm ost a s b ig
as the
w hole
About
About
*About
About
*A l a r g e
te r r ito r y .
The a rea o f s e v e r a l
A sm all d i s t r i c t .
Form
R
R
R
R
- 6
- 8
-10
-12
R-
T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
2
3
3
3
3
9
4
6
4
3
39
44
45
40
42
.1
.0
.3
.6
.5
.5
.8
.7
.7
.7
10
"'
7
3
1
F ir st te st
d e fin ite
10
1 2 ........ 10
3
5
2
12
Io
5
10
6
10
2
10
4
i ‘2
10
: 13
:12
11
10
12
6
1
2
10
2
4
6
35
6
12
;8
2
35
:
6
8
1
30
8
6
8
6
1C
LO
37
12
1
:12
i
2
2
5
12
10
:
6
€
8
6
a
1
7
2
10
2
1
8
6
4
■8
6
5
8
6
:
12
3
D
e
f
i
n
i
t
b lo ck s.
In d e fin i te
2
3
;8
6
6
8
'6
U;
D e fin ite
p resen ta tio n ,,
c it y
sta te .
4
3
5
8
29
28
12
42
30
5
:8
6
8
12
10
12
2
10
2
D e fin ite
Form
R- 6
R- 6
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
6
X:
D e fin ite
p resen tation *
F ir st te s t
in d e f in it e .
3
3
3
2
2
1
1
3
3
9
64
81
82
77
75
.4
.3
.0
.8
.8
.0
.6
.0
.4
.3
1
8
2
6
:8
3
10
12
10
1
6
I
nd 2*
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
2
8
6
2
10' '
1
12
6
8
10
LO
3
5
2
5
:
4
12
5
:
4
2
:8
i 32
: 31
■12
12
2
6
8
18
14
12
21
10
i—
12
1
10
:8
: 10
6
4
4
10
11
12
:
6
10
3
:8
6
3
13
8
14
6
6
10
13
10
11
:
8
6
1
6
6
10
* 24
10
4
8
32
3
10
6
1
'p
io
6
6
13
3
10
1
7
4
3
6
12
8
2
12
1
8
10
•12
; 20
10
12
1
8 0
Table 19 (continued)
Q u e s t i on
I n d e f in it e
Form
6
Y;
:8
6
p r e s e n t a t i on,
6
D
e
6
1 1 .9
7 .9
7 .4
R -12
6 .1
n
R -
8 .3
i
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t
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:
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9
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f
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:8
:8
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12
5
ft- 8
R -10
T
•12
10
F ir s t
t e s t
d e f i n i t e ,
R-
8
'
10
I n d e f in it e
10
12
1
D e f in it e
1
Form
Z:
I n d e f in it e
6
RR -
n
a
1 1 .2
8 .3
f
R -10
i
R -12
1 3 .0
1 2 .2
n
R-
T
1 2 .0
i
SS-
6
8
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t
e
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5
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;io
13
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6
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10
8
6
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1
7
10
3
6
3
1
6
8
S -10
8
. 2
10
p r e s e n ta tio n *
F ir s t
t e s t
I
in d e f in it e *
2
8
6
12
12
4
j8
2
:12
:
1
10
6
6
6
4
123
10
8
6
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4
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101
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8
4
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i 12
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10
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10
6
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3
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12
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3 3 .1
17
34
22
• 17
6
8
2
:
1
Key;
*
—
C orrect
R
- -
per
S
b o th
P er
a lso
cen t
answ er
o f
in
t e s t ,
t o t a l num ber
an sw erin g
q u e stio n
whog a v e
d e f i n it e
and
in d e f in it e an sw ers c o rre ctly ®
cen t
o f num ber an sw erin g
f i r s t t e s t
c o r r e c tly
answ ered
second
t e s t
c o r r e c tly ?
who
Response A n a ly s is - Area Concept
q u e s tio n : 0 1 1 - 3
On th e w hole, th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n o f t h i s con­
cep t seemed to he more m eanin gful than th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a ­
t i o n f o r a l l th e g r a d e s t e s t e d .
The low v a lu e s o f R i n d i c a t e
th a t t h i s c o n cep t was d i f f i c u l t f o r th e p u p i l s to un derstan d.
T h is was p a r t i c u l a r l y tr u e when th e p r e s e n t a t io n was I n d e f i n i t e
Another o u ts ta n d in g f a c t concernin g th e R v a lu e s i s the f a c t
th a t the s i x t h grade in p r a c t i c a l l y every form responded at or
ahove the l e v e l o f each o f the o th er g r a d e s.
In Forms W and X th e most prominent com binations o f
wrong r esp o n se are 3 - 4
and 4 - 3 ,
r esp e c tiv e ly .
The p u p ils
making t h e s e r e s p o n s e s r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y th e c o n c ep t, "About
100 square m i l e s , " hut seemed t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "A
sm all d i s t r i c t " in responding to the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T his e r r o r
seemed t o he more t y p i c a l o f th e o ld e r p u p i l s than the younger
p u p ils.
and 4 - 1 ,
Two o th er prominent respon se com binations are 1 - 4
r e sp e c tiv e ly .
The p u p i l s in t h i s case responded
e r r o n e o u s ly to the answer, "About one square m ile ," in the
d e f i n i t e t e s t and seemed to i n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "A small
d i s t r i c t " in respon ding to the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In resp o n se com bination 2 - 2 in both Form Y and Form
Z the p u p i l s in v o lv e d r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y th e c o n cep t, "A la r g e
t e r r i t o r y , " and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 16
square m iles" when respon ding to the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In r e ­
sponse com bin ations 1 - 4 and 4 - 1, r e s p e c t i v e l y , the p u p ils
in v o lv e d responded e r r o n e o u s ly to the answer,"A sm all d i s t r i c t ,
and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About one square mile"
in th e t r a n s f e r t e a t .
In resp o n se co m b in ation s 2 - 4
and 4 - 2 ,
r e s p e c t i v e l y , the p u p i l s in v o lv e d a l s o responded e r r o n e o u s ly
t o the answ er, "A sm a ll d i s t r i c t , " and seemed to i n t e r p r e t t h i s
to mean "About 16 square m iles" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
of
A ll th re e
t h e s e r e s p o n se co m b in ation s p ro vid e I n t e r e s t i n g I l l u s t r a t i o n s
o f th e v a r i e t y o f meanings which p u p i l s g iv e to such i n d e f i n i t e
terms a s , "A la r g e t e r r i t o r y " and "A sm all d i s t r i c t . "
83
Table 20
Question
Of
m ain
what
size
are
the
Aviation - 8
em ergency
lan d in g
f i e l d s
on
th e
airw ays?
About
About
*About
About
I
* F a ir l
D e fin ite
10 square m ilo s .
200 a cres.
60 a c r e s .
2 a cres.
n d e fin ite
y la r g e .
Very sm a ll.
The a rea of
The a r e a o f
a
a
c ity
very
b lock .
la r g e farm .
In d e fin ite
Form
D e fin ite
n resen tation *
R-
6
R-
t
:
R -10
R -12
6
12
8
6
6
10
106 2
6 ?
^73
101
8
6
3
12
10
8
i
10
6
6
8
10
10
1
12
1
6
16
12
10
10
12
6
8
12
3
12
10
8
4
8
1
6
12
1
2
12
.3
.9
.0
.7
8
7
1C
12
6
8
12
6
3
1
2
52
8
6
10
8
1
6
8
12
3
12
10
6 6 .1
69
72
76
71
10
1
1
39
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
12
8
7
:o
Iff...... ;
R~ 8
6
3 7 .9
5 0 .0
5 9 .0
73 .0
5 4 .8
LO
12
10
6
1
1
4
7
F irst
te st
d e fin ite »
8
6
6
3
6
\.i
4
13
£
12
10
2
19
2
2
D e fin ite
2
R- 6
R- 6
R -10
R-12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
6
X:
D e fin ite
p resen tation *
F ir st te st
in d e fin ite e
2
3
4
6
4
2
6
9
6
4
39
74
73
83
69
.8
.4
.0
.4
.0
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.9
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8
8
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6
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nd 2^ 10
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6
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8
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48
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10
12
19
8
6
1
3
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12
10
1
6
12
6
1
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10
6
1
12
8
8
8
10
6
6
12
18
23
8
2
1
10
12
6
8
3
8
10
2
6
5
12
6
12
1
1
10
8
6
1
1
8
4
10
8
3
7
9
1
6
7
12'
10
8
10
8
6
68
1
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
I
IIcO^
Form
1
31
12
15
3
10
2
12
2
84
Table 20 (continued)
Q u e stio n
A v ia tio n
-
8
I n d e f in it e
Form
6
Y;
R-
6
R~ 8
R -10
R -12
R-
T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
p r e s e n t a t i o n
F ir s t
t e s t
10
d e f in it e *
6
i
4 0 .8
3 0 .0
n
5 6 .5
S-12
7 2 .2
7 6 .8
8 3 .3
S-
7 4 .8
T
:
14
:i2
•
13
#
:
10
D
i
t
e
:
19
LO
D
10
12
6
8
12
8
3
10
12.
10
6
8
1
12
6
26
10
8
12
10
1
8
1
10
12
12
8
5
8
4
10
12
5
10
8
1
4
6
4
2
10
12
1
17
8
4
3
’6
5
6
4
6
12
3
4
5
10
12
9
10
8
1
12
2
6
1
8
2
1
1
40
:
6
9
10
7
: 12
16
8
1
13
t 8
13
: 21
10
6
1
7
•12
43
8
9
:8
f
4 0 .6
6
:
■■12
12
D
e
1 2 .9
2 5 .7
;8
13
I n d e f in it e
12
7
3
1
4
13
: 26
D e f in it e
2
Form
Zt
I n d e f in it e
F ir s t
t e s t
i n d e f i n i t e ,
j
n
d
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
2 2 .3
2 4 .2
4 1 .2
f
i
e
R -12
4 6 .5
n
R-
T
3 3 .7
i
SS-
6
8
4 1 .2
t
e
S-10
4 7 .2
S-12
5 3 .5
4 3 .2
S-
T
;I2
10
p r e s e n ta t io n .
7
6
:
10
11
2
3
23
21
12
11
42
:
24
12
10
12
10
10
12
10
12
3 i
10 .112
2 : 1
6
4
l
:8
5 :
'12 ""' 10
I'd
-8
2 :
10..... : 12
2 9 .3
12
; 27
12
;8
fLO"............ \ l2
‘12
29
6
1 0 ..... :12
8
10
46
\8
6
6
12
10
12
i
10
1 :
3
12"
1
Key:
*
R
S
—
- - -
C orrect
answ er in te s t #
Per cen t
o f t o t a l num ber
a n sw erin g
q u e stio n
who g a v e
"both d e f i n i t e
and
in d e f i n i t e an sw ers c o r r e c t ly ,
P er
cen t
o f num ber a n sw erin g f i r s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly
a ls o
answ ered
second
t e s t
c o r r e c t ly .
who
Response A n a ly s is - Area Concept
Q u estio n : A v ia tio n - 0
The r e s p e c t i v e R v a l u e s f o r a l l g ra d es seem to i n ­
d i c a t e t h a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s area concept
was more m ea n in gfu l t o p u p i l s than the i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a ­
tio n ,
The most common wrong respon se i n Forms W and X i s
shown i n resp o n se co m b in ation s 3 - 4
and 4 - 3 ,
r e sp e c tiv e ly ,
which i n d i c a t e th a t t h e s e p u p i l s r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y the c o n c ep t,
wAbout 60 a c r e s , ” but seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "The area
o f a v e ry la r g e farm" when responding to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In Forms Y and % resp o n se com binations 4 - 1
1- 4,
and
r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n d i c a t e th a t the p u p i l s in v o lv ed r e ta in e d
c o r r e c t l y th e c o n c e p t, " F a ir ly la r g e ," but seemed to in t e r p r e t
t h i s to mean "About 2 acres" in responding to the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
This e r r o r was more common o f gra d es e i g h t , t e n , and tw elv e
than o f grade s i x .
In resp on se com binations £ - 1 and 1 - 2 ,
r e s p e c t i v e l y , the p u p ils in v o lv e d r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y the con­
c e p t , " F a ir ly l a r g e , " and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean
"About 800 acres" In the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
c h i e f l y by g r a d e s s i x and e i g h t .
T h is e rr o r was made
8 6
T a b l e 21
Question
How
b ig
is
go reSt8 - .4
the
average
farm
w ood lot?
D e fin ite
About
*About
At l e a
About
In
h a l f an
two
a c re
s t
20 a c
100 a c r e
d e f in i te
a cre.
s.
res.
s.
Very l a r g e .
* S m all.
Of co n sid era b le
s iz e .
As b ig as a farm .
I n d e fin ite
2
Form
I.:
D e fin ite
p resen ta tio n .
F irst te st
d e f in it e .
R- 6
R- 8
R —1 0
R -12
8 *8
l l '6
2 5 .0
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
2 7 .3
6 2 .7
S-12
S_ 'p
02 .9
55 .8
12
10
D
e
f
i
n
i
t
6
2
1
2
'X
10
12
1
9
10
‘
6 23
12
10
58
10
16
4
12 3
10£ £
8
6
12
8
1
1
3
6
6
12
10
23
4
8
6
8
9
9
12
2
12
10
10 3
5
12
10
32
6
10
12
11
8
2
3
12
10
6
12
4
6
8
26
22
6
8
6
6
3
£
“ lB
42
5
9
10
i
10
8
6
’
1
8
1
3
12
LO x
12
10
2
2
8
8
3
o
1—1
tD
R_ rp
4 0 *°
5 7 -4
29 • 4
1
1
8
6
6
8
6
3
1
D e fin ite
Form
R- 6
R- 6
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
6
Xi
D e fin ite
p resen ta tio n .
F ir st te st
in d e f in it e .
9 .9
2 0 .2
24.0
41 .3
24.0
7
0
7
7
7
1
3
9
4
6
.4
.3
.3
.1
.6
1
e
2
1
10
6
12
3
10
2
'
6
8
6
1'2
8
10
10
12
6
3
6 10
8
10
12
8
12
6
8
10
u
12
6
5
8
'°£3
i24 3
121 2
6
8
6
8
1
6
3
19
30
12
18
10
25
6
8
12
7
8
3
10 2
12
c
0
3
10 4
5
8
6
10 ,
6
12
10
6
8
9
10
14
12 ^
1
1
28
6
5
12
10
3
11
10
5
6
5
20
1
8
6
1
I
n
2
d
e
f
i
n 3
i
t
e
4
3
3
6
10
4
12
8
1
6
3
2
12
3
Tabl© 21 (continued)
Q u e s t i on
F orests - 3
I n d e f in it e
2
Form
6
Y*
8
I n d e f i n it e
d e f i n i t e .
RR~
6
3 .0
8
8 .9
f
1 5 .9
i
S-
2 1 .2
1 2 .2
6
8 .8
S- 8
S-10
S-12
2 1 .4
3 8 .6
4 3 .7
S-
2 9 .8
T
;
i
^
4
:8
;
2
:i2
:
10
6
n
1
4
7
3
9
12
3
17
21
4
:1 2 i
6
12
8
28
12
24
6
12
23
6
3
10
1
4
6
8
2
1
21
26
4
2 7
103 1
122 0
6
8
6
12
5
10
i
10
6
8
21
10
8
3
6
2
6
5
10
11
10
10
t
e
12
9
r ~
i
8
1
6
2
8
i
6
10
6
D
e
R -10
R -12
R - T
i
10
p r e s e n ta t i o n ,
F ir s t
t e s t
3
6
8
4
5
10
12
3
3
6
10
8
:8
6
2
; 121
i
2
LO
8
10 6
8
6 11
10
3
5
12
D e f in it e
c
1
Form
Zi
6
6
2
I n d e f in it e
10
p r e s e n ta tio n ,
F ir s t
t e s t
10
R -12
3 1 .3
R -
T
1 8 .6
SS-
6
8
7 0 .6
4
6
6
9
10
6 12
10
2
6
3
8
8
7
16
31
7
4
1
6 15
26
6 19
23
2
2 s
101 8
?1 £
1GL i
1 2 L6
6
8
8
8
10
12
1
6
8
4
10
6
6
5 4 .5
5 8 .5
6
15
LO
S -10
S-12
S- T
2
io
4
2
12
4
8
3
10
4
5
2
£
12
5
6
6
9
10
2
id
5 9 .2
2
1
5
12
10'
6
5 9 .1
4
12
4
8 13
2
9
10
12
%
3
8
6
10
2 1
2
1 3 .1
1 7 .6
£
6
1 2 .2
R- 6
R~ 8
R -10
3
1
i n d e f i n i t e .
3
8
6
12
4
1
Key:
*
R
—
- -
C orrect
answ er in te s t#
p er cen t
o f t o t a l num ber
b o th
S
—
P er
a lso
d e f i n it e
cen t
o f
and
numb e r
answ ered
ansvoerin g
q u e s tio n
in d e f in it e an sw ers
second
a n sw erin g f i r s t
t e s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly ,,
who g a v e
c o r r e c t ly ,
c o r r e c tly
who
Response A n a ly s is - Area Concept
Q u estio n : F o r e s t s - 3
On th e w hole, th e r e s p e c t i v e R v a lu e s seem to i n d i ­
c a te t h a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s area concep t was
more m ean in gfu l t o p u p i l s than the i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n .
Only R- 6 i n Form Z seems to i n d i c a t e a s u p e r i o r i t y in fa v o r
o f th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n .
In Forms W and X, r esp o n se com binations 2 - 3
3 - 2 ,
and
r e s p e c t i v e l y , seem to i n d i c a t e th a t th e s e p u p i l s r e ­
ta in e d c o r r e c t l y th e c o n c e p t, "About two a c r e s , ” but seemed to
in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "Of c o n s id e r a b le s i z e ” when responding
to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In r esp o n se combination 3 - 3 in both
forms th e p u p i l s in v o lv e d responded e r r o n e o u s ly to the answer,
"At l e a s t 20 a c r e s , ” and seemed to I n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "Of
c o n s id e r a b le s i z e ” i n the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In Forms Y and Z the same two ty p e s o f wrong response
d escrib ed above stand o u t .
3-2,
In respon se com bin ations 2 - 3
and
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p i l s in v o lv e d responded e r r o n e o u sly
to the answer, "Of c o n s id e r a b le s i a e , ” and seemed to i n t e r p r e t
t h i s t o mean "About two acres" i n the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In r e ­
sponse com bination 3 - 3 in both forms th e p u p ils in v o lv ed
responded e r r o n e o u s ly to th e answer, "Of c o n s id e r a b le s i z e , "
and seemed t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "At l e a s t 20 a c r e s ” in
the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
89
T a b l e 22
Question
How
b ig
are
the
Coal - 3
com bined
coal
f ie l d s
of the U n i t e d
States?
D e fin ite
About
About
*About
About
*As
As
As
As
b
b
b
b
2 0 0 ,0 0 0 a c r e s .
3 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 a cres.
5 0 0 ,0 0 0 square m ile s.
1 ,2 5 0 ,0 0 0
square m ile s.
I n d e fin ite
ig
ig
ig
ig
a
a
a
a
s
s
s
s
about 8 m id -w estern
E n glan d .
A u str a lia .
a l l t h e New E n g la n d
s t a t e s .
s ta te s .
I n d e fin ite
Form
6
: D efin ite
e r e se n ta tio n .
7
1
F ir st te st
d e f in it e .
6
P
P
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
48 .1
6 1 .4
4 3 .2
30
48
51
62
49
.1
.8
.6
.0
.4
D
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
?
lo
:8
5
•12
10
:8
1
S
■8
6
6
6
22
i s .....
: 42
10
50
02
; 62
•8
6
10
6
;
1
10
:12
:8
3
10
1■1
16
1C
:12
;8
7
■]8..........
9
26
16
6
2b
:I2
10
;12
10
:8
6
9
16
6
;8
6
10
'■12
10
1
25
|8
1
10
:.i2
2
•12
;
.*12
15
4
2
1
■12
J
:12
4
:8
3
10
10
%
10
O
I
;12
2
6
4
:12
3 •
6
6
6
O
rH
R -10
R -12
R- T
2 2 .2
/A Q
5
3
;8
6
CO
R-
10
2
•8
6
,8
i
;i2
1
2
■12
1
D e fin ite
1
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R-12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
X;
D efin ite
o resen ta tio n .
F ir st te st
in d e f in it e .
2
6
6
10
1
2
10
3
1
6
2
5
5
6
5
6
9
8
9
8
2
4
5
0
5
2
9
5
.7
.6
.7
.0
.1
.9
.7
.7
.6
8 7 .5
5
10
1
:12
6
2
LO
2
:
6
.‘12
6
3
10
-8
3
12
:
6
:8
8;
10
1
4
10
1
:8
3
10
2
2
6
:
1
6
1
2
8
3
12
6
6
:12
8
1
10
12
6
:8
6
1 9 : 18
10
12
3
10
4!
10
2
11
6!
6
12
6
:8
5
:12
10
10
:12
io
X
8
65
17!
6
6
51
29:
10
:8
i 1
:12
4
:8
52;
4
10
3
.8
;12
1 2 = 13
8
1
6
10
12
1 )0
22
T a b le
(c o n tin u e d )
C oal - 3
Q u e stio n
I n d e f in it e
£
.6
Y:
I n d e f in it e
R - 8
R -10
R -12
R-
T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
d e f i n i t e .
6
11
e 2 10
f
12
8
3
^
t
e
7 3 .0
7 2 .3
8 3 .9
9 8 .3
8 3 .3
3
6
8
27
LO
&
47
6
34
6
10
12
12
8
1
10
X%7
6
1
10
12
3
8
1
LO
6
1
4
1
2
12
1
6
10
6
10
'6
6
8
2
10
8
1
3
1
12
8
3
12.
3
10
2
8
12
2
6
6
6
1
2
8
6
10
12
1
8
10
8
3
6
2
12
12
1
21
27
8
5
10
8
1
10
3
12
1
6
9
i
n
10
3
8
2
8
4
D
2 7 .0
3 4 .0
4 3 .9
5 7 .6
4 0 .6
16
12 c
5
to
6
10
28
09.
R-
p r e s e n t a t i on
F ir s t
t e s t
6
8
H*
Form
12
5
3
8
2
10
12
6
15 8 32
D e f in it e
2
Form
Zs
6
21
I n d e f in it e
p r e s e n ta t io n .
F ir s t
t e s t
i n d e f i n i t e .
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R-
T
SS-
6
8
S-10
S-12
S- T
10
j
2 4 .0
3 1 .6
4 8 .0
6 0 .6
4 1 .3
8
6
9
4
10
22
13
6
6
9
10
8
6
12
10
14
1
3
8
12
8
9 6 23
5
1
10
49
6 3
10
12
8 “ 1
31
12
60
8
2
12
10
6
21
12
18
1 8 1
10
12
1
6
2
LO
3 3 .8
3 6 .5
6 2 .7
6 7 .4
4 8 .6
6
10
8
1
12
3
1
8
12
6
1
10
1
1
6
1
12
4
10
8
6
1
10 1
8
6
12
10
3
3
3
8
12
8
12
2
1
2
4
6
1
10
6
10
8
1
12
4
4
8
1
12
Key;
*
R
S
—
- - -
C orrect
answ er in t e s t .
Per cen t
o f t o t a l num ber
b o th
P er
a lso
ansv^ erin g
q u e stio n
who g a v e
d e f i n i t e
and
i n d e f i n it e an sw ers c o r r e c t ly .
cen t
o f numb e r
an sw erin g f i r s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly
answ ered"
second
t e s t
c o r r e c t ly .
who
91
B eepones A n a l y s i s •- Area Concept
Q uestion: Coal - 3
The r e s p e c t i v e B v a l u e s i n a l l forms seem t o i n d i ­
c a te t h a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n o f t h i s area concept was
s l i g h t l y more m ean in gfu l t o p u p i l s than the i n d e f i n i t e p r e se n ­
ta tio n ,
The s i x t h grade p e r c e n t a g e s seem to show th a t th e i n ­
d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n , a s employed i n Forms Y and Z, was more
m eaningful than th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n , a s employed in Form
W, but was not a s m ea n in gfu l a s the d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n as
employed In Form Z.
In Forms W and Z, resp on se com bin ations 3 - 4
4 - 3,
and
r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n d i c a t e th a t th e s e p u p i l s r e t a in e d c o r ­
r e c t l y th e c o n c e p t, "About 5 0 0 ,0 0 0 square m i l e s ," and seemed
to i n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "As b ig as a l l the Kew England s t a t e s "
in responding t o th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
3 -2
and 2 - 3 ,
In respon se com binations
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p i l s in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r ­
r e c t l y th e c o n c e p t, "About 5 0 0 ,0 0 0 square m i l e s ," and seemed to
in t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean "As b ig a s England" i n th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In Forms Y and Z, response combination 1 - 1 in both
forms seems t o show th a t th e p u p i l s in v o lv e d r e t a in e d c o r r e c t ­
ly th e c o n c e p t, "As b ig as about 8 m id-w estern s t a t e s , " but
seemed to i n t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean "About 2 00 ,00 0 acres" when
responding to th e t r a n s f e r t e a t ,
T h is e r r o r was e s p e c i a l l y
t y p i c a l o f gra d es s i x and e i g h t .
In respon se com binations 4 - 1
and 1 - 4 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , the p u p i l s in v o lv e d r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y
the co n o e p t, "AS b ig as about 8 m id-w estern s t a t e s , " but seemed
to i n t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 1 ,2 5 0 ,0 0 0 square m iles" in the
tran sfer t e s t .
t e n , and t w e l v e .
T h is e r r o r seemed to be t y p i c a l o f grades e i g h t ,
u
T a b l e 23
Question
ho*
To be
much
la rg e
space
enough
shou ld
An
An
*An
a
a
a
An
a
R- 6
R~ 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
square f e e t .
square f e e t.
square f e e t .
square f e e t .
I n d e fin ite
rea about
the
s iz e
rea about th e
siz e
rea about the s iz e
bedroom f l o o r .
rea about
the siz e
flo o r .
In d e fi
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
_ _
.0
.1
.9
.4
.4
1
2
2
3
2
.7
.5
.2
.6
.3
6
6
3
2
5
X;
D efin ite
p resen ta tio n ,
F ir st te st
in d e fin ite .
6
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
14 .8
1 5 .0
20 .6
1C
12
10
:12
10
12
10
-8
24
21
55
10
8
6
7
3
4
6
5
LO
8
22
: 42
6
:
7
:12
:
2
:8
:
2
22
12
10
De f i n i t e
2
.8
6
6
14
12 ‘
3
12
: 38
12
1
2 3 .1
1 8 .4
12
10
lo
1
10
22
1
■
1 :
6
9
4
12
2 :
12
13
3
io
10
6
n i te
12
12
I
8
c lo t h e s - c lo s e t
10
10
xZ
a
12
10
10
of
10
12
34
a c it y b lo ck .
a b u ild in g
lo t .
the average
;12
10
^
3
4
8
7
10
:8
6
9 3.7
93 .7
95 .2
9 6 .0
9 4 .9
10
12
6
8
28
2
28
19
1
21
1
10
28
27
2
46
io
8
6
12
1
8
6
1
:12
10 !
6
27
4
3
10
8
1
4
:12
•
1
6
12
6
10
15
LO
12
1
:8
6
12
10
20
L-
15
2
24
8
6
10
2
10
32
1
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
th e s t r e e t s ,
ch ild ?
;8
3
17
Form
7
o f
of
of
2
'6
i»:
D e fin ite
p resen ta tio n .
12
21
20
3 1
21
-
1600
900
300
100
1
F ir st te st
d e f in it e .
F irs t
to keep a l l th e c h ild r e n o f f
p la yg ro u n d s p ro v id e fo r each
D e fin ite
About
About
About
* About
Form
S a fe t.v
12
1
io
2
:i2
.
3
Table 23 (continued)
S a f e ty F i r s t - 7
Q u e stio n
I n d e f in it e
Form
Y:
I n d e f in it e
1
p r e s e n t a t i on 9
10
12
10
10
12
10
10
12
12
10
12
10
12
10
12.
10
12
10
12
10
2
12
F ir s t
t e s t
d e f i n i t e .
R -12
R-
T
T
2
f
i
n
i
t
e
8 8 .7
8 8 .9
8 9 .4
9 6 .2
9 1 .1
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S-
D
e
4 6 .5
6 7 .4
7 1.0
7 7 .5
6 3 .1
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
3
47
4
10
: 12
12
76
66
12
76
D e f in it e
2
Form
12
I n d e f in it e
F ir s t
t e s t
in d e f in it e o
1
I
n
d
6
R- 8
R -10
R-12
RS-
T
6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
8- T
3 8 .1
5 1 .6
6 0 .4
7 0 .7
6 6 .3
6 8 .6
e
10
12
10
12
10
10
12
10
12
10
2
2
f
i
10
n
1
t
e
4
11
10
p r e s e n ta tio n ,
R~
3
Z:
3
^
6 9 .9
7 6 .2
7 6 .9
73 .5
2
15
10
LO
10
37
51
2
10
12
10
12
10
12
2
10
12
10
12
10
12
14
18
61
70
Key:
*
R
S
—
- - -
C orrect
answ er in t e s t j
Per cen t
o f t o t a l num ber
b o th
P er
a lso
ansvtJering
q u e stio n
who g a v e
d e f i n it e
and
in d e f in it e an sw ers c o r r e c t ly .
cen t
o f num ber a n sw erin g f i r s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly
answ ered
second
t e s t
c o r r e c tly *
who
94
R esponse A n a ly s is - Area Concept
Q u estio n ; S a fe ty F i r s t - 7
There seem s t o be c le a r - c u t e v id e n c e th a t the i n ­
d e f in it e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s con cep t was more m eanin gful than
th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n .
The B v a lu e s in d ic a t e a f a i r l y con­
s i s t e n t p r o g r e s s io n o f u n d ersta n d in g from th e s ix t h through th e
t w e lf t h g r a d e s.
The range o f a b i l i t y in th e fo u r grad es was
ap p aren tly g r e a t e r when the p r e s e n ta tio n was i n d e f i n i t e , as r e ­
f le c t e d in th e R v a lu e s o f Forms Y and Z, than i t was when th e
p r e s e n ta tio n was d e f i n i t e , a s r e f le c t e d in th e R v a lu e s o f
Forms W and X .
O b v io u sly , "An area about th e s iz e o f th e a v er­
age bedroom flo o r " was more m ea n in g fu l to th e p u p ils o f a l l
grades than "About 100 square f e e t , "
as th e s e co n c ep ts were em­
ployed in th e s e l e c t i o n on S a fe ty F i r s t ,
In Forms tf and X resp o n se com b in ation s 4 - 2 and £ - 4 ,
r e s p e c t iv e ly , in d ic a t e th a t th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t­
ly th e c o n c e p t, "About 100 square f e e t , " but seemed to in t e r p r e t
t h i s to mean "An area about th e s i z e o f a b u ild in g lo t" in r e ­
sponding to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In resp o n se com bin ations 4 -
1
and 1 - 4 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly
the concep t "About 100 square f e e t , " but seemed to in t e r p r e t
t h i s to mean "An area about th e s i z e o f a c i t y block" in the
tr a n s fe r t e s t .
In Forms Y and Z th e wrong r e sp o n se s were p r e tty w e ll
s c a t te r e d , but resp o n se com bination 3 - 3 in both forms g iv e s
e vid en ce th a t th e s e p u p ils r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c ep t, "An
area about th e s i z e o f th e average bedroom f lo o r ," but seemed
to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 300 square fe e t" in responding
to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
95
T a b l e 24
Question
How m u c h
one
grain
can
a
Reaping T o o ls
strong
man
w ith
a
- 1
sic k le
cut
in
day?
D e fin ite
About
About
*About
About
A
*A
A
A
10
6 a
one
t o
I n
large
sm all
f ie ld
f ie ld
a cre
cres
acr
f an
d e fi
f ie
f ie
as
as
s.
.
e.
a cre.
n ite
ld
of g ra in .
ld
of g ra in .
b ig as the average farm .
big
as a c ity
b lock .
I n d e fin ite
Form
RR-
6
8
R~i 0
R- 12
34 .9
4 1 .7
55 .
^
a2*2
b 9.0
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
g_12
5 4 *4
6 6 .7
56 .0
5_ t
b7 .1
i2
io
F irst te st
d e fin ite *
D
e
f
6
2
1
b
3
10
3
12
8
1
3
° 36
43
8
6
8
6 6
10
i2
106
6
1
8
5
6
3
12
1C
!
3
12
2
6
i
8
6
8
2
12
24
2
8
30
18
10
6
12
10
i2
12 3
3
10
1 51
'
8
6
1
12
6
L° 5 8
10"
8
2
10
12
2
1
12
6
1
4
io
5
10
8
6
r
8
6
1
8
5
12
10
i2
6
8
4
i
n
i
x
16 3
8
6
3
10
1
5
8
6
8
6
1:
D efin ite
p r e se n ta tio n .
i
10
34
8
4
12
2
D e fin ite
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
X:
D efin ite
p resen tation *
F ir st te st
in d e f in it e .
£4
46
55
57
45
4
7
8
8
7
6
3
4
1
2
.b
.0
.7
.3
.8
.3
.0
.4
.9
.7
10
I
n
d
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
6
2
3
1
5
io
2
6
3
10
1
1
6
12
8
L_
2
1
4
8
10
12
6
9
1
12
12
4
K
6
7
4
3
6 2
10 1
12 2
10 4
3 25
846
6lb
12
10
6
105 4
£
6 5
8
4
59
6
8
10
8
8
i
12
1
8
3
6 3
12
3
10
2
12
6
1P1
8
2
6
2
101
“
6
i
1 2 1
8
1
6 13
4
1?2 2
1\ e
1
12
8
8
12 6
8
b
3
12
10
6
22
3
8
2
1
10 2
12 3
'
Table 24 ( c o n t i n u e d )
Q u e stio n
R ea p in g
T o o ls
-
1
I n d e f in it e
Form
6
Y;
1
p r e s e n ta t io n .
F ir s t
t e s t
d e f i n i t e ,
R-
6
3 2 .7
R -12
4 2 .4
R-
3 2 .6
S
S
S
S
-1
-1
S-
T
6
8
0
2
T
:
6
6
2
5
|12
10
6
:8
6
14
10
10
:i2
:
2
10
17
2
12
■8
6
f
1
6
n
3
t
e
6 3 .4
10
^
:
2
■12
3
6 4 .4
5
6 7 .3
7 7 .8
6 8 .7
;8
10
10
35
2
42
6
: 12
24
L02 1
h z
12
8
I
8
12
10
2
7
10
1
8
10
4
12
4
4
6
1
8
2
11
12
1
10
10
12
11
6
8
12
4
’6
19
10
1
6
29
2
12
1
6
26
8
2
10
1
i
6
1
12
4
e 2
8
3
10
D
2 6 .0
2 9 .3
R- 8
R -10
:8
1
I n d e f in it e
3
2
2
8
8
10
12
10
7
9
1 2 fi
D e f in it e
(
2
1
Form
Z*
6
3
I n d e f in it e
10
p r e s e n ta tio n .
F ir s t
6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R-
T
SS-
6
8
S-12
S-
T
S
4
■8
6
3 7 .4
- - -
6
8
2
8
37
14
2
:12
:
2
10
13
2
12
10
40
12
37
10
20
13
12
25
6
8
6
8
:8
6
10
6
3
2
10
: 12
1
10
2
:8
:
■12
;
1
2
10
4
numb e r
an sw erin g
an sw erin g
answ ere"d~second
t e s t
6
7
q u e stio n
an sw ers
3
12
7
who
6
gave
c o rre ctly ®
f i r s t , t e s t
co rre ctly ®
8
4
10
12
6
1
6
7
8
10
2
12
3
8
2
I n d e f i n i t e
and
10
12
6
6
1
1
1
b o th
o f
12
6
; 31
1
cen t
■8
22
t e s t ,
numbe r
a lso
2
10
11
6
3
d e f i n i t e
6
2
3
C orrect answ er in
per
cen t
o f t o t a l
P er
12
5
6
.0
.3
.7
.0
3
6
10
:
5 0 .0
8
3
8
0
6
2
6
10
3 9 .2
3 7 .4
3 6 .4
4
5
4
5
i
10
2
3 1 .6
Key'
* -R
6
■12
LO
S-10
8
t e s t
in d e f in it e *
R-
:
i
3
c o r r e c tly
who
97
R esponse A n a ly s is - Area Concept
Q u estio n : le a p in g T o o le - 1
On th e w h ole, th e r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s seem to in d ic a t e
th a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h la area concep t was more
m ean in gfu l to th e p u p ils than th e I n d e f in it e p r e s e n t a tio n .
The
s ix t h grade p e r c e n ta g e s seem to show th a t th e I n d e f in it e p r e se n ta ­
tio n , a s employed in Forms T and 3 , was more m eanin gful than the
d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n , a s employed in Form X, hut was not a s
m eanin gful a s th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n a s employed in Form W.
The wrong r e s p o n se s in Forms ifif and X were p r e tty w e ll
s c a t t e r e d , e s p e c i a l l y fo r g ra d es s i x ,
3 -4
and 4 - 3 ,
in resp o n se com bin ations
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r ­
r e c t l y th e c o n c e p t, "About one a c r e ," but seemed t o in t e r p r e t
t h i s to mean "A sm a ll f i e l d o f grain" in respon ding to the tr a n s ­
fe r t e s t .
Xn Forms Y and Z, resp o n se com b in ation s 4 - 2
2-4,
and
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly the
co n cep t, "A sm a ll f i e l d o f g r a in ," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s
to mean "About \
o f an acre" in resp on d in g to the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In resp on se com bination 2 * 2 in both form s, th e p u p ils in v o lv ed
re ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c e p t, "A sm all f i e l d o f g r a in ," and
seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 6 acres" in the tr a n s ­
fe r t e s t .
1 )8
Table
Q uestion
How m u c h
b u n d les
in
one
can
grain
a
25
Reaping T o o ls
p resen t
day
- 6
b in d er
cut
and
bind
in to
day?
D e fin ite
About
*About
About
About
In
5 a c r
20 a c
60 a c
120 a
d e fin
e s.
res.
res.
cres.
ite
The a rea
of a c it
*A m e d i u m s i z e d
f i
An a r e a e q u a l t o
sized
farm .
A very
sm all f i e l
y
b lock .
e ld .
an a v e r a g e
d .
I n d e fin ite
Form
4
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
2
2
4
5
3
9
8
5
1
8
3
i2
10'
F ir st
te st
d e fin ite *
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
8
6
L;
D e fin ite
n r e se n ta tio n .
8
6
9
10
1
2
1
:12
1
8
6
1
6
4
ib... 12
-■6 8
5
r
6 8
24
29
29
5
10
30
10 7 12 1 104 6 :12
: 52
1C3 0
122 5
8 1 6 5 8 7 6 9 8 10
6
10 12 10 :12 10 12
8
5
1
1
3
: 5
8
8
6
6
6 3 8
1
2
4
5
10 12 10 12
10 i2
.4
.7
.1
.0
.6
47 .6
4 2 .6
54 .1
63 .4
52 .7
2
4
1
.8
1
id' :12
6 :8
4
10 2 •12 4
6 2 :8
10 :J2
6
10
1
•8
■12
4
D e fin ite
L
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
6
X:
D e fin ite
ore sen t at ion*
F ir st te st
in d e f in it e .
1
3
4
4
3
5
7
7
8
7
7
1
0
2
2
2
3
8
3
3
.6
.0
.2
.7
.8
.9
.8
.0
.0
.7
5
10
6
I
nd 2*
9
io
2
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
1
6
3
7
8
1
12
1
86
12
2
8
10 2 121
6
8
4
10 12
L.
2
3
4
6 8 6 8
6 8
3
4
2
1
1
10 :12 10 12 10 i12
2
1
:
616
LO
39
4
8 31
:1
2 10
: 44
62 3
827
102 6
122 2
6
8
4
10.
6
2
12 2
7
6
8 3 6 ■8 2
12 10 ;i2
7
3
6n 8 1 6 6 7 :8 8
10 9 12 9 10 :i2
5
: 10
6
8
6 •8
1
10
12
10 ;12 1X
9D
T a b le 25 ( c o n t i n u e d )
Q u e stio n
T o n is - fi
_5.aapLl.ng
I n d e f in it e
Form
Y i
I n d e f in it e
9
10
12
6
8
6
1 5 .3
R- 8
R -10
1 8 .7
f
2 7 .3
i
R -12
3 1 .6
n
R-
T
2 3 .4
i
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
4 6 .9
t
e
S-12
7 2 .1
S-
6 2 .8
T
e
10
& (j0
8
10
12
2
^16
2
17
813
6
10
12
10
7
LO
1
8
5
10
2
2
4
2
10
6 10
4
4
8
4
11
6
1
12
12
10
6
2
11
18
1
12
6
8
10
31
10
3
10
2
29
8
2
8
10
18
1
3
6 7 .4
7
8
6
10
12
6
10
6
11
10
16
15
12
&
12
11
2
3
6 0 .0
7
te—
3
8
7
10
2
D
R-
10
3
t e s t
d e f in it e *
6
6
2
p r e s e n t a t i on
F ir s t
8
T
5
2
I
12
8
1
12
1
1
6
8
10
12
9
12
4
10
D e f in it e
2
Form
Zt
I n d e f in it e
6
p r e s e n ta t io n «
F ir s t
t e s t
j
10
1 0 .3
d
e
R-
8
2 9 .3
f
R -10
R -12
3 2 .3
3 3 .7
2 6 .5
i
n
SS-
6
8
S-10
S-12
S~ T
10
12
1
6 14
8 12
6 10
10
12
10
6
14
8
LO
t
e
6
4 8 .5
10
14
|6 1 3
8 11
6
\ 10
12
10
12
2
12
2
8
6
5
10
12
12
4
5
9
9
8
8
6
4
12
8 10
6
8
13
9
3
19
10
2
12
6
8
17
!
6
10
3
4
4 4 .5
8
12
1
6
12
4
4 6 .8
5 0 .0
33
4
6
2
10
12
2
33
8
1
10
2
1
14
6
2
3
1
i
2 5 .0
6
n
R- 6
T
3
6
1
8
i n d e f i n i t e ,
R-
8
10
2
io
6
1
12
2
10
12
1
4
K ey;
* -R
S
- - -
C orrect
answ er in
Per cen t
o f t o t a l
t e s t *
num ber
b o th
in d e f in it e
P er
a lso
d e f i n i t e
cen t
o f
and
numb e r
an sw erin g
an sw erin g
answ ere*d~second
t e s t
q u e stio n
an sw ers
f i r s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly *
who
gave
c o r r e c tly *
c o r r e c tly
who
Reapone© A n a ly s is - Area Concept
Q u estio n ; R eaping T o o ls - 6
The r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s seem to in d ic a t e th a t th e
d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s con cep t m e more m ean in gfu l to
th e p u p ils than th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n .
The R v a lu e s o f
th e e ig h th grade seem to show th a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n
as employed in Forms W and X was more m ean in gfu l than th e i n ­
d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n a s employed in Form Y, hut was n o t as
m eaningful a s th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n a s employed in Form z .
A lthough th e wrong r esp o n se s are w e ll s c a tte r e d in
a l l fou r form s, Forms Y and z , which employed th e i n d e f i n i t e
p r e s e n t a tio n , seem to show c o n c e n tr a tio n e o f wrong resp on se in
more com b in ation s than do Forms iY and X which employed th e
d e f in it e p r e s e n t a t io n .
2 -3
and 3 - 2 ,
In Forms w and X, resp o n se com bin ations
r e s p e c t i v e l y , seem to in d ic a t e th a t the' p u p ils
In volved r e ta in e d c o r r e c t l y th e c o n c ep t, "About 20 a c r e s ," but
seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "An area eq u a l to an average
s iz e d farm" in resp on d in g to th e tr a n s fe r t e s t .
In respon se
com bination 3 - 3 in both form s th e p u p ils in v o lv e d responded
e rr o n e o u sly to th e answ er, "About 60 a c r e s ," and seemed to
in te r p r e t t h i s to mean "An a rea eq u a l to an averaged s iz e d
farm" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is e rr o r was more common to
grades s i x and e ig h t than to g ra d es ten and tw e lv e .
The wrong r e s p o n se s in Forms Y and Z seem to be o f
fou r t y p e s .
In resp o n se com b in ation s 3 - 2
and 2 - 3 ,
resp ec­
t i v e l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly the c o n c ep t,
"A medium s te e d f i e l d , " and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean
iP l
"About 60 acrea" in resp o n d in g to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
resp on se co m b in a tio n s 1 - 2
In
and 2 - 1 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , the
p u p ils In v o lv ed r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c e p t, "A medium
s iz e d f i e l d , "
and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About
5 acres" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In resp o n se com bination 3 - 3
in both form s th e p u p ils in v o lv e d responded e r r o n e o u sly to
th e answ er, "An area e q u a l to an average s iz e d farm ," and
seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 60 a c r e s ” in th e
tr a n sfe r t e s t .
In r esp o n se com b in ation s 2 - 3 and 5 - 2 ,
r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d responded e r r o n e o u sly to
th e answ er, "An area eq u a l to an average s iz e d farm ," and
seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean "About 20 acres" in respond­
in g to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
I t should be noted th a t the l a s t
two d escrib ed wrong resp o n se com b in ation s are the same com­
b in a tio n s o f wrong resp o n se d e scr ib e d in Forms W and X.
lo y
T a b le 26
Que stion
from
How
far
the
in d u str ia l
are
the
c h ie f
o i l
O il - £
f ie ld s
in
the
U n ited
se c tio n s
w hich
refin e
and u s e
D e fin ite
A bout 25 m i le s .
About 150 m ile s .
*About 1000 m ile s .
About 3500 m i le s .
I n d e fin ite
Q u ite a few m ile s .
O n ly a s h i r t
d ista n c e .
S everal m ile s.
*Sreat d ista n c e s.
S ta te s
the
o il?
49
60
In d e fin i te
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
Form
R- 6
R- 6
R -10
R -12
R- T
1;
D efin ite
n r e se n ta tio n .
F irst te st
d e fin ite
4 7.6
5 8 .2
6 0 .0
7 5 .2
6 0 .2
5
7
7
8
7
9
0
0
2
1
.4
.6
.8
.6
.1
X:
D efin ite
n r e se n t at io n .
F ir st te st
in d e f in it e .
3<i. 3
54 .5
4 6 .9
1
2
VlZ
11
3
:12
12
4
6
5
55 .0
88 .5
77.6
88.6
78 .3
■8
:
6
1
7
10
D e fin ite
2
.3
6
;
i
3
: 1*2
10
6
3
:8
: 4
:12
:
2
3
j 3
10
2
:12
; i
:8
3
1
6
lu
•8
3 : 8
7
6
2
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
63
10
68.0
50 .5
10
10 '
10
1
b
;
:8
2
:
1
•12
10
:
2
•8
6
io
1
1 1
!
1
6
3
1_
6
10
6
8
12
:
12
;
4
10
5
5
12
6
8
10
12
2
4
8
6
13
8
3
12
12
10
45
10
5
12
33
8
5
8
8
6
6
9
4
•8
14
3
1
1
10
12
6
p
8
8
54
12
70
10
10
2
12
6
3
1^3
Table 26 (continued)
Q u e s t i on
O il
-
2
I n d e f in it e
2
Form
6
Y;
:8
p r e s e n t a t i on,
6
R-
6
2 1 .6
R-
8
2 8 .7
f
R —1 0
2 5 .2
i
R —1 2
p_ t
4 0 .4
2 8 .8
n
t
-1
-1
S-
6
8
0
2
6
7
6
7
8
0
7
8
T
7 1 .9
id
2
t e s t
D
e
S
S
S
S
5
:i2
d e f i n i t e*
2
10
^
L0
6
:i2
:
5
10
•8
:
2
6
3
«2
P e
10 5
p
:8
10
8
6
8
6
5
4
3
7
7
104
124
104
121
6
8
8
4
5
6
4
6
.7
.7
.5
.4
6
:
6
12
11
:8
12
3
8
1
I n d e f in it e
F ir s t
6
12
1
10
10
7
13
2
10
15
12
10
7
3
^22
82 9
106
126
^ 7
i:io
6
8
6
8
6
12
15
8
1
8
8
|6
12
12
6
: 12
8
1
2
5
10 3
1 2 J.
1 2 fi
10 2
6
Xl 3
7
1?16
D e f in it e
2
Form
Z;
I n d e f in it e
6
p r e se n t at io n a
F ir s t
t e s t
i n d e f i n i t e ,
RR-
6
8
R -10
4 1 .4
3 0 .7
R -12
4 4 .8
R-
T
3 4 .5
SS-
6
8
3 8 .2
S-10
S-12
4 3 .0
5 6 .6
S~
4 9 .3
T
10
j
6
4
3
2
12.
2
5
5
10
1
3
6
10
6 10
2
f
i
6
2
10
10
12
1
5
4
5
2
4
^
5 7 .5
LO
6
3
2
10
12
8
12
4
2
6
n
t
e
10
10
2
12 4
5
6
16
816
4
10
17
12
12
6
7
10
2
8
10
1
1
1
1
7
2
103
- 23
6
8
•12
6 1 *8
10
1
6
8
8
1
8
6
2
n
d
e
2 1 .4
1
8
2
10
•12
i8 1
;12
2
16
21
41
11
10
31
12
43
10
16
:8
: 11
'
12
19
Key;
*
R
-—
- -
C orrect
answ er in te s t #
Per cen t
o f t o t a l num ber
b o th
S
- -
P er
a lso
d e f i n i t e
cen t
o f
answ ered
and
num ber
a n sw erin g
q u e stio n
i n d e f i n it e an sw ers
answ erin g f i r s t
's e c o n d - t e s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly *
' who g a v e
c o i r e c t l y .
c o r r e c tly
who
104
R esponse A n a ly s is - D is ta n c e Concept
Q u estio n : O il - 2
On th e w h ole, th e r e s p e c t iv e v a lu e s o f R in each
grade seem to in d ic a t e th a t t h i s d is ta n c e concep t i s more
m ean in gfu l to p u p ils when p r e se n te d d e f i n i t e l y than when p r e ­
sen ted i n d e f i n i t e l y #
The R-T v a lu e s seem to in d ic a t e th a t th e
r e e a l l - t r a n s f e r order o f t e s t i n g employed in form s W and z
brought b e t t e r r e s u l t s than th e t r a n s f e r - r e e a l l order o f t e s t ­
in g employed in Forms X and Y.
T h is d if f e r e n c e i s b e s t i l l u s ­
tr a te d by th e r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s f o r th e s i x t h grade in Forms
Y and 3 , and by th e r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s f o r th e te n th grade in
Forms W and X#
The most marked com bination o f wrong resp o n se in
Forms W and X i s 3 - 3#
The p u p ils resp on d in g in t h i s manner
r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c e p t, "About 1000 m ile s ," but seemed
to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean " S ev era l m iles" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T his seemed to be more t y p ic a l o f th e s i x t h grade than o f the
oth er grades#
In Forms Y and Z th e wrong r e sp o n se s are p r e t t y w e ll
sc a tte r e d #
However, two resp o n se com b in ation s stand out#
In
the com b in ation s 2 - 4 and 4 - 2 , r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils in ­
volved r e ta in e d c o r r e c t l y th e c o n c e p t, "Great d is t a n c e s ," but
seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About ISO m iles" in responding
to the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In th e com bination 4 - 4 in both form s,
the p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly the c o n c e p t, "Great d i s ­
ta n c e s ," but seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 3500 m iles"
in resp on d in g to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t #
105
T a b l e 27
Hovs
at
far
K itty
did
Hawk,
the
N orth
Question
A viation
f ir s t
of
olan e
R-
6
R- 8
R —1 0
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
4 5 .1
6 5 .4
66 .7
7 0 .6
6 2 .0
6 2 .2
7 5 .6
72 .9
7 4 .2
71 .7
L,
8
6
F irst te st
d e f in it e .
10
D
e
f
i
n
i
*
.
4
46
7
12
n
a
n
n
6
2
12
10
:8
10
1
3
e
10
6
2
10
1
1
10
8
6
12
10
6
4
5
6
6
6
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
76 .9
8 1 .7
9
8
7
8
0
.0
.0
.3
.3
.6
3
4
6 8 .0
9 3 .4
8 5 .4
e
3
5
50
58
6
1 0 ........ 12
66
71
6 14
13
10
1
3
:8
6
12
12
6
10
1
10
6
7
2
;12
1
101 2
6
20
8
7
4
10
:12
1
6
9
12
7
L_
10
1
:8
1
12
10
1
:
•12
2
10
•8
;
2
:8
1
1
12
1
6
1
•12
10
:8
6
•12
10
:8
1
6
1
10
1
10
8
6
5
4
:8
•12
10
:8
6
2
4
3
12
1
:32
1
4
10
2
:
1
D e fin ite
2
.8
6
3
•8
:8
12
10
12
10
5
2
6
2
12
1
:12
1
1C
6
1
3
s i 12
1
:8
•8
:8
6
lb'
:
6
;8
1
1
9
LO
4
2
12
6
.12
4
6
1
3
12
10
2
6
nd 2^
f
i
n
i
t
e
3
12
10
I
fly
b lo ck .
lo t .
:3
1
10
:8
6
4
6
2
5
12
c ity
c ity
io 1 9 - 12 21
4
12
€
8
6
a
a
in d e fin i te
3
2
;8
3
6
12
18
: 68
3
X:
D efin ite
nre sen t at io n ,
F ir st te st
in d e f in it e »
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
e .
c e .
th of
th
o f
9
1
1
Form
c
n
g
g
L07 0 ' P w "
5
8
6
2
B roth ers
in 1903?
D e fin ite
^ N early a thousand f e e t .
About 2 0 ,0 0 0 f e e t .
About te n m i l e s .
About f o r t y m ile s .
I n d e fin ite
6
h;
D e fin ite
p resen ta tio n ,
w righ t
C arolin a,
A lon g d is ta
*A s h o r t d i s t
About th e l e
About th e le
Form
the
- 1
1
: 12
1< *6
Table 27 (continued)
Q u e stio n
^Y l a U o n
-
1
I n d e f in it e
£
F ir s t
9
10
1
t e s t
d e f i n i t e .
6
3 0 ,4
R- 8
R -10
4 9 .5
6 6 .3
f
i
R-
R -12
R~
T
6 4 .3
n
5 2 .7
i
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
5 3 .4
S-12
8 5 .1
7 7 .3
S-
T
8
2
10
1
12
10
t
e
12
8
6
12
10
t:
8
10
12
1
8
1
1
12
10
12
6
8
6
8
10
12
10
12
2
8
LO
12
6
1
10
4
8
3
10
8
6
6
1
1
1
4
12
9
8 2 .0
8 3 .5
12
6
11
12
3
6
1
8
12
1
10
2
10
8
7
9
8
14
7
2
10
12
10
22
11
1
6
6
9
10
63
8
6
D
e
12
71
1
8
19
50
10
12
6
31
1
1
3
T
-
p r e s e n t a t i on
6"
o
Y;
I n d e f in it e
8
1-----
Form
6
2
12
2
2
D e f in it e
2
Form
RR-
6
8
Zl
8
I n d e f in it e
6
p r e s e n ta tio n ♦
F ir s t
t e s t
I
i n d e f i n i t e „
n
10
R -10
R -
T
SS-
6
8
5 8 .1
6 4 .9
S-10
7 7 .9
S-12
S- T
8 1 .3
7 1 .2
6 3 .6
12
6
10
n
i
6
t
e
LO
8
4
6
6
12
6
■8
4:
10
12
8
3
: 12
1;
6
8
6
:8
10
12
10
;12
8
6
8
6
:8
1
2
10
12
•12
1
3
10
6
20
10
9
3
8
2 :8
2
10
12
8
9
10
8
10
12
6
12
6
1
10
10
3
3
10
8
10
8
3
1
18
74
6
12
6
12
3
8
1
61
74
6
10
8
43
f
i
7 2 .5
7 4 .7
R -12
i
1
d
e
4 4 .3
6 2 .2
6
12
10
10
12
12
2
2
Fey:
*
R
—
- -
C orrect
an£
Per cen t
o f
b o th
S
- -
P er
a lso
t o t a l
d e f in i t e
cen t
o f
and
num ber
answ ered
num ber
an sw erin g
in d e f in it e
an sw erin g
second
t e s t
q u e stio n
an sw ers
f i r s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly #
' who
gave
c o r r e c tly #
c o r r e c tly
who
R esponse A n a ly s is - D ista n c e Concept
Q u estion : A v ia tio n * 1
In g e n e r a l, th e R-T v a lu e s o f th e r e s p e c t iv e forms
seem to in d ic a t e th a t th e r e i s n o t a g r e a t d e a l o f d if f e r e n c e
between th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f th e d e f i n i t e and th e i n d e f i n i t e
p r e s e n ta tio n o f t h i s d is ta n c e c o n c e p t.
For th e s ix t h grade th e
d e f in it e p r e s e n t a tio n seems to be b e t t e r than th e i n d e f i n i t e . For
the e ig h th grade th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n a s i t operated in Form
W seems t o be b e s t , but In Form Z th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n
brought alm ost eq u a l r e s u l t s .
For g ra d es ten and tw e lv e th e i n ­
d e f in it e p r e s e n t a tio n In Form Z brought th e b e st r e s u l t s .
E vi­
d en tly in th e s e g ra d es "A sh o rt d ista n c e " when r e f e r r in g to a i r ­
plane f l i g h t s i s p r a o t i c a l l y a s m ea n in g fu l a s "N early a thousand
fe e t" a s th e s e c o n c e p ts were employed in th e a r t i c l e on a v ia t io n .
In Forms
and X resp o n se com bin ations 1 - 3
and 3 - 1 ,
r e s p e c t iv e ly , r e f l e c t th e most prominent wrong r e s p o n s e s .
In
both o a s e s th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly the o o n eep t,
"Nearly a thousand f e e t , " but responded to th e answ er, "About
the le n g th o f a c i t y block" in th e t r a n s fe r t e s t .
In Forms Y and Z r esp o n se com bination 2 - £ in both
forms in d ic a t e s th a t th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c tly the
ooneept, "A sh o rt d is t a n c e ," but seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean
"About 2 0 ,0 0 0 f e e t , " when responding to th e tr a n s f e r t e s t . In r e ­
sponse com b in ation s 3 - 2 and 2 - 3 , r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils in ­
volved a ls o r e ta in e d c o r r e c t l y th e co n cep t, "A sh o rt d is ta n c e ,"
but seemed t o in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About te n m iles" in th e
tr a n s fe r t e s t .
In r esp o n se com bination 1 - 3 in Form Y s ix t h
grade p u p ils p a r t ic u l a r ly , e r r o n e o u sly r e ta in e d th e con cep t "About
the le n g th o f a c i t y b lo c k ," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean
"Nearly a thousand fe e t" in respon ding to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
u
T a b l e 28
Q uestion
How
airw ays
far
of
apart
our
are
the
A viation
em ergency
- 6
lan d in g
f ie ld s
on
the
country?
D e fin ite
About
About
*About
About
I n
1000 m ile s.
200 m ile s .
40 m ile s .
a h a lf m ile .
d e fin ite
Great d is ta n c e s .
*Not fa r ap a rt.
Many m i l e s .
Very sh o r t d i s t a n c e s .
I n d e fin ite
Form
R-
6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
T
S-
10
£ 2 .9
£ 7 .8
4 9 .1
i
n
i
S- 8
S-10
S-12
5 8 •4
£ 9 .1
6 0 .8
S-
6 8 .3
i2
LO
8
5
12
10
:12
6
8
10'
12
2
1
1
io
x
12 "
6
3
8
1
D
e
f
£ 3 .6
1
8
6
;8
6
8
4
3b. 9
5 0 .0
6
T
6
I*
D e fin ite
n resen ta tio n .
F ir st te st
d e fin ite B
e
6
2
3
10
:8
5
3
2
12
10
6
8
37
I
L° 5 5
6
•8
6
i2
10
3
;12
1C
20
12
8
15
12
10
22
8
1
5
20
6
4
10
12
1
6
8
18
8
1
2
20
10
3
12
6
52
9
6
5
.’12
■ 59
2
10
1
;8
8
7
10
■12
1
6
2
16
8
2
12
3
12
10
2
1
D e fin ite
Form
R- 6
R- 6
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S -10
S-12
S- T
6
X5
D e fin ite
ore sen tation *
F ir st te st
in d e fin it e „
3
5
5
6
5
6
7
7
8
4
.6
.0
.3
.3
.9
8 8 .1
8
9
9
9
6
1
5
0
.4
.7
.9
.0
L
8
3
10
2
6
1
12
6
I
n
d
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
,
^
1
10
2
6
4
10
1
3
.3
4
8
1
:12
6
5
10
8
6
4
1
12
12
10
1
8
2
12
1
8
1
6
2
10
2
6
1
:8
4
j3
37
8 57
:12
1
105 5
1Z7 X
2
6 16
8 20
2
10 2 0
1Z1 6
6 13
8
101 1
1Z1 2
•8
6
6
2
8 3
1
121
10
8
6
3
1
3
10
12
6
10
—
8
1
12
10
6
1
1
10
1
:12
:8
10
7
12
12i
6
10
1
8
12
jo y
Table 28 (continued)
Q u e stio n
a v ia t io n
-
6
I n d e f in i t e
Form
6
Y;
I n d e f in i t e
10
p r e s e n t a t i on
2 8 .4
R R -10
3 4 .3
f
3 7 .4
i
R -12
4 8 .0
n
R-
T
3 6 .9
i
S-
6
8
5 8 .0
t
e
SS-10
6 4 .8
S-12
7 4 .6
S-
8
10
12
2
1
8
10
12
6
29
"’*•3
| 35
12
6
•12
;
^
12.
6
8
2
10
5
12
5
7
10
8
10
5
2
10
14
12
14
6
8
2
1
4
9
6
■8
5
2
5
6
10
:
10
9
10
:12
: 47
4
10
12
2
15
:12
: 21
6
1
1
4
10
23
40
6
:
8
6
4
•8
10
12
1
6 6 .5
: 12
:
6
2
10
1
10
8
6
2
15
2
6
:
T>
2
6
6 6 .7
T
.8
1
10
12
6
D
e
6
8
6
1
F ir s t
t e s t
d e f i n i t e ,
R-
8
3
3
2
10
4
10
2
9
12
1
R e f in it e
1
Form
.Zz
6
2
2 0 .6
d
e
i
R -12
4 0 .5
n
R -
T
3 4 .5
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
5 2 .6
6 6 .7
6 1 .4
S-12
6 5 .7
S-
6 2 .5
1
12
i
„
e
6
X
6
2
8
1
12
6
8
10
10
:12
10
3
:8
: 14
6
20
:8
: 36
6
14
10
35
:12
i 46
10
17
:12
: 19
4
:8
4
6
i8
6
4
:i 2
:
3
10 3
;12 3
:8
:
6
4
4
:8
; 23
5
;12
:
10
6
1
4
:8
:i2
:
10
12
10
1
1
4
8
:
V
6
2
1
t 3
T
10
6
10
8
©1
f
3 4 .3
3
1
o
_nd-----
3 6 .4
R -10
6
2
6
12
1
n
6
8
R-
10
i n d e f i n i t e ,
3
8
I n d e f in it e
p r e s e n ta tio n «
F ir s t
t e s t
I
R-
2
7
9
4
6
4
12
4
10
6
12
25
:
1
i
10
16
2
3
.2
6
2
3
10
2
2
14
2
£ey;
*
—
C orrect
R
- -
Per
b o th
S
- -
P er
a lso
cen t
answ er
of
d e f i n i t e
cen t
o f
answ ered
in t e s t P
t o t a l num ber
an sw erin g
and i n d e f i n i t e
num ber
second
an sw erin g f i r s t
t e s t
qu e s t i o n
an sw ers
t e s t
c o r r e c t ly .
who g a v e
c o ir e c t ly *
c o r r e c tly
who
I ll)
Reapone® A n a ly s is - D is ta n c e con cep t
Q u estio n : A v ia tio n - 6
She r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s seem to in d ic a t e th a t th e
d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n o f t h i s ooneept was d i s t i n c t l y more mean­
in g f u l than th e I n d e f in it e p r e s e n t a t io n .
The wrong r e s p o n se s are p r e t t y w e ll s c a tte r e d in a l l
fou r form s.
In Parma W and X. resp o n se com bination 3 - 3 in
both form s in d ic a t e s th a t th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ­
ly th e o o n e e p t, "About 40 m i l e s , " and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s
to mean "Many m i l e s ” when resp on d in g to th e t r a n s fe r t e s t .
resp on se co m b in a tio n s 3 - 4
and 4 - 3 ,
In
r e s p e c t i v e ly , th e s e p u p ils
r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c e p t, "About 40 m i l e s , ” and seemed to
I n te r p r e t t h i s to mean a "Very sh o rt d ista n c e " in th e tr a n s fe r
te st.
T h is e r r o r seemed to be made r e l a t i v e l y by more te n th
and t w e lf t h grade p u p ils than by th e younger p u p ils .
In Forms Y and Z, resp o n se com bination B - 2 in both
forms in d ic a t e s th a t th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly
th e c o n c e p t, "Hot f a r a p a r t," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to
mean "About BOO m ile s" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is e r r o r was
more t y p i c a l o f grad es te n and tw elv e than o f grad es s i x and
e ig h t.
In resp o n se com b in ation s 3 - 4
and 4 - 3 ,
r e s p e c t iv e ly ,
the p u p ils in v o lv e d responded e r r o n e o u sly to th e answ er, "Very
sh ort d is t a n c e s ," and seemed t o in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About
40 m ile 8 " in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
grad es e ig h t and t e n .
T h is seemed to be tr u e o f
I t should a ls o be noted th a t t h i s e rr o r
committed in th e r e v e r s e order in Forms W and X a s d escrib ed
above, was a ls o t y p i c a l o f grade te n .
I ll
T a b l e 29
Question
How
ways
of
far
our
apart
are
the
AV-lnt.i on - 7
fla s h in g
beacons
on
the
m ain
a i r ­
country?
About
*About
About
D e fin ite
2 m ile s.
15 m ile s .
100 m ile s.
About 5 0 0 m ile s .
I n d e fin ite
Very c lo s e
to g eth er .
Very g r e a t d i s t a n c e s
At lo n g i n t e r v a l s .
*At sh o r t
in te r v a ls .
a p art.
I n d e fin ite
Form
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
3
5
6
8
5
5
6
7
8
7
6
1
8
2
9
4
5
6
4
2
.4
.0
.6
.2
.6
.5
.4
.6
.7
.0
8
6
8
2
F ir st te st
d e f in it e .
R- 6
R~ 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
6
8
6
I:
D e fin ite
p resen ta tio n .
3
2
10
12
LO
12
10
6
8
5
8
6
6
8
7
1
12
2
1
D
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
9
9
12
10
1
1
8
6
8
12
10
12
i2
10
8
6
1
12
10
3
32
2
2
2
8
4
10
8
6
2
72
9
4
6
1
53
12
83
6
8
10
12
36
LO
2
4
3
LO
12
10
6
8
3
2
16
6
8
6
12
10
3
6
8
6
12
10
13
13
8
16
3
5
3
12
10
2
2
12
10
1
D e fin ite
£
78.6
8 0 .0
84 .5
9 4 .1
8 5 .3
10
1
6
I
n
d
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
£
*
11
12
1
10
1
8
12
6
10
6
6
8
10
12
1
5
12
8
6
8
io
12
2
16
5
10
3
6
1
8
7
12
10
8
6
2
2
12
12
10
2
6
3
3
3
6
8
2
6
10
10
12
10
6
3
6
5
12
4
7
10
5
L
1
12
33
60
12
60
2
10
10
12
6
8
10
12
1
13
12
5
1
3
2
8
6
8
6
7
2
6
8
10
8
4
10
o
.7
.0
.9
.4
.2
7
6
K
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
32
60
61
78
58
8
CD
R- 6
R- 6
R -10
R -12
R- T
6
X:
D e fin ite
p resen ta tio n .
F ir st te st
in d e fin it e .
CO
Form
5
1
1
n ;>
T a b le
29
Q u e stio n
(c o n tin u e d )
A v ia tio n
-
7
I n d e f in it e
Form
IT
rs
Y;
I n o e f i n i t e
d e f in it e *
4 1 .2
f
R -10
4 3 .9
i
R -12
6 1 .9
n
R-
4 5 .2
i
6 9 .4
t
e
3 4 .3
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
2
3
8
6
10 ‘
6
12
10
12
12
10
12
V
34
10
12
SLO
12
10
4£
10
12
10
12
12
11
10
10
15
10
T
8
8
12
12
47
60
11
11
10
12
£5
19
8 0 .8
9 0 .4
S-12
S-
2
8
12
r~
D
e
6
8
T
5
1 10
p r e s e n ta tio n ,
F ir s t
t e s t
RR-
1
4
9 0 .9
8 3 .6
T
10
12
12
LO
10
12
12
10
D e f in it e
2
Form
Z:
I n d e f in it e
6
p r e s e n ta tio n «
F ir s t
t e s t
I
i n d e f i n i t e •
n
10
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
4 2 .6
f
i
R -12
4 8 .5
n
R-
3 6 .4
i
t
e
1 4 .4
3 9 .4
T
S-
6
4 1 .2
S-
8
5 5 .7
S-10
S-12
5 1 .8
5 3 .9
S-
5 2 .2
T
1
2
12
4
6
d
e
3
8
6
10
1
8
„
2
LO
6
7
2
2
9
1
6
2
6
11
6
7
‘12
8
6
■8
12
10
8
6
6
14
2
f
i
10
12
5
5
39
7
6
8
10
16
6
14
10
12
6
£
j12
1
3
:8
;
1
1
;1 2
6
5
8
10
1
:8
10
10
10
9
1
12
12
6
6
1
10
2
6
3
6
10
3
10
8
3
10
10
12
6
6
r 43
10
2
1
l : 12
3
10
12
33
48
i i 8
31
Key;
ar.s
*
—
C orrect
R
- -
P er cen t
of
lo t h
d e f in it e
S
- -
P er
a lso
cen t
o f
and
num ber
answ ered
in d e f in it e
an sw erin g
second
t e s t
an sw ers
f i r s t
c o r r e c t ly .
t e s t
c o r r e c tly *
c o r r e c tly
who
R esponse A n a ly s is - D ista n c e Concept
Q u estio n : A v ia tio n - 7
The r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s in th e t a b le s seem to in d i­
ca te th a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s concept was more
m eanin gful to th e p u p ils than th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n .
The R v a lu e s f o r th e s i x t h g r a d e , how ever, seem to in d ic a t e
th a t th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n a s employed in Form Y was supe­
r io r to th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n a s employed in Form X, hut
not a s employed In Form W.
I t should he n o te d , to o , th a t th e
R- 6 and R-12 v a lu e s in Form Z are r e l a t i v e l y much low er than the
R- 6 and R-12 v a lu e s in Form Y when compared w ith th e R v a lu e s
o f th e o th e r two g ra d es in th e s e two form s.
I t I s p o s s ib le th a t
th e order o f t e s t i n g may be r e s p o n s ib le fo r some o f t h i s v a r ia t io n .
In Forms W and X, resp o n se com bin ations 2 - 1
and 1 - 2 ,
r e s p e c t iv e ly , in d ic a t e th a t th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ­
l y th e c o n c e p t, "About 16 m ile s ," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s
to mean "Yery c lo s e to g eth er" in resp on d in g to th e t r a n s fe r t e s t .
T his seemed to be a more fre q u e n t e r r o r fo r grade te n than fo r
the o th er g r a d e s.
In resp o n se com b in ation s 2 - 3 and 3 - 2 , r e ­
s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils In v o lv ed r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly the co n cep t,
"About 16 m ile s ," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "At lon g
in te r v a ls " in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is e rr o r seemed to be common
p a r t ic u la r ly to g r a d e s s i x and e i g h t .
In Forms Y and Z th e wrong r e sp o n se s seem to be somewhat
more s c a tte r e d than in th e o th er form s.
seems to stand o u t.
Only one major e rr o r
In resp o n se com bin ations 3 - 4
and 4 - 3 ,
r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d o o r r e o tly th e con­
c e p t, "At sh o r t in t e r v a l s ," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean
"About 100 m iles" in
th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
common to g ra d es te n
and tw e lv e .
T h is e r r o r
was d e f i n i t e l y
Table 30
Question
How
lon g
the
are
, Aviation - 9
runways
on
m ost
of
the
em ergency
lan d in g
fie ld s ?
D e fin ite
About 3 m ile s .
*About h a lf a m ile .
About 100 y a rd s.
A bout 50 f e e t .
Ind e f i n i t e
Q u ite a few m ile s .
Q u ite
sh o rt.
*R ather lo n g .
C on sid erab le d is ta n c e .
In d e fin i te
2
6
D efin ite
Form
" p resen ta tio n .
R-
T
1
£
£
2
£
3
6
8
3
3
.9
.0
.6
.8
.1
£
3
3
2
3
5
4
5
6
0
.4
.6
.7
.7
.9
8
6
12
io '
12
10
8
8
2
6
D
e
f
i
n
i
1
1
4
1
£
10
q
£
12
£
1
10
8
6
12
32
6
3
12
5
12
8
6
£
1
12
10
8
4
2
10
36
6
10
8
£9
12
4
12
6
4
1C
8
4
£
8
£5
£4
9
10
4
1
10
5
12
8
6
6
8
2
4
27
30
£8
6
8
6
£1
2
6
12
3
12
1
14
LO
10
£
10
8
18
8
4
1
6
10
6
12
1
8
8
6
t
S- 6
S- 8
S -10
S-12
S- T
6
8
10
F irst
te st
d e fin ite *
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
3
12
10
£
1
D e fin i te
Form
R- 6
R- 6
R -10
R-1E
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S -10
S-12
S- T
6
Y,i
D e fin ite
ore sent at ion*
F ir st te st
in d e fin it e .
£ 4 .7
8
10
nd 2^
£ 5 .5
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
£ 4 .9
58
74
67
81
69
.1
.£
.6
.8
.4
6
12
6
I
£
8
1
£
2 5, 2
£6.0
L
6
8
io
1
8
4
12
£
6
12
LO
6
8
6
9
12
9
3
12
6
6
£
8
4
10
7
3
34
1
12
10
8
6
4
8
3
1
10
12
6
8
£
5
12
7
1
8
2
8
10
1
12
1
6
39
8
6
1
12
6
33
12
6
10
12
10
1
£7
16
10
10
£3
8
12
4
8
6
12
£5
6
12
1
£5
10
8
£
£0
8
6
1
6
4
10
10
10
8
1
3
8
3
5
10
3
6
3
10
5
1
12
£
3
T able 30 (c o n tin u e d )
Q u e s t i on
J j-'u la L L o n .^ J l ___
I n d e f in it e
I
Form
6
Y;
6
I n d e f in it e
pre s e n ta tio n *
F ir s t
t e s t
d e f i n i t e *
R-
6
10
i
R -12
1 5 .5
n
R-
1 7 .6
i
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
4 2 .9
3 2 .6
S-12
2 4 .2
3 3 .0
S-
10
t
e
6
3 5 .4
T
8
6
12
10
8
6
8
10
10
12
8
19
17
2
19
12
14
8
6
8
1
10
40
8
10
8
1
30
8
8
26
12
6
12
6
1
12
14
15
12
1
4
8
10
8
10
3
4
16
I10
5
12
12
6
12
6
l
2
i
5
18
5
10
IT"
5
12
3
3
[5
10
1
£
12
5
8
8
4
10
5
3
10
'
12
10
2
6
9
1
2
2
8
1
6
12
6
2
2
5
!
3
8
10
8
f
2 1 .5
T
6
5
D
e
6
12
6
1 7 .6
1 5 .7
R- 8
R -10
2
8
2
2
X
10
12
1
D e f in it e
2
Form
p r e s e n ta t io n
F ir s t
t e s t
i n d e f i n i t e ,
RR-
6
Z:
I n d e f in it e
6
8
2
*
10
I
n
a
e
2 0 .8
2 1 .2
2 5 .1
i
5 0 .0
t
e
10
6
3
5
10
12
6
8
10
6
8
6
10
8
6
4
8
4
6
S-10
S-12
6 9 .6
10
S-
6 0 .7
4
_ 26.
6
8
8
10
12
7
4
6
11
1
:12
10
6
8
2
11
11
12
:8
;
10
12
32
:8
1
10
12
10
12
36
10
29
19
;12
14
11
6
8
10
8
21
1
1
2
6
8
■8
1
12
3
20
10
12
4
10
12
4
LO
•12
6
8
1
1
12
6
10
12
2
1
:
8
1
3
5 2 .5
7 0 .3
T
5
tr,
i
n
6
8
12
6
i—i
2 5 .5
3 2 .6
SS-
4
3
8
Oi
R -10
T
6
f
R -12
R-
8
8
2
12
1
:
2
K eys
*
—
C orrect
R
- -
per
cen t
of
"both d e f i n i t e
S
- -
P er
a lso
cen t
an s
o f
and
num ber
answ ered
in d e f in it e
an sw erin g
second
t e s t
an sw ers
f i r s t
c o r r e c tly *
t e s t
co rre ctly ®
c o r r e c tly
who
iiii
R esponse A n a ly s is - D ista n c e Concept
q u e s tio n s A v ia tio n - 9
On th e w h ole, th e R-T V alues seem to in d ic a t e th a t
th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s ooneept was s l i g h t l y more
m ean in gfu l than th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n .
are some s t r ik in g grade v a r i a t i o n s .
However, th er e
For grade s i x th e in d e f ­
i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n a s employed in Forms Y and % seemed t o he
more m ean in gfu l than th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n a s employed in
Form W, hut n o t a s employed in Form X.
For grade te n th e in d e f ­
i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n a s employed in Form Z seemed to he e q u a lly
as m ean in gfu l a s th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n a s employed in Form
X.
For grade tw e lv e th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n a s employed in
Form Z seemed t o he more m ea n in g fu l than th e d e f i n i t e p r e se n ta ­
tio n a s employed in e i t h e r Form W or Form X.
Only f o r grade
e ig h t do th e R v a lu e s seem to show a c o n s is t e n t s u p e r io r ity in
fa v o r o f th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n .
In Forms
4 -2 ,
and X, resp o n se com bin ations 2 - 4 and
r e s p e c t i v e l y , in d ic a t e th a t th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d
c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c e p t, "About h a l f a m ile ," and seemed to i n t e r ­
p ret t h i s to mean a "C onsiderable d ista n c e " in responding to
th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is e r r o r was p a r t ic u la r ly common to grades
e ig h t , t e n , and t w e lv e .
In resp o n se com bination 2 - 2 in hoth
form s, th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly the c o n cep t,
"About h a l f a m ile ," hut seemed to th in k t h i s meant a d is ta n c e
th at was "Q uite sh ort" in resp on d in g to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
error a ls o was p a r t ic u l a r ly common to g ra d es e ig h t , t e n , and
tw e lv e .
T his
11
In Forms Y and Z, resp o n se co m b in a tio n s 2 - 4
4 - 2,
and
r e s p e c t i v e l y , in d ic a t e th a t th e p u p ils in v o lv ed resp on ­
ded e r r o n e o u s ly to th e answ er, " C onsiderable d is ta n c e ," and
seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About h a l f a m ile" in respond­
ing t o th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
The freq u en cy o f t h i s e r r o r seemed
to be d i r e c t l y r e la t e d to th e age o f th e p u p ils , th e t w e lf t h
grade com m itting i t most f r e q u e n t ly .
T h is e r r o r a ls o was made
most fr e q u e n tly in th e r e v e r s e order as d e sc r ib e d above in
Forms
and X.
In resp o n se com bination 3 - 3 in b oth forms
(Y and Z ), th e p u p ils In v o lv ed r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c ep t,
"Bather lo n g ," and seemed to I n te r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 100
yards" when resp on d in g to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
b in a tio n s 3 - 4
and 4 - 3 ,
In resp o n se com­
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils In volved
responded e r r o n e o u s ly to th e answ er, "C onsiderable d is ta n c e ,"
and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 100 yards" in the
tr a n s fe r t e s t .
and t e n .
T h is e r r o r was most common to g ra d es s i x , e ig h t ,
‘
Table 31
?nr^ata - 5
Question
How
su ita b le
b ig
sh ou ld
fo r
lum ber?
the
trunks
of
m ost
tr e e s
be
to
be
D e fin ite
2 in ch es in
d iam eter.
than 10 in c h e s in
d iam eter.
18 to 24 in c h e s in d ia m e ter.
fe e t
in
d iam eter.
I n d e fin ite
sm all.
At l e a s t
N ot m ore
*At l e a s t
About 10
R ather
*Large.
as
w ide a s a h o u s e .
About th e
s iz e
of a
fen ce
p o st.
I n d e f in i te
Form
D e fin ite
p r e s e n ta tio n .
F ir s t t e s t
d e fin ite .
ui
8
6
6
6
8'
10 '
1 2 ......
lo
6
8
5
8
6
1
1 0 ...... 12"
' ”
10'
" 12 """
1
D
R- 6
R- 8
R-10
R-12
R- T
5
6
8
7
7
9
6
4
6
2
.8
.3
.6
.4
.3
e
f 2 10
i
n
6
i
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
6
7
8
7
7
9
3
7
9
7
.3
.4
.1
.2
.6
e
t
3
8
6
8
6
2
12
1
10
10
2
1
5
10
9
12
6
6
! 61
69
2
Lo
14
88
8
6
i2
10
2
10
1
8
6
8
4
8
6
2
16
10
12
10
6
8
6
10
12
10
80
7
.14
12
7
7
2
1
12
1C
12
7
8
2
...
12
1
1
D efin j
6
Form X: D e f i n i t e
p r e s e n t a t io n *
F ir s t t e s t
in d e fin ite .
R- 6
R- 8
R-10
R-12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
6
8
8
7
7
9
9
9
9
9
9
4
4
7
9
3
6
7
7
6
.0
.8
.7
.9
.0
.2
.5
.6
.6
.3
1
6
6
12
10
6
8
6
2
10
3
12'
LO
6
8
6
10
12
10
e
i
n
i
5
1
3
io
12
2
12
8
69
10
1
f
4
8
3
12
3
6
1
nd 2^ 10
8
2
3
1
I
6
3
8
1
10
te
2
12
83
5
1
8
.
84
12
.10
81
2
1
8
6
8
12
10
12
3
10
t
e
6
8
2
10
L-
12
1
6
1
6
4
10
8
6
12
; 1
10
6
12
6
8
2
8
10
7
12
1
1.
T a b le 31 ( c o n t in u e d )
F o re s ts - 5
Q u est!on
I n d e f in it e
Form
Y;
I n d e f in it e
1
p r e s e n ta tio n
F ir s t
t e s t
d e f in it e *
6
6 0 .4
R— 8
R-
6 0 .8
_10
6 9 .1
R -12
„ T
6 9 .7
6 5 .0
S-
6
8 3 .6
S-
r
r
8
8 6 .1
S-10
S-12
8 8 .1
8 3 .1
S-
8 5 .2
T
10
£ 10
f
i
n
i 3
t
e
4
10
10
12
12
10
12
10
12
10
:i2
10
10
12.
LO
12
10
10
12
12
10
:12
D e f in it e
6
p r e s e n ta tio n ,
F ir s t
t e s t
10
l
T
S-
6
S-
8
7 3 .8
S-10
6 7 .4
8 1 .5
S-
T
l
10
1
12
8
6
8
12
10
12
6
2
:8
1
12
10
6 22 I8 1 8
•1 2
£
4
6 48
8 62
4
1062
1275
6
8
i12i 3
6 0 .8
R -
S-12
i
o
7 5 .6
6 2 .4
6
t-1
R -12
8
10
12
6
5 0 .0
6 2 .6
6
10
i n d e f i n i t e «
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
8
03
Z:
I n d e f in it e
ro
Form
6
8
6
8
6
1
LO
6 5 .7
6
12
10
8
6
12
1
10
6
8
12
5
i'o
7 2 .4
10
12
12
10
12
1
•8
1
•1 2
6
:8
3
10
;
10
12
5
1
1
5
3
12
1
Eey:
* -R
S
- - -
C orrect
answ er In
p er cen t
o f
t o t a l
t e s t .
num ber
b o th
in d e f in it e
P er
a lso
d e f in i t e
cen t
o f
and
numb e r
answ ered
an sw erin g
an sw erin g
second
T e st
qu e s t i o n
an sw ers
f i r s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly *
who
gave
c o r r e c tly *
c o r r e c tly
who
120
R esponse A n a ly s is - D ista n c e co n cep t
Q u estion s F orest® - 6
The r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s in th e t a b le s seem t o in d i­
ca te th a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s d is ta n c e concep t was
more m ea n in g fu l than th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e se n ta tio n *
marked grade v a r ia t io n s sh ou ld be n o te d .
However, some
In Forms W and x , th e
R-10 v a lu e s are b oth la r g e r than th e R-12 v a lu e s , in d ic a t in g a
s u p e r io r ity o f grade te n over grade tw e lv e in th e forms employ­
ing th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n .
T h is r e la t io n s h ip i s n ot tru e in
Forms Y and Z which employed th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n .
In
Form Z th e R-6 v a lu e e x c e e d s th e R-12 v a lu e , and in Form % th e
R-6 v a lu e e x c e e d s the R -10 v a lu e ,
i t should a ls o be n oted th a t
the ra n g es o f th e R v a lu e s in Forms W and Z are g r e a te r than
th ose in Forms Z and Y.
T h is v a r ia t io n may be due to a t e s t i n g -
order in f lu e n c e .
In Forms W and Z, resp o n se com binations 3 - 4
4 -3,
and
r e s p e c t iv e ly , in d ic a t e th a t th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d
c o r r e c tly th e c o n c e p t, "At l e a s t 18 t o 84 in c h e s in diam eter,"
and seemed t o in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About th e s iz e o f a fen ce
post" in resp on d in g to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
p a r t ic u la r ly to g ra d es s i x and e i g h t .
3 -1
T h is e rr o r was common
In resp on se com binations
and 1 - 3 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d
c o r r e c tly th e c o n c e p t, "At l e a s t 18 to 24 in o h e s in diam eter,"
and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean "Rather sm all" a s a p p lie d
to th e s iz e o f t r e e tru n k s in th e tr a n s fe r t e s t .
In Forms Y and Z one typ e o f wrong resp on se sta n d s o u t.
In resp on se co m b in ation s 4 - 2 and 2 - 4 , r e s p e c t iv e l y , th e p u p ils
in v o lv ed r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e eo n o ep t, "Large," as a p p lie d to
tr e e tr u n k s , and seemed to I n te r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 10 f e e t
in diam eter" in resp on d in g to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
I'ab le 32
C oal
Q uestion
How
S tates
to
a
far
coal
is
it
from
-
2
m ost
o a r ts
o f
the
U n ited
m ine?
D e fin ite
About
*About
About
About
3000 m ile s.
500 m ile s.
150 m ile s.
20 m ile s .
I n d e fin ite
A
very
A very
*A s h o r t
th
A lon g
short d ist
great
d ist
d ista n ce
e cou n try.
way a s d i s
a n c e .
a n c e .
com pared
to
ta n c e
now
i s
the
s iz e
of
m easured.
I n d e fin ite
Form
;
D efin ite
ore se n ta tio n •
l
F ir st te st
d efin i t e *
.4
.8
.8
.3
6
R- 6
R~ 8
R -10
R -12
37
55
71
84
R- T
62.5
6
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
6 1 .7
70 .7
8 4 .1
90 .5
78 .5
10
10
6
10
6
LO
:i2
10
7
5
5
3
1
5
:8
:12
:8
6
6
4
5
1
8
10
4
6
6
02
LO
•8
6
■12
10
1
2
8
6
;8
6
,8
6
2
:8
15
•12
1
:8
3
6
37
10
74
6
8
:12
10
•8
6
■12
10
4
1
8
2
12
10
:12
6
2
8
12
8
io '
58
86
7
12
6
1C
6
1
8
12
8 3
5
5
10
6 4
12
6
8
6
1
12
1
8 !
12
10
1
D e fin ite
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
X:
D e fin ite
ore sent at io n .
F irst
te st
in d e f in it e .
1 9 .0
5 7 .1
6 1 .9
7 3 .8
53 .0
1
;8
6
10
6
io
2
1
6
10
8 7 .0
9 1 .6
8 1 .8
6
10
L_
6
6
;12
10
■8
6
•12
LO
:8
1
4 6 .3
8 6 .1
2
8
9
7
6
3
19
;3
9
:12
:8
5
:12
:8
9
2
6
12
10
6
ft
7
10
12
8
3
•8
6
6
:8
4
6
6
8
:12
10
5
12
6
10
1
12
76
2
2
10
7
6
10
6
8
3
1
12
1
6
8
10
12
8
6
6
•12
:12
4
8
15
2
106 0
4
12
6
56
3
8
12
7
6
6
12
10
6
10
2
■8
12
122
Tabl© 3 2 ( c o n t i n u e d )
Coal - 2
Q u e s t i on
I n d e f in it e
2
Form
Y;
8
X
6
In lT ef i n i t e
10
p r e s e n ta tio n *
F ir s t
t e s t
d e f i n i t e .
6
8
R-
2 1 .2
6 1 .3
7 9 .3
S-12
7 5 .0
S-
6 5 .6
T
6
|8
£
10
12
4
10
7
b
n
8
t
e
3
10
12 6
6
*
5
10 4
8
2
:
10
2
8
12
1
1
6
8
28
11
10 6
9
6
7
10
6 3
8
7
10
1(U
12
12
1
24
23
1
10
19
6
1
i
6 2 i8
122
20
:8
10
i 3
^ 10
6
4
2 1
4
6
2
:
:i
1
i
6 1 .3
SS-10
10
f
10 2
cv
6
8
2
:12 1
2
8
3
1—1
S-
T
2
6
2
:8
10 2
C\J
o
<—
1
1 8 .6
2 1 .6
2 4 .5
8
6
D
e
2 0 .2
RR -10
R -12
12
6
fcO
O**
l—1
R~
3
6
6
12
8
1
10
12
D e f in it e
1
Form
Zl
2
6
8
6
6
3
4
5
6 11
5
1
2
5
6 16
27
3
103 3
30
I n d e f in it e
10
p r e s e n ta t io n .
F ir s t
t e s t
i n d e f i n i t e ,
n
6
1 6 .3
2 7 .3
R -10
3 2 .3
i
R -12
3 0 .3
n
R-
T
2 6 .6
S-
6
8
3 7 .2
e 2
10
f
6
i
3 9 .5
S-
6
4 1 .4
e
4 2 .2
4 5 .2
T
12
8
1
10
10
7
i^ l
6
8
i8
10
1
I12 £
6 18
;8 2 5
3
6
10
6
3
5
1
10
6
.
8
4
•12
2
•8
:12
4
:8
7
,
t 3 10
SS-10
S-12
8
4
I* 1 3
6
4
10
1
2
2
12
8
6
12
6
ro—
tW
6
8
2
6 10
10
22
4
j
a
RR-
3
5
6
i1 2 - : 43
5
10 4
10 1
10
3
j8 i
6
:i2
10
2
:12
:8
1
12
Key:
*
R
S
—
- - -
C orrect
answ er in
Per cen t
o f t o t a l
t e s t .
num ber
b o th
in d e f in it e
P er
a lso
d e f i n i t e
cen t
o f
and
num ber
answ ered
an sw erin g
an sw erin g
second
t e s t
q u e s t i on
an sw ers
f i r s t
t e s t
c o r r e c t ly .
who
gave
c o r r e c tly *
c o r r e c tly
who
123
Reaponae A n a ly s is - D ista n c e Concept
Q u estio n : C oal - £
The r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s in th e t a b l e s seem to in d i­
ca te v ery c l e a r l y th a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s d ie ta n ce con cep t was more m ea n in g fu l to th e p u p ils than th e in d e f ­
i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n *
grades in Forms
iff
The r e l a t i v e I n c r e a s e s In p e r c e n ta g e s by
and X a s a g a in s t th o se in Forms Y and % seem
to in d ic a t e th a t th e s u p e r io r it y o f th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n
over th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n was d ir e c t l y r e la t e d to th e
age o f th e p u p ils *
That i s , t h i s s u p e r io r ity seemed to be l e a s t
in grade s i x and g r e a t e s t in grade tw e lv e ,
in f a c t , in grade
s ix th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n a s employed in Form Y was
s l i g h t l y more m ean in gfu l than th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n a s
employed in Form X.
There are no o u tsta n d in g wrong r e sp o n se s in Forms W
and X e x c e p t fo r grade s i x .
In resp on se com bination 3 - 3 in
both form s, the s i x t h grade p u p ils p a r t ic u la r ly responded erron ­
e o u sly t o th e answ er, "About 160 m i l e s , ” and seemed to in te r p r e t
t h i s to mean "A sh o r t d is ta n c e compared to th e s i z e o f the coun­
try" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In resp o n se com bination 1 - 3 in
Form X, th e s i x t h grade p u p ils in v o lv e d responded e rr o n e o u sly
to th e answ er, "About 160 m ile s ," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s
to mean "A v ery sh o r t d ista n c e " in responding to th e tr a n s fe r t e s t .
In Forms Y and Z th e wrong r e sp o n se s are w e ll scattered
fo r a l l g r a d e s.
Only one e r r o r sta n d s o u t.
In resp on se combina­
tio n 3 - 3 in both form s th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly
the c o n c e p t, "A sh o r t d is ta n c e compared to th e s iz e o f th e coun­
tr y ," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 150 m iles" in
the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
124
T a b l e 33
Safety F ir st
Question
what
In term s
d istan ce
t r a f f ic
of
on
road s
th ese
a v a ila b le
r o a d s was
- 5
fo r a u tom ob ile t r a f f i c ,
r e sp o n sib le fo r each
accid en t?
D e fin ite
*A
A
A
A
bout
bout
bout
bout
I n
84 m ile s o f
30 m ile s o f
2¥ m ile s o f
a h a lf m ile
d e fin ite
road,
road.
road.
o f road.
M any, many m i l e s .
S everal m ile s .
*A c o m p a r a t i v e l y s n o r t
A great d ista n c e .
d ista n ce.
I n d e f in i te
Form
i;;
D efin ite
p resen ta tio n .
F irst te st
d e fin i te 6
2
7
9
4
.7
.2
.5
.7
10
6
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
2
3
4
6
R-
T
4 3 .8
6
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
3 8 .6
4 8 .1
5 7 .9
6 6 .7
5 4 .8
10
5
:12
:8
lo
7
1
3
;12
10
:8
6
10
02
LO
6
;8
10
10
2
1
22
10
6
8
r “
18
15
13
8
6
,8
6
12
8
18
22
20
10 5 1
12
6
6
12
10
8
6
3
1
jl2
6
4
10 g
1
12
8
10
1
6
1
12
10
66
8
5
12
3
5
8
4
8
5
12 6
3
8
1
12
8
2
12
6
8
4
12
10
6
10
8
5
3
1
6
38
2
2
10
12
6
8
10
12
1
D efin j. te
S- 6
S- 8
S -10
S-12
S- T
10
6
18 .7
39 .0
3 7 .9
lo
67 .0
4 1 .0
6
76 .0
10
81 .2
86 .7
96 .8
8 7 .3
19
8
13
19
18
39
6
10
L
9
11
jl2
•8
12
6
7
14
19
:8
39
•12
10
6
LO
6
:12
*
2
12
3
5
2
1
7
2
2
4
4
3
1
10
69
•8
3
3
9
1
6
10
4
1?2
4
3
6
10
6
10
2
1
4
3
6
8
8
10
5
6
3
1
4
4
6
2
12
8
1
3
8
1
12
10
2
8
12
10
12
4
6
10
12
1
6
3
12
8
10
H4
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
X:
D efin ite
p resen ta tio n .
F irst
te st
in d e fin i t e ,
•
6
GO
Form
6
1
;8
2
8
6
12
10
4
1
■8
12
2
T able 33 (c o n tin u e d )
I n d e f in it e
Form
6
Y ;:
p r e s e n ta t io n .
F ir s t
t e s t
10
d e f i n i t e ,
6
,
:8
6
8
3 .1
0 .0
1 .9
D
e
f
i
;i2
10
:8
6
:i2
10
H-12
2 .1
n
R-
T
1 .7
i
6
S- 8
S-10
1 0 .7
0 .0
1 5 .4
e
S-12
£ 2 .2
S-
1 0 .8
6
6
|8
t 3 LO
1
:8
6
LO
: 12
3
4
8
2
£
10
12
30
6
8
3
12
6
12
19
2
12
1
15
10
8
3
£
8
8
7
6
2
10
12
10
4
10
15
6
8
10
•12
1
12
16
3
8
9
10
8
8
1
6
8
9
12
2
8
16
4
10
£
6
13
3
12
2
12
8
9
10
8
1
4
6
3
12
13
10
2
4
3
6
3
£
3
6"....... 8
8
4
R - 6
R- 8
R -10
T
2
8
I n d e f in it e
s-
1
1
6
13
20
26
12 2 0
10
8
£
10
£
12
1
D e f in it e
1 _______________ 2
I n d e f in it e
_
p r e s e n ta t io n .
t e s t
i n d e f i n i t e ,
I
n
6
6 .4
e
R- 8
R -10
£ .1
3 .0
f
i
R -12
R- T
5 .0
4 .1
n
i
1 5 .0
t
e
S-
6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
3 .5
4 .5
6 .2
S-
6 .5
T
7
1
5
3
10
3
2
6
6
.0
2
3
5
8
1
6
4
lo
6
6
8
1
2
:
1
1
■8
:
3
;12
6
8
10
12
6
j12
4
5
2
6
8
9
15
27
23
103 8
123 8
6
8
10
•8
:
19
16
. 12
:
14
10
4
10
12
3
9
10
2
5
2
8
3
12
6
10
12
6
8
i
2
8
9
10
2
4
3
10
12
8
2
6
6
1
7
10
3
3
12
8
2
10
7
1
6
3
£
3
8
10
6
a
R-
6
t—’
o
i—'
o
F ir s t
8
6
:8
3
2
12
CO
6
\ ........
Z%
Form
10
3
12
£
Fey;
*
R
—
- -
C orrect
answ er In t e s t ,
Per cen t
o f t o t a l num ber
b o th
S
- -
P er
a lso
d e f i n i t e
cen t
o f
and
an sw erin g
i n d e f i n i t e
n um ber
answ ered"~second
an sw ers
q u e stio n
an sw erin g f i r s t t e s t
t e s t
c o r r e c t ly .
whog a v e
c o r r e c t ly .
co rrec'tly
who
1 2 6
R esponse A n a ly s is - D is ta n c e con cep t
Q u estio n : S a fe ty F i r s t - 6
The r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s in th e t a b le s seem to show
c o n c lu s iv e ly th a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s d is ta n c e
oonoept was more m ean in g fu l to th e p u p ils th an th e i n d e f i n i t e
p r e s e n t a tio n .
The p e r c e n ta g e s o f c o r r e c t resp o n se in Forms #
and 2 show a d e f i n i t e p r o g r e s s io n o f in c r e a s in g v a lu e a s to
gra d es.
However, in Form 2 th e R-8 v a lu e e x c e e d s s l i g h t l y the
R-10 v a lu e .
In Forms Y and Z th e R v a lu e s are very sm a ll, i n ­
d ic a tin g p erh a p s, c o n s id e r a b le d i f f i c u l t y on th e part o f p u p ils
o f a l l g ra d es to handle th e I n d e f in it e p r e s e n ta tio n o f t h i s
concept a s i t was used in th e t e s t .
The v a lu e o f R-d exceeded
the R v a lu e s fo r each o f th e o th e r g ra d es in both Forms Y and z .
In Forms W and 2 , resp o n se com b in ation s 1 - £ and
2-1,
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly the
con cep t, "About 84 m ile s o f road," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s
to mean " S ev era l m iles" in resp on d in g to th e t r a n s fe r t e s t .
T his e r r o r was s l i g h t l y more common to grad es te n and tw elv e
than to th e o th e r g r a d e s.
In resp o n se com bination 1 - 1 in
both form s, the p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c tly th e co n cep t,
"About 84 m ile s o f r o a d ,” but seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean
"Many, many m iles" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is e rr o r was par­
t i c u l a r l y common to th e s i x t h g ra d e.
In Forms Y and Z th e wrong r esp o n se s are w e ll s c a t ­
te r e d .
However, th r e e t y p i c a l e r r o r s stand o u t.
In resp on se
com bination 3 - 3 in b oth form s th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d
c o r r e c tly th e c o n c e p t, "A co m p a ra tiv ely short d is ta n c e ," but
seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 2& m ile s o f road" in
respon ding to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t ,
The p ercen ta g e o f p u p ils
making t h i s e r r o r seemed to he r e la t e d p o s i t i v e l y to a g e , th e
t w e lf t h grade making th e e r r o r most fr e q u e n t ly .
com bin ations 4 - 3
and 3 - 4 ,
In resp on se
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv ed
r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c e p t, "A co m p a ra tiv ely sh o rt d is ta n c e ,"
and seemed t o in t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean "About a h a lf m ile o f road"
in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is e r r o r was common p a r t ic u l a r ly to
grades e i g h t , t e n , and t w e lv e .
and 3 - 2 ,
In resp o n se com bin ations 2 - 3
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils In v o lv ed r e ta in e d c o r r e c t­
ly th e c o n c e p t, "A c o m p a r a tiv e ly sh ort d is ta n c e ," and seemed to
in te r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 30 m ile s o f road" in th e tr a n s fe r
te st.
tw e lv e .
T h is e r r o r was common p a r t ic u la r ly to gra d es te n and
T a b le 34
Question
About
are
there
how
in
many
the
Safety F irst
m ile s
U n ited
of
roadway
- 6
for
a u tom ob iles
S tates?
D e fin ite
About
♦About
About
About
I n
2 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 m ile s .
3 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0 m ile s .
3 5 0 ,0 0 0 m ile s .
5 0 ,0 0 0 m ile s .
d e fin ite
A g r e a t many m i l e s .
Several m ile s.
A la r g e number o f m i l e s .
*An e n o r m o u s n um ber o f m i l e s .
I n d e f in i te
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
3 6 .4
5 3 .4
6 4 .8
75 .2
5 7 .6
10
2
D
e
f
i
n
i
t
6
2
12
6
r.
6 9 .2
7 8 .6
10
76 .4
8 3 .5
7 7 .8
6
1
1
:8
3
5
10
12
8
12
1
2
6
1
LO
8
6
12
10
6
6
io
5
:8
.12
8
12
10
6
3
10
2
6
3
8
12
6
1
11
1 2 's'
8 55
12
68
3
10
6
1
12
10
,12
36
LC
8
•8
2
6
8
11
1
1
2
10
12
8
2
•12
6
9
i o y
8
24
1
5
10
:12
LO
6
5
1
1
3
8
5
8
6
:8
7
4
F ir st
te st
d e fin ite *
6
8'
6
u:
D e fin ite
nre se n ta tio n .
76
3
8
5
3
12
1
8
2
12
10
1
D e fin ite
2
.8
1
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
6
X;
D efin ite
ore sent at io n .
F ir st te st
in d e fin it e .
2 4 .2
4
5
7
5
5
9
0
0
.4
.4
.2
.0
3 9 .4
60.8
74.0
8 5 .9
6 7 .0
8
5
10
6
2
12
6
10
1
6
I
2
nd *2 10
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
8
1
12
8
1
LO
2
6
:8
1
:12
4
8
10
'.12
8
6
3
6
8
6
3
3
12
10
8
6
12
2
6
i
10
12
2
3
6
8
5
10
1
12
6
10
6
24
10
i—
6
8
16
23
12
5
5
:12
1
6
•8
24
57
2
10
7
:8
LO
6
73
3
12
6
45
12
8
2
8
4
12
1
6
8
3
10
12
6
8
2
10
10
1
10
1
6
8
1
3
6
12
5
1C
1
12 2
129
Table 34 (continued)
Q u e stio n
S a fe ty
F ir s t
-
6
I n d e f in it e
2
Form
6
Y:
I n d e f in it e
10
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
2 0 .4
f
2 3 .6
i
R -12
2 3 .5
n
2 0 .5
i
7 3 .7
t
e
T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S-
T
3
10
6
6
2
12
1
6
: 12
10
4
5
10
12
8
3
12
10
8
6
3
1
12
12
11
8
2
4
1
2
1
23
8
'6
1
20
12
6
1
8
8
25
1
10
12 4 3
10
8
4
42
14
7
6
1
■8
12
4
53
6
4
10
8
10
3
6 8 .9
8
1
2
•12
10
6
12
2
•8
6
7 1 .4
6 7 .6
6 5 .7
10
8
37
10
2
1
4
4
12
2
8
6
5
10
4
'.12
10
12
6
:8
6
8
4
2
4
10
6
3
|12
6
D
e
3
8
6
d e f i n i t e .
1 4 .3
6
8
p r e s e n t a t i on
F ir s t
t e s t
R-
:8
10
2
12
2
2
D e f in it e
Form
ZS
6
I n d e f in it e
F ir s t
1 2 .4
R- 8
R -10
1 8 .2
2 3 .8
R -12
2 4 .5
S-
6
S-
8
2
S~
T
10
3
6
:12
1 9 .7
22.8
6
:8
3 0 .4
1C
41
51
2 4 .4
10
;12
8
10
24
12
:8
10
•12
2
6
6
8
10
12
5
5
10
12
24
*8
7
7
18
12
6
2
3
8
: 12
2
1
12
;8
10
12
6
12
6
49
47
10
8
2
1
2 6 .7
6
4
4
10
:12
8
2
;12
1
1
4
1 6 .9
10
3
6
:8
2
3
1
12
6
■8
5
6
12
10
8
1
6
2
5
1
10
4
8
2
3
1
6
12
6
•8
10
3
8
1
5
•12
LO
S-10
S-12
: 8
6
4
R- 6
T
2
t e s t
in d e f in it e
R-
o
' 1-1
p r e s e n ta tio n *
1
11
12
4
3
K ey;
* -R
S
- -
C orrect
answ er in
P er cen t
o f t o t a l
- -
b o th d e f in it e
and
in d e f in it e
P er
cen t
o f num ber an sw erin g
a lso
answ ered
t e s t ,
num ber
second
t e s t
an sw erin g
q u e stio n
who
gave
an sw ers c o r r e c t ly .
f i r s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly
c o r r e c t ly .
who
u rn
R esponse A n a ly s is - D ista n c e Concept
Q u estio n : S a fe ty F ir s t * 6
The r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s in a l l fo u r t a b le s seem to
in d ic a te t h a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s concept was
more m ean in gfu l to th e p u p ils than th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n .
The r e l a t i v e in c r e a s e s i n p e r c e n ta g e s by g ra d es in Forms w and
X as a g a in s t th o se in Forms Y and Z seem to in d ic a t e th a t th e
s u p e r io r ity o f th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n over th e in d e f in i t e
p r e s e n ta tio n was p o s i t i v e l y r e la t e d to th e age o f th e p u p ils ,
the g r e a t e s t s u p e r io r it y b e in g shown fo r grade tw e lv e .
In Forms >V and X th e wrong r e sp o n se s are p r e tty w e ll
s c a t te r e d , e s p e c i a l l y f o r grade s i x .
1 -4
and 4 - 1 ,
In resp on se com bin ations
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d responded
erro n eo u sly to th e answ er, "About 2 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 m i l e s , ” and seemed
to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "An enormous number o f m ile s ” when
responding to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is e r r o r was made c h ie f ly
by grades s i x and e i g h t .
A lthough th e wrong r e sp o n se s in Forms Y and Z are
w ell s c a t te r e d fo r a l l g r a d e s, one erro r sta n d s o u t.
sponse com b in ation s 1 - 4
and 4 - 1 ,
In r e ­
r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils
in v o lv ed r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c ep t, "An enormous number
o f m i l e s , ” and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 2 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
m iles" in resp on d in g to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
i
;j i
Table 35
Q u estion
How
lon g
i s
, Re aping.. ,1 OO.la..
the
h an d le
o f
a
scyth e?
D e fin ite
cne f o o t .
20 in c h e s .
About
About
*About 6 f e e t .
A bout 25 f e e t .
I n d e f in ite
The le n g th o f a
*Long.
Short.
T w ice th e
man’ s
h eigh t
o f
arm .
a
man.
I n d e fin ite
Form
10
F ir st te st
d e fin ite *
R- 6
R - 8
R -10
R -12
R-
T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
4
6
6
6
6
4
5
6
9
1
.1
.4
.3
.6
.4
63
74
72
71
70
.4
.7
.6
.0
.9
8
6
6
o;
D e fin ite
nre sen ta tio n .
10
:12
6
\Q
8
6
:8
12
12
10
1
12
10
2
3
1
D
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
:8
4
12
LO
12
10
6
8
6
2
3
8
5
6
4
5
1
8
6
3
6
1
10
1
3
1
6
6
17
10
10
12
45
LO
13
16
69
6
6
1
5
10
71
8
2
10
12
6
L
8
4
12
10
3
L . i
:32
:
1
6
8
6
;8
10
12
10
■3.2
1
io
12
D e fin ite
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
SSS-1
S-1
S-
X:
D e fin ite
n resen tation *
F ir st te st
in d e fin it e .
4
5
5
6
5
6
1
9
2
4
6
79
8
89
0 100
2
97
T
91
.5
.0
.2
.1
.7
.7
.5
.0
.0
.7
4
io
'*■ 12
6
nd 2^
lo
8
4
lo
12
13
12
6
10
4
LO
12
8
7
3
10
6
12
5
6
10
3
8
8
12
6
1
2
6
8
10
1
8
8
12
1
i—
10
12
1
10
10
•12
6
:8
10
;i2
:
1
6
3
12
4
■8
'■ 1
8
8
6
10
2
9
12
6
:
1
•12
64
3
12
6
51
58
3
10
8
10
1
17
47
2
6
12
3
4
8
6
14
14
8
6
8
6
9
3
1
4
3
8
6
2
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
6
2
2
I
2
1
10
2
l
: 12
Table 35 (continued)
Q u estio n
Form Y;
In d e fin ite
p re se n ta tio n *
F irst te s t
d e fin ite *
R- 6
R~ 8
R-10
R-12
R- T
3 5 .0
5 0 .5
4 4 .8
4 9 .5
4 4 .9
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
6 3 .6
7 8 .1
5 8 .5
6 3 .6
6 5 .5
R eaping T o o le - 2
X
6
7
3
10 6
6
8
D
e I 10
f
6
i
6
n
16
i ,
t ' LO
23
e
6
4
10
2
5
In d e fin ite
2
3
6
.8
6
8
6 ; 5
7
6
103
:^ 3
10 4
122
6
6
8
3
:8
: 6
:12
: 2
35
10
48
: 50
;12
: 49
6
:8
: 1
6
:12
10
9
10
r 6
11
25
2
10
^2
........
4
10 1
3
10
2
1
12
6
8
1
10
12,
6
8
10
1
6
2
1
10 5
123
1
2
6
2
106
12
8
2
12
6
8
10
12
D e fin ite
1
Form Z:
6 4
In d e fin ite
p re se n ta tio n «
10
F irst te s t
3I
in d e fin ite *
n
6
d
7
R- 6 3 2 . 6
e ! 10
R- 8 4 2 . 7
f
1
R-10 5 2 . 0
i
6
R-12 4 5 .9
n
9
R- T 4 3 . 4
i
t '
L° 6
S- 6 6 6 . 7
e
S- 8 8 9 . 1
6
S-10 9 1 . 4
2
S-12 9 0 . 0
10
S- T 8 4 . 6
2
*5
32
2
2
6 6
10
13
*6
7
10
4
8 5
8
12
12
1
2
8
12
10
10
:8i 7
:i2
: 13
:8
: 2
:12
:
3
4
f
5
3
6
1
3
6
14
2
20
41
2
45
2
1
:124
103
24
18
6
3
10
;l2
1
6 14
10
14
6
32
10
53
:
i
6 1
10
6
2
2
2
1
12
8
10
12
6
8
10
12
6
2
4
8
10
2
8
3
12
1
2
Key;
* — C o r r e c t an S'
R - - Per cent of
b o t h d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e a n s w e r s c o r r e c t l y * .
S — P e r c e n t o f num ber a n s w e r in g f i r s t t e s t c o r r e c t l y who
a l s o a n s w e re d seco n d t e s t c o r r e c t l y *
R esponse A n a ly s is - D ista n c e Concept
Q u estio n ; Heaping T o o ls - 2
The r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s in th e t a b l e s seem to in d ic a t e
c le a r ly th a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s concept was more
m eaningful than th e I n d e f i n it e p r e s e n t a t io n .
Forms W and X
shorn a p r o g r e s s iv e in o r e a s e in p e r ce n ta g e o f c o r r e c t r e sp o n se s
from grade s i x through grade t w e lv e ,
in Form Y, th e v a lu e o f
R-8 e x c e e d s th e v a lu e o f R-1Q; and in Form Z, th e v a lu e o f R-10
exceed s th e v a lu e o f R -1 2 .
B oth o f th e s e d if f e r e n c e s r e f l e o t
the v a r ia t io n s o f resp o n se to th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n .
In Forms W and X* resp o n se com bin ations 3 - 1
1-3,
and
r e s p e c t i v e l y , in d ic a t e th a t th e p u p ils In v o lv ed r e ta in e d
c o r r e c tly th e c o n c e p t, "About 6 f e e t , " and seemed to in t e r p r e t
t h is to mean "The le n g th o f a man's arm" in responding to the
tr a n s fe r t e s t .
In resp o n se com bination 3 - 3 in both form s,
the p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c ep t, "About 6
f e e t ," and seemed to I n te r p r e t t h i s to mean "Short" a s a p p lie d
to th e handle o f a sc y th e in respon ding to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In Forms Y and Z th e wrong r esp o n se s are w e ll s c a t ­
tered fo r a l l g r a d e s.
However, two t y p i c a l e r r o r s stand o u t.
respon se com b in ation s 3 - 1
and 1 - 3 ,
In
r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils
in v o lv ed responded e r r o n e o u sly to th e answer, "The le n g th o f a
man's arm," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 5 fe e t"
in responding to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T his e rr o r was made more
fr e q u e n tly by g rad es te n and tw elv e than by g ra d es s i x and e i g h t .
In resp on se co m b in ation s 2 - 1 and 1 - 2 , r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils
in v o lv ed responded e r r o n e o u sly to th e answer, "The le n g th o f a
man's arm," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 20 inches"
in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
error.
T h is seemed to be a t y p ic a l e ig h th grade
134
T a b l e 36
Question
How m u c h
did
the
w ell
nil - 4
d r ille d
in
1854
near
T it u s v ille
uroduce?
D e fin ite
About 20 b a r r e l s a d ay.
*From 4 0 0 to 1 0 0 0 g a l l o n s a d a y .
About 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 g a llo n s a d ay.
About 1500 b a r r e ls a day.
I n d e fin ite
O nly sm a ll am oun ts.
Im m ense q u a n t i t i e s .
*Large q u a n t it ie s .
O nly a l i t t l e
o il.
I n d e f in i te
I
6
Form 1; D e f i n i t e
n re s e n t a t i o n ,
F ir s t t e s t
d e fin ite »
R— 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
5
5
6
5
5
3
9
0
8
8
.4
.2
.9
.4
.0
2
6
8
6
6
6
6
4
3
2
2
5 9 .8
.2
.4
.1
.4
e
I6
19
23
12
10
27
6
.8
;12
10
:12
•8
6
:8
1
2
3
10
j
55
26
1
:
6
10
6
8
6
10
12
LO
2
f°C4
:
6
;8
10
1C
8
:12
1
4
12
10
1
2
10
7
10
4
6
:8
10
■12
6
\8
10
•12
1
■8
6
6
1
:i2
59
1
6
4
61
:12
10
t g
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
10
3
14
4
8
;
1
LO
1
q
f 2
i
n
i
6
4
12
10
_______ 3 _______
S
6
8
:
z
•'12
:
1
D e fin i te
1
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
D e fin ite
o re se n t a t i o n .
F ir s t t e s t
in d e fin ite .
5
6
5
5
5
8
8
9
9
8
4
1
5
4
6
6
5
1
4
9
.9
.6
.1
.9
.6
.1
.9
.5
.9
.4
6
2
8
3
10
6
12
1
10
6
4
2
8
3
6
8
io
2
13
21
1
6 19
7
12
4
10
8
5
12
2
6
10
8
lo
12
6
:8
6
12
•12
2
-10
10
;8
•12
i
6
12
3
10
1
6
8
12
2
:8
6
8
1
10
10
6
8
1
2
1
i—
10
56
6
1
:12
5
2
54
10
1
■6 £ 6
3
8
1
10
L° 1 7
6
6
16
5
4
:8
5
;12
10
12
4
Ki5
T a b le
36
(c o n tin u e d )
Q u e s t i on
O il
-
4
I n d e f in it e
I
Form
Y;
T —n d e—f i n i t- e
10
R- 6
R -10
R -12
R-
T
1 8 .2
S-12
S-
T
38
234
7
6
10
2
10
11
2
1
2
9
!217
1015
8
10
2
10
7
12
5
12
23
18
2
1013
1216
1
6
5
8
2
12
10
5
,
o
6
7
10
3
5
8
6
2
3
8
6
13
12
9
8
8
6
4
6
f
1 2 .3
1
5
10
12
3
i
1 6 .3
6
n
1 7 .3
1
6
2
8
4
6
8
10
12
3
t
e
5 7 .5
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
41
6
D
e
22.8
3
8
•,
d e f i n i t e .
6
6
21
p r e s e n ta t io n .
F ir s t
t e s t
R-
2
6
5 8 .1
A
10
10
2
2
6
4 3 .3
1
6 1 .5
5 5 .1
10
12
3
1
12
1
8
6
2
10
2
6
1
12
3
1
8
2
12
6
8
2
10
12
D e f in it e
Form
2
z:
6
I n d e f in it e
rH
O
i—1
p r e s e n ta tio n ,
F ir s t
17
: 8 23
6
5
3
8
5
p i s
10
6
12
3
8
:8
6
6
5
8
2
3
j1 2
3
4
3
11
:8 2 3
26
8 22
10 2 3
:1 2 2 8
b 24
i8
6
3
10
2
t e s t
6
j3
6
8
10
:12
10
12
i n d e f i n i t e .
RR-
6
8
R -10
R -12
R-
T
S-
6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
6
2 6 .8
22. 7
6
2 3 .1
4 8 .1
4 1 .5
4 0 .7
6
3 3 .3
4 0 .9
3
10 6
1
:8
6
8
6
10
■12
3
:8
2
•12
6
6
|8
10
■12
12
2
1
6
7
10
8
1
2
8
10
10
6
12
6
6
6
8
1
12
:1?1 1
1
4
6
121 6
6
1
10
12
ri o
10
2 3 .8
1 8 .9
1
10
1
12
1
K ey:
*
- -
R
- -
S
- -
C orrect
answ er in
Per cen t
o f to t a l
t e s t ,
num ber
b o th
in d e f in it e
P er
a lso
d e f i n i t e
cen t
o f
and
num ber
answ ered
an s w e r in g
an sw erin g
second
t e s t
q u e s t i on
an sw ers
f i r s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly *
who
gave
c o r r e c t ly ,
c o r r e c tly
who
R esponse A n a ly s is - S iz e Concept
Q u estio n : 0 1 1 - 4
The r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s in th e t a b le s seem to I n d i­
cate th a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s concep t was d i s t i n c t
ly more m ea n in g fu l th an th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n .
I t should
be n o ted , how ever, th a t th e d if f e r e n c e s betw een g ra d es are not
la r g e .
The S v a lu e s fo r th e s i x t h grade in form s W and X are
alm ost a s la r g e a s th o se o f th e t w e lf t h g ra d e.
In form s Y and
Z th e R v a lu e s o f th e s ix t h grade are th e h ig h e s t .
In form s w and X, resp o n se com b in ation s 2 - 1
and 1 -
r e s p e c t iv e ly , seem to in d ic a t e th a t th e p u p ils In volved r e ta in e d
c o r r e c tly th e c o n c e p t, "from 400 to 1000 g a llo n s a day," but
seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "Only sm a ll amounts" when r e ­
sponding to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is e rr o r seemed to be more
ty p ic a l o f th e o ld e r than o f th e younger p u p ils .
In resp on se
com bination 2 - 2 in both form s th e p u p ils in v o lv ed r e ta in e d
c o r r e c tly th e c o n c e p t, "from 400 to 1000 g a llo n s a day," but
seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "Immense q u a n t it i e s ” in the
tr a n s fe r t e s t .
T h is e r r o r seemed to be t y p i c a l o f th e s ix t h
grade, and to some e x t e n t , o f th e te n th g ra d e.
In form s Y and Z th e wrong r e sp o n se s are more s c a t t e r ­
ed than in form s W and X.
ou t.
Two wrong resp o n se com bin ations stand
In r esp o n se com bin ation 1 - 1 in both form s, th e p u p ils in
volved responded e r r o n e o u sly to th e answ er, "Only sm all amounts,
and seemed to th in k t h i s meant "About 20 b a r r e ls a day" when r e ­
sponding to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
and 3 - 1 ,
In resp on se com bin ations 1 - 3
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv ed r e ta in e d c o r r e c tly
the c o n c e p t, "Large q u a n t it ie s ," but seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to
mean "About 20 b a r r e ls a day" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T a b l e 57
Question
A ccordin g
modern
to
transport
the
a r t ic le
p lan es
viation
you
read,
- 3
how
many
persona
can
carry?
D e fin ite
L ess than 6.
*AS m any a s 4 0 .
M ore th a n 7 5 .
About 2 00.
I n d e fin ite
A
great
S everal
*A l a r g e
O n ly a f
crowd.
p eo p le.
num ber.
ew .
In d e fin ite
Form
4
7
6
6
6
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
2
0
7
7
2
.7
.2
.6
.3
.0
10'
12
6
2 : 1
10
10 ■" :12
10
12
10
6
D e fin ite
p rese n ta tio n .
F irst te s t
d e f i n i te
D
e
f
i
25
2
6
12
44
17
LO
:12
26
:
26
71
3
:
1
10
10"
12
1C
12
73
12
68
n
i
10
53 .7
78.5
71 .0
7 0 .1
6 8 .8
12
12
10
12
6
~
io'
"":i2..... 10
12
:i2
io'
12
D e fin ite
2
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
50
69
67
73
65
.5
.7
.3
1
.2
8 3 .6
90.8
91.7
1 0 0 .0
91 .9
3
6
D e fin ite
p rese n ta tio n .
F irst te s t
in d e fin ite .
Xi
7
10'
10
I
nd 2^ 10
e
f
i
n
i
:12
10
i ; 2
16
19
12
:
HO
:
12
10
12
12
10
12
12
10
12
19
:12'” ' 10'
21
•'
24
51
•
69
6
3
10
12
10
:12
66
t
:
e
76
6
6
io'
io
3 :
10
I—
12
12
I.‘18
T able
37
(con tin u ed )
A v ia tio n - 3
Q u e s t i on
I n d e f in it e
6
Y;
1 10
p r e s e n ta t io n .
F ir s t
t e s t
h
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R-
T
S-
6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S-
T
e
f
10
12
i
n
i
t
e
58.9
60.2
67.1
74.0
66.7
6
6
21
10
26
8
2
D
32.3
40.2
49.5
57.6
44.9
10
12
2
d e f in it e *
6
6
1
I n d e f in it e
R-
8
8
8
10
8
10
3
12
10 1
: 12
: 2
:8
: 27
:12
: 20
6 3
12
3
:8
rH
vD__
Form
1
6
3
5
10
10
1
:8
: 1
\12
33
\\l
10
53
:12
: 57
620
:8
: 1
10
19
6
9
f 5
12
10 2
12 3
■
‘12
2
•12
: 13
6
8
1
10
12
6
8
10
12
6
8
10
12
6
8
1
10
1
12 1
D e f in it e
1
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R-
T
SS-
6
8
S-10
S-12
S-
T
Z:
I n d e f in it e
6
p r e s e n ta t io n .
F ir s t
t e s t
j
i n d e f i n i t e ,
n
34.7
57.6
69.6
64.6
54.3
54.0
87.7
82.4
90.1
79.1
a
e
2
3
8
1
8
6
i8
3
6 i
10
12
10
*12
10
6
8
6
:8
6
12
10
;1 2
10
2
10
f
3
4
2
8 1
11
20
: 20
*
2
8
j8 2
=12
6
1 i8 1
10
:12
1 :
: 21
4
6
1
i1" 1
2
10
1
2
2 i12
i
n
i
6
t
e
10
12
6
2
1*0
8
12
1
1
1*84 iS57
1061
I ''64
6
:8
2 :
10
1
3
;l2
6 19
i8 3
10
8
'•12,
10
;8
6
[12
10
10 8 :
6 2
6
6
j8
4
5 ;12 1
1
18
12
Key;
*
R
S
—
- —
C orrect
answ er in te s t #
Per cen t
o f t o t a l num ber
b o th
P er
a lso
an sw erin g
q u e stio n
whog a v e
d e f i n i t e
and i n d e f i n i t e
an sw ers c o r r e c t ly ,
cen t
o f num ber a n sw erin g f i r s t t e s t
c o r r e c tly
answ ered
second
t e s t
c o r r e c tly #
who
KW
R esponse A n a ly s is - S is e Concept
Q u estion s A v ia tio n - 0
The r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s seem to in d ic a te th a t the
d e f in it e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s concep t was more m eanin gful to
the p u p ils than th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n .
The ft v a lu e s In ­
crease by g ra d es more u n ifo r m ly in Forms Y and Z than in Forms
W and X*
In Form V* th e v a lu e o f R-8 i s g r e a te r than e it h e r R-10
or R -12; and in Form X th e v a lu e o f R-8 la g r e a te r than R -10,
In Forms W and X, resp o n se com bination 2 - 2 in both
forms seems t o in d ic a t e th a t th e p u p ils In volved r e ta in e d co r­
r e c t ly th e c o n c e p t, "As many a s 4 0 ," but seemed to in t e r p r e t
t h is t o mean " S ev era l people" when respon ding to th e t r a n s fe r
te st.
2.
The r e v e r s a l o f t h i s e r r o r may be noted in Forms Y and
Here In th e same resp o n se co m b in a tio n s, 2 - 2
fo r both
form s, th e p u p ils in v o lv e d responded e r r o n e o u sly to th e answer,
"Several p e o p le ," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "As many
as 40" in th e t r a n s f e r t e a t .
In resp on se com bination 3 - 3 in
Forms Y and Z, th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e con­
c e p t, "A la r g e number," but seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean
"More than 75" when resp on d in g to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is
error seemed t o be more t y p i c a l o f th e s ix t h grade than o f th e
oth er g r a d e s.
Thble 38
Q uestion
How
m ilea g e
does
of
the
the
m ilea ge
airw ays
of
of
aviation
the
th is
- 4
r a ilr o a d s
com pare
w ith
the
country?
D e fin ite
The
The
*The
The
m ilea g e o f one is eq u a l to t h a t o f
the
ra ilro a d m ilea g e is
h a lf the m ilea g e of
ra ilro a d m ilea g e i s 9 tim e s the m ile a g e
r a ilr o a d m ile a g e i s 25 t im e s th e m ile a g
I n d e fin ite
Tne
*The
Tne
The
a ir w a y m i le a g e i s much g r e a t e r .
ra ilro ad m ilea g e i s se v e r a l tim e s a s
r a i l r o a d m ile a g e i s much s m a l l e r .
m ile a g e o f ea cn i s n e a r ly th e sam e.
o th
the
of
e o
er.
airw ays.
the
airw ays.
f th e airw ays,
g r e a t.
I n d e f in i te
Form
6
1:
D efin ite
p resen tation .
22.5
54.4
71.4
85.1
58.4
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
62.2
84.6
94.9
93.5
87.5
£
10
2
2
1
1
8
2
10
LO
6
2
12
10
3
6
D
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
3
15
2
10
6
2
3
10
4
1
3
6
4
10
6
10
23
4
1
5
6
2
6
12
3
29
10
4
8
3
6
6
4
F irst te st
d e fin ite .
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
.......1
2
2
LO
6
6
12
6
8
86
6
3
4
1
10
1
1
1
10
6
12
1
1
8
8
1
1C
12
6
8
1
5
10
2
2
10
55
75
8
5
10
8
6
12
10
2
2
1
5
12
8
1
12
1
D efinite
2
3
Form
X:
6
D efin ite
R- 6
R- 6
R-10
R-12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
10
2
8
10
2
2
4
1
2
2
4
-
10
— ..
:12
10
1
10
8
2
6
5
10
2
:8
12
2
2
8
6
2
12
10
12
6
8
S3
8
3
2
5
6
9 4.3
6
1
63
59
■8
12
10
8
10
1
8
3
7
24
3
10
12
3
:12
6
5
7
3
3
6
10
10
:8
LO
8
6
4
4
1
6
80.0
94.0
92.2
:12
6
io
10
9
1
6
.8
29
1
6
23.5
63.0
60.8
79.8
56.8
92.0
6
6
5
p resen tation .
F irst te st
in d e fin ite .
2
12
12
10
2
6
2
10
8
1
12
1
6
10
1
1
8
12
141
T able
38
Q u e s t i on
(continued)
A v ia tio n
-
4
I n d e f in it e
Form Y;
I n d e f in it e
1
pre s e n t a t io n •
F ir s t
t e s t
10
12
10
12
10
12
10
12
10
10
:12
12
io
: 12
10
12
10
i 12
12 ;12L5 10
12
10
:12
d efin ite**
R-
6
R- 8
R -10
D
e
1 3 .9
3 0 .7
f
4 3 .4
i
R -12
5 9 .4
n
R-
3 6 .6
i
5 8 .3
t
e
T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S-
T
2 10
33
16
24
14
3
10
31
12
57
46
8 6 .1
8 8 .5
8 9 .1
8 4 .1
4
10
12,
D e f in it e
2
Form
ZS
6
8
14
I n d e f in it e
p r e s e n ta tio n «
F ir s t
t e s t
1
in d e fin it e *
n
10
a
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
1 9 .8
4 3 .4
R -12
n
R-
T
4 5 .7
i
SS-
6
8
5 9 .4
7 1 .7
S-10
S-12
6 4 .9
8 4 .1
S-
7 2 .2
12
8
1
2
12
10
f
i
4 8 .0
7 1 .1
T
2
6
e
1
6
10
6
16
[6
12 „
7
12
8
6
LO
t
e
12
11
10
6
8
12
6
3
5
10
1
8 43
6
10
12
69
10
8
6
:8
10
;12
6
[8
1
112
2
11
•8
5
: 12
7
2
10
12
6
6 19
1
2
6
10
48
2
3
12
6
8
10
6
10
3
1
8
7
20
9 8 10
10
8
3
8
22
3
7
6
6
12
2
8 1
12
1
6
8 1
10
12 1
12
10
Key:
*
R
S
—
- - -
C orrect
answ er in
Per cen t
o f t o t a l
te s t *
num ber
b o th
in d e f in i t e
P er
a lso
d e f i n i t e
cen t
o f
and
n um ber
a n sw erin g
an sw erin g
answ ere*d~second
t e s t
q u e s t i on
an sw ers
f i r s t
co rre ctly ®
who
gave
c o ir e c t l y .
t e s t
c o r r e c tly
who
142
B espou se A n a ly s is - S iz e Concept
Q u estio n ! A v ia tio n - 4
The r e s p e c t iv e B v a lu e s seem to in d ic a t e th a t th e
d e f in it e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s oonoept was more m eanin gful fo r
a l l gra d es th an th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n .
a l l form s show a wide grade ra n g e.
The R v a lu e s in
T h is range, how ever, i s
g r e a te r in Forms W and X where th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n was
employed than in Forms Y and Z where th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e se n ta ­
tio n was em ployed.
The wrong r e s p o n se s in Forms v and X are w id ely s c a t ­
te r e d , e s p e c i a l l y f o r grade s i x .
and 1 - 2 ,
In resp on se com bin ations 2 - 1
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d responded erro n ­
e o u sly to th e answ er, "The r a ilr o a d m ilea g e i s h a l f th e m ilea g e
o f th e airw a y s," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean th a t "The
airway m ilea g e i s much g r ea ter " in respon ding to th e tr a n s fe r
te st.
T h is e r r o r was d i s t i n c t l y t y p i c a l o f th e s ix t h grade.
In Forms Y and Z th e most o u tsta n d in g wrong respon se
was th e r e v e r se o f th e above d e scr ib e d e r r o r in Forms iff and X.
In resp on se com b in ation s 2 - 1
and 1 - 2 ,
r e s p e c t iv e ly , the
p u p ils in v o lv e d responded e r r o n e o u sly to th e answ er, "The a i r ­
way m ilea g e i s much g r e a t e r ," and seemed to in te r p r e t t h i s to
mean th a t "The r a ilr o a d m ilea g e i s h a lf th e m ilea g e o f the
airways" in resp on d in g to th e t r a n s fe r t e s t .
T h is e r r o r seemed
to be t y p ic a l o f th e e ig h th grade as w e ll a s o f th e s ix t h grad e.
i.4 a
T ab le
Q u estion
How m a n y
variou s
ca rts
com m unity
o f
the
39
F o rests
fo r e s ts
have
-
2
been
sta rted
r e c e n tly
in
country?
D e fin ite
About 10.
About 75.
*About 1 500.
About 5 0 ,0 0 0 .
I n d e fin ite
Ju st a very few .
*A l a r g e n u m b e r o f t h e m .
A sm a ll num ber o f them .
T h ou sand s o f them .
I n d e fin ite
Form
R- 6
R~ 8
R -10
R—1 2
R- T
3 3 .7
58 .6
& 5.7
7 8 .2
59 .1
12
10
6
S_ 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
8
8
8
8
6 3 .0
5 .9
2 .1
7 .8
1 .3
6
2
1
2
:12
io
10
1
6
q
f 2
i
n
L
8
2
2
12
10
26
0 3
12
10
!h
: 61
6
:12
i 79
10
:8
:
6
.0
4
69
8
6
5
10
12
10
•12
10
12
8
6
1
12
10
:12
3
2
3
1
1
6
2
8
9
12
12
3
8
8
6
1
10
1
15
10
:12
1
;12
8
5
3
“ 34
6
2
6
14
10
1
6
:8
;
•'12
i
5
8
6
1
7
10
1
2
S-
;8
6
8
6
R:
D efin ite
ore sen tation .
F irst te st
d e fin ite *
4
•12
9
12
10
3
4
3
D e fin i te
2
Form X:
D efin ite
ore sent ation*
F irst te st
in d e fin ite .
R- 6
R- 6
R -10
R -12
R- T
3
4
6
6
5
1
8
0
7
2
.7
.5
.8
.3
.1
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
5
6
7
8
7
2
9
8
7
3
.5
.6
.7
.5
.3
I
n
d
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
10
12'
10
2 10
12
LO
3
:12
10
21: 10
9
;12
:
6
3
•
32
10
59
10
12
10
12
2
10
12
10
2
10
2
48
2
70
6
3
10
12
10
12
10
5
:12
10
2 : 5
17
1
12
10
12
13
13
11
12
Table 39 (continued)
F o r e s ts
Q u e stio n
-
2
I n d e f in it e
2
Form
6
Yi
8
p r e s e n t a t io n .
F ir s t
t e s t
10
1
d e f i n i t e #
R-
6
R- 8
R -10
3 4 .6
f
3 0 .8
i
R -12
3 7 .8
3 2 .7
n
6
8 0 .0
t
e
S- 8
S-10
7 1 .4
RS-
T
S-12
8 9 .2
7 5 .5
S-
7 8 .2
T
8
6
5
12
10
17
1
6
8
1
2
:
:12
: 20
6
5
6
: 35
1 2
: 37
10
1
10
33
6
•8
’6
5
12
'8
10
28
1
10
:i2
j
1
10
4
5
17
5
8
:8
:
10
2
12
10
:
5
:8
24
10
i
;12
6
6
R
e
6
8
10
12
3
;8
1
I n d e f in it e
2 7 .7
8
LO,
19
f2
1
9
1
7
1 0 1
:
6
8
1
1
12
1
8
4
9
:12
:
6
10
:8
:
6
2
12
2
8
6
2
1 2
:
4
10
:8
6
10
12
3
7
8
8
12
1QL 3
1 3
12
R e f in it e
1
Form
Zi
6
8
1
I n d e f in it e
p r e s e n ta t io n .
F ir s t
t e s t
10
j
i n d e f i n i t e .
3 5 .0
3 5 .3
R -12
4 7 .4
R-
T
3 5 .5
S-
6
4 1 .4
S-
8
S-10
5 1 .5
5 8 .1
S-12
6 5 .7
S-
5 4 .7
12
4
10
10
1
4
8
6
1
2
6
4
8
10
:12
:
1
10
[6
1
8
24
•8
: 34
6
14
8
12
1
10
11
2
13
10
36
•1 2
: 46
10
14
12
10
6
8
3
6
6
12
8
4
6
12
14
2
1
1 0 1
■8
6
10
2
4
6
2
12
i8
8
10
2
2
1
10
4
10
3
6
12
24
12
2
i
6
6
LO
T
6
3
6
3
6
1
2
2 4 .5
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
2
10
14
:
8
8
6 10
8
10
15
12
;
9
12
8
Key:
*
R
S
—
- -
C orrect
answ er in
p er cen t
o f t o t a l
- -
b o th d e f i n it e
and
in d e f in i t e
P er
cen t
o f numb e r
a n sw erin g
a ls o
answ ered
t e s t ,
num ber
secon d - t e s t
an sw e r in g
q u e s t i on
who
gave
an sw ers c o r r e c t ly ,
f i r s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly
c o r r e c tly ^
who
R esponse A n a ly s is - S iz e Concept
Q u estio n ; F o r e s t s - £
The r e s p e c t iv e B v a lu e s in th e t a b l e s seem to i n d i ­
cate th a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s s i z e concep t was
more m ean in gfu l to a l l g ra d es than th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n .
The R v a lu e s a ls o show th a t th e grade range o f c o r r e c t r esp o n se s
i s g r e a te r and more o o n s is t e n t in Forms W and X than in Forms
Y and 3 .
In Forms w and X , resp o n se com bination £ - & in both
forma seems t o in d ic a t e th a t th e p u p ils in v o lv e d responded
e rr o n e o u sly to th e answ er, "About 75," and seemed to in te r p r e t
t h i s to mean "A la r g e number o f them" in resp on d in g to th e
tr a n s fe r t e s t .
T h is was p a r t ic u l a r ly tru e o f th e s i x t h gra d e.
The s im i l a r i t y o f th e g e n e r a l range o f resp on se
com bination £ - £ in both form s i s s t r i d i n g .
b in a tio n s 3 - 4
and 4 - 3 ,
in resp on se
In resp on se com­
r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils in v o lv ed
reta in ed c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c e p t, "About 1500," but seemed to i n ­
te r p r e t t h i s to mean "Thousands o f them" in th e tr a n s fe r t e s t .
In Forms Y and Z two wrong resp o n se com bin ations are
e v id e n t.
In r esp o n se com bination £ - £ in both forms the p u p ils
Involved r e ta in e d c o r r e c t l y th e c o n c ep t, "A la r g e number o f
them," but seemed t o in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 75" in r e ­
sponding to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In resp on se com bin ations 4 - £
and £ - 4 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly
the c o n c e p t, "A la r g e number o f them," but seemed to in te r p r e t
t h i s to mean "About 50,000" in th e tr a n s fe r t e s t .
T a b l e 40
Question
How m u c h
w ood lots
in
have
one
some
rarm ers
made
on
each
acre
of
th e ir
year?
D e fin ite
As much a s f i f t y
cen ts.
About 2 d o l l a r s .
*A8 m u c h a s 2 0 d o l l a r s .
About 150 d o lla r s .
In d e fin it e
J u st a few c e n ts .
A v ery sm a ll in com e.
A great
d ea l of m oney.
*A f a i r l y l a r g e i n c o m e .
I n d e fin ite
D e fin ite
“p r e s e n t a t i o n .
F irst te s t
d e fin ite ,
Form
R- 6
R~ 8
R-10
R-12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
4
5
6
5
5
7
6
6
6
6
6
3
4
9
6
0
0
8
0
4
.5
.8
.8
.4
.2
.1
.9
.0
.6
.5
6
5
6
;8
6
8
6
8
10
12
10
:32
10
12
10
12
:8
6
8
6
1
1
D
e
6
f
i
10
n
i
t
e
8
5
6
12
10
8
6
10
1
22
8
6
•12
10
;8
6
:
6
10
12
10
10
12
8
6
1
12
10
Form X: *D e f i n i t e
nresent a tio n .
F irst te s t
in d e fin ite .
6
1"0
12
R- 6
6
R- 6
R-10
R-12
R- T
5
6
6
6
6
3 .5
0 .6
6 .3
0 .6
0.2
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
83 .1
85.7
9 4 .2
9 4 .0
8 9 .3
6
10
10
11
12
10
2
3
1
L
8
60
68
5
8
56
12
LO
8
6
5
47
22
12
; 34
12
6
8
9
10
■8
1C
12
14
:12
LO
12
10
8
2
3
5
D e f in i te
2
.8
6
3
8
6
:12
10
12
10
:8
6
4
8
12
1
8
6
2
1
8
1
10 '
12
LO
:12
6
8
6
■8
10
12
9
12
10
:12
101 3
6
8
6
:8
2
10
L-
12
5
2
10
i
12
8
8
65
10
12
6
8
1
10
54
10
f2
1
1
26
8
5 14
10
8
6
12
3
60
12
10
6
6
12
2
•8
8
9
10
63
4
16
4
12
3
147
T a b le
Q u e s tio n
40 ( c o n tin u e d )
F o r e s ts - 6
I n d e f in it e
Form
Y$
I n d e f in it e
1
p r e s e n ta t i on.
F ir s t
12
12
10
12
10
12
t e s t
d e f i n i t e
6
1 9 .0
D
e
R- 8
R-10
R-12
R- T
2 0 .6
f
R-
S-
6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
1 9 .6
i
28.3
n
2 1 .8
i
63.3
t
e
2 10
3 10
12
10
12
12
12
11
10
10
7 0 .0
6 7 .7
12
19
21
10
21
28
19
4
7 0 .0
6 7 .9
10
12
12
45
10
50
12
D e f in it e
2
Form
2♦
3
6
8
6
10
12’
io
12
10
12
SB
6
10
12'
10
12
10
12
10
12
I n d e f in it e
p r e s e n ta tio n 9
F ir s t
t e s t
I
i n d e f i n i t e „
n
8
a
R- 6
R- 8
R-10
R-12
1 0 .2
e
2 0 .2
1 8 .6
f
i
R -
T
1 8 .6
S- 6
25.2
8
1 7 .9
2 2 .2
S-10
2 2 .3
S-12
S- T
2 9 .8
S-
;
10
6
n
i
t
e
12
id
'
6
12
10
io"
10
12
10
10
12
10
12
12
10
10
42
20
10
12
66
25
8
23.5
23
19
12
68
12
57
Key*.
*
-
R
- -
P er cen t
o f
b o th d e f i n i t e
S
—
P er
-
C orrect
a lso
cen t
ans
o f
and
num ber
answ ered
in d e f in it e
an sw erin g
se c o n d ~ te s t
an sw ers
f i r s t
c o ir e c t l y .
t e s t
c o r r e c t ly .
c o r r e c tly
who
Reap on ae A n a ly s is - s i z e Concept
Q u estio n : F o r e s t s - 6
The r e s p e c t iv e v a lu e s o f R in a l l fo u r t a b le s seem
to show th a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s concep t was
d i s t i n c t l y more m ean in gfu l than the i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n .
In Forms W and I th e te n t h grade seems
to th e
to show a s u p e r io r ity
t w e lf t h g r a d e , whereas in Forms Y and Z th e r e v e r se i s
tr u e . The s i x t h grade made i t s p o o r e st
record in Form z .
The wrong r e s p o n se s in Forms W and 1 seem to he
lim ite d to two or th r e e t y p e s .
and 2 - 3 ,
In resp o n se com bin ations 3 - 2
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t­
ly th e c o n c e p t, ” A8 much a s 20 d o lla r s ," but seemed to in te r p r e t
t h i s to mean "A v ery sm a ll income" in respon ding to th e tr a n s fe r
te st.
T h is e r r o r seemed to be t y p ic a l o f th e t w e lf t h grade
p u p ils .
In r esp o n se com bination 3 - 3 in both forms th e p u p ils
in v o lv ed r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c e p t, "As much a s 20 d o lla r s ,"
but seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "A g r e a t d e a l o f money"
in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In resp o n se com bination 4 - 4 in both
forms th e p u p ils in v o lv e d responded e rr o n e o u sly to the answer,
"About 160 d o lla r s ," and seemed t o in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "A
f a i r l y la r g e income" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is erro r was more
t y p ic a l o f th e s i x t h and e ig h th grad es than o f th e te n th and
tw e lf t h .
In Forms Y and Z two wrong r esp o n se s stand o u t.
In
respon se com bination 4 - 4 in both form s, th e p u p ils In volved
r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c e p t, "A f a i r l y la r g e incom e," but
seemed to I n te r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 150 d o lla r s " in th e
tr a n sfe r t e s t .
T h is was w ith ou t q u e stio n th e most t y p ic a l
149
error o f a l l fo u r g r a d e s .
3-4,
In resp o n se com b in ation s 4 - 3
and
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d e r r o n e o u sly responded
to the answ er, "A g r e a t d e a l o f money," and seemed to in te r p r e t
t h i s to mean "About 160 d o lla r s " when resp on d in g to th e tr a n s fe r
te st •
I fiO
T a b l e 41
Question
How
much
coal
was
Coal
m ined
in
-
4
th is
country
in
1926?
D e fin ite
500 thousand
to n s.
1 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 to n s.
40 m illio n
to n s.
*680 m illio n
to n s.
I n d e fin ite
A g r e a t many t o n s .
S everal to n s.
*An e n o r m o u s n u m b er o f t o n s .
A la r g e number o f t e n s .
I n d e fin ite
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
1 4.8
3 9 .4
57 .7
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
3 4 .1
5 4.7
6 9.6
4 5 .5
12
10
D
e
f
i
n
6
2
t
6
2
12
3
10
1
12
10
12
7
11
12
10
9
15
1
1
60
: 12
2
6
3
5
i8
2
;i2
1C
6
:8
1
5
10
3
8
6
4
4
1
12
12
10
1
2
8
10
8
4
10
12
1
6
6
8
:8
11
2
2
1
6 8 .2
8 2 .6
6 3 .8
5
6
8
1
LO
12
12
1
6
3
10
6
1
6
3
8
6
5
5
1
2
i
e
1
8
9
10
12
10
2
10
2
7
6
9
F irst te st
d e fin ite 9
6
6
6
I.:
D efin ite
-presen tation .
•32
2
2
14
:8
: 23
18
P
6
41
12
10
71
13
D e fin ite
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
6
X:
D efin ite
n resen ta tio n .
F irst te st
in d e fin it e „
24 .0
34. 7
4 3 .9
6 7 .0
42 .6
6 4 .5
T 5.6
74.1
66.2
9
10
2
2
8
12
1
6
I
7
nd 2^
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
1
8
io
4
6
7
8
2
'12
6
1
10
1
6
1
LO
8
6
3
12
1
8
7
6
8
1
10
6
12
6
4
3
3
2
4
10
8
12
10
8
1
12
6
1
3
6
1C
8
6
6
4
6
6
;8 1 1
8
p
4
1
4
•8
: 12
:8
24
2
34
3
10
12
7
6
12
10
3
8
12
7
6
6
3
10
2
8
12
1
6
4
7
8
2
2
73 .9
10
L_
4
12
2
10
12
1
10
1
12
1
LO
43
6
;12
:
7 I8
101 7
69
13
;12i o
Table 41 (continued)
Coal - 4
Q u e s t i on
I n d e f in it e
Form
Y;
10
I n d e f in it e
1
p r e s e n ta t i on.
F ir s t
17
10
12
12
10
12
12
10
12
10
10 6
t e s t
d e f in it e *
R-
6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
RS-
T
6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S-
T
D
e
1 0 .0
1 6 .0
1 2 .1
1 3 .1
1 2 .8
2
f
10
12
12
10
12
10
12
10
12
i
n
i
t
e
6 6 .6
7 2 .7
9 2 .9
8 6 .7
7 6 .4
3 10
16
10
4
10
10
12
12
13
12
13
D e f in it e
1
p r e s e n ta t io n ,
F ir s t
t e s t
i n d e f i n i t e ,
6
R-
T
S— 6
S-
8
S-10
S-12
8-
T
4
2 6 1 ;8
13 8 8 6 1 8 3 6 4
10
12
10
10
io , ;12
5 12 3
3 12 5
4
9
i n d e f in i t e
R-
3
6
Form
R- 8
R -10
R -12
2
i
n
6
d
e 2
13.. 6
1 1 .1
1 7 .8
1 3 .1
1 3 .9
5
10
f
i
2
8
2
12
6
6
3 8 3
4 8 1
10
10
io
12
12
6
6
9 8 22
16
8
20
i „
10
10
12
t 3 LO
12
12
27
19
28
g
9
13
15
6
8
6
8
6
3 8 4
5
1
8
7
4
10
10
12
10
12
12
5
2
1
4
3
10
6
n
2 6 .0
1 7 .7
2 5 .7
1 8 .1
2 1 .6
12
8
9
6
J8
:12
6 13 j 8 11
10
;12
18 : 13
6
:8
4 :
1
10
12
1 ■
K ey;
*
R
—
- -
C orrect
answ er in t e s t ,
p er
cen t
o f t o t a l num ber
b o th
S
- -
P er
a lso
d e f in i t e
cen t
o f
and
num ber
answ ered"
an sw erin g
qu e s t i o n
in d e f in it e an sw ers
an sw erin g f i r s t
secom PTFest
t e s t
co rre ctly ®
who g a v e
c o r r e c t ly ,
c o r r e c tly
who
152
R esponse A n a ly s is - S iz e Concept
Q u estion : Coal - 4
The r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s in th e t a b le s seem to show
th a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s concep t was more mean­
in g f u l th a t th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n .
The R v a lu e s o f Forms
Y and Z, how ever, seem to in d ic a t e th a t th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e se n ta ­
tio n o f t h i s c o n c e p t, "An enormous number o f to n s ," means about
as much to s i x t h grade p u p ils a s i t does to t w e lfth grade p u p ils .
The R v a lu e s a ls o seem to show c l e a r l y th a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e ­
s e n ta tio n h as in c r e a s in g ly more meaning than the i n d e f i n i t e
p r e s e n ta tio n a s p u p ils p r o g r e s s through th e g r a d e s.
The wrong r e sp o n se s in Forms W and X are p r e tty w e ll
s c a t te r e d .
However, two ty p e s stand o u t.
In resp o n se com­
b in a tio n 4 - 4 in both forms th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d o o rr e o t ly th e e o n e e p t, "680 m il lio n to n s ," and seemed to i n t e r ­
p ret t h i s to mean "A la r g e number o f tons" in responding to
the t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is e r r o r was more t y p i c a l o f th e e ig h th
and te n th g ra d es than o f th e s ix t h and t w e lf t h g r a d e s.
sponse com b in ation s 1 - 4
and 4 - 1 ,
In re-*
r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils
in v o lv ed responded e r r o n e o u sly to the answ er, "600 thousand
to n s," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "A la r g e number o f
tons" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is seemed to be e s p e c ia l ly tru e
of th e s ix t h grad e.
The wrong r e s p o n se s in Forms Y and z are a ls o w e ll
s c a t te r e d .
Three t y p i c a l e r r o r s stand o u t.
In respon se com­
b in a tio n s 1 - 3 and 3 - 1 , r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils in v o lv ed
r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly the c o n c e p t, "An enormous number o f to n s,"
and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean "500 thousand tons" in
th e t r a n s f e r t e s t *
In r esp o n se co m b in a tio n s 2 - 3
and 3 - 2
r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly the con
c e p t, "An enormous number o f to n s ," but seemed to in te r p r e t
t h is to mean " 1 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 to n s ” In th e tr a n s fe r t e s t .
In r e ­
sponse com bin ation 3 - 3 in both form s th e p u p ils In v o lv ed
r eta in e d c o r r e c t l y th e c o n c e p t, ”An enormous number o f to n s ,
but seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean ”40 m il lio n tons" in
responding to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
These th r e e com bin ations
o f wrong resp o n se seem to in d ic a t e th a t th e c o n c ep t, "An
enormous number o f to n s ," h a s a wide v a r ie t y o f meaning fo r
the p u p ils o f a l l fo u r g r a d e s.
T ab le
Q u estion
what
found
are
42
Goal
-
6
p a rt o f th e known c o a l d e p o s i t s in t i e
w orld
w ith in the b o u n d a r ie s of th e U n ited
S tates?
D e fin ite
About o n e -te n th
of tnem .
About o n e - t h ir d o f them .
*About t h r e e - f i f t h s o f them .
About n in a -te n th B of them .
I n d e fin ite
N e a r ly a l l o f than .
A v ery few o f them .
*A l a r g e s h a r e o f t h a n .
A sm a ll f r a c t io n o f them .
I n d e fin ite
Form
2
F irst te st
d e f in it e .
3 2 .3
5 1 .9
2
8
6
10
70 .1
75 .6
77 .4
6
9
21
8
5 6 .4
7 0 .3
80 .7
8 5.5
74.2
7
:12
4
:12
1
10
;8
12
nd 2*
2
10
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
8
|12
6
:8
2
12
LO
6
:8
6
10
6
6
2
•8
10
■12
6
4
8
1
3
8
19
10
21
12
6
8
5
17
10
17
:12
14
6
2
;12
3
‘12
72
12
2
6
3
10
8
D e fin ite
2
;3
6
£
9
12
6
6
2
4
I
12
10
•12
1
54
10
62
5
:8
1
1C
8
1
6
6
4
32
3
1
8
10
;8
5
LO
12
6
p resen tation .
F irst te st
in d e fin ite .
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
1
7
12
10
•12
6
20
12
10
D efin ite
4 7 .2
7
7
19
71 .2
.6
.4
.9
.1
10
8
6
56 .1
31
46
46
63
:8
10
8
6
2
2
9
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
12
10
:8
2
1
12
10
5 9 .6
7 1.3
5 3 .9
Form X:
6
2
6
1
14
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
1
;12
LO
8
6
.8
1
12
10
6
R- 6
R- 8
R-10
R -12
R- T
6
8
6
i:
D efin ite
p resen ta tio n .
8
•8
2
1
10
12
10
•12
1
6
8
5
1
610
:8
8
6
6
631
i o ’ ” ’ 12 ”
46
65
io
5
:8
6
8
6
12
10
12
10
45
9
:8 12
3
10 "
2
12
6
8
i—
” :i2
3
1
10
10
6
1
12
1
10
1
2
1
• 12
6
6
•s
1
:12
1
J
T able
42
(con tin u ed )
Coal - 6
Q u e s t i on
I n d e f in it e
Form
I n d e f in it e
1
p r e s e n t a t i on
10
10
10
12
12
F ir s t
t e s t
d e fin ite ,.
S-
6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S-
T
12
D
e 2 10
f
i
2 4 .0
4 1 .2
5 0 .5
R -12
3 9 .4
3 9 .0
R- T
R- 6
R~ 8
R -10
n
i
t
e
6 1 .5
7 9 .2
7 9 .4
7 2 .2
7 4 .3
12
10
:12
10
24
10
3
10
12
14
10
42
10
‘12
12
54
39
12
16
10
12
14
18
13
12
4
10
10
12
10
12'
10
D e f in it e
2
6
p r e s e n ta t io n ,
10
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R-
T
SS-
6
8
S-10
S-12
S-
T
6
1 6 .7
4 4 .4
2 9 .4
4 0 .4
3 2 .8
1
2
10
6
LO
3 7 .2
7 1 .0
5 7 .7
6 2 .5
5 8 .8
8
1 6 12 6 18 6 16 : 8 15
10
12
1 1026 1221
6
8
10
12
6
8
10
12
6
8
6
8
12
10
12
1
12
8
1
12
6
8
12
2
10
3
6
3
I n d e f in it e
F ir s t
t e s t
i n d e f i n i t e .
8
3
2
6 5
10
7
12
6
x
H
2:
H°
00
Form
;12l i
8
6
•8
12
10
:12
16 8 44 6 15 I8 8
10
30 1?40 1014 :1210
\8
6 3 8 1 6 3
10
1
1
12
1
10
12
1
Key:
*
R
S
—
- - -
C orrect
answ er in
Per cen t
o f t o t a l
t e s t .
num ber
b o th
i n d e f i n i t e
P er
a lso
d e f in it e
cen t
o f
and
numb e r
a n sw erin g
an sw erin g
answ ere"d~Second
t e s t
qu e s t i on
an sw ers
f i r sj ;
t e s t
c o r r e c t ly .
who
gave
c o r r e c tly *
c o r r e c tly
who
156
B esp ou se A n a ly s is - S iz e Concept
Q u estio n : Coal - 6
On th e w h o le, th e B v a lu e s o f a l l g ra d es seem to
show th a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s s i z e concep t was
more m ean in gfu l than th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n .
The d i f ­
fe r en ce betw een R v a lu e s a s t o g ra d es i s more c o n s is t e n t in
Forms i and X than In Forms Y and z .
In th e l a t t e r form s,
th e te n th grade seems to be most out o f l i n e .
In resp o n se co m b in a tio n s 3 - 1
and 1 - 3 in Forms
W and X, r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv ed r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly
the c o n c e p t, "About t h r e e - f i f t h s o f th em ,” but seemed to in t e r ­
pret t h i s t o mean "N early a l l o f them” in respon ding to th e
tr a n s fe r t e s t .
T h is seemed to be more tr u e o f grades e ig h t ,
te n , and tw e lv e than o f grade s i x .
4 -1
and 1 - 4 ,
In resp on se com bin ations
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d responded
e rr o n e o u sly to th e answ er, "About n in e - t e n t h s o f th em ,” and
seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "N early a l l o f them” in th e
tr a n s fe r t e s t .
T h is was p a r t ic u l a r ly tr u e o f th e s ix t h and
te n th g r a d e s.
Two wrong resp o n se com bin ations in Forms Y and z
are s im ila r to th e two com b in ation s d e scr ib e d in Forma W and
X above.
In resp o n se com b in ation s 3 - 1
and 1 - 3 ,
r e s p e c t iv e ­
l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d responded e rr o n e o u sly to th e answ er,
"Nearly a l l o f th em ,” but seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean
"About t h r e e - f i f t h s o f them" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t ,
com binations 4 - 1
and 1 - 4 ,
in respon se
r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils in v o lv ed
responded e r r o n e o u s ly to the answ er, "Nearly a l l o f them,"
and Boomed t o I n te r p r e t t h i s t o mean "About n in e - t e n t h s o f
them" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
Some n o tio n o f th e range o f
meaning w hleh th e p u p ils gave to th e c o n c e p t, "N early a l l o f
them," may be in f e r r e d from th e s e two resp on se co m b in a tio n s.
A th ir d r esp o n se com b in ation in Forms Y and Z a ls o r e f l e c t s
t h i s same typ e o f in t e r p r e t a t io n .
4 -3
and 3 - 4 ,
In resp on se com bin ations
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d
c o r r e c tly th e c o n c e p t, "A la r g e share o f them," and seemed to
in te r p r e t t h i s t o mean "About n in e - t e n t h s o f them" in respond­
ing to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
Table
Question
How m any
S tates
in
D eoole
1937
Safety
lo s t
because
43
o f
F irst
th e ir
liv e s
- 1
in
th e
U n ited
a ccid en ts?
D e fin ite
About
About
♦About
About
In
50.
1 0 ,0 0 0 .
1 0 5 ,0 0 0 .
1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .
d e fin ite
A la rg e group.
♦Thousands o f p e o p le .
Several p eop le.
A very
sm all num ber.
I n d e f in i te
Form u: D e f i n i t e
nre s e n t a t i o n *
F irst te s t
d e fin ite .
R- 6
R- 8
R-10
R-12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
5 4 .4
6 5 .4
8 0 .0
86 .3
71.6
7 4 .3
1
6
8
6
;8
6
;8
6
8
10
12
10
.12
10
;i2
10
12
6
•8
6
8
10
:12
1C
12
D
6
e
f 2 10
i
n
6
i
t 3
10
e
8
5
12
4
5
i8
1
10
2
P2 s
14
1
10
55
8
12
:
6
84
10
i8
10
12
4
1
6
1
3
:
2
:12
10
12
■8
6
8
*12
10
12
1
88
6 15
8
6
:8
2
68
:12
LO
9
i
:8
D
22
12
6
9 0.7
81 .7
5
8
16
7 1 .6
8 4 .8
2
6
1
10
1
D e fin ite
2
6
Form X; D e f i n i t e
n rese n ta tio n .
F irst te s t
in d e fin ite
R- 6
R- 8
R-10
R-12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
4 6 .0
6 3 .0
72.2
82 .7
6 6 .1
6 2 .2
76.8
8 7 .5
93.6
80 .8
6
4 ;
TO'
10
6
nd 2*
10
i
t
e
10
12
|L0
1
:12
:
10
2
3
12
io
i
:ii’
12
10
12
3
10
6
io
2
12
12
13
:
22
63
12
10
12
12
86
70
6
i
n
12
11
46
'
e
f
l
:i2
2
I
3
.3
6
2
10
12
lio
12
10
12
10
12
T~
10
T a b le 43 ( c o n t i n u e d )
Q u e s t i on
gAr 8t — -4r
I n d e f in it e
Form
6
Y:
8
6
8
2
I n d e f in it e
p r e s e n ta t io n .
F ir s t
t e s t
10
d e f i n i t e ,
R-
6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R-
T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S-
T
12
b
D
e
3 5 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .2
4 3 .3
3 9 .3
8
6
12
2
n
6
i
t
e
8 9 .7
9 5 .2
9 3 .3
1 0 0 .0
9 4 .6
10
12
1
6
10
12
2
10
12
6
8
:12
10
12
;8
6
8
6
24
34
28
12
6
27
LO
23
■8
1 :
10
42
8
2 I ' 36
[io
1 42
1
11 2
6
10
8
8
10
8
3
6
12
2
i
:8
10
5
10
f
6
1
1
6
2
8
40
12
42
8
12
21
10
1
10
1
6
1
10
*12
10
12
1
*8
1
12
6
8
10
12
D e fin ite
*3
1
Form
Z:
6
4
I n d e f in it e
p r e s e n ta tio n ,
F ir s t
t e s t
i n d e f i n i t e •
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R-
T
S-
6
S-
8
2 9 .9
4 4 .4
4 3 .6
4 7 .0
4 1 .2
10
S-10
S-12
S- T
Key;
* -R
S
1
12
6
8
10
6
6
1
6
1
10
4
1
19
10
12
2
6
10
1
LO
3 6 .2
4 7 .8
4 6 .4
4 7 .9
4 4 .6
8
12
8
31
1
8
6
12
2
2
6
:1 2
6
:8
26
10
12
10
8
6
8
12
io
12
- -
b o th d e f i n it e
and
in d e f in it e
P er
cen t
o f numb e r
an sw erin g
an sw ered ~secon d
t e s t
an sw erin g
1
: i ‘2
1
1
6
8
31
22
10
12
20
21
6
8
•12
10
12
■8
6
8
10
12
q u e s t i on
who
gave
an sw ers c o r r e c tly *
f i r s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly
c o r r e c tly *
3
12
;8
12
10
8
10
44 : 46
28
10
te s t *
num ber
1
6
29 : 44
6
C orrect
answ er in
Per cen t
o f t o t a l
3
8
10 2
8
2
1
3
12
- -
a lso
8
who
160
R esponse A n a ly s is - s i z e Concept
Q u estio n ; S a fe ty F i r s t - 1
The r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s fo r a l l g ra d es seem to i n d i ­
ca te th a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s concep t was more
m eaningful than th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n .
In Forms w and
X the R v a lu e s in c r e a s e more u n ifo rm ly through th e grades
than th ey do in Forms Y and Z.
In th e l a t t e r forms th e range
o f R v a lu e s i s Sm all and ir r e g u la r , the p ercen ta g e o f th e
e ig h th grade b e in g s l i g h t l y h ig h e r than th a t o f th e t e n t h .
In Forms 'H and X th e wrong r e sp o n se s seem to c e n te r
around two or th r e e t y p e s .
and 1 - 3 ,
In resp o n se com bin ations 3 - 1
r e s p e c t i v e l y , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t­
ly th e c o n c e p t, "About 1 0 5 ,0 0 0 ," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s
to mean "A la r g e group" in respon ding to th e t r a n s fe r t e s t .
In resp on se com b in ation s 4 - 2
and 2 - 4 , r e s p e c t iv e ly , the
p u p ils in v o lv e d responded e r r o n e o u sly to th e answer, "About
1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "Thousands o f
people" in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is resp on se seemed to be d e f­
i n i t e l y t y p i c a l o f th e s ix t h g ra d e.
In Forms Y and Z th e wrong r esp o n se s are somewhat
more s c a t te r e d than in Forms W and X, but seem to c e n te r
around two t y p e s .
In resp o n se com bination 2 - 2 in both forms
th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly the c o n c ep t, "Thousands
o f p e o p le ," but seemed t o in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 10,000"
in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In resp o n se com bin ations 4 - 2
and 2 - 4 ,
r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e con­
c e p t, "Thousands o f p e o p le ," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to
mean "About 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 " in resp on d in g to th e t r a n s fe r t e s t .
161
T a b l e 44
Question
Safety F ir s t
Of a l l the a c c id e n t a l
U n ited
S ta t e s in 1 9 3 7 , how
▼ ahielee?
- 2
d e a th s th a t occu rred in tne
many were c a u se d by m o to r
D e fin ite
About 87
out of e v e r y
* About 37
out of e v ery
About 20
out of every
About
8
out of every
I n d e fin ite
O nly a sm a ll num ber.
N early a ll
of them .
*A c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t o
A lm ost n on e o f th em .
1
1
1
1
f
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
.
.
.
.
them .
In d e fin ite
Form
6
1,:
D efin ite
n r e sen ta tio n »
19;
10' " i 2 ...... LO
F irst te st
d e fin ite *
R- 6
R- 8
R-10
R -12
R- T
3
5
6
8
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
53 .4
7 0 .7
1
1
8
2
.0
.4
.6
.3
;8
6
8
8
D
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
6
4
10
3
6
1
li P
10
6
8
6
:8
10
12
LO
'.12
82 .8
9 2 .3
6
8
6
77 .2
10
12
6
1
8
5 8 .5
8
10
'
22:8 21
12
12
|12
■'8
2:
10
.8
6
17
7
3
1
■12
10
17;
6
“i F
3
■8
31:
:12
72 ;
6
:12
6
:8
10
8
10
12......
6
53
j
84
[
1
8
12
10
6
i f
10
6
3
8
10
12
6
8
10
12
1
;i2
D e fin ite
Form
X:
D efin ite
1
n resen ta tion .
F irst te st
in d e fin it e ,
R- 6
R- 8
R-10
R-12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
21.8
4 2 .0
53 .1
6 5 .4
45.6
50 .0
75 .0
8 5 .0
8 5 .0
76 .2
I
nd 2^
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
10
12
6
8
39
io
19
6
6
12
13
17:
12
10
12
6
10
12
10
12
11
:8
10
'{12
10
:8
6
6
12
1
10
2
10
6
:
•12
6
:12
4
6
42
5 1 :
8
2
•8
22:
6
i—
:12
6
13
8
:8
13:
LO
3
J3.2
6
8
10
.8
10
27
18
3
2
:8
:
■12
1
12
1
8
3
12
10
1
8
8
6
2
12
10
68
1
6
:8
6
10
■12
10
12
Table 44 (continued)
Q u e stio n
S a fety
F ir s t
-
2
I n d e f in it e
Form
6
Y;
'
6
6
7 .0
D
e
R- 8
R -10
1 0 .1
9 .3
f
i
R -12
1 0 .2
n
R~
T
9 .1
i
S-
6
4 1 .2
e
S-
7 1 .4
7 6 .9
7 1 .4
S-
6 3 .8
T
8
18
10
12
10
12
3
r~
"8
6
12
6
4
4
4
8
2
b
8
6
2
8
8
10
12
8
6
8
12
7
10
10
10
12
10
10
8
6
;
6
4
10
12 1
6
21
1 31
b
8
6
t 3 10
8
1I
b
8
4
2
6
58
12
i(k
d e f i n i t e ,
S-10
S-12
8
64
10
p r e s e n ta t io n .
F ir s t
t e s t
R-
6
8
3
I n d e f in it e
10 5
12 4
6
8
1
T$
10
12
6
8
io
12
1
4
10
12
12
10 2
10
2
D e f in ite
1
Z:
6
I n d e f in it e
p r e se n ta tio n ,,
F ir s t
t e s t
I
i n d e f i n i t e ,
R -10
6 .9
i
R -12
9 .1
n
R-
T
6 .6
S-
6
1 4 .3
S-
6 58
869
6
7
2
f
Vi l
1?4 5
10 9
12 7
10 2
i
6
8
6
8
6
R
S~ 1 ^
S~ T
1 9 .6
2 1 .1
12
18
3
X§3
10 7
6
8
lo
12
16
.
2 6 .0
1
10
e
4
4
8
10
6
8
6
6
1
12
8
7
12
12 9
101
6
8
6
8
lo
12
10
12
;12
.
4
8
1
101
3
8
4
10
12
e 2
t 3
2 6 .0
6
12
o
3 .1
7 .1
8
2
10
lC
6
8
S-10
6
3
8
n
d
RR~
8
1
tr1
Form
2
6
r 12
:8
2
1 01
6
1
:12
\8
10
12
1
K e y :
*
R
S
—
- - -
C orrect
answ er in
Per cen t
o f t o t a l
te s t*
num ber
b o th
in d e f i n i t e
P er
a lso
d e f in it e
cen t
o f
and
num ber
answ ered
an sw e r in g
an sw erin g
second
T e st
q u e s t i on
an sw ers
f i r s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly *
who
gave
c o r r e c t ly .
c o r r e c tly
who
163
Reaponae A n a ly s is - S iso Concept
Q u estion : S a fe ty F ir s t - a
The r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s f o r a l l g ra d es seem to in d i ­
cate th a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s concept i s d i s t i n c t ­
ly more m ea n in g fu l than th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n .
In Forms
W and X th e R v a lu e s in c r e a s e u n ifo rm ly through the g r a d e s,
whereas in th e o th e r form s t h i s in c r e a s e i s sm all and ir r e g u ­
la r , e s p e c i a l l y in Form I ,
The wrong r e s p o n se s in Forms
l y o f th r e e t y p e s .
'iff
and X seem to be la r g e ­
In resp o n se com b in ation s 1 - 2
and 2 - 1 ,
r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d responded e rr o n e o u sly to the
answer, "About 87 out o f e v er y 100," and seemed to in t e r p r e t
t h i s to mean "N early a l l o f them" in resp on d in g to th e tr a n s ­
fe r t e s t .
e ig h t .
T h is e r r o r seemed to be t y p ic a l o f grad es s i x
and
In resp o n se com bination £ - 2 in both form s, th e p u p ils
in v o lv ed r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly the c o n c e p t, "About 37 out o f every
100," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "Nearly a l l o f them"
in th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
In resp o n se com b in ation s 1 - 3
and 3 - 1 ,
r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils in v o lv e d responded err o n e o u sly to the
answer, "About 87 out o f e v er y 100," and seemed to in t e r p r e t
t h i s t o mean "A c o n s id e r a b le p a rt o f them" in th e tr a n s fe r t e s t .
T his e r r o r a ls o
seemed to be t y p ic a l o f grade s i x .
In Forms Y and Z, resp o n se com binations 1 - 2
2-1,
and
r e s p e c t i v e l y , in d ic a t e th a t th e p u p ils in v o lv ed responded
e rr o n e o u sly to th e answ er, "N early a l l o f them," and seemed to
in te r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 87 out o f every 100" in th e tr a n s ­
fe r t e s t .
T h is seemed to be th e c h i e f erro r o f a l l fou r g ra d es.
In resp o n se com b in ation s 1 - 2
and 3 - 1 ,
r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e
p u p ils in v o lv e d r e t a in e d c o r r e c t l y th e c o n c ep t, "A c o n sid e r a b le
part o f them ," but seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean "About 87
out o f e v er y 100" in resp o n d in g to th e tr a n s f e r t e s t .
error was made c h i e f l y by th e t w e lf t h grade p u p ils .
T h is
J.65
T a b l e 45
Q uestion
How
lo s s
our
Our
♦Our
Our
does our
in l i v e s
war
war
war
lo s s
lo ss
lo s s
Our
lo s s e s
*0ur
war l o
accid
war l o
war l o
lo s s e s
Our
Our
Our
lo s s in
in 1937
was
was
was
were
s
e
s
s
about
about
about
Safety F irst
- 4
l i v e s in
t o e w o r l d War
b ecause of a ccid en ts?
D e fin ite
com pare
w ith
o n e-ten th
o f our a c c id e n t l o s s .
o n e -h a lf o f our a ccid en t lo s s .
t h r e e - fo u r t h s o f our a c c id e n t l o s s .
eq u al
in
number.
I n d e fin ite
s was o n ly a f r a c t i o n a l
nt lo s s .
s w as much g r e a t e r t h a n
s was a g r e a t d e a l l e s s
were ab ou t t h e
sam e i n n
p art
of
our
our 1937
than our
um ber.
1937
a ccid en t lo s s .
1907 a ccid en t lo s s .
I n d e fin ite
*
Form
6
D efin ite
p resen ta tio n .
F irst
2
te st
10
d efin ite*
R-
6
R-
8
R -10
R —1 2
RS-
6
n
2 5 .£
i
S-
8
S-10
S-12
S- T
4
3
3
3
2 5 .9
1 .4
7 .8
0 .8
4 .3
7
:
i12
31
6
3
10
8
LO
12
:
8
10
6
12
LO
02
4
6
8
12
:8
6
8
;i2
1
10
12
6
8
4
10
1
6
8
3
6
12
10
1
12
3
8
1
12
5
5
12
6
1
1C
8
7
10
3
65
3
1
10
8
34
6
4
6
12
12
3
1
10
30
10
8
2
12
44
3
8
6
10 3
6
6
|
r6
5
29
:8
7
rz
6
6
e
t
e
3
8
6
e 1 r :e
14 i 29
f 2
40
:12
i
1 3 .9
2 9 .0
2 9 .5
2 8 .4
T
,8
3
12
10
1
£
2
D e fin ite
1 _______
Form
X»
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
6
D efin ite
p resen ta tio n .
F irst te st
in d e fin it e ,
7
,
10
2
6
10
3
5
10
2
6
6 8.9
7
5
:
20
:
10
1
2
1
10
:
•
12
6
8
9
1
10
12
6
8
1
12
3
10
12
6
8
1
6
8
5
10
8
12
3
s i
6
2
12
6
4
6
3
12
1
3
2
10
8
10
2
8
1
1
29
42
3
10
10
:8
6
8
5
:12
1
4
8
7
2
•8
•:
6
26
:12
6
1
i—
3
43
5 5 .6
8 3.8
8 6 .7
:
6
2
:
6
10
11
3
.8
i 20
:12
:8
a"
10
31
1
6
48 .3
614
6
8
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
7
6
1 4 .0
2 0 .0
3 2 .3
2 5 .2
22 .8
2
7
10
1
6
3
12
2
T a b l e 45 ( c o n t i n u e d )
Q u e stio n
S a fe ty
F ir s t
-
4
I n d e f in it e
2
Form
6
Y*
26
:8
I n d e f in it e
10
p r e s e n ta tio n ,
F ir s t
t e s t
d e f i n i t e .
D
e
13.9
13.1
9.4
15.5
, r «
12.9
6
R~ 8
R-
R -10
„ ,
S- 8
46.7
S -lO
S-12
6 8 *8
S_
54.2
54
D 14
2 10
6
42
3
1
;.12 40 10
12
;§ 13 6 5
10 |12 15 10
f
3
6
8
6
5
8
2
1
2
10
6 6
9
6
5
8
10 6
12 9
10
1
12.
2
6 9
5
6
2
8
1
10L2
9
10
2
12
4
6 3
1
6
1
10 3
2
2
12
6
12
1
i
6
n
t
A 10
e
Sf * °
6 6 2
9 ■8
12 •12 13 10 1
1 •8
6
2
1 6
12
1
8
9
1
5
6 2 .5
t
1C
1 : 12
10
2
1
10
2
10
3 12 6
6
1 :8
D e f in it e
2
Zt
6 26
I n d e f in it e
p r e s e n ta tio n ,
F ir s t
t e s t
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R-
T
S-
6
8
S-
20.0
17.9
26.1
21.2
21.4
S-10
S-12
3-
T
8
9
1037
12 6 4
13.8
6 3
8
6
10
12
i n d e f i n i t e .
9.4
12.1
17.8
18.2
14.4
■sf
to
Form
3
12
18
rj
10 3
6 9
2
2
10
1
10 1
:12 2
6 5 :8 3
6
;8
10 3
j1 2 l
10
113
M
l
1
i
: 12
:8
6
7
8 4
6
£
4
6 6
:8 8
6 2
LO
6
12 i
10 4
22
io 9
:1 2 6
10
•I2
6 2
8
6 3
1
6 1 :8 3
6 12
i® 6
io
12
iux
10
10
■l2
2
h
4
12
*
3
Key;
* R
S
- - -
C orrect
answ er in
Per cen t
of t o t a l
t e s t ,
num ber
b o th
in d e f in it e
P er
a lso
d e f in it e
cen t
o f
and
numb e r
a n sw erin g
an sw erin g
answ ered"~second
t e s t
qu e s t i o n
an sw ers
f i r s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly *
who
gave
c o r r e c t ly .
c o r r e c tly
who
R esponse A n a ly s is - S ize Concept
Q u estion : S a fe ty F i r s t - 4
The r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s seem to in d ic a t e th a t th e
d e f in it e p r e s e n t a tio n o f t h i s concept was more m eanin gful to
the p u p ils than th e i n d e f i n i t e p r e se n ta tio n *
However, th e
range o f v a lu e s i s n ot la r g e in any o f th e form s.
T h is seems
to in d ic a t e th a t th e d if f e r e n c e s o f a b i l i t y to in t e r p r e t t h i s
oonoept a s t o g r a d e s were n o t g r e a t .
The wrong r e s p o n se s in a l l forms are w e ll s c a t te r e d .
In Forms W and X, resp o n se com b in ation s 2 - 3
and 3 - 2 ,
t i v e l y , r e p r e s e n t th e most common e rr o r o f a l l g r a d e s,
resp ec­
in t h i s
case th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c ep t, "Our
war l o s s was about o n e -h a lf o f our a c c id e n t l o s s , " but seemed
to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean th a t "Our war l o s s was a g rea t d ea l
l e s s than our 1937 a c c id e n t lo s s " in respon ding to th e tr a n s fe r
te st.
R esponse com bination 1 - 1 In Forms Y and Z seems to i n ­
d ic a te th a t th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly the co n cep t,
"Our war l o s s was o n ly a f r a c t io n a l p a rt o f our 1937 a c cid en t
lo s s ," but seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean th a t "Our war l o s s
was about o n e -te n th o f our a c c id e n t lo s s" in th e tr a n s fe r t e s t .
T his was th e most common e r r o r in th e s e two form s, p a r t ic u la r ­
ly fo r g rad es e i g h t , te n , and tw e lv e .
168
Table 46
Q uestion
helo
Reaping T o o ls
How m a n y w o o d e n s t r i p s d i d
l a y t h e g r a i n i n t o ro'«s?
the
crad le
- 3
scythe
have
to
D e fin ite
About
About
*Three
O nly
*
£5.
15.
or fo u r .
o n e.
In d e fin ite
Several
A very
Many.
la rg e
A
few .
very
number.
In d e fin i te
Form
3
4
4
4
4
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
5
5
4
5
5
1
5
3
9
2
0
2
8
1
0
.4
.5
.8
.0
.4
3
D
e
f
i
n
i
2
11
2
12
10
3
6 32
.8
.9
.9
.0
.9
10
5
10
£
12
£
12
12
12
10
1
1
12
6
i2
10
8
6
12
10
£
£
8
1
8
39
12
48
3
8
1
12
£6
10
50
1
£
6
2
10
1
1C
8
6
1
12......
8
6
3
5
10
8
3
46
io"'"
8
6
2
1
1
€
8
12
10
8
3
1
46
6
10
12
LO
8
6
£
12' i '
8
6
8
6
8
£
4
6
F ir st te st
d e fin ite *
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
6
8
6
1:
D e fin ite
n r e s e n ta tio n .
45
8
6
£
12
1
12
10
D e fin ite
2
1
Form
R- 6
R- 6
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
X:
D efin ite
oresen tation *
F ir st te st
in d e f in it e .
3
4
4
5
4
2
7
8
7
6
.7
.0
.0
.3
.3
6
5
6
4
6i i
318
633
8 47
lo
12
10
12
6
8
,
io
12
4
6
5
8
lb
6
6
6
8
12
6
LO
8
12
10
6
2
121
10
6
8
1
6
10
8
12
10
12
6
8
10
12
8
5
12 !
10 2
12 1
8
6
8
18
12
1
6
5
4
12
l
8
3
6
£
10
8
7
10
12
io
59
5
£
6
47
1
£
65 .3
67 .1
8 2 .5
9 0 .8
77 .2
5
3
.
10
1
35
6
20
12
34
8
£
10
12
169
Table 46 (continued)
Q u e s t i on
-R.aa.plng,
I . ojqX
-« -^ 3
s
I n d e f in it e
2
Form
TT
Y;
I n d e f in it e
...
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R-
T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S-
T
n
I
t
e
5 8 .1
36
47
6 3 .5
7 3 .9
6 3 .2
6
Zi
I n d e f in it e
6
p r e s e n ta t io n .
F ir s t
t e s t
10
in d e f i n it e ,
12
10
S -
6
8
S -10
S -12
R- T
43.9
3
6
4 6 .9
8
6 2 .3
8-10
S-12
8- T
6
10
12
8
6
1
12
10
6
8
6
10
8
6
6
10
12
1
:
7
:
:
7
2
1
6
3
:
3
: 12
io
j
:8
14
•12
10
•8
6
12
io
i
23
j 12
21
: 18
:8
3
j
4
‘12
:
5
2
4
3
j3
6
: 43
8
2
: 2
; 12
2
;
10
i 60
1
•8
6
:8
:12
io
:12
2
4
6
8
:8
4
12
10
8
6
5
10
12
;
4
4
3
io
:8
:12
53
4
8
12
10
8
3
10
23
21
6
1
7 1 .4
6
1
10
12
19
1
68.8
•8
5
21
10
2
8
6
:12
1
:8
4
21
3
3
LO
S-
12
1
6 0 .6
4 5 .2
10
:12
D e fin ite
2
8
6
5 2 .0
S-
6
2
4
2 3 ,7
i 12
j8
3
8
6
10
8
1
10
1
R-
5
1
e i
6
1
4
10
8
3
Form
6
3
12
b
8
l
6
24
LO
10
12
18
r8
i
12
3
10
:8
6
1
6
16
i
5 3 .3
1
8
18
...1 7 ...
10
12
f
4 3 .9
5 2 .0
3 9 .5
10
2
6
. . . 1 ..
i
12
3
8
8
6
D
e
2 4 .5
3 7 .1
6
.8...
10
p r e s e n t a t i on 0
F ir s t
t e s t
d e f i n i t e »
8
2
j
3
•12
• 1
■8
17
10
12
6 4 .1
1
6
5
6
:8
1
1 . . . 5 . . . .............
10
:i2
16
10
•8
•:
:12
6
:
1
12
2
7
K ey;
* -R
S
- -
C orrect
answ er in
per cen t
o f t o t a l
- -
b o t h d e f i n i t e * and
in d e f in it e
p er
cen t
o f num ber a n sw erin g
a lso
answ ered'
t e s t ,
num ber
second
t e s t
an sw erin g
qu e s t i o n
who
gave
an sw ers c o r r e c tly ,
f i r s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly
c o r r e c tly .
who
J70
R esponse A n a ly s is - S iz e Concept
Q u estio n : R eaping T o o ls - 3
On th e w h ole, th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n o f t h i s coneept seemed to be more m ea n in g fu l to the p u p ils than th e in ­
d e f in it e p r e s e n t a t io n .
However, th e r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e e seem
to in d ic a t e th a t th e margin o f d if fe r e n c e between the two ty p e s
o f p r e s e n ta tio n was s m a ll.
The wrong r e s p o n se s in a l l forma are w id ely s c a t te r e d .
In Forms W and X, resp o n se com b in ation s 3 - 4
and 4 - 3 ,
resp ec­
t i v e l y , in d ic a t e th a t th e p u p ils In volved r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly the
con cep t, "Three or fo u r ," and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean,
"A very few" in resp on d in g to th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
T h is was the
most common e r r o r , e s p e c i a l l y fo r grad es te n and tw e lv e ,
response com b in ation s 2 - 1
in
and 1 - £ , r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils
in v o lv ed responded e r r o n e o u sly to th e answ er, "About 1 5 ,” and
seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "Several" in the t r a n s fe r
te st.
T h is e r r o r seemed to be common to grades s i x and e ig h t .
In Forms T and Z, resp o n se com bin ations Z - 1 and
1-2,
r e s p e c t i v e l y , seem to in d ic a t e th a t th e p u p ils in v o l­
ved r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c ep t, " S ev era l," but seemed to
in te r p r e t t h i s to mean "About 15” in th e t r a n s fe r t e s t .
response com b in ation s 3 - 4
and 4 - 3 ,
In
r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils
in v o lv ed responded e r r o n e o u sly to th e answer, "A very f e w ,”
and seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to mean "Three or four" in th e
tr a n s fe r t e s t .
Both wrong resp o n se com binations are b a s ic a l ly
the same a s th o se d e sc r ib e d above in Forms W and X.
1.71
T a b le 47
Q uestion
In
1831,
M cC orm ick's
m a n y men ?
Reaping T o o l s
reaper
could
- 4
do t h e
work
of
how
^
D efin ite
A hundred.
F ifty .
*A d o z e n .
Two.
In d efin ite
S ev era l.
A v e r y l a r g e number.
*A l a r g e g r o u p .
Q uite a c o n s id e r a b le
number.
I n d e fin ite
Form
10' '
Fi rst te st
de f i n i t e p
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
8
20
15
18
15
15
26
20
21
21
.8
.2
.4
.6
.8
3
3
3
D
e
f
2
i
n
i
12
10
6
30
.2
.9
.2
.1
.2
10
10
32
10
10
3
i2
5
14
25
10
28
12
26
8
6
8
2
2
12
10
19
6
8
j6
12
2
12
1
21
16
1
8
1
1C
8
9
12
1
2
LO
8
6
12
5
1
6
8
8
4
2
12
LO
10
2
10
8
12 "
2
6
1
6
44
8
6
4
6
30
12
6
2
12
1
8
6
i o ...
8
5
4
5
8
4
1
3
8
6
6
1
5
12
1 2 ...... io ’
8
6
8
6
8
6
D efin ite
n resen ta tion
12
10
4
3
12
10
1
1
D e fin ite
Form
R- 6
R- 8
R-10
R -12
R- T
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
S-12
S- T
I
8
6
10
12
io
I
6
8
6
nd ^2
3
io ‘
12
LO
6
7, :
D efin ite
oresen tation
Fi rst te st
in d e f i n i t e ,
1 7 .0
17 .0
7 .2
17.6
14 .8
63 .0
77 .3
50 .0
75 .0
67 .8
2
1
2
1
e
f
i
n
i
t
e
6
1
8
12
6
8
10
1
7
6
1
12
10
1
4
3
12
6
10
8
6
1
8
6
17
12
7
12
10
4
8
6
8
1
11
12
8
17
10
7
36
12
6
4
10
4
2
12
30
12
5
10
8
6
8
2
5
8
39
6
12
6
1
10
1
10
1
8
10
34
2
2
3
3
6
12
l
6
4
8
3
8
2
2
10
12
18
8
20
10
12
22
22
1
6
17
8
1
10
12
1
1
17
f^ sr1
Table 47 (continued)
Que s t i on
R eap in g
T o o ls
-
4
I n d e f in it e
1
Form
6
Y;
-
10
p r e s e n ta tio n *
F ir s t
t e s t
d e f in it e *
R~ 8
R -10
R -12
7 .2
f
1 6 .2
1 5 .1
i
n
R-
1 2 .8
i
2 4 .3
1 9 .7
S-
2 0 .1
T
2
10
12
10
12
2
3
34
10
37
I
10
42
6
6
8
,
12
101 7
4
12
1 17
8
3
4
8
10
15
10
8
12
10
15
6
12
'6
7
10
4
10
8
12
12
8
7
5
6
4
1
12
4
8
2
12
6
7
10
1
6
25
8
6
12
2
12
6
4
10
8
6
8
4
10 1
101
1
8
1
12
6
8
6
8
3
8
4
t
e
2 1 .0
1 3 .7
S-12
2
12
6
D
e
1 2 .2
S- 6
S- 8
S-10
6
8
2
6
T
3
6
8
1
I n d e f in it e
R-
2
15
6
17
8
1
12
10
2
10
10
12
1
1
10
’
1
12
1
D e fin it e
2
Form
6
Zg
10
p r e s e n ta tio n «
F ir s t
t e s t
I
i n d e f i n i t e ,
n
d
e
R- 6
R- 8
R -10
1 7 .3
1 7 .2
1 3 .7
f
i
R -12
2 7 .3
n
R-
T
1 8 .8
SS-
6
8
6 0 .7
7 0 .8
i
t
e
S-10
S-12
6 3 .6
S-
6 8 .8
T
7 7 .1
6
8
8
10
12
2
10
10
12
2
6
8
3
LO
6
10
4
io
1
5
1
10
12
6
8
6
8
3
12
io
2
12
1
8
6
17
1
5
10
12
12
27
6
8
13
14
4
11
14
8
8
2
10
8
10
12
7
4
6
12
17
5
12
6
10
11
'6
8
3
1
6
6
4
1
12
10
8
10
8
7
8
8
30
33
2
12
32
12
6
8
5
2
1
3
6
8
1
2
6
8
17
10
12
4
6
f6~
2
6
1
I n d e f in it e
3
8
1
4
10
10
12
6
12
3
2
Key;
*
R
S
—
- -
C orrect
answ er in
Per cen t
o f t o t a l
- -
b o th d e f i n i t e
and
in d e f in it e
P er
cen t
o f numb e r a n s w e r in g
a lso
answ ered
t e s t ,
num ber
second
t e s t
an sw e r in g
q u e s t i on
'w ho
gave
answ ers c o r r e c tly *
f i r s t
t e s t
c o r r e c tly
correctly*,
who
.17*1
R esponse A n a ly s is - S iz e Concept
Q u estion : R eaping T o o ls - 4
On th e w h ole, th e r e s p e c t iv e R v a lu e s seem to i n ­
d ic a te th a t f o r a l l g r a d e s th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n o f t h i s
oonoept was more m ea n in g fu l than th e in d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n .
The wrong r e s p o n se s are w id e ly s c a tte r e d in a l l form s.
In Forms W and X, resp o n se com b in ation s 3 - 1
and 1 - 3 ,
resp ec­
t i v e l y , seem to in d ic a t e th a t th e p u p ils in v o lv e d r e ta in e d c o r ­
r e c t ly th e c o n c e p t, "A dozen," hut seemed to in t e r p r e t t h i s to
mean "Several" in resp on d in g to th e tr a n s f e r t e s t ,
com bin ations 0 - 4
and 4 - 3 ,
in respon se
r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils in v o lv ed
r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly th e c o n c e p t, "A dozen," but seemed to i n t e r ­
p ret t h i s to mean "Quite a c o n s id e r a b le number" in th e tr a n s fe r
te st.
The la r g e number o f p u p ils who responded in th e above
two ways seem s to in d ic a t e th a t the c h ie f e r r o r in th e s e forms
was in t r a n s f e r , n ot in r e t e n t io n ,
Xn Forms Y and 3 , resp o n se com bin ations 3 - 1
1-3,
and
r e s p e c t i v e l y , seem to in d ic a t e th a t the p u p ils in v o lv ed
responded e r r o n e o u s ly to th e answ er, " S ev era l," and seemed to
in te r p r e t t h i s to mean "A dozen" in th e tr a n s fe r t e s t .
sponse com b in ation s 3 - 4
and 4 - 3 ,
In r e ­
r e s p e c t iv e ly , the p u p ils
in v o lv ed responded e r r o n e o u sly to th e answ er, "Quite a con­
s id e r a b le number," and seemed to in te r p r e t t h i s to mean "A
dozen" in resp on d in g to th e t r a n s fe r t e s t .
In respon se combina­
t io n s 4 - 1 and 1 - 4 , r e s p e c t iv e ly , th e p u p ils in v o lv ed respon­
ded e r r o n e o u sly to th e answ er, " S ev era l," and seemed to i n t e r ­
pret t h i s to mean "Two" i n th e t r a n s f e r t e s t .
I t i s s i g n if i c a n t
to n ote th a t rou gh ly about a s many p u p ils seemed to tr a n s fe r co r­
r e c t ly in Forms Y and Z a s r e ta in e d c o r r e c t ly in Forms ‘AT and
x»
174
A lthough th e p er ce n ta g e o f p u p ils answ ering both
te sts
c o r r e c t l y has been d is c u s s e d fo r each' q u e stio n in th e
te st,
i t seem s d e s ir a b le th a t th e s e be summarized f o r form s
o f t e s t m a t e r ia l, g r a d e s, and ty p e s o f q u a n tit a tiv e c o n c e p ts .
This has been done in T able 4 8 .
Sin ce th e p ercen ta g e v a lu e s
of H (p er cen t o f t o t a l number o f p u p ils answ ering q u e s tio n s
who gave b oth d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e answ ers c o r r e c t ly ) have
been d is c u s s e d in some d e t a i l in c o n n e c tio n w ith th e r e s p e c tiv e
respon se a n a ly s e s , comment here w i l l be r e s t r ic t e d to p o in tin g
out some o f th e more g e n e r a l I m p lic a tio n s o f th e d a ta .
In T able 48 i t
w i l l be noted th a t th e r e s p e c tiv e
T p e r c e n ta g e s ( o f a l l g r a d e s answ ering both ty p e s o f t e s t s
c o r r e c tly ) in Forms iff and X ( d e f i n i t e p r e s e n ta tio n ) are much
la r g e r than th e T p e r c e n ta g e s in Forms Y and z ( i n d e f i n i t e p r e ­
s e n ta tio n ) fo r q u a n t it a t iv e term s in v o lv in g tim e , d is ta n c e ,
and s i z e .
The T p e r c e n ta g e s f o r q u a n tit a tiv e term s in v o lv in g
area a ls o show t h i s s u p e r io r ity in fa v o r o f th e d e f i n i t e p re­
s e n ta tio n , but to a l e s s e r d e g r e e ,
.Vithin th e l i m i t s o f the
t e s t s em ployed, t h i s seems to I n d ic a te th a t th e d e f i n i t e p re­
s e n ta tio n o f th e s e q u a n t it a t iv e co n cep ts was more m eaningful
to th e p u p ils than th e I n d e f in it e p r e s e n t a tio n .
I t w i l l a ls o be noted th a t th e T p e r ce n ta g es ( o f a l l
grades answ ering both ty p e s o f t e s t s c o r r e c t ly ) in Form X are
le a s than th o s e in Form tf; and th o se in Form Y are l e s s than
those in Form Z.
The c o n s is te n c y o f t h i s r e la t io n s h ip seems
to in d ic a t e th a t th e p u p ils responded w ith a h ig h er p ercen tage
of accuracy when th e r e t e n t i o n - t r a n s f e r order o f t e s t i n g was
employed than when th e t r a n s f e r - r e t e n t io n order o f t e s t i n g was
employed•
.175
T a b le 48
Per cent of to t a l nnaiber qf pupils answering questions who gave both
d e fin ite and'":l n^el^lni'fc©1Tanswers c o rre ctly to all" quo'slTions, by grades,
t e s t forms, and typos of q u an titativ e concepts#
Form W
Form X
P resentation d e fin ite
Testing o rd ert d e fin ite -in d e fin ite
A ll
Questions 6
8
tirades
10
12
T
Presentation d e fin ite
Testing order* In d e fin ite -d e fin ite
6
3
Grades
10
12
T
Time
36*7 53.2
59.0
70.7
54.9
34*6 50*3 55.6
66.2
51.7
Area
25*0 32.6
43.5
51.2
38.1
21.4
3o #4 39.6
45.5
35.0
52.9
61.4
68.2
55.2
35,4
53.0
56.1 65.9
52.7
32*1 50,0
57.1
62,8
50*6
33.5 47.8
59.6
48.1
Distance 38,0
Sis©
Form Y
Form Z
P resentation in d e fin ite
Testing order* d e fin ite -in d e fin ite
A ll
Questions 6
Area
8
Grades
10
51,2
12
T
Presentation in d efin ite
Testing orders in d e fin ite -d e fin ite
6
8
Grades
10
12
T
22*9
30*2 37*1 45*4 33*9
20*0
20.4
25*9 34.1
21*8 28.0 36*0 41.8 32.0
39*6 30.0
38*3 38*1 48*2 36*2
Distance 26*6
32*0 35.5 40.0
33.5
24.0
35.4 37*8 42.9 35.1
Sis©
25*8 28.1 32.3
26,6
19.1
29*9 30*6
20.2
36.9 29.2
176
D e ta ile d a n a ly s is o f th e percentage® toy g ra d es w ill
a ls o show th a t th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n i s su p e r io r to the
i n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n , and th a t th e h ig h er p e r c e n ta g e s o f
accuracy were made when th e r e t e n t io n - t r a n s f e r order o f t e s t ­
in g was em ployed than when th e t r a n e f e r - r e te n t io n order was
employed.
Only th e s i x t h
grade seems to show an e x c e p tio n .
In Form X th e s i x t h grade p ercen ta g e fo r
area ( 2 1 .4 ) i s
s l i g h t l y l e s s than th e p e r ce n ta g e f o r area in Form Z ( 2 1 .6 ) ,
tout more than th e p e r ce n ta g e f o r a rea in Form Y ( 2 0 .4 ) .
I t w i l l a ls o toe n o ted th a t th e p e r c e n ta g e s
resp on se in c r e a s e in s i z e
from grade to grade
and in a l l ty p e s o f q u a n t it a t iv e c o n c e p ts .
of correct
in a l l forms
There i s a wider
I n c r e a s e , how ever, betw een th e s e p e r c e n ta g e s between th e s ix t h
grade and th e e ig h th grade in a l l e a s e s than between th e e ig h th
grade and th e t e n t h , or th e te n t h and th e t w e lf t h g r a d e s.
T his
may be due t o one or more f a c t o r s ; nam ely, a r a th e r more im­
portan t change in th e ty p e o f sc h o o l ex p e rie n c e a s betw een the
s ix th and e ig h t h g ra d es than as betw een th e e ig h th and te n th
or te n th and t w e lf t h gra d es; o r , a n a tu r a l m aturation In the
a b i l i t y to s y n th e s iz e d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e meanings which
m a n ife s ts i t s e l f a t about th e age o f th e average p u p il who i s
at th e sev en th grade sc h o o l l e v e l .
I t I s p o s s ib le , o f c o u rse,
th a t t h i s d if f e r e n c e i s n ot im p o rta n t, but in view o f th e con­
s is t e n c y of i t s appearance throughout th e exp erim en t, i t
appears d e s ir a b le th a t i t be n o te d .
I n s p e c tio n o f the r e s p e c tiv e p e r c e n ta g e s o f c o r r e c t
resp on se in T able 48 w i l l a ls o r e v e a l th a t th e range from grade
s i x th rou gh grad s tw e lv e i s c o n s i s t e n t ly g r e a t e r In th e form s
em ploying th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n than in th e forms employ­
in g th e I n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n ,
in s p e c t io n a ls o w i l l r e v e a l
th a t, on th e w h o le. Forms W and 2 show g r e a te r ran ges o f p e r ­
cen tage than do Forms X and Y, i n d ic a t in g , p erh a p s, th e i n f l u ­
ence o f t e s t i n g o r d e r.
I t i s p o s s ib le th a t th e s e d if f e r e n c e s
in th e range o f p e r c e n ta g e s o f c o r r e c t resp o n se may he due to
the f a c t th a t added e x p e r ie n c e s w ith d e f i n i t e term s tend to
make them more m e a n in g fu l, w h ile added e x p e rie n c e w ith in d e f­
i n i t e term s do n ot have th e same e f f e c t to th e same d e g r ee .
T a b les 10 to 1 3 , i n c l u s i v e , in th e appendix, summarize
th e same In form ation fo r s p e c i f i c q u e s tio n s grouped to g e th e r by
q u a n tit a tiv e c o n c e p ts .
An exam in ation o f th e s e d e t a ile d t a b le s
w ill r e v e a l a few minor e x c e p tio n s to th e g e n e r a l tr e n d s noted
in th e summary t a b le (T ab le 48) analyzed above.
I t i s to be ex p ected th a t th e p ercen ta g e o f c o rr e ct
r esp o n ses on th e r e t e n t io n typ e o f t e s t would be h ig h er than
the p e r c e n ta g e o f c o r r e c t r e sp o n se s on th e t r a n s fe r ty p e o f
te st.
T h is would be tru e b e c a u se, In order to answer c o r r e c tly
a r e t e n tio n ite m , i t i s n e c e s s a r y o n ly to e x e r c is e r e t e n t io n ,
w hile i n order to answer c o r r e c t ly a t r a n s f e r item , i t i s n e c e s ­
sary n o t o n ly to r e t a in but a ls o to make th e t r a n s fe r to th e
o p p o site ty p e ( d e f i n i t e , i n d e f i n i t e ) o f r e s p o n se .
In a d d itio n i t
should be e a s ie r fo r p u p ils to a t t a in
a h igh sco re on th e t r a n s f e r t e s t i f th ey had p r e v io u s ly responded
c o r r e c tly to th e r e t e n t io n t e s t over th e same m a t e r ia l.
That
I s , havin g r e ta in e d m a te r ia l c o r r e c t ly in th e r e t e n tio n t e s t ,
the second m ental p r o c e s s , th a t o f t r a n s f e r , w i l l be based not
178
on ly on r e t e n t io n o f th e o r ig in a l m a t e r ia l, an a b i l i t y a lrea d y
dem onstrated, but upon a r e e o g n it lo n o f r e ta in e d m a t e r ia l,
on
the o th e r hand, th e p u p ils ta k in g th e t r a n s f e r t e s t f i r s t , must
not on ly r e t a in w ith o u t a p r e v io u s e x p e r ie n c e in r e t a in in g th e
p a r tio u la r ite m , but must make th e t r a n s f e r .
I f then th ey are
su b jected to th e r e t e n t io n t e s t , th ey sh o u ld , w ith in th e l i m i t s
o f th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e t e s t , be a b le to make a high sco re in
g e n e ra l on t h i s second t e s t .
In order to t e s t t h i s p o s t u la t e , a s e r i e s o f p e r c e n tages were worked out based upon th e number o f p u p ils answ ering
the f i r s t t e s t c o r r e c t l y .
The p er cen t o f th e number o f p u p ils
answering th e f i r s t t e s t c o r r e c t ly who a ls o answered th e second
t e s t c o r r e c t ly should g iv e a c r it e r io n w ith which to t e s t th e
p o s t u la t e .
T h is p er cen t i s h e r e in a f t e r r e fe r r e d to a s th e
"S" p e r c e n ta g e .
In Forms X and Y th e t r a n s f e r t e s t was th e f i r s t t e s t
tak en .
In Forms ft and Z the r e t e n t io n t e s t was th e f i r s t t e s t
tak en .
I f th e r ea so n in g above i s c o r r e c t , th e 3 p e r c e n ta g e s in
Forms X and Y should be h ig h er than th e S p e r c e n ta g e s in Forms
W and Z fo r th e co rresp on d in g grade and ty p e o f q u a n tit a tiv e
c o n cep t.
Table 49 p r e s e n ts th e S p e r ce n ta g es; th a t i s , i t p re­
s e n ts th e p er c en t o f th e number o f p u p ils answ ering the f i r s t
t e s t c o r r e c t ly who a ls o answered th e second t e s t c o r r e c t ly by
g ra d es, t e s t form s, and ty p e s o f q u a n tit a tiv e c o n c e p ts.
I t w i l l be n o ted th a t a l l S p e r c e n ta g e s in Forms X
and Y are h ig h er than th o s e fo r Forms tit and
z,
grade fo r grade,
concept f o r c o n c e p t, or t o t a l g ra d es fo r t o t a l g ra d es b ein g
assumed.
I t w i l l a ls o be n o ted th a t w ithout e x c e p tio n th er e i s
179
T a b le 49
Per cent of the number of pu p ils answering the f i r s t te s t
co rre ctly who also answered the second t e s t c o rre c tly , by
grades, t e s t forms, and types of q u an titativ e concepts
Form W
Form X
P resentation d e fin ite
Retention te s t f i r s t
All
Questions 6
8
Grades
10
12
P resentation d e fin ite
Transfer t e s t f i r s t
T
6
8
Grades
10
12
T
Timo
56*3 66*9
70*2
80*4 69*3
69 *4 83.7
85.8
93.4
84.2
Area
40*4 45*8
53.1
58.3
50.0
56.3
80.3
82.2
84.3
76.9
69*8 72.2
66,8
69.5
83.0
86.3 92.7
83.9
66.8
63*7
66.9
78.1 85.2
Distance 56*7 65*3
Sise
52.8 63.5
68.2
Presentation in d efin ite
Petention te s t f i r s t
P resentation in d e fin ite
Transfer t e s t f i r s t
8
81.0
Fora Z
Fora Y
All
Questions 6
90.3
Grades
10
Grades
12
T
6
8
10
1 2 ____ T_
Time
70*0 72*1 79*3 86*0 77*8
36.1
53.7 54.0
62.4
52*7
Area
59*6 63*6 72.4
69.9
44.2
45*1 53.0
58.5
51.1
69.2 69.5 71.0 67.7
45.0
52.6 53.0
56.3
52.3
56.5 64.2 67.7 69.1 64.8
38.5
48.0 48.4
51.6
47.2
Distance 60.0
Size
79.6
a d e f i n i t e in c r e a s e in th e s iz e o f th e s e
s
p e r c e n ta g e s from
grade s i x th rou gh grade tw elv e* r e g a r d le s s o f t e s t form or
typ e o f q u a n t it a t iv e c o n c e p t.
The c o n s is te n c y w ith which th e s e
f a c t s hold tr u e o f f e r s some measure o f th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f the
te st.
I t was to be e x p e c te d in Forms X and Y t h a t , having
a lread y r e ta in e d and made th e t r a n s f e r in th e f i r s t t e s t , a
high p er ce n ta g e o f p u p ils would be ex p ected to sim ply r e t a in
in th e second t e s t .
I t was t o be exp ected a ls o th a t in Forms
W and Z a low er p e r ce n ta g e o f p u p ils , having sim ply r e ta in e d in
th e f i r s t t e s t , would be a b le to r e t a in and mafce the tr a n s fe r
in th e second t e s t .
T h is i s borne out by th e S p e r c e n ta g e s
shown in T able 4 9 .
C o n tr a st, f o r exam ple, in t h i s ta b le the
p e r c e n ta g e s f o r a l l p u p ils , "T", on tim e c o n c ep ts in Forms X
and Y, 8 4 .2 and 7 7 .8 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , w ith th e p e r c e n ta g e s fo r
a l l p u p ils , nT” , on tim e c o n c ep ts in Forms W and Z, 6 9 .3 and
6 2 .7 , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
I t i s p o s s ib le th a t the in c r e a s in g S p e r c e n ta g e s from
grade s i x through grade tw e lv e in d ic a t e th a t th e t e s t was more
r e l i a b l e a t th e upper grade l e v e l s .
T h e o r e t ic a lly , i f th e above
rea so n in g i s c o r r e c t , th e S p e r c e n ta g e s in Forms X and Y should
approach one hundred.
T a b les 14 to 17, i n o l u s iv e , in th e appendix g iv e th e
S p e r c e n ta g e s fo r s p e c i f i c q u e s tio n s grouped to g e th e r by ty p e s
of q u a n t it a t iv e c o n c e p ts .
An exam ination o f th e s e d e t a ile d
ta b le s w i l l r e v e a l some minor e x c e p tio n s to th e g e n e r a l trend
noted above in T able 4 9 .
Chapter IV
CONCLUSIONS AND GENERALIZATIONS
The c o n c lu s io n s and g e n e r a liz a t i o n s to he drawn
from th e a n a ly s is o f th e data o f th e p r e se n t stu d y are o b v io u s­
ly lim ite d t o th e m a t e r ia ls and p ro ced u res u sed .
The fin d in g s
o f the s tu d y , how ever, seem to warrant th e fo llo w in g :
1*
The o b ta in ed F ( s t a t i s t i c a l measure o f s i g n i f i ­
cance) fo r any o f th e com parisons made between the mean c r it e r io n
so o re s o f th e v a r io u s groups in th e study was many tim es as la r g e
as was n e c e s s a r y to be s i g n i f i c a n t at th e one per cent l e v e l ,
it
may be con clu d ed , t h e r e f o r e , th a t th e d e f i n i t e method o f p resen ­
t a t io n of q u a n t it a t iv e term s In s o c i a l s t u d ie s m a te r ia l I s more
e f f e c t i v e than th e i n d e f i n i t e method o f p r e s e n t a tio n .
T his h o ld s
true r e g a r d le s s o f th e ty p e o f q u a n tit a tiv e concept or grade l e v e l .
£•
The ob tain ed c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e la tio n between
obtained t e s t s c o r e s and i n t e l l i g e n c e a s measured by th e i . q .
were a l l p o s i t i v e , ran gin g from .2 9 to .5 4 when t o t a l sc o r e s
were u se d .
M oreover, th e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s were c o n s is t e n t regard­
l e s s o f th e ty p e o f q u a n t it a t iv e concept or ty p e o f t e s t m a ter i­
a l in v o lv e d .
From th e s e f a c t s i t may be concluded th a t th ere i s
a stron g p r o b a b ilit y th a t th e more i n t e l l i g e n t p u p ils are more
l i k e l y to comprehend and r e t a in q u a n tit a tiv e co n cep ts in s o c i a l
s tu d ie s m a te r ia l than th e l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t o n es.
In v iew o f th e c o n s is te n c y and tr e n d s shown in th e
c o r r e la tio n s betw een I .Q . and t e s t s c o r e s , i t seems d e s ir a b le
to su g g e st th a t a d d itio n a l s t u d ie s be made to determ ine i f I.Q .
i s r e la t e d to th e a b i l i t y to t r a n s f e r th e meaning o f one typ e
i
m
o f q u a n t it a t iv e con cep t to th e meaning o f another ty p e ,
3 . The a n a ly s is o f th e resp o n se com bin ations made by
th e p u p ils to th e t e s t s in th e experim ent show th a t th e re spec*
t iv e p e r c e n ta g e s o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n se s f o r a l l g ra d es and fo r
a l l ty p e s o f q u a n t it a t iv e term s were la r g e r in th o se forms em­
p lo y in g th e d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a tio n than th e y were In th o se forma
employing th e I n d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t io n .
T h is f a c t seems to
o f f e r fu r th e r e v id e n c e o f th e s u p e r io r it y o f th e d e f i n i t e p re­
s e n ta tio n over th e i n d e f i n i t e ty p e o f p r e s e n t a tio n .
T hese a n a ly s e s a ls o show th a t th e p e r c e n ta g e s o f
c o rrect r esp o n se in c r e a s e in s i z e from grade to grade in a l l
form s, but show th a t th e s e p e r c e n ta g e s have a wider in c r e a s e
between g r a d e s s i x and e ig h t than between g ra d es e ig h t and te n ,
or between te n and tw e lv e .
T h is d if fe r e n c e appeared c o n s is ­
t e n t ly throughout th e ex p erim en t, and alth ou gh perhaps not o f
great Im portance, i t i s su g g e ste d fo r fu r th e r stu d y .
4 . The fo r e g o in g c o n c lu s io n s su g g est d e f i n i t e l y th a t
textb ooh w r ite r s should be more d is c r im in a tin g in t h e ir s e l e c ­
tio n o f term s to e x p r e s s c o n c e p ts o f q u a n tity .
In view o f the
r e s u lt s o f th e p r e se n t I n v e s t i g a t io n , more d e f i n i t e q u a n tita ­
t iv e term s should be employed in s o c i a l s t u d ie s m a te r ia ls than
are b ein g employed a t th e p r e se n t tim e .
T each ers a ls o should r e c o g n iz e th e lim it a t io n s o f
p u p ils ' com prehension o f term s o f q u a n tity , and should se e th a t
adequate and v a r ie d e x p e r ie n t ia l background be provided fo r
understanding q u a n t it a t iv e c o n c e p ts which are e s s e n t i a l in
reading s o c i a l s t u d ie s m a t e r ia ls .
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1 B ed w ell, M argaret, Comprehension o f Cononntja o f Q uantity in
Th ir d Grad a S o c ia l Studi 0 s Reading M a te r ia l. M asterTa Tne'STa.
T O lv e r s ity oF T ow S,T T w a G i1 y 7 « 5 * " -----------2 Bridgman, P . W.f The In t e l l i g e n t I n d iv id u a l and S o c ie ty .
The M acm illan Company, I 9 f 6 .
3 Buswe1 1 , G. T*, and John, L enore, The Vocabulary o f A r ith m e tic .
Supplementary E d u c a tio n a l MonograpETlJo. M . lfn lv e r e ity ' b f
*
C hicago, C hioago, 1931 .
4 Crumrine,
J e a n n e tt e , An A n a ly s is o f the Qomprehenaion o f
C artain g r n n m a t l v . conoapta in SoaIa l~ le la n o e T. ? t 6 o o k a ~
Master* s T h e s is , U n iv e r s it y o f Iowa, iow a c i t y , T9BTT
5 Cummings, Mable E ., Comprehension a s A ffe c te d by th e use o f
Q u a n tita tiv e Terms in S o c ia l 'Sol en oe Text Bo oka. M aster1"s
T h e s is , Uni ver s i t y o l Iow a, Iowa c it y ^ 1 9 3 3 .
6 Dewey, Josep h C. , A Case stud y o f Reading Comprehension
D i f f i c u l t i e s in Amerioan £1 s t 0 r y . Doctor* a D is s e r t a t io n ,
U n iv e r s ity o f Iow a, Iowa C ity , 1931.
7 Horn, E r n e st, A B a sic W riting V ocabulary. U n iv e r s ity o f Iowa
Monograph in E d u ca tio n , Ho. 4 , tin I v a r s it y o f Iowa, Iowa C ity ,
1926.
8 Horn, E r n e s t, Methods o f I n s tr u c t io n in th e S o c ia l S tu d ie s ,
C harles Scribner* s S o n s , Sew York, 19 W •
9 L in d q u ist, E. g . , S t a t i s t i c a l A n a ly sis in E d u ca tio n a l Re*
sea r c h . Houghton Mi f f l i n Company, Bo a t on, IMOl'
10 Ryan, Grace M ., A Study o f th e Comprehension o f q u a n tit a tiv e
Terms in G eogranly a t the g lfth -G r a d e '''t ieve 17 Master* s T h e sis ,
U n iv e r e ity ox lo w a ,“Towa c i t y , 1§&I.
11 Sh ort, Harry C ., C oncepts of C erta in q u a n tit a tiv e Terms Used
in Seventh Grade S o c ia l ff o T e n c e lia te r ia ls . M aster*s T h e sis,
U n iv e r s ity o f Iowa, I owa C iiy , 1933.
12 Thorndike, E. L ., A Teacher* s Word Book o f th e Twenty Thousand
Words gound Most g r e q u e n tly a n d la d e ly in General Reading fo r
Chi Id ren and iou n g p e o p le . Bureau o f PuW i caH oh s, Teachers
C o lle g e , CoTumbiia U n iv e r s it y , Hew York, 1932.
A P P E N D I X
18i>
ADEITIQHAL STUDIES BBAKCHQ OS THE PROBLEM
numerous s t u d io s on th e a b i l i t y o f p u p ils to g e t mean­
in g from q u a n t it a t iv e term s o ccu rrin g in t h e ir te x tb o o k s in th e
s o o ia l s t u d ie s r e v e a l th a t te x tb o o k w r ite r s have been r a th e r
c a r e le s s in t h e i r u se o f q u a n t it a t iv e term s.
Cummings,3,
B ed w ell,s R yan,2 and Grumrine4 p o in t out th a t d e f i n i t e q u a n tita ­
t iv e term s such a s " s ix y e a r s ," or ”308 f e e t , " are more meaning­
f u l t o p u p ils in th e elem en ta ry g ra d es than i n d e f in it e q u a n tita ­
tiv e term s suoh a s "many," " fa r ," "few ," or " th ic k ."
These same
in v e s t ig a t o r s a ls o r e p o r t th a t te x tb o o k s in th e s o o ia l s tu d ie s
contain more i n d e f i n i t e q u a n tit a tiv e term s than d e f in i t e q u a n ti­
ta t iv e term s.
Short** found th a t i n d e f i n i t e and d e f i n i t e - i n d e f i n i t e
q u a n tita tiv e term s (su o h a s n e a r ly ten y e a r s ago) p rovid e a
rio h er f i e l d f o r th e study and a n a ly s is o f co n cep ts than do th e
d e f in it e ty p e o f ite m .
T h is i s due, no doubt, to the wide
range o f p o s s ib le m eanings in h er e n t in i n d e f i n i t e term s.
1 Cummings, lia b le S . , Comprehension a s A ffe c te d by th e Pee o f
Q u a n tita tiv e Terms in S o c ia l Soienoe Text l o o k s . Master1"a
T h e sis , U n iv e r s ity oF Iowa, Iowa C ity , 1$3&.
2 B ed w ell, M argaret, Comprehension o f C oncepts o f Q uantity in
Third grade S o c ia l S tu d ie s Reading M a te r ia l. Master* s T h e s is ,
U n iv e r sity o f Iow a, 1 owa C ity , 1532•
3 Ryan, Grace M ., A Study o f th e Comprehension of Q u a n tita tiv e
Terms in GeograpSy at th e F i f t h - Grade h evelT M asT eF T ^ E esT s,
u h iv eriT ty ox Iowa,*Towa C it y , 1 9 ^ i.
4 Crumrine, H. J e a n n e tt e , An A n a ly s is o f th e comprehension o f
C ertain Q u a n tita tiv e c o n c e p ts in S o c ia l S cience T extbooks,
M aster*s T h e s is , U n iv e r s ity o f Iowa, Iowa C ity , 1834.
5 Short, Harry C• , C oncepts o f C erta in Q u a n tita tiv e Terms Used
in Seventh Grade s o o ia l Sc ie n c e M a te r ia ls . M aster*s T h e sis ,
W i ver s i t y o f Iowa, 1 owa C ity , 1933.
B u sw ell and John6 concluded th a t t e c h n ic a l term s are
the most d i f f i c u l t f o r p u p ils ; term s r e la t in g to tim e , sp a ce,
and q u a n tity a re e a s i e s t ; and th o se r e la t in g to s p a t i a l f ig u r e s ,
measurements and com m ercial term s are between th e two ex trem es.
■»
B ed w ell' c l a s s i f i e d th e d i f f i c u l t y o f terms a s fo llo w s :
D e fin it e term s in th e order o f l e a s t d i f f i c u l t y were: term s e x ­
p r e ssin g order (su c h a s " fo u rth " ); amount (suoh a s " n in e" );
time (su oh a s "week"); com b in ation s (su oh a s " s ix w eeks"); and
d ista n c e (su o h a s "a m ile " ) . I n d e f in it e term s in th e order o f
le a s t d i f f i c u l t y were: term s e x p r e s s in g tim e (suoh a s "long ago");
s ls e (su ch a s "huge"); com b in ation s (su oh as "a g r e a t many");
amount (su ch a s "few "); and d is ta n c e (su ch a s " fa r " ).
A il s t u d ie s r ep o rt a wide range of in d iv id u a l d i f f e r 0
enoes in p u p i l s 1 a b i l i t y to grasp number c o n c e p ts . Crumrine”
found th a t c h ild r e n o f th e s ix t h grade averaged only 4 9 .7 2
per cen t accuracy on t e s t s o f t h e ir knowledge o f q u a n tita tiv e
term s.
B ed w ell7 s t a t e s th a t p u p ils may show th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f
having a f a c t u a l knowledge o f th e term s, but f a l l to have a
fu n c tio n a l c o n c e p t.
Cummings® and R y a n ^ p o in t out th a t q u a n tit a tiv e terms
are not m ean in gfu l to p u p ils when p la ced in d if f e r e n t s e t t i n g s ,
and Crumrine®
concluded th a t th e r e i s g r e a te r in c o n s is te n c y o f
in c o r r e c t r e s p o n se s to i n d e f i n i t e than to d e f i n i t e term s.
6 B u sw ell, G. T . , and John, L enore, The Vocabulary o f A r ith m etic ,
Supplementary E d u ca tio n a l Monographs l o . 38, U n iv e r sity o f
C hicago, C hicago, 1931.
7 B ed w ell, o p . e i t .
8 Crumrine, op . c i t .
9 Cummings, op. e i t .
10 Ryan, op. c i t .
187
S e v e r a l s t u d ie s have attem p ted to determ ine th e r e l a ­
tio n s h ip betw een I n t e l l i g e n c e and u n d erstan d in g o f q u a n tit a tiv e
term s.
Cummings13* and Crmarine12 co n clu d e th a t th e r e seema to
he no c o n s is t e n t r e la t io n s h ip betw een I .Q . and th e u n derstan ding
of q u a n tit a tiv e te r m s.
B u sw ell and J o h n ,10 how ever, conclude
th at th e p e r c e n ta g e o f s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s p o n se s to te n words ( s e l e c ­
ted term s) in c r e a s e s a s th e l e v e l o f i n t e l l i g e n c e r i s e s ; and th e
percentage o f o m is s io n s (no r e sp o n se ) d e c r e a se s a s th e l e v e l o f
14
in t e l lig e n c e r i s e s . Ryan* a ls o found t h a t , a lth o u g h th e a v era g es
o f th e t e s t s were low , th e c o r r e la t io n s between c o n s is te n c y o f
resp on ses w ith i n t e l l i g e n c e and read in g p e r c e n t ile s were f a i r l y
15
h igh . Short
c o n c lu d e s th a t i t i s probable th a t th e "accepted"
resp on ses bore a more d e f i n i t e r e la t io n s h ip to achievem ent a s
measured by th e S tanford Achievem ent T est than th ey did to th e
i n t e l lig e n c e r a tin g a s measured by th e I l l i n o i s S c a le .
He con­
clu d es, fu r t h e r , th a t e x p e r ie n c e p o s s ib ly may p la y a g r e a te r
part in e s t a b lis h in g adequate c o n c ep ts than such f a c t o r s a s i n ­
t e llig e n c e , per s o . or a b i l i t y a s measured by h ig h sc o r e s on
stand ard ised t e s t s .
The fo r e g o in g f a c t s r a i s e th e q u e stio n o f what i s an
adequate t e s t i n g te c h n iq u e w ith which to measure co n c ep ts o f
q u a n tity .
Dewey, 16 in in v e s t i g a t i n g th e nature and lim it a t io n s
of comprehension o f e ig h th grade p u p ils in read in g h is to r y m a te r i11
12
13
14
15
16
Cummings, op. c i t .
Crumrine, op . e i t .
B u sw ell, a . T . , and John, L enore, op. c i t .
Ryan, op. o l t .
Short, op. e i t .
Dewey, Josep h C ., A Case Study o£ Reading Comprehension
D i f f i c u l t i e s in American H is io r y , D octor1 s d is s e r t a t i o n ,
U n iv e r sity of~Towa, Iowa C ity , 1931.
188
a l , used S ix d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f w r itte n t e s t s and then checked
by means o f p e r s o n a l in t e r v ie w th e p u p ils ' u n d e rsta n d in g .
He
concluded th a t (1 ) c h ild r e n are not alw ays c o n s is t e n t in t h e ir
response t o d if f e r e n t ty p e s o f t e s t s on i d e n t i c a l or s im ila r
id e a s ; (2 ) th ey som etim es ohoose th e c o r r e c t p ic tu r e in a t e s t
but r e v e a l erron eou s or in a d eq u a te id e a s in th e in te r v ie w ;
(3}
the f a c t th a t words In which any g iv e n meaning i s ex p ressed are
found in w ell-know n voca b u la ry l i s t s i s no guarantee th a t the
meaning i s comprehended by th e c h ild r e n ; (4 ) n ot to o much con­
fid en ce should be put in v e r b a l p r e s e n ta tio n as an adequate
method o f te a c h in g ; (5 ) te a c h e r s should n o t be s a t i s f i e d w ith
the r e s u l t s o f w r itte n t e s t s a s adequate m easures o f read ing
com prehension.
Table 1
Summary of statistical analysis of variance of total
time scores for various forms of tost material
Sources of
Forms
compared v a ria tio n
Time
Scores
W- T
P*
G
S
P x
P x
Gx
Px
G
S
S
Gx S
Degrees o f
freedom
1
S
8
3
8
24
24
Sum o f squares
2512.75
2682.67
82*97
109.76
55.07
355.06
174.31
Variance
2512.75
894*22
10.37
36.59
6*88
14*79
7.26
F at Pr(P X G x S) » 346.11 - (5f. - 4.26j 1$ - 7*82)
Tims
Scores
X- Z
P
G
S
Px
Px
Gx
Px
G
S
S
Gx S
1
3
8
3
8
24
24
1003.03
2915.19
109*28
56*63
14.24
402.90
220.91
1003.03
971*73
13.66
18*88
1.78
16.79
9.20
F 9 P-r(P x G x S) ® 109.02 - ( 5$ » 4*26; 1# - 7.82)
Time
Scores
W- z
P
G
S
P x
P x
Gx
Px
G
S
S
Gx S
1
3
8
3
8
24
24
1744.80
3201*93
72*13
87.14
32*42
312.00
1744.80
1067.31
9.02
29.05
4.05
13*00
5.01
F - P-r(P X G X S) m 579.67 - (5$ - 4.261 1% - 7.82)
Time
Scores
X- Y
?
G
S
Px
Px
Gx
Px
G
S
S
Gx S
1
3
8
3
8
24
24
1592.38
2420.99
128.31
54.19
58.70
319.11
131.72
1592.38
807.00
16.04
18*06
7*34
13.30
5.49
F s P4-(P x G X S) m 290*05 - (5$ - 4.26} 1^ - 7*82)
♦Keyi p * P resentation
P x S ~ Presentation by sohools
Q m Grades
S x S * Grades by sohools
S - Schools
P x G x S - Presentation by grades
P x G —P resentation by grades
ty schools
F - Variance ra tio
190
fable 2
Summary of statistical analysis of variance of total
area scores for various forms of test material
Sources or
Tarns
Caspared V ariation
Area
Scores
W- I
Degrees of
freedom
P*
G
S
P x G
Px S
G xS
P x Gx S
Sum of squares
Variance
600*66
921*64
126*30
12.67
12.22
96*27
251*81
500,66
307*21
15.79
4.19
1*53
4.01
10*49
1
3
s
3
3
24
34
P » K (P x G x S) ■ 47.73 - (5$ « 4*26j J# - 7.82)
Area
Scores
X- Z
P
G
S
P x G
PXS
G xS
P x Gx S
P 9 P^(P
Area
Scores
W- %
X
1
3
8
3
3
24
24
Scores
X- Y
i
P
G
S
P x G
P x S
G xS
P x Gx S
*Keyi P G»
SP x
X
259*81
905.57
89*50
24,75
35*21
133*50
76.90
1
3
8
3
8
24
24
P
G
S
Px G
Px S
G xS
P x Gx S
P » P«f(P
53 .24
273.04
11,09
2*04
4.57
5*64
2.78
G x S) « 11.96 - Wo - 4*26; 1% - 7.82)
F « Pf(P x G x S)
Area
33.24
819 *U
88*74
6.13
36*59
155.34
66*68
m
81*19 -
G x S)
m
* 4,26* 1% - 7.82)
141*91
806*65
99.73
22*48
39.42
72.10
167.69
1
3
8
3
8
24
24
20*30 - w
259.81
501.86
11.19
8*25
4*40
5*56
3*20
141.91
268.88
12.47
7.49
4.93
3.00
6*99
• 4*26; 1^ - 7.82)
Presentation
P x S - Presentation by schools
Grades
G x S - Grades by sohools
Schools
P x G x S - Presentation by grades
G - P resentation by grades
by schools
F - Variance ra tio
Table 3
Summary of statistical analysis of variance of total
distance scores for various forms of tost material
S o u r is o f
forms
compared v a ria tio n
P*
Distance 0
S
Scores P x G
P x S
W- Y
G xS
P x Gx $
Degrees of
freedom
1
S
8
3
8
24
24
Sum o f squares
2184*59
1676*62
106*66
68*32
63.96
217.82
217.66
Variance
2184*59
558.87
13.33
22.77
8.74
9*08
9*07
F * Pf(P x G x S) « 240*80 (6% - 4*26S 1% - 7*82)
P
Distance G
S
Scores P x G
P x S
X «* Z
G xS
Px 0 x S
1
3
8
3
8
24
24
1115.16
2029*13
112*79
73.10
66.87
200*19
153*97
1115.16
676*38
14.10
24.37
8*36
8*34
6*42
F * P4(P x G x S) • 173*70 (5% * 4.26$ 1$ * 7*82)
P
Distance G
S
Scores P x G
P x S
W• z
G xS
P x Gx S
1
3
8
3
8
24
24
F • Pr<P x G x S) m 234*26
P
Distance G
S
Scores P x G
P x S
X- Y
G xS
P x Gx S
1
3
8
3
8
24
24
1703.10
1839.31
121.95
50*24
44*40
233*27
174*41
1703.10
613*10
• 15*24
16.75
5*65
9.72
7*27
{8% * 4*26$ 1^ m 7*82}
1503*59
1840.41
141.00
117*21
48*92
208*80
111.56
1503.59
613*47
17.62
39*07
6.11
8.70
4.65
F * P4(P x G x S) * 323*35 (Bfo - 4*26$ 1% - 7.82)
— —---*&eys P «►P resentation
P x S * Presentation by schools
G • Grades
G x S * Grades by schools
S ~ Sohools
P x G x S - Presentation by grades
P x 5 - Presentation by grades
by schools
F - Variance ra tio
JU2
Table 4
Summary of statistical analysis of variance of total
size scores for various forms of tost material
Forms
Sources of
v a ria tio n
p*
Size
Scores
w-
x
Degrees of
freedom
1
G
S
P x G
P x S
G xS
P x Gx S
3
8
3
8
24
24
Sum of squares
4428.73
2509.19
269.82
272.08
75.13
302.63
175*62
Variance
4428.73
836.40
33*73
90.69
9.39
12.61
7.32
F * P-f(P x G x S ) ® 605*02 - {&% - 4.26 j 1% - 7.82)
Size
Scores
X~ Z
Size
Scores
W
- %
P
G
S
P x G
P x S
G xS
P x Gx S
Scores
X- Y
2267.22
2582.91
94*80
71.20
61.94
368.30
395.16
2267.22
860.97
11.85
23*73
7.74
15*35
16.46
F « P-KP x G x S) • 137.74 -
- 4.26• 1% - 7.82)
P
G
S
P X
P X
Gx
P X
3298.79
2942*98
140.55
157.50
77.10.
386*95
238.64
1
3
8
G
S
s
G xS
F x P-f(P
Size
1
3
8
3
8
24
24
P
G
S
PX
P X
Gx
P X
3
8
24
24
X
G x S ) * 331.87 - (5$ - 4.26; 1% - 7.82)
1
3
8
G
S
s
G xS
3298.79
980.99
17.57
62.50
9.64
16.12
9.34
3
8
24
24
3204.01
2192.67
156.89
142.24
127.15
164.87
267.94
3204.01
730.89
19.61
47.41
15.89
6*87
11.18
F * Pv(P x G x S ) * 287.10 - (5% - 4.26} 1% - 7.82)
♦Key» P - Presentation
P x S - Presentation by schools
G mGrades
G x S - Grades by schools
S - Sohools
P x G x S - Presentation by grades
P x G - P resentation by grades
by schools
F - Variance ra tio
193
Table 5
Per cent of to t a l number of p u p ils answering questions involving time
concepts who gave c o rre c t responses in d e fin ite and in d e fin ite t e s t s ,
respectively, by questions, -types oi* t e s t a , grades, and t e s t forms
Form W - Presentation d e fin ite
Testing ordert D efinite (rete n tio n ) - In d efin ite (tra n sfe r)
Eef. Ind.
Stef* la d .
R*
Grades
6 68*9
8 81*7
10 88,6
12 87,2
T 81*6
T*
R
43*7
64,4
60*9
82,3
62,8
TO?,
R
Tim© Questions
3
4
Ifef. M . Def* lad*
R
R
T
T
2
1
T
70,9 54 ,9
82,7 45*2
87,6 58,1
89,2 6 8 , 6
82,6 51.7
T
Grades
6 69.9 24.3
8 83.6 34.6
10 94.3 34.3
12 95.1 55.9
T 85.3 37.2
63,1
76,0
83,8
95.1
79.2
60*2
68.3
78*1
87*2
73.4
85,4
94.2
99,0
98.0
94.2
5
R
71,8
88.5
99.0
97.0
89 *1
ft
XZld. *
T
59*2 63*4
83.6 70.2
89.5 6 8 . 6
97.0 90*2
82 .4 70.5
6
T O . ThcT*
R
T
62*1 64.1
84,6 83.6
8 8 ,6
91.4
96.1 93.1
82,8 83.1
13e r r "TH3f.
T
R
TOT""'TrST.
R
T
U O i. ft
2nd*
T
TO." 1 Ind.
R
T
36.9
55*8
53 ,o
77.4
55,8
65.0 69.9
86.5 86.5
91.4 90*5
96,1 97,0
84.8 86.0
34.0 42.7
57.7 57,7
60.0 54 .3
76.5 71.6
57.0 56.5
69.9 30,1
81.7 29.8
85.7 40.0
80.2 44.1
81.4 36.0
34.0
28.8
35.2
44,1
35.5
R
Form X • Presentation d e fin ite
Testing orders In d efin ite (tra n sfe r) * D efinite (reten tio n )
Time Questions
T
52.0
59.0
67*5
76.0
63.6
7
Blsf*
R
Grades
6 62.7
8 73.0
10 76,5
12 86*5
T 74.7
xnd.
T
Ind.
T
'lief". Ind.
T
R
D©i .
R
69.6 43.1
77.0 56.0
82.6 58.2
89.4 73.1
79.7 57.7
52,9 44.1
78.0 64.0
82.6 70.4
90.4 82.7
76.0 65.3
87*2 79,4
96.0 91.0
96.9 95.9
96.1 94*2
94.0 90.1
TO.
R
Ind.
T
8
Dor ft. IXIO.ft
R
T
26.5
27,0
25.5
42.3
30.4
24.5
45.0
48,0
73,1
47.8
37.2
32.0
37.8
59.4
36.6
Ind.
T
i/0X ft JLna•
R
T
46.1 49.0
74.0 71.0
76,5 80.6
90.4 83.6
71.8 71*0
52,0 56.9
78.0 83.0
81.6 89.8
94.2 97.1
76.5 81.7
R
ft
“israr.
o
BeTV
R
Grades
6 66.7
8 73.0
10 80,6
12 80.8
T 75,2
Ind.
T
10
TO . Had.
R
T
11
UO1* Ind.
T
R
72.5 65.7
79.0 83,0
84.7 87*8
95.2 94.2
82.9 82.7
34.3 55.9
48.0 55.0
57.1 59.2
67,3 46.1
51.7 54,0
66.7
80*0
79.6
82.7
77.2
15©f*
R
9
* R - Retention; T - Transfer
34.3
34.0
34.7
43,3
36.6
Table 6 (continued)
Perm Y - P resentation in d e fin ite
Testing order* D efinite (tra n s fe r) ~ In d e fin ite (reten tio n )
1
Del* Tnd.
T*
W
Grades
6 25.5 65.7
6 34.3 63.7
10 43.0 72.0
12 36.4 78.8
T 34.9 70.0
7
TOT
T
Grades
6 38.2
8 52.0
10 58.9
12 66*7
T 53.9
2
T O T ISoST.
T
R
Tim© Questions
3
4
T O T irui # T O T m .
T
R
T
E
3
6
T O T T E D . t o t - i s ar.
T
R
T
R
44 .1
60.8
67.3
78.8
62.7
42 .1
39.2
59.8
77.8
54.6
27.4 55.9
56.3 56.9
44.8 77.8
61.6 82.8
42 .4 68.3
64.7
68.6
75.7
79.8
72.2
53.9
71.6
82.2
91.9
74*9
29.4 75.5
43.1 92.1
63.5 94.4
56.6 93.9
48.3 8 9 . 0
Ind.
R
8
lfejL• ind •
T
R
DeT.
T
74.5
68.6
84.1
88.9
79.0
16.7
26*6
26.2
22.2
22.7
23.5 52.0
41.2 77.4
50.5 00.4
61.6 88.9
44.1 74.6
49 .0
38.2
46.7
41.4
43.9
9
3353.
R
10
Dor * lnd*
R
T
11
TO*
T
R
16.7
16.7
22.4
24.2
20.0
61.8
62.7
61.7
72.7
64.6
49 SQ
50.0
39.2
42.4
45*1
27.4
40.2
16.8
20.2
26.1
52 .0
67.6
73.8
76.8
67.6
41.2
30*4
40.2
47.5
39.7
Form % - Presentation in d e fin ite
Testing order* In d e fin ite (reten tio n ) - D efinite (tra n sfe r)
TO.
T
Grades
6 15.3
8 34*3
10 39.2
12 51.0
T 35.1
1
Ind.
R
b©f •
T
56.1
77.8
82.3
86.0
75.4
52 .0
66.7
60.8
79.0
64.7
TOT" T O
T
.
R
■ades
6 29.6 75.5
8 52.5 82.8
10 52.9 81.4
12 72.0 86*0
T 51.9 81*4
w *
R
Time Questions
4
3
t5ef# Ind.
i/BX* ■inn.
R
R
7
T
63.3
77.8
79*4
78*0
74.7
39.8 53.1
56.6 68.7
66.7 68.6
77.0 80.0
59.9 67*7
2
Der .
T
2nd.
R
18.4 42.9
41.4 55.6
34.3 54.9
39.0 67.0
33,3 55.1
10
1/Qx •
T
24.5 48.0
55.6 80.8
58,8 85.3
70.0 91.0
52,4 76.4
15.3
19.2
21.6
24.0
20.0
T
* f * Transfer %R - Retention
6
35©?. Ind.
ina.
R
T
20.4 60.2
57.6 8 4 . 8
36.3 74.5
58.0 90.0
43 .1 77.4
29.6 76.5
84.5 97.0
64.7 97.0
50.0 96.0
49.9 91.7
In d .*
R
DO 1 •
5
Li©I •
T
Iil&
R
*
46.9
41.4
33.3
37.0
39.6
D e i.
T
R
30.6 52.0
30.6 79.8
23.5 82.3
34.0 88.0
29.6 75.7
11
Ind.
R
59.2 30.6
67.7 34.3
66.7 36.3
63.0 39.0
64.2 34.8
J.95
Table 6
Per ©ont of to t a l number of pu p ils answering questions involving area
concepts -who gave c o rre ct responses in d e fin ite end in d e fin ite t e s t s ,
respectively, by q u estions, types of t e s t s , grades, and t e s t forms*
Pom W «• Presentation d e fin ite
Testing order* D efinite (re te n tio n ) - In d e fin ite (tra n s fe r)
Def*
R*
Gradei9
6 75*8
8 75*0
10 77*1
12 84.5
T 77.5
JL
Ind*
T*
D'eF.
R
Area Questions
3
Ind.
JJ0I « *Qu«
T
R
T
57.9
40.4
40.9
55.3
38.6
57.3
72.1
80.9
94.1
76.1
58.2
62,5
70.5
72*5
6S.9
2
ISef.
R
(trades
6 69,9
8 79.8
10 90.5
12 96.1
T 34.0
5
Ind «
T
lfe£.
R
15.5
26.0
21.9
3S.3
24,1
59*2
76.0
82.3
89.2
79.5
34.9
42.3
63.8
68.6
52.4
6
14.6
15.4
44,8
60,8
35.8
7
4
fief*. ..m *
R
T
70.9
82,7
92,4
98,0
86.0
Ind.
DeF.
R
Ind.
T
55.3
53,8
71*4
52.0
58,2
61.2
65 .4
80.9
80.4
72.0
43.7
37,5
60,5
60.8
40.1
T
51,1
46.1
51.4
60.8
47.3
Form A - D efinite p resentatio n
Testing order# In d efin ite (tra n sfe r) - D efinite (reten tio n )
Area Questions
DSF.
R
Grades
6 51.0
8 55.0
10 60*2
12 49,0
T 53.7
1
lad,'
T
lief.
R
49 .0
38.0
39.8
29.8
39.1
42.1
75.0
74.5
83,7
68.6
5
.HeF;-' " W .
R
T
Grades
6 62.7 15.7
8 70*0 16.0
10 79.6 21.4
24.0
12 88.5
19.3
T 75.2
2
in d .
T
y©x •
R
56.9
51.0
66.3
77.9
65.1
30.4
44,0
41,8
61.5
44.5
6
S
ind*
f
Def.
R
13.7
24,0
29*6
55.8
30.9
58 .8
85.0
88,8
91*4
80,9
7
Def."
R
Xncl»
T
uoi #
R
49.0
72.0
79.6
76.9
69,3
52.9
63.0
65,3
69*2
62.6
47.0
64,0
69*4
69,2
62.4
* E • Retentions T- Transfer
and.
T
33 .3
42.0
51.0
51,0
44 s3
4
Ind'.
T
4 o .l
55.0
59,2
65.4
55.7
ty«
Table 6 (continued)
Form t - P resen tatio n in d e fin ite
Testing order* D efinite (tra n s fe r) - in d e fin ite (rete n tio n )
Grades
6
8
10
12
T
* m X 2nd.
BeF*
T*
Area Question®
2
3
BefT" Ind.
Ind.
T
R
T
R
19*6
19.6
14.9
15*1
18*8
22*5
55*5
52.3
48.5
39.7
58.5
19*6
20*6
25.2
25.1
5
Grades
6
8
10
12
T
53.3
41.2
41.1
48.5
41.0
56.9
67.«6
79.4
71*7
69.0
6
B ef.
T
4a
iHfl.
R
36.3
46*1
52.5
58.6
48*3
5.9
11.8
28.0
39.4
21.2
7
BsF*
T
Ind.
R
BeF.
T
Ind.
R
BeF.
T
Ind.
52.0
61*8
79.4
79.8
68*5
62.7
67.6
82*2
85*9
74.6
40.2
44.1
43.6
54*5
46.8
62.7
64.7
72*0
77.8
69*3
31.4
29*4
40.2
43.4
36*1
44.1
43.1
57.0
67.7
52.9
63.7
69.6
86.9
93.9
78.6
R
Form Z —P resentation in d e fin ite
,
' l'-'T_ Testing ordert In d e fin ite (rete n tio n ) •«* D efinite (tra n sfe r)
1
Grades
6
8
10
12
T
2
Area Questions
3
4
BeT. ' Ind.
BeF.
Ind.
R
IfeF.
T
Ind.
T
TS&Tr” Ind.
R
t
28.6
14.1
21.6
21.0
21.3
43*9
27.3
40.2
31.0
35.6
31.6
29.3
46.1
54.0
40*3
62.0
82.8
87*2
86*0
77.2
34.7
43.4
37.2
46.0
40*3
17.3
22.2
32.3
53.0
51*3
30.6
37.4
52.0
65.0
46.4
69*4
85.9
91.2
89.0
83.9
5
m : ... Ind.
R
T
Grade®
6 50.0
8 56.6
10 64*7
12 72.0
T 60.9
65.1
73.7
78*4
91.0
74.7
Def.
T
6
45.9
48*5
49.0
46*0
47.4
T
R
7
Ind.
R
BsF.
T
63.3
77*8
73.5
76.0
72.7
25.5
43.4
45.1
45 *0
39*8
♦ T «* Transfer $ R “ Retention
Ind.
R
40.8
62*6
64.7
68.0
t^D.l
R
107
T a b le 7
Per cent of t o t a l n u m b e r 0f pupils answering questions involving distance
concepts who gave c o rre ct responses in d e fin ite and in d e fin ite t e s t s ,
resp ectiv ely , by questions, types of t e s t s , grades, and t e s t forms
Form W - P resentation d e fin ite
Testing ordert D efinite (rete n tio n ) - In d e fin ite (tra n s fe r)
1
tSef.
R*
Grades
6 80*6
8 81*7
10 84.8
12 90.2
T 84.3
6
Def.
R
Grades
6 85.4
8 90.4
10 96.2
12 99.0
T 92.7
2
Ind.
T*
Del.
R
50*5
61.5
66.7
77.4
64.0
71.8
86.6
91.4
95.1
86.2
Ind.
T
D ef.
R
68.0
73.1
83.8
79*4
76.1
58.2
78.8
83.8
93.1
78.5
7
Distance Questions
3
Ind.
Del1. Ind.
T
R
?
4
Def* M .
R
T
5
DeFT
R
f
62.1
73.1
72.4
74.5
70.5
67.0 50.5
85.6 55.8
88.6 55.2
95.1 58.8
84.0 55.1
64.1 47*6
77.9 58.6
89.5 72.4
96.1 82.3
81.9 65.2
53.4
75.0
80.0
88*2
74.1
Ind.
T
8
D ef: ' Trid*.
R
T
Def.
R
46.6
63.5
74.3
91.2
68*8
55*3
76.0
83*8
97.0
78.0
60.5
67.3
84.8
89.2
72*9
34.0
47.1
52.4
66*7
50*0
9
32.0
33.6
33.3
27*4
31.6
In d .
T
10
D ef. Ind.
H
T
63.1
68.3
73.3
78.4
70.8
68.9 52.4
87.5 72.1
90.5 66,7
98.0 69.6
86.2 65,2
Form X —Presentati<m d e fin ite
Testing ordert In d e fin ite (tra n sfe r) «• D efinite (reten tio n )
Def*
R
Grades
6 52.0
8 71.0
10 70.4
12 83.6
T 69.3
1
6
Ifef.
R
Grades
6 80.4
8 95.0
10 95,9
12 96.1
T 91.8
2
Distance Questions
3
Ind.
061 • xna.
s
T
t
Dei 0
R
69.6
85.0
88.8
94.2
84*4
41.2
66*0
61*2
71.1
59*9
57.8
72.0
81,6
88.5
75.0
4
Ind.
t
Def.
R
58.8
61.0
58.2
76.0
63*9
73*5
83,0
88.8
93.3
84.6
In d .
T
7
D ef. In d .
R
T
8
D e r r la d .
T
R
uez •
R
72,5
87,0
86,7
79.8
814*4
39,2
74*0
31.6
89*4
71.0
57.8
68.0
78.6
92.3
74.2
23.5
48 .0
45*9
69,2
46.8
36*3
59*0
72,4
82.7
62.6
63.7
71.0
76.5
73.1
71.0
40.2
65.0
70.4
79.8
63.9
f
9
* R - R e te n tio n } T - T ra n sfer
5
Def.
R
41.2
75*0
72,4
81.7
67.6
52.0
75.0
72.4
81.7
70.3
Ind.
T
D ef.
R
59.3
74.0
78.6
81.7
73.5
67.6
77.0
85.7
87.5
79.4
Ind.
T
42*1
31.0
37.8
31.7
35*6
10
XHu«
T
57.8
57.0
59*2
53 .5
59.4
.1 9 8
Table 7 (continued)
Form t - P resentation in d e fin ite
Testing order* D efinite (tra n s fe r) - In d e fin ite (reten tio n )
2
1
Def, In d .
R*
T*
trades
6 31.4 45*1
3 40.2 54.9
10 37 .4 55.1
12 51.5 06.7
T 40.0 55.4
D ef.
T
56.9 56.9
59*8 83 .3
79.4 83 .2
74.7 85.9
67 .8 77.3
a
Del*.
T
Grades
6 71.6
8 70.6
ID 78.5
12 83.8
T 76 a
Distance Questions
3
4
Xnd*
JLM32. *
Ifldt
m T m .
R
T
R
T
R
7
Dad*
R
D ef.
T
84.3
87.2
88*8
81.8
85.6
38.2
30.4
27.1
32.3
31*9
43.0
53.9
64.5
73.7
60.0
48*0
51*0
D ef. ICnd',
R
T
Def*
t
27.4
14*7
12.1
9*1
15*8
18.6
27.4
34.6
35*3
29.0
49*0
52*9
66.1
63*6
55*4
48.0
59.8
76.6
81*8
66.6
31.4
43.1
58.9
67.7
50*2
Form Z - P resentation in d e fin ite
m,r-,T,n-r-" j QStin g order* In d e fin ite (rete n tio n )
1
Def.
T
Grades
6 32.6
3 46*5
10 38*2
12 47*0
T 41.1
2nd*
R
56.1
73*7
70.6
76*0
69*2
6
Def . '■ Irid,
T
R
Grades
6 62*2 74*5
8 67,7 34*8
10 68.6 90*2
12 30*0 92.0
T 69.7 85.5
46*6 79*4
66*7 86.9
53.4 72.9
8
R
54.9
70.6
9
X/@x•
T
7
38.8
40*4
36*2
37.0
38 .6
53.0
63*6
61.8
63*0
60,4
8
56.9
74.5
72.0
79.8
70.7
53.9
62*7
76.6
77.8
67.8
52*9
60.8
51.4
54.5
54.9
D efinite (tra n sfe r)
9
S®1* lod.
T
R
18*4
21*2
28.4
33.0
25.3
T
43.9
64*6
71.6
76.0
64*2
24.5
6.1
13*7
13*0
14*3
40.8
57.6
65.7
80*0
61,1
10
R
40.8
53.5
47.0
57.0
48*1
l2Ki«
R
40.2
28.4
34.6
35.3
34.6
T
38.8
54.5
55*9
70*0
54.9
Ind.
R
41.2
48.0
60.7
62.6
53*2
Ind.
R
Distance Questions
2
4
3
D ef. TSsS.
vOi • indL*
D ef. In d .
f
S
R
1
T
T
52.0 75,5
64.6 94*9
77.4 93.1
80*0 91*0
68*7 08*7
5
DEPT" Ind .
T
R
* T — Transfer! It • Retention
34.7
70*7
81*4
89*0
69.2
72.4
79 .8
80.2
79.0
79.9
5
DeF^ 3S37
T
E
45.9
54.5
64.7
67.0
58.1
40*8
40a
36,3
46.0
40.8
10
l e n s .
T
R
51,0
57.6
70.6
71*0
62,6
49,0
46.5
56.9
50,0
50,6
19U
Table 8
Per oeot of total number of pupils answering questions Involving siz©
concepts who gave correct responses in definite end indefinite tests,
respectively, by questions, types of tests, grades, and tost forms
Form Iff «*■P resentation d e fin ite
te s tin g order* D efinite (rete n tio n ) - In d e fin ite (tra n sfe r)
Def.""’
R*
■ades
6 89.3
8 91.3
10 96 .2
12 93.1
T 92.5
7
Def.
R
■ados
6 55.5
8 74.0
10 78.1
12 91*2
T 74.6
2
fief* Ind.
R
T
Size Questions
3
4
Def. In d . Def. Ind.
R
T
R
T
6
Def. Ind.
R
T
w
r
la d .
f
61.2
60.6
63.8
59.8
61.3
79.6
89.4
95.2
95.1
89.8
35.9
62.5
75.2
90.2
65.9
65.0
73,1
76.2
82.3
74.1
65.0
88.5
95.2
97.0
66.5
42.7
72.1
83.8
01.9
70.8
30.1
51.0
63.8
73.3
55.1
la d .
T
Ind.
T
11
Def. ' 353T.
R
T
12
Def V I n f .
R
T
48*5
66.3
68.6
75.5
64,7
23.3
37.5
40.0
31.4
33.1
61*2
83.6
89.8
96.1
82.6
67.3
75.0
75.2
88,2
73,9
Ind.
t*
54.4
76.9
70.6
69.6
67.9
27.2
60.6
78.1
86.3
63.0
52.4
68.3
80.0
88.2
72.2
8
D©T7~ in d .
R
T
9
DST.” Ind.
R
T
Def.
R
71.8
91.3
94.3
95.1
88.2
56.3
72*1
82.8
89.2
75.1
52.4
67.3
78.1
92.1
72.5
72.8
72.1
85.7
89.2
79.9
47 &
67.7
75,2
85,3
66.4
10
58.2
64.4
67.6
60.C
62.8
48.5
50.0
49.5
61.0
49.7
6
R
17.5
22.1
19.0
22,5
20.3
Fora W • P resentation d e fin ite
Testing order* In d efin ite (tra n s fe r) - D efinite (reten tio n )
1
2
i r a r IS T . D ef. In d .
R
T
s
T
Grades
6 83.5 63.7 78.4 59.8
8 34*0 71,0 91.0 76.0
10 91.8 60.2
90.8 73.5
12 89.4 56.7 99.0 73.1
89,8 70.5
T 87.1 62.9
33.3 29.4
69.0 67.0
70,4 65.3
87.5 84,6
65,1 61*6
9
la d .
T
8
Def. ' la d .
R
T
Def,
R
53.9
64*0
38,2
73.1
62.4
58.8 72,5
77.0 82,0
84.7 81.6
94*2 88*5
78.7 81,2
35.3 43.1
56.0 56.0
69,4 61.2
76,0 76,9
59.1 59.4
7
D el.
R
Grades
6 41.2
8 64.0
10 70.4
12 79.8
T 63.9
Size Questions
S
4
Def*
tWKT''Ind.
T
R
T
R
ind..
T
52,9
59.0
74.5
85.6
87.6
59.8
69.0
76.5
76,9
70.5
5
Def.
R
T
69.6
82.0
88.8
93.3
83.4
63.7
70.0
70,4
64.4
67.1
6
T O v THT.
R
T
39.2
58.0
70,4
81.7
62,4
43.1
45.0
59.2
77.9
56.4
10
Def. IBu •
T
R
11
Def, T & .
T
R
12
fief. Ind.
T
R
28,4
36,0
37.8
28.8
32.7
59.8 48.0
72.0 70,0
85.7 58,2
90.4 62,5
77,0 59.6
71.6
75.0
73.5
76,9
74.2
40,2
53,0
74.5
80.8
62*1
* R - Retention} T- Transfer
26,5
22.0
14.3
23.1
21.5
2f)0
Table 8 (continued)
Pom Y * P resen tatio n in d e fin ite
Testing order* D efinite (tra n s fe r) - In d efin ite (reten tio n )
m r
t*
TScT.
a*
Grades
6 39.2
8 30.4
10 20.0
U 26.3
f 31,0
47.0
30 .4
83.6
45.4
39*0
WETTST.
Sis© Questions
8
4
TCP. Snd1. Tfef • Ind.
f
1
R
f
fief.
f
54.9
66.7
73.8
77.8
68.5
61*8
63.7
70,1
73.7
67.3
23.5 23.5
35.3 45.1
48.6 70.1
64.6 78,8
42 .9 54*4
34.3
48.0
34.6
50.0
41.5
29,4 65,7
29 .4 70,6
29.0 79*4
40.4 74.7
31.9 72,7
17.6
21.6
13.1
15.1
16.8
44*1
52.9
61.7
73.7
58.0
R
9
DSFT" In d .
T
a
Def.
T
11
Ind.
R
IfeXt
T
12
X32d.«
R
16,7
13*7
12.1
14.1
14*1
29.4
24.5
15,9
24.2
25*4
a
t
R
6
8
10
12
T
51.0
69.6
38*2
52 .0
63.5
55.1
52.2
68.2
80.6
62.4
38.2 86,3
41*2 88*2
42.0 92.5
42.4 94.9
41.0 90*5
28*4
31.4
43,0
55,6
39.5
63.7
59.8
70.1
66.7
65.1
10
Sid.
R
48.0
60.8
72.0
68.7
62,4
Pom 2 - P resentation in d e fin ite
rr '
Testing order* In d e fin ite (reten tio n )
1
fief.
T
fades
6 59.8
8 30.3
10 35.3
12 24*0
T 32.3
In d .
R
2
Def. In d .
R
T
0©1 #
55*1
53.5
57.8
54.0
65,1
50*0
85.8
80.4
85 ,0
74.9
27*5
46,5
47,0
70.0
47.9
Xnd,
R
Def. In d .
43,9
62,6
51.0
64,0
55,4
34.7
45.4
45*1
47.0
43.1
8
7
fief*
T
rades
6 36.7
8 63.6
10 56.9
12 62.0
T 54.9
64,3
65.7
72.5
71*0
68,4
T
n
81*6
92*9
95,1
96,0
91*5
3
T
Def.
T
32.6
60.6
72.5
82*0
62.1
9
Ind.
R
44.1
60,8
69.1
69*7
61.0
48,0
54.9
63*5
73,7
60.0
6
w r r ■isa.
T
R
55.9
SO.O
65,4
76.8
61*9
19.6
14.7
21.5
20*2
19*0
D efinite (tra n sfe r)
D@F* Ind.
1
T
DeF, Ind.
6
Def. TneT.
T
R
39.8 59*2
44.4 66*7
52*9 60*8
55,0 70.0
43.1 64.2
21*4 57.1
28,3 90.9
24.5 83 ,3
32,0 84*0
26,6 78.9
18.4
12.1
19.6
13.0
15.8
.61*0
62.6
68.6
72.0
63.6
10
in d .
R
11
Def* Ind.
R
T
]/&£• X33&#
T
R
45,9
67.7
67.6
85.0
66.7
50.0
54.5
70.6
68.0
60,9
55*1
69.7
70,6
74.0
67.4
28.6
24.2
21.6
35.0
27.3
4
a
5
DefT" I n d l
T
R
Def.
T
12,2
9*1
15.7
16.0
13.3
21.4
28.3
27 *4
46.0
30.8
21,4
19.2
25.5
21.0
21.8
* T - Transfers R • R^enticn
5
T
R
50.0
69.7
75.5
84.0
89,9
12
291
Hot©* Tho ta b le below w ill a id th© reader in in te rp re tin g the
remaining ta b le s in tho appendix and in id en tify in g tho respective questions
Appearing in Section 3 of Chapter I I I which d eals w ith tho analysis of
response combinations*
fa b le 9
Order of t e s t questions used in th e ©xporiiaent, arranged by
iype o f q u an titativ e concept* s e r ia l number of questions,
id e n tlfic a tio n in the s e le c tio n s, and ta b le number
Type of
q u an titativ e
concept
Humber
of
question.
Id e n tific a tio n by selectio n
Table
Time
1
2
S
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
u
O il - 1
O il « 5
Aviation - 2
Aviation » 5
Forests - 1
Forests • 4
Coal - 1
Coal - 5
Safety F irs t <* S
Heaping Tools *■ 5
Heaping Tools * 7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Area
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
O il - S
Aviation * 8
Forests » 3
Coal * 3
Safety F ir s t ~ 7
Heaping Tools * 1
Heaping Tools - 6
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
O il - 2
Aviation ~ 1
Aviation «* 6
Aviation -* 7
Aviation - 9
Forests - 8
Coal - 2
Safety F ir s t —5
Safety F ir s t - 6
Heaping Tools «■ 2
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
85
1
2
3
O il - 4
Aviation -3
Aviation * 4
Forests «* 2
Forests « 6
Coal •• 4
Coal ~ 6
Safety F ir s t - 1
Safety F irs t - 2
Safety F irs t -4
Reaping Tools * 3
Heaping Tools •* 4
36
57
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
Distance
Sis©
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
&
*+
Table 10
Per cent of total number of pupils ansfrerlng questions who gave both,
definite and In&^&lte™answers correotl^r^ by grades, "teat forms,, and
questions involving time concepts
Form W
Ponn X
P resentation d e fin ite
Testing order* d e fin ite -in d e fin ite
P resentation d e fin ite
Testing order* indef in ito -d e fin ite
Time
Questions
6
8
Grades
10
12
T
6
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
6.
7*
8%
9*
10*
11.
34*9
26*2
41.2
60.9
40*6
49*5
18*8
17*2
59.0
24.7
23.5
57*5
44.7
57.3
87.4
64.1
77.7
34 *3
20*2
82.5
44.5
26.0
58.1
54.3
68.3
98.1
62.8
84.8
33.3
20*2
87.6
44.2
38.1
79.2
64.7
85.1
96.1
88.2
92*1
54.9
40.6
95.1
63.7
39.2
57*3
47.4
62.9
87.6
64.0
76.1
35*4
24.5
81.2
44*4
31.7
35.3
27.4
25.5
74.5
34.3
41.0
15.8
12.0
66.0
23.8
24*5
36.7
53.2
59.0
70.7
54.9
34.6
Total
Grades
10
12
48.5
47.5
56 .6
89.0
58.2
73.7
25.5
16 .3
76.0
33 .5
28*0
57.7
52.0
58.8
92.9
68.0
79*6
24.0
21.6
85.4
42.3
29.6
70*3
69.9
75.7
92.3
79.3
91.3
40*2
32.0
94.2
4 e ,l
38.0
52.9
49.2
54.1
87.1
60.1
71.6
26.4
20.6
80.4
35.6
30.3
50.3
55.8
66.2
51*7
8
Form Z
Form T
P resentation in d e fin ite
Testing order* d e fin ite -in d e fin ite
6
1*
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Total
8
Grades
10
T
Presentation in d efin ite
Testing order* in d e fin ite -d e fin ite
3
Grades
12
10
T
12
T
6
31.3
65.7
73.5
66*6
60.2
20 .2
62.6
17.2
61.2
13.3
38.4
27.9
47.4
42.1
47.3
37.0
22.8
48.1
14*7
42.3
13.8
29.1
11.3
34.7
23.7
23.5
15*6
21.6
23.5
11,3
24 ,2
9,3
21.4
31.6
52.5
40.2
53.5
56.7
29.6
47.5
22.2
52.5
14,1
21.2
34.3
50.0
44 .5
62.7
33.7
20.6
48.0
25.5
59,4
12.7
28.4
50.0
67,0
60.6
51.0
57,6
34.3
66.7
31,3
69.7
11.3
30.6
31.9
51.0
42.4
47.8
41.0
26.5
46 ,5
22.7
51.8
11.9
25 .4
37.1 45.4
33*9
20.0
38.3
38,1 48.2
36.2
21.8
30*0
22.8
27*7
22.8
20.8
34.0
9*0
20.0
12*4
30.3
22.8 35.5
39.6 54.2
28.0 44.8
43.6 60.7
30.4 35.5
33.7 16.8
42.6 53.3
15.7 17*0
39.0 49.0
14.6 14.9
21.6 26.2
22,9
30.2
table 11
Per cent of total number of pupils answorlnR questions who gave
toth definite and indefinite answers correctly^ liy gradesp test
forma, and questions involtring area concepts.
Form W
Form X
Presentation d e fin ite
te s tin g order* de f in ite -in d e f in ite
Area
Questions
X*
2*
3*
4*
5,
6*
7,
6
8
29*1
37*9
8*8
22*2
12*0
34*9
29*4
34*0
50*0
11*6
40*8
21*1
41*7
28*7
Grades
10
12
36*3
59*0
40*0
48*1
20.9
55.2
45*1
34*6
73*0
57*4
61*4
31*4
50.0
51*0
T
6
8
33.5
54*3
29*4
43*2
21.4
45*5
38.6
31*4
22*8
9.9
28*7
14*8
24.5
17.6
31.3
38*4
20*2
62*6
15.0
46*0
31.0
25*0 32*6 43*5 51*2 38.1
Total
Presentation d e fin ite
Testing order* In d e fin ite -d e fin ite
21.4 33*4
P resentation in d e fin ite
Testing orders d e fin ite -in d e fin ite
Total
33.0
49*0
24.0
54.7
20*6
65.7
40.2
T
25.8 29.8
65.4 44*0
41.3 24.0
65.0 50.1
23.1 18*4
57.3 45.8
42.7 32*8
39.6 45.5
35.0
Form Z
Form Y
1-*
2.
5.
4*
5*
6*
7.
Grades
10
12
Presentation in d efin ite
Testing orders in d e fin ite -d e fin ite
6
8
Grades
10
12
T
6
8
Grades
10
12
T
11*9
12*9
3.0
27.0
46*5
26*0
15*3
7.9
25.7
8.9
34.0
57*4
29*3
18*7
7*4
40.6
15.9
43*9
71.0
32.7
27*3
6.1
40.8
21*2
57.6
77*5
42.4
31.6
8.3
30.0
12.2
40*6
63,1
32.6
23*4
11*2
22*3
12*2
24*0
38*1
31.6
10.3
8.3
24*2
13.1
31.6
51.5
37.4
29*3
13.0
41*2
17.6
43*0
60*4
39*2
32.3
12.2
46*5
31.3
60.6
70*7
37*4
33.7
12*0
S3 .7
18.6
41.3
55.3
36*4
26.5
20*4 26.9
34.1
39.6
30.0
21.8 28 *0 86.0 41,8
32.0
3'*4
Table 12
fciong who gave
ooun aeixnxue ana xnaexxmte answers correctly* by grades te s t
forms, and questions involving distance concepts
*
Pom W
Form X
P resentation d e fin ite
Testing order* d e fin ite —in d e fin ite
Distance
Questions
1.
2.
3.
4*
5*
6*
7,
8*
9*
10.
Total
3
8
Grades
10
12
T
47.6
45.1
35 .9
36.4
13*9
59.8
37.4
22.7
36.4
44.1
58.2
35 .4
50*0
51.0
26*0
66.3
55.8
37.2
53.4
35.4
60.0
66.7
52.9
68.6
28.6
84.6
71.8
49.5
64.8
66.3
75.2
70.6
57.8
82.2
23.8
78.4
84.3
64.7
75.2
69*6
60.2
62.0
49.1
59.6
23.1
72*3
62*5
43*8
57.6
611*4
38.0
52.9
61.4
68.2
55.2
P^esentatIon d e fin ite
Testing order* In d efin ite—d e fin ite
Grades
10
12
T
32.3 54*5
49.0 58.0
36.6 57.0
32.7 60.0
24.7 23.2
69.0 84.8
19.0 57.1
18.7 39.0
24.2 45.4
46.5 51.0
46.9
67.3
57.3
61.9
25.5
84.7
61.9
37.9
59*4
59.2
68.0
68.3
68.3
78.4
26.0
77.9
73.8
67.0
70.2
62.1
50.5
60.6
54.9
58.2
24.9
79.0
53.0
41.0
50.0
54.7
35.4 53.0
56.1
65.9
52*7
6
8
Form Y
Form Z
P resentation in d e fin ite
Testing order* d e fin ite -in d e fin ite
1.
2.
3*
4*
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Total
Presentation in d e fin ite
Testing order* in d e fin ite -d e fin ite
Grades
6
8
Grades
10
12
T
21*6
30*4
28*4
34.3
17.6
60.4
20.2
3,1
14.3
35 .0
28.7
49.5
34*3
41.2
15.7
60.8
18.6
0,0
20.4
50.5
25.2
66,3
37,4
43.9
21*5
69.1
21.5
1*9
23*6
44*8
40,4
64 ,3
48.0
61.9
15*5
69.7
24.9
2*1
23*5
49.5
28.8
62.7
36.9
45.2
17.6
65,0
21.2
1*7
20.5
44*3
21*4 41*4 30.7
44.3 62*2 72.5
2 0 .6 36.4 34.3
14.4 39*4 42.6
2 0.8 21.2 25 .5
50.0 62.6 60*8
16.3 27.3 32.3
6.4 2*1
3.0
12.4 18.2 23.8
32*6 42.7 52.0
26,6
32*0 35.5
40,0
33.5
24,0 35*4 37*8 42 .9 58.1
6
8
10
12
44,8
74.7
46,5
48*5
32.6
75.8
30.3
5,0
24.5
45.9
ij »
34.5
63.6
34*5
56 .4
25*1
62.4
26.6
4.1
19.7
43*4
2 }) 5
Table 13
Per cent of total number of pup11b answering questions who gave
both definite and Indefinite answers' oorrectly# by'"grad©ot test
forms, and questions involving size concepts*
Form W
Form X
P resentation d e fin ite
Testing order* d efin ite -in d e f in ite
Size
Questions 6
1.
2.
3*
4.
5*
6*
7*
a,
9.
10.
u*
12*
Total
8
Grades
10
53.4
42.7
22*5
33.7
46.5
14*8
32.3
54.4
31.0
13*9
31.4
8.8
59.2 60.9
70.2 67.6
54.4 71.4
58*6 65*7
53.8 64.8
59 .4 57.7
51,9 59*6
65.4 80.0
51.4 68.6
29.0 29.5
45.5 45.8
20.2 15.4
32.1
50.0
12
T
58.4 58 .0
67.3 62*0
05.1 58,4
78.2 59.1
59.4 56*2
60.6 45.5
71.3 55*9
86.3 71.6
82.3 58.5
28.4 25*2
49.0 42.4
18.6 15.8
57.1 62 .8
50.6
P resentation d e fin ite
Testing order* In d e fin ite -d e fin ite
6
8
Grades
10
12
T
54*9
50,5
23*5
31.7
53*5
24.0
31*6
46.0
21*8
14.0
32,7
17.0
61*6
69.7
63.0
48*5
60.6
34.7
46*4
63.0
42.0
20.0
47*0
17.0
55.1
67.3
60.8
60.8
66.3
43.9
46.9
72*2
53.1
32.3
48.0
7*2
54.9
73.1
79.8
67.3
60.6
67.0
63*1
82.7
65.4
25.2
57.3
17,6
56.6
65.2
56.8
52*1
60.2
42.6
47.2
66 *1
45,6
22*8
46 .3
14,8
33 .5 47.8
51.2
59.6 48.1
Form Y
F orm
Presentation in d e fin ite
Testing order* do fin ite -in d e fin ite
Total
Grades
12
10
12
T
6
8
22*8 18.2
12.3
16.3
17*3
19.0
10.0
24*0
35,0
7.0
13*9
24.5
12.2
20.6
16.0
41.2
40.0
10.1
13.1
37,1
7.2
19*6
12.1
50*5
39.2
9*3
9.4
43.9
16.2
28.3
13.1
39.4
43.3
10.2
16.5
52.0
15*1
21.8
12.8
39.0
39.3
9.1
12.9
39.5
12.8
26.8
34*7
19.8
24.5
10*2
13.5
16.7
29*9
3.1
9.4
23.7
17.3
22*7
57,6
43.4
35.0
20.2
11,1
44*4
44*4
7.1
12.1
43,9
17*2
23.8
59.8
48 ,0
35.3
18.6
17.8
29.4
43.6
6.9
17.8
52.0
13.7
18*9
64,6
71.1
47.4
25.2
13.1
40.4
47.0
9.1
18,2
60,6
27.3
20*2
25.8
28.1
32 *5 26.6
19.1
29.9
30.6
36*3 29.2
8
2. 32 .5 40,2 49.5 57*6 44.9
s . 13*9 30.7 43.4 59*4 36,6
4 . 27.7 34 .6 30,8 37.8 32.7
5,
6*
7.
8*
9*
10.
11.
12.
Presentation in d efin ite
Testing orders in d e fin ite -d e fin ite
Grades
10
6
1.
Z
T
25.1
54.3
45.7
35.5
18.6
13.9
32,8
41.2
6.6
14,4
45.2
18.8
2'-6
Table 14
Per cent of number of pupils answering first test correctly who also
answered second test correctly, by grad©test foSe, and questions
involving time concepts
Pom W
Pom X
P resentation d e fin ite
Retention t e s t f i r s t
Time
Questions 6
1*
2*
5.
4.
5*
6*
7*
8.
9.
10.
11*
Toted
8
Grades
10
12
Presentation d e fin ite
Transfer t e s t f i r s t
T
6
8
Grades
10
12
T
69*5
57*5
78.6
92.8
77.1
91.0
41.1
45*3
94*9
76.7
38*9
67,9
63.6
57*8
93*3
70.0
70,7
59*3
31.6
98.5
42*1
71,4
81.4
85.9
87.5
97.8
80.3
87.9
92.6
50.0
91.6
60.0
82.3
@4.3
89.5
82.6
96.8
83.5
88.6
92.0
56.8
95.3
70.7
85.3
89.9
94.7
90.7
98.0
95.4
94.0
93,2
80.5
99*0
91.7
88*9
82.1
85.0
82.2
96,7
84.0
87.0
85.4
55.4
96.1
65.1
82 *4
69*4 83.7
85.8
93.4
84.2
68.2
55*6
75*6
91*8
75*9
90*9
40*2
56*2
94.4
75.0
31.8
65.6
62*0
80*7
99*0
70.2
95*7
55*3
57*5
95*8
75.0
44*4
39*9
72.5
88*7
98.0
90*9
94*9
58.9
61*9
99,0
33*5
44.4
66*5 66.9
70,2
80*4 69*5
60*7
S7.0
64*6
80*7
67*2
78.1
26.4
44.7
88.1
71*4
33.3
Form Z
Form Y
P resentation in d e fin ite
Transfer t e s t f i r s t
6
1.
2.
S.
4.
S*
6.
7,
a.
9#
10.
11.
Total
8
Grades
12
10
Presentation in d e fin ite
Retention te s t f i r s t
T
6
8
Grades
12
10
T
84*6
66.7
53.6
93.3
82.1
75.0
87.2
52*9
83,3
70.6
47.6
65.7
64*5
70,0
100.0
83*8
82.9
81,1
59*3
92.9
82.3
32.8
82.6
80.6
75.0
95.6
79.2
100.0
90.5
66.7
96.3
66*7
42.4
86 *1
83.3
93,5
100.0
96.7
100,0
93.9
77.3
98.4
54.2
52 *8
79.7
75.1
76.3
97*5
86.8
86*9
88.7
64.5
94.5
67,1
44.1
20.0
54.8
44*2
30.7
25.4
41.2
31.1
26*2
48.9
19.6
70,0
40.3
67*5
57.3
55.2
65,5
36.7
57*3
40.0
65.0
34.1
61.8
70.0
72.1
79.3
86.0
77.8
36.1
53.7 54,0 62.4 52.7
41.7
63.0
64,3
64.7
44,7
25.0
59.0
46,4
69.0
38*2
78.4
57.6
83,3
75.0
52.1
63,3
38.6
76.7
46.3
75.8
29.7
78.7
41.9
67.8
61.8
51.9
52 a
34.8
56.9
40.9
66.9
29,7
73.7
2 }7
Table 15
Per cent of number of pupils answerinj& first tost correctly who also
answered second ‘
test correctly,'by gradosTT©stToms^ andquostions
involving area concepts
Pom W
Form X
P resentation d e fin ite
Retention t e s t f i r s t
Area
Questions
1#
2*
3.
4.
5.
6*
7.
Total
Presentation d e fin ite
Transfer to s t f i r s t
6
8
Grades
10
12
T
6
39*5
66*1
25*0
30.1
16*7
59*0
47*6
44*8
69*3
27.3
48.8
26.5
54.4
42*6
45.7
72.9
62.7
51.6
23.2
66.7
54*1
40.7
76.0
82.9
62.0
32*6
56,0
63.4
42.7
71.7
55.8
49 .4
25.3
57.1
52.7
64*0
39.7
71.4
65.9
93.7
46.3
52.9
81.6 82.0 77 A 75.3
74.5 73.8 85.9 69.4
83.3 79.3 74.1 76.8
92.7 89.7 95.6 87.6
93.7 95.2 96.0 94.9
73.0 84.4 81.9 72.7
73.8 78,0 83.0 73.7
40.4
45.8
53.1
58.3
50*0
56.3
80.3
8
P resentation in d e fin ite
Transfer to s t f i r s t
84,3
76.9
Presentation in d efin ite
Retention te s t f i r s t
Grades
10
12
T
6
8
Grades
10
12
T
60.0 40,0
56.5 72.2
8.8 21.4
73.0 72.3
88.7 88.9
63.4 64.4
46.9 60.0
50.0
76.8
38.6
83.9
89,4
67,3
67.4
46.1
83.3
43.7
98.3
96.2
77.8
72.1
49.3
74.8
29.8
83.3
91.1
68.7
62.8
32.6
41.2
70.6
53.8
68.5
50.0
25.0
29.6
29.3
59 .1
56.5
69*9
48.0
46,0
31.7
47.2
54.5
52.7
76.2
53.3
50.0
38.7
53.5
58.5
67.4
76.9
48.7
48.5
33.1
43.2
59.2
48.6
73.5
50.0
44.5
63.6
72.4
79.6
69.9
44.2
45.1
53.0 58.5
51.1
6
Total
82.2
T
12
Form Z
Form T
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Grades
10
59.6
8
2*®
Table 16
Per cent of amber of pupils answering, first test corrootlv who also
answered second tost correctly, ^ grades£TeWTow»7 and questions
involving distance ooncopts
Form X
P resentation d e fin ite
Retention t e s t f i r s t
Distance
Questions
U
2.
3.
4*
S.
6*
7.
8,
9*
10.
Total
P resentation d e fin ite
Transfer t e s t f i r s t
6
3
Grades
10
12
59 .4
62*2
53.6
54.5
25 *4
69*5
61.7
38 *6
69.2
63.4
70.6
75.6
58.4
65.4
34.6
73.4
70.7
43.1
78.6
74.7
70*8
72.9
59.1
76.6
35.7
87.1
84.1
57.9
76.4
72.6
82.6
74.2
60.8
84.7
26.7
79.2
90*5
66.7
83.5
71.0
71.1
71.7
68.3
74.2
30.9
77.6
78.5
54.8
77.8
70.9
55.0
76.9
88.1
78.6
58.1
93.2
46.3
75.0
39.4
79.7
56.7
65.3
69.8
72.2
66.3
69.5
T
6
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Total
Grades
10
12
T
68.7 70,7 67.5 78.4 71.9
53.4 82.0 83.5 85.1 77.S
58.0 64.8 66.7 74.6 66.5
69.4 80,8 90.4 90.9 33 ,6
42.9 32.6 35.4 24*2 33,0
83.6 86.1 88.1 83.1 85.2
51.3 61.3 79.3 75.0 65.8
10.7
0.0 15.4 22.2 10.8
73.7 71.4 67.6 65.7 68.9
63.6 78.1 58.5 63.6 65.5
60.0 69.2
69.5
88.5
81.7
86.4
80.0
74.2
96.5
86.1
81.2
60.8
89.5
77.6
88,0
91.7
84.5
67.6
97.6
87.0
86.7
74.0
100.0
88.6
93.4
95.9
94.1
81.8
97,6
91.6
95.8
85,9
97.0
78.3
85,4
90.9
85.3
69.4
96.3
81.8
87.3
67.0
91.7
83.0
86.3
92.7
83.9
T
Presentation in d efin ite
Retention t e s t f i r s t
P resentation in d e fin ite
Transfer t e s t f i r s t
8
12
Form Z
Form Y
6
Grades
10
6
71.0
67.7
6
8
Grades
10
12
T
56.6
81.3
65.7
53.9
69.6
81.5
39.5
6.2
30.4
90.0
49.3
71.2
62,5
52.2
60,7
72.4
41.4
6.5
24.4
84.6
53,0 56 .3
52.3
38.2 57,5 43.0
58.1 64.9 77*9
52.6 66.7 61.4
41.2 55.7 51.8
50.0 52.5 70.3
65.7 73.8 67.4
37,2 42.2 45.2
16.0
3.5 4.5
16.9 22.8 26.7
66.7 89.1 91.4
45.0
52.6
209
Table 17
Per cent of number of pupils answerinp, first toat correctly who also
answered second tesT”correctly,, by ’grades, 'toTTTorms, cndquestions
involving size concepts
Form W
Size
Questions
1.
2*
S.
4#
5.
6#
7.
6.
9.
10.
11*
12.
Total
Form X
P resentation d e fin ite
Rotontion t e s t f i r s t
iGrades
8
10
6
12
Presentation d e fin ite
Transfer t e s t f i r s t
G rades
T
6
8
10
12
59.8 64.2
55.7 78.5
62*2 84*6
65.0 85.9
70.1 60.9
34.1 54.7
56.1 70.1
74.3 71.6
53.4 70.7
25.9 41.4
50.8 52.9
15.2 26.9
63.4
71.0
94.9
82.1
68.0
68.2
75.6
84.8
82.8
37.8
48.9
20.2
62.1 62.4
70.1 68.8
93.5 87.5
87.8 81.3
60.6 64.5
82.6 63.8
77.4 71.2
90.7 80.8
92.3 77.2
30.8 34.3
51.0 60.9
21.1 21.2
86.1
83.6
80.0
52.5
83.1
54.5
56.4
62.2
50.0
48.2
65.5
63.0
85.9
90.8
94.0
69.6
85.7
75.6
70.3
76.8
75.0
55*6
67.1
77.3
91.5
91.7
92.2
78.7
94*2
74.1
80.7
87.5
85.0
83.8
82.5
50.0
94.9
100.0
94.3
87.5
94.0
85.2
85.5
93.5
85.0
86.7
90.8
75.0
89.4
91.9
92.0
73.3
89.3
74.6
74.2
80.8
76.2
68.9
77.2
67.8
65.5
66.8
68.2
63.7
66.9
78.1
85.2
90.3
81.0
52.8
Form T
Form Z
Presentation in d efin ite
Retention t e s t f i r s t
P resentation in d e fin ite
Transfer to s t f i r s t
6
1. 57.5
2 . 58.9
S. 58.3
4 . 80.0
5. 63.3
6 . 55.6
7 . 61.5
8. 89.7
9. 41.2
10. 46.7
11. 53.3
12. 21.0
Total
T
56.5
8
Grades
10
12
T
6
8
58.1
60.2
86.1
71.4
70.0
72.7
79.2
95.2
71.4
52.0
58.1
13.7
43.3 61.5
67.1 74.0
88.5 89.1
89.2 75.5
67.7 70.0
92.9 36.7
79.4 72.2
93.3 100.0
76.9 71.4
58.8 62.5
63.5 73.9
24.3 19.7
55.1
65.7
84.1
78.2
67.9
75.4
74.3
94.6
63.8
54.2
63.2
20.1
48.1
54.0
59.4
41.4
17.9
26.0
37.2
36.2
14.3
20.0
46 .9
60.7
64.2
67.7
64.8
38.5' 48.0
69.1
41.5
87.7
71.7
51.5
22.2
17.7
71.0
47.8
25.0
17.9
62.3
70.8
Grades
12
10
40.7
82.4
,64.9
58.1
22.3
25.7
57.7
45 .4
25.0
26.1
68.8
63.6
33.3
90.1
84.1
65.7
29.8
18.1
62.5
47.9
19.6
21.2
71.4
77.1
T
40.9
79.1
72.2
54.7
23.5
21.6
58.8
44.6
21.1
21.4
64.1
68.8
48 *4 51.6 47.2
F 0 RM
W
I
210
“
Nam©
Date
Grad©
School
City
Age (nearest birthday) ________________
_______
Time
A1
Area
A1
Dist'
ance
A1
S iz e
Al-6
Total
Bl-6
211
DIRECTIONS
In th is t e s t you w ill find six a rtic le s th a t deal with social
science to p ic s. On separate pages a f te r each a r tic le you w ill find some
questions th a t are based on i t s contents. The purpose of these questions
is to find out how w ell you understand c e rta in parts of the a r tic le .
You are to read the f i r s t a r tic le very c arefu lly . You may read
any p art of i t again i f you fe e l you need to , tfhen turn to the ques­
tio n s, There are two pages of questions on each a r tic le . You are to
answer both pages of questions without turning back to the a r t i c l e .
When you have finished w ith the questions on the f i r s t a r tic le , turn
immediately to the next a r tic le and doas you did with the f i r s t . Con­
tinue in th is manner to tho end of the t e s t .
Here is a sample of the type of questions which you are to answer.
Look i t over very c arefu lly so th a t you w ill know exactly what you are
to do.
Sample question
When did Lincoln free tho slaves?
( )
( )
(X)
( )
Immediately a fte r he was elected President,
Before the C ivil War began,
During the C ivil War poriod,
After the C ivil War was over.
Notice th a t the question, "When did Lincoln free the slaves?" is
followed by four possiblo answers, one of which is the b e st. The th ird
answer is the b est, so an X has been put in the parenthesis in front of
th a t answer.
All of the questions in th is te s t w ill be lik e the sample above.
You are to se le c t the best answer under each question and to put an X
in the parenthesis in front of th a t answer*
You may begin reading the f i r s t a r tic le when the examiner gives
the sig n al, "Go," Ask any questions which you may have now, because
you w ill not be perm itted to
ask
them a fto r you begin work.
Remember th a t you are not perm itted to turn back to tho a r tic le
a fte r you have finished' reading i t ,
^
Do not tu rn th is page u n til you have boon asked to do so.
O il i s
pow er.
one o f th e w o r ld 's m ost r e c e n t ly d is c o v e r e d
S t r a n g e ly e n o u g h , h o w e v e r , p e o p le
fa r back a s
1556.
le a r n e d t h a t t h e
fo r t h i s
E ven t h e f i r s t w h it e
I n d ia n s u se d i t
so u rces o f
i n E u r o p e k n ew a b o u t o i l a s
s e t t l e r s who came t o t h i s
a s a m e d ic in e .
c o u n tr y
I t w a s known c h i e f l y
p u r p o s e u n t i l a b o u t 1 8 5 2 w h en a P i t t s b u r g h d r u g g i s t named
Sam u el K ie r d i s c o v e r e d a n ew u s e f o r i t .
w as u s e d i n p l a c e
o f a n im a l o i l s
T h is d i s c o v e r y
se a r c h w id e ly f o r
fo r
The new p r o d u c t , k e r o s e n e ,
lig h tin g
la m p s .
c r e a t e d a g r e a t dem and f o r o i l a n d
it.
men b e g a n t o
T h ey h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e e n a n n o y e d b y f i n d i n g
m ix e d w i t h t h e w a t e r o f d e e p w e l l s w h ic h t h e y h a d d r i l l e d ;
came a v a l u a b l e p r o d u c t .
T h is l e d t o
d r il le d w ith t h e
p u rp o se o f s t r ik in g o i l .
d e fin ite
it
now i t b e ­
t h e i d e a t h a t w e l l s m ig h t a l s o
The f i r s t w e l l t o
p r o d u c e a s much a s 4 0 0 t o
1000 g a ll o n s o f o i l d a i l y w as d r i l l e d n e a r
T i t u s v i l l e , P e n n s y lv a n ia ,
in
1854*
T h is
'‘f i n d ’' l o d t o a n o i l boom t h a t
sp rea d r a p id ly t o
t h e s u r r o u n d in g r e g i o n .
around T i t u s v i l l e
w a s m ade o v e r fr o m a p o o r fa r m in g a r e a
o il fie ld .
be
By 1 8 6 0 a b o u t 1 0 0 s q u a r e m i l e s
to a very a c tiv e
I t b e c a m e t h e b u s y c e n t e r o f a n ew i n d u s t r y .
By t h e
end o f t h e
c e n tu r y th e
a u t o m o b ile c r e a t e d new a n d s t i l l
i n v e n t i o n o f t h e g a s e n g in e an d t h e
g r e a te r
dem ands f o r o i l ,
A s t i l l w id e r
s e a r c h f o r o i l w a s m ade u n t i l t o d a y t h e c e n t e r o f o i l p r o d u c t i o n i n t h i s
c o u n tr y i s
fie ld s
no lo n g e r
in P e n n s y lv a n ia .
o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s
o f th e c o u n tr y .
to d a y l i e
A bout 10 0 0 m ile s
On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e
sc a tte r e d
in th e
great o il
r e m o te s e c t i o n s
s e p a r a te th e c h ie f o il-p r o d u c in g f i e l d s
fr o m t h e i n d u s t r i a l s e c t i o n w h e r e m o s t o f t h e o i l i s
r e f in e d and u s e d .
213
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on O il
A -l
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f t h e f o llo w in g
an d p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s i s i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n s w e r .
E u rop e
1 , A c c o r d in g t o t h e b e s t e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e ,
f i r s t h a v e som e k n o w le d g e o f o i l ?
T
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
As
As
As
As
e a r ly
e a r ly
e a r ly
e a r ly
as
as
as
as
w h en d id p e o p l e
D
in
1856,
1556,
800,
2 0 0 0 B ,C ,
2 , How f a r a r e t h e c h i e f o i l f i e l d s i n t h e U n it e d
i n d u s t r i a l s e c t i o n s w h ic h r e f i n e a n d u s e t h e o i l ?
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
q u e s tio n s
S t a t e s fr o m t h e
25 m ile s #
150 m ile s ,
1000 m ile s ,
3500 m ile s ,
3 , W hat w a s t h e a r e a o f t h e f i r s t p r o d u c t i v e o i l f i e l d
s y lv a n ia in 1860?
i n P en n ­
( ) About one square m ile,
A
(
(
(
) A b o u t 16 s q u a r e m i l e s ,
) A bout 100 sq u are m i le s ,
) A b ou t 3 0 ,0 0 0 sq u a r e m i l e s ,
4 , How m uch d i d t h e w e l l d r i l l e d
S
in
1854 n e a r T i t u s v i l l e prod u ce?
( ) A bout 20 b a r r e ls a d a y ,
( ) From 4 0 0 t o 1 0 0 0 g a l l o n s a d a y ,
(
) A b o u t 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 g a l l o n s a d a y ,
( ) A bout 1500 b a r r e ls a d a y ,
5 , When w a s k e r o s e n e f i r s t u s e d a s a n o i l f o r l i g h t i n g
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
1492,
1620,
1852,
1900,
la m p s?
^ A - l°
T otal
B -l
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on O il
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f th e f o llo w in g q u e s t io n s
an d p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s i s i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r #
1# A c c o r d in g t o t h e b e s t e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e , w h en d i d p e o p l e
E u r o p e f i r s t h a v e som e k n o w le d g e o f o i l ?
T
th e
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
in
A b o u t t h e m id d le o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y #
A b o u t t h e t im e o f t h e A m e r ic a n R e v o lu t i o n #
A t t h e b e g in n in g o f t h e p r e s e n t c e n tu r y #
Long b e f o r e o i l w a s d i s c o v e r e d i n N o r th A m e r ic a ,
2# How f a r a r e t h e c h i e f o i l f i e l d s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s fr o m
i n d u s t r i a l s e c t i o n s w h ic h r e f i n e an d u s e t h e o i l ?
D
( ) Q u ite a fe w m i l e s ,
( ) O n ly a s h o r t d i s t a n c e #
( ) S e v e r a l m ile s #
( ) G reat d is t a n c e s ,
3 # W hat w a s t h e a r e a o f t h e f i r s t p r o d u c t i v e o i l f i e l d
P e n n s y lv a n ia in 1860?
A
( ) A lm o s t a s b i g a s t h e w h o le s t a t e .
( ) A la r g e t e r r it o r y #
( ) The a r e a o f s e v e r a l c i t y b lo c k s #
( ) A s m a ll d i s t r i c t .
4 # How m uch d id t h e w e l l d r i l l e d
S
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
in 1854 n ear T it u s v il le
produce?
O n ly s m a l l a m o u n ts#
Im m ense q u a n t i t i e s #
L arge q u a n t i t i e s #
O n ly a l i t t l e o i l #
5# When w a s k e r o s e n e f i r s t u s e d a s a n o i l f o r
T
in
l i g h t i n g la m p s?
( ) D u r in g t h e R e v o lu t i o n #
( ) B e f o r e t h e t im e o f C h r is t #
( ) A b o u t t h e m id d le o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n tu r y #
( ) V ery r e c e n tly #
S core
B -l
T
A
D
S
T otal
215
D evelopm ent o f A v ia t io n
1-2
F o r c e n t u r i e s m en h a v e d r ea m ed t h a t t h e y m ig h t l e a r n how t o
t h e a i r w i t h m uch t h e
sam e e a s e w i t h w h ic h t h e y t r a v e l e d
f l y th r o u g h
on la n d and s e a .
At
f i r s t t h e y e x p e r im e n t e d w i t h b a l l o o n s a n d g l i d e r s , b u t t h e y h a d v o r y l i m i t e d
c o n tr o l o v er th e m .
T h ese d e v ic e s
w h ic h men w i s h e d t o
g o b e c a u s o t h e y d e p e n d e d s o m uch on c u r r e n t s
O r v ille
th e f i r s t
c o u ld n o t be p i l o t e d
in th e
d ir o c t io n in
of a ir ,
a n d W ilb u r W r ig h t o f D a y t o n , O h io , a r e g i v e n c r e d i t f o r m a k in g
su c c e ssfu l flig h t
in
a p o w e r e d p l a n e t h a t c o u ld b o p i l o t e d .
Hawk, N o r th C a r o l i n a , o n D ec e m b e r 1 7 ,
1 9 0 3 , t h e i r a ir p la n e
At K itty
l o f t t h o g r o u n d and
f lo w a lm o s t a t h o u s a n d f e e t a n d s t a y e d i n t h e a i r o n l y a b o u t 59 s e c o n d s .
How­
e v e r , t h e f l i g h t p r o v e d t h a t f l y i n g th r o u g h t h e a i r w as a p o s s i b i l i t y .
From t h e t i m e o f t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s *
was l a r g e l y e x p e r i m e n t a l *
gro a t n u m b ers.
onom y.
f l i g h t u n t i l t h o W o rld W ar, f l y i n g
D u r in g t h o W ar, h o w e v e r , a i r p l a n e s w e r e b u i l t
in
T h e y w e r e o f g r e a t v a l u e f o r o b s e r v a t i o n an d f o r b o m b in g t h o
T h is u s e h e l p e d t o
s p e e d up a i r p l a n e
d e v e lo p m e n t .
In f a c t ,
in
le s s
th a n 35 y e a .r s o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n m any o f t h e p r o b le m s o f f l y i n g h a v e b e e n
s o lv e d .
New m o t o r s h a v e b e e n d e v e lo p e d t o make t h e p l a n e s g o h i g h e r an d f a s t e r *
T r a n s p o r t p l a n e s h a v e b e e n mado b i g
w e ll as q u a n t it ie s
enough t o
c a r r y a s m any a s f o r t y p e o p l e a s
o f m a il and f r e i g h t .
A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a s t h e g r e a t e s t a ir w a y s y s t e m i n
th e w o r ld .
It
c o n s is ts
o f a b o u t 2 8 , 2 6 7 m i l e s a s t h o p ia n o f l i e s ,
o f t h e n a t i o n h a v e a m i l e a g e w h ic h i s
G overnm ent h a s d o n e m any t h i n g s t o
sy ste m .
a b o u t n in e tim e s as g r o a t .
a id in th o
d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h i s
Tho r a i l r o a d s
The F e d e r a l
g r e a t a ir w a y
I t h a s e q u ip p e d t h e m a in a ir w a y s w i t h f l a s h i n g b e a c o n s f o r n i g h t f l y i n g .
T hose a r c p l a c e d e v e r y 15 m i l e s
m orgcn cy l a n d i n g f i e l d s
acres in area in
a lo n g t h e r o u t o s .
ab ou t 40 m ile s a p a r t.
order to
p r o v id e h a lf - m i le
on w h ic h p l a n e s m ay la n d o r t a k e
o ff.
t a in w e a th e r o b s e r v a t io n s t a t i o n s ,
I t a ls o
has e s t a b lis h e d o -
T h o se f i e l d s m u st b e a t l e a s t 6 0
ru n w ays i n tw o d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s
M o st o f th e m a r e w e l l l i g h t e d an d m a in ­
A ll o f th e s e
s e r v i c e s h a v e h e lp e d t o make
f l y i n g s a f e r a n d m o re p o p u la r a s a m ea n s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n #
216
Q u e s tio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on A v ia t io n
A-2
S e l e c t t h e t e s t a n sw er und er e a c h o f th e f o llo w in g q u e s t io n s
and p u t a n X i n
t h e p a r e n t h e s is i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw er*
1* How f a r d i d t h e f i r s t p l a n e o f t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s f l y a t K i t t y
Hawk, N o r t h C a r o l i n a , i n 1 9 0 3 ?
( ) N e a r ly a th o u s a n d f e e t ,
( ) A b ou t 2 0 ,0 0 0 f e e t ,
D
( 3 A b o u t te n m ile s,
( ) A b o u t f o r t y m ile s,
has i t
2 , A fte r
t h o i n v e n t i o n o f t h e f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l p o w er p l a n e , how
t a k e n t o s o l v e m any o f t h e p r o b le m s o f a v i a t i o n ?
( 3 A bout 200 y e a r s ,
( ) M ore t h a n 75 y e a r s ,
T
( ) L ess th a n 35 y e a r s ,
( 3 A bout 5 y e a r s ,
lo n g
3 , A c c o r d in g t o t h e a r t i c l e y o u r e a d , how m any p e r s o n s c a n m o d e m
t r a n s p o r t p la n q s ^ c a r r y ?
L ess th a n 5 ,
A s m any a s 4 0 ,
S
^ ) M oro t h a n 7 5 ,
A bout 2 0 0 ,
4 , How d o e s t h o m i l e a g e o f t h o r a i l r o a d s co m p a re w i t h t h e m l l c a g a o f
th o a ir w a y s o f #t h i s c o u n t r y ?
T he m i l e a g e o f o n e i s e q u a l t o t h a t o f t h e o t h e r .
T he r a i l r o a d m i l e a g e i s h a l f t h o m i l e a g e o f t h e a i r w a y s ,
S
^ ) Tho r a i l r o a d m i l e a g e i s 9 t i m e s t h e m i l e a g e o f t h o a i r w a y s .
T he r a i l r o a d m i l c a g o i s 2 5 t i m e s t h e m i l e a g e o f t h e a i r w a y s ,
its
5 , How l o n g d i d t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s 1 f i r s t p la n e s t a y i n t h e a i r
t r i a l f l i g h t a t K i t t y Havrk, N o r th C a r o lin a ?
( ) 59 s e c o n d s ,
( 3 T en m i n u t e s ,
T
A bout h a l f a d a y ,
(
30 h o u r s ,
(3
3
6 , How f a r a p a r t
c o u n tr y ?
( ) A bout
( 3 A bout
D
(
A bout
( 3 A bout
a r e t h e e m e r g e n c y la n d i n g f i e l d s
1000 m ile s ,
200 m i l e s ,
4-0 m i l e s ,
a h a lf m ile ,
7,
c o u n tr y ?
are
2 m
15
100
500
3
How f a r
( )
i 3
D
I
(3
8,
a ir w a y s ?
fie ld s ?
d u r in g
3
apart
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
o n t h e a ir w a y s o f o u r
t h e f l a s h i n g b e a c o n s on t h e m a in a ir w a y s o f o u r
ile s ,
m ile s .
Score
m ile s ,
... A -2
m ile s .
O fw h a ts i z e a r e t h e e m e r g e n c y l a n d i n g f i e l d s
( S A bout 10 sq u a re m i l e s ,
A bout 2 00 a c r e s ,
A
( ) A bout 6 0 a c r e s ,
( J A bout 2 a c r e s ,
on t h o m a in
£3
9 , How l o n g a r e t h e r u n w a y s on m o s t o f t h o c m o r g e n c y l a n d i n g
( ) A bout 3 m i l e s ,
I 3 A bout h a l f a m i le ,
D
C A bout 100 y a r d s ,
(
A bout 50 f e e t.
3
3
T o ta l
217
Q u e s tio n s on th e a r t i c l e on A v ia t io n
B-2
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d e r e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t io n s and
p u t an X in t h e p a r e n t h e s is in f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r ,
1 , How f a r d i d t h e f i r s t p l a n e o f t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s f l y
Hawk, N o r t h C a r o l i n a , i n 1 9 0 3 ?
( ) A lo n g d i s t a n c e ,
( ) A sh o rt d is ta n c e ,
D
( ) A bout th e le n g th o f a c i t y b lo c k ,
( ) A bout th e le n g t h o f a c i t y l o t ,
has i t
a t K itty
2 , A f t e r t h o i n v e n t i o n o f t h e f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l p o w e r p i a n o , how l o n g
t a k o n t o s o l v e m any o f t h e p r o b le m s o f a v i a t i o n ?
( ) C o m p a r a t i v e ly a f e w y e a r s ,
l ) M any y e a r s ,
T
( ) S ev o ra l c o n tu r ie s ,
( ) M ore t h a n a l i f e t i m e ,
3 , A c c o r d in g t o t h e a r t i c l e y o u r e a d , how m any p e r s o n s c a n m od ern
tr a n s p o r t p ia n o s c a r r y ?
( ) A g ro a t crow d,
( ) S e v e r a l p e o p le ,
S
( \ A la r g o num ber,
( ) O n ly a f o w ,
4-, How d o o s t h e m i l e a g e o f t h o r a i l r o a d s co m p a re w i t h t h o m i l e a g e o f
t h o a ir w a y s o f t h i s c o u n t r y ?
( ) Tho a ir w a y m i l e a g e i s m uch g r o a t o r ,
( ) Tho r a i l r o a d m i l e a g e i s s e v e r a l t i m e s a s g r e a t ,
S
( 1 Tho r a i l r o a d m i l e a g e i s much s m a l l e r ,
( ) T he m ilo r .g o o f o a c h i s n e a r l y t h o s a m e ,
5 , How l o n g d i d t h e W r ig h t B r o t h o r s * f i r s t p l a n e s t a y i n t h o a i r
d u r in g i t s t r i a l f l i g h t a t K i t t y H aw k, N o r t h C a r o lin a ?
For o n ly a v e r y b r i e f p e r io d ,
A lo n g t i m e .
F o r som e t i m e .
F or a v e r y lo n g p e r io d .
6 , How f a r a p a r t a r o t h o e m e r g e n c y la n d i n g f i e l d s on t h e a ir w a y s o f o u r
(
(
c o u n tr y ?
D
(
(
) G reat d is t a n c e s ,
) N ot fa r a p a r t,
) M any m i l e s *
) V ery s h o r t d is t a n c e s .
7 . How f a r a p a r t a r e t h e f l a s h i n g b e a c o n s on t h e m a in a ir w a y s o f o u r
( ) V ery c lo s o to g e t h e r ,
c o u n tr y ?
(
i V ery g r o a t d is ta n c e s
a p a r t,
D
(
) A t lo n g i n t e r v a l s .
S core
( ) At sh o rt in te r v a ls ,
8
ways?
fio ld s ?
.
O fw h a t s i z o a r o t h e e m e r g e n c y l a n d i n g f i o l d s
( j F a ir ly la r g o ,
( ) V ery s m a ll,
A
( ) T he a r o a o f a c i t y b l o c k ,
( ) T he a r e a o f a v e r y l a r g e f a r m .
o n t h e m a in a i r -
9 , How l o n g a r o t h e r u n w a y s on m o s t o f t h o e m e r g e n c y l a n d i n g
Q u i t o a fo w m i l e s ,
Q u it o s h o r t ,
R a th o r l o n g .
C o n s id e r a b le d i s t a n c o .
I
T o ta l
218
F o r e s t C o n se r v a tio n
It
h a s b een e s t im a t e d t h a t ou r co u n tr y
t h e tim b e r u s e d in t h e
w o rk o u t p l a n s
fo r
The U n i t e d S t a t e s
io n s
of acres
e n t i r e w o r ld *
r e p la c in g
H ence,
our f o r e s t s to
1-3
c o n su m e s a l m o s t t w o - f i f t h s
it
is
v e r y im p o r t a n t t h a t w e
k e e p up w i t h t h e dem and f o r w ood*
F o r e s t S e r v i c e i s w o r k in g o n s u c h p l a n s .
o f id le
f o r e s t r y p u r p o se s ,-.
la n d s
I t has u rged
s e c u r e a n d m a i n t a i n th em f o r
T h is w o u ld h e l p r e s t o r e o u r t i m b e r s u p p ly *
The c o m m u n ity f o r e s t
i t w i t h th e m f r o m E u r o p e ,
id e a
is
For t h i s
n o t new .
The A m e r ic a n c o l o n i s t s
s in c e
1710*
T od ay t h e U n it e d
S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e p o r t s t h a t m ore t h a n 1 5 0 0 f o r e s t s
a t l e a s t 27 s t a t e s — p r i n c i p a l l y
brou gh t
r e a s o n , t h e r e a r e som e co m m u n ity f o r e s t s
i n New E n g la n d w h ic h h a v o b e e n i n e x i s t e n c e
have b een s ta r te d
o f s m a ll p i e c e s
s e v e r a l th o u s a n d a c r e s i n
s iz e .
o f tim b e r can b e s t b e d e m o n s tr a te d b y s tu d y ­
i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f f a r m e r s w ho h a v e m a i n t a in e d w o o d l o t s o f tw o a c r e s
m ore o n t h e i r
fa r m s.
T h e s e m en h a v e lo o k e d u p o n t h e i r
c a n b e r a i s e d a s a n y o t h e r fa r m
to
75 y e a r s
is
in
i n New Y o r k , New E n g la n d , a n d t h e l a k e s t a t e s .
T h e se f o r e s t s v a r y fr o m j u s t a f e w a c r e s t o
The v a l u e
I t h a s fo u n d m i l l ­
la n d w h ic h c o u l d b e r e p l a n t e d t o t r e e s .
t h a t f a r m e r s o r c o m m u n it ie s n e a r t h e s e
of
crop .
tim b e r a s a cro p t h a t
The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e
r e q u ir e d f o r th e tim b e r crop t o
or
is
th a t a b o u t 50
grow t o m a t u r it y *
H ow ever,
s i n c e m any o f t h e t r e e s m a tu r e e a c h y e a r , t h e t i m b e r y i e l d s a n a n n u a l in c o m e .
T rees w it h tr u n k s a b o u t 18 t o
24 i n c h e s i n d ia m e t e r a r e
The s h o r t e r o r c r o o k e d p a r t s a r e
to p s and b ran ch es a r e
tr e e ,
c u t up in t o
s o m e tim e s
cordw ood.
t h e in c o m e o f t h e t i m b o r l o t i s
c u t down f o r lu m b e r .
c u t up i n t o f e n c e p o s t s , a n d t h e
T h u s, b y u s in g a l l p a r t s o f th e
in c r e a s e d .
In f a c t ,
som e f a r m e r s r e p o r t
t h a t t h e y h a v e r e c e i v e d a s m uch a s 20 d o l l a r s p e r a c r e fr o m t h e i r w o o d l o t s
each y e a r .
I n c a r i n g f o r th e m , t h e y h a v e fo u n d t h a t t h o y n o t o n l y h a v e m ade
a g o o d i n v e s t m e n t b u t t h a t t h e y a r e h e l p i n g t o k e e p up t h e t i m b e r s u p p l y f f
ou r co u n tr y .
219
A-S
Q u e stio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on F o r e s t C o n se r v a tio n
S e l e c t th e t e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f t h e f o llo w in g
an d p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s i s i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r *
1 . A b o u t w h e n w e r e co m m u n ity f o r e s t s
E n g la n d ?
(
(
T
fo r
have been s t a r te d
r e c e n tly
in
(
) A bout10*
(
) A b o u t 75*
( ) A bout 1 5 0 0 .
( ) A b o u t 5 0 ,0 0 0 *
is
(
(
{ )
( )
t h e a v e r a g e fa r m w o o d lo t ?
) A bout
h a lf ana c r e ,
) A b o u t tw o a c r e s ,
A t l e a s t 20 a c r e s .
A bout 100 a c r e s .
4 , How l o n g d o e s i t
lu m b e r t o m a tu r e ?
T
i n New
( ) A bout 1800*
( ) A bout 1 8 6 0 .
3* How b i g
A
f i r s t e s ta b lis h e d
) About
1492,
) About1 7 1 0 .
2 , How m any c o m m u n ity f o r e s t s
v a r io u s p a r t s o f t h e co u n tr y ?
S
q u e s t io n s
ta k e m ost t r e e s
th a t are to
be u sed f o r
( ) A bout 5 0 0 y e a r s *
( ) From 5 0 t o 75 y e a r s ,
( ) A b o u t 25 y e a r s ,
( ) N o t m o re t h a n 5 y e a r s .
5 , How b i g
lu m b er?
(
(
ft
(
(
s h o u ld th e tr u n k s o f m o st t r e e s
) At le a s t
) N o t m o re
) At le a s t
) A bout 10
be to be s u it a b le
2 in c h e s i n d ia m e te r .
th a n 10 in c h e s
in d ia m e te r ,
18 t o 2 4 i n c h e s i n d i a m e t e r .
f e e t in d ia m e te r ,
Score
A -3
T
6 , How m uch h a v e som e f a r m e r s m ade o n e a c h a c r e o f t h e i r
w o o d lo ts in one y e a r ?
S
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A s m uch a s f i f t y c e n t s ,
A bout 2 d o lla r s *
As m uch a s 2 0 d o l l a r s ,
A bout 150 d o l l a r s .
A
D
S
T o ta l
220
Q u e stio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on F o r e s t C o n se r v a tio n
B-3
S e l e c t t h e “b e s t a n s w e r u n d e r e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s
a n d p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s i s i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r *
1* A b o u t w h en w e r e co m m u n ity f o r e s t s f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d
E n g la n d ?
( ) When C olum bus d i s c o v e r e d A m e r ic a ,
( ) S h o r t ly a f t e r th e R e v o lu tio n ,
T
( ) In c o lo n i a l d a y s .
( ) J u s t b e fo r e th e c l o s e o f th e 1 9 th c e n tu r y .
i n New
2 . How m any c o m m u n ity f o r e s t s h a v e b e e n s t a r t e d r e c e n t l y i n
v a r io u s p a r t s o f t h e c o u n tr y ?
S
( ) J u st a v e r y fe w .
( ) A l a r g e n u m b er o f th e m .
( ) A s m a l l num ber o f th e m ,
( ) T h o u sa n d s o f th e m ,
3 . How b i g
A
is
fo r
a v e r a g e fa r m w o o d lo t ?
( ) V ery la r g e ,
( ) S m a ll.
( ) Of c o n s id e r a b le s i z e ,
( ) As b i g a s a f a r m ,
4 . How l o n g
lu m b er t o m a t u r e ?
T
th e
does i t
( )
( )
( )
( )
5 . How b i g
lu m b e r ?
(
(
D
(
(
ta k e m ost t r e e s t h a t a re t o be u se d f o r
A lo n g p e r io d o f y e a r s ,
A sh o r t tim e .
S ev era l c e n tu r ie s ,
J u s t a fe w y e a r s ,
s h o u ld t h e tr u n k s o f m o st t r e e s be t o b e s u i t a b le
) R a t h e r s m a ll*
) L arge.
) As w id e a s a h o u s e .
) A bout t h e s i z e o f a fe n c e
6 . How m uch h a v e some f a r m e r s made
w o o d lo ts in one y e a r ?
S
(
) J u s t a fe w c e n t s .
(
) A v e r y s m a l l in c o m e ,
( ) A g r e a t d e a l o f m oney,
( ) A f a i r l y l a r g e in c o m e .
Score
B -3
p o st,
on e a c h
acre o f th e ir
T
A
D
S
T o ta l
221
C oal
A lt h o u g h c o a l i s
o n e o f t h e w o r ld f s m o st im p o r ta n t s o u r c e s o f
p o w e r , m en d i d n o t l e a r n how t o
u se
m in o u s c o a l , b e t t e r k now n a s s o f t
w ith th e
1—4
it
u n til f a ir ly
B itu ­
c o a l , w a s f i r s t u s e d i n t h e lTO O f s
in v e n t io n o f ste a m e n g in e s an d m a c h in e s.
c o a l , w as d is c o v e r e d i n P e n n s y lv a n ia i n
to be to o
r e c e n tly *
1790,
A n th r a c ite ,
o r hard
I t w as a t f i r s t th o u g h t
h a r d t o b u r n a n d s o w a s c r a c k e d up a n d u s e d c h i e f l y t o
p a ir r o a d s .
For t h i s
reaso n
it
d id n o t com e i n t o
re­
g e n e r a l u se u n t i l
som e t i m e l a t e r .
B ecau se c o a l i s
ly
r e s p o n s ib le fo r th e
reason th e r e
fie ld s
cam e t o
t h e c h i e f s o u r c e o f p o w er an d e n e r g y ,
g r e a t in d u s tr ia l
g r o w th o f o u r c o u n t r y .
b e g r e a t e r a n d g r e a t e r dem ands f o r
c o a l,
is
la r g e ­
For t h i s
New c o a l
c o n s t a n t l y w ere b e in g d is c o v e r e d and d e v e lo p e d so t h a t s i n c e
1 8 9 9 t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a s l e d t h e w o r ld i n t h e
The t o t a l
5 0 0 ,0 0 0
c o a l la n d w it h i n ou r b o r d e r s i s
sq u a re m ile s
in a r e a .
w h en w e r e a l i z e t h a t t h e
sq u a re m ile s
fifth s
it
a p p r o x im a t e ly e q u a l t o
We c a n g e t som e i d e a how v a s t t h i s
la r g e s t a t e
o f te r r ito r y *
s u p p ly o f c o a l.
o f I llin o is
has
is
s o m e t h in g o v e r 5 0 , 0 0 0
T h e s e g i g a n t i c c o a l a r e a s fo r m a b o u t t h r e e -
o f t h e know n c o a l d e p o s i t s
o f t h e w o r ld .
T h ey a r e a l s o w e l l d i s ­
t r i b u t e d so t h a t t h e d is t a n c e fro m a n y p a r t o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s t o a
c o a l m in e i s
n o t m o re t h a n 5 0 0 m i l e s .
B e c a u s e o f t h e tr e m e n d o u s dem and f o r c o a l i n a n i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n
su ch a s o u r s, m ost o f th e
co u n tr y .
c o a l m in e d i n t h e U n it e d S t a t e s i s
u sed in our
I n 1 9 2 6 w e m in e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 8 0 m i l l i o n t o h s o f c o a l .
t h i s v a s t am ount we u s e d a b o u t 95 p e r
p er c e n t,»
c e n t an d e x p o r t e d o n l y a b o u t 5
Of
222
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on Coal
S e l e c t th e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f th e f o llo w in g
a n d p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s i s i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r *
how t o
1* A lt h o u g h
u se it ?
( )
( )
T
(
)
( )
2 , How f a r
coal is
In
In
In
In
is
A-4
q u e s tio n s
o f g r e a t v a l u e , w h en d i d man f i r s t
le a r n
t h e 1 3 0 0 * s*
1648*
th e 1 7 0 0 » s.
1850.
it
fr o m m o s t p a r t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o
a coal
m in e ?
D
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
(
) A bout
( ) A bout
3 0 0 0 m ile s *
500 m ile s ,
150 m ile s *
20 m i le s .
3 , How b i g a r e t h e c o m b in e d c o a l f i e l d s
A
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
(
) A bout
( ) A bout
2 0 0 ,0 0 0 a c r e s *
3 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 a c r e s .
5 0 0 ,0 0 0 s q u a r e m ile s *
1 ,2 5 0 ,0 0 0 sq u a re m i le s .
4 , How m uch c o a l w a s m in e d i n t h i s
S
c o u n tr y in 1926?
( ) 500 th o u sa n d to n s*
( ) 1 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 to n s *
(
) 40 m illio n to n s .
( ) 680 m illio n to n s .
5 , How l o n g h a s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
m en t o f m in e s a n d t h e s u p p l y o f c o a l ?
T
o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ?
(
(
(
(
) S in c e
) S in c e
) S in c e
) S in c e
l e d t h e w o r ld i n t h e d e v e l o p ­
1620.
1776.
1820.
1899.
6 , W hat p a r t o f t h e know n c o a l d e p o s i t s i n t h e w o r ld a r e
fo u n d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r ie s o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ?
Score
A -4
T
A
S
(
(
(
(
) A b o u t o n e - t e n t h o f th e m ,
) A b o u t o n e - t h i r d o f th e m .
) A b o u t t h r e e - f i f t h s o f th e m ,
) A b o u t n i n e - t e n t h s o f th e m .
D
S
T otal
X2U
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on C oal
B-4
S e l e c t th e b e s t a n sw er und er e a c h o f th e f o llo w in g q u e s t io n s
an d p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s i s i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n s w e r .
how t o
1 , A lt h o u g h
u se it ?
( )
( )
T
(
)
( )
2 , How f a r
co a l is
o f g r e a t v a l u e , w h en d id man f i r s t
le a r n
A b o u t t h e t i m e o f t h e C i v i l W ar,
A b o u t t h e t i m e W a s h in g to n w a s a b o y ,
A f t e r t h e d i s c o v e r y o f A m e r ic a ,
A v e r y s h o r t tim e a g o ,
is
it
fr o m m o s t p a r t s
o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s t o
a coal
m in e ?
D
( ) A very
( ) A very
( ) A sh ort
( ) A lo n g
3 , How b i g a r e t h e
A
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
As
As
As
As
b ig
b ig
b ig
b ig
sh o r t d is ta n c e ,
g r e a t d is ta n c e ,
d i s t a n c e co m p a red t o t h e s i z e o f t h e
w ay a s d i s t a n c e i s now m e a s u r e d ,
c o m b in e d c o a l f i e l d s
as
as
as
as
S
o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ?
a b o u t 8 m id -w e ste r n s t a t e s ,
E n g la n d ,
A u s tr a lia ,
a l l t h e Hew E n g la n d s t a t e s ,
4 , How m u ch c o a l w a s m in e d i n t h i s
( )
( )
( )
( )
c o u n tr y in
1926?
A g r e a t m any t o n s ,
Several to n s,
An e n o r m o u s num ber o f t o n s ,
A l a r g e num ber o f t o n s ,
5 , How l o n g h a s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s l e d t h e w o r ld i n t h e
m e n t o f m in e s an d t h e s u p p l y o f c o a l ?
T
c o u n tr y ,
d e v e lo p ­
( ) S i n c e t h e t i m e C olum bus d i s c o v e r e d A m e r ic a ,
( ) S i n c e t h e e a r l y 1 8 0 0 1s ,
(
) F o r m any y e a r s ,
( ) F or j u s t a fe w y e a r s ,
6 , W hat p a r t o f t h e k now n c o a l d e p o s i t s i n t h e w o r ld a r e
fo u n d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r ie s o f t h e U n it e d S t a t e s ?
S core
B -4
T
A
S
( ) U e a r l y a l l o f th e m ,
( ) A v e r y f e w o f th e m ,
(
) A la r g e sh a r e o f
th e m ,
( ) A s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f th e m .
D
S
T o ta l
224
S a fe ty F ir s t
" S a fe ty F ir s t"
t o m ake u s r e a l i z e
is
a w e l l know n s l o g a n o f t o d a y .
t h a t we l i v e
w h ic h m ay i n j u r e o r k i l l u s .
liv e s
v e h ic le .
We c a n s e e t h e n e e d f o r s u c h a s l o g a n w h e n
th ro u g h a c c id e n t s .
A bout 3 9 ,5 0 0 w ere k i l l e d
how s e r i o u s
in t h i s m anner.
H ere a r e s e v e r a l w a y s t o
th e y r e a lly a r e .
h a lf t h e 19 3 7 a c c id e n t d o a th t o l l .
annual t o l l
o f a c c id e n ts
1937 a b o u t 1 0 5 ,0 0 0 p e o p le l o s t
The m o s t f r e q u e n t c a u s e w a s t h e m o to r
T h ese a r e d r e a d fu l f a c t s .
a liz e
I t s p u rp o se i s
i n a d a n g e r o u s a g e o f s p e e d i n g m a c h in e s
we le a r n t h a t i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s i n
th e ir
1-5
c o n tin u e s .
Our W o rld War l o s s
The War i s
lo n g
in
h e lp u s r e ­
l i v e s w as o n ly
sin c e o v e r , b u t th e
F u r th e r m o r e , a b o u t 37 o u t o f e v e r y
100 o f t h e s e a c c i d e n t s w e r e c a u se d by a u to m o b ile s a l o n e .
I t has b een
e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e y c a u s e d o n e d e a t h e v e r y 13 m i n u t e s .
T here a r e a v a i l a b l e
i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s a p p r o x im a te ly 3 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0
m i l e s o f r o a d w a y o v e r w h ic h a u t o m o b i l e s m ay t r a v e l .
an d v i l l a g e
str e e ts
T h is i n c l u d e s
and p a v e d a n d u n p a v e d c o u n t r y r o a d s ,
c ity
Tho t r a f f i c
on
t h e s e r o a d s c a u s e d on e d e a th f o r a p p r o x im a te ly e a c h 84 m i le s o f r o a d .
T h e r e a r e m any w a y s i n w h ic h t h i s y e a r l y t o l l o f d e a t h s m ay b e
a v o id e d *
M o t o r i s t s a n d p e d e s t r i a n s m u s t a lw a y s f o l l o w
s a f e t y and o b ey t r a f f i c
la w s .
th e r u le s
S in c e m o st o f th e a c c id e n t s
of
o c c u r t o p e o p le
w h en c r o s s i n g h i g h w a y s , t h e s e h ig h w a y s m u s t b e e q u ip p e d w i t h o v e r p a s s e s
a n d u n d e r p a s s e s f o r b o t h m o t o r i s t s and p e d e s t r i a n s .
C i t i e s m u st a l s o
p r o v id e w e l l l o c a t e d p la y g r o u n d s
so t h a t
d a n g e r o u s s t r e e t s a n d h ig h w a y s .
T h o se p la y g r o u n d s s h o u ld b e l a r g e e n o u g h
t o p r o v id e e a c h c h il d
s p a c e o n w h ic h t o
c h i l d r e n do n o t h a v e t o p l a y o n
i n t h e c o m m u n ity w i t h a t l e a s t 1 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t o f
p la y .
I f m ore c o m m u n itie s o b s e r v e d a l l t h o s e t h i n g s ,
t h e y c o u ld h o lp s a v e h u n d red s o f l i v e s
each y ea r.
225
Q u e stio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on S a f e t y F i r s t
A -5
S e l e c t th e b e s t a n sw er und er e a ch o f th e f o llo w in g q u e s t io n s
a n d p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s i s i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r *
1* How m any p e o p l e l o s t t h e i r
1937 b e c a u se o f a c c id e n ts ?
( ) A bout 5 0 .
( ) A bout 1 0 ,0 0 0 .
S
( ) A bout 1 0 5 ,0 0 0 .
( ) A bout 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .
liv e s
in t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
2.
Of a l l t h e a c c i d e n t a l d e a t h s t h a t o c c u r r e d
i n 1 9 3 7 , how m any w e r e c a u s e d b y m o to r v e h i c l e s ?
(
) A b o u t 87 o u t o f e v e r y 1 0 0 .
(
)A b o u t 3 7 o u t o f e v e r y 1 0 0 ,
S
(
)A b o u t 20 o u t o f e v e r y 1 0 0 .
(
)A b o u t
8 out o f every 100.
S ta te s?
lo s s
in
3 . How o f t e n i n 1 9 3 7
(
) One e v e r y
(
) One e v e r y
T
(
) One e v e r y
(
) One e v e r y
d id a u to m o b ile s
4 h ou rs,
60 m in u te s ,
13 m i n u t e s .
5 secon d s.
in
i n t h e U n it e d S t a t e s
c a u se a d e a th in t h e U n ite d
4 , How d o e s o u r l o s s i n l i v e s i n t h e W o r ld War c o m p a re w i t h o u r
l i v e s in 1937 b e c a u se o f a c c id e n ts ?
(
) Our w a r l o s s w a s a b o u t o n e - t e n t h o f o u r a c c i d e n t l o s s .
(
) Our w a r l o s s w a s a b o u t o n e - h a l f o f o u r a c c i d e n t l o s s ,
(
) Our w a r l o s s w a s a b o u t t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f o u r a c c i d e n t l o s s ,
S
(
) Our l o s s e s w e r e e q u a l
i n n u m b er.
5 , I n to r m s o f r o a d s a v a i l a b l e f o r a u t o m o b ile t r a f f i c , w h a t d i s t a n c e
on t h e s e r o a d s w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e a c h t r a f f i c a c c i d e n t ?
( ) A bout 84 m ile s o f r o a d ,
( ) A bout 30 m ile s o f r o a d .
D
( ) A b o u t 2\ m i l e s o f r o a d ,
( ) A bout a h a l f m ile o f r o a d .
6 . A bout
U n ite d S t a t e s ?
(
(
D
(
(
how m any m i l e s o f r o a d w a y f o r a u t o m o b ile s a r o t h e r e
)
)
)
)
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
2 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 m i l e s .
3 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0 m i le s .
3 5 0 ,0 0 0 m i l e s .
5 0 ,0 0 0 m i l e s ,
in th e
Score
A -5
7.
To b o l a r g e e n o u g h t o k e e p a l l t h e c h i l d r e n o f f t h e
s t r e e t s , how m uch s p a c e s h o u l d p la y g r o u n d s p r o v id e f o r e a c h
c h ild ?
( ) A bout 1600 sq u a re f e e t ,
( ) A bout 9 00 sq u a re f e e t ,
A
( ) A bout 300 sq u a re f e e t ,
( ) A bout 1 00 sq u a re f e e t .
T o ta l
226
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on S a f e t y F i r s t
S e l e c t th e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f th e f o llo w in g
and p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s is i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r .
1 . How m any p e o p l e l o s t t h e i r l i v e s
1937 b e c a u se o f a c c id e n t s ?
( ) A la r g e gro u p .
( ) T h o u sa n d s o f p e o p l e .
S
( ) S e v e r a l p e o p le .
( ) A v e r y s m a l l n u m b e r,
B-5
q u e s tio n s
i n t h e U n it e d S t a t e s
in
2 , Of a l l t h e a c c i d e n t a l d e a t h s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e U n it e d S t a t e s
i n 1 9 3 7 , how many w e r e c a u s e d b y m o to r v e h i c l e s ?
(
) O n ly a s m a l l n u m b er .
(
) N e a r l y a l l o f th e m .
(
) A c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t o f th e m ,
(
) A lm o s t n o n e o f th e m ,
S ta te s?
3 . How o f t e n i n 1 9 3 7 d i d a u t o m o b i l e s
(
) E v e r y f e w h o u r s ',
(
) E v ery fe w m in u t e s .
(
) O n ly o c c a s i o n a l l y ,
(
) R a r e ly .
c a u s e a d e a t h i n t h e U n it e d
4 . How d o e s o u r l o s s i n l i v e s i n t h e W o rld War com p are w i t h o u r
l o s s in l i v e s in 1937 b e c a u se o f a c c id e n t s ?
( ) Our w a r l o s s w a s o n l y a f r a c t i o n a l p a r t o f o u r 1 9 3 7
a c c id e n t l o s s .
(
) Our w a r l o s s w a s m uch g r e a t e r t h a n o u r 1 9 3 7 a c c i d e n t l o s s .
(
) Our w a r l o s s w a s a g r e a t d e a l l e s s t h a n o u r 1 9 3 7 a c c i d e n t
lo s s .
( ) Our l o s s e s w e r e a b o u t t h e sam e i n n u m b e r ,
5 , I n to r m s o f r o a d s a v a i l a b l e f o r a u t o m o b ile t r a f f i c , w h a t d i s t a n c e
on t h e s e r o a d s w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e a c h t r a f f i c a c c i d e n t ?
( ) M any, m any m i l e s ,
( ) S e v e r a l m ile s .
D
( ) A c o m p a r a t iv e ly s h o r t d i s t a n c e .
( ) A g r e a t d is ta n c e .
6 , A b o u t how m any m i l e s o f r o a d w a y f o r a u t o m o b ilo s a r e
t h e r e i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ?
( ) A g r e a t m any m i l e s ,
( ) S ev era l m ile s ,
D
( ) A l a r g e n u m b er o f m i l e s .
( ) An e n o r m o u s n u m b er o f m i l e s .
7 , To b e l a r g o e n o u g h t o k e e p a l l t h e c h i l d r e n o f f t h e
s t r e e t s , how m uch s p a c e s h o u l d p la y g r o u n d s p r o v id e f o r e a c h c h i l d ?
( ) An a r e a a b o u t t h e s i z e
o f a c i t y b lo c k .
( ) An a r e a a b o u t t h e s i z e o f a b u i l d i n g l o t ,
A
( ) An a r e a a b o u t t h e s i z e o f t h e a v e r a g e b ed ro o m
flo o r ,
( ) An a r o a a b o u t t h o s i z e o f a c l o t h o s « - c l o s e t f l o o r .
S core
B -5
T
A
D
S
T o ta l
227
R e a p in g T o o ls
F o r m any t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s f a r m e r s
1 -6
c u t t h e i r g r a i n w i t h h an d t o o l s ^
l i k e t h o s e w h ic h w e c a l l s i c k l e s #
The b l a d e s
w e r e m ade o f f l i n t ,
o f b r o n z e , and f i n a l l y
o f bone,
o u r e a r l y A m e r ic a n c o l o n i s t s
rocky s o ils #
W ith i t
la te r
s t i l l u sed th e
have t o
s t e e l s ic k le
s ic k le #
a h a n d le w h ic h w a s a b o u t 5 f e e t l o n g .
sto o p
lo w a t h i s w o r k .
c u t a w id e r s w a th .
o f s t e e l*
E ven
f o r h a r v e s t in g on
a s t r o n g man n e e d e d a w h o le d a y t o
The s c y t h e w a s a n im p r o v e m e n t o n t h e
a tta c h e d to
o f th e p r im itiv e s ic k le s
c u t a n a c r e o f g r a in #
I t had a lo n g e r k n if e
W ith i t
a man d id n o t
He c o u ld s t a n d , u s e b o t h a r m s , a n d c o u ld
By k e e p i n g s t e a d i l y
a t w o r k , a man w i t h a s c y t h e
c o u ld
c u t s e v e r a l t i m e s a s m uch g r a i n i n a d a y a s a man w i t h a s i c k l e .
The c r a d l e s c y t h e w a s i n v e n t e d an d w i d e l y u s e d i n t h e A m e r ic a n
c o l o n i e s a t a b o u t t h e tim e o f t h e R e v o lu tio n #
I t w a s a n im p r o v e m e n t on
t h e s c y t h e s f o r m e r l y u s e d b e c a u s e i t w a s e q u ip p e d w i t h 3 o r 4 w o o d e n s t r i p s
above th e
c u tt in g k n if e .
The g r a i n ,
in s te a d
o f d r o p p in g t o
i t w a s c u t , now c o u l d b e c a u g h t b y t h e s e w o o d e n s t r i p s
I t c o u ld th e n b e ra k ed in t o
i t w as p o s s ib le fo r
p ile s
o n e man t o
th e ground a s
an d l a i d
and bound in t o b u n d le s .
in to
ro w s#
W ith t h i s t o o l ,
c u t a n d h a r v e s t a s m uch a s t h r e e m en c o u ld
h a r v e s t f o r m e r l y w i t h t h e o l d e r k in d o f s c y t h e #
E ven th o u g h t h e
s c y t h e , man s t i l l
h is
cro p s#
c r a d l e w a s a n im p r o v e m e n t o n t h e
h ad t o
s i c k l e and th e
d e p e n d a l t o g e t h e r o n h i s m u s c le s i n h a r v e s t i n g
I t w a s n o t u n t i l 1 8 3 1 t h a t a man nam ed C y ru s W, M cC orm ick had
d e v e l o p e d a r e a p i n g m a c h in e draw n b y h o r s e s #
From t h e f i r s t
t h e w o r k o f a d o z e n m en w i t h m uch l e s s b a c k - b r e a k i n g t o i l #
4 0 y e a r s o f im p r o v e m e n t, t h i s m a c h in e
c o u ld a l s o
b in d i t
b in d e r w it h a l l
its
in to
a b o u t 20 a c r e s o f g r a in in on e d a y .
c o u ld
do
A fte r about
c o u ld n o t o n l y c u t t h e g r a i n b u t
b u n d le s w i t h t w i n e .
im p r o v e m e n ts i s
it
In f a c t ,
th e p r e s e n t day
so e f f i c i e n t th a t i t
c a n c u t a n d b in d
228
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on R eaping T o o ls
A-6
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er ea ch o f th e f o llo w in g q u e s t io n s
a n d p u t an X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s i s i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n s w e r ,
1 , How m u ch g r a i n c a n a s t r o n g man w i t h a s i c k l e
c u t in one day?
( ) A bout 10 a c r e s ,
( ) A bout 6 a c r e s .
A
( ) About one aore*
( ) A bout \
2 , How l o n g i s
D
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
o f an a c r e ,
t h e h a n d le o f a s c y t h e ?
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
one f o o t ,
2 0 in c h e s *
5 fe e t,
25 f e e t ,
3 , How m any w o o d e n s t r i p s
t h e g r a i n i n t o ro w s?
S
4,
th e c r a d le
s c y th e have t o h e lp la y
25,
15,
or fo u r ,
one,
I n 1 8 3 1 , M cC o rm ick ’ s r e a p e r c o u l d do t h e w o rk o f how m any men?
S
to
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) T hree
( ) O n ly
d id
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A hundred,
F ifty .
A dozen,
Tw o,
5 , From t h e t i m e o f M cC o rm ick ’ s f i r s t m a c h in e , how lo n g d i d i t t a k e
im p r o v e t h e r e a p e r s o t h a t i t w o u ld b in d a s w e l l a s c u t g r a in ?
T
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
3 years,
15 y e a r s .
40 y e a r s .
100 y e a r s ,
6 , How m uch g r a i n c a n a p r e s e n t d a y b i n d e r c u t an d b in d i n t o
i n o n e d ay?
A
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
5 a cres,
20 a c r e s ,
60 a c r e s .
120 a c r e s ,
7 , How l o n g w o u ld i t
c u t a n a c r e o f g r a in ?
T
b u n d le s
Score
A -6
T
A
t a k e a s t r o n g man w i t h a s i c k l e t o
( ) One m o n t h ,
( ) Two w e e k s ,
( ) A w h o le d a y ,
( ) Two h o u r s .
D
S
T o ta l
229
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on R eaping T ools
B-6
S e l e c t t h e h e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f th e f o l lo w in g
and p u t an X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s is i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r ,
1# How m u ch g r a i n c a n a s t r o n g man w i t h a s i c k l e
A
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
D
)
)
)
)
t h e h a n d le o f a s c y t h e ?
The l e n g t h o f a m a n ’ s a r m ,
L ong,
S h o r t,
T w ic e t h e h e i g h t o f a m a n ,
3 , How m any w o o d e n s t r i p s
t h e g r a i n i n t o ro w s?
S
c u t i n o n e d ay?
A la r g e
f i e l d o f g r a in ,
A s m a ll f i e l d o f g r a in ,
A
fie ld
a s b ig a s t h e a v e r a g e fa r m ,
A fie ld
a s b ig a s a c i t y b lo c k ,
2 , How l o n g i s
(
(
(
(
q u e s t io n s
d id t h e
c r a d le s c y th e h ave t o h e lp
la y
( ) S e v e r a l,
( ) A v e r y la r g e num ber,
( ) M any,
( ) A v e r y fe w ,
4 , I n 1 8 3 1 , M cC o rm ick ’ s r e a p e r c o u l d do t h e w o rk o f how m any men?
S
to
( ) S e v e r a l,
( ) A v e r y l a r g e n u m b er,
( ) A la r g e g ro u p ,
( ) Q u i t e a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b er ,
5 , From t h e t i m e o f M cC o rm ick ’ s f i r s t m a c h in e , how l o n g d i d i t
im p r o v e t h e r e a p e r so t h a t i t w o u ld b in d a s w e l l a s c u t g r a in ?
T
( ) Many y e a r s ,
( ) A v e r y sh o r t tim e ,
( ) S e v era l c e n tu r ie s ,
( ) S e v e r a l g e n e r a tio n s ,
6 , How m uch g r a i n c a n a p r e s e n t d a y b in d e r c u t an d b in d
in one day?
, .
( ) The a r e a o f a c i t y b l o c k .
( ) A m edium s i z e d f i e l d ,
A
( ) An a r e a e q u a l t o a n a v e r a g e s i z e d fa rm *
( ) A v e r y s m a ll f i e l d .
7 , How lo n g , w o u ld i t
c u t a n a c r e o f g r a in ?
T
ta k e
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A very
A lo n g
Q u it e a
A very
t a k e a s t r o n g man w i t h a s i c k l e t o
s h o r t tim e ,
tim e ,
fe w h o u r s ,
lo n g p e r io d .
i n t o b u n d le s
S core
B -6
A
T o ta l
FORM
230
X
N a m e ____________________________________________________________ D a te
^ra d -e _
_
S c h o o l ________________________ _______________ C i t y
A ge ( n e a r e s t b i r t h d a y ) ___________________________________
A1
Time
A1
A rea
A1
D is t­
ance
A1
S iz e
A l-6
T o ta l
B l-6
231
D I R E C T I O N S
In t h i s t e s t y ou w i l l f in d s i x a r t i c l e s t h a t d e a l w ith s o c i a l
s c ie n c e t o p ic s .
On s e p a r a t e p a g e s a f t e r e a c h a r t i c l e y o u w i l l f i n d som e
q u e s t io n s t h a t a r e b a se d on i t s c o n t e n t s .
The p u r p o s e o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s
i s t o f i n d o u t how w e l l y o u u n d e r s t a n d c e r t a i n p a r t s o f t h e a r t i c l e .
You a r e t o r e a d t h e f i r s t a r t i c l e v e r y c a r e f u l l y .
You m ay r e a d
an y p a r t o f i t a g a in i f y o u f e e l you n eed t o .
Then t u r n t o t h e q u e s ­
tio n s ,
T h e r e a r e tw o p a g e s o f q u e s t i o n s o n e a c h a r t i c l e .
You a r e t o
a n sw er b o th p a g e s o f q u e s t io n s w ith o u t tu r n in g b ack t o th e a r t i c l e .
When y o u h a v e f i n i s h e d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n s o n t h e f i r s t a r t i c l e , t u r n
im m e d ia t e ly t o t h e n e x t a r t i c l e an d do a s y o u d i d w i t h t h e f i r s t .
Con­
t i n u e i n t h i s m a n n er t o t h e e n d o f t h e t e s t .
L ook i t
to d o.
H e r e i s a s a m p le o f t h e t y p e o f q u e s t i o n s
w h ic h y o u a r e t o a n s w e r .
o v e r v e r y c a r e f u l l y s o t h a t y o u w i l l know e x a c t l y w h a t y o u a r e
S a m p le q u e s t i o n
When d id L i n c o l n f r e e
( )
( )
(X )
( )
th o s la v e s ?
I m m e d ia t e ly a f t e r h e w a s e l e c t e d P r e s i d e n t ,
B e f o r e t h e C i v i l War b e g a n ,
D u r in g t h e C i v i l War p o r i o d ,
A f t e r t h e C i v i l War w a s o v e r .
N o t i c e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n , "When d id L i n c o l n f r e e t h e s l a v e s ? " i s
f o l l o w e d b y f o u r p o s s i b l e a n s w e r s , o n e o f w h ic h i s t h e b e s t .
The t h i r d
a n sw er i s th e b e s t , so an X h a s b e e n p u t in t h e p a r e n t h e s is i n f r o n t o f
th a t a n sw er.
A l l o f t h e q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s t e s t w i l l b e l i k e t h e s a m p le a b o v e .
You a r e t o s e l e c t t h e b e s t a n s w e r u n d e r e a c h q u e s t i o n a n d t o p u t a n X
in th e p a r e n th e s is in fr o n t o f th a t a n sw er.
You m ay b e g i n r e a d i n g t h e f i r s t a r t i c l e w h en t h e e x a m in e r g i v e s
t h e s i g n a l , " G o ." A sk a n y q u e s t i o n s w h ic h y o u may h a v e n o w , b e c a u s e
y o u w i l l n o t b e p e r m i t t e d t o a s k th e m a f t o r y o u b e g i n w o r k .
Rem em ber t h a t ^rou a r e n o t p e r m i t t e d t o t u r n b a c k t o t h o a r t i c l e
a f t e r y o u h a v e f i n i s hod- r e a d in g i x .
Do n o t t u r n t h i s
page u n t i l you have b een a sk ed to
do s o .
232
1-1
on
O il i s
p ow er*
one o f th e w o r ld ’ s m ost r e c e n t l y d is c o v e r e d
S t r a n g e ly e n o u g h , h o w e v e r , p e o p le
f a r b ack a s 1556*
le a r n e d t h a t th e
fo r t h is
E ven t h e f i r s t w h it e
In d ia n s u se d i t
so u rces o f
i n E u ro p e k n ew a b o u t o i l a s
s e t t l e r s who came t o t h i s
a s a m e d ic in e .
co u n tr y
I t w a s know n c h i e f l y
p u r p o s e u n t i l a b o u t 1 8 5 2 w h en a P i t t s b u r g h d r u g g i s t named
S a m u el K ie r d i s c o v e r e d a n ew u s e f o r i t *
w as u s e d i n
p l a c e o f a n im a l o i l s
T h is d i s c o v e r y
se a r c h w id e ly f o r
fo r
The n ew p r o d u c t , k e r o s e n e ,
lig h tin g
la m p s .
c r e a t e d a g r e a t dem and f o r o i l a n d men b e g a n t o
it.
T h ey h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e e n a n n o y e d b y f i n d i n g
m ix e d w i t h t h e w a t e r o f d e e p w e l l s w h ic h t h e y h a d d r i l l e d ;
it
now i t b e ­
came a v a l u a b l e p r o d u c t .
T h is l e d t o
d r i l l e d w ith th e
d e fin ite
p u rp o se o f s t r ik in g
o il.
p r o d u c e a s m uch a s 4 0 0 t o
1000 g a llo n s o f o i l
d a i l y w as d r i l l e d n e a r
T itu s v ille ,
in 1 8 5 4 ,
P e n n s y lv a n ia ,
t h e i d e a t h a t w e l l s m ig h t a l s o
T h is
t h e su r r o u n d in g r e g io n .
around T i t u s v i l l e
w a s made o v e r
fr o m a p o o r fa r m in g a r e a t o a v e r y a c t i v e
en d o f t h e
c e n t u r y t h e i n v e n t i o n o f t h o g a s e n g in e a n d t h e
c r e a t e d n ew a n d s t i l l g r e a t e r
s e a r c h f o r o i l w a s m ade u n t i l t o d a y t h e
c o u n tr y i s
fie ld s
no lo n g e r
in P e n n s y lv a n ia ,
o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
o f th e c o u n tr y .
fr o m t h e
By 1 8 6 0 a b o u t 1 0 0 s q u a r e m i l e s
I t b e c a m e t h e b u s y c e n t e r o f a n ew i n d u s t r y .
By t h e
a u t o m o b ile
The f i r s t w e l l t o
" f i n d ” l e d t o a n o i l boom t h a t
sp read r a p id ly to
o il fie ld .
be
to d a y l i e
A bout 100 0 m ile s
dem ands f o r o i l ,
A s t i l l w id e r
c e n te r o f o i l p r o d u c tio n in t h i s
On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e
sc a tte r e d
in th e
great o il
r e m o te s e c t i o n s
s e p a r a te th e c h ie f o il-p r o d u c in g f i e l d s
in d u s t r ia l s e c t io n w here m ost o f th e o i l i s
r e f in e d and u s e d .
233
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on O il
B -l
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f th e f o l lo w in g q u e s t io n s
and p u t an X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s is i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r ,
1 , A c c o r d in g t o t h e b e s t e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e , w h en d i d p e o p l e i n
E u r o p e f i r s t h a v e som e k n o w le d g e o f o i l ?
T
th e
( ) A b o u t t h e m i d d le o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y ,
( ) A b o u t t h e t im e o f t h e A m e r ic a n R e v o l u t i o n ,
( ) A t th e b e g in n in g o f th e p r e s e n t c e n tu r y ,
( ) L ong b e f o r e o i l w a s d i s c o v e r e d i n N o r th A m e r ic a ,
2 , How f a r a r e t h e c h i e f o i l f i e l d s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s fr o m
i n d u s t r i a l s e c t i o n s W h ich r e f i n e an d u s e t h e o i l ?
D
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
Q u ite a fe w m i l e s ,
O n ly a s h o r t d i s t a n c e ,
S ev era l m ile s ,
G reat d is t a n c e s ,
3 , W hat w a s t h e a r e a o f t h e f i r s t p r o d u c t i v e o i l f i e l d
P e n n s y lv a n ia i n 1860?
A
( ) A lm o s t a s b i g a s t h e w h o le s t a t e ,
( ) A la r g e t e r r i t o r y ,
( ) The a r e a o f s e v e r a l c i t y b l o c k s ,
( ) A s m a ll d i s t r i c t ,
4 , How m uch d id t h e w e l l d r i l l e d
S
in 1854 n ea r T i t u s v i l l e prod u ce?
( ) O n ly s m a l l a m o u n t s ,
( ) Im m ense q u a n t i t i e s ,
( ) L arge q u a n t i t i e s ,
( ) O n ly a l i t t l e o i l ,
5 , When w a s k e r o s e n e f i r s t u s e d a s a n o i l f o r
T
in
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
lig h tin g
D u r in g t h e R e v o l u t i o n ,
B e fo r e t h e tim e o f C h r is t ,
A b o u t t h e m id d le o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y ,
V ery r e c e n t l y .
la m p s?
Score
B -l
T
A
D
S
T otal
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on O il
A -l
S e le c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f th e f o llo w in g q u e s t io n s
and p u t an X in th e p a r e n t h e s is in f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw er.
1 , A c c o r d in g t o t h e b e s t e v i d e n c e
E u ro p e f i r s t h a v e som e k n o w le d g e o f o i l ?
T
(
(
(
(
) As
) As
) As
) As
e a r ly
e a r ly
e a r ly
e a r ly
as
as
as
as
a v a i l a b l e , w h en d id p e o p l e
1856,
1556,
800,
2 0 0 0 B .C ,
2 , How f a r a r e t h e c h i e f o i l f i e l d s i n t h e U n it e d
i n d u s t r i a l s e c t i o n s w h ic h r e f i n e a n d u s e t h e o i l ?
D
S t a t e s fr o m
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
i n P enn­
one sq u a re m i le ,
16 s q u a r e m i l e s .
100 sq u a re m i le s ,
3 0 ,0 0 0 sq u a r e m i l e s ,
4 , How m uch d i d t h e w e l l d r i l l e d
S
th e
( ) A bout 25 m i le s ,
(
) A bout 150 m i l e s ,
(
) A bout 1000 m i le s ,
(
) A bout 3 5 0 0 m i l e s ,
3 , W hat w a s t h e a r e a o f t h e f i r s t p r o d u c t i v e o i l f i e l d
s y lv a n ia in 1860?
A
in
in 1854 n ea r T it u s v i l l e p rod u ce?
(
) A b ou t 20 b a r r e ls a
day,
(
) From 4 0 0 t o 1 0 0 0 g a l l o n s a d a y .
( ) A b o u t 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 g a l l o n s a d a y .
( ) A bout 1500 b a r r e ls a d a y ,
5 , When w a s k e r o s e n e f i r s t u s e d a s a n o i l f o r l i g h t i n g
t
(
(
(
(
\
)
)
)
)
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
1492,
1620,
1852,
1900,
la m p s?
S core
T otal
D evelopm ent o f A v ia t io n
1-2
F o r c e n t u r i e s m en h a v e d rea m ed t h a t t h e y m ig h t l e a r n how t o
t h e a i r w i t h m uch t h e
sam e e a s e w i t h w h ic h t h e y t r a v e l e d
f l y th ro u g h
on l a n d an d s e a .
At
f i r s t t h e y e x p e r im e n t e d w i t h b a l l o o n s an d g l i d e r s , b u t t h e y h a d v e r y l i m i t o d
c o n t r o l o v e r th e m .
T h ese d e v ic e s
w h ic h men w i s h e d t o
g o b e c a u s e t h e y d e p e n d e d s o m uch on c u r r e n t s
O r v ille
th e f i r s t
c o u ld n o t b e p i l o t e d
1903, th e ir
flo w a lm o s t a th o u s a n d f o o t and s t a y o d in th o a i r
f lig h t proved th a t fly in g
From t h o t i m e
g r e a t n u m b ers ,
l o f t t h o g r o u n d an d
o n l y a b o u t 59 s e c o n d s .
How­
f l i g h t u n t i l t h e W o rld W a r, f l y i n g
D u r in g t h e W ar, h o w e v e r , a i r p l a n e s w c r o b u i l t
T h e y vrcro o f g r e a t v a l u o
T h is u s e h e lp e d t o
s o lv e d .
a ir p la n e
At K itty
th r o u g h th o a i r w as a p o s s i b i l i t y .
o f t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s *
w as l a r g e l y e x p e r i m e n t a l .
t h a n 35 y e a r s
o f a ir ,
i n a p o w e r e d p l a n e t h a t c o u ld b e p i l o t e d .
Hawk, N o r t h C a r o l i n a , o n D ecem b er 1 7 ,
e n em y .
d ir e c t io n in
a n d W ilb u r W r ig h t o f D a y t o n , O h io , a r e g i v e n c r e d i t f o r m a k in g
su c c e ssfu l f lig h t
e v e r , th e
in th e
in
f o r o b s e r v a t i o n a n d f o r b o m b in g t h e
s p e e d up a i r p l a n e d e v e lo p m e n t .
In f a c t ,
in
le s s
o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n m any o f t h e p r o b le m s o f f l y i n g h a v e b e e n
New m o t o r s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d t o make t h e p l a n e s g o h i g h e r an d f a s t o r .
T r a n s p o r t p l a n e s h a v e b e e n m ade b i g e n o u g h t o
w e ll as q u a n titie s
c a r r y a s m any a s f o r t y p e o p l e a s
o f m a il and f r e i g h t .
A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h o U n i t e d S t a t e s h a s t h e g r e a t e s t a ir w a y s y s t e m i n
th e w o r ld .
It
c o n s is ts
o f a b o u t 2 8 ,2 6 7 m i le s a s t h e p la n e f l i c s .
o f t h e n a t i o n h a v e a m i l e a g e w h ic h i s
G overn m en t h a s d o n e m any t h i n g s t o
sy ste m .
a i d i n t h o d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h i s
m crgency la n d in g f i e l d s
in area in
a lo n g t h e
order to
t a i n w e a th e r o b s e r v a t io n
r o u to s.
ab ou t 40 m ile s a p a r t.
p r o v id e h a l f - m i l e
on w h ic h p i a n o s m ay la n d o r t a k e o f f .
fly in g
Tho F e d e r a l
g r o a t a ir w a y
I t h a s e q u ip p e d t h e m a in a ir w a y s w i t h f l a s h i n g b e a c o n s f o r n i g h t f l y i n g .
T h o se a r c p l a c e d e v e r y 15 m i l e s
acres
ab ou t n in e tim e s as g r e a t ,
T he r a i l r o a d s
s ta tio n s ,
I t a ls o
has e s t a b lis h e d e -
T h ese f i e l d s m u st bo a t l e a s t 60
ru n w a y s i n tw o d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s
M o st o f th e m a r e w e l l l i g h t e d a n d m a in ­
A ll o f th e s e
s e r v i c e s h a v e h e l p e d t o make
s a f e r a n d m ore p o p u la r a s a m ea n s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .
236
Q u e stio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on A v ia t io n
B-2
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f t h e f o l lo w in g q u e s t io n s and
pu t an X in th e p a r e n th e s is in fr o n t o f th a t a n sw er,
1 , How f a r d i d t h e f i r s t p l a n e o f t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s f l y
Hawk, N o r t h C a r o l i n a , i n 1 9 0 3 ?
) A lo n g d is t a n c e #
> A sh o r t d is ta n o e .
D
£ ) A bout th e le n g t h o f a c i t y b lo c k .
) A bout th e lo n g t h o f a c i t y lo t #
has i t
a t K itty
2# A f t e r t h o i n v e n t i o n o f t h e f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l p o w er p i a n o , how l o n g
t a k e n t o s o l v o m any o f t h o p r o b le m s o f a v i a t i o n ?
( ) C o m p a r a t i v e ly a fo w y o a r s .
T
I
) M any y e a r s *
(
(
j S e v e r a l c o n tu r io s #
) M ore t h a n a l i f e t i m e #
3.
t r a n s p o r t p ia n o s
A c c o r d in g t o t h e
carry?
^ A g r o a t c ro w d #
S e v e r a l p e o p le #
A l a r g e n u m b er#
O n ly a fo w #
a r tic le
y o u r e a d , how m any p e r s o n s c a n m o d e m
1
4 # How d o e s t h e m i l e a g e o f t h e r a i l r o a d s co m p a re w i t h t h e m i l e a g e o f
t h e a ir w a y s o f t h i s c o u n t r y ?
) Tho a ir w a y m i l c a g o i s m uch g r o a t o r #
| Tho r a i l r o a d m i l c a g o i s s e v e r a l t i m o s a s g r o a t *
S
^ ) Tho r a i l r o a d m i l e a g e i s m uch s m a l l e r .
T he m i l e a g e o f o a c h i s n e a r l y t h o sam e#
5 . How l o n g d i d t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s * f i r s t p ia n o s t a y i n t h e a i r
d u r in g i t s t r i a l ^ f l i g h t a t K i t t y H aw k, N o r t h C a r o lin a ?
F o r o n l y a v e r y b r i e f p e r io d #
A lo n g t i m e .
T
C ) F o r som e t i m e #
F or a v e r y lo n g p e r io d #
6.
c o u n tr y ?
How f a r a p a r t a r c t h o e m e r g e n c y l a n d i n g
( ) G roat d is ta n c e s *
( ) N ot f a r a p a r t#
D
( ) M any m i l e s #
( ; V ery s h o r t d is t a n c e s .
fie ld s
on t h e
a ir w a y s o f o u r
7 . How f a r a p a r t a r c t h o f l a s h i n g b e a c o n s on t h e m a in a ir w a y s o f o u r
c o u n tr y ?
( ) V ery c lo s e to g e th e r #
( ) V ory g r o a t d is t a n c o s a p a r t#
D
( ) A t lo n g in t e r v a l s #
S core
( ) At sh o r t in t e r v a ls #
w a y s?
fio ld s ?
8# O f w h a t
( )
( )
A
C |
s i z o a r e t h o om crgon cy la n d in g f i e l d s
F a i r l y llaa rg
r g<o #
Vo
V ory s m a ll*
T he a r e a o f a c i t y b l o c k #
T he a r e a o f a v e r y l a r g o fa rm #
on t h e m a in a i r *
9 * How l o n g a r e t h o r u n w a y s o n m o s t o f t h e o m o r g e n c y la n d i n g
( ) Q u i t o a fo w m i l e s #
£ ) Q u ito s h o r t #
D
(
)
(
) C o n s id e r a b le d is ta n c o #
R a th o r
lo n g ,
D
T o ta l
237
Q u e s tio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on A v ia t io n
A -2
S e le c t t h e b e s t an sw er u nder e a c h o f th e fo llo w in g q u e s tio n s
and p u t an X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s is i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n s w e r ,
1 . Hew f a r d i d t h e f i r s t p l a n e o f t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s f l y a t K i t t y
Hawk, N o r t h C a r o l i n a , i n 1 9 0 3 ?
( ) N e a r ly a th o u s a n d f e e t .
( ) A b ou t 2 0 ,0 0 0 f e e t .
D
( 1 A bout t e n m i le s .
( ) A bout f o r t y m i l e s .
has i t
2 . A fte r
ta k e n t o
(
(
T
(
(
t h e i n v e n t i o n o f t h e f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l p o w er p l a n e , how
s o l v e m any o f t h e p r o b le m s o f a v i a t i o n ?
) A bout 200 y e a r s .
J M oro t h a n 75 y e a r s ,
) L oss th a n 35 y o a r s ,
) A bout 5 y o a r s*
lo n g
3 . A c c o r d in g t o t h e a r t i c l e y o u r o a d , how m any p e r s o n s c a n m o d e m
t r a n s p o r t p la n e s ca rr y ?
L oss th a n 5 .
A s m any a s 4 0 .
S
{ ) M oro t h a n 7 5 ,
A bout 2 0 0 ,
4 . How d o c s t h e m i l c a g o o f t h e r a i l r o a d s co m p a re w i t h t h e m ile a g e ^ o f
t h e a ir w a y s o f t h i s c o u n t r y ?
The m ilc a g o o f on e i s e q u a l t o t h a t o f t h e e th e r #
T he r a i l r o a d m i l e a g e i s h a l f t h o m i l c a g o o f t h o a i r w a y s .
S
( ) T he r a i l r o a d m i l c a g o i s 9 t i m o s t h e m i lo a g e o f t h o a i r w a y s ,
Tho r a i l r o a d m i l e a g e i s 2 5 t i m e s t h e m i l e a g e o f t h e a i r w a y s ,
its
5 . How l o n g d i d t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s 1 f i r s t p l a n e s t a y i n t h e a i r
t r i a l f l i g h t a t K i t t y H aw k, N o r t h C a r o lin a ?
^ ) 59 s e c o n d s
) T en m i n u t e s ,
) A bout h a l f a d a y ,
) 30 h o u r s .
d u r in g
f
6 . How f a r
c o u n tr y ?
(
)
( )
D
(
)
( )
apart
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
a r e t h e em ergen cy la n d in g f i e l d s
1000 m ile s .
200 m ile s .
4-0 m i l e s ,
a h a lf m ile .
7 , How f a r
c o u n tr y ?
(
}
I )
D
I ^
( /
apart
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
a r e t h o f l a s h i n g b e a c o n s on t h e m a in a ir w a y s o f o u r
2 m ilo s .
15 m i le s .
S core
100 m ile s .
A -2
500 m ile s .
8.
a ir w a y s ?
9,
fie ld s ?
O f w h a t s i z o a r c t h e em erg en cy la n d in g f i e l d s
( ) A bout 10 sq u a ro m i l e s .
( ) A bout 200 a c r e s .
A
(
) A bout 6 0 a c r e s .
( ; A bout 2 a c r e s .
o n t h e a ir w a y s o f o u r
ont h e
m a in
How l o n g a r e t h e r u n w a y s o n m o s t o f t h o c m o r g c n c y l a n d i n g
( ) A bout 3 m i lo s .
( 1 A bout h a l f a m i l e .
D
(
; A bout 100 y a r d s ,
( ) A bout 50 f o o t .
L
T o ta l
238
F o r e s t C o n se r v a tio n
It
1 -3
h a s b e e n e s t i m a t e d t h a t o u r c o u n t r y c o n su m e s a l m o s t t w o - f i f t h s
th e tim b e r u s e d i n t h e
e n t i r e w o r ld .
H ence,
w ork o u t p la n s f o r r e p la c i n g ou r f o r e s t s t o
it
is
v e r y im p o r t a n t t h a t w e
k e e p up w i t h t h e dem and f o r w o o d .
The U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e i s w o r k in g o n s u c h p l a n s .
io n s
o f acres
o f id le
la n d w h ic h c o u l d b e r e p l a n t e d t o
t h a t f a r m e r s o r c o m m u n it ie s n e a r t h e s e
fo r e s tr y p u rp o ses.
la n d s
of
I t h a s fo u n d m i l l ­
tr e e s.
I t has urged
s e c u r e a n d m a i n t a i n th e m f o r
T h is w o u ld h e l p r e s t o r e o u r t i m b e r s u p p l y .
The c o m m u n ity f o r e s t
i t w i t h th e m fr o m E u r o p e ,
id e a i s
For t h i s
n o t new .
The A m e r ic a n c o l o n i s t s b r o u g h t
reason , th e r e are
i n New E n g la n d w h ic h h a v e b e e n i n e x i s t e n c e
s in c e
som e co m m u n ity f o r e s t s
1710,
T od ay t h e U n it e d
S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e p o r t s t h a t m o re t h a n 1 5 0 0 f o r e s t s h a v e b e e n s t a r t e d
a t le a s t
27 s t a t e s — p r i n c i p a l l y
i n New Y o r k , New E n g la n d , a n d t h e
T h e s e f o r e s t s v a r y fr o m j u s t a f e w a c r e s t o
The v a l u e
in g t h e
o f s m a ll p ie c e s
in s i z e .
o f tim b e r ca n b e s t b e d e m o n s tr a te d b y s t u d y ­
fa r m s.
75 y e a r s
is
The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e
r e q u ir e d f o r th e tim b e r cro p t o
s i n c e m any o f t h e t r e e s m a tu r e e a c h y e a r ,
T r e e s w i t h t r u n k s a b o u t 18 t o
th o tim b e r y i e l d s
24 i n c h e s i n d ia m e t e r a r e
c u t up i n t o
cordw ood.
t h e in c o m e o f t h e t i m b o r l o t i s
is
th a t ab o u t 50
g row t o m a t u r i t y .
The s h o r t e r o r c r o o k e d p a r t s a r e s o m e tim e s c u t up i n t o
to p s and b ra n ch es a r e
or
T h e s e m en h a v e l o o k e d u p o n t h e i r t i m b e r a s a c r o p t h a t
c a n b e r a i s e d a s a n y o t h e r fa r m c r o p .
tree,
la k e s t a t e s .
e x p e r i e n c e o f f a r m e r s w ho h a v e m a i n t a in e d w o o d l o t s o f tw o a c r e s
m o re o n t h e i r
to
s e v e r a l th o u s a n d a c r e s
H ow ever,
a n a n n u a l in c o m e .
c u t down f o r lu m b e r .
f e n c e p o s t s , and th e
T h u s, b y u s in g a l l p a r t s o f t h e
in c r e a s e d .
In f a c t ,
som e f a r m e r s r e p o r t
t h a t t h e y h a v e r e c e i v e d a s m uch a s 20 d o l l a r s p e r a c r e fr o m t h e i r w o o d l o t s
each y e a r .
I n c a r i n g f o r th e m , t h e y h a v e f o u n d t h a t t h e y n o t o n l y h a v e m ade
a g o o d i n v e s t m e n t b u t t h a t t h e y a r e h e l p i n g t o k e e p up t h o t i m b e r s u p p l y f .f
o u r c o u n tr y .
in
239
Q u e stio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on F o r e s t C o n se r v a tio n
S e le c t t h e b e s t an sw er u n d er e a c h o f th e f o llo w in g
and p u t an X i n th e p a r e n t h e s is i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw er*
B-3
q u e s t io n s
1 , A b o u t w h e n w e r e c o m m u n ity f o r e s t s f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d
E n g la n d ?
(
) When C olu m b u s d i s c o v e r e d A m e r ic a *
(
) S h o r tly a f t e r th e
R e v o lu tio n *
T
( ) In c o l o n i a l d a y s*
( ) J u s t b e f o r e th e c l o s e o f th e 1 9 th c e n tu r y .
2* How m an y c o m m u n ity f o r e s t s
v a r io u s p a r t s o f t h e c o u n tr y ?
S
( )
( )
( )
( )
3 , How b i g
A
fo r
have b een s t a r te d r e c e n tly in
J u st a v e r y fe w ,
A l a r g e n u m b er o f them *
A s m a l l num ber o f t h e m .
T h o u sa n d s o f th e m ,
is
th e
a v e r a g e fa r m w o o d lo t ?
( ) V ery la r g e *
( ) S m a ll.
( ) Of c o n s i d e r a b l e s i z e *
(
) As b i g a s a fa r m .
4 , How l o n g
lu m b e r t o m a tu r e ?
T
i n New
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
does i t
ta k e m ost
tr e e s th a t areto be u sed fo r
A lo n g p e r io d o f y e a r s ,
A sh o r t tim e ,
S ev era l c e n tu r ie s ,
J u s t a fe w y e a r s *
5 , How b i g s h o u l d t h e t r u n k s o f m o s t t r e e s b e t o b e s u i t a b l e
lu m b e r ?
( ) R a th e r s m a ll,
( ) L arge.
D
( ) A s w id e a s a h o u s e ,
(
) A bout t h e s i z e o f
a fe n c e
p o st,
6 , How m uch h a v e some f a r m e r s
w o o d lo ts in on e y e a r ?
S
(
) J u s t a fe w c e n t s .
(
) A v e r y s m a l l in c o m e ,
( ) A g r e a t d e a l o f m oney.
( ) A f a i r l y l a r g e in c o m e .
made o n e a c h a c r e o f t h e i r
Score
B -3
T
A
D
S
T o ta l
A-3
Q u e s tio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on F o r e s t C o n se r v a tio n
S e le c t
and
p u t an
th e
X in
te s t
th e
a n sw er u n d er
p a r e n th e s is
in
each
of
th e
fr o n t
of
th a t
f o llo w in g
q u e s tio n s
a n sw er.
1, About when were community fo rests f i r s t established in New
England?
(
(
T
) A bout
) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
1492,
1710,
1800,
I860,
2, How many community fo rests have been started recently in
various parts of the country?
S
(
(
(
(
) About
) About
) About
) About
10.
75.
1500.
50,000.
3, How big is the average farm woodlot?
A
( ) About h alf an acre,
( ) About two acres,
( ) At le a st 20 acres.
( ) About 100 acres,
4 , How long does i t take most trees that are to be used for
lumber to mature?
T
(
(
(
(
) About 500 years,
) From 50 to 75 years.
) About 25 years.
) Not more than 5 years,
5* How big should the trunks of most trees be to be suitable
for lumber?
( ) At le a st 2 inches in diameter.
( ) Not more than 10 inches in diameter,
D
( ) At le a st 18 to 24 inches in diameter.
( ) About 10 fe e t in diameter,
6, How much have some farmers made on each acre of th eir
woodlots in one year?
S
(
(
(
(
) As much as f i f t y cents,
) About 2 d o lla r s,
) As much as 20 d o lla rs,
) About 150 d o lla r s.
Score
A -3
T
A
D
S
T o ta l
241
1-4
Coal
A lt h o u g h
coal is
o n e o f t h e w o r l d Ts m o s t im p o r t a n t s o u r c e s
pow er,
m en d i d n o t l e a r n how t o
m in o u s
c o a l , b e t t e r k now n a s s o f t c o a l , w a s f i r s t u s e d i n t h e IT O O 's
w ith t h e
u se
it
u n til f a ir ly
in v e n t io n o f ste a m e n g in e s an d m a c h in e s .
c o a l , w as d is c o v e r e d in P e n n s y lv a n ia i n
1790,
r e c e n tly *
of
B itu ­
A n th r a c ite ,
o r hard
I t w as a t f i r s t th o u g h t
t o b e t o o h a r d t o b u r n a n d s o w a s c r a c k e d up a n d u s e d c h i e f l y t o
p a ir
ro a d s.
For t h i s
reason i t
d i d n o t com e i n t o
re­
g e n e r a l u se u n t il
som e t i m e l a t e r .
B eca u se c o a l i s
ly
r e s p o n s ib le
th e
fo r th e
cam e t o
c h i e f s o u r c e o f p ow er and e n e r g y ,
g r e a t i n d u s t r i a l g r o w th o f o u r c o u n t r y .
reaso n
th ere
fie ld s
c o n s t a n t ly w ere b e in g d is c o v e r e d and
be g r e a te r and g r e a t e r
dem ands f o r
5 0 0 ,0 0 0
sq u a re m ile s
w h en w e r e a l i z e
sq u a re m ile s
fifth s
c o a l la n d w i t h i n
in a r e a .
t h a t th e
our b o r d e r s i s
la r g e ­
For t h i s
Not/' c o a l
su p p ly o f c o a l.
a p p r o x im a te ly e q u a l t o
We c a n g e t som e i d e a how v a s t t h i s
la r g e s t a t e
o f te r r ito r y *
c o a l.
is
d e v e lo p e d s o t h a t s i n c e
1899 t h e U n ite d S t a t e s h a s l e d t h e w o r ld i n t h e
The t o t a l
it
o f I llin o is
is
h a s s o m e t h in g o v e r 5 0 , 0 0 0
T h e s e g i g a n t i c c o a l a r e a s fo r m a b o u t t h r e e -
o f t h e know n c o a l d e p o s i t s
o f t h e w o r ld .
T h ey a r c a l s o w e l l d i s ­
t r i b u t e d so t h a t t h e d is t a n c e fro m an y p a r t o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s t o a
c o a l m in e i s
n o t m o re t h a n 5 0 0 m i l o s .
B e c a u s e o f t h e tr e m e n d o u s dem and f o r c o a l i n a n i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n
su ch a s o u r s, m ost o f th e
c o u n tr y .
c o a l m in e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s
u sed in our
I n 1 9 2 6 w e m in e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 8 0 m i l l i o n t o n s o f c o a l .
t h i s v a s t a m o u n t w e u s e d a b o u t 95 p e r c e n t a n d e x p o r t e d o n l y a b o u t 5
per
c e n t,»
Of
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on C oal
B-4
S elect the best answer under each of the follow ing questions
and put an X in the parenthesis in front of that answer.
how t o
1 , A lt h o u g h
u se it?
( )
( )
T
(
)
( )
2 , How f a r
co al is
o f g r e a t v a l u e , w h e n d id man f i r s t
le a r n
A b o u t t h e t i m e o f t h e C i v i l W ar,
A b o u t t h e t i m e W a s h in g to n w a s a b o y ,
A f t e r t h e d i s c o v e r y o f A m e r ic a ,
A v e r y s h o r t tim e a g o ,
is
it
fr o m m o s t p a r t s
o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s
to a co a l
m in e ?
D
(
(
(
(
) A v ery sh o rt d is ta n c e ,
) A v ery g r e a t d is ta n c e ,
) A s h o r t d i s t a n c e c o m p a red t o t h e s i z e o f t h e c o u n t r y ,
) A l o n g w a y a s d i s t a n c e i s now m e a s u r e d ,
3 , How b i g a r e t h e
A
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
As
As
As
As
b ig
b ig
b ig
b ig
c o m b in e d c o a l f i e l d s
as
as
as
as
a b o u t 8 m id -w e ste r n s t a t e s ,
E n g la n d ,
A u s tr a lia ,
a l l t h e Hew E n g la n d s t a t e s ,
4 , How m uch c o a l w a s m in e d i n t h i s
S
c o u n tr y in
1926?
( ) A g r e a t m any t o n s ,
( ) S everal to n s,
(
) An e n o r m o u s n u m b er o f t o n s ,
(
) A l a r g e n u m b er o f t o n s ,
5 , How l o n g h a s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
m en t o f m in e s and t h e s u p p ly o f c o a l?
T
o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ?
(
(
(
(
l e d t h e w o r ld
in
th e
d e v e lo p ­
) S i n c e t h e t i m e C olum bus d i s c o v e r e d A m e r ic a ,
) S in c e th e e a r ly 1 8 0 0 * s ,
) F o r m any y e a r s ,
) F or j u s t a fe w y e a r s .
6, What part of the known coal deposits in the world are
found w ithin the boundaries of the United States?
Score
B-4
T
A
S
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
Nearly a l l of them,
A very few of them,
A large share of them,
A small fraction of them.
D
S
T o ta l
243
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on Coal
A-4
S elect the b est answer under each of the follow ing questions
and put an X in the parenthesis in front of that answer.
how t o
1 , A lt h o u g h c o a l i s
u se it ?
T
o f g r e a t v a l u e , w h en d i d man f i r s t
(
)
In
th e
(
)
In
1648.
(
(
) In th e 1 7 0 0 « s.
) In 1 8 5 0 .
2 , How f a r
is
it
le a r n
1 3 0 0 *s,
fr o m m o s t p a r t s
o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s t o
a coal
m in e ?
D
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
3000 m ile s .
500 m ile s ,
150 m ile s .
20 m i le s .
3 , How b i g a r e t h e c o m b in e d c o a l f i e l d s
A
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
2 0 0 ,0 0 0 a c r e s ,
3 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 a c r e s .
5 0 0 ,0 0 0 sq u a r e m i l e s ,
1 ,2 5 0 ,0 0 0 sq u a re m i le s ,
4 , How m uch c o a l w a s m in e d i n t h i s
S
o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ?
c o u n tr y in 1926?
( ) 5 0 0 th o u sa n d t o n s ,
( ) 1 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 t o n s ,
( ) 40 m illio n to n s .
( ) 680 m illio n to n s .
5 , How l o n g h a s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
m e n t o f m in e s a n d t h e s u p p l y o f c o a l ?
l e d t h e w o r ld i n t h e d e v e l o p ­
(
(
T
) S in c e 1 6 2 0 ,
) S in c e 1 7 7 6 .
( ) S in c e 1 8 2 0 .
( ) S in c e 1 8 9 9 .
6 , W hat p a r t o f t h e know n c o a l d e p o s i t s i n t h e w o r ld a r e
f o u n d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r ie s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ?
Score
A-4
T
A
(
(
S
) A b o u t o n e - t e n t h o f th e m ,
) A b o u t o n e - t h i r d o f th e m ,
( ) A b o u t t h r e e - f i f t h s o f th e m .
( ) A b o u t n i n e - t e n t h s o f th e m .
D
S
T o ta l
244
S a fe ty F ir s t
’’S a f e t y F i r s t "
t o m ake u s r e a l i z e
is
a w e l l know n s l o g a n o f t o d a y , .
t h a t we l i v e
w h ic h m ay i n j u r e o r k i l l u s .
liv e s
v e h ic le .
We c a n s e e t h e n e e d f o r
th ro u g h a c c id e n t s ,.
a liz e
in
d r e a d fu l fa c ts *
how s e r i o u s
H ere a r e s e v e r a l w a y s t o
th e y r e a lly a r e .
o f a c c id e n ts
c o n tin u e s .
100 o f th e s e a c c id e n t s w ore
1937 a b o u t 1 0 5 ,0 0 0 p e o p le l o s t
in t h i s m anner.
h a lf th e 1937 a c c id e n t d e a th t o l l .
annual t o l l
s u c h a s l o g a n w h en
The m o s t f r e q u e n t c a u s e w a s t h e m o t o r
A bout 3 9 ,5 0 0 w ere k i l l e d
T h ese a r e
I t s p u rp o se i s
i n a d a n g e r o u s a g e o f s p e e d i n g m a c h in e s
we le a r n t h a t i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
th e ir
1 -5
Our W o rld War l o s s
The War i s
lo n g
in
h e lp u s r e ­
l i v e s w as o n ly
s in c e o v e r , b u t th e
F u r th e r m o r e , a b o u t 37 o u t o f e v e r y
c a u se d b y a u to m o b ile s a l o n e .
I t has been
e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e y c a u s e d o n e d e a t h e v e r y 13 m i n u t e s .
T here a r e a v a il a b le
i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s a p p r o x im a te ly 3 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0
m i l e s o f r o a d w a y o v e r w h ic h a u t o m o b i l e s m ay t r a v e l .
an d v i l l a g e
str e e ts
T h is i n c l u d e s
an d p a v e d a n d u n p a v e d c o u n t r y r o a d s .
c ity
The t r a f f i c
on
t h e s e r o a d s c a u s e d on e d e a th f o r a p p r o x im a te ly e a c h 84 m i le s o f r o a d .
T h e r e a r e m any w a y s i n w h ic h t h i s y e a r l y t o l l
a v o id o d .
o f d e a t h s m ay b e
M o t o r i s t s a n d p e d e s t r i a n s m u s t a lw a y s f o l l o w
s a f e t y and ob ey t r a f f i c
la w s .
th e r u le s
of
S in c e m o st o f t h e a c c id e n t s o c c u r t o p e o p le
w h en c r o s s i n g h i g h w a y s , t h o s e h ig h w a y s m u s t b e e q u ip p e d w i t h o v e r p a s s e s
a n d u n d e r p a s s e s f o r b o t h m o t o r i s t s and p e d e s t r i a n s .
p r o v id e w e l l l o c a t e d
dangerous
p la y g r o u n d s s o t h a t c h i l d r e n do n o t h a v e t o p l a y o n
s t r e e t s a n d h ig h w a y s .
t o p r o v id e e a c h c h il d
in th e
s p a c e o n w h ic h t o p l a y .
th e y
c o u ld h o l p
C i t i e s m u st a l s o
T h o se p la y g r o u n d s s h o u l d b e l a r g e e n o u g h
co m m u n ity w i t h a t l e a s t 1 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t o f
I f m ore c o m m u n itie s o b s e r v e d a l l t h e s e t h i n g s ,
sa v e hundreds o f l i v e s
each y ea r.
245
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on S a f e t y F i r s t
B-5
S e le c t th e
b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f th e f o l lo w in g q u e s t io n s
and p u t an X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s is in f r o n t
o f t h a t a n sw er#
1# How m an y p e o p l e l o s t t h e i r
1937 b e c a u se o f a c c id e n t s ?
( ) A la r g e grou p .
liv e s
in t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
in
( ) Thousands of people*
S
( ) S e v e r a l p e o p le #
( ) A v e r y s m a l l num ber#
2# Of a l l t h e a c c i d e n t a l d e a t h s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
i n 1 9 3 7 , h ow m any w e r e c a u s e d b y m o to r v e h i c l e s ?
( ) O n ly a s m a l l n u m b e r ,
( ) N e a r l y a l l o f them #
S
( ) A c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t o f them #
( ) A lm o s t n o n e o f them #
3.
S ta te s?
T
lo s s
in
How o f t e n i n 1 9 3 7 d i d a u t o m o b i l e s
( ) E very fe w h o u rs#
( ) E very fe w m in u te s .
( ) O n ly o c c a s i o n a l l y #
( ) R a r e ly .
c a u se a d e a th i n t h e U n ite d
4* How d o e s o u r l o s s i n l i v e s i n t h e W o rld War co m p a re w i t h o u r
l i v e s in 1937 b eca u se o f a c c id e n t s ?
( ) Our w a r l o s s w a s o n l y a f r a c t i o n a l p a r t o f o u r 1 9 3 7
a c c id e n t lo s s #
( ) Our w a r l o s s w a s m uch g r e a t e r t h a n o u r 1 9 3 7 a c c i d e n t l o s s #
S
( ) Our w a r l o s s w a s a g r e a t d e a l
l e s s th a n our 1937a c c id e n t
lo s s #
( ) Our l o s s e s w e r e a b o u t t h e sam e i n n u m b e r ,
5 . I n t e r m s o f r o a d s a v a i l a b l e f o r a u t o m o b ile t r a f f i c , w h a t d i s t a n c e
on t h e s e r o a d s w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o a c h t r a f f i c a c c i d e n t ?
( ) M any, m any m i l o s #
( ) S e v e r a l m ile s ,
D
( ) A c o m p a r a t iv e ly s h o r t d i s t a n c e ,
( ) A g r e a t d is ta n c e .
th e r e
6 , A b o u t how m any m i l e s o f ro a d w a y f o r a u t o m o b i l e s a r e
i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ?
( ) A g r e a t m any m i l e s #
( ) S e v e r a l m ile s #
D
( ) A l a r g e n u m b er o f m i l e s #
( ) An e n o r m o u s num ber o f m i l e s #
7# To b e l a r g o e n o u g h t o k e o p a l l t h e c h i l d r e n o f f t h e
s t r e e t s , how m uch s p a c e s h o u l d p la y g r o u n d s p r o v id e f o r o a c h c h i l d ?
( ) An a r e a a b o u t t h e s i z o o f a c i t y b lo c k #
( ) An a r e a a b o u t t h o s i z e o f a b u i l d i n g l o t #
A
( ) An a r e a a b o u t t h o s i z o o f t h e a v e r a g e b ed ro o m
flo o r #
( ) An a r e a a b o u t t h e s i z e o f a c l o t h o s - c l o s e t f l o o r .
Score
B -5
A
T o ta l
Q u e stio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on S a f e t y F i r s t
S e l e c t th e b e s t a n sw er und er e a ch o f
and p u t an X in th e p a r e n th e s is in fr o n t o f
1 , How m any p e o p l e l o s t t h e i r
1937 b e c a u se o f a c c id e n t s ?
( ) A b ou t 50*
( ) A bout 1 0 ,0 0 0 ,
S
( ) A bout 1 0 5 ,0 0 0 .
( ) A bout 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .
in
liv e s
A -5
th e f o llo w in g q u e s t io n s
t h a t a n sw er*
i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
in
2 , Of a l l t h e a c c i d e n t a l d e a t h s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
1 9 3 7 , how m any w e r e c a u s e d b y m o to r v e h i c l e s ?
( ) A b o u t 87 o u t o f e v e r y 1 0 0 ,
( ) A bout 37 o u t o f e v e r y 1 0 0 ,
S
( ) A bout 20 o u t o f e v e r y 1 0 0 .
( ) A bout
8 out o f every 100,
S ta te s?
lo s s
in
3 , How o f t e n i n 1 9 3 7
( ) One e v e r y
( ) One e v e r y
T
( ) One e v e r y
( ) One e v e r y
d id a u t o m o b i l e s
4 h o u rs,
6 0 m in u t e s *
13 m i n u t e s .
5 seco n d s.
c a u se a d e a th i n t h e U n ite d
4 , How d o e s o u r l o s s i n l i v e s i n t h e W o rld War co m p a re w i t h o u r
l i v e s in 1937 b e c a u se o f a c c id e n ts ?
( ) Our w a r l o s s w a s a b o u t o n e - t e n t h o f o u r a c c i d e n t l o s s ,
( ) Our w a r l o s s w a s a b o u t o n e - h a l f o f o u r a c c i d e n t l o s s ,
S
( ) Our w a r l o s s w a s a b o u t t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f o u r a c c i d e n t
lo s s
( ) Our l o s s e s w e r e e q u a l i n n u m b e r .
5 , I n te r m s o f r o a d s a v a i l a b l e f o r a u to m o b ile t r a f f i c , w h a t d is t a n c e
on t h e s e r o a d s w as r e s p o n s ib le f o r o a ch t r a f f i c a c c id e n t ?
( ) A bout 84 m ile s
o f road,
( ) A bout 30 m ile s
o f road,
D
( ) A b o u t 2-g- m i l e s
o f road,
( ) A bout a h a l f m ile o f r o a d ,
6 , A bout
U n ite d S t a t e s ?
(
(
D
(
(
how m any m i l e s o f ro a d w a y f o r a u t o m o b i l e s a r e t h e r e i n t h e
)
)
)
)
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
2 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 m i l e s ,
3 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0 m i l e s .
3 5 0 , 0 0 0 m f e le s ,
5 0 ,0 0 0 m i l e s .
7, To be large enough to keep a l l the children o ff tho
s tr e e ts , how much space should playgrounds provide for oach
child?
( ) About 1600 square f e e t ,
( ) About 900 square fe p t,
A ( ) About 300 square fe o t,
( ) About 100 square f e o t.
Score
A
T o ta l
247
R eaping T ools
F o r m any t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s f a r m e r s
lik e
t h o s e w h ic h w e c a l l
w e r e m ade o f f l i n t ,
s ic k le s .
1-6
c u t t h e i r g r a i n w i t h h an d t o o l s ,
The b l a d e s
o f th e p r im itiv e
o f bone,
la te r
o f b r o n z e , and f i n a l l y
o u r e a r l y A m e r ic a n c o l o n i s t s
s till
u sed th e
rocky s o i l s .
W ith i t
a s t r o n g man n e e d e d a w h o le d a y t o
The s c y t h e w a s a n im p r o v e m e n t o n t h e
a tta c h e d to
have to
a h a n d le w h ic h w a s a b o u t 5
sto o p
lo w a t h i s w o r k .
c u t a w id e r s w a th .
s t e e l s ic k le
s ic k le .
s ic k le s
of s te e l.
E ven
fo r h a r v e s tin g
on
cu t an a c r e o f g r a in .
I t had a
f e e t l o n g . W ith i t
lo n g e r k n if e
a
man d id n o t
He c o u l d s t a n d , u s e b o t h a r m s , a n d c o u ld
By k e e p i n g s t e a d i l y a t w o r k , a man w i t h a s c y t h e
c o u ld
c u t s e v e r a l t i m e s a s m uch g r a i n i n a d a y a s a man w i t h a s i c k l e .
The c r a d l e
s c y t h e w a s i n v e n t e d an d w i d e l y u s e d i n t h e A m e r ic a n
c o lo n i e s a t a b o u t t h e tim e o f th e R e v o lu t io n .
I t w a s a n im p r o v e m e n t o n
t h e s c y t h e s f o r m e r l y u s e d b e c a u s e i t w a s e q u ip p e d w i t h 3 o r 4 w o o d e n s t r i p s
above th e
c u ttin g k n if e .
The g r a i n ,
in s te a d
o f d r o p p in g t o t h e g r o u n d a s
i t w a s c u t , now c o u l d b e c a u g h t b y t h e s e w o o d e n s t r i p s
It
c o u ld t h e n be r a k e d i n t o
i t w as p o s s ib le f o r
p ile s
o n e man t o
and l a i d
and bound in t o b u n d le s .
in to
ro w s.
W ith t h i s
to o l,
c u t a n d h a r v e s t a s m uch a s t h r e e m en c o u ld
h a r v e s t f o r m e r l y w i t h t h e o l d e r k in d o f s c y t h e .
E ven th o u g h t h e
s c y t h e , man s t i l l
h is
cro p s.
d e v e lo p e d a
c r a d l e w a s a n im p r o v e m e n t o n t h e
h ad t o
depend a lt o g e t h e r
I t w as n o t u n t i l 1831 t h a t
4 0 y e a r s o f im p r o v e m e n t, t h i s m a c h in e
c o u ld a ls o
b in d
b in d e r w it h a l l
a b o u t 20 a c r e s
it
its
in to
a man nam ed
im p r o v e m e n ts i s
o f g r a in in one d a y .
From
C y ru s W. M cC orm ick had
th e f i r s t i t
b a c k -b r e a k in g t o i l .
c o u ld n o t o n l y c u t t h e
b u n d le s w i t h t w i n e .
and th e
on h i s m u s c le s in h a r v e s t in g
r e a p i n g m a c h in e d raw n b y h o r s e s .
t h e w o r k o f a d o z e n m en w i t h m uch l e s s
s ic k le
In f a c t ,
c o u ld do
A fte r about
g r a in b u t
th e p r e s e n t day
so e f f i c i e n t t h a t i t
c a n c u t an d b in d
248
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on Re a p in g T ools
B-6
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f th e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t io n s
and p u t an X in t h e p a r e n t h e s is i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r .
1# How m u ch g r a i n
A
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
t h e h a n d le o f a s c y t h e ?
( ) The l e n g t h o f a m a n ’ s a rm .
( ) Long,
( ) S h o r t,
( ) T w ic e t h e h e i g h t o f a m a n .
3 , How m any w o o d e n s t r i p s
t h e g r a i n i n t o r o w s?
S
4,
to
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
c r a d le
s c y t h e h ave t o h e lp
la y
S e v e r a l.
A v e r y l a r g e n u m b e r.
M any,
A v e r y fe w ,
)
)
)
)
do t h e w o r k o f how m any men?
S e v e r a l.
A v e r y la r g e num ber.
A la r g e group*
Q u i t e a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b er,
5* From t h e t i m e o f M cC o rm ick ’ s f i r s t m a c h in e , how l o n g d i d i t
im p r o v e t h e r e a p e r s o t h a t i t w o u ld b i n d a s w e l l a s c u t g r a in ?
(
(
T
in
)
)
)
)
d id t h e
I n 1 8 3 1 , M cC o r m ick ’ s r e a p e r c o u l d
S
c u t i n o n e day?
A la r g e
f i e l d o f g r a in .
A s m a ll f i e l d o f g r a in .
A
fie ld
a s b ig a s th e a v e r a g e fa r m .
A fie ld
a s b ig a s a c i t y b lo c k .
2 , How l o n g i s
D
c a n a s t r o n g man w i t h a s i c k l e
(
(
)
)
)
)
ta k e
Many y e a r s ,
A v ery sh o r t tim e .
S ev e r a l c e n tu r ie s ,
S e v e r a l g e n e r a tio n s .
6 , How m uch g r a i n c a n a p r e s e n t d a y b i n d e r c u t and b in d i n t o b u n d le s
one day?
. s
( ) The a r e a o f a c i t y b l o c k .
Score
( ) A m ed iu m s i z e d f i e l d .
g .g
A
(
) An a r e a e q u a l t o a n a v e r a g e s i z e d f a r m .
( ) A v e r y s m a ll f i e l d .
7# How long, would i t take a strong man with a sick le to
cut an acre of grain?
T
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
very short time.
long
time.
Quite a few hours,
A
very long period.
A
A
A
T o ta l
249
Q u e stio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on R eaping T o o ls
A-6
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f th e f o llo w in g q u e s t io n s
and p u t an X in th e p a r e n t h e s is i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r .
1 , How m u ch g r a i n
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
A
2 , How l o n g i s
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
\
4.
th e
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
h a n d le o f a s c y t h e ?
one f o o t #
20 in c h e s .
5 fe e t.
25 f e e t .
th e c r a d le s c y t h e have t o h e lp
la y
( ) A bout 2 5 .
( ) A bout 1 5 .
( ) T hree o r f o u r .
( ) O n ly o n e *
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A hundred,
F ifty .
A d ozen,
Tw o,
■ 5 . From t h e t i m e o f M cC o rm ick ’ s f i r s t m a c h in e , how lo n g d i d
im p r o v e t h e r e a p e r s o t h a t i t w o u ld b in d a s w e l l a s c u t g r a in ?
T
in
d id
I n 1 8 3 1 , M cC o rm ick ’ s r e a p e r c o u l d do t h e w o rk o f how m any men?
S
to
one day?
o f an a c r e .
3 . How m any w o o d e n s t r i p s
t h e g r a i n i n t o r o w s?
S
c u t in
( ) About one aore,
( ) A bout
D
c a n a s t r o n g man w i t h a s i c k l e
10 a c r e s *
6 a cres.
( )
( )
( )
( )
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
A
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
ta k e
3 years,
15 y e a r s ,
40 y e a r s .
100 y e a r s .
6 , How m uch g r a i n
one day?
( )
( )
( )
( )
it
c a n a p r e s e n t d a y b i n d e r c u t an d b in d
into bundles
S core
5 acres,
20 a c r e s ,
60 a c r e s .
120 a c r e s .
A-6
T
A
7 , How l o n g w o u ld i t
c u t a n a c r e o f g r a in ?
T
t a k e a s t r o n g man w i t h a s i c k l e
( ) One m o n th ,
( ) Two w e e k s .
( ) A w h o le d a y ,
( ) Two h o u r s .
to
■ "
i-
P
S
T o ta l
FORM
Name
Y
II
D a te
G rad e
School
C ity
A ge ( n e a r e s t b i r t h d a y )
T im e
A1
A rea
A1
A1
Size
Al-6
Total
B l-6
250
251
DI RECTI ONS
In t h i s t e s t y ou w i l l f in d s i x a r t i c l e s t h a t d e a l w ith s o c i a l
sc ie n c e t o p ic s .
On s e p a r a t e p a g e s a f t e r e a c h a r t i c l e y o u w i l l f i n d som e
q u e s tio n s t h a t a r e b a se d on i t s c o n t e n t s .
The p u r p o s e o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s
i s t o f i n d o u t how w e l l y o u u n d e r s t a n d c e r t a i n p a r t s o f t h e a r t i c l e .
Y ou a r e t o r e a d t h e f i r s t a r t i c l e v e r y c a r e f u l l y .
You m ay r e a d
an y p a r t o f i t a g a in i f you f e e l you n eed t o ,
'ftien t u r n t o t h e q u e s ­
tio n s ,
T h e r e a r e tw o p a g e s o f q u e s t i o n s o n e a c h a r t i c l e .
You a r e t o
a n sw er b o th p a g e s o f q u e s t io n s w ith o u t tu r n in g b ack t o th e a r t i c l e .
When y o u h a v e f i n i s h e d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n s o n t h e f i r s t a r t i c l e , t u r n
i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e n e x t a r t i c l e a n d do a s y o u d i d w i t h t h e f i r s t .
Con­
t i n u e i n t h i s m a n n er t o t h o e n d o f t h e t e s t .
L ook i t
to d o.
H e r e i s a s a m p le o f t h e t y p e o f q u e s t i o n s
w h ic h y o u a r e t o a n s w e r .
o v e r v e r y c a r e f u l l y s o t h a t y o u w i l l know e x a c t l y w h a t y o u a r e
S a m p le q u e s t i o n
When d id L i n c o l n f r e e
( )
( )
(X )
( )
th o s la v e s ?
I m m e d ia t e ly a f t e r h e w a s e l e c t e d P r e s i d e n t ,
B e f o r e t h e C i v i l War b e g a n ,
D u r in g t h e C i v i l War p o r i o d ,
A f t e r t h e C i v i l War w a s o v e r .
N o t i c e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n , ’’When d id L i n c o l n f r e e t h e s l a v e s ? " i s
f o l l o w e d b y f o u r p o s s i b l e a n s w e r s , o n e o f w h ic h i s t h e b e s t .
The t h i r d
a n sw er i s th e b e s t , so an X h a s b e e n p u t in t h e p a r e n t h e s is i n f r o n t o f
t h a t an sw er.
A l l o f t h o q u o s t i o n s i n t h i s t e s t w i l l b e l i k e t h e s a m p le a b o v e .
You a r e t o s e l e c t t h o b e s t a n s w e r u n d e r e a c h q u e s t i o n a n d t o p u t a n X
i n t h e p a r e n t h e s i s i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r *
You m ay b e g i n r e a d i n g t h e f i r s t a r t i c l e w h en t h e o x a m in e r g i v e s
t h e s i g n a l , " G o," A sk a n y q u e s t i o n s w h ic h y o u m ay h a v e n o w , b e c a u s e
y o u w i l l n o t b e p e r m i t t e d t o a s k th e m a f t o r y o u b e g i n w o r k .
Rem em ber t h a t y o u a r o n o t p e r m i t t e d t o t u r n b a c k t o t h o a r t i c l e
a f t o r y o u h a v e f i n i s h e d r e a d in g i t .
Do n o t t u r n t h i s
p a g e u n t i l y o u h a v e b e e n a s k e d t o do so *
252
Oil
O il i s
pow er.
II-l
one o f th e w o r ld ’ s m o st r e c e n t ly
S t r a n g e ly e n o u g h , h o w e v e r , p e o p le
b e fo r e
it
w as d is c o v e r e d
w ho cam e t o
th is
i n N o r t h A m e r ic a ,
c o u n tr y le a r n e d t h a t th e
I t w as know n c h i e f l y
in
fo r th is
d is c o v e r e d
it.
o ils
lig h tin g
in
T h is
E ven t h e
f i r s t w h ite
I n d ia n s u s e d i t
m ix e d w it h
d r ille d
v a n ia ,
th e
in
a s a m e d ic in e *
in
1 9 th
d is c o v e r e d a new
p la c e
o f a n im a l
1854,
T h is
a n d m en b e g a n t o
o f d e e p w e l l s w h ic h t h e y h a d d r i l l e d ;
T h is
d e fin ite
la r g e
o il,
T h ey h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e e n a n n o y e d b y f i n d i n g
p r o d u c t.
w ith th e
in
c r e a t e d a g r e a t dem and f o r
fo r i t .
th e w a te r
p roduce o i l
s e ttle r s
la m p s .
d is c o v e r y
cam e a v a l u a b l e
lo n g
p u r p o s e u n t i l a b o u t t h e m id d le o f t h e
T he n e w p r o d u c t , k e r o s e n e , w a s u s e d
s e a r c h w id e ly
of
E u rop e knew a b o u t o i l
c e n t u r y w h e n a P i t t s b u r g h d r u g g i s t n a m ed S a m u e l K i e r
u se fo r
so u rces
le d
to
p u rp o se o f
th e
id e a
s tr ik in g
q u a n t i t ie s w as d r i l l e d
uf i n d u l e d
s u r r o u n d in g r e g io n .
to
By 1 8 6 0 a
be­
t h a t w e l l s m ig h t a ls o
o il.
near
T itu s v ille ,
la r g e t e r r i t o r y
be
T he f i r s t w e l l t o
a n o i l b oom t h a t
w a s m ade o v e r f r o m a p o o r f a r m i n g a r e a t o
now i t
it
P e n n s y l­
sp rea d r a p id ly to
around T it u s v il le
a very a c tiv e
o il
fie ld .
I t b e c a m e t h e b u s y c e n t e r o f a n ew i n d u s t r y .
By t h e en d o f t h e
th e
a u to m o b ile
w id e r
c o u n tr y i s
o f th e
in v e n t io n o f t h e
g r e a te r
no
lo n g e r
o f th e
c o u n tr y .
p r o d u c in g f i e l d s
r e fin e d and u se d .
fro m t h e
to d a y
G reat d is ta n c e s
in d u s tr ia l
o il,
c e n te r o f o i l
in P e n n s y lv a n ia ,
U n ite d S t a t e s
g a s e n g in e and
d em ands f o r
o i l w a s m ade u n t i l t o d a y t h e
great o il fie ld s
s e c tio n s
th e
c r e a t e d new a n d s t i l l
search fo r
in t h is
c e n tu r y
lie
On t h e
th e
p r o d u c tio n
c o n tr a r y , th e
sc a tte r e d
sep a ra te
A s till
in
th e rem o te
c h ie f o i l -
s e c t io n w h ere m ost o f th e
o il
is
253
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on O il
A -l
S e le c t th e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f t h e f o llo w in g q u e s t io n s
and p u t an X in th e p a r e n th e s is in f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw er.
1 . A c c o r d in g t o t h e b e s t e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e , w h en d id p e o p l e
E u r o p e f i r s t h a v e som e k n o w le d g e o f o i l ?
T
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
As
As
As
As
e a r ly
e a r ly
e a r ly
e a r ly
as
as
as
as
in
1856.
1556.
800,
2 0 0 0 B .C .
2 . How f a r a r e t h e c h i e f o i l f i e l d s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s fr o m t h e
i n d u s t r i a l s e c t i o n s w h ic h r o f i n e a n d u s e t h e o i l ?
D
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
25 m i l e s *
150 m ilo s .
1000 m ile s .
3500 m ile s .
3 . W hat w a s t h e a r e a o f t h e f i r s t p r o d u c t i v e o i l f i e l d
s y lv a n ia in 1860?
A
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
one sq u aro m i le .
16 s q u a r e m i l e s .
100 sq u are m ile s .
3 0 ,0 0 0 sq u a ro m i l e s .
4 . How m uch d i d t h e w e l l d r i l l e d
S
(
(
(
(
in
1854 n ea r T it u s v i l l e p rod u ce?
) A bout
20 b a r r e ls ad a y ,
) From 4 0 0 t o 1 0 0 0 g a l l o n s a d a y ,
) A b o u t 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 g a l l o n s a d a y .
) A bout 1500 b a r r e ls a d a y .
5 . When w a s k e r o s e n e f i r s t u s e d a s a n o i l f o r l i g h t i n g
(
(
(
(
i n P enn­
)
)
)
)
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
la m p s?
1492.
1620,
1852.
1900.
T otal
254
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on O il
B -l
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f th e f o l lo w in g
an d p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s i s i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r *
q u e s t io n s
1 , A c o o r d in g t o t h e b e s t e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e , w h en d i d p e o p l e i n
E u r o p e f i r s t h a v e som e k n o w le d g e o f o i l ?
T
th e
( ) A b o u t t h e m i d d le o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y .
( ) A b o u t t h e t i m e o f t h e A m e r ic a n R e v o l u t i o n *
( ) A t t h e b e g in n in g o f t h e p r e s e n t c e n tu r y *
( ) L ong b e f o r e o i l w a s d i s c o v e r e d i n N o r th A m e r ic a .
2 , How f a r a r e t h e c h i e f o i l f i e l d s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s fr o m
i n d u s t r i a l s e c t i o n s w h ic h r e f i n e a n d u s e t h e o i l ?
D
( ) Q u ite a fe w m i l e s .
( ) O n ly a s h o r t d i s t a n c e ,
( ) S ev era l m ile s ,
( ) G reat d is t a n c e s .
3 , W hat w a s t h e a r e a o f t h e f i r s t p r o d u c t i v e o i l f i e l d
P e n n s y lv a n ia in 1860?
A
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A lm o s t a s b i g a s t h e w h o le s t a t e .
A la r g e t e r r i t o r y ,
The a r e a o f s e v e r a l c i t y b l o c k s .
A s m a ll d i s t r i c t ,
4 , How m uch d id t h e w e l l d r i l l e d
S
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
in 1854 n ea r T i t u s v i l l e
p roduce?
O n ly s m a l l a m o u n t s .
Im m ense q u a n t i t i e s ,
L arge q u a n t i t i e s ,
O n ly a l i t t l e o i l .
5 , When w a s k e r o s e n e f i r s t u s e d a s a n o i l f o r
T
in
lig h tin g
( ) D u r in g t h e R e v o l u t i o n ,
( ) B e fo r e t h e tim e o f C h r is t ,
( ) A b o u t t h e m i d d le o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y .
( ) V ery r e c e n t l y .
la m p s?
Soore
B -l
T
A
D
S
T otal
255
D ev e lo p m e n t o f A v i a t i o n
II-2
F o r c e n t u r i e s m en h a v e d r ea m ed t h a t t h e y m ig h t l e a r n how t o
th e
a i r w i t h m uch t h e
sam e e a s e v r it h w h ic h t h e y t r a v e l e d
f i r s t t h e y e x p e r im e n t e d w i t h b a l l o o n s
w h ic h m en w i s h e d t o
g o b e c a u s e t h e y d e p e n d e d s o m uch o n c u r r e n t s
fir s t
su c c e ssfu l f lig h t
in th e d ir e c t io n
in
o f a ir .
i n a p o w e r o d p l a n e t h a t c o u ld bo p i l o t e d .
on D ecem b er 1 7 ,
a sh o r t d is ta n c e
e v e r , th e
c o u ld n o t b e p i l o t e d
an d W ilb u r ’W r ig h t o f D a y t o n , O h io , a r e g i v e n c r e d i t f o r m a k in g
H aw k, N o r th C a r o l i n a ,
an d f l e w
At
and g l i d e r s , b u t t h e y h a d v e r y l i m i t e d
T h ese d e v ic e s
th e
th ro u g h
o n la n d an d s e a .
c o n t r o l o v e r th e m .
O r v ille
fly
and s t a y e d
1903, th e ir
in th e
a ir
f l i g h t p r o v e d t h a t f l y i n g th r o u g h t h e
a ir p la n e
l e f t th e
At K itty
grou n d
o n ly a v e r y b r i e f t im e .
How­
a i r w as a p o s s i b i l i t y .
From t h e t i m e o f t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s ’ f l i g h t u n t i l t h e W o r ld W ar, f l y i n g
w as l a r g e l y e x p e r i m e n t a l .
g r e a t n u m b ers.
enem y.
D u r in g t h e W ar, h o w e v e r , a i r p l a n e s w e r e b u i l t i n
T h ey w e r e o f g r o a t v a l u e f o r
T h is u s e h e l p e d t o
s p e e d up a i r p l a n e
o b s e r v a t i o n an d f o r b o m b in g t h e
d e v e lo p m e n t .
In f a c t ,
in
com­
p a r a t i v e l y a f e w y e a r s o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n m any o f t h o pr o b le m s o f f l y i n g h a v e
b een so lv e d .
fa ste r .
Now m o t o r s h a v e boon d e v e lo p e d t o m ake t h o p l a n e s
T r a n s p o r t p i a n o s ho.vo b o o n made b i g
o f p e o p le a s w e l l a s q u a n t i t ie s
en ou gh t o
go h i g h e r an d
c a r r y a l a r g o num ber
o f m a il end f r e i g h t *
A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h o U n it o d S t a t o s h a s t h o g r c a t o s t a ir w a y s y s t e m
in th e w o r ld .
r a ilr o a d s
I t c o n s is ts
o f a b o u t 2 8 ,2 6 7 m i le s
o f t h e n a t i o n h a v e a m i l e a g e w h ic h i s
F e d e r a l G o v e rn m e n t h a s d o n e m any t h i n g s t o
g r o a t a ir W a y s y s t e m .
f o r n ig h t f l y i n g .
f i e l d s m u st b o f a i r l y
The
as g r e a t*
The
a i d i n t h e d o v c lo p m c n t o f t h i s
a t sh o rt in t e r v a ls
a lo n g t h e r o u t e s .
e m e r g e n c y l a n d i n g f i o l d s w h ic h a r c n o t f a r a p a r t .
la r g e
tw o d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s
arc w e ll lig h te d
s e v e r a l tim e s
flic s .
I t h a s e q u ip p e d t h o m a in a ir w a y s w i t h f l a s h i n g b e a c o n s
T h ese a r c p la c e d
a ls o has e s ta b lis h e d
a s th e p ia n e
in
a rea in
T h ese
o r d e r t o p r o v i d e r a t h e r l o n g ru n w a y s i n
o n w h ic h p i a n o s may la n d a n d t a k e o f f .
a n d m a in t a .in w e a t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s t a t i o n s .
h a v e h e l p e d t o m ake f l y i n g
It
M o st o f th em
A ll th e s e s e r v ic e s
s a f e r an d m o re p o p u la r a s a m ean s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .
256
Q u e s tio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on A v ia t io n
A -2
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f t h e f o llo w in g q u e s t io n s
and p u t an X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s is i n f r o n t o f t h a t an sw er#
1# How f a r d i d t h e f i r s t
H aw k, N o r t h C a r o l i n a , i n 1 9 0 3 ?
D
has i t
N e a r ly
p l a n e o f t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s f l y a t K i t t y
(
)
(
(
(
) A b ou t 2 0 ,0 0 0 f e e t #
1 A bout t e n m ile s #
) A bout f o r t y m ile s #
a th o u sa n d
feet#
2 , A f t e r t h o i n v e n t i o n o f t h e f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l p o w e r p l a n e , how
ta k en to
s o l v e m any o f t h e p r o b le m s o f a v i a t i o n ?
( ) A bout 200 y e a r s#
(
) M o re t h a n 75 y e a r s #
T
(
) L o ss th a n 35 y e a r s #
( ) A bout 5 y e a r s#
3# A c c o r d in g t o t h e a r t i c l o
t r a n s p o r t p la n e s ca rry ?
( ) L o s s t h a n 5#
( l A s m an y a s 4 0 .
S
(
) M oro t h a n 75#
( ) A bout 200#
y o u r e a d , how m any p e r s o n s c a n m o d e r n
4 # How d o c s t h e m i l e a g e o f t h o
t h e a ir w a y s o f t h i s c o u n t r y ?
(
) Tho m i l e a g e o f o n e i s
(
^ Tho r a i l r o a d m i l e a g e
S
(
) Tho r a i l r o a d m i lo a g o
(
} Tho r a i l r o a d m i l o a g o
it s
lo n g
r a i l r o a d s co m p a re w i t h t h e m ile a g e , o f
eq u a l t o th a t o f th e o th e r *
is
h a l f t h o m i l e a g e o f t h e a ir w a y s #
is
9 t i m o s t h o m i l e a g e o f t h o a ir w a y s #
is
2 5 t i m e s t h e m i l e a g e o f t h e a ir w a y s #
5# How l o n g d i d t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s 1 f i r s t p l a n e s t a y i n t h e a i r
t r i a l f l i g h t a t K i t t y H aw k, N o r t h C a r o lin a ?
^ | 59 s e c o n d s #
T en m i n u t e s #
T
( ) A bout h
a l f a day#
ha!
( ) 30 h o u r s ,
d u r in g
6 # How f a r a p a r t
c o u n tr y ?
(
) A bout
( ) A bout
D
(
) A bout
( ) A bout
a r e t h e em erg en cy la n d in g f i e l d s
1000 m ile s #
200 m ile s #
4 0 m ile s #
a h a l f m ile #
7# How f a r
apart
c o u n tr y ?
(
) A bout
I ) A bout
D
I
i A bout
( ) A bout
a r e t h e f l a s h i n g b e a c o n s o n t h e m a in a ir w a y s o f o u r
2 m ile s #
15 m ile s .
S core
100 m ile s #
A -2
500 m ile s #
8 , O f w h at s i z e a r e th e em ergen cy la n d in g f i e l d s
a ir w a y s ?
( )
A bout 10 sq u a ro m ile s #
( )
A bout 200 a c r e s #
A
( )
A bout 6 0 a c r e s #
( )
A bout 2 a c r e s #
fie ld s ?
9 . How l o n g
( )
( )
D
( /
( )
on t h e a ir w a y s o f o u r
r
o n t h e m a in
a r e t h o r u n w a y s on m o s t o f t h o e m e r g e n c y l a n d i n g
A bout 3 m ilo s #
A bout h a l f a m ile #
A bout 100 y a rd s*
A bout 50 fo o t #
k
T o ta l
257
Q u e stio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on A v ia t io n
B -2
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f t h e f o llo w in g q u e s t io n s and
p u t an X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s is in f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw er*
1 * How f a r d i d t h e f i r s t p l a n e o f t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s f l y
H aw k, N o r t h C a r o l i n a , i n 1 9 0 3 ?
( ) A lo n g d is t a n c e *
( J A sh o r t d is ta n o e .
D
( ) A b ou t t h e le n g t h o f a c i t y b lo c k *
( ) A bout th e le n g t h o f a c i t y lo t *
has i t
a t K itty
2 * A f t e r t h e i n v e n t i o n o f t h e f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l p o w er p l a n e , how l o n g
t a k e n t o s o l v e m any o f t h e p r o b le m s o f a v i a t i o n ?
C o m p a r a t i v e ly a fo w y o a r s *
M any y e a r s ,
T
{ ) S e v e r a l c e n tu r ie s *
M ore t h a n a l i f e t i m e *
3 , A c c o r d in g t o t h e a r t i c l e
t r a n s p o r t p la n e s ca rry ?
A g r o a t cr o w d *
S o v o r a l p e o p le *
S
£ ) A l a r g o num bor*
O n ly a fo w *
y o u r o a d , how m any p e r s o n s c a n m od ern
4 * How d o e s t h e m i l e a g e o f t h e r a i l r o a d s c o m p a re w i t h t h e m i l e a g e o f
t h e a ir w a y s o f t h i s c o u n t r y ?
Tho a ir w a y m i lo a g o i s m uch g r o a t o r #
Tho r a i l r o a d m i l e a g e i s s e v e r a l t i m e s a s g r o a t *
S
( ) Tho r a i l r o a d m i l e a g e i s much s m a l l e r ,
Tho m ilo e .g o o f o a c h i s n e a r l y t h o s a m e ,
5* How l o n g d i d t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s * f i r s t p l a n e
d u r in g i t s t r i a l f l i g h t a t K i t t y Hawk* N o r t h C a r o lin a ?
( } F o r o n l y a v e r y b r i e f p e r io d *
( I A l o n g t im o #
T
( ) F o r som e t i m o *
( ) F o r a v e r y lo n g p e r io d *
6 , How f a r
c o u n tr y ?
( )
( )
D
C )
( )
7.
co u n tr y ?
w a y s?
flo ld s ?
a p a r t a r e t h o cm crgon cy la n d in g
G reat d is ta n c e s *
N ot f a r a p a r t*
M any m i l e s *
V ery s h o r t d is t a n c e s *
How f a r
(
)
(
)
D
(
)
( )
8* O f w h a t
(
)
, ( )
A ( )
( ;
fie ld s
s ta y in th o
a ir
o n t h e a ir w a y s o f o u r
a p a r t a r c t h e f l a s h i n g b e a c o n s o n t h e m a in a ir w a y s o f o u r
V ery c lo s o to g e th e r *
V ory g r o a t d is t a n c o s a p a r t ,
A t lo n g i n t e r v a l s *
Score
At sh o r t in te r v a ls *
B -2
s i z e a r e th o cm crgon cy la n d in g f l o l d s
F a .ir ly la r g o #
V ery s m a ll*
The a r o a o f a c i t y b l o c k ,
Tho a r o a o f a v e r y l a r g o farm #
o n t h e m a in a i r *
9 * How l o n g a r o t h e r u n w a y s o n m o s t o f t h e e m e r g e n c y la n d i n g
t
C ) Q u i t o a fo w m i l e s #
( } Q u ito s h o r t #
D I
) R a th o r lo n g *
( } C o n s id e r a b le d is t a n c e #
T o ta l
258
II-3
F e w est C o n se r v a tio n
I t h a s b e e n e s t i m a t e d t h a t o u r c o u n t r y c o n su m e s a l m o s t t w o - f i f t h s
t h e tim b e r u s e d i n t h e e n t i r e w o r ld .
o u t p la n s f o r r e p l a c i n g o u r f o r e s t s
U n ite d S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v ic e
o f a cres o f id le
is
it
is
t o k e e p up w i t h t h e dem and f o r w o o d .
la n d w h ic h c o u ld b e r e p l a n t e d t o
i t w i t h th e m fr o m E u r o p e ,
I t h a s fo u n d m i l l i o n s
trees.
I t has urged th a t
is
For t h i s
ou r tim b e r s u p p ly .
n o t new .
The A m e r ic a n c o l o n i s t s b r o u g h t
r e a s o n , t h e r e a r e som e co m m u n ity f o r e s t s
i n New E n g la n d w h ic h h a v e b e e n i n e x i s t e n c e
sin c e c o lo n ia l d a y s.
T od ay t h e
U n it e d S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e p o r t s t h a t a l a r g e n u m b er o f f o r e s t s
sta r te d in a t le a s t
la k e s t a t e s .
acres
The
l a n d s s e c u r e a n d m a i n t a i n th e m f o r f o r e s t r y
T h is w o u ld h e l p r e s t o r e
The c o m m u n ity f o r e s t i d e a
v e r y im p o r t a n t t h a t w e w o r k
w o r k in g o n s u c h p l a n s .
f a r m e r s o r c o m m u n it ie s n e a r t h e s e
p u rp o ses.
H ence,
of
27 s t a t e s — p r i n c i p a l l y
have been
i n New Y o r k , New E n g la n d , a n d t h e
T h e s e f o r e s t s v a r y fr o m j u s t a f e w a c r e s t o
s e v e r a l th o u sa n d
in s i z e .
The v a l u e
o f s m a ll p ie c e s
o f tim b e r can b e s t b e d e m o n s tr a te d b y s t u d y ­
in g t h e
e x p e r i e n c e o f f a r m e r s who h a v e m a i n t a in e d s m a l l w o o d l o t s o n t h e i r
fa r m s.
T h e s e m en h a v e l o o k e d u p o n t h e i r t im b e r a s a c r o p t h a t c a n b e r a i s e d
a s a n y o t h e r fa r m c r o p .
is
The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e i s
r e q u ir e d f o r t h e tim b e r
crop t o
t h a t a lo n g p e r i o d o f y e a r s
g ro w t o m a t u r i t y .
H ow ever,
s i n c e m any o f
t h e t r e e s m a t u r e e a c h y e a r , t h e t i m b e r c r o p y i o l d s a n a n n u a l in c o m e ,
w i t h l a r g e t r u n k s a r e c u t down f o r lu m b e r .
s o m e tim e s c u t up i n t o
cordw ood.
is
The s h o r t e r o r c r o o k e d p a r t s a r e
a n d t h e t o p s an d b r a n c h e s a r e c u t up i n t o
T h u s, b y u s in g a l l p a r t s o f th e t r e e ,
in c r e a s e d .
la r g e
fe n c e p o s ts ,
In f a c t ,
T roes
th e
in c o m e o f t h e t i m b e r l o t
somo f a r m e r s r e p o r t t h a t t h e y h a v e r e c e i v e d f a i r l y
in c o m e s fr o m o a c h a c r e o f t h e i r w o o d l o t s e a c h y e a r .
I n c a r i n g f o r th e m ,
t h e y h a v e f o u n d t h a t t h e y h a v e n o t o n l y m ade a g o o d i n v e s t m e n t b u t t h a t t h e y
a r o h e l p i n g t o k e e p up t h e
tim b e r s u p p ly o f ou r c o u n t r y .
Q u e stio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on F o r e st C o n ser v a tio n
S e l e c t th e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f t h e f o llo w in g
and p u t an X in th e p a r e n t h e s is in fr o n t o f t h a t a n sw er.
1 . A b o u t w h en w e r e co m m u n ity f o r e s t s
E n g la n d ?
( ) A bout 1 4 9 2 .
( ) A bout 1 7 1 0 .
T
( ) A bout 1 8 0 0 .
( ) A bout 1 8 6 0 .
2 . How m any co m m u n ity f o r e s t s
v a r io u s p a r t s o f t h e c o u n tr y ?
S
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
3 . How b i g
A
is
e s t a b lis h e d
i n New
have been s t a r te d r e c e n tly
in
t h e a v e r a g e fa r m w o o d lo t ?
(
) A bout h a l f an a c r e .
(
) A b o u t tw o a c r e s ,
( ) A t l e a s t 20 a c r e s ,
( ) A bout 100 a c r e s *
(
(
(
(
5 . How b i g
f o r lu m b er?
(
(
D
q u e s t io n s
10.
75.
1500.
5 0 ,0 0 0 .
4 . How l o n g d o e s i t
lu m b e r t o m a tu r e ?
T
fir s t
A-3
(
(
)
)
)
)
ta k e m ost t r e e s
th a t are to
be u sed fo r
A bout 5 0 0 y e a r s .
From 5 0 t o 75 y e a r s ,
A b o u t 25 y e a r s .
N o t m o re t h a n 5 y e a r s .
s h o u ld th e tr u n k s o f m o st t r e e s
be to be s u it a b le
) A t l e a s t 2 i n c h e s i n d ia m e t e r .
) N o t m o re t h a n 1 0 i n c h e s i n d i a m e t e r ,
) A t l e a s t 18 t o 2 4 i n c h e s i n d ia m e t e r ,
) A bout 10 f e e t i n d ia m e te r ,
S core
A -3
T
6 . How m uch h a v e som e f a r m e r s made o n e a c h a c r e o f t h e i r
w o o d lo ts i n one y e a r ?
S
( )
( )
( )
( )
As m uch a s f i f t y c e n t s ,
A bout 2 d o l l a r s .
As m uch a s 2 0 d o l l a r s ,
A bout 150 d o l l a r s .
A
D
S
T o ta l
260
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on F o r e s t C o n ser v a tio n
B-3
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f t h e f o l lo w in g q u e s t io n s
a n d p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s i s i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r #
1 , A b o u t w h en w e r e co m m u n ity f o r e s t s f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d i n New
E n g la n d ?
( ) When C olum bus d i s c o v e r e d A m e r ic a .
( ) S h o r tly a f t e r th e R e v o lu tio n ,
T .
( ) In c o lo n ia l d a y s,
( ) J u s t b e fo r e th e c lo s e o f th e 1 9 th c e n tu r y ,
2 , How m any co m m u n ity f o r e s t s
v a r io u s p a r t s o f t h e c o u n tr y ?
(
(
S
)
)
( )
( )
3 , How b i g
A
fo r
J u st a v e r y fe w .
A l a r g e num ber o f th e m ,
A s m a l l num ber o f th e m .
T h o u sa n d s o f th e m ,
is
th e
a v e r a g e fa r m w o o d lo t ?
( ) V ery l a r g e ,
( ) S m a ll.
( ) Of c o n s i d e r a b l e s i z e ,
( ) As b i g a s a fa r m ,
4 , How l o n g
lu m b er t o m a t u r e ?
T
have b een s t a r t e d r e c e n t ly in
does i t
ta k e m ost t r e e s t h a t a re to be u sed f o r
( ) A lo n g p e r io d o f y e a r s ,
( ) A sh o r t tim e ,
(
) S ev era l c e n tu r ie s ,
( ) J u s t a fe w y e a r s ,
5 , How b i g
lu m b er?
(
(
B
(
(
s h o u ld t h e tr u n k s o f m o st t r e e s b e t o b e s u i t a b l e
) R a th e r s m a ll.
) L arge.
) A s w id e a s a h o u s e .
) A bout t h e s i z e o f a fe n c e p o s t ,
6 , How m uch h a v e som e f a r m e r s made o n e a c h a c r e o f t h e i r
w o o d lo ts
in one y e a r ?
S
( ) J u s t a fe w c e n t s ,
( ) A v e r y s m a l l in c o m e ,
(
) A g r e a t d e a l o f m o n ey .
( ) A f a i r l y l a r g e in c o m e .
S core
B -3
T
A
D
S
T o ta l
361
H -4
Coal
Although coal is one of the world’s most important sources of
power, men did not learn how to use i t u n til f a ir ly recently#
Bitu­
minous co al, b e tte r known as so ft coal, was f i r s t used about the time
Washington was a boy w ith the invention of steam engines and machines#
A nthracite, or hard coal, was discovered in Pennsylvania in 17r90#
It
was a t f i r s t thought to be too hard to burn and so was cracked up and
used ch iefly to re p a ir roads#
For th is reason i t did not come into
general use u n til some time later#
Because coal is the chief source of power and energy, i t is
larg ely responsible fo r the great in d u stria l growth of our country#
For th is reason there came to be greater and greater demands fo r coal#
New coal fie ld s constantly were being discovered and developed so th a t
fo r many years the United States has led the world in the supply of coal.
The to ta l coal land w ithin our borders is equal to about eight
mid-western s ta te s in area#
We can get some idea how vast th is is when
we re a liz e th a t the large s ta te of Illin o is has something over 50,000
square miles of te rrito ry #
These gigantic coal areas form a large share
of the known coal deposits of the world#
They are also well d istrib u ted
so th a t tho distance from any p art of tho United States to a coal mine
is short compared to the size of the country#
Because of the tremendous demand for coal in an in d u stria l nation
such as ours, most of the coal mined in tho United States is used in
our country#
In 1926 wo mined an enormous number of tons of coal#
Of
th is vast amount we used about 95 per cont and exported only about 5
por cent#
262
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on Coal
A-4
S e l e c t th e t e s t a n sw er un der ea ch o f th e f o llo w in g q u e s tio n s
and p u t an X in th e p a r e n th e s is in fr o n t o f th a t a n sw er.
how t o
1 . A lt h o u g h
u se it ?
( )
( )
T
( )
( )
2 . How f a r
coal is
In
In
In
In
is
o f g r e a t v a l u e , w h en d i d man f i r s t
le a r n
th e 1300*s .
1648.
th e 1 7 0 0 » s.
1850,
it
fr o m m o s t p a r t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o a c o a l
m in e ?
D
(
(
( )
( )
) A bout
3000 m ile s .
) A b o u t5 0 0 m i l e s ,
A bout 150 m i l e s ,
A bout 20 m i l e s .
3 . How b i g a r e t h e c o m b in e d c o a l f i e l d s
A
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
2 0 0 ,0 0 0 a c r e s .
3 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 a c r e s .
5 0 0 ,0 0 0 sq u a r e m i l e s .
1 ,2 5 0 ,0 0 0 sq u a re m i l e s ,
4 . How m uch c o a l w a s m in e d i n t h i s
S
( )
( )
( )
( )
o f t h e U n it e d S t a t e s ?
c o u n tr y in 1926?
5 00 th o u sa n d t o n s .
1 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 t o n s ,
40 m illio n to n s ,
680 m illio n to n s .
5 . How l o n g h a s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
m e n t o f m in e s a n d t h e s u p p l y o f c o a l ?
l e d t h e w o r ld i n t h e d e v e l o p ­
(
(
T
) S in c e 1 6 2 0 ,
) S in c e 1 7 7 6 .
( ) S in c e 1 8 2 0 ,
( ) S in c e 1 8 9 9 ,
6 . W hat p a r t o f t h e know n c o a l d e p o s i t s i n t h e w o r ld a r e
fo u n d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r ie s o f t h e U n it e d S t a t e s ?
Score
A -4
T
A
(
(
S
) A bout
o n e - t e n t h o f th e m ,
) A bout
o n e - t h i r d o f th e m ,
( ) A b o u t t h r e e - f i f t h s o f th e m ,
( ) A b o u t n i n e - t e n t h s o f th e m .
D
S
T otal
263
Q u e stio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on C oal
B-4
S e l e c t th e b e s t a n sw er under e a ch o f th e f o llo w in g
and p u t an X in th e p a r e n th e s is in f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r .
how t o
1 , A lt h o u g h
u se it?
T
(
(
(
(
coal is
q u e s t io n s
o f g r e a t v a l u e , w h e n d id m an f i r s t
le a r n
) A b o u t t h e t i m e o f t h e C i v i l W ar,
) A b o u t t h e t i m e W a s h in g to n
w as a b o y ,
) A f t e r t h e d i s c o v e r y o f A m e r ic a ,
) A v e r y s h o r t tim e a g o ,
2 , How f a r
is
it
fr o m m o s t p a r t s
o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s t o
a coal
m in e ?
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A
A
A
A
v e r y sh o rt d is ta n c e ,
v e r y g r e a t d is ta n c e ,
s h o r t d i s t a n c e co m p a red
lo n g w ay a s d is t a n c e i s
3 , How b i g a r e t h e
A
(
(
( )
( )
c o m b in e d c o a l f i e l d s
o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s ?
c o u n tr y in
1926?
( ) A g r e a t m any t o n s ,
( ) S everal to n s,
( ) An e n o rm o u s n u m b er o f t o n s ,
(
) A l a r g e num ber o f t o n s ,
5 , How l o n g h a s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
m e n t o f m in e s and t h e s u p p l y o f c o a l ?
T
c o u n tr y ,
) As b i g a s a b o u t 8 m i d - w e s t e r n s t a t e s ,
) As b i g a s E n g la n d ,
As b i g a s A u s t r a l i a ,
A s b i g a s a l l t h e Hew E n g la n d s t a t e s ,
4 , How m uch c o a l w a s m in e d i n t h i s
S
to th e s iz e o f th e
now m e a s u r e d ,
l e d t h e w o r ld i n t h e
d e v e lo p ­
( ) S i n c e t h e t i m e C olum bus d i s c o v e r e d A m e r ic a ,
( ) S in c e th e e a r ly 1 8 0 0 's ,
(
) F o r m any y e a r s ,
( ) F o r j u s t a fe w y e a r s .
6 , W hat p a r t o f t h e know n c o a l d e p o s i t s i n t h e w o r ld a r e
f o u n d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r ie s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ?
S core
B -4
T
A
S
( ) N e a r l y a l l o f th e m ,
( ) A v e r y fe w o f th e m ,
( ) A l a r g e s h a r e o f th e m ,
( ) A s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f th e m .
D
S
T o ta l
264
S a fe ty F ir s t
" S a fe ty F ir s t"
m ake u s r e a l i z e
m ay i n j u r e
is
a w e l l know n s l o g a n o f t o d a y .
t h a t we l i v e
or k i l l u s .
We c a n s e e t h e n e e d f o r
th r o u g h a o c id e n t s .
a liz e
s u c h a s l o g a n w h en w e
in t h i s m anner.
r e a lly a r e .
H ere a r e s e v e r a l w ays t o h e lp u s r e ­
Our W o r ld War l o s s
a f r a c t io n a l p a r t o f th e 1937 a c c id e n t d e a th t o l l .
o v e r , b u t th o a n n u al t o l l o f a c c id e n t s
c o n tin u e s .
in
l i v e s w as o n ly
The War i s
lo n g s i n c e
F u r th e r m o r e , a con ­
s id e r a b le p a r t o f th e s e
a c c i d e n t s w as c a u se d b y a u to m o b ile s a l o n e .
h a s b e e n e s tim a te d t h a t
th e y
T here a r o a v a i l a b l e
m ile s
th e s e
ca u se d a d e a th
str e e ts
It
e v e r y fe w m in u te s .
i n t h o U n i t e d S t a t e s a n e n o r m o u s num b er o f
o f r o a d w a y o v e r w h ic h a u t o m o b i l e s may t r a v e l .
and v i l l a g e
to
i n 193 7 th o u sa n d s o f p e o p le l o s t t h e i r
d r e a d fu l f a c t s .
how s e r i o u s t h e y
p u rp ose i s
T he m o s t f r e q u e n t c a u s e w a s t h e m o t o r v e h i c l e .
A bout 3 9 ,5 0 0 w ere k i l l e d
T h ese a r e
Its
i n a d a n g e r o u s a g e o f s p e e d i n g m a c h in e s w h ic h
l e a r n t h a t i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
liv e s
I I -5
T h is i n c l u d e s
an d p a v e d an d u n p a v o d c o u n t r y r o a d s .
c it y
The t r a f f i c
r o a d s c a u s e d one d e a th f o r e a c h c o m p a r a tiv e ly s h o r t d is t a n c e
on
o f road.
T h e r e a r e m any w a y s i n w h ic h t h i s y e a r l y t o l l o f d e a t h s m ay b e
a v o id e d .
M o t o r i s t s a n d p e d e s t r i a n s m u s t a lw a y s f o l l o w
and ob ey t r a f f i c
la w s .
th o r u le s o f s a f e t y
S i n c e m o s t o f t h e a c c i d e n t s o c c u r t o p e o p l e xvhen
c r o s s i n g h ig h w a y s , t h e s e h ig h w a y s m u s t b e e q u ip p e d w i t h o v e r p a s s e s a n d
u n d o r p a s s e s f o r b o th m o t o r is t s and p e d e s t r ia n s .
w e l l l o c a t e d p la y g r o u n d s
ou s s t r e e t s an d h ig h w a y s .
p r o v id e e a c h c h i l d
in th e
a v e r a g e b ed ro o m f l o o r .
th e y
c o u ld h e l p
so t h a t c h ild r e n
C i t i e s m u st a ls o
do n o t h a v e t o p l a y o n d a n g e r ­
T h e s e p la y g r o u n d s
sh o u ld b e l a r g e en ou gh t o
c o m m u n ity w i t h a s p a c e a b o u t t h e
I f m ore c o m m u n itie s
sa v e h undreds o f l i v e s
p r o v id e
siz e
o f th e
o b serv ed a l l th e s e t h in g s ,
oach y e a r .
A -5
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on S a f e t y F i r s t
S e l e c t th e b e s t a n sw er und er ea ch o f th e f o llo w in g q u e s t io n s
an d p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s is in f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw er*
1* How m any p e o p l e l o s t t h e i r
1937 b e c a u se o f a c c id e n t s ?
( ) A bout 5 0 ,
( ) A b o u t 1 0 ,0 0 0 *
S
( ) A b o u t 1 0 5 ,0 0 0 *
( ) A b ou t 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 *
in
liv e s
in t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
in
2 , Of a l l t h e a c c i d e n t a l d e a t h s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
1 9 3 7 , how m any w e r e c a u s e d b y m o to r v e h i c l e s ?
(
)A b o u t 8 7 o u t o f e v e r y 1 0 0 ,
(
)A b o u t 3 7 o u t o f e v e r y 1 0 0 ,
S
(
)A b o u t 2 0 o u t o f e v e r y 1 0 0 ,
(
)A b o u t
8 out o f every 100,
S ta te s?
lo s s
in
3 , How o f t e n i n 1 9 3 7
(
) One e v e r y
(
) One e v e r y
T
(
) One e v e r y
(
) One e v e r y
d id a u to m o b ile s
4 h ou rs,
60 m in u te s ,
13 m i n u t e s ,
5 seco n d s,
c a u s e a d e a th in t h e U n ite d
4 , How d o e s o u r l o s s i n l i v e s i n t h e W o rld War co m p a re w i t h o u r
l i v e s in 1937 b e c a u se o f a c c id e n ts ?
( ) Our w a r l o s s w a s a b o u t o n e - t e n t h o f o u r a c c i d e n t l o s s ,
( ) Our w a r l o s s w a s a b o u t o n e - h a l f o f o u r a c c i d e n t l o s s ,
S
( ) Our w a r l o s s w a s a b o u t t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f o u r a c c i d e n t l o s s
( ) Our l o s s e s w e r e e q u a l i n n u m b e r ,
5 , I n te r m s o f r o a d s a v a i l a b l e f o r a u to m o b ile t r a f f i c , w h a t d is t a n c e
on t h e s e ro a d s w as r e s p o n s ib le fo r e a c h t r o .f f ic a c c id e n t ?
( ) A bout 84 m ile s o f r o a d ,
( ) A bout 3 0 m ile s o f r o a d ,
D
( ) A b o u t 2|r m i l e s o f r o a d ,
( ) A bout a h a lf m ile o f r o a d .
6 , A bout
U n ite d S t a t e s ?
(
(
D
(
(
how m any m i l e s o f r o a d w a y f o r a u t o m o b ile s a r e t h e r e i n t h e
)
)
)
)
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
2 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 m i l e s ,
3 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0 m i le s .
3 5 0 ,0 0 0 m i l e s ,
5 0 ,0 0 0 m i l e s ,
7 , To b e l a r g e e n o u g h t o k e e p a l l t h e c h i l d r e n o f f t h e
s t r e e t s , how m uch s p a c e s h o u l d p la y g r o u n d s p r o v id e f o r e a c h
c h ild ?
( )
A bout 1600 sq u aro f e e t ,
( )
A bout 900 sq u a re f e e t ,
A
( )
A bout 3 00 sq u a re f e e t ,
( )
A bout 100 sq u a re f e e t .
S core
A -5
A
T o ta l
266
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on S a f e t y F i r s t
B-5
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f t h e f o l lo w in g q u e s t io n s
and p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s is in f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw er*
1* How m any p e o p l e l o s t t h e i r l i v e s
1937 b e c a u se o f a c c id e n t s ?
( ) A la r g e g rou p .
( ) T h o u sa n d s o f p e o p l e .
S
( ) S e v e r a l p e o p le .
( ) A v e r y s m a l l num ber*
in
in t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
in
2 , Of a l l t h e a c c i d e n t a l d e a t h s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e U n it e d S t a t e s
1 9 3 7 ,. how many w e r e c a u s e d b y m o to r v e h i c l e s ?
(
)
O n ly a s m a l l n u m b er .
(
)
N e a r l y a l l o f th e m .
(
)
A c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t o f th e m ,
(
)
A lm o s t n o n e o f th e m ,
S ta te s ?
lo s s
in
3 , How o f t e n
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
i n 1 9 3 7 d id a u t o m o b i l e s
E v ery fe w h o u r s .
E very fe w m in u te s .
O n ly o c c a s i o n a l l y ,
R a r e ly .
c a u se a d e a th i n t h e U n ite d
4 , How d o e s o u r l o s s i n l i v e s i n t h e W orld War co m p a re w i t h o u r
l i v e s in 1937 b eca u se o f a c c id e n t s ?
( ) Our w a r l o s s w a s o n l y a f r a c t i o n a l p a r t o f o u r 1 9 3 7
a c c id e n t l o s s .
(
)
Our w a r l o s s w a s m uch g r e a t e r t h a n o u r 1 9 3 7 a c c i d e n t l o s s ,
(
)
Our w a r l o s s w a s a g r e a t d e a l l e s s t h a n o u r 1 9 3 7 a c c i d e n t
lo s s ,
( ) Our l o s s e s w e r e a b o u t t h e sam e i n n u m b e r .
5 . I n te r m s o f r o a d s a v a i l a b l e f o r a u t o m o b ile t r a f f i c , w h a t d i s t a n c e
on t h e s e ro a d s w as r e s p o n s ib le f o r e a c h t r a f f i c a c c id e n t ?
( ) M any, m any m i l o s .
( ) S e v e r a l m ile s *
D
( ) A c o m p a r a t iv e ly s h o r t d is ta n c e *
( ) A g r e a t d is ta n c e ,
th e r e
6 , A b o u t how m any m i l e s o f r o a d w a y f o r a u t o m o b ile s a r e
in t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ?
( ) A g r e a t m any m i l e s .
( ) S ev era l m ilo s .
D
( ) A l a r g o n u m b er o f m i l e s ,
( ) An e n o r m o u s num b er o f m i l e s .
Score
B -5
T
7.
To b e l a r g e e n o u g h t o k e e p a l l t h e c h i l d r e n o f f t h e
s t r e e t s , how m uch s p a c e s h o u l d p la y g r o u n d s p r o v i d e f o r o a c h c h i l d ?
( )
An a r o a a b o u t t h e s i z o o f a c i t y b l o c k .
S
( )
An a r e a a b o u t t h e s i z e o f a b u i l d i n g l o t .
A
( )
An a r e a a b o u t t h o s i z e o f t h e a v e r a g e b ed ro o m
T o ta l
flo o r .
( ) An a r o a a b o u t t h e s i z o o f a c l o t h o s - c l o s e t f l o o r .
J2GV
Reaping Tools
F o r m an y t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s f a r m e r s
lik e
t h o s e w h ic h w e c a l l s i c k l e s .
w e r e m ade o f f l i n t ,
o f bone,
s m a ll f i e l d
W ith i t
cu t th e ir
The b l a d e s o f t h e p r i m i t i v e s i c k l e s
s t i l l u sed th e
s t e e l s ic k le
w ork.
f o r h a r v e s tin g
cut a
a lo n g h a n d le .
W ith i t
I t had a lo n g e r k n i f e
a man d i d n o t h a v e t o
s t o o p lo w a t h i s
He c o u l d s t a n d , u s e b o t h a r m s , a n d c o u ld c u t a w i d e r s w a t h .
m uch g r a i n
c o u ld c u t s e v e r a l t i m e s a s
s c y t h e w a s i n v e n t e d a n d w i d e l y u s e d i n t h e A m e r ic a n
c o lo n i e s a t a b o u t t h e tim e o f th e R e v o lu tio n ,
s c y t h e s f o r m e r ly u s e d b e c a u s e
s tr ip s
above th e c u ttin g k n if e .
W it h t h i s
It
to o l,
c o u ld t h e n b e
I t w a s a n im p r o v e m e n t on
i t w a s e q u ip p e d w i t h s e v e r a l w o o d e n
The g r a i n ,
g r o u n d a s i t w a s c u t , now c o u l d b e
row s.
By
i n a d a y a s a man w i t h a s i c k l e .
The c r a d l e
in to
E ven
o f g r a in .
k e e p i n g s t e a d i l y a t w o r k , a man w i t h a s c y t h e
th e
of s t e e l.
a s t r o n g man n e e d e d q u i t e a f e w h o u r s t o
T he s c y t h e w a s a n im p r o v e m e n t o n t h e s i c k l e .
a tta c h e d to
g r a in w it h hand t o o l s ,
la t e r o f b r o n z e , and f i n a l l y
o u r e a r l y .A m erican c o l o n i s t s
on ro ck y s o i l s .
11-6
i n s t e a d o f d r o p p in g t o
c a u g h t b y t h e s e w ooden s t r i p s and l a i d
rak ed in t o p i l e s
i t w as p o s s i b l e
th e
f o r o n e man t o
a n d b o u n d i n t o b u n d le s *
c u t a n d h a r v e s t a s m uch a s
t h r e e m en c o u l d h a r v e s t f o r m e r l y w i t h t h e o l d e r k in d o f s c y t h e .
E ven th o u g h th e
c r a d l e w a s a n im p r o v e m e n t o n t h e
s c y t h e , m an s t i l l h a d t o
h is
cro p s.
depend a lt o g e t h e r
on h i s m u s c le s
in h a r v e s t in g
I t w a s n o t u n t i l 1 8 3 1 t h a t a man nam ed C yru s W, M cC orm ick h a d
d e v e l o p e d a r e a p i n g m a c h in e d raw n b y h o r s o s .
t h e w ork o f a l a r g e
m any y e a r s
s i c k le and th e
From t h e f i r s t i t
c o u ld
g r o u p o f men w i t h much l o s s b a c k - b r e a k i n g t o i l .
do
A fte r
o f im p r o v e m e n t, t h i s m a c h in e c o u ld n o t o n l y c u t t h e g r a i n b u t
c o u ld a l s o b in d i t
in t o
b in d e r w it h a l l i t s
a m ediu m s i z e d f i e l d
b u n d le s w i t h t w i n e .
im p r o v e m e n ts i s
In f a c t ,
th e p r o se n t day
so e f f i c i e n t t h a t i t
o f g r a in i n one d a y .
c a n c u t a n d b in d
268
Q u e stio n s on t h e a r t i o l e on R eaping T o o ls
A-6
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er un d er e a c h o f th e f o l lo w in g q u e s t io n s
a n d p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s i s i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r #
1* How m uch g r a i n
A
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
2 , How l o n g i s
D
(
(
(
(
c a n a s t r o n g man w i t h a s i c k l e
)
)
)
)
one day?
10 a c r e s #
6 a cres.
o n e 'a o r e #
^ o f an acre#
th e
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
h a n d le o f a s c y t h e ?
one f o o t ,
20 in c h e s #
5 fe e t#
25 f e e t #
3 , How m any w o o d e n s t r i p s
t h e g r a i n i n t o r o w s?
S
c u t in
d id t h e c r a d l e
s c y th e have t o h e lp la y
( ) A b ou t 25#
( ) A b o u t 15#
( ) T h ree o r fo u r #
( ) O n ly o n e #
4# I n 1 8 3 1 , M cC o rm ick ’ s r e a p e r c o u l d do t h e w o r k o f how m any men?
S
to
)
)
)
)
A h u n d r ed #
F ifty .
A dozen,
Two #
5# From t h e t i m e o f M cC o rm ick ’ s f i r s t m a c h in e , how l o n g d i d i t t a k e
im p r o v e t h e r e a p e r s o t h a t i t w o u ld b in d a s w e l l a s c u t g r a in ?
T
in
(
(
(
(
( )
( )
( )
( )
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
3 y ea rs#
15 y e a r s #
40 y e a r s #
100 y e a r s#
c a n a p r e s e n t d a y b i n d e r c u t and b in d i n t o
6# How m uch g r a i n
one day?
A
( )
( )
( )
( )
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
b u n d le s
Score
A -6
5 acres#
20 a c r e s #
60 a c r e s#
120 a cres#
T
A
7# How l o n g w o u ld i t
c u t a n a c r e o f g r a in ?
T
t a k e a s t r o n g man w i t h a s i c k l e
( ) One m on th #
( ) Two w e e k s #
( ) A w h o le day#
( ) Two h o u r s ,
to
D
S
T o ta l
269
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on R eaping T ools
B-6
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f th e f o l lo w in g
and p u t an X in t h e p a r e n t h e s is i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r .
1 . How m uch g r a i n c a n a s t r o n g man w i t h a s i c k l e
A
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A
A
A
A
la r g e
s m a ll
fie ld
fie ld
2 . How l o n g i s
D
fie
fie
as
as
4.
t h e h a n d le o f a s c y t h e ?
( ) The l e n g t h o f a m a n ’ s a r m .
( ) L ong,
( ) S h o r t,
( ) T w ic e t h e h e i g h t o f a m a n ,
la y
( ) S e v e r a l,
( ) A v e r y l a r g e n u m b er .
( ) M any,
( ) A v e r y few ,
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
S e v e r a l,
A v e r y l a r g e n u m b er,
A la r g e grou p .
Q u ite a c o n s id e r a b le num ber,
5 , From t h e t i m e o f M cC o rm ick ’ s f i r s t m a c h in e , how lo n g d i d i t
im p r o v e t h e r e a p e r s o t h a t i t w o u ld b in d a s w e l l a s c u t g r a i n ?
T
in
d id t h e c r a d l e s c y t h e h a v e t o h e l p
I n 1 8 3 1 , M cC o rm ick ’ s r e a p e r c o u ld do t h e w o rk o f how m any men?
S
to
c u t i n o n e day?
l d o f g r a in .
l d o f g r a in .
b ig a s th e a v e r a g e fa r m .
b ig a s a c i t y b lo c k .
3 , How m any w o o d e n s t r i p s
t h e g r a i n i n t o r o w s?
S
q u e s tio n s
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
ta k e
Many y e a r s ,
A v e r y sh o r t tim e ,
S ev era l c e n tu r ie s ,
S e v e r a l g e n e r a tio n s ,
6 , How m uch g r a i n c a n a p r e s e n t d a y b in d e r c u t an d b in d i n t o b u n d le s
one day?
, .
( ) The a r e a o f a c i t y b l o c k ,
Score
( ) A m edium s i z e d f i e l d .
B -6
A
(
) An a r e a e q u a l t o a n a v e r a g e s i z e d f a r m ,
T
( ) A v e r y s m a ll f i e l d .
7 , How lo n g , w o u ld i t
c u t a n a c r e o f g r a in ?
T
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A very
A lo n g
Q u it e a
A very
t a k e a s t r o n g man w i t h a s i c k l e t o
s h o r t tim o .
tim o ,
fe w h o u r s,
lo n g p e r io d .
A
D
S
T o ta l
FORM
Name
270
Z
D a te
G-rade
School
C ity
A ge ( n e a r e s t b i r t h d a y )
A1
T im e
A1
Area
A1
B1
D ist'
ance
A1
Size
Bl-6
Total
271
D I R E C T I O N S
In t h i s t e s t you w i l l f in d s i x a r t i c l e s t h a t d e a l w ith s o c i a l
sc ie n c e t o p ic s .
On s e p a r a t e p a g e s a f t e r e a c h a r t i c l e y o u w i l l f i n d som e
q u e s t io n s t h a t a r e b a se d on i t s c o n t e n t s .
The p u r p o s e o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s
i s t o f i n d o u t how w e l l y o u u n d e r s t a n d c e r t a i n p a r t s o f t h e a r t i c l e .
Y ou a r e t o r e a d t h e f i r s t a r t i c l e v e r y c a r e f u l l y .
You m ay r e a d
an y p a r t o f i t a g a in i f you f e e l you n eed t o .
T hen t u r n t o t h e q u e s ­
tio n s ,
T h e r e a r e tw o p a g e s o f q u e s t i o n s o n e a c h a r t i c l e .
You a r e t o
an sw er b o th p a g es o f q u e s t io n s w ith o u t tu r n in g back t o th e a r t i c l e .
When y o u h a v e f i n i s h e d w i t h t h e ' q u e s t i o n s o n t h e T i r s t a r t i c l e , t u r n
i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e n e x t a r t i c l e a n d do a s y o u d i d w i t h t h e f i r s t .
Con­
t i n u e i n t h i s m a n n er t o t h o e n d o f t h e t e s t .
L ook i t
to do.
H e r e i s a s a m p le o f t h e t y p e o f q u e s t i o n s
w h ic h y o u a r e t o a n s w e r .
o v e r v e r y c a r e f u l l y s o t h a t y o u w i l l know e x a c t l y w h a t y o u a r e
S a m p le q u e s t i o n
When d i d L i n c o l n f r e e
( )
( )
(X )
( )
th o
s la v e s ?
I m m e d ia t e ly a f t e r h e w a s e l e c t e d P r e s i d e n t ,
B e f o r e t h e C i v i l War b e g a n ,
D u r in g t h o C i v i l War p e r i o d ,
A f t e r t h o C i v i l War w a s o v e r .
N o t i c e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n , "When d i d L i n c o l n f r e e t h e s l a v e s ? " i s
f o l l o w e d b y f o u r p o s s i b l e a n s w e r s , o n e o f w h ic h i s t h e b e s t .
The t h i r d
a n sw er i s th e b e s t , so an X h a s b e e n p u t in t h e p a r e n t h e s is i n f r o n t o f
th a t a n sw er.
A ll o f th e q u e s tio n s in t h i s t e s t w i l l b e li k e th e
You a r e t o s e l e c t t h o b e s t a n s w e r u n d e r e a c h q u e s t i o n a n d
in th o p a r e n th e s is in fr o n t o f t h a t a n sw er.
s a m p le a b o v e .
to p u t an X
Y ou m ay b e g i n r e a d i n g t h e f i r s t a r t i c l e w h e n t h o e x a m in e r g i v e s
t h e s i g n a l , " G o," A sk a n y q u e s t i o n s w h ic h y o u m ay h a v e n o w , b e c a u s e
y o u w i l l n o t b e p e r m i t t e d t o a s k th e m a f t o r y o u b e g i n w o r k .
a fte r
Remember that y o u are not permitted to turn back to the a r tic le
havo fin ish ed reading i t ,
— —
■
you
Do n o t t u r n t h i s
page u n t il you have boon a sk ed to
do s o .
Qiycj
Oi l
O il i s
II-l
one o f th e w o r ld ’ s m ost r e c e n t ly
d is c o v e r e d s o u r c e s
of
p ow er.
S t r a n g e ly e n o u g h , h o w ev e r , p e o p le
i n E u r o p e k n ew a b o u t o i l
b e fo r e
i t w a s d i s c o v e r e d i n N o r th A m e r ic a 0
E v en t h e f i r s t w h i t e
w ho cam e t o t h i s
c o u n tr y le a r n e d t h a t t h e I n d ia n s u s e d i t
I t w a s know n c h i e f l y f o r t h i s
lo n g
s e ttle r s
a s a m e d i c in e ,.
p u r p o s e u n t i l a b o u t t h e m i d d le o f t h e
1 9 th
c e n t u r y w h en a P i t t s b u r g h d r u g g i s t nam ed S a m u el K ie r d i s c o v e r e d a n ew
u se fo r i t .
o ils
in
The n ew p r o d u c t , k e r o s e n e , w a s u s e d
lig h tin g
i n p l a c e o f a n im a l
la m p s .
T h is d i s c o v e r y
c r e a t e d a g r e a t dem and f o r o i l ,
s e a r c h w id e ly fo r i t .
a n d m en b e g a n t o
T hey h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e e n a n n o y e d b y f i n d i n g i t
m ix e d w i t h t h e w a t e r o f d e e p w e l l s w h ic h t h e y h a d d r i l l e d ; now i t
cam e a v a l u a b l e p r o d u c t .
T h is
d r il le d w ith th e
p u rp o se o f s t r ik in g
produce o i l
v a n ia ,
in
in
d e fin ite
l e d t o t h e i d e a t h a t w e l l s m ig h t a l s o b e
o il.
The f i r s t w e l l t o
la r g e q u a n t i t i e s w as d r i l l e d n e a r T i t u s v i l l e ,
1854*
T h is
" fin d ” le d to
t h e s u r r o u n d in g r e g i o n .
be­
P e n n s y l­
a n o i l boom t h a t s p r e a d r a p i d l y t o
By 1 8 6 0 a l a r g e t e r r i t o r y a r o u n d T i t u s v i l l e
w a s m ade o v e r fr o m a p o o r f a r m in g a r e a t o a v e r y a c t i v e
o il fie ld .
I t b eca m e t h e b u s y c e n t e r o f a n ew i n d u s t r y .
By t h e e n d o f t h e
th e
c e n t u r y t h e i n v e n t i o n o f t h e g a s e n g in e an d
a u t o m o b ile c r e a t e d n ew a n d s t i l l
w id e r s e a r c h f o r
in th is
o i l w a s m ade ■ u n til t o d a y t h e
c o u n tr y i s
great o il fie ld s
s e c t io n s
o f th e
g r e a t e r dem an d s f o r o i l ,
c e n t e r o f o i l p r o d u c tio n
no lo n g e r i n P e n n s y lv a n ia .
o f t h e U n it e d S t a t e s t o d a y l i e
c o u n tr y .
p r o d u c in g f i e l d s
r e f in e d and u s e d .
A s till
On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e
sc a tte r e d
G roat d is ta n c e s se p a r a te th e
in
t h e rem o te
c h ie f o i l -
fr o m t h e i n d u s t r i a l s e c t i o n w h e r e m o s t o f t h e o i l
is
273
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t 1o le ®n O il
B -l
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f th e f o l lo w in g q u e s t io n s
and p u t an X i n t h e pa r e n t he s i s i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r ,
E urope
1 , A c c o r d in g t o t h e b e s t e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e , w h en d i d
f i r s t h a v e som e k n o w le d g e o f o i l ?
T
th e
p e o p le
( ) A b o u t t h e m i d d le o f t h e 1 9 t k c e n t u r y .
( ) A b o u t t h e t i m e o f t h e A m e r ic a n R e v o l u t i o n *
( ) A t t h e b e g in n in g o f t h e p r e s e n t c e n td r y i
( ) L ong b e f o r e o i l w a s d i s c o v e r e d i n W orth A m e r ic a *
2 , How f a r a r e t h e c h i e f o i l f i e l d s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
i n d u s t r i a l s e c t i o n s w h ic h r e f i n e a n d u s e t h e o i l ?
D
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
4,
p r o d u c tiv e o i l f i e l d
in
( ) A lm o s t a s b i g a s t h e w h o le s t a t e ,
( ) A la r g e t e r r i t o r y ,
( ) The a r e a o f s e v e r a l c i t y b l o c k s ,
( ) A s m a ll d i s t r i c t ,
How m uch d id t h e w e l l d r i l l e d
S
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
in 1854 n ea r T i t u s v i l l e prod uce?
O n ly s m a l l a m o u n t s ,
Im m ense q u a n t i t i e s ,
L arge q u a n t i t i e s ,
O n ly a l i t t l e o i l *
5* When w a s k e r o s e n e f i r s t u s e d a s a n o i l f o r l i g h t i n g
T
fr o m
Q u it e a f e w m i l e s *
O n ly a s h o r t d i s t a n c e ,
S e v e r a l m ile s *
G reat d is t a n c e s ,
3 , W hat w a s t h e a r e a o f t h e f i r s t
P e n n s y l v a n i a i n 1860?
A
in
( ) D u r in g t h e R e v o l u t i o n ,
( ) B e fo r e t h e tim e o f C h r is t ,
( ) A b o u t t h e m i d d le o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y .
( ) V ery r e c e n t l y .
la m p s?
Score
B -l
T
A
D
S
T otal
274
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on O il
A -l
S elect the b est answer under each of the follow ing questions
and put an X in the parenthesis in front of that answer*
1 , A c c o r d in g t o t h e b e s t e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e , w h e n d i d p e o p l e i n
E u r o p e f i r s t h a v e som e k n o w le d g e o f o i l ?
T
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
As
As
As
As
e a r ly
e a r ly
e a r ly
e a r ly
as
as
as
as
1856,
1556,
800,
2 0 0 0 B ,C ,
2 , How f a r a r e t h o c h i e f o i l f i e l d s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s fr o m t h e
i n d u s t r i a l s e c t i o n s w h ic h r e f i n e a n d u s e t h e o i l ?
D
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A b ou t 25 m ile s #
A bout 150 m ile s #
A bout 1000 m ile s *
A bout 3 5 0 0 m ile s #
3 , W hat w a s t h e a r e a o f t h e f i r s t p r o d u c t i v e o i l f i e l d
s y lv a n ia in 1860?
A
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
one sq u a ro m i le ,
16 s q u a r e m i l e s #
100 sq u are m ile s ,
3 0 ,0 0 0 sq u a ro m i l e s ,
4 , How m u ch d i d t h e w e l l d r i l l e d
(
(
S
in
1854 n ear T it u s v ille produce?
)
)
A b ou t 20 b a r r e ls a d a y ,
From 4 0 0 t o 1 0 0 0 g a l l o n s a d a y ,
( ) A b o u t 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 g a l l o n s a d a y ,
( ) A bout 1500 b a r r e ls a d a y ,
5* When w a s k e r o s e n e f i r s t u s e d a s a n o i l f o r l i g h t i n g
T
i n P enn­
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A bout 1 4 9 2 ,
A bout 1 6 2 0 ,
A bout 1 8 5 2 .
A bout 1900*
la m p s?
A
D
S
Tota]
275
D e v e lo p m e n t o f A v ia t i o n
II-2
F o r c e n t u r i e s m en h a v e d r e a m e d t h a t t h e y m ig h t l e a r n how t o
th e
a i r w i t h m uch t h e
sam e e a s e w i t h w h ic h t h e y t r a v e l e d
f i r s t t h e y e x p e r im e n t e d v r it h b a l l o o n s
w h ic h m en w i s h e d t o
g o b e c a u s e t h e y d e p e n d e d s o m uch o n c u r r e n t s
fir s t
H aw k, W orth C a r o l i n a ,
an d f l e w
in th e d ir e c t io n
1903, th e ir
and s t a y e d i n t h e
a ir
f l i g h t p r o v e d t h a t f l y i n g th r o u g h th e
a i r p l s .n o
in
o f a ir .
c r e d i t f o r m a k in g
i n a p o w e r e d p l a n e t h a t c o u ld b o p i l o t e d .
o n D ec em b e r 1 7 ,
a sh o r t d is ta n c e
e v e r , th e
c o u ld n o t b e p i l o t e d
an d W ilb u r Y i/rig h t o f D a y t o n , O h io , a r e g i v e n
su c c e ssfu l f lig h t
At
an d g l i d e r s , b u t t h e y h a d v e r y l i m i t e d
T h ese d e v ic e s
th e
th ro u g h
o n la n d an d s e a .
c o n t r o l o v e r th e m .
O r v ille
fly
le ft
th e
At K itty
ground
o n ly a v e r y b r i e f t i m e .
How­
a i r w as a p o s s i b i l i t y .
From t h e t i m e o f t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s ’ f l i g h t u n t i l t h e W o r ld W ar, f l y i n g
w as l a r g e l y e x p e r im e n t a l.
g r e a t n u m b ers.
enem y.
D u r in g t h e W ar, h o w e v e r , a i r p l a n e s w e r e b u i l t i n
T hey w e r e o f g r e a t v a lu e
T h is u s e h e l p e d t o
p a r a t i v e l y a fe w y e a r s
b een s o lv e d .
fa ste r .
f o r o b s e r v a t i o n a n d f o r b o m b in g t h e
s p e e d up a i r p l a n e
en ou gh t o
I t c o n s is ts
o f a b o u t 2 8 ,2 6 7 m i le s
o f t h e n a t i o n h a v e a m i lo a g o w h ic h i s
F e d e r a l G o v e r n m en t h a s d o n e m any t h i n g s t o
g r e a t a ir w a y s y s t e m .
f o r n ig h t f l y i n g .
a ls o
com­
c a r r y a l a r g e num ber
o f m a i l an d f r e i g h t .
A t t h e p r e s e n t tim e th o U n ite d S t a t e s h a s t h e
r a ilr o a d s
in
Now m o t o r s h a v e boon d e v e lo p e d t o m ake t h o p i a n o s g o h i g h e r an d
as w e ll as q u a n titie s
in th e w o r ld .
In f a c t ,
o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n m any o f t h o pr o b le m s o f f l y i n g h a v e
T r a n s p o r t p l a n e s h a v e b o o n made b i g
o f p e o p le
d e v e lo p m e n t .
g r e a t e s t a ir w a y s y s t e m
a s th e p la n e
flic s .
s e v e r a l tim e s as g r e a t .
I t h a s e q u ip p e d t h e m a in a ir w a y s w i t h f l a s h i n g b e a c o n s
a lo n g t h e
r o u te s.
h a s e s t a b l i s h e d e m e r g e n c y la n d i n g f i e l d s w h ic h a r c n o t f a r a p a r t .
la r g e
tw o d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s
arc w e ll lig h te d
Tho
a i d i n t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h i s
T h o se a r c p la c e d a t s h o r t i n t e r v a l s
f i e l d s m u st b e f a i r l y
The
in
aroa in
T h ese
o r d e r t o p r o v i d e r a t h e r l o n g ru n w a y s i n
on w h ic h p l a n e s may la n d an d t a k e
and m a in ta in w e a th e r o b s e r v a t io n s t a t i o n s .
h a v e h e l p e d t o make f l y i n g
It
o ff.
M o st o f th e m
A ll th e se
s e r v ic e s
s a f e r and m ore p o p u la r a s a m ea n s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .
276
Qu e s t io n s on t h e a r t i c l e on A v ia t io n
B -2
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f t h e f o llo w in g q u e s t io n s and
p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s is i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw er*
1 * How f a r d i d t h e f i r s t p l a n e o f t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s f l y
H aw k, N o r t h C a r o l i n a , i n 1 9 0 3 ?
A lo n g d is t a n c e *
A s h o r t d is ta n c e *
D
^ ) A bout t h e le n g t h o f a c i t y b lo c k *
) A bout th e le n g t h o f a c i t y lo t *
has
it
a t K itty
2 * A f t e r t h e i n v e n t i o n o f t h e f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l p o w e r p lo .n o , how l o n g
t a k e n t o s o l v e m any o f t h o p r o b le m s o f a v i a t i o n ?
( ) C o m p a r a t i v e ly a fo w y o a r s ,
C ) Many y e a r s .
T
( ) S e v e r a l c e n tu r ie s *
( ) More t h a n a l i f e t i m e *
3.
A c c o r d in g t o t h e a r t i c l e y o u r o a d , how m any p e r s o n s c a n m o d ern
t r a n s p o r t p la n e s ca rry ?
) A g r o a t cro w d *
) S o v c r a l p e o p le .
S
& l a r g o num bor*
) O n ly a f o w .
4 * How d o e s t h e m i l e a g e o f t h e r a i l r o a d s co m p a re w i t h t h o m i l e a g e o f
t h e a ir w a y s o f ^ t h i s c o u n t r y ?
Tho a ir w a y m i l c a g o i s m uch g r e a t e r *
T he r a i l r o a d m i l c a g o i s s o v c r a l t i m e s a s g r e a t *
S
^ ) T he r a i l r o a d m i l c a g o i s m uch s m a l l e r *
T he m ilo r .g c o f e a c h i s n e a r l y t h e sam e*
5 . How l o n g d i d t h o W r ig h t B r o t h e r s * f i r s t p l a n e s t a y i n t h o
d u r in g i t s t r i a l f l i g h t a t K i t t y H aw k, N o r t h C a r o lin a ?
F or o n ly a v e r y b r i e f p e r io d *
A lo n g tim e *
T
( ) F o r som e t i m e *
F or a v e r y lo n g p e r io d *
6 * How f a r a p a r t a r o t h e e m e r g e n c y la n d i n g f i e l d s
c o u n tr y ?
(
) G roat d is t a n c e s .
( ) N ot fa r a p a r t.
D
(
) M any m i l e s ,
( ; V ery s h o r t d is t a n c e s *
7* How f a r
c o u n tr y ?
( )
y )
D
( )
( )
w a y s?
fio ld s ?
on
a ir
t h e a ir w a y s o f o u r
a p a r t a r e t h e f l a s h i n g b e a c o n s o n t h e m a in a ir w a y s o f o u r
V ery c lo s e to g e th e r *
V ory g r e a t d is t a n c o s a p a r t*
A t lo n g i n t e r v a l s .
S core
At sh o r t in te r v a ls *
B -2
8* O f w h a t s i z e a r c t h o cm orgon cy la n d in g f i e l d s
( ) F a i r l y llaarg
r g<o .
ry s m a l l .
( ) V
Voorz
A
^ j T
he a r e a o f a c i t y b l o c k *
Tho
Tho a r e a o f a v e r y l a r g e fa rm *
o n t h e m a in a i r *
9 , How l o n g a r c t h e r u n w a y s o n m o s t o f t h o o m o r g e n c y l a n d i n g
( ) Q u it o a fo w m i l o s *
( } Q u ite s h o r t *
D
( J R a th o r lo n g *
( } C o n s id e r a b le d is t a n c o *
T o ta l
277
Q u e s tio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on A v ia t io n
A -2
S e l e c t t h e t e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f t h e f o llo w in g q u e s t io n s
and p u t an X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s is i n f r o n t o f t h a t an sw er*
1* How f a r d i d t h e f i r s t p l a n e o f t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s f l y a t K i t t y
H aw k, N o r t h C a r o l i n a , i n 1 9 0 3 ?
N e a r ly a th o u sa n d f e e t *
A b ou t 2 0 ,0 0 0 f e e t *
L
( ) A bout t e n m ile s *
A bout f o r t y m ile s *
2* A fte r th e in v en tio n of th e f i r s t su ccessfu l powerplane* how
has i t tak en to
solve many of th e problems of av iatio n ?
T
(
(
(
(
}
)
)
)
long
A bout 200 y e a r s*
M ore t h a n 7 5 y e a r s *
L o ss th a n 35 y o a r s *
A bout 5 y e a r s*
3 * A c c o r d in g t o t h o a r t i c l o
t r a n s p o r t p ia n o s c a r r y ?
L o s s t h a n 5*
A s m any a s 4 0 ,
S
(
) M oro t h a n 7 5 *
A bout 200*
y o u r o a d , how m any p e r s o n s c a n m o d e m
4 * How d o c s t h e m i l e a g e o f t h o r a i l r o a d s c o m p a re w i t h t h e m ile a g e * o f
t h e a ir w a y s o f ^ t h i s c o u n t r y ?
The m ile a g e o f one i s e q u a l t o t h a t o f t h e a b h or*
T he r a i l r o a d m i l o a g c i s h a l f t h e m i l e a g e o f t h o a ir w a y s *
S
{
) T he r a i l r o a d m i l c a g o i s 9 t i m e s t h o m i l e a g e o f t h o a i r w a y s .
} T he r a i l r o a d m i l o a g o i s 2 5 t i m e s t h e m i l e a g e o f t h e a ir w a y s *
its
5 * How l o n g d i d t h e W r ig h t B r o t h e r s ’ f i r s t p l a n e s t a y i n t h e a i r
t r i a l f l i g h t a t K i t t y H aw k, N o r t h C a r o lin a ?
d u r in g
C ) 59 seconds*
( ) Ten
T
(
(
m in u te s *
) A bout h a l f a d a y ,
) 30 h o u r s*
6,
co u n tr y ?
How
fa r
f ) A bout
( ) A bout
D
( S A bout
( ; A bout
apart
a r e t h e e m e r g e n c y l a n d i n g f i e l d s o n t h e a ir w a y s o f o u r
1000 m ile s ,
2Q0 m i l e s ,
40- m i l e s *
a h a lf m ile ,
7*
c o u n tr y ?
How f a r
( )
( )
D
( )
( )
a re th e fla s h in g b eacons
2 m ile s *
15 m ile s •
100 m ile s ,
500 m ile s *
apart
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
on
t h e m a in a ir w a y s
o f our
S core
. A -2
8* Ofwhats iz e arc the emergency landing fie ld s on tho main
airways?
( ) About 10 square m iles,
l >About 200 acres*
A ( i About 60 acres,
( ; About 2 a cres,
field s?
9 . How long are tho runways on most of the omorgoncy landing
( ) About 3 m iles,
( JAbout h a lf a mile*
D ( 1About 100 yards*
( ) About 50 foot*
Total
278
F a r e s t C o n se r v a tio n
II-3
I t h a s b e e n e s t i m a t e d t h a t o u r c o u n t r y c o n su m e s a l m o s t t w o - f i f t h s
th e
tim b e r u s e d in t h e e n t i r e w o r ld .
o u t p la n s f o r r e p la c in g
our f o r e s t s
U n ite d S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v ic e
of acres
o f id le
is
it
is
t o k e e p u p w i t h t h e dem and f o r w o o d .
la n d w h ic h c o u ld b e r e p l a n t e d t o
T h is w o u ld h e l p
la n d s
r e sto r e
T he c o m m u n ity f o r e s t i d e a
i t w i t h th e m fr o m E u r o p e 0
v e r y im p o r t a n t t h a t w e w o r k
w o r k in g o n s u c h p l a n s .
f a r m e r s o r c o m m u n it ie s n e a r t h e s e
p u rp o ses.
H ence,
I t h a s fo u n d m i l l i o n s
tr e e s.
I t has urged th a t
s e c u r e a n d m a i n t a i n th e m f o r f o r e s t r y
For t h i s
n o t new .
reason ,
e x is te n c e
The A m e r ic a n c o l o n i s t s b r o u g h t
t h e r e a r e som e c o m m u n ity f o r e s t s
s in c e c o lo n ia l d a y s.
Today th e
U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e p o r t s t h a t a l a r g e n u m b er o f f o r e s t s
sta r te d
in a t l e a s t 27 s t a t e s — p r in c ip a lly
la k e s t a t e s .
acres
in
The
ou r tim b e r s u p p ly .
is
i n Hew E n g la n d w h ic h h a v e b e e n i n
of
have been
i n Hew Y o r k , New E n g la n d , a n d t h e
T h e s e f o r e s t s v a r y fr o m j u s t a f e w a c r e s t o
s e v e r a l th o u sa n d
s iz e .
The v a l u e
o f s m a ll p ie c e s
o f tim b e r can b e s t be d e m o n s tr a te d b y s t u d y ­
in g th e
e x p e r i e n c e o f f a r m e r s who h a v e m a i n t a in e d s m a l l w o o d l o t s o n t h e i r
fa rm s.
T h e se m en h a v e l o o k e d u p on t h e i r t i m b e r a s a c r o p t h a t c a n b e r a i s e d
a s a n y o t h e r fa r m c r o p .
is
th e
r e q u ir e d f o r
The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e i s
t h e tim b e r cro p t o
t r e e s m a tu re e a c h y e a r ,
grow t o m a t u r it y .
cord w ood .
is
la r g e
fe n c e p o s t s ,
The s h o r t e r o r
In f a c t ,
s i n c e m any o f
T roos
crooked p a r ts a re
a n d t h o t o p s an d b r a n c h e s a r e
T h u s, b y u s in g a l l p a r ts o f th e t r e e ,
in c r e a s e d .
H ow ever,
t h e t i m b e r c r o p y i e l d s a n a n n u a l in c o m e .
w i t h l a r g e t r u n k s a r e c u t down f o r lu m b e r .
s o m e t im e s c u t up i n t o
t h a t a lo n g p e r i o d o f y e a r s
c u t up i n t o
t h e in c o m e o f t h e t i m b e r l o t
som e f a r m e r s r e p o r t t h a t t h e y h a v e r e c e i v e d f a i r l y
in c o m e s fr o m e a c h a c r e o f t h e i r w o o d l o t s e a c h y e a r .
I n c a r i n g f o r th e m ,
t h e y h a v e f o u n d t h a t t h e y h a v e n o t o n l y m ade a g o o d i n v e s t m e n t b u t t h a t t h e y
a r c h e l p i n g t o k e e p up t h e t i m b e r s u p p l y o f o u r c o u n t r y .
279
Q u e stio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on F o r e s t C o n se rv a tio n
B-3
S elect the b est answer under each of the follow ing questions
and put an X in the parenthesis in front of that answer.
1 , A b o u t w h e n w e r e c o m m u n ity f o r e s t s f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d
E n g la n d ?
( ) When C olum bus d i s c o v e r e d A m e r ic a ,
( ) S h o r tly a f t e r th e R e v o lu tio n ,
T
( ) In c o lo n i a l d a y s ,
( ) J u s t b e fo r e th e c lo s e o f th e 1 9 th c e n tu r y ,
2 , How m any c o m m u n ity f o r e s t s h a v e b e e n s t a r t e d
v a r io u s p a r t s o f t h e c o u n tr y ?
S
is
th e
a v e r a g e fa r m w o o d lo t ?
( ) V ery l a r g e .
( ) S m a ll,
( ) Of c o n s i d e r a b l e s i z e ,
( ) A s b i g a s a fa r m ,
4 , How l o n g d o e s i t
lu m b e r t o m a t u r e ?
T
ta k e m ost t r e e s t h a t a r e t o b e u se d f o r
( ) A lo n g p e r io d o f y e a r s ,
( ) A sh o r t tim e ,
( ) S ev era l c e n tu r ie s ,
( ) J u s t a fe w y e a r s ,
5 , How b i g
fo r
r e c e n t ly in
( ) J u st a v e r y few ,
( ) A l a r g e num ber o f th e m .
( ) A s m a l l num ber o f t h e m .
( ) T h o u sa n d s o f th e m ,
3 , How b i g
A
i n New
s h o u ld t h e tr u n k s o f m ost t r e e s
be to b e s u it a b le
lu m b e r?
D
( ) R a th e r s m a ll.
( ) L arge,
( ) As w id e a s a h o u s e .
( ) A bout t h e s i z e o f a f e n c e p o s t ,
6 , How m uch h a v e some f a r m e r s made o n e a c h a c r e o f t h e i r
w o o d lo ts in one y e a r ?
(
(
S
)
)
( )
( )
J u s t a fe w c e n t s ,
A v e r y s m a l l in c o m e ,
A g r e a t d e a l o f m oney.
A f a i r l y l a r g e in c o m e .
Score
B-3
T
A
D
S
T o ta l
280
Q u e stio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on F o r e s t C o n se r v a tio n
S e le c t th e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f th e f o llo w in g
a n d p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s i s i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r *
1* A b o u t w h en w e r e co m m u n ity f o r e s t s
E n g la n d ?
T
(
(
( )
( )
S
3 , How b i g
)
)
)
)
A
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
is
(
(
)
)
( )
( )
T
fo r
)
)
)
)
e s ta b lis h e d
i n New
have b een s t a r te d
r e c e n tly
in
10*
75*
1500.
5 0 ,0 0 0 .
t h e a v e r a g e fa r m w o o d lo t ?
A bout h a lf an a c r e .
A b o u t tw o a c r e s .
A t l e a s t 20 a c r e s .
A bout 100 a c r e s .
4 , How l o n g d o e s i t
lu m b e r t o m a tu r e ?
(
(
(
(
q u e s t io n s
) A bout 1 4 9 2 ,
) A bout 1 7 1 0 ,
A bout 1 8 0 0 ,
A bout 1 8 6 0 .
2 , How m any co m m u n ity f o r e s t s
v a r io u s p a r t s o f th e c o u n tr y ?
(
(
(
(
fir s t
A-3
ta k e m ost t r e e s
th a t are to
be u sed fo r
A bout 500 y e a r s ,
From 5 0 t o 75 y e a r s .
A b o u t 25 y e a r s .
N o t m o re t h a n 5 y e a r s ,
5 , How b i g s h o u l d t h e t r u n k s o f m o s t t r e e s b e t o b e s u i t a b l e
lu m b er?
(
) A t l e a s t 2 in c h e s in d ia m e te r ,
(
) N o t m o re t h a n 1 0 i n c h e s
i n d ia m e te r ,
D
( ) A t l e a s t 18 t o 24 in c h e s in d ia m e te r .
Score
A -3
( ) A bout 10 f e e t i n d ia m e te r .
6 , How m uch h a v e som e f a r m e r s m ade o n e a c h a c r e o f t h e i r
w o o d lo ts in one y e a r ?
(
(
S
)
)
( )
( )
As m uch a s f i f t y c e n t s ,
A bout 2 d o lla r s *
'
As m uch a s 20 d o l l a r s .
A bout 150 d o l l a r s .
T
A
D
S
T o ta l
281
C oal
A lt h o u g h c o a l i s
II-4
o n e o f t h e w o r l d * s m o s t im p o r t a n t s o u r c e s
p o w e r , m en d id n o t l e a r n how t o u s e i t
m in o u s c o a l , B e t t e r know n a s
so ft
u n til f a ir ly
r e c e n tly .
of
B itu ­
c o a l , w a s f i r s t u s e d a b o u t t h e t im e
W a s h in g t o n w a s a b o y w i t h t h e i n v e n t i o n o f s t e a m e n g i n e s a n d m a c h i n e s .
A n th r a c ite ,
o r h ard c o a l , w as d is c o v e r e d i n P e n n s y lv a n ia
w as a t f i r s t th o u g h t t o
u sed
c h ie f ly to
be to o h ard t o
r e p a ir r o a d s .
in
1 7 '9 0 ,
It
burn and so w a s c r a c k e d up and
For t h i s
rea so n i t
d i d n o t come i n t o
g e n e r a l u s e u n t i l som e t i m e l a t e r .
B eca u se c o a l i s
la r g e ly
r e s p o n s ib le
For t h i s
t h e c h i e f s o u r c e o f p o w er a n d e n e r g y ,
b e g r e a t e r a n d g r e a t e r dem an d s f o r c o a l .
c o n s t a n t l y w e r e b e in g d is c o v e r e d an d d e v e lo p e d s o t h a t
f o r m an y y e a r s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a s l e d t h e w o r ld i n
The t o t a l
c o a l la n d w i t h i n o u r b o r d e r s i s
m id -w e s te r n s t a t e s
we r e a li z e
in a r e a .
th a t th e
la r g e
sq u are m ile s o f t e r r i t o r y .
is
equal to
sta te
o f I llin o is
T h o se g i g a n t i c
th e s i z e
ab ou t e ig h t
o f th o
i s w h en
c o a l a r e a s fo r m a l a r g o
sh a re
T hey a r e a l s o w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d
t o a c o a l m in e
co u n tr y .
B e c a u s e o f t h o tr e m e n d o u s dem and f o r
su ch a s o u r s , m o st o f t h e
s u p p ly o f c o a l .
h a s s o m e t h in g o v e r 5 0 , 0 0 0
d i s t a n c e fr o m a n y p a r t o f t h o U n it e d S t a t e s
s h o r t co m p a r e d t o
our c o u n tr y .
th e
We c a n g e t som e i d e a how v a s t t h i s
o f t h e know n c o a l d e p o s i t s o f t h e w o r l d .
so th a t th e
is
f o r t h e g r e a t i n d u s t r i a l g r o w th o f o u r c o u n t r y .
r e a s o n t h e r e cam e t o
New c o a l f i e l d s
it
c o a l in an in d u s t r ia l n a t io n
c o a l m in e d i n t h o U n i t e d S t a t e s
I n 1 9 2 6 wo m in e d a n en o rm o u s num ber o f t o n s
is
u sed in
o f c o a l.
t h i s v a s t a m o u n t we u s e d a b o u t 95 p e r c e n t a n d e x p o r t e d o n l y a b o u t 5
p er c e n t.
Of
B-4
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on Coal
S e le c t th e b e s t an sw er under ea ch o f th e f o llo w in g q u e s t io n s
a n d p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s i s i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r *
1* Although coal is of great valu e, when did man f i r s t learn
how to use it?
T
(
(
(
(
) A b o u t t h e t i m e o f t h e C i v i l War*
) A b o u t t h e t i m e W a s h in g to n w a s a boy*
) A f t e r t h e d i s c o v e r y o f A m e r ic a ,
) A v e r y s h o r t tim e a g o .
2 , How f a r i s
it
fr o m m o s t p a r t s
o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s t o
a coal
m in e ?
D
3,
( ) A v e r y sh o r t d is ta n c e ,
( ) A v e r y g r e a t d is ta n c e .
( ) A s h o r t d i s t a n c e co m p a red t o t h e s i z e o f t h e
( ) A l o n g w a y a s d i s t a n c e i s now m e a s u r e d ,
How b i g a r e t h e
A
4 , How
S
(
(
(
(
c o m b in e d c o a l f i e l d s
T
co u n tr y in
1926?
) A g r e a t m any t o n s ,
) Several to n s.
) An en o r m o u s n u m b er o f t o n s .
) A l a r g e n u m b er o f t o n s ,
5 , How
lo n g h a s t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
m e n t o f m in e s a n d t h e s u p p l y o f c o a l ?
(
(
(
(
o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ?
) As b i g a s
a b o u t 8 m id -w e ste r n s t a t e s .
) As b i g a s E n g la n d ,
) As b i g a s A u s t r a l i a ,
) A s b i g a s a l l t h e New E n g la n d s t a t e s ,
m uch c o a l w a s m in e d i n t h i s
(
(
(
(
c o u n tr y ,
)
)
)
)
S in c e th e
S in c e th e
F o r m any
For j u s t
t im e C olum bus
e a r ly 1800*s ,
y ea rs.
a fe w y e a r s .
l e d t h e w o r ld i n
th e
d e v e lo p ­
d i s c o v e r e d A m e r ic a .
6 , W hat p a r t o f t h e know n c o a l d e p o s i t s i n t h e w o r ld a r e
f o u n d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r ie s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ?
S core
B -4
T
A
S
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
N e a r l y a l l o f th e m ,
A v e r y f e w o f th e m ,
A l a r g e s h a r e o f th e m .
A s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f th e m .
D
S
T o ta l
S3 3
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on C oal
S e l e c t th e b e s t a n sw er u n d er ea ch o f th e f o llo w in g
an d p u t an X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s is i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw er*
how t o
1* A lt h o u g h
u se it?
( )
( )
T
(
)
( )
2 , How f a r
coal is
In
In
In
In
is
A-4
q u e s tio n s
o f g r e a t v a l u e , w h en d i d man f i r s t
le a r n
th e 1 3 0 0 * s,
1648,
th e 1 7 0 0 ' s ,
1850.
it
fr o m m o s t p a r t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o a c o a l
m in e ?
D
(
(
(
(
) A bout
3 0 0 0 m ile s *
) A bout
500 m ile s ,
) A bout 150 m ile s *
) A bout 20 m ile s *
3 , How b i g a r e t h e c o m b in e d c o a l f i e l d s
A
( ) A bout
( ) A bout
(
) A bout
( ) A bout
2 0 0 ,0 0 0 a c r e s ,
3 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 a c r e s*
5 0 0 ,0 0 0 sq u a r e m ile s *
1 ,2 5 0 ,0 0 0 sq u a re m ile s *
4 , How m uch c o a l w a s m in e d i n t h i s
S
c o u n tr y in 1926?
( ) 5 0 0 th o u sa n d to n s *
( ) 1 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 t o n s ,
(
) 40 m illio n to n s ,
( ) 680 m illio n t o n s ,
5 , How l o n g h a s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
m e n t o f m in e s a n d t h e s u p p l y o f c o a l?
T
o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s ?
(
(
(
(
l e d t h e w o r ld i n t h e d e v e l o p ­
) S in c e
1620,
) S in c e
1776.
) S in c e 1 8 2 0 ,
) S in c e 1 8 9 9 .
6 , W hat p a r t o f t h e know n c o a l d e p o s i t s i n t h e w o r ld a r e
fo u n d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e U n it e d S t a t e s ?
Score
A -4
T
A
S
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
o n e - t e n t h o f th e m ,
o n e - t h i r d o f th e m ,
t h r e e - f i f t h s o f them *
n i n e - t e n t h s o f th e m .
S
T otal
284
S a fe ty F ir s t
" S a fe ty F ir s t"
m ake u s r e a l i z e
is
a w e l l know n s l o g a n o f t o d a y .
t h a t we l i v e
m ay i n j u r e o r k i l l u s .
We c a n s e e t h e n e e d f o r
th r o u g h a c c i d e n t s .
a liz e
s u c h a s l o g a n w h en we
in 1 9 3 7 th o u s a n d s o f p e o p le l o s t t h e i r
In t h i s m anner.
d r e a d fu l f a c t s .
how s e r i o u s t h e y r e a l l y a r e .
H ere a r e s e v e r a l w ays t o h e lp u s r e ­
Our W o r ld War l o s s
a f r a c t i o n a l p a r t o f th e 1937 a c c id e n t d e a th t o l l ,
over,
b u t th o an n u al t o l l
o f a c c id e n t s
c o n tin u e s .
in
l i v e s w as o n ly
Tho War i s
lo n g s i n c e
F u r th e r m o r e , a con ­
s id e r a b le p a r t o f th e s e
a c c i d e n t s w a s c a u s e d b y a u t o m o b ilo s a l o n e .
h as b een e s tim a te d t h a t
th e y c a u se d a d e a th
T here a r c a v a i l a b l e
m ile s
th e se
str e e ts
It
e v e r y fe w m in u te s .
i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n en o r m o u s n u m b er o f
o f ro a d w a y o v e r w h ic h a u t o m o b i l e s may t r a v e l .
and v i l l a g e
to
The m o st f r e q u e n t c a u s e w as t h e m o to r v e h i c l e .
A bout 3 9 ,5 0 0 w ere k i l l e d
T h ese a r e
I t s p u rp o se i s
i n a d a n g e r o u s a g e o f s p e e d i n g m a c h in e s w h ic h
le a r n t h a t i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
liv e s
I I -5
T h is i n c l u d e s
an d p a v e d and •unpaved c o u n t r y r o a d s .
c ity
The t r a f f i c
on
r o a d s c a u s e d one d e a th f o r e a c h c o m p a r a t iv e ly s h o r t d is t a n c e o f r o a d .
T h e r e a r e m any w a y s i n w h ic h t h i s y e a r l y t o l l o f d e a t h s m ay b e
a v o id e d .
M o t o r i s t s a n d p e d e s t r i a n s m u s t a lw a y s f o l l o w
and ob ey t r a f f i c
c r o s s in g
la w s .
r u le s o f s a f e t y
S in c e m o st o f t h e a c c id e n t s o c c u r t o
p e o p l e w h en
h ig h w a y s , t h e s e h ig h w a y s m u s t bo e q u ip p e d w i t h o v e r p a s s e s a n d
u n d o r p a sse s f o r b o th m o t o r is t s and p e d e s t r ia n s .
w e l l l o c a t e d p la y g r o u n d s
o u s s t r e e t s an d h ig h w a y s ,
p r o v id e e a c h c h i l d
in th o
a v e r a g e b ed ro o m f l o o r .
th e y
th e
c o u ld h e l p
so t h a t c h ild r e n
C i t i e s m u st a l s o p r o v id e
do n o t h a v e t o p l a y o n d a n g e r ­
T h e so p la y g r o u n d s
sh o u ld be l a r g e en ou gh t o
co m m u n ity w i t h a s p a c e a b o u t t h e
I f m o re c o m m u n itie s
sa v e hun dred s o f l i v e s
s iz o
o f th e
o b serv ed a l l th e s e t h in g s ,
oach y e a r .
285
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on S a f e t y F i r s t
B-5
S e l e c t th e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f th e f o llo w in g q u e s t io n s
and p u t an X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s is in f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r ,
1 , How m any p e o p l e l o s t t h e i r l i v e s
1937 b e c a u se o f a c c id e n ts ?
( ) A la r g e g ro u p ,
( ) T h o u sa n d s o f p e o p le *
S
( ) S e v e r a l p e o p le ,
( ) A v e r y s m a ll num ber,
in
i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
2 , Of a l l t h e a c c i d e n t a l d e a t h s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n
1 9 3 7 , h ow m any w e r e c a u s e d b y m o t o r v e h i c l e s ?
(
) O n ly a s m a l l n u m b er ,
(
) N e a r l y a l l o f th e m ,
(
) A c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t o f th e m ,
(
) A lm o s t n o n e o f th e m ,
3,
S ta te s ?
lo s s
in
How o f t e n i n 1 9 3 7 d id a u t o m o b i l e s
(
) E v ery fe w h o u r s ,
(
) E very fe w m in u te s ,
(
) O n ly o c c a s i o n a l l y ,
(
) R a r e ly ,
in
t h e U n it e d S t a t e s
c a u s e a d e a t h i n t h e U n it e d
4 , How d o e s o u r l o s s i n l i v e s i n t h e W orld War co m p a re w i t h o u r
l i v e s in 1937 b eca u se o f a c c id e n ts ?
( ) Our w a r l o s s w a s o n l y a f r a c t i o n a l p a r t o f o u r 1 9 3 7
a c c id e n t l o s s ,
(
) Our w a r l o s s w a s m uch g r e a t e r t h a n o u r 1 9 3 7 a c c i d e n t l o s s ,
(
) Our w a r l o s s w a s a g r e a t d e a l l e s s t h a n o u r 1 9 3 7 a c c i d e n t
lo s s ,
( ) Our l o s s e s w e r e a b o u t t h e sam e i n n u m b e r ,
5 . I n t e r m s o f r o a d s a v a i l a b l e f o r a u t o m o b ile t r a f f i c , w h a t d i s t a n c e
on t h e s e ro a d s w as r e s p o n s ib le f o r e a c h t r a f f i c a c c id e n t ?
( ) M any, m any m i l e s ,
( ) S e v e r a l m ile s *
D
( ) A c o m p a r a tiv e ly s h o r t d i s t a n c e ,
( ) A g rea t d is ta n c e ,
th e r e
6 , A b o u t how m any m i l e s o f r o a d w a y f o r a u t o m o b ilo s a r e
i n t h e U n ite d S ta t e s ?
( ) A g r e a t m any m i l e s ,
( ) S ev era l m ile s ,
D
( ) A l a r g e n u m b er o f m i l e s ,
( ) An e n o rm o u s num ber o f m i l e s .
7 , To b o l a r g o e n o u g h t o k o e p a l l t h e c h i l d r e n o f f t h e
s t r e e t s , how m uch s p a c e s h o u l d p la y g r o u n d s p r o v i d e f o r o a c h c h i l d ?
( ) An a r o a a b o u t t h e s i z o o f a c i t y b l o c k ,
( ) An a r e a a b o u t t h o s i z o o f a b u i l d i n g l o t ,
A
( ) An a r e a a b o u t t h o s i z o o f t h o a v e r a g e b ed ro o m
flo o r ,
( ) An a r o a a b o u t t h o s i z o o f a c l o t h o s - c l o s o t f l o o r .
Score
B -5
T
A
D
S
T o ta l
286
Q u e stio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on S a f e t y F i r s t
A-5
S e l e c t th e b e s t an sw er u n d er ea ch o f th e f o llo w in g q u e s t io n s
an d p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s is in f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw er*
1* How m any p e o p l e l o s t t h e i r
1937 b e c a u se o f a c c id e n t s ?
( ) A b out 50*
( ) A bout 1 0 ,0 0 0 .
S
( ) A bout 1 0 5 ,0 0 0 .
( ) A bout 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .
in
2.
1 9 3 7 , how m any
(
(
S
(
(
S ta te s?
lo s s
in
liv e s
in t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
Of a l l t h e a c c i d e n t a l d e a t h s t h a t o c c u r r e d
w e r e c a u s e d b y m o to r v e h i c l e s ?
)A b o u t 8 7 o u t o f e v e r y 1 0 0 ,
)A b o u t 3 7 o u t o f e v e r y 1 0 0 ,
)A b o u t 2 0 o u t o f e v e r y 1 0 0 .
)A b o u t
8 out o f ev ery 100.
3 . How o f t e n i n 1 9 3 7
(
) One e v e r y
(
) One e v e r y
T
(
) One e v e r y
(
) One e v e r y
d id a u to m o b ile s
4 h ou rs.
60 m in u te s ,
13 m i n u t e s ,
5 seco n d s.
in
in t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
c a u s e a d e a t h i n t h e U n it e d
4 . How d o e s o u r l o s s i n l i v e s i n t h e W o rld War co m p a re w i t h o u r
l i v e s in 1937 b e c a u se o f a c c id e n ts ?
(
) Our w a r l o s s w a s a b o u t o n e - t e n t h o f o u r a c c i d e n t l o s s .
(
) Our w a r l o s s w a s a b o u t o n e - h a l f o f o u r a c c i d e n t l o s s .
S
(
) Our w a r l o s s w a s a b o u t t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f o u r a c c i d e n t l o s s .
(
) Our l o s s e s w e r e e q u a l i n n u m b er ,
5.
In te r m s o f r o a d s
on t h e s e r o a d s w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
( ) A bout 84 m ile s o f
( ) A bout 3 0 m ile s o f
D
( ) A b o u t 2-jj? m i l e s o f
( ) A bout a h a l f m ile
6 . A bout
U n ite d S t a t e s ?
(
(
D
(
(
a v a i l a b l e f o r a u t o m o b ile t r a f f i c , w h a t d i s t a n c e
o ach t r a f f i c a c c id e n t?
road .
road.
road ,
o f road.
how m any m i l e s o f r o a d w a y f o r a u t o m o b i l e s a r e t h e r e i n t h e
)
)
)
)
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
2 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 m i l e s ,
3 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0 m i le s ,
3 5 0 ,0 0 0 m ile s *
5 0 ,0 0 0 m i l e s .
7 , To b e l a r g e e n o u g h t o k e e p a l l t h e c h i l d r e n o f f t h e
s t r e e t s , how m uch s p a c e s h o u l d p la y g r o u n d s p r o v i d e f o r e a c h
c h ild ?
( ) A bout 1600 sq u a re f e e t ,
(
)A b o u t 9 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t ,
A
(
)A b o u t 3 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t .
(
)A b o u t 1 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t .
S core
A -5
A
T o ta l
R eaping T o o ls
F o r m any t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s f a r m e r s
lik e
t h o s e w h ic h w e c a l l s i c k l e s .
w e r e m ade o f f l i n t ,
on ro ck y s o i l s .
s m a ll f i e l d
W ith i t
out th e ir
s till
o f b r o n z e , and f i n a l l y
u sed th e
w ork.
steel
E ven
f o r h a r v e s t in g
cut a
a lo n g h a n d le .
W ith i t
s ic k le .
I t h ad a l o n g e r k n i f e
a man d id n o t h a v e t o
s t o o p lo w a t h i s
He c o u l d s t a n d , u s e b o t h a r m s , an d c o u l d c u t a w i d e r s w a t h .
m u ch g r a i n
By
c o u ld c u t s e v e r a l tim e s a s
i n a d a y a s a man w i t h a s i c k l e .
The c r a d l e
s c y t h e w a s i n v e n t e d a n d w i d e l y u s e d i n t h e A m e r ic a n
c o l o n i e s a t a b o u t t h e tim e o f th e R e v o lu t io n ,
I t w a s a n im p r o v e m e n t on
s c y t h e s f o r m e r l y u s e d b e c a u s e i t w a s e q u ip p e d w i t h s e v e r a l w o o d e n
s tr ip s
above th e
ground a s
in t o
of s te e l.
o f g r a in .
k e e p i n g s t e a d i l y a t w o r k , a man w i t h a s c y t h e
th e
s ic k le
s ic k le s
a s t r o n g man n e e d e d q u i t e a f e w h o u r s t o
T he s c y t h e w a s a n im p r o v e m e n t o n t h e
a tta c h e d to
g r a in w ith hand t o o l s ,
The b l a d e s o f t h e p r i m i t i v e
o f b o n e, la t e r
o u r e a r l y A m e r ic a n c o l o n i s t s
II-6
row s.
W ith t h i s
c u ttin g k n if e .
The g r a i n ,
i t w a s c u t , now c o u l d b e
It
to o l,
i n s t e a d o f d r o p p in g t o
c a u g h t b y t h e s e w o o d e n s t r i p s an d l a i d
c o u ld t h e n b o r a k e d i n t o p i l e s
i t w as p o s s i b l e
th e
and bound in t o
f o r one man t o
b u n d le s .
c u t a n d h a r v e s t a s m uch a s
t h r e e m en c o u l d h a r v e s t f o r m e r l y w i t h t h e o l d e r k in d o f s c y t h e .
E ven th o u g h th e
c r a d l e w a s a n im p r o v e m e n t o n t h e
s c y t h e , m an s t i l l h a d t o
h is
cro p s.
depend a lt o g e t h e r
on h is m u s c le s
and t h e
in h a r v e s t in g
I t w a s n o t u n t i l 1 8 3 1 t h a t a man nam ed C yru s W, M cC orm ick had
d e v e l o p e d a r e a p i n g m a c h in e d raw n b y h o r s e s .
t h e w ork o f a l a r g e
m any y e a r s
s ic k le
From t h e
fir s t
it
c o u ld
g r o u p o f men w i t h much l o s s b a c k - b r e a k i n g t o i l .
do
A fte r
o f im p r o v e m e n t, t h i s m a c h in e c o u ld n o t o n l y c u t t h o g r a i n b u t
c o u ld a l s o b in d i t
in to
b in d e r w it h a l l i t s
a m ed ium s i z e d f i e l d
b u n d le s w i t h t w i n e .
im p r o v e m e n ts i s
o f g r a in i n
In f a c t ,
th e p r e s e n t day
so e f f i c i e n t t h a t i t
one d a y .
c a n c u t a n d b in d
B-6
Q u e stio n s on th e a r t i c l e on R eaping T ools
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f th e f o l lo w in g q u e s t io n s
a n d p u t a n X i n t h e p a r e n t h e s i s i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n sw e r *
1* How m u ch g r a i n c a n a s t r o n g man w i t h a s i c k l e
A
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A la r g e
f i e l d o f g r a in .
A s m a ll f i e l d o f g r a in ,
A
fie ld
a s b i g a s t h e a v e r a g e fa r m .
A fie ld
a s b ig a s a c i t y b lo c k ,
2 . How l o n g i s
D
)
)
( )
( )
t h e h a n d le o f a s c y t h e ?
The l e n g t h o f a m a n ’ s a r m .
L ong,
S h o r t,
T w ic e t h e h e i g h t o f a m a n ,
3 . How m any w o o d e n s t r i p s
t h e g r a i n i n t o r o w s?
S
4.
c r a d le
s c y t h e h ave t o h e lp
la y
S e v e r a l,
A v e r y la r g e n u m ber,
M any,
A v e r y few ,
do t h e w o r k o f how m any men?
( ) S e v e r a l,
( ) A v e r y l a r g e n u m b e r.
( ) A la r g e g ro u p ,
( ) Q u ite a c o n s id e r a b le num ber.
5 . Prom t h e t i m e o f M cC o rm ick ’ s f i r s t m a c h in e , h ow l o n g d i d i t
im p r o v e t h e r e a p e r s o t h a t i t w o u ld b in d a s w e l l a s c u t g r a i n ?
T
in
)
)
)
)
d id t h e
I n 1 8 3 1 , M cC o rm ick ’ s r e a p e r c o u l d
S
to
(
(
(
(
c u t i n o n e day?
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
ta k e
Many y e a r s ,
A v ery sh o r t tim e ,
S e v era l c e n tu r ie s ,
S e v e r a l g e n e r a tio n s ,
6 . How m uch g r a i n c a n a p r e s e n t d a y b in d e r c u t a n d b in d i n t o b u n d le s
on e d a y ?
, *
,
( ) The a r e a o f a c i t y b l o c k ,
Score
( ) A m edium s i z e d f i e l d ,
B -6
A
(
) An a r e a e q u a l t o a n a v e r a g e s i z e d f a r m ,
T
( ) A v e r y s m a ll f i e l d .
7 , How lo n g , w o u ld i t
c u t a n a c r e o f g r a in ?
T
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A very
A lo n g
Q u it e a
A very
t a k e a s t r o n g man w i t h a s i c k l e t o
sh o r t tim e ,
tim e ,
fe w h o u r s,
lo n g p e r io d .
A
D
S
T o ta l
289
Q u e stio n s on t h e a r t i c l e on R eaping T o o ls
A-6
S e l e c t t h e b e s t a n sw er u n d er e a c h o f th e f o l lo w in g q u e s t io n s
and p u t an X in t h e p a r e n t h e s is i n f r o n t o f t h a t a n s w e r ,
1 , How m uch g r a i n
A
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
2 , How l o n g i s
D
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
c a n a s t r o n g man w i t h a s i c k l e
h a n d le o f a s c y t h e ?
one fo o t#
20 i n c h e s ,
5 fe e t,
25 f e e t ,
3 , How m any w o o d e n s t r i p s
t h e g r a i n i n t o r o w s?
S
4,
c r a d le s c y th e have t o h e lp la y
A bout 2 5 ,
A bout 1 5 ,
T hree or f o u r ,
O n ly o n e ,
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A hundred,
F ifty .
A d ozen,
Two#
5 , From t h e t i m e o f M c C o r m ic k 's f i r s t m a c h in e , how lo n g d i d
im p r o v e t h e r e a p e r s o t h a t i t w o u ld b in d a s w e l l a s c u t g r a in ?
T
in
d id th e
I n 1 8 3 1 , M c C o r m ic k 's r e a p e r c o u l d d o t h e w o r k o f how m any men?
S
to
( )
( )
(
)
( )
one day?
10 a c r e s ,
6 acres.
one a c r e ,
•£■ o f a n a c r e ,
th e
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
cu t in
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
6 , How m uch g r a i n
one day?
A
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
A bout
A bout
A bout
A bout
it
ta k e
3 years,
15 y e a r s #
40 y e a r s ,
100 y e a r s ,
c a n a p r e s e n t d a y b i n d e r c u t and b in d i n t o
b u n d le s
Score
A -6
5 a cres,
20 a c r e s .
60 a c r e s ,
120 a c r e s .
A
7 , How l o n g w o u ld i t
c u t a n a c r e o f g r a in ?
T
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
t a k e a str<o n g man w i t h a s i c k l e
One m o n th ,
Two w e e k s ,
A w h o le d a y .
Two h o u r s .
to
T o ta l
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