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The Need for Guidance in a Small Rural High School

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THE HEED FOR GUIDANCE IN A SMALL
RURAL HIGH SCHOOL
by
Edw ard T • J u s t i s
ProQuest Number: 10614609
All rights reserved
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THE NEED FOR GUIDANCE IN A SMALL
RURAL HIGH SCHOOL
by
Edward T , J u s t i a
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS
OF
THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM AND MARY
f o r th e degree
MASTER OF ARTS
1940
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
In p a r t i a l payment of the debt of g ra titu d e
I owe to my degree committee, t h i s page i s dedicated
to Dr. George H. Armacost fo r b is time and energy
so abundantly given during a l l stages of tbe prep­
a ra tio n of t h i s th e s is ; to Dr. Kremer J. Hoke f o r h is
constructive c ritic is m and help in the l a t t e r stages
of i t s preparation; and to Dr. Richard H. Henneman fo r
h is helpful suggestions a t various times.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
C h ap ter I .
Pag©
1
INTRODUCTION
Chang© i n S o c i e t y W hich I n c r e a s e t h e N eeds f o r
G u id a n c e
1
C h a n g in g c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e home
C h a n g in g c o n d i t i o n s i n l a b o r a n d i n d u s t r y
C hanges i n p o p u l a t i o n a n d b i r t h r a t e
C h a n g in g s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g
C hanges i n t h e am ount o f l e i s u r e tim e
Changes i n m o r a l a n d r e l i g i o u s c o n d i t i o n s
The n e c e s s i t y f o r e f f i c i e n t l e a d e r s h i p
1
1 -2
2-3
3 -4
4
4-5
5
E x p l o ita t io n o f th e D e sire
f o r G u id a n c e
In c r e a s e d e n ro lm e n t i n h ig h s c h o o ls
The e x p a n d in g c u r r i c u l a
E l i m i n a t i o n s fr o m s c h o o l
I n c r e a s e i n t h e am ount o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n
demanded
V a r i e d means o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n
C o n s o lid a tio n o f sch o o ls
The S c h o o l ^ R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r G u id a n ce
R e s p o n s ib ility of th e sc h o o l to th e
in d iv id u a l
R e s p o n s ib ility of th e sch o o l to s o c ie ty
The s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l
The M eaning o f G u id a n ce
M eaning o f t h e te r m
The r e l a t i o n o f g u id a n c e t o e d u c a t i o n
D e f i n i t i o n o f g u id a n c e
B a sic p r i n c i p l e s o f g u id an ce
C h ap ter I I .
THE PROBLEM
S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e p ro b le m
D e f i n i t i o n o f te r m s
The p ro b le m d e f i n e d
D e t e r m i n i n g s c h o o l a n d community b a c k ­
g ro u n d
D e t e r m i n i n g l i f e p u r p o s e s a n d p ro b le m s
D e t e r m i n i n g v o c a t i o n a l an d e d u c a t i o n a l
p la n s
D e te r m in in g a d j u s t m e n t
5-6
6
6
7
7-8
8
8
9
9
9
9 -1 0
10
1 0 -1 1
1 1 -1 2
12
1 3 -1 4
15
15-16
1 6 -1 7
1 7 -1 8
1 8 -1 9
19
1 9 -2 0
20
C h ap ter I I I .
SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY BACKGROUND
L o c a tio n and ty p e o f s c h o o l
C o u rs e s o f f e r e d i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l
Da i l y s c h e d u l e
E x tra -c la ssro o m a c t i v i t i e s
D is trib u tio n of p u p ils
G u idance i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l
S i z e o f f a m i l y an d p a r e n t s l i v i n g
O c c u p a tio n s o f p a r e n t s
E d u c a tio n of p a re n ts
A re a an d t y p e o f com m unity
Econom ic
s t a t u s , o f community
C h u rc h e s
and o th e r o r g a n iz a tio n s
R e c re a tio n a l f a c i l i t i e s
G u id an ce i n com m unity o r g a n i z a t i o n s
Summary
In te rp re ta tio n s
C h a p t e r IV .
LIFE PURPOSES
C la ssific a tio n
P u r p o s e s i l l u s t r a t i n g and a p p r o a c h i n g
tr u e c e n t r a l l i f e purposes
Purposes
e x p r e s s e d I n te r m s o f o c c u p a t i o n s
Purposes n o t s t a t e d
Im p lic a tio n s f o r th e sch o ol
P ro b le m s o f t h e P u p i l s
P ro b le m a r e a s an d c o n d i t i o n s
Summary
C h a p t e r V.
THE VOCATIONAL PLANS OF PUPILS OF
MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL
Time o f c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n
R e a s o n s f o r c h o i c e s and p r e f e r e n c e s
F a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d i n s e l e c t e d an d p r e f e r r e d
o c c u p a tio n s
R e a so n s f o r l a c k o f c h o i c e o r p r e f e r e n c e
P ersons c o n su lte d in s e l e c t i n g o c c u p a tio n s
Sources of o c c u p a tio n a l in fo rm a tio n
S u g g e sted changes i n th e s c h o o l
Summary
Im p lic a tio n s f o r th e sch o o l
C h ap ter V I.
EDUCATIONAL PLANS OF PUPILS OF
MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL
S e l e c t i o n o f h i g h s c h o o l p ro g ra m
R ea so n s f o r s e l e c t i n g s u b j e c t s
Page
21
21
2 1 -2 2
22
2 2 -2 3
23
23
2 3 -2 4
24
25
25
2 5 -26
26
26
27
27-28
28-30
31
31
31-33
33
33
3 3 -3 4
34
34-37
37-38
39-40
40-42
4 4-45
4 5 -4 7
4 7 -4 8
48-49
49-51
5 1 -5 3
5 3 -5 4
5 4 -5 5
56
56
5 6 -5 7
P ag e
E x tra -c la ssro o m a c t i v i t i e s s e le c te d
R easons f o r s e l e c t i n g e x tr a - c la s s r o o m
a c tiv itie s
R easons f o r n o t h a v in g s e l e c t e d e x t r a ­
c lassro o m a c t i v i t i e s
P la n s r e l a t i v e to c o m p le tio n o f h ig h s c h o o l
w ork
R e a s o n s f o r p l a n n i n g t o c o m p le te h i g h s c h o o l
w ork
P la n s f o r c o lle g e e d u c a tio n
Reasons f o r p la n n in g to a t t e n d c o lle g e
C o lle g e s s e l e c t e d
R easons f o r s e l e c t i n g c o lle g e
In fo rm a tio n co n ce rn in g c o lle g e s e l e c t e d
R easons f o r n o t p la n n in g to a t t e n d c o lle g e
M ethods o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a f t e r h i g h
school
P e r s o n s p u p i l s w ould a p p r o a c h f o r a d v i c e
Summary
I m p lic a tio n s f o r th e s c h o o l
C hap ter V II.
THE ADJUSTMENT OF PUPILS IN THE
MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL
O rg a n iz a tio n o f d a ta f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
M ethods o f c o m p a rin g g r o u p s one and f i v e
R a n k in g o f g r o u p one on s e v e n p h a s e s o f
a d ju stm en t
R a n k in g o f g ro u p f i v e on s e v e n p h a s e s o f
a d ju stm en t
C o m p a riso n o f g r o u p s one a n d f i v e
R e la tio n of ad ju stm en t to o th e r phases of
th e stu d y
A d ju s tm e n t and s c h o o l l i f e
A d ju s tm e n t a n d home c o n d i t i o n s
A d ju s tm e n t and p u r p o s e s
A d ju s tm e n t and p ro b le m s
A d ju s tm e n t and o c c u p a t i o n a l p l a n s
A d ju s tm e n t and e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s
Summary
Im p lic a tio n s f o r th e sch o o l
C h ap ter V I I I .
SUMMARY
The p ro b le m
Means o f g a t h e r i n g d a t a
C o n clu sio n
B u i l d i n g a G u id an ce Program
The n e e d f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n
I n t r o d u c i n g a g u id a n c e p ro g ra m
Some p o s s i b l e g u id a n c e a c t i v i t i e s
57-58
58-59
5 9 -6 0
60
6 0 -6 2
6 2 -6 3
6 3 -6 4
6 4 -6 5
65-66
6 6 -6 7
67
38
6 8 -7 0
7 0 -7 1
7 1 -7 3
7 4 -7 5
80
83
83
8 3 -8 4
84
84
85
85-87
87
87
8 7 -8 8
88
88-89
89
90
90
90
9 0 -9 3
93
9 3 -9 4
9 4 -9 6
9 6 -9 9
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books
P e rio d ic a ls
B u lle tin s
APPENDIX
P age
100
1 0 0 -1 0 1
10 2 -1 0 3
104
105
V o c atio n a l p la n s q u e s tio n n a ire
E d u c a tio n a l p la n s q u e s tio n n a ire
1 0 5 -1 0 6
1 0 7 -1 0 8
TABLES
I
CQTJRSES OFFERED IN THE MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
II
DISTRIBUTION OF THE 124 HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS OF THE
MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL. BY AGE.
Ill
DISTRIBUTION OF THE 124 PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH
SCHOOL ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN IN THE
FAMILIES FROM WHICH THEY" COME.
IV
CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS OF THE FATHERS OF
THE 124 PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
V
EXTENT OF EDUCATIONAL TRAINING OF THE PARENTS OF
THE 124 PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
VI
GRADES IN WHICH THE PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH
SCHOOL WERE LOCATED AT THE TIME THE CHOICE OF AN
OCCUPATION WAS MADE.
V II
V III
IX
X
XI
OCCUPATIONS LISTED BY PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH
SCHOOL WHO HAVE A PREFERENCE FOR TWO OR THREE
OCCUPATIONS.
REASONS FOR CHOICE OF, OR PREFERENCE FOR OCCUPA*TIONS AS GIVEN BY THE PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH
SCHOOL.
FACTORS CONSIDERED BY PUPILS OF THE MIDLOTHIAN
HIGH SCHOOL IN SELECTING OR EXPRESSING A PREFER­
ENCE FOR OCCUPATIONS.
REASONS GIVEN BY PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL
FOR THE LACK OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE OR PREFERENCE.
PERSONS TO WHOM PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL
WOULD GO FOR OCCUPATIONAL ADVICE.PLACED IN ORDER
OF PREFERENCE.
X II
SOURCES OF OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION LISTED BY THE
PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
X III
CHANGES SUGGESTED BY PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH
SCHOOL TO FACILITATE BETTER PREPARATION OF PUPILS
FOR AFTER-SCHOOL LIFE,
XIV
REASONS GIVEN BY PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL
FOR SELECTING SUBJECTS TO BE TAKEN WHILE IN HIGH
SCHOOL.
EXTRA-CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES SELECTED BY PUPILS OF
MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
58
REASONS GIVEN BY PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL
FOR SELECTING EXTRA-CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES.
59
REASONS GIVEN BY THE PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH
SCHOOL FOR NOT HAVING SELECTED EXTRA-CLASSROOM
ACTIVITIES.
59
REASONS GIVEN BY PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL
FOR PLANNING TO COMPLETE THE HIGH SCHOOL WORK.
61
REASONS FOR PLANNING TO ATTEND COLLEGE GIVEN BY
THE PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
65
COLLEGES SELECTED BY PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH
SCHOOL WHO HAVE MADE A DEFINITE SELECTION.
64
REASONS STATED BY PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL
FOR SELECTING THE COLLEGE THEY WISH TO ATTEND.
65
PER CENT OF PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL
HAVING INFORMATION CONCERNING ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS,
COST, COURSES OFFERED, AND SOCIAL GROUPS OF THE
COLLEGE OF THEIR CHOICE.
66
REASONS FOR NOT PLANNING TO ATTEND COLLEGE GIVEN
BY THE PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
67
MEANS OF CONTINUING EDUCATION SELECTED BY PUPILS
OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL WHO DO NOT PLAN TO
ATTEND COLLEGE.
68
PERSONS TO WHOM PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL
WOULD GO FOR ADVICE ABOUT THEIR EDUCATIONAL PLANS.
69
RESULTS OF ADJUSTMENT QUESTIONNAIRE FOR FRESHMAN
CLASS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
76
RESULTS OF ADJUSTMENT QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SOPHOMORE
CLASS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
77
RESULTS OF ADJUSTMENT QUESTIONNAIRE FOR JUNIOR
CLASS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
78
RESULTS OF ADJUSTMENT QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SENIOR
CLASS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
79
SCORES OF PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL RANK­
ING ABOVE THE EIGHTIETH PERCENTILE ON TOTAL
ADJUSTMENT SCORE.
81
SCORES OF PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL RANK­
ING BELOW THE TWENTIETH PERCENTILE ON TOTAL
ADJUSTMENT SCORE.
82
1
C h ap ter I
INTRODUCTION
C hanges i n S o c i e t y W hich I n c r e a s e The
N eeds F o r G u id a n ce
Changes- i n s o c i e t y a r e t a k i n g p l a c e more r a p i d l y t o d a y
th a n a t any o th e r p e rio d i n h is to r y *
E d u c a t i o n t o be e f f e c t ­
i v e m u s t assum e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p r e p a r e t h e p u p i l f o r
e f f e c t i v e l i v i n g b y r e f l e c t i n g t h e s e c h a n g e s an d t r a i n i n g t h e
p u p i l t o a d j u s t h i m s e l f t o th e m .
S in c e c h o ic e s a r e in v o lv e d
i n a d a p t a t i o n s t o c h a n g e s , g u id a n c e i s n e e d e d t o i n s u r e s e ­
le c tio n s of a d e sira b le n a tu re .
S o c i e t y ’s te n d en c y to e x p e r i­
m ent w i t h t h e new , a n d t h e im p ro v ed o l d , i n c r e a s e s t h e n e e d
t o g u id e y o u t h c a p a b l y to w a r d c h o i c e s f u n d a m e n t a l l y w is e *
Some o f t h e s e c h a n g e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y .
C h a n g in g c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e home.
The home i s no l o n g e r
t h e s e l f s u f f i c i e n t u n i t t h a t i t was a c e n t u r y ago*
Modern
c o n v e n ie n c e s have d e c r e a s e d t h e amount o f tim e n e c e s s a r y t o
p e r f o r m t h e work a r o u n d t h e home.
Employment an d r e c r e a t i o n a l
a c t i v i t i e s t a k e t h e p a r e n t s away fro m t h e home.
C h ild re n a t
home f r e q u e n t l y e n g a g e i n a c t i v i t i e s n o t r e g u l a t e d b y a d u l t s .
T h i s l a c k o f s u p e r v i s i o n c a l l s f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f g u id a n c e
b y some a g e n c y o t h e r t h a n t h e home.
C h an g in g c o n d i t i o n s o f l a b o r a n d In d u s t r y .
is in c re a se d s p e c i a l i z a t i o n in o c cu p a tio n .
Today t h e r e
The n i n e t e e n
2
h u n d r e d a n d t h i r t y c e n s u s c o n t a i n s o v e r 2 5 ,0 0 0 s i n g l e o c c u ­
p a tio n a l d e sig n a tio n s.
Mass p r o d u c t i o n dem ands t h a t a n i n ­
d i v i d u a l do some one t h i n g w e l l .
is fo rev er flu c tu a tin g ;
Em ployment i n a l l c a l l i n g s
th e o n ly c o n s ta n t i s c h a n g e .
S in c e
1870 t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n e n g a g e d i n a g r i c u l t u r e
a n d a l l i e d w ork h a s d i m i n i s h e d w h i l e t h e r a t i o a c t i v e i n
t r a d e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c l e r i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e
has expanded. 1
T h e re i s a d e c r e a s e i n t h e num ber o f young
p e o p l e i n e m p lo ym en t.
I n n i n e t e e n h u n d r e d , 18 p e r c e n t o f
t h e c h i l d r e n b e tw e e n t h e a g e s o f t e n an d f i f t e e n y e a r s w ere
g a i n f u l l y e m p lo y e d ;
an d i n n i n e t e e n h u n d r e d a n d t h i r t y o n l y
f o u r an d s e v e n - t e n t h s p e r c e n t w ere so e m p loy ed
R a p id
r e v e r s a ls p o in t to th e p o s s i b i l i t y of v o c a tio n a l m o d ific a tio n
s e v e r a l tim e s d u rin g th e span o f l i f e .
O p p o rtu n itie s f o r th e
em ployment o f women h a v e i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e f u r t h e r demand
f o r c l e r i c a l f o r c e , b e a u t y o p e r a t o r s , s a le s w o m e n , a n d w o r k e r s
I n a l l i e d f i e l d s t h a t em ploy a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f women.
The p ro b le m o f l a b o r a n d i n d u s t r y ^ t e n d e n c y to w a r d s p e c i a l ­
i z e d t r a i n i n g a n d f u n c t i o n a l u p h e a v a l h a s become so a c u t e
t h a t th e o f f i c e o f E d u c a tio n r e c e n t l y added a d e p artm en t to
k e e p s c h o o l s In fo rm e d r e l a t i v e t o new o c c u p a t i o n s , o c c u p a t i o n s
a l r e a d y o v e rc ro w d e d , a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l t r e n d s .
C hanges i n p o p u l a t i o n and b i r t h r a t e .
T h e re i s a t e n d e n c y
to w a r d d e f i n i t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n I n c i t y an d u r b a n
1 . R e c e n t S o c i a l T re n d s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , New Y o rk ; McGrawH i l l Book Company, I n c . , “T § 3 3 , p . 2 ^ 1 .
2•
P- 7 7 9 .
5
a re a s ,3
T h i s f a c t com bined w i t h t h e low d i g i t em ploym ent i n
a g r i c u l t u r e and a l l i e d o c c u p a t i o n s i n d i c a t e s a m i g r a t i o n o f
r u r a l p o p u la tio n to th e c i t i e s .
The b i r t h r a t e
is d ecreasin g #
4
The r a t i o o f o l d e r p e o p le i n t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s g o in g up*
The d e c l i n i n g b i r t h r a t e a n d a d v a n c e s i n m e d i c a l s c i e n c e may
be e x p e c te d t o s w e ll th e p r o p o r tio n o f o ld e r p e o p le i n th e
p o p u l a t i o n f o r some tim e t o come.
The e f f e c t o f a d e c l i n i n g
p r o p o r t i o n o f y o u t h t o o l d e r p e o p le w i l l be f e l t i n l e s s e n e d
demand f o r y o u t h i n g a i n f u l o c c u p a t i o n s , g r e a t e r c o m p e t i t i o n
f o r p o s i t i o n s op e n t o y o u t h , a n d t h e e x t e n s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n
t o a g e s when y o u t h w i l l be a b s o r b e d i n o c c u p a t i o n s .
P u p ils
i n t h e s c h o o l s m u st r e a l i z e t h e s e c h a n g e s i n o r d e r t o p e r f o r m
in te llig e n tly th e ir d u tie s as c itiz e n s #
C h an g in g s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g .
The A m e ric a n s t a n d a r d o f
l i v i n g i s h i g h a s com pared t o t h e s t a n d a r d s o f o t h e r n a t i o n s ;
and i t
i s c o n s t a n t l y g r o w in g .
In c re a se in th e p er c a p ita
n a t i o n a l income fro m t h r e e h u n d r e d f o r t y d o l l a r s i n 1910 t o
f i v e h u n d re d s e v e n t y e i g h t d o l l a r s i n 1930 i s e v i d e n c e o f
t h e e x p a n d in g s t a n d a r d , ®
A n o th e r i n d i c a t i o n i s fo u n d i n t h e
p r o d u c t i o n o f m o to r c a r s an d t r u c k s .
I n n i n e t e e n hundred
t e n , 1 8 7 ,0 0 0 c a r s a n d t r u c k s w ere p r o d u c e d a s com pared t o t h e
n in e te e n h u ndred t h i r t y f i g u r e o f 3 ,3 5 6 ,8 0 6 * ^
3#
4#
5#
6#
7.
R ecent S o c ia l T rends, op, c i t . , p . 8 .
IBTd'I , p 7 T 3 * ; ---------I b i d . , p . 34#
The W orld A lm a n ac , 1 9 3 3 , p# 4 2 3 ,
I b i d . , p. 394.
R isin g sta n d a rd s
4
o f l i v i n g b r i n g c h a n g e s i n o u r s o c i a l a n d eco n o m ic s y s te m s
t h a t in c r e a s e th e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f ad ju stm en t*
C hanges i n t h e am ount o f l e i s u r e t i m e .
The m a j o r i t y o f
o u r p e o p l e a r e f a c e d w i t h s h o r t e r h o u r s o f l a b o r an d a c o n ­
sequent in c re a se in le is u r e tim e .
Mass p r o d u c t i o n a n d r o u t i n e
w ork demand g r e a t e r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s .
C o m m e r c ia liz e d
am usem ents a r e n o t a lw a y s o f a d e s i r a b l e n a t u r e 5 a n d t h e i r
c o s t s , p l u s t h e d e c r e a s e i n income f o r c e r t a i n t y p e s o f
w o r k e r s , p l a c e s them o u t o f t h e r e a c h o f many.
S in c e l e i s u r e
tim e u n w i s e l y s p e n t may l e a d t o c rim e - b u t w i s e l y s p e n t may
c o n t r i b u t e t o su c e ss - th e need f o r g u id an ce in th e s e l e c t i o n
of fre e -tim e p u rs u its is very s i g n i f i c a n t .
C hanges i n m o r a l and r e l i g i o u s c o n d i t i o n s .
The c h u r c h
no l o n g e r o c c u p i e s t h e p l a c e o f l e a d e r s h i p i t h e l d i n t h e
e a r ly h is to r y of th is c o u n try .
v ic es has fa lle n .®
A tte n d an c e a t r e l i g i o u s s e r ­
I n many i n s t a n c e s t h e c h u r c h e s a r e
stru g g lin g fo r e x iste n c e .
E v id en ces o f r a c k e t e e r i n g , g r a f t ,
and c o r r u p t i o n i n p o l i t i c s , b u s i n e s s , an d g o v e rn m e n t a r e
fo u n d d a i l y i n o u r n e w s p a p e r s .
The g r a d u a l b u t c o n t i n u o u s
s p r e a d o f c rim e i n t h i s c o u n t r y i s a n a d d i t i o n a l i n d i c a t i o n
of lo o se n in g m oral c o n d itio n s .®
S i n c e o n l y 55 p e r c e n t o f th e
p o p u l a t i o n o v e r t h i r t e e n y e a r s o f a g e a r e c h u r c h members-*-®
t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f m o r a l c h a r a c t e r becom es t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
8 . A r t h u r J . J o n e s , P r i n c i p l e s o f G u id a n c e , p . 2 8 .
9 . R e c e n t S o c i a l T r e n d s i n t h e U n i t e d S l a t e s , New Y o rk :
M cG raw -H ill Book Company, I n c . , 1933, p . 116 5.
10. I b i d . , p . 1120.
5
of o th e r a g e n c ie s , p a r t i c u l a r l y th e sch o o l sin c e i t reach es
a la r g e p o r tio n o f y o u th .
The n e c e s s i t y f o r e f f i c i e n t l e a d e r s h i p .
D em ocracy i s
e n t i r e l y d e p e n d e n t u p on t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f i n t e l l i g e n t
le a d e rsh ip .
L o c a l , s t a t e , a n d n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s m u s t be
c h o s e n w i s e l y by t h e p e o p l e .
F a i l u r e t o s e l e c t k n o w in g ly
w i l l i m p a i r , a n d may u l t i m a t e l y d e s t r o y , t h e d e m o c r a t i c fo rm
o f g o v e rn m e n t.
Thus t h e s c h o o l m u s t p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s
i n w h ic h p u p i l s may s e l e c t l e a d e r s , an d e v a l u a t e t h e q u a l i t y
o f t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e l e a d e r s u n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e o f m a tu r e
p e r s o n s , d e v e l o p i n g u l t i m a t e l y t h e a b i l i t y t o s e l e c t and
a p p ra is e le a d e r s in d e p e n d e n tly .
E x p l o i t a t i o n o f th e d e s i r e f o r g u id a n c e .
The d e s i r e o f
t h e A m e ric an p e o p le f o r g u id a n c e i s e v i d e n c e d b y t h e i r p a t r o n ­
ag e o f c e r t a i n w i d e l y a d v e r t i z e d an d somewhat a l l u r i n g m e th o d s
o f s e c u rin g in fo rm a tio n about th e m se lv e s,
F o r e t e l l i n g by
a s t r o l o g y , p h r e n o l o g y , p h y sio g n o m y , g r a p h o l o g y a n d a l l i e d
m ethods i s p r a c t i c e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e n a t i o n .
I t i s e stim a te d
t h a t w e ll o v er $ 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 i s sp e n t y e a r l y in th e U n ite d S t a t e s
f o r i n f o r m a t i o n fr o m s u c h s o u r c e s . H
Such p s e u d o s c i e n t i f i c
d iv in in g i s p ro b a b ly h a rm fu l, a t l e a s t w a s te f u l and u n n a tu r a l
a d v ise m e n t;
in s h o r t, i t is e x p e n siv e ly f a l s e , an e x p lo ita ­
t i o n , and m u st be s u p p l a n t e d b y a g u i d i n g d e v i c e t h a t t e a c h e s
t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o become e v e n t u a l l y s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g and
1 1 . A r t h u r J . J o n e s , P r i n c i p l e s o f G u id a n c e , p . 2 0 5 ,
6
i n t e l l e c t u a l l y th o u g h tf u l r a t h e r th a n s u p e r s t i t i o u s .
C han ges i n S c h o o l s W hich I n c r e a s e t h e
H eeds f o r G u id a n c e
In c r e a s e d e n ro lm e n t in h ig h s c h o o l s ,
E n r o lm e n t i n t h e
h ig h sc h o o ls has s t e a d i l y in c r e a s e d s in c e 1870.
has been e s p e c ia lly ra p id sin c e 1915,
The g r o w th
In e ig h te e n hundred
n i n e t y t h e r e w e re 2 0 2 ,9 6 3 p u p i l s i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l s , a n d i n
n i n e t e e n h u n d r e d t h i r t y t h r e e t h e num ber h a d m u l t i p l i e d t o
5 ,3 8 7 ,0 0 0 .-^
I n t h e s e f o r t y - f o u r y e a r s t h e num ber i n t h e
h i g h s c h o o l s h a d i n c r e a s e d more t h a n 2600 p e r c e n t .
The e x p a n d in g c u r r i c u l a .
Our f i r s t A m e ric a n s e c o n d a r y
s c h o o l s o f f e r e d t h e s t u d e n t no o p t i o n o f c o u r s e s .
G radual
e x p a n s i o n s i n c e t h e L a t i n Grammar s c h o o l h a s l e d t o t h e
h i g h l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p r o c e d u r e s fo u n d i n many h i g h s c h o o l s
to d a y .
The c u r r i c u l a h a v e e x p an d e d fro m s i x t e e n s u b j e c t s o f
a c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y n a t u r e t o a s m any, i n some l o c a t i o n s ,
a s two h u n d r e d f i f t y
s u b je c ts p re p a rin g f o r w id e ly v a r ie d
ty p e s of p o s t-s c h o o l a c t i v i t y .
The e x p a n s i o n o f t h e c u r r i ­
c u la h a s i n c r e a s e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f c o n f u s i o n i n c h o i c e ,
an d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e n e e d f o r g u i d a n c e .
e x t e n s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s
P u p ils re q u ire
- i f we w ould h a v e
them c h o o se f o r t h e i r u l t i m a t e g o o d ,
1 2 , A r t h u r J . J o n e s , P r i n c i p l e s o f G u id a n c e , p . 2 3 .
7
E l i m i n a t i o n s fro m s c h o o l .
I n 1 9 2 8 -1 9 2 9 s e v e n t y - t h r e e
p e r c e n t of th e c h ild r e n e n te r in g th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l d id
n o t g ra d u a te from h ig h s c h o o l * ^
R ecent in d ic a tio n s p o in t
t o a d e c l i n e i n e l i m i n a t i o n s fro m o u r s c h o o l s . - ^
A lth o u g h
e l i m i n a t i o n s a r e d e c r e a s i n g , t h e f a c t t h a t s u c h a g r e a t num ber
o f c h i l d r e n s t i l l do n o t c o m p le te t h e i r h i g h s c h o o l w ork c o n ­
s t i t u t e s a s e r i o u s p r o b le m f o r e d u c a t i o n .
I n c r e a s e i n t h e amount o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n d e m a n d e d .
The s t e a d y a d d i t i o n o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f p e r s o n s f i v e t o
tw e n ty y e a r s of a g e a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l i s a n i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a ­
t i o n o f o u r n a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e to w a r d I n s t r u c t i o n ,
T h is tr e n d
p o in ts to th e b e l i e f t h a t e d u c a tio n i s a n a tio n a l a s s e t .
It
i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l dem anded b y t h e p e o p l e
i s h ig h e r th a n e v e r b e f o r e .
A h ig h sc h o o l e d u c a tio n to d a y i s
p r o b a b l y c o n s i d e r e d more n e c e s s a r y t h a n was a k n o w le d g e o f
r e a d in g and w r i t i n g in C o lo n ia l tim e s .
C om p u lso ry a t t e n d a n c e
l a w s , a d v a n c e d ag e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r l e a v i n g s c h o o l , an d t h e
d e c l i n e o f y o u t h i n employm ent h a v e a l l h a d a p a r t i n k e e p i n g
c h ild r e n w ith t h e i r te a c h e r s s e v e r a l y e a rs lo n g e r th a n fo rm er­
ly ,
T h is r e s u l t s i n t h e c h a n c e t h a t o l d e r p u p i l s may l a c k
b o t h i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y f o r h a n d l i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l
o fferin g s.
T e a c h e r s n e e d t o p ay a t t e n t i o n t o m i s f i t s r e s u l t i n g
fro m t h e a t t e m p t t o h a v e p u p i l s c o n fo rm t o t h e o u tm o d e d .
E d u c a t o r s m u st f i n d new m e th o d s and m a t e r i a l s t o m eet p u p i l
1 5 . A r t h u r J . J o n e s , P r i n c i p l e s o f G u id a n c e , p . 2 5 .
14. I b i d . , p . 27.
-----
8
n e e d s , and g u i d e th e m s o m a l a d j u s t m e n t s do n o t o c c u r o r a r e
k e p t a t a minimum*
V a r i e d m eans o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n *
The a c a d e m ic
c o l l e g e i s no l o n g e r t h e c h i e f means o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n
b eyond t h e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l .
G row ing demands h a v e r e s u l t e d
in th e r i s e of d i v e r s i f i e d c u r r ic u la
in c o lle g e s .
S p e c ia liz e d
i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s h a v e m u l t i p l i e d i n n u m b e r,
l a r g e l y b e c a u s e o f t h e e v e r g r e a t e r number o f o c c u p a t i o n s a n d
t h e c o n s t a n t e m p h a s is on s p e c i a l i z a t i o n .
N ig h t s c h o o ls and
co rresp o n d en ce c o u rs e s a r e a v a i l a b l e to m eet th e needs o f
p e r s o n s em p loy ed b y d a y .
The m u l t i p l i c i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s
f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , and t h e e x t r e m e l y d i v e r s i f i e d
c o u r s e s , n e c e s s i t a t e i n c r e a s e d e x p l o r a t i o n an d g u i d a n c e
b e f o r e y o u th l e a v e s c h o o l i n o r d e r t o u t i l i z e t h e s e a g e n c i e s
more e f f e c t i v e l y .
C o n s o lid a tio n o f s c h o o ls *
C o n so lid a te d sch o o ls a re
r a p id ly re p la c in g th e s m a lle r , le s s e f f i c i e n t , u n i t s .
In
n i n e t e e n h u n d re d s e v e n t e e n t h e r e w ere 7 , 5 0 0 c o n s o l i d a t i o n s ;
i n n i n e t e e n h u n d r e d t h i r t y - f o u r t h e r e w ere 1 7 , 3 7 4 .
The
j
a c t of u n i t i n g i n t e n s i f i e s th e e f f i c i e n c y o f th e s c h o o l.
It
may a l s o h e i g h t e n t o some e x t e n t t h e p r o b le m s t h e s c h o o l
m ust f a c e s
c h o o s in g fro m e l e c t i v e s , a d j u s t i n g l a r g e g r o u p s
o f s t u d e n t s from d i f f e r e n t c o m m u n itie s , a n d m ak in g o r d e r l y
c o n t i n u o u s g ro w th p o s s i b l e f o r p u p i l s w i t h w id e l y v a r y i n g
backgrounds.
1 5 . F r e d e r i c k E lm er B o l t o n , Thomas Raymond C ole a n d J o h n
H u n n ic u t J e s s u p , The B e g i n n in g S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , p . 5 0 3 .
9
The S c h o o l* s R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r G u id a n c e
R e s p o n s ib ility o f th e sch o o l t o th e i n d i v i d u a l .
P u b lic
s c h o o l s w e re e s t a b l i s h e d t o m e et t h e n e e d s o f t h e c h i l d r e n o f
th e n a tio n .
A t t h e b e g i n n i n g , e d u c a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s w e re c o n ­
c e i v e d o f an d s e t u p , t h e aim b e i n g t h e m a s t e r y o f a q u a n t i t y
o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n a few f u n d a m e n t a l f i e l d s .
The c u r r i c u l a
p a s s e d t h r o u g h s u c c e s s i v e s t a g e s o f e x p a n s i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t .
G r a d u a l l y e d u c a t o r s r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l m u st be c o n c e r n e d
w i t h t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s a w h o l e .
New d i r e c ­
t i o n s i n s o c i e t y and t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o u t l o o k h a v e a m p l i f i e d
t h e num ber o f c r u c i a l d e c i s i o n s a c h i l d m u st u n d e r t a k e w h i l e
in sc h o o l.
The i n s t r u c t o r m u st a i d t h e s t u d e n t i n m aking
t h e s e d e c i s i o n s an d i n s o l v i n g w h a t e v e r p ro b le m s a r i s e i n h i s
life .
R e s p o n s ib ility o f th e sc h o o l to s o c i e t y .
S o c ie ty in a
dem ocracy s u p p o r t s t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l t o p e r p e t u a t e , im p rov e
and prom ote s o c i e t y f s own i n t e r e s t s .
The e d u c a t i o n a l
s y s te m i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l s who
w i l l s a t i s f a c t o r i l y p erform th e s e f u n c t i o n s .
m u st f u l f i l l i t s
The s c h o o l
o b l i g a t i o n t o s o c i e t y b y m ak ing e v e r y p o s s i b l e
e f f o r t to a id th e s tu d e n t In d e v elo p in g i n t o a w e ll I n te g r a te d
i n d i v i d u a l a s w e l l a s a c a p a b l e f u n c t i o n i n g member o f s o c i e t y .
The s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l .
C o n d itio n s in
m odern l i f e p o i n t t o a n e v e r e x p a n d in g n e c e s s i t y f o r g u i d i n g
1 6 . Thomas S . B r i g g s , "The G r e a t I n v e s t m e n t " . I n g l i s L e c t u r e , p . 8 .
10
e s p e c i a l l y t h e young p e o p l e o f s c h o o l a g e .
G u id a n c e i s one
o f t h e c h i e f f u n c t i o n s o f home, c h u r c h , s t a t e , a n d many o t h e r
s o c ia l o rg a n iz a tio n s.
The m o s t a d e q u a t e a s s i s t a n c e c a n b e
g iv e n o n ly th ro u g h a c o o p e r a tio n o f th e s e a g e n c i e s .
The
p u b lic s c h o o l sh o u ld ta k e th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n i t i a t i n g
a n d c a r r y i n g on an a d e q u a t e p ro g r a m o f g u i d a n c e w o r k .
The
s c h o o l s h a v e t h e young p e o p l e i n t h e i r f o r m a t i v e y e a r s a n d
a r e o r g a n i z e d i n s u c h a m a n n er a s t o r e n d e r s e r v i c e o f a t y p e
n o t p o s s i b l e i n t h e hom e, c h u r c h , o r o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
The s c h o o l , b e c a u s e o f i t s
c o n t i n u o u s c o n t a c t w i t h a m a jo r
c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f y o u th , and b ecau se o f i t s s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n
o t h e r w i s e , i s p r o b a b l y t h e o n ly a g e n c y t h a t c a n e f f e c t i v e l y
c a r r y t h r o u g h a s y s te m o f i n s t r u c t i v e h e l p f o r a l l who n e e d
it.
The s c h o o l d o e s n o t e n d e a v o r t o u s u r p f u n c t i o n s r i g h t ­
f u l l y b elo n g in g to o th e r s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .
I f , h o w e v e r,
t h e w e l f a r e o f s o c i e t y i s t h r e a t e n e d by f a i l u r e o f s o c i a l
i n s t i t u t i o n s t o p erfo rm t h e i r l e g i t i m a t e f u n c t io n s , th e
s c h o o l s h o u l d t a k e up t h e l a g u n t i l t h e a g e n c y o r i n s t i t u t i o n
t h a t has f a i l e d is c ap a b le of f u n c tio n in g a g a in .
The M eaning o f G u id a n ce
M eaning o f t h e t e r m .
The word g u i d e i n t h e v e r b fo rm
means " t o p o i n t o u t o r show t h e way” .
t o "a p e r s o n vftio shows t h e way” .
As a n o u n g u i d e r e f e r s
The synonyms o f g u i d e a r e
l e a d , c o n d u c t , r e g u l a t e , d i r e c t , an d s t e e r .
The f i r s t t h r e e
s u g g e s t a u t h o r i t y o r c o m p u ls io n a n d I n t h i s r e s p e c t d i f f e r
fro m g u i d e .
The w ords s t e e r and d i r e c t more n e a r l y a p p r o a c h
11
a synonymous m e a n i n g , b u t t h e y l a c k t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f h e l p
o f a p e r s o n a l n a t u r e t h a t s h o u l d be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t e r m ,
A p e rso n see k in g a id u s u a lly a p p lie s to a g u id e .
To g u id e
i s to su p p ly p e rs o n a l a s s i s t a n c e t h a t i s n o t a u t h o r i t a t i v e
o r im po sed upo n a n i n d i v i d u a l who r e a l i z e s h i s n e e d f o r h e l p .
The r e l a t i o n o f g u id a n c e t o e d u c a t i o n .
g r o w th t h a t t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l .
E d u c a tio n i s a
The r e s u l t s t h a t
we c a l l e d u c a t i o n c a n be m e a s u re d o n l y i n te r m s o f t h e c h a n g e s
made i n e a c h i n d i v i d u a l . * ^
A u g m e n ta tio n i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l
PDIUESE OF WILLIAM & MARY
u s u a l l y r e s u l t s fro m a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d on by t h e i n d i v i d u a l .
The o l d c o n c e p t i o n o f t e a c h i n g was t h a t one m u s t im pose c e r t a i n
d e f i n i t e t a s k s a n d d u t i e s t o be p e r f o r m e d .
The n e w e r c o n c e p ­
t i o n i s t h a t one m u s t h e l p t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o l e a r n .
As a l w a y s ,
t h e t e a c h e r may d i r e c t t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f g o a l s , b u t he
l e a d s e a c h p u p i l to w a rd u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s e e nd s a n d to w a rd
a c c e p t i n g them a s h i s own.
H e lp Of t h i s ty p e i s g u i d a n c e .
The m e th o d u s e d t o r e a c h t h e end i s n o t o f v i t a l im p o r ta n c e
except t h a t i t s h a l l
be a d a p t e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l .
a p u p i l t o f i n d t h e m ethod b e s t
an sw e rin g h i s needs
Can e d u c a t i o n and g u id a n c e be s e p a r a t e d ?
p o ssib ilitie s.
A ssistin g
i s g u id a n ce .
J o n e s - ^ l i s t s two
We m u st r e g a r d g u id a n c e a s t h e s u p p l y i n g o f
i n f o r m a t i o n an d e x p e r i e n c e n e c e s s a r y f o r i n t e l l i g e n t c h o i c e s ,
o r c o n fin e i t to c o n sc io u s a s s i s t a n c e g iv e n an i n d iv id u a l a t
t h e tim e o f h i s c h o i c e .
The f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e m ust i n c l u d e
t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f h a b i t s , a t t i t u d e s , an d i d e a l s and makes
17. A rth u r J . Jo n es,
18. A rth u r J . J o n e s ,
P r i n c i p l e s o f G u id a n c e , p . 3 5 .
P r i n c i p l e s oT G uidance', p . 4 2 .
12
I t d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e e d u c a tio n and g u id a n c e .
The s e c o n d
a l t e r n a t i v e p r a c t i c a l l y r e s t r i c t s g u id a n ce t o c o u n s e lin g .
Koos a n d K efauver,^-® a n d L a n g f i t t , C y r , and N e w s o m ^ a p p a r e n t l y
l e a n to w a r d t h e s e c o n d a l t e r n a t i v e .
B r e w e r , ^ J o n e s , ^ and
Jones and H a n d sh a k e th e f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e .
How c a n t h e g i v i n g o f h e l p by a c o u n s e l o r b e c a l l e d
g u id a n ce and th e g iv in g o f h e lp and in fo r m a tio n b y te a c h e r s
o f E n g l i s h , s c i e n c e , c i v i c s , a n d o t h e r s u b j e c t s n o t be c a l l e d
g u id a n ce ?
I f t h e a n a l y s i s o f e d u c a t i o n a l r e a d y made i s
c o r r e c t i t i s im p o ssib le n o t to a c c e p t th e p o s i t i o n t h a t
d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y a l l o f e d u c a t i o n m u s t be c o n c e r n e d
w ith g u id a n c e .
D e f i n i t i o n o f G u id a n c e .
I f a l l e d u c a tio n i s concerned
d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y w i t h g u i d a n c e , no b e t t e r d e f i n i t i o n
c a n be f o u n d t h a n t h a t p r e s e n t e d b y J o n e s an d Hand^3 :
11G u id a n ce i s t h a t i n s e p a r a b l e a s p e c t o f t h e
e d u ca tio n a l process th a t i s p e c u lia rly
con cern ed w ith h e lp in g in d iv id u a ls d is c o v e r
th e ir needs, assess th e ir p o te n tia litie s ,
d e v elo p l i f e p u rp o s e s , fo rm u la te p la n s of
a c ti o n in th e s e r v ic e o f th e se p u rp o se s,
and p ro c e e d t o t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n . ”
1 9 . L . V. Koos and G ra y s o n N. K e f a u v e r , G u id a n ce i n S e c o n d a r y
S c h o o ls , p p . 15-22.
2 0 . R . Em erson L a n g f i t t , P r a n k W . C y r , an d N. W illia m Newsom,
The S m a ll H ig h S c h o o l a t Work, p p . 1 0 5 -1 2 6 .
2 1 . J o h n M. B re w e r, E d u c a t i o n a s G u id a n c e , i x 4 654 p p .
2 2 . A r t h u r J . J o n e s , P r i n c i p l e s o f G u id a n c e , p p . 3 2 - 4 4 .
2 3 . A r t h u r J . J o n e s , an d H. C 7 Hand, llG u id a n ce a s P u r p o s i v e
L i v i n g ” , The T h i r t y - S e v e n t h Y e arb o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l
S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu d y o f E d u c a t i o n , P a r t o n e . p p . 2 4 - 2 5 .
13
B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s o f G u id a n c e .
serve as c r i t e r i a
B a s i c p r i n c i p l e s m u st
in d e te r m in in g th e n e c e s s i t y f o r g u id an ce
and t h e m e th o d s a n d m a t e r i a l s p o s s i b l y m o st e f f e c t i v e i n
m e etin g th e n e e d s .
S ta te m e n t of p r i n c i p l e s .
The f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s h a v e
been s e le c te d to serve as b a s e s ,
1.
A r e s e a r c h and m e a s u re m e n t p ro g ra m i s a n e s s e n t i a l
p a r t o f s u c c e s s f u l g u i d a n c e w ork .
2.
An a d e q u a t e , a c c e s s i b l e , and f l e x i b l e s y s te m o f
r e c o r d s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r e f f e c t i v e w o rk .
3.
P r o v i s i o n f o r an d p r o m o t io n o f g u i d a n c e a c t i v i ­
t i e s i s a m ajo r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
o ffic e rs.
4.
The m a j o r w ork o f g u i d a n c e m u st be done b y
c l a s s r o o m an d homeroom t e a c h e r s .
5.
The work o f t h e g u id a n c e s p e c i a l i s t i s j
a . To s t i m u l a t e , g u i d e , a n d c h e c k t h e
g u id a n c e a c t i v i t i e s o f t e a c h e r s .
b . To g i v e s p e c i a l i z e d h e l p when n e c e s s a r y .
6.
G u id a n ce i s n o t p r e s c r i p t i v e b u t aim s a t e s t a b ­
l i s h i n g p ro g r e s s iv e a b i l i t y f o r s e l f g u id a n ce .
7.
G u idance c o n s i s t s i n h e l p i n g p u p i l s t o s e t up
p u r p o s e s a n d o b j e c t i v e s t h a t a r e f o r them
d y n a m ic , r e a s o n a b l e , and w o r t h w h i l e , an d i n
h e l p i n g th e m , so f a r a s p o s s i b l e , t o a t t a i n t h e
o b je c tiv e s in th e s e r v ic e of t h e i r p u rp o s e s .
8.
G u id a n ce a im s t o g i v e t h e s t u d e n t a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g
of th e s o c i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , e d u c a tio n a l, h e a lt h ,
an d v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h he a t p r e s e n t
p a r t i c i p a t e s a n d w h ich h e w i l l c o n t i n u e t o t a k e
p a r t i n a f t e r l e a v i n g s c h o o l ; and i t aim s t o h e l p
him p r e p a r e f o r s u c h p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
9.
G u id a n ce aim s t o h e l p t h e s t u d e n t f i n d and form
a c c u r a t e ju d g m e n ts r e l a t i v e t o t h e e x t e n t o f h i s
a b i l i t i e s in d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s .
10.
G u id a n ce aim s t o a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t i n s e l e c t i n g
l i f e a c t i v i t i e s v i t a l to h is l a t e r a d u lt p o s itio n
and t h e s o c i a l l y n o rm a l d e s i r e f o r s u c c e s s a n d
h a p p in e ss.
14
11.
G u id a n c e a im s t o h e l p t h e s t u d e n t i n p l a n n i n g
a n e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m w h ic h w i l l b e s t p r e p a r e
h im f o r h i s c h o s e n a c t i v i t i e s , g i v i n g a p p r o p r i a t e
r e c o g n itio n to th e need o f t r a i n i n g in s o c i a l ,
r e c r e a t i o n a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , h e a l t h , and v o c a t i o n a l
en d eav o r•
12.
G u id a n c e a im s t o f a c i l i t a t e a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e
s tu d e n t in h i s a c t i v i t i e s in and o u t o f s c h o o l
so t h a t h e w i l l a t t a i n maximum a c h i e v e m e n t a n d
h a p p i n e s s an d n o t be d i s t u r b e d by s o c i a l and
p e rs o n a l m a la d ju stm en ts.
15
C h ap ter I I
The P r o b le m
S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e p r o b le m .
The n e e d f o r g u i d a n c e i s
b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d b y a n e v e r - g r o w i n g number o f
a ls.
school o f f i c i ­
The n e c e s s i t y i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s h a s b e e n d e t e r m i n e d
a s e s p e c i a l l y a c u t e by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s .
H a tc h e rtsa y s,
" C o u n ty c h i l d r e n f s n e e d f o r g u i d a n c e i s e s p e c i a l l y
a c u t e i n t h a t m ost o f th em f a c e c r u c i a l d e c i s i o n s
a s to w h e th er t o s t a y in th e c o u n try or le a v e i t .
N e ith e r th ey nor t h e i r te a c h e r s have f a c i l i t i e s
f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g a d e q u a t e l y w hat e i t h e r c o u n t r y
or c ity l i f e has to o f f e r ."
J o n e s ^ o f f e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g r e m a r k s r e l a t i v e t o g u id a n c e i n
ru ra l areas,
"In r u r a l are as th e d i f f i c u l t i e s of o rg a n iz a tio n of
g u id a n c e a c t i v i t i e s a r e g r e a t .
The l a c k o f t r a i n e d
t e a c h e r s , t h e i n a d e q u a t e f a c i l i t i e s , t h e w ide
d i s p e r s a l o f s c h o o l s a r e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t make t h e
s i t u a t i o n v e r y d i f f e r e n t fro m t h a t i n u r b a n a r e a s .
The t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s u i t e d t o c i t i e s i s n o t
s u i t a b l e f o r r u r a l a r e a s . So f a r , l i t t l e h a s b e e n
done f o r th e g u i d a n c e o f r u r a l bo y s an d g i r l s . "
A d d i t i o n a l p r o o f o f t h e im p o r ta n c e o f th e p ro b le m i s
fo u n d i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s t h e S o u t h e r n
Woman's E d u c a t i o n a l A l l i a n c e o f R ichm ond, V i r g i n i a , w hich
e x i s t s , a n d m a i n t a i n s a s t a f f , f o r th e e x p r e s s p u r p o s e o f
p r o v i d i n g g u id a n c e f o r r u r a l boys an d g i r l s .
S t i l l f u r t h e r e v id en c e o f th e s i g n i f i c a n c e of th e
p ro b le m i s f o u n d i n t h e number o f g u id a n c e s t u d i e s c o n d u c te d
1 . 0 . Latham H a t c h e r , G u id in g R u r a l Boys and G i r l s , p . 7 .
2 . A r t h u r J . J o n e s , P r i n c i p l e s o f G u id a n c e , p p . 4 1 5 -4 1 6
16
by g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n r e l a t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s .
A
few o f t h e m o st r e c e n t s t u d i e s a r e t h o s e by B e n n e t t , ^ C o l e m a n , ^
M aso n ,^ an d M i l l e r . ^
T h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r ex am in ed t h e t h e s i s b y C olem an.
H is
w ork was aim ed a t d e t e r m i n i n g t h e 3 t a t u s o f t h e g u id a n c e
p ro g ra m i n J a s p e r H ig h S c h o o l , J a s p e r , T e x a s an d i n m ak ing
re c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r a p ro g ra m o f e x p a n s i o n .
V o c a tio n a l, h e a lth ,
and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r g u id a n c e f a c i l i t i e s w ere a n a l y z e d ; and
a s t u d y o f t h e r e c o r d s y s te m c o n d u c t e d .
R ecom m endations i n ­
c l u d e d a d d i t i o n a l v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e , r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c lu b s
and home ro o m s , an d f o l l o w - u p r e c o r d s a s a means o f m e a s u r in g
t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p ro g r a m .
J u d g in g by t h e e v i d e n c e j u s t p r e s e n t e d g u id a n c e i s a
p ro b le m o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e r u r a l s c h o o l s .
D e fin itio n of te rm s.
A s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l i s t o be
c o n s i d e r e d a s one h a v i n g a n e n r o lm e n t o f l e s s t h a n 200 p u p i l s .
G u id an ce w i l l i n c l u d e a n y means by w h ic h t h e s c h o o l a s ­
s i s t s p u p ils in d isco v e rin g t h e i r needs, a sse ssin g t h e i r
p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , d e v e lo p in g t h e i r p u rp o s e s, o r fo rm u la tin g
p la n s o f a c t i o n .
3 . B e n n e t t , C l i f f o r d R . , An E d u c a t i o n a l G u id an ce S u r v e y o f
th e S m a ll H ig h S c h o o ls o f J a c k s o n C o u n ty , M i s s o u r i .
U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s T h e s i s , 1937, Wyoming.
4 . Colem an, A ub rey B e r n i c e . , A S tu d y o f G u idan ce i n J a s p e r
H ig h S c h o o l , J a s p e r , T e x a s , TJhpublTsheci M a s te r T s T h e s i s ,
19 37 . P e a b o d y . 160 p . ms.
5 . M ason, G eorge C l y d e . , A G u id an ce Program f o r t h e H ig h
S c h o o l o f Van W e r t, O h io . U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s T h e s i s ,
T937T~0EIo“5^a:EeT“ ------
6 . M i l l e r , V i r g i l C• , An E x p e r i m e n t a l G uidance Program i n a
R u r a l C o n s o l i d a t e d H ig h S c h o o l . U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’s
T h e s i s , 1 9 37 , O h io .
17
N eeds - t h e p r e s e n c e o f c o n d i t i o n s
I n t h e c o m m u nity ,
t h e s c h o o l , o r th e i n d i v i d u a l s i m p l y i n g t h a t c e r t a i n a d j u s t ­
m e n ts a r e n e c e s s a r y on t h e p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l i n o r d e r t o
fa c ilita te
t h e w e l l ro u n d e d d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e p u p i l s w i l l
be te r m e d a ’’n e e d ” .
R u r a l r e f e r s t o c o m m u n itie s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n l e s s
t h a n 2500*
The P ro b le m d e f i n e d .
The g e n e r a l p ro b le m i s t o d e t e r ­
mine t h e n e e d s f o r g u i d a n c e i n t h e M i d l o t h i a n H ig h S c h o o l ,
M id lo th ia n , V ir g in i a .
In
d e te rm in in g th e se n e e d s, th e s t a t u s
of th e p u p ils r e l a t i v e to
th e fo llo w in g s u b -d iv is io n s o f
p ro b le m was I n v e s t i g a t e d ;
a n a ly z e d , and i n t e r p r e t e d .
th e
1.
L ife p urposes of th e p u p ils
a . To d e t e r m i n e t h e p e r c e n t o f p u p i l s w i t h
fo rm u la te d p u rp o s e s.
b . To d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e o f p u r p o s e s
e x p re sse d by p u p i l s .
2.
P r o b le m s t h a t f a c e t h e p u p i l s ,
a . To d e t e r m i n e t h e s i t u a t i o n s r e c o g n i z e d b y
p u p i l s a s p ro b le m s i t u a t i o n s w h ic h t h e y
m ust s o lv e .
b . To c l a s s i f y t h e s e p r o b le m s on. t h e b a s i s o f
some o f t h e more i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n ­
sh ip s ,
3.
V o c a tio n a l p la n s o f th e p u p ils
a . To s e c u r e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g ;
C h o ic e o f o c c u p a t i o n
P r e f e r e n c e s i f no c h o i c e h a s b e e n made
O c c u p a tio n s c h o s e n o r p r e f e r r e d
When c h o i c e s w ere made
R easons f o r c h o ic e s or p r e f e r e n c e s
R easons f o r ab sen ce o f c h o ice o r p r e f e r e n c e
b . To e v a l u a t e t h e p u p i l ’ s k n o w le d g e o f o c c u p a t i o n
or o c c u p a tio n s chosen or p r e f e r r e d .
c . To d e t e r m i n e t h e p u p i l ’s s o u r c e s o f v o c a t i o n a l
in fo rm a tio n .
d . To d e t e r m i n e t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e p u p i l s
to w a r d t h e s c h o o l a s a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i f e .
18
I
4,
E d u c a tio n a l p la n s o f th e p u p ils .
a . To d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h p u p i l s
have c o n s c io u s ly th o u g h t a b o u t th e s e l e c t i o n
of h ig h scho ol s u b je c ts , e x tra -c la s s ro o m
a c t i v i t i e s , and t h e r e a s o n s f o r s e l e c t i o n s
o r th e absence of s e l e c t i o n s ,
b . To d e t e r m i n e t h e p l a n s o f p u p i l s r e l a t i v e
t o t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f h i g h s c h o o l w o rk ,
c o n tin u a tio n of e d u c a tio n a l a c t i v i t i e s i f
h i g h s c h o o l w ork i s n o t c o m p l e t e d , and
r e a s o n s f o r so p l a n n i n g .
c . To d e t e r m i n e p l a n s o f p u p i l s r e l a t i v e t o
c o lle g e tr a in in g , s e le c tio n of a c o lle g e ,
and re a so n s f o r th e p re se n c e o r ab sen ce
o f such p l a n s •
d . To d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t p u p i l s who h a v e
s e l e c t e d a c o l l e g e h a v e a k n ow ledg e o f
e n tra n c e re q u ire m e n ts, c o s ts , courses
o f f e r e d , and s o c i a l groups in th e c o l l e g e .
e . To d e t e r m i n e s o u r c e s o f a d v i c e u t i l i z e d by
p u p ils in p lo ttin g e d u c a tio n a l d ir e c tio n s .
5.
A d ju s tm e n t
a . To d e t e r m i n e t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f p u p i l s i n
r e l a t i o n to th e fo llo w in g phases o f sc h o o l,
hem e, and p e r s o n a l l i f e :
C u rric u lu m
S o c ia l l i f e of th e sch o o l
A d m in istra tio n of th e school
T eachers
O th e r p u p i l s
Home a n d f a m i l y
P erso n al
b . To d e t e r m i n e t h e a r e a s o f good a n d p o o r
a d ju stm e n t o f th e p u p ils in th e sch o o l
r a n k i n g i n t h e h i g h e s t and l o w e s t q u i n t i l e
g ro u p s.
c . To d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n o f good an d p o o r
a d ju stm e n t t o o th e r phases of th e s tu d y .
M ethod o f S e c u r i n g D ata
D e t e r m i n i n g s c h o o l an d community b a c k g r o u n d .
In fo rm a tio n
c o n c e r n i n g t h e s c h o o l a n d community was s e c u r e d fro m s e v e r a l
sources.
F a c t s r e l a t i v e t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f , and t h e community
s e r v e d b y , t h e s c h o o l , o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e com m unity, an d
r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s w ere s e c u r e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r
19
b e fo re g o in g to th e s c h o o l as p r i n c i p a l .
The f o r m e r p r i n c i p a l s
th e s u p e r in te n d e n t, th e e le m e n ta ry s u p e r v i s o r , and th e l o c a l
s c h o o l b o a r d member k i n d l y s u p p l i e d t h i s
in fo rm a tio n .
A d d i­
t i o n a l d a ta have b e e n acc u m u la te d by th e i n v e s t i g a t o r d u rin g
h i s two y e a r b w ork i n t h e s c h o o l .
F a c t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p l a n t an d e q u ip m e n t, c u r r i c u l u m ,
and e x t r a - c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s w e re o b t a i n e d b y o b s e r v a t i o n
an d s t u d y o f t h e p ro g ra m o f t h e s c h o o l .
A l l th e rem a in in g in fo r m a tio n , c o n c e rn in g d i s t r i b u t i o n
o f p u p i l s , s i z e o f f a m i l i e s , o c c u p a t i o n s o f p a r e n t s , an d
e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g o f p a r e n t s was s e c u r e d fro m t h e o f f i c e
r e c o r d c a r d s s u p p le m e n te d b y i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e f r o n t p age
o f th e a d ju stm en t q u e s tio n n a ir e .
D e term in in g l i f e
t or
is
p u r p o s e s and p r o b l e m s .
The i n v e s t i g a -
in d e b te d t o th e te a c h e r of a l l th e h ig h sch o o l E n g lish
c la s s e s f o r h e lp re n d e red i n se c u rin g a statem e n t of th e
p u r p o s e s a n d p ro b le m s o f th e p u p i l s .
I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h w ork
i n t h e E n g l i s h c l a s s e s e a c h p u p i l was a s k e d t o w r i t e a s h o r t
p a p e r d i v u l g i n g h i s l i f e p u r p o s e and l i s t i n g t h e p ro b le m s
t h a t he re c o g n iz e d a s o b s ta c le s to h i s p r o g r e s s .
Each p u p il
was r e q u e s t e d t o g i v e l i f e p u r p o s e s and n o t im m e d ia te o b j e c ­
tiv e s or a im s.
No o t h e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s w ere m ade.
D e t e r m i n i n g v o c a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s .
A
q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n c e r n i n g v o c a t i o n a l p l a n s and a n o t h e r r e l a t i v e
t o e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s w ere c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r
a f t e r h i s c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f books c o n ta i n in g g e n e r a l
20
m a t e r i a l on t h e s u b j e c t a n d s p e c i f i c m o d e l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .
B o th q u e s tio n n a ire s -* * w ere f i l l e d
o u t by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r
w h ile i n c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l .
D e term in in g a d ju s tm e n t»
In m e asu rin g th e a d ju s tm e n t of
t h e p u p i l s t o v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f s c h o o l , home, a n d p e r s o n a l
l i f e , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r p u r c h a s e d fro m t h e P s y c h o l o g i c a l
C o r p o r a t i o n , New Y o r k , A d ju s tm e n t Q , u e s t i o n n a i r e , Form A, b y
P e r c i v a l M. Sym onds, T e a c h e r s ' C o l l e g e , C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y .
The p u p i l s w e re h a n d e d t h e t e s t s an d g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n s i n
a g e n e r a l assem b ly ;
t h e y a t once r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r home
rooms an d w ere a l l o w e d a l l t h e t i m e n e c e s s a r y t o c o m p le te
th e q u e stio n n a ire *
The i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d by t h e means m e n tio n e d i n
t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l be p r e s e n t e d a n d a n a l y z e d I n d e t a i l i n
c h a p t e r s t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e , s i x , an d s e v e n .
1 . C o p ie s o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , w h ic h w ere f i l l e d o u t f o r
e ac h p u p il i n th e h ig h s c h o o l, w i l l be found in th e a p p en d ix
21
C h ap ter I I I
S c h o o l an d Community B a c k g ro u n d
L o c a tio n and ty p e o f s c h o o l .
M i d l o t h i a n H ig h S c h o o l
s t a n d s I n M i d l o t h i a n , C h e s t e r f i e l d C o u n ty , V i r g i n i a , a
s m a l l v i l l a g e p o p u l a t e d by a p p r o x i m a t e l y two h u n d r e d p e r s o n s
and l o c a t e d t h i r t e e n m i l e s w e s t o f R ichm ond, on U n i t e d S t a t e s
R o u te S i x t y .
Of t h e f o u r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s c o m p r is in g t h e
w h ite e d u c a t i o n a l u n i t s o f t h e c o u n t y , t h e M i d l o t h i a n p l a n t
ranks t h i r d i n s i z e .
The s c h o o l b u i l d i n g h o u s e s t h e s e v e n e l e m e n t a r y and t h e
fo u r h ig h sch o o l g ra d e s .
The e l e m e n t a r y d e p a r t m e n t h a s an
e n r o lm e n t o f tw o h u n d re d and s i x t y - f o u r p u p i l s .
The h i g h
s c h o o l d e p a r t m e n t h a s a n e n r o l m e n t o f one h u n d r e d and t w e n t y fo u r.
T h e re a r e s e v e n t e a c h e r s f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s ;
and i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l a r e f i v e f u l l - t i m e t e a c h e r s , a n d th e
p r i n c i p a l who h a s tw o c l a s s e s .
C o urses o f f e r e d i n th e h ig h s c h o o l .
C o u rs e s o f f e r e d
i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l d e p a r t m e n t a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b le I .
22
T a b le I .
COURSES OFFERED IN THE MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL
Number o f
C o u rs e s
D e p a rtm e n t
Y ears
O ffered
E n g lish
4
12 3 4
S o c ia l S c ie n c e
4
12 3 4
M a th e m a tic s
4
12 3 4
C o m m ercial
3
3-4
S c ie n ce
3
12 3
Home E co no m ics
2
2 3 4
F o r e ig n Languages*
2
2 3 4
C/Ouunercial G e o g rap h y
1
3 4
* L a t i n and F r e n c h b e g in n in g and advanced c o u rs e s o f f e r e d
on a l t e r n a t e y e a r s *
The c o u r s e s o f f e r e d , a n d t h e y e a r s i n w h ic h t h e y a r e
n o rm a lly t a k e n , a r e g iv e n In th e u s u a l , s ta n d a r d o rd e rs
f o u r y e a r s i n E n g l i s h , f o u r i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , tw o i n s c i e n c e ,
an d one i n m a t h e m a t i c s a r e r e q u i r e d f o r g r a d u a t i o n .
A p u p il
s e l e c t s f i v e c o u r s e s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e i n a m a s s in g th e
s ix te e n re q u ire d g ra d u a tio n u n i t s .
C ourses a re u s u a l l y ta k e n
i n t h e y e a r s d e s i g n a t e d , b u t e x c e p t i o n s a r e made t o m e et t h e
in d iv id u a l need o f p u p ils .
D a lly s c h e d u le .
T here a r e s i x f i f t y - m i n u t e i n s t r u c t i o n a l
p e r io d s , a t h i r t y - m i n u t e i n t e r v a l f o r p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n and
a c t i v i t i e s , an d a f i f t y - m i n u t e l u n c h r e c e s s .
D u rin g t h e f i r s t
f i f t e e n m i n u t e s o f t h e l u n c h " h o u r ” , p u p i l s r e m a in i n t h e
b u i l d i n g a n d e a t i n t h e i r home rooms o r i n t h e c a f e t e r i a ;
th e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e p e r i o d t h e y n o r m a l l y u s e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l
a c tiv itie s
of v a rio u s ty p e s.
Home-room p e r i o d s o f f i v e m in u te s
e a c h a t t h e b e g i n n i n g an d e n d o f t h e day a r e p r o v i d e d f o r
a d m in istra tiv e purp o ses.
E x tra - classro o m a c t i v i t i e s .
The e x t r a - c l a s s r o o m
23
a c t i v i t i e s a v a ila b le to th e p u p il a r e :
th e annual s t a f f ,
b a s e b a l l , b a s k e t b a l l , d r a m a t i c s , g l e e c l u b , J u n i o r Red C r o s s ,
s o f t b a l l , and to u c h f o o t b a l l .
d u rin g th e a c t i v i t i e s
O th e r s p o r t s a r e e n g a g e d i n
p e r i o d b u t a r e n o t o r g a n i z e d on a n
i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c o r i n t r a m u r a l b a s i s a n d so a r e n o t named i n
t h e ab o v e l i s t i n g .
D istrib u tio n of p u p ils .
T h irty -s e v e n p e r c e n t of th e
h ig h s c h o o l p u p ils a r e fre sb m e n , tw e n ty p e r c e n t sophom ores,
t w e n t y - f o u r p e r c e n t j u n i o r s , and n i n e t e e n p e r c e n t s e n i o r s .
The a v e r a g e a g e f o r h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s i s f i f t e e n a n d o n e te n th y e a rs.
The d i s t r i b u t i o n b y a g e s f o l l o w s ;
T a b l e I I . DISTRIBUTION OF THE 124 HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS
OF THE MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL BY AGE.
Age
Per cent
8.
19.
24.
23.
19.
5.
1.
1.
100.
T h irte e n
F o u rte e n
F ifte e n
S ix te e n
S e v e n tee n
E ig h tee n
N in e tee n
Twenty
T o tal
G u id a n ce i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l .
T h e re i s no u n i f i e d
p ro g ra m o f g u i d a n c e i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l .
Some a c t i v i t i e s a r e
c a r r i e d on i n t h e g e n e r a l f i e l d s o f c o u n s e l i n g , home room
g u id a n c e and g r o u p g u i d a n c e .
T h e se a c t i v i t i e s a r e i n c i d e n t a l
and n o t a p a r t o f a w e l l - p l a n n e d p ro g r a m o f g u i d a n c e .
S i z e o f f a m i l y an d p a r e n t s l i v i n g .
The a v e r a g e f a m i l y
fro m w h ic h h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s come h a s t h r e e a n d o n e - t e n t h
24
c h i l d r e n , a s shown i n T a b l e I I I *
T a b le I I I .
DISTRIBUTION OP THE 124 PUPILS OP MIDLOTHIAN
HIGH SCHOOL ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN IN THE
FAMILIES FROM WHICH THEY COME.
Number o f c h i l d r e n i n f a m i l y
Per cent
One c h i l d i n t h e f a m i l y
Two c h i l d r e n i n t h e f a m i l y
T hree c h il d r e n i n th e fa m ily
Four c h ild r e n in th e fa m ily
F iv e c h i l d r e n i n th e fa m ily
S ix c h ild r e n i n th e fa m ily
Seven c h i l d r e n i n th e fa m ily
E ig h t c h ild r e n in th e fa m ily
T o tal
3.
42.
2 2 .5
15.
1 0 .5
5.
1.
1.
100.
B o th p a r e n t s o f e i g h t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e c h i l d r e n
a r e l i v i n g , one p a r e n t o f n i n e a n d s e v e n - t e n t h s p e r c e n t a r e
l i v i n g , and b o th p a r e n t s o f t h r e e and t h r e e - t e n t h s p e r c e n t
are dead.
O c c u p a tio n s o f p a r e n t s .
The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e
o c cu p a tio n s o f th e f a t h e r s of th e c h ild r e n a cc o rd in g to th e
h e a d i n g s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c e n s u s now f o l l o w s ;
T a b le IV . CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS OF THE FATHERS
OF THE 124 PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
O c c u p a tio n a l group
Per cent
A g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , and a n im a l h u sb an d ry
38.
E x tra c tio n of m in e ra ls
1.
M a n u f a c tu r in g a n d m e c h a n i c a l i n d u s t r i e s
29.
T ra n sp o rta tio n
6•
T ra d e
13.
P u b lic s e r v ic e
1.
P ro fe ssio n a l se rv ic e
2.
D o m estic an d p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e
0.
C l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s
1.
O c c u p a tio n n o t s t a t e d
8.
T o tal
100.
W ith s i x e x c e p t i o n s , one m e r c h a n t , two s e c r e t a r i e s , two
f a c t o r y w o r k e r s , and one d a n c e - h a l l . o p e r a t o r , t h e o c c u p a t i o n
o f t h e m o t h e r s was l i s t e d a s h o u s e w i f e .
25
E d u c a tio n o f p a r e n t s .
The e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g o f t h e
p a r e n t s o f t h e p u p i l s o f M i d l o t h i a n H ig h S c h o o l a r e p r e s e n t e d
i n T a b le V.
T a b le V. EXTENT OP EDUCATIONAL TRAINING OF THE PARENTS
OF THE 124 PUPILS OP MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
E xtent o f E ducational T raining
Per cent
L eft sc h o o l upon com pletion o f
s ix t h grade, or b e fo r e .
Completed elem entary grades but
did not a tten d h igh sc h o o l.
Dropped out o f sch o o l during freshman,
sophomore, or ju n ior y e a r .
Completed h igh sch o o l work
Attended c o lle g e
Extent unknown
T otal
A re a a n d t y p e o f c o m m u nity .
th e s c h o o l covers a la r g e a r e a .
7 .2
2 9 .2
7 .2
31.
16.
9 .4
100.
The community s e r v e d b y
T h e re a r e f i v e b u s r o u t e s
a v erag in g sev en m ile s i n le n g th .
N in e ty p e r c e n t o f th e
p u p ils a re b ro u g h t t o sch o o l in b u se s.
The t e r r i t o r y fro m
w h ic h t h e p u p i l s come i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a g r i c u l t u r a l .
A l­
th o u g h t h e r e a r e few l a r g e f a r m s , a m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p le
c u l t i v a t e some l a n d a n d h a v e some l i v e s t o c k on t h e i r p l a c e s .
Many o f t h e p a t r o n s w ork I n t h e c i t y a n d t e n d t h e i r s m a l l
c u ltiv a te d a re a s or liv e s to c k in t h e i r sp are tim e .
of th e f a m i l i e s a r e s t a b l e .
A m a jo rity
T h e re a r e f e w , i f a n y , t r a n s i e n t
fa m ilie s.
Econom ic s t a t u s o f com m u n ity.
t h e com m unity I s n o t h i g h .
The econom ic s t a t u s o f
The m a j o r i t y o f t h e f a m i l i e s
h a v e t h e n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e b u t c a n a f f o r d few l u x u r i e s .
26
R ural e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n has b ro u g h t e l e c t r i c s e r v ic e w ith in
t h e r e a c h o f many h o m e s.
In s p ite of th is f a c t th e re are
many homes w i t h o u t e l e c t r i c i t y an d t h e c o n v e n i e n c e s t h e r e b y
affo rd ed .
C h u rc h e s an d o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
The com m unity h a s
e ig h t ch u rch es s c a t t e r e d over th e s c h o o l- s e rv e d a r e a .
E i g h t y - e i g h t and s i x - t e n t h s p e r c e n t o f t h e p u p i l s a t t e n d
s e r v ic e s o f th e church o f t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e .
A ll of th ese
c h u r c h e s h a v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r young p e o p l e , s u c h a s t h e
E p w o rth L e a g u e , t h e B a p t i s t Young P e o p l e s 1 U n io n , The G i r l s *
A u x i l i a r y , an d t h e R o y a l A m b a s s a d o r s .
O th e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e fo u n d i n t h e community r e p r e ­
sen tin g in te r e s t s
in a g r ic u ltu r e , b u s in e s s , s o c ia l, c iv ic ,
f r a t e r n a l , p a t r i o t i c , and e d u c a tio n a l a c t i v i t i e s .
O r g a n iz e d
u n i t s f o r a d u l t s i n c l u d e t h e G ard en C lu b , Home D e m o n s t r a t i o n
C lu b , F a rm e rs * C lu b , H unt C lu b , M aso nic L o d g e , Odd F e l l o w s ,
U n ite d D a u g h ters of th e C o n fe d erac y , D a u g h ters o f th e
A m e ric a n R e v o l u t i o n , The A m e ric a n Red C r o s s , a n d t h e P a r e n t
Teacher A s s o c ia tio n .
O r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r you ng p e o p le a r e
c h i e f l y t h e 4-H O lu b , Boy S c o u t s and t h e J u n i o r Red C r o s s .
R e c re a tio n a l f a c i l i t i e s .
lim ite d .
R e c re a tio n a l f a c i l i t i e s are
Few a r e t h e c h a n c e s f o r g r o u p f u n c t i o n s w i t h o u t
c o n sid e ra b le expense t o th e in d iv id u a ls in v o lv e d .
P ro sp e c ts
f o r a n o r g a n i z e d p ro g ra m o f g ro u p a c t i v i t i e s o f a r e c r e a t i o n a l
n a tu re are good, but l i t t l e
p re s e n t tim e .
has b e e n a cc o m p lish e d a t th e
27
G u id a n c e i n com m unity o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
G u id a n c e i s a v a i l ­
a b l e t o young p e o p l e i n s e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s n o t d i r e c t l y
a f f i l i a t e d w ith th e s c h o o l.
The 4-H C l u b s , Boy S c o u t T r o o p ,
C h u rc h and Sund ay S c h o o l g r o u p s f o r you n g p e o p l e p r o v i d e
y o u th g u id a n c e .
B ut t h e y f u n c t i o n a s i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s a n d
t h e r e a r e no p r o v i s i o n s f o r m ap p ing o u t an d c o o r d i n a t i n g
th e g u id a n ce a c t i v i t i e s
o f th e s e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
Summary
The s c h o o l i s l o c a t e d i n a s m a l l com m unity n e a r a l a r g e
c i t y , and h ouses b o th th e e le m e n ta ry and h ig h s c h o o l d e p a r t­
m e n ts.
T h e r e h a s b e e n no c o m b i n a t i o n o f h i g h s c h o o l s u b j e c t s
i n t o a core g ro u p .
S u b je c ts a re ta u g h t in d iv id u a lly in a
d a i l y sch e d u le t h a t p ro v id e s s i x f i f t y - m i n u t e p e rio d s f o r
i n s t r u c t i o n , a t h i r t y m in u te a c t i v i t i e s p e r i o d , a f i f t y m in u te c o m b i n a t i o n l u n c h an d r e c e s s p e r i o d , an d two f i v e m in u te home room p e r i o d s .
E x tr a - c la s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s con­
s i s t o f t h e a n n u a l s t a f f , d r a m a t i c s , g l e e c l u b , J u n i o r Red
C r o s s , an d v a r i o u s s p o r t s .
g u id a n ce .
T h e re i s no o r g a n i z e d p ro g ram o f
P u p i l s r a n g e i n a g e from t h i r t e e n t o t w e n t y .
The
a v erag e age i s f i f t e e n and o n e - te n th y e a r s .
T here i s an a v e ra g e of th r e e and o n e - te n th c h i l d r e n i n
t h e homes o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s .
E ig h ty -sev e n p er cent
o f t h e p u p i l s h a v e b o t h p a r e n t s l i v i n g , and o n ly s l i g h t l y
over t h r e e p e r c e n t have n e i t h e r p a re n t l i v i n g .
E ig h ty p er
c e n t o f th e f a t h e r s a r e e n g a g e d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l , m e c h a n i c a l ,
m a n u fa ctu rin g , o r tr a d e o c c u p a tio n s.
Only s i x m o th e r s a r e
28
em ployed o u t s i d e t h e home.
A p p ro x im a te ly f i f t y p e r c e n t o f
t h e p a r e n t s w ere g r a d u a t e d fro m h i g h s c h o o l .
T h i r t y - s i x and
f o u r - t e n t h s p e r c e n t d i d n o t go b e y o n d t h e e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s ;
s ix te e n p e r cent a tte n d e d c o lle g e .
The com m unity s e r v e d b y t h e s c h o o l i s a g r i c u l t u r a l and
covers a la rg e a r e a .
The eco no m ic s t a t u s
is n o t h ig h .
T h e re a r e e i g h t c h u r c h e s i n t h e com m unity, a l l o f w h ic h
s p o n s o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r young p e o p l e .
T h e re a r e n i n e a -
d u l t a n d t h r e e y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e com m unity.
i t y r e c r e a ti o n a l f a c i l i t i e s a re very lim ite d .
Commun­
Many o f t h e
i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d e some form o f g u i d a n c e , b u t
t h e y h a v e s e t u p no fo rm o f c o o r d i n a t i o n , e i t h e r i n p l a n n i n g
o r p r o j e c t i n g t h e i r w o rk .
In te rp re ta tio n .
The p r o x i m i t y o f a l a r g e c i t y may
i n c r e a s e t h e i n t e r e s t o f p u p i l s i n em ploym ent i n t h a t c i t y ;
i t a l s o p ro v id e s th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s tu d y in g v a rio u s ty p e s o f
urban o c c u p a tio n s .
The l o c a t i o n o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y a n d h i g h s c h o o l d e p a r t ­
m en ts i n t h e same b u i l d i n g d e c r e a s e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t ­
e re d i n a r t i c u l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e s e two u n i t s .
Uo c o u r s e i n o c c u p a t i o n s i s o f f e r e d i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l
d e p a rtm e n t.
Maximum u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g
g u id a n c e i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f e l e c t i v e s i s d e s i r a b l e .
The d a i l y s c h e d u l e d o e s n o t a l l o w s u f f i c i e n t tim e f o r
t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e x t e n s i v e hom e-room a c t i v i t i e s .
29
The e x t r a - c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s ,
a th le tic
o n e - h a l f o f w h ic h a r e
i n n a tu r e sh o u ld he s tu d ie d c a r e f u l l y i n o rd e r t o
d e t e r m i n e w h e th e r o r n o t t h e n e e d s a n d i n t e r e s t o f t h e p u p i l s
are b e in g e f f e c t i v e l y se rv e d .
T h e re s h o u l d be a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e g u id a n c e p o s s i ­
b i l i t i e s u n d e r e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s and a c o o r d i n a t i o n and
c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e f f o r t to w a rd t h e f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n o f
e x istin g p o s s i b i l i t i e s .
The s i z e o f f a m i l i e s g i v e s some i d e a o f t h e econom ic
b u rd en o f th e p a r e n t s ,
A num ber o f c h i l d r e n may b r i n g a
s e v e r e s t r a i n on t h e f a m i l y b u d g e t , r e s u l t i n g i n s e v e r e l y
l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s an d p o s s i b l e s o c i a l m a l a d j u s t m e n t .
The
a b s e n c e o f one o r b o t h p a r e n t s p l a c e s on t h e s c h o o l t h e a d d e d
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g some o f t h e n e e d s o f t h e c h i l d
t h a t a r e u s u a l l y s u p p l i e d a t home.
The o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e p a r e n t s g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n o f
t h e econom ic s t a t u s o f t h e f a m i l y .
The o c c u p a t i o n s o f th e
p a r e n t s w i l l e x e r t some i n f l u e n c e on t h e p u p i l ’ s c h o i c e o f
o c cu p a tio n .
I n c a s e b o t h p a r e n t s a r e w o r k in g t h e s c h o o l
m u st o f t e n p e r f o r m a d d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s i n s u p p l e m e n t i n g t h e
t r a i n i n g and c o m p a n io n s h ip u s u a l l y f u r n i s h e d by t h e home u n i t .
The e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g o f t h e p a r e n t s i s i m p o r t a n t i n
u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e home e n v ir o n m e n t o f t h e p u p i l .
I t a lso
i n d i c a t e s t o some e x t e n t t h e need f o r e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n ­
a l g u id a n ce .
The a r e a o f th e com m unity s e r v e d b y t h e s c h o o l o f f e r s
some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e n e e d f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s o c i a l
30
a c t i v i t i e s in th e s c h o o l.
The eco n o m ic s t a t u s o f t h e com m unity g i v e s t h e s c h o o l
some i d e a o f t h e n e e d f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l t r i p s
an d o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e s n o t s e t up b y t h e home.
The s c h o o l m u s t h a v e a k n o w led g e o f t h e e x i s t i n g o r g a n i ­
z a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h them i n s e r v i n g th e n e e d s
o f t h e c o m m un ity .
R e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s m u s t be u n d e r s t o o d i n o r d e r t o
h e lp p u p ils p la n r e c r e a ti o n a l a c t i v i t i e s .
In th e ev en t
d e s i r a b l e a c t i v i t i e s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e , th e sc h o o l sh o u ld
t a k e t h e l e a d i n t r y i n g t o c r e a t e th em .
The g u i d a n c e a c t i v i t i e s
o f a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n th e
community m ust be u n d e r s t o o d i n o r d e r t h a t d u p l i c a t i o n w i l l
be m in i m i z e d .
The s c h o o l s h o u ld assum e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
fo r c o o rd in a tin g th e se a c t i v i t i e s .
31
C h a p t e r IV
L ife P urposes
D e s i r a b l e l i f e p u r p o s e s a r e d y n a m ic , g e n e r a l g o a l s ,
w h ic h a r e s o c i a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y ,
p e r s o n a lly p le a s in g , and
s e r v e a s t h e b a s i s a r o u n d w h ic h t h e a c t i v i t i e s
o f th e i n d i ­
v id u a l are c en te re d
L i f e p u r p o s e s p u t down b y p u p i l s r a n g e from d e s i r a b l e
a s p i r a t i o n s t o m ore s p e c i f i c a m b i t i o n s t h a t c o u ld n o t be
c la s s ifie d as l i f e
g o a ls.
T w enty t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e
p u p i l s made known u l t i m a t e I n t e n t i o n s t h a t a p p r o a c h I n v a r y ­
in g d e g r e e s t h e t r u e , c e n t r a l l i f e p u r p o s e .
d e f i n e d a im s i n t e r m s o f o c c u p a t i o n s .
S e v e n ty p e r c e n t
O n ly s e v e n p e r c e n t
f a i l e d to l i s t a purpose of any d e s c r i p t i o n .
C la ssific a tio n .
The p u r p o s e s w i l l be g ro u p e d u n d e r
s e v e r a l h e a d i n g s t h a t w i l l i n c l u d e a l l p u r p o s e s l i s t e d by t h e
p u p ils.
To a v o i d r e p e t i t i o n , l e n g t h y s t a t e m e n t s , and p o s s i ­
b l e te d iu m f o r t h e r e a d e r , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p le s u n d e r e a c h
h e a d i n g w i l l be g i v e n i n t h e e x a c t w o rds o f t h e p u p i l s .
P u rp o ses i l l u s t r a t i n g and a p p ro a ch in g t r u e c e n t r a l l i f e
purp o ses.
The m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s t h a t a p p r o a c h e d
1 . A r t h u r J . J o n e s , and H. C. H and, " G u id a n c e a s P u r p o s iv e
L i v i n g " , The T h i r t y - S e v e n t h Y e a rb o o k o f th e N a t i o n a l
S o c i e t y f o r th e S t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n , P a r t o n e . p p . 1 - 2 5 .
32
t h e t r u e l i f e p u r p o s e s , i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , a r e b a s e d on t h e
d e s ir e to render s e r v ic e .
Some i l l u s t r a t i o n s in the words
o f th e p u p ils ares
"To h e l p r e l i e v e t h e s i c k . "
"To h e l p o t h e r s a n d make t h e w o r l d a b e t t e r p l a c e
i n w h ic h t o l i v e . "
" I w ould l i k e t o be a n u r s e a n d g i v e a l l my tim e
t o h e lp in g th e s i c k and h e l p l e s s i n t h i s w o rld ."
" B e in g a m i s s i o n a r y i s my p u r p o s e i n l i f e . "
N ext i n f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e i n t h e same g e n e r a l
g ro u p a r e i n t e n t i o n s e x p r e s s i n g a d e s i r e t o do w e l l w h a t e v e r
m ig h t be u n d e r t a k e n .
" I w o u ld l i k e t o make a t h o r o u g h s u c c e s s i n a n y t h i n g
I s e l e c t a s my l i f e w o r k . "
"My purpose in l i f e i s to make the b e st p o s s ib le use
of the o p p o rtu n ities o f my l i f e . "
O th e r s i n t h i s g r o u p d e s i r e d s u c c e s s i n f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r
o b l i g a t i o n s t o s o c i e t y b y b e i n g good c i t i z e n s .
"To l e a d a l i f e w o r th y o f a n A m e r ic a n ."
"To be a good c i t i z e n o f my c o u n t r y . "
A few in t h is gen eral group expressed t h e ir v i t a l w ishes
i n te r m s o f d e v e l o p i n g f r i e n d s h i p s .
"To make many good a n d t r u e f r i e n d s . "
"To b e n i c e a n d k i n d t o e v e r y o n e a n d w in many t r u e
f r i e n d s •"
Most o f t h e p u r p o s e s j u s t l i s t e d a p p r o a c h i n v a r y i n g
d e g r e e s t h e t r u e , c e n t r a l l i f e p u r p o s e , w h ic h i s c o n s t a n t
in p e rs o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y .
P ra c ti­
c a l l y a l l o f t h e ab o v e e n d s d e s i r e d c o n t a i n a h i g h r a t i o o f
p o ssib le in d iv id u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n .
S i n c e some o f t h e r e f e r e n c e s
t o s u c c e s s i n u n d e r t a k i n g s a n d t o t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f f r i e n d ­
s h i p s m ig h t i n c l u d e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e n o t s o c i a l l y d e s i r ­
a b le , th e r e f o r e th e purposes a re n o t c l e a r l y d e f in e d .
a l l o f t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s g ro u p s t a n d a b o v e
But
35
th e l e v e l of s p e c i f i c a m b itio n s ; th e y e x h i b i t c o n tr ib u to r y
g o a l s i n v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t ; a n d some c e r t a i n l y
encom pass c e n t r a l l i f e p u r p o s e s .
P u r p o s e s E x p r e s s e d i n Term s o f O c c u p a t i o n s .
The
m a j o r i t y o f a l l p u r p o s e s r e c o r d e d by t h e p u p i l s w ere o c c u p a ­
t i o n a l or c o n trib u to r y in n a tu re r a t h e r th a n t r u e , c e n tr a l
l i f e purp o ses.
R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p le s a r e :
”To some d a y , beqome a m a s t e r m e c h a n i c . ”
"To become a n e l e c t r i c a l e n g i n e e r . ”
”To be a s t e n o g r a p h e r . ”
" I l i k e everyone e l s e , have a pu rp o se i n l i f e , I
w o uld l i k e t o b e a n u r s e . ”
”To r a i s e c h i c k e n s . ”
”My p u r p o s e i n l i f e a f t e r g r a d u a t i n g fro m h i g h s c h o o l
i s t o be a g u i t a r p l a y e r , s i n g e r , a n d y o d e l e r . ”
”The g r e a t e s t p u r p o s e i n my l i f e i s t o become a
tra n sp o rt p i l o t . ”
A l t h o u g h t h e s e c o n t r i b u t o r y p u r p o s e s may b e i n d i v i d u a l l y
and s o c i a l l y s a t i s f y i n g t h e y p r o v i d e no c e n t r a l theme a r o u n d
w h ic h a c t i v i t i e s o t h e r t h a n o c c u p a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s may be
c en te re d .
P urposes not s t a t e d .
Seven p e r c e n t o f th e p u p ils f a i l e d
t o make t h e s t a t e m e n t r e q u e s t e d .
One p u p i l w r o te t h a t h i s
p u rp o s e was unknown t o h im , two com posed hum orous p a p e r s , a n d
fiv e fo r la c k of u n d e rsta n d in g , or fo r o th e r re a so n s , f a i l e d
t o m e n tio n a n y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s a g o a l o r
p u rp o se•
Im p lic a tio n s f o r th e s c h o o l.
The s c h o o l s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e
th e s t a t u s of th e p u p i l 's t h o u g h t f u l i n t e n t i o n s o f h i s u l t i ­
m ate p l a c e i n s o c i e t y .
A s s i s t a n c e s h o u l d be g i v e n i n f o r m u l a t i n g
34
a n d im p r o v in g t h e p u r p o s e s .
S p e c i f i c im m e d ia te aim s and
c o n tr ib u to r y a m b itib n s o f te n g iv e i n d i c a t i o n of an u n d e rly in g
c o n c e n t r a t i o n u p on a w o r th y m a rk t o s h o o t a t , an d may s e r v e
a s means o f o u r h e l p i n g th e p u p i l i n c o n s c i o u s l y f o r m u l a t i n g
an d s o c i a l l y r e a l i z i n g h i s y o u t h f u l i m p e t u s .
P r o b le m s o f t h e P u p i l s
A p ro b le m f r e q u e n t l y h a s s e v e r a l a s p e c t s , a n d any a t t e m p t
t o g i v e i t a d e f i n i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n may d i s t o r t o r d e s t r o y
it.
W ith t h i s c a u t i o n i n g f a c t i n m in d , we may s i m p l i f y t h e
p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p u p i l s 1 u n s o l v e d s i t u a t i o n s by s e t t i n g
up a r o u g h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f some o f t h e m ost
im p o rta n t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
M atte rs n e ed in g s o l u t i o n as
l i s t e d by t h e p u p i l s i n t h e i r E n g l i s h c o m p o s i t i o n on p u r p o s e s
an d p ro b le m s f a l l i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n :
Voca­
t i o n a l , p e r s o n a l i t y , s c h o o l , s o c i a l , home, a n d h e a l t h .
To
a v o i d l e n g t h y s t a t e m e n t s an d t h e i n c l u s i o n o f u n r e l a t e d
m a t e r i a l , t h e p ro b le m s w i l l be c o n d e n s e d i n t o a few w ords
t h a t p r e s e r v e t h e t r u e m e an in g b u t do n o t r e p r e s e n t t h e e x a c t
w ord s o f t h e p u p i l s .
P ro b le m A re a s a n d C o n d i t i o n s
1 . V o c a t i o n a l P ro b le m s
C o n d itio n s
a . Lack o f money t o s e c u r e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r v o c a t i o n .
b . I n a b i l i t y t o cho ose among s e v e r a l v o c a t i o n s .
c . Doubt o f o c c u p a t i o n a l a b i l i t y
d . Lack o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n v o c a t i o n c h o s e n .
e . L ack o f l e i s u r e tim e i n v o c a t i o n c h o s e n .
f . I s h e a l t h s u i t e d t o t y p e o f work d e s i r e d ?
55
2. P e rso n a lity
C o n d itio n s
a* L a z i n e s s
b . I n a b ility to
c. I n a b ility to
d . L ack o f s e l f
e . In a b ility to
make s e l f a t t r a c t i v e
be a g r e e a b le and p le a s a n t
co n fid e n ce
make f r i e n d s e a s i l y
3 . School
C o n d itio n s
a . A b ility to f i n i s h sch o o l d o u b tfu l
b . C h o ic e o f s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e
c . D oubt o f a b i l i t y t o make c o l l e g e w ork
d . W i l l money s p e n t i n f u t u r e t r a i n i n g be
a good i n v e s t m e n t ?
4. S o c ia l
C o n d itio n s
a . S e l e c t i n g a husband
b . D oubt o f a b i l i t y t o r e s i s t t e m p t a t i o n i n
a crowd
c . D oubt o f c o m p eten c e t o r e a r a f a m i l y
5 . Home r e l a t i o n s
C o n d itio n s
F e a r o f l e a v i n g home f o r a lo n g p e r i o d o f t i m e .
6* H e a l t h an d p h y s i c a l d e v e lo p m e n t
C o n d itio n s
N ervousness
T w e n ty -e ig h t p e r c en t o f th e p u p ils d id n o t l i s t any
p ro b le m s •
Some o f t h e p r o b le m s l i s t e d c a l l f o r h e l p o f a t y p e t h e
school s t a f f is not q u a lifie d to g iv e .
In th e case of a
n e r v o u s c o n d i t i o n t h e s c h o o l s h o u ld be a b l e t o d i r e c t t h e
in d iv id u a l to th e ty p e o f h e lp needed .
Most o f t h e p r o b le m s a r e o f a n a t u r e t h a t makes a s s i s t ­
a n c e b y t h e s c h o o l d e s i r a b l e and p o s s i b l e .
A more s y m p a t h e t i c
a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g a t t i t u d e , and t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r ' s
stu d y of th e i n s e c u r i t i e s b e s e ttin g th e p u p il, w i l l e f f e c t i v e ­
ly a id in t h e i r s o lu tio n .
36
I f we w ould s u p p l y t h e n e e d s o f t h e p u p i l s , we m u st
h e lp so lv e th e d i f f i c u l t i e s
t h a t th e y th e m se lv e s r e c o g n iz e ;
a n d we m u s t g u id e th e m to w a r d r e c o g n i t i o n o f p r o b le m s t h a t
th ey have h e r e to f o r e o v e rlo o k e d .
Of c o u r s e t h e e s s e n t i a l
t r u t h i s t h i s , t h a t b e fo re p u p ils can be e x p e c te d t o v i s u a l ­
i z e t h e v a s t r e a c h e s o f u n c e r t a i n t y t h e y may so m etim e f a c e ,
t h e y m u st be h e l p e d i n t h e s o l u t i o n o f p ro b le m s n o r m a l l y a t
h and an d a l r e a d y a p p a r e n t .
The f a c t t h a t no p ro b le m s w ere l i s t e d i n t h e a r e a s o f
r e l i g i o u s l i f e a n d l e i s u r e tim e may h a v e i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a ­
t i o n s f o r th e s c h o o l .
E i t h e r t h e p u p i l s h a v e no p ro b le m s
i n t h e s e a r e a s , o r t h e y f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e th e m .
The l a t t e r
a l t e r n a t i v e i s p r o b a b l y t h e more s e c u r e e x p l a n a t i o n ,
p r e s e n c e o f p ro b le m s o f d e a l i n g w i t h r e l i g i o u s l i f e
In th e
th e
s c h o o l sh o u ld c o o p e r a te w ith th e r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , n o t
t r y t o assum e a n y o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
The s c h o o l h a s a d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o make t h e i n d i v i d ­
u a l p u p ils c o n sc io u s o f th e need t o p la n h i s l e i s u r e tim e .
The g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s c h o o l
may n o t be a v a i l a b l e a f t e r t h e p u p i l c o m p le te s h i s s c h o o l i n g .
The s c h o o l m u s t , t h e r e f o r e , a i d t h e p u p i l i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n
o f t h i s a n d o t h e r f a c t s r e g a r d i n g h i s l e i s u r e h o u r s , and h e l p
him p l o t o u t d e s i r a b l e e x t r a - o c c u p a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s .
The f a i l u r e o f t w e n t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e p u p i l s t o
p r e s e n t a n y p ro b le m s i m p l i e s f o r u s t h a t p u p i l s o f t e n f a i l
t o r e c o g n i z e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e y now f a c e o r w i l l m eet i n t h e
fu tu re .
E f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t l i v i n g in th e f u t u r e i s
37
d e p e n d e n t u p o n a k n o w le d g e and r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p r o b le m s
t o b e m e t, and a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s .
The s c h o o l m u s t a i d t h e p u p i l s i n r e a l i z i n g p l a u s i b l e l i k e l y
o b s ta c le s o f a d u lth o o d i f i t i s t o f u l f i l l i t s o b lig a tio n s
to s o c ie ty and th e i n d i v i d u a l .
Summary
L ife p u rp o se s.
P u r p o s e s r a n g i n g fro m im m e d ia te a im s t o
c e n t r a l i z i n g g o a l s w ere s e t f o r t h by n i n e t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t
o f t h e p u p i l s ; s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l number f a i l e d t o
in d ic a te any l i f e
purpose.
When v i t a l i z e d aim s f o r l i v i n g
p u r p o s i v e l y a r e f o r m u l a t e d and a r e p e r s o n a l l y s a t i s f y i n g a n d
s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e , t h e s c h o o l m ust g u i d e t h e i n d i v i d u a l
to w a rd p l a n n i n g a c t i o n i n s e r v i c e o f t h e s e p u r p o s e s .
any l i f e
When
p r o p o s i t i o n i s made o r r e c o g n i z e d by t h e s t u d e n t ,
t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t a t u s o f t h e p u rp o s e and
a id th e p u p i l i n a c h ie v in g , c h an g in g , o r d is c a r d in g i t i n
te rm s o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h i t i s p e r s o n a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e ,
p e r s o n a l l y s a t i s f y i n g , and s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e .
When t h e
p u p i l f a l l s s h o r t o f an y p u r p o s e , t h e s c h o o l m u st s t u d y t h e
in d i v i d u a l ; a n d , w ith th e r e s u l t s of th e stu d y a s a b a s i s ,
m ust a i d t h e p u p i l i n f o r m u l a t i n g g e n e r a l , c e n t r a l l i f e
p u r p o s e s an d more s p e c i f i c a im s o r o b j e c t i v e s i n th e s e r v i c e
of t h e s e p u r p o s e s .
I t m ust be rem em bered t h a t v i t a l aim s
a r e dy nam ic a n d c h a n g i n g .
The s c h o o l s h o u ld n o t o v e r l y
p u sh o r f o r c e t h e i r f o r m a t i o n .
I t i s th e d u ty of th e te a c h ­
in g b o dy t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f p u p i l s and t o b e
38
i n c o n s t a n t r e a d i n e s s t o a i d th e m i n r e f i n i n g o r c h a n g in g
t h e i r purposes.
P ro b lem s.
o f th e p u p i l s .
P r o b le m s w e re l i s t e d b y s e v e n t y - t w o p e r c e n t
I n t h e o r d e r o f f r e q u e n c y t h e p r o b le m s f a l l
i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s made on t h e b a s i s o f s o c i a l
re la tio n sh ip s
and h e a l t h .
v o c a t i o n a l , p e r s o n a l i t y , s c h o o l , s o c i a l , home,
No p r o b le m s w e re l i s t e d by t w e n t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t
of th e p u p i l s .
The s c h o o l m u st h e l p t h e p u p i l s s o l v e t h e p ro b le m s r e c ­
o g n iz e d .
I f th e sch o o l i t s e l f i s n o t a b le to re n d e r f u l l y
a d e q u a te s e r v i c e in e v e ry i n s t a n c e , i t sh o u ld f in d su ch
s e rv ic e or a t l e a s t a id th e in d iv id u a l in s e c u rin g i t .
The
f a i l u r e o f p u p i l s t o r e c o g n i z e p ro b le m s i n c e r t a i n a r e a s o f
s o c ia l r e l a ti o n s h i p s I n d ic a te s th e n e c e s s ity of our a s s i s t i n g
them to w a r d p r o p e r r e c o g n i t i o n a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g .
The f a c t
t h a t t w e n t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t d i d n o t l i s t a n y p ro b le m s i n d i c a t e s
t h e n e e d f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n r e c o g n i z i n g p ro b le m s t h a t w i l l
h av e t o be f a c e d .
sc h o o l.
T h i s a s s i s t a n c e s h o u ld be g i v e n by t h e
39
C h ap ter V
The V o c a t i o n a l P l a n s o f P u p i l s o f M i d l o t h i a n H ig h S c h o o l
G u id a n ce i s e f f e c t i v e
in p ro p o rtio n t o th e degree o f
c o n s i s t e n c y b e tw e e n t h e l i f e p u r p o s e , t h e v o c a t i o n a l , a n d
th e e d u c a tio n a l p la n s of i n d i v i d u a l s .
A cco rd in g t o i n v e s t i ­
g a t i o n s b y F r a n k l i n an d o t h e r s , " ^ y o u t h f u l c h o i c e s made d u r i n g
t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f h i g h s c h o o l o r b e f o r e do n o t h a v e a h i g h
d eg ree o f perm anence.
P u p i l s i n t h e M i d l o t h i a n H ig h S c h o o l w ere a s k e d t o l i s t
t h e i r v o c a tio n a l c h o ic e s , o r , in th e e v en t t h a t a d e f i n i t e
c h o i c e h ad n o t a l r e a d y b e e n m a d e, t h e y w e re t o s t a t e t h e i r
p referen ces.
A d e f i n i t e c h o o s i n g o f o c c u p a t i o n s was i n d i c a t e d
by t h i r t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f t h e p u p i l s i n t h e s c h o o l .
The
v a r i e t y o f o p t i o n s i n c l u d e d t w e n ty - tw o c a l l i n g s d i s t r i b u t e d
w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f f o u r among m e c h a n i c s , n u r s e s , a n d s t e n o ­
g ra p h e rs; a frequency of th re e fo r te a c h e rs ; a frequency of
two f o r h o u s e w i v e s , s e c r e t a r i e s , e l e c t r i c a l e n g i n e e r s , and
p h y s i c i a n s ; an d once f o r c o m m e rc ia l a r t i s t ,
stea m -sh o v e l
o p e r a to r , a r m y - a v ia to r , c i v i l e n g in e e r , p o u ltry m an , s o l d i e r ,
h o rs e b r e e d e r , la n d sc a p e g a r d e n e r , m e c h a n ic a l e n g in e e r , ex­
h ib itio n d a n ce r, a ir p la n e p i l o t , d e p a rtm e n t-sto re b u yer,
m u s i c i a n , an d a i r - s t e w a r d e s s .
A u t h o r i t i e s d i s a g r e e a s t o t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e tim e i n
th e e d u c a tio n a l e x p e rie n c e of a c h ild f o r d e c id in g d e f i n i t e l y
1 . L e o n a rd V. K o o s , a n d G ra y so n H. K e f a u v e r , G u id a n c e i n
S eco n d ary S c h o o ls , pp. 2 0 8 -218.
40
on l i f e
e m p lo y m e n t.
I t seem s w is e t o p o s t p o n e t h e d e c i s i o n
u n t i l th e e x p e rie n c e p r e r e q u i s i t e to an i n t e l l i g e n t s e l e c t i o n
c a n be g a i n e d .
D e la y i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h o s e y o u t h s who u p o n
le a v in g s c h o o l e a r l y a re fo r c e d t o e a r n a l i v i n g .
For th o se
r e m a i n i n g t h r o u g h h i g h s c h o o l a n d g o i n g on t o c o l l e g e a s p e c i ­
f i c d e c i s i o n m ig h t r e a s o n a b l y be d e l a y e d u n t i l t h e l a s t two
years of h ig h sch o o l o r f i r s t y e a rs of c o lle g e .
I t is de­
s i r a b l e , how ever, f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o d e te rm in e t h e g e n e r a l
a r e a i n w h ic h t h e y w ould l i k e t o works i . e . , a p r o f e s s i o n ,
se m i-p ro fe ssio n , sk ille d -tra d e sm a n , or o th e r g e n e ra l c l a s s i ­
fic a tio n .
The s c h o o l s h o u l d a s s i s t , b u t n e v e r p r e m a t u r e l y d i c t a t e
t o o r f o r c e , i t s p u p i l s i n m ak ing d e f i n i t e v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s .
I n s t e a d , t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e t h e g ro w in g y o u t h i n
t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n a n d e x p l o r a t i o n o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s , an d i n
t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f e a r l y c h o i c e s w h e n ev e r a n d a s o f t e n a s
m o d i f i c a t i o n w i l l more c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s ,
c a p a b i l i t i e s , and l i f e p u r p o s e s .
Time o f c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n .
D e fin ite v o c a tio n a l
c h o i c e s o f some p u p i l s i n th e M i d l o t h i a n H ig h S c h o o l w e re
made a s e a r l y a s t h e s e c o n d g r a d e ;
th e ir se n io r y e ar.
o th e r s d e lay e d u n t i l
The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d e f i n i t e c h o i c e s by
t h e g r a d e s I n w h ic h t h e y w ere made i s I n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e V I.
41
TABLE V I.
GRADES IN VtfHICH THE PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN
HIGH SCHOOL WERE LOCATED AT THE TIME THE CHOICE OF AN
OCCUPATION WAS MADE.
G rade i n s c h o o l when
o c c u p a t i o n was s e l e c t e d
S eco nd g r a d e
F o u rth grade
F i f t h grade
S i x t h g ra d e
S e v e n th g rad e
E ig h th grade
N i n t h g ra d e
T en th g rade
E le v e n th g rade
T o tal
Per cen t
2 .5
2 .5
7 .7
7 .7
1 5 .5
2 0 .5
2 3 .1
18.
2 .5
100.
S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s come t o a d e c i s i o n
on o c c u p a t i o n s i n g r a d e s s e v e n , e i g h t , n i n e , a n d t e n , t h u s
i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e n e e d f o r g u id a n c e w i l l be g r e a t e s t d u r i n g
t h e l a t e e l e m e n t a r y an d e a r l y h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s .
T h a t some
p u p ils s e l e c t e d o c c u p a tio n s in th e second and f o u r t h g rad es
r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n a s t o w h e th e r o r n o t t h e s e l e c t i o n was
b a s e d on a r e a s o n a b l e k n o w le cg e o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n , and s u g ­
g e s t s t h a t a m ore t h o r o u g h s t u d y o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n l a t e r i n
s c h o o l l i f e w ould be b e n e f i c i a l .
I n n o t one c a s e d i d a p u p i l r e p o r t a c h a n g e o f , o r m o d i­
f i c a t i o n i n , h i s o r i g i n a l l y s e l e c t e d l i f e w o rk .
Koos an d
K efau v er2 s t a t e t h a t th e stu d y o f o c c u p a tio n s has a ten d en cy to
reduce th e p r o p o r t i o n o f p u p i l s h a v in g a d e f i n i t e c h o ic e .
The
a b s e n c e o f c h a n g e s i n o r i g i n a l c h o o s i n g i n d i c a t e s th e n e e d f o r
a more d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n s on t h e p a r t o f a l l
2 . L e o n a rd V. K o o s, an d G ra y so n N. K e f a u v e r , G uidance i n
Secondary S c h o o ls , p . 7 4.
42
p u p i l s h a v i n g made s e l e c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y among t h o s e who
made d e f i n i t e d e c i s i o n s i n t h e lo w e r g r a d e s o f t h e e le m e n ­
ta ry sc h o o l.
F o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f t h e p u p i l s h a d made no c h o i c e
h u t had lim ite d th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s
t o two o r t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n s .
T w e n ty - s e v e n p e r c e n t e x h i b i t e d n e i t h e r c h o i c e n o r p r e f e r e n c e .
The o c c u p a t i o n s f o r w h ic h p r e f e r e n c e s w ere e x p r e s s e d a r e
p r e s e n t e d i n T a b le V I I .
43
T a b le V I I .
OCCUPATIONS LISTED BY PUPILS OP MIDLOTHIAN
HIGH SCHOOL WHO HAVE A PREFERENCE FOR TWO OR THREE
OCCUPATIONS.
O c cu p a tio n
S te n o g ra p h e r
T rain e d n u rse
Teacher
P r a c tic a l n u rse
A v ia to r
B e a u ty o p e r a t o r
E le c tric ia n
I n te r io r d e c o ra to r
D e p a rtm e n t-3 to re buyer
D o c to r
C h em ica l e n g i n e e r
C a rp e n te r
P rin te r
B oo k k ee p e r
Lawyer
A e ro n a u tic a l e n g in ee r
S a ilo r
F orest ranger
P a in te r
S a le sm a n
S h ip f i t t e r
B ric k la y e r
Tobacco b u y e r
Farm er
A d v e rtisin g
E l e c t r i c a l e n g in ee r
C le rk
F lo rist
S in g e r
S e c re ta ry
Model
D re ss s h o p owner
L ib ra ria n
D a n cin g t e a c h e r
L a b o ra to ry t e c h n i c i a n
C hem ist
P sy c h o lo g ist
Frequency
16
13
8
7
7
4
4
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
44
Reasons f o r c h o ic e s and p r e f e r e n c e s .
E a rly v o c a tio n a l
d i s p o s it io n s a r e f r e q u e n tly w ith o u t fo u n d a tio n *
In o rd e r to
d e term in e th e b a se s f o r c h o ic e s and p r e f e r e n c e s th e p u p ils
w ere a s k e d t o g i v e r e a s o n s f o r e a c h *
The r e a s o n s a d v a n c e d
a re l i s t e d i n T a b le V I I I .
T a b l e V I I I . REASONS FOR CHOICE OF, OR PREFERENCES FOR
OCCUPATIONS AS GIVEN BY THE PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH
SCHOOL.
R ea so n s
Frequency as a
reason fo r
ch o ice
Have h a d e x p e r i e n c e an d l i k e i t
Good p a y
I n t e r e s t e d i n t h e w o rk
The b u s i n e s s i s g ro w in g
F rie n d s or r e l a t i v e s i n th e
o c c u p a tio n
Good c h a n c e s f o r p r o m o t io n
Work i s n o t h a r d
To r e n d e r s e r v i c e
F i e l d i s n o t crow ded
P a r e n t's d e s ir e
Want t o be my own b o s s
S h o r t tim e f o r p r e p a r a t i o n
N ever h a d a home a n d w an t one
P r a c t i c a l l y r e a r e d i n a dance h a i r *
Can a f f o r d a b u s i n e s s c o u r s e
Long c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t i o n n o t
n ecessary
Am t o be m a r r i e d I n a m onth
Must e a r n t o f i n a n c e a d d i t i o n a l
e d u ca tio n
Want o u t d o o r w ork
Can s t e p i n t o f a t h e r ' s jo b
Poor e y e s i g h t no h a n d i c a p
Want t o t r a v e l
Want t h r i l l s
Always a n e e d f o r p r i n t i n g
B u s in e s s d o e s n o t f l u c t u a t e
W ill i n h e r i t t h e fa rm
L ik e t h e h o u r s
I s e a s y on t h e n e r v e s
Want t o m e e t many p e o p l e
Can g e t a l o n g w i t h p e o p l e
Frequency as i
reason fo r
p referen ce
9
6
6
3
28
2
1
3
3
3
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
16
9
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
* F a t h e r i s d e a d ; m o th e r o p e r a t e s a l a r g e p u b l i c d a n c e h a l l .
45
Many o f t h e r e a s o n s l i s t e d
g e n e ra l.
i n T a b le V I I I a r e v a g u e an d
E x p e r i e n c e i n w o rk an d i n t e r e s t i n t y p e o f e n d e a v o r
a re c l e a r e r and b e t t e r th a n th e m a jo r ity o f th e re a so n s
lis te d .
R a r e l y d i d t h e p u p i l com pare h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w i t h
th o s e needed f o r s u c c e ss in th e o c c u p a tio n ch o sen .
F a ilu re
t o compare p e r s o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w i t h t h o s e demanded
in d ic a te s a need f o r g u id a n ce .
F a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d i n s e l e c t e d and p r e f e r r e d o c c u p a t i o n s .
A u t h o r i t i e s w ere c o n s u l t e d t o s e c u r e f a c t o r s t h a t s h o u ld be
c o n s i d e r e d when m aking a v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e .
T h e se w ere i n ­
c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a c h e c k l i s t a n d p u p i l s w ere a s k e d w h e th e r
o r n o t t h e y h a d c o n s i d e r e d th e m .
The p e r c e n t o f s t u d e n t s
c o n s i d e r i n g e a c h f a c t o r i s shown I n T a b le IX .
46
T a b l e IX . FACTORS CONSIDERED BY PUPILS OF THE MIDLOTHIAN
HIGH SCHOOL IN SELECTING OR EXPRESSING A PREFERENCE FOR
OCCUPATIONS.
F a c to rs c o n sid e re d
P er c e n t t h a t had P er c e n t t h a t had n o t
c o n sid e re d f a c to r s
co n sid e re d f a c t o r s
o c cu p a tio n occupa­
o c c u p a tio n o c c u p a tio n
tio n
se le c te d
se le c te d
p referred
preferret
G eneral l e v e l of
i n t e l l i g e n c e fo u n d
in th e f i e l d .
36
4 1 .5
64.
5 8 .5
S p e c ia l t a l e n t s or
a p titu d e s necessary
6 1 .5
6 2 .2
3 8 .5
3 7 .8
A c t i v i t i e s demanded
by t h e w ork
82.
8 8 .6
18.
1 1 .4
A v erag e e a r n i n g s
i n t h e work
4 3 .6
17.
5 6 .4
83.
S e c u rity o f p o s i­
tio n
70.
64.
30.
36 .
O p p o rtu n ity f o r
a d v an c e m en t
7 1 .8
7 5 .4
2 8 .2
2 4 .6
S p e c ia l s k i l l s
n ecessary
82.
8 8 .6
18.
1 1 .4
L e n g th o f tim e
necessary fo r
p re p a ra tio n
6 6 .6
68.
3 3 .4
32.
A s t u d y o f T a b l e IX shows t h a t o n e - t h i r d o r more o f
t h e p u p i l s who h a v e c h o s e n o c c u p a t i o n s o r e x p r e s s e d p r e f e r ­
ences have n o t c o n s id e re d su ch f a c t o r s as th e l e v e l of i n ­
t e l l i g e n c e fo u n d i n t h e f i e l d , th e s p e c i a l t a l e n t s o r
a p t i t u d e s n e c e s s a r y , and t h e a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s .
T h is f a c t
i h d i c a t e s t h a t s e l e c t i o n s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s i n many c a s e s a r e
n o t b a s e d on a n a d e q u a t e s e l f - k n o w l e d g e o f i n d i v i d u a l q u a l i ­
f i c a t i o n s , and re q u ire m e n ts o f th e o c c u p a tio n .
The f a c t t h a t
i n c o n s i d e r i n g tw o o r t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n s p u p i l s h a v e t h o u g h t
47
w i t h m ore t h o r o u g h n e s s o f t h e i t e m s m e n t i o n e d , i n a l l h u t
two i n s t a n c e s , may i n d i c a t e t h a t a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e tw o
o r t h r e e c a l l i n g s m o st a t t r a c t i v e t o s t u d e n t s w o uld be a
d e sira b le p re lim in a ry to an a c tu a l d e f in ite se le c tio n *
The
s c h o o l s h o u l d make o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e a n d
g u id e t h e p u p i l i n s t u d y i n g i t .
R easons f o r la c k o f ch o ice o r p r e f e r e n c e s .
B efore th e
sch o o l can f u l f i l l i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s u p e r v is in g i t s
p u p i l s i n p l a n n i n g , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know t h e i r a t t i t u d e s
re g a rd in g v o c a tio n a l s e le c tio n s .
P u p i l s w ere a s k e d t o s t a t e
t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r l a c k o f v o c a t i o n a l p la n n in g * They a r e
l i s t e d i n T a b l e X.
T a b le X. REASONS GIVEN BY PUPILS OP MIDLOTHIAN HIGH
SCHOOL FOR THE LACK OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE OR PREFERENCE
R easons
N ever g av e i t a n y th o u g h t
Lack i n f o r m a t i o n on o c c u p a t i o n s
P l e n t y tim e l e f t t o d e c i d e
S h o u ld s e l e c t o c c u p a t i o n i n s e n i o r y e a r
Am t o o young t o d e c i d e
W ill ta k e what I can g e t
S h o u ld s e l e c t o c c u p a t i o n i n j u n i o r y e a r
Am i n a f o g
Have no r e a s o n s
S e l e c t i o n w i l l d e p e n d on s c h o o l p r o g r e s s
S h o u ld s e l e c t o c c u p a t i o n a f t e r c o m p le tin g
h ig h school
Do n o t know
Am s e r v i h g a p p r e n t i c e s h i p i n b u i l d i n g
tra d e s b e fo re d e c id in g
Frequency
16
6
6
5
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t some a r e n o t c o n c e r n e d a b o u t o c c u p a ­
t i o n a l c h o i c e s , t h a t o t h e r s e x p r e s s a d e s i r e f o r h e l p , and
48
t h a t one i n d i v i d u a l i s g a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e m a k in g a
d e fin ite s e le c tio n .
By a l l means we s h o u l d l e a d t h e p u p i l s
t o r e a l i z e t h e n e e d f o r c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r i n g l i f e w o rk e v e n
th o u g h t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n i s p o s t p o n e d .
A f te r t h i s need is
r e c o g n i z e d , i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d b e made a v a i l a b l e a n d s t u d y
of th e o c c u p a tio n a l re q u ire m e n ts and p e rs o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s
encouraged and g u id e d .
Persons c o n s u lte d in s e l e c t i n g o c c u p a tio n s .
I f th e
sch o o l i s to c o o p e ra te w ith and c o o r d in a te d e s i r a b l e a g e n c ie s
i n a p ro g r a m o f g u i d a n c e , t h e p e o p l e t o whom p u p i l s w o u ld go
f o r a d v i c e m u s t be known*
P u p i l s w ere a s k e d t o name i n t h e
o r d e r o f p r e f e r e n c e t h e p e r s o n s whom t h e y w o uld s e e k o u t f o r
o c cu p a tio n a l a d v ic e .
The r e s u l t s a r e t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e X I .
T a b le X I . PERSONS TO WHOM PUPILS OP MIDLOTHIAN HIGH
SCHOOL WOULD GO FOR OCCUPATIONAL ADVICE PLACED IN ORDER
OR PREFERENCE.
F i r s t p r e f e r - Second p r e f e r - T h ir d p r e f e r - F o u r th p r e f e r e n c e
en ce and
and fre q u e n c y
e n c e and
ence and
freq u en cy
freq u en cy
frequency
M other
20
P a re n ts
19
F a th e r
15
O th e rs i n
o c c u p a t i o n 12
P rin c ip a l
8
2
T eachers
2
R e la tiv e s
C h ild re n s
home s o c i e t y 1
S iste r
1
D o c to r
1
F a th e r
11
8
M o th er
8
P rin c ip a l
T eachers
7
R e la tiv e
5
2
P a re n ts
O th e rs i n
o c cu p a tio n 2
2
F rie n d
P rin c ip a l 5
3
P a sto r
T eachers
2
2
R e la tiv e
F a th e r
1
O th e r s i n
o c c u p a tio n !
M o th er
1
P a re n ts
1
N u rse
1
F a m ily
1
R elativ e s
1
P ro sp e c tiv e
e m p lo y e r
1
O th e r s i n
o c cu p a tio n 1
49
E i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e p u p i l s d i d n o t know whom t h e y w o u ld
tu rn to j
t w e n t y - s i x p e r c e n t s t a t e d t h a t t h e y w o u ld d e c i d e
w ith o u t h elp *
T a b l e X I shows t h a t t h e s c h o o l r a n k s b e lo w t h e
im m e d ia te f a m i l y a s s e c o n d a n d t h i r d p r e f e r e n c e s a n d b e lo w
th e p a r e n ts and th o s e in th e o c c u p a tio n a s f i r s t p r e f e r e n c e .
The s c h o o l s h o u ld n o t v i e f o r f i r s t r a n k a s a s o u r c e o f h e l p ,
but sh o u ld seek t o u n ite th e e f f o r t s
of a l l p o sse ssin g d e s i r ­
a b le and v a lu a b le in fo r m a tio n in a n e f f o r t to p ro v id e a d e q u a te
g u id a n c e a n d h e l p *
The s c h o o l s h o u l d show c o m p eten c e t o d e a l
w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e so p u p i l s w i l l s e e k a d v i c e an d g u i ­
dance i n l o c a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a n d e s t i m a t i n g q u a l i f i c a t i o n s
on more r e l i a b l e b a s e s *
The f a i l u r e o f p u p i l s t o c o n s u l t
w i t h t e a c h e r s may I n d i c a t e e i t h e r a n u n s y m p a t h e t i c a t t i t u d e
o r l a c k o f a b i l i t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e . l a t t e r *
Sources of o c c u p a tio n a l In fo rm a tio n .
So t h a t t h e s c h o o l
m ig h t be i n a p o s i t i o n t o e n c o u r a g e t h e u s e o f d e s i r a b l e and p o i n t o u t t h e w e a k n e s s e s o f d o u b t f u l - i n f o r m a t o r y s o u r c e s ,
s t u d e n t s w ere a s k e d t o s t a t e w here t h e y w ou ld go f o r i n f o r m a ­
tio n r e la tiv e to q u a lific a tio n s n ecessary , o p p o rtu n itie s
a v a i l a b l e , a n d o t h e r f a c t o r s o f th e o c c u p a t i o n i n w h ic h t h e y
were i n t e r e s t e d .
i n T a b le X I I .
S o u r c e s l i s t e d by t h e p u p i l s w i l l be f o u n d
50
T a b le X I I , SOURCES OP OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION LISTED
BY THE PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
S o u rc e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n
F req u en cy
P e r s o n s o r r e l a t i v e s i n th e o c c u p a tio n
Do n o t know
S p e c i a l i z e d s c h o o ls
P r o s p e c t i v e e m p lo y e rs
C o lle g e s
P rin c ip a l
F a th e r
G overnm ent a g e n c ie s
N av al r e c r u i t i n g s t a t i o n
L a b o r u n io n
N ew spaper
P a s to r
Army h e a d q u a r t e r s
C h i l d r e n ’ s Home S o c i e t y
P h y s ic ia n
P a r e n ts
C o u n ty fa rm a g e n t
45
41
20
6
4
3
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Many p e r s o n s and a g e n c ie s o f t e n l i s t e d h a v e l i t t l e
or
no in f o r m a t i o n a b o u t th e i n q u i r i n g i n d i v i d u a l , a c c o r d i n g l y
t h e i r v a lu e an d r e l i a b i l i t y may be d o u b t f u l .
The d e s c r i p t i v e
r e p o r t on a n o c c u p a tio n u n d o u b te d ly m o st o f t e n d e p e n d s t o a
g r e a t e x t e n t u p o n th e r e p o r t e r s s u c c e s s i n t h a t o c c u p a t i o n .
Some o c c u p a t i o n a l g ro u p s may be i n t e r e s t e d i n d i s c o u r a g i n g
p r o s p e c t s a s a m eans o f e l i m i n a t i n g c o m p e t i t i o n .
S p e c ia liz e d
s c h o o ls s u p p o r te d e n t i r e l y b y t u i t i o n s may n o t c o n s i d e r to o
c a r e f u l l y a p e r s o n 's q u a l i f i c a t i o n s b e f o r e a c c e p t i n g h im .
O nly e l e v e n and t h r e e - t e n t h s p e r c e n t o f th e p u p i l s a r e e x ­
p e c t i n g t o f o l l o w t h e o c c u p a ti o n s o f t h e i r p a r e n t s , w h ic h
means t h a t i n many c a s e s t h e p a r e n t s a r e a d v i s i n g c h i l d r e n
r e l a t i v e t o o c c u p a tio n s a b o u t w h ic h t h e i r k n o w led g e may b e
lim ite d .
T h e se f a c t s a r e a n a d d e d i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e
51
n e c e s s ity f o r th e c o o rd in a tio n o f d e s ir a b le so u rc e s o f
in f o r m a t i o n i n a n e f f o r t t o e f f e c t i v e l y a i d th e p u p i l s i n
m ak in g d e c i s i o n s .
N in e ty - tw o p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s f e l t t h a t th e h i g h
s c h o o l was f i t t i n g th em f o r p o s t s c h o o l l i v i n g .
E ig h t p e r
c e n t s t a t e d th e y f e l t t h a t t h e s c h o o l was n o t a d e q u a t e l y
p r e p a r i n g th e m .
A f e e l i n g o f c o n f id e n c e i n t h e s c h o o l i s n e c e s s a r y t o
f a c i l i t a t e a p ro g ra m o f g u id a n c e ;
e f f e c t i v e g u id a n c e , i n
$E OF WILLIAM & MARY
c o n n e c tio n w i t h some a d ju s tm e n ts i n th e c u r r ic u lu m o f th e
s c h o o l, may c h an g e t h e a t t i t u d e o f th e e i g h t p e r c e n t who
f e e l t h a t t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n i s n o t a d e q u a te *
S u g g e s te d c h a n g e s i n th e s c h o o l *
A l l p u p i l s w ere
a sk e d t o make s u g g e s t i o n s a s t o w hat th e s c h o o l c o u ld do
t o b e t t e r p r e p a r e th em f o r l i f e a f t e r s c h o o l .
The r e s ­
p o n se s to t h i s r e q u e s t a r e l i s t e d i n T a b le X I I I .
52
T a b le X I I I .
CHANGES SUGGESTED BY PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN
HIGH SCHOOL TO FACILITATE BETTER PREPARATION OF PUPILS
FOR AFTER-SCHOOL L IFE.
S u g g e s tio n s
F re q u e n c y
No s u g g e s t i o n s
O f f e r sh o p w ork
T each F re n c h
I n f o r m a tio n on o c c u p a tio n s
A g ric u ltu re
More home e co n o m ics
I n f o r m a tio n a b o u t c o l l e g e s
More L a t i n
T each a r t
F i r s t a id
T e a ch d a n c in g
T each s a le s m a n s h ip
T each m u s ic
O ffe r m ore c o m m e rc ia l w ork
G ive i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s
T each p u b l i c s p e a k in g
Give m ore i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s on o c c u p a tio n s
O f f e r t r a i n i n g i n s tu d y in g o c c u p a tio n s
G ive a s h o r t c o u r s e i n o c c u p a tio n s
T each m e c h a n ic a l d ra w in g
T e a c h p h y s ic s
65
25
15
8
4
3
5
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
I
1
I
1
1
1
A m a j o r i t y o f th o s e p u p i l s who f a i l e d t o make s u g g e s tio n s
('
'
V
w ere s a t i s f i e d w ith th e p r e p a r a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n th e s c h o o l
o r h a d n o t g iv e n en o u g h th o u g h t t o a l i f e
p u rp o s e t o know how
th e s c h o o l c o u ld c o n t r i b u t e e f f e c t i v e l y .
A bsence o f s u g g e s t ­
io n s on th e p a r t o f p u p i l s who a r e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h th e
p r e p a r a t i o n r e c e i v e d l i k e l y i n d i c a t e s some m a la d ju s tm e n t t h a t
sh o u ld b e i n v e s t i g a t e d f u r t h e r .
The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d y h a d a l r e a d y p la n n e d f o r some o f
th e s u g g e s te d c h a n g e s p r i o r t o th e p o i n t a t w h ic h ch an g es
w ere s u g g e s te d b y t h e s t u d e n t s ; a s a r e s u l t o f s t u d e n t
i n t e r e s t show n, f u r t h e r f u t u r e m o d i f i c a t i o n s an d im provem ent
o f th e c u r r i c u l a w i l l be c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d .
F ren ch w i l l
63
be o f f e r e d n e x t y e a r , a g r i c u l t u r e an d s h o p w ork w i l l be i n ­
c lu d e d a f t e r n e x t y e a r , an d a d d i t i o n a l in f o r m a t i o n a b o u t
c o l l e g e s an d o c c u p a tio n s w i l l be s e c u r e d an d a s s i s t a n c e
g iv e n i n i t s u s e .
I n s t r u c t i o n i n c o u r s e s d e s i r e d by o n ly one i n d i v i d u a l
w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e ;
t h e s c h o o l s h o u ld , h o w e v e r, s e e k to a i d
th e p u p i l i n s e c u r i n g t h e t r a i n i n g d e s i r e d th r o u g h s u p e r ­
v i s e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s t u d y , n i g h t s c h o o l , o r b y o t h e r m eans
i f i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e th r o u g h t h e r e g u l a r c h a n n e l s .
Summary
L e s s th a n o n e r t h i r d o f th e s t u d e n t s h av e d e f i n i t e l y
s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s .
S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f th e d e f i n i t e
s e l e c t i o n s w ere inade i n g r a d e s s e v e n , e i g h t , n i n e , an d t e n .
P o r ty - tw o p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s e x p r e s s e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r
two o r t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n s .
T w e n ty -s e v e n p e r c e n t h a d made no
c h o ic e and e x p r e s s e d no p r e f e r e n c e .
P u p ils * r e a s o n s f o r s e l e c t i o n o f o r p r e f e r e n c e f o r v o c a ­
t i o n s a r e n o t b a s e d on a k n o w led g e an d u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e
o c c u p a tio n o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l s *
q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r th e o c c u ­
p a tio n .
O n e - th ir d c h o o s in g , o r e x p r e s s i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r two
o r t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n s , h a d n o t c o n s id e r e d i n t h e i r o c c u p a t io n a l
s e le c tio n s th e g e n e ra l le v e l o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , n e c e s sa ry
s p e c ia l ta le n ts
o r a p t i t u d e s , a n d th e a v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f
w o rk e rs.
S e v e n t y - t h r e e an d f o u r - t e n t h s p e r c e n t o f th e p u p i l s
w ould s e e k h e l p fro m some o t h e r p e r s o n i n s e l e c t i n g a n
54
o c c u p a tio n s
T w e n ty - s ix an d s i x - t e n t h s p e r c e n t w ould make
th e s e l e c t i o n w ith o u t h e l p .
P a re n ts ra n k f i r s t a s p r e f e r r e d
s o u rc e f o r a d v ic e * th o s e a l r e a d y i n t h e o c c u p a ti o n r a n k
s e c o n d ; s c h o o l w o rk e rs r a n k t h i r d *
P u p i l s ' r e a s o n s f o r h o l d i n g n e i t h e r a c h o ic e n o r a
p r e f e r e n c e i n o c c u p a tio n s e x h i b i t f a i l u r e t o c o n s i d e r th e
p ro b le m , o r th e b e l i e f t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n s s h o u ld
be made l a t e r i n s c h o o l l i f e .
Many p u p i l s do n o t know w h ere th e y c a n s e c u r e o c c u p a ­
ti o n a l in fo rm a tio n .
O f te n tim e s t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f in fo r m a ­
t i o n a v a i l a b l e a t some o f t h e s o u r c e s l i s t e d m u st be q u e s t i o n e d .
N in e ty -tw o p e r c e n t a f f i r m e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l was a d e ­
q u a te l y p r e p a r i n g them f o r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a f t e r h ig h s c h o o l;
e i g h t p e r c e n t w ere d e f i n i t e l y n e g a t i v e on t h i s p o i n t .
Many p u p i l s h a d no s u g g e s t i o n s f o r im p ro v in g th e s e r v i c e
r e n d e r e d by t h e s c h o o l .
P u p i l s m ak in g s u g g e s tio n s r e q u e s t e d
a d d i t i o n a l c o u r s e s a n d a i d s o f a g u id a n c e n a t u r e .
I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r th e s c h o o l .
The r e a s o n s g iv e n f o r
s e l e c t i o n s an d p r e f e r e n c e s , an d th e l a c k o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n
g iv e n s u c h ite m s a s th e e a r n i n g s t h a t m ig h t be e x p e c te d ,
I n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s c h o o l s h o u ld e n c o u ra g e i t s p u p i l s t o s tu d y
more c a r e f u l l y t h e i r own q u a l i f i c a t i o n s an d th e r e q u ir e m e n ts
and o f f e r i n g s o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n s .
E v id e n c e s o f l a c k o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f o c c u p a tio n s , t o
be n o te d i n th e r e a s o n s g iv e n f o r h a v in g no c h o ic e o r p r e f ­
e re n c e s, in d ic a te
t h a t th e s c h o o l s h o u ld e n c o u ra g e a l l p u p i l s
55
t o g iv e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h i s p ro b le m .
The f a c t t h a t s e v e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t w ould s e e k a d v ic e
i n m aking s e l e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e s t h e n e e d f o r c o o p e r a t i o n o f
th e s c h o o l w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s b e s t q u a l i f i e d t o a s s i s t i n
p r o v id i n g e f f i c i e n t g u id a n c e .
F a i l u r e to know a b o u t s o u r c e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l in f o r m a ­
t i o n a n d th e d o u b t f u l r e l i a b i l i t y
o f some o f t h e s o u r c e s
m e n tio n e d p o i n t to a n e e d f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l i n t h e
s c h o o l a n d g u id a n c e i n th e s e l e c t i o n o f o t h e r s o u r c e s .
S u g g e s tio n s fro m t h e p u p i l s i n d i c a t e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s ,
and w h e re v e r p o s s i b l e th e s c h o o l s h o u ld p r o v id e f o r t h e s e
i n t e r e s t s th r o u g h s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s .
I f t h i s s c h o o li n g a i d
be n o t f e a s i b l e , e f f o r t s s h o u ld be made i n o t h e r ways t o
h e l p th e p u p i l s s a t i s f y t h e i r i n t e r e s t s .
56
C h a p te r VI
E d u c a t i o n a l P la n s o f P u p i l s o f M id lo th ia n H ig h S c h o o l
The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t e r r o g a t i o n s r e l a t i v e t o t h e c h o ic e
o f c o u r s e s , g ro u n d s f o r c h o o s in g , a n d th e r e a s o n e d s e l e c t i o n
o f e x t r a - c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s w e re o m itte d b y th e s e n i o r s o f
M id lo th ia n H ig h S c h o o l*
The r e m a in d e r o f s t u d e n t s a n sw e re d
a l l q u e s tio n s .
S e l e c t i o n o f h i g h s c h o o l p ro g ra m *
L o n g -te rm p la n n in g
o f s u b j e c t s t o be ta k e n i n h ig h s c h o o l e n c o u ra g e s p u p i l s t o
c o n s id e r t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l p la n s *
S e v e n ty - th r e e p e r c e n t o f th e p u p i l s a t M id lo th ia n H igh
S c h o o l h a d e i t h e r a d e f i n i t e c h o ic e o r s e v e r a l p r e f e r e n c e s
f o r o c c u p a t i o n s , b u t o n ly o n e - t h i r d o f t h i s g ro u p h ad w orked
o u t a n e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ram t o a c h ie v e t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l a im s .
Only one f o u r t h o f th e g ro u p ( s e n i o r s e x c e p te d ) h a d s e l e c t e d
th e s u b j e c t s f o r t h e i r r e m a in in g y e a r s i n h ig h s c h o o l*
W hile
a r i g i d s e l e c t i o n , n o t s u b j e c t t o ch an g e upon a c q u i r i n g
a d d i t i o n a l k n o w le d g e , i n u n d e s i r a b l e , i t
i s , h o w e v e r, d e s i r ­
a b le t o p l a n a h i g h - s c h o o l c o u r s e c o n s i s t e n t w ith l i f e p u r p o s e .
R ea so n s f o r s e l e c t i n g s u b j e c t s *
In an endeavor to d e te r ­
mine t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g p u p i l s i n t h e i r c h o ic e o f su b ­
j e c t s , t h e y w ere a s k e d to show c a u s e f o r t h e i r s e l e c t i o n o f
v a r io u s s u b j e c t s *
R ea so n s f o r p r e f e r e n c e s w ere g iv e n by
n in e ty - tw o p e r c e n t o f t h e t w e n t y - f i v e p u p ils h a v in g s e l e c t e d
57
s u b j e c t s a n d a r e r e c o r d e d i n T a b le XIV.
T a b le XIV. REASONS GIVEN BY PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH
SCHOOL FOR SELECTING SUBJECTS TO BE TAKEN W IL E IN
HIGH SCHOOL.
Reasons
Frequency
P reparation fo r l i f e work
P reparation fo r advanced sch o o lin g
In te r e st in world c o n d itio n s
Only su b je ct a v a ila b le
Handwriting is very poor
To become a b e tte r c o n v e r s a tio n a lis t
A ll g i r l s should have home economics
For c r e d it toward graduation
Valuable in any occupation
21
6
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
The f i r s t two r e a s o n s show some e v id e n c e o f p l a n n i n g .
The f i r s t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i th o c c u p a t io n a l p la n s an d p u rp o s e s
in t h a t e ig h ty - f iv e and s ix - te n th s p e r c e n t o f th e p u p ils
e x p r e s s in g r e a s o n s f o r h a v in g s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s h a v e c h o se n ,
o r e x p r e s s e d p r e f e r e n c e s f o r , o c c u p a tio n s ; an d n in e ty - o n e
p er cen t have e x p re sse d p u rp o se s.
The p e r c e n t o f t h i s
g ro u p s e l e c t i n g , o r e x p r e s s i n g p r e f e r e n c e s f o r , o c c u p a tio n s
i s o n ly tw e lv e p e r c e n t h i g h e r th a n t h a t f o r th e e n t i r e
s tu d e n t b o d y .
The p e r c e n t e x p r e s s in g p u rp o s e s i s a c t u a l l y
one p e r c e n t lo w e r th a n t h a t o f th e e n t i r e g r o u p .
The map­
p in g o u t o f c o u r s e s i n h i g h s c h o o l i s n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t
i n d i c a t i o n o f a m ark ed d e g r e e o f c o n s i s t e n c y I n p la n n in g .
E x tra -c la s s ro o m a c t i v i t i e s
s e le c te d .
To d e te rm in e th e
e x t e n t t o w h ic h p u p i l s h a d p la n n e d f o r t h e i r e x t r a - c l a s s r o o m
a c t i v i t i e s , and th e re a s o n s f o r , o r la c k o f, p r e f e r e n c e s ,
s t u d e n t s w ere a s k e d t o name t h e i r p r e f e r r e d a c t i v i t i e s i f
58
a n y , and t o i n d i c a t e
of s e le c tio n s .
ju d g e m e n t b a c k o f p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e
S i x t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f th e p u p i l s l i s t e d
e x t r a - c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s , a s shown i n T a b le XV.
T a b le XV. EXTRA-CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES SELECTED BY PUPILS
OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
A c t iv it y s e le c t e d
B a s k e tb a ll
B a s e b a ll
S o ftb a ll
F o o tb a ll
G lee C lub
D ra m a tic s
V o lly b a l l
B ic y c lin g
R unning
A n n u al S t a f f
Frequency
59
32
24
13
11
9
4
1
1
1
M ost o f th e a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e a r e o f a n a t h l e t i c
n a tu re .
T h a t t h i r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e p u p i l s h av e n o t
named e x t r a i n t e r e s t s may i n d i c a t e t h a t a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e
a re n o t s u ite d to t h e i r I n t e r e s t s , a p t i t u d e s , and c a p a c i t i e s .
A s tu d y o f th e i n t e r e s t s o f th o s e w ith o u t c h o ic e s s h o u ld be
m ade, a n d , i f p o s s i b l e , a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ich th e y a r e i n t e r ­
e s te d s h o u ld be p r o v id e d .
A l l p u p i l s m ust be e n c o u ra g e d t o
p a r t i c i p a t e i n some form o f e x t r a - c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t y .
R e a so n s f o r s e l e c t i n g e x t r a - c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s .
P u p i l s 1 g ro u n d s f o r c h o ic e i n e x t r a - c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s
a r e r e c o r d e d i n T a b le X V I.
59
T a b le XVI. REASONS GIVEN EOT PUPILS OP MIDLOTHIAN HIGH
SCHOOL FOR SELECTING EXTRA-CIASSROOM A CTIVITIES.
F req u en cy
R easo n s
P l e a s a n t fo rm o f e x e r c i s e an d r e l a x a t i o n
V ig o ro u s e x e r c i s e
T r a in i n g i n s p o r ts m a n s h ip
Am p r o f i c i e n t i n th e a c t i v i t y
E njoy c o m p e t itio n
To im prove i n th e a c t i v i t y
L ike o u t o f d o o r s p o r t s
To h e l p th e c l a s s
Want t r a i n i n g i n q u ic k t h i n k i n g
Am n o t s u b j e c t t o s t a g e f r i g h t
L ike t o go on t r i p s
L ike to a c t s i l l y p a r t s i n p la y s
To d e v e lo p c o o p e r a t i o n
To b u i l d up my l e g s ( i n f a n t i l e p a r a l y s i s )
Good e x e r c i s e , n o t t o o ro u g h
Bad e y e s ig h t no h a n d ic a p
To l e a r n t o p r o t e c t m y s e lf
May become a c o a c h
54
29
12
11
10
8
7
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
The c a u s e s show n i n d i c a t e t h a t m ore e m p h a s is m ig h t w e l l
be p la c e d on s p o r ts m a n s h ip an d t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f c o o p e r a t i o n
in o u r a t h l e t i c p ro g ra m .
R ea so n s f o r n o t h a v in g s e l e c t e d e x t r a - c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s .
Judgm ents made f o r n o t h a v in g s e l e c t e d e x t r a - c l a s s r o o m a c t i v ­
it i e s a re l i s t e d
i n T a b le X V II.
T a b le X V II. REASONS GIVEN BY THE PU PIIS OF MIDLOTHIAN
HIGH SCHOOL FOR NOT HAVING SELECTED EXTRA-CLASSROOM
ACTIVITIES.
R easo n s_____________________________________
N ever gave i t an y th o u g h t
Not good e n o u g h to make te am s
Not i n t e r e s t e d
No r e a s o n s
Have home eco n o m ics a t a c t i v i t i e s p e r i o d
Do n o t know a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e (new p u p i l )
Do n o t f e e l p h y s i c a l l y a b l e
Have weak a n k le and d o n o t l i k e to s in g
Am to o s m a ll
F req u en c y
10
8
5
4
2
2
2
2
1
60
T h is t a b l e e x h i b i t s a l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n , an d p la n n in g
f o r , th e s e a c t i v i t i e s .
The d e s i r a b i l i t y an d n e c e s s i t y o f
r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v e n e s s s h o u ld be e x p la i n e d f u l l y , an d a c t i ­
v i t i e s i n w h ic h i n d i v i d u a l s a r e c o m p e te n t an d a b l e t o p a r t i ­
c i p a t e s h o u ld be p r o v id e d i f p o s s i b l e .
C o n tin u e d l a c k o f
i n t e r e s t a n d f a i l u r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e may be a n i n d i c a t i o n o f
s o c i a l m a la d ju s tm e n t, an d s h o u ld n o t be o v e r lo o k e d .
P la n s r e l a t i v e t o c o m p le tio n o f h ig h s c h o o l w o rk .
D e c is io n s t o d r o p o u t b e f o r e th e h i g h s c h o o l w ork i s c o m p le te d
may h av e a r e a l e f f e c t on th e i n d i v i d u a l f o r t h e r e s t o f h i s
life .
S u ch d e c i s i o n s s h o u ld n o t be made h u r r i e d l y o r w ith o u t
p ro p e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l l i m p l i c a t i o n s , and t h e s c h o o l
sh o u ld s e e t h a t i t s young p e o p le c o n s i d e r th e m a t t e r c a r e ­
fu lly .
P u p i l s w ere a s k e d t o s t a t e t h e i r p la n s r e l a t i v e t o
c o m p le tin g t h e h i g h s c h o o l w o rk , an d t o r e a s o n o u t th e why
of t h e i r p la n s .
U l n e t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f th e p u p i l s I n te n d to f i n i s h
h ig h s c h o o l ; f o u r an d o n e - t e n t h p e r c e n t a r e u n c e r t a i n ; and
n i n e - t e n t h s o f one p e r c e n t p l a n t o d ro p o u t .
A l l u n s u re
p u p ils e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t o c o n t i n u e , an d mean t o le a v e
o n ly i f and when I t becom e a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y .
The p u p i l s
u n d e r s ta n d t h e v a lu e o f h i g h - s c h o o l t r a i n i n g , an d t h e i r
r e a l i z a t i o n o f v a lu e s m ust a lw a y s u n d o u b te d ly f a c i l i t a t e a
program o f g u id a n c e .
R ea so n s f o r p la n n in g t o c o m p le te h i g h s c h o o l w o rk .
d e te r m in e t h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h r e a s o n s f o r c o m p le tin g h ig h
To
61
s c h o o l b e a r on f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , a n d t h e e x t e n t
to w h ic h p u p i l s r e c o g n iz e th e s c h o o l a s a m eans o f h e l p i n
s o lv in g n o n - v o c a t i o n a l p ro b le m s s u c h a s d e s i r a b l e f a m i ly
r e l a t i o n s h i p s , o c c u p y in g l e i s u r e t i m e , and t h e d e v e lo p m e n t
o f e t h i c a l c h a r a c t e r , p u p i l s w ere a s k e d t o s t a t e t h e i r
r e a s o n s f o r p la n n in g to c o m p le te th e w o rk .
S tu d e n ts ' cau ses
f o r so p la n n in g a r e g iv e n i n T a b le X V III*
T a b le X V III . REASONS GIVEN M PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN
HIGH SCHOOL FOR PLANNING TO COMPLETE THE HIGH SCHOOL
WORK.
R easo n s
F req u e n c y
B e t t e r c h an c e t o g e t jo b
To p r e p a r e f o r c o l l e g e
To p r e p a r e f o r f u t u r e s c h o o l i n g
B e tte r p re p a ra tio n f o r l i f e in g e n e ra l
Can g e t a b e t t e r jo b
To p r e p a r e f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n
N o th in g e l s e to do
D e s ir e o f p a r e n t s
E njo y g o in g t o s c h o o l
Can n o t g e t f a r w it h o u t i t
H ig h e r s o c i a l s t a n d i n g
Do n o t know
To overcom e p h y s i c a l h a n d ic a p
To g a in s e l f c o n f id e n c e
Do n o t w ant t o be i g n o r a n t
N o th in g t o be g a in e d by s t o p p in g
To k eep up w i t h o t h e r s
R a th e r a t t e n d s c h o o l th a n s t a y a t home
Have n o t d e c id e d w h at t o do
B e t t e r e q u ip p e d t o m e et p e o p le
W ill be th e f i r s t i n th e f a m i l y t o g r a d u a t e
66
35
26
23
16
6
5
5
4
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
The g ro u n d s o f " n o th in g e l s e t o d o " , a n d " h i g h e r s o c i a l
s ta n d in g " a r e n o t o f a v e r y h i g h o r d e r .
P u p ils o f f e r in g
s u c h ju d g m e n t s h o u ld be s t u d i e d i n a n e f f o r t t o d e te r m in e
th e C ause f o r s u c h a t t i t u d e s .
The m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e a s o n s
62
e x p r e s s a h i g h d e g r e e o f c o n f id e n c e i n th e s c h o o l .
I f th e
s c h o o l i s to c o n tin u e t o m e r i t t h i s c o n f i d e n c e , i t m u st a i d
th e p u p i l s i n p la n n in g m ore e f f e c t i v e l y f o r p r e s e n t a n d
f u t u r e n e e d s*
To p u p i l s m u st b e e x te n d e d t h e s p e c i f i c c o n t r i ­
b u t i o n s w h ic h h i g h s c h o o ls c a n make t o th e e n ric h m e n t o f t h e i r
l i v e s an d a c h ie v e m e n t o f p u r p o s e s .
T h o se who w ere u n c e r t a i n a b o u t r e m a in in g t o t h e en d o f
th e h ig h s c h o o l t r a i n i n g , p la n n e d t o le a v e o n ly i f t h e y w e re
n e ed e d a t hom e, o r I f th e y s h o u ld c h a n c e t o f i n d a good j o b ,
o r i f t h e y s h o u ld n o t s u c c e e d i n t h e i r s c h o o l w o rk .
The
o n ly p u p i l who h a d d e f i n i t e l y c o n c lu d e d t o q u i t h e r s t u d i e s
p r e m a tu r e ly was m a r r ie d a t th e end o f t h e te r m .
I t is s ig ­
n i f i c a n t t o n o te t h a t none o f th o s e who th o u g h t p o s s i b l y t o
le a v e b e f o r e t h e i r g r a d u a t i o n , was f o r m u la t i n g p la n s t o
c o n tin u e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n th r o u g h o t h e r a g e n c i e s .
p la n s f o r c o lle g e e d u c a tio n .
The e x t e n t an d s t a t u s o f
a s t u d e n t ’ s p r e s e n t p l a n s f o r c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g m ust be u n d e r­
s to o d by th e s c h o o l i f e f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l g u id a n c e i s t o
be g i v e n .
P u p i l s w ere r e q u e s t e d t o make known t h e i r I n t e n t ­
io n s o f g o in g t o c o l l e g e , an d th e r e a s o n s f o r p la n n in g t o
a tte n d o r n o t to a tt e n d .
F o rty -fo u r p er c en t s ta te d th a t
th e y p la n n e d t o a t t e n d c o l l e g e , f i f t y - o n e p e r e e n t h a d n o t
so d e te r m in e d , a n d f i v e p e r c e n t w ere u n c e r t a i n .
I n p r e v io u s y e a r s o n ly t e n t o f i f t e e n p e r c e n t o f th e
g r a d u a te s h a v e a c t u a l l y e n t e r e d c o l l e g e .
T h is i n c o n s i s t e n c y
b e tw ee n p r o j e c t i n g a n d d o in g p o i n t s t o t h e n eed f o r c o n tin u e d
65
r e f in e m e n t o f v o c a t i o n a l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s b e f o r e
g ra d u a tio n .
A c a r e f u l s tu d y o f e a c h p u p i l w i l l g iv e a r e a ­
s o n a b ly good i n d i c a t i o n o f h i s a b i l i t y t o p r o f i t by c o n t i n u i n g
h is e d u c a tio n a t c o lle g e .
A s t u d e n t Ts h ig h s c h o o l r e c o r d i s
a f a i r in d ic a tio n o f h is lik e ly su ccess or f a ilu r e a t c o lle g e .
P u p i l s m u st b e a i d e d i n e v a l u a t i n g th e m s e lv e s , t h e i r q u a l i ­
f i c a t i o n s , an d t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s - i n o r d e r t h a t th e y
may be a b le t o make m ore i n t e l l i g e n t d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g
t h e i r f u tu r e e d u c a tio n .
W o rth y p u p i l s s h o u ld be d i r e c t e d
i n a d i s c o v e r y o f w ays and m eans t o w h o lly o r p a r t i a l l y
f in a n c e t h e i r f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n .
R e a so n s f o r p la n n in g t o a t t e n d c o l l e g e .
N in e ty -s ix
p e r c e n t o f th e p u p i l s p la n n in g on c o l l e g e show d e f i n i t e
c a u se f o r g o i n g , and f o u r p e r c e n t show no c a u s e .
The
r e a s o n s g iv e n a r e shown i n T a b le XIX.
T a b le X IX . REASONS FOR PLANNING TO ATTEND COLLEGE
GIVEN BI THE PTJPIIS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
R easo n s
P r e p a r a t i o n f o r s e l e c t e d l i f e w ork
B e t t e r c h a n c e t o f i n d em ploym ent
In c re a se d p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r su cc e ss
A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r p e o p le
E n jo y g o in g t o s c h o o l
In c re ase d s o c ia l s ta tu s
B e tte r p re p a ra tio n f o r l i f e
S h o u ld g e t a l l t h e e d u c a t i o n p o s s i b l e
Have n o t d e c id e d w h at to do
F re q u e n c y
42
10
4
4
5
3
2
1
1
M ost o f th e r e a s o n s g iv e n a r e g e n e r a l and show l i t t l e
e v id e n c e o f a n a n a l y s i s o f n e e d s o r c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g .
The
f i r s t t h r e e o f t h e r e a s o n s o f f e r e d a r e p r o b a b l y th e b e s t
o f f e r e d s i n c e c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o many
o c c u p a tio n s and u s u a l l y e n h a n c e s b o t h t h e c h a n c e s o f f i n d i n g
em ploym ent an d th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s
m e n t.
o f a d v an c e m en t a f t e r em ploy
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , c o l l e g e a t t e n d a n c e i s a v e r y e x ­
p e n s iv e m eans o f a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h o t h e r p e o p le o r o f i n c r e a s
in g th e s o c i a l s t a t u s *
P u p i l s s h o u ld b e e n c o u ra g e d t o
a n a ly z e t h e i r p u p o se i n g o in g t o c o l l e g e i n o r d e r t o d e t e r ­
m ine i t s r e l a t i v e w o rth *
C o lle g e s s e l e c t e d *
T h o se who w ere p la n n in g t o a t t e n d
c o l l e g e s w ere a s k e d t o name th em i f a s e l e c t i o n h a d b e e n
m ade, so t h a t t h e b a s i s o f c h o ic e m ig h t be d e te rm in e d *
T h i r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f th o s e f o c u s i n g upon c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g
had s e l e c t e d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t t h e y w is h e d t o a t t e n d ;
s i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t h a d n o t*
The c o l l e g e s s e l e c t e d by t h e
p u p ils who h a v e made a d e f i n i t e s e l e c t i o n h e r e f o llo w i n
T a b le XX.
T a b le XX. COLLEGES SELECTED BY PUPILS OP MIDLOTHIAN
HIGH SCHOOL WHO HAVE MADE A DEFINITE SELECTION.
Name o f c o l l e g e
V irg in ia P o ly te c h n ic I n s t i t u t e
Mary W a sh in g to n
W illia m and M ary
U n iv e rs ity o f V irg in ia
V irg in ia M ilita r y I n s t i t u t e
R an d o lp h Macon Woman*s C o lle g e
F a r m v ille S t a t e T e a c h e r s r C o lle g e
Richmond P r o f e s s i o n a l I n s t i t u t e
Duke U n i v e r s i t y
N o rth C a r o lin a C o lle g e f o r Women
The U n i v e r s i t y o f M ic h ig a n
F re q u e n c y
6
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
65
T h a t o n ly t h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e p u p i l s who s a y
th e y a r e g o in g t o c o l l e g e h a v e a c t u a l l y s e l e c t e d t h e i r
c o l l e g i a t e d e s t i n a t i o n , i n d i c a t e s t h a t a g u id a n c e p ro g ra m
w ould p ro m o te w isdom i n d e c i s i o n by s e c u r i n g , d e s s e m i n a t i n g ,
and a i d i n g t h e s t u d e n t s i n a s t u d y o f t h e a n n u a l c o l l e g e
p ro s p e c tu s e s .
C o o p e r a tio n o f t h e hom e, s c h o o l, an d o t h e r
i n t e r e s t e d a g e n c ie s w o u ld be d e s i r a b l e an d b e n e f i c i a l ; an d
t h e s c h o o l i s th e p r o p e r a g e n c y f o r i n i t i a t i n g a n d s e c u r i n g
th e c o o p e r a t i o n .
R ea so n s f o r s e l e c t i n g c o l l e g e .
R ea so n s a d v a n c e d by
p u p i l s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s c o l l e g e s w i l l be
fo u n d i n T a b le XX I.
T a b le X X I. REASONS STATED BY PUPILS OP MIDLOTHIAN HIGH
SCHOOL FOR SELECTING THE COLLEGE THEY WISH TO ATTEND.
R easo n s
C o u rses d e s i r e d a r e o f f e r e d t h e r e
Have a f r i e n d o r f r i e n d s t h e r e
R e a s o n a b le c o s t s
Want m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g
P re fe rre d by p a re n ts
U n d e rs ta n d I t i s a good g i r l s s c h o o l
L o c a te d n e a r my home
Want t o p la y f o o t b a l l t h e r e
F a th e r i s a n alu m n u s
E x p e c t t o move t o M ic h ig a n
L iv ed n e a r t h e s c h o o l a t one tim e
Would l i k e t o make t h e b o x in g team
Have no r e a s o n s
More c lu b s f o r s o c i a l c o n t a c t
A s s o c ia te d w i t h good h o s p i t a l f o r n u r s e s t r a i n i n g
B e t t e r c h a n c e t o g e t a g o v e rn m e n t jo b
F re q u e n c y
5
3
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
66
Many o f t h e s e d e c i d i n g th o u g h ts a r e v e r y in a d e q u a te a s
a b a s i s o f s e l e c t i o n ; t h e y do n o t c o n s i d e r th e a b i l i t y o f
th e c o l l e g e t o p r e p a r e th em f o r t h e i r l i f e a c t i v i t i e s , n o r
do t h e y c o n s i d e r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o d o t h e ty p e o f w ork fo u n d
in th e c o l l e g e .
Some o f th e r e s p o n s e s c a n n o t be e v a l u a t e d
w ith o u t o t h e r r e l e v a n t in f o r m a tio n *
I n an y c a s e , a n e v a lu a ­
t i o n o f t h e r e a s o n i n te rm s o f t h e p u p i l ' s o b j e c t i v e s and
p u rp o se w ould r e s u l t i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f th e
p ro b le m , an d c o n s e q u e n tly , m ore i n t e l l i g e n t d e c i s i o n s *
I n f o r m a tio n c o n c e r n in g c o l l e g e s e l e c t e d .
a sk e d i f
P u p i l s w ere
th e y h a d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n in g t h e e n t r a n c e r e ­
q u ir e m e n ts , c o s t s , c o u r s e s o f f e r e d , an d s o c i a l g ro u p s i n
th e c o l l e g e o f t h e i r c h o ic e *
The r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n
a r e p r e s e n t e d I n T a b le XXII*
T a b le X X II. PER GENT OF PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH
SCHOOL HAVING INFORMATION CONCERNING ENTRANCE RE*
qOIREMENTS, COST, COURSES OFFERED, AND SOCIAL GROUPS
OF THE COLLEGE OF THEIR CHOICE.
m
« . , . __
Type o f i n f o r m a t i o n
P e r c e n t h a v in g
Per cent not
in fo rm a tio n
h a v in g in f o r m a t io n
R e q u ire m e n ts f o r e n tr a n c e
C o sts
C o u rses o f f e r e d
S o c ia l g ro u p s
T hat f i f t y
33.
50.
77.
44.
67.
50.
23,
56.
p e r c e n t o r m ore o f th e p u p i l s do n o t know
th e e n tr a n c e r e q u ir e m e n ts and c o s t s o f a t t e n d i n g t h e i r
c h o se n c o l l e g e , i n d i c a t e s a l a c k o f n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t io n .
The n e ed f o r g u id a n c e I n p la n n in g f o r f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l
tr a in in g is e v id e n t.
A d d i t i o n a l in f o r m a t io n m ust be made
67
a v a i l a b l e , a n d t h e p u p i l s m u st b e a i d e d i n i t s
s y s te m a tic
s tu d y .
R e a s o n s f o r n o t p la n n in g t o a t t e n d c o l l e g e .
F ifty -
s i x p e r c e n t o f th e p u p i l s h a d n o t t h o u g h t t h e y w o u ld a t t e n d
c o lle g e .
R easons advanced f o r n o t p la n n in g to a tte n d c o lle g e
a r e g iv e n i n T a b le X X III.
T a b le X X I I I . REASONS FOR NOT PLANNING- TO ATTEND COLLEGE
GIVEN BY THE PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
F req u e n c y
R easo n s
La ok o f fu n d s
Want t o s t a r t e a r n i n g im m e d ia te ly
Have no d e s i r e t o go
P la n t o a t t e n d b u s i n e s s c o l l e g e
P la n t o a t t e n d a t r a d e s c h o o l
Im p o s s ib le t o go t o c o l l e g e
W ill t r a i n f o r b e d s id e n u r s i n g
C o lle g e u n n e c e s s a r y f o r a m e c h a n ic
Not c a p a b le o f d o in g c o l l e g e w ork
Do n o t l i k e s c h o o l
Want i n d i v i d u a l m u s ic l e s s o n s
Do n o t c a r e t o le a v e home
Must h e lp s u p p o r t y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n
Want I n d i v i d u a l d a n c in g l e s s o n s
27
14
10
6
5
4
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
Many an d v a r i e d g u id a n c e n e e d s a r e e v id e n c e d i n th e
ta b le ju s t p re s e n te d .
P u p i l s p la n n in g t o a t t e n d i n s t i t u ­
t i o n s o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s h o u ld be a i d e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f
th e ir s e le c tio n .
A l l s h o u ld be e n c o u ra g e d t o s tu d y t h e i r
q u a lif ic a tio n s in r e l a t i o n to t h e i r p la n s .
W orthy p u p i l s
w ith l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s s h o u ld b e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h
th e v a r i o u s m eans o f s e c u r i n g a s s i s t a n c e , an d s h o u ld be
e n c o u ra g e d t o make t h e e f f o r t f o r c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n
a t c o lle g e .
68
M ethods o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a f t e r h ig h s c h o o l .
B e fo re t h e s c h o o l c a n he i n a p o s i t i o n t o o f f e r g u id a n c e
r e l a t i v e t o t h e m eans o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a ti o n a f t e r h ig h
s c h o o l, t h e m eans i n w h ic h th e p u p i l s a r e i n t e r e s t e d m ust
be known*
S t u d e n ts n o t p la n n in g t o go t o c o lle g e w ere
a sk e d t o l i s t t h e m eans o f f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g i n w h ich th e y
w ere i n t e r e s t e d .
S e v e n ty -tw o p e r c e n t h a d made p la n s f o r
a f t e r - h i g h - s c h o o l t r a i n i n g ; tw e n ty e i g h t p e r c e n t h ad n o t .
A g e n c ie s o f a n e d u c a t i o n a l n a t u r e i n w h ich p u p i l s e x p r e s s e d
in te r e s t a re lis te d
i n T a b le XXIV.
T a b le XXIV. MEANS OF CONTINUING EDUCATION SELECTED
BY PUPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL WHO DO NOT PLAN
TO ATTEND COLLEGE.
Means
B u s in e s s s c h o o l
T rade s e h o o l
N ig h t s c h o o l
B eauty s c h o o l
B ed sid e n u r s e s t r a i n i n g
C o rre sp o n d e n c e s c h o o l
D id s e l s c h o o l
E le c tric a l sch o o l
D ancing s c h o o l
P r iv a t e m u sic l e s s o n s
F re q u e n c y
21
9
5
5
3
3
1
1
1
1
The s c h o o l s h o u ld s e c u r e r e l i a b l e in f o r m a t io n a n d g u id e
p u p ils i n a s t u d y o f t h a t in f o r m a t io n ; i t s h o u ld d i r e c t
s tu d e n t s i n c o n te m p la ti n g t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r th e ty p e
of t r a i n i n g th e y a r e c o n s i d e r i n g .
P e rs o n s p u p i l s w ould a p p r o a c h f o r a d v i c e .
In o rd e r th a t
th e s c h o o l m ig h t a s c e r t a i n th e p e rs o n s who m o st l i k e l y w ould
be a p p ro a c h e d b y th e p u p i l s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l a d v i c e , s t u d e n t s
69
w e re a s k e d t o I n d i c a t e i n o r d e r o f p r e f e r e n c e t h o s e t o whom
t h e y w o u ld go f o r e d u c a t i o n a l a d v i c e .
firs t,
P e rso n s l i s t e d as
s e c o n d , t h i r d , an d f o u r t h p r e f e r e n c e s a r e nam ed i n
T a b le XXV.
T a b le XXV. PERSONS TO WHOM PUPILS OP MIDLOTHIAN HIGH
SCHOOL WOULD GO FOR ADVICE ABOUT THEIR EDUCATIONAL PIANS.
F irs t p re fe r­
ence an d
freq u e n cy
Second p r e f e r ­
e n c e and
fre q u e n c y
T h ird p r e f e r ­
en ce and
fre q u e n c y
F o u rth p r e f e r ­
ence and
fre q u e n c y
P r i n c i p a l 36
P a re n ts
19
M other
16
9
T eacher
F a th e r
6
P e rso n in
th e o c c u ­
2
p a tio n
2
A lum ni
2
D o c to r
F rie n d s
2
C h ild re n s 1
Home
S o c ie ty
1
1
G u a rd ia n
P ro s p e c tiv e
1
e m p lo y e r
T eacher
17
10
P rin c ip a l
F a th e r
10
7
P a re n ts
5
M o th er
S u p e rin te n ­
dent of
s c h o o ls
2
M usic
te a c h e r
1
F rie n d s
1
R e la tiv e s
1
A lum ni
1
C o n tra c to r
1
C o lle g e
1
P rin c ip a l
T eacher
P a re n ts
P a s to r
A unt
F rie n d
F a th e r
B u s in e s s
man
A lum ni
P a re n ts
C o lle g e
M o th er
D o c to r
R e la tiv e
4
4
4
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
The p a r e n t s a n d th e s c h o o l s t a f f r a n k h i g h e s t a s f i r s t ,
s e c o n d , an d t h i r d p r e f e r e n c e s ; a n d many o t h e r d e s i r a b l e
s o u r c e s o f a d v ic e a r e l i s t e d .
The s c h o o l s h o u ld c o n t i n u a l l y
c o o p e r a te w i t h th e p a r e n t s i n a s s i s t i n g t h e p u p i l t o make
e d u c a t i o n a l p la n s i n a c c o r d w ith th e p u rp o s e an d p o t e n t i a l i ­
tie s
o f th e in d iv id u a l.
P u p i l s s h o u ld b e e n c o u ra g e d t o s e e k
th e a d v ic e o f o t h e r p e r s o n s who b e c a u s e o f t h e i r k n o w led g e
o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r th e m eans o f s e c u r i n g t h e d e s i r e d t r a i n ­
in g a r e I n a p o s i t i o n t o r i g h t f u l l y a d v i s e h im .
The s c h o o l
70
s h o u ld c o o p e r a te w i t h a n d c o o r d i n a t e t h e m ost d e s i r a b l e
s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , f o r o n ly i n t h i s way c a n we i n t e l l i ­
g e n t l y a s s i s t t h e p u p i l to w a r d a w is e d e c i s i o n .
Summary
O nly t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f th e p u p i l s i n t h e f i r s t
t h r e e y e a r s o f h i g h s c h o o l h a v e p la n n e d f o r th e s e l e c t i o n o f
c o u rse s th e y s t i l l n eed ed to ta k e .
S ix ty -s ix p er cen t o f
th e s t u d e n t s h a v e s e l e c t e d e x t r a - c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s th e
m a j o r i t y o f w h ic h a r e a t h l e t i c
in n a tu re .
R e a so n s g iv e n f o r c h o o s in g c o u r s e s an d a c t i v i t i e s v a r y
i n q u a l i t y fro m v e r y good t o v e r y p o o r .
R e a s o n in g made f o r
n o t h a v in g s e l e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s show s a l a c k o f i n t e r e s t a n d
a doubt o f a b i l i t y .
N i n e t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f th e h i g h - s c h o o l p u p i l s p l a n t o
c o m p le te t h e f o u r y e a r p ro g ra m , f o u r a n d one t e n t h p e r c e n t
a r e u n c e r t a i n , an d n i n e - t e n t h s p e r c e n t p l a n t o l e a v e .
Pu­
p i l s who w ere u n s u r e w ere n o t i n t e n d i n g t o le a v e u n l e s s i t
becam e a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y .
R e a s o n s f o r p la n n in g t o c o m p le te t h e h i g h - s c h o o l w ork
show t h a t p u p i l s a r e c o n v in c e d o f t h e v a lu e o f a h i g h - s c h o o l
e d u c a tio n .
A few o f t h e r e a s o n s g iv e n e x h i b i t a n i n d i f f e r e n t
a ttitu d e .
F o r ty -fo u r per cent o f the p u p ils plan to go to c o lle g e
i f p o s s ib le .
T h ir ty -fiv e per cent of th ese p u p ils have s e ­
le c t e d the c o lle g e they w ish to a tte n d .
Reasons fo r c o lle g e attendance and p a r tic u la r s e le c t io n s
71
r a t i n g h i g h e s t f r e q u e n c y w ere b e t t e r t h a n th e g r e a t v a r y in g
num ber o f r e a s o n s c o m p le tin g th e t o t a l «
A m a jo r ity o f th e
r e a s o n s a d v a n c e d w ere in a d e q u a t e a s a b a s i s f o r s e l e c t i n g o r
a tte n d in g a c o lle g e .
F i f t y p e r c e n t o r m ore o f th e p u p i l s who h a v e c h o se n a
c o l l e g e d o n o t h a v e in f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n in g t h e e n t r a n c e r e ­
q u ir e m e n ts , c o s t s , a n d s o c i a l g ro u p s o f t h e s c h o o l o f t h e i r
c h o ic e .
F i f t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f th e p u p i l s h a d n o t p la n n e d t o
a t t e n d c o l l e g e a n d g av e eco n o m ic s t a t u s , l a c k o f d e s i r e , a n d
p la n s f o r s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g a s t h e i r c h i e f r e a s o n s .
S e v e n ty -tw o p e r c e n t o f t h e p u p i l s n o t p la n n in g t o go
t o c o l l e g e e x p e c t t o c o n tin u e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a f t e r h i g h
s c h o o l.
S c h o o ls o f f e r i n g s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g , c o r r e s p o n d ­
e n c e s c h o o l s , and p r i v a t e t e a c h e r s w ere t h e m eans c h o s e n
f o r th e c o n t i n u i n g o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g .
I n nam ing p e r s o n s t o whom th e y w ould go f o r a d v ic e a b o u t
t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s , s t u d e n t s p la c e d t h e i r p a r e n t s and
m em bers o f t h e s c h o o l s t a f f a t th e t o p o f t h e l i s t o f f i r s t ,
s e c o n d , an d t h i r d p r e f e r e n c e s .
I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r th e s c h o o l .
The s e l e c t i o n o f h ig h
s c h o o l s u b j e c t s by o n ly t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e p u p i l s
( s e n i o r s e x c e p te d ) i s
i n d i c a t i v e o f th e n e e d f o r g u id a n c e i n
p la n n in g t h e h ig h s c h o o l work*
T he i n t e r e s t s o f t h e t h i r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f th e p u p i l s
h a v in g made n o c h o ic e o f e x t r a - c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s s h o u ld
72
be s t u d i e d i n a n e f f o r t t o p r o v id e a c t i v i t i e s s u i t a b l e f o r
th e m .
A l l s h o u ld b e e n c o u r a g e d t o t a k e p a r t i n some e x t r a ­
c la s s r o o m a c t i v i t y .
I n s e l e c t i n g c o u r s e s p u p i l s s h o u ld be e n c o u r a g e d t o
e v a l u a t e r e a s o n s i n te rm s o f f u t u r e p l a n s .
L ack o f i n t e r e s t
o r doubt of a b i l i t y as re a so n s f o r n o t p a r tic ip a tin g in
a c t i v i t i e s may be s ig n s o f m a la d ju s tm e n t, an d s h o u ld r e c e i v e
t h e s t a f f fs c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n .
The l a r g e p e r c e n t o f p u p i l s p la n n in g t o c o m p le te t h e i r
h i g h - s c h o o l w ork i s a n e x p r e s s i o n o f c o n f id e n c e t h a t we
s h o u ld e n d e a v o r t o m a i n t a i n .
Many o f t h e p u p i l s ' r e a s o n s f o r p la n n in g t o a t t e n d
c o l l e g e and f o r s e l e c t i n g p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e in a d e ­
q u a te .
The s c h o o l m u st h a v e in f o r m a t io n a b o u t c o l l e g e s and
m ust g u id e t h e p u p i l s i n d i g e s t i n g i t .
S t u d e n t s s h o u ld b e
e n c o u ra g e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e
I n te r m s o f t h e i r p u rp o s e s an d o b j e c t i v e s , i n o r d e r t o i n s u r e
good r e a s o n i n g .
P u p i l s w i t h l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s s h o u ld b e a d ­
v i s e d o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s an d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o n tin u e d
e d u c a t i o n o p e n t o th e m .
S t u d e n t s o f u n u s u a l p ro m is e i n t h i s
g ro u p s h o u ld be e n c o u r a g e d t o ta k e a c t i v e a d v a n ta g e o f t h e s e
o p p o rtu n itie s .
The s c h o o l s h o u ld s e c u r e I n f o r m a tio n a b o u t th e s p e c i a l ­
iz e d s c h o o ls i n w h ic h c e r t a i n p u p i l s a r e I n t e r e s t e d , an d
s h o u ld g u id e th e m i n s t u d y i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n .
S tu d e n ts
s h o u ld be e n c o u r a g e d an d g u id e d I n t h e s tu d y o f t h e i r
73
q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e ty p e o f t r a i n i n g d e a i r e d .
The f a c t t h a t s t u d e n t s p l a c e d t h e i r p a r e n t s a n d members
o f th e s c h o o l s t a f f f i r s t a s s o u r c e s o f a d v ic e a b o u t e d u c a ­
t i o n a l p la n s in d ic a te s th e n eed f o r c o o p e ra tio n o f p a r e n ts ,
s c h o o l s t a f f , a n d o t h e r d e s i r a b l e a g e n c ie s f o r h e l p i n g th e
p u p i l t o make a w is e p l a n f o r h i s e d u c a t i o n a l f u t u r e .
74
C h a p te r V II
The A d ju s tm e n t o f P u p i l s I n The M id l o th i a n H ig h S c h o o l
E d u c a tio n s h o u ld e n d e a v o r t o s e e t h a t p u p i l s a r e a b l e
t o cope s a t i s f a c t o r i l y w i t h s i t u a t i o n s t h e y f a c e a t p r e s e n t*
Need f o r g u id a n c e a p p e a r s e v i d e n t w hen p u p i l s show m a la d ­
ju s tm e n t t o f a c t o r s o f th e s c h o o l , hom e, an d p e r s o n a l l i f e *
An a d ju s t m e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r e p a r e d by P e r c i v a l M. Symonds
o f T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C olu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , was u s e d i n
c h e c k in g p u p i l a d j u s t m e n t .
The s e v e n p h a s e s o f a d ju s tm e n t
m e a s u re d b y t h i s t e s t w ere (1 ) c u r r i c u l u m , (2) s o c i a l l i f e
o f th e s c h o o l,
(3 ) a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,
(6) hom e, a n d (7 ) p e r s o n a l l i f e .
(4 ) t e a c h e r s ,
(5 ) p u p i l s ,
The s e v e n num bers i n th e
t a b l e t h a t f o ll o w r e f e r t o t h e s e a d j u s t m e n t s .
The p u rp o s e o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s s t a t e d I n t h e
m a n u al t o accom pany t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s s e t f o r t h i n th e
n ex t th re e p a ra g ra p h s .
The A d ju s tm e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s d e s ig n e d a s a n i n s t r u ­
m ent t o y i e l d a m e a s u re o f t h e a d ju s t m e n t o f s c h o o l p u p i l s
t o a v a r i e t y o f p h a s e s o f t h e i r e n v ir o n m e n t. The q u e s t i o n ­
n a i r e c a n be g iv e n t o g ro u p s o f p u p i l s a t a t i m e . A f t e r th e
q u e s t i o n s h a v e b e e n a n s w e re d th e y c a n b e s c o r e d b y c o m p a riso n
w ith a p r e p a r e d k e y i n e x a c t l y th e same way one s c o r e s a n
i n t e l l i g e n c e o r a c h ie v e m e n t t e s t a n d a t o t a l s c o r e fo u n d
w h ic h w i l l s e r v e a s a g e n e r a l m e a su re o f a d j u s t m e n t . S c o re s
on th e s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n s o f th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l y i e l d
d i a g n o s t i c m e a s u re s o f a d ju s t m e n t t o t h e v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f
s c h o o l a n d home l i f e .
The A d ju s tm e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e n , i s a s u r v e y I n s t r u ­
m ent t o be u s e d f o r o b t a i n i n g q u i c k l y and e c o n o m ic a lly a
m e a s u re o f t h e a d e q u a c y o f a d ju s t m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l s I n a
c la s s or s c h o o l.
I t does n o t in d ic a te th e cau se o r cau se s
o f m a la d ju s tm e n t a n d o f f e r s l i t t l e a i d i n d i s c o v e r i n g w hat
r e m e d ia l m e a s u re s may b e n e c e s s a r y i n e n a b l i n g a p u p i l t o r e a c h
b e t t e r a d j u s t m e n t . I t s p r im a ry u s e i s i n s p o t t i n g i n d i v i d u a l
75
p u p i l s who i n d i c a t e v e r y good a d ju s t m e n t o r v e r y p o o r a d j u s t ­
m e n t. P u p i l s who show e v id e n c e o f m a k in g p o o r a d ju s t m e n ts
c a n th e n b e s t u d i e d m ore i n t e n s i v e l y by p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n
o r b y i n t e r v i e w s i n o r d e r t o l e a r n m ore p r e c i s e l y t h e n a t u r e
o f th e c o n f l i c t s i n e a c h i n d i v i d u a l c a s e .
The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o u ld f i n d w id e u s e i n th e g u id a n c e
p ro g ra m o f t h e s c h o o l . As a s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t i t c a n s e r v e
a s a b a s i s f o r m ore i n t e n s i v e s tu d y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s . The
A d ju s tm e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e h e l p s t h e c o u n s e lo r l o c a t e p u p i l s
who a r e i n n e e d o f a d v i c e an d g u id a n c e • By i t s u s e many
p u p i l s w i t h i n c i p i e n t p ro b le m t e n d e n c i e s c a n be l o c a t e d e a r l y
i n t h e s c h o o l y e a r b e f o r e th e y a r e a c t u a l l y r e c o g n iz e d by
t h e i r t e a c h e r s a s h a v in g p r o b le m s , a n d u n d e r p r o p e r a d m in is ­
t r a t i v e m e a s u re s c a n b e ta k e n t o f o r e s t a l l a n d a l l e v i a t e
t h e s e p o s s i b l e m ore s e r i o u s m a l a d j u s t m e n t s . !
R e s u l t s o f th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e t a b u l a t e d i n T a b le s
XXVI, XX V II, X X V III, XXIX, XXX, XXXI.
The h ig h a n d low
s c o r e s i n d i c a t e r e s p e c t i v e l y good a n d p o o r a d ju s t m e n t.
1 . P e r c .iv a l M. Sym onds, M anual To Accompany The A d ju s tm e n t
Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , p p . 1-TTi
76
TABLE XXVI, RESULTS OP ADJUSTMENT QUESTIONNAIRE FOR
FRESHMAN CLASS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
p h ases o f t e s t
Maximum s c o r e
C ase num ber
1
2
5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39.
40
41
42
43
44
45
1
22
£
12
5
9
4
35
5
33
'6
19
7
20
TOTAL
150
17
17
18
17
19
18
16
13
18
13
19
17
14
14
10
13
15
9
12
12
13
13
10
12
9
9
13
15
15
11
10
11
11
12
13
4
8
5
14
15
13
11
11
12
11
12
12
11
10
10
12
10
10
12
11
10
7
8
10
5
9
3
7
9
6
9
3
9
6
4
11
10
7
12
8
11
10
6
10
7
11
8
7
9
11
5
9
12
11
11
6
6
7
8
7
5
5
2
7
8
7
3
7
6
4
6
2
4
5
6
4
4
3
3
0
2
8
5
6
3
3
8
4
3
4
5
8
4
5
5
4
5
6
2
7
34
30
33
31
33
30
34
14
34
32
33
27
29
24
6
29
10
32
27
11
31
19
27
29
11
32
31
26
31
25
20
27
26
22
14
20
34
16
26
31
29
27
20
26
29
30
22
29
25
29
25
28
30
29
26
29
18
26
21
23
26
18
27
27
22
21
13
29
16
19
23
29
29
29
25
27
26
18
26
19
26
25
17
28
29
27
24
25
21
23
18
14
18
16
18
14
16
13
17
16
18
15
16
15
14
15
13
12
12
5
15
10
13
14
13
13
10
16
14
16
13
17
14
7
14
14
16
13
13
13
14
9
15
13
14
12
5
11
9
14
7
14
15
12
11
14
6
9
12
6
10
15
11
10
9
14
6
15
9
10
7
8
12
17
13
14
10
9
6
10
12
8
8
9
11
10
6
14
7
66
129
106
127
116
130
111
123
97
129
117
130
93
109
102
68
108
76
102
102
71
107
68
106
89
66
97
109
110
124
80
98
109
88
86
81
92
107
70
104
115
102
91
102
92
101
77
TABLE XXVII. RESULTS OP ADJUSTMENT QUESTIONNAIRE FOR
SOPHOMORE GLASS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL
P hases o f t e s t
Maximum s c o r e
C ase num ber
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
1
22
2
12
s
9
4
35
5
33
6
19
7
20
TOTA]
150
14
16
15
12
19
18
15
8
14
18
14
10
14
12
15
11
6
17
7
15
10
9
5
7
11
9
8
8
11
10
9
7
11
10
7
11
7
11
9
4
11
8
11
10
6
7
4
8
7
7
7
7
7
5
6
6
6
4
4
5
7
7
2
6
8
5
7
5
5
23
31
20
28
25
22
32
27
16
31
26
12
31
29
30
19
11
34
28
26
35
22
17
23
26
25
26
29
20
31
20
28
26
28
17
29
27
28
21
19
29
27
26
32
20
27
16
17
9
16
15
16
17
14
15
17
5
14
16
12
16
11
17
17
14
15
16
15
12
9
17
13
12
18
13
11
8
12
13
14
11
10
13
15
7
10
15
8
14
17
11
12
96
126
98
108
121
107
123
91
98
122
103
75
115
105
122
85
69
129
99
112
127
88
86
78
TABLE X X V III, RESULTS OP ADJUSTMENT QUESTIONNAIRE FOR
JUNIOR CLASS OP MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL.
ph ases of t e s t
sco re
iber
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
22
12
9
35
33
19
20
TOTAL
150
12
13
16
17
15
16
17
10
10
15
8
14
14
16
13
10
17
11
8
14
7
6
15
9
6
11
13
10
12
7
6
6
5
6
5
5
4
3
5
8
4
7
7
5
4
3
4
8
2
7
8
4
7
4
3
6
2
3
8
16
15
29
24
22
16
3
15
15
25
11
31
14
24
17
8
12
20
5
29
13
9
31
18
9
26
2
16
26
22
11
27
22
24
22
9
24
16
28
19
31
18
22
26
17
25
24
16
24
21
17
19
23
19
28
18
16
29
16
16
17
12
17
16
8
13
16
16
14
16
11
17
17
12
13
14
15
14
15
7
13
16
4
16
12
12
16
10
3
13
9
15
16
4
4
9
12
4
10
8
12
10
5
7
8
10
14
13
4
10
8
7
13
7
6
13
89
71
116
99
108
99
53
77
77
114
66
120
80
104
94
62
83
91
66
112
34
54
106
88
54
109
56
71
116
7
9
9
10
8
8
8
6
10
6
11
8
8
7
7
5
6
10
10
7
7
11
10
6
9
2
8
12
79
TABLE XXIX RESULTS OF ADJUSTMENT QUESTIONNAIRE FOR
SENIOR CIASS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL,
of te s t
1
i s c o r e *22
m ber
98
18
99
15
100
11
12
101
102
15
103
13
104
15
16
105
106
16
107
11
12
108
109
16
10
110
11
111
4
112
113
13
12
114
14
115
15
116
13
117
14
118
9
119
6
120
2
3
12
5
9
6
35 “ 53
7
19
So
TOTAL
150
10
8
6
10
4
10
3
8
8
4
4
4
9
5
5
10
9
8
10
11
10
6
9
7
4
5
7
4
6
6
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
2
6
5
3
5
8
4
5
4
32
19
26
35
23
31
21
26
25
12
13
21
13
25
3
33
23
17
23
33
34
16
20
14
11
16
16
14
15
17
15
17
12
16
17
12
15
8
16
15
14
13
15
17
15
13
13
7
8
10
9
11
12
9
9
6
8
12
7
8
3
14
8
10
10
10
13
9
7
124
90
98
116
92
114
96
105
105
70
80
99
78
94
39
123
91
88
100
113
118
78
84
4
30
26
26
26
23
28
22
26
25
21
22
25
23
26
14
31
19
22
24
23
26
18
25
80
O rg a n iz a tio n o f d a ta f o r I n t e r p r e t a t i o n *
To f i n d th e
a r e a s o f good an d p o o r a d ju s t m e n t o f t h e p u p i l s r a n k in g
h i g h e s t a n d lo w e s t on t o t a l a d ju s t m e n t s c o r e s , an d t o d e t e r ­
m ine w h e th e r o r n o t b o t h d i v i s i o n s r a n k h ig h o r low on a n y
s i n g l e p h a s e o f t h e t e s t , t h e g ro u p s r e p r e s e n t i n g h i g h e s t
and lo w e s t q u i n t i l e s , on t h e b a s i s o f t o t a l s c o r e , w i l l be
s t u d i e d an d c o m p a re d .
P u p i l s r a n k in g a b o v e th e e i g h t i e t h
p e r c e n t i l e on t o t a l s c o r e w i l l be known a s g ro u p o n e , an d
th e i r sc o re s ta b u la te d in ta b le
XXX • th o s e r a n k in g b elo w
th e t w e n t i e t h p e r c e n t i l e w i l l be known a s g ro u p f i v e , and
t h e i r s c o r e s p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e XXXI.
81
TABLE XXX. SCORES OP PUPILS OP MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL
RANKING ABOVE THE EIGHTIETH PERCENTILE ON TOTAL
ADJUSTMENT SCORE.
P hases o f t e s t
Maximum s c o r e
C ase num ber
1
3
4
5
7
9
10
11
29
40
47
50
52
55
58
60
63
66
71
80
97
98
101
113
118
1
22
2
12
S' “ 4
9
35
17
18
17
19
16
18
13
19
15
15
16
19
15
18
14
15
17
10
16
14
12
18
12
13
14
12
11
10
10
10
12
11
10
12
11
11
8
10
11
11
11
11
10
9
11
12
10
10
10
10
6
7
8
7
5
7
8
7
6
5
8
7
7
6
4
7
6
7
5
7
8
7
7
6
4
34
33
31
33
34
34
32
33
31
31
31
25
32
31
31
30
34
35
29
31
26
32
35
33
34
5 ■ 6
33
19
30
29
25
29
28
29
26
29
29
29
26
29
31
26
29
28
29
32
27
31
29
30
26
31
26
18
18
16
18
16
17
16
18
14
13
17
15
17
17
16
16
17
16
17
16
16
14
16
16
17
'
*7
20
TOTAL’
150
12
11
9
14
14
12
11
14
17
11
17
18
11
13
10
15
15
17
13
10
13
13
10
14
13
129
127
116
130
123
129
117
130
124
115
126
121
123
122
115
122
129
127
116
120
116
124
116
123
118
82
TABLE m i SCORES OF PTJPILS OF MIDLOTHIAN HIGH SCHOOL
RANKING BELOW THE TWENTIETH PERCENTILE ON TOTAL
ADJUSTMENT SCORE
P hases o f t e s t
Maximum s c o r e
C ase num ber
15
17
20
22
25
30
38
57
62
70
75
76
77
79
81
84
87
90
93
95
96
107
108
110
112
119
1
22
2
12
3‘ " - 4 “
9
35
5
33
6
19
7
20
TOTAL
150
10
15
12
13
9
11
5
10
6
13
17
10
10
8
14
10
8
6
6
13
10
11
12
10
4
9
5
3
6
3
4
8
7
7
4
7
8
8
6
6
8
7
10
7
6
2
8
4
4
9
5
6
4
2
6
4
0
3
4
4
2
6
4
3
5
4
7
3
23
18
22
13
19
25
17
17
19
11
9
24
16
19
18
17
16
17
19
18
16
21
22
23
14
18
14
13
5
10
13
16
13
14
17
16
8
13
16
14
11
12
15
7
4
12
12
12
16
12
8
15
6
15
9
6
10
13
8
11
10
3
4
4
9
4
8
5
10
4
7
7
6
6
8
7
3
9
68
76
71
68
66
80
70
75
69
71
53
77
77
66
80
62
66
54
54
56
71
70
80
78
39
78
2
4
3
2
3
4
5
4
2
5
6
10
11
19
11
25
16
12
11
15
3
15
15
11
14
8
5
9
9
2
16
12
13
13
3
16
83
M ethods o f c o m p a rin g g ro u p s one an d f i v e .
One p u rp o s e
o f t h e s tu d y was t o d e te r m in e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n t h e
w e l l a d j u s t e d a n d p o o r ly a d j u s t e d g r o u p s .
To g e t t h e s e ,
p e r c e n t i l e r a t i n g s w ere com puted f o r e a c h o f th e s e v e n i n ­
d i v i d u a l p h a s e s o f th e a d ju s t m e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e .
In d iv id u ­
a l s r a n k in g ab o v e t h e e i g h t i e t h p e r c e n t i l e on an y p h a s e w ere
a c c o r d e d a h i g h s t a n d i n g on t h i s p a r t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e
w h ile t h o s e s c o r i n g b e lo w th e t w e n t i e t h p e r c e n t i l e w ere con­
s i d e r e d a s low s c o r e r s .
T h is p r o c e d u r e made p o s s i b l e th e
d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e a r e a s i n w h ic h w e l l a d j u s t e d p u p i l s
made b e s t an d p o o r e s t s c o r e s , an d a r e a s i n w h ic h th e m ost
p o o r l y a d j u s t e d p u p i l s s c o r e d h i g h e s t and l o w e s t .
R a n k in g o f g ro u p one on s e v e n p h a s e s o f a d j u s t m e n t .
In g ro u p o n e , s i x t y p e r c e n t ra n k e d low on p e r s o n a l a d j u s t ­
m e n t, f i f t y - s i x p e r c e n t on home a d j u s t m e n t , f o r t y - e i g h t p e r
c e n t on a d ju s t m e n t t o s o c i a l l i f e
o f t h e s c h o o l, f o r t y - e i g h t
p e r c e n t on a d ju s tm e n t t o th e c u r r i c u lu m , f o r t y p e r c e n t on
a d ju s tm e n t t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t w e n t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t on a d ­
ju s tm e n t t o t e a c h e r s .
The p h a s e s o f p o o r e s t a d ju s tm e n t f o r
th e b e s t a d j u s t e d g ro u p w ere i n o r d e r f o ll o w i n g :
p e rs o n a l,
home, s o c i a l l i f e
The p h a s e s
o f t h e s c h o o l , and c u r r i c u lu m .
o f b e s t a d ju s t m e n t a r e I n o r d e r nam ed:
to te a c h e r s , to o th e r
p u p i l s , and t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
R a n k in g o f g ro u p f i v e on s e v e n
I n g ro u p f i v e ,
p h ases o f a d ju s tm e n t.
th e m o st p o o r ly a d j u s t e d g r o u p , th e low r a n k in g
a d ju s t m e n ts w e re :
e ig h ty p e r c e n t, to te a c h e r s ; f if ty - s e v e n
84
p e r c e n t , to o t h e r p u p i l s ; f i f t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t , p e r s o n a l ;
f i f t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t , t o th e s o c i a l l i f e
o f th e s c h o o l;
f o r t y - s i x p e r c e n t , hom e; f o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t , t o a d m i n i s t r a ­
t i o n ; a n d t h i r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t , t o t h e c u rric u lu m *
The p h a s e s
o f th e t e s t sh o w in g p o o r e s t a r e i n t h e i r o r d e r , c o n c e rn e d
w i t h a d ju s t m e n t t o t e a c h e r s , p u p i l s , p e r s o n a l l i f e , an d s o c i a l
life
o f t h e s c h o o l*
The a d ju s t m e n t p h a s e s t h a t show up b e s t
i n g ro u p f i v e a r e : c u r r i c u l u m , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , an d home l i f e ,
i n th e o r d e r named*
C o m p a riso n o f g ro u p s one an d f i v e .
I n b o th g r o u p s ,
t h o s e p a r t s o f th e t e s t r e l a t i v e t o p e r s o n a l an d s o c i a l s c h o o l a d ju s t m e n ts w ere among t h e f o u r p h a s e s show ing p o o r­
e s t,
I n b o th g ro u p s a d ju s tm e n t t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was among
t h e t h r e e p h a s e s show ing b e s t .
The s c h o o l s h o u ld b e c o n c e rn e d w ith a l l p h a s e s o f p u p i l
a d j u s t m e n t , an d e s p e c i a l l y w i t h th o s e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to
th e s c h o o l .
T h a t p u p i l s i n g ro u p s one an d f i v e ra n k e d low
on a d ju s t m e n t t o th e s o c i a l l i f e
o f th e s c h o o l, in d ic a te s
th e n e e d f o r a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p a r t o f
th e s c h o o l l i f e .
R e l a t i o n o f a d ju s t m e n t t o o t h e r p h a s e s o f th e s t u d y *
I n o r d e r t o d e te r m in e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , i f a n y , b e tw e e n
a d ju s tm e n t and o t h e r p h a s e s o f t h e s t u d y , a c o m p a riso n o f
g ro u p s one a n d f i v e w i l l be made i n r e l a t i o n t o some im p o r t­
a n t a s p e c t s o f home an d s c h o o l l i f e , p u rp o s e s and p ro b le m s ,
v o c a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s .
85
A d ju s tm e n t a n d s c h o o l l i f e *
The p e r c e n t o f fre s h m e n
a n d so p h o m o re s i n g ro u p one i s t w e n t y - f i v e an d f i v e - t e n t h s ,
a s co m p ared w i t h t h i r t e e n p e r c e n t o f j u n i o r s an d s e n i o r s .
I n g ro u p f i v e
i s fo u n d tw e lv e and s e v e n - t e n t h s p e r c e n t o f
fr e s h m e n an d s o p h o m o re s, an d t h i r t y - o n e an d f o u r - t e n t h s p e r
c e n t o f ju n io r s and s e n i o r s .
T h is c o m p ila ti o n e v id e n c e s
t h a t p u p i l a d ju s t m e n t i n th e l a s t two y e a r s o f h i g h s c h o o l
i s p o o r e r t h a n i n th e f i r s t tw o .
I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t th e
s c h o o l i s l o s i n g some o f t h e b e t t e r a d j u s t e d p u p i l s , o r
p e rh a p s i s f a i l i n g to h e lp p u p ils a d ju s t a s th e y advance in
y e ars.
W h a te v e r th e c a u s e s , th e s c h o o l s h o u ld make a n e f f o r t
t o h e l p t h e p u p i l s make s a t i s f a c t o r y a d ju s t m e n ts to th e
v a rio u s p h a se s o f sc h o o l lif e *
A lth o u g h com pared d i f f e r e n c e s i n one and f i v e a r e n o t
s ta rtlin g , i t
i s t o be n o te d t h a t g ro u p f i v e h a s a l a r g e r
p e r c e n t o f s p o r t s p a r t i c i p a n t s , w h ile g ro u p one h a s a
l a r g e r p e r c e n t a c t i v e i n s o c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s c h o o l
o rg a n iz a tio n s .
I n s c h o l a s t i c a c h ie v e m e n t g ro u p one h a s f i f t y - t w o p e r
c e n t o f i t s mem bers i n th e h i g h e s t o n e - f o u r t h o f t h e i r c l a s s
a s com pared w i t h e l e v e n p e r c e n t f o r g ro u p f i v e .
H ig h s t a n d ­
in g i n s c h o l a s t i c a c h ie v e m e n t may be t h e r e s u l t o f e f f e c t i v e
a d j u s t m e n t s , o r th e l a t t e r may be a c o n t r i b u t i n g c a u s e t o
th e f o r m e r .
P u p i l s s h o u ld be g u id e d i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f
c o u rs e s b e s t s u ite d t o t h e i r needs and c a p a c itie s *
A d ju s tm e n t a n d home c o n d i t i o n s »
The a v e r a g e p u p i l i n
86
g ro u p one i s a p p r o x im a te l y th e s e c o n d o f f o u r c h i l d r e n , and
t h e a v e r a g e p u p i l i n g ro u p f i v e
fiv e c h ild re n .
i s a p p r o x im a te ly t h e t h i r d o f
T h is e v id e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t c h a n c e s o f g e n e r ­
a l m a la d ju s tm e n t a r e g r e a t e r i n l a r g e f a m i l i e s t h a n i n s m a ll
fa m ilie s .
P u p i l s o f t h e s c h o o l r e p r e s e n t i n g th e e x tre m e s o f
a d ju s t m e n t come from f a m i l i e s h o u s in g a n a v e r a g e o f t h r e e o r
m ore c h i l d r e n .
On t h e b a s i s o f t h e ju d g m en t o f th e e le m e n ta r y a n d h ig h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , th e f a m i l i e s w ere d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c l a s s i ­
f i c a t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f econom ic s t a t u s .
The v e r y low
incom e d i v i s i o n i n c l u d e s th e f a m i l i e s t h a t h av e r e c e i v e d
f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e fro m tim e t o tim e d u r in g th e l a s t f i v e
y e ars.
The low incom e d i v i s i o n in c l u d e s th o s e a b le t o
p u rc h a se th e n e c e s s iti e s o f l i f e .
The h i g h e r incom e d i v i s i o n
in c l u d e s f a m i l i e s a b l e to a f f o r d l u x u r i e s i n v a r y in g d e g r e e s .
V ery fe w , i f a n y , f a m ily incom es e x c e e d $ 3 ,0 0 0 a y e a r .
The
p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i o u s incom e l e v e l s fo u n d i n g ro u p one i s
i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n to th e in co m e.
I n g ro u p f i v e th e p e r
c e n t v a r i e s i n v e r s e l y w i t h t h e in c o m e .
T h is f i n d i n g i s a n
i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e econom ic s t a t u s o f t h e f a m ily i s an
im p o r ta n t f a c t o r i n th e a d ju s t m e n t o f th e p u p i l .
The s c h o o l m u st m in im iz e s i t u a t i o n s t h a t w ould b r in g
th e s e i n e q u a l itie s
i n f i n a n c e s t o th e a t t e n t i o n o f o t h e r
s t u d e n t s a n d c a u s e d is c o m f o r t o r e m b a rra s s m e n t.
A ll such
s i t u a t i o n s c a n n o t be a v o id e d ; b u t th e s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
c a n b y t a c t f u l p la n n in g a t l e a s t a p p r e c i a b l y d e c r e a s e p o s s i b l e
87
u n p l e a s a n t s i t u a t i o n s w h ic h a r e l i k e l y t o r i s e
out o f such
p r o b l e m a t i c a l f e a t u r e s a s f r e e t e x tb o o k s an d f r e e lu n c h e s
f o r th o s e u n a b le to p u rc h a s e * a s s e m b ly p ro g ra m s c a r r y i n g
a d m is s io n c h a r g e s , e x p e n s iv e y e a r b o o k s , an d d u e s t o o r g a n i ­
z a tio n s •
A d ju s tm e n t a n d p u r p o s e s .
I n g ro u p one o v e r o n e -h a I f
o f t h e p u p i l s e x p r e s s e d p u r p o s e s ab o v e t h e l e v e l o f s p e c i f i c
o r c o n t r i b u t o r y p u r p o s e s , a s co m pared w ith o n e - f i f t h o f t h e
p u p il3 i n g ro u p f i v e .
A l l i n g ro u p one l i s t e d a p u r p o s e ,
w h ile e i g h t p e r c e n t o f g ro u p f i v e f a i l e d t o name one o f an y
d e s c rip tio n .
p re s e n te d .
o th e r.
A r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n d i c a t e d b y th e e v id e n c e
E i t h e r c o u ld be a c a u s e o f o r e f f e c t o f th e
I n any e v e n t t h e d u t y o f th e s c h o o l i s t o a s s i s t
p u p i l s i n m ak in g a d ju s t m e n ts an d i n f o r m u la t in g an d r e f i n i n g
t h e ir p u rp o se s.
A d ju s tm e n t an d p ro b le m s .
A l l p ro b le m s e x p r e s s e d by
p u p i l s i n g ro u p one w ere r e l a t i v e t o v o c a t i o n and f u t u r e
s c h o o lin g .
T hose e x p r e s s e d by p u p i l s i n g ro u p f i v e w ere
r e l a t e d t o v o c a t i o n , h e a l t h , and p e r s o n a l i t y .
The s c h o o l
i s n o t e q u ip p e d to a s s i s t w it h m a jo r p ro b le m s o f h e a l t h
an d p e r s o n a l i t y , b u t i t c a n t r y to know th e p ro b le m s o f th e
p u p i l s and a s s i s t h im , o r g u id e him t o a s s i s t a n c e , i n th e
s o l u t i o n o f h i s p ro b le m s .
A d ju s tm e n t and o c c u p a t i o n a l p l a n s .
Group f i v e h a s th e
l a r g e r p e r c e n t o f d e f i n i t e o c c u p a ti o n a l c h o ic e s , an d g ro u p
88
one l e a d s i n t h e p e r c e n t h a v in g o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s .
The p e r c e n t o f p u p i l s w i t h o u t e i t h e r c h o ic e o r p r e f e r e n c e
i s t h e same f o r b o th g r o u p s .
I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e p u p i l s i n g ro u p f i v e h a v e made
o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n s h u r r i e d l y a s a r e s u l t o f econom ic
s tre s s .
They may n o t s e e t h e v a lu e o f h i g h - s c h o o l e d u c a t io n
i n t h e i r ty p e o f w o rk ;
to r e a liz e
The s c h o o l s h o u ld g u id e th e p u p i l s
t h i s v a l u e , an d h e l p them g e t th e n e c e s s a r y ty p e
o f t r a i n i n g i n th e h ig h s c h o o l - o r e ls e w h e r e i f t h e r e i n
not a v a ila b le .
c a re fu lly ,
A l s o , h u r r i e d s e l e c t i o n s s h o u ld be s t u d i e d
to a v o id b l i n d - a l l e y jo b s and t o p r e v e n t a s many
a s p o s s i b l e fro m becom in g m i s f i t s v o c a t i o n a l l y .
A d ju s tm e n t and e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s .
I n g ro u p o n e , e i g h t y -
e i g h t p e r c e n t p la n t o c o n tin u e e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a f t e r
h ig h s c h o o l , a s com pared w ith s e v e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t i n g ro u p
fiv e .
The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n a d ju s tm e n t and e d u c a t i o n a l
p la n s i s n o t a s m arked a s some o f th e o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
E n c o u ra g e m e n t i n t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n ­
in g , an d I n f o r m a tio n r e g a r d i n g d e s i r a b l e m eans an d a v a i l a b l e
s o u r c e s o f a i d s h o u ld be s u p p l i e d by t h e s c h o o l .
Summary
I n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e d a t a , th e h i g h e s t and lo w e s t q u i n t i l e
g ro u p s w ere c o m p a re d .
T h e se g ro u p s ra n k e d low on p e r s o n a l
and s o c ia l- s c h o o l l i f e
a d j u s t m e n t s , and h i g h on a d ju s tm e n t
to a d m in is tra tio n .
89
I n c o m p a rin g t h e s e g ro u p s w i t h r e s p e c t s to c e r t a i n
a s p e c t s o f o t h e r p h a s e s o f th e s tu d y , m ark ed r e l a t i o n s h i p s
w e re fo u n d to e x i s t "between a d ju s tm e n t an d s c h o o l a c h ie v e ­
m e n t, a d ju s t m e n t an d econom ic s t a t u s o f th e hom e, a d ju s tm e n t
a n d p u r p o s e s e x p r e s s e d b y th e p u p i l s .
The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f
a d ju s tm e n t t o p ro b le m s o f th e p u p i l s , t o v o c a t i o n a l an d
e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s w e re n o t a s s i g n i f i c a n t *
I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r th e s c h o o l *
The f a c t t h a t b o th g ro u p s
ra n k low on p e r s o n a l an d s o c i a l - s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t s , i n d i c a t e s
a n e e d f o r a m ore c a r e f u l s tu d y o f th e p e r s o n a l p ro b le m s o f
t h e p u p i l s an d a c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f a l l p h a s e s o f th e
s o c ia l l i f e
o f t h e s c h o o l*
The r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g b e tw e e n a d ju s tm e n t and o t h e r
p h a s e s o f t h e s tu d y do n o t , i n m ost c a s e s , e s t a b l i s h c a u se
and e f f e c t .
The s c h o o l s h o u ld , h o w e v e r, h e l p th e p u p i l
s e l e c t w ork b e s t s u i t e d t o h i s c a p a c i t i e s , m in im iz e s i t u a ­
t i o n s l i k e l y t o show up econom ic i n e q u a l i t i e s , a n d h e lp t h e
p u p i l f o r m u la t e d e s i r a b l e p u r p o s e s , v o c a t i o n a l an d e d u c a t i o n a l
p la n s .
G u id a n ce s h o u ld be a f f o r d e d t h a t w i l l h e l p th e p u p i l
i n m aking th e b e s t p o s s i b l e a d ju s tm e n t i n h i s s c h o o l , home,
an d p e r s o n a l l i f e *
90
C h a p te r V I I I
Summary
The p r o b le m .
The p ro b le m was t o d e te r m in e t h e n e e d s f o r
g u id a n c e i n th e M id lo th ia n H ig h S c h o o l, M id lo th ia n , V i r g i n i a .
I n a p p r o a c h in g t h e p ro b le m th e s c h o o l and com m unity b a c k ­
g ro u n d s w ere s t u d i e d and th e l i f e p u r p o s e s , p ro b le m s , v o c a ­
t i o n a l an d e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s , and a d ju s t m e n t o f th e p u p i l s
w ere i n v e s t i g a t e d , a n a ly z e d and i n t e r p r e t e d .
Means o f g a t h e r i n g d a t a .
The i n v e s t i g a t o r s e c u r e d much
i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o s c h o o l an d com m unity b a c k g ro u n d s
fro m th e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , th e s u p e r v i s o r , t h e l o c a l b o a rd mem­
b e r and t h e fo rm e r p r i n c i p a l .
by o b s e r v a t i o n an d s u r v e y .
O th e r in f o r m a t io n was g a in e d
I n f o r m a tio n c o n c e rn in g l i f e
p u rp o s e s a n d p ro b le m s o f th e p u p i l s was o b ta in e d fro m p a p e r s
w r i t t e n b y them i n E n g l is h c l a s s e s , i n w h ich th e y d is c u s s e d
th e ir lif e
p u r p o s e s and l i s t e d t h e i r p ro b le m s .
E d u c a tio n a l
an d v o c a t i o n a l p la n s w ere i n v e s t i g a t e d d u r in g i n t e r v i e w s w i th
i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s , a t w h ic h tim e th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s fo u n d i n
th e a p p e n d ix w e re f i l l e d
o u t by th e i n v e s t i g a t o r .
P u p il
a d ju s tm e n t was s t u d i e d by m eans o f A d ju s tm e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,
Form A • p r e p a r e d b y P e r c i v a l M. Sym onds, o f T e a c h e rs C o lle g e ,
C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y .
C o n c l u s io n s .
S u m m aries, a t t h e end o f e a c h c h a p t e r ,
l i s t a n d i n t e r p r e t th e f i n d i n g s i n d e t a i l .
The g e n e r a l
91
c o n c l u s i o n s a r e l i s t e d h e re *
1.
The p r o x i m i t y o f a b i g c i t y , low f a m i l y in c o m e s,
la rg e f a m ilie s ,
th e a b s e n c e o f one o r b o th p a r e n t s i n some
i n s t a n c e s , th e o c c u p a tio n s o f t h e f a t h e r s , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l
t r a i n i n g o f th e p a r e n ts , th e ab sen ce o f r e c r e a tio n a l f a c i l i ­
tie s
s u ita b le f o r a l l ,
and t h e l a c k o f a u n i f i e d p ro g ra m o f
g u id a n c e i n t h e s c h o o l i n d i c a t e th e n e e d f o r g u id a n c e *
2*
The p r e s e n c e o f tw e n ty o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e communi­
t y , a t l e a s t s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f w h ic h w ork w it h
young
p e o p l e , p r e s e n t s a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o o p e r a t i o n i n th e p l a n ­
n in g and p r o j e c t i n g o f a g u id a n c e pro g ram *
3.
More t h a n t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s
do n o t h a v e w e l l d e f i n e d c e n t r a l l i f e
4*
have
p u rp o se s.
Few p u p i l s r e c o g n iz e t h e m a jo r p ro b le m s t h e y
w ill
t o f a c e i n l i f e a n d m ore th a n o n e - f o u r t h d i d n o t
lis t
an y p r o b le m s .
5*
T h i r t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f th e p u p i l s d e c l a r e t h a t t h e y
h ave made d e f i n i t e o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n s ; f o r t y - t w o p e r
c e n t e x p r e s s p r e f e r e n c e s f o r tw o o r t h r e e o c c u p a tio n s ;
tw e n ty - s e v e n p e r c e n t h a v e n e i t h e r c h o ic e o r p r e f e r e n c e *
6*
R e a so n s g iv e n f o r th e s e l e c t i o n o f o r p r e f e r e n c e
f o r v o c a t i o n s a r e n o t b a s e d on a kn o w led g e o f t h e o c c u p a tio n
o r th e i n d i v i d u a l s
7.
q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r th e o c c u p a tio n .
T h r e e - f o u r t h s o f t h e p u p i l s h av e s o u g h t o r w i l l
s e e k a d v ic e fro m some o t h e r p e r s o n i n s e l e c t i n g a n o c c u p a tio n ;
th e b a la n c e p r e f e r t o make t h e i r c h o ic e u n a id e d .
In th e
o r d e r named t h e m o st p o p u la r s o u r c e s o f a d v ic e a r e s
p a re n ts 9
92
o t h e r s i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n , an d s c h o o l w o r k e r s .
8.
in l i f e
The " b e l ie f t h a t o c c u p a tio n s s h o u ld be c h o se n l a t e r
and l a c k o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f th e p ro b le m a r e th e
c h i e f r e a s o n s g iv e n f o r h a v in g no c h o ic e o r p r e f e r e n c e .
9.
N in e ty - tw o p e r c e n t t h i n k th e s c h o o l i s a d e q u a te ly
p r e p a r i n g th em f o r p o s t s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s , e i g h t p e r c e n t
re p ly n e g a tiv e ly .
S u g g e s tio n s f o r im p ro v in g th e s e r v i c e s
in c lu d e t h e a d d i t i o n o f s e v e r a l c o u r s e s an d th e o f f e r i n g o f
a i d s o f a g u id a n c e n a t u r e .
10.
O m ittin g th e s e n i o r c l a s s , o n ly o n e - f o u r t h o f th e
p u p i l s h a v e s e l e c t e d th e c o u r s e s th e y e x p e c t t o ta k e w h ile
i n h i g h s c h o o l ; t w o - t h i r d s h av e s e l e c t e d t h e i r e x t r a - c l a s s ­
room a c t i v i t i e s .
11.
R ea so n s g iv e n f o r c h o o s in g c o u r s e s an d a c t i v i t i e s
in d ic a te l i t t l e
e v id e n c e o f t h o u g h t f u l p l a n n in g ; r e a s o n s
g iv e n f o r th e a b s e n c e o f s e l e c t i o n s show a l a c k o f i n t e r e s t
o r a doubt of a b i l i t y .
12.
The h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s a r e c o n v in c e d o f th e v a lu e
o f a h ig h s c h o o l e d u c a tio n .
T h is i s e v id e n c e d by th e f a c t
t h a t n i n e t y - n i n e an d o n e - t e n t h p e r c e n t p la n t o f i n i s h h ig h
s c h o o l.
13.
F o r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f th e p u p i l s p la n to go t o
c o lle g e i f p o s s ib le .
T h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e s e have
s e l e c t e d t h e c o l l e g e t h e y w is h t o a t t e n d .
14.
R e a s o n s g iv e n f o r p la n n in g t o a t t e n d c o l l e g e , and
s t u d e n t s 1 k n o w led g e o f th e c o lle g e s e l e c t e d , show v e r y l i t t l e
93
e v id e n c e o f c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o r p l a n n i n g .
I n th e
m a jo r ity o f c a se s th e re a s o n s f o r s e l e c t in g a d e f i n i t e c o lle g e
t o a t t e n d w ere i n a d e q u a t e ,
15.
P u p i l s n o t p la n n i n g t o a t t e n d c o l l e g e g iv e a s t h e i r
r e a s o n s ! eco n o m ic s t a t u s , l a c k o f d e s i r e , and d e s i r e f o r
s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g f o r w h ic h c o l l e g e i s n o t e s s e n t i a l .
16.
S e v e n ty -tw o p e r c e n t o f th e p u p i l s n o t p la n n in g t o
a t t e n d c o l l e g e e x p e c t t o c o n tin u e t h e i r e d u c a tio n by means
o f i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g , c o rre s p o n d e n c e
s c h o o ls , o r p r iv a te te a c h e r s .
17.
F o r a d v ic e r e l a t i n g t o e d u c a t i o n a l p la n s th e p u p i l s
w ould go to t h e i r p a r e n t s , members o f th e s c h o o l s t a f f , o r
b o th .
18.
B o th th e u p p e r and lo w e r q u i n t i l e g ro u p s on th e
b a s i s o f t o t a l a d ju s tm e n t s c o r e r a n k low on p e r s o n a l an d
s o c i a l s c h o o l - l i f e a d j u s t m e n t , an d h ig h on a d ju s tm e n t t o
a d m in is tra tio n .
19.
M arked p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t b e tw ee n a d j u s t ­
m ent a n d s c h o o l a c h ie v e m e n t, a d ju s tm e n t an d econom ic s t a t u s
o f t h e hom e, a d ju s tm e n t an d p u rp o s e s e x p r e s s e d by th e p u p i l s .
B u ild in g A G u id an ce P ro g ram
The n e e d f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n .
Most o f o u r h ig h s c h o o ls
c a r r y on a c t i v i t i e s o f a g u id a n c e n a t u r e .
Many t e a c h e r s
h a v e a lw a y s made a n e f f o r t t o a s s i s t p u p i l s i n th e s o lv in g
o f t h e i r p r o b le m s .
A c c e p tin g t h e s e f a c t s , a l l o f u s w i l l
p r o b a b ly a g r e e w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t :
94
" W ith o u t a n o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s c i o u s l y d i r e c t e d to w a rd
t h e a c h ie v e m e n t o f w e l l d e f i n e d e n d s , t h i s s e r v i c e
w i l l r e s u l t i n c o n f u s i o n , an d th r o u g h a m u l t i p l i c i t y
o f u n r e la te d , n o n - a r tic u la te d a c t i v i t i e s , re n d e r i t
im p o s s i b le f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o d e r i v e th e b e n e f i t s
w h ic h s h o u ld a c c r u e t h e r e f r o m * "1
Any p ro g ra m w i l l u s u a l l y b e h e l d l i k e l y t o s u c c e e d i f
th e f i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s
s u c c e s s i s p la c e d i n th e
h a n d s o f a r e s p o n s i b l e an d r e s p o n s i v e i n d i v i d u a l o r s m a ll
g ro u p .
" I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h i s g u id a n c e s e r v i c e
be o r g a n iz e d t o t h e en d t h a t a n i n d i v i d u a l o r co m m itte e
o f i n d i v i d u a l s may assum e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e i n ­
a u g u r a t i o n , f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , f o r th e im provem ent
an d f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f th e p ro g ra m * "2
T he p r i n c i p a l , a s th e a c c o u n ta b le h e a d o f th e s c h o o l,
m u st assu m e th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f o r g a n iz i n g f o r g u i d a n c e .3
A lth o u g h a g u id a n c e s p e c i a l i s t , new e q u ip m e n t, an d o t h e r
a d d i t i o n s a r e v e r y d e s i r a b l e , th e y a r e n o t a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n ­
tia l.4
I n t r o d u c i n g a G u id an ce P ro g ra m .
I n a s m a ll h ig h s c h o o l
t h e p r i n c i p a l w i l l p r o b a b ly h a v e t o ta k e th e i n i t i a l s t e p s
i n i n t r o d u c i n g a g u id a n c e program *
I t i s u s u a l l y a m is ta k e
t o t r y t o a d o p t some p l a n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n f u n c t i o n i n g I n
some o t h e r l o c a l i t y .
"The s i z e o f th e s c h o o l , i t s r e l a t i o n to o th e r s c h o o ls
i n t h e com m unity, t h e f a c u l t y p e r s o n n e l , s o c i a l e c o n o ­
m ic l e v e l i n th e com m unity, and o t h e r l i k e f a c t o r s may
w e l l be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . " 5
1 . T e n t a t i v e Manual f o r Guidance i n t h e V i r g i n i a S eco nd ary
S c h o o l s , p . IfeT2• I b i d , p . 15•
_
_ _ .,
3 . A r t h u r J . J o n e s , P r i n c i p l e s o f G u id a n c e , p . 4 0 3 .
4 . T e n t a t i v e M anual f o r G uidance i n V i r g i n i a §
iTjL S c h o o ls
p 7 T 5 ”------------5. I b id , p . 16.
95
I f th e p r i n c i p a l c a n f i n d i n h i s f a c u l t y a p e r s o n who
i s a l r e a d y i n t e r e s t e d i n , h a s h a d c o u r s e s i n , o r h a s h ad
p r e v io u s e x p e r ie n c e i n g u id a n c e , he c a n make t h a t p e rs o n
d i r e c t o r o f t h e p ro g ra m o r c o o r d i n a t e l e a d e r w i t h th e p r i n ­
c i p a l ; o t h e r w i s e , h e h i m s e l f w i l l p r o b a b ly h av e t o become
t h e a c t i v e d i r e c t o r o f th e work*
The d i r e c t o r o r d i r e c t o r s
s h o u ld s e a r c h f o r o t h e r f a c u l t y mem bers who b e c a u s e o f t h e i r
i n t e r e s t , t r a i n i n g , o r w i l l i n g n e s s t o p r e p a r e f o r th e t a s k
a r e b e s t s u i t e d t o c o m p le te t h e c o m m itte e m em bership*
The
i d e a l t e a c h e r f o r t h i s w ork w ould be one who h a s e n th u s ia s m ,
th e a b i l i t y t o l e a d , a n u n s e l f i s h i n t e r e s t i n y o u t h , a
s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e , an i n t e r e s t in re s e a rc h , a w illin g n e s s
t o do e x t r a w ork i n t r a i n i n g f o r t h i s s e r v i c e - one who h a s
th e c o n f id e n c e an d c o o p e r a t i o n o f p u p i l s , p a r e n t s , an d h i s
fe llo w te a c h e rs *
The c o m m itte e c a n e n g e n d e r i n t e r e s t w i t h i n t h e e n t i r e
t e a c h i n g s t a f f : b y d i s c u s s i o n s a t f a c u l t y m e e tin g and ex ­
p l a n a t i o n o f p ro g ra m s i n a c t i o n e ls e w h e r e ; by s u p p ly in g
b o o k s , b u l l e t i n s , and y e a rb o o k s on t h e s u b j e c t ; b y s o l i c i ­
t i n g t h e a i d o f th e l i b r a r i a n and o t h e r k e y t e a c h e r s ; and
b y o u t l i n i n g th e n e e d s , a im s , and d e s i r a b l e outcom es o f
g u id a n c e .^
A f t e r th e I n t e r e s t o f o t h e r f a c u l t y members h a s b e e n
a r o u s e d , t h e c o m m itte e s h o u ld s u rv e y t h e p r e s e n t g u id a n c e
a c tiv itie s
o f th e s c h o o l ; i t s h o u ld d e c id e upon w hat i t
c o n s i d e r s a w e ll- r o u n d e d p ro g ra m ; and w ith t h i s pro g ram a s
6* I b i d , p . 1 6 .
96
a g o a l i t s h o u ld b e g in i t s w ork w here t h e n e e d i s g r e a t e s t .
The b u i l d i n g o f a p ro g ra m o f g u id a n c e w i l l p ro b a b ly
r e q u i r e n o l e s s t h a n f i v e y e a r s o f c o n s t a n t w ork on th e p a r t
o f a l l c o n c e rn e d .
C o n s ta n t e v a l u a t i o n an d r e v i s i o n o f th e
p ro g ra m a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be n e c e s s a r y .
The m aking o f a s m a ll
s t a r t w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l s a n d p e r s o n n e l a v a i l a b l e , p lu s
s e v e r a l y e a r s o f c o n s c i e n t i o u s w ork on th e p a r t o f th e commi­
t t e e a n d f a c u l t y m em bers, s h o u ld p ro d u c e r e s u l t s t h a t w i l l
be g r a t i f y i n g .
Some p o s s i b l e g u id a n c e a c t i v i t i e s .
Some a c t i v i t i e s
t h a t may p o s s i b l y s e r v e a s a s t a r t , o r may be in c lu d e d i n
t h e p ro g ra m a s i t e x p a n d s a r e ;
1.
C o n d u c tin g a s u rv e y o f th e com m unity an d th e s c h o o l
i n a n e f f o r t t o l o c a t e t h e m o st u r g e n t an d im m e d ia te g u id a n c e
needs•
2.
P la n n in g w i t h o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n th e com m unity
t o d e v e lo p a w e ll- r o u n d e d p ro g ram o f g u id a n c e an d t o m in im iz e
th e d u p lic a tio n o f s e r v i c e s .
5.
D is c u s s i n g w ith th e f a c u l t y ways an d m eans o f a s s i s t ­
in g p u p i l s i n th e f o r m u l a t i o n and r e v i s i o n o f l i f e p u r p o s e s .
4.
D i v i s i n g m eans o f a i d i n g p u p i l s t o r e c o g n iz e and
p la n f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f p ro b le m s th e y f a c e a t p r e s e n t an d
w i l l p r o b a b ly f a c e i n t h e f u t u r e .
5.
A s s i s t i n g p u p i l s i n m aking o r r e f i n i n g t h e i r o c c u ­
p a t i o n a l p la n s b y s e c u r i n g an d d i r e c t i n g th e p u p i l s i n th e
u s e o f b o o k s , c a r e e r p a m p h le ts , b u l l e t i n s and m a g a z in e s ;
97
p l a n n i n g t r i p s f o r th e o b s e r v a t i o n o f g e n e r a l ty p e s o f o c cu p a ­
t i o n s ; s e c u r i n g s p e a k e r s who w i l l w i t h t h e a i d o f th e c o m m itte e
p l a n a n d p r e s e n t t a l k s on v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s ; a r r a n g i n g i n t e r ­
v ie w s w i t h w o rk e rs i n v a r i o u s ty p e s o f w o rk .
6.
A r r a n g in g f o r i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e li n g b y t h e members
o f t h e s t a f f b e s t e q u ip p e d t o do t h i s p a r t i c u l a r ty p e o f w o rk .
7.
S tu d y in g i n t e n s i v e l y t h o s e p u p i l s n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h
s c h o o l , i n a n e f f o r t t o h e l p them make a p p r o p r i a t e a d j u s t m e n t s .
8.
A id in g p u p i l s i n f o r m u l a t i n g a t e n t a t i v e o u t l i n e o f
c o u r s e s t o b e t a k e n i n h ig h s c h o o l , b e f o r e o r im m e d ia te ly
a f t e r th e y e n t e r t h e h i g h s c h o o l .
9.
S e c u r in g c a t a l o g s o f c o l l e g e s o r s c h o o ls i n w h ic h
t h e p u p i l s h a v e e x p r e s s e d a n i n t e r e s t , an d a s s i s t i n g th e
p u p i l s i n t h e u s e o f th e s e m a t e r i a l s .
10.
I n t h e e v e n t p u p i l s h a v e made e d u c a t i o n a l o r v o c a ­
t i o n a l c h o i c e s , h e l p i n g them e v a l u a t e t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r t h e s e
c h o ic e s t o i n s u r e a g a i n s t s e l e c t i o n s b a s e d on u n so u n d r e a s o n ­
in g .
11.
M aking known t o t h e p u p i l s p o s s i b l e m eans o f c o n ­
t i n u in g e d u c a tio n a l t r a i n i n g a f t e r h ig h s c h o o l and th e a v a i l ­
a b le so u rc e s o f a id in s e c u rin g t h i s tr a in in g .
12.
D e te r m in in g t h e p e r s o n s t o whom p u p i l s w ould go f o r
e d u c a t i o n a l a n d v o c a t i o n a l a d v i c e , an d c o o p e r a tin g w i t h t h e s e
p e r s o n s i n a n e f f o r t t o o f f e r th e p u p i l s i n t e l l i g e n t g u id a n c e .
13.
F a c u l t y p la n n in g o f p e r i o d i c hom e-room p ro g ram s t h a t
s t r e s s g u id a n c e i n r e l a t i o n t o v o c a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , e t h i c s ,
p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , h e a l t h , c o u r t e s y , t h r i f t , r e c r e a t i o n , an d
c itiz e n s h ip .
98
14.
P r o c u r in g m o tio n p i c t u r e s t h a t c o n t a i n v a lu a b l e
m a t e r i a l s o f a g u id a n c e n a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o v o c a t i o n s ,
r e c r e a t i o n , h e a l t h , e d u c a tio n and o th e r p h ases o f l i f e .
15.
C a r e f u l l y s t u d y i n g t h e c u r r ic u lu m o f th e s c h o o l i n
o r d e r t o c a p i t a l i z e on o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r e s e n t e d i n r e g u l a r
c o u r s e s f o r p r e s e n t i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s and i n f o r ­
m a tio n .
16.
a c tiv itie s
S u r v e y in g e x t r a - c l a s s r o o m o r s o c i a l - s c h o o l l i f e
i n a n e f f o r t t o p r o v id e t h e m o st s u i t a b l e ty p e s
o f a c t i v i t i e s a n d p o s s i b l y p r e v e n t m a la d ju s tm e n ts .
17.
P u b l i c i z i n g th e p ro g ram i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e t h e
b e t t e r c o o p e r a t i o n o f p a t r o n s an d la y m e n .
18.
S tu d y in g o c c u p a tio n s i n c o u n ty , s t a t e , and n a t i o n ,
i n o r d e r t o c o m p ile in f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n in g p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f
em ploym ent i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s , a n d o t h e r p e r t i n e n t f a c t s .
19.
W orking o u t a t e s t i n g p ro g ra m t o s e c u r e a d d i t i o n a l
in f o r m a t i o n f o r u s e i n g u id a n c e .
20.
C o n d u c tin g f o ll o w - u p s t u d i e s o f g r a d u a te s i n o r d e r
t o im p ro v e t h e g u id a n c e s e r v i c e .
21.
C o n s t r u c t i n g a n d p u t t i n g i n t o u s e a sy ste m o f
re c o rd s to f a c i l i t a t e
22.
th e g u id a n c e p ro g ra m .
C o n s id e r i n g t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f i n c l u d i n g e x p l o r a ­
t o r y c o u r s e s , o r c o u r s e s i n v o c a t i o n s , i n t h e c u r r ic u lu m .
23.
C o o p e r a tin g w i th o t h e r a g e n c ie s i n s e c u r i n g p a r t
tim e w ork f o r h i g h - s c h o o l s t u d e n t s .
24.
P la n n in g f o r e le m e n ta r y p u p i l s t o v i s i t th e s c h o o l
99
b e fo re e n te r in g ; a rra n g in g f o r h ig h s c h o o l s e n io r s t o v i s i t
t h e c o l l e g e o r c o l l e g e s i n w h ic h th e y a r e i n t e r e s t e d , d u r i n g
t h e i r s ta y in h ig h s c h o o l.
25.
W orking w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s i n t h e com m unity t o
p r o v id e d e s i r a b l e r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s
s u ita b le fo r a l l .
No a t t e m p t h a s b e e n made t o l i s t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s
o r d e r o f p r o c e d u r e o r im p o r ta n c e .
th a t th is
in
I t i s n o t t o b e assum ed
i s a f i n i s h e d p ro g ra m o r t h a t a l l a c t i v i t i e s
m e n tio n e d w i l l b e s u i t a b l e f o r an y i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l .
a c tiv itie s lis t e d a re p o s s ib ilitie s
The
t h a t may be c o n s id e r e d
i n o r g a n i z i n g o r e x p a n d in g th e g u id a n c e w ork o f th e s c h o o l .
The s u r v e y o f p u p i l s * n e e d s an d a d ju s tm e n ts p o i n t s
c l e a r l y t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a m ore a d e q u a te g u id a n c e p ro g ram
f o r p u p i l s i n th e M id lo th ia n H ig h S c h o o l.
The g u id a n c e
a c t i v i t i e s e n u m e ra te d i n th e summary a r e n e c e s s a r y s t e p s f o r
re m o v in g d i f f i c u l t i e s ,
c o r r e c t i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s an d f a c i l i t a ­
t i n g m ore a d e q u a te p u p i l a d j u s t m e n t .
The o r d e r o f p ro c e d u re
t o b e f o llo w e d i n p u t t i n g t h e s e s u g g e s ti o n s i n t o o p e r a t i o n
w i l l be c o n d i t i o n e d b y th e a d e q u a c y o f th e g u id a n c e c o n c e p t
o f t h e s t a f f , p e r s o n n e l a v a i l a b l e , f i n a n c i a l an d m a t e r i a l
r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e , an d t h e p r e s e n t g u id a n c e a c t i v i t i e s
th e s c h o o l .
of
The a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d a r e c o n s i s t e n t w ith th e
p r i n c i p l e s o f g u id a n c e a g r e e d u pon by m odern w r i t e r s i n th e
fie ld
o f g u id a n c e .
100
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOHS
B o lto n , F r e d e r i c k E . , C o le , Thomas R . , an d J e s s u p , John
H.
The B e g in n in g S u p e r i n t e n d e n t . p p . 4 8 4 -5 0 1 . New Y o rk ;
The M a c m illa n Company, 1 9 3 8 .
B re w e r, J o h n M.
E d u c a tio n a s G u id a n c e .
New Y o rk :
The
M a c m illa n Company, 1 9 3 2 . IX + 668 p p .
C ox, P h i l i p W. L . , a n d D u f f , Jo h n C .
G uidance By The
C la s s ro o m T e a c h e r , p p . 1 4 -1 5 , 2 0 5 -2 3 3 . New Y o rk ; P r e n t i c e H a l l Company, 1 9 3 8 ,
H a t c h e r , 0 . L a th a m , G u id in g R u r a l Boys an d G i r l s .
E d i te d by Emory N. F e r r i s . New Y ork; M cG raw -H ill Book Company
1930.
X V III ♦ 318 p p .
J o n e s , A r th u r J . , P r i n c i p l e s o f G u id a n c e .
M cG raw -H ill Book Company, 1 9 3 4 .
New Y o rk :
XXVII ♦ 440 p p .
K e f a u v e r , G ra y so n N ., an d o t h e r s .
The T h i r t y - S e v e n t h
Y e a rb o o k o f th e N a t i o n a l S o c ie t y f o r The S tu d y o f E d u c a ti o n .
P a rt one.
G u id an ce i n E d u c a ti o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s .
B lo o m in g to n
Illin o is :
P u b li c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 3 8 . V I I I ♦ 313 p p .
K o o s, L e o n a rd V ., and K e fa u v e r, G ray so n N ., G uidance I n
S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l s .
New Y o rk :
The M ac m illa n Company, 1 9 3 2 .
X I ♦ 626 p p .
L a n g f i t t , R . E m erson , C y r, F r a n k W ., an d Newsom, N.
W illia m .
New Y o rk :
The S m a ll H ig h S c h o o l a t W ork, p p . 1 0 5 -1 2 6 .
A m e ric a n Book Company, 1 9 3 6 .
101
McKown, H a rry C .
Home Room G u id a n c e ♦
M cG ra w -H ill Book Company, 1 9 3 4 .
R l v l l n , H a rry N .
XXI ♦ 435 p p .
E d u c a tin g f o r A d ju s tm e n t.
D. A p p le to n - C e n tu r y Company, 1 9 3 6 .
S h a f f e r , L aw rence F .
B o s to n :
New Y orks
New Y o rk :
XIV ♦ 4 1 9 p p .
The P s y c h o lo g y o f A d ju s tm e n t.
H o u g h to n M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 3 6 .
XIX ♦ 560 pp*
102
P e rio d ic a ls
A d d in g to n , L . F .
S c h o o l s • lf
g u id a n c e In V ir g in ia S eco n d ary
V i r g i n i a J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , XXXI ( J u n e , 1 938)
p p . 3 5 7 -3 5 8 .
C ooke, D e n n is H ., a n d K irs b m a n , H a rry S .
"Do V o ca­
t i o n a l l y T r a i n e d H ig h S c h o o l G ra d u a te s E a r n M ore?"
S c h o o l B o ard J o u r n a l .
C ook, F . M.
S c h o o l."
A m e ric a n
LXXXXVI ( J u n e , 19 3 9 ) p . 4 0 .
"G u id a n c e i n t h e F a i r f i e l d , A labam a H ig h
H ig h S c h o o l Q u a r t e r l y , XXIV ( O c to b e r , 1935) p p . 4 - 5
E e l l s , K . W.
" A p p r a is in g G u id a n c e P r o g r a m s .”
N a t i o n 1s S c h o o l s ,
The
X X III ( A p r i l , 1939) p p . 5 6 - 5 8 .
F a i l o r , C la r e n c e W.
"Two J o b s T h a t D on!t M ix ."
The
N a t i o n 1s S c h o o l s , X X III ( J a n u a r y , 1939) p p . 2 2 - 2 4 .
Good, C . V.
" P ro b le m s a n d T e c h n iq u e s o f E d u c a t i o n a l
D ia g n o s is a n d A d ju s tm e n t."
S c h o o l an d S o c i e t y , XXXXVIII
(A u g u st 2 7 , 1938) p p . 2 6 1 -2 6 7 .
H o g ad o n e, Edw ina A .
"A C o u n s e lo r C o n s id e r s G r a d e s .”
The N a t i o n 1s S c h o o ls , X X III (May, 1939) p p . 3 1 - 3 2 .
J o h n s o n , W. H .
S tu d e n t.”
"Sound M e n ta l H e a l t h an d The H ig h S c h o o l
S c h o o l and S o c i e t y , IL ( A p r i l 8 , 1939) p p . 4 3 5 -4 3 9 .
L eevy, J . R oy.
"G u id an c e I n The R u r a l H igh S c h o o l."
A m e ric a n S c h o o l B oard J o u r n a l , LXXXXVIII ( F e b r u a r y , 1939) p . 8 0 .
L i t t l e , H. A .
i n G e o r g ia ."
"G u id an c e P ro g ram s f o r S m a ll H ig h S c h o o ls
H ig h S c h o o l Q u a r t e r l y , XXIV (O c to b e r, 1935)
pp. 4 -5 .
L o r c e , D. H.
"A S im p le P la n o f P u p i l A d ju s tm e n t."
The
103
A m e ric a n S c h o o l B oard J o u r n a l , LXXXXIX ( J u l y , 1939) p p . 2 9 - 3 0 ,
91.
L e a v i t t , C h a r le s E .
"T he T h r e e f o l d F u n c t io n o f P la c e m e n t."
The A m e ric a n S c h o o l B o ard J o u r n a l , LXXXXVIII ( A p r i l , 1939)
p. 42.
M ystrom , P . H .
in g ."
" O p p o r t u n i t i e s T h ro u g h V o c a tio n a l T r a i n ­
V i r g i n i a J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , XXX (M arch, 1937)
p p . 2 5 5 -2 5 8 .
P urdom , T . L .
"No one Can Win A lo n e ."
N a tio n a l P a re n t
T e a c h e r X X X III ( F e b r u a r y , 1939) p p . 2 7 - 2 9 .
S to lz , H. R .
"The P r i n c i p a l and I n d i v i d u a l G u id a n c e ."
N a tio n E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l X ( F e b r u a r y , 1939)
p p . 7 9 -8 2 .
104
B u lle tin s
M o ttle y , B e s s ie M ., an d o t h e r s .
T e n t a t i v e M anual f o r
G u id a n ce I n t h e V i r g i n i a S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s ,
B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 6 .
74 p p .
R ich m o n d :
S ta te
105
APPENDIX
V o c a t i o n a l P la n s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e #
1.
Has p u p i l made a d e f i n i t e s e l e c t i o n o f a n o c c u p a tio n ? _
Name o f o c c u p a t i o n __________________________________________ __
2.
When was th e s e l e c t i o n m ade? ________________________________
3.
How h a s t h e s e l e c t i o n c h a n g e d , I f a t a l l ? ________________
4.
I f th e s e l e c t i o n h a s c h a n g e d , w h at w e re t h e r e a s o n s f o r
th e ch an g e ? __ __________________________________________________
5*
I f a c h o ic e h a s b e e n made d o e s t h e p u p i l h a v e d e f i n i t e
r e a s o n s f o r m ak in g t h i s c h o ic e ? ____________________________
R ea so n s
6#
_________________________________________
I f no d e f i n i t e c h o ic e o f o c c u p a t i o n h a s b e e n made h a v e
t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s b e e n l i m i t e d t o tw o o r t h r e e p r e f e r ­
ences?
7#
i f p u p i l h a s a p r e f e r e n c e f o r tw o o r t h r e e o c c u p a t io n s
d o e s h e h a v e d e f i n i t e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s p r e f e r e n c e ? _____
P re fe re n c e
8.
re a so n s
Has p u p il considered th e fo llo w in g fa c to r s concerning
h is chosen or p referred occupation or occupations?
_______ General l e v e l o f in t e llig e n c e found in the f i e l d .
_______ S p e c ia l t a le n t s or a p titu d es n ecessa ry
_______ A c t i v i t i e s demanded by the work
_______ Earnings
Secureness o f p o s itio n
106
_______ O p p o r tu n it y f o r a d v a n c e m e n t
________ S p e c i a l s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y
________ L e n g th o f tim e n e c e s s a r y t o p r e p a r e f o r t h e
o c c u p a tio n .
9.
I f p u p i l h a s made n o c h o ic e o f a n o c c u p a t i o n w h a t
r e a s o n s a r e g iv e n f o r n o t h a v in g made a c h o ic e ? _________
10.
To whom w o u ld p u p i l go f o r h e l p i n s e l e c t i n g o c c u p a tio n ?
1 __________ 2 ___________ 3____________ 4 ___________
11.
How w ould p u p i l f i n d o u t a b o u t t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ,
o p p o r t u n i t i e s , an d o t h e r f a c t o r s o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n o r
o c c u p a tio n s i n w h ic h h e i s
12.
i n t e r e s t e d ? ____________________
Does p u p i l f e e l t h a t h i g h s c h o o l h a s p r e p a r e d h im f o r
w hat h e i s g o in g t o do a f t e r he g e t s o u t o f s c h o o l?
13.
What s u g g e s t i o n s c a n p u p i l o f f e r f o r im p ro v in g t h e
p r e p a r a t i o n o f f e r e d by th e s c h o o l? ______________________
107
E d u c a t i o n a l P la n s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e
1*
Has p u p i l s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s h e p l a n s t o t a k e d u r i n g t h e
r e m a in d e r o f h i s s t a y i n h i g h s c h o o l? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .
2.
I f s u b je c ts have been s e le c te d does p u p il have d e f i n i t e
r e a s o n s f o r s e l e c t i n g th em ? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R e a so n s
3.
______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -
Has p u p i l s e l e c t e d e x t r a - c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s ? __________
A c tiv itie s s e le c te d
4*
R easons
Does p u p i l p l a n t o c o m p le te h i g h s c h o o l w ork? _________
R ea so n s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
5.
I f p u p i l p l a n s t o le a v e b e f o r e c o m p le tin g h i g h s c h o o l
„ d o e s h e p l a n t o c o n tin u e h i s e d u c a t i o n by o t h e r m eans?
How? _______________________________________________ ____________
6.
Does p u p i l p l a n t o go t o c o l l e g e ?
_________________
7.
D oes p u p i l h a v e d e f i n i t e r e a s o n s f o r p la n n i n g t o go t o
c o l l e g e ? __________________
_____
R e a s o n s _______________________________________________________
8*
Has p u p i l s e l e c t e d t h e c o l l e g e h e p l a n s t o a t t e n d ? ____
Hame o f c o l l e g e _____________________________________ _
9,
W hat r e a s o n s a r e g iv e n f o r s e l e c t i n g t h a t p a r t i c u l a r
c o l l e g e ? __ ___________________________________________________
108
10.
Does p u p i l h a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e
c o lle g e s e le c te d ?
_______ Requirements fo r entrance
_ _ _ _ _ _ c o s ^*
________ S o c i a l g r o u p s i n t h e c o l l e g e
________ S p e c i a l c o u r s e s o f f e r e d
11*
I f p u p i l p l a n s t o c o m p le te h i g h s c h o o l b u t d o e s n o t
p l a n to go to c o l l e g e w h at r e a s o n s a r e g i v e n f o r s o
p la n n in g ?
12*
.
Does p u p i l n o t p l a n n i n g t o go t o c o l l e g e e x p e c t t o
c o n tin u e h i s e d u c a t i o n b y o t h e r m eans? ___________________
How?
13,
To whom w o u ld p u p i l go f o r a d v ic e a b o u t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l
p la n s ?
1 ________ 2
3_________ 4 ________
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