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An Historical Survey of the Growth of Education in Prince George County, Virginia

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AN HISTORICAL SURVEY OF THE
GROWTH OF EDUCATION IN PRINCE GEORGE COUNTY,
VIRGINIA
RICHARD WATSON COPELAND
ProQuest Number: 10614615
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INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
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a n o te will ind ica te the deletion.
uest
ProQuest 10614615
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SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS
OF
THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM AND MARY
f o r th e degree
MASTER OF ARTS
1940
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The a u th o r w ishes to e x p re s s h is g r a t e f u l a p p r e c ia tio n to
D r. K. J . Hoke, Dean o f th e School o f E d u catio n o f W illiam and
Mary C o lleg e, f o r h i s h e lp fu l ad v ice and k in d ly s u g g e stio n s i n
th e p re p a ra tio n o f t h i s t h e s i s .
To D r. Geoge H. Arm acost, who made many v a lu a b le su g g e s tio n s ,
th e a u th o r i s a ls o d eep ly in d e b te d , as w ell as to Dr. E a rl G.
Swem, L ib r a r ia n of th e C ollege o f W illiam and Mary, and th e mem­
b e rs of h i s S t a f f , f o r th e use o f many v a lu a b le so u rce books,
and a id in t h e i r u s e .
TABLE OF CONTENTS
C hapter
I
Page No,
H is to r ic a l Background of P rin c e George County,
V irg in ia
The E ast I n d ia School
II
III
XV
V
VI
VII
1
5
T u to r ia l System; P a ris h E d u catio n in P rin c e
George County
12
E ffe c t of L ite r a r y Fund and O ther School L e g is la tio n
Upon P rin c e George County
22
Academies in P rin c e George County
32
The Development of P u b lic Schools in P rin c e
George County
37
The Development o f th e One- and Two-room
Schools
46
The Development o f th e D i s t r i c t High School
55
C o n so lid a tio n o f Schools
56
T ra n s p o rta tio n o f P u p ils
60
C e r t if ic a tio n of T eachers
65
Summary
71
Negro E d u catio n in P rin c e George County
73
F ed eral A gencies O perating a s Aids to Schools
of Hopewell and P rin c e George County
80
C iv il Works A d m in istratio n
80
P u b lic Works A d m in istratio n
82
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Con't.)
C hapter
V III
IX
Page !
F e d e ra l Emergency R e lie f A d m in istra tio n
82
Works P ro g re ss A d m in istra tio n
82
N atio n al Youth A d m in istra tio n
83
N ursery Schools
84
Emergency E d ucation Program
84
Summary
85
The G eneral A dult E ducation Program i n Hopewell
and P rin c e George County
86
Development of a P u b lic School System in th e
C ity o f Hopewell
88
Development Under th e C o n tro l of P rin c e George
County School Board (1914-1923)
89
Development as a S ep arate School System (19231940)
92
Summary
X
Summary
101
104
B ib lio g rap h y
108
Appendix
111
V ita
131
Chapter I
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 05* PRINCE GEORGE COUNTY, VIRGINIA
S h o r tly a f t e r th e e s ta b lis h m e n t of th e l i t t l e colony of
Jamestown an e x p lo rin g p a r ty s e t o ut and fo llo w ed th e James a few
m ile s to th e p o in t a t which i t met th e r i v e r "Appom attuck", as i t
was c a lle d by th e In d ia n s .
The hig h b l u f f s o f lan d j u t t i n g out
in tr ia n g le - s h a p e a t t h i s p o in t appeared t o them to be an id e a l
sp o t f o r a n o th e r s e ttle m e n t.
A ccordingly, houses were b u i l t , and
in 1613 th e l i t t l e s e ttle m e n t was one of th e most th r iv in g in th e
c o lo n ie s .
The town was c a lle d C harles C i t t i e , and was a p a r t o f
Southampton Hundred.
S ir Thomas Dale became much in te r e s te d i n
t h i s s e c tio n and e s ta b lis h e d h is re s id e n c e a t S h ir le y , a c ro s s th e
James a t t h i s p o in t.
TlHhen V irg in ia was d iv id ed in to c o u n tie s t h i s s e c tio n , w hich
embraced land on b o th s id e s o f th e James, was named C harles C ity
County.
I t was one o f th e o r ig in a l e ig h t " s h i r e s ” o f V ir g in ia .
In
1702 C h arles C ity County was d iv id ed and th a t p a r t ly in g on th e
so u th s id e of th e James was c a l le d P rin c e George County, a f t e r
P rin c e George o f Denmark, husband o f Queen Anne.
The y ear 1619 was a s ig n if i c a n t one in th e h i s t o r y o f America.
I t was in th a t y e a r th a t p lan a were made t o e r e c t th e f i r s t f r e e
sch o o l in America, th e E ast I n d ia S chool, in th e town o f C h arles
1
2
C i t t i e , l a t e r known as B rince George County*
I t was in th a t y e a r, to o , t h a t th e f i r s t t r u l y d em o cratic
form of government was i n s t i t u t e d in V ir g in ia .
Howe in h i s "Col­
l e c tio n s " say s:
"The moment th e c o lo n is ts began to ta k e an i n t e r e s t
in th e co u n try , by th e enjoyment o f t h e i r own la b o r,
and th e p o s se ss io n o f p ro p e rty , i t was r i g h t t h a t th e y
should have some sh are in t h a t government and th e p ru ­
d en t eonduct o f which th e y were m ost in t e r e s te d .
Y eardley was aware o f t h i s , f o r w ith o u t any a u th o rity
from home which we can t r a c e , he c a lle d to g e th e r a
g e n e ra l assem bly c o n s is tin g o f two members from every
town, borough o r hun d red , b e s id e s th e governor and
c o u n c ill th a t met a t Jamestown n ear th e end o f June,
1619......... This was an e v e n tfu l y e a r t o th e co lo n y , f o r
in a d d itio n to t h e i r assem bly a c o lle g e was e s ta b lis h e d
a t H en rico , w ith a l i b e r a l endowment
*
Howe f u r th e r s t a t e s t h a t V irg in ia "was th e f i r s t s t a t e i n th e
w orld composed o f s e p a ra te to w n sh ip s, d iffu s e d o v er an e x te n siv e
s u r f a c e , where th e government was org an ized on th e p r in c ip le of
2
u n iv e rs a l s u f f r a g e ."
C h arles C i t t i e had i t s r e p r e s e n ta tio n in
t h i s f i r s t d em ocratic assem bly.
Thus in th e s h o rt space o f one y e a r d id e d u c a tio n and a demo­
c r a t i c form of government have t h e i r b e g in n in g s in th e young co lo n y ,
and C h arles C i t t i e had i t s share in th e s e dram atic and im p o rtan t
happ en in g s.
The h i s t o r y o f th e s tr u g g le s o f th e c o lo n is ts o f t h i s
s e c tio n , th e re f o r e , in s t r i v i n g to p e r f e c t a dem ocratic fo n s of
government and t o b u ild an e d u c a tio n a l sy stem , may be co n sid ered
ty p ic a l o f what was done and th o u g h t along th e s e l i n e s i n America
from th e b eg in n in g .
1. Howe, Henry, H is to r ic a l C o lle c tio n s o f V ir g in ia . C h a rle sto n , S.
C ., Eabcock & C o ., 1845, p . 41.
2 . I b i d . , p . 67.
3
E f f o r ts t o provide e d u c a tio n in V irg in ia were made w h ile
th e e a r ly c o lo n is ts were s u f f e r in g a l l th e b u f f e ts o f a hard e x is te n c e in a s tra n g e la n d .
T rouble w ith th e I n d ia n s , s t a r v a t i o n ,
and a l l th e e x ig e n c ie s of b u ild in g a new em pire n e c e s s a r ily de­
lay ed i t s p ro g re s s .
I n s p i t e o f t h e i r h o s t i l i t y th e e d u c a tio n o f
th e I n f i d e l s , as th e In d ia n s were e a l le d , was attem p ted by th e
c o l o n is ts .
The c h ild re n of th e poor were g iv e n e d u c a tio n o f s o r t s
a t th e expense o f th o se b e t t e r o f f , and th o se who were a b le managed
to educate t h e i r own c h ild r e n by h ir in g t u t o r s , a fte rw a rd s sen d in g
them to England to com plete t h e i r tr a i n i n g .
L a te r 3m all s c h o o ls , c a lle d "Old F ie ld S c h o o ls", sprung up in
alm ost every neighborhood where enough c h ild re n co u ld be e n r o lle d to
pay a te a c h e r , ^
P r io r to 1748 th e v e s t r i e s to o k e n t ir e charge of
b in d in g o ut poor c h ild r e n f o r in d e n tu re and making p ro v is io n f o r
g
t h e i r e d u c a tio n .
A fte r t h i s d a te th e county c o u r ts were charged
w ith t h i s d u ty .
In P rin c e George County th e Academy movement, b eg in n in g in
1801 w ith th e e sta b lish m e n t of i t s f i r s t academy, r e s u l t e d in making
t h i s type of e d u c a tio n a v a ila b le in s e v e r a l s e c tio n s of th e co u n ty .
The War Between th e S ta te s d elay ed p u b lic e f f o r t s toward ed­
u c a tio n .
A new b eginning was made a f t e r th e War, and sin ce th a t
tim e sch o o ls of R ?ince George County have face d th e many problem s
common t o th e South in tr y i n g t o ed u cate i t s w h ite and Ifegro c h i l ­
dren under th e d u al system .
1 . Maddox, W illiam A rth u r, The Free School Id e a in V ir g in ia B efore
th e C iv il War, Teachers C o lleg e, Columbia U n iv ., 1S18, p . 6.
£ . W ells, Guy F red, P a r is h E ducation in C o lo n ial V ir g in ia . N .Y .C ity ,
Teachers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv ., 1923, pp. 78, 79,
4
I t h as been v ery d i f f i c u l t t o e lim in a te , a s n o t coming w ith ­
in th e scope o f t h i s su rv e y , much in t e r e s t i n g h i s t o r i c a l d a ta of
t h i s s e c tio n which th e a u th o r, t o h is d e l i g h t , as found in th e
course o f th e p r e p a r a tio n o f t h i s t h e s i s .
T hat w hich h as been i n ­
cluded was s e le c te d because i t appeared t o have a v i t a l in flu e n c e
on th e peoples* e f f o r t s t o p ro v id e e d u c a tio n , o r because i t seemed
to e f f e c t su c c e ssiv e changes in t h e i r a t t i t u d e tow ard t h e i r r e s p o n s i­
b i l i t y in p ro v id in g e d u c a tio n .
Because th e s tr u g g le s of th e c o lo n is ts
to o b ta in and to p reserv e a dem ocratic form o f government were bound
up w ith t h e i r e f f o r t s t o ed u cate t h e i r c h ild r e n to l i v e in th e
dem o cratic way, many e v e n ts o f s t i r r i n g i n t e r e s t could be touched
upon w ith b e n e f it in th e development o f t h i s t h e s i s .
The a u th o r
has t r i e d , however, to r e s t r a i n th e use o f re fe re n c e s t o o th e r th a n
e d u c a tio n a l to p i c s , u s in g only enough to in d ic a te th e background and
tre n d s o f th e tim e s.
The lo s s o f many v a lu a b le re c o rd s when th e P rin c e George Court
House was moved and l a t e r when i t was d e stro y e d in th e War Between
th e S ta te s has made th e ta s k o f p re s e n tin g a u th e n tic d a ta o f t h i s
p e rio d e x ce ed in g ly h a rd .
U n fo rtu n a te ly alm ost a l l sch o o l re c o rd s
f o r th e y e a rs p r io r t o 1923 have been e i t h e r l o s t o r d e s tro y e d .
In th e fo llo w in g pages th e growth o f th e e d u c a tio n a l system of
P rin c e George County w i l l be b r i e f l y tr a c e d from i t s beg in n in g to
th e p re s e n t day.
The E ast I n d ia School
The M inutes o f th e V irg in ia Company o f London g iv e a f a s ­
c in a tin g p ic tu r e of th e e a r l i e s t e f f o r t s to e s t a b l i s h schools*
The q u a in t language o f th e s e o ld documents g iv e s th e f la v o r of
th o s e tim e s so t r u l y , and th u s g iv e s perhaps an added a p p re c ia ­
t i o n o f th e e f f o r t s th e n made, t h a t s e le c tio n s from them a r e h ere
in clu d ed t o t e l l t h e i r own s to r y .
On December 5 , 1621, th e fo llo w in g was e n te re d upon th e Min­
u te s , u n d er th e t i t l e "C ouncil of th e V irg in ia Company.
L e t te r
to th e Governor and C ouncil in V irg in ia " :
"There i s one th in g s lik e w is e t h a t h a th l a t e l y hapned
un to u s e , n o t g r e a t in i t s e l f b u t o f g r e a t good hope; th e
gentlem en and M arin ers of th e R o y all James b elo n g ein g to
th e E ast In d ia Company, b ein g met a t Cap Bona Speranza
by some E n g lish Shipps outward bound, and c e r t i f i e d o f
th e p r o s p e r iti e o f V ir g in ia , did th e re (Upon th e e x h o rta ­
t i o n of Mr. Copland t h e i r e M in is te r) bestow th e sume o f
70 pounds tow ards th e b u ild in g o f a f r e e sc h o o ls in V ir­
g in i a ; which p io u s g u i f t h a th l a t e l y re c e iv e d an ad d icco n
of 30 pounds by an unknowns p e rso n . The maner o f em ployeinge th e mony which th e Company h a th re s o lv e d uppon, we
send you h e re in c lo s e d , d e s irin g e t h a t you would lik e w is e
ta k e i t in to your c o n s id e ra tio n s ; ................" ^
T his i s th e f i r s t e n try t o b e found concerning th e f r e e s c h o o l in
V irg in ia .
In June, 1622 a l i s t of p erso n s d o n atin g t o th e f r e e sch o o l
was p u b lish ed under th e heading "A D e c la ra tio n how th e monies were
d isp o sed which was g ath ered by M. P a tr ic k Copland (tow ards th e
1 . Records o f th e V irg in ia Company o f London. The, E d i t, by Susan
M. K ingsbury, G ovt. P r in tin g O ffic e , W ash., B .C ., V ol. I l l , p .
531.
5
6
b u ild in g o f a f r e e scb o o le in V i r g i n i a
)."
T h is re c o rd in c lu d e s
th e fo llo w in g :
« m ic h 70. pound 8 . s h i l l i n g s 6 . p en ce, to g e th e r w ith
th e 30. pound added th e re u n to by an unknowns p e rso n , f o r
th e fu rth e ra n c e o f th e s a id f r e e S ch o o ls, was p aid un to
th e R ight honourable Henry Earl© of Southampton, f o r th e
honourable Company o f V ir g in ia , a t t h e i r g r e a t and g e n e ra l
Q u arter C o u rt, h e ld th e S I. o f November, 16S1. And th e
Q u arter C o u rt, f o r th e b e t t e r m aintenance o f th e s a id S ch o o ls,
S ch o o lm aster, and U sher in ten d ed th e re to be p la c e d , g ran ted
1000 a c re s o f la n d to th e s a id f r e e s c h o o ls , to bee a t
C h arles C i t t i e , a s th e most eommodius p la c e f o r h e a lth ,
s e c u r it y , p r o f i t and conueniency; And ap p o in ted t h a t w ith
th e s a id 100. pounds 8 . s h i l l i n g s 6 . pence, th e r e should
be s e n t over p r e s e n tly an U sher, f o r th e i n s tr u c tin g o f
th e C h ild ren th e r e , in th e p r in c i p le s o f R e lig io n , c i v i l i t y
o f l i f e , and humane le a r n in g ; a s a ls o t h a t f iv e p erso n s
(b e sid e s an o v e rs e e r o f them) should be f o r th w ith s e n t in
th e c o n d itio n o f A p p re n tic e s, to manure and c u l t i v a t e some
p a r t of th e s a id la n d , f o r th e use and b e n e f it o f th e s a id
Usher t i l l God s t i r r e d up th e h e a r t s o f o th e rs to be f u r th e r
h e l p e f u ll to th e s a id S ch o o ls.
"Likewise th e s a id honourable V irg in ia C o u rt, th o u g h t f i t
in honour o f th e s a id E a s t- I n d ia B e n e fa c to rs, th e s a id f r e e
School© should bee b u i l t , and th e s a id 1000 a c re s s e t out
in C harles C i t t i e , to be c a lle d The E a s t-I n d ia S chools; and
th a t th e E ast I n d ia Companies s e r v a n ts , sh o u ld have precedence
b e fo re any o th e r , to p r e f e r r e t h e i r c h ild re n t h i t h e r , t o be
bro u g h t up in th e ru d im en ts o f le a r n i n g .1* ^
On J u ly 25, 1621, as i f under a p rem o n itio n o f th e coining c a ta ­
stro p h e , th e V irg in ia Company w rote to th e Governor and C ouncil in
V irg in ia t h i s w arning n o te :
"We ex ceed in g ly approve your course i n taking© in of
In d ia n f a m ilie s as b ein g e a g r e a t meanes t o reduce t h a t
n a tio n to C i v i l i t y and to th e im braeeing o f th e C h r is tia n
r e l i g i o n ; th e b le sse d end wee have proposed to o u rs e lv e s
i n t h i s P la n ta tio n and wee doubt not o f your v ig ila n c ie
th a t you be n o t hereby e n tra p p ’d , no r t h a t th e Savadge have
by t h i s acc esse means to s u r p r iz e yo u ."
l . I b i d . , p . 539.
2 .I b i d . , p . 487.
7
On December 19, 1621, a school-book was p u b lish e d c a lle d i n
p a r t A C o n so latio n f o r our Grammar S c h o o ls.
The f u l l t i t l e , which
was a page lo n g , f u r th e r s ta te d t h a t i t was w r itte n f o r "th o se o f
th e i n f e r i o r s o r t s and a l l ru d e r c o u n tie s and p la c e s , namely, f o r
I r e la n d , W ales, V ir g in ia , w ith th e Somer I s l a n d s . . . . "
The au th o r
o f t h i s book was a young P u r ita n M in is te r , one Mr. John B rin s le y ,
c a lle d by th e w r ite r s of t h a t p erio d "a p a i n e f u ll sc h o o lm a s te r."
N e ill co n clu d es, on account o f th e i n t e r e s t in England a t t h a t d a te
in th e E a s t I n d ia School, th a t t h i s book was w r itt e n w ith th e E ast
1
I n d ia School p a r t i c u l a r l y in mind.
A copy of t h i s book i s p r e s e r ­
ved in th e L ib ra ry o f th e U n iv e rs ity of D u b lin .
I t so happens t h a t Governor Dale i s n ot mentioned in th e
m inutes quoted above, so m ention must be made o f him h e r e , a s h i s
was th e fo rw ard -lo o k in g v is io n w hich was r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e f i r s t
2
id e a o f th e sch o o l.
For i t was he who in s p ir e d th e Reverend Mr.
Copeland t o work f o r a sch o o l in V irg in ia w ith h is s t i r r i n g s t o r i e s
o f th e young co lo n y .
" V irg in ia was ev er th e d a r lin g thought o f h is
d a u n tle s s old h e a r t ," w r ite s Gordon; "Far away under E a s te rn s k ie s
h is h e a r t was e v e r in the W est, and in one of h is l a s t l e t t e r s ,
penned a t J a c a s tr a in th e summer o f 1619, he says w i s tf u ll y : " I
s h a ll be g la d to h e a r how V irg in ia p r o s p e r s .f"
Governor Dale would have been much encouraged by r e p o r ts from
V irg in ia a t t h a t tim e .
The s e ttle m e n t a t C h arles C i t t i e w ith i t s
sp len d id h arb o r was a busy p la c e .
For th r e e y e a rs th e c o lo n is ts
had braved d is e a s e , s ta r v a t io n , and th e a tta c k s o f th e In d ia n s .
At
1. N e i l l , Edward D u f f ie ld , Memoir of Reverend P a tr ic k C opeland, N.Y.
C. S crib n er 8c C o., 1871, pp. 36, 37.
2. Gordon, A rraistead C h u rc h ill, Memories and M emorials of W illiam
Gordon McCabe, Richmond, V a., 1925, V ol. I I , p . 302.
3 . I b id .
8
l a s t th e y had a tta in e d some p r o f ic ie n c y in th e r a i s i n g o f to b a c c o ,
as w e ll a s food crops f o r t h e i r own p r o v is io n .
They were h o p efu l
th a t th e s i l k worms which th e y had im ported would t h r i v e i n t h i s
l o c a l i t y and t h a t t h i s would prove to be a p r o f it a b le b u s in e s s f o r
them.
P la n s f o r th e ir o n works a t P a llin g Creek were g o in g f o r ­
ward and work f o r th e p ro d u ctio n o f g la s s and s a l t were underway.
The In d ia n s were a t l a s t a p p a re n tly on f r ie n d l y te rm s , and came and
went th ro u g h th e homes o f th e s e t t l e r s w ith th e g r e a t e s t freedom and
f rie n d lin e s s .
The V irg in ia Company was most anxious to coo p erate W iihthe
A d v en tu rers, a s th e c o lo n is ts were c a lle d in England, in th e m a tte r
o f e s ta b lis h in g s c h o o ls , and in th e M inutes o f th o se y e a rs are many
re fe re n c e s t o th e C o lleg e, th e U n iv e rs ity a t H e n ric o , and th e E ast
In d ia S ch o o l.
According to A lexander Brown, in h is G enesis o f th e
U nited S t a t e s , approxim ately f o r ty - e ig h t hundred d o lla r s was con­
tr ib u te d by v a rio u s p e o p le , many o f them anonymously, tow ard th e
E ast In d ia School.
Mr. Copeland was ap p o in ted R ecto r and Mr. D ike, U sher, of th e
sch o o l.
In June Leonard Hudson, a c a rp e n te r, w ith h is w ife and f i v e
a p p r e n tic e s , was s e n t to b e g in work on th e s c h o o l, and in Ju ly a
fund was g iv e n fo r " la y in g fo u n d atio n of E a st In d ia S ch o o l." ^
With th e a r r i v a l o f the news t h a t n in e s h i p s , c o n ta in in g e ig h t
hundred p e o p le , had s a f e ly a r r iv e d in V irg in ia th e re was g r e a t joy
Records o ^ th e V irg in ia Company o f London. E d ited by Susan M.
K ingsbury, G o v 't. P r in ti n g O ffic e , Wa s h . D .C ., V ol. I l l , p . 650.
9
in E ngland,
Hie V ir g in ia Company, w ish in g to give th a n k s to God,
and a t th e same tim e t o honor th e Reverend Mr. C opeland, in v ite d
him t o p reach a p u b lic sermon o f T hanksgiving,
A ccordingly on
A p ril 17, 1622, a t Bowe Church in C heapside "th e e lo q u e n t and en­
t h u s i a s t i c Copeland" made an in s p ir in g ad d ress which was a f t e r ­
w ards p r in te d under th e t i t l e " V ir g in ia ’s God Be Thanked, o r , A
Sermon o f Thanksgiving on P s . CVII, 23, f o r th e H appie Suecesse
of th e A ffay res in V ir g in ia This L ast Y e a re ."
"The e f f e c t of
t h i s sermon was an in c re a s e d i n t e r e s t in th e w e lfa re o f th e colony
1
and ed u catio n * " says N e il l.
In rew ard f o r h is i n t e r e s t i n th e colony Mr. Copeland had
been appointed R ector o f th e C ollege in V ir g in ia .
He was making
h is p re p a ra tio n s to le av e f o r V irg in ia to assume h i s d u ti e s a t
th e school when th e d re a d fu l news reached England th a t on th e day
a f t e r th e Thanksgiving Sermon had been preached in England, on
A p ril 18, 1622, th e In d ia n s had tu rn ed upon th e c o lo n is ts and in
a few h o u rs had wiped out th e l i t t l e s e ttle m e n t.
2
This m assacre e f f e c t u a ll y p u t a s to p to th e E ast In d ia S chool,
as th e l i t t l e s e ttle m e n t of C h arles C i t t i e was com pletely d e stro y e d
and th e c o lo n is ts h o r r ib ly m urdered, among them Mr. George Thorpe
and "sev en teen o f th e c o lle g e p e o p le ."
A y e a r a f t e r th e d is s o lu ti o n
1. N e il l, Edward B u f f ie ld , Memoir o f Reverend P a tr ic k Copeland, N.Y.
C. S c rib n e r & C o., 1871, p . 79.
2. N atio n al C yclopaedia of American B iography, N .Y ., 1893, V ol. I l l ,
p . 231.
10
o f th e V irg in ia Company in 1624 a n o th e r e f f o r t was made t o e r e c t
th e E ast In d ia S ch o o l.
1
The a u th o r h as been u n ab le to lo c a te
in fo rm a tio n ab o u t t h i s
second a tte m p t, and i t may be t h a t i t was
n ev er a c t u a ll y e r e c te d .
The f r e e school id e a d id not d ie o u t, however.
A s h o rt w hile
l a t e r W illiam W hitehead, o f London, bequeathed tw enty pounds s t e r ­
lin g to a s c h o o l, provided th a t
”. . . th e sch o o l had been b u i l t w ith in th e f i r s t th re e
y e a rs fo llo w in g h i s d e c e a se ; should i t n o t have been
b u i l t w ith in t h a t tim e , th e sum was t o be s p e n t in
e r e c tin g a church on a s i t e somewhere w ith in th e bound­
a r ie s o f M a rtin ’s H undred.” ^
(M artin ’s Hundred i s a few m ile s down th e James from th e s i t e o f
th e E ast In d ia S c h o o l.)
The Reverend P a tr ic k Copeland, d isco u rag ed over th e outcome
o f h is p la n , never came to America, b u t went to Bermuda, where he
made enemies on account of h is o u t-sp o k en c o n v ic tio n t h a t th e re
should be a b s o lu te s e p a ra tio n of Church and S ta t e .
A ccording t o
N e ill he d id n o t abandon h i s crusade f o r e d u c a tio n , b u t t r i e d t o
5
e s ta b l is h a f r e e sch o o l th e r e .
Copeland th e n went to a sm all is la n d in th e Bahamas where he
e s ta b lis h e d a n o n - l i t u r g i c a l ch u rch , and to which he in v ite d th e
oppressed o f a l l la n d s .
He died th e r e , - i t was th o u g h t a t an
advanced age, - a c ru s a d e r f o r p u b lic e d u c a tio n , freedom o f r e l i g i o n ,
and s e p a r a tio n of church and s t a t e .
1. N e i l l , Memoir o f Reverend P a tr ic k C opeland, p . 80.
2 . B ruce, P h ilip A lex an d er, I n s t i t u t i o n a l H is to ry o f V irg in ia i n
th e S ev en teen th C entury, 0. P . Putnam’s Sons, N.Y. and London,
1910, pp. 348, 349.
3 . N e i l l , Memoir o f Reverend P a tr ic k Copeland, p . 91.
11
C o p elan d 's crusade i s s i g n i f i c a n t to us because i t m arks
a f i r s t s te p in s e p a r a tio n of church and e d u c a tio n , — which
J30LLEGE OF WILLIAM
&
M AR*
s e p a r a tio n was l a t e r w r i t t e n in to th e C o n s titu tio n o f V ir g in ia .
Chapter I I
TUTORIAL SYSTEM; PARISH EDUCATION IN PRINCE GEOROE COUNTY
In 1671 B erk eley made th e o ft-q u o te d speech ab o u t th e re b ein g
no f r e e sch o o ls in V ir g in ia , and i t was many y e a rs b e fo re i t was
g e n e ra lly u n d ersto o d th a t he could n o t have meant t h i s l i t e r a l l y *
H is speech was in answ er t o a query of th e Lord Commissioners of
F o reig n P la n ta tio n s , who ask e d , "What course i s ta k e n ab o u t th e
in s tr u c tin g th e people w ith in your government in th e C h r is tia n
re lig io n ....? "
B erkeley r e p l i e d :
"The same t h a t i s ta k e n i n England o u t o f tow ns; ev ery
man acco rd in g t o h i s own a b i l i t y in s tr u c tin g h i s c h ild re n *
But I thank God th e re a re no f r e e s c h o o ls n o r p r i n t i n g ,
and I hope we s h a l l n o t have th e se hundred y e a r s ; f o r
le a r n in g h a s b ro u g h t d iso b ed ien ce and h e re sy and s e c ts
in to th e w orld, and p r in tin g has d iv u lg ed them and l i b e l s
a g a in s t th e b e st governm ent. God keep us from b o th j" 1
Dr. T y ler su g g e sts th a t B erkley had in mind o n ly such a s c h o o l
as E ton o r Harrow, and c a l l s a t t e n t i o n to th e f a c t t h a t in 1660 th e
c o lo n ia l Assembly had passed an a c t f o r th e "founding of a ’c o lle g e
and f r e e s c h o o ls ’ , to which B erkeley and a l l th e members o f th e
2
C ouneil and th e Assembly s u b s c rib e d ."
The t u t o r i a l system was th e answer t o th e r ic h p l a n t e r ’s p ro b ­
lem of e d u c a tio n fo r h i s c h ild r e n , and t h i s sytem e x is te d from th e
very b eg in n in g in P rin c e George County.
S ince huge g r a n ts o f lan d
were made t o in d iv id u a ls , neig h b o rs were n e c e s s a r ily s e p a ra te d by
1. W illiam and Mary Q u a rte rly , ( 1 ) , E d ite d by L. G. T y le r, W illiam s­
b u rg , V a., V ol. 6, p . 74.
2. I b i d . , V ol. 6t p . 83.
12
13
g re a t d is ta n c e s , and c h ild r e n were n o t able to meet to g e th e r f o r
in s tru c tio n .
For in s ta n c e , th e average a r e a o f a p la n ta ti o n a c ­
q u ired by p a te n t p rev io u s to 1650 was ab o u t f o u r hundred and f o r t y s ix a c r e s ; and a f t e r th e m iddle of th e c e n tu ry about s i x hundred
1
and tw e n ty -e ig h t, ac c o rd in g t o Bruce.
In many cases in d e n tu re d s e rv a n ts serv ed a s te a c h e r s in th e
homes, and w ealth y p la n te r s were ab le to employ t u t o r s who had
re c e iv e d t h e i r e d u c a tio n a t E n g lish and S cotch U n iv e r s it ie s .
Ap­
p a r e n tly th e re was no d e a rth of te a c h e r s .
Bruce s a y s :
"Not in f r e q u e n tly , th e t u t o r in a p r iv a te fa m ily
was a p erso n un d er in d e n tu re s . I n th e v i c is s i tu d e s
o f th o s e tim e s , w hether p o l i t i c a l o r o th e rw is e , many
men o f no common acquirem ents were com pelled to e a r n
a s u b s is te n c e by h ir i n g them selves o u t f o r th e perform ­
ance of d if f e r e n t k in d s o f s e r v ic e . In th e g r e a t body
o f a g r ic u ltu r a l la b o r e r s drawn t o V ir g in ia from th e
M other County, th e re were in d iv id u a ls who had f a i l e d
in h ig h e r p u r s u its , o r who, having become in v o lv ed in
tro u b le in t h e i r n a tiv e la n d , were induced to seek a
new home o v e r-s e a . Among th e se men, and even among
th e c o n v ic ts , th e r e were found some who had re c e iv e d
an e x c e lle n t e d u c a tio n in th e most r e s p e c ta b le E n g lish
s c h o o ls , and who w ere, th e r e f o r e , f u l l y com petent, from
th e p o in t o f view of knowledge a t l e a s t , to i n s t r u c t
th e young."
The sons were o f te n s e n t to England a t an e a r l y a g e , and we
fin d re c o rd s of t h i s b ein g done in many c a se s by p a r e n ts i n P rin c e
George County d u rin g th o se d a y s.
The w i l l o f W illiam Byrd, probated in C h arles C ity County,
provided t h a t h i s son W illiam Byrd, J r . , be s e n t to England
1 . B ruce, P h ilip A lexander, Economic H is to ry o f V ir g in ia in th e
S ev en teen th C en tu ry . N.Y. and London, M acm illan & C o ., 1895, V o l.I ,
p . 528.
2 . B ruce, P h ili p A lexander, I n s t i t u t i o n a l H is to ry o f V ir g in ia i n
th e S ev en teen th C entury, a . P. Putnam ’s Sons, N.Y. & London, 1910,
p . 328.
14
to be e d u ca ted .
L a te r , be was s e n t t o H o lla n d , which c o u n try ,
acc o rd in g to B ruce, "p o ssessed a h ig h r e p u ta tio n e s p e c ia lly
f o r th e o p p o r tu n itie s i t o ffe re d f o r a t r a i n i n g in b u s in e s s .
1
No doubt th e e ld e r Byrd th o u g h t t h a t t h i s b u s in e s s t r a i n i n g
would be h e lp f u l to h i s son l a t e r in th e management of th e
p la n ta ti o n .
For many y e a rs th e c o lo n is ts co n tin u ed to send t h e i r c h ild r e n
to England to be e d u ca ted .
Young T heoderick B land, J r . , b o rn
at
C ity P o in t in P rin c e George County in 1742, was se n t to England a t
th e age o f ele v e n .
A f te r stu d y in g f o r alm o st tw elve y e a r s , he
re c e iv e d a m edical d eg ree from Edinburgh and re tu rn e d t o A m erica,
where he was one of th e e a r l i e s t p io n e e rs in m edicine in V ir g in ia .
2
He was th e son o f th e T heoderick Bland r e f e r r e d t o so many tim e s
in th e V estry Book o f B r i s t o l P a ria h .
W ealthy landow ners o f t h i s p erio d u s u a lly l e f t s p e c if ie d sums
in t h e i r w i l l s f o r th e e d u c a tio n o f t h e i r c h ild r e n .
The w i l l o f
N a th a n ie l H a rris o n , who owned Brandon and M e rc h a n t's Hope, in
P rin c e George County, provided t h a t h is sons Nathaniel and Benjamin
should be kept c o n s ta n tly a t sch o o l u n t i l th e age o f 21 y e a rs .
3
George H a rris o n , born in 1797, whose fa m ily occupied a house
on th e Brandon e s t a t e , a tte n d e d s e v e r a l grammar s c h o o ls , one o f them
i n P e te rs b u rg , b e fo re being tu to re d f o r c o lle g e .
1.
He th e n e n te r e d
B ruce, I n s t i t u t i o n a l H is to ry of V ir g in ia i n th e S ev en teen th
C en tu ry , V ol. I , p . 321.
2 * Th® Bland P a p e rs , E d ited by Chas. Cam pbell, P e te rs b u r g , V a.,
P r in te d by E. & J . C. R u ffin , 1840 - 43, V ol. I , p . x ix .
3 . V ir g in ia Magazine of H is to ry and B io g rap h y , Va. H i s t o r i c a l Soc­
i e t y , Richmond, V a., 1900, V ol. V II, p . 357.
15
C a r l is le C o lle g e , in P e n n sy lv an ia.
1
Prom ab o u t 1720 u n t i l 1748 in V ir g in ia th e P a ris h was th e
im p o rtan t agency a s f a r a s e d u c a tio n was co n cern ed , and M a rtin ’s
Brandon and B r is to l P a r is h e s which w ere s it u a t e d in th e co u n ty o f
P rin c e G eorge, to o k th e le a d in many a f f a i r s .
To b e g in w ith ,
th e s e p a ris h e s nurrhered among t h e i r vestrym en men of o u tsta n d in g
a b i l i t y , who a p p a re n tly gave f r e e l y o f t h e i r tim e and en erg y f o r
th e conduct o f p a r is h a f f a i r s .
The p a r is h n ot o n ly was concerned
w ith r e l i g i o n and e d u c a tio n , b ut "was a lo c a l governm ental i n s t i t u ­
t i o n which ad m in iste re d b o th church and c i v i l a f f a i r s w ith o u t a
d i s t i n c t i o n b ein g made between th e two f i e l d s o f a c t i v i t y in e i t h e r
2
law o r custom ."
Many p u re ly s e c u la r concerns were ad m in iste re d
by th e v e s tr y a l s o , such a s th e p ro c e s s io n in g of th e bounds of
land and th e co u n tin g of tobacco p la n ts .
One of th e more im p o rtan t fu n c tio n s of th e v e s tr y was th e
bin ding o u t o f c h ild re n in in d e n tu re , as d is c lo s e d in th e re c o r d s
over th e p e rio d from 1720 t o 1748.
Since th e e d u c a tio n a l needs of
th e c h ild re n were ta k e n c a re of in th e a r t i c l e s o f in d e n tu re , i t i s
e a s i l y seen th a t in t h i s way th e v e s tr y , upon which r e s te d th e r e s ­
p o n s ib il ity of seein g t h a t th e a r t i c l e s were c a r r i e d o u t, played an
im p o rtan t p a r t a t t h i s tim e in re g a rd to e d u c a tio n .
A man ta k in g a
c h ild f o r a p e rio d of y e a rs had t o prom ise to te a c h him a t r a d e ,
prov id e r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n , and a t th e same tim e see th a t he
1. V irg in ia Magazine of H is to ry and B iography, V ol. 36, pp,c® 90, 391.
2 , W ells, P a r is h E d u catio n in C o lo n ial V ir g in ia , p . $
16
le a rn e d th e ru d im en ts o f th e th r e e I ^ s .
I n case o f f a i l u r e on th e
p a r t o f th e m a ste r t o do t h i s he was ta k e n to acc o u n t, in th e
e a r l y p a r t of th e c e n tu ry by th e v e s tr y , l a t e r by th e county c o u r t.
The fo llo w in g re c o rd in th e V estry Book o f B r i s t o l P a ris h in
1720 i s o f i n t e r e s t , s in c e i t i s a ty p i c a l one:
"O rdered t h a t th e c h i ld Widow Bass now h a th n u rs in g
f o r ye P a r is h , to be bound o ut by in d e n tu re t£ ye
a f o r e s a id Widow Bass by th e Church W ardens."
I n t h i s y ear a ls o th e r e i s a re c o rd of two orphans and one
i l l e g i t i m a t e c h ild b ein g bound o u t f o r s e r v ic e under in d e n tu r e .
In
1722 James L e t t , son o f E liz a b e th L e t t , was bound o u t by t h e Church
Wardens to B a n ie ll Nance and h is w ife u n t i l James sh o u ld come o f
age.
2
I n O ctober o f th e same y e a r i t was o rdered
"T hat W illiam S n elg ro v e, son o f Jane M a tts, w ife
o f W illiam M atts, I n d ia n , th e s a id Snelgrove be
bound unto Robert Lyon to serve 16 y e a rs from d a te
o f in d e n tu re which i s November 7 , 17 2 2 ." *
In 1728 John P u ck ett having ru n away, h i s d au g h ter E liz a b e th
was bound o u t to D an iel Jackson and h is h e i r s .
4
I n 1747 W illiam
Eppes and T heoderick B land, Church Wardens, p u t In s ta n c e H a ll,a n
a p p re n tic e to W illiam Studevant, to le a r n th e tra d e o f shoem aking.
g
In 1748 two m u la tto c h ild r e n were bound o u t, t h i s tim e by th e C ourt
on p e t i t i o n o f th e Church Wardens.
I n 1749, when Ann,,the d a u g h te r
o f R obert Hudson, was bound o u t, i t was by o rd e r o f th e C o u rt, on
6
p e t i t i o n o f th e Church W ardens.
1 . V estry Book and R e g is te r o f B r is to l P a r is h . V ir g in ia , 1720-1789,
T ran scrib ed and p u b lish e d by C.G. Cham berlayne, Richmond, 1898, p . 2.
2 . I b i d . , p . 10.
3. I b id . p . 10.
4 . I b id . p . 41.
5 . I b id . p . 130.
6. I b id . p . 135.
17
There i s a re c o rd d a te d March 13, 1738 o f two c h ild r e n being
bound o u t u n t i l th e age of th ir ty - o n e y e a r s :
"Ordered t h a t W illiam S tew ard, a m u la tto boy, and
Ruth A nderson, a m u la tto g i r l , d au g h ter o f Jane
Anderson, a w hite woman, be bound o u t by th e Church
Wardens o f B r i s t o l P a r is h to W illiam E aton to _ _ _
(not c le a r )
u n t i l th e y s h a l l each a t t a i n to
th e age o f th i r ty - o n e y e a r s ."
Much th e same ty p e o f th in g was done in th e a d jo in in g p a r is h
of M a rtin 1s Brandon.
A ccording t o re c o r d s i n th e P rin c e George
County C ourt H ouse, Benjamin B i r t c h e t t , a poor orphan boy, was
bound out to Edmund I r b y , " i n th e manner th e law d i r e c t s f o r poor
orphans t o le a r n th e tr a d e o f c a r p e n te r ."
And in O ctober, 1738,
a t th e C ourt h e ld a t F itz g e r a ld s f o r P rin c e George County, th e
Church Wardens o f M a rtin ’s Brandon were o rd ered to "bind James
B o tte s son o f Edward B o tte s t o some p ro p er p e rs o n , in th e manner
g
th e law d i r e c t s f o r poor o rp h a n s ."
A fte r th e y e a r 1748 th e Church Wardens to o k l e s s a c tiv e i n t e r ­
e s t in th e in d e n tu re o f c h ild r e n , sin c e in t h a t y e a r i t became nec­
e s s a r y to p e t i t i o n th e c o u rt f o r c h ild r e n to be bound o u t.
The f a c t
t h a t u n t i l 1748 th e re was no m ention o f j u s t i c e s o r county o f f i c i a l s
b in d in g o u t c h ild r e n , b u t th a t in a l l cases o n ly th e v e s tr y and
church wardens were r e f e r r e d t o in t h i s c o n n e c tio n , le a d s us to b e ­
li e v e t h a t i t was upon th e v e s t r i e s th a t th e r e s p o n s ib il ity of ed u ca­
t i o n f o r orphans and poor c h ild re n devolved d u rin g th o se y e a r s .
The v e s tr y books show th a t o r d in a r ily th e vestrym en were much
1 . Records o f P rin c e George County, P rin c e George C ourt House, V ir g in ia .
2 . I b id .
18
in t e r e s te d i n th e w e lfa re o f th e in d ig e n t p o o r, b u t o c c a s io n a lly
tow ards th e end o f th e c o lo n ia l p e rio d re c o rd s lik e th e fo llo w ­
in g ap p ea r:
"O rder fd th a t . . . . . th e Church Wardens a t th e most
co n v en ien t p la c e p u t-u p th e poor o f t h i s p a r is h to
th e lo w est b id d e r .”
N a tu ra lly no la rg e number o f c h ild re n w ere educated under
th e in d e n tu re method.
The p rim ary purpose o f th e in d e n tu re system
was t o r e l i e v e th e p u b lic from th e burden of m a in ta in in g dependent
c h ild r e n , w h ile th e u p b rin g in g and e d u c a tio n of th e c h ild r e n was
only th e secondary purpose o f th e system .
I n 1755 an a c t
was p assed by th e l e g i s l a t u r e o f V irg in ia sim­
i l a r t o th e E n g lish
law o f 1722 p ro v id in g a s p a r t o f th e scheme o f
poor r e l i e f work houses
B r is to l P a ris h
under t h i s law .
f o r th e purpose o f tr a d e e d u c a tio n .
le d th e way
2
f o r a l l o f V irg in ia i n ta k in g a c tio n
A m eeting was held in November, 1756, a t which tim e
i t was d ir e c te d t h a t th e Church Wardens ap p ly t o th e " V e s trie s of
M a rtin ’s Brandon and B ath P a ris h e s to know i f th e y w i l l jo in w ith
our P a ris h tow ards b u ild in g a w orkhouse, to keep th e poor o f th e
th r e e p a r i s h e s .”
I t was f u r th e r o rd ered t h a t T heoderick Bland
ap p ly t o th e V estry o f Brandon P a ris h to jo in th e P a ris h i n th e
b u ild in g , and in December a committee was ap p o in ted to meet th e
com m ittees from Brandon and Bath P a ris h e s to ag ree in s e t t l i n g th e
term s o f th e poor h o u se.
The jo i n t committee m et, and a t th e V estry
V estry Book and R e g is te r o f B r is to l P a r i s h . V ir g in ia , p . 168
2. H enlng1s S t a t u t e s . V ol. V I, p . 475.
3, V estry Book and R e g is te r o f B r is to l P a r is h . V ir g in ia , p . 160.
19
m eeting o f F ebruary 23, 1757, t h e i r r e p o r t was a c c e p te d .
"T his
r e p o r t i s of s p e c ia l s ig n if ic a n c e as i t p r e s e n ts th e on ly d e s c r ip ­
t i o n o f e d u c a tio n a l c o n d itio n s o f th e poor c h ild r e n in V irg in ia
i n th e e ig h te e n th c e n tu ry which h as been fo u h d ."
The r e p o r t , sig n ed by H ichard B land, says in p a r t:
" I t i s th e o p in io n o f th e com mittee th a t a Convenient
House ought t o b e Hented f o r E n te r ta in in g th e poor of
th e s a id P a r is h e s , i f to be had, But i f n o t, th a t th e n
lan d ought to be bought and Convenient Houses t o be
b u i l t f o r th e j o i n t u se s o f s a id P a ris h e s i n p ro p o rtio n
to th e number o f T ith a b le s in each o f th e s a id P a ris h e s ;
This committee having ta k en under C o n sid e ra tio n th e un­
happy and indeed m ise rab le C ircum stances o f th e many
poor Orphans and o th e r poor c h ild r e n , I n h a b ita n ts o f th e
s a id P a r is h e s , whose p a re n ts a re u t t e r l y un ab le t o g iv e
them any E d u ca tio n and b ein g d e s iro u s to re n d e r th e s a id
House a s B e n e f ic ia l as p o s s ib le and t h a t such poor
C h ild ren sh o u ld be bro u g h t up in a R e lig io u s , V irtu o u s
and In d u s trio u s course of L ife so a s t o become u s e fu l
members o f th e Community, Have Resolved e a r n e s tly t o
recommend i t to t h e i r R esp ectiv e V e s trie s t h a t th e y
should jo in in a P e ti tio n to th e G eneral Assembly to
pro cu re an Act to en ab le th e s a id P a ris h e s t o e r e c t a
F ree School f o r E d u catin g th e poor C h ild ren of th e s a id
P a ris h e s i n Reading, W ritin g and A rith m e tic a t th e j o i n t
Expense o f th e s a id P a r is h e s , and U n itin g th e same t o th e
s a id Poorhouse under such R u le s, O rders and D ire c tio n s
as s h a l l be most ju s t and p ro p er f o r p e r f e c tin g so u s e f u l l and C h a r ita b le a work, And in Order to f a c i l i t a t e
th e o b ta in in g such Act to propose t h a t th e s a id V e s trie s
should u n ite in opening S u b s c rip tio n s t h a t th e Rich and
O pulent and a l l o th e r w e ll-d isp o se d peo p le may have an
o p p o rtu n ity o f C o n trib u tin g tow ards so p io u s a d e sig n
out of t h a t S to re which th e F a th e r of B o u n ties have
bestowed on th e m ."
A pp aren tly no f u r th e r a c tio n was ta k e n in t h i s m a tte r u n t i l
1774, when th e re i s a re c o rd of th e appointm ent of th e Reverend
Mr. H a rris o n and th e Churchwardens R obert B o llin g and T heoderick
1. I b i d . , p . 164.
2 . I b i d . , pp. 165, 166.
20
Bland to meet w ith th e V e s tr ie s o f Brandon and Bath P a ris h e s
f o r th e purchase of a p la ce to e r e c t a poor house f o r th e j o i n t
1
use of th e th r e e p a r is h e s .
There i s no re c o rd o f th e poor house e v e r b ein g e r e c te d .
N e v e rth e le s s , th e f a c t t h a t T heoderick Bland was chosen t o b rin g
th e m a tte r b e fo re th e l e g i s l a t u r e , and t h a t he and o th e r in f lu e n ­
t i a l members o f th e community were so v i t a l l y in t e r e s te d in th e
s u b je c t, must have had a decided e f f e c t upon th e e v o lv in g p u b lic
o p in io n i n re g a rd to e d u c a tio n f o r th e in d ig e n t.
A nother d u ty of th e P a r is h i n p ro v id in g e d u c a tio n was th e
su p p o rt and a d m in is tr a tio n o f th e " P a rso n 's S ch o o ls".
out b e fo re , th e p la n ta tio n s were very la r g e .
As p o in ted
P a r is h churches and
sch o o ls c o u ld , th e r e f o r e , se rv e only a v e ry sm all p a r t of th e popu­
la tio n .
But th e c o n d itio n o f th e Church improved a s to b acco brought
g r e a te r p r o s p e r ity to V irg in ia*
Glebes were provided f o r th e
m i n is te r s , w ith land and in d e n tu re d s e r v a n ts , and i f a m in is te r
could adapt h im se lf q u ic k ly to th e l i f e o f a p la n te r , he could make
a com fortable l i v i n g , and h i s l o t was a p le a s a n t one.
He h eld
sch o o l in h is own home on weekdays, where he m ain tain ed a s t r i c t
d is c i p lin e by u sin g a b ir c h ro d on a l l o c c a sio n s.
I f he was un­
m arried he u s u a lly ta u g h t i n th e n e a r e s t " g re a t h o u se".
p o s itio n was a f a i r l y good one*
1 . I b i d . , p . 244.
H is s o c ia l
21
B r is to l P a r is h s u ffe re d p ro b ab ly l e s s th a n most in th e gen­
e r a l d e a rth of m in is te r s and g le b e s , and th e e n t e r p r is in g l i t t l e
s e ttle m e n t o f C ity P o in t was co n sid ered an im p o rta n t p o r t.
Ac­
co rd in g to Howe i t was d u rin g th e s e y e a rs "a b e t t e r s i t e f o r
commercial town th a n Richmond, and i t i s s a id would have been th e
s e a t of governm ent, had n o t i t s owner, a Dutchman, re fu s e d to s e l l
on any te rm s .* ^
In reg ard to p a r is h sc h o o ls, th e fo llo w in g i s e n lig h te n in g :
" In most p a ris h e s a re sc h o o ls ( l i t t l e houses b u i l t on
purpose) where a re ta u g h t E n g lish and W ritin g ; b u t to
p re v e n t th e sowing o f seed s of d is s e n tio n and f a c t i o n i t
i s to be wished th a t th e m a sters o r m is tr e s s e s sh o u ld be
such a s a re approved or lic e n s e d by th e m in is te r s o r th e
v e s tr y o f th e P a r is h o r ju s ti c e s o f th e co u n ty , th e
c le r k s o f th e P a r is h b e in g most p ro p e r f o r t h i s purpose
o r ( in case o f t h e i r in c a p a c ity o r r e f u s a l ) such o th e r s
can b e s t be p ro c u re d ,n ®
I n a d d itio n to th e P a r is h Schools sm all rude b u ild in g s c a lle d
"Old F ie ld Schools" came i n t o e x is te n c e d u rin g t h i s tim e .
Land
was cheap, so th a t a f t e r a f i e l d had been used tim e and a g a in , i t
was l e f t by th e owner to "sw eeten", o r la y fa llo w and e n r ic h i t s e l f .
Upon th e s e abandoned f i e l d s a sm all lo g house would f r e q u e n tly be
b u i l t and used a s a sc h o o l f o r th e few c h ild r e n in w alking d is ta n c e
of i t .
P rin c e George had s e v e ra l o f th e s e o ld f i e l d s c h o o ls , one
o f which i s d e sc rib e d i n th e n ex t c h a p te r .
We may say th a t government and e d u c a tio n p a r a l le l e d each o th e r
d u rin g t h i s p e r io d , s in c e th e v e s t r i e s had b ro ad c i v i l d u t i e s , a s
w e ll as a d m in is tr a tio n o f e d u c a tio n far th e p o o r.
1 . Howe, H i s t o r i c a l C o lle c tio n s of V ir g in ia , p . 440.
2. Jo n es, Hugh, The P re s e n t S ta te o f V ir g in ia , N .Y ., J . S av in , 1865,
p . 70.
22
C hapter I I I
THE EFFECT OF THE LITERARY FUND AND
OTHER SCHOOL LEGISLATION UPON PRINCE GEORGE COUNTY
The need f o r th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f p u b lic ed u c a tio n was never
l o s t s ig h t of by th e c o l o n i s t s .
We f in d t h a t a s soon a s i t was
p r a c tic a b le t o do so , law s d e a lin g w ith th e e s ta b lis h m e n t of a p ro ­
gram o f e d u c a tio n were p a s s e d .
One o f th e f i r s t o f th e s e was th e L i te r a r y Fund o f V ir g in ia ,
which was e s ta b lis h e d under a b i l l passed by th e House o f D e leg a tes
in 1809, and passed by th e S enate in January o f th e fo llo w in g y e a r . 1
I n b r i e f , t h i s fund, in t o whieh had gone th e pro ceed s from " e s c h e a ts ,
c o n f is c a tu r e s and f o r f e i t u r e s " , became th e fo u n d a tio n of a l l f u tu r e
school l e g i s l a t i o n .
I t brought th e e d u c a tio n a l system d i r e c t l y un­
d e r th e c o n tr o l of th e s t a t e , and was e x p r e s s ly to be sp en t f o r th e
b e n e f it o f th e v a rio u s c o u n tie s .
I n 1816 a happy s o lu tio n t o th e problem o f in c re a s in g th e L i t ­
e r a r y Fund was found by d e p o s itin g to i t s c r e d i t a refu n d from th e
U nited S ta te s Government.
T h is refu n d was p a r t repaym ent of a lo a n
made by V irg in ia to th e F e d e ra l Government f o r th e p ro s e c u tio n of
th e War of 1812.
The b i l l f u r th e r pro v id ed t h a t f u tu r e refu n d s would
be d e p o site d in lik e manner.
2
T his p ro v is io n seemed t o in su re a fund la rg e enough f o r a
1. House Jo u rn a l o f V ir g in i a , Feb. 8 , 1810; A cts o f Assem bly, 1810.
2. House Jo u rn a l of V ir g in ia , 1816.
23
d e f i n i t e p la n f o r th e e s ta b lish m e n t of a sc h o o l system .
The e a r l i e s t reco rd of P rin c e George County’ s p a r t i c i p a t i o n
in th e L ite r a r y Fund which could be found was th e f o l i a t i n g : ^
"Edmund R u ffin , T r e a s ., to th e S chool Com m issioners, Bp .
1821. Dec. 11 To $100, re c e iv e d o f th e Admr. of th e l a t e T re a s,
$1 0 0 .0 0
1882, March 2 To quota o f 1822 (re e d , by N. C o lley )
232.28
$332.28
(The "q u o ta" r e f e r r e d to was th e L ite r a r y Fund q u o ta .)
In 1818 an Act was passed p ro v id in g f o r th e appointm ent o f
sch o o l com m issioners in each co u n ty , Maddox c a l l s th e Act " ty p ic a l
2
of a l a i s s e z - f a i r e p o lic y ."
A pparently u n d er th e Act th e sch o o l
com m issioners could a d m in is te r sch o o l a f f a i r s p r e t t y much a s th e y
chose; th e re was no a u d itin g o f acco u n ts c a lle d f o r , n o r were th e r e
r e g u la tio n s in re g a rd to sc h o o l-h o u se s, te a c h e r s , o r p u p ils .
If
th e sch o o l com m issioners were capable and c o n s c ie n tio u s , i t was w e ll
and good, b u t th e law provided no re co u rse to th e c i t i z e n s where
th e y were la x and u n in te r e s te d .
I t was up t o th e c i t i z e n s to g e t t o ­
g e th e r and decid e i f a sc h o o l was w anted; a s u b s c r ip tio n l i s t gave
th e b a s is o f what could be expected in th e way of t u i t i o n , a te a c h e r
who p le ase d th e a m jo rity could be h ir e d , and a p e t i t i o n p re s e n te d to
th e commissioner to supplem ent th e d e f i c i t by ad d in g th e n e c e ssa ry
number of names of poor c h ild r e n , who were p aid f o r a t th e r a te o f
fo u r c e n ts a d ay .
1 . Records of P rin c e George County, P rin c e George C ourt House, Ya.
2. Maddox, The Free School Id ea in V irg in ia B efore th e C iv il War,
p . 76*
24
There were two ty p e s o f sch o o ls o p e ra tin g under t h i s law
i n P rin c e George County.
F i r s t , th e s c h o o ls o p erated u n d er th e
g e n e ra l supervision o f th e O verseer o f th e P o o r, and second, th o se
o p erated a s p r iv a te s c h o o ls where b i l l s w ere ren d ered f o r poor
c h ild re n t o th e sch o o l com m issioners by th e te a c h e r .
Under d a te
of Jan u ary 13, 1824 an e n try s t a t e s th a t th e sum o f f>2.50 was p aid
by th e County T re a su re r "To Thos. B. B ryant f o r books and s t a t i o n ­
e ry f o r c h ild re n a t poor h o u se, he b ein g S upr.
O verseer P o o r."
The fo llo w in g i s ty p ic a l of th e b i l l s re n d e re d by th e te a c h e r s f o r
1
poor c h ild r e n :
Names o f
C h ild ren
Ages
Names of
P a re n ts
B ates No. of P ric e
What
cfen* days
p e r Amount branches of
trance a t te n d . day
le a rn in g
Mary A. Fowlkes 12 Nancy Fowlkes J a n .3
136
4^
V irg in ia Fowlkes
140
4#
9 Nancy Fowlkes J a n .3
Drury W. B ir c h e tt made o a th b efo re
Sami. P e rk in s , N otary, t h a t above i s
tr u e , 6 th O ctober, 1832.
5.44
Heading and
A rith m etic
5.60 Reading and
A rith m etic
Jno. H. B a tt,
o rd e rs T rea s.
to B ir c h e tt
S. C .,
to pay
(There was a column a ls o c a p tio n e d "School Books U sed", b u t in t h i s
p a r t i c u l a r re c o rd th e re was no e n try under t h i s h e a d in g .)
On th e re v e rs e o f th e s h e e t i s a r e c e ip t sig n ed by B ir c h e tt.
A nother b i l l l i s t s under "what branches le a rn in g " , s p e ll in g , re a d in g ,
w r itin g , and a r ith m e tic , and a ls o s t a t e s th a t 3g- q u ire s of paper and
one s la t e were fu rn ish e d th e c h ild r e n .
Ih ese b i l l s were fo q u e n tly
1. Records of P rin c e George County, P rin c e George C ourt House, Va.
25
w r itt e n on s c ra p s o f ru le d p a p e r, some o f them even having memo­
ran d a on th e b ack .
The w r itin g in a l l c a se s co m p letely covers
th e p ap er, p ro b ab ly f o r th e re a so n th a t paper was n ot so cheap o r
p l e n t i f u l a s i t is now, even f o r th e use o f o f f i c i a l docum ents.
There was a marked s i m i l i a r i t y of h an d w ritin g in a l l o f th e se
docum ents,
Gf S p en cerian ty p e , th e h an d w ritin g o f many d if f e r e n t
men, over long p e rio d s of y e a r s , was so s i m i l i a r as to lo o k , w ith
a few e x c e p tio n s , a s i f w r itt e n by th e same man.
T his would seem
to prove th a t in th o s e days w r itin g was co n sid ered a s p e c ia liz e d
a rt.
The Act of 1823, which re q u ire d an annual r e p o r t from th e
Second A uditor to th e G eneral Assembly, was framed in an attem p t
to make th e fo rm er sch o o l laws w ork.
2hese r e p o r ts of th e A u d ito r
g iv e v alu ab le in fo rm a tio n a s to what was done in th e c o u n tie s d u r­
in g th e se y e a rs .
For in s ta n c e , we f in d in Mr. Brown*s r e p o r t from September
30,
1826 to September 30, 1827, th a t th e re were tw elv e sch o o ls o p era­
t i n g in P rin c e George County; th a t out o f two hundred po o r c h ild e n
in th e county, tw en ty -sev en were being s e n t to sc h o o l; and t h a t a
t o t a l of $159.03 was sp en t f o r t u i t i o n and books f o r poor c h ild re n
1
in t h i s county d u rin g t h a t y e a r.
Ten y e a rs l a t e r th e re were one hundred and s e v e n ty -fiv e poor
c h ild r e n i n th e co u n ty , acco rd in g t o Mr. Brown’s r e p o r t f o r 1837,
1. Documents V irg in ia E d u catio n , 1827 - 1847.
26
and s ix ty -o n e o f them were b ein g s e n t to s c h o o l, showing some in ­
c re a se in th e p erce n tag e o f poor c h ild r e n a tte n d in g sch o o l over
th e te n -y e a r p e rio d .
Four c e n ts a day was th e r a t e o f t u i t i o n p aid
a l l over th e s t a t e d u rin g t h i s y e a r .
The n ex t im p o rtan t p ie c e o f school l e g i s l a t i o n , a p erm issiv e
r a t h e r th a n a compulsory s t a t u t e , was th e Act o f 1829, g iv in g
c o u n tie s o p tio n a l a u th o r ity t o supplem ent t h e i r L ite r a r y Fund
quotas f o r th e purpose o f e r e c tin g sc h o o l-h o u se s.
The a u th o r was
ab le to fin d no re c o rd of sch o o l-h o u ses b eing b u i l t a s a r e s u l t of
t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n in P rin c e George County.
I n th e Second A u d ito r’ s
R eport f o r th e y e a r ending Septem ber 30, 1837 (which fo llo w s th e
re p o r t of 1827 in Documents o f V irg in ia E d u c a tio n , 1827 - 1847) th e
number of common sch o o ls i s u n re p o rte d .
Under "School Quotas Un­
drawn" i t I s re p o rte d th a t th e sums of $198.91 in 1835 and $321.45
in 1836 were n o t used.
Also in th e same r e p o r t $277.07 i s l i s t e d
as "S urplus q u o tas a p p ro p ria te d to acad em ies."
The next r e p o r t,
in 1844 g iv e s th e number o f sch o o ls as seven, a re d u c tio n o f f iv e
sin c e 1826.
From th e s e f a c t s i t would ap p ear t h a t P rin c e George
County, l i k e so many o th e r V ir g in ia c o u n tie s , was not read y in th e
e a r ly p a r t o f th e n in e te e n th cen tu ry to take th e s te p o f m eeting
s t a t e a p p ro p ria tio n s w ith funds r a is e d by lo c a l ta x a tio n .
The r e p o r t o f th e sch o o l com m issioners o f th e county as pub­
lis h e d in th e Second A u d ito r’s r e p o r t of 1837 g iv e s a c le a r p ic tu r e
27
of th e sch o o ls o f th a t y e a r:
♦ C ilic e G eorge. The Commissioners c o n s id e r th e te rm
" in d ig e n t" as a p p lic a b le to a l l t h a t c l a s s o f c h ild r e n
whose p a re n ts o r g u a rd ia n s a r e n o t a b le to b e a r th e ex­
pense o f sen d in g them t o s c h o o l, b u t who can do so by
th e a id o f the fund s e t a p a rt f o r th e use of prim ary
s c h o o ls . The c h ild r e n a re s e n t w ith o u t re g a rd to t h e i r
a g e s, and no p re fe re n c e i s shewn to e i t h e r se x . I t i s
p ro b ab le th a t th e in c re a s e d fund w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t
under th e p re s e n t sy stem to send a la r g e p ro p o rtio n of
th e poor c h ild r e n in th e county t o s c h o o l. They can­
no t s t a t e w ith c e r t a i n t y what improvement has been
made by th e c h ild r e n , b u t b e lie v e i t i s e q u al to t h a t
o f o th e r c h ild re n s e n t by th o s e who pay f o r t h e i r t u i ­
t i o n . Most of th e c h ild r e n th e y b e lie v e a re ta u g h t
to re a d and w r ite , and some of them th e elem entary
p r in c ip le s o f a r ith m e tic . The te a c h e r s , i t i s b e l ie v ­
ed , a re r e s p e c ta b le men, b u t no ex am in atio n has been
made a s t o t h e i r m oral c h a r a c te r o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .
They have no su g g e s tio n s to make a s t o a l t e r a t i o n s
o r m o d ific a tio n s of th e e x istin g law s and r e g u la tio n s .
They however s t a t e , t h a t i f th e fund would j u s t i f y
th e a l t e r a t i o n in th e e x i s t in g la w s, th e y b e lie v e th e
d i s t r i c t system under th e management o f t r u s t e e s , would
be more b e n e f i c ia l ."
The above r e p o r t shows th a t th e sch o o l com m issioners them­
selv es r e a liz e d th a t th e sch o o ls were n o t having th e p ro p e r s u p e r­
v is io n and c a r e .
The com m issioners w ere n o t p aid f o r t h e i r s e r v ic e s j
th e r e f o r e , th e y were unable to g iv e th e n e c e ss a ry time to a p ro p e r
d isch arg e o f t h e i r d u t i e s .
In d eed , th e y w ere p ro b ab ly n o t equipped
to re n d e r th e s o r t o f s u p e rv is o ry s e rv ic e t h a t was needed.
The p erce n tag e of county poor c h ild r e n being se n t t o sch o o l
in 1844 shows a s l i g h t in c re a s e .
T u itio n was p aid f o r s ix ty - f o u r
o f th e one hundred and s i x t y c h ild r e n .
The amount p aid f o r t u i t i o n
in th e county was in c re a se d t o f iv e c e n ts a day.
T his i s a l i t t l e
b e t t e r th a n th e av erag e f o r th e s t a t e , which was 4 1 /6 c e n ts in
28
t h a t y e a r.
T his r e p o r t a ls o showed t h a t P rin c e George was one
o f th e c o u n tie s in which th e m a jo rity of th e sc h o o ls were in o p era­
t i o n f o r f iv e months and upw ards.
T o ta l e x p e n d itu re s in th e co u n ty f o r 1844 were $633.80.
The
re a s o n s s e t f o r th i n th e r e p o r t of th e com m issioners f o r th e f a c t
t h a t so few c h ild r e n were b ein g ed u cated w ere: in s u f f ic ie n c y o f
th e fund and sp a rs e n e s s o f th e p o p u la tio n ,
‘^ he com m issioners
s ta t e d t h a t th e y had n ot v i s i t e d th e s c h o o ls , b u t t h a t i n t h e i r
o p in io n th e te a c h e rs were d e se rv in g o f th e a d d itio n a l com pensation
allow ed them under th e Act o f March 20, 1841.
I t can be seen from th e s e l a s t two r e p o r ts t h a t th e m a tte r of
scho o l d i s t r i c t s was b eing co n sid ered a s a p o s s ib le s o lu tid ri of
th e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f p ro v id in g e d u c a tio n .
The "E d u catio n C onvention"1
had recommended th a t th e c o u n tie s be l a i d o f f in to sch o o l d i s t r i c t s .
Two im p o rtan t A cts known as th e "Twin A cts* were p assed by
2
th e l e g i s l a t u r e in 1846. Under th e f i r s t A ct,
county s u p e rin te n d ­
e n ts were to be e le c te d by th e b o ard s o f sch o o l com m issioners, th e s e
s u p e rin te n d e n ts to s u p e rv is e th e sc h o o ls.
The c o u n tie s w ere to be
d iv id ed in t o d i s t r i c t s , and a sch o o l t r u s t e e was to be e le c te d from
each d i s t r i c t , a l l th e t r u s t e e s to g e th e r to form a board o f e d u c a tio n .
3
The second of th e two a c ts
provided th a t one f o u r th o f th e v o te r s
could c a l l an e l e c ti o n f o r th e purpose o f d e c id in g upon a system
o f f r e e s c h o o ls .
1 . Maddox, The Free School Id e a in V irg in ia B efore th e C iv i l War»
p . 154,
2. I b i d . , p . 155.
3. I b i d . , p . 156.
29
The fo llo w in g was th e a c tio n tak en under th e Act o f 1846
in P rin c e George County:
"1851. The C o u rt, June term , 1851 d o th a p p o in t th e
fo llo w in g p erso n s sch o o l com m issioners f o r th e fo llo w ­
in g y e a r, v i z : f o r D i s t r i c t § 1 , W illiam A. Temple,
D i s t r i c t # 2 , P e te r C. M arks, D i s t r i c t § 3 , J u lia n
C. R u ffin , D i s t r i c t # 4 , C h arles F rie n d , D i s t r i c t
# 5 , W illiam Gee, D i s t r i c t # 6, George E . R iv es,
D i s t r i c t § 7 , C h arles D. R iv es, T e s te , R. G illia m ,
C lk ." 1
In accordance w ith th e f u r t h e r p ro v is io n s o f th e Twin A c ts ,
th e sch o o l t r u s t e e s e le c te d C. H. F rien d S u p e rin te n d e n t o f S chools
2
o f P rin c e George County i n 1853.
He was succeeded i n 1856 by
Matthew W. Raney.
3
The du ty o f th e county su p e rin te n d e n t was t o make r e p o r ts
on th e c o n d itio n of th e sch o o ls to th e S ta te s u p e r in te n d e n t, to ­
g e th e r w ith an acco u n tin g of th e e x p en d itu re o f th e L i te r a r y Fund
q u o ta.
"There was on th e eve of th e C iv il W ar," w r ite s Maddox, "a
s u p e rin te n d e n t and a county board of sch o o l com m issioners in ev ery
county in th e s t a t e .
In 1861 ev ery s u p e rin te n d e n t i n th e s t a t e gave
a t l e a s t a f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t on lo c a l e x p e n d itu re s o f th e L i te r a r y
F und." 4
T his ty p e of e d u c a tio n came to an end w ith th e o u tb rea k of th e
War Between th e S ta t e s , when th e L ite r a r y Fund was d iv e rte d to
m i l i t a r y d e fe n s e .
1.
2.
3.
4.
P rin c e George County R ecords, P rin c e George Court House, V ir g in ia .
I b id .
I b id .
Maddox, The F ree School Id e a in V irg in ia Bsfibffe th e C iv il War.
p . 166.
30
In d is c u s s in g th e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f th e e s ta b lis h m e n t of a
sch o o l system , Maddox w r ite s :
" V irg in ia fo u g h t w ith th e o th e r s t a t e s th e same b a t t l e s
f o r th e d e m o c ra tiz a tio n o f h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s , and by
th e tim e of th e C iv il War had evolved th e fo u n d a tio n s , a t
l e a s t , o f f r e e s c h o o ls . And t h i s rem arkable p ro g re s s was
hampered a t a l l tim es by th e economic b u rd en s o f negro
s la v e r y , by th e s o c ia l system t h a t s la v e r y e n t a i l e d , by
a s e c tio n a lis m which V i r g i n i a ’s p e c u lia r la n d co n fo rm atio n
determ ined from th e o u ts e t , and f i n a l l y by a d ram a tic
p o l i t i c a l co n tro v e rsy over ways and means of r e a l i z i n g
a dem o cratic s t a t e , th e f i r s t f r u i t o f which was th e
p e r s is te n c e of custom ary th o u g h t and th e d e f e a t of a con­
c e rte d sch o o l l e g i s l a t i o n which m ight have p laced th e
Old Dominion f i r s t among th e f r e e sch o o l s t a t e s . "
Since d u rin g t h i s p e rio d th e most th i c k ly p o p u lated a r e a s
were used a s b a se s f o r m i l i t a r y o p e ra tio n s and f o r t i f i c a t i o n s ,
no sch o o ls were in e x is te n c e i n t h i s a r e a .
However in th e s p a r s e ­
l y s e t t l e d a re a s o f th e county, n o ta b ly in Brandon D i s t r i c t , a
few sch o o ls e x is te d .
C hief among th e se was th e sm all sch o o l
op erated w ith funds g iv e n by M iss B e lle H a rris o n , a c h a r ita b le and
w ealthy la d y o f t h i s d i s t r i c t .
T h is sch o o l was f r e e to a l l p u p ils
who were unable t o pay t u i t i o n .
An "Old F ie ld School" was s t i l l in use i n P rin c e George
County d u rin g th e War Between th e S ta t e s .
I t was lo c a te d n ear
D is p u ta n ts , was b u i l t of lo g s and had windows on b o th s id e s and a
c la y chimney.
An o ld r e s id e n t remembers a tte n d in g t h i s s c h o o l.
She remembers seein g bands o f Union s o ld ie r s p a s s in g by d u rin g th e
War, and she remembers th e excitem en t t h a t o ccu rred when Wade
1. I b i d . , p . 10.
31
Hampton made h i s c a t t l e r a i d , which to o k p la c e in s ig h t o f th e
sch o o l.
S o ld ie r s of b o th s id e s o f te n stopped by th e sc h o o l, she
s a y s , lo o k in g f o r in fo rm a tio n o f opposing tr o o p s .
She s t a t e s t h a t
a f t e r th e War th e sch o o l l o s t p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of i t s p u p il s , as
th e p a re n ts were un ab le to pay th e sm all t u i t i o n ch arg e s.
Chapter IV
ACADEMIES IN PRINCE GEORGE COUNTY
From a d v e rtise m e n ts and n o tic e s in old new spapers and inform a­
t i o n g iv e n by o ld r e s id e n t s o f th e county i t a p p e a rs t h a t th e county
had a t l e a s t th r e e academ ies d u rin g th e e a r l y and m iddle p a r t o f
th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry .
Of th e f i r s t , th e Aaron Burr Academy, th e r e i s l i t t l e known.
M orrison g iv e s th e d a te of th e founding o f th e academy as 1801, and
says:
"T h is academy in c o rp o ra te d in 1801, and endowed w ith
funds a r is i n g from th e s a le o f g le b e la n d s in P rin c e
George County, had a b r i e f c a r e e r . The a c t o f in c o rp o ra ­
t i o n was re p e a le d in 1806, and th e funds d iv e r te d to th e
o v e rs e e rs of th e poor of th e co u n ty . B urr Academy may
have been named f o r Aaron B u rr, and i t s s i g n i f i c a n t
d a te s were a ls o im p o rtan t y e a rs in h is h i s t o r y . "
Two o th e r academ ies, th e P rin c e George and th e
Academies, a p p a re n tly o p erated
Oak Grove
o v er a lo n g space o f tim e .
The f i r s t
re c o rd th e a u th o r found concerning th e P rin c e George Academy was
th e re c o rd in th e Court House o f a deed d ated Jan u ary 16, 1858)
betw een David H a rris o n of th e County o f P rin c e George and D r. R obert
H a rris o n , P h ilip B. T hw eatt, Edward W. M arks, R ich ard M. H a rris o n ,
A lfred B u tts , Edmund R u ffin , P e te r C. M arks, John H. Marks and
W illiam C. H a rris o n , T ru ste e s of th e P rin c e George Academy.
I n 1854 th e re appeared an
ad v ertisem en t in th e S o u th sid e
1 . M o rriso n , A lfred James, The Beginnings o f P u b lic E d u c a tio n in
V ir g in ia , Richmond, D. Bottom, S u p t. P u b lic P r in tin g , 1917,
p . 134.
32
33
Dem ocrat. as fo llo w s :
"P rin c e George Academy. The n ex t s e s s io n of t h i s in ­
s t i t u t i o n w i l l commence on Monday th e 8 th o f Jan u ary
n e x t, under th e charge o f Mr. George P. K e a tin g , a
gentlem an th a t h as had s e v e r a l y ears* e x p e rie n c e in
te a c h in g and h as g iv e n g e n e ra l s a t i s f a c t i o n .
"The Academy i s lo c a te d n ear G a r y s v ille , ab o u t 14 m ile s
e a s t o f P e te rs b u rg , in a h e a lth y , i n t e l l i g e n t and a g re e ­
ab le neighborhood.
" I n s tr u c tio n w i l l be g iv e n i n a l l th e s tu d ie s u s u a lly
ta u g h t in academ ies, and th e charges f o r t u i t i o n w i l l
be p ay ab le a t th e end o f each s e s s io n .
"Terms o f t u i t i o n : For th e la n g u a g e s, m athem atics and
h ig h e r b ran ch es o f E n g lis h , p e r 10 months $ 4 0 .0 0 . For
p rim ary E n g lish b ra n c h e s, $ 3 0 .0 0 .
"Address th e s u b s c r ib e r a t G a ry s v ille P .O ., P rin c e
^
George County, V ir g in ia . R ichard M. H a rris o n , P r e s * t."
Mrs. J u d ith B ernard, a r e s id e n t of P rin c e George County,
whose f a t h e r , M r..Benjam in F en n er, a tte n d e d th e P rin c e George Acad­
emy, and who was a fte rw a rd s s u p e rin te n d e n t of sc h o o ls o f P rin c e
George County, gave th e fo llo w in g in fo rm a tio n about t h i s sc h o o l:
" I have o fte n h eard my f a t h e r , my un cle and Mr. R obert
C. R u ffin t a l k o f t h e i r sch o o l days in th e o ld P rin c e
George Academy, which was n e a r o ld G a r y s v ille , a c ro s s th e
highway from th e p re s e n t s i t e o f Mr. Eugene Cummings*
s to r e . The b u ild in g , I th in k , was o f lo g s . The sch o o l
m a ste rs were s a id to be v ery s t r i c t and to * rule by th e
ro d * . There i s a group of oak t r e e s sta n d in g t o mark
th e lo c a tio n .
"My f a th e r was bo rn in 1855 and went to t h i s sch o o l when
q u ite young; I im agine f o r a s h o rt tim e soon a f t e r th e
w a r."
T his sch o o l was reopened a f t e r th e war a s a p u b lic s c h o o l.
An
i n t e r e s t i n g s to r y i s to ld about t h i s sch o o l by a n o th e r o ld r e s id e n t
S o u th sid e D em ocrat, P e te rs b u rg , V a ., Monday, December £5, 1854.
34
o f tli© county as fo llo w s :
"S e v e ra l p u p ils o f tlie P rin c e George Academy, w ish ­
in g to e n te r W illiam and Mary C o lle g e , a p p lie d f o r
a d m issio n . They were asked t o w r ite a l e t t e r g iv in g
f u l l p a r t i c u l a r s about th e m selv es, t h e i r p r e p a r a tio n
a t th e Academy and t h e i r p la n s f o r c o lle g e w ork. These
l e t t e r s were used a s a b a s is f o r ju d ging th e a p p lic a n ts *
c a p a b i l i t i e s . S e v e ra l p u p ils o f t h i s Academy were s a id
to have been a c t u a ll y adm itted to W illiam and Mary C ol­
le g e in t h i s w ay."
A nother Academy in o p e ra tio n d u rin g th e s e y e a rs was th e Oak
Grove Academy.
The P r e s s , is s u e of F eb ru ary 3 , 1859, co n tain ed
a n o tic e th a t th e s e r v ic e s o f Mr. W illiam H. Bass had b een secured
as te a c h e r o f th e Oak Grove Academy.
"No one hav in g c h ild r e n to
ed u cate can p la ce them w ith one more com petent to g iv e them in s tr u c ­
t i o n in a l l th e v a rio u s bran ch es c o n s ti tu ti n g a f in is h e d e d u c a tio n .
S tu d e n ts w i l l be p rep ared f o r any c o l l e g e r e a d s th e n o ti c e .
It
f u r th e r s t a t e s th e te rm s, which were $150.00 p e r term o f 10 months
f o r board and t u i t i o n . ^
An ad v ertisem e n t f o r a te a c h e r "o f good c h a r a c te r and m oral
h a b its to ta k e charge o f a sm all sch o o l in P rin c e George County, V ir­
g i n i a , t h a t can te a c h a thorough E n g lish Course w ith L a tin ," i s
i n t e r e s t i n g , as i t f u r t h e r s t a t e s th a t th e s a la r y w i l l be $250.00
2
a y e a r and b o ard .
About 1857 th e re were a t l e a s t two p r iv a te b o ard in g sch o o ls f o r
young la d ie s i n th e county.
A ccording t o th e P e te rs b u rg D a ily
Democrat in 1857 Mr. W. C. Cooke opened h is re s id e n c e "Aberdeen"
1 . The P r e s s , P e te rs b u rg , V a ., Feb. 3 , 1859.
2. The D a ily E x p re s s . P e te rs b u rg , V a ., August 29, 1859.
35
a t G a ry s v ille on O ctober 1 , 1857, as a s e l e c t school f o r young
la d ie s .
The term s were two hundred d o l l a r s a y e a r o f t e n m onths,
f o r E n g lis h , F rench, and M usic.
From a n o th e r old r e s id e n t of th e county i t was le a rn e d t h a t
th e home now owned by Mr. W. H. F igg was once "Mrs. George W.
B u tts ' P r iv a te School f o r Young L a d ie s ;" t h a t h ere Mrs. B u tts
ta u g h t h e r own c h ild r e n , and f o r s e v e r a l y e a rs a f t e r th e war to o k
young la d ie s a s bo ard in g p u p ils .
A nother academy, s h o r t- liv e d on account o f th e w ar, was "Old
H ickory Academy" lo c a te d n ear th e p r e s e n t community of Woodlawn.
Mr. George L. Munt, who was born in 1848 and i s now n in e ty -o n e
y e a rs o ld , and whose memory i s rem arkably c l e a r , to l d some i n t e r e s t ­
ing s t o r i e s about t h i s l i t t l e s c h o o l.
A ccording to Mr. Munt, who
a tte n d e d t h i s Academy, i t was a one-room lo g h o u se, and th e f i r s t
te a c h e r was a Mr. C alhoun, who had th e r e p u ta tio n o f b ein g " th e
m eanest man i n th e w o rld ."
H is punishm ents w ere se v e re and admin­
is te r e d upon v ery s l i g h t p ro v o c a tio n .
He d id r e s t r i c t h i s p u n ish ­
ment o f th e g i r l s , however, to w hipping upon th e h ands.
The n ex t te a c h e r , acco rd in g to Mr, M int, was Mr. G ile s Cooke,
a fte rw a rd s a m ajor in th e C onfedeeate Army.
Mr. Cooke was p o p u la r
w ith everyone, and ta u g h t th e r e two and a h a l f y e a r s .
The fe e f o r
sch o o lin g h e re was $40.00 a y e a r , and th e t e a c h e r 's s a la r y was
$800.00 a y e a r , p aid by th e p a re n ts o f th e p u p il s .
Mr. Munt remembers
t h a t he used th e S c h o la rs ' Companion ( s i m i l i a r in make-up to S w in to n 's
Word A n a ly s is ).
When war broke o u t, M ajor Cooke c a lle d th e s tu d e n ts
36
to g e th e r under th e oak t r e e s (which a re s t i l l stan d in g on t h i s
s i t e ) and bade th a n f a r e w e ll .
He th en jo in ed G eneral L e e 's S t a f f .
T his sch o o l never reo p en ed .
The academy movement was th e r e s u l t of a need f o r sch o o ls
o p erated s o le ly by p r iv a te fu n d s.
In th e se sch o o ls were educated
th e c h ild r e n o f p a re n ts who could a f f o r d t o pay t u i t i o n .
The
academ ies were th e fo re ru n n e rs o f th e p r iv a te sch o o ls o f th e
p r e s e n t d ay.
Chapter V
THE DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN PRINCE GEORGE COUNTY
The P u b lic School system in V irg in ia began in 1870, a f t e r
th e r a t i f i c a t i o n o f th e C o n s titu tio n framed by th e C onvention of
December 3 , 1867.
A r tic le 8 o f th e C o n s titu tio n , e n t i t l e d "Educa­
ti o n " s e t f o r th in d e t a i l a p la n f o r th e esta b lish m e n t of a p u b lic
sch o o l system*
I t p ro v id e d , among o th e r th in g s , f o r th e e l e c ti o n
of a S ta te S u p erin ten d en t of P u b lic I n s tr u c ti o n and a Board of Educa­
tio n *
I t provided t h a t th e Board sh o u ld e l e c t a l l county s u p e rin te n d ­
e n t s , have charge of funds and s u p e rv is io n of a l l s c h o o ls , and should
be re s p o n s ib le f o r th e u n ifo rm ity of te x t-b o o k s and f o r fu rn is h in g
sch o o l h o u ses.
Under t h i s s e c tio n th e G eneral Assembly was en jo in ed to s e t
a sid e a permanent l i t e r a r y fu n d .
T ax atio n f o r sch o o l purposes was
a ls o provided f o r , and th e school age s e t from fiv e to tw enty-one
y e a rs .
D i s t r i c t s and c o u n tie s under t h i s s e c tio n were p e rm itte d to
1
ta x p ro p e rty f o r sch o o l p u rp o ses.
Under th e p ro v is io n s of t h i s s e c tio n on March 2 , 1870, D r. 1?.
H. R u ffn er was e le c te d th e f i r s t su p e rin te n d e n t of p u b lic in s tr u c ­
t i o n o f V ir g in ia .
He served f o r tw elve y e a rs , and under h is a b le
management th e s c h o o ls of V irg in ia made an a u s p ic io u s s t a r t .
P rin c e George County d id n o t lo se any tim e i n g e t tin g i t s
p u b lic sch o o l system s t a r t e d ; evidence of t h i s i s found in th e f a c t
V ir g in ia School R e p o rts , V ol. 6, P a r t I I , p . 105.
37
38
th a t on Septem ber 18, 1870, two months a f t e r th e r a t i f i c a t i o n of
th e C o n s titu tio n , the Board o f E d u catio n ap p o in ted Mr* Matthew W.
Haney to serv e a s s u p e rin te n d e n t of s c h o o ls f o r P rin c e George and
S u rry C o u n tie s.
On November 29, 1870 a m eeting o f th e d i s t r i c t board was h e ld
i n R ives D i s t r i c t , a t which tin e p la n s f o r a f u tu r e m eeting were
made, and th e d u ti e s o f th e d i s t r i c t members w ere d is c u s s e d .
On
December 8 , 1870 Mr. Raney p re s id e d over a p u b lic m eeting h e ld a t
th e c o u rt house f o r th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f a p u b lic sch o o l.
On
January 21, 1871 Miss H a ttie B o issean , who was a fte rw a rd s th e w ife
o f Mr. H. C. B r itto n , s u p e rin te n d e n t o f s c h o o ls in 1885, was e le c te d
te a c h e r f o r t h i s sc h o o l.
I t was d e sig n a te d "School Number 1 ,
Brandon D i s t r i c t . "
In reg ard t o th e sch o o l sy stem and th e p o s iti o n o f th e s u p e r­
in te n d e n t in th o se days Mr. B r itto n w r ite s :
"The f i r s t p u b lic sch o o l met and org an ized a t th e
c o u rt h ouse, p re s id e d over by th e county s u p e rin te n d ­
e n t , who, i t m ight be s a i d , d id n o t ab o u t t h a t tim e
hold an en v ia b le p o s iti o n , as he was c a lle d a ’b la c k
r a d i c a l , a n e g ro -lo v e r and h a t e r o f h is r a c e ’ -— and
th a t by some of th e men who a fte rw a rd s a s p ir e d , i f th e y
d id n o t a c t u a ll y a p p ly , f o r th e same p o s i t i o n . . . The
system met w ith much o p p o s itio n a t f i r s t in some d i s ­
t r i c t s ; prom inent c i t i z e n s fo u g h t i t ; th e poor and ig ­
n o r a n t, who should have r e jo ic e d , fo u g h t i t ; b u t i t
s t e a d i l y grew, and a s S u p t. R u ffn er s a id , ’I t was born
a g ia n t, and h as grown w ith g ia n t v i g o r . ’" 1
Mr, B r itto n goes on to e x p la in t h a t " a f t e r 1871 o p p o s itio n g r a d u a lly
began to d ie o u t" , and c o n tin u e s :
"The term o f 1870
-71 was c h a ra c te riz e d by, b ic k e rin g
1 . V ir g in ia School R e p o rts , V ol. V I, p . 128.
39
g e n e r a lly on th e p a r t o f th e w h ite s and a q u ie t s a t i s ­
f a c t i o n on th e p a r t of th e b la c k s . The amount of ta x
r e q u ire d f o r sch o o l purposes was e stim a te d a t 25 c e n ts
on th e $100, which was as much opposed by th e m a jo rity
o f th e w h ite s a s i t was fav o red by th e b la c k s , who q u ie t­
ly went to th e p o ll s and gave th e amount asked f o r by a
p o p u la r v o te . The su p e rin te n d e n t ab o u t t h a t tim e was a l ­
most unaided in h i s e f f o r t s to p u t th e system in o p era­
t i o n , as most o f th e t r u s t e e s were not stau n ch ’sch o o l
men* as th e y m ight have b een, a s th e y were ’sch o o l men*
on ly when w ith sch o o l men, and when w ith i t s opponents
would n o t uphold i t , b u t a llo w i t to be abused w ith o u t
defen d in g i t . * ^
In th e y e a r 1870 - 71 th e r e were 13 sch o o ls o p e ra tin g in th e
county, w ith an en ro llm en t o f 437 p u p ils .
th a t y ear was 7820.
second y e a r .
The school cen su s fo r
There was decided improvement to be noted th e
The number o f sch o o ls in c re a s e d t o 22, and th e e n r o ll­
ment in t h i s y e a r was 825, w ith an average a tte n d a n c e o f 459.
I n co n n ectio n w ith t h e i r annual s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t s , s u p e rin ­
te n d e n ts were re q u e ste d t o make w r i t t e n s ta te m e n ts on e le v e n p o in ts .
In 1872 S u p erin ten d en t Raney re p o rte d on th e P rin c e George County
Schools as fo llo w s :
1.
P u b lic sen tim en t con cern in g p u b lic sc h o o ls :
*” T is d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r ta in what i s p u b lic sen tim en t
co n cern in g p u b lic sc h o o ls. I t i s b e lie v e d t h a t th e
w h ite ta x -p a y e rs a re n o t g e n e r a lly more fa v o ra b ly d is
posed th a n fo rm e rly , b u t th e y make few er p u b lic com­
p l a i n t s . A m a jo rity of th e v o te rs fa v o r th e sy stem .”
2.
Have th e co lo red people continued t o m a n ife st a g r e a t
d e s ir e f o r e d u ca tio n ?
"They h ave, b u t th e y do not fu r n is h t h e i r c h ild r e n
w ith s u ita b le books, o r s u f f i c i e n t c lo th in g , in some
c a s e s .”
1 . I b i d . , p . 128.
40
3*
Views a s t o th e p ro b a b le working o f th e p re s e n t mode
o f r a i s i n g lo c a l sch o o l fu n d s;
"The p re s e n t mode o f r a is i n g county and d i s t r i c t
sch o o l funds i s much p r e f e r a b le to r a i s i n g them by a
r e s o r t to a p o p u la r v o te ; b u t th e maximum r a te of
t a x a tio n , as f ix e d by law fo r b o th c o u n ty and d i s t r i c t
p u rp o se s, i s very f a r below th e w ants o f th e sc h o o ls and
th e w ish es o f a m a jo r ity of th e f r i e n d s o f p o p u la r edu­
c a t io n ."
4.
I s i t d e s ir a b le t h a t th e re q u ire d minimum o f sch o o l a t te n d ­
ance should be red u ce d ? I f so , to what number?
"No. The p re s e n t minimum can be m a in ta in e d , in a number
o f s c h o o ls , g r e a t e r th a n th e money s u b je c t, to sc h o o l p u r­
p oses i s s u f f i c i e n t to s u p p o rt."
5.
Has any improvement been observed in th e q u a l if ic a tio n s
o f te a c h e rs ?
"None w orthy o f rem a rk ."
6.
B rie f account of te a c h e rs* i n s t i t u t e s o r o th e r e d u c a tio n a l
m eetin g s h eld d u rin g th e y e a r:
"T eac h ers’ i n s t i t u t e h e ld a t B ish o p ’s Court House, J u ly
4 th , 1872; r a th e r t h i n l y a tte n d e d . T each ers, male and
fem ale, and o th e r sch o o l o f f ic e r s p r e s e n t; to o k much
i n t e r e s t in th e e x e r c is e s . S e v e ra l s h o r t a d d re s s e s were
made by th e county, sch o o l su p e rin te n d e n t and o th e r f r ie n d s
o f th e sy stem ."
7.
To what e x te n t h as u n ifo rm ity of te x t books been se c u re d ?
"Teachers* m onthly r e p o r ts f a i l t o g iv e s a t i s f a c t o r y
in fo rm a tio n on t h i s p o in t. They have been n o ti f ie d t h a t
h e r e a f t e r a r e c e ip t w i l l not be is s u e d f o r a m onthly r e ­
p o r t which i s u n s a tis f a c to r y on th e s u b je c t of t e x t books
o r v a c c in a tio n ."
8.
Are th e re c o rd s o f th e D i s t r i c t and County Boards p ro p e rly
k e p t?
"They are n o t.
t h i s b u s in e s s ."
T his f a i l u r e produces much d is o r d e r in
41
9,
Any improvement, o r p ro sp e c t of improvement, in sch o o l
houses?
" I t i s ex p ected t h a t th e d i s t r i c t ta x , soon to be c o l l e c t ­
ed , w i l l be sp e n t c h ie f ly in b u ild in g new sch o o l houses
and r e p a ir in g th o se now in u s e , ”
10,
Any l i t i g a t i o n grown o ut o f ta x a tio n f o r sch o o l purposes?
"None."
11,
Any sch o o l p ro p e rty d estro y ed by v io le n c e ?
"None." ^
The t o t a l amount expended in th e county t h a t y e a r f o r p u b lic
e d u c a tio n was $ 7 ,7 6 4 .1 9 .
The per c a p ita c o s t p e r month was $ 1 .4 6 .
By th e n ex t y ear p u b lic sentim ent in th e county tow ards th e
p u b lic sch o o l system had e v id e n tly improved, a s in th a t y e a r S uper­
in te n d e n t Raney r e p o r te d :
"P u b lie sen tim en t i s b e lie v e d t o be undergoing a change
somewhat more fa v o ra b le to th e p u b lic sch o o l system in t h i s
county. T his g r a tif y in g change i s being shown amongst p a re n ts
o f c h ild re n w ith in th e sch o o l age t o a g r e a te r degree th a n
amongst any o th e r c la s s of p erso n s. O pposition to th e
system has n o t ceased to e x i s t , b u t i t i s le s s open and
v io le n t th a n fo rm e rly ." 2
T his document a ls o r e p o r ts an improvement in q u a l if ic a tio n s of
te a c h e rs and th e a d d itio n of one more sch o o l.
The r e p o r t c o n ta in s
an i n t e r e s t i n g s id e lig h t on th e acu te r a c e problem under which
dem o cratic i n s t i t u t i o n s had t o la b o r a t t h a t tim e.
S u p erin ten d en t
Raney concludes "The c o -e d u c a tio n of th e Races Im proper, as w e ll
3
as Im p o s s ib le ."
1 . V irg in ia School R ep o rts, 1871-72, V ol. I .
2. V irg in ia School R eporis, l87ii, Vol. I .
3. I b i d .
42
By th e y e a r 1873 th e r e were 17 sc h o o ls , 15 of which were
fram e and 2 lo g h o u ses.
There w ere 17 te a c h e r s , whose average
m onthly s a la r y was $30.
S u p erin ten d en t Raney d ie d in 1874, and h i s p la ce was ta k en
by Mr. W. H. H a rris o n , who serv ed as s u p e rin te n d e n t f o r fiv e y e a r s .
The sch o o ls s u ffe re d a s e r io u s s e t-b a c k upon th e d eath o f Mr. Raney,
as shown by th e f a c t t h a t th e y d ecreased in number to 14, — 7
w hite and 7 c o lo re d , th e fo llo w in g y e a r.
But Mr. H a rris o n succeed­
ed in overcoming t h i s h an d icap , f o r under h is le a d e rs h ip th e sy s­
tem g ra d u a lly to o k new l i f e , so th a t from th e n u n t i l 1877, when
th e sch o o l funds began to be d iv e rte d , th e re was a c o n tin u a l in ­
c re a se in th e growth o f th e sc h o o ls.
No c o n s o lid a tio n was a tte m p t­
ed a t t h i s tim e , however.
By 1875 th e sch o o ls had in c re a se d in number to 21, w ith a
t o t a l school p o p u la tio n o f 2 ,6 4 8 .
The term was f o r 5.83 months.
Mr. H a rris o n ’s annual r e p o r t s ta t e d t h a t in p u b lic o p in io n th e r e
was a g a in , b u t t h a t school houses were in bad c o n d itio n .
There
were no te a c h e r s ’ i n s t i t u t e s th a t y e a r, b u t th e fo llo w in g y ear he
re p o rte d a te a c h e r s ’ i n s t i t u t e , and th a t te a c h e rs were b eing graded
acco rd in g to c e r t i f i c a t e s .
$5,505.39 was expended during 1876.
The next two y e a rs were marked by su c c e ssiv e d e c lin e s in re v ­
enue expended in P rin c e George County, — $4,711.66 in 1877 and
$3,942.81 in 1878.
4:3
In M s e ig h th annual r e p o r t S ta te S u p e rin te n d e n t R uffner
re p o rts :
"The d iv e rs io n o f school funds com plained o f in my l a s t
r e p o r t has in c re a s e d . P re v io u s ly we had l o s t a t th e
r a t e o f ah o u t $80,000 a n n u a lly , but l a s t y e a r over
$250,000 o f sch o o l money was used f o r o th e r p u rp o se s, o r
about one h a lf th e pro ceed s o f ta x a tio n f o r sch o o l p u r­
p o se s. The r e s u l t , o f c o u rse , i s a b re a k in g down o f th e
u s e fu ln e s s of th e sch o o l system . The f in a n c ia l p ro s p e c t
i s so gloomy th a t th e re must be an im mediate and v e ry
la r g e c u rta ilm e n t in our school o p e r a tio n s ."
P rin c e George was a f f e c t e d by t h i s d iv e rs io n t o th e e x te n t
o f having h e r sch o o ls reduced to 20 i n th e y e a r 1879.
The a tte n d ­
ance d e c lin e d t o 467.
T his was a d isc o u ra g in g tim e f o r th e "sch o o l men".
Mr. B r i t ­
to n , who was th e n s u p e rin te n d e n t o f sch o o ls of P rin c e George County,
comments upon t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s th u s :
th e d iv e rs io n o f th e sch o o l fund caused i t to
s u f f e r and go backw ards, as b efo re m entioned. I t can
be sa id o f t h i s county (and few can b o a s t as much) t h a t
te a c h e rs * w a rra n ts were n ev er hawked around or d is c o u n t­
ed by sh av ers and b a rk e rs . Our county t r e a s u r e r did
a l l in h is power to save th e te a c h e rs from inconvenience
and l o s s , paying them o u t o f any funds t h a t came f i r s t
in to h is h an d s, and n o t u n fre q u e n tly c lo s in g a school
y ear w ith th e d i s t r i c t s in d eb ted t o him. Such d i s i n t e r ­
e s te d n e s s on th e p a r t o f an o f f ic e r d eserv es s p e c ia l
m ention, e s p e c ia lly a s a t t h a t tim e p u b lic o p in io n was
so much opposed to even paying o ut th e p u b lie funds.
" .............. Some t r u s t e e s a re s a t i s f i e d to l e t th e sc h o o ls
tak e care o f th e m se lv e s, and th e re th e E l e c t o r a l boards*
have been a t f a u l t ; f o r , u n le s s tr u s te e s d id something
to be removed f o r , th e y co uld always h o ld o f f i c e , f o r i t
i s r a r e l y th e case th ey a r e removed f o r n ot doing a n y th in g .
The consequence i s , t h a t th e re are t r u s t e e s h o ld in g o f f ic e
th a t w ere n ev er in a s c h o o l room; b u t th e m a jo rity do th a r
du ty f a i t h f u l l y , and c o n s id e rin g th e f a c t t h a t th e y g e t
no p ay , th e y a r e to be much commended." ®
1 . V irg in ia School R e p o rts, 1878.
2. m e n --------------------------------------
44
W ith th e passage o f th e H enkel Act on March 3, 1879,
$459,515.95 was a p p ro p ria te d in V irg in ia f o r th e use of th e pub­
l i c sch o o ls of th e s t a t e .
T h is amount was to make up f o r th e
funds w hich had been d iv e rte d t o o th e r governm ental f u n c tio n s d u r­
ing th e p re v io u s s e v e ra l y e a r s .
Under th e im petus o f th e s e added
funds s c h o o l o p e ra tio n s began t o in c re a s e .
N e v e rth e le s s , i t was d i f f i c u l t to g e t th e cou n ty sch o o ls back
upon a growing b a s is a f t e r th e s e rio u s s e t- b a c k o f th o s e y e a r s .
Mr. H a rriso n had succeeded in b r in g in g th e sc h o o ls th ro u g h th e c r i s i s ,
and had ju s t g o tte n th e system r e s to r e d when he d ie d , in 1880, t o be
succeeded by Mr. Timothy R iv e s.
Mr. R iv e s 1 appointm ent took p la c e in A ugust, so th a t he was able
to b e g in th e sch o o l y e a r w ith no d im u n itio n in th e number o f sc h o o ls.
T his was made p o s s ib le by th e f a c t t h a t funds were a g a in being
r e s to r e d , and th e o ld t r u s t e e s were d o in g t h e i r utm ost t o keep th e
sch o o ls g oing.
The school r e p o r ts in t h a t y e a r do n ot l i s t S urry
and P rin c e George C o unties to g e th e r under one s u p e rin te n d e n t as
h e r e to f o r e , and from th a t y e a r u n t i l 1909 P rin c e George had i t s own
s u p e rin te n d e n t.
Although Mr. R iv es was s e rv in g as s u p e rin te n d e n t when th e
L e g is la tu r e m et, h is appointm ent was n ot conformed by t h i s body, and
Mr. H. C. B r itto n was e le c te d t o f i l l t h i s p la c e in 1881.
At t h i s tim e a l l o f th e sc h o o ls in th e county were one-room
s c h o o ls, some of the b u ild in g s b ein g of lo g s .
Very few desks o r
45
o uth o u ses were a v a ila b le *
out b ack s.
C h ild re n s a t upon rough benches w ith ­
S toves were p ro v id e d , but th e p u p ils had to cu t and
b rin g th e wood from a d jo in in g woods.
P u p ils a ls o ten d ed th e f i r e
and swept th e room, and d id w hatever ja n i t o r s e r v ic e was r e q u ire d
by th e te a c h e r.
Most of th e b u ild in g s used a s s c h o o ls were donated
o r r e n te d , and th e nom inal charge f o r r e n t was from two t o th r e e
d o l l a r s a month p e r room.
In h is r e p o r ts to th e S ta te S u p e rin te n d e n t of P u b lic I n s tr u c ­
t i o n d u rin g th e term o f h is o f f i c e , Mr. B r itto n re p o rte d p ro g re ss
i n s e v e ra l d ir e c tio n s .
In 1882 th e amount of sch o o l fu n d s a v a ila b le
had r is e n to # 7 ,2 7 7 .9 5 .
Male te a c h e rs i n th e county were re c e iv in g
# 2 1 .3 7 , women #23.20.
T his was below th e average f o r th e c o u n ties
o f th e s t a t e , which was in th a t y e a r $27.21 f o r male and $25*48 f o r
women te a c h e rs .
An in c re a s e was e f f e c te d in 1883, and a f u r t h e r
one in 1884, so th a t in th a t y e a r male te a c h e rs in t h i s county w ere
re c e iv in g $28.48 and women $ 2 7 .8 4 .
In 1883 S ta te S u p e rin te n d e n t John E. Massey devoted p a r t of
h is r e p o r t to a ta b u la tio n o f th o se c o u n tie s which had p a id t h e i r
te a c h e rs prom ptly, and P rin c e George was l i s t e d among th o s e which
had done s o .
Only a few more th a n h a l f o f th e c o u n tie s were a b le to
do t h i s .
A te a c h e r s ’ i n s t i t u t e was f i r s t re p o rte d in th e co u n ty in 1883.
One was h eld i n 1884 a ls o , and a Negro i n s t i t u t e in 1885.
But a f t e r
t h i s f o r a number of y e a rs th e S ta te S u p e rin te n d e n t’s r e p o r t l i s t e d
no i n s t i t u t e in P rin c e George County.
46
I n 1884 th e eounty s u p e r in te n d e n t’s s a la r y was r a is e d to
$300.00 a y e a r.
In commenting on "sen tim en t about th e sch o o ls"
i n t h a t y ear S u p e rin te n d e n t B r it to n re p o r te d , "Very fa v o ra b le ;
1
only a few o f th e more w ealthy and ig n o ra n t oppose them ."
By such s ta g e s a s enum erated above did th e sc h o o ls p r o g r e s s ,
slow ly b u t s u r e ly , each s ta g e o f t h e i r p ro g re s s b eing th e r e s u l t
o f a c o n s ta n tly awakening p u b lic co n scio u sn ess in reg ard t o p u b lic
e d u c a tio n .
The Development o f th e One- and Two-room Schools
Mr. B ritto n was follow ed in 1886 by Dr. J . W. Stephenson
as s u p e rin te n d e n t of th e county s c h o o ls .
sm all g a in s were made.
D uring th e n ex t y ears
T each ers1 s a l a r i e s showed a sm all in c re a s e ,
and school funds a v a ila b le in c re a s e d to $ 9 ,2 1 6 .6 6 .
sch o o l houses w ere added.
Two more
The r e p o r t f o r 1889 g iv e s th e f i r s t in ­
fo rm atio n we co u ld f in d on co st o f t u i t i o n p er month p er p u p il.
T his amount was re p o rte d to be .890 fo r B rince George County in
t h a t y e a r. The r e p o r t on "sen tim en t about th e sc h o o ls" was sim ply
2
"good".
I n 1888 th e f i r s t two-room o r graded sc h o o l was s t a r t e d
a t D is p u ta n ts.
1• V irg in ia School R e p o rts, 1885.
^ • V irg in ia School R e p o rts, 1889.
47
In making h is annual r e p o r t in 1891 Mr. Comer, S u p erin ten d ­
e n t of S chools o f P rin c e George County, r e p o rte d to th e S ta te a s
f o llo w s :
1.
Any improvement in c o n d itio n of sch o o ls?
"Yes. D is c ip lin e and r e s u l t s th a t fo llo w ; I t may
have been cuased by th e average atte n d a n c e having
been reduced to 10. I have h e re to fo re s ta t e d th a t
v ery many of our sch o o l b u ild in g s a re uncom fortable
and m ise ra b ly fu rn is h e d , and u n t i l th e se o b s ta c le s
a re removed, we can s c a r c e ly expect any marked imrprovement in our s c h o o ls ."
2.
Have you un d ertak en any p la n s fo r th e improvement
o f your sch o o ls?
"Yes. We approve o f norm al tr a in in g and new m ethods,
endorse th e Peabody I n s t i t u t e s and urge te a c h e rs to
a tte n d . Have succeeded in c o lle c tin g om itted ta x e s
on r a i l r o a d s f o r fo u r o f our d i s t r i c t s f o r y e a rs
1881 to 1888 in c lu s iv e , amounting to about $2,000.
EXpect t r u s te e s to expend t h i s sum i n b u ild in g s and
f u r n i t u r e ."
3.
What sch o o l l e g i s l a t i o n in your judgment i s needed?
" P re se n t law s s u f f i c i e n t i f e x e c u t e d . .. .. " ^
Under t h i s q u e s tio n Mr. Comer recommended d o u b lin g th e ta x on liq u o r
lic e n s e s and g iv in g i t to th e s c h o o ls , and p u ttin g back in to fo rc e
th e c a p i ta t io n ta x .
I t seems t h a t th e e x p e c ta tio n s o f Mr. Comer were r e a l iz e d in
p a r t , nam ely, th e e x p e n d itu re o f th e #2,000 in b u ild in g s and eq uip­
m en t.
For in 1891 a two-room sch o o l was
b u i l t a t G a ry s v ille and
th e fo llo w in g y e a r a two-room sch o o l was e re c te d a t N ew ville.
In 1891 Mr. Benjamin Fenner was e le c te d su p e rin te n d e n t of
V ir g in ia School R e p o rts , 1891.
48
s c h o o ls , in which p o s iti o n he serv ed u n t i l 1908.
S e v e ra l one-
and two-room sch o o ls were b u i l t in th e n ex t few y e a rs .
I n 1898 we f in d ev id en ce of th e o b je c tio n of a p a tro n to th e
c lo s in g of a sm all one-room sc h o o l.
A l e t t e r w r itt e n to Mr. Fenner
i n 1898 and p re se rv e d by h is d au g h te r, Mrs. J u d ith B ern ard , shows
th a t p a tro n s fo u g h t th e e s ta b lish m e n t of l a r g e r sch o o ls and wanted
t h e i r own community sc h o o l, no m a tte r how sm all i t w as, no r how
sm all th e e n ro llm e n t.
The l e t t e r fo llo w s:
B u rro w sv ille ,
F ebruary 22, 1898
Dear Ben:
I lam ent to have to w r ite you th a t u n le s s you
d iv e r t y o u r s e lf o f the s u s p ic io n th a t you are hab o rin g
an in te n tio n to a c t u n f a ir l y a g a in s t th e school in Brandon
Neck, t h a t you w ill s p l i t th e dem ocratic p a r ty wide open
in t h i s p a r t of th e county. I t i s a lle g e d t h a t you p e r­
m itte d Miss S tevens t o keep h e r sch o o l w ith o u t an average
because th e re was f a c tio u s o p p o s itio n , when you sh u t th e
school up in Brandon Neck f o r th e v ery re a s o n you perm it
Miss S tevens to keep h e r s open. I hope when you r e f l e c t
about this m a tte r you w i l l see th a t th e d an g er o f d riv in g
a man li k e Alec L ivesay t o th e w a ll, when th e re i s money
to ru n th e eounty sc h o o ls , i s a m ista k e . L ivesay has been
a f a i t h f u l dem ocrat and should be upheld in any la u d ab le
a m b itio n . He h as a la r g e fa m ily , and a group o f f r ie n d s
r i g h t around him are in cen sed by se e in g t h e i r fa m ilie s
den ied th e p r iv ile g e of s c h o o lin g , when th e negroes en joy
th e r ig h t* The school t r u s t e e s a re w ill in g t o open th e
schools and you w i l l have them a t your back.
I f I had tim e to w rite you a p r iv a te l e t t e r I would
have done s o , b u t had no tim e fo r I only knew of th e
tr o u b le y e s te rd a y and my f r ie n d , A lec L iv esay , fe a re d Miss
Johnson w i l l ta k e an o th e r school and so th e y would lo s e
»
h e r.
They say th a t i f th e y have n o tic e when th e sch o o l w i l l
open th a t Miss Johnson can e n r o ll n o t l e s s th a n 16 or 17
s c h o la r s .
S in c e re ly your f r ie n d ,
49
There was a g e n e ra l d ecrease in t e a c h e r s 1 s a l a r i e s , sch o o l
fu n d s a v a i la b l e , number of sch o o l houses and le n g th of term in th e
y e a rs from 1898 to 1904.
Although th e d e c re a se in sch o o l funds
was a s l i g h t one, te a c h e r s 1 s a l a r i e s were reduced from $26.94 f o r
male and $24.19 f o r women te a c h e r s in 1898 to $20.20 f o r bo th male
and women te a c h e r s in 1904.
A ccording to th e S ta te S u p e rin te n d e n t’s
r e p o r t f o r t h a t y ear th e term o f th e P rin c e George County S chools
was sh o rten ed from 6.09 to 5 .8 9 months p e r y e a r , and th e re was a
re d u c tio n o f two in th e number o f school houses (not due t o c o n s o li­
d a tio n ) .
I n 1904 th e G eneral Assembly passed an a c t a u th o riz in g th e
S ta te Board of E d u catio n to ap p o in t a board f o r th e exam ination of
te a c h e rs and th e in s p e c tio n o f s c h o o ls .
P rin c e George was p laced
in th e second c i r c u i t and Mr. W i lli s A. Jen k in s was th e f i r s t Exam­
in e r and In s p e c to r.
B r. Massey, th e S ta te S u p e rin te n d e n t, c o n s id e r­
ed t h i s t o be " th e most im p o rtan t and f a r - r e a c h in g a c t o f th e S ta te
B o ard 'o f E d u catio n in many y e a r s ." *
A p p aren tly Mr. Jen k in s im m ediately concerned h im se lf w ith h is
new d u tie s in th e Second C ir c u it.
H is r e p o r t on P rin c e George in
1907 was n o t a good one, however.
I t was a s fo llo w s :
" P rin c e George i s one of th e few c o tin tie s t h a t has no
h ig h s c h o o l. No c o n s o lid a tio n s have been made. A tw oroom sch o o l has been com pleted and ta k e s th e p la ce o f
what would have been two one-room s c h o o ls .
"The ta x r a t e i s unchanged, th e re have been no p r iv a te
c o n tr ib u tio n s . The te a c h e r s ’ pay has been in c re a se d
1. V ir g in ia School R e p o rts , 1905-06, p . 66.
50
f iv e d o l l a r s p e r month and th e term le n g th e n e d . T his
has come f o r th e most p a r t from th e in c re a s e in S ta te
funds* The county i t s e l f h as not responded a s have
o th e r c o u n tie s in t h i s c i r c u it* The sum o f $1,200 was
sp en t in b u ild in g s in 1907 a g a in s t $315 in 1 905." ^
To t h i s we m ight add t h a t th e t o t a l v a lu a tio n o f sch o o l
p ro p e rty in 1905 was $6,025.
I n t e r e s t in p u b lic sch o o l e d u c a tio n was g iv e n an im petus i n
1907 when th e S ta te Department decid ed t o have p rep ared a la rg e
d is p la y f o r th e Jamestown E x p o s itio n .
Mr. W illis Jen k in s was made
su p e rin te n d e n t of t h i s d is p la y , and most of th e s c h o o ls o f th e
s t a t e s e n t work done by th e sch o o l c h ild r e n f o r e x h ib itio n .
P rin c e George made a c o n trib u tio n t o w hich Mr. Jen k in s r e f e r r e d
i n h is r e p o r t a s fo llo w s :
"The P rin c e George E x h ib it c o n s is ts o f two n e a tly
bound volumes o f m isc ellan eo u s sch o o l w ork, t e s t i f y ­
ing to th e c r e d ita b le work of V irg in ia r u r a l s c h o o ls ."
These volumes were r e c e n tly p re se n te d by Mrs. J u d ith B ernard,
who has p reserv ed them, t o th e su p e rin te n d e n t o f sc h o o ls of P rin c e
George County, to be k ep t as a perm anent reco rd f o r th e P rin c e George
County School B oard.
These volumes are e s p e c ia lly p riz e d i n view of
th e f a c t , p o in ted out in th e f i r s t c h a p te r, t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y a l l county
sch o o l re c o rd s p r io r to 1923 have been l o s t .
One o f th e se volumes c o n ta in s a l e t t e r w r itte n by Dewey Warren,
a p u p il o f th e C arson School in P rin ce George County, which i s p a r t i ­
c u la r ly i n t e r e s t i n g as i t p o in ts a v iv id c o n tr a s t between th e Carson
1. I b i d . , p . 70
2* V ir g in ia School R e p o rts , 1906*06; 1906-07. p . 539.
51
School as i t e x is te d th e n and th e modern b r ic k b u ild in g l a t e r
b u i l t th e r e .
The l e t t e r fo llo w s :
C arson, V ir g in ia ,
March 9 , 1907
.COLLEGE Of WILLIAM & MAKH
D ear F rie n d :
My papa owns a farm n e a r th e v il la g e of C arson.
I am my p ap a’s o ld e s t boy. He c a l l s me h i s man, b u t
I am only e ig h t y e a rs o ld . I have two s i s t e r s and
one b r o th e r . My s i s t e r and I go to sch o o l n ear our
home. I t i s a ren ted house, and was once a d w e llin g .
I t has rough b lack b o ard s, and old s e a ts t h a t f a l l
down o f te n . Our mamas and papas say t h a t i t i s f in e
to what th e y used to have. J u s t w ish I could see
where th e y went to sc h o o l. But we w i l l be b e t t e r
fix e d a n o th er y e a r f o r th e Board says i t i s going
to g iv e us a new house and e v e ry th in g new. And won’t
we c h ild re n be g lad to have so many new th i n g s .
Your f r ie n d ,
Dewey Warren.
M inutes o f th e d i s t r i c t boards o f Templeton and B lackw ater
d i s t r i c t s in reg ard to th e D is p u ta n ts Graded School g iv e a picture
of many d i f f i c u l t i e s .
A p parently one of th e m ajor d i f f i c u l t i e s
in th o se days was th e m a tte r o f d is c i p lin e .
I n 1908 th e re was a
m eeting a t th e co u rt house, a t which th e fo llo w in g a c tio n was ta k e n :
*At th e same tim e th e d i s t r i c t board of Templeton and
B lackw ater D i s t r i c t was c a lle d to c o n s id e r th e D is p u ta n ta
Graded School of having bad o rd er in sc h o o l. The two
b o ard s decided t o c lo se th e D is p u ta n ta Graded School on
th e 1 5 th , and in s tr u c te d Mr. D. A. H a rris o n to n o ti f y th e
te a c h e rs o f a c tio n o f th e board and in s tr u c te d him to
s t a t e to them b o th why th e b o ard s clo sed th e sc h o o l, —
th e te a c h e rs having been in s tr u c te d two o r th r e e tim es
to keep b e t t e r d is c ip lin e in t h e i r sch o o l and have f a il e d
to obey th e two B o a rd s.” •*1 . M inute Book D i s t r i c t Boards o f Templeton and B lackw ater D i s t r i c t s
(H andw ritten, co v erin g p erio d September 1906 to J u ly , 1914) In
o f f ic e P rin ce George County School Board.
52
At t h i s tim e i t was custom ary t o have th e b o y s' and th e
g ir ls * playgrounds s e p a ra te d :
”J u ly 35, 1908 - th e two bo ard s decided to p u t a w ire
fence in f r o n t o f sch o o l house and p u t a p e t i t i o n fen ce
of b o ard s to d iv id e th e boys* and g i r l s ’ p la y g ro u n d s."
In t h i s y e a r th e boards o f R ives and Tem pleton d i s t r i c t s
decided to move School # 8 in Templeton, and G ary’s School in R ives
qnd p ro v id e a two-room o r graded school f o r th e two d i s t r i c t s .
In J u ly , 1909, Mr. W. W. Edwards was e le c te d s u p e rin te n d e n t
o f sch o o ls, to serv e bo th P rin c e George and Sussex C o u n tie s.
In
th a t y ear a t a c a lle d m eeting o f th e d i s t r i c t b o ard s th e f i r s t
s te p s f o r th e b u ild in g of a h ig h sch o o l in P rin c e George County
were ta k e n .
A ra p id growth in sch o o ls took p la ce in th e next few
y e a rs.
The D isp u tan ta High School was b u i l t a t a c o s t of $ 9 ,0 0 0 , —
$5,000 of which was borrowed from th e L ite r a r y Fund, $3,000 p ro v id ­
ed from lo c a l fu n d s, and $2,000 borrowed l o c a l l y .
The new b u ild in g ,
lo c a te d a t D isp u ta n ta , was used d u rin g th e s e s s io n 1910-11, and was
th e
f i r s t c o n so lid a te d h ig h school in P rin c e George County.
With th e e s ta b lish m e n t
o f t h i s sch o o l th e seed was sown f o r a
h ig h school movement in P rin c e George County.
Under Mr. Edwards’ a d m in is tra tio n a sch o o l b u ild in g program
was
und ertak en which la s te d fo r s e v e r a l years* I n 1910-11 a
two-
room school was e re c te d a t B u rro w sv ille on one acre of la n d , a t a
c o s t o f $450.
The P rin c e George School, having fo u r rooms «nd b u i l t
a t a c o st o f $ 4 ,2 3 6 .7 1 , was e r e c te d in 1911.
1. Ib id .
A sch o o l was a ls o
53
b u i l t in R ives D i s t r i c t in 1911-12 on a s i t e c o n ta in in g two a c r e s
of la n d .
I t was c a lle d the New Bohemia S ch o o l, and c o s t # 9 36.18.
I t had two te a c h e r s .
In Bland D i s t r i c t in 1911 a graded sch o o l was b u i l t and c a lle d
th e Rosewood School.
A sm all sch o o l in C ity P o in t w hich had been
clo sed f o r a number o f y e a rs was reopened in th a t y e a r a l s o .
S e v e ra l
p u p ils who had a tte n d e d t h i s l i t t l e one-room sch o o l in fo rm er y e a rs
l a t e r occupied prom inent p la c e s in th e b u sin e ss w o rld , n o ta b le among
whom was G eneral W illiam H. Cocke, bo rn a t C ity P o in t, and f o r many
y ears S u p erin ten d en t o f th e V ir g in ia M ilita r y I n s t i t u t e .
In 1912 th e C ity H i l l Farm"School, a n o th e r one-room s c h o o l, was
b u i l t in Bland D i s t r i c t .
T his school and th e Rosewood School were
o p erated u n t i l th e government began th e developm ent o f Camp Lee in
1917, when th ey had to be c lo se d .
Four rooms were th e n re n te d in
th e P re s b y te ria n Church in th e s e c tio n now known a s Woodlawn, and
here m a k e-sh ift c la s s rooms were c u rta in e d o f f and fo u r te a c h e r s were
placed in ch arg e.
I t was n o t u n t i l March, 1924 th a t t h i s c o n d itio n
was rem edied, when a c o n tra c t was l e t f o r a nine-room b u ild in g to be
b u i l t a t Woodlawn.
The n ex t h ig h sch o o l t o be b u i l t in P rin c e George County was th e
Carson High School in Templeton D i s t r i c t , which was b u i l t j o i n t l y by
th e Templeton D i s t r i c t School Board o f P rin c e George and th e Rowatan
D i s t r i c t Board o f Dinwiddie County.
The o p e ra tio n was l e f t t o th e
d i s t r i c t board o f Templeton in P rin c e George County.
T h is s c h o o l
54
was b u i l t w ith th e u n d e rsta n d in g th a t th e p a tro n s would r a i s e
#1,500, th e board would borrow #1,500 and th e d i s t r i c t bo ard o f
Dinwiddle C o u n ty would f u r n is h # 1,500.
The c o n tra c t p r ic e f o r
t h i s b u ild in g was # 4 ,8 8 1 , and th e c o n tra c t was l e t on March 6,
1913.
The Hopewell High School was b u i l t in 1915.
T his was a fram e
b u ild in g lo c a te d in th e s e c tio n o f Hopewell known as ”B., V i l l a g e . *
At th a t tim e th e schools o f Hopewell were u n d er th e a d m in is tr a tio n
of th e P rin c e George County Board, as th e C ity o f Hopewell had n o t
e s ta b lis h e d i t s own sch o o l b o ard .
I n 1916 Mr. J . W. B risto w was ap p o in ted s u p e rin te n d e n t of
sch o o ls and h e ld t h i s p o s itio n u n t i l 1920, when he re s ig n e d and Mr.
If. W. Edwards was app o in ted in h is p la c e .
By 1920 th e county had th re e h ig h s c h o o ls , lo c a te d a t D is p u ta n ta ,
Carson, and Hopewell, and tw e n ty -fiv e one- and two-room sc h o o ls in
the fo llo w in g d i s t r i c t s : th r e e in Tem pleton, seven in Erandon, f iv e
in B lackw ater, fo u r in R iv e s, and s ix in B land.
The h ig h sc h o o ls
were a c c re d ite d , b u t th e y were a c c e s s ib le to l e s s th a n 50$ of th e
school p o p u la tio n .
The one- and two-room sch o o ls had in ad eq u ate
equipm ent, p o o rly tr a in e d te a c h e r s , and ra n f o r o n ly s h o r t te rm s.
I t was n o t p o s s ib le to d iv id e th e e n ro llm en t so t h a t th e re was
an eq u al d i s t r i b u t i o n of c h ild r e n .
The r e s u l t was th a t one te a c h e r
had an average d a i ly a tten d an c e of 8 .6 w hile a n o th e r had 3 9 .8 .
d is ta n c e s betw een sehools made i t n ece ssary f o r some c h ild re n to
walk s ix m ile s to sch o o l.
The
55
A c a r e f u l stu d y of c o n d itio n s soon convinced th e school o f­
f i c i a l s t h a t c o n s o lid a tio n of schools and tr a n s p o r ta tio n o f p u p ils
were e s s e n t i a l to e q u a liz a tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l o p p o r tu n itie s .
A
m eeting was h e ld , atten d ed by th e r e t i r i n g su p e rin te n d e n t, Mr. Ed­
w ards, th e s u p e r in te n d e n t- e le c t, Mr. R. K. Hoke, and th e members of
th e d i s t r i c t board of Brandon.
At t h i s m eeting i t was decided, to
und ertak e a program of c o n s o lid a tio n of sch o o ls in th a t d i s t r i c t .
This program was extended to o th e r d i s t r i c t s under th e le a d e r ­
sh ip o f Mr. Hoke.
The Development o f th e D i s t r i c t High School
At th e time o f the estab lish m en t of th e p u b lic sch o o l system
P rin ce George County had f iv e school d i s t r i c t s , — B lackw ater» Bland,
Brandon, R ives, and Templeton.
The schools o f th e d i s t r i c t s were
given the d i s t r i c t name and d esig n ated by numbers; f o r example,
"Templeton # 1 ", ’’Templeton § 2 ", e tc .
L a te r however th ese sch o o ls
began to be known by o th e r names, u s u a lly th e name of th e n e a re s t
town, and th e o ld d i s t r i c t names were dropped.
Each school d i s t r i c t had i t s own d i s t r i c t school board composed
o f th re e members, — th e chairm an, the c le rk , and a member.
Records
o f a l l d i s t r i c t school a f f a i r s were kept by th e c le r k of th e d i s t r i c t
b o ard .
Once a y ear a l l o f th e d i s t r i c t school boards met to g e th e r a t
th e c o u rt house, a t which tim e th ey appeared b efo re th e board of
56
s u p e rv is o rs to secu re th e le v y f o r th e sc h o o ls fo r th e n ex t year*
T his m eeting had a d u a l p u rp o se, sin c e both county and d i s t r i c t
le v ie s were l a i d a t th a t tim e .
When a program o f c o n s o lid a tio n was u n d erta k en in 1920, th e
sch o o ls of th e county were s t i l l o p e ra tin g under th e d i s t r i c t
sch o o l board p la n ; th e r e f o r e , th e d i s t r i c t was used as a u n i t f o r
o rg a n is a tio n .
One- and two-room sc h o o ls were
sch o o l e s ta b lis h e d in each d i s t r i c t ,
clo sed and a f o u r - y e a r h ig h
Motor tr u c k s b ro u g h t th e
c h ild re n in to th e la rg e c o n s o lid a te d s c h o o ls .
Three s m a ll s c h o o ls
were continued in o p e ra tio n due to bad ro ad s and o th e r c a u s e s , b u t
th e high school s tu d e n ts were a l l brought t o th e d i s t r i c t h ig h
s c h o o ls , where th ey w ere$.ven th e b e n e f it of th e l a r g e r s c h o o ls .
C o n so lid a tio n o f S chools
Up u n t i l 1922 each o f th e f iv e d i s t r i c t s o f th e cou n ty had
a sch o o l board o f th r e e members. . The a d m in is tr a tio n o f th e s c h o o ls
was th e re f o r e in th e hands of f i f t e e n board members and th e su p er­
in te n d e n t o f s c h o o ls .
T his p la n was unw ieldy, and r i v a l r y and
p e t t y je a lo u s ie s caused sm all but annoying d i f f i c u l t i e s .
More im­
p o r ta n t, how ever, was th e f a c t th a t as lo n g as each d i s t r i c t had i t s
s e p a ra te board i t was im p o ssib le to p ro v id e c h ild r e n in d i f f e r e n t
d i s t r i c t s w ith eq u al e d u c a tio n a l o p p o r tu n itie s .
57
With th e a b o l iti o n o f th e d i s t r i c t boards on September 1,
1922, a county board of f iv e members, one from each d i s t r i c t , was
s e t up*
T his board had charge o f th e d isbursem ent o f a l l funds
o b ta in ed by le v y o r cash a p p r o p r ia tio n on a county b a s is in s te a d
o f a d i s t r i c t b a s is .
Under th e new p la n a l l sch o o l a f f a i r s were
a d m in iste re d upon a county-w ide b a s is , so th a t old d istffo t l i n e s
were g ra d u a lly done away w ith .
T his was an im p o rtan t s te p in
sch o o l p ro g re s s .
With th e development of a h ig h sch o o l in each d i s t r i c t and th e
t r a n s p o r ta tio n of p u p ils to th e se s c h o o ls , i t was to be expected
th a t d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a d m in is tra tio n would a r i s e w ith th e expansion
of th e system .
The s u p e rin te n d e n t, Mr. R* K. Hoke, a f t e r c o n fe rrin g
w ith th e sch o o l b o ard , re q u e ste d th e S ta te Board o f E d u catio n to
ap p o in t a committee to make a survey o f th e whole county system , and
to subm it recommendations f o r th e ad ju stm en t of c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s
and th e fu tu re growth and development of th e system .
In th e s p rin g of 1925 a su rv ey of th e sch o o ls was made by th e
fo llo w in g s t a f f :
D r. M. L* Combs, S ta te S u p erv iso r of Secondary Edu­
c a tio n ; D r. K. J . Hoke, Dean, C ollege o f W illiam and Mary; Mr. W. S.
D effenbaugh, C hief C ity School S p e c i a lis t , U. -S. Bureau o f E ducation;
Mr. E. E. W indes, R ural School S p e c i a lis t , U. S. Bureau o f E ducation;
and Mr. C. K, H o lsin g e r, U n iv e rs ity of V ir g in ia .
This survey i s of g r e a t i n t e r e s t to u s, a s i t r e s u lte d in changes
which were a decided improvement in th e system .
d a tio n was a s fo llo w s :
The f i r s t recommen­
"That a l l h ig h school work a t Rives and
58
P rin c e George High S chools be d is c o n tin u e d and th e p u p ils be
tra n s p o rte d to D is p u ta n ta , C arson, H opew ell, and P e te r s b u r g ." ^
T his recommendation was c a r r ie d o u t t h a t y e a r , th e h ig h sch o o l
work a t R ives and P rin c e George b ein g d is c o n tin u e d and th e p u p ils
being tra n s p o rte d to D isp u ta n ta and C arson.
The second recom mendation was th a t two y e a rs o f h ig h sch o o l
work be continued a t B u rro w sv ille u n t i l such tim e a s i t sh o u ld be
p r a c tic a b le to tr a n s p o r t th e hig h s c h o o l p u p ils to D isp u tan ta*
The board d id not f e e l t h a t i t was p o s s ib le to fo llo w t h i s recom­
m endation u n t i l 1932, when th e ju n io r h ig h sch o o l dep artm en t was
tr a n s f e r r e d to D is p u ta n ta .
The th ir d recommendation was th a t when a d d i tio n a l b u ild in g s
were needed in P rin c e George County, th e sch o o l board c o n s id e r th e
a d v i s a b i li ty of b rin g in g a l l sev en th grade p u p ils to th e D is p u ta n ta
and Carson sch o o ls f o r th e purpose o f re o r g a n iz in g th e work in th e s e
schools on th e 6-5 p la n .
I t was n o t p o s s ib le to do t h i s due t o
la c k of b u ild in g space f o r s e v e ra l y e a r s , b u t in 1939 th e change
was made.
The f o u r th recom mendation was th a t adequate p h y s ic a l equipm ent
be pro v id ed f o r home econom ics, a r t , a g r i c u l t u r e , s c ie n c e , and com­
m e rc ia l work in th e D is p u ta n ta and C arson High S ch o o ls.
Under t h i s
recommendation more adequate equipment f o r home econom ics and a g r i ­
c u l t u r a l work was p rovided a t D is p u ta n ta and th e same ty p e o f work
s ta r t e d a t Carson in 1925-26.
Commercial work w a s^ p ro v e d f o r th e
D isp u ta n ta School in Septem ber, 1926.
1 . School Survey o f 1925 (In o f f ic e of P rin c e George County S chool
B oard)
59
Due to la c k of space i t was n o t p o s s ib le to o f f e r commercial
work in th e C arson School u n t i l 1938-39, when th e b u ild in g was en ­
la rg e d .
D uring th a t s e s s io n p a r t- tim e commercial work was o ffe re d ,
and th e fo llo w in g y e a r f u ll - tim e co u rses were o f f e r e d .
The f i f t h recom mendation, th a t th e co u rse of stu d y o ffe re d in
th e h ig h sch o o l a t B u rro w sv ille be under th e g e n e ra l d ir e c tio n of
th e p r in c ip a l of th e D isp u ta n ta High School, was complied w ith .
The f i r s t p a r t of th e s ix th recommendation ad v ised re g a rd in g
th e seco n d ary program o f s tu d ie s as a county program under county
a d m in is tr a tio n .
This was com plied w ith .
The recommendation f u r th e r
ad v ised t h a t te a c h e rs o f a r t , home econom ics, and a g r ic u ltu r e in the
D isp u ta n ta High School te a c h th e se s u b je c ts a ls o i n th e B u rro w sv ille
High School.
Since th e board was most anxious to move th e e n t ir e
high sch o o l departm ent from B urro w sv ille to D isp u ta n ta , t h i s p a r t of
th e recommendation was n o t complied w ith .
The sev en th recommendation was in re g a rd to s u p e rv is io n of
elem en tary and hig h sch o o ls o f bo th county and c i t y upon a coopera­
t i v e b a s is .
T his r e s u lte d in th e employment of a s u p e rv is o r f o r th e
county in 1929.
The e ig h th recommendation was f o r a continuance o f th e home
d em o n stratio n w ork.
I n 1927 i t was n ecessary to d is c o n tin u e t h i s w ork,
but i t was renewed in 1937.
*
The r e p o r t o f th e Survey Committee contained th e f ollow ing in r e ­
gard to c o n s o lid a tio n of sch o o ls:
"P rin ce George has p robably done more in th e way o f
60
c o n s o lid a tio n of sch o o ls th a n any o th e r county in
V ir g in ia . As a m a tte r o f f a c t , th e su rv ey has l i t t l e
to recommend w ith re fe re n c e to c o n s o lid a tio n o th e r
th a n th e c a rry in g o u t o f th e program which i s a lre a d y
under way. I n s o f a r a s th e topography o f th e county
and ro ad s a re co ncerned, th e q u estio n o f c o n s o lid a tio n
in P rin c e George County i s v e ry sim p le . As a r u le th e
ro ad s a re in e x c e lle n t c o n d itio n and h ig h s c h o o l c h i l ­
d ren can "be tr a n s p o r te d in most eases f i f t e e n o r tw enty
m ile s , i f n e c e ss a ry , w ith no e v i l r e s u l t s . ”
Talcing th e recommendations of th e Survey Committee a s a g u id e ,
th e board made changes whenever and w herever p o s s ib le so as t o have
th e system conform t o th e se recom m endations.
These changes have
c o n trib u te d g r e a t ly to th e improvement of th e s c h o o ls .
T ra n s p o rta tio n of P u p ils
No tr a n s p o r ta tio n was o ffe re d by th e d i s t r i c t boards in P rin c e
George County p r i o r to 1914.
In some c a se s f a m ilie s h ir e d wagons
and d r iv e r s to tak e t h e i r c h ild re n to s c h o o l, th e expense b eing
shared by th e s e v e ra l f a m ilie s .
But t h i s method o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
served o n ly a sm all p a r t o f th e sch o o l p o p u la tio n , sin c e most c h i l ­
d ren were unable to pay fo r t h i s s e r v ic e .
The f i r s t a c tio n o f a d i s t r i c t board in re g a rd to fu r n is h in g
tr a n s p o r ta tio n was ta k e n by th e Templeton and B lackw ater D i s t r i c t
School Boards in th e summer of 1914 when i t was decided t h a t two
tr a n s p o r ta tio n r o u te s would be provided t o c a r r y th e c h ild r e n of
th e se two d i s t r i c t s to th e D isp u ta n ta S ch o o l.
by a mule was fu rn is h e d f o r each r o u te .
A la rg e wagon drawn
These wagons were covered
w ith canvas and had s e a ts arran g ed on each s id e .
61
The t r a n s p o r ta tio n system began to grow v ery g r a d u a lly .
In
1918-19 $ 1 ,2 2 5 .2 6 was sp en t f o r t r a n s p o r ta tio n and th e fo llo w in g
y e a r th e amount had in c re a se d to $2,175, as o th e r ro u te s were
e s ta b lis h e d .
With th e i n s t i t u t i o n of th e program o f school c o n s o lid a tio n
b eg in n in g in 1921 th e tr a n s p o r ta tio n system had to be r a p id ly ex ­
panded.
I n 1923-24 th e re were tw e n ty -th re e tr a n s p o r ta tio n ro u te s
o p e ra tin g under c o n tra c t in th e f iv e d i s t r i c t s of th e co u n ty , a t a
t o t a l c o s t of o p e ra tio n of $ 1 4 ,6 1 0 .1 7 .a n n u a lly .
The c o s t the
p rev io u s y e a r , b efo re th e f i n a l c o n s o lid a tio n , had been $ 6 ,2 2 7 ,5 2 .
In 1925-26, 697 p u p ils were tra n s p o rte d to and from sch o o l
in P rin ce George County.
I n t h i s y ear th e re were tw e n ty -e ig h t
d if f e r e n t v e h ic le s used, in c lu d in g tw e n ty -th re e tr u c k s (fo u r of
which were owned by th e sch o o l b o a rd ), fo u r au to m o b iles, and th e
e l e c t r i c c a r s o p e ra tin g betw een P e te rsb u rg and Hopewell.
By 1932 th e r e were tw en ty -n in e b u ses and one c h a rte re d s t r e e t
c a r b ein g used and. th e c o s t o f o p e ra tio n had r is e n to $ 1 9 ,6 5 7 .7 4 .
T his was more th a n th e county could a f f o r d , and c o n s id e ra tio n
was g iv en t o th e n e c e s s ity o f lo w erin g th is c o s t.
E xcessive r e p a i r b i l l s , caused by th e o b s o le te n a tu re o f the
fo u r county-owned b u se s, seemed to be a lo g i c a l s t a r t i n g p o in t to
cu t ex p en ses.
The q u e s tio n o f th e a d v i s a b i l i t y of county-ow nership
of v e h ic le s a ro s e .
School o f f i c i a l s and c i t i z e n s p r e f e r r e d th e con­
t r a c t o r p la n , i n s p i t e of th e f a c t t h a t c o n tra c to r s fu rn ish e d v ery
poor v e h ic le s , y e t c o n tin u a lly r a is e d th e c o n tra c t p r ic e .
62
The school board asked th e S ta te Department o f E ducation
t o make a survey o f th e P rin c e George County sc h o o ls , and to sub­
m it recom mendations
tem*
f o r th e improvement of i t s tr a n s p o r ta tio n sy s­
The su rv ey was completed in May, 1932, and co n tain ed th e
fo llo w in g recom m endations:
1.
Change t o county ow nership and o p e ra tio n as r a p id ­
l y as p o s s ib le .
2.
Use l a r g e r , modern, b u se s.
3.
R eroute buses by com bining and e lim in a tin g ro u te s
where p o s s ib le so th a t maximum s e rv ic e i s g iv e n by
each b u s . T his in v o lv e s ;
4.
a.
Some buses se rv in g two o r th r e e sc h o o ls.
b.
Some buses making a second s h o r t t r i p .
c.
A ll d r iv e r s l i v i n g n ear th e ends o f r o u te s .
Use th e savings th ro u g h county ow nership to fin a n c e
th e purchase of new b u se s. ^
These recommendations were d is c u s s e d a t a j o i n t m eeting o f th e
county sch o o l board and th e board o f s u p e r v is o r s , when a le n g th y
d is c u s s io n o f th e tr a n s p o r ta tio n problem was h e ld .
The sch o o l
board proposed c o n s o lid a tio n of two r o u te s th e n under c o n tr a c t, and
th e purchase of a new c h a s s is and body w ith th e sav in g s e f f e c te d by
th e c o n s o lid a tio n .
The recommendation was c a r r ie d in s p ite of th e
f a c t th a t most o f th e members p r e f e r r e d th e old p la n .
A modern new bus was purchased and p u t on th e ro u te in Septem­
b e r , 1933.
When th e bus had been in o p e ra tio n on ly th r e e weeks, i t
c o llid e d w ith a P e n in su la bus on i t s r e g u la r ru n .
The school b u s
was tu rn e d o v e r, a l l th e window l i g h t s broken, and th e body damaged.
1 . School Survey of 1952 .
Board.
In o f f ic e o f P rin c e George County School
63
S e v e ra l of th e c h ild r e n were ta k e n to th e h o s p ita l f o r f i r s t a i d ,
alth o u g h none were s e r io u s ly h u r t .
H o s p ita liz a tio n was provided
f o r one hoy who rem ained in th e h o s p ita l two weeks.
The P e n in s u la Line assumed a l l l i a b i l i t y , paid h o s p ita liz a tio n
b i l l s and a s u b s t a n t i a l sum to th e boy, b e s id e s paying one hundred and
f i f t y d o ll a r s f o r r e p a i r s to th e bus.
The a c c id e n t had two good r e s u l t s :
th e board took o u t bus
in s u ra n c e , and everyone im m ediately became convinced of th e a d v isa ­
b i l i t y o f o p e ra tin g o n ly s tr o n g , s a fe b u se s.
I t was ap p aren t th a t
i f one of th e o th e r buses had been in such a c o l l i s i o n th e c h ild r e n
would u n d oubtedly have been k i l l e d or s e r io u s ly in ju r e d .
I t ap p ea r­
ed from t h i s a c c id e n t t h a t th e only way to in s u re s a f e ty was to
operate modern, county-owned b u se s, o r to r e q u ir e c o n tr a c to r s to
fu rn ish bu ses which met a l l s a f e t y s ta n d a rd s .
The economy o f o p e ra tin g i t s own b u ses h av in g been d em o n strated ,
th e county planned th e g ra d u a l p u rch ase o f v e h ic le s and equipm ent.
A d d itio n al equipm ent was bought w ith th e s a v in g s e f f e c te d a s a d d itio n ­
a l r o u te s were ta k e n over from th e c o n tr a c to r s , and d r iv e r s f o r
th e se v e h ic le s were h ire d upon a y e a r ly b a s i s .
S t r i c t s ta n d a rd s f o r
co n tracto r-o w n ed v e h ic le s were s e t up a ls o .
T h ir ty d o ll a r s was e s ta b lis h e d as a m onthly s a la r y f o r th e d r iv e r
o f a county-owned bus where th e county fu rn ish e d e v e ry th in g .
A s c a le
f o r a d d itio n a l pay was decided upon f o r those d r iv e r s who fu rn is h e d
a l l o r p a r t of th e v e h ic le or equipment used.
The board con tin u ed t o re p la c e buses owned by c o n tra c to r s
64
w ith county-owned v e h ic le s and equipm ent, u n t i l in 1935-36 th e
county was a b le to ta k e over i t s l a s t c o n t r a c t.
New s ta n d a rd s w ere s e t up by th e bo ard .
These changes had
to do w ith ch o ice o f a sta n d a rd make of c h a s s is , s i z e of body, s iz e
o f w heelbase, ty p e of w h e e ls, ty p e s o f t i r e s , s e a tin g c a p a c ity , and
arrangem ent of s e a t s .
The changes in s ta n d a rd s re q u ire d a c o n s ta n t
improvement in b u ses from th e s ta n d p o in t of both s a f e ty and com fort.
R e g u la tio n s f o r t r a d e - i n of v e h ic le s were adopted, com petent
m echanics were h ir e d upon a y e a r ly b a s is , and e v ery th in g th a t could
be done to in s u r e th e c a re o f equipment and i t s s a fe h an d lin g was
r e q u ir e d .
D riv e rs were examined by a r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f th e S ta te Motor
V eh icle Commission a t th e begin n in g of each sch o o l y e a r.
In th e
o p e ra tio n of t h e i r v e h ic le th e y were re q u ire d to observe s t r i c t
s a f e ty p re c a u tio n s .
The county i s b ein g e f f i c i e n t l y serv ed in th e s c h o o l y ear
1939-40 by 13 bus r o u te s .
B efore t h i s co uld be accom plished, how­
e v e r, c o n s o lid a tio n o f sc h o o ls had to be b rought to i t s h ig h e st
p o in t and a l l r o u te s had to be la i d o f f i n th e most econom ical
manner p o s s ib le .
The t o t a l co st of o p e ra tio n f o r th e s e bus ro u te s
f o r th e y e a r 1938-39 was $1 4 ,2 6 4 .8 3 .
One o f th e most im p o rtan t f a c to r s in th e growth of th e schools
of P rin c e George County has been i t s tr a n s p o r ta tio n system .
By
t h i s means c h ild r e n o f a l l s e c tio n s o f th e county are provided w ith
e q u al e d u c a tio n a l o p p o r tu n itie s .
Although some of them li v e i n
65
s p a r s e ly s e t t l e d s e c tio n s o f th e co u n ty , th e y n e v e rth e le s s have
th e ad v an tag es o ffe re d by a la r g e and w e ll - s t a f f e d sc h o o l.
They
have th e advantage of more h ig h ly q u a lif ie d te a c h e rs and more
v a rie d c u r r ic u la th a n co u ld be o ffe re d in v ery sm all s c h o o ls .
In
a d d itio n to t h i s , v ery d ecid ed s o c ia l b e n e f i t s f o r both p u p ils
and p a r e n ts a re achieved#
C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f T eachers
Ih e n th e p u b lic sch o o l system was in au g u rated i n 1870, i t
was v ery hard t o secu re te a c h e r s o f any k in d .
A ccording t o Mrs*
J u d ith B ernard, a d a u g h te r o f th e Mr. Benjamin Fenner who was
s u p e rin te n d e n t of th e P rin c e George County S ch o o ls, " th e main r e ­
quirem ent in th e minds of th e sch o o l tr u s t e e s was w hether or n o t
th e a p p lic a n t f o r a te a c h in g p o s itio n was a d au g h ter or a son, or
was o th e rw ise r e l a t e d to a C onfederate v e te r a n .
I f th e a p p lic a n t
was a r e l a t i v e o f a v e te r a n , he o r she was g iv en p referm en t over
a l l who were n o t so r e l a t e d , w ith o u t re g a rd to o th e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . "
In 1872 in h is annual r e p o r t to th e S t a t e , Mr. Raney, S u p erin ten d ­
e n t o f S chools o f P rin c e George County, r e p li e d to th e q u estio n
"Have any improvements been achieved in th e q u a lif ic a tio n s o f te a c h 1
e r s ? " by sa y in g , "None w orthy o f rem ark ."
By 1876 te a c h e r s were being graded ac c o rd in g t o c e r t i f i c a t e s ,
b u t a p p a re n tly t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n had no b e a rin g upon th e s a la r y
1*V ir g in ia School R e p o rts, 1872.
66
re c e iv e d .
In 1879 Mr. B r itto n , S u p erin ten d en t o f Schools of
P rin c e George C ounty, r e p o r te d :
"The sch o o l t r u s t e e s have a s a g e n e ra l th in g been e f ­
f i c i e n t — one f a u l t however — th e y have been to o w i l l ­
in g to f i x th e te a c h e rs * pay a t a sm all f ig u r e , th e re b y
d r iv in g th e b e s t te a c h e rs from u s , and accum ulating th o se
l e s s c a p a c ita te d . T his in a m easure, however, was c o u n te r­
a c te d by annual ex am in atio n s, which d e te r r e d , to a g r e a t
e x te n t, th e i n e f f i c i e n t from o f f e r in g th e m selv es. And
h ere i t i s w e ll to s a y , f o r i t i s a w ell-known f a c t , t h a t
sometimes th o se s ta n d in g th e b e s t exam inations make th e
p o o re s t t e a c h e r s . . . . ” ^
Up u n t i l t h i s tim e th e re was i n th e annual r e p o r ts o f th e
S ta te S u p erin ten d en t o f P u b lic I n s tr u c ti o n a lam en tab le la c k of r e ­
p o r ts from P rin c e George County o f a reaso n ab le number o f teach ers*
i n s t i t u t e s , o r any o th e r s p e c ia l a t t e n t i o n b eing p a id to te a c h e r
tra in in g .
In S ta te S u p erin ten d en t Massey*s r e p o r t o f 1894-95 i t
i s th e re f o r e i n t e r e s t i n g to n o te t h a t in 1894 two w h ite and seven
Negro te a c h e rs were l i s t e d from P rin c e George a s a tte n d in g normal
s e h o o ls , w hile in 1895 two w hite and tw elve Negro te a c h e rs were
lis te d .
In 1896-97 Dr. Massey issu e d a c i r c u la r to th e s u p e rin te n d e n ts
in w hich he s a id , in p a r t , **The tim e has come when we can no lo n g e r
2
a f f o r d to n e g le c t th e p ro fe s s io n a l tr a i n in g o f te a c h e r s .”
In h is
r e p o r t f o r th a t y ear th e f i r s t l i s t i n g o f te ach ers* c e r t i f i c a t e s
is s u e d by th e su p e rin te n d e n t of P rin c e George County i s made.
E v id e n tly th e slow p ro g re s s made in P rin c e George County was
no slow er th a n t h a t made in o th e r c o u n tie s of th e s t a t e .
V irginia- School R e p o rts , 1879.
2 * V ir g in ia School R e p o rts, 1896-97.
In h is
67
r e p o r t f o r 1900-01 S ta te S u p e rin te n d e n t Joseph. W. S o u th a ll, in
u rg in g th e need of.m ore h ig h sch o o ls and l i s t i n g th e b e n e f i ts t o
be d e riv e d from t h e i r w id esp read e s ta b lis h m e n t, s a i d :
"We need them a ls o t o p rep are te a c h e r s f o r th e common
s c h o o l s . . . . . . The g r e a t m a jo rity of our te a c h e rs have
had no t r a i n i n g o th e r th a n t h a t w hich th e y re c e iv e d in
th e d i s t r i c t s c h o o ls .”
With th e e s ta b lis h m e n t of a S ta te Board o f Exam iners and I n ­
s p e c to rs in 1905 th e m a tte r of te a c h e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n began to be
s tr e s s e d , and i n th e n ex t few y e a rs an improvement began to ta k e
p la c e i n P rin c e George County.
At t h i s tim e ex am in atio n s were made o u t by th e d iv i s i o n su p er­
in te n d e n ts .
I n 1907-08 th e re was on ly one te a c h e r in P rin c e George
who h eld a p r o f e s s io n a l o r l i f e diplom a, and she was a Negro te a c h e r .
The fo llo w in g two ta b le s w i l l give a p ic tu r e o f th e im prove­
ment in te a c h e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n .
1896 and 1906-07
I n th e f i r s t , a com parison between
th e r e i s l i t t l e change.
Table No. I I shows th e
improvement which took p lace a f t e r 1906-07, when th e S ta te Board of
I n s p e c to r s and Exam iners began t o f u n c tio n .
Table I
C e r t i f i c a t i o n of Teachers
1896
T o tal
White
Negro
T o ta l
0
0
16
4
1
0
0
0
3
10
5
0
0
0
19
14
6
0
1
0
12
7
1
0
0
0
8
8
0
3
1
0
20
15
1
3
21
18
39
21
19
40
TSfhite
C o lle g ia te P r o f e s ­
s io n a l o r L ife
S p e c ia l
1 s t Grade
2nd Grade
3rd Grade
Emergency
1906-07
1 . V ir g in ia School R e p o rts, 1900-01.
Negro
T otal
68
Table I I
C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f T eachers
1909-10
Ih ite
C o lle g ia te P r o f e s s io n a l
o r L ife
S p e c ia l
1 s t Grade
2nd Grade
3rd Grade
Emergency
T o ta l
Negro
T o ta l
5
4
9
0
10
7
2
0
0
3
9
3
0
0
13
16
5
0
24
19
43
In 1919 th e V ir g in ia E d u catio n Commission, d ir e c te d byA lexander J . I n g l i s o f H arvard U n iv e r s ity , made a r e p o r t t o th e
Assembly o f V ir g in ia .
In t h i s r e p o r t te a c h e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n was
r e f e r r e d to th u s :
" U n til th e p a s t y ear V ir g in ia p ro b ab ly had th e do u b t­
f u l honor o f is s u in g more k in d s of c e r t i f i c a t e s — about
t h i r t y - s i x s e p a ra te v a r i e t i e s — th a n any o th e r s t a t e .
I n 1918 th a t p r a c tic e was abandoned and th e number o f
li c e n s e s t o te a c h in th e p u b lic sch o o ls of th e s t a t e r e ­
duced t o e i g h t . ” •*The e ig h t c e r t i f i c a t e s were a s fo llo w s :
c o lle g ia te p ro fe s s io n ­
a l , c o l l e g i a t e , normal p r o f e s s io n a l, elem en tary , s p e c i a l , f i r s t g ra d e ,
second g rad e, and l o c a l p e rm it.
The demand f o r b e t t e r in s tr u c tio n f o r th e c h ild r e n o f H rince
George County r e s u lt e d in s ta n d a rd s o f t e a c h e r s • c e r t i f i c a t e s b ein g
r a is e d , i n 1921-22.
I n t h a t y e a r we f in d th e board going on reco rd
as b ein g in fa v o r of b e t t e r p re p a ra tio n f o r te a c h e r s , when th e y de­
cid ed t h a t a f t e r t h a t s e s s io n no te a c h e r h o ld in g o n ly a f i r s t g rad e
c e r t i f i c a t e would be a p p o in te d .
1 . V ir g in ia P u b lic S c h o o ls, E d u catio n Commission’s R eport t o th e As­
sembly of V ir g in ia , 1919.
69
I n May, 1923 th e board went f u r t h e r and re q u ire d a l l te a c h ­
e r s in th e h ig h sch o o l to have a norm al p r o f e s s io n a l c e r t i f i c a t e .
By t h i s y ear te a c h e rs in P rin c e George County h eld c e r t i f i c a t e s
a s fo llo w s :
Table I I I
C e r t i f i c a t i o n of T eachers
1923
C o lle g ia te
S p e c ia l
Normal
E lem entary
P r o v is io n a l - 1 s t
E i r s t Grade
T o ta l
White
Negro
T o ta l
3
Q
9
6
4
5
0
0
4
15
2
_4
3
8
13
21
6
_9
35
25
60
I n 1925«26 th e re were 43 w h ite te a c h e r s employed in th e county,
16 o r 37$ o f whom h e ld c o l le g ia te p r o f e s s io n a l c e r t i f i e s t e s .
In 1926 q u a l if ic a tio n s were f u r t h e r r a is e d when th e board passed
a r e g u la tio n t h a t ”No new w h ite te a c h e r w i l l be app o in ted h o ld in g
l e s s th a n a nnrm al p r o f e s s io n a l c e r t i f i c a t e . ” ^
A decided improvement had ta k e n p la c e by th e y e a r 1929-30.
The number of w h ite te a c h e r s h o ld in g th e h ig h e r c e r t i f i c a t e s in t h a t
y e a r had in c re a s e d t o 33, or 66$, w ith a consequent d im u n itio n of th e
number h o ld in g th e lo w er c e r t i f i c a t e s . » In t h i s y e a r th e te a c h e r p e r ­
so n n el numbered 50.
In Septem ber, 1930 th e board f u r th e r r a is e d th e q u a lif ic a tio n s
by r e q u ir in g t h a t a l l w h ite te a c h e r s in th e elem en tary sch o o ls have
1. M inutes of th e P rin c e George County School Board, 1926-27.
70
a normal p r o f e s s io n a l c e r t i f i c a t e , and th o se i n th e high sch o o ls
a c o lle g e degree hy September 1 , 1933.
T h irty ; o r 75# o f th e te a c h e rs
in th e elem en tary sch o o ls a t th a t time had a normal p r o f e s s io n a l
c e r t i f i c a t e , o r i t s e q u iv a le n t.
I t may be o f i n t e r e s t a t t h i s p o in t to s t a t e t h a t a t th e end
o f th e s c h o o l s e s s io n in 1933 th e te a c h e r having th e lo n g e st te a c h ­
in g re c o rd in P rin c e George County re s ig n e d .
She had ta u g h t f o r
f i f t y y e a rs on a f i r s t g rad e c e r t i f i c a t e .
In 1934 th e board ru le d th a t a l l w h ite te a c h e rs employed a f ­
t e r September 1 , 1935 should have a t l e a s t a c o l le g ia te o r c o lle g ia te
p ro f e s s io n a l c e r t i f i c a t e , and added t h a t th e a p p lic a n ts w ith m asters*
d eg ree s would be g iv e n p re fe re n c e .
As a r e s u l t of t h i s a c tio n th e
te a c h e rs * q u a lif ic a tio n s h a d been brought up, i n 1939-40 to th e f o l ­
low ing p o in t:
Table IV
C e r t i f i c a t i o n of Teachers
1939-40
C o lle g ia te
C o lle g ia te P r o f e s s io n a l
S p e c ia l
Normal p ro f e s s io n a l
E lem entary
T o ta l
"White
6
18
1
22
—
47
Negro
2
7
1
17
5
T o ta l
8
25
2
39
_5
32
79
Pram th e above i t can be se e n th a t by 1939 teach ers* q u a l if ic a ­
tio n s had been r a is e d to th e p o in t where a l l w h ite te a c h e rs in th e
county could be c l a s s i f i e d under fo u r o f th e h ig h e r ty p e s o f c e r t i f i ­
c a te s .
To accom plish t h i s te a c h e rs had a tte n d e d summer sch o o l and
71
ta k e n correspondence c o u rs e s , and some had o b ta in ed le a v e s o f absence
to do th e n e c e ss a ry work.
The board made a f u r t h e r req u irem en t in
1932 th a t te ach ers a tte n d summer sch o o l o r ta k e a t r i p abroad once
every f o u r y e a r s .
Under t h i s p la n o f te a c h e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n s tr u c tio n in our
county sch o o ls has shown g r e a t improvement.
Summary
The f i r s t p u b lic sch o o l in P rin c e George County was e s ta b lis h e d
on Jan u ary 21, 1871.
The f i r s t s u p e rin te n d e n t d id n o t h o ld an e n v iab le
p o s iti o n as he was c a lle d a b la ck r a d i c a l and N eg ro -lo v er.
He re c e iv e d
very l i t t l e su p p o rt from th e sch o o l t r u s t e e s , many of whom were a f r a id
to work fo r th e s c h o o ls .
The amount of ta x e s e stim a te d f a r sch o o l purposes was 25 c e n ts
on th e $100 v a lu a tio n .
T his was much opposed by th e m a jo rity of th e
w h ites b ut fav o red by th e N egroes, who v o ted f o r th e ta x .
T his f e e l ­
ing on th e p a r t o f th e w h ite ta x payers co n tin u ed f o r a long tim e,
but g r a d u a lly th e number of p u b lic com plaints d ecreased .
Ey 1884
rtonly a few of th e more w ealthy and ig n o ran t opposed i t . ”
By such s ta g e s d id th e sch o o ls p ro g re s s , slo w ly b u t s u re ly ,
each sta g e of t h e i r p ro g re ss being th e r e s u l t of a c o n s ta n tly awakening
p u b lic co n scio u sn ess in re g a rd to p u b lic e d u c a tio n .
The sch o o l b u ild in g s were sm a ll, u n co m fo rtab le, and m iserab ly
fu rn is h e d .
The f i r s t b u ild in g of any s iz e was a two-room school
which was b u i l t in 1888 by the jo in t e f f o r t s of th e p a tro n s and th e
sch o o l t r u s t e e s .
Im m ediately a d e s ir e on th e p a rt of th e c i tiz e n s fo r
more a d e q u a te ly equipped b u ild in g s was m a n ife ste d , w ith th e r e s u l t th a t
V ir g in ia School R e p o rts, V ol. V I, p . 29.
72
s e v e ra l one- and. two-room b u ild in g s were b u i l t b e fo re 1909.
An am b itio u s b u ild in g program begun in 1910 r e s u lte d in more
adequate sc h o o ls th a n th e county had e v e r b efo re en jo y ed .
program a h ig h school was b u i l t in each d i s t r i c t .
Under t h i s
The development of
th e d i s t r i c t h ig h sch o o ls was an im p o rtan t s te p toward th e c o n so lid a ­
t i o n o f sc h o o ls which was l a t e r c a r r ie d o u t.
In 1922 th e f iv e d i s t r i c t b o a rd s, o f f iv e members e a c h , were
a b o lis h e d , and a county board o f f iv e members was e le c te d t o ta k e t h e i r
p la c e .
T h is change r e s u lte d in g r e a te r u n ity and economy o f a d m in is tra ­
tiv e e f f o r t.
I n 1925 a Survey o f th e county sch o o ls was h e ld , and th e recommenda­
t i o n s o f th e Survey Gommittee tow ard c o n s o lid a tio n of sch o o ls and
o th e r improvements were c a r r ie d out w ith g r e a t b e n e f it to th e system .
A nother im p o rtan t c o n trib u tin g f a c t o r to th e growth of th e schools
has been th e demand f o r b e t t e r te a c h e r tr a i n i n g .
As e a r ly a s 1876
te a c h e rs were b ein g graded acc o rd in g to c e r t i f i c a t e s in P rin c e George
County, b u t f o r many y e a rs th e number of te a c h e rs who had had any normal
tr a i n in g w hatever was few indeed.
A c o n tin u a l r e v is io n upward of th e
re q u ire m e n ts f o r te a c h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n re c e n t y e a rs , h as re s u lte d in
a l l county te a c h e rs b eing c l a s s i f i e d under one of fo u r approved ty p e s
of c e r t i f i c a t e s .
The p re s e n t sch o o l system of P rin ce George County can b o ast o f
modern, w ell-p lan n ed school b u ild in g s w ith la r g e playgrounds, a. f u l l le n g th te rm , an adequate number of w e ll-tr a in e d te a c h e rs , and a tr a n s p o r ta ­
t i o n system which e n ab les c h ild re n in s p a rs e ly s e t t l e d a re a s to a tte n d
th e la rg e c o n s o lid a te d sch o o ls and enjoy th e a tte n d a n t ad v an tag es.
Chapter VI
NEGRO EDUCATION IN PRINCE GEORGE COUNTY
B efore th e War Between th e S ta te s n o th in g w hatever was done
tow ard p ro v id in g e d u c a tio n f o r N egroes, o th e r th a n th a t provided
by m a ste rs f o r t h e i r s la v e s .
In such eases th e te a c h in g was u s u a l­
l y done by th e m is tr e s s h e r s e l f , in h e r own household.
P u b lic sen tim en t was a g a in s t o ffe rin g th e Negro any e d u c a tio n ­
a l ad v an tag es, o r even th e r i g h t o f f re e assem blage.
In 1851 th e
P rin c e George County Grand Ju ry found as fo llo w s :
"We p re s e n t Thomas Andrews S r. of t h i s county (a f re e
neg ro ) f o r having an unlaw ful assem blage o f s la v e s
and f r e e neg ro es in and about h is house a t C ity P o in t
in t h i s county and allo w in g p u b lic p reach in g th e r e in
by a s la v e on th e 18 th day o f May l a s t . Upon th e in ­
fo rm atio n of R obert G illia m , sworn and se n t to th e
Grand J u r y ."
A fte r th e w ar two w hite la d ie s came down from th e North and
re n te d a sm all house in C ity P o in t, where they opened a school f o r
N egroes.
They ta u g h t a l l Negroes who would come, and charged them
no t u i t i o n .
T h is in fo rm a tio n was given th e a u th o r by Mr. George
L. Munt, who liv e d h ere as a boy d u rin g th e war and who remembers
t h i s sc h o o l, a lth o u g h he has f o r g o tte n th e names o f th e te a c h e rs .
A p p aren tly th e re e x i s t s no w r itte n re c o rd of t h i s sc h o o l.
A nother p io n e er o f e d u c a tio n fo r th e Negro race was th e l a t e
J . H. Lamb, who was born a t C ity P o in t, P rin c e George County, about
1, P rin c e George County R ecords, P rin c e George Court House, V ir g in ia .
73
74
1856.
Lamb a tte n d e d Hampton Normal I n s t i t u t e when about s ix te e n
y e a rs o ld , and was a classm ate o f Booker T. W ashington.
He r e t u r n ­
ed to C ity P o in t from th e I n s t i t u t e and ta u g h t h ere f o r f i f t y y e a r s .
T h is in fo rm a tio n was given to th e a u th o r by S . L. P e r r y , a Negro
m in is te r of H opew ell, who was a s s o c ia te d w ith Lamb in h i s l a t e r
y e a rs and who knew him w e ll.
When Lamb d ied in 1933, th e a u th o r
a tte n d e d h is f u n e r a l , which la s te d f o r s e v e r a l h o u rs , due to th e
number o f f r ie n d s who wished to speak a te s tim o n ia l to h is i n t e l ­
l i g e n t d ev o tio n to th e cause o f e d u c a tio n of h is r a c e .
Five seh o o ls f o r Negroes were in o p e ra tio n in t h i s s e c tio n
by th e y e a r 1870.
The equipm ent was m eager, w ith only th e b a r e s t
n e c e s s i t i e s in th e way of benches and s to v e s .
The growth o f th e Negro sch o o ls in th e County, between th e y e a rs
1870 and 1920 showed an in c re a s e d aw areness on th e p a r t o f our c i t i ­
zens o f th e n e c e s s ity to p ro v id e adequate e d u c a tio n a l f a c i l i t i e s to
our Negro c h ild r e n .
The r e s u l t was th a t by 1920 th e re w ere tw enty
b u ild in g s , w ith much b e t t e r and more ad eq u ate equipm ent.
These
were a l l fram e, one-room b u ild in g s .
The f i r s t c o n s o lid a tio n of Negro sch o o ls in th e county to o k
p la c e in 1921, when, through th e h e lp o f th e Rosenwald Fund, a tw oroom b u ild in g was c o n s tru c te d in Bland D i s t r i c t .
T h is was a sm all
g a in , y e t i t was an encouraging s ig n of th e in c re a s in g i n t e r e s t in
Negro e d u c a tio n in t h i s county.
In 1922 a r e p o r t on th e h ig h sc h o o ls o f V irg in ia co n tain ed th e
fo llo w in g c r it ic i s m {which c r it ic i s m was e n t i r e l y j u s t i f i e d by con-
75
d i t i o n s in t h i s county a t t h a t tim e ):
"There i s ample e x p la n a tio n f o r th e lim ite d seco n d ary
s c h o o l o p p o r tu n itie s f o r th e Negroes in th e S ta t e , b u t
th e c o n d itio n i s one th a t should n o t be to l e r a te d any
lo n g e r. At p re s e n t th e r e a re n o t enough hig h s c h o o ls
i n th e S ta te to ed u ca te th e te a c h e r s who are needed f o r
th e Negro elem en tary s c h o o ls , t o sa y n o th in g o f p ro v id ­
in g f o r th o s e who w i l l not become te a c h e r s . Were i t
n o t f o r th e p r iv a t e ly su p p o rted h ig h sch o o ls f o r N egroes,
i t would n o t be p o s s ib le f o r th e S ta te to conduct th e
elem en tary sch o o ls w ith o u t im p o rtin g te a c h e rs .’"
I n 1923 Negro p a tro n s o f B u rro w sv ille asked th e school board
to e r e c t a tw o-room 'school in Brandon D i s t r i c t ,
T his was done, b ut
n o t u n t i l th e p a tro n s had ag reed to f u r n is h lum ber, h a u lin g , and
la b o r , and the Rosenwald Fund had a ls o g iv en s u b s ta n tia l h e lp .
On November 4, 1924, th e B u rro w sv ille Negro S chool, a modern
two-room b u ild in g , was opened.
I t was th e second modern Negro
sch o o l b u ild in g in F rin c e George County.
A nother modern frame b u ild in g was opened in 1924.
T his b u ild ­
in g a ls o was made p o s s ib le th ro u g h th e a s s is ta n c e of th e Rosenwald
Fund.
A county t r a i n i n g school f o r Negroes was com pleted in O ctober,
1924.
T h is was a two-room b u ild in g .
Mr. W. A. W alton, P r in c ip a l
o f th e D is p u ta n ts (w h ite) school was ap p o in ted t o s u p e rv is e th e
sch o o l and to arran g e th e sc h e d u le .
Under t h i s schedule two a s s i s ­
ta n t te a c h e r s ta u g h t two s e c tio n s of p u p ils each day, one in th e
morning and one in th e a fte rn o o n .
On September 23, 1928, an a d d itio n of two rooms was a u th o riz e d
f o r t h i s sc h o o l,
The fo llo w in g y e a r , w ith a s s is ta n c e fu rn is h e d by
L Annual R eport o f P u b lic High Schools of V ir g in i a , 19£2T23.
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th e Rosenwald Fund, th e sch o o l term was le n g th en ed to n in e m onths.
The t r a i n i n g sch o o l was a t t h i s tim e a fram e b u ild in g of fo u r rooms.
I t had been c o n s tru c te d w ith fu n d s from s e v e r a l s o u rc e s , as s ta te d
above, nam ely, th e county sch o o l b o a rd , th e Negro p a tro n s , and th e
Rosenwald Fund.
T h is l i t t l e sc h o o l, b u i l t under such d i f f i c u l t i e s ,
and f i l l i n g such a r e a l n eed , was d estro y ed by f i r e in 1930.
It
was th e o n ly Negro sch o o l in P rin c e George County o f f e r in g h ig h school
work.
The board was fa c e d w ith a r e a l emergency, f o r th e y f e l t th a t
Somehow th e sch o o l should be re p la c e d .
The in su ra n c e on th e b u ild ­
in g amounted to only $ 3 ,000, and we were in th e m id st o f th e d ep res­
s io n .
A tem porary b u ild in g was c o n s tru c te d .
I t had ta r - p a p e r s id e s
and r o o f , and th e re were no windows in f r o n t .
N e v e rth e le s s , i t was
th e b e s t th a t could be p rovided under th e c irc u m stan c es.
In 1934 th e s u p e rin te n d e n t sought th e a s s is ta n c e of Mr. A rth u r
W rig h t, P r e s id e n t of th e S l a t e r Fund, who promised th a t i f a lo a n
o f $8,000 could be secured from th e L ite r a r y Fund, th e S l a t e r Fund
would p ro v id e th e i n t e r e s t and c u rta ilm e n t on th e lo a n f o r f iv e y e a rs .
A p p lic a tio n was a c c o rd in g ly made to th e L ite r a r y Fund, a f t e r p erm is­
s io n had been g ran ted by th e P rin c e George County S u p erv iso rs.
The
funds were g ra n te d and a modern four-room b r ic k b u ild in g was b u i l t
and c a lle d th e D is p u ta n ts T ra in in g School.
T his was th e f i r s t b ric k
b u ild in g to be provided f o r Negroes in P rin c e George County.
It
o ffe re d b o th elem en tary and h ig h sch o o l work.
I t has been a p t l y said th a t th e Negro sch o o ls a re ju s t about
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tw e n ty -fiv e y e a rs behind th e w h ite s c h o o ls .
T his i s s u r e ly tr u e
in our own co u n ty , f o r we f i n d th a t w h ile a g ra d u a l improvement
began to ta k e p la ce ab o u t 1910 in th e w h ite sch o o ls of o u r system ,
i t was n o t u n t i l ab o u t 1935 th a t improvement began to be marked
in th e Negro s c h o o ls .
W ith fuhds a v a ila b le u n d er th e Works P ro g re s s A d m in istra tio n
two a d d itio n a l rooms and o th e r improvements have been added t o th e
o r ig i n a l b u ild in g w hich housed th e D is p u ta n ts T ra in in g S chool.
The
th r e e rooms of th e o r ig in a l b u ild in g have been c o n v erted in to mod­
e rn c la s s room s, and an A g r ic u ltu r a l and Home Economics B u ild in g
has been b u i l t .
I n Septem ber, 1939 th e sch o o l was a c c r e d ite d .
The p a tro n s have purchased th r e e a d d itio n a l a c r e s of lan d to
e n la rg e th e playground of t h i s sc h o o l.
The investm ent in t h i s sch o o l
p la n t r e p r e s e n ts a t p r e s e n t an o u tla y o f ap p ro x im ately $40,000.
With th e in a u g u ra tio n o f th e C iv il Works A d m in istra tio n program
a b la n k e t p r o je c t f o r b u ild in g , r e - b u ild in g , and im proving school
b u ild in g s f o r Negroes th ro u g h o u t th e county was g ra n te d .
The Works
P ro g ress A d m in istra tio n l a t e r provided money f o r co n tin u an ce of
th e se p r o j e c t s .
As a r e s u l t cf g ra n ts under th e s e programs a l l of
th e b u ild in g s have been th o ro u g h ly remodeled and s e v e ra l new b u ild ­
in g s b u i l t .
S la te b la c k b o a rd s , s a n ita r y p r i v i e s , modern wood-and-
co al houses have been b u i l t , good w e lls have been dug and much
g rad in g and d r a in in g h as been done t o p ro v id e playground sp ace.
Under t h i s program fo u r two-room frame elem en tary school b u il d ­
in g s have been c o n s tr u c te d :
H a rris o n Grove, Old Academy, Cedar
78
L ev el and P rovidence S ch o o ls,
New one-room sc h o o ls have been b u i l t
a t Bland and Camp Lee, and o th e r sch o o ls have been c o m p le te ly r e —
m odeled.
A ll b u ild in g s , though o f frame c o n s tr u c tio n , a r e modern
in a l l r e s p e c t s .
C o n s o lid a tio n o f sch o o ls sin c e 1933 h as r e s u lt e d in th e c l o s ­
in g o f th e fo llo w in g one-room sc h o o ls :
R iv e s, B lackw ater # 1 ,
B lackw ater § 6, Bland § 1 , B la ir s , and th e E le c tio n House S ch o o ls.
T ra n s p o rta tio n f o r Negro p u p ils was begun d u rin g th e sch o o l
y e a r 1937-38, when one bus was p ro v id ed to tr a n s p o r t th e p u p ils of
Templeton and R ives D i s t r i c t s to th e B is p u ta n ta S chool.
During
th e s e s s io n 1938-39 an a d d itio n a l bus was p ro v id ed to tr a n s p o r t
th e p u p ils from Brandon D i s t r i c t to D is p u ta n ts .
D uring th e s e s s io n
1939-40 a n o th e r bus r o u te was added to tr a n s p o r t p u p ils from p a r t s
of B land, R iv e s, and B lackw ater D i s t r i c t s to D is p u ta n ts .
These
b u ses a re p ro v id ed by the County and a re o p erated in th e same manner
as th e b u ses f o r w h ite p u p ils .
I t can be seen from t h i s t h a t th e D is p u ta n ts T rain in g School
i s s e rv in g h ig h school p u p ils of th e r u r a l d i s t r i c t s o f th e county.
C h ild re n li v in g in th e cou n ty a d ja c e n t to th e C ity of Hopewell and
to P e te rs b u rg a tte n d th e C a rte r G, Woodson Negro School in H opew ell,
and th e High School f o r Negroes in P e te rs b u rg .
T u itio n i s paid f o r
them by th e sch o o l board o f P rin c e George County.
A fiv e-ro o m sch o o l was com pleted in A rlin g to n s u b d iv is io n , in
P rin c e George County, and an a d d itio n made to th e Cedar Level
S chool, so th a t a t th e beg in n in g of th e s e s s io n 1939-40 county
79
elem en tary c h ild r e n l i v i n g n e a r Hopewell who had p r e v io u s ly a t ­
ten d ed th e C a r te r G. Woodson S chool were tr a n s f e r r e d t o th e s e
county s c h o o ls .
The tre n d i n t h i s s e s s io n o f 1939-40 i s to c lo s e a l l o f th e
one-room sch o o ls f o r N egroes, and to e s t a b l i s h c o n s o lid a te d tw oroom sc h o o ls.
Chapter VII
FEDERAL AGENCIES OPERATING AS AIDS TO SCHOOLS
OF HOPEWELL AND PRINCE GEORGE COUNTY
l a P rin c e George County f e d e r a l a id had been re c e iv e d p r io r
to 1933 in v o c a tio n a l a g r ic u ltu r e and home econom ics; in Hopewell
a id had been ex ten d ed in home economics and tr a d e and i n d u s t r i a l
e d u c a tio n .
A lthough f e d e r a l fin d s w ere used to a s s i s t in th e s e p ro ­
gram s, a l l fu n d s w ere d isb u rse d to th e lo c a l sch o o l d i v i s i o n s through
th e S ta te Departm ent o f E d u ca tio n .
A ll p erso n n el was employed by
th e l o c a l sch o o l b o a rd , which p aid o n e - th ir d o f th e t e a c h e r s ' s a l ­
a r i e s , th e rem ainder b ein g p aid by s t a t e and f e d e r a l fu n d s.
Shop
equipm ent and b u ild in g a id were re n d e re d on a b a s is of o n e -h a lf
fu rn is h e d by th e lo c a l sch o o l board and o n e -h a lf by th e S ta te D ep art­
ment o f E d u ca tio n .
A new ty p e of f e d e r a l a s s is ta n c e came in t o e f f e c t as a r e s u l t
o f th e d e p re s s io n in 1933, when s e v e r a l new a g e n c ie s w ere s e t u p .
These a g e n c ie s w i l l be d isc u sse d v ery b r i e f l y .
C iv il Works A d m in istra tio n
The f i r s t F e d e ra l Works Program began on November 7, 1933,
and th e f i r s t sch o o l p r o je c ts were s t a r t e d under t h i s program in
Hhpewell and P rin c e George on December 15, 1933.
T his program was c re a te d p r im a r ily t o g iv e work to unemployed
p erso n s and t o a s s i s t b u s in e s s re c o v e ry .
80
I t was a boon t o l o c a l
81
sch o o l b o a rd s, which had l i t t l e o r no fu n d s f o r m aintenance or
im provem ents.
Under th e C iv il Works A d m in istra tio n th e government f u r n is h ­
ed a l l la b o r and an amount fo r m a te r ia ls eq u al to 30% o f th e t o t a l
amount expended f o r la b o r .
No b u ild in g o f over two rooms could
be b u i l t under C. W. A. r e g u la tio n s .
T h erefo re most o f th e work
done under t h i s program was rem o d elin g , im proving, and a d d itio n s
to e x i s t in g b u ild in g s , and dev elo p in g a t h l e t i c f i e l d s and school
g ro u n d s.
The p r o je c ts su b m itted f o r Hopewell p ro v id ed f o r improvements
i n a l l th e s c h o o ls .
The I n t e r i o r o f th e Hopewell High School was
co m p letely rem odeled, w ith te r r a z o f lo o r s and v i t r o t i l e w ain sco t­
in g in a l l c o r r id o r s , c a f e t e r i a , and la v a t o r i e s , maple f lo o r s in
a l l c l a s s room s, w a lls p la s te r e d th ro u g h o u t, and a l l woodwork p a i n t­
ed.
A ll e l e c t r i c a l and plumbing work was changed and r e p a ir e d , and
g u tt e r s and sid ew alk s were p ro v id e d .
E x ten siv e r e p a i r s were made
to a l l o f th e o th e r b u ild in g s a l s o , and a l l sch o o l grounds develop­
ed o r im proved.
In p rin c e George County a p r o je c t was su b m itted f o r improve­
m ents to a l l th e sc h o o ls .
New ro o fs were provided a t D isp u tan ts
and R ives S chools, p la s t e r in g done, a two-room a d d itio n provided a t
C arson, and curb and g u tt e r s provided a t a l l o f th e sc h o o ls.
The Negro sch o o ls of th e county, which were in a t e r r i b l e
c o n d itio n , were rem odeled co m p letely , in s id e and o u t.
S la te b la c k -
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b o ard s were i n s t a l l e d and c o n c re te sid ew alk s and s te p s p ro v id e d .
Four one-room sc h o o ls were b u i l t .
P u b lic Works A d m in istra tio n
Under th e P u b lic Works A d m in is tra tio n , a n o th e r governm ental
agency w hich s t a r t e d about th e same tim e , la r g e p r o je c ts were
i n i t i a t e d and d ev elo p ed .
The la r g e s t ele m e n ta ry sch o o l in th e C ity
o f H opew ell, th e P a tr i c k Copeland S ch o o l, was b u i l t under t h i s p ro ­
gram.
Ho P. W. A. p r o je c ts were developed i n P rin c e George County.
F e d e ra l Emergency R e lie f A d m in istra tio n
In 1934 th e C. ff. A. program was su p p lan ted by th e F e d eral
Emergency R e lie f A d m in istra tio n .
This program was p rim a rily a
la b o r program , a s th e maximum allow ance p rovided f o r m a te r ia l was
te n p e r c e n t.
Itfost o f th e la b o r used was u n s k ille d .
b o th county and c i t y g ra d in g p r o je c ts were u n d erta k en .
T herefore in
A th le tic
f i e l d s , p la y g ro u n d s, and lan d scap ed sch o o l grounds were th e r e s u l t s .
Works P ro g re ss A d m in istra tio n
The F e d e ra l Emergency R e lie f A d m in istra tio n was su p p lan ted by
th e Works P ro g re s s A d m in istra tio n on O ctober 5, 1935.
P r o je c ts were
subm itted as h e r e to f o r e , a l l la b o r and ap p ro x im ately tw e n ty -fiv e
p er c e n t o f m a te r ia l c o s ts b ein g p ro v id e d .
T his program i s s t i l l
o p e ra tin g (1939-40) w ith e x c e lle n t r e s u l t s in t h i s d iv is io n .
The l a r g e s t p r o je c ts developed under t h i s program in th e C ity
83
o f Hopewell were th o s e f o r th e c o n c re te w a ll around th e a t h l e t i c
f i e l d , th e g ra d in g n e c e ss a ry f o r th e developm ent o f th e stadium ,
and th e b u ild in g o f th e au d ito riu m and c a f e t e r i a f o r th e new
P a tr i c k Copeland S ch o o l.
A d d itio n a l p r o je c ts pro v id ed f o r con­
c r e te s ta n d s , a f i e l d h o u se, and te n n is c o u r ts in th e stad iu m .
In P rin c e George County sm all sch o o ls have been b u i l t and
o th e r sch o o ls have been improved by th e a d d itio n o f lunch rooms
and o th e r f a c i l i t i e s .
Carson and D is p u ta n ts .
Home Economics c o tta g e s have been b u i l t a t
The l a r g e s t p r o je c t in th e county was the
b u ild in g o f a modern fo u r-ro o m b u ild in g , w ith a u d ito riu m and c a fe ­
t e r i a , a t B u rro w sv ille .
N a tio n a l Youth A d m in istra tio n
T his program may be d iv id ed in to two c la s s e s :
a) Youths between th e ages of 16 and 24, who a re n o t in sc h o o l.
These young people a re g iv en v a rio u s jo b s in accordance w ith t h e i r
c a p a b ilitie s .
G ir ls a re used in th e sch o o l l i b r a r i e s and lunch
rooms, w h ile th e boys work on th e p la y grounds and a s s i s t w ith W. P.
A. p r o j e c t s .
b) Youths i n hig h sch o o l betw een th e ages of 16 and 21.
These
y o u th s a re given assig n m en ts of work by the p r in c ip a ls and te a c h e r s .
In t h i s way th e s e young people can e a rn enough to pay fo r t h e i r sch o o l
lu n ch es and books, and h elp toward buying t h e i r c lo th in g and o th e r
exp en ses.
84
N ursery Schools
The N ursery School program in Hopewell was begun in 1933
when two o f th e se sc h o o ls were e s ta b lis h e d i n two o f .t h e elem en­
t a r y sch o o ls o f th e c i t y .
C h ild re n from two to s ix y e a rs o f age
from f a m ilie s on th e r e l i e f r o l l s were ac c e p te d i n th e se s c h o o ls .
Here th e y were g iv e n a h o t lu n ch i n th e m iddle o f th e day, fo llo w ­
ed by a r e s t p e rio d .
They were ta u g h t good m anners and sim p le
h e a lth r u l e s , t h e i r r e s t and p la y were s u p e rv is e d , and im provem ents
alon g many l i n e s were r e a l iz e d .
S a la r ie s f o r p e rso n n e l were p ro v id ed by th e governm ent, and
an a p p r o p r ia tio n o f tw e n ty -fiv e d o l l a r s m onthly was made by th e
l o c a l sch o o l board to pay h a l f th e expense o f food f o r th e c h i l d r e n s
lu n c h e s .
The s t a f f c o n s is te d o f a head te a c h e r , a s s i s t a n t te a c h e r ,
cook, and m aid.
T h ir ty c h ild r e n were e n ro lle d i n th e se two c l a s s e s .
In 1936 th e two were combined in to one sc h o o l.
Emergency E d u catio n Program
T his h as been p r im a r ily a works program , and has been used to
a s s i s t needy te a c h e r s in Hopewell and P rin c e George County.
Under
t h i s program c la s s e s f o r a d u lts i n re a d in g , w r itin g , and c itiz e n s h ip
were p ro v id e d .
T eachers were a l s o g iv en employment in te a c h in g
m usic and in su p e rv ise d r e c r e a tio n , and some have been employed in
sch o o l l i b r a r i e s .
85
Summary
The v a rio u s
ag e n c ie s o p e ra tin g under th e government program
have been re s p o n s ib le f o r a l l e v i a t i n g much s u f f e r in g .
By means o f
th e n u rs e ry s c h o o ls , and a s s is ta n c e g iv e n to h ig h school p u p ils and
o u t-o f-s c h o o l y o u th , young people have been helped to develop in to
u se fu l c itiz e n s .
I n a d u lt c la s s e s and home-making c e n te r s th e q u a lity of home
l i f e h as b een l i f t e d to a h ig h e r p la n e .
Men l e t out o f employment
d u rin g th e d e p re ssio n have been ab le to save t h e i r homes* in many
c a s e s , w ith th e h elp o f th e s e a g e n c ie s , and th e y have been ab le to
p ro v id e t h e i r f a m ilie s w ith th e n e c e s s it ie s o f l i f e .
The v a rio u s works programs have p u t our sch o o ls f a r ahead o f
what we could have hoped a few y e a rs ago.
In t h i s co n n ectio n th e
wofcds of D r. John If. S tu d eb ak er, U nited S ta te s Commissioner o f Edu­
c a tio n , are s i g n i f i c a n t :
” Our n a tio n * s re n a is s a n c e i n sch o o l c o n s tru c tio n
d u rin g th e p a s t s ix y e a rs has been stim u la te d la r g e ly
by th e c o n tr ib u tio n s of th e P u b lic Works A dm inistra­
tion.**
1 . B u lle tin , P. W. 93351, F e d e ra l Works Agency, December 26, 1939.
Chapter VUI
THE GENERAL ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM
The G eneral A dult E d u catio n program was made p o s s ib le when
th e G eneral Assembly of V irg in ia a p p ro p ria te d th e sum of $50,000
f o r th e biennium in 1958, to be used f o r a d u lt e d u c a tio n .
An
a llo tm e n t of one hundred and f i f t y d o lla r s was made to th e C ity
o f Hopewell and th e same amount to th e County of P rin c e George by
th e S ta te .
A req u irem en t f o r r e c e iv in g t h i s fund was t h a t i t must
be matched e q u a lly by th e county and th e c i t y .
No work was done in th e w h ite sch o o ls o f Hopewell or P rin ce
George County under t h i s program d u rin g th e s e s s io n 1938-39.
How­
e v e r , elem en tary c la s s e s in re a d in g and w r itin g were provided in
fo u r of th e county Negro s c h o o ls.
These c la s s e s were w e ll a tte n d e d
and a number o f a d u lts le a rn e d to read and w r ite .
The fund was used
e n t i r e l y i n t h i s manner i n an e f f o r t to wipe out i l l i t e r a c y .
No
i l l i t e r a t e s could be found in Hopewell and th e re f o r e th e e n t ir e
amount was expended in th e county.
D uring th e p re s e n t s e s s io n (1939-40) a d u lt c la s s e s have been
organized in th e sch o o ls o f
D is p u ta n ts , Carson and Woodlawn.
These
c la s s e s have been w e ll a tte n d e d and th e in s tr u c tio n has been provided
by th e r e g u la r te a c h e r s .
f o r te n w eeks.
The c la s s e s have o p erated one n ig h t a week
The fo llo w in g co u rses have been g iv e n : c itiz e n s h ip ,
c u r r e n t e v e n ts , r e l i g i o u s e d u c a tio n , e l e c t r i c a l w ir in g , b lu e p rin t
re a d in g , problem s o f ad o le sc e n c e , and elem entary school work.
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87
The on ly req u irem en t was th a t a s many as te n people must e l e c t
a co u rse f o r i t to be g iv e n .
Under t h i s program i t i s hoped to b rin g th e sch o o ls c lo s e r
to th e p u b lic , u t i l i z e th e sch o o l b u ild in g s more e x te n s iv e ly , and
to c a r r y th e e d u c a tio n a l program beyond th e sc h o o l room by making
i t a v a ila b le to a d u l ts .
Chapter IX
th e developm ent o f a p u b lic sc h o o l sy stem
IN THE CITY OF HOPEWELL
Due to a la c k o f a u th e n tic re c o rd s in H opew ell, an acco u n t
w r itt e n by Miss Manie Cook ab o u t th e sch o o ls o f H opewell i s
p a r t i c u l a r l y v a lu a b le .
Miss Cook ta u g h t in th e H opew ell sch o o ls
f o r many y e a rs , and was te a c h in g h e re in 1923 when sh e w ro te
t h i s acc o u n t, in th e p r e p a r a tio n of which she in te rv ie w e d many
old r e s id e n t s .
There fo llo w s e v e ra l e x t r a c t s from t h i s acc o u n t:
"As n e a rly as can be g a th e re d from in fo rm a tio n ob­
ta in e d from an o ld r e s id e n t o f C ity P o in t, a p u b lic
sch o o l h as been in e x is te n c e c o n tin u o u sly in t h i s
p la c e s in c e a b o u t 1873. D uring t h i s p e rio d th e r e
was an in te r im of one s e s s io n in which th e r e was no
sc h o o l. M rs. C h arles N elson, a n a tiv e o f I s l e o f
W ight, V ir g in ia , who a f t e r h e r m arriag e made h e r
home a t C ity P o in t, became a c tiv e in s e c u r in g th e
number o f p u p ils re q u ire d to m a in ta in a p u b lic
sc h o o l. An average o f tw enty p u p ils was re q u ire d
and th e en ro llm e n t numbered from tw e n ty -fiv e to
t h i r t y - f i v e p u p ils f o r many y e a r s , th e te a c h e r ’ s
s a la r y b ein g f i f t y c e n ts a month p e r p u p il .
"A s i t e o f la n d , which i s now th e te rm in a l o f th e
C ity P o in t Car L in e, was donated f o r p u b lic sch o o l
purposes by B r. R ichard E ppes. A one-room b u ild in g
was e r e c te d and used f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . T his b u ild ­
in g was a fte rw a rd s to r n down and was re p la c e d by a
more co m fo rtab le one-room b u ild in g which was used
u n t i l 1914. D uring th e l a s t y e a rs of th e l i f e o f
th e one-room sch o o l i t s en ro llm en t decreased from
tw enty to t e n . F a ilin g to se c u re p u p ils to make t h i s
av era g e, th e sch o o l was clo sed d u rin g th e s e s s io n
1910, b u t resumed work in 1911, and continued u n t i l
1 9 1 4 ." X
Cook, M anie,
1 * Account o f th e Hopewell S c h o o ls , a ty p e w r itte n acco u n t in th e
Hopewell High School L ib ra ry .
88
89
Development Under th e C o n tro l of P rin c e George
County School Board (1914 - 1923)
U n til 1914 t h i s one school was s u f f i c i e n t t o meet th e needs
o f th e sm a ll v il la g e of C ity P o in t.
The m a g n ific e n t d eep -w ater
la n d in g f a c i l i t i e s and o th e r n a tu r a l ad v an tag es a t t r a c t e d th e
Dupont Company, which e s ta b lis h e d a huge p la n t h e r e .
The company
b u i l t homes f o r i t s w orkers and by th e summer of 1915 a c i t y was
e s ta b l is h e d .
The new c i t y was c a lle d H opew ell.
The r a p id in c re a s e in p o p u la tio n p u t a t e r r i f i c s t r a i n upon
th e e x is tin g sch o o l f a c i l i t i e s .
With th e e f f o r t s to b u ild more
s u ita b le s tr u c t u r e s a s homes and b u sin ess b u ild in g s , th o u g h t was
g iv e n to p ro v id in g p ro p er sch o o l b u ild in g s .
We may say th a t th e
p r e s e n t system of sch o o ls s t a r t e d in 1915.
P eople flo c k e d in t o th e c i t y from a l l ov er th e U nited S ta t e s ,
u n t i l in 191? th e p o p u la tio n was s a id to have been 40,000 p eo p le. ^
T his was due to th e la r g e m u n itio n p la n t th e n in o p e ra tio n .
had come to th e new "gold mine" by the th o u san d s.
People
Tents were
p itc h e d , s h e l t e r s o f t a r p a p e r, co rru g ated ir o n , slab-w ood, or
an y th in g th a t could be o b tain ed were throw n to g e th e r to house th e
e x t r a th o u san d s.
N a tu ra lly th e re had been no paved s t r e e t s i n th e l i t t l e v illa g e
o f C ity P o in t.
Now th e re was no tim e to b u ild them in th e newly-
born c i t y of H opew ell.
sid e w a lk s.
Boards were h a s t i l y l a i d end to end fo r
The s t r e e t s became ehurned-up mud in bad w eath e r, so th a t
r id i n g horseback was th e s u r e s t and b e s t means of tr a n s p o r ta tio n
th ro u g h th e s t r e e t s o f the c ity .
1 . R ecords, Chamber o f Commerce, Hopewell, V irg in ia .
90
In 1917 two frame sch o o l b u ild in g s were b u i l t , a six -ro o m
fram e b u ild in g a t C ity P o in t, and a tw enty-room b u ild in g on th e
N a tio n a l Cemetary Road, n e a r th e r e s i d e n t i a l s e c tio n known as "B.
T illa g e .”
These two b u ild in g s , w ith two r e n te d rooms in South B.
V illa g e and two r e n te d rooms in James R iver V illa g e , were th e o n ly
b u ild in g s used f o r p u b lic school purposes u n t i l 1923.
So crowded
were c o n d itio n s t h a t two s e c tio n s of c h ild re n were ta u g h t in each
room, one i n th e morning and the o th e r in th e a fte rn o o n — and th e n
th e same c la s s room was f r e q u e n tly used f o r a d u lt c la s s e s a t n ig h t.
People co n tin u ed to move h e re to work in th e p la n ts , u n t i l th e
sch o o l en ro llm en t reached 2,007 in 1918-19.
Hopewell co n tin u ed to grow.
The day th e A rm istice was signed
i t p o sse ssed fo u r banks, many b lo ck s o f permanent b u ild in g s and a
r e t a i l tr a d e amounting to about $4,000,000 a y e a r.
By th e c lo se o f th e y e a r 1919 th e la rg e m unition p la n t had
e n t i r e l y ceased o p e ra tio n s , and most o f th e w ar-tim e p o p u la tio n of
40,000 people had moved away.
During th e y e a r 1918-19 th e annual
sch o o l en ro llm e n t d ecreased from 2,007 to 733, and th e re were only
350 c h ild re n on a c tiv e r o l l a t th e c lo se of sch o o l in June, 1920.
D uring th e n ex t few y e a rs s e v e r a l permanent in d u s tr ie s were
e s ta b lis h e d h ere w ith th e r e s u l t th a t by 1921 th e p o p u la tio n had
in c re a s e d to ap p ro x im ately 7,000.
A h ig h school b u ild in g was th e n nedded.
A la rg e frame b u ild in g
used a s a Y. M. C* A. b u ild in g by th e Dupont Company was purchased
from them by th e P rin c e George County School Board and converted in to
1. Records of Hopewell Chamber of Commerce.
91
a h ig h sc h o o l.
At th e same tim e a n o th e r b u ild in g which had been
used as a warehouse was a ls o p u rch ased .
T h is was co n v erted in to
a sch o o l f o r th e Negroes and c a lle d th e C a r te r G. Woodson Negro
S ch o o l.
In 1923 th e H ighland Park School was e s ta b l is h e d .
T his
was n o t a r e g u la r sch o o l b u ild in g e i t h e r , b u t was housed in fo u r
re n te d c o tta g e s .
D uring t h i s tim e a l l th e Hopewell sch o o ls were owned and
o p erated by th e sch o o l board of P rin c e George County, due to th e
f a c t th a t th e l a r g e r p a r t o f th e r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l a r e a
o f Hopewell was n o t in c o rp o ra te d a s a p a r t o f th a t c i t y .
1, 1923 t h i s a re a was annexed t o th e C ity of H opew ell.
board was ap p o in ted f o r th e new ly -en larg ed c i t y .
On J u ly
A sch o o l
The C ity School
Board im m ediately purchased a l l school b u ild in g s w ith in i t s t e r r i t o r y
from th e P rin c e George County School B oard, and assumed c o n tro l o f
i t s own s c h o o ls .
The purchase p r ic e was $75,000.
A ta b le showing th e sharp in c re a s e s and d e c re a se s in sch o o l
p o p u la tio n which to o k p la ce in s h o r t sp aces of time in Hopewell i s
g iv e n i n Table V.
Table V
School P o p u la tio n Changes in Hopewell C ity , 1918 - 1924
School Year
School Enrollm ent
1918-1919
1919-1920
1920-1921
1921-1922
1922-1923
1923-1924
2,007
733*
920
1,253
1,559
2,285
*At th e end of th e sch o o l y ear in 1920 th e re were only
350 a c t u a ll y e n r o lle d .
92
Development a s a S ep arate School System (1923 - 1939)
The f i r s t annual r e p o r t o f th e p u b lic sch o o ls o f Hopewell
was issu e d by Mr. R. K. Hoke, th e s u p e rin te n d e n t, i n 1923-24.
ITrom t h i s r e p o r t we f in d t h a t th e sch o o l en ro llm en t a t th a t
tim e was 2,285 p u p ils , and th a t th e se p u p ils were serv ed by th r e e
elem en tary sch o o ls and one h ig h school f o r w h ite c h ild r e n and one
Negro sch o o l f o r both elem en tary and h ig h school Negro p u p ils .
There were f i f t y day school te a c h e r s , sev en n ig h t school te a c h ­
e r s and s ix summer school te a c h e r s , or a t o t a l o f s ix ty - t h r e s te a c h ­
in g p o s itio n s h e ld in t h a t y e a r .
$300 to $999 p e r y e a r.
Teachers* s a l a r i e s ranged from
A s a la r y sch ed u le was adopted du rin g th a t
y e a r t o ta k e e f f e c t in 1924-25 which provided f o r th e g ra d u a l i n ­
c re a se o f s a l a r i e s based upon q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , y e a rs o f e x p e rie n c e ,
and e x c e lle n c e o f w ork.
T o ta l e x p e n d itu re s o f th e sch o o l system in 1923-24 amounted
t o $1 1 8 ,8 9 2 .5 4 .
The p e r c a p ita c o s t o f in s tr u c tio n was $45.81.
W ith th e e r e c tio n of th e Woodlawn School in P rin c e George Gounty
by th e county bo ard , many county c h ild re n who had p re v io u s ly a tte n d ­
ed th e Hopewell Schools were tr a n s f e r r e d t o th e Woodlawn School.
T his caused a drop in en ro llm e n t in Hopewell from 2,285 in 1923-24
to 1,972 in 1924-25.
In 1923-24 th e re were f o u r elem en tary school b u ild in g s and one
hig h sch o o l b u ild in g in H opew ell.
in g s , b u t f a i r l y w e ll equipped.
A ll of th e s e were tem porary b u ild ­
93
The H opewell School Survey o f 1925
I n 1925 th e S ta te D epartm ent of E d u ca tio n , upon th e r e q u e s t
o f th e Hopewell School Board, u n d erto o k a su rv ey o f th e H opewell
S ch o o ls.
The o b je c t o f th e su rv ey "b ein g to s e t f o r th a s a c c u r a te ­
l y as p o s s ib le th e p r e s e n t s t a t u s and f u tu r e needs o f th e Hopewell
s c h o o ls ." 1
The members of th e Survey Committee th o ro u g h ly surveyed th e
s c h o o ls , from s ta n d p o in ts o f in s tr u c tio n and p h y s ic a l equipm ent,
tr a i n in g and ex p e rie n c e of te a c h e r s , and th e p re s e n t s t a t u s and
f u tu r e needs o f th e sch o o l sy stem .
T h eir r e p o r t c o n ta in s much i n t e r ­
e s ti n g d a ta on th e sch o o l system o f H opew ell.
Among th e f a c t s brought o u t by t h i s r e p o r t were th e fo llo w in g :
a)
That Hopewell te a c h e r s were being p aid v ery low
s a l a r i e s in com parison to o th e r c i t i e s o f i t s
s i z e , b ut th a t th e r e c e n tly adopted s a la r y
sch ed u le was a s te p in the r i g h t d ir e c tio n .
b)
That th e p e r c a p ita c o st of i n s tr u c tio n i n Hopew e ll was ab o u t flO a y ear l e s s th a n th a t fo r o th e r
c i t i e s o f th e s t a t e . '
c)
That sch o o l p la n ts and equipment were h o p e le ss ly
in a d e q u a te .
Many o th e r i n t e r e s tin g fin d in g s were re c o rd e d , and recommenda­
tio n s of
a c o n s tru c tiv e n a tu re were made.
The f i r s t recommendation was:
"1 . That in Septem ber, 1925, th e sch o o l board in ­
au g u rate an o r g a n iz a tio n in the Hopewell Schools which
s h a l l c o n s is t o f f iv e y e a rs in th e elem entary sch o o ls,
th re e y e a rs in th e ju n io r h ig h sch o o l, and th re e y ears
in th e s e n io r h ig h sc h o o l. This w ill a f f e c t the p ro ­
gram in th e p r e s e n t s i x t h and sev en th g r a d e s ."
Survey R e p o rt, H opew ell, V irg in ia , S chools, 1925.
94
T h is type o f i n s t r u c t i o n was in tro d u ced a t th e beginning o f
th e s e s s io n 1925-26 in th e th r e e elem en tary s c h o o ls , namely, th e
P a tr i c k C opeland, B. V illa g e and John Randolph S chools.
*2. That in d iv id u a l developm ent of elem en tary e d u c a tio n
in Hopewell — th e w o rk -stu d y -p lay p la n — be in a u g u ra ted
as new e lem en tary b u ild in g s are planned to ta k e c a re o f
th e e d u c a tio n a l needs of the c i t y of H opew ell.”
T h is ty p e of work was s ta r te d in th e f o u r th and f i f t h g rad es of
th e John Randolph School in 1925-26.
*3. That a s p e c ia l stu d y of a l l tw e lv e -y e a r-o ld
p u p ils in th e g ra d e s be made w ith a view o f promo­
ti o n to th e ju n io r h ig h s c h o o l.”
T his stu d y h as been made c o n tin u o u sly s in c e th a t tim e , and
by removing th e s e p u p ils to groups n ear t h e i r own age very b e n e f ic ia l
r e s u l t s have been o b ta in e d .
”4 . That th e p re s e n t p o lic y of making s tu d ie s of
e x c e p tio n a l p u p ils , and making p ro v is io n s fo r t h e i r
needs be co n tin u ed in th e elem entary, th e ju n io r , and
th e s e n io r h ig h s c h o o ls .”
T his p o lic y h as been in continuous o p e ra tio n sin c e t h a t tim e .
" 5 . That day and evening p a rt-tim e c la s s e s be organized
in c o n s u lta tio n w ith th e S ta te S u p erv iso r of I n d u s tr ia l
E d u c a tio n .”
This recommendation was follow ed and evening and p a rt-tim e
c la s s e s have been in o p e ra tio n co n tin u o u sly sin ce the tim e of t h i s
recom m endation.
”6. That th e Boards of E ducation of th e C ity o f Hopew e ll and of P rin c e George County employ a su p e rv is o r
f o r th e elem en tary schools and a su p e rv is o r f o r th e
secondary sch o o ls in th e C ity of Hopewell and in P rin ce
George C ounty.”
A s u p e rv is o r f o r th e elem entary sch o o ls o f th e c i ty was
95
p ro v id ed on a p a r t- tim e b a s is i n 1926.
A f u l l - t i m e elem en tary
sch o o l s u p e r v is o r was p ro v id ed in 1934-35 and h as been c o n tin u o u s­
l y employed s in c e th a t tim e .
"7 . That th e p re s e n t p la n of d i s t r i b u t i n g s u p p lie s
th ro u g h th e s u p e r in te n d e n t’s o f f ic e be c o n tin u e d ."
T his p la n has been co n tin u ed a s recommended.
The B u ild in g Program
I n th e f a l l o f 1925 th e f i r s t perm anent b u ild in g , th e H opewell
High S ch o o l, was o ccupied.
The b u ild in g was la r g e enough to accomo­
d a te 700 p u p il s , and was s i t u a t e d upon a sp a c io u s s i t e c o n ta in in g
tw elve a c r e s ,
Mich d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was ex p ressed o v er th e lo c a tio n o f t h i s
b u ild in g , a s b ein g to o f a r away from th e m a jo r ity o f th e p eo p le.
In a s h o rt tim e th e c i t y had grown, how ever, u n t i l th e h ig h s c h o o l
was s it u a t e d a t ab o u t th e c e n te r o f p o p u la tio n , and th e c e n te r o f
th e m e tro p o lita n a re a which i t s e rv e d .
At th e tim e o f th e co m p letio n of th e h ig h sch o o l th e v a rio u s
6th and 7 th g ra d e s were housed in re n te d h o u ses and ap artm en ts in
s e v e ra l d i f f e r e n t s e c tio n s o f th e c i t y , and r e n te d rooms o v er a
drug s to r e in th e downtown s e c ti o n .
When th e h ig h school was opened
i t p ro v id ed a p la c e f o r a l l p u p ils of th e 5 th , 6 th and 7 th g ra d e s ,
as w e ll as a l l o f th e h ig h sch o o l s tu d e n ts .
The fo llo w in g y e a r , 1926-27, a l l p u p ils in th e h ig h 5 th g rad e
were removed from th e h ig h sch o o l and s e n t to th e John Randolph
S chool,
96
The o rg a n iz a tio n a t t h i s tim e was a s fo llo w s :
Hopewell High S ch o o l:
A ll h ig h sch o o l p u p ils , and
a l l 6 th and 7th g ra d e s
Bohn Randolph S ch o o l:
4 th and 5 th g rad es
E. V illa g e S ch o o l:
1 s t , 2nd and 3rd g ra d e s
P a tr i c k Copeland S ch o o l: 1 s t thro u g h 5 th g ra d e s
I n 1926 a n o th e r Survey of th e Hopewell Schools was conducted,
t h i s tim e a b u ild in g su rv ey .
Members o f t h i s committee ap p o in ted
by th e S ta te Board o f E ducation w ere:
Bp . M. I . Combs and Rr* K.
J . Hoke, who had serv ed on th e p rev io u s su rv e y , and Mr. R. V. Long,
S ta te S u p e rv iso r o f School B u ild in g s.
In re p o r tin g e x is tin g con­
d it io n s th e Committee had t h i s t o say :
"Two members o f t h i s Committee were a ls o members of
th e s t a f f t h a t made a com prehensive su rv ey of the
sch o o ls of th e C ity of Hopewell in 1925 and were
p le a se d to f in d t h a t th e recommendations o f t h a t
stu d y a re being c a r r ie d out alm ost i n d e t a i l . "
Six recom mendations were made by the Survey Committee f o r a
b u ild in g program of sch o o ls f o r th e C ity of H opew ell.
The f i r s t
recommendation was a s fo llo w s :
" 1 . That th e t o t a l sum o f #100,000 now a v a ila b le be
used in th e e r e c tio n of an elem en tary school p la n t
on a l o t betw een N in eteen th and Tw entieth Avenues in
th e B a ttle Ground A d d itio n ."
A school was com pleted on th e d e sig n a te d s i t e in September,
1929, and c a lle d th e Dupont S chool,
This school h as n in e te e n c la s s
rooms, a u d ito riu m , c a f e te r ia and the u su a l a u x i lia r y rooms.
The
t o t a l c o s t, in c lu d in g equipm ent, was #105,000.
"2 . That th e p ro p o sal f o r an overhead b rid g e over
th e N o rfo lk and W estern tr a c k s between H ighland Park
and th e Buren S u b -D iv isio n n ear Tw elfth or T h irte e n -
1. Survey R e p o rt, Hopewell, V irg in ia , C ity S chools, 1926. (In o f f ic e
School B oard, C ity of Hopewell)
97
th S tr e e t be c a r r ie d o u t by th e tim e th e new sch o o l
b u ild in g i s read y f o r o ccupancy.”
T his m a tte r was b ro u g h t b e fo re th e C ity C ouncil s e v e r a l
tim e s , b u t t h i s b rid g e was never c o n s tru c te d .
"3. That th e poposed f iv e - y e a r p la n o f fin a n c in g
m u n icip al improvements in th e C ity o f Hopewell in
which th e re i s s p e c if ic p r o v is io n f o r sch o o l b u i l d ­
in g be adopted and c a r r i e d o u t."
I n 1929 a j o i n t bond is s u e o f s t r e e t improvements and s c h o o ls
was approved by th e v o te r s and $100,000 was in c lu d ed f o r c o n s tru c ­
t i o n of sch o o l b u ild in g s .
"4 . That p ro p e r sch o o l f a c i l i t i e s f o r th e t e r r i t o r y
known a s H ighland P ark and South B. V illa g e be p ro ­
v ided from th e re s o u rc e s of t h i s program a t th e e a r l i ­
e s t p o s s ib le d a t e ."
A b u ild in g o f t h i r t e e n room s, l i b r a r y , p r i n c i p a l s o f f i c e ,
au d ito riu m , and c a f e t e r i a was com pleted in tim e f o r th e p u p ils t o
e n t e r sch o o l in Septem ber, 1930.
I t was c a lle d th e H ighland P ark
S chool.
"5 . That th e proposed r e o r g a n iz a tio n w ith re fe re n c e
to th e ju n io r and s e n io r h ig h sch o o l p la n be c a r r ie d
out as soon as p o s s ib le , and th a t ample p ro v is io n be
made f o r tr y - o u t c o u rse s and f o r v o c a tio n a l and p r e v o c a tio n a l work.
Ten a c re s o f ground were purchased fo r a ju n io r high sch o o l,
b u t th e b u ild in g was n ot e r e c te d , due to th e d e p re s s io n , and o th e r
f a c t o r s l a t e r made i t im p ra c tic a l to do so .
In th e h ig h school a g e n e ra l shop co u rse was s ta r t e d in th e
s e s s io n 1936-37.
The shop work was d iv id e d in t o two p a r t s , th e
morning c l a s s e s b eing dev o ted to g e n e ra l shop work and the a f t e r -
98
noon c la s s e s to day u n i t work.
I n o rd e r to p ro v id e th e c la s s i n
day u n it work th e fo llo w in g procedure was fo llo w e d :
A ll of th e
p u p ils above th e age o f f i f t e e n in elem en tary g ra d e s were p u t in to
a s e p a r a te c la s s and g iv en in d iv id u a l in s tr u c tio n in re a d in g , w r i t ­
in g and a r ith m e tic .
w ork.
I n th e a fte rn o o n th e se p u p ils were g iv e n shop
A p a r t- tim e te a c h e r was p ro v id ed f o r th e s e p u p ils f o r t h e i r
m orning c l a s s e s .
*6. That th e Board of E d u catio n , th e S u p erin ten d en t of
S c h o o ls, and th e C ity Manager be commended f o r t h e i r co ­
o p e ra tiv e and u n ceasin g e f f o r t s t o improve th e e d u ca tio n ­
a l system o f Hopewell and f o r th e e f f e c tiv e work t h a t has
a lre a d y been done a s dem onstrated by th e g r e a t improve­
ment in b u ild in g s , equipm ent, and q u a lity o f in s tr u c tio n
w ith in th e l a s t th r e e or fo u r y e a r s . In th is co n n ectio n
i t should be k ep t in mind a t a l l tim es, p a r t i c u l a r l y by
th e c i t i z e n s o f Hopewell th a t t h e i r c i t y i s a v e ry d i f ­
f i c u l t p la c e in which to p ro v id e an adequate system of
p u b lic e d u c a tio n s in c e i t p r e s e n ts many complex and
s e rio u s problem s t h a t are n ot found in th e o ld e r c i t i e s
t h a t have enjoyed a normal g row th.*
The Dupont E lem entary S chool, completed in 1929, and th e High­
lan d P ark S chool, com pleted in 1930, were w e ll-lo c a te d and o ffe re d
ample accom odations.
There were s t i l l th r e e frame b u ild in g s l e f t , —
th e P a tr i c k Copeland S chool, th e B. V illa g e School and th e C a rte r G.
Woodson Negro School.
In 1932-33 a l l 6 th g rad e p u p ils housed in th e hig h school were
tr a n s f e r r e d to th e v a rio u s elem en tary s c h o o ls , and th e n ex t y ear i t
was n e c e ssa ry to remove th e 7 th grades from th e h ig h school b u ild in g .
I n 1932 th e la r g e s t p la n t in Hopewell had been fo rced to clo se
down, and th e d e p re s s io n s e tt le d upon th e c i t y , s tr a n g lin g a l l e f ­
f o r t s toward b u ild in g expansion.
As a r e s u lt o f th e se co n d itio n s
99
th e r e was an a p p re c ia b le dropping o f f in th e en ro llm e n t o f th e
e lem en tary sc h o o ls and an in c re a s e in th e en ro llm e n t o f th e h ig h
s c h o o l.
By 1937 th e sch o o l bo ard was a b le to c o n s o lid a te th e B. V il­
la g e School and th e P a tr i c k Copeland S ch o o l, two fram e b u il d in g s ,
by b u ild in g a new b u ild in g a t a p o in t midway betw een th e s e two
s c h o o ls .
A b e a u t if u l r i v e r - f r o n t l o t , w ith ap p ro x im ate ly e ig h t
a c re s o f ground, was secu red f o r t h i s s c h o o l, and i n 1938 th e new
P a tr i c k Copeland School was com pleted.
I t had tw enty rooms,
a u d ito riu m and c a f e t e r i a .
C o n d itio n s in H opew ell, a s p o in te d o ut in th e l a s t S urvey,
were so ch an g eab le, and th e problem s i t had to fa c e were so p e c u lia r ,
t h a t many d i f f i c u l t i e s a ro s e h e re which more s e t t l e d eonanunities do
not have to f a c e .
Due to economic c o n d itio n s a sudden s h i f t in
p o p u la tio n to o k p la c e about t h i s tim e i n th e H ighland P ark a r e a .
Ih e re had been an in f l u x o f N egroes in to South B. V illa g e , a d jo in ­
ing th e H ighland Park s e c tio n , which caused many w hite r e s i d e n t s to
move o u t.
W ith th e v a c a tin g of a la rg e number o f houses in H ighland
P a rk , th e en ro llm en t o f th e H ighland P ark School f e l l o f f very sudden­
l y , so t h a t o n ly s ix ty p u p ils were a tte n d in g t h i s school in th e s e s ­
s io n 1937-38.
The sch o o l board acc o rd in g ly clo sed the s c h o o l and tr a n s f e r r e d
th e p u p ils to th e Dupont and P a tr i c k Copeland S chools.
A p ro p o sal
was made to c lo se th e C a rte r G-. Woodson S chool, due to i t s tho ro u g h ly
bad c o n d itio n , and to tu rn th e H ighland Park School in to a Negro
100
sc h o o l.
Many w hite r e s id e n t s li v in g n e a r t h i s s e c tio n o b je c te d
v ery s tr o n g ly t o t h i s , and th e y were sup p o rted by a c la u se in the
deed to th e p ro p e rty a g a in s t Negro o c c u p a tio n .
T h erefo re th e p ro ­
p o s a l was n o t c a r r ie d o u t.
By 1938-39 a l l o f th e w h ite p u p ils of th e c i t y were housed
i n modern, f i r e - p r o o f b u ild in g s , w ith ample c la s s room f a c i l i t i e s ,
adequate p laygrounds and a s u f f ic ie n t number o f te a c h e r s .
The
Hopewell High School was overcrowded d irin g t h a t s e s s io n , b u t from
a l l in d ic a tio n s th e peak o f en ro llm en t was to be expected in th e
s e s s io n 1939-40, a f t e r w hich conditions could be expected t o im­
prove .
The Negro sch o o l b u ild in g was in a d eq u ate , b u t th e te a c h in g
s t a f f was s a t i s f a c t o r y , and th e c la s s rooms n o t overcrowded.
The Revised C urriculum
With th e i n i t i a t i o n i n 1931 o f th e V irg in ia C urriculum P ro­
gram p la n s were im m ediately made fo r p a r ti c ip a tio n by th e Hopewell
te a c h e r s in th e f i r s t p erio d o f study and o r ie n ta tio n .
The p r in ­
c i p a l s , th e su p e rv is o r, and 100$ of th e elem entary te a c h e rs to o k ad­
van tag e o f th e o p p o rtu n ity o ffe re d fo r stu d y o f the program under th e
guidance cf th e d ep artm en t o f e d u c a tio n o f W illiam and Mary C o lleg e.
When th e second phase of th e S ta te program began, th e elemen­
t a r y te a c h e rs co n tin u ed t h e i r s tu d ie s under th e p la n s and procedures
o f th e S ta te Departm ent of E ducation.
p ro d u c tio n o f c u rric u lu m m a te r ia l.
This phase d e a lt w ith th e
Language A rts was chosen by th e
10X
H opew ell te a c h e r s as t h e i r p a r t o f th e p ro d u c tio n program , w ith
t h e i r c o n s u lta n t and cu rricu lu m c e n te r a t th e C o lleg e o f W illiam
and Mary.
U n its o f work developed i n th e classro o m of th e Hope-
w e ll sch o o ls were w r itt e n up in d e t a i l and s e n t to th e s t a t e
|>&nguage A rt Chairman.
In p r e p a r a tio n f o r th e p u b lic a tio n o f th e V ir g in ia Course of
S tudy, com m ittees of H opewell te a c h e r s and th e s u p e r v is o r worked
a t th e s e v e r a l te a c h e r s c o lle g e s .
The s u p e rv is o r and s e v e r a l te a c h ­
e r s worked w ith th e com m ittee in W illiam sburg s ix h o u rs a day f o r
s ix weeks p re p a rin g m a te r ia l f o r a t r y - o u t and e v a lu a tin g m a te r ia l
s e n t in from a l l over th e s t a t e in th e Language A rts .
Three Hope-
w e ll te a c h e r s serv ed on th e committee which p rep ared th e m a te r ia l
in th e form used in th e ex p erim en tal e d i t i o n o f th e elem en tary
cou rse o f s tu d y .
Hopew ell was chosen to p a r t i c i p a t e in th e wtr y - o u t"
program in 1933.
The T e n ta tiv e Course of Study f o r th e V ir g in ia E lem entary
Schools was d i s t r i b u t e d in Septem ber, 1934 to th e te a c h e rs of Hopew e ll.
S in ce t h a t tim e th e Revised Course o f Study has b een used
f o r a b a s is of in s t r u c t i o n in a l l th e sch o o ls o f th e C ity .
Summary
P r i o r to 1915 C ity P o in t was a sm all v i l l a g e .
The c h ild r e n
o f th e v i l l a g e and of th e few su rrounding la r g e farm s were served
by one sm all s c h o o l.
With th e advent of th e Dupont p la n t many hundreds o f people
102
flo c k e d i n and a new c i t y was born*
in 1915 and named Hopewell*
T his c i t y was in c o rp o ra te d
By 1917 th e p o p u la tio n was 4 0 ,0 0 0 .
In t h e y e a r 1917 two frame b u ild in g s w ere b u i l t , one c o n ta in in g s ix and th e o th e r tw enty room s.
Rooms in houses and over s t o r e s
were r e n te d in v a rio u s s e c tio n s o f th e c i t y and used as sc h o o l room s.
I t was n e c e ss a ry t o o p e ra te two s h i f t s in o rd e r to accomodate th e
r a p id ly in c r e a s in g number o f c h ild r e n .
In 1921 a frame b u ild in g w hich had been used as a Y. M. C. A.
was p urchased from th e Duponts by th e P rin c e George County School
Board.
T h is b u ild in g was co n v erted in t o a sch o o l b u ild in g and used
f o r th e h ig h sch o o l p u p il s .
At th e same tim e a frame warehouse was
a ls o purchased and con v erted i n t o a Negro elem en tary sch o o l.
There
were no Negro h ig h sch o o l p u p ils , so th a t i t was n o t n e c e ssa ry to
p ro v id e a Negro h ig h sch o o l.
In 1923 th e H ighland Park School was
e s ta b lis h e d in f o u r re n te d c o tta g e s .
P ro v id in g f a c i l i t i e s f o r p u p ils when th e number o f c h ild re n
e n r o lle d in c re a s e d so r a p id ly was most d i f f i c u l t .
The P rin c e George
County Board met t h i s problem as b e s t i t could and provided f a c i l i t i e s
f o r th e c h ild r e n o f Hopewell u n t i l 1923, when Hopewell to o k over th e
o p e ra tio n o f i t s own s c h o o ls .
In November 1925 th e f i r s t permanent b u ild in g was com pleted,
the H opewell High S chool.
A ll hig h school p u p ils as w e ll as p u p ils
o f th e f i f t h , s ix th and seventh g ra d e s were tr a n s f e r r e d t o t h i s
s c h o o l.
A Survey made in t h i s y e a r was of the g r e a t e s t a s s is ta n c e
i n making p la n s f o r th e f u t u r e , b o th from th e s ta n d p o in t of in s tr u c -
103
ti o n and o f sch o o l p la n ts .
I n 1929 th e Dupont E lem entary S ch o o l, a modern b r ic k b u ild ­
in g was com pleted.
T h is was fo llo w ed in 1930 by an o th e r o f th e
same ty p e , th e H ighland Park S chool.
I n Septem ber, 1937 th e r e ­
m aining two fram e b u ild in g s were abandoned when a la r g e b r ic k
b u ild in g was b u i l t midway between th e s e two sc h o o ls.
This was th e
P a tr i c k Copeland S chool.
At th e p re s e n t tim e a l l o f th e w h ite schools have ample c la s s
room f a c i l i t i e s and la rg e p lay g ro u n d s, and a re s ta f f e d w ith a s u f ­
f i c i e n t number of w e ll- tr a in e d te a c h e r s .
The Negro School b u ild in g
i s in bad c o n d itio n ; however, th e c la s s e s a re not over-crowded and
th e te a c h in g s t a f f i s w e ll- tr a in e d .
Hopewell te a c h e rs had an im portant p a r t in th e work o f p rep ara­
t i o n of m a te r ia l f o r th e R evised Course of Study, and t h i s co u rse
of s tu d y h as been used from th e v e ry b eg in n in g as a b a s is f o r in s tr u c
tio n in a l l o f th e schools o f th e c i t y .
Chapter X
summary
The e f f o r t s o f th e c o lo n is ts in P rin c e George County to e s ­
t a b l i s h a d em o cratic form o f government and to b u ild an e d u c a tio n ­
a l system p a r a l le l e d each o th e r.
C h arles C i t t i e County, a s P rin c e
George County was c a lle d i n th e e a r ly d a y s, had i t s r e p r e s e n ta tio n
on th e f i r s t dem ocratic assem bly in .America, and w ith in th e y e a r a
s i t e was chosen h ere f o r th e f i r s t f r e e school in America, th e E ast
I n d ia S ch o o l.
Since th e p la n ta tio n s in P rin c e George County were la rg e , th e
r i c h p la n te r s depended upon p r iv a t e tu to r s f o r th e e d u c a tio n of
t h e i r c h ild r e n .
In th e e a r ly ye.ars of th e colony th e c h ild r e n , up­
on b e in g p rep ared fo r c o lle g e , were s e n t abroad to th e u n iv e r a tie s ;
l a t e r th e y a tte n d e d th e C ollege of W illiam and Mary and the c o lle g e s
o f P en n sy lv an ia and New York.
Prom 1720 to 1748 th e v e s t r i e s of M a rtin ’s Brandon and B r is to l
P a r is h e s bound o u t many poor c h ild re n and orphans f o r in d e n tu re .
The
a r t i c l e s of in d e n tu re always s p e c if ie d th a t th e c h ild should re c e iv e
ed u c a tio n a t th e expense o f th e m a ste r.
charge o f th e in d e n tu re o f c h ild re n .
A fte r 1748 th e c o u rts had
The f i r s t attem p t in V irg in ia
a t tr a d e e d u c a tio n f o r c h ild re n was made in B r is to l P a rish in 1756.
A d m in istra tio n of th e " p a rso n s’ s c h o o ls ” was an o th er duty o f
th e p a r is h .
In th e e a r ly days th e church was c lo s e ly a l l i e d w ith
e d u c a tio n and th e s t a t e , as th e v e s t r i e s had broad c i v i l d u tie s
104
105
as w e ll a s th o se p e r ta in in g to th e church.
Funds a llo c a te d to P rin c e George County from th e L ite r a r y Fund
fu rn is h e d th e means f o r th e f i r s t s te p s tak en h ere in th e d ev elo p ­
ment of p u b lic e d u c a tio n .
Although th e number o f c h ild r e n r e c e iv ­
in g th e b e n e f its of e d u c a tio n in c re a s e d s te a d i l y , th e c i tiz e n s fo u g h t
l o c a l ta x a tio n f o r th e su p p o rt of th e sch o o ls fo r many y e a rs .
O ther
sch o o l l e g i s l a t i o n was r e s p o n s ib le f o r awakening p u b lic o p in io n and
o b ta in in g added s u p p o rt, b u t th e o u tb rea k of th e War Between th e
S ta te s p u t a sto p f o r a tim e to a l l e f f o r t s t o e s ta b l is h a system
o f p u b lic e d u c a tio n .
S e v e ra l academ ies and "Old F ie ld S chools" f lo u r is h e d in P rin ce
George j u s t p r io r to th e w ar.
But most o f th e se sc h o o ls were clo sed
a t th e o u tb rea k o f th e war.
P rin c e George County began th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f i t s school
system i n 1871, and th e su p e rin te n d e n t of sch o o ls fought to develop
a p u b lic o p in io n fa v o ra b le to sch o o ls.
T his was a t tim es a b i t t e r
s tr u g g le and th e sch o o ls s u ffe re d from th e la c k o f i n t e r e s t from
th e c i tiz e n s g e n e r a lly .
But a s tim e went on and p u b lic e d u ca tio n
became more p o p u la r, an in c re a s in g amount of revenue was g ra n te d to
th e s c h o o ls .
The h ig h sch o o l movement, r e s u lt in g in th e e sta b lish m e n t of
th e f i r s t high sch o o l a t D is p u ta n ts, and soon a fte rw a rd s th e e s ta b l is h ­
ment o f s e v e ra l graded schools marked su c c e ssiv e s te p s forw ard.
C o n so lid atio n o f sch o o ls and th e development o f a tr a n s p o r ta ­
t i o n system assu red to c h ild re n liv in g in s p a rs e ly s e t t l e d s e c tio n s
106
o f th e co u n ty th e same ad v an tag es a s th o s e enjoyed by c h ild r e n
i n more t h i c k ly p o p u lated c e n te r s .
A nother fo rw ard ste p was ta k e n w ith th e a b o litio n o f th e f i v e
d i s t r i c t sch o o l b o a rd s, and in t h e i r p la ce th e e sta b lish m e n t of
a five-m an board which had r e p r e s e n ta tio n from each d i s t r i c t of
th e co u n ty .
A more e f f i c i e n t c o n s o lid a tio n program could th en be
u n d e rta k e n , and th e in s t r u c t i o n b ro u g h t up to i t s h ig h e st p o in t
o f e f f ic ie n c y .
This was done.
A program f o r th e improvement o f te a c h e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n was
i n s t i t u t e d and fo llo w e d , e x te n s iv e stu d y of th e R evised C urriculum
was made by th e te a c h e r s , school p la n ts were modernized and p u t
i n t o f i r s t c la s s c o n d itio n , playgrounds developed and improvements
alo n g many l i n e s r e a l iz e d .
I n re g a rd to Negro E d u catio n i t must be s a id th a t p u b lic
sen tim en t delayed th e i n s t i t u t i o n of p u b lic ed u ca tio n f o r Negroes
f o r many y e a r s .
With th e change in th e a t t i t u d e of th e p eo p le, how­
e v e r, sc h o o ls were e s ta b lis h e d , c o n so lid ated and improved, and tr a n s '
p o r ta tio n p ro v id ed .
F a c i l i t i e s are o ffe re d to a l l Negro c h ild re n ,
bo th elem en tary and h ig h sch o o l.
With th e i n s t i t u t i o n o f a b e t te r
ty p e o f te a c h e r , tr a n s p o r ta tio n of p u p ils , hig h school in s tr u c tio n
and a nine-m onths sch o o l term , th e e d u c a tio n a l f a c i l i t i e s o ffe re d
to Negroes in P rin c e George County have been g r e a tly improved.
A fte r th e d e p re s s io n , when th e re was no money f o r sch o o l im­
provement and school boards were p ressed fo r money t o m a in tain th e
107
s c h o o ls , v a rio u s f e d e r a l a g en c ies began to o p e ra te t o r e lie v e
th e em ergency.
Under th e C iv il Works A d m in istra tio n much-needed
im provem ents were made.
These programs were co n tin u ed under th e
P u b lic Works A d m in is tra tio n , the Works P ro g re ss A d m in istra tio n , and
th e F e d e ra l Emergency R e lie f A d m in istra tio n .
The N a tio n a l Youth A d m in istra tio n came to th e re sc u e of th e
young p eople who were n o t a b le to go to sch o o l and f o r whom no jobs
were a v a ila b le .
These a g e n c ie s o p e ra tin g th ro u g h th e p u b lic sch o o ls
made i t p o s s ib le f o r many boys and g i r l s t o co n tin u e t h e i r sch o o lin g
in th e tim e o f economic s t r e s s .
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A cts of th e G eneral Assembly o f V ir g in ia , 1810, 1816
Andrews, Matthew P age, V irg in i a , th e Old Dominion, Doubelday
Doran & C o ., I n c . , 1937.
Bland P a p e rs , The, E d ited by C h a rle s Cam pbell, P e te rs b u rg , V a .,
P r in te d by E. & J . C. R u ffin , 1840-43.
Brown, A lexander, The G enesis of th e U nited S ta t e s , Boston & N .Y .,
Houghton, M if f lin & C o., 1890.
B ruce, P h ili p A lexander, Economic Hi s t o r y o f V irg in ia in th e Seven­
te e n th C en tu ry , N.Y. & London, M acmillan & C o., 1895.
B ruce, P h ilip A lexander, I n s t i t u t i o n a l H is to ry of V irg in ia in th e
S ev en teen th C en tu ry , G. P . Putnam 's Sons, N.Y. & London, 1910.
B ruce, P h ili p A lex an d er, The V irg in ia P lu ta r c h , Chapel H i l l , Univ­
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Cam pbell, C h a rle s, H is to ry o f th e Colony and A ncient Dominion of
V ir g in i a , P h i l a . , J . E. L ip p in c o tt & C o., i8 6 0 , Vol. I .
Cook, Manie, H is to r y o f the Hopewell S ch o o ls. (T ypew ritten account
o f Hopewell S chools as g iv en by old r e s id e n ts , 1923. L ib ra ry of
Hopewell High S ch o o l).
D a ily E x p re ss, P e te rs b u rg , V a., August 29, 1859.
Documents o f V irg in ia E d u ca tio n , 1827 - 1847.
Dodd, W illiam Edward, The Old S o u th , N. Y ., th e Macmillan C o., 1937.
F is k e , John, Old V irg in ia and Her N eighbors, Boston & N .Y ., Houghton
M if f lin & C o ., 1900.
Gordon, A rm istead C h u rc h ill, Memories and Memorials of W illiam Gor­
don McCabe, Richmond, V a ., 1925, Vol. I I .
H eatw ole, C o r n e liu s , Jaco b , A H is to ry o f E d u catio n in V irg in ia , N .Y .,
The M acm illan Company, 1916.
H ening, W illiam W a lle r, S ta tu te s a t Large of V ir g in ia , R. W„ & G.
Bartow, N. Y ., 1823, V ol. VI.
IQS
House J o u rn a l o f V ir g in ia , 1918, 1816.
Howe, H enry, H i s t o r i c a l C o lle c tio n s of V ir g in ia . C h a rle sto n , S .C .,
Babcock & C o ., 1845.
Jo n e s, Hugh, The P re s e n t S ta te of V ir g in i a . N .Y ., J . S ab in , 1865.
Maddox, W illiam A rth u r, The Free School Id ea in V irg in ia Before th e
C iv il War, T each ers C o lleg e, Columbia U n iv ., 1918.
Meade, W illiam , Old C hurches, M in is te rs and F a m ilie s of V ir g in ia ,
P h i l a . , J . B. L ip p in c o tt & C o., 1861.
M orriso n , A lfred James, The B eginnings o f P u b lic E ducation in
V ir g in i a , D. Bottom , S upt. of P u b lic P r in ti n g , Richmond, V a ., 1917.
N a tio n a l C yclopaedia of American B io g rap h y . N .Y ., 1893, V ol. I I I .
N e i l l , Edward D u f f ie ld , H is to ry o f the V irg in ia Company of London,
A lbany, N .Y ., J . M u$sell, 1869.
N e i l l , Edward D u f f ie ld , Memoir of Reverend P a tr i c k Copeland, N .Y .,
C. S c rib n e r & C o ., 1871.
N e i l l , Edward D u f f ie ld , V ir g in ia Carolorum , A lbany, N .Y ., J . M um sell's
Sons, 1886.
N e il l, Edward D u f f ie ld , V ir g in ia V e tu s ta , A lbany, N .Y ., J . M um sell's
Sons, 1885.
P r e s s , T he, P e te rs b u rg , V a ., Feb. 3 , 1859.
P u b lic High S chools o f V ir g in i a , 1922-1923, Annual R eport o f , B u ll e ti n ,
S ta te Board of E d u catio n , Richmond, 1923.
Records o f th e V irg in ia Company o f London, The, from m ss• in th e
L ib ra ry of C ongress, E d ite d by Susan M. K ingsburg, Government P r i n t ­
in g O ffic e , W ash., D. C ., V ol. I , 1906; V ol. I I , 1906; V ol. I l l ,
1933; V ol. IV, 1935.
S o u th sid e D em ocrat, P e te rs b u rg , V a ., Monday, December 25, 1854.
S ta n d a rd , (M rs.) Mary Mann Page (Newton), The S to ry of V ir g in i a ’s
F i r s t C en tu ry , P h ila . & London, J . B. L ip p in c o tt G o ., 1928.
S t i t h , W illiam , The H is to ry o f th e F i r s t D iscovery and S e ttle m e n t of
V ir g in i a , W illiam P a rk s , W illiam bburg, V a ., 1747.
Survey o f P rin c e George C ounty, 1924, B u ll e ti n , Southw est V irg in ia
E n te r p r is e , W y th ev ille, Va.
11 0
V ir g in ia Magazine o f H is to r y and B iography, Va. H is to r ic a l S o c ie ty ,
Richmond, V a ., V ol. I I , 1895; V ol. IV, 1897; V ol. V II, 1900;
V ol. XXVII, 1919; V ol. XXXVI, 1928.
V ir g in ia School R e p o rts , (1871 thro u g h 1938)•
W ells, Guy F re d , P e ris h E d u ca tio n in C o lo n ia l V ir g in ia , N.Y. C ity ,
T eachers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv ., 1923.
W illiam and Mary Q u a r te r ly , C o lleg e of W illiam and Mary, W illiam s­
b u rg , V a ., F i r s t s e r i e s , V ol. I l l , 1894; V ol. X I I I , 1904;
V ol. XIX, 1910; V ol. XXIV, 1915, Vol. XXVII, 1920. (E dited by
L. G. T y le r .)
APPENDIX - S t a t i s t i c a l T ab les
I . P rin c e George County
I I . C ity o f Hopewell
I ll
Table No, 1
Prince George County Schools
Enrollment and Number o f Schools
Year
Number Pupils Enrolled
Ending
White
Negro
Total
White
Negro
Total
1871
230
207
537
8
5
13
1872
367
459
825
12
10
22
1873
285
307
592
10
7
17
1874
249
454
703
7
7
14
1875
439
445
884
13
8
21
1876
454
564
1018
14
9
23
1877
432
502
932
13
9
22
1878
365
575
940
11
9
20
1879
266
261
467
7
5
12
1880
446
634
1080
14
10
24
1881
370
767
1137
13
15
28
1882
526
910
1436
16
17
33
1883
564
848
1412
18
17
35
1884
580
1017
1606
19
17
36
1885
625
1048
1673
18
17
35
1886
773
1029
1802
18
17
35
1887
667
1172
1839
18
18
36
1888
637
1138
1775
19
18
37
1889
776
1240
2016
18
18
36
1890
746
1269
2015
19
18
37
1891
783
1330
2013
19
18
37
1892
660
1153
1813
20
18
38
.1893
604
1158
1762
20
18
38
Number School Buildings
,
_
112
Table No* 1 (Con’t . )
Prince George County Schools
Enrollment and Number o f Schools
Year
Number Pupils Enrolled
Ending
White
Negro
Total
White
Negro
Total
1894
614
1158
1772
20
18
38
646
1168
1814
21
18
39
1896
624
1079
1702
21
18
39
1897
648
1043
1691
21
18
39
1898
622
968
1590
22
19
41
1899
642
1083
1725
22
19
41
1900
595
906
1501
22
19
41
1901
591
947
1583
21
19
40
1902
574
996
1570
21
19
40
1903
348
968
1516
20
1904
567
959
1626
20
19
39
1905
573
884
1457
20
19
39
1906
575
849
1424
20
18
38
1907
568
906
1474
20
19
39
1908
562
861
1423 .
19
1909
593
925
1518
18
19
37
1910
658
1049
1707
25
18
43
1911
754
897
1651
29
18
47
1912
746
733
1479
21
19
40
1913
738
926
1664
21
19
40
1914
825
969
1794
21
19
40
1915
939
797
1736
25
21
46
I 1916
1927
860
2787
25
22
47
Number School Buildings
_ ...19-
..l i ____
39
38
113
Table No. 1 (Conft . )
Prince George County Schools
Enrollment and Number o f Schools
Year
Number Pupils Enrolled
Ending
White
' Negro
Total
White
Negro
Total
1917
2597
1007
3604
23
25
45
JLiiS
2976
1086
4062
23
25
47
1919
3093
1085
4178
20
25
45
1920
1768
1190
2958
20
25
45
1921
2064
1185
3240
23
23
46
1922
2122
1408
3530
18
22
40
1222 . -
2444
1606
4050
12
22
34
1924
874
1293
2167
8
22
30
1925
1169
1205
2374
8
21
29
1926
1146
1184
2330
6
22
28
1927
1146
1167
2313
6
22
28
1928
1222
1099
2321
6
21
27
1929
1364
1093
2457
6
21
27
1930
1384
1137
2521
6
21
1931
1349
1141
2490
6
21
27
1932
1350
1118
2468
6
21
27
1933
1372
1050
2422
6
21
27
1934
1369
1013
2382
6
20
26
1935
1351
1026
2377
6
20
26
1936
1321
982
2303
6
20
26
1937
1227
973
2200
6
19
25
1938
1195
930
2125
6
17
6
14
1939
Number School Buildings
...... 27...
...
23 .
20
114
Table No* 2
P rin c e George County Schools
Number T each ers Employed
Tear
Ending
W hite
M ales
Females
T o tal White
and
Negro
Negro
T o ta l
M ales
Females
T o ta l
1871
1872
22
1873
10
None
R eported
1875
1876
11
21
1877
1878
10
12
1879
1880
12
1881
12
1882
12
28
11
1883
1884.
20
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
10
1890
12
1891
1892
1893
18
18
115
Table Wo# 2 (c o n * t.)
P rin c e George County Schools
Number T each ers Employed
W hite
Snding
M ales
Females
T o ta l
lales Females T o ta l
1824
1895
18
1896
11
1897
12
18
1898
1899
12
22
1900
1901
1902
1903
20
1905
1906
20
1907
1908
18
20
22
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
18
T o ta l White
and
Negro
116
Table Wo, 2 ( c o n 't .)
Prince George County Schools
Number Teachers Employed
fear
White
Total White
and
Negro
Negro
Ending
Males
Females
Total
Males
Females
Total
1917
5
71
76
2
15
17
93
1918
3
88
2
15
17
105
1919
2_.
76
79.
1
17
18
97
1920
4
62
66
1
19
20
86
1921
4
66
70
1
24
25
95
1922
5
64
67
2
25
27
91
1923 _
6
61
67
2
27
29
96
1924
3
33
36
1
25
26
62
1925
5
38
43
1
26
27
70
1926
6
38
44
3
23
26
70
1927
6
37
43
5
23
28
71
1928
6
36
42
6
22
28
70
1929
5
40
45
7
21
28
73
1930
6
45
51
7
23
30
81
1931
6
44
50
5
25
30
80
1932
6
43
49
6
24
30
79
1933
6
37
43
..5
25
30
73
1934
7
36
43
5
23
28
71
1935
7
38
45
5
23
28
73
1936
7
39
46
8
20
28
74
1937
8
38
46
6
22
28
74
1938
<1
37
46
7
21
28
74
1939
-
1 1?
Table No. 3
Showing Type o f C e r tific a te s Held
by White Teachers
in Prince George County
( 1925 - 1940 )
P rovisional
First Grade
Elementary
Normal
P rofession al
C ollegiate
P rofessional
Total Number
Teachers
6
3
3
0
6
11
12
1
2
46
1926
5
?
2
0
7
10
8
4
1
42
13
12
7
3
4
43
14
13
7
5
42
12
18
5
1
6
46
1
6
18
6
2
13
51
1
10
17
6
2
4
50
1927
4
1928
2
1929
4
1930
2
3
1931
P rovisional
Elementary
First
1925
Grade
Elementary
P rofession al
Tear .
Ending
June
30th
1
&
.0
<D
<
0D
) •<0-(
g 0)
*O
*1
r-!
0
1932
1
9
20
3
1
13
49
1933
1
8
19
3
1
11
43
27
2
2
12
43
25
2
2
15
45
1936
26
2
4
14
46
1937
24
2
3
17
46
1938
24
2
6
13
47
1939
22
2
4
18
46
,m o
22
1
5
19
47
1934
1935
1
118
Table No. 4
10
2
1927
3
11
4
1928
4
8
1929
1
5
1
3
£ £
©
H
1—
I
O
O
Total Number
Teachers
2
3
t |
a>
tj
C ollegiate
P rofessional
1926
2
•H +3
Wc
Normal
Professional
Three Year
Special
11
iO ctffc
Elementary
5
Local Permit
First
1925
Grade
Second Grade
Year
Ending
June
30th
P rovisional
Second Grade
Elementaiy
Professional
Provisional
First Grade
j
Showing Type o f C e rtific a tes Held
by Negro Teachers
in Prince George County
( 1925 - 1940 )
7
5
33
4
2
26
6
2
28
3
L0
2
1
28
2
L?
4
1
28
2
2
2
1930
3
1
3
L0
1
1
1931
2
1
2
L7
4
2
1932
6
L7
3
2
1
1
30
L6
8
2
1
1
28
2
11
9
1
1
3
28
1933
1934
1
1
24
28
1935
1
2
6
12
1
3
3
28
1936
1
1
6
13
1
1
5
28
1937
1
7
15
1
1
3
28
1938
1
6
15
1
3
2
28
1939
1
5
14
1
3
4
28
1940
1
4
17
1
2
7
32
113
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121
Table No. 7
D ivision Superintendents of Schools
1870-1939
M. W. Rainey........................... September IS , 1870 - 1874.
(Prince George and Surry)
W. H. Harrison....................... September 27, 1873 - December 9, 1879
(Prince George and Surry)
Timothy R ives......................... December 9, 1879 - December 13, 1881
(Prince George)
H. C. B r i t t o n . . . . ...............January 14, 1882 — June 30, 1886
(Prince George)
J. W. Stephenson.................. July 1 , 1886 - June
(Prince George)
30, 1889
Charles Comer..................... . .July 1 , 1889 - June 30 > 1891
(Prince George)
Benjamin Fenner..................... July 1 , 1891 - June
(Prince George)
30, 1909
W. W. Edwards......................... July 1 , 1909 - June 30, 1916
(Prince George and Hopewell)
A. B. Bristow........................July 1 , 1916 - October 15, 1920
(Prince George and Hopewell)
W. W. E d w a rd s................... October 15, 1920 — June 30, 1921
(Prince George and Hopewell)
R. K. Hoke..............................July 1 , 1921 - June 30, 1929
(P rin c e George and Hopewell)
R. W, Copeland
July 1 , 1929 (P rin c e George and Hopewell)
122
Table No. 8
County Tax Rate
fo r Operation of Schools
Prince George County
Year
Ending
Hackwater
1871
Bland
D is tr ic t L ew
Brandon Rives
Templeton
County
Lew
1872
ik ..
8
0
5
1
5
1873
Ml*-'
n<>t lis t< d
0
__ 5
0
5
lb
1874
10
10
0
10
0
10
1875
0
0
0
0
0
10
1876
5
5
5
5
5
10
1877
5
5
2b
5
0
10
1878
5
5
0
5
0
10
1879
5
0
5
0
10
1880
5
0
0
2i _
0
10
1881
0
zb
0
2i . _
0
10
1882
0
5
5
5
0
10
1883
5
10
5
5
10
10
1884
5
5
10
5
5
10
1885
5
lb
0
5
5
10
1886
lb
10
lb ....
lb
1887
5
10
10
10
1888
10
10
10
1889
10
10
10
1890
10
10
10
1891
10
10
10
1892
10
10
10
_._2i
____ Ik
10
_
,7j L
10
10
10
20
10
10
20
10
20
10
20
10
20
lb
__
10
Table No, 8
( c nn' t . )
County Tax Rate
for Operation of Schools
Prince George County
Year
Ending
_________
31ackwater
D is tr ic t Bevy
Bland Brandon Rives
1893
Templeton
County
Levy-
10
10
1895
10
10
1896
10
1897
10
10
10
10
1898
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
1900
10
10
1901
1902
10
10
10
10
10
10
1905
10
1906
10
1907
20
10
10
10
20
1908
10
1909
20
1910
1911
1912
1913
19 U
1915
1916
20
10
20
Table No.
Sl (co n ’t )
County Tax R ate
f o r O p eratio n o f S chools
P rin c e George County
Year
Ending-
B lackw ater
D i s t r i c t Levy
Bland Brandon
R ives
Templeton
County
L ew
1917
35
35
35
35
35
15
1918
35_____
35
35
35
35
15
1919
35
35
35
35
35
15
1920
35
35
35
35
35
25
1921
_ 45 .
45
45
45
45
30
1922
85
75
30
30
85
25
1923
85
75
30
30
85
25
1924
90
D is t r i c t Le" ry A bolis led
1925
S in k in ? Fund
10*
1.00
1926
S in k in * Fund
10*
1.00
1927
S in k in y Fund
25*
1928
S in k in ? Fund
20*.
.90
Cash
Approp.
1929
S in k in ? Fund
20*
Approp.
1930
S in k in y Fund
20*
Approp.
1931
S in k in ? Fund
20*
Approp.
1932
S in k in =r Fund
20*
Approp.
1933
S in k in y Fund
20*
Approp.
1934
Sinkin y Fund
20*
1935
Sinkin y Fund
20*
1936
S inkin y Fund
20*
1937
Sinkin g Fund
20*
1938
Sinkin g Fund
20*
1939
Elim in a te d
,
AEEOEi
Approp.
.
APJP^e J
Approp.!
i
...ARP.ro^
A ppropj
125
Table No. 9
Hopewell C ity Schools
Teachers and. Enrollment
White
1924-194.0
TEACHERS
Year
Ending Elementary
1924
. 35
ENROLLMENT
High
Total
10
45
•
Elementary
High
Total
1793
259
2052
1925 ..
3_9_._„
11
50
1471
254
1725
1926
39
11
50
1542
278
1820
1927
45
14
59
1594
340
1934
1928
51
19
70
1735
379
2114
1929
53
19
72
1940
456
2396
1930
58
20
78
1878
507
2385
1931
65
24
89
1935
556
2491
1932
62
25
87
1629
599
2228
1933
56
25
81
1531
710
2241
1934
55
26
81
1575
696
2271
1935
50_____
25
75
1453
768
2221
1936
47
26
73
1385
815
2200
1937
46
28
74 ....
1333
794
2127
1938
46
29
75
1304
866
2170
1939
41
32
73
1250
896
2146
1940
39
31
70
F u ll time lib ra ria n - Employed school sessio n - 1930-1931
Elementary Supervisor - Employed school sessio n - 1935-1936
Trade and In d u strial Teacher - Employed school sessio n - 1935-1936
Music and Art Teacher - Employed school sessio n - 1938-1939
126
Table No. 10
Hopewell C ity Schools
T eachers and E nrollm ent
Negro
1924-1940
TEACHERS
Year
Ending E lem entary
High
T o ta l
E lem entary
T o ta l
218
218
1925
242
1926
231
1927
239
1928
311
1929
354
1930
340
366
1931
396
428
1932
358
398
1933
359
402
1934
236
12
323
10
12
405
12
370
437
1937
330
394
1938
351
1939
369
1940
10
12?
Table No. 11
Showing Types of C e r tific a te s Held
by White Teachers
in Hopewell C ity Schools
(1925-1940)
C ollegiate
C ollegiate
P rofession al
Total Number
of Teachers
29
7
4
3
51
5
30
6
5
3
50
1927
5
31
6
3
8
53
1928
4
39
7
6
8
64
1929
4
42
6
7
12
71
1930
3
48
6
4
17
78
1931
1
50
8
8
19
86
49
7
10
21
87
45
6
9
21
81
1934
44
5
7
25
81
1935
42
5
3
26
76
1936
38
4
4
28
74
1937
. 38..
5
5
25
73
1938
29
3
7
33
1939
28
3
4
38 ..
73
1940
24
2
5
39
70
©
J
First
«5
Normal
P rofessional
6 .
Grade
Three Year
Special
Second Grade
Year
Ending
June
30th
2
1925
1926
i
1932
1933
_
___
128
.
Table No. 12
1925
1
1926
1
1
1
1
1
2
C ollegiate
P rofessional
Total Number
\ of Teachers
i
C ollegiate
I--------------------------
Three Year
Special
Normal
1P rofession al
i
Elementary
Provisional
Elementary
Permit
Local
1
Provisional
First Grade
Grade
Year
Ending
June
30th
First
Showing Types o f C e r t i f i c a t e s H eld
By Negro T eachers
i n Hopewell C ity S chools
( 1925 - 1940 )
1
1
1
1
1
u
....
f
:r 4
1927
1
1928
1
1
2
1
1
.
1929
1
1
2
1
1
3
3
1
- - - 1! 6
1 j 8
2
2
1
1930
1931
1
1
[6
1.
I
t
8
3
4
1
1 j 9
3
3
1
2 I 9
1
2
1
0
H
1932
11 5
1935
3
1
7 111
1936
5
1
6
1937
4
2
7 !13
1938
3
1
9 113
1939
3
1940
3
1933
1934
2
I
12
1
1 10 j l 3
1
1
6 |l 0
Table No. 15
FEDERAL EXPENDITURES ON THE SCHOOLS OF HOPEWELL
UNDER THE VARIOUS GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS
(No City or State Funds Included)
Total
E x p en d itu res
C iv il Works Administration (C. W. A .).................$
57,688.07
Federal Emergency R e lie f (F. E* R. A .)..............
56,822,00
Works Progress Administration (W. P, A . ) . . . . . ,
71,288,63
National Youth Administration (N. I . A . ) . . . . . .
Out-of-School
4-0,000.00
National Youth Administration (N. Y. A. )*.........
School Aid
15,000.00
Emergency Educational Program
Nursery S ch o o ls.
.............
............
1,750.00
6,583*94
Patrick Copeland (p. W. A* P r o je c t)...................
Main Building
4-4-,000.00
Patrick Copeland (W. P. A. P r o j e c t ) ..
A uditorium and C a f e te r ia
74,000.00
T otal......................................................367,132.64
ISO
Table No, 14
Revenue fo r Operation
of Hopewell Schools
1924-1940
R eceipts
T uition Non
Resident
P u pils
Year
Ending
June 30th
Council
Appropriation
State and
Other
Sources
1924
4,492.17
13.752.97
6,542.30
24,787.44
1925
61,649.16
13.088.35
1.607.58*
76,345.09
1926
50.179.29
19,423.69
1,977.82
71,580.80
1927
53,190.07
20,963.48
2,253.68
76,407.23
1928
66,524.65
19.528.08
3.753.68
89,806.41
1929
89.283.72
27.053.14 _
3,222.30
119.559.16
1930
112,235.42
27,257.25 '
4,290.06
U 3 .7 8 2 .7 3
1931
106.343.64
29.853.40
6.995.27
143,192.31
1932
103.933.86
28,679.02
8,859.31
U l . 472.19
1933
95,803.11
26,533.20
8,632.60
130.968.91
1934
89.993,01
20,718.08
11,264.60
121,975.69
1935
85.310.26
27.491.15
12,061.16
124,862.57
1936
86,039.93
28,855.80
12,443.16
127,338.89
1937
89,887.10
25.020.71
13,074.52
127,982.33
1938
94,010.14
26,124.51
14,788.68
134,923.33
1939
93,000.00
28.561.58
17,093.35
138.654.93
1940
91,000.00
Total a l l
R eceipts
18,136.50
#This change in tu itio n was caused by the Pupils in Prince
George County in the v ic in it y of Woodiawn attended the High­
land Park School. These pupils were removed to th e County
with the opening of th e Woodlawn School for the sessio n 1924—25.
131
VITA
R ichard Watson Copeland
Born a t Hampton, V ir g in ia , J u ly 21, 1896.
A ttended Hampton E lem entary S ch o o ls.
School in Ju n e, 1914.
G raduated Hampton High
A ttended W illiam and Mary C o lle g e , 1914 to 1917.
O ffic e r T ra in in g Camp, F o rt Myer, V ir g in ia , 1917.
U. S. Army, 1917 to 1919.
F i r s t L ie u te n a n t,
A ttended Cambridge U n iv e r s ity , 1918.
G raduated W illiam and Mary C o lle g e , B. S. D egree, 1920.
A s s is ta n t L ab o ra to ry I n s t r u c t o r , W illiam and Mary C o lle g e , F eb ru ary ,
1920 t o Ju n e, 1920.
A s s is ta n t P r in c ip a l and A th le tic Coach, Hampton High S ch o o l, 1920
to 1923.
S u p erv iso r P h y s ic a l and H e a lth E d u catio n , E liz a b e th C ity C ounty,
1923 t o 1926.
D i s t r i c t S u p e rv is o r, P h y s ic a l and H ealth E d u c a tio n , S ^ate D epartm ent
o f E d u ca tio n , 1926 to 1929.
S u p erin ten d en t o f S ch o o ls, Hopewell and P rin c e George C ounty, V ir­
g in i a , 1929 —
M ajor, U nited S ta te s Army R eserve Corps, 1940 —
C andidate f o r M aster o f A rts D egree, C ollege o f W illiam and Mary,
1940.
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