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The political and cultural history of the Panjab, including the North-West Frontier Province, in its earliest period.

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ProQuest N um ber: 10752717
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:5/; ."The P o l i t i c a l a n d :, CXiltura3. His to r y / o p t h e / ./ ,;: /
Pan,jab, /iiic iu d ih g /:t h e / ® rtfc v fe s t ;P l* o n tie r Prpv inop
. . /■; G3iesis:. .s u b m i tt e d / t p - t ] ^ ; : Ito;iyers i t y of, ^ n & o n ^ f o n / t l i e : ... '
I n 't e r h ^
(F a c u lty :p f
Ir 11'•’
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:lO'Ay'iA^dLsrtx.:
Laks3im:i: Chaii&ra/..•;:
The t h e s i s subm itted Pom s on ly p art o f a- corapreo f the Pan ja b , ,
■
lien siv e work on th e e a r ly h isto r y ^ m a t e r ia l'f o r which
-u
has been c o lle c t e d during the' cou rse o f my -study in
England.
It g iv e s fo r th e f i r s t - t i m e . a d e t a ile d account ?
■
(*)
o f th e Panjab, in c lu d in g th e Pbrth-West f r o n t ie r Province,,
in i t s / e a r l i e s t period*
.
In -th e f i r s t p la c e i t may be p ointed, out th a t
r e fe r e n c e s to th e Panjab in a n cien t t e x t s .on -th e whole are
s c a n ty , but th e country has proved to be co m p a ra tiv ely >
r ic h in m a t e r ia ls , as a r e s u lt o f r e c e n t ex c a v a tio n s a t
Barappa i n ,th e D is t r ic t o f Montgomery and o th e r contempor­
ary s i t e s in the Indus V a lle y .
These e x c a v a tio n s , as w i l l
be s e e n , . have, y ie ld e d a n t iq u i t ie s o f h ig h h i s t o r i c a l and
c u ltu r a l v a lu e and made*th e h i s t o r y o f India th e most
,
g lo r io u s and renowned throughout the woi’l d . , Hence h is t o r y
o f a n c ie n t Panjab th a t has become s p e c i a l l y in t e r e s t in g
i s an im portant desideratum o f Indian s tu d ie s .-
The on ly
h is t o r y proper a v a ila b le a t p rese n t i s one w r itte n lo n g
ago in 1 8 9 1 'by K*B. Muhammad I a t i f , who, s t r a n g e l y ,enough,.
‘ devoted some se v e n ty f i v e pages on ly to th e e a r ly p erio d s
f^j So" fa r as th e a n c ie n t p erio d i s concerned, h is t o r y of^
th e Pan jab and North-West f r o n t ie r P rovin ces i s very
c l o s e l y in t e r r e la t e d ; th e d e s c r ip tio n o f one w ithout th e ,
o th er would be inadequate and a t th e same tim e m isle a d in g .
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Chapters
,
I . G eneral In tro d u ctio n a n c ie n t b ou n d aries, nom enclature; p h y s ic a l
1 geography, language and p o p u la tio n ,
I I ‘ The Dawn o f rPanjab H isto r y ,
III
Part ( i i )
V
'
Aryans in th e Pan ja b .1
P art ( i ) .
,IV
’
•
-
t
.
Aryan Culture in' th e Sapta Sindhu,
Hie O rigin o f Aryans in l a t e r T r a d itio n •
Chapter I
vV.
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The P a n ja b , t h e h i s t o r y o f whichVtfo^
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v.;"^. t o - d a y : :aS;'a P ro v in c e o f : th e B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i t i s /
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The /
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/
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th e Jumna, t h e U n ite d P ro v ih c e s o f Agra. and .Oudh on t h e :
e a s t a s w e ll as t h e extrem e s o u t h - e a s t , ahd l a s t l y , / t h e
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•//://;'. / Jumna,,• i s , / p r o p e r l y s p e a k in g , n o t to be. c b n s id e r e d o u t o f
t h e h i s t o r i c / P a n j a b . / Tills was s e p a r a t e d from i t ab o u t V
-•V//V/'VV//vV.1hil^^
o n , t h e . t r a h s f e r (,I§ 1:1 ) o f t h e In d ia n / r'/V
c a p i t a l from C a l c u t t a t o / D e l h i ; /.//;-■'/V/V^-V-/V;V// V/ //V y //-
- 7 :V7V//7 -7 But7th07 s t u d e n to f /h isto r y -hardly needs th e caution
t h a t th e name Pan j a b h a s n o t alw ays im p lie d \'onie -;^nd//tlievV7:-';. •
ysam e ^ p a r t i c u l a r a r e a i n / h i s t o r y ;■;/!
h a s b ee n u se d i n ■•/•y :
d i f f e r e n t '- p e r i o d s f o r ^ d i f f e r e n t t e r r i t o r i e s . 7 //BefQ^^
;C;7 v y7/
l a t e s t c o n d itio n s s e t i n y o fte n y i t w i l l be s e e n , we have; :
7 ./'ip c r o s s t h e Indus i n : p r d e r / t o ;/ g iv e th e p r o p e r and s a t i s -
7 77 / / ; 77 f a c t o r y ; e x p l a n a t i b h of. t h e /nam eiy\Thus t h e P a n j a b , a t th e
7
'-7^ ? ^ ^mxe2ca.i;i’dn-"-^yom77;tii:e ;;Sitlis.;'.i‘ri7'.-X'849>, / in c lu d e d in
/'<■
7 i > ;/ 'y y i t s 7^bQundsy:/ih 7 a d d itio n 7 tp 7 th e :;^:I^
■77-7/ 7/7
^ahd th e 7 ^ t lu j 7 aM^ th e c x h - ^ t l u f / ^
P a t ia la , /Jfndy 7 :
1and H a b h a / M / / t h e / ; / S i k h '.o h iefsy /C a l s o ; t h e /tr a n s -
-
. Indus r e g io n , s t r e t c h in g to t h e /f o o t h ills ; ^ o f th e rivers;;
, 7/;hv77'y:'-^
dhd7Gumai?and ytho^^^
>.y7
7y 7/- :77 // /Range',- i ♦e . th e r e g io n from th e D i s t r i c t o f: Peshawar in
:•
7/7777-^/VV/’/^he/hoVth' to th e D is t r i c t o f SeVa Ghazi/ Khan ;in/ th e so u th . .
777-/'7/77y7-All;/-tli€sei t e r r i t o r i e s e a s t and /west o f th e Indus had; 7
p r e v io u s ly formed th e sb v e r e ig n S ta te o f th e Panjab under \
777/77;7 7 /7 7 K h araj% :f e h j i t 7 8 ih ^ * /-/-/^
/ ./:.
R o h ta k y 7
/ H issa r and Gurgaon in th e / s o u t h - e a s t , as a ls o p o r tio n s o f
/:/7,777//;^
7Vf : ^ i n a i / ;hhd7^rO ze^^
a ll
co n st it u t e d th e / y.
r e s t . o f f c i s - S a t l h j 7 t e r r i t o r y and p r e v i o u s l y form ed p a r t
77777 7/7
h$dy7/for^. geograp h ical,;/ h i s t o r i c a l and
.7 /
■r/7. 77 ' ( ^ r j a s o known as th e Phulkian S t a t e s , /from .th e H iu lk ian
. 7 ' V ;- 7
7V.MisaI/T(leagu e ) .7 7 . . /7/7;;'/y ■/ 7.- ■/ ;/ / / "-7"
7-\77/-7' ■' 7 V 7 '/-7
/ /:
(§0, Kashmir had a ls o been a dbminioh of, th e hiahara j a . I t was
/;^77Vy-7■; . f 7 ; V 7 7 . V ^ p ; e 0 : e d . - S i i ' e VyHcit-isiix 7t > 3 r - 7 T r e a t y d f la h o r e
/ ■ /.
7 ( 1B46 ) as th e r e s u l t / o f Ifhe /Hirst / S i k h . but was s o ld 7
7/77/77
: t o /;a^ D og ra /ch ieftain ^ 7 Ba ja /G ulab/Singh'-of Jami^
/.
•.////present;.:State o f Kashmir and Jammu h a s e x i s t e d / s i n c e . t h e n ;
' 7 / 7 7 / v / 7 7 / / y 7 f orm er I y :;:b o h t f o.lled; by th e Pan j a b Govermuent, b u t
777/:':77'‘'777 //p ts//p la c e d ; u n d e r / t h e / d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o i -’d f t h e / 7 .
77777 / /;.//C e n tral/G o y ern tiien t of// I n d ia i n 1897. ; 7
•■7--:/77
p o l i t i c a l c o n s id e r a tio n , to be tr a n s fe r r e d to th e •
P rovin ce o f th e Panjab a f t e r the* Mutiny o f 1857*, l a t e r
on, how ever, a change was made in th e yea r 1901, when th e
:fiv e ,tr a n s -I n d u s D i s t r i c t s : o f .th e Panjab, v i z . . Peshawar,
Kbhat, Bannu and Deva1Ism ail Khan, and th e c is-Ia d u sB azara; D i s t r i c t , to g e th e r w ith th e Five-T ribaly-A reas o f
th e same name - as th o se o f th e D i s t r i c t s and th e newly
acq u ired area o f p r o te c te d t r a c t s form ing th e Five
P o l i t i c a l A gencies o f Malakand ( D i r , , Swat, and G h itr a l),
Khyber, Khrrane, ■’Tochi (North Y /a zirista n ) and Yfena •
(South Waz i r i s t a n ) , were severed from th e Pan jab. so as
to form th e sep a ra te North-West F r o n tie r . P rovin ce, under
a C hief C o ip iissio n er, which'became a Governor’ s Province
r e c e n t ly in 1952.
Thus we s e e th a t th e Pan jab;- which a t th e p resen t
day Is conterm inous o n ly w ith th e B r it is h P ro v in ce,
in c lu d in g th e a s s o c ia te d N ative S t a t e s , com prised b efo re
1901 p r a c t i c a l l y th e whole o f n o rth -w estern In d ia, north
o f Sind and Ea jputana and west o f th e r iv e r Jumna, w ith
th e e x c e p tio n o f Kashmir w ith i t s s e v e r a l Himalayan
ranges and th r e e sm all s t r ip s o f B a lu ch ista n s u b je c t to
B r itis h r u le .
3h o th er words, th e name1Panjab was ap­
p lie d to th e area now in clu d ed in what are known as th e
P rovin ces o f th e North-West F ro n tier and th e Panjab
, (in c lu d in g th e sm all P rovince o f D e lh i) .
As to th e
'.7:77777t>Qund&rle.s7.ppevious/;f 07^^
77,7 s w a y t h e : student, o f Panj a h :h is to r y has t o remember th a t v
thro^^^
times' i t s p o l i t i c a l f r o n t i e r s have ;y
1 ik ew is e v a r ie d * and 7tha t .th e a n c le n t P;anj ab was a l s o 7 .7.-
: :.
7
, d iffb ren t/ln /S lze'^ a h d -. eh virphm ent;from th a t o f / to -d a y .
.7
!&! / i f
noted th a t a l t hough, th e p o l i t i c a l boundr
a r ie s o f th e
.77.
cou n try have d if f e r e d from age to a g e, i t s
7
■■■^7'V77^bgfaphichl; -lim its/h a v a : been marked , out by nature in a '77 .7
7/77 7 manner s u f f i c i e n t /to / h elp i t to. r e t a in i t s c u lt u r a l
77V7
7V77,y id e h t it y v ‘tp.:7a7^gyeat/; e x t e n t m o r e p a r t ic u la r ly ■in . e a r ly /
7 .p erio d s when eve
h ig h la n d s o f A fgh an istan were •.
7///' -V;;ihcluded:7 ih/fts''■boundsv/
77777 7 " 77// / f h a / n o r ^
v;//;7/7V7v-77/7/7. 7 - 7;:-'
7 7 y ■: ■ 777-'. ■
: ;ihe '% n ja b i n t h e , p a s t / i t 7 ;
7
would seem, went r i g h t as f a r a s th e f o o t h i l l s o f t h e 7
7
/
7
7
;
/
,
th e snowy Ranges o f F i r P a n t s a l ,
7
777'V’777^77'^^<iixiS'dLiS'^a7;:ia3iil7:7^^i^lc^^^>.^■. in th e . ex trem e n o r t h - w e s t ; ;7'
7 ;7/7 7 thougtr s t i l l /unexplored j /^he. t r a c t w est o f th e TIndus, , . /, ‘
777: ;/7.;forming/ p a r t o f ; t h e ; a n d e n t / janapadas ( a r i s t o c r a t 16■ 77 -77777 ■JV
; /vy 7 r e p u b li cs ) o f • Gandhara; a n d /.^
j a and wat ered by, th e /
, 7; / Sw at ,7 P a n jk o ra and l i m a r , h a s y i e l d e d b l e a r t r a c e s o f
:;7.;'V.' • ,Hidian7cu^
r e lig io n s /
7 ^ rth e r m o r e j th e 7
7 7/ “:7:|k th ah s7 in h a b it in g t h i s t r a c t/h a v e 7b6en7:i&ent i f le d w ith 7 / :7
. i n / t h i s / c o n n e c t i o n : A./Ebuchef7/ 3^btes7siir l a geo g ra p h ! e
/;• / 7. /an6ienne7du7.G andhara,/ 1902, /Engi t r a h s l a t i o h b y /H rH argreaves'3
7/7y7 .Not e s on t h e M e l e n t Geography o f Gandhara , 1915, and L ’A rt
7 7 ::,: gr e c o -b o n d d h iq u e : de Gandhara; Vol / I , 1905";/ Vol I I 7 1918 and 7
1922.: The p r e s e n c e o f t h e humped b u l l on th e/ c o in s o f th e
Tayanas ( B a o tr ia n Greeks.J•/ r e c a l l s a 7f e a t u r e 7.0 f . t h e c u l t u r e ; \
t h a t f l o u r i s h e d I n t h e TRanjab a b o u t 50007y e a r s ag o .
777
PpktliavS, \;ah Aryan t r ib e ment ioned: / i n t h e ^B^eda. and w i t h 77 7
t h e P aktuesx Of7 H erodotus , a Greek w r i t e r o f tlie f i f t h
• ;/
vc e n tu r y B; 0.7 ./In. th e no r t h 'h e tw e e n t h e Indus and t h e - y '77/ :
J
e
h
l
a
m
,
i
n
:S a n s k r i t ) ; 7
7w ;Iih;.t h e / i o 'w e iV y a lle y o f th e f i v e r ’Krshnagariga i n t h e 77 7/7;/ y
n o r t h - e a s t , now a t t a c h e d 7to th e F r o n t i e r Prov i n c e , b e lo n g e d
to t h e ' / h i s t o r i c ^ ^
;i t h l & h ^ a g b - b ^
w est'erh /'^ h jia h i7 i/p ..7 ,;^h h d a 7 7 ''a M 7
th o se ;. '//
0f -the ;P ah Jab i;/,, Hie ;same i s ih e 7 cu se w ith, t h e M ontane. and ’/,
submpht a h d ; ^
i n I<ashriiir S t a t e , 7 t h e a n c ie h ti ; 7 7.7
A b iiis a fa 777betw epnx;the/ifishiam 'and t h e ; & a h a b j7 and/ t h e :!7 /7/:
a n c i e n t 71^
- betw een th e Chanab and t h e R a v i,- from t h 0 '/:7
t w p / a n p i e n t / ;f r f b e s ' ‘c a lle d /T A b h is a f a 7 (A b h is a f e h v O f7 ^ ^
/ h i s t o r i a n s ) ,^
b o t h / t h e t r a c t s ;were i n h a b i t ­
e d . : 7:HiO: names o f th e d i a l e c t s / S p o k e n i n t h i s b o r d e r a re ,
7
; L ahnd a,and Bogray b o t h , .as ye s h a l l , s e e c l o s e l y c o n n e c te d .
7 w ith 7 th e i p p h j a b i 7.1anguage7prppef 7;7f/Beyond: t h i s / ; t h e 'bo^
s t r e t c h e $ 7 r i g h t / Up7tc7fhe;::upporm ost//c0uf
;Ghanab:?, y
t h e Raviy. t h e . M as a n a th e ' S a t l u j , t h a t i s t o sa y , up t o
•;t h e c e n t r a l Him alayan 'TBahge^pfxi&nskar, which/:f o r m s ; t h e '
y&bhisafa / t e r r it o r y 7 ia ;nbw : c^
7 & nch7/(BkrhbisaV V xRaJdhft;7(I^japur#l
7 •/
V)7. I^Lfya: Is;vihdh;ome 7of /Sturdy/D ogras .77M
name is
D ugdfibr /fobgafyfrom/Du fg a ra / (not/from .DrigaTta as some­
tim es / d e r i v e d • : 7’•;;7;;; -x•/.y .7••7// ;/■xy•/'X.:7;/ y 77,v_x . / 7/yx
7 boundary betw een t h e
t h e /7 /.
j a b and I& sto^
'/./two.' o u t l y i n g /p o f t io n s ., o f / t h e -Kangf a ;D ie t r i b t: *x, l a h u l c ahd7
/7\;
/ . / i / j ^ l t i ,-7from/ " i ^ a k h V 7;-A l l / 't h is/. t e r f i t p i y y / i n c l d
7 7 7 / s t a t b V y p r y ^ n o r t h e r n bo r d e r / h a d
7 /in d e p e n d e n t .of Kashmir and has b e en a s . mu oh bound up w ith
t h e Pan ja b i n fo rm e r tim e s a s t o - d a y .
This i s q u i t e
7 7-:;e y f d e n t/fro m , t h e vs i m i i a r i t y o f its.-. la n g u a g e ’:, : p e o p le and7 7-/7
re lig io u s b e lie f
;t h e / i ^
a n t i c x u i t i e s . o f ; Cliariiba . S t a t e y w h ic h go b a c k t o t h e s i x t h
an d s e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n e r a : y .7 /7 '7 ''
77';/ l-'Vr''--::/':eoXi'^liearriVvXi^i1bj7p'f;-''tifrS/ai^
' /
'7' 7 '7 /
P lig h t ly - - //
7V '/difT erent/frbm /'v^atx#b7'knpw --:bf7ifyih7bo
■.y/and/mpdernytimes-^ 7 i t s t e r r i t o r y / la y f h r t h b f tp;;the7sohl;hj; 7/
/ / i n c l u d i n g t h e n o rth e rn p o rtio n s o f 'th e Bikaner and ;J a is aimer
7 S tates , through/ w h lb h /flo
^ r a s y a t l / f i y e f ,//
/y /a n d u p p e f y S i n d / e a s t o f t h e / I M ^
7// /p o r ti o n /o f S a p v i r a - d e
7 th e Pan ja b .
On/ th e e a s t /:t
th e / lower; / //
Timpoft&hf^
u n i t in 7V//..
Jumna ^has g e n e r a lly formed //';
y/ytiie:, d iy id ih g /I in e ; b e tw e e n .th e /V a il
/ t h a t ;Of \ t h . e 7 G k n g ^ t o .
th e /lh d u s and ■’
supposb t h a t t h e . f e g i o n -■
; ;v/:iitM ediatelyy webTtx o fy ^ h e y Juitna l a y q h t q i d e / th b l i m i t s o f
// . th e Banjab/;in7edflyVdays^7
% yeda; t h e most a n c ie n t . 7 7 /
// l i t e r a r y work produced .in .th b t 7bbu^
bxclude /' 7 /
7 7 : t h e /p la in s /o f /S ir h ih d : and ih a n esa r which ./are a s s o c ia te d . 77/7
7 7 //w ith /th e /:f t a f a t a s ;and ihblhdbd / in : the;/Indus’/ V a l le y ; / - So/ 7 V7'
- -
a ls o some t r a d it io n s o f h i s t o x i c a l c h a r a c t e f :p r e s e r v e d - in /7 /
::7.
7d':’V'jy'V"7
.
e3?V.i-i^.e3?€L^iiiel'stf
th a t th e jahapadas-. V io u r is h ih g .,in
: / /: ; :/' 77 t h i s ; p a rt have be e n :p o l i t ic a lly : mbre / a i l l q d t q / ;t h e ; 77 :; '
■7:;7'77>-77;' /77;qentr a t yaM;/westerh' :Pan lab/than/Tt^
e a s t*
The d e f i n i t i o n o f ’ U t t a r a p a t h a , t h e s o - c a l l e d
/;; 7 y 7
Brahmanic I n d i a 7 a
s
!
7/7.7' 7
c e r t a i n S a n sk rit t e x t s , Y/liich e x c lu d e s t h i s e a s te r n
7&77V 7 ; , y 7 y i rae t y i s / t b/i>e/under s t qody ksybas edy o f i g i n a l l d q n b ^
7-7 7 /y / b x t b i i f . / o f '/ c u l t u r a l / i h f i u e n ^
/_ '/•/' / o f . the'-;"Gangetio: V a l l e y ; 7 in f a c t , as. ' w i l l be b e e n , i t h a
: .. 7:;/.y.l i t t i e ;re fe re n o e . to r e a l p o l i t i c a l ; c o n d itio n s v/: On th e .7. / ; / / ;
•y • ; , / o t h e r h a n d /th e re is- evidence to .b eliev e th a t th e ITt i a r a 7 7/ 77,y/hpatha-^^
th b /P a k sh rh a p a th a o r
/ 7 y i y / . ;7 y 7 ;:
7777-:/;///.' Southern Router " le n t i t s /name to ; th e 7 re g io h th ro u ^ i
/ 7;7 7: t d i c h i t p a s s e d " , / and s i g n i f i e d / t h e w hqle ; no
,; . : ;
/Front iqr/v77.7x
y 7 y //7 /7 y /^ q v ln G eh 7 y 7 T h ey u se'7 b f ^
f n th is.
777-77/7/7-sense“by*/ B khd'ih7hib 7sem i-h 1 s t o r i d a l •-work:
/ / / / / : / / / / :is 7 y e r^ ^
; 7 / ,'7 /v ,;.^//
r e g io n . 7 /
c o v e r in g t h e n o r th - w e s t q rn p a r t o f t h e TJnited P r b y ih a b s ////
7:7/Yy;77/7'and7bhe/:w h q le /b f;.b ^
^ 7 7 777
/ ; ; ;./:
t h e 7 & r s h a c h a r i t ;a7'
le a n t' .;7 .:3 t/b e e m s /tq /ih b i^
t h e w e s t e r n p a r t o f : t h e ;l)hi t e d P ro v in b e s ;7 hbt; t o s p e a k . o f
t h e w s s t - o f th e
7777
//;
J u m n a ... 7 . .. T h i s . i s f u r t h e r 7 // : 7
7 / 7 7 7 -7777 :o b n f i r m e d ;7 b y 7 t h e 7 e x p l i q i t 7 m e h t i b n / : b f ' 7 t h e :7 't j s l n k r a s 7 , a s 7 a / x / / 7 / ’y 7;
o f Ea r ly Buddhisin/7 1 0 ndon I93&,
'Chapter/ I I , px) 48-49 7 b ~ / ■7,7' V / / b y- y :77.7-•7777/7 "7-:y
people o f th e P an jab /l w liile th e y /a ^
/o th e rw ise /y 77 '
hs-' lie ighb ours o f // I h x r u - P a n c h ; , 1 iv in g /in t h e s o - c a l le d
i^ d h y a-d eb a, i *e */jX M id d ^
o r mid*’India# y
■/ 7 y 7 ^ /re g a rd s t h V t ^
w est >/th e y ;,extendedy7
beyqhd /the;; tn d u s //f ^
y
y /'■;; /y y /
7;.
/Kkbul r ig h f : below /as . f a r y y / .
a s /th e /^ ih h /P k s h /fn /th e /
y
I t is ^a/w ell-known if a c t / t h a t /s o m e :p la c e s /e ith e r now, bear
7/y y
/ x: ///:'x/:q r haveyborneyf om ^
xy/x/ ///y y y /y /y /b m
c e r ta in ty be.
7
l a t e r C la s s ic a l/S a n s k r it so u rces . V
y / y '> 7;7/y'7/ :y/y/®Q tW ith sta n d in g , i t is sbmet imes a s s e r t e d ' ■th a t th e Indus
:77 /yy////,:'// 7 formed the. w estern -qA trem iiyxofVthe/P^
y / y :;;
■■/ -v /y -'1
y / y . //y /Z /y y y h o w e v p r y h b z th q /b a rly b h iS 'tp 'ry /^
777 ; -V■V y /V y ;///w ill/ show hpvi much . t h e r c o u n tr y beyond t h e / I n d u s h a s b een
7y •^ x 7 //V y /v y y y cb in h q ctei/w ith t h e I n d u s / r e g ^
xeas t . x : The /e v id e n c e / -
7jy>Sy V 7 ///7 y y i& rn ib h ^
x////;/'/x/.yV7;x/ '/ /- '/'th e /y d lle y /q f-7t h e /7 r i v e r /Zholb77t h e /Y a v y a y a ti; ofxthe/.Bgyedaix
;777:7/yx/x/vx'yy/ l e a d u s / a lm o si t o a d e f i n i t e c o n e lu s i o n t h a t '■t h e t r a n s r
7 /y
:;■ •:f y y (^ /‘B efqrehces; from, some-of th e . la te r/V e d ic ; and o th e r t e x t s ..• / / y
Av?7-::;y7>/7::7fexxV7y7'\7V"iii^^b'a.^07>^Ka1;7y-*)i;^76u il;t£ ^ t7j6^ 7\libIi^:;:'-^d?S'^
t h e / y" •//.•/
//y/77/'y7/ //////J u m n a /g ra v ita te d /fo r/th e .
' 7/'/;y 7; / V: //'/xtiuoh so th a t i n .th e ■f ive-fqld/j& ahm anlcx
o f /In d ia ,. 7 x
, 7 x ' .;whi ch coxit inued 10 ex i st. as / l a t e /as .th e t i m e o f __Raj akekhara
/ ' / / / / x7. ; x : (12th c e n t.A .D .) , /th e .author o f th e ffivyatniinaiiisa, t h i s a re a x
V77;7 y x //y /y 7 ;///'alq h g :/w ifh /ifsy p eq b ie7 1 s/m en tl^
./yx 7y y //'//.b y /////-i^ d h y a ^ d e b a /Z h n d /
r e s t pdf/the:tb rth -w e s te fn /'Ih d £ a /!ihl.7-7
y y //V /y /y //V /y /b '$ h & q d /^
y /y
y 7'777; ■/■/" x'; *-/ th a t th e t r i b e s / l i v i n g ;o h /th e t i ^ i t /bank; o f th e Jumna :were '
vyyy//:////xyxx/ out p f f/fro m : th e .y P a ^
p o litic a b /a n d ;s o c ia l/
/7/" 7/ - 7;;, / 7 re l a t i on s . undpub t e d ly ex is te d / on b o th s id es o f th e r i v e r ,
’V7V/7-77=^7'i7;: 7-:'Kl'7V-b7:a&;;;;] w . ' i i i 7 ; a p p ' e i v i i ; - ^ L e ’s-.-ojp' t h e t r i b e s e s t a b l i s h y..I-.";'vx/.:; / e d t h e r e , ,;y i z 7 7 7 t h e ’/;R hafatks ,/ P liru -K u ru s , X Jsinaras,; :S a lv a s,'/: •'
Indus . r e g io n was a l l i e d /to th e p eop le o f the. Indus V a lle y ..
The Pass o f Bolan and th e : Bis t r i c t / o f / S i b i l are th e t r a d i - / ;
t io n a l; so u th ern .^:bbuhdaries;.of/th /^ g h a h /c o u n tr y ./", ’ih e ■/-/■;
V a iley is: o f / ^ e l l a - B i s h i i ^
Zhob in they//''
p r e se n t P rovin ce o f B a lu c h is ta b ,/a n d ; th e / a r e a s .known as. /.
W asir.istany / Ilirram, i f f i d i y T i r k h ,: .and/the Ivbhmand country
in th e Iforth-West F ro h tier /P rb vince form r e a l l y B r itis h xy/
A^ghahisiqn;y//The . A fgh an s/ah a / r a c e , /b arrin g ;th e fo r e ig n y
elem en ts .'among/..themy/hre/n/l^
Aid ia/an d / I r a n , /
and so. i s th e i r c punt r y , / 7 Anc i ent l y ,: ho wev e r , th ey we re / /
cbnhected;m bfe;;W ith /;^ d ia 7 th a h With/^
Rgv.eda
enum erates ■a l l the. im portant w estern t r ib u t a r ie s o f th e /7y
I n d u s;/ / / ity a is p /m e h tio h b ’th
and /th e /M ^
trib e s ,
eople p f / &
re g u la r Aryan
Hie e a r l i e s t knovm . invaders o r oocupants o f . /
7 ,
A fghanistan were d o u b tle ss,A ry a n s, w ho.also m igrated in to
th e Indus. .V alley. / H iis may .account f o r t h e ; g r e a te r yxesemr
:b iah p e/6 f yiheyeksbbf h y tr ibesx*fhvphys ie a l//fe a tu re s / ^
o f th e i r Panj a b i lie ig h b p u rs; 7//; At th e same t ime ,••• th e /
t r a d i t i o n s / .b f l a t e r Ind ia n .1 i t e r a t u r e , ; Old ; Pers i an in s c rip
t ions o f th e /:s ix th cen tu ry B* Gv and n o tic e s o f G reek,, /
/;
, /S ^ y lfe
i - i O / t / y ://... >/ ‘ . / •'
)//The/:prqkent/:/ 'p b p u i'a tib h /o /f/A f g h k n i s t k h i n / g e n e r a l /is^^^ a
m i x t u r e y p f / y a r i o u s p e o p le s a s / t h e r e s u i t o f c o m p a r a t i v e l y ;
r e c e n t and s t r o n g m i g r a t i o n s ; t h e l a t e s t b e in g t h a t o f /
t h e T a jik s i / / / :
' - : " " :V"' : ;; '
‘
.
w r i t e r s ' sh o W /th at 7t h b p ep]il e and ■c o u n t r y :immed l a t e l y we s f . - y
o f th e Indus b e lo n g e d tb y I h d i a , 7.-7/x/y' -V; 7yX::-
/
7V/yy/V; / xyy 7/
X, / y;Ib rtu n at e l y , we have a few, a l i u s io n s 7 i n ; th e Aves t a ,
t i l e :s a c r ^
,y '
Z a r a th u str ia d s, w h ich throw some, ,
fu r th e r 1 i g h t . on th e b o n d it io n s /t h a f /p b t a ih e d ^ ^ th e w e st 7y-/,/
' o f t h e y Indus. atx a n /e a r ly d a te . X7 Prof ; Jackson ;y sa y s , 7
;yyyy
; t?,Ih ere "are likewise:^ a7hmnber o f 7&bbtah;: ham es7pf p la c e s
7 7
. lo c a te d so u th o f th e Hindu/ Kush in t lie:71e r r i t ory th a t once
a t l e a s t was . comrapn in p a rt t o . jfche /dhdlans;, and /ih p //Ir a n ia n s y 7
arid h a s h ad, as .a n a tu r a l b ord erlp n d , yanyMppr^
enpe/uponxxiAdia Tb h is t o r y - . f n / l a t e r / . a g e s i o i i ; .
;':7’;77y:-y
th e s e domains corresponds to a c o n s id e r a b le s e c t io n o f
Afghan i s ta n /arid po s s i b l y : i o ; a / p a rt o f /S a iu ch ista n y 7 rea liiis-7 / ' y
npWyuhder7 d ife c t- ;B r itish ;x ih flu e h c e or in blu ded
as a p a r t o f the. Indian Hmpire •
;7
One o f th e p ro o fs o f this-; ;
oormdinity o f i n t e r e s t i s t h e . f a c t th a t t h e .t e r r i t o f y / o
A rach osia (A v .H a ra h v a iti, O.P; Hara (h)"uvat.i.),,^ which/, . / / / y/y
cprresponds t p th e ;
p ro v in ce; o f Kandahar, was known, X
a t l e a s t in l a t e r P a fth ia n ; tim e s, as :?lh ite .7 India *. ,f
Itirth er cjuo.t m g /I ,y D artnesteter he w r it e s , •• 7*fHindu c i v i l i - / 7
v zatfbnyp^
i h th o s e ./parts y/Yrtiich/ih^^
P^T The Cambf idge .H isto ry ; o f I n d i a .Vol 1, e d ite d by P ro f . ; v
E. J y ■Rapsoh,7 1922:, > C h a p te r .XXV,X::p; 3 2 6 . ' • ;.y • V.//./ 7'7 ■-■.■:7/.X
; -7
;<t;)y: ^ y ; y y | y : y ; y y ; y : ; | 7 y / y y y y ; y ; y y y y ; ; y ; y ; / : ; ; : ;
:
bentux’ie s b e fo re / and a f t e r C h rist were known as M ii t e
/y/y
■ I n d i a , ; a n d rem ained ■
=more I n d ia n t h a n I r a n i a n • t i l l th e /} , 7/7 y/y .
7 y 7 y 77 / /: ;7/&sulman Conquest}’. ' . -//.//,
;
.7/V}'77
'• 7.
./ / '7: y,. ’ 7. ///. ' ■
.7.- . V 7/
7;As;- i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s statem en t we may add th a t/t h e 7 ?;x7/
yyy/yy /In d ia n / ( Indo-A ryan) language was- predoM nent in . e a s te rn . .7
f y :y /7 y y A fg h a n is ta h -fro m y th e y firs t.,/s e ttle m e n to f
the/A fghan race
^ i n ’ t h e .l a b d y o f / t h e ,y P a k t h a s / o r ^
, '//..
.tof/yy/Xy 77/7
/■'■y/y7/f'■//;/: ; 7 : 7 / / : p h i l p l o ; g i a t s P a s h t o : 7 o r '/ l a k h f p / ^ i o h / ; t h e : ;ik th a n s , :speak;/now.}y7-.7
■/7y}///•7; 777/x. / 7x/is b a s e d ' on/ a h :vlndoVAryan/prim ary /d ial© c t ;1 ik e -Sanskrit-../7/7//
/7/y \ ./.;'/y///7/yp-7 A gain, t h e la n g u a g e o f t h e , .M ar o e h t h i •i n s o r i p t i o n s , fo u n d / / / y y
y ///y // ■.7/7yy/y.;y-:; betW ebh7tt^
ih y th e /fb ^
_" ■}
;y 7. ■}}7} 77'7yyM ohenjo-rui^o /in th e so u th ahd; i o r a l a i yinythe-' w e s t, /w hich
7'}yy 7/}}'y } y {^/V/wasX/curreht/'i^ere' in y th b /c e n tu rie s
yx//
a f t e r the
y^
yv-yy- x/ •;.yv,x:■ ginking;}=c>/jthe/?Giiri^^
7/n •./•//
77777///
to ./ 7
//y X show th a t th e - f r o n t i e r 7Line o f 7anc l e n t Pahj ab ra n f a r t h e r
. /};...'/west, th a n a t th e p re s e n t day*
}.}////} /}. ;7
7;/
} /•/-. -v"/’;//} ■ 7 }••'
^A fghanistan,
' 7;//'yy./77,y////>/yyyobntf g u p u s/t^
7;
/"■ .'/ Xy
I&luqhistahX th a t are;/;
• / / / ; )7 ; '7 7/ 77.777'■/’h isto ric '-
7y
/F ro n tier^ P rovinces yyy■
7 x7 / 7; / ; / .77/- 77 7 w e r e y /o c 6u ; ^ e < f ; b y ; ; ^
tim es .down to, ■the •;t e n t h cen tu ry
/ y /f y A* D,
Bow •f a r ,: 7 ,; / / / y
;//7y-- y / e x a c tly : th e y /e x te n d e d t o fhe;7westx cannotv,be. s a t i s f a c t o r i l y 7y/
7 77. 7/// / ,x
y7y 7 7
7
■'// There } is- thus/no^/need to y doubt, t h a t th e t e r r i t o r i e s
h;7yy;y7//,/;/ / / y / / f t i n / e a s t e r n
XV
. "//
d eterm in ed / 7/7N everthelessy /w ith p u t /e x te n d in g th e l i m i t • y
y 7 7yf y//ytooX/f ar,77there'x i s /’every • rea so n t o ; b e l i e v e / t h a t th e v a l le y s y x v
\ .-7;:;7 /y x'-y 7y;;x;;;bf: th e . f i v e r /Kabul / (ilLbha J a h d i t s 7t r i b u t d f i e s Swat 7; 77////f .7.7
y'-'v- -t.,
v,'.:
• ... : •'
-•
‘
(S u v a stu ) e t o , and th o se o f t
h
,v ...
e
x
(H ariyu p fya), th e Omab'yC*^
■■■
12 •
■
(Kiuiiiu;), ,th e Bhrlob
th e Zliob (fa v y a v a tij
were a ll/..in c lu d e d wi th in the;' h i s t o r i c
Indus V a lle y ; ;■ ./ ;• y 7 . •' 7
The name ’Punjab1 l i t e r a l l y s i g n i f i e s th e ’Land o f th e r
Five /pivers:j^:S^hat' •ih ^ /tb e/b ou n tr^ /w ^
t h e Chahab,; the^ t o
and t h h t o
But i t w i l l , : .
be s e e n from what we have j u s t s a i d th a t, t h e . c u l t u r a l and
p o l i t l e a l Punjab had .o f te n . in c lu d e d more t h a n w h a t the'; name .'
/ i t s e l f " denotesV y Benb.e:;befbie>}TO:';probebd;; f u r t h e r ', W
h i s t o r i c a l g e o grubby 7 b ^ i s / b s s e h f i ^
know; t h b / h i s t o r y ■'h h d 7 s i g h i f I d a h o e i b f ^thiqynam ef , a s / w e l l - as
.7
o t h e r names by w hich b u r c o u n t r y ;w as. d e.s i g n a t ed ♦ yyy , 7 7/7/7 :/.
At f i r s t i t may be n o te d t h a t ; t h e name ’Pah j a b .’ which
i s . c u r r e n t y a t y t h e y p r e s e n t .day. was n o t u s e d i n e a r l y tim e s .x
I t Xis./made/upX’b f ■t ^ ^
=
p a h j and ab , me an in g f iv e wa t e r s -7/
f i v e f i y e r s b y i l f / i s ’ th U s y u n d b u b tq d iy y fo re igh,y:i> e , ; P e rs i a n ;77;
in-; t h i q . x^PTObbe in g y1lit^rbdUcebxhyyt he / e a r l y y ? ^
In .o r ig in , h o w ev er ,.. the.nam e y is’. in d ig e n o u s,; f o r the,w ord
Pahchanada: o ccu rs . in o ld Sanskr i t : 1 it e r a t u r e as, t h e name ■o f s 7
th e XfIahd o f th e ; Five yiU vers’y th e s p e c i f i c i f v e r s .meant
thereby; b e ih g ith e f/V ita s iab7tke7xcibh&^
’" P ^ y l t o - B i h a n , /fchammad. (A l- B e r u n i ) a l r e a d y knew t h i s name. 7
See h l b / XTahqiq^i^Hind.
^:A».Dl7ledlted. a n d ; ;' X ■
t r a n s l a t e d i n t p x M g l i ^ ♦/ S a o h a u ) .77 7; 7 77 • /•"■/ 7x;"v.
7"
77:
yyx-X-
\y - y y // /; ^.y:;;■---y/-l7y;/'/:;/;x;7;:.7-:/■x:-y-y/;yy,f7X5^
Vipasax and 'Satadrii,. ./a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y th e J'ehlam, the
: Chanab > t h e : R a v i, t h e B ias and t h e - S a tlu j .y>yv/- But; th e
y V e a rlie s t/m e
y
. o f t h e s e P ly 0 R iversV /ihythe c o l l e c t i v e
: s e n s e i s f o u n d i n t h e Y a jf rv e d a j ./vdaere .the XP a h j a b ;i s
//d e sc rih e d y a s / t h e ./ ’l^ d /o f / R iy b r s :’y;/,/ ihe:
7:
. / t h u s o n ly a l a t e r r e n d e r i n g o f t h e o l d a p p e l l a t i o n o f th e
• C o u n t r y i v e . Panchahada;
' , ■o
\,v: ■' ■
//yXX/X/y-f
'
x
///lv
T *) Pahchanadyo; v a h a n i^ ta y a tr a / piluvanachyx u t a , /. .yy// / / /b y by vV
/X' . k a ta d if s7. phaX’V ip ash c h a / t r i t i y a i i ’avat i t^
,. :X ., . vy .
//y <^ahdrahhaga^/Vitks.ta /ohhySin& h^
X/yx / ; (feh ab h arata .(C a lc u tta e d i t i o n ), /B k.V lII^ (M rnaparva j , /.
y y y /y y /G h h ^
xyofses/.5if3S;7xcfv' 'P'v3?;SyV£&^
y y y / y / e d itio n ^ in /s o u th e r n recension;, \19.55 y C h ap teryS S /'vb y/y/y
■•/x'xx.;:„:; yersesx:i7,SV7AXOqX:Cf;• N a g eb a x B a h tta /b h -x ^ I^ in i/s^ ^ tra /,y /: V
-•X; I, 1 / 7 5 . in h is' Mahahhashya - p rad ip od d yb ta, xBi-bl io th e c a
•X- , y-y/' ; 3h&lq:a, C alcut ta; 19 01, Vol I ,. p r
/T o /q a f!‘w ith 7;Pef1tairiXypchpiars•:/ fh atv th e - terni; Parichanada. / Wyy
in clu d ed th e /Indus^/yor/w ithX ^jO f^:I & v q ffy /ll*^^
l u l l , :. P aftx Iyi;i892 /pX 21i,x/fyn/;):Xt
i t /e x c lu d e d ;t h e /' ^ t lU j
'and IncxJUdedx/hh/ uris t a t e d / i f ib iit ary ,o f one q f th e o tlie r / 7/;
fo u r r i v e r s , y i s a lt o g e t h e r /in c o r r e c t • /xd he/q u btati^
above has a c le a r /sta te m en t :on ,the /p o in t b /x X:./y:yx,Xy';/--/y
. See xbelpfybhe//sect ibn;.bhxriyqfs.yi.//,/:.y//;-;7y//xyX;7;/7 ■. "y.yy fxy-;
(:x)x:Vaj'asaribyix/Saife^
-XX?; ( q )xxtoothery^y a f i a t l o n ;:q f y t h i s - name / i s xibhpkam bu:. w hich/pcburs ;
x: in Somadeva*s. M th a s a T its a g a ra , ;(12thi cent^AyPi) I n //; x x:
.
X,xxSuryapfhbhalambaka,x'1s to r y / No 712 ;,y:Fi f t h x/T& farig^
/ t h e a u th o r s e e m s t o have S a n s k rits
Pan jab / . : y/ X
y / i h i s i s n p t;/th e /o n ly x in ^
. l a t e / s a ^ k r i t i z a t ionxx//,xx :x
o f p ro p e r names i n o rd in a ry u s e . One :d riv a ra a lso .when : ;X//
. r e l a t i n g . an /h fp e d itio rv X p f^ ^ /S u ita h ;,® id a f X:jShah/into
/ Pan j a b , s a r is k f .it i z e d the. hanie' l e h l a i i I n t o .lyalam i ( Jairia.
/X ;H a la ta fa rig in i?y,Cal 1835 , x l l ,; 152) .
. ; / x , .-:7^y.;■y y/.: -y-yyyXXvy
,
■
_"
1■,v,
-V.,'
V
:1 ‘V: ' ' >V.V■"•
y'-V'-' - , .
’.14#
B u t//if ;/nmibt nibe /b o rn e/ in Blind, th a t t h e ;. e a r ly name / ;/ y
Parichanada was only, a g eo g r a p h ica l one based upon a
prom inent/;featufeybf}xbhe /r iv e r s in ;th e /Indus r e g io n and
was a p p lie d to th e lim it e d t e r r it o r y tr a v e r s e d by th e
Five R ivers, above ment io n e d ., / Hpw; a .study o f nom enclatures
7 / / /yv 7b f •vaM
7
oo u ritries .in' thb
r id 'shows /t h a t / I n /s ome ■o a s e s /
■
y t h e o r i g i n a l ' boundaries: of/geq grap ^
/ -///;,. been s t a t ioh ary • V They;wer ex r a th e r / sub j bbt t o /c o n s t ant
. .
,y. y
//.; -y b V sh iftin g s xahd modificafiohs/yDW ing. t o t h e : p r p ssu fe of.
,7 x /// p o l l t i c a l and /c u l t u r a l:, circu m stan ces • -H iis . n a t u r a lly ■..some.
tim es extended th e name t o ;w ider a rea sy /The same has /
; / /happbripd w ith! th e .’land o f , th< Five R ivers ’ and the name . / ;
/ 7
jPa.li.Ja.l>, / a / s u b s t i t u t e / o f / f e ^
y 7/-7. f o r d if f e r e n t ;'w id e r / tb r f ito f l b s in /diffefexrfc: p e fib
used
/ /.V / /
y y :''At any r a t e , f o r th e extended meaning iiiipbsed on th e name
7/7; //.of vMrijkby ^ th e /c o u n try /is x m h ln ly y i^
b;7
7
7
7
;
7
7
. 7
'
:
- 7
-
;
/ 7
yindIa7;y;7/7; /' t---:-\ ' ;y y/ . / y 777 .77/-'7'7.y/./- /',
f t om th e /geographic and h i s t o r i c standpoint:,;
.//./ ;///'a.;mo.re /a p p ro p ria te ■name/ i s Sap f a 1Sindhuy, ’ Land, o f the
/ TTyTffTTAypimilar7t!Ep^”T s^ ^
L h g iS ito
■•;/,,.: composed/:of e n g e , th e % r s e : name; fo r a meadow, and, la n d . / /
■■y/./7;:Yihenxfhe/'Norsemen bvbr-rari/ and/cpnquerbd th e .country. in / / ,
/ .the te n th and e le v e n th c e n tu r ie s A . b # , t h e y :were str u c k by
th e e x te n t and r ic h n e ssv q f:th e ^ p a stu r e ; lands; o f Y orkshire
.: and t h e / c e n tr a l .count i t y and; c a lle d i t F n ge-lan d . This -7/
, ' name in co u rse o f tim e came/-1o;f b e . a p p lie d to /a w ider area#.
' ’ Ihe c oh f us io n o f Lngeland ;w ith A n gle-lan d /perha
a ro se
from th e fa c t th a t th e d i s t r i c t So named was, r e a l l y
/ ' :
:v/o6cupied/;:by/.',Mgl:l.ans’/
, ; / / / ;/' :.-//,
/ / y \/y /':;',/
7//;■ x//yX: ,/■/./Seven/Rivers/:,;.X^
77//. ■ '/ /
/
given to/: the. Gquzltry .by the/R gvedibX
/ f el s / i s the/ e a r l i e s t name t h a t ;^
have,
Vx y:y7';::77./by7.p.'.bben7
//
bountry// / ///:
y / : 7/:'77/7/■' •/• //w atered / b y t h e g r e a t .f i v e r Indus -and i t s }famous./t r i b u t a r i e s /
on : 7;;
//'X' "//x'y./by7//;7/;oh t h e '/e a s t and: we.sft7://:/MothqriXnamey;/itf^
7:y / y / /; •/;/ 7, ^
ofx.tiie x c p h h iry y /^
••../;. ty /y y x
/}'//■ x'7x ///'i; ; ;y XBahika> ;■/;; ;■//-Frofe-numerdus;Xpas s a g es'Xlhj b ^
’/; //■/; /
y - y / - x7;/: . //y y frp m /^
/o f y /S u tr a s /p f /y j^ in i/^ ^
77/77,• X: / / / / / wd /g a th e r /t h a t: th e n a m e /R ih li ^
7/;•// y/ <///;/ y / / o r i g i n a l l y /;u//fy i/balgnam eyy^
; / ,x /xy /y
7 vx.; /
} th ey y ;vy/...,yy7 ■.'
;• ••-/•••' . ith a r v a y e d a /Z la te r caiiie t o be /a p p lie d to
y /
which/was ;/y /
g re a te r p a rt
o f th e badus; v a lle y in. i t s / w i d e r : s e n s e , ; pomp i t sin g
' ;;/ ' v ; ■ xx:/} ;/ ; o f t r i b e s /ih b lu d in g /th e x weliLkripm/;Mhdra
7
xx .;
//
y
./,./•//;
XXM ese Xi/iadfas them selves in :th e i r turn, gave /the., country /the /
}/} '/ 7,/x/;./ name fc d ra ^ d e s a / \vliioh oontihued to be used a s }l a t e as th e / 7:
...: 7 7 tim e o f .Guru . Gobin d Singh .- ( i 6 V ) 7 v :7'-;;
X ..;:; x'; . xx/.
’name, does n 6 t/a p p e a r te k av e/reo eiv ed y as-X b x te^ ^
};}, x /yx/;y y y p i i b a t i d t o
jpy;
X t///
//x
(XBahika o r V ahlka}, :which\ /7,.-X;X:;X:X
7/ .;////./'/ ;//(-yy/Fbrr ^
io n o f th e name Sapta S indhu;see below
7 y //y x y /7 y y y : / c h a p t e r / i i l y / P a ^
^;"/'-7-77/-x;xy/'ty/--:x;.x:7x//x/7
,7
}/(§ )x^/SthX th e s e .w o id s (a ls o ;.s p e lty y a h lik a V /^
V ahika) /; x.
7 /;/7 //y /y ///b '-^ iM /x a re 'X b le a rly /th e /'y a ria h is b p ^
}/•:/ / , //;/ / / /x x(^harvayedh/).Xobcuf} ih eo rresp p n d d h g y p a^
.//-}/ /
/:X7x7v/:;:'v'7/;x-y y x /I^ sy /p f/ih e /lfth a b k iru ia y ia n d /p q S 'e ^
/;/' xx.■
■7;
;/ / be/found/ in ; MBS. of /• o th e r / t e x t s /;ihx;whtch/they/}
y ./
/v/x//-,////■/,■; 77//it; jspemsyf o x x u s X m ^ ^ o i d ; ;^ h lik a /,//la tP r B a h lik a ,: ;
■y/X/ / / y y . / / / / B a h l k a y e t a . x / a r e / a i l / b e s t / b x ^ f o r m s / d p f i v e d / x / y
■/■;■/'/:;y/ VX/// v:77/ y£ rpm■xRhall ika:,; ;whi bhx a g a in /is //:d/ l a 1 e f y fo ifh o fy B ^
.y / yX-X";./X;x y below/ p 6y ) . i t may /be; o b se rv e d /th ^
o ld . ,
/;/■///} ■■ 7y. }7'/:.;7IhdP~ Aryaif in to P r a k r it b egan/very e a r l y : / ev.en in ?th b . Rgveda .
/x x y ;//■;;;/// '/:^;,x^eX'f1in d / t h e / P r a k r i t forms /h a v e . been u s e d . /xche/xis/; thenbx/./xy
■/;y 7/7/:./,/};../■■ tem pted t o / th in k o f the/;B hadras o f th e . Panjab and . coniaeet. /}:/
y ; /;y////v/./:X'them-;With;, B ahlikas •
,;■:ly-V-
ro u g h ly vopIncidecE v/itil the/^modernf-Panj ab* vvC^v- . ■^ '■:■';,h■>
/:;*:,J
Tiiis w i l l show t h a t , t h e f e h l l k a s and ;hladras l e f t . •. ; ;
t r a c e s of- t h e i r . r e s p e c t i v e ,p o l i t i c a l . s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r
..... . . , l ar gC/ | ) ; ^f t r. p
S
' c
o
u
n
t r y
, :lik e V o th ^
. o f d iid ia , in i t s e a r li e r p erio d s has. g e n e r a lly been
.. d iv id e d in to c liffe r e n t jahapadas and pe11y s t a t e s , ; The
p o l i t i c a l ■u h i^ id a iiq h )lh d w e y e r .i/lf^ I t -w as;;ach ieved in any". ••'..•
d eg ree:, o r :to .-any .e x te n t, .on sotie o c c a s i o n s w a s sh o r t1liv ed .
11;;
Ifev erth o less th e s e n ajriesof th e ;Balilikas and Madras /
in d ;icate’ th a t a t Y l e a s t .q n t w o o e c a sio n s in e a r ly h is t o r y
1 ; .V. :'
. t h e . Pan.i ab .ianapadas Q'ame under..;the: hegemony o f s in g l e io o a l
•; S ta te , .f i r s t : uhddr"thev^^Lhlikas aM sedpndlyi lihder ;t^
' .
\
su cce sso r s- the- Madras,: . and th e whole Indus V a lle y -a g a in
was u n if ie d p o l M i c a l ly /^ q h :C h a iid & ^ p ta t e ^
g rea t M u fy a n Ihnpire: at;: P a ta l
o f :an a b le Panjab i .
i- -
^(Phtna}, w ith t^
statesm an ; -V i s h ^ i ^
h elp
,
But
: ■
i t i s v ery stra n g e to ob serve th a t a l l o t h e r :n am escon n ected ! ;
V/ith tlie Indus .V a lley h a v e .p a s s e d iin to o b liv io n ,
Panjah - v
a lo n e has;; su rv iv ed th e. a tta c k o f time.* -and h a v in g :o u tg ro w n -,i:;;
i t s or igin'alv ;'@eo.grap^
has -proved - i t s c a p a c it y .
OH, Paffchana^'-SlnSh^^
ta n B ahlikan (pr.:.Shikan^,^et^.•r;etcv..,-:,i,
;’
,1
::
t.y,
(M ahabharata.;:?&v^lll,; ^ a p t e r ; :x liv 'd h n orth ern :r
;
and Chapter x x x v ii in sou th ern r e c e n s io n ! ,! t
t o ge th e r w ith ;Paiiin i Ts •Sut ra (IV *. 2 , 117 and 1 1 8 ) , accord •• ■
in g '■to/ywhich t h e l l^ I n a r a ’yddhdpadaV.fe
f y th e Vahika
v7,
i
:-. V; r - country •; !
>
/
/
;
: V . \ yl \ - t l ! - v I . _ /./: !- / • / '. >1/
. !!;{§;)'t-We ..'sh a ll;ia v d o c c a sip
speak in d e t a i l o f B ahlik a- .
: //;!yl!Ar;Md:fe
V I, .1 ;■! yy /. ! V - ^ y/' !>... '
! ! ' ' V ' . ■’!y .i - I
)'A ^}ijfc.Q-V^Raychaudhuri^.i d l i t i c a i h i s t o r y - o f
I
ndi a ,
a ■y
■
^ v?; .iT h ir d . M itiq r,:.- C a lcu tta •19.^8:;-:':p'i^es.*;;$f>Tfatoat;‘thaj>ak
v ■
"'v ^
^
v."/":'-.
■^■■■^
( cdntinued)
'
iyyy! to h e a r /an alm o st: u n ilm i te d y t e r r i t o r i a l / s i g n i f y
-/
iy; ; •>, vy Prom.. theforegoing>uccQ unt::;bf- n ^ ^
r ; l y b r i e f y p b t l i n e o f the b o u n d arie s! i t ;ik>Sddyhp^
,fy'
-•<if;-■ ;1 e a r ly h i s t p r y ; o f the- pah jab yi s ,.ihot yitheyh i s t ory i o f r Panohanada
y
! ’:y*3^hd!^
l;Riye;rs;i,;yj^
: ;yy _ ! co u n try y that:; m ayyincludeythpyfrph^
;!yy;
f ix e d , 'together:;:with; theyregioh;;^lying; betw eenythe^
V; ' , and t h e . Jmiina . y ’iiTheyar ea;VsoVdef in e d ro u g h ly c o rr espoMs.y ;y;y
y ! t o y b h e y Indus. V alleyyor; Sa^iaySindh^
->1." -w ith y v a ry in g y litiit si.pn; t h e . w e st.
\ y- ; yconfueio^
sen se, :
In o rd er toyavqidyall/.,, :y ! ‘
!p f y our; ;en(pairy: into: th e a n c ie n t y :ly
iy:
y h istp ry w ill be .s t r i c t l y : lim ite d to y th b y p p litI c a i boundar- y!
;
1, l e s '. s e t t o y t h e y ; ^
y'qf ythe^"Panjabi and N orth -\fest
'y .
yyy! .;..itohtier'uixd;er/:.'$lie B r itis h ia & in is tr a tib n y tp ^ d a y y y Triey ?;y v y ! h i s t o r y ! o f v;bbth. th e s e - ProvInces bein g v ery clb s e ly i n t e r -
;
-
y r e la t e d ! th e d e s o r lp tlb n y p f on eIw ith ou t th e o th e r would be y
■'!•!
inadequate^and aty the; same time m is le a d in g ! y Therefore: ; ; vy
y ,; th ro u g h o u t;-the p r e s e n t t h e s is th e term dthe Panjab.’ti i s . to ;! y
iyy
be und erstood in i t s b road est s e n s e iso as to comprehend .
:i y ;
b oth the. ;Prpv!nce»s;; .the term thPanjab P r o p e r l has been used:
V f o r t h e ;vf.Land o f t h e l i v e R iv e rs * o r , s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , : :'
y.y y i t h e ! c o u h tr y i;vbe%webn: t h e y v a l l e y o f . i h e y J P h l e ^ :
’
th e S a t l u j ♦
y
o f y! ■
y iy ;’1 ’- ly : -, . •' I ! : ;l!t;.y ! : • ! ! ! ’'•' V ; . "
■ifete^ C o^ in u ed ) .ya- bommentary, on the.' fehavarasa (a P a li c h r o n ic le
!
o f C ey lo n ) , edTfcpd:by:;lh y (I*:P^
y-
a^
yyyyy- ; y f
:\/.v■!y y y y“:;;y •
y
It i s som etim es s a id t h a f t h e h i s l o r y o f th e Panjah, -;" -• y
y;y y ! \ ;. y a f s o ! p e r i o d ^ :
■- any I n ie r e s t y
y ■.1 y
are \dbhcerriedy!isah^
This i s a ii.d ltp g eth b r ! , m istaken; sta tem en t *y /y
y I t ;^is y tr u e y t h a ty m
o f i t s ;p a s f ^
l o s t in
••’. o b scu rity y y b u t t h e ;eahhbt denyyt h # o b v io u s 'f a c t th a t
•
•.•••/•/_'
th e
-
;i:
y-pan j ah w itn e s s ed gre a t ev eiit s •and; hibv ement s , s ome. 0 f -whx oh
/ l a y a t th e/p Q u n d a tlo n ;'o f / l a t e r
1 / / :1-
y Panjah .It s e l f y b u f, o f y In d ia 1in /g e n e r a l* y t I t lw o u ld :indeed y ;/yy //
^ in te r e s tih g ‘ i f t h b m i s h i n g ; h i s t o r i c
;y '
: p a rt ic u la r ly y i n : th e growth; o f s o c i a l and r e li g i o u s i n s t i t u - ;:
.y ly y ."■y t r y t l o h s ,/c o u ld ; ,b ey tru o b :d /o n iy y
has
y v' / ' ! y t / y r e cen t Iy;; proVe d/fpyb'ey eompar a t iy e ly y r io h ; t h :m a t e r i a l s ! f o f :y/:y;;:-;
y '■/ y / 1 / / y i :\;.v;suoh';;stu d yy a s a r e s u l t / Q f y t h a / b ^
!y
th e
//; y y y ly f^ e r y H d y iy in; th e D i s t r i c t o f ylfehtgomery;: and -oth er' im portant
coiatenipordry s i t e s in t h e y h id u S h ^ ^
w ith in :th e
l i m i t s o f t h e a n c ie n t Panjah or/ Sapta Sindhu th a t th e e a r ly ;>/
Aryans came into' c o n ta c t /w ith th e
Andyhere. th e y p a r iip s ty iii^
! : /;
y th e /In d o r fc ^
b eg in n in g ,y h e h e’yth e V e d i c y b i v l li z a t ip n ;h h d y its/g r ^ ^
h e r e ;agn in liytm s o f /t h e y Rgv e da,/:t h e , mos t :a n c ie n t 1 i te r a tu r e / /
in;:thC w orld; were ■:f i r s t comp^
/y
i t w asvthe;.eastern/: p lain -q n tth eyP an iahyb an k : p
y.y- y:
, tha!tybecamev t h e v/ s c e n e / p f ,/ t h a i / f ambusyahd ; h i s f Or^^^^
:..'
i -V 'y
w a e /f o u g h t / M
’t y ;
Pandus, t h e . . . / t t y
d escen d a n ts o f t h o s e Panj ab ijg • Paurav.as, who -/had; form erly ,
;y
:19'. ^
;■■;v/
.
: .m ig r a t e d to -the: eas-b f o r fu x 'tlier t o y a n / c o l o n l z a t i o n .•• But ;
; : ; 's/ ; •
S.'S f■■■',■■'’ .
^
ftis;£bryS/S\AS
.S" S-'w asSiheSriso/A n S th e S P a h ja f c o f
:••; • S : ' ;
S.;SAS'ldft^'af:t e r ;th e; r e t e
S S x;-rV;.-
.■.S ; when he was S a b l s / t ^ SitoundStheSmii^
S.SsSSr
t h e G reat - i n 521. B .O ., SS:
.; SS" As/- -;SS\':;S ...'the; a s s 1 s t anc e o f t h e stu rd y C ;a]^/T O ^ lik e p e o p le o f . 5 r a t t a :■vS; SAepaSASin, ■th e S P d h ja h f e o ^ e r S / ; ;3feny/oiherS im p o rt
;
S:/' ’S /S Seem\be S r e c o u n f e d /lik e w is e yS%h^^
S;: ;V- f ;. a n o l e n t h i s t o r y o f t h e ::B arijah ^is^:h 6 t^S d u ll^
'■■■•;■■, . o f g r e a t and Swide i n t e r e s t to a s t u d e n t o f h i s t o r y ,
.1 ;■
.•• .
s : : , - iv?® li^c>3i .and: ^ooiology.;," ;SSS.SS-.;. ^ :>//./.;/://. •'••/••.•; s ;i/S- S sSS; SS.:-:••
; V;\ >v, S/S '
hani a,.sugge s t s ,;a cchiiie9ii. on •w i th / t!he A r a t t a p e o p le ...
;SS.S'••>''
.
o f Pafxbhahad^,.'soalied;= ArattaAS i n tlie P e r ip lu s S of t h e , S .
AS Sss;;/;: .vs. Bxy; t h r a e a n S e a : (S d h o ff t.s .e d itio n ,: SpSAlT);;/"and ' s i m i l a r ;b th e r v ;S
S ...;
. ;; V: S/naties by Greek and I&t in w r i t e r s §11“;:af>£arentlyS v a i d a n i s / '
S /SvSS; ,vSSV;AvofAh^
y?ord» ^
v-vS’S - S '/ '/ A ^
be an a d a p t a t io n o f l ' M r i t woriy:Swhich AijpkqAy'. S
Si.;S', S / ; SAd •p r e s e rv e d by Buddh i s t t e x t s inA the p e r s o n a l . name A rada / "
S"'- ■: c-S•' A:':Sv-';'S;;:('®.is,iml^; b e S f h e 'n f i g i n S 6 f / /P a i l s S a r ^ ^ ^
V ' v : S .v/Sy SS- :m ediate ;;ih ? a ia ) -^and /th e /e th n ic S n a m e ,'A c o r . . -S liie 'S ia tte r : ; vyS/rtS
' • S -SS : ' a p p a re n tly S a ro sa ^ ^ t
ah A n t e m e d i a t e form A ro d a , ■w h efa S: '
• ■th e o i s due t o l o c a l p ro nunc ia t. io n o f * a ■( p n V f t a ^ i i t : ; S change o f a vand a t o u o r o s e e P i s c h e l , Graimiiatik• der. > /
v-'v • ., : - v
.P r a k r i t - B p r a c h e n S ^ I jQ ^ G .1 1 1 )
.
':
;" ; ' , ^
e x p l a i n s ' A i o ^ v p r ; R o r. (modern' Hphri ) / t h e iiame
S'’:> :; :A7S;vc>f.
P?"^"'pauvird^deda'’iif-andient;SPan^Jab, withV'S,::S- SS
’• ■/'•; • /: e a r l i e r v a r i a n t s p r e s e r v e d S i n S & d d h i s t ,textS;.ns^^ R^
;.
‘,’X"‘'S'S^iS'Boruka!o r ' B o d u k a : :lhe ;Fprd A r a t t a , A n S 'a h y S o a s e S is n o t S : SS;
^. to. b e / d e r iy e d i from fS anskrit''A r.ashtfA i'S nsS ;As";’u s u
b u t . '■•Sv:
S
>
; ;
e r r o n e o u s ly ' -supposediS- Vfe^shall-';;re.tufnv.feS,this;^
in. S' ':.;S'S
; : S ■ ':;Sy S ''^^ap'terSTr'''^ i n kjonnect io.h w ith ; the^^ ^ h i i k a ^ l f e d r a s ,:v^^v
‘ •S
S>;;S:^vSs,(S/^;AS;-S:nLehtlbned;,asSi;Closely!^dssQC.iated/lyith^.^&
SS:
S ;S ' ; S S
p e o p l e , the^SArattas;, Swhp ;.to
t h e a n c e s t o r s o f t h e modern
S s ; '■'''A^/;^S^SSSsSjAcQdasSdr'virpr^ 'Sv[-.SdSS::SSS/-A;?-':'is--; S'-;S’’SSSSSS^sS;SSd>'-'SS;r ' ;' '
A
y ; S
aA
.
/
\y - Bat be.fqre/Swe;S s e t ysaiiA
A:VgQV ' A .■;
;o f ■h isto ry .,/ ' >
VASySAAAyA ■ASSySAA/AdiS iSs nebebs&rsr f ^
:A-A:
:';SS/.- -A:■Av-'VV/V/Va; ge.ograpii i e a l A f a q t s :/'■'and Aaiso At oSA u ri& ersta ^
Vs s . s A; /VVVS:Viand ethni'dV-’.Q'p'.nd.itA011s . o f St he p o.unbrys v/e ares about to :
S‘SS-S-s;ASA/AcS/sAyA/ ///d e s c r ibe.;AS<^qgrap^
fA/:/' -.■/ SAA/.A
as:
• Ss
SAyy .A/A
d iv id e d in to th r e e d iy is lp h s /v m a in ly / d is t in g u is h e d by S 'A/'
s■/:'' S ''A/A;'; -Vs/ /sS':; SV^/bheifS/pHysic^
./ -
a
■ 'S ./' ■ V'S • AA^-AS. ;AAs//
S-V,./ A ' Ss,A:'s//:.S/..S.s;SSv S: S,S(1); S th e s P l a in s , ^;/ . ' A////A.-A SA; SA.y. sAAA/AV ■y s .-
sVVvAS''/^S^^:;:a ^,o;vVsVAv*-VA>'A:S;(s) rtheA/Hi^^
a A-.AV'. - 'A. y-v' ' s.y..- : .; V;’
/-'/■A/■• yAs A-ASsS:'''-;A Aand //'S:(3d'iiiO stfans-lndusy-B ^
_:;Av /■ ■" / /■y :/S -/AS/ ;
fh e Jdidus AS ' -ss
AVSsSVSA-vs. yA/AAAASS...; :/s:/S;lheAafed'Scqvefe&Vb^
-:; v,,S/sSVS: ,SV. /V-S^Ss-aMS Iheyihamh^
' s A-'AS'a a/AA/aA /S ; ;SHiraui^
SA/A-. / / ,
flatV -; bounded;;by/••the1 A
on t h e s n o r t h - e a s t and Ifarth; and t h e A
is>/vS.s/;SS';,.,ssS'V'A;:SsV^fesertSSbf/ARaJputaha onS fh
•/••AAA/A:./y-/AA/A AAthq A g a tlu i/ r ^ e f Ab o m p b i^ ^
V-AA
Tbe/PIein^^
Athe AHiye ARivera
^-A-AV;SA/S;1A ' A . A v y A / Ay. f iv e Boabs o r . t r a o f sAlying- betw een .two. ’ r i v e r s : ; th e
S.:
in g
B i s t ' :A
S/: s;as- S / ■: sS/s;/A ^ l a h d h a r ADbab,s.lying b e tw e e n ,th e S B ia s,S a n d : theA^^
A
V.V'A/:vS - . yAA / , - . . - ; theA B ari DopSb ,Abetween. Ahe Sold bed o f t h e Bias and t h e A
•
,- / ' ‘S A S' ‘'':V ’r:A/;.; .R avi/ ythe A ^ o h n a /;lbab,VbetweehAthe/SPaviVand sthev ctianab ;/ A
.A-.A A S ;.-AS'S:y
t h e Gha^ ;Boab, b e t w e e n t h e SChanat)' a n d th e y h e h ia m ;S ;a h d As/Ay
. .-■/ s/S /s . S S'/SvSS/the - B in d -S a g a r Doab, betw een th e AlndusVand:;the ^Jehlam/:A .s.;
,. ;■ yV-A. AA/ y A;/ .-Ihes.e Doab.s safe/ s a if c
th e ir names from/'; -/-■ /;
".A, : ■a " :A.;S--sy sAthe ;']M perbr:/ikb a^ -.wlabS:>deslghatbdsAthem:; ' ^
A';.'A-OA:A:‘A:-S;:v-AS;:AA:*vS;v/;!';i i i i S - s y l l a b l e ^
SA'vyy
o f th e r iv e r s
b;. ybyy,b by vb''
y between. w hich.-'theyyfie;b
a d m ih is lr a tiy e b:ybb ybyb
; y'.-byy; b ; b yyb D is t r ic t s , iinolucled;;iirb th isb a fea ,'a re v;in: .gen eral su b -:. ; y y" bb
yb. v. .' by y;
'y y y . ■y
d iv is io n s . o f th e f lire :Doabsve
, and r a r e ly
b‘
yby l i e on both s id e s o f a river*. -by S o u t h - e a s t b o f t h e S a tlu jy
• .y ^ b y . /V V b : •".. .billy; a; s t r i p o f th e -:P lb ih s i s w aterehbby th e S avasvat'i y.b by •by
by v : t - b y ; ;
.
(modern C&aggaror bl^kra'b^anid/'its; t r i b u t a r i e s , , ' ^
■ • b y b ybbb:;by, '
&re: f l o w i n g ^
bbBut;.' bn.-the
bvby.
byyb .
b- yy b i b b y ,b la fg O ':p a r ifo f t h i s a r e a , as w e ll as ,th e r e s t of. th e f l a i n s
y by b
byb. by s h i r t in g ■th e g re a t Hajptitana d e s e r t ,y remains dry a n d h n -
,
V ■.,
•*-y" y ,yb; yb., f e r t l l e ' y ‘ th ere b ein g now no ; i i v e r arid -the .r a i n f a l l b e in g .,ybyy/
by: ; y .b : ^^'' -’ . alw aya scanty':;a^
■‘
yy-yb
;\
dhe, ,t e r f iio iiesb co m p ^
' botween. ;^‘-the; .SatluJ :and th e Jumna are tlie.,'. c i s - S a t i n j bbbyy
• D i s t r i c t s o f the: b ^ p v i n h e y ^ .w i t h y De l h i , t h e th r e e ;
yby
[\
be noted th a t tile word doab i s o n ly a B efsia n y . b
ybbb b'ybb
; ;-eguivaicht; .of S a n sk ritV d rip a t which. o r i g i h a l i y was, a p p lie d .y._
b. v to, a o p u h tfy : betw eenyt
w aters y u s u a lly - r iv e r s b y b y ■' "/ b
by. . y■;yy :(d.yirapatvat smrto d vip ah ;-y..B^ahnidnda; R iran a, y 5 3 , 1 4 0 ;
b b b y->.ybb':yyyy ofbPa tan ih lib sb lfeh ab h asil^
Vol I ,
b ': y V' ’ p; 131):. ib r example:^.the vM hahhto
Chapter by -b
b b y. b by . y bb3t£VX ,y ^
■; by-•■'■■*;■■■•'‘”y-'y ■' ^yb; a bcpuhtry; l y i n g bettreeh' theblferlbahdbt^
y;ylherb-- ;;
y-b b t yb
-:y, fo r e' i t ."appears "'that'ilcftar or some o f y h isy p r e d e c e sso r sy b y -.!:'yv
v: :■-b-bvb-y,'yy ;;by; took ayhint; from e a r ly bhoirbheiatufe and^
th e . ;
; y: b
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reco v ered i n / t h e M u s V a lley and th e c u ltu r e in d ic a te d
bybyb.b'v/v/yyyythere^
/Then, as th e
;bb':'77 y y.yy ;y ;b h lsto rio a lb p erio d dawns u ponvanclent Panjab, -we fin d th e, .y- y
byb/vy ::b7yyb
bin
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' / / / ; yb /y im a g in a tlo h th e Indus' withbits^-'w ealth and t r a d ii i o n s .
7/ ;.7
■y. ^b y , y’vby'seeras ;.tp have made a very powe r f u l impre'ss 1 on * y /T h a t/th e ; 7y
y y a b b b 7 y / f l y e r / r e a lly , in s p ir e d a g re a t revei'ence and a f f e c t i o n in ;/ ...
b bbyybb,/ yby-/ t h e / ^ y a h s b i h , ihey/Ihnjahb iis e v id e n t from tile' many happy by
/by byby v;:/.yyy\yvreierehcee-ytobit i h y e a r l y y ^
Ixbtable;
//by: byyy : y y i x h r e s s i o n b o f ybhisb i s t o yb ebfp un d b i n y t h e :P g v e d a , w h e re :y, by
7 yy ■;,ybb/by'ytto^
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p i c t u r e s q u e l y i n o n e - s e p a r a t e hymn _y
7 5 |y: ■y a n d y h l s p : i n e e v e r a l - p a s s a g e s a l o n g w i t h yb'/y yb -
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7,7 v y:y
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\
i t s name : /;/ b
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y y b been o r i g i n a l l y / u s e d / f d r ' y th e y riv e r a s ; a l s o , f o r th e c o u n try
yybyyy;y.'yb;y ^/ypn, t h e / r i v e r ,7 extehdedy tp b d e n o te y la te r / t h e , w h o levland ; y ' :
yyb/ Zb/'b;,/bbb:y ly in g , beyond i t - .n orth ern :Hindustany,andythe 'Decban>b/ y;y- -yb
b":yyy ./:7:y.yyb b ;7 ;y/ by/lhp' h y d ro g f aphyy o f .the/bPahjah',/ i t , may be ynoted ,y:i s / y ; y
J
//■'":b-./■byb;-;/'■;'ba.'y,cohrpjLioa-hed. ypx*oloX'emyrvli 16i i o w i n g / t o b i t s g r e a t . im portance
7'
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s p e c i a l n o t ic e from a number o f s c h o la r s • y . Qhey/fiv.bfs-' v
~7^5~yRead s p e c i a l l y sta n z a s Hos 2 ,4 and 8 •
7.by 7 by y. yy/ " • •/
{§ i v lbry cou rses; o i P a n j a h rivers^ s e e A H is t o f y o f / th e y .
Pan.jab by hJbhd l a t i f , yC alcu tta/1 8 9 1 , p p /I-IG ;; yQhbchanges ;
o f t h e i r ycpurses .General;^Cunhinghamj, Aicient:bGeo;graphy:y:.byy.
o f Ind ia * Phb ~S55"56:- (ha .iumdarf s ed i t i o n b :Pal ont t a 19 24 ) : ;
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. 7 c o n tin u e d ^ / ,b b b
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rentbbis7s^
bb, /7 y/ b77 byyb;b /th ey -h a v e /c o n s t a n tly : c u t- new cM n h els /f o r th e m s e lv e s - and - ;;;y.
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bybb" b/b/b. bb -b-bb'btho: one bhand in / th e :ernergence/Qf ■;he W /land, / and ;-ony/the 7/ byy/by
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/ ./7 ■/7 / / b / f y y / e p u r s e s / / ^
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y y;;:- y:v -In river"^ cb u rses y/ combined w ith th e phenomenon-^
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s e v e r a l anp l e n t ;r i v e r s p l a c e s /and monuments, boient iohed
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by
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y y:p o in te d ; outykhat: th e p r e se n t 'w r it e r ;h im sp if /heard H t b ^ l t a n ,
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; by/ / , / / / t lu i second b g e ^
th e Himalayan ;7 7 / 7 / 7 .
7 bb ■;./'/■’| c o u n tr y ;y /fa lls y in toytw o/ zones / ( a ) -the; n o r th -e a s te r n and b7y
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countryy y■tr a y e r s ed./bfea bmkibOr •p f k id ^ H ikalayan ■. ranges .7-, ./7
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t h e i r so u rce s to th e Siwaliky, tr a c k s o f ■Kahgra and Gurdaspur;
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7- ;
d iy id e d in to two p o r tio n s -- th e ,upper .and th e o u t e r . . - The
7■
fprkefcho]Tipri&es Ihshahr ,7 IH a /fe
th e . Simla H i l l 7
yy ■
S t a t e s , in c lu d in g th e s u b d iv is io n o f Kunawar, o n -th e . b;y y y b ; ,
T^T^Qadieib35uhs ; TDehra Dun’bis bthP.bmost famous o f them a l l . v :>7
7 : upper rea p liesy d k t h e y r i v e ^
in clu d ed b-V
;.:-y th e D i s t r i c t o f Sim la, a l l a d jP in in g -areas / and t h e .: :■
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: f o o t h i l l S ta te s ; 7 6 £ y Suket.band ■BilaspurV ;and:yt h e /s u f e 7 : 7 /
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■.■'■'bbwafds/; to th e y a l l e y s / o f t h e . B ias■■:and t h e ' bRav i , , we; have , y
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y 7. c o u r se ; laterbim pdrtatidnisybhaveb/beeh -Ban jab I ;in y c h a r a c te r ;;
byybhpir'':/ d i a l p c f s t
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b
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7yb vfelu ta ,b.KunInday (or fe iih d a /) /were th e ' a n c ie n t ; hames/ o f -y . 7
y , th e hiipbrtant . p e o p le s and t h e ir 7 anapadas in th e s e 7
/•V y
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y 7 b in /o p in s | / and; i n / t h e / l i s t s / o f .popplesbylying to,: /the bnorth /y
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// f a r ;frbiii/' theb/Batlujb V alley,;y o h y t h e y r i^
o f /t h e ; / 7
//b/b-Jumha jv i s to be bunderskppd'-adb ab p d r ty o f th e n orth y y-7 .' //yb;■/.-/■
./ ./e a s te r n zon e.
: (§) See :lvHllanv;ykatai b m dvof b th eb d olh sb b f b M c ie n t -India v; y
y-.Ipndpn 1956, h itro d u e t io n , pp l^Sc^ii i - l x x x v i i ,, /c x x x i - f e l , /
■/■/b-M , and c l« c iv ;b ■/,//y.■■/byb.y/ybyb:/■-•/by>//,7" ///'/": by/b/;7;byy/'b/yyb-by y/bb.b
/y 7y7 / 7
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7 ih b most '"7/7/
7 / 7^
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y 7 /7 y /7 yy y y // and- f e i n t ^
y 7 7 7 / / y / 7 y 7 y y :; ^^
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7
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7
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.. Murree area 'and a p art o f ;Kahuta- f a h s i l in, t h a t / D is t r ib t ./
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Bahusaf / Pass, which o r o s s e s from Kashm irm akes I t s
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y/y7/7/th£(H ghyM H chyr^^
o f th e lehlam ,
/, / //• . : / (*Ffy5he: sfete/C h k th ^ a i s /s i t u a t e d i n / f e
-north. I t
/ 7 / / -;: '/: 7■:///."’b:;//is/;fe7khofeiroiase-of^ antiquitieS:,^^yspm e/of/to
to
7 - 7 _/7/ 7 7 7 . y7the;';s ixth y-oen tu ry
We a r e , however, a t p r e se n t in
th© dark as to i t s ; e a r l i b f ;h lstb ry ./y / I d s s f e l y
7 yyy
’
been/bbhnactedvw ith'/the/;fedtkbard^
/ a l l /s b t t Xedylhb/ 7 y 7 7 b
///
t h e . neighbburhdod and .w ielded g rea t in flu e n c e in t h a t / ./ / y . v
- ,y.:.:
-.
area♦
•
. ./ y
(§ ), /Ihe/;IHnhaf; jq in s ik h e H'ehlam below t h e .,. co n f lu e n o e ;;o f th e . 77
////-'
. - Krshnaganga, ano th e r tr ib u ta r y ruhhin@ ; p a r a lle l to th e
:;y 7 7 y/^b7:yyy/y//fen>arv'in'.Eashmir 7 7 7 / 7 / 7 / 7 y . /
" " ' / 7 v/yyy/y/y y y y y .7 7
•..777 ; y l 7 7 :'b7 is y coiifer
ed yin th e ;s i x t y
vb‘b/yb/ -bby/•' 7/7■/ i s remarkable th a t /H n s e h r a / ’a p ^
a t p r e s e n t , , was/ one yak/
in. Hazara y7;. /7 '
HGbthern .p p s t s y o f ’/btie7
//■ ;/7 7 / / :/ 7 / f e p ir e u n d e r /fe o k a , (3rd cent*B;C> ) ; as '■many as; fo u r te e n ////■ .//7 /by /. e d ic t s o f t h i s /Rmpororb h a v e; been found, in s c r ib e d i n 7; / 7'/ - 7 /;
rb■/■•
y
■ / :b ; 7 y y y b
Kharoshth i s c r ip )t , ’:qnV/rqd'kis7:ln
The h i l l s
7 7 7 / 7 / 7 y y 7 / / y 7 d f 7 B & 2 a r a 7 o r i b k h e / wh^
k h e b k r fb e s / w
'7 7 / :'7 7
h ^
y;77:7/7' --//yy b /m b stly h iA ie d ltb ;khe ystalw art/bfehjabis: an d/sp eak a ,/-y / -7/ by///
b/y/by/T/b - y / i / f e n j a b i / d i a l b C t . / / , a h c i e n k / k i W ^
7 77
b/ 7;/^yybfee./grbatest^ / p a r t k f ,
7.;/;'//. - / / / ;7/- ; th e /fe ja ta r a h g in i^ /
':7V'7.- 7//b;7 77
7 7/7
re fe r r e d to in / / / . / : • . - .
i s /th e ir s a . or Varsa' o f Ptolem y -v7v:-7//7.
and TJ-l a - s h i o f Hiixen ’■Thahg. b /The'b fu ler/ofb W a sa .y /itk is;7 7 /:/ r;7:
Ab/yybb/ybnow. p r e t t k c e r t a i n , bf ig u res .as Arsak es I n /t h e acQpuntsy o f
v
::V/7b‘.y/7bb ■-y7'■ ;7 M e:K:an(i®:h f7 ,;invhhib h/q fb -th e.,(Ind u sT alley*/7 /7 / :^y/;'■'■•;■"77,-77/:b;:/7;
7 7 7 /7 ' / 7 //-/ 7 by: 7-. -7 The rem ainder -o f/th e / Pan jab /u nd er rev iev r cons i s t s o f .
7/ 7/. / / / : y ,7 '■:.7 th e 7tranh7Tndhsb:ferder /T fac
,/ ;:7 .
7b
As: i s e v id e n t from./ '.the./; .7 -7 7-7■'
re c e n t ex c a v a tip h s mdde ;in T fe r r ito r le sb eh sk van d /w estb of 7 ; 7 / y
.
/■; /" 77yr-7'/ 7•; b the. river;. Indus, which have r e f e a l e d / s i m i i a r / c u l f e r a l
bv7 by
/ / / , ‘7■'■/■yb . co h d it io n s , and f rorir th e e v i d e h c e / o f / f e o / I ^ e f e y in r e s p e c t / 7 7
/ 77;y-
7 ?/b7-b7b:7S77'7o^
/.//■ ;. .
'//bb' / :
/
Abyaps b liy liig /■o n /b o th o f / i t s / s i d e s - weymayyy; . 7
/v y y sa y /fea h -th e b Indus
d iv id in g l i n e fo r th e
y 7 7- y/./■ y7^//y e a r ly in h a b ita n ts in 'the b Banjabb 7 fery'w asvth e7riye
7, •• -/b
;
y
//7
/y y. b 7 alw ays a b a r r ie r , i n / l a t e r .t i m e s f o r / t h e k f e g i o n y l y ih g : to / y /by
/ 7b;. -//:.
/• y
b'b.
y /7 T (^ ^ 'l7 § a h s k fit7 c h r o n ic le o f, Kashmir' by ,the p oet ha3-hana •; bbb /b-
y/b
7 bybbby
the: w e s t :d f bi t
//b,;:.7y y 7l 3 t h y / b 6 e n t / / ;A 7^
s ° f t,en /9i t h e r under one or th e o th e r
J / b v y - . ' b / y y b ^ b y / / b -'■//.y.yb
//b7 by:7 .^bb /; /./• '•■/'. y b y /; - b v y , y y;
y ' 7 /y
7. 7 7
y feiijalDi . Power th a t cb u id /p rofect" fe e b :fe o le 7 ;I^^
y/yH^yyy/vyvyyyj^^^
Hap i r e .
b
p art o f an ( lh d ian
j /
A ll th e sarae b t t c lir a it s ;of th e brans» Indus
-b 7- b yb; •/' ;t 6-g iv ev itb h x a c t /e x t e n t *7"fe r b tfe b p u r p q se s -o f t h is
yb- '
yy.b/77;
byby :/y b: .7 '7 .;ybb f r o n t ie r w ere n e v e r ;d e fin e d so th a t i t i s not. p o s s ib le
"7/
- / //
7
by b
/
yb--,
•>-77 b7 . 7 /7 - 7 h is to r y ,:::h/oweyer,;bwebare, tio r e "
-with;, the"- re g io n by. y^y-
7 7 :y b - 7 y ; / / b :y fe ic h f e fe h t/th fe p r e b e n ty d a fe u ^
.. y ,:.y -‘bb 7 '
byy bb -vb■ b;7 :/b /lib obiiipridqs. th e f i y e :v;sekbled7B £6ntier ' D i s t r i c t s , .namely ,^;"
b
: by-..•■
;
/■ /7 7 7 7 fe s h a fe r ,7 .fe fe .fe 7 ;.fe h ^
yb-ybby/byyb 7 7 c fe v fe 7 9 h t7 fe ^
a b rec eh tiy b bb -/
,bfefdin:bnorth;:of;bPeshawar:y.': tq g etlH r/y .y y v
bb'7bybyyb.b
7 7 / w ith th e b ^ ife ib :& e a s ;;q f bthhbfeme/hames j ■and the. f i^e ’'. by. b-yy
y/yb/yy.b
7/7--;^:,-P bliticalb;y^ehcles^ o f fela k a iid (Dir 7 Swat^bahdbChitral),
yb:b: b7 . / / y;;>yb;bKhyber77ICurr am, Tochi {70rtb7%
b ;:
(South b7 7 7
;7'b, yb/7 ;bbb7 7 7 f e z i r i h t a h }./;7 To t h i s (may. he :added;;.t h e ( D is b r ic i o f (Dera; 7 :-:.•7b;
- .7 ,/
by; y bby7
b
y f e a z i Khan/andb Isa IHel. T a h sil o f l&anWalib .-fee..w hole ,(/ ; ,b
;; by- ( o f t h i s b a rfe i s houndedV on t h e , north by th e Hindu Kush 7 7 7 /
in i t s restfeh tedb sen se^ T 7 n,-hhe sp u tfe
by byb-'y 1y byybbthe-- w fe ty a fev S p u fe/w estfey y A fg h
. and
011
7
7 b.. /,
( B r itis h -' h/byy . 7
7 ( 7 - 7 7 7 y;yy y . b B alu ch istam -/(/B u t^ id ’ord er iob u n d ersta n d -ev en ts; and . con7777b
•';■;/ / y (fe iio h s b o f . ancient;bas: w e llb a k 'I n fe r
lo o k b b -77
7 y y 7 /7 7 b 7 7 b 7 b 7 fey o n fefee^ ^
in (A fghanis rb/-;yb-b
b/•;;'y // by-, /. yb/.., ta n and B aluchis t a n , s it u a t e d q n /ih e:yK
p la te a u /.
7;' y y : - yb
7
e a s tw a r d ,. tob w liich yth e / a r e a /d e fin e d ;above i s p h y s ic a lly y -
-/
, /-'
;7,:.b ; bby/' b / ;b and ^ alSO yhlstprlbhllT b’r^
' b/feis'.''exterisive,-'region/;.-; y ;7-; 7 7
bybyyb■;,//7bb7y/s:t r etch eh /ffe m y th e'y M n to
in. a ■w ifer;fee.n se7i 7 /i^
y 7..
b'feyfeyybyy/
.. b; y / ;/ /y yyb north ..down to th e bold-vhighwa^' th a t le a d s/fr o m Kandahai 7-
;
bb.y.,'; yb,'y’by-y a c ro ss^ th e K hojak and'V-'feiaiib-PasseS (dowuykp/theb'•■Mdus''' 7b;’ b b y :: -7yb
77-y b,by 7 v 7 7 r i y f e , y a n d 7
t f e k h ird /d iv fe lo h b p f /p u rh istb ri^ ^
yb - yy•■/•':b;. Pahjab - th e tr a n s-In d u s , Border f e a c t . .-y fea fes.;o f.7 Indian;^by/; '-kb/
-b;.v7.;■7b 7.-7'yb n am es;,/cultu re bandy lan gu age/ in t h i s ’ a f eab h d fe/airfed y; v'
<777/ ' 7777;,. b l b H f e h y h o f f e e d / b r i e f ^
q n !b o im d a rie s ;
m ore
7.by- •-.b; . 7;;7■>,W fel fe y d e sc r ih e d :;ia te f7 in 7 th e .b p u c c e e d ih fe p h a p te fe a
th e 7.
• b >'7 7 ' b . ;:
b
7'7 p c c a s io n w i l l a r i s e
.b/b y '. , 7 .7 77 7/ bv
* . y . ./
h-by .77/7.’. ; . 77"
/. 7
/ • . //b y ' -
•
:
;
■/ - b y
t h i s b B k fe fe b fe d c fe m a y b W
7" y
y >•••/./-/.'" -/.'.'-77. 77;“■'i n t o .■.;.tw o /p a r ts b :~;(the u p p e r - arid *t he.;:1 o w er• 7 .; The u p p e r p a r tb
;v/yb
7/yp o h ta in s mat o l y ; h ig h -.mount a i n s p u rs o f th e Hindu Kush i n "by ..b y
//•• / ./ 7■. / ^v .. t
y b h k b y y b y /y
7
by
.:
fe n js h ir/a M ^ ^
b /valley^>^p
7: . yb / /
o f b th eb riv ers;^ ^
ybbybb;'
f e b u lf f e w in g t o w a r d s ^ f e
, carry in g b
b by/b
th e wat e'rs o f .i t s t r.ibu t a r ie s th e. Bwat e tc *b bhie Hindu .
7 b y u ;■
.7 Kush has’ been th e a n c ie n t n a tu ra l .boundary o f ( th e :binfes 7 yb/ b 7>
:■•;y.7 / : bv7'';7 b-/;: M .l e y - an d ;;a l s q - 'p f f e l l a y y s f e b a f a i i h g / t h e /
o f th e Chats from th a t o f th e Indus.
;e a t
yy
It now l i e s m o stly in
by yby.// ; 7- (/A fghan ;t e r r it o r y ,-■^a f e b t h e b f e it is h fe y e r m fe tb h a sb t f i e d in y by:
‘7 fe y bby ‘by by b v a in to r e s to r e t h i s g eo g ra p h ica l (h er ita g o b o f/, fedluvyy.;fepdbbb;vy
cou n try between th e ^indu
b y
b/ y (, y Hi^Ad.e<1:i
•by 7 /b ;;y
K oH istan/
and th e Kabul i s now1
;/(roughly f c la k a n d ; ^
.
; / :;(.byy
, ( ^ y & h i s f e h b is b .a ,w if e r a r e a h f t /in c fe ^
y y b /y y y b b h b b : t h e u p p e r Swat, h h d b f e h j k c r a / y t o g e t h e f ^ y f e t f e k h e : v a l l e y
v b / ; (/byy. y / b y / h i g h e r ‘ up b o h b t h e ^ ^ - i n / t h e : h o r t h b f e s t b d r h e r y p f / I p d i a y y : / ' / 77
7
/.:/ V'--/ 7
7y/yb E a r e y .it i s to (be ■.specially'(hoted;:thatv: we (have in th e "y'-( :(•y .y ((■/•
y^(/(( ( h i^ h n d : a lm o st im p a ssa l:^
Hihdu lhisli a
((
'////( ((fow-: &sses^khat7iehd>;to;(the febui;vaiiey(Hnd:(■th‘ehp%(-to'/(V;(b''V;(3-;
y .(((/;■:the(yfeiajab (through th e famous Ifeyber; Gate in th e l o f t y 7 J;(
(((;>■(y f e
( th e ( r i v e r b f e f e l l ( tfe fev e rV b h b sta o les( 7
77;|:(b(feythe;':f e p f e f e h e s / t o th e s e , northernmos f Pas s e s are (many, ( / /. (/
■/( :■! ;y though th e P a sses .th em selves 'are/ not v ery in c o n v e n ie n t,
' / ((
Y et-th e d i f f i c u l t i e s are overcome by human e f f o r t s :a n d v(.(((/1 th e :;crossing o f th e Biouhtainous. f r o n t ie r was: a c h ie v e d ,
7: 7
y :•/•'-though n o t y p r y > f f e f e e n t l f e y As a m atter o f f a c t , th e
7,
most famous and Y requented ro u te that; l e d ; from th e b a sin
o f th e Qxus to th e K hyber.7G ate/fesyfeeh v i a (Herat in .t h e
:
■
/ (: / w esty w h e r e ; th e ranges o f th e ( Hindu (Kush come to . axi eiid *
Y/lih-' (regard to the geographical character o f the
;; lowpr p a r t, (W
///y fe p u fe
i s ,• fe e /fe r d e r ; area in; the south o f the
.
i t must be pointed out l n : th e.(.first place .('(/: (
(/ y:( th at i t h a s( only a;narrow. s t f ip .o f c u ltiv a te d p la in along.
(/(■ 7:( the rig h t bank o f the. Indus .7 Otherwise the region con(;
s i s t s bo th w ith in and puts id e t f e / f e l t i s h / I f p h t i d f o f
a
7 / //. s u c c e ss io n o f (fenges , more or l e s s p a r a l l e l /. s t r ik in g as
a w h o le,
from; n o ik h - e a s t ' to s o u th -w e s t/ but throw ing out
minor brahclfes::Westwards;,/ thus ;str d tb h in g
ofKahfe^^^fe
.. .
;
y. :
7
so u th y
f a r as Kandahar*/,/Prom; one o f i t s .
y
(e a s t e fto e p t p o r t io n s , th e v ery eohsp iouous T ak h t-i-S iilaim an , -
by\'ri’s i h g :';wail4ifee'r/abdfe D era :fe m a ii f e a n b D i s t r i c t ;the.
/b/bbbbykwhoiHbfe
■
v;
sou th :6f ; t h e / p m f e fefed -K o h Vb
7/ : //: / bRapge,: has. b een b co n v en ien tly &es i g f e t ed;bas : th^
//sy stem *
These Sula iman h i l l s ; a r e a t sevei^al p o in ts as .
;.bv/■;/ y / l o f t y a n d . iifepsihgbasb th e /p f e
;■so c o n tin -
(
; '///,///: ,y/ ; o u s ) inasmuch as( betw een them l i e fa r -* stre to h in g / v a l l e y s / /
bb
•/
/ ■/( w it h • average e le v a t io n from 5 ,0 0 0 to .5/.000 f e e t . . b H iis / /■ -
■/b
. a ccou n ts fo r th e p resen ce o f s e v e r a l P a sses/w h ich though
b.
(7.7; ’ b/bb/■d i f f i c u l t are quiteb p r a c tic S h le f o r P urge waves o f m igrat io h b;
://;-;/.■ ;/b 7 y :.,;pr(/inyhdihgHiiiips',*b / Che /o f them i s liu r r to ,:b connecting^/;bb - .' / / • b
//
;///
7/ /
b//b/b/b
th e Indus v a lle y /w it h A fgh an istaii through Bknnu b y ,way
; / / / o f (khe; r i v e r 1fe r r a m V /fe ic h b fa fe fe
/ /
/ ’’
n o ta b le P ass i s th a t o f T o ch i/ m
next. h y b tfe b r ife fe b fe
/ t r ib u t a r y ;-of; th e /fiir r a m . (by^Thife/Pass, offersb /h /d ^
b b/
:7
bb//
ro u te
.from th e Indus; r e g io n to ;A fgh an istan t h r o u g h f e a z n i / b 'feeh/b:'k /b
b / / r>b'■ V ;/ / /w e/h aV e/feq b w ellv-k n b m /
bb :b■/// /
( f l ows •hear Dera/yfemail ,
th e f l y e r . Qumai■which/'. bib;
j o in s th e bEndUs.
b■b,
. . //7 ; b /;/Tho r iv e r 2hdb (Rgvedic Y avyavati ) , in th e v a lle y , o f w hich;
b/ ;../ ( ;
: b h a v e: been d isc o v e r e d th e anc ien t, bs i t es o f ilhrappa typ e , •b/b;:
b/ /.,/ /
. runs th rq u fe; n o r th e r n /:fe lu c h ia ta n and m eefs /t h e bbGumal in i//;/’
b:('b;.:bbb/:.:;\../b7/bthe. P o lit ic a lb A f e n c y /p f .fe n a /ln /s p u th e m ^
b; ;b / famous . Bolan Pass 1 i e s to th e sou th on . a ro u te from
:b V-,;, :.
. fendahar to Saickar (h e a r /th e a n c ie n t ( c i t y of: A lor, Ror (orb;
/ / ; / b b /b ./ b ; /. fe r u ) bhhbtlfe / l h d f e
b
b c fe e fta v b ;fe fe k e fe fe st/b f bthe ; f e i f ish ; bb bb
b:b/b bE fontier o f ;India •/: -B esides, i t d eser v es to. be/m entioned
th a t be tween th e Bolan and the IQiyber-Passes th er e e x i s t s b ;,(/
y //. / y yb/
a l a t e r a l cpijm xhioation, im portant ’i n th e / h is t o r y o f th e /
?• bb/-.
Pan ja b , by a ro u te fo llo w in g a ch ain o f v a lle y s between
;
Kabul and Ifendahar through Ghazni•
• :. \ ;
y -/ ( /
l^
S ev er a l sm a ll P a sses
road to th e / b e l t . o f th e Sula iman /( b/k /((/
h i l l s j which th u s o f f e r a lt e r n a t iv e , o u t l e t s from th e /tw o , /
(//(//'(v
b 'in ^ p r f e f e b t y u ] ^ ^
by.■(. k y /
;/V
((/. b: :
"■/: '/b;
•/./•/ yby.y
bvufet'kife^fetkhe^^
p h y s i- , / / /
f e a t u r e v in /t h e tr a n s-Ih d u s Tract ; a r e t h e r iv e r s S w a t (bb,/y/
/.,b/:b/- /
;b //vk (; feo g feh ef'-(fefe b th e Panfeora/j/and ;fen a r •/.(; They are both. ( /
•b. :
•
b-:/yk(
V• |
(fe n s id e r a b le /s tr e a m s , fed; by g la c ie r s andb snowf ield s.. from / /
;-v.vy r^/ffiebHimalUfein r a n g e /f e t f e e h k f e ^ Indus and th e Hindu Khshk
•
* The i f I d f e f g a l l e y s / - to g e th e r, w ith th e cou n try so u th . o f (.
b(,bbb/'//by■ .( // . th e fe b u l about P eshaw ar, formed ■th e / wes te r n h a l f o f th e ,yb//•/
/://;//.
p rosp erou s ahd h i s t o i io /f e f e j a n f e a d f e of^ fen d h afayrw ith b
/v b- 7 '
Pushkafavat i / ( Charsadda) as . i t s 'p r in c ip a l c i t y n e a r i h e / b
../■;.77; .
... ......... co n flu e n c e o f th e . Swfeb and the/I<abul, (and th e e a ste r n
/by yk (/(/ /
/ /.(/( bb b / (
/ , /v/b ,y /
-I
h a l f o f Gandhara l y i n g below U rasa. (I-kzaVaI betvreen th e
’
Jehlam and th e / fe d u s, w ith th e famous c i t y Of Tkkshas^ta
(modern T a x ila in R aw alpfndi. D i s t r i c t ) as i t s c a p i t a l;
bb
The v a l l e y o f th e Kunar h ig h e r up was c a lle d Kambfoja,
a janapada o f Aryan K shatriyas o f th e same name,
The^(b .
b^^
v a l l e y o f th e S w at/h igh er (up:,'bthe( m q st/fe r tile ^ b
■' r e g io n , to g e th e r w ith th e a d ja cen t t e r r i t o r y o^
to th e s o u th -e a s t alo n g th e r ig h t bank o f th e In du s,
;./(
7
/ corresponded t p . th e baiic.ient Udyana;yThe Garden ’ (U ddiyana),
a s i g h i f i c a i i t xwiie tr a c e d (from. th e w r itin g s o f t h e ; Chinese:
:;/
;/piIg^
h is t o r y o f Kambo j a , .Gandhara (and ,H y an a, as ;7
/ / /H y w iliy b e /se e n fe h a k been y ery in te r e s t in g and most in fim a te ly
oonnected not o n ly w ith th a t o f if e y lt id u s / v a l le y and t h e /; //
Pan jab Prov in c e , but a l s o . w ith th a t o f th e r e s t o f h i d ia ,. /.
as w e ll as; f e a n a n d - f e
y
feom th e te n th cen t ury. A •D y / /
on w ard s/th e r e g io n o f t he se jan ap ad es, 'l i k e / o th e r ■t e r r i -
/.
7//;/ / / t o r i e s 'in t h e 'fe o n tie r v fe o y in b e k :iixclud|ng /fe z a r a fe
:;/ / / / .(/invaded by many a l i e n
//' / / o f t h i s ear^
(Afghan) t r i b e s . / / y But in s p it e
are seen everyw here j which d e f in it e -
(v/7y :/ l y ; ihd i c a t e / c lo se ;, conned t i o n d w i t f e t h e /
ra th e r; than
/:
:/Vwi.th th e ' w est •./ y ;. I t i s ;w o rth y o f ; s p e c i a l n o te .th a t g r e a t /
/;/;: .///'fame /dame /i;o ( ( f e /;a tf a c h f e H
( :if e /;f e
/ r e c o r d s o f th e Chinese p ilg r im s who; ea g erly , v i s i t e d / i t s
,/ numerous sa cred ( s i t e s ^ as w e ll as by num erous;not i c e s ±ii
/(■ ( th e i i t e r a t u r e o f B uddhists in I n d ia ., ;
' /y;.'y,. /■•,
/
//
. ' (/y\/(V
/ y ;:^(5 :"k;-fe®/ h i l l s /h e r e are .marked by. f o r t i f le d h ou ses , . t c l l in g .
(y / o f t r o u b lo u s /t inies f e e n /t h e / p r e l ^ s l i m //Paihah p op u lat ion :/:/'
. / / o f th e v a lle y s ; f l e d to them fo r s a fe ty ^
y y / / - / y/(//'7//
k //y ( ^ y fe s y e d ^
t e f e e h r a k if e
. n o t ic e d a b o v e, are ih th e fo u r te e n R^eK E d ic ts o f A^oka . / /
•( . found on d h i 11. n e a r ; th e v il la g e o f y S h a l f e a z f e r h f
.
■//;; //n o r t h - e a s f e d f ,; f e f d a h |.//y :feen /:'fe e fe k a fe k lfe e r /' K h arosh th i. . •//by; by f e f e r i f e i o n s ; - o f ;^t h e / t i i i e / o f /f e s h a n r e g iife y ' ^
/; // /(Baku ahd;/|Hshan /doins / with; (legends /d ep ic tin g s ;Ihd iank/ c u l/ y / t u r e j l k ‘:-'R»/B.i///feitehead y / i ndb-Gree^^
; /y 7
/; / i M is m a t ic / fetbs;/ah d M o n o g r a p h s ,/;few:/fe.rk 1922 )//;y/( /
/ / /.and th e ; a n c ie n t(/s i f e s o f Aornosy ; Bazira,. e t c . d i s covered /
-d u r in g : r e c e n t tim e s/b y S ir Axirel S te in ; / To" th ese' in s ta n c e s
/; - ■/ / may/be /adfed/v& nykG & eeo^B fe^
th e Gandhara S ch o o l, which i s s p le n d fe ly exerd p lif ied in
■/ ■ ;k;yy k. yy ,bk;'kkb/(/•7/ ■./k y/ kk/y y •( // / : // •/';/k!' ( cb h tinu ed ) / ;■;y /:•/'■-
: • ’yy
v ;.■■■v'.*; : 'y:ih eycb ltu fe; and h ls to r y y o fy a p e o p l^
; ;■'■■'';
it s A an^age
•'. : ^yy... y. ;
y . y :
yyy
yyy ■.
; ^^^ngU age:■indicates',': so to
yy^yy
tli^m qm eter' Qrybarpmeter,y th ey
. t f ■ e iv in z a tlp n ^ '.w liile lite r a t u r e ;, t e l l s ; , : i t s , l i f e .
^ yy y : ; ever^:litera tu ^ e^ ;;;is':n sso cia tM y w ith \' ^
; iVliat^
yyv.:,y
w i l l be : y; •:
yvy;■^ , yy ■:- y 'h;y n o tic e d ; below in i t s prb^er^plade>'according; to periods;^of X,>y
v : ■V:,i\ ■■.v:vdts.;,gro‘wtlif;.::;;*:'ih' th is, V C h a p terh o w ev en , ' w e^shall- touch •.ori'AH
..•'
yyy
:
■■: ‘ yy
y^y: V.•f or^:t h e :;purposO; o f y in tr 0 to c tip r iy :to th e 'p resb ht >stu d y v y 5, y / ■
v'y-V: y ■
,
:!•••;
y.
;
.the cpiest io n o f lan guage o n ly , which i s Very n e c e ssa r y
y;:y-y 'y.y y'-ih© e a r l i e s t dociment' th
y :y V
g iv es; us d e fin ite : in fp m a -: ^"
t ion /ab ou t. th e kind o f language th a t was spoken in th e ;; '■••'.//yy:
' v; ;y;::^ n ja b y b elp n g s. :tp: th e i^ y a n s ^
y .y ' yyy y ;-yyy y v i n t o - t h a t :;cbuntry;a : i i t t i o ; -before -gy0^
00^
y;y
;-;yv\;yy:yyy y ;'.r;yy ::
; '■' '' = 'Vy ,v v.:y'y;y'&::- ;is;-tlie wp3^^khbwn:. Rgyed^ySaM itay:;the corpus o f
.
y
hymxi- l i t e f a t u r e , "which shows th a t th e e a r ly Aryans were
y
y
^ V- weiX; a.oqjuiaiirii;^a; wi-fcli m o s t o f th ey ihdus:
w id e st
■;
(c o n tin u e d ); th e Pan jab Ivhseum a t la h o re and :p a rt l y in o th e r y y
.
y iiseu m s' o f In d ia out s id e (A> . Jbuoher V ld cy o i t ; and S ir "\ . y ■:
•v-y;‘v'y yyyy y: ;^ h n V;Mhr
Cam bridgeH istor^^ o f In d ia , Vol I , yy'yyy ::Y‘vy
:.,:.yy;/v y y - y : y y ^ a p t e r ^
y y y y - r ^ T - ,yvy :'vy:--y';;y:,;y:'-:..v.yy^':y
y>,y
; i h r l i e r than t h i s there, are i r a c e s ;^oP:''a,/languageyy^^:^y
y'y'-^yyyyy'*
Y yyfoundwritter^^^
Yyy
y
yy' -brought to l i g h t by a r c h a e o lo g ic a l <1i s coy er i e s made in. th e ;yy
y y y y y y y :^ " y ,y ^ d u s ■% lieyyA :5lfet;unt£3U th e ^bript;ypn;ythese;;seais;ycan'' be- yyY-'Y
y . yy ’ yy;yy-yready^ w ilP -it-^^be ^posbibieytoV asbe^
o f larigu■ yy : y : ;yy v oyage-^this-;wasyyo^at yitywas;>Aryan;-or-^
W.ite^■:u n lik e ly .,y y y.y,{y y;; vy,yy-v: ,yy s e e in g that:yfche>ihdusy^
,
-v
a n te r io r to th a t o f th e Aryans: .(see; Chapter I I b e lo w ) ;.
y uyy-yy':y vy;Spme "good ^ a u th o r itie s have ;heen^^ in cP in ed y tb th e view th a ty - ..
y -y ty y \ yyy''y;;vyfehey;.lhdusyianguagd:;toight./have;''bepnyail/hhb^h^
•■vyv;:;-'
•/ V:'
y ■P ra v id ia n fa n iily , xiov; found in: th e so u th .o India w ith
y;-y,;
o u t l i e r s in th e 3^rth,yand^^^vEdluc&stahy: I h is view. remaIns
.v-ty-y ■ y y . - . ; ;vvery ':yiikeiyy^^^
w iii: be; sh6whypfesohtiy;;y:; ;y.yy:yyy"."..yyy-'yy-y ■;
:■
:ise n se from th e Kabul (KnMia) to th e Jumna. . Hie lan&xiage^ , ^ 0 \
Hi:.:'
vyyYyyyYyyYy/y/y/iisjBdyitty^^^
Yiyyyy4y:yy
vYyyr- /Y, , \ .y;Yy th e / Aryans? •:;iim igrants',;;r e c e iv e d c o n s t a n t l i t e r a r y :. c u l t u r b /yyY;'.;yyyY;
y„/: •;•-.;./;-,y y and r e f ih em en tyat/Yjhayhahdsyof t h e t r :.r s h lYco^oadrs-randYy/Yy yy/
y /Yy yyyyY/yyyyyo-theryin^
Yyy yyy /y-y
SaptaY;Sindhuy^
; i s a sh eer m ista k e to say y .as i s done by S ir .
/• yy/YY y Yyy yy G r ie r s o h /a ^
-yy'’
y.yy/yy;YYyy
lahguage vof th e YRgv-ed
yYyYy -
hymns r e p r e s e n ts t h e ^ s p e e c h o f th e M d d le Country
yyy Yyy yy/Yy yy (ltedhyade¥a J /q n i^ y y Y-.
i s /y ^y yy y
YyYYvy y y y Y Y y y v t h a t ; / ^ ^ y t i m e : ; t h b s e y ofytftdY
YY/YYyy/yYy yyYbhby:wentytd::;'se,ttld; in/theY G a h g e t i o ^
; y YY.
yyy; / y-..
>y/ y
YYYY/ ■%:yyyyyyy o l d / l i t e r a r y /language/ o r t h e ; : ^
/yy Y:
/y Y:
Y yy:
We/,have specim ens o f th is . y -y y
Y/ y : y ; ; Yyyy:‘y mddiiled^ form /ihyT edie- t e x t s 5co ^ o sed Y lo n g a f t e r theY, Y Y y ; ;/;/Y;;
.: / y y y
':% r
y/y/;h^ms/Ypf/ythe"'R gveda,axid; forming: a / se p a r a te c l a s s , c a lle d
y y '
■ Y'/y^y t h e :- l a t e r ,V edie l i t e r a t u r e ^y-Y/^yY-Y;y",-;-Yy- yy;■:Yy .v. v "■Y'Yyyy y^yy..; y/Y
YY//- Yyy,c;;//;f -Y^Yy’(Y^■ ) ; , . 1 ; 1i ©.q
:Y,qiy; Ifc;em ie-,-y.G rieiSqhi;/and/;::M ^
YY
v
yy(k z*.* /
in / thd-R^
lan gu Y-Y'Y/-:.<vy/yYYv.yYYYage/Ythe/;speechy/df Y/thdyMiddlW/YCopntry. ■-l:Madhyadesa;)yohl^y:;isy^:Y-Y-Y.:
Y//yY/';y : n ot supported by th e Rigtedavy . t o
,
yy/YyYy- / y u / A
'Y
Y yY y . Y YYYyikishad&ally
/w a s /in t im a t e ! ^
/p o e ts YY .
yy-Y-y//Y•Y Y/; YY o f t h e /R ^
acciuaintance .with t h e ;Yy ■/:■/' ;Y
/ /;■ / ; Y
Punjab a n d ;w ith/theY i^bulY /V alley than/'.with'^ th d W d d le/y/Y
Y:///■:-Y/YYYY'-y:yY,Cpun^
th a t;/is//tp '/stay^
"/YY y /;"/ y : th e :'’S a r a sy a tl/ and Praydga, th e modern A lla h a b a d /? y _ _ d -_ _ y ■■. '
y/yY Y y : ; -y Y/yj Cambridge His to ry o f India , Yol I , v 3.10 f.n.Y
YY/
y y /y y.-V' YY. '-/yY/y yY/yyY VyyYyyY./.; Yyyy; H-yY
///y/y
yy yY /y/:y 3 y : -.
/ YMeanwhile, .the, spoken speech o f th e P an jab is . was / ; y -
bhanging more r a p id ly , a n d i n d if f e r e n t p a r ts p f th e Y Yy/: /
cou n try th e r e were / a r i s i n g -d i s t i n e f d i a i e c t s , which ■a r e y
/ Yg f puped: under th e name, o f Old / Indian/; P r a k r it ,, i , e , h a tiir a l
/ o r ,/u n a r t if ic ia l/; a s ;opposed toya, l i t e r a r y fomii o f' s p e e c h .
;
y:/ s u c h /a s , f o r exam ple, th a t rep resen ted , in th e Rgveda • The
i o f the; Veda a lr e a d y . show .a^few e a s i ly . r e c o g n iz a b le .
;
tr a c e s o f ;d ia le c t i c Y d if f e r e n c e s ,
Y ; Y-Y:
:y/';
remain in th e tex t: by Ythe/Zedi
o f th e spec i a i
.
///:■ s a n c t it y , a tta ch ed t o / th e /h ym n sy Wo. have u n fo r tu n a te ly n o.
/ / / Yy
..:/
wliich were. allov/ed ,fo ,
';Y/ r e g u ia r >recpfdc o f th e s e e a r ly or prim ary d i a l e c t s spoken
Y/
by Pan jab i s excep t/ f h e s e / f f a ^ i e n t s * yyvy/i/y/V y ■'/■' YY'''///'
•“•/ v
• ;/;
yy /.; But/ i t w i l l be s e e n ; th a t/ by th e t h ir d century B;/Q,Zy y
■/ / ///' Y/Y / g re a t changes had tak en p la c e in th e Pan ja b , as elsew h ere
/ y/Y,; yYYY/y y iiiyin&ia-- in; th e / speech^ / o^ / i;he /mass /o f Y tie/p b ^
Yy
Y./ / n a t u r a l ^
///■;;:
Y/:
i t n e e d fu l f o r .t h e :YEmperor As oka to/ s e t up
/ ; /the y ih sc p ip t io iis c b h t a f h in g h is y E d ^
y Y/:/ /
////
speech known t o th e l o c a l / andY pbbvlnciai o f f i c i a i s o f h is
y '/:YY/YY/Y: /reig h V :/ . i l l Y h i s
b iu a d y in /th ^
•/// ■/ / Yy ^ b y in c e / a tY fe n se h p a /a h d /a b h b ^ ^
^
d±ieY:r'ecordedvih•/1th e
(* ) YEk g i dudas < ^ u rd a sj dudabha < durdabha ;/. dudhi: < /d u rd h i;;
/ dunabay< :du& asa ;,/;s^
Yduhriiabay: e t c y T:,' / /// S ' /• "':;/-//;■
; d i a l e c t s th a t were spoken in th a t p a rt o f th e cou n try.
& Y y Y Y ;iY ^ b Y p rb p e rly Y -s ^
it
is
th e se
■Yyyy' Y Y ',b p ;■f a r / ' -'t h e -' e a r l i e s t . . d e f i n i t e s
i n s c r i p t i o n s w h i c h . s u p p l y ;y
p
e
^Y^yYyYYof/the- PuhjabiYyYYYyYYYY"^^
c
1P Q p u i / a r •:. s p e e c h - . 1
yy /y ./.••• -- yy Y/;y, /. YYYY'■/YY-:
,Yj;-;‘/y:,:-':'YYY S in ./-th ip Jobnnect ibn,Yhowevery/ t^ b YvieWyof YSirYGebrge y/yY..
Y/y-:yy/y ;y. G rie rs o n d e s e r v e s a / m e n t i o n /h e r e i : A cc o rd in g t o hiin t h e s e
■//
Y/y/' .■ P anj a h ,■d i a l e c/t sY/of-. Asbkh ^s.' /f iiieY/r e p f e s e h t / 1 he / we s t e f h ■f o f ins Y
Y y rY Y Y Y Y v
:
. (§)
: i v . ;r.
,
Y;"/Y/y^v-y'l,o f !Yihe>:e a rll;e s t^ ifa k rity y k n b w n /a s .':lh liY y v ^ '/w h i'c h -is ''/the Y-YYY: ■/:
'ft/
- 5 ? Tt h e t h e n k o in e
/yYYYyYYY-y/
(l i n g u a f r a n c a ) YY'Y-
i t was u s e d a s a. medium /
;/// y;YY'-S o p , l i t e r a r y in s t r u /c t io n /in /t h e / O/hkshasita///( T a x ila ).y:Yy y / ; • //Y
preached/ to th e yy /y; y
:/YY'/Y/yYY; y u n iv e r s it y .Y!y Y Y y/^eY B iid^
:Yy p eo p le in; th e .iahapada o f hlagadha.. : As lie spoke in .the ; ^ Y/ ;
- Y p o p u l a r la n g u a g e ,Yvi t Y I s Y ; con clu d ed t h a t he spoke YMagadhi *;■ /
y y / & e / ; e a r i i e s t s u r v l y i n g P a l i t e x t s p u r p o r t t o co n v e y t h e
YY; te a c h /in g o f y t h b
Yy/ aYfbrm : o f lCga.dixl*
y
. hehce i t i s .th b u g h t P al i ,must he YBtif t h
'
o f . S i r GeorgeYhas n o t
YYvWon g e h e fa iY a c c e p ta h c e among sclio l a r s ..
Some o f t h e i r
■/ Y, Y
■.i" '
Y
-v
Jbr.: th e forms
d i a l e c t s c o n s u lt /.E ultzch, 0 . , 1 . 1 * / ; Y y
:>Y:Vol y l , Y f e o k a h I n s c r ip t io n ^
YXntrpduction, and Prof.Y
, •■;;/ li/Chy W bolner//;Asbka Ib xt and G lo ssa ry , Y19 34, Paxt I y 'Yyy. \:y Y 'Y;
/ (In tro d u e
; ■■: y /Y y ,-:Y •' yv- ,
■{§) y !h e .Y i? ^ m e Y ;% ^ i.vw as;/origih aliy/:up^^
.Y y ,'y . y .v •
/./
-Yy
y • b r ig in a l/; and a u t h o r it a t iv e t e x t s o f Buddhism as d is tin g u is h e d
/yyvfrbmy/iheyicqmeditaries (A ttakathas ) > I t came/ tb be known as; a
‘ YY/ language; ■soitewhere Yabout ythey tim e Ybf ■. 2ixddhughb sa who ■i s th e
YvY/^styf^bU sY /PallyQ oi^^
.Y/Y
YY
Y (x jy S irY & b rg e Y ^
iii Coimrieraorative• E s s a y s , p rese n te d to ■:Y
Yys lf y R ; lh v A
yPobha.1 9 1 7 y ^ n n : l i y ; f f : : y y y . :
y y :.-;-^
..(o) YB;,0; Ylaw; B u d d h istic S tu d ies . C a lcu tta 1931/, pp 2S 8-S 9, /
Y 'y/ '232^3b/Y^nndy7gQy48;v'-/ Yy^Y" :Yy:;'/:Y;Y':YY/YYyYYY/Y/Y-.'y.--/Yyv Y.y'Y:YY;/ -Y; /Y ’YyY
/YYY- Y ( / Yy' o b je c t IphsYare :Yt^^
yyyvyY
■'■■y/YY-^/preserved: jin
Y theybldestY ^
•
marnxs or tp ts of deylpn a re i n ’P a li does not -
...: .. .y\■YYYY/YYYgi^^
and; fcghdhiyYan
!.
ban; h ard ly be/ supposed ytO;/ /
• ,y / h a v e /b e e n th e y h o m m o n y ia h ^
YY- -YY Y , y Y Yy
!
/Buddha spoke' fb aty lan ^ ag e;IY th ere is n o th in g / .
/ .Y Y /.v ;y / ■'/ / to: show exact l y what part ic u la r ^ dlalectY the ./Ilu to
■ Y;.yY Y
I
:b f
y y Y / .y Y /. -y //.,
Sb i f w i l l be sdbhythat y .P&ll:y>QuidYnof:. £ b .s $ lb l^
language of: the. Buddha, nor could i t be:> ^
YYYY -:Y*Y •
even th e YIinihiay/fr^
can :be Vsa id a b o u t /I t . i s :' Y :-
th a t th e e a r ly P a li Buddhist .te x ts rep resen t th e d o c tr in e s
a ccep ted .by a s p e c ia l /school which u s e d ;. P al 1 a s ..the l i t e r - Y/ v
ary language o f t h e ir canon.
ypla.ce Yp a h h b ty fe
When and where t h is took
e^ixMdY wi
c e r ta in ty . /. S ir -yGteorge Y v '■
G rierson Would o f cou rse/ make Takshas i# a th e home o f ; P a li j Y
yYyj:Y;v/-Y-y-Y'/YY.-;v
YYYYY-Y
/w
l i i i L
e
Y
r
"
Y
r
:
' Y age /o f . hn YAryahYpebpieYi^
YyyyYY/ y..
Pal i was t h e 1ian gufom/ theY Pahjab;caiohgYtheYy /:•
3ndus pouthwardsY/ Y I n h is op iiiid n th ere ;'wefeytwo/,branbhesY/yyYY- /
o f the Punjab’s ‘A ryans; one t r a v e lle d southwards and th e
o th er ea stw a rd s.
because
th e
Y'Y
I
in
c e r ta in
R g v e d a , 'w h ic h
P a li must have stai*ted iii th e Pah jab :
fe a tu re s
r e s e m b le s
t h e la n g u a g e , o f
i s , a s s d c ia te d w it h t h a t
; yyY Y ^or m ay . h b tY a c c e p
■ Ofcto P r a n k e ,
it
b u t.th e
c o u n t r y •;
We m ay .
Y g ir.Y G e b '^
fa c t
r e m a in s
t h a t some o f t h e o l d e r ,
D»M, G. ,. Vo.l XLVl, 189 2 ;;: pp 316-17
• / / ’. . , ,
eleitLents i n ' P a i l d i dy/come yf rdm Yearly/:' d i a l e c t s o f . t h e y. ,YY
Y ;V /Y Yy Pan ja b Y y Y - ;,.';Y;y YY"' Y:; Y .;/./•'••; /'/Y..Yy/:
/YY' YYy/Yy Y/yY
yY/
" Y / Y Y-YY/
be no t e d t h a t . t h e s e f eW;;/elembnts:: qfY Y'--.
;Y YY : / Y P a n j a b i c h a i act/d r Y trd b e a b ie i n P a l i c a n n o t h e lp usy i n
fo r m in g 1an id e a o f th e k in d o f d i a l e c t s spoken i n th e
/YYy yyYYvBaihj:ubY>Y/Ih^
A ^ k a /t:s Y /in s c ri£ t^
/ YyYy \
Mansehra and S h a h b a z g a rh i t h e r e i s no c e r t a i n in f o r m a t i o n
// y/yyYY/ a s : t o /whatY/ was/ t h e Y iiv in g sp e e c h betw een .t h e .end o f /th e
YY :’’-y- YYYYPsgte(i i b ' ages'"and: t h e / f h ^
O fY /y ^ ie r/^
y-yyy
o f Aboka we have a n u m b e r'o f P r a k r i t words from Y the.Y:Y;/Yy.YY:y /
K h a ro s h th i le g e n d s o f th e b i l i n g u a l c o in s on which th e
YYYYyYYYyyY^
Y Y/YY' Y-Ythem YdurfngYt^^
Y/Y . YY;Ycqntempora^
*
r e c o r d e d p ro p e r, names h e a r d by Y/ Y
Pan j a b , b u t /no I d e a o f th e y .y :
d i a l e c t s call' be had from, them ./
Eext
t h e r e a r e t h e K h X s h t h i i n s c r i p t i o n s o t h e r th a n t h o s e o f
YY'YYYy y/y YAsbka:; . 'W hichyaf eY
yy/: 'yy/
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/ ///;; /:/. Yy: //Yr come in to c o n ta c t! y A s im i la r yproce ss must/ have been a t
y '"Yyy/'/; Yyyy/' /work in/ the iri?yari;Ydlai/ect
./ Y'/yy/ v.Y:;byYy'y’/s ta g e s /y d f//th e ir ;y d P v e lq p m e
y//yY!/
/
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a l s b yf ir id y th a t o w in g toy
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/// Yy/’;•■/Y:yYy/Yihdd^3ri^
YY
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•. arid! -it sy/d i a i e c t s / b h e / y o c a b ^
; /Yb/;.;/y;y.\/y Y/YyYhas/ b ee n /;in . some /dogreey;changed by f o rei/g ri/ilqari- wordsY and y.Y: ;Yy/y YY;Yy/y /som etim es/:alsoy th d y p h d n e tic : arid; s .y rita c tic y s to b c tu fe , h^
/
y/
b e e n y a ite re d . ///' Unis th e re / i s no Yre as o n t o ./doubt. th e ex i s t - '■•'yy.
yv;y/-/,/ / y/: erice . of/ borrowed m a te r ia l in the v o cabulary and s t r u c t u r e yY•
./; y : ?Y: YyYyofYb l d r Indo^ Ar^ariY/spebch,YYnbwY re ^ /e s q h te d /h y Y^differentyY/ / : Y
y; . Yyy/ s t r a t a y o f ySarisferIt/y/aridYyariousY .IfakrIts/yyY ^ilqld
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y/YZYyy yyYYYy- yYy Yyaifea<iyY/dlscbyere& Yinyj p
/Y\y /■■■/;
:/ / -yy- y;arid/-qih pr;-elem ents' -which/ have -n e it ridf/;t o y a n u n o j
yy YyY
y ‘yyyy yy-Z
Edrqp;da:ii/Gdgm;fcdsl!?Yifc^
Yy/Yy;y Y Yto th e im a d i Sutras by //SanskfttYgrarimari ans ,£-whichTShowsy /
£y / YY
ijiy /ir ie ir :q r ig ih £ w a sy /r io 1 £ £ j^
:yy Yy.yy
la w s-.p f -IhdpI'ipYyanygr
th e se t r a e j ^
-Y......Y. /Y ;Yy/Y,y. wof day and. /elem en ts-are Yhoiyib^anjYyt^
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a r i s Os what/' can b e ;-th e ir Ys/cmrce/1?££■■■tYYy£yy£ YY/ y£££y£y£' /y'yY/Yy.//
Y. Yy£/-:- Y /It'^Isy/a/m atter/fory.rdgret th a t h it h e r t o in v es t. ig a t io n
• / Yy : //Yy Of/ th e ylangriagesY o f M
/been qonfiriedY m ainly yto:; YY:y//Y/Y y/y
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yt-
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'£y Yy Y
/-y/yy y, /y/ ;/ / o f la n g u a g e s o jic e w id ely - spoken ih anc ie n t In d ia . - - M b t r ie
/-,/;'
;/ yY/
£.;£/
';Y£Z:YyyYY£/' Yyy£’;(fcridai?Y£&ridy ij v ld ia r if y Y o t h j
Y,.':-''/£YYYy-Y-.; covered / in Y d j/i j/A u c h y a s y
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■yyy,Y -Y YYY/■£-. in itid la had begun; .
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yv Yy/Y y/y,:: ,Y (§j '/hiinda Y^is\ypo.ick-/to Ybe/ y th ey Y su ry /iy irig -rep reseritativ eY p f th e /y / Y
.;.
A u s tro -As i a t i c : f a m i l y :o f sp ee ch spoken o y e r a v a s t a r e a
.
; YY . Y
; Y/^^,y^ j
lii^ybo 7 bliey o p p L J ee bil3?0 Yo fY so j e Yw
: wa/s , Y
Yy Y yu
: y y y y . yy;yYdnce/;ay;coritinent. Y:lhls -fa m ily /h a s beenytracddY ’frdm^^/;^; ' yYy/ y
Y ,YyY, / ' / / / !--Eas t er Isla n d .o f f / the- /co a st ,o f YSouth// /.Amerio a in Ythe/ e a s t //: ; / /
y/yy.://
t o ifed agascar in th e w e s t, ;and "from' ylfewY/^alandy inY theyYy /y/.ly
;y
/yyY/. /yYy//;yy-.Y.YsputhY\tP-/theY/&njabY/inYthe/y^rth^//^
^yY;; / ,YYY :,;/-.. .,
55*
'From the; .way i n whioil Min&a d i a l e c t s are s c a t t e r e d ,
vd;hat; ' i s t h e ; " g e o g r a p l a i o a X v p e s it.io n o f & n d a ^
^■■speakin^;and:;the: p r im itiv e ir y a n -s p e ak in g f r i b e s :. in In d ia ,
■ i t I s :.surm ised i t h a t th e l a t t e r onee spoke :i/unda;. t h a t . the:,'
/M unda'-dialects o n ce, upon a t irrie were spread g e n e r a lly in
India., perhaps a s , i t s .o ld e s t sp e e c h ; and t h a t th e s e d ia -: v
;; > le c ta ;i;wer:e ' superseded...by tlie waves o f ;;D ra v id ia n . an d : icy a n la n gu ages sue ces s iy e ly * ;
■r$ti:;e a c h . c a s e , hov/ever, th e ■/■•:;
. d ia .le c t s. o f ’ idinda sp eech are s a id Vto ; hay e l e f t ;the i f mark.
;^Jbrv exai^le^: :,ac co rd in g ;-torSif;y5q^
;. !,K uri,
th e j^ofd .used;" a ll'b y e r ' norther;n:india^^
fo r a sc o r e i s ; alm ost c e r t a in ly a worcL,p f Minda •o r i g in 1T•
•Alh is \e x p ^
s u r v iv a l: o f :; the^jfcnda-ifethod b ^ /v lg e s i-
; mal onumerat io n
th e K' y f y
among;t h e - ^
Panjab and eisew n ere ;in th e north -of :In d ia;
P ro f 1,
. y.
. P r z y id s h i: is^ a n b th e rv b b h o ia r^ p A ^
^ .a n oth er jiSeftblar^wh'^
the^;.^stric.;:-,:;;:'v
: (Itoida) / o r i g i n f ;two o r 'th r e e .v/ords ;ffom; th e Panjaby e • g*
d i a l e c t s :_arq';f bdnd; fd r ?and ::wide ;,throu^
: v; ;
v d h d i a * / e m i t h ^ h n d - ;,t b >a^Certain e x t e n t’ in Chhota : : >
.. ilagpur (0. P • ) hlixida, has ;been' cove re d by Lrav id i ah forms ' '
• of: 'speechj-;ahd ; i n t i l e north vby-:';:^ ^ a h ; d r ; ‘T ib et 0 * Birman
• ton gu es :; I n ;no r thorn Xndia . i t i s i n ■:th e Himalayan r e g io n ,
"■;./■w here;ut\ th e p r es en t ^da^ th e g re a t ;mass^ o
-. ‘speak ^various viOrnis . q;!^^
iin d a -'
'su r v iv a ls- ^
2110st;/apparent
ICanavari or>/ ..
■ K anauri, spokentifh"Sim la ; ' l l i l t e
: spoken; in
'
ICulu, are . s im ila r "t o t h e ^ a u t h e n t ic are
. d o u b tfu l c a s e s .-fu r th e r w est o f r ih e s e h i l l s (L in g u is tic ■ . ;
Survey o f India', Vol I , p . 35*
(§T?b^f */;;Bapsoh i n - Q am bridgelH lstory Ofv Ih d ld y^'^
Chapter
•IP , p . 1 1 . ■
"
^
o) I . e . a system aooorcling to vrtlloh co u n tin g i s done -by
‘
-■
'■
' -.v- ,V
...
->■.■
-' . '■■
■■
■- ( f~\tT
-f*\ ‘.
T -'
;Kodumbara.. = .• bdumbara^ •;with^ p e c u l i a r . Ivlind'a: - p r e f i x ; kVr ; ;; i - T T
... V; V; lu lu ra l^ a - ■diilam bat-; .lalam b 1 ; Ifopah t
V V ;T trdst.;be :rqiraemberedlth^
h& rpasa *: ! ’But i t
\
th e .e v id e n c e o f a few words-, more
' t ^ e sp e c ia lly ^ /% h e n ^ ^ iid a p h ilo lo g y , does h o t : p o s s e s s a- s t r i c t
;.
e ty m o lo g ic a l' m eth o d, - h a r d ly e n a b le s his to a s c e rta in -- th e
t i 'h e x t e n t -' o f ihiuhda-ihfiu^^
\
^
h
any r a t e , th e p re s e n c e
a ' Manda; s u % i r a ti T T t h ,t h a
:;
i we /may' "say i/;i0 ./\no't‘V weii!.;e s t a b lis h e d by p h ilo l'p g is ts and-
T T T -’should, be, cons i d e r e i ash s t i l l ; d e b a t a b l y
;T i
'
■■■;--ni\
T -h fh -iy i :';"Qq: ^ e'J q tlier' hand, we^m&yhaqcept^
V:V .. T ry a n sp e e . c h be f o r e i t occxrpled th e P^
.••••■v; v y e a r s
;
ag b y f o u n d . t e
o f h a n T n c l e n t fo r m ir i -
;; p o s s e s s i o n [ d i ; t h e c o u n try *
iv; tT T a r ily /- m e a n : t h e r e ; was dh?av;idlen
;h;
.Aryan i
; la n g u a g e o f :iheihPapiabh^;; ^
;v;>:haie';v a s tf b l i q ^ '. ; r
t h i s view
t h - h T-'
1 / : j ■;/ .h :: (I;); iS Q iatedhT O rds^ a p p a r e n t3 y : o f D r a v i d i a n ' o r ig in ;, ; t
.. / Old -a n d ' Middle: :;^dq~ ^ y & n (S a n s k r it;a n d : P r a k r i t )
as .we11 ;:
■;t ; ;V\■a s p ^ b d e r h - la n g u a g e s ,: d i a l e c t s o f t h e ;;;Pan j ab "i n c l u d e d ,
i'/T .
. ^v tp c o h ta in a p b o h s id e ra b ie tn u m b e r:p &‘w ords j-v o fb ® i
p r v -J tp o r ig iK
p o s t u l a t e d ; ^ w i t h :;g r e a t . ;p l a n s i b i l i t y
,.;:h q v e ■n o ■;dhyipus v;lh d q - Iferop eah V i o n 1';.;.-vv ( < i f i t .
To);:Prom■p r ey1 bus tp age r~i7 e i ,v:
pbunting' i s done b y !tw e n tie s and h ot by tens;,
;'hVl'';:i;':Would;^bepexpressed;.;itwopscprepand;.;tehi;
>■
;;
..’
ddius. f i f t y :
t-VT >i •Tth
( * ) V J . A, : yo i:.G C T III;, 1 9 2 6 , Mo''•. i ; , "pp 5 8 1, and 4 3 - Un a n c ie n ^ i
h-; ■:^'a p e u p l e ; . d u t P e n j a b r l e s .bdOTbara^v;;;;,;; ':.
;
I T ■, d h i ; :' i d T T y
; u - V x ;;!:,t T ,-;: v\ , , n, ; . ■, r r u :>. 57 . . p.;
i e l a t i o n -:•••T Such 'box*rowin g s :howe v e r ■are; n ot ■cb n clu s iv e r -;
•• ' f o r ; s in g l e : ^words;; may; t f a v e l > f
a
r
t
h
. mouths \p.f T i f i b f e h t ; :r a c e s , aiicl th e ir ; p resen ce
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i
T T i o e s t i q t p f6y e > d ir e c t a h d T lb s e ■^cbnthctihetw eeh ;Aryans'^ h i
■TiV-'an^
Thesanie may be - aaid-:of ; th e apparehtv;-
' ■lo a n s from ilinda in ir y a n -sp e e c h V S o m q , o f t h e s e r t r a f e l l e d :
h :/ ;evbn,T^
and homan;,^
y e t t h e i r p r e s e n c e / in i ;
:■-i^<T'&beltiandv..iiat ix t does n o t .p h o te th a t;;th e ; Greeks and ^itomahs ■
■; w er e; ever; i l l d ir e c t touch w ith Mp.nda :p e o p le s . v•:; -howover,;i T'
;a c a r e fu l and f u l l a n a ly s i s o f th e vocab u lary o f iid o - '
'I;. ihyan sp eech has. y b t . to bei;made t; and ..'perhaps i t may :re v e a l •
t ;/;raic o n s id p fa b le t u m b e f l p t i ^
v;.;.;;ideas o f a kind T h a t m igh tiin d ib ate^ .d ir b c t ;con t
wT A t
a T ask
To
;p h ilo lb g is t s ; .
;
o
; T ■i ; , \ T
, . ;'1
are T h e i f o lio w in g v th r e e lp b iiT s
;:'l; T;i'■ t?fcre-T
T
:.
This ,
f
th e Gerund (A b so lu te ).
.■
The S a h sk .fit1
• ; Gerund, o r i g i n a l l y a n :p b i i ^ b ld ase o f a tv e r b a l noun, is;;; ;
1
iT lu sed :;w ith ;lh c f e a sin g ; freq u en cy i f x^m Tedte^
lb s rsu b ^ p fed ib itp m u oh :;A ik elb h b ip ^ ^
;
iT iA a t i n V /i M t /T h e ^
;
: -Greek and l a t i n 'e r ’ a n y ;b th e f/ lndq~EufbpehnT
■Tome o f T h e s e w i l l be found in S ir A sh u tosh :
; ■ ■^Memo r i a l yblume;; P b f t l , i e d i t e d b y :Samaddar., - P a t n a t ( l9 26il.
P roceed
inllW
gs
;W
o'Afil mithe
.............
. .... 10.
BII W
■'II<.III
,./20T*
,, . _ Ky.* • PP.
. . 66—
'. • 68 *?v
■
Seventh -i l l - In dia
u.
\
O rien ta l Oohfex^ehce ; ; Baroda,. :i035y p T A ^ tB O , and dfew
October ,;19391 p p :4 2 1 -2 7 .; 'T T t.-v •
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;;Y:Y T ;Y io n g -:; a f t e r : t h e - ;iTyaii(s e t t l e n ie n t *•;At ; u w iliy h e Yseen :- ( t h e Y
y y i & n i a ; b i ^ ( v i c t i m y o f (s u c c e s s iv e yiTOasions ; a n d (a l
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Y y'ibrsfans^ thenYthe ■Y&vanab;T
th eyY Y :. •( y (
by th e Sakas/,
7b P a h ia y a s., :;IdishansYand .Bahas .Y VThere; -i s ( o v id e h c p t o show '
Y Y thatyihe^
;langua ge s we re u sb d -in th eycb u iT ^ ^
( f e ' ' i t l a s ; a t
the r o y a l’ couiT s that; th ey were
;Y y
Y f aypuredYY As:. 'they w e r e a lw a y s 7emp1 by ed o n ly to r admihi s t r a*
( t i v e , purp o se s and cb n fih ed ;to; ;the o f f i c e r s , t h e :a g e-io n g ;:rVy
Y b id Aryan (language o f •rPanjah 1 .;sub je c t s under: t h e s e a l ie n
;
r u le r s cbuldYbbYaf f bT edT niy.^ siig h tl^ Y b y Ytheiiii' Y IfcrYcould;
even the- Afghans and Mughals change i t s form or a b o lis h i t :
y.;;-;i n ;f li e i r cont inupds r e ig n oy e f t he c ountry f o r s e v e n
Yy:;
Y.ohuhdredvyears>.7. It i s tp;; -be; noted th a ty th e language of-
Y
rY. a d t i n i s t r a t ipn'‘(tlirpughout (T hisy io,ng (p er i'bd(;was YT®rs ian', YYY'Y
y i w hich
y
,■,(
:;tr a d ersy'AnYhe ( b a z a a r ^
(YahdV fie ld s T h e /h o u s ^ ^
co n tin u ed speak-
;yYingy 2ndoYAfyan: fehJdbi. or i t s s is ts r (d ia I e c t s 'Y , v ia ; ((; ( Y VY
flT F T c^ tin u ed lah T tage > th ir d e d i t io n , pp. 4 5 5 . ft* . v-vyY'l Y .'>7
Y L ingu is t i o Survey "of .d h d la ^ -Vol 1, b 93 Y Gf * Census
7YY;TYx y Y Y T tY j x y ; ; 77 7y Y Y Y ; YY7' ;yYY7YYb;. 77 ' '77YY: Y 7 7; : 7:' 7
YY
Xahnday % S ^ t l7^ s h ib ,y e tc *
fa r T ° s e e k .
7;
60, .Yyy-/' (
The cause o f t h i s is(not;YyYy.Y':y(7Y •:
.Before; The country became ya; I to 1 im P fo v in o e ,
;
th e o ld Thyah d i a l e c t s v/ei;e7 too v /e ll e s t a b lis h e d th e r e t o
7
■
,
be m o d ifie d , in any.; ap preciable;(degreey ;much7l e s s ; :tq /b e r e -;
V p la c e d , by th e language o f T t& ycbn^bT O ^
7
:y
. ■■-
y;
(it-'hasY YyY/.Y-'
been .r ig h t ly o b serv e d , ^Odiembst im portant and l e s t in g
;;
y (y ‘
g i f t o f 7th e Aryans to Iiidia was probably t h e ir la n g u a g e, Y.
Y
a v e h ic le ybf: cpm im nlgT
f a m ily o f la n g u a g e s
777;: v
> -.
Y y ((:
b e lo h g in g T^^
which, h as proved" i t s s u p e r i o r i t y i n : Y7Y ;
;a l l p a r t s ( o f T h e y % > rli7 b y .Y p p e h se d in g 7a n ^ o t h e r (la n g u a g e s 7 7 77
■ w ith w hich aiiy 7b f : i t s membefsYhave: cdme7 in to e f f e c t i v e
;77Y(7
c o r n e t i t i o n . H 77
;
v
'7777'- 77; (Y;:-yYY7 Y/y Y7'
7
Y y > Y v 7:- *■y (7( (.Y Y Y 'V yv
v l h e P a n j a b r h a s th u s (b e e n ; l a r g e l y i n
sp ee ch
7 yY
Yyy;
frq m (^
y T h a f x its ip b p u i^
y 77T
s ome mino r add.it io hs7 i h l a te r h is t o r i c a l and .;more r e c e n t Y (
"Y
YY'
tim esy f also,;: was and i s s t i l i Y i^anyby (race, : in ( i t s ;;h ig h er 7 y ( 7 (7 ,
and many 3„pwer ;sf r a ta i ho one ( can;•denyY.77^Ohib( f a c t i s : h o t
■7
o n ly .based, on: . l i n g u i s t i c - and lit e r a r y , e v id e n c e , but hds( Y
y(': 7:(y
found c o n f i m a t ^ T h e 7 d n a i y s i s 7 o f ( e t h n o lo g is t s ’Y
■
;>
■
c l a s s i f y men a c co x ^ ih g y tb ; The;:'b fep e^(oi f h e ir 7 h e a d b ( ( th e ;
7 7.7
• ( s e c tio h Y YyY.\ v 7(\'-YyY(V7v 'y Y ; ( ( Yy Y.;yYy; -yy.; 7 .7 7. • ( ' 7; : Y Yy, ;•,(.y
k in d o fY th e i r h a l r , th e sh ap e o f th e iry h o s e s and s e c o n d a r i l y y
by statureY T ^ ^
^to^ Y pther^ ^ -characteristics. y’By; ThisY; (Y;
(^y nT ,’eY;: In d p -liirop ean v^ ^ ^ y Yy.7 7( ' .. 7— Y Yyyyy- 7 y
-
'
7
.
7.
YY method a number o f marked T y p es -;.are( ^ d is t in g u is h ^
.( ; whieb;: shade o f f in to .e a c h q t h e r p n th e ;(e d g e s . '
7.’
. 77
y-(-'W
iio' _jwei/s'/. th e f i r s t s c h o la r (t o 7 Y YYY
;;3;:
(Y-Y m a k ea .system atic? (study; of(T hP (p eo p les ( o f 7;IhdiaYfrom (d7( (((■ '((■.
(y ( s o iP h t if io v s
, camp T o th e c o n c lu s io n ,( a f t e r ( a .( ( ( ;(Y
(7Y c r i t i c a l Pxam ipation o f p h y s le a l; c h a r a c t e r is t ic s ; o f 7.th e (7
;Y7
.•( 7 v a r io u s e th n ic (groups;, t h a t . i t i s An;TheyPan jpb and ::( ;7(( ((
:7 Y !TEajp u tp h a(alon e, th a t th e p op d lat ion i s (v ery homogeneous (7'7,((
7. ./ And (Aryan. almopt fro m .T h e(h ig h est Yfco t h e 7lbwest. 'str a ta ;
7
(:
;Y(7 The;Aryah’(.elom n t ,7. ac c o rdihig; ■'t p: h iiii (■(TPb oxii©s( c o n tin u a lly
( 7 (weaker T s , we (go e a s t ahd( so u th s; ( T he(f a c t;y is T th ^
Y (; • e v e r tlie )fe tiv e .p eo p le
In dia may" havPYbeehV Yflie ;iTyan-.y ((
( 777. 7 ,coh b uerofs 7a t th e 7t ime o f t h e i r .in v a sio n s 7 nene ouhtered (
;Y(: ;.;; Ythe■;;n a t u r a i( o b s t a c le s T /h ic h (d iv id Y
:( (
>7
in to dis-V. ; (
7 s jm ila r (r e g ib h a ; and •a ls o th e- h p s t i l i t y :Pf7the r'elat i v e ly ; 7.;
77(Y7 7'';7Y; ( in d ig en o u s p e o p le s ^ 7'As s im at:ionywas ( t li e r e f p r e( very ■uh- . •7.;Y(7;
7'Y- v77(77 7.equalyYac co rd in g To th e 7fe gionyahY acp p rd ihg.;to tHe(Teif io d Y 7
Thus, th e in v a d ers havingYcbmeTih^7lYr(7the(hbrth-weaf
Y:■(((.'7(7 • pan jab h a s7 been hido-7Europeah11 fo r about ;T^ 0p 0 y e a r s v; and YY
:yYy(Y;Y7 y ip Y t husYrribre (T y a h Y ih a n Y any (o th er ( p a r ty b fy lh d i^
T y p e s .a r e :y ((£)( ( ^ a y id ia h
7 Y'YY lfg h a n \b f Y sb m e Y sc h p la r b ^ ^
(4Y( BcytifeY((7 (
; Y77T p a y ld ia n ;7(5;);;. A ryo-D ravidian o r . H ind u stan i ' (6 ) t o n g lo id 7:.
and (7 1 h b h g o lo -D r a v id ia n *
Hi3l e y T The P eople o f India Y s e c o n d .e d it io n by if.G looke,
^1915,(pp7:3 3 ;(ff^ -.espepidlly7pp.(49r5'0.; '(YyYy' Y tT v T Y " (T . , YyY’
(TWCM
'?7i-y|v#;':(7VT-6a ; Yy
Y y w d rtH y Y d A Y p o te -T ^ ^
(Yin/T h e :7 ltn ja li tla a t t h e P ersJT h s y ; y ^
7Y^etq(7;to6;dlmos:t : su cc esslv ely Y r^ ^ ^
,7
:Sakas’', r :;
a l Yy.y-Y
7Y ceniurd.es. p p u ld ; n o t(m ak ey an y y p eT O ep fib lp ;;;^^
;: ;Ats ;p o p u la tio n ,
YY;. YY;: The p o p u la t io n y o f The;; Pan jab :;b¥ihg ;Thus. unfeist alcal6i y :'y
; and :predom lnantly Aryahy;, i t i s . str a n g e to ob serve t h a t
y;
, (s o in e y s c h o la rs y . r e g a r d l e s s ; o f y t h e ( a c tu a l e t h n i c ; c o n d itio n s
Y in T tp x c o u n tr y Y(hdyeY.deS.cribpil,Yon ^weafeigrounds ? maiiy
77-;77
;: anc l e n t , an d X p ro m in en t71 r ibesT, 7 as ..w e ll as th e i r r u l i n g .
dynas t i e s , asY f o re ig n e rs : who i m i g r a t ed d u r ing t h e s i x t h
an d f i f t h c e r itu r ie s . B# Ck (T h e t r i b e s : i n cjue s t io n a r e :.;y
(G a n d h ara s,.,’Kambo^jasyY(Sindhus, S a u v ira s y X M iliic a p ,y Madras;,
iU ^attas ,, -J a r t a s / o r l a r t t i k a s , Y T r ig a r ia s *;: e t b 7 But; t h e r e
7y is . h o t a ;scrapX o f Y h is to r ic a l|T v id e h c p e y e h y io s u g g e s f j:: ;;.,,(;:;;;^
: much' i e s s tpY p rb y e ( im T iig ratio n s o f t h e s e t r i b e s from ' y 'S;v
y y o u tb id e y y C^
y T h e r T ahd ,Y n y c a fe f u i
y s tu d y \p f (.them;.;shows t h a t th e y :a l3 ..h ad ^ r p l y ( -h ad ian i r a d x ;Y
t io n s , ; ah d Y cpiiid T p t y T b u t 7
7
7',,
YiT y a n s y o f y th b 7^pta^7Sindhu>; 7 ^ i ^ Y p f t h e ( r p y a l T
.y T f Y t h e s e Y l T i b q s y h p t a b ly y t ^
7"' .7 ''7- -
t^ " F ^ e Yhame;7- rl5 h lik a s 1(p'ri'Y’^ lfilk a p ' ijTwhAofo
ythe;YVtoabharat
t h e y M a d r a s y e t c , y has;
yYbeeh g e f e r a l l ^ t a k ^ ( o u t s i d e r s yfrom;y
y B a lk h y T B a k tfisy y B actria;7 etcY ) Y' 7 lh is Y p o n c lh s i^
777.011y th q y s i i n i l a r i f yYpf (The-vyor&&'sBahl ikhX anTY Ehlkh^
■ p i i i i o i o g i c a l l y u n te n a b le ., 7(B d h lik a ;{2& i i S a 7; i s ' a n o th e r Y; •;
(yy a r i a h f ( o c c u rs h s t h e ; name ;:of 7a t r i b e as e a r l y 7 a sy th e Y 7 7
.-Y:7 Y7X 7y y x 7yy7Y
y
.
(
Y
‘v":v( yYy:(:YY'!y £ e o n tin u e d )- A- -y' \V, Yyy;
65.
■..■:yy:(■(;y(y>(;to; ■th e :v3?auravaa; ■(,ff iru -lh iru a )
and :oth.erV A ^
p e o p le s : AhY'Y : Y
r; YY,. Y,y(Y(ThP Y G h n ^ ^ ^ ' t h l s p . i b ^ T h y Y t h e y a l l i a n c e s Y b a t w P e n ' y Yy(
•Y Y;YYy,y ;y The- T^iabyandyiSadft^
v .;'Yv X'XYY (propei* i n . :e p i c ( t r a d i t i o n s Y P r e s e r v e d ■i n ./tlie ;Eaiiiayaha .,and Y(Y
yyY: ; vy,;Y:M ahaM
;i|Y r e h i l y ^ u n f ^
m is - (Y( y/y,
:;> .T b n c ep tip n v;e x i s t s r e g a r d i n g Balil i k a s > ifed rasy ■A r a l f a s ,;(y 7-YY(
; ,
( . etc# i n r e s p p o t o f t h e i r s o c i a l an d r e l i g i o u s c o n d i t i o n . ;Y .
Y,(.v.' Y (; . S c h o la r s ' h a v e o f t e n ( ta k e n Y a d v a n ta g e o f some d e ta c h e d Vy(((:
•( • ; ; .p assag es: o f a v e r y c u r i o u s vn a tu re ;; from l i t e f p t u i e Y a n d ; pbnieY:
y.Y Y;y ;. to h a s t y c o n e l u s i o n s . / |b r ,e x a in p ie M iY S a h a d u rY H ;-P i-( Y yyT y
('.(.(;.; (
Y ; ( Y ' Y X Chanday ••; . q u o tin g t h e IVkhabhaf a t a .
;BaUdhayaiieY ;Y and th e
;7XY. .TYlppntTHTed):/^Timp: o f the: T h a r y a v e d h ^
,) ( where-..
YY; T y X-T 'as(there;.- .lsYhoY evidehae.;.ofi.lhf o r ^ h l’ sounds ap pearin g in ■
.
(y .:.:y Yyy y p ld Y ilra h ia h y ;®
P a r iie r T b S n T he second ..century (B.G;. : (
Y^:(yy:■■Y(;(YThisx_ e v id e n tly ; shows th a ty B a h llk a i s . . indepeiidPnt o f Balkh
x Xy; Y ( - a n d . i s Jan o ld (IhdiaJiname* h ayin gin o ( r e la tip n vTLatever (
;;:(.'(((;; Y..((:The'(:latteri-:;r/;lPf( t h i s (p o in t; A(’am (lndebiedY d^
.^ -..(: YBa.i3.ey o f
/ C o lle g e ,; .C am bridge/ p h i y e r s i i ^
■h a s Y;((
Y.YyyYyyY'Xyeryx
a llo ld y f^
. ' YYYY( Y in ; ih d ih h an d (( f r a h i a r ( w i t ^
; is ; p e f f e c t i ^ T ^ i l i a f Y (
Y y:Y(YY:: ,;'((Besides;^,'TProiyxTy ^
who h a s y b tu d i^
(YYY; (a b b h t; th e a n c ie n t p e o p le s o f TheYPanjab.. ( JYAw, CCYIII, 1926,
(.,;■ ( • yMo . i , ( pp IQ -ia y ) has^;:pxplaihed> the; w p rd Y fehllk a-as ylhdoyYX::
Y y •'(;,, ;v v'Y Aryan, and (d orivecl i t : from(BliPliijYh^y (Bhadrika;), ( w h ich ’( is an(;
Y':(,; ;y Y.y;. Ya d d it io n a i; r e a s o n ;fo r ;;regarding7t h e ( ^Lhilka^-as.ia; g eh u ih e /((
Y;,Y Y '' ;'^:;IndianYtribe ’'aM Yaotxp^
riaYoir yl&lkhY Yy('
(y-yv
.(§.).; AwS . I y, ( ifempir lb 51 .'.(iSBdl.^T^T-BtY-Y;Y ■(y((:Y:Y;Y-,Y(yyY;(YyY:
; (x) ^ “YxT I yP^arnaparva;) Chapt ers XLIT ^ 40-46 *
,y ( . ( ; (o j ^?auta .Sutra, X Y I li, 15; Ehamna ;Suf r a ,; 1 ,1 , 5 S -35; = Y(( y'
xxxxx^xxxxxx;- ^Wx^Xr-ix^^xXy^
A fta rey a Brahmana,
has s ta te d th a t th e Panjair was a
/ •; -bouhtry;'w h ere.'livad ^eojple' l i k e r'B a h lik a sr ;e t o ♦ ,:;whP- were;- XXx;X’:
XXX.;:V.ou^s.ideps^^and"’iia'd::,ra;;;bad c h a r a c te r .
■
:;xXXX: Tpassagea■,in :g.uestioxi
In stu d y in g th e
*,
shall;;exatiine''Xbncl? ;d:iAcussX tta ^
; xX-x. t h e y :are m ost3 y in t e r g o la t iphslAncearte<i ;iit.r
£;XvX;XinX;^diiys.H;d^
xX; \iaost o f ; the. S u t r a ; lit e r a t u r e
.?e;ry g r e a t .R eferen ce;
X; X- paid to Brahmans, whpXhad. g ra d u a lly d e v e lo p e d . new : r e l i g i o n
;X ,
'and xs o e l a l i n s t i t u f ion s and claim ed tlie vr
id e ; ;
,
p eo p le in a l l m a tte r s, w h i l e sth e Panjab o n 'th e whole was
x-.X;X::;h0,xWXbrtEb&O;K:KXXX:x:3^^
. _ . ^ : V - ^ V - - X^X'^xX-;X:
,
i
:i '
;y
( §j:; is: regard s th e p a ssa g e o f t h e , A itaT eya Brahmana ;quoted,
.X
;>•- i t . tiay f;be;^point e d b u t th a t ; Ha1;;Bahaduris .Ant e r p r e ta tio n o f XX
th e :;words Xhiohyas^^ahd;,apachyas^ as;iaeanlng;ibw ^b6rh -at).d '
' i l l in h e r e d : r e s p e c t P f ^ I ' i s X a lto g e th e r ; fa lse " ( ^ e .bei^
‘x - - i
'X; ;P
'
f
.
X’XXX-XX ; X \X.:v X ; X .' 'XX-v' x;X:X.XX:• X-'-'1 V'XxXXX XX'-,X_v--:
X
(x) ® iis d i s t i h c t i o n in X so c fe ty i s sometimes, made an argu.; .nient to support th e th eo ry ^ f .;doubie Aryan in v a sio n (o f
&
XXxIndla'X; (S ir Harbert . R iS ley j l o c . o i i .ppX:55-56 ) , accord in g to
;
x ;i;wh ic h th e r e we r e two d i s t l n c t/;x&yaiiX m igrat ions, o f d i f f e r - Ax;
XXX,'ent;Xphysicai. ch a ra c ter 1 thex.long-headed; and Xbroadl^
;
■'V Aryans I ;:XWe h a v e ; no '•evidence of, the. lo n g heads and ■;iroadv-;X:;>;;;X
;x heads • e n te r ih g x ln d td x a t two d i f f e r e h tfe p o c h s *;y^Phe-Xs imple . fix '
; ;;;:explanatidh, .;ra Xevident;':f r ^ ; :Iitp ria tu re, x is fth a tX t^
px
XXboloniaailpnXofxtheX. fedhya-de^a. by the: adventurous Aryans XX
fx ^ p ir f ;theXPdhjebXih;SmallerX.numbers;;whp;X;gbt mixedX
.X;
th e p o p u la tio n t h e r e , ev o lv ed new yedism and. dev elop ed a
■>.
X:; language w ith x ;islig h t; d i f f erencea^^^^
p u ite X n a tu ra l # XXx
XX;XlhAsv e t x p ia ^ iip h A
does no t .' imply breakX x
. i n ;ettinblP gicaiX ;'cbhditipns;;ef:::th^
;, X .;talleys^ :-';soXiarv as-;theX AryansXare; concerned * ^':It,XisXf;xxXv-; ■-X:
X p o s s ib le th a t th e lo n g ahd broad bephalicX ty p e s, c .o -e x iste d
X;
ax; among i h e :SaptaXSindhnXx^
;Xx
x to th e e a s t -;wefbv;probablyxmore bfX ^^the -BroadTheadedX ty p o ; X;X;
V;x';,'x’i;AxXX;X^
:/xxXX;flo w in g xtqX'm
;fh e ir X q u l
'.} :'^ -/-A ^ ,;^
io n s,x •.
X-Xxi;-a?;^K©AjP^ia3al^xiis,■-.!Tve3?e^XptiLiliTb'e'ii ;by x I fr a to ^
X'X.
a
fo llo w e r s x /xX- .-■-
X'XXXXX1^ I r r e l i g i o u s , Ximpdre and d issb iu te .^ p e q p le fX a lth o u ^ th e y ;:X
-XX xxxx:XwereXA^ahXpa^
:X;T-^x a ;Xx , -X'-X
Xx
- ,--;XAXXf
/:X;Bat we do h o t. know when; or! from .what jfourc es tlie
Panjah w as^f
p op u Iated , and what were th e Xpeople con- ' ;.X; ■X
temporary XwiihX.ths remains d u g o u t X a tv a r fo u s s i t e s in X X
thexriorth^TOS t ,pf ind ia> Xwh i ch hav e now'proved th e ex i s t-X ;;
e n c e .i r th e XIndus X /alley o f ;a c i v i l i z a t i o n ,, c e r t a in ly ; ;
e a r l i e r thhnxtiie-A ryan in v a sio n * ; I h ^
to ;show^^
Ihdus peopleX
X; XX:
■XXXXX^^X:X;jh?yahs'Xto Wards ■th e ■c lo s eXdf:^;tlie Xthlrd ^millehniUGi;. B*.C*X‘ ■
X; xvto.n the.; l a t t e r . invaded
- r e g r e t th a t none o f th e
th e Pan j a b .
.
I t i s a mat t e r fo r ■ X.
numerous o b je c ts :d is c o v e r e d a t X XX ;
: XXvXxBarappa, . Ilbhehjo%Xparb and o th er In d u s}/site s .throw, any X X ;
. X;
;xXi; l i g h t on th e e th n ic c h a ra c ter o f th e xpbppieXehcoiihtered
•.■: X;:;X by ;
, : XfetelyXpomeX p ^ I i S i n a r y x S t u d i e s ■oil th e
b a s is o f th e "very ;fbw h ^
X;
overed inXthe Indus;
T a ll e^,:; ;have; beeiixmdheX.hy X-B* S.; ;Guha,XX X.M
have, notXehabledxusX- to ; form a n y x d e fih ite ; o
;x X' X
f
fa r .-they - ; XX/
as to
X.XXX
; .: ^p h y s ic a l ch a ra c ter and th e race o f th e Indus p e o p le ., -\ x ; XX;Xr;
T O See .Chapter;-11, ppv 'V;':"Xx;.-xX:; Xx:..X;•.•■ xXxX XX; .
■'X■'X-X; ... •; X: .
(§;)XC ensus:of;xlidiaA .X 93iX B ^
Part, i l l (1935 ) ; XJ&sbXA:: . X;
read .An ^Ou11 ih e o f th e f i e l d So l ehcXe :o f Ind l a , Xe d l te d by
XX
A ;:Qt iv /P b f a r i 9 37 ,-^p:;;.ia7;rXX-X"XXX;;XXXX
4 1 \4 4 y 1 1 \ I : ; l l & w . e y . e r i l \ i n l y i :0 ^ ^
of' :^
44144 111 l l , 1 4 l ^ i t e r a ^
1~4 iha;.;B gyeday^;’^.441114
'111 41:-• ;1 l l l t x i e ; l g e n e r a l ^
3Bk- X, 49 ,5 )'
' 4 1'
11 4 11^^^
;(■&;■
11
/ 1 1 1 . - th e ikryan v e rn a 4’d o l o u r 1 -I s - ‘0pp:o& e4^
4 11 1 1 4114.1;1^riy aii) c o l o u r ; w hile/D & sy^
H
111/-1
■
4.
1-14. I ' l l i ’l
l l ( j ^ 4 X i l 4 i y i ‘1 4 f r g ^ ^ ^
:
4I 1I I 4
I l l 4 v 4-
^
.
v
o w aarih y ^ p q ^ u iaiip n ,
-
: sl'
•
. 1. ”4. ■1/
have. been *che D ravid.ian: •■/.4l4-.: .A- ,•;
found in , In d ia today*
ll:X l4
£ K v e r ^ h b X e 's b l l a g a ; i h s t 4 ; :£ h is 4 iy ^
1 4 4 - 1 4 1 4 ' y - :4 4 : ;^ g u m e n lr'^ h a ti> -a a p b r4 ii^
to e t ll n o lo g i s t s p b p u la tio n 'o l th e
444'. i l
4y’
41-1 • l l l ::- l :4] ^ j . a b l ;a slpredom i:i3|urtiIyl.t^ ^
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"-'I•/.•••I •:,: ^ y r v v ^ ite j;lthel& ariblelem e;n$.;,lv!^
4'1 1'■'•"■
4; ; 11; ■llv & ib h / predOBiinatpb; I n . th e ieocaxi ■ancf;4£dutii /IM ia V I s h o t 1'., 1>444;
m e tlw ith h e r e * 4 l > B u i l . t h i s 4 ^ ^ ^ l i t t l e ; IP hrleahL ylt^^
4i444;-4-4x1411 1 ^ / a i l l l i k e l i ^ ^
x , ! - ■';•
;P a h ja h :44' 4 • .-: :4
Ivll'^ 4l llil/l& j& s tr d y e & lp ^
1 1 l y . i l l .4• ;ihahltants^^^4;ap44^ h e h
4/ rv
e y ; t h e i r 1 s e tt le m e n t g r a d u a l l y /e n te r-r 4/v 4
l l 4-'4 y 4yl I r b d l i i L t d l eu^
; d d p rd sd ed *4riem&ihder, •14 ■;' .444 41
l l ’l 4 111; 4,4; h o rro w ih g ;fh b ih Ih e in ;:s d tie l;re iig ib iis : w o rs h ip s la n d 4 s o c l
l l l y y / l x l l y ; . '^
ra b e s 41 4 a h l
44 ■ 4 4‘4. itL indrity
a n ita /h a t
•g r a d u a lly f u se d tO g e th e r , and in : tlie f u s io n :
444,444 4 4 41; 11 'th e4 1 b ?y an 4 ;p h y sical.\ty p el^
1 1 4 c i ' l l •;l;41:p r e d a m i n a h e ^
' 44;
.44
4!•'■CX
: .-;
4:
;44ihis: p h y s ic a l
^ y a n s .a n d lth e ia b s e n c e - o
fJCtsiS -eXc. *v<jt^4(y ^v<^'«?4 /K
/X"7 ‘*9~
1VX'T~^ (r>^-
;Ix ' - 4
^K.
'O'ACn--J-C-O. ■’■;■■- ■
• ■■
./k.^jCL
C,-’’- ' '? ' '4
•I ' l l l t l
(M s t r o ^ lld ia n ] ty p e s 5n t h e / P a n ia b s e e in s ^ ^
illlsU jg^ ^
1
was.:.p."Idinda' p o p u la tio n 4I n .the .
6 isappeared b e fo r e th e a r r iv a l 1
) 4 1 !lbh^ab4; i t 4
4:4.• 41'
/ l;';b f vth e 4hryans, fo r otherw ise;- ity w q h l^ ^
i ; l 4t rades;; in. th e .featu res, and 'b o d ily 1 tr u e tu b e h f I h e t p b o p le ..
14 1Gertain;modern, .sch o la rs 1 e # g V P r o f 4* IT. P r z y lu s k i. n o ta b ly .
in h i s e s say Un anc ie n jp e u p le flu Pen ja b : l e s Udumbafra | ^
4:
have made much 0f .th e suppo sed substraturn in th e Pan jab
,;
an d ;e l s ewlie r e , -pay in g v ln su f f I q le n t -re gar d I t a 1 th n o lo g id a l;
f a c t ahd .laying^
/s t r e s s -eh p h i lo io g i d a ij a r ^ m e n t s .l 4/
things.l;4spm e: o f, th e l a t t e r are; 1
/I -.;;frpm h a m e s lo f/p la c e s
144 /d o u b tfu l;4 but eyen; th o se th a t :are sound o n ly go to show 4 ;
/;
-th a t :onde;upon a ;fim e ■'there;/were^Mindas;:ih: th
P an jab :
1-4; . th ey f a i l to show th a t th ey were th e r e when th e lh?yails
' - 4;
• • ‘ c ante;; f o r ;nanies 4pf; p la c e s x&ndythings p a ss tdp'wbx^froitiVrade- 4
Xi;4;:tbxr&6^ 1 ;4f 4^ ; £ a v ^
o f th e /
?-V‘'';i;M h S a 4vtii % p r y y i s l t h e l f a c t l
c
I;'l'des;eribes;il)a$yud;;4
1
ali/Z D asyus, be it /o b s e r v e d , but.
41•4/a p p a r e n tly .•o n ly d e f t a i n 'll& syu s) .a s Ih h asas
B i t ; t h i s ; i s ; <£uitelindpnelbs^
n o t >to:/he41ahexi;P^
’n o s e le s s .1. /■1 1
word i s
‘.4
f o r e veh th e n e g r o id .llin d a s 1 . 4
have; n oses 1 i t ;r e f e r s 4 d e r i s i y e l y 4to'; M p : vrbasyus ’4; sh o r t 1 4
1 x 4 [^ 15VA* ; 4C C V IIIf 19S6V h o * i. Pb 1 6 / f f ' j - P .'•1 • y; • •‘l l / - , . >4:
:
ISpm eyiScitish;p l a c ex h a i n e s / a r e O f . preXCeit i c ; -44 1
;i-4';4Prigin.;44;;4v.4;\4:'' -4-' -4-;4 - 4 : ; 1 ;y 414'/ '441-4; • 41 1 1 / 14’ ' 4 ■441• ; 1 :
; . ; ;.xi' I.- c ;: ; /y stu m p y h o s e s 4 c o ^ a r e d , 1P^^^
u n d ;/g ro m ih b n ^
4:,- 4
• ; 4 : 4 , 1 ' ;4,44 /-x ity p ic a l4 V b fl)A ry a n s ;4 /
B it th e V h u n d a s a r e ; n o t y t l i a / . o n l y s t o c k
,4 4 :•4- ;1
o r S an s : x t h e :ty p e - d e s I g n a t e d v a s ; 4’S c y th o -;
1
4;i ; r .4 '■4i4-44;144& av'idiann;: is lm a rk p d ; ;by -a^ -S h o rt vsib B |> ;^
;444l.4:44 4 44
'4/14441/!'1
4 W 1 4 ^ th e re fo re ; Iik e i^ 4 ih a t4 id 4 i^
444 4 4 1 1 ;/4i44xye&4i:";i3^
•4 41;
;
Panjab ;'when4 th e
Aryans4a r r iy e d y 4and:,pQssibly^;:^ ^
1
44"
x
andXiVbhenjp-Parody
' ly : we :k n o w 4 v e r y /little /a h ^
H I 1,44'v l ; ; 4x "Pf&yidlah^^^^^
4
P
./this-; in ip lies* /. /iJhfprtunate*-;
and.:_what /is;;;n ot'4 c ;/; 4/
'Xahgixhgds4hre4.spbkeh b y 4 >
4 'y x :4 i; 4x4'::44-. ra c p s4 o ;i4 4 w id e ly ;d iv e ^
4.4.■'44 4;4;;44:;;.X414^
p o s s e s s ip n . o f 4Harappa
la n g u a g e .
4-4: -44 ;vX :; ;4;.:>44';;(b 1 p e rh a p s/'so m e -lw o fd s
find.,' ( a ): t r a c e s ;
4
o f4 ^ iu c h is ta n 4 a n d
l d i a h 4 p r i g i n 4/4 ,4 44.4
4 4 4 :4 4 4 4 ;4 4 x 4 i;4 ;h b d iie r e d 4 ih r o u g h x th e 4 ^ ^
ix;4.:444 . 4; 4 ; x ^
'■44, :4 441 ’.4:: '
ihe;:xlhdusi.:^ ^ 4 s o m e 4
4•4
tr a d e a b le Prav id ian 4 id loins adbptedvih-'& fc'
X . : - x 4 ■•44 4fc/): th e ;I)r a y id ia h s o f 4the^;:& u th h d m pr eseryed ;a 4t fad i t ion
4;44;4:;
4-4. -4 --;,;Qf4a n 4indepenhent' a n c ie n t c u ltu r e o f .t h e ir 'own;in a l X ; / x ; 4
:;:i n yj.esi'er n •;Ih d iaxf rom4'iSihdldovhi ■bo 4the . l^ r a th a ;44: 4 ;
;:c 6 u n try 4 y ^
w as44firei;.]lC oppSed4;byiB ^^
;y n i s i e y 4 i b u t ; h e :4 h a s : g e n e r a l l y 4 b e e n ; c r i t i c is e d fox; n am in g
■■
;4
s u c h . ; •i h e r e i s h o ; e v id ? n eo t o show ; 4 ;;th a t a ; i a r g e 4 p a r l 4 p ^
p f p b e n t / p o p u l a t i o n ; , as. h e w o u ld 4;
4 h ave ; i i , I s : d eriv ed .from -4th e;^ k as y;v^pm4h e 4 c a ile d ; ;i?44-4 4. !■
4;4^ythiansX aiid;a;:bfanch4.pf^;j\to.n^liarie/!
o r ig in p f t h is X
;ppoplpy; i t 4 i s p o in te d .put 4 (Prof ♦Bapson,.; l o c * c i t . Chapter 4;
" I d ly pp4A4-i'5’:;;"alsOXG^
P a rt. 1,1955,
4} Chapter;4Ail;);
hextx^
a ra ce o f a. p erio d fa r more
"■4'rbmote'x'4c4"44-’ 4' 4 :; •/•• 4 .-;. -4 x .y ;o - y \ :x 444 4X4 ;. ^-4 - ' 4'-‘-"; '•
4
x v . r '; ; ; -
1X^1,':-/^;::,V1;. I ; 11.1'* 1- IL'dL?fc%i4-i!0;X -wii i'cKb.
444:; '/-l-; 4;4;44' y i; /idhbliw a^
oy. .p i?x Iblae-'
l m ii-3-e lixiitim x y;4:;-. 444,
h ig b ly 'p o f^
back over;, a ,-44:/■1'
l l i 1 i i Xx^ llr p a s ic e z ie r d ih g 'o y e r lm a ^ ^
4444 ;;/l ' 4:-4'i'.4 !=yl'
■ ' ■
.44 • 4' i/4■441-4:;;;4i
:'-y';
!'ou!-IL"^^'ppe/<vSa^^:w ofsh ip -;o f ,4ayMbther: 44;i:y 4l441;c
Goddess and a god who •w a h y r e a d iiy X ^
/ly
/the 4^dralSiya4;im ported;yfrem it h t ^ I f c ^ h ^
s o c ia l,
i i x .:
te in lm
.th e
^
14..
}';yi 414. i 4;X;-\yy, fe m a le y lih e y a n d 4g h c h ip ^ a r r ia ^ ;/p r e v a ile d ) ; we 'fin d ;th e s e Ay' '■.44
... 444■/
f4c:‘-44;. i . I x i v l ' i j a b 4 ^ e 5 4 ' ¥ ^ P a n j a b i ; . :
:..4444V;■:-.4.4:444.444/ dJpspite; 4Bfahman.ic e f f o r t s to . suppress4thpm 1 '■4-. 4' , 4-444
■X - 4 ■4
l h e 4 Padus444444l444 - l ,.
.T h erefb rd iyh w ih ^
;y,>4y'l.;i-]:41v i-.,:J -:h 4 4 ^ e l / i ^ ± p n y 4;4a3x<ii^pfii'j3LiSLii* Brahui: in-"t h e ; - 4 -’4 "
,144: A y i w i t E j i s b m e y i i i ^
l;4;i-4'l:4-i"c’’!' 1 4 x i :*;:
o
■
-■' 4 .
±;Q^v/3.ti:@ ;g e 's't:;i-stse x i_ o ^ 4'!o-i*.; aylfravid ian 4
44 ■"•y4 44,;y -4-4 .4;;subdt^utum::\ih 4 a t 4l e a s f 4;somelQ:f4 th e are a s ' o c cup i ed -by th e 4
4.yy';4y4iy 1 A
y
: ^ -14v:y--44;:-^1..r.s
y y 4y yv 440
-
i
:It^*d:44??li®i
y
'
a c t ;;th a t4weva r e 4b e g in n in g ' to. y y
c u ltu r e 4extended f a r beyond th e Indus 4
; 4/Wb^4may:4bq^
444444' A /xyA liA Q fiihd ylh d^
th e fo lk
;t h e • ilryans came in
‘ 4 b b n ta c l;o h 4 th a if: f i r s t : ,a r r i v a l ;'in to ; thb4P anjab, w ere; /at 44
le a s t; fo r th e most p a r t ; o f tfD ra v ld ia iin ;stp ck
4- '■
Chapter I I .
The Dawn o f Pan jab H istory*
. Hie f i r s t p e r io d in th e e a r l i e s t h is t o r y o f .th e.P a n ja h ,
as w i l l be s e e n , i s p r e h is to r ic *
I t s so u rce i s n ot to he
found, as in th e c a se o f su cce ed in g p e r io d s , in l i t e r a t u r e
o f th e cou n try or any l i t e r a r y reco rd s o f fo r e ig n w r i t e r s ,
hut iJi a rc h a e o lo g y , which h a s , o f l a t e , su p p lie d u s unex­
p e c te d ly w ith a f a i r amount o f m a te r ia l from th e s i t e s in
,
th e n o rth -w est o f India and brought to l i g h t v a lu a b le in ­
fo rm a tio n , though i t i s s t i l l not p o s s ib le to know from i t
th e name o f a s i n g l e p erson or p la c e .
Very l i t t l e was
found p o s s ib le o f achievem ent in t h i s d ir e c t io n , as th e
whole Indus P la in was formed o f v a s t a l l u v i a l d e p o s it s ,
which co n cea led a l l p r e h is t o r ic remains beyond hope o f
recovery.
A ll thanks t o th e e x e r tio n s o f th e Department
o f A rchaeology in In d ia; th er e has been, w ith in r e c e n t
tim e s , a c o n sid e r a b le p r o g r e ss in e x p lo r a tio n in th e n o rth w est o f In dia w ith remarkable r e s u l t s .
These e x c a v a tio n s
™T* } A f u l l acourit o f them, w i l l be fou n d, in a d d itio n to th e
o f f i c i a l Annual R eports o f th e Department o f A rchaeology in
th e Government o f In d ia , in th e fo llo w in g se p a r a te p u b li­
c a t io n s o f th e Department iy:
( i ) Mohehjo-Daro and th e Indus C i v i l iz a t i o n (c o n ta in in g ■
.. account o f e x c a v a tio n s c a r r ie d out between 1922 and
1 9 2 7 ), e d ite d by S ir John M arsh all, 3 v o l s , London 1931.
( i i ) The Indus C i v i l i z a t i o n by E rnest feck a y ,- London 1935.
I t g iv e s a b r i e f d e s c r ip tio n o f a l l d is c o v e r ie s from
■
t he e x c a v a tio n s c a r r ie d out between 1926 and 1931.
( i l l ) lU rth er E x cavation s a t Mbhenjo-Daro, e d ite d by E rnest
Mackay, 2 v o l s , london 1939. This c o n ta in s an account
o f e x c a v a tio n s from 1926 to 1931.
BVB. Other u s e f u l p u b lic a tio n s w i l l be r e fe r r e d to elsew h ere
below in t h i s ch a p ter.
71.
'
-n o t'o n ly throw v a lu a b le l i g h t on th e p r e h is t o r ic c i v i l i z a ­
t io n o f th e Panjab, but a lso 'sh o w how th e Hindu c u ltu r e ;
and r e l i g i o n p a r t ly ev o lv ed in l a t e r tim es, from th e o ld
m a t e r ia l.
P r io r to th e se d is c o v e r ie s our s o le a u th o r ity
.fo r th e s to r y o f H in d u .c iv iliz a t io n b e fo r e th e th ir d
cen tu ry B .C ., which had lo n g remained th e upper l im it o f
th e h i s t o r i c a l p erio d o f a rch aeology in India,; was th e
v a r io u s s t r a t a o f l i t e r a t u r e , which m ainly r e fe r r e d to _
th e Aryans and t h e i r c u lt u r e . ; 1/Ve p r a c t i c a l l y knew n o th in g
o f p re-A ry a n s, and t h i s la c k o f know ledge, which was v er y
s e r i o u s , had led . t o ;v ery vague not io n s about - e a r ly h is t o r y
Modern d escen d an ts o f th e Aryans assumed, fo r want o f
ev id en ce to th e c o n tr a r y , th a t th e Hindu c i v i l i z a t i o n was
en t i r e l y founded on Aryan i n s t i t u t i o n s .
A r c h a e o lo g ists
and h is t o r ia n s g e n e r a lly took i t f o r granted th a t when th e
Aryans f i r s t a r r iv e d in th e Pan jab th e r e ,w e r e none but
^ 114:,and u n c u ltiv a te d a b d r ig in e s in the. cou n try d uring th e
- lo n g a g e s , w h ile t h e .g r e a t c i v i l i z a t i o n s o f E gypt, C rete,
A sia Minor, and Mesopotamia we re a lrea d y w e ll advanced.
. Hit , w ith th e r e c e n t knowledge, d e r iv e d from th e se ' excava­
t io n s , pur ..whole p e r s p e c tiv e o f I n d i a n h is t o r y in g e n e r a l,
and th a t o f th e Panjab in p a r t ic u la r , h as changed to an
.exten t which, now, c a l l s fo r; i t s r e c o n s id e r a tio n , and r e ­
c o n s tr u c t io n .
. /
There a r e , how ever, two o u tsta n d in g f a c t s known from
th e d is c o v e r ie s made in n o rth -w e stern I n d ia :
The f i r s t ;
Important f a c t known i s t h a t . in th e th ir d m illen n iu m B.C.
;
■
.
.
'
■
■'
7x
\
th e r e were l i v i n g in th e n o rth -w e sty as a ls o very l i k e l y
elsew h ere in n o rth ern In d ia , p eop le who p o s s e s s e d a .
r e l a t i v e l y mature c u ltu r e w ith c i t y l i f e , and a h ig h
stan d ard o f a r t and c r a f t s , and had a d i s t i n c t r e l i g i o n o f
t h e i r own,
The; Non-Aryans who are fr e q u e n tly r e fe r r e d to
in th e Rgveda were in a l l lik e lih o o d th e d escen d an ts o f
th e s e p e o p le . . This f a c t , we s h a l l show, f i t s in .v e r y w e ll
w ith th e d a te o f th e Rgveda, th e upper l i m i t o f which
appears t o go back t o about 2,0 0 0 B. G. , and th u s makes th e
e a r l i e s t Aryans p r a c t ic a l l y contemporary w ith th e decadent
d escen d a n ts o f th e p r e h is t o r ic non-A ryans.
S eco n d ly , the:
e x c a v a tio n s have in c id e n t a lly ; r e v e a le d th e in tim ate, com­
m e r c ia l co n n e c tio n o f n o rth -w e stern In d ia w ith th e a n c ie n t
c i t i e s o f th e w e s t , e s p e c ia l l y th o se o f Mesopotamia, th u s
In d ia i s no lo n g e r to be regard ed , as was supposed b e fo r e ,
as one o f th e younger c o u n tr ie s o f th e world in r e s p e c t o f
: c iv iliz a tio n .
On th e co n tr a ry , i t has now become an
e s t a b lis h e d f a c t ,th a t n ea rly 5 ,0 0 0 y e a r s a g o , i t a lrea d y
p o s s e s s e d a c o n sid e r a b ly d evelop ed c i v i l i z a t i o n , n ot in
any w a y .in fe r io r to th a t o f contemporary Mesopotamia,
which l i e s a t th e ro o t o f B abylonian, A ssy ria n and w estern
A sian c u lt u r e s .
It i s on account o f th e s e and s im ila r
o th e r f a c t s th a t not o n ly India but th e w hole educated
world o u ts id e a ls o has become i n t e r e s t e d in th e p r e h is t o r ic
a n t i q u i t i e s o f th e Pan jab and S ind .
:
P rop erly sp ea k in g , a h is t o r y o f t h i s p erio d i s th e
a r c h a e o lo g ic a l h is t o r y o f n o rth -w estern In d ia , o f which th e
Pan jab i s a map or p ort io n .
I h is h is t o r y was shrouded in
m ystery u n t i l r e c e n t ly , when th e v e i l o f darkness was f i r s t
l i f t e d by th e d isc o v e r y o f c i v i l i z a t i o n oil two a n c ie n t
s i t e s in th a t r e g io n .
One o f them was a t Harappa, in th e
IVbntgomery D i s t r i c t o f th e Panjab*
Harappa i s now a mere
v i l l a g e o f no im portance, s it u a t e d a few m ile s from th e
Railway S ta tio n o f the same name on th e l e f t bank o f the.
r iv e r R avi,
In i t s neighbourhood on th e o ld bed o f th e
r iv e r l i e th e e x te n s iv e r u in s o f th e a n c ie n t c i t y , a ls o
c a lle d Harappa, th e c i r c u i t o f which i s alm ost th r e e m iles*
Some s c h b la r s s e e th e a n c ie n t forin o f Harappa in th e
Rgvedic word Ila riy u p ly a , where i t i s th e name o f a r iv e r ,
■■
■"■■■■ . .
: v
: (*)
very l i k e l y th e H a r lo t in th e Iferth-*west F r o n tie r P ro v in ce,
G ranting, however, th a t i t r e p r e se n ts a p lace-n am e, th e
q u e stio n a r is e s how i t could co n tin u e in th e mouth o f the
p eo p le in a form w ith Tp *; i t must have d e v ia te d , l i k e
many o f th e o ld names in/modern' spoken P a n ja b i, through an
/.in te r m e d ia te fo rm .E a riju v a , : E eith er can any r e lia n c e be
p la ced on v a r io u s vague s t o r i e s regard in g th e d e s tr u c tio n
o f Harappai
One o f theriiv a s s ig n s i t to th e bad conduct o f
. a Raja o f th e name o f Bar Pal or Bara P a la , a name which
i s o b v io u sly in ven ted by s t o r y - t e l l e r s on b ein g asked by
PT™See below p i '77^
;
:i.§ /) \^ e \^ d h a ^b io g io a l- Survey o f I n d ia , . Report fo r 1872-73,
p u b lish e d in 1875, Vol V, p ,1 0 7 ; Of, CunninghamTs
; A ncient (feography o f ;In d ia , 1871 (Hiajumdar’s e d it io n ,
^ l c u t ¥ a ^ 924l ,
p . " 24:3 *"
.
79; >
.
7 t r a v e l l e r s fo r e x p la n a tio n .
Some
say th e r u in o f th e
c i t y was by f i r e and some by earth q u ak e; w h ile o th e r s
would a s c r ib e i t to a sudden in v a s io n ,
i s a m atter o f
■ f a c t , we come a c r o ss s im ila r s t o r i e s o f a l l th e ru in ed
V
:
:
7
'v
• ■. 7 - --.M --
c i t i e s and towns o f d i f f e r e n t p e r io d s .
( * )
.
: '
.
.
H i i s , however,
:
: would I n d ic a t e th a t a l l th e s e were d estro y e d sim u lta n eo u s­
l y and from a common; c a ta s tr o p h e , which i s ab su rd .
E qually
.u n a c cep ta b le i s th e C onjecture o f General Cunningham,; who,
. on th e s tr e n g th o f a t r a d it io n a sc r ib e d th e d e s tr u c tio n o f
Harappa to ; M iamm ad-hin- ^ s im in 711 A. D ., as w e ll as h is
: fa n e i f u l i d e n t i f i c a t io n o f Harappa w ith P b -fa -k o or. P o -fa - .
t o - l o ; m entioned by Hi<jh|n Tsang, th e Buddhist p ilg r im from
China. V
.7
\ /i:/. ,.;■■■/*.
:v'.
, ' :'7 •
^Ihe fa o t ''-that';no Vltish.'im•-00in s .•.have been- d isc o v e r e d on any :
o f th e l e v e l s ex cavated a t Harappa p ro v es th a t th e s i t e
had been d e s e r te d lo n g b e fo r e th e M islim con q uest o f Sind
: and; s o u th -w e s t Punjab in th e e ig h th cen tu ry A.D.
Ihe C ity'
o f P o - f a - t o - l o cannot be Harappa, as n o th in g o f th e kind ment ioned by th e p ilg r im - Buddhist stu p a s and m o n a ster ies,.
. e t c * has been found on th e s i t e in q u est io n 7
On th e o th e r
: hand P o -fa -to o f Iii^i^i Tsang may p rob ably be Jammu, as
p o in te d out by V *S n ith .I— ;■■
17::; 1-V'V
:
(* ) Bead H .A .B ose, land o f l i v e R iv e r s .
(§) JSarly H isto ry o f In d ia , Third e d i t i o n , Oxford 1914, p .354
• I t i s worthy o f n o te th a t Harappe i s th e name o f one o f the
a^a o.¥ a l i a s , 7 1s u b - c a s te s f b elo n g in g , to th e Aroras o f th e
Pan j ab T a la '; No 794, P *55, Tawar ik h - i - Ar or b a n s, second
e d i t i o n , I&hore ,19251;
I f t h i s ,p a r t i c u l a r a la h a s any
.c o n n e c t io n w ith th e p lace-n am e, th a t sh ou ld go to show a
. co m p a ra tiv ely r e c e n t a n tiq u ity o f th e name;;
■.
Harappa has been known to th e a r c h a e o lo g ic a l a u th o r i­
t i e s in India s in c e th e tim e when General Cunningham, th e
:
0 . -..yY
Y
(*)
Y y .«... ^
y - -
p io n e e r ^ a r c h a e o lo g ist in I n d i a ,. p u b lish e d a d e t a ile d
account o f th e p la c e and some fin d s o b ta in e d th ere in h i s
Survey Report fo r th e y ea r 1 8 7 2 -7 5 .
Among th e o b je c ts
i-y-v-Yy
d isco v ered , was a s e a l which, he d escrib ed a s fo llo w s : 1trihe
s e a l i s a smooth b lack sto n e w ithout p o l i s h . - On i t i s
engraved v ery d eep ly a b u l l , w ith ou t hump, lo o k in g to th e
e a s t , w ith two s t a r s under th e neck. .Above th e b u ll
th e r e i s an in s c r ip t io n in s i x c h a r a c te r s , which are q u ite
unknown, to me.
Ihey are c e r t a in ly not Indian l e t t e r s , and
Y
as th e b u ll which accom panies them i s w ith o u t a hump, I
Y Y Y
Y "v
■
(§)
■' •
con clu d e, th a t th e s e a l i s fo r e ig n to . I n d ia .tf
The d isc o v e r y
. 1 , ■ .-.v
■ '..■■■, ‘ ■' *
. Y v. '■ ■Y
Y ; ■■
y (o )
. • '■y
o f t h i s rem arkable s e a l and l a t e r o f a few more,
su g g e ste d ,
th e e x is t e n c e a t t h is sid e , o f Harappa, o f a c i t y o f very
g rea t a n t iq u it y and o f p e c u lia r and d i s t i n c t c u lt u r e , as
th e leg en d s on th e s e a ls were u n lik e any oth er, form o f
. w r it in g known p r e v io u s ly . . But th e reg u la r, e x c a v a tio n on
^TT B ^at f i r s t s ta r t e d h is c a r e e r in In d ia a s E n g in e e r , but
w h ile in s e r v ic e he devoted h is l e i s u r e tim e to th e ,s tu d y
o f Indian monuments, t r a v e l li n g w id ely in th e p u r s u it o f
h is hobby. At l a s t he li v e d to s e e th e c r e a tio n o f th e
A r c h a e o lo g ic a l Survey o f In d ia , w ith h im s e lf a t i t s head
as th e f i r s t D irecto r-G en era ls As many as tw enty th r e e
volum es o f r e p o r ts were p u b lish ed (1 8 7 1 -8 7 ) under h is
g u id a n ce, each b ein g t h e , record o f a to u r o f e x p lo r a tio n .
Ih ese volum es are arranged a ccord in g to l o c a l i t y , g iv in g
a cco u n ts o f towns and e x p lo r a tio n in v a r io u s d i s t r i c t s ;
t h e i r General Index was p u b lish ed in 1887 by V.A. Sm ith.,
Cunninghams re p o r ts s t i l l remain th e c h ie f so u rces fo r .
h i s t o r i c a l geography o f a n c ie n t In d ia .,
(§). A r c h a e o lo g ic a l Survey o f In d ia ; Report fo r 1 8 72-73,
•Vol V , p .1 0 8 . Ibr i l l u s t r a t i o n o f th e s e a l se e f ig .A . o f
P la te x x x i i i .
(o) l.R .A .S . f o r 1912, p p .699-700, c o n ta in s a sh o r t n o te by
I .I h P l e e t on th e s e s e a l s . See a ls o , An.Rep. A .S ;I fo r 1921.
t h i s s i t e was always, n e g le c te d , and whenever th e work was
taken up c a s u a lly , i t was c a r r ie d out o h a v ery lim ite d
s c a le ;
ih e im portance o f Harappa was, however, r e a liz e d
a f t e r e x c a v a tio n s had been made in 1982-23 at Mohenjo-Daro '
■Y y , . ; :v
y
". ■
,
■ : ,,
(*)
yY
Y in th e lark an s D is t r ic t : o f th e P rovin ce o f Sind. .
TheA.
s i t e o f Mah^o-Daro, i s sm a lle r than th a t o f Harappa, but
i t happens to be th e b e t t e r p r e se r v e d , and has th e r e fo r e
y ie ld e d more a r c h a e o lo g ic a l m a te r ia l.
The most s u r p r is in g
.a n d in t e r e s t i n g th in g about th e rem ains u nearth ed a t th e s e
two s i t e s o f th e Indus v a lle y i s t h a t , ex cep t fo r some fin d s
o f o b v io u s ly l a t e r p e r io d s , th ey are o f e x a c tly th e same
types*
Ibr exam ple, th e p ic to g r a p h lc s c r ip t on o b je c ts o f
. e i t h e r c i t y i s th e sam e, and th e d e s ig n as w e ll as tech n iq u e
o f a r t s c r a f t s , " also th e town p la n n in g and a r c h ite c tu r e o f
th e two c i t i e s , are so s im ila r th a t ‘o f t e n the, rem ains o f one
c.an p a ss e a s i l y f o r th o se o f the o t h e r .n
I t i s .owing to th e
^ id e n tity o f t h e i r a n t i q u i t i e s th a t th e c u ltu r e o f .Harappa;
and th a t o f Mohenjo-Daro have been g iv e n one name - th e
Indus C i v i l i z a t i o n .
But what we c a l l th e Indus C i v i l iz a -
(*) Mbhenjo-Daro, fth e mound o f th e dead T| : IS th e p r e s e n t ,
name o f a ruined c i t y , which once was s it u a t e d in a.
f e r t i l e p a rt o f th e low er Indus valiey-.-l:'''iiik:e';-Harappa,‘
Mchenjo-Daro to o has been known to th e A r c h a e o lo g ic a l.
Department fo r many y e a r s , but u n t i l th e yea r 1922 th e r e
was no s u s p ic io n th a t th e remains which la y buried h ere
belonged to th e age o f th o se found a t Harappa. The c r e d it
o f showing Mohenjo-Daro as a p i’e h i s t o r i c s i t e goes to Mr. [ :
R.D* B anerjee, who f i r s t came upon i t in 1922 when e x c a v a tin g , a t th e in sta n c e o f . S ir John M arsh all, :a Buddhist
stu p a and a m on astery, now judged i t to, b elo n g to a d a te
somewhere between 150 and 500 A.D.
t io n i s o n ly a con ven ien t term , j u s t ’as th e name P ersia n
C i v i l i z a t i o n denoted a wide area fa r.b ey o n d th e l i m it s
o f a n c ie n t P e r s ia or Ih ro. .
The Indus c i v i l i z a t i o n , l i k e th e P e r s ia n , d evelop ed ^
and spread in a very la r g e area*
I t s rem ains have been
found not o n ly in th e whole n o rth -w est o f In d ia , but a ls o
in th e w est and as fa r as th e Deccan, as shown by the
e x c a v a tio n s a t Bangpur in Limbdi s t a t e
at- P aith an on th e G odavari•
(K athiaw ar), and
There i s th u s no need to
doubt th a t t h i s c i v i l i z a t i o n had spread beyond th e Indus
v a lle y *
It i s : q u ite p o s s ib le th a t th e V a lle y o f th e
Ganges to o had a s im ila r c u lt u r e , though no remains have
so fa r been d isc o v e r e d *
That t h i s co n tig u o u s v a l l e y must
have formed p a rt o f th e e x te n s iv e Indus V a lle y c i v i l i z a t i o n
: i s n a t u r a l; i t i s r e a ll y a c o n tin u a tio n o f th e Indus r e g io n
and, n ot in any way i s o l a t e d . . Moreover, th e co n n ectio n
between th e two v a l l e y s in India appears c e r t a in when i t
i s remembered th a t th e r e e x is t e d com m ercial in te r c o u r s e
o f th e Indus V a lley w ith th e o u ts id e world in th e Wear and
Middle E a st,
S ir ,John M arshall i s indeed convinced th a t
th e Indus V a lle y c i v i l i z a t i o n spread on th e e a s t o f th e
, Panjab*
"F pA n.R eu *A* S» I *, 1 9 3 4 -3 5 , P*34* The fin d s , d isc o v e r e d from,
s e v e r a l s t r a t a dug out com prise many o b je c ts d i s t i n c t i v e :
o f th e Indus V a lle y . C f.R . Bruce F oote, Indian P r e h is to r ic
and I^oi;6jh istb r io -A n tiq u itie s , pp • 1 4 6 - 5 3 . , ,
(§) ■'McEen3o-,I3aro'Ta h y theTIndus-' ~Ciyi 1 iz a t io n , Vol I , pp. 9 5 -9 6 .
The ! Indus V a lle y ;in i t s w id est sen se i s th e re g io n
w atered-by th e Indus and a i l i t s t r ib u t a r ie s e a s t and w est ,
th at' i s to sa y , th e .c o u n tr y now. d iv id ed between t h e / t h r e e
P r o v in c e s, nam ely, th e Panjab, North-.West f r o n t ie r and Sind.
As a lrea d y s a id , th e s i t e o f Mohenjo-Daro has y ie ld e d a
la r g e r nimiber o f a n t i q u i t i e s than Harappa; Sind has th e r e fo r e
r e c e iv e d g r e a te r a t t e n t io n than th e Panjab from th e a u th o r i­
t i e s o f th e A r c h a e o lo g ic a l Department♦ .The work o f e x p lo ra ­
t io n done in Sind s in c e 198S -S3 has- r e v e a le d , b e s id e s th e
‘
f i r s t f a m ilia r s i t e , o f . Mohenjo-Daro, a number o f s i t e s in
th a t P ro v in ce, which are b e lie v e d to be a s s o c ia t e d w ith th e
V
Indus c u lt u r e ♦ They are : Tharro (G ujo) , . Dudh-ICe-Takar, K arri,
Johumjo-Daro, Badah, ^iiukar, a b ig group o f .mounds a t Aror
, near R ohri, L im oju -n ejo, V ijn o t and Chanhu-Daro.
However, o f
a l l th e s i t e s in S ind, o n ly Mohenjo-Daro,. Jhukar and Ghanhu-Daro
.
■
■■ '
■ -
V
;
. have so f a r •been ex ca v a ted .
(*)
As regard s t h e Panjab, in c lu d in g th e Horth-West f r o n t ie r
P ro v in ce, i t i s v e r y d isa p p o in tin g to fin d th a t no sy ste m a tic
e x p lo r a tio n has y e t been made, ^ f e v e r t h e le s s , an o f f i c i a l
su rv ey , though lim it e d , has r e v e a le d th e f a c t th a t a number o f
a n c i e n t / s i t e s are s c a tt e r e d a l l ov er th e co u n try .
Some o f.
■ th em /alon g some . f i f t y m ile s o f th e o ld bed o f th e Ravi on
which th e famous s i t e o f Harappa stan d s appear to be contempor" (*:) See A .S. I./, Memoir Ho 48 (1 9 3 4 ) on E x p lo r a tio n s in S ind , by
; M.N.Msljumdar•
. J : ■
,
■
■ ■
•
'
■ ■'
.
'
;
■'
■
■
l cf
'
ary w ith Harappa i t s e l f , but th ey s t i l l aw ait excavation *
One .s i t e was e x p l o r e d i n th e D i s t r i c t o f itohtgom ery;*in
; 1933 y some t h ir t e e n m ile s ^ sou th -east o f ':Har'appa>
It l i e s
oh th e o ld bed o f th e r iv e r Beas near Chak Purban S iy a l;
Shorn th e exam in ation o f remains a t th e mound th e r e , th e
. s i t e can d e f i n i t e l y be tak en to be as o ld as t h a t o f
Harappa, though i t does not appear to have been very
e x t e n s iv e •
Another a n c ie n t s i t e excavated a l i t t l e
e a r l i e r than th e one j u s t m entioned i s in th e D i s t r i c t
o f Anbala a t K otla Nihang n ear Rupar on th e r iv e r S a tlu j * .
I t has y ie ld e d a n t i q u i t i e s , which in c lu d e :s e v e r a l th a t
, H; a re\ i d e n t i c a l in" sh ape, d e sig n '- e t c i . w ith th o se from
Harappa. •
In th e f r o n t ie r Border a few mounds in
W aziristan and th e a d jo in in g t e r r i t o r y now in B r itis h
B a lu c h ista n on and near th e v a lle y o f th e r iv e r Zhob, a
tr ib u ta r y o f th e Indus v a l l e y r iv e r Gumal, have a ls o been
ex c a v a te d .
The n o ta b le s i t e s in t h a t r e g io n a r e : Surkh-
d h eri near Darband, Chaudhwaii, C h ich a -d h esi, PenianoGhundai, m inor s i t e s in th e m iddle Zhob area and in th e
v a l l e y o f : i o r a l a i , Dabar-Kot b ein g th e most im portant
:. /
.7''■ ;
7 ■
■ •. 7'. ■ (o') 7th e r e , as a ls o th e s i t e o f Spina-Ghundai, in P is h in b a sin .
ST R ep . * A. S. I * f o r 1950-54. p . 1 0 6 >,
(§) Ibid f o r 1 9 2 9 -5 0 , p . 131.
(o) See .Chapters I , I I and I I I o f AiS. I.VMemoir No 37 (19.29 )
on A r c h a e o lo g ic a l Pour in W aziristan and Northern
B a lu c h ista n , by S ir M r e l S te in .
B a lu c h ista n , which on
th e whole was co m p aratively a poor cou n tryj according; to
: S ir John M arsh all, had to depend fo r i t s c u ltu r e on th e
a d jo in in g p rosp erou s c o u n t r ie s ;- Sind and th e Panjab on
th e one s i d e , S is ta n and P e r sia on th e o th er ,, w ith
( Bote c o n tin u e d )
■
■■ , '
•
.
'■
.
> •
'
.
-■
Some o f th e fin d s o b ta in ed from th e s e s i t e s have shown .
th a t th e Indus C i v il iz a t i o n was not lim it e d to th e e a s t
o f th e Indus a lo n e , and th a t i t had as w e ll extended on
th e w est o f th a t r iv e n .
It i s c e r t a in th a t i f a thorough
su rvey i s made in th e whole Indus v a l l e y ,• in c lu d in g th e
f r o n t ie r T ra ct, e s p e c ia l l y on th e o ld dry beds o f i t s
r i v e r s , many o th e r s i t e s , p o s s ib ly in c lu d in g some e x te n ­
s iv e o n e s, o f th e age o f Harappa c u lt u r e , w i l l be d i s ­
c o v ered , and more ev id en ce w i l l come to l i g h t from th e
Panjab on th e Indus c i v i l i z a t i o n than i s a v a ila b le a t
7
p r e s e n t.
(§ )
•
-v -
.
. ...
7
: ,
7
;
■' " " ■
Of a ll; th e p r e h is t o r ic s i t e s m entioned ab ove, th o s e
./
o f Harappa in. th e Panjab and Mohenjo-Daro in Sind are th e
most im portant in view o f th e q u a lity and q u a n tity o f
mbriuments and a n t i q u i t i e s d isc o v e r e d th e r e .
Hence i t i s
:m a in ly : on th e m a te r ia l o b ta in ed from th e s e two s i t e s th a t
our knowledge o f p r e h is t o r ic Panjab w i l l be b a sed .
At
both Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, o ld c i t i e s w ith t h e ir w a lls
and suburbs are b u ried beneath th e l e v e l o f th e surround­
in g a l l u v i a l p la in s ..
Above th e s e p l a i n s , th e mounds,
which r i s e to a h e ig h t o f some SO. to 70 f e e t
(Harappa
mounds are h ig h e r ) . were formed by t h e .e r e c t io n and subUote c o n tin u e d ) Mesonotamia in, th e background, fu r th e r w e s t.
0 f . A .6 . 1. Memoir , Ho. 55 ..('•* 1 1 J ) on E xcavation s in c
B a lu c h ista n , by II. H argreaves, and a ls o A .S. 1 . »Memoir
Hb .45 (1931) on A rch aeological, Tour in G edrosia, by S ir
'-^;-Ahiifel S te in i
(§) The p r e se n t w r ite r had th e o p p o rtu n ity to v i s i t a number
o f mounds in th e co u n try , l o c a l l y known as t h e h s , in 1981
on to u rs in c o n n e c tio n w ith P anjabi D ic tio n a r y work in th e
U n iv e r s ity o f th e Pahjab and l a t e r ,o n s e v e r a l o th e r o c c a s­
io n s d u rin g h i s c o lle g e v a c a t io n s . Ihe h e ig h t .and dimen-
•,
12
V
. /;■' ‘
,v
■: .. '■
■.
' .
-
’
"'
si
^
,
v
■’ '■
, ’ .' : / .
sequent decay o f. s u c c e s s iv e c i t i e s s u p e r i m p o s e d one upon
th e o th e r , each c i t y b ein g b u ilt on th e rem ains, o f i t s /
p r e d e c e sso r ,; and as i t in tu rn f e l l in to r u in , adding to
th e h e ig h t o f th e accum ulated d e b r is .
In In dia when
■ b u ild in g s d eca y , p eo p le do not tr o u b le to remove th e r u in s;
th ey are l e v e l l e d and, a n o th e r ,s tr u c tu r e i s b u i l t above
.
them.
I f th e o ld w a lls rem ain, th ey may be in corp orated ,
. in to th e new b u ild in g *
This method was fo llo w e d in th e
d is t a n t p a s t , fo r th e e x c a v a tio n s o f th e s e s i t e s show th a t
s e v e r a l c i t i e s were b u i l t on th e same s i t e , th e upper­
most l e v e l b e lo n g in g to com p aratively r e c e n t tim e s .,
Thus , ,
a r ic h h a r v e st o f h i s t o r i c a l m a te r ia l l i e s hidden in th e
mounds o f a n c ie n t c i t i e s .
But u n fo r tu n a te ly th e mounds
a t Harappa and Ivbhenjo-Daro th a t have su rv iv ed have become
much d im in ish ed in s i z e owing to ca u ses such as th e in ­
c e s s a n t f lo o d s , a r i d i t y o f clim a te and e r o s io n o f t h e i r
.
s i d e s ; both th e c i t i e s must once have exten ded w e ll b e­
yond t h e i r e x i s t i n g v i s i b l e lim it s ..
The s i t e o f Harappa,
. how ever, i t may be’, p o in te d o u t , has s u ffe r e d g r e a t l y , i t s
-
ru in s h a v in g .b e e n used .as a ; quarry for; g e n e r a tio n s p a st
in th e n eig h b o u rin g towns and v i l l a g e s .
•I b r e o v e r , th e
r u in s were e x t e n s iv e enough ;bo fu r n is h b rick b a l la s t fo r
about one hundred m ile s o f th e ra ilw a y tr a c k .
In t h i s
. manner s e v e r a l o f th e la r g e mounds and a n c ie n t s tr u c t u r e s
b u ffe r e d much damage at. Harappa ffoni t im e .t o tim e , w ith
,
.
;
.•
' "Note”c o n tin u e d ) s io n s o f some o f th e s e mounds c le a r ly .
show th a t in remote p a st g rea t c i t i e s and towns flo u r is h e d
in t h i s h i s t o r i c land o f r i v e r s . ;
:
;.
■ _ , _" ■
, ;
■ :.
■
..
1-
. ' \
'
■.. ’ ;
' '" ■
th e r e s u l t th a t th ey are now e n t ir e ly c le a r e d 1away.
-'
In
.
;
s p it e o f t h i s , i t w i l l he seen 'th at Harappa has y ie ld e d
unique monuments and a n t iq u i t i e s and c o n sid e r a b ly con­
tr ib u te d to our knowledge o f th e Indus V a lle y c i v i l i z a ­
tio n .
."'7 ■ ■ . V ' ,
..
\
The numerous o b j e c t s . th a t have
^■'
'
’•.
been found;
in th e
cou rse o f e x c a v a tio n s a t Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and o th er
,
-V . (*) ' . -V ■ >
s i t e s o f Indus V a lle y are o f v a r ie d n a tu r e .
They
in clu d e b u ild in g s , d w e llin g houses or sh o p s, p u b lic b a th s,
s h r in e s , h a l l s ; d om estic a r t ic le s - s u c h as household im ple­
m ents, u t e n s i l s , p o tte r y .v e s s e ls o f many d e s c r ip tio n s and
s p in d le -w h o r ls ; m etal o b je c ts o f g o ld , s i l v e r , copper,
t i n and le a d , a lso , o f b ro n ze, e . g . ornam ents, c h i s e l s ,
k n iv e s e tc .,; p r e c io u s s to n e s ; weapons o f war and th e chase
s t a t u e s and numerous f ig u r in e s in s t e a t i t e , c la y and lim e ­
stone'; and p h a l l i c s t o n e s . 'S e v e r a l o th e r fin d s l i k e t o y s ,
w e ig h ts , s c a l e s , b ead s, m e d ic in e s, scra p s o f c o tto n ,
s to n e s o f c e r e a ls and d a te s , o b je c ts o f b on es, iv o r y ,
s h e l l , f a ie n c e and v i t r i f i e d p a s te , fu n e r a l u rn s, human .
,s k u l l s , bones and horns o f a n im a ls, have been d isc o v e r e d .
, B e sid e s, most abundant are th e remarkable s e a ls o f v a r ie d
s i z e ,! sh a p e, and m a te r ia l, engraved w ith s c e n e s , a n im a ls,
symbols and p ic to g r a p h s.
Very l i t t l e
■ ';
i s known from th e se rem ains about th e
(*T~See S ir John M a rsh a ll. l o c . c i t . Vol I , Chapters I I I
and IV; Vol I I , Chapters x x i v - x x v i i i . Por i l l u s t r a t i o n s
c o n s u lt Vol I I I ; A lso s e e ff.Maokay, lU rth er Ibcoavations,
two volum es.
./ '
,
^ . ' V " ’
v;
Vj 7 /
‘b
■' '/V.,
^
■
■
O
14:
P a la e o lit h ic
(Bade S ton e) and N e o lith ic (P o lish e d Stone)
Ages o f n o rth -w e stern In d ia , as no r e g u la r sto n e t o o l s . o r
im plem ents, ex cep t sim p le •ribbon f la k e s o f f l i n t , chipped
o b je c ts resem b lin g c e l t s , a ls o o f th e same m a te r ia l, have:
come to l i g h t .a t th e Indus s i t e s , ; I t i s t h i s absence o f
'■
N e o lith ic m a te r ia l th a t has le d 3£*Mackay. to say t h a t , copper'
was in u se from th e tim e o f th e ;fo u n d a tio n o f Harappa and
, .r .
MDhehjo-Daro and t h a t i t i s u n lik e ly th a t th e s e c i t i e s were
. founded as e a r ly as th e Stone, Age.
.
Not o n ly t h i s , he a ls o
regard s th e c i v i l i s a t i o n r e p r esen ted a t Mohenjo-Daro and
, Harappa as one th a t b elo n g s to th e copper and bronze Age'?
. : Cn th e jo th er hand, S ir John M arshall,, who i s ;th e h ig h e s t
a u th o r ity on th e s u b j e c t , c o n sid e r s i t a s ,a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h ­
ed f a c t th a t th e a n c e sto r s o f th e Indus T a lle y p eop le p a s s ­
ed through th e u su a l grades o f p r o g r e s siv e c i v i l i z a t i o n ,
and t h a t th ey had c e r t a in ly p assed through two, o f th e s e
p e r io d s , th e P a la e o lit h ic and N e o lith ic .;
As t o th e p eo p le
contemporaneous w ith , th e Indus T a lle y rem ains, S ir John
b e lie v e s t h a t th ey li v e d a t a tim e when m eta l,w a s ju s t be­
g in n in g to be used in s te a d o f sto n e im plem ents and t o o ls
fo r d o m estic purposes*
He says that; th e n a tu r a l advantages
o f n o rth -w e stern India ~ a l l u v i a l p l a in s ,, n a v ig a b le r i v e r s ,
,
•
warm but v a r ia b le c lim a te , mor.e p r o p itio u s perhaps th an
now, and p le n ty o f r a i n f a l l - a l l , c o n tr ib u te d to th e ad­
vancement o f e a r ly s o c i e t y in th e Indus r e g io n .
A ccording
to him, th e c i v i l i z a t i o n h ith e r to r e v e a le d in th e Indus
■■f * );' ISclfeckay, ■Indus Oiv.tl i s at io n , pp . - .7 - 8 - •
;
■■
■
;
T a lle y i s not a r n in c ip ie n t c i v i l i s a t i o n , but one h aving
behind i t a lo n g - h is t o r y on th e s o i l o f In d ia i t s e l f ,■
’’w ith many m ille n n ia o f human endeavour behind i t tf, which.
'covered many p r e h is t o r ic s t a g e s .
However> as. regard s th e
s ta g e r e p r esen ted by Nfohenjo-Daro and Harappa, th e lea rn ed
a r c h a e o lo g is t,: a f t e r ca refu l^ ex a m in a tio n Of th e a n t i q u i t i e s
brought to l i g h t , th in k s th a t t h e i r au th o rs were in th e
t r a n s i t i o n s ta g e from th e Stone Age to th e Copper. Age.y
This i s b e s t in d ic a te d by th e f a c t th a t b oth sto n e and
copper implements are tr a c e a b le from th e s i t e s s id e by
s id e , a fe a tu r e c h a r a c t e r is t ic o f an Age in term ed ia te
between N e o lith ic and M etal, a ls o d e sig n a te d t h e ' Chaleol i t h i c Age!! '
,
..
The Indus T a lle y p e o p le , as known from th e se archaeo­
l o g i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s , were s u f f i c i e n t l y advanced to have
opened r e la t io n s w ith d i s t a n t ,c o u n t r ie s . ; Though th e r e is. ■ .
n o t enough te stim o n y to th e view th a t th e •Indus p e o p le .
m igrated to w estern A sia and p eo p le'fro m th e w est m igrated
to th e Indus, nbne a t l e a s t now deny some kind o f co n ta ct
betw een :th ese .re g io n s in t h i s an cien t..p eriod ..;
It, i s a ls o
not c o r r e c t to say now th a t India was an I s o la t e d country
and th a t Indians had n o th in g whatever to do w ith t h e ir
n eig h b o u rs.
As a m a tter o f f a c t , th e r e has been a co n sta n t
in te r c o u r s e between India and th e o u ts id e world alm ost fo r
a l l p e r io d s o f i t s h is t o r y through th e g a te s o f th e .Indus
v a l l e y . . Of t h i s co n n ectio n during th e C h a lc o lith ic p erio d
th e fo llo w in g d e f i n i t e ev id e n c e s may be c i t e d :
F ir s t , th e
fin d s o f fem ale s t a t u e s l i k e th e f ig u r e s o f th e Indus
V a lle y Goddess in s e v e r a l p la c e s in w estern A sia and the:
v
^
-
r
:
■■
-
>
'
%
:
v
v
-
' : ■■■ -
( * )
sa cred t r e e o f l i f e in Babylonia bear rem arkable. te stim o n y .
S econ d ly, th ere i s ev id eh ce o f p o t t e r y ; ■S ir John M arshall
has p o in ted ou t s e v e r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between th e v a se s o f
th e Indus V a lley and th o se ob tain ed in th e Middle and Near
B a st,
I h is co n n ectio n i s tra ced through B a lu ch ista n and
W aziristan by comparing th e p o tte r y w ith . th a t o f B lam ite,
Mesopotamianjand Aegean c i v i l i z a t i o n s .
Thirdly., commerce /
o f th e Indus V a lley w ith th e w est i s a t t e s t e d by th e d i s . covery a t d if f e r e n t s i t e s in 3Slam and 1/fesopotamia o f some
t y p ic a l Indus o b jec ts' such as c o r n e lia n b ea d s, sto n e fo r
X. v
... (§)
; ■
v a s e s , ; c o tto n , f ig u r e s o f a p es, e t c , • Among th e s e im portaiV -^4 '
i
fI'.v': '
1 V’.:'
(o)
t i o n s . th e most im portant are f ih e s e a l s o f Indus p a t t e r n s .
At th e same; tinie c e r t a in o b je c ts have r e c e n tly been ob­
ta in e d from s i t e s in th e Ihdus V a lle y , which appear to b e .
fo r e ig n in o r i g i n , m o stly Sumerian, th ey are d ecorated
c o r n e lia n b ead s, a m od el. ram, an a x e -a d z e , sm a ll s to u t
p o tte r y r in g s and a s e a l (P la te C, f ig u r e s b and c ), a l l
e x h ib it in g , non-Indus m a te r ia l and a r t .
'(*']Sir"*John M a rsh a ll, l o c . o i t ^ Vol I , Chanter v .
(§)B.Mackay fs a r t i c l e on Indian im ports
HSunr&rian Connec■-: t io n s with.' A ncient .Indus-” in J .R .A .S . October. 1925,
PP . 688 f f . ' . f V
",
~
' "V\
(°)' 3b id . A lso S ir. John M a r sh a ll,, l o c . c i t .v o l I ,c h a p te r v i i i
p , 1 0 3 ; I h e anim als re p resen ted on them b elon g fo r th e
most p a rt to th e fauna of. India; t h e i r s t y l e i s p e c u lia r
and th e w r itin g on them i s in Indus p ic to g r a p h ic s c r i p t ,
d i f f e r e n t fro m .th e cuneiform .
(x) B .feclcay, S hriller E x ca v a tio n s, v o l 11^ ; ch ap ter x i x ,,
.
pp 6 5 9 -4 1 .
.'
.
: :
.
But I t would be unw ise to conclude too much from
th e s e ex p o rts and im p o r t s ,;which on ly a ffo r d p ro o fs o f
com mercial in te r c o u r s e .
In no ca se sh ou ld th ey be taken
as e s t a b lis h in g any e th n ic r e la t io n s betw een Sumer and
India*
iTor do th ey imply th at th e Indus c i v i l i z a t i o n
p e n e tr a te d in to th e c o u n tr ie s o f th e Near and Middle
E a st, o r th a t Sumerian and Babylonian c i v i l i z a t i o n s
■ en tered th e Indus T a lle y .
A ll th a t th e s e ev id e n c e s in ­
d ic a te i s th a t th e r e was commercial r e la t io n between th e
e a s t and w e s t, and th at th e few c u l t u r a l :s i m i l a r i t i e s
th a t happen to appear can be r e g a r d e d ,-in th e o p in io n o f
S ir John M arshall,
as due t o .t h e e x is t e n c e o f s im ila r
A fra sia n c i v i l i z a t i o n s ,
"as w i d e l y d iffu s e d as th e
G h a lc o lith lc , w ith -r a m ific a tio n s ex ten d in g as fa r w est
a s T h e s s a ly and Southern I t a ly , and as fa r e a s t , perhaps
as th e Chinese P rovin ces o f Honan and Chih^li"..
In th e se
. wide c i v i l i z a t i o n s , in c lu d in g th a t o f th e Indus v a l l e y ,
which cou ld not p o s s ib ly be homogeneous th rou gh out, th e
p eo p le who p a r tic ip a te d in them t!were o f d if f e r e n t r a c e s ,
• sp o k e . d if f e r e n t la n g u a g e s, wrote d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c te r s ,
‘
worshipped d if f e r e n t d e i t i e s , and in o th e r ways d isp la y e d
'•• ••different., -orders o f m e n ta lity ."
Mrthermore;, "each, in
! i t s own way was an im portant d isc o v e r y arid a v a lu a b le
: c o n tr ib u t io n to th e common sto ck o f human know ledge. ff ,
And w ith th e p ro g re ss o f e x c a v a tio n work i t . i s becoming.
(* ) L o c .c i t , Tol I , ch ap ter v i i v: pp . 9 5 -9 4 .
■c le a r th a t th e C h a lc o lith ic c i v i l i z a t i o n o f In d ia , .
.r e m a in s o f which are b ein g dug out in th e Indus V a lley
and e lse w h e r e , was no l e s s in d igen ou s and n a tio n a l than
, '■
: .• '
: ■'
(*) ■
; o th e r g r e a t id v er c i v i l i z a t i o n s in th e w e s t .
' It i s r e g r e t t a b le th a t no sep a ra te account o f ex­
p lo r a tio n s and. exa&vations; o f th e C h o le o lith ic s i t e s ' in
■ th e/P a n ja b proper has. so f a r , come -'.but'1- in th e/fo rm o f a /
memoir o r monograph♦ The o n ly se p a r a te memoir on p re- .
:
,. ;
(
§
)
.:
h i s t o r i c -Panjab so fa r published- i s th e one -. th a t d e a ls
.w ith th e anim al remains from Harappa, which i s not very
u s e fu l, fo r our p u rp o ses.
As y e t , t h e r e fo r e , we have to
l o o k .f o r -the a c c o u n ts , o f e x c a v a tio n s on .Harappa and o th e r
s i t e s in Panjab' Proper in v a r io u s r e p o r ts o f th e Depart-■ ■ •■'
,;(o)
■ 'S-- ■ - ■
ment o f A rchaeology.
;A la r g e , ;number o f a n t i q u i t i e s ; and-monuments have
been recovered fro m ;t h e . Panjab,; e s p e c ia l l y a t Harappa;
th ey are no l e s s im portant tlian th o se from Sirid.
A b r ie f
. account o f some o u tsta n d in g d is c o v e r ie s w i l l be found
in t e r e s t i n g h e r e .
C ertain la r g e s tr u c tu r e s o f which no
in fe r e n c e o f a common sou rce o f th e. c i v i l i z a t i o n s
o f th e Indus v a l l e y ,• Mesopotamia and Elam i s con j e c tu r a l
a n d ,la c k s c o r r o b o r a tio n s , ;
(§) A .S. I . ; Memoir Ho 51 (1956 ) by B. Parshad.
(o) An.Bep. A .S .I . 1 9 26-27, pp 97-108; 1 9 2 7 -2 8 , pp 85-89;
1 9 2 8 -2 9 , pp 76-83; ; 1929-5 0,'.‘p p /121-151; pp ' 151-152 ;
1 9 5 0 -5 4 , pp 72-90; pp 106-107; 1 9 3 4 -3 5 , pp 31-55; 1935-36
pp. 3 5 -5 6 .
•
,.
•/ exam ples are met .with; elsew h ere i n th e I M u s /V a lle y /h a v e /;/
/b een excavated at^iferappa •' //A; 3ie t ic e a b le fe a tu r e / i n :one
/
/ o f them i s /th a t i t "contains; in i t s ; e a s te r n p o r t io n , /
/
/tw e lv e p a r a l l e l w a l l s , each about f i f t y - t w o f e e t lo n g ,
; ./v.
arranged in p a ir s a t in t e r v a ls o f some sev e n te en f e e t ,,
■with; roughly f i v e f e e t d ista n c e between 'each p a ir * The
w a lls are in; two s e r i e s , a Western /and /e a s t e r n , { d iv id e d
by a broad way about t w e n t y - t h r e e f e e t a c r o s s "* T h is
-
g f e a t s tr u c t u r e , th e s ig n if ic a n c e o f w hich/has n o t y e t
been made c le a r , a t p r e se n t exten ds about one hundred/
/an d s ix t y ; /f e e t from north to sou th and hundred and t h i r t y ;
p ix /fr o m / e a s t T o w est/ and may prove even la r g e r when
e n t ir e ly /e x c a y a t e d ; .^
unique te n
/ c ir c u la r str u c tu r e s* co n stru cted o f one cou rse o f b r i c k v - bn-edge;
o f fo u r c o n c e n tr ic rings, p f m a s o n r y . "It i s
/ iem & rkable'that each o f thedi/has a hollow.; a t : th e ce n tre / / /
, e q b a l t d 'two;; r i n g s ; i n dlbmefer*
Ch exam lnatibn,- th e
h o llo w in one o f t h e m w a s f o u n d t o c o n t a i n a sm all q u a n tity
; o f b u rn t wheat and p th e r se e d s and; about a s e e r o f charred
anim al bones ;4hoiudirig/.teethvi!:
Of g r e a t ;in t e r e s t i s th e
d isc o v e r y o f . la r g e wide-mouthed fu h e r a r y ,urns o f v a r io u s ‘
ty p e s , in v a r ia b ly co v ered ;w ith lid s *
Ih ese are;fou n d in
b u ild in g s o f a l l p erio d s a t Harapp a , gene r a l l y underneath
a f lo o r or str e e t;,, and c o n ta in ;a number o f sm a lle r v a s e s ,/ ;
b o n e s o f/s m a li. quadrupeds/; b ir d s and f i s h e s / and a v a r ie t y /
; o f o th e r sm a ll o b j e c t s , sometimes m in gled with; ash es and
ff*)/SuCh/as b ea d s, b a n g le s , te r r a c b tta f i g u l i n e s d e c a y e d
grain., tr ia n g u ia r te r r a c o t t a cakes e
t
c
;
*7
c h a r c o a l.
Another noteworthy- o b je c t in th e remains o f ,
Harappa i s a model in copper o f a/two^.wheeied- c a r t w ith ;
a gab led r o o f and d r iv e r se a te d in f r o n t .
No l e s s
i n t e r e s t i n g i s a t o i l e t s e t , which c o n s i s t s o f a p rick er,
a narrow k n ife and a p a ir o f tw e e z e r s .
■ But o f a l l th e o b je c ts r e v e a le d a t Harappa ( t h is i s
a ls o th e ca se w ith Mohenjo-Daro in Sind) / th e most
v a lu a b le are th e s e a l s , m ainly square and oblong in
sh a p e/
They are l e f t behind a t t h is s i t e in hundreds,
m o stly made o f s t e a t i l e
(so a p sto n e ) in v a r io u s s i z e s ,
and a few o f o th e r m a t e r ia ls !
The m a jo r ity o f them have
in s c r ip t io n s in a p ic to g r a p h ic w r it in g which i s s t i l l
v ery near to. h ie r o g ly p h ic , to g e th e r w ith f ig u r e s o f
.
; anim als and sym bols, w h ile o th er s have in s c r ip t io n s o n ly
I n d ic a tio n s l i k e r e lig i o u s scen es p o rtra y ed on many o f
them and a sm a ll p e r fo r a te d h o le at th e back to tak e a
cord show th a t th e s e s e a l s were m ainly used as am ulets
or ta lis m a n s ; Ecom t h e i r great n u m b ers,:i t would seem
th a t c a r r y in g o f ta lism a n on t h e i r p erson was a popular
p r a c t ic e w ith p eo p le in th e Panjab i n ’ord er to g a in
r e li g i o u s m e rit./
These s e a l s , as th e ca se may b e, were
a ls o u sed as stamp s e a l s / alth ough s e a lin g s made from
them are not a v a ila b le ; th e very few found are a l l o f
burnt c la y .
We s h a ll not ic e h e r e . some; Harappa s e a ls
which make i n t e r e s t i n g stu d y /
Among them i s one d e p ic t -
: in g a p r o c e s s io n o f se v e n men w earing k i l t s and h elm ets
m arching in a l i n e from r ig h t to l e f t , t h e i r le a d e r h old
in g a d a g g e r .in h is r ig h t hand.
On an oth er i s . a; man
a tta c k in g a t ig e r .f r o m a maohanv w hile, a th ir d p o r tr a y s
a man c a r r y in g a stan d ard , the, e n sig n o n ,th e standard
■(which was no doubt an o b je c t o f c u lt w o rsh ip ) b ein g a
w icker manger i d e n t ic a l w ith th o se from which many o f
th e anim als on th e s e a ls are feed in g*
Most s t r ik i n g
however i s an in s c r ib e d s e a lin g , which r e p r e se n ts on
th e r ig h t s id e o f i t s ob verse a nude:fem ale f ig u r e
.
se a te d u p sid e down w ith l e g s apart and w ith a p la n t /
is s u in g from h er womb and on th e l e f t s id e a p a ir o f
sta n d in g anim al " g e n ii" .
On th e r e v e r s e , which r e p e a ts
th e i n s c r i p t i o n g iv e n in th e r i g h t , th e space on th e
extrem e l e f t :i s occu p ied by a human m ale f ig u r e , probably
:w ith a s ic k le -s h a p e d k n i f e , fa c in g a se a te d woman w ith
r a is e d arms: and. lo n g h a ir .
Among th e more re c e n t a n t i q u i t i e s u nearthed a t
Harappa, th e r e i s p r a c t ic a l l y n o th in g o f s p e c ia l n o te;
th ey in clu d e remnants o f rooms and huge; w alls-, s e v e r a l
s e a l s o f th e u s u a l ty p e , h ousehold o b j e c t s , human f ig u r e s
copper im plem ents, and a s i l v e r p ie c e alm ost resem b lin g
a c o in .
E x cavation s a t K btla Hihang in Ambala ' D i s t r i c t
have no doubt y ie ld e d abundant a n t i q u i t i e s o f th e
C h a lc o lith ic Age, but th e se .m a in ly c o n s is t o f numerous
p o tsh e r d , a ch ert w e ig h t, th r e e g o b le t s , v a s e s , a w h e e l,
t e r r a c o t t a cakes e t c ; s e a ls w ith Indus, p ic to g r a p h ic .
w r itin g have not y e t been fou n d .
So a ls o a t th e s i s t e r
s i t e o f Chak Purbaiae S iy a l .on th e B ias have been found
no s e a l s , but a number o f commonplace o b j e c t s , b e s id e s th e
core o f a burnt br 1 ck w a l l, a l l t y p ic a l o f I&rappa c u ltu r e
The absence o f o u tsta n d in g fin d s a t th e se two r e c e n t s i t e s
i s due o f co u rse to th e extrem ely lim it e d n atu re o f th e
e x c a v a tio n s made on them,
lo r e u s e f u l , how ever, n ext to
th a t in Harhppa, has been th e r e s u lt o f o p e r a tio n s in th e
F r o n tier Border, i .e V th e extreme v/est o f o u r ,h is t o r i c
Panjab, where a number o f s i t e s , though very sm a ll in area
have y ie ld e d o b je c ts , o f Harappa and I'bhenjo-Daro ty p e ,
such a s 1c in e r a r y u rn s, p h a lll.a r in g s and s to n e s , and
p le n t y - o f a r t c r a f t s , painted; p o tte r y b ein g th e most imp o rta n t o f them.
The C h a lc o litiiic remains o f th e Pah ja b ,, combined w ith
th o se o f Sind, which are id e n t i c a l , b rin g back to us th e
o ld c u ltu r e o f th e remote p a st in th e ' iiidus V a lle y and
r e v e a l much th a t i s o f h i s t o r i c a l im p ortan ce.
It has been
observed by s c h o la r s o f p r e h is to r y th a t, in th e t r a n s it io n
from su b si.ste n se to c i v i l i z a t i o n th ere are, th r e e s te p s o f
d e c is iv e im portance: th e in tr o d u c tio n o f a g r ic u lt u r e , th e
d isc o v e r y o f th e u se o f m etals and a fu r th e r advance c o n -,
d itio n e d by b o th , th e o r g a n iz a tio n o f c i t y l i f e .
Judged
by t h i s sta n d a rd , we s e e from th e Indus V a lle y fin d s th a t
th e c u ltu r e d e p ic te d i s somewhere near th e end o f th e
tr a d itio n a l;p r o c e s s * ;^
in h a b itin g th e V a lley
b u i l t la r g e o r sm a ll c i t i e s ' a t a tim e when m etal v/as ju s t
b eg in n in g to be u sed in ste a d o f s t o n e .
An exam in ation o f, C h a lc o lith ic s i t e s d e sc r ib e d above,
r e v e a ls to us th a t t h e ir contemporaneous p eo p le had come
to d ev elo p a co m fo rta b le s t y l e o f l i v in g in a: w e ll-p la n n e d
c i t y , r e g u la r ly l a i d out, w ith s t r e e t s running north and
so u th , a l l p a r a l l e l , and la n e s branching o f f from them a t
r ig h t a n g le s .
Some o f th e se s t r e e t s , , f o r exam ple, a t th e
s i t e o f Ivbhenjo-Daro, have, been, found to be o f c o n s id e r - ,
a b le s i z e , one o f them in p la c e s t h i r t y - t h r e e f e e t w id e,
running fo r over h a l f a m ile .
The h o u se s, th a t were b u i l t
o f w e ll burnt; b r ic k s , were d iv id e d in b lo c k s , as in a
•
modern c i t y , and were more than o n e -s to r e y e d , p rovid ed
w ith s ta ir w a y s . ; Ihey were a ls o sep a ra ted from each o th e r
so as to r e c e iv e f u l l advantage o f l i g h t and s a n it a t io n ..
It seems th e a r t o f b u ild in g in b r ic k .w a s a t i t s h e ig h t
in th e C h a lc o lith ic Age..: The b r ic k s were g e n e r a lly t h in ,
b is c u it - s h a p e d , I c iln - f ir e d and s e t in mud and lim e m ortar.
Stone was perhaps used fo r p i l l a r b a ses in b u ild in g ; and.
•wood, th e su p p ly o f which was p l e n t i f u l , was used fo r
flo o r in g s and. a p p a ren tly f o r ; r o o f s , assh ow n : by h o le s in
th e w a l l s .
A s p e c i a l . fe a tu r e o f th e h ou ses was th e p ro­
v i s i o n o f bathroom s.
Tnese ,lm o stly rem ain as sm a ll w e ll
:-l a i d b rick p a v e m e n ts b o r d e r e d w ith b r ic k s th a t were s e t
on edge in ord er to p r o je c t above th e p a v e m e n t'le v e l;
Each s lo p e s g e n tly to one corn er, -wherOlth'e. ..water ran out
to th e s t r e e t d r a in . ”
p rob ably p r iv ie s .,
Some o f th e sm a lle r pavements' were
Ih .s e v e ia l c a s e s th e chutes; from a
bathroom and a p r iv y are see n c lo s e s id e by. s i d e .
But :
;,S4
.i':--
/ :- v i
-■ -
i
:
;
:
th e s p e c ia l fe a tu r e which made th e Indus c i t i e s and towns
su rp a ss .any o th er o f contem porary.date., even in Mesopotamiawas t h e i r e la b o r a te d rain age system .
Tie d ra in s excavated;
in ev ery s t r e e t and la n e r e c e iv e d th e o u tflo w from th e
.
h ou ses on e it h e r s id e by sm a ll s id e -c h a n n e ls , in to which
ran th e s lo p in g o r v e r t i c a l c h u te s from th e ground f l o o r
.
and from upper f l o o r s , r o o f s , bathrooms and p r i v i e s , in ,
th e th ic k n e s s ;o f th e w a l l s .
Each d ra in was covered over
w ith a c o r b e lle d v a u lt o f b r ic k s , l a i d w ith gypsum cem ent.
In th e cage o f th e g rea t tan k , on ly d isc o v e r e d a t MchenjoDaro, one n o te s w ith s u r p r is e th e tr a c e s o f even a dampp ro o f cou rse o f bitumen in t h e :c o r b e l-v a u lte d r o o f .
Another im portant fe a tu r e d i s t i n c t i v e o f th e Indus .
c i v i l i z a t i o n was a g r ic u lt u r e , fo r which th e th en p r e v a il­
in g c lim a te and th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f i r r i g a t i o n a ffo rd ed
id e a l f a c i l i t i e s ^
It i s p o s s ib le th a t some t r e e s o f p re- \
h i s t o r i c c a n a ls may be found in th e co u rse o f fu tu r e ex­
c a v a tio n s ; in many p a r ts o f th e Panjab to^day we a lrea d y
s e e a la r g e number o f o ld ca n a ls now not in u s e .
Among
th e numerous implements o b tain ed from d i f f e r e n t s i t e s
very few p e r t a in t o :a g r ic u ltu r e * . Probably th e Implements
o f a g r ic u ltu r e fo r th e most p art v/ere. made o f wood, which
has e n t i r e l y p e r is h e d .
One or two roughly chipped o b je c ts
o f c h e r t , sa y s E. Mackay, w h ic h ;cou ld n ot p o s s ib ly be
:
; w eapons, were "probably p lo u g h sh a r e s, and were very l i k e ­
l y q u ite e f f i c i e n t in th e s t o n e l e s s , a l l u v i a l s o i l . o f th e . ,
Indus v a l l e y . ”
Thus though we do n ot know so. fa r much
about th e a r t o f t h i s in d u str y , th e r e i s enough ev id en ce
to show .th a t w heat, c o tto n , b a r le y , sesamum, m elons,, d a te s ,
p la n ts l i k e t h e -l o t u s , a l l s im ila r to th o se grown l o c a l l y
to -d a y in th e Panjab; were c u ltiv a te d *
Wheat, as.n ow , was
th e s t a p le a r t i c l e o f d i e t , as i t was p la c e d in th e c in e r ­
a ry 1urns fo r th e dead about. 5 ,0 0 0 y ea rs ago*
An ear o f
Indus wheat has y ie ld e d to th e p r o c e ss o f a g r ic u ltu r e a
; (*)
.
.
/
wheat o f q u ite s u r p r is in g q u a lit y .
In t h i s advanced c i v i l i z a t i o n o f p r e h is t o r ic tim e s ,
in d u s t r ie s o th e r than a g r ic u ltu r e p layed a prominent p a r t.
The e x c a v a tio n s have y ie ld e d abundant m a t e r ia l, th a t p o in ts
to a h ig h l e v e l o f v a r io u s a r ts and c r a fts , p r a c tis e d by
th e G h a lc o lith ic p e o p le .
Some l i g h t i s in c id e n t a lly
thrown upon t h e i r d om estic l i f e by th e a r t > c r a f t s , in
a d d itio n to numerous o b je c ts o f househoId u s e , found in
d w e llin g houses*
In g e n e r a l i t may be s a i d . th e c r a f t s o f .
th e w eaver, p o t t e r , sm ith , and j e w e lle r were s p e c i a l ly
flo u r is h in g *
Numerous sp in d le w horls in th e d eb ris o f
h ou ses a t t e s t th e p r a c t ic e o f sp in n in g and w eaving.
. Ihat
th e s e w h orls were made o f p o tte r y and s h e l l , as w e ll as
T ~ E e e a r , which a cco rd in g to r e p o r ts p u b lish ed in
London p a p e r s , was ob tain ed by th e 3.P.G-. School o f
Bmedpur from th e excavat ion s a t Mchenjo- Daro,. was
s u c c e s s f u lly reproduced 'b y. them. E v id e n tly th ey have
now a whole p lo t o f th e Mohenjo-Daro wheat a t th e
S ch o o l. As many as n in e branches sp r in g from th e .
p la n t th a t r i s e s from th e Ivbhenjo-D aro wheat and th e
output o f th e crop i s q u ite, p r o l i f i c , ju d gin g from
th e w eigh t o f th e wheat h a rv este d from th e p l o t .
th e 1more ex p en siv e c o m p o s itio n ,;fa ie n c e ; in d ic a t e s th a t
w eaving was p r a c t is e d .in homes by th e r ic h and poor a l i k e ,
f a b r ic s o f c o t to n , prob ably a ls o o f w ool and l in e n , were
m anufactured.
Male a t t i r e seems t o .h a v e 'c o n s is te d o f two
garm en ts: a t h in band, s k ir t or k i l t worn round th e .w a is t
and a p la in or em broidered shawl or robe drawn over th e
. l e f t sh o u ld er and under th e r ig h t arm.
,fThe fig u r e o f
.
a man on a sherd found a t Harappa m ight be w earing .
b r e e c h e s, o r a l t e r n a t e ly , a c lo s e c lin g in g d h o t i . ”
Common d om estic v e s s e l s were made o f c la y , worked on a
’ wooden w heel by th e p o t t e r fs f o o t or spun by hand, and
' were baked in k iln s a fte r w a r d s.
Ih ese ; earthenwai’e
v e s s e l s in clu d ed a l a r g e •v a r ie t y o f p o t s , j a r s , d is h e s ,
e t c . , o f v a r io u s s i z e s and shapes*
Smiths and j e w e lle r s
. worked in m e ta ls by haimtiering and c a s t in g to make im­
p lem en ts, weapons, d om estic v e s s e l s and ornam ents, a
la r g e v a r ie t y o f which has been d isc o v e r e d in th e Indus
V a lle y .
Tie im plements and weapons in clu d ed c h i s e l ,
r a z o r s , sa w s, k n iv e s , sp e a r -h e a d s, d a g g e r s , arrow -h ead s,
e t c . , w h ile th e ornam ents, which were worn both by men
and women, in clu d ed c h i e f l y n e c k la c e s , f i l l e t s , a r m le ts,
f in g e r - r t n g s , g i r d l e s , e a r -r in g s and a n k le t s , th e neck­
l a c e s c o n s is t in g o f d if f e r e n t k ind s o f b ead s, a .v e r y
la r g e number o f which has been c o l l e c t e d .
F T A d e t a ile d account o f a l l th e se w ith i l l u s t r a t i o n s w i l l
be found in th r e e volumes o f S ir John M arshall and two
volum es o f l.M ackay on Indus V a lley e x c a v a tio n s r e fe r r e d
■ to above.
.
As to t h e , a r t o f G h alco.lith ic p eo p le,; th e. d ata
'
c o l l e c t e d shows th a t th ey were good a r t iz a n s , s k i l l e d
m eta l workers and h ig h ly a r t i s t i c , f a r in advance o f what
we should- ex p ect .foum or f i v e thousand y ea rs ago*
The
'e x c e lle n c e o f a r c h ite c tu r e and masonry, fo r which b r ic k s ,
s to n e s and m ortar were used , i s q u ite remarkable *
p o tte r y i s e it h e r p la in or fin e *
Tie
The f i n e , i . e . p a in te d ,
ware i s d eco ra ted w ith many d e sig n s in b lack p a in t on a
red s l i p o r w ash, which in clu d e v e g e ta b le and anim al
m o t i f s , as a ls o v a r io u s g eo m etrica l d e sig n s such as con­
c e n t r ic c i r c l e s .
Tie a r t o f .working d i f f e r e n t m e ta ls - ;
and o th e r s im ila r m a t e r ia l was also;, p o p u la r.
Ornaments
were made o f g o ld , s i l v e r or copper p la te d w ith g o ld , o f
b lu e f a i e n c e , iv o r y , c o r n e lia n , j a d e i t e , and m u ltic o lo r
. s to n e s o f v a r io u s k in d s .
Those o f s h e l l or t e r r a c o t t a
were prob ably made for. th e p oori‘
The Indus V a lle y p eo p le
i t i s in t e r e s t i n g to f i n d , had a ls o begun to make b ro n ze,
th e p ercen ta g e o f t i n a l lo y w ith copper in i t ..ranging
from nine; to tw e n ty -s ix per cen t .
: Tie copper and r a r e ly
bronze were employed fo r the m anufacture o f weapons,
im plem ents and even dom estic v e s s e l s ,
known and worked.
lead was a ls o
Tie fig u r e d a r t o f th e Indus V a lle y
i s e x h ib ite d by a la r g e number o f c la y or t e r r a c o t t a
f i g u l i n e s o f d e i t i e s , men, women, b ir d s , c a r t s , e t c ♦, a
few human heads and anim al fig u r e s made o f s to n e , and
a ls o a so a p sto n e s ta tu e o f a bearded m a le.
But perhaps
;
th e b e s t exam ples o f t h i s a rt "are a ffo rd ed by th e s t e a t i t e
:
s e a l s y i o n which are -d ep icted such\ anim als as theyhutiped
or Brahmani b u l l , th e e l e p h a n t ,t h e buff;aio;, V th e-1 i g e r ,
:■
;; 1 th e r h in o c e r o s a n d ^ f a n t a s t ic ; c r e a tu r e s i l i k e y ^
; ;
TV-1'I.:VV/i--v--T;together,with in s e r ip lT Q h s : ^
/
;
'
:
‘vF*'V.v
V
■V
c h a r a c t e r s ,tf
t he f i g u r e s a r e : d is t in g u is h e d , by :a; b read th o f
; >tfeatm ent, and a f e e l i n g fo r l i n e , and f o rm u n eq u a iled in
■ 1; c any cohtempprafy^^ a r t ;out bMe tho t o
;■V-ly;v iTT VT T T 'T ; ^ t u r a l i y ' a : c ^
\ f
a g r ic u ltu r e ' and
;vv ihdusfi*y^VplayedVbo^,^
p a r F c o u ld hot s u b s is t
C;i ^Without commerce; V/^'That;:!here-was; con s,iderab le tra d e in
;■ ; ; ;
yVy u \ ;■,'V'V T -v th e'V C h u lep lith ip ; c i t i e s - i s •proy^
w eigh ts
v i ; ; f :■/;>■;;^v;thatj'w acipfevailing,; ■a n d t h e im portsV pf various;
^
1 m a te r ia ls used- in many a rt ^ c r a fts o f t h e p erio d from th e
c;: - ; ;
^
'TVVT^ neighbouring; .t e r r i t o r i e s t o , th e e a s t and Vwes i f o f th e ■
,
V;VT:;V V-TVTnduh;Valley; 1 ^
: ^ ; ;v-
t i n , le a d , s t o n e ,
;have b e e n s u p p l i e d f r o m : o t h e r , p a r t s o f
f u y; f ,• . 1
I n d i a . , f T h e p i c t o g r a p h i c bignsVqt&Kd>pd on c o p p e r b a r s and
' e n g r a v e d n n ; s e a l s / p e r h a p s ’s e r v e d " t o a u t h e n t i c a t e t h e i r
T V TT :V
^Fqom iiief^
1
? , ■ f'
l v a l u e ; o t h e n docum ents; b e in g on p e r i s h a b l e
m ater i a l , perhaps sk in o r c l o t h ,
have- n o t s u r v i y e d ;
c la y does ;not''ap»pear ■t o h a v e , been, used fo r commercial
; V -. >1
Td yTy>
; ; f,:
w r i t i h g s f v C a rts: and c h a r io t s ; p a ck -a n im a ls; and b o a ts
. Vf :werejfhe; n s u a f m^
;
o f a h s p o r t ’*\;:; ;;&sidebi'- as shown
above, th ere was commercial in te r c o u r s e , both by land
and seay between th e Jhdhs 'V h lley,/ Elam and,M esopotamia.
On t h i s q u e stio n th e l a t e s t opinion-of,?Eyly^ck;ay\;isi.-f
'■'V T y ' V v ’ '■■■‘V
• • V•'; T
- v ■/ • : T y . . : . ' ■'
■;. , y . V y .
■ •w . ;- . :
e ^ r e s s e d f i i i 'th e fo llo w in g .words;: ”I am in c lin e d to; th e
•Vyy-yy;VfVTTVlv'iew- th a t ythbTindian. merchants u s e d b o t h land and sea
-y'
• y
y o u te s .
,,
There can be no reason ab le doubt th a t th e s e a -
ro u te was c o n s ta n tly u sed , as i t i s a t th e p rese n t day,
'y.Fyy-yy V tiioughVthe -to ta l; d is ta n c e from th e modern p o rt o f
. ;;
yV;;
^Karachi to .Basra .i s w e ll over 1 , 4 0 0 m ile s and may have
been lo n g e r in .a n cien t tim e s, fo r th e r e -is stro n g ev id en ce
y ;fy • ;; ■ th a t' the; mouths Of th e Euphrates and T ig r is and: o f th e
"y;.-;-. ri ,y.v .:'y- ■- v y ' ;y-; _yyyyy Vw;
v . f-- y,y,. y\
now
(* )
, • In d u s'w ere'fu rth er. in lan d than t h e y /a r e ”*
:
Tie language o f th e whole Indus V a lle y , or a t any
r a te th a t o f th e r u lin g p eo p le in i t , to judge from
th e i d e n t i c a l w r itin g , from Harappa and Mohen j o-D aro, was
one and th e same.;
I t has u n fo r tu n a te ly n ot been p o s s ib le
\-V. to determ ine th e nature o f t h i s language from th e
in s c r ib e d m a te r ia l so fa r a v a ila b le - s e a ls y s e a lin g s
and s la b s ,
’/ y y l - V
t o s p i t e o f some attem p ts made, not even
; theyname o fy a s in g le pe^
h as been read,
nor can any one s ig n or group o f s ig n s on th e o b je c ts
be p o in te d out a t t h i s s ta g e as h avin g a d e f i n i t e p ro.
v
; n u n c ia tio n . y y As a m atter o f f a c t most o f th e u su a l
c o n d itio n s o f decipherm ent, such as b ilin g u a l in s c r ip , tio n s
• are s t i l l ; la c k in g , so th a t th e q u e stio n o f
:,y la n g u a g e ,.u n t il th e Tidiis w r itin g lis .d e c ip h e r e d , can- \
y.
(*) .to r t h e r E x c a v a tio n s, Vol II,y Chapter x i x , p . 647.
A lso read S ir Anrel S te in . A;8 . 1 ; «■. Memoir No 45 (1951)
byy p n y t o u r I n G edrosla. T V T y..y>: ,■! y,y'
u- Tyfyy -I . .y
y Vyy : ;y (§) As in th e ca se o f Old Persianyand ^ m i t l c cuneiform .; .
:>;y.:,' -y'': s c r i p t s , y
y-‘’.v y
" ; -1 , V ; , . ;T:/y
3P
n ot be s a t i s f a p t b r i l y . answered y yyAt;; any r a te ,w h e n -A iy ‘i s ;y TT;
; adm itted th a t th e todus: o i y i l i z a t i o n was o f independent
:grow th, th e lan gu age fo q must-. be; in d ig e n o u s, th a t i s ' y ,••y7TT .*,
■y;todlan,V;bTirTy;vtoalT'tod^
to answ er.
Else'vrtiere :^we Vhaye.Vref b fred to-: a;yl^avidiany;y ::,' yy . '
; d i a le c t b ein g p resen t/ in B a lu ch ista n oh ythe w est o f t h e ,
1 Indus, and shown some in d ic a t io n s o f B ravid ian in flu e n c e s
' on Aryan sp eech which- su g g e st -the e x i s te n c e o f ^ a y i d i a n s ;
in th e n o r t h ,.; in c lu d in g th e Pan j a b * y The •mos t y n a tu r a l;
h y p o t h e s is , t h e r e f o r e , would, be th a t :th e
y
• th e fact, th a t B ravid ian i s . th e most w id e ly spread fa m ily ;;y:y;.
: Vin.; I h d ia y a fte r th e Indo-European,, aga in sty which i t has
s u c c e s s f u l l y h e ld i t s
yy
;south;*’yy yyTy y -;y'T f‘TT'
hhch has. been v«rritten and ;many. wi
s h ave Tyy;
y been in d u lg ed in bn th e su b je c t o f . Indus.yVhliey' w^
t h i s b ein g th e o ld e s t s c r ip t : know n.in In d ia .
:
P a ia e o g r a p h ists
F ) I n h i s e s s a y The " I M u e r a l- S ite s 11 o f th e Mbhen jo ^D aro .•
S c r i p t ’ (A; S. I T .Memoir,’ :Ip .57.;19 58 J. Me A lan S. Ci Bos s oomes 7 •
t o t h e fo llo w in g ^ c
•'
F ./7 V '
;v;(a ) Tie c h i e f ■n u m e ra tio n -sy s te m o f i h e b a s i c la n g u a g e o f Vy.
iV th e f i ^ r a t p a :iahd; ; ^ h e n j o - ISaroy dbhum ehtsyis.;; d e c im a l^ ; t h ey
' n u ^ieral IS b e in g ;s p e o if ic a iiy y ::in d io ^ e d T T :;
VTyyi TV'ly:y%yy;
I - (b ) The : c h i e f f u n c ti o n o f t h e niiiTieral s ig n s i s s y l l a b i c .
;( c j;;T h e la n g u a g e ;c a n n o tb e y ;3 ^
y
i s a c h a n g e -p o in t ( e . g 1 T a tiil onbadUy m eaningyone from 1 0 ) ,
so th e ; H arappa-M bhenjo-D aro la n g u a g e i s n o t B ra v id ia n ,y :; yy And i t i s not; •:I\dnda, where we y fih d -y g u h te ^ ^
; v ig e s im a l, ?and p o s s ib ly quihary ;sy ste m s, and perhaps t h e • y;.
yyypriginalysystern;,whs .quateriihryyp^
.BdtVdiy might; be ■;F T
V' p r i m i t i v e t o d o n e s i a n ,y w h e r e t f e
y : :y y Wy fea fy th ey a rgu m en tyb f y(c 1 i s n o t v ery c o n v ln c in g . y yy
FT'y
'a.t’ifcempt'syyo^f
y f y -y
r e p r e s e n ta tio ii must hav
'SLt# graphic
been co n fin ed to p ic ln ife s or
d ir e c t ; im ita tio n s o f a c tu a l o b j e c t s .
p n V d ir e c t.^ p ic to r ia ly ^ ^
.V; ; y.;
Then an iinprovement
was made by s u b s t i t u t ­
in g a p a rt fo r th e w hole, e . g . , a human head fo r a man,
fo r a b ir d , etc* . The system was s t i l l yyy-y.
g iv in g to c e r t a in
"■ "y
'';y'4;? 'fU rtlief-^ xtended\:b ^ p ld tu r e s : i rid ir e c t v a lu e s o r powersy
F f /F F T y T ^
; ;y y. T F F i sy m b o lic a l, o f . .the. o b je c ts r e p r e se n te d ,
•
t o i s was th e
y
c a s e . w ith ythe a n c ie n t E gyptIans, SumerIans1and o th er ,
. p e o p le s .
fy 'y .y
A s i m i l a r yprocesb .hppedrs y t,Q’ have' takpn p la c e , y
.ih y p r e h is to r id y India*
;f ind froiii th e Indus; V a lley . .. .../
o b je c ts th a t in th e Pan jab th e r e was in C h a lc o lith ic
V;
V'yyy/ ■; tim es a p i c t o r i a l s c r ip t s im ila r in kind t o th o se used
■y ln : Egypt, ;Mssppo tam ia and Elam. •
Prom exam in ation o f
\ ch a r a c te r s and ■from, ^analogy -fwp'can s a y : th a V y th e -M
'TTyy
,y
/ ■ w r itin g a ls o had id eo g ra p h ic s ig n s y 1 . e . some p ic tu r e s or
groups o f l i n e s derived; b y s im p lifio a tlo n y fr o m ; pictures;;
in ord er t o r e p r e s e n t• id e a s or to ser v e as phonographic
s ig n s f o r th e sounds o f id e a s ,. i * e . p ic t u r e s used to
y
•••• denote sounds o f th e c ommone s t =words exp re s s in g th e
; y
;'
.y
id e a s o f p ic t u r e s , or b oth ysou n d s:a n d .-id e a s .; In a d d itio n , y
.;
Ibir exam ple, a ja c k a l was made th e ty p e o f cunning. ;y
y;TK’'•■v’( §j yVefyyfewy s i m i l a r i t i b a th a t arP som etim es p ick ed up
F,y ;y y ; y ; t e f t e e i i t c r i p t s o f t h e s e -c o u n trie s and a l s o th a ty o f
,y .
y
.eary-.3feXaiici]s--:'l*f or yth ey purposes of^:p rb v iiig ;Vi?he ■o r l g i n o f
■
fy,:;':-yyone from th e o th e r should be understood as o n ly a c c id e n t a l.
by yyF F'y bbas' i s sh bw hyb y/cefid ih vch aracter^ ^ ^
- tfV;
, y F F ;'F F v 'V alley; had. probably come to /develop^X;y ^ ^ ; b ib p r it ;i p a iy y ;
y/y-yyb; b b b ;^ad ju n ctsy ';a
/
yy y ...
; ■:;
''sSmieboonyenflbna^^^^^
.Capable, o f b ein g ex p ressed in p io to r ia ly form s,y such as
y yy. F '■>
: y /n e a r n e s s , yiseparhtipn. e t c . F F /^ y s te m /o f. se p a r a te .s i g n s f o f b ;• ■y
/,
each s y l l a b l e wasyalwaysya-; ^ a ie r ;sta § e y q f dbyel^
y/bb by;
'yy'b'yy..yyyy:/.b a lly a n c ie n f c o u n t r ie s ; t h i s , h o w ever,yin -th e; ca se o f th e yb.
y.-y "y y-'y: y, . Indus s c r ip t i t i s not p o s s ib le t o y t r a c e F ■yy-yyF- b y . y y /:••••, ' b '
by y 7y y ; S o m e -a u th o r itie s on . Babylonian s c r i p t , to m ention
. s p e c i a i l y Mr; Sidney . a n ith and Mr. Gadd,
y 1 v ;
s b r ip t w ith th e SUmerIan w ritin g ,;
b
y
y bby
libld : that; th e r e Vby ; y y
may have been o r i g i n a ll y sqmey co n n ectio n o f th e Indus ' f '
.
yy y F
y f ; by
s F fa r b a c F tfc
Vbut: the' rela^
, b
'AsFF;' : / • /
h elp ;" tF ia c iq ix e f th e Indus
vb/F
y ;scriptV yy A^ c l o s e ;:b im ila r ify i b etw een y a /F e^ y ^ ^ eria h s ig n s yFb
y and; a f ev/ on thebto& FF
,b; V y..y y ;
.byy
drawings o f ythe Z;same o b je c t may / e a s i l y yre&emb^^
bby y
yyy.ybyyyFy^yTheysame may b e s a id o f • Prof */ Iangdon,
F y f-./ y F y /cth^
/®ahmEy ; y a lp h ^ e t has y p r ig iM
bFb.Ftoduayyp.iotq^
;y
/iF ih a F /t^
Brahmi c lia r a c te r s c o h ^ s t m a in ly /o f s i m p l e , ^
• y;,yyy'y / forms, F w h ie h y w ith y a /little y ln g e r L u i
bbF
b
d erived / from y'vyy
-■yy; y/yyFy/yF ) S i f John^-fe
«/ l o c . c I t ^/Vol I I F M a u te r x x i i . ; 7
y l-fy F ./
(§) P reserved on ly in few s ig n s on A ssy ria n -ta b le ts* , Two
'yb o f th e s e t a b l e t s in th e B r itis h , J4iseuiii, 8 1 -7 -S 7 , 4 9 -5 G, yyyV/ F .F
yy. b ■, are p u b lish e d in Cuneiform Text /Vol. V, y P ia te .7,. and: th ree
:yyyf/y 'yb V -/fragm en ts.';all.'/^ p aren tly; from th e' same t a b l e t ,, s a id toy//-Fv / -/F y
F F S ;
have b e.en exc avat ed in the so u th - eas t' P alace a t Nirmond, /
// /V b ; by. / b Kb858Py/;are .p u b lis h e d b y y T p u A to h , Ihy/Transact ion s o f th e "F
;/S o b iety o f B ib lic a l A rohaeology* Vo1 VI; p.454* Tib y v
.'
y s c r ip t u sed in th e e x p la n a tio n o f the; a r c h a ic s ig n s i s
F-b.- ;y-: 'y'-y/that u sed in B abylon ia:■(c ir c a 3000 BbC. •) F;bbb-y!.::- ,--y 'Fv -y/y/’y .y^yy
V (o ) The e a r l i e s t s c r ip t o f India that, h as been d ecip h ered , y/ y
Fyyby'■/; /■//
See; b elo w ,;,p . F i ' / :bby/.yb- yb':- -yyFFby/yyb/
;y;y: y'/yyZ/yy- ;/y;:/-y-;F'/;
,y ,/ . y F b -S ir/fo h n / M arshall,/ l o o . c i t y ;y o l /,llT- C^
: . bb"
any system o f sym bols, i f one i s allow ed to s e l e c t some
twenty out o f two o r 'th r e e hundred sym bols.
P r o f. lan gdon ,
w ith a l l due r e s p e c t, d id not know r e a ll y an yth in g o f /
Indian s c r i p t s , and h is theory, need not be a c c ep ted , more
' e s p e c ia lly * when we do not know th e v a lu e s o f Indus p i c t o r i a l
■
.
(
*
)
.
and c o n v e n tio n a liz e d form s. The most p la u s ib le v iew , in our o p in io n , i s th a t the
Brahmi w r it in g , as in v e s tig a te d by e x p e r t s . i n ’ Indian
s
1
’•vJ" -<
’.'-'/'v
V %i F '
" • /,
/>
y y] ' / / / f •V;/ f *,
,»/ V //3y r’’ ■V
.V ■J'i-
s'
by...-b
«• /
/
- '-''I /•■? -y-’Oy. -
p alaeograp h y, l l k e f i M ih te r , H e e t and Haandarkar, was
, *■
*
.-y v . \y -
;\ / / ; s
b’ -
®-v.*■//. :y / f v -y/ :/ v ; < yy t y. y - y yy .v, y
■/ V ■/-’%/ *yy /" - f y y y b v y ///y y y F ' f y ■;/% ■
■yy>yyy.-.--'.yf /.v* y, yy_•
d eriv ed from, th e P h oen ician type o f S em itic alphabet
s e v e r a l'c e n t u r ie s , b e lie v e d to be f i v e , b efo re th e tim e
o f Asoka (th ir d century B .C .), but th a t th e Indians who
borrowed i t added to i t s consonants a system o f d i a c r i t i ­
c a l o r .v o w e l marks in h e r ite d o r i g i n a ll y from th e Ghalcol i t h i c s c r ip t.
L i t t l e e l s e ean fo llo w in th e p resen t
nature o f our knowledge on th e s u b j e c t.
’
Of th e Iid u s V a lley r e li g i o n some tr a c e s are l e f t in
th e r e l i c s o f a r e lig io u s c h a r a c te r .
These in d ic a te
"there e x is t e d a number o f q u i t s : th e c u lt -of a male God
and Mother Goddess, w orship o f an im als, t r e e s and In a n i­
mate s t o n e s , l i k e th e p r e se n t lin g a and y o n i, and o th er
(§)
.s im ila r o b j e c t s . ■ O bviously many o f th e f e a t u r e s o f
'
V H S im ila r v iew s o f Dr. Pran M t h d . R .A .S . . 1951, pp 67174; I.H.Q,. Vol I I , 1951 and Vol V III , 195^) and K.P.
Jayaswal ;(Ind.Ant.,QL953) are not to be taken s e r io u s ly ,
b ein g b a sed o n .a s e r ie s o f very d o u b tfu l assum ptions*
The methods o f read in g adopted by them /would y ie ld r e s u lt s
o f a so rt' w ith any s e r ie s o f s ig n s tak en at random. .
(§) S ir John■^^^Vfersftall■*^.■^■loo^oi^t■•-*■^*-‘^■;Vo.I■■■■-I^.-■: Chapter V, pp 49 f f ;
- E .fe c k a y / Ihdus C i v i l i z a t i o n . Chapter I I I , pp 64 f f .
y
■
. modern Hindu ism in th e Pan j ab and elsew h ere in India are
tr a c e a b le to t h i s p r im itiv e /s o u r c e .
Among;;the anim als
- ■
F .>1 found to have been worshipped /wefe th F u n lcq rn //{j& in o o ero s j ..;
7
t i g e r , e le p h a n t, goat o r ram, b u f f a lo , b u ll (both humped:
, yy' and humpies s )/, f i s h e a tin g g h a r iy a l, etcV
Sdirie; s e a l - b F / v\/'--
am ulets a ls o portray; com posite a n im a ls; one has a human
: ; ".
o f an e le p h a n t, /the^ h orh s Q f
b u ll , t a i l
.
o f a t i g e r 1, another i s a human-faced goat and so f o r t h * : .
But o f them a l l th e most fr e q u e n tly r e p r e se n te d in t e r r a ­
c o t t a f ig u r e s and on se a l-a m u le ts Is th e hvunped b u ll* •/:
V tr e e s appear to have been worshipped in two forms -• one:
"in i t s n a tu r a l fo r m ,'th e o th er in which/ t h e . tr e e s p i r i t
■ ’.
i s p e r s o n ifie d and/ endowed w ith ; huDian shape and huiuan . /
a ttr ib u te s ;”
to e /tr e e F
s e a l s bare e it h e r
r e a l i s t i c o r c o n v e n tio n a liz e d ,
V: many o f th e s e a l F :b ea rin g t r e e s *
.
th e -pinal fig u r in g ; on /;
Bufc th e most I n te r e s tin g
and b e s t known from th e .rem ains,. as we s h a l l s e e , are th e
,
c u lt s o f th e f e r t lining god and/ f e r t i l i t y g o d d e ss. (Mbther•
/
• Goddess ) and o f the I r r e s p e c tiv e syiiibols in l in g a and yo n i *
/' ./;// : /R e p r F e n td tio n s q
/F
/ or /f o u r. s e a l-a m u le ts *
they/fertiljyfcy g o F a
One/ o f them; ( ifaid . P la t e f f l . * f igu re
: v: 17 j , w ith an in sc .r ip tio n on th e to p , d e p ic t s him as th e ••
/;.'•■ p ro to ty p e, o f th e l a t e r
’
(*) C f . - S ir John M arsh all. l o c . o f t * Vol Iy P la te X I I , fig u r e
IS j fa c in g p* 53 *
(§) I b id . pp 5 3 -5 5 .
-
th a t th e god, who i s th r e e -fa c e d , -is se a te d on a low Indian,
throne in a r e li g i o u s a ttitu d e ,' w ith le g s bent double
.b en ea th him, h e e l to h e e l , w ith to e s turned upwards, arms
o u ts tr e tc h e d and hands e x te n d e d .above th e k n e es,
He has a
p a ir o f horns crowning th e head, two d eer beneath th e
throne and an e le p h a n t, t i g e r , rh in o cero s a n d .b u ffa lo
grouped round him ;
I t i s noteworthy th a t th e upper p a rt o f
h i s body i s w e ll cla d and v /e ll ornamented, but th e low er
lim b s a re-b a re and- the-urdha--medhra, ’p h a llu s o r male
“ (*)
organ u p r a is e d ’ , c le a r ly e x h ib ite d .
1Ihus i t w i l l appear
from t h i s in t e r p r e t a t io n of; th e s e a l th a t alm ost a l l th e
/
,■ ' /
—
s p e c i f i c t r a i t s o f th e la t e r Rudra-Siva as P a su p a ti. Y o g i.
Mahesa, e t c . , were a n tic ip a te d in th e remote age to which
■ t h i s s e a l b e lo n g s.
.
.
■
■ ■
(§).
Moreover, a s* p o in ted out by E.Mackay*
” Gn two s e a l s a s p r ig o f flo w e rs or le a v e s r i s i n g from th e
head between th e horns str o n g ly s u g g e s ts th a t th e fig u r e so
ornamented was a f e r t i l i t y o r v e g e ta tio n god, again a n a lo . gous w ith S hiva, who p e r s o n if ie s th e re p r o d u ctiv e powers
. o f N a tu r e .M
,
Mere p o p u la r, however,, in th e ,In du s. V a lle y , seems to
have been th e c u lt o f a god d ess, as shown in more than one
-ty p e by numerous fem ale fig u r e s o f c la y , s im ila r to th o se
met w ith in th e Near and Middle Hast.-
Ih ese f ig u r e s , to
tak e a v ery common ty p e , are g e n e r a lly nude, ex cep t fo r a
T T ’Gn th e q u e stio n o f urdha-medhra s e e Dr. ihandarkar, -An.
Rep, A . S . i . fo r 1 9 0 6 -7 , p 186 (quoted by S i r . John. l o o . c i t ,
Vol I, p . 55) and a ls o h is la t e s t - ’p u b lic a tio n Some .Aspects
o f A ncient Indian C u ltu re. Madras 1940, pp 4 3 -4 5 .
(§')’ Indus C i v i l i z a t i o n , p 71.
• v ery sh o r t s k ir t j
,■; '.'"V^ " ■:■■■■'/.■ ..,'■ ■.:h v' m
lh ey :f!wear ;muoh
■m;:' ; > ? :
;
a M a c u r io u s
'■ v ; :
fan -sh ap ed h ea d -d ress with; two c u p -lik e o b j e c t s , one on
e i t h e r s i d e , alth ou gh in Ssome^ specim ens t h i s l a s t fe a tu r e
M'j?-is;iffich\ more pronounced than in o t h e r s . •/ S ev era l o f th e s e .
cups have smoke s t a i n s in s id e , which su g g est th a t o i l or .
,1
'
o f in cen se, were burned in them, in order-
. • ^tixat th e g o d d ess: m ight hearken ;to >th e p et i t i o n s . o f .th e ■,
•./
; w b rsliip p er.
:•
These f ig u r e s were, probably v e t o e s ' ; d e n o tin g ,
. as .in Mesopotamia and A sia Minor, th e c u lt o f a f e r t i l i t y
g o d d e ss. • Another good r e p r e s e n ta tio n o f th e goddess . i s to
: ..
be^ found oh th e ob lon g s e a lin g from- Harappa, n o tic e d above,
■ : ,1. - in wlii ch i s d e p ic te d a nude fem ale :fig u r e tip s id e down w ith
legsH apart and- a ,pla.nt is s u in g from h er womb.
; a ls o ^
- ;,
d is c o v e r an oth er typ e o f h e r ; lh t h e fig u r e , o f a V-’
; ;-,:;':s t a n d i n g a n d a l n ^
; : ; ; v:V'; ? p r o fu sp l^
Kate;;X^
/ - V \V •
It i s p o s s ib le
and
(Sia? Jbhn, M arshall ,v lo o l c i t y v o l I I I V;
6 to 8 ).
ih e s im i la r it y betw een th e Indus
Va l l e y and 'Western; f i ^ r e s | ; cou^^
; ^
th e worship o f v th e :;Mother^jloddess; in India from a n c ie n t
tim es down to th e' p r e s e n t h a s ^ ldd; schol&fs^to^ b e lie v e : th a t ;
;
. t h e s e ;f ig u r e s o f .c la y and some p i o t o r i a l r e p r e se n ta t ion s on
r
;; v
::
;seals';:rppre isent^ttie^^^
; v c o n s o r t ; o f S iv a y th e .w ell-know n Mahadevi o r Jagadamba o f
{§.). This i s however no reason to assume th a t th e o u lt was an .
v;;-" import a tio n in to th e Indus V alley.; from th e w e st; .,; r
,
37
Hinduism,
In th e : Indus V a lley r e l i g i b n , th ie G o d d e s s .had :• •
an independent c u lt o f -,;h er ;dwhj;; arid; Mas; p r o b a b ly ;^
nee te d w ith th e p r im itiy e S iv a .
Her a s s o c ia t io n w ith him,
as ■ftraped :;:through,void Indian, l i t e r a t u r e , was ■;th e r e s u lt o f
a. lo n g and: gradual p r o c e ss in th e c u lt u r a l h is t o r y o f
In d ia .
■
'•/
" . /• . . . \
Another import ant c u lt o f th e p a l e o l i t h i c r e li g i o n 7 ::;.
which ;is; s t i l l eoiim ionly'pr& ptisiefctp*oughout India i s th e
worship o f th e s e f e r t i l i t y . d e i t i e s w ith p h a l l ic .emblems.
.Ihis ;p:;;sho.wn
ifh p -d isd p v ei^ ^
sev era l
r e l i c s ;o£ a p h a llio character; *■' c o n ic a l;;,ahd:\ririg;;st^
resem b lin g th e l i n g a and y o n i ■typ es^ ^with:w hich Saivism
a r id 'P k t is m ;.a r e 'c lo s e ly ^ c o n ^
th e sm a ller
..specimens of: th e s e ‘ p h a llic ;o b jects-, which are more numerous
than th e la rg er, ones meant fo r w orsh ip , .were c a r r le d and
:
worn as am ulets i i k s .'se a lsV ’id h e r e i s no doubt w hatever
about th e p h a l l i c ch a ra cter o f th ese, c o n ic a l and r in g
s t o n e s , s in c e th ey have been d isc o y e fe d on th e same s i t e s ,.
iand • some 1p f - them are yery r e a l l s t i c in design,.- thougli ■o th er s
are more or l e s s c o n v e n tio n a liz e d * ;Nbr •i s i t d b u b tfu l th a t
th ese, s to n e s are c u lt im a g e s; subh images have been employ­
ed; in th e w orship o f d e i f i e s o f ; f e r tilit y -y p ^ p e ; -- a n cien t
c i v i l i z e d w o r ld ;as th e symbols o f .cr ea tiv e, or p ro d u ctiv e ‘
power. ■ ’ It. has -been observed ■t h a t :th e p r im it iV em in d was : .
.S ir John l ^ f s h a l i ; lo o V e i t .:« V o lv ii :6h a p tp f :Vv, p p .. 58-6S^ \
38
77(7(77
A
7-^7
“ ' •;-:7 .5 >.:' •
i/'.Vv.- 7 7
d e e p ly / im p ressed /b y 7th© prbcesb o f p r o c r e a tio n on which ■I ;//
•' 77(
depends',;th e/yersr e x is te n c e o f a l l l i f e :pn t $ i s :,e a r th ,'(
• ;;v ,: <
and ( i t 7 Came t o (Iqpk-hpon tile, p h allu s, and th e y o n i, th e
77 7/77 ■
■
■sexual^orgahS; th r p u ^ , ^ 7 p f p c r e a i i o h 7 i s &f^^
777
endowed w ith m y s te r io u s potency:;- 7 .Thus 7ih e 7 sexu a.l7w^
was hot^^ h e s s u r i l y o b sc e n e ;7 th e 7 p h a ll^
//
777777
he adored o u t .o f v e n e r a tio n .(fp r (o n e 7l e I t y or th e o th er *
/n7:%7
H iis ^ prim itiyev c u l t h as ^een^-found
by s i d e w it h ^ .t t
.^■v
w orshlp o f f e r t i ^
w id e ly ■p r e v a le n t s id e
d e i t i e s in th e Hear 7.7((7-
as w e ll .as;;/& e/M iddie:/E ast, 77S0 l t ;-was; :ln its^I^
,
7:7 (
in th e p r e h is t o r ic
7 777,"7 / v ■
,7 7/: / ;
‘^
form
■/ /
Indus V a lley and elsew h ere I n I n d i a .•
;:,
.;7(7..
t h e ’;inode o f ' d i s p o s a l :Of ■th e dead
p r a c t is e d .among- th e Indus p e o p le s
77-7: • ;7
/
as more or l e s s ' r e l ig i o u s , be cause
This i s to he regarded .
, :
fu n e r a l / r i t e s , w hatever 77'
7 -/777^ 1;/ 7 ; th e y b e , are c l o s e l y con n ected 7w ith some r e li g i o u s b e l i e f
7..
7.
:
7; -c o n c ern in g cd n d it io n s o f th e dead in th e n ex t w o rld ..
/',-:
Shorn
>/ 'the absence; o f ( g ra v es p rop er in th e Indus V a lle y , i t i s
,
7 ': 7 /- /'// (/77( f a i r l y c le a r th a t th e dead were crem ated, though pbs s ib ly
(
b u r ia l .may h a v e : e x is t e d s id e by sid e * which d id h o t f i n d
7 '^
';://7 (7 .
:
In f a c t no c e m e te r ie s or graves^
,
c ul t o f suoh ^symbols i s /n o t n e c e s s a r ily o b sc e n e , 7 -(7 777
becau se i t a ro se in a s t a t e o f s o c i e t y in which th e r e were
h a r d ly ;a n y •id e a s o f decency as w e'u nd erstan d i t how, and
b ecau se a ls o i t d id not: n e c e s s a r ily im ply immoral p r a c tic e s ..
But o f cou rse f e r t i l i t y r i t e s u s u a l ly - l e d to "sym pathetic
:(,
m a g ic, f which in t h i s ca se meant immoral r i t e s l i k e th o se
p r a c t is e d by th e Saktas in l a t e r tim es .
7;
; •• ;;7'
(§} P h a llic s to n e s o f th e Indus typ e have been o b ta in ed in
B aluchistan^ ; i n Pe r s I a , , however, th e r e ::i s l e s s l i k e l ihood 7
,
o f th e (d isco v ery o f any s u c h ; r e l i c s * fo r l a t e r c i v i l i z a t i o n s .
have c o m p letely p b lit e r a t e d th e tr a c e s o f e a r l i e r o n e s, both
by b u ild in g on o ld e r s i t e s and by u s in g th e a n c ie n t remains .
a s(:.gu arries ^;^;.;'7:'- - ( 7" .77 7 7(7' _
77;7V-:.- .
(77 ( ( 7777 '’7-7-;-- 77 ,...77 7'7
.
'
39
f ( -V
.-'7-7/- V
,.
.: 7^_; 7"-'■;l 7';7'-( ■7.
■
:;■
o f th e Q ia lo o lit h io epoch have been fo u n d .
- 7 7 -;:: ^(77 7:
The examples.
( ;
:o f b u r ia ls a t Bahappa (not a t Mohenjo-Daro ), com plete o r 7
7
f r a c t i o n a l in la r g e urns; c o n ta in in g e it h e r com plete b od ies 7
;7 7776f/sk u lisV ''7are;,(d n .;th e o p in io n o f a r c h a e o lo g is t s , l a t e r
77:7 7
than G ia le o lit h ic Harappa, as i s proved by th e accompany-'
7 7
.. ;
-
'
'
■in g p o tte r y vessbTsv7 .s ' ^ ( . u s u a l 7 p , i i s 7g e h e r a ^
.
-b e lie v e d , was t o crem ate th e dead f ix^st and th en e it h e r
;7,. -
throw^the a sh es in to th e w ater or d e p o s it them in fu n e r a l
^
.. u r n s S o m e crem ation-U rns :,;7witif7fr&
7
7 7
placed i n s i d e t o g e t h e r with a (variety; o f sma.ll household
: 7 /' o b jects , (have. actually7been discovered (underneath' a;^floor >7 7
or s tr e e t; th e ir contents to some ,extent r e f le c t the views
77pivP^piQ\.cm
7
:(
.we7haye ;(yery-:lim it Sd;( (77
inform ation, on th is p o in t•
So :far as the o r ig in o f e r e - 7 ' -7 •
mation among' the Indus Vailey; people is c ono.erned,
i t may (
7" be t h a t t h e s e ; p e o p le , who were c i v i l i z e d enough to d i s ­
tin gu ish ab le tween :th e m e r its and d em erits o f (b u r ia l and 7; 7.
:( ( 7
( 7orem atibh7 adopted t h e l a t t e r 7 i ^ ^
7
7
perhaps'
t h a t , apart from i t s b ein g h y g ie n ic , i t p reclu d ed ir r e v e r e n t
(/s e x h ^ a ti^
/ s 67:many7(fehp^^
, 7.7
7 and th e n e g le c t o f graves which i s so e v id e n t in many ceme>7"..-f 7(.;;7 7 t e r i e s f 7
'7 - (7^7
, f e
7
a
h
y
>
; : - w
a
s 7
f f i
th e bottom a t so e a r ly a date o f t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , which
has c ont inue d up t illT n b w .in TEndia,: is( h o t ( p o s s ib le
7 7 /7
7 .7 7 a ^ cerfa ih 7 '-7;7(777', ,7’7:7777'7 7(7:v777(777;77;;77 ( ( 7 -7;/ 7 7 :7 7 ,.--77:-;
'(7 , " ' (*• rC fT In . ifep. , A.S »!♦v 1924-25,- p p .S 4 -7 5 7' (77 :1
7"'7-7'
7 (§) There . i s , ( however., a s u g g e s tio n /that crem ation may have 7
.(7
: (( been (in ten d ed to / sublim ate; th e( body^so' asI t p ; b bhvey(the 7 /
■ 7 -:;
('
-; ,;- 7 .
? 7 "7 ;
(con tin u ed next p a g e ) 7
,
. .
..: v. ".'39a;.
V
• '•
,v •
•: X-X'
X' - XX- ^ ^ ' ' X X
:. ' v / -'■■■
. Not e oont in u e d ) dead man/by th e agency. o f f ir e to th e
■XXX;: ^spirftTWorldi^;.:. This m otive was perhaps a ttr ib u te d l a t e r X
. by th e Aryans w ith Vwho&X?ire^ was a very, im portant d e ity *
. a m essenger god.X
\X'-:
...X
,
Ihe Q b a le o lit h ie c i v i l i z a t i o n d e sc r ib e d above undoubt e d-
.;iy.; lu s te d ;:d. lo n g -tim e , as s e v e r a l str a ta ; biXrulnp ;have been
d isoovb red at; Harappa and Mbhenjo-Daro.
The c i t i e sX on
t h e s e two s i t e s and o th er s in th e Indus v a l l e y 9- accord in g
tp ,;S ir; Ophn: i^ a rsh a li, would;bbem to go; back: as fa r ju s t h e
en d ;o f th e fo d rth m illennium (3£250) and to have' su rv iv ed ^
t c ; th e X b e g ih n in g ; o f th e t ^
XX- Ohe e s s e n t i a l p ie c e o f h i s e v id e n c e - f o r ;;t h i s ; 'd a t i n g i s
X base^
V a lle y now i n th e
■.; Baghdad; M isexm y ^
were found; a t th e ; M ssbpoiam ian s i t e s
XXjo£ Kish; and I3r i n 'd e p o sits; a s s ig n a b le ; t o t h e j p r e - S a r g b n i c
; jXX X .pbriod,X iX e •/’^ ^ b e " p x ,:■f p u r X b e r tu r ie s ; b e f o r e 2 ,8 0 0 ,B#C*, X’XXvX
: : v;^
r e s t s on B abylonian .
\ x:,.
' ^ X
(§)
-V .
^ X' , . ' -''Xt.X>;XX^
; v ; ; ; ; chronology ^ X and as; such; cannot be taken-as f in a lly v
■-X■-X■''X jsettled; bii:.the evidbnbeXdva^dble'i,^has;beeh^rebently;reX%:.
■XXjj
;
vised , iu t h e ;lig h t jpf^ a stohe;;vessbl with t
X • ; ; ;; X p ecu liarly ^ X ftd U s and- o b ta in ^
l e v e l 6 f o v e r tw e n ty
X-XXXX X ^-tight'-’f e e t b n th e a i t a o f ^ h e n io ~ D a i o :^ :- ■I b r tU h a te ly i t ;
XoccursXln: Sihne^^
■;
Mesopotamia
::X:;-X^ X xearthed ^
■
v e s s e ls ;a t f e l l . Istiar. and Kish in X.
b u tjis je^ ap tly duplicated on a double j j ar un- ;
!v; \ ,
tnX P ersiu, which , i s a ssig n {o) -
.
; ed by BXXMackay; on;: good evidence t o about v2> BOpXBiC,., so
XI* )X SI? d^bn ?Marshall:;- lo o »c i t , Vol I . Ghap v i i i ? p *104; X
X ; (§) P ro f. Sidney .-/Smithy i t may be p o in te d :p u t, in h is re cen t
XX work; AlalakhXahd^ GhrbhoIbjgy XhasXshofc
f ov con’ . ; s id e r a b ly lo w erin g th e d a te ; ofXHamiaurabi from. 2^.00 B*C* to
X X x ; ,;X ^l?B O ;B '.:C X xX X X ''X ^
X X tiX j;X X X X X ' •
X ; X • tb) XBUrther X ^
V o ljlX pV7> ,0 f; X lhdu^
X ;X - X X - ■ p . 1 9 4 .
x x ■i x : ■■ ; ' ; ; X X ■ x X x r x j v:j / X - X ' X X ; ; , / , , , . < - ; X X x X x x X ; x .
XXX'XXxXX-
th a t th e b eg in n in g o f tb e jGhal e o l i t h i c le y e l may w e ll b e ■
X
XX
p la c e d now in th e f i r s t q u a r te r /o f th e th ir d m illen iu m B .C .,
.•-X;X:f&ndyro
th a t was p r o v is io n a lly f i x e d .
Vfe.
X X-Xx
are* how ever, on a more r e li a b l e ground as to th e low er
X X X X X x x X X x ii:^
,
d a t e , though when e x a c tly , th e Indus c iv iliz a X X X x ';
XX’t i o n f i n a l l y reced ed in to th e background i s not d e f i n i t e l y
;;r'kiibWn:x -u t:^bhy ta te /fr o m /v its X T e lic s ;' '/yTheyevideuce. f o r t h i s
i s a c y lin d e r s e a l , c e r t a in ly o f th e Indus m o tif and work- X
X-
,•
,
manship j wh i c h , ; to g e th e r ■ w i t h ,c e r t a in o th e r obj e c t s im ports
, t
;ed from th e Indus v a l l e y , was d i s covered by D r.Ih an k fort
XyX/yjX'X j i n a w ell-define^ ^ l e v e l a t T e ll Asmar.
I t has been a s s ig n -
-j
X;
ed by him on a u th e n tic ev id en ce to th e d yn asty o f jUckad,
XxXXXxXxXxXX:::;'. X x j: X-X-. {* X j'X.X X., xXXXX-'X/ -XXxx '-'X; Xx- X-X - X x
i * e . 2 ,5 0 0 B*C>XxXXyv-.xXX x'VXXx X.y--XX-' ,yX:-...>XjXX''-' x X X .
•,v;;X
But t h i s d a te sh ould in no w i s e be ta k e n as th a t o f
• y X x th e f in a l d o w n fa ll o f th e Indus C h a lc o lith ic c u lt u r e . : • It j.';-.
Y5;Xxix
i s n o t /u n lik e ly th a t th e th r e e s u c c e s s iv e s t r a t a o f i t s
c i t i e s which have been l a id baira a t IVfohenjo-Daro and
X
s im ila r ones a t Hhrappa took a lo n g e r tim e in t h e i r r i s e
XxXj-W dy/dbclinef they/thusX dq iK^t ypreelude th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f
t h e i r s u r v iv a l in to a l a t e r period*
In th a t ca se th e
';X X;;jV-:io w e r l i m i t o f th e Indus Chronology w i l l have to be pushed
X
fu r th e r down by a t l e a s t two or th r e e c e n t u r ie s : to th e
l a s t quart e r o f th e t h ir d mi1lenium B. C ., say to c ir c a
;(y ) lU rth er Ibcoavations, pp 6 - 7 . X
XXX-y
y
•v; X X; yy.'2*200 BVC*; and t h i s , i t is'-b eliev ed .,.'- w i l l no d o u b t b e
; ;.
yXy,y y
•.j'--- y /
spoii, c o n firm e d b y / f r e s h e v id e n c e com ing f o r t h on f u r t h e r
:-;/A:y o p e r a tio n s ^ a ^
o f b o th . M esopotam ia and
^;:yjYX-ytheY;Indhs:vVjalIeyX' ;Xfery: p o s s ib ly then*; we. s h a l l have to; Xy
:
y XTX ■
XXX--
o f th e e a rly Aryans as having caused
th e d ecliiip o f t h i s C h a lc o lith ic c i v i l i z a t i o n , ; i n . as much
y
y YXXXXy'-as /th e re ;
i s evidence in th e Bgveda* th e e a r l i e s t , l i t e r a r y ; :
:.j?y' xX'Y • moriument. of-ythe A ryans i n In d ia and d a te d a b o u t 2 , GOO B .C ., X;
X-YvyXy - ';;Xy.X: t h a t th e y ;r e a l l y came i n c o n ta c t w ith a p e o p le b e a r in g th e
..
' -/yv-y r e l i g i o n and custom s o f th e ' Indus V a lle y . YThat th e a n c e s t o r s .
y
YyY;;.X.,XyX ;o f y th e yBgvpdic A ry a n s, who u n d o u b te d ly p o s s e s s e d b e t t e r
... yy
y
r e s o u r c e s , s u p e r i o r p h y siq u e and i n t e l l e c t , ;• a s we s h a l l y
.YXyYyX /y jshow:*. w ere /p ro b a b ly th e d e s t r o y e r s o f th e Indus c i v i l i z a ­
t i o n o f y Indiay; i s , m o reo v e r, s u p p o rte d by th e a p p a r e n t x.X
Aryan i n s t i t u t i o n s i n th e P a n ja b , t h e i r f i r s t o c c u p a tio n
i n I n d ia ;a n d they d is a p p e a ra n c e o f th e G h a lo o iiih ic a r t ,
:■;vy...y.;;
t>
. a r phi te c t p r e rYlahgUagex and many o th e r c r e a t io n s .
Thus,
. y Y - y X .'in ; s p i t e ; of; some u n c e r t a i n t i e s , w hich a r e b e in g re d u c e d a s
: th e ev id e n c e ;ava i l a b l e i s ac cum ulat i n g , t h i s mus t be
y
y
X
re g a rd e d as th e o n ly p o s s i b l e and s a t i s f a c t o r y p o s i t i o n ' .
from Y theY standpo i n t o f c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y ;
-
' ; N o n eth e p le ss., .• some o f o u r s c h o la r s in In d ia have
y
yy
d e n ie d t h i s aiid t r i e d to show t h a t th e C h a l c o l ith ic
c u l t u r e was th e r e s u l t o f n a t u r a l c h a n g e s ,
p a r t l y d e v e lo p -
y riients and p a r t l y d e t e r i o r a t i o n , o f e a r l i e r Vedld id e a s and
y
p ra c tic e s .
(*)
Ihey do n o t show t h a t th e Indus V a lle y
p e o p le w ere A ry an s; t h e y ' r a t h e r s t a r t w ith th e w h o lly
u n j u s t i f i e d a ssu m p tio n t h a t th e Vedio Aryans were th e
b u i l d e r s o f t h e , Indus c u l t u r e and r e l i g i o n .
In t h i s view
we s e e on t h e i r p a r t sim p ly an in s ta n c e o f th e alm ost
in c o m p re h e n sib le d e s i r e som etim es found w ith c e r t a i n
s c h o la r s f o r alw ays d is c o v e r in g somehow d a ta w hich may
c a r r y th e Rgveda and o t h e r Vedic t e x t s bach t o an
"" T
(§)
e x t r a v a g a n t 'a n t i q u i t y . N othing as y e t d is c o v e r e d a f f o r d s
a n y . i n d i c a t i o n t h a t th e Indus V a lle y p e o p le , were in any
way a k in to th e A ryans, u sed a .g ro u p o f d i a l e c t s b e lo n g in g
to th e s o - c a l l e d
’ In d o -E u ro p e a n ’ fa m ily o f la n g u a g e s w ide­
l y s p re a d i n A sia a n d ,E u ro p e , and who composed th e Vedic
hymns in one o f th o s e d i a l e c t s
( l a t t e r l y c a l l e d S a n s k r it ,
th o u g h p r o p e r ly t h i s . t e r m d e s ig n a te s th e l i t e r a r y lan g u ag e
u se d by th e p o s t-V e d ic A ryans, which i s m a in ly b ased upon
a s i s t e r o f th e ,Vedic d i a l e c t ) .
Even P r o f . Langdon, who
d e r iv e s th e Aryan Brahmi^t a lp h a b e t from th e C h a lc o lith ic
s c r i p t , assu m in g a t th e same tim e t h a t th e Indus p e o p le
p a s s e d i t on t o th e A ryans, ad m its t h a t th e fo rm e r d id n o t
sp eak ’S a n s k r it* .
F T E r S . Dr*B.,Sarup i n In d i an C u ltu r e . O cto b er, 1937 p p . 149 f f
( r e p l ie d by B r.E . J.Ihom as“ in I . H . ft. v o l x i v , Ju n e, 1938,
pp 127 f f ) and J .P .U . H is .S o c . . v o l v , A p r il 1938, pp 6 0 -6 1 ;
P r o f . V enkatesw ara i n The C u ltu r a l H e rita g e o f I n d ia , v o l H L
111, pp 3 5 -5 7 .
,(§) One o f th e s e s c h o l a r s , s t r a n g e ly enough, h a s gone to
■the e x te n t o f a s s ig n in g th e Bgveda t o an age when bone
and s to n e w ere i n u s e .
^
\v -:\
, On .;:the\-;- o.therv:h a n d ; t h ^
; a p p e a rs t o be o f a non-V edic type>
th e -3M usJ
i h a t i t was p re -A ry a n
.
and p r e - % d i o - i s ; c l e a r from th e f ac t t h a t i r o n i s c o n s p ic u ■. ■ busV by i t s ’-a b s e n c e ^ In :d t$ :'ab u h & an t,;rte
V. v a r io u s s i t e s *
,
’.v;'-'
^ c o r d i n g tio :
ly r e p re s e n ts th e Stone-Copper ( C h a lc o lith ic ) #ge,;\
no
^ -m a tte r i f some bronze is alspb In ev id e n c e . r On th e ; whole,
b
i t i s to be obseryad:: that- no®
V;
dqebua^Bronize
#ge p r o p e r a p p e a r betw een Copper and Iro n a g e s * ; In th e .
;
j^;
: no r t h / in c lu d in g th e Pan jab and S in d ,. th e St one-Copper Age
;: must;;g r a d u a lly have p a ssed into, .th e Iron.h^
. ,
gouth ir o n appears; iiim iedlately a f t e r .s to p e * -;I h e ;ia ct > is ; ^Vv -; vtr
y th a t i t was % e; Aryans; whp A fir st knew Jand; brought - ir o n ,C
; (ay a s , .. s y ama; ay as o f syaxiia) in to the; M o r t h . and In trod u ced
;" i^
t h e i r c o lo n iz a t io n in ta .ih e ^ ^
- . w hich was s t i l l I n ’the; £tone-;ftge, x n aip ly Jifeo lith icV ;
H it among th e C h a l c o l i t h i c re m a in s o f th e fiidus
v a l l e y th e m ost s t r i k i n g d is c o v e r y i s p e rh a p s one t h a t
p ro v ed th e e x is te n c e h e r e o f r e l i g i o u s n o t io n s q u i t e ' ■
d i f f e r e n t from th o s e o f th e Bgveda. ;
.
;
:
) ,3n th e dom ain o f p r e h i s t o r i c a r c h a e o lo g y ' v e r y l i t t l e
by
h a s b een done i n I n d ia . , E f f o r t d haye o c c a s l
b e e n ;:.; w b ^ y " ^
; made i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , b u t so f a r i n s t a n c e s o f :S tone age '
( i . e . p a l a e o l i t h i c and ® o l i t h i c ) r e l i c s b a r e y l a r e y i n y t h e
P a n ja b . A number o f p r e - C h a l c b l it h i o r e l i c s h a s r e c e h t l y
. been c o l l e c t e d from some p a r t s o f I n d ia , th e Pah ja b i n j;
■. e lu d e d , by A rc h a e lo g ic a l Survey and th e C am bridge-Y ale
E x p e d itio n . I t i s hoped t h a t b e f o r e lo n g a s y s te m a tic s tu d y :C
o f a l l th e m a t e r i a l so; f a r .found in I n d ia w i l l make, i t
.v y v
by/ V
p o s s i b l e t o d e t e rm lne th e c o u r s e , and seq u e n ce
o f hiunan yv./.
.;
e n d e av o u r In th e age o f Man fs in f a n c y . .
-; :
■ ( § ) , hfiacdonell and K e ith , Vedic I ndex o f Names and ; Sub .j e c t s y
;
London 1912, Vol I , p . 3 2 . Als6*T3apson, Camb r id g e H is t o r y o f
,
■ I n d i a . Vol I . up 614-5$ p 613.
^
/prej-Aryarij but; a re s t i l l predom inant in t h e . p o p u lar c u lts
. '/ ./7- o f .India*
; •/
/
/•
Evidence o f t h i s 'is fu rn ish e d b y numerous
7 /./., ^/ / 7 ~-
o b je c ts y p e c u lia r^ ;to ; ^ d i a h fo m s d f . w orship, eubh ae/;the • 7
/
- - p h a l lic s to n e s , l i e • th e lin g a and yohi emblems, re p re s e n ta /■ tio n s o f th e sa c re d h u ll and the, P in a l t r e e , a S iv a itio
god .7 and th e - S ak ti oh/M other
Goddess . Let /us ..make t h i s
. p o i n t c le a r by ta k in g one o r two im portant exam ples.
■.;•*/■’ ;7/ /
//;/'
'/.;7/-
Ihe
li n e s o f r e lig io n s th o u g h t, th e Ai^an and non~Aryan*^’^^^^ ^/
■ / ' V I h e r e ; a r e some, t r a i t s in t h i s c u lty f o r th e ;e x p la n a tio n o f
/ 7y.v;^.-#iich;: w e ^
/;•••
.
' K udra-^iva c u lt o f l a t e r tim es is c le a r ly a . fu s io n of two
' .
l7-7 7 : /'//'
/
ixi&fispme 7 n ^^
’’/ // p r e - A ry an i n i t s o r i g i n i s
7
E v id e n c e :
/
i t 'was; ./-.v
i n d i c a t ed b y th e 'v'fb iip w in g -: 7 7 v y
■
' 7 ? 7 ' ' . . / ' 7 ' 7 / 7 . - 7 , v f 7 7\7.y7' :y/7:'' :7y7 //•./'• . ^ S / / ' - - ■';'/'/
7 l ) KS i ^ a d e v a P 7^ w orshiT O ers/?^of ;t h e i 3 i s n a ^ e r i i h g a : (nh^
t h e c h i e f em blem o f R u d ra -S u h w o rs h ip
'
:
//
7
7 ^7/7.7
: ■tw ic e i n t h e Rgveda,
/; ' / '
a g a i n s t th em .
(§)
w here
a r e m e n tio n e d
:'<;■■■■v :;77/77:yyy/
In d ra fs i n t e r c e s s i o n i s s o u g h t
E v id e n tly : th e y c o u ld n o t be w o rs h ip p e r s '/o r /
.
-j
::
fo llo w e rs - o f th e Vedic S iv a - R id r a , who i s / c e le b r a te d i n
7 t h r e e s e p a r a t e /hymns : o f th e Rgveda aM /a^ ieW; o t h e r s ta n z a s * /.7;
7 777'
, ^ 12 ) Ihe w orship o f . Rudra£Siva is never connected w ith th e - >.
s i s n a o r p h a l l u s in th e Rgveda; where i t a p p e a rs t o be
,;/'/';,/''/
:
■77
m e n tio n e d y ; i t i a condemned . •;
s i s n a - l i n g a ; 7 j- 7 Yv
p j I t i s wrong t o assum e t h a t th e l i n g a w a s o r i g i n a l l y n o t;
a . p h a l l u s b u t m e re ly a symbol o f > i v a ; t h a t when th e
. ^ / w o r s h ip /b f th e v l i n g a :a s a sym bol once s t a r t e d , th e r e : was
V
l i t t l e to p r e v e n t a c o n f u s io n in th e p o p u la r mind b etw een 7
and th e w o rsh ip o f th e p h a l l u s | ;and t h a t; th e le g e n d s
. , r e l a t e d i n th e M ahabhar^ata ahd P u ran as Paine to be. ln v e n te d
a f t e r th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f th e w o rsh ip o f th e l i n g a a s th e
p h a l l u s o f S iv a , d h p t i s o n ly a way t o e x p la in away th e
//::/;:.'p a s s a g e s 'Ih y th e /^ a h d b h a ra ta /a r id . TEprahds^ 77h i o h / d e f i n i t e l y ,
'777" r e g a r d th e l i n g a a s a p h a l l u s ; ';
':7 / ;y 'y - ^/..:
(§) See b elo w , C h ap ter I I I , p .
777y77 / ‘7
.../'7 , / 7,.
..* v i i .y;
. ■
■ . •■. / / y ^ v;y./-,;v .Vy;
y
■•;■■■■' ' • s.
c h a r a c t e r is t i c , which becomes a prom inent fe a tu r e o f l a t e
■y ; .
^ iv is r a y a s s o c ia te d w ith any j s a r ly Yedie r i t u a l , o r ev en ^//y'V/'yy
w ith Rudra- S iva w orship as tr a c e d in th e o th e r Vedas and
:;;;;the’ir;'''^ahmahas.,_ composed su b seq u en tly -;t6'y-]^edlc. tim e s .
3 ) !Qie: Aryans w orshipped th e good and b e n e v o le n t d e i t i e s o f
r
: y/Nature, w h ile th e o h a r a o t e r is t io s o f th e l a t e r to d r a -S iv a /y
y
\ : in ; ^ n e r a l -;are ;those p f a m a le v o le n t, ‘h o r r i d ^
. d e i t y , p ro p .itia te d w ith gruesome r i t e s lik e 'm a g io and
y so r c e r y by p r im itiv e fo lk * .
:
In th e.l/ed a s^ where, to
; assumed a dual c h a r a o te r , h i s appearance is ; d e sc r ib e d as
aw fu l and h i s d h a racter fo r m id a b le ; even th e Bgveda, .the
, •
;
/“
e a r l i e s t o f them, d e s c r ib e s scme; fe a tu r e s: in him .w hich .
' , a r e :;n o n ^ % d ib ;/.ie V g V h is/c o lo u r -is;':b r o ^ .o ^ ^
.:
y
d e s t r u c t iv e as a t e r r i b l e b ea st j e t c .
/
7;./.
■ ™(^') !)]?> Sarupjhoweveri con ten d s th a t we can s e e th e e x is t e n c e
rof p h a l l i c w orship in ^ th e yAsvamedha s acr i f i c e as des cr ib ed
. in th e Ya juvveda and ^ ta p a th a Brahmana (fo r r e fe r e n c e s se e
• h i s a r t i c l e in Indian C ulture quoted a b o v e ), and con clu d es
\ /v . • y': th a t th e J b y a n r i t u a l w ith p h a llic r i t e had a v.eiT h ig h
a n t iq u it y , g o in g a s fa r back as th e ‘^ e d i c a g e s , which in y .;
th e o p in io n o f th e le a r n e d d o cto r were m o stly p r ir a itiv e and .
p r io r to th e epoch rep resen ted ; by th e h ig h ly d ev elo p ed .
v //
c i v i l i z a t i o n o f th e Indus v a l l e y / In t h i s co n n ectio n w e;
y: y
v ,, / . may /quote y3\fc;^
whoS&s r e c e n t ly /made; a y e ^
/,ly
/
and c a r e f u l su rvey o f ;fche whole v e d ic l i t e r a t u r e w ith r e y ;; ;
fe r e n c e tp th e R id ra -S iv a c u lt in h i s t h e s i s (1938, London
/
U n iv e r s it y } , which I have .been p e r m itte d to read in ty p e /•' s c r i p t , h u t which h a s ; n ot y e t been p u b lis h e d / He sa y s .//■
V ‘X
therey i s n o th in g w hatever in “t h i s l i t e r a t u r e which may/ su g g est, th a t th e r e was any p h a l l i c r i t e ; in th e Aryan r i t u a l .
V: !fIhe p h a l i i c o r g a n s1!, i t i s p o in te d ou t on
38 o f th e
y.
■ '
. T h e s is , "are indeed freq .u en tly m entioned and many a . me tapho r
y ;:: -'/■ '
y; ;and a lle g o r y ,i s ybase^^^^
:
/ a ls o p la y ed a p a rt in some f e r t i l i t y r i t e s , a s , fo r- exam ple,
y vin th e p a r t i c u l a r y r i t e yiny theyy^A^ca^edha; ceremor^
V;.-/
V th e c h i e f w ife o f th e s a c r if ic e r .c o h a b i t e d w ith th e dead
;. h o rse i Bat. th e r e i s ' n o t h i n g to y sh o w th a ty ;p h a ilic ; emblems ■: y/
were e v e r worshipped or h o n o u re d .tr
..
;.:(§) y-P^of. ;yAiB. K eith j ; a f t e r s u ^ e y in g ythe.; ^oley*Vedic;;^i
v-vV.---y
■;
•
y;
. ;/.y
(c o n tin u e d ) :'
y^
v iii
■
YYYY'y'YY
.Again, ^ e f f o r t s h av e been made t o t ra p e ^^^t^
. t h e c u l t o f t h e : p o p u l a r f e r t i l i t y Goddess of ; ;t
Y
v
"Valley from th e V elio r e l i g i o n . . But t h e r e I
o r i g i n o f YY .
h
s
-
i
e
;
n
Y Y.
e a r ly o r l a t e r Vedic r e li g i o n which can be supposed to
have d evelop ed in to th e Ivlbther-KGoddess.
A ll; fem ale d e i t i e s
:
;v m en tio n ed i n t h e Vedic l i t e r a t u r e , such a s P r ^ t h i y i , R odasi
:YY and Vale, a r e o f m in o r im p o rtan ce and nowhere i n Vedic t e x t s
Yy c o n c e iv e d b f a b Y t h b l a t h e r >w i f e a n ^
v,
t o them.
Hie; MotherYGbddess,,■w e \t o
Goddess .of t h e f i r s t ; rank" i n the;. Indus . V a l l e j r ^
YY
Y Y Y :Y ‘
y
d e v e lo p e d c u l t o f h e r own; L a te r o n / h o w e v e r ,: she, came' t o .
y . . y : Y - Y y : ' ' y '■ : y / Y Y y y Y / v
;Y 'V ;? v
Y^nYlYYY/Y.Yl*-)
:!; .be: worshipped both as th e con sort ^of l^drar-Biyd^ : a
by r
: h e r s e l f a s t h e g r e a t Ivbther Gbddess, t h e ; S a k t i , - In. t h e ;
Y fo rm e r a s p e c t h e r w o rsh ip became an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f l a t e
YY
.■ S aiv ism , and i n t h e l a t t e r we c a n s e e t h e b e g in n in g s o f Y: Y:; Y-- - .Y
Yyy '-YYy J ^ k i i s m o :^ ^
Y';:Y
.
se v e ra l;^ ^ ^
;;
r i t e s c o n n e c te d w ith h e r w o rsh ip s u r v iv e d i n In d ia Y ;YY: .
Ifote 'o o h tln u e d ) t u r e i n r e s p e c t o f th e e a r l y and l a t e r t r a i t s
'
YYY.^Y'YYYbfy'lta^^^
Y g r a d u a lY ^ 's X ^
Y' p o s i t e d R u d r a - S i v a and s a y s , " In t h e l a t e r S iv a t h e r e a r e
YYY ;many t r a p e s ;; o f ' c o n c e p tio n s ^ commonly- a s s o c ia te d '^ w ith % e g e ta Y YYYy
/ Y'. t i o n s p i r i t s , and h i s p h a l l i c c u l t i s one which i s condemned
by t h e Rgveda, b u t which u n d o u b te d ly rem a in e d aS p o p u l a r
. among t h e a b o r i g i n e s a s i t now i s among S iv a w o r s h i p p e r s :
... th ro u g h o u t I n d i a fl. (R e l i g io n and P h ilo s o p h y o f t h e Veda, Y
■„
:
Cambridge . JMass. 1925 , Vbl 31, pY’l 4 8 ) . YAlsoYCf.*E# Arbman ’s Y ■
i:Y
p n t e r s ia c h u n ^ e n z \n n v a itih d is c h e h Y t^ h u b e n (u n d Y lliltu s , ; v1 Y Y
U p p s a la ,1922, i n which ;the a u t h o r h a s shown f u l l y t h e nonVedic n a t u r e o f R u d r a - S iv a ; a l l h i s v ie w s , how ever, a r e riot
Y Y .
a c c e p ta b le ,
-\Yv;'- YYYy 'Y ^ 1 :Y ^
(* ) Under v a r i o u s names - Una, P a rv a t i , Chamunda, C hand i,
G a u ri, ; Kalifc, Uurga^ e t c . Such r e l a ti o n s h i p s Y i n r e l i g i o n o c c u r
. f r e q u e n t l y and;may"’ i n d i c a t e a b le n d o f two in d e p e n d e n t c u l t s
a s th e r e s u l t o f ra in g lin g o f b e l i e f s . ;
y Y^ Y ^; Y' Y
; (•§) D e t a il s o f t h e s e u r e g iv e n i n th e t e x t s ls:hown a s T a h tra s ;
• some a r e r e v o l t i n g and h o r r i b l e . Read Sheik t i and S h a k ta .
;
seco nd e d i t i o n , London 1 9 2 0 , ; by S i r John vfoodroffe,
Y,
Y YY
YY yyY-' ‘Y Y^art--frbm-^these e v id en ces YYueeY.of
v
from th o se used by theA ryansY ahd ; r e i i g i o ’u.s.s-.dfii©ioi!^.--:.
'_■■_.
a r e o t h e r c o n s id e ra tio n s Y w h io h i n c lu d e p r o o f s from (1) Y
r e l a t i v e a n t i q u i t y , shown "'-by;'depth oif s i t e > whicli go b a d e
Y
Y t o aY date f a r ; e a r l i e r ; t h a i i t h e emergence- c f t h e ;;toyahjsyYY;
YY
.
^
V'YY'YY'Y;- i n t o h i s t o r y j
.■":
^ . ^ Y
(2 ) p o t t e r y showing co n tii^ p u sY d e v e lo p m e n t
IY>•'
y
Yfrom e a r l i e s t t i m p s ; i n :c l o s e : a f f i n i t y w i t h p r e h i s t o r i c : !fYYY;.'-
’Y
Y p o t t e r y found o u t s i d e I n d i a , (5) a p i c t o g r a p h i c s c r i p t
Yy-y a p p a ren tly s im ila r in o r ig in w ith th a t o f Sumer,., though
Y
Y i t has c o n sid e r a b ly diverged*
■:' Y;
YYYYy, ;/
;
(4). ab sen ce o f know !edge;;
y;
.YY Y p f ' theYhorsb,^ w h io h Y M s Y fa m iiia riy Y k ^
y
. y;Y'.y' andYseem ingly to a^
Y;' v ery Y ea rly ' t i m e s , -YYpM ■;Y(5;)Y;eyldj&ncev--^PK'sett le d Yy^bdn YyyY,
■YYYYYYtifpY^
w e ll . b u i M Y a ^
Y:YY';YYyy , many c e n tu r ie s , b efo r e the; a r r iv a l o f Ythe
a t th e tim e o f m lgi'at ion
Yv Y"Yv' 'YY Y' ‘
y,Yy
y
nomads and n ot s e t t l e d p e o p le . Y Y .vYYYYYYY\ YyYyY; ' ;Y;Y''YYYY’V;■Y'
Yi^ii'gipnYtndYL; -YY;; •: ;Y
added, should be q u ite enough to con vin ce s c h o la r s h o id in g
y
Y . extrem e vlew s on t h i s m a tte r ♦
Y;yY' -Y;Y- y y y YY"
'’;Y.y Y -V-
.
Y a r c h a e o lo g ic a lY C o n sid e r a iio n s, to whlchYbthers;v6an;be ■Yy;YY:. Y,
;Y'y Y-Y"
/YY'Y' y Y
V a lle y alm ost
;_YyyyyyY' --YYY' So YYtheY:flihdam^^
Y
, who were
AndY i f :d e s p ite t h i s * th e y
s t i l l c l i n g to t h e i r t h e o r i e s , we, a t any r a t e ,. in .the Y; Y
Y-. l i g h t 1o f obvibus f a c t s b e l i e v e : t h a t th e YEhdps ojil.tu re, Y-YY
;YYYyy:YYY-': yYY; which ;speaksYihtbughY»etQCksYhhdYstq^
Y'-.Y y.
■y‘;M
’"7‘";:(^T;*Pema in s ;o f th e h o rse which lsYdps or ib ed Yin ^mmierous
'Y:--^
Y Y; Y-Y:.; - hymns o f :-theY;:R^edaYha.ve n o t been; found Yin C lia lc o lith ic y YY;;
■'YY-Y;"Y;y; Y; ,;-vl e v e l s . YOhey are found, a lo n g w ith cam el-b ones; in h ig h e r ;.
. Y
or l a t e r l e v e l s .
y YYYY-YY" yY/;Y,
Y.y ^ :;yyy;,;.; Y;Y.'Y/';;Y'
;YY
.y; a p p e a r s y e t n o n -1 i t e r a r y , d e f i n i t e l y p r e c e d e d ; t h a t o f t h e
YyYYy
yy/Yy Y i ^ e d i c 0
.
f a c t Y b h d ;^
j hdi a i i Ci v i l i z a t i o n i n g e n e r a l i s
YYYy -yl
c o m p lic a te d by t h e f a c t •
j ;.YYAY-
t h a t t h e w h o le o f. i t h a s b e e n b v ercw lx eliT iin g ly A r y a n iz e d . Y'Y
V--YY
I t l i a s , t lie re. f o r e , becom e / d i f f l c u l t y t o - S e p a r a te ^ I t fro m ■Y
y:.y
.y Y:;" th e o ld e r ;
y ;YY:;;
y
YEhe' v e s t ig e s o f O lia lc o lith ic man^
,Y
.f r o m th e Indus v a l l e y and elsew h ere in India * - when c r i t i c a l ­
l y and d is p a s s io n a t e ly examihedY^
Y
/
from
; v Indian l i t e r a t u r e s id e by s i d e , g i v e ;a c le a r in d ic a t io n
' y.
'YY:yY Y Y yY ih aiyiheY p re-existihgY b iv^ ^
in flu e n c e upon th e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f th e Aryans, who u l t i -
■ ;YY; •
yy
m a tely took p o s s e s s io n o f alm ost th e whole o f hid i a . y The Y
.YY-- YV-XY ■Y;:Y/../--;;';-;Y■ Y • Y-yY ; Y/yY :■yYy. y y yYy Y'yY: i n ityVYyYY’' -YY,:'• y / : -y "yY " '
y
. P a n j a b , ev en Y if th e
o f th e
Yy.:
Indus y a l i e ^ p e o p le , could hot be an ex cep t ion to .th a t y
/
n a tu r a l in flu en ce;.
Yy,; y -•
With the; .iiimiigrat i^
■YYryY^Y-
in to th a t c o u n try , ys ome elem en ts o f .the P.re^Aryan c u ltu r e
.
y found entry; in to t h e i r c i v i l i s a t i o n * ’'; w h ic h - u lt i^ ^
YYYYy;.y
y
;.'Y Y .;.,: YY,.
■>y;Y;;YvelbpbdYaYtypeYbf/-itsYOwh;*Y,dist^
YYYyy/M
th o se ..ev o lv ed by th e Aryans when th ey advanced l a t er
towards th e e a s t and s e t t l e d in th e v a l l e y o f th e Gangbsvy;
Y yYyyYy
//Y-
yVyY; Y
Y y I t should*;, how ever, b e;Yre^embered; t^
. o f th e Pan jab was a slow and .g ra d u a l p r o c e ssy d u rin g which
a c o n sid e r a b le / amount o f a s s im ila t io h o f Aryan c u ltu r e
YyY\ y y ;Y:y yy^ w ithythatY bf ^
pifyiheYln^^
must have 'taken p la c e among th e g e n e r a l p p p u la tio n in ,y .
.;yYy y YYy;
beyloW C hapter V I, ■y
/YYYY. Y?yY"; ■Y/yY/’- Y:;y.y;YyY ;.
y YY:
xf
Aryan s o c i e t y , i f ynotyamongYthe^^
t h i s was th e case^ may b e . adcepted; a
; y.Y-:
th o u g h .
y .Y:
fo r th e Panjab, ex cep t th e % v0da, we have no adequate
„
l i t e r a r y , ev id en ce such as Ywe■p o s s e s s f o r o th e r p a r ts o f y Y
In d ia , th e c u ltu r e o f which i s d escr ib ed in v a r ie d 1i t e r a t u r e , Brahmanic, YBuddhist and J a in ,Yt h e . whole f u r n i s h i n g
Yus' w ith y i^ u b ita b ie Y p r ^
r e s u i t ant Yam aIgafiatioh>^
Yr e l i g i o n ,
.
and t h e i r :;
;;ihe y^athrpS'V' o f YHindu \ ;Yy Y
custom s and Bianriers . in th e Indhs V a lle y o f
'YYY; :--
•to-day ban ' b e s t ;■be^YabcounteCYi^r ^a s y o f ig in a t in g w ith th e
Y
p.re-Aryans, l i v i n g :in; t h a t regioU.yY 2f th e y a r e n b t r e YyY, :
.
e a r l i e s t yy’-Yyy ; y .y:.y''• Yy.; Y’YyY.Y:Yv.‘> Y-: Y.: yy
yy-y
corded i n .the^hyiiins o f th e O ^ e d a , t h a t o n ly means th a t :
a p a rt o f theyAryan: ^ ppuidtiq h Y yw h & ^
Y id e a s, lo n g rem ain ed t o a l a r g e e x t e n t u n a f f e c te d by th e
• p ro c e ss o f a s s im ila tio n ;
Y Y
YY-'. yY,• ' .yY--y -y';y.’Y*Y•:- Y.Y:I'Y-Y ;;Y;y-- YY y
YyY"/ The' Aryan, obhquest. o f : th e Y P a n ja b , b e l o n g s , in th e s t o r y
o f anc l e n t I n d ia to a :stageY:Qf: h isto fy y v ;;■y|fe:jsayeYey^
r e g a r d in g i t i n ; th e l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e r Y
:YRgveda, Ywhich-YisY th e m ost a n c i e n t o f t h a Vbdas Y ahdY itytht: Y
Yv ery foundat io n .o f Aryan h is t o r y and c u ltu r e i n /
. This e a r ly h is t o r y which: l i e s in l i t e r a t u r e , and i s
p r im a r ily co n n ected w ith th e Panjab, w i l l be r e la t e d n e x t •
Chapter III*
A ry a n s In th e P a n ja b .
B art (i)
T he a d v en t o f th e A ryan s in th e P an ja b p r e s e n ts to u s
a p r o b le m t h a t i s n o lo n g e r o n e o f p r e o h i s t o r y , b u t o f
h i s t o r y , t h e f i r s t p e r io d o f w h io h b e g in s , fr o m t h e t im e o f
t h e ir o c c u p a tio n o f th e c o u n tr y a n d e n d s w ith th e E h a r a ta
flh r , w h ic h w a s f o u g h t , a s g e n e r a l ly a g r e e d , a t a b o u t
B .C . i n t h e p l a i n c a l l e d K u r u k s h e t f a .
1000
O ur f i r s t a c q u a in t-
a n c e w ith th e m i s fr o m th e h y m n s o f t h e R g v e d a ,
w h ic h
sh o w th e m t o u s a s a p e o p le s e t t l e d in th e In d u s v a lle y a n d
” / •; I h e e a r l i e s t l i t e r a r y d o c u m e n t o f t h e A r y a n s a n d t h e i r
c i v i l i s a t i o n , w h ic h w a s l a r g e l y p r o d u c e d in t h e P a n ja b *
(S e e b e lo w p * t
3 h t h e t e x t .o f t h e R g v e d a w h ic h h a s
co m e d o w n t o u s o n ly in o n e Q a h a la ^ r e o e n s io n , t h e S a m h ita ,
l i e # c o l l e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f 1 ,0 2 3 Q u k t a s o r h y m n s ( t h e s e
in c lu d e e le v e n V fila k h ily a h y m n s u n iv e r s a lly a d m itte d t o
b e m u ch l a t e r th a n t h e l a t e s t h y m n s in t h e S a m h ita ),
c o v e r in g a t o t a l o f a b o u t 1 0 ,6 0 0 s t a n z a s , a n d d iv id e d V
i n t o t e n M a n d a la S o r B o o k s ( t h e A s h t a k a d i v i s i o n i s n o t
v e r y p o p u la r )^ M o d ern s c h o la r s r e c o g n is e I n t h e s e h y m n s
d if f e r e n t c h r o n o lo g ic a l s tr a ta * Ih e s i x fa m ily b o o k s ,
a c c o r d in g t o th e m * fo r m e d t h e n u c le u s o f t h e R g v e d a
S a m h ita a n d a r e t h e o l d e s t * K e x t i n o r d e r o f ‘t im e
f o l l o w B o o k s I a n d T i l l * B o o k IX , w h ic h I s e n t i r e l y in
p r a is e o f S om a, w a s fo r m e d b y c o l l e c t i n g a p p r o p r ia te
h y m n s fr o m v a r io u s s o u r c e s * B o o k X , w h ic h c o n t a in s
h ym n s o f v a r io u s a g e s , b o th a n c ie n t an d la t e r , seem s to
h a v e b e e n a d d e d t o th e p r e v io u s B o o k s in p fd e r t o com ­
p le te th e c o lle c tio n * In m o st b u t n o t a ll o f th e hym ns
o f t h i s B o o k , b o th th e la n g u a g e a n d th e m a tte r a r e m o re
a d v a n c e d th a n t h o s e o f B o o k s I t o IX *
T h e h y m n s o f th e V e d a , w h en th e ;y ca m e t o b e c o n ­
s id e r e d a s m a n t r a s , i .e * m a g ic a l fo r m u la e i n t h e v a r io u s
I b o tn o t e c o n tin u e d *
s a c r i f i c e s a n d r i t e s * w e r e m e m o r iz e d a n d p r e s e r v e d b y
e n tir e ly o r a l tr a d itio n (se e Y £sk a*s M fu k ta T 1 * 3 0 , e d .
a n d t r a n s * b y B r * S a r a p , T e x t ( I a h o r e 1 9 2 7 ) ,p p 4 1 - 4 2 ,
T r a n s la tio n (O x fo r d 1 9 2 0 ) p * 2 0 * ) w ith s p e c ia l c a r e a n d
f o r m a l p r e c is io n * w h ic h h a d n o e q u a l a m o n g t h e w o r ld *s
lit e r a t u r e s . T h ey w e re n o t a l l co m p o sed a t o n e tim e , b u t
c o v e r e d a lo n g p e r io d , t h e le n g t h a n d e r a o f w h ic h
c a n n o t b e m e a su r e d w ith c e r t a in t y * S c h o la r s a r e d iv id e d
in o p in io n a s t o th e p r o b a b le d a te o f th e e a r l ie s t s tr a tu m
o f t h e R g v e d a * life s h a l l d i s c u s s t h i s q u e s t i o n b e l o w i n
c o n n e c tio n w ith th e a n t iq u it y o f th e A ry a n m ig r a tio n
in t o th e P e n ja b * B a r e i t m ay b e s a id t h a t th e u p p e r
d a te s p r o p o se d , o f b o u r se le a v in g a s id e m ore s p e c u la tiv e
e s t im a t e s , h a v e v a r ie d fr o m 2 5 0 0 B *C * t o 1 2 0 0 B *C *
B e s id e s t h e R g v e d a S a m h ita * t h e r e a r e t h r e e o t h e r
S a m h ita s : t h e S a m a v e d a , Y a ju r v e d a a n d A th a r v a v e d a f O f
t h e s e th e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d c o n s is t a lm o s t e x c lu s iv e ly
o f h y m n s d e r iv e d fr o m th e r g v e d a , b u t e s p e c ia lly
a r r a n g e d f o r r it u a l p u r p o se s* T he th ir d o r A th a r v a v e d a
S a & h ita b o r r o w e d l e s s fr o m t h e R g v e d a , a n d i s t o a
la r g e e x te n t o f a d if fe r e n t c h a r a c te r * I t is th u s th e
Ijtg v e d a S a m h it a w h ic h i s o f p r im a r y im p o r t a n c e f o r
h i s t o r y o f t h e e a r l y A r y a n s • S h e o t h e r t h r e e V e d ic
S a m h ita s , s o f a r a s t h e y a r e in d e p e n d e n t o f t h e R g v e d a ,
a r e d e f i n i t e l y l a t e r in d a t e , h a v in g a r is e n d u r in g th e
p e r io d o f A r y a n e x p a n s io n b e y o n d t h e P a n J a b e a stw a r d *
(3 fb r t h e d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f t h e s e S a m h it a s a n d
t h e i r r e l a t i v e d a t e s r e a d P r o f .M a c d o n e l l fs H is t o r y o f
S a n s k r it M t e r a t u r e * Io n d o n 1 9 0 0 ; B r o f* W in t e r n itz ’s
Q es c h i c h t e Z h d is o h e n M t t e r a t u r * B a r t I , E n g l, t r a n s , b y /u ^ ,
K e t k a r , C a lc u t t a 1 9 2 7 ; P r o f . K e it h i n Ca m b r id g e H is t o r y
O f I n d i a . 7 6 1 I , C a m b r id g e 1 9 2 2 , C h a p t e r s I V a n d V , a n d
a ls o h is R e lig io n a n d R x ilo s o p h y o f t h e V ed a a n d
U p a n i s h a d s . C a m b r id g e I f e s s a c h u s e t t s 1 9 3 5 , U r s t h a l f ,
B a r t I , C h a p ter s 1 a n d 2 ) .
th e m o d ern P a n ja b .
lh a t c o u n tr y t h e y h a d c o n q u e r e d fr o m th e
h ig h la n d s t h a t s e p a r a te d I n d ia fr o m I r a n •
.I h e s e A r y a n s b e lo n g e d t o a g r o u p o f t r ib e s s p e a k in g
V a r io u s
d ia le c t s o f th e sam e to n g u e * w ho h a d b e e n l iv in g
so m ew h ere in C e n tr a l A s ia
(*) :
■■
f o r a lo n g p e r io d , w ith th e
a n c e s t o r s o f $ h e I r a n ia n s , G r e e k s, I t a lia n s , E r e n c h , G erm an s,
B u to h , E n g lis h , S la v s , an d o th e r s ;
® xey h a d th u s a p r e v io u s
h is t o r y w ith a n e x t r a -P a n ja b c o n n e c tio n *
'O h fo r tu n a te ly , h o w ­
e v e r * th e a d v e n t o f th e A r y a n s, is n o t r e c o r d e d in th e R g v ed a ,
m u ch l e s s t h e ir e a r lie r m o v e m e n ts.
hym n in
E ven
th e o n e g e o g r a p h ic a l
R g v e d io l i t e r a t u r e • i n d i c a t e s a o o m p le te o b l i v i o n o f
an e a r lie r hom e a n d m ak es n o d ir e c t r e fe r e n c e to th e s u c c e s ­
s i v e w a v e s w h ic h c a r r ie d t h e A r y a n t r i b e s o n t o t h e P a n ja b ;
n o r d o w e p o s s e s s a n y a u th e n tic an d h is t o r ic a l t r a d it io n in
l a t e r I n d ia n l i t e r a t u r e w h ic h m a y th r o w l i g h t o n t h i s I m p o r ta n t
ev e n t.
(o) ■ '-;svv ' :
... ■
“•
H ow a r e th e n w e t o k n o w th a t t h e s e A r y a n s w e r e in v a d e r s
o r im m ig r a n ts fr o m t h e n o r t h - w e s t a n d t h a t t h e y h a d a h is t o r y
b e fo r e t h e ir e n tr y in to th e B an J a b ?
T h is i s b e s t sh o w n b y a
c e r t a in n u m b er o f lin g u is t ic lin k s b e tw e e n th e sp e e c h o f th e
(¥ } I n E u r o p e a c c o r d i n g t o a l e s s p r o b a b l e v i e w ;
( § ) R g v e d a , X .75.
(o ) A c c o r d in g o t h e P u r a n io (B r a h m a n io a l) t r a d i t i o n , t h e
S u r y a -v a iiis a (1 * 6 # S o la r r a c e ) o r i g i n a t e d i n A y o d h y a ,
n e a r I h lz a b a d ; w h ile t h e C h a n d r a -v a m sa ( i .e .l u n a r
r a c e ) in P r a t ls h th a n a , n e a r A lla h a b a d , b o th p la c e s in
t h e G a n g e tic v a l l e y . B u t t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l v ie w o f t h e
A r y a n o r ig in * w h io h w e s h a l l d i s c u s s b e lo w i n d e t a i l ,
i s i n c r e d i b le , o w in g t o d i f f i c u l t i e s , p h i l o l o g i c a l o r
lin g u is t ic a n d a r c h a e o lo g ic a l, th e la t t e r in v o lv in g
e t h n o lo g ic a l q u e s tio n s a s w e ll.
A r y a n s a n d m a n y o t h e r l a n g u a g e s i n A s i a a n d E u r o p e ,; n o w
re m o v ed fr o m o n e a n o th e r b y th o u sa n d s o f m ile s a n d th o u sa n d s
o f years,
r h i l o lo g i s t s d e c la r e th a t w h en s e v e r a l la n g u a g e s
h a v e t h e m o st e s s e n t i a l p a r ts o f t h e ir v o c a b u la r y in co m m o n .
an d a ls o a g r e e in g e n e r a l s tr u c tu r e , th e y m ay b e s a id to
b e lo n g t o t h e sa m e f a m ily * w h ic h im p lie s t h a t a l l t h e m e m b ers
o f t h e f a m ily h a v e a com m on a n c e s t o r o r h a v e d e v e lo p e d o u t
o f a com m on s o u r c e *
k n o w , f o r in s ta n c e * t h a t th e m o d ern
la n g u a g e s o f I fe r th I n d ia a r e d e r iv e d fr o m t h e p r im a r y s p o k e n
d i a l e c t s o n w h ic h S a n s k r it (V e d ic a s w e l l a s C l a s s i c a l ) w a s
b a se d * a n d th a t th e R om an ce la n g u a g e s a r o s e fr o m th e sp o k e n
d i a l e o t s o n w h ic h L a t in w a s b a s e d .
It is a n e ce ssa ry fu r th e r
s t e p t o p o s i t a com m on s o u r c e fr o m w h ic h S a n s k r it , G r e e k ,
S la v o n ic i a t i n a n d lik e w is e m an y o th e r la n g u a g e s w e r e
d e r iv e d *
Ih e com m on s o u r c e o f a l l th e r e la t e d la n g u a g e s i s
te r m e d In d o -E u r o p e a n ,
a n a m e w h ic h i s o n ly t h e o r e t i c a l
a n d in te n d e d m e r e ly t o in d ic a t e th e g e o g r a p h ic a l e x t e n s io n
o f t h i s fa m ily o f s p e e c h .
We ow e t h is d is c o v e r y to S ir
W illia m J o n e s , o n c e C h ie f J u s t ic e o f B e n g a l, w h o s e e p o o h m a k in g a d d r e s s i n 1 7 8 6 t o t h e A s i a t i c S o c i e t y o f B e n g a l l a i d
t h e f o u n d a t io n f o r t h e s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y o f C o m p a r a tiv e
R illo lo g y .
W T N am es o f o t h e r p a r e n t la n g u a g e s * m a rk ed b y c e r t a in
com m on c h a r a c t e r is t ic s d is t in g u is h in g th e m fr o m In d o E u r o p e a n a r e A a s t r o - A s i a t i c (M u h d a o r K b l a r i a h , ) ,
D r a v id ia n (B r a h ii, T a m il, T e lu g u ^ e t o ) , S e m it ic ( A r a b ic ,
& b r e w e t c ) , H a m it i c ( a n c i e n t E g y p t ia n ) * a n d s o o n i
T h is a n c le n t I h d o -E u r o p e a n p a r e n t t o n g u e , s p o k e n v e r y
l i k e ly in c e n t r a l A s ia , a s w e s h a ll sh o w , a t som e v e r y
r e m o te p e r io d , i s n ow r e p r e s e n te d b y a n u m b er o f g r o u p s o f
la n g u a g e s ;! I n A s ia t h e c h i e f g r o u p s a r e I n d ia n a n d I r a
(E h e I n d i a n g r o u p i n c l u d e s t h e S a n s k r i t o f t h e a n c l e n t s a c r e d
w r it in g s , t h a t o f th e I fc ic s a n d C la s s ic a l l i t e r a t u r e , P a li
a n d l o c a l o r t e r r i t o r i a l d ia le o t s o f P r a k r it ; fr o m th e
P r a k r i t c a m e m a n y o f t h e flto d e r n I n d ia n l a n g u a g e s l i k e I a h n d d ,
P a n j a b i, H in d i ( a ls o U r d u ) , B e n g a li, M a r a th i^ e tc .
The
e a r lie s t r e c o r d i s p r e se r v e d in th e V ed a s, th e o ld e s t p a r ts
o f w h ic h d a t e fr o m a t l e a s t so m e w h e r e in t h e f i r s t q u a r t e r
o f t h e s e c o n d m i l l e n n i u m B .C .
b y O ld P e r s i a n a n d A v e s t i o
T he I r a n ia n i s r e p r e s e n te d
(Z e n d ).
T he fo r m e r i s th e
a n c e s t o r o f P a h la v i a n d th e m o d ern P e r s ia n d ia le c t s o f I r a n ,
A fg h a n is ta n , e t c •
O f th e A v e s tio th e m o st a n c ie n t d o c u m e n ts
a r e t h e G a t h a s o f Z a r a t h u s t r a ; o f O ld P e r s i a n t h e i n s c r i p ­
t i o n s o f D a r i u s a n d h i s s u c c e s s o r s (5 2 0 - 3 3 8 B . C . ) . T h e o t h e r
A s i a t ic la n g u a g e s ! o f t h e I n d o -E u r o p e a n f a m ily k n o w n s o f a r
a r e I fe s ia n ( t h e la n g u a g e o f t h e H i t t i t e s ) , t h e o l d e s t fo r m
o f w h ic h I s fo u n d o n c u n e ifo r m i n s c r i p t i o n s a n d a l s o a
c e r t a i n number o f h ie r o g ly p h ! o s , and J t o a e n i a n a n d T o k h a r i a n ,
w h ic h a r e , h o w e v e r * n o t v e r y o l d .
T he la t t e r i s b e lie v e d
t o h a v e b e e n t h e la n g u a g e o f th e IS u sh a n s o f T o k h a r is ta n
(n o r th e r n p a r t s o f C h in e s e T ir k is t a n ) w h o a ls o b eca m e t h e
r u le r s o f th e P a n ja b fr o m th e f i r s t c e n tu r y A . D .
5
it is
d is c o v e r e d i n tw o d i a l e c t s o f A g n i-K a r a c h a r a n d K u c h a ,
',
"
>■
: .' :; : .
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. v, •
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p r e s e r v e d In d o c u m e n ts t h a t b e lo n g t o th e e i ^ t h
. ’ '
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JU B .
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ce n tu r y
7
The E uropean grou p s a re :
(1 ) H e lle n ic o r G reek .
I t c o m p r is e s t h r e e c h i e f s u b ­
g r o u p s : I o n ic ; (b ] A c h a e a n a n d ( c ) D o r io .
T he m o st a n c ie n t
'
a r e t h e H o m e r ic p o e m s , c o m p o s e d m a i n l y i n t h e I o n ic d i a l e c t #
(2 ) I t a lic -
I t in c lu d e s tw o m a in b r a n c h e s : ( a )
Q s o a n , H m b r ia n a n d S a b e l l i a n ; a n d ( b ) L a t i n w h ic h d e v e l o p e d
b n t h e o n e h a n d in t o th e l i t e r a r y la n g u a g e o f th e C la s s ic a l
p e r io d * a n d o n th e o t h e r h a n d in t o th e p o p u la r sp o k e n
-■
:
.7
Vv
c<o
7.:
d i a l e c t s , k n o w n a s L ow o r V u lg a r I a t i n , w h ic h w a s e v e n t u a lly
c a r r ie d b y s o l d i e r s a n d m e r c h a n ts o v e r t h e w h o le o f t h e
B o m a n B n p ir e * C s c a n , U m b r ia n a n d L a t i n a r e t h e c h i e f o l d e s t
.r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s ♦
(3 ) C e ltic ~
I t in c lu d e s a n c ie n t G a u lis h a n d th e
a n c ie n t la n g u a g e s o f I r e la n d , W a le s , t h e H ig h la n d s o f
S c o tla n d , th e I s le o f M an, a n d th e m o d ern d e s c e n d a n ts o f
th e se .
V e r y fe w fr a g m e n ts o f th e e a r ly la n g u a g e a r e
a v a ila b le . ;
( 4 ) T e u t o n ic o r G e r m a n ic ~
G e r m a n ic la n g u a g e s h a v e
t h r e e s u b - g r o u p s : ( a ) W sst< r G e r m a n ic , i n c l u d i n g O ld H ig h
G e r m a n , O ld . S a x o n , O l d F r i s i a n , O l d L o w E r a n c o n i a n , O l d
E n g lis h
(A n g lo -S a x o n ), r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e p r e s e n t tim e b y
th e m o d ern G erm an d ia le c t s o f c e n t r a l a n d s o u th e r n G erm an y
■
a n d p a r t s o f S w itz e r la n d a n d in s t r ia , E r is ia n , B u tc h ,
T^) See b e l o w p . i<-{
I f T T h i s L ow L a tin s p l i t u p in t o th e s o - c a lle d B om an oe
la n g u a g e s * w h ic h n o w in c lu d e E r e n c h , P r o v e n c a l, S p a n is h ,
B o r t u g u e s e , I t a l i a n , B u m a n ia n , e t c *
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11 (,
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. ■
'
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E L e m is h , E n g lis h ; e t c ; ( b ) N o r th G e r m a n ic o r S c a n d in a v ia n ,
' i n c l u d i n g B a n is h , S w e d is h , N o r w e g ia n a n d I c e l a n d i c , a l l o f
t h e m k n o w n a s O ld H o r s e ; ( o ) E a s t G e r m a n ic , i n c l u d i n g t h e
d i a l e c t s o f t h e G o th s , V a n d a ls e t c • , a l l n o w d e a d ,
The
o l d e s t r e c o r d in t h i s T e u to n ic g r o u p i s p r e s e r v e d in
t r a n s la t io n s o f p a r t s o f th e B ib le in G o th ic , m a d e in th e
fo u r th c e n tu r y .
(5 )
B a lto -S la v o n ic -
T h is g r o u p s p l i t in t o
(a ) B a ltic ,
r e p r e s e n t e d b y L i t h u a n i a n , L e t t i s h a n d O ld P r u s s i a n a n d
( b ) t h e S l a v o n i c t o n g u e s , r e p r e s e n t e d b y O ld S l a v o n i c a n d
t h e p r e s e n t R u s s ia n , P o lis h , C z e c h , S e r b ia n ,e t c .
T he o ld e s t
t y p e i s p r e s e r v e d i n L it h u a n ia n , w h ic h i s s t i l l v e r y a r c h a i c .
and
(6 ) A lb a n ia n .
I t i s n ow k n ow n in i t s m o d ern fo r m s o n ly .
B e tw e e n th e v a r io u s la n g u a g e s a n d d ia le c t s b e lo n g in g
to th e g r o u p s e n u m e r a te d a b o v e , th e r e s e m b la n c e s a r e m an y
and c lo s e .
A s illu s t r a t io n o f th e r e la tio n s h ip s o f th e
In d o -E u r o p e a n la n g u a g e s in d ic a te d b y t h e s e r e s e m b la n c e s ,
th e f o llo w in g r o u g h c o m p a r a tiv e t a b le s m a y b e o f i n t e r e s t
to th e r e a d e r w ho is n o t a p h ilo lo g is t
s k t j m a t r o r m a t a r ; la h n d d a n d P a n ja b i, m a u ; H l n d i U r d u t o a ; ' P e r . m a d a r ; Gftc# m e t e r ; L a t . m a t e r ; E r . m e r e ;
O .H .G e r . m u o t a r ; G e r * m u t t e r ; 0 . E n g . m o d o r ; E n g .
m o t h e r ; 0. S l a v , m a t i*
S k t. p itr o r
b a p ; P e r ', p l d
G d th . fa d a r ;
E ng. fa th e r ;
p i t a r ; la h n d d a n d P a n ja b i p iu ; H in d i-U r d u
a r ; <3c. p a t e r ; I a t . p a t e r ; E r . p e r e ;
O .H .G e r . f a t e r ; G e r . V a t e r ; O .lS ig . f a e d e r ;
A rm . h a y r .
( * ) E n g l i s h , i t w i l l b e s e e n , i s t h e d e s c e n d a n t o f H fe st
G e r m a n ic A n g l o - S a x o n , k n o w n m o r e g e n e r a l l y O ld E n g l i s h ,
w h ic h w a s b r o u g h t in t o B r it is h I s l e s fr o m G erm an y in
t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y A .D * b y t r i b e s k n o w n a s A n g l e s ,
S a x o n s a n d J U fe s . T he e a r lie s t r e c o r d s o f E n g lis h a r e
o f th e la te sev e n th ce n tu r y .
S k t» b h r a t^ l o r jb h r a ta r ; X a h n d l a n d P a n ja b
b h a ; H in d i-U r d u b h a i 5 P e r . b r a d a r 5 G k . p h
p h r a t o r ; I a t . f r a t e r ; E r . f r e r e ; O .H * G e r .
G e r . b r u d a r ; O .E n g ; b r o p o r ; E n g . b r o t h e r ;
b r a tr u , b r a tu *
i_bhra,
r a te r and
pruodar;
O .S la v .
S k t* s v a s r o r s v a s a r ; P e r . (K a fir D a r d ic ) / J k p u s a r o r
s p a z ; G k .'h e o r ; I a t . s o r o r ; E r# s o e u r ; G o th , s w i s t a r ;
O . H . G e r * s w e s t a r ; G e r s c h w e s t e r ; O .B n g * s w e o s t o r ,
s w u s te r ; E n g . s is t e r ; 0 * S la v * s e a tr a .
S k t / t r i , t r a y a , t r i n i s f ; la h n d d /, t r a i , P a n j a b i, t i n n ,
H in d i- U r d u .t in ; P e r * 0 r i;^ G k . t r e i s ; I a t . t r e s , t r i a ;
G o t h , t r i j a ; O .H .G e r , d r i , d r io * d r i u ; 0 . H o r s e p r i r ;
H b r .S w r .D a i t r e ; O . E r i s . t h r e ; O . S a x , . t h r i e ; G e r . d r e i ;
O .E n g .p r i; E n g . t h r e e ; C e l t i c ( I r i s h a n d ffls ls h ) t r i ;
O .S la v * t r l j e ; L i t h . t r y s .
S k t .s ' a t a , s 'a ta m ; la h n d d * P a n j a b i ,e t c * s a u ; P e r .s a d ;
G fc . e k a t o v ; L a t . c e n t u m , G o t h . t f u h d ; O .H . G e r . h u n t ,
h u n d e r t ; 0* S a x * la n d , h u n d e r o d ; 0 . H o r s e , h u n d r a o 5
S u a * h u n d r a ; 0* E n g . h u n d r e d ; 0 . W s l s h c a n t 5 0 . I r i s h , c e t ;
L it h , s g im t a s ; I b k h a r ia n K a n ta .
N . B . O th e r c o r r e s p o n d in g w o r d s b e lo n g in g t o th e
•* e s s e n t i a l p a r t s o f t h e V o c a b u l a r i e s , e i g * p a r t s o f
t h e b o d y , d o m e s t ic a n im a ls , e t c * c a n b e m u lt i p lie d .
S c h o la r s o f c o m p a r a tiv e p h ilo lo g y c o l l e c t a v a s t n u m b er
o f s u c h e x a m p le s o f s im ila r fo r m s , c a r e f u l e x a m in a tio n o f
w h ic h s o o n t e a c h e s u s t o a p p r e c ia t e t h e t r u t h o f t h e g r e a t
p r in c ip le g u id in g a l l p h ilo lo g ic a l s tu d y , t h a t , in s p it e o f
a p p a r e n t d if f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n th e fo r m s o f w o r d s in a l l In d o E u r o p e a n la n g u a g e s * t h e r e a r e com m on f e a t u r e s * fr o m w h ic h i t
m u s t b e c o n c lu d e d t h a t in a n e a r l i e r s t a g e , t h e d a t e o f w h ic h
i s n o t p o s s ib le to d e te r m in e , a v a s t n u m b er o f w o r d s w e re
id e n t ic a l in th e r e la t e d la n g u a g e s a n d t h a t in so m e o r a l l o f
th e m t h e y h a v e b e c o m e m o d ifie d *
But th is is n o t a ll *
P h ilo lo g is t s h a v e fu r th e r e s ta b lis h e d th a t th e d iffe r e n c e s
i n v a r io u s fo r m s a r e d u e t o p h o n e t ic t e n d e n c i e s , w h ic h
e x is t e d in e a c h g r o u p o f th e fa m ily , t o d e v e lo p a lo n g
d iffe r e n t lin e s *
T h is m e a n s t h a t t h e s p e a k e r s o f t h e
v a r io u s a n c ie n t c o m m u n itie s , w h o a l l s t a r t e d w ith th e sa m e
la n g u a g e , a s t h e y d r e w f u r t h e r a n d f u r t h e r a w a y fr o m e a c h
o th e r in t h e ir m ig r a tio n s g r a d u a lly cam e to p r o n o u n c e th e
sa m e o r ig i n a l s o u n d s , v o w e ls a n d c o n s o n a n ts , a n d o th e r w is e
a l t e r t h e ir la n g u a g e , in d if f e r e n t w a y s.
T h ese d iffe r e n c e s
a r e tr a c e d to v a r io u s c a u s e s * su c h a s c o n ta c t w ith f o r e ig n
p e o p le s , tim e , c lim a te , lo o a lit y , ch a n g e in a c c e n t/e tc * ,
a n d a r e e x p la in e d b y d is c o v e r a b le la w s o f p h o n e t ic c h a n g e s ,
a s th e y a f f e c t e v e r y so u n d am on g th e v a r io u s g r o u p s o f
: e*>
■la n g u a g e s *
:
H c w e v er, so m e o f th e la n g u a g e s in th e In d o -E u r o p e a n
fa m ily h a v e u n d e r g o n e en o rm o u s p h o n e tic c h a n g e s , a n d so m e
h a v e p a s s e d fr o m a p u r e ly s y n t h e t ic t o a n a lm o s t a b s o lu t e ly
a n a ly tic a l s ta g e .
C o n s e q u e n tly , w e f in d a g r e a t v a r ia t io n
in t h e ir fo r m s a n d ty p e s *
N e v e r t h e le s s , th e com m on f e a t u r e s
fo u n d in th e m , o n w h ic h t h e r e i s g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t, p o in t ,
in s p it e o f d if f e r e n c e s , t o t h e ir o r ig in fr o m a com m on
s p e e c h , sp o k e n in a com m on h om e*
H en ce i t i s b e lie v e d th a t
t h e v a r io u s In d o -E u r o p e a n s p e a k in g t r ib e s b r a n c h e d o f f fr o m
(* j E iu s , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h e I n d ia n , I r a n ia n a n d S a l t o S la v o n ic g r o u p s , a s o u n d , w h ic h a p p e a r s a s k . in G r e e k
a n d L a t in a n d a s h . i n G e r m a n ic , d e v e lo p s i n t o t h e
s o u n d o f s op s , t h e r e b y d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t h e l a n g u a g e s
i n t o tw o g r o u p s , s t y l e d t h e s a t em -g r o u p a n d t h e c e n tu m g r o u p , fr o m th e w o r d s d e n o tin g 1 0 0 in A v e s tio a n d L a tin
r e s p e c t i v e l y ; a n d t h e G e r m a n ic t o n g u e s h a v e a l l u n d e r ­
g o n e a p r o c e s s o f c o n s o n a n t a l c h a n g e (G r im m 's L a w * ) .
a com m on c e n t r e a t d if f e r e n t tim e s a t a v e r y e a r ly d a t e ,
a n d p r o d u c e d , i n c o u r s e o f t im e , v a r io u s g r o u p s w h ic h g a v e
r i s e t o n u m e r o u s in d e p e n d e n t la n g u a g e s , o f c o u r s e r e t a in in g
a l l th e e s s e n t ia l fe a tu r e s o f th e o r ig in a l to n g u e *
The
e x is t in g In d o -E u r o p e a n la n g u a g e s m a y , t h e r e f o r e , h e r e g a r d e d
a s s i s t e r s o f th e sa m e p a r e n ta g e , d iv id e d in t o s i s t e r
g r o u p s .'
‘H fe f i n d , m o r e o v e r , t h a t s o m e p a i r s o f t h e s e g r o u p s
h e a r c lo s e r r e s e m b la n c e s t o e a c h o t h e r a n d h a v e so m e
o b v io u s p o in t s o f d i s t in c t io n fr o m o t h e r s i s t e r g r o u p s ;
th e y m ay w e ll b e c la s s if ie d
in s u b - f a m ilie s .
Thus t h e
I t a lic an d C e lt ic g ro u p s r e p r e s e n t o n e s u b -fa m ily , I ta lo O e l t i c ; s i m i l a r l y t h e B a lt i c a n d S L a v o n ic r e p r e s e n t a n o t h e r .
B u t t h e p a r t i c u l a r s u b - f a m ily w it h w h ic h w e a r e m o r e
c o n c e r n e d h e r e i s t h a t c o n s t it u t e d b y th e I n d ia n a n d
I r a n ia n g r o u p s o f la n g u a g e s .
H ere th e r e a r e v e r y c lo s e
s i m i l a r i t i e s b e tw e e n t h e la n g u a g e o f t h e B g v e d ic h y m n s o n
th e o n e h a n d a n d th e o ld e s t I r a n ia n , fo u n d in th e A v e sta n
G a th a s , w h ic h c o n t a in th e u t t e r a n c e s o f Z o r o a s t e r
( Z a r a t h u s t r a ) , a n d i n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s o f D a r iu s a n d h i s
su ccessors.
,
" N ot o n ly ” , s a y s D r .G ile s ,
(*)
■
.
" s in g le w ord s an d
p h r a s e s , b u t e v e n w h o le s t a n z a s m a y b e t r a n s l i t e r a t e d fr o m
t h e d i a l e c t o f I n d ia (V e d ic S a n s k r i t ) i n t o t h e d i a l e c t s o f
I r a n w ith o u t c h a n g e o f v o c a b u la r y o r c o n s t r u c t io n , th o u g h
I * .)' C a m b r i d g e H i s t o r y o f I n d i a , V o l . I . , C h a p t e r I I I , p . 7 4 .
/ 3 47
t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e w o r d s i s a l t e r e d b y t h e c h a n g e s w h ic h
tim e a n d i s o la t i o n h a v e b r o u g h t a b o u t b e tw e e n th e d ia l e c t s
>.
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e a s t a n d w e s t o f A fg h a n is ta n # "
<*)
.v
. ■vv;
-
fh is m ay b e illu s tr a te d by
^
th e f o llo w in g e x a m p le s :(a ) A v e s t ic s t a n z a s w it h t h e i r V e d ic S a n s k r it f o r m s :
1# A v e sta -
M ( t ) e v a o c h a d (t) A h u ro M azd ao v id v a o v a fu s^
'
vV/,.
."3; ; .V v y a n a y a #
S a n s k r it - A t (d ) a v o o h a t ( d ) A s u r a h M e d h a h v id v a n v a p u h
' /,
v ijh a y a c ? ) V
2 * A v e s t a - S h t t h v a j p e r s a - .- e r s m o i v o e h a A h u r a H a C h i t
M azda v a sm i a n y a c h a v id y e
S a n s k r it * H a t t v a p ^ o h b h h a r j u m a v a c h A su r a H a C h it
M edhah v a sm i a n y a ch a v id e ♦
( b ) O ld P e r s i a n - a p a s s a g e f r o m t h e i n s c r i p t i o n o f D a r iu s
o n t h e R o o k a t B e h is te m : (o )
Q a tiy p a r a y a v a u s x s a a O iy a n a iy a h a m a r t iy a ; n a iy P a r s a
n a iy M ada n a iy am axam ta u m a y a k a s c iy h y a a vam G a u ~ |
m a ta m ty a m m agu ra x sa O r a m d it a m c a x r iy a k a r a s im h a c a
d a ra sa m a a - ; ta r s a k a ra m v a s iy a a v a ja n iy a h y a p a ra n a m
B a r d iy a m a d a n a a v a h y a r - ; a d i y k a r a m a v a j a n i y a m a ty a m a m
x s n a s a t i y t y a a d a m n a iy B a r d - ; i y a a m iy h y a K u r a u s p u O r a
(L in e s 4 8 -5 3 ) *
( o ) O ld I r a n i a n w o r d s e q u a l l i n g o u r o l d S a n s k r i t :
M iO r a , Z a o t a r , V e r e O r a g h n a , H a o m a , Y a s n a , Z im a , H a p t a ,
D a r e g a , V & h is ta , A s p a , U s t r a , Z a s ta o r B a s ta #
M i t r a , H b t r o r H o t a r , V r t r a g h n a * S o m a , Y a j n a , H im a ,
S a p ta , D lr g h a , V a s is h t h a , A sv a , U s h tr a , H h sta #
Skt
} O h u s, f o r in s t a n c e , t o V e d ic S k t g ,g h ,d ,d h ,b ,b h
c o r r e s p o n d I r a n ia n g ,d j b ; V e d io ^ k h , t h , p h t o I r a n ia n
0 ,f ; V e d ic g k t s ',o h , j , h t o I r a n ia n s , z , o r 0 ,d ; V e d ic
s k t , e d ,e d h ,id ,id h ,u d ,u d h t o I r a n ia n a z d , iz d ,u z d ;
V e d ic g k t t t ,d d h t o I r a n ia n s t , z d . S b r c h a n g e s s e e
L e t i t b e p o in te d o u t t h a t th e c h a n g e s a r e m u ch
g r e a t e r in I r a n ia n th a n in V e d ic , a f a o t w h ic h sh o w s
th a t th e fo r m e r r e p r e s e n ts a m uch la t e r s ta g e in i t s
g r o w th th a n V e d ic S e t#
( § ) R > r s u c h e q u a t io n s s e e G a th a s b y P r o f • M i l l s ,1 8 9 4 ;
* Q a ^ h a s,1 1 1 D ic t io n a r y , b y t h e sa m e a u t h o r , 1 9 1 3 ; a l s o
J T IO Is ,1 9 1 7 , p p # 5 4 9 ff and n n > 7 5 4 ff#
(o ) J*A #0#S , V o l 3 5 , 1 9 1 7 , p .336#
G e n e r a lly s p e a k in g * i t w i l l b e s e e n , t h e a f f i n i t y
b e tw e e n th e o ld la n g u a g e s in I n d ia a n d I r a n i s s o s t r ik in g
th a t i f o n e k n o w s V e d ic , o n e c a n s o o n u n d e r sta n d A v e s tic
a s w e l l a s O ld P e r s i a n #
I h is s i m i l a r i t y b e tw e e n t h e tw o
g r o u p s o f s p e e c h i s s o m e tim e s u s e d b y u n c r i t i c a l s c h o la r s
a s a n a r g u m e n t f o r d e r iv in g th e la n g u a g e o f I r a n fr o m t h a t
o f I n d ia # ; S u ch r e a s o n in g i s th e h e ig h t o f u n r e a so n ;
life
h a v e t h r e e c o g n a t e d i a l e c t s , O ld P e r s i a n , A v e s t i o , a n d
V e d ic , a n d w e f in d t h a t th e p h o n e tic c h a n g e s o p e r a t in g o n
th e m a r e p r e t t y s i m i l a r , w h ic h i s j u s t w h a t w e s h o u ld e x p e c t
s e e in g th a t a l l th r e e a r e m uoh a lik e #
B u t i t w o u ld b e
a b s u r d t o a r g u e f r o m t h i s f a c t t h a t e . g # O ld P e r s i a n i s
d e r iv e d fr o m V e d ic ; o n e m ig h t e q u a lly w e ll a r g u e t h e r e v e r s e
t h a t O ld P e r s i a n i s t h e p a r e n t o f V e d i c .
A s a m a tte r o f
f a c t , th e r e w e r e c e r t a in p h o n e tic te n d e n c ie s la t e n t in th e
p r im it iv e In d o -E u r o p e a n s p e e c h th a t o p e r a te d in m o st o f th e
g r o u p s o f s p e e c h in t o w h ic h p r i m i t i v e I n d o -E u r o p e a n b r a n c h e d
o u t ; th a t is a ll#
M o r eo v er , th o s e w ho th in k th a t so m e o f
th e I n d ia n s w e n t, o u t o f I n d ia a n d l e f t a la n g u a g e in I r a n
v e r y li k e t h e ir ow n c a n n o t g iv e a s a t is f a c t o r y e x p la n a tio n
in th e c a s e o f o t h e r r e la t e d la n g u a g e s in E u ro p e#
Ih ere
c a n th u s b e n o d o u b t th a t w e m ay sp e a k o f o n e la n g u a g e ,
fr o m w h io h t h e I n d ia n a n d I r a n ia n g r o u p s o f s p e e c h a r e
d e r iv e d , n a y o f o n e p e r io d i n w h ic h t h e y w e r e s p o k e n b y t h e
a n c e s t o r s o f t h e I n d ia n s a n d I r a n ia n s b e fo r e t h e ir s e p a r a ­
tio n #
I fo m o d e r n s c i e n t i f i c s c h o l a r h a s e v e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t
t h e I n d ia n s a n d I r a n ia n s li v e d t o g e t h e r in I n d ia , s o th e
s e p a r a tio n m u st h a v e ta k e n p la c e b y o n e g ro u p o f t h e ir
t r ib e s g o in g in t o I n d ia a n d a n o th e r in t o I r a n .
r . T h u s i t i s t h a t b o th I n d ia n a n d I r a n ia n g r o u p s o f t h e ;
I n d o -E u r o p e a n f a m ily h a v e a lw a y s b e e n c o n s id e r e d t o g e t h e r
a n d g iv e n c o l l e c t i v e l y o n e n a m e, " I n d o -I r a n ia n " o r " A ry a n " ,
t h e l a t t e r b e c a u s e t h e tr ib e s m e n o f t h e s e s t o c k s , t h e l a t e r
I n d ia n s a n d I r a n ia n s , c a l l e d t h e m s e lv e s " A r y a " a n d " A lr y a "
r e s p e c tiv e ly .
T he e p it h e t " A rya" w a s a p p lie d b y th e
c o m p o s e r s o f t h e B g v e d ic h y m n s t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e i r o w n
s t o c k fr o m t h a t o f t h e ir e n e m ie s , th e e a r l ie r in h a b it a n t s
o f th e P a n ja b , an d w e ll c h a r a c te r is e s th e A ry a n s w ho sp r e a d
o v e r I n d ia *
T he te r m " In d o * A ryan " I s , th e r e fo r e , r ig h t ly
u se d am ong s tu d e n ts o f p h ilo lo g y an d h is t o r y fo r th e
b r a n c h e s o f th e A r y a n la n g u a g e fo u n d in I n d ia , a s w e ll a s
f o r th e A r y a n s th e m s e lv e s w ho m ig r a te d in t o th a t c o u n tr y .
H er e w e s h o u ld l i k e t o in t e r j e c t so m e s h o r t a c c o u n t o f
th e s p e a k e r s o f th e o r ig in a l In d o -E u r o p e a n s p e e c h th e
e x i s t e n c e o f w h io h i s n o w n o t o n ly p r o v e d b y p h i l o l o g i c a l
a f f i n i t i e s , b u t i s o o n flr m e d b y t h e e v id e n c e o f c o m p a r a tiv e
m y t h o lo g y a n d o f c o m p a r a tiv e r e l ig i o n ;
T he nam e ♦In d o-
E u r o p e a n %' w h ic h i s u s e d f o r a v a s t s y s t e m o f la n g u a g e s o f
W h ic h I h d o - A r y a h a n d I r a n i a n a r e i m p o r t a n t p a r t s , i s a l s o
) R ead a r t ic le b y 0 . S c h r a d e r o n A ry a n R e lig io n in
E n c y c lo p a e d ia o f R e lig io n a n d E t h ic s , e d « b y H a s tin g s .
1
a p p lie d to th e o r ig in a l p e o p le , w ho sp o k e th e p a r e n t to n g u e ,
h u t w ho w ere n o t n e c e s s a r ily o f on e r a c e .
P r o b a b ly , t h e r e
w a s a t a v e r y e a r ly tim e a n I n d o -E u r o p e a n n a t i o n , w h ic h m a y
h a v e c o m p r is e d t r i b e s o f v a r io u s r a c e s a n d c u l t u r e , a n d
w h ic h im p o s e d i t s la n g u a g e a n d c i v i l i z a t i o n u p o n m a n y o t h e r
V.
r a c e s w h o c a r r ie d th e m o n .
( *)
R iilo lo g is t s o f th e la s t c e n tu r y , fo llo w in g w h at seem ed
t o b e a n a tu r a l m e th o d fr o m s i m i l a r i t i e s in la n g u a g e , r e g a r d ­
e d a l l s p e a k e r s o f th e sa m e la n g u a g e s a s b e lo n g in g t o th e
sa m e r a c e a n d a l l s p e a k e r s o f s im ila r la n g u a g e s a s b e in g
u ltim a te ly r e la te d to e a c h o th e r .
T h is v ie w w a s s h a r e d e v e n
b y a n t h r o p o lo g is t s , w h o , d u r in g t h e e a r ly p e r io d o f t h e
h is t o r y o f t h e s c ie n c e o f A n th r o p o lo g y , a t t a c h e d g r e a t
im p o r ta n c e t o l i n g u i s t i c a f f i n i t y a s p r o v in g t h e c o n n e c t io n
o f r a c e s , t h a t i s t o s a y , a s s h o w in g t h a t p a r t ic u la r
la n g u a g e s w e r e th e s p e c ia l p r o p e r ty o r n a tu r a l a t t r ib u t e o f
p a r t ic u la r r a c e s ; b u t i t h a s n ow b e e n d is c a r d e d a lt o g e t h e r .
On th e c o n tr a r y , i t i s n ow h e ld th a t r a c e i s n o t in t im a te ly
c o n n e c te d w ith la n g u a g e , t h a t la n g u a g e i s m o re o f t e n n o s u r e
t e s t o f r a c e , a n d t h a t t h e p r e s e n t r a c e s o f t h e w o r ld a r e
m o re o r l e s s m ix e d . • T h e r e a r e c o u n t r ie s s p e a k in g o n e
la n g u a g e , w h er e th e r e i s e v id e n c e t h a t th e p e o p le a r e
(m ) l a V a l l e e - B o u s s i n , I h d o - E u r o p e a n s e t I n d o - I r a n i a n s ,
1 9 2 4 , C h a p ter I I , p p . 2 6 -3 1 .
— .
{ § ) H r C i H a d d o n , p i e R a c e s o f ft fe n a n d t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n ,
R e v is e d e d i t i o n , C a m b r id g e , 1 9 2 9 , p p 2 - 3 .
d e s c e n d e d fr o m a n c e s t o r s o f m o re th a n o n e , r a c e .
A ll th e
s p e a k e r s o f th e B e n g a li la n g u a g e , f o r e x a m p le , d o n o t
b e lo n g to th e sa m e r a c e ; s o a ls o w e s e e th a t th e E n g lis h
la n g u a g e i s h o w s p o k e n b y p e o p le o f d iv e r s e r a c e s i n
E n g la n d .
S o , w h a t th e e th n ic c o n s t it u t io n o f th e In d o -E u r o p e a n
p e o p le o r p e o p le s w a s b e fo r e t h e ir m o v em en t fr o m th e
o r ig in a l h a b ita t w e s h a ll p e r h a p s n e v e r k n ow , ju s t a s h is to r y
w i l l n e v e r k n o w th e m an w ho d is c o v e r e d th e u s e o f f i r e .
Y et
a g r e a t d e a l o f u s e le s s c o n tr o v e r s y h a s r a g e d o v e r t h i s te r m
1I n
d o -E u r o p e a n ’ ♦
S e v e r a l n am es h a v e b e e n a p p lie d to th e
a n c ie n t s p e a k e r s o f th e In d o -E u r o p e a n to n g u e s .
G e r m a n ic ’ i s o n e o f th e m ,
’In d o-
b u t i t is n o tg o o d , a s i t la y s
u n d u e s t r e s s o n a p a r t p la y e d b y
t h e G e r m a n ic p e o p l e s i n t h e
h is t o r y o f In d o -E u r o p e a n s p e e c h .
I t is p r e tty c e r ta in th a t
th e G erm ans w e r e n o t p a r t
o f th e o ld e s t In d o -E u r o p e a n sp e a k ­
in g p e o p le ; th e y w e r e o n e
o f th e l a t e s t p e o p le s to b e
a s s im ila t e d t o th e In d o -E u r o p e a n s p e e c h a n d c u lt u r e .
te r m
The
’A r y a n ’ to o i s u n s u ita b le ; b e c a u se i t i s a p p lie d b y th e
in d o -A r y a n s a n d I r a n ia n s t o t h e m s e lv e s o n ly , a n d t h e r e f o r e
s h o u ld b e r e s t r ic t e d to I n d ia a n d I r a n .
lo g iv e th e nam e
. («)
’A r y a n 1 a w id e r m e a n in g i s a m is u s e o f t h e w o r d . •
"■ ■
P ) S ig m u n d I f e l s t ; I n d o g e r m a n e n u h d G e r m a n e n , H a l l e , 1 9 1 4 ,
.p p * 7 6 .
■
(§ ) T h e g r e a t G erm an S a n s k r it s c h o la r , M hx M ille r , w a s th e
f i r s t t o u s e t h e w o r d ’A r y a n ’ f o r a r a c e . T o h im i t
m e a n t n o t o n ly a la r g e g r o u p o f la n g u a g e s , b u t a g r o u p
o f p e o p le s a s w e ll, i ; e . A ry a n = In d o -E u r o p e a n r a c e .
H e ,h o w e v e r , w a s l a t e r c o n v in c e d b y s c i e n t i f i c f r i e n d s
o f t h e e n o r m ity o f h i s e r r o r a n d c h a n g e d h i s o p in io n .
( B io g r a p h i e s o f w o r d s a n d t h e H om e o f t h e A r y a n s ,L o n d o n ,
l 8 8 8 , p i l 2 G ) E l s e w h e r e h e w r o t e s w !E y s o l i d a r i s i n g a n d m i x i n g
u p t h e s c ie n c e o f la n g u a g e a n d th e s c ie n c e o f e t h n o lo g y .
H r* C r iie s , i n o r d e r t o a v o id o b j e c t i o n s o f t h i s s o r t , a d o p t ­
e d a m o re c o n v e n ie n t a n d s a t is f a c t o r y a n d l e s s h a r m fu l
* W ir o s ’ , a w o r d a p p l i e d b y 'm o s t o f t h e I n d o - E u r o p e a n s p e a k ­
in g p e o p le s to d e n o te m en .
B u t a s th e te r m
’In d o -E u r o p e a n 1
fo r th e p a r e n t to n g u e a s w e ll a s i t s s p e a k e r s i s o p en to ^ th e
le a s t o b je c tio n , w e s h a ll u s e i t in p r e fe r e n c e to o th e r s*
N o th in g d e f i n i t e i s k n o w n a b o u t t h e e a r l i e r h is t o r y o f
th e Ih d o -E u r o p e a n s #
I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n s u p r e m e ly
im p o r t a n t , a s t h e i r la n g u a g e s c o m p r is e t h r e e o f t h e g r e a t e s t
l i t e r a t u r e s o f t h e a n c ie n t w o r ld - S a n s k r i t , G r e e k a n d I a t i n .
B ut th e s e lit e r a t u r e s , u s e fu l a s th e y a re to th e stu d e n ts o f
c o m p a r a tiv e p h ilo lo g y , r e l ig i o n a n d g e n e r a l a n c in e t h is t o r y ,
e n te r a t a la t e d a te on th e sta g e o f h is to r y an d ca n n o t
■ -■■■ ■"
-'hk; o r i g i n a l . ' V ;
'' ... ‘
\:/V;
t h r o w a n y l i g h t o n t h e I h d o - E u r o p e a n s ’ /H o m e o r m i g r a t i o n s .
T h e q u e s t io n o f t h e i r o r i g i n a l h o m e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , w h ic h
i s v e r y im p o r ta n t f o r u s in o r d e r t o u n d e r s ta n d th e o r ig in
o f th e A r y a n s w h o m ig r a te d in t o th e P an ja b , i s o n e o f th e
m o s t k n o t t y p r o b le m s o f a n c ie n t h i s t o r y .
T h is h a s g iv e n
r is e to d iv e r s e t h e o r ie s , e a c h c la im in g to c o n ta in a la r g e
m easu re o f c e r ta in ty .
S p e c u la t io n h a s , h o w e v e r , p la y e d a
c o n s id e r a b le p a r t in th e fo r m u la tio n o f t h e s e t h e o r ie s ; a n d
th is is b u t in e v ita b le , w hen th e r e e x is t s a v e r y sc a n ty
m a te r ia l to r e c o n s tr u c t th e r e m o te p a s ti
jjous_Hote c o n t i n u e d .: - , both; h a v e i b e e n ,g r i e v o u s ly , i n j u r e d /
\r) C a m b r i d g e H i s t o r y o f I n d i a . Y o l I , C h a p t e r I I I . p p . 6 5 - 6 7
(§ ) T h e r e a r e s t i l l so m e la n g u a g e s i n E u r o p e w h ic h d o n o t
b e l o n g t o t h i s f a m i l y . V fe, t h e r e f o r e , u s e t h e t e r m o n
th e u n d e r s ta n d in g t h a t s u c h la n g u a g e s a r e e x c lu d e d :
fr o m i t s d e n o ta tio n *
H e r e a g a in , t h e e v id e n c e o f la n g u a g e c o m e s t o o u r h e lp to
som e e x te n t*
T h e f a c t i s t h a t t h e I r id o -E u r o p e a n p e o p le s , a s
t h e y w e n t r o u n d t h e w o r ld , h a v e l e f t so m e t r a c e s o f t h e i r
m ig r a t io n s , c h i e f l y t h e i r la n g u a g e , b e h in d th e m b o th i n t h e
e a s t a n d t h e w e s t , w h ic h e n a b le u s t o a t t e m p t a r e c o n s t r u c t io n
o f In d o -E u r o p e a n c o n d it io n s o n th e b a s is o f t h e i r la n g u a g e
in v a r io u s c o u n tr ie s *
C om m on n a m es t h a t d e n o te o b j e c t s
k now n in c e r ta in : la n d s , an d m ay h e n c e b e th o u g h t to in d ic a te
th e g e o g r a p h ic a l a n d o th e r p h y s ic a l c o n d it io n s o f th e u n ­
d iv id e d h o m e o f th e In d o -E u r o p e a n fa m ily , a r e c o lle c t e d fr o m
th e s i s t e r la n g u a g e s , a n d th e n a th e o r y i s b a s e d o n th e d a te u
s o c o lle c t e d a s t o th e h om e o f th e o r ig in a l p e o p le s p e a k in g
th o s e la n g u a g e s .
I b r e x a m p le , t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e n am e
o f th e b e e c h in s e v e r a l la n g u a g e s h a s b e e n th o u g h t t o p r o v e
th a t th e In d o -E u r o p e a n s o r ig in a lly liv e d in th e a r e a in
w h ic h t h e b e e c h g r o w s , i . e . w e s t o f a l i h e r u n n in g fr o m
K o n i g s b e r g t o t h e C r im e a a n d t h e n c e s o u t h w a r d s t h r o u g h
A n a to lia *
B u t t h i s l i n g u i s t i c m e th o d d o e s n o t se e m t o g iv e
a s a t i s f a c t o r y a n s w e r t o t h e p r o b l e m , f ,f o r i t i s q u i t e c l e a r
t h a t a g r e a t m a ss o f l i n g u i s t i c m a t e r ia l d a tin g fr o m In d o E u r o p e a n t im e s , h a s b e e n l o s t in o n e la n g u a g e o r a n o th e r
an d c a n n o lo n g e r b e g o t a t ” ; an d e v e n w h en th e y p e r s is t ,
w o r d s s o m e tim e s ; c h a n g e t h e i r m e a n in g s .
O ur n e x t p o s s ib le
s o u r c e i s p r e h i s t o r i c a r c h a e o lo g y ; b u t e v e n h e r e , o w in g
to th e a b se n c e o f m a t e r ia l, w e a r e l e f t s a d ly in th e lu r c h .
T h e e x c a v a t io n s m a d e d u r in g t h e l a s t s i x t y y e a r s o r s o , t o
nam e p a r t ic u la r ly th o s e lh E g y p t, C r e te a n d W estern A s ia ,
h a v e in d e e d th r o w n a f lo o d o f l i g h t o n th e e a r ly h is t o r y
o f v a r io u s I n d o -E u r o p e a n s p e a k in g n a t io n s , b u t t h e i r
o r i g i n a l h o m e s t i l l r e m a in s a m y s te r y *
A d e ta ile d a cco u n t
o f so m e o f t h e s e r e m a r k a b le d i s c o v e r i e s w i l l b e fo u n d b e lo w
in c o n n e c tio n w ith th e p r e h is t o r ic I n d o -I r a n ia n s *
The
e v id e n c e s u p p lie d b y la n g u a g e a n d a r c h a e o lo g y h a s a ls o
r e c e iv e d a f u r t h e r a id in d e t e r a ln in g th e h om e fr o m th e
s tu d y o f c o m p a r a tiv e m y th o lo g y , a n th r o p o lo g y a n d g e o lo g y ;
b u t , i n s p i t e o f a l l t h i s , t h e p r o b le m s t i l l a w a it s a r i g h t
s o lu tio n *
M any t h e o r ie s h a v e b e e n a d v a n c e d fr o m tim e t o
tim e o n t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e o r i g i n a l c r a d le ;
t h o s e w h ic h
a r e s e r io u s l y u p h e ld d e s e r v e a m e n tio n h e r e .
V a r io u s a r e a s o f A s ia , s u c h a s t h e c e n t r a l r e g io n t o
t h e e a s t o f t h e C a s p ia n S e a w ith t h e a d j o in in g la n d s o f
T u r k is ta n , t h e t P a m ir s , I n d ia , t f e s t e r n S ib e r ia , t h e V a lle y o f
th e T ig r is a n d E u p h r a te s, a n d th e A r c tic r e g io n h a v e b e e n
p r o p o s e d . O f t h e P a m ir s , I n d ia , S i b e r i a , M e s o p o ta m ia a n d
th e A r c tic a r e a s l i t t l e o r n o th in g p o s it iv e c a n b e s a id .
M ig r a tio n s fr o m th e c e n t r a l a r e a , u s u a lly k n ow n a s C e n tr a l
A s ia w e r e a ssu m e d b y th e A s ia n t h e o r ie s t o e x p la in t h e
s e p a r a t io n o f t h e A ry a n b r a n c h fr o m th e r e s t o f th e In d o E k ir o p e a n s *
C e n tr a l A s ia w a s fa v o u r e d b y e a r ly s c h o la r s
) E x c e l l e n t s u m m a r ie s o f t h e t h e o r i e s a r e g iv e n i n
S i r A* B* K e it h fs ff r a z e r l e c t u r e s . 1 9 3 2 - 5 2 , L o n d o n ,
1 9 3 2 . p p * 3 8 9 -5 0 4 , a n d J . G h a fp e n tie r ’s a r t ic l e in
B .S * 0 * S . , V o l I V . P a r t I , 1 9 2 6 * p p . 1 4 7 f f # S e e a l s o
o n t h i s s u b j e c t V iC r . C h i l d e . S h e A r y a n s , A s t u d y o f
H h d o -E u r o p e a n o r i g i n s , 1 9 2 6 , C h a p te r s V t o V I I I .
1 8 ■" ■
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Y^"
■' ■ :
l i k e P o t t , I a s s e n a n d G r im m . P i c t e t , e s p e c i a l l y , w h o l a i d
s t r e s s o n th e g e o g r a p h ic a l d is t r ib u t io n o f In d o -E u r o p e a n
s p e a k in g p e o p le s in h i s t o r i c a l t im e s , a r g u e d in fa v o u r o f
t h i s a r e a a s a c e n t r a l p la c e fr o m w h ic h t h e o r i g i n a l
s p e a k e r s c o u ld h e su p p o se d t o h a v e m ig r a te d to a l l
c o u n tr ie s .
H e s a id th a t s in c e S a n s k r it a n d A v e s tic w e r e
m o re a r c h a ic in c h a r a c te r a s co m p a red w ith In d o -E u r o p e a n
la n g u a g e s in E u r o p e , s u c h a s G re ek , I a t in e t c . , a n d t h a t
s in c e th e la n g u a g e s in A s ia d e v ia te d l e s s fr o m th e o r ig in a l
s p e e c h th a n t h e ir E u ro p ea n s i s t e r s a n d c o n fo r m e d m o re to
th e o r ig in a l sta n d a r d , th e sp e a k e r s o f th e A s ia tic grou p
m u st b e r e g a r d e d a s s itu a te d ro u n d th e r e g io n w h ere th e
o r ig in a l sta n d a r d w as sp o k e n .
T h at r e g io n , in h is o p in io n ,
c o u ld h a v e b e e n n o o th e r th a n C e n tr a l A s ia , f o r th e g r e a te r
t h e d is t a n c e w a s , t h e g r e a t e r w o u ld b e t h e c h a n g e i n t h e
•
la n g u a g e .
T h is t h e o r y w a s p o p u la r is e d b y t h e e m in e n t
o r i e n t a l i s t M ax M u lle r , w h o h e ld f a s t t o t h e b e l i e f t h a t
th e o r ig in a l h om e m u st b e fo u n d so m ew h ere in A s ia .
The
m o st p r o m is in g e v id e n c e r e c e n t ly a d d u c e d in i t s fa v o u r i s
;
th e p r e s e n c e o f a ce n tu m v a r ie t y o f In d o -E u r o p e a n s p e e c h
n a m e ly T b k h a r ia n a lo n g w it h t h e s a t e m la n g u a g e s in A s ia .
I f e v e r t h e le s s , t h e C e n tr a l A s ia n t h e o r y , w h ic h s e e m s t o u s
(* ) I e s o r i g i n e s I n d o - E u r o p e e n e s , o r l e s A r y a s p r im it i f s ,
P a r is 1 8 7 7 , S eco n d e d it io n .
(§ ) M ax M i l l e r . l o c * c it .p # 1 2 7 . B e w r o te i n 1 8 8 7 t h a t wi f
- a n a n sw e r m u st b e g iv e n a s to th e p la c e w h ere o u r
A ry a n a n c e s t o r s d w e lt b e fo r e th e s e p a r a t io n , w h e th e r
in la r g e sw arm s o f m illio n s , o r in a fe w s c a t t e r e d
t e n t s a n d h u t s , I s h o u ld s t i l l s a y , a s I s a id f o r t y
y e a r s a g o , *S o m e w h e r e i n A s i a 1 , a n d n o m o r e ft. A r y a n
h e r e s ta n d s fo r In d o -E u r o p e a n s.
th e m o st s a t i s f y i n g , i s lo o k e d u p o n w ith s u s p ic io n a n d d is ­
a p p r o v a l b y s c h o la r s th a t se e k to lo c a te th e o r ig in a l
h a b ita t in E u ro p e.
T he e a r lie s t o f th e s c h o la r s w ho b r o a c h e d th e id e a o f
a E u r o p e a n h o m e w a s D r R . G . la th a m
1851.
i n E n g la n d a s e a r l y a s
A t f i r s t G erm a n s c h o la r s w e r e c o n t e n t , l i k e h im , t o
p la c e t h e c r a d le in W b ste r n R u s s ia , b u t l a t e r o n th e y
s h if te d i t to G erm any.
la d e fe n c e o f th e E u ro p ea n hom e i t
i s g e n e r a lly a s s e r t e d t h a t , e t h n ic a lly s p e a k in g , th e r e i s
n o t r a c e o f in v a s io n o f f o r e ig n b lo o d in t o E u r o p e , f o r a
m o d e r n E u r o p e a n e t h n ic ty p e c o u ld b e t r a c e d b a c k t o i t s
a n c e s t r a l ty p e in t h e H e o llth io a g e in E u r o p e , an d m an h a s
b e e n fo u n d t o e x i s t in E u r o p e fr o m th e e a r l i e s t p o s t - g l a c i a l
p e r io d .
H en ce i t is a rg u ed th a t th e o r ig in a l sp e a k e r s o f
In d o -E u r o p e a n to n g u e w e r e a u to c h th o n e s o f E u r o p e .
B ut it is
w o r th y o f n o te t h a t t h o s e w ho h o ld t h e s e v ie w s a r e n o t
a g r e e d in t h e ir o p in io n a s t o o n e p a r t ic u la r a r e a .
Thus
c e r t a in G erm an s c h o la r s h a v e p r o p o se d E o r th G erm an y, o r a t
le a s t la n d s
b o r d e r in g o n th e B a lt ic , a s h a v in g
c la im to b e
c o n s id e r e d f o r t h e ’U r h e im a t* i . e . o r i g i n a l
hom e.
th e b e s t
T he e a s te r n b r a n c h e s o f th e In d o -E u r o p e a n s, 1 . e • th e
A ry a n s o f Ir a n an d th o s e o f th e P a n ja b , in th a t c a s e , m oved
dow n b y th e
B o s p h o r u s th r o u g h A s ia M in o r .
T he sa m e v ie w
fa v o u r e d b y
S c a n d in a v ia n s c h o la r s a s w e l l , w h o lo o k f o r t h e
(* ) D e s c r ip t iv e E th n o lo g y , lo n d o n , 1 8 5 9 ,1 1 p
5- S
.
is
h o m e n o t o n ly i n G erm an y b u t a l s o o n t h e i> a h ish I s la n d s a n d
In th e so u th ern m o st p r o v in c e s o f Sw eden.
O n e o f t h e s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s m a d e t o l o c a t e t h e ’ X J r h e im a t
is b a se d o n th e f a c t th a t s in c e th e u n d iv id e d sp e a k e r s o f th e
p a r e n t to n g u e h a d com m on n a m es f o r sn o w , th e y h a d o r i g i n a ll y
■ ' ■■
(* )
'
com e fro m N o rth E u r o p e , som ew h ere in G erm any. , . B ut su c h a
c o n c lu s io n o n th e b a s is o f a com m on te r m f o r sn o w i s a b s u r d ,
fo r sn ow ta k e n s in g ly ca n n o t d e c id e th e hom e o f th e 3h d oE u r o p e a n s, i t b e in g n o t fo u n d in o n e p a r t o f th e w o r ld o n ly .
t h e c o ld r e g io n o f G erm any i s n o t th e o n ly c o ld r e g io n in
t h is w o r ld i
A n o th er a tte m p t w as m ade a t th e tim e w h en i t
w as su g g e ste d on a n th r o p o lo g ic a l grou n d s • th a t th e t a l l ,
b lu e - e y e d , fa ir - s k in n e d G erm ans w ith lo n g h e a d s w ere th e
o n ly g e n u in e I n d p -G e r m a n ic p e o p l e , i *e . I n d o -E u r o p e a n s b y
b lo o d , an d th e la t t e r th e r e fo r e h ad o r ig in a te d in G erm any.
..-v
; (o ) r
S i n c e t h e n i t h a s b e e n c u s t o m a r y w i t h G e r m a n s c h o l a r s ~ wt o
t r y t o i d e i i t i f y d t e u t o n s - a s d e s c r i b e d b y ‘T a c i t u s - w i t h
I n d o - E u r o p e a n s ff.
wIn t h is c o n n e c tio n * , a s o b se r v e d b y
J * C h a r p e n t i e r , tfo n e s e e m s t o t a l l y t o h a v e f o r g o t t e n t h e
o th e r w is e o b v io u s f a c t th a t th e d e s c r ip t io n g iv e n b y
T a c itu s is v e r y s tr o n g ly id e a liz e d in o r d e r to p u t up th e
l i f e o f th e f u t o n s a s a s ta n d a r d t o h is d e m o r a liz e d
o p u n t r y m e n !% M o r e o v e r * t h e e v i d e n c e , a d d u c e d i n s u p p o r t o f
- { V ) G e i g e r , Q s t i r a n i s o h e K u l t u r . bp• 1 1 3 - 1 5 0 .
(§ ) B p e so h e , l i e A r ie r . 1 8 7 8 ;
( o ) S e e in t h i s c o n n e c t io n E b u sto n C h a m b e r la in , T he
fo u n d a tio n s o f th e N in e te e n th C e n tu r y . E n g itr a n s . Joh n
le e s , 2 v o ls , Ion d on , K IT ;
th e p h y s ic a l f e a t u r e s w h ic h so m e a n t h r o p o lo g is t s a n d T a c itu s
d e s c r ib e a s b e lo n g in g to th e T eu to n s o r G erm ans o f th e f i r s t
cen tu ry A #D *, is fa n c ifu l*
3h f a c t w e o a n n o t t e l l w h eth e r
or
b ru n ette o r fa ir #
W
or
-
P r e s e n t-d a y G erm any c a n n o m o re b o a s t
o f c o n ta in in g a p u re r a c e w ith in i t s fr o n tie r s th a n m ost o f
th e o th er E uropean sta te s#
A t l e a s t tw o m a in r a c e s - th e
lo n g -h e a d e d p o p u la tio n o f N b rth G erm any, N o r d ic s , an d th e
b r o a d -h e a d e d o n e o f S o u th G erm an y, P r o t o - N o r d ic s , w h io h a l s o
a r e fo u n d o u t s id e i t , - h a v e b e e n d is c o v e r e d in G erm any b y
a n t h r o p o lo g is t s , w h ile o th e r r a c e s a r e b e lie v e d b y th em to
h a v e e n te r e d in p r e h is t o r ic tim e s in to th e c o m p o s itio n o f
th e G erm an p o p u la tio n #
,
• •' - . ;
D r S# T b is t,
" •
It i s q u ite p o s s ib le , a s a rg u ed b y
"v ■' : •.;
•
v x , A^'.' " ,'-X\
\Y. ' : v ••••
th a t th e G erm ans, th o u g h th e y le a r n e d a n
3h do^ ® u rb pean d ia le c t , d id n o t b e lo n g to a n y o f th e In d o E U ropean o r ig in a l sto c k s#
K o tw ith ste n d in g , i t h a s lo n g b een
a n d i s s t i l l a n a lm o s t com m on o p in io n am on g G erm an s c h o la r s
t h a t t h e G erm an s a r e ’A r y a n s* (u se d f o r I n d o -E u r o p e a n s ).
(^ ) S b r c r i t i c i s m o f t h i s im p o s s ib le h y p o t h e s is o f a N o r th
E uropean hom e se e d e M organ, la P r e h is to ir e O r ie n ta ls,
l, p p # l9 i f f ♦
;■ ;;; ■ ■ ■ .
_ _
r—
( § ) J U C i H a d d o n , l o o *6 i t # n o ♦ 7 0 - 7 1 #
(o ) ^ o g e r m anen~und ^ erm anen, H a lle > 1 9 1 4 , p
( x ) B ea d K » P en k a « O r ig in e s ^ A r ia Q a e ; W ie n , 1 8 8 3 a n d a l s o D ie
H e r k u n f t d e r A r i e r t W ie n , 1 8 8 6 .
T h e p r e s e n t - G e r a a h C h a n c e l l o r H e r r H i t l e r ’s t h e o r y o f
A r y a n - N o r d i c e q u a t i o n ( g i v e n i n h i s “ M e i n K a m p f 11 3% r
S tr u g g le ), la r g e ly w rong and u n h is to r ic , b u t fa n a tic a lly
b e lie v e d in j i s a ls o b o rro w ed fr o m G erm an s c h o la r s # B e
h a s a p p lie d i t to h is fo r e ig n p o lic y , a s i t se r v e s th e
p u r p o s e a n d a im s o f h is N a z i g o v e r n m e n t. ;
A n o th e r h y p o t h e s is w h ic h w as o n c e a d v a n c e d b y e a r l i e r
'
\ V7 ' :
(* ) :
s c h o la r s i s a d v o c a te d b y D r. G ile s i
He p la c e s th e hom e o f
t h e I n d o -E u r o p e a n s , w hom h e i s t h e f i r s t t o n am e ’W ir o s f ,
in a r e g io n w h ic h w e n ow k n o w a s H u n g a ry , A u s tr ia an d
B o h e m ia , t h a t i s t o s a y , in t h e p l a i n o f t h e m id d le D a n u b e
v a l l e y , ’• b o u n d e d o n i t s e a s t e r n s i d e b y t h e C a r p a t h i a n s , o n
i t s s o u th b y th e B a lk a n s, o n i t s w e s te r n s id e b y th e
A u s t r i a n A lp s a n d t h e B S h ra er I fe ld * a n d o n t h e n o r t h b y t h e
E r z g e b ir g e a n d th e n o u n ta in s w h io h l i n k th e m u p w ith th e
C a r p a th ia n s;
th e In d o -E u ro p ea n t r ib e s m ig r a tin g to A sia 9
/ '
c r o s s e d th e B o sp h o ru s o r D a r d a n e lle s an d m oved th ro u g h
A s ia M in o r a lo n g t h e s o u t h c o a s t o f t h e B la c k S e a .
E rom
th e r e i t w as th a t th ey > a v o id in g th e o ld c iv ilis a t io n o f
M e so p o ta m ia , f o llo w e d t h e tr a c k a lo n g t h e s o u th e r n c o a s t
o f th e C a sp ia n S e a , n ow m a rk ed b y te h a r a n , M ash ad a n d H e r a t ,
th u s o v e r flo w in g in to Ira n ah d B a c tr ia an d a ls o in to th e
I n d u s v a l l e y t h r o u g h t h e H in d u H a sh .
In t h e o p in io n o f D r# G ile s A u s tr o -E u n g a r y i s t h e o n ly
o n e a r e a w h ic h c a n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y f u l f i l a l l th e c o n d it io n s
o f th e In d o -E u ro p ea n f lo r a an d fa u n a , su c h a s b ir c h , b e e c h ,
w illo w , f i r tr e e * co rn lik e b a r le y , o x , cow , sh e e p , d o g ,
p ig , h o r s e (b u t n o t a s s , C a m e lv o r e l e p h a n t ); w o l f , b e a r ,
g o o s e , d u ck , e a g le , a s a ls o te m p era te c lim a t e , a s is sh ow n
by th e n a tu re o f th e flo r a .
So a ll p la c e s su g g e ste d by
o th e r s c h o la r s , w h e th e r in A sia o r E u r o p e, a r e r u le d o u t b y
■■■.
h im .
Be fu rth er sta te s
Tf ) Cgffibfidge H i s t o r y " o f In d ia
Cambridge, A n cie n t H i s to r y ,
a r t i c l e s i n Jffnolo p a e d ia tf r ita n n io a . E lev en e th . E d i t io n , on Aryans
i n v o l . I I . a n d ori B ido^European.'.'languages' iii v o l XIV. <
23
. ;
/v :v.V'..
. .
.. / .
:
w ho m arch ed to w a rd s th e e a s t and u ltim a te ly s e t t le d In Ira n
an d th e P an ja b , h is t o r y h a s a s y e t n o th in g to say#
But
th a t th e y r e m a in e d u n ite d an d u n d iv id e d in th e c o u r s e o f
t h e i r m a r c h i n A s ia M in o r i s sh o w n b y t h e B o g h a z ^ k d i
in s c r ip t io n s , w h ic h c o n t a in th e n am es o f th e d e i t i e s Ih d r a ,
V aru n aj M itr a an d th e I fis a ty a t w in s , p r a c t ic a lly in th e
fo im in w h io h t h ® y s u r v iv e in t h e B g v e d a a n d w it h o u t th e
p h o n e t ip c h a n g e s w h io h o h a r a o t e r i s e t h e a n c ie n t r e c o r d s o f
t h e I r a n i a n s - t h e A v e s t a a n d GELd P e r s i a n i n s c r i p t i o n s o f
t h e A c h a e m e n id k in g s *
Ih e e x p la n a tio n o f t h is g iv e n by
D r* G ile s i s t h a t t h e s e d e i t i e s b e lo n g t o t h e A r y a n s a t a
p e r io d b e fo r e t h e ir d if fe r e n tia tio n ; fo r h e s a y s , " H ere,
f a r to th e w e st* w e h a v e stu m b le d u p o n th e A ry a n s o n th e
m o v e to w a r d s th e e a s t (th e B a n ja b )."
IJ r •G ile s , a r g u m e n t fo u n d e d o n com m on n a m es f o r p la n t s ,
t r e e s , a n im a ls an d o th e r o b j e c t s fo u n d in E u r o p e , is b a se d
o n f a l s e p r e m ise s*
A c lo s e stu d y o f som e o f th e nam es w ill
sh ow th a t th e o b je c ts su p p o sed to h a v e b een know n to th e
In d o -E u ro p ea n p e o p le an d th e p h y s ic a l c o n d itio n s o f t h e ir
hom e m ay f i t in e x a c t ly w ith o th e r p a r ts o f th e w o r ld .
Pbr
e x a m p le , th e b ir c h , th e b e a r , n am es o f w h ic h o c c u r in th e
In d o -E u ro p ea n la n g u a g e s, a r e fo u n d n o t o n ly in E urope* b u t
in th e n o r th o f In d ia to o *
A bout th e b eec h , in p a r tic u la r ,
it m ay be rem arked th a t lin g u is t ic a lly th e r e is no c e r ta in ty
w h a te v er th a t a nam e o f th e b eec h is In d o -E u ro p ea n .
Ih e
^
le g itim a te in fe r e n c e so fa r is th a t th e a n c e sto r s o f th e
G r e e k s, R om ans an d T eu to n s w ho sp o k e th a t la n g u a g e d id n o t
even know th e b eech ,
And to tr a c e , a s d o e s B r. G ile s , th e
li n e o f th e In d o -E u r o p e a n m ig r a tio n e a stw a r d fro m th e
I n s c r i p t i o n s r e f e r r e d t o a b o v e w o u ld h e a f a l l a c y .
Ih ese
m ay v e r y w e ll r e la te to a p e r io d w hen th e A ryan tr ib e s w ere
p r o b a b ly m o v in g fr o m t h e e a s t r a t h e r th a n fr o m th e w e s t , a s
w i l l b e sh ow / b e lo w .
.•
ttl h e J n a t o l i a n p a s s a g e M , m o r e o v e r , a s
■v'
is p o in te d o u t by; H *P eak e,
(* )
.C;
>s.':t;
.
"w as by no m eans an e a sy r o u te
t o t h e e a s t * f o r h a d t h e W ir o s k e p t t o t h e n o r t h t h e y w o u ld
h a v e fo u n d d i f f i c u l t y in c r o s s i n g t h e A r m e n ia n m o u n t a in s ;
f u r t h e r s o u th th e y w o u ld h a v e com e in t o c o n t a c t w ith t h e
p e o p le s o f M e so p o ta m ia # ”
>
T he s o u th e r n s t e p p e s o f R u s s ia o n th e n o r th e r n s h o r e s
o f th e B la c k S e a i s s t i l l a n o th e r l o c a l i t y in E u r o p e w h e r e
th e In d o -E u ro p ea n a n c e s to r s a r e su p p o sed to h a v e h ad t h e ir
o r ig in a l abode*
Oh t h i s h y p o th e s is * th e I n d o -I r a n ia n s o r
A r y a n s fo u n d t h e i r w a y in t o A s ia b y t h e n o r th o f t h e B la c k
S ea ; a n d e it h e r th e y cam e ro u n d th e n o r th o f th e C a sp ia n o r
th r o u g h t h e C a u c a su s, w h ic h i s d i f f i c u l t , th o u g h n o t
im p a ssa b le i
P ro f# O tto S c h r a d e r w a s t h e f i r s t to a d v o c a te
t h i s th e o r y a lr e a d y s u g g e s te d b y la th a m a n d B en fey *
Prom
h i s w id e k n o w le d g e o f la n g u a g e s h e c o n s t r u c t e d th e h is t o r y
o f th e c u ltu r e th a t c o u ld b e a s c r ib e d to th e p r im itiv e Ih d o E uropeans* and th en tr ie d to e s ta b lis h th a t th e p h y sic a l
(* ) T he B ron ze A ge an d th e C e ltic \ta r ld . 1 9 3 3 . p #142#
;
s.;
•' / .
,
■ :;
> v ;
V .
..■ /
g e o g r a p h y o f th e S o u th R u ssia n s te p p e s w e ll s a t i s f i e d a l l
;; ■ t o , r e q i i i ^ e n t ? o f t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l c u l t u r e e x p l o r e d •
B u t i t s e e m s h e w a s n o t q u i t e a v e r s e t o t h e i d e a ; th a t''...th e *
m i^ h t a t o n e tim e h a v e b e e n I j V in g in a n
a r e a t o th e e a s t o f S o u th R u s s ia , w h ic h p r a c t ic a l ly m e a n t
th e n e ig h b o u r h o o d o f C e n tr a l i s la . - ;
T he g r e a t e s t su p p o r t* h o w ev er* to th e S o u th R u s s ia n
h y p o th e sis h a s b een g iv e n b y th e th e o r y o f H | P ^ ak e,
y
,
f o l l o w e d b y V* 5# G h ild e *
fie d th b
1^
B o th t h e s e s c h o la r s h a v e i d e n t i ­
wi t h th e p e o p le m ade J ^ o to to u s
b y g r a v e s o o h ta ih in g c o n tr a c te d s k e le to n s^ c o v e red w ith red
o ch re , u n d er a m ound d rK h rg a n *
3h ese p e o p le * it I s sta ted >
, w e r e n o m a d ic ,^ f o r t h e y d o m e s t ic a te d , h o r s e s * b a t t l e a n d
3
:f
p e r h a p s s h e e p y a i^ w e r e g e n e r a lly t a l l , Ib n g r-h ea d ed , an d
fin e f-n o s e d , t h a t i s , o f th e B a r d ic o r p r b to -B b r d ic r a c i a l
ty p e i>
T h e ir r e m a in s p o in t to a u n ifo r m c u lt u r e , in c lu d in g
l a n g u a g e ; a n d ; i & h e u h i f o r i a i t y i n t h e i f m o d e o f ^ d l s p p s W / O f ; :v ^ V ’:^ .
, t h e d e a d a t t e s t s c o m m u n ity o f r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s T h e a r e a
■
0* S c h r a d e r , Re a l l e x i k o n d e r i n d i g e r m a n i s o h e n i l t e r t u m sk u n d e » B n g .tr a n s . b y J ev d n s t P r e h is to r ic ^ t i q u i t i e s
o f th e^ i r y a n C o p i e s , lo n d b n , 1 8 9 0 * C h ap iX IV Y i l s o h i s
a r t i c l e o n ir y a n R e lig io n in H a s t in g s 1 E n o v o lo n a e d ia o f
R e lig io n a t e . S ch ra d ef is p r a c t ic a lly su p p o r te d b y
H» H ir t i n t h i s h y p o t h e s is * f o r w h ic h r e a d P ie J h d o g e im a n is c h e , ih r e v e r b r e it u n g , ih r e U r h e im a t* u n d ih r e K h itu r , ;
I905u ! 1907.
:v ^
( § ) C r i t i c i s i n g t h e R u s s i a n S t e p p e - c r a d l e , B p .G i l e s t e l l s
1
u s th a t t h is r e g io n h a s n o t o n th e w h o le th e c h a r a c te r ­
i s t i c s r e q u ir e d b y th e c o n c lu s io n s d raw n fro m l in g u i s t i c
d a ta i In c o n tr a d is tin c tio n to v ie w s h e ld b y c e r ta in
p h i l o l o g i s t s a n d a n t h r o p o lo g i s t s t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l W ir o s "
w e r e nom ad h e r d sia e n i h e b e lie v e s th e y w e r e s e t t l e d
a g r i c u l t u r i s t s ^ (C a m b r id g e H is t o r y o f I n d ia , v o l . I ,
;,v; p . 6 9 ) .
■ ■a .
Y'VV'W ■/ :
;
V. '.V--V -
i n w h ic h t h e s e r e m a in s a r e fo u n d s t r e t c h e s fr o m th e C a sp ia n
S ea t o th e D n ie p e r .
T h is h y p o th e s is * h o w e v e r , I n v o lv e s th e
a ss u m p tio n th a t th e o c h r e ^ g r a v e c i v i l i z a t i o n i s In d o E u ro p ea n , w h erea s n o th in g th a t is know n to u s o f th e
p r im itiv e In d o -E u ro p ea n r e lig io n " a cco rd s w ith th e p r a c tic e
o f th e a u th o r s o f th e o c h r e ^ g r a v e c i v i l i z a t i o n o f b u r y in g
t h e i r d e a d in a c o n t r a c t e d p o s it io n a n d c o v e r in g th em w ith
r e d ^ o c h r e . ft
T hough i t m u st b e a d m itte d th a t n o th in g d e f in it e ca n
b e p r o v e d w ith th e h e lp o f o u r p r e s e n t m ean s o f in v e s t ig a t i o n , y e t o n th e w h o le w e s e e th a t t h e a r g u m e n ts in s u p p o r t
o f th e E u ro p ea n hom e a r e f a r fro m c o n v in c in g .
I t h a r d ly
see m s l i k e l y th a t th e T h d o -E u ro p ea n s cam e t o A sia fro m
E urope; th e r e is p r a o tio a lly no tr a c e o f th e ir e a r ly
m ig r a tio n in to th e B ear E a st .
E ven th e B e sla n la n g u a g e , a n
e a r ly In d o -E u ro p ea n to n g u e fo u n d in t e x t s o f th e H itt i t e s
i n A s ia M in o r , m ay r e p r e s e n t e le m e n ts l e f t t h e r e b y a n
a n c ie n t p a ren t tr ib e m ig r a tin g w estw a rd s.
Bor d oes th e
ab u n d an t a r c h a e o lo g ic a l e v id e n c e a b o u t p r e h is to r ic c e n tr e s
o f c u ltu r e in E u rop e, th a t h a s b een c o lle c te d , su p p o rt th e
sc h o la r s who seek to lo c a te th e o r ig in a l hom e on th a t
c o n tin e n t *
As a m a tte r o f fa c t " u n til w e c a n sa y o f a g iv e n
c u lt u r e , su c h a s a n e o lit h ic s e ttle m e n t in D enm ark o r an
(* ) H* P e a k e « T h e B r o n z e A ge a n d t h e C e lt io m > r ld . 1 9 3 3 .
pp * 1 4 0 -1 ;V * G > Q h lld e . l o c . c i t . C h ap. V I I I .
■
27
a e n o lith ic c u ltu r e on th e D anube, and d e c id e w h eth er i t is
p r e I M o - G e r m a n ic o r a n o n - I n d o - G e r m a n ic g r o u p , o u r c o n : o n io n s ^
;/
U i p ,™
^ .B .r o p ia .
„m
;
,
a l w a y s b e r e s t i n g o n m o r e o r l e s s u n p r o v e d h y p o t h e s i s •*
On th e o th e r h a n d * fro m th e e v id e n c e a v a ila b le t o u s
on th is s u b je c t, i t seem s p r e fe r a b le to su p p o se th a t th e
J n d o -E u ro p ea n s o r ig in a te d in C en tra l A sia , an d th e n c e
sp r e a d w e stw a rd s to w a rd s E u ro p e, a s w e ll a s to w a rd s Ira n
a n d In d ia *
C e n tr a l A s ia , to u s e th a t term in i t s w id e s t
s e n s e , is a r e g io n th a t h a s s ig n if ie d m uch in m any is s u e s
o f t h e g e n e r a l h i s t o r y o f m a n k in d .
;
:
I ts o r ig in a l c o n tr ib u ­
tio n to c u ltu r a l h is to r y h a s b een fa r -r e a c h in g .
S t ill m ore
}
im p o r ta n t h a s b e e n , th e r o le th a t i t h a s p la y e d in th e
tr a n s m is s io n o f c u lt u r e - t r a it s fro m o n e p a r t o f th e o ld
w o r ld t o th e o t h e r .
It is w rong to th in k th a t th e in h a b ita n ts
o f C e n tr a l A sia in a n c ie n t tim e s w ere b a r b a r ic *
She fa c t
t h a t a t a n e a r l y •d a t e s e v e r a l S a !k a t r i b e s , w h i c h b e l o n g e d
to th e Ir a n ia n s to c k , • w ere fo u n d so m ew h ere in th a t r e g io n
:
F 1 liE .Q ; . J u n e, - 1929 v p i2 5 1 .
(§ ) Ih e. S& kas a r e m e n tio n e d in th e in s c r ip t io n s o f D a r iu s .
In h i s d a y s th e y w e r e h i s s u b j e c t s l i v i n g * b ey o n d S u g d ♦p a ra Sugdam , i . e . th e co u n try in th e e a s t o f th e P e r sia n
E m p ir e a lo n g t h e J a x a r t e s ,.^ w h a t e v e r i t s e x t e n t , S t e n
K ohow b e lie v e s th a t th e S ak as w ere Ir a n ia n s, an d th e
Y u e -c h is i . e . th e K h sh a n s w ho e s t a b lis h e d a la r g e E u p ir e
a t P esh aw ar in th e In d u s v a lle y , w ere S ak as a ls o . She
h is t o r y o f th e K h sh a n s i s o f u tm o st im p o r ta n c e to u s ,
fo r th e y b ecam e v e r y p o w e r fu l an d m ade th e P a n ja b a
so v e r e ig n s ta te in th e e a r ly o e n tu r ie s o f th e C h r istia n
e r a . (S te n K bnow , C .I .i* , T o ! I I . P a rt I, 1 9 2 9 ,
p p. x x v ii-z x v iii and lx i- lx ii) .
se e m s t o sh o w t h e e r r o r o f t h i s a ss u m p tio n *
E ecent
a r c h a e o lo g ic a l w ork h a s a lso b rou gh t to lig h t th e fa c t th a t
t h e a n c ie n t in h a b it a n t s o f C e n ti'a l A s ia h a d d e v e lo p e d a
h ig h a r t i s t i c t r a d it io n an d th a t t h is e a r ly c e n t r a l A s ia tic
a r t e x e r te d a m e a su r a b le in flu e n c e u p o n th e a r t i s t i c
d e v e lo p m e n t o f E u r o p e on^ o n e s id e a n d u p o n C h in a a n d t h e
E ar E a st o n th e o th er*
B u t th e m o st im p o r ta n t f a c t e s t a b lis h in g th e c e n t r a l
A sia n th e o r y , a s a lr e a d y rem a rk ed a b o v e , i s th e fo r m e r
e x is te n c e o f a h it h e r to unknow n In d o -E u ro p ea n la n g u a g e , u s u a l
l y d e s ig n a te d T o k h a rIa n , b e tw e e n K ucha an d ftir fa n , n o r th o f
L ob D or i n C h in e se ftir k is ta n *
U n lik e a n y o f th e o th e r
A s ia t ic la n g u a g e s , w h ic h a r e o f th e s a t e m - t y p e , i t i s a
c e n tu m -la n g u a g e , m ore n e a r ly r e la te d to th e cen tu m -g r o u p o f
In d o -E u ro p ea n la n g u a g e s fo u n d in E u ro p e. ^
O h is la n g u a g e
h a s b e e n c o n s id e r e d b y a .g o o d m any s o h o la r s a s u r v iv a l o f
( * ) S e e i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n S i r A * S t e i n fs I n n e r m o s t A s i a .
Q x :fo rd , 1 9 2 8 , On A n c ie n t C e n t r a l A s ia n b r a c k s * L o n d o n *
* 1 9 3 3 / ^ S e r o l n a ia , Q x fo r a , 1 9 2 1 i^ ' ( § ) I b r t h e w h o l e p r o b l e m o f T o k h a r i a n s e e Prof. H . W . B a i l e y ,
- B .S .O .S ., V I I I , 1 9 3 6 , p p . 8 8 3 f f ; P .B e llio t , J .A ., 2 3 4 ,
1 9 3 4 , pp* S3 f f ; S* L e v i,
A* 1 9 3 3 , p p . 1 f f ; S te n
K b n o w ^ .0 ♦ I . I ♦ * V o l . I I . P a r t I , 1 9 2 9 * p p . l v i i f f a n d
.
J . I » H » X I I * 1 9 0 5 * p . 7 f • To&day t h i s l a n g u a g e i s n o
lo n g e r c a lle d Ib k h a r ia n . I t i s fo u n d w r it te n o n
d o cu m en ts, r e c e n tly b ro u g h t to lig h t b y e x p lo r a tio n s in
C h in e s e D x r k is ta n . I t s tw o fo r m s c a l l e d D ia le c t s A a n d
B w e r e th e la n g u a g e o f tw o s t a t e s in th e n o r th e r n p a r ts
o f C h in e s e Q h r k is ta n / A o f A g n i-K a r a c h a r (w ith ttir fa n )
a n d B o f K u oh a. Ih e fo r m e r w as u s e d in B u d d h ist t e x t s ,
a n d th e l a t t e r w as th e la n g u a g e o f a d m in is tr a tio n in
th e e ig h th ce n tu r y A . D.
th e In d o -E u r o p e a n , n o t A ry a n , p e o p le w ho r e m a in e d in A s ia
n e a r t h e ir o r ig in a l hom e*
U iis i s n o t a l l ; K e sia n t o o ,
k now n to u s fro m in s c r ip t io n s o f th e H i t t i t e s , is a cen tu m
v a r ie t y o f In d o -E u ro p ea n , and m ay h e r e g a r d e d a s b e in g ,
l i k e O to k h a r ia n , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s u r v i v a l o f I n d o - E u r o p e a n
in A sia *
In v ie w o f t h e s e tw o c e n tu m - l a n g u a g e s * w h ic h a r e
a p p a r e n tly n a t iv e s o f A s ia , to a ssu m e w a n d e r in g s o f th e
In d o -E u r o p e a n s fr o m E u ro p e to th e C h in e se b o r d e r in a p r e ­
h is t o r ic o r h is t o r ic p e r io d d o es n o t seem to b e r e a s o n a b le *
I f th e n w e w o u ld s t r i k e a b a la n c e b e tw e e n t h e r i v a l c la im s ,
w e s e e th a t th e e v id e n c e , th o u g h m a in ly in d e c is iv e , in c lin e s
s l ig h t l y in fa v o u r o f th e C e n tr a l A sia n hom e*
Ih e r e c e n t h ig h a u th o r itie s u p h o ld in g th e th e o r y o f a
C e n tr a l A sia n hom e a r e th e g r e a t h is t o r ia n , P ro f* E* M ey er,
t h e r e c o g n is e d p h i l o l o g i s t , D r* S . I t e is t a n d t h e e m in e n t
S a n s k r it 1 s t , P r o f* J a r l G h a r p e n tie r *
To th e s e nam es m ay
b e a d d e d t h a t o f S i r A* B* K e i t h , a u t h o r o f s e v e r a l v a l u a b l e
w o rk s o n In d o* E u ro p ea n p r e h is to r y ; h e h a s th o r o u g h ly
e x a m in e d a l l th e e x i s t i n g t h e o r ie s , a n d f e e l s c o n v in c e d
th a t th e hom e o f th e p e o p le w ho sp o k e th e In d o -E u ro p ea n
to n g u e i s to b e lo o k e d fo r in C e n tr a l A sia an d n o t a t a l l
in E urope.
We s h a ll c lo s e t h is t o p ic b y g iv in g a q u o ta tio n
f r o m P r o f * C h a r p e n t i e r * s a r t i c l e e L u c K te d a b o v e *
In . h i s
op in io n " th e hom e o f th e Ih d o -E u ro p ea n s w as in A s i a , an d
in t h a t p a r t o f th e v a s t c o n t in e n t w h ere w e r e fo u n d w id e
g r a s s la n d s o n w h ic h t o ro a m a b o u t w it h t h e i r h e r d s o f
c a t t le and h o r se s; w h ere th e c lim a te w as a te m p era te, o r,
a t t im e s , a c o ld o n e , an d w h ere w e re fo u n d th e a n im a ls
u su a l in su ch a zo n e and am ong tr e e s th e b ir c h , th e w illo w
and th e f i r tr e e *
Kb p a r t o f A sia a n sw e r s q u ite to t h is
d e s c r ip t io n e x c e p t th e r e g io n s t o th e e a s t o f th e C a sp ia n
S e a , w h ic h a r e g e n e r a lly c a lle d C e n tr a l A s ia , w it h th e
n e ig h b o u r in g p la in s o f I h r k e s ta n , w h ere fo r m e r ly c o n d itio n s
o f l i v in g w e re e a s ie r th a n n o w -a -d a y a i"
It is , he ad ds, x
fro m th e s e p a r ts th a t s tr e a m s o f la d o -E u r o p e a n m ovem en t
s ta r te d an d flo w e d to w a rd s th e w e s t, so u th an d s o u th -w e s t.
I f th e r e fo r e , as seem s v ery lik e ly , th e cen tre o f
th e In d o -E u ro p ea n p e o p le s la y in C e n tr a l A s ia , th e m ove­
m en ts to w a rd s th e so u th an d so u th -w e st w ere ta k e n by th e
A ryans.
{*)
Ih a t th e p la in o f th e Q xus, i* e * th e o o u n tr y
fr o m w h ic h th e A ry a n s s e t o u t o n t h e ir c o n q u e s ts a t
d i f f e r e n t i n t e r v a l s , w a s a t o n e tim e t h e i r com m on h a b it a t
Is su p p o rte d b y th e h is to r y o f e a r ly Ira n , a c c o r d in g to ,
w h ic h th e m o st a n c ie n t p e r io d o f I r a n ia n m o v e m en ts w a s
.o v e r b e fo r e th e c o n q u e s t an d o c c u p a tio n o f th e M edo- .
P e r sia n te r r ito r y in th e w e st, and a ls o b y th e c le a r
A v e s t ic t r a d it io n , w h ic h c a l l s t h e o r ig in a l I r a n ia n h om e
(* ) M ig r a tio n s to w a r d s th e w e s t p r o b a b ly w e n t b o th n o r th an d
s o u t h o f t h e C a s p i a n ^ a in ir a
"W hen w e h a v e t o e x p la in t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r a c i a l
t y p e s in E u r o p e , th e th e o r y w h ic h b e s t f i t s th e f a c t s k n o w n
to u s i s t h a t w h ic h h s s M e s ; th a t t h a C ^ c ^
o f E u r o p e w a s e f f e c t e d f r o m A s i a , and^ t h a t b e f b r e t h e x w e s t w ard m ig r a to r y m ovem en t b e g a n th e C a u c a sia n s to c k in W estern
A sia w as a lr e a d y a r r a n g e d , a s now in E u ro p e, in a t r ip le zo n e
fr o m s o u t h t o n o r t h ." (E fca zer l e c t u r e s , p * 3 0 l).
.
A ir y a n a m V ae ja h
O he l a t t e r h a s r e c e n t ly b e e n
x y j ; . ; X .;y,y ^
i d e n t i f i e d w it h C h o r a sm ia X (K h w a r ism ), i* e * H iiv a , t h e
. :-.v
.x C
x
- ’V '.
(E ra m v e j ) ♦
x
- x - X y X yX;y ; Xy.yx(* )
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; - y ; X ' ^ ' f b r t i l e ‘/ c o u n t r y S o u t h o f " t h e x A r a l ' ' ^ e X o n X t h e X l ^
X H is to r y i s s o f a r a lt o g e t h e r s i l e n t in r e g a r d t o tlie
X ; / ‘ e a r l i e s t m i g r a t i o n s o f v t h e A r y a n t a ^ b e s ; :.:* f i i e h X u &
p u sh ed b o th w e stw a rd s and so u th w a rd s •
x
H o w ev er, th e e a r l ie s t tr a c e s o f A ryan la n g u a g e an d
x ;r e lig io n m ay p e r h a p s b e fo u n d in th e h am es p f th e p r in c e s
and d iv in itie s o f th e I ^ s s ite s who becam e m a sters o f
XX B a b y l o n i a f o r f i v e h u n d r e d y e a r ^ ^ f r o m c i r c a 1 7 4 6 - 1 1 8 0 B .C .
X
Ih e f a c t th a t th e nam es o f som e o f . t t e i r r u le ^
.X y r y X ;'
c o n ta in e le m e n ts o f A b^an d iv in it ie s su ch a s S h u r ia s ,
I n d a s h , M a ir u tta sh a n d B u g a s h , w h ic h lo o k l i k e t h e I n d ia n
S u r y a , I n d r a , M ir u t a n d S tia g a ( I r a n i a n B a g a ) , s u g g e s t s
y
th a t a b ra n ch o f th e A ryan s h ad m ig r a te d to w a r d s th e w e s t,
X
p r o b a b ly th r o u g h Ir a n , a t a n e a r ly d a te , an d fo u n d e d a
r u lin g d y n a sty am ong th e K ass i t e s in B a b y lo n ia , o r th a t
p e r h a p s t h e K a s s lt e in v a s io n o f B a b y lo n i t s e l f w a s d u e to
X
(;
-X
.X.'
X x -;X ;X ‘
(? ) C h o r a s m ia w a s t h e c o u n t r y o
w h em P to le m y ( v i , 1 2 , 4 ) p u ts
a n d (H ju y a r a s s m is o f t h e C ld
: ; K h v a ir iz a m o f t h e M ih r Y a s t
sa m e• O f. E /X B e n v e n is te « Bj
f t h e p e o p l e f h o r a s m i 1,
I& y n ir i^ a m X o n t h e O ru s;
P e r sia n in s c r ip tio n s and
(Y t # X * 1 4 ) i m p l i e s t h e X
S ; 0* S . V I I * 1 9 3 4 . X x X y y - v
:
th e p r ese n c e; p f a n A ryan tr ib e and i t s le a d e r s w ere
•I-/- •
;> a o t u a l l y . A ^ a n p r i n c e s . . A n o t h e r r e f e r e n c e t o A r y a n i n f l u ­
e n c e i s to b e fo u n d in th e fa m o u s l e t t e r s o f th e f if t e e n t h
i UV;j c e n t u r y B i Gv: ^ ? d i s b o T e r e d . v f r o m ; 3 b l l - e l - A m a
,.X ,M e s b l e t t e r s ' th r o w a f lo o d o f l i^ h t b n th e a f f a ir s o f
V? ;-W e s t o r n A s i a , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d m a r i t i c a l
v ;K
r e la t io n s b e tw e e n th e K t a n n i p r in c e s a n d th e E g y p tia n
H ia fa o h s o f th e E ig h te e n th Ity n a sty a t th e en d o f th e
f i f t e e n t h a n d t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y B .C *
J rx t h e s e l e t t e r s s o m e ; p r i n c e s o f t h e p e o p l e o f M i t a n n i
r u l i n g i n :§ ^ r i a a r e m e n t i o n e d w i t h n a m e s o f A r y a n f o r m s j
; su c h a s A rta ta m a , B u sh r a tta
S h u tta rn a an d S u v a r d a tta ;•
P T I h e h e g e m o n y o f B a b y lo n f e l l a b o u t t h e e ig h t e e n t h
c e n t u r y B i C * , a n d th e ; E a s s it e s fr o m M e d ia e s t a b l i s h e d
■ a d y n a s t y a t B a b y lo n a b o u t 174=6 B *C * T h e K a s s it e s
t h e m s e lv e s w e r e n o t A r y a n ( C a m b r id g e H i s t o r y o f I n d i a ,
p * 7 6 ) , n o r I n d o -E u r o p e a n a s B e a k e i d e n t i f i e d (l o o / d l t V
; ; p * 7 4 )# S in c e th e K a s s ite n am es f o r g o d , s t a r , h e a v e n ,
f o r t ,e t c a s r e c o r d e d do n o t r e v e a l an y A ryan e le m e n ts,
i t is d o u b ted th a t th e y w ere A ryans * Ib r a f u l l a cc o u n t
o f th e K a S s ite s s e e E n c y c lo p a e d ia f e it a n n ic a . 1 9 2 9 ,
1 4 t h e d i t i o n ji u n d e r B a b y l o n i a a n d i i A a a y r l a t a l s o
i K a s s i t e s ; C a m e r o n ^ - ; .H i s t o r y o f E a r l y I r a n , C h i c a g o ,
1 9 3 6 , pp* 8 9 -9 5 .
(§ ) T he M t a n n i w e re e s t a b lis h e d in S y r ia (n o r th -w e s t o f
> J ife so p p
) . v -In r e g a r d t p > t h e i r r a c i a l i d e n t i t y i t i s
d o u b t f u l , a s i n t h e c a s e of t h e K a s s i t e s , w h e t h e r t h e y
w e r e A r y a n . Ifih a t i s h o w e v e r u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d i s
t h a t th e r e ' w a s a r u lin g c l a s s am on g th e M ita n n i w ho
c a l l e d t h e m s e lv e s M a fy a n i a n d t h a t th e M a r y a n i w as.
p r o b a b ly a c o n q u e r in g a r is to c r a c y w ho sp o k e a n A ryan
c ^ d i a l e c a f u l l a o o b p h t o f t h e Ih ta x m i^ ^ ^
E n o y o lo p a e d la ^ B r ita n n ic a , 1 9 2 9 , u n d e r H it t i t e s : C am eron ,
l o o ♦ c i t ♦ p p ♦ 1 5 9 f : C a m b r id g e H i s t o r y o f I n d i a f p . 7 6 ;
£ r o f • A» B* K e 1 t h i n C om m em orat i v e E s s a y s p r e s e n t e d t o
S i r JEh G , B h a n d a r k a r » B b o n a f 1 9 1 7 . p t u 8 5 - 8 5 . P e a k e ( l o p ,
c it y p ; 7 5 ) ta k e s th e M ita n n i t o b e a b r a n c h o f th e In d o E uropean stb ck .
B u t th e m o st r e m a r k a b le h i s t o r i c a l t r a c e o f th e A r y a n
m ig r a t io n to w a r d s t h e w e s t i s fo u n d in th e im p o r ta n t
d o c u m e n ts u n e a r th e d a t B o g h a z -K b l in A s ia M in o r , w h ic h h a v e
b e e n d a te d b e tw e e n 1 3 9 5 * 1 5 5 5 By 0* , th a t i s , o f th e sam e •
p e r io d a s th e ;T e ll-e l-A m a r h a l e t t e r s .
Som e o f th e fa c ts
fu r n is h e d b y t h e s e d o cu m en ts a r e th a t th e M ita n n i w o r sh ip p e d
a n u m b e r o f g o d s j t e n .B a b y lo n ia n a n d f o u r n a t i v e M ita n n ia n y
th e l a t t e r in c lu d in g M itr a (I n d ia n M itr a , I r a n ia n M ic r a ),
U r u y n a o r A a m r ia ( I n d i a n Y a r u n a ) y I n d a r a ( I r id i a n I n d r a ) , a n d
^ l ^ s i i a a t t i i i a ^ ^ C l h d i a h ;(N £ s a t y h , . I r a n i a n I f e o r i h a i t y a ) 5 t h a t
IX ish r a tta o r T u s h r a tta , k in g o f th e M ita n n i, w as d o n e to ;
d e a th b y o h e o f h is s o n s a n d th e r e u p o n t h e M ita n n i d e c lin e d ;
th a t th e r e w as a t r e a t y m ad e b e tw e e n M a ttia w a z a , a so n o f
th e l a t e M ita n n i k in g , an d S h u p p llu liu m a , th e k in g o f th e
•
H i t t l t e s , w h o r e s t o r e d M a ttia w a z a t o t h e M ita n n i k in g d o m
a n d g a v e h im h i s d a u g h t e r , a llo w in g h i s s o n - i n - la w fr e e d o m
t o ta k e a s m any c o n c u b in e s a s p o s s ib le b u t r e s e r v e f o r h is
d au gh t e r th e po s i t io n o f ch ie f q u een , w h ile th e r ig h t to
th e su b p e s;sio n
•r e s e r v e d f o f ; t h e c
.
w ife ; and
t h a t t h e t r e a t y i n v o k e d a s g u a r a n t o r s o f t h e a g r e e m e n t :t h e
a b o v e M ita n n ia n g o d s o n b e h a lf o f th e M ita n n i p a r ty to th e
trea ty *
S U rth er, am ong th e s e I n s c r ip tio n s fo u n d a t
(^ 1 T h ese d o c u m e n ts w e r e d is c o v e r e d in 1 9 06 b y H ugo W in c k le r ,
w h o p u b l i s h e d a su m m a r y o f h i s f i n d i n g s i n M* D » 0 » 0 * N o * 3 5
1 9 0 7 a n d a g a i n i n 0* L* Z . i n 1 9 1 0 a n d 1 9 1 6 .
(§ ) Ib r a h a c c o u n t o f th e t r e a t y s e e I u c k e n b ill, A m eri c a n
■ * Jou rn a l o f S e m itic L a n g u a g es a n d L it e r a t u r e , 1 9 2 1 , Y o l;
X O i r i l l O f. C a m b r id g e H i s t o r y o f I n d i a , p p y 7 2 f f . H ie
- in t e r e s t in g d o cu m en ts r e c o r d in g th e m a r r ia g e tr e a ty
c o n s is t s o f 5 1 2 l i n e s • I t r e m a in s y e t u n d e c ip h e r e d
e x c e p t in g th e s e v e n l i n e s w h ic h a r e w r it t e n in B a b y lo n ia n
'''
(c o n tin u e d )
v.f;;B
o ^ ^ i a i s ^ k o i ;- >-i s . ib'iLQ 'v.b o p iy r ; '■■p.^:;I ' s C - ' * _.-Tpy:. a n a u t h o r n a m e d K i k k u l i ,
/ d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f:- h o r s e - b r e e d i n g a n d r a c i n g ; .
; ■: >
T h is w a s i n t h e h a n d s o f 'a c e r t a i n ln d o --E iiT O p e a n r u l i n g
t r ib e know n a s th e H esas o r K a n e sa s, w ho sp o k e a cen tu m ,
- v a r i e t y o f- :lh d d -B u r o p e a h i a s i s c le a r fr o m th e s t r u c t u r e
an d gram m ar o f th e la n g u a g e in t h is w o rk .
(§)
:.--W r: '■■■■■'"
T he n u m e r a ls,
'
a lo n g w ith te c h r iic a l te rm s u se d in th e t e x t , tu r n o u t to
b e A r y a n ,; e . g . a i k a , t e r a , p a h z a , s a t t a , n a v a , v a r t a n n a .
^
^
a lis t o f d e itie s
w o r sh ip p e d in f o r e ig n c i t i e s an d c o u n tr ie s u n d e r th e
;
lib r a r y b e lo n g in g t o k in g A s h u r -b a n i-p a l (6 6 9 -6 2 6 B .C ;)
• •: ' ( B o t e o o n t i n u e d ) ^ i
C u n e i f o r m . T h i s - s t r a n g e :s o r i p t h a s n o t y e t b e e n d e c i p h e r e d *
A s r e g a r d s th e H it t it e s r e fe r r e d to a b o v e , th e y d id n o t
b e lo n g to th e A ryan grou p o f t r ib e s ; th e y seem to h a v e
c o n t a in e d d iv e r s e s e c t i o n s r a c i a l l y d i f f e r e n t am o n g th em *
C he s e c t i o n o f t h e s e p e o p le ^ k n o w n a s t h e H e s a s o r K a n e s 'e s ,
th e r u lin g t r ib e in th e H i t t i t e a n p ir e ^ w a s d e c id e d ly In d o E u r o p e a n T e * J b p r e r , Z * D , M . & *■;. I x x v i * p p * 2 5 0 f f ) v I b r a
f u l l a c c o u n t o f th e H itt i t e s r e a d E n c y c lo p a e d ia B r ita n n io a ,
1929, under H ittite s *
■
( § ) E . J b r r e r , Z » D .M .G r » , q u o t e d a b o v e p V : n *
, O f» B » K * C h o s e n l i n g u is t ic ^ d h t a * o d u c t l p h o f S a n s k r i t *
(p ) T he g r e a t m a j o r ity o f th e r e lig iP u ^ “t e x t s in t h is lib r a r y
w e r e c o p ie d fr o m B a b y lo n ia n o r i g i n a ls , o f te n o f g r e a t a n t iq u it y ,
b u t c lo s e r e x a m in a tio n o f th e t a b le t p r o v e s t h a t th e t e x t is
A s s y r i a n a n d h o t B a b y l o n i a n . ( H o m m e l * P .S .B .A * £ X X I , 1 8 9 9 ,
p p . 1 2 7 , 1 3 7 f f i J a c k so n , Z o r o a s tr ia n S tu d ie s * 1 9 2 8 , p p . 39*
:V;v.2Q$)
;
35
T he l i s t in c lu d e s th e nam e i^ sa r a . I to a s h , w ho i s p o s s ib ly
i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e Z o r o a s t r i a n g o d . A h u r a - M a ? d a , y t h o u ^ ; . ^ h e v ,;
fo r m A s s a r a i s n e a r e r V e d ic A S u ra th a n A v e s t ic A h u r a .
T h is
fo rm in d ic a t e s e it h e r t h a t i t w as a d o p te d b y a t r ib e r e t a in ­
in g i n t e r v o b a l ic s , o r e l s e , w h io h i s raP re l i k e l y , t h a t i t
p r e v io u s ly .
■
•.
v
'./••••;;
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T he n am es o f d e it ie s an d p r in c e s , a s a ls o n u m e r a ls,
v
th a t h a v e b e e n in e n t io n e d a b o v e a r e p e r h a p s th e o ld e s t
r e c o r d e d s p e c im e n s o f a p y A ry a n s p e e c h w h ic h w e p o s s e s s s o
fa r.
B u t t h e y d e s e r v e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n o w i n g t o / th © : f a c t y ;;
t h a t a n e f f o r t i s s o m e t i m e s m a d e i t o :■r e p r e s e n t
s p e c i f i c a l l y In d ia n ; e s p e c ia lly th e p a s s a g e o f th e t r e a t y
;
r e la t iiig t o th e fo u r d e i t i e s o f th a M ita n n i i s q u o te d to
sh o w t h a t t h e R g v e d lc p a n th e o n w a s k n ow n in W e ste r n A s ia
a s e a r ly a s th e fo u r te e n th c e n tu r y B .C ., an d th a t th e s e
d e i t i e s w e r e b o rro w ed fro m th e h ym n s o f th e .R g v e d a .
Jacobi
w as th e f i r s t to d e c la r e th e d e i t i e s in q u e s tio n In d ia n
;
a f t e r th e y w ere p u b lish e d in 1907 b y H ugo I ttn c k le r , and
■I
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y:
(x )
r e c e n tly H . S a y ce h a s p o s tu la te d a s im ila r v ie w . ; B ut
^
) P r o f y K e i t h , f o l l o w i n g H .M . C h a d w ic k a n d P i W . T h o m a s ,
d o e s n o t a c c e p t " th e d e r iv a tio n e it h e r o f A £ su r fro m
A su ra o r o f A su ra frcm A ssu r . T h ere is no id e n t it y o f
c h a r a c te r in th e tw o c o n c e p t io n s , a n d th e s im ila r it y
o f nam e
f a r f r o m c l o s e ; M (C o m m em . E s s a y s / p . 8 8 ) .
(§ ) J+ IU A . S . 1 9 0 1 , p p , 7 2 1 f f
( x ) Or i e n t a l S t u d i e s i n h o n o u r o f O u r s e t j i E r a c h l j i P a v r y ,
O x fo r d ,' 1 9 3 3 , p p . 4 0 3 -4 0 6 .
36
: / t h e i r a r g u m e n ts h a v e /g e n e r a l ly b e e n r e g a r d e d a s im p r o b a b le '/
V ; b y th e /sc h o la r s, w ho h
fo rm s.
stu d y o f a ll th e se
I t i s t r a e th e y a r e v e r y n e a r ly p u r e In d o -A ry a n ;.
c e r t a i n l y t h e y a r e m u ch .m o r e ';'n e a r ly a k in t h
an y o f th e Ir a n ia n d ia le c t s .
to
;
Ife v e r th p le ss th e y m u st b e lo n g
: t o t h e A r y a n p e r i o d p r o p e r b e f o r e I n d i a n a n d Ir^^^
w ere
' ' d i f f e r a n t i a t e d ♦ fTh& o t h e r w o r d s w h i c h h a v e c o m e ; t o l i g h t
A v e stic
■
5
a llo w in g fo r th e d is to r tio n o f tr a n s c r ip tio n ,
th e y a r e c o m p a tib le w ith A ry a n .
T h e ir la n g u a g e ; u n m is ta k a b ly
777
' a p p e a r s t o b e a n A ryan d ia l e c t , a s i t d if f e r s b o th fro m
v ;; ‘V e d i c a n d A v e s t i c ; u n l i k e t h e f p m i e r i t h a s A r t a - f o r R t a ,
w h ile u n lik e th e l a t t e r i t r e t a in s a so u n d b e tw e e n v o w e ls
in N a s h a a ttiiia .
A n o th er; f a c t w o r th y o f n o t e i s t o f in d
v-:. t h e i m p o r t a n t a n d p r o m i n e n t g o d A g h i , w h o i s s p e c i f i c a l l y 7 •
% y e d ic , ; o m itte d in th e B q ^ a z k o i t r e a ^ y ^ ^
fo u r g o d s o f t h e M ita n n i a lle g e d t o b e H g v e d ic w e r e k n ow n
to th e A v e sta a s w e ll*
7
,;
P in a lly , i f th e g o d s cam e fro m
■ I n d i a d i r e c t l y '^ o r t h r o u g h - I r a n , w e O u g h t t o f i n d i n l e s t e W a : :
A sia e a r ly tr a c e s o f A ryan p o p u ia tio n , b u t t h io is v e r y fa r
fro m b e in g th e c a s e .
On th e c o n tr a r y , t h a t a r e a see m s t o
h a v e h a d a ' d i s t i n c t l y i i o h - A r y a n J s i a n i c ; 3^
,
7 ": 7
'J { * ) ' i a V a l l e e ^ P o u s s i n h a s d i s c u s s e d t h e c o n t r o v e r s y a t l e n g t h ,
/; a n d d o e s n o t a g r e e w i t h J a o o b i a n d h i s p a r t i s a n s t h a t t h e ;
g o d s cam e o u t o f I n d ia , a n d th a t b h e y a r e In d ia n ; H e d e n ie s ;
t h e I n d i a n h y p o t h e s i s a n d c a l l s i t a fm i s t y f a n t a s y 1 » H i s :
: b e l i e f is th a t th e g o d s cam e fro m E u r o p e , th a t t h e ir fo rm s
a r e 3 h d o - Ir a n ia n an d th a t th e M ita n n i w e r e p r o b a b ly a p a r t
o f th e In d o -E u ro p ea n p e o p le a d v a n c in g e a s tw a r d s w ho h a d
■ ■b e e n l e f t o n t h e w a y . ( l o o y e i t . v p p . 8 0 - 8 4 ) .
( § ) N e a r l y t w o h u n d r e d h y m n s h a v e b e e n ad d ressed t o A g n i , t h e
- I n g e s t n u m b er, tw o h u n d red an d f i f b y , b e in g d e v o te d to g o d
m u st t h e r e f o r e ,,b e s a t is f ie d w ith th e s a fe .a n d r e a so n a b le
c o n c lu s io n th a t th e nam es o f th e s e g o d s and o th e r num erou s
. w o r d s fo u n d in th e a n c ie n t r e c o r d s o f A s t e r n A s ia a n d w h ic h
h a v e l i n g u i s t i c k in s h ip w ith V e d ic a s w e ll a s A v e s t ic com e
fr o m a com m on s o u r c e , A r y a n , t h a t i s t o s a y , t h e s e com m on
e le m e n ts b e lo n g e d to th e u n d iv id e d 3 h d a - I r a n ia n s ,;p r io r t o
th e ir s e p a r a tio n a s -I n d ia n s and Ir a n ia n s.
On t h i s p o in t l e t
u s q u o te a p a s s a g e fro m P r o f. K e ith * s B e lig io n an d P h ilo s o p h y
o f th e V ed a , w h ere h e i s d is c u s s in g th e n u m e r a ls an d g o d s in
q u e s t io n - " H ia t i s c l e a r i s t h a t t h e n u m e r a ls a r e b y n o
’.m e a n s V e d ic a n d t h a t t h e y c a n b e s e t d o w n a s A r y a n w i t h e q u a l
p la u s ib ility .
We a r e , . t h e r e f o r e , s t i l l l e f t w ith o u t a n y
d e f in it e e v id e n c e to a id u s in d a tin g th e d is t in c t io n o f
A ryan in to Ir a n ia n an d In d ia n , an d w e sh o u ld p r o b a b ly r e v is e
o u r c o n c e p tio n o f t h is d iv is io n .
In an a r e a o f c o n s id e r a b le
, e x t e n t o v e r w h ic h A ry a n w a s sp o k e n w e m ay a ssu m e d i a l e c t i c a l
d if f e r e n c e s sp r a n g u p , a c c e le r a t e d in d e v e lo p m e n t b y c o n ta c t
w ith d if f e r e n t r a c ia l e le m e n ts , an d th e fr a g m e n ts o f M ita n n i
s p e e c h a k in to A ryan fo u n d o f l a t e r e p r e s e n t d e v e lo p m e n ts o f
w h at m ay c o n v e n ie n tly b e c a lle d , n o t e it h e r Ir a n ia n o r In d ia n ,
T h is n a t u r a l h y p o t h e s is r e m o v e s th e n e e d o f im a g in in g m o v e­
m e n ts b a ck fro m In d ia to th e W est, w h ile th e p o s s e s s io n o f
\s o m e g o d s in com m on w e ll a c c o r d s w ith th e A ry a n c h a r a c te r o f
th e sp eech " ,
(*)
) 'P i" ' 6 1 7 . Y e t . J a c o b i I s f o l l o w e d b y B a r g i t e r ( A n c i e n t I n d i a n
H is t o r ic a l T r a d itio n . 1 9 2 2 , O x fo rd , p ,3 0 0 ) , r e ly in g o n th e
P u r a n a s, w h ic h a r e q u it e u n tr u s tw o r th y i n t h e i r t r a d it io n s
a b o u t t h e o r i g i n s o f a n c i e n t d y n a jfc ie s, a s w e l l a s b y c e r t a i n
s c h o l a r s i n I n d i a , e . g * t o ; . S a r u p . . ( J , P . U ; H l s , S 6o , . V o l V ,
1 9 3 8 , p p . 5 9 - 6 9 ) * 1 p o in t s o u t £& & a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s e s o n t h e
^
(c o n tin u e d )
7.;'/'//
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7 7 V
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T he e v id e n c e th u s /o b ta in e d fro m W estern A s ia i s u n ­
d o u b t e d l y v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g , f o r /w e k n o w t h a t s o m e A r y a n 7
/
t r i b e s w e r e o n c e , m o v in g t o a n d f r o a b o u t A s ia M in o r d u r in g
' / / / :- - t h e s e c o n d a n d f i r s t m i l i e i i h i a B . C .
,7
an d th a t som e a t le a s t
s e t t i e d dow n to fo u n d m o n a r c h ie s ih v a r io u s r e g io n s ,
It is
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th e K a s s it e s an d M ita n n i
r u le r s th e m se lv e s h ad a d o p ted
; 7 : / ' / " ' t h e / n a t i y e 7l a n g u a g e a n d t h e B a b y l o n i a n s c r i p t / f o r / t h e i r
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77
./:/7 :;;://m ig r a tio n o f t h e A r y a n s , a k in t o t h o s e w e m e e t i n W e s te r n :
■ / . / A s i a a z a o n g ' ; t h e ; ■K a s . s d t e s / g ^ ^
su p p lie d , 'b y /s a c r e d ;//
; ; / ; ■'b o o k s ' ' o f t h e A r y a n s i n T h d i a a n d i n I r a n .
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;7 /> /: b l a n o e c o u l d n o t b e a m e r e a c c i d e n t ; r a t h e r i t w a s d u e t o a
com m on o r i g i n a s w e ll a s a c lo s e c o n ta c t in th e r e m o te p a s t ,
w h ic h i s m a n ife s t e d b y th e T R gveda a n d th e A v e s ta ,/ b o th sh o w ­
in g n e a r e r an d o lp s e r a f f in it y in c u ltu r e in g e n e r a l w ith
o n e a n o th e r th a n w ith th e c u ltu r e s o f an y o th e r A ryan o r
In d o -E u ro p ea n p e o p le s ;
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In d ia th r o u g h P a rsl a o r ( i i ) m ig r a te d d ir e c t fro m In d ia to
A s ia M in o r , a n d a c c e p t s t h e l a t t e r ; b u t h ;e h a s n o t c o n s i d e r e d
th e t h ir d h y p o t h e s is w h ic h a p p e a r s t o b e h ig h ly p r o b a b le , th a t
i s , t h e s e g o d s w a r e in t r o d u c e d i n t o A s ia M in o r b y a b r a n c h o f
th e / u n d iv id e d A ryan s m ig r a tin g w e stw a rd s l ik e o th e r b r a n c h e s '
g o in g to In d ia an d Ira n ;
/ 7 / :' - / —
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T he In d o ^ Ir a n ia n c u lt u r e , e s p e c ia lly th e r e lig io n , c a n
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th u s b e s t u d ie d in i t s In d ia n a s p e c t ih th e li^ e d a an d in
i t s Ir a n ia n a s p e c t in th e A v esta #
I
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a t f i r s t h o g r e a t t t i f fb r e h c e /^ b e iw p e n t h e /tw o b r a n c h e s o f th e
A r y a n s i n r e s p e c t o f l a n g u a g e , c u s t o m s , r e l i g i o n a n d m y t h o l o g y .,/
B o th a lik e w o r sh ip p e d th e g r e a t p o w e r s t i l i g h t ^
f I)e y a is % s h i h ^
G ood
7
to th em ir e r e th e v i s i b l e s ig h s
o f T M iy e r sa l D iy in it y , n a m e ly , V a r u n a , th e s h in in g V a u lt o f
^
/fr ie n d !^
S u n ; V a y i i , t h e w i n d /./
t h a t d r i v e s a w a y 7t h e s t o r m s ' a n d / m a k e s b r i ^ t t h e f a c e o f /
:/ 7 /
H ea v en ; Y am a, th e p r im e v a l m an th a t; r e ig n s o v e r t h e b le s s e d
:• ^ '//.-;
7
s o u ls in P a r a d ise ; J h d r a , th e v ic to r io u s s la y e r o f V r tra , .
/ / / I f c t r a ^ n a V o r / V f t r a h a n B o t h a l i k e o b s e r v e d t h e s e t ’ o f '.:•••
r e l i g i o u s r i t e s , a s ’; i © ; e v i d e n t 7f r o m / t h e ^ ^
. .
o f th e
B g y e d a a n d /Ik c m a o f t h e A v e s ta , a n d c o m p o se d h y m ^
th e
D e v a s , w h i o h w e r e c h a n t e d t o t h e a c c o m p a n i m e n t o f m u s i c '; a n d
. ' / / ’'
7/
b e r e m o h ia l.
T h e ir g r e a t e s t e t h i c a l c o n c e p t io n w a s e x p r e s s e d
b y t h e i r com m on d is c o v e r y o f th e D iv in e o r V fo r ld O r d e r , i . e v ,
•/:''7;:/ - :; 7 . 7 :; V 7 / i § : ) 7 v 7 : 7 / 7
Aforal 1 ^
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o f th e A ryans r e c o g n ise d
c la s s d is tin c tio n s b a sed on o c c u p a tio n s: b u t th e se d iv is io n s
•/ / w e r e n o t s o •r i g i d a s t o f o r m a 's y s t e m o f c a s t e s u c h a s a r o s e
7 /7 /7 /.' / / / l;a te r /in In d ia n
• - ' v / / / / ' / ' / - ^ / / - / . :/ / 7 ;' . : / ' 7 / , - • 7 / 7 / 7 / 7 / . / 7 ; :
7
/ P ) S e e B l o o m f i e l d ,/ R e l i g i o n o f t h e V e d a , , 1 9 O B , T h i r d l e c t u r e , 7
7 7 7 7 / / / / / / / p p . : 1 1 7 - 1 4 9 V :7 / 7 '' /• / 7 ; ■>; 7 ;>
; / v 7 ' - 7 v 7 / 7 ’ 7 / • / ; . , , / ' 7 . "7;
7 / < § ) T&© y b a
B ta c o r r e sp o n d s to th e w ord A sa in th e A v e s ta
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l a t e r o n , h o w e v e r , a s tim e w e n t b y , th e tw o b r a n c h e s ,
w h en th e y had: s e t t le d in t h e ir new h o m es, In d ia and I r a n /
d e v e lo p e d r e s p e c t iv e o u ltu r e s in d e p e n d e n tly , a n d , a s i s
n a tu r a l w ith c i v i l i s e d p e o p le s , t h e ir r e lig io n b ecam e d if f e r e n t
I n c o u r se o f tim e ;
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7
/ / / h a d b e ^ n p a r t l y i n t h e p e r i o d o f t h e u n i t e d A r y a n s ,. a n d
v g r a d u a lly in c r e a se d u n t il in I fa n th e d iv e r g e n c e b ecam e v e r y
/ ./ ' m a r k e d * t h e / A v e s t a •w e f i n d s o m e o f t h e o l d A r y a n D e v a s ,
/ / w ho w e r e p o p u la r w ith t h e V e d ic A r y a n s a n d t h e M t a h n i , h a v e
7
b
O f; E v i l ;
Ib ir e x a m p l e , I h d r a a n d t h e N a s a t y a
h a v e b e e n r e le g a t e d t h e r e t o th e a r m ie s o f ,E y i 1, w ith w hom
77;
: th e v ir t u o u s m en ;;m s
i s so m e tim e s s u g g e s te d th a t
th e s e p a r a t io n o f th e A ry a n s w ho cam e in t o th e P a n ja b and
7/
: / / th o s e w ho w en t t o T ran w as th e r e s u lt o f r e lig io u s sc h ism . 7 %
7 / ; Such a s u g g e s tio n , h o w ev e r, c a n n o t/b e a c c e p te d , f o r w e know
7/
7 / 7 / 7 :t h e 7 ^
i e n t p a r t s o f t h e A v e stia , ih e G a th a s , r e p r e s e n t
a la t e r s t a g e , w hen th e r e h a d b e e n /a r e fo r m a tio n d u e to a
d iffe r e n c e o
7
77Vis
o u tlo o k in Ira n .
Y foat s e e m s p r o b a b l e
7 i h a t / w h b n J th e/ A r y a n s m a r c h e d \ in t o t h e B a n j a h
h a d e s s e n t ia l l y th e sam e r e lig io n / th o u g h v a r y in g in d e t a il
am ong d iffe r e n t t r i b e s , v i
a w o r sh ip o f D ev a s (g o d s o f ////.
7 7/ / L ig h t ) a n d g o d d e s s e s , o f w hom t h e c h i e f p o w e r s w e r e V a r u n a , 7 /
/ / :./;M t
7
: //
777
T h e n a t so m e tim © a f t e r t h i s m i g r a t i o n t h e
r e v o lu tio n to o k p la c e in Iran *
A su ra V am
T he w o r sh ip o f th e g r e a t
w a s r a is e d to s p e c ija l p r o m in e n c e w ith th e r e s u lt
th a t/^ A su r a /V a r u n a ib e c a ^
S u p r e m e w i s e l o r d 1 , :A h u r a M a z d a , •
7 \ 7 7 :’.;7 :/ ;/;'::^ i n v e s t e d w i t h s u b l i m e m a j e s t y a s t h e g u a r d i a n o f A s a o r R t a ,
7
a n d w it h h im w e r e a s s o c i a t e d t h e A raesh a S p e n t a s , w h o m ay
h a v e b e e n a fo rm o f t h e , o ld A d ity a s .
(*)
O n ly a f e w m in o r
g o d s w e r e a d m itte d in t h i s co m p a n y , a n d t h e te r m D ev a , w h ic h
h ith e r to h ad b een a p p lie d by th e u n ite d A ryan s to a l l g o d s,
w as now u se d to d e n o te o n ly th e p o w ers o f E v il, th e R ak sh as
o r S t a i a .a , t o * o M ro o rea p r .r lo » o ly * « . - U *
A r y a n s. * T h is m o v em en t in Ir a n h a d th e e f f e c t o f c r e a t in g
a s tr o n g d u a lism - o p p o s itio n b e tw e e n th e p o w ers o f L ig h t,
h ead ed by A hura M azda, th e good s p ir it , and th e p ow ers o f
D a r k n e s s , h e a d e d b y A h ro M a in y u , t h e E v i l s p i r i t *
( o)
In d ia ,
o n th e o th e r h a n d , m a in ta in e d th e o ld e r A ry a n w o r sh ip f o r
m any y e a r s , r e s e r v in g th e term - ’to ev a 1 f o r th e p o w er s o f
{* ) l h e w o r d A d i t y a m e a n t o r i g i n a l l y " o f y o r e " a c c o r d i n g t o
B lo o m fie ld * T he, te r m i s a p p lie d in th e R g v ed a to a s e t
o f g o d s th e m o st s u b s t a n t ia l m em b ers o f w h ic h se e m t o b e
p r e h isto r ic A ryan.
(§ ) T h is r e fo r m in th e o ld fo rm o f r e l ig i o n i s e x p la in e d a s
t h e w o rk o f t h e P r o p h e t Z o r o a s te r (Z a r a th u s tr a )* H is h om e
i s n o t d e f i n it e l y k n o w n , b u t th e p e o p le am on g w hom h e
, p reach ed m u st,a t a ll ev e n ts b e regard ed a s an. e a ste r n tr ib e
o f t h e I r a n ia n s * T he d a te a ls o a t w h ic h h e l i v e d i s n o t
y e t d e te r m in e d ; s c h o la r s p r o p o se d if f e r e n t d a te s r a n g in g
fro m th e te n th c e n tu r y to th e s ix t h c e n tu r y , B .C ., th o u g h
t h e r e a r e t r a d i t i o n s a s s i g n i n g h im t o 5 0 0 0 B * C ; (S e e i n
t h i s c o n n e c tio n B* & y e r , E ncy c lo p a e d ia B fr ita n n ic a , 1 9 2 9 ,
X X I , p . 2 0 5 ; M o u lto n , .E a r ly Z o r o a s t r ia n is m ,
p .3 1 ;
S .B ^ E ^ ( B a h l a v i T e x t s ) , V , 1 8 8 0 , p * 1 5 O f , J a c k s o n , Z o r o a s t e r
t h e ~ P r o p h e t o f 'A n c i e n t I r a n , N e w Y o r k 1 9 0 1 , p p . 1 5 7 - 1 6 5 *
' i * B e r t e l : A c h a e m e r id e n u n d K a y a n id e n ( L e ip z ig 1 9 2 4 )
(T h d o -ir a n is c h e Q n e lle n u n d E o rsch u n g e n V *)
(o ) T he l a t e r p a r t s o f th e A v e s ta , w h ic h a r e b e lie v e d t o h ave,
b e e n c o m p ile d in th e se c o n d o r th ir d c e n t u r ie s A *D *,
c o n ta in m any id e a s , p h r a se s, and ev en d e v o tio n a l m a tte r
t h a t .h a v e s u r v iv e d fr o m t h e e a r l y c u l t s o f I h d o - I r a n ia n
u n ity , s id e b y s id e w ith e le m e n ts a th o u sa n d y e a r s m ore
recen t•
L ig h t a n d G ood an d s t i l l d e s ig n a t in g th e p o w e r s o f E v il b y
th e term
’R a k e h a s1 o r ,R a k s h a s a t .
T he o n ly im p o r ta n t
c h a n g e to o k p la c e th e r e in th e l a t e r V e d ic t im e s , w h en th e
term
fA s u r a f, h it h e r t o a p p lie d to c e r t a in o f th e g r e a t
a n c ie n t g o d s, w as d e fin ite ly tr a n sfe r r e d to th e p ow ers o f
E v il*
The r e a so n s fo r t h is tr a n s fe r a r e o f c o u r se o b sc u r e ,
b u t o n e o f th em m ay h a v e b een th e fa c t th a t V aruna su b se ­
q u e n tly l o s t fa v o u r w ith th e 3 h d o -A ry a n s b e c a u se o f h is
a t t r i b u t e s o f s t e r n r e t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e , a n d l a t e r b e c o m in g
a s s o c ia te s w ith th e d a r k n e ss o f n ig h t, w as f in a lly r e le g a te d
t o th e r a n k o f d e it y o f th e O cean*
Thus th e e p ith e t A su ra
l o s t it s ,a s s o c ia t io n w ith g o d s g e n e r a lly r e c o g n ise d a s good *
Nbw a l l t h i s i s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t a n d b r in g s u s f a c e t o
f a c e t o th e f a c t th a t th e h is t o r y o f th e P a n ja b d o e s n o t
r e a l ly s t a r t fr o m th e tim e , w h en th e H g v ed a w a s c o m p o se d , b u t
m uch e a r lie r *
Thus w e ca n sa y fo r c e r ta in th a t th e X ndo-
A ryan s an d I r a n ia n s ,liv e d to g e th e r fo r a lo n g p e r io d a t a
re m o te tim e and- in o n e a r e a , w h en ce th e y m ig r a te d t o th e
so u th and th e w e st, and th a t th e r e w as an in v a sio n o f th e ,
, P an ja b b y th e s e A ry a n s fro m o u t s id e .
(.*)
I t m ay b e p o in te d o u t
h e r e th a t t h is in v a s io n w as n o m ere in c u r s io n o f a r m ie s,
b u t w a s a g r a d u a l p r o g r e s s iv e m ovem en t o f w h o le t r ib e s ,
F T X O * L a s (g g y e d i c T a d ia , O a l o u t t a , 1 9 3 1 a n d R O T e d ic C u l t u r e .
1 9 2 5 , I n tr o d u c tio n ) th in k s th a t th e A ryan© w e r e /a u to c h th o n e s
o f th e P a n ja b (S a p ta S in d u ) an d som e o f th em w ho h a d
r e lig io u s d iffe r e n c e s w ith th e ir b r e th r e n w ent o u t o f th e
P a n ja b an d s e t t le d in Iran * B ut h is c o n c lu s io n s a r e b a se d
o n n o e v id e n c e w o r th y o f th e nam e*
p r o b a b l y w it h ; t h e ir /T O m e n v a n d ,c ^
e x e r c is e d p erm an en t in flu e n c e on th e r a c ia l c o n d itio n s o f
In d ia an d in p a r t ic u la r y o n th o s e o f th e P a n ja b . /
V
The / ^ e d a , h o w ev er, d o es n o t c o n ta in a s in g le a llu s io n .
/fe p t h e i r / m i g r a t i o n *
A s /a /t^ tte r ./o f/f^ p t,^
V ed a o n th e w h o le r e v e a l th e c o u n tr y a s r e g u la r ly o c c u p le d
7
d u r in g th e p e r io d o f t h e ir c o m p o s itio n - e n jo y in g p e a c e an d
/ p r o s p e r ity an d n o t o v e r r u n b y in v a d e r s*
Y e t, h a p p ily , th e r e
a r e som e g e o g r a p h ic a l d a ta ; to b e n o t ic e d p r e s e n t ly in d e t a i l ,
: - w h ic h i n d i c a t e f a m i l i a r i t y o n t h e p a r t o f t h e A r y a n im m i­
g r a n t s w ith a c o n s id e r a b le p o r tio n o f th e b o r d e r la n d a lo n g
th e p r e s e n t I f o r t h r ^ s t P c o n tie r , a M w h ic h s u g g e s t s th a t a
/
m o v em en t to o k p la c e in a rem o te p a s t tim e fro m th e w e s t to
th e e a s t lo n g b e fo r e th e A ryan s o c c u p ie d an d s e t t ie d in th e
P an ja b *
7
M c r e o y e r , in c o n n e c tio n w ith th e A ry a n a d v a n c e fro m
th e w e s t / l e t u s n o t f a i l t o n o te o n e o r tw o f u r t h e r in d ic a ­
tio n s*
T he A v e sta r e fe r s to th e r iv e r H a r a h v a iti, th e
p r e s e n t A rgh an d eb , th e A ra ch o to s o f th e G reek s•
•
T h is
t r i b u t a r y o f t h e H e lm a n d g a v e i t s O ld P e r s i a n n a m e t o t h e
f e r t i l e t r a c t o f K a n d a h a r th r o u g h w h ic h i t f lo w s , a n d th e
7/
G reek s a c c o r d in g ly c a lle d i t A r a c h o sia ;
H a r a h v a iti i s th e
e x a c t e q u iv a le n t o f th e V e d ic r i v e r n am e S a r a s v a t l, w h ic h
p r o m in e n tly f i g u r e s in t h e R g y e d io h y m n s, w ith t h a t r e g u la r
p h o n e t ic c h a n g e o f 's' i n t o V w h ic h d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e A y e s t i c
v:
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t h e o l d e f B p a n i s h a d a *f P p P p y ' P y p P :P P ' P y p p P y y P y P p P ' -P P P
{ § ) P B b r P P r o f y P K e i t h *8 v i e w s s e e C a m b r i d g e H i s t o r y o f I n d i a ,
y P P P P / y V b lp ;!* : p p * l i O - g y a n d h l s P B e l i g i o n a n d P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e
P PPpyPpPP, V ed a y iB ir s t h a l f , B a r t I , p p * 1 -2 6 *
y a
P 'P :P :(o ) G e s c h i c h t e I n d i s c h e n L l t t e r a t u r , P a r t I , E n g * t r a n s * y
P P y P P y . yy p G a l o u t t a P 1 9 2 7 ) ; b y l t e
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a r g u e s t h a t a s th e V e d ic s c h o o ls o f B a u d h a y a n a a n d o f
- y . a ’, - V ' - '
\ P !^ ' - i ^ a s t ' i ^ b h a p f b v e t h a t t h e A r y a n s : h a d p e n e t r a t e d i n t h e s o u t h
P-yP
o f I n d ia a t l e a s t a b o u t th e s e v e n th o r e ig h t h c e n tu r y B .C .,
..y P P itP is P i m p o s s i b l e t o p l a c e t h e A r y a n s t o w a r d s
to w a r d s 1 5 0 0 B .C ,
1200
or even
We k n o w , i t i s a d d e d , th a t th e A ry a n s
fo u g h t am ong th e m se lv e s; th a t th e y advanced, s lo w ly ; th a t a t
.
P
th e tim e o f to
B gved a th e y in h a b ite d th e P a n ja b an d e a s te r n
y y .;/.yP:- ; A if ^ la a fi i d s b a i i ' / y : p v ^ e r e yi^txe' c o m p o s i t i o n o f i t s h y r a n s t o o k s o m e
c e n tu r ie s ; th a t b e tw een th e c o m p o sitio n o f th e o ld e s t hym ns
> n d t h e i r c o m p ila tio n , in t o th e S a m h ita e , a n d b e tw e e n t h e
y
c o n s titu tio n q f th e S a ^ ita s ah
B r a h m a n a s , s o m e 'c e n ­
t u r i e s p a s s e d ; a n d t h a t th e O p a h ish a d s im p ly a lo n g t r a d i - y
P
P tio n *
lb w o u ld b e s im p ly r id ic u lo u s t o s u p p o s e t h a t i n t h e
co u rse o f f iv e , s ix and ev en e ig h t c e n tu r ie s , th e A ryan
p e o p le , in s p ite o f th e ir d iv is io n s and th e ir in te s tin a l
PPy!
P s tr u g g le s / c o n q u e r e d 1 2 3 ,0 0 0 m ile s o f I n d ia , fo u n d e d som e
s t a t e s a n d o r g a n is e d th em o n th e sam e p a t t e r h ;
y
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P y P y /iP -P c o n tr a r y , th e y s h o u ld h a v e ta k e n a lo n g e r tim e t o o r g a n is e
t h e i f a d v a n c e ; y j l i r l a l l y /P a f t e r p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t B u d d h ism
a n d J a in is m p r e s u p p o s e th e c o m p le tio n o f V e d ic lit e r a t u r e
b e f o r e t h e p e r i o d 7 5 0 - 5 0 0 B .C * , h e m a in t a in s t h a t t h e b e ­
g in n in g O f t h i s d e v e lo p m e n t o a r in o t w e l l b e p la c e d a s l a t e
a s 1 5 0 0 - 1 2 0 0 B ; 0 . / b u t p r o b a b ly g o e s b a c k t o 2 5 0 0 - 2 0 0 0 B .C .
r ;
(* ) Ib id , p p *21® 3;
y
PypPvPP. _And h e re i n th e l a s t estimateV-is'vPrihyOUrp. o p in io n /P . the, p/v/pp/p
, p o ss ib i l i t y w hich a ro h a e o lo g y h a s p a r t l y , t e s t e d and may P
e v e n tu a lly be a b le t o c o n firm : t h a t i t was th e i n f l u x o f
;
th e w a r lik e Aryans from th e w est t h a t b ro u g h t to an. end th e
vp
r i c h c i t i e s l i k e H arappa and Mbheh j o-* Daro o f O h a lo b lith ic
tim e s i n th e Indus V a lle y .
I t a p p e a rs t h a t P r o f . W in te r n itz ’ s
'■
• a rg u m en t fro m th e h is t o r y o f A ryan e x p a n s io n in In d ia an d
a ; l i t e r a t u r e i s .s o m e w h a t s u p p o r t e d b y t h e d i s o p v e r y o f t h e
I n d u s c u l t u r e , Pw h i c h i s p p r e - A r y a n i n c h a r a c t e r a n d u n d e n i a b l y
g o e s b a c k t o a b o u tp S ^ O O B .C # a t t h e . l o w e s t .
W ith t h e h e l p
o f fu r th e r a r c h a e b ip g ic a l; d is b o v e f ie s in th e P a h ja b w e m ay
even e n te r ta in th e h ope p
PP
f in d in g a n a p p r o x im a te d a te f o r
p th e a d v en t o f th e A ryans in to th e P a n ja b .
D r . W . W iist i s p
P p r o b a b ly th e f i r s t t o m ak e d e d u c tio n s fro m th e r e s u lt s o f
th e In d u s V a lle y e x c a v a tio n s#
B fe p l a c e s t h e P c b m p o s i t i o n o f
t h e o l d e s t / b o o k s o f t h e B g v e d a S a f t h l t a b e t w e e n 2000 a n d
1 5 0 0 B .C # , a s s i g n i n g a c c o r d i n g l y t h e m i g r a t i o n - p e r i o d t o t h e
l a s t q u a r t e r o f t h e t h i r d m i l l e n n i u m B .C ;
P
I x id L x a n
P s c h o l a r , B a i P B a h a d u r P R .P . C h a n d a , h a s a l s o c o - o r d i n a t e d t h e
d a ta o f p r e h is t o r ic a r c h a e o lo g y w ith li t e r a r y e v id e n c e fro m
th e B g v ed a an d l a t e r V e d ic t e x t s . •
H is e x a m in a tio n o f th e
e v id e n c e a n d i t s p c o m p a r iso n w ith so m e o f t h e r e l i c s fr o m
p,
P.P.
( * ) W . Z . K .M # x x x i v , 1 9 2 7 , . p p . 1 6 4 f f V p P p
P;:
A l s o W i s t Ta S t i l g e s b h l c h t e u h d C h r o n o l o g i e d e s B g v e d a .
le ip slg , 1928, pp.
p. p > p ---p -P a P y p , ' :"-v .P; ; - :' .P P p p - c ’ P a P / a ;
, ( § ) M e m o i r , A . S . I . , Pftb 3 1 , ( 1 9 2 6 ) , I n d u s V a l l e y i n t h e V e d i c
P->P-P
::
p • P ; , / p . ' PP
: p ■;'■■'■■/a ' P P a ;;a p p ;
p e r io d .
M e m o ir ,. A . S . I V . N o 4 1 , ( 1 9 2 9 ) . S u r v i v a l o f t h e P r e h i s t o r i c
C iv iliz a tio n o f th e In d u s V a lle y .
H arap p a, an d M b h en jo -D a ro te n d to sh o w th a t th e A ry a n s cam e
in c o n ta c t w ith th e p e o p le o f G h a lc o lith ic tim e s .
Som e o f
t h is e v id e n c e is n o t c o n v in c in g , and w e ca n n o t a c c e p t a l l
h is in te r p r e ta tio n s , and c o n c lu s io n s .
Y et w h a tev er m ay h a v e
to he a lte r e d and added in th e fu tu r e , th e B ai B ahadur h as
w r itte n th e b e g in n in g o f a m ost fa s c in a tin g an d b r illia n t
c h a p te r in In d ia n h is t o r y .
H ie e a r l y A r y a n p e r i o d , t h e n ,
S h o u ld com m en ce a p p r o x im a te ly in th e l a s t q u a r te r o f th e
th ir d m ille n n iu m B . 0 ., w h en th e In d u s V a lle y c i v i li s a t i o n
w as d e c lin in g o r h ad j u s t com e to a n en d ; th a t is to s a y ,
th e p e o p le o f th e, In d u s V a lle y w e re s t i l l l i v i n g , th o u g h in
a s ta te o f d eca y , rea so n s fo r w h ic h a re d if f ic u lt to know a t
t h i s s t a g e o f o u r k n o w le d g e *
In an y c a s e , i t is o b je c tio n ­
a b le and f a n t a s t ic to p r o p o se o r su p p o rt so rem o te a d a te a s
5S000
o r 4 0 0 0 B .C . f o r t h e a c t u a l t e x t o f a n y B g v e d io h y m n o r
fo r th e A ryan s e ttle m e n t in th e P a n ja b .
{*) astsd
T he e x o r b ita n t
(§)
t h e o r i e s o f P r o f v y d a o o b f ; v a n d :^ I o k a m a l^ y a y ■ B ilG ♦ ^ ■ T ila k ■ :^ /^ .'’m a in ly ■ ■ '■ :■*':
o n th e g r o u n d t h a t in th e B g v e d ic tim e s t h e y e a r b e g a n w ith
th e sum m er s o l s t i c e w h en th e su n w a s in c o n ju n c tio n w ith th e
lu n a r m a n sio n P h a lg u n i a r e e x tr e m e ly d o u b t f u l an d c a n n o t b e
a ccep ted .
I h e y r e s t u p o n " tw o w h o lly im p r o b a b le a s s u m p t io n s ,
(* '} H e s u p p o s e d t h e d a t e t o b e a t l e a s t 4 0 0 0 B .C .
I . B .A * S ..1 9 0 9 . pp" 7 8 1 -2 6 ;- 1 9 1 0 , p p 4 5 6 -6 4 .
(§ ) H ie V e d ic h y m n s, a c c o r d in g t o T ila k , w e r e c o m p o se d n o t
l a t e r t h a n 4 5 0 0 B .C . a n d s h o w t h e r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f t h e i r
A r c t i c h o m e / (The Or i o n y 1 8 9 5 , a n d H i e A r c t i c H o m e i n .
jfe h e V e d a s , . P o o n a 1 9 0 5 , C f . B u h t e r , I n d . A n t / . x x i i i , p p 3 5 8 f j ) .
C o n t r a s t “ ~A. C . B a s , B f e r e d i c I n d i a , p p 5 5 6 f f .
//;/'■
'
;
f i r s t , th a t th e ^
r e a lly , a s s e r t th a t th e y ea r, b eg a n a t
;
t h e asurim er s o l s t i c e ^ ^
1
b r o u g h t in t o a n y c o n n e c t io n a t a l l w it h /t lie ';^
. s e c o n d , t h a t t h e s u n was t h e n vA .
w h i c h t h e r e : i s ho^ e
/ yA::
; The %
.
th e ir nam e in d ic a te s and a s a l l th e e v id e n c e o f th e la t e r
; S a m h ita s s h o w s , lu n a r ; m a n s io n s p u r e a n d s i m p le .^ /
a
A s sh o w n i n t h e l a s t C h a p te r , i t i s n o w p r e t t y c e r t a in . A /A /a /
: ; t h a t t h e I n d u s c i v i l i z a t i o n / w h i c h i s d a t e d ; c :J 5 0 0 0 B ; C # } w a s
to v /a r d s i t s d e c l i n e a b o iit 2 3 0 0
B* C
v
*, an d th a t i t w as p r o b a b ly
t h e A r y a n s w h o s u c c e e d e d t h e / I n d u s /V a lle y p e o p l e ../ H x is A ,
w o u ld u ie a n t h e ”A r y a n m i g r a t i o n / o f t h e P a n j a b c o u l d s o a r o e l y
h a v e ta k e n p la c e la t e r th a n
a c e n tu r y o r tw o e a r l i e r *
w e ll h a v e b een
In th a t ca se th e e a r lie s t hym ns
■-0 f / t h b : ; ' R ^ e d a / - r e p r e s e n t i n g a s ' t h e y : d o ; t h e a g e w h e n , t h e A r y a n s
ih a d ; .b e c o r a e ^ J s b t t ie d ih A th e ^ f d n j a b v m a
to a p e r io d
./
a s rem o te a s th e f I r s t q u a r t e r o f th e s e c on d m ille n n iu m , sa y
1800
B.
0 . , .a n d t i l l s i s q u i t e / c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e l i n g u i s t i c
A ;
A
,;;> //
e v id e n c e .;;;M ilo lo g is t s a r e n o t a t a l l a g r e e d a s to on e d a te
o f t h e ' R ^ b d a . //y li
/th is q u es t io n i s n o t p u r e ly p h ilo lo g i- /
c a l, a s is g e n e r a lly ta k e n tq b e .
It is p r e c a r io u s to f ix th e
d a t e o n t h e / b a b i s : o f /c o m p a r in g l a h ^ d g e b A ^ (^
fo r in t h a t :c a s e ^
A v e s t i c ); a;
o r 1 8 0 0 B . C* r e m a i n s q u i t e a s p o s s i b l e
a s 1 3 0 0 - I S O 6 B . 0 . f o r t h e e a r l i e s t h y m n s i n t h e R g v e d a . &4SX. 04f A
(* r Cambr i d g e Hi s t o r y o f I n d i a T V ol ly pp 1 1 1 - 1 3 .: Of . ^ e d a , \ v i i
: 1 0 3 , 9 a h d 7 x | 8 5 , 1 3 . , fro m w h ich t h e d e d u o t i o n h a s b e e n 1 ■ '
m ad e. A: A-:./.'vAv A:Aa
'v \Aa:, / / A A- A V / A y A 'A , ■'.A/.' ■a
'
A
54
B esid es, Maurice KLppiufieldv
a s p e b ia l stu d y of
th e Vedic; gods:and t h e i r p r e h is to r ic background, has proposed
to p la ce th e o ld e s t ..p a rt : o f A ^the/Bgveda about 2 0 0 0
B# 0
. , ; so . ;
t h a t acco rd in g to him th e m ig rat ion o f th e Aryans would go
back tp a ; 1 ^
H e -s
ays,
"I
B. C.
am , fo r my p a r t /a n d
I
/th in k
I
v o ic e m any
;
s c h b ia r s , now m uch mor e in c lin e d t o l i s t e n to ah e a r ly d a te ,
s a y 2 0 0 0 B .C . , 'f o r t h e b e g in n in g o f V e d ic l i t e r a r y p r o d u c t io n , •
an d to . a m uch e a r lie r d a te fo r th e b e g in n in g s o f th e i n s iit u - y
ti.o n s a n d r e l i g i o u s c o n c e p t s w h ic h t h e V ed a h a s d e r iv e d fr o m
Ith p ise ^ ^ p r e h i s t o r i c t i m e s w h i c h c a s t t h e i r s h a d o w s f o r w a r d i n t o
th e recp rd s th a t a re in p u r h a h d s m
u s t
.n o t b e .
b e g h i l e d b y t h a t k i n d o f^ c o n s e r v a t i s m w h i c h m e r e l y s a l v e s t h e
c o n s c ie n c e in to t h i n k in g t h a t th e r e is b e t t e r p r o o f f o r a n y
la te r d a te, su ch
a s 1 5 0 0 , 1 2 0 0 , o r 1 0 0 0 B .O v ,
r a th e r th a n
th e e a r lie r d a te o f 2 0 0 0 B .C ."
( * ) BaLoom fi e i d v I t e l i g i o h o f t h e V e d a » p p ; 1 9 - 2 0 .
55*/
A : :::r
A
/ /
a
-AA-Aa A . / A a A;..;./- '.1 a A. A / / / A A / A " / / A' a A ■ ; . / - .A ; ■:v ' : , A y
C h a p ter I I I .
' Part (ii )
v U ia t h a s b e e n s t a t e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r t o f t h i s
A
c h a p te r is th e p r e v io u s h is to r y o f th e A r y a n s, w h o , i t
m ay n o w ;b e lta k b h y to b e a n h is t b r lc a l f a c t , p o u r ed i n t o :th e "
In du s v a lle y a l i t t l e , o v e r fo u r th o u sa n d y e a r s a g o ;
A bout
t h e i r h i s t o r y i n t h e P a n j a b ^we c a n l e a r n a g o o d d e a l f r o m
/a A 0 '
//A .
. th e ^ ^ e d d ;/a E x ^
A r y a n s / w e A h a v e ; u | | l t i l l n o w .fr p m j^ ^ t^
In d ia , n o t an y p ie c e o f a r c h a e o lp g ic a l m a te r ia l, " n ot o n e
b i t o f r e a l p r o p e r t y jA n o ty a b u ild in g , n o r a m o n u m en t; n o t
A
h c ° * n >y je w e l;,'A lb r ^ u te n e ii;;:/^ /h q t h ir ig A b u t .'- w in g e d w o r d s ; "
' A - ; : . / a;A A B u t b e f o r b g i y i h g a n a c
th e ^ v e d lc h ^
know n fro m
we m u st f ir s t know o f t h e 'co u n try w h ere
'A ': ^A a A A " A ; A ^ A ^ h e b .b A h y t h s A l w b f r b / ' q o i p p o s e d A ; a / I a a a 1/a /* '';a A a a / a a / : / a a: -a
A :A /:-A l-A A A; /
AThe Pan^
A/a
/A
a
A fch e, h y m n s
o f th e R gvedaA
k n o w le d g e
o f t h e A E U n ja b ; • A s a m a t t e r o f f a c t , t h e h y m n s .
a ffo rd no
H ie V e d ic p o e t s in d e e d h a d a
d ir e o t g e o g r a p h ic a l r e fe r e n c e s
' ./ a A
v ;A y /.I - Aa,'
a / / ;'
• A l / l A / t h e A r y a n s ' c o m i n g f r o m t h e ;w e s t y i s n a t u r a l l y m e n t i o n e d i n
a
a
a;;A aaA 'a/
.A
A
to th e co u n try .
H ie r e a r e , h o w e v e r , s l i g h t in d ic a t io n s o f som e A o f i t s
A . / A / ; I a -a I a . p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s , f a u n a a n d f l o r a i n . a n u m b e r o f s t a n z a s /
w h ic h c l e a r l y sh o w t h a t th e A ry a n s k n ew t h e w h o le P a n ja b
a a
Ay v
a
'-;.
' I"
;■ i n i t s w i d e r s e n s e .
y
P a r t ic u la r ly , th e k n o w le d g e sh o w n b y th e p o e t s o f ;■
aaA
":\ : r i y e r s l y i n A t h c / ;n p f th :" w e s t A o f / / I n d i a ; ' : i s / v e r y ; A i n t e r b s t i h g < - a n d A y ^ A . y
i n s t r u c t i y d / ; v:. ; / i n - t h e f a m o u s y ^ d i / ^ k t a y t ^
1
73
o f th e te n th B ook, an d in s e v e r a l o th e r p la c e s o f th e
S a m h ita a l l t h e r i v e r s o f t h e P a n ja b a r e m e n tio n e d r i g h t
fr o m t h e M ib h a , t h e K a b u l r i v e r , i n t h e n o r t h d o w n lt
t h e A;
S a r a s v a t i (n o w S a r s u t.il: ,/ w i t h ' / t h e i f t r i b u t a r i ^ ^
■■: t h e m b e c u r t h e : S u v a s t u ■: • ( 't h e ; . S w a t r i v e r ) , t h e ' - G a u r i . ■
(P a n jk o r a r i v e r ), th e M sh ta n u an d th e R a sa , a l l f lo w in g
in to th e K abul r iv e r fro m th e n o r th and p a s s in g th ro u g h
; ;
K abulis t an «
H ie n w e h a v e t h e m e n tio n o f t h e r i v e r s / ^
a n d C b m a t i,; ^ ^ q d i p r e b p p n d i h g / t p / t h e p r e s e n t
in w h ic h t h e w h o le d r a in a g e o f Y fe z ifis ta n a n d th e A fg h a n
u p la n d s a d jo in in g w e s tw a r d s ;fin d s i t s w a y .to th e In d u s;
" B o w t h e s e t w o r i v e r s a r e c p m p a r a t i v b l y sB iL a il s t r e a m s ,
; / ' , f l o w i n g ' O n l y w h e n s u d d e n ■.s p a t e s f i l l t h e i r b e d s ;- a . B u t t h e i r ; .
. m e n t io n i n t h e ;R g v ed a p o in t s t o s u c h a c q u a in t a n c e w ith
;
. W az i r i s t a n a n d t h e a d j a c e n t v a i l e y s d r a in e d b y th e m a s o n ly
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f r o m t h e o r d e r o f t h e r i v e r s Am e n t i o n e d i n t h e v e r s e 5 o f / /
th e R g v e d a , X ,7 5 (S a e A p p e n ^ ^
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i s n o t c o r r e c t ; th e s a f e s t a ssu m p tio n i s th a t th e p o e t ,
/ / w h i l e f e c o r d in g y th e: r iV e r n a m e s ^
h e s o lv e d by f i t t i n g t h e ir seq u en ce w ith h is m e tr e .
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T h e r e a r e .r e f e r e n e e s t o t h e . t r e a s u r e s
o f th e o c e a n , p erh a p s p e a r ls o r th e g a in s o f tr a d e , and
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t h e s t o r y o f E h u j y u s e e m s t o a l l u d e t o m a r i t i m e n a v i g a t i o n .n
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th a t th e A ry a n s, w hen th e y cam e in to u c h w ith th e In d u s
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o c e a n fro m th e s e o ld e r in h a b it a n t s , w ho d e f i n it e l y h a d a
k n o w le d g e t h e r e o f , b e in g th e u s e r s o f th e c o n c h - s h e ll
o b j e c t s an d w e ll a c q u a in te d , w ith n a v ig a tio n *
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to h a v e h ad th e ir s e ttle m e n ts on th e b an k s o f th e g r e a t o r
sm a ll r iv e r s in th e n o r th -w e st o f In d ia , an d n o t to h a v e
c o lo n iz e d th e G a n g e tic v a l l e y .
S a ra y u i s m e n tio n e d t h r ic e
The fa c t th a t th e r iv e r
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t h a t th e R g v e d ic A r y a n s h a d g o n e a s f a r a s A y o d h y a , w h ic h
is situ a te d on a r iv e r c a lle d .Sarayu.
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(^ jM a c d o n e ll a n d K e ith : V e d ic In d e x o f N am es a n d S u b j e c t s ,
L ond on 1 9 1 2 , V oL I I , p .4 5 2 i :
:
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a s t u v a h i. B k 'V ,5 3 ,9 . ’
S a r a s v a t i S a r a y u S in d h u r e t c * He X ,6 4 ,9 .
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pr i nc ip a l se ttle m e n ts w ere fa r th e r e a st th a n
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w ere com posed on th e e a stern ; c o n fin e s o f -th e ;c o u n tr y , th a t
i s , ’t h e p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n l y i n g b e t w e e n t h e S a r a s v a t i a n d ;
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;
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w r o n g n o t i o n s a b o ix t t h e t o p o g r a p h y a n d c l i m a t e o f ; t h e
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c a r e e r o f a b o u t t h i r t y t w o >years?^ a s > x lE r b f e s s o r ^ o f S a n s k r i t
lit e r a t u r e an d a h ig h O ffic e r in th e U n iv e r s ity o f th e
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: fa m ilia r w ith th e P an ja b f o r a n um ber o f y e a r s an d h a s
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a d m i t t h a t . . v> •> ♦ * * i t h e m o u n t a i n s a r e v i s i b l e a l l t h e
w ay fr o m R a w a lp in d i tp im b a la , i f ;y o u a r e n e a r en o u g h a n d
th e a i r i s c l e a r . . . * . • A lo n g th e l i n e o f th e f o o t - h i l l s o f
t h e H t o a l a y a s t h e r e - I s ; / a / s t r i p ^ ' o f ';:b i 6u n i ^ ^ ^
m ile s w id e ,
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■ d i s t i n c t l y g r e a t e r t h a i f i n ' i h e - ^ W e s t ^ p f V t h e \ ; i ^ i ^ a b ; ^ ‘> T h i s i s
w h ere " p o p u la tio n i s ;d e n s p s t,; a n d c o n t a in s M
lik e la la n d h a r a n d S ia lk o t;
I f by w ay o f h y p o th e sis th e
w id th o f th e s t r ip b e d o u b le d ± a d d in g a s t r ip o f d r ie r la n d
(* ) E r o f. H o p k in s i n J .A .O .S , 1 8 8 8 , V o lX IX , S e e o n a H a lf , :
• p p • 19 f f ; P r o f. M a c d o n e ll, E ls t o fy
o f> S b L n sk fit L it e r a t u r e , p « 1 4 5 ; P r o f . K e it h i n C a m b r id g e H i s t o r y o f I n d ia n
V o l I ,; C h a p t e r I V , :•($>>'■ 7 9 a n d h i s R e l i g i o n a M P h i l o s o p h y :
o f t h e V e d a . ': V o l : I , ;: P a r t , I , C h a p t e r i , p i • 3
'
(§ ) _B 7s* 0 * S * V p l V I , P a r t 2, 1 9 3 1 ( S p e c i a l V o lu m e i n
•
.'•* . o f B r o f . R a p s o h )^ ^ p 5 4 9 v vf f .
(o ) B r. ifc o liie r h e r e a d d s t h e f o o t n o t e : "T he u s e o f w e lls
: i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e w a t e r - l i n e w a s n o t v e r y d e e p * : -T h e ;
: w o r d 4* h a n v a n u s u a l l y t r a n s l a t e d " d e s e r t " n e e d n o t a l w a y s
f m e a n a s a n d y d e i e r t ; d e v o i d o f p l a n t s tf .
'/•••
b u t ,:s $ i l l ; a l l - / h e a r e n o u g h t 6 : ; i ; h e , ; ; m o u h t a i n S ; : ' f o f .^ a \ : k n p w l e d g e ; V ^ v - , ;
o f th em a n d f o r ;th e u s e o f s t o n e , w e h a v e a r a n g e o f .
c o u n tr y a b o u t th e s i z e o f P o r t u g a l, w h ic h a p p a r e n t ly w o u ld
•v
:
a c c o u n t f o r th e; g e o g r e ^ h ic a l d a ta o f th e R gved a a s w e ll a s
t^
so u tb o f M a ia *
T hat ip no p r o o f th a t th e
^ '-'-J r y -a n -c se ttle r s-o c c u p ie d th is a r e a , b u t i f w e a r e t o su p p o se
.: t h e y h e g l e e t e d t h e g r e a t e r p a r
•^ ‘/ r e a s o n • c o u l d h a v e b e e n . "
o f i t , w e m ay ask w hat th e
■-.^y.
lU r th e r , a s to th e r a in fa ll and
s t o r m s h e s a y s , " r e g u l a r i t y o f .s e a s o n a l p h e r io m e h a I s n o tV
c h a r a c te r is t ic o f th e P a n ja b .
We h a v e n o r e g u la r r a in s in
; th e m p n sp b n s e a s o n , th o u g h w e g en e r a lly h a v e o n e o r t wo
;
v i o l e n t s to r m s ; :w ith h e a v y r a i n a n d o f t e n f l o o d s d u r in g t h a t
p e r io d .
T h ^ is : v fh y t h e ^
th e Panja b w orks
th r o u g h t h e h e a t o f M ay a n d J u n e a n d h a s n o r a in s T te r m
J u ly t o S e p te m b e r ;l i k e t h e I M i y e r s i t l e s o f t h e U n it e d
i - 1P r o v i n c e s * ; ; ^ JLs t u d y : p f t h a
;sh o w h o w
so r e ly we a re tr ie d by th e ir r e g u la r ity o f se a so n a l p h en o­
m en a; b y a b s e n c e o f r a in a t th e f i g h t t im e , b y h e a v y r a in
a t t h e w r o n g t M e , b y h a i l , a n d by. f l o o d s .
A p o w erfu l b u t ;
i n c a l c u l a b l e S fco fm G od n e e d s m o r e p r o p i t i a t i o n i n t h e
P a n ja b th a n th e d e it y w h ic h b r in g s t h e w arm , b e n e f ic e n t
r a i n t o t h e r e s t o f . . I n d i a " « ; I t i c o i n i e c t l o n w i t h ; d a w n o r •. r.':
s u n r is e d e s c r ib e d in s e v e r a l h ym n s o f t h e R g v e d a , D r ..
J o i n e r ’s o b s e r v a t io n i s : " th e p h en om en a o f daw n b e in g m o re
. • ■ v ' s u b j e c t i v e a r e n o t s o d e f i n i t e l y r e c o r d e d . : T h e p r e s e n t ■.
:
;
• w r i t e r h a s ; s e e n sp in e t h o u s a n d s
th e P a n ja b , b u t
■j:
th e y v a r y so w ith th e w e a th e r th a t i t i s d if f i c u l t to m ake
a n y s h a r p d ls t in c t i o n 'h e ^
a n d t h e n o r t h . o f '/
th e U n ite d P r o v in c e s o r. B etw een th e e a s t an d w e st o f th e
P a n ja b i
t h e ;w h o le , i t a p p e a r s th a t th e f i n e s t c o lo u r
e f f e c t s a re se e n in th e d r ie r r e g io n s and in d ry w e a th er
b p fo r e th e: s e a s o n o f d u s t s to r m s an d h e a t h a z e ;"
h e c o n c l u d e s , u t h e k n 6w l e d g e ^ s ^
In s h o r t ,
n o r t h ;v
a n d o n t h e w e s t o f t h e .I n d u s w o u l d - b e s u r p r i s i n g i f t h e
;
h u lk o f t h e h y m n s w e r e c o m p o s e d i n lO x r u k s e tr a " o r i n A m b a la
D is tr ic t,
The tr a d itio n s , a s s o c ia tin g th e b e g in n in g o f th e
A r y a n s w i t h B r a h m a y a r .ta o r K u r u k s h e t r a ^
to th e
A r y a n s m o r e o f a r e l i g i o u s a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l , t h a n o f " a '•
s e c u la r c h a r a c t e r , w h ic h w o u ld m ea n t h a t t h e e a r ly A r y a n s
w e r e a c o m m u n i t y o f p r i e s t s r a t h e r t h a n o n e o f w a r ! i k e V.-.;
p e o p le , a c h a r a c te r n o t su p p o rted by th e hym ns o f th e R gved a.
M o r e o v e r , t h e t r a c t a s s i g n e d t o t h e R r a h tiia v a r ta i s o f v e r y
c ir c u r a s c r ib e d e x t e n t , w h ip h c o u ld n o t h a v e b e e n t h e s e a t o f
n u m erou s t f ib e s s u c h ;a s a r e m en t io n e d in th e' V ed a.
Ifle m a y ;
s u m u p i n D r * j o i n e r rs w o r d s : " T h e r e v e l a t i o n s o f H a r a p p a ";
an d IV b h en -jo -d a ro an d th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f in d in g a r c h a e o lo ­
g ic a l stra ta ;
c o n te m p o r a r y w ith th e b e g in n in g o f th e V e d ic
a g e in th e P a n ja b le n d a n ew in t e r e s t to e v id e n c e o f th e
V eda and i t is r e a so n a b le to c h a lle n g e th e b a se s o f an y
•
p r e v a i l i n g b e l i e f w ith r e g a r d t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e m a in
aB 1 1 l e m e h f s y o ' f t h e V e d i c A r y a n s V " ;
’
•w e s e e th e A r y a n s w e fe in p o s s e s s io n ; O f a lm o st,
th e w h o le n o r th -w e s te r n I n d ia a t t h e tim e r e p r e s e n te d ; b y
th e h ym n s o f th e R g v e d a , w h ic h r o u g h ly c o v e r a p e r io d o f
a b o u t e ig h t o r n in e c e n tu r ie s in th e se c o n d m ille n n iu m ;
Bi 0 . ;T h e v a lle y . o f th e G an ges w as to th em a lm o st a n
. .
.
unknow n la n d ; ev en th e b an k s o f' th e Jum na w ere n o t com p le t e ly o c c u p ie d ;
life a l s o
/
in th e r e g io n
in h a b ite d in th e n o r th -w e st by th e A r y a n s, a p a r tic u la r
a r e a , p e r h a p s w h er e th e V e d ic t r ib e s w e r e th e s t r o n g e s t ,
v /-'4
:■
; w a s d e s ig n a t e d t h e S a p ta S in d h u , .• : T h is n am e S a p ta
, •/
S in d h u o r ;S a p ta S in d h a v a h i s u s e d i n t h e R g v e d a f o r a
.y - 'f •
v.
: y
(Turn o v e r )
( ) S c h o la r s l i k e H ille b r a n d t, r e ly in g o n d u b io u s i d e n t i f i - ' ; ;
. c a t i o i l :o f p e o p le s m e n tio n e d in t h e R g v e d a w ith t r ib e s
:;
:
lo c a te d in A T ^ a n ista n w^
m e n tio n e d in th e in s c r lp t i o n s o f D a r iu s a n d b y l a t e r G reek a u t h o r s , h a v e
:; a r g u e d t h a t t h e h o m e o f t h e R g v e d a l a y i n A f g h a n i s t a n o r
: ' a n c ie n t Irari a n d n o t i n th e P a n ja b * T h is v ie w i s n o t a t
a l l c o n v i n c i n g ,a n d i s g e n e r a l l y r e j e c t e d ; C a m b r id g e H is y ’. y t o r y o f I n d i a . V o l I . o n ; 8 6 f f •
'y .y
(§ )It is w rong to sa y th a t th e A ryans w ere a t f ir s t
^
c o n f i n e d o n l y t h e S a p t a S in d h u *
I
(§)
•
(*) and elsew h ere •
d e f i n i t e cou n try In one hymn
■
V
se n se o f sev e n r i v e r s .
-
.'V
in th e
(0 )
Max M ailer
■
th ou ght th a t th e
.
seven r iv e r s meant &he th e seven r iv e r s o f th e Panjab,
v iz * , th e Sdindhu, th e V it a s t a , th e A sik n i, th e P arushni,
th e V ip a s, th e Sutu&ri and th e S a r a s v a ti, and s in c e th en
i t has been u s u a l w ith s c h o la r s t o regard th e Indus v a l le y
and th e modern Pahjab a s , roughly sp ea k in g , th e e q u iv a le n t
'
■he) '
'■
o f th e Sapta Sindhu o f th e Rgveda*
^
{*) J 3 k .Y lII, 2 4 ,2 7 . The sta n z a reads as fo llo w s
Ya rkshad*amhaso muchadyo Va£Aryat sa p ta Sindhushu,
Vadhar Dasasya tuvinrm na ninemah* ;
Ifcans -"Mio would sa v e ( u s ) from g riev o u s woe oh
from an Aryan (enemy) in th e lan d o f £even R iv e r s ;
thou 0 v a lia n t h e r o , thou, d id bend th e D asa's
‘ w eapon." ,
(§) He 1 ,3 2 ,1 2 ; 3 5 ,8 ; He I I , 1 2 , 3 , I S 5 He IV, 2 8 ,1 ; Bk V I I I ,
5 6 ,1 2 ; Bk IX ,6 6 , 6 ; He X 4 3 ,3 ; Sapta-nadyah Bk X ,6 4 ,8 ;
V a la n ily a 6 ,4 . Thus 1 ,3 2 ,1 2 e x t o ls Indra f o r h a v in g l e t
th e sev en r iv e r s flo w r a v a sr ja s s a r ta v e Sapta Sindhun.
(o) Chips from a German Workshop I,p*63* Of M xir, S a n sk rit
T ex ts, I , p 490 n .
(*.) The S a r a s v a ti, and not in ste a d th e Ehbha, i s to be
in clu d ed in th e Sapta Sindhavah. $ ta n za _6 o f Ek V I I, 3 6 ,6
i s s i g n f i c a n t , as i t c a l l s t h e 'S a r a s v a t i th e se v e n th ,
which makes h er one o f th e s e r iv e r s *
'
"Ct-f '
(x) The A vesta o f th e P e r sia n s m entions (Vendidad 1 ,1 8
Sacred Books o f th e l a s t , v o l IV, p a rt ^ se c o n d e d it i o n )
Happta Hindu as the* name o f a country in a l i s t o f s i x ­
te e n c o u n t r ie s , c r e a te d by Ahura Mazda. I t i s ap paren t­
ly , i d e n t i c a l w ith Sapta Sindhu. But th e f a c t th a t th e
Veqdidad ch ap ter i s very l a t e in i t s co m p o sitio n , say
f i r s t cen tu ry A.D*, and th a t th e d e s ig n a tio n Sapta Sindhu
f o r th e Panjab had been lo n g in d is u s e in In d ia , s e v e r a l
c e n t u r ie s even b e fo r e Darius f tim e , w i l l show th a t th e
l i s t does not r e p r e se n t h is t o r y contem porary w ith th e
a u th o r: i t m erely r e t a in s an o ld t r a d i t i o n a l name o f th e
Panjab which had been fo r g o tte n In In d ia .
It i s very
(Note co n tin u ed )
In t h is connection i t is worthy of note that Major
B averty record ed a t r a d it i o n cu rren t on th e low er cou rse
o f th e Indus th a t even to th e p r e se n t day th e u n ite d
r iv e r s o f th e Panjab are s t y le d th e fSat Nad* o r Sapta
( *)
Sindhu o f th e Bgveda.
ih e home o f th e .Aryans b e in g Sapta Sindhu, we n a tu r a ll y fin d in th e Bgveda many p r a is e s fo r th e ^ |y e a te s t r iv e r
Sindhu j which was a ls o c a lle d th e S a ra sv a ti* , I t was on
- ■
" .
■
-
■,
. -
■■^
;th e banks o f th e Sindhu and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s ,. t h e / S a r a s v a ti
In clu d ed , where t h e Aryans l i v e d , and t h e i r p o e ts composed
hymns th a t were l a t e r on c o lle c t e d and com piled in th e .
Bgveda
Sam
A: hita.
Ihe eastw ard advance o%f ''th e - Aryans took
,
p la c e in a much l a t e r p e r io d , which i s a ls o contemporaneous
with th e p e r io d o f th e o th e r th r e e Vedas, so fa r as th ey
are independent o f th e Bgveda, and w ith t h a t o f th e
Note co n tin u ed j l i k e l y th a t th e fo llo w e r s o f Z oroaster u sed a
w id er t e r r i t o r y Hhppta Hindu in ste a d o f Hindu co u n try , th e
Sindhude^a o f Indian l i t e r a t u r e , t h i s we know ? /e ll from
h is t o r y had been under P e r sia n dom ination f o r about two
c e n t u r ie s b e fo r e th e in v a sio n o f A lexander th e Great in
327 B.C*
;
(* ) J«A*S.B.v o l p i , Part I (1 8 9 2 ), p .2 2 c f .n .
{§) The S a r a sv a ti was a t f i r s t m erely th e name o f any r iv e r *
.'■•Then i t came t o be a p p lie d to p a r t ic u la r r i v e r s , e . g . , th e
Indus and th e modern S arsu ti* Of M acdonell and K eith , Vedic
Index, Vol I I , p .4 5 5 . Perhaps th e fs e v e n ~ s is te r e d * S a fa sv a t i (S a p ta a v a ss) r e fe r r e d to in Bk V I ,61, 1 0 ^ g ^ im p lie s
th e Sindhu* In t h i s co n n ectio n a s ta n z a in th e T ajurveda
(V ajasaneyi Sam hita, x x x i v ,2 ) I s very s ig n if ic a n t *
I h is i
read s a s under:
Pancha nadyah Sarasvatim a p iy a n ti s a s f o t a s a h ,
S a r a sv a ti tu panchadha sa de^o 'bhavat s a r i t . T
Trans: !,P ive r i v e r s , /to g e th e r w ith t h e i r a f f l u e n t s , flo w in to
t h e S a r a s v a t i , and a g a in S a r a s v a t i (flo w s i n to th e s e a )
by f i v e m ouths# T hat la n d i t h i s w hich S a r a s v a t i flo w s )
h a s become t h e R iv e r ( i * e . S in d h u , S in d u d e sa ) *tf
Brahmanas.
Thus th e main sou rce a v a ila b le f o r our stu d y
o f th e e a r ly Aryans in th e Panjab rem ains o n ly th e Rgveda,
:, . V . V " V V ,
;/,■*. ■
(*)
which i s P anjabi in o r ig in as w e ll as Panjabi in c h a r a c te r . ;:vS in ce th e study o f th e Rgveda on c r i t i c a l l i n e s was
s t a r t e d more than a hundred y ea rs ago by g re a t S a n sk rit
s c h o la r s in th e w est and in In d ia , i t has y ie ld e d abundant
in fo rm a tio n about th e Aryan p eo p le s e t t l e d in th e Sapta
Sindhu.
We can o b ta in , c o n sid e r in g th e n atu re o f t h e .
document, a f a i r knowledge o f them, so f a r as r e l i g i o n and
r e l i g i o u s p r a c t ic e s are concerned.
Next i s a v a ila b le some
in fo rm a tio n as to t h e ir s e c u la r l i f e - t h e i r p o l i t i c a l and
s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e ir m a te r ia l c o n d it io n s , t h e i r
c i v i c l i f e , t h e i r dom estic 1 i f e ^ e t c .
The hymns o f th e
Veda, t h e o lo g ic a l as th ey a r e , cannot p o s s ib ly c o n ta in
n a r r a tiv e h i s t o r y .
any
Hence th e reproach which i s g e n e r a lly
l e v e l l e d a t a n c ie n t In dian s th a t th ey la ck ed h i s t o r i c a l
se n se and n e g le c te d t h e i r h is t o r y , we must ad m it, i s w e ll
m e r ite d , i f h is t o r y i s taken in th e se n se o f p o l i t i c a l
h is t o r y , l . e * th e l i s t s o f d y n a s tie s and k in g s ,. th e d es­
c r ip t io n o f w ars, con q uests and in v a s io n s .
But th e Indians
(*T The Samaveda, which m o stly c o n s is t s o f t h e Rgvedio hymns,
arranged w ith r e fe r e n c e to th e p la c e s in §oma s a c r i f i c e , "'
has very l i t t l e im portance o f i t s own. The Y ajurveda, .
how ever, though depending upon th e Rgveda, has g rea t
h i s t o r i c a l im portance * In i t we pome.;' a c r o ss new geograp h i­
c a l fe a tu r e s w h ich su g g e st th a t th e Aryans had by th e tim e
o f i t s co m p ila tio n spread from th e Panjab fu r th e r inward
to th e Gangetio v a l l e y .
B esid es p o in tin g to an eastw ard
: advance o f th e Aryans, th e Yajurveda a ls o marks a com­
p l e t e s o o i a l and r e lig io u s tr a n sfo r m a tio n from Rgvedio
i n s t i t u t i o n s . The Atharvaveda too has drawn from th e
Rgveda, but to a l e s s degree* Much o f i t c o n ta in s m atter \
V/-'; (oont in u e d )
■
V
■ 69
v V vv\ \
V \ :v ■
.'-.v-':. .■■■ ■/ ^
'/v:-V
:
' V :
V.: ' •
/
have alw ays regarded p o l i t i c a l h is t o r y a s th e mere frame
' ,:
'
in which th e p ic tu r e o f the l i f e o f th e p eo p le i s s e t , so
th a t i f we tak e h is t o r y in the; sen se o f th e s to r y o f
e v o lu tio n o f th e mind, a p ic tu r e o f th e l i f e o f th e p e o p le , ; /
what th ey thought and what th ey dream t, what th ey ach iev ed
and where th ey f a i l e d , no country o f th e p a st can fu r n is h
,
such r ic h , v a r ie d and abundant m a te r ia l as th e a n c ie n t
Pan jab through i t s l i t e r a t u r e o f th e Rgveda.
Vfe may thus
• sa y th a t th e a n c ie n t In d ia n s did n ot la c k th e h i s t o r i c a l
s e n s e , but p o s s e s s e d h i s t o r i c a l se n se o f a d if f e r e n t order
than modern h i s t o r i a n s .
v
The account o f th e g en er a l c u lt u r e ,
r e v e a le d from th e hymns o f th e Rgveda, i s a se p a r a te sub­
j e c t by i t s e l f 5 i t w i l l th e r e fo r e be d is c u s s e d in th e
- f o llo w in g ch a p ter.
N e v e r th e le s s , i f d e t a i l s o f ■Aryan h isto ry : in th e
modern se n se a re w anting in th e Rgveda, some o f i t s hymns
and d etached p a s s a g e s , turn out to be p r e c io u s docum ents,
as th e r e s u l t o f c r i t i c a l stu d y .
They have in c id e n t a lly
fu r n ish e d h i s t o r i c a l d ata th a t commemorate r e a l e v e n ts and
>
p er p e tu a te some o f th e names o f le a d in g t r i b e s , p e o p le s
and men, though we do n ot know t h e i r c h r o n o lo g ic a l s e t t i n g .
Bor example we s e e in th e hymns th e “e a r th ly k ind s whom
th e god Indra c o p ie s - generous to bards and bold to sm ite
th e d ark -sk in n ed en em ies, lo v e r s o f Soma, d ic in g and h o r s e Note o o n tin u e d ) which in d ic a t e s c o n ta c t and n a tu r a l fu s io n
o f Aryan and non-Aryan c u lt u r e s , and as such can be u t i l i z e d
: to some e x te n t fo r th e h is t o r y o f c e r t a in pre-Aryan i n s t i t u t io n s even fo r th e Sapta Sindhu.
■
v ' n - ,;
—
, '' -■ — ........................................ .
r a c in g 11*
Bat th e a llu s io n s to h i s t o r i c a l o ccu rren ces and
names are so sc a n t th a t i t i s not p o s s ib le to attem pt any
r e c o n s tr u c tio n o f e a r ly Vedic p o l i t i c a l histo'^Q ?. Yet a
few broad i s o l a t e d h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s o f th e .Aryan age may
be g lean ed from th e m a te r ia l o b ta in e d , which we s h a ll
■.record here*
3h th e f i r s t p la c e we may n o te th a t th e Aryans did
n ot come to conquer l i k e in vad ers o f l a t e r h i s t o r i c a l tim e s ,
such as th e P e r s ia n s, Yavanas, Sakas, Bunas, e t c * , but to
s e t t l e and p o s s e s s 2he ifeveda a lrea d y r e v e a ls a r e g u la r ly
s e t t l e d l i f e o f th e Aryans in Sapta Sindhu, where th ey
m ustered strong*
Shat i t was so i s c le a r from th e f a c t
th a t th e r e i s a r e a l advanced c i v i l i z a t i o n d e p ic te d in th e
hymns, which presu p poses a s ta g e o f c u ltu r e among th e
A ryans'th a t ev o lv ed in th e Indus v a l l e y i t s e l f •
Modern
w r ite r s on a n c ie n t Indian h is t o r y , i t has been r ig h t ly
o b serv e d , u s u a lly and somewhat r a s h ly , assume th a t th e
cou n try was b ein g overrun by m igratory t r ib e s o f th e Aryans,
w h ile th e hymns were b ein g composed,; and th a t th e age to
which th e s e hymns, carry us 'dwap- ar.period o f Aryan s e t t l e ­
m ent*
As a m a t t e r o f f a c t th e Aryan o cc u p a tio n o f th e
Sapta Sindhu had been alm ost com pleted lo n g b efo r e some o f
th e hymns were composed,and a t th a t tim e th e Aryan s e t t l e r s
had a lr e a d y turned out many o ld : in h a b it a n t s , who were now
l i v i n g in th e neighbourhood o f th e Aryan lan d and a t tim es
d istu r b e d th e peace o f th e s e t t l e d Aryan people*
Eirom t h i s
■;
; . ■:
■
‘
- ■■/v.'.';
' ■ ..
■ . .■ .V 7 / .
' i t f o llo w s th a t th e Aryans were more numerous in th e Sapta
Sindhu and th a t th ey formed a la r g e p ro p o rtio n o f th e
p o p u la tio n .
That t h i s was so i s a ls o ob viou s from th e
g e n e r a l spread o f th e Aryan r e li g i o n and c u lt u r e , which
su p ersed ed th e p r e - e x is t in g c i v il iz a t io n ^
There a r e , how­
e v e r , in d ic a t io n s in th e Bgveda th a t th e r e were s t i l l nonAryan t r ib e s l e f t in th e Sapta Sindhu, from which th e
p r e s e n c e ,. a t a rem oter d a te , o f a la r g e non-Aryan popula­
t io n may be tak en as granted in th e n o rth -w est o f In d ia .
These non-A ryans, however, could not have been removed by
th e Aryan in v a d ers a l l a t on ce.
They must have been: d riv en
out g r a d u a lly , and th o se who were l e f t behind were u ltim a te ­
l y absorbed in th e Aryan system .
Yet th e Aryan f e e l i n g o f
h a tred a g a in st th e non-A ryans, which was d e e p -r o o te d , con­
tin u e d w ith th e r e s u l t th a t th ey were reduced to th e lo w e st
s t a t u s , o f t e n ex p ressed by v a rio u s contemptuous terms l i k e
Dasa and Dasyu, which mean in S a n sk rit s e r f s and b arbarian
.r e s p e c t i v e l y .' .
Apart from th e s e d e r is iv e names, th e Dasas and Basyus
were c a lle d by many c h a r a c t e r is t ic e p i t h e t s .
They are r e ­
proached in th e hymns fo r h avin g e i t h e r no cerem onies
(a y r a ta , He I , 5 1 ,8 ; 1 7 5 ,3 ; Be V I I I , 8 6 ,3 ; e t c ) o r stra n g e
r ite s
(a n y a v ra ta . He V I I I ,5 9 ,1 1 ; Be X ,2 2 ,8 ; e t c ) , fo r b ein g
non-human o r demonic (amanusha. Be X ,2 2 *8 e t c ), fo r not
perforraing Vedic s a c r i f i c e s
(akarman. He X ,2 2 ,8 e t c ,
a y a jy u . He V I I ; 6 ,5 e t c and ayaivan Be 1 , 33>5 ). f o r n ot
.
honouring gods (adevayu* He V II, 9.3,5; Blc'-.Till, 8 6 , 5 ; e t q ) ,
f o r not b ein g g iv e n to d e v o tio n or p rayer (abrahman* He IV,
1 6 ,9 e t c ) i Some o f th e s e a e r is iv e e p i t h e t s , o b v io u sly out
o f j e a lo u s y , were som etim es a p p lie d by -Aryans to o th e r
Aryans*
ib r example th e Arya i s d e sc r ib e d as g o d le s s
(adevavu. He X ,3 8 ,3 ) and on t h i s accoun t i s a s s o c ia te d w ith
th e Basa in th e p r i e s t *s h atred (Bk 'V II, 22, IQ')*
Again, th e
Arya l i k e th e pas a speaks/sho s t i l e words or a d d resses w ith
s p e lls
(m rdhra-vak, He 1 ,1 7 4 ,2 ; He V*29,10.; Ek V I I ,1 8 ,1 5 ) ,
Hie q u e stio n now a r i s e s who th e se non-A ryans, Dasas.
and Dasyus, were*
/
"We a lrea d y have known from an account
o f a r c h a e o lo g ic a l p r e h is to r y o f th e Indus V a lley th a t
n o rth -w e stern India was occup ied by a p eo p le who were in
th e G h a lc o lith ic s ta g e o f t h e ir c i v i l i z a t i o n *
I t was
p rob ably t h e i r d escen d an ts in th e Pan jab whom th e e a r l i e s t
Aryans en co u n tered , when th ey en tered th e Indus V a lle y .
Hie co n sta n t m ention o f Dasas and Basyus as enem ies o f th e
■-
;■
;
Aryans in th e Egvedic hymns
(*)
■-
.
■,
" ■ ■■■
i s a p o in te r to th e f a c t th a t
th e Aryans, on t h e ir f i r s t e n tr y , d id not f in d t h i s home
o f Sapta Sindhu an empty space*
S ev er a l p a ssa g es in th e
Veda d e s c r ib e th e s tr u g g le o f th e Aryans and th e s tr u g g le
o f t h e i r god Indra in favou r o f th e Aryans a g a in st Dasas
(^T See M acdonell and K eith , Vedic' In dex* Vol. I , a r t i c l e s
on Dasa and Dasjru, pp*34V f f and 556 f
73
-
{*)
and D asyus.
■:
.
Bat th e s e enem ies were n ot a t a i l barb arou s,
as th ey are d e sc r ib e d in Tedic-;hymns; th a t i s o n ly ou t o f
a n im o sity and contem pt.
On th e c o n tr a r y , th ey p o s s e s s e d
a f a i r l y advanced c i v i l i s a t i o n , inasmuch as th e hymns show
th a t th e s e Dasas and Dasyus. had f o r t i f i e d c i t i e s
(p u r a s)
o r w a lle d towns (durjpa), b u i l t o f s to n e , b rick and a y a s .
We a ls o le a r n t h a t th e y had d evelop ed some tech n iq u e o f
war and p o s s e s s e d f i g h t i n g q u a l i t i e s , though in f e r io r to
th o se o f th e Aryans, which i s e v id e n t from th e a llu s io n s
to f i e r c e b a t t l e s fo u gh t a g a in st them, f o r th e s u c c e ss in
■
•■■■
.
h)
which th e Aryans prayed to t h e ir god s.
B e sid e s, we have
now independent ev id en ce from th e Indus V a lle y s i t e s l i k e
Barappa on th e Ravi and Mohenjo-Daro on th e Indus fo r th e
e x is t e n c e o f a c i v i l i z e d p eo p le in th e v ery r e g io n where
;
th e Aryans fou gh t t h e ir b a t t l e s , so th a t th e r e i s a g re a t
p r o b a b ilit y th a t th ey were no o th e r than th e Indus V a lle y
p e o p le , who were in th e C h a lc o lith ic s ta g e o f t h e i r c u l t u r e /
; This ev id en ce o f a rch a eo lo g y i s fu r th e r confirm ed by two •
d i f f e r e n t p a ssa g e s in th e Rgveda, w herein a r e fe r e n c e i s
(* ) 'He 1 ,5 1 ,8 ; 1 0 3 ,5 ; 1 1 7 ,2 1 ; Bk ,1 1 ,1 1 ,1 8 ,1 9 ; Bk 1 1 1 ,3 4 ,9 ; :
He V ,3 4 ,6 ; Be V I ,1 8 ,3 ; 2 2 ,1 0 ,; 3 3 ,3 , 6 0 ,6 ; He V I I ,5 , 6 ;.
8 3 ,1 ; He X,3 8 ,3 ; 4 9 ,3 ; 6 9 ,6 ; 8 3 ,1 .
Baere i s no doubt Dasyus were o f t e n demons,; and s e v e r a l
o f t h e i r c h ie f s had p e r s o n a l it i e s which were more or
l e s s m y th o lo g ic a l. Bat th e r e a l i s t i c and human d e t a i l s
o f t h e i r c h a r a c te r are numerous* And when e s p e c ia l l y th e
names Dasa and Dasyu are found in some p a ssa g e s as r e ­
f e r r in g d e f i n i t e l y to human en em ies, i t may be regarded
a s c e r t a in th a t th e s e names s i g n i f i e d e a r th ly enem ies in
th e tim e o f t h e Rgveda;
.(§.) A stu d y o f t h e i r ' c u l t u r e , w hatever can be glean ed from
Vedic hymns, i s to fo llo w l a t e r .
v
' , ,
(*)
•
;;
■■■ .
made t o S isn ad evas
or th o se whose god i s th e p h a llu s . /
d h ls t i t l e f i t s in e x a c t ly w ith th e C h a lc o lith lc p o p u la tio n
o f th e Indus V a lle y , among whom we have s e e n th e p h a llic
:
;
(§)
...
■
w orship p r e v a ile d .
A pparently Dasyus o r Dasas were from th e o u ts e t nonA^yah t r ib e s ; and q u ite p o s s ib ly t h e i r name may be th e
same as th a t o f th e Dahae o f th e Qxus, which probably denoted
m erely non-Aryan ’n a tiv e s 1#
But i t does n ot fo llo w th en ce
th a t th ey were r a c i a l l y th e same as th e s e Dahae and th a t
th ey had invaded In dia (and E a s t ’Iran , as H illeb ra n d t t h in k s )
and th a t t h i s name was l a t e r a p p lie d g e n e r a lly to a l l n a tiv e
t r ib e s ofO Jhdia;
It i s .indeed very u n lik e ly th a t th e r a c ia l
name o f a n orth ern and presumably fa ir - s k in n e d in vad in g
t r ib e would have been a p p lie d to dark n a tiv e r a c e s by th e
Aryans•
Tie a lt e r n a t iv e and as we th in k r ig h t view i s th a t
th ey had r a c i a l l y n o th in g to dor; frith th e Dahae, but were
n a t iv e s o f India and a t l e a s t to some e x te n t d a rk -sk in n ed ,
and th a t th e Aryans a p p lie d to them th e names which th ey
(* T B c V I I ,S I ,5 ; Bk X ,9 9 ,5 . The sta n z a s read as f o l lo w s : - J
(f/f i . Ea yafcava Ihdfa ju ju vu r no na vandana s a v is h th a
jvedyabhih,'
Sa sardhadhryo v ish u n a sy a ja n to r ma sis^ n ad eva a p i
gurjfctam nah;
ii.
Sa vajam yatap adushpada yantlsv.arshata p a r i shadat
: _.
cu,
• ;v
'
„
Anarva yatfv tfatadurasya vedo ghnan sisn a d ev a h abhi
v
varp asa b h u t.
. The word s is n a ’p h a llu s ’ a ls o occurs in Be X ,2 7 ,1 9 .
(§) See Chapter I I above, p .
' ■
-
'< •. •/
.
‘
‘ ’ ■■■
ns
m ight in e a r l i e r c e n tu r ie s have a p p lie d to th e Dahae, but
which n ever meant more than ’n a tiv e 1 as opposed t o th e
.Aryan t r i b e s .
Old P e r sia n d ah yav-, l a t e r A vestan daijhav-,
G athic d a h y a v -, mean ’d i s t r i c t , t e r r i t o r y t but o f t e n w ith
th e p o p u la tio n in clu d ed ( lik e ^ in s lc r it r a s h tr a );. th en ce
comes Middle P e r sia n deh, Modern P er sia n d ih , ’town,
v illa g e ’.
The Iran ian s u sed th e word f o r a l l lan d s and :
p o p u la tio n s g e n e r a lly , w h ile th e Indo-Aryans lim it e d i t
to p o p u la tio n s o f non-Aryan r a c e . f i r s t in th e Indus V a lle y ,
and th en in th e r e s t o f In d ia .
As reg a rd s form, ap paren tly,
dasyu i s to das a as manyu to mana, tanyu to ta n a , sahyu to
sa h a , druhyu to drpha, e t c .
Thus., i t i s p r a c t ic a ll y c e r t a in t h a t th e e a r l i e s t
, Aryans /who f i r s t 'm igrated I n t o th e Pan jab were fa m ilia r
w ith th e occupants o f th e Indus . V a lle y and came •. in c lo s e :
and a c t i v b ’ c o n ta c t w ith them.
Sbr some tim e , h e r e , as
e ls e w h e r e , the.-two c i v i l i s e d p e o p le s , th e conquered and
th e co n q u ero rs, must have li v e d s id e by s i d e , and, con­
s id e r in g th a t th e Aryans began to expand r a p id ly as soon
as th ey had s e t t l e d in th e p la in s o f th e Panjab, i t i s
h a rd ly l i k e l y th a t th e two should n ot have come in to
c o n ta c t, w hether h o s t i l e or o th e r w ise .
We s h a l l have
o c c a s io n to speak a t g r e a te r le n g th bn th e in flu e n c e o f
th e Indus V a lley c u ltu r e on th e Aryans o f th e Sapta
Sindhu i n Chapter I I I .
However, th e f i n a l is s u e o f th e
s t r u g g le betw een th e two p e o p le s was th e triumph o f th e
Aryans, though th e ir , s tr u g g le fo r suprem acy, a f t e r th e
Aryan s e ttle m e n t in theV.Sapta:‘.'Sindhu, co n tin u ed oh i t s ;
r p o h fih e s i t h i s s t r u g g l e . i s a theme ;6f many . hymns in th e
Bgveda.
;/
I t has a lrea d y been shown th a t th e s e Indus
V a lle y p eo p le en cou n tered by t h e Aryan in v a d ers may be
. reckoned as E ra v id ia n si though^.this cannot .be s t r i c t l y . '^■'-■'■0:
proved .
;
; . . 'V.' '■
We have no means fo r knowing th e p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f
• th e Aryans o f th e Panjab a t th e e a r ly s t a g e s o f t h e ir
\ c a r e e r : in th a t co u n try .
But from th e n atu re o f t h e ir
s e ttle m e n t and t r i b a l o r g a n iz a tio n , as known from th e
hymns, i t can. be surm ised th a t th e p o l i t i c a l ord er was
t r i b a l , th a t i s to s a y , when th e.A ryan s c o lo n iz e d th e
co u n try , th ey were d iv id e d amongst a number o f janas or
t r ib e s ,' sm a ll o r g r e a t.
Some ch an ges, how ever, would
; have 'c e r t a in ly occurred in p o l i t i c a l ; l i f e by th e tim e
when la r g e t e r r i t o r i e s hade been conquered, a n d : th ey would
. have been determ ined by th e new en viron m en ts.
In con­
sequence o f th e needs o f m ilit a r y o ffe n c e and d efen ce and
o th e r s im ila r h eed s, some o ld fi an as changed t h e i r c h a ra c ter;
th e most p ow erfu l among them in a l o c a l i t y became promin- :
e n t and e x e r c is e d p o l i t i c a l in flu e n c e ov er th e n eighbour­
in g sm a ll or weak J a n a s. Such, fo r exam ple, were th e •
p a n o h a - j a n a h which denoted th e f i v e t r i b e s o f th e Aryans
•
in Sapta Sindhu.
And th e t e r r i t o r y in w h ich .a p a r tic u la r
P X ~ ^ ° d Q n e ll and K eith ,: Vedlo =Index Vo1 1 .. pp • • 4-66- 6 8 ..
:;
..
; ; ..
,:
■''
"
.
77
:
■'
-rf.
. \\
■ -
.
..
: ;. , 7
'
■
H i
-
_<*(*) ■
jana had become p o w e r fu l came, to he known as i t s ra sjtra .
l a t e r .ianagpada. ■ In f a c t , th e Bgvedic Jan a, and e s p e c i a l ­
l y th e p o l i t i c a l Jana, was h ot as som etim es u n d erstood ,
: '■ •
'.... ■'
to-)
' a clan ,; which was o n ly an a g g re g a tio n o f f a m ilie s or k u la s;
i t r a th e r im p lied a c o n s t it u t io n o f , a number o f c la n s ,
;
g o t r a s , ; grouped to g e th e r by community o f v a r io u s i n t e r e s t s ,
m ainly p o l i t i c a l , in a p a r t ic u la r region *
I t m u st, h ow ever,
be remembered t h a t , though a r a sh tr a w a s.d e sig n a te d a f t e r
.a p a r tic u la r : .1ana o r t r i b e , i t cou ld h ot have p o s s ib ly
co n ta in ed t h e p e o p le .o f th a t p a r t i c u l a r ;t r ib e o n ly ♦- The
•-
Aryans had en tered in; numerous, s u c c e s s iv e .waves and
, s c a tt e r e d ov er n o rth -w e stern India betw een th e r iv e r
b a r r ie r s*
:
;
Small t r ib e s l i v i n g s id e by s id e in a l o c a l i t y ,
r e a l i s i n g t h e i r weakness in cou rse o f tim e , combined w ith
th e 3^ s t ’p ow erfu l fo r th e purpose o f m aking th e t e r r i t o r y
occu p ied 's a fe ;fr o m ;a tta c k s o f th e Basyu-Dasas. and a ls o
from th o s e o f th e Aryan t r ib e s th a t had en tered the. lan d
e a r lie r *
;
B e s id e s , th e r e w a s ,; in each r a s h t r a . some .elem ent
o f non-Aryan p o p u la tio n , so th a t as tim e went on, b ir th or
. d o m ic ile in a ra sh tr a or j anapada began to be co n sid ered a
g r e a te r bond than th e o r ig in a l k in s h ip ,
a common a n c e s to r .
i . e . d escen t from .
Thus, out o f th e o r i g in a l Janas or
t r ib e s were ev o lv ed A ry a n ;sta tes in th e Sapta Sindhu, and
— F T ~ ib ia . v o i i i , p .s a s .
;
■' v..’:
(§) I b id . V o l I . p .2 7 5 .
(o ) I ^ v e d a He X , 1 7 9 ,2 . O f. Ve d io In d e x V o l I , p . 1 7 1 .
. (x ) V e d io In d e x V o i I . p p . 2 3 5 -8 7
•
.
7 8 ; ; /.- ^ ...,;
•' -
:.
. r
v;;‘;
■.
'
' ■:
'
• ■’ •" ' - :
/
\
/77r ■ ■
by am algam ation, conquest and other, m eans, some o f th e
o r i g i n a l .janapadas. l a t e r develop ed in t o maha ja napadas .
( Great S ta te s }..
We h ear /tw o such g re a t janapadas
o f th e :
3?anjat> in t h e B u d d h istic l i t e r a t u r e - k Gandhara. andK am boja.
;
U su a lly , th e Aryan s t a t e in Sapta Sindhu was m onarchi/■
. . . / ’' V 1. v. :: :
.(§.)"
,
:■■■-. ■
c a l; i t belonged to th e Rajan, and th e K shatriya lo rd ed
.
over i t , a s w e ll as p r o te c te d it *
i t i s however to o much
to .say th a t in th e Sapta Sindu days th e Aryans had founded
em pires and had emperors r u lin g over th e co u n try .
In th e
Rgveda we f in d th e term s ek ara.la, ’unique k in g 1 (Be V I I I ,
5 7 « 5 )i a d h ir a ja , ’o v e r -K in g ’ (Bk X v 1 2 8 .9 ).; sam rat, and
:
’com plete k i n g ’ . ( H e, 1 ,2 5 ,1 0 ; H .2 8 ,6 ; V ,8 5 ,l; V I ,6 8 ,9 ;
V I I I ,4 2 ,1 );/ sv a r a t f ’s e l f - K ing’ (Bk. I I , 2 8 ,1 ) ; but th e s e
o n ly in d ic a t e that"perhaps t h e r e was a s t r u g g l e .f o r su pre­
macy g o in g on between th e V arious Rajans* and th o se th a t
;
a tta in e d to pre-em inence or supremacy amongst them took
th e d i s t i n c t i v e t i t l e .ofvdamrat e t c . I t may be; th a t t h e :
h ig h e s t ty p e o f th e s e r o y a l t i t l e s was claim ed by one who
conquered th e D asyu-D asas, and th ereb y caused th e Aryan . .
v
clharma -. w orship o f Vedic gods w ith f i r e s a c r i f i c e - to
. . p r e v a il among th e p e o p le a t la r g e .
--y;.
) Cambridge H isto ry o f In d ia . Vol I , p . 1.72.
(§) Rgveda, Bk V I I ,34
. Ib id , Be X ,1 7 5 ,1
;
,
• ': V-/.;/^-;R aja yrashtrahm -.
- , Bsha rashtram k s h a tr iy a sy a ..gup i t am .
79
'
\ ■' ;
: , ‘ /■'.
/.
-
:
Hi
Hie p anelia- janah , r e fe r r e d to above, who gained th e
- >yyi
supremacy, iii the Sap ta Sindhu, were c a lle d Yadu,. ^ r v a s k ,
.ruru:'r :;Druhyu;.a3id. Mu,..; Ihese' a re also th e names o f t h e i r
. lciiigs and are; sometimes supposed to denote th e names of . t h e i r
a n c e s to rs , Yadu, R l r u , e t c . .B it t h a t they were so c a lle d
,
•
epbnymously from t h e i r r e s p e c tiv e a n c e s to rs may be doubted. .'.I ■y-y
Hie t r u t h i s probably the r e v e r s e , th a t i s , the f iv e a n c e s t o r s ,
Yadu e t c , were probably f i c t i t i o u s , in ven ted to e x p la in .t h e
names o f th e pancha-.janah, ’f i v e .t r ib e s ’’-, ’ o f th e ifeveda.
th e c o n n ectio n o f Nahusha and Y ayati
d
Thus
w ith Yadu, Turvasu,
‘
Druhyu, Anu and^ XYiru, .who are c o l l e c t i y e l y s a id to be Y a y a ti’ s.
sons in th e Ramayana arid 1-Miabharata, as w e ll as in th e
Puranas,. i s in cred ib le ;.
Hiere ; i s no tr a c e w hatever o f . such
;
co n n ectio n in th e Vedio hymns,twhere th e s e names have; been
m entioned.
;/
v
.
.Moreover, yit i s wrong to suppose a f t e r Sayana,
th e commentator o f t h e vVedas , i n the f o u rteen th , cen tu ry A. p.
th a t th e term pancha- .1anah denoted th e fo u r c a s te s - Brahman,
v
,
:
( §) - ' ■ ■ ■
I^ h atriy a ,, Vaisya and S udra, - ; he i s m erely explaining, th e
■; Vedic e x p re ssio n in accordance with th e w ish fu l th in k in g o f ,
/;
; -
y;
. h is own a g e . .
y
••• ' y ' As reg ard s; th e lo c a tio n of th e se t r i b e s n o thin g d e f i n i t e lyy1'/'.
can be s a id w ith the -data a v a ila b le from th e hymns.
The
:
'
Yadus and Turvakas were tw in t r i b e s always named to g e th e r .
Nahusha a d d Y a y a tiW ere' tx^o fig u r e s '.o f v e r y a n c ie n t leg en d .
in th e Rgveda.
.
v
yVy .
.(§) H. W ilsony Rigveda Sarifiita. L n g.tran . London 18 5 0 -8 8 ,
• Vol I . p x l i i i and Vol I I ,; p x v .
. ;.
, ih ey appear to have l iv e d as; •heighhouisv':-'prbhably"i in sou th ern
r e g io n s o f Sapta , Sindhu "between th e Indus and th e Jumna *
The Bruhyus may have been a: n o r th -w e ste r n p e o p le , w h ile th ey
'...iiiius; and- I^rus-••probably 'in h a b ite d r e g io n s in th e Pan jab
; V Proper, though th e l a t t e r .of th e s e tw o, b ein g th e most
. p o w e r f u l of. a l l pancha-janah t r i b e s ,' spread beyond th e
SatUj^
as w e li.
. It i s ;in t e r e s t iiig to n o t e , th a t th e t e r r i ­
to r y o ccu p ied .by th e ".'Anus and Purus i s '.afterwards found to
be in th e p o s s e s s io n o f th e Kekayas or Kaikayas and B ah llk a;
Madrakas.
\ •
"
• ■
Hie hymns o f th e Rgveda t e l l u s more about th e Purus;
we read o f . a number o f t h e i r lyings .in c o n n ectio n w ith wars
fou gh t in th e Sapta Sindhu ■ 1tHie e a r l i e s t p r in c e record ed .
.
was Durgaha, who was su cceed ed by G ir ik s h it , n e ith e r of. ,
y,
th e s e b e in g more than n am es.ff
Hie son. o f G ir ik s h it , .
P urukutsa, was, th e f i r s t , known g re a t k in g , who i s m entioned
y y ; - - /■■>■■■
-y .,--: ' .'■ - y y : y
.
v y -:y y y y (* y
s e v e r a l tim es in th e Veda as V icto r o v er non-A ryans. His :
■y
v:
y j j : ;
;y
; T
(§)
so n , Trasadasyu,
:' y ;
y
y -
■.
y y V \ y . . , /
/ ..v
.
• was ao named, b ecau se h e , became a
,/y ’’te r r o r to* th e D a s y u s h i one o f th e hymns (He IV, 4 2 ,9 )
y
i t i s s t a t e d th a t h i s b ir th was regarded by h is mother,who
had been in m is fo r tu n e , as th e cause o f g re a t com fort to
y .y h er.. .Among o th e r k in g s a n o ta b le .f i g u r e i s Eurusravana,
iutww^ijoin
nifc—
‘
1
,*
’ . 1• ■
'^
,
J
: T * T Vedic Index. Vol I', • p; 541. i f .•
(§) He i s c a lle d Paturukutsya in th e Rgveda ( He V, 3 5 ,8 . and
,. • Bk . V I I I , 1 9 ,3 6 ) as a ls o Pautt&kutsi yHc V II,. 1 9 ,5 ) .
y
'81
Who.. id s p e c ia lly - p r a is e d for; h is; c h a r i t i e s \.(Ek: X, 35.’-,^ 4 -9
It i s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t th a t . h i s '-‘name, con n ects; Him oh th e
o n e h a n d ■;vv:ith :tlie Kurus, and, onth e . o th e r w ith
Trasadasyu
and through him w ith th e P u r u s T h i s p rob ably shows t h a t , ,
v/,
V
v ;
(*)
th e Kurus and -Purus were c l o s e l y r e la te d : by in term arriage*
: , ;v'.v;’4h6ther;'..^yan t r i b e , and perhaps th e most: im portant
and .'-powerful o f a i l t r ib e s i n t h e Sapta.. Sindhu, was that;
o f th e D ia r a ta s , who in latei*. tim es gave' t h e i r name to .
;c : :
(§)
.In dia, c a lle d a f t e r them B aarata-V arsha.. -, They; seem to:
have had th e c l o s e s t p o s s ib le r e l a t i o n w ith th e ^ r ts u s 'r
an oth er Aryan t r i b e t h o u g h the; ex a c t co n n ectio n betw een :.
(p) ■
;/■;:
s^
,■■■
■■
th e two i s n ot known,
Beth are m e h tio n ed ;e s t a b lis h e d as
;bnemies;'-of th e Purus e t c on the .b an k s -of ..‘t h e ; Say&svat i , ;
.
Apayd.and; Drs.hadvati rivers.,.y:'Jbie -f i r s t , g r e a t k in g o f th e 1
' 7
; -
; ; ;
k
^ - ' v ;. v ' r
' (
T rtsu -B h a ra ta s was Divodasa
x
l
:
' ■ - r
V
i t -
)
i
A tith ig tfa , a son o f Vadhry-
a s v a . , He r e p e a te d ly fou gh t a g a in s t and d e fe a te d th e nonAryans and o th e r s,; in c lu d in g th e Tadiis and T urvasas.
However h is g r e a t e s t enemy;was %mbara (0) f*the ^ a sa , who
(*} The: name' ikshvaku occu rs in th e B g v e d a (Be X, 60 , 4 ) ; i t ;
. i s p ratty;vQ ertain from the;: l a t e r ’V edic; e v id e n c e th a t th e r e
■ . e x is t e d a fa m ily o f t h i s name, which was con n ected w ith th e
Purus (V edio/ In d ex« Vol I , p 75 ) .^
.(§}; uttaram y a t samudrasya Himadres/ .c h a iv a dakshinam,
yaa?sham; ta d : .Biaratam haiiia ^ a r a tT y a tr a s a n t a t ih .;
V*;
"V - ;• -'I _ "
'
(V ish n i P u r a n a ,I l,3 ,l)
■; ;::i...:0 f ,:'Vayu-:'Purana.,;:xlv.j76*--:; 1;^,; : ■ h v .h . ...
( o ) Ibr controversy.;, in t h i s co n n ectio n read Vedic Index,
; Vol I , p p ,5 2 1 -3 . ■;
-v; ;
:
■'
•;(x); T h is name .means., ’se r v a n t ;of ;’t h e •h e a v e n , "The word, das a.
in i t has w ro n g ly le d H illebr.andt ( Of. Vedio Inde x , Vol I , ;
. pp, 3 5 7 -8 ) to , t r e a t him as a Das a .and fin d Dasas o f th e ;
Rgveda among th e Dahae in Iran in s te a d o f among th e nonAryans: in th e Indus v a l l e y ..
'
:(-) Perhaps a t i t l e in d ic a t iv e o f D iv o d a sa ’s . h o s p i t a l i t y and
; (0) Vedic In d ex,. Vol I , p . 363 .
lib e r a lity .
:X 0 '£ '.
Was a p p a ren tly - c h ie f o f a '-mountain •.people'"vand....liadv cons tr u c t e d hiMerous f o r t s •
The .m ostbfam ous,;BhaWata k in g ;
was Sudas o r Sudasa, D ivod asars s o n . o r grandson.
lie \ms / ;
as w a rlik e as Divodasa and shared th e g lo r y o f h is i l l u s t r i ; ous a n c e s to r by making many co n q u e sts, in which he was .'v
a id ed by r s h is l i k e V isv a m itr a a n d V a sish th a , th e two w e ll-
.jjv .v ,:." V " -v /v v V.
: known Puro s h i t as con n ected w ith ;;th e
=:■
;/
- (§)
Ihatfatas ♦ -■
This supremacy o f th e iWtsu^Ijfeharatas^, hoWever , appears .
to have p a ssed some tim e a f t e r Sudas to th e Purus and
f i n a l l y to th e Kurus, o f whom,we s h a l l speak in more
. ■d e t a i l " p resen tly *; y.
B e s id e s : th e , Aryan t r ib e s or jan as mentioned--,above, i.
.; some, o f th e o t h e r s , r e fe r r e d t o in th e Bgveda* as in h a b it­
in g the- S^pta Sindhu,. were th e A lin a s , j Gandharis and
Pakthasy
,
.
aiiases,-v, Sivas,;'iMatsyds,^-.'Vishanins; and D sin a r a s.
Though th ey cannot be lo c a te d w it h any c e r ta in ty ,, y e t i t
seems f a i r l y c le a r th a t th e A linas, p o s s ib ly occu p ied th e
, t e r r i t o r y t o th e n o r th -e a s t o f K afir 1 s t an;.
th a t the.,
Gandharis and Pakthas probably corresponded to th e modern
Kabul v a l l e y with: i t s a f f lu e n t s and Pakhtun in t h e : Trans ;
y :y
v
.
;
'
;
t
: W ---Indus Border; th a t th e H iatan ases in h a b ite d th e country
T^)“ Ib id . Vol I , p 527; ■Vol 1 1 , p 4 5 4 . . P ijavan a i s th e
, name o f th e fa th e r , o f SUdas A c c o r d in g .to , t h e .e x p la n a t io n ; ;
. o f Yaska on th e patronym ic Pai javana (Nirukt.a,-rI 1 ,2,4) ♦;; ; _
(§) Divodasa i s found a s s o c ia te d w ith t h e P u roh ita
. /•
- Siayadya j a , w h ile h i s - descendant Sudas i s a sso c i a t ed w ith
, Vi^yariiitra, and . V a sish th a . /There i s n o th in g /su r p r is in g in
t h i s , inasmuch as P u roh itas o f d i f f e r e n t 1 f a m i li e s /can come : V
in to r e li g i o u s r e l a t io n s Writh th e same p e o p le .
■ .
(x) Ved ic la d e x , Vol I , p 59,,
round., th e
an Pass
in B r itis h B a lu ch ista n ; /and th a t - .
t h e . o th e r s p o s s e s se d t e r r i t o r i e s ly in g - far, -to th e e a s t ,
o f: th e /I M u s y
Pone o f ;t h e s e .t r i b e s , i t . appears from th e -•
h y m n s g a in e d ;any p o l i t i c a l im portance in /t h e e a r ly h is t o r y
o f th e P a n ja b i t h e U^inaraa;/ however , who m lg r a te d : to " ;
th e e a s t , a r e -fo u n d , to ; have become stx^onger a t th e .close"
o f th e .Rgvedic: epoch; in th e r e g io n between; I h e S ay.a^iti
and th e Juimia.
'
.'-i ■
--
- /
The hymns o f th e Hgveda/.St-imliita, as a lrea d y remarked*
xwere/not^com posed a t ohe t ime ; ; th ey r e p r e se n t ages o f many
v c e n t u r ie s , b e fo r e and d uring which th e Aryan t r ib e s contin u o u s I j y f o u g h t t h e Dasyus 'and. D asas./ ^ The: l a t t e r , how- .
•/.ever, n ever su cceed ed in d e fe a tin g the, pancha-,ianah, th e
T rtsu -H ia ra ta s o r ,o th er Aryan p e o p le , w ith th e r e s u lt
/-that'.they-,-;were d r iv e n o u t-in /o o u r s e 'o f tim e from th e land.
:;O f/beven R iv e r s i: / The .only nbnl Aryan t r ib e s tr a c e a b le /
■ from th e hymns -are the; ^imyus-, K ik a ta s. ‘and perhaps the//.
-
'/-/-xi/
/
,
Aja.s, Yakshus and. S ig r u s v x
(§)
'
/
/
(x)
A n y s c h o la r s , a f t e r ludw ig,
haye ta k e n ;th e P d n is, a: wealthy; com m ercial c l a s s , , always
iTWil'Ti ......
(*) Ibid., Vol U , p . 9 9.
- X /v X•(§••)• Vedio . In dex, ■V o l:I , pp IS , lb ? ; Vol 1 1 ,/p p 18S, 5V8
."■-.and 381. .
-:v;- x / . ' ■ ■ ;x/‘: /
•.
(x) .R igveda, t r a h s , i f a g u e 1876-881 Vol; I I I , ■§§. 54 and 51.
.
vv ^ aAa' a/ a'A/a- A
■’, AAa-.
S
crying, AAalsoAAas/aAhonr^yan^
■
Aa;a
\ ;V'■
' d o u b tfu lj .th e AAname i s A"wide enough, to cover. Aei t her the^Ay : ■;
:A;';: A. A;.p/AA;:-.hbor^
: . ./,,.; A
,A...A. A,-AA /;
t r i b e , ,as. w e ll as demons !/AAA;//;./ aa,.
-their; o r ig in a lly ; '-his'toric . oha^acter^w^s^ g ra d u a lly
.fo r g o tte n , and by the;'tirtie when^^ithe l a t e r
aAA/aA
/ - / A / A /A A/A-posed,;;the;.: i t o i s :had- ^opm^;-;3riythi.o'a3L.A; , :;.:;Besides^';.^e .meetA ,A\. .;
A/Aaa;:;' in th e Rgy eda some in d iv id u a l un-;Aryan nam es, sucli as ^ v,
-A-.-/ a ;- /v > ; ,-Samfc&rcf/Apip^u^^l^
;;
■
A ,: r ;
■. Dhttni,
I l l b i s a ,, AA/a .^
Chumuri, e t c . : . Ihey are ; a l l ment ioned e it h e r in
•
‘
^ '
co n n eo tio n w ith ^ actual wars fought a g a in st them by th e
. A. v
aaA/
;■ i\ryaii prinoe;/A;/orA
A;/A;:A./A;AA
from them and th e l i k e .
/ a -. Aaaa •. ;Aa/ aA / a;aAa;a It a p p ea r^ ^
. ;A;A .
A A;
Ihdra ;fo r p r o t e c t io n ;A A A/.
A ..• AaA;AA:AA / ' / A;. ‘ AA;/.; AAAAA:A *a/.-Aa V;/;A/;A
;;:|igyedaAthai/^
Aa, / ; /
A and w arlike;am ong th e Ra jans o f S a p ta ' Sindhu t r ie d to A
;A:
make th em selv es supreme over t h e i r n eigh b ou rs, Aryan or
■AAaA s Ay A i/n o u -^ y & u , b u b / t h a t m i li t ^
between; di^^
A.-A a. ' • ;y:■ A
. A p o lit ic a l j a h a s , sometimes atbgethorA w ith ■^ h - ^ y a n
A'A: A AA
afeatureA i n th e I ^ i s AbnAW^^
‘e h i e f l y ; a -;:Aaa'V;
A a A. Av A ■■■■• ' i n s i s t s i s t h e i r n o t ;o f fe rih g A sa o f i f i c e ;id; Aryan; gods and
■aa.;Aa
^.Av AAiiq-t‘ giv in g A feeS y. d akshina, t o ; Aryan p r i e s t s , which f a c t s
. su g g e st r a th e r Ludwig fs 'c o n c e p tio n , A b u tap e'n ot •o o n o lu siv e *,
vA A:-a' Aa. • •A A. A:
ter th e Jname Pani t i t is -probably from- th e ro o t parn -y
A ; a•
v/henee; th e :s u b s ta n tiv e pdnar meaning ’som ething eh gaged 'AAaA A
aAa- ■'A-AAa ;a ^ApdytientA ,A :’wdgeA , r p h ire
1yAth e n p e : a ls o
: A;• 'A-; A'A;a 'A.A--A;:: ■ A’oo in V fo r payment AAAPaiyl -is' to Pana.. as ga.nl i s to gana».A. ! A;•
A-A:i
A A: Ate may: compare pani -v/ith g a n i; . th e t i t l e , of. Jain h ig h e r . A;
\:AA;A A AAA!■ monks .A; AGrassmann in h is ;t r a n s la t io n ;of th e Bgveda su g g e sts
; ,A"AA^
A %bhnebt.ion o f / b a h iAwithAv a n ig ^or ba n ij ; but t h i s i s A;,a. . V .■
: AA AphOnet ic a lly A d i f f i c u l t / u n l e s s we assume :Aa’ wordy ^ pani j pAAA;
AA-A,
, AA' AAAahd; aAAcompdund su ch : as
mahapani j t whence . in Prakrit; r
A-A A
AA-A ■; AA'AaAA A came * m afeavanij, from which .againAvaiiijAwas a b str a c te d ; - A4 "'
Ay A;-; ^'A; ;A ^A(x ) AS. gA inv^veda:,AA!^: X , ;1Q8P a aAAyvAAA;.- AA‘A;AA. ■A/ AA'/A:" • '/AAA -■;a:/vA-..:A
AaA / ap a ( ° ) Iliere are is o la t e d p assa g es in th e Rgveda, a llu d in g , to
;y ■ ;
AAAA;;; AAth e s e ; p^ersons^^an<d Atheiryywars/with A^^yanA A;f e j a n s ; A;p a r tic u ;;aAA‘A':A;';:;aAAAAdarsAArelatingA^b^
AaA;AA;AAA /A AAA;--Av/A AAAAArAAA:
and c h ie f s , i f need be, were, formed in o rd e r to r e s i s t
;
V
s
e
m
o
i
i
'
A
O
; ;ip.b.3?-ucJ.ex's.
M
i:
example o f t h i s
/; :;;/;
k ind of A a l i iahc e i s ,t o Abe . s een in th e Dasara j ha Bat t l e
AA A . A• . / / .
A>/better known as Athe War p.f Ten Kings •
AA' ;A/aA ■;;; ^ ,b
\
I t was fought
' b a n k s
o f
t h e
r i v e r
P a r u s h n i
Av I , ' 1'
i s
h e e d l e s s
i n
t h e
A.A._A;/AA/aAA;v/A;/.-;3 3 A
A/ ,
-A .,A ;
A; A/A
A ; : A -,A ' 'a / A t o
/ • AA
A '//A \
^
r e g a r d e d A
t o
B g v e d a
A i t Ai s
£ u e s t i b h |
t h e . Af i r s t ; b a t t l e
b y
V a s i s h t h a
o r
t h e
f i n d
A t h a t ; 'A a l m o s t
in v o lv e d
in A /h ls
AA A f i v e , w e re Ak in g s
t l i e
'o
Y / h o l e . Ao f
/ ;
k n o w n
e v e n t
t h e A ; s u b j e c t / o f
/ ; / a 3 i c i A ; ; B 3 ' a)A
' :AAA,^^oni ;At ^ A h A e A ; : A a ^ p o t a j a t :
/ZA //:A /A A ZA A Zoihe:]/^
t h r e e
V a s i s h t h a s / ( £ k
h y m n s A
; V l I / A l & / /
./;/:;■
t h e A A t o
t h e ,
I n d u s
'V a l l e y
' A,
w a s . ... '
e n g a g e m e n t .- A O f ; SudasArs t e n a d v e r s a r i e s . A
b e lo n g in g
i l i n a s , ; P a k th a s
A;^ivas/andA /^ s h im in ^ ^
A-
A .. .A
o r - A ’^ y : i / A i i d ; ; . t h ' e A h e a ; r t / o ^
i n A A A i i d i a h A h i s A t o r y A d h a t A : t h i s , w a s AAa r e a l ^
. .
A
. King Sudas Aand a: confederacy o f'; Ten: Kings. On th e ;A:
K n o a b / P r o p e r / a n d A
>
, .;
to t h e
p a n o h a -i f a n a h , an d t h e
A Q aaianases , "
A ilte s
s id e AaAfew Ano h-Aryan t r i b e s , such
a s
A1
/ /
had a ls o h n A t h e ir
.p o
s s i ’bly th e
A.
i i j a s / A
/A"; :/ rA
~^ ( ^ } /ih e hymn 35 ;inAAEk/IIl/cai^^
: <A
/:A^//^A^A^^A^b^'timebAta k e n ’-asAAreierringAtb/thibAAwari;; ABut th is 'only ‘A/ .-;/ / /
;/:;A:; A;A/A/A' A shows- that A;at one t ime Vi^vami t ra was. King Sudas * s
.. a
/
.
' ' s p ir itu a l advisor (Purdhiia)*;AAa^ A^PP°mpan ; hijn Ain:;hlsA ; /
a;/ 'A/AA/:A;A v ic to r ib u s raids over .the AVipas'’ (Bias ) and the Sutudri
AA
AA AA AAA .(Sating}); There i s Aho ne ed to doubt Athat _Vib v.amit ra and .,/A
. -A'AZ/A/AZ/Avi/asis& t^ '’^ r^AAAspiiituhl advisors , o f A^dgsyabA d iffe r e n t AA /;
ZA
:/'^ A'/■.A ; / / , -./A^e^ipds AA'irL/liis^^
theA W
;
> ^ // -A/ / A /
// / S i 'g r ^
S u d a s , oh th O ':p th a r ;;lia;rLd:A;' ‘wglsAAs'-iiigXib^ArA:A
A • / ; / / . . ; , / A-Ahanded■;and, m et th e u n i t e d , f o r e e s vpfAAthe;A ;SiiesAA w ith a d e q u a te ' / "A
.:
p r e p a r a t i o n . - ; / / A://: ; : /'•';••. A,. / ; / -AA/;A:\"AA-A-/’:'A;
//;./;//:/.
/ •.
A.-Ay/v--;^
% //-///
A/y./.A;
aA/AvfullyA;A ir/b p h /o iZ th e y _ th rp e/ii'y )^ s: q u o te d above ‘ and b r i e f l y A.' y'/Z ZA-
-Aa.a
.. A i n
A P ^ h p rs//^
w b u ld y e n a h ie A ^ u s;;'? A /A /
AAA; ; A, A; A■A\:tp,yAfqm',;a 'com plete A pictufe A'of the;; ©vpnt;/.
v q u e s t ion. h av ey Ain f a c t , . . f o r / t ^ A
A
a cknow/Ay://;A;Z
A>A A, le d g e m e n t o f d iv i n e a i d Af o r Sudas js v i c t o r y , AP.ro;curedAAbyAA- / . / / / ; >
v-v;Z^; ■••//:• th e i i r / o c a t i o h of^At h e y B a rp h itd ; / / ; ^
A v:A
•••'•'" / e x p e c t a .d e t a i l e d ; and c o n n e c te d d e s c r i p t i o n f rom Asu c h
AA-A A:>
; / A hym ns. A It; : i s / i h d e e d ; o u r . l u c i / A(thanks,Atd
A/A'
;AA.
AA-;'-;
A. A A
thAat some d e t a i l s o f th e %r;AhappenAto,Abe; repprdedAAandy;.,/
/ . p r e s e r v e d i n / t h e A l^ e d a SaiMiita.
A; /
A;A,
/
/
The account:.: o f t h i s war
wh ic h isA th u s a v a i l a b l e i n ' fragment's'- o n ly shows t h a t ASudas
. a c h ie v e d v i c t o r y o v e r t h e AA ll i e s , who were, m is e r a b l y d e - :
A
:s ■'AAA - /; f e a t e d .
A > / •
/ a
The m ost impox^t a n t e v e n t •
/;
T
//.-: /
w o rth y o f -note . i s
t h a t t h e AAllies t r i e d to overborne Sudas;A?s/^
.;
/: Aa b re a c h i n t h e . dam o f t h e i & V i o r b y / s qmeAAdev i c e , b u t
;
Z A/ ; . A A/ \ theyA w ere th e n ise lv e s e i t h e r k i l l e d o r c a r r i e d away by t h e
/
A
/. /
■A y AA/A / /A w a t e r s . / '.W e s h a l l h e r e re p ro d u c e the;.. r e l e v a n t s t a n z a s of. ■/'./-.
A / / / / / / / I ^ T / f e a d ;A
:s p e c i a l l y ;Ht y i J , / 1 8 /.. l y / Bk V I I ,
/ :/; A A
;
\ ( § ) - ;IBbap
m in o r e v e n ^
A;A
8 5 , 1 a n d A8 / ,/./ ;v///A:A ,y
' ' A / ' ' ZA/AAA'A//. Ax :/' ’ • a
the'hymn (He V II, 18) - d e sc r ib in g th e "War proper in Dr.L. D.
(*)
1
B a r n e tt’s t r a n s la t io n : -
8 . ’’E v il o f purpose, s e n s e le s s , se e k in g to dry up h oly
I^arushni, th ey p ie r c e d her*
Be, h o ld in g ea rth in lo r d sh ip
by h is m igh t, encompassed i t ; , he who deemed h im s e lf a sage
la y p r o s tr a te ( l i k e ) a b e a s t s
9* Hiey went as to a g o a l to d e s tr u c tio n , to Parushni
not even th e s w if t returned hpme.
3hdra gave over to
Sudas th e s w i f t l y f l e e i n g fo e s unmanly o f speech among
mankind *
1 1 . Hie k in g who from d e s ir e o f fame s c a tte r e d tw enty‘
t y
_
\
one p e o p le s o f th e two Vaika3jjas (was ^udas ); v a lia n t ladra
caused'them to ,b e swept away,, as a .cu n n in g ( p r ie s t ) cu ts ■
• up th e sacred g ra ss in the se a t (o f s a c r i f i c e ) .
IS . Then th e famed a n cien t -Kayasha' and next t h e . Druhyu
d id s t th o u , 0 w ie ld e r o f th e th u n d erb o lt, h u r l down in to
th e w a te r s .
Hie re th ey who *e x u lt e d ; in fo llo w in g t lie e ,
see k in g th e e , claim ed fr ie n d sh ip fo r f r ie n d s h ip *11
C**)
p r iv a t e 1 communication. Hie sta n z a s .r e a d as fo llo w s
8 duradhyo aditnm srevayan to ’chet.aso v i jagrbhre
Parushnim, mahn&vivyak p r ith iv im patyainanah pasush ICavir
’ asayach chayamanah.
9 ly u r arth'am na nyartham Parushnim asus' chaned abhipitvam
jagarna, Sudasa Indrah sutukan am itfan arandhayan manushe
vadhrivachSh.
■ 11 elcarii cha .yo*vih satim cha ^ravasya Vaikarnayor janan r a ja
\ ny a s ta h , dasmo na sadm an.ni d iS a t i barhih surah sargam
akrnod^ Indra esham.
■ ■ \
*
IS adha Jrutam* Kavasliam #rddham apsv <fcnu Bruhyum h i vrnag
vajrabahuh’J yrnana a tr a sakhyaya sakhyam tvayanto ye
amadann anu tvt".
/ -V,/ 1
-:r e s u ito fV th fs h % r A b f p t ^
; e s t a b lis h e d •h- i t i sel f ;’f r
e
g
:Shdas :
i o
n
,
v;v
o f - th e . SarasyatiV,:.;:^
:• , 1h a u d f p e r h a p ^ - t h e ' ’import ant
■
:■ .v. r; t h e ;p o w erfu l > Ihrus, were brought Sunder ;his; .hegemony, if.
- ' -b illy fo r a t ime* i: Before we,’probeed
g iv e a fu r t h e r
''^account: -o f th e t r ib e or t r ib e s th a t came. i n t 0 prominenoe
i
I • f-in the' ’S a p ta ;Sindhu, we; have one iiiipbrtant q.uestion to
;;f./c ^ahswer,hi ;' ^ ; h
a
s
h ^ i;6h :.havb theen;
/ > ■t h e Te i f ; fcingsVtbbyi^
. 1 enetiiesv w ho^all^
/
v
v
i
th e Vas is h tlia s fo r
■
o f ob'ntempt fo r Sudas ’ s; •:. ;
and D asas,, but.
• which are s im ila r to th o se u s u a lly a p p lie d to rion-i\ryans;
Hiis.^oget!her;>::%lth^ th e f a c t th a t th e r s h i s , in c lu d in g 1
1
even; th o se ; o f th e Vas ish th a . fa m ily , l a t e r ;;a s s o c i a t e 'th e
f.-r- ^ u ru s^ e t c . , a l s o w ith Xiidra: and o th e r - Vedic go d s , has
j1- ^ >indueodj..XiQi'i*Buh.aduf BamdpfasacL-1 Ghanda ■ ,toV- conclude
;!;•
h■
1 ) - th a t in th e e a r ly ^
;. 1
^ l;: ;> •;
ages the;'war! o f o
v ■■waged by :a homo geneous . body :o f rsh i s , ' whom he c a l l s Brahmans
v; lyiahd;-^i&yan w o rsh ip p ers.,o f liid ra e t c , a g a in s t :I h d r a -le s s ■ 1 .
1,
ria.tives o f th e Indus "Valley-::was;nbw a t h i n g o f Ith e f o r -
;Quch as ayajyavah 1s a c r i f i c e - l e s s ! and; aiiindrah ’Ihdral e s s 1.
'.1 .
v ■•
^ -.1/ 1
-■
'■ '
j) A .S . I . Ifemblr No 41 (1989) pp 3 f f .
/
^
3) -th a t th e r e l i g i o n o f th e s e in v a d in g Brahman r s h i s .
’'!*i3 'v■- . v ^ whs : gradually/ accepted; i> ylih e icin gs and; th e p eo p le , o f •th e ;,’1 :; A;A
;aa-1
d e c lln e , and
1 ■1 '
: .. 1 As; ^. 111.,-. ..Alt.:'.'"1\ a'1 l ;l
; ;; .\
1 . 1 / I I /I - /
■/^hatr th e ; ^ g v ed ic j anas l i k e H iarata , I d r n e t c . f a
1lA il!
Wlioiii.^ heA oalls; A kshatriyasiA ^
In d u a A lh lley (i . e . O h a lc o lith ic ) p o p u l a t i o n V . :; .
•:A -- f / h b st ■p f h i s - hypo th e s ih ^
th u s
I ,
v i 1 1 A- >; i l l - 1
■' ,
vown words I l l ' l l
111 1 / / - I - I f f i - l l l s l 1-1-- .1 ; • -1 ; - I v l V v ^ l ' 1 ' l
;1 A l i i - l li ; i l ■■:;■; ;i-0n;;the 'eve o f th e .Aryan iB m igrat io n th e Indus V a lley
. ■,
was .in p o s s e s s io n o f a d i y i l i z e d and w a rlik e -p eo p le .1 The :1;11
,- ’
\ A ryans, mainly: represphiedA-hy::';thev;'Bishi.!.;Clanis 1 c a i t e
a.'': /I
' .
f 1 ; s l l f ; "peek t h e i r fo r tune i n : sm all numbers more or l e s s as m is s io n - /
a r ie s Aof .t h e 'c u lt s o
V aru h al h ^ i ;ah(iv
naturean& v S e t t le d j i n : p eaceiu n d er the; p r o te c tio n o f - t h e l
V I
n at iv e ru1e rs •who re ad i l y ..appre c ia t e d t h e i r ‘g rea t m erit 1
as s o r c e r e r s and employed. them to. se c u r e 1 th e a s s is t a n c e
o f ;, th e sAryanv .-godsla^^
• ;.
human ;and- noh^humanv e n e m ie s"as
i;b> 1a 1 1 1 :ib y Ao f f e r in g lsa crificesA W ^
. ■'■ Bow, :1 1 "
i f •th e liyiims o f th e Rigveda en ab le u s to n 'ecq n stru ct th e
v a a:a1;1; A
: •
■
p r o t o - h is t o r y o f th e Indus V a lley in t h i s way, th e r e l i c s , . 1 v
'1A 'lll 1 ;-; 1 1 ; o f aah s'advanced p r e - h i s t o r ic c i v i l i z a t ion .unearthed a t 1
A:'Va1 ;1
. 1 ,:
:1 .Harappa; o n th e s;33av i and Lbhenjo-daro in ASind ;warrant.’A u s lih l
ta k in g a fu r th e r s te p an d rr e c o g n is in g iiilfcftei
■ a v 'kh.0 .. Hiax^atas., iTirus, l ^ d u s , A^Olirvasas, ih iu s,' Bruhyus and
a..
o th e r s c e le b r a te d . in th e Rigveda the: r e p r e s e n ta t iv e s o f -
A ' th e . ru lin g' c la s s o f indigenous: c h a lc o iit h ic . popiu lation . ”
- AAA': l r
IheA hypothe s i s ,/• a s i t wi l l b e ..seenAfromAhis"- Memoir ,AA:-AI'VAy
>AA-AAA\ApiA'ih: based mainly Aon,.; the: assumpt i o n t h a ^
existedA a - .
AAA1
A AAA: c a s t e-system ^'through 6utA th e /period r e p r e s e n te d . by. the;' A ; - A; • A
AAA:-A;.AAA
• A^gveda and t h e ;d i v e r s i t y o f c a s te s was due to fundamental : A' A
c u l t u r a l d if f e r e n c e s between the Aryan r i s h i s , i . e .
A;. /A-' AAA AA^iA^ahmanslAon^.theA one Ahand ar^Ath
\ AA : A AAA
Athe ;c ia s;se s, AAA>;A AAA
;. c a s t e s according' to; thb A & ilB ^ a d p i sAoh; th e Ao th er ..A B it: AAa' '"A'--’
■AvaVAAAaa^-AA-AAAAafirstlyA .A :i herc;;-is:A hb'-evidence'in th e Rgveda which can
AA A - a '"A; a,AA Pr °y,e :thdtA:thepe;;:whs A c^ teA at
AAA’ AAA
;.:AA:seh‘s ; ^
-'date in t h e ; ;AA
AA-iho As o lita r y ; Bient
c a s te
A;
IA a.aaAaA:!/' AAin one. ^passage A'A^:A:Whiph;ia|yyeryAiatdAlhA;da^
:AA;/'A-A:AA" AAlAisupporty-:theA,hy;p6i^
:'AA,' .; 'A .
-/-A
AA;A.A
. show eise v /h e r e , tlie d iviaib h h A 'p fc^ a^ ^
A:a..;'AAaa V-" a >wero .s b c ia i A b n d .,yb ^ ^ ion a^
A; A
based Aon c a s t e , 1 ..e.
Aaa;Aa AAAAAA-A;/oh Afellg io u s/A sep t o
AAA; A
v / Ato become so . A E veii;in e p i c / 1imes in s ta n c e s o f p assage •.
AA;.aA";'.Aa
Aly
;;
f r o m ; o h e A c a s te ; A t o y a n o ih e r o ^ c ^
;AAA.'x f AAculthrahAiifierehceqy.'betweehA.^
AAaA AA: A':./AA;A thatA does:,-notA prpyeA tl^
A'AA' a;
d i f f e r e n t ' r a c e s . A The -
: AaVAAA A'AAAA^Ider::hvesta;A (and "perhaps ABogha^Koi ) shows t h e ifgvedic
A-AA;,A;A.;;
;Ap;*A.:S5,.A; fA-AAA/AvA'! A.V;A-AaAaaAaIAvAAA-A;^-^;"-IaV'^
A.Aa;A"'AA'-A' AAA-.- '
A*A ,: ’’ Aa AA A (§1 a^Bg v e d a jA -BkAX,;-'; 9b ';A -l£l.;\ . - i ^
- t h e '■who I p A; a
a ■; . : V. A . ■hyiiin b e i n g ; c o m p a r a t i v e l y m o d e r n , and i t i s .q u i t e p o s s i b i d /
A A, A
■"t h u t t h e p ^
q u e s t i o n mhy / b e a n A i n t e r p o l a i i p n m ade
'A A/-. A/"- ' A. - -AA. in th e hyimi a t s t i l l a l a t e r a g e .
a
:.•••. A. .A- A A , / AA;-.:;v>:,.: a / ' •'A aA 'A ;
A'AA;
r e li g i o n AandAI^
/\
tqAbbAihireiy /iryah ,
no; non-/Aiyan in flu e n c e s ,. w hich/w ould ce r t a i n ly have re v e a le d
.• / .A
th em selv es i f th e ARgveda had been composed in a non-Aryan A, -A
gAAa"/VA;A/sqqietyA fb rA theA aeryice qf^hqh-^yahs.AA'^
/A:y;rA.imp.q^
i t is
th er e i s v e r y / l i t t l e ^ t r a c e A o f Apref ' AA
A:/AA'/AA'/: ir y a n c u ltu r e in t h e . rgvedaj, ex c ep t/ fo r a few vague r e f e r V:;l’/AA/vA;;A/AenbAe'sAA.;:.^
A
•
■ 'A
ArioseA;contactA^etweep/the^A/.V’A■
rsh i s and th e noil- j\ry a n s «A i A H i i r d ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ :a;vtheofy/were /: A
-/ :A'AAA;, .a cc ep ted , / we must suppose th a t th e Rgveda'.would have been A '
understood by the non-Aryans, which i s d i f f i c u l t to'Vheco^oiie'
/. wi t h t lie we 11 -known f a c t • th a t the language o f- t h e 'AVeda i s / A.
S a n sk rit , ;whibhA.is;: o f /-lindp^lhirqpeah o r ig in /h h d /does :n^
A';V/AA A;/ / b elo n g Ato / nnyA o f Ath e / non- iry a h p f a ttilib s/ ;bf ;/s.ftdech AknownAAA-; --/AA.A;
/; /
/•
; Ato :haye beehA ihA use;in, l M i a :; M
iU'yahs k
the A-AA"
A"; .AA':/';//A:'A// •' A; ' -AAA ■'\AAAAlA'Aa ^A'A A; -A AA'
-A, A ' V-'-AA A/''A'' u
y'AlAV. AaVAA/ AA A & ight ly //d if£ e r e n t:/n r e :/f%.b yiewsAadv
A-;
AA A A'
..
p l a t e r A//’, j,
.and Parg i t e r , Awhich may in c i dent a l l y Abe m entioned h ere i
Iii th e o p in io n o f the former:
■A'Aa ;AAv'A 'helioiithiC ' cul^urey was vinthod^
th e re was an ;age when AA V 'A;
:'^ y ^ t:VAAAA;A
) Hie Drav id ia n Element .1s AHidian ’ C u ltu re, ALondon 19 34,
.,.. A
Chapters I and. I I and pp 157 f f . . A';'/. .; - A
: -• ••-: ;AA•. A • / a
‘A H e iio lit h ic cu ltu re; i s s a i d , t o ; h a v e s p r e a d o ver Xndones ia
•and elsew h e re; i t s s p e c ia l fe a tu r e s b ein g divine^AdesbentAqfAAA/;/
A ,/'.fillers and worship o f th e sun and th e s e r p e n t./ ; •'/ -' :aAaAaAA-.A'rAA
The b r i n g e r s o f t h i s c u l t u r e "m ingled t h e i r b lo o d w ith
th e Dr&vidians i n I n d i a , and th e r e s u l t was th e Brahman
c a s t e " , w h ic h ,.o n t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e A ryans, a d o p te d
t h e i r " a l l e g e d l y e a s i e r " la n g u ag e S a n s k r i t and t h e r e b y
became r s h i s o f Vedic hymns and th e l e a d e r s ...of, th e A ry a n s.
■This t h e o r y ' o f th e E g y p to -D ra v id ia n o r i g i n o f . Brahmans i s
w h o lly p r o b l e m a t i c a l and c o n t r a r y to a l l In d ia n t r a d i t i o n .
.T h e r s h i s o f . t h e Bgveda ( i t i s v/rong to . c a l l them
Brahmans) were Aryan p a r e x c e l le n c e both: i n blood and
c u l t u r e , and t h e r e i s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n w h a te v e r f o r d i s ­
c o u n tin g . th e j u s t c la im o f t h e i r d e s c e n d a n ts t o Aryan
•
(*)
c o n n e c tio n .
The same a p p l i e s t o t h e t h e o r y o f P a r g i t e r ,
w hich,' though b ased - o n ' t r a d i t i o n p r e s e r v e d i n th e E p ics
and P u r a n a s , i s c o n t r a r y t o i t s - s p i r i t - and: a l s o to t h a t
o f Vedic t r a d i t i o n , : .:He s a y s - t h a t ;in t h e vWar o f Ten Kings
Sudas, an Arya ( A i l a ) : k i n g , and h i s : A i l a o p p o n en ts were
a l l l e d by t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e Brahmans.
(§)
* These Brahmans,
i t i s a l l e g e d , were: o r i g i n a l l y c o n n e c te d w ith th e nonAryan p e o p le (Manavas o r B r a v i d i a n s ) and were now
e s t a b l i s h e d among t h e A lia s ,• •l ; e !;,:::Ary.ans;.i/^who were l a t e r
(y 7~~Anoie n t had ia n His to r ic a l Trad i t i o h , Oha p t e r s xxv and
xxvTT~''~
:
:
.
(§ The u s e o f t h e word Brahman f o r r s h i i s a l t o g e t h e r
'm i s l e a d i n g . There i s n o t a shadow o f e v id e n c e t h a t th e
r s h i s o f th e iUSgveda were ?a: Brahman c a s t e o f t h e i r own.
,
i ^
n o r t h e r n ' 3 h d ia .
As; a l r e s u l t o f
V;; h/.V /T; • t h i s o o n ta c t ;t h e Aryans; w e re ,' i n course. o f tirne ,•
S ^ il'lllfc a h m d n ia e d ib o th l^ ^
.1 ’if-1 :
. .•
’v;.;!!; :
t h a t , t h e most
;.
' n.hc i e n t ; (kianava ) k in g s and t h e i r r s h i s o r Bj;ahmans t o
whom th e hymns o f . t h e Rgveda a re ' a t t r i b u t e d > w ere} n o t f ^
; . .; ; .-V..
^ A r y a n i^
; i l ht ; , ;
i s p a l p a b l y a r t i f i c i a l and .im probable.,
=.v
l ; B a r g i t e r l s l a t t e m p f t & e ^ a t e t ^ l a c w i t h ' A f y a is:,moonshineV
"
Vh i - /
d liis p h p h e tld equat& on:
^
Vv
- rAid a .
Ar ya l wi 1 1 : n o t;. , :■: ■ - '.I',■.;
s t a n d i . " The‘-'language: and r e l i g i d n o f t h e Jfgyeda a r e ,
,
;asvr n i u c h l s d f i r l t h e
■
';■'■■• : • .1 : r s h i s '.as iii th e r e s t . ••/
1:V.;:
I.
'1;/'
■
■
This i s a d ig r e s s ion;no ^4oubt\.;buf -a^hecesSany
. im portant one fo r th e e a r ly h is io r y >of the.; Pan ja b i 7• Tfe:
. ..■■
.; >
,
s e e th a t When s ch o la rs a t tempt t o e x p la in th e r a c i a l
v■
<
' /; .1. ’
;; -
"/ fusi on. •pf;l l ^ayi di hhs or^.any;f o f e ig n e f s - w i t h . t h e : : A r y a n s ...>
; ' o f ; ,t h e Pah j a b v ( l i e , rigv ed i ci; Aryans ), o r t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e
I
* amount o f a l i e n i n f l u e n c e on the..•Sdpta.i'SiMhu:,' p
;';V-
; as r e v e a l e d :i n th e Hgveda, th e y a re . m o s tly .i n t h e r e g i o n
1;. /
/■-7l : b f p o n j e c i m r b v ,: & the. o t h e r ^ h a h d , l w e i ^ i h g . ^
r;:
,;hv;7: c o n s id e r a t io n s ; p o in ted out in th e .;a b o v e ic r itiM sm , • i t 777i-.i;'.
;i v
.'
: l; : : may be n e g a r d e d as p ien b ain t h a t t h b I r s h l S o f t h e ffgveda 7 7
■1''l l '7;; •:';;7v. h
a r e : n o |o t h e r ; i ; h a n l ^ y a h ; . and:.ore; d e a l i n g i n t h e i r hymns ■V.^ 1 ;
1 v: w r t h / . . . . w i t h t h e i r k i n d r e d and common .c u l t u r e .
. In ho c a se t h e s e
o f-th eirlo w n l'l;th ro u g h o u t,;- ... 1,
.-.V-l v h I ;
t h e r ^ e d a vthey^^;7a r e '-f ouhd‘/.as7’'.the'- men who "mixed and
.i : : ‘
: V- y
- r
' S
y
w ith ^
p e o p le ,;
y :-!
;. . ; ; - f o u g h t . t h e ' v;ars o f th e p eop le , and were o f th e p e o p le ^ ,
■y-:'•::■/■
... • y
^
;o;,:-yfyS<]
■preYio'u^/;sublect''J;o f,.th e ''tr ih e e ^ : yyi"
f a t e o f th e Trt sii~ .Biaf at a s , who .hacl;,b e come the; y ’y-yy;-
'-most p ro m in en t;ih th e. days o f Shdas•
. y ....•/-
In f a c t , i t i s , y
alm ost a r id d le to .sch olars p f ;h is t o r y t o - d iv in e what
6
.. th e :Pahcha-j ahaii and th e Bharat as. in S apta;yy-'y y. y.
y y S i n d h u .
a f t e r th e War o f ,lleh K in g s/
Hardly any h elp i s .,
v yy:y : iy 1;: ; ^ v en ':h y < th e rgvedai. or any o th er e a r ly Vedic sourceV
• '•
■-
; \y ;
.
' H ow ever,. as we p as s on to th e c lo s e o f tlie- tfgvedie ages,v
-, > ^ ich ;;ro u g h ly speakingybdme'dowh^
i t is
y
.y-yyyV
yyy^yy,:' yyy 1 found th a t some; of. th e ■powei^fuI^Aryah t r i h ^ s , e s p e c i a l l y y
yy
; th o se 1 iv in g in th e S a v a sv a ti r e g io n , had advanced to?/ards
■;-;-'V'yy.y y ^ y '' th e e a s t o f th e 'j u r a n a t h e i ( & n g e t i c >&11^
y y y y ' . no lo n g e r /o o h fiih e d -to \the .^Sapta . Sindhnv y y y .■’ - V . y y ' y , yy
yyy
yy
y; •
yy
;
■yy 7 -
.
;-y f h e
m ost yfamoUsyofyfhem w^
th e K u ru s,,
w ho,. a cco rd in g to T ed ic and oth er e v id e n c e , were a ls o
y y y ;yy y y y H ( *T Tnes e yem ig r a t in g vAryans . i n th e ir } e a s t ward pro gres s , y
y V;:{yyy''v’:. which
as i s shown by " y .
.•• y. .• •'.yyy •
some ;®gyedic p a s s a g e s , th e d is t a n t banks o f • th e Jumna
■
ahd th e Gange s , had ;b e e n . exp lored b y , e n t e r p r is in g A r y a n s ) '
,.; ;
:• were probably in sm all numbers, as compared, w ith th o se y
^••y y , y y
th a t en tered th e Panjab-. I h l s i s supported by. th e d i s - •
y v y y y y ^ ; ^ ; p r o p o r t i o n a t e - ' 3hxniber;;of the..form er to th e o ld p op u lation :
•y.y -. yy' -yy
o f t h e i r nev/ la n d . But however, few in .number, th ey were
, ;; \ , .: /able,v;th.fpugh 'iiheif^^^Brahman;prepeptbrs,,^tO: p la c e t h e i r
mark upon th e fu tu r e o f th e la n d , th e Ivhdhya-desa o f l a t e r nj
.
’■ t im e s , by in tr o d u c in g th e worship o f t h e i r . own; g o d s, by
f;.'■
hymns^:.$n&^ rituhls^^Vthe b a s i s ; o f r e l i g i p h , . and ;
3: ; :
f i n a l l y by a llb v /in g th e Bbahmans, as p atron s o f th e nev/
. ■;i
vV . form o f .h r y a n i s m t o e le v a t e th em selv es to a s a n e t it y but
: y-e 'r
y ^ l i t t i e removeds fromVthat^^ h f, ;D e ity . I h is ;s u b je c t is; b
y^yy,;
'• th e sco p e o f. t h i s t h e s i s , but so fa r as i t has a b ea rin g
, ;
y :
>yy yon th e h i s t o r y Of th e ’\Pahjab::inri t s ;l h t e r p e r io d s ,
y.vy. v. .y’-?. . s h a ll, touch, upon ityagaih;^^ih d e t a i l in Chapter V I.
"
Uninent Vedic sc h o la r s
{*■)
h old th a t a f t e r th e Tirfcsu-
. Bharatas and Purus who had once dominated a la r g e p art
o f th e Panjab, th e pow erful Kurus -emerged*
They fu sed
.w ith th e H iaratas and Purus and e s ta b lis h e d th em selves
as a g rea t power.' ‘ I t, i s argued th a t K u ru sravan ash ow n
■by h i s name to be connected w ith ’ th e Kurus, i s in th e
(§).
rtgveda c a l l e d j Trasadasyava, ■ a patronym ic a f t e r Purukutsa’s
son Trasadasyu.
It i s l i k e l y th a t th e T rtsu -H ia ra ta s,
who appear in the Sfgveda as enem ies o f th e Purus, l a t e r
- merged in .them to form th e Burus..
This c o n c lu s io n , i t
. i s , a d d e d , s e e m s ,in e v it a b le , s in c e th e Bharatas appear
, p rom in en tly In e a r li e r "Vedic t e x t s , w h ile most o f th e
/ l a t e r Vedic' and a l l non-Vedic works ig n o re them in-t h e i r . l i s t -of p eo p les* 1 Moreover, th e Kurus are l a t e r
found in h a b itin g th e same t e r r it o r y a s .t h a t occu p ied by
t h e 'T rtsu -H ia ra ta s as w e ll as the. Purus.
Mere than t h i s
about th e o r ig in o f th e kurus'we can say but l i t t l e .
■
Put
th a t l i t t l e , - which I s m ainly based on' th e name. ’Kuru* in
Kurusravana, i s s u f f i c i e n t to prove th a t the'nam e i s one , '
-of g rea t im portance.
I t seems prob able th a t’ o r ig i n a ll y
th e name ’!kuru*, l i k e Yadu, Puru e t c , d esig n a ted , a
FH Oldenberg, Biddha* h i s l i f e , h is d o c tr in e , h is Order,
- T ran slated from German by W illiam Hoey 1888, pp 4 0 3 -4 ;
4 0 6 -9 . Macdonell and K eith in Vedi c in dex, Vol I . pp 165 f f
(§) Be V, 3 3 ,4 ; 3g # 9.
s e p a r a t r i b e ,:: whi ch r o s e / t d -co n siS era b le :y ^ '■
:
/,
>:.5
•/ .
a time; in the, e a s t o f th e Sapta Sindhii.
\v_;V
^rptv whsit labtu& l-p^
t r ib e ...first; >i/-® '
;erdigrat e d . i s a gu esti'oh s t i l l in v o lv e d in o b s c u r ity .
‘i f e : ?.y l Thefp a ss age
;
/ . /;
*In/;whieh ; th e ; v ..;•■ /-1;
u ttara-K u ru s a n d u ttara-M ad ras are m entioned as l i v i n g
v;- ' ; > , \ X v v h i 11s (p arena H/ma-vantam), may. show /th a t th e . 1 ;>,
.b-;///;
•.
v:
, .e a r li e r s e ttle m e n ts o f the( Kurus l a y beyond the/-low er
h ills
1
; //''
(S iw a lik s) o f th e Himalaya, from vdiich''they''■
1
'/;/: .. / descended southward- a t some in d eterm in a te p e r io d .
/
/';’
P o s s ib ly th e name o f th e f e r t i l e v a l l e y o f KLila,;the’'-■/■
/I ": ■
.
/ ; :v ' 1 ; home o f the. anc ie n t id ifu td or; Kututa .t r ib e , in our
a.//;
n p rth yeast^
/ I;
o f i h e Himalayan; cou n try 'm ay/.preserve:; ■
/ / . / a ' i ; ••/. V .'.i- ;-;a^’t -rabe:/o i Ith ib -b lb ; ^ r tt-c o lb h y . ■/ l / l ' '
,; v
'
•• / ; /
.■;/ /
Of t h e ;p o l i t i c a l ;h istb ry^ 6f
./.. a
1 ,0 0 0
B. C♦; we have no in form ation from flgvedic hymns, e x c e p t- .
in g one or two is o l a ted name s .,
;
lie i th e r do - th e se hymns
h elp us .in any way to knovr th e p o l i t i c a l c o n d itio n
1;;/v >; I///'-//-/ ;
, ..
' ■, f /' 1
o b ta in in g th en ./in /,th e" 'rest/ o f - Sapta S in d h u ,; Moreover
- l
'■/I-/'yi^ i ' t ' t i ' © ;t.lial;/.>isic'ii'owii'': from l a t e r Vedi^ 1 Ite r a tu r e in
.
a y i - - regard t o ;th a t couxltry i s o f no iiia t e r ia l.h e lp for; th e - -;,./
/.I r/'//':•/. //. e a r ly periods'; fo r :th e mos^t\-part; it"-r^
th e tim es // l
1T111 ^ 1 4 ; 3 , Se'eV:b ;e;l^
/■/; / l a a - '■ ha; ■^/h/a
■ ^^)ilh:i sr S u g g e stio n is;vbniy ahbaie;;p o s s &
„ I / Y; Vhpt hbe:! re je c te d : but/-O f/haM ;
i s f e a s i b l e ’. .
a ll
. Ihe a lt e r a
o f 1 / fo r r, seem s. to have ;beeh c h a r a c t e r - ; a
hal/h- h a a a .a a .;'/isfib h b f" ‘One;/or'morehP&i&achi d i a le c t s ; (See P i s c h e l ■'yah h ■■
f/v -1:•. I v / i i :■■;i -1:■/- ^rainmatife^^:der^- ^ a k r i t - ^ r a c h e h ^/§ 856:) ,• •and: th e a f f i x v 1 '
/
' ''/ ; > ; —ta is . bommon in P r a k r it proper najnes. :
; -1/''";;;1'/ ^
^
rep resen ted by v a r io u s Vedic t e x t s which are l a t e r than
1 ,0 0 0 B.C.
I b r t u n a te ly , however, we p o s s e s s rem in iscen ces
(nothing more than t h a t ) o f c e r ta in names and ev en ts con­
n ected w ith th e fe d e r a te d Puru-Kuxnx p eo p le in l a t e r
- tr a d itio n .
These are b e st p reserved in th e . Great E pic,
th e Mahabharata, in which th e c h ie f in t e r e s t c e n tr e s
round th e war between th e Aryan ICurus (or Kauravas ) and
a c la n c l o s e l y r e la t e d to them, c a lle d Pandus (or
Pandavas).
This war i s b e tte r known as th e B iarata War.
(*) .
th e name again in d ic a t in g the co n n ectio n o f the Kurus
-
w ith th e .a n c ie n t B haratas. 1
Hit th e feh a b h arata, i t must be n oted , i s .not an
e p ic w ith a s in g le subj e c t or by a s i n g l e •a u th o r.
It
c o n s i s t s , i n i t s p r e se n t .form o f on e'h u n d red 'th ou
^ lo k a s , V e r s e s 1 d iv id e d in to e ig h te e n le n g th y pa r v a s ,
’Books. 1
Of t h i s on ly a .^ fifth p art vis concerned w ith the
main sto i'y o f th e War , togeth er- w ith some account o f th e
■ a n c e sto r s o f th e major h eroes takingv parti in it-; th e r e s t
i s in te r s p e r s e d with- innumerable: d i g r e s s i o n s : e p i s o d e s ,
( §)
t r e a t i s e s on governm ent, m o r a ls, p h ilosop h y and .theology*
PT"Hot n ecessa ri3 .y as descendant's o f Bharata or th e
B haratas, as generally* undeI’sto o d .
(§) A ll th e s e d ig r e s s io n s , added to th e s to r y are o f g re a t ■
v a lu e . Ibr i f i t be th e fu n c tio n o f h is t o r y to r e v e a l \
to us a lo n g w ith p o l i t i c a l c o n d itio n s th e c u lt u r a l l i f e
■of e a r l i e r days and make us acq u ainted w ith th o u g h ts,
id e a ls and a s p ir a tio n s o f form er.g e n e r a tio n s , th en th e
Mahabharata i s a s o lid c o n tr ib u tio n to h i s t o r i c a l
l i t e r a t u r e . But our d i f f i c u l t y i s th a t th e E p i c , i n i t s
p r e se n t form, h aving been thoroughly and fr e q u e n tly
r e c a s t o u ts id e th e Panjab, does not re p r esen t th e epoch
w ith which we are d e a lin g or even th e r e a l c u ltu i’e o f
th a t cou n try.
‘
v-i. .
, ■.
t o s t l s p h o ia r s h ^
1
; ';
:='
'.
has p assed through :
s e v e r a l s ta g e s o f c o n s t m c t io n a n d .r e o o ix str u c t io n a t
.>
d ifferen t-:^
■' / . ! h ! : .
d ifferen t \e d ito r ^
. 1'
l i k e t h a t . o f t h e o r i g i n a l ’; a u t h o r , h a v e . . r i p t . ‘- ; ; h p _ e n - _ . . p r e s e ^ r v j s d
;: : V - / / a n d t h a t a s s u c h i t c a n n o t - b p ; r e g a r d e d ; a s r e p r e s e n t i n g . .
; ■■ ■ ! i I t h e o r i g i i i a l -form o £■' th e
v
Ep i c s to r y • - :.;! Bti1 i t h a s, h e eh 1
phseCTediV/thah;:in th e lp r o e e s s of. t h i s deveiopnient t h e . ,.!
2 h r o u g h /e d g e s o f /t h e o ld .BiaTata poern,- \ ^ i c h : niust be dated
;
'f h!///: b efo r e t h e ; fo u rth ce n tu r y B. 0 h, ;hvhatever be i t s o r i g i n a l ;'
. / -v;t:.’ :rbackground;yvh
i
'
. and .everyv/'here been p o lish e d 'h t l -
..f.;./ 1:;/-;'-''
.e■/.on-: th e o f igin^and developm ent/ o f th e Mahabharata-.;!'
t ; ! ' f y -E. W*--:.^plcins1i'j-The : G reat: Epic of- I n d ia , 1901, Chapter vI lv e ,V- "
: t; pp 3 6 5 -8 5 . Elsew here in it h is book (pp 5 9 7 -9 8 ) th e author .!.■
1
has s t a t e d ;thafhthe: Mah^
, h w in g / to th e s e
a d d it io n s , a s p e c i a l l y relig ib u sp ro p a g a n d a v w o rk by 400 •'/
;V, ',gV:
A:*1
. ’ 7.::-I: C / i ' * ; -r-'l'.
3
^
y / h■!;! : •' : 'V;-- ;t '.; •■7.;!' -..7 ; ■vh ■
O '^ h l l O i ©
. ; .yHret ->.€L07©V; ^Vpid.'
t i l l © ; ;-■' .
• • 7 7 !
■
1 7 / y •,; Mahabhaf a t a i t s e l f ! ( M i p a f v a )(vthat:th e ■Epicpwas r e c it e d ’ oh .
th r e e d iffe r e n t: o c c a sio n s
Hie l a s t r e c i t e r , S a iit i,. t e l l s
!'/ /■! ;
;;:'us:', ( l ) th a t th ejB h arata ;ipoem a t f i r s t h ad o n ly . 8 ,8 0 0 .r
■
7!
: slo k a s. ;composed by Rshi;VKhshna.■:Dvaipayana Vyasa. (T h is, •
■ '
7 ,7 ; 7 ! .however^ i s no; ad iiiission on our p a r t ; t h a t . th e poem was h is
.
^ ; h - h ; V compos i t i o n ) ; ( S ) th a t a number ,o f upakhyanas rep i ’s o d es t; 7 7 7
/.7 ..
were a f t e i ’wax’ds added to i t by a p u p il, o f T y a sa , named !
^v^iham payana, vmaking
up to S 4 , 000 s lo k a s ; and ■
(5 )>^thatr^he;poem h a d ,i t s th ir d r e c e n s io n a t th e r e c i t a l , - ’;
!'!'.v' - I ^ . r t a d e J>y^^,him,;,V/%iether;,:o r /:hO'' th is - tr a d itio n ,r e c o r d e d , in
; ■ \ ! ;! ;th e Ad.iparvai i s to be h e lle v e d ,; we/may^/say t h a t t h e - ,
;h^S'-mk)re;:‘p ^ ''ib s s ^ h e h s to fy :- h f ! t h e :-war -and ' i; l -f "the v a rib u h la d d itib x is
a tta c h e d to_
; ■ . :.;':-.;it. f i n a l l y transform ed i t in to a :’G r ea th ^ a ra ta (Mahabharata):.
99 '
'••■■-/
) ' : 7 7 / / / / - / / / / / / / / / :/ / / / o Z / V / /
by th e l a t e r e d ito r s 7 ,; //Mich/of th e in te r p o la te d m a tte r ,;/;;
.
we . must iremekber , / i7/Q ni y ■io Tbe,^ fo u n d '-in /th e
(Adip a f va w ith / i t s / in t r o d u c t io n ) and th e /la s t Books
(S a n tip a rv a ,/ e t c . ) , to g e th e r 7with th e Bar ivam sa, :th a t
h eterp gen ep u s //supplement:; ih th r e e , 1 ^ ^ ® 7 ;^ b k s .
y7/\ 7
;/ .
. T0 .... - 7 7
t he s e ; may b e added /-the ;/Hiagavad g i t a: of/- Book VI {Hi ishmaparva') / and s im ila r e p iso d e s h ere and th e r e in o th er /
..•/./:7 Books o f tlie E p ic. :
7 7 : -7 7 7
.7/::/
; 777 7 :' 77'7: 7 / / / ;■/7 7
7 ' 77 777 -
-,
h r i g i h / b f ;th e/I& ru s: hhd 'Pandus ,7hs/vdescribed/ll h :v'-'/
7 f 7/I5/ th h re v is p d /M h te ^
uncioubtedlyZr^^
7 ol/towed^by/W
th e names-pf. t h e i r / 7 7 , 7:
7/7/'';/77-;/7 /'7 "^h9 p stprs./ 7 h tlhe//^geAeP f°s7 7 p n n d /-in , two/ p la c e s . o f / ^
,7,-/:-';;/7 .//../7 , Bdlfmuch /of /thls7jseem & /io; bp/ ih o o fr e
-;;
7 1 ; l i s t s a r e :n ot o n ly ^dlffereht-yand n iu tu ally .,in c o h siste h t7 y
7 :/ ! 7 /
/ . / V t ^ ^ t lie y cb h ta ih ^ i c t i t i p u s names and;are ’’m a n ife s tly ' 7
'
’ 1 '/ / ’ / 7:' co n fu sed " . .7 It i s indeed v ery /doxibtful i f /any r e li a n c e /■;
c a n ;be p la ced on tliem, hnd on th e l a t e r tr a d itio n / o f th e
!//Adiparva;: e sp e c ia liy > most/ /o f. whi c h l s b e y o n d doubt a imxcli
/7
7 ;7 7
//7
7
l a t e r /d n te rp o ia tib h ,- -no'^falthH pan/'he7repphed7/ */7-7. / / I '-7'
7 7 ; 7 'v\7 /-v.(^)--.vIa th e / n a r r a tiv e p a r t b f th e Mahabharata,.: ex eluding/ 77/
77:,/v7
7
/ 7^n^ f i . - i b n 7 7 7 ^ ^ e: .hfo glim pses o f s o c ie ty v ery 7 7 7
7 7 7 ; /;; / " d i f f e r e 111 from t h a t/ found;/: in th e fo u rth c e n t u ry ;B. 0. and
7--7-■■:7;7
- 7
< 7 7 lilievvOyliya.; S u tra ; ( I I l ,7 ) i o % vA svatayana, who i s /
1
*
gene r a l l y d ated n o t l a t e r th an th e /th ird '/century / B. 0 *,::
77/7:'^ v:".^?16^ / ^®/
an //earlier^^/receh sio n /o f the/,/E pic; here
■,-;////7/-'7vv;7;/;i
■:I h a r a ta /is;. m eh tio n ed /alo n g sid e .;a ;/3^7habharatav . / / :/■; / ; 7-"'
7 7 /. -7- (§). C hapter ic iy /j ybrsesySBQb^sfBO;7/Ghapter/ x c v , v e r s e s ,
■77 -'77 / ■/3764-89/,:;/The /e a rly p a r t o f / t h e /genealogy / is / a ls o given 7 y :
;7 /7 /-7 y ih 7 c h a p ^
V erses 3149-68. 7 7 / 77/ "-777 '' v7 -' 7 7 / /' ;:
* ^ 9.^ 7. ' ' ^ 7 ;:iv;
7^ .
/;,7.77 ■"■ ■;/:; 7 7 7 ’ 7 7 /
/ ‘:7 "
7‘
3h th e lo n g l i s t s o f t h e a n c e s to r s - e n u m e r a t e d ; in tiio 7/
7;77 7 / 7 7 /
Epic i s .found the- name 1K u ru 1 a s an a n c i e n t k in g i n th e / : 7
7777'/; //77;/77.7y./-fehu^
.-/yYhyati/^Y^
y7Z’ ..
■ i s : / h t t r i h u t e d / t h e :.
f o u n d a tio n ,o f th e/ P u r u - i l i r U / t il h e > / /As p o i n t e d ou t above,.
7/7* ; ;-7; :
/
- t h i s Epic .c o n n e c tio n , o f i\hhu.sha-Yay a t i v / i t h ;t h e f i v e
w7 7 ;7:7^77/Sgvedic/
;
t r i b e s •- th e Yadus , / T h rv a s h s , P u i u s , Druhyus and;
/ 7 7;/:/7;7 /Anus 7 / i o ; v e r y ; d o u b t f u l i /
Tliere i s l i t t l e r e a s o n t o
.
:/ .
b e l i e v e t h a t Kuxru, i i k p y ^ ^ x o t c ^ 7/was7a/:: r e a - ^
i s .a g a in o n ly a h 7 e p o n ^
7.7
Of thezTKurusb;
P ro b a b ly t h e l a t e r e d i t o r s : o f th e M a h a b h a ra ta , as w e l l
*
7
a s t h e P a u f a n i k a s o n t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s ^ ■/ t h e / Sutas/, ;/ 7 7 7 / ■/
/>..;. / -
• a f t e r . Kuru and o t h e r anc e s t o r s h a d . be en in v e n t e d , h i t c h e d
them 011 to th e legen d ary Yky a t i/a s7 h is7 d e S c e n d a n t^ ^ ^
; 7 7 !-
/ 7 vo-s t o /c a r r y th e t r i b e ’s a n cestry ' back- to /the o ld h eroes
//■/7777777777
B&huslia and. Y a y a ti./' -L ik ew ise, th e /tr ib e s of/ th e Panjab, /
7 y 7 /7 :;/
/!
;/'/;. ;,;z :,
such as th p /M d r a s , Kaikeyas ,/ S a u v i ^
Yaudhey as/, Gandharas, e t c . , who. d id n ot come, in to e x i s t -
7 7 ;:7 7 7/77-: 7/7 ence/ t i l l / l a t e r 7 t
■;'/yy7 • ■
. , ..
7
7
.
a 7 War,, are st.afed /i n ; 7:.; y.v;7y
7 s im ila r t r a d it io n s o f the Puranas to have descended from 7
Anu and M hyu:,'; tile two sons o f Y a y a ti. rJ hose who b e lie v e
.77 7 7 7 7 7 7
/; :th e/S /pid /and ib r a n ic / l i s t s t o be tr u e c o n str u c t an o u t-
7 7 7 7 /7 ■
/ ; l i n e o f th e h is t o r y o f India i n i t s / e a r l i e r s ta g e s ./from v
7 ;7 y 7 7 7 7 ;iv'7; ; y t h e s .7 S P U r c e s ;7 7 ^ t7 m
:7 7 :
'/ ; ;
';
o f / view
/ , / 7 / 7 7 / from, which th e /e a r ly h is t o r y i s regarded i n th e s e
77; .z/7 -Z'z,-/;.gexie/aIL6Hi®si‘: o f s u sp ic io u s, c h a ra c ter * -7 On the o th e r hand,
. 7 7 7 7 7 / ■//•■;•' /;. we kiibw t h a t f o r e a r l y p e r io d s / o f d h d ia n h i s t o r y t h e r e / .
:
;
7 .7777-7 - •• ;
7 7 i 7 7 :7';’
7/ 7 7
are many, d i f f ic u l .t i e s -in supplement in g the'/ ace ounts o f "7
R@ve.d.a.:*.wi.HbiL''^t'&pser
the -1 a te r Ve d i c w ork s, and
y.
'77:/ a t i l l more w ith t h e accou n ts 0 f th e ■;Epics and ; Puranas.;*. ■,7
7 y'7-/--
7.777777777-77 7&w7ahd7:why
in th e l a t t e r so u rces
•v7'7"7 777777y. 7' a te / nob/wbrtby/ o fc b ^
7
Zthe: h i s t o r y ;o f. th e
:-7 7
: 77
/
■/ 7777 -;// /
e a r l i e s t tim ps : i s a s u b je c t by i t s e l f r e q u ir in g s p e c ia l
7 7 tr e a tm e n ti :i t w illZ fh e r e fo r e be d ib c u ssed .in7b7s©P^.rate;7.7;7
;
/ 7;. 7
•• ■;/ cha/ptervy7y^
7:///7/- :-/-.. 7-7 77/7
• / •••<• 7' • -7
777 / / 7 ■ tw ith s ta n d in g , w h ile we g et no au th en t ic d e t a i l s :7 7 y . /
777 • reg a rd in g th e e a r ly Mru-ISuru k in g s from Vedic. and. Epic ‘ 7 .
.,..'7;/.'-77; / v:77:7" s o u r c e s ; th e h is to r y v o f t h e ir l i n e peeps out o f th e dim ;7.,
.777.7 ;/•;./,./7 ; 7 7 pastW at ^| ^ e tim e//o f ^antanii *7 His name is.;fou n d i n ' th e
7; >7
7/7-' y.7/ .-.7' -;7;.;;7 v ; -Bgveda, 7 7/ where, h e / i s . spoken o f as a k in g fo r ' whom t h e .
7 7 -7 7'7 :'v - •7 ;77 TKhhatriya TDevapi a c t e d 7 a s :ioqt a r or s a c r i f i c i a l p r i e s t
.77 ' ':7'-;
; 77 7
/ 7 / /to him.: 7:‘lfe* i s a g a in th e su b je c t o f 7a t a l e .. in' Yaska-’s ' ' 7 7 7 7...7;
7
.-
7B'iruktai 7 where / i t i s s ta te d th a t Deyapi and 8^tanu;7were
7 7 7 7 7 7 / 7 7 7 7 7 •'b roth ers;y -ife y a p i. b e fc
and t h a t t h e y b elon ged
77y/v/7yy77y7y/;7to7bne/.:kurriyd3m^
is
7;
■/ 7;
-7
/ / no s e r io u s ground fo r-d o u b t in g /t h e e s s e n t i a l t r u t h o f
7
7,y..-7
7
7th e TVedic. arid Puranic t r a d it io n about both o f them.
.7-7.';/7/, 7 7' 7; y/. 7 D evapi/aridy^^tanu//belong; tp q^it/e h i s t o r
7/77 7;77 7 ^ i^ 7 j%
7
s
^
/7
tim e s ; n ot
777 ;7;i >777 7 ->'7/
7
7-
7
:
'77:yy-7 777:7/' v (§) 11 ,10.7 Gf. Brhaddevata,/ V II, p 7148 f f and 155 f f . ,7 ■'/'7/ \; y 7
/Saqred7-Books-"of t h e v/H indus, / .,77/: / . .
..7 7 7 .v/'„7,
(Iiapter L, p 153. V : /-77;7 7 / 7 '777 ; 7 , 7 f 7 v7y ’7-'77: 7. -7. . 7 7 7
102
.y
::y .y ■"/y-; . 7 , 7 7 7 ; v
v e r y lo n g b e f o r e t h e . ^ a ratay iW ary /'an d /th e-, e a r l y Epic
t r a d it io n d e f in it e ly ; knows them-/as vb roth ers. and; p u ts '
them /in tlie 7/&
,y /■•/,/r.,
7V■/ :'- /:
Ohe biahabharata says that.
Devapi w a |yin.pt allow ed/ t o / r e i g n b e c a u se he had a s k i n - ; : .
dis e a s e ;
- t h a t may have b een a r e a s o n f b r :-h i s t a k i n g t o 7 -7 7
7 ;:::./•7';77 / r e l i g i o n
;'z
:77z /
in- India , even a t th e p r e se n t
,.
d a y /7 /B u f i t m ust be noted, t h a t b o t h / t h e s e Khru b r o t h e r s y - 7
though showu i n t h e 7 ]^± c ^ a r i d / P u r i o ^
were probably: not th e sons o f P r a tip a ; who /seems to have
come l a t e a f t e r th e V/ar, l a t e r th'ah'VP&ri^^
; 7 ;/;;7 g r e a t / g raiidson i n t h e l ^ i c ; g e n e a l o ^ i e s >
/;
/
^
777/7 & i s / h i s t o r i c a l k in g j^ n ta iiu ^ a ccb rd
/;
7:
. 77 7
th e
777' ;-/
.
7
Mahabharat a ;ac count i n . th e M ip a r v a ,s-. had t wo wiy e s . - ;Ganga ■
and; S a ty a y a tiy
Hiishma was th e e I d e s t son by :Gariga, and ;
, V ichitraV ir y a h h d 7 (h it
■, .
b b n s /b y : ^ t y a v a t i 7:
I t i s s t a t e d t h a t Biishma c a r r i e d .off. Amba, a d a u g h te r o f
a k in g o f K asi (B e n a re s ), w ith h e r two s i s t e r s Mb;.ika’‘>ahd7
ik ih alik a./7 ib ib a7 rem aih ed ,;.c^
c a lle d
i n th e M ahabharata S a iv a , and o b t a i n e d h e r f e l e a s e by
7
.
•
s a y i n g ; t h a t /s h e was /en gaged /tp be mai‘r i e d t o h i m ,7 w h ile / /; > :
t h e / o t h e r tv /o , s i s t e r s .became t h e w ives o f V i c h i t r a v i r y a ,
th e second so n o f ^ n t a h d i 77 T hesez/tw bzbist
-
7/,;:
'7\77'.-
(^TBkTV; (lldyogaparva.), 7 G h a p tef7 cx lix 1 5 /f f 7/7
77;
/;-7///;^
( § ) 7 f l f Vedic 3^
/ Vq I I I ,;. p * 5 5 . 7 7 / 7 ; -■7 / 7 / 7 ' 77. ' 77.77: ;7. ;7'
Y i c h i t r a v i fs d ea th 'w ith o u t any h e ir , became, by Hshi ’
(*)
_ ‘
1
v . .
Vyasa m others o f Ih rta ra sh tr a and Fandu, th e fa th e r s o f
th e h ero es o f th e Bharata War -■ Kurus (Kauravas) and ■ 1
Pandus (Pandavas) r e s p e c t iv e ly ; Anibilca was th e mother o f
D hrtarashtra and Ambalika o f Pandu* .•
I h is i s o n ly a b r i e f account o f th e immediate p re­
d e c e sso r s o f th e Epic h ero es; th e r e are a ls o many rom antic
and stra n g e s t o r i e s to ld in the l a t e M ip arva about t h e ir
m arriages which no one would believe.*.
In f a c t , we do not
vouch fo r th e a u t h e n t ic it y o f th e se n a r r a tiv e s o f ,m a r it a l
r e la t io n s in' th e ’ ca se o f e it h e r D hrtarashtra or P&ndu, o f
whom th e former i s sa id to have m arried1 Gandhari, th e
daughter o f Sutiala, Icing o f th e Gandharas*, and th e l a t t e r '
to have espoused K unti, and Avanti p r in c e s s , and Madri, a
1
‘
•-/
?-v:
p r in c e s s from th e Panjab Froper, th e daughter of, Saly a , ■ *•.
k in g o f th e Madras;'
k
H is t o r ic a lly view ed , th e s e r e la t io n s in th e liiain seem
h is H shi, th e supposed author o f th e Mahabharata, i s
, s a id to ’have been th e son o f Hshi ParasaVu by S a ty a v a ti
b efo r e she m arried Santanu.
'
(§) Holtzmann (Das Mahabharata, Yol I , p- 156; Y o l'I I , j? 174)
. l i a s advanced weighty" reasons fo r con clu d in g th a t Bhishma,
th e grand u n c le o f th e Pandavas, and not Hshi Yyasa, was
th e r e a l a n c e sto r o f th e f i v e p r in c e s , h avin g been a p p o in t­
ed to marry h i s h a lfr b r o th e r * s -wife# Ihe p r a c t ic e o f
fo y o g a , s im ila r to th e, le v i r a t e , allow ed th e s o ille s s widow
to bear a c h ild , to h er b r o th e r -in -la w on tier husband’s
d ea th , so as to con tin u e th e fam ily*
In th e e a r ly law
Books th e custom was r e s t r ic t e d by v ery d e f in it e d ir e c t io n .
It was not u n t i l th e tim e p f th e r e v is e d S pic th a t th e
Brahman ed itors;m ad e e f f o r t s to become th e p r iv ile g e d
* *
p a rtn ers o f s o ille s s w ives or widov/s.\
V
1
0
4
'
,
t
1
\
V
'
:
W
y
:
;h
3
:i; , ; ; ’Y:.;;.y 'Y’> V to- be v ery d o u b tfu l, b ein g in v en ted l a t e r t o j u s t i f y
'S ’:;:'' 'v'7\ ; ! ^ iv c ertadn;-purposes ,y^
.
y
3
: ^
y
'
f
y
.: c
;'to-;Jshbw>tb^at'' th ey W a r,v a s\:y :;
Y d ; y ’h d e s c r i b e d in' th e l a t e r r e v is io n o f th e E pic, .was a r e g u la r
; f f b% allyb^
How f a l s e
; ;; and • f i e f ’i t io u s . such a l lia n c e s m ight be may be judged from
a v e r y .curious s t o r y ; in y th e Mhtiabtiarata (M iparva* Chapter;, ■1
; - •
.
.
OXXI) about Y ^ s h lta ^ a h a n d ;Bhadra^'::T^
.
to have
\
..
been ttie. a h d e s tr e s s : o f vttie:. .Madras a n d "s k lv a s , important: ;; ’ :; Y
h.
; ^■'■7'^popLp, in th e Pan ja b , y to g e th e r . w i t h / t f t e ^
4; ■
> - ''
; •.
♦• .
Y ; it; seems t o us mqst l i k e l y ’ th a t th e Bbadras (probably ,a s
yyyyy;y4 yy yyyyyvhltieadyybuggested^^^^^
;; h.
< p ld .. . ■ v
: .liido-Aryan Bhadr ik a , E b a ilik a j .o r ig in a lly claim ed to be
;
:; . ; h 4 e s b e h d b n t s / o f ;:a-; herbs-iEtiadra ,i ;Whi l e , t h e ...o th er k indre d 'A. A;
t r ib e s ,S aivas a ss e r t ed th a t they had; f o f .a n c e s t o r
0-3 .' y
y *Vyushitas^a.h;vIIiien, ■
; ^ h j a b i t r i b e s , -s.- .-rA
u n d e r th e hegemony, o f one .o f them (Salv as ) was formed,
XAY4 \yy‘AY r
y,;h\ •'
toyshow th a t a l l th e t r ib e s in th e
y h l e a g u e were o f th e same p a ren ta g e , and hence a myth was ’
■ ;h
■.y: v
ana^
:
■in v en t ed which gave Vyu^it as va a s :;th e yor i g i n a l •f a t h e r o f : .. 3
:s‘: .yy.Ay them a l l . and made; the. m ascu lin e Biadra in to a fem in in e
vy y y y y y y yyA yfeadriA . ^
.. - y . - y . ' h y .
•
"
/
y
y
y
.
y
y
y
' ; ' AHowever, ,f f 6%; theseyandY
4 -A
■
f i c t i t i o n s and . ;.; •
yy>■;yyy": y ; Y y y u r ih is to r i c a l e iem ents •V.example s' o fyw hl ch a r e ;mime rous ‘ ;we
A y .;yV;Y , A A A ; h e e d ’ not th in k th a t th e -Whqle; e p ic y is ; a: myth* ythe gam bling y
(d y u ta ) , th e b a t t le (yuddha)* e t c . , o f the. s to r y are in a l l
r p r o b a b ilit y e p ic e le m e n ts, though t h e i r accounts are no#
' fo u n d ^ rela ted a t g r e a t le n g th ’ and w ith e x a g g e ra tio n s
m ingled, w ith ir r e le v a n t m a tter.
But th e f a c t th a t e a r ly
Vedic- t r a d it io n knows n oth in g o f th e BiaVata War does not
p r e c lu d e ’ the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i t s h avin g a c t u a lly taken
p la c e in an age o f h isto r y *
Rather th e r e are some h in t s
- i n ;V ed ic- l i t e r a t u r e .which seem c le a r ly to p o in t to such
an event*
Ibr exam ple, th ere seems to be a d i s t i n c t
r e fe r e n c e to a Kuru War in .t h e o ld v e r s e fragment p reserved
■
■
_ '
(*)
in Chhandogya Upanishad, w h ile th e; Athar^aveda, th e
*AitaTeya and: Satapatha Brahmanasj and th e Brhadaranyaka
i
- ■
*
: Upanishad know o f B a r ik sliit and Janamejaya, who im m ediate' l y succeeded th e S p ic -h e ro es.a n d are much spoken o f in
co n n ectio n w ith th e g lo r io u s .iananada o f th e Kurus; - The
rea so n why .t h e ; Bharata War is - n o t ex p ressly : m entioned in
•th e Vedic t e x t s , which are p u rely r e l i g i o u s , ; i s perhaps
th a t th e s to r y o r ig in a ll y d escrib ed o n ly th e f ig h t in g o f
th e c o u s in s , which may have been sanguinary but unlikir
i t s p r e d e c e sso r , th e War .of Ten K in g s,’ had no proper
I^T^yato y a ta a v a r tu te ta d 'ta d gachhati.m anavah
kurun a s v a ’b h ir a k s h a ti, {IV, 1 7 , 9 ) .
Cf* Hopkins, 1516 Great .Bpic o f In d ia, 1901,; p 385*
-
r s h i or Vedic p oet to im m ortalise i t in h is hymns.
1
We must
/: admit th a t .th e r i v a l 'p a r t ie s in tla.e co n f 1 i c t /were; 'the
h;
y
i h a r t a r a s h t r a s ' h f ^ IM ta r a s h tr a ^ ^
••.
sons o f , Pandu,
is
Puru-Knru l i n e ,
sa y , .'the two c la n s in th e ;r u lin g
th e .Pandus u lt im a t e ly g a in in g ascen d -
Q : a n c y ; : w ith ;the ■A s sista n c e 'o i^ th e ih . h^
h
-
V
i
n
Europe and im erica have seen in
' th e e p ic h eroes r e a l men, though no t . a ll- contem poraneous,
-
and have n ot d en ied th a t th e I n c id e n ts o f th e War r e la te d
/ : •
;; .y ; in :th e .p r e s e n t . Mahabharatay ho m atter how 'much■'exaggerated
and d is to r te d , th ey may h e, have a background o f^ a c tu a l
;■■'/h i s to r ib a l f ac t 'dim ly . remembered, in yt r a d it io n ; ; -f ;
-S;:'; yh/:yy'. Thus ,; when;•w e;read, i n ; thb;
:
•
y. , ;
i c ;pf
-
;w
heaven and ea rth t o t h e ir f o u n d a t i o n s w e . need not th in k
■y y ■;■;?;■j ^K;.;'0,f;:a,waryin::which:;yd ipleyraces,.p f- India were i engaged as . y y
•. ; ; h :
\ y h ' • .b e l l ig e r e n t s ; y T b . what e x te n t th e o r ig in a l s tol^y may be
;
•
founded up oh h i s t or i c a l ; ev en t s :i s t hu s x exp la in e d b y Paul ;y
y ; : v^'-V.'.;. / :h_.y; fe ss o h -O u r s e i1
-; =;
.
Vffiey&cehe o f th e
®■■
'
!
€fc.fei'3i
;
c
ountry i n which ;.t he
Rigveda came, in to b o ih g ;;;!this proves th a t th e .ilryans had
advanced eastw ard .in th e 'in te r v a l . ; K urukshetra, ;the ;.;y
;■ h; . ^v; ;~"*(*) lt~*is worthy o f not e •t h a t , th e Pandav.as have th e sane
/ ':y ;; y n e p E ^ a S ther k a u r ^ a s y y : .2^
‘
.
.
y:B f y
-i y {§ ) ;:M n te r n it2.. ;l o c *o l t . . -pp 454. .ff and Hopkinsr in O a m b r i d g e ;
:h y y - y-yyy,y;:y»'H isto ry v b fy '& d to ^
} 2 7 - 5 . [ y :
y ;
yV ;
::: V F ield o f / t h e ; I h r u s t l i e s on the edge o f th e Ganges basin.,
:
/n ea r ilieXhest?;bank:, o f theyJurihe* in t^
/Xyy;/:.
^
/X/yX'
:D e l h i , y i i h e V a n c l e n t . y W h e r e y ^ ^
*
y .;:
i: b a t t l e s have been fo u g h t.
Hie Kauravas, ■
-.theychamp io n s o f y
// y S y
.. tlie ICuru c a u s e , thahundr^^^■■•'■-of'''-Ih h itarash tra, ;led^
Xy . / ; y .
Duryodhana,• f ight; th e f i v e .:Pandavas,. th e sons o f Dhritdrashtrafe
.
hrdfh^hy; Pandu, le d by Yixdhishthira^ f d r ; e i ^ t e e n :y days ;hear^.;^^;^^ '
■
.
y vvy-/ /• / ’ { \Thanesa;r;
v v
c o m p r is e
e a s te r n y ...yy'y,
y;-x. B ihar, B engal, th e BimalayavXand;the Punjab;;yihythe s e
.
' ; are ■war r to r s from reg io n s; w hich/ are now w est erhV B ih a r,
;/
Agra, Gudh, Pa j put ana, /Gu j a r a t , and t h e Drav id Ian s t a t es ;
.;
o f th e so u th .
Although th e .w h o le o f : a n c ie n t /I n d ia is^ t^
:
:Xyy'
';/' V . X ; .■ r e p r esen t ed. as ; em b rP iied ' in t h i s '.war^j-;;it;;.is:;p la in ; th a ty tho ; X;: •
;y '
X
//
Ahyan e l a n d y X f i ^ t i h g ^
;:'x;XX ;■; y y
. :: y / • • ; ' ;
,
X;
/■ c o n f l i c t :cen tres, on th e r iv a lr y o f tw o y c lp se ly y i? e ^ te d ;^ y ;:; y
; ;;
D oah.,f t
Ho;.one th e r e fo r e h eed b e . su r p r ise d ; atX the/abbenceX P fytrshP syy-;
; o f an .a c tu a l -b a t t l e and i t s in cid en ts:, y.. T h i s a s we^can :
: how e a s i l y :understand y' i s ;due;;tpythe^ .freq h en t m a ^
yyyy:^X;/ X /y X o f/th e h id /te x t /h a d e y w iih y d e r ta ih . d^
yyX ; ;
-.y y;
y ;y
.aims,-
x h ith y w h ic h -the l a t e r ; e d i t o r s h a v e b e e n .a ctu a ted .;; hnarer;;yX^ ;
: f u l; s t u d y
;th e y fe ^
htyone.e:;shpw;;that; th e ;
Y y > y y n ['^ ^ I^ ^
d yih gyb etw eP h ;th e;vGanges and ■yyxyyy^
y/yy ; . / X.;
- Jumna ;; Bee M e le n t I n d ia . and :Ihflian g i v i l i z a t io n X t r a n s - •"X;V.
y- ; .
. dated ;froxir
19S i ) , ^ ^ 2 0 - ^ 1 . ;
/; -; y yX y yy.X.X
108
a u t h o r s !;6:fXi h t e r p o i a t l o h e / wanted: to t e l l Xa./,dihmatic and’; ; : •;;
s t i r r i n g / s t o r y o f a /w a r b e tw e e n . d h u i m a .TGood’ and adharma
TE y i l X ;w ith ; t h e triu m p h o f Good, and t h a t i n o r d e r t o
X.,
;
a c h ie v e .; t h e i r O b j e c t . t h e y ; r b c a s t t l i e s t o r y o f th e H i'a rata '/;/,
W a r/an d /th p X d O fea ty o f t h e .' S ^ ru s y /s o a s / tp /m a k e ; t h e / d e f e a t - /y /
edXI§irus: th e X r e p r e s e n ti.t i v e s o f Ev i l ,
and t h e t r i u m p h a n t . .
Pandus t h e / champions o f Good. >. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s >no. !
j u s t i f i c a t i o n / f o r / / c a l l , ing; th e - !O r i g i n a l / E h a r a t a ' ^
,;;yy;=imagih;aliion/o'f/t/ p p e t I / A t X is /v i r t u a l i y . h a se
o n , some X> / / ; / ; '
/ y h is t o r ic b ly e le m e n ts /w h ic h may: w e ll have e x is t e d a s y f a f .; hack, as th e c lo s e o f th e/V ed ic; a g e lX /' X'X///' ;//;/;X X ;'v"We.;;ahaii(/not';:'stop'd
y/Xylte^
' th e / s to r y o f t h e / / XX/yy
ip la.rg e ly ; outsidpV o u r : h p o p p and t o o /
iX’\ .y faiiiiliar< ah d t o o / l o n g to be' g iv e n h e r e .
M oreover, an. X
/X /
X / a o e o u h t p f ; t h p y ^ f ^a s r e c o r d e d i n ' i t s p r e s e n t foxmi would X
■ ; y be o u t ; o f e b f d e r y i n / a ;?t h e s i s / o f / h i s t o r y V ; ' : f i t tem p ts a r e XX/;'-'•:--X'.
y./X b e in g : m a d e / f c y ^
thejmih^
tto a b h a ra td ;. ;
. 'but so f a r as t h e o r i g i n a l / s t o r y o f t h e War i s ! c o n c e rn e d ,//
XX/ i t Xls;xdbub.t^
-to r e s t o r e it ! w i l l / "X X;-
X;:
,'X:^hho!cepd!yXsihce: t h e y ta le /h a d /c o m e /d o w n / i n 1 a
m uch, changed/
/ / / torni; ■even -a tX th e /e a r lie s t s t a g e / o f Xcompos i t io n . /XEhe .
c u r io u s r e a d e r , ho wev e r , w i l l f i n d h e l p f u l t h e summary; X
X /y /o f/ t h e
in th e /s e c tio n
on
■/
/•//./
d i r e c t i o n : tlie m o s t ;/ n o t a b le / a t t e m p t I s t h e / / X ; : XX
c r i t i cal; e d i t io n o f th e /Mahabharata ,/! w h ich / i s . in c o u rs e
..; !
//■ //o f y p r e p a r a t i p h /
y ^ a h d a f k a r /; (Ic ie n ta l/;B e s d a rc h ; / • y;X:x /XX!
/ I n s t i t u t e r ; Poona ( 33ombay).
"x / .x ;X / Xy / / ' / X/!;X //■;
■/ -y /
x - x v - !XXx
(*)
th e Mahabharata in h is H istory o f S a n sk rit l i t e r a t u r e .
Prom what has been s ta te d ab ovev i t I s a p p a ren t'th a t
we s h a l l seek in v a in in the Mahabharata fo r th e real'
in c id e n ts o f th e . Khrukshetra War.
A ccording to the
rev id ed version," th e Kauravas a llie d ' th em selves w ith
' many h o s ts from fa r and n ear, and th e a t t it u d e o f th e
Panjab was d i s t i n c t l y . again st' th e Pandavas. - Ihose who
are s ta te d to have jo in ed t h is s o r o a lle d Great War from
■—t he Panjab on th e s id e o f th e Kurus were the Kambojas,
Gandharas, ‘ Yavanas, Sakas,. Bahlika* - Madras-,, V a s a t is , ^
.
(§)
K aikeyas, Sindhus and Sauv&ras, T rigartas and M b a sh th a s, ■ all'-unknown to . e a r ly Vedic t r a d it io n .
But i t must be ■
noted th a t t h i s - i s on ly an. in sta n c e .of l a t e r h is t o r y
c o n fu se d ‘w ith th e p a s t, as is c le a r from th e r e fe r e n c e s ■
to p a r t ic ip a t io n in the War by fo r e ig n e r s l i k e the
/
,
Yavanas and Sakas, who d id not appear on th e sta g e o f
J .
1
Pan jab h is t o r y b efo re th e f i f t h and second century B*G.
r e s p e c t iv e ly .
N e v e r th e le ss, i t need h ard ly be doubted th a t th e
p eop le o f th e Panjab were s t i l l connected s o c i a l l y and
p o l i t i c a l l y w ith th e Pura-Kurus, in ,t h e e a s t , though th e
Jn * rr T 5 5 . Q t t . pp 337 f f .
'
(§) Legendary accounts o f th e re sp e c tiv e ;-p a r ts s a id t o have
■been taken by them in the- War w i l l be found in s e v e r a l
p a ssa g es in th e Mahabharata, e s p e c ia lly He V (Udyogaparva)
Ho VI (Hiishmaparva ),- Ik V III (Kasftiaparva ) and Bk IX
(dalyaparva-)* .
.
. ’
;o * 7 .
:
no
'•y;;';. .
"V;V
. y i ;; Jlu ite rry y e re - nowysomeiivh^
;yy .y
■.:
-
from,^ t h e ‘p a r e n t ,s to o
■ ^t h e ; P a h j a t i y ^1^
; ::
y
s o c i a l y r e l a t l o n s a r e b e s t ...y''■■
tragedy'by' aii old Bpic y tr a d itio n ,-su p p o r te d ;^
<V
.•y■j a t a k a ,' to. the; e f f e c t that 6pic ’heroes’ married; in to the
/;
;
■
-yy ; r o y a l ■h ou ses:o f the Panjab;, and! re gard e d su ch. a l l ianc e s ' ; , y ■v;;
r . r
v.
' .
:'0
ydt
•
>
lV ..:as quite yprqpefVtredPghisihg;;thP>;\e<^
"y;
.y.■“.■■■; :crac ie s Of . the .Pan jabAw-itiivljhe.: Puru-ffirustof v'the--. east ..
;
'.; It was. only la t e r that some orthodox Brahiiians o f th e
yy .
,y.;Y
Ivkdhya-desa showed th e ir disapproval o f s o c ia l conditions
'yY :, y
in the Panjab by launching an ant i-Pan jab i propaganda.
Y
; Y;:As; ah in d ic a tio n P fy p P liiic a i-r e la ^
■:■';/■';;;Y
Y;Y
tty
;,a> th is.;ea rly stage.:may be quoted the .
'yYYy-^oh^i (1364); in old trishtubh metre fx'om
Y > ■"•••t '\
1TZ; (Vanapairva) ,yY;
ch apter x x x i v Y Y y >;.Y’Y-;'yYYy.yyyYy-'Y ;YY'Yyt-
■Y^w Y Y . • YY;;
' y
' .
. Charai^ chen no. v id ita h kalani etam^ yukto Raj an
Y Y- . ;yy YiY / y;.y YyYy,Yy . ^
nio£ia.^imadiyan*'V
Y. ; Y Yv
■■yY'Y :".Y■
Y
: .. .
YyY- t brayiml aatyam' &ru^satibddiha taVaiya .;taYBh&^
v YY 'YY" ■:Yy
Y-tyyy,. V
y'
YY
:
I t I s q u i t e y p o s s tb le y th a t- ab put;ythe; c l o s e ■o f I h e lE
Y ”;; Yyy t t y y : ; p e r i p d , \ ^
were v e r y y s t r b n g ,Y t h e y may have
/ - / V / . ;’ ;;©h joyed^a^heigempny p v e r :; m a ^ t r i K e
:
t h e -Panjab; and t h a t
t he : o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n o f th e poem, now no 'lo n g e r t r a c e a b l e , ■"
■t ^perhaps.;^contained^^ more.^^ informatibn:^^bqiit^ that country^ t i.
'v;:- ■.
:^ ' h : ^ t h a n the pr as ent, epi c, which; i s .almost^ p f non-Pan j abi
y
;.;y
.
-/yyy; / v
i
h
h
a
f
a
c
t
e
r
;'t'■ \ y;y;
v:;. '/■' •• /v ^ .y . ^
\ account; p f'^they^Uru-^rUsyt^ /Paurayas;;as'’th ey
are sometimes c a lle d , y/ould; be incomplete without; a
/
• ’ ..
YyYYY ;;’:' Y :\ t e f e r e n c :Y M
,v
Y
th e ;
; ^ S r a ;ta\--;Wafe'--.i t ■'hasyheeh;Y';t-tY,'>.;' YY
: -Vv d i s c u s s ed b y v a r i o u s
Y :y’- y y y ; YY, Y d i f f e r e n t
s c h q la r h
in
c o n s id e r a tio n s P f: i t s
In d i a
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Y;
:
Y;
a n - YV,
Y e c h o o f o ld ; h l s t b r i c y e y e h t s Y t h a t ^ d l s t i n b t i y ^ m a r k d a n ' epoch,
Y:-./ ■ : y Y- ■y
ih - t h e ; h i s t o r y o f t h e
y :y y
Sap t a :;S in dh \i Yi&y u h s Y
yY
y: YiyYYy
Y e a s tw a r d v Y I t •th U s r e p r e s e h t s aYmdvement o f g r e a t i m p p r t a n c e Y ;
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Y yy
Y
' R i v e r sY.;Y ^ i ^ i h | y Y : \
in Y ti^
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'
yMMSenajii;Y:of-Magadha. onwards?and not; from Sahadeva, I . e . , ? M: ; / ?
• : Yt h e t i m e . o f. t h e :?/ar> i s ' e v i d e n t . f r o m 1t h e u s e o f t h e
? 'Yf u t u r e t e n s e y f o f th e . 'P u f a h a s ) ?w
M M :MMV‘ y '
e x c e p t io n o f th e
??.
;yy|?;yishhu yP d fhn ay y p r p f e s s t o h a v e y b S e n . co m po sed a t Y t h e t i m e
y .y Yy
M t o f 'Y senaj i t d s M c e n te i iip o r a r y *; t h e Y P a u ra v a .•A d h i s i m a ^ ^ s h i i a .
• V: M
•The; i c i n g s w h o came a f t e r a r e Yri&med i n t h e fo rm o f . a p r o - ? M; MM?
?yyphecy>'y Y B b r c e y o u r ? in itla lM p o i r if ; i s t h e e x t e r m i n a t i o n o f . Y ? ?YYY
;MMYanYybider; l& g a d h a ; I i n e
event
•
?yY P a r g l t e n i p I a c e s : ,ihy58^?B ^ 0 ; , s i x t y y e a r s b e f o r e C h and ra-i
YY:-rY:BUpta ’s- a c c e s s lb n y >. ?••••v-M'y-YY? M . ;;Y;Y:;;
- Y.. ;
Y
?
;•••/-; m MYY?:M? -YY:.Y'MtYv?;VM
M
YY-'?,'■?M
.-,
MFor t h e . ih te r v e n in g p erio d betw een the, i n i t i a l and V
YY?. y fir ih ^
,Mwe ;hOT
the. Matsya 257 k in g s
?M?Y Y; ?:
-j Yyin t e n : dy h a s t i e s y Ythaly?is anY'average Yof about '•26; ;in'. eachMM? - YM"
. y MHbw; th e r e must .have, been re ignsy o f much g r e a te r le n g th
;
;: Y tha.n; o th e r s ; arid we fin d . th a t th e Ylai’g e s t average o f :r e ig n s'
yy
lM ^ h s :tY’Yhay;e;Ybeeh Yamong the?;tltihQ traa>^;whoYyriad?; on ly 20. in -MY;? y: M?y
.yYyyYthey-period
;Yihe -s h o r t e s t ?was,/^hmongythe K aiihgas;, whoM
M . had 32 ;y y So . P a r g ite r argues r20 .long r e ig n s — . 32 sh o rt . ;; ;. .y ?>'
re ig h s yy- ; 26 medium re ig r is, and tbY o b th in th e p rop ort io n
:. lo n g e s t average : shbi?tes:iY?ayefa
26. ?! 16-^y: 2 0 .
YYYY’M?;M'
':?.yMYy
' liom ?an .exam ination o f v a r io u s yrecord s,
he -found th a t : th e io n g e st average was about? 24Y:and .the; y? Y; ?.
Y,My sh o rtest.y about? 1 2 k y ea rs; "While? they average ; o f ;a lf ..kings Y,?M
/
Y? was. -19 y e a r s : .
/
Hence a s s i g n i n g 18 y e a r s to , a n a v e r a g e - YMM
Y'Y?yreignv; h e g e t s 26 x 18., t h a t i s , ..468 y e a r s Yand?thisM;?c
> . ? Y-??■
,; en a b les h iih to place? S e n a j it , :Adhis im akrshna. and. th e ir :
?;
Y? Kosalah?contemp o r a r y , D ivakara, in 850 B;rG• ?(468 p lu s /; 382 );.??
Y ' ■M I n
?th e y f t
raybrageY; would ,wor k out - a t ? . y Yy-: M ??.
Yabout l ^ - f e a v s ' p e x r e ig n , and th e sh b r th ess may: he j u s t i - ;;
f ied kby ;the v ib le iic e w h ip h . too 'o f te n 1 ed to th e byerthrow •/ ••. ofY?thb;Y k ifi|^
whose r e ig n s -blie...
. Y;
Puranas are ta k e n t o ? he; composed and th e ,War^ th e r e are ?
Y
y?' b ik in g s Y,ihYthe;?Paur ay ay,dynasty^/ 4 i h, th e Ai ks hv aku. and; •?;• M?
;Y;Y;YY6;?in-‘E he "SrhadrathhaY'Ythbt':ib,Vyan Y;aver age ;;.of?'5? : This / ?? MY:
yy- Ypeflo.d;^. raayyvhe -ta k e n /tM
y,
> which would
p la c e th e iTar in about 950 YB;G M:.?!Ihis i s Par g i t er fsk
YMYhohGlublbnMabpi^
?;
. ?M-: y. Y
but?as-yit?-'-; MY:
-M? i s Ybased on ayerageMlengthy; o f ;f e ig n s y i t needs v e r i f i-y Y . :.?"■Y
c a t i o n w h i c h :i s . not./.forthcom ing w It tiie r e fo r e remains .;
: Y ;h y p b th etica l reckbiiing as. y e t , though; y e f y p rob ab ly'n ear
M Y - y t h e ; ^ yy.-Y-fyy.; VyY?Y-MYYY.?tY;My? . - M Y Y,
:M??
?.' , . ; i . Y Y Y y .
: ?-y
??YY
, - ? M ; ?:
;Bes id e s Ythese t r a d it io n s > a n o th e r Yway o f a ttem p tin g y y ->
Y y^
to se e i f th er e i s a d e f i n i t e m ention M
Y,y . anywhere o f ya ?Eharata fig u r e i n Vedic? lit e r a t u r e .Y .*. A. k in g y Y
yPar.ikshit. i s m entioned in th e . l a s t and ..the la t e s t ; book o f .,
Y/theyYiEiharyayedaM asy r u lin g in th e. klngdom o f th e Kurus, Y YMy
:;yy?yin;Ywh ich;Yp®Eb©Y- and-^prb s^Yer i t y vabbunded-Yduring;h is; Yreg im e,?
; y i\s P a r ik s h it i s stated , in the,;MahalAiurata ,
to have; been
y
t^ T ^ V o p ,'I (M ausalaphrvaj :';:;H8hattrim seY 'tvatha sam prapte; yarslib ,
y.
y, .
^
.
/ 3 - _ . - ' - .y etc* y
:.rY?r;yEk;;OTII?ttahS-Er a s tbi^hikaparya.);:YM-Abhi^
?
MM?M M; ' .Y ;:
YyY
;o h a ? ra ja h a n ch a ’y lh r ik s h ita m
A A A 'i f e A A A - i n s t a i ^
a t ; 'H ^ s t i n a p u r a ^ m o r ' C t h ^
i
A a f t e r A ih e ^ ^
yAyyAAy.
>A;
.
su re Vedic ev id en ce to co n c lu d e ,y a s su g g e ste d ;by P r o f. . .y y f ;.;.
• ';,A;A 'V:^V & psbn, ; th at th e War pexdiaps 1 09k plaoeyeax'ly in' the period
AA:'yyy>;X':' y ^
by the y&dhiitanasi ywhichyiit u su a lly ydated by
yy,.' AV;yyA;AAschoia:csyyah6^
V yy: A o f the Rgvedic civiiizaiib n > A ; 1^
y;A-
date 1000 B,G ./-is supA.
/Ay y./ ported by.-the; evidence o f Jain legend to some e x t e n t a Aav A:a *
AyAyA/A'/A A fehSvira A thbAilhrih^^
/.
.. pr edeo.es bpryvsvah^jfchay- i s b e l iev,ed 41o /hay e yd le d in // / /
. .776 Bi Gy , 25 <
6 / y ea rs / b efo r e th e d eaih so f :l%havrra, ?y
vanatha;*ey predec e s s or iTeminatha w as, ac c/ord ih g 1 0 / yA A- 1/
y
v-v-
le g e n d , a cous in o f I^sbnaA/ bhd/A?hu§A aAob^
A.
A
■ AyA
A//A /
the' B iarata bar . -:v / iU.lo\vihg a p erio d o f between S O G;■and y A / A y
y 25 G/years between each Tirthahteara,/ t h is b rin g s Berninatha . /
;y>ahd;:they^ry;to:about 1000 Bi G. 1AyHoweVer^y;be^vS.hdllA:t e h t a - ;:'- Ay/A
/ liv e ly ',^
d ate; fory;theApurpb^
h isto r y ,; .y. :: yyyy
a d m ittin g o f . cou rse th a t th e r e a l date; has y e t to b e AA AAA:A ‘
b r o u g h t t o l i g h t . A A ' - A y , A ■■- . A A. y / ' y y A / / ■ . : / / A y , . / / ' A-A .' - A A .••/• / .
■
'A: Mongy lh d la h
th e d i s t in g u ish ed ' h is t p r la n bf^^y ; -
anc lent,; to Raychaudhuri, / w h ile sa y in g th e r e is/; hoi y/:A
• Cambridge H isto ry o f In d ia , Vol I j Ohapter X I I I v pp 5 0 6 - 7 . /
;:Ib i d . Chanter V I,, pp\ 155, 155. v' 'A;:/' A;,.' ■ y ■ A/. y .y1yA/AyAA'A;
- ) P o l i t i c a l Hist o r y o f Anoient Ih d ia . . Third E d it io n , y/A/'AA/A
; pp .20 to ^ 2 .
.. :;'v /A /-; VAAAAAy^AAA /Ayy-AAA/,//A /AyA/AAA/A,
■A, AAy 'A:A
.//
unanim ity reg a rd in g th e d ate o f/tlW ' ®
/ / /y//- / / /'trad itiG n , h ow eyerb e^ ^
,A-:/■;■:./
. Vedic eyid en oe p o in ts Ao^^;/^/ ; -
A/a- much l a t e r d ate . fo r Pai’i k s h i t and: c o n s e q u e n tly /fo r / th e /AA;
. / /A;
A‘A A:./
in ' / / / ; // • / A •
> Bharata War.
Iiis argument i s b r i e f l y t h i s : bddalaka;
y / : >A rin i was a contemporary o f ATanaka d f/M /tsh iia * AThis/
,y/yA. Ay
A'Ay. yy/Ayy y/yA. Uddalaka was ; sep a ra te d from Janariie jaya by. f iy e ^or'/sii/:yy^ry/ :/ AA:
y .
/
/
g en era t io n s and from y^ahkhayana, th e a u th o r/,o f ^nkhayaha
Grhya S u tra, by two g en er a tio n s . / .^hkhayana';Was/a-^,/coh^/'// /Ay '
temporary o f th e famous Vedic s c h o la r , i^aiayana/y/wftoA/v:A/\yA
A H ’a
;•/; ■■///. yA;A..AyAAagaln%asAa/d,Q^%tPor a ? ^
A
li v e d ./in th e S ix th cen tu ry B. G.y '% .;seven y r .eiglit g e n e r a - /. A
A.yA A/ : A /
/y/A/ ,A
. tio n s o r some th r e e c e n tu r ie s
(t h is computat io n i s based y ;A ' y
//A y w
to th e f iv e yThpras /frpm yG pali to J%hihda A in te r v e n e d Abe- A A A
AA
/ A/
A tw een Janamejaya, or .his fa th e r P a r ik s h it , and th e s ix t h AAA
/yAA'AAyAA/A’y ycentu3?^/;Bipi a ^
y.//A- yyy,'A/A
B id r a ta :
to o k /p la c e some- / /
w here/ in (600 p lu s 300) /th e /n in th cen tu ry AB. Oh / I t may' beAy/A"
n oted th a t th is , argument / o f Dr 3&ychaudhuri based on
. v / .
A / A y; A /" g e n e r a tio n s o f/sch o la rs.(U d d a la k a -S a h k h a y a n a -is/va la y a n a ) A
Ayy /:/■ Ayyy"/
i f v ery t r e a c h e r o u s f o r , f i r s t y /th e r e may yw ell -have ' b ^enA A /////
> / / , . / y yyy.
more t h a n / b h d ^
. / //;/.
y /
moreth a n o n e Bahkhayana^ and,
•/• s e c o n d l y a . S ch olar may be much younger than h is Guru. "
,
/■•/ / A
yonder;hahd we have .s t i l l in Tndi a s Clio la r s l i k e
A/ >y :K*P/y/ Jayasw aland//B w k.A M cbkerli^
./ yAA
AA/y /;•/•' y/ .A: and p la c e / t h e / War/about ;the;ymlddie ;Of th e se c o n d 4m illen iu m B. C,
y/ A //
They ally work on th e d isc r e p a n t sta te m en ts in . th e Idiranas
/• : /
/ "A /y y /and /th e y ^ h a b h a rd ta A/whichA.variously: s t a te ;th a t the.'tiAe-/^'/^
AA- A - AyA /in terval betw een /the" b id th /d f 'f e iS k s liit £ :.v/hich d ccu rred ■AyA
soon a f t e r th e /War and th e /a c c e s s io n o f yldhapadma B an d a,/..,- /;/ /
’ A --"/ •''■/'' A/ 'AAA, ;AA A■y/ /• ./. y/y:';/.// A'A/Ay/yA-/AA 'Ay. • A,/ (c o n tin u e d )
Ayfcpnt inued ). was e it h e r 1015, AL050, 1115
even 1510. years
/.AA- .AM//:fcSe$;e;¥Atr#d;i;bI^
■A/AAt/i$pfrpb&'bj^
., ; A'; h i s t o r i c a l a v e r a g e s , • th e modern c r i t i c s a tta c h ; l i t t i e
./A. ;A.Aimport,aheetqAthemAand^ vfe
; •A/A
O' ;'V;
Chapter IVv ^yiy;' :■v:;v\- •' ;
■:Vy.;r
y"
'
Aryan (^ iia r e /in ^ th e '-’^ Sa^ ta-3in<^
,r -;y.\ y.
-
■
Here w e;propose to trabeyi&e^:Sap
known; from th e w ritin gs-: o f ; t h e y ^ y a n s y f e l a t
;
y e a r l y ;periods^ o f t h e i r / h i s t o r y ^
:•;
’■■■■;
:'.
,y
y;,y y . , - .
p a r t ic u la r ly
; f a s c in a t in g , and i s c h i e f l y .based . on th e stu d y o f I^ ved ic -
■
hymns, th e bulk o f w hicli, as seen in th e p reced ih g c h a p te r ,
was' composed on banks, o f th e Seven R iv e fs yy Rov/here perhaps
:
in th e world has; an a n c ie n t p eo p le l e f t such v a r ie d and
abundant mat © ria l as th e anc i eh t Aryans *
.
But we hav e . a-
alv/ays t o remember th a t not a i l Aryans were r e li g i o u s ~
y v--
;.V:.
w orshippers ?ahd s a c r i f i c e r s o r; p h ilo so p h e r s d n .search o f
th e t r u t h ,
:
Some were; in. search of: la n d s , some in search v . y v T
o f a p r o te c to r and sortie m erely in searcli .o f amusements. yy
;.... STom the^ B^eda-:we know what t h e ir l i f e ; was in r e s p e c t of; .
.
y^y,home; ahd;6 c q u ^ t ip n s 9" w^ati s o r t
in ,
what r e li g i o u s p r a c t ic e s ;they;::6bseryed< and so .,forth.;:/;;All;/;-.
v ;.: v
■
th e s e we f in d not as -mere s h e l l s .o f a dead c u lt u r e , , as i n y y
. t h e ; C h a lc o lith lc Panjab, but /p a lp it a t in g w ith 1 i f e as e x -
y /.\/y y :.;! - ->
;
p r e s s ih g -th e ^ v i t a l i ^ l o f l i i ^ i y y c u l t i v a t e
y ; y . * y - : y . i s th e c u ltu r e yrevealed;to:;us from:;they:i^eja^;''
y ’y
o n ly c u ltu r e fo llo w e d among: tliem; much o f i t i s l o s t tb
;u s f o r th e r e are. no fu r th e r record s a v a ila b le to -d a y .
,
>;
y;y; y
.yyy
Even th e .r iv e r s o f th e Pan ja b , which have o f l a t e y ie ld e d
.many rem ains o f prerAryan age j ^already n o tic e d above,
'y
yy
'•■'yyvy;. y
h a v e v u p : ;tll^
y y :' ■:y \
g i^ e h Us
o f any monument th a t can
d e f i n i t e l y be a ssig n e d to th e e a r l y ; Aryans o f Sapta Sindhu* , y
y;y . . ;y'::/ •••,•• ;.. yy; yy;;d^
old ; iphab.itants''tp- be remembered.
y- •.
Ihe Aryans when; th e y dame t o th e Indus v a l l e y and spread
y
:; , y y y
o v er th e wriole o f t h e Panjab, had; to meet a people, which ;'
\
a ls o was c i v i l i z e d .
Hie c u lt u r e , o f th e l a t t e r did not : y
y V . y a l l a t once" become e x t in c t a f t e r th e Aryan a d v en t..
y :; : yy yy- ■ymust^hOTeycp^^
;Vyy;
It
.
sid e ; b yysid e;;u n tir> th e
yy"'^-y7e x p u lsip iiy b f::V the"'pfe«exlstlng7Apeople from Sapta Sindhu,
y y y a n d ; m u s t v;a lsoyh aveyaffected ,: th e l i f e>andy s o c i e t y , o f th e
-y:yy^-yV:;;';
y .A ^ ansyasy the: ^
vyyyyy, yyyy^:\;:ftT^ype<iples'^.
y ;
Yy;
co n ta c t
‘yy
between th e , - ...
Ihe, c o n tr ib u tio n s o f th e pi*e - Aryans t o th e -
r e l i g i o n and s o c i e t y o f India are n ot g e n e r a lly r e c o g n is e d ...
Bat y th e : Rgv eda Samlii t a ;pr a c t ic a l l y cont a in s v e ry s i i gh t y
y yy ; y
tr a c e o f th e pi"e~Aryan i n s t i t u t i o n s - b e l i e f s , p r a c t ic e s
>yy
. y- f
■yyyf; yy
y and- u sagesy-yan ^
in flu e n c e on th e Aryans.
So fa r
;
as th e r e l i g i o n , o fy th e Y R gveda'is: concerned, i t i s r a th e r
'..:y:y':i,yyYY-ylYybel^^
hymns g iv e lh fo r n ia tio n y o n ly about a ,p a r t l y Y
Y.Yyy.y;yy yyy -:::ynfythe-;!b eliefs.-; and.'practlees'7-oultivated'y.in a r e s t r ic t e d
■y/-!yyyyy;
c i r c l e o f th e Aryan world and ig n o r e . many o t h e r s , b o th .
mixed ; a s w e ll p S ; ^
e i t h e r : from par th e rsh i p ,- - or
y .y ,y y :,yyy..-y bepause;^pfy'the;. s p e c ia l purpose^^ a t which th e au th ors; aimed
yyy yy . YYyy
■yy •
y
yy
.
in th e hyinns. . y Yet /C er ta in in s t it u t io n s ' ign ored in th e l y ’y Yy ■
yyy^yy^i^yeda/'appear--later in Yedic l i t e r a t u r e , w hioh , however ,y y y ^ '
v y : :vyyy':y; b ein g on th e whole a p ro due t o f r e g io n s out side"'the'.,;;-';
YyYyyiy.y''\y y y P&&.j.abyydoes.. n b ty d ife c t^
y th e '-s ta t e v o f-s o c ie ty . in;yy';:.;yy
t h a t :oount r y .
;;,,v-;
Of th e A ateh i % dip -.'texts::%he>'Ath^
y ^ r ' ; ± ^ o f s p e c ia i^ d s e . ; I h i p / . ^
;..
i s ;ap'c;ept:^
■-1-:
' ;:V > vV ':'v l ’:,'3iahda; :as: h a v in g ;b een :compose^ and:;^^^
;. \
:
^Qahgetio v a l l e y , and ids:-the I h o l ^
p a r t ly w it h :'cu ltu re wib.i all i s qLil±^1*e 2?eilti; dP
• -, 1
a.xid. muoh. old er^ :
than- th a t ■d e p ic te d d.h;^h^^ Rgy^da^ v:;‘Ks:-;c h ie f .v a lu e c lie p ' ^ y
; ;V ;. ;: i n p r e s e n t i n g t c i u s lspme^lotv th e suphfist i t io n s .and, b e l i e f
.■
no n- Ar y a npe o pl e that, p rob ab ly in flu e n c e d th e relig io u s-;;
'
■/, ideas: o f itHe
th e •t e r r i t o r y o f i t s cb m p ositid n ,
‘v ;
‘• ,v : but which; were; p r o b a b ly n o t;id issim iia r ^ ■
'•■
■
■
to^ th ose, h e ld hy .vv':'Vb
v'
V.
th e nbn-^ryansvilh th e '3 ^ r t h r ^ s i b : ^alcp^ithid-^-':'
./ . -
; timesV; w ith whoih th e, Aryans ,fd r s t oame// i h , o o n ta ct ^when.. : J |;
tru e th a t a;d etailed ;h d bp u n t^ ofVv^^hn s o c i e t y l i e s
; -in h h ero th er th r e e ^Sainhitas *f: so fa r as 'they are independent
.
o f th e Bgveda, th e B r a to a n b p ■K alpastitras
^ a u ta ,
v. /
; . and Dhama *« and also; in th re e branches o f th e works -of
x:::;T;C " -Vl:-/-' '■ . Srart i on ^ceremonial ^pfhqt ices^; pen^
/'
; . t i o n s , but th e s e works were composed in l a t e r tim es and
:;j - I n " d i f f e r e n t ; p a r ts Vpf .M
^ o th er^ th ^ ^
>:-. Mere over in t h i s l i t e r a t u r e , extending; as i t does over
. ; : :; : : many c e n tu r ie s ,v,'we:v h ave; new in t e r p r e t a t io n s o f ;. a n c ie n t 1 ; / / .
-V:
i n s t i t u t i o n s -ho>asv to . a c b o ^
r e t i r e m e n t s oit th e
;. new s o c ie ty ; and changes in s o c i a l c o n d itio n s in th e course ;
: . o f tim e , ;:whioh\;c.a^
;• tim e;:th ese ; ; ^
"rV-^-r '■/ - I
VT, t t k s " w e r e n 'th e l^ s o u r c e .'tta u th b tty - if6 r ; ' t c i a l ' \ l i f e o f th e
. • . \v:V
Bgvedic: A ryans♦ I t i s s t i l l th e v iew o f some educated and
uneducated a lik e even .how t h a t y S t h o u ^ ^
;I: a n d f a l l - i n the. p o l i t i c a l f o r t u h e s o f th e H indus, m atters
■ .. . ,
l i k e r e lig io U s lp r a c t id o s , ;fprms o £-, w orship i b e l i e f s ; e t c •..
>; ;-v■.? bv- h a v e hbt p t n g e i a t a ll* Ihe p ro o f o f th e b a s e le s s n e s s o f
;...',1 ■■!■;, ,such;-.a.iyiew ■;1 ieis i n • the. h is t o r y jiipfi th e .ienpimious: ‘l i t e r a t u f e
S ; oh^^-the p b ih t>v^xilhe, w p rld iIn ^ i o h
a ' . ..;’,
s e r i e s o f phenomenal changes;, dherh-;-is n p th in g Istr a n g h ih^^
i this^y-vfor; h ll^ a n c ie h t th in g s drop; o f f v/ith th e la p se o f ; .
i;;;
tline and th e change o f :;:circumstunpes\:ahd:^environm ents . v |
^feom;.^>his^law o f change.^;our^ a n c ie n t iAryans have
-‘V, v1 i .exempt • ; Egved i c soc i e t y did r e a lly i f ade^intpi; th e dim p a st
to g e th e r w ith th e cu stom s, manners and u sa g es th a t marked •
/-;■ i t in the;;Sapth;^^jSindhu^itself; not to speak o f th e c o u n tr ie s
‘; :-;;cpIbniped^Aht.er.:-XJhhappilyV:; fbr^
variou s, s o c i a l changes ;
;'V.V
th a t in . p o st-B g y e d ic t im e s :1came, over th e Pan jab we p o s s e s s
v
J^;.;v,no r e c o r d ^ inasm uch;as ^apparently;:^there^^^^s^ e x ta n t no
; ; ;
. •; v \
:v._ : ;
:
; (c o nt i nue d)
;
7- V
- ; -.-h th ey ':d cci^ ied t h e v a l l e y o f th e Indus.
hlbst; o f th e s e ", f:
, s ecular: ;d a t a i l s v e r y ; 1 i k e l y ;pont a l n o Id-wo r id he 11 e f s
■vI;/-V:;' •
:
;
h; -; '-XVtU'h h I s p r e a d in g ;.;:; . ;
:
;.. •.
o f th e pr eA iryaxis,. who • we re f o rin erly /o v er th e n orth o f
^ d i a y ; i ^ ^ a 'Sihdhu ^inciudd&hh th e f b e lie f s : j ^ ic h '' th e ■;
Aryans g r a d u a lly adopted a s ;a r e s u lt o f m utual :contaot;*
. ’ I t i s perliapS: on ac count of; th ese, fo r e ig h e l emeht s in i t
• th at; t h i s Veda was hot; fo r a lo n g tim e allow ed to rank
.
;;With;the,vother:. threexYe<faa;;fF::^^
\ ^C Q
1
In d ia do,^
upon i t as a r e g u la r Veda, nor
;;.vaecept ;t^ s y a u th o r ity as. eq u al;-to that^;^
•
o th e r th r e e
A word or two h ere on th e tr a n sla tio n : and. in te r p r e ta t i o n o f th e Vedas i s n e c e ssa r y .
p o s e s ;0 f th e
T heir stu d y fo r t h e ;pur~
:h is t o r y i s based on modern c r i t i c a l
V e d ic :s c h o la r s h ip , -which; app
th e
A v esta r o f ;Comparatiye P h ilo lo g y , o f Cpmparativ.e I/y th o lo g y ,
o f;/ t h e ; anth rop ology; o f ;;&hcleht Cpe^
P ptip n;o^ ; th e h i s t o r i p h l
t r a d i t io h a l ev id en ce as
w e ll a h ;to C la s s ic a l '^ h s k r it - a s : d h f ^
l i g h t on th e '
ifedai Y r & e knowledge o f Aryan cu ltu re^ in ; t^e: & p ta ;'Sihdtiu ;
Ifates contlribed h l i t e r a r ^
to- i t l such as e x i s t
f o r th e count ry on th e eas t o f i t .
'h ;;;;,.
\',(
§
)
a s ; f ar >as -Bihar;:and; BSngal: fa r -";
■ bejrOnd: th e luhdbm dht^^
..,..la r g e ly Ihdep endent o f ; th e ggveda^ was'^not; reco g n ized ; as
: : a r e g u la r Vedu f or many c e n t u r ie s . The Indian l i t e r a r y ; ;;
I;.;; tr a d .iti o n ;sp §aks■:p f .. t r v i d y a C on tain sd vin th e H gveda,; ''
Samaveda and;;Y ajurveda.: (laim im fs Mfiuanisa. Sutras ) Ihe * .
Atharvaveda p roves th a t the;; Ih dia o f i t s p e r i o d was one in
w hich. non-Aryan; and V edic id ea s were ■b iendP di , ;Ihe; t e x t o f
v. th e Veda e x i s t s ’in t w o ; r e c e n sio n s
th e . Baunaka and Paippa,
l£ d a ~ };;t h e ; f o im e r ib e in g b e t t e r p rese rv ed o f th e tw o. I t s
: . tw enty two books c o n ta in 751 hymns in a l l .
'
;
5
in -th e e a r l i e s t a g e s , based on f a n c i f u l and o c c a s io n a l
Vedic p a s s a g e s 'in th e Brahmanas,
e ty m o lo g ic a l exp lan a­
tio n s; o f i s o l a t e d Ved i c p a ssa g es in :
arid S a y a n a d i« a ^ f.s cbmmentary
,
N irukta
o f th e Vedas, cannot.
p o s s ib ly be s a t i s f a c t o r y ; ■■A ll th e eax^ly w r ite r s were
i
i
;
removed b o th in language and; th o u g h t. f iom : th e :atmosphere; :;
p r e v a i l i n g . in th e p erio d . r e p r e s e n te d . by. a n c ie n t hymn- . yh;
"
'
.... ■'■■■
l i t e r a t u r e .; ; The gap; between Vedic p o e ts and th e in t e r -
;A.
p r e t e r s I n th e tim e ; o f th e Brahmanas must have been very
c o n s id e r a b le ,, and even more so in th e tim e o f Yaska, who.: ; .
q u otes in h i s . N irukta th e o p in io n h e ld b y . one o f h i s ■p r e d e.cessp rs,;ifeu tsa ,:; nas. sa y in g t h a t t h e Vedic^ hymns: were
;h o h S . c u f p , :u
■, 7‘.
c
•;••//•• -
n
m
e
a
n
i
n
g
, th en modern :Ved i c s c h o la r s ’ i n Ih dia;
r
i
yy
t
H
o
w
fa r ycvh
: employ . th e
i c a l liiethod o f in te r p r e ta tio n ^.adopted, by s c i e n t i f i c
s c h o l a r s / o f ;ife d ic ;;studies/:;u
texrtis;
;
/
7/
and^ e x p la in th e ;
to w h ic h ea ch e a r n e st .s tu d e n t. ;
o f th e Vedas. has to fin d h is own ansv;er.
.
(* ) Dated-iooQ^800^B*G;^^;"^-.
7■ ^,y ;:v.-y- y;:y /
; y ■ yV------- ;
' '
(
§
‘
‘
> ' V- ; ; ; b / y y - a V- :
i.: -v.
;.(o); 1 4 th - cen tu ry A. D. ; . yy ;
:
/; :"y;y"y"y .
./•••" v.y’ y-yyy
yy.A/yyy :yyv.
(x )ySfop;;one; most c l o s e l y a ssb c.ia ted =w ith th e^ P an jab yisy SysmiKy
,;.yf y ; \y
ia y a n a n d a , th e ‘founder o f a y r e lig io u s s o c i e t y known as th e
.A - . i W l i ' i ’pJl.. " . I s i i o b - i a o ^ a o "bqa?iii:'vts-hie.. yyyy
y 'y b /y • - ; Pan jab o f ^^^t
has branches a l l 'oyerb3hdia;;vHe;'was;- y v
y;,yy.y; / a g r e a t S a n s k r it; S ch olar and r e li g i o u s • and s o c i a l reform er
h vyS A
yy a f ; t^
cen tu ry (IQ ip -1 8 8 ^
h e ld d i s - .' -/A
y y y ; yyy
• t i n e t r e li g i o u s v iew s based on th e Vedas, want ed to s e e
yby
\ '
; -/-/they ancieht^A ryan c i v i l i z a t i o n r e v iv e d though /w ith ;;n ecess- yy
/yy y - ‘ - ary r e f o m ./
Vedas, he. h a s;m a in ta in e d , were among th e :,y
•
f i r s t th in g s cr ea ted ;, are r e v e a le d ; te a c h s t r i c t monoyi ;
th eism (fo r m le s s G o d 1 ;/J ^ e sen tA th e ;i d e a l
y;>
.
y
. guidance: o f hum anity,. He has a lso ; se e n in them in - ;.
d ib a tlp h s;;p f ;;the cM
i f i c . d is c o v e r ie s
.71; yy
(Read e s p e c i a l l y h is /S a ty a rth a p ra k a sa ,. Vedadib h a sh y a - .
bhumika an d . t r a n s la t ion o f th e Egv.eda in p a rt o n ly ). .
■,y/:yb'y; y y-•;'y;yl^ratever;'view may be taken as to', th
o f 'yjy7
(continued,)
7.
7 7.
': y;- 7.
/
yyOf; the, v a r io n s . a s p e e ta .0 .1 tlidySbptdypdttdhb ^
i t i s th e r e l i g i o n . i n i t s many d e t a i l s ; V7liich h a s been 77 : •7/7: 7
. :7 7 .;
7d e s c r i b e d / a t . l e n g t h / i n the, hynms - o f t h e s e >V edas , th e , c h i e f .
7 7-; ' 7 .;yy/Vyy7bim7b^
th O y re iig iq iu sy id e a ^ ^
/y'.
A77;;';y .■-'7 77 •77A y y\A iyahsvyy;pthe:r;aspectd,y.vit.^
• ' /7 ■
/ ;/ ;; y ^ y lh t e l l e c ti i a i y i i f e .,•- K a l l o o n t r i b u t i n g t h e i r q b o ta t o t h a t / ;
,; ; b u l t u r e y /a re ■m o s tly m en tio n ed i n c i d e n t
:7-: v ■ y/;7--7 yy
7'
t h e :;hyx^s • • ;
We s h a l l y a t f i r s t g iv e a b r i e f s k e tc h y A f:7 th e 7 :i a t t e r ; f 7t7e .;7 y -
7 777: - 7 s e b u l a r 7 ^
;yy77y
/d 'ib e c iG y y /b r ^ i^
/ y ;y
p u t l i n e y t h e r e l i g i o u s and s p i r i t u a l l i f e o f t h e Aryans
y - y : 7/77
7v. .
.
■/■
a f t e r w a r d s .yyyAttemptayfr
• i n Europe and ; I n d i a t o d i s c o v e r , /b y a d i s p a s s d o n a t e s t u d y
y■’
o f 1 i t e r a t u r e i n t h e 1 i g h t of; ’the;, re m a in s o b ta in e d , from
yy •
7
yy..' y B arappa ^ iid y o th e r s i t e s / i n t h e Ihdus7.V alley t h e p re -A ry a n 7
7..
77y77/'''y
e le m e n ts i n t h i s e a r l y c u l t u r e *
T h e ir c o n c lu s i o n s a r e
y7* ,7 a l s o i n c l u d e d , w h erev er p o s s i b l e
and yne c e s s d r y
.;77v /7/yy;7/y/y77'-bket,ch:7eJ7;Afyun7e'ivili^
y/7//7'
-
7
7.7y-.A-;77y
^7.77;r.;;:'.7::^ e y A ry ah sV -.as' s e e n a b o v e , e n t e r e d t h e n o r t h - w e s t - o f y
7
'/••yy I n d i a i n t h e l a s t q u a r t e r o f th e t h i r d m ille n n iu m B* Cyy////;.
y;
■
:7-vy
,y
V
//yy///y7:v
y■ 7 . They o ccup i e d t h a t r e g io n >a s y s d b c e ss p rs
y
yy;
Ihdiis 7 y
V a lle y p e o p le a n d m a d e /th e ;y ^ p ta 7 S in d h u ,7/7la n d o t Seven
R i v e f s , ’ ,/ t h e i r f ^
.7yy.77 7y7 77 - :.- -..a- b i ^ l y / a d v a n c e ^
7 77
t h e y -g rd d u a ily , e v o lv e d
ormyof7;b i y i l i z a t i o n •
A fte r. h a y in g
.7
-;-7
77
7 / 7 / y yy ^y'yy/^ot'e^oontlriuedv):-- some 0 f h is 7;in t e r p r e t a t io n s y 7 u ii/m u s t
; reco g n ise th e Thigh mordl and i n t e l l e c t u a l . purpose in s p ir in g
■•//,’7 ;7•:7/y, 7/7 his-"work^y-'Whibh-■has/Aihde^
a7 new /ydrieniatipn7tb.yy 7/ !
y/ .
/ .y/7- Aryahism : o r V ediSm /yahdyasyshchybep^
of
77 7
7.yyy.;.;/ // /y7 :/ y y i t o d e r n / , s c h o l a r s / t h e ^
f a r r e c e i v e d . . , . ,:,/-,///;■7777777^7 -77
777 y
.7; 7 m ig r a te d ‘f rom/ d i s t a n t l a n d s , t h e y J w e f e / a t . f i ^
y 7 y / y //
'tim e nom adic- i n 7t h e i r / h a b ^
7/ s.'/-A
'/-'/////7
a s such! u h f i t t e d ; and u n - . / /
7 prexDared f o r o r g a n i s e d so c i a l . l i f e . / Howev e r , a f t e r • a ; .
/7
•,/'>7.:' / / / l a p s e / o f c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e ; t h e r e owa,s/ a chan ge. ;■ryihen the; :7/'/-/
7 7 '7
v/7 ‘hymns o f t h e Bgveda began t o be composeel, t h e s o c i a l / o r d e r ^ 7//
7 had assumed a d e f i n i t e s h a p e ; i t was founded on th e l o c a l 7 7 /y-7
-A, d i v i s i o n o f g o t r a , ’c l a n fy an a g g r e g a te o f k u l a s 7 ’f a m i l i e s ’ .
' 7 : /7:7 7 /7/ :/7 S ° ° i e t y was t h u s d i v i d e d / i n t o a 'humher/ of^/'sUch 'g o tr b s ,777 7: /-7
•;A7
y
••'•//:77-77‘7 -• . / t h e g e n t e s o f/th e ^ Bcmans*;
/ . ’•/\."77/ 7/ ;l d n a / ’t r i b e V /! .
■;.7:
^
/ /;■-:-'77
w h ic h ■.c o l l e c t i v e l y , /tormed. th e ■7'7
/ / / ; ;v./v. / / 7/ '7- /- ,•
7. ;,y ■.-///• '7'P /-/••/.--v- /-vy/ ..
■ ■;/ ffie7 Bgyeda giy.es/7us/. a c l e a r p i c t u r e / o f / t h e / l i f e i n
7 / -: g e n e r a l o f a J a m , when i t h a d / s e t t l e d down in. t h e V a lle y s
;7
77
7; o f t h e r i v e r - l a n d . 7. ih e J a n a ,7 which ,y/as made up P f s e v e r a l
7 /7 / c l a n s and f a m i l i e s , sp re a d 7 o v e i> l a r g e t e r r i t o r y and formed 7/
7,/
7 / 7 a / r e g u l a r ; s e t t l e m e n t , v i s ; from/ t h e r o o t v i s / t o
’s e t t l e
/ 7'/v 7-/:-7'
Undef t h e head- c a l l e d v i s p a t i
’e n t e r T o r
(MaU&oneli/and-fe/■/7-/^ 7-
■ y/7"K e ith , V e d ic /In d e x Vol 1 1 / pp 5Q5-S07 j 7/7•/T hp /7 sm ailest^ /u n it// .
.7 7/777/ 7,.//y-77y;7// i n a v i s was /perfaaps/7 t h e /grama ’v i l l a g e ’ , ^ i c h / h a s / b e b h ,/7/7y
/-■ 7 y :: 7;/ ■7/y
-\//;/7
/. p l a c e o f p e o p l e . y
; y / : '7/y
7 7-7
: '
c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r r e d t o i n th e 7 R g yeda;,as7the/dw elling
7/7;
Ihe. a u t h o r s / o f V e d ic . Index; s a y , uThe
Vedic I n d i a n s : must have, dv/eit i n v i l l a g e s which; were
7 s c a t t e r e d , o v e r the.: c o u n tr y , some c l o s e t o g e t h e r , some f a r
7
7/7 a p a r t / and w e r e /c o n n e c te d b y ro a d s 7 7 /Thb 7 y . i i i a ^
/7 /y 77/
7 ; / / /
(*) I h e / j a n a o f t h e Aryans , u n l i k e / t h e Roman gens yi was a 7 7/./
// / l a r g e r u n i t 't h a n / g o t r a 7. and d e n o te d 7 a s shown a b o v e , a
. t r i b e i n .which a l l p e o p le had common t i e s o f blood and 7:
/;,■■ 77,.-. ■;-/-/ :/--/7- claim ed' descent7;fromyh'-'common/ancestbrv. ;7'y/v7'
, 'y/7-^.. :/l..
(§) He I , 4 4 ,1 0 and 11; 9 4 ,1 ; 1 1 4 ,1 ; Kc I I , 1 2 ,7 ; He X ,149,
;/.7:/ / 7 -/;/./. 7 7 74^e t c . /7/y ;/7y/- -y/7 .7 .y • - /'//.• /;/; . .77/7/ -77 V;v.//,:,//.-- / . / / / ..//./y77. 7 ///.j
v / / 7:8 7 : 7 7/ -; 1 a i'ly cpnt r a s t ed w ith th e fo r e
(atanya ) r ancl^^^
^/v7/.
7 /'■'TV7■ : :;p7v7;/A77. ./;7-I;antl7;7pl;a;^^ 7v7±.*fcii th o se;- t h a t / T b ^
■7'"7;v/7 *' 77;
7
;>/>v7;77^7'ijie'^sapj/ba/ ‘
/■//'"■
v
c o n ta in e d
members o f a s i n g l e / c l a n , /bu.t.7; g r a d u a l l y / t h e / ^ e l u s i v e , ////.v///:;
777 7 7: 7
7;/
n a tu r e of: a g ra m a , a s is; o b s e r v e d / in rdoderh Pan j a b ,v a n is h e d ,/,>
/ : 77'7.-7 /a n d i t . co m p rised f a m i l i e s o f d i f f e r e n t c l a n s , a l l c o n t r i -
._77;''7 -:-7:7 y / •---/-•-•--//- b u tih g t o ;th e s o c i a l / l i f e Of7;the v i l l a g e . . /
;ih e /te r m
; ;.7'7 /"/’"■••'' : /;7 7 7 g ram a, i t . may be; p o in te d o u t / was n o t alw ays . appil^
77 ’77 ■/■/ / '
7
:
s m a ll o r 7i a r j g e - . V l i i a ^
"7777 .7/;/.
t o a 7 ■:7/
ed/a/tow n;//--/-;//
■. ^--77:V y y y ; .f o r / c i t y .- ; i n ‘S a n s k r it d/iteraturb/w e/cqm e/^^^
7 --
/':/
■ y 7/ ; -
7
.
\/7
7
■;/ 7 -'
p la c e s th e : v/ord/ g ra tia u s e d f o r cit;les'V/.^;
exam ple - grama '7 7
. i n th e , compound 7 V ahika-gram a : (Bat an j a h 1 s; Ih h a b h a s h y a , I I , ,/’
7293 and 294) i s ta k e n t o i n c l u d e / a c i t y / l i k e l^ a s tiy a o r
7 /7 S a k a la a s w e ll, b o th o f w h ic h h a v e ; b c e n / r e f ^
//7/77:7
777:-.;.: - 7 A?7//.yv;/h a b a ra .-/^ c ity -7 elsew h ere' 177' 7Ifcw /1 h at:/ we/ h a v e / t h e / e v i d e n c e / ' 7 /:
7;7‘7- - -//-’.A- :
./ ;; o f / c i t i e s : f i p u r i s h i h g / i h / t h e 7: Indus 7V a lle y . c o n t em ppraneous - .
7; / 77; -/77/; l y w ith th e / TAryans o f Sap t a S in d h u , th e r e i s no re a s o n to
. /
d o u b t t h a t th e te rm grama m eant c i t i e s a s w e ll a s v i l l a g e s
/ ; 7 /.
/.e v e n a t an e a r l y d a t e ,
/■ 7/7 v 7-/;; /
Ife v e rth e le s s ^
g e n e ra lity o f
//
p e o p l e / l i v e d in y i i l a g e s w ith hpvises, .b u i l t o f s u n - d r ie d
'.777;,/;' 7.7 .// :77 7:-ymud b r i c k s >: wood f roiii th e / f 6 r e s t , or" s to n e ;froxii t h e 7
777;
7;7^/7y7^PUntain 7 ;sidey;/dccbrding//tio/pi'im ate,.- a n d ...lo c a l ;.,s itu d ilq n 7 //\';
7 /./'■
-
P opulous tow ns and c i t i e s o f . b r i c k - b u i i t /h o u ses w hi
7
-77/. 77 /
"'
) I^b d p neiiv7and/ K e ith y / ^ d i c / Index ^
, . p /244 . 7'7-/7 - 7/7-7' 7 ;:/ !
' / / A / - 77 7 /;/(§ j Bgveda, T J & \ I ^ l l d j l ^ / B c V I I I , 7 ,1 ;; 7ac/Xv / l S 7 , 5 . 7 / 7 / '/ / / '
/' / 1 7 / •/;//-\ (o ) P a n in i ’s . A s h ta d h y a y i,7 S u tra V I, 1 ,1 5 5 ;
7-
’'‘/-'/• /77^7/77/7'//7'-B t-/V IIl,//chapter/xIiy/7^
/'/;'//y/-' ///.
c h a r a c te r iz e d tiie Indus V a lley c u ltu r e /m u st have continued,
/ i n / t h e vAryan period;; o n y th b .fe r ti^
of- t h e / r i v e r s / ^
th e Pan jab; /t h o s e which were destroyed; dui'ing in v a sio n s
//■
.would have been r e b u i l t , though; w ith a d if f e r e n t s t y l e .
.
A/Saptd y & ^ ^ t o /
judge; f r o k /t h e /^
.
y -.y^yy-::-'■/■y /•■yyv*). :yy/y y-'y;;yi; ^yy-’-yyyyy; v/;/-King'::V aruna’s p a la c e ,
and s e v e r a l o th e r p a s s a g e s , cou ld
i l l a f f b r l t o / l i v e m a low ly in g 7v illa g e * exposed to
d e lu g in g f lo o d s o f th e r i v e r s .
■/ / / /
'7 7
//7 /y ; 7 7 ; ' - 7 / / ;/ / / • / - . ” / / . . ..
The p e o p le o f ;an .averagb Sapta /■S in d h u .yvillage were
, a /s im p le , / h a r d y / ^
y
/;
l i k e th e p e a sa n ts o f th e Pan jab
o f to -d a y , fo r / r u r a l l i f e 7changes very slo w ly . /T h e ir mam
; ;^ a lth /w a s;; i n c a t tle ^ v^ ich they ’te n d e d .
7A g r ie u ltu r e w a s
; f h e ; ir /o t h e r /c h ie f p e c u p a tip n v / as /is: /e v id e n ti/fr o i/;
/ r e fe r e n c e s in. nuriierous words and p a s s a g e s ./ / 7 Th±&: qq&vlp a t io h . i s s p e c i a l l y p r a ise d . in a sta h z a Ilo 15 o f He X ,5 4 . /
• The p lough and t h e : ploughshare. arc .o b je c ts; o f d i v i n e / •
w orship in th e Bgveda.
. ^ e ;hym nIV,5 7 / is /'a d d r e s s e d /to a / 7
god o f th e f i e l d s , w ith p rayers to d ir e c t the. p lough /
s t r a ig h t in to th e furrow 5and to keep th e land s w e e t, ;so 7
T’H y W
I I ,ilv s V ^
; /or' 7'/^
(§/)/ A g r ic u ltu r e forms th e . subj e c t o f 7one whole hymn 7(He IV,
57 , 1 -8 ) . Some o f th e /v a r io u s /p a s s a g e s y r e fe r r in g /to i t :
are as f o l l o w s : - .Blc I , ; 2 3 ,1 5 ; He IT* 1 4 , 1 1 ; He V, 5 3 , 1 5 ;
He VI*. 6 ,4 ; He V II I, 78, 1 0 ;•/He I , 1 0 1 , 3 and 4; 117, 7;
/ . etc*
’ / y / / 7 ’_ . ' / - ■ • / /
7. - - / " / / / ■ / / • ' ' V . . - " / / 7:; / / 7 ■ 7 7 / / / ;y / / / / / 7 / 7 7 . / / ■ 7 . / / 7 /
(o) a k sh a ir ma d iv y ah ler sh im i t krsh asva v i t t e r amasy a / b f ahu
■:./■.y /’-.,/-y77^'y-,y7'/ > / / /77*’:.:.^;/y:':’--.7--yL
:r7;//.7,V3n^33^e^
/y //y //7 /7 //7 ^
t a t r a gavah k i t ava t ava j ay a t an me ;v i ch ash te saVitayani
7 7 77/ /■
■//.;■ 7y /■///■-■' ;• 7 / ' '
- • /7'’a r y a h ; - 7 :7 / . / , y / 7 ■ /
/ • / / /•••••• 7:
10:
%-thdt th e ■husbaMmari may 'a r ir e :M e-
v;;v:i ;
's;;^ r v t h :ex:purpd&^^
.; (He X:, 25, 4
; w e lls
6 8 , 1 ; i99., ;4 ) . :.‘f^e-:^at©3?(^waSv r a is e d from ; ■.
(avatas V b y m eans;o f s t one - w heels j c i r c l e s o f ;st one;:':;
:c ■(asm archakra)
t o *which (b uckets v w e r e fa ^
d e v ic e } o f ; lift!n @ ; ;water; -from '.w ells ' is T s t i l j ^ f ^
:: p a r ts o f th e Panj ab •
Some operat ions:' in ^ iie :!a r t ■Qf ;;
. a g r ic u ltu r e are a ls o m e n tio n e d ,. lo r exam ple, when th e
h a r v e s ts were r i p e , th ey were, cut down w ith a s i c k l e ( s r n i ,
: H e. 1 J 58, 4 , He X , 1 0 1 , 5; 106, 6 ; or •d a tr a , mbdern ‘P a n ja b i•
•' d a t r i , 33c T i l l , 7 8 ,1 0 ) , bound in to bundle's/' .(^ arsh a, He V I I I ,/
7 8 ,1 0 , Bk: X, 1 03,3;' 131, 2 ) and; "beaten out on th e f l o o r . ..
'of th e, gran ary,. (Xtiala j He 'X^;'48t:,7.;)>;''//''Ihe :/g r a i^
sep a ra te d from th e straw and r e f u s e ; e i t h e r by'^ a s ie v e V/;/V;.’..it
^d^wij^wiiiff: :fa h ( i ^ r n a ;Hc
/w ih n o w e r w a s e a lie d d h a h y a - k r t /H
;•£/
g r a in was measured in d rvesseT ;}cal|ed t ^ e r a
V- , x y ' I t w i l l thus be seen /th at?A ryan :
(Ek i l , ;1 4 , l l f ^
sqc le ty V ln
;;'Sapt^
■:>
; Sindhu was h ot m e r e ^ ip a siiO r a l.,'a s :1s ^ som e^
from, th e p raye r s o ffe r e d to:./thev,god', Pushan: in- ihe.V Rgveda : ; /;
,• fo r p a stu r e s and herds o f c a t t l e ; /th e b ree d in g and p ro- £V
; t e c t i o n o f lcine and th e 1 lic e . are great; concerns o f : an
(*) I h e Aryans made, r e g u la r use, o f sto n e : ^Rgyeda ; He I I
;' 24, 4 4 asmasyam ayatam , : % e ll w ith mouth o f sto n e f jlHc; X , :
; 1 0 1 , I 0T a^manmaytb h ih v a s ib h ih , ^axes made o f : sto n e 1• -.';/
So a ls o Bk IV , 3 0 , 2 0 "and He X, , 67, 3 , where a . hundred
f o r t r e s s e s o f sto n e and. sto h y b a rriers: are m en tion ed !
(§) Vedic In dex, Vol I , pVl8 g ; a r t i c l e on k r sh f.1^ plou gh in g♦♦
'!v..'
;: a g r i c u l t u r i s t , / i^reover,,-the■•..Aryans l. ;khp^ledge;/ofi '/■-:/•//;/.:V.•/■/
:
: • .
a g r ic u ltu r e : seems to go back to tlie age b efo r e th ey entered.
■.
/. . ■'••/
/
Sapta Sunclliu.
The Indo-Aryans .and .Ir
! ! . . : u n it e d , c u lt iv a te d so i l and r a is e d c r o p s .
/..
■ / ,
T h is i s proved
,”by- tlie i d e n t it y o f thd: e x p f e s s id n s :yavami krsh^ an d /s a s y a ; /!v ::!
in th e . B&veda w ith yao k aresh and hahya in t h e :A v esta , / y ;.
,/.
, :
f.
r e f e r r in g to: th e ^ .lou gh in g \iii o f th e •seed :and t o th e g ra in ■
v-^ ; /v , !;;/w hichl.resulted;i:!^!,
V/.v/,r ■
The )3^)madlc and x > d s t p r a l ! li f e / t ^
Aryans a p p a ren tly fo llo w e d in t h e ir o r ig in a l. home in th e
v 1 !';!'■/ remote p a s t j : h d d \ion ^ . agOr&eeh';over /be d're!.th'eV^d^■::;.'•■-T'!•'■ ! :j!■.
.V';
\
i ./ ,Bie ;Indo-Arya
:'
any c a s e , .whe n th ey
s e t t le d in th e Pah j ab , ooht iniied to p ra ct i s e
'V
/!
/■;; ■!;':* i to which th ey were;.accustomed by in h e r ita n c e ,
At th e same
. tim e we must not fo r g e t th a t th e IM us V a lley
p eo p le whose
v v !■’
T,: c;co\mt.ry th e jA^yuns; irivaded h ad p o ssessed /^ ^ a g ricu ltu ra l'!
. c e n t r e s , on which depended th e p r o s p e r ity ,of : c i t i e s . l i k e :•:
. ;
1
a g r ic u lt u r e ,
.!■'/v / ; . Harappa w ith teem in g p o p u i k t I h e r X h d o ^
'd-/;
. ;new home^
'
:
1\:. . ; ■ ! .S,/■:
-\: 1
;•
"
have adapted th em sely es t)ery^ e a r ly to. the. / .
r e so u r c e s o f th e Panjab, and t h e i r a g r ic u lt u r a l l i f e , so
h i g h l y spoken ; p f i n t he B ^ $ d a ^ ^ depended ion th e
p r e v io u s e x p e r ie n c e s o f the. Indus V a lle y p e o p le . 1
c-•' ; /;,//
•;. , !/? v i l l a g e th a t took to pldughihg;. th a t •may have been th e
,.v::
(*) i b i d , pp.: 181 and 1 8 2 , T ava perhaps at. f i r b t meant any ..:;. '/■■/';' ;■; ■''.■■
g r a in and l a t e r b a r le y .
;
y.!v;’:
story: o f th e o r ig in b f a g r ic u ltu r e |A tharvaved.a! - v
'i : He VIII,:. .10, 27 ) by one P rth i •or Prthu^Vaihyav"(Vedic •
/• 1: • '
;
Index,, Vol I I , ;p . 1 6 ) : mus t *be ■re garded a s a pure ..myth.,•••:
:.;■//• !/!-•;/;.'/:!’■/- / /I n v e n te d ’l a t e r , ; > / ; ■ ////:/T/"■■/•T'-.: /• //;/:■!y.: ■ / / • . ; . / •'^";.'//:r.
:a>:
ca se on ly i n s m a l l , v i l l a g e s ^ .;B esid es
we; ;
f
in th e R g v e d a tr a c e s o f s e v e r a l o th e r o c c u p a tio n s .
Coitmmiiication,
i t s u r e ly e x is t e d ^ ; w as, ori. .the w h o le,
i-V
‘
; qonse<3uently-.^theiyilla^ Cy
v t , f f %:J-inpluded; ^
e s t a b l ishm ent :o f :p ecu p a tio n s C ;
- , andr tr a d e s , which' enabled i t to carry o n • i t s .c o l l e c t iv e
;' l i f e w ith ou t e x te r n a l •:a s s is t a n c e .
a good . : V !
village*;. campgto ihd la d e
'' S v . ' s e e ,
f
' ■'.*
v a rio u s, h r ti^ ^
,;:;-i^arriof
te a c h e r s and s p i r i t u a l g u id e s >Vwhile th e conquered non-
:
'-:Aa^ans;;;/ih! th e Indus fValley^^rore^V;ai;low etfvto-vstay/'p^
i\: byr aiid■l>y'vincorp d rated i h f the:.; sb.ciety;; and vf orcetf to work/: ' •‘
^
:
d r s l a v e s ./ v^lV.Ih^addi^
v/ere barbers and .p h y sic ia n s
ih e word Ib h ish a g * occurs
' - i f 'v; V■:in; many ■hymns, aiid th e heafihgrjart;;:was; h ig h ly ; lauded f ■>the;:- ■■;
tw in gods ,;,^
'
A sy in s, and the god: Budra were th e d iv in e
■.r■;*;f3?|hy*^icIb^xis^iiffiho;'.; t^ei*0'';>re^Peqit edly*;; ixiy;bI^od* ipj^^'^th-o' ;iY
i*^c^y,a.iis('.
\
v;
i
■
. % ny;■:o th e r J n in orooeu p ati& n a. are'^^
'a ll;;ih e y a b b v e : abt i v i t i e s yshbw sythaiy ih b ::iArydh ,v ;i^
^fasqedjbeyond’Vth^.-pr im ii iv e a t agey yand-;^
:
;■v
we have p ra y ersy £ q ^ ;t^
ion ;o f s la v e s (Eh ' I I I 4 6 , ;■
;■
:.V.7 3 S ; HC V I I I , 56, 3.) • ^ s x^egards; th e i r s t a t u s and c o h d if ion
wev'h ave^ h o;in form afion from th e
^"■■-s
. Hgveda, H e I y. W ,f 5 ; ' He I I 313, 4 , V y He V, 4 S ,li: ; f
^4 6 ^ 5 ; ■He
-;'97.;;etb'*^-i-J' 0 ' regard s\cb^ ^
o f ; healihg^^powers r e f e r r e d ;f o in th e Veda s^eT:Efe‘-Si' ■■llS'yB^
-1 0 ; 116.,; 1 0 , ;15, 1 6 .
v^V
:
in c r e a s in g wants had g iv e n r i s e to m a n ife s t s u b - d iv is io n
'
o f la b o u r , , in which a r t s and c r a f t s p la y e d im portant p a r t s .
Thus,' th e s o c i a l l i f e o f a v i l l a g e o r town became com plex,
-
as th e r e s u l t o f th e req u irem en ts o f a g r ic u lt u r e , o f d efen ce
t a g a in s t Aryan and Dasyu n eighbours and o f r e l i g i o n .
Eroin numerous and d i s t i n c t r e fe r e n c e s m th e hymns, to
c r a f t s l i k e ca r p e n tr y , m etal^work, w eaving and p o t t e r y , we
know th e Sapta Sindhu p e o p le took up. th e ,b u sin e ss , o f c a r ' p e n te r , sm ith , weaver and p o t t e r w ith p le a s u r e 1.
Vh may say,
th a t th e c o n s tr u c t io n ;Of:: c h a r io ts
1 7 1 , S; He I I , .1 9 ,8 ; 3 5 , 3; Bk IV, lS ^ O ^ B c V,‘ 2 , 11; e t c . ) , :
m anufacture o f Implement.s o f vfarr f,He I , 1 6 2 ,2 0 ; 1 2 7 ,’ 3;.
Blc'YII, 1 0 4 , 2 1 ; Bk V I I I , 9 1 ;1 9 ; e t c ) , w eaving (He I , 6 1 ,8 ;
He V I, 9 , 2; BK V II , 3 ,9 ; Bk X’, 2 6 ,6 ; 3 0 , 1 ; e t c ) , and s h ip ­
b u ild in g (He I , 1 1 6 ,3 ; He I I , 3 9 ,4 ; He V I I I , 4 2 ,3 ; He IV,
7 0 ,1 0 ; Blc'X, 2 5 , 7 ) were some- o f the, p r in c ip a l in d u s t r ie s
which,were" p r a c t is e d in th e Sapta Simdhu.
In t h i s con­
n e c t io n I t may be n o tic e d th a t among a g r i c u l t u r a l, m il it a r y
and h o u seh o ld im plem ents m ention i s m a d e 'o f;v a r io u s : - a r t ic le s •
o f m e ta l,
Tayas f
(*)
Though th e ex a c t m eaning o f t h i s word
i s n ot a s c e r ta in e d , y e t from some V edic p a ssa g e s t h e -sdnse *
(§)
o f ir o n i s c e r t a i n . y Max M u lle r 's o p in io n was "that a t th e
tim e o f th e Bgveda b e s id e s s i l v e r and g o ld , a th ir d m eta l
(*) e . g . Rgveda, He I , 2 5 ,3 ; He I I , 3 9 ,4 ; He V-, 3 0 ,1 5 ;
53; 6 2,8$ He V I, 2 7 ,6 ; He IX, 1 ,2 ; 8 0 ,2 ; e t c .
I b id .Bk V, 35; He VI, 7 5 , 15 (y a sy a ayo mukham):
■A tharvaveda, He V, 2 8 , 1 ; He X, 3 ,1 7 ." Of. Vedic Index,
r .-r z
O
%*'
,
s'.
:
;. ,
v
? s :■ v
•
v
v
*:%■
'
yyyy y -Vi- '
:y y;C
■'ywas^;knb^::ahd;.nambd ayas,;but^w heitfre^
t
o
P ith e:r copper;;or-;iron :Or^tp'-!^
';y-y v-Vy’Vyi^
Y;l;'yyy
Irom 'the.Veyide^
yK
■r ‘v V-Viy^yv; , fin d s in tlie ; Indus ; ; ^ l l e y ,y^whe’ie.--u^
jy
.yyrS'i-r ■'v yy yappearsy; we;;may;. I n fe r ;lh a iv th e y te im ;'ayh s *ywhs.. atv f i r s t ; ^ y y y y
a p p lie d toy copper .and later-ton y came.; to b e used fo r I rpn y y ’/ yyy
/v '
; y; t ^
in Sapta Sindhu.; y As to th e m a fe r ia lt useh^In. ■ th ey w ea y i^
:V;;.v o f c l o t h , Wool, s i l k and c o tto n .were /g r e a tl^ -u ^
■''
::yy:yv
y - yt
' p a r ti.c u la r , th e 'wool o f Gandhara (Bgv e d a, 'Ek.: I , 1 2 6 ,6 ) ,
■ "vyy :^yy o f th e B avi and Indus r e g io n s:. (i&i&d, : Ek ;-£, 7 6 ,8 ), was
‘hy'^'Vyy
. ;y ;y:-yy
tVyhighly^/prizedy;-; l i u e ^ y th era rls : no^;^
t ' y ’t ' y ''
;
■y '•
. o r c o tto n in .t h e Rgveda, but th e fa ct. t h a t - 1
y
y c o tto n were u sed in th e C h a lc o lith ic Panjab, . as i s c le a r
;V
from th e
-'
d isc o v e r y o f in stru m en ts1 o f w eaving and scra p s y
; o f c l o t h , c o n c lu s iv e ly p roves th a t th e e a r ly Aryans w
v
.
.yy. ; q u itey f a m i l i a r ' a ^
" \y ■yy y;v to the: .Sapta. Sihdhuy;.y Ik g p zin ;,rw iiiib d lsp u s s ih g ythe o ld
y.yy;V y;yy;;ly;;y;E hbyipniann^
■-yyyyyyy-:. : : "that th e ^ y a n y s e t t l e f s y p f yifor'thern;y^
■ftyc y y ‘■’y.'y.-y- ybegun, a t an amazingly: e a r ly p e r io d , fc.:;exPb%:;'in:ythe"iy-■yy
•,yyy-; -yyy
y; y y . m a n u f a c i u r e y o f y t ^
- yy''.'
> and i s to t h i s day;
'
fy-'.'
d ou b tless' in incom parably g r e a t e r •'
y . . p e r f e c tio n . .- one o f y t h e ir in d u s t r ia l; g l o r i e s , a .fa c t
which im p lie s c u lt iv a t io n o f th e co11 on p la n t ;or t r e e ,
• ':\-y
y .
yy
:
p rob ably
(*Tt
o
in Vedic tim es a lr e a d y . tfyyy; ^V'/^-yy "’’-y-':iy" y ’--\r:y^ ;::y!\'
B agozin. Ved ic had l a . London ;19 25 e d it io n , p . 3 0 6 .
y -y V ..; The ev id en c e b £ c e r t a in words l i k e : 'v a n i j \ ,': w h ic h /- ; - ;-y
vy"
';
/yy-:;; denoted a tr a d e r (Bgveda, Be I , y i l s y y l l rr £ f ! f e ' {
'yyy yy, / :;y-theUroot k r i to purchase ( ib id .He IV, .
i'.y1:.:v■ ;|
, 10) 4 VVasna', yyyyyy
p r ic e ■(ib i& yBk IVy 24, 9 ) , e t c . , as. w e ll as c e r t a in / ■ >/:-V,,
.y.yyyy;';y-- yy;yy:;ypassagesy’ih ;.th e % veda, c le h r iy yshoW; t^^
;;'yyy'.'y
■y y y 'y p n l/m
a r t i c l e s ,a n d ^
w e r e ^ ..^ '
exchanged or s o ld , perhaps in area s whe re. th e re was in t e r /y y :/ y';y" dependence between, n e i^ b o u r in g y v i l l h ^ e s i. y /& ty th e main yy.:yyy;
yyyyy.v.-yy- tra d e :*misiy hay ey been
:
. o f th e Sapta Sindhu, w hich were probably con n ected w itli
■ one ahothery by t r a c k s w i t h w e l l s ; a t y i h t e r v a l s .
y y ;;
The
.// •/
y^yyyy, com merce/with ■they Put s id e ./iiforld>$^
vy ;
yyy y/ y b
V "
V’:
.
/;■;’/
days o f pre-A ryan c u lt u r e , as
i s known from th e d isc o v e r y o f : th e Indus s e a l s in .Meso--
;
.y
y ;.y■
'.yyyyyv ■■yyyv/y p b tami a;'/andy f 6 r e i g n s ealsyd n y th e y
y-;:y;,. ://.;.'; ■o th e r rem ains, was ;con tin u ed by th e Ih d o -^ y a n s lyyVTfrere . '/
;y
are ‘r e fe r e n c e s in th e /^ v e d a t o sliip s and m erchant sy goin g > ; ;
V.;'yy'/ -yy /y^abro ad'yy' /Tbr/ example;, ;/th e £ s t anz'as.y■•■in.yi&yi^
;
J yy ; '5 5 ^ .6 /in d ic a t e th a t merchants, cw ehtytoythe dc^
///■.-.■ y
'; which, must, he no o th e r th an , coim
B e s id e s , th e •y-'y; •••./
.y/y'' ;yyy/ yy//; ■ Atharv ave d a ;;(He ;ill/\;1 5 0 /;'g iy b sy fc sp e ily fq d r /o b ta iM
,;/■/ :
:
' /
s u c c e s s in ,t r a d e .: As to th e way:.in; which tra d e was
'yy'
.
c a r r ie d on and th e p resen ce o f m ark ets, we are alm ost m
y//yy /-'/ •;/ '■ y .
th e dark. . But th e re i s s ome ev i de nc e / t o ;show th a t th e >y /
,-,v
exchange o f ,com m odities wasybjr^.'barter:r.;:;y^;Ten/,.cows-,are-.:
y y;
•; y y
r v/
;regarded a s a;: p o s s ib le p r ic e fo r .an ( image o f ) hidra to
:y
v7
16 ;
be, u sed to be u sed u s /a f e t i s h , w h ile elsew h ere n ot a y ;
Huxidredjynor
/'.
nor: a m yriad ;are -c o n s id p r e d b
ahvadei^h^^
■•
ey.-ptiaj.ph^'s
i*iS: i r*^;:
'yV-vy^
It seems cows j , as ;a lsq .j e wel 1 e ry l i k e n ls h k a y(goId n eck i e t s |
were th e mo re c ommon s t andar ds o f ex ch an ge. ; v A c e r t a in,
7:-7 7
s o c i a l :c la s b y ^ d e s ig n a te d /th e / I& hisy/atlas s^
iitiradbV.&n&^al's/p;;^
d i s l i k e in th e ey e s o f ,;.the p r ie s t- a u th o r s o f th e . hymns, ihyy;
w hich hey i s / ^charged w ith r a p a c ity , u sury and; im p ie ty ,t^- :-yi
Very l i k e l y th e Pani was condemned becabse h e, b ein g a, /.
,lo v e r o f w e a lth , d is r e g a r d e d r e lig io u s y lif e ^ ; ^
,/. y:y
g o d s, perform ance \ p f . s a c r if ic e /a h d reve rence fo r p r ie s t s ..
Thus we s e e th a t s o c i e t y in /Sapta Sindhu was / b u f f i - / /'
o i e n t i y s e t t l e d , by th e tim e even o f th e e a r l i e s t hymns
o f th e BgvCda, to have a tta in e d a h igh deveiopm ent in
a g r ic u lt u r e , v a r io u s a r t s and c r a f t s , a s ' w e ll as; in in la n d
and se a tr a d e .
But t h i s was not a l l .
The more w a rlik e
and e n te r p r is in g / among th e pebple assum ed
. iy :
i th e / r e s t / f o r p ro tect.ip n b ^ /th eir/lah d /p n & //prb^
a ls o fo r i p r o t e c t io n again st/en em y-A ryan ,P r/n oh th e more thought f u l aiid co nt empiat iv e amongst ;them took to •
th e;w o rk ;p f te a c h in g , m o stly r e l i g i o u s , to worship o f gods
■
/ahhy^enfpnmahbe .of / V s d i c ' / s a e r i f i c e s y / y / B d l f /
Vedic Index, Vol I , pp .1 9 6 ,and 2 S 4 .- Also Bgveda, He V I I I ,
//l
and
5. -
; ■-■'://;iy'‘/y y .■ - y y / ■ - y i - y / y / y ; ; ' / y / y 7 ' 7 : : /
;/y;.//;■■ / y y y i - " ' / / y y y y
(§). . I b id , p. 197 . , T hat; n lsh k a wasi a c o in o r /sta n d a r d o f / yalue:
:iyih;C urrenoy/ht//jR ^ed3.cy'ageyia/V eryydoubtfui.:' / •//y.-yy'i‘'7yyy'yy''
v/;/v rbouM /;thke to d iffe r e n t, c r a f t s or o cc u p a tio n s v/ithout a n y /y
:
- /////'•
, p r e j u d ic e .. Any, person; who d is t in g u is h e d h im s e lf for/h is./;:;;
:y// \7 / 7 y //y / ; g e n i u s o r v ir t u e d p u ld vp d o^ t/an y o f t h e c a l l i n g s whitch./ '/yy7
y y / y ; ; 7 s u i t e d / h i s /a b il^ ^
Yet in th e s e cond i t io n s o f freedom in
y/y/.y/.y/y- y / y v o ca t i o h a l ; : f ^ c t i p n s , 7:' ih'eyshafpydiyasid:^ ^
"7y / . iy; ■ ; yri chyand poor seems t o : have been e x i s t i n g >.
y
/ 7/
:y y
7
We f in d , in ///
, a d d i t i o n . to th e r u lin g c h ie f s and. p r in c e s ! /thp.: e x is t e h e e //.//
..• ///y p f a /r ic h /u p ;p e r ,/c la ss j / t ^
;:itoS ku ias,77\;^ y/y
7 * sprung from a g re a t f ami l y 1, though fig U r a t iv e ly . (B :/1 ,
v/7 7 //7/y:'7y777/101, ; i )/ and Maghavans 'b o u n tif u l i •! (V e d ic : index: Vo 1 I I , y y.y//
■ 77 p ; 1 1 8 ), who/ are d i s t in ^ is h e d y b ^ /t h e ir /g e n e r o s it y 7; / ^ e /v ;7
/;/ /y /y 7 ;
y / / / , y
y y:
o f th ese' r ic h p eop le may; be a p p r ecia te d froin
th e co n sta n t p r a is e bestpw ed/on th e .p eop le, v/ho.imade g i f t s / / /.
o f h o r s e s , i c a t t i e , ' c l o t h e s a n d •goldV ;:; Oil th e o th er hand,
yy7..;/ ■y /y /y y 7therei':^e,fr e starvingym eh/.begg^
;/:/.
77/7
117 o f He
hymn/;/
d ed ica ted , to hunger7and a t t r ib u t e d /to Ehikshu,
■ ' T / y y y y / ; / v: 7 / /
•yy/
7y- y / y t h e p o o ry /^ a it h /n p /d b u b t /p ^ ^
y/^'y
of
7 -7y;; •
7 / s d c i a l :p o sitib h V ^ /p rovid ed yit'/p p trp h ieed V ^
y/yw ;/■7 7.77-::^77■;% dicy7eeligion» 7 : / ^ e s e 7p o c i a i \ i n e q u a l i t i e s ■''■grew'- more and/,y
/ v more in ■Sapta / Sindhu as tim e w e nt /o n ,7 u n t i l th ey le d to a y
c o n d i t i o n / p ^ ^ r i b h y w ere/adored by men
o f l e s s e r w ea lth 'a n d ;CphsegUehtiy; o f lo w e r / s o c i a l s t a t u s ,7; 7
■7/ y /:y 777:^ i l e y t h e poor sank lo w e st in th e s o c i a l/ r a n k s .
, He X, 6 2 ,1 1 ; and 107.
/--'/ly
'>/ .-7-7 / - / //y,
This h a tu fa ily y le a d s us
.7
;</
V; ;y y 7 7:/■'/;^q u e s tio n s y o f /I n d ia n .s t u d ie s ’ - P a s te (v a r n a ). Apart from.
/y /y ..
y 7;
'
. t h i s d i v i s i o n /o f /s o c ie t y /in ^
andyppor, y th e r e ; /yyyyyy
■:/■• / . : / / was a n o t h e r ,. th e e la s s -d iv ih ip h j/W h ic h reg a rd s
'. y
7/y.-:
s o c ie t y as S o m eth in g o f /ah/brgahism ^yw ith; v a r io u s / fh n c t ib ns .7yy
:7 ; y 7 /
, / 7'"7 c i a s s i f ie d y in to - th r e e or f o u r . p a r t a . / We m is t d i s t ingulshyyy y /
;y ; /
;
;
'7 7 A ■ //
7 h e r e betw een c l a s s and o a s t e .y as /found i n ;: a n c i e h t v . l i t e r a - :' :7-7
y / y 7
y;
t u r e . y TBroadly sp eakln gy c a s t e s l g n i f i e s a sy stem o f ;
//y
7 ///////.
s o c i a l d i v i s i o n s Into, f o u r O rders (v a r n a s )y j n which each .7 7
; y 'e x c lu s iv e s e c t i o n
y 7 y -77
(j a t i ) was a s s o c i a t e d .w ith s t r i c t 7
7y/:; 77
h e r e d i t y o f o c c u p a tio n ,/s o m e r e l i g i o u s / s c r u p l e s , t r a d i t i o n -
/
y a l / c u s t o m / o f m a r r l a g b v b t c f ; h a d / i t s .defined7right.i3''>--/.and;i •.
7
/ y y y . ’y
was sub l e c t / t e / i i s cof^
.. . c l a s s was a system o f s b c ia l^ d iy is io h /b ased on sim p le
y/y y y ; /
7
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; w h ile.
y
y7
n a tu r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f .labour e t c / ^ /vagu ely;;assoc iated.,yy/yyyy/
7/ y /; 7.7 Y/ith h e r e d ity and hav ing/nxy con cern -<w ith /creeds:y>r / r e l i g ^
v;y /
b e l i e f s . /.vlhe/'B ^pda'dqea. n o t .a t t e s t ; t h e :/e x is t e n c e : :'bf^7/,y:--/-V/.y///'
7>v:yy7 7: c a s t e as d e fin e d /a b o v ey ’it7 l;sy fd u n d y ih y
y
/y ://;/'/7 t u r e .
/ 1/ ; ' - 7/ .
:
3n; one y et a n sa o f the/R gveda (He IX, 1 1 2 , 5 ) , we y a rey /y /y
e x p l i c i t l y t o l d ' by; th e a u t h P f y / 1A lt hough
/am/ aybard/ o f ;.
'■/■/■'
t h e hymn, y e t my f a t h e r was a /p h y s
-7 : ’ ■"yyyy/ '■
was a : g r i n d e r . / t p f 7grains"]7betw een- m i l l - s t o h e s . yyy //A g a ih y :7 77;
: -;/'-.
/ c e rta in i r a d i t ib h s .a b p ^
y . . y. ./.; y
-7
s o n a g e s ,7 s u c h / a s - y / / / / /
/ V I s v a m itr a , i f e y a p i / f e i s h t i s h e n a ^
:y J \
7/
my mother*
y • yy:
; b ry Bharadvaii)a, S ih d h u d v ip a , y/Mdndh
yy/ / / . ^ t h u y d f : & t h i , y lh d ip a te . t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d p r i e s t s ,
/ ;/yy: :■:/ T ^ T / karur ;aham ytatb/Tbhiblidg/updla-p
an d y
7
.7
in i/" n an ay/et c . yy/; ’ yV: y //■
7.
- 7 / Jy>.7 p u r o h i t a s -d r . ( c o m p o s e r s / o f h;^^
:y ;
.;
: //, / .Moreover,;; each: ocbupat ionywas ! regard ed yw itH rZ d i^ ity;•
/ :7y V =;
• yy. "The: w orker in/w ood h a d / c l e b r l j y t h e / ^ ^
77/
77
7 / 7 ' 7;7 n ee d ed y as h e was t o pro d u ce t h e v/ar c h a r io t s 7 t h e s h i p s . 777/ 7
:7 y/y: / /y/Zy //y, and; hoats,; o f t ^ a d e ; a n d / o a r t s / ^ r / a g r i c u l t ^
7
/ v / .... v y / ' / - 7 / y
I t i s I n t e r e s t i n g , .t o / n o t e y f h a t ; t h e you
■"; y •1:/-7. members o f th e community . "/y .
7 : ZZ
7 /7 y/y/;;
yy-;/.: 7-'.
yy /
i; ;
ZZ7y ;*7-77 . - ;7y
/Eherb b e in g th u s/ no Z exditatib hvp ryd egradatiO n yof
o c c u p a t io n o r /th e o tlie r ,/ th e Aryans; o f S i n d h u / i n /
' /7l7
one n o m u n ity ; th ey cou ld change p r o f e s s io n a t w ill.,: :y y
■
'• 7
y :/Z; /y-Z yy
y Zr y y
th e i r r e s p e c t i v e v is a s / or r a sh tr a s Z allystob d u n ite d / as 7/ 7. ;/
zy,vZZ; --Z. 7 ':.
y y y; y
a r t i z a i i s •7 / 7 /
and ; hand ic r a f t s -men are in ho way regdfded/as;^^ i n f e r i o r .
./ .7 7 7 .7 -.
Z/
;77;
There wasy no doubt, a broad d i v i s i o n o f t h e i r s o c ie t y
in to , c l a s s e s f based on d iffe r e n c e s in fu n c tio n s - , Bfahman,
//
.
Z:y/ ■ ^ :7 ;kshatfa; -orVra^ahya. / and/^v i e ^Zthe: th ree: s o c i a l Zstateb b
"
Z7z:'7 7 '7 ::/7-/7-vZ• th e I h d o -I fa n ia n s /o f p r e h is t o r ic tlm esy y a s 'the sam
, 7 / /y -y•7 /;
■’ yy, ,y/y/ . c la s s e s ; are m entioned in th e ;Ayesta;; o f t h e / Ir a n ia n s. -* ,
y//7
/; But th e r e w as, / ill f a c t , no a b s o lu te se p a r a tio n o f th e
y
fu n c tio n s / o f : th e se 7 to y a h ;c Ia sse s,Z ;t h e t h r e e Varnas. y
/
;
, y / ;y
11Varna (iit^era^y / c o l o u r T) in th e RLgveda i s a p p lie d t o / / / y / ’/-
7:
yZ -'y/./:/dehote o n ly c l a s s e s o f men, th e Dasa and th e Aryan-Varna
yZ;y 7 7 / : : ; 7/
b e in g z c o n tr a s te d ,y a s /o t h e r /p a s s a g e s ; shdwv /on .account y o f /y y /y
Zy -,,/ ’yy y//y c o lo u r . v B u f ytli i s /u s e; i s ^
7
Z
y y y .-;:
-V’,-
to. d is t in g u is h in g two, Z
y . c o lo u r s : in t h i s r e s p e c t theyljgveda d i f f e r s /fu nd am entally
(=*=) He l i t , 4 3 , 3 , He x , 98; He I , 1 2 7 -3 9 ; Bk V I, 15$ Bk X,
135; Be X. 179; Ik X. 148.
Of. Veaio Index. Vol 11 — ;- y y :
p 261 and Vol I , pp 4 9 8 -9 9 . :
YYi rV y--::
:
(§) Vedlo Index. Vol I I , p 270.
"'7y/y''
'/V'7^x*6a±L//tlie l a t e r Saiuh.itas and Brahmanas, where t h e f o u r
7.7 : ■"7 / z
Zz
b a s t e s .z(called v a r n a h ) a r e a l r e a d y .f u l l y r e c o g n i s e d . " . / ; / . y...;7
P r o p e r l y s p e a k in g , t h e t h r e e . o l d c l a s s e s o f e a r l y 7
z'-Z; 'Z//ZyZ;:Aryans n e v e r i n t h e Sap t a Sindhu c r y s t a l l i s ed / I n t o / i m p e r - // /I/:;
v io u s c a s t e s su ch a s t h o s e ; .d e s c rib e d Zin Z
/> //:
,,
. S u t r a s and .IVlanu •s D h a rm a s a s tra , / i . e . ZBrahnian, K s h a t r i y a ,
ZVaibya and £&fdra; Z y ^ e / h ^ h s Z P f 'Z t h e Rgveda, u n d o u b te d ly ,
////'"■ / s t r e s s v e r y s t r o n g l y ;t l i e : d if f e r e h c e Z h e tw e e n t h e .'■Aryansz/zy,;z-,r
: Z on. th e o n e : hand and t h e hon-lh?yahs on t h e o t h e r , i n
/.//:.■V-l/
Z c o l o u r , /speech, r e l i g i o n and p h y s i c a l z f e a l m r e h f Z t h ^
/ zZz; Zz/y. / p r a c t i c a l l y , make; no me n t io n o f Sudra Z/Z
.The % v e d a r a t he r
7 7 ;7;-yZ//7/ ^ s p e a k s " o f ; D asa: a n d / D a s y u e ^
7z77: 7
777/z/’;
. y y e x p e l l e d / from/ t h e E ^pta ./Si.Mhu. zzZ/lh'a^Z/facfy/itsblf ^
•••././•/■ ; :.ZzzZzthatZtheZSudras; were not/ y e t ..a s s im ila te d .,z .a n d 7 ^ th a t/Z 'th q ir
i n c o r p o r a t i o n ; i n th e, Aryan; i f e
7/7/77/.
7; Z ;■ .
:77 y Z u f te r w a r ^ ^
''7/yz
7 1.
7/:;7/7z •. '7 z--z
z
7 ;/
y 7
T.7 zy y7- y / z /
;zZ •
zZ
i n t o a f o u r t h c a s t e ,!. ■
:zz /At. any r a t e , /Vedic 1 i t e r h t u r e , ZW hen/stu
,•
/;
■h i s t o r i c a l l y ,
. r e v e a l s t h e f a c t t h a t such a s s i m i l a t i o n d i d n o t t a k e p l a c e
(* ),z A r t i c l e / oh / v a r n a / i n V edicz in d e x y Vol I I , £ '24iZ w ith : / / 7 7 7 / .
z t h r e e f o p t n b t e s Ybnz/bhe page^^^ /• Z:z\ - . / , .7z
/‘ZyzZ/ZnZZZZZ:Z/'’'.zZzy;:Z.-;Z/-y7;-yz(§.) I t / i s only, / i n one p a s s a g e o f th e Rgveda (P u ru sh a Sulcia, .
; X ,9 0 .12;), w hich i s ,r e g a r d e d /b y m b s t / s c h p i a r s i ^ e / c h f P r i p l p g i c a l l y oije o f t h e l a t e s t , / a s w elfz a s /;a ri;Z ih te rp b la t l o h / y 7 7 / 7 7 ;'
t h a t / t h e S udra i s m en tio n ed as one of; t h e f o u r c a s t e s .
z: zz. /T he / w o r d h a s / not: so farTheO n / s a t lb f a c t, o r i l y , dvbf i v e d f f ^ ^ //7 /y
7 ;-;/^
'Most; ]6robabIy7M v7was7^
//■Zimpo'ft.ant t r i b e among p re -A ry a n Zm
of/'- /'/. y
;Z Z./ Z= z yzthe ZPbnjab ■,/' whenaez:theyorthodox;/Rrabm^
;V7 7 7 y
7 7 7 / /;
s i g n a t.io n f o r t h e f o u r t h c a s t e . . . In c o u r s e o f tim e t h e
/ /7 /
/.....
word S udfa c l e a r l y came t o be used- t o Zdehote anybody/ who z-7
/
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 / 7 ; y was: hof/^^
Zaz k s h a friy a y z or;:whp;was Zyy:/ .y^z^
:Z n o t/a / Vaisyh.^yZ/;A f o r e i g h e r : e v e n .w ith Z s tro h g l e a n i n g s t o - /
77/
wards Arj^an: c u l t u r e , i n / s p i t e b f / h i s Z h i g h / s t a t u s , ; was f e r 7 yZ z;
.
.Z///-7 , g a rd e d a s / a S u d r a / i f h p w asyhotZ a zfuIl^fledged/O TyahZ/'zzZZ Z/ZY
i n th e ; S a p ta Sindhu ,; tliPY hoineZof7thb;\ '.I ^ ’ecia',‘-.' b u t w a s a m a t t e r ; :
/7v7 //■. 'Z y - y t f i h t e ^ y h l b i ^
.o f t h e S a p ta Sindhu • / > 7 Z'/■/yy/'
7 /7 Ai'yaiis advanced from t h a t c o u n try .to t h e e a s t . W h ere t h e
/
: in s til
, 7 ;z ,
.
w aslw orked by t h e i r y p r i e s t s , ' Zwho/77'y / / 7 / y
in tro d u c e d : new. id e a s . i n t o pid/Vedic^ re lig ib n ,^ Z a n d foamed y. vy
Z/7; ■/.. a d i f f e r e h t ; ty p e o f ; s o c 1e t y , p r o b a b l y as t h e r e s u l t o f 7 /
■■■/- 7 ' 7 y - /
new c o h d i t ions. Sudras h a y e y h b e h Z d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from t h e / /
y l//
: zy
/Z/yy/
Aryans i n t h e A t h a r v a v e d a .) /T h i s view o f . c a s t e i n th e
a n c ie n t" P a n j a b f i n d s s t r o n g s u p p o rt i n a c a r i c a t u r e , f o u n d 7 7
; 7 , inz th ey lfeh a h h ara^
q f/b id y c a s te - c o n d ifip h s Z s tili;;e x
t h e r e a t t h e ' t ime o f tlie Bpic : y y■7/ -
;7 / ■
; y yZ - z -;7Z/Z ,
Zy
•
/
•211 /T here :bn e:n t, Zf i f st/becom eb;-a .Brahman a n d t h e n becbm esy/W yl
yZ/Z
y z,■,Z. a K s h a t r i y a .
ZA V a h lik a a f t e r t h a t ; w i l l become ,a. V a i s y a ,.
th e n a Sudra and t h e n a b a r b e r .
ZZ/-
, /. 22 . /
y ZZ
y Z7 ■
-y '
At t a i n i n g a g a in t o t h e pos i t io n o f a ZBrahman hp
w i l l : a g a in becomeZa.-.'slaveiZ^Z/;;-./ •/' 'Z-Z";
;/-
7/y;
: One member. o f ' a ■fa m ily becomes a Brahman.
y/7"1,
A ll o t h e r s
f a l l i n g o f f fro m v i r t u e ^act/ a s th e y p l e a s e . y C u ltu re d
y
.: Z 7 Brahmans f o l l o w i n g th e: h o ly l i f e ; who b e lo n g to one and
\y t h e
-
Then h a v in g /become' a b a r b e r he W i l l a g a in ibecomeyay/,■ Z77;''
% ahman i
Z; 23 i
77/
z ’ -7
same. f a m i l y b e c o m e /;^ ^
7 : •... Z w i t t e d V a h l i k a s .
/
^y.y7y 7 -Z
//Zy’
j/Z ^ d ru k a s^
/ ' / Zy ■Z-.yy 77-: ; y 7:/
y,/;,
7 /;7
7 .•
y. •
Z y . T T w p r f a t r a v a i Bralmano b h u tv a punar; b lia v a ti K s h a tr iy a h ,
Zy
yy7 . .Vai by a s Sudras ; cha V ah iik asy t a t b y b h a v a ti Zhapitah* 7: y Z
y .7
'•••■•. : ' ■ 2 2 ;V iia p ita ^ ,c h a :t a t o b h u tv a p u n a r b h a y a t i .Brahmanah * y.
y- ’yy/z _\ d v i jo "bhutva h i t a t r a i y a ; p un ar d a s o rp i j a y h t e . yy- .7 ' y ;
Z
'Z
: . 2 3 V b h a v a n ty e k a k u la v ip .ra s s i s h t a ye braM fta-char^
: y7 /
7-Z
y yz y g an d h a rak a ;Madrakas cha VahlikasZp.ha apyZachetasah^^-VZyyZ7 7 7 - 7/Zyy77 7 / :,-/-/yy;7Z77' y 7 y Z .7 .7 Z " 'Z Z --7 7 7 7 7 7 Z /y . (co n t im ie d )..; 7. Z,.;._,. ;■ z
:v; / 7 / y y / 7 7 y :777-7 /The e x i s t e n c e o f c a s i b / i h Z p r e e e n t ^
77 -
7 ever i t
7-
i s fo u n d ,
is/d u e ; to l a t e r / in f lu e n c e .,. p erh ap s i n ^
. 7/
7 :/m e d ia e y a i tim e s ,. fro m th e e a s t th ro u g h 7 B ? ^ m a n p r p ^
:■ / / /
/ / / I t n ever -grew/up o f i t s e l f '• in 't h e 7 Ib njaby // V / ^ i t h l ^
,-. -7 y / / / r e m a r k s o n t h e o r i g i n o f c a s t e , i n h i s
.y /7
7
O x fo rd Hi s t o r y o f 7 7
v;y 'y 3 h d l b / ( l 9 £ 5 e d i t i o n ) / pp 3 4 ff.,:7 s h o u ld : i n no c a s e he.
.
,J 7 taken-: a s a p p l y i n g Wo t h e Pan j a h . 7 7
/ . 7
;w h e r e 7 / 7 :Z/
.
/ : / / /
.'
TEmile S e n a r t;
'7 7 7 ;: / 7■//./■ 77-
7
//7 7 -
• y.7 • 7:'-
i s " t h e 7 s c h o l a r who ; h a s 7 h e s t y u h d e ^ - 7 7 7 ;
,;/ ; 7 s t o o d / t h e ; : c a s t e 7 s ^ e t e m / l i b I n d i a 7 / i n / t h
■
-
; / ; 7 77 e x p e r ts . / He b e lie v e s th a t th e v a r n a s, in th e sen se , o f ..7'- 7 ':
/ / ;; / ‘
/
/7
;// l a t e r c a s t e s , whioh• m a k e / W p y ^ Z t h u
/
/
;■
/ :;/7;;
7;
w ere; g r a fte d on to a n c ie n t so cia l:: c l a s s e s - / th o se o f th e/
o r ig in a l u n ite d In d o-Iran ian s arid o f Pgvedic ages.; . His
/
7/
v ie w i s t h a t ,
7
;
t h e r e / e x i b t e d /a s /m a n y ; c a s t e s / y 7y7:'7.-/7/
($at i s ) as t r i b e s , and t h a t i n / o l d e r t o / s im p lify /a rid ' ex - ./ y ; p l a i n t h e r e a l / s t a t e o f Z a f f A irsyfche.^Pkhhim hs l a t e r g r o u p - 7
:7 / /
7 ...
7 7 / / - ' e d a l l t h e s e •:3 y t i ' s ^:ihtb7/t3ie,-.,f o u r v a r n a s y v t z
B rahm an,
/ . . K s h a t r i y a , 'V aisya; a n d S u d r a . . The. w ord v a r n a w h fc h t h e 7 7
y7 / 7
/ ; / 7 7 Brahm anas m e n t i o n d o e s n o t r e a l l y - r e f e r t o c a s t e s y b u t ./
■ 7
y
7
;
t o f o u r s t a t e s : o r c l a s s e s * / z'lh ls :yiew/;w6uid;;;be'st:7apply/''’t o - c o n d i t i o n s i n : t h e t e r r i t o r y d b m i n a t e d :: / ^
7. / ^ o u t s i d e t h e P a n j a b 7 : a n d / h o b / t o :
y
/ / / / ;:
7 ,
: . ; 77
-7 . .
Sapta-;^
Note - 0 o n tin u ed -:)•:-'Southierhyedition yby-;-S.;$ 7 H astri;, (1-935), y
y
/y /y G h a p te r:E sx v iii:,7 v erses7 2 1 -2 3 y / O f 1C h ap terxlyyofy B ook ; / /
/■ 77 - / v i l i i n C a l c u t t a and; P o d h a / e d l t l d n s / / T h e , t r a n s l a t i o n o f 7 / ; /
7
t h e v e r s e s / a b o v e ; f o l l o w s W h e t / o f ; M;H; TDutt w i t h y n e d d f u l / 7 7 /7
;'7 / 7 '7 m o d i f i c a t i o n s . '7/y■777/-’'/- /,:'.7 /7 7 .7 7 7 :,1- 'W 7 / 7 7 :' 7 y - /
: ,77 7/;
(* ) l e s C astes ;dans 1 f IndeV P aris (1896 )
.y y / T E n g . t r a v e l by S i r E*^* B o s s , . Loudon’, ;1930j7 PP: ^ y f f y : /.-/ 7-7/
z
- y y ./;
/ 7/
7/ :
.
7
/ th e r a c ia l as. w e ll as c u ltu r a l c o n tr a st could e x e r t . y y /•//
in flu e n c e t o a /v e r ^ s m a ll; extent/1;^ Cb;:. th e /o th er, h
/ / / has W een sugges ted
■ th a t th e c a s t e o r i g in a ll y / whs /a .non-y
y / 7 7 7 :;/ :Z /Aryan / i n s t i t u t i o n , and Beahmto
respondibleZ -for
7 ";y its ; in tr o d u c tio n ^ : It i s / o n l y /in / the.. no nr Aryan /^outh Z /7 .
7 77
7 th a t c a s t e / r u le s are r ig id on th e po in i of. untouchabi 1 i t y ,
7 /7 :; / an d /th a t: too in th e ranks Of ythb /s o -c a lle d /u n to ^
7.;/ ;/7 7 y /y / themselWbbV y T h e/on ly fa d it; .o f: th e :^ a to a h s: Idy / i i i ;th e
y
lV.7//.;//" / f a c t th a t t h e y *■could; n pf /outgrow /W heW xiant/co^^
• -y,
/
/ ; o f m utual e x c lu s iv e n e s s , and/ sUccumbed/toy^the; system
z, y
owing t o th e fo r o e o f numb.ers; b eih g a g a in s t. th em♦/ 1 I t : .
. / /
.may be t r u e .
Ifcw ev b i^
i s / c one erne d,
7 7 7 7 7 / y/y the,, r i g i d it y ; o f /o a s f b w a d /p r a c tic a lly : /n o n ^ e x is te n ty ih /7 •
/ y/y;/ / //e a r ly days fo r. a lo n g -time in. th a t l a n d y
sto c k ;
.. 7 •’9? A^y^11 e x t r a c t io n w a s/in a ma^or ity,^/andTas /far^
'/ y y ’
p o s s ib le avoided u n ion w ith non-Aryans'. 7
//:
/y y ' : / /
, H isto r y, o f Cas t e i n India (1909) V ol I pp 63 / f f
[y y /y b y iZ y. y 7 ;;'y Among'.'yarious, /a sp b cts./o f TAryanySoci^
Sapta
Sindhu, th e fa m ily l i f e shows a d i s t i n c t p h a s e / o f .
Zevqlufipnv/ y The//unit ypfvsqq fetyZ/w ithyth^^
ih b hquse- y
h o ld or family,.;; d w e llin g i n v ill.a g e s , towns and c i t i e s . / y.
. ' This s m a lle s t s o c i a l group: ev olved c e r t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n s / / /
:whi'ch/t^
S o m e /p fy f^
. : d escr ib ed below w i l l s u ffio e : to/ g iv e an i d e a . o f fa m ily
l i f e , as i f w as;/lived by /Aryans y in /th e Pahjaby y?iie/‘/ . yZZy
R gveda//pfbsentsya /fa m ily , w hich/com prised /g rh a p a ti/ 11he. - ;
y -/:///'.//'•:/'
head o f th e
f
a m ily .V
(He. V I ,
5 5 j 2 ) , g r h a p a tn i /'w ife; or
z :// / :
m istr e ss/ o f the^ house 1 ;(H/ZX,/;/85, 26/),. d a u g h te rs, son s
t o g e t h e r w ith .th eir, w iv e s a n d / t h e i r /bffspringy^/ally'w ork^y..
i n g w ith j o i n t ih te r e s b s V
th e a u ih o r if y /p f th e .
5head o f . th e fam ily. - th e p a t r f a r oh; g r h a p a t i 7 a t e rm 7 -y
.
■ s im ila r to' visp & friZ ;fIqrdZ q f /f h e d w e llin g ' a cco rd in g to 7 y
/y. ;.:;:y/;;/\//-:'Z the /s iz e b f y t I d ' g r o u p
(Vedic Index^ Vol I I , p 3.08)y
The
7/:/ '.^z'/yyZ- y'.Z s a c r i f ib e s and worship / o f / gods / were a s p e c ia l /a c t iv it y :
: 7 -7 y/7
se.*i:' whi c h e a c li head o f //the/fam ily perform;77/.Z!ed;- j o i n t l y /-with-h^
y; // yvrork /piitdop
is th e
a fte r
.pnyfarm, workshop o r elsew here as the case
7Zzv7/zmigilZ/bbb^dnyZ o f th e household dut i e s l were / e h f r u s t ed to
h i s w ife.
/7//
■y/ZyZZ
Ihe evidence:/of: th e Z so -called y M ar^
(He X, 85 ) and/ numerous o th e r p a ssa g es in ./th.e/> I^b.da. :■
/ y y y /'/shows7tha t/:su £ er infendencb/:bf/vafied-:bousehoId'/;affaiisyZ./y.
~W~#gve£&, Be V I I I 3 1 ,7 5 -9 ; a ls o Be /1 , 173 ^2 5 . & -V i l l
45*15.
:iy. y
y
y
:, - 77: •
.„7-y
z‘yyZ; ' --vy'yy .y
y-;■
../ ■
---z ■
was co n sid ered p a rt o f th e g rh a n a tfliTs d u t ie s , which
r e a l l y ! iitetbb
home* 7 Hence withZ/theZy / yV :*
fatftei^ZwhbZvir^
.th ey h o u seh o ld y ;wasy
yy:',;/;
liiistr e ss,,, who. r e c e iv e d yy
a s much, and some t imes eyenym bre,yreverehd‘e/.y;7fe't;;/ u s quote
h ere th e n otev^ rth y o b se r v a tio n o f MJacdoneli. and ICeith on
Zy
7-7
Zyy
Z
^ th e Aryan i d e a l - o f :f am i l y :which th ey say , was d e c id e d ly . .
'
hi^yyandZ w bsypftenZ a
i^ r r ia g e Z w a sy a t once • g iv en ; an honoured p o s it io n in th e
: Zhpusbi/ s h ^
ic a lly Z m is t fe $ s yin /iie r
yy ■;-7y
yZhpme ZzOxerc.isii^g; au th orityyoyerZ h er f a th e r y in -la w , h er
y-yZ;
; husband *s b r o th e r s , and her unmarried .s i s t e r s ; v Hoy doubt /.
7th;evc^
7
i s one I n y/hich :th e e ld e s t son o f
, -Za. fa m ily h a s become i t s head;:owing to ;t h e . deprepit.ude o f
th e p a r e n ts , h i s w ife th en ta k in g th e p la c e o f th e m is tr e s s
z
o f th e { jb in fffa m ily > w h ile 7
a n d 's i s t e r s are,
z ZZZ
s t i l l u m a r r ie d ly / I t ;■•id./n o ty in c p h s is ie n t .w ith th e g re a t 77Z
Z y ■y Z
\^'>yzZ:;7btresbZelsewherb^
on th e r e s p e c t /.dueZfo/^a'zfatheriinbZz
7Z-: y.:yZZZ7Y7/laW7:WhqZ;then;:I s Z p ^ b a b
Z; z
fuller:: • : y
/ p o s s e s s io n o f h i s f a c u l t i e s , and oontro 1 s th e house w h ile 7
h i s son co n tin u e s t o l i v e vrith him*
The r e s p e c t would no
doubt e q u a lly ap ply d f th e son had setyu p a se p a ra te Zy.
fa m ily o f h i s own."
Mann has s a id ,
"Gods' l i v e in jo y where women are'
ZZ;/7 7 ;V7777 :Z re v e re d :./d:/y5his;:means yt h a t 7 re V ere h ee f o r women;yis:./dne7df , 77
y •'■z
y 7 ,y(‘y i V e d ic : Indexy Vol I «/ pp 484-85 w ith f .n o te s 102 to 106 .
.
- 1
th e e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s .that go to make a s o c ie t y r e a l l y
c iv iliz e d .
•
This c o n d itio n , we know-from th e Rgveda,
- 1 ar g e l y :'o h ta in ed ; i n t h e S a p ^
;•
women:was; not a t a l l one -of’V ^suBdrdimtioh; :0r; i n f e r io r i t y j ;;a
th ey n ever occu p ied ,:a low ;er,:p ositlqn than:imeh^v,;rTn^:/int;el- i
‘■f'
: l e c t u a l and s p i r i t u a l l i f e •also:Vthey ■appear.; tovhaye held■ :• ,v.y=th e VaameaP^
\
; !■/
we >.under stands ;fr o m th e 1;. Bgyedi c
. t r a d it io n s , th a t some ;o f th ey rsliisy of^ hymhSv werev w o m e n . >■;,-y:
^ . :v-..;^feW o f - t h e "hymhs p r e a e n t a t o t u s c o n c r e t e - p ic t u r e
v-7-7-
7
.:
Vi
of
; \ ^
th e m arried 1 i f e o f Aryan l a d ie s i h :. the; s t o r i e s o f th e
V
d ig n if ie a m a t r o n s T is v a v a r ^
^
V;:.
•.
- . here be given.'from -one o:f them*
7;\> .yy-V;;v:v\ v (
/7;V'7ay'■
In 7stan za 3 o f th e hymns
: 28 ), which i s a ttr ib u te d / tb :^i^yayara, y s h e h e r s e lf/. -
t e l l s ; us th e s to r y o f h er wedde;d'7&^
aV.,'7'
r e p r e s s our fo e s t o ensure our g r e a t good fo r tu n e ;--le t • .brought by thee: be o f /the h i g h e s t :and h e s ^ .
V7...;V:\7/*y\y-7.77'/Make p e r fe c t , •0 A gni, th e wedded l i f e o f ; th e w ife and
? ••■/.,
■//"'■'%;7/7. ^husband/by; M tu al^ b oh cp r^ an d\resi^ a3h t/an d;(d B thou;... •;/
-;:v; 7"pow er;,th e;:stren gth aan d/en ef^
.; ^./ / / / / ‘//a
be h o s t i l e to us #tf
"//,
..//a-;'.
••'/'••/•:" '';/•;;'y/,. •.
^\>7Y;r
7
(*) 7 agne .sardha mah&tb s&ubbbtgaya;taya/d^
:>/. y.:;'r 7 V, 7, 7 sa jaspatyam suyai.nani a kr^nushva s'at ruyatam abhi t is h t h a
V b ' v 7 : v 7 y .ymahamsf . \ ; ;• • \ a a 7 7 ' - 7 / ' V v ; 7 - . / v.777-;7-■; •
V/777'v7/7Vv\/-y
- ' ' C lo s e ly c o n n e c te d w ith l i f e i n t h e fem iily :i s t h e
s u b j e c t o f m a r r i a g e . The M a rria g e hymn r e f e r r e d to
0V :/,’7;::77
, ;■above yshows % h a ^
y-.-y
7>V 7yY77y7;Yb7y--/ w as .b o iw b y e ^
h e r , f a t h e r 'w ith many; 7. 7 ;_ ; ■
7/;Y:7
a l u a b l e --p re sen th Y to t h a t o f: h e r h u sb a n d o b v io u s ly by. yy//•
i'/77y
c o n se n t, .
and t h a t ,_in h e r aiew home s h e h ad an h o n o u re d :
Y;7;7';;:--7-<;xYV.
Y ;p la c e a s m i s t r e s s . : I n b n £ Y s ta n z a 7 y t|^ e < ^ ^
5 8 , 4), .
Y77':/7/7 7:: /:7Y/ /Y y -y isv ^ n itra .d e c la r P s b ^
a s te r n . ^ th e w ife i s v e r i l y t h e ,
-;7Vy h o m e ” , and i t was w ith t h i s h ig h i d e a l o f d i g n i f i e d l i f e .
by
/
/ t h a t / a n :7_Ar^
a f t e r ya /w o r th y /a n d :
g i r l . yy7yi;7'••yyYy Y ;7Y:- yfY f b r y m a f r i a g e , w ith o u t whom t h e home ; l o v e Y m e r r y , c h i l d - ■/ / ; ' :
iy7'7/Y/:77;; Y'/^Y/'ren,: p r a y e r s :, w e a lt^ p r o s p e r i t y a n d p e a c e ; - w as n o t
7 7-7/77
7 Y : ; Y ;7 Y777/;/ / /p o s s ib le Y 7, ( 8 5 , / 56):. 7 The home w ith o u t / c h i l d ^ 7
>7;: v/77 >• Y
;r a n was h b t r e g a r d e d a s f i t to: l
P r a y e r s w ere s e n t .
7/7 ^ Y Y ; Up/ t o th e gods ;'Tqr T b i^
/7:7;/777/:7 /7777/■Y th e y d e s ir e /fP ir /b y m a ie y c h i ^
Y:7Y/v7'Y' 7
in, th e hom e.
But ‘ 7 7 - - 7
w h ic h
had. a febsonY Y
: b e in g p a t r i a r c h a l ;,Y a so n Y ;7 Y
YY;--.' .; /w as Trie c e s s a r y f o r t h e . c o n t in u a n c e 7o f t h e f a m ily 1 i n e , • f o r 7
7 , 7 7; 7 7:
Tlie d e t a i l s o f th e m a r r ia g e ^ r itu a i^ I n - - . I ^ v e d i e a g e s a r e
- y77/7/7; •/;' h o t 7 a l 1 u n d e r s 1 00d , . a lth o u g h many/ s t a n z a s p f t h e hymn X ,8 5 ,7/,
Y;/; ;7u 7 Y y-7.- . h av e b e e n u s e d i n Gxdaya S u tr a s ^ s m anti^as f o r m a r r ia g e 7 /
7/Y7y/y/y,,; -/Y/'' /■ r i t u a l s . See Ved i c i n d e x VoI I , pp 485«84 t o g e t h e r w ith t h e :
y : 77 / / -hymns i n t h e . 5 g v e d a ,; He X , 857 a n d / t h e 7 ^ h a r v a v e d a , -He:'XI\T,. 7-7 :
77/./
77/7 Y ,/i; and 2 . Y ^ l s(? le a d ; '.Dr/Lvp./Baira
A n t i q u i t i e s o f : I n d i a . ,/
77/;7 ;7 7 / 7 7/777 v y /7 L o h d b n :v l9 l5 7 /:^
p o i n t e d o u t th a t/s o m e ; r/7 7 ,
///y, Y• ;/• o f t h e e l a b o r a t e r i t u a l s d e s c rib e d ; i n t h e S u tr a s a r e now
y 7
• .'Y .Y ./.'.':/.// ;;y /b e in g y ;trp b e d 7 i^ ;h ^
y.:7-7-'''7;7-y m ^h ^ lag e Y rites l i k e m adhuuarka and s a u t a u a d i had p e r h a p s ////:
■ 7 7- 7 .7 ^ b e i r fo p n d a t io n i n th e Indus YValley f im e ,// 7
Y- •
;7 :y7/ : Yv - 7(§) Iheedpm /ofY ehb
ih y th e :^ s e l e c t i o n o f / t h e i r h u s b a n d s wasv/Y- y
*allowed;* so m etim es a t; l e a s t , to women y in e a r l y 'd a y s . T h is 7 7 |
Y
p r a c t i c e didy n o b - v a n is h y sopn,Y 7 a ^
a h c i e n t / 7/7 ’
y'■Y75V7y\Y7;\:YY\stpry'--:6;fY'^
v i r t h o u s " k in g /
7Y-7.Y7 Y;Y;Y7 ;Y i n they Pah ja b .{M ahabharata ( C a l c u t t a ) He I I I , ; c h a p t e r 7 ■ :7
y v ’b77;yY.;7/Vy;:'Y v -°b l^lii:)i*7;yY' 77 K7Yy.-Yyry7;
:, .7' 7-7- Y7;-:Y.Y>':;Y; -7 7 7 ;y- y /y;y:*.y -yy;y ■
yY
Y:(0 )7 P b v ^ , £ic V I I ; 1 ,1 1 - 1 8 , . 19 ,24 ; 4 :, 10 *YS4'y5.;; Bk V I I I , 1 , 13 1
77; |
7
yy Y ^y y /Y y y C y C V /Y ^siu cq essib ttitb C to
'•'•* 7;77 //;/■-■ Y / y Y y n e c f e ^
7 / /;/
Vy y y Y , 7
/
rite s,
oxid.fox o f f e r i n g y p b l a t
t h e d e a d p i f f s 7 : 1 F a t h e r s ■:*,■- - f o r / t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n
7/C- /./ . l i f e
in
th e
a f t e r . d eath ;/? 7 ^ 7f in d /; t h is . d e s i r e f o r -a /s o n e x p r e s s e d 7
i i i m a n y .p a s s a g e s o f t h e 7. ^ v e d a > :7?7Y; .The r e l a t i o n o f c h i l d . 7.
7
/'
■
7' ■ r e n .aiid p a r e n t s was. c l e a r l y a s a r u l e one -bf? c l o s e a f f e e - . ■■'.7/
7 7 y ;';■//;/ / Y7tio.n*
y&fie r
t h e ;m arriage
:yy
' : 7-' '77: y ' - ;■ - 7 :•// ■"^ ' ;i a p p e a r ^ ^ / P o n t in u e d to; r e s i d e 7i p th e y p a r e h ^
/y;7-yC7.■■■■/.■/ / , /Y 7 /and. u n d er ;the7contrbi77
v;.;/?/?,; 7:7?y yy/;y;C;/yme^
7 Y y ;V7' 7. ;7 7 /7 /y
7y7.,yy777-;7 7 , , t h e C l ^ p d a y / ^ :^ r
> 7 -, 7
■"C 77- l
u h t i l - t h e i r r e t i r e - 77
-'age7;/y77^ereb&rpC^
:C bf V f a m ily y life y a h /w h ic h
C7 7 // ■77 7- ■Y f a i r l y
; YY?
i n f o r m a t i o n ;i s . a v a i l a b l e
e x b n p l e ,: many> h o u s e h o l d e r s
from 7
e h j o y e d a;
y 7 7 7.
7.77/
h i g h d e g r e e o f m a t e r i a l c o m f o r t iri r e s p e c t o f 7
7-
i v i h g Y ' f o p d : a n d : d r e b s - v y 7A m u s e m e n t s l i k e ' - m u s - i i c v - d a n c l n g . j j : ; ; / / / / '
7:':" > ' / • • - - 7 7 / v ' / T K Y / r a c i n g / d i e i n g e 1
7?7- 7 - 7 . 7 7 7 7 / 7 ; 7 / ? / y 7 y 7 71® ;'. f
0
;w e r e c o m m o n /
.7 7 7 7 ; / •'•Y7C/7. "":7 / ■ '''7 7 " 7 / ;/ y 7 :7 Y ; V ; y7;
r e q u e h t l y Ybpme a c r o / b / p r a y b r b y t a y G d d s Y
”';7 y ' - ' ' :.;77 :-7:y;-7/'’v> C / y ^ Y i i a i i s p y y : 7 b
h un d red; y e a r b y th e tb eo rb iip a ^
77C7.-7■
;7■'77/77?y7/ / 7- / te rm ; 77- In t h e m a i n / ; ihdyeariyyArya^
took a b r i g h t ,■•///
77-'7/7? 7y- 7/ y 7; ;/ c v i e w o f l i f e ; / t h e r e i s / n b / h i n t . of-pessimism w hatsoev er/
..
7/7/ 7 - -v-; , 77-7/777/ Onq o f th e .two; hymns (Bgveda * He VII;, 75^ ;and bb ) 7bddressed7
v ■'-/7/-.::
7P lP & ^r iy ^ o ^ C ^ ^ C i b m i i y 7 ;b e l p h g e d 7 f b / t h e / f a t h e r ^
y ; 777777 , h e m ig h t d i v id e among h i s . s o n s , w heh h e 7 becam e b 00 o l d . an d
'• .y , •• 7. y - / / / / 7 7 'm n fit-7 ^ fo r'::u c t 'iv b ,7 ; w d r k /.t ^ v e d a y , He 1 , 7 0 , 5 ) *: :••?.
, ■ • • '■'
7 77/ ' 7..;*.y.;'7 (§ ) ;I I . g . 1'H c 7 y i l ,7 4 * 77-8 ;; 3 4 , -80^ 7Hc X . 8 5 , e t c .
The?absence 7 / y
■777;;7/ ■/7//7- 7-.; 7; ' 7// o f a s o n was .c o n s id e r e d a c u r s e
^
7:
-;/•-•
/y 7 ;/c u b tq m v b f 7 ; a d o p t io h /o f y a 7 b b n Y f r O n /a h b t h e r /b ^
. / / ? : , / y - , - ••
t h e - p r a c t i c e was n o t : lo o k e d ;:u p o n w i t h 7 7 $ a y p u r;tf(fe
/ 7^ 7:/^
,
’lo r d o f t h b t o
be found, i n t e r e s t -
7 /•?? y /y //yipgybs^ showing th e ip?yah;yiew?b£^^^
: 7 ??/Y y y /y y b to
V I I , 54, j u s 1 7quo t e d :. abov e .-y /Y /j:/?././ .
YYy,;.
1; "Lord o f / t h e h o u s e / acknowledge us Y; g r a n t us good e n t r a n c e ;
•, ?■; ; 7Y / / f r e e / u s ■:■from s i c k n e s s .,M f e a t we;,im p lo rp "o f. bhep'/do,:;th o U ; / / . y
/ bestow .; / B le s s i n g t b us be th o u , to .th e tw o -fo o te d ,. b le s s -/;/•/••• 7-7:7 in g ■to t h e -f o u r - f o o t e d .
7 ;7 y 7 .7Y?'-//
:
? ?,7/
y-Y ///-.7/ .77'?7
7 ■\ 2 C Lord o f t h e h o u s e , /be / 'o u r y i n c r e a s e , h b i r t h
' 7/ 7/; - w ith k i n e and h o r s e s , 0 In d u .
7;
7
'7
y.
May we be f re e from o ld age /
y i n Y t h y y f r i e h d s h i p ; , c h e r i s h us. a b . a , ; f a t h e r h i s c h i l d r e n .
7 yY? 3. l o r d o f t h e h o u s e , m a y ;weYshare i n t h y p l e a s a n t company,//•'
7y
d e l i g h t f u l a n d ^ p ro p i^
p r o t e c t o u r w e a l.
r e s b 7ahh;}ih: o u r l a b o u r 7 :/
Ye Gods *7p r o t e c t u s 7 e v e r i w i t h .b le s s i n g s
7 :C-y^?//?:^-. 7;Child*-iiiarf i a g e s ,7 ,so7.dc^^b
.'7
7:^>;y k ^
B g y e d ic -a g e s .
7? y?y77Y / / b e s s e n t l a l l y y t o ^
•-;/?? 7-;
in." l a t e r / . t i t l e s / . w ere u n -
M arriag e i n t h o s e ;days ,fa p p e a rs
. ly 7
tw p ip e rsb h sY o fv ib ii^ ^ d e v e lo p iip n b .
This? i s showh; by n m erb u s r e f e r e n c e s y (Cf7;Bgveda7 7He. I , 117/
;;:?/7:Y7yY7/7; ;7,';y Bk/ I I y ? i7 /7 .*?';/&:
example o f t h i s / co n d it io n )7 to unm arried / g i r l s . who/ grow ,old
- 7 ,77 : • in th e hou s e o f . th e i f f a t h e r s . (am aiu r)"7 In; consequence, o f
. <7:
;
; 7? i h e / aps end©; o f/ch iid Y m arriage* -m arried b o u p ie s ;en joyed long?
77?-;.7-: 7 / l i v e s / / a n d ^ r e la ti v e l y / f e w e r ; w o m e n became widows,7: 7 ^
; ; ■.!~
7.777,7 7:
(* ) Vedic Hymns, /ifisdoni o f th e Hast Seri e s , London 1923,
pp 9 7 - 9 8 . v,/Y-y,?'Y; .■.' Y/ 77YY.:-Y
/ / / / / / ; 7. :7?- yy- . /77??7;?7
?'/ •
7'/’ 7: -
/ 7;
/. q u e s t i o n o f r e m a r r ia g e o f ? a ! widow c o u l d s e l d ^
• /? 7 V- 7 '
.7' y.y:'
,in;. 7 ;?7 ■.
; t h e S a p ta Sindhu w h ere tlie m o th er w as an ob je c t? o f g r e a t :
; ::y . r e v e r e n c e .
?Y
Yet a c h i l d l e s s widow h a d th e . o p t i o n ' o f / : ? ; ; ■//-/:.y;Y
Y \-: v .
•'v//? 7 /77 /y //Y :/7 ;d e a d /B hshbhd/ / / yY^
ity w iii/b e y s ^
7 '7y■<:'7// -;;Y ■7? h a r d iy - v r e m r r i a g e y ih y th e ;:-p tp ic j/ -sen se
,
7 7;//.
s i n e e / b h b / h r o t h e r : . , '7 YY
.y/./; y/C ;./,.■7,//? m ight:'>::e p .v b a l-.a s :..a ^ e a p a Y / b ^ b ^
y7
:
7
7 ,/
77 7 ? /:
'777; Y
;//
7/77
Probably w idow -rem arriage e x is te d among pre-A ryans in 7 ;Y
;/ th e .Indus T V aliey; " the/'custom hap p en s;■tb /b b m entio
?, 7 Y:Y a /p a ssa g e o f - th e /Atharvaveda (Ek
27-38.), r e f e r r in g
7; Y'-■; to a charm in th e form o f pahohaugdana, o f f e r m g /; "whlclr ?
.•
YY'y Y w o u l d / s e c u r e ?t h e / r e u n i o n / i n th e n e x t Yworld,7 o f ? a wife; //••;;/?y
7
'77Y?y
.
and/ h e r /second h u s b a n d " ;
In t h a t c a s e t h e Tlfigveda would
i n d i c a t e a c q u a lh ta iic e w i t h a p re v a i3 ,ih g custora, vdiich
■;7y 'YY
Yyy/'Y?/;' ; ;/.7/-ihe Aryans- came t o a d b p t 'i n ; tlie ■S a p t&YSindhu i n a. m o d ifie d
/"YY. ■'/:
. fo rm , a s / s t a t e d a b o v e ;/Y ]h 6 ‘esbyyi7© Y t e
777/7/77' 7 Y / /: p a r e n t s a n d ' c h i l d r e n .o r/b e t w e e n b r o t
YY
' Y???77Y
and s i s t e r , / was / .•yyy .
//y 7 ';y777'-?- - n o t ■■peamiibfredYYA-fef
:
: 7 v -. 77 /: * /:' shows/that^ th d 7 custom o f ^marriage b e iw e e n ^ /siste r / and?
.'
77?...;
7?
ylY /vyy ?Y /v^
7.7/y y
b r o t h e r had . p r e v a i l e d / i n ; bygone ag e s .:(u t i a r a .y u g a n i ) . 7.•
.
? P h r a s e 7 i;e f e r s 7 b p .p ^
Indo -A ryan s when th e y were; s t i l l / u n i t e d w ith t h e
y - 7.
/... 7
/ 7 .7 77Y; I r a n i a n s ; o r to. t h e days o f t h e Indus V a lle y c u l t u r e i s :
Y ;; i/Y ■. (* ) Rgveda, H e X, 4 G,';727and7dlsb;7;Bk /X^/LS/QY/' ? / /;yyyy/Y. :' 77/.-.y?'
Y Y /J
Y
51
7 Very; d i f f i c u l t .■to? b sp ertain v?, Ifeyerbheles
.prac t i c e o f .s i s t er-m arr'iage was n o Y u
. in -the /3&njab7at a :compa
memoirs o f , it; -.in T ^ n sk rit 7^
.it seems? th e y ? /
a lto g e t h e r
7/Ihere Tbrb/// • 7 ?
A b/uh-exat^
t h a t , we;^ h a v e ? a p V illu sio n ;t|7the7?sU ches,sion o f
?/
/so n s? in/the?/Madfa. cpuhtryv Yy/ A t;any' r a t e *. in tb m a r r ia g b //? /?
betw een near r e la t io n s alm ost c e r t a i n ly e x i s t e d .
The
.Tfevedic p a ssa g e i n supportvpf: t h i s p r a c t ic e iSyto: be
/Yfound i n / a hyiim?bh.iCh.: makes /r e fe r e n c o : in 'a1s im ile to^; ? 7 ? .? ;?/:
;??fiiarria|e?W
one fs/m at ern p r/n n clb *&? daughter? (m atu lasyeva /
y o s h a ). • ; : h ?’■■/■//-?'" ?/,. ,? yy '•?//?. '/Y/:/ ?/??y/?//Y ;.y/.Y ' / ? ? ' •••••?/ '‘'7??
y ? / •./.; Sexual m o r a lity } on th e whole>; was h ig h among; Aryans ?•
?; i n t h e TPanjabj though .some o f them ?/ere, a t th e same tim e,
/./g iv e n by custbm ?great ,freedom ,, as shown by c o n d itio n s
// o b ta in in g th ere? i n : l a t e r tim es Y
/■
tonogamy was th e
■.?Y
? .gen eral' r u l e ,■ as would appear, from theyim ipbrtance o f th e .
, 7wife ,7?who7:to
w ith h er husband m ain tallied t h e . h ou se-
h o ld r i t u a l , y and. w a s/ex p ected t b bear son s who would ?
carry o n /th e /w o r sh ip o f / t h e i r a n cesto r s;/P o 3 .y g a m y
./and?.?:
(*) Ifeliabhar a ta (Southern e d it io n by
(Karnaparva), Chapter x x x v i i i , v e r s e s 3 0 -3 7 . Chapter XLV, :<*
v e r s e 13,7 in /O a iq u tta and"Poona ■ e d itio n s .OfYPargiter oh ? / ?Y is is te r marriage© in /A h c ie h t/I n d ia n H i s t o r ic a l T c a d itio n Y '
? pp 70',/ 86 •
//??. /I .,,; ? /// Y
T
Y
:7 ;
(§) A u fre ch t, Hymen des RLgveda? H>nn, 1877, Vol I I ,? p .6 7 8 ,v ?
y ii,5 5 ,8 . ;
7
/ ? ; ; ? ; , ? ? / . , v . :' 7 ? - y y ? : / / / / ' . ? / / : . ;
( o ) Tl^habharata (C a lcu tta e d i t i o n ) , E k I / ( A diparva ) , c h a p t e r ? ?
c x x i i , v e r s e s 2-7 . '•?;y;7:?Y : 7V • YY -;?7'Y /??
. ?./'
(x) The custom o f polygamy i s c le a r from Rgveday- He I , 6 2 ,Y .
11; 7 1 ,1 ; 1 0 4 ,3 ; 1 0 5 ,8 ; f 1 2 ,1 9 ; 1 8 6 ,7 ; Bk V? .55,4; ?Bc V II,
Y 1 8 ,2 ; 2 6 ,3 ; He X 43,, 1;. 101, '11??;-// /? , ? ? ? " y 'y ;;;; ?;?:??,-/ .
.
yyyy
. polyandry (group mai’i^iage ) .v/ei'e not p r o h ib it e d •
: y f vvy p e g a r d s y p o l y e n d r y ^ , ^
.As
I f f ; 8 7 ,2 } .y^yyyyyyyy1
C;/; yyyyy.y y /y mentions; g iv in g -a. g i r l yto a ,/f aziiiyy- tf f i l e ;jifeny^ radanam )0. . yr V:
y ;,
, A;/ as an a n c ie n t custom in northern India, now rorbidclen^ ln-^^,
,y ;
th e Mahabharata Draupadi i s •tlie .w ife o f f i v e b ro th ers in .
’ ■•'■v '..- , t h e ; dynasty, o f .Pandu*
. h--*- /:
G-roup-marr.iage i s s t i l i y p f a c t is e d y •. y;:y
;';aiadng, TrahtnahsyyBaj^tsfandySu^^
■ . ■/;■' . ' . Seoraj , l a h h l , y S g iti; and, -
o
t
h
e
r
> and
Vyr;•
lik ew ise^ :|th ou gh ;: s p o r a d ic a lly , yamohgv^t^
:
y'yy' ‘
:,:y >,y
i ::; •
fvy4;y-;% ^
f y
;■■-.■■. ' 8ide;.by' sid e ^ w ith &
and dom estic
. V I t i ^ o f Aryans,;, th e r e h a d a ls o -d e v e ip p e d (d ^ o l i t i c a l v . yy;^yW
;y o r ^ a h iz a t io n . op theV p a tfia r o h a l ^sys.texii*, Stuail tr ib e s, had
■
y.y ; y d isap p eared i n :the;.iSa^
.•
Sindhu under th e p ressu re o f
v :;yy -y
protection:bp.thyagdlnsf^^
• v. ■" y (*) 7 A pparently th er e were th r e e s u c c e s s iv e , s ta g e s in th e •f
• system o f grpupr-mar r ia g e in India *- :y y ^ y
.
r :' ^'I^ie^vi^hyaprad'dnto,:" where^the;’woman yhecomesyodmmori: ^yy/yxy-y
’ \ p ro p erty o f a l l b r o th e r s o f th e fa m ily ( fb ro th er s f in th e
:-y.yt \ w id e s fe s e n s e ) yahd ytheV childrehl-are reckoned yas;ybelorigingyyyy.y
; to th e e ld e s t liv in g , brother.; s Thus in Ilima6rx^; .etc V/ ^
;
'
,11 • Same, but th e c h ild r e n are d iv id e d ^
b r o th e r s ;
V : T ^ h n s in S e p r a y V fla h d lvand other; Mmadayah r e g ib n e i:’ '';yy.v:
I I I .. The women i s no lo n g e r common property.;.;she c o n tr a c ts
y;
v y x /y ^ y :1r e g u la ^ :m arrlage:>with';. any .man o f ; th e clanyy-which ‘isy y y f y, y/--'y ^
y
d is s o lu b le ,;by itu tu a l con sen t / ' Thus. Nayars o f Malabary
. y;y - :-yy T ravan core• etc*
y.y;V'! -'if-'‘ ;*/■ Xy' 'x:yX
- x X y - ; y \ i . -.
- " ;.y y f
^Siiccess^^ioxi:^to^^ ;rahlt .(e;gi^'^kingship ). and' p rop erty in; hf v'
s ta g e I I I p a s s e s to a s is t e r ^ s so n , as iri :Travancore e t c .
; ; y .;
-; Ih e. I^ahabharata; sa y s •. (see,; above p.*
);/'.^hey'^same.;- r u l e , pre*1* ;;; ■;. .
v; V ; ^ y ; v a i l e d i n ; Madra^d.epa j; where;;presutiabliy so c ,ie ty was u n d ef y
; y s ta g e .1 o r II:. v There i s no need fo r i t in III.; so i t
yy
f>.y y .iiiu st h a v e: ar iseh; d n c;I or Tiy.:;;whored It;;; w duidybe:n e c e ssa r y yy yy*,;
/ y . W Bi I ;and I I are ^compatible; With e i t h e r p a tr ia r c h y or
; ■yyy^ m a triarch yyyw h ile I I I i s m ore; or ;less^yaspociated; w ith f; "--.y;y .7 -iy;: m d tria rch y *y; ' ; ' v fy. yy. yy:Vy ; 'yyyv •;' Vy;v.;. ^'; ':/y 7''yyyy: y:y:y;;..yvy
'
L
33
f oes;.r; Tnis .gave r i s e to a number: o f ..kingdoms c a lle d
r a s h tr a s y whioii a tta in e d / some d i s t ih c t p o i l f i c a l d e v e lo p -//,
ment, as. i s ' c l e a r from the t e m v k s h a t ^
dbmihiony
/: ■/ / / / i . / / / / . / ( T ) , :■ , 7 / / / / : , ; / / - . ■
,
r u l e , o r power-r;.y or Icshatrarsri..me&niiig S o v e r e ig n t y 1,y •
/Bach :r a sh t :ca was;; norm ally r u le d by^a
h e r e d ita r y , but sometimes e i e e t .iv e .
jdnV&-wh;b;. was 'm ostly
. He always belonged
to - t h e y ® janya o r IShatriya^ f a m i i y o f / an ;Arya" ;Jana /• . 33pth / .
th ese; terms ,,"i?aianja and K s h a ir iy d ^
Rgveday a r e p r a c t i c a l l y ^
y y / ’■
t h e i r ;s ig n ifio a n o e :
and r e fe r to members o f th e a e t u a l/r u lin g f a m i l l e s / w arrior
h obles; i r r e s p e c t i v e o f k in g ly /pOwer^; o f f i g h t i n g p e o p le ,
y7hdso:eyer th e y m ig h t ’bey
Tlie. r.ashtra o f X f v a r io u s /r o y a l ;
t it l e s /ofItavedid
,;/ a d h lr d ia , y e fe r a j . .etcy
demoted ahy q i iu lit a f iv d /v a r ie t y y /- /ils ./^
.a,
,
He 1 , 2 4 , 1 1 ; 1 3 6 , 1 , 3 ; . Heyiy,. 1 7 , 1 ; . .Hc/V,. 6 2 , 6 , e t c .
.//yy . Cg i t e b d o h e l i ^s^T e d i c ^ t h o l o g y ^ i3 trd ssb u r ^ yi89 7;« p *24.
■' ;r
/.
/;■////
(§^) / Bgveday i He X, 2 5 y5';/ W .:yX/'':g6i;8v'/'yyy1:X y y y y y y - - 7
(d). I b i d , k : X , ;173*
/^ /-^ X y X ®
- (x) Cambrid ge. H isto ry o f Indiay. 701 I , / ;pp:^i-;95; /
. Of V edio. Index, Vol I I , p ,211* /7.
;(~) There i s n o th in g in the Hgveda to showth a t th e e x is te n c e
■ . o f /a y s p e c ia l o r sep a ra te K s h a tr iy d /c la s s ;^
it/w a s a ;
5/;yXy.; w s tom ,w ith ; a ^
ih y & p tC ^indhu ytdyf^ Jpp arms when y/ y
/ / y need b e/ and become a : Ifeh atriya by v ir t u e . o f h is m ilit a r y y "
'
•
yy, •'
m i m i—
m
■>■ i«
fu n ction *
* w t—
i i
n ap,
yyyy
m i u j # p i w > iii» « w w ^ 3
• . . y y .;./■/,■/'sV-.:;-
" 3
3 * **»
•7 y
■^
: / yy / y -
V / \
i n t h e ylast;hlnipter,7ythesey't i t f ^
•/.• ;/ • ; . // .
7X7yy'-
f ■:Bajans o f d if f e r e n t 't e r r it o r ie s ; in /S a p ta
■. y-y
,
/ to th e degree o f power th ey p o sse sse d ; th e y can how ever,
,yy.
hardl y
he ipoked/upeny as:v;in d ic a t in g /,d is tin p t ty p e s
of J
y -7;;,.. ; :;;-7/ ,./• / kingdoms a t t h i s e a r ly . s t a g e , th e s e t i t l e s , there, i s hoy.,..//:.-/' ;
■77
/ need td d ou b t, denoted ranks: o f s u p e r io r it y in: r e la t io n
.7./t o -feu d a to ry ; or tr ib u ta r y :
7 y -;X ' /
, / /7 yy' 'y y y y y /V ; ./■-. •/ /yy /
X '77. - .7'•/''/. ,/' • • : : T h e ^ '. B ^ y e 'd a y 'g i y e s / h S '; y e r y "-i i t t l e / i h i d ^ ^ a t t o n ; - ; d h .d ^ t - '- t h e " : 7;■
■
: /';K f u n c t io n s o f a R a ja n /in a: r a sh tr a hnd i t s . gc^edntuent• / Thy.
7 f a c t , w eh a n n o t ex p ect a n y th in g in t h i s r e sp e c t from th e
/
77
. / hymns , which are; c h i e f ly p rayers to g o d s. 7X ^ 111,./ a : c lo s e r
v';
;y
;/
7 . stu d y o f them has ■y ie ld e d some i s o la t e d f a c t s * .' G en erally X i y ’;7
/ 7
- : ' iX '7 f /
■; sp ea k in g , '
th e ^ Raj an, b ein g the; h ea d . o f : th e / s t at e , was 77;,;'/ /,y.,y
/ i d e n t i c a l w ith i t s governm ent,7which was p r im a r ily set. upy
'/■';'. - / 7
7'7>"' 7 V 7/
■to
g iv e p r o te c tio n , ho; th e Jana, a g a in st en em ie s , w a g e. war,
7c o i l e b t • f evende (bat i ), and admin1 s t e r j u s t i c e .
7 .7
PerhapsX'77|yyy
7/ Xyy ; . / ; 7 , ; o f f d k § ? sa d f i f ic e s on \0©.rtain70cdds^idhd.'7wds;7hisdi7;dne"7!\df^;the;Xy7
’/.'X V;
X /d u tie s o f state;*y/T h u s, a ilX th e^
:7 ;i;th e7 n a j'a n r ? h ich yheyperfphmed; f^
belonged t o
X^'i X V.
.y' y/7 X//.
y - . y ■ , ;/X p o l i t i c a l Jana * ;pr r a sh t r a y both in /tim e o f peace and war i ; ,
y' X.•. 7V'; X-;X'7;:.He i s ; t h e r e f o r e . d e sc r ib e d in th e ®
as gopa ia n a s y a . ;X/X/'y7 7 ;
'V
'X;: 3-^7\'ffiere;/aL re,. we have s e e h , many r e fe r e n c e s t o wars i n t h e 7
.
7 . ; /X l . %veda* . . . : y y - . y - y X yX X yy XXX/ y// yXy XvXXyX X.-y X -77 y/X XyXX/ ‘;X
) Probably v o lu n ta r y .and h o t fo rced c o n tfib u t ion t o th e
Ba j ah';: - .Bgveda
¥116,5;
j;■1 7 3 ,h . 7 / 7 :7;7:/7 •-:7/ /. ;;/
;:vX.y —fX-7y y lou stod i& ri^
5;:i X / y k s ^^e ^
^ : l a n ,X'' x
■7 : ;.X7- y there; w ere o th e r o f f ic e rsX in th e r a sh tr a y th r e e o f whom- X y;
XX
y. happen to he m entioned in. th e Veda* XThey. were . th e Seiian i .
.7-X''X X;; XXXyhyyfaxcpM andefyqfytheyaimy , Xap^
X
yfe,Jan";X, y y y
,T
to le a d e x p e d it io n s ; th e Qramant, who was in charge o f
X'.
th e sm a lle r d iv is io n s o f th e :army ; and t h e ; P u r o h ita * a
vXx-X; . fa m ily p r i e s t , a v e r y ' im portant y o f f i c i a i y ;th e foreru n n er
X'X;X ;7;X'o f th e Brahman sta tesm a n o f l a t e r times; inX I n d ia .
The
yyXy
P u r o h ita , who,,alwaysX acccppaniedythe; Ba.ianx in th e :h a tt le -/X /X y;
y
f i e l d , an d ya ssem b lies,yw as exp ected t o /g iv e y every^ p o ss ib le ,
77
;X:
//
. v;.
X 7 . guidance and a d v ic e in / s t a t e :a f f a i r s , a nd o f f e r prayers; .
X- X X; w ith ythe yc u s t omary ■r itu a lX t o ;gp ds; in . ord er to secu re
'.7
X ■X
: X
y v ir t o r y f o r th e Rajan. It i s not p o s s ib ie to know th e
7s
'/'XXiX/XxX
X'yy
number and n atu re o f any; o th e r o f f i c i a l
J• X r a s h tfa * y ®
con n ected w ith th e
;v efy 7 im p o rta n t p a r ts 7
o f i t ,; v i z * * th e Sabha and iS a m iti* th e two p opular b o d ie s .
Both Sabha and/ 6a m ittXareXmentidheaXfh/ma^
yXX/yX,;
.
" XXXy'y
;Xthe BgvedaV.butxiheseydo; nbt /e x a c t ly /d e f in e X t h e ir p haracte
y
fu n c tio n s and mutual f e l a t i o n s , w ith t h e -r e s u l t ; th a t th e r e
7 X yX
X X;; ^ have; b een co n f l i e t in g
y 1X. yXy-- .
s c h o la r s l i k e . Ludwig,
view s as to th e i r rneani n g . among
dimmer, XEftlieb®^
others'* X :
,XyX; X; 7 7 ;(*)' Gramani/ fan ex ecu t iv e head o f th e v i l l a g e f probably, d is -X
; XXX;
yy
charged ‘d u tie s in th e v i l l a g e on b e h a lf o f th e :Re ja n , and
■7X7:7 7/ 7; ... yy a is o ;/p e r i^ r m e d ^ il
. when c a lle d upon. The7X
X yy ■
: yXX one sp ec i a l Gramani as soc fa t ed wi th Ban an Was prob ably th e X
XX;zy y 7.;x 77y' 'fep resen ta tiv ey o fX a ll.X lp ca lX y ilia g ey h ea d sX 7 b ry w a s,-;th e-o n e;;■y/Xy
;
b e lo n g in g 7tb X t h e ; ^ c a p ita lc ity A{i%vedh>7 Ik; X62X^ii ; 107 ^5/y
.
yX/y yy X: X V e lio Index V o l I , p 7247) X-XyX y X .
;XX"'X7 ^
.; ' :y. y 1 7 ■y.
7y;;.
/ (§T V ed ic Index * Vol I I , y p p ; 4 2 6 - 2 7 • Gf -Cambridge H i s t o r y o f
■:X;:77y7^x..yy./X X;y J n d l d , y V o l- ;Iy py96.; X X yyy- X'‘XyyXy;:;;XX--:' .
Xyyy/y'-yyyX •yXXyXX
■ But th e re c e n t thorough stu d y o f s c h o la r s in Burope and
■
;;
;
; ; y :■
/.;.
.77
.In d ia * / based oh th e com parative e v id e n c e on th e se two
r; Xyy :
7 /. . term s from a l l Vedic t e x t s , has now shown t h a t : th e Sabha
' ..
7/7 and Samit i v thou fill th e s e ternis were a ls o u sed in o th e r y
-ti/;
, ,;
than ;an. a d m in istra t.iv e s ens e , were r e sp e c t i v e ly th e > y
X/y/XX.
r7 a77;/y 7;' "'X xyX 1C o u h cii o f : s e l e c t e d A dvisors ■,.and; th e ^K epresentat ive.;/ 'Xy %
. Assembly i o f th e Jana- a s s o c i a t e d w ith th e Ba.lan^
X :
•
; / about •them' in th e Bgveda /arey;tab;y&ce^
D e t a ils
w s /tp /fp ^
d e f i n i t e id ea bn t h e i r co n st i t u t i o n and. fu n c tio n s * ;y This > .
7/■; 77.7; •: . ;/7 niuch/a
. 7 77
7/
l e a s t i s c le a r t h a t ;v a r i o u s / a f f a i r s o f s t a t e were 77 7
y y ;y ;d iscu ssed y in t h e s e . in s t it u t io n s ,,. and /t h a t 7 ih a w i l l ; o f - i h e t / X y y
•’XX^XX-janay . exp resseh y through them, c o n sid e r a b ly checkedyihey 7 7: 77/77;
/ a u to cr a cy ;of t h e y ®
'
and when i t was m anif ested *
. The Sabha* in ^ P a r tic u la r , a ls o a c t e d >as th e Court o f X
X'X
7 7 v
y /X: y i ^ i c a t M , ;/ , t S i l e . tlie Samit i , ^A ssem bly*, . in th e op in io n . 7
/ yy.'y 7. y: /■ / o f
they ® y a n /o r ®
appointm ent y .;y7;- y;
7y7X;/.;'..//p e r h a p s made by th e 0abha in they f i r s t .ih st.ance, in
w h ic h ;/ 7
: th e P u roh ita had a n ;e f f e c t i y e v o ic e XVXyXv^yX;;: X.y/yX ‘ I t ;isy d i f f i c u l t , t o / tr a c e /a n y ■ in flu en p e/o f y p re-to y a h / 77 /
///;/
X- y /,
X
p o l i t l e a l ir is titu tio n s ,o n th e p o l i t y •of/ Aryans in .th e SaptaX/ 7/
-yy././/yy/Sindhu, y e r y 71 ik e ly t h e r e ;are n o n e B u t th e p resen ce o f a
"P ) h.B* ;Jay as w a l, Hindu P o l i t y , 'Calcu 11 a , 19 24, Part; I,
V..XX/, ;;..y yy ; y C h a p t e ^ ^
7y/
'yxxy. ; \X:y,:7 y ^ i s ^
o th e r s y An C ien tX Iad id *:"^^iibhdbh:1954.
:/ ' ''
PP 9 7—99 *
’■, I / ./ ./ ’,./■/ ,V’:///. ■■•/-. .-'/;//-''■'
\"
.'(§). Bgvedaj 3c X, 7 1 ,1 0 .
X7X‘
, • yxX
• /•/. -
, c u ltu r e d enemy in th e Indus V a lley le a d s us to th in k /th a t/ '
/X X./.. // ./-he/trust have m odif ied th e cou rse o f p o l i t i c a l developm ent
yXXyXX';
c»f th e co n q u ero rs;: in what; way we cannot s a y . . Kor i s
yy
y/yxXyXv
1 th e r e any in d ic a t io n in th e Bgveda fo r th e p resen ce o f
X-^;/; ;/yvMh-.BaJain .government o f a n ^ a r isto o r a c y , .th a t is' alluded; /;
to in a l a t e r V e'd icytext:X /y, b an d yis,/rey ea led x /b ^
/ X
:
:
/ o l i g a r c h i e s or^ so c a lle d r e p u b iic s o f th e Pahjab e x i s t i n g .
about th e r i s e ofyC^andragUpta 3^uryayXwhoXdestroyed/mQ
X'X X :/
XyyyXbf/ them .when he made th e country/ a p ro v in ce o f h is great:
Empire.
vy y
T h e s e /o lig a r c h ie s probably o r ig in a t e d as th e
.X ; r e s u lt o f change d p o l i t i c a l con d itions/, in l a t e r t im e; ;ItX/Xyy
X X y;• X/y-X. •XX/isy f u t i l e to tr a c e them to th e e a r l i e s t /p e r io d ;
■X - X X y
//XX//
. .gana* w hich means e i t h e r g u ild P r o lig a r c h y /(lo o s e ly /c a lle d y y X
X /XX //X/xepubiib )
hi s t or y, / i s Xr i ot a tx a il/U s e d i h /t h
te c h n ic a l meaning in th e Bgveda.
X X
The word /X- 'XX
/X XX'Xy d X xioh -p olit,ical C orp oration , w
Gana may have been j u s t
d i f f i c u l t to d ef in e from. /.
XXXX XX:y / XXytheyda/taya^
/Kyiyx J n y ^
/;t; / X
'y:y/yv///;-A7,y/:fightly, rem arks' - VThe hymns o f th e Bik and Atharvan, th e
yyy ..y:x x x (^ :/)X E ^
X,
v i i i , 1 4 ,3.' ;Xx y X; / x y x x ' / x X y y -y . / yy "
/ XEtasyam, pratlohyam d i^ i ye ke cha nichyanam rajano/ ye ’pa-
X/- ; ';XXy: ;/.:yychyahSX^
X ; X / X (/ y 7 A; / / ■ /X a b h is jd ik t^
*bhi s h i chyant e Xsvarad i t y enan
; ; y / ■ • ,X //y / X / X X X . X X X y
/x
:y
;y x
/
/;/;
X
XX;-: - y /x / ' . .IT. B. The;words niohya aiid aphchya do not mean low*-born and
X /' /: ./ ill-m an riered /Ones,/ as tak en by. so m e/sc h o la rs ( s e e fo r example
/X y./:/y/ : • -// A-S. I.M em oif Ivb 3 1 . v 7 ) . They are r e g io n a l terms :and th e
co n te x t f i x e s them in lo w la iid sy a n d //th e.w esf *
in c lu d e ;•
;XX / y/ //::'./;X-/7/thby®njab'/.without/;h i
X
; ' x Xxxyyy-. y ■'XAX xX
/X' y:-''
••• 111i s i s . p a rt o f a lo n g p assage which .r e la t e s to th e corona- :
- t io n o f Indra and maybbe tr a n sla te d X a s fo llo w s s' -x-x/yy / y X z - y y y y / / ' ■ / XXyXXX / : X / ; i :/ X / ; ; ; y ;:y i y y ; y
X xX
- //'■•' X X X / . X v y ,
X
:/
con tin u ed
■y y - X '
,y/'; X /;X X :yiew 7bfV th'e Ivlaha B h a ra t a and th e t r a d i t io n /w h ic h / Xy/yy/' y /
7
/’■X ; M sgasthenes heard; i n / In d ia i n th e fo u rth : c e n tu r y B. G y , / a l l
p 0 i n t t o t h e f a o t .t h a t r e p u b l i c a n / f o m o f government i n
;
d i d i a .c
•
lo n g / a f t e r m onarchy, and a f t e r th e e a r l y V e d i c /
- A y -X y .y X ag e”',;' •://X.X / .-// 7 //.Xy'y;X:X' /XX .///• / y / / :y y yXyyyXX/. Xyyy/y X-/y y/Xy'/y
X,•;/v-7:7;/XX/ y ///y; I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e XRa’
/ gcwer hment / was
. /Xy w id e ly s p r e a d in, t h e . ® p f a S in d h u . X This no
/ -X
doubt hady
7 r e s u l t e d from t h e p e c u l i a r c ir c u m s ta n c e s o f t h e / Aryans
X'/Xy/; ■
who h ad t o •u n i t e and -f i g h t u n d b ro n e T K s h a t r i y a y l e a d e r yin,
,•'// ••:/.- •••••"' X/-: o r d e r , t o co n q u er t h e /f p M e r X o c c i^ a n ts x Q ^
That f a c t i t s e l f / i n d i c a t e s , t h a t t h e /Aryans p o s s e s s e d 'w a f ":X;■’Xyy/:-/X‘ 1 ik e :- q u a l i t i e s y / which;madexthem s u o c e s s f u l invaders.yyXwe X;■
/
X XX/ haVe ample Xpvidence /from t h b 7^
XyX’/ ..
:w a rrio r^ /
g e n e r a l l y d e s i g n a t e d K s h a t r i y a i n t h a t c a p a c i t y y was an
;/
e x p e r t i n th e u s e o f ayudhas o r a s t r a s « iyeX weapons . ;■aXX
X • 7: /;/
. e s p e c i a l l y dhanus and i s h u . bow/and/ a r r o w y / r e p e a t e d ^
/ y y y b p b u rrin g w ith /m a n y synonyms i n / t h e .h y m n s ./y /% rib u s y p th e ry
/ / / . ;:; v'/ / ////w e ap o n s a r e / / a i s o / Z m e ' wfiich/Z^e^^
7/T cO S ^ h u ed
1
XX . //X; Hence, i n ./the w e s te rn , d i r e c t i o n , / w h a te v e r & j ans
X/y 7
/ / ■' y y; 7 y y t h e r e a r e o f t h e , / l o w i a n d e m ^ th e /w e s t e m
..-Xy/
/'./a■■"/■/■. y t h e y ai^X ahnp i n t ed/ f o rXsVard ^ya^/.;X* ®
X i . e . v// / ; /
/ •.
..monarchy i n i t s own r i g h t o r i r r e s p o n s i b l e a u t o c r a c y ,
y :y .
v and a r e c a l l e d s y a r a t s y y ^ a u f o c r a ts /^ y
/y y. /.yy //Xy//Xyy;
/"'.': X/X
(*/) L o o . o i t . p a r t l , y ( l i a q t e r / \ i ^
/ xX.X, ' ;/ /X/ //Xy,X..: \ / /
■
// . (§) / Veliic^XEadex ^ Vol I p 61 - X
7y y X'' ' y/7/;/y /
:v
'
■
39
27 7
^-V; '
‘ 'v■
: :war # Prom tlie
'■. -' ,
'
two b attle-h ym n s
7
'
V’:-'
':
(He V I, 75; Be \X105) and
s e v e r a l ;o th e r p a s s a g e s , which g iv e
u s an id e a
of
war-
.:
equipment a n d .Aryan w a rfa re, we learn , th a t a I& hatriya was
. v e r y w e ll armed.and co m p letely p r o te c te d w ith armqur and
co a t o f m a il,
va—a—nru
—
n ii*nth a ,J
. ;
;
Tfflbr&s l i k e varman, d r a p i, s ip r a , h a sta g h n a .
etc* occu r in th e sen se o f w a r lik e —
p* r o te c tio n s
. f o r th e body .of w a rrio rs ♦
r
Gods, e s p e c i a l l y Indra, were
in v o k ed , on th e eve o f and d u rin g war, and th e e f f i c i e n c y
Of mantras on arrows, was, a ls o b e lie v e d in#
;
j&mong s e v e r a l
. ; , w a r - t a c t ic 3 u sed one, was' c u ttin g th e embankments or .
■/ a r t i f i c i a l dykesIon th e " r iv e r s y ;th e
o b je c t b ein g to d i s -
^ c o m fit th e n eig h b o u rin g r e s id e n t s and th ereb y , sp rin g , sur-r
;
p r is e on the' enemy#
. We also, know th a t th e u se o f th e
,
w a r-ch a rio t was v ery common in b a t t le s #
There are numerous .
y
:
,
y
.
v
(§)
.
r
r e fe r e n c e s to war-* c h a r io ts (r a t h a s ) in th e Bgveda. ■ But
■
th e r e i s no s a t i s f a c t o r y record o f th e u se o f horsemen or
c a v a lr y in b a t t l e s a t t h i s e a r ly d ate o f Panjab h is t o r y ,
..though h o r s e - r id in g was q u ite well-known#
v The army, i t ,
a p p ea rs, c o n s is te d o f two d i v i s i o n s , viz.#.-. f o o t - s o l d i e r s
“
\ ■
’T r r"§iveda, Hr V II, 18, 8 and 9 .
(§) He I , 30, 3; He I I I , 1 5 ,5 ; He IV,
4 ,1 0 ; 1 6 ,2 0 ; He V, 103,
• 10, e t c •
y
y .
' ■ ' j
(o) He I, 162, 17; 163, 9; 9e V, 61, 1 - 3 .
These p a ssa g es
m ention h o r s e s , th e r e in s and th e whip ftl a i d upon th e f la n k !t.
In th e o p in io n o f th e au th ors o f th e Vedic Index (Vol I , ■
p 4 2 ) tfno m ention i s made o f r id in g in b a t t l e ”* On th e
• o th e r hand, .Or*A#C#Das (Hgvedio C u ltu re* C a lcu tta 1925,
>pp 222-27 and p 341) m a in ta in s th a t "War, h o r se s " were
, .
a c t u a lly employed in b a t t l e s in th e Bgvedic p e r io d .
But
■ th e sta n z a s ( He V I, 4 6 , 15 and 1 4 ) he has c it e d in support
o f h is view do not seem to , be c o n v in c in g ly c le a r on th e
p o in t#
;
/v..
. :;-y-
. and' qhario^eer^jv i ^e i :.car-w arriors •
Probably in th o se days
when th er e was no sta n d in g army o f th e S t a t e , the. n a tio n a l
army o r m i l i t i a , , composed o f in fa n try ; and c h a r io t e e r s ,
; iorm ed nmtierous u n i t s , w hich w ere su p p lie d by th e v i l l a g e s
or gramas o f Santa Sindu* : ;Tiese u n it s o f th e n a tio n a l , ,
army, f o r th e .p u r p o se o f m ilit a r y o r g a n iz a tio n , were a ls o
c a lle d .gramas , i . e . b o d ies o f troop s (Rgveda,, Be I , 100,10,;
Bk I I I , 3 3 ,1 1 ; 33k V, 2 7 ,9 ),■ ;and: t j ie ir le a d e r w as. th e
Gramani (Vedic Index, Vol I, p . 24 7).
■ ;
,
Prom th e s e o u tsta n d in g fe a tu r e s o f s o c i a l , fa m ily and
o th e r p h ases o f l i f e in th e Bapta Sindhu, we n ext p ass on
to th e v a r io u s r e lig i o u s id ea s o f th e h i s t o r i c .Aryans •
The s u b je c t has a lrea d y been very o f t e n d e a lt w ith by many
s c h o la r s s in c e th e s c i e n t i f i c , s t u d y o f th e Rgveda and
y
. y y , y y y y - ■ --y
. . y y y - y ^ v v y
y
(*)
l a t e r r e l i g i o u s l i t e r a t u r e o f India began in E u r o p e .,
But th e a c c o u n t g i v e n b y tliem i s now ponsidered- in c o m p le te ,
as owing to th e la c k o f e x te r n a l e v id e n c e , which has o f
l a t e come fo r th from th e Indus V a lle y , i t alw ays ignored
(*')'"Tiie fo llo w in g books d eserv e s p e e ia l m ention:
Oldenberg, Die R e lig io n d es Veda. B e r lin 1899;
HLoomfield, The. R e lig io n o f th e Veda» Hew York, 1 9 G8;
’ Dr. LvD♦ B a r n e tt, "Hindu. Gods and H eroes: S tu d ies in h is t o r y
: o f th e r e l i g i o n .o f ; India (Wisdom o f th e JSsist s e r i e s } London
' •
'■ ■1922;
' P ro f. Bapson, Cambridge H isto ry of. In d ia , Vol I , Cambridge
■•■v
- ■.. •
■yy
yyy'Vy ■: .
y y ■ ■ y ’y ■
'
1922,;
: Pro f ♦ Radhakrishnan, Indian P h ilo so p h y , Vol I , 2nd..E dition
:
Loiidon 1930, pp l« 116; ’
H astin gs * .B hcylopaedia o f R e li g i on and E t h ic s . Vol 2, .
Edinburgh 1909, a r t i c l e on Aryan R e lig io n pp 1 1 -5 7 .
*77
non-A ryan, in f lu e n c e , w hatever i t w as, on th e r e l i g i o n . o f
. th e e a r ly Aryans.
H eretofore most,- sch o la rs; had o n ly
assumed, from some un-A ryan'elem ents in th e . Rgveda and
o ld p o r tio n s o f th e Atharvaveda,
th a t th e co n ta c t o f th e
Aryan and 'non-Aryan'’'b uitU r.es'must have been an im portant
f a c t o r in th e growth o f e a r ly Aryan r e li g i o n ;
She- p r e se n t
.
accoun t o f r e li g i o u s c o n d itio n s in th e Sapta Sindhu ta k es '
in to c o n s id e r a tio n th e fr e s h a r c h a e o lo g ic a l m a te r ia l ob­
ta in e d , and i s based on th e l a t e s t s t u d ie s on th e su b je c t
by s c h o la r s .
Broadly sp ea k in g , we have in th e Bgveda,
;
b e s id e s v a r io u s o th e r d isc o v e r a b le b e l i e f s , two d i s t i n c t
y
system s o f Aryan r e l i g i o u s thought s id e by s i d e .
Of th e s e ,
o n e, which i s th e m o r e .a n c ie n t ,is s tr o n g ly p o l y t h e i s t i c
• ( i . e . b e lie v in g in m u l t i p l i c i t y o f p e r so n a l d e i t i e s ) w ith
(§)
.;y
' y
. ■y
' :
a ,s im p le r i t u a l ; th e o th er pays l i t t l e a t t e n t io n to d e i t i e s
as su ch , and a s s e r t s th e u n ity o f th e u n iv e r s e , th ereb y
ta k in g th e form o f p a n t h e is t ic monism, which c o n c e iv e s
d i f f e r e n t p e r so n a l d e i t i e s as many a p p e lla t io n s o f a s in g le
; God.
‘
...:
y.
X
;
1 'V
X. xXXX-X "
X
;y
QMs l a s t system , which must be th e r e s u lt o f p h ilo 1 * 7 Elsew here we have shown in what way a p a rt o f t h i s Veda
i s u s e f u l fo r th e stu d y o f c o n d itio n s In th e e a r ly Sapta
;Sindhu. .
(§) As d is t in g u is h e d from th e e la b o r a te r i t u a l th a t came to
be d evelop ed by p r i e s t s o f th e Aryans m ig r a tin g eastw ard y
to th e Gangetio v a l l e y in l a t e r tim e s.
4s
:
. X>
X X-Xr ' ‘
X
:
..
'X ' XX . ' X\ :
. s o p h ic a l thought in th e domain ,of r e l i g i o n , p resu p poses a
.’
'tr a d itio n behind i t a l t h o u g h r e f l e c t i o n s o f t h i s ch a r a c te r
are m e t w ith in 'I^edic/.%rnnis -c h r o n o lo g ic a lly r e p r e se n t inga la t e r age.
S p e c u la tio n s such as are com prised in th e
; p a ssa g e s o f f i d d l e —Hymn (Ek I , ; 164, 50,4-6) id e n t i f y one
«.
■God. w ith' o th e r s ;
"They c a l l Him Indr a , M itra, Varuna,
A ^ I ; lik e w is e He i s th e h eaven ly w e ll-w in g e d Garutniant
(the Sun); th a t which i s one th e w ise d e s ig n a te by d i f f e r - .
. en t names; th ey c a l l Him Agni, Yama, M a ta risv a n ." E n q u iries about one Supreme Soul are a g a in found in v a r io u s .
hyiiins ( e . g . Hi I r 164, ^ ^ e te , He
88, 18; 121^ and o t h e r s ) .
Then t h i s u n iv e r s a l s o u l ; i s conceived; o f as anim ating a l l
th e u n iv e r s e , anim ate and; in an im ate, in c lu d in g gods as well;
;■ a s men (Be X 129; 121; 90; 125 )* and th u s as th e c r e a to r
o f a l l b eg in n in g o f t h i n g s , t o whom .d iffe r e n t, d e s ig n a tio n s ;
a r e .g iv e n , such ;as Visvao£avman, H ivanyaegarbha, p r a ja p a ti
or A d it i,
"These s p e c u la tio n s are o f i n t e r e s t , not fo r
^:
t h e i r i n t r i n s i c m e r it, but fo r th e p e r s is t e n c e w ith which
th e same co n ce p tio n s dominate t h e r e l i g i o u s . and p h ilo s o p h i­
c a l system s o f In d ia . ” . In f a c t th ey may be regarded as
fo reru n n ers o f th a t monotheism which t h e .e a r ly TJpanishads
. , preached and;which s t i l l l a t e r found i t s , p h ilo s o p h ic a l
: e la b o r a tio n in th e s c h o la s t i c s o f th e Vedanta . The rudim ents
•
o f t h i s m o n o th eistic; p h ilo so p h y , i t i s thought by some, had
t h e i r fo u n d a tio n s in pre-A ryan r e l i g i o n , which was ch aracter■; iz e d in th e main by a n im is tic id e a s .
But th e q u e stio n , even
though i t be adm itted th a t th e r e was p r e v a le n t; some ’form /
o f animism among p re-A ryan s, is./-p rob lem atical arid very,
c o n tr o v e r s ia l; i t cannot be d ecid ed by arguments founded
on c o n je c tu r e s *
We would rath er, s a y / th a t th e s e p h ilo s o p h i- .
c a l id e a s sh ould be tr a c e d bade to a more i n t e l l e c t u a l
q u a r ter , 'and th a t WasvAryan r a th e r ,than p re-A ry a n ,. as is;
. now e v id e n t from th e g e n e r a l c h a ra c ter o f. th e two c u lt u r e s , ...
one known from th e Rgveda. and th e o th e r r e c e n t ly r e v e a le d
from rem ains o f th e Indus V a lley s i t e s But the. main bulk o f th e Rgveda Samhita co n ta in s
hymns ad d ressed to fo r c e s o f B ature, which re p r e se n t th e
. o th e r cu rren t o f thought which was most w id ely p r e v a le n t
among th e .Aryans#
In t h i s system v a r io u s phenomena o f
: Mature have been d e i f i e d through m y th o lo g ic a l s p e c u la tio n
.. and. d e sig n a te d dev as ’h eaven ly or s h in in g o n e s ’ #
phenomena: r e c e iv e d d i f f e r e n t names#
These
Thus we have for* th e ’•
p r in c ip a l; a s p e c t s o f n atu re a number o f d e i t i e s : Bya n s ,
th e sk yj u s u a lly invoked w ith B r i t h i v i , . th e e a r th ; Asura
Varuna, th e sky-god par e x c e lle n c e , a s s o c ia t e d w ith Hta
as f i r s t cosm ic arid th en moral ord er, as a ls o w ith th e
god U t r a ; s o la r gods such as Surya, th e sun in i t s c o n cr ete
a s p e c tj S a v it r , th e sun as th e m otive power w h ich .d r iv e s
-•***.
-
x *' ** . •
,
r
1 ■
.
-‘
• ’
THTSTis term ’d ev a , in cou rse o f tim e , came to be a p p lie d
to any d e it y worshipped in the Sapta Sindhu, ir r e s p e c t iv e
o f i t s co n n ectio n w ith heaven or lig h t # e#g# slsn a d ev a s
h avin g p h a llu s as t h e ir gods ’ (Be X, 99 %
5 ) # : muradevas
’h avin g r o o ts as t h e ir g o d s ’ (Be V II, S I, 5 ) .
:V.
th e a c t x v i f i e s o f n a tu r e , Pushaii# /th e sun .as th e guide
,/ and guardian o f roads to a l l , and V ishnu#/ th e sw ift-m o v in g
;
■/
Suri f Ioh ra,; : th e r a in 'and; th u n d erst qto# th e g r e a te s t/;o f the/:/
;
sods i n th e ./Bgyeday ;fre/(iriently m entioned w ith / V r tr a , th e
■/
/ / c lo u d s : A gni, th e f i r e in i t s th r e e aTDodes./heaven, a ir
./■/■:/./ /.;
and ea r th ; two A lvin s # ap p aren tly /the luorhing: and 'even in g //.'
-/
/' 1/
/ / s t a r ; / bshas v l h e :dawrir; and t h r ic e /seven or t h r ic e Z sitty
;/
iia r u ie « p r o b a b ly the/ winde: i n / t h e i r a sp e c t
///// •:/■/
storm clouds*
/>/ vv,//,;/;
/ ./
Other m a n ife sta tto n s o f /Nature made d iv in e /
in th e Rgveda/;are th e moori, th e s e a , :th e r i v e r s , the/ wind //
/
’;:/
h ea rin g th e /
. ■ /in other* a s p e c ts eto/f
;/ /
A ll .th ese devds /ar0 /p e r so n ifie d ; and
; m ainly r e p r e se n te d
/\/://u
Z//a ttr ib u te s/ which r e la t e them t o t h e i r r e sp e c t iv e n a tu ra l
/ phenomena# / ///^eh the/'hyinhe
/,.
/
; very
o ld and/ t h e i r tru e s ig n if ic a n o e was f o r g o tte n , th er e were
/ / ;;/:■/ h tta # -d ls p h te s y/an du ihferp ietaiib ris on; the/ nature of/; th e se
v
; //deities:^' i h :/the/ / i i ^ t : p f ;' newZ/knowiedgeand /;exp er ie n c e : gain-;
, / : / ;/://e d -in :.l& te r :t ^
from; th e se /p e r s o n a l/g o d s , "/we
L
v// //
^;':^'''/'//riave/'a/ number o f a b s t r a c t /d e it ie s ; / they /a r e /e it h e r human
:
f a c u l t i e s , such as sraddha. ’ fa i t hy manyu ’wrath ’ , or
//■///"■/
v/
/
s t a t e //o f ^ a ,b tiv ity :orV con d itioh y su ch as /a ra tia ti ’d e v o tio n ’ ;
/ anumati ’fa v o u r . o f th e gods ’ ; s u n r tu ’bounty ’ , a rat x
u//;''/ h ;!j\/‘/"f\=///:/;^/,T4y^-3rrd..-<ee/^e*fco/i:wi,/;' ‘ l/;- •> ;
r /
V-*''■
■
A-'V;■,,u-/■/;///. ■;■/:\:":
h/hd
t./;/,/
-- ///
;/
/;/ / I
/ / /d^peculiar !in t e r e s t to th e r e lig io u s h is t o r y of: in
u ;
One god / Rudra, who . i s th e su b je c t o f on ly th r e e com-
, . p le te ; hymns arid some oth er/ p assages in th e RgyedaV i s o f
3ri
liim, i ’fc i s b e lie v e d , th e r e m ust.U ndoubtedly be a s ig n o f
some unrecorded fu s io n between th e Aryan and pre-Aryan
r e lig io n .
H iis v lew , which was. p r e v io u s ly b a se d ’upon
/co m p a ra tiv e stu d y o f th e nature and c h a r a c te r o f Rudra in
th e Rgveda and Rudra-B iv a o f th e l a t e r Vedic t e x t s and
..
P , : . v': ■■ :,.■■■■ “ f t
v - - - / . ' .. ■■
•- .■ >
p o st-V e d ic l i t e r a t u r e ,
i s how s tr o n g ly confirm ed by t h e ;
V
■■(§) V- ’- . f . / ' . .
•• F
.
A
, discovery,; o f a !s e a l • from th e Indus v a l l e y , which i s
in s t a n c e , in one hymn o f th e ^ v e d a (He 1 1 ,5 5 ) th e
torm Vrshabha i s a p p lie d to R udra_five t im e s , and he i s
c a lle d 'p h y s ic ia n s o f p h y s ic ia n s , li a n a , Yuvan, Ugjga.e t o ,
He c a r r ie s th e bow. and -arrow's ;and wears n e c k la c e s o f a l l
. s o r t s and i s fo llo w e d by h is h o s t s , and c u r io u s ly enough in one o f th e sta n z a s in th e .hym n.also o ccu rs th e term
. Khmara; ; Hie re i s an oth er /term ICrayambaka used; i n r e fe r e n c e
to Rudra. in He V II, S9 , IS , Bven th e name Biva i s once
a p p lie d . (Bk. X , 9 S ,9 ). Hie Atharvaveda (Be V I , 90; Be X ,
1 , 3.0; Hs: XI, S, SS, S6;;FBk/X^^
( e s p e c ia l
l y i^atarudriya Hymii - V ajasaneyi XVI; l a i t t i r i y a IV ,C - and
/ frayam baka. Homa - V ajasan eyi I I I 5 7 -6 3 ; T a it t ir iy a I , 8,6,-)
a n d -s e v e r a l o th e r p a ssa g es ...in .Vedic t e x t s throw a p e c u lia r
■ l i g h t on th e q u e stio n o f Rudra*s co n n e c tio n w ith S iva o f :
l a t e r S a n sk rit, t e z l s o f th e c l a s s i c a l p e r io d .
In th e
/ Vedib te x iis we', fin d /im p ortan t‘ t r d i t s ' o f l a t e r ^ a iv ism , e . g ,
Rudra Ts t e r r i b l e a s p e c t ./already se e n in th e Rgveda i s more
.prom inent; h is , c h a r a c te r as/ Pa^upa t i. ilo r d o f; anim als T i s
more f ir m ly - e s t a b lis h e d ; he i s a s s o c ia t e d w ith a fem a le
/
d e it y Ambika and i s a ls o c a lle d K fttiv a s a h :tc la d in skin* .
and so on,
. . ' •
C§) H iis s e a l i s not ic e d above in Ghapt e r .11. Of * S ir John
- I t e s h a l l , hbhenio-D aro and th e Indus C i v i l iz a t i o n . Vol I .
Chapter V, pp 52-56,.. P la te x i i , 1 7 . ,
/:/• l i r e a lly , goes, to. th e c r e d i t / o f B.Arhman who, b e fo r e th e
Indus V a lle y became known, a s s e r te d on v e r y good grounds,
in h i s book on Rudra, Uppsala 1922, a Vedic refin em en t o f
p r im itiv e t r a i t s in ' Rudra-Biva c u l t (V aivism ).. Read
s p e c i a l l y pp 1 -2 2 on Rudra im R igveda.
carved w ith a male f e r t i l i t y god, h a y in g n e a r ly . a l l th e
s p e c i f i c a t t r ib u t e s o f Rudra-Siva o f Vedic and l a t e r
lit e r a t u r e *
Rudra Ts co n n ectio n .with f e r t i l i t y i s to be
see n from ’Somacrudraocharu* which i s o ffe r e d by one
d e sir o u s o f progeney,;
Rudra i/3-‘c a lle d in th e Rgveda
Tryambaka ’born o f th re e m others 1 (Bk V I I ,. 59, 1 2 ) , and
t h i s t i t l e may be ex p la in e d by th r e e d i s t i n c t ty p es o f
f ig u r in e s .o f Mother*Goddess found in t h e . Indus V a lle y ,
which may o r i g i n a ll y have been b e lie v e d to be th e cause(§)
y
.
. v
,-■■■
o f h is .; b ir t h .
B e sid e s, S ir George G rierson has p o in te d
■■■■•■
. ’ ■ ■,
...
/.y \ ■■_ (o)
out th a t th e word Siva i s D ravidian as w e ll as Aryan.
■
In D ravidian i t means red,, while.; Rudra in p la c e s in th e
. Rgveda seems to have alm ost th e same meaning*
T his, i f ■
c o r r e c t , would be a fu r th e r p o s s ib le rea so n fo r th e
i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Rudra and S iv a . .
y
;
1/Vhat seems probably to have happened i s th a t t h is
conquering Aryans th em selv es had no f e r t i l i t y god.
Ihey
had th e d e it y Rudra, who was, l i k e most o th e r Vedic
d e i t i e s , th e p e r s o n if ic a t io n o f a n a tu r a l phenomenon r e ­
p r e se n t in g l i g h t n i n g :th a t is s u e d from dark clouds* ‘ Owing
l^T^SaJurveda,- T d i t t i f i y a Samhita, I I , 2,10^
.
(§0 In d ia n -G u ltu r ey~Madras-1940T-pp.~42-4§-r See below .
(o) L in g u is t ic Survey o f In d ia , Vol IV, p . 279.
ia s o B .B .O .S . y Vol I I , Part IV, p 810.
C§) D f. H iandarkaf, Some A spects o f A nolent Indian C u ltu re,
\Madras 1940, pp 4 2 -4 3 .
to th e fear, o f h i s d a r ts lc illin g . c a t t l e and human b e in g s ,
:he:'-w a 'sy p rb p itia ted .;fd f'\th eif/'sd fe ty /....3 n cou rse o f tim e ,
when the: toyan s came in c o n ta c t w ith th e Indus 'Valley
p e o p le , who had by th en perhaps a Lord o f anim als (Pcxsupati )
j
and a f e r t i l i t y god in one p erson , Rudra was i d e n t i f i e d
w ith th e p r o te c to r o f an im als, w iaile th e b e h e fi.a e lit: r a in s ,
. |
which a p p a ren tly were caused by him con n ected him w ith
f e r t i l i t y and v e g e t a t io n .
As such he was worshipped by
a s e c t io n o f th e Aryans which;, came in c lo s e r c o n ta c t with;'
th e Indus p e o p le , an a c t io n which th e tr u e Aryans and
t h e i r p r i e s t s d id not f u l l y approve.
This i s why Rudra
d id n o t become a t a l l a prominent god in th e .Sapta Sindhu,
and why th e f e r t i l i t y r i t e s l i k e p h a l l i c w orship a s s o c ia te d :
w it h . th e god and w id ely p r e v a le n t in th e Indus v a l l e y were
h ot o f f i c i a l l y recogn ised *
N eith er do we fin d any* r e fe r *
ence i n th e Rgveda to th e fem ale d e it y o f f e r t i l i t y
worshipped in th a t v a l l e y - th e Mother Goddess, fu tu r e
co n so rt o f R udra-Siva.
l a t e r on, how ever, when th e Sapta.
Sindhu Aryans moved to th e e a s t and exten ded t h e i r dominion
in In d ia , Rudra a s s im ila te d to h im s e lf a l l th e t r a i t s o f
.f e r t i l i t y - g o d • and Mother/Goddess to g e th e r w ith f e r t i l i t y r i t e s cu rren t among v a r io u s non-Aryans t r ib e s - in c lu d in g
th o s e e x p e lle d from th e Indus V a lle y - whom th e Aryans
.b rou gh t w i t h i n .t h e ir p a l e . . .All t h i s i s very w e ll borne '
out by th e l i t e r a r y ev id en ce from. Vedic t e x t s downwards
to th a t o f th e P uranas.
■'
48
' ’
:■ .
•••'
■ ■; ;
.V.:: ■
l-V'"'
.
•
. • ; 'V.' ‘
■’^
; ' V-
29r6
.. :
‘’’J\
We have now to n o t ic e one im portant f a c t in regard to
th e d e i t i e s o f t h e ’ Rgveda - t h e / s a c r i f i c e s >.
dhe e s s e n t i a l
n atu re o f th e devas on .the whole ,i s th e h ig h e s t goodness .
and b o u n d less b en evolen ce *
They are p o sse sse d , o f th e most
i r r e s l s t i b l e m ig h t, in e x h a u s tib le en erg y , unbending w i l l .:
1
-and moral g r e a tn e s s .
What i s m ore, th ey are ready to share
in th e s tr u g g le and s t r i f e , in the. jo y s and sorrow s o f th e
Aryans*
T heir h elp was g e n e r a lly sought by th e Aryans fo r .
y io to r y in b a t t l e s a g a in st t h e i r fo e s and fo r t h e i r g en era l
p r o s p e r ity .,''i;'^is'-naturaiiy';drew-. fo r t h 1from ; th e se e k e r s o f
:v:d^
sa o r i f i c e s , to g e th e r ; w ith p rayers ;
and p r a i s e s , . th e ir , o h ie f lp b j e e t b ein g to draw th e devas
V.
: >
{{near* m ilk t h e i r favou r or, seeic;; t h e ir pai^doiu
fhe s a c r i f i c e s
were b e lie v e d to be th e most e f f e c t i v e means o f communica1 ;.t
I 1t i o n w ith the, d e v a s, and f o r t h i s Agni* who .oarried o b la .t io n s to them, was tlie m ediator, between gods
■
;V:r:V;. ;;;; V w o r s h i p p . e r s - * • .
-I//-.'
and Aryan
: '. -
The o f f e r in g s made in s a c r i f i c e s ..were, o f d if f e r e n t
• i
m a te ria l*
The soma was th e im portant drin k o ffe r e d in
s a c r i f i c e s ; th e whole Ninth Book o f th e Rgveda d e a ls w ith
th e s a c r i f i c i a l Soma.
■
Otherth in g s s a c r if i c e d
were
\~ W f -Sir A nrel is te in has r e c e n tly g iv en rea so n s . f o r th in k in g
th a t th e p la n t ffom which th e soma j u ic e was ob tain ed may
have been w ild,R hubarb (B*S*0*S*, Vol V I, p a rt S, pp 506 f f ) ,
:: ; {Another p opu lar drink o f th e Aryans was: s u r a , th e o o r r e s^ponding ;A vestan Hara*:' ' Read a l s o .. Ve d ic IndexVVol I I , pp .
474 P f *
'I-v ;
, .-/t'
■/,' : \. ' *
>
'• . .
4-9
... '
' ■
. •' •
• ;
'
'
Z97
: V" .. ,
’ ; ' :V : ;
■'■ . /V-V
o b la tio n s o f g r a in , m ilk , c l a r i f i e d b u tte r and th e f l e s h
. o f a n i m a l s . , There i s enough ev id en ce from th e Rgveda to
show th a t anim als were s a c r i f i c e d .
1
As a m a tter o f f a c t ,
meat was. a r e g u la r and p r in c ip a l food o f the. Aryans . in
: ",
Sapta Sindhu, and, in ord er to o f f e r f l e s h to th e god s,
th e e d ib le anim als - ox, cow, b u f f a lo , g o a t , s h e e p ,e t c .
were o f t e n k i l l e d ; t h e ir f l e s h was cooked, s a c r if ic e d and
.
, .
'
th en partaken o f by w orshippers o f th e god to whom th e
(*) v . . ' /■ ■
■: : ■
s a c r i f i c e was made. . Agni i s c a lle d ukshanna ’e a t e r o f.
b u l l ’ and va^anna ’e a te r o f co w s’ (He V I I I , 4 5 ,1 1 ) .
B u lls, were s a c r i f i c e d to dhdra (Be X9 2 7, 3 ; 86, 1 5 , 1 4 ) ,
.
’’The r i t u a l o f th e crem ation o f th e dead req u ired th e
s la u g h te r o f a cow as an e s s e n t i a l p a r t, th e f l e s h b ein g
used to en velop e th e dead body. ”
The cow,; however,
began t o acq u ire: s p e c ia l s a n c tity : when i t s v a lu e for- pur-.
p o ses o th e r than e a t in g was r e a liz e d * (H e V I I I , 90) i
This
i s a g a in shown by th e name aghnya ’not to be s l a i n ’ a p p lie d
to th e c o w. i n a number o f p a ssa g es in th e Rgveda;
..
Or, i t
may b e, as i s p o in te d out by; Br; .^ a n d a rk a r, th a t t h i s
s a n c t i t y was due to the in flu e n c e o f pre-A ryan reveren ce
..... ’ :
; fo r th e cow; a s .a. d iv in it y ,.
Two more im portant p o in ts worth n o t ic in g in t h i s
'■
. “”^ l^ r R g v e d a , Bt :X, .9 1 ,1 4 .
•*§)Vedic Index, Vol I I , p>147♦
(o) Loc. G i t , p. 75.
. / :v
Also' Rgyeda, Be X , 1 6 , 7 .
•’
co n n ectio n are th e Asvamedha ’s a c r i f i c e o f th e h o r s e ’ and
Burushamedha ’human s a c r i f i c e 1, both ra r e r fe a tu r e s o f
Aryan e a r ly a s w e ll as l a t e r r i t u a l .
U su ally we s e e th e
v ic t im s , in th e animal s a c r i f i c e , were chosen from among
e d ib le an im als,
Hie e a tin g o f h o r s e - f le s h has been
alm ost unknown in In d ia, but som etim es, as in th e ca se o f
th e h o r s e - s a c r if ic e , which i s mentioned in th e hymns (3c I ,
168 and 1 6 6 ), o f f e r in g s o f anim als whose f l e s h was not
ea ten were made w ith some s p e c ia l m o tiv e s.
Hie o b je c t in
view behind th e performance o f th e h o r s e - s a c r if ic e in
p a r tic u la r %ay be con sid ered as se r v in g e it h e r to make
s w if t th e god, who thus ap p rop riates th e s w iftn e s s o f th e
anim al o ffe r e d , and through th e god to stren g th en th e man,
or as i s l e s s l i k e l y i t may be h eld to be m erely d ic ta te d
by th e d e s ir e d ir e c t ly to secu re th e o f f e r e r th e str e n g th
o f th e s t e e d , or a g a in i t may be due m erely to th e f e e l in g
th a t th e h ig h e st b ea st i s in p la c e a t a great o f f e r i n g . ”
As regards th e human s a c r i f i c e , th e Bgveda i s not very
c le a r on t h is q u e stio n .
But i t i s supposed by some
(*)
s c h o la r s l i k e H ilieb ra n d t,
on th e im p lic a tio n s in c e r ta in
p a ssa g es o f th e Bgveda (Be X, Ih n eral %mn 18, 7-0 w ith
read in g yonim a m e ; 05, 8 1 -8 8 ), th a t human s a c r i f i c e was
p r a c tis e d by th e s id e o f th e As/vamedha. 3h one p assage o f
th e Atharvaveda (Be X I, 8 , 9 ) fo u r l i v i n g th in g s are de­
d ic a te d to Badra as form ing o ffe r in g s to him in s a c r i f i c e s |
(*) X.D.M.G. XL, pp 708-11; fe d ls c h e j ^ t h o lo g le , second
e d it io n , Breslau 1987-89, Tol I , p .1 8 0 .
one o f them i s a man.
Prom t h i s i t m ight be in fe r r e d th a t
:
human s a c r i f i c e s were sometimes o ffe r e d to gods and t h i s
was an o ld p r a c t i c e . .
There i s :n o th in g improbable in t h i s
fo r th e p r a c t ic e o f human s a c r i f i c e was q u ite p r e v a le n t
among th e a n c ie n t Ih.do-Europeans, and fo r th e m atter o f
t h a t , among most a n c ie n t c i v i l i z e d p e o p le s . We fin d numerous
in s ta n c e s o f i t among th e record s o f th e a n c ie n t Greeks, \
• Romans, and I r a n ia n s /
In any c a s e , among th e Vedic ^Aryans.
we have th e unm istakab le ev id en ce o f the" Purushamedha
d escrib ed - in th e Yajurveda
in th e A ita rey a Ecahmana
p r a c t ic e .
and in th e s to r y o f Sunahsep a
■fo r . th e p r e v a le n c e . o f t h i s
Thus it; i s q u ite p o s s ib le th a t gods were some­
tim es worshipped, w ith human s a c r ific e s.^ ; The p r a c t i c e ,..
however, in th e cou rse o f tim e , as i s e v id e n t from th e
.
;• leg en d o f SunahsWa i t s e l f and: th e -early' Sut r a s , was con: demned by the. .Aryans, and e v e n tu a lly was sto p p ed .
But
v e s t i g e s o f i t con tin u ed to lin g e r on fo r a lo n g tim e.
: Arid, when we fin d in l a t e r Panjab th e te n th s a in t and lea d er:
o f th e S ik h s, Guru Gobind S in gh ,. m entioned as p r o p it ia t in g
th e D eity once or tw ic e w ith an o f f e r in g o f a b eloved
, f o llo w e r o r f o l i o we r s ; t o .e n su r e th e t r iumph o f h is fa it h
‘
(o) -- V
l
\
■ ' 'V;:
v - :-:
; and: m is s io n , . we ought to s e e in i t n o t a r e v o lt in g or a
TH ~"W jasaneyi Samhita, xxx*
.
(§) V II, 13 f f ,
.
(o') S to r ie s in t h i s c o n n ectio n are g iv e n w ith many v a r ia t io n s .
. . Read f e lc o lm , A Sketch o f th e S ik h s, London 1812. p 53 and
Dr. (now S ir ) Gokal ^Ghand . i'ayahg. Trans form at ion o f Sikh i s m. London 1912, p . 7 9 .
savage non-Aryan oustom , but a s u r v iv a l in some form o f
an a g e -o ld p r a c t ic e and b e l i e f once v ery much r e sp e c te d ;
in i3he Pan jab and elsew h ere i n / ^ y an In d ia .
So much fo r p h ilo so p h y and god s.
In t h i s co n n ectio n
we have see n th a t th e p h ilo s o p h ic a l id ea s o f th e .Aryans
were n ot borrowed from any e x te r n a l so u r c e , an d . th a t th e
c h a r a c t e r is t ic r e li g i o u s thought o f th e.A ryan s cen tred
around a few g re a t d e i t i e s w ith d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t i e s , .
who were invoked w ith o f f e r in g s o f v a r io u s k in d s . . Bat
i t must be remembered th a t th e r e li g i o n in th e Aryano ccu p ied Sapta Sindhu. was not co n fin ed to p erso n a l and
o th e r d e i t i e s f
I h e ir r e li g i o n a ls o ;in c lu d e d r e li g io u s
p r a c t ic e s and b e l i e f s , con n ected -with ord in ary l i f e which
were o r i g i n a l l y fo r e ig n to Aryanism.
This-. was probably
th e r e s u l t o f n a tu r a l c o n t a c t . between th e conquerors and
th e conquered,
(inly a few o f th e se un~Aryan p r a c t ic e s , and
b e l i e f s are tr a c e a b le in th e Rgveda.
Che o f th e reason s
o f t h e ir ab sen ce in t h i s Veda /seems to be th a t th e nonAryan c o n ta c t w ith th e Aryans was s l i g h t e r in th e Sapta
Sindliu than i t was l a t e r ,, when th e Aryan, conquerors ad­
vanced eastw ards to th e Ganges V a lle y .
Here th ey became
m o r e .fu lly a s s o c ia te d and acq u ain ted w ith th e g en era l
c u ltu r e o f th e natives),*, some elem en ts o f which were
absorbed in cou rse o f tim e in to Aryan s o c i e t y , but a f t e r
b ein g rem od elled by Brahmans to accord b e t t e r w ith t h e ir
own r e li g i o u s n o t io n s . ; This i s b e st shown by th e f a c t
.'''that-there are .c le a r in d ic a t io n s o f them in l a t e r Yedic
te x ts *
Of th e s e th e Atharvaveda i s s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g ; :
and, though i t was not e d ite d in th e same p la c e and tim e
.
as th e Egved^a,; i t in c lu d e s , a& I have s a id a lr e a d y , some
’ m a tter o f non-Aryan o r ig in ,w h ic h i s a s o ld as th a t o f th e
Rgveda, and oan th u s be a ssig n e d to t h e .e a r l y Aryans o f
th e Sapta, Sindhu*
■-
In th e Rgveda th e r e are tr a c e s o f i s o l a t e d hymns
c o n ta in in g s u p e r s t it io u s r i t e s and .s p e lls made f o r .c e r t a in
o c c a s io n s l i k e g e n e r a tio n , m arriage,, i l l n e s s , d ea th ,
p lo u g h in g , th e retu rn o f c a t t l e from th e p a s tu r e , t h e i r
d r iv in g in and d r iv in g o u t, e t c .
Rut;t h e ir v a r ie t y i s
; .
•, v
, (§)
■ . '*
V' * • :
fa r g r e a te r i n .t h e Atharvaveda. ■ Here th e e v e n t fu l l i f e
o f woman, b e fo r e , during and a f t e r m arriage, has g iv e n
r i s e to,many; s u p e r s t i t i o n s :r i t e s .
Here we have s p e c ia l
cerem onies to be observed a t b ir th and d e a th , 'and come
' a c r o ss many cu stom st o f th e m asses o f th e p e o p le .
All.
d is e a s e s in th e Atharvaveda are due to p o s s e s s io n o f
demons and s o r c e r e r s .
C urative in flu e n c e s such as am ulets
- we have p le n ty o f them in the; Indus .V a lle y rem ains d eriv ed from th e v e g e ta b le kingdom are fr e q u e n tly em ployed.
T 7 "Por exam ple, th e whole o f Bk X, 163, to m ention s p e c i a l l y
i s a .prayer;,to. •Agn.i^foh^the p r o te c tio n o f garbha ’f o e t u s 1 .. .
’ in th e m o th er’s woiiib p .gain st an unseen e v i l power.
Other
in t e r e s t i n g hymns are He I , 191; Be X ,85; 157; 163; 1 6 5 ;e tc
(§) C onsult P r o f♦ W itn e y ’s Atharvaveda Samhita ( 'T ranslated)
. ■Cambridge Mass 1905, H.O., S e r ie s , Vols 7 and 8*
V i/
•( : ( S p ir it s o f dangerous ch a ra c ter are b e fie v e d to r e s id e oh, •
; ,
:.( ( t r e e s : in the., f o r e s t ,( d rin k in g out; o f /sieu llsr o f t
i f if;yy •; y :, f . a s ( cups *•y Such e v i l s p i r i t s ,are(:a;gain:;;the;'.cause o f ■d is - y v
Vf
y;. / tu rb an ces in s ac r i f i ces where . th ey come assu m in g, th e forms
h-v
tMfII Is■rl. i ’d 1ea
r s;1 (to
v.r' ■’••f' (h
• ;■
-•■
•o f ■s ’ou ls;■
'**o f j ^
J IIM
*^ d ;a n
. cesto
.,.
* ffe tc
, h ?' -o
• 1 iffe
, . ' r in g s -' '*■■
\
v
; from them* Other exam ples o f t h i s lcind cah e a s i l y ; be ;
^
found in th e t e x t ; • (Ih v sh b r t; th e A th arvaved a(i
;
of
y,yi:\(:;f\y charms and Sp e l l s ’ t o. Vcure d is e a s e s , ( oy e f c ome ( e v i 1 s p i r i t s'
y ( ■ and' k i l l en em ies, b en ed ict ion s for; th e b ene f i t .o f fa r m ers,
y;;:;v:Vshepherds;!;;and-itbr chant i s b t c > -’h
The mos t im portant featurey unde r l y i n g -ih e s b y p r a c tic e s
V^(^yyy(.y%( and s p e l l s i s th e b e l i e f y ih (sp ir its y ,;(.g e n e r a lly 'e v i l , ; cdh- f
y (i
f
> O eived -in, many "fcmusyiXyy^
; ■,> ■
in th e w id e -
se n se i s s t y l e d , anim ism ;f.:.which;;;r e c o g n is e s s p i r i t s jinhumef-
; i f ffy.(:
fy ;u b le,sh a d o w y b e l h ^
. y. •
p a r t, g h o s ts y d e m o n sfo r
.id e n t if ie d w ith some anim al, p la n t or t r e e , w a te rs, or
' i f f 'y ;fyfi'somehdisbase;v;y;ahd: th e ; 1 ike.;:: These beihgafar© f c a lle d yimi:
th e Rgveda and . Atharvaveda b y ; d i f fe r e n t names -y Ralcslias i
■f
>■:. "■■■.'■=K* or .Bakshasas * iDruhs v Yatudhanas fyGuadharv
i.;
A suras; etc*
yf
The Rgveda refers-V-tdSthem asi th r e e -fa c e d /a n d
th r e e -fo o t e d :(Efc X , y8.7,lQ), and as h avin g th e form o f f
if
f f ■; -if . dogsy, ;v u l t u r e s f owlsy y a n d o th e r idm inous; b ird s t h a t f l y .\ f ,•
. •(
f
about a t n ig h t (Be I I I , 104, 80, i 33 ) • ; Theyi can : assuiae
:/.:^;y : ' ^ i t h e . form: q f h u sb a^ ,);:hrpt^
;■y;;
y
ior loveriy (ttyX ’f ' l ^
y can approach th e pregnant woman to d e s tr o y ^the .c h ild in
y y.her y’i ^^
v y Ih^the
yh avey^
y■
.
f orm:, . t h e i r h ea d , e y e s ; h eart, an dyd;thieffpaftsybein£py ,y:
;; f i
y iy ff if.i:f( y.i'itientidried, ybut they; h a v e ^
iff f
d e fo rm ity , he ling th r e e-headed; t wo-mouthed, ■be ar-rie eke d f ; ; i:
i •:f T f f fy ;ftour-eyed , i : f ive-idotedyi; f ir i g e r le s s , v/ith f e e t turned: i b a c k - ; ■f y f
f
y f ;/f - ; i- ; f w a rd s, ; o r w ith h o r n s f o r i.th d ii
f K iacdoneil ’s;7 ed £ ;^
fy f
i f f
f f
fi:
f Cf i f -
.if yyyf'f' f i f yi<T'; ■' i f f v"f f if iff
Thus i t w i l l beyseen th a ty th e e a r l y iVedic r e l i g i o n
not drily; compifcis'e'^
i
yy
fy
f .f f
Of . n a t u r a l ■powers f
•f ! i f btitfhlso i came to absorb o th e r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and r i t e s : '
f
ywith; (which f t h ef Arykns were unacquainted b efo r e : th ey came fy y f f
f 'f;:/ y f f f f f f i n t b f heyParijafniy f ^ y y d ^
’
w orship?
The m ost p la u s ib le reason i s th a t t h e ir p r e f f
f •, f f f i f y i i f f d e c e s s o r s i regardediithem w ith i fa
••
I\foreoyer, we se e '
th a t in la te r ;'tim e s ’ th e .ad op tion fo f i To c a l •non-Aryan” : f
, f =:yyf
• i
i n s t i t u t i o n s , in to th e highhryarid;;orgahizehy;^diQ. ^Acyan
v
V
s o c ie t y i s
a
.fr e q u e n t. phenomenon;.. a s im ila r i t h in g . must i f i f f
fy- ’’f i f f f f f f a lso y h a v e haippb
y
y fff
,-f
yfy'•''fif■iivf- yyf(ify'iyiiyi’':y^'(;.y-,■ v'
3h c o n tin u a tio n o f th e se b e l i e f s we s h a ll now. c o n sid e r f f
- f f th efview . h eld :b yi'-y^ yan aiiab d u tfth f f^
Tune r a l pr a c t ic e s*
yf
■. f
a d y a ls d fth e ir
The i idone ep t io n o f s p i r i t s , i t i s g e n e r a l-
f f fi f f f f . if f l y ; b e l i e v e d f ip rig in allyyish artp d f from th e s o u ls o f th e dead
f
f i■
y . f f f ii i y,
f fy f y
•f ■
who i. were c o n c e i v e d t o e x i s t in;m any■;i w a y s i f That- may h a ve
f b e e n y so ♦ if The m ost im p o r ta n t q u e s t iorii i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n f
f - y / f i s - t h a t o f t rarisriiigrat io n •- a ip h ilo s o p h i c a l i t h e o r y a c c o r d i h g t o :wh ich . t h e T n d i v i d u a l s o u l s o r i s p i r i t s m ig r a t e ifromi;
fy i
■
body to body and .o b je c t, t o f o b d e c t f ill aeoofdanoe w i t f t^
f y f y f ■y; yyf r e s d e o tiv e ydeedsv ;;
•
trai^migratloniTs.^:^^i;
: ; y u n i v e r s a l ] . y , f o u n d . i n t h e U b a r n i s h a d s ,y b u t • i s n o t c l e a r l y
ffff/y
yf-
:;. e x p o s e d i n e a r l i e r Y e d ic t e x t s , w h ic h m o s t l y S e a l ; .w i t h i , f f
.;
f f l y f y f f f f f f p b r s o r i a l y g b d s y y t h e i r y w p rs h ip a M ^
. y ff
y y f (f f y f f 1 '(;some i s c h o l a r s ^have h e l d >i h a t t h e y i d e a , b f t r a n s m i g r a t i o n ,
.
v
y y f
f
y; y ;
y yy
h a d n o t d e v e l o p e d yin; , t h b ,e a r l i e s t : p p r i p d y o f
This
iew , h i s t o r i c a l l y sp ea k in g , does n ot seem- to. b e .
y
C o rrect, i f th ere are r e a ll y at th e bottom o f th e d o c tr in e
yy
’ T ffy
y
, in q u e stio n a n im is tic id e a s , such as tlie. in corp orat ion o f
(y
yy
fy y; y y th e; s p u ls y o f t h p d a d l i n ; a.nimals 'o r f p la r i^ ^
yff'f. -'ffV-'-V; y f f f is f ev id en ce.„i n l e a n L S r l ^ A g a i n , ' ; . s p y f ix e d and uri- f y . y f f
f f S f f f f
f f f f i-
f
i f f V (■ ; (■ vi. f
. i f f y;f y• fyv o n ly f e e l t h a t i t had h lo n g h is t o r y , behind i t j and was
.ffyf f
..
worked, up by i n t e l l e c t u a l s among th e Aryans and who, had
•
iiiiaerited ; it; ^
b i d days as ;a d e f i n i t e though: not f u l l y ;
f f f f y - y , yf.vf f d e y e ld p e d b e T ip i^ ^
fy ff
;•
f ffy \f
( f l f :y ( f f f f
'■yy'-;’ -y
y M
y ;f y:y
to fm i^ r a tio r itp ffs o u ls-h a v e ■-.fy,
i n th e Rgveda i t s e l f , ; and. ;.that>t^he -dobfrfnef'yyyyf
. v/asy cu rren t a t t h i s e a r ly d ate i s r e c o g n ise d ;by; a u t h o r it ie s
-
f
: lik e
:
f
f
f
G e ld n e r , :
f
f
•
O ld p n b e rg
(o )
'
and
y.
f - V ' y y ..f I f t x j f
H L p o m f ie id .
"
.f:
/ vy ; - f .; f v f f ■f f
y .
vy f ;
f
y
T
T
f
T
f
f
. f y y f - yyf.;
f f f f f ■ (§;)( V edlsohe VStMiPrif ^ u t t g a r ^ 1889119 Q lf: il;f; P ^ i43. ; f ;f: y f
:ff*y f f ;y.f (o ) Die R e lig io n des ■Veda, B erlin 1894 f~pp 563, 5 8 1 f,
f fffy* fy--(xjf'Tfrfr^Rel i g i o n o f :t h e f Ved
; pp 355 f f ; i ■: y f . . ,
.57
v( fy ■";vGranted , f :t h e normal ( b e l i e f ;; o f \t-hef
.. in Yama *s heaven i d r good men, hut t h i s probably e x is t e d
s id e by: s id e w ith a b e l i e f th a t s o u ls o f f i n d i f f e r e n t l y ; v f
.good and bad' men passedflntp^':ah'ffiais;;' and p la h ts ,f h s : semsv^^
, to be th e yidesyexpressed.-m ore- d e f i n i f e l y f i n th e '.l ^ e d i b v
• hymn X , 16 • f • One i s in c lin e d to su sp e c t th a tfr th e fo r ig in a l
id e a was th a t bad men went t o h e l l or; p u rg a to ry , and. th a t
th e Ved.ic •Aryans borrowedythe id ea o f tran sm igrat io n -f romf
y
a n im is tic n a tiv e s o f th e Iiidus V a lle y , th ou gh never r e -.
■ co n ei 1 in g th e ■two d o c tr in e s fo r y a -lo n g t^nue *yy.Hbweyeir-,;:;:
. th e -=two se p a r a te b e l i e f s were (in th e o p u r se fo f tim e com- :y
bined by im agin in g th a t reb irth : ip lio w e d f t h e ;;penaity. o f ; \y
.
h e l l o r reward o f heaven.
;So we s e e ,t h a t y r e f le
f
problem s about th e l i f e .a f t e r d eath -had no doubt b e g u n ff y
, among t h e . A ryans, though th e co n cep tio n s about i t were
•y s t i l l vague*
;lh (th eym aih f th e q p v e te d :;p la c e y w ith :;thenif
a f t e r death was .unquestiohai)ly; t h e ; h ig h e s t
c a lle d p i t r l o k a y where th e dead *Ih th e r s ?;had a lrea d y gone
f f a r i d f w e r e ( u n i t e d w it lf Yamb, yih b ( f i ^ ^
f
f ones' and now t h e : r u le r -of p it p lb k a f a n d y f jfoiiy
y f dead m ight a ls o retuinrhoiiie; •
To; say th a t th e s t a n z a s : (•
f (*'••) C o n tra s £ P a u l , D eussen , P h ilo s o p h y . o f f I n d ia f f ffn&; t r a n s * ■:
;M
, p 316 *
-. - f ; ; y ;-;>f. ’f f d i f f f f y f f y yf'fry f ff":':
(§;) Rgveda,
X , 1 4 -1 6 , e s p e c ia l ly 1 4 ,8 ; Be X 5 7 ,4 . Also
• read He X, 37, 31; 56, 1
109, 7 f
ffa n d 135, 6 .
•
fy
.■
( y
quoted in th e' l a s t fo o tn o te: cannot imply ("a re turn to the
:,((.; -> y
((w o rld h ftery d ea th : b e cau se t h e d o c t r in e o f t r a n s m i g r a t io h (
o f th e s o u l was unknown to th e Rig-Ved ic Aryans and t h a t .
,(:.y - ; / -rf ‘ t h e d o c t r i n e o f t r a r i s r a i g r a t i o h \7as u n k n ow n tp^ th em b e c a u s e :
(( ^£ h e r e ia ^ n p m e n t io n p f y i t f T s a r g i i i ^
f T h e u s u a l way i n w /h ic h .th e :A r y a n s ■i n
y '; ;
, -yyf y y ;
S a p ta S in d h u
;y y < ; d is p o s e d b f ^£heii(dpadyw as(nr^
yy, ( body, as d e sc r ib e d in t h e Rgveda, (flxneral Hymns(Bk, X ,15-18)
' y y '- y : ; y ■
' y'and n o f b u r i a l y ' :i t ■is;qti1;e-.. pp£.sible' t h a t burning was .
•yy
( iirbended(by( th e Aryans t o send f h e (eou-I. o f t h e ’ departedi ;
to; th e heaven* ; ; We have a lrea d y see n th a t the- u su a l method
:
;(;.( o f d is p o s in g y o f thevdead among: t h e =p e o p le o f (th e; y^ du s y y
;((((,-(yV alley;w as;hrbm ption(arid th e n p r e s e r v a tio n ;9fythe:;Charredy:
rem ains in fu n e r a l i ir n s * :One i s tem pted t o a t t r ib u t e , i f (
f f yyfyyy' n o t ythe^m otiye ’ and^( theyw holdybust
yyyy(;\..(yy(
(
'
y v (; ;
y(
^o f fcrem at ion -at
th e p r a c t ic e y o f p o s t-c remat ion b u r ia l in urns d e scr ib ed
.(y in th e Rgveda (X, 1 8 ,1 0 -1 3 X to th e in flu e n c e o f , th e
y
; p a le o lith ic
( '; yy in view o f th e cont a ct between t h e y ln d u s V a lle y (
y( (((y
p eo p le and th e e a r ly ; Aryans,; v a r io u s elem en ts o f th e Indus:
;;yy--: ^ r7(^ ) ( :Stan 2 as 10 to 13 Trf';& (X yyl§'(of ( t h b y i ^ e d d f ^
(
, (( ( (Vedio Index *. Vo.l I ,: pp 8 -9 ; R e lig io n and S h ilosop h y o f
^
th e Veda* S econ d :H a lf, pp 417 fFJf; a s ; r e f e r r in g to the. yy(y(yy
(
y i ( btirying o fy th e uhburntybpdyy^Tnyfac
th e y(."
( ,(: -f-',,
b u ryin g i n a fu n e r a l urn c f th e rem ains o f a body th a t has
(y’( ; ( ; > a lrea d y : beenyorem ated*f : The word anaghidagdha ’not burnt
■'Tyyyiy'Tfyy w ithy f i r e ' 1 (Be X ,y T 5 ,; 14; (Alsb: V ^
x ix £ 6 0 ;
Atharvaveda, x v .ii 1 , 3 , 3 4 ) does n ot n e c e s s a r ily mean
(
y ’bur ie d ’ ; i t ’’may as w ell; r e f e r to' th o s e who; could n ot be
•";(:■■--((;
cremated by a c c id e n t. ’- (CfV /B xrial luound at; Lauriya
v •.•(•••'•(•': .' Handangarh in Bihar - Cambridge H isto r y b f / lh d ia :Vol -1 ,
'■ “ : y ■;(' p; b I 6 * ) y , < y;y --(yy
. v
(;y,:y,y_y, y y - . y ;. yyy:.; y . y V : . f y y y >(
59
c u ltu r e y 'we s e e , su rv iv ed th e Aryan in v a sio n o f t h e •
( y i- P A n 'j a b f
th e s e were adopt ed by th e e a r ly Aryans/ ( y (
( y( iri (Sapta ■Siridhu;
;;..
^
^ m e (o f them th a t were p o s s ib ly absorbed
have been not i c e d ;;( I n -a d d itio n , th e two adapted and
(:'(•
re f iried d eserv e sp eh ialvm en tlb h *; One appears to be image.w orship.
;(;y;
That images o f ( gods; ;were -u sed y fo r worship: by th e (
l a t e r Aryans in th e Pan jab: i s c le a r from (Pan i n i ,. th e w e llknown grammarian, who belonged t o t h a t c o u n tr y .
y
'He
: ; ^ reo o g n izes(;in -one o f h is (S S tr a s ; (v ,5 ,9 9 ) th e u s e ( o f (thp; y . y y
: name o f a : god to denote h i s i m a g e . I d o la tr y - as we know,
(:
was u n iv e r s a lly p r a c tis e d by the ( Indus: ‘V a lley p e o p le ; :th e,-if
- p r e h is t o r ic Aryans, on th e co n tr a ry , did n ot u se i d o l s ;
y
;:'(..( It w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , be not. u nreason able t o suppose th a t
;•. th e p r a c t ic e which v/as so common throughout^
(
( t im e s , d e p ic te d b y ( t h e ;
^in .t lie ’ ■(
aridyldranas d ev elo p ed i f i r s t
- y:‘y . i n thev;SaptaiBindhh and a fterw a rd s: in th e r e s t o f : In d ia ; yd
;
(. •ih e -evid en ce o f such ytrans i t i o n i s ; seen in th e Rgveda.
: :We have r e fe r e n c e to an image o f Indra (He IV, 34-, io ) t t f
.'■(( i which v/as to be h ir e d out fo r a payment o f te n cows, and
( i
w h ich tra s^ t b : b e r e tu r n e d a f t e r u s e . A m
:iy-;f-■
i - y ■-.-.(*)• ( ( ( f .
i t
=• ( :; v -f • f
: - f
;
'(■■■■■"Ty'ypu^sagesf-'v now in te r p r e te d more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y in- the
:i:}yy lig h t ' o f e x t
c e r t a in ly go to; prove th a t
j /i; y : a y : y y 'S y n y & 3 ,y $ ^ ^
:(. Read in t h i s connect io n P rof ♦ Venkat eshwar rs a r t i c l e on
: ( • • ; ..; !!0r ig iris d f Hindu Ic on Ism V i n i ; H , ^ ' 193 7 f y / ; : ( - . :
y(y-
, -s
Aryan w orship was in flu e n c e d f ‘thbu^Vtp..*.
y e t , "by th e very popular u se o f iclo ls in: t t e
."77;7 7
T a lle y .
o f tein p les and . th e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f :t o
of
g o d s,, which became th e r e g u la r mode o f w orship o f a l l
:V
7/;7.I'- ? - ^ S s $ ^ ; V e d . - " i e - : ! a ls o to he a t t r ib u t e d , ;not ' : :
^■ v tb any .,in f lu e n c e o u t s id e 7 India,-; hut ' f e f e
■
’
v-wv
^
.g ra d u a l- e f f e c t o f th e pre~ Aryan ^system o f v/ofshiT).. , The -••.77
-
77 ■7 777-77 77 y g r e a t b u i l d i n g or c e n tr a l h a l l . o f I-Tarapp.a i s p r o b a b ly ;ah7<7;,
77 7:.
.7,7/:.:-ev id en ce o f a co n g r e g a tio n a l r e li g i o u s l i f e and p u b lic
::7 7 7 ' 7-/-:
7
•7,-
w o rsh ip « ■77;77 / 777 7 *777777 7'7:-7'7- 7 7";. 7:^7777777//; ■■ ■^7'77 777 -V7 77AnotherJ iB ^ b ^ a n t; ih flu e h c e b ic e fc is e d ;wa#-;the c u lt 7 •7- ;v
•v
o f p r im itiv e yd ga, which, doesVhot harm onise w ith th e ’ normal
o u tlo o k o f th e Rgvedic Aryans , but seems to have b e e n . v:
7:■
;
fo llo w e d in. .some q u arters o f . th e : Sapta .Sindhu, in
whett^modified 'formi
> -■
c a l l e d th e I ^ s i n s ;^the lo rtg-ha ir e d ones f ; . and"the T a t i s .
:;77:T
7:;
1; ,; v .
•y ■
,
,
;
some-; v
- -. •
7'77777
.
The Rgveda closerib es th e •: M m isy: a l s o '■
:7
The d e s c r ip tio n ? o f them both;, 'when jr e a d :In ; con ju n ct ion
I w ith ;the;vA tharvaveda, ^c le a r ly ;s u g g e .s ts t h e i r connect io n
1
■■7 •
■;r_-Vw-ywith th e e a r l i e s t f orm o f : Bad.ra^Siva worship,, ..•: c h i e f l y ;, 7
e ^ ib •-bho ■IJgveda, He X, 7 2 ,;7 ; 1 S 6 ; : He:: I,. 179 ;
•
Atharvaveda, He XT. 7 The e a r l i e s t form o f yoga, i t appears ,
o n l y ainied. a t m a s te r in g o rg a n ic ; l i f e w ith , a view to endow- 7
in g .it.; w ith 7s u p e r n d t u r a l 7powers v 77 I d e a s Of 7 l b f t y s p i r i t u a l i t y , p e ssim ism , i n d i y i ^ a l i s i i ^ 7etb'A,7int^
77777
::
, w ith yoga / a r e ; l i k e o th e r ; i d e a s o f r e l i g i o u s th o u g h t i n
7
;
I n d i a , l a t e r d evelo pm ents ^ ;mds t l y as t h e r e s u l t o f c o n te m p t7. /
' fo r brth od ox l^ ah iiian ic r it u a lis m .
7.77 .7
v-.-'lv; ; ■
,
(§);7^ eA ^ h a ry a y b d a (He XT) in d ic a te s ;/th a t t h e :j& yans.des i g n a t - , :.
. . • e d ^ t h i s w o rsh ip as f¥ r a t y a 1 and c a l l e d i t s f o l l o w e r s 77
Y r a i y a s . This; book !,s e t s f o r t h th e myst i c g lo r i f i b a t io n o f
;>vvl:7 7 ‘;
• the- T r a t y a who seems to. be th e :d e i t y . o f som e; non-A ryan 7
.
ev ilty T ih a l l l i k e l i h o p d p r i m i t i v e S iv a ) r e g a r d e d d i f f e r e n t l y 7
- 7\ 77V7-';;':-77\> by h i s o r i g i n a l v o t a r y n o w /th a t he h as im bibed t h e 'Aryan 7
7.;:v 7^77; 7>.7:v . c u liiu r e ; i n f u l l > 7 0 r . v^H iah d ark ar, -l o c *0 i t , p 40.7. ■’
7; " .
,-V 77: , ; 7■•.'.v: 7 f e p r e s e n t e d 7 ^
V 77
iraage o f th e god i n t h e p o s t u r e o f a
f 7;7-
7.; .7 y o g in on the77indus . s e a l t h a t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n ; d i s c u s s e d i ; Y
7;
. This Indus w o r s h ip , a s we .have s e e n , 7was c o n n e c te d w ith
7;
7; t h e c u l t o f t h e l i n g a , i n d i c a t e d by hiuuerous p h a l l i c
77 ., -7
: ■ s t o n e s d i s c o v e r e d from Indus V a lle y s i t e s .
7 -' 7
The p h a l l i c
, ■■■ •c77 /;;7
:; o u i t ^7 ho wever y d i d ,
”77 7:' 7
t h e e a r l y A ry a n s ' i n Sap t a .Sindhu y ao 7 i s .^ v l d e n t T rp m t h e ;7;; / 77.
'7
7,
Among
. 7 7/
777
7
777 7 o ontemptuous. way i n wh i oh7th e ■d if e a - dev as v..: *th o se .who .have.
7, 77777'; a p h a llu s fo r t h e ir d e it y ,f j are .r e fe r r e d to i n th e Bgveda.7
; ;
7
■
;;7 7 , / :7That7the ■p r a c tic e : o f p h a llic ; w orship7w l i i c h / ^
. '7 ,:v
77v
7 d e s p i s e d By th e Aryans because: o f itb--;rep’& i s ^
7
>" 7 : • 7s h o u l d Tbe a l l p w e d 7 I h t e f t o become a .; p d f t 7of;:/the7worship o f
7
■7 7 ;,„,7 7 . -7 7 7 .
one o f t h e i r , gpds ;a p p e a rs r a t h e r s t r a n g e .
7 But
7;
i t m u st7 b e:7
■;remembered t h a t t h e o ld b e l i e f s 7 and p r a c t i c e s 7were g ra d u a l-.
77/ 7
7.
7 7 ; l y t a k e n up and d e v e lo p e d b y . t h e : non-A ryan and 7jn?yan M inis
■
.and Y a tis and o t h e r t h o u g h t f u l p e o p le , i n t h e c o u rse o f -. :
’ 777 t ir ie >
7: '. 7 7
77
Thus 'began a movement which pr 0 fo u n d ly 'a f f e c t e d
7;lb t e r r e l i g i o u s thought and p ra ct i c e s ; o f 7 th e Aryans in
77 ;: 77
7 1 . 7 77 7/. 7;v^ P .ta Sindhu^and; elsew h ere 7ip ,badta,7 b u i77irith: o h ^
■ 7
;
ence ~ i n t h e . Pan ja b t h e old7 l i b e r a l c o n d i t i o n s o f ,.the7
. 7 ; 7 TRgvedie a g e s c o n tin u e d f o r a lo n g t i m e , w h ile on t h e e a s t ,
' 7-.7^'
7;
7b f
v7;
7/,7;; 7 ;/*.
;t h a t c o u n t r y , i n t h e s o - c a l l e d l a d h y a - d e s a , l a t e r
■
; . Brahmanism d e v e lo p e d r i t u a l i s t i c Vedism by e l a b o r a t i n g ' r7 \
e n d l e s s m e c h a n ic a l d e t a i l s Of■'sacrifice*y7The"^^ f i r s t a v a i l - . '
7 7 :;7 v -
7
; j: 7 7 : a b l e 7 ; l i t e r d r y / e v f d e h ^
d i f f e r e n c e ;; i h W
th e
,' p a s s a g e s o f one S u tr a Book ( IhM hayana 7 ^
;
7
7 7 77; (Be V I I I , .C h a p te rs x i i v and xlv> C a l c u t t a e d itio n ).#
7777^
^
3
I, i ,
30, Mysore Govt. O r i e n t a l S e r i e s ) and t h e t e h a b h a r a t a
;
.
Xri
them; t h e whole c o s m o p o lita n Pan j a b , o b v io u s ly owing. t o
: 7 ; m is unde r s t and in g o f p a s t t r a d i t io n s , r h a s b e e n u n r e a s o n a b l y
:
blam ed b y some Brahmans w ith d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e ♦
f;77*;;7-vv"• 7 :
. 7;
7
Prom v/hat h a s ,b een ' s t ated ; above, i n r e s p e c t o f . S a p t a
7 -7 7 7 7 .
7' - : 7, ; Sindhu c u lt u r e - i t s s o c ia l,., m a te r ia l, p h ilo s o p h ic a l and
7;
7 77 i e l i g i o u s •developm ent - , as a ls o in7 r e s p e c t o f th e
7777'
7
7
.■ 7 7 7 7
ch a ra c ter o f afgvedic language and lite r a tu r e ^ : o f ;which we
;
p e o p le .
7.
77
7. 7
•’
;
7
7
77-77
a ; s u p e r i o r ;77;
I t i s r i g h t l y a d m itte d by a l l 7 s c h o l a r s 7 0 f a n t i -
v l h g u i t y t h a t / b h ei^ ^ w ere; n o ; a n c i e n l ^
,7 .
"77;; 7 .
spoke in ch a p ters I and^ I I I , i t may be concluded th a t th e
■. . /Ihyans o f 7 i h e 7 a h b i e n t 7 P a n p b 7 w e ^
7; 7
‘.'7
-•
" d f ^ th a t ;age e i t h e r
7
;
; i n As i a o r Europe' who wore , a s advanced as. th e . Aryans in
S a p ta S in d h u .
TakshasIta", a s s t a t e d a b o v e , h a s been in
7.;;7T the,; p a s t ;7fche,7most; famous s e a t 7 o f 7 I e a r n i n g 7 i h 7 t h e ;Aryan;7 7 ; 7'77 7.7
;
P a n ja b ; i t was i n f a c t th e f i r s t a n c i e n t i n t e l l e c t u a l c e n t r e ,7
; 77 7 ^
f r c f i./y a r io u h p a r t h o f I n d i a .
: I f ; 77777
:;7 t h e c o n n e c tio n betw een Ih k s h a i^ ita and/& bu7;T akshan, th e
7, 7 '."
; 7 77
7
7bnemy o f th e P a n i s , i s t r u e ,
th e f o u n d a ti o n o f t h e c i t y
■-■■■77 7 ■ 7 7 7 ; 7 ; 7. ,'7: h 7777-;, . 7 7 . 7 ,
7 : 7 ' 7.7 777777.7: - 7 (§) 7-77 7-f 7
777:777
P o s s i b l y ; go; as f a r ; back a s e a r l y T V e d i c / t i m e s y 7 though ; 7
7 X^7 H i l l e b r a h d t 1, lo 0 . 0 i t .seco n d ; e d itio n v 7 V o l, I f p .bib;. .
(§) The e a r l y fo u n d a tio n ; o f t h e c i t y ^ i s a l s o su p p o rte d , by t h e
7 7 v s t o r y t o l d i n t h e Baiiiay ana and Pur an a s /o f'.B fta ra ta h a v in g
c o n q u e r e d ^ G a n d h a r a a n d o f h i s ;son Takshja fo u n d in g , 7 7
7 -: 7 7 7 .7777,7',r a k :s h a s ila i h 7 t h a i 7 Thie . i s / p r b b a b i y a
K-7 7 7 .;;
i n a n o t h e r form o f t h e r e a l f a c t t h a t Gandhara and i t s C ity
*7 • ; 7; • :7 ;•' •• 7 7' 7 7 77 "7 '.7.7' •; :"7: .7"77v7- 7,:7 7 7-7 ' 7.7'77 . ( c o n tin u e d )
'
;
;7
77'
63
■
■■f:''77.77 7.7/ -v//
f '<yb
e d u c a tio n "on the .Univ^
.V? ’: 777
; ;77 'V7 - :':
system perhaps s t a r t e d /some- : 7
7 " " ; 7 7■; /w h e re in, th e l a t e r /Vedicv p e rio d .^7; /T hat; s
"
7;;
: 77 ; 7 ‘ 7
:; ' 77 eduoation a t an early, d ate e x is te d 7in 7the ;S ib ta Sindhu f s
' - ■.
7
'7:' ' 77/7,shown by 7 th e 7 fa c t t h a t th e ;;word: brahm abharin eo btirs^in ithe ;■/
v7;' 7
/ 77 ;
TRgyecla; (Be Z7: 109.,: 5 ), .which c le a rly , in d i c a te s t h a t 7 - 7
.
■s tu d e n ts h ip was a: s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o x i f
77; /
3h7this s t
7 . B rh asp ati i s re p re s e n te d as s e p a ra te d from h is wife and
7
? 7
7:7 wandering a b o u t /li k e a brahiiiacharin. The word h ere i s ;
•
. . 7. 7 -7 / undoubtedly used in th e seco n d ary : sdnse o f c e lib a c y o r ,
..
'7
7 , c o n tin e n c e .
7
7 777
TBut t h i s presupposes, th e prim ary\ sense o f 7 7-7
7 th e /fe:m , n a ^
7 *;
7 7 ;77. .
s tu d e n t s o le l y devoted to 7 7 : 7
^Brahma (Veda l a . /;7In77this7connectionvfhetauthori
77.7'/:!Vedic77Ihdez 7 7 o b s b r y e ^ ^
.
7)
p r a c t i c ^ / o f s tu d e n ts h ip
;;
7
d o u b tle ss developed, arid ;was77more: s t r i c t l y r e g u la te d by 7
. 7 7 7 7. 7
custom as tim e . went on, but i t i s r e g u l a r l y 7.assuined, and - /
d isc u sse d in the l a t e r Vedic l i t e r a t u r e , being obviously
77'
7 a neeessqry p a r t 0f Vedic s o c ie ty j f D e ta ils of th e
7 7 .
.7
7-7 ^
.7
/
7/'7/7
e d u c a tio n a l system and s tu d e n t l i f e ^ which a re a v a ila b le ^
only i^^orir l^hep? *be^ebvs v are la c k in g i n / t h e ;Bgveda7
However,
the reg h la r: te a c h in g of 7studeiats by a te a c h b r 7 is referried 77 7 ; 7
777: to i n / t h e ;s c ^ c a lle d .7^^
V II, 105). - ha t h i s . : ; v
7 777 7 hymn th e p o et V a sish th a , moved /by th e awakening o f t h e 7 7 7'7
7 77
7 fro g s a t th e advent o f th e ra in y seaso n , compares t h e i r . 7
7" c o n tin u e d ) T a k s h a s lta -h a d in /re m o te 7 c a st been a s s o c ia te d . 7 7 ;
. w ith ;the B iaratris : o f th e 7Sapta7Sindhu. ; 7:7 7;
7;
7 ' ;.v; 7■■"// v:7-7(^ f'-TVbi ■T1V" 7P;: 75 ,7f; . f ;f;7-■■ 7'
77-:;-
v 7..: '7 -77; 7 ■'7-777'v,;7; ' /''//- /T 7.
■77y; y y / 7 / e r o
/ ; ;--v,•
b y /p irp ila ;^
,/7 f y
y / Vedic m an tras, in im ita tio n .o f t h e i r te a c h e r . 7 This shows
: . ' y y ;;7/ ■:7
7th a t th e I n s t rue t ion im part ed whs c h ie f ly /o r who i l y ;Qral;,
'7/ / ; /e s p e c ia lly t h e / r e l i g i o u s in s tr u e tio n wh ich v/as d e s ire d .to .
•■;/;7-..7-: / / /7";-: be merabr ized and re c ite d on th e •o c c a s io n /o f;b a c r i f leys • '/ y y y y
/ y ;; ' ■:y .; . • I t v/as -probably from brahmachar l types o f s tuderits th a t
/
7 /7 /
;
: /
7/.'- f.; /
th e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a of Sapta Sindhu s o c ie ty was. formed.
•77 ;/.•; i3u*b; th e mos t : learned^o f men, it7seem s,/;;w p:^
- ^.
//
p o e t-s e e rs o r r s h is
,7v. •" 7 ■
/. : 7>.
/
o f th e hymns,•• who were found a l l / y / / 7
/o v e r th e country >&p7y.lii&geV^:to^
7y >7
77 ,7
compos ed hymns which were r e c ite d a t Vedic s a c r if i c e s ,
7 o ffe re d to / gods, and a lso sang th e p i ^
: •: 77
77.
7y
in honour o f I//;
. 7 7^^/j ans .who p a tr b n ite d the.ir;;,learnlng7\.''' -Each p a r t i c u l a r 7 7:;/7y.
7: . 7 ,
r s h i fam ily A /these/w ere f o r / in sta n c e V isv am itra, V a slsh th a ,
7/ 7y 7/77 77 - ■/ 7 K anyaf TVamadeva., / E haradvajayetc - •*funct ioned /as a Vedip / 7
77 / 777 7school where: . i t s /own sto ck o f hymns was /conserved^ and7 7
77;;y /::>■' 17 .
7. -7,
. 7 ,7
: tra n s m itte d /fro m s i r e fo sony /or p re c e p to r tb pu^
,; / 7fy.Vv
,
7
7 / /"//Z y -
The r e lig io u s in s tr u c tio n , as / we have seen, was on
/// 7
7 .7 th e w hole. v e rb a l, and th e te x ts had to be memorized and
■7 ; ■i; /; 7; .7 -thor; p ds s bdt'dbyyn/zby'/^tr ad i t io n-, f roiA/ e a r /t o; e a r /and genera—
*7 7
•' . 7;7. 77- -7 '
. (§) t o gene r a t io 11. -77 ■/' 7-■7:-.77
7/77:7;,—''■/■/fy/ ' ■/■.; 77- / : 7.777 ,7
7 > /,-, 7
tio n ^ . T h is ,; hoy/eve r , do e s hot p f bv e t h a t . w ritin g was 7 y.-, T * T ~ Ih e se ,a lso included lady r s h is li k e Ghosha (Z ,40 e t c ) 7
and o th e r s , . m entioned in l a t e r V e d ic /tr a d itio n s ;
/7 ///'y ■
-7? y(§.):;..p3i-ig7 system o f / o r a l T ra n b m is s io n b u rv lv e d ^ in y M
7 7 '7777
7;777/v 7 recent; tim e s. /The .best/exam ple/ o f v it i s to b e/fb u n d from 7 ; '
■■■;■-■;7/
; the; Sikhs o f th e Pan ja b , whose ' r e lig io u s te x ts/w e re ; a t
•y 7. • 7 ■/; / f i r s t tr a n s m itte d ;through/; o r a l t r a d it ion and th en c o lle c te d /■
■777777; 7 7/7;":: vr7:;;'ahd'' Coiiipiled7lntQ;‘the'7Grhnthv7':;''v: 77’--7.77 y 7 /,- ;7;7 7/ 777/ 7/77:'-'y’y '
7•.
v V-,; .
/
unlcnov/n, e s p e c ia i l y fo r profane p u rp o ses.
•
:
many s c h o la r s ,: ho tr u e system .’o f w riting-:(;as d is t in c t-- from ,s
Ay/-/.
y:
According to ••/'••.
p icto g ra p h s ) e x is t e d in India defoi^e 800 B>C*, but t h i s
.../
,'■ yAA -view i s n ot u n iv e r s a lly ^accepted i/A lt , i s very; l i k p l y t h a t : .
w r itin g , was :employed e a r ly fo r s e c u la r purposes *
//A
Miat
A A; A p a r t ic u la r s c r ip t th e Iryahs used in e a r l i e r tim es i s very
: -y:
::
d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a in w ith th e /p r e s e n t .s ta te ^ o f our knowle d g e .
/ :/
Probably, th ey adopted .with m o d ific a tio n s th e Indus
/'.A/ A A \ A s c r ip t ? which: l a t e r on, say about 8 0 0 .B .0 . V when needed . . :/ / ;
'Ay-1; fo r - - l i t e r a ^
. y
■ vy
:\
fou n d ^ u h satis'fab tory and g iv e n
up in; favou r o f a, s u it a b le s c r ip t borrowed from, t h e :y
:■;/’/; / n eigh b ou rin g c o u n t r ie s ." T h e m o s t'a h c ie n t w riting*,/'Bralimi,
:/ / ;
used in th e.IP an jab an d elsew h ere in I n d ia * w h ich .h as/b een
.
/• y known from th e e a r l i e s t dated (th ir d d en tu ry B .0 > ) in s c r ip - /
; :/ y yy
/ it ion^" o f ; th e ,fe u ^
^ ok a^ ysoem sytb be /a d e v e lo p - .
a >v
ment o f u n alp h ab et now g e n e r a lly b e lie v e d »3eiriitic in
' y' / //y> o r i g i n * /•
y ;AA y
flIt - was probably bfou ght/ in td :/3n d ia /through / y/.
A .^ s o p o ta m la A ^
th e e a r ly commerce by sea
/ betw een Babylon and: the; p o r ts o f Western I n d ia .,f
'A AAy
y/ ./A
-
A great;
A. d e a l o f / t h i s ycomrnerce;' yeyen. from y C ^ a lc 6 lith ic ;:t
:: AAA ■■■;. Ab e c a u s e v i t y i s ^su p p ose d / to: have^ccmie from t h e / y
;;y.////.; ,,//-■: god Brahma. .
■'//. Ay' A';A .Ay-;/ / : /'/'// ■
A yA \
A■
y ■;/(§J: M h l e r * I n f l is c h e P a l a e o g r a p h i e B t r a s s b u r g . 1898 A-•feng/yA.
A'/■
/ A./
: . ••t r a i i s . (19 O iTJ^edited by yJvB*’]E eet:;/'/.See;a l s o / Ilfad. Ant A VAAA/A
AA v o l x l v i i i , ypp 57 f f ; yj.A*_S. S, 1921,pp 209 f f * S ir -Asutosh
. /: /;
Ivhke je e S ilv e r , J u b ile e T o la , I I I , Ft I ,
ff* . V .a.nith, ../, A'' ?':/-■:A / / ; -fe^ly /H is to r y o f In d ia ,,, Ih ird e d i t io n , y p . 38: f . n A / A A a / ' A ; ' ;■■.Avy
66 ■‘ 7.-7' '
\ ■' 7 _7 , 7
.7 '
' 7: : '■ ■ V ' ■ ’
7.
' .
.• ed, to t h e ' ^ d u s 'VaileyV
7:1^} .
.,fo r e ig n s c r i p t i n t r o d u c e d ; in to th e n o rth -w est
7 o f In d ia p rob ably in th e s ix t h cen tu ry Bt G * w a s
• K haro.shthi; i t . was Aramaic in o r ig in and .commonly u sed a t
. T akshadifaV
.
■-v 7
:\
/v
:
W77-7' ;;77
Tiie
O r ig in ;
C h a p t e r T ; 7 7 ' 7 7 7 7 :';.
pf
.^ y a n s
7 '7
7 7-;-7 7 " -\- 7 7 . 7 7 7 7 ' 7
7;777
7 ^
Ihe fo r e g o in g p o l i t i c a l account -6£ tlie Aryans.7cif .v.the
Pan jab h as7b e e n babed^■ond-stu^y -of the7l^eda;.a.nd^ 1
Yedic l i t e r a t u f e v "without- imicix; reg a rd 7 for* t r a d itio n /o u t s id e ,';' ;
ex c ep t ■f o r th e Epic t r a d i t io n r e s p e c t ing- ^the;;&ams and
Pandus, in: so f a r a s i t appeared h i s t o r i c a l ;7 : ^
7 77
have in 7
7
th e Pur anus a n d . in th e IM iabharat a and Eaniayana ^ which are
p a r tly PuraniCi a v a s t body o f t r a d it io n t h a t , when c o l l a t e d ,
g iv e s a ;d i f f e r e n t As t o r y :o f thev Aryans ^ t h e i r > origih and /
7> ’ .
e x g a 3i s i d h ^ } i n 7 'l n d i £ i 7 v^';' 7 7 7 7 7 '7-: 7777:7 v 7 7 ; 7' 7 7 : 7 7 ;./>vV7 7 77777'-' 77 ^ .7'
7
72 h
e I ^ r a n b s - v t e i c h ; y i e l d - m o s t m a t e r i a l f o r b u r p u r p o s e s ; <■
g e n e a lo g ie s an d a c c o u n ts o f k in g s m e n tio n e d t h e r e in , - m ay
b e c o n sid e r e d f i r s t .
P u ran as,
Ih e y fo rm p a r t o f th e C an on o f E ig h te e n
w h ic h c o m p r is e s th e f o l l o w i n g ,
.B r a h m a ,: P a d m a ,
n u , :V a y u ( S i v a B i a g a v a t a , T l ^ r a d a o r : ^
A g r iiy H i a v i ^ a , :B r a lu u a - v a iv a r t a > X in g a , Y a r a h a y :S fc a h d a , Y a m a n a
Ifir m a , T M a tsy a , O a r u d a , a n d T B rah m an d a;
7It
to r e fe r h e r e to th e 14> ap u ran as, i •e
le sse r or S econ d ary.
.7
is not n ecessary
7
P u r a n a s , a m o u n t i n g t o t h e p a m e n u m b e r . 7 T h e y l a c k ■i n t e r e s t
f o r a s tu d e n t o f a n c ie n t h is t p r y , m o st o f th em b e in g w r it te n
.( * ) W l r i t e r n l t z : G e s o h i o h t e d e r i n d i s c h e n M
, E n g . t r a n s . 77:
b y M r s . ' S . K e t k a r * a n d r e v i s e d b y t h e a u t h o r , v o l I. .
7 7 :’7 :C a l p u t t a ; - l % 3 7 y ; : ; p p ; i 5 5 C ^ 5 7 8 ;7 7 7 /;;:7 ;..;-7 7 ;, 7 ' ;:^;;' v7;,.7'-77^ 7 7 :> 7 7 ' y -y : - -y ;;y y '
.777'7- 77 i n v e r y r e c e n t tim e s .7 J h e yferivam sa^ ' w h ic h ; i s a supplem ent 7
;'77y
;
t o th e Ivfehabharat a and no t a p a r t o f the. o r i g i n a l 7 ^
7 .7 7 -7 . r e a l l y a P u r a n a v
:
L i k e t h e V i ^ i u a n d B h a g a v a t a P u r a n a s , i t ;■y y
t r e a t s o f E a r ly p a r t ic u la r ly t o th e fo rm o f V isn u , an d / .
7*7 7 y .
-y
7
c h n t a i n s y m a n y ■c u r i ^
, b e s t u d i e d a l o n g ^ w ith t h o s e o f t h e P u r a n a s ;.
7 7 . 7 , v; 7 .y
j is
:;7 :y
y7,.y
•
T E ach P u r a n a 7 ^ s |^ sh o u iid t r e a t o f t h e 7 f o l i o w i n g f i v e
sp e c ifle d su b je c ts
7
7 7
*77:'
y
y.'-'y- y ;,7 ; :
( l ) S a r g a , ;i 7 e y c r e a t i o r i o f t h e u n i v e r s e .
y 7 y . y :- ( 2 I : P r a t i s a r g a , y i . e v r e h o v a t i o n a f t e r p r a l a y a ( p e r l o d i ,y y :7 k v ;7 7 ';y 7 :7 7 \7 7 ^ 7 :-;''. :7 y . o ' a i y d i s s b l u t i o h ' - ; ;' p f 7 t ^
y ;U 7 \
J. 7y 7;;77(3 ) Y a m s a , TLie,♦; g e n e a l o g i e s o f . g b d s y k i n g s / a n d r s h l s v
y
7
7
7 7 (4 )7 ^ n y a n ta f^
(5 ^ ^
7 ';'\7 '-7 y
:.y y
,
i . e ; h i s t o r y o f g o d s a n d - t h e r o y a l .-7:
d y n a s tie s r u lin g d u r in g th e fo u r A g e s.
X h u s t h e h i s t o r i c a l m a te r i^ ^ ^
77.- ;7 '7 y
7
7
•7
be c a lle d
s o , is to b e fo u n d in th e s u b je c ts
N o s ( 4 ) a n d 7(5 ) , b u t
t h is id e a l sch em e o f f iv e s u b je c ts
is n o t f u lly fo llo w e d in
7 T fc h e e x t a n t P u r a n a s .
Ih e P uranas , we
7 v ;77
’ '';:7 7 y v
, 7 c o m p o s i t io n s '; b y B r a h m a n s 7 f o r t h e i n s t r a c t i o n - o f .th e k i n g s
7777
.7 :7 ;' a n < 3 - t h e p e o p l e i n t h e m a t t e r o f d h a r m a i n a l l i t s b r a n c h e s .
T h e y l a r g e l y r e p r e s e n t t h e p o p u l a r s i d e o f H in d u r e lig io n , 77:
S a rg a s ch a p r a tls a r g a s / ch a vam so m a n v a n ta ra n i ch a ,
7 7 - / ; . 777;
y
V a m sy a n u -c h a r ita m c h a iv a P d ran am p a n c h a -la k sh a n a m . ;
y 7 7 7 ' 7 7 _ 7 y / 7 y i ! b u n d 7 f n ' m a n y g r a n d s , ; y W i g y 7 :t ^ ^
:zi
o r y m o r e p r o p e r l y , o f l a t e r B r a h m a n is m .
A c c o r d in g ly w e
h a v e in th em p r a is e s o f th e . g o d s l i k e B rah m a , V ish n u a n d
S iv a y /S u ^
ab ou t th e c u lts o f ;th e
;
S a k t i s y ; '> J a i^ is m y a n d 7 ■^ & d f i i s m y y ; a b b u t ‘;;t h e w o r s h i p o f r i v e r s
e tc and in str u e tio n s on s a c r if ic e s , a u s te r itie s and g i f t s ,
so th a t;th e P u ran as p r a c tI c a lly rank as s c r ip tu r e s o f
H iM u is m , i h o u g l i t h e y la c k ; t h e .s a n e t l t y a n d p u r i t y o f t h e ;
V edaby
th e r e fo r e i t i s th a t w e f in d in th em m any c le a r
tr a c e s o f th e in flu e n c e o f p o p u la r sp e e c h
(P r a k r itism ) on
th e B rahm an co m p o sers an d tr a n s m itte r s o f th e tr a d itio n ;;
I h e p o p u la r s i d e o f B r a h m a n is m :is ; a t ^ o n c e o b v io u s a n d
c p n v in c in g y a s i s sh ow n b y B u h le r . f
;y
tr a d itio n s and :
g e n e a lo g ie s o f k in g s , w h ic h m a in ly i l l u s t r a t e th e v a n it y
o f hum an w is h e s , a lso ap p ear to h ave b een m ade o u t b y
B r a h ir ia n s f o r r e l i g i o u s p u r p o s e s a n d f o r t h e ; e s t a b l i s h m e n t
o f t h e i r ■s u p e r i o r i t y in s o c i e t y *
T h e ir u n d e r ly in g r e lig io u s
p u r p o s e i s th u s e m p h a siz e d in th e V ish n u P u r a n a : - "He w ho
h a s h eard o f th e ra c es o f th e ^un and m oon, o f Ik sh w ak u ,
la h n u ,
(lifin d h a tr ), S a g a r a a n d R a g h u , w ho h a v e a l l
p e r is h e d ; o f Y a y a t i, Ifeh u sh a a n d t h e i r p o s t e r i t y , w h o a r e
n o m o r e : o f k in g s o f g r e a t m ig h t, r e s i s t l e s s v a lo u r an d
u nb ou nd ed wea lth y who h a v e b een overcom e b y s t i l l m ore
p o w e r fu l tim e , an d a r e n ow , o n ly a t a le ;
. ; . . v . ;. A w are o f
t h is tr u th , a w ise m an w ill n e v e r b e in flu e n c e d b y th e
S a c r e d B p o k s o f t h e •E a s t , v o l ; H . p . x x x i
• P u r a n a ^ B a g - * T r a n s . , L o n d o n 1840, Be I V ,
, pp>488-89.
■
vyy;/--;-
p r in c ip le o f in d iv id u a l a p p r o p r ia tio n ; an d r e g a r d in g th em
a s o n ly t r a n s ie n t an d te m p o r a l p o s s e s s io n s , h e w ill n o t
y
c o n s id e r c h ild r e n and p o s t e r it y , la h d sy p r o p e r ty , o r w h a tev e r e ls e is p e r so n a l, to
be h is ow n*"
7y;
t o a im s i m i l a r to t h a t o f t h e P u r a n a s w a s a l s o ta k e n
b y e a r l i e r w o r k s , t h e tw o E p ic s , t h e M
Eam ayanay
w as
y
H ere th e o r ig in a l s to r ie s h a v e b een tra n sfo rm ed
b y B rahm ans in t o r e lig io u s ta le s *
o b ject
and
T h a t t h e - B r a h m a h s ' - 1: :y : y 3 /./ y y :/
t o m a k e th e y E jp ic s y a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e , B r a h m a n i-
• y c a l e n c y c l o p a e d i a s f o r t h e k i n g s a n d t h e p e o p l e a n d a : • 777:7
p o w e r fu l m ean s in t h e ir h a n d s o f sw a y in g th e n o n -B ra h m a n
m in d , i s u n q u e s t io n a b le ;
3 h t h i s p l a n o f :a g g r a n d i s e m e n t , ;
h o w e v e r , th e P u r a n a s h a v e r e m a in e d s u p e r io r to th e E p ic s ,
^
t h e c o m p o se r s o f w h ic h , th o u g h n a r r o w -m in d e d a n d in t o le r a n t
to a la r g e e x te n t, w ere n o t d s s e c ta r ia n in t h e if o u tlo o k a s
t h o s e o f th e P u r a n a s .^ y
y y - y y - 7 y ; 7 v . / . ;. ,y - y . y - . v
B u t a P u r a n a ,. a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e V a y u ,
y;
B rahm anda an d V ish h u , i s su p p o se d to b e n a r r a te d b y th e
S u ta in v ir tu e o f th e d u tie s th a t a p p e r ta in e d to h is c a s t e •
T h e S u t a , w h o w a s n o t a B r a h m a n , w as, p a t r o n i s e d b y t h e k i n g
fo r th is p u rp ose;
7
th e V ayu P u r a n a s a y s , "T he S u ta *s 7
s p e c ia l d u ty a s p e r c e iv e d b y good m en o
f
7
se r v e th e g e n e a lo g ie s o f g o d s, r s h is and m ost g lo r io u s
k in g s , a n d th e t r a d it io n s o f g r e a t m en , w h ic h a r e d is p la y e d
by th o se who d e c la r e sa cred lo r e in th e I tih a s a s and
;y 7 7
7
P u r a n a s * Tt
T h is an d s im ila r o th e r s ta te m e n ts in th e
P u ra n a s and Ito a b h a r a ta h a v e b een ta k e n t o sh ow a d if f e r e n t
o r ig in o f th e P u fa n a s and to in d ic a te th a t th e tr a d itio n s
u p o n w h ic h th e e x t a n t P u r a n a s a r e b a s e d w e r e n o t in th e /
;
p o s s e s s io n o f B rahm ans o r ig in a lly , b u t th a t th e y h ad b een
77
c u r r e n t fro m r e m o te a n t iq u it y , p r o b a b ly in a n o l d l i t e r a r y
P r a k r it u se d b y th e h ig h e r c la s s e s , • e v e n tu a lly to becom e
t h e s o u r c e o f P u r a n ic a n d E p ic g e n e a lo g ie s , le g e n d s an d
s t o r i e s , w h ic h m a te r i a l a g a in w a s c o l l e c t e d
ren d ered in to
S a n s k r i t b y B r a h m a n c o m p i l e r s a n d e x t e n d e d b y t h e m to >
in c lu d e r e lig io u s e le m e n ts in o r d e r to p r o p a g a te t h e ir
d o c t r in e s , e n f o r c e d w ith th e a u t h o r it y o f I ^ s h n a D v h ip a y a n a
-
• 7
y
y
y 7 y y : y y 7 \ y ( o } y
V y a sa , th e. le g e n d a r y e d it o r .
y y y -
O h is t h e o r y o f : a n a n o ie n t
-
y
P r a k r it o r ig in o f th e P u ran as and th e ir su b se q u e n t a p p ro ­
p r i a t i o n a n d tr a n s f o x m a t io n in t o B r a h m a n ic a l w o r k s , a s p u t
f o r t h b y P a r g it e r y .h a s
a p p r o v a l g e n e r a l l y , y -V
and is reg a rd ed a s a lto g e th e r c o n je c tu r a l, b e in g u n su p p o rted
b y e v id e n c e .
\
7. y
yy'
y > ' '•. ^ - y - y y ; .
,7
y 7 y v 7 In an y c a s e , o u r c h ie f I n te r e s t in th e P u ran as and
E p i c s a t t h i s s t a g e l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t •t h e y a r e s a i d t o
7
c o n t a in h i s t o r i c a l d a t a I n t h e f o rm o f g e n e a l o g i e s o f a n c ie n t
k in g s a n d t r a d i t i o n s /C o n n e c te d w it h th e m .7 -T h is w o u ld y y in
c o n s e q u e h c e y : m a k e th e y i& r e ffia sy a n ^ ^ ^
V ayu P u ra n a I , 3 1 -2 * Q u o ted b y P a r g it e r in h is A n c ie n t
In d ia n H is t o r ic a l T r a d it io n ^ c h a p te r I I , p ;1 5 .
(§ ) P a r g i t e r Q y iia s t le s o f t h e E a li A g e ,7 I n t r o d u c t i o n ,
O x fo rd 1 9 1 3 , p .x v i i § 2 8 . f ; n .2 .
7;':-,. 7 ,--77.'
S fe le t f ♦ n * S . A ls o s e e P a r g i t e r : , A n c l e n t 3 h d I a n H i s t b r i o a l
T r a d itio n , ch ap I I .pp# 2 1 -2 4 *
: 7~ . 7 " :
./
;7
.
3 / *
.6
h i s t o r i c a l m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o 'th e ; e a r l i e s t p o l i t i c a l 7 ; . 7 7 7 .7
d e v e lo p m e n t . I n -3 ^
im p o r ta n o e I s
a tta c h e d to th em a s a u th e n tic s o u r c e s f o r a n c ie n t h is t o r y .
7; j
P U r g ite r , w ho d e v o te d an e x te n s iv e stu d y to th e s e w o r k s,
h a s c o n c lu d e d t h a t ;th e r e a r e r e a s o n s f o r h o ld in g th a t th e
P uran as; e x is te d 7 iiy th c ^
ta tiy e ev en th en ; 7
B .c y a n d w ere a u th o r ir
777
7 ; T h .e h i s t o r y o f t h e e a r l i e s t t i m e s , i n
I n d i a , a c c o r d i n g t o h iir i, o u g h t ; t o b e b a s e d o n a s t u d y o f
.y y
7
t h e P u r a n a s , I ; e # 7 t h e i f g e n e a lo g ic a l a c c o u n t s w h ic h c o n ta in a la r g e and r e lia b le quant ity o f h is to r le a l m atte r ,
r a t h e r th a n o n t h a t o f t h e V e d a s, w h ic h a r e w h o lly t h e o lo g ib a l in c h a r a c te r .
/'W e s h a l l , t h e r e f o r e , b e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g
t h is v ie w , p r o c e e d to g iv e ,-.a s y is ': e s s e n t ia l f o r o u r h is t o r y
o f e a r l y V e d i c p e r i o d , t h e s t o r y o f t h e A r y a n s , a s g l e a n e d : ;:
• b y P a r g i t e r f r o m t h e s e s o u r c e s . ." ' ' 7 7 7 7
y y ;'/
:;
.;;.;7::
' 7 7 7 / ' 7 ; ; - T r a d i t ; l o n ^ :r e c o r d e d d h v; t h e M i ' / c t o l i s 7 o f / t h e j e a f i i e s t ' / k i n g
7777
n am ed M anu V a lv a s v a t a , s o n o f V lv a s v a n t (th e S u n ), to w h o se
/
r a c e i s ; a p p l i e d t h e t i t l e . > S o l a r 1 ( a l s o M a n a v a ) ♦ / H e h a d ■.
n in e s o n s a n d a d a u g h t e r Ifia o r M a , fr o m w h om w e r e d e s c e n d e d a l l : t h e - d y n a s t i e s / ; t h a t :/ ; r a l e i i i n / a n c l e n t 7 ^ d
b o r e t o B udha P u r u r a v a s A lia o r A id a , w ho s t a f t e d r u lin g a t
P r a tis th a n a (F ra y a g a o r A lla h a b a d ) an d t o w hom is a p p lie d ;
th e t it ie
1l u n a r % b e c a u s e t r a d i t i o n m a d e B u d h a a d e s e s n d -
a n t f r o m S o m a ( t h e M o o n ) *:7 " /- 7 ; ; - ■ 7 ' :'; :' -777 .:/ 777:;:;\'
^ .y .y
l o o . o i t . C h a p t e r I V , p p . 5 4 - 5 5 ; ;Mi i s 7 i s a l s o / s h o w n b y :
V . smith. S e e h i s E a r l y H i s t o r y o f I n d i a t t h i r d e d i t i o n ,
p .23.
,'-:7
y .7 7 ••■ y y y y 'y y y :/
/
3f(
/ , A l l t h e P u lr a n a s ( i n c l u d i n g H a r iv a m s a ) >: e x o e p t . t h e l a t e
V araha
>7:
V a m a n a ,/ Q ca n d a
7
/ E a r a d a , B r a h m a v a i v a r t a , a n d t h e -7
I h a v ia h y a ,.w h ic h d o e s n o t d e a l w ith th e a n c ie n t p a s t , g iv e ;
th e w h o le l i s t o f k in g s o f b o th th e s e H o u se s m o re o r l e s s
c o m p le te ly .
Of th em th e V ayu an d B rah m an da h a v e th e b e s t
t e x t s o f th e g e n e a lo g ie s , th e ir a cc o u n ts a g r e e in g f a ir ly 7 y
C iq se ly y
0^
g iv e s th e l i s t tw ic e
d ow n t o Eam a
o f th e S o la r H ou se an d a ls o a p o r tio n o f th e lu n a r p e d ig r e e
e lse w h e r e . • Ih e t e
a s a lr e a d y h o t ic e d , h a s
7
g e n e a lo g ic a l l i s t s o f th e lu n a r H o u se t w ic e , w h ic h d i f f e r ;;
a go o d d e a l, a s a ls o th e e a r ly p a r t o f th e S o la r a s f a r a s
L rd hasva
7 7 .In '
and sm a ll p o r tio n s o f b o th H ou ses in s e v e r a l
th e s e g e n e a lo g ie s it. is c u r io u s/ to fin d I l a f w ho
g a v e b ir th to Ih r u r a v a s, tu r n in g a fte r w a r d s in to a m an by
nam e Sudyum na*
H e h a d th r e e s o n s U tk a la , G aya, a n d V in a ta sV a
{ o r H a r it a s v a ) , w h o o b t a in e d t h r e e k in g d o m s in t h e e a s t o f
In d ia an d w ere c a lle d S audyum nas •
7 - ^ 7 7 '■■ 7
7x
777v : ' y 77 / 7 ,
77 3 7 7 7 7 y ( x ) 7 7 .
I h e n in e s o n s o f TM anu
w ere H csh vaku , N & bhaga,
3 3 ir s h ta ; S a r y a t i , N a r ls h y a n ta V P r a m su , N h b h a n e d is h th a ,
K aru sh a and T P rsh adh ra;
T ie e ld e s t I k sh v a k u , w on t e r r i t o r y
V i n l/5 a d h y a d e sa a n d r u le d fr o ia A y o d h y a ;7 E rpm h im o r i g i n a t e d
/ th e; g r e a t T M k sh v a k a d y n a s ty o f iy q d h y a , ; t e ic h ^
77
.(* ') H e . I , 7 0 , 2 I - ? 4 4 j B fc ± 1 , 1 1 0 , 6 - 3 5 ; T h e s e g e n e a l o g i c a l l i s t s ,
h o w e v e r , w h ic h a r e p r a c t ic a l ly th e sa m e , a r e s a id t o b e
7^ i n c o m p l e t e a n d s u o h a s c o n t a i h i h g m i s p l a c e d n a m e s , w h e n •
com p ared w ith l i s t s in th e P u ra n a s h n d ltta b h a r a t a* •
(§ H e * I , 3 2 , 1 - 3 4 7
. / 7 - : - 7 7 ‘7 V ; . 7 7 7 7 v 7 x y ; 7 7 7 7 7 3 3 3 ; 7 7 7 7 / ■
(o | H c .I I I , 2 0 1 , 1 3 5 1 5 -1 9 • 2 0 3 , 1 3 6 1 4 -2 2 ;
( x ) S h e V S y u h a s I fe ih u sh a i n s t e a d , f o r w h om , B a r g i t e r s u b s t i t u t e s
7/
^ 3 3 / / 7 : 7- .7 •'-vv77v7/ 7:..7 7
777777 ' 77'7-; >l[febhaga;'7://:7o7
know n a s th e S o la r H ouse*
H e h a d a h u n d red s o n s , o f w hom
V ik u k sh i w as th e e ld e s t a n d h is s u c c e s s o r ;
H is o t h e r so n s
fo u n d e d n u m e r o u s k in g d o m s i n n o r t h a n d s o u th : I n d ia , w h ic h
c o n tin u e d f o r a lo n g tim e u n t il e c lip s e d b y th o s e o f th e
d escen d a n ts o f P u ru ravas, as w e s h a ll n o tic e p r e se n tly .
im o n g th e m H em l w a s fa m o u s , w ho b e c a m e t h e p r o g e n it o r o f
a n im p o r ta n t d y n a s ty w ith i t s c a p i t a l ,a t V id e h a .
U iis
l i n e i s t r a c e d f r o m h i s s o n M L & h l, f r o m w h o m t h e c o u n t r y
w as nam ed M ith ila ;
H e' w a s a l s o c a l l e d J a n a k a , a n d m u s t b e
d is t in g u is h e d fro m S ir a d h v a ja J a n a k a , f a t h e r o f S it a , an d
f a t h e r -in -la w o f R am a.
(*)
V ery l i t t l e is record ed ab out
o t h e r s o n s o f IM an u . ’ P r o m E h r s h t a s p r a n g a n u m b e r o f c l a n s
,
(§ )
c a lle d E h a r sh ta k a s, w h o, a c c o r d in g to S iv a P u ra n a ,
o c c u p ie d th e B a h lik a c o u n tr y in th e P a n ja b i N ab h aga an d h is
—
/ ^
s o n im b a r ish a p r o b a b ly r e ig n e d o n th e r iv e r Jum na; -S a r ^ a ti, s
k in g d o m l a y i n t h e e x tr e m e w e s t i n t h e r e g io n b o r d e r in g t h e
g u lf o f C am bay.
to G u ja ra t.
H is s u c c e s s o r I n a r t a g a v e t h e n am e J S n a rta
H a r ish y a n ta an d P ram su w e re o f th e V a is a la
d y n a s ty , a s w a s a ls o N a b h a n e d ish th a .
Prom K a ru sh a w e r e
d esce n d ed th e K a ru sh a s; w h ile P rsh a d h ra w as c u r se d fo r
h a v in g k il& e d h is t e a c h e r fs co w .
The m o s t c e l e b r a t e d k i n g s .
i n t h i s H c u s e w e r e M a n d h a t r * H a r i s o h a n d r a ; :son o f I r i s a n k u ,
(# '} ■ "(*■)' O f * R a m a y a n a , H e V I I , 8 1 , 1 8 - 1 9 .
(§ ) He V I I , 6 0 , SO .
S a g a ra , B ia g ir a th a ♦ A m b a r is h a ^
. (d i f f e r e n t fr o m S u d a s * . •
k in g o f io r tli P a n c h a la , a n d o f R g v ed i c f a m e ), D ilip a ,
B a g h v i , A j a , B a s a r a t h a a n d 'R a m a ;-;::':;;:;
In th e lu n a r H o u se , w h ic h h a d i t s c a p i t a l a t
P ra t ish th a n a , A yu su e se e d e d P u ru ravas M la ; y
a
'S w -V :-^
b ro th er
o f h i s , A m a v a su , e s t a b lis h e d h im s e lf a t K h n y a k u b ja (K a n a u j)
a n d K s h a tr a v r d d h a , a s o n o f A y u , fo u n d e d t h e k in g d o m o f
K h si (B e n a r e s );
A yu w a s s u c c e e d e d b y Ifeh u sh a j w ho e x p a n d e d
h is k i n g d o m / h i s
; :
so n Y a y a ti, w ho w a s a g r e a t c o n ­
q u e r o r , t h e A lla k in g d o m q u ic k ly g r e w i n t o a n e m p ir e f
Its
n o r th w a r d p r o g r e s s , h o w e v e r , w a s c h e c k e d b y th e A ik sh v a k a
pow er,
t h e t e r r i t o r y a s f a r a s r i v e r S a r a s v a t 1 i n t h e ;;
P a n ja b an d th e t e r r it o r ie s ly in g to th e w e s t, so u th an d
s o u t h - e a s t o f h i s k in g d o m w e r e a l l c o n q u e r e d b y Y a y a t i;
Ih u s a t t h i s tim e th e A lia s h a d d o m in a te d a la r g e p a r t o f
n o r th ih d ia , o v e r c o m in g th e M n a v a s , to w hom w e re now o n ly
l e f t A y o d h y a , V id e h a , V a is a la an d A n a r ta .
Y a y a ti d iv id e d a l l h is t e r r it o r ie s am ong h is f iv e so n s
Y a d u , f e i r v a s u , D r iih y U j A n u : a n d K r t i , w h o f o u n d e d f i v e k i n g - j
dom s an d fr o m whom w e re d e sc e n d e d th e f i v e fa m o u s r o y a l
d y n a s tie s o f th e Y adus o r Y a d a v a s, ^ r v a s u s , D ruhyu
o r A navaa and P urus o r P au ravas♦
-A n u s
P uru, th e f if t h and
y o u n g e s t ," w a s t h e m o s t d u t i f u l s o n o f Y a y a t i , a n d t h e r e f o r e
r e c e iv e d fo r o b e y in g h is w ish e s th e a n c e s tr a l s o v e r e ig n ty o f
Ifed h y a d esa w i t h i t s e a p it a l a t - P t a t is h t h a n a ^
h i s ;d e s c e M a h ts ? a s ^ ,fo u n d i i i; d i h e t r a d i t i o n
of
ft-ftft;f t f t ; e u s s e d '
a b p v e , ' . ; a n d : ;. x i e e ^ ' - n o t ' ^ b e . ^ r e p e ^ t e a ; ^ ^ - •ft r^ftftftft-ftft;ft':ftft'ft
•; ft;ft;- Y a d u r e c e i v e d t h e s o u t h - w e s t , i . e . t h e r e g i o n y r a t e r e d
, ft t> y t h e r i v e r s C h a m b a l , B e t w a a n d K e n .
b e m e n tio n e d , t h e Y a d a v h s d iv id e d in ^
. _ : ftft •
in h is l in e , i t m a y
f t . f t
t w o g r e a t b r a n c h e s - ft;.
- H a i h a y a s a n d Y a d a v a s , o c c u p y i n g t h e s o u t h e r n : a r i d n o r t h e r n ftft;
h a l f o f t h e o r i g i n a l k in g d o m *
Ih e H a ih a y a s o o m p ri s e d f i v e
d y n a s t i e s , t h e V i t i h o t r a s , Q a ii^ a ta s^ ft; B h d ^ h s f t
and
; ' S ; & 3 ^ i ^ e r a s ‘V ' A m o n g t h e f t f o d a v a s , f t
'
several
l i n e s , ; m a y b e m e n t i o n e d t h e i m p o r t a n t n a m e o f S a t v a t a , w h o s e : ft ■
■ ft • f o u r s o n s E h a j a m a n a , D e v a v f d h a , f t A n d h a f c a ; / a n d ^ : V r 3 h n i w e r e V e a c h
: ft ; f o u n d e r s o f d y n a s t i e s *
I t w as in th e l i n d o f f r s h n i (M adr 1 f s
;:ft;ftftft'ftftft.ft;sid e ) t h a t t h e l a s t t h f e e p r i n c f e s f t ^ ^
w i t h h i s b r o t h e r : B a l a r a m a w e r e ; b o r i u f t ft f t ft;\ftftft.
'ft,
ft T u r v a s u o b t a i n e d t h e s o u t h - e a s t ; a n d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e
B rah m an d a, V a y u , B rahm a a n d ;
a branch
o f h is
lin e ft-
f t f t f t m i g i ^ t e d ; :;t o ; t l ^ / S o u t h . p f . •■ IS d l a f t a n d ' ^ e s t a b l i s h e d ; . t h e ft d y h a s t i e i ■
o f th e P a n d y a s , C h o la s , Ife r a la sfte to #
.-ftftft::ft -ft.;/.- ^To
ft
;
t h e n e x t tw o s o n s . o f Y a y a t i, B ruhSnx a n d
a l l o t t e d k in g d o m s in a n d n e a r t h e
•//ftftftftft
p r in c e s , w h ic h m o v ed t o th e n^
A r m , w e r e ft-^ft';':ftft
i f t l h e l i n e .offt-ft'-.
c o u r s e o f ft;
. t i m e , f o u n d e d t h e i m p o r t a n t d y n a s t y a n d k in ^ d o r n o f G a n d h a r a *
ft;ft
■iftft
ft
B r u h y u fs p r o g e n y ijs g i v e n ^
^ - f t(^ )
ft.:v‘ f t ftvft
: ft v
■ ft'ft
ft;
f t ; . ft: ;/•
a n d f t r u n s a s ftft-.--';--ft
;^ a h m a h d a I I I , 7 4 , 7 -1 2 ;
99,
X 3v 1 4 8 ^ * 5 5 .; ;
H a r i v a m s ^ 5 2 , 1 8 3 7 - 4 1 ; : M a t s y n 4 8 , 6 - 9 ; V i s h n u I V , 1 7 ; ft. ft".
G aru d a I , 1 5 9 , 6 4 -6 5 ; A g n i 2 7 6 , 4 - 5 ; H ia g a v a ta IX , 2 5 ,1 4 -1 6
S h e A g n i b y m i s t a k e i n c l u d e s t h e G d n d h a r a p r i n c e s i n t h e ft
d y n a s t y o f ft f t ir v a s u f t f t l h e B r a h m a a n d H a r iv e im s a w r o n g l y d i v i d e •\
th e lir ie ^ in to tw o , a s s ig n in g to B ruhyu th e s u c c e s s o r s dow n
t o G a n d h a r a ft w h e r e a s B h a r m a :a n d t h e r e iiia i n d e r t o A n u .
•ft C f . P a r g i t e r : l o c . c i t . ( f c a n t e r I X , p p i 1 0 6 a n d 1 0 8 . ft
fo llo w s :
-
.
ft; ft.', ■ftftftftft ft ;: tfIhaihyu w ith tw o:-sons,- febhru a n ! ;^ t u f t t h e n Setu'sft /ft.-/ft.;ftft/ft/;v
ft d e s c e n d a n t s , A^^
. ° h t , fthas varir-
ft
ft-;; -ft.; .fta tio n h v :;'he:--^0^^® ^ accepts-.;Angara, which: isft'pupporio’d ; b y - wftftft
;./•. Mahahhairata,. ft& X II ft .2 9 ,9 8 1 , o f . a ls o
Ld *Be I I I , .1 2 6 ,1 0 4 6 5 , ), ft
• Gandhara, Dharma, Ehrta (has v a r ia t io n s ), IX ir d ^
v a r ia tio n s );
Prac ( c h ) e t a s , to whom th e Brahma and Harivams'a add Sucjch )e ta s i tt
Anufs d escen d a n ts are a ls o m entioned in n in e Puranas.
'ft;.';ftft ft ft names a f t e r fthimftareftSabhanaraftftM
ftftftftft/;
.Iv^hasala -and. l%hamanas.
S ix
| f t - S S S J - f t f t ! :
The Inavas a f t e r the; 1
p r in c e
ft.ftft- d iv id e d in to •t^ ftb ra h ch es;.u h d ef' h i s two s o n s : p s ih d r a ' and;.
-ftftftftft
ft ftft 'ft; T it ik sh u , th e i a t te r m ig r a tin g from th e Pan jab
• h im s e lf in the; e a s t o f In d ia among. th e JShndyxmmhsftft where; th e ;■ft
• '■
Anava kingdom became s p l i t in to f iv e aatong-his d e sc e n d a n ts,
/ft- ftft-:ftftyOeil., Ahga,; Vanga, ICal iriga, Pundra and Brahma;
:
U sinara remained
in th e P a h w h e r e h is d escend an ts flo u r is h e d and were a b le vt o
ft ?
ft found a number o f kingdoms.; ft M
ftftft ;ft/
p e d ig r e e ’i s more .f u l ly g iv en by.;
th e Brahmanda ft; Vayuy &ahita and Vishnu;. /Two .of; h isftso n s Tfrga
ft; and Suvx'ata carved. Out th e kingdoms o f th e Yaudheyas and
ft
ft;;;ftft ftftft;ft-ftftAi^aslithas. r e s p e c t i v e l y ; fttw o o th e r s v l^ x v a and: IQcmi, founded „
minor p r i n c i p a l i t i e s ; w h ile h i s e ld e s t son. S iv i ft who was most
:;ftft:ft;ftft;::ftft■;;Jfamous y;Targely' ; e x t ehded-fthisfts'wayft/ahd/f oundehft.'d:la r g e f t
ft ft^ r BrahBianda"I I I , 7 4 ,1 2 f ; Vayu i:9 9 , 1 2 f ; ft Brdhma,. 1 3 y i 4 f ; ft ' ft ■'ftft/'/fthkfiY^sa:f;31;,I$69fjft:.Matsyay48, IG f;. ft7ishnu IV, 18,1';
; A gn i,2 7 6 ,5 f | Garuda I ,1 3 9 ,6 5 f ; Bhagavata DC,2 3 ,I f .
A ll areftin ^ubstantialftagreementft^ft'ThdftBfahma/and. ftftft';/ ft;vft ft/ft/ft/ft
ft. ft:
;. . - I&riyamsa, ho wey e r , wrongly make th e Anavas aftbranch
;ft../ftft/.ftft;-/
■'ftftftftft;ft:'':ft / growing o u t o f K&ksheyu, son o f Rudr as'va, ft;a Paurava
ftftftft . ;
ftftftft;
;r p rin ce* Of; P a r g it e r . l o c ; c i t ft/Ghaptef/DCft:ftppftI08*9ftftftft/'ft .; ftft//ft
V'ftftft:
. ' . f t
ft/ft/ft/ft ft--ftft t§ K Probably r e f erredft t o in ftll^habharat a , ft B e.IX ,55 , 3 029-31ft ft; ft: ft; ft-'
3/&
12
Kingdom. S i v i b e g o t f o u r s o n s , who each; s t a r t ed a d y n a s ty
h a m ed fta ft^
thefti^drak^^^
and; 'Vrshhdafbhas*-ft.- T h is ftp e d ig re e p fftB si^
ft
e x p r e s s e d i n t h e 'f o ll o w in g t a b l e , show ing f ta i l : h i s ,
d e s c e n d a n t s , w ith t h e k in g d o m s. founded by th e m :-
:,
;
U sinara
ft;ftft.:.Ufgai
Suvrata
Uava
Yaudheyas Icings o f
ftft;ftft;;ft ftftft ftftft;,Nayafa sh tr h
S iy iftA u sin draftCwhhseft;desft/-'ft;''
cendants were
: t h e :S it i s ) ft ;
Ambashthas
Lords o f
; c i t y ft
Krnxila
ftlL
Vrshadarbha ft;
Suvira
Kekaya
V rshldarhhas 3 Sauv ir a s
/..ft, or
;
Kaikeyas
•'; Madraka
Madras ftftft
or
i&drakas
1.ft;::/'ft ftk/ft'
ft’
.. f t
Let u s now b r i e f l y su rvey th e t r a d it io n a l h is t o r y f t o f ' -
th e two Houses w ith s p e c ia l r e fe r e n c e to th e Pan ja b , as ft'"ft;
fu rn ish e d by; th e g e n e a lo g ie s j u s t
d e s c r ib e d . ftftftMijoh.fthas-■’-ft-: ft; ft;
been s a id in them o f th e numerous d y n a s t ie s , kingdom s,
k in g s , h ero es and th e fou n d ation o f th e a n c ie n t c i t i e s ,
ft;ft/ftft..Butftvi t must be n o ted t^
?
ft
h is t o r y i s a product o f ft.
ftfti6iiaL|b':ftG^^.nsh;-£
ft and s t o r i e s some s tr a y t r a d it io n s
v ft/;ft'ft ft;\ftft.^ftft4hdia-fthave ft.bee^
a h c le h t le g e n d s
from o th e r p a r ts o f
th e main s h b je c t ;remains ftth e; ft
ft ;ft ft; ; s t o r y o f two dominant Houses in Madhyadesa, round which
ft;, '"ftftftftft1;;; '^ftftth^fti^Qie1;h is t o r y ; r e v o lv e s ^
'
th e ftPuranas
'
ft', ftftftand E p i c s i n f a c t * cared l i t t i e fo r a n y th in g o u ts id e th a t
ft'
f t f t f t ; , -0^ftftl?d ^ r fts o ,t h a t; we ../gffttft ve ry sc ant i n f orm ati on '■in ft-
ftft;
.ft'ftftftft;ftfe'gard._t o theftftno.fthftwest.'.the' U ttarap ath a o f t r a d it i o n ,
'■/ft-;.;,;-:
' . f t
. f t f t f t f t f t - ; ;
that; i s , th e S o la r Dheo^shtakas and- t o
;ft;ftftftAnavas^ft'.who are s a id to have spread, over and ru led th e
■ftft;;. ft-'ft; . • ft ' v Panjab.
-ft./ft
ft
-
and ,/ft;--ftft'
.' '-ft.
ft.ft;;.ft'-;-'
.ft-ftftft ft;.,ftftft;ft:ftft;--ftftft;/'ftftft'; .v/ftftft/V.ft/ft 'ft;/. ft ft:: ft-ft:ft
;
ftlh t h i s t r a d it i o n a l h i s t o r y , we are t o l d , th e r o y a l "ft-;
ft ft; power ;f^
in ftMadhyadesa in th e towns o f ft
."ft: ;.ftft;A^od'iiiySi; and 'ftf r a t ish th a n a ... ft Pcshvaku, ft Pururavas and t h e i r .v ;;ft-:ft;
ft ft. ft ftftj^
d e sc e n d a iits. o p c u ^ :th e ftfir ^ ^page o f a l l h i s t o r y '' ftft
ftftft .•;ft;,;ft-';-^ ftft'-'ftftftTtiey/were; a t th e b eg in n in g o f ft. th in g s and by 'them 'and th e ir , ft1
ft;;';/.-:, ft -ft ft-.;su c o e s s o r s
^In d ia was subdued.
The Lunar
/ftft;
a cco u n ts b eg in w it h ; PururdvaS and end w ith Dushyanta and
ft h i s p o s t e r i t y , which le a d s up to th e Bbtarata. far* ; ' to e
:
.
ft
to e Yadavas and H alhayas, both o f f s h o o t s in th e l i n e o f
Yadu, who d evelop ed g rea t kingdoms, are a ls o tr e a te d
fu lly .
It I s notew orthy th a t th e h is t o r y o f th e A ila
o r Lunar House i s d escr ib ed o n ly in th e Puru and Yadu
ft---:- '
V f t V 'f t -ft'-'
.
/ . " f t 7 . -lf t
f t '\
; f t f t f t f t f t v f t f t - f t 1-
7
-* /ft ft
^ : ^ f t f t f t . f t * ft ft
-ft'- i / 7
ft
1 -■ ' f t -' *
ftftft
ft
l i n e s in g r e a te r d e t a i l than th a t o f th e Mahava o r S olar
House.
The l a t t e r , as w i l l be s e e n , occu p ied o r i g i n a ll y
th e g r e a t e r ‘p a rt o f In d ia , but s t e a d i l y l o s t .ground b efo r e
th e A ila s , who, I t i s s a id , en tered Madhyadesa from m idHimalayan r e g io n .
t o i s e x p la in s why I la v r t a , th e c r a d le
o f th e A ila s , which became a m y th ica l sacred abode in
t r a d i t i o n , i s tr e a te d w ith v e n e r a tio n , and no sacred
memories a r e .a s s o c ia t e d w ith th e U ttarap ath a,, which was.
la r g e ly th e Panjab.
H a tu r a lly , th e Puranic h is t o r y , h a v in g fo r i t s
o b j e c t iv e Madhyadesa, seek s to show th a t a l l k in g s and
r o y a l d y n a s tie s throughout India b elon ged e i t h e r to th e
S o la r o r th e Lunar House.
Of th e form er th e Aikshvakas
were p re-em in en t a t Ayodhya.
to e Panjab Was occu p ied by
th e l e s s prom inent Eharshtakas and p o s s ib ly th e d escend­
a n ts o f l&bhaga^s l i n e .
We' know p r a c t i c a l l y n o th in g about
th e s e Panjab l i n e s in t h i s ’ h is t o r y ,
to e Ayodhya k in g s ,
however,- are s a id to have r is e n to a paramount p o s it io n
a t'tw o ep o ch s, f i r s t u n d er’Mandhatr and a g a in under
Sagara.
Mandhatr was a v ery famous k ind who extended h is
15
sway so w id e ly th a t he was c a lie d both a Chak.ravartin
and a Samraj * It i s s a id th a t he had a lo n g c o n te s t w ith
■ ftftft-ftftftft ft'ft-^
ft;
;ft;ftft/ft'---.-ft;':. ,\ft'ftftftft/-;;/ft-ft ■■ftft-,^ft(i^;ft ft .
th e : lu n ar Bruhyu k in g Aruddhabfi; Angara in th e :Pan ja b .
>,
- and a t l a s t k i l l e d him ,- so th a t h i s kingdom extended
."-ft< ft
f a r to th e n o r t h . The lu n ar Anava k in g s o f th e e a s te r n
Panjab to o f r o ^
.-ft 7ft;
p o s it i o n probably f e l t ;T/Sndhatr *s
power, f o r fthe s ac r i f ic e d in th e cou n try b a lle d afterw ard s
■Iliru k sh etra , :':toibh/wasft;pefhaps' Anava.
'Mandhato
I t w a s /a f t e r -■■ ftftftftft
whenft h is empire d e c lin e d , th a t g re a t .
movements b cou rred axiiong th e in a v a s and;
Pahjab. - to e form er rose; toft g rea t prbmto^
in th e ft/
at th is
tim e under two a b le k in g s y te h a s a la and; fehaiiianas.
M
to have occu p ied a: la r g e ; p a r t o f th e
. . f t
Panjab, as i s e v id e n t from h i s t i t l e , lo r d o f th e sevenftftft
■Bvipas or Doabs .ft;;
. :u
had two s o n s ,/ Us^nara and :T itik sh u ,
l i n e d iv id e d in to two d i s t i n c t branches — ft
ft;'/theftfttoavasftftof■ft-tha ’w est and th e A n a v a s o f th e e a st* '- The ft
ftft T it ik sh u ‘b rahch moyed eastw ard andft p a s s in g beyond Vi deha
ft ftand ftV a Isa l i count r y ,. s e t t l e d in th e ea st., where i t d evelop ed
; ftftBrah^
; Vishnu
ftftft-'xft ft
'ft ftEhagayata..I^
4 8 ,6> A lso Brahma 1 3 , ft
149- 5 0;;. I^ riy a tisa , 32:, 1857.-8; Iv&iabharata X I I , 29,
ft,ft-98ift'-82 7ftftftGf;>v:l%rg&t e r ;;■I b c ftc itv p .1 6 7 . . ■ ft / ft;; -..ft ft;ft;/. ftft ft; /
(§) Mahhbharata; 1 1 1 ,1 2 6 ,1 0 4 6 5 .: P a r g it e r , l o o . c i t . p .1 6 7 ft ft;
(o ) E toabharata 1 1 1 ,1 2 6 , 10467.
- ;
"/ftft;
f x ) ftVayu.,99 ,;i6ftl7 jft/Prahm
111ftftft;7 4 V l5 -f 6ft;;ft:.h&tsya,48,f4ft
. in t o f i v e kingdom sy .nanied. above . . t o e o t h e r b ra n ch e x -
.7
te n d e d i t s c o n q u e sts i n t h e w e s t, and a t t h i s ; tim e h e ld
7
, ;i& ik e y a s;,/ft:7
S a u v ir a s , and' V rs h a d a rb h a s,7 o r i g i n a t e d by U sin a ra * s son
■; 7 S iy i * /ft-These kingdom s- p erhaps, cQmeft:iiito e x is t e n c e b e f o r e ^ ft/;;/;
■ ■ ; ft7/7;ft-'7 , / / l f e d h a t r fs s u c c e s s o r s , t o i s a n ^ and h i s so n H a ris o h a n d ra , :-ft773
; who a r e s a i d t o have m a rr ie d K aikeya and S aiv y a p r i n c e s s e s
. 7ft;
re s p e c tiv e ly .
B e s id e s , t h e r e w ere;A hava k t o
th e
e a s t e r n P a n ja b , w hich co m p rised th o s e o f t h e Y audheyas,
..7;ft/-;.;
/ ftftAmbashth^
'V;/ ••; '
to e Bruhyus now heldftthe^ u b rth lw estftftp o rn er 'o f ■'todiav;7ft7/
ft
to e s u c c e s s o r o f Angara was G andhara, who gave h i s ; name / '/
■ /'ft ft ft ; G andhara' t o t h i s f t p a r t o f /tlie ; c o u n try , t b ; w h ich he had
ft ;
,';S/7
been c o n fin e d a s th e r e s u l t o f ,Anava e x p a n s io n a f t e r ft
if in d h a tr . ; A ccording to f o u r o f th e n in e P u ran as ,: w hich
■ft7.7ftft/ft-//;-7;
■ft ' ft ft-:,
-ft
g iv e g e n e a lo g ic a l a c c o u n t7 o f th e B ru h y u s,.;/ P ra c h e ta s f 77 / ; 7;/;/;;
,;■/.■/'
ft
v ./
•
.7 ft ft ' ft-
ft'
ft" ■ ■
- ' "7' ft cl*/
' • ' ■ -ft -
L
0
.
'7' 7-' ' 3 / 3
d e s c e n d a n ts s p re a d o u t i n t o t h e ftl i e chjla c o u n t r i e s , w hich
:
ft
.7 77;
a r e u n d e rs to o d by P a r g i t e r a s t o
; beyond I n d ia .
th e n o r th
Prom t h i s arabiguous r e f e r e n c e he i s le d to
ft th in k t h a t th e Vedic gods to d r a , V aruna, M t r a and
;
.'ft77 7:7; -/ftft; .ft/'i& atyas7/m entibned;ftlnft t
ft/ .
'.■ft; 7;,.
h
e
f
t
o
f
' -7ft-
/ C .I4 0 Q B. 0 . , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was an A ila o u tflo w o f
(* ) E le v e n th and t w e l f t h in d e s c e n t, ft
ft ft . 7
.-
;
■7ft r_ 77(^) *S?ahmanda, Vayu, M atsya and V ishnu .ft to e f i r s t t h r e e v"ft:ft-K:v
ft".;; 7 / r e a d t h u s
, 7ft
ft: 777; //.ft ft 7.7' ft;;.• /ft; 7; .77 7 //7 ,;ft.7/ft7//; ft/;/
ft;
P ra c h e ta s a h p u tr a - s ^ ta m r a ja n e h s a r v a eVa t e /
/ftft7/ftft:ft/ft./''ft7; ft7/'-7, m le c h ^ a ^ f 5 s h t^ d h ip a h :ftsafve fthy/U^
77/ft
. / '/ / f t ; .O f. P a r g i t e r , l o o . b i t .ftgfcapter IX, p . 108, w i t h ; f o o t n o t e .
^ g h a iiista iift-in tp /:Ifa n 7 a h d /. fa r th e r westwards in to t h e :H i t t i t e
B iip ire, i n which th ey
founded v a r io u s kingdoms and in trod u ced t h e i r r e l i g i o n
7," 7 :. '/ "ft.;--;; ft7ft.(* j7ftft'
V
: ft/ft7/ 7
:
ftft ft ft 7 ftft’' ftftftftft
'.••ft/;-.- taq h g:O ert a th fthat i o n s / t h e r e . ,/ P a r g ite r goes fu v $ h $ t and , : r
:
f i x e s th e se v e n te e n th cen tu ry as th e d a te o f t h i s m ig r a tio n ftft
ft ftft beyond; th e /Panj ab . ft: H e /a ls o h o ld s ': t h a t 7the'7;|iilas^^^
ftft7//wiib v a o b p r d ih g b p /tr a d ^
o r ig in a l abode in
.
ftftftftftft:-XLavrtaV ft s itu a te d : in mid-^Himalaya, e n te red .Madhyadesa
ft.
ft e a r l i e r f t s t i l l , /th a t i s , about 2050 B. 0 • , and th a t .th u s
/ • ■ f t - ■f
/,
t
f
t
f
t
-
f
t
-
■ ' ■: f t f t f t 37- 7f t ; f t f t f t , f t f t / f t f t - f t f t / ' : , f t ;v ;
:
r
-
:/
7
.
3
■
■
■
.
7
■
( §
)
/
/
:
v
;
th e r e cou ld p o s s ib ly have been ho In d o-Iran ian p e r io d .
v' ft / ft ft :
; ft 3: 3; f t Anft
hccouhtft b f f t t h e 'twoftf inesft o f ■' the" Lunar, or A ila
ft House, which were c l o s e l y con n ected w ith th e Panjab,. has
been g iv e n abovb*
The Main A ila l i n e , th e B auravas, iq-r
ft
ft g e th e r w ith iSnyakubja and Kasi b ran ch es, con tin u ed to
ft- e x i s t iii Madhyadesa in s p it e o f Solar, ex p a n sio n .
But
ft/ im portant developm ents had occurred meanwhile i n th e l i n e
o f ftYadu, which d iv ided in to two g re a t branches by t h i s ft ft ft/7
t im e,; nained th e Yadavas and Haihayas v
I:
The Yadava branch
ftrpse t o g fe a t em inence, so much so th a t one o f i t s k iiig s , ft;:
Sasab in d u , ft i s fts a id n o t o n ly t o ;.have -fteMroachedftupbh. th e :ft
ft : t
th e Pauravas, but a ls o to have d riv en th e ftft;
: Pruhyus fu r th e r back I n to th e Panjabv
rib/advaTO
It appears th a t
to Yadava movements
-/ / / / '
in th e n o rth , which r e s u lt e d in .a n e c l i p s e p f th e Yadavas.
""""TV-*>I,IW
[<i—< *_*'
. (Vv| P a r g ite r , i t may be n o te d , i s f o llo w in g h ere J a c o b ie s ft; ft ft
ft;ftftftftft; ftihterpretatibnftof7;ftthe Mitaxmi gods d is c u s s e d i n Chapter ;/
■ft; ftftftft/ftlll/'abbyb-iftftft ft’ ftftft/ft; ;ft:/ /
. //ft :ft ;;ft^ftft-'v-/ftftft.ft.,;s;yft-ftft77ft',;'.:;ft: / / / . / / '
(§ ); ? a r g it e r , Loo ft.bit. Chapter XXV, pp. 3 0 0 -1 .
. f t ' f t ; ' . ; - '
' / / f t f t ^ x t -,/ th a t.. i s / a f t e r f t - t e ^ h S t n ’sft/e^^
w h ile t h e r e w ere / r e a c tio n s t o h i s c o n q u e s ts i n th e P an jab ftftft
/ ft a m o n ^ to
to a y a s and B riihyus, th e r e fo llo w e d r e a c t io n s
///ftft/
■ft; among th e H a ih a y a s, who now' r o s e t o g re a t; power u n d e r .
ft: -
t h e i r w a r r i o r k in g to ju n a y son o f I f r ta v ir y a f t ; He was ft;;
o p posed to
t h e B ia r g a v a B rahm ans. a n d d r o v e them;, fro m :t h e i r
ft . ; ftft ; . ft/
s e t t l e m e n t on t h e ftHarmada i n t o M ad h y ad esk , w h e r e / t h e y
ft/;/ftft/;'
s o u g h t a l l i a n c e yjrith K s h a t r i y a s . o f : K ah y a k u b j a an d A yodhya.
ftft; ftft
/ft" ■. to e f r u i t o f t h i s / f a t e f u l a l l i a n c e was Jam adagril, whose
y o u n g e st so n Raxiia^d e s tro y e d the. Haiixayas u n d e r T a la ja n g h a ,
-ft-
b u t o n ly f o r a tim e .
,; The H a ih a y a s, ft h o w ev er, ro s e ft aga iii u n d e r t h e de sc e n d - ft;;, ftftft'
ft a n ts o f to la ja n g h a a f t e r P ara su ram a, arid e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r
ftftft ; ft
d om inions a l l o v e r noi*th I n d ia , o v e rth ro w in g K anyakubja
ft.
■ft;ftft"' . ft ///ft
■:■■
:•
'ftftftft'-ft/
and Ayodhya w ith th e c o - o p e r a tio n o f f o r e i g n h o rd e s from
th e :3 io rth -w est/;srich ftasftfhe.ftS dkds ^ft;ftYavanasftft.ftKatibojas■■ft.-;ftftft/ ;' ft-;
P a ra d a s a n d ; P ah lav a s ft
I t i s s a id t h a t :-ib]au,:;kingft; o f ft
‘ft ft Ayodhya, was d r iv e n from h i s ; th ro n e to se e k s h e l t e r in ' th e
f o r e s t , where he b e g o t a sb n S a g a ra .
S a g a ra , e ig h th i n ; .
.
. d e s c e n t from ftE ^rls^h an d ra a n d .t w e n t i e t h
ftftft/!/1
became a g r e a t k i n g . . He made many c o n q u e s ts i n I n d i a , ft /ft/ft
/ft- and subdued th e P au rav as and e s p e c i a l l y h i s / enem ies th e
ft;ft;' -.
/ft •/;
ft T a la ja h g h a H a ih a y a s, ft who had^ grown ftveryftstrohg.;ftvffl
/ (? j R ohika Aurva m a rr ie d S a ty a v a t ift d a u g h te r o f G adhi, k in g
; o f I'Qanyakubja. t o e i r so n was Jam adagni, who m a rr ie d a
p r in o e o f Ayodhya. .. -ft-;
/'-.. ;/-' 'ftft-/---ft;. ft. ft;
(§) B e t t e r known a s P araburam a b e c a u se o f h i s s p e c i a l
weapon, • th e b a t t l e - a x e , p a r a s u .
ft ft/.ft;ft.ft/.
(o) P a r g i t e r ft lo c . c i t . C h ap ter XXIV,p .2 6 8 ft ft
■'•■ftftft'"-
:
des t r Uot i on would n a tu r a lly have c a r r ie d lliiii t o ' th e P an jab ,
;: • ,■.
f o r he intexided to d e s tro y the fo re ig n , t r i h e h j : ^
; fo rb id d en to do so by: V a sish th a , h is p re c e p to r; . :;;;:;& t;;th e ';:;.'.'^-,:;.
/ s u p re m a c y o f A y p d h y aj w h ic h ; was r e v i v e d by t h e c e l e b r a t e d
S ag ara^ w as .s h p r t - l i y e d .:
^
t o d o m i n a t e ^a l a h g e p a r t
• v ;-\o f^ In d ia V ^ : Y e t A y o d h y a h a d s h o r t p e r i o d s o f r e s t o r e d g r e a t -
/
/; ; / ; : ; i i e s s y ' f i r s t u n d e r R h a g i r a t h a a n d t h e n u n d e r a s u o c e s s i o n
p f k in g s lik e D ilip a , R agh u , A j a and iW a r a th a , b y w h o se
’ t i m e i t w a s k n o w n ; a s K b s a l a ♦ ,• T h e R C m a y a n a • s h o w s t h a t a t
P^ /W s^ a ^
f r ip h & Iy ? ; r e l a t i o n s /W ith
.'■ •.-/th e P a n j a b k i n g d o m s o f K e k a y a , S i n d h u a n d &
K a ik e y i,
t h e fa v o u r i t e w if e o F B a s a r a t h a , o am e fr o m t h e P a h ja b .^ --;
'*^5FW lF y a p p ea rs th a t Brahman con ip ilers o f t r a d it i o n g r e a t ly
■
•_./
/ conitised a n c le h t e v e n ts ; A ll ev en ts le a d in g to d e s tru c .; t io n , wrought by th e Tdlajarighas and; Sag&ra, a re nowhere
/
d e sc rib e d co n n ected ly , but are smimed up in th e fa b le
j ;tha;1t ‘; Par asurama-/ d£ &tro y ed ■;,ally.hs3aa.'tr
gf-v'^
tw enty-one t imes ”. The P&ic and ^
of
s t o r i e s based on t h i s f a b le * The l a t e r ' e d ito r s thought
v
th a t th e d e p lo ra b le c o n d itio n o f In d ia , which o b ta in ed \,.v ‘
.
subsequent to P arasur^na and continued u n t i l 3 ag araIs
/ ‘reign^; was -dup;;to/ P ara su rto a ; a n d /:a ttrib u te d a
e x p lo its o f T alajanghas and Sagara to the; Brahman w a rrio r
■
;
V f i c t i t i b u s i y • rtBut t r a d i t i o n ” , sa y s P a r g i t e r , 1' w h ile
^ V
a p p a r e n tly a c c e p tin g t h a t f a b l e , r e d r e s s e d th e h o n o u r o f 0’4 . ', ;
vv^ th e ■tes^t r i y a s by two a n a c h r o n is tio f a b l e s , v t h a t ; Rama V
c h a lle n g e d Rama o f Ayodhya to f i g h t and was d e f e a t e d , and
t h a t h e h ad a lo n g c o n te s t w ith H iism a a l s o aiid was w o r s te d ” * .
:7v;V' P a r g i t e r : L o o . o i t *C h ap ter XVII* p ♦200.,
3
^
,
30
th e Pan ja b .
I\toreo.ver, iriv i t a t io n s w ere. e x t en d ed .to th e 33;;/'
v a r io u s kingdoms in th e Pan jab f o r . th e Asvamedha s a c r i f i c e , ■,
/performed hy' p a ^r a t h a 7*
f
o
u
r
sons;^..T•^:^^ma,'•'.. .
lakshmana * E harata; an d v /^ tru ^ h d y ■ :-I^ja;/SUooe^edf ■to-; th e '
throne o f AyPdhya.
The Kekaya kingdom went t 6 H iarata,
who was r e la t e d ito th e K aikeyas, h is m other b ein g a Kaikeya A
p t in c e s s , though. K alid asa ^s Raghuvamsa s t a t e s th a t he g o t :;3 ■
th e Sindhudesa.
Bharata fs two sons vTaksha and R ishkafa '
had p r i n c i p a l i t i e s a t T aksha^ila and ^ s h k a l a y a t f r e s p e c t
l y , both i n : Gahdhara;
Satrughna and Rama fs son s Khsu and \
la v a o b ta in e d kingdoms e lse w h e r e . , We hear no more o f
Ayodhya h e r e a f t e r 5 its - h is t o r y ended w ith th e s e k in g s .
d i f f e r e n t w e re t h e
T i e o l d ma i n 1 i h e ,
S a k u n ta la ,
th e
r e v iv e d
w e ll- k h o w n
d e s c e n d a n ts w e rp c a l l e d
te r r ito r y ,
w ith
its
th e
o f t h e P a u r a v a s now# ;
b y D u s h y a iita a n d h i s : s o n b y
ih a r a ta y
H ia r a ta s ,
a f t e r whome a l l h i s
is
notr fo u n d - l n ! a riew^/ ':
G a n g e s - lu m n a D o a b , v3 /
c a p i t a l a t ..H a s tin a p u r a s t a t e d
.to h a v e S e e n f o u n d e d -
T h e r e : was a g r e a t ' e x p a n s i o n o f t h e ' . B h a r a t as
new k in g d o m s o f n o r t h
P a n c h a la w i t h
its
cap i t a l
at
M i o h c h h a t r a ; * •^
■
C h e d i an d M ig a d h a .
H ast in
'V;
n o r th e r n ;p o r t io n o f th e
b y . k i n g Has t i n .
•i n t o
fo rtu n e s
In
o n w a rd s down t o
t h e m a in l i n e
th e
at
H as t in a p u r a ,
Pandus , h e r o e s o f t h e
fr o m
B h a ra ta
J h r , f l o u r i s h e d m any fa iiio u s k in g s v ■3 T h e ; e a r l i e s t o f s p e c i a l
R aiiiayana
1 ,1 5 ,
3 1 - 29 4
j3 v
• n o t 6 oxiioiig th em w as ^ ^
3 v 3 - ' 3 ; : ; - ■ - V a h ' i m p o r ta n t p a r t
;3: ;
.3 3 73/
:
bef or e
"V1. •.
in th e p o l i t l e a l l i f e . o f I n d ia a l i t t l e
h is epoch.
lik e
'3 ^
'3 3 3 * 3 /3 ; /
.
ance,
../tim ex...:^
S rn j a y a an d C h y a v a n a >t h i r d
who r a i s e d
th e
P a n c h a la k in g d o m .t o
was a c o h te r iip o r a r y o f S am varan a#
h ave d e fe a te d
fr o m
S a m y a ra n a on t h e
Has t I n a p u r a .
a n d f o u r t h .3 ..
•
He i s
Oianna a n d
T h e re u p o n th e
g re a t
im p o r t - '
s a id
to
d r i v e n h im aw ay
l a t t e r fo rm e d a o o n f e d e r -
3 a c y o f 1n u m e ro u s k i n g s , i n c l u d i n g . t h o s e o f t h e P an j ab
.
o rd e r to
:7 3 ;'3 3
p u t ! a c h e c k o n i^ d a s a f s e n c r o a c h iu e n t s .
s is te d o f
P u ru
i.e .
. v 3 k in g o f lfe th u ra *
;; 3 ;V3 ; ;
•
a n ts
o f A n il, •t h e
3.3
M a ts y a k in g s
:
p^
S a m v a ra n a , t h e
th e
S iv a s ,
D ru h y u s
(w e s t o f
and o t h e r s
r iv e r
It
i n ' 3 3 ;-3
con- 3
( i •e ♦ Yadava)
3 -j;
who; w e re d e s c e n d -
o f 7 ,< ^ d h a r a ^
^ r a s e n a )V ^ r y a s a ^ . ( i . e .
; k it'
a 3 Id r v a s u
a l l t h e s e k in g s
a g re a t b a ttle
P u ru 3 ( S a ^
n e a r th e
S iv is ,
o f le s s e r n o te .
3 3 3 3 .R a v f : '^
fo rt
i^ e .
Yadva
( i . e ♦ k in g s
w e re d e fe a te d by Sudasa i n
oh t h e
r iv e r
a
,.3 /:
Sind.hu. • S u d a s a t h e n p e r i s h e d b e c a u s e ,
3 _ 3T(* )
73
w h ic h w as
t h e i r a n c e s t o r : :i ? ivq & ;a ^ ^
Sudasa,
3>3!
3h n o r t h P a n c h a l
a new P a u r a v a Pounid&t l o i y ^
,■■ p o w e r f u l k in g s
3
A y odhya c e a s e d t o p l a y
B g v e d ic Sudas a c c o r d i n g t 6 ;:\ P a r g i t e f ; 3 3 ,3 - .: ;;^ ^ . ( § ) 3 r o m -o f''th e > ''-E ^ e d a 3 d c c o r d ih g t o P a r g l t e r .
3 3 ; ’^ 377373 ( 0 ;) ^ I ^ a b h a r a t a v ^ > : I , :\ 9 4 j3 7 3 5 r« 3 9 j R g v ed a H c . V l i , 1 8 j 7 1 9 , 3 ,
;7:3 3 77.: : 6 , 8 . P a r g l t e r ; b e l i e v e s t h e r e i s l a r g e a g r e e m e n t b e tw e e n 3 3
■t h e g e n e a lo g y o f th e . n o r t h P a n c h a la k i n g s a n d i n c i d e n t a l
' r e f e r e n c e s t o m any o f th em o c c u r r i n g i n t h e R g v e d a ,
3 3 .' 3 ;3
' th e
W ar o f
T e n ; K in g s .
22
o f h is
and h is
e v il
c o n d u c t a n d /w a s
su e ce e d e d b y 3h i s
g ra n d s on S om aka; :t o
P a n c h a la s a n k
in to
son Sahadeva
w h ose t im e t h e k in g d o m o f
in s i g n i f l c a n o e a n d t h e t a b l e s . o f r o y a l ;
.powbr-weretturnel^^^
at
th is
tim e i
,3
v
wash a b l e
to
H a s t i n a p u r a w i t h 't h e h e l p
r e c o v e r h i s : k in g d o im o f
•
o f .R s h i V a s i s h t h a , . . w h ic h was
t h e n 7e x t e n d e d b e y o n d P r a y a g a b y ? h is '^ s b ^ '''^ i^^'♦, 3 ^ e .3 ' 3 3 3 . . ;'P a n c h a la s w e r e .now su b d u e d an d t h e
:r a i s e d
to
e m in e n c e *
nam es g i v e n t o tw o
P u ru k in g d o m was a g a i n /
./^ a h i k s h e t r a ^ a n d / K u r u j a n g a l a , t h e
t e r r ito r ie s
in
t h i s k in g d o m ,
p r o b a b ly
7:r ^ r e s e h t 3 a n n e x a t io n s ' 7m a ^ 7:;,by 7^ r u 3'/-'
a p p lie d
to h is
; su b j e c t s o f . t h e
R a r ik s h it -
, fTanamejaya
s u c c e s s o r s an d a l s o
K u ru s ..
e x te n d e d t o
He w as f o l l o w e d
th e p e o p le ,
b y h i s .-son:. •
I,
,who was a l s o v e r y fa m o u s 3 3 ; ! & ’r i k s h l i ' fs s o n ,
II ,
was weak, -and th e Kitfu kingdom ,'d e c lin e d fo r
a tim e . 3^ t7d t^ flo u rish e'd \again ,^ soon vtiftd ^
c a l l e d G haidya-uparichard, fo r he conquered/' th e Yadava
kingdom o f Chedi and extended h is realm eastw ard s ;as f a r 7'7.
as Magadha. 7 ”He d iv id e d h i s t e r r i t o r i e s among h i s f i v e ; ;
s o n s , c o n s is t ih g o f Magadha, ( ^ d i, Kausambii 7K aru^ and •
a p p a ren tly f e t s y a .
His e ld e s t , son,TBarhadrathal t o o k .
Magadha, w ith G ifiv r a ja as h is c a p i t a l , and founded t h e
famous Barhadratha 7d yn asty t h e r e 5 and w ith / i t tegadha fo r
R egarded as so n o f th e Rgvedic V a s is h th a , p r i e s t o f
SlidaS ♦
. /..'7:'-,.'; 3 •
. 7 3 3'V"- / 7- • '
:3 3 - 3 3 3 ; \
K u ^ i. P a r ik s h it; 1 T ie P u r a n a s know o f tw o :P a r ik s h i t s ;
and t h r e e Jan am ejayas i n th e Puru dynas t y * P a r i k s h i t
I I and Jan am eid b^lll b e in g k in g s who 7r u l e d a f t e r th e
B h S rata War. 3 3 / 3 ." 3 3 3 3 3 ;7v 33,.. 3 3 ;.3 :3 3 "3 7 .-,
7
77
:3 7 /3 /: •'
7: .:
th e f i r s t tim e took a pr omlhe nt p la c e in t r a d i t i o n a l
/• Vf /. 3.,' v;',--/••/h i s t o r y v ”3 3/337737^;;7/3'. ;3 ‘7;
7 3 3 ■'■'3 37 .
:
/
'.3 .3 3 3 -3 -3 3 :333"'33 ; "\>7-3 . 3 : , /.;■■■:•
About t h i s tin ie , th e Yadavas *: w^ ih a d r ls e n to g rea t
/ /;;/37
power under k in g :Madhu in th e w aning: d a y s .o f • Ayodhya and
: 'Whose', t e r r i t o r y e x t
to t h e luiiina, were . 3 / - / 3 . / /
r e p r e se n te d by a huiiiher o f sm all s t a t e s l i k e th e Andhakas,
3;
■3 ‘-37 ’ "i
V r s h n is , V id a rb h a , Avant i ,' l^ s a r n a and f e h is h r iia ti. 3 Most .3
/: 3
3 o f t h e i r /p r in o e s , e x c e p t among th e V r s h n is , w ere e n t i t l e d
3
3
.3
/^ 0 ja s .
;T ie c h i e f o f t h e s e s t a t e s * how ever, were th o s e o f
th e Andhakas a t . t e t h u r a , whose d e s c e n d a h tc r u l e d down ;to
Kaiiisa,' k i l l e d by E rsh n a ,
\
37:7:3 73 . 7■
and o f th e V rs h n is , who re ig n e d
p ro b a b ly a t TDvaraka down to3^rura^^^^ \
'77737377: -:33.7
: A f te r V asu, th e P u ru s ; o r k u ru s a s th e y w ere now/known;733/7
became em in en t u n d e r P r a t i p a and h i s so n S a n ta n u .
i s d e s c r ib e d i n t r a d i t i o n 'a s . a p io
S antanu
man and an a b le k in g
;•
■
7ak o h g ,:’t h07'M ru s 3 -.3H is ./ g r ands o n s7-wef e33&r‘1 ;af a s h t r a •:a ii^ 3 3 3 /-o 3 :v3 3
37 ;
^dndu,.: whose d e s c e n d a n ts were/ th e w ell-know n K aurayas and
77/773773 3 v ///l^ d a v ^
-i^03iabharata.’" T h e /h is to r y o f th e s e t i m e s , 7333,':
7'377'ieading7:up3to7'^^ th e7 ;.^S fata;:V fer37i s d e s c r i b e d / a t l e n g t h i n
'.,73 th e P u ran a s a n d 7th e / G reat / E p i c 3 ' 3
..7
3 '
' 37
. 33 \ ,
7.-73
';i--:;3;-': I"/;; 7"73.7. ■
’<7373‘3333., J /g3ai33;'d3i- b r i e f :i s t h e a c c o u n t ;b f :7e a r i ^ 7;Aa^ran. d y n a s t i e s :73373'
l e a s e d on;:-iaterV .geneaiogieS77.recordedV ;iri;; th e P d r ^
;3 7
'•7-/; ///p a rtly ; i n th e two TBpics^
7;
;://7
P a r g i t e r who h a s done m uch/work
•
73 7
7
on them b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e a r e h i s t o r i c a l c e r t a i n t i e s in
(y f^ P a rg ite r; lo b >0 1 1. 1). 281 f^
7 3
3
,
’ 7333/
24
■7/1;h^
pin.pibnt :kihg07ah d /th at; M
! from them i s r e a l l y authentic^
■7
He has a ls o drawn from h i s
/stu d y ,s e v e r a l c o n c liis io n s , -which/ are h ig h ly d o n t r o v e r s ia l.
;
:
Plve o f h i s main c b n c lu sio n s s ta te d in h i s A ncient Indian
/ 7 7 3 ; ; 3 ; 3 3 : 3 - 3 ^
: - : / 7 ;3 3 3 3 ;
3 H is t o r ic a l T r a d itio n ,
are s
37(1j H i s t o r i c a l
/3 3 ;3 tru stw o rth y
/73 —
■/-//v.:•/,-;/■ ■
—
—
7
v/.:"V-;
in Vedic l i t e r a t u r e i s not more7
th a n /th e Epic ahd Puranic t r a d it i o n , , ex cep t
7 when 7i t i s contemporaneous w ith e v e n ts m entioned th e r e in *
73//7//:ih e 3 fo r m c r ^ is /A s se n tia jl^ 7Br^
la tte r
: fe h a t r iy a ,/a n d /b o t h a r e ,d i s t i n c t a n d .a n ta g o n is tic to"
each other*
• (2) A ccording to' th e Epic and Furanic tra d i t i o n s , which ;
m a in ly . d e a l/w ith k in g s , th e r o y a l power f i r s t d evelop ed
ii i th e G angetic p la in j / i* e ;/,■ th e mi d - Himalayan r e g io n
(Madhyade
e a r lie s t
was w ith t h is / r e g io n
and n o t w ith , th e Pan ja b .
;3(5.) ;:^e>Panja^
co n n e c tio n o f th e Tedas -
y e # ,; n o r t h w e s t India* was /n ot3regarded as
an a n c ie n t home, nor w ith v e n e r a tio n o f s p e c ia l esteem .
The mid-Himalayan r e g io n was th e sa cred la n d . The. Aryan ..
73.
o cc u p a tio n o f th e Panjab and th e Rgveda b elo n g to a
.
l a t e r age o f westward expans io ii.. /
7
7;/'/ '7
(4) Indian t r a d i t i o n speaks o f an A ila o u tflo w , th ereb y
s u g g e s tin g a r e v e r s e o r ig in fo r th e I r a n ia n s , which i s .'
l i n g u i s t i c a l l y t e n a b le , /which harinoniaes w ith th e Boghaz-
S u c h a s k in g s o f th e S o la r H o u se w e r e D r a v id ia h s .;
. •/- B r a h m a n i s m w a s d n o n - A r y a n i n s t i t u t i o n / e t o ; . 7 7 7 3 7 :
(§)'
/S e e C h a p te r s I , y , a n d X X Y . ^
7/7; :
7 3 3 ; 737 - k o i t r e a t y . a n d w h i c h : c a n a c c o u n t 7 f o r : i h e i r ^ i a t i g u a g e 3 ih d 3 7 7 3 7
-3
re lig io n .
':'7/.33:7
an d t h e r e f o r e
3 ,3 3 7 ' :
3
7 7.3/3.737/' ;3 :v.3 :3 > 3 3 - 3
3 3 3 3 : 3 3 7 ;/,/7 ; ; //,'7337773'77/ 337.,.. 3 ; / 7 3 3 3 3 3 7,/7'/
(5 ) t h e c u r r e n t t h e o r y t h a t t h e A ry a n s in v a d e d / I n d i a
777/ 7 .7 3 7 ,7 / 7 3
/7 7 , • / > 7
7 ':7.:3' \ 7 3 3 •. 3 / . / , //.,.;
/th ro u ^
/ a f ij e i 3 s b p u r a ti h g f r o jn /th e :'7 / :■
/. I r a n ia n s i s n o t t e n a b l e .
■3 - 7 3 3 3 U n d o u b ted ly th e P u ra n ic ' and E p ic g e n e a lo g ie s o f e a r l y
/w h p le /r e c o n s tr u c
Z //
"'7 3 F h r g i t e r , o f w hich a n
o u t l i n e i s g iv e n ab p v ey a p p e a rs a t /7
7/3-37733;/. / f i r s t s i g l i t t o h a rm o n ise .w ith ‘V edib h i s t o r y ; / / : B u t;; i t m u s t-7’.7
• 3 \ 7 7 / 7. 7 be c o n f e s s e d t h a t /th e ' g e n e a lo g ie s , th e v e r y h a s i s o f ••t h i s / J ;3 :7
7 3
r e c o n s t r u c t e d h i s t o r y , la c k p ro o f s / and t h a t no g r e a t 7r e ■•37/77 3 ' 7/7; :7.3:/liahpe-7
h i s t p r i c a l / \ c r e d i b i l i t y 3/7
; a c c o r d in g to P a r g i t e r t h e r e a r e / i n th e P u ra n a s g e n u in e :
3 / / h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n s o f v a s t a h t i q u i t y , we m ig h t h a v e b e e n
■ ;:
3
7;\ =7
7 77//:
:/3 a b le 7 'td / f i n d 'a ^ ''3 e m a in s 7 ;b f 7/thp :-r e l a t e d / e i y i l i z a tio n ^ /n a m e ly 7
7 t h a t o f th e Ganges and Juiiina. But so f a r n o th in g o f th e
k in d h a s b e e n d is c o v e r e d , n o tw ith s ta n d in g e x c a v a tio n s o f
'■'7 /;:iin p o .r ta h t/p id 7 e i t 0 s. i n ' t h i s r e g io n .
7
; 7 / / 7 7 3 3 ^ 777::7 33
■'■Ch th e .o th e r h a n d , v/e know t h a t th e /c o u n tr y e a s t o f 7
. th e , t o
B rsh m a n -rid d e n s in c e v e r y a n a ie n t tim e s
/ •and t o a n e x te n t unknown; e l s e w h e r e . I t was ; i n t h i s p a r t o f .
T in d ia t h a t th e P u ra n a s and E p ic s came i n t o b e in g in t h e i r .; ; 3 _
p r e s e n t fo rm . At an e a r l y s ta g e o f t h i s d o m in a tio n , p r o - 7/:3
7 b a b iy / a f t e r th e / a i a r a t a % r , Brahmans s o u g h t to e x a l t t h e i r
•73 '3/:,' -3/ 7 >-'.\ 7’ 7-77 ■./,/ 3 7. 3-7:-i;,7‘'
;/ :’;37< •
'■ 26
7'/7; '7 ..•./• 77:/'''•' 3 7 ‘/3 'y7-;37
7 ":33--V; .
/ ■ '7
/--
‘/ ■77733/ ” ; ' / / /
7c l a s s . and o f f i c e and make; i t h e r e d i t a r y .
■
..7-73»>® ' ;7 3
7 !/37:-;;7
7 / ‘3
T his n a t u r a l l y / ; 77
l e d them: to p r o p i t i a t e t h e i r r u l e r s and .p a t r o n s , th e / 3 ; / / / / -7' ;73
l e a d e r s o f th e .Aryan kingdoms , p e rh a p s th e o n ly r i v a l s th e y
3 b a d t o fe a r*
In o r d e r t o win t h e i r f u l l s u p p o rt th e y l a t e r
.///
7 7 ; oh came t o th e a n c ie n t h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l o f w h a te v e r k in d
7 was
a v a i l a b l e , from th e S u ta s , r o y a l frcxrds ,7 made o u t f o r
3 ; / 7 // / ''7 / '/ them f a n c i f u l d iv in e g e n e a lo g ie s /f r o m th e Sun and t t o n , / / /
and c o n n e c te d t h o s e , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f tim e and s p a c e , w ith
'-'/337-'3:7-
a n c ie n t k i n g s , who co u ld n o t p o s s ib ly , have Any r e l a t i o n
7 77
w h atso ev er*
;;:7/. 7/7
.3 /
Tie P ah jab f u r n is h e s a g o o d : i l l u s t r a t i o n o f
/su c h . B r a h m a n i c a l/ a r t if ic i a l gehbalbgy^/Z /A m ,.. who i s m ade;/
7
a d e s c e n d a n t Of th e Moon, became th e a n c e s t o r ; o f a number
7 / o f r o y a l d y n a s t i e s o r t r i b e s o f th e P a n ja b ♦
E ig h th i n
7" d e s c e n t from him , a s we /have s e e n abov^
who
was fo llo w e d by Siv i , th e fo u n d e r o f th e S iv is o r S i b i s •
/ . 3 ;"- _ ./. S iv i % d e s c e n d a n ts were 'M adrakay’:Kekaya:,/;^ v i r a 3
Vrshadabha, :who/ each founded a/kingdomy/ /B u t theT ^ ^vis and
7
7/77
777,y'/37v^X3siharas;. ■;ar.e,7/as o ld as th e .Anus y th eir/n a m es/o cc u r : in / th e
7'7 /Rgveda, and/ th e k in g s o f th e S iv is and Anus fou gh t to g e th e r 3 /
7
■ > ;■ ■ ■
/ a g a i n s t : i^ d a s y /s p ^ /th a t:a ll/th a t; th e/ g e h e a lq ^ /ih d ic d fe s ;.; i s
;
'3 -7 a c o n c o c tio n on th e p a r t o f th e l a t e r Brahm ans, who w ith a //3<7
■ d e s i r e t o c o n n e c t t h e P an jab k in g s a t a c e r t a i n unknown/
;/////
/ t i m e w ith th o s e /in e h tib h e d i n / t h e / a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n l i k e
7
th e Vedas s e c u re d / f o r t h e i r a n c e s t r y a v e n e r a b le a n t i q u i t y
;/-:7:7'77‘''3 3 7 ^ ^ J^ i^ ^ b .ry ' of-'.^he/'A fyahs^ ;;acd o rd in g
7
had t h e o r e t i c a l l y no b e g in n in g s
o ld a s c r e a t i o n and t h e r e was no
7; / ‘3 3 7/7 any e v e n t, o th e rw is e th a n i n th e
/37y-7;7
/d y n a s tic l i s t s .
.
.:.t07/th e P u ra n ic R ah m an s,
It; was assum ed t o / b e as 7/ 7
r e a s o n ;f o r /m a r k in g o u t
re c o rd s o f ro y a l 3 7 :
., :/7
much as th e Greek s arid .Romans lo v e d . t o ; co n n ect/ th em selves
/ : ; w ith th e h ero es' o f t h e ir an tiq u e h i s t o r y 3 /T h e B abylonian
/ 77/ /
.
7 /://.. 7 p r i e s t B erossus a ls o composed in th e th ir d cen tu ry B. C. h is ,
f i c t i t i o u s g e n e a lo g ie s , which a ss igned to th e Babylonian
:/ 7 3 3 / / /''
. monarchy; s im ila r in c r e d ib le a n t iq u it y .
But h i s f i c t i o n
.
became cap ab le o f r e fu ta t io n from many h is t o r ia n s o f r e p u te ,
/ / w h o preceded him .
There was / ^h o o v e r , / ^ / s u c h /Check in '/.•/
/ / ' / / / /////7;73::£idia/ph7;the/:fa1nilists7.Q :£/;t^
/
7 3 :‘
/-.;
le g e n d s , /co rru p t from th e /v e r y s t a r t / f ilt e r e d /t h r o u g h ages
//■•■/ /y7^^./://;:of/:ign03^ahce' and has on ly b e e n . in c r e a se d by fr e sh /im p u r i-7
/
/ / . , t i e s / /r&-- th e legen d ary h is t o r y o f In d ia , which i s very
v//v l i k e th e e a r ly c e n tu r ie s o f a n c ie n t Rabylon, Gree ce and 7
7/7■ //7: .■/;■■/./
/ ;
.>/■ ■-
Borne, must be c a r e f u lly read and examined; b efo re i t i s / / 5/ ;73/
: / a d m itted .
//
• 7
/
;:y ■//:/,
/.;,■■■/.// 7
/
/ , / /, / / / / :/ / ; / ' / / / /■•/ "
There i s a su g g e st io n th a t th e PUranic g e n e a lo g ie s /,
canie in t o b ein g as th e r e s u l t , o f a growing se n se o f '
•;/
7/ / / 7 ' / -
n a tio n a l u n it y , cemented by th e r e v iv a l o f r a c i a l kinship;.
■■7,//;/ / :/- 7 / 7,/-. T ils s u g g e s tio n i s n ot p la u s ib le .
7 3 '/
/
/7 7 /
7/
T h e reis^ / a str o n g s e n s e / / ■
o f r a c i a l k in sh ip ex p ressed in th e Rgvedic oppbs i t io n o f
’Aryan c o lo u r f to
’Barbarian c o lo u r f ; but i t a p p a ren tly /
p rod u ced ;no Puranas and/no ”sen se o f n a tio n a l u n i t y ”.
The; ,
7777: ; l a t t e r n ever e x is t e d in a n cien t. /India. ex cep t to some e x te n t:/
7/:7/;',/\
7 / / i n th e n ever w h o lly r e a lis e d id e a l o f the/bhakra^
7 / : sarvabhauiua found in 7t t 0'7:^ 5h2iianas ■and l a t e r .
/ :
/
was h a l f r e a l i s e d b y / t h e / i t a ^
This id e a l
i n / t h e i r Empire/
//■
V7; '
.28 3
th e r e was ho , " n a t io n a l; ; ^
i t was; a c o n g lo m e r a tio n o f
s t a t e s in 3 v a r i'o u s :T e la tl0 h s/td ;rt^
s o o n - f e l l to /p ieces> ;/:T h e; g e n e r a l fa ith .^ ih ; tlhe {supreme 7
;
value. o f Aryan blood arid t r a d it io n d id n o th in g to c r e a te ■
Vn a tio n a l u n it y .
It was in ord er to /s a fe g u a r d t h i s blood
and t r a d it io n th a t th e c a ste -sy ste m ; c r y s t a l l i s e d , out . . But
t h i s p r o c e ss began very; e a r ly , /b efore; th e Puranas assumed
37'
a n y th in g l i k e t h e i r p r e se n t form .
..
Even^ how ever, th e r e was y 33/
some such s e n s e , th e f a c t s t i l l rem ain s, th a t th e Puranic
7
V3
gene a lo g i e s do n ot rep re s e n t th e a c tu a l c ond i t ion s o f th e 3
p e r io d s to which th ey p r o fe s s to r e l a t e / 3Hiey are indeed ;
3 .3
3 .3 ,33/
th e lab oured ix iv en tio n s o f a much l a t e r age and t h e i r
3 /Z c h r o n o lo g ic a l and; h i s t o r i c a l v a lu e must be adniitted t o be
m in im al, th e r e a l aim o f th e authors being; t b , in c u lc a te 7
t h e i r r e l i g i o u s id ea s and g l o r i f y t h e i r p a tr o n s , not to
"7, 3- 3 ;/
record h is t o r y .
.
/ . ::
3 ,
3 777.-73'- 3 • • . 3 3
Again a n i m p o r t a n t f a o t which d e se r v e s s p e c ia l m ention
in t h i s connect io n i s th e modern s c i e n t i f i c c r it ic is m whioh
r e fu s e s to a llo w an a n c ie n t date to th e /E pics and Puranas
7
in t h e i r ;p rese n t, form. /.T hbir; sta.tem ents con cern in g a n c ie n t
tim es were w r itte n a t so l a t e an age th a t th ey cannot be
■.,;/ r e l i a b l e as th o se fo u n d . in Vedic; t e x t s , which are in d isp u - ■/ 3 3 / 3
ta b ly v ery o ld *
I t may be observed o f th e Puranas g e n e r a l- 3 * 3 :
l y th a t th ey perhaps ‘itm iediately; fo llo w e d .t h e era o f 7the
3 - 3 3 v ' "77 7
■' /'-■
3/
■'3/7 :' 7 3 /■ ;3/33;/ ' - .7 7'.■
3 Atharvaveda, in which th e e a r l i e s t r e f e r e n c e t o
7 ~ {* ) ' Atharvaveda S alaih ita , Be XV,6 ,1 1
- •
I tih a s a - 7
\
3 3;" 3 3 :
Pur ana i s met w ith .
Purana, as a kind o f l i t e r a t u r e , i s | 3 f 3 3 :.
r e p e a te d ly m entioned a lo n g w ith I tih a s a in l a t e r Vedic ;
-::K:J /■
t e x t s , but .th e r e ; i s / n p tliih g/ to; show what t h i s l i t e r a t u r e ,7733;
;3
co n ta in ed in the: way o f g e n e a lo g ie s , and, in p a r t ic u la r ,
•.
whether i t co n ta in ed any h i s t o r i c a l m atter a t a l l a t t h i s
3 3.3/33
■7/7//3/early7;stage/^ {:/;7Bi u ll; ^ p r o b a b ility :■dt^■was\r e l i g i o u s /
s e c u la r , th a t i s to sa y , dharma in i t s com prehensive sen se •
was i t s c o n t e n t s .
T h is /is b e s t shown by Apas tam ba's fo u r
c i t a t i o n s in h i s Dharma S u tra, v i z ♦, th reb d o c tr in e s from
3
an. unnamed Purana and: one from th e Bhav i shy a t Purana ♦
3
3
Gn 3
■ ; 3 7th e o th e r hand, th e r e i s l i t t l e ev id en ce to show that th e
/
o ld p u ran ic l i t e r a t u r e com prised among' I t s co n te n ts a n c ie n t
3 ;3
3 33- g e n e a lo g ie s and h is t o r y .
3But i t / i s p o s s ib le th a t the
Puranic m a te r ia ls a t :an in term ed ia te s ta g e in clu d ed some
g e n e a lo g ie s and h i s t o r i c a l (or s e m i - h i s t o r i c a l J s t o r i e s .
As
we understand th e cou rse o f e v e n t s , some /Brahmans c o lle c t e d
v a r io u s p r a s a s t i s , p e d ig r e e s , and t a l e s from Sutas who were
in th e s e r v ic e o f d iv e r s k in g s , and on t h i s r a th e r s l i g h t
/r3;/
,\;:73^//:bastbv:th ey,;b egah ;;to’b u lld /,a ,’' i a r g e l y 7 f i o t i t i o i i s system ;O f 3333'
h i s t o r y , which was e d ite d not very lo n g a f t e r Mauryan tim es 3
3
3
3
arid r e -e d ite d : fo r th e l a s t tim e under th e e a r ly Guptas.
.
The b u s in e s s o f th e Sutas W a s ( l ) to d r iv e th e k in g ’s ca r ,
(2) to make pompous p roclam ation o f th e k in g ’s t i t l e s and;
.3/3333
:,3 /3
333; a n c e str y on solem n o c c a s io n s , and (5) to / r e c i t e o ld
.
) BUhler’s second e d it io n o f :Apas tam ba’s3D h am a: S utra,
■; ^m bay, 1 8 9 2 3 -^
13; 1 ,1 0 i 2 9 ,$ ■ .^ 53n j333./3 333
3 -9 >2 3 ,3 -5 ; 1 1 ,9 ,2 4 ,3 - 6 .
Pbr th e t r a n s la t io n o f th e /
3
P a ssa g es j s e e Sacred 3Bboks o f th e E a s t.v o l I I . u p . 70, 3
. " 90, 1 5 6 -7 , and 158.
s t o r i e s . o f th e g l o r i e s o f th e race* ' They th em selv es were
o f t e n h a l f Brahmans w e ll-v e r s e d in S a n s k r it (hence t h e ir
p o s it i o n in th e .c a s te -s y s te m ), and would r e a d ily g iv e
p r o f e s s io n a l in fo r m a tio n t o in q u ir in g Brahmans.
We think'
thus th a t th e 'Brahmans in co rp o ra ted in t h e i r Puranic scheme
a c o n s id e r a b le amount o f o ld t r a d it io n c o l l e c t e d fromS u ta s, which th e y padded ou t w ith a v a s t amount .o f t h e ir
own in v en tio n #
Tie th eo ry o f P ra k rit and K shatriya o r ig in
o f th e a n c ie n t h i s t o r i c a l m a te r ia l in co rp o ra ted a f t e r
a l t e r a t i o n s , in th e
by Brahmans i s , th e r e fo r e , one ^
which r e s t s on no fo u n d a tio n .
lU r th e r , we must tak e i t fo r gran ted th a t Purana
to g e th e r , w ith I t ih a s a was a branch o f stu d y which was
-
p op u lar w ith Brahmans.
.
.
(
In th e Ohhandogya Upanishad, -
*
)
■
we
have th e I^rada-Sanatakumara d ia lo g u e , w h erein Harada -says
”1 have^ s tu d ie d th e Rgveda, Yajurveda, Simaveda, A tharvaveda,
Itih a sa -P u r a n a ? Grammar, A rith m e tic, Astronomy, S cien ce o f
V hr and so on ”.
Bor can we th in k , a f t e r P a r g ite r , th a t th e r e
were d if f e r e n c e s between t r a d it io n s handed down by Brahmans
and K sh a tr iy a s.
T hese, a s i t i s w e ll kndwn, formed two ,
elem en ts in Aryan s o c i e t y , and were n ot two d if f e r e n t
p e o p le .
They alw ays sto o d in a n c ie n t tim e s to each o th e r
as f r ie n d s , and were e q u a lly in t e r e s t e d in m utual w e lf a r e ..
In s h o r t, th e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e c o n s id e r a tio n to be made in
/{f:y /-E d ite d with: t r a n s la t io n by O .BShblingk. L e ip z ig 1889,
V il,l.
•
‘
th e d is c r im in a t io n .o f t h e ir t r a d i t i o n s , e s p e c ia l l y in tim es;
, when c a s t e had not assumed a r ig id form .and c r ea ted th e
cle a v a g e among th e c l a s s e s .
A
Prom what ha£ been sa id above i t i s . c e r ta in th a t th e
Puranas have e x is t e d from very e a r ly tim e s , though we do
n ot know t h e i r names ■cu rren t in th e age o f th e l a t e r Vedic te x ts #
( *)
Ihe whole p o s it io n o f th e a n c ie n t t r a d it io n in
e a r ly Vedic l i t e r a t u r e and th e Puranas, t h e ir com parative
a n t iq u it y and v a lu e , in b r i e f , has been very w e ll ex­
p la in e d by P ro f. K eith th u s in r e p ly to P a r g it e r fs n o t e s n (1} These t e x t s , v iz # th e Samhi.tas and th e Brahmanas,
b e fo r e , s a y , 600 B*C#, are not books o f h i s t o r i c purpose;
th ey are r i t u a l in purpose and t h e i r h i s t o r i c a i rr e fe r e n c e s
are in c id e n t a l; fo r t h i s rea so n , when contem porary, th ey
. are o f g re a t v a lu e ; when th ey r e fe r to p a s t ev e n ts th ey
r e p r e se n t th e Vedic. t r a d i t io n , th e v a lu e o f which cannot
be d isc o u n te d by p e r s is t e n c e in a m isco n ceiv ed r e fe r e n c e
to P r o fe sso r M acddnell*s remarks as to th e p e r io d , a f t e r
th e d a te o f th e Brahmanas, when p essim ism became p a rt o f
th e Indian v iew o f l i f e .
(3) Hie Puranas are t e x t s n ot one
o f which can be d ated as e a r ly as A.D. 300 and which are
very p o s s ib ly much l a t e r .
They c o n ta in th e t r a d it io n o f
a much ;l a t e r p erio d than th e Vedic t e x t s and r e p r e se n t th e
r e s u l t o f both p r i e s t l y and popular developm ent o f t r a d iT*T There i s onlyv one .name B havishyat o b ta in e d f r o m ........
JSpastamba’s Pharma S u tra , which i s d ated from b e fo r e
th e second cen tu ry to th e f i f t h cen tu ry B .C .(S ee 1
Sacred-vBboksr o f i;the ^Bast Vol XIV, p x l i i and Cambridge
H is to r y o f In d ia . V ol I , p . 301)
13.^3
52
t io n s in c e th e Vedic a g e .
Their 'm a t e r ia l, so fa r as i t i
p u rp orts to r e p r e se n t e v e n ts which f a l l i n .t h a t a g e , can
be d iv id e d in to th r e e c l a s s e s : ( a ) s t a t emehts which are
c o n s is t e n t w ith Vedic r e f e r e n c e s ; (b ) sta te m e n ts which
are ^ in c o n siste n t w ith such r e fe r e n c e s
; -
( c | statem erits ;;
which have no co u n terp a rt in any form in th e Vedic t e x t s .
To c o n tr a d ic t Vedic t r a d it io n by t e x t s o f c l a s s ( b ) , i . e .
by t e x t s o f 1 9000 -years l a t e r , ; i s c o n t r a r y t o a l l sane
c r it ic is m ; to a ccep t as tr u e sta tem en ts o f c l a s s
(c ) is
to confound th e p o s s ib le w ith th e a c t u a l, and t o .open th e ;
way to innum erable v a r i e t i e s o f r e c o n s tr u c tio n o f th e
le g e n d s *" _
>... ...
.
P a r g ite r , how ever, b e lie v e s th a t Krshna DVa ipayana ,
V yasa, who com piled th e Rgveda and th r e e o th e r Vedas
e a r ly in th e te n th cen tu ry B. 0 . , a ls o com piled a Purana
aM a; \
\
(§1
. -a:-.
•.
and composed th e ft&habharata. • ■Iftit. i t must be noted th a t
th e d a te o f a l l th e se works could n ever be about th e same
as th a t o f Vyasa, h im s e lf a legen d ary f ig u re w ith ou t a ;-'.
d a te , o r even as th a t o f th e S u ta s, by whom th e Puranas ;
-A ' '' ■.
■ V ■: '
'
,
■■
:
’
-".V
.
:• ' '
v
• v
CO)
and th e Epic are s a id to have been r e c it e d in th e t r a d it i o n .
Hiat was done in t e n t id n a lly to p la c e th e o r ig in : o f th e
l a t e r works v ery fa r b ack .
As a m a tter o f f a c t th e g rea t
* j I .R .JkiS; ,1 9 1 5 . p . 531.
L o o .c i t , Chapter X £ V I , p . 318;
Ib id , Chapter I I , p . 2 2 .
^
Chapter H , p p .2 1 -2 2 .
drawback in Indian l i t e r a t u r e i s , th e com plete ab sen ce o f
, any c h r o n o lo g ic a l d ata;
India has been s in c e lo n g
dominated by a h ie r a r c h y , and i t was not t i l l a f t e r th e
minor s t a t e s g r a d u a lly m elted to g e th e r in to a n orth ern
empire in th e fo u rth cen tu ry B. C. th a t any h is t o r y was
'c o m p o s e d , l i t e r a t u r e f lo u r is h e d , or any d a te s were g iv e n .
V
Hie Brahman s c h o la r s th a t sprang up under th e patronage
o f g rea t k in g s a f t e r -th is tim e examined th e works o f
.t h e ir p r e d e c e s s o r s , which gave r i s e t o ,t h e f i r s t enquiry
a s a ls o made v a r ie d in t e r p o la t io n s in them th a t s u it e d new tim es
in to th e p a s t,/a n d d a te s were g iv e n to every o ld work th a t
and t h e i r d o c tr in e s
o; had h it h e r t o been composed and r e c a s t . But s in c e th e
language o f th e s e was a r c h a ic , s in c e n o th in g cou ld be
r e a l l y known o f th e tr u e d a t e s ’, and s in c e a g rea t r e v e r ­
ence was; a tta c h e d to them, th e d ates g iv e n by l a t e r s c h o la r s
t o th e now a lt e r e d e a r l i e r works were p u r e ly f i c t i t i o u s and
as rem ote as p o s s i b l e .
imong o th e r s w h ic h .r e c e iv e d t h i s
d i s t i n c t i o n were th e Mahabharata and Puranas,
Mo a c tu a l
n um erical d a te was s t a t e d f o r them, but th e y were u n h e s i-
:
t a t i n g l y a ttr ib u te d to th e same p erso n a g e, Krshna BVipayana
. Vyasa, who was known t o have com piled th e Vedas;
Hiere i s ,
no rea so n fo r d ou b tin g th e a c tu a l e x is t e n c e o f such a
p erso n in a n c ie n t In d ia , but th a t he was r e a l l y th e a u th o r .
or co m p iler o f works o f d if f e r e n t p e r io d s , such as th e
Vedas, th e feh a b h a ra ta , th e Vedanta, th e Puranas, i s im­
p o s s ib le o f a c c e p ta n c e .
I f i t were s o , th e Brahmanas,
Iran yak as, Upanishads o r Sutras sh ou ld not have "passed
over t h i s g re a t achievem ent in s i l e n c e ft.
lU rtherm ore, i t i s su s p ic io u s th a t n ot on ly th e
Puranas*:;^whlloh p ro f essv td C o n ta in g e n e a lo g ie s o f old i k in gs
a n d ;th e if> 3 iis to r y y made;-out la te f ^ 'h a v e been a sc r ib e d to
th e leg en d a ry ' a u th o r K r s h n a Dvaipayana V yasa, but th e ■
/bhronoiogyr of;-kings' t o o ( i s very^ mu^
\
^
COn fu sio n i s no t a b ly ; d i sp ia y ed in th e 1 in e o f Kuru fs so n
P a r lk s h it • v;;Hae s o n bf^ th e l a t t e r ,
a y a ,; a n d ;h is
th r e e son s or b ro th er s , S ru tasen a, XJgrasena and Bhimas.ena,
';>whp;i/all*^ to g e th e r with: P a r ik sh itj him selfv^ in r e a l i t y f
f l o u r ie h e d ; a f t o f th e l^ a r a t a tYar, have been shown in th e
ffisio a s w e l l as Puranic t r a d it io n a s a n c e s t o r s o f t h e
?>vFundus * ^
b im s e lf adm its t h a t th e e a r ly g e n e a lo g ie s
4 are m u tu a liy in c o n s is t e n t in ohrpnoiogy and; are d if f e r e n t
; in some; lin e s ;;
Hie immber^pf;k in gs in each House: v a r i e s ,
: and"names ta re; tr a n sp o se ^
^
r a th e r fo f^
r e g r e t t a b l e t h a t t h e ir ' c& rb ik ilo^ ib con fu sed and i s i n ­
c o n s is t e n t
^f h l s v e f y ; j a c t shows th a t th e ;g e n e a lo g ie s are .
- p rp d u ctip u s> o f; v a r io u s ;a u th o r s, borrowing from one an oth er
; and a ls o fa b r ip a tin g a cco rd in g to t h e ir r e s p e c t iv e n e e d s.
p o th e r r e m a r k a b le th in g about, themj ip ; th a t t h e y a r e m ixed ;
UP: ^ ith t h e 1 in e s o f r s h is and m y th o lo g ic a l p e d ig r e e s * *
\Efeiicb'. to -i:tr ea t:/su ch -;h o p p lessly con fu sed g e n e a lo g ie s as
F l0 fT ™ P a rg lter in Commemorative1H ssavs- b te S e n te d ‘t o 8
G-.
^euxdatkat!?V F G o n a y
^
*1 G 7 ; « B
o r i:
a r i s e s w hether, t h e g e b e a lo g ie s t d r e ; to
~|V
: : (Hbteii c o n tin u e d ); :
r e a l aM
b i i i l i h i s t o r y o n : ;ihe.if ,
e x p lic a b le o n ly on th e a s s in ^ tlo n t h a t .thpsy^
ig n o re a l l th e p r in c ip le s o f h i s t o r i c a l e y id e h c e v ;
Modern c r i t i c a l s c h o la r s are t h e r e f o r e ^ j u s t if ie d : in
not: a tta c h in g g re a t im ports
to th e s e m iracu lou s g en ea lo ­
g ie s and/ th h c o n c lu s io n s 1d raw n .th erefrom
ftiey
r i g h t l y r e j e c t the^ authority: o f t h e B irah as and th e authen­
t i c i t y o f th e ; s e c u la r ;Jtr a d itio n ;r e c o r d e d th e r e i n fo r very
h a f l y p e r lo d e "Of ; to d ia n ;h is t o r y , esp ecd a lly - in fegard to
th e 0 r i g i n > s e ttle m e n t 1a net; A lg f a t io n • o f ;t h e :;^ y a n s V- I t i s
d i f f i c u l t to ^understand lh h .e x 5 a^^
from iiyodhya, §h ich i s n ot i ^
s it u a t e d ;a.s fa;
0ornmanding p o s it i o n , whenc e e x a ig r a tio n m ig h t proceed to
th e e a s t , th e w est and th e south;;:^ ; Ih ;th
would quote h ere H.H. W ilson fs o b s e ^ a tio n v iw h i
r e f e r s to th isr su b ject^ m a d e -in ^ h l
Preface: t o : th e Itansr-;S're­
l a t i o n o f th e Vishnu Purana:: t?The■
; 0 ircu m stan ces th a t a f e t o ld ■{in th e Puranas and
I^ Ics^ : o f :t h e ^ f i f s t ; p r in c e s have e v id e n t r e la t io n to th e
o f I h d i a a n d th e g ra d u a l e x t e n s io n o f ;th e
a u th o r ity o f n e w r a c e s o v er an u n in h a b ited or^ U n c iv iliz e d
r e g io n ;
It i s commonly ad m itted th a t th e" fBrahmanical ;
are -p l a in l y open toHihe^ o b je c t ip n th a t th^
lo n g 1 i s t o f k in g s a r e ^ fa th e r shadowy,vand. ■th a t ;t h e ir
e a r li e s t ; p b f t i o h s ; a r e m y t h i c a l a n d e n v e l o p e d i n f a b l e s t
Such o f c o u r s t
ibe,- ^b
in e t r a d it io n s
o f th e ea r 1 i e s t '; tim es can h a fd ly be an y th in g b e t t e r , : ;■■
s in c e th e r e were no means in India o f making permanent
recordjs; co h te^ o ra n eo h siy i^ ;U n d ;h eca u b e-;su ^
cjanhot: e s cape "th e; n a tu r a l tehdehcy in m
m istak es
to^m agnify th e p a st and to d i s t o r t a n c le n t s t o r i e s in to
f a b le s ” .
B a r g it e r : Loo, 0i t . Chapter V!*pp*6 9 -7 0 , (o ) 9pVlxv.-~ Ixy-i
(Aryan) r e l i g i o n and c i v i l i z a t i o n were brought in to India
from w ith o u t•
C e r ta in ly , th e r e ^ © t r i b e s oh th e b o r d e r s,
and in th e h ea rt o f th e cou n try, who are s t i l l not-H indus
. (A ryans); and p a ssa g es in th e Ramayana and Mahabharata and
and the. unifom ^ t r a d it io n s o f th e p eo p le th e m se lv e s,
p o in t t o a p erio d when B engal, O rissa and th e whole o f th e
Dakhiii, were in h a b ite d by degraded or o u f c a s t e , th a t i s ,
; by barbarous t r i b e s .
The t r a d it io n s o f .t h e .Puranas confirm
th e s e v ie w s , but th ey len d no a s s is t a n c e to th e determ ina. t ion o f th e q u est io n whence t h e ; Hindus (Aryans ). came;
whether from a o e n tr a i A s ia t ic n a tio n , as S ir Wit* lo n es sup­
p o sed , or from th e Caucasian m ountains, th e p la in s o f
B a b ylon ia, o r th e borders o f th e C aspian, as co n jectu red by
K laproth, Vans Kennedy and S c h le g e l.
The a f f i n i t i e s o f th e
S a n sk rit language prove a common o r ig in o f th e now w id ely
s c a tt e r e d n a tio n s amongst whose d i a le c t s th e y are tr a c e a b le
and ren d er i t u n q u estio n a b le th a t th e y must a l l have spread
abroad from, some c e n t r ic a l sp o t in th a t p a rt o f th e glob e
f i r s t in h a b ited by mankind, accord in g to th e in sp ir e d
record*
Whether any in d ic a t io n o f such an ev en t be d i s -
; co v e ra b le in th e Veda§, rem ains to be d eterm in ed ; but i t
would have been o b v io u sly in com p atib le w ith th e Bauranik
system to have r e fe r r e d th e o r ig in o f Indian p r in c e s and
p r i n c i p a l i t i e s to o th e r than n a tiv e sou rces*
We need n ot
th e r e fo r e ex p ect from them any in fo rm a tio n as to th e
J. fo r e ig n d e f iv a t io n 6 f th e Hindus (Aryans )Vft
■
3h s p i t e o f a l l t h i s , 'P a rg iter lo o k s upon th e Puranic
l i t e r a t u r e , where a n c ie n t c o n d itio n s are d is t o r t e d so as
to s u i t new id e a s , as n ot on ly c o n ta in in g v e r y e a r ly , nay
even p r e -R g v e d ic , t r a d i t i o n s , but as b ein g a ls o more r e ­
l i a b l e than th o se in Vedic t e x t s *
He has , in f a c t , a tta c h e d
to o much im portance and w eight to th e Puranas a n d .u n ju s ti­
f i a b l y condemned ’V edic t r a d i t io n , w h ic h ,:though unconnected
and in co m p lete, i s g e n e r a lly tr u stw o rth y , f o r i t i s w e ll
p reserv ed and i s alm ost contem porary.
I t must be c l e a r ly understood th a t th e Puranic d i v is io n
o f In dia among th e son s o f Mam, which P a r g ite r has a c c e p te d ,
does not r e p r e se n t h is t o r y . . I t must be r e je c t e d as a l a t e r
th eo ry s t a r t e d i n accordance with, a s t a t e o f th in g s th a t
e x is t e d in; th e Madhyadesa a t the tim e or tim es o f . th e
co m p o sitio n o f th e E pics and Puranas, th a t i s to s a y , when .
a l l memory o f th e a n c e sto r s h avin g come from th e w est o u t­
s id e India had. been l o s t .
In th e Rgveda we have a d i s t i n c t
m ention th a t th e Purus were s e t t l e d on th e Ravi in th e
Panjab.
Puru, th e r e fo r e , cou ld not have g o t th e t e r r i t o r y
round P ra tish th a n a as i s s t a t e d in th e Puranas.
Y ayati*s
d iv is io n o f In d ia among h i s f i v e sons i s a ls o an in c r e d ib le
s t o r y , as i s th e subsequent p o s it io n s o f th e t r ib e s o f th e
Purus, Yadus, Anus, TUrvasas and Prtihyus a t l a t e r p e r io d s ,
which m isle d th e e d ito r s o f th e Puranas and- E p ic s.
It
appears th a t th e l a s t p o s it io n s o f th e s e t r ib e s were taken
to be t h e i r f i r s t p o s it io n s in th e s to r y o f Y a y a ti.
:d ;d ; d / ; d i d Id ^d:\d;;d’:>d'd:M'^^
:r:'Vdd.-' 3VL--..- ;
58
;B a rg ite r-M
observed,; "These p o s it io n s - a g r e e w ith
not i c e s o f th e 7;Yadavas, 'Druhus .and >:A navas.ff
- -
Moreover, th e m ig ra tio n ;.o f th e Aryans in to India by
way o f th e c e n t r a l H im alayas, as su g g e ste d by P a r g ite r , i s
a p h y s ic a l; jim p b s s lb ility .
The Aryans who e n te r e d .I n d ia
. . were, yefy-:^numerous
tr a iisp q rt th e m se lv e s,
d>d/d-'d-. t h e i f ^wivesi
t h e ir 'e a t'tfe
horses^ e tc . o v er p a sse s which a r e c r o s s e d w ith d i f f i c u l t y
d -d d ^ ^
on f p o t ? n ^ Q g f ^ h ic a ily th e t r a n s i t . o f ^the
dd :;dd-\d;,Bimalayaa;;q^
^ ;}0here;;are;. o n ly two or
th r e e p a s s e s in Kumaon and Garhwal over which p o n ie s c a n .
be tr a n s p o r te d , and t h a t w it h : s o m e /d if f ic u lt y ; .T h e s e p a s s e s ,
'
d‘
dv- ''^lead^tp;-:;the:;;eieyated:;:.and;-:bhrfen;^Tibetah/:pl^
dd d r
n ess o f the. country dobs n o f ’ ^ r m
d.'-;d.;
are o n ly open f o r a few months a f t e r th e m e ltin g o f th e ‘
Ihey
•\ S h o w a n d even as >traded r o u te s they; add v e r y 1 i t t l e to th e
d'
/ fo r e ig n t r a d e b f l ^
th e m iddle Bimalayan ran ges
became to th e later^ A ryans, , e s p e c i a l l y to t h e i r \ Brahmans
in Madhyadesd,Vth e abode' o f th e g r e a t'g o d s and th e Gandharvas;
frottf th e se ;,ttie : r iy e r M n d a k in f (Ganges)- was born; ;jftie
le g e n d s :b n d f a b l e s a b o u t th e s o ;:c a lle d p r o g e n ito r Pururavas
j
' ; V ; w e r e : - a s s o q ia te d w iih d t^ ^
f r e v e n t e d ' w ere th e m ountains &
p la c e s ;h e
» th e
TJttara Kuru,; th e >pihdana f o r e s t s ^ e t c ; ; / a l l ' i ^
dd'
w ith th e G^ndharvas.
to o q n n e c tg o d s , a n c le n t p e o p le s and
d'.
3</3
p erson s w ith th e m iddle Himalayan r e g io n would be most
. n a tu r a l to Madhyadesa Brahmans.
This e x p la in s , why th e h is t o r y o f th e 3?uranic d y n a stie s
s t a r t e d from P ra tish th a n a (Prayajja.) * As
we know, th e
Puranas were red a cted in more or l e s s t h e i r p r e se n t form
(at l e a s t as regards th e h i s t o r i c a l m a tter) in e a s te r n
/ l&dhyades'a*
.
Hie ce n tr e o f Brahman orthodoxy in e a r l i e r
tim es was K uru-P anchala-V asa-U sinara, i . e . w estern and
c e n t r a l Madhyades'a; so in th e Bralimanas.
A tr a c e o f t h i s
e a r ly lo c a t i o n appears in th e p r e fa c e o f Vayu Purana, which :,;
. sa y s t h i s Purana was r e c it e d in Haimisharanya by th e r iv e r
'■
‘
■
<*•) V
'\
B rsh a d v a ti. But th e Mahabharata
s a y s , "Kuravah sah aPanchalah d alva Matsyaa' cha Haimishah Chedayas/ cha mahabhaga ■
dharmam ja n a n tf saevatam" - which widens th e area* . Hie same
(§)
V
^ - „ : ■■ ■
■. ■Epic • elsew h ere l o c a t e s Haimisharanya; on th e r iv e r Gomati,
i * e * , th e Gumtl, which e n te r s th e Ganges n ear Benares.
Thus in th e tim e when th e l a t e r p a r ts o f th e Epic were
composed,' a f t e r Mauryan t im e s , th e leg en d a ry c e n tr e had
become th e Prayaga-Benares r e g io n .
So when th e Puranas say
th e d y n a s tie s s t a r t e d from P ra tish th a n a , th ey show th a t
th ey to o were red a cted in th a t r e g io n about th e same tim e
as th e l a t e r Epic and under th e same conditions...;^.N aturaliy-.v;
th e r e d a c to r s o f th e se works in th e e a s te r n Madhyadesa r e 'V III, 4 5 , With s l i g h t y a r ia t io n s iii d i f f e r e n t
e d itio n s .
■
(§) He X II, 35 7 , A .S .B . e d it io n 1837.
'
3
\ 4 ©- ;
;; ' *
r
■. ■ ■■■■■' . .
-\v;! ;:
' v ; ■' x
p r e se n te d a l l th e A lla s
Li c(
■
( i . e . a l l th e im portant d y n a s t ie s )
as o r ig in a t in g th e n c e .
-/
As re g a rd s th e m ention o f th e Egvedie gods in th e
B cghaz-koi in s c r ip tio n s * which i s regarded by P a r g ite r as
p ro v in g th a t th e s e are Indo-Aryan gods in trod u ced in to
A sia Minor as th e r e s u lt o f an o u tflo w o f th e Druhyus, a
f r o n t i e r p eo p le o f th e Pan ja b , i t may be sa id , th a t we
have h ere in d u b ita b ly ,th e names o f th e gods p r a c t ic a lly ,
in th e forms in which th ey su r v iv e in th e Bgyeda, i . e .
Old In d ian , and w ith ou t th e p h o n e tic changes which
c h a r a c te r is e Old Ira n ia n .
But i t does n o t f o llo w th a t
th e s e forms are e x c lu s iv e ly T ed ie In d ian , th e y may e q u a lly
w e ll have been in u se among o th e r t r ib e s a k in . to th e Indo.Ir a n ia n s o u ts id e In d ia .
Hie Aryan sp eech j we a lrea d y
know, was spoken in p a r ts o f w estern A sia , where d i a l e c t i c a l
d if f e r e n c e s sprang up owing to c o n ta c t w ith d if f e r e n t
r a c i a l e le m e n ts i
The fragm ents o f M itahnic and K a ssite
sp eech a k in to Aryan rep r esen ted developm ents t h e r e o f .
These g o d s, as i s shown above, v er y p o s s ib ly b elon ged to th e
p erio d b e fo r e th e s e p a r a tio n o f Indian and Ir a n ic Aryans
; and were th u s pan-Aryan.
Mcst p rob ably th e s e Aryan gods
were in u se among many t r ib e s in n o rth -w e stern In d ia , Iran ..
and fu r th e r away s t i l l ; and one such t r i b e , th e M itan n i,
l i v i n g to th e n orth o f S y r ia , made a .m arriage a ll ia n c e
w ith a I H t t it e k in g , and in th e t r e a t y o f a l l ia n c e th e
names o f t h e i r gods were in tro d u ced . .With t h i s h y p o th e s is ,
th e r e i s no rea so n to im agin e, as P a r g ite r would have i t ,
th a t th e s e B^ghaz-koi gods were c a r r ie d to th e w est by a ;
t r ib e is s u in g from th e Pan ja b .
Moreover i f t h i s account
o f th e A ry a n iza tio n o f Iran on w estern jksia be a cc ep ted ,
we would have t o assume a n u m erica lly la r g e ou tflow *
But
we have few , i f any, exam ples o f such a la r g e s c a le
em ig ra tio n out o f th e Panjab; th e movement o f p e o p le s in
h i s t o r i c a l tim es has g e n e r a lly been in to th a t land*
Bather a t th e t ime in q u e stio n th e Aryans in th e Panj ab
had s t i l l th e Northern and Southern India to c o lo n iz e *
,
Ife v e r th e le ss in th e Puranas and E p ic s, which we do not
lo o k upon as tru stw o rth y a u t h o r it ie s f o r th e c o n str u c tio n
o f Indian h is t o r y in i t s v ery e a r ly p e r io d s , th e r e i s much
m a te r ia l, th e v a lu e o f which, i t i s n e e d le s s to sa y , i s
v ery g rea t as a sou rce f o r p o st-H ia r a ta War tim es fo r th e .
h is t o r y o f p e o p le s and creed s in In d ia .
The h i s t o r i c a l
m a te r ia l s p e c i f i e s l a t e r k in g s and d y n a s t ie s , and a ls o
som etim es o f f e r s p o l i t i c a l p a r t ic u la r s regard in g them.
Thus th e r e i s a d e t a ile d d e s c r ip tio n o f th e l a t e r Purus,
who reig n ed a t f i r s t a t B astinapur and afterw ard s moved to
Kausambi, in .the Mahabharata and Puranas; and t h e ir c o n -..
tem p oraries th e Ikshvakus o f Jyodhya and th e Barhadrathas
o f Migadha, to g e th e r w ith o th e r contemporary kingdoms, are
m entioned in th e Puranas summarily w ith th e l i s t s o f k in gs
or sta tem en ts o f th e number o f t h e i r reig n s*
L ater
prominent d y n a s tie s l i k e th e Mauryas, Sungas, Kanvas,
Andhras and Guptas a ls o fin d some p lace* B e sid e s, we come
■' (*)
a cr o ss numerous h i s t o r i c a l n o t ic e s in th e S p ie s
and
Puranas about th e l o c a l d y n a s tie s in In d ia; fo r exam ple,
th ey r e f e r to th e d y n a s tie s o f th e Panjab, such as th e
B a h lik a s, S a lv a s , Madras, K aikeyas, Sindhus, S a u v ira s,
Khiiibojas, Gandharas, e t c . and to th e fo r e ig n e r s l i k e th e
Yavanas, Sakas, P a h la v a s, Kushanas and Bunas, who. re igned
in th e Panjab alm ost in s u c c e s s io n from th e second cen tu ry
B. C. down to th e s i x t h cen tu ry A* D.
This h i s t o r i c a l
m a te r ia l i s no doubt c o n sid e r a b ly co n fu sed , but when i t i s
checked a cco rd in g to modern methods o f resea ro h and taken
w ith c a u tio n , i t c e r t a in ly y i e l d s r e s u l t s o f g re a t u se to
a h is to r ia n *
We s h a ll c o n sid e r a l l th e n o t ic e s in t h i s
t r a d it io n r e le v a n t to our h is t o r y in th e su c c e e d in g
c h a p ter s;
(*)’ The Mahabharata in t h i s r e s p e c t i s most h e lp f u l, fo r
i t s p r e se n t v e r s io n a s s o c ia t e s most o f th e d y n a s tie s
and n a tio n s , in In d ia , in c lu d in g even th e rem otest o n es,
A ryanised much l a t e r and a ls o th e l a t e r fo r e ig n in vad ers
o f th e Panjab, w ith th e War between th e Kurus and
Bandus, fou gh t about 1000 B.C* a t l e a s t .
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