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The structure of Maltese: A study in mixed grammar and vocabulary.

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.
v ;
:
S3^X3!pT1iS^B''
■]:■^
;A study, in mixed Grammar; and- V ocabulary
D is s e r t a t io n su bm itted fb r th e d egree of Ph.p*
■ ■•: ' .:•
.. ^'"''V
; Vv - :
\
:
dv A q u ilin a ;
S ch ool o f O r ie n ta l and A frica n S tu d ie s
(U n iv e r s ity o f London, London, S *W. 1 *)
• v:-- ■ Wartime address ~
0' f-V
C h r is t 's C o lle g e , Cambridge*
'
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Summary
. THE STRUCTURE OF MALTESE
A stu d y i n m ixed Grammar and V ocabulary
D is s e r t a t io n su b m itted fo r th e d egree o f Ph
jiF. A q u ilin e •
School o f O r ie n ta l and A fr ic a n S tu d ie s
( U n iv e r s ity o f London, London, S .W .f. )
’ .Wartime' ad d ress *v ^
C h r is t 1s C o lle g e , Cambridge
Summary o f t h e s i s
"THE STRUCTURE OF MALTESE •* A STUDY IN
; MIXED GRAMMAR AND; VOOABULARY,,
M a ltese i s a se p a r a te language r e s u l t i n g from the
in t e r a c t io n and fKxSion, o f Nor th ^ A fflca n A rabic and
S ic u io -I ta liim V c o v e r in g tiflfo d if f e r e n t ^ cu ltu ra l str a ta *
The A rab ic elem ent in M altese very o f t e n corresp on d s to
th e A hglo-Saxph ' i n E n g l i s h , w h i l e theR om ance lo a n s
.co rresp o n d to th e N o f r ^ ^ r e n c h elem en t^ A lso as in
E n g lis h , th e p r im itiv e l i n g u i s t i c stratxim i s co n fin ed
m ain ly to th e d e s c r ip t io n o f the ob viou s f a c t s o f N ature
and th e i n d iv id u a l’ s r e a c tio n s to them w h ile th e a b s tr a c t
and p r o g r e s s iv e V ocabulary o f the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a b e lo n g s
to l a t e r tim e s.
The r e s u l t o f t h is fiis io n i s a mixed granmar and
vo ca b u la ry as we s h a ll show when stu d y in g th e str u c tu r e
o f spoken M altese*
In order t o be a b le t o d is t in g u is h
the two e le m e n ts , we have e s t a b lis h e d a s e r i e s o f
d e s c r ip t iv e c r i t e r i a th a t to g e th e r make p o s s ib le a de­
t a i l e d p h o n o lo g ic a l a n a ly s is o f the la n g u a g e.
The t h e s i s
b e g in s w ith a d e s c r ip t io n o f M altese so u n d s, fo llo w e d by
P h on ology, where th e se c r i t e r i a are based on a stu d y o f
th e V o w els, t h e ir q uan ti t y , p o s i t i on and se que n e e s ; th e
semi v o w el, th e d ip h th o n g s, t h e ir p o s i t i o n , s t r e s s , th e
c o n so n a n ts, their* seq u en ces in c lu d in g i n i t i a l groups i n
p h o n o lo g ic a l ju n c tio n (z e r o vow el)*
In Morphology th e words are s tu d ie d a s p a tte r n £, w ith
p a r t ic u la r a t t e n t io n to th e form al arrangem ent o f th e
co n son an ts and th e c o r r e la t iv e vow els which are d e s c r ib e d
i n t h e i r v a r io u s sem an tic changes w ith l i s t s o f ex a n p les
from spoken and a r c h a ic M a ltese.
In b o th p a r ts the two elem en ts have been tr e a te d
s e p a r a te ly b u t under S e m itic M altese are t r e a t e d th o se
words w hich have b een a s s im ila te d p a r tia llj^ or co m p le te ly
- a
•.
^
■• ..
. . . ■ .
to /S e m it ic p a tter n * Words which have n o t b een so a s s im i­
l a t e d are o f co u rse tr e a te d under th e head o f Romance
In d e x
'";A '^ ^ y y y y -■;y.::' ’ ■ ’? -y
-V
; y ; yyy > y y ^ y . y y ' ^ y y y y y y y ^ v y y ■y
- p&ge
.
•
.
P relim in a ry No t e s on M altese ’ Sounds .
(i)
•
: ( it)
yy y t ;
Chart o f M altese Consonants w ith
th e i^ p ^ ^
. -•> >
Comparative T able showing th e tr'ah- V.
,*■s e r ip t io n used y th e stan d ard y^^';
•. s p e l l in g and th e co rresp o n d in g
- Arabic, c h a r a c t e r s .. . \ ; •
.
3
• • I i i .) Supplem entary ••Description' o f v ^
■'
■ y Maltese-' Sounds.:';‘ ..• •
■' ( i v )
(v )
(v i)
' The vow els ., ...;.y •
The L iq u id s
;
'
. . .. • ;. . . .. ■ . . .
;
4
7
Consonants in P h o n o lo g ica l fu n c tio n
.. ■ ■ ■ ' y r:j y
...
' 8
15
-B: ;,y yyr , y y y y .y :.t y :vy y : y y , ■
The Phonology o f S em itic^ M altese; - - ' ;v yyy
(i )
2
'
y :y'V/16' -
The M altese V ow els: ^ p o s itio n a l; ihile s
, and v o c a lic l e n g t h . . . / : . .V y
17
(ii)
The Semi V o w els:; p o s itio n e il jr u le s y
47
(ill)
D iphthongs: -p o ja itid h a iy i^ es,--* • • ,
52
(iv )
(v )
(v i)
V o c a lic seq u en ces o f M altese,
...
y 6T
S t r e s s r. .
.V .
; 73
Consonant seq u en ces in c lu d ih g ' .
I n i t i a l Consonant; g r o u p s.*. . . . .
81
...
ii
page
Nph S e in ltie H a lt e se
126
Cri t e r i a 'based om : C o n so n an ts - t h e i r se q u e n c e s i n g i n i t i a l yooh^hant--^
129
C b h ^ o n a n ts in Sphbnoiogi c a l;'U h h e tto h
130
Vowels - P o s i t i o n s part'd' g d d ^ tity ;
133
Semi Vowels 1w* and 1y 1. .
145
Vowel Sequences
* ..
• «...
146
• • •- .• *■• •
152
D iphthongs
• •
y ^ y ^ y y*
S hort M altese T ext (Mixed V ocabulary)
lllu s tr a tih g y t^ ^
.
• •
* * •
155
P a rt II
The V a ria b le Element o f S.M. MorptiolORy
I h t r o d t e t i qri
Table;yi/i'":
"
"
2
3
162
. .vi;
of1 V erbal Base"
168
»lN o itih a iy S c a tte
by p r e - y
l i e s 6r^hfix;;.yt.V , :with;y,y^;.
, v o c a li c t n O d i f i c a t i o n s .*. .* •
179
^Nominal S c a tte r w ith i n i t i a l
m orp h ological f m1 • .V* , V» * «.
185
y . v ^ y y y u y y y y K - y y y yy yyyyyyyy. y y y y ^ y y •••• ; -* y p a g e
T ab le 4
"The D e s c r ip tiv e S c a t t e r " . * .
. . . \ y% y 2DQ
v R-
"The P l u r a l P a t t e r n s ! '.
...
5
...
231
( a ) form ed by s u f f i x e s
(b ) form ed by i n t e r n a l v o c a lic
c h a n g e s. . . . .
.-. . . • • ...
-f\;y!v:y\Byv''"Th^
y 253
yvy-^,The,AXnvarihbia/-BieiftehtyQfysyy^yMbrphoIogy...;
A r tic le . . .
^ P r o n o u n s ...'
...
:. . .
.a . . . .
...
...
...
i..
. . . . . .
:':''*Niiittie.ral6 .........................
>< •■-> , Adverbs:,.'.
•
..
Vy 272
...
273
...
280
280
. . , /.
; P r e p o s it io n s ..............
.....................................
Con junctions . . .
I n te r je c tio n s .
281
282
y
• ••" ..V ..•••> .V ' . . . ••..'282.
The -Morphology^ o f ;NOriy0bmitic M altese
A;-yyTh0:>;Vari.abley‘El©menti \ . . ;
• ................
^€>3
...
.y .
297
...
.-••• •
299
y ■-v B ib lio g r a p h y ...............
•• • •
300
B
,/The;,vT nvariable: E le m ^
^6yy:y^;>.dpncl'usioni\: . . .
. ..
• •.
PRELIMINARY NOTES ON MALTESE SOUNDS\
# T
^
o
t
^
h
n
o
t
yy a f l e a s t , a n e l e n ^ t a ^ ^
th e aim o f t h i s work,
th e co n so n a n ts, which
p la y such an im portant p a r t in wdrd b u ild in g , should
th e p h o n b io g iq ^ treatn^a^ o f ; the^ lan guage*
^
p reced e ■
T h is w e have
r
done in th e fo llo w in g ta b le -and th e accoinpanying supplem entary
d e s c r ip t io n where th e twentyeeven con son an ts o f M a lte se,
;y
S em itic and f o r e ig n , o f w hich s i x # aa^, p u r e ly c o n te x tu a l
and o n e ,: sp b ra d id , as
y
w i l l soon be e x p la in e d , are recorded; -
w ith t h e i r p h o n e tic n o ta tio n .
With th e Vowels — a p h o n e tic -y
y
a l l y v e r y in c o h e ta n t e l e m e n t ; ' we s h a ll d e a l b r i e f l y under a
y
se p a r a te h ead in g.
I" "
In d e f a u lt o f a r e ^ g n is e d stan d ard p r o n u n c ia tio n , we
yf
have fo llo w e d t h a t which i s heard In V a l l e t t a arid th e n e ig h ­
b ou rin g towns and, where
d i a l e c t i c a l v a r ia t io n s .
n e c e s sa r y , we have a ls o p o in te d out ?
.d
. P4
•:
a ..,
.
W
\ +*
M
H ,
0
**:
r-l
!
r
.
■§
■d
!>9 '
d
P :
O
-P 0
to F
OH
pHT<t|
r-|
€
o
d
o
•H
•P
ctf
3o
•H
£<d
aO
©
: ■;
,
v >
•P
■
■
■
'^
■
Hd
51
rH
ccf
-g
.
d
0
P
5rtj^
.
rH
“
*P
n
*p
©
46
d
o
(3)
cd
H
Pt
O
.
cd
to
to
o
oU
0
o '!
rO P
©©
PQ
*H*P
l>
#fc •
<d
h
P
"F
|Q-
a :'.
<5^ ■
a 01
to
£
©
O
rH
P4
to
■3w
£
Other
Liquids.
(i)
fVm
rH
Bi-Labial
Chart of Maltese
Consonants
(Phonetic Notation), showing
Glottal
2
©
*p
©
*d
qd
_!
%
|s.
©
0
1=
.+H,
-p
0
.
©
*rl
d
(x4
•g i
0 0
CO}>
( i i ) Comparative Table
In th e fo llo w in g t a b le we g iv e th e t r a n s c r ip t io n th a t
we have adopted fo r M altese w ith th e stan d ard orthography
which i s , f o r our p u rp ose, more e ty m o lo g ic a l than p h o n e tic ,
arid a ls o the; co rresp on d in g A ra b ic c h a r a c te r s . The other;
A rab ic c h a r a c te r s w ith th e p h o n etic n o ta tio n (G airdnerf s
s y s te m ), r e p r e s e n tin g sdimds which a re n o t M a lte se, h u t to
w hich we may have t o r e f e r , ^ e stlso given* We s h a ll i n d i ­
c a te th a t th e con son ants are v o ic e d or u nvoiced hy o or v
p i ace d under t h e , sym b ols, v o i c e le s s b e in g unmarked. S tr e s s
w i l l be ih d ic a t e d by / p reced in g th e ;s e l l a b l e on w hich i t
f a l l S . , ;L
o
n
g
b
e
d is c u s s e d m o r e f u l l y
l a t e r on, by : a f t e r th e vbwel* N ote a ls o th a t th ere i s no
p h o h e tic d if f e r e n c e betw een f c* and *t<? and Vd/V, o n ly th e
l a s t two digrap hs are the m orp h ological ju n c tio n o f 11 ’
a n d r e s p e c t i v e l y , ; i^ e r e a s ^c1 in $> lies an o r ig in a l
sound. ; .:.r; f ; 4 : . '
T
V i;
c- 7 ‘
T r a n s c r ip tio n - Phan* N o t.--Spe]
S p e llin g
5= B,b
B,b babaw)
'.V1 r
6 ,6 carcar
= T ,t
D ,d
’■ = D ,d -, 7 i:
■ * P ,f
P ,f
Ff t
■
«G,g
%1/
G,g
s Gf»g
Qfg
y
''V
j
=.;
H.fi
=
H,h
3»h
7*1
" = J ,3
8 . Y ,y
= Y ,y
. ' ss K,k
!= K,k
9 K,k
—'
= L ,1
10. I*il
=
M,m
M,m
=; M,m niarmar
11.
N ,n nahnah
- N ,n
12. N ,n
13. P>P
PfP
= P>P
='
14. Q,<1
v = Q> a
R ,r rabbat
= R ,r
15. R jf
■" .= S ,s
. —■S , S
16. S>8
T ,t ta r ta r
17. T ,t : - = T ,t
wahwafi
W,w
18 . W,w
7 ■> W,w
' =
'
s
venven
V,V
=
V
,v
1 9 . V ,v
rs
■
X ^x
,. = 5
20 . V
♦.f »■
= z,Z
=* Z,55
2 1 . Zf z
s Z ,z (zek zek )
: :
22. Tsy t s - d s =s T s, t s
dx
(ma
mietx*
t
x
,
d
f
f
=
tC
•
; 23 • tfC ,
\v
1.
: 2'.'
3.
•4.
56.
V..
.
B,b
0 ,c
D ,d
f
■
*
,
.
•
(1924)
■
'
▼
'■ • + .
A rabic con son an ts.
The fo llo w in g a re symbols o f A rabic sounds th a t are
n ot M a lte se.
>V:'
(3 ) Jo [ A~] i
^;X 5 ) ^ [ &]',, (6)J? [£' ]i (7)< L [ x ] .
(I lf )
(A)
The Consonants
(1 )
fp* and f tV are pronounced w ith o u t any a s p ir a tio n .
(2 )
'b*/d*
and f g f as in Ita lia n ^ a n d A rabic are more
f u l l y v o ic e d than in E n g lish .
(3 )
*t f and f d? are d e n ta l p lo s iv e s as. in I t a l i a n and
A rabic b u t co m p aratively l e s s o f th ev tO n g u e-iip and i t b
ed g es can be seen through th e i n t e r s t i c e s o f th e t e e t h .
T h is a p p lie s a ls o to I t a l i a n lo a n words w ith o r ig in a l
it* or 1d*, as td b a ^ /i|to b a cco , t e n t a ^ s y o s n i., t e s t a t i o n
d i y i : n , d iv in e ; d itts y u n a :r y u , d ic tio n a r y ;
1d z* , o cc u r rin g in th e fo llo w in g loan -w ord s o n ly i s
sounded as i n I t a lia n :
id d za rd a , he r is k e d , hazarded; gadclziyya, a c a c ia ; dzo:na
zone; ^meddzaV a measures :
( 5 ) ’ k: *
S u t q l i t f V ’S^d^
of; t h i s v e la r p lo s iv e
as ’k* in E n g lis h K ate, (s e e h i s ^Grammer o f th e M altese
Language'*, page 7*.): i s n ot q u ite a c c u r a te .
;
The p la c e o f
a r t ic u i a t i o n in M altese i s co m p a ra tiv ely more r e tr a c t e d
than i n E n g lis h , and o n e’hds o n ly g o t t o hear M altese
sch o o lb o y s pronounce E n g lish words w ith a ’k f spund,
t o A p p reciate t h e d if f e r e n c e ,T a n d , n a t u r a lly , v ic e
versa*
C on trast M altese k e lb , dog, w it h E n g lis h 1k e lp * . ,
M. yk i t l a w ith Eng;, t k e t t l e ’ , • M. k cirn a w ith Eng. *k itc h e n ’ ,
/k a j k a , a kind: o f bun, w ith Eng. ’ cake ’ .
(6 )
, ;
formed by th e I w ® r ,li p s a g a in s t th e upper
te e th ,. isJh©^
ih ih few; w ords; a s af r u l e non-
S e m itic , b e fo r e ’p ’ and ’ f ’ .
'-*■ :? E xam ples:. lejjjpa* v la n p r ;g e ^ fr a , camphor,
: iA vhsard|when fo llo w e d hy ’ ’ y ’;£vt k ’ r : 'g'; &nd ’ t ’ ,
a l s o , a s a r u le , in n o n -S em itic words.
Example s : i j v id y a * envyV baij k , bank; sit) g , l i n e ;
^
in a jt, n fen tle.
:
’-\V’'V'.v
( 8 ) ’ 1:’ . W hile th e u su h l A rabic *L’ i s formed by th e t i p
o f th e tongue toh b h ln g th e upper t e e t h , th e ed ges b e in g ;
p r e sse d a l l round them* w ith th e fr o n t o f th e tongue
s im u lt a n e o u s ly r a is e d i n th e d ir e c t io n o f th e hard p a l ­
a te ,; ( c f .G a i r d n e r ’ s ''The P h o n e tic s o f Arabic','
p . 1 7 ),
th e -Maltese ’ 1 ’ i s a ls o ; s o form ed, bxit w ith th e b lad e
o f th e ton gu e p la c e d a g a in s t th e t e e t h r id g e and
w ith o u t to u ch in g the t e e t h .
;r
(9 )
1
i s sounded a s th ejA ra b ic hamza (p h o n e tic n o ta ­
t io n | J; when f i n a l , th e r e le a s e may he so s l i g h t a s to
f : b e ; aliabst im p e ite p tlb le i
(1 0 )
^r* i s alw ays r o l l e d in M a lt e s e h i so i n E n g l i s h i o a r i ~
words w ith u n r o lle d f r f [ & ] .
: ’ irro jL y ai w ith ^
Cl 1 )
C o n tra st lo a n word
;
o r i g i n a l 1r o l l f /
-
;
1s * , V t ; as in A rabic ah% I t a l i a n , th e h i s s o f th e s e
two s i b i l a n t s i s much str o n g e r th an i n E n g lis h .
C ’ C on trast M. sagratfnent w ith Eng. sacram ent; M. s o ld ,
V';'-,s-Sp'pimy:i w ith'Erig^ sp lt> ■■’M*;:Saly; S a v io u r , proper
hamer
s a lv e ; M. ^ k o : la tr ith Eng. s c h o o l,
w h e r e tit s t i l l , s u r v iv e s , i s s t i l l sounded as in
A r a b ic .. ^■ J"' ■; ' 'i v\
(
^
..
-V • -.Kv’.v. ’ •
'
' ';:;-;
i s a p u r e ly c o n te x tu a l v a r ia n t o f ^ fo llo w e d b y a
v o id ed consonant,t sounded^ A s; i n E h g lis h and French, b u t
co m p a ra tiv ely l e s s f u l l y vo ip ed .
( 1 4 ) ’pf* and fb v f a re a f f r i c a t e s th a t n ev er occur in
M altese i n any p o s it ip h ex cep t i n i t i a l l y a s th e morpho­
l o g i c a l Jim ction o f th e p r e p o s itio n a l consonant ’b* p lu s
th e i n i t i a l f f f or ’ v 1 o f th e f o llo w in g word w ith th e
^b1^^unvoiced in th e f i r s t in s ta n c e .
: 1 , w ith a la n te r n ; ^ y a : r a , w ith a- <
sta tu e .
(iv )
THE VOWELS
The f i v e M altese v o w e ls, long^ or s h o r t, a , a: ; e , e; %
i , i:
; o , o: ; u , u: ; w ith th e p h o n o lo g ic a l fu n c tio n o f
w hich we s h a l l d ea l in e x te n so fu r th e r on, as heard in
V a l l e t t a and t h e ’ n eigh b ou rin g tow ns, where most c u ltu r e d
p e o p le l i v e a r e , ap p roxim ately, l i k e th o se o f th e sta n d a rd ,
j
th a t i s n o n - d i a l e c t i c a l , I t a l i a n , o n ly com p a ra tiv ely more
i
r e tr a c t e d a s to th e p la c e o f a r t ic u la t io n and th e lo n g e r
v o w els l e s s s o , "but in the v i l l a g e s th ey are cap ab le o f
numerous q u a l i t a t iv e v a r ia tio n s*
For in s t a n c e , most o f
th e tw enty fo u r v o c a lic sounds t h a t Dr G r if f i n i ( s e e h is
L'Arabo p a r la to d e l l a L ib ia ) has n oted i n th e A rabic d i a l e c t
o f T r ip o li cou ld be e a s i l y matched in th e v a r io u s v i l l a g e s
o f M alta and Ooso, e s p e c i a l l y in the l a t t e r .
For d e t a ile d
in fo rm a tio n on th e s u b j e c t , H. Stumme’ s MALTESISCHE STUDIEN,
w hich g iv e s specim ens o f M altese f o lk lo r e in p h o n e tic tr a n s ­
c r ip t i o n , though o b v io u s ly inistakeri in s e v e r a l I n s ta n c e s ,
sheds much l i g h t on th e s u b j e c t.
As we are n o t h ere concerned w ith th e p h o n e tic s o f
M a lte se , ex cep t i n d i r e c t l y , b u t w ith i t s p honology, we s h a l l
(1)
The e s t a b lis h e d orthography does n o t in d ic a t e lo n g
or sh o r t v o w els; o c c a s io n a lly , how ever , . f i s u sed over
a vow el to show th a t i t i s lo n g .
o n ly d e sc r ib e b r i e f l y one s p e c ia l c l a s s o f v o w els, r e p r e s -
:
exited i n our tr a n s c r ip t i on by ^ p rec ed in g or f o i l owing a
j
o r e , or o; th e symbol in d ic a t e s th a t th e vow el, a s com­
p ared w ith th e o rd in ary on e, i s r e t r a c t e d as to th e p la c e
o f a r t i c u l a t i o n , s l i g h t l y — in some p a r ts o f M alta n o t
a t a l l — p h a r y n g a lise d , and co m p a ra tiv ely longer*
The
same d e s c r ip t io n h o ld s good a ls o when th e s y m b o l in q u e s tio n
p rec ed es a diphthong w ith which we s h a l l d ea l under th e
proper heading*
.
j
Other s p e c i a l v o w e ls, tr a n sc r ib e d a s in th e standard
s p e llin g , a
r
e
f ha f , *h e *, ’ e h 1 and ’ ehe ’ , a ls o ’ h o’ ,
alw ays as horn, co m p a ra tiv ely l e s s p h a r y n g a lised than th o se
w ith i n i t i a i f j ^ v e h e |b e i n g s l i g h t l y lo n g e r than ’ e h ’ or
’ h e* , which are p h o n e t ic a lly in d is t in g u is h a b le and which
we s h a l l m ain tain throughout fo r re a so n s th a t we s h a ll e x ­
p la in fu r th e r on*
(v )
CONSONANTS IN PHONOLOGIOAL JUNCTION . ;
•VOOfGKD AKD UNVOICED SPEECH SOUND ’
Im portant r u le s to remember w ith regard to th e c l a s s i ­
f i c a t i o n o f sp eech sounds in VOICED and VOICELESS are: (1)
t h a t , e x c e p tin g th e l i q u i d s , when v o ic e d and
v o i c e l e s s con son ants meet in p h o n o lo ^ :ca l ju n c tio n , th e
-
voice-T3? e a th d iffe r e n c e does n ot fu n c tio n and th a t th e
p h o n e tic im p lic a t io n
o f such a consonant ju n c tio n
term ined by th e q u a lit y
o f th e l a s t con son ant
i s d e­
in th e
group*
The r u le may be ex p ressed by the form ula:
•
yf'i
• k,V
■s + v . -
v
-'V' + B = B.
(2 ) That v o ic e d con son ants :at th e end o f a word are
;
u n v o ic ed , u n le s s , in con tin u ou s sp e e c h , th e y are fo llo w e d
by a word h egin iiin ® w ith a v o ic e d consonant*
(3 ) In S e m itic M a lte se , v o ic e d and v o i c e l e s s 1 conson­
a n ts , b e lo n g in g to th e same c l a s s , l i k e 1t f and •rd! fo r
in s t a n c e , n ever occur to g e th e r in th e same word.
These r u le s ap p ly t o th e f o llo w in g l i s t o f V oiced and
V o ic e le s s sp eech -sou n d s:
■ VOICED
b- .
V.
. ■d
: Z
VOICELESS
‘
■*
■
3 . V
g .
a, .
.
(4 )
■
■.
.
:
v
' p
' '•
f
t .
'
S
C
k
Ii
.‘
’
■;
.
;■-'',.7:
■
-.A'
■ ■ "• •
■■ '
Of th e se in S e m itic M a lte se, v , p , c n ever
■■■: ■
occur in a consonant group.
( 5 ) ’ft’ and 1q1 u n v o ice th e p r e c e d in g v o ic e d con­
son an t b u t th ey r e t a in t h e ir own sound i n any p o s itio n *
For in s t a n c e , i^ ttra, s e a s > and be^qa, s p i t , but q b i;z ,
le a p in g and h d u :ra, verd u re.
■
10
Examples I l l u s t r a t i n g R ule 1
( i ) W ith tb l as th e f i r s t consonant o f th e group:
( 1 ) |t h : la ,h o lid a y ;
•
( 2 ) b sa b a r , w ith p a tie n c e ;
( 3 ) lib s a , s u it.
(ii j
W ith
? (1 )
‘
a s th e f i r s t
consonant o f th e group;
d fi:r > p l a it in g ;
( 2 ) d q ieq , n o u r ; (3 ) qa&fa, a
row.
. ,v
_
• ’* -■
( i i i ) W ith * z f :
!ii):)zfi;:h * d a n c in g is (2 )i zqaiq^V a l l e y ; (3 ) b ezq a, s p i t ;
( i v ) W ith * .1*:
-7"""..-. ’.
( 1 ) 3f i e n , s h ip s ; ( 2 ) m ijfh a , f l e e t .
(v ) _
v3_*:C,-‘ ■7
77'
7 y77
(1) taj'hestahfia, hers; (2) tfiyhomstahftom, t h e ir s .
( v i ) W ith V
;.c/'
:
7-' y:;-
i
'••7
7 7: 7-
No exam ples.
( v i i ) With ‘ f * :
' 77;
7:
7 V-
'
-’7 7--.
( 1 ) fbtt: it, in a pocket* ( 2 ) f’dew ja, v e r m ic e lli}
■ (3 ) r a ifd i, redeemed. - y
( v l i l ) W ith H *:
7 ’
. 7 ;-77
( 1 ) ^hayya, s p o ts ; ( 2 ) tgemgem, you grumble} ( 3 ) m ithna,
straw p i l e .
T h is word, corresp on d in g t o A r a b ic ( 3 ^
a c t u a lly
w r it t e n With *af w here, in an e ty m o lo g ic a l orthography
l i k e th e stan d ard on e, we sh ould e x p e c t jsqas q. Thus th e
M altese grammar!shis have d is s b c ia te d t h i s word from i t s
h isto r ic a l^ rp p t. S t i l l e x ta n t in M altese — Z,Q,Q, th e
reason .b ein g th a t th e sem an tic co n n ectio n i s n o t so
o b v io u s.
,7.■/ _; ;.7„
(ix )
With ?s f :
j
( 1 ) shu: 1 , e a r s o f corn; ( 2 ) s d i e r i , w a is tc o a t s ;
( 3 ) n is ja , p lo t.
(x )
W ith 1kv:
k b a ir , g r e a t.
N otel a ls o t h a t th e p h o n etic im p lic a tio n o f n + b = mb
as demb, t a i l f o r derib, m bujs, I k i s s , f o r n b u :s,
b erry o f g ra p es f o r
ds
eniba*/,
enba, a ls o th a t d + ^ and t + J - c ,
i s , a s i n mqaddsa, s a cred , s ounded; mqatt s a , t h i s b e in g
a sp o r a d ic S e m itic sound w h ile t s i s f o r e ig n .
The fo llo w in g exam ples i l l u s t r a t e Rule 2
( 1 ) i s s i : ] ? , you fin d ; ( 2 ) i s s i s d , th e m aster; ( 3 ) t i e j ,
n u p t ia ls ; (4 ) G rieg , Greek; (5 ) b ie h , he s o ld , ft fo r f i n a l
h i s t o r i c a l cj u n voiced ; ( 6 ) qaj'ad sewwa, he lo o k ed a f t e r h is
own i n t e r e s t s ; but qcjpad b a rra , he s ta y e d o u t.
j
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o te th a t Rule 1 w hich, in s id e
j
M altese, S e m itic and n on-Serrtitic, works w ith o u t e x c e p tio n
whenever we have a consonant group made up o f v o ic e d and
v o i c e l e s s con son an ts or v ic e v e r s a , can a ls o be a p p lie d t o
\
U
e x p la in th e p h o n e tic d iffe r e n c e betw een th e h i s t o r i c a l A rab iil
Thus A rab ic FZ f ( t o
j
f e a r ) becomes, BZ*f, i n M altese w ith A rab ic 'F* v o ic e d by z;
j
A rab ic KDM, to b i t e , becomes GDM in M a ltese; A rabic
j
sound and i t s M altese correspondence*
FR,
. "
'• V '-V ' ■'
‘
to f o r g iv e , becom es • f ia f e r ', and A rabic
■■
12
SL, to wash,
f
becom es 1fia s e l **^
Complete A s s im ila tio n
B e s id e s th e p h o n etic phenomenon w ith which we have
ju s t d e a l t , in w h ich , g iv e n two con son an ts o f d if f e r e n t
q u a lity in p h o n o lo g ic a l ju n c tio n , th e second a l t e r s th e
q u a lit y o f th e p r e c e d in g consonant from v o ic e d to un­
v o ic e d or v ic e v e r s a , th e r e i s an oth er p h o n e tic phenomenon
whereby th e second consonant o f an i n i t i a l group, w hich i s
r e a l l y th e f i r s t consonant o f th e word in p h o n o lo g ic a l
. ju n c tio n w ith a m orp h ological c o n s o n a n t-p r e fix , co m p le te ly
a s s im ila t e s t h i s c o n so n a n t-p r e fix to i t s e l f , w ith a co n se­
quent i n i t i a l lo n g consonant p reced ed or n o t by f i f ac­
co rd in g t o p o s it i o n , as shown in th e fo llo w in g t a b l e : -
(1 )
W. M arcals in h is fT extes de T anger1 , p. 280, w r ite s
uh s e ln la y e r
=
J c e t t e a s s im ila t io n de so u r d itS
s e retro u v e dans l a p lu p a rt de d i a le c t e s , c i t a d in s de
I ’A friq u e de ITord,^Tunis, C o n sta n tin e, Alger^Themcen;
m ais e l l e n * a p p a ra it p a s , a* ma c o n n a issa n c e , dans l e s
d i a l e c t e s r u r e a u x e t b ed o d in s. B i l e e x i s t e a u s s i en
s y r ie n , en p 'a le ste n ie n e t en m a lt a is . 11
13
;
in itia l
(1) -I1
or It*
” fV + t » i t t
f lV
or *t f
11 u
+ c = io c
*1 1
1
or 1 t*
” !f
+ d”id d
\
* lf
or f t f
'
\ ^
,f w + ss=iss
or vt*
:•■
, '
/•
ft f
as i& d a;r, th e h ou se, fo r 1 +
vda: r* iddu:m, ■i t l a s t s , forG
+ dulm.
as i s s u j f , th e w ool, fd r 1 +
■. s u : f , is su :m , .#:ou fa h t'fb r^ v ;^
t + su:m*
” j i z==iz^ ah i z z i f t y th e p it c h f o r 1 +
^ z ± f t y x z z u :r i you v i s i t fo r
t + z u :r .
•
- f'-‘v i
?1* or Vt1 ” H
:
My ' ^:- -; :>/
t l t or
as iceombv th e lfe a i fo r 1 ;+
eomhV icscah far, you reprimand
fo r t + c a n fa r . -
t
l:;
(5 ) ■
as i t t : n , th e J i g fo r 1 # t i : n
-i t t i : r > she fir ie s fo r t 4 t i : r .
t s s i t t s as i t t s o k k , th e trunk f o r
J.V. -y l + tso k k ; i t t s e k t s e k , you
y
\v->:Chii^>;^fpr t + tse k tse k *
11 ; 11 -+ dz=iddz as id d za rd , th e hazard f o r
y ’ . y y ^ ..• 5:,M’:> y ^ ; ? y 1 + d zard y id d za rd a , h e ; ; ;y-/
\ hazarded -for t + dzarda* y\-:jy^
( 8 ) rl # or *t f <f H + C= Xi( ■ as ,i£<J u : r , th e months fo r
^
■ -y :'V
=-y
;A ^ y y ^ l-;, + $ u ;r yyi(foinm , you
: :
- - -v y m ■
s m e ll, t + j omm.
y v \y y
( 9 ) f l f or .!n*
,f ”
.+. r « ir r as irru :h » th e s o u l fo r
;;
f ru sh , i r r i : d , X w ish for^
’ 1* or
" "
+ l = i l l as illu : m 1
'n*
( I bhidejj f o r ;
( 1 ) v: In ’ illu sm * in th e se n se o f ’ tod ay' n o te a ls o th e
p h o n e tic im p lic a tio n o f th e h i s t o r i c a l ju n ctio n ’ ?<OLy
^;
v
y y ,y ^
y
:■'■
■
'
'':v'-\
'
' 0 ;' : y y ^ §
•■;.:" :y :> \ ,;;in>:":'y ., ;:;y^ Vy-f y .,
. ; . ./ ■ ■\"yV ■..,'y
':
i n i t i a l :' y y v - ■
■ .,
::y y y ; p o s it io n V'':'-'--h:V;v
, y
:' y
( 11)
’I 1——
ft ; ,f + nssinn as i n n i e s , th e p eop le
' . : . . ■.y ’ ■V;
' y ’v -:' -A y
f o r 1 > n ies*
'* ';y y
( 12)
(1 3 )
"
~i— . ft f
y y y : ...; y,
+ 3=di)j as i j j i r h , you b r in g fo r t +
: y :;'V. y y ;: 1y
' ’n*
M
v
■y ji:b .
. , y y :;-y : y y ;
*« + m^iram as immu: t , I d ie fo r n + mu: t*
:m IJote t h a t th e ^ in itia l"
of th e a ^
lit p iid a t io h s M sa p ^ ea rs when, ih co n tin u o u s sp e e c h , i t
;
y
i s p reced ed by a word en d ing in a vow el w ith th e e x c e p t lo h y y
o f 1u f u sed a s an independent a e m a n tic u n it i n th e sen se
o f 1and? w hich ibrrai a diphttioiig w ith i n i t i a l ri f .
^ h e f o llo w in g hxaniples w i l l make t h i s c le a r :
^ •.
(1)yrOmmpk i e s u : m | y o ^ vm q £ ^
(2 )
y y ;f.M ':;.'y y ;y y y ‘
(3 )
I n t raassu:m5 , you do n o t f a s t - orthography
mi ssumiyy/^y,y.o
ohtok t i t l o b w issu:m ,
;Ay ,
' • MyyyyAyyA
your s i s t e r prays
y and f a s t s « orth ograp h y, fu ssuraf , fw issutn-V
(vi)
THE LIQUIDS
W hile any^ p f -th e consonants o f M altese may, fo r m a lly ,
occur'';:ln a n A in t e r c o n s ^ ia l
fu n c tio n
betw een
;
|
two co n so n a n ts, subh ju n c tio n ■i s -not • p h o n e t ic a lly p o ss ib le ;
w ith th e l i q u i d s , 1 , m, n , and r ; w h ich , in a s im ila r
p o s i t i o n , r e q u ir e d by w o rd -p a ttern a n a lo g y , must be p r e ­
ceded by a vowel th u s b reak in g up th e r e g u la r th r e e con­
sonant group.
For
can so occu r m e d ia lly i n
a group o f th r e e con son an ts in p h o n o lo g ic a l -Junction i n
•mitbnaVy b ut we cannot lik e w is e sa y Im idnba*, w ith l iq u id
Afh* i n such p o s it i o n .
The^ in te r c o n so n a n ta l group dnb
must be broken up by a vowel , in t h i s c a se 1i f , p reced in g
.Vn* • . ^ 8 0 , w h ile we can sa y yafiqru, a p a tte r n w ith an i n ­
te r c o n so n a n t a l group ^hqr*, we cannot say y it lb u j a v o w e l, A
in t h i s c a se , o , must p reced e th e l i q u i d , th u s o b ta in in g
th e c o r r e c t p a tte r n , ’y ito lb u * .
y/Ay
^ a ’a a
■A -''AyA-AAA •■'.- ,. A';- -A :a a . - " .' A Ab A - A A •A
•■
a
■
' '■
..
A
'• a
't a I 6 > ' -
A '-A
• -AAyv .y
THEPHONOLOGY OFSEMITIC MALTESE
In t h i s p a r t , we sh aliA d b al w it h ,t h e p h o n o lo g ic a l r u le s
o f S e m itic M altese and, in c i d e n t a lly , o f S e m itise d lo a n
words in so fa r as th e y are so a f f e c t e d i n any o f t h e ir
p h o n o lo g ic a l cdm ponehtsA vow ela, conhdJiahts,^ diphthongs, etb ;
Two im portant a b b r e v ia tio n s , which we u se v ery irequehtiyAAJ^;
are^AS#vM. f o r /S e m it ic M a lt e s e ,y ^
th e p a r t ic u la r
r u le fo rm u la ted does n o t r e f e r to lo a n words but to genuine
M altese o n ly , and M*Y, fo r ’ mixed v o ca b u la ry * , w hich means A
th a t th e r u le in q u e stio n o f S em itic M altese a p p lie s e q u a lly y
to lo a n words in so fa r a s th ey are s e n d t is e d i n th a t r e s •pec tv though t h e y may n ot be so in oth ers#
A
Under r u le s o f yy
M. V. , we have; n o t j u r i e d S em itic and s e m it is e d lo a n words Ay
in d is c r im in a te ly ; we se p a r a te th e s e m itis e d lo a n s by a bar A f
from th e S e m itic exam ples which we alw ays g iv e f ii* s t .
By
vA
what c r i t e r i a th e s e words may s t i l l rem ain fo r e ig n in
A A
o th er r e s p e c t s , I t i s alw ays ea sy to f in d out i f th e y arey
y>
s p l i t up in t o t h e i r p h o n o lo g ic a l com ponents, v o w e ls, con co n a n ts a n d v o c a lic seq u en ces, e t c . , and t e s t e d by th e
A A r e s p e c t iv e r u l e s c l e a r ly ta b u la te d in th e in d ex fo r e a sy
■■' Ay; ;r-y - " r e f e r e n c e . A
A
A
.A
■A - . - A ; >. . y . • .
-\y.v .
.
A' ':'Ayyi
(i)
THE MALTESE VOWELS
V ; WC'now vs tu d y ' th e p h o n o lo g ic a l f u n c ti o n o f th e
M ailtese Vowels i n : t h e i r t h r e e p o s s i b l e p o s i t i o n s i n w ords: A
( a ) I n i t i a l l y , ( b ) I h t e f c ^ s o r i S h t a l l y A and ( c ) : F i n a l l y .
A lso a lo n e , th a t i s , notAas pomponehLts o f w ords, when th e y
have a sem an tic fu n d tio n ^
'"AA'\ TAA
G eneral p r in c ip le s to be remembered are th a t:
(1 ) As to q u a n tity , M altese vow els may be lo n g or short, as
ta b u la te d :
Ay A f v -.A -Ay 'pA A'" -A-AA-A A A /■'
Short
A
’
Long
'A::a/'Af y A : a:; :
1)
a
2)
:.,A-- ©•
, : ' i - ' A ■A’- • is
n
A)
'' . -'Ao:' •
5)
• : u WA;
o: ■
A\ u:
(2) A As to the place o f a r tic u la tio n *:^ a f , 1a ' lT-%, 1a |a ? ,
' f o
*,
■^ o
f o
*
fhe> 1h i f , ’hu*, *eh*, 1ehef , are
p h o n elib a liy cla sse d as sp e c ia l ybwelisv
(N o te :
WhenAwe speak o f v o w e ls , we always •mean un* AiA:
p h a ry rig a lised s e t , u n le s s o th er w ise s t a t e d ) .
(3 )
No p h o n etic : d i s t i n c t i o n s t i l l e x i s t s : i n M altese b e -
>.tw een '/"a and a " f, f o : ^ 4 ;
and eh .
The p h a r y n g a lie a -
A tion p b s i t i o n w hich we haVe m ain tain ed throughout w i l l make
■- ^
■':
■■■■■■'
■" ■ - V ^ ;
'■ “
:
18 \ T ; '
th e an alogy o f word p a tte r n s , w ith w hich we s h a ll d ea l in
M orphology, e a s i e r to u n d e r sta n d .
For in s t a n c e , th e
p o s i t i o n o f -jr i n fh a la ^ h a l jla ilraa’ , he gu lped a m outhful
o f w a te r, i s /determ ined.'“by m orp h ological an alogy w ith
:*tiataf t ia t f a ,1 he sn a tch ed , th e p o s it i o n o f f / f and f f f
• • b e in g a n a lo g o u s, "
(k )
,
. ■.
Whereas th e ord in ary lo n g vow els are alw ays s t r e s s e d ,
th o s e p h a r y n g s lis e d withj^ l i s t e d in No* 2 , are alw ays
lo n g even i f th ey do n ot h ear th e main s t r e s s o f th e word
in wlxich th e y o ccu r, though, when s t r e s s e d , th e y are com­
p a r a t iv e ly lo n g e r .
We m ight f i c t i o n a l l y m a in ta in t h i s
p h o n e tic d i f f eren ce by p u ttin g one d o t , in s t e a d o f two —
f u l l s t r e s s — a f t e r such u n str e s s e d p h a r y n g a lised v o w e ls,
h u t i t i s h a rd ly n e c e s sa r y to in c r e a s e th e number o f co n v e n tio n a l sym b ols.
E xam ples:
•
; j
;
Majlnu: 1 , done; m ^ fcu is, oppressed} in which
i s lo n g e r than the u n p h aryn galised f a* in
s im ila r p a tte r n p o s it i o n , a s in marbu: t , t i e d , fo r
in s t a n c e , b u t sh o r te r than
(N o te :
in ^ a u n e l a n d ^ a :fe e s.
as ^ a , a^> and £^a are alw ays lo n g , we s h a ll
u se no q u a n tity symbols to in d ic a t e such le n g th in
th e words in which th ey o c c u r .)
I
•;f';':Vf;v
M
P
$
' )
lo n g , rem ains so even i f th e
word i n w hich i f occurs: i s in c r e a se d h y a f f i x e s ,; so lo n g
:-v
s-.'i :'■'■■
,
V
fh e a c c e n t d oes n ot s h i f t .
Shal
•
1S t r e s s ’ ♦
Examples s
>
W ith s t r e s s s h i f t i n g we
mni;dkom, from your hand, th e word b e in g
A f'f "b u ilt'-u p ; t h i s , ;imx + i : d ( o r ig in a lv w o r d , jhand) *
kom, h u t ijiihnkom (from 'you)'-> 'dirlgiiial‘ 11* i n ' m ih n 'f
fo llo w e d b y two c o n s o n a n ts , b e iiig sh o rt*
(6 )
w
S em itic; M aifesh does; nott'9i^rafeij;ihpre than one
vow el i n th e same S y lla b le v; But su ch vow el can be fo llo w e d
by th e s p e c ia l v o w e ls, ha and h o, in horn, a s : raha, he saw If :
h e r ; tahbm ,;he^ave;; ■themyiv* -f;f
(7 )
f
1
Should a word b eg in n in g w ith ’ u' be preced ed b y a
word ending in ' a 1, in con tin u ou s sp eec h - th a t i s , w h e n
th e r e i s no in te r v e n in g pause b etw een th e two words ~ th e
two m eetin g vow els have a ten d en cy t o amalgamate i n t o th e
;
d ip h th on g: ^awf , suid i f th e second word b e g in s w ith u n s t r e s s e d *1’ and th e f i n a l vowel i h open s y l l a b l e o f th e H'f
,
p reced in g word i s !u ’ , th e two vow els from th e diphthong ^ f -
4
v>
The E n g lis h p h r a s e a woman 8hvd a man V rea.de i n
M a lte se ’ mar aw r a j e l r » m ara + w + r a ^ e l , f and th e E n g lis h
e x p r e s s io n 't h e y w ish e d ' r e a d s i n M a lte se k ie n u y r i : d u
^
•
;= kiend< i r i : d u #
O r th o g r a p h ic a lly , t h e f i r s t p h ra se ;iBay‘- b e ) ^ ;;
Vw r i t t e n , o p t t o n a l l y »' maf a w r a J e l ' ,
or
'm a ra u r a j e l * , b u t
t h e se c o n d word i n th e o th e r e x a n p le alw ays w ith i n i t i a l ' y f •
(8 )
No such Jdiphthongi s a t io n ta k e s p la c e if* i n i t i a l ’ i*
; i s s tr e s s e d *
JKiafni
th ey c h id e d , hut kienu i:lh o m ,
. th ey had lo n g s in c e .
' ■Now we d e sc r ib e end stu d y th e p h o n o lo g ic a l p o s it io n o f
J fte^ yarious^ yb w els;. se p a r a te ly ^
'•
•
'
- ; :.
•.J
•:
-\w J
fA
QUANTITY CRITERIA
As to th e h e a r in g Of th e p o s it i o n a l c r i t e r i o n ph i t s -
i
n o ted th a t;
( i ) In I n i t i a l P o s it io n ’ a * i s Always short*
I t i s lo n g
'■}:when i t o ccu rs alon e a s an exclam ation In th e se n se o f
^ ^
M altese ’ya* v o c a t iv e ex cla m a tio n d isap p roved o f s o c i a l l y ,
by th e r e a c t io n s o f good manners.
Example: a: h a n s iir !
f
f ;
you p i g ! ; a : l i : l e k |
you th e r e !
( i i ) In In te r c o n so n a n ta l p o s it io n i t i s lo n g when fo llo w e d
by One consonant o n ly , though in a few S e m itic words a ls o
^ e h fo llo w e d b y a consonant group.
Should t h i s f i n a l co n - ?v
sonant be in c r e a s e d by the: a d d itio n o f s u f f i x e s , th e o r ig in a l
lo n g 1a ’ g e n e r a lly r e t a in s i t s q u a n tity . ( o f . Rule 5 ) .
21
E x am p les: ? -ja: r kom (= , 3a : r +/:-kom)
..
(iii)
3arrk o m 1-, y o u r J
n e ig h b o u r h a s r u in e d you,
I n d i s s y l l a b l e s y iiite r c o n s o n a n ta l ;<Jar * o c c u rin g
i n th e f i r s t s y l l a b l e , i f fo llo w e d b y one c o n so n a n t, one
sem i vowel ■.©Xus, ta* o r by. f i 1, i n open; s y l l a b l e , •may be
lo n g o r s h o rt*
T h ere i s ho p h o n o lo g ic a l c r i t e r i o n t o de~:
; te rm in e th e . q u a n t i t y w hich i s i n t h i s c a s e p u r e ly a
m a tte r o f m orphology. :
The c r i t e r i o n i s :
; .
(a ) i f th e w ord i n q u e s tio n i s a
,
d escripijive;,;- ;^a,';>'i^ •;lp n g f .l ;' (b) i f i t i s a nondnal--{'grani~ .
■ : m a t i o a l l y , ^ y e h b a l ’n^
The f o llo w in g exam ples a r e w o rth s tu d y :
, h a:m i:, h atm ya, fia n ^ isn ,. m a s c u lin e 1and fe m in in e
; d e s c r i p t i y e s w f t h ;t h e i r p l u r a l , "m eaning *hot( ;
ftamya, a. q u a n t i t y o f f u e l ; H am i,\ h e a ti n g ; h a: I f ,
fta ;iy a > tia ly i': n ,i: p r o d i g a l , m a sc u lin e and fe m in in e
.
'
d e s c p i p t i v e s , w ith t h e i r p l u r a l ; h a l f , w a ste ;:
h a i y a , ; :a w a s te ; h a iw i, h aw :y a ,, S a w y i:n , h b lio w ; :
h a w i, th e a c t o f h o llo w in g .o u t; haw ya, a h o llo w .
•So, by a n a lo g y , and fb r th e same r e a s o n we r e a d
i qari> . rea d in g ; h a b i, c h id in g ; h o t q a :r i^ e t c . ,
-
th o u g h no su ch p a r a l l e l form s w ith w hich th e y m ig h t
be c o n fu se d e x i s t i n M a lte s e .
( iv )
I f the v o c a lic sequence in p attern s d ea lt w ith i n
( i i i ) i s a~a,> th e quantity c^
'V ;:
%■:
i s lik e w ise /I. :;vt
'^V:‘&6rphpXogical'*ias;
(a) f i r s t ’a* i s short i f th e word in which i t occurs
i s fgramniatically a Verb;
(b) lon g, i f the word i s a Nominal^but
\ ; ;>V (c ) -sh o i^ fif secpnd^lh1 i s phh^^
-.■■■■v-..‘' ',:t: Exam ples;
v-.;:
(a)
^ a ) 2. '
/-
dara, he got used to;
jara, i t happened;
bar a,
-Hel'sj^fted; v;^, .V
(b ) d a : r a , h e r h o u se ; j a s r a , n e ig h b o u r; h a : r a , a
: V - ' ' ’
. d is tric t.
v
(bj q a r ^ y r k ^ ^
: '
(v )
i
•r-
s a il; ; with the l a t t e r c f .
q a :la , creek.
J
N;;v
I n F i n a l p o s i t i o n ^ I f i n open s y l l a b l e , ^ a 1 i s alw ay s
;
s h o r t , f o llo w in g im m e d ia tely t h e s t r e s s e d ? - s y l l a b l e (M .V .) . ;'-v
Examples: ^ e n a , he b u i l t ; Icsirna, we broke; /hobzna, pur 4
bread;;^liema, which; ^ ala?
^
'
'
/banda, band;:
why?; /risa^ra, C h ristian s;
^*me; ra, river;" ‘.v
'
(1)
/;■'?>
Exception to the rtde is f
woman, but a t Sannat, a
v illa g e ; inGbJso-I
very w e l f I have heard the word
■ pronounced. ’ma:ra. -..
.
.■
• " ":(2) H is to r ic a lly a consonant, corresponding to Arabic |^ o r r
1 f , which only su rv iv e, as a p h aryngalisation fa c to r ,
S t i l l behaves, form ally, lik e a consonant and th at i s the
reason why we have retained i t in our tran scrip tion*
F i r s t sh o r t *aV ih .q a r /a i s e x p la in e d by p a tte r n an alogy
w ith f i r s t f a f i n h a r ta , a s la p , e t c .
;/ !• j :'V;y /
V .XyVy yy/y
y : , -.'
23
, . ‘
(1 ) l° b S y i i V i h f i n a l p o s i t i o n , i t i s c lo s e d
by one consonant o n ly ( c f . i i ) , ( M . V . ) , and (2 ) sh o r t and
v_
s t r e s s e d a h w e l l , i f c lo s e d by more th a n one c o n s o n a n t.
(M.V. ) 1
;yy":
:
.•
;-y
y
V '.y y
V.;\ ’ ’ ;
Example s ;
Ci) b a tn ra :n , ru d d y ; t a y r a : n , f l i g h t ; h a j j a j r , s to n e
•yV.y
d r e s s e r ; —* k u r s a : r , y c o f s a i r ^
p i r a t e ; ??
q a tra :n r p itc h .
■'
y V'-'lyyyy (2 ) r a f t a n t, I crushed; ' had&ant, I embraced;
k a z b a r t , I p ro fa n e d ; —
?
dyam ant, diam ond; su rm ast^
s c h o o l m a s te r; t u r b a n t , tu r b a n .
y : ^ y 'y y v'v
;;
T h e y p o s itio h s
o f
- A y - .y * . y
*&*
In d is c u s s in g th e q u a n tity o f t h i s v o w el, we have i l l u ­
s t r a t e d s e v e r a l o f i t s p o s it io n s from th e p o in t o f view o f
t h e i r e f f e c t on q u a n tity .
T h is vow el may occur;
(1 ) A lone a s an e x c la m a tio n « M a lte se y a .
; ;
(2 ) I n i t i a l l y - ( a ) fo ilo w e d b y one c o n so n a n t o n ly ;
i n th e o n ly w o r d * a : f r , w ith a e o n t e x t ^ ^
v
:;
y
as
rku:nu
a : f u , Know y e , im p era tiv e ; (b ) fo llo w e d by a consonant
(M*V*) :
?
. y ,■■■■'■
^
V
-
'
:
'■ ;??y'y?
(1 J’VVBy a^ rrbrphological c r i t e r i o n , a l l V e r b a ls o f
p a tte r n (d e r iv e d V erbal bases,^ w hich we s h a l l e x p la in
.;
;f u r th ^
a r e S e m itic ; a l l N pm inals a r e n o ri^ S e n d tic . y ;
' ’yW. - • C f. -e x a ^ ib a r g iv e n ^ ;
v
: y---v
/.-%■
■y-: (2 ) vyChiripuS abridgem ent fr o m ^ a r a f, he recogn ised^ c f .
t o toow . They have two c o g n a te b u t s e p a r a te
id io m a tic u s a g e s . E xam ples: you know how t o w r i t e , y t a r f y y y
yy/y^-y:-;/y.y, y ^ y ^ - y ^ y . y --".y '
■
-.yvvy?:?,y ■
y
tik te b ;
24
Exam ples; a r t , e a r th : arm la. widow; akbar, g r e a te r ;
' a l i a , god; akiar£ , ra th e r; —
a l f a b e t t , a lp h a b et;
a l Jebr a , A lg eb ra ; a lb a , a lb e ; a p ti: t , a p p e t it e ;
^ a;rya, a i r .
(3 )
in te r c o n s o n a n ta liy t i t may be p reced ed (a ) by
J
one consonant or consonant group, in c lu d in g one consonant
+ one sem i-V ow el, and fo llo w e d by one consonant o n ly .
Jj
E xam ples: f a : r , r a t ; s a : r , i t became; ftd a:r, i t became
g reen ; hma:r, a ss or i t became red; b y a :r , w e lls ;
!
fw a :r , vapour;
—— c a : r , c le a r ; ca ^ a k , p e b b le s;
j
s p a :g , pack th rea d ; mqa:r, i f o n ly ; p y a in , p la in ;
!
s w a : l i , drawing rooms.
|
( b ) P receded a s above but fo llo w e d by
(1 ) a lo n g consonant or
(2 ) consonant group, in c lu d in g consonant + one sem iVowel.
(M.V. )•
/
H '
■]
E x am p les:
(1 ) barr,^ U n cu l^ ivate
h a s s , be f e l t ; q alb ,
h e a r t; t a l b , p rayer; qadya, s e r v ic e : q a ly a , fr y in g .
t ik t e b ; you r e c o g n is e me, ta " fr a :fn i, but you know me
• t a f n i * , and n ot v ic e v e r sa .
(.1 )
P a tte r n s d e sc r ib e d i n b 2 in S e m itic M altese are a l l
gr an im atically V er b a ls; a l l Nom inals o f th e p a tte r n are
n o n -S e m itic as we s h a ll e x p la in i n th e phonology p f
Romance M altese.
25
(2 ) s tq a r r , he dphfehsed}tmdOTad^ he became i l l ;
j
—— s b a r r , in q u e st; zmarr, rude; s f ^ a i i a , he
went on th e s p r e e f agar ria, he blundered*
(4 )
Eor th e v a r io u s p o s it io n s in which f a ’ may occu r
F in a ll y , c f .
v.
P o s it io n s
:
in : M altese ■.
(1 ) I n i t i a l l y , ^ja, w hich, u n lik e va* has n6 sem an tic
fu n c tio n as an independent sohnd u n it > may be fo llo w e d by ;
(a ) one con so n a n t, ; (hX one . ^
by a con­
sonant group, in c lu d in g (d ) one consonant + one senh vowel
^ Exam ples:
“
■■■”■
h e - d is a p p e d h e d i^
, he liv e d :
add, he, counted - c o n tr a st wi^h ^ d , n ot y e t;
v / ^ a n n a > h e - s a n g ,w e h a v e ; c o x itra c t w ith ^ ^ tn a ,
w e a lth ; ^ d d a , ; he p a s s e d ; c o n t r a s t w ith j^ a d a ,
h a b itV ^ ;^ ^
.' •
( c ) f 'a b r a , m o te; fad m a, b o n e ;
j f ' a d ru ,
.W
.
;:/-
th e y have p i t i e d .
( d ) : ^ C a d w h , ^ ' ^ a n y a ,
a so n g ;:
,;;
(2l^ i n t e r h c h s o h l ^ h i l y > as a p h aryrxgalioation f a c t o r
betw een v o ca l i c s e qua nee a -a ( &fk) p reced ed and fo llo w ^
ed by^ one conhphan^;^
to
-a V as.: soon a s a
i'\V 'y;
\
■:v'; v's -V
V
;
f u r t h e r S y l l a b l e I s stdP'n;feS^
E x am p les: tgg^am,' food;,
;
l a ^ b , he p la y e d ; qa^aA^^ he
s t a y e d ; h u t Idjfba, a gam e;, qa^da , p o s i t i o n * :
(b )
p re c e d e d
11 owed; b y one conso n an t; o r c o n s o n a n t^ I'
group e i t h e r a s
^
’in : t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e , o r . a j ^ o r y ? ;
i n ’th e se c o n d i n s t a n c e ,
;
y
.
* ■ y?'‘y y
E x am p les: .i q a t ^ a n y . h e c o n t r i v e d ; s tj^ a r
-^
;
;be e n v ie d ;
'■'-taken, in*
•? (N o te :
■
.’ ■’ , ? ’
- y . '!V vy - y . - . y y
the; two wdrde i ^ y a b . y a gam bler , and- -
a f a r r i e r , , w i t h a two p eak p h a r y n g a l i s e d
(a )
v?
between? v o c a l i c sequencer a ; ^ a-
th e p h o n e tic im p lic a tio n t h e r e o f . )
(3 )
he wished, tb:
^ he Jen jo y e d ; t l a^ahna , -\we;?'Werby5o
I l i t e r c o n s o n a n ta l *
f. i d le n g th e n e d v o ^ ^
. n a ^ l,
: :;
' ' y ^ l i y . ’-
at '
■■V:—
v
■'?>?: ■
I n F i n a l p o s i t i o n ; i t n e v e r o c c u rs i n mono-
s y l l a b l e s ^bht4. it?bcepLrs..:s o ;'''ih open s y l l a b l e s a s a , w ith ; ;
th e 1m o r p h o l o g ic a l f f u n c t i o n o f a r a d i c a l Vowel, i n i d i s - . ;;
.s y l l a b i c V erbs e n d in g i n , a R e t r a c t e d - r a f
(1 )
;
I g i v e t h e s e two l o n e l y ' and o b s o l e t e ;w ordh oxi; t h e ; V
:
a u t h o r i t y O f V a s s a ^ l i i. y I have n e v e r .heard them u s e d . ; ;
F o r s t y a n - , c f ^ A. («^ry t o a s k t h e h e i p ofy. and f o r
s t ^ h r ;of* A
v
y
t o be; j e a l o u s *
y 'y ;
„ (2 )
I n t h i s case., t h e V o v / e l sequ en ce o f ‘ the V e rb a l p a t terns?;-is ;: a l w a y s ^
V erbs e n d i n g ; i n t i n - -?
■ r e t r a c t e d -hV have v a r i o u s v o c a l i c s e q u e n c e s .
■
'':‘- / - ‘!VV- \ '
: : •'
27
■■
. ■, Exam ples:^
b a l a ) ^ lie sw allow ed; baqaJ^T he re m a in e d ; bazaT T he
f e a r e d ; f a q ^ he b u r s t ; Jama^y he c o l l e c t e d ; la q a y V
b e^^'^eceiYed5.■;m^ia^ he f o r b a d e , o b s o l e t e ; n a z a ^ h^
u n d re s s e d ; q a la
he g a in e d ; q a t a VT he c u t ; r a d a / v
he su ck e d ; r a f a y , he r a i s e d ; r a j h y j he r e tu r n e d ;
ra q q a J 7 he p a tc h e d ; sama-|V he h e a r d ; s a ta T ]^ he
c o u ld ; ta b a y l he p r i n t e d ,
s p o ile d ;;
o b s o l e t e ; t a b b a j ~,he
t a f a j ^ e th re w ; t a l a J T - he a sc e n d e d ; tam a yV
he f e d ; wajay," i t a c h e d ; .waqa'^7 he f e l l ; w asa^/l i t
; c o n ta in e d ; ^abayy he was f e d u p ; z a b a y r he p a i n t e d ; /
.
zard^T ,he';sowed. ;
:
'r
*
■
:j
( b ) / I t ta ls o o ccu rs ^ tr a n s c r ip tio n a lly as 1 a* ( o r th o g r a p h ic a lly , £ $ a ), I n th e f i n a l open s y l l a b l e o f th e Nominal
s c a t t e r o f th e above Verbal p a tte r n s ;
But n o te th a t w h ereas, h i s t o r i c a l l y , in v erb a l p a t­
te r n s l i k e q a t a y e t c . pharyngal i s a t io n sh ou ld fo r th e sake
j
o f pa11ern a n a lo g y , be so in d ic a te d , p o s t v o c a l i c a l l y , and
in th e Nominal s c a t t e r , l i k e qat^a p r e v o c a lic a lly ; i n th e
=
a c tu a l e x p e r ie n c e o f M altese a s spoken to d a y , such
(1 )
The exam ples g iv e n exh au st th e w hole l i s t o f such
M altese V erbal p a tte r n s w ith f i n a l a TJf h i s t o r i c a l l y
corresp on d in g to A rabic Verbs w ith t h ir d r a d ic a l T or
. N ote th e two e x c e p tio n s b a q a y , he/rem ained;
i a q a y , ’ he r e c e iv e d ; corresp on d in g t o A T y /a n d y j
**
d i s t i n c t i o n ca n n o t be p ro v e d by p h o n e t i c s ; i n b o t h p a t t e r n s
we have th e same r e t r a c t e d ’ a* a s th e p h o n e tic im p lic a t io n
o f h i s t o r i c a l ; ta-jx o r ’ a f t , and ^ a , o r
E x am p les:
f
a.
b a la Y " b a l /a . he sw allow ed a m o u th fu l (of
w a te r ) ; q a ia / q a lj /a , he made a good p r o f i t ; z :a ra /^
: z a r(fa , he sowed th e s e e d s , e t c . v
,'?V'V??
v;.
. ■ ; ? V ' Q u an tity C r it e r id
.■v _1
As to th e b e a r in g o f th e p o s it i o n a l c r it e r i o n on i t s
1
q u a n tity , / i t should? be? n oted th a t:
(i )
In Semi t ip , and non-Semi t i c co rresp o h d en ces, ^ 1e f
i s always, s h o r t in any pos i t io n ex c ep t when f i n a l in th e
m o n o sy lla b le s l e : no;? and th e n a tu r a l ex c la m a tiv e query e? ,
w hat?.
. - •'
E xam ples:
■;
,
y ; .
ry
'met a,' when; bena, he b u i l t ; mera, lo o k in g
g la s s ; senia, th e sky; te n ewda, spi^rge; erh a , heifer;
ew w el, f i r s t ; —^
e l i k s i j r , e l i x i r ; e r r u :r , erro r;
b e n e fa ttu r r , b e n e fa c to r ; c e n s , em p h yteu sis.
—
11
^ iw h iM . iw i —
(1 )
>— ■■■w ■ ii i ll ~i
m
a ~ ~ ir i- J-rr~MnmiTTrrn
^1
^
1
u w rf— I-- ----------------t
i i,
ji i
1
But as th e exam ples show, i t i s o n ly in S e m itic
M altese th a t s t r e s s e d f eV fo llo w e d by one con son an t, I s
s h o r t. C on trast S e m itic J$ena, he accu sed ; w ith th e
lo a n word f e :n a , sc e n e .
?
; ,
■/
■■ ? 2 9
; ■ ; r ?;' ; - f e ' ■
(ii)
’ e* o c c u r r in g i n M altese w ords made up o f 3
c o n s o n a n ts w itii 1a* o r 1i * betw een th e f i r s t two c o n s o n a n ts ,
and fo llo w e d by one c o n s o n a n t o r a lo n g c o n so n a n t te n d s t o
b e sounded l i k e a n ? i n d i s t i n c t . l i t , p h o n e t i c a l l y ^ •
B ut i n ?
V a l l e t t a and th e to w n s, i t i s .sounded n e a r e r th e o r d in a r y
’ e 1 w hich we s h a l l r e t a i n i n o u r t r a n s c r i p t i o n , th u s a g r e e - y j
in g w ith th e - is ta n d a r d o rth o g ra p h y w h i c h w r i t e s n i z e l , he ?
; j
d e sc e n d e d ;; r t j e l > l e g , f d p M z i l y r i ^ j i l ( n i z 1 , r l j l ) . 1
j
v v y / T h e vF o s i t i o n s ? o f .E -
The Vowel may occur:
’
«.
. ,
(1 ) A lo n e; with; th e in to n a tio n o f a q u e stio n ; im ply­
in g i r r i t a t i o n , s u r p r is e or in d if f e r e n c e .
Examplee:e :? e r ja y e y d ; ma n is t a : J riifmek;
What?
sa y again ; I can11 understand you.
( 2 ) i n i t i a l l y , i t may be fo llo w e d by (a ) one consonant
(S . M.) , or (b ) by a consonant group, in c lu d in g 1 consonant +
1 semi v o w e l, in one S e m itic word o n ly . (M.V»)
Exam ples: (a ) e l e f and e l u r f , th ou san d s; erai:r, emir;
(b ) e l f , a thousand; eh zen , w orse; e r sa q ,
y
g e t near; er w ieh , s o u l s ; - — erbabyanka,
wormwood; ekvratu: r , eq u ator.
(1 )
In c la s s ic a l.A r a b ic 1j f an d >1* are in p h o n o lo g ic a l
ju n c tio n : ( 0 f . ^ ) ); d i a l e c t i c a l M altese ! e f and V are
p h o n etic ?d e v e lo ^ b n t s from th e h i s t o r i c a l ze'ro&vowel or
- 1sc e v a * .
■’ y
'
■yy
_'
r
(5 )•^I h t e r b o r i s b n a h t a i l y ^/-*bf m a y b e y p r e c e d e d by (a ) '?'??,;*
one c o n s o n a n t and f o llo w e d b y a n o t h e r c o n s o n a n t + semi vow el
(w),
) , d r (l)):-by. o n e ? lo n g ? bonsonaM,?? (M ,V.) o r ( c jy b y y
n, c 6 n s :c nant/'^o^/yM /.V#');-y\^y.. y---.,y./y, .'■//
y
E xam p les:
.
??:y ;' ;;■
fe lw h ,;f illy ;,
b e lw a , sw e e t;
( b ) ;m e s s , he touched;.; b e ^ V he, s p r i n k l e d ; m edd,bhe ; ::
>str<ytehedy h e l l y . ^
-means; y'':v /; ;*:
... y m ed fe & y -m e asu re:7 :fp e ttsa > rp ie e e ';''p f - c lo th v,
( e ) /p e rq ," t h e f t ; - fo r U y h a i r p a r t i n g ; m erhba, welcome;
meddkom; h e . s t r e t c h e d y o u ;' yeriday 'c h a U ffe u r^ s' ?
t u r n ; p te n d a , ?he s t r e t c h e d ; ip r e n d a , he s u r r e n d e r
-■ '
?
■ed.
;(4 )2 /(h )i
'■
h
• ’//,■■■ '
y
y / y ;?;My'’/- .
; ■/. ‘ V-\
F in a l b o & tf IbhY i t may- dcciir: i n mono-
s y l la b le s V ^ p e c e d e d by one ^ h s o h u u C b n iy (M. V. ) ,; b u t th e y
o n ly S em itic?pxam ple s a re th e f o llo w in g f i r s t t h r e e : ;
Example a : t i e : , n a t u r a l e x c la m a tio n d e n o t i n g p a i n f u l ; y.y,
;;:;surppiee>:- n l s b ' i r o n y ; l e : , n b;
e x c la m a tio n ^
:\
o f a; m t ,? e t c . ; ; - ~
y fb p l^
we: ?■■ p e a s a n t ! s
o rfea ry a ^
ce :
b h o r t f o r v u lg a r c u : c /
, donkey;' t e : . , t e a ; \ ;y
? fre ry y k in g ;: \(ih );;se:^ :r>h ir tse lfl''\';y
■ V . >yyy.y-
(1 ) Thitfi:l o h & l y :p a r t i c l e ; ; i s a good i n s t a n c e o f mixed;
';y ^vbp^ulbi^y^
e x p r e ssio n - gie; h* s e :
h p ;r b a lib b d , i began tP Understand; h y b rid v e r s io n o f
- I X ta l ia n y Y e n h e : i n 'sbv' v " './‘V'";
vY-vy-' y \
- /
. --y
^
Y y /y y y /y .y y
(b )
: '"■■ ' '- ■; ■' v / " ' ; .
\ ■■31
F in a lly and u n s tr e s s e d i n words of! more th an
one s y l l a b l e , p reced ed by (a ) one s in g le consonant
)
or ( b ) lo n g consonant ( S#M. ) , or ( c ) consonant group, and
c lo s e d by one consonant o n ly
lo g ic a lly
) , w h ich , i f morpho­
in c r e a s e d , changes 'e* to* ’ i * .
Exam ples:
|
?:
j
(a -b ^ ^
he changed; k i s e r , k i s s e r , he
b ro k e; n i z e l , he went down; n i z z e l , he brought y ; j
* down; r ik e b , he rode; rik k eb , he gave one a l i f t ;
•V,Y..
n it e n , i t sta n k ; n i t t e n , he d i r t ie d ;
Yy
pian; bahed, bands:
(c )
ta : je n ,
•y •: y / '
Q andel, he c a r r ie d heavy th in g s about; handem,
he ru in ed ; qarrnec, he made a c r a c k lin g n o is e ;
j
s f a f j e l , a q u in ce;
|
J a r t e n , kind o f c lo t h ;
mar t e l , he hammered; k e w te l, he in v en ted an
excuse*
'
32
i, t
'
Q u an tity C r ite r io n
Having a lr e a d y descri'bed i t p h o n e t ic a lly , a l l
we have t o add i s th a t i n i t i a l 1 JTe* fo llo w e d hy a con­
sonant group b e lo n g in g to th e same s y l l a b l e , may he th e
p h o n e tic in ip llc a tib n oi* t i f in s im ila r p reco n so n a n ta l
p o s it i o n , th u s changed hy th e q u a n tity o f th e consonant
group.
s a id ;
We; say^ n i d , I t e l l ; t i d , you t e l l ; hut
edna, we s a id ; fo r
i d t and
e d t, I
v
id n a , th e a c tu a l forms
m ain tain ed hy th e stan d ard orthography w hich i s , a t tim e s,
as we have a lr e a d y p o in te d o u t, more e ty m o lo g ic a l than
p h o n e tic .
... :
(1 )
The p o s it io n s o f *^e, .
I n i t i a l l y , ^e may he fo llo w e d hy (a ) one con­
sonant or one semi v o w el, or (h ) hy a consonant group. (S .M .)
Examples: y 1"er, he en v ied ; ^ e n , . he h elp ed ; ^j e l a , i t
■holiedj;-f^ e y a r he grew t i r e d ; -j^ewa, he i n s t i g ­
a te d ; fem a, he grew b lin d ; ^ o lie m , signe;'^ en eh , •'
g ra p es.
(1 )
•
C f. a l s o M a lte se 7 'erq ., r o o t ; w ith A. „
;
'^ e r f f v
know ledge; s e m a n tic a lly c o rre s p o n d s t o j x - £ . h u t fo r m a lly
;;!:> to -3 > ^p a:t l :,o nde:i l i k e w i s e M. T^elm , s ig ii; s e m a n tic a lly
c o r r e s p o n d s t o A. " ^ b u t 9 f o r m a lly , t o ^ l c , l e a r n i n g .
;
33
(2 )
I n t e r c o n so n a n t a l l y , t h a t i s . b e t w e e n a p re c e d ­
in g an d f o llo w in g c o n s o n a n t, i t f e a t u r e s a s
1 and i t
c h a n g e s , f o r m a ll y , t o e ] / V p h o n e t i c a l l y e o m p a r a t i v e l y
s h o r t e r , when a s u f I 'ix i s added t o t h e o r i g i n a l p a t t e r n .
', ;he d iv e r te d ; CeI ^ I > he lig h t e d ;
^ e h > - he; b ro k e;: - s<^h»> i t
in c re a s e d , b u t J e ^ la ,
a l i g h t ; ;;£e^$a, ^a d i v e r s i o n ; ^ e j ^ a , a f i s s u r e ;
zeTda, an in c r e a s e .
N e e d le ss t o rep eat# that^ th e d i f t ^ r e ^
and e j V a s in th e c a se o f
ai^vaQ ^is p u r e ly form al and
n o t a t :a l l p h h iie tic , and, th a t i i t 1% a ls 6 /a t r e a s o n o f p a tte r n
an alogy that; i n th e t r a n s c r ip t io n we have m aintained th e
K
d if f e r e n c e th ro u g h o u t, s im ila r ly m a in ta in ed , egh and gh e,
^
in th e sta n d a r d s p e llin g *
The E xp lan ation we have g iv e n
sh ou ld be enough t o avoid m isu n d erstan d in g.
'h e '^ 'e h '^
and » e h ' ^
(S.M.) 1
T h e se ,-S itd w illfb e ;remeiiihered; we have c la s s e d as
s p e c ia l y o w elsy ^ e in g i p h o n e t ic a lly , h ot so much pharyngal-v;
is e d a s , con^c^ativelyi^ :n h ? e ^ r e tr a c te d than ord in a ry * ef • ;
..;^::';TSEre;'le;^aih6 one word w ith i n i t i a l ’h a1 : - *hawf or
*hawn* or^^ iii^ m ek k 1, h e r e . C a r u a h a y ^ ite s fta r a b , he ran^
away, ' fo r harab, a s pronounced _by th e M a ltese. Gf . A ^ X j v
(1 )
f h e f , o ccu rrin g I n i t i a l l y . may b e fo llo w e d by
(a ) one consonant b E ^ n h in g a furttxer s y l l a b l e ,
(b ) by a lo n g consonant or semi vowel#
( c ) by a consonant group> In c lu d in g consonant + biiei
^eemt yowel> or v ic e versa*
Exam ples:
-v
(a )
h e r e e ,; be pounded; ^
(b ) / l i e r r a , r u d e n e s s ; hemm, t h e r e ; , heyya **. ^b e f p r e ‘a. \
f
V
' ^
paredtibew w a^ l u s t , o b so lete;Y ;., V \
(E) „Y hendem t t e
tierW el,viie^vmaddened;
;;;rA:,hewdeh>-
YYY'
(2 ) 1efefYbcEurSf.always I n te r e o n s o n a n ta lly , p reced ed and
fo llo w e d by^ bne con son ant.
Y*-.Y S a m p le s :
;
dehen, i n t e l l i g e n c e ; f ehem, he underp o r tio n .
When a f t e r F in a l consonant a m orp h ological vow el i s
added 1e h e f changes^ t o (3 ) eh; th a t i s , 1ehe* becomes
s i i g h t l y s h o r te r as t o q u a n tity .
Sor exam ple: fehem, he
u n d erstood ; but fehmu, th e y U nderstood; and fehma, op in ip ii
h o t fehermi or fehema.
So a ls o sehem, p o r tio n , but sehmek,
your p o r tio n ; sehmraa, our p o r tio n .
(1 )
Pronounced a l s o , and g eh era liy V w ith i n i t i a l h e . :
C f. A.
V .-
:\YY<
V (i)
Q u a n tity
C rite ria
■,Y
YEix Word p a tte r n ,
Yv ■■
■ Y
i + consonant + 1 ,
th e c r i t e r i o n f^ brY dletinguishing w hether
f i r s t V if i s 'short
o r lo n g i s . p u r e l y : ^
-‘vYY;
(a )
i f the; w ord i n Which i t
s c a t t e r pi* a V erb (V erb al
s h o rt.
o c c u rs i s th e Nom inal
^
N oun)* f i r s t 1i r i s
(S.M ).
Yv,
I n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , Vi;-; i b 1^
YYYVY
i s S e m itic
M a lte s e o n ly i n m o rp h o lo g ic a lly co m p o aite w ords —
co m p o site i n th e -s e n s e o f Ybwo w ords Jo in e d t o g e t h e r
E xam ples:
(a)yY b^
‘f i l l i h g y c o n t r a s t w i t h ;
Y Y f ip a n Y w o r d j^
J i r i , ru n n in g ;
■
^ i r i , b u y in g .
f i : n i , f o r f i : + h i , th e r e i s i n me, th u s
d i S tin g u i sh a b le from non^com posite 1 1 a lia n a te
lo a n word, f i : n i 9 r e f in ed Y c o n tr a s t a ls o w ith
f i n i ; i a );
b i ; ni> : f o r b i , w ith t h i , me;
c o n tr a s t w ith b ln l ( a ) b u ild ih g .
3 ? i:n i, fo r t i
+ n i , g iv e me; c o n tr a s t w ith t i h i ; ( a ) , fo ld in g
(a )
A ls o ;;;;d ttih i:^ 'i C f. AY
36
(ii)
(iii)
l i f i s lo n g when i t occurs' .;bl;6hvf ;;abYbn''exclam ation
f i* i s a ls o lo n g when p reced ed by one or more
co n so n a n t, and fo llo w e d by one consonant* (M .V.)
Exam ples: b i : r , w e ll; s i : d , owner:; Ji'ib’^l& ing,.com m and;
lT i: t, sew, command; f t i : t , few; t r i : d , you w ish;
sm i:n , f a t ; , b ri:m , t w is t in g ; j-**-: f i ; h , ;r© fined;
.
J i : J, L ew is; S p ir r , S p ir o , p rop er' name; s t i : 1 ,
s t y l e ; g r i s z , grey^
(iv )
The p h o n etic im p !ic a tio n o f p h a r y n g a lise d f i f .
fo llo w e d by one consonant i s th e d iph th on g *^ y* w ith w hich
we s h a l l d e a l s e p a r a te ly under th e p rop er head ing; when
f6 llp w e d by ,a consonant group: i t s p h o n e tic i n p l i c a t i o n i s
t
1^ e * as we have a lrea d y e x p la in e d .
, (v )
In a l l o th er in sta n c e s,, M altese *i* i s s h o r t.
P o s it io n s o f f I*
i
T h is vow el may o ccu r, A lo n e, as an ex cla m a tio n and
(i)
(a ) i n i t i a l l y , fo llo w e d by one consonant o n ly , in th e
fo llo w in g w ords, (S .M .) ;
i ; d , h a i^ ^
q u ick ,
h a s t e ; i : 1 t one o f th e pronominal s u f f i x e s in th e se n se o f
.
•
1
2
E n g lis h ’ a g o 1 , ’ lo n g s in c e * ; i:w a , y e s .
2)
■■■■'■■ •- - -■■■ :
In V a l l e t t a and th e n eigh b ou rin g tow n s, i : v a
(b )
A lso I n i t i a l l y , fo llo w e d by ( i ) one consonant + on
serai v o w e l, (S .M .) , or ( i i ) by one lo n g con son an t, (M.V. ) ,
( i i i ) or by a consonant group (S .M .).
Exam ples:
■
(1 )
i l w i , bend! command;
i^ w i, r o a s t! command;
i t w i , f o ld ! command; id y a q , narrower; im w iet, th e
•:
: dead; —
i f y en , more R efin ed ;(o n ly fo r e ig n
exam p le). ,
( i i ) i s s a , now; iz z a , he g a v e, o c c u r r in g o n ly in th e
o b s o le s c e n t phrase iz z a h a y r, he gave thanks;
id d a , i t shone; imma, however; i s s a : r a , he s tr u g ­
g le d ; ikkalmia, he grew calm; io c a :n a , he p la n ed .
( i i i ) i j f n a , s h ip s - archaiC;
ijsm a , b o d ie s; i k l a ,
a m eal; is q r a , hawks; ilh n a , v o ic e s ; iz f n u , dance!
' Yv
'v
l
'*
1
&
command; izi*aq, b lu e ; isw ed , b la c k .
■ . '
■
■
■
( 2 ) I n te r c o n s o n a n ta lly , i t may be
(a ) preceded by one consonant or by a consonant
group and fo llo w e d by one con son ant.
For exam ples s e e i i i . Q u antity C r it e r ia .
(b ) p reced ed by one consonant and fo llo w d d by ( i ) one
consonant + one semi vow el ( S .M .) or ( I i ) by one consonaht
o n ly fo llo w e d by a vowel (S .M .), or ( i i i ) by a lo n g conson­
ant (M .v), ( i v ) by a consonant group (M .V .).
(1 )
The p a t t e r n i n c u r r e n t u sa g e
s e n s e o f L a t i n 1g r a t i a s ago* p e r s . sin g * I n t h i s s e n s e , i t
s ta n d s f o r h i s t o r i c a l n i j z i : k ,
r a d . fro m Ar.^ v f t o re w ard ; t o
- o n ly i n p r a y e r s i n th e
i s th e p r e s e n t t e n s e , 1 s t
i s p o s s ib le th a t n i z z i : k
w ith a s s i m i l a t i o n o f 1 s t
p ay ( a d e b t ) .
■
^
:;v--
■ V*-
Exam ples:
' ',
(i)
•' •
>.
v';.—'
J i l y a , accu sation ;: t in y a , a c r e a s e ; fid w a ,
k id n ey— ddwi, echo; J iw i,
'' r o a s t meat.
(ii)
t i n a , he fo ld e d ^ ; d i a l e c t i c a l ^ v a . r i a n t o f 1;en a;
v-:— ,>;• H ^ i^ i^ .,w e e p in g i —:L#j£, '^ ° s is tin g f b id u , b e g in n in g .
(iii)
h i l l , m o is te n ^.coiiiiiandi h i l l i , ^ w h e r e a s ;
},
^
-I
b f j ; j e l , i h^^ ndtigaiied^.M ss^^^ only> 4 s i t t a , s i x ;
b ittiy y a *
c a s k ; b i c c a , b e e r ;
b i t t s i l i a , la c e ;
{ iv )
J
b i j k i l l a , b a s k e t.
b id la , c h a n g e ; s i j r a , a t r e e ; s id r iy y a , a v e s t ;
b in tn a , our d au gh ter;—— k itla > ; k e t t l e .
(3 )
In F in a l p o s i t i o n ; i t may ddcur in
(a )
M o n o sy lla b les, p r e c e d e d b y o n econ son an tV ih open
s y l l a b l e . (M .V*).
Example sp
—
h i 1 , my b ro th er ~ v o c a t iv e ; b i: w ith ; f i :
'
i n , t s i , u n c l e - ev o ca tiv e
(1 )
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o te th a t b o th h i:; and t s i : are
e x c lu s i v e l y v o c a t iv e p a tte r n s^ b u t , w h ile: 1 tsiy y u ^ IC :/—
th e N om inative p a tte r n , c o r r e s p o n d i n g ’unc l e —
M altese has n o w o r d fo r English!' f a b r o th e r — th e ah ( c f .
;
— f ) given '.by t h e d i c t i o n a r i e s i s radde^u^^
l o g i c a l a n a lo g y . M altese has hu + pronom inal s u f f i x e s
as hu:iia t o e x p r e ss you r, our, etc* d r o t h e r . C f . W. MarcaiS
f T ex te s Be T angers'/,— . 287, where he ^ li k e w is e , sa y s ;
th a t ’i l e s t e x i^ io y l- im i^ m e n t a v e c d S s a f f i x e s
—;
.
■ .■ . ——
(b )
;
t
i 7;
■v--.; '7
.
3
—/
In words o f more than one s y l l a b l e , in th e f i n a l
s y l l a b l e c lo s e d by ( i ) one consonant (M .V .) , ( i i ) by a
|
consonant group (S .M .) .
j
Exam ples; 7v(1 )
A' |
S a lis b , c r o s s; ^ a j i : n , dough; —a f r i : d, e v i l
—
s p i r i t ; h a f i j f , l i g h t ; f ia r i; r , s i l k ; q a s s is s ,
p r ie s t; venvi : ,
w h irrin g ;
ja d i: n , monkey;
!
■"■‘'-“V ;/'f^ —d t i ;—>■ s a t in ; p a r t i ; t , p o l i t i c a l p a rty ;
p e r i ;;t , . su rv ey o r; ,Kel i ; n , Mi c h a e l.
■p (idjTjj—
-kneaded; -';g— l l i m t , - I have ta u g h t;
I t i s in t e r e s t in g t o n o t e th a t 'i* in t h e s e :
exam ples i s fo r o r ig in a l ?e — which s e e in.v
■ f i n a l p o s it i o n . ■ .7,'
(c )
In F in a l open s y l l a b l e (M .V.) fo llo w in g s t r e s s e d
■s y l l a b l e . •
33xamples: H a n i: h i , my b e lo v e d ;
.
j
a d i ; n i , monkeys
t i s n i , g iv e me; h a n ira ;n l, ru d d y ; e f h i , l e t go;
/ — 1 ia :f i* b a r e f o o te d ;'
V a p u s r i, s h ip s ; s i n y u ^ r i ,
\ , v g e n tlem en .
N o te:
I t ••w i i i — e —eexr from th e v a r io u s exam ples g iv e n t h a t
i n t h i s p o s i t i o — f i n a l f i t do es n o t form an I n t e g r a l p a r t o f
th e o r i g i n a l word p a t t e r n s b u t i s th e m o rp h o lo g ic a l ‘'d e v e lo p -7
ment t h e r e o f v rith w hich we s h a l l d e a l u n d e r th e p r o p e r 'h e a d - .
Ingy
( 1)
'"'V— V— 7
.
' . , '
V'':
:
.
■ ’
’
v '—- 7
Gf .
J . t o buzz and n o te th e v e r y r a r e change o f
A ra b ic : t o 'M * 'V 1 « h io th eir7 in stan ce I s th e V a l l e t t a
change o f ijw^^v, yes> t o itfa^»-7
‘ ;■
'P riie ria
An in ^ p r ta h t^ p r in c ip le to re^
i s th a t in S em itic
M altese ' o' i s always s h o r t , ex cep t when u sed a lo n e a s an
;e x c la m a tio n corresp on d in g to ;■E n g lish 'Oh' and I t a l i a n ' 0 — 7
but sh o rt a ls o Jyhen a lo n e , i f u sed a s a v a r ia n t o f 'y e w 'l o r.
P o s it io n o f *0'
T h is vowel may occur alon e as a lrea d y e x p la in e d and
(1 ) I n i t i a l l y fo llo w e d by a consonant- group. (M .V.)
E x am p les:^ otiraynY b th d r s i 6 h (s o n , s t o u t s o h t r a , s t i c k s ;
o h t , s i s t e r ; omm, m o th er; o f f ! , w e ll d o n e! ^—
o h d a^—t e o b ey ed ;7 ;o m b rella, u m b r e l l a ; o rd n a —he
o r d e r e d; o r g r ii, o rg a n .
(2 )
(a ) I n te r c o h s b h a n ta liy i t o ccu rs (a ) preced ed by one
co n so n a n t, a
r
i
d
b
y
:
a consonant group (M .V.) or
( i i ) by a lo n g con son ant (M .V.)
Exam ples:
(i)
;
'''; /
7
\
7 7
.
. 77
ftor3—finapsabk; ftobz—bread;. qomt; I g o t up;
som t,';I f a s t e d ; borka, w ild duck; bprma, cook in g
p o t; clorna, we went round; d o r tu , you went round;
(1 )
fe j
For etym ology, cp . I t . 0 , Heb. V d? A. ^ | . In o th er wo;
th e A. d ip h th o n g
7in M.yafif- 'yum ', days
u l i e d , sons^and d a u g h ters,
f...
• A. ^ f e — / wel l done!
$ e e ^ d d r o s s a r y ; * V7
•
,7:;-
’A
;
>7Vy— ‘
*.
-
41
7
\/—— corigy 7 p a r a ly s e d > ; t p n d 7 ro u n d .
(i i )
dm—
hobb, bosom; ftorr,
hW est.it o b s o le t e ; i k o l l , e v e r y ; mohff, b r a in ; h o lly
7 unbind — bomriiand; b b q q a , a b u b b le; b ° M a 7 cow l;
jodda, new; 7—
b o t t , t i n b o t t l e ; b o l l , duty;
stamp; p o f f , rib b on bow; d o t t , sh o r t fo r dot t u : r ,
— V — ■— —p i—7 f p l l — 'quird—
(b )
job;; tsoM i— t runk. ' '0 — .
- As in 2 ( a ) b u t w ith an i n i t i a l consonant group,
or an i n i t i a l lo n g con son an t. (M.V. )>
Exanxpleb:d^roddy I r e s t o r e s 7 th p li> you ^
is s o d d , you p lu g;
7
iddornm, she c o l l e c t s ; —
skpli *
le d g e ; t r o t t , t r o t ; t r o f f a , t u f t ; s b r o ffa , he
b lu s te r e d .
N ote:
•
. %7
,
;.-77/.:77
I
'7- |
Such word p a tte r n s a s th e ab ove, b e g in n in g w ith a
consonant group or»;a7lorig^consonanty are S e m itic o n ly i f
th ey are g r a iifo a tic a lly Verb p a t t e r n s , v /ith an i n i t i a l
m orp h ological consonant in p h o n o lo g ic a l ju n c tio n w ith f i r s t
r a d ic a l* jaild i f ; - i t i s — lo n g con sd iian t, w ith com plete a s­
s im ila t io n a s t h e p h o n e tic im p lic a tio n t h e r e o f .
(3 )
F i n a l l y ,: i n open s y l l a b l e , ' o ’ o ccu rs in one word only:
j o , in s id e ; v a r ia n t o f jew.
:
— —
%S
7-77-7— ■
The p o s it io n s o f (1 )q1J/ o{, (2 ) ^d^'-.;!hhd,,M ): ?:
.
V
(1 )
('S.My)^;;77
*^o may occur I n i t i a l l y fo llo w e d by: (a ) pne consonant
or 'ib);^_by;;.:a :-.long. consonant or ( c ) by j l :con son ant group i n 777v <■
:7^\OlUdihg''('d—:one consohan— + one seini v o w el. 77:7
77.— ' ;
7
■.•,.•Exam ples:
— y 777—74 77; .y, ' , y y 7 777i; V fi 7 y y / .- 777777 777"
77— 7/1 j £ j ( s ) ^ j o b , ’ he p l e a s e d —
b^Xppk; . : J^kos ,7 be grew
f e e b le ; ^ 1 ^ * 7 —p-wont up h i ^ |i |^ m i , 7 th e b lin d ;
— 7/7
fo d u , e a r ly ; f o t i , th e a c t o f g iv in g — g 7 p liv h ig h .
(b ) — odd, count' - im perative>7—>dday im plem ents;
7y/ - .
, ——: p l l a , i7he r a i ^ ^
/ : 7-7' _7 '777"7 -7- ■- 7 ;s iv e 7 h e a t* r
7777777?
(c )
7
r ^ z z a , a f f e c t i o n ^ ; —onina, excds-7-7
■V—y $ y y 7 7
7
7 4 7 , 7 y —— 77’ ‘ -7^77777777
o b ra , c a la m ity ( o b s o l e t e ) ; j — jb a , s a t i s f a c t i o n ;
^ o j l a , h e i f e r ; ■■
—drs",‘ m errim ent; ^ ^ o r f a , upper room.
^7 7 7 7 .,.7^r7'Xd;j;—o ly a , h i l l —/b n y a , w ealth y; — omya, b lin d ; J^dwia,
morning.
7 ;7 (2 )
( a ) 7 In t e r co n son an tal l y 7 th e p b a i^ h g a lise d 1o f fe a tu r e s
ds I c ^ * V 7 ^ h lch ^
7 7 7 7 y io n g eiy th a n :| ^
as com p aratively
i n it ia l 7 a n d a f i n a l . con-7,7'j
'V ;':7>':yyYsonantiV-' ;7-|777 -777:7K-'!7;^.77777'-;::7\77:' 77 7/7 7:7 .;y 7 :
■7-. ;y 7
: ;7'7— -—7 7 77
7 7 ,(1 ’). 7 ^ ith 7 th e 7 s in g le 7 e x c e p ,tio n 7 o f ’ i / ^ o r i a S i l a —C^^
77:7- :7771: ;fa id e tta ;):7 w h ich y 7 b y 7 a 7 h iistb rica i/b r iterib n y 7 w e:,k n^ ;:ip;.77s
...... '-7-- -tbe7M aitepe^7V ersion7d^;:Jt:ali^ 7!‘Gio n n e lla , . .
'
v >;
' E xam ples:
43
bo^od, d is ta n c e ; lP(foP, s p o r t; m6rf o z f g o a ts ;
^ s o /o b , i t was iup^leasant; o b s o le te : . s < ^ o l, \he-;'.,v-\
M,^v ■
coughed;
^^
Af
jo jo l-,. work*
i h th e c a se o f /-tehe';*-when a f t e r a f i n a l con son an t,
a nk>rphoiogical yow el . on consonant i s added,
o o changes- ip
^
a game; arid i
.
loj/bfcom, your gam ej,' J o fa > work, bu-t ^ l o k , your
mo^oz, g o a ts ,
a 'goht.--
As in i h d c a s e of*':
‘j | j
.■V' J ' A-
^ a|-£eh , and h e , our t r a n s c r ip t Cf;
t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n hetw een lcT]^ and */o* i s lik e w is e a V
; ; v> ■ m a tte r , n o t ‘ o f* p h o n e tic s , h u t of^ p a tte r a i^naiogy.
(3 )
In f i n a l p o s i t i o n , and in c lo s e d s y l l a b l e , ’Jo* occu rs
vin;;pne^ w ord :on ly, g iv e n by th e d ic t ib r ia r ie s hut
: >m^
heard:
b d i^ n ^ , w a l l germander.
-i
N o te : 1horn12 i s a r e tr a c te d 1o* sound b u t
I
; h i s t o r i c a l l y r e ta in e d in th e standard orthography, morpho­
l o g i c a l l y a pronoridnal s u f f i
th ir d p e r so n , p lu r a l, a t ­
ta ch ed to Nominal s in th e seiisp o f V th eir *> as qalbhom,; th e ir
h e a r t , and t o V erbals i n th e s e n se o f ’ them* ,%as ypbo dhom,
he h a te s them,
Of.
Its^^ p h o n e tic i n c l in a t i o n , when a tta c h e d to
a bud.
■, ;/ v
-p
V-
S'-
'.-r-'SV.V ^
V e r b a l s wi t h f i n a l
'•
44
> i s ■rFtEom*, a s :iaqa$> , he r e c e i v e d ;
'but^ia.qahhpmyi’Vhe r e c e i v e d them, f o r la q a ^ b V hom.
;;
:/tfl
\
—
:v.v\ -
1
* . “ Q u a n tity \ G r it e r i on
. (’1-)..:#
i s id h g when i
■■■ ■ ,
'
V -5
_ .,C'
l
l
;\d j
i
3?
sen se ;
o f 1and* and •••he1, the la t t e r o r t h o g r a p h ic a l l y rep resen ted :;
v h y jh u * ; ( h i s t o r i c a l c r iterio n ):#
Q u a n tity , however, v a r i e s ; :
> with, the< eirchaSis. and * ,t€ ^
’- In some p a r ts o f ..
M a lta , i t i s s l i g h t l y d ip h th o n g ise d / b a n d ,, d e f i n i t e l y so,
; ■:■ if ; fo llo w e d hy^ p or q> ;
... , ,
-d
-\d llb d v:' \
' •
;; >
; /dd
( i i ) ’*U* - i h 'a lso IPng i f ^followed b y lone c o n so n a n t,: as
u : r i , show; hu: t i , my b r o th e r s; hu: t i , my p ock et; filu: q i , y;b-V
_•
'
gay.
. y/
(iii)
(1-)
'V.-'
-
.
■'V;,-,
' bb ■
*Uf i s sh o rt in o th er p o s it i b h s .
, b - ' VbbbJ
;
a ls o \u s e d as an ex cla m a tio n d e n o tin g p a ih fu l,
s u r p r is e ,, or Irr ita tio n '.b -
:b;.'
45
P o s it io n s o f , Ut
v;
T h is vow el o ccu rs a lo n e as a lrea d y e x p la in e d and
(1 ) I n i t i a l l y
f o i l owe d by a consonant p lu s a vow el. ( S . M. ).
. Exairo:>ies:
b • •• b •bb
b > :. ' b . ..
u : f i , show ■( th o u ); u :r u , show (y o u ); u: s a ^ , w ider;
b b-
u: jaj/vache ??■ im p e r a tiv e . •.
;b
( 2 ) I n t e r consonant a l l y 1u f occu rs p reced ed by one conson­
ant or ,a consonant group arid fo llo w e d by a con son an t. (M. V. )
b"
Exam ples^ b b b b ' b
’
\b :b b b ...fb b _ r;;.,.
b u : t , p o ck et; b u : s , k is s ; (im p e r a tiv e ); f i u:t, f i s h ;
b . f u : l , b eans; jd u :r , tu r n ip s; k s u : r , b reak age;
h rurq, f i r e ; q r u :sa , h ea rt burn; h l u s s i , s p r ig h t ly ;
—
s u: r , Mr; tm u:n, rudder; b u j l i , bad temper;
b lu :z a b b lb u s e *
(3-). F i n a l l y , ( a )
f
.
i n words o f two s y l l a b l e s , fu f occu rs in
t h e / l a s t s y l l a b l e b th e r e o f c lo s e d by one consonant (M.V. )•
. E xam ples:
:
: ^ ^ r u :h V bridegrobm ; h a n u :t, shop; j la s f u j r , b ir d ;
f e l l u : s , ch ick en ; b e z z u s l, woman1s b r e a s t; z a r ju :n ,
tw ig ;; ——
v a p u :r ,. sh ip ; kanu:n, cannon; k a r tu :n ,
cardboard; b ark u:n,b b arge; p e j^ u :n , c a l f ( o f th e
:ll©$ bhank);
(3 )
k a f r e t t u : h b c a ^ t ; n e r y u :s , nervous^ i
F i n a l l y , ( b ) arid in open s y l l a b l e , i t occu rs (1 )
i n a few S p o ra d ic monosy11a b l e s , ( S• M. ) , ( i i ) i n some d i s s y lla b le s p r^
w ord
c o h so n a n t a s i h t e g r a i p a r t o f th e
J ( i l l ) i n o th e r; d i s s y l l a b l e s p re c e d e d by one b
o r more c o h s p h a n ts a s a m o rp h o lo g ic a l in c re m e n t; Of th e o r i g ­
in a l p a t t e r m ;
I n e a c h c a s e iu b f o l l o w i s s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e .
:v
b b 'b v - ,. ; b - v
(i)
bu: ■ pooh I
b
, b
‘ bb-
b u ; > a b r o th e r ( d ic t io n a r y w ord ),
, z u : , g e t put o f th e way> s h o r t f o r z u ? l.
■'•-v-bbbb(ii|}{bblduv''begirm ihg; f e l u / b c o l t ;
je r u , pup; h e lu ,
b v - b b^'raw h^tv^delu/ m ill r e c e p ta c le ; h h fu , s t u f f in g ; b b b ;b
bb^adu^ enem yr-vaivu, b a b y ; n a ; n u , dwarf.
Xiii)Jb-fiaw du|
bbbb
o q tlu , k i l l ; f ia liu , le a v e ; qarru, confess;-^bf^Vbb/b
b :'b a :tu , s u f f e r ; pappu, e a t; ka: zu , h i s c a s e b :b
N o te :
F in a l fu' in o^en s y ll a b le p reced ed by a lo n g con­
son an t i s S e m itic , w ith h m ix e d v o ca b u la ry , o n ly i f t h e wond ;
i c , g r a n in a t ic a lly , a Verb; i f a N o m in a l, i t i s not;b(Morpho­
lo g ic a l c r ite r io n )i
( i i ) THE SEMI VOtpJLS, ( 1 ) *W' and ( i i )
(i)
(O
'Y*
P o s it io n s o f fWf
I n i t i a l l y , i t ; odours p reced in g (a ) any 6 f th e th rd e
Vowels^ ’ a * , * e ' , * !' and diphthong *ie*
) or; (h)
in pontin u ou s sp eech , p reced in g a con son an t, h ut fo llo w in g
th e f i n a l vow el in open s y l l a h l e o f a p rec ed in g word w ith
which i t forms an in te r c o n so n a n ta l
■Exam ples:
(a ) ^wara, a f t e r : h eh in d v
wdils, company: w ir t ,
in h e r ita n c e ; w isq , much; w a ^ a i .a f a l l ;
:
| )
wehef,v h e s t u d id in ; w ie z e n , hd supported;
w ieh ed , one; w ie je b , he answered; w ie le d ,
■, ’
•
(b )
^
S ef gave b ir t h ; to ; w e t t , g o a t; — ~ w en ts,,
'
■ :
■3
' .
'
■;
Laurence; w ere, sq u in tre y ed ■.
i n t i w k o ll, a ls o you , sounded i n i + iw & k o il;
t i : n i u m b rella, g iv e me an u m b rella, sounded J ;
t i : t niwm v 4 r e l l a ; mera w m o jt, a lo o k in g .
g l a s s and a comb; sounded^me + raw + m ojt.
(1 )
I n i t i a l ’w* i s h eyer fo llo w e d by 'o ' or ' u f ex c e p t
d i a l e c t i e a l l y f 6 r th e rwe' sound in ' w e t t 1, h e -g o a t.
( 2 ) I g iv e t h i s doubtful- word * whi ch I alw ays ‘h eard ' w ile d ' ,
on th e a u th o r ity o f P alzon who g iv e s b o th forms* Oaruana g iv e s *w ile d 1 o n ly . I n te r con son an tal iiP * , occu rs in , th e
form tWieLeJD, he was born.
(3 ) The o n ly two n o n -S e m itic words w it h i n i t i a l *wf . For >
'w ere1 c f . I t . guerciO t
48
(2 )
(a ) I n te r c o n s o n a n ta lly , I t o ccu rs 'preceded by one
consonant and fo llo w e d by one vow el, * a S
’ e f or M 1
w ith w hich i t forms a diphthong, or by * i e f . (M. V. )
Exam ples; d w a :l, l i g h t s ; fw a :r , vapour; dwa:war,
c i r c l e s ; t w i r l , lo n g , t a l l ? dw ieb, mares;
s w ie h i, w ater w h eels; d w i e li , v in e s ; tw ennes,
he was accompanied; \ v - ~ s w a : 1 1 , drawing rooms;
tw a :je n , f r y in g pans; dwasna, Customs house;
d w e ll, dhelj-'-ltfew istyorni, .•q u e stio n ; k w ie t,
q u ie t; p w ie n i, p a in s;
(b )
I t a ls o occu rs in te r c o n so n a n t a l l y p reced ed and
f o i l 07/e d by one con son an t. ( S. M.)
Exam ples: gezwru, th ey r o lle d ; gedwdu, th ey abounded;
a ■■•
werwru, th ey fr ig h te n e d ; wezwzu , th ey w h is.
" p ered .
(3 )
(a ) In F in a l p o s i t i o n , i t may occur f o i l owed on ly by
one o f th e vow els 1a ! , f i 1 or Vu’ .
I f p reced ed by another
f
v o w e l, i t i s len g th en ed .
E xam ples: duwwa, m ed icin e; uwwa, h e , orthography,
huwa ; sew w i, mend; dewwa, cu re; im p era tiv e
-j^awwu, i n s t i g a t e - im p era tiv e ; fid w a , r e ­
demption; J it w a , w in te r ; b id w i, a p ea sa n t;
rn ilw i, b e n t; —
(t)
trid w u , triduum .
#'wV in t h i s p o s it io n p h o n e t ic a lly , co m p letely r e ta in s
I t s semi v o c a lic sound and sh ould n o t be pronounced as
i f i t were a f u f , sa y , gezuru fo r gezwru, e t c .
(2 ) The stan d ard orthography d oes n o t alw ays r e p r e se n t
th e
2,9
(b )
I t may a ls o occur in th e f i n a l s y l l a b l e , p re­
ce d in g ’ a 1, f e f or f i f c lo s e d by one or more co n so n a n ts,
or p rec ed in g f i e f c lo s e d by one consonant only* (S* M.)
Exam ples: / n/awwar, I h ollow o u t;
'^awwar-t,'. !
h ollow ed o u t; .^njjawwe j , I bend;
^ \
b e n t; tk d r w i:t, pumbling;^^
rj/awwi jt> I have
fiille s ; ? 1
K e lw ie t, sw eets; ^ ew w ief ^ r in g le a d e r .
,
i
(1 )
.
( I i ) .p o s it io n s o f *Yf
_
.
.■
I t occurs, I n i t i a l l y
Vowels
' '•
..
v -
fo llo w e d by any o f th e f i v e
or by ’ i e ’ and in one m o n o sy lla b le by 'ew*. ( S. M. )
Exam ples: y a , oh, v o c a tiv e } y a : f , he knows} y a l l a ,
would to GodI} yed d , r ig h t } yek k , i f } y i j i , he
comss; y i r e t , he in h e r it s ; y ife m , he u nder-
;
sta n d s; yoT^ob, h e , or i t ^ p le a s e s ; y O ^ o s , he
d o zes; yoqypd> he d w e lls ; yuim , a day; y u : r i,;
he shows; y ie q a f , he s to p s ;
yew, or;
^
yard a, yard; y a n h a ir, Jannuary*
th e p h o n e tic lerigth en in g o f i n t e r v o c a lic sem i-vow els*
' We a ls o w r ite Malt l y a , M altese woman; fo r more phon­
e t i c M a ltiy y a , e t c .
-.
(1 )
A ll exam ples are S em itic M altese ex c ep t th e s e two
words w ith i n i t i a l !y a f : yarda
Eng. yard; yaim asr;
’ I t . Gchnaro*
■ '■ ■■■■';
(2)
....
'•
•
I n t e r consonant a l l y * i t may be preceded by one con­
sonant and follow ed by fa: r o r fu: f (M.V;) o r by e ^,;w,
or + ey (S* M. ) o r by *i e 1.
In th e l a s t com bination, y
te n d s to disappear*1♦
Examples: d y a :r, Houses;; b y a :r , w e lls ; b y a :r ,
cucumbers; by a: d, i t grew w h ite ; d y u : l, edge o f a
\ garment; s y u ff,: summers; >tyu:Jr,, fo w ls ; ;hyewj
th e y r e lie v e d ; h y e y t, I have r e lie v e d ; b y ie d y a ,
b ut a ls o more commonly, b ied y a ;
;/
i.Byiena;,'"malice>}:/ but a ls o b ie n a ; s y ie d a , p r o p r ie t­
o r s , b u t a ls o
a ls o z i e d a ; ,
s ie d a ;
z y ie d a , in crem en t, b u t
pya: n, p lan^ ; pyarnu, p ia n o ,
■''^jfyu:.ry: - f l o w e r ■?' - *
(3 )
;<-s
( a ) E in a l l y , i t may occur in open s y l l a b l e fo llo w e d
by 1a* (M.V*) , but S*M. o n ly i f Voc. se<j. i s i e - a .
Exam ples:
h ie n y a , happy, fern, a d j e c t iv e ; sie w y a ,
v a lid ; s ie n y a , w ater w h eel; s i e n y a f ob scen e;
tm ienya, e ig h t ; t f u l i y y a , ch ild h o o d ; r j u li y y a ,
manhood, m a n lin ess; sb u h iy y a , b eau ty; d in y a ,
w orld ; g id y a , k id ; t i l y a , a f i l l ; m irya, m irrors;
—
ijjv id y a , envy; fam ilya* fa m ily ; p a r ily ^ i,
p a ir ; tn a ly a , p in c e r s ;
;
^ k u p ily a , brush; b r i l y a , 4
b r i d l e m u f f l e r ,
(1 )
Some o f th e M altese w r it e r s argue th a t fy ’ in t h i s
c o n te x t should be maintairLed in th e standard orthography*
But i f p h o n e tic s must p r e v a il over etym ology, th o se who
m ain tain
(b )
I t may a l so occur in f i n a l s y l l a b l e c lo s e d ( i ) by
'le t*
or a: + a consonant (M.V* ) , or ( i i )
He* (8*M .) +
one co n so n a n t, o th er than f t f , and ( i l l ) by i : i n (S .M .).
Exam ples:
(!)
;>
tm in y ie t, e ig h t s ; B m e r iy y ie t,... s t u p i d i t i e s ;
;
s b u h iy y ie t, b e a d l e s ; ; g id y ie t^ l i d s ; d i n y i e t , j
w orld s; j ir y ie 't , c o u r se s; ta y y a :r , c o tto n ;
fla y y a :t, t a i l o r ; b ayya:d , w hitew asher;
■
V
p a r i i y i e t i p a ir s o f - h o r s e s ; t i i a l y l e t ,
tw e e z e r s; k a r r iy y le t , c h a r io t s ; p y a n iy y ie t ,
p la n s; in k a ly a : r , roastin g:; in k a ly a : t ,
r o a s te d ; T a ly h :n , I t a l i a n ;
\ (ii)
s a y y ie d , fisherm an; q e y y ie s , m easurers;
’ ‘ ■ fe y y ie d , u se fiil*
(iii)
f a j y a : n , p h easan t.
:
Henyi: n , happy, p lu r a l a d j;
j e y y it n , coming;
z in y i; n , l u s t f u l f
addeyyisri, p a s s in g s ;
y ^ o ly itn , h ig h ; fiam yi:n, h o t.
m a in ta in th a t i t sh ou ld n ot be so re p r e se n te d have a
b e t t e r c a s e . I t i s a f a c t th a t in cu rren t M altese
f y f in t h i s c o n te x t ten d s t o d isa p p ea r.
;
'
i
52
(i i i )
THE DIPHTHONGS
The diph th on gs o f M altese a r e : - ,
(1 )
aw, ew* iw ,
/; r ( 2 )*'fi‘ ay, ey^ i y . )Z^ :
_ ' '•
‘f T
/ / ‘f \
fV%- * '
The fo llo w in g grou p s, w ith i n i t i a l p h a r y h g a lis a tid n ,
m o r p h o lo g ic a lly th e e q u iv a le n ts o f co n so n a n ta l r a d ic a ls ,
v
as we s h a ll s e e fu r th e r on from: th e ir V fo r to l 'behaviour, . :
are s p e c ia l d iph th on gs w h ich , in s e v e r a l in s t a n c e s , agi*ee
:
or d isa g r e e w ith t h e i r u n p h aryn galised corresp on dences:
■'
(■>)
- ( 2 )
c
T 'a y ,
tfWr'
:
.
y
yyv'
' ,y-/
';y i
■
O rthographically, 'Jew1 is r e p r e s e n te d by ’ gfiu’, and
,^/e y t hy ' gtxi*, fo llo w e d /b y one consonant only*
For
in s t a n c e f T e y d , E a s te r , in th e stan d ard orthograph y, g h i: d,
.and^Jfewda, p ie c e o f wood, standard orthograph y> ghnda#^:V'?y.:S"
D i a l e c t i c a l l y , 1ghu* i s . .also pronounced f u i ( V it t o r io s a ) : /v
and-tow ( V a l l e t t a ) , where *yeyr i s a l s o sounded ^ a y 1*
th e s e twb in s t a n c e s , which are d i s t i n c t l y d i a l e c t i c a l , v
we do iio t fo llo w th e p ro n u n cia tio n o f V a lle tta #
:/
:
■ v
fAWf 'and' 1 AWf
\
; v.
53
/
■
Q u antity C r it e r ia .
(i)
The diphthong ’ aw1 may be .s tr e s s e d -or u n stressed .-y ;
(M. V .) .
When i t i s .tm str e sse d i t i s c o i^ h r a t iv e ly shorter*
For example *
raw: nay th ey-saw us., b u t
awheltk, h e r e .
In - :
quick co n tin u o u s sp eec h , th e le n g th d if f e r e n c e i s g e n e r a l­
l y e lim in a te d .
Example: rawnaw riekk u ma se llm u ln ie j ,
.
(ii)
1 -'r US’here ethd dilinot salute* / :
f Y
they saw
-y
HAwf in Final p o s itio n in a clo se d or open s y lla b le
i s always s t r e s s e d ., (M.i/V).
Example: \ d a r r a w * . th ey, AcChstoxnbd^'r^ kawkaw, COCC)a*
(ill)
/ i
«^£wM
’ i s alw ays lo n g even I f u n s t r e s s e d b u t oom-
p a r a t iv e ly more/ so i f S tr e ss e d ./
For:^ex&mple,
jew minn-^awde \ The C o sita n s came, from Go20,
of
iin
lj/awd|* i : n y
y
in which th e
;
i s a l i t t l e shorter than th at In ’j ’awdej'
Positions of the diphthong "AW" y
I t may occur b e s id e s a lo n e » a s a sep a ra te sem an tic
u n it in th e se n se o f ' h e r e ' , orthography 'h aw !, a ls o ..
■ ■
: ;
(1 )
: .W - ‘ ^
'
' '
. ■ V^
:S
I n i t i a l l y , fo llo w e d by one consonant o n ly , in , th e --
fo llo w in g .s p o r a d ic m on osyllab les* (S ,M ,)V
awn, h ere ; o f which 1awf i s a v a r ia n t; aw l, b e g in n in g , /
y c o n te x t u a lly o cc u r rin g in - t h e com posite p h r a ses 11awl i l l e y f j
th e n ig h t b e fo r e ; and aftlim ee, th e day b e fo r e y e ste r d a y ; ; : y
but more commonly f ewll;w
(2 )
y
y.
(a ) In te r o o n so r ia h ta ily , i t may o ccu r-p reced ed and
: fo llo w e d by one con son an t. (L argely S .M ,).
'vb;
Exam ples: Saw t, trough; VqiawlV:.:i^ibinV"'Bawt, la s h ;
dawl, i i ^ h t ; r&wt, bow’'"&■dung; “ r caw l,
rook s; Saw l, S au l,
i
. (b ) A s above,; but fo llo w e d by one consonant p lu s
a vow el or by a vow el o n ly (a , i , h) i n which c a s e ,
m edial *wf i s len g th en ed ,
f Exam ples: ^q&wwa^ s t r e n g t h ; :•/qawwi, str o n g ; 'qawwu,
/ stren gth en ;/saw m a, f a s t .
(c )
y
I
I t a lso v o c c u r s in terd b n so n & h ta lly preced ed by
a consonant group, fb llo w ed by ( i ) one or more consonants
or ( i i ) by p h a r y iig a lised vow els ’ha* and ’horn’ .
, E xam ples: qrawk, th ey read you; qrawlna, th ey
read ( f o r ) u s; ^rawha, th e y read her ( i t ) ;
^qrawhom, they-viie'ad/them#-:
(3 )
(a ) F in a lly :, I t occu rs in open s y l l a b l e o f mono­
s y lla b le s ,
(M.VY).
Exam ples:
raw, th ey saw; saw, as fa r a s h e r e ,
orthography sa haw; shaw, th e y cea sed ; Jtraw ,
th ey bought;
(b )
stmaw, th e y esteem ed,
A lso in th e f i n a l s c lo s e d or open, s y ll a b le
o f d is s y lla b le s *
■
Exam ples:/
dax4*i^,<:they accustom ed t o ; darrawk,
/
-th ey accustom ed yon t o , \
As th e exam ples show, and a s we sh a ll.,.se e b e t t e r
in M o r p h o lo g y ,th is t i s a V erbal and h o t :a 'ttoM nai p a tte r n ,
g/aw
■
‘ {'I Vb ■
' _
_
J
* -
T
• V
'
'
T h is sound o c c u r s ; (1 )
I n i t i a l l y ,; fo llo w e d (a ) by a consonant or (b) by a
vow el or f/wf fe a tu r in g in p a tte r n s w ith or w ith ou t i n t e r ­
v o c a lic m edial fwf len g th en ed .
Examples:,
(a )
J h w d ej, Go2p; ^ w d j i , G o zita n ;. 'Jawj, tr o u b le ;
■;^ w l f,A niyi.1^;/-7^ ini,v swimming; ^ a w seq , box
' ■ th orn ;
■ , . •:.;v
'
:
bbb-/
(b ) "J*awi, in s t ig a t ib n ; ^ a w w i, i n s t i g a t e - im p era tiv e
56
(2 ) I n te r c o n s o n a n ta lly , -^aw occu rs o n ly in th e morpho­
l o g i c a l d e r iv a t iv e s of* raj/a and daj/a; i t may a ls o he f o l ­
low ed hy *har and 1hom*.
E xam ples: ra^ w lh om , th ey p a stu red fo r them;
da awlhom, th ey w ished them e v i l ; r a a w h a ,
: th ey p a stu red h er; raj^awhom, th ey p a stu red
.
them*
■..Vr
(3 ) F i n a l l y » in open s y l l a b l e , a ls o
:\ v;" ;
in th e Verbal s c a t t e r
6 f rs^ a and d ^ a ; a s ra^aw,th ey p a stu red ;
■blasphemed*'
J\X
•' ;
da^aw, th ey
;
tEW,; and ! EW1
Q u an tity C r it e r ia
I n i t i a l *ew* and 'few* may b oth be s t r e s s e d and
(i)
u n stressed *
U n stre ssed ^/bw* i s co m p a ra tiv ely s h o r t, b u t
u n s tr e s s e d 1 ewf i s always com p aratively lo n g e r than , ewf ,
though s l i g h t l y s h o r te r than s t r e s s e d ’^ew1•
(ii)
f ew* in F in a l p o s it io n w hether in open or c lo s e d
s y l l a b l e , i s alw ays s t r e s s e d , b u t
( i l l ) 9f e w 1, o ccu rrin g F in a lly in open s y l l a b l e i s alw ays
u n s tr e s s e d ; and s t r e s s e d in c lo s e d s y lla b le *
Exam ples: 7bie^ ew , th ey s o ld ; b u t b ie ^ w k , th e y s o ld
you*
57
Positions of rE W f
T h is diphthong may o ccu r:~
(1 ) I n i t i a l l y ^ in
th e f o ilo w in g w ords: -
o f th e l e s s common f aw; ewwie q, p lu r a l o f
ew, o r , v a r ia n t
u q iy y a , an
ounce w eig h t; ewwel, f i r s t a n d e w w i l l a , ‘.p erch an ce,
(2 )
I n te r c o n s o n a n ta lly j i t may he p reced ed by ( i ) one
or ( i i ) more co n so n a n ts, in c lu d in g one consonant p lu s sem i­
vow el 1w1, and fo llo w e d hy one or more co n so n a n ts•
It
may a ls o he fo llo w e d by fh a f and ’homf *
Exam ples: n ew l, loom; hew s, k is s in g ;
dews,
w a ln u ts; mewt, d eath ; zew;), co u p le; le w z a ,
/ sew a, i t c o s t ; ^ewqa, a d e s ir e ;
n u t;
sewwa, he put
r ig h t ; 'le w a , he tw is te d ; 'tlew a and 7in tle w a , he
tw is t e d h im s e lf; ^ e w a , in s id e ; tfe w h , th ey ex ­
tin g u is h e d i t ; 'nsewha, th e y fo r g o t her;^nsewhom,
th e y fo r g o t th em ;'hie^w a, sw e e tn e ss; dnewwa,
/
\
:\
■ ■’■
/v io le n c e ; Jtew a, he was r o a s te d ; jwewha, th ey
r o a s te d h er; Jfwewhom, th ey r o a ste d them.
I t o cc u r s a ls o : —
(3 )
F i n a l l y , in (1 ) m o n o sy lla b le s in open s y l l a b l e ( i i )
d i s s y l l a b l e s , in m o r p h o lo g ic a lly c lo s e d or open s y l l a b l e :
58
Exam ples;
(1 )
yew, or* jpw, th ey came - in sid e * le w , or*
sew, good; qlew , th ey have f r ie d ; ml ew, th ey
have f i l l e d ; sewewthey have cost*
(i i )
dewwew, th e y cured; dew^ewk, th ey c a r e d yon;
ne&feew, th e y took o f f ; nehhewlc, th ey to o k you
o f f ; —— servew , th e y ser v ed ; sei^ ew h , th ey
ser v ed him; fofn ew , th e y fu r n ish e d ; and
'
N ote:
forkewft, th e y fu r n ish e d him*
P in a l •ew’ in m o r p h o lo g ic a lly open or
c lo s e d s y l l a b l e i s sh ared by a mixed V erbal vocab u lary;
b u t we can t e l l which p a tte r n s are e x c lu s i v e l y S em itic by
th e fo llo w in g c r it e r io n ;
such p a tte r n s are S e m itic i f
f i n a l diph th on g i s p reced ed n o t by a con son ant group but
by a lo n g consonant*
So c o n tr a s t s e l l e w , th ey s a lu t e d ,
w ith servew , th e y served*
I t w i l l a ls o be n o tic e d th a t
in th e mixed v o cab u lary f i n a l :rewf . i s a m orp h ological de­
velopm ent.
S .M a ltese has no nouns w ith f i n a l f ewf in
open s y l l a b l e , in c o n t r a d is t in c t io n frpm n o n -S em itic
M a lte se , which h as a few such p a tte r n s as we s h a l l show
fu r th e r on.
.... Positions of* ^ e w 1
(1 )
I n i t i a l l y , t h i s p h a r y n g a lised d iphthong o ccu rs in
th e f o llo w in g words: ^ewda, p ie c e o f wood, orthography
I
ghuda; ^ewdi e t , p i ece s o f wood, orthography gfiu d iet;
•^ewwietaq.,. young h en s; and
7
(2 ) I n te r c o n s o n a n ta lly p reced ed , and fo llo w e d by a
consonant w ith vow el 1a 1 a f t e r it *
The p reced in g con­
sonant may a ls o be one o f th e p r o p o s it io n s ! consonants
(b , f , t , mn) in p h o n o lo g ic a l ju n c tio n w ith i n i t i a l
-^ew..
Exam ples:, b^ew la, m u les, orthdgraphy, bgfrula;
njfewla, h orse s h o e s , orthography nghula;
b/ew da, w ith a p ie c e o f wood/ orthography b ’ghuda.
(3 )
( i ) I t a ls o occu rs in th e f i n a l c lo s e d s y l l a b l e o f
d i s s y l l a b i c w ords, th a t may be m o r p h o lo g ic a lly in c r e a se d
by a or i : n , as min^ewl or mil^ewn, d e v i l i s h ; min^fewla,
fern. a d j . , and m in ^ ew li;n , p lu r a l a d j e c t iv e .
(ii)
A lso F i n a l l y , in open s y l l a b l e th a t may be
m o r p h o lo g ic a lly c lo s e d by fh a f and ?homf , a s th e morpho­
l o g i c a l developm ent o f words th e t h ir d rad . o f which i s
(M orp hological C r it e r io n ) .
Exam ples :f b e l ^ w , th ey sw allow ed; orthography
belgtxu; /f a q j W , th e y b u r s t; gatT eW th ey c u t;
^samjew, th e y h ea rd ;^ b ie /ew , th e y s o ld ; tiejfew ,
h i s ; mj^ew, w ith him.
\\
So
'IW1
T h is diphthong which i s never p h a r y n g a lised o ccu rs
in s id e w ords, preced ed by a consonant and fo llo w e d by y a ,
and th e n p r p h o lo g ic a l m o d ific a tio n s t h e r e o f fy i e t f ( ) .
E x a r o le s : tiw y a , a f o ld ; J iw y a , a r o a s t i n g ; diwya,
an echo;
kiw ya, a burn; liw y a , a bend; siw y a ,
an a p p r e c ia tio n .
With t h e i r p l u r a l fbrms t i w y i e t ,
f o l d s ; k iw y ie t, b t o h s , : e t c .
N o te:
'
^
With th e e x c e p tio n o f 1liw y a * , w hich I have heard
v ery o f t e n , th e o th er words b elo n g t o l i t e r a r y M a lte se,
P o s it io n s o f /•■■AY1'"
In S e m itic M a ltese, t h i s diphthong -never o cch rs
) \
i n i t i a l l y , hut
(1 V I n te r cons onan t a l l y p reced ed by one or more con­
so n a n ts and fo llo w e d hy ohe or more consonants (M.V.).
Exam ples:
h a y t, w a ll; s a y f , summer; ta y n , mud;
t a y r , fo w ls ; fiayr, inducem ent; t a y t , I have
g iv e n ; raytV T h ou h a s t s e e n ; : “
humour;'Kayr, C airo;
c a y t , Jokes,
t l a y t , I ascended;
tm ayt, I fe d ; tm aytna, you fe d u s; q la y t, I
have g a i n e d : <3.1a y tk o m ,I have p u lle d you
o u t; > — f d a y t , I have tr u s te d ; fd a y tn a , you
■
j
;
~
' ■
<
;v..
61
have tr u s t e d u s ;
sim a y t, you have esteem ed;
stmaytkom; I have esteem ed ybu.
■
I t w i l l h e n o tic e d th a t words w ith in te r c o n so n a n ta l
'a y ! i n m ixed v o cab u lary are m orp h ological V erbal m o d ific a ­
t i o n s and n o t Noun p a tte r n s.;
The only; npn^^em itle e x c e p -
t io n I know i s sm ayty, a ser v a n t b e lo n g in g to th e s o l d i e r s
(F a lzo n ) which I heard in V i1 1 o r io sa pronounced sm a:| t u ,
albp ,,zma:^tu. ^ r v"
(2 )
r V .j ;7 \ / v 7 7
F in a lly in ( I )
' s ■■,
;• .
' 7 ;-
th e open s y l l a b l e o f two mon-
s y l l a b l e s (Syl/k) ?arid ; ( i i ) i n th e c lo s e d or open s y l l a b l e
o f d is s y lla b le s .
(M.V, r a r e ) .
Example s : .;
(i )
(ii)
h a y , a l i v e ; r a y , f r e e c h o ic e ,
h a rra y , d ir t y ; v i l e (v u lg a r ) th e o n ly
S.M. w ith f i n a l 1ay* in open s y l l a b le s :
—
gadray, a bum b oat man.
y
62
Positions of
(1 )
f?'sy1-
I n i t i a l l y , t h i s diphthong may he fo llo w e d by a
'Consonant or a Vowel, in which case in t e r v o c a lic !y f i s
le n g th e n e d ,
Exam ples;;: j/a y a , or more commonly, Tayya, w e a r in e ss;
fa tig u e * ^ ayb , d isg r a c e ;
■;
jf'aydiijn, and more
' commonly, ^aydU : t , ,i3.hying;'‘*Jrayya: t , clamour;
^ a y y a , he t ir e d ; ^ a y y a r , he c a l l e d names; y 'a y y a t,
*he sh ou ted ; *|/"ayyeh, ^he mocked; ^ a y y e n , b ew itch ed
by 1e v i l e y e 1;; j/ayye j , m ain tain ed fa m ily e t c . ,
/^ a y n , ey e; 2 /&ynu*n a > h elp ; 'tfayia, a sh ou t; y u y y ie n ,
tir e d : ^ a y ^ ien , liv e lih o o d ; *^ayb, d isap p earan ce;
tj/ayyeb, he caused to d isa p p ea r; ^ a y y u :r , je a lo u s ;
^ a y y a r , to c lo u d , o b s o le te ; ^ a y r , e x c e p t; ^ a y t, i l l
' - w ill,
(2 )
I n te r c o n s o n h n ta lly , t h i s p h a r y n g a lise d diphthong
appears a s a7ayf . a^ d i t i s p reced ed by one consonant and
a ls o f o llo w e d by one con son ant, or by more i f m orph ologic­
a l l y in c r e a s e d .
Exam ples:
d a fa y t, I have blasphem ed;
r a f a y t , I have
p a stu red ; da^aytlhom, I w ish ed them e v i l ; r a /a y t le k ,
I p a stu red f o r you.
(3 )
F i n a l l y , and in open, s y l l a b l e j '
fo llo w in g , th r e e words on ly: -
• o ccu rs in -th6>
raj'ay, shepherd; daTay, / 1
blasphem er; , n ^ ^ f whimperer,
N o te;
'
:
!
The above th r e e words are s in g u la r noun p a tte r n s ;
fv-
^should we add th e m orp h ological s u f f i x 1 a f t o o b ta in the
^plurals. t h e r e o f , i n t e r v o c a lic !y* i s n a t u r a lly len g th en ed
a cco rd in g t o th e g e n e r a l r u le we have o f t e n r e fe r r e d t o .
h&r:
(1 )
" ^^^tiojSs',,. o f
,-i VV
i s ’.
When: u sed f a lo n e , t h i s diphthong has a sem antic ‘
fu n c t io n o f i t s own in th e sen se of^Corae qui ck,!, as e y ,
h a f f e f , quiclc, hurry up’
ey lawrir come h ere ; ey a:ra-
a n d i, Gome a n d -see ;:what? I ^&ye fgotv
I t d oes n o t occur I n i t i a l l y i n w ords, but i t occu rs:
(2 )
(a ) In tercon son an t a l l y , p reced ed and fo llo w e d
.by one con son an t, (M.V.).
Exam ples:
v ,
■
b e y t, r o o f; b eyn , betw een; b e y :h ,
; s e l l i n g ; d e y l, lo n g h a ir ; deyn, d eb t; deyma, a
sta n d in g guard; k e y l, ifeasu re; k e y la , ,a .
measure; keyn, su b m issio n (o b s o le te w ord );
le y h , tow ards him; le y k , tpwards you; l e y l ,
n ig h t; le y n , tow ards; meyda, t a b le ; meyt»
d iz z in e s s ; neyba^ th e e y e -to o th ; seyf> sword;
weyba, a measure; weyda, sm a ll hand; Jeyb ,
;
w h it
zeyda, e x t r a , a d d itio n a l; z e y t ,
o i l ; Jeyn ,:\h o th in g ; z e y z a , m otherIs ‘b r e a st;
(b )
I t may a ls o be p reced ed by a corisonant group
and fo llo w e d "by, on e, , or more, m orp h ological con son an ts,
th a t I s , npt b e lo n g in g to t h e o r ig in a l word p a tte r n which
in t h i s c a s e i s a Verb, (S*M. )♦
'^"''xVEixainplesr./.bdeyt, I began; b k e y t, I w ept; fd ey ty X l
redpefed;< J n ey n a ,^ sm a ll gafd en ;, Ib eyn a, sm all
^
Cheese; Jw eySa, ra th er o ld ; imLeyna, we have
/ f i l l e d ; h le y t u , you have w asted ;
have double C rossed u s;
n q le y t , I was taken in;;
n hbeytu, you con cealed y o u r s e lv e s ;
>
q le y tn a , you
s te y q e r , he
r e v iv e d , oame jround* :
( c ) I t a ls o occu rs p reced ed by one consonant or bya consonant group, and fo llo w e d by a vow els w ith a con­
seq u en t
le n g th e n in g o f in t e r v o c a li c ’y 1.
E xam ples:
deyyaq, narrow;
se y y e r ^ go in g ;
fe y y a q , he cured; h ie y y a q , e r e a tu r e s ; t qeyy.es ;
i t was measured; deyyem, always*
(1 )
IsC y y er1ids fo r h y p o th e tic a l ? s e y e r f , b ut With
i n t e r v o c a li c fy f lengthened* For h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s ,
cf* A.
/s a y e r -or s e y e r f seyyer* For deyyaq,
c f . A* ' £ £ $ and f o r deyyem A*
6 5 > ^ ife
(3 )
(a ) F in a lly in th e open s y l l a b l e o f ( i ) m o n o sy lla b le s.
(S*M*.)., and ( i i ) d i s s y l l a b l e s (S.M. )*
Exam ples:
(i)
je y , coming; h ey , hurry up, q uick;
l e y , tow ards; n ey , u n rip e;
e y , n o th in g ; •;
f e y , where*
(i i )
^4d4.ey,. p a s s in g ; y a n n e y , s in g e r ; fe d d e y , ; >
redeem er; je r r e y , jockey; qaddey, servan t;^
qar4*ey, read er; jb iir te y , two c h e e s e s ;
V
H b iz te y , two lo a v e s ; y ^ y n e y , two e y e s ;
■■
\A
Note:
• .
/ ^ sa|^ ey,;'tw o h o u r s* :,
: : j-7
: ^.V" ■’ '
In ( i i ) th e diphthong may be c lo s e d by any o f th e
m o rp h o lo g ica l con son ants and; fo llo w e d by ’ h a ’ or ’horn’ * •
The p o s it io n s o f
fyBY’
H aving no independent sem an tic fu n c tio n when u sed
a lo n e , u n lik e ’ e y ’ $ -itfo c c u r s r K
'
(1 ) I n i t i a l l y , fo llo w e d by one consonant or vow el in th e
f o llo w in g words:
Exam ples: ^ e y a , (v a r ia n t o f y a y a ) , he f e l t t ir e d ;
'J^eyd, E a ste r ; o r , as an im p e r a tiv e , ’ s a y 1 , and
’
.
y e y r a , jealously*-: .
^
66
(2 ) I n t e r consonant a l l y . ( i ) !/^e,yf o ccu rs ■'between- two
co n so n a n ts; ( i i ) in words 'beginning w ith an i n i t i a l con­
son an t group
(i)
i s preceded by *i f , ( i y e y ) .
’hfeyp. , , d is t a n t ; b<feyt, m j.ssion; j^ e y r , b arley;;
' z^eyr,. sm a ll; J ^ e y l, l i g h t i n g .
(ii)
t r i ^ e y ^ trem b lin g; tm ljfey k / w a ll owing;.
t< ii|e y d , p la c in g : , w ith f i n a l s y l l a b l e morpho­
l o g i c a l l y in c r e a s a b le , a s ; tmi eyfcom, your
w allow in g; tm i^eykna, our w a llo w in g , e t c .
N ote:
Another v a r ia n t p rb n u h cia tio n o f th e above p a t­
t e r n s , in some p a r ts o f M alta, i s i r e j ^ d , tqe'^i: d,
,tme i : k , -etc.
(3 )
ey a ls o o ccu rs in th e F in a l s y l l a b l e o f d i s s y l l a b l e s :
Exam ples: m i^ey, w ith m e^^ij^ey, niine; fr j ^ e y ,
bran ch es; (^bi^ey, b a s tin a d o e s ; ^ l i ^ e y , a s c e n t s .
N o te:
P h a r y n g a lisa tio n in t h i s c o n te x t i s o n ly very
s l i g h t l y p e r c e p t ib le , even in th e p e a s a n ts ’ p r o n u n c ia tio n ,
a more common v a r ia n t o f w hich, in th e tow n s, i s concurrent/
/.
/
l y , m iey and a l s o /m iyyey , t i y e y and a ls o t iy y e y , e t c .
67
The Diphthong 1I E1
P h o n e t ic a lly f i e f i s axbproximately l i k e i e in
E n g lis h b i $ , b e e r ; p la c e o f a r t ic u la t io n a l i t t l e fa r th e r
hack.
In some w ords, i t in te r c h a n g e s w ith a: as w e r q ie t,
le a v e s ; a ls o w e r q a jt, n a h ie t , q u a r te r s, d i s t r i c t s ; a ls o
naha: t .
'*
*
;
v
When p rec ed in g 'ft* or 1qf in th e .staiidard s p e l l i n g ,
i t i s g e n e r a lly h i s t o r i c a l l y r e p r e se n te d by f i f ; fo r
in s t a n c e , sm igh, h e a r in g ; forsmieVT; t r i q , ro a d , fo r
t r ie q ; r q iq , t h in , f o r r q ie q .
P o s it io n s o f ME*
I t o ccu rs: '
(O
I n i t i a l l y , as H e b e s f , hard; ie h o r , o th e r , (S.M*).
(2)
( a ) In terco n so n a n t a l l y , p reced ed and fo llo w e d by a
consonant (M.V.) , or a semi-Vowel* (S.M. )•
Examples:
b ie b , door; fie ^
, in what; j i e b ,
b rou ght; j ie h , honour; j i e z , tr o u ssea u ;..'j’i e x *
has he come?; k i e l , he a te ; k i e s , cup; w ied ,
v a l l e y ; k ie w i, burning;
kiewya (fern. a d j . ) ; . .
H em , he chided*, V y ien a , I* y ie q a f , he s to p s j
■—
c ie d a , he su rren d ered ;, p le n a , p a in ;
68
inleta,^ f ix e d m e a s u r e i c i e f , p e t r e l;
ciera ^ a s p e c t; '; f ie r a , ' i i ^und^d> or * f a ir t . ^
(Id) rie* a l s 6 o ccu rs preceded b y a consonant group
( S . M . ) or a consonant p lu s one serai v o w el, (M. V . )
Exam ples: t l i e t a , th r e e ; f l i e r i , n eig lib o u rs y-~: S
k r ie h e t , she grew u g ly ; zyieda,^ in cr^ eirit^ ^ j
.
t y ie b a , goodness; fw ieha* ^
v ';
fw ie d , ii/v e r ; > M e t , g i r l s ; ^ i e w i j k id n ey s;
t w ie g i,w in d o w s ;
p w ie n i, p a in s .
( 3 X I t a ls o occu rs i n th e F in a l c lo s e d s y l l a b l e of* d is^ ; ;
S y l l a b l e s , and o f i> r is y lla b le s , i n >the l a t t e r in sta n c e
fo llo w e d by t ( i e t ) *
^
v
(M.V.)
y.Exam ples:, Ixaddiem, workman; ^a. j 3 i e l , h a s ty ;
to r d ie n , i s t a i r s ;
^ ^ b b iet;, m aidens; ■ >.^
t r a b i y y i e t , d u st; rd u m iy y iet * c l i f f s ; -r—
>. ^ c a n d ie r , npney changer; b a r b ie r , b arb er; ;
p a p ie t , popes; p a t r i y y i e t , f r i a r s ;
s o r i y y i e t , nuns.
;
69
( t v ) : VOWEL, SEQUENCES
•
We H are, so f a r , d e a lt w ith th e p o s it io n a l c r i t e r i a
o f th e v o w els; in th e fp llq w in g a lp h a b e tic a l l i s t , we
d e a l w ith them a s seq u en ces in c o n s e c u tiv e s y l l a b l e s in ­
d ep en d en tly o f t h e i r p h o n o lo g ic a l p o s it io n s *
c e r t a in o f
th e Vowel seq u en ces in c lu d e a ls o m orp h ological in crem en ts.
P a tte r n s d e a lt w ith are d i s s y l l a b i c and t r i s y l l a b i c as
words o f f o u r ^ s y lla b le s are rare i n M a lte se , g e n e r a lly
m o rp h o lo g ica l increm ent' r e s u l t i n g f rom jfctie a d d itio n o f pre-^:
’
f i x e s ' i n t f , 1i f ,• t o th e o r ig in a l v o c a lic sequeaices, a few
a re co R ^ o site hoipsyj an d -th e r e s t arp; f o r e ig n , w hich can
^
alw ays he eheb&ed a s such b y th e seq u en ce o f t h e ir f i r s t
y"
th r e e v o w e ls.
W hile a l l p o s s ib le s h o r t vow el seq u en ces are
g iv e n , lo n g vowel" seq u en ces are in c lu d e d 'on ly i f th ey e x i s t
i n th e la n g u a g e.
To make th e l i s t jlab
■
■
a s p o s s ib le and
e a sy fo r r e fe r e n c e we have b ra ck eted l i n g u i s t i c in fo rm stio r i by u s in g th e f o llo w in g a b b r e v ia tio n s:
70
(1 )
S. M.,
to in d ic a t e th a t s u c h v o c a l i c
sequence o cc u r s i n S e m itic M altese
o n ly — lo a n w o r d s exclu d ed ;
(2 )
M*V. ,
th a t it. o cc u r s in S em itic M altese
and lo a n w ords.
(3 )
-V.
th a t i t e x i s t s in lo a n words w ith which we s h a l l d e a l e x p r e s s ly
h u t n o t in S e m itic M a ltese.
(U
N
■1fo r HOrie>; me ailin g ^that:■in M altese
whether S e m itic or n o t , no such
vo ca lic^ seq u en ce e b c ists. ;
71
0
(M.V. )
1
P
I
0
&
•t
0
&& ^ J25 a
1 ^—%
■'“>»>
*CS'4'
'Tsf
(xjwt*'J2i
••
0 *H
i i i i i
3 P*.■0 0 0
CDd (D
o
u
u:
P
I
PPP
002
*•-—v
51? ft*
ft pEi.jaj-a-fe &
of Maltese
> t> m
O
0 4)*H O 0
1 I I I I
o oo o o
Ph
ftt
•”H
"■
—^
I
O—
•
I :•£>.
'M
>• 3• CN
£'N
■,•
*
fft
ftr'Tv}^
CQ3 C/3—'""-'fti
P O *H -HOP
I II 1 * I I
*— s
H
,
m ra ft* P) H ft
0 C
O«3
aJ d p
*H *H *H *H *H «H *H
The
Vocalic Sequences
cd d)*H
ft ft I2i ;
pq
pp 0
POO
0) 0
ft) •* P*
p> <■—> •
• fsu IS]
•H
*rt
*H
U ^-3 Li
PP P P
prop
■isr *
:•
fc*>r/)
ft*, ft*
0
0 P ** O. H ^ i 0
. . ' . ,
■ 1
p PpPp P P
I I II I I I
•*
*♦ I
P 0. p 0 0
P P
0 P
I0
P P
I I
•H
*>■'.
^-n
■ 'V . . V * ■
o o o o
•rt *H *H *H *H
>H *H *H *H *H
S ^ & & *2$ +
0 3
<Dfl> © Q)
O
&
pt, *g{
-
rH *H
73
■'
- ' " V - " (v )
STBKSS
P r e lim in a r y
(a )
"
-
Remarks
In M altese a l l lo n g vow els a r e ' s t r e s s e d b iit n ot
a l l s tr e s s e d - vow els are lo n g ; a s 1i 1; in lib en , son; and
i : dek, your hand; i n / i s s a , now; and7i j s a , q u ic k , hurry;
w h ile th e diphthong 1i e 1 i s alw ays s t r e s s e d , and when i t
l o s e s i t s a c c e n t, i t changes t o f e f or f i* a s d i e h e l ,
g o in g i n , p lu r a l; -d etilisn y or d i h l l : n ,
> : /
N o te: For th e I n te r r e la tio n ^ and in t e r a c t io n o f
q u a n tity and s t r e s s review th e v o c a lic
p o s it io n s *
(b )
There can be o n ly one s t r e s s i n th e same word, b u t
p h a ry n g a li sed v o w e l s a l w a y s b ear a s o r t o f secondary
s t r e s s s id e by s id e w i t h th e main s t r e s s on one o f the
fo llo w in g s y l l a b l e s .
For exam ple: c f . th e 1a ! in m a q tu sl, k i l l e d ; w ith
*a'J* p o s i t i o n a l l y , i t s m o rp h ological c orrespondence
i n ma^rujf* known.
(c )
The n a tu r a l s t r e s s o f m o n o sy lla b le s depends on th e
le n g th o f t h e i r vow els which has b een d e a lt w ith e l s e ­
where and th e 1tempo1 o f sp eech .
74i n quick co n tin u ou s t a lk or r e a d in g , th e q u a n tity
o f m o n o sy lla b le s i s a l s o a f f e c t e d b y th e fo llo w in g word
w ith w hich th ey amalgamate form ing th e i n i t i a l th e r e o f,
conform ing t o No•1 o f th e fo llo w in g r u l e s .
P o s it io n a l R ules on S t r e s s .
(1 )
In M altese words o f more than one s y l l a b l e , the
s t r e s s f a l l s (I ) oh th e pehhitim & te ( M.V.) f e d ( 1 i ) on
th e l a s t (M.V.)
l
,
Exam ples: .
(i )
*
' ;•
• •'
/ t i f l a , •g i r l ' ^ i t w i , w intry;, ^ itw iy y a , (fern#
a d j. ^ /b id w i^ b man p ea sa n t; b ld w iy y a , woman
p e a s a n t;/b a ftr f, s a i l o r ; b a h r iy y a , kind o f
b ee; maqtu: l a , k i l l e d ; m erft^ a, p reserv ed ;
na j j a : r a , sto n e; d r e s s e r s ; A>mmok, your
mother; i£ o lb u , pray (im p e r a tiv e ); sewweytu,
you have mended;
,
\
'
'
. y
\
4carta, paper; r e j i i n a ,
/
■
H
’
:
,•
' ..
V
queen; s u ld a s t i , s o l d i e r s ; I n g il t e r r a ,
England; Fran'ci: z i , French; demonyi, demons;
, ka^ti:na, ch a in .
(ii)
' .
mac(?tu:l, k i l l e d ; ^ a z a q t , I have dug; fia n z i: r
p ig ; berqu: q> a p r ic o t; ta y £ a :r , c o tto n ;
•
ftb iz te y n , two lo a v e s ; r i j ie y k , your l e g s ;
y^ay^ieyh, h i s e y e s ; — ^ s in y u : r , r ic h ;
s e f t u : ;r,^ isey v a iltj ^ o M e l l , ^xrothel^ r u k k e ll,
re e l;% u e iu ;s,A o h a ^ ^
s e r g e a n t;
dysfmant, diamond; l3Uqq a : l ,, ^ug*^; ^
A
CM
)
The s t r e s s f a l l s on th e l a s t s y lla b le ; ,
.
/(.a-)'^ when t h e f i n a l s y l l a b l e c l o s e s y/ith one; con conaht p reced ed b y , ( l )
( i i i ) , i e t ? :(M.V^)1
E
x
a
m
p
(i)
l e
*1* (M.V*) , ( i i )
■"■•A.- ;-UvV i
s ;
’
’u 1 (M.V.) or
v
f :
v
- . w - / ' -
/ y ^ A A v ,.;
;!iahi:h> kind;J;taqhi:d., f i t t i n g ; ^ a z ilz s ,
;} .•
he.lov.ed; fia lir p , m ilk ;
j i : n , dough;
r ^ f i d i : ! , f a i t h f u l ; p i n i : t , b a r le y /su g a r ;
■■' m o ri:n , mariner*
- VJV v j ' | t l ^ a r u :
s , bridegroom ; mekku: k,
s h u t t le ; c lr e u r r , a shabby man; — r v ird u rn i
.
r
-'!_a
-sVeipixs.r', sh ip ;7 ;ju v in tu ;r ,y o u th s /;
baqqusn,/pick^-axe; batus t , ;d is t r e s s e d .
( i i i ) ..^ ad d iem ^ /iab ow eri ^ a z z ie r i, la z y ; b e r q u q ie t,
^
^
p o t sh erd s; —
y 7 a r c i p r i e t , a r c h ; p r ie s t ; p a p ie t , pojges;/
y/y -q a ltsie t.,, tr o u s e r s ; y s t a ^
yy"yyy;7';;' ; y barbier*yfrarberi
.
.yy' yy'/.y/'/"■
76
?
(b )
When th e l a s t s y l l a b l e ends ( i ) in a c lo s e d
p h a r y n g a lised diphthong (S*M. ) or ( i i ) i n one o f th e u n p h a r y n g a lised d iphthongs in .c lo se d or open s y l la b l e
(M.VV).
’’
'
"
. ,
'
Exam ples:
'
•■■■ , ' / ■ ■■ '
(i)
,.
. -
'
/
, ‘
fer^fewn, a w icked man; b er^ ew t, a f l e a ;
mil^ewn, cu rsed; mi^ewd^,:; shaky ;
m i^ ew jj,; a ffr o n te d , in s u lt e d ;
(ii)
■ ,j ;'
,
ila w , t h i s way; darraw, th ey tr a in e d ;
;
M ira w k , th ey '>accusjfcomed . y b u ;, dewwew,
th ey cured; zammewlc, th ey h e ld you;
, ^er'rey, a buyer; semmeyt>I m entioned;
—^ babaw, -bogey; gadray, a bum b o a t man;
ba^ew, th ey su ffered ;: servew , th ey
^
. served ; serVewh, they, ser v ed him; pa^iew,
.';v 'j;-:W
.. .3 p&nel;'"';kainew;>:'-came.o; ka^rew, d e s c r ip t iv e
le d g e r o f lan d p ro p erty .
(3 )
When f i n a l s y l l a b l e ends in f a ’ (M. V .) or H 1 ( S . M . )
fo llo w e d ( i ) by a consonant group, or ( i i ) by a lo n g ,
consonant as th e p h o n etic im p lic a tio n o f two consonants
i n m orp h ological junc t io n (S>M»)
(1 )
T h is form i s n ot i n th e M. d i c t i o n a r i e s , but I have
o fte n heard; i t u sed in (xozo (mon a r) in th e ;sen se o f
1sh ak y1, c o n te x tu a lly always a p p lie d o f f e n s i v e ly to.
a p erson su sp e c te d to be shaky w ith fe a r or la c k o f
en ergy. Xt i s a r e g u la r p a s s iv e p a r c i t i c l e p a tte r n o f
,M.: rie^ b d ; c f .
77
As t o ( i i ) i t i s im portAht t o n o t e t h a t i f such
l o n g c o n s o n a n t i s n o t t h e p h o n e t i c i m p l i c a t i o n a s describ*
e d , t h e woi'd i s n o n - S e m i t i c as; we s h a l l .‘s how u n d e r t h e
p r o p e r h e a d i n g ; ' : / /a
- / Y / Y •-. Y Y\ ■/ Y t
Exam ples:
.
: v;(i^
v -
*
3'- \
'
y YY'
/ vYy
.
g e r g i r t , you grurrbied;
• ^ ^m il t , I.; d id ;
(ii)
- 'dyamant>Y^dihhond; ■/
.qabbatt>‘. -I employed;
a •./• : f 1 - r T e r r id t , I s c a tte r e d ; ftabhatt Y w ith f i n a l
AV',.: 3 ;; , ;
-.- , ^
f
' / T- i>/ >
l —3 ;— /.'-/
3 '^ /: - f
consonant ^ r a d ic a l tn+ iribrphological
: 3 'V
t , 1 stru ck ; c o n tr a st W b b a t,
Y3
b e fi^ i|t,;^
Y
YYT Y :f
(A) whenf i n a l s y l l a b l e ends
he str u c k ;
' : ';■\f-Y Y -
in ! a f , c lo s e d by o n e/
consonant, and t h e :o th er vow el i i i th e sequence i s 1u 1 or /
1i f (1VI.V. ).
*"
YYyY
Example s : h u rt a: m, b>ronie g r a s s ;; bhr qa: ^ p erch , /: Y
d f/fis h ;Y iiz ^
•
.
• d e y ii; Y r ^ ; ^ ^ ^ ^ * ^ Y hnYass, or^m ule, ■-Y;.-Y-V
YV- d r iv e r ; Y t ila : rY/cahv-as. \ ; :/
Stress of dissyllabic words with'vocalic sequence a - a
The c r i t e r i o n fo r a s c e r ta in in g th e s t r e s s p o s it io n
in d i s s y l l a b i c words w i t h a. ** a as t h e i r vowel seq u en ce,
w ith th e second: ’ a 1 in th e f i n a l s y l l a b l e p reced ed
(i)
(ii)
by a lo n g con son ant, or
I
by a consonant group and fo llo w e d by a
j
consonant o n ly ,
j
i a p u r e ly m o i^ h p ld g ica l:^ :,Y ' s ;
,-'YY'
'Y
v (1) i f -it: i s -a Noun on d e s c r ip t iv e p a tte r n , th e
s t r e s s f a l l s onH he f i n a l s y ll a b l e ;
Y
(2 ) i f i t is;h ; Yerb^paiterriY; oh th e f i r s t s y l l a b l e .
? Exam ples; Y&abbaty' he knocked, b u t Habba: t , th e
p erson th a t does th e k n ock in g, whence we g e t
YY iY th e/de.rijte^
' For s t r e s s - p r a c t ic e
and com parison n ote the f o llo w in g se n te n c e s:
•ilKal& a: 't'a; 'j/aihllta t a fiat>ba: t /.
u fia ^ b a tte ybu t o l d me s t r ik e th e knocker;
I
a ccep ted to knock ( l i t e r a l l y 1p la y ed th e p a rt
o f th e knocker) and knocked; a l s o , ^fiabat l i t ^ f a : !
^bhatba u l i l Ynartu UsAmta b i l ha'fefoa: ta u (habbat .
111Y jajra l i r ie d e t t a f 7p a r a
= he str u c k th e
- c h ild r e n w ith a p ie c e o f wood;Yhis w ife he
s tr u c k w ith a knocker and he w orried th e n eig h ­
bour who wanted to know what happened.
Other
Y
; " "■
'‘ ■''■".'■Y;-
79
■■■ :Y ■■
.exam ples are: ^bafinan, lie s t u l t i f i e d , b ut
bahna:n, stu p id ; Y lh qlag, he stammered, b u t
la q ia s q , staiTomereryYfar-j;^^
or h e,
made b a ld ; but f a r 4 a : s , b a ld ; M artas, he
wrapped up in a p a r c e l;
b ut q a r ia :s , a
p a r c e l, e t c .
■
b
The a cc en t f a l l s on th e f i r s t s y l l a b l e in words
en d in g iri any o f th e th r e e v o w e ls, a> i , or u , or h a,
and: a ls o in hbm ..(MyV.);; i h a l l t h e :V erbal p a tte r n s so
lo n g as th e f i n a l s y l l a b l e i s n ot m o rp h o lo g ica lly i n ­
c r e a se d , and in a l l th e p h o n o lo g ic a l p o s it io n s n o t in ­
clu d ed under A.
■
S tr e s s
0
a.
S h if t in g
When a ’ s t r e s s ’ -en d in g i s a tta c h e d to a word w ith
th e s t r e s s on th e p en u ltim a te or l a s t s y l l a b l e , th e new
p a tte r n th u s o b ta in ed conforms to th e above r u le s .
Yy y /
' Y,
YYY’ Y
YY ':\
,Y f - / ' y Y - : - , .
Example s :
/\.
-.' ^-/>y;-8 q Yy
invbafiri.Y the accent f a l l s on *bar hut
;
in bahriyya ( = bahrl + yya) accbnt s h if t s on
Y
to /th e penultim ate; in mafimu:j , d irty ; s tr e s s
i s on the f in a l s a l a b l e (Of. 2 3 i i ) , but in
Y p l t o ^ s t r e s s
s h i f t s on t o f i n a l \±inyf^Z;A
by; c r ite r io n A 2 1 . : Other examples areV iDniedemy ;Y ]
man;; bu^ b r i e d i ^ ^ bnidmirh, men;/^ieqed, asleep ; ;
|p l./r e q d i: n j ;^haddiem, pi*:^haddemi:h, labourers; :
YYY / r
./ butY^d^ie^a w ith :strespA^et^ining i t s p o s itio n
,Y^Y'YY
B*
‘
/YV.Y ' • ■ Y-YYy -Y
N o te ; a th e .most -im p o rta n t-p h o n etic change, m ain tain ed
/ ;3 VY?/Y a lsh /iu -th e :'S ta n d a r d .'.sp e llin g Y /ie ,,th 4 t o ^ s t r e s s e d ■1i e f
which, as we pointed out i n ( 1^a),y when th e accent s h i f t s ,
^Y
^aocor.dingftjo/.viheYi
Y / aY \ ■ d i a i e c t i e a i i y - t h Y ' d Y -Y-
to 1e f ,and>
YY Y::Y^ ' YY;' ;■.Y:"\ • ‘Y’’ Y
-YYY
(vi)
THE CONSOKAHT SEQUENCES OF SEMITIC MALTESE
As AYhelpfuI c b h t r i i ^ t i p h : to -M a lte se * p h onolb gyi we;
nbw l i s t i n th e Y a ip h a b e tic e il -p r d e r l o f th e d i p t i p n a r i e s Y
f i r s t a l i s t o f veon spn ants t h a t mayYpocurvi^
a g ro u p , t h e n t h e v aripusY C onso nant seq u e n ces w hereby
; '-i:
we, c a n v e r y o f t e h , h u t n o t a lw a y s , t e l l i f a word is-
p* /,
Y stru c tu ra l^
o£
cannot t e l l t h i s f r o m
:
Y
/ ?
not* >As an i n s t a n c e when we
,
t h e c o n so n a n t sequence a l o n e , t a k e
l o a n word f i d i : l , f a i t h f u l ; Y it h a s t h e c o n s o n a n ts e q u e n c e
-3
p f -a. S e m itic b a s e ,-M . f a d a l , v th e fe e Y rb n ^ in e d v ^ it';is / t h e ’Yv/Y
v o c a l i c c r i t e r i o n i r i : , w hich i s f o r e i g n , t h a t c a n
h e l p u s t o d e c id e .
I n a few V v e r y f e w ^ i n s t a n c e s , i t
/
i s c b m p a ra tiv e s e m a n tic s o n ly t h a t c a n h e l p u s t o decide*
T ak e, f o r i n s t a n c e , M. f a l d a , j o i n t o f m e a t, w hich you
f i n d i n I t a l i a n i n t h e s e n s e o f ’’c a r n e a t t Ac c a t a a l i a
lo m h ata ( Z i n g a r e l l i ) and a l s o in- A* T. > f ^ y s l i c e o f m eat.
Yi:
B u t a s t h e s b i n s t a n c e s a r e v e r y few .
aY m atter o f s p o r ­
a d ic a c c i d e n t a l s i m i l a r i t i e s - we s h o u ld h e alw a y s a b l e
t o t e l l i f a word i s s t r u c t u r a l l y S b in itic , w here t h e con-r ;
s o n a n t se(ju eh ces w i l l h o t h e l p , by an y . o f t h e riiu ltip le
Y ;Y
^
c r i t e r i a t h a t we s h a l l ; liaye e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e whole
: / work*--'
/ :YYY; y.-Y /;./•; , Y Y ■Y \YYY: -— YY .
Y
yYY
82
The l i s t p r a c t ic a l l y co v ers a l l th e ground forms
o f S e m itic M altese which,' w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f a few
Nominals and D escrip tiv es/m a rk ed + , are p ro d u c tiv e o f
fu r th e r v e r b a l s c a t t e r more/ 6r l e s s numerous, conform ing
to a s e t o f w o rd -p a ttern s w ith which we s h a ll d ea l in
Morphology.Y\f?or th e few lo n e l y , u n p rod u ctive form s,
such a s ex cla m a tio n s and o th er p a r t i c l e s , supplement th e
l i s t by P a r t,B ,,■Morphology (The In v a r ia b le E lem en t).
B e c a u s e 'o f t h e ir l i n g u i s t i c p o t e n t a l i t i e s , t h e i r
a b i l i t y t o expand fo r m a lly , th e se con son ant seq u en ces
w i l l be r e fe r r e d t o as B ases.
As a r u l e , such b a se s are
made up o f th r e e con son ants t h a t , in w hatever form al e x p a n sio n o f th e o r ig in a l b ase th ey may f e a t u r e , and however
much t h e i f v o c a lic seq u en ces, th e in c o n s ta n t elem ent
t h e r e o f ,/.may Vary'i,Y•wili'^h0yer^;disappear., nor ever;ch an ge
t h e ir ordCr, w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f semi vow els 1wV and
fy ’ , i n i t i a l l y , . , r t e d i a l l y , oi* f i n a l l y w h ich , in c e r t a in ,
p a t t e r n s ,; d isa p p ear though when th e y reappear in o th er s
in e v it a b ly r e t a in t h e i r .b a s i c o rd er , fo r which reason we
have d e sc r ib e d them as .’ In co n sta n t R a d ic a ls ’ .
however
, th a t a :rnedial semi vowel
N o te,
’w* or ’y ’ , when f o l -
low ed by anotherVsemi vowel ’y ’ fo r m a lly , behaves l i k e
th e co n sta n t elem entY of th e b a se; th a t i s , i t alw ays
feaUu^es in i t s proper order in a l l th e form al s c a t t e r .
T h is phenomenon w i l l be d e sc r ib e d In Morphology, where
j
th e s e - n o te s w i l l ^
-'Other ■
: babes are quadri
l a t e r a l ,. gen erally/on om atop ae 10 r e p e t i t i o n o f a blcoiny 5
sonant a 1 b a se as damdam, to sh ak e, dam + dam.
•
■:YY. I t sh o u ld be hbtedy a ls o a t t h i s , s t a g e , t h a t a s we
s h a ll sHow fu r th e r on, th e se consonant seq u en ces - e x ­
c lu d in g the,, \uiproduetive ones /+ mey be c o n so n a n ta lly
in c r e a se d by jfe # fix e s ; (m,Y t , n t , s t ) , by I n f ix *t 1y by
s u f f i x e s / / tYYny.ahd by le n g th e n in g ^ o f
//
the m iddle ra&Ioaly
3- We, h a v e /d ib tr ib u te d th e c onspnaht; seq u en ces in two Y
l i s t s , the; f i r s t one c o n ta in s th e sm all number o f b a se s
in /w h ic h th e r a d ic a l c
preceded by any o f /
th e v ow els ’ a t , ,’fe J y or f i V,Y andY th e seco n d , c o n ta in in g Y
th e t y p i c a l and more numerous b a s e s , w ith i n i t i a l consonaniy'Gi3^
We d e a lY flr s t w ith
YyYY’Y ' '
;
•
V yYv'yY
/ \ :’
; ' '‘Y^Y''
Y:-;YV"/ ':Q 'd n so n an tY tirp ^s.,t h a t may o c c u r I n i t i a l l y
Y-Yv ;V /\/Y .Y // y:Y \G eneral Remarks
(1 )
:
\Y ’ /Y/-,.‘Y'
i n S e m itlc Y M a lte sa no n io r p h o lp g ic a lly u n i h c r e a s e d ;
wbfd:vcm':%
i50gih: w it h a/,group o f ,more th a n two
w h i c h m a y he t ^
c o n s o n a n ts
i n p h o n o lo g ic a l
j u n c t i o n o f any o f t h e v a r i o u s . h a s e s we have giv en s o r
th e tw o ^ Cbndpnant;; componentA o f An ; u n p ro d u c tiv e /word.
Y / / :3
. ' 3 ' ■ ‘ ' •■■■■ 'v''-' V ■.V:,
3
(2)
3
y3 :':':' 3 '- ’
\
.,
\ V ■'
84
;-3 ;/-
The p r e p o s itio n a l-c o n s o n a n ts f fV and W : may
preced e any consonant : form ing witth i t an i n i t i a l con -
3
■
son ant group which .does npt; o th erw ise, occur as b b ie b ,
:
v.
w ith a door; or f b ie b , a t a door; b c ir e or f c r i c , in had
■' . .>■ .. ■■ ' . ■;
; - ~
■' '-■■■
0 .
■ ■3
■-*■"3-'3
/w e a th e r .3 3 3 3 /;.3' 3
.: \'/3
'
' ■ .
/
‘
■
.
;<
'
:
-
/
N ow /follow th e Examples o f the, v a r io u s con son ants
3/
in p h o n p lo g ie a l ju n c tio n w ith an oth er consonant b oth /
"
3 3
b e in g , u n lik e th e p r e p o s itio n a l co n so n a n ts, in t e g r a l
.3 -3 3 -3 /- Y /:p a r ts / 6'f /thb'/ybrd:
■■■,3y3-
1•
'
ctiange;-'-
(ii)
b'jY(S.M .) h j ^ : l a , / t o
(v )
h i (M.Vr ) b l a t 3 f o c k s ; ^ l u r z a , b lou se*
,3
(v iii)
3
(ix )
■' ;
3
(x )
(x i)
,
'7 3 3 /
bhY|mYv * )/b h ie ti:;g ir ls ;3 t> I1a t t 8 i , f i n e weather*
(y ii)
- ’■-■■■■'•
^g e n e r a lly SQ\mded; b ^ w l a ./
h k y(S.M .) b k e y t, I w e p t ; b k u ira y .p rim o g en itu re:
(y i)
'3
b d p it, p ilo t * /
3 ; ;;hh./(S.M*| bh&yra, melon crops:; p fia l, l i k e , ,
(iv )
3
3
With f B* as f i r s t in ^ t h e i n i t i a l group; /
, :3 Y ( i )
(iii)
'■
/;7b'&
:;
b q a y la , spinach*Y...;:. 3 7
br (M .v l)/b r iy y h ,^ ;/d h n d fu ff;-h r a tts, th e arm o f
3
' ' 3 / > 3 3 3 ; ^ / . - 3 .73*. ' a c h a ir , e t c . - '3 /7
■
■
b t (S*M.) b t a : l a , h o lid a y ; b t i r , e s s e n c e .
0
' ■ ’:■■■
\
.
.
0
. •
A'.'/
"■
* .
-
- '
b^;;(3/M .) ^ a |r a ,:-n e w s ; b i: t m ,/p la c e n t a .
: b s (S .M .) b z a s r , .pepper; b z a sw i, h e r n ia s .
:•1'
■'
.;/’"
3\:-'3:
85
2.^ With fO f .asfirstconsonant
(i)
ctl
(ii)
blusterous:' wpn^h#-..
or (M .V.)
c r a s r e t / r a g sj—crieyV d eer.
'y 3. With:-D1 as f i r s t consonant
(i)
db
(ii)
,
(' iv.i i )
(iv .)
(v )
:
I
(v i)
(v ii)
(M. V ;) d b ie l, he grew p a l e ; ~ d b ie le t , s k i r t s /
d f ;.•;(S. M.-:) i h
;;
dh
, h u r i a l ; ^ f i : r , w reath in g.
(S .MI-■..)
d h i:n
, u n c tio n t dha:hen,
l o t o f smoke.
■
• • r0 ,
; .•
.’V.•
' ‘
•
-
-‘.
dk ( S.M*) dkeykna, sm all s t o o l ( o b s o le t e ) .
d l (S.M. ex cep t in dlohk , o f t e n ) d l i e l , lo n g
rY- tVY^'- ^hhir;-’/-dla:-m, darkhess^
dm (S.M . ) dtniyya, h lo o d sh ed i dmu:fi, t e a r s .
dn(S.M. ex cep t in d n i e f e l , d o lp h in s) dnu:b, s in
dnewwh, v io le n c e . ; /
(v iil)
(ix )
dq (S .M .) d q ieq , w heat.
;
dr i(M.Y^) d r ie h , arm; d r a :h i, tim es*—dragu:n,
dragon; drapp, c lo t h ,
4.
(i)
(ii)
(I ii)
With fFf as f i r s t consonant
d a : i , rem ains;“- f d a : t ,
\jf J (M.V.)
.‘
. fV
,■
-•.>
v
tr u s t e d .
f j (8 .M .) f j l : i r , 'b leea in g .
ffi (s/M . ) fBnf-ia,. s t a l l i o n s } fKu: J iy y a ,9 b s c e n it y .
(iv )
(v )
■■■■■’fit(S .M $ ‘: f k ie r e a , t u r t l e , t o r t o i s e .
f l (M.V.) f l i e n , Mr s o - s n d - s o j — f liC k u s r i,/b o t t le .
(v i )
fn (M.V*)
f n i c k , rabbi t s;-~ fn ie dag, sm a ll shop s .
(v ii)
fq, (S.M .)
f q i s r , poor.
(v iii)
f r (M .V.)
f r a : k , crum bs;~-fra:n, oven s.
(ix )
f s (S>M.)
f s i e d , co r ru p tio n ; f s i : d, b le e d in g ,
(x )
f t (S .M .) f t i i l a , w ick; f t i : r a , bun.
5 . With ! J* as f i r s t consonant
(1 )
(ii)
(iii)
\
(iv )
(v )
jh
) j b a t r a ,p o u l t i c e ;
jd (S .M .)
jd i:& , new; jd u :r ,
fo reh ea d ,
tu r n ip s .
j f (S .M .) j f i e n , s h ip s .
31 (M .V .) 31i;©d^> f ig h t in g f ^ j i; e ik , ja c k e t.
jm (S.M. )
jm ie l, l o v e l i n e s s ;
jmied, s o o t .
(v i)
^ .jn (S.M.:) jn ie ii, garden; jn ieh v s i d e s .
(v ii)
jr (M .V .) jriew a i p u p s ;^ jr a :n e t, d ays.
With f G-V as th e f i r s t consonant
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv )
gd (S • M.,) g d i: m, h i tin g ; gdiedeni, s h o u ts .
gn (S .M .) g n ie d e s , b u llo c k s .
gr1 (M .V .) griezem , t h r o a t s ; ^ r a n t s a , bran,
g2
(S .M .) g z i : r a , is la n d ; g z ie w e r , k i l t s .
I n i t i a l f g r f 4 i i f e e ;o n ly S e m itic in g r ie b e j , h u ts;
g riezem , th r o a ts ; and the d o u b tfu l word, grem u : l , liz a r d s
m o r p h o lo g ic a lly , a l l p lu r a l p a tte r n s ; o th er s in g u la r and
p lu r a l p a tte r n s w ith i n i t i a l f g r f l i k e ^granc , cra b , and
g r a s d i, d e g r e e s , are fo r e ig n (M orp hological C r it e r io n ).
■
^
7. JWith^
consonant
-W here s t i l l sounded,; i t may f o r m i n i t i a l group w ith^; ;
'
lie m fo r
1d as ^ dt:i»a^ - pond; T o r ^ ^ d iir a ; w ith i ; a s
^ e lie m , ,signs>;; and, - in oifet f o r e ig n word,
i.
gonatella)!;"w ith f t i n th e p l ^ a l ^
’:vv7-v;.-
'
’v- \'v
(i)
h eatin g-;■*-tibia:-r-nqws. ■
-
( i i ) fid
(S .M .)
7 7 7
Y;'J ^7
fidusra, verd u re; itd a :r , he became
‘
g reen .
■•
.V
.7.7
;
, t(:i'di)^^i^;;v
YY
(iv )
(v )
■;:( v i )
YV
-;'^3
■ 8# W ith i£*as th e f i r s t consonant
Y;‘
(v ii)
(v iii)
7
file
■fekiim^::dhi^
hi: ( 8 . M.)
fileftwa, sweetness;-- h lie g a , a j o ie .
fim '
fin
.^ Y -
. dcmfcey;' hrm: ra> r e d n e ss. J':
(S;Mi X t o
gums; fin ie |\, wbritis.
Y 7 -;'?^a>:
y
fiq r (S.M. ) fiqifr,^
(ix )
fir (S .M .)
fir a :r a , z e a l ; 1h r iq f , iairibs.
(x )
h s ( S. M.)
fisarray m is
(x i )
fit (S.Mi)
fiiiyya> ^ i l t ; fiturr^
(x ii) Y i^
Y_ ( x l i i ) ; fiz ( S ^ 7 ^ ^
fisiel^, th ou gh t.
tie became f a t f 77
88
•
7
;7y
:fe 7 w ith fKJ a s -th e ; f i r a i 7 e o n sb n a n t
( i ) k'b (S .M .) V kbirry g^eat>: k b i e i H ^
; ;
( i i ) k f (S .M .).; k f i ! v’, s w e a rin g ^ v liiv o k in g ^ tte d e v i l ( o Y :7;77
‘7 ' 7777
-V‘ y1777Y :77-- 7,.., ' Y vY Y Y 7T Y Y 7 vY- s o l e t e ). 7 ,Y :Y Y
. ( i i i ) ktt;(SvM.i, ).-;ikfia:;iV i t 7 b e q a ^ 7 Y u e ;:7^^
(iv )
;
; '
Y
b lu is h Y
kit Y lY , ) 7 ^ i5 n 7 :rosen3ary:; k lie w ij k id n ey s; •— - -Y Y i7
;
! • ■^araarr,.,:'inkstand;:. 'kle.:,ru’,^ c le r g y . Y
: 7
(v ) to ;(M .Y 7 ) Ttaiem ^j a le e v e s;
Y ;'Y-;
( v i ) Tfe (S-.M.) k n is y a , o tiu rch ; ■k n i: Y; ^rubbish*
Y-7
7 (y id )fk P 7 |M -0 :.-) -k ri eh* he; -grew -'ugly ; y:* * -^ k r i k k , c a p s ta n ,
( v i i i ) " 'ksY(%k'/-:)7^k
k siefiY be grev/o ld . Y777
( i x ) l e t (M-V; Y :;ktie^,;:feok;7;*-«^,:ktayyen,; c h a irs* .
- .
vy | Y Y p 7 !;WYfcb' -!i 77 ;aY Y bY ''?i^s t :7 c p h s o iia n t'...
.
7 7
7 7' 7 YY--Y-
( i ) l b (M. V .) I b i e s , d r e s a ; ^-— l l a i i c , , th e south, w est Y
- ’ ■ • .
..,,.yj.7'77 'Y -Y ■■■777t"7 Y '7, '■ w ind;. 7 Y Y Y
' ( i i ) l i : (S*:M lY Y 3 ip ^ 7 Y ^ i;d le7 7 7 ,’7'7\;-:'y-.7
.7 7 .
...\/-7 7
( i i i ) YLh. (SvM; ) 1 M e h ? greedy* 7 77 7'
. (iv ):: lq ; (,3r M7) X g ieh , 7 h o s p ita lity 7 - , . .7; 7 77; 7 7 (Y) 7 i^ ( s * M ^ : l s i : r> sla v e > I S ie n ,; to n g u e .
(v i) I t
v
;7.11.. W ith
! **M* *f*t
m * « ■ MM
. - ■ •■v- 1 7
Y ;Y;
.
7 7
' r-.: 7.7Y
as the. f i r s t c o n so n a n t
■** M ,
«m» h i H m M f M
*** <Mfv W
*M«
«W « * . * « . «*H m
■('|.);!‘:mij:7(:M ,Vii-tut-- note..;that', expept; i n mbi: d, where .'7 ,7;
> 7 ' 7. . i t i s th e p h o n e tic .ir iip lic a tio n o f ^ n b ', in
. ;7 7 > 7 Sem itic^:M altese7i Y Y i b l 7f mf 7i s always a:
' 7 77 7 7, «7 ni05?phoiogicai^:. 7pre£ix:. > .F oreign; exam ples
7
-■7. 7‘7 ' :Y77YY., .7 . ' "77. 777 Y.; '777:7:7 7yYY7: :V' 77-7 a r e : i ^ a i t Y . 77
89
v ’.-r
■;V''.y
a lig h t ' breeze;ym b^^-'atus'r,
; - V - y ,,
,;
ambassador.
( i i ) me (M .V .) w ith i n i t i a l fm? alw ays m orp h ological
■
p r e f ix ,m c a n f a r , reprim andedl —— :
■
mceppen, in ^ rison ed ^
(H i)m d '
o ld c a p it a l o f M alta ;
:
’
I ■
r
r
”' 5 ; , . . t
y mdietieb, g ild e d ; - ^
' O
K
*
'
l a
w
*
;
’
‘
v"
i ' / -; "
■■
mdaim
' T
;;
.
\
’ - - V
^
■
':
II (iV ) ■n if ^ (fcV /) w ith i n i t i a l s | m f ■Galways\k- m orp h ological
p r e f ix , m farrak, s h a t t e r e d r ”m ferhe21,* maddened.
■
. ;••;••;y
v-v;'
-
(v ) mj^ (S.fc)^^ w i ^ i n i t i a l : ^m1 always, a s
a morpho--
iogi^^^
v
^ J v'
c o u r se s
I m jarr, a diseniharkihg p la c e j m3®2z>
> .\ -
shorn.
:
v
: 1&
■ lo g ic a l p r e fix s
:
(v ii)
■"'/■; j :/,
7.iV : \ : V-
' ; . v-/
-mg_(&.M.);-w ith i n i t i a l *mr always a morpho-
(v i)
rnh (S .M .)
r
i
^
e
r
r
e
^
y
V
^
i
a
^
a
m geddes, p ile d ;
d
.
.
' '
■'
■ x
m hs:r, lim p e ts ; mhuh, b r a in s. .
( v i i i ) / i n k M ; ,)''''"w ith,:initial fmf alw ays a morpho~
lo g ic a lp r e fix :
jy v /\,,
(ix )i
mlcien> nowhere;
mkebbs, a r e e l ; rrifceffen, shrouded. ;
(S .M .).. mlieh", he became s a lt e d ; m lie s , i t
became smooth; mlewwen, co lo u red .
(x )
n
mn XM.V
a la n te r n ;
^ 'r./';v^y.^ -f;?iilum ination.
—— m na:rya,
*
90
(x i)
mq
(M .y .) 7 mqi: t , rude; mqie^e^., placed^
■'''7?' 7?77? 7;.>r>.mqieta, tim ed job*?-??;"7 ■
; 7
:
;■
(x ii)
mr
( S*Mv) rara: r , b itte r n e s s ;z r ir a ; s i ,' h arbours,
(x lii)
ms
(S.Ma) m sasren / bow els^
(x iv )
mt - (S^Ma) mti:i?a> a fm ?r6w ;7^
(x v )
m:?77?:( S.M *) m a: t> combs; m jiyya,: epidemic*;
( x v i)
mz
(S;M .) miaqq, food f o r b ir d s ; mzarjeiny
' ' \V /7 ?/y;r7:'777^7 v f 7'b3?m:e1&* •
12.
7-
m s e ll, n e e d le f i s h i
-7V7,.\.
■■ :'.•■■■•
77; --7?
With. fNt; as th e f i r s t con son ant. /
( i ) ;;;nb (p h o n e tic a ily ,(n ib ) (M. V .) n b ie t , .•sprou?fe7;~■—- ;
'?;"•;
(ii)
hbayya*^ on a l i fours* ' >.
nd (M;V^,) ndiem ay rbj^nthncejr:ndu;na, he found
. ,7 '
{ iii)
(iv )
out*
’ , ,
(v i)
7?7■
;v ■
f:
''' :.777y■■■■;:
n f ( is.M .) nfu: r i , s k i t t i s h ; n f i e s ; puerperium.7
n j y?(SyM.) k h 'jies^ id m p u rity.' ’
(v ) ?/ri&'-'('SvM.) ■7nkeyya,:< s p ite .:
. _ 7, /7771
?. .
,:ftq^.7;^( s •!/!■.*)' n q irr;;7p eck in g, i n a l l; b t h e r s im ila r ? ;;
:
‘
:;7
jtm ctio n s fn* i s a m orph ological
7-i-k7777.;;7 7_??;7preffxy *■. yv . "\kv::7
.. /, . ■ /'yy.?7yb-
;? ( v i i ) 7hs>7j(^-M.:^'77nsa:Pa, C h r is t ia n s ; n s i : j ,7 w eaving. 7
( I v iii)
( ix )
.
(x )
nt
(B^M.)
n tieiia> sten ch ; n t i e t e f , odd remaihe.k
(S.M. )
h j i e f , drought; n<j u : r i , s o f t , te d d e r ,
nz 7 (S.M .;)/ nzu: 1 , d e sc e n t ; h z a : r , he was v i s i t e d .
l^jWIth'Q'
as the first consonant
( i ) . Vqjh (S iM .) qhielaj^ rent;; q M :d , s e iz u r e .
(ii)
(iii)
(iv )
(v )
(v i)
Qd
(S ••M.;) . q d ie r n ;it, -grew o ld ; q d ieh , j goblet*;
qf ;
< ^ ie ii> .^
qh ;(B*;MV);
q£i:Jb^;p^
qm\'(s:.M*;) :qma:isv k ic k in g ;
q riiefed , h e d g e t ip g b ^ - q n ie p e lh e lls .
qr a t : i f cow ts^ 'l^ /V oV
(ix )
qs
(S.M. )jqsa:;riK ifl^ e r -p o ts ^ v ^ "
(x )
qt
(S.M. )
q j,
(S .M .)
;(xii)--:
(i)
rb
(ii)
’■rd
(iii)
(v i)
q ju :r , s c a le s ( o f f i s h , e t c . )
.;
With *jRf a s; ■'tfie/;.firs't‘-c6'nsqi^ant
(S .M .)
(M .V.)
-rhart;y>;tieS;.--rM
i* d u :m y p reeip l
-‘a ’ p un ch eon .
rd o ss, le a .
r f ; ( S> M. ■);;...■r f i :,p•, Atrampliiig:> r f i e h , l i f t i n g .
( i y ) . rk
(v )
c o tto n , v; '
iiausea;; q z ie q e z , p ig s .
Ik*
( *) )
s h ir t* /yy
q r V . ) v-; 'qr a: v , febhf edslon> - . Q r o ll, c o r a l
■:
(x i)
r
q l ■VX.SVii*-.) ; q lie h ,r p 3 ? °^ itj ^ u s qiV f ic k le *
(v ii)'':'J"'Qhw^CMyy*)
(v iii )
b a s k e ts .
: rm
rq
( S i l . ): ;rkQbba, ; knee; r k i: b ,, r id in g .
(S.M.;) rmi£d, a sh es;
rm u liy y a , widowhood,
(;S.M;) • r q ie q , th in ; r q a q a st, m in u tia e.
Ehe o n ly f o r e ig n word w ith i n i t i a l 1q s 1 g iv e n "by
V a s s a l l i 'and r e p e a te d l y i ’a la o n
q sa y s ta , S i c . cassata
(M. q a s s a r ta )y sm all p i e , i s a p h o n e t ic a lly awkward,
made-iip d in d n u tiyev-
'
:
/.■.//../y"-;-
v
.
92
( v i i ) ' v‘r S ; ( M y i y r s a r s y :iq a d y y r si:;p ia ,- e r y s ip e la s ;
(v iii)
,
r t . (S.M. )
■’/
/
( ix )
.r
; \. (x )
, /..,
>
ria :b 'V ^ 'tvWs/b:ebompy s o f t ; rta d a m ,/
(S .M .) : r j i e j , d r i z z l e /
r z y y S /M ..)
/ -
■
\heTwhs; b u r i e d i m ^
;' ■/■■;
/
;>'\ /;
r z le fr ,^ s h iv e r ib g ; r z i : n , quiet.::Vy/Vv/'>
:':;y;l'5 *3Wiih;;*S;V'!as th e 'fid s t,:'donsonaiit^;' y - y ’"-/-■'://.
.y :- - . y ■( i ) -■.sby^M /V y) ab^ay.sl^ seyeh teen yV cS b alya,. he e r red .
•/ ?. / / •/ . , . / , ( i i ) -' . s ^ / X s ‘s
(iii)
■^S
sf
'^fv-;
-C
(v )
y
.
'
'
(v i )
■
| d
(M.Y.)
r
i y
v
_
;/ / • /;/
sfurriay p a llo r ; /; s f r a t t , e x p u ls io n .
)< s^ayrh, y ^ m li; t r e e . ■;.
V/V:;Y':V'.
s k ■/’■( m.:V;,v)*?' s k i e t , silp n c e ;--sk a n d lu , sca n d a l,
sm . (k . V . )
sma::yy he: ;gyew sw arthy;*sm eraid> - ‘
.■■*■/ r
-
e
y////: ^
'.yyyy
" ; - ;i-:% o te: ■i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o te liq u id
f
fmf v o ic e s
in lo a n words b u t
■/’/X-"'I'
in^ S em itib ::I% ite se , ■We'; s h a ll .■
■ , V '"1
'under/
^
:S‘"'
■■heading. /
(vii)
/ '
/ sn vi 0 *M*
. v. //'V'sV/-V; ' /
(viii)
‘ vy
//'•
; v / ^ :’
i t became ra n cid ; S n ien , ■''";//>;:
te e th .
/.'■ / ■■'//.•■r. ,
. \ //.'/;'- y / ''.•//
/sy /;(S .M . ) y s 4a : q ,; a l l e y ; sq a :w i, ir r ig a t e d la n d s.
''\.ilx ) /^ ;stiv(M ^ y. ) / \ : s t a i r , " > e i l ; / s t o r b y u , a row.
(1l
The q n l^ f f o r 'e ig n ^ ’.word wLt h l n i t i a l s i g iv e n by
/
V a s s a l l i ^ a n d /r e p e a te d b y y ^ a lz p n i s s j e y j u , , s m a ll b h a i r *y
/dim inutiyq^/It.y8eggia.
I .never h e a rd i t and /
\ / ''d e r s o h a i l y 1^ t h i n k :It/is '^ in a d e ^ u p / / "
%'/•
,;//r.y
(2 ) Wlfch th e y e x c e p t i o n o f th e 3 S e m itic M a lte se w o rd s, / /
/ / / s k i e t , s i l e n c e y 'SkOrm, he s p u g h t s h e l t e r , , an d s k i e k e n ,/ /
' • / / / k n i v e s ,,- n l l 'r b ^ ^
/ ’'•
' \ \ /'
' y , , - / '/::y;
, :v,;
16 .
(i )
■ ,s
■■ ■"
t h ( m. V* ) I £hissem> he
v ; ' ;
.
(ii)
'■■■ v
93
/
With , irf as the f i r s t consonant
m g.
■v,;
sm ile d ^ fc h a tiy y a , s u f f e r - ;
; fV - . ; ■
^
--'0 , ; .
\ ..
;
;
N o te ; *t* i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s alw ays a
m o rp h o lo g ic a l p r e f i x *
;
.
0;-.
t f (S*M*)
tfie f/k in d
v• ■
of th is t i e ; t f e l l e l , i t
craclted*
-/
^ ( i i i ) "digf (S .M .). tg e r w i: l>; S h a t t e r i n g ; tg(eddes, i t was
■v. ■. •’ . V. ... v' " • ; V .
■.
.
N ote: ,. f t,f i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s alw ays
a m o rp h o lo g ic a l p r e f i x .
•••
-(iy):
: th -
(v )
tk
;/ t&olii'yyia» h e g u e s tj. ; , t h i : r , c o l i c .
(M .V .) tk e lle iti, he spoke - t k e c c a , he was
e x p e lle d .
'
■;
\>l
(v i)
tl
(S .M .) t l i e t a , t h r e e ; tla q q a m , he was
... /:-:V
(v ii)
tm
N o te : , I n t h i s c o n t e x t 1 t f i s alw ay s
a m o rp h o lo g ic a l p r e f i x *
^ / nicknam ed.
(S.M .)
'
(v iii)
h e a rt.
,
' ;
'
^ h i e h r i , ■Ash. Wednesday. .
( i x ) ‘'‘' V - . t q - t ^
. (x )
tmewwet, he l o s t
t h . (M.Y* ) tn e y n , two; tn e h h a , i t was ta k e n 'o f f - - ./..
:‘T.V
'
''
tm ie n y a , e i g h t ;
tr
(M.V.’)
;v ■■■
you m easure.
t r a : h > . ' A u s ^ ' ^ t r i l y a , ‘•m u lle t.
94 •
:"v4;
i T*
(i)
./( i i )
(;iii)
•
f t ;■ '(S.My), J h in t> gpd«m other; J ^ i e k 7: n e t ; ,
.^d . ( S .M .); (dieq, jaw s; ^ d iid > ' c o stiV e ;"
';,?.■
'*( ■ ■
'■ V' v -v -■ .; s/ . -.■- '■' . ;■ ■
’•■ '■ , ■’ .'
|f
(S*Mi) ^ f a : r , ;e
\ \ ^4V:;-
(iy ),, ;
) (,Hieh, clo se; f i s t e d t ^
| k ;■(M .V .)1 \te.ie l , o b s t a c l e . - - - ^ k u r p a o o m .
(v i)
/'’■'■'_?VS‘V
Jl
(M.V* ) 5 1 i e f > an a h g liiig l i n e ; - r “ j>3.okk,,:soirbcco,
f ;4 ■ ‘
.4a s o u th ^ e a s t^ w in d f
i
' Xv&t) / ^
(v iii)
Sim S:^
jq
•■• ( i x ) 4 j r
(8*M.) ^ q u : r a , r i l d d i n e s s ; J qu; q* crack s*
;(B.Mi:) ^ ^ a i r ; ^ - s p a
Jr.iek>.ra ^ p a r t n e r ,
i / —’
(Si M*) - ^ tie w iv ’w i n t e r s ; ' j t u r r ^ h n e y e n e d g e s.
18*. W ith fZ* a s t h e f i r s t co n so n a n t
(i)
•, ( i i )
' (iii)
2b
2&
(M.V.)'
2f b l; r ,
(B.M. )
%f /.;(syM.
2 &ied,
p r u n in g ; — z,lDando:la, s lin g *
i t ;in c re a s e d * :
’^ f i i h ^ 'd a i i c i n g . . , ;
(iy),
(v )
(v i)
(v ii)
4 2I '
2m
"
-■
•' ;•->
V-
‘:V:'’v-V
) >;■' :z l i ' ^ r ‘- s iip p O rin e s s ;V p i l e 1, dim ness.
) Vzrhiei^
2n ; (B*M..j’;.;l.znieAiyv:& i n t } :
( v i i i ) ; sq
(1 )
T
(S .M .)
2 qu:
:
smalda* he . sq u a n d e re d ,
2nio3bi>4t>asins*
\ \/V ' '
^
: ^
y' V. / -.4
S e m itic .M altese4h a s4 bnly > ;k io l ,
k; a l l
o th e r words! w ich such, i n i t i a l conson& ntgroupV are
f 6reign.-\'X’;- ^
^ X.r •; '.'\ ':
; ; . '■■"'.. 4/ ‘' ; 4 :i.
v I h a v e 1h eyer iie a r d 'th a # 6i‘<i' .2aq q> sh elly* h s e d in th e ■
p lu r a l. l,giY O i t on th e a u th o r ity o f th e M aitpse d ic ­
tio n a r ie s .
I t may "be a ':m d p -^ 4pi^n*alV4 ^;>4 :
;'■ ,
v; ‘
N ote:
95
Radicsllis marked 2 , fe a tu r e o n ly as lo n g
co n so n a n ts| V, in seq u en ces 1A1, in d ic a t e s v e r b s ,•
and ■y' , in b r a c k e ts a f t e r th ir d r a d ic a l fiT in d ic a t e s
th a t th e l a t t e r i s th e p h o n e tic im p lic a tio n th e r e o f
i n f i n a l p o s itio n *
As^ a lr e a d y ; e x p la in e d , sequence^
marked + are g e n e r a lly Nominais and u n p rod u ctive o f
fu r th e r n io i^ h o lo g ic a l s c a t t e r .; ;
•
'
A
.‘
^
•'
. ■' ■
The consoftdn^ sequences w ith i n i t i a l r fAy a r e : •
b r; b t ; f f g> r f hh; h n ;h w ; 11? mr
‘
(v)
w ,l ;
bb
' '
■; n , d , r ; t , r ;
\
•
With i n i t i a l * e*:*■. bd; y y ; T f ; m ,m ,n ^ ^ ; r , b ^ ;
' > y h f. 'WVl^V.;■' ; ;V
■
v.'-V- '■ -V
-j
With i n i t i a l f i *
v
■' (2 ) ' (V)
bn; b
■
*•• •
‘
s v ■* d; dd} h ,r ;
1 ,1 ; Ivm; m,m; n t ; s e ; h,m; s,q .y fj s , r ; w; z ,d ; z z .
•
96
'" \ ifr" '
■
Sequences ! •w ith i n i t i a l cbnspnant
B
( i ) Gonsdnai^? : v
sequence w ith
m iddl e n a d io a lin c o n s t a n t .
( i i ) w ith f i n a l
rad. in c o n sta n t
-3 Oohsonant 8equ©4be ^
(ii)
if Consonant
- ■ seq u en ce. ■
(ill)
(i)
- ■ !»
4*
B
B
(w)
4«a*
B
B
-
B
.m *
B - B
B
(Y)
D
(Y)
H
(Y)
L
:'
IT
D "4, ; R
VC’B:
mm
L
B
H - H+
B
mm
'L
(Y) - R
B
H
R
B
mm'
S
B...
mm
H
T
B
T+
B
-
K
M
B
B
mm' '
(w)
B
mm
(w)
w Q+
M
;
B
•m
'vB' - K ■T,-
B
;
,D
<■?-
'h
-
RV-;: B '
K
M+
^
« p '
B
B
.
B
-
L
(w)
B
M
L
-
mm
-
B
L
B
h
B
Q
h
S+ ; B
mm
H
mm
II - N
mm
h
mm
L
h
m
R - D
h
-
B 4 h
K
M
mm
B
mm
L
L
+—
T
B
B
mm
-
-
B
L
B
t
B
* + '
0?
N
-
K
L
-
-
S
R
97
( i ) C onsonant
s e q u e n c e v /it h
m id d le / r a d i a l ;
in c o n s t a n t . ^
( i i ) w it h f i l i a l
r a d . in c o n s t a n t ;
C onsonant S eq uence^
.4-
B - D - (Y)
- ? - N *“ ft
■B
B.. -V'lt
;B -
T."^ ? - : B
k S f t i>^-f vB*
B - R - (Y )
'•■ ■rr^-JP- ;;-yt
v
v
s - s
-y ^ • + ■;
s - B - ; r 0B?
;j "v'^ — Q •“
. 2 ■■
| ■—• Q : B -:.R ’^- B / i R r \ ' :_'
’
:B - j - R
, ?,■
■|1;1 B
LS;;f
1;
•i ":'
—,'■■ ■— t ; B —
l
V>:=\
^'. *=- ,. : .T;"
N o te : f o r
T./T
l a s t se q u e n c e
see G lo s s a l;
B - Q - Q ; B —
B
■•/■-: ’. ; h'*( *t-£'. V- : .
' •■
'
?’
B - Q - /
:
_
, .-J,;'
J:'
- R - ■N
V
+
Z
;B; — R •*■ Q - M
'' . - 4* *,:
t; ;b - R - Q
Q
[
4* \
:;5i'B - R - Q - f
.y
B - R - ;W \.-/Z v\n
B ■><**2. f ' ^ :R-r
B
T - B - T
/ • .• V■. - ''■
B
21 *r L
: 33 > ' r3 B - 2 - /
B —Z
, B ■2
■^
B — R —B
H
B —' R \£ Q
B ^ 'r ; -
B - Z - Q
B m*. Z ' - :R ..
'
B - . Z - :L^..
B ^ z • \ 1
■
' r*':
B
:
.
- R - D
B - Q -
: ':'B-
! - '' ' '
r
R “
B "—■
^ iB . - R;/r: K -
, /-
"B''
■ '"-V, ■/ '
B
f
B
B r Q - R
■%*' :w* R *• B
'
4 C onsonant
. S eq u e n c es
■ ?;
■s".
./ ^I', v
90
( i ) Gon. se q . vrith
m ed ial rad. in ­
c o n s ta n t.
( i i ) w ith 3rd rad.
in c o n sta n t
3 Consonant Sequences
4 Consonant
Sequences
(±)
C- E - D
C- F - C- F
C—
C- h
0 - N
0
1
I
1
1
.
*3
1
C - K
14
1
O
1
°+
—K
0
1
W,’
I
(ii)
i
'■ .
None
C
-
R
J2t
0 - R2- T
Q
0 - F - (Y)
0 - W- L - h
D
( i ) 3 Consonant
sequence yrith
m ed ial rad.
in c o n s ta n t.
( i i ) w ith 3rd
rad. in c o n sta n t
■<4 >.
D - (Y) -
3 Consonant Sequences
D - B - B
.
b
:
D - (w) ~ M
D - (W) - Q
/
D
■
.
-
B -
h
D. - B - L
_2
D —B —N
4 Consonant
Sequences
D * B - R
D - n - D - h
D - B “ s
D - K - D —K
D - F - N D - K - K - K
D - F - R
D - L - L -If
99
D (Qonts)
( i ) 3 Consonant
Sequence w ith
m edial rad*
( i i ) w ith 3rd
ra d . in c o n sta n t
D - (Y ) - Q
3 Consonant Sequences
4 Consonant
Sequences
D - F 2- S
D— M - M
D - h - B
D - M- h ( ) D - H - D - N
(ii)
D - h - n
D - M- L
D - N - D - L
D - h - (Y)
D - h - R
D - M- T”
D-
D - N - (Y)
D - h- S
D - M —S+
D - R - B - S+
D - 7 ^ “ (Y)
D
- L - 'Y '
D - N2 - S
D *-■( -
D - R - (Y )
D
- h- K
D - Y ”- p
D - L - L - h+
D - f -
D
- h- L
D - T " - M+
© - h- K
D - Q - N+
D - h - R
D - Q - Q
(Y)
'
-,R '-:- B;
X U : ,DJr';K
D - K - R
r. '
D - R - h(
D - R- S
D -
L - B+
D - S -~f+
D -
L - FD - T '
L- K
D —L - M
D - L -
j
J
)
L- D
- S+
- B- N
.
D -
,■ D -
v
D - M- D - M
'
•too
( i ) 3 Cons* Seqf
w ith me d i a l rad*
In co n sta n t
( i i ) w ith 3rd
rad*-i-^hQphs.tant-
3 Consonant Seguences
4 Consonant
Sequences
V:;p - (y ) -
"F ~ D - D+
d
j'v' ,P V D - L
p':P - (W) - R
P . - D - (Y)
J.
P
L - Q
.
>
F - B
P ~
•R+-
k
r
-
n
F - L' --
F turn M ~ M+ ,. p •* N -• Q - L+
M■N - K
;F:'- «r^ l
■ V-<
FA**.■ax;- R/V; P 'r
D
'
F - L - M
p. - l - ( y )
,y.’ 'x.f. i\ \v;4;Vr ;
L - N+
F ;(r- L;v^-?S\
/®V4. J
.. ' . “ .: ' *•- ‘
P.
P MQ - M
P r- fi - L ■ F -.r' Q
•: ■. '•.: *'*. ' '
:p %; K - M : P - Q —R
P - R - F - R‘
p -
'
--,'6 .-r'.ft:.
r
P - R *- K - A
J
P ~ S -
N
'
.
p *-* R - T - S
P - S - (Y)
p - fi - R
■v ':'
V
■'
'■
y
P—
q
- s
■ p - fi - j +
mR - D
P;'•m
P - K2- K
P - R - J
F -
p -
P - L
h
2 ■
L - K
p - L - L
P - s . - p - s :;: ;v
■ip r S - T ~ Q
:
P -
j - K- L
- :h y - :;p
_
a+
P —. R — S
r
P
• . ./ -V ^' •
R :“ j : .. ' ■
P
S - D
r
.
■'•
■
■■■
1
;
^''/v/ ;VA • . • .
'■
.'
- -
*5
101
F (C o n t;)
( i ) 3 cons* se q
w ith m ed ial rad.
In co n sta n t
( i i ) w ith 3rd.
rad. in c o n s ta n t.
3 Consonant Sequences
4 Consonant
Sequences. ;
F - S - L
F - T - h
F - T - L
F - T - M
F -. T - R
V2
F - T - T
i
^ ,
F - S - L
0 - Z - R
■
Consonant seq*
v/ith ( i ) m iddle
rad . in c o n sta n t
( i i ) f i n a l rad .
in c o n s ta n t.
(i)
Z
r , ' . . ;
•
3 Consonant Sequences
.
4 Consonant
Sequences
.
J -
(Y) -
B
J - B - D
J - B - N
J - B-
S - L+
J -
(Y) -
F
J - B - h
J - B - R
J - h-
W - R+
J -
(i) -
D*
J - B - L
J - B - S
J - fi -
J - fi
102
J (C orit:)
Consonant seq..
w ith ( i ) m iddle
rad*
( i i ) f i n a l rad .
in c o n s ta n t.
3 Consonant Sequences
4 Consonant
Sequences,
.J - D
D
J —- R - R
J - L - 21 - Ii “ -
J - (u : ) - h
:f
D
M
J
R »; B
J V> - B - R
D ■w R
J
R - D
J - (W) - 2
J
's-#'
I
sis'
I
*•3
3 - ( i e ) - lit
J - F
*t-:; •.
V■'
(ii)
y'-'s
1
1
J - H - (Y)
J - h
2
J *■» R - F
.*
R - h
R
If
■L «• L - w"' 2 (5 )
1
**. M — M■-.N+ v.
■
'' .
M •- M - R*
•■J
J
J *» h *• s
*“
J - L —B
J -
mD
J —■L .m
J — S -M • ,
—■L - M
J - L.
0*
r
- r
J —R - S
J " 2 - Z
'J - 2 - R
’
M- M
*M
j m
j - M-
J
M- J - 2
J
R
J - L .
mR - J —. L J m
H (5 )
* R - D - N+
J M
J
R - J - R
.
1' L'
D
r
m'M - R
j m
m
.R
j *m
R ,
J ~ R *- B
3 - K - S+
j -V - D
j
;
L
— —-*
——— — |
105
( i ) w ith m iddle
rad . in c o n s ta n t.
( i i ) w ith f i n a l
rad . in c o n s ta n t.
3 Consonant Sequences
4 Consonant
Sequences
None
G- D- M
G - J - W - J
G-D-L*
G - L - G - L
G - D - S
G - L - L - J '
G~ R ~ R
a
c*j
I
&
G - H - D - S+
g
-
r
(ii)
G - D - (Y)+
2
- M
G- R - B - B
J
G- R - F - 5
2
G- R a -
F
- ■z
+
a ~ 2 ~ 2
+
r
1
P
I
G - D - W - D
1
G - D - B
1
(i)
G - R - Z - M+
G - Z - W- R
104
h
( i ) Consonant seq,.
v/itli m iddle rad.
in c o n s t a n t . w ith f i n a l
in c o n sta n t;
h - (Y) - M
^ v 3 Consonant Sequences
[
•4. Consonant
‘Sequences--;’.
h - L - L
ilt B
h —B — h ‘m
h - M \*r M
h r J
h ** R - Z
h
'
M f _
Y
D •- R
h
N
D
h
N
D - M
h - R
h - R
h -r' W
D
-
h - N - (Y)
h - E2- (Y)
h
h - W - (Y)
h - J
—
2
'• i -
1
h
B
H
_
Z
1Q5
( i ) Consonant
seq u en ces wi-th
m ed ial rad# in r
c o n sta n t
( i i ) w ith 3rd
rad *In con stan t:
3 Oonsonant Sequences
^
_
r fy
/f i.; ; - - j - ; L
'
fi - ( Y ) - B
fi - (WV fi
iv f fi - ( Y ) fi
(w)2 fi - ( y )
fi -
P
L
N
B'^'IrV fi - J - M
K - B - Q
fi - J
fi - B - R
M - J - E
■o.
fi - L - L
r
T
Y - (Y)
fi - B r- 8
- R
fi - B - T f i - L - S
4 Consonant
^ Sequences ;
- B - R - K
fi - M - H - M
fi - M - M - S
■■ :
K— K - D - Q ,
fi - II - P - S
t
f i - L2 fi - M
(Y)
-
(Y)
ft - J — J
ft -* R
ft - R - K ~ S
ft - J - B
ft - R - Z
ft - W - S - L
106
. . ( 1 ) .'d b n s.o n a n t* se< i..
■'''.withV;d^dfial*:; '^ad.
idcbnstanti!
;:w;
P ont:
■•- vf’
f
:3C
v ‘' "‘, v V
• ;r,v.-;;'\ ‘ >'* -::v
v
Gpnsbnani S equences
's.
vv 1v-: . 1
.'-v?'-';- '
\
^ ’• in e o n s ^
2 -
-
V_
4 C onsonant
VSequericea ^
- V '■
(Y )
J '’'.'
.
I
>a <
i
tl ■H# s - B
/
E ~ W - T - L
'
l:^W[ r'ftn 's l ■t-4 J. f V-' ;• ; - -/ff
\v fr «w*. :B1:
^ »r* K
H
.
f i .
^v'
1
E
.
I
j-H
H (h )
1 .- /
;'
kv ■
'\
^■-■.
"
;
■ '■
:
ir
'8 - • 1 4 '. ;
T
'J;.. * i i ®
' f :K '
;
Sy t ' r
fT: r
1
4
tL
T ~M .
HM-': *•
T ~ N
/.
'.1 ,
' ft ' '*** T
■ _ 4“ ;
J ;-;h ’*•“**'V •“ B
\
:
’./y.- „!'
‘
" ", •'* ■!
/'
■ -v
'■
.■■
''
*
;■
■"' 51
' ''V ' -‘"'Uv, 1 ‘
'- I '-'' ■ -
V *-'
■.-■'■'■■■
,•
ft
: 'v ■V'-ii'
■
•
■"
***[
•.Z *
•+ /
.
1M1;’, ;;1. ;; ;1> ;•
■ '
;■ ■
.
’’
107
( i ) Consonant
seq u en ce w ith
m iddle rad .
in c o n s ta n t.
( i i ) w ith f i n a l
ra d . in c o n sta n t
3 Cons onant Se gdoriccs ;v
m'
B ■m
■,v;k :
K - (Y )' - B ;■;
V B - R
v; k
B
• 'V'v ; " K
D
K “ ( i s ) •* Xi -
K - (a :) - z
v,.
////■;
'
-. Vt
:
K MF
.C — C - D
K
&;
i T - B —R
^ :7.
^+
f';K
■Ntv' K :«/R 'r ■
;•
j“
_ ■.'s
K ■*“* F K
m
W- R
i e
tr
R — J■C
V
. ' JT3tt ''•■
K - R - (Y)
■■■Ok -
Ms : K W--:s ; - h
F M
h *?*
K - S - (Y)
M
.L r L
K M
E - W - (Y)
k"
L
K
L r M.
K
M,
/;* *•
. M il
M;'
M
, K
MM
S "
Mte
N
K ,rr N
S
K
K ~
F „-,/S
• •«f. • .%
'■/
Mr - B
K;;**., S;/—Rv;;:
R
K^ T
R - ■^m;-;,:s ; '/- /|
B Vj. &
K - M- N
•-■•.i -
" +-:
E % / K
' K^"*’;.B; r; R - S
K R ■~ B;>
K **'B'-’-i' R - T
^ J (o r ^ )
K
'■
;
K - R —M
/
(ii)
ji
if Corisohant
Sequences
K
B
F:,r:•: • K - R
-^p.\ *■* h+
' C'[m
mK
.J
v'S/
R -
T .*-■R- ■ K - S •• K ,^ S :V 0 )
:K “ T - T - N
/\ .
*' K
E>
y ,
-•
W - K - B :|//:
2 - B ' -* :R/
ids
■ '■
( i ) Consonant
seq u en ce w ith
midiHe pad*
in c o n s t a n t .
( i i ) w ith f i n a t rad#
in co n sta n t*
(i)
L r (W) — M
3 Oonsonant Sequences
;
-
L - B - B+
L '"TIf''"*** N
■■.V-ii.
if Consonant
Sequences
Ti *• B
L
p i' '-'■;F r-:L - F
L - (Y) - L+
: . . , L £ “ VC;}' L
' J.y,
•' ■ L - B - R-
L - (0 ) - h+
L - B - S
L - h - L - h
L <8 -
- T ;
L - (W) - N
L - (W) - T
L
L •* F - F
L - Q- M
L
L - Q-
/-x '~
F -v Q
j
- M
Q "■* L >; Q
l
N - . b ':^:; B--&
;L
L - N - J - S
L - Q- T .. L -
(ii)
L> h - h
L - M ~ (Y)
L - J - J
L‘ — Q •- C+ .;
y *^f
L
Q *" Q
L - W - (Y)
L ~ n r M
L - 2 - N+
L - H *- x?
L - Z - rO
q
-
l
- T - L - T
■'
•
--v. V s;'
■■
.vMv
L - 'h — M :
L - h
Ii - M — h .■ ■
:V'V +
Ii — M - N
. L - M
,
L- r
-
b
■’' *'
'
■V ^ '' v
109
( i ) Oonsonant
sequence w ith
m iddle rad.
in c o n s ta n t.
( i i ) w ith f i ­
n a l rad.
in c o n s ta n t.
3 Oonsonant Sequences
M~ D ~ D
(i)
M - (Y) " 1 '‘
M - (W) - L
f
•
M - (W) - T
ft
1
I
3
M - (W) - S
/y
M- R r
fi
4 Oonsonant
Sequences
M - Y - L - Q+
M- K - K - K ’
y M- R ~ Q
■+-\.
M- h ~ h
M R - S ' ' M- L - L - T
-
m
l
M- h ~ R
M— Q - D - R
M- R
M - h— T . M ~ S - S
M~S ~ h ~ N
M- L - h
M- S - h - R
+
M- T - L ; . M- S - R ~ N
M- L - S
m- f ~ T
M- N -
%
M •" Z
M - '"
B
M- L - L
M -* S *■* h .
/
(ii)
M - L - (T)
M - T - (Y)
f ~
Z
’’ M - T ~ R • ;
s
I
I
s
M
K
M —^
* j
M -
-
Z
M
-
Q- T
M
-
R
M
~
R - B
-
R
;
, _..
■■ ^
, -,y
110
R
Consonant se q .
( i ) ,w ith m iddle
rad* in c o n s ta n t.
3 Oonsonant Sequences
( i i ) w ith f i n a l ^ ,
•
rad. in c o n sta n t
R —B - B ; R
(i)
H - (Y) - B+
*.h;,^ N - B «- Z - R - h - R ■r
.,._ R - B tM
,+-j
R' •*
VNc ■J «. M v lR
j, R <■*■B
;
c
R — Q *- R
R
B - R
IT ** J - R .
,
mT
B m
N
J
R
B
R
h
N - (W) - L+
R
B - B
IT -
fi
H - (Y) - XT
H 'w
N - (W) - R
R\ - B 1 M\
■ -f
R. •a* B * ■R
R - h - Q:
R
fi
R - F -
R
li
N - D - (Y)
*F
IT m
R - K
N - K - (Y)
R « F
n - Y •»: (Y)
IT
>F - L
H
F - Q
R - S - (Y)
R
F - R
1
i
R
N - (W) - M
*v\
f +
—
+
R
•T h
v- :':F)V R *■*
h
S
-
l
;
s
'
'
-f
s+
B
R - K —T
R
M‘
L
.
(ii)
R - F - F
:
fe!
1
<Dro
i
R - F in n a :f,
etc* f i r s t n
m o rp h o lo g ica l
*T
F m
4 Consonant
Sequences
V-'V'"
N ~ <) 2- (Y)
t* S
R *- F ;m
\R - M - S
N - M
R
y
- -L
■
’
111
N Cont:
Oonsonant seq*
(1 ) with'm id-.''d lev W d . in c o n a t ant.' ( i i ) ^ i t h
f i n a l rad*
in c o n sta n t
v'^ '
3 Consonant Sequences
^
V ' * V ^
sr - 'I f ~ m
X
N
N - 'tf'- S
H - Q- B
H - Q- L
■N •* Q — S
N - Q -f"
N — S -* B
IT - S - L
\
*
-
.V
N - S ~ R
N ^ T> P
N - T - h
N - T - W
N - T ~ Q
N - J - P
N - J - L
N - Z - L
if Consonant
Sequences
Oonsonant seq*
w ith m iddle
3?adw ^in co n sta h t;
( i i .) w ith f i n a l
rad, in c o n sta n t
•
•
3 Oonsonant Sequences
• '^-k. Consonant y
Se'<iuence^
11
3
(C ont:)
( i ) Consonant
s e q . w ith
m iddle Rad. I n c o n s ta n t. /
;
( i i ) with f i n a l
rad. inconstant
f '-
3 Consonant Sequences
1
M - (Y)
,N;'r;(y)',,,.;
7'-- R
- (Y) :
y -
- (y)
t
.y - T
- (\V) +
,y~ W - (Y)
. - r <*>
- B
.■ v
p
-y*- N - L '
m -.
^ 7 - R ;^:q;
* f~ N - T
n/^
<?r
- f - R - Q:
f -
r
S
-
£
y* S - L
*? S , - R
y v . Q —D '
S **', B
I*'- T - B
2
y - ». - p.:
R r* tT
K
/p - R - M
;;
f~ ‘ s - D .
Q —B
y -
t
-
j
.
R - W- L
^
'f- R -
+
'jA#* R.
, y -
T - R -H
y
■t - n -
'4 Consonant
Sequences
s
^ *vB
S •* Q
p - S - R
y - R - N+ / y ;z - z
f -
S -
R r RJ; S •
s--
l - y
7"^ V/ '\
D- J +
yT -:'
114
(C ont:j
3 Oonsonant Sequences
(f-
z - B
2> “ L
o
'^Vr.
Z - <3
'Vr!' ’!>
*' - ‘-1^>
/'*'
'
•’
-
'
115
a
( i ) Consonant
seq u en ces w ith
m edial rad.
in c o n s ta n t.
( i i ) w ith f i n a l
rad . in c o n s ta n t.
3 Consonant Sequences
4 Consonant Sequ<
Sequences
U)
Q - (ie) h (y”)
1
<£>
1
Q - (W) - M
Q - L > /I i ■
■’ Q - B - B
Q- L— F " T
Q - M - Q. - M
;
Q- B - D
Q - L - IB
. Q. - B - L
Q-
Q
- b
(y) - s
Q~ B - R
Q - L ■~ t '
q - l - Q
Q - (W) - S
Q- B - S
Q
Q- B - 2
Q - M- h
Q- N - Q- L
Q- 0 - T
Q - M- L
Q- N - S - h
. (ii)
Q - D>
(Y)
Q- N
Q
D - L
I
- L - T
n
I
q -
'
- D
Q - D - D
Q - M- R
Q - N - Z - h
Q- L
- (Y)
Q - D - B
Q - M- S
Q - R - Q - R
Q- R
- (Y)
Q - D - P
Q - M- T
Q - R - B - N
Q- W
- (Y)
Q - D - h
Q - N-J '
Q - R - D - N
Q- D - M
Q - R- R
Q- R - M ~ C
Q- D - S
Q - R- B
1 Q- R - H - S
Q: - P - L
Q- F - S
.
~;r-
Q« R - D
Q- R
Q r B - fi
Q - R — ,Q
T
C
Q-
fi
-B
Q - R - M
Q- R - T - F
Q-
fi
-T
Q- R - N
Q- R - T - S
116
£ (G onts)
( i ) Consonant
seq* w ith m edial ,
rad in c o n s ta n t.
( i i ) w ith i*inai> ;
;
3 Consonant Sequences
i *
rad . in c o n sta n t. '
‘
if, Consonant
^■'^^■BeguencesV.
'?'■£.*■ i ■ - : / V
Q *' H 2
Q *■ R Q —R
Q - R - T - N
Q - R - W- 2
- S
Q.
Q T R>
T
Q - S
S
..V<vj-
J3&"• s . - B
n2
Q - S -
^ ; '-V
S ■* Q *" S
Q •*j f •- L
—F
k - ¥ '\r
Q
- B - R '
Q ~ R— L
Q
- T -
Q - T. i.*. R
;
Q - T .“ T
Q - c
»/
Q "
fy. z
Q
r:
iR y .
2
-
=-
'
■■■
/•'.
' '' - 'T,
117
Oonsonant seq..
w ith ( i ) m iddle
rad. in c o n s ta n t.
-(i i ) y r it h b in a r y
rad> in c o n s ta n t.
3 Oonsonant Sequences
4 Oonsonant
f V:
'■/■■■ ^ S e q u e n c e s "
;
,, ■
~
(i)
- D
R
"r1'B —■h
^ R
R - (a ;) - F
B
R
R - (Y) - h
R - D - D
R
R - (Y) - Q
R
■g.
R
D _2
R - D —N
(a * ) — S'
R
_
’D ,
iJ
x
R - (Y) w ith
2nd & 3rd in ­
c o n sta n t see ,
Ra in G lo ssa ry )
R - B2- (Y)
-
h
-
(Y)
■
;
K ~
v^R iyjsr-- d *
.
K - R
S/,
r
Ii
mm
+■
+
'X
T j-
+
B •
R —P - D
;.r C—’
J - L - ;R;
R
J /'- J;! 7 R
R
R - 7 ^ - W & Y)
2
R
VK
R
*
h -P- N
:tt
-
r
B.
h —L
M
Q - d
’ mm
Q -
R -
q'
R
S - s
—
- B ■
.
R; * s - L
' ~#r.
h - N
R
,
Q —Q
R
R
‘ y-Y ’'
R - D
; R
R ’TV t " - ;®:V
y/
R - M - (Y)
R - (W ) - T
1
R, — P - p+
R ■— P - S!'
R
R
2
R - D - '■ s*£;
(ii)
,K
R
i
&
i
PQ
k7
Ph:.
R - (Y)
,T V
+
s - Q
■
R (C o n ti)
'' 1
'
i
i
—
, L,
- ">■\
,i, ^ ■' ''m
*■
*' 1■
'.■
3 Consonant Sequences
■ • ' ■x
•■p.\ •
R - S - R*
R ■> T - B
R —T - 1 .
j
R
?-V\V
V’t t‘V +
—T - t
R
Z - fit
R.
2 - N
119
s
Consonant se q #
v/ith ( i ) m ed ial
rad. in c o n s ta n t.
( i i ) w ith f i n a l
fcad. in c o n s ta n t.
3 Consonant Sequences
;
■Vo',
(1 )
s
(Y) - B
B
S
s - (Y) - D
i ('
S - £
B
B
u
s - B - L ; v.■ ; S ’
mm
R
s - (W) - D
s - k - K
m£ - M
s m
s - •(Y) -
s $ B ■■ li
s — li —M
/ 's
1
s -
p
<
B - r
s ■■r; fa T N
s — (Y) - h
s - B - R
s
s T; B - - T--f
(ie )-li(r )
s - D - D
s - ■(Y) - L
s
mm
(W) - H
s - (W) - Q
s
-
(W) - E
'
s - (W) - S
s
D - R
S
s - F ~ F
js
-
F - B
F
-
L - B
L
—
F
-
h
$
s
• mm
L
mm
"
M
s
.
9m
h
s
-
F r R
s
M*
J
CM
I
:
K- T
L
s
(W)+
R
tm
' mm
M. -
-
.
s
—
K
s
3? - (Y)
s
K
L
-
s -
-
-
s
(Y)
•s.
•
F
h - T
L ~ L
s
9m
mm
-
s ■- F - h
s
R
:S - K
D - Q
(ii)
-
s
,
s'
s
(W) - T
s
s - h
-
R
s r h " R
;
S
*■*
1L r- Q
-
s - M
T
M
4 Consonant
Sequences
/■v-'S (G oiit:)
Goxisonant seq,.
w ith ( i ) rriedial V
rad. in c o n s ta n t, • \ j Consonant Se alienees
( i i ) w ith f i n a l y.;
rad. in co n s t a n t * :
4 Consonant
.^■^■...SeqiierlceP'
S - Q -^rXY; > f ' t * - -'-'/S; *“ M — D ' ••• S - T - h
(sa)-fQ - S - (Y)
s - w - (y )
J f |7
• ' ’■“•s'
••
M-ni *■'S r 0? » L ;
~ M
.
3«' - R
S —M — T
i'
r:
1-n
'
S
.V.-
Sr:.f ’C r ? T
S ' T —vR ■•
g —h -
q.
' ' 'i\ *?/’ - f s -
S - R - J ' ■s - Q - R
S; - N - h
s - Y -
8 - R TR
;a;;-yRV“ ^r);
S ~ R -: F
jib.??,
r
-
j
i:s._r ;R\^h:.
S - R— K
S -
r‘:
- M
S - R -• Q
.
.
( I ) O o n sp n ^ ^
';
■seq.. w ith m iddle
fff
•; ■■
rad . I n c o n s ta n t. f f 3r Gonsondnt; Sequences
.
•■rad..inconstSnt*;--‘';;':;
^
f
.f ;
f
4 Consonant
Sequences
(i)
rf
;W
(w)
T
T
-
#
H -.
(Y )
-
R
x^
"
f.3%
(W )
T
( i s ) - N+
~ ' , Q y
• (US,):, «£■
T
,
'r
-
: ' ^
T
— B n
b
-
B
- i f -
B
mm
F
•, . T
•
T
p
T ", t
-
(?)
-H i f -
-
- ( y ). H;H.-;0 ,T; ~f
T: .f
*
T ■- W:-;>’(Y )r
■
r"I/H-k "vf
TH
“f
'‘-f
n
,. M
-
h'_
K
T
f l
-
M
K ■r
- -Bn
T
F
T
R
T
:M
M: M
mm
“
- T T' N
IT
;
s
T -
R ;
T
R
T: .
T -
R
ii-. •F
Rf
T -
Rn
- :'J* ::-
> -T
; r •«
. (ii)
.
M: :■- : i - ; ;
T
, 1 IT - T
R _ T - R
fT,: H - N : V' T
rp ••- IT — .s - v : •T - R - B t-: (Y)
■:*r'
-
•M l
T «pi M —
XT
V i ■- P - - :i
T - (w) V r
M ; / f f fO ? ; “ ' b :.
•^ \ • ' . .5’
,*1' M ,mm sM - I
- p >
■- L
T -
: i
*■* F -
>;
;
q
T -
(y
T
B
••-r:® ’ J s & K
T
'
; '•**'
- B
D:
r.'/
\
T
R
- T
;>Q:
T -
Q T T
Q.
T ’M
T
/ :
T —R ;—h
,fF -
R
T- Q
T :.-> R -■ S
T <- R"! — 2: "■
iif;
122
w
( i ) Goneonant
seq.. w ith middle"
rad. in c b n s ta n t. / - # Consonant Sequences
( i i ) w ith f i n a l
ra d in c o n sta n t;
■
' "/*
W - (Y) - B+
V’‘
b2- h , - w -
W'
W - ( i e ) - D* ’}■.i:v'
1V
4 Consonant
Sequences
q
-r
W
..
w: - Q - rT;\ |
V? G:- - o+
,VvW - D - B
w - H - B
w - R - D - N •'
^
W - L2- (Y)
.
■ W
W - H - (Y)
N-
•<w
;D - Q
: w
W- R - Z - Q
K-k:.
+
W. - S - T - N
w - R - T
W - T - W - •T
1
CM
CQ
1
&
W - T - (Y)
-w"■- h - L .. w - s - I ' " .
w - T - T
; :W«
W - h2- R
w - T - R
w; - h - ,
w - Z, - Z
-’- w - L - D : :.w - Z - B
':m' W - L
j A ; <W -
V!i' ' -* ..' W - I N - S
. W;
■
'.
’ :?V
■w- —-
W- S - W- s
.Q - R - Q
W’ ;P 'h!Sfbv:t : w - s - l
:'
■
. W - R - W-
■. w - D - h( J W- R - D
W - K2 -
fl - W - h
■
Z - N
'w
.
V^'D V ;
—R
■.W - Q - F :. ■
'
’
•1’•5
^
123
Coils onant seij* V; £;v
'< ' '
w ith (1 ) raid d lel J:
"v .,
rad* ir ie o n s th iit i:
3 Consonant Sequences
w ith' th ir d /•
•V
rad* in co n sta n t*
.
J - (w ) - P
b
f_ (w) - L
) -
b
’£-B^^^
-
j - (Y)2f 'S : ~
■
£V
B - L - K
)-L -
k
S
(w ) - t
- - i i I U . t ’'
.• g ; J t
d
-
d
£ —D — Q
l
■
j - L - P
£ £ r £ s ;- .V ',.! .;,;
(w ) 2 -
4 Consonant
Sequences
: ^ - N - (Y)
•
I X' ”
■ f
-
j■
m £ £ :r / g g
M —S,
j - n2- q
J -:.F;fi|gV' -£ -
B .
(Y)
( - j 2- (Y)
■£
■■'■; V :’:’'£ g ;£ '
-
(' - W ~: L gfl,-
R
£-
h -h
f- Q-P
V?£-.R - B
: :■£•>" ;:a .7 £ £ :;^ 4 : T ; •£■;££ r 2 -
- // \:;££-V:£; • £ ; £ | £ ; S
q
V p ^ £ ; - ^
d
- p
L
' ■ f - r - b - b+
/ -,VhV - t:\D '
-
,-
V 5' - Q - L - B
( - - j p ' - L £:'• >:■/
q
N-r
J—N—5?—Q r*R
( - h ,- B
| - w - (y ) .;.£;£; ::£ £ £ ; r r-Cr £ . £ £ £ .
'
^ -
v £ ’--
“ T — (W )
'£■' ' ■
/ - L - J - H
/- N - d - r
f « R - (Y)
^ - T
J-&
( - ; C : ^ $ £ ; : £ '■'■•■f - m - w . £ g .
N - iti
e -/(y £ £ £ /'£ £ £ ^
f-ir-
V£
124
(Cont:)
Consonant se q .
w ith ( i ) m iddle
rad. in c o n s t a it .
( i i ) w ith th ir d
rad. in c o n s ta n t.
3 Consonant Sequences
.v'- ;:
R
4 Consonant
Sequences
\ ••
- fi . •
v,V- J - R - K ;■
(- R - Q ;
.
(- T -
:' • ,
• . '•
T
y" /. •.. i ........ f - T - B
:! ' - : ■
'U
fJ.’J
■;> , - T - N .
v :;
' V;*-- :■
3 Consonant Sequences
4 Consonant
Sequences
'■ ’
' ;■V ■'/> ■.
■
Z - B t B Z - B - R
Z - B - L - h
2 - (W) - J
Z - B - D
Z
Z - F - Z
ES3
1
Consonant se q .
w ith ( i ) m iddle
ra d . in c o n s ta n t,
( i i ) f i n a l rad.
in c o n s ta n t.
' V: '
''
2 - B - J
Z - F - K
Z - G- L -
2 - B
Z - F - T
Z - K - Z - it
< i)
Z
-
(W) - D
■S'
1
tl
Z
- (W)2- Q
'
v
D ** M ;■
F .
1
125
(Cont:) '
Consonant seq.#
;><■ y.:.,
■'^w ithvCi^jm iddler ; 'V""' • . y V ‘y y-'yf'V ^ - . ' ‘V
v.
;
rad* in co n sta n t*
3 bonsonant Sequences ^
4 Consonant:
( i $ ) f i n a l rad*
Sequences
ih c b n s ta n t. : : : ;
- V\‘;
*
V::
h - L
Z - R - D
z
-
h - M
Z - R - <f
z
—
2 - (Y) - R+
v;'z'
2 - (y ) - - a ^ v
-Z;. - h - R J.-Z'';Ur - Q . '
2 - (Y) ** 2+ :: j :
• V’
/ ’,‘.'5 ! ^,::V
v
J -
: Z
j
% :«*
.
V -/
I
i
fe!
(ii)
ISJ
z
-T
yv
z
'
,/z
K-?/'''' -
•
■
T : ^ : .;Z'
-•
Z
r-
_ ■* -'>i!
‘v" '
■ z .7 :
-
•/Y1.
i
"'V'' '
*
■
i, •
'
. .
\
T r:1
i C
\ -. V ';
;•/'
2
z
'mm
'
'
x
H
z
L
"
R - R
"■
’■
•
■
N
-
B
-
'
■,
. '
N
•L
L
w yy
.
R r«* R(N)
■ / V
-
-
H
z
Z
f )
T
■j*
z rr\ R - Z 'i-';
TJ
Xt
z
R - B
N
z
R - J
'
«»*
+
R
z - R - K V
z
'
■! ;
:-
z. - Q
^
N - XT
'■
B
z -
z
—
-
z - 7 ^ -R
M- L
+'
-
H
z
^
z
.
z
Ij.H ^ '
■";Z
v
—
M- M;
mN - Z
z ym
Q —Q
—
■
-i
2 - (l() -Jit:;
■■
'.y& — R
,
B .
,z — R - H
z
R - Z
Q
—
Q
.■■■■
NON SEMITIC MALTESE
So f a r , we have e s t a b lis h e d th e v a r io u s p o s it io n a l
and q u a n tity c r i t e r i a o f S em itic M a lte se , many o f w hich
are a l s o a p p lic a b le to a mixed v o ca b u la ry , th a t i s , to
f o r e ig n words, th a t have in some r e s p e c t s , though
g e n e r a lly n o t in o th e r s , conformed to th e S e m itic p a tte r n
or have b een so conform ing h i s t o r i c a l l y a s , f o r in sta n ce*
S e m itic M* q a lb , h e a r t; and lo a n word, mant, m an tle; in
;
which 1a 1 o c c u p ie s th e same p o s i t i o n , so th a t we can say
-'-that' ^nant1 i s f o r e ig n n ot by th e p o s it i o n a l c r it e r io n
o f ’a ’ b u t by an oth er c r it e r i o n , th a t o f th e consonant
sequence m - n - t*
i n t h i s p a rt we s h a l l d e a l w ith th e fo r e ig n elem ent
j
o f th e M altese lan gu age; w ith th a t p a rt o f th e fo r e ig n
vo ca b u la ry v/hich, however m o d ified h i s t o r i c a l l y , s t i l l
j
has n ot conformed t o th e p a tte r n s o f genuine M a ltese;
i
words or elem en ts o f Vfords, th a t stan d out as s t r u c ­
t u r a l l y non-Semi tic *
These p h o n o lo g ic a l c r i t e r i a w i l l be b ased on:
y -;
( i ) Consonants
groups*
y;y;yyyy > > v ■y v
■ yyyy
t h e i r seq u en ces, in c lu d in g i n i t i a l
( i i ) Consonants in p h o n o lo g ic a l Ju n ction s*
( i i i ) VoT/els - P o s it io n s and Q u an tity.
(iv )
Semi^ybwftls fwf and *yf *
(y ) ;' Vowel S egu en ces•
( v i ) ; D iphthongs.
/
( v i i ) Strefcs
:'
The; y a r io n is r u le s ^ w ill th en
by a
M aitese t e x t in mixed vo cabulary w 4tch:y e y add: as a
S upplem ent ifeo P h o n o lo k y vX? ■
These arb* b e s id e a ^ i! ^ Y f/a h d y ^
p o s it io n :
c , g , ; p , whenever th ey o ccu r in s id e ^ y 6 | ,d ,; t u t iiot
i n i t i a l l y as in some, ^ n e r a l l y q u a d r il& e r a l words o f
S e m itic M a lte se , n oy^ yin y^ p iiological ju n c tio n w ith morphol o g i c a l p r e f ix fmf ; a ls o 1v 1^ and 11 s 1 ih ; any p o s itio n * P?;
W hile, th e r e fo r e * such words as c e y c e r , mcewlah*
gpndu : s , mgemgem, pahpah, mpahpah, are S e m itic , th e f o l ­
low in g are n o t:
(a )
- y;f :. y y
y-.'
.y .<>
yyyy
Examples^ w ith fc^
y.-v;;^Jtapc,y ia c k ; b o c c a , b a l l ; n ic c a , nichC; fcdcca, hunt­
in g ; k e c c a , he e x p e l l e d ! i s g i c c a , lie esc a p e d , p a ; c i f y
(1 ) For on^ ^ x c e p t io n w ith i n i t i a l v - yenven ( t o f l i n g ) .
dj> (j ■
yyyyv-’---'i‘-:;.yyyy;.-.y\\y‘'- ?yy’:^--'y'.y
128.
p ea ce ; vu: c i , v o ic e ; l a c c i , shad; q aqocc, a r tic h o k e ;
addocc, hap-hazard; b ic c a , p iece*
(b ) Examples w ith . 'g*
n i: g r u , n egro; jg a n t, g ia n t; v ir g a , wand; t i j g r a ,
t i g e r ; k arga, e x c e s s ; masgna, m achine; p a:gn a, pan;
d o :g a , to g a ; b a g o l, trunk; p a sg a , s a la r y ; B irgu , M altese
place-nam e fo r V it t o r io s a ; a r in g a , h e r r in g .
( c ) Examples w ith fp f * Y
sop pa, soup; pappa, bread; q; v o :p a , k ind o f f i s h ;
toppu, to u p e t; s k o :p , aim; trup p a, tro o p ; mappa, map;
sa p u :n , soap; cappa> a lump; v a p u ir , sh ip ; t a p ! : t , mat;
s t r ip p a , t r e s t l e #
(d ) Examples w ith *vf * .
tr a tv u , beam; v a :v u , baby; v a v a lo : r , b ib ; n a : v i,
a i s l e ; fa v u ;r , fa v o u r; c e r v a , d eer ; n e r v i, n e r v e s; s e r v a , j
s e r v a n t; gvern , Government; dverna, ta v e r n ; c a v e t t a , key
b r a jv a , brave*
( e ) Examples w ith * t s f *
n a tts y o :r i, n a tio n ; k o la t t iy o : n , b r e a k fa s t; g r a t t s i ,
.
V -
'
\
.
.
.
-
;■
■■■
i
■
-■
.
Y
:\
v ;
■
■'
th an k s; m a ttsa , mace; r a a t ts ijt , b lackpudding; F ra n tsa ,
(1 )
D e sso u la v y f s s u g g e s tio n ( s e e h is Mai t ese^-Ar a)>i c
word l i s t ) th a t fm a t t s i : t 1 i s th e A rabic
and th e r e fo r e S e m itic , i s p h o n e t ic a lly unaccep tab le*
France; grantsa, bran; t a t t s a , g la s s ; r a t t s a , race;
v it t s y u , v ic e ; Wentsu, Lawrence; b o tts a , e le c t r ic e t c .
bulb.
. \Y ,
Cons onantal Sequences *
As there is no r e lia b le Maltese d ictio n a ry complied
by unprejudiced sc h o la r s, c o lle c t in g a l l the language
njaterial in current u se, i t i s not p o ssib le to give a
s a tis fa c to r y l i s t o f non-Sem itic consonantal sequences
a c tu a lly used in spoken M altesef
But, fo r our purpose,
the n egative c r ite r io n , that a i l such consonantal s e ­
quences as are not included in the l i s t o f Sem itic
Maltese are fo r e ig n , should be s u f f ic ie n t .
For in sta n ce,
M. words lik e gvern, Government; and ka:mla, moth worn;
have consonantal sequences g -y -r -n and k-m-1 r e sp e c tiv e ly
th at are not included in the l i s t of Sem itic M altese.
I t i s in te r e s tin g to p oin t out th at the much rich er
Arabic language has the la t t e r sequence which i s , th ere­
fo r e , as such Sem itic, but th a t i t i s not Sem itic Maltese
can e a s ily be shown by Comparative Semantics which must
always remain the l a s t r e so r t in doubtful cases where
phonology cannot decide d e f in it e ly .
While M.? ^a:mla,
lik e S ic ilia n camula, means worm moth, A.
form ally the n ea rest, means 1complement1.
,
One important
ru le to remember, which i s a lso deduced from the
;
N eg a tiv e C r it e r io n , i s th a t v o ic e d and v o i c e l e s s con­
so n a n ts or v ic e v e r s a , b e lo n g in g to th e same c la s s l i k e
11 * and td # fo r in s t a n c e , occur in f o r e ig n M altese o n ly .
Examples: b d o : t , p i l o t ; p u b lik u , p u b lic ; f a v u : r , favou r;
sp on za, sponge; g ik k , g ig ; fcarga, load ed
- a gun, e t c .
Another im portant r u le to remember w ith regard to
( i i ) Consonants in P h o n o lo g ic a l 'J u n c tio n
i s th a t i t i s o n ly in lo a n words th a t th e liq u id s 1 , m,
and r v o ic e a p reced in g v o i c e l e s s con son ant; n ote a ls o
th a t w h ile t h i s alv/ays a p p lie s when th e consonants are in
p h o n o lo g ic a l ju n c tio n , i t very o fte n a p p lie s when th ey
are n o t , th a t i s , th e r u le fu n c tio n s a ls o a t a d is t a n c e .
In b o th c a s e s , however, th e c r it e r io n i s h i s t o r i c a l , and
we g iv e i t here b ecau se some w r it e r s s t i l l r e t a in th e
h i s t o r i c a l co n so n a n ts.
Examples a re: sm erald , em erald;
fo r I t a l i a n sm eraldo; sma:g a , he d o te d , f o r I t a l i a n
sm agare; ^margass, b r a g g a r t, fo r I t a l i a n sm argiasso;
p r a e r ill, em ery, f o r I t a l i a n s m e r lg lio ; g a n d lie r , c a n d le ,
fo r I t a l i a n c a n d e lie r e ; majgna, m achine, fo r I t a l i a n
m acchina; g a r d e ll, g o ld fin c h , f o r I t a l i a n c a r d e llin o ;
fgu:m , tou ch h o le , fp r I t a l i a n fo c o n e ; g a n d o tt, g u t t e r ,
f o r I t a l i a n c o n d o tto .
i n i t i a l Consonant Groups.
I
The f o llo w in g a r e c r it e r ia o f fo reig n words:
0:
cm; cn; or; the l a s t except when i t i s a morpholo g ic a l jun ction from Sem itic base c - r - t .
Df
Examples:
cmayra, tetan u s; cnetta^ cap; c r ie v ,
deer. ■
.‘
YY
in dverna, tavern, only. yK ota;^
tsvern a, voiced bjr v* Y';'".'
Ft.
y fy as in fjrutW, | - f l b w e r f y a s k , ; f i a s c o ; fyakk^ weak.
L;tx .;V .i y ,^
N:
. Y Y y'
l i v e l y ; and i v a n t , e a s t . ‘
nv, as in n v e il, le v e l , only.
Note M. fh f fo r
h is t o r ic a l 1 .
P:
pyi p-^i ph, pr; Examples j^pyasn, plan; p
pnewmonya, pneumonia; prusria, plum t r e e .
E:
rci g en era lly preceded by i ( ^ ) , as in ir e e v u :ta ,
r e c e ip t, ir c e t t a , rec&ipe*
S:
s g , sp , sk , except in the three S*M. words skehn,
Y Y; he sou ght s h e l t e r ; sk ie k e n , k n iv e s; and s k i e t ,
s ile n c e .
'
Y Y'Vy?. Y ; ;
Y s t , forming in te g r a l part o f the o r ig in a l p attern ,
and th erefore not whan i t i s a morphological p r e fix .
Examples; ^gu:ra; he assured; sp a ig , pack thread;
sku:na, schooner; sta :tw a , sta tu e .
V]
■ , 7 vr '\'V _
Vd> v g f v l , vy*
\ ; *■' ■■■•
'V'; i . / ’; f ^
''1
Examples: v j i j l i j a b stin e n c e day; v g u :r a , fig u r e
v i e 33a , arrow; vya&3, voyage*
. \ '•
■■•'> ‘
-S .-' ■
2.
- ,
•
V-
•
‘v 1
°
^ • v„ : . ‘ . . ' V „ V - ’
—
I t i s on ly in lo a n words th a t sim p le words,
th a t
i s m o r p h o lo g ic a lly u n in crea sed "by p r e f ix e s , b e g in w ith
i' 'Va c one onant group o f more than tw o.
;J-:# £A
Examples a r e :
s f r a t i a , he bbcame uns t a b l e ; s b r a in a , he to r e to p ie c e s ;
s t r ip p a , t r e s t l e .
^
/
133
( i i i ) VOWEL CRITERIA OF LOAN WORDS
The P haryrigalised Vowels
V o c a lic p h a r y n g a lis a tio n i s a fe a tu r e o f S e m itic
M a ltese.
I t occu rs on ly in th r e e fo r e ig n words from th e
Ita lia n :* * ^ x m n e lla , I t . g o n n e lla , 1th e f a i d e t t a 1 worn by
th e M altese woman; ^ambu, It.^am bo, b o th , fa win on two
;
j
. ’ '■
numbers ( l o t t o ) and ^ a m b ra , I t . ambra, amber.
The Ordinary Vowfels
The v a r io u s v o c a lic c r i t e r i a whereby we can t e l l a
non S e m itic word may be p o s it io n a l or q u a n ta tiv e .
|
A
g e n e r a l r u le a p p ly in g t o a l l th e v ow els in t h e ir p o s s ib le
com binations i s th a t a v o c a lic group in th e same s y l l a b l e
j
can occu r i n lo a n words o n ly .
!
E x am p les:-
p o e ta , p o e t; b e a tu , v e n e r a b le , te o lo g u ,
th e o lo g ia n ; k a o s, ch aos.
Such v o c a lic com binations w ith in the same s y l l a b l e
are m ainly u sed by th e educated c l a s s e s and, to softie
(1 )
T his ^9 ^d, l i k e Eng. amber u lt im a t e ly comes from th e
b u t as i t i s l i t t l e known amongst th e
p e a s a n t s ,i t s immediate o r ig in i s , v ery l i k e l y , I t .
, . ambra.
;
r
;'
"
.. ‘ ‘ '■ , V
..v v ‘
/
1
e x t e n t , by the in h a b ita n ts o f V a l le t t a and th e n e ig h b o u rln g towns.
V^
The e o u n tr y fie d m asses* on th e o th er ■•■7;
hand, and i n a few in s ta n c e s o f lo n g e s t a b lis h e d p r o n u n c ia tio n s , a ls o th e educated c l a s s e s , make such lo a n
words conform t o th e M altese p a tte r n s b y in s e r t in g be^*
:;tweeh<thO^^tvb^VpW-lB^ fw7 or * y ' g e n e r a l l y len gth en ed as
x
1 b the: p h on etlb te n d e n c y ,,o f •S.M . , e s p e c ia l l y amongst th e
uneducated m asses; in which case I t a l i a n fe 1, where i t ' is ' i
th e f i r s t - b r t h e aooondfvow el i n th e grou p , changes t
fy f in M a lte se , in te i* y 6 c a iic a liy le n g th e n e d ,?and i f the 7
f i r s t ydwel I s o , or i f i t i s th e second in th e group
b ut p r e c e c e d ; ^ ^ a ^ i t changes to *wf a ls o in t e r v o c a lic
c a l l y len g th en ed more or l e s s f u l l y ; I t a l i a n ’eo* in
f i n a l open s y l l a b l e changes t o fewf which e x p la in s the
^
o b je c tio n o f S e m itic M altese t o a v o c a li c group in th e
same s y l l a b l e .
The fo llo w in g exam ples l l l u s t r a t e th e
• •. ■" .p r o c e s s : ^ v
7 v ;- ;
I t a l i a n Examples s I t a l i a n
v:V';:v - . ■
.
-';;V
V o c a lic
‘
! ; -'•■"7
Group
(a ) Paese (b ) saetta
ae
v.,'7
M. V o c a lic Group
' :7 i:7 (V-V?’1'
v
'V ■
,
7
(a )a y y is (b )ayye
M. Examples
7
7
la.) p a y y i:z
.(b) s a y y e tt a
P a o lo , Maometto
ao
aw
paw lu;^w nettt
(a ) b e a to
(b ) crean za
ea
(a ) iy a (iy y a )
(b ) 1
(a ) b iy y a :tu
(b ) k iry a n za
t e o lo g o
eo
ly o (iy y o )
tiy y o lg u
p o e ta
oe
owe (6wwe)
potrweta
su o ra , cuoco
uo
L iceo
eo
o:
s p :r u , ko:k
ew
( a ls o iy y u ) Licew a ls o L iciy y u
V o c a lic P o s it io n s as C r it e r ia o f Loan Words
.
-
Is fo r e ig n :(1 ) When i n i t i a l
p ast
A V
'■y-.V,
■-v y . y 7;
in Verb p a tte r n s * th ir d person s in g u la r ,
te n s e - th e b a s ic p a tte r n s as g iv e n in th e M.
d ic t io n a r ie s - w ith f i l i a l a (m orp h ological c r it e r io n ) and
n a tu r a lly in th e gr ammat I c a l s c a t t e r th e r e o f7
Examples o f such V erbs, v ery common in c o llo q u ia l
M a lte s e :- a d d :ra , he ad o res; abbusza, abused; abbandu:na,
abandoned; a v a n tsa , he advanced; arb u :1 a , he l i f t e d up.
(2 ) A lso fo reig n * la I n te r con son an tal • a 1 w hich, when
p reced ed by a consonant and fo llo w e d by two consonant
groups + u or i i s g e n e r a lly lo n g , and sh o r t when fo llo w ed
by a consonant group o f more than two.
P in a l
or f i 1
in t h i s c o n te x t must form an in t e g r a l p a rt o f the word and
sh ou ld n ot th e r e fo r e be con fu sed w ith the m orp h ological
s u f f i x e s fu f or 1i f u n le s s th e l a t t e r i s th e p lu r a l de­
term inant o f a s in g u la r word w ith f i n a l *u V
E x a m p l e s s a b g r u , sa cred ; p a r t r i , f r i a r ; V ya:tku,
V iaticum ; parpru (p i i ) duck; nkw a:tru ( p i i ) , p a in tin g ;
l a :b tu , sc a p u la r ; qa:bru, crab;
b u t gamblp., a shrimp;
p a lp t u , p a l p i t a t io n , t a r t r u , t a r t a r ; m a r tr i, m artyr.
(3 )
In te r c o n so n a n ta l 1a* fo llo w e d by a lo n g consonant and
p reced ed by an unm brphological consonant group, e x c lu d in g
t h e r e f o r e , such consonant groups a s are formed by s t , n ,
or t , p r e fix e d to any o f the consonant seq u en ces o f
S e m itic M a lte se.
Examples.c sbarr, inquest; zmarr, rude; s t a l l a , sta b le ;
sgarra, he blundered; s f r a t t a , he became e r r a tic ; s p a lla ,
shoulder; sk assa, he broke open; z b a ll, a m istake.
(4 )
S t r e s s e d a , i n f i n a l open s y l l a b l e , o rth o g ra p h y A.
E x a m p le s :- k a r i t a , c h a r i t y ; U iiiv e rs ilt a , U n iv e r s i ty ;
v e r i t a , t r u t h ; u ra il'ta , h u m ility ; socye^ta, s o c i e t y ;
v a n i^ a , v a n i t y ; p u riV a , p u r i t y ; s a n i i a , s a n i t a r y i n ­
s p e c to r i n ( t a s - 3 a n i 't a ) .
Note th a t lo a n words from th e I t a l i a n w ith s t r e s s e d fa f
in f i n a l open s y l l a b l e r e t a in t h e i r o r ig in a l p a tte r n , th e
re a so n b e in g th a t S e m itic M a lte se, in ta k in g them o v er,
cannot o f f e r a p a tte r n o f i t s ov/n whereby to adapt them
or t o reshap e them, in o th er w ords, to s e m it is e them. I t
cou ld *iot u n s t r e s s f i n a l #a^, a v e r y d i s t i n c t i v e sou n d ;of
77 7
th e fo r e ig n p a tte r n , w ith ou t pbscuririg tb e o r ig in a l
a c o u s t ic im p r e ssio n , and w ith i t th e meaning.
;
As t h i s
.
7
e x p la n a tio n a p p lie s to a l l s im ila r ly s t r e s s e d v o w e ls, we
h ere quote th e sp o ra d ic lo a n word G lezu fo r It* Gesh,
o ccu rrin g c o n te x tu a lly in th e two p h rases 1t a i i e z u S a
chu^
V a ll e t t a , and th e ex cla m a tio n Ciiezu
Mariyya ( I t . Gesu M aria),
in th e f i r s t exam ple, th e
unetym ologi c a l man in th e s t r e e t would n o t e a s i l y s u s­
p e c t a c o n n e c tio n w ith Gesu, though th a t i s th e word i n 7 7
cu rren t u s e , whereas in th e second example such under­
sta n d in g would be provoked by a s s o c ia t io n .
The f a c t th a t
ffiezu i s th e o n ly word in which M altese has u n str e s s e d
th e s t r e s s e d u o f th e o r ig ln a l I t a l i a n
b ears out th e
e x p la n a tio n I have g iv e n .
-7.--.;
7'
: '
7 ■
;
B
.
7,y
^-7, ' 7^- ...
;// -
777:7 7 ;:
T his vow el i s fo r e ig n .
(1 ) I n te r c o n s o h a n ta lly ♦ preceded b y one consonant or con­
son ant group, and fo llo w e d by one con son an t, where i t ib
q u a n ta tiv e ly lo n g . •
E xam ples: -
77*7,7v--:;
ce :n a, supper; s e :n a, senna (c o n tr a s t w ith
S. M. se n a , y e a r ) ,
kre :ma, cream; rim e: dyu, remedy;
v e s lu , v e i l ; c e : l u , co v e r; z e : l u , z e a l; j b : l u , f r o s t .
138
These p a ttern s, reta in in g the h is t o r ic a l e: are very
frequent in V a lle tta and the twwns, yrhere Sem itic M altese,
and worse s t i l l Sem itic p h on etics, are having a very hard
tim e, but in the v illa g e s e s , as a r u le , changes to the
Sem itic 'ie '#
Examples:-
p len a, pain; y ie r u , true;
c ie lu , cover; Kriedu, breed; Karmiena, fo r Karme :na
(woman’s name); cied a , he surrendered#
As a supplem ent to yrhat we have s a id , i t i s in t e r ­
e s t i n g to e x p la in fu r th e r t h a t , w h ile lo a n words w ith es
correspond to s im ila r p a tte r n s w ith e : in th e o r ig in a l
I t a l i a n , th e p r o c e ss p h o n e t ic a lly does n ot alw ays op erate
v ic e v e r s a ; f o r I t a l i a n e : very o f t e n in M altese c o r r e s ­
ponds to th e S e m itic i s , thus ren d erin g a g r e a te r number
o f lo a n words p h o n e t ic a lly l e s s ea sy t o id e n tify #
j
T his
i s a S i c i l i a n in flu e n c e where th e same phenomenon p re­
v a i l s v/hich, i n c i d e n t a ll y , sh ed s much l i g h t on th e h is t o r y !
o f such w ords, as v/e can th e r e fo r e argue th a t th ey b e -
j
lo n g to th e e a r l i e r c u ltu r a l and com m ercial c o n ta c ts o f
j
th e M altese I s la n d s w ith S ic ily #
Examples a r e : - v i: n a ,
v e in ; t i : l a , ca n v a s, as in S i c i l i a n , from th e I t a l i a n
v e :n a , t e : l a , etc#
•
v
(2 )
'■
;
.
: Vv ■■■'!
In f i n a l s y l l a b l e s c lo s e d by a lo n g consonant or a
i
consonant group, in which c a s e , a s o th e r vow els o f S*M#
.
■■■•
■ ■ .V.,.:
..
-
';•
•;
.
'' '
— _
.
'
' ' ’■ •
.
,
'
~
. 5
; r '.j
•-
3
•'
—
^
,
■
i
J
139
i n s im ila r p o s itio n * i t i s alw ays str e s s e d *
E xam p les:- t s a l i s e t t , sau sage; c u r k e t t, r in g ; m u le tt,
m u lle t; m u r iis e ll, h a y sta ck ; r i j ' t e l l ^
g a t e f torm ent,
b o r 'd e ll, "brothel; e'tern , e t e r n a l; f a r ^ e t t , b u t t e r f l y ,
(3 )
When s t r e s s e d in f i n a l open s y l l a b l e : -
E x a m p les:-
k a fe , c o f f e e ; obwe, hautboy.
v ‘V ■'U :
:
1
.
'
1; ■
' :T ■r
’ ■' ■
T his vowel i s f o r e ig n ; (1 )
In t ercon s onant a l l y ♦ when preceded by a consonant
group, and: fo llo w e d by one consonant + vow el i , e x ­
c lu d in g such p a tte r n s as r e s u lt from th e a d d itio n o f
a f f i x e s to th e o r ig in a l word, in which ca se t h i s vow el
i s alw ays lo n g , q u a n ta tiv e ly a cco rd in g t o th e r u le s o f
S e m itic M a lte se,
E xam p les:-
k r ls .z i, c r i s i s ; v g i : l i , day
o f a b s tin e n c e ; ■ s’;’';
(2 )
A lso I n te r c o n s o n a n ta lly in noun p a tte r n s r e s u lt in g
from 1 consonant > 1 vow el + 1 consonant + 1 v o w el, when
i t i s q u a n ta tiv e ly lo n g (m orp h ological c r i t e r i o n ) .
E xam p les:- f i : d i , f a i t h ; ( c o n t r a s t w ith v e r b a l noun f i d i ,
redem ption) l i : j i ,
(3 )
law .
When in th e P in a l s y l l a b l e c lo s e d by a lo n g consonant,
- v -/-r
''
'
■ ' ■■■*
■- "
V :/'V ; ■
‘ ■ 1^°
w here, a ls o a cco rd in g to the r u le o f S. M a lte se, quant a t i v e l y i t i s s h o r t; and str e sse d *
E xam p les:- m e t i l l ,
■blackbird; p a s t i t t s , p ie ; s a r a t i t t s , beam; g a r d l l l ,
g o ld fin c h ; z i n z i l l , a la d ;
(4 )
When s t r e s s e d in F in a l open s y lla b le * .
E xam ples:4 Mari* Mary; p l!p i, p iss i (baby ta lk )*
(5 )
When P in a l in words o f more than th re e s y l l a b l e s : -
a v v e n tu s r i, a d v en tu res; a r c i p r i e t i , . a r c h p r ie sts*
0
-v
■; • .
.
■v
W h ilst th e g e n e r a l r u le s g o v er n in g th e q u a n tity o f
th e S e m itic vow els in t h e i r r e la t io n to the fo llo w in g
|
consonant or con son ants apply a ls o tb th e vov/els in Non
S e m itic w ords, no hard and f a s t r u le can be l a i d down to
e s ta b lis h i f
fo f preceded; by one consonant and fo llo w e d
by a consonant group must be co n sid e r e d lo n g or s h o r t.
We can o n ly g iv e an approxim ate d e s c r ip tio n w hich covers
th e g r e a te r number o f such p a tte r n s ;
*0 i s g e n e r a lly
s h o r t i f th e fo llo w in g consonant group ends in f a f or 1i f
in open s y l l a b l e and lo n g * i f th e consonant group i s
fo llo w e d by 1u 1 in open s y l l a b l e ’**
B u t, we raust r e p e a t,
t h i s r u le i s by no means w ith ou t e x c e p tio n s , a s , f o r
;
in s t a n c e , do:mma, h o ly medal (L a tin doraina)*
;
. . . ■ - '.-V.'.
.•■■■■■■
141
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o te th a t o: in t h i s c o n te x t
d en p tes th e e l i s i o n o f a h i s t o r i c a l extran eou s vow el in
th e fo r e ig n p a tte r n , t h i s b e in g req u ired by th e rubes o f
S. M altese s t r e s s th a t does n ot t o le r a t e more than one
s y l l a b l e a f t e r a c c e n t.
f o r in s t a n c e .
Take lo a n word la : b t u , sc a p u la r ,
T his i s from I t a l i a n 1^a b ito ( l a b i t o ) ,
w ith a s s im ila te d a r t i c l e , w hich, w ith th e e l i s i o n o f th e
f i r s t u n s tr e s s e d vow el a f t e r 1i f , g iv e s M. form la : b t u .
/■/ v
v .r^*
H .. ; . ' ■ >
•;’;■ 7
':.f v
.
The vowel o Is fo reig n
(1 )
I n i t i a l l y in verb s (m orp h ological c r it e r io n ) in
w hich c o n te x t, q u a n t it a t iv e ly , I t i s alw ays s h o r t.
E x a m p l e s o b d a , he obeyed; ondra, k en n eled ; o b b lig a ,
o b lig e d ; okkupa, occu p ied ; ordha, ordered; o f f r a , o f f e r e d ;
o s sb r v a , ob served ; o ffe n d a , o ffe n d e d .
(2 )
1
I n te r c o n s o n a r ita lly , preceded by one consonant or a
consonant group and fo llo w e d by one con son an t, l i k e oth er
vow els o f S.M.
in s im ila r p o s it io n , q u a n t it a t iv e ly lo n g .
L o:k , p la c e ; k o :k , cook; r o : t a , w h eel; m osta, chim e;
v o : t , v o te ; s o : r u , nun; s k o t ia , s c h o o l; s t o : n a , he was
out o f tu n e;
J k o : r a , sack ; s t o j r , s t o r e ; b ro id u , b ro th ;
f r o : da, o m e le tte ; b d o; t , p i l o t ; k o : z I , in deed ! ;
k q :r ,
c h o ir ;^ v o :p a , k ind o f f i s h ; d zo :n a , zone; m a s t a t t s o s l,
k ind o f ca k e; g a r a g o :r , s p ir a l s t a i r c a s e .
14?
(3)
I n te r co n so n a n tal o preced ed and fo llo w e d by an xun-l
m or^helogi'cal consonant g r o u p * in w hich p o s it io n , as i n q
S.M# i t i s sh o rt •
Examples:-- b r p t t , b a l l * t r b t t , t r o t ; flok k * v e s t ; skbnt,;
d isc o u n t; s p o r t s , s p o r ts ; b r o n ts , b&onze, z b r o f f , sk in
s o r e ; t r o f f a , t u f t ; qroqqa, brood hen; f r o s t a , whip.
(4 )
In F in a l s y l l a b l e , c lo s e d by one sim p le or lo n g con­
son ant or consonant group, s t r e s s e d in b o th c o n te x ts , but
^
and sh o r t in th e l a t t e r
two in s t a n c e s .
Examples:** p i r y o : l , p r io r ; f i r y o s l ,
m an tle; t im p lp t r , w e e v il; - p apocc, s i i p p e r s ; g a b clo ll,
phark;i gar&ptt,:;:g u tte h £ 'k a ^ p ity coatj: r a i^ p r t, r e p o r t;
e S p o s t, exp osed .
(5 )
S tr e s s e d o ir ij f in a l o p e n : s y lla b le .
E xam ples: - bu£o, bureau; rei>o, r e p a s t.
■
;■ •.
■:: y
■■ / '
-■
-
•
; v
’ :
S '
This vowel i s fo reig n
(l)
I n i t i a l l y , when f o i l owed by a consonant group, in
which context i t i s long i f follov/ed by tod, t r , , tl>; and; ■
sh ort in other in sta n ces,
As in th e ca se o f o i , u s , in t h i s c o n te x t, a l s o ,
corresp on ds t o th e h i s t o r i c a l sh o rt and s t r e s s e d *uf
1,A3
fo llo w e d by more than one s y l l a b l e which i s a g a in s t the
r u le o f S e m itic M altese*
Of. M. u: t r u , womb, w ith i t s
I t a l i a n o r i g i n a l ^ u t e r o , M. u: mdu, damp, w ith I t . 'umido
M. u: t l i , u s e f u l, v/ith I t . u t i l e .
Examples o f i n i t i a l sh o r t u are u m b rella , um brella and
u rn a, urn.
(2 )
I n te r c o n s o n a n ta lly , preceded by one consonant or a
consonant group and fo llo w e d by a consonant group, in ­
c lu d in g a consonant + one sem i vow el. •
E xam p les:-
gu ;b ya, p u lle y ; mu: mya , mummy; f u :r y a , fu ry ;
s tu jd y a , he s tu d ie d ; k u :ry a , B ish o p f s h ouse; ju s v n i. a
y ou th ; b u : f l u , b u f f a lo ; gu:mma, c a b le .
N o te : Gu:dya, a M altese p lace-n am e, has been d eriv ed by
N. T a g lia fe r r o (O f. L'Elem ento N eo-L atino N el L e s s ic o
■ ■’
■/,? •. ' •
^
"■ ■
; ■
M a lte se , p . 11) from th e A rabic '
la r g e rocfc,or
\
/7heap o f e a r th . But as the p a tte r n occurs in
lo a n words only> i t i s p o s s ib le th a t th e o r ig in o f t h is
placa-name lin e th a t o f (H al-) tad a, and ^ a n d l , la not
S em itic*
(3 )
F i n a l l y , in open s y l l a b l e , e x c e p tin g m o n o sy lla b le s;
a lw a y s, a cco rd in g t o th e g e n e r a l r u le i f (a ) s t r e s s e d
(b ) i f u n s t r e s s e d , on ly in Nouns ( i n c o n t r a - d is t in c t io n
from V erbs) w ith a v o c a lic sequence a - u , o - u , u - u ,
o f which fu f i s n ot a m orp h ological s u ffix *
(m orphologi­
c a l and p h o n o lo g ic a l c r i t e r i o n ) .
Examples o f words w ith s t r e s s e d u , w hich are r a r e *
are J e s u , J e s u s ; vir^tu, v ir t u e .
*
For com parative purposes;, w hich sheds much l i g h t on
I
th e n a tu re o f M altese phonology, n o te th a t words w ith
f i n a l 'u 1 as we have d escr ib ed them, as in S i c i l i a n ,
whence we have g o t most o f our e a r l i e r lo a n words, c o r r e s ­
pond to I t a l i a n p a tte r n s ending e i t h e r in o , and le s s ,
o f t e n , in e ; hut n ot a l l such I t a l i a n woi»ds correspond
t o lo a n words w ith f i n a l fu f .
Very o f t e n , th e p a tte r n
a d a p ta tio n i s e f f e c t e d by ap ocop ation o f th e f i n a l vow el
i n open s y l l a b l e o f th e o r ig in a l word, a s , f o r in s ta n c e ,
. ,
•
.•
'/
' r 1
'
' '
.
■ '■
M. c a : r , c le a r ; fo r S ic . c a :r u , from I t . c h ia r o , L a t.
.
c la r u s .
Examples o f u n s tr e s s e d ?u ■ in f i n a l open s y l l a b l e : garbru, crab; tr a :v u , beam; fa r r u , b a r le y ; b arru , u nripe
f i g s ; k arru , c h a r io t; barbru, b arb arian ; m o ^ u , w ith ou t
en ergy; b ro :d u , b ro th ; to n tu , s i l l y ; kui'tu, g u ie t .
(1 )
C h a r a c t e r is tic fe a tu r e s o f S i c i l i a n p h o n e t ic s , and o f
many M. lo a n w ords, i s the correspondence o f i : to I t ,
e : and u to I t .o , which some s c h o la r s h i s t o r i c a l l y ;
l i n k up w ith v u lg a r L a tin . For th e l i g h t i t may shed
on M, com parative p h on etics? read th e a r t i c l e on th e
S i c i l i a n d i a l e c t in th e EncJ clop ad la^ I t a l i a n s under
S ic ily .
. • 7"
(iv )
(1 )
THE SEMI VOWELS
’W* i s fo r e ig n in I n te r co n so n a n ta l p o s it io n , p re­
ceded by one consonant and fo llo w e d by a v o w el, or pre-*
c e d e d b y t w o consonante^& nd/follow ed b y a^y
or by
'$j^hth6:i^i.;j^^
Exam ples,:-
’
k w osta, quota; e k w ip a jj, crew; k w is ty o :n i,
q u e stio n ; s t w i e l , beam.
(2 )
/'yv
,
fYf i s fo r e ig n I n te r c o n s o n a n ta lly , preceded by one
consonant and fo llo w e d by o : , as v y o :l a , v i o l e t ; and in
F in a l p o s i t io n ,n fo llo w e d by fu f or ’ i* I n open s y l l a b l e
as p a : l y i , p r iz e f l a g s ; banyu, b a th ; armaVryu, cupboard
b ayyu, sim ple ton ; 3 i l y u , l i l y ; j i l y i ; l i l i e s #
v
\
- /'
Cv---). ■Vt>Tn^L'v':'^Qti^Nq^s
, ;
'■7 ; ■ ■/ .
1^6
.
cr iteria
I n ' t h e phono logy o f S em itic''M altese., we, gave a con>- ;/
p l e t e l i s t ^ t a b u l a t i n g a i l th e vowel; se q u e n c e a o f th e
i -
J
lahguage77 ; Here./we, ta k e o u t t h e . ‘l i s t marked - f o r e i g n , and
giye7 an example f a r , each sequence;^ . ;
(1 )
7
/
7
7,,
F o re ig n , S e q u e n c e s ^ ^ itfc i n i t i a l 1a *
( 1 ) a : - o>; •t r a h o k k , b i r d s ’ t r a ^ i: ; (2 ) a - o - L: k a n n o : ! , r e e d ;
:C3)
~ }a; - >a: appara:.t,y7 A p p a ra tu s; (4 ) a -*\a '--7 e
,
77
r a V a n e i l y ra d d i s h ; J (5 ) a - .-a. - o, qarabocc., m il l e t ;
(6 ) . a H a; v-
..parasbj? 1 , p p a r a s o l ;
u:
t a r t a r u i n , .f i s h i n g n e t ; ; : ; 7(8,)/.'&;■:e ~
a s p q rs p rii^ ^
/ ■;
•7
asp erh o ry u , ,
a - e - : p : , Tkarr^
-77
7
c a r t ; : 7;"''
7
7 %7
7-- :7;;
(10) a ?■*• ;:e :, - u y .Karme: lu7 '( p r o p e r n a m e C h a r l e s )
(11 )
a :~ i
-* 7a ,
a n iip ast,/1 an tip ast;
( 12}
Tlmrdinaf l , c a r d m a l ; :, (13 )
a
-
i
-
a:
,
: 7-7 7
, ■g a b i n e t t > c a b i n e t ;
■((10 :=7#iH7 i ~ i 7 v ^ n t i k r i s t , h h t i ^ G h r i s t ; ; (15;)"; a Y- i
g a b b i l l o t t , l a n d o w n e r ; . ’ ( 1 6 ) a H i - u , TKamillu
7
o >.”■■■.-7
( p e r s o n 1s7
7
hame)(> ( 1 7 ) : a - o - a , g an d o fflay , ;7ohckle; ( 18) a - o - i : , ,
T k a r r o t ts i in ,' 7 c a b ; ; ( 1 :a
(20)
,a;>7k&phra:Tr ; „c o r p o r a l ;
u - u, - e^7 Vkuruhell,^ c o l o n e l ; 77(21)' a, -7 u s“ i :
m a rsu ttl:h 7
777: " v "; -V..7-
.7-
7.
;
•' ‘
. 7- - : ,
7 7,7
. , v " \ - 7 77-
II.
Sequences w ith i n i t i a l ’e*
(1 ) e : a , c e :n a , su pp er; (2 ) e - o , term os, h e a tin g
f la s k ; (3 ) e : - u , ze:iu > z e a l; ( 4 ) e - a; - a ,
t e r z a :n a, h ig h f e v e r ; ($ ) e - o - a , Bernarda, woman’s
name; (6 ) e * a. - i : G erm aniiz, German; (7) e - a - u : ,
p e z a t u :r , p u b lic w eig h er; (8 ) e - e
i : , b e r r e t t i :n ,
p r i e s t ’s b i r e t t a ; (9 ) e - e - o : , terrera o st, earthquake;
(1 0 ) e — e - u : , 3enema:z>; gen erous; (1 1 ) e - i - e ,
ferim en t , wounding; ( i
e - i: - i , 3e n t i : 1 i , gen t 1 e ;
(1 3 ) e - i - o : , v a r ia n t o f ( 9 ) ; (1 4 ) © ~ i - u , p e r ik lu ,
danger; ( 1 5 ) e - u - a , c e p p u lla t t s a , sow f i s h , (16)
e - u -
i:, k e r u b im , cherub*
,
': 7 ; j
III* Sequences w ith i n i t i a l ’ i *
7
(1 ) i : a , m i:na} mine} ;(2 )7 i - i : , f i d i s l , f a i t h f u l ;
(3 ) i - o , f i l o
, gauze; ( 4 ) i - a - a , Ir la n d a , Ire la n d ;
(5 ) i - a fr i ; , b r ig a n t i: n , b r ig a n t in e ; ($ ) i - a - u : ,
f r i s k a t u : r , b a s in ; ( 7 ) i ~ e - I : , b ic c e r iy y a , s la u g h te r ­
h ouse; (8 ) i - e - u : , i s p e t t u : r , in s p e c to r ; ( 9 )
i - i - a , b i k i l l a , b a sk e t; ( 1 0 ) i
- i - o : , c i p p it o : t u ,
teeto tu m ; (1 1 ) i - o - a* irmonda, he pruned th e v in e s ;
(1 2 ) i - o - i : , b i s k o t t i : h , b i s c u i t ; (1 3 ) i - u: ~ i ,
IV.
Sequence w ith i n i t i a l 6 .
( 1 ) 0 - e , torm ent, torm ent; (2 ) o - u : , s t o r d u : t ,
dazed; (3 ) o - a - a , b orrs^ ka, g a le ; ( 4 ) o - a - e ,
; orge(n ett, organ; (5 ) o ~ i : - a , s k o r f i 5h a, screw;
(6 ) o 4 u -■** as? fo r tu n a r t, lu ck y .
V.
Sequences w ith i n i t i a l u
(1 ) u - ey im /le tt, m u lle t; (2 ) u - i : , p u l i :t , w e ll
mannered; ( 3 ) u : - i , j u :r i , ju ry; (4 ) vu - ury tu j u m ,
e n t a i l s ; (3
is y s u f a r ii n , match; (6 ) u - a - u s ,
k u r a tu sr , cu ra to r; (7 ) u - 1 - a : , p u r tin a sr y p o r te r ;
(8 ) u r i - e , p u r c i n e ll, punch; (9 ) u - i : I , cu m b isni,
b < ^ t i s ' ^ V - k u ^ i t i i s x * ^ ..b'oa?a£*±d.or*5 ( 1 1 )
;
7;!'■- 7
u - u: - a» kuru:na, w reath; (1 2 ) u - u - i : , c u n tu r ijn ,
Y,: -7,' ; 7V'7'::v ;; y." -7 ‘/V7
y 7 , / . ;-
149.
( v£;
( 1)
)
■
loAk; words
■:\4^i;*AW;; 4 :
, 7 -7'; 74;
7i n i t i a l - i awj and vawwV fo llo w e d , by one consoriant or
vowel; r e s p e c t i v e l y .7
-4 7; 7- 777-'V 7 '7;.,' • .
'77
,
7 7 O f7the -tb irty H th ree I t a l i a n words w ith i n i t i a l ; , aw;
j
( I t . orthography a u ), th e f o ll o w i n g ;n in e have c r e p t in to
M a l t e s e - a v / g u s r a , he y/ished s u c c e s s ; av/wissu , August;:
awla2 , th e U n iv e r s ity h a ll; avn?o:ra3 , awrora, dawn;
awt e n t ikuy a u th e n ti c; av/togr a fu , auto graph; av/ru: r , ;
au th or; a w to r ita y a u th o r ity ; a w ra :ta , g i l t fish ;; w ith
;these\ we7may add av/ri:n a, u r in e y awrin&:r , t ir in a l; in
which n o te th a t the i n i t i a l d ip h th on g, h i s t o r i c a l l y ,
b t i u ’ r'H 'y; 7 ;;r
■.-■7 '7 7/.‘::,/; -
7 7' 7 4
( 2 ) 1I n te r c o h s o h a h ta lly , preeed by a ;cons onant group, ;
clpsed'Tby; an t ^ p r p h q iq g ic a l’ conspriant. ;
7'
:>•(
v:’" 7 : T h # o n l r i i w prds7of t h i s p a tte r n are:.-? f l a w t , f l u t ;P,f
p la w s, a p p la u se, "boy' slcavrt, hoy sp ou t (r e c e n t E n g lis h , ;,
(1 )
For: com parative p h o n e t ic s , i t is , in t e r e s t t o g ^ t h a t M.
seems to have some o b je c tio n to g sound which i t
": drops in a f ew lo a n words. With:Mi, -lawvfissu, c r . iy*
a g o s to , w ith M.: fr a v /la , strav/h erry, I t . . +f r a g o l a ,+w ith
4:7AMw;7^
h o u s e ,7 l t . dogana, w ith M.-.-W isti*_^
A iig d stin e, I t . A g o stin o .
*„•+«' ~
(2 ) Used only, by, th e U n iv e r s ity s tu d e n ts o f
J ia ll .
7 77^
:whic^i'gets7:: its;n am e f r o m ih e L a tin l n s c r i p t i o n A u l u
Magnat b y e fv th e e n t r a n c e .
( 3) C o n te x tu a lly u sed in th e- phrase qodd iesa ta
I'av/rb •■i*u,7 th e e a r l i e s t niass in, th e niorning.
n e o lo g ism ); f r a w l i , s traw berry; trawma, trauma (m ed ical
v/ord).
(3 )
,•
.
;
■
In f i n a l p o s it io n , preceded by one consonant or a
consonant group i n th e open s y l l a b l e o f d i s s y l l a b l e s and,
alw ays when s im ila r ly f i n a l in words o f more than two
/''syllables*'''-.^
Both p a tte r n s , as an in sta n c e o f mixed grammar, may
he c lo s e d by one o f th e m orp h ological consonants o f S.M.
The diphthong i s q u a n t it a t iv e ly sh o rt and, as in S .M ., i t
i s a ls o s t r e s s e d .
^ Examples
babaw, bogey; armaw, th ey a m ed ; sk artaw , th ey
ran away, bakkalyaw, cod; kawkaw, cocoa; zarmaw, th ey d i s ­
armed; zarmawk, they disarmed you; ir v e lla w , th ey r e b e lle d
ijj^aiaw , th e y en joyed th em selv es.
‘
EW -
,
‘
F in a l ’ eW1, ■when Not preceded by th e consonant s e ­
quence; and in th e same ord er, g iv e n w ith f i n a l y in
b r a c k e ts as an in c o n sta n t r a d ic a l in th e l i s t o f S.M.
b a se s l i k e , fo r in s t a n c e , r - m- [ y ] , whence we g e t S*M.
p a tte r n w ith f i n a l 1ewr in 1irmew*, th ey threw mway.
Q u a n tit a tiv e ly , th e diphthong i s s h o r t and, as in S.M .,
str e sse d .
Example s are rnhzew, museum; Li'cew, Lyceum;
may/s blew , maus oleum.
v.
I'//;
’ ; \. ' ■
(1)
151
When in i n i t i a l p g sitip ri* \^ :'
Examples
ayfu* atmosphere 5,/.^ .h'.
^
a y y u ta n t, a d ju ta n t;
e a g le .
(2 )
:■■•//'' '•
.
v /'V--''
When in th e f i n a l cldaed s y l l a b l e o f words o f more
t ^ n two s y l i a b i e a where i t ?is^ alw ays s tr e s s e d * /
E x a m p les:- i n f i s k a y t , , : 1 w a i s i r r i t a t e t i ^ ^
;/
p lann ed *;
-V
\
V
V \ . ‘V ^ '^ -
fforbipn in final^ s y l l a b l e o f words o f more than two
■ . . . ' ';"'iSyllables;V.vAs^'ift'S^lW iy'i t /isvvaiways^’stre sb e d *
BxatnpiesV-^^ a rd en tier> s ilv e r s m ith ; a v v e n tu r ie r , adven; ; 5
turei>; p a rru k k ier, barber*
:
N o te :/ ;No fu r th e r c r i t e r i a o f e x c lu s iv e ly non S em itic
p a tte r n s r e s u l t from th e p o s iiio n h i std d y o f th e o th e r
"■"'".a ’'
diphthongs*
r, •. ■'
'
1
■'
,' ' ■
' . : ' -;f ' ''
1^2
STRESS AS A CRITERION ,
(v ii)
En p a ssa n t; we have o fte n r e fe r r e d to fo r e ig n s t r e s s ;
under th e proper h ead ing we rep ea t th e im portant r u le th a t
" It i s o n ly in lo a n words th a t th e s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e i s
fo llo w e d by more than one u n s tr e s s e d s y l l a b l e >" which
d i f f e r e n t i a t e s S e m itic M altese n ot o n ly from such la n ­
guages as i t a l i a h b u t a ls o from e l b s s i c a l A rabic and some
o f i t s d ia le c t s *
Examples are K a tto lik u , C a th o lic ;
te o lo g u , th e o lo g ia n .
;
That M a lte se ; e s p e c ia l l y as spoken by th e u n cu ltu red
c l h s s e s , does n o t e a s i l y :t o le r a te such s t r e s s i n g ; may be
se e n fro m :th e fo llo w in g com parative l i s t s o f exam ples in
which th e f o r e i ^ ; p a tte r n s a^
made t o conform t o the
r u le o f M altese s t r e s s e it h e r (a ) by e l i s i o n o f the f i r s t
sy 11 a b le - c o n s t it u t in g v owe! a f t e r th e s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e
w ith , g e n e r a lly , consequent le n g th e n in g o f th e p reced in g
s t r e s s e d vow el or ( b ) by s t r e s s s h i f t i n g accord in g to the
S e m itic M altese p a tte r n .
(a )
F I r s t p r o c e ss
.
Non S e m itic M altese
’
I ta lia n *
1*
p u lp tu ( p u l p i t )
p u lp ito
2.
p a lp tu ( p a lp it a t io n )
p a lp it o
3*
rkaxptu (m a te r ia l)
r ic a p i t o
(1 )
The I t a l i a n words are g iv e n in t h e i r orthography*
'v
Non S e m itic M altese
153
;•
I ta lia n
4*
ta :v la
(p la n k )
5*
6.
aslriiu
: (co u rage)
animo
p o jp lu
(p e o p le )
popTolo
i:
gvern
(Government)
Governo
(ta v e r n )
tavern a
,8. ■ dverna.
9.
10.
11.
12,
fe r la
■' ,
f e r u la
;' ( g ia n t fen n e1)
vo :mtu
(v o m it )
vom ito
karga
(u n d ertak in g)
c a r ie a
t a r t r il ; ( d r e g s ) ;\;V;■J , j
■
(s c a p u la r )
13.';; la s h t u
p erg lu ■ ( p u lp it )
14.
15#
16.
ta v o la
storiku
(stom ach)
( c h a lic e )
k a lc i
■'- ’*■'‘‘V
Second p r o c e ss
ta r ta r o
l* a h it o
pergamo
s tomaco
•
c a l ic e
.; •
As lo a n words are g e n e r a lly tr e a te d as in p r o c e ss (a )
t h i s com prises a sm a lle r number o f words*
The c o u n tr i­
f i e d m a sses, how ever, apply t h i s process; to a few
I t a lia n a t e lo a n s .
While th e ed u cated c l a s s e s say
/W z ik a ^m us id •;>/ It> m u sica, ^ K a fto lik u , C a th o lic , I t .
O a ttp lic o , A ppos^plika, A p o s t o lic , I t . A p o s to lic a , the
p eo p le in g en er a l p r e fe r th e S.M * measure mu: zk a, hut
a ls o rauzi:ka, ( i n th e v i l l a g e s ) , p u b ilt e i1 t o 7p u h h lik u ,
154
I t . P ^ ^ iip o i^ d is p u :$ a to d isp u ta f A fffi:k a ^ A fr ic a , to
A ffr ik a j and th e E n g lis h word ’manager’ ^a r e c e n t neo­
lo g ism ,; has hpen;; adapted t o m ahejer h y th e M altese "bus
cd n ^ c to ^ ^ S y B u t I have n ever heard f o r e ig n words o f
m o reitlia iith ree^ s y lla h i.e s ^ l i k e K a tto lik a , su b je c te d to
p r o c e ss (h ).
( 2 ) 7S tr e s s i s f o r e i ^ w ^
d e sc r ib e d *14: ^
a ccord in g to r u le s a lrea d y ;
f i h al
Qlpjsed by a
lo n g consonant w ith , or w it h o u t ,. m orp h ological a d ju n cts
and 4;%>. ',4
(3 )
'4^.-4
■ 4-4''-'v ■. s■
'
In Noun lo a ir w ords, , in c o n t r a d is t in c t io n from verb s
(m o rp h ologid al c r i t e r i o n ) , where s t r e s s - f a l l s on 1a :114
1a ;t f and fa :r r, c lo s in g f i n a l s y l l a b l e .
E xam ples: - a r t a s i , a l t e r f l n d a n n a ; t , damnedj kacriasr,
k itc h e n drudgery. .
*;'‘v 4 . \ .
444;.
■ SUPPLEffiNT TO PHONOLOGY
■v
fo llo w in g : i s th e tr a n s c r ip tio n of, p a rt o f an e l e c t i o n
■bill w hich is;;^c e r ta in ly ; n o t a ^specimen o f good l i t e r a r y
M a lte se , "but i t s language b ein g the' t y p ic a l c o llo q u ia l
o f a p fo fe s r t o n a l, .a ffo r d s his ;e x c e l le n t ;opjportixnity to
4
i l l u s t r a t e how ;fd r e ig n words mix n a t u r a lly wi th genuine
M altese b rin g about a harmonious in te r p la y o f the
v a r io u s .p h o h o lo g iq a i4 r u le s :'.;o;f, Sem itic.; and non. S em itic
M altese th a t’, i e haye . b e e n : e sta W .ish in g .
lin e d
A ll; words under­
foreig h > and h e r e , to show how the m u ltip le
c r iteria m d y ;: h e ^ p liq d ^ w it h good r e s u l t , we s h a ll, a n a ly se
p h o n o lo g ic a lly th e f i r s t th ir ty -tw o words in the l i s t * :
T o i l l u s t r a t e ,t h e ■p h o n etic correspondence hetween
the standard ;s p e l l in g now .taught in th e s c h o o ls o f M alta
and th e t r a n s c f ip t io ii, v/e haye .a lso rep eated the same. .
p a ssa g e in ;:^ the4current orthography which sh ou ld show 4
' e a s i l y . -/now
ea,tahii'shed s p e l l i n g is . p h o n etic ./
and how-' f a r ;;^ h tq r ic a l* 4.- -'
444
GVern K olonyasli f le z e k u tl:v 4 4‘
7Meta lg v e rn im p ery asli wara lis s o s p e n d a l
4
; K o titu ttd y o :n i n e l ^ h a ^ 3 ^ 6 1 1 0 f u%*amel gvern k o lo n y a :li
:
1
/ '
?
V
■-4-
‘4 1■4,44 4 4 ; l / 4 v ^
m i l l a k t a r s t r e t t » i l gvefh atu : r 7rton 6 ;m ta r r e se y y a h h li
44
' 'iiiehu "p a r t i ^ a t 4 i e l e t //darba f l e z e k u i i :v.
I e n adcet^ ay14 ta S t zewg k b h d iz z y o h iy y ie t: - lew w el ii^ f e y n
m a /y ij i f l e z e k u t is v kinA riryu 4 7 a l p r in c ip y i N h ttsy o n a l-
4 /4 fls ^
li4aij>q.a f i ^ z e k u t i
flin i ^ ie ii
ma^sflasbi y ir n e j^ T i:li d a ji:b k o s t it u t t a y o n i oSra, ;^aktar
l i b e £ a : l i 'miMdi^:ic li4 ie h h a # * Sewwaeew k i ; f ilg v ern a ^ u sr
lp p r o k ia smal k o s t it u t 4 s y o ;n i4 ^ 3 d iid a ,4 y ie n a ta y t
id d im iss^ o :h i
4 iy y e y k i: f ^ o n t w e ^ i& t m h ia e c e V ta y t .
4 fa :f l i s b o s t a minn sfiarbi t a l a h t i : k , b h a l may/lcol!
4 )o sta m iim /d a w k li: flix n ^ o d d i spB'tnewni b i l vo i t ^tabhom
>:
;,m fSadii;|;
g o at4lijy ie n a c 4 c e 1 & a y t l i n if^form a i>arti
m ille s e c u ii:^ .
U hnal ^aw f l h cce t ta t/t s y b : n i
iy y e y b h al a
j e s t ^koirtra l i n t e r e s s i t a f e o s p lu r^izda y ie n ^ h d n i
hafi«|bV k i i f ^Kslbt m e ta c c e i4 a y t -'li:/n a ^ < ^ e i^
m ille z e k u t i :v l i ^yien Jraf/hjfeiit;^
4
4
& i i k ie n
gempl ic e 4 ien t dofres r ' t i y y e y
A cd et 4 a y t
Lewwel^nett
? a l i e f ^ d eh erli^ : l i t k i e n t a m i:n raa
•i
J■
y it l i fj
^ a lk o llp ^
. I'-y
'
'
4> ■
V^
*3
lo p p o r tu n ita l i : lg v e r n a tu r : t h a i l i e f i
fid e y n ^ ie s l i / s e t ^ ' e w yew may k o lfo m j
id e a
/ j u s t a t a l b z o n n iy y ie t t a l ^pojplu yew /y ^ a j 1 m a 'y a fu :/
;■/. '
'r'
" >'/■'•1 '■•'
'' ■
'; /
'
' ' "v - '
yew
m a y r i^ ; d u : 4 i t t i e n i k ie n l i s t e s s Gverh
.
- /
4'
' 7' — r
■ ■ • \ 4'
'4/ 4 ' ‘
4Vi m p e r y a ;li l i f t i : t i slu k ie n 1111c e n ts y a :n i bKala
M i^iistru l i "kien ^i~H sd is e y y a h l i/ b lia la k o n su l£ u :rj
^
■■4 /
itiie le t
r - 4
■'■' 4 'rff ' ■ ■
4“/ ’ '
■'
nemmen w in /h os s 1 1 met^yandek okkaz^yo: n i
l i y/ta y 'm e l id d o ^ /v e :r 4iyyek /u w w a l i : ^ t a T m e l u mu:j
11
/t o q y h d t i t •Kaddet' b i s s ♦ / l l l u : m , wara 4 a : k l i / ^ a d d a '
a 'v o ly a /ra y t 1 i 4 a y t ; k a /j u n y l, 4gideb# in £a:m yi mihdawfcU:
11 /deirba 4 :ie n u /h b ie b /t iy y e y 7y ie n a ^yadni^nhoss 1 1
''m ilt d a k li' k ie n
^ewwa u m^yandi ^ lib la d is p y a o i: r l i
smayt ^ i s e m l l l v u : 61 ta il; ku f y e n t s a /t iy y e y u 1 1 a
/ 4 ;
4
4 . - ' 444 44 44 / 4 4
v/ ;~4'‘ -4 44-.
m ilt da:k 11 d e h e r ll k ie n sewwa.
The above p rose p assage in th e stan d ard s p e ll in g
GVern K o lo n ja li f l - e z e k u tlv
Meta 1 -g v e rn im p e r j a li, wara 11 isso sp e n d a
l- K o s t it u z z j o n i nebhiha g h a l k o llo x u gftamel gvern
k o l o n j a l i m i l l - a k t a r s t r e t t , il- g v e r a a t u r ygfiah-nom t a r - r e
: s e j j a h l i f t a l l l nieKu p a r t i
g f i a t - t i e l e t darba f l -
e z e k u t iv , j i e n a b c e t t a j t ta h t zewg k o n d i z z j o n i j i e t : 1 ewwel l i x e j n ma j i g ! f l - e z e k u tiv k u n trar ju g fta lpr in c ip j i Naz z jo n a l i s 11 , w i t - t i e n i 11 n ib g a 7f l -
158
e z e k u tiv sakemm f lim k ie n ma sfiab i j i r n e x x i l i l i n gib
k o s t it u z z j o n i ofira, ak tar l i b e r a l ! minn d ik l i k e llr ia .
Sev/wa sev/, k i f il-G v e r n a tu r ipprokklama 1 -k o s t i tu z z jo n i
1 -g d id a , J len a t a j t id -d im is s jo n i t i e g f ii k i f kont
wegM fit xneta a c c e t t a ^ t . ,
Naf l i b o s ta minn s f e b i t a 1 - a n t ik , bfialma w k o ll
b o a ta minn dawk l i fl-im g S o d d i so stn ew n i b i l - v o t taghhom
ma fiadux g o a t l i j i e n a e c e t t a j t l i n iffo rm a p a r t i
m ill-e ie k u tiy " ; huma raw f l - a c c e t t a z z j o n i tie g K l bfiala
g s s t k on tra 1 - i n t e r e s s i t a l- p o p lu , iz'da j i e n gtfadni
nafiseb, k i f S s ib t meta a c fc e tta jt l i naglimel p a r t i m i l l e i e k u t i v , l i j i e n m^gfiamiltx f t l i e f dak l i k ie n s e m p lic e ment dover tie g lT i.
Gfiax A e c e t t a j t
L-ewwel n e t t , g lia lie x d e h e r ll l i k ie n ta7 min ma
j i t l e f x 1 - o p p o rtu n ita l i 1 -g y ern a tu r t S a l l i e h gh a l
k o llo x f H d e jn n ie s l i se tg h u , jew ma jkollhom x id e a
g u s ta tal& b z o n n ij ie t tal-r p o p lu , jew gfiax ma jafu x^ jew
gfiax ma J rid u x , i t - t i e n i k ie n 1 - i s t e s s Gverh ir a p e r ja li
l i f t i t i l u k ie n i l l i d e n z j a n i b fiala M in istru l i k ie n
qieghed i s e j j a h l i b b a la k o n su ltu r , i t - t i e l e t gfiax
nemmen u nfioss l i m eta ghandek o k k a zzjo n i l i tagfimel i d dover tie g fie k , huwa l i taghm el u mbux l i toqghod
159
tith a d d e t-h is s .
Iliu m , wara dak 11 ghadda, a v o lja r a j t
l i 3?a3‘t , k a lu n ;ji, gideTo, in fa m ji minn dav/k l i darba . .
: k ien u hbieh t i e g h i , jie n a ghadni
n hoss l i gh am ilt dak
;
|
i
l i k ie n ^s.ewy/a; u/m^gfian^^
h i s s m i l l - y u c i : ta l-k o x je n z a t i e g h i
l i gliam ilt dak I I
d e h e r ll -kien^''Sewy/a.--'.;:'
,
/ ;
P h o n o lo g ic a l D e s c r ip tio n o f L oanw ords
1*
G-vern, !.fo r e ig n hy (1 ) consonant fv ! (2 ) Consonant
seq u en ce, (5 ) V o c a lic p o s it io n ; i t has "been s e m it is e d
o n ly in th e rria^ter o f s t r e s s , c f . I t governs ( h i s to r ic o -p h o h o io g ic a l c r it e r i o n ) •
2.
^(In ip e r ia l) fd r e ig h hy. (;1) I n te r n a l con so­
nant I p . " ’(*2) Consonant s e q u e n c e .: ( 3 ) V o c a lic s e ~
quence. I t s on ly elem ent a g r e e in g w ith S.M. i s p o s i ­
t io n o f s t r e s s ( h i s t o r i c a l agreem ent) .
3*
is s o s p e n d a , (suspended) f o r e ig n "by (1 ) I n te r n a l con so n a n t *pf . ( 2) V o ca li c . s e quence, ( 3 ) Consonant s e ­
quence. P o s it io n o f s t r e s s ah in S.M. ( h i s t o r i c a l
ag reem en t).
;
/■- /
y'.-;'
4.
Kos11 t u t t s y d : n i ( c o n s t it u t io n ) f o r e ig n hy (1 ) i n t e r ­
n a l consonant t s . (2 ) 'Consonant seq u en ce. ( 3 ) V o c a lic ;
seq u en ce. ( 4 ) ^Vowel o: . S tr e s s as i n S.M. ( h i s t o r i ­
c a l agreem en t).
^
5* K o lo n y a ili (C o lo n ia l) fo r e ig n hy (1 ) Consonant s e . : quence. (2 ) V o c a lic seq u en ce. S t r e s s as in S.M. .
■ ( h i s t o r i c a l agreem ent)*
'6i
S t r e t t ( s t r i c t f o r e i g n : hy (1 ) I n i t i a l consonant
group. (2 ) V o c a lic p o s it io n .
i
160
7.
nosm (name) fo r e ig n hy vowel o:
8.
r e ; fo r e ig n ‘by v o c a l i c p o s itio n *
S.M. has o n ly one
su ch word. (O f. Ph o f S*M. vow el *ef )*
9*
p a r t i ; fo r e ig n hy consonant seq u en ce. S t r e s s as in
S.M. ( h i s t o r i c a l agreem ent); v o c a lic sequence b e lo n g s
a l s o t o S. M. , h u t w ith a d i f f e r e n t sem an tic fu n c tio n
(m o rp h o lo g ica l c r i t e r i o n ) .
10.
e z e k u t iv ; fo r e ig n hy (1 ) Consonant fv f . (2) Consonant
seq u en ce. (3 ) V o c a lic seq u en ce.
11.
a e c e t t a j t ; f o r e ig n hy (1 ) I n te r n a l *c f . ( 2) P o s it io n
o f i n it ia l a.
(3 ) p o s it io n o f d iph th on g *a y 1.
(4 ) C onsonantal seq u en ce. (5 ) V o c a lic seq u en ce.
12.
k o n d i1 1 s s y o n iy y ie t (c o n d itio n s ) fo r e ig n hy (1 ) t s .
( 2 ) V o c a lic seq u en ce.
( 3 ) C onsonantal seq u en ce.
k u n trasryu (c o n tr a r y ); fo r e ig n hy (1 ) Consonantal
seq u en ce. ( 2 ) V o c a lic seq u en ce. (3 ) P o s it io n o f sem i
vow el V 1. S tre ssi as in S.M. ( h i s t o r i c a l agreem en t).
14.
•p rin clp y l ( p r i n c i p le s ) ; f o r e ig n h y (1V I n i t i a l con­
sonant group. (2 ) V o c a lic seq u en ce. ( 3 ) P o s it io n o f fy f •
15.
N a t t s y o n a l i s t i ( N a t io n a li s t s ) f o r e ig n hv (1 ) t s . (2 )
consonantaX sequence* (3 ) V o c a lic seq u en ce. ( 4 ) p o s i­
t i o n o f V. f i f .
v-
16.
y ir n e f f i
sequenceT
17.
l i h e r a s l i ( l i b e r a l ) fo r e ig n hy (1 ) V o c a lic and (2 )
co n so n a n ta l seq u en ce. ( 3 ) P o s it io n o f f i n a l ' i 1.
18.
G veraatusr (G overnor) f o r e ig n hy (1 ) i n i t i a l con so­
nant group. (2 ) C onsonantal seq u en ce. ( 3 ) V o c a lic
seq u en ce. ( 4 ) V o c a lic p o s it i o n s .
19*
iuproklaim a (he p ro cla im ed ); f o r e ig n hy (1 ) fp f . ( 2 )
V o c a lic seq u en ce. ( 3 ) Consonant seq u en ce.
20.
d im is sy o s n i ( r e s ig n a t io n ) ; f o r e ig n hy (1 ) o s . (2 )
C onsonantal seq u en ce. ( 3 ) V o c a lic seq u en ce. (4 ) P o s i­
t i o n o f f i n a l ’ i 1.
:
.
.
.
'
-
*
.
( i t su c c e e d s) f o r e ig n hy ( 1 ) C onsonantal
(2 ) V o c a lic seq u en ce.
|
j
*
161 '
7
21 ♦
a n t i sk ( a n t iq u e ) f .f o r e ig n by ( 1 ) Consonant se q u e n c e /v
f ( 2 ) "by pos i t i o n o f v o c a l i c •;s e g u e n c e , which, i s o t h e r - :■
■’wisev-BemiticiJ/.;^. V r ovr_
y
.
* .I
. . :8 0 s trievhii ( s u p p o r t e d : me w i t h n i = me ) ; f o r e i g n "by
( l"530onsonant sequence., ( 2 ) P o s i t i o n p f ’ew 1 *
23
*
v o :t (vote) f o re ig n b y ( 1 ) v a n d (2 )
0
:.
24.
g o s t ( p le a s u r e ) fo r e ig n hy consonant . secLuence*
\ ,P o sitic ^ liy ^ v d ::c q
t o :S*M/v
‘‘
,
;■ ^
22
25* ; n i f f o r m a f o r e i g n h y (1) G o n ao n a n tal sequence.. (2 )
■;*•/' V o c a l i c s e q u e n c e . " g /v /f
v / ..T-v”.'^
,v*
^
;'^;a.$Qept,ahe^
•(1 ) .’ c 1.: ■
( ^ rh y ^ t s f , '-JCj'J^’hy;;’o:i *, (4 ) p o s it i o n o f f i n a l i .
( 5) V ocalipr ahd c o n so n a n ta lse q u e n c e ^
y.v1/
27
* ^ # e sty (g estu ^
p a r tin g .
/ 28.
"
Kontra (a g a in s t
d e m u r s ) ' c f .
'
1
sequence..ferg,, .h a ir
. :
yy
)}fo r e ig n ,'ty ic d n so n a n ta lv seq u en ce^
^^ in td rfessfc^ ^ l ( i n t e f h s t s ) i § f o f e i g h hy (1 ) /G onisonantai
' v \iv S o g u e h c 5 7 ^ 2 iv y o c a lf d ;^ ^ e q tte h c e ;^ :-'/■
30
.
posplu (p e o p le); fo re ig n i y : ( 1 ) p.
(2 ) o:•
31.
semplifcemdrit ( s i m p l y ) ; f o r e i g n h y ^ i ) c o n s o n a n t a l
:
- s e g n e n c e . ( 2 ^ V o c a l i c sequerice. (3 ) P o s i t i o n o f f i h a l •
1e f.
: ^ ^; • :
‘
.
•
■ dover ( d u t y ) / :f o r e i ^ ' hy ( f ) ‘ c o n s o n a n t; : *vf . ( 2 )
' VocaliC; s e g u e n c e . /. y / / ' y c '
■
.
32.
a
'. ' V
'£y ^ p '
'"sT ’f'f;?:;. Y t ■"-f" >;4' f ■£■ f - ri
.;.
{: ^
PART I I i’ ' " .1/ :
'
MORPHOLOGY
‘-\i ,/■
L
,V
,
162
>V-
A' , / , \ v . . . /
\
. V .
.-■i"; v T HE VARIABLE ELEMENT 0? S.M. MORPHOLOGY
In tr o d u c tio n
In p hon ology, we dealt; m ainly w ith th e form al
d i s t r i b u t i o n o f th e v o w e ls, in t h i s p a r t we d ea l “wi th
th e form al d is t r ib u t io n o f th e consonant seq u en ces p lu s
tlie Q orrela tlY e v o c a lic m o d ific a tio n s or seq u en ces th a t
g iv e sem an tic d e f i n it e n e s s to th e u nvow elled b a s e s , which
as su ch , o n ly su g g e st some s o r t o f meaning too vagu e,
how ever, t o be o f any u se fo r sp eech p u r p o se s.
One
such v o c a lis e d consonant b ase has to be ch osen and
f i x e d a s a t e s t p a tte r n , whereby to compare and check
th e form al b eh aviou r o f fu r th e r s c a t t e r .
We s h a l l use
a V erbal p a tte r n , m o r p h o lo g ica lly corresp on d in g to th e
3rd p erso n m ascu lin e s in g u la r , i n w hich the second
r a d ic a l f e a t u r e s i h t e r v o c a l i c a l l y .
The p a r t ic u la r v o c ­
a l i c seq u en ces - and th er e are s i x o f them - do n ot
m a tter a t th e moment, a s we s h a ll d e s c r ib e them more
f u l l y when we come to d ea l w ith V erbal p a tte r n s .
What
m a tters i s th e con son an tal elem en t o f th e V erbal Base
which we s h a ll use throughout to sy m b o lise a h y p o th e tic ­
a l o r ig in a l b a s e .
We s h a ll r e f e r t o t h i s t e s t p a tte r n
:‘
V ;v
^-
..
■
.
163
as th e V erbal B ase, or a s V. B. fo r s h o r t.
In S e m itic and S e m itise d M a lte se, m orp h ological
d e f i n i t e n e s s i s a m atter o f th e proper c o r r e la t io n o f
the v o c a lic and con son an tal e le m e n ts, w h ich , betw een
them, make up th e vocab u lary o f th e spoken la n g u a g e,
|
and, by th e fo r c e o f l i n g u i s t i c im it a t io n b ased on
form al a n a lo g y , a ls o th e new words co in ed by th e modern
w r it e r s to e g r e s s id e a s fo r which th e lim it e d s to c k
o f cu rren t vo ca b u lary does n ot p r o v id e , th u s c r e a tin g
;■; g r a d u a lly a Neo*-Semi t i c M altese w ith w hich we s h a ll d ea l
- ;v . ; brl!efty/eiL;i,e'vfhe3peV
The co n so n a n ta l elem en t o f w ords, b a s ic and s c a t t e r , j
w i l l be r e p r esen ted by th e th re e c o n v e n tio n a l r a d ic a ls ,
Q - T - L , which we s h a ll use throughout to sym b olise
any tr ic o n s o n a n ta l b ase w ith th e th r e e r a d ic a ls th a t are
co n sta n t a s to p o s it i o n , and, fo r m a lly , appearing i n a l l
th e s c a t t e r o f th e o r ig in a l b a s e , i n c o n t r a d is t in c t io n
from o th e r s , a ls o h y p o t h e t ic a lly tr ic o n s o n a n ta l b u t w ith
one, and i n a few in s t a n c e s , w ith two r a d ic a ls — w, y —
in c o n s t a n t .
The reason why th ey are c a l l e d in c o n sta n t
i s t h a t , i n some o f the s c a t t e r , u n lik e th o se c o n sta n t,
th e y d isa p p ea r a lto g e t h e r .
These in c o n sta n t r a d ic a ls may occur i n i t i a l l y ,
m e d ia lly * f i n a l l y and, i n th e few in s t a n c e s o f double
T.BfHna-i in c o n sta n c y , m e d ia lly and f i n a l l y , as L - W - (Y),
73:7'' ' - :,7
’ ■V:7;7 7': ' ‘ .7 •;
77- '
^^^'■' ,Vy73
H. - Y - (Y) , i n which c a s e , how ever, th e secon d rad­
i c a l ‘w or y , fo r m a lly behaves l i k e a c o n sta n t r a d ic a l
i n th a t i t always appears in th e p o s s ib le d e r iv a t iv e s
7
o f th e b a s e , in i t s r ig h t o rd er , w hich b r in g s u s to
7
the fo r m u la tio n o f th e im portant p r in c ip le th a t no mat­
t e r how th e Jc o r r e la tiy b =vow el or Vowels may v a ry , in
a l l th e p o s s ib le s c a t t e r , th e con son an ts alw ays r e t a in
th e order e s t a b lis h e d by t h e ir own b a s ic seq u en ce.
T his a p p l i e s ;i a
X
f\w! ,■'_and fy f * an d / t e r any o f th e
p h a r y n g a lise d vow els fe a tu r in g a s r a d i c a l s .
As a v a r ia n t o f V.B.
Q - T - L , we have Q - T - T ,7
w i t h ;th e l a s t two r a d ic a ls th e sam e, and w hich, i n
spoken M altese i n th e V.B. we have chosen as a t e s t
p a t te r n , amalgisuiihte in t o one lo n g consonant o n ly to
s p l i t up in t o two s e p a r a te , though p h o n e t ic a lly id e n t ­
i c a l , con son an ts i n fu r th e r s c a t t e r .
m ean, we t a k e t i e
To show what we
s tr e tc h e d , as an in s t a n c e ,
w hich, by an alogy w ith V .B .^ e h ^ t , he threw , fo r m a lly
i s supposed to be fo r h y p o th e tic a l ^meded*, and ^radd*,
he r e s to r e d , w h ich , by-’an alogy w ith radam, he b u r ied ,
fo r m a lly must be th e p h o n etic im p lic a tio n o f o r i g i n a l,
radad.
Of. d-d p o s it io n s in niimdurd, s tr e tc h e d , w ith
p o s i t i o n a l l y corresp on d in g h and i
i n mi^ftu: t , thrown*
and d**d lh^t^rduijd,:. r e s to r e d w ith drjn, i n mirdu:m,
b u r ie d .
"
■"
T his e x p la in s th e c o n v en ien ce, f o r purposes o f
form al d e s c r ip t io n , o f h y p o th e ca tin g tr ic o n s o n a n ta l ism
throughout a ls o f o r such p a tte r n s , and lik e w is e fo r
th o se w ith one o f th e r a d ic a ls in c o n s t a n t .
There a r e ,
b e s id e s , Q u a d r ilite r a l b a se s; b a s e s made up o f fo u r
r a d ic a ls sy m b olised b y Q - T - L - L, b u t i n t h i s case
third^and fo u r th ra
which
or may; nc>ti t e
:
d i f f e r e n t , p h o n e t ic a lly , never amalgamate in to one lo n g
consonant a ls o when th e y are id e n t ic a l* as in gerbeb;,
he r o l l e d .
^
7
; ■
4.,y7
.
7 ;7 ;
With th e q u a d r il it e r a ls , we sh ou ld n ot con fu se t r i co n so n a n ta l b a se s w ith m edial r a d ic a l m o r p h o lo g ic a lly
-■' \ r — Yy-e • ■ /• ' :' ..-- W 7 7 \ ^ / v
:
1-■ ' 7 ' V- 7 7
le n g th e n e d as* h abbat, he s tr u c k , from h ab at, though in :
th e l i s t o f consonant seq u en ces th a t we gave i n ^
?
1Phonology^, we have in clu d ed a few such p a tte r n s , th e
tr ic o n s o n a n ta l b a se o f w hich, though p o s s ib ly s t i l l e x ­
ta n t in A ra b ic, has ce a sed to e x i s t , or fu n c tio n as
su ch , in M a ltese.
;
7v'7; .
We now ta b u la te fo r r e fe r e n c e th e v a r io u s Verbal
b a se s: -
'
7 7
'
''7
,
(2 )
Q - T - T
(3 )
W- T - L :
(5)
Q _ (Y) - L \
(6)
q
- t - ( y)
;Y?Y
■" '■'•■■7
'■
/ 7
. Y Y .7 8
;?Y
166
The c r ite r io n fo r deciding that V.B. 4 and 5 have , wt
and , y* r e s p e c tiv e ly for medial ra d ica l i s based oh
whether u, o, w in ( 4 ) or i : , 1 , y in ( 5 ) featu re in
the s c a tte r .
This i s , however, as fa r as the V.B.
i t s e l f i s concerned, only a convenient assumption, though
not without a h is t o r ic a l phonetic j u s t if ic a t io n based
on a n a lo g ica l t r i consonantal ism; a c tu a lly V.B. (4) and
(5 )
as t e s t p attern s are biconsonantal with medial a:
or i e .
But the r a d ic a ls absent in the V.B. appear in
the s c a tte r .
E x am p les:
V.B. S - ( y ) •- B, to fin d i s sa :b , or s ie b , as
spoken, but i s ir b , he fih d s (with in t e r -
j
consonantal 7 i* for h yp oth etical fy f )
and misyu:b, found (iy* fea tu rin g as a
•
p rev o ca lic r a d ic a l)7
V.B. Q - (W) - M, he got up, i s
Qa:m, as spoken,
but iqu:m, he g e ts up (w ith in te r conson­
antal fuf for ,w* ) , and qawma, a resu r­
r e c tio n , (p o stv o c a lic ’w’ appearing as
a r a d ic a l), which compare w ith habta, a
c o llis io n , from HaBaT, he stru ck , where
h yp oth etical w and b are, p o s itio n a lly ,
7
analogous. ■
i
What we have explained* iriust have made i t cleetr
th at Maltese inorph.ological p attern s are e s s e n t ia lly
v a ria b le as to form,
;
This w ill he seen b e tte r from the
l i s t o f p attern s which we have given in separate ta b le s
w ith short ; Introductory notes to ex p la in them formally*
and a lso fu n c tio n a lly where necessary♦
!
With the Invariable Element we s h a ll deal sep a ra tely
in , Bt * We s h a ll continue to use M*1T. to Indicate that
the p attern in question i s also shared by fo reig n words
to an ex ten t th at w ill be difecussbd sep a ra teiy in the
Morphology o f Non-Semi t i c Maltese * and S* M* to in d ica te ^
^
th at the pattern has not a ffe c te d any loan words*
168
Table 1
This Table in clu d es a complete l i s t o f Nominal
p attern s r e s u ltin g from the corresponding Verbal Bases
(Col. i v . ).
Semantically* they denote *action* or
*sta tes* nominally conceived* as, q ari, (th e ) reading
from V,B.
K - R - H.
Q - R - (Y) and kruha, u g lin e s s , from
The v a r ie ty o f the th ir t y three Nominal
p attern s th at are the s c a tte r o f such Verbal bases
depends on the v a r ie ty o f the vov/el or vow els, in
some p attern s a lso on the ad d ition al s u ff ix e s , and the
consequent arrangements o f the consonant sequences as
described in Col. i*
These nom inals, denoting *action*
or *sta tes* * o f which several examples are given in
Col* i l l * are matched with a l i s t o f form ally co rres­
ponding nouns (Col. y ) , but which are not the s c a tte r
o f Verbal bases * though they them selves may be produc­
t iv e o f such bases
referred to as denominative
verbs — and o f the further s c a tte r th ereo f as * for
in sta n ce, ha;)3ar, he stoned; ta h jsr , sto n in g , e tc .
from noun ’hajar, sto n e •
T h is, as the given example
shows* r e s u lts from the phonetic length en in g o f the
medial ra d ica l th a t may or may not be retain ed through­
out in a l l subsequent s c a tte r as* for in sta n ce, ta lijiir *
fo r the other form, a ls o current, t t ia j j lj r , in which
the phonetic lengthening o f the derived V.B. i s r e ­
tain ed .
in Col. iv the more frequent v o c a lic sequences
o f the Verbal bases th at give r is e to the nominals in
Col. i i i are not l i s t e d n e c e ssa r ily in the order o f
the example in Col. i i i .
P attern V a r ia b ility
Many o f the examples given in Col. i i i are subject
to fu rth er formal m odification by the ad d ition o f su f­
f i x fa f to the l a s t consonant, w ith consequent e lis io n
o f the u n stressed vow el, i f the word i s d is s y lla b ic
with medial ra d ic a l in te r v o c a lic , as wahrna, a w ish, from
waham, d esire; or to f in a l ’I 1 or ’u* in open s y lla b le
w ith th e ir consequent change to 'y* or fwf r e sp e c tiv e ­
l y a s ;Jlrys,''.a run;^
f e lu .
^ ir i; and felw a, a f i l l y , from
This w ill apply a lso to D escrip tiv e patterns
(Table 4 ) , where s u f f ix fa f has a purely gender func­
tio n , as helwa, sweet (fem inine) from h elu , m asculine,
in c o n tr a d istin c tio n from i t s
Semantic Function
in Noun p attern , where i t may in d ic a te -
u n i t y o f a c ti o n (061 ^ i i i ) , t M t isV
;a c tio n ^ d o n e oii<3 e ; a s i i a r s a , a lo o k , fro m
^;’V-^;:'(;i I )
the way an a c tio n ; i s per formed (Col. I l l )
a^M
g a it; v':
k itb a^ ; 6 ne:*a■w a y /'o f-w itIn g .
( iii^y.;:rio\m< o f u n ity o r fe m in in e gender. (O ol.v)
In the l a s t in sta n ce, the c r it e r io n is^ n a tu ra lly ;
lo g ic a l*
For in sta n c e , *warda* from /ward*9 r o se s,
can only -:meah a :(one) rose; kelba, from kerb, a dog,
With other formal developments r e s u ltin g from the
ad d ition o f the plur a l l sin g s u ffix e s we s h a ll deal
und^ruthe; propef heading*
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Original Nouns, /with
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.Examples of Nominal Scatter
(Abstract i'Touns)
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T a b le s 3a - b - c
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N om inal S c a t t e r w ith i n i t i a l ’ra1
D e s c r i p t iv e H u les
■ ( I ) - ?-::in S e m itic iia lte s e y there are s i x t e e n part earns-
w ith initial;^ nprphclpgical
f follow ed or not "by any
o f t h e fiye^ m phar^galise& ;ydw eis*; and other seven lo n e ly
forms which we ^ a l l describe sep a ra tely , derived (a)
yv >
eith er, frofe th e .VCrb^l Base;|or (h ), from other nouns, the
o r ig in a l Verbal^
iii M altese, may he
h is t o r ic a lly traceab le ;in i t s parent — Arabic*
iii th e l i s t s o f exam ples we s h a l l i n d i c a t e e x t i n c t
> adiG alS /;hy'.an., a s t e r i s k ^ 's
(II)
The fo rm a l b e h a v io u r o f th e c o n s o n a n ta l and
v o c a l i c e le m e n ts t h a t make
th e d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s i s
i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b le 3 a - b - e - d , t h e s e v e n th and e i g h t h
p l a c e s o f w hich show th e f u r t h e r v o c a l i c se q u e n c e s o r
modi f i e a t to n s th a t may re s u l t e i t h e f f r om th e a d d i t i o n o f
th e s u f f i x e s o f th e d e ^ e rn k iia te p lx ira l o r th e fo rm a l r e ­
c o n s t r u c t i o n o f th e p a t t e r n f o r th e in d e te r m in a te p l u r a l ,
w h ich we s h a l l e x p l a i n u n d er th e h e a d in g | p l u r a l P a t t e r n s f
The V ocallc se q u e n c e sth a t d e t ^
(III)
fdrms o f the eighteen p a ttern s, given in the Tables* may :
. .;bev4Ivlde4^1nto four c la ss e s ;
(1)
V ocalic sequences that are correlated to
triconson an tal bases wi t h second and th ird
; r a d ic a ls d iffe r e n t. ..
,
_
(2)
•
Those correlated to t r i c o t
bases
w ith second and th ird ra d ic a l id e n tic a l
(Pattern Q - T T). i \
V
: (3 ).i^
bases* ^
J r ' ^ i t h - ' - ' - ’wi^^or^ty^'Vas-the medial vinconstant
radical*
'
.
’ ( ^ J J T h o e e correlated to a biconsonantal base
^'^j^v^wi-th■■thirdrhdi^alV|w * JdrrJ■-*yl*
(IV)
p r e fix 'm* i s follow ed by any o f the fiv e Vowels,
according t o p a t t e r n w h e n the base i t i s attached to
has the f l b s t hnd^second;radicalsJin phonological
junction.
Thus an i n i t i a l triconson ah tal group i s
broken up. ■ ' J-r _•>' :
(V)
' 4-
•" ' '
./ ^
-.^v:
In p attern s 1 to 10, 14, 15* which have zero
vowel be tween the second and f i r s t r a d ic a ls , morphologic-? J
a l ’m1 i s separated from the f i r s t ra d ica l by an in ter^
Veiling vowelj in pattern 17, ib which the f i r s t ra d ica l
disappears, from the second r a d ic a l, whereas in p attern
11 to 13 and 17 i t forms a Consonant junction
vowel) w ith the i n i t i a l r a d ic a l.
(VI)
In pattern 1 to
74 the
second and th ir d ra d ic­
a ls are separated by an intervenin g vowel or by ' i e V
w h ereas i n p a t t e r n
11
-
13
th e f i r s t vow el i n th e
seq u e n ce i s fo llo w e d by a lo n g c o n so n a n t w ith o r w ith o u t
fin a l
1 a*
i n open s y ll a b le *
In
8
- 1 0, th e y a r e in
p h o n o lo g ic a l ju n c tio n *
(The fo rm a l d e s c r i p t i o n s t h a t we have g iv e n may
be su p p lem en ted by f u r t h e r stu d y o f th e T a b le s , and th e
r u l e s t e s t e d b y th e l i s t s o f w ords t h a t we have g iv e n
t o i l l u s t r a t e ea ch p a t t e r n s e p a r a te ly ) *
s e m a n t ic
f u n c t io n
The S em an tic f u n c tio n o f ’m1, t o g e t h e r w ith th e
c o r r e l a t i v e v o c a lic s e q u e n c e s , i s t o i n d i c a t e ;
(a ) th e p la c e where th e a c ti o n e x p re s s e d b y th e
o r i g i n a l V.B. t a k e s , o r h a s ta k e n , p l a c e .
(Nouns o f
P la c e ).
(b )
The in s tr u m e n t ,
d i c a t e d i s p e rfo rm e d .
(c )
w ith w hich th e a c t i o n i n ­
(Nouns o f I n s tr u m e n t) .
The tim e when an a c t i o n h a s b een f u l f i l l e d .
(Noun o f Time o f w hich t h e r e i s o n ly one i n s t a n c e ,
M ille d , C h ris tm a s ; l i t e r a l l y N a t i v i t y D ay).
(d )
A number o f o b j e c t s c o l l e c t i v e l y c o n c e iv e d
su ch a s a r e i n d i v i d u a l l y d e n o te d by th e o r i g i n a l p a t ­
t e r n , i n t h i s c a s e , a noun, a s , mi j f n a , f l e e t ;
(c o lle c ­
t i o n o f s h i p s ) from g i f e n , a s h ip ; m iz b la , p i l e o f
188
ru b b is h , f r o m z i b e l r ; ^
(e);^ The
1 c o n c e p tu a l
a b s t f h o t n e s s * o f i ^ e m eaning
exprehs<Bd* b y t h e h r i g i h a l
N ouns) a s
m habba, l o v e , a f f e c t i o h , from h ab b , theitfe lo v e d ; m a h fra ,
f o r g iv e n e s s f r o m h a f e r , he fo rg a v e .
U n lik e o la ^ ^
4
i n s i m i l a r fo rm a tio n s ^
u s e s *mi* ( i n v o c a li c sequence i - a , i - a :V and i ^ a a , p a t t e r n m iq ta W ) t o i n d i c a t e th e Nouns o f In h tru n ie n t,
and 'ma*, to i n d i c a t e th o s e } o f 'p l a d e - /arid tim e ^ “Mai
makes
no su c h se m a n tic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , th e f m ic tio n
o f t h e d i f f e r e n t jypw eis b e in g p u r e ly p h p n o lo g ib s ^ i as
t-- /
(1 )
-
A ra b ic d o e s \h o t.^ a lw a y s. m a ljija in ’th e d i f f e r e n t i a t l o n ; i t h a s b o t U ^ ^ , van d 3 ' f i . f o r s p i n d l e ,
(m : S i a & f e e x y y \ y ^ / ■
l i e x i & 6 . ( & • Jnaobad),
189
ip
*r*3ur\
4*
OH*
OH
W-P ft
©©
WM
3?
• -A.
o<w
p
«tf O *H O
o»
gp
gp
cp
o*
N\
-4*
LT\
VO
-.a*
co
•
iA
O H
■p
*A
*
Q) H
CO
■HI^S
O *
43 ^
® ph
<3y -p
co pa>H
p
<
1) OS
♦fl -P
VO
VO
CM
* rl
<y
O’
IT\
Vp
v*
191
-pa> *po>
0 0
rT-p
so
ra k
O
4*
•H
CO
192
EXAMPLES OF THE VARIOUS PATTERNS
We now g iv e th e w hole l i s t o f th e Nom inal s c a t t e r
w ith i n i t i a l 'm 1,' ta k e n from M. A. V a s s a l l i 1 s le x ic o n *
An a s t e r i s k means t h a t th e word i s o b s o l e t e , and a c r o s s 4
t h a t t h e r e i s s e r i o u s re a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t th e d e r i v a t ­
iv e g iv e n i n th e M a lte se d i c t i o n a r i e s , h u t n e v e r h e a rd
i n th e sp o k en M a lte s e , may have b e e n e v o lv e d by a n a lo g y
th o u g h , a s s u c h , i t may a l s o have r e c e n t l y a p p e ared i n
l i t e r a r y M altese*
The v o c a li c se q u e n c e o f th e o r i g i n a l
V e rb a l N om inal b a s e , where i t s t i l l s u r v i v e s , i s g iv e n
in b ra c k e ts .
(1 )
P a t t e r n m a Q T a L s~
E x am p les;
+m abhar ( a - a ) , c e n s e r ; +m abqar ( a - a ) , h e r d o f
c a t t l e ; m abrad ( a - a ) , f i l e ; +ra a b ja r ( a - a ) , many
new s; m abzar ( - a; - ) , p e p p e r; * m ab jar ( a - a ) ,
d u n g - h i l l ; * madbah (e - a ) , a l t a r ; m adhal ( a - a ) ,
3E '
/
\
e n tr a n c e ; madmad (n o n e ), y o k e;
m adrab ( a - a ) ,
doorw ay; * m afrad ( e x t i n c t ) , d is h ; majraar ( a - a ) ,
f i r e p l a c e *; *m ahrab ( a - a ) , asylum ;^m ahdar ( a - a ) ,
m a rria g e g u e s t s ; m ahtab ( a - a ) , p i l e o f wood;
_
/. : :
■
.V . 193
*maKwar, d r u g g i s t ’ s shop; m aksar ( i - e ) , p a r t o f a loom;
+m anbar ( a - a ) , p u l p i t ; manqa
(a - a ) , c h i s e l ; maqbad
(a - a ) , h a n d le ; +m aqbar ( a - a) c e m e te ry ; maqdab (a - a
p r u n in g k n i f e ; +maqhab (o -
o),
b r o t h e l ; maqsab ( a - a )
c a n e - f i e l d ; maq a r ( a - a ) , heap o f h u s k s ; maq ad (a - a)
s e a t ; +m a r b a ^ ( e -
a ) , s q u a re ; m arqad (a - a ) , d o rm i-
t o r y ; mas j a r , ( i ~ a ) , co p se ; m a tf a ^ " ( a - a ) , rammer;
m a tla b (a - a ) , o r a to r y ;
m a tla ‘J ^ ( a - a ) , a s c e n t;
m a ^ a r2 (a - a ) , t i t h e s .
(2 ) P a t t e r n m a Q, T e L
*m ahleb ( a - e ) , m ilk in g p a i l ; mahbez (a - e ) , oven;
m ahsel ( a - e ) , w ash in g p la c e ; m arden (a - e ) , s p i n d l e ;
ma l e f (a - e ) , fo d d e r; ma zeb ( e x t i n c t ) , stem o f a
p l a n t ; ma z e l ( a - e ) , d i s t a f f ; m ahzen (a - e ) , m agazine;;
*mahwet (fro m h u :t> f i s h ) , f i s h m a rk e t; ma je n (a - e ) ,
k n e a d in g b a s i n .
(3 ) P a t t e r n m i
*m ibzaq (e
7
Q,
• .
T a L " ■t ; -
a ) , s p i t t o o n ; m itr a h (e
:
a ) , m a ttre s s ;
m in fah (e - a ) , b e llo w s ; ^ n id b a h (e - a ) a l t a r ; m isra h
(e -
a),
open s p a c e ; m itq a l^ (o - o o r - a: - ) , th e
w e ig h t o f (alw ay s u se d i n c o n s t r u c ti o n w ith a n o th e r noun
o r a p ro n o m in al s u f f i x a s y isw a m itq la d eh e b , i t i s
w o rth i t s w e ig h t i n g o ld ,
(1 )
(2 )
(3 )
m itq a l q a n t a r , ’ q a n ta r j w e ig h t)„
O f. A.
, cannon.
G f/A .V /^ iu » t e n t h p a r t .
O f. A J f i j S y t w e ig h t o f a b a la n c e , HAVA.
(4 )
fa tte rn m
QT e L
1
+m idhen (e - e*5 , o in tm en t} + m i f l e s ( i - e * ),
tre a sin ? y v mi jb e d ( i - e ) , s h a f t}
p la c e ;
mi JLes ( i - e * ) , n arro w
m irk e b ( i - e ) , ship} m in fe s 1 ( i - e ) , n o s t r i l }
m i n j e l » sc y th e } m inkeb ( i r* e ) , elbow} m in z e l ( i - e ) ,
la n d in g p l a c e ; m izw et , p o d ; m iz re k , l e a n p e rs o n .
( 5 ) P a tte x h i m r u &
■T ': v/-,:;*vV / ‘T
t
m isitaiW ;('a. 4-;k J i i i a i l ^
m unqasr { a , ~r a )
b ea k ;
;
( 6 ) P a tte r n hm q& % de
M --
I
,';y:
'
m usbieh (e - a)> lam p; m u ftie h (e - a ) , k ey .
(7) P a t t e r n mo QVT i e L m o q d ie f (a ;;- e ) , o a r ; m o h r ie t, p lo u g h ;
; ( Hbte:
($ )
S t r i c t l y sp e a k in g # N o .7 i s h a r d ly
/ e n e s s e n t i a l ' p h t t e f n . a s 'i t ; - ; i s
o n ly a v a r i a n t o f 6 )#
P a t t e r n ma Q T La ■
- a ) , ce n s^ ^
mahana (a -r e ) , s t o r e room;; mansba ( a a ) y t r a p ; m ah fra
( a e ) ,
s p
(1 )
o
p a rd o n ; ma^^na (d ; - e ) , to e a d in g b a s i n ; m a f r f a ,
o
n
y
'■
. / :v
V;
V'.
H a rd ly e v e r u sed , i n t h e s i n g u l a r b u t , a s o th e r
d o u b le p a r t s o f the" b o d y , i n th e D ual p l u r a l y m n ifse y n y
th e n o s t r i l s *
;'VS( 2 ) m tzw et and mi z re k hhSre no e x t a n t b a s e i n m odern y
M a lte s e ; c f w ^ ^ a n d ;
'■ y >.
195
P a tte r n me q
Tlia '
Menqjfa. (a+ - a ) , a l i t t l e p o o l; m e n tn a i(i - e ) , an o f f e h s iv e ste n c h ; merhba > welcome; m erh la, f lo c k o f sheep;
(1 0 ) P a tte r n ml 9, T h a w ith it \ s two v a r ia n ts (a )
mi Q i \ T £a ^ d ' ( ^ ) S . e T La*
*~mi-jfn ( i - e)^ f l e e t » * m ilg ^ a ^ a » a ) , m eetin g
p la c e ; ^tniiitba, a h i l l ; riiintna ( i - e)> ^atench; % istr ia 1
(a - a ) , s e c r e t p la c e ; m i^ tla ( i -» e ) , hed o f p la n ts ;
^ipiksha ( i - e ) , gain*
■
(N o te ;
When %he second ra&i c a ll i n the
consonant group req u ired "by p a tte r n i s
1> ni^ n t '^/ f a vow el must he in s e r te d a c f ^ cord ingrtd t^ W ru le o f M altese phonology*
Of* P re lim in a ry N otes on M altese Sounds
■
lhe'vLi<3Uids>- P art I . )
■.
Examples o f P a tte
~i r n 10 (a )
— m
n—mTHm
— ir— i---------- n ~
m
1
1----- 1— i
im u m
n
i m ^ n fia
mij-jil a , n ot m i|4 a> illn n iin a tio n from V*B.
^ e j e l;
'mibef&a, n o t m ih ^ a , h a tred ; from V*B* ha"7ltd; f m i i e ^ a ,
n o t n i i l ^ a , p laygrou nd , from V.B* laT ah; m id ir sa , n o t
m id rsa, q,uantity o f corn to he th r e sh e d , from V*B* d ir e s .
Of* A 1^-) ,t t o g r e e t , v/hich form .has n ot su rv iv ed
in Maltese*. "
Examples o f P a tte r n 10 (b)
irnselfia ( e ~ a ) , "broom; iraserka ( i - e ) , s h u t t l e - q u i l l .
( 1 1 ) P a tte r n m Qa
TT
m qass, s c i s s o r s .
( 1 2 ) P a tte r n m Qa TTa
nifeabba ( - a
mfi'akfca ( - a - ) ,
;lo y e ; mfiadda ( - a - )> p illo w ;
g r a te r j m halla ( - a - ) , r e e l} mrama' ,
th ic k w a ll.
? 13 ) P a tte r n m Qe TOa
m s e lla , p a ck in g n e e d le ; mkebba (e - e ) , a r e e l ;
mredda2 , w et n u rse.
""
( 1 4 ) P a tte r n ma Q Ta
raarfa , la n d in g -p la c e , s u r v iv in g o n ly a s a p la c e
name; marsa^, anchorage-ground, a ls o a p la c e name; mahra
(a - a ( y ) ) y p u b lic co n v en ien ce.
(
1 5 ) P a tte r n mi Q Ta
;"
raidra (a - a ) , winnowing sh o v e l; m isqa (e - a ) ,
v e s s e l ; rnilwa (e - a ) , s k e in ; mitwa (e - a ) , c y lin d e r ;
raijya, (V .B. g i e ) , coming.
'■
■
< T /\ ■
' ‘.v. ■■
1
(1 ) O f. A.
f )
to r e p a ir a w a ll.
( 2 ) O r th o g r a p h ic a lly , rrir«eddgha (mredd a ) , from V.B#
r - D
, s e m a n tic a lly a s s im ila te d t o p a tte r n 12 in
th e se n s e o f w et n u rse; as a p a s s iv e p a r t i c i p l e p a t­
te r n i t ijpans a ls o ’ suckled* •
/
(3 ) G f. A. f/f t o b r in g a sh ip a sh o re, whence
f , p o r t.
( 4 ) Gf. A. i^j , tp m a o r \;(sh ip .).;w h e n c e - - ..^ j ^ , p o r t.
:
■■■
A
( 1 6 ) P a tte r n me Q Ta
.
mer a (r a - a ) , p a stu re; mera, from V.B. ra: (he
'.saw, lo o k in g -g la s s *
(1 7 ) P a tte r n m Q 1: La
m " ji:b a (ie) , b eh aviour;
m sird a, p la c e name.
(•& a:
m hi:ba, ( - i e - * ) , o f f e r ;
/ n e t;
Of. A. a
• rnsirba,,
a ls o - i e - ) , s ome th in g d i a coyer e d.
(IQ) P a tte r n ihl T ie L, - t e t n V.B* w ith 1 s t rad . ywf
m ille d ( i - e ) , O hristm as; m izien ( i - e ) , s c a le s ;
JU
J.
n d z ieb ( i ?? e ) , g u tte r .,
(1 )
' .,
...
I f M. menza, s t a f f , were r e a lly /A .
, a ls o VU ^ ,
i t sh ou ld be c la s s e d under p a tte r n 16; b ut I have my
s u s p ic io n th a t i t i s h ere a case o f a c c id e n ta l s im ila r ­
i t y . The l i q u i d 1n* u s u a lly v o ic e s a p r ec ed in g , s i
( v o i c e l e s s ) in n o n -S em itic M a lte se. I t i s p o s s ib le
th a t menza i s I t a l i a n rnensola, whence m ensla, M .s tr e s s ,
and f i n a l l y , menza.
IRREGULAR NOMINAL SCATTER WITH INITIAL f
Base w ith Voc« Seg.
(1 )
rao'^driyya, com passion,
-y a
Be R
(2 )
m otdiyya,; p a ssa g e ,
'^Ta
D2 - Y
(3 )
mofrqriyya, o p p r e ssio n ,
H a
Qa R
(4 ) m is tlii j a , b a s h f u ln e s s ,
s
t a Ha
(5 ) m istlib q q iyya, w o r th in e ss ,
s
t H a QQ
(6 ) m istoffb iyya, con cealm en t,
s
t a H Ba
(7 ) mi s t o qs iy y a , que s t io n ,
a t
a Q S a^
L onely Form ations
(1 ) m efa» m irro r, g iv en under p a tte r n 16, from
d e f e c t iv e V. Base r a s , he saw.
Form ation; m + r a , w hich,
w ith th e in te r v e n tio n o f a p h on ologic a l l y req u ired v o w el,
g iv e s
mera.
( 2 ) S^hha, h id in g p lace*
v o c a l i c sequence e ~
a*
From b ase H - B - (y)>
V a s s a l l i , fo llo w e d by F a lco n ,
g iv e s a p a r a l l e l form ’m ojra*, which i s , however,
g e n e r a lly prohoim ced m i ( P a t t e r n 15)*
(1 )
C f.
A:
in form er, B e a u ssie r .
r
\
v
Y
(3 ) mjferisi
YYY* "
199
a p la c e , h i s t o r i c a l l y and in l i t e r a r y
M a lte se , b u t a c tu a lly v u s e d as an a d v e r b :n o w h e r e *
m +V*Base> k ie n .
(4 )
m |a^
’
'V
p ro fit*
’■ yl i t e r a l l y 1w hat one l i v e s b y * » ;
f i n a n c i a l mean©: r i m > V ;B a s e ^ a J , a s i n (3)*
(5 )
MRewha, fa il, l i t e r a l l y 1th e in s t runient whereby
■;one feais^ o n e s e l f f. r f^omv y;^ B ase’ R •- W2 - H, v o c a lic
sequence
(6 )
e ^ a , formed by an alogy With p a tte r n 10 (b)*
Mjedd;:: a g i r t h ,
from b a se f - d ~ d , m + th e ^ ; >
, V* Base^by sem antic analogy with"pattern^M Q a ;TT^. a^
(3 ) and ( 4 ) i n th e above l i s t *
(7 ) Im tafileb , p la c e name, a c c o r d in g to F a l z o n 1p la c e
in whfch th e c a t t l e arefm i^
frcm b a se H » L - B,
v o c a lic sequence , a - e , t b e in g p u r e ly m orp h ological ^ y
in crem en t } b y f a h a w i t h p a tte r n 2*
rma H Le Bf ,
^
Normal form ation
:-Y .
Y*-yyy.;Y
200
T a b le 4
.
T his Table in c lu d e s a com plete l i s t o f th e d es­
c r ip t i v e p a tte r n s o f M altese#
1B escr ip t i v e * here i s
g iv e n a much w ider meaning thant i s u s u a lly g iv e n to
’ a d j e c t i v e 1, as we s h a ll s e e from th e seven tyon e exam ples
w h ich , hetW'Sen them, in c lu d e a l l th e m orph ological p a t­
te r n s t h a t , s y n t a c t i c a ll y , behave l i k e a d je c tiv e s#
For e a s y r e fe r e n c e , th ey are d iv id e d in t o s i x c l a s s e s
( A F ) w h i c h w e ;sh a ll? now describe^ s e p a r a te ly .
' '
"
"
;
a
: .•
V.vv
■
.
[Subdivided in t o (A i) and ( A i i )
In (A i) from No# 1 to
are in c lu d e d d e s c r ip t iv e
p a tte r n s from t r ir a d i c a l b a se s:
: (1 )
(2 )
(3 ;
(4 )
(5 )
ft - T - L
W— T - L
(w ith
ft - T - T
(w ith
Q - (w ,y ) - L (w ith
ft - T - (y )
(w ith
i
f i r s t rad# in c o n sta n t)
m edial radV le n g th e n e d ),
m edial rad# in c o n sta n t)
f i n a l r a d ic a l in c o n sta n t)
r e s u l t i n g from a v a r ia t io n o f th e v o c a l i c seq u en ces o n ly ,
th a t i s w ith o u t any in te r n a l con son antal add! t io n s or
,
:;y ;y - ,
y
v
y
y
v
■ y
■.
y
, . \ ‘ ■■
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201
I t w i l l be understood* by an alogy w ith P a tte r n 3*
t h a t v f ih a i l i ’ o f p a tte r n s 1®, 15p a r t o f th e v b c a lic sequence a;
^
i s not a s u ffix ,
b u t •;
- i* As an example^ j i e r i *
sta n d s fo r J i e r i y , w ith f i n a l ’y 1 ;
a s s im ila t e d to 1i f , by an alogy w ith ’H i e Q e D*, a sleep *
from ’R a Q aDf *
( A i l ) , from No* 18 t o 24> in c lu d e s d e s c r ip t iv e p a t­
te r n s r e s u lt in g from (a ) v a r ia t io n o f th e v o c a lic s e ­
quence pltLs (b ) len g th en in g s Of m e d ia l r a d ie a lv
T h is s e c t i o i i (23^ r 3 ® ) v i n c l u d e s p a tte r n s r e s u l t i n g
from (a );< v a r ia tio n o f th e v o c a lic seq u en ces p lu s (b )
a d d itio n o f s i i f f i x e s ( i ) r f iV or
Y1 ; y \ y Y -
/
Y -v.
,;r
a :n , le n .
c.Yf. ' y.~ ; y y . Y - V
. -O' ' ^ ' ’lYY
T h is s e c t io n (33 - 3 ? ) in c lu d e s d e s c r ip t iv e p a tte r n s
r e s u l t i n g from th e v a r ia t io n s o f th e v o c a l i c seq u en ces
Y K Qf i^adril^^
re p r e se n te d by Q - T - L - L
Y
though th e fo u r th r a d ic a l i s n o t n e c e s s a r ily th e same as
% e th ird *
. " / Y;.
YYY:
262
D
S uh d iyid ed in t o (Di ) and ( b i i ) .
; ( D i ) , ( 0 - 4 0) in c lu d e s p a tte r n s shared by some
tr ila d ic h l-N o n h
/ some o f th e adjectives p a tte r n s
resu itih g fro m Y fch e i n f i x i n g ; b f Y a ^ a ’ *Y’ a y y ef?, f e y y a f ,
fe y y e ’ , ’ a y * , and ’ e y * , between secon d end th ir d r a d ic - Y
a ls w ith ? & e Y fir ^
junction*'
( b i i ) {44 -4 3 ) s iM la r - pbttferns sh ared by t r i -
;
r a d ic a l nouns o n ly r e s u lt in g from th e i n f i x i n g o f ’ e y f
or ’ e y ’ between^ second; and th ir d r a d ic a l ,> the f i r s t two Y
b e in g in p h o n o lo g ic a l ju n c tio n and th e fo u r th preceded by
•tft.t ;
' \
‘ 'v ^ • -;.f : ' -v .
■
/ ■■ V
’/
•'=
;■ .
, ;; '
■■‘
‘
Yy
p a tte r n s 4 S - 5 4 r e s u l t from a p r o c e s s o f v o c a lic ;
v a r ia t io n s w ith i n i t i a l vowel ' a 1, ’ e * , ’ i 1 or Tq f
R e c e d in g f i r s t ra d ica l*
■- Y
: Y ■ .. Y
F
■ '
Y
‘
;
'■
' v -': '
Subdivided in t o ( F i) and ( F ii) *
( F i) (55*6^) in c lu d e s the p a s s iv e p a r t i c i p l e s o f th e
o r ig in a l
VYB*
Y
- /
Y Y
:
Y Y Y 'Y '1
( F i i ) (65 - 7 3 ) in c lu d e s th e p a s s iv e p a r t i c i p l e s o f
203
tlx© o r ig in a l V .B ., m o r p h o lo g ic a lly in c r e a s e d , or m od ified ,
and p a tte r n 6%j()l)al&q th e p a s s iv e p a r t i c i p l e s o f q u a d ril i t e r a l s fo r m a lly b eh avin g in the same way as th e t r i r a d ic a l w ith m edial consonant len gth en ed *
The p a tte r n s r e s u l t from fmf , , maf , •me1 or , mi V
p r e f ix e d to th e f i r s t r a d ic a l o f V.B. p lu s th e consequent
v a r ia t io n o f th e o r ig in a l v o c a lic sequence*
T heir i n ­
c lu s io n h ere i s j u s t i f i e d by t h e i r s y n t a c t ic a l "behaviour,
which i s an alogous t o th a t o f th e o rd in a ry a d je c tiv e s*
The Table i s fu r th e r d iv id e d in t o f i v e colum ns; th e
f i r s t oh th e l e f t g iv e s th e r e fe r e n c e numbers o f the
p a t t e r n s , d escr ib ed in c o l . ( i ) , and shown in col* ( i i )
With exam ples in c o l • ( i i i ) r e la t e d to th e v o c a lic s e ­
quences o f t h e ir V erbal b a se s as g iv e n in c o l . ( i v ) ,
w ith fo r m a lly corresp on d in g hom inals in col* ( v ) .
As a lr e a d y e x p la in e d in Table 1 , some o f th e se
N om inals, though th e y do n ot l i n k up w ith any Verbal B ase,
may th em selv es by p ro d u c tiv e o f d e s c r ip t iv e or V erbal
S c a t t e r , g e n e r a lly by le n g th e n in g o f m edial r a d ic a ls ,
as te r r a q , he walked a lo n g way* from t r i e q (Dem oninative
V erb ), and (*}) r j u r l i , manly; D em oninative D e s c r ip tiv e ,
from ra: j e i , man*
In c o l . ( i ) b , Where n e c e s sa r y , we have e x p la in e d
th e Sem antic F u n ction o f the p a tte r n s on th e p r in c ip le
th a t th e form al and n o t io n a l, or c o n c e p tu a l, phenomena
o f morphology are in se p a r a b le .
P a tte r n V a r ia b ilit y
The d e s c r ip t iv e p a tte r n s th a t we have g iv e n , ex­
c lu d in g thd^e i i i ‘E *, beirig a p p lic a b le o n ly to 'm a les or
th in g s c o n sid e r e d m a scu lin e, (and t o bo^h genders o n ly
When th ey a re 1co m p aratives1) , and t o in d iv id u a l th in g s
or p e r so n s, a re s u b je c t to fu r th e r ip a H e h h v a r ia t io n
^
th a t ex ten d s t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o fem a les or th in g s
c o n sid e r e d fe m in in e, and toaa p l u r a l i t y o f th in g s or
p e r s o n s , w ith ou t aiiy M a t in c t io h oif gen d er.
W hile any
m ascu lin e p a tte r n , e x c lu d in g again th o se in fE f , s u b je c t
to th e same r e s t r i c t i d h ,m a y have i t s corresp on d in g ■
;
fe m in in e , r e s u l t i n g from th e a d d itio n o^ ’ aV to th e o r ig
I n a l m a scu lin e d e s c r ip t iv e , n ot a l l d e s c r ip t iv e s fo llo w
th e same p r o c e s s fo r t h e ir p lu r a l p a tte r n ; some o f which
r e s u l t from an in te r n a l s h i f t i n g w ith , or w ith o u t,
le n g th e n in g o f th e m edial r a d i c a l s , w h ile o th e r s r e s u l t
from the a d d itio n o f th e p l u r a lis i n g s u f f ix e s ?nr or
1i : n f , w hich i s th e o n ly p r o c e ss fo llo w e d by p a tte r n s
n o t in c lu d e d in T able 5«
v
205
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P lu r a l P a tte r n s
M aitese p l u r a l i s e s i t s s in g u la r nom inal and de s o r l p t l y e '- ^
two' ways, (a ) "by e x te rn a l v o c a lic
o r co n so n an tal a d d itio n s w ith o r w ith o u t m o d ific a tio n s
o f th e o r ig in a l v o c a lic sequence* o r (h) as in Table 5 ,:
which g iv e s a com plete l i s t of the v a rio u s p a t te r n s , by
i n t e r n a l changes in th e v o c a lic sequence o f the ’singU - '
l a r * p a t t e r n s ,w ith or w ithout th e 'a d d t t i o n o r e l i s i o n o f
th e semi cohbohants W or Y, o c c u rrin g in" the s in g u la r
p a tte rn s*
;
P ro cess (a) may bd d ^ ^ v io f e d in to tw o :-
-
P ro cess (a* i ) formed by fee a d d itiC h o f th e s u f fix e s
ayn, eyn, te y n , to a few s in g u la r p a t te r n s 1 , the sem antic
f u h c tio n jo f wfechlis^ ^
to d en o te ’tw o 1 o f the ob­
j e c t s ex p ressed by th e s in g u la r p a tte r n s (D u al), b u t
a ls o to in d ic a te ju s t th e p lu r a l w ith o u t any id e a of
d u a lity . .
=■■■
P ro cess ( a . i i ) by th e a d d itio n o f th e s u f f ix e s
(1) n , ( 2 ) i : n , ( 3 ) yi:n>i (4) a : t o r i e t , (3 )/iy y ie W
(l)
The d u al only su rv iv e s in a few words r e f e r r in g to
(a ) p a r t s o f th e body e x is tin g in p a i r s , (b) some num-? ?
b e r s and me a sure s o f tim e and w eig h t, ( c ) and in o th e r
sp o rad ic words. In Neo-Seiriitic M altese one comes :
a c ro ss d u als formed by analogy. ■
(6 )
a:n , ( 7 ) ie n , (8 ) at the sem antic fu n ction o f which
^ .s t o p lu f a lis e th e ob ject expressed by the sin gu lar
p a ttern by s tr e s s in g the idea o f i t s in d iv id u a l : conrp o n e n tsfe e te r fe n stS P lO T a l) in c o n tr a d istin c tio n from
v
the p lu r a ls res\il tin g from process (b) which express the %
i ic d lle c tiv e : p lu r a ls 1 o f the sin gu lar p a tte r n s, porresr-
^
ponding in a sense to such E nglish words a s ’ f l e e t ’ ,
7 7 ;.;/v f t o c k f,,e 1;cUwhich explain s why, s y n ta c t ic a lly , th ese >
■" ?
% attefeairiay^behave lllse t h e ir sin gu lar p attern s as they
may; a ls o do in E n g lish .
Now we deal w ith the various p rocesses sep arately:
■:
Process a i
,
77^7:.7-'T7
< ;;.\_Uhder.,.this^ process we. have: - '
1*
'•
/:x/;-/-/
fe e Dual r e s u ltin g fr<^ fe e ad d ition o f f ayn1 to
hpniinals* gen erally ending in fT ( sound su b stitu tio n for
/ f e s i tio h , by which i t i s replaced r;
fe
•
in the dxial) and in ’ q.’. ’i e ’ changes
'
■ Examples:
7 V;v777- V'"-’
- 7 7 - ^7-'v7 :
Singular
7
/
■
P lural
s ie q /f o Q t ;
saqafe
d rieh , arm;
dirl^afe-..'
7 - 7 7 ; saba7/ fin g er;
; 77
—
: \subfeyn2 ':
( 1 J f e ir r ^
form ation f p r drajfayh w hich may be heard
7 7 '->7;7; In l i ^ f i e d co n tin u ou s speech#
I I . D u a l r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e a d d it io n o f Te y n f t o
hom inals o th e r than th o se d escrib ed above and n o t ending
in ’a ’ r ( 1 ) a f f e p tin g only th e v o c a lic q u a n tity o f monos y lla b le s b u t ( 2 ) e lid in g th e im s tre s s e d vowel o f the
sih g u la iv d is s y lla b ie r pattern*,
As i n I , He* changes to
Examples ^I I . 1
S in g u la r
-
e l f , a thousand;
e lfe y n , two thousand
£add^
ffiadd^ check;
ch eck
Saddeyn;
i: d , hand;
ideyny ;
3usm, a day;
: -
jumpyn
sv+.
V...’
:
i i . 2.
di f er , n a il; ^
r i j i l , le g ;
,
' •
w irkeyn
' O '■ ;
-.y y ■.'/'■y y . ■'; V:
.
d ifre y n -
"
rijle y n :
Jahreyn*
■*■':•.
v ^ -v 'y
I I I . Dual r e s u l t i n g from the a d d itio n o f 1te y n f to f i n a l
consonant in words ending in th e fem inine or u n ity s u f f i x , ’a 1 in ox>eh s y lla b le , w ith diphthongs ’a y 1 and f i e f
w h e r e th e y o c c u r , changed to^ ’a 1.
23k
E xam p les:
,
(N ote:
se n a , a y e a r;
se n te y n , two y e a rs
d arb a, once;
dart)teyn, twice
s ie '/a , hour;
s a jte y n
bayda, egg;
badteyn
q a tta , t r u s s ;
q a tte y n , f o r ,qattteyn«
widneyn, l i t e r a l l y tw o\r e a r s , b u t ; in usage 3ust
p arsy a p p a re n tly th e dual of w idna, e a r , must have de­
veloped from widen (p ro cess I I . 2 ) which i s s t i l l used in
■
-i
.
'
'
.
M altese c o n te x tu a lly ,, n o t so much in the sense o f e a r ,
as o f 1 -the h e a rin g ’* though *e a r * may have been th e
o r ig in a l meaning, hence th e dual in q u e s tio n ).
.: .
I.
. P rocess a i i
P lu r a l p a tte r n s w ith s u f f ix fh* r e s u l t from d e s c rip ­
tiv e s w ith f ilia l 1i * in open s y lla b le .
Examples:
S in g u la r
d K u :li, s o c ia b le ;
(1)
P lu ra l
d h u li:n
r a h l i , p e a s a n t;
ra h li:n
| it w i , w in try ;
^ i t w i :n
Used in th e idiom *t a w iden’ l i t e r a l l y corresponding
to E n g lish *he gave ear* ( lis te n e d to ) and I t a l i a n
dare o re c c h io , c f . iu
e)
e a r.
I I . P lu r a l P a ^ ern s with':-;i i:n‘;':repia:t- ^ om the ad d ition
o f t h is s u f f ix to sin g u la r deecriptiV e p a ttera s ending
in a consonant* w ith the fo llo w in g in te r n a l v o c a lic
m o d ifica tio n s.
(a)
Singular v o c a lic p attern i e - e or ie - a
change to e - It or i ^ f r ' ’''.
Examples:
. Singular .. ,-/,T
^
^,.v, - P lu ral M
..
;, i
- ' b n ed ^ :h or bhidmi:h
n i e z e l , des sending;
n e z l i :n , or n i z l i : n
p wiegafy;.standing;
,
w eq fi : n
V/' ■ > ip sa ^ ;’%i^>c''1::
^
or
w iq fiin
v;,wes|^:i* p r jw is flin ;
^
mafirubi:n
mef&u:bt freed;
m ehlusi:n
mirhu^
'
m o ^ iu :b ,p l eased;
1‘v' *.MrTbubls-ii
m d/jubi:n,
mu
muja" ar, hairy;
r i: n
The above d e scrip tiv e p attern s admit o f only t h is p lu ra l
form.
5;...';
\
(b ) In ter consonantal ’ ayye1 and #eyye V or sin gu lar
a d jectiv e p attern s change to ay -^ i: and ey - 1 r e sp e c t­
iv e ly . (Singular p a tt. Qayyel = PI* Patt> Qay L i s i n g
QeyyeL; p i . Qeylii: n . )
or
rE x a m p les j -tt ■
S in g u la r A d F l u r a l
Ad.1.
s e y y e r, g o in g ;
s e y ri:n
meyyet, dead;
m eytisn
tayyeb, good;
ta y b irn -:
m<jayyera, awakened;,,
7 mqaymi:n
;
I I I . (a ) P lu r a l p a tte r n s w ith su ffix e s; y iin ' re s x ilt from
th e a d d itio n th e r e o f to D e s c rip tiy e P a tte r n s :
(1) Qa:Ti or (2) Qle T i. y*:V ^
yy ^
Examples:
-, / x - .
-V
P lu r a l
1 S in g u la r
a iliy r h tg n y
/ 2 S in g u lar
:
h ie n i, happy;
i
h e n y i:n , a ls o h in y i:n
sM-f>
n i e d i , damp;
n e d y i ; n , a l s o n id y i:n
(b ) Frcan D e s c r ip tiy e ^ y F a tte r h s ^
and (2) m Q o T T i .
(N o te :-
Q T i, l
.
’:
i n i t i a l fmV in p a tte r n H i (b) does n o t belong
to th e r a d i c a l consonant sequence o f the b ase.
Examples: 7 ,
1
. . , S in g u la r P a tte r n mi Q Ti
P lu r a l
rn ik ri, h ire d ;
m ik rijrirn
m i j t n i , bought;
m i^ tr iy ir n
mikwi, heated^
m ikw iyi:n
P a tte r n mo Q, Ti
m o h li, w asted;
, m ohliyyiii
m oqri, re a d ;
fv- ■A .* P a tte r n
m oqriyyiin
) mQo T T i V
m ^ o lli, b o ile d ; ;
im ro b b i, re a re d ;
f t T;i
r
iro robbiyyiin
IV. P lu r a l P a tte r a s withv s u f f i x a r t o r ’ie t* r e s u l t
from th e a d d itio n th e r e o f to the f i n a l consonant o f any
words ending Xti l a ’ / in.bjpen -sy llab le-.w ith o u t a f f e c tin g
the p reced in g v o c a lic sequence*
a: t i s th e ;s u ^ f ix g e n e ra lly a tta c h e d to consonant^
% , q, a n d ^ a ; b u t even w ith th e se consonants a; t and"
1ie t * may in terch an g e *
238
E x a m p le s:-
Singular
(1)
!>©ttifia , melon;
a
a week
P lu ral
b e ttiG a :t or b e ttiG ie t
jim art
a , branch
(jL t l a
, plan t;
5i t l i e t
k isr a , p iece o f bread;
k is r ie t
zyara, v i s i t ;
z y a r a :t,(a ls o i e t )
Gsa: r a , nils c h ie f;
lisara: t
A lla , God
a lia : t
Exceptiara to the ru le are:
sema;
:t
smewwie t »: heavens, pi* o f
mara has h isa as i t s p lu r a l.
I have heard children
use ’mariet* by the simple process o f analogy*
VI*
P lural Patterns: wiJfcG s u ff ix 1i y y i e t 1 r e s u lt from
the ad d ition thereof to the f in a l consonant o f c e r ta in
words which i t i s not p o ssib le to id e n tify beforehand
by d e f in it e rules*
'Examples:S in g u la r
P lu ral
omm, mother;
ommiyyiet
J o j o li work;
zmien, time;
L iyyiet
zm eniyyiet
239
VI. P lu r a l s u f f ix spn i s a tta c h e d to s in g u la r nouns w ith
i n t e r con so n an tal *i e 1, clo sed hy f in a l h , f o r O rig in a l
, hy which i t i s re p la c e d in th e p lu r a l or w ith
in te rc o n s o n a n ta l •*ay*, w hich, w ith the s h if ti n g o f th e
a c c e n t, changes to fi f .
Examples:
.
S in g u la r
q ieti, “bottom;
V III.
P lu r a l
, q r^ a rn , n p t q ilia:n
s ie h , measure;: /
sij^arn , n o t s ih a :n
ftay t, w a ll
fa ita :n
P lu r a l s u f f ix 1i e n 1 is a tta c h e d to f i n a l consonant
o f s in g u la r nom inals w ith in te rc o n s o n a n ta l f a f , 1a : f ,
f i e f and ri : 1 which, w ith th e s h i f t i n g o f the a cce n t,
change to i , t u t . i r e •
i n i t i a l sound i s
th e change i s to ^ .
Examples:
Singuljn*
P lu r a l
q ie s ,
m easure;
q ls ie n
h ie s ,
hawk;
h is ie n
h ie h ,
door;
h lh ie n
tie j,
n u p tia ls ;
tijie n
w ied,
v a lle y ;
w idien
ovJ~±
S in g u la r .
P lu r a l
f a :r , ra t;
firie n
da:iv, neighbour;
d irie n
n& :r, f i r e ;
n irie n
tia s i, capon*
f iis ie n , a lso Kosien
a :r,
cave;
^ e rie n
s i:d ,
owner;
s id ie n
, fo r
l:d ;
vjfed ien
'• ;fsrbu, l i d ; - • ' : - ^
N o te :-
^ f e tie n , a ls o ~|^6tten
t o r j l e n and to rh ie n are p e c u lia r p lu r a l forma­
tio n s o f t a r a j , s t a i r s ; aiid tr a : h , d u s t, re sp e c tiv e ly *
IX.
1,
faV, the prim ary fu n c tio n o f which i s t h a t o f th e
fem inine s in g u la r a n d /o r th a t o f ’ u n i t y
h u t which se rv e s
a ls o as a p lu r a l s u f f ix , i s a tta c h e d to the f i n a l con­
sonant o f th e s in g u la r Nominal P a tte r n w ith v o c a lic se ­
quence a —
v ie o r e — ie
( M .W ) .
W ith th e a d d itio n
th e re o f to o th e r d e s c r ip tiv e p a tte r n s in te rc o n s o n a n ta l
1ayya’ , •eyye ’ or ’ ayye’ change to ’e y ’ and ’ ay1 r e s ­
p e c tiv e ly . (Cf* a ls o I l h . )
241;
^
Exarnples:
‘
S in g u la r
P lu r a l
o
fiaddiem, workman.
ffaddiema, workmen
(2
k e n n ie s, scavenger;
kenniesa
(3
h ay , a liv e ;
hayya
(4
je y , coming;.
Jeyya
(5
tay y eb , good; -
: ta y b a l
(6* Jjweyyed, quie t ; J
£ jweyda
(7
meyyet, dead;
meyt a
(8
em ayyar, brow nish J >, smayra-;-, - .
(9
maqtu; 1 , k i l l e d ;
(1)
raaqtu-iia
•‘f.'i-U#;
In such forms as taylDa Jwsyda, m eyta, e t c . o rth p g r a p h ic a lly , ta jb a , ^ e jd a, scane M altese a u t h o r i t i e s
V Y assalli, Saydon) w rite tayyba, ^weyyda, c o n s id e rin g lo n g y as a consonant elem ent; o f •the' -slngxilar p a tte r n .
feis..p .. c CSC
’a
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.
.
r
.
- I
.
;
242
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• In -tl^^V^aTDlevwe .;g i^ v th a ":v a ri;o u ^ Verbal p a t t e r n s ,
■ den o tin g an .
,
'. / : ■
;
’a b l a t e ; ’ hs; ^
s e ma n i i c v c r i t e r i a ; ^ i c h ^
;;; AA
( 2 ) ; •fr;; TheNTablb is:, sub-divided. in t o s i x ^cdlniiinsr-: -'■ ( i ) ,
( i i ) and ( i i i ) Ae scriTDe-the v o c a lic and consonantal
1 s t r u c t u r e o f the commnd and^^^
"
,
-
.-res^fc!t iyeiy;j;':;whereas
^ .; ;A tensd p a tte rn s^
A (3)
f 1
(v^;:; d e sc ^ ld ss ^ th e : p a s t
AvAy' "5 ■'’' A " A ' / v' .
' A v 'A A " A A .A
These coltuuns d e s c r i W the tim e - a c tio n c r i t e r i a
which, :;t
.;
te n se p a t te r n s
the gender c r i t e r i o n i n the case /
o f t h b t h i r d person s in g u la r , account f o r the form al
^
and semantic v a r i e t y of the V ertex p a t t e r n
(4)
V:; - The -Table: I s f u r t h e r su b -d iv id e d i n t o parts:,A---,:.Tl,i{(:
:■
d e s c rib e s :the^fo rm ation o f the; Command and
K e^esiA pa^
:
p a t-
V "
te r n s e v o lv ed from ;bases /w ith the th re e r a d ic a ls
v ;"-'■ \ v
e o n s ta n t (M .V ., on ly With second r a d ic a l
. *■'
len gth en ed )*
-AA'AaA''
1
A ;t? AA;
.
AA;;;^:,'
A;
Aa - v
;-‘ r"A A/"‘'.A.- A - ;.;A:AAA
B (9 -1 0 ) - from base%;wf^
;. - A . ( s ^ ; ^
t w ’ or ’y 1-
A :;.;y ' A - ' / A A A ; A A
C (11-15) - from bases w ith t h i r d r a d i c a l fy \
D ( l6 ) - fro m -t^ ih d n so n an tal b ases w ith
AvA'
A \A A , a A
th ir d ra d ic a ls id e n tic a l,
(S*M*)* ''
'AA
second and
;;
■va; aaAAa
E (17-21) - from cp ia d rtl^
r e s u ltin g fromA(i)
the 'A onbm atopoeicrepetition o f a bicbnsonahtal base
:;
A;
) , ( i i ) from ra d ic a ls o f which three or four A
A ;■^Aw
f ereht (M. V^f).
A
V o c a lic A S e q u e n c e s o f; theAv,B^v .
•■v;.AA\>AA When- t h i s i s tr ir a d ic a l:y
AAAA Al^AFhebe , ^ y be anyAoft the;;-^llqwing; s i x : (l)
A/iA^ .
a - a (M,V. ) haTaF, tie s n a tc h e d ; DaRa, h e g o t
;■Av;\ .....vA
A’A ''
A/:A
A (2) a
;A\A:AAA SAsA
AA: v-;'-usedAto;A\A- lA;-A
- e (M .V .) %
'• ;A A
%
A*
:he ;fo r g a v b : ( N o n q w i i h a n y o f /
th e r ad lb a l b i n c o n s t a n t ; ) AA A AAA
(3 ) e ;A. @ (S . M , ) Pe he M, he 'u n d e rs to o d ; J effeTr he threw
.}:’ 'A-~"A . A (e x c lu d in g th o s e w ith an i n - f
A’
-AA\A;
./.-\A(4)A’h r -AuA(?S* ii*
■
’A.AAAAA/
A-■
'-- A hohhtaht r a d ic a l) *
)
( 5 ) i - e (M. V .)
AA;
'
' \ (6) o
;VaA
■
^
'
-A A'- AAAAA-■
;
he ro b b e d ;; heL a, he- w astcd^A A
M Ze h , h e came down; ( e x c lu d in g
A ' •AA’t h o se■w ith '2hd;'ahd''3rdvrad,.v,^'
. in c o n s t a n t ) * _
v ;
AA:AA
- o (S.M. j /'fio 'lib';-M•.:-hq;;d;reamt£‘ (excluding those ;
/ . 'A- ' ;
with ';;ahVinconstant;;r a d ie h i) A ;
(2*): Note thatA hypotheticai A^awa1 or 1aya1 o f Verbal
;,
A
bases w ith medial ra d ic a l iinbbhstant p h o n etica lly = a: ;
or ‘i e , as D - (w) At; M,Af<?i da:m or diem.
A A A 3 .)
'/-AAA-
The V o c a lic se q u e n c e sA b f q u a d r i l i t e r a l b a s e s a r c : ;
: 25§
;
(1 ) a - a (S.M. ) or e - e (M.V. ) when made up o f
th e r e p e t i t io n o f a h ic o n so n a n ta l b ase l i k e fa r fa r ;
he brushed; and gemgem, he grumbled*
( i i ) a - a (M.V. ); a - e
(M. V .); e - e (M. V .);
: e - a (M* V i); i - e (M. V. ) , when th re e o f -the ^.
r a d ic a ls or the fou r are d i f f e r e n t as h a rb a t, he
ru in ed ; q an d el, he c a r r ie d heavy th in g s ; z e g le g ,
’
A
he ehook; bbrbaq, he squandered; fij^ k e l , he put
spokes in th e wheel*
(it.)
In te r c o n so n a n te l vowel o f V. B. w ith 2iid r a d ic a l
len g th en ed may be fa f or ’e* a s , radd, he r e s to r e d ,
medd, he stretched*.
. (5 )
The V. B. may vary fo r m a lly by ( i ) The ATime1 or
’ T en se! and ;f Command %C r i t e r i a ; •( i i ).,.' ’.'Number*• and
A1S u b je c t1 C r it e r ia ; ( i l i ) th e Gender C r ite r io n on ly i n
At h e 3rd p erson s in g u la r .
( i ) The Tense and Command C r it e r ia .
S em itic and S em itised M altese v a r ie s i t s v er b a l p a t­
te r n s a cco rd in g as th ey convey th a t ah a c tio n i s ta k in g
p la c e (Col* i i i ) , or th a t i t has a lr e a d y taken p la c e
(C o l. v - v i ) , or th a t th e a c tio n i s ex p re sse d a s an order
or a r e q u est (C ol. i i ) .
.
A
A
- A - ...
‘ A- . Aa
.
■
-
256
-
( i i ) Number and S u b je c t C r it e r ia .
Like Nominals and D e s c r ip t iv e s , V erbal p a tte r n s can
be s in g u la r or p lu r a l.
As to s u b j e c t , th e r e are no d i f ­
f e r e n t p a tte r n s fo r Is t and 2nd p erson s in g u la r when the
a c t io n i s d e sc r ib e d as performed (C ol. v - v i ) , and no d i f ­
fe r e n t p a tte r n fo r 2nd person s in g u la r , any gender, and/third
^the a c tio n i s e x p re sse d as s t i l l ta k in g
p la c e (C ol. i i i ) ; o th erw ise the p a tte r n s d i f f e r fo r m a lly
a cco rd in g to the s u b je c t r e fe r r e d t o .
(i i i )
The Gender Cri t e r io n ./ '
The gender a f f e c t s th e form o f th e V erbal p a tte r n
o n ly in th e th ir d p erson s in g u la r , where two d if f e r e n t
p a tte r n s ahe u sed f o r th ird ; person m ascu lin e and th ir d
p erson fem in in e.
A ■
DERIVED VERBAL BASES
The t r i r a d i c a l V. B. may be m o d ified m o rp h o lo g ica lly
by p r e f ix e s , by i n f i x rt f , in one p a tte r n o n ly , and by
v o c a lic v a r ia t io n , th e fa c to r o f the form al m o d ific a tio n
b e in g throughout p u r ely sem antic.
The d eriv ed V erbal b a s e s , r e s u lt in g from ( l ) Qa Ta L,
(2 ) Qa TT a L (M. V. ).
v o f m iddle r a d ic a l.
V. B. m o d ifie d by- le n g th e n in g
A/A-A
/ .'
G e n e r a lly , th e v o c a lle seq u en ce o f V .B .1 i s main-?
^;;/ t a in e d f ;/but;;:i/:-Ae,... may change to e - e b s in d e l l e k , » he
smeared from V. B. 1 d i l e k ; in one in sta n c e
kabbar, he a u ^ e n t e d ,
o - o , changes t o a
k ib e r .
®> 818
to a .
a, ;
V o c a lic be quench/
p arsed to dream
from ffolora, or to a - a , as ^ a d d a s , he p lu n ged , from
AA'odos.
'
S em a n tics:
/A;
I t in d ic a t e s t h a t ' a c t i o h e x p r e sse d ;b^^
V. B. 1 has been done fr e q u e n tly an d /or in t e n s e l y , as
A E iS S e R, he sm ashed, /broke /to '^ ie c b s ^ /f rom/K iS e R, he
broke.
Those w ith m ed ial r a d ic a l (w) or (y ) le n g th e n
v
th e semi vow el i n t e r v o c & lic a ll y ,, a s ADe Wvy e :.M:, hb d elayed ; ;
f roiriAD ■-'■;^yr)A.A iff’,/ a h d / ^ / ^ ; ^
. : s - (y ) - % /A A ■'' Af-.;
he c o o le d , from
//a /a '
/-A
A A'a A. A a% a:;a :/
(3 ) Qa: Ta L or Qr i e Te L (S. M* )• ;V.B. m o d ifie d w ith
len g th en ih g A o f f i r s t fa ’ in th e sequence; or i t s change
' to ’ i e A ' A' : . ;vA-AAA ;A ^A '.A- ■/
•
A AAA/ A A •' AAA/;//': AA;
At-:Sem antics:/' , I t e x p r e sse s c a u s a tio n ,a s B ie V e D , he
A caused to go away;/d?ie h e ;M, he made Ato u nderstand.
/
(k ) i QT a L ori a Q Ta L, sp o ra d ic form s, su r v iv in g
a s/fo rm u ia iA :h i s t p r i c a i / ’fu n c iio n •l o s t .
A
a a AA
AV; A A - a AAA’/ - a A A A / / A ' A a / V A a A.A ■ A A ;
(5 ) t Qa TT a L (M. V. )♦
‘ •
25:8
P r e fix e d !t , in p h o n o lo g ic a l
ju n c tio n w ith f i r s t r a d ic a l o f V. B. 2.
For p o s s ib le /
p h o n e tic im p lic a tio n when i t comes in c o n ta c t w ith c e r ta in
/; con son ants as f t ? in i s s i l b you f in d , fo r t +. t s i : b , c f .
Ph.6nolog;^:
Gonsonspats in P h o n o lo g ic a l J u n c tio n ,
; A-
sequence o f V .B .2 .
;
;.
A A
V o c a lic
S em a n tics: (R e fle x iv e o f V. B, 2 ):
as
0 1
he hanged, t|aI*LaQ, he/hanged h im s e lf. ;
(6 ) tQarA Ta AL or t^ Q i e T OL (S.M. ) , p r e fix e d ft !
i n p h o n o lo g ic a l ju n c tio n w ith f i r s t r a d ic a l o f V .B .3y b c a lic /b e c ^
o f V.BA 3A • Aa /A"'A '
/A. : 'S em a n tic!A; (R e fle x iv e d f V ;B .3)s
A;
/
A
as BieReK* V .B .3 ,
h e :b le s s e d ; tB iereK , he.w as b le s s e d .
A
(7 ) n QaAC&AL (S. M;: /p r e fix e d lA h ’ in p h o n o lo g ic a l
ju n c tio n w ith 1 s t r a d ic a l o f V.B. 1.
A'- A V,-B. 1 . ; :;A
••.A ;
S em a n tics:
''/.A : A ■
,/
V o c a lic sequence o f
■'A : - A !' 'A" •‘ ' "AAAA
(R e fle x iv e dr p a s s iv e or V . B . l ) , as
haRaQ, heburnt^;AnfiaRaQ, he was b urqt; FiReD, he e e -
'A p a ra ted ; n F i Re AD,; he sep arated h im s e lf.
V,B. 7. has two form al v a r ia n t s , se m a n tic a lly c o r r e s ponding. - A
A *
-
A/,
.
A
,; -A' ,
:
■A A A'A A
AP at te rn ( l ) i n t Qa Ta L, th a t i s , w ith i n i t i a l AintV
v- made up o f !n f c h a r a c te r is tic iv o f V*B. 7 ,
p lu s f t*
c h a r a c t e r is t ic o f V.B. 3 and 6 , in m orp h ological ju n c tio n
w ith 1 s t r a d ic a l o f V .B .l.
I t i s th e o n ly p a tte r n o f
V.B. w ith i n i t i a l * r 1, fn* or ’w’1 , in the l a s t ca se f i n t f
changing to. fi n t i 1 as the p h o n etic im p lic a tio n o f i n t + w>
w h ile o th er V, B ases b egin n in g w ith o th e r consonants may,
or may n o t, have i t s id e by s id e w ith th e more u su a l p a t­
te r n V. B. 7*
Exam ples:
i n t b a l a ^ , a ls o inbalalT^, i t was sw allow ed ,
- from V. B .: b a la : ; in t q a : 1 , a ls o in q a : 1 , i t was
s a i d , from V. B. Qa :L; in trem a, n ever inrema,
i t was thrown away, from W B ., Rema ( y );
A
- : in tm e ss, never nm ess, i t was to u ch ed , from
V. B. m ess; in t iz e n , i t was weighed from V. B. A
.
w izen.
- A. :
..
In P a tte r n (2 ) 1n t and I t *. th e l a t t e r in t h i s ca se
c h a r a c t e r is t ic o f V. B .8 , are sep a ra ted by 1 s t r a d ic a l o f
V. B. 1 w hich i s g e n e r a lly s , j , or ff.
Exam ples:
in staJ.b , i t was found, from V.B. sa :b ;
in stera q ., i t was s t o le n , from V. B. seraq.;
injtamm, i t was sm elled , from V.B. J amra. .
(8 ) Q>t a Ta L (S.M. ) w ith ft f in f ix e d in phono­
l o g i c a l ju n c tio n w ith 1 s t rad. o f V. B. 1.
V o c a lic sequence
o f V.B. l .
S em a n tics; R e fle x iv e o f V .B .l:
FtaQaR, he became
poor; S t a B a , T, he f e 11 on h is f a c e .
( l ) Rote sp o ra d ic form in tw era, i t was shown fo r
[ i n t +]w era, he showed.
,' ,,
"'■f
: ■.
' 7 A a 'a a -A A :' ‘
a 'A ■' a
260
AaAAAA a /A : A-.v-aA'(9)'; Q Ta: p ypr;/<3v-TAl!AL: (S.M. ). 1 s t and 2nd:.rad.' ^AAyA
in p h o n o lo g ic a l ju n c tio n ;w ith in te r c o n sq h a h ta i 1a 1 or 1i e f.
A/ AA"''A
S em a n tics; .Athe a c q u i s i t i o n ;of,; a; p h y s ic a l or m oral ■-'AA;
A;//'';;;;
; q u a lity ,
T :W a : L,
At>,:/A:;:-,vA;- ... ; b e a u t if u li AA'.
he became t a l l ; S B i e h , he grew A /:
A
*’A‘ AA/ "A
’
y'A/A;
(1 0 ) S ta Q T a L /S .M . ): w ith s t a ; but s t j i f V. B. A- A A
A AA/’
i s p a tte r n Q - T - T.
Ex:
stKeNR, he. sought s h e l t e r ,A- / / /
st + kenn, p r e fix e d t o 1 s t rad.
i n p h o n o lo g ic a l ju n c tio n :-;
w ith 2nd. rad. fo llo w e d b y an i n t e r cons o n a n ta l; vow el 1a 1 A
A':ofA:f'e’AAv-Porb.va^
A;
;Coi., iy .A ' AA
‘sequenc^^. s e e Table
A . a ;.- a ’; ’ "A-:-
A‘ - ■-'■■A'1 AAi.A.A-
No. /73v|
.A:'' "’"AA;
A AA/ AAA<AA;A/A A' Sem antic s : A/ to have th e o p in io n /th at; someone orsom e--/;
:A -th in g i s ,: etC iA as stEeR R eh,/he abhorred; he c p h sid e fe d
AA
r e p u ls iv e , from ikrelx, ugly^
/■/'A
'AV./A' A
The Q u a d r ilite r a ls
P a tte r n Q:- T : q u a d r ilit e r a l VVB.l.
Afrom
lo g ic a l/j
L
- t , w hich may b e d e sc r ib e d as
has on ly one d e r iv e d form r e s u lt in g A
o f m orp h ological p r e f ix !t f in phono--AAA
1 s t r a d ic a l, w ith the p o s s i b i l i t y
o f com plete a s s im ila t io n , as we e x p la in e d in th e f i r s t
^
p
AA
V. B .2 ) .
/
' ■' A. - v ::A A \A y:;v
/
A
, ;Va
:A
A :AV
, ■
261
;
■
: S em a n tics: R e fle x iv e o f q u a d r ilit e r a l V. B. 1.
Exam ples:
tb a n d a l, he swung h im s e lf; tka^kar,
he c r e p t; t f a r f a r , he brushed h im s e lf; ic c a q la q ,
he moved h im s e lf, fo r t + caq laq ; iddardapA .
i t was d istu r b e d (W ater) fo r t + dardar.
Of*
Consonants In P h o n o lo g ic a l J u n c tio n , P art I.
P r e se n t and P a st Tense P a tte r n s o f D erived V erbal B a ses*
(1 )
As in th e ca se o f the o r ig in a l V*B., th e p r e se n t
te n s e p a tte r n s r e s u l t from th e a d d itio n o f th e same p re­
f i x e s a n d /s u f f ix e s to th e command or r e q u e st p a tte r n s , as
AA
. d e s c r ib e d in C ol. i i i *
(2 )
.A
A
The above d e r iv e d V erbal b a se s are a ls o s in g u la r
j
command or r e q u e st p a tte r n s , the p lu r a l o f which i s ob - "A
ta in e d r e g u la r ly by s u f f ix in g -*uf , a s k i s s e r ( i ) he broke
to p ie c e s ( i i ) break to p i e c e s 1. - command, n + k i s s e r ,
I break t o p ie c e s ; k i s s f u (p lu r a l command p a t t e r n ) ,
whence... n.’+ k is s r u * n + k i s s ( e ) r u , we break to p ie c e s .
The consequent e l i s i o n o f “u n str e sse d f e* is . accord in g to
th e r u le o f M altese S tr e s s .
(3 ) As fo r th e p a st te n se p a tte r n ( c f . C ol. v and v i ) ,
. V.B. 2 and p behave l i k e the q ta & d r iiite r a ls, ( c f . p a t.
/
t 7 - 2 1 , E ,) w ith f i n a l *e' changing to ’ i *, when fo llo w e d
by a consonant group, ’ as 'k is s e r , he broke; k i s s i r n a , we
broke; by an alogy w ith q u a d r ilit e r a l 'werwer, he t e r r i ­
f i e d ; werwirna, we t e r r i f i e d .
(4 )
In th e p a st te n se p a tte r n s o f V. B. 3 and 6 , a; or
i e , i s r e ta in e d throughout, th e form al s c a t t e r b ein g
o th er w ise r e g u la r as d e sc r ib e d in C o ls v and vi*
w h ile from
Thus,
fehem , he u n d erstood , we g e t fh im t, I under­
s to o d , by an alogy w ith q t i l t , I k i l l e d , from V.B.
Q a T e L; from fieh em , he made to u nd erstan d, we g e t
fe iiim t, change o f u n str e s se d 1i e 1 to 1e 1 b ein g accord in g
to a p h o n etic r u le a lrea d y ex p la in e d .
(5 )
'Alri th e p a d t te n s e /p a tte r n o f V.B. 8 fa f i s r e ta in e d
th rou gh ou t, thus b reak in g up an i n i t i a l tr ic o n s o n a n ta l
ju n c tio n .
I t i s o th erw ise regular*
Thus FtaKaRT, I
remembered, n ot F t K a R T.
(6 ) V.B. 7 , 9, 1 0 , are r e g u la r as d e sc r ib e d fo r th e o r i ­
g in a l V. B.
(7 ) To a v o id u n n ecessary r e p e t it io n o f p a tte r n s in th e
f o llo w in g T able, we s h a ll on ly d e sc r ib e th e form al be­
h a v io u r o f the v a r io u s ty p e s o f th e o r ig in a l V erbal B ase,
th e d eriv ed b a ses o f which can be e a s i l y b u i l t up as
e x p la in e d .
TABLE
Base
Formal D e scrip tio n
o f th e Command or
Request P a ttern s in
(a ) and (b ) in C ol.
(ii).
Nos.
(i)
Q- T - L
Present Tense
p a tte r n s.
(a ) Singular
(b) P lu ra l
Command or
Request P a tte r n s .
(a ) S in gu lar
(b ) P lu r a l
6
Voc. Seq. o f
Verbal B ase.
Formal D escrip tio n
o f 'P a st Tense'
P a tte r n s.
(iv )
(v )
(iii)
(ii)
A
(i)
( a )
S ingular Command
or Request P a ttern
w ith 1 s t and 2nd rad.
in P h on ologica l
ju n ctio n between a
v a r ia b le v o c a lic seq .
as u n d erlined in
c o l. ( i i ) .
1.
( a )
a QT a L
(b)
2.
(a )
o QT o l
( a )
By p r e fix in g to
(a ) in c o l. ( i i )
'n ' fo r I . * t' fo r
thou (you ), and
she* *y* fo r h e,
it .
(b )
o QT L u
0>)
With the 3 rad . in
p h o n o lo g ica l ju n ctio n
betw een a voc. seq .
o f which the f i r s t
i s the same as th a t
o f th e s in g , p a tte rn
and th erefo re li k e ­
w ise v a r ia b le , and
the second in open
s y lla b le i s the
•Verbal' p lu r a lis in g
s u f f ix 'u *.
The em ission o f the
u n stressed vowel
o f the sin g u la r p a t­
te r n on the addi­
t io n o f th e p lu r a l
s u f f ix i s according
t o th e r u le o f the Mal­
t e s e s t r e s s whereby
s tr e s s e d s y lla b le s
cannot be fo llo w ed
by more than one
u n str e sse d s y l­
la b le .
3.
(a)
i QT a L
(b)
iQ T L u
$( 2 )
a - aY
(i)
i2!
(3 )
U)
0 - 0
a -a
a - e
e - a
0>)
(ii)
By p r e fix in g to
(a ) in c o l. ( i i )
•n 1 f o r we, * t'
f o r you, 'y* fo r
th e y . (Any gen­
d e r ).
M
I2 }
(3 )
a -a
e - a
e - a
( 1)
Example from
P a t. 5.
(1)
(2)
a -a
e - a
(a)
4.
i QT o L
(b)
iQ T L u
5.
Taking Qa Te i as
b a se : he k ille d *
v o c. seq . a - e ,
3rd p e r s . fern. sin g ,
and the p lu r a l o f both
are formed th e r e o f by
th e a d d itio n o f the
s u f f ix e s ' e t ' and
'u ' r e s p e c t iv e ly ,
w ith consequent em is­
sio n o f u n stressed
vowel in t e s t b a se.
ahdem,
(a)
aQT eL
a - e
F ir s t p erson and
2nd p e r s. sin g u la r
r e s u l t from 1 s t and
2nd rad. in phono­
lo g i c a l ju n ctio n
p lu s vowel 'a ' or
' i ' , or 'o ' p lu s
s u f f ix ' t ' .
P lu r a l (we - you)
In 1 s t person p a t­
te r n sin g u la r su f­
f i x ' t ' changes to
1n a ', and in 2nd
p e r s . s in g , s u f f ix
•t* changes to 'tu * .
(b)
a QT L u
6.
(iii)
(a)
e T (J e L
e - e
(b)
(b)
e QT L u
7.
(a)
i Q Te L
n) ahdmu
(b)
iQ T L u
( 2)
P a tte rn 3.
8.
(a)
e Q I aL
(b)
e QT L u
t ) is ta ,
y)
can.
e - e
i - e
Note: When V.B
has w for 1st rad.
i(Col<. i i ) =
iw.
e - a
V o ca lic C riterio n
o f 1 s t and 2nd
P ers. sin g u la r .
(a ) when v o c a lic
base i s :
a -a
8
)
I i i when
base i s :
fl) a (2 J e (3 ) i “
v o c a lic
e
e
e
when v o c a lic
base i s :
o-o
(b)
n)
t) is t
u,
y )
p h o n e tic a lly ,
ew
(iv )
P h on etic im plica­
t io n o f a T f , from
b a se s,
Q- T
in p a tt .
Q T a L t i s 'ay'*
and ft in one spora­
d ic word as zb ayt,
a ls o zbafvt, I p ain ted
frcm Z - B -
Formal D e s c r ip t io n
o f th e Command or
R eq u est P a tte r n s i n
( a ) and (b ) i n C o l.
(ii).
N os.
Command or
R eq u est p a t­
te r n s.
(a ) S in g u la r
(b ) P lu r a l
P re se n t Tense
p a tte r n s .
(a ) S in g u la r
(b ) P lu r a l
(ii)
(i)
B
V oc. S eq . o f
V erb al B a se.
(iii)
(iv )
B
W ith lo n g 'i*
b etw een f i r s t and
f i n a l r a d ic a l
p lu s 'u ' i n ( b ) ,
d ev elo p ed fr a n V .B.
w ith m ed ia l rad­
ic a l (y).
9.
(a )
Q i; L
00
Q i : Lu
As i n (9 ) o n ly
w ith in t e r c o n s o n a n ta l ' u : • in s te a d
o f ' i : * , d ev elo p ed
from V .B. w ith
m e d ia l r a d ic a l *W*.
10.
(a ) and (b )
a s a lrea d y e x ­
p la in e d in C o l.
( i i i ) , on ly in ­
ste a d o f i n i ­
t i a l 'y ' th a t
p re c e d e s a v o w e l,
we have i n i t i a l
' i 1 u n le s s , in
con tin u ou s sp e e c h ,
i t i s preceded by
a vow el w ith
w hich th en i t
form s a d ip h th on g.
Ex:
i s i b u , th ey fin d *
b u t ir i: d u y s ib u ,
th e y want t o
fin d .
(a )
Qu: L
00
Qu: Lu
a: o r i e f o r
h y p o th e ti­
c a l 1ay a ' .
a : or i e
f o r h yp oth e­
tic a l
'a w a '.
In b o th ( a ) and
(b ) w ith 1 s t and 2nd
r a d . i n p h o n o lo g ic a l
j u n c t io n betw een
a v a r ia b le v o c a li c
s e q . d e r iv e d fr a n
V erbal B ases w ith
3rd r a d . in c o n s ta n t.
Ex: (1 1 ) Q aRa(y),
he read*
f l 2 ) BeDa, he began*
(1 3 ) h eb a , he w asted*
(1 4 ) BeKa, he w ep t.
11.
(a )
12.
i QT a
00
I Q Te w
13.
(a )
a QT i
00
a QT u
(l)
D ia le c t ic a l *
As e x p la in e d f o r
tr ir a d ic a l b a ses
i n C ol. ( i i i ) (a)
and (bXlHLth p a t­
te r n s (D - E ), b e ­
g in n in g w ith a
con son an t, an
i n i t i a l ( ) , o r th o g r a p h ic a lly i , may
have t o be added
when, in co n tin u o u s
sp e e c h , i t i s
p reced ed by a
con son an t, a s
ir r i: d in h o ll, I
want t o un loose*
but tr iid n in h o ll,
do you vant me to
u n lo o se ?
(i)
Taking 'S a
SieB^- a s t]
b a l B ase, <
p e r s . fa n .
p lu r a l (am
d er) resu T
th e a d d iti(
th e s u f f ix !
and 'u ' res
tiv e ly .
(ii)
1 s t and 2nc
s i n g , resu ]
fr a n in te r c
s o n a n ta lly
f i x i n g *i*
•o ' v a ria b ]
from b a s e s
Q-(W)-L and
in v a r ia b ly
fr a n b a s e s
Q -(Y )-L b e t
f i r s t rad.
f i n a l ra d .
p h o n o lo g ie s
ju n c t io n wi
s u ffix ' t ' ,
•na' *
C
C
(a )
a QT a
00
a Q Ta W
(v )
B
.
C
Formal Des
o f 'P a s t
P a tte r
a -a
w ith 2nd
vow el i n
open s y l ­
la b le .
e - a
2nd vow el
a s above.
e - a
2nd vow el
a s ab ove.
th e 'I m a le 1 i n t h i s p a r t i c u la r word i s g e n e r a lly u sed i n Gozo.
(i)
T aking QaRa,
he read* a!
V erbal Base,
3rd p e r . fer.
and 3rd per:
p i . a re fora
by th e ad d il
o f a : t , but
v a r ia b ly 'ic
when v o c . sc
i s e - a or
i e - a* and
alw ays 'ew '
v o c a l i c seq ,
e - a or i *
r e s p e c t iv e ly
f i r s t two r t
in phonologi
ju n c tio n .
Formal D escrip tio n
o f th e Canmand or
Request P a ttern s in
(a ) and (b) in Col.
( ii) .
Nos.
Canmand or
Request p a tte r n s .
(a ) S in gular
(b ) P lu ra l
(i)
P resen t Tense
p a tte r n s .
(a ) Singular
(b) P lu ral
(iv )
(iii)
( ii)
14.
Voc. Seq. o f
Verbal Base.
(a)
i QT i
(v)
(ii)
e - a
For d e sc r ip tio n ,
3ee A, Col. ( i i i ) .
i - a
(b)
i QT u
2nd vowel as
above, ( l l )
As in p a t. 11
but developed
w ith i n i t i a l
a or e .
(a )
15.
o"2fTa or e^JTa
Y
a - a (y)
-
(b)
_
oj^few or e J T e W
Formal D e scrip tio n
of 'P a st Tense'
P a tte r n s.
F ir s t and second
p e r s . sin g , w ith
•a y t' su ffix e d to
f i n a l 2 rad . in
p h o n o lo g ica l junc­
tio n or s u f f ix
'ayna' in 1 s t p e r s .
p lu r a l.
he
a (y )
Mote: With v o c a lic
sequence in V.B.
e - a or i - a ,
the diphthong ’ a y 1
and 'aw' change to
'e y ’ and 'ew' r e s ­
p e c t iv e ly .
we
you
D
With v a r ia b le
vowel e , i , or o,
between f i r s t and
second lon g rad .
p lu s *u* in (b )
d eriv ed from mono­
s y lla b ic Verbal
Bases w ith 2nd rad .
len gthened.
16.
)
Tfctt. 16.
(a )
Qe TT
\
it
it ii
)
" o ""
For d e sc r ip tio n
see A, Col. ( i i i ) .
(1 )
(2 )
(3 )
e
"
a
(b )
S in g . P a t. p lu s
(D
Taking 'medd' he
s tr e tc h e d , a s the
V .B ., 3rd p e r s .
fern, and p lu r a l
are formed bythe
a d d itio n o f su f­
f i x e s ’ e t ’ and
'e w ', l e s s f r e ­
q uently ' u ' .
(ii)
F ir s t and 2nd
p e r s . sin g , w ith
s u f f ix 'e y t ' to
V.B} 'e y n ', 1 s t
p e r s . p i . and e y tu ,
2nd p e r s . p lu r a l.
Verbal base
has th e same
v o c a lic and
consonantal
P a t. a s in
( i i ) , a.
With 2nd and
3rd rad . in morpho­
l o g i c a l ju n ctio n
between v o c a lic seq,
a -a frcra quadri­
l a t e r a l v erb al
b a ses w ith 4 rad.
d iff e r e n t or 1 s t
and 2nd rep eated .
Ex:
h arb at, he d es­
troyed}
f a r f a r , he
p o lish e d .
As in (1 7 ) but
w ith v o c. seq .
a - e , and rad.
d if f e r e n t .
Ex: QaRBeN, to
g iv e Holy Com­
munion}
habrek, to be
a c tiv e .
Q a T + Qa T
(b)
Q a lL L u
or
QaTQlu
18.
(a)
QaTL e L
(b)
Qa T L L u
P a tt . 17-21.
PT"
Taking ca n fa r, he
sc o ld e d , a s V.B,
3rd p e r s . fem. and
3rd p e r s . p i . are
formed by th e addi­
t io n o f s u f f ix e s
' e t ' and 'u ' r e s ­
p e c t iv e ly w ith con­
sequent em issio n o f
the u n stressed
vowel in V.B.
( ii)
F ir s t and s e c .
p e r s . sin g , r e s u lt
from the a d d itio n
o f s u f f ix ' t ' to
Verbal b a se , w ith
consequent s h if t in g
o f s t r e s s on f i n a l
s y l la b l e . 1 s t p e r s .
p i. fra n th e addi­
t io n o f s u f f ix 'na'
and 2nd p e r s . p i .
s u f f ix 't u ' w ith
consequent s h if t in g
o f s t r e s s on f i n a l
s y ll a b l e .
I
thou
CP
P
M
Past Tense
P a ttern s
* -P
- P Q)
. . U' ’4h --_
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P 6 id
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EH
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EH
•rl
Of
Of
Formal
of the
Request
in (a)
in Col.
Description
Command or
Patterns
and (b)
(ii).
Nos.
Canmand or
Request patterns.
(a) Singular
(b) P lu ra l
Present Tense
patterns.
(a) Singular
(b) Plural
Voc. Seq. of
Verbal Ease.
Formal D escrip tio n
of 'Past Tense*
Patterns.
P +>
M P C1 O
O ctf (1) *H *H *H i—f
ft 03^ O
•H
&
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'267,v'?
-'.i
VERBAL BASES WITH ‘W’ AS INITIAL RADICAL (W - T - L)
I.
Command o r R e q u e s t p a ttern s' a re;
(i)
a
T a s in g * , a T L u , from Verbal b a se s
^ w l t h v o c a l i c sequences a « a , w ith i n i t i a l f a f as th e ^
p h o n e tic im p lic a tio n o f a n a lo g ic a l ’ aw*.
(ii)
e T e 1 — e T L u , y o c a l i e sequence o f
V erbal Base e .^ e , w ith i n i t i a l ^ e 1 as th e p h o n etic
■ ^
im p lic a tio n ?of a n a lo g ic a l ’bW^rr/vv, •■*.'"■Vv;
-■,/v" ;-r':v
( i i i ) i T^eVlr.
L u , v o c a l i c sequence o f
V erbal Base i - c , w ith i n i t i a l fl f as the p h o n e tic
' ■ i r ^ l i c a t i o h o f an a lo g ica l^
II#
P re sen t Tense
tI o n o f pronom inal
piatterhs r e s u l t from the com binep r e f ix e s w ith im p erative p a tte r n s ,
a s^ ;d x p ia ii^ ( iiijT a b ie 6,y; C ol. \ ( l i i ) >
III*
’-■T;r
(a ) and ( b ) , j
The P a st Tense P a tte r n s are r e g u la r ly formed as
th o se o f tr ic o n s o n a n ta l b a ses in Table 6 , Col* v - v t ,
remembering, however, th a t as th e i n i t i a l r a d ic a l fwf
w hich must always be fo llo w e d by a v o w el, cannot l i k e ­
w ise form a p h o n o lo g ic a l ju n c tio n w ith th e f o i l owing
r a d i c a l , th e v o c a lic sequence o f th e o r ig in a l V erbal
Base i s r e ta in e d .
;
T his may b e (1 ) a - a , (2 ) e - e ,
(3 ) i ~ ©, (4-) i© ~ e .
With v o c a l i c sequence ( 4 ) ,
th e i n i t i a l r a d ic a l rwl i s r e ta in e d a ls o in th e
:
V
•v.-,;.-: • .
'
v : ''•
Oeramand or R equest p a tte r n s .
i
v
268
In such c o n te x t, th e
p h o n e tic im p lic a tio n o f i n i t i a l :-fwaf , fwef > ;?w i* , when
u n s t r e s s e d , may a ls o b e , o p t io n a lly , fu f>
}
This would n o t
ap ply t o th e t h ir d p erson s in g u la r p a tte r n ( e it h e r gender)
or p lu r a l,; when th e se i n i t i a l diphthongs are str e sse d *
^
So, we pan sa y , w aqayt, I f e l l ; or u q a y t, weH Iltu or
u l ii l t u , you f a i l e d ; w izin n a or u zin h a , we weighed*
It
w i l l a ls o be remembered th a t th e p h o n o lo g ic a l ju n c tio n o f
't h ir d r a d ic a l. 1
\ w ith t h e prenbmihal s u f f ix e s 11 f or
fh s fy req u ired by ^ a t t e r h a n alogy, g iv e s t a y 1 as th e
p h o n e tic im p lic a tio n th e r e o f.
Por in s t a n c e , w aqayt, I
;
f e l l ; fo r ;waqay$, ’■waqayna, y/e f e l l ; f o r Vmqnjfia*-■ B u t, .
w a q /e t, she f e l l ; arid waq^u, th ey f e l l ; b y p a t t e r n an alogy
w ith Q a T L e t , she k i l l e d ; Q a T L u , th ey k i l l e d .
269
Examples:; C.:;
Present Tense
Pattern
Comaiid or Request Patterns
^iidaial, connota­
tio n s as explained
:in Ta^le 6, C o l* ( iii)
(ii)
singular
p lu ra l
(a) asal, arrivej aslu :xf^ (b) aqe^y' f a ll;
, . ;; '
i_
' ; a<ifu,;; .phon^
- ?. e t ic a lly ,
■’>
aqfew. ^ r
(e) efiely stick !
Basi Tense
Pattern
eKlu,
,
ir e t jv inherit, irtu ,
’? ' :
Examples given
w ith p at. (e)
Col* \±)
c f . G ol#(i)
(a) w asalt, I
( thou) arrived*
(b) waqayt, I
, (thou) f e ll*
(c ) w efilet, she
got stuck*
■)
(&) n)
;i «t-jvd^fed^Cpro ■
i)
(d), w iritn a or
:uritn^,;fwer,,;i
?
inherited*
,(e) weJibtu/:youJ
(e ) w iejeb, answer* wiejhu
answered^
( f ) wiejf&y:promisej WieYdu. ^
oo
n J wie/l du.
m
i )
(1 )
.
w ie1 d u ,th ey
proinised*
I n i t i a l ’yljWliich jnust always be followed ?by a vowel, and never
by a consonant or semi vowel, c h a n g e s " w h e n i t i s not so
: followed*
L onely Format io n s
■V
'
■" ■
A -
■
Waqaf, he stopped* (1 ) Command or R equest
P a tt e r n :
(a ) l e q a f y : (*b) ie q f iif ( 2 ) P re sen t Tense
P a tt e r n s , r e g d la r form ation s from Pat* ( 1 ) . . p a st Tense
P a tte r n s;
'
■
r e g u la r .
" ;
WV '
'
"'
.w ;'v' ■'
v > -'
i t ached* a ls o W e « J a ( 1) Command or
R e q u e stsP a tte r n s (a).^ujaj^r, (b ) .ujffii: (2 ) P re sen t :
Tense p a t t e r n s , r e g u la r form ation from P a t. (a ) and (To)
(3 )
P a st Tense P a tte r n , regu lar..
271
B
THE INVARIABLE ELEMENT OF S.M. MORPHOLOGY
In tr o d u c tio n
In fAf we d e a lt w ith th e vai?i8iblo elem ent o f
M altese morphology showing b r i e f l y th e form al i n t e r ;ac^ion ^etweaixv such: v a r i a b i l i t y and sem a n tic s.
In fBf
we s h a ll d e^ l ^ t h , tlie com p aratively l i t t l e in v a r ia b le
elem ent l e f t * th a t i s w ith v/ords th a t are n ot morphol o g i c a l l y p ro d u c tiv e o f fu r th e r s c a t t e r
‘V^Vr'^npt-;'t^
and th at are
h is t o r y fo r th e moment - th e
r e g u la r product o f a p a tte r n a n a lo g y , though a: few o f
th e s e ^ords a c c id e n t a lly cqnfprm to some o f th e mor­
p h o lo g ic a l p a tte r n s we l i s t e d a s , f o s t , foi* f i + w o st,
"
amongst; fe y n , f o r f 1 + ejm^ where; .fo r m a lly a g re ein g
w ith hobz, b rea d , aixd dC^ii, debt, r e s p e c t iv e l y .
(1 )
The
S p o r a d ic a lly , however, we can a ls o d eriv e v er b a l
b a se s from th e p r e p o s itio n s as b ey y en , to i n s e r t , to
in t e r r u p t , from, beyrij betw een; jewwen, to t r e a t as
in tim a te from jewwa, in s id e . But n o te th a t th e p re­
p o s it io n s as such remain m orp h ological in v a r ia b le s .
^;
c r i t e r i o n o f m o rp h ological i n v a r i a b i l i t y i s n ot
a f f e c t e d b ecau se th e s e form ulas may l in k up w ith
s u f f i x e s , w ith consequent p h o n o lo g ic a l m o d ific a tio n s ,
a s , i n t h i s ca se£ we have not new m orp h ological p a tte r n s
btxt com posite words made Up o f m o r p h o lo g ic a lly d i v i ­
s i b l e parts*
T his p a rt w i l l th e r e fo r e cover th e fo llo w in g
d i v i s i o n s - (1 ) A r t i c l e , (2 ) Pronouns, (3 ) Numerals,
(4 ) A dverbs, (5 ) P r e p o s itio n s , (6 ) C on ju n ction s,
(7 )
I n t e r j e c t io n s .
As th e c o n te x tu a l usage th e r e o f i s
a m atter f o r sy n ta x , in the same way as th e c o n te x tu a l
occu rren ce o f vow els and consonants i s a m atter fo r
p hon ology, we w i l l on ly enumerate them h e r e , w ith t h e ir
E n g lis h m eanings, adding any p e r tin e n t e x p la n a tio n s
' th a t v/e may th in k n e c e ssa r y .
■ A r t ic le
XL, the* in ca p a b le o f any m orp h ological v a r i a b i l i t y in
any c o n te x t, b ut fo r i t s p h o n e tic m o d ific a tio n , when
in p h o n o lo g ic a l ju n c tio n w ith c e r ta in consonants se e
rl f i n I Complete A s s im ila tio n (C onsonants In Phono­
l o g i c a l J u n c tio n , P art I . ).
273
( 2 )
•;
..
..
(
Pronouns
( i j P erso n a l
■.
. • ■ / ■■■/ • •
'
..
1
These ares ( 1 ) ‘ yie'n:|I;(2 ) l n t or i n t i
■ ,
( h e , orthography fhuf , ( 4 ) i s s h e , orthography . *h i f ;
(if) ahna, v/e; (6 ) intom , you; (7 ) u : ma, th ey ; o rth o ­
graphy huma*
;
( i i ) Pronominal S u f f ix e s a tta c h e d to (a ) Nouns
Ob) V erbals
( 1)
V'‘\ ,
(a ) - i ; - y a , my; th e f i r s t s u f f ix e d to a f i n a l
consonant and th e second to yow el. (b ) - n i , me; - li >
f o r me, to me*
Exam ples; i s d i , my hand;, fo r i:c l + i ; f a y n e y y a , my
ey e s, fo r
^ a y n ey + ya; hobbni, lo v e me, hobb + n i;
s i s b l i , fin d f o r me, s i s b + 11*
(2) ( a •- b ) - ek; - ok; - k , th y or thee* and (b ) - le k
(1 )
Note that m orp h ological i n v a r i a b i l i t y does n ot ex­
clu d e a lt e r n a t iv e p a ttern s*
- lo k , to t h e e ; e k and^ l e k , a tta c h e d to Nouns and Verb
p a tte r n s r e s p e c tiv e ly * w ith in te r c o n so n a n ta l vowel o th er
than 1o ’ , in w hich case *o k 1, or ’l o k ’ i s u sed ; - k
a tta c h e d to Nouns and Verb p a tte r n s en d in g in a Vov/el*
Exam ples?-
r ijle k ,
your le g ; f i i ( e ) l + ek; n o te e l i s i o n
o f u n s tr e s s e d ’ e f f ommok thpbbpk, your p o th er lo v e s you,
pram;,+ ok thobb
okf; yiii3orlok * ^he ^ ^ i s h e s ; f or you,
y in jo r jfc lok*
(3 )- (a
b )\;f u (a ) -
h is! or him; ^ b ) l u , fo r him,
to him, th e f i r s t s u f f ix e d to f i h a l v o w el; in open
s y l l a b l e , th e second to f i n a l consonant o f verb p a ttern s*
Examples s-?
p alb u , h is h e a r t; y o g t iu j h , th ey k i l l him;
h r ij t lj i* I d efrayed exp en ses fo r him*
' (4 ^ (a ^ b ) - a , t e r ; ( b ) , l a , to her*
--v
E x ^ p le s : ^ qalbh , h er h e a r t; g a : l l a , fo r q a : i t l a , he
t o ld her*
(5 )
•
;
(a - b ) - n a, u s ; (b ) - I n a , and - ' i l n a , t o , f o r , u s ,
when a tta c h e d to f i n a l consonant*
Examples:*-
ru :h n a, our s o u l; sa :b n a , he found u s
(s a :b + n a ) ; j i e l n a , he c a lle d on u s , ;Jie + ln a ;
s a b lln a , s a :b + i l n a , he found f o r us*.
(6 ) (a - b ) - kom, you; (b ) - lkom* fo r you*
E xam ples: 4 da i rkom, your h o u se; r a :kom, he saw you;
ra ilk o m , he saw f o r you ( r e v is e d , c o r r e c te d , e t c . fo r
you)*'',;; . 7
V
.
( 7 ) ( a ' - . b ) - om (orthography horn), them; (b ) lom , f o r
item (d rth og^
ExamplesisV Ja:rom> t h e i r h b ig te o u r ; 3a^r
c a r r ie d
them; jarrlhoin,- he c a r r ie d fo r them*
( i ) Phone t i c I n f l u e n c e s o f The Pronominal
S u f f ix e s A ttach ed to Nouns
(A), Wheh pronom inal s u f f ix b s are added to Nouns w ith
v o c a l i c sequence i - e , th e l a t t e r u n s tr e s s e d vowel
d isa p p ea rs i f th e s u f f i x e s added are (1 ) V i ; - ek ; and
. - u; b u t i t changes to s t r e s s e d i when th e added s u f ­
f i x e s are (2 ) - a; - n i; or -
om.
E xam p les:- isem , name; d i f e r , n a i l ; z i b e l , ru b b ish ;
le h e n , v o ic e .
; -
: -
■:
v
d i f r V z i b i + lefrn + ism +
■■■(1 )
;r
1U
(ek
276
(2)
(a
•d i f i r + z i b i l + le h i n + is im +
’ •
; ,, .
■
(B)
■ - . -.
1
, tna
(
(kom
’ - (om-
When any :pf the, fo r e g o in g prohor^^
, is
a tta c h e d to Nouns w ith f i n a l ’a 1 in open s y l l a b l e , t h i s •
Jyowjel: d isa p p ea rs and i s p o s i t i o n a l l y rep la ced by a non
'■■■rdd:ical\b on B b n
th e pronom inal s u f f i x i s
a tta c h e d .
E x a m p les:* * sa h h ti, my h e a lth , from sah ha, h e a lth ;
m artek, your w if e , from mar a , woman.
(0 )
When th e th ir d p erson fem in ln e s u f f i x , a , orth ogra­
phy h a, or any o f th e p lu r a l s u f f i x e s - na; - kom, - om,
orthograph y,
hom* i s added, th e con seq u en t consonant
group th u s formed i s g e n e r a lly , though i n some v/ords n o t
n e c e s s a r i ly s o , broken up by an in te r v e n in g s t r e s s e d ’ i f
a f t e r non r a d ic a l f t f .
^
E x a m p le s s -^ a y ti, my l i f e ; from Hayya, l i f e , b ut
fia y y itn a , our l i f e ; H ayyitk b m ,you r l i f e ; hayyithom ,
t h e i r l i f e ; ^ew q ti, my w ish ; ( j ew qtek, your w ish , from
J ewqa, w ish ; b u t
(1 )
(a lso ^ l e s s fr e q u e n t,
C orresponding to the ’ t f marbuta o f A rab ic.
!
^jew qta,)
(d )
•-
; . : ■
V-./
' ■ ■ 277
J W q itn a , ( l e s s fr e q u e n t, ^ ewqtna) our w ish .
I f th e word w ith f i n a l ’ a 1 has
a t h ir d r a d i c a l , or m edial q, or
or a liq u id as ;
t when any o f th e
pronom inal s u f f i x e s i s added, th e in te r c o h s o n a n ta l vow el
o f th e o r ig in a l word i s rep ea ted a ls o in te r e o n e o n a n ta lly
betw een secon d and th ir d r a d i c a l , th e l a t t e r fo llo w e d by
■
‘p o n -ra d lca .l-^ tl^ 'V r-^ .^ . -
\-v.
^Exam ples:# .--sexff^a;:j.chaj^^itof^a;, h o le ; tc< ^ a , h o le ;
-n a'^ Ja, a sh eet*
... f /
v'-:'
;seh e 7 y t + h o ib n V
- -V
..
;
'
. ■:
V
- v l ' : " afc, - ok
n a i j ^ i t '+
~
.
■
'
a ' *
y V na
y - kom
v " -pm: ;
'-/'V
V .V v
-wV'
■... -V
( i i ^ V B h o h d ib gical M o d ific a tio n s r e s u lt in g from
a d d itio n o f Pronominal S u f fix e s to V erbal p a tter n s*
;j
■
To i l l u s t r a t e su ch m o d ific a tio n s ^ v/e g iv e th e
’P resen t* and ’Past* te n s e v er b a l p a tte r n s th a t a re
d e sc r ib e d in T able 6 , c o l * l i i and v ^ v i r e s p e c t iv e ly ;
th en th e same p a tte r n s as m o d ified by s u ffix e s *
1♦
'
(a )
■■
P re sen t Tense p a tte r n s
V
' ,
(b )
(1 ) y ie n . I;/nahdem , work
(t-j/A hna, we; /nahdmu, work*V:
(2 ) in t(T h ou ,/+0^ AmWolr k e s t
I : (S h e , taMemworks
( 5 ) / in tom, you; /tahdmu **
(3 ) U 1 $ h e , Vahdem, works
(6)* uVma, th e y , yahdmu 11 ■
276
2.
(1 )
With the Pronominal Suffixes
- n i; - l i
Vahdm + ( e k ) ; nah&mi+
(+ l a ; + lkom; > lom ); other*
v/ise hah&im +; (2 ) VaKdm +
- k - ek - ok - le k V
lo k
h , - u* a + f i n a l vov/el; u +
fin a l
consonant; - lu
( e k ) ; tat/dmi + ( l a ; Ink;
lkom; lom) o th er w ise tafi&im
- a; ** l a .
+ , (3 ) yahdm +
( l a , ln a , lkom; lom) o th erw ise
yah&im (4 ) naridmu: +; (S )
V h a ; V I 1*®- '
- kom; - lkom
- om; ~ lom
tafi^iw : V i
i*
P a st Tense P a tte r n s
(a l
0>)
(1 ) Y ien h dim t, worked
. ■ ' i nt v- 11
(4 ) /aftna Vdimna, worked
(2 ) u : ^fiadem
(5 ) intom^Sdimtu
(3 ) i : /fradmet
(1 )
"
ii
(6 ) u :ma/fiadmu
Kdimti + ( - l a ; - ln a ;
- lkom; - lom) oth ery/ise
/Kdimt., (2:)/hadm + ( e k ) ;
fia&im + ( - n i ; I I ; l e k ) ;
( l a ; l n a ; lkom:;
- n i; - l i
- k; ek; ok; - le k ; - lek ;
- h; - u (h + f i n a l ybv/eli
u + f i n a l consonant) :
- lu .
' V
.
a ; **? i a # ,
(3 ) h adm lti + ( l a ; ln a ; lkom;
- na; - ln a
■
lo m ); o th erv /ise hactoit (4 )
- kom; - lkom
,v
VV,;:-/-; ‘
h d in k le^ . ( 5 ) EdinVu: ( 6 ) :: r
■
2791
- pm; - lom
fia d ih u : \
N o te :-
■ ; v:;
When the s u f f i x e s are added to the Command
p a tte r n s* th e s t r e s s moves from th e f i r s t s y l l a b l e to
th e p e n u ltim a te , a ccord in g to th e r u le ; as
hut
i k t i b a , w r ite i t
but
i t r i l n a , buy fo r u s .
(iii)
( 1)
(her);
ik t e b , w r i t e -
r e g is te r h er;
V
1 t r i , buy*
/ . VVv; i
The D em on stratives
d a :n , or h ed ajn ;
V'
V ed asn a, t h i s , m asculine*
( 2 ) d i:n * or h e d i:n ; d i;n a , or h e d i:n a , t h i s , fe m in in e.
( 3 ) dawn or hedawh, t h e s e , any gen d er.
( 4 ) d a :k , or h ed aik ; daikaS, or h e d a : k a * t h a t ,
m asculine*
( 5 ) d i: k , or h e d i:k , d i:k a , or h e d i:k a , t h a t ,
fem inine*
( 6 ) dawk or hedawk; da w k a or hedawka, th ese*
(7)
1 :* some* .
■
v
( 8 ) liem a* w hich.
( i v ) The I n te r r o g a tiv e s
(1)
i , what ? ,r--.
■
V'V
( 2 ) m i:n , who ?
r~1
— ||-- |- -- -■
‘
(l)
V
I" " i
- - - — “ -■
■
--- - - ■—
-■
■
■
-
■
—
;
rVV
;■
- v-
N o te, change o f f i n a l sh o r t Va* in t h e :prohominal ;; v
s u f f i x na to f ieV, which i s g e n e r a lly th e v a r ia n t o f
;
, lo n g f aTTas in w e r q ie t, le a v e s , f o r werqa: t . For h i s ­
t o r i c a l re a so n , c f . lo n g ’a* o f c l a s s i c a l A rabic in
/ ru i * \
)
280
( 3.) liem ay which ?
( 4 ) <y a l a , v/hy ?
(5)
r/hy ? - b eca u se. .
(v )
I n d e f in it e Pronouns
These a r e : - K o ll, every; k u llm a ,, w hatever;
kuifm dd, everybody; k o l i o j ;,; e v e r y th in g ; i l k o l l , a l l ;
unanim ously; i& d^iehbr; some one e lse ^
y \Y \
-?; V :
;'V-"'i ; NumeralsW hile the c a r d in a l numbers fo r m a lly behave l i k e
nouns, and may th e r e fo r e be c la s s e d - w ith them, t h e ir ;
o r d in a l corresp on dences are in v a r ia b le .
j- ‘
V
4 Adverbs
.(i)
■Of P la c e
Feyn, vrhere; a ls o fe y ; mneyn, whence; le y n , tov/ards;
k u l l f e y n , ;w h efever; 3ev/wa* in s id e ; b a r r a , o u ts id e ;
fu q , above; t a h t n i y y i e t , uhder; w a r a n iy y ie t,
(1 )
backwards*
r f i ^ y i e t ’ , as an e n d in g t o ’w a ra 1 and H a h t i i n d i ­
cates;^ d i r e c t i o n ; b u t a s ; t h i s se m a n tic f u n c ti o n o p e r­
a t e s o n ly w ith, th e s e two s p o r a d ic w o rd s, w e. c o n s id e r
them a s fo rm u la s , t h a t is> w ords t h a t h a v e s u r v iv e d
a s i n v a r i a b l e s , a s th e p l u r a l s u f f i x e n i n Eng., oxen.
281
( i t ) : Qf Tims
ilb ie r a h * y e ste r d a y ;
ilb ie ia h tlu L a :, th e day b e fo r e ;
y e ste r d a y ; le w lie m e s , th e day b e fo r e y e ste r d a y ; illu : m ,
today;
i s s a r n o w j^ a d a , tomorrow; b i k r i , e a r ly ;
, pitj^ada* th e d ^
tomorrow;
1 :1
v
b i j r i , m alayr, VtUddejfLy;
ago; lo n g s in c e , J^ad, s t i l l *
y e t , not--
V
(iii)
Of Q u antity,
d a q s i, ;a s - ; a s ; V , keinin_^
■
■
^
/ V ^ XiVJiT-Nbga'tions
V
ma *«• ; n o t , w ith f i n a l ^ a tta c h e d ;V p iy e r t
w hich i t , n
e
g
a
m u :/n o t; l a , do n o t;
t
e
s
#
;
;
'
V
V
‘'0[yjLjLV w f r t t d s p e a k +
addedtq'iV w ^ s^ w hich i t negates^;?neitd^eriyyv*:, nor.
; VAC5VV /
5 . Pre-posi tio n s
Vi VVv
b i , b , V ^ t^ J !bla » y d th o u t; f i ^ f , "in; Tybyn* betw een;
and b e ^ n it Vr;pronoi^nal'Vd^fi3C9s as b e y n itn a , between
o u r s e lv e s b u t a ls o b eym a; b tia i, l i k e ; blialma, as;
'((1 ■) -;--0f.::;>ArGbicVoan^ '^ 0^ !- ^ e ''''^r e ^ »
’ y;cqntributlpn>V2>P^^
282
f o s t , among; f u q , o n , above# h a d a , hdey:>,, n e a r , "by t h e
s i d e of# b i W i t + p ro n o m in a l s u f f i x e s , “by th e s i d e o f ,
o r o p p o s it e to # l i l ,
e x c e p t#
to # ma, v/ith # m in n , from#
^ a l , a g a i n s t , to v /a r d s, fo r # gfiand, a t ,
J 'a y r ,
i n th e
p o s s e s s i o n of# q a b e l, b e f o r e ; quddiem , i n f r o n t of#
ta J 'V o f# t a E t , under# war a , a f t e r , b e h in d .
6
The Conjunct ions
u, and# yew, or# iz d a , but# yekk, if# a: , because#
i l l i , l i , Y/ho, th a t; b i l l i , whereas# meta, when# f i l l 1,
m a lli# ; when, as soon as# m i l l i , fo r minn + 1 , than# l a ,
s i n c e , •as la q a llek ‘^ e y d li, sin ce he to ld you, t e l l me.
7
In te r je c tio n s
iv a , iv/a, yes# ya, 0# jahasra, a la s
1
# y a lla , y/ould to
God; yabbni or ylb b n i, indeed •; ( ir o n ic a l) ; yommi, v/hat
exp ressin g surprise# jobbni, being o r ig in a lly fo r ya +■
ib n i, 0 my son, and yommi, for ya + ommi, 0 my mother.
This concludes the l i s t o f y/ords, each o f which
independently of i t s h isto ry ,, has survived in the
language, as a formula, m orphologically in v a ria b le.
.THE MORPHOLOGY OF NON SEMITIC MALTESE
The Variable Element
A general p r in c ip le to remember i s that loan words
■fa r e : incorporated
in to Maltese in three ways:-
( ! ) by, conforming t o ;> Sem itlcl p attern , not n eces-
A
s a r ily m orphologically corresponding, as in the case bf/V.-f
fo reig n verbs conformingrto noun p a ttern s,
(ii)
by conforniihgi to Sem itic Maltese p h oh ologieally
but not m orphologically,
( i l l ) by r e ta in in g th e ir h is t o r ic a l phonology, with
or without a phoneti c modi f ie a iio n o f the; q u a lity o f the
consonants and the vowels.
The phonetic m od ification i s
as a r u le , always n oticeab le amongst the uneducated
masses, but much le s s so amongst the educated c la s s e s
such as le g a l p eop le, doctors, and p r ie s t s , e s p e c ia lly
in V a lle tta and the neighbouring towns.
Taking the loan words in the morphological order
o f fthevT ables r we s h a lt now g iv e examples o f th ese pro­
cesses.
The f ollow ing are loan words confarming to
Nominal Sem itic p attern s marked M.V. in Table I (process
( i ) ):
The p attern s are numbered as in th e ir resp ectiv e
P attern s marked v have a v e r b a l function.
Because o f the lig h t that i s shed on Maltese
phonology and phonological adaptation, the loan words
explained in th eir^ o rig in a l language I t a l i a n .; ( i t . fo r
sh ort) or S ic ilia n , b r ie fly S ic. and E n g lis h //
(1) Q a T L:
M, mant; I t / manto# Eng^. mantle - M.
bank; I t / banco# E n g ./b a n k ? M . l a t t s ; I t . la c c io ;
Eng. la c e .
With f in a l ’a ’ , conforming to S. p attern
v^ t l a ,;//we,^get woi?ds, h is t o r ic a lly corresponding lik e
M. fa r sa , I f / farsa#
farce:-*M. ta tts a ; I t . tazza
Eng. g la s s .
( 2 ) Q e T L:
M ,-Sicreene; I t . censo; Eng. emphyteusis
M. m effs; It* mezzo; Eng. means.
(3')/ Q i T L: ;;;%S«ic:cint; I t. recin to (Lat. c in tu s );
Eng. edge-;of a';wall#
(k)
Q o T hi
M. cipp; I f . ceppo; Eng. stocks,
M. kors; It* cor so-; Eng, course; M. b o ll
I t . b o llo ; Eng. stamp.
(11 j C t
M. le n tsa j I t . le n z e ; Eng. fis h in g
l i n e ./; M. r e n ta ;' I t . renta; Eng/ ren t.
(12) Q I T L a:
verga; Eng. wand.
vi
M. k it la ; Eng. k e t t le ; M. v ir g a , I t .
M. y i l l a ; I t . v i l l a ; :Eng. v i l l a .
( c f . Sem itic p attern , sinna, to o th ).
285
.
(13) Q o T L a ; M. borza; I t . borsa; Eng. bourse
(p urse).
M. b o ttsa ; I t . bozza; Eng. bulb,
(19) Q a T u:
L; M, vapurr; I t . vapore; Eng, ship.
M.:madu:m; I t . matt one; Eng. b rick s. M. b allu sn ;
I t . p allon e; E n glish , b a ll.
(20) Q T a : L; M. fr a :r ; I t . febbraio; Eng. February.
M. sp ta :r; I t. ospedale; Eng. h o s p ita l.
(21) Q T ie L;
M, s tw ie l; I t . s t o l l o ; Eng. beam.
(22) Q T a : L a; M. gra:da; I t . grata; Eng. gate.
(23) Q T ie L a;. M. skieda; I t . scheda; Eng, schedule.
M, spieda^v ^; s ic . sp ed d iri; Eng. to fin is h .
(25) Q T i ; L; M. f r i : z ; I t. fr e g io ; Eng. fr ie z e ;
M. g r i:z ; I t . g r ig io ; Eng. grey.
(26) Q T i : L a; Mi c n i: sa; S ic. g in is a (Lat. c in is ) ;
. Engi charcoal dust; M. s tr i:n a ; It* strenna; Eng. a
new year
g ift.
v
(27) Q T
u: L; M. spyusn; I t .
spione; Eng. spy;
M. tmu:n; I t . timone; Eng. rudder.
(28) Q T u: L a; M. b lto sa ; Eng. blouse;Mstu:dya^v ^
I t . stu d iare; Eng. he studied.
(29) Q T
i y y a; M. triy y a ; I t . tria d e; Eng. tria d e.
Instances of loan words conforming to Sem itic
M altese p h on ologically but not m orphologically are words
lik e pulptu, p u lp it; d isp u :ta , d isp u te, the h is t o r ic a l
::V;
286
a n te p e n u lt im a te a c c e n t o f w h ich i s
s t i l l r e t a i n e d b y th e
e d u c a te d c l a s s e s .
I n s t a n c e s o f n o u n - la o h s , r e t a i n i n g t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l : : / /
p h o n o lo g y , w ould b e w ords l i k e v i r W ;
Eng. v ir t u e ; M k a r it a ; k a p ita ;, I t .
I t . - .v ir t u e ,.
c a r i t k ; Eng. c h a r it y ; .; - /
M. m ir a k o li; I t . m i r a c o l i ; Engv m i r a c l e s , w it h w h ich we
j c l a s s f a l s o t h o s e l o a n s , i n w h ich th e o n ly , p h o n o lo g ic a l
d i f f e r e n c e p r m o d i f i c a t i o n i s f in a l y* i * In op en s y l l a b l e
fo r I t a lia n
f e T and ’ u ’ f o r I t .
E xam plesM .
fo f.
m e r a v i ly i; I t . m e r a v i g l i e ; Eng. m a r v e ls ;
M. p a r t i ; i t / : p a r t e ; Eng. p a r t ; M. b a l l u ; I t , b a l l o ; %/
Eng* b a l l . '
r’ ■
Such h i s t o r i c a l p h o n o lo g y i n some o f i t s e le m e n ts
v e r y o f t e n a g r e e s w it h S e m it ic M a lte s e .
sta n c e,
T ak e, f o r i n -
’ a ’ i n lo a n word fp a r t i 1, p a r t ; and i n t h e
S e m it ic w ord,
*q a lb i ’ , my h e a r t - i t o c c u p ie s t h e same
p o s i t i o n i n two f o r m a lly s i m i l a r , b u t m o r p h o lo g ic a lly
d if f e r e n t , p a tte r n s.
(iii)
;
;
M o r p h o lo g ic a lly , p r o c e s s e s . ( i i ) and
in c lu d e th e l a r g e r number o f l o a n w ord s.
287
' , ' Vocalic Endings of Loan Words
These are ( l ) a, Common to fo reig n nominals and des­
c r ip t iv e s denoting a fem inine gender, thus agreeing, with
Sem itic M altese, u n less the noun in d ic a te s a male lik e
pa:pa, pope.
Examples:- Icarta sahiha, B ea u tifu l paper;
mara Bra: ya, "brave woman; • ruh indanna: t a , damned sou l,
( 2 ) u, common to foreign nominals and a d je c tiv e s;
in d ic a te s masculine gender.
Examples:-
"
tra:vu kBir,
B ig Beam; r a :J e l Bra:vu, Brave man.
(3 )
.i, p lu a r a lise s foreign d e s c r ip tiv e s and nominals
ending in fa f or fu f .
Examples:-
k a r ti sBieh. n isa
B ra:vi; erwieh indanna:ti; tr a :v i kbar; r j i e l B ra:vi.
Of. TABLE 2 ’
Nominal sc a tte r formed By p r e fix in g non r a d ic a l *t f ,
w ith or without a follow in g vowel, to the f i r s t ra d ica l
o f the sem itised V. B.
(2) t i Q T i: L. t iB c i: r , Butchering from V .B .2, B ic c e r :
t ic k i :n, B e lit t lin g from V.B.2. Gekken.
( 4.) t Q, i T T i : L; tB ic c i: r , Butchering from V.B. 2.
B iccer as in ( 2 ) , tB ic c i; e , cu ttin g to p iec es from B iccer.
(10)
T Q a T t i y y a, a lso with 2nd ra d ic a l un­
lengthened.
tp a jfiy y a , self-in d u lg e n c e from V. B. p ajja;
,
t B a t i y y a , s u f f e r i n g , from V .B . B a ta (L a t. p a t i ) ;
t f i s q . i y y a , sw acLdling, ( w it h *i* f o r S e m it ic
V .B . f e s ^ a (L a t.
( 1 A) t Q a T Q i :
aH
a; t i k c i y y a , e x p u ls io n from V .B . k e c c a .
L; t B a n d i: ! , s w in g in g fro m q u a & r ilit e ^ a l
Banda 1 , t B a s k i : t B a k in g
:
from
fa s c ia ).
i Q T i y y
'
’e * ) ,
h a rd , from V .B . B a s k a t; t r a m p i: ! ,
h o o k ih g ;fr o m V .B. ra m p el.
,
- ' z Cz -
■.
zziz,;^
( 1 6 ) t Q e TsQ i : 1l ^ t f t e n j i ; l , z B r u i s i n g ; ; from V .B . B e n ^ e i ; :
t B e r f i s i , trim m ing from V .B . B e r f e l ; t B e r d i : ! r o w d ih e s s
■V.':
- '^ r o m ' 'W B . : - . iB e r d e l ; v - ■ ' zz '
i
,
.
'
:5
ffin y b tlie r " y 8 i^ s% v e i(D p , k k o r p h o io g ic a X l y c o r r e s -
z
p o n d in g non S e m it ic s c a t t e r By a d d in g a : r to . th e V . B . ,
h i s t o r i c a l l y ;c d r r e s p o h d in g .t a ’ a r e * , one o f th e I t a l i a n
z and L a t in i n f i n i t i v e e n d i n g s .. ,
E x a m p le s:•?; im B u tta : r , p u sh in g from; Vi B.
; V z
im b o tta ;
in f o r n a r r ,B a k in g , frcmi V .B. in f o r n a ; s p y u h a s r , s p y in g
from s p y u t h ^ ; s f r u t t a : r , e x p l o i t i n g from s f r j i t t a .
'^''7^/,; ' • V
z":,
A1
S e m it i c .
;~o'z;'
■
O f. TABLE 3 :
■■ f V /
i n c l u d e d i n t h i s T aB le a r e p u r e ly
T here i s n o t one lo a n word t h a t h a s B een su B -
^J@?ted t o t h i s p r o c e s s .
? zz-z ;;
e f. TABLE 4
D escrip tiv e S ca tter
( 8 ) Q o T o L; M. f o lo z , p i. o f sing* f a l t s , It* f a l s o ;
Eng. f a ls e .
•'
T T; M. Ba£/ | S i c . Basciu ( I t . Basso); Eng.
low (B ase).
M. mans; I t. mahso; Eng. tame.
(12) Q i T T; M. l i j ^ ; I t . l i s c i o ; Eng. smooth including
fo reig n nounsJlike di|J7> Eng. 4ish.V 7-';
;
(13) Q p T T; M. r o tts ; I t. r ozzo; Eng. rude; M*
fo n d ;
I t . tondo; Eng. round.
(32) Q a TzL a: ;li; pastd:p; [Sic. vastasu; Eng. vulgar;
M. payzain, I t . paesano; Eng. fe llo w countryman.
(47) i Q T e L;> iprem; I t . primo ( f i r s t ) ; Eng. superior;
M. ifrem; I t . fermo (firm ); Eng. firm er.
( 6 2 ) in Q a T T i ; m B a y i; h u m ilia t e d from V .B . B ajj a;
I t . aBBassare; m fa lli; Bankrupt, fo r V.B. f a lla ; I t .
fa llir e .
(6 6 )
( i ) m Q a T T a L; m fa lla ts , f a l s i f i e d , from V.Bi
i f f a l t s a , I t . fa ls a r e ; mBiccer, Butchered; from V.B.
B ic cer, sic* B u cciria ri.
( i i ) mBandal, swung from V.B. Bandal, S ic.
p anduliari (Lat. peiidulas) mfernaq, flaming up from V. B.
•V,'r.:.
' V■
. '
■■V;'
■;v \ : " """'
' 290
fernaa, Xat^ fornax. 1 mfernez, maddened from V.B. fernez
;;;;
I t . fr e n e sia ; - iriBi k e l, embroiled; from V. B. Bi k e l.
1. The fo reig n d e s e r ip tiv e s conforming to Sem itic p attern s;
are •.comparatively very few; as a r u le , most o f them con­
form to the ex ig e n c ie s o f M altese p h on etics and phonology
z in , some^ p f ; t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s , g e n e r a l l y ^vow els and s t r e s s , ;
B u t o t h e r w is e ; r e t a i n ^ t h e o r ig in a l^ m o r p h o lo g ic a l p a t t e r n .
Exam ple s : -
g u s t u : s , ch a rm in g ; v a n i t u : s , v a i n ; s p i r i t u : s ,
B o ld ; w i t t y ; : n e r v u ; z , n e r v o u s ; i n , e a c h o f ;w h ich f i n a l u : s ,
co n fo rm s t o it^
oso.
A ls o , k r u d i: T , - . c r u e l I t .
in y u r a h t , ig n o r a n t ; I t .
ig n o r a n t e ; s t u i p t u , s t u p id ;
;"4 tu p id C ‘i:zB ra:'vu, •,w e ll- d o n e; I t .
I t . in u t ile .
c r u d e le ;
It,
B ra v o ; i n u r t l i ; u s e l e s s ;
,
2. As for p atterns included in
z
'zvZ;.:
P.
i and E . i i , most fo reig n
verBs develop th e ir m orphological eq u iv a len ts in a
form ally d iffe r e n t and noii-Seraific way By the ad d ition Of
a: t fo r the sin gu lar m asculine, a: ta for the sin g u la r
fem inine and a : t i fo r the p lu r a l, e ith e r gender, added to
the l a s t consonant or semi vowel *y1 o f the V.B.
Examples:-
indanna:t, indanna: t a , in d a n n a :ti, damned, • ; z ;
from V. B. ; indanna, as in ruh indamm:ta, damned sou l
(1 )
Whence a lso North A frican
t2.',
fourneau d f6tuve de Bain (B ea u ssier).
>
f
--v
: .
; - ;v/- . ^ v - ^ v
y.. v
,
(mixed phraseology)V traskura:t , c a r e le s s or n eglected ;
y
trask U rk : t a , tr a s k u r a iti, from V.B. traskura; ir r a b y a :t,
ir r a b y a :ta , ir r a b y a :ti, from V.B. irraiBya; stu d y a :t,
; y study a: ta *V s tu d y a ti, stu d ied , from V* 6. stu:dya.
-
, ' ■'■■■■■
' "■ -• ■
:V ‘
;y
Of. TABLE 5 ■ -
flu r k li Patternsv-'By, vocu licf in te r n a l changes
(1 ) Q T a: L; M. fra :n ; I t . forno; Eng. oven; M. hr aim,
VyTtir b f u it a iE ^
ship ;wornu
'V:; !y-y;y
(2) Q T ie L; dkieh, sin g , duh; I t . doga; Eng. sta v e;
,
M. s r ie p , s i n g . s e r p ; I t . serpe; Eng. snake.
(4 )> Q % yUl?LV;--M*
‘
&
f
a in g .?
v e r s, I t . verso; Eng.
v erse; M. enurs, sin g, cen s, I t . censo; Eng. emphytheusis.
(7 ) Q T a: L i; M. q r a iti; sin g. q o r t i; I t . c o fte ; Eng.
law cou rts; M. s w a :li, sin g. s a :la ; I t . sa la ; Eng. drawing;
y
i
'y ' -.rz'-y-'y
room.
■*
'
. ■,
,
-
yy
yy-yyz
( 8) Q T ie L I ; M. c w ie r i, sin g, ciera* I t . cera; Eng.
;
^
z
lo o k s, M. cm ieni, sin g , cxamniyya, Eng, chimney.
/ - (14) Q a T e L; M* baned, sin g, hands, I t . banda, Eng.
band.
yy
M. la n e c , sin g , lan ca, i t . la n c ia ; E n g,;launch.y
f
(15) Q i T e L; M. n ic e c , sin g, n ic c a , It,y n ic c ia , Eng.
y;
n ich e.
M. h ir e r , ping, h ir r a , I t . h irr a ; Eng. beer.
292
( 1 6 ) Q o T o L; M. boroz, sin g, borsa, I t . borsa; Eng.■<
bourse (purse); M. jon ot, sing, jo h ta , I t . giunta; Eng.
jo in t. :
•
■
:
y
"r ',’
(18) Q T eyy e L; M. vreyyes, sing* vers; I t . verso; VV’rrv^;'
Eng*, verse; M.
kSUohc
speyyez, sin g, s p iiz a ; I t . spes.a;
•Eng.' expense,
(21) ^ I* ayya L;- M.
^rnayyar> s in g ;, ^ m asra, S ic . sciumara;
i^/y'
EngV;?;river;,,: V ,^
'
\ v
(22) Q T a; L a L; M. p sa :ta s, sin g , pastats# S ic. yastasuj
Eng. vulgar*; ( p o r t e r ) . q . l a : f a t , sin g . a a l f a : t , I t . '
c a ia fa tb ; Eng. caikeriV M , &
^qrardap, sin g, garda_|/ , Lat. ' |
cardus, Eng. a card.
' / V
(2 3 )AQ T a: L e L; M. -s ta r te n , sin g , su ttan a, I t . sottan a,
Eng, cassock,
b a rrel.
M, braim el, sin g, b a rm iil, I t . b a r ile , Engv;-
^ '•
(22*.) Q T ie L e L; M. vrieden, sin g . virdu :n , I t . ver&bne,
Eng. .. greenf inch; M. crienen; sin g, curniena. S ic. ciernera;
I t . carniera; Eng. bag.
Other P lu ra l Formations
M.
U» «■ mm «*rpH
rm
r*-*fca£•*<»
m-w fc-w
mm m
tm 'm «**mm
•. Most lo a n w ords from t h e i r p l u r a l s i n f o u r d i f f e r e r i t ^
w a y s, i n ih e f i r s t t h r e e i n s t a n c e s b y m eans b f th e
S e m it ic s u f f i x e s
(i)
’ a 1, ( i i )
* i e t f , o r *i y y i e t 1,• dn;-tiib-rj
"' ■
'■V
>.-■ f ■■
V i;v.^
•
■y:'
' ' ; ■■■; ■'293':;'
fourth instance by means: of v o ca lic s u ffix ( i i i ) ’ i ’ ,
which as a p lu r a lisin g e n d in g i s H ot Sem itic. :
( i ) Staffix ’a*
This i s the only "plural s u ffix of d is y lla b ic or
t r is y lla b ic loan words with * i e ! + one consonant in fin a l:
1;. s y lla b le //
‘-i.?
V :\J
Singular '
b arbier,
barber
■ '.
,
P lural
barbiera
a r jj^ tle f ^ s i l v e r s m i t h a r j b n t i e r a
^
.
( i i ) S u ffix es ’i e t 1 and Viyyiet*
*l e t 1 i s added to the consonant preceding fin a l 'a*^ y>
in ppen s y lla b le , and ’iy y ie ^ /to a vowel other than fa ?,
or to a consonant.
^
N o te th a t, w h ile , i n S e m itic M a lte s e t h e s e s u f f i x e s ,
d e n o te .fe m in in e g e n d e r , i n Eon S e m it ic M a lte s e t h e y a r e ' :;
added a l s o - and v e r y f r e q u e n t ly « t o m a s c u lin e n oun s.
Exam ple s : ;
v/
K art i e t ,. p aper s , from fern, s in g . -fear t a ; b u t
a l s o p a p ie t> p o p e s , fro m s in g . p a :p a ; p a t r i y y i e t , f r ia r s ,: :
from s in g , p a : t r i ;
s o r i y y i e t , nuns from s in g .
v o t i y y i e t , v o t e s , from s i n g / v b : t .
294
;.-m alyi,.. b a th in g ' costu m es.,'-'fr o m s i n g , m a ly a f : ; y
f a i n i l y i ,: f a m i l i e s > from s in g ,
sin g *
f a m i i y i ; t o r t i , t a r t s , frora |
t o r t a ; b r a ; v i , c l e v e r , sin g * b r a s v u ,
b ra :v a ,
(m asc. ) orv
(fern* ) .
;
^ i
Of. TABLE 6
s
(1)
; v .Verbal} P atterns
; 3 ’H ’"
Foreign verbal bases e ith e r conform to a Sem itic
p a ttern or^ fd llow patterns that .ax^e only p a rtly so ,
e s p e c ia lly in the present and p ast tense scatter*
(2) In the f i r s t in stan ce they .co n fo rm 'to., ( i ) the Sem itic
V* B. 2.; and 5 w ith tbird. ra d ica l a consonant ( denominative
verbs) and p o ssib le v o ca lic sequences a - a; e ■- e; and
i - e , or with; th ird ra d ica l ’a ' , h y p o th e tic a lly , to
m aintain Sem itic analogy, a[y] and ( i i ) to q u a d r ilite r a ls {
w ith three or four consonants d iffe r e n t and v o c a lic se­
quences a - aj a - e; e - e; e - a.
Examples:^
( i ) f a l l a t s , (V.B*2 . ) , he f a l s i f i e d , whence
t f a l l a t s (V* B. 5*) he grew m aliciou s; b e ttse n , (V* B . 2 , ) he
made cakes, whence tb e ttse n , (V*B* 5*)> i t grew, b ig like;;
}
a cake; - baj^a (V*B* 2. ), he lowered ^ hum iliated , whence
a (V* B* 5 ) , he humbled h im self; patfca (V.B* 2) he was
q u its , whence tp a tta (V. B. 5*) i t was compensated*
;
" V '\:;
v ’-
.
r ."
;
v
1” -
-
1
' v * ' ; >■
295
( i i ) bandal, vhe.i swung;:tbahdai, he was swung; part a t ,
he exchanged, tp a r ta t,/" itw a s exchanged; m ariel, he
hammered, ;tm artel, i t was hammered;; f esdaq, he sh e lle d /v
. beans, e tc , , ifesdaq., i t /was? s h e l l e d ( a pod); b i 5;k e l, .he'}};;;
;
; cheated;vtbj^fcel,; he was taken in ,
'
': s
■
■ P artly Sem itic Patterns
(1) These are .Sem itic only in so, fa r as they, e s p e c ia lly
. v--} \-y;-J. ,1.--M'
t he
tbnse patterns,; conform to V. B,2 ,
and l e s s freq u en tly to V,B. 1, w ith th ird ra d ic a l a [ y j ;
^nonSemitic: iri, th a t ( i ) they have d iffe r e n t v o c a lic
-. ;‘;;^V;sc^^hcesi'Xfl)/ begin with /an in itia l/c o n s o n a n t g r o u p ,;
which i s never the case ill S,M, u n less the V,B, i s :
//./
morphoiogicially increased by a consonant p r e fix ( i i i )
; •
begin with vowels ’a ’ or ?*1*V ( i v ) m y c o n s is t o f more
than two; s y lla b le s , _
-Y-
V-' Examples:^ ; fada; h e /tr u ste d ; spa*ra, he:;sh^
s t i rma, /,
he esteemed; stu:d ya, he studied; i£ |;a :la , he enjoyed
h im self; abbandu:na, he abandoned; im bolla, he stamped,
(2) In th e ir s c a tte r , to which we have ju st referred ,
they employ the pronominal a f f ix e s o f the Sem itic V, B .,
and they are lik e w ise subject to the same, formal changes/ Y
provoked by the Tense, Num^
Gender C riteria.
296
':rY'-';
Command P atterns
. The yariotis verb al bases w ith f in a l ’a ’ in open
s y lla b le , which we have: described, are a lso sin g u la r com­
mand or request p a ttern s, the p lu ra l th ereof r e s u ltin g
from th e a d d it io n /p f ^
//
to the la s t consonant j
a s, irra n ja , put in order, p i. irrangaw; iggwerra, wage,
war, p i. iggwerraw.
Present Tense P atterns
As in Sem itic M altese, th ey r e s u lt from, the command
pattern^/by^
ad d ition of the bame p r e fix e s.
Singular /
n+;
t+
y+
:
> wage war.
-
■■■/
P lural
'{V
n+ (iggwerraw, wage war
t+ (
' * y+ (
Pdst Tense Pat tern s
'■’-'•■■/’Y
Also a s : in S. M. , eohfprming in the matter o f su f­
f ix e s ,; to /VVB. QaRa^ he read, which we described formally,
Col. v - v i, p a t . i l - 1 5 *
in Tdble
Examples:-
u: = iggwerra
(y ien
(in t
iggwerrayt
if :
i : = iggw erra:t
ahna
iggwerrayna
u :ma \ . - iggwe fraw /.
intom
iggwerraytu
297
Ib
'
■>.
■"
: ■> -
/THE IOTAEIABLB; ELEffiNT
• \
■
'’V'
.
The con trib u tion o f Hon Sem itic Maltese to th is
partyincliades:--:
.
( i ) Tal R eflexive Pronoun, f s t e s s * , s e l f , which means a lso :
1same1, asPlYien s t e s s raytu yactra l i s t e s s kotba ma
;
lj b t e s s ras j e l u ma l i s t e s s maraV" I m yseifv saw him read ->
the same hooks w ith the same man and the same Woman.
fib] In d e fin ite Pronouns6 , certu , a c e rta in (man, e tc .);
k y ^ isiy o l^ a , whatever; ;kwalungusy whoever,,iany.
( i i ) ’Adverbs- of Fa] Time, mentriV whi 1 s t ; . tso b tu , suddenly;
malayr, soon; kmieni, early.
Adverbs of T b ] Mamer.: Sem itic Maltese does not e a s ily express -adverbs o f
manner; iii th is c a se , ;i.t-^;ppies Italian b y*, ‘adding .•ment ’ ;
to the l a s t consonant, or to ’a* a fte r a semi vowel fy f
o f the foreign a d je c tiv e .
/
This usage, however, i s s t i l l
very much r e s tr ic te d , rare in the v il la g e s , but freq u en tly
eiriployed by‘ .the' ’educated' classesiv, •.Exait^leB,.;are:.-
seryament
s e r io u sly ; serya + ment; probabilment, prpbably, probabii
ment; intortam ent, u s e le s s ly .
Adverb o f [c l Quanti ty .
Thefe i s only the much employed 1t a n t * in the sense
o f *so much1•
Examples:-
Talab tan t u taytu t a n t , f he
298
asked fo r so much and I gave him so much; ’tant kemm
b k ie t ,
ayneya sa:ru na: r , 1she wept bo much that her ,
eyes became (red) lik e . f ir e .
( i i i ) P r e p o sitio n s; cirk a , a lso in cirk a , about, as cirka
o r i m ruh, about twenty persons, a lso
o r i : n ruh
in c ir k a ; kontra, a g a in s t; "versu , towards, f o r , as
limhabba versu 1-pro mu, love fo r one’s neighbours
[g en era lly confined to p r ie s t s ’ sermons]; skond, accord­
ing; V ic i:h h ea r; permetta* by means of.
(iv)
Qonjunctions, ’o ’ , or; a n ts i, not only; what more;
;pero>;-':however; in ta n t, meanwhile.
(v)
I n te r je c tio n ^ ayma ’
addiyyu
Goodbye;
a la s
; aybu .* pooh
; a rriv ed erci, au revoir .’
;
bonjornu
Good mornihg; /■I; b p n ^ siir a /: good evening; evviz va, long
l i v e .’ , h a il .’
Conclusion
In phonology
Y /e
noted the various p o s itio n a l
agreements of the y o c a lio and consonantal elements
o f fo reig n and Sem itic M altese, in Morphology the
many word-pattern agreements and ad ap tation s, but
a l l th ro u ^ V ^ have a lso 'n o ted th a t M altese, the
language bpqkeriby:a C hristian people^ h a lf way be­
tween North A frica and S ic i ly , has developed p hon etic,
phonological and morphological c h a r d c te r istic s o f i t s
own, some o f them com pletely fndo^Eurdpean, others
h a lf Y/ay between Sem itic and Indo-European*
";-isJthese c h a r a c te r istic s th a t, w ith other
s y n ta c tic a l developments ^ d if f e r e n t ia t e Maltese from
the Arabic and the Romance d ia lects*
As d cpmprehensive d e sc r ip tio n , we might Say
th a t, li n g u i s t i c a ll y , Maltese i s a unique cross breed’
o f East and West, v^ith the in d iv id u a lity of a separate
language, compounded of Sem itic and Aryan elem ents;
but s t i l l e s s e n t ia lly a Sem itic tongue*
300)
Bibliography
(a)
Maltese Di c t i onari e a
VASSAiiLI, M*A* Ktyb y l Kliem M alti rafysser b yl-L atin u
'fi ’b- 7v77*-; ;byt^&iyto>v-:R oi^ 17 9 6 %
■D iszion arip Portatile^ d 01ie; bingue Maltese ;
I ta lia iia , I n g le s e , Livorno, 1843.
FALZQN, G*B; D izzioh ario M a lte se -I ta lia h o -lh g le s e ,
BUSUTTIL, V* Dizzioriarifr m illM a lt i g h a ll I n g lis ,
Malta; I^Op; 2nd ed. 1832.
OARUAMA♦ A*E* Yocabplario D ella Lingua Maithse, Malta;
,
*
ENGLISH MALTESE DICTIONARY - DIZZOTNARJU INGLIZ MALT17
\
(In^course o f p u b lic a tio n ; the com pilers
Oamelp P s a ila [Dun Karm];
-Professor p,7P* Saydon, Mr, Ant. Cremona,
and F. s . paruaha)
(b) Etym olbgical D ictio n a ries
C. L. DESSOtlLAVY,
A Malihse-Arahih Word L is t , London,1938.
D. GIUSEPPE BARBERA, D izzionario M altese-A rabo-Itaiian o,
Vol.;'A “ .E,....Be3q?puth,;/3939.'': "
(c ) Ardbip d ic tio n a r ie s recommended fo r
cbmparativd p h iio lo g ic a l research
FREYTAG, G, W. Lexicon Arabico-Latinum, H alis Saxonum,
— — ^ - ^ — — 1833. 7.
bb
;
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KAZIMIRSKI .: de BIBERSTEIN D iction n aire Rraixcais-Arabe,
DOZY* R.
axxx D iction n aires
Supplement
Arabes, Leyde, 1881#
BEAUSSIER» Dic tio n n sir e Fratique Arabe-Freuijai s , A lger,
1887 (Rortii Af^iban ArAijlej stro n g ly :
re
y .
V/
: -v
:•
: V
V
c
o
n
t
e
n
d
e
d
. / •
.
H. ANTHONY SALMONE , An A rahic-E nglish D iction ary, 1890.
WQRTABET* Arabic E n glish D iction ary, 1913. ,v;
J. (3-. HAVA. S. J. AraM o-English D ictio n a ry , .B eiru t, 1915PE LANDBERG* COMTE* G lossalre D atinols*
E. FAGNAK* A dditions Aux d ictio n n a ires AraLesy
SFLRb BEY* Arahi e-E n gllsh D iction ary (Egyptian) , Cairo,
1923-
‘-'T —
O / Vy,; •
lin glish rA ratic D iction ary (Egsrptian), Oairo,
; ’m
- . / ; 1 9 2 9 .:
.
v ; O ^ X :'
A. BARTHELEfc*:1 D idtionnaire Arabe^Eranjaisy D ia le c te s de
S y rie, Mraas, A lep, Lihah, Jerusalem, '
P a r i s , 1936*
Grammars
BE* mWMti&ry- OMOBICOi G*B*F.A£-4 Nuoyai.Sciiola . d i ..
™
,
■
■ •
Granmmtica per agevolmente apprendere
:yW r^
l a Dinguas Punica-Maltfese, Roma, 175P
y^ [Mere sentim ental and h is t o r ic a l
'* ■^ r,
value,.-]v
-y'y .,
v/*;" ■■■-'’:"v '
VASSALLI, M.Aw
; .
VELLA* F.
Graninatiea d e lla Lingua M altese, M alta,;
1827*
'
Maltese Oraimnar,; Leghorn, 1631.
A short
^Grai&aT :of;--tho M altese Language,
\ v"Malta,
‘T ‘
302
PANZAVlSOQEUl> F. Grajnmfetica d e lla Lingua M altese,
; :
*■' '
Malta, .1845*
VA8SALL0.
a.
'■'r
II Muftieh tal^Chitha M altija, V a lle tta , 1902.
GREMQNA. A. A Manual o f Maltese Orthography and Grarnnar,
V a lle tta , 1929* Sagtllim tarK1tba M alti3a, V a lle tta , 1939*
SOTCLIFFEI, E.^
BUTOHER* M.
Gramnar o f the Maltese iAngviage, Oxford, 1938.
SATOON^REMONA,
CREMONA, A.
A Grammar of the M altese Language ,
Oxford, 1936.
What i s the M altese Language?
Malta, 1923.
#Lnhu 1-M alti S a f i, M alta, 1925.
. . STUMME. Hr. M altesisohe Studlen, L e ip z ig , 1904.
M altese A nthologies
vrt.t.a . ts.
. Hi Gabra ta ' Ward, Oxford, 1935.
SAYDON-^OILIMA^ Ward ta* Qari M alti, V a le tta , 1936-39.
:.
L iterary Magazines
' I I M a lti,
published, by the a s s o c ia tio n ,o f M altese w r ite r s.
Lehen i t-M a lti. u ubllshea h.v the U n iv ersity students.
303
Other L in g u istic Works
CARUANA, A. E. SullV Origine d e lla Lingua M altese, Malta
I 8 9 6 * (Of scarce s c i e n t i f i c value)#
PKEIOA, A*
Malta Canan;ea o ssia in v e s tig a z io n i, f i l o l o g i c o etim ologiehe n el lin gu aggio M altese, Malta
190¥. {I n te r e s tin g fo r i t s vocabu laries;
the etym ological exp lanation s have no
s c i e n t i f i c v a lu e ).
RQUDQNQVSKI, B. Quelques p a r tic u la r itd s du d ia le c te arabe ;
de Maite> Beyrouth, 1911 • (No s c i e n t i f i c
.. *
valu er)
;; /;
•
’ '' '
TAGLIAFSRRO. NT. L’Elemento Neo-Latino n e l L essico M altese,
Malta, 1913*
MIZZI, L. P. What i s the Maltese Language?
• s c i e n t i f i c v a lu e).
VELLA* G-.
(Nib
I I D ia le tto M altese, stu d io i?omparativo,
Malta, 1929.
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