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OBJECTIVES AND PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN NEGRO COLLEGES

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The Pennsylvania State College
The Graduate School
Department of Industrial Education
OBJECTIVES AMD PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN
NEGRO COLLEGES
A Dissertation
byBridges Alfred Turner
Submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
DOCTOR OF EDUCATION
June, 1941
-5u A \ ,
Approved
Director of Vocational Education
Acting /Head, Department of Industrial Education
"
V.
PREFACE
To the reader the writer wishes to make clear it was definitely
understood by him and his committee of advisers that a topic as broad
at this one— OBJECTIVES AND PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN NEGRO
COLLEGES— to be studied very carefully and completely from all angles
would require a large staff perhaps two or more years at an expenditure
of several thousands of dollars.
Due to the fact the study was made by
one individual over a limited period of time and with limited funds his
immediate purpose was delimited to collecting sufficient data and pre­
senting it in such way that the reader would become more conscious
of
some very definite problems affecting industrial education among Negroes3
also, there would be developed an increased interest by people who are in
educational policy—influencing positions to aid in making the necessary
adjustments to solve those problems#
Sincere gratefulness is expressed to the many people who helped to
make this study a success.
They helped in various ways such as filling
out inquiry blanks, permitting visitations for interviews and observa­
tions; also, several people gave valuable criticisms, suggestions and
encouragement.
In addition to the writer*s committee——Professor F. T.
Struck, J. F. Friese, A. S. Hurrell, F. H. Koos and P. C. Weaver— giving
valuable criticisms, suggestions and encouragement, mention must also be
made of Dr. J. B. Watson, President of Arkansas Agricultural, Mechanical
qnd Normal College; Dr. Ambrose Caliver, Senior Specialist in the Education
of Negroes; Dr. L. H. Dennis, Executive Secretary of the American Vocational
Association; Dr. Fred McCuistion, Field Agent for the General Education
Board, Dr. C. F. Klinefelter, Assistant to the Commissioner of Education;
2 t>M 2 0
-
and Mr. C. E. Rake straw, Regional Agent for the Southern Division of
Trade and Industrial Education.
Acknowledgment must also be made to the General Education Board who
relieved the investigator of his financial worries during the most crucial
period of the study by granting him a fellowship; also, to Gladys Bazzelle
Turner, his wife, whose cooperation in making the study could not have
been surpassed.
B. A. T.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I
II
III
PAGE
A HISTORICAL SKETCH OF INDUSTRIAL TRIANING
AMONG NEGROES...........................................
1
THE...... PROBLEM...............................
9
A SUMMARY OF PREVIOUS STUDIES WITH DIRECT OR INDIRECT
VALUE TO INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN NEGRO COLLEGES
IV
THE
...... 14
FINDINGS..
19
A* Objectives, of Industrial Education
in Negro Colleges
......
19
B. Description of Industrial Departments
in Negro Colleges................................. 24
V
C. Teachers in Industrial Departments
of Negro Colleges...............................
33
D. Students in Industrial Departments
of Negro Colleges
...............
47
E. A Comparison of Opinions of Students,
Industrial Teachers and Heads of
Industrial Departments on Some Important
Factors Relative to Industrial Education
Among Negroes.......................
73
F. Reading Material Recommended by
Industrial Students and Faculty
Members................
79
SOME PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN
NEGRO COLLEGES..
VI
VII
VIII
...... ... *............. 84
A SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS........ ........................ 104
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
SUGGESTED PLANS.........
............
110
116
A. A Suggested Plan for Improving Industrial
Education Programs in.Negro Schools................116
B. A Suggested Plan to Aid Teachers of
Industrial Subjects in School Systems
of Small Towns and RuralCommunities............ ...123
SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE STUDIES........................... 128
SELECTED AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY....................... 129
APPENDIX..........
138
LIST OF TABLES
table
page
I
Number of Teachers in the Industrial Departments
and Number of Students Majoring in some Phase of
Industrial Education in Sixteen Negro Colleges........... 25
II
Number and Classification of Students Majoring in
Some Phase of Industrial Education in Eleven Negro
Colleges During the School Year 1940-41.... •'.•.......... 26
III
Trades Taught on a Vocational Basis in the
Industrial Departments of Fifteen Negro
Colleges................ .................. .............28
IV
Kind and Number of Trade Certificates and Diplomas
Granted by Six Industrial Department s in Negro
Colleges from 1935-1941*...............................
V
Number of Students Mao Received Certificates or
Diplomas from Industrial Departments of Nine
Negro Colleges from 1935-1940............ *............. 30
VI
Number of Students Who Received Bachelors ‘
Degrees from the Industrial Departments of
Nine Negro Colleges from 1935—1940...................... 31
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
Percentage Comparison of Opinions of Industrial
Students and Faculties on What They Think Has the
Greatest Influence in Determining Their Industrial
Curricula...................*..........
32
Information Relative to Degrees Held by Fiftytwo Teachers in Industrial Departments of Six
Negro Colleges......................................... 33
Years in Which Fifty Teachers, in Industrial
Education Departments of Six Negro Colleges,
Took Their Last Professional Work in Industrial
Education for Which They Received Credit••........
34
Institutions at Which Thirty Teachers in
Industrial Departments of Negro Colleges Took
Their Most Recent Work for Which Credit Was Granted...... 35
Institutions at Which Eighteen Heads of
Industrial Departments in Negro Colleges Took
Their Most Recent Work for Which Credit Was Granted.
36
Years of Teaching Experience of Fifty-five
Teachers in SIndustrial Departments of Six
Negro Colleges..............................
3#
LIST OF TABLES (continued)
table
page
XIII
Number of Years Fifty-five Teachers in
Industrial Departments Have Been on the
Present Faculties of Six Negro Colleges.................. . 39
XIV
Years of Teaching Experience in Industrial
Education of Fifty-five Teachers in Six
Industrial Departments of Negro Colleges................... 40
XV
Years of Trade Experience, Not Including
Trade of Industrial Teaching, of Fiftyfive Teachers in Industrial Departments
of Six Negro Colleges..................... •............... 41
XVI
Average Ages of 747 Students in Industrial
Departments of Negro Colleges...
.............
48
XVII
Average Sizes of Home Towns of 747 Students
in Industrial Departments of Negro Colleges................ 49
XVIII
Percentages of Industrial Students Living With
Their Parents or Guardians and Percentages of
Those Not Living With Them.................................49
XT*
XX
XXI
XXII
Percentages of Students' Parents in Four
Different Classes of Occupations................
50
Percentages of Students' Parents Owning Their
"■ Homes and Percentages of Those Not Owning Their Homes....... 50
Percentages of Students' Parents Owning Farms
and the Average Sizes of Their Farms in Acres...........
51
Percentages of Their Own Financial Support for
Which Students are Responsible..............
51
XXIII
Industrial Arts or Manual Training Taken
by Students While in Secondary School.......................53
XXIV
Percentages of Students Who Had Taken Work in
a Trade or Industrial School and Those Who
Had Not
............................................ 53
XXV
XXVI
XXVII
Percentages of Students with Trade Certifi­
cates and Those Without Trade Certificates............
Percentages of Students Who Have Worked as
Learners or Apprentices at Trades or Industrial
Jobs.........................
*.
Percentages of Students Who Had Been
Employed on a Journeyman's Level and Per­
centages of Those Who Had Not............................
* 54
54
55
LIST OF TABLES (continued)
t ab le
y y v ttt
XXIX
XXX
XXXI
page
How Students Secured the Work Which
They Did as Learners or Apprentices..
....
55
Percentages of Students With Teaching Ex­
perience and Those Without Any Teaching Experience.......... 56
Percentages of the Students With JobWorking Experience at One or More Types of Work...........
57
Types of Work Usually Done by Students in
Industrial Departments of Negro Colleges
.....
While They are Not in School.
5&
XXXII
Percentages of Students Who Had Full-Time
Jobs During the Summer of 1940 and Those Who
Did Not Have................. *.......................... 5&
XXXIII
How 383 Students, Who Worked During the
Summer of 1940, Secured Their Jobs........................ 59
XXXIV • Reasons Given by Students for Having
Selected Their Respective Majors.....
XXXV
....
Percentages of Students Satisfied or
Dissatisfied With Their Respective Majors
60
....
61
XXXVI
Percentages of Students Satisfied or
Dissatisfied With the Teaching Personnels
in Industrial Departments of Negro Colleges................ 63
XXXVII
Percentages of the Students Not Wanting to
Work in Their Local Communities After Graduation............67
XXXVIII
Students’ Beliefs in Their Opportunities to
Get Work in Their Local Communities after
Graduation............................................... 67
XXXIX
Percentages of Students Who Know Negroes in
Their Respective Local Communities Employed
at the Kinds of Vocations the Students Hope
to Follow........................... .....................68
XL
XLI
Students’ Opinions of Success of Negroes, in
Local Communities, With Vocations the Students
Flan to Follow..................
68
Comparison of Opinions of Students, Teachers
and Heads of Industrial Departments on the
Most Appropriate Places to Offer Vocational
Trade and Industrial Work...............
74
LIST OF TABLES (continued)
TABLE
PAGE
XLII
Comparison of Opinions of Students, Teachers
and Heads of Industrial Departments on How
Students in The Industrial Department Compare
With the Students in the Other Departments of
the Same College
..........*............................ 74
XLIII
Comparison of Opinions on the Effect Maintenance
Work, Done by the Industrial Department, for the
College Has on the Industrial Program in the College........ 75
XLIV
Comparison of Opinions on the Qualifications
of Teachers in the Industrial Departments.......... ......
76
XLV
Comparison of Opinions on the Adequacy of
the Industrial Departments as a Whole...................... 76
XLVI
Comparison of Opinions on the Adequacy of
Library Facilit ie s for Industrial Department s............... 77
XLVII
Comparison of Opinions on the Most
■Appropriate Places to Offer Graduate Work
.............. ••. • 7®
in Industrial Education for Negroes
XLVIII
XLIX
Books Recommended by Two or More Industrial
Faculty Members as Being Especially Helpful
to Students Majoring in Industrial Education........
80
Magazines Recommended by Two or More Industrial
Faculty Members as Being Especially Helpful
to Students Majoring in Industrial Education.......
81
Books Recommended by Two or More Students as
Being Especially Helpful to Students Majoring
in Industrial Education................................... 82
LI
LII
LIII
LIV
Magazines Recommended by Two or More Students
as Being Especially Helpful to Students Majoirng
in Industrial Education.
83
Colleges Which Reported on Organizations of
Negro Industrial Teachers (Industrial Arts or
Vocational) in Their Respective States................
89
Practice Requirements of Industrial Departs
ments in Ten Negro Colleges......
93
Thirteen^Negro Colleges With or Without an
Industrial~Goordinator, Advisory Committee
and Placement Officials for the Industrial
Departments .
•*..... .
100
1
Chapter I
A HISTORICAL SKETCH OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AMONG NEGROES
The development of trade and industrial training of Negroes may be
thought of in connection with (1) the pre-Civil War period, (2) the
establishment and growth of private schools for Negroes, and (3) the
Negro land-grant colleges;
Pre-Civil War Period
The Negro Tradesmen♦ When Negroes first began to receive training
to become skilled tradesmen is difficult to determine because there were
many Negro tradesmen in America during the period of slavery.
As evidence
of this fact ex-Governor Lowry of Mississippi made the following statementt
“Prior to the war there were a large number of Negro
mechanics in the Southern States5 many of them were
expert blacksmiths, wheelwrights, wagon-makers,
brick-masons, carpenters, plasterers, painters, and
shoemakers* They became masters of their respective
trades by reason of sufficiently long service under
the control and direction of expert white mechanics....
“The slave owners early saw the aptitude of the Negro
to learn handicraft, and fully appreciating what vast
importance and value this would be to them (the
masters) selected their brightest young slavemen and
had them taught in the different kinds of trades*
Hence on every plantation you could find the Negro
carpenter, blacksmith, brick and stone mason.***“
Problems of Negro skilled tradesmen are not in their infancy be­
cause, as DuBois reports,
“....as early as 1708 the white mechanics of Pennsyl­
vania protested against the hiring of Negro mechanics
and were successful in getting acts passed to re­
strict the further importation of slaves.*.*
In 1722
the legislative Assembly declared that the hiring of
black mechanics was dangerous and injurious to the re­
public and was not to be sanctioned.
■'’DuBois, W. E. B., The Negro Artisan (Atlanta, Atlanta University Press,
1902) pp. 14-16.
2
"
In Maryland the legislature was urged in 1837
to forbid free Negroes entirely from becoming artisans;
....in 1844 petitions came to the legislature urging
the prohibition of free black carpenters and taxing
free black mechanics; and finally in I860 white
mechanics urged a law barring free blacks 'from
pursuing any mechanical trade branch'.
"In Ohio about 1820 to 1830 and thereafter, the white
Mechanics' Societies combined against Negroes. One
master, President of the Mechanical Association of
Cincinnati, was publicly tried by the Society for
assisting a young Negro to learn a trade.... One
Negro cabinet-maker purchased his freedom in Kentucky
and came to Cincinnati; for a long time he could get
no work; one Englishman employed him but the white
workmen struck. The black man was compelled to become
a laborer until by saving he could take small contracts
and hire black mechanics to help him...."2
Industrial Schools.
A description of the attempts to establish
industrial training in schools for Negroes prior to the Civil War was
3
presented by DuBois on the topic, "The Rise of Industrial Training."
His description is as follows:
V
"....In the case of the Negroes there were a number
of mixed incentives to action which have not yet
clearly worked themselves out today. First, there
was the idea of working one's way through school
which many considered an excellent moral tonic;
secondly, there was the idea of educating children
in the main according to the rank in life which
they will in all probability occupy.... Thirdly,
there was the scheme of using student labor to re­
duce the expenses of maintaining the school;
fourthly, there was the idea of training girls to
do house-work; fifthly, there was the idea of having
youth learn trades for future support; and sixthly,
there was the idea of 'learning by doing'— of losing
things to enforce ideas and physical exercises to
aid mental processes. All these distinct aspects of
education have been loosely lumped together in
popular speech as 'Industrial Education' with considerable resulting confusion of thought.
"Among the Northern free Negroes 'Industrial Educa­
tion' training found early and earnest advocates...•
^Ibid., pp.-15-16.
3Ibid., pp. 28-31.
"As Mr. John W. Cromwell has lately said, it is
remarkable that in nearly every one of the dozen
or more Negro conventions from 1831 to I860 there
was developed strong advocacy of trade schools for
Negro youths. ..
11In the convention of 1831, assembled at Philadelphia,
it was decided to establish a college on the manual
labor plan, as soon as $20,000 should be raised*
Rev. Samuel E* Cornish, an educated colored Presby­
terian clergyman, was appointed agent to secure funds.
Within one year $3,000 had been secured for the pur­
pose. Arthur Tappan, the philanthropist, bought
several acres in the southern part of New Haven,
Connecticut, and had completed arrangements for
erecting thereon a building, fully equipped for the
purpose, that would have done credit to the city, the
state and the country. But the people of New Haven
and of Connecticut were bitterly opposed to the
location of such an institution in their midst. In
a mass meeting of the citizens, the mayor, aldermen
and councilman leading, they declared this opposition
in forcible and unmistakable language, even against
the protest of so powerful a citizen as Roger S.
Baldwin, who subsequently defended the Amistad
captives, and became governor of the state and United
States Senator. More than this the commonwealth
subsequently passed a law prohibiting the establish­
ment of any institution of learning 'for the instruction
of persons of color of the states'•
"Half a generation later, at the Colored National Con­
vention of 1847. the demand for a colored college,
led by so talented and able a controversialist as
the late Alexander Crummell, noted even at that date
for the same polished, incisive style and elegant
diction which marked his later years, was offset by
a firm and powerful constituency that successfully
insisted on industrial training having a prior claim.
"But it was at Rochester, New York, in 1853* at the
most influential of all the conventions in the history
of the Negro race, that their approval of industrial
education was most emphatically given. At a time
when 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' and the name of its authoress,
Harriet Beecher Stowe, were on every tongue, she, at
the urgent request of friends in Great Britain, was
planning a trip to Europe. The convention, following
the lead of Fredrick Douglass, commissioned her by an
overwhelming voice to solicit funds in their name for
the establishment of an industrial and agricultural
institution. In England her reception was most en­
thusiastic, and her mission seems to have been favorably
received. The enemies of the Negro in this country
4
“severely criticised her course, but after a defense
by Fredrick Douglass in his paper, The North Star,
copied in The Independent, then edited by Rev. Henry
Ward Beecher, the attacks ceased. When Mrs. Stowe
returned to America she had changed her mind re­
specting the industrial education schools, and the
second attempt of the colored people to found in
the North what has since succeeded so well in the
South, came to naught....
"The Negroes who emigrated to Canada were more
successful* In 1842 they held a convention to de­
cide on the expenditure of $1,500 collected for them
in England by a Quaker. They finally decided to
start a 1manual labor school where children could
be taught the elements of knowledge which are usually
the occupations of a grammar school; and where the
boys could be taught in addition the practice of
some mechanic art, and the girls could be instructed
in those domestic arts which are the proper occupation
and ornament of their sex'. Father Henson, the Negro
who was chiefly instrumental in founding the school
stated the object was 'to make it self-supporting by
the employment of the students for certain portions
of the time of the land* • The school lasted ten or
fifteen years, but gradually decayed as the public
schools were open to Negro youth.
"In many of the colored schools opened in the Northern
states some industrial training was included. The
Philadelphia Institute for Colored Youth was founded
by Richard Humphreys in 1837 for the education of
Negroes in school learning, in the various branches
of the mechanic arts and trade, and in agriculture.
For a while a farm and a trade school was maintained
from this fund In Bristol County, Pennsylvania, but
the school is now (in 1902) in Philadelphia and is
being reorganized as a technical and trade school.
"When the CivilWar opened and the fall of slavery
seemed imminent, some of the earliest suggestions
for educating the blacks insisted on industrial
training...."
Private Institutions
Industrial education for Negroes has been stressed greatly through
many private institutions.
this respect.
Hampton and Tuskegee Institutes rank first in
5
Hampton Institute. General Samuel Chapman Armstrong was the first
advocate of industrial training for Negroes following the Civil War
period, who was able to see his idea of a vocational school for Negroes
become a reality*.
4
"Early in the year 1867 he wrote to the American
Missionary Association suggesting that it purchase
an estate of 159 acres fronting on Hampton River
which had just come on the market* The Association
acted ’promptly and cheerfully1 and what is now the
great Hampton Normal and Industrial Institute came
into being with General'Armstrong as its principal.
The American Missionary Association sent two
carpenters to put up temporary buildings— cheap
wooden structures, 'the material being taken from
the old hospital barracks'. The school opened on
April 1, 1868, with General Armstrong, one teacher,
one matron and fifteen boarding pupils. By April 26th
the number of pupils had doubled; the school con­
tinued to grow rapidly. 'The pupils worked in
squads, one squad working two days in the week and
studying the other fourj they were paid for their
work, not in cash, but in credit on the books of
the school’.... Those who worked out the entire
spun were allowed to attend school at night....
’No student was expected to pay for his tuition,
a burden which would have been too great for any
Negro to carry in those early times'.
"From time to time new industries were added as
needed for efficient maintenance of the institution.
Brick-making was started in 1869. A blacksmith shop
for the use of the farm was opened in 1871. A shoenlaking department was started in 1872. The Institute
catalog of 1874—75 reveals the assignments for work
to be as follows (for boys)!
Farm..............
Printing Office...!.... 3
Paint era.............. • 3
Carpenters....... .
Coopers.......... .
Shoemakers....... .--- 3
Janitors......... .
Office duty............
Mail carriers...........
Wa1ters
Employed by teachers•...
Police and general duty.>«*.«. 6
Day scholars on orderly duty.19
Teaching............ .
Total..........
"A few years later, 1882, a saw-mill was added to the
industries, in 1884 a machine shop...."
"Bennett, Charles A., History of Manual and Industrial Education Up
t o 1870. pp• 243-46.
To date, 1941, fourteen different trades are taught at Hampton
Institute on a vocational basis.
Tuskegee Institute. Doubtless Booker T. Washington did more to
promote industrial education among Negroes than any other one person.
He is always thought of in connection with vocational education for Negroes
and especially is he thought of in connection with Tuskegee Institute.^
"Tuskegee Institute had its beginning when two resi­
dents of Macon County, Mr. George Campbell, white, and
Mr. Lewis Adams, Negro, feeling the need of an educa­
tional institution in Macon County, wrote General
Armstrong at Hampton Institute asking that a teacher
be sent to Tuskegee, Alabama. Booker T. Washington
came in answer to that call.
"In 1881, in an old churchwith thirty students and as
the only teacher, Booker T. Washington began what is
now Tuskegee Institute. In 1881, the Alabama legislature
passed an act permitting the establishment of a normal
school at Tuskegee and made an annual appropriation of
$2,000 to aid in the work.
"From this humble and simple beginning in the old
church, which leaked during every rain, and with
pupils whose work at home kept them in irregular
attendance, Tuskegee Institute has become an insti­
tution with an annual enrollment of over 2,000
students and a physical plant of 132 buildings."
Other Private Institutions.
Industrial training for Negroes was
stressed also by many other institutions.
According to DuBois
there
were in the United States in the scholastic year 1899-1900, ninety-eight
schools for Negroes which gave courses in industrial training.
majority of those schools were private.
The
Thirteen different branches of
industrial training were taught at those ninety-eight institutions.
^The Tuskegee Institute Bulletin 34:22*
£
DuBois, W. E. B., op. cit., pp. 33-38.
Twenty of those institutions had from fifty to 345 students en­
rolled in carpentry, bricklaying, plastering, painting, iron and sheet
metal work, forging and machine shop practice.
Land-Grant Colleges
Industrial education is, by law, a part of the offerings of
land-grant colleges, in that the Morrill Act became the foundation of
our national system of education in agriculture and the mechanic arts.
Land-grant colleges for Negroes may be regarded as by-products of
federal legislation because as the President's Advisory Committee points
out
7
"In the Second Morrill Act, a provision is included
that requires that 1....no money shall be paid....1
to any State with separate white and Negro landgrant institutions unless the legislature of such
State shall '....propose and report to the Secretary
of the Interior a just and equitable division of the
fund... .between one college for white students and
one institution for colored students....which shall
be divided into parts and paid accordingly...."1
8
From 1871 to 1913 there were established seventeen land-grant
institutions for Negroes.
Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College of
Mississippi was the first to be established,and Tennessee Agricultural
and Industrial State Teachers College was the last.
Until 1928 practically all of the courses in trades and industries
in those colleges were conducted on a subcollegiate level.
In 1930 the Office of Education reported9 that the Negro land-grant
institutions offered the following courses on a vocational, basis in
trades and industries:
^Works, G. A., and Morgan, B., The Land-Grant Colleges, p. 23.
%olmes, D. 0. W., The Evolution of the Negro College, p. 153*
9Klein, A. J., Survey of Land*-Grant Colleges and Universities., p. 883*
Type of Course
Number of
Institutions
Auto mechanics..... ♦.......
13
Brick masonry and plastering...................
12
Carpentry, woodworking and eabinetmaking
15
Blacksmithing, forging, welding and iron work
5
Electricity and radio work.............
7
Printing or linotype operating.........
8
Furniture repairing and upholstering............
2
Plumbing, steam-fitting, heating and ventilating*.
6
Shoe-making and shoe-repairing.................
8
Tailoring.............
9
Painting.....................................
5
Architectural and mechanical drawing............
5
Typewriting and shorthand...............
1
Stationary engineering and machine shop work......
6
Broom and mattress-making......................
1
Laundry and dry-cleaning.......................
1
Wagon and carriage making.........
1
9
Chapter XI
THE
PROBLEM
Origin of the Problem
As the result of the writer’s ten years of contact as a student and
teacher in industrial programs of Negro institutions, he developed a
keen interest in the objectives of those programs.
As a teacher trying
to set up and follow clear-cut objectives he became conscious of many
tangible and intangible problems confronting industrial education among
Negroes.
Observation of many industrial programs and conversations with
several people— students, teachers and tradesmen— who were interested in
industrial education resulted in the writer’s belief becoming a conviction
that a definite study should be made of the objectives and problems of
industrial education in Negro colleges.
Statement of the Problem
The broad topic of industrial education among Negroes was delimited
to a study of the OBJECTIVES AND FROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN
NEGRO COLLEGES, with the following specific purposes in mind:
1. To study and evaluate the major objectives of industrial
education programs in Negro colleges.
2. To discover and study the most common problems facing those
programs.
3. To discover and study the ways by which the problems tend to
interfere with the objectives.
4. To make specific recommendations whereby many of those
problems may be solved.
10
Scope of the Study
"In 1932-33 there were 117 Negro institutions of higher education
in the United States, thirty-six public and eighty-one private."1
Seventeen of those public institutions are land-grant colleges— all of
which, except one, have definite programs of industrial education.
With a few exceptions, such as Hampton, Tuskegee, and St. .Paul,
most of the private institutions do not have programs of industrial
education as a major part of their curricula offerings.
The majority
of the industrial education offerings on a college level for Negroes
are concentrated in Hampton, Tuskegee, St. Paul, and the land-grant
colleges.
For that reason this study is restricted to those twenty
institutions.
Collection of the Data
Three methods were used in collecting date— (1) the library method,
(2) inquiry blank method, and (3) personal visitation method.
Library Method. All the available books, bulletins, periodicals,
theses and dissertations which may have related value to industrial
education among Negroes were examined very carefully.
Two motives caused
that material to be examine— (1) to see if a study had already been made
that would make this study an unnecessary duplication, and (2) to determine
what parts of that material could be used advantageously in this study.
Inquiry Blank Method. Four forms of inquiry blanks were used— Form A
for students in industrial departments of Negro colleges, Form B for
teachers in those departments, Form C for heads of industrial departments, af^d
Form D for the State Supervisors of Trade and Industrial Education in the
seventeen states which maintain separate schools.
"Svilkerson, D. A., Special Problems of Negro Education, p. 60.
Personal Visitation Method. Six weeks were spent in visiting eleven
of the twenty institutions included in this study.
Those visits were for
observation, interviews and group discussions.
Visits to seven of those institutions consisted of from two to five
days on each campus.
During that time interviews were held with the
college presidents, deans, heads of industrial departments, industrial
teacher trainers, several teachers in each industrial department, at
least three students in each industrial department, heads of the depart­
ments of agriculture, and the teachers of farm shop.
Group meetings
were held with the industrial faculties and students to discuss the
topic “Objectives and Problems of Industrial Education in Negro Colleges."
Special interviews were also held with several people not definitely
connected with any particular schools for Negroes although they do have
a keen interest in educational programs for Negroes; among those people
were (1) United States Assistant Commissioner of Education, (2) Senior
Specialist in the Education of Negroes, (3) Field Agent for the General
Education Board, (4) Executive Secretary of the American Vocational
Association, (5) Regional Agent for the Southern Division of Trade and
Industrial Education, (6) five State Supervisors of Trade and Industrial
Education, and (7) six State Agents for Negro Schools.
Treatment of Data
The data collected in this study are of two types, objective and
subjective.
The objective data are the facts and the subjective data
are the opinions which may or may not be facts.
However, the subjective
data are, in a measure, of greater importance to this particular study
than the objective because one of the major purposes of this study is to
challenge and draw out opinions in such way that further and more
12
complete studies of industrial education among Negroes will inevitably
follow.
An attempt was also made on the basis of the data presented to de­
termine the major problems confronting industrial education in Negro
colleges, list those problems, interpret them and make specific
recommendations for dealing with them adequately.
Complicated statistical procedures were purposely not used.
Instead,
for simplicity and ease of understanding for the average reader, for whom
this study is intended, an attempt was made to present most of the find­
ings on a percentage basis in tabular form.
Limitations of the Study
Obviously a study as subjective and broad as this, one is likely to
have many limitations.
The writer recognizes the following as being
limitations of this study:
1. Certain important inquiry blanks were not returned and some
that were returned did not contain usable information.
2.
The true validity of the objectives of industrialprograms
in Negro colleges could not be checked thoroughly in a study
of this type.
3- The problems pointed out are general and no one institution
is to be characterized by all of them.
However, it is recommended
that those problems may be used as a check list in making thorough
studies of each institution included in this study.
4. The greatest limitation of this study is its dependence on
future adjustments, programs and studies of industrial programs
among Negroes before the investigator shall feel that the study
was a success or failure.
Special Explanation
The institutions in this study are referred to as A, B, C, etc.
No one letter is used for a particular institution throughout the study.
For example, A in one table may represent Hampton Institute and A in the
following table may represent any of the other nineteen institutions
included in the study.
Any mention made of students in this study refers only to the 747
industrial education students who returned usable inquiry blanks or to
industrial education students generally, using the 747 as a representa­
tive sampling of students in industrial departments of Negro colleges.
All of the 747 students were college students, they were classified as
follows— 363 freshmen, 190 sophomores, 116 juniors, and 78 seniors.
Whatever the number of institutions, students, teachers or heads of
industrial departments mentioned for any particular item indicates
usable data were obtained from that number on the item in question.
14
Chapter III
A SUMMARY OF PREVIOUS STUDIES WITH DIRECT OR INDIRECT VALUE
TO INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN NEGRO COLLEGES
%
The Negro Artisan.1 edited by W. E. B. DuBois in 1902, is a report
of what seems to be the first major study concerning industrial education
among Negroes.
That study was made under the direction of Atlanta Uni­
versity in 1900-01.
The report of the study includes data from thirty-two
states, besides Ontario, Costa Rica and Puerto Rico.
The report is divided
as follows— (1) History of the Negro Artisan, (2) The Training of Artisans,
(3) Local Conditions of Negro Artisans, (4) Distribution of Negro Artisans,
(5) Trade Unions and Negro Labor, and (6) The Employers of Negro Labor.
The Survey of Land-Grant Colleges and Universities in 1930 directed
by A. J. Klein,^ under the auspices of the United States Office of
Education, is a study which reported significant findings on industrial
programs among Negroes.
land-grant colleges.
Part X of Volume II is devoted entirely to Negro
A special section of Part X describes the curricula
offerings of the industrial education departments in those colleges.
3
In 1937 Ambrose Caliver
reported a study which was of national
importance to industrial education among Negroes.
The study was reported
under the title Vocational Education and Guidance of Negroes. It includes
data from 207 high schools which offer vocational courses and forty-three
Negro colleges*
The programs of agriculture, home economics, and industrial
education were all studied and reported on quite comprehensively.
-^DuBois, W. E. B., The Negro Artisan (Atlanta, Atlanta University Press,
1902).
%lein, A. J., "Survey of Land-Grant Colleges and Universities,11 Bulletin
No. 9, Vol. II, Part X, U. S. Office of Education, 1930.
3
Caliver, Ambrose, "Vocational Education and Guidance of Negroes,"
Bulletin No. 38, U. S* Office of Education, 1937.
15
Among the important findings reported in that study were data
showing trends in vocational offerings in federally aided courses.
V. R. M. Daniels'^ study has important related information to
industrial education among Negroes in that the purpose of the study was
"to find the extent to which prevail various attitudes which have been
alleged to condition the occupational affiliation of Negroes in different
sections of the country in segregated schools and in mixed schools."
The findings were reported under the following headings— (1) Attitudes
and Conditions Existing in the Community, (2) Attitudes of Negro Youth,
and (3) Attitudes of Guidance Officers.
The study was restricted to secondary schools, although the findings
include very helpful information for students and teachers of Industrial
education in Negro colleges.
5
E.
M. Norris made an indirect, although an important contribution
to industrial education planning among Negroes in his study, Determining
Implications for Vocational Education from Certain Characteristics and
Trends of the Negro Population in Kentucky. For example, he points out
the Negro population of Kentucky is distributed very unevenly throughout
the state.
The range is from one Negro in Martin County to 51,068 in
Jefferson County.
J. F. Drake's^ study has indirect value for industrial education in
Negro colleges because the purpose of his study was "to discover the
relationship between occupational interests of high school seniors and
^Daniels, V. R. M., Attitudes Affecting the Occupational Affiliation of
Negroes. Dissertation, 1938.
^Norris, E. M., Determining Implications for Vocational Education from
Certain Characteristics and Trends of the Negro Population in Kentucky.
Dissertation, 193A*
^Drake, J. F., Occupational Interests and Opportunities as Determinants
in the Construction of Curricula for a Negro Land-Grant College in
Alabama. Dissertation, 1938
16
occupational opportunities in Alabama; to reveal educational demands of
certain occupations; to set up guiding principles for functioning curricula
on the basis of revealed interests, opportunities and educational demands.”
Among his important findings were (1) Negro carpenters, brick-masons,
machinists, painters, electricians and stationary engineers have not in­
creased at the same ratio as all state workers gainfully employed in these
trades; (2) Negro plumbers, steam-fitters and auto-mechanics have in­
creased at a more rapid rate than that of all state workers in the same
trades.
The Negro College Graduate, by C. S. Johnson,
7
gave important back­
ground information for a study of problems affecting industrial education
in Negro colleges.
The purpose of his study was
"(a) to ascertain the number, distribution and
occupational adjustment of the Negro graduates
of colleges, professional and vocational schools;
(b) to provide an analysis of some of the important
social factors determining the present number
and status of these graduates;
(c) to test by such means as appear valid and sound
the value, in terms of the graduates themselves,
of measures and methods employed in the higher
education of this group; and
(d) to lay a factual basis for the further study and
planning of programs of advanced education."
g
Evolution of the Negro College by D. 0. 7/. Holmes was found helpful
to this study in that he pointed out, in a special section, some of the
prevailing concepts which caused industrial education for Negroes to have
been welcomed by some of the colleges during the latter part of the 19th
century.
He also made clear why the bulk of industrial training for Negroes
was finally concentrated largely in Negro land-grant colleges and a few
private institutions.
^Johnson, G. S., The Negro College Graduate. 1938.
g
Holmes, D. 0. W., The Evolution of the Negro College. 1934*
•17
Fred McCuistion^ presents a complete picture of the status of
graduate work for Negroes in the United States in the report of his study.
His proposals for improvement of graduate instruction should prove quite
helpful to planners of graduate work in industrial education among Negroes,
especially the proposal which reads as follows:
"Since the lack of ability to support adequate
programs of graduate and professional instruction
is reflected in statements of taxable wealth of
the Southern states, and since there is a limited
need for advanced work in certain fields, a larger
unit of support for centrally located institutions
serving a wider area would be justified."
Special Problems of Negro Education by D. A. Wilkerson10 contains
helpful information for the study of problems affecting industrial
education in Negro colleges, in that his study analyzes problems affecting
the whole program of education among Negroes in such a way that it is easy
to see how those problems may have a definite bearing on the objectives
and problems of industrial education in Negro colleges.
A very valuable study, conducted by A. J. Stoddard,
11
was made in
Philadelphia during the period October 31> 193# to March 28, 1939.
The
findings, conclusions, and recommendations should prove suggestive for
industrial education planning among Negroes irrespective of the locality.
The purpose of the study was
"1. to show the extent to which Negro youth is
employed in manufacturing industries in
Philadelphia;
2. to ascertain the kind of training required by
employers of these youths for new entrants in
the various industries;
3. to study the possibilities offered for employ­
ment of qualified Negroes in industrial con­
cerns where they are not now employed;
^McCuistion, Fred, Graduate Instruction for Negroes in the United States.
1939.
*L0Wilkerson, D. A., Special Problems of Negro Education, 1939^"Stoddard, A* J., Industrial Opportunities for Negro Youth in the Manufftr.t,lir1nggJ l
nringtrtg-ielph&n,
-..................
-
"4. to stimulate an interest on the part of
employers in the services that can be
rendered by a greater participation of
Negro youth in industry.
5« to make available to counselors, students,
and others interested in the industrial
welfare of Negro youth, information on employ­
ment conditions that would assist in guidance
and planning for training and would show trends
and possibilities for jobs.”
19
Chapter IV
THE FINDINGS
A. Objectives of Industrial Education in Negro Colleges
In an attempt to ascertain the objectives of industrial education
programs in Negro colleges much confusion was recognized in terminology.
Referring to industrial divisions in Negro colleges with similar objectives3
practices and problems the following terms are found to be in frequent
use: (1) School of Mechanical Industries, (2) Division of Mechanical
Industries, (3) Trade School, (4) The Division of Mechanic Arts, (5) In­
dustrial Arts Education, (6) The Department of Commercial Industries.
To clarify the terminology and at the same time present the objectives
of trade and industrial programs in Negro colleges verbatim statements
are here presented from a sampling of the colleges included in this study.
These statements were taken from recent issues of those school catalogs.
Mention might also be made that recent interviews with faculty members of
those institutions verify the following as being the objectives of
industrial education programs in Negro colleges:
School. A
"Curricula are scheduled under the School of
Mechanical Industries leading to the Bachelor
of Science degree and Trade Diploma. They are
as follows:
I.
II.
III.
IV.
Commercial Industries Curriculum (B* S. degree)
Industrial Education Curriculum (B. S. degree)
Individualized Curriculum (B. S* degree)
Vocational Trade Curriculum (Diploma)
"The Commercial Industries curriculum affords
options or majors in the following: Architecture,
Automobile Mechanics, Building Contracting,
Electricity, Heating and Ventilating, Interior
Decorating, Printing, Tailoring, and Garment
Making.
"The Industrial Education curriculum is a teacher
education course of study. It is designed to
meet more adequately the increasing demands for
teachers of Industrial Education and General
Shop in public schools.
"The Individualized curriculum is not a scheduled
curriculum.... It is designed to afford train­
ing needs in technical areas.... The plan is
primarily for persons of maturity and advanced
standing.
"The Vocational Trade curriculum affords options
or majors in the following! Automobile Main­
tenance, Carpentry, Electricity, Machine Shop
and Welding, Masonry, Painting, Plumbing and
Steam-fitting, Printing, Sheet Metal and Roof­
ing, Tailoring, Shoe Repairing, and Leather work
School B
"The division of Mechanical Industries aims to
serve those students seeking gainful employment
in the various mechanical fields of skilled and
„ technical employment; to serve those students
seeking to find gainful employment as teachers
in Industrial Arts and in Industrial Vocational
Education. To meet this objective the curricula
are divided into four fundamental areas, namely:
Building Construction
Mechanics
Industrial Education
Industrial Administration."
School C
"
"The aims of the Trade School are:
1. To train young men to take their places
in industiy as skilled mechanics.
2. To train skilled building supervisors
and contractors.
3« To train teachers of industrialarts.
A. To train teachers of trades."
School D
"The Division of Mechanic Arts offers a technical and professional course of college grade
and vocational trade courses on the secondary
level. The work of the college grade, as offered
in the Department of Industrial Education, is
based on the standards set up for land-grant
colleges and leads to the degree of bachelor
of science in industrial education.
"Industrial Education.— The courses in this de­
partment are offered with the objectives of
training young men for service as skilled
workers in the fields of auto mechanics,
carpentry, drafting, electric wiring, masonry,
sheet metal work, and tailoring, and as teachers
of the vocational trades."
School E
"The purpose of the curriculum in Industrial Arts
(Education) is to offer an adequate education
for teachers of Industrial Arts in this state.
Its aim is to prepare teachers of woodwork, draw­
ing, metal, concrete, general machine shop, and
general shop for elementary, junior, and senior
high schools......Every student majoring in
the department must complete one teaching minor
before graduation. A H industrial arts courses
are offered with special emphasis placed on
organisation and presentation of work for teach­
ing purposes."
School F
"This course is designed to meet the needs of
students who desire to gain practical experience
and knowledge of the subject matter as well as
the technical training required for effective
service in vocational education.
"The Trade Teachers Training Program consists of
specialized training in a chosen trade together
with necessary professional courses for State
Certificate as well as the requirements for a
Bachelor of Science."
22
Interpretation of Objectives
On the basis of this study the four major objectives of industrial
programs in Negro colleges are found to be (1) to train skilied trades­
men, (2) to train contractors, particularly in the building trades,
(3) to train teachers of trades, and (4 ) to train teachers of industrial
arts.
The validity of those objectives may be considered from three
angles, namely, (1 ) the angle of needs, (2 ) the angle of provisions,
and (3) the angle of practices.
Angle of Needs.
Only a few facts are necessary to justify those
objectives from the angle of needs.
The housing condition of the Negro,
as a whole, implies those objectives are definitely valid*
The National
Emergency Council, which investigated the economic conditions
of the
South, had this to say in the findings reported to PresidentFranklin
D.
1
Roosevelt in 1938:
"By most conservative estimates 4,000,000 families
should be rehoused. This is one—half of all
families in the South.... Houses in the rural
South are the oldest, have the lowest value, and
have the greatest need of repairs of any farm
houses in the United States.... More than a
third of the southern farm houses do not have
screens to keep out mosquitoes and flies...*
Lack of sanitary flush toilets and sewer systems
for waste disposal is characteristic not only of
farm and rural houses but a large proportion of
houses in small towns and a substantial number
in the cities...... Nearly a fifth of all Southern
farm houses have, no toilets at all *11
Angle of Provisions.
Reference need only be made to the outstanding
federal acts affecting industrial education to point out that the major
objectives of industrial education programs in Negro colleges are valid
from the angle of provisions.
For example, the Morrill Acts of 1862 and,.
^Report on Economic Conditions of the South. National Emergency
Council, United States Government Printing Office, 1938*
1890 were responsible for the establishment of seventeen Negro land-grant
colleges, one of their chief purposes being the teaching of mechanic arts;
and the Smith—Hughes and George—Deen Acts of 1917 and 193&* respectively,
which provided for an annual expenditure of approximately $21,000,000, a
substantial portion of which may be spent on industrial programs in Negro
schools•
Angle of Practices,
Present conditions facing industrial programs in
Negro colleges make it difficult to justify those four objectives as being
wholly valid from the angle of practices in some of the Negro colleges now
offering programs of industrial education.
For example, xt xs possible to
find divisions within some of the industrial departments in a few Negro
colleges headed by individuals who received a high school diploma in 1895
and from all indications have taken little or no additional professional
training.
It is possible to find ten senior college students in industrial
education required to do all their practice teaching during the same quarter
with only seven students.
It is possible to find an industrial department
with fifty-two students (ten college-freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and
seniors; forty-two high school-tenth, eleventh and twelfth grades), in
which department there are only two teachers, one of whom is serving only
part time.
In that same department seven different trades are supposed
to be taught in addition to teacher training work in those trades.
It is
possible to find industrial programs with no specific course requirements;
all students not majoring in agriculture, business or home economics are
required to spend some time in one of the eight shop activities.
It is also
possible to find well organized industrial programs in Negro colleges
following clear-cut objectives which have been worked out on the basis of
needs, interests and abilities of the students.
24
Conclusion. With such range of practices existing in the different
Negro colleges offering industrial programs it is only possible to justify
those four objectives (training skilled workmen, contractors, industrial
arts and trade teachers) from the angle of practices by establishing
definite ''evaluative criteria" for industrial programs in Negro colleges
and comparing the program of each college with the criteria*
B. Description of Industrial Departments in Negro Colleges
Size of Departments.
In this study three factors were considered as
a basis for determining the size of an industrial department, namely,
(1) number of students majoring in some phase of industrial education,
(2) number of teachers in the industrial department, and (3) number of
shop activities taught in the industrial department.
Eleven institutions reporting the number of students majoring in some
phase of industrial education show a range from 52 to 4&3 students; the
mean is 175*7 and the median is 143*3*
Fifteen institutions reporting the
number of teachers in their industrial departments show a range from two
to forty teachers; the mean is 13*2 teachers and the median is 12.1
teachers.
Tables I, II, III, IV, and V give fbrther information relative to
the three factors as supplied by the institutions reporting.
As shown in column three of Table I, the industrial najors per
teacher do not indicate the actual teaching loads (students per teacher)
of the industrial teachers because students in other departments of the
college are permitted to elect courses in the industrial department*
This is true in most of the colleges included in this study.
For example,
at one institution which has in the industrial department twelve teachers
and seventy-five students there are 150 additional students from other
departments in the college taking one or more courses in the industrial
department as electives*
Table I
Number of Teachers in the Industrial Departments and Number of Students
Majoring in Some Phase of Industrial Education in Sixteen Negro Colleges
College
Teachers
Students
Industrial Majors
Per Teacher
?
A
14
?
B
6
102
C
5
••?
?
D
5
•?
9
E
2
52
F
18
132
G
6
9
H
40
225
I
9
207
23
J
16
145
9
K
3
?
?
L
12
356
29.7
M
31
463
14.9
N
16
267
16.7
0
12
75
6.3
P
?
114
■
•
17
■
26
7-3
9
•
5*1
9
•
For the teachers the Mean is 13*2; Median is 12 and for the students
the Mean is 175 *7J Median is 143-3*
26
Table II
Number and Classification of Students Majoring in Some Phase of
Industrial Education in Eleven Negro Colleges During the School Year
Juniors
Sophomores
Freshmen
Special
Secondary
A
?
?
?
?
9
•
11
B
*?
9
0
*?
••?
?
7
132
C
14
53
61
80
12
0
225
D
15
17
25
50
50
50
207
E
6
7
16
39
77
0
145
F
14
19
33
42
6
0
114
G
0
60
41
106
8
141
356
H
10
16
16
4
1
0
47
I
35
66
125
203
34
0
463
J
10
16
14
22
0
205
267
K
10
16
8
36
5
0
75
114
275
339
582
211
396
2133
College
Total
*
9
Total
Seniors
1940-1941
102
Curricula Offerings. The curricula in the industrial departments
of Negro colleges include offering's-in trade work, industrial arts and
teacher■
: training.
Data collected from sixteen colleges indicate that
their industrial departments offer, besides drawing, a total of eighteen
different kinds of trade work.
The mean number of kinds offered by an
industrial department is 8.37 and the median is 8 .50.
The shop activities taught on a vocational trade basis are also
offered on an industrial arts basis.
Table XXI indicates the shop
activities taught on a vocational basis in the industrial departments
of sixteen Negro colleges.
From 1935 to 1940 there were 619 trade certificates and diplomas
granted in eighteen trades by the industrial departments of nine Negro
colleges.
Six of those nine institutions stated in what fields their
certificates were granted.
More were granted in carpentry and auto-
mechanics than in other trades— eighty in carpentray and seventy-nine in
aut o-mechanic s.
Fewer certificates were granted in commercial art, upholstering,
and broom and mattress-making than in any of the other eighteen trades.
Only one certificate was granted by the sixteen colleges in each of the
three trades.
•d
O
S3
H
5X
g
o
o
H
•-9
3
P
P.
©
©
V
TO
©
x x x x x
x
x
X
X
X
X
Auto Mechanics
H3
P
IP
to
3*
c+
X
Beauty Culture
o
3
X
X
Brickmasonry
X
Cabinetmaking
X
Carpentry
X
X
X
P
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
S3
©
to
Forging & Welding
X
X
X
X
Electricity
X
X
H*
hi
Ct©
©
3
Machine Shop
Painting and
Decorating
Plumbing and
Heating
Printing
Sheet Metal
X
o
Laundering
X X
Shoe Repairing
X X
Tailoring
o
o
H3
4
p
a
©
a
p
©
to
©
©
<
o
o
p
c*
H*
O
3
_
td
P
CO
H*
®
H3
H
3
93
©
t+
P
H
a
©
d
p
X
X
X X
Radio Servicing
1!
X
X
Cleaning & Press­
ing
£
a
Upholstering
H
H
H
3*
©
X
X
P
cr
H
©
o
ro
ai
Table IV
Kind and Number of Trade Certificates and Diplomas Granted by Six
Industrial Departments in Negro Colleges from 1935-1940
_____________________
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
40
50
60
70
80
Carpentry
Auto Mechanics
Printing
53
Tailoring
45
—
„
Brick Masonry
Beauty Culture
32
Electricity
3 0 --------------
Shoe Repairing
2 0 ---------
Painting
19 —
— ■
Plumbing
Cabinet Making
11—
Laundering
10—
Machine Shop
9 ---
Radio Servicing
4“
Commercial Art
1-
Upholstering
1-
Broom and Mattress
Making
10
Total
448
10
20
30
30
Table V
Departments of Nine Negro Collegesi ffom 1935-1940
College
Year and Number of Certificates or Diplomas
1940
1939
19 3&
1937
1936
Total
1935
A
15
5
1
0
0
1
22
B
0
2
3
10
4
14
33
C
71
37
26
28
34
41
237
D
6
2
0
0
0
0
10
E
18
22
16
13
19
9
97
F
34
0
0
0
18
23
75
G
9
5
0
0
0
0
14
H
10
31
7
2
12
13
75
I
12
10
9
8
9
8
56
175
114
64
61
96
109
619
Totals
Explanation of Work Toward Degrees. In addition to industrial depart­
ments in Negro colleges offering work leading to trade certificates or
diplomas, seventeen of the twenty institutions included in this study also
offer courses in their industrial departments leading to a Bachelor's
degree.
The curricula of those courses are arranged in such way that
the graduates will be qualified to teach industrial subjects on an
industrial arts basis.
And the graduates who have had sufficient trade
31
training and experience will be qualified to teach industrial subjects
on a vocational basis*
From 1935 to 1940 585 students received bachelors' degrees from the
industrial departments of nine Negro colleges.
Table VI indicates the
number of degrees granted each year by the nine colleges.
Table VI
Number of Students Who Received Bachelors' Degrees from the Industrial Departments of Nine Negro Colleges from 1935--1940
Year and Number of Degrees
College
1936
Total
1940
1939
A
17
8
7
11
3
7
53
B
21
19
17
8
13
11
89
C
0
10
18
12
15
15
70
D
13
12
10
9
9
10
64
E
12
11
7
9
12
11
62
F
6
7
5
4
4
3
29
G
13
22
26
18
11
20
110
H
7
8
6
8
5
6
40
I
8
14
11
12
15
8
68
97
111
108
91
87
91
585
Totals
Facilities*
1938
1937
1935
■
The adequacy of the facilities in industrial depart­
ments of Negro colleges was considered only subjectively in this study.
That is, the investigator observed the facilities in eleven industrial
departments also compiled and compared the opinions of 747 industrial
students, fifty-five industrial teachers and thirteen heads of industrial
d
e
p
a
r
t
m
e
n
t
s
.
_____________________
32
The observations and interviews of the investigator cause him to
feel that the opinions of those students and faculty members present byimplication a good description of the adequacy of facilities in industrial
departments of Negro colleges.
Table VII indicates how the industrial departments in Negro colleges
are rated subjectively by industrial students and faculties.
Of interest
is it to note how the opinions of the students vary according to classes.
Question.
HThe greatest influence on determining the curricula for
our industrial department is (1) custom and tradition, (2) requirements of
the administration and accrediting agencies, (3) a careful analysis of
pupil and community needs, interests and abilities.11
Table VII
Percentage Comparison of Opinions of Industrial Students and Faculties
on What They Think has the Greatest Influence in Determining Their
Industrial Curricula
Opinions
to
f
3
•H
CO
(0
b
§
CO
co B
i
to
J> C
htis
c
m
8$
& 01
-Pi
S p?
O Q
"§
to
p
•s
tt>
3
-=£CO
EH
15.7$
25$
?
ia Lc- sa)
<0 « <D
a s-ta
0$
(1 )
19$
11%.
18$
(2 )
53
49
39
30
42.6
44
46
(3)
28
34
43
62
41-7
31
54
100$
100$
100$
100$
100.0$
100$
100$
Totals
Conclusion.
In the industrial departments of Negro colleges the range
in size, curricula offerings and adequacy of the facilities make it almost
impossible for those departments to adhere to uniform and justifiable
criteria in conducting their programs.
C* Teachers In Industrial Departments of Negro Colleges
Degrees Held.
According to the information received from fifty-two
teachers in industrial departments of six Negro colleges most of those
teachers do not have formal training beyond the bachelor»s degree.
The
following table indicates the degrees held by the teachers who responded
to the question regarding their educational status:
Table VIII
Information Relative to Degrees Held by Fifty-Two Teachers in
Industrial Departments of Six Negro Colleges
Number of
Teachers
Degrees Held
Percentage
of Teachers
Doctorates
1
1.9
Masters
6
11.5
Bachelors*
22
42.3
No degrees at all
23
44.3
Total
32
100.0
*Note.— Twenty-nine of the teachers have bachelors' degrees, but
twenty-two of those teachers have only bachelors' degrees.
In-Service Training.
This study reveals that most of the teachers
in industrial departments of Negro colleges continue to take courses for
credit after they begin teaching.
The courses are usually taken by ex­
tension during the regular school year or during summer sessions.
Of the fifty teachers who responded to the question, "When did you
take your last work in industrial education for which you received
credit?'1, 72 per cent of those teachers have taken some work for credit
since they began teaching.
Most of the work was taken since 1931-
34
Table IX indicates the years the "work was taken by all of the teachers.
Table IX
~
-- .--- -- jr— -------
--.-a--
Colleges. Took Their Last Professional Work in Industrial Education For
Which They Received Credit
Year Work
Was Taken
Number of
Teachers
1940-
5
1938-39
7
1936-37
5
1934-35
Percentage of Teachers
6
1932-33
4
1930-31
1
2.0 —
1928-29
2
4.0
11926-27
1
2.0 —
1924-26
1
2.0 -*■
1922-23
1
2.0 -
1914-15
1
2.0 —
1906-07
2
4.0 —
Never taken
work since
graduation
14
Total
50
100.0
The fourteen teachers, who have not taken any professional work at all
for credit since they began teaching, have the following years of teaching
experience in trade or industrial subjects: 3 teachers 2 yearsj
35
1 teacher 3 years; 2 teachers 4 years; 1 teacher 5 years; 2 teachers
17 years; 2 teachers 20 years; 1 teacher 21 years; 2 teachers 25 years.
One of those teachers has an advanced degree, five have bachelors* degrees
and eight have no degrees at all*
Table X
Institutions at Which Thirty Teachers in Industrial Department s of Negro
Colleges Took Their Most Recent Work for Which Credit Was Granted
Name of Institution
Location
Number Who
Took Work
Carnegie Institute of Technology
Pittsburgh, Pa,
2
Columbia University
New York, N. Y,
1
Connecticut Teachers College
New Britain, Conn.
1
Hampton Institute
Hampton, Va.
6
Iowa State College
Ames, Iowa
1
Kentucky State College
Frankford, Ky,
1
Massachusetts Institute of
Technology
Cambridge, Mass.
1
New York Trade School
New York, N. Y.
1
New York University
New York, N. Y.
3
Ohio State University
Columbus, Ohio
1
The Pennsylvania State College
State College, Pa,
1
South Carolina State College
Orangeburg, S, C.
3
Tuskegee Institute
Tuskegee, Ala.
4
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minn,
1
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pa.
1
Virginia Polytechnic Institute
Blacksburg, Va.
2
Total
30
36
Table XI
Institutions at Which Eighteen Heads of Industrial Departments in Negro
Colleges Took Their Most Recent Work for Whbh Credit Was Granted
Location
Name of Institution
Number Who
Took Work
Cornell University
Ithaca, N. Y.
1
Hampton Institute
Hampton, Va.
3
Iowa State College
Ames, Iowa
2
Kansas State Teachers College
Pittsburg, Kansas
2
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Mass.
3
Ohio State University
Columbus, Ohio
2
The Pennsylvania State College
State College, Pa.
3
University of. Michigan
Ann Arbor, Mich.
1
Univers ity of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pa.
1
18
Total
Teaching and Trade Experience*
The years of teaching experience, as
indicated by fifty-five teachers in industrial departments of six Negro
colleges, range from one to forty-one years; the mean is 14*93 years and
the median is 14*12 years.
Most of their teaching experience has been in
some phase of industrial education.
Their years of teaching experience in industrial subjects range from
one to thirty-nine years; the mean is 13.19 years and the median is 11.37
years.
Those fifty—five teachers had been on the faculties on -which they
are at present serving from one to forty years; the mean is 13*67 years
and the median is 11 years;
thus indicating that the turnover in the
teaching personnels of the industrial departments in those six colleges
is not very great.
Such low turnover in the teaching personnel is not
characteristic (as the writer has observed) of several industrial depart­
ments of Negro colleges.
However, accurate data from those institutions
were not obtained.
In addition to their trade or industrial teaching experience those
fifty-five teachers have had from one to forty-six years of actual trade
or industrial experience; the mean is 14*3-3 years and the median is 10*91
years.
The reliability of the years of trade experience is to be questioned
because the investigator discovered that many inconsistencies existed with
the ways some of the teachers determined a year of trade experience.
Tables XII, XIII, XIV, and XV give further information about the
teaching and trade experience of those fifty-five teachers.
38
Table XII
Years of Teaching Experience of Fifty-Five Teachers in Industrial
Departments of Six Negro Colleges
Years of Teaching Experience
Number of
Teachers
39 to 41
1
1.8
36 to 38
0
0.0
33 to 35
2
3*6
30 to 32
6
10.8
27 to 29
3
5*4
24 to 26
3
5*4
21 to 23
1
1.8
18 to 20
6
10.8
15 to 17
5
9*0
12 to 14
4
7*2
9 to 11
5
9*0
6 to 8
4
7.2
3 to 5
10
18.0
0 to 2
5
9*0
Total
Range 1 to 41 years
Mean 14*98 years
Median 14*12 years
55
_
.
r. m
Percentage of Teachers
99*plus
39
Table XIII
Number of Years Fifty-Five Teachers in Industrial Departments Have
Been on the Present Faculties of Six Negro Colleges
Tears on
Present
Faculty
Number of
Teachers
39 to 41
1
1.8 —
36 to 38
0
0.0
33 to 35
0
0.0
30 to 32
5
9.0 -----
27 to 29
2
3*6 ""*■■■■■
24 to 26
5
9.0 -----
21 to 23
5
18 to 20
3
15 to 17
3
12 to 14
3
9 to 11
3
6 to 8
7
3 to 5
±jC
-1 to 2
6
Total
55
Percentage of Teachers
5.4 ----- 1I...
5.4 -----
100.0
The range of years those teachers had served on the present
faculties was from one to forty.
Mean is 13*67 years; median is 11 years.
Table XIV
Years of Teaching Experience in Industrial Education of FiftyFive Teachers in Six Industrial Departments of Negro Colleges
Years Industrial
Education Teachm* g
M
,
_
Percentage of Teachers
i^acn6rs
39 to 41
1
1.8
36 to 38
0
0.0
33 to 35
0
0.0
30 to 32
5
9.0
27 to 29
3
5.4
24 to 26
2
3.6
21 to 23
3
5.4
18 to 20
5
9.0
15 to 17
5
9.0
12 to 14
4
7.2
9 to 11
6
10.8
6 to 8
2
3.6
3 to 5
8
14.4
0 to 2
11
19.8
Total
55
99*plus
Range 1 to 39 years
Mean 13.19 years
Median 11.37 years
Table XV
Years of Trade Experience, Mot Including Trade or Industrial Teach­
ing, of Fifty-Five Teachers in Industrial Departments of Six
Negro Colleges
Number of
Teachers
Years Trade
Experience
45 to 49
Percentage of Teachers
1
1.8
40 to 44
1
1.8 —
35 to 39
3
5.4 -----
30 to 34
4
7.2 —
25 to 29
3
5-4 -----
20 to 24
0
0.0
15 to 19
7
10 to 14
12
5 to 9
11
0 to 4
13
23.4 —
Total
55
99-plus
■
..
12.6 --------------
'
----
flange 0 to 46 years
Mean 14.13 years
Median 10*91 years
Teachers' Salaries
Infomation was received concerning the salaries of thirty-three
teachers in industrial departments of Negro colleges.
salary range was from $60 to $216.
the mean salary was $130.10.
The monthly
The median salary was $130.70 and
Most teachers with salaries in the lower
quartile were paid nine or ten months per yearj whereas, teachers with
salaries in the middle and upper quartiles were usually paid twelve
months per year.
The findings on salaries in this study are similar
to the findings of Dr. Caliver's study,2
What Some Teachers Think
An effort was made by the investigator to secure statements, in
writing, from teachers in industrial departments of Negro colleges indi­
cating what those teachers think are the chief problems now confronting
industrial education in Negro schools.
By some of the teachers the
following remarks were made.
First Teacher
"In most Negro schools, the teachers of Trade
and Industrial Education have not been trained
to teach, have not had sufficient practical
training in the building trades, do not use
instruction sheets, do not have records of
students' progress, not enough organization
in equipment nor instruction, and not enough
pride and interest in their work,"
Second Teacher
"The major problems are—
1. Orientation at all levels needed by
Negro pupils to overcome antipathy
toward vocational training.
2. Educators and leaders need similar
orientation.
3. For males there is a lack of
continuity in our fields as
compared with those of girls,
4. Population ratio, placement opportunities,
prejudice, operate to prevent implementa­
tion of effective and attractive programs
in our schools and institutions."
Third Teacher
"Two chief problems are (l) excessively heavy
teacher load, and (2) insufficient time to
concentrate on important problems."
o
Caliver, Ambrose,"Vocational Education and Guidance of Negroes,"
Bulletin No. 38, U. S. Office of Education, 1937, p. 69.
43
Fourth Teacher
"Most investigators do not segregate Industrial
Arts, Industrial Education, Direct Vocational
Education as distinct areas. Most Negro landgrant colleges need these three objectives to
fulfill the spirit of the law and the needs of
the people.
"Most Negro land-grant colleges are the result
of 'revolutionary* evolution from secondary
schools and as such have a tendency to lag in
vision of the present new era.
"Ultimate direction of pattern must be influenced
by pressure group tolerance or intolerance*
Directors must thus not conform to a quasi
static pattern but be alert to changes. This
means instantaneous local variants will be
inevitable."
Fifth Teacher
"Based on several years of experience with
industrial programs in Negro schools I think
the main problems are:
1. School boards are not interested
in equipment.
2. Ignorance of school officials of
trade and industrial work.
3* Dull students are encouraged to
take trade and industrial work.
4. Students don’t often have a trade
background.
5. A lack of established standards for
trade training in evening schools.
6. A lack of established standards for
trade training in secondary schools.
7. A lack of coordination among the
programs of industrial education
(trade and industrial or industrial
arts), home economics and agriculture."
Sixth Teacher
"Problems—
1. Placement facilities for graduates
inadequate•
2. Provisions for follow-up work
sadly lacking.
3» Teachers need 'refresher' courses
or periodic outside trade experience.
4* Equipment not adequate.
5.
Closer correlation needed between
techniques taught and requirements
of industry.
“6. Constant revision and skilled analysis
of trades is needed.
7. Vigorous campaign needed to offset the
idea that trade students should be re­
cruited from the ranks of the mentally
retarded. The *white-collar1 ideal should
be vigorously combatted. "
Seventh Teacher
"Trends in industrial education among Negroes
are not yet well defined. The procedure at X
(this institution) seems to be along the lines
of established concepts developed at a time
when positions opened for Negro industriallytrained personnel were limited.
"While what is offered is intensive enough, it
is not broad enough to meet either changing methods
and procedures, or new avenues heretofore closed
to Negro youth.... It is therefore reasonable
to state that X (this institution) can well
afford to offer a broader curriculum in building
construction geared to Negro community needs.
"Such fields of building construction as group
housing desiga, sanitary engineering principles
and superintendence of grounds and buildings
should be included in the Building Construction
Curriculum. These subjects are definitely tied
up with Negro community welfare, and competent,
trained men are needed.
"Further, X (this institution) may well lead
the way for other Negro industrial and technical
colleges by promoting yearly conferences at which
round table discussions could be held on changing
trends in this field of education. These con­
ferences would perform a two—fold purposes
first, they would acquaint X fs faculty with new
procedures and methods successfully carried out
in other schools, and secondly, would raise
standards of industrial and technical education
in all Negro colleges*..."
Eighth Teacher
"Present set-ups in Negro colleges place too
much emphasis on the training of teachers of
vocational arts and too little on the training
of tradesmen and craftsmen. Opportrinities for
gaining minimum skills in a number of trades
and crafts are numerous, and very little, if
a^y* opportunities exist for- specialized train­
ing in a particular trade or craft above the
"level of the ordinary trade school. More
technical work on a college level should be
offered. This should result in better pre­
pared teachers, for those who wish to enter
education....
"The special problems of placement and closer
tie-ups between the school and industry should
be dilligently worked on, but they should not
be accepted as limiting controls in determining
what Negroes should seek to learn. Perhaps
some formal organization, drawing together the
various industrial education departments in
Negro colleges, could work collectively towards
securing greater integration of the Negro trades­
man and technician into American industry."
Ninth Teacher
"V/e (the industrial teachers in a certain
college) have seven problems listed below
that we have observed in this state and in
the nearby states which we believe are in
general to all Negro industrial schools—
1. In many instances the instructors in
Negro schools have not had any teacher
training for industrial work, therefore
they are inferior (in a measure) to the
other members of the staff in the
school which in turn calls for
attraction of the students below
average to take industrial work.
2. The salary paid to the industrial
teacher is not enough to meet the
competition paid in productive
industries, therefore in many'cases
the men who have failed to make good
in productive industries will go
into the field of teaching.
3. The principal and other administrators
of the school are usually academically
trained men and they know but little
about industrial work. When jobs are
done well or done poorly it makes no
difference to them.
4. The shop itself is usually placed in
. the basement or in some dark place in
the building, and this fact prevents
it from being well lighted and made
attractive and comfortable for the
students.
5* In many cases the shop is “used to keep
up the repair work in the building and
to make novel pieces of furniture to
give to the principal, supervisor or
____________
other school officials.
46
"6. Financing the school shop in regard to
equipment and supplies is another great
problem in industrial education in
Negro schools.
7. The period in which the industrial class
is held is usually placed at the end of
the day, a;fter the student is tired and
worn out from other subjects and school
activities.11
*
Conclusions.
1. There is a great range in the amount of formal
preparation possessed by teachers In the industrial departments of Negro
colleges.
The amount of formal education and experience does nob
necessarily determine the caliber of work an industrial teacher is doing
or is capable of doing.
However, there should be a high correlation be­
tween an industrial teacher's formal preparation and his ability as a
successful teacher.
This assumption does not seem to hold true with many
of the teachers in industrial departments of Negro colleges.
2. There is a lack of uniformity in policies and standards of the
institutions in which the teachers work, also there is a lack of uniformity
in policies and standards of the institutions at which many of the
teachers received their education.
3. Teachers with several years of actual trade experience, as a whole,
have had very little formal education and the teachers with
preparation have had little actual trade experience.
also verified by Dr. Caliver's study.
much
formal
This conclusion is
Xn describing the qualifications
of industrial teachers in Negro schools he concluded that "the median years
of experience decreases as the level of education increases."
3
4. The salaries received by many of the industrial teachers are far
too low.
For example, some of them are paid only $60 per month for nine
^Ibid., p. 68.
47
months and are expected to attend summer school.
Such low salaries
cannot attract successful tradesmen to become teachers.
5.
A general, thou^i complete? picture is given concerning the
problems in industrial departments of Negro colleges by the quotations of
the teachers in the section on What The Teachers Think. For example,
those teachers pointed out such problems as (1 ) lack of established
standards, (2 ) ignorance of school officials of trade and industrial work,
(3) poor coordination between the industrial program and the other programs
of the college, (4 ) inadequate facilities far teaching, guidance, place­
ment and follow-up, and (5) poorly qualified teachers.
D. Students in Industrial Departments of Negro Colleges
A definite attempt was made in this iudy to collect certain data from
students in industrial departments about themselves.
Data which would give
a general picture of (1 ) their backgrounds— economic, occupational and
industrial or trade training; (2 ) what the students think about their
departments as a whole, also about the problems of industrial education
among Negroes; and (3) reading material— books and magazines they would
recommend.
A total of 747 students— 363 freshmen, 190 sophomores, 116 juniors,
and 78 seniors— from seven colleges responded to the inquiry.
Backgrounds
Economic.
As aids to understanding a student's economic background
the following questions were askedt (1) What is your age? (2) What is the
population of your home town? (3) Do you live with your parents or
guardian? (4) What is your father's occupation? (5) Do your parents own
their home? (6 ) Do your parents own a farm, if so, how many acres? (7) You
are responsible for what part of your financial support?
46
Responses to those questions indicate the average age of the students
in the industrial departments of Negro colleges is 21.25 years; average
size of their home towns is 44,500 people; 93-75 per cent live with their
parents or guardians; their parents1 occupations according to type are
farming 23-3 per cent, professional 12 per cent, skilled trade work 12.3
per cent, common labor 52.4 per cent; 75-31 per cent of their parents own
their homes; 32*75 per cent of their parents own farms and the average
size of the farms is 67.69 acres; the average student is responsible far
73-75 per cent of his financial support.
Complete information on the above seven items is given for each
class— freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors
in Tables XVI, XVII,
XVIII, XIX, XX, XXI and XXII.
Table XVI
Average Ages of 747 Students in Industrial Departments of
Negro Colleges
Students
Ages in Years
Seniors
23
Juniors
22
Sophomores
21
Freshmen
19
All
21,25
49
TAble XVII
Average Sizes of Home Towns of 747 Students in Industrial
Departments of Negro Colleges
Population of
Home Towns
Students
Seniors
89,000
Juniors
5,000
Sophomores
35,000
Freshmen
49,000
All
44,500
Table XVIII
Percentage of Industrial Students Living With Their Parents or Guardians and Percentages of Those Not Living With Them
Students
Live With Parents
or Guardians
Do Not Live
With Parents
or Guardians
Seniors
98$
2$
Juniors
94$
6$
Sophomores
91$
9$
Freshmen
92$
8$
All
93*75$
6.25$
5P
Table XIX
Percentages of Students* Parents With Different Glasses of
CO
b
•H
Farming
45#
15.2 #
Professional
16
8
1 3 .2
1 0 .8
Skilled Tradesmen
13
8
2 1 .8
6 .2
Common Labor
26
6 8 .8
Classes of Occupations
Total
100#
J0.1
“0
Sopho­
mores
Seniors
Occupations
15#
18#
2 3 .3 #
12
100#
3
50
65
100#
100#
1 2 .3
5 2 .4
100#
Table XX
Percentages of Students' Parents Owning or Not Owning Their
Homes
Parents of
Students
Own Their
Homes
Do Not Own
Their Homes
Of Seniors
84#
16#
Of Juniors
7 9 .5
2 0 .5
Of Sophomores
6 8 .5
3 1 .5
Of Freshmen
6 ? .2 5
3 0 .7 5
Of All
75.32#
24.69#
51
Table XXI
Percentages of Students1 Parents Owning Farms and the Average
Sizes of Their Farms in Acres
Percentages
Owning Farms
Parents of
Students
Size of Farms
in Acres
\
Of Seniors
46
73.25
Of Juniors
45
65
Of Sophomores
22
50.75
Of Freshmen
18
74
Of All
32.75
67.69
Table XXII
Percentages of Their
Otto
Financial Support lor Which Students Are
Responsible
Students
Responsible
Not Responsible
Seniors
81#
19$
Juniors
67
33
Sophomores
77
23
Freshmen
74
26
All
73*75$
26.25$
52
Industrial Training and Experience, According to the information
supplied by 747 students included in this study, 58 per cent of them took
industrial arts or manual training while in secondary school*
The average
length of time the work was taken was 17*5 months and eight hours per
week.
Eight and twenty-five hundredths per cent of the students had re­
ceived training in a trade or industrial school} 5*25 per cent have trade
certificates} and 13*75 per cent have been employed on a journeyman's level
at a trade.
Of the students who had been employed on a journeyman's level
less than one per cent had been so employed as much as two years .
There were 3.94 per cent of the students with teaching experience
(three to thirty-six months), none of their teaching experience was in
industrial education.
*
Forty-eight per cent of the 747 students had worked as learners csr
apprentices at a trade or industrial job.
Those students had been em­
ployed as learners or apprentices from one to thirty months, the average
was seven months.
Practically all of the students who had worked as
learners or apprentices at a trade ac industrial job were students who
had taken some form of industrial or trade training in secondary school.
Of interest was it to note how the students, who had worked as
learners or apprentices, secured their work.
Sixty per cent of such work
was secured by the efforts of the students themselves.
Tables XXIII,
XXIV, XXV, XXVI, XXVII, XXVIII, and XXIX give a more detailed explanation
of the industrial training and experiences of the 747 students included
in this study.
53
Table XXIII
Industrial Arts or Manual Training Taken by Students While In
Secondary School
Percentage
of Students
Months Work
Was Taken
Hours Per Week
Work Was Taken
Seniors
65
20
7
Juniors
67
11
8
S ophomores
55
18
8
Freshmen
45
21
9
All
58
17-5
8
Students
Table XXIV
Percentages of Students Who Had Taken Work In a Trade or
Industrial School and Those Who Had Not
Students
Have Taken
Hork
Have .Not
Taken Work
Seniors
1%
93$
Juniors
9
91
10
90
Freshmen
7
93
All
8.25#
91.75$
Sophomores
Table XXV
Percentages of Students With or Without Trade Certificates
With
Certificates
Students
Without
Certificates
Seniors
1$
99$
Juniors
5
95
10
90
Freshmen
5
95
All
5*25$
94*75$
Sophomores
Table XXVI
Percentages of Students Who Have Worked as Learners or
Apprentices at Trades or Industrial Jobs
Students
Have Worked
Have Not Worked
Seniors
54$
46$
Juniors
56
44
Sophomores
45
55
Freshmen
37
63
All
48$
5?%
Table XXVII
Percentages of Students Who Had Been Employed On a Journey­
man's Level and Percentages of Those Who Had Hot
Students
Had Been
Had Not Been
Seniors
25%
75%
Juniors
10
90
Sophomores
12
88
8
92
Freshmen
All
86.25%
13-75%
Table XXVIII
How Students Secured the Work Which They Did as Learners or
Efforts of Parents
10
Personal Efforts
1
All
20 %
O CO
P-i
C°O §
9
Fresh­
men
Efforts of a School
Juniors
Work Was Secured By
Seniors
Apprentices
7%
20#
7#
14#
10
26.5
7
14
62
70
43-3
70
60
Friends or Relatives
6
10
6 .2
11
8
A Particular Teacher
2
3
4
5
4
Other Means
0
0
0
0
0
Total
100#
100#
100#
100#
100#
56
Table XXIX
Percentages of Students With Teaching Experience and Those Without
•it
I
Any Teaching Experience
t
t
ppuaenus
With Teaching
Experience
Without Teaching
Experience
Seniors
3.00$
97.00$
Juniors
.75
99.25
10.00
90.00
S ophomores
Freshmen
2.00
98.00
All
3.94$
96.06$
Occupational. To find out the types of occupational or job-working
experiences^ the students in the industrial departments had had was re­
€
garded important for two reasons: (1) Since the students are responsible
&
1
for most of their financial support what types of work they do usually?
(2) Are the job—working experiences helpful to the students in becoming
better qualified as teachers or tradesmen?
Ninety-four per cent of the 747 students aaid they had job-working
experiences at one or more of six types of work— farming, domestic
service, hotel work, automobile service, barbering and the building trades.
The number of months each student had done a given type of work was not
accurately determined.
However, the responses indicate the students have
worked longer (approximately thirty-six months) on the farm, domestic
or hotel work than in automobile service, barbering or the building trades.
Table XXX gives the percentages of the students, according to classes,,
who had job—working experiences at one or more of the six types of work.
^Job-working experience in this study means work done for which the
— 'wnrkeir unm pajLd-a-jagggi-gga-r.y_
______
__
57
Table XXX
Percentages of the Students With Job-Working Experience at
5 2 .0 $
5 6 .0 $
4 5 .0 $
3 2 .0 $
Domestic Service
4 8 .0
4 0 .7
31.0
2 7 .5
3 6 .8
Hotel Work
31*7
2 0 .0
26.0
9 .0
2 1 .8
Automotive Service
1 6 .5
1 9 .7
1 5 .0
8 .0
1 4 .8
6 .0
2 .0
3 .0
4 .0
4 .0
4 9 .0
3 0 .0
4 7 .0
2 1 .0
3 6 .7
Types of Work
Barbering
Building Trades
Fresh­
men
Sopho­
mores
Farming
Seniors
Juniors
One or More Types of Work
d
4 2 .5 $
Note: Practically all of the students had done more than one type
of work, therefore, the sum of the percentages for either
class of students is greater than 100 per cent.
Summer vacation is the time when many students receive job-working
experiences.
Grouping the types of work usually done by the students,
who reported in this study, into three categories shows that 6.2 per cent
are employed during the summer as farmers, 58.5 per cent as common
laborers and 35• 3 per cent in the skilled trades— usually the building
' trades.
(If the exact types of work listed with skilled, trades by
students could have been determined the writer believes the percentage
of common laborers would have been greater.)
During the summer of 1940, 58 per cent of the 747 students reporting
in this study had full-time jobs through their personal efforts, only
15 per cent secured their jobs through the schools they are attending.
Technically less than 15 per cent secured their jobs through the schools
because one of the seven institutions, whose students are included in the
58
747, requires a large number of its industrial students to remain on the
campus during the summer to do practice or laboratory work.
Tables XXXI, XXXII, and XXXIII give further information regarding
the employment of industrial students during the summer vacations.
Table XXXI
Types of Work IteuaHv Done b.v Students in Industrial. Departments
5$
Fresh­
men
4$
Sopho­
mores
Farming
Juniors
Types of Work
Seniors
of Negro Colleges While They Are Mot in School__________
4$
1252
3
6 .2$
Common Labor
51
64
55
64
58.5
Skilled*
45
31
41
24
35.3
100J2
10052
10052
10052
100.0$
Total
*Note:
In this classification all the students who did trade work
were grouped under skilled. The students' degree of skill
in doing the work was not determined.
Table XXXII
Percentages of Students Who Had Full-Time Jobs During the Summer
of 1940 and Those Who Did Mot Have
Students
With Jobs
Without Jobs
Seniors
75$
25$
Juniors
46
54
Sophomores
68
32
Freshmen
43
57
All
58$
42$
59
Table XXXIII
How 383 Students, Who Worked During the Summer of 19AO, Secured
Their Jobs
How Jobs Y/ere
Secured
CO
CO
8
•3H
•H
C3
O
*"3
oi
x:
o
co
05
o
a
i
w
®
U C
©
pt. a
a
(0
69$
62$
57$
61$
62.2$
Efforts of a Teacher
3
3
9
0
3.8
By Friends or Relatives
0
13
17
8
9.5
Efforts of Parents
0
3
7
18
7.0
By School Attended
23
16
10
11
15.0
5
3
0
2
2.5
Personal Efforts
Other Means
Total
100$
Reasons for Choosing Majors.
100$
100$
100$
100.0$
In addition to finding out if the
students were satisfied with their respective majors, the students were
also asked to indicate which factor was most influential in having them
choose a given major.
The most influential factors are listed in the
following question— "You selected your major for which of the following
reasons: (1 ) parental influence. (2) influence of a particular teacher.
(3 ) seems to be your best chance for permanent employment, (4 ) influence
of a school, (5 ) influence of friends and classmates, or (6 ) what
reason?_____________________ ______________________________________ *11
The table below shows what percentages of 747 students included in the
study responded to each one of the six reasons listed in the question.
60
Table XXXIV
Reasons Given by Students for Having Selected Their Respective
Fresh­
men
All
Students
(1)
7$
8$
5$
1756
9.25$
(2 )
8
5
9
7
7.25
(3)
51
41
66
70
57.00
(4)
10
7
1
1
4.75
(5)
0
6
9
5
5.00
24
33
10
0
16.75
100$
100$
100$
6
(6)5
Total
Seniors
Reasons
Juniors
Sopho­
mores
Majors
100$
100.00$
Satisfied With Major?
In an attempt to find out the percentage of students satisfied with
their majors the following question was asked: ’’Are you well satisfied
with your major?
Yes
Ito.
.
If not, state your reasons
briefly,.
"
Of the 747 students responding IS per cent indicated that they are not
well satisfied with their majors*
A larger percentage of seniors were
dissatisfied than any other class of students.
The percentages of the
students satisfied with their majors are shown in the following table:
5
Reason (6) means personal interest of the students.
^See underscored items in question above to know what reason is represented by a particular number in the table.
Table XXXV
Percentages of Students Satisfied or Dissatisfied With Their
Respective Majors
Class
Satisfied
Dis satisfied
Seniors
73$
27$
Juniors
84
16
Sophomores
82
18
Freshmen
89
11
All
82$
18$
The students gave sixteen different reasons as being responsible
for their dissatisfaction.
Those reasons are as follows:
1. "It seems as if the course is in the experimental stage because it is changed almost
every year, therefore I cannot become
settled in any direct way."
2. "I don't receive enough practical experience.
I feel that I won't be able to do my trade
efficient enough when I graduate."
3. "I am satisfied with the trade but am very much
displeased with the way in which my time is
divided and how it\y program is being worked
out."
4. "I am very well satisfied as far as the trade
is concerned but the lack of employment
opportunities for a Negro machinist is very
dis cour aging *7T
5. "I want more engineering than this course
offers. I want a chance to use my initiative
in electricity."
6 . "We don't get enough practice in new con­
struction work, too much repair work."
62
7* "I think the course should go a little metre
into the finer points of painting and
decorating.11
8 . "There seems to be no particular teacher
planning for an Industrial Arts course—
nothing definite, that is, for what we
are supposed to know how to do*'1
9. "Because I don’t feel like Iam getting what
I should out of the course."
10. "I would prefer majoring in architecture,
but it is not offered as a major here."
11* "Lack of actual practice and not enough
time allowed for the little practice
offered."
12. "Because at this institution w e ’re not
getting enough training. The time is too
short."
13. r,I have not completed enough work in one
trade to feel that I know enough to teach
a trade."
14. "I do not get a sufficient amount of training
in my major."
15. »We don’t get all that is required in my
major."
16. "X am not well satisfied because I feel
that I need to know more about general
trade work than I know."
Satisfied with Teaching Personnel?
In an attempt to find out the percentage of students satisfied with
the teaching personnels in the various departments of industrial education
in Negro colleges the following question was asked: "Are you well satis­
fied with the teaching personnel in the industrial department?
No
.
Yes
.
If not, state your reasons briefly___________________________ ."
Of the 747 students responding 33*3 per cent majoring in different
phases of industrial education were dissatisfied with the teaching
personnel in their departments.
The highest percentage of dissatisfaction
63
was indicated by the seniors*
The following table shows the percentages
satisfied in the different classes:
Table XXXVI
Percentages of Students Satisfied or Dissatisfied With the Teach
ing Personnels in Industrial Departments of Negro Colleges
Satisfied
Class
Dis satisfied
Seniors
56$
kk%
Juniors
66
34
Sophomores
68
32
Freshmen
81
19
All
67.752
33.3$
Forty reasons, as given by the students, indicate the basis for
their dissatisfaction.
Those reasons are as follows:
1 . "We do not have enough teachers to cover
all the phases of the courses adequately."
2. “There are not enough teachers who are
skilled in scientific methods of teach­
ing trades."
3. "The teachers in our department are required
to teach too nany different subjects in the
shop."
4. "The number of teachers is not sufficient to
meet the needs."
5. "Get more teachers who are trained in special
fields and not just anybody who feels they
have some knowledge of trade training and
put them to teaching. Also to train students
to do actual jobs and not just to teach."
64
6, "Things are improving, but there is still
room for a better understanding between
students and teachers concerning the
students' difficulties."
7* "Do not give enough time to the individual
students."
8 . "Too many of than don't know how to teach."
9* "The teaching personnel have not all been
trained in institutions of higher learning."
10. "Many of the instructors have had trade ex­
perience but inadequate academic training."
11. "I don't gefenough instruction related to
my t rade."
12. "Some of the teachers don't have the proper
approach for presenting the work to the
students."
13. "Some instructors are nob considerate and
there is too much traditional or out-ofdate thinking."
14. "Some of our teachers don't seem to have
sufficient training for what they are try­
ing to teach."
15* "X do not think this department at X
(this institution) has enough well qualified
teach ers."
16. "Entire faculty is not advanced far enough."
17."The instructor isn’t as truthful as
possible. "
18. "Don't have enough instructors in the
department."
19• "In a few classes the teachers don't
strive to.teach the student."
20. "Some of our instructors don't have freedom
enough to teach as they would like to,
they are handicapped by the needs of our
department.»
21. "The personnel's education requiranaits
are not what should be required. "
65
22. "Inadequate use of pedagogical procedures,
too much stress on production work."
23* "They don't agree or. a one best way of doing
a task but each one wants it done differently."
24. "Simply because we don't have enough well
qualified Industrial Arts and technical
teachers."
25• "I don't think the instructors are doing all
they should to present the material."
S'
26. "They are not exact enough which tends to
create slip-shod work."
27. "Some of the instructors are not experienced
enough."
28. "Doesn't know enou^i about the wants and
needs of the students."
29. "The personnel is well able to fulfill their
requironents but their time is so divided
with commercial work."
30. "Some of them are lazy."
31. "The teaching personnel of the industrial
department is, in my opinion, not quite
up to standards."
J;
4
|
32. "I think the administration allows the
personal element to-enter into the employment of teachers, thereby hiring incompetent
ones, ii
33. "Some of the teachers are not up to date
and employ antiquated methods."
34. "Get more teachers who know trades them­
selves. I mean teachers who know how to
do trades themselves.?!
35. "Some students won't get a thorough train­
ing. The student isn't taught what he
should be. "
36. "In my opinion I don't feel that we have
enough teachers in the department."
37. "The number of instructors is too limited.
Thus the time does not allow the instructors
to work with the students as they other­
wise would."
66
38* "Too much for self whether student
learns or not.1'
39. "Because the teaching personnel in the
industrial department is too general
rather than specific."
40. "Teachers not interested in their work."
Students* Attitudes Toward Working in Their
Local Communities After Graduation
To ascertain the students' attitudes toward working in their local
communities after graduation four questions were asked, namely—
1. Do you prefer work in your local community after graduation?
Yes
. No
.
If not, state your reasons briefly.
2. Is the chance of your getting work In your local community
after you graduate (a) poor, (b) fair, (c) good, (d) excellent?
3. At present are you acquainted with any Negroes employed in
t
your local community at the kind of vocation you plan to
follow?
Yes
. No
•
4. If you are acquainted with any do they, as a whole, seem
to be (a) very successful, (b) partly successful, (c) not at
all successful?
The responses to those questions, as indicated by 747 students
majoring in some phase of industrial education in Negro colleges, are
shown in Tables XXXVII, XXXVIII, XXXIX, and XL.
67
Table XXXVII
Percentages of Students Not Wanting to Work in Their Local
Communities After Graduation
Class
No
Seniors
30%
10%,
Juniors
29
71
Sophomores
36
64
Freshmen
29
29
All
31$
69$
Yes
Table XXXVIII
Students1 Beliefs in Their Opportunities to Get Work in Their
Local Communities After Graduation
Chances
01
Ul
&
o
s
1
•H
CO
*•»
& m
<£5 0
o§&
CO
Js
to
£|
g
Pm e
*ai
Poor
26$
22$
29$
23$
2^.0$
Fair
37
37
38
34
36.5
Good
32
23
28
29
28.0
3
18
5
14
10.5
Excellent
68
Table XXXIX
Percentages of Students Who Know Negroes in Their Respective
Local Communities Employed at the Kinds of Vocations The
Students Hope to Follow
Acquainted
Not Acquainted
Seniors
63%
37%
Juniors
50
50
Sophomores
66
34
Freshmen
65
35
All
61%
39%
Class
Table XL
Students* Opinions of Success of Negroes, in Local Communities*
Seniors
Juniors
Sopho­
mores
Fresh­
men
with Vocations the Students Plan to Follow
Very successful
33%
h3%
3h%
62$
48.5$
Partly successful
60
53
41
31
42.5
5
4
5
7
5.2
Extent of Success
Not at all successful
3
The students who don’t want to work in their local communities
after graduation gave the following reasons:
1. "No chance for very much advancement in my
particular trade."
2. "Because there seems to be already enough
auto mechanics there."
3. "There are not enough places to keep steady
employment.»
4. "The town is too small for me to keep a
redular job."
5. "Because the field I am interested in is
crowded there."
6 . "Because of the scattered population and
the lack of opportunities."
7. "It is not large enough to provide continuous
work."
8 . "Because it is not up to certain standards.
Because there is no job available."
9.
"Because of prejudice of home-town people."
10.
"Due to the fact one seems that he can do
better away from home."
11.
"Negro population toosmall."
12.
"I believe my home istoo small
me with work I want."
to supply
13. "Simply because X (the student's home state)
doesn't offer the work for Negroes."
14. "Too much is expected of new graduates in
their local community."
15. "It is too prejudiced."
16. "Because the salaries are too low in X
(the student’s home state)."
17* "Poor chance for advancemait; low wage
scale 1 poor working conditions."
18. "The prospects are poor at present but X
think they can be developed."
19. "There is already too much competition
in my home town."
20* "Negro tradesmen have hard time getting
work."
21* "There is not a sufficient demand for the
work I intend to do."
22. "There is not enough work of this kind
available to the Negro."
23* "Because the industrial programs in my
community, as yet, have not been started."
24» "Just curious, I want to be away from home."
25. "Because the chances of making money are
too poor."
26. "I think that I could do better outsicb
my community."
General Reactions of Students Toward Industrial
Education in Negro Schools
First Student
"I feel there should be more industrial work put in
the high schools."
Second Student
"The industrial field in the south for Negroes
is quite a problem. Most high schools that
teach trades and industries are nothing but
•glorified grammar schools1. There isn't any
school below the Mason-Dixon Line for Negroes
to get a master's degree in his line."
Third Student
"The industrial education in Negro colleges is
not as good as it should be. First, the
industrial teachers cannot devote enough time
to trades. Second, the skilled tradesmen
most times refuse instructing jobs because of
the economical side. Third, enough money is
not appropriated to support Negroes in industrial
education training."
Fourth Student
"I think industrial education in Negro schools
should be strongly stressed because we are
living in an industrial age and therefore we
should try to teach some form of industrial
work to as many Negroes as possible in order
to help them be prepared for whatever
important field of work they may enter*"
Fifth Student
"Taking into consideration the industrial
education set up as a whole in X (this state),
I think it is too limited or on too small a
scale* The shop equipment is too limited.
There seems to be a scarcity of instructors
in this particular phase of education."
Sixth Student
"X think that industrial training' is the Negro1s
best chance to prepare himself to make a decent
living. He seems to be well suited for this
kind of training. As a result Negro boys
should be trained from their first year through
the fourth year in secondary school. This
training would better prepare him to make a
livelihood
Seventh Student
"In my opinion colleges should offer one year
of concentrated study in a particular trade
for each student in the department and enough
work in related trades to prepare the student
to work at or teach the trade."
Eighth Student
"These seem to be problems in industrial
departments—
1. Teachers do not keep abreast
of the times.
2. The taking of students out of
class to do maintenance work.
3. Leaders afraid to ask for equipment
a* Reason: to save college money,
b. Real reason: don't know how
to use modem equipment.
72
"4* There are not enough secondary
schools with trade departments*
5* Weakness of students in mathematics.
6. Leaders with trade knowledge and
no theory.”
Ninth Student
"Student should have more time to use library
facilities.”
Tenth Student
”If the director of our department would put
more time on the department and less time on
aviation (which is supposed to be a sideline)
the department would be much better."
Eleventh Student
"Undoubtedly our schools have progressed con­
siderably for the length of time we as a race
have been able to build institutions for higher
learning. However, I am inclined to believe
that many in the industrial fields after
graduation are not fully prepared to accept
jobs that might accidently come up during a
course of time. Hence, I am forced to say
that either our industrial departments are not
up to par or to a certain standard, or some of
our teachers are inefficiently conveying their
particular subjects."
Conclusions
1. The students in the industrial departments of Negro colleges
are responsible for too large a percentage (73*75) of their financial
support for the good of the departments and the students.
2. The majority of the students in the industrial departments of
Negro colleges have not had sufficient industrial training and trade
experience on a secondary level to serve as an adequate background
for a major in industrial education.
3* The fact that the industrial education departments in Negro
schools secure such few jobs for the students in those departments who
work during the summer, also that 65 per cent of the students who work
are employed at jobs which have little or no practice or laboratory value
for the students' majors are definite indications that the industrial de­
partments in Negro schools need to "play a greater role" in helping
students to obtain jobs that will serve as practice work for the courses
taken in school.
4* Since 18 per cent of the students reporting in this study indi­
cate they are dissatisfied with their majors and 33*3 per.cent are
dissatisfied with their industrial teaching personnels, also that those
dissatisfied students gave forty-six different logical reasons as being
responsible for their dissatisfaction, it seems justifiable to conclude
that there are several factors in industrial education departments in
Negro colleges which need careful study and revision.
E« A Comparison of Opinions of Students. Industrial Teachers and
Heads of Industrial Departments on Some Important Factors
Relative to Industrial Education Among Negroes.
A special_effort was made by the investigator to get personal
opinions from students and teachers in industrial departments onseveral
questions pertinent to industrial work among Negroes.
The responses to
some of the questions may be regarded as subjective rating scales of
industrial departments in Negro colleges.
The following tables will
indicate how the opinions of 747 students, fifty-five teachers and
thirteen heads of industrial departments compared on the same questions.
Question. "Vocational trade and industrial programs, in my state,
should be offered by (1 ) practically all secondary schools, (2) only
74
large high schools, (3) regional trade schools appropriately located.”
Table XLI
Comparison of Opinions of Students. Teachers and Heads of
Industrial Departments on the Most
Appropriate Places to
Sopho­
mores
Fresh­
men
All
Students
Teachers
(1)
56$
69$
71$
67$
65.7$
38$
38$
(2)
10
15
15
12
13.0
14
0
(3)
34
16
14
21
21.2
48
62
Opinions
7
Seniors
Juniors
j
I
offer Vocational.Trade and Industrial Work
t
to
&£$
O SEC!
t
Question. "The students in the industrial department of our college
as compared with the students in other departments of the college are
(1) below average, (2 ) average, (3) above average.”
Table XLII
Comparison of Opinions of Students. Teachers and Heads of Industrial
Departments on How Students in the Industrial Department Compare
68
76
(3)
9
8
Total
100$
100%
Depart­
ment
Heads
(2)
Teacher!
16$
All
Students
23$
0}
Fresh­
men
Juniors
(1)
Opinions
01
Sopho­
mores
Seniors
With the Students in the Other Departments of the Same College
6$
4$
12.2$
9$
8$
82
79
76.2
69
77
12
17
11.6
22
15
100.0$
100$
100$
100$
100$
Question, "Maintenance v/ork for the college (l) tends to exploit
our industrial program, (2) helps our industrial program, (3) does not
affect our industrial program."
Table XLIII
Comparison of Opinions on the Effect Maintenance Work. Done by
the Industrial Department, for the College Has on the
69
82
(3)
6
19
11
100$
100$
Total
100$
Depart­
ment
Heads
52
Teachers
(2)
All
Students
12$
16.7$
29$
24$
87
72.6
71
76
7
10.7
0
0
100.0$
100$
100$
Fresh­
men
42$
Sopho­
mores
(1)
Juniors
Opinions
Seniors
Industrial Program in the College
7$
6$
100$
Question, "As a whole, I think the qualifications of the teachers
in our industrial department are (1) poor, (2) fair, (3) good,
(4) excellent."
76
Table XLIV
Comparison of Opinions on the Qualifications of Teachers in the
4-5$
Depart­
ment
Heads
2$
i
4$
Teachers
3$
Q) C
1
u©
fu 6
Ji
w
All
Students
Sopho­
mores
7
(1)
Juniors
Opinions
Seniors
Industrial Department s
8$
13$
(2)
46
31
26
10
28.2
18
24
(3)
40
47
32
49
47*0
42
60
(4)
7
17
18
39
20.3
27
8
100$
100$
Total
100$
10056
100.0$
100$
100$
Question, "Considering our industrial department as a whole, I think
it is (1) poor, (2) fair, (3) good, (4 ) excellent."
Table XLV
Comparison of Opinions on the Adequacy of the Industrial Depart­
4$
Teachers
Fresh­
men
6$
All
Students
Sopho­
mores
1
t
t
Juniors
Opinions
Seniors
ments as a Whole
<0 X?
g-S $
q a k
8$
(i)
1/1$
11$
(2)
55
45
30
17
36.7
14
24
27
37
49
53
41.6
52
60
4
7
15
26
13*0
25
8
10056
10056
100$
100$
100.0$
100$
100$
(4)
Total
8.7$
9$
77
Question, "The library facilities for our industrial department are
(1) poor, (2) fair, (3) good, (4) excellent.11
Table XLVI
Comparison of Opinions on the Adequacy of Library Facilities for
Teachers
9#
C1)
31#
13#
(2)
38
31
43
29
35*0
23
38
(3)
23
43
37
54
39*0
40
38
(4)
8
13
1 6
16
13-0
28
100#
100#
100#
100.0#
100#
Opinions
o
8
Total
100#
Sopho­
mores
Juniors
12.0#
CO
CO
u
.
All
Stud arts
Industrial Departments
4#
i
«
u
f3L|
s
E3
X/3
I4
«
n ,C 3 tfl
<D 0) 0)
ca g f f i
24#
0
'
100#
Question, "Graduate work for Negroes in industrial education should
be offered in (1) every state maintaining separate schools, (2) a few
states carefully chosen on a regional basis, (3) none of the southern
states, but the southern states would provide scholarships for Negroes
to do all of their graduate work in industrial education in northern
institutions."
78
Table XLVII
Comparison of Opinions on the Most Appropriate Places to Offer
Seniors
s
Sopho­
mores
Fresh­
men
3 1
Teachers
Graduate Work in Industrial Education for Negroes
tu »
Cl,1c nj
5Ta> <i>
(1)
47$
6156
69$
73$
62.5$
42$
31$
(2)
43
29
21
17
27.5
49
61
(3)
10
10
10
10
10.0
10
9
Total
100$
100$
100$
100$
100.0$
100$
Opinions
CO
03
1
CO
(=)
,
100$
Condus ion
The fact that the opinions of industrial students differ greatly on
several problems affecting industrial programs in Negro schools, also the
opinions of industrial faculty members differ greatly on the same
problems, many of which could .be very easily studied and proved
scientifically, are definite indications that there are several problems
affecting industrial education in Negro colleges which need immediate and
scientific study.
79
F. Reading Material Recommended by Industrial Students
and Faculty Manbers
An effort was made to ascertain what books and magazines were in
the respective libraries of the institutions included in this study that
the industrial students and faculties would especially recommend for
students majoring in any phase of industrial education.
By sixty-eight faculty members, thirteen of whom were heads of
industrial departments, seventy-two books and thirty-seven magazines were
recommended.
Twenty-two of the books were recommended by a range of two
to eleven faculty members and sixteen of the magazines we re recommended
by a range of two to twenty-five faculty members.
A few of the teachers
recommended neither magazines nor books.
The students recommended twenty-edght books and thirty-three magazines.
From two to eleven students recommended nineteen books and from two to
fifty-seven students recommended eighteen of the magazines.
Of interest was it to note that at least 74 per cent of the students
did not recommend any magazines and 85 per cent of the students did not
recommend any books.
Tables XLVIII, XLIX, L, and LI indicate the books
and magazines that were recommended by two or more industrial faculty
members or students.
Conclusion. Since approximately 80 per cent of the students did
not indicate any books or magazines in their respective libraries which
they would recommend for students talcing industrial education, and since
reading material recommended by the greatest number of teachers for
students in industrial education was not the material recommended by the
greatest number of students in industrial education, it seems justifiable
to conclude that not enough attention is given to a careful selection and
proper use of reading material for industrial education in Negro college
libraries._______________________________________________________________
Table XLVIII
Books Recommended by Two or More Industrial Faculty Members as
Being Especially Helpful to Students Majoring In Indus trial
Education
Number of
Book and Author
Teachers
____________________________________________________ Recommended By
ADMINISTRATION OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION by bright & Allen
3
AUDEL'S CARPENTERS AND BUILDERS GUIDE
4,
AUDEL'S MASONS AND BUILDERS GUIDE
3
CREATIVE TEACHING by Struck
11
FOUNDATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION by Struck
5
HANDBOOK OF TEACHING SKILLS by Lancelot
2
HISTORIES OF MANUAL AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION by Bennett
6
HOW TO TEACH A TRADE by Selvidge
6
.
INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION SHEETS by Selvidge
3
INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN EDUCATION by Schewickhard
2
INDUSTRIAL ARTS INMODERN EDUCATION by Bawden & others
2
INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION by Dooley
2
INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY by Viteles
2
METHODS OF TEACHING INDUSTRIAL SUBJECTS by Payne
4
OBJECTIVES AND PROBLEMS OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION by Lee
3
PRINCIPLES OF TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL TEACHING by Selvidge
and Fryklund
ROOFFRAMING by 7/ilson and Werner
TEACHING MANUAL AND INDUSTRIAL ARTS by Griffith
TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS by Newkirk and Greene
TEACHING PROBLEMS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS by Ericson
THE INSTRUCTOR, THE MAN AND THE JOB
.VQCA T T OTJAT. E D I T H A T T O N bv Sadden
by Allen
81
Table XLIX
Magazines recommended by Two or More Industrial Faculty Members as
Being Especially Helpful to Students Majoring in
lnd.ust.riai
Education
Magazines
Nunber of
Teacher s
Recommended By
ARCHITECTURAL RECORD
3
AUTOMOTIVE DIGEST
3
A V A JOURNAL
5
BUILDING AGE
3
ELECTRICAL JOURNAL
4
INDUSTRIAL ARTS AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
2$
JOURNAL OF NEGRO EDUCATION
2
NATION'S SCHOOLS
3
OCCUPATIONS
13
PEDAGOGICAL SEMINARY
2
POPULAR MECHANICS
5
POPULAR SCIENCE
3
SCHOOL AND SOCIETY
5
SCHOOL EXECUTIVE
2
SCIENTIFIC MONTHLY
2
SHEET METAL WORKER
3
82
Table L
Books Recommended by Two or More Students as Being Egpeci«~nv
Helpful to Students Ma.ioring in Industrial Education
A„ti,nw
Book and Author
Number of Students
Eocoamendlng It
ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING PLATES by Elwood
8
AUDEL'S AUTOMECHANICS
5
AUDEL'S MASONS AND BUILDERS GUIDE
9
CHOOSING AN OCCUPATION by Ziegler and Jarquette
3
AUDEL'S CARPENTERS AND BUILDERS GUIDE
9
COMPREHENSIVE PROJECTS IN FURNITURE MAKING by Adams
4
CREATIVE TEACHING by Struck
5
ENGINEERING by French
11
EXPLORING THE MANUAL ARTS by Friese
4
FOUNDATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION by Struck
2
HISTORIES OF MANUAL AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION by Bennett
3
HOT TO TEACH A TRADE by Selvidge
5
’
INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN MODERN EDUCATION by Bawden and Others
2
INTRODUCTION TO VOCATIONAL EDUCATION by Hill
3
MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION by Hayward
2
PRINCIPLES OF TRADE AMD INDUSTRIAL TEACHING by Selvidge
and Fryklund
7
SHOP HANDBOOK by Willoughby
4
THE INSTRUCTOR, THE MAN AND THE JOB by Allen
4
TEACHING PROBLEMS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS by Ericson
2
Table LI
Magazines Recommended by Two or More Students as Being Especially
Helpful to Students Majoring in Industrial Education
Magazines
AMERICAN BUILDER
ARCH ITECTURAL FORUM
Number of Student
Recomriiended By
4
10
BETTER HOMES AND GARDENS
2
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
2
CORRECT ENC&ISH
2
CRAFTSMANSHIP
2
INDUSTRIAL ARTS AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
12
INDUSTRIAL WEEK
3
MACHINES THROUGH THE AGES
2
MECHANICS APPLIED
2
MODERN MECHANICS
2
MOTOR AGE
3
OCCUPATIONS
3
POPULAR HOME CRAFT
2
POPULAR MECHANICS
57
POPULAR SCIENCE
34
SOUTHERN ARCHITECTURE
YOUTH TODAY
6
27
Chapter V
SOME PROBLEMS CF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN NEGRO COLLEGES
On the basis of the findings in this study the investigator con­
cludes the following to be the most common problems affecting industrial
education in Negro colleges.
Hardly any one college is to be characterized
by all of the problems and a few of the colleges may not be characterized
by any of the problems.
However, for industrial education programs in
Negro colleges to encounter the problems here listed seems to be the rule
rattier than the exception.
The problems—
1. Teacher qualifications
2. Up-grading of teachers in service
3« Salaries of teachers
4. Lack of clearly defined duties of teachers
5. Organizations of industrial education teachers
6. The shift of industrial departments from a secondary to
a college level
t
7. Housing, equipment and supplies
8. Course offerings
9. Selection of students
10. Practice work—opportunities for students
11. Practice teaching
12. Graduate work
13* Placement of students
14* Adequate records
15. Maintenance work for the college
16. National defense training programs
17. Legislative standards
85
18. Contact with trades and industries in the community
19. Coordination of the industrial department with the other
departments in the same college
20. Requirements of accrediting agencies.
Why the Factors Listed Above Are Regarded as Problems
of Industrial Education in Negro Colleges
|T _
... -T
- ,,
,— T |-|„
n n — ■— f l h m ------------------ — ‘----
Teacher Qua! if ic at ions . A problem because the formal education of
many teachers in industrial departments of Negro colleges is not adequate
for the department to receive an accreditable rating.
An examination of the educational status of fifty—two teachers in
industrial departments of six Negro colleges revealed that among those
teachers 1.9 per cent had Doctorate degrees, 11.5 per cent had Masters'
degrees, 42.3 per cent had Bachelors' degrees and 44*3 per cent had no
degrees.
Mp—grading of Teachers in Service.
A problem because a large
percentage of the teachers do not take sufficient work to keep them
abreast with the needs in industrial education which are caused by
industrial changes and trends affecting industrial education.
A study of the in-service training of fifty teachers in industrial
departments of six Negro colleges indicates that 46 per cent of those
teachers have not taksi any work for which credit was granted since 1930,
and 28 per cent have not taken any work at all since they began teaching.
The fourteen teachers, who have not takaa any work for which credit
was granted since they began teaching, have the following years of ex­
perience in trade or industrial subjects— three teachers, two years;
one teacher, three yearsj two teachers, four years; one teacher, five
years; two teachers, seventeen years; two teachers, twenty years; one
teacher, twenty-one years; and two teachers, twenty-five years.
Advanced educational standing is not responsible for those teachers
not having takai any work for credit since they began teaching because of
those fourteen teachers one has an advanced degree, five have only
Bachelors' degrees, and eight have no degrees at all.
Salaries of Teachers. A problem because the salaries in many
industrial departments of Negro colleges are too low to attract well quali­
fied teachers.
The teachers, whether woLl qualified or not, who work for
those low salaries are very seldom satisfied and a dissatisfied teacher
hardly does good work.
Thirty-three teachers included in this study indicated the amounts
of their monthly salaries.
The range was from $60 to $2l6j the mean was
$130.10 and the median was $130.70.
Lack of Clearly Defined Duties of Teachers. A problem because the
industrial teacher is too often required, through adninistrative pressure,
to do tasks which tend to exploit an industrial department.
the teacher has had little or no training for such task.
Frequently,
Lack of clearly
defined duties of an industrial teacher in a Negro college can be
illustrated by describing a hypothetical case. The case: An Unfortunate
Experience of a New Teacher.
School A has, for several years, been outstanding in training
specialists in particular trades and industrial jobs.
School B (often
a small college) is attempting to establish or continue to conduct an
already established program of industrial education.
President X of
School B knows about the reputation of School A as an outstanding trade
and industrial school.
So President X employs graduate X of School A
to take charge of the industrial department at School B.
Graduate X's trade training has been specifically in plumbing and
heating— with enough teacher—training work to permit him to teach
plumbing and heating.
Graduate Y goea to his new, and sometimes his first teaching
position, on September 1st.
He finds machinery and tools needing repairs
or replacing, poorly kept records, supplies for his department are still
to be determined and purchased and a host of other irregularities "which
should have been adjusted during the spring or summer.
President X tells instructor Y "School is to open on Sepfcaziber 12th.
There are several repairs (in the laundry, the kitchen, arri girls 1
dormitory) which must be looked after before school opens.
would see that they are fixed."
I wish you
Instructor Y checks the places needing
repairs and discovers several new parts are needed.
He goes to tovm and
finds that the local dealers do not handle the parts lie needs.
The parts
are ordered and they and the students arrive about the same time.
School opens, classes start, the electric clock in the main office
needs adjusting in order that the automatic bells, will ring at the proper
time to indicate class periods.
him to fix the clock.
The dean sends for instructor Y and asks
Perhaps it is the first time Y has seen inside of
an electric clock because all electric adjustments at school A (his Alma
Mater) were taken care of by the electric department.
Instructor Y can't
afford to tell the dean that he isn't supposed to know anything about such
electric complications because his field is plumbing and heating.
The dean and President X, both of whom usually are strictly academic
in their educational preparation, know very little about what instructor
Y is really supposed to know how to do.
However, they do knew what they
want done, they want the clock fixed.
This is about Septanber 16th; classes have started; all the repairs
have not been made in the laundry, the kitchen and girls * dormitory, and
the adjustments of machinery and tools, which he has beai trying to make
88
in his department, have not been made.
Then instructor Y makes a definite attempt to get his department
" s t r a i g h t a i ed
out11*
Before he can study the whole situation carefully
enough to detect the true variables which are responsible for his pre—
dicament President X begins to feel that instructor Y is not as congDetait
as recommended by School A.
President X sees President Z (of another college) who had had a
similar reaction toward one of School A's graduates.
Perhaps they will
discuss the matter with other administrators who have had similar ex­
periences.
As a result there will develop a notion among certain school
administrators that School A is not a good school.
The trouble with that entire situation may be attributed to three
factors:
1. The duties of instructor Y were not clearly defined to him
in the beginning.
2. President X of School B knew very little about the proper
function of an industrial department in a college.
3. School A had not considered the problems sufficiently to be
faced by its graduates in order that its graduates might
adjust themselves more satisfactorily to diverse conditions.
Organizations of Industrial Education Teachers. A problem because
the industrial teachers in Negro schools of the various states are not
organized sufficiently to establish and follow uniform and 'valid ob­
jectives for industrial education among Negroes.
According to information received from sixteen Negro colleges in
twelve states, only in a few of those states are there active organiza­
tions of the Negro industrial teachers.
The exact nuirber of states with
active organizations of Negro industrial teachers is difficult to determine
89
After making a careful study of these states which are supposed to have
such organizations the investigator found those organ3aations to be mere
segments of the regular State Teachers Association.
See Table LXI.
Table LI I
Colleges y/hich Reported on Organizations of Negro Industrial
Teachers (Industrial Arts or Vocational) in Their Respective
States
Organi­
zation
Number of
Members
Meetings are
Held
A
Yes
■•
9
*
*•
?
B
No
0
0
0
C
No
0
0
0
D
Yes
75
Annually
E
Yes
?
Annually
F
Yes
100
Quarterly
G
Yes
150
Annually
2
H
Yes
20
Annually
1
I
Yes
40
Semi-annual ly
1
J
Yes
Annually
3
K
Yes
14
Annually
1
L
Yes
100
Annually
3
M
Yes
21
Annually
1
N
No
0
0
0
0
No
0
0
0
P
No
0
0
0
College
*m
>
Days to Regu­
lar Session
About 1 week
1
One 3-day anc
Three 1-day
The Shift of Industrial Departments from a Secondary to a College
Level. A problem because that shift was caused largely by pressure from
policies of accrediting agencies such as the North Central Association of
Secondary Schools and Colleges,
That is, pressure from without was more
responsible for the shift than needs from within.
A problem in the second place because industrial departments in Negro
land-grant colleges depend upon much of their financial support from
federal reimbursements and the amount of federal funds available to a
school for industrial education is considerably reduced if the vocational
trade and industrial work on a secondary level is discontinued.
Housing. Equipment and Supplies.
Housing is a problem more from the
angle of space than from the types of shop buildings.
This is true be­
cause most Negro colleges with industrial departments have either new or
repaired buildings for those departments.
Equipment is a problem for three reasons (1) there is hardly enough
equipment, especially adequate machines; (2) acceptable standards seemed'
not to have been followed in the selection of the equipment, and (3) too
much of the equipment is old, or new but inadequate.
Supplies present a problem mainly because limited budgets do not
permit purchasing enough supplies for the students to have an opportunity
to do sufficient practice work with new materials.
Course Offerings.
A problem more from the angle of actual offerings
than from what is outlined in the curricula as shown in the various
catalogs•
For example, a school with fifty-four students in the industrial
department (twelve college students— freshmen, sophomores, juniors and
seniors; forty—two secondary students— tenth, eleventh and twelfth
grades), there are two teachers in the entire department and one of them
91
serves only part time.
Seven different trades are supposed to be taught
in that department plus the teacher—training courses.
In such sitmtions
course problems are often very difficult to the extent that it becomes
hard to distinguish the teach er—training program from the trade training
program.
Course offerings also present a problem because in many cases there
are not enough students to take a particular course to justify its being
offered, although that course maybe needed in the curricula.
Selection of Students.
A problem because there is little or no uni­
formity in the method of selecting students who major in industrial educa­
tion in Negro colleges.
As a result many students majoring in industrial
education do not have a sufficient background in industrial arts or trade
training for than to become well qualified as teachers or tradesmen upon
completion of a prescribed course.
This study reveals that approximately 33 per cent of the students
majoring in some phase of industrial education of Negro colleges did not
have any form of industrial arts, manual training or trade training in
secondary school.
Practice-Work Opportunities for Students.
First, a problem because
the actual trade practice students get in the industrial departments of
most Negro colleges is determined largely by the kinds of. repairs or
building to be done at the college.
Second, a problem because approximately 65 per cent of the industrial
students who secure employment during the summer vacations are employed at
types of jobs which have little or no training value for courses they are
taking in school.
Third, a problem because a large percentage of the industrial
students have not had sufficient trade experience when they graduate for
92
them, to qualify for state and federal reimbursement as trade teachers.
Less than 1 per cent of the students included in this study had been
employed as long as two years on a journeyman's level at a trade.
Practice Teaching. A problem because the industrial teacher training
divisions of the majority of Negro colleges have difficulty in placing
their trainees in situations that will cause the trainees to encounter
actual type problems which will confront them as industrial subjects
teachers after graduation.
Information from industrial departments in fourteen Negro colleges
indicates that the practice teaching is done largely at the respective
colleges.
Sixty-four per cent of the industrial departments of those
colleges have their practice teaching done at the college, 14 per cent have
theirs done part at the college and part at high schools out in
and 22 per cent have theirs done at
thestate,
high schools in the state.
The numbers of students with whom the teacher trainees are required
to do their practice teaching in the industrial departments of some Negro
J
colleges are not sufficient for the trainees to experience real
j
and
similar problems to those they will experience in actual teaching situations. I
For example, in a certain college ten seniors are required to do all of
their practice teaching in one quarter (the same quarter) with seven
secondary vocational trade students.
Those secondary students are in the
same department with the seniors*
Another factor which implies practice teaching may be a problem to
industrial education in Negro colleges is the lack of uniformity in the
practice teaching time requirements.
Information from ten Negro colleges
with industrial departments shows that those departments require from
60 to 360 clock hours of actual practice teaching by their industrial
teacher trainees; the mean is 164*8 clock hours, the median Is 169-5
i
93
clock hours.
See Table LUX,
Table LIII
Practice Requirements of Industrial Departments in Ten Negro
Colleges
College
Months
Required
A
3
B
4h
Clock Hours
Per Week
Supervisor of
Practice Teach­
ing
Off campus in
hi^i schools
Industrial Educa­
tion teacher
At the college
Head cf Division
of Mechanic Arts
9
Hampton Trade
School and local
high school
Industrial Educa­
tion supervisor
Teacher trainer
5
2 to 6
C
Where Teaching
is Done
D
9
10
College prepara­
tory school
E
4
10
h at college
J off campus
F
2
30
Off campus in
hi$i schools
Itinerant teacher trainer
G
90 clock
varies
At the college
Head of Element azy
Education
Head of Industrial
Education
hours
?
H
3
10
At the college
Industrial arts
ins truetor
I
9
5
At the college
Teacher s
5
At the college
and in high
schools
Teacher trainer
J
to 9
(5 semester
hours)
Graduate Woik.
A problem because no definite and adequate pro­
visions have been made for teachers of industrial education in Negro
colleges to do graduate work based on the actual needs of industrial
programs among Negroes.
,
_____ ___
94
Before the "Gaines Decision" very little attention was given to
graduate programs in public institutions for Negroes.
As an outgrowth of
that decision there is a possibility of graduate work being developed for
Negroes in each state which maintains separate schools.
The problem is
how to offset the development of graduate programs (graduate in na^e only)
from being developed in each state on a competitive basis in order that
graduate programs may be worked out on a regional and adequate basis.
The probable outcome which will result if graduate work for Negroes
is not planned carefully and advantageously is pointed out by President
J. B. Watson^ as follows:
"There are dangers ahead when Negroes begin to
sprout up mushroom graduate schools at every turn of the road.
scholarship notion will cheapen.
The
Educational ideals will be lowered.
The incentive for learning will wane."
An example of this danger is an institution trying to conduct a
graduate program with only six students in the graduate department— three
in agriculture, one in industrial education, and two special students.
Placement of Students. A problem because placement of industrial
education students is important before as well as after graduation.
Placement is important before graduation because the student needs to
secure employment in a type of work that will serve as practice or laboratory
work for the course he is taking.
Using the information secured in this study? regarding work ex­
periences of students, as a basis shows 65 Per cent of the students in
industrial departments of Negro colleges who are employed during the
summer are employed at jobs which have little or no training for the
courses they are taking in school.
Another indication of placement of
^Watson, J. B., "The Negro Graduate School," Journal of Negro Education,
7:754. October, 1938.
95
students being a problem is that less than 15 per cent of the students who
secure employment during the summer secure it through the efforts of the
school.
Hardly any of the industrial departments in Negro colleges have
adequate placement services.
Those colleges which have placement services
for their industrial departments usually have those services teaded by
people who already have full-time positions, and in many instances by
people who have little or no connection with trade or industrial work.
Information secured in this study reveals that 25 per cent of the
placement services are headed by college registrars, 25 per cent by
divisional department heads, 25 per cent by directors of industrial de­
partments and 25 per cent by trade and industrial teacher trainers.
2
Dr. Johnson pointed out that only 5.8 per cent of Negro college
graduates receive employment through school or university placauent
bureaus.
He points out further that, "The contribution of the placauent
service of the schools (Negro colleges) is small.
In fact there are few
Negro institutions with a placement service for their graduates, most of
their aid being confined to answering inquiries regarding character and
scholarship...."
Adequate Records. A problem because the majority of the industrial
departments in Negro colleges do not have sufficiait clerical help to
keep upr-to-date records containing complete information about the students
in the departments, equipment and supplies, projects built and maintaiance
work for the college.
A major cause for that inadequacy of record keeping
is that most of the clerical work is done by the teachers themselves or
by students.
^Johnson, g. S., The Negro College Graduate, p. 195.
96
Information received from twelve industrial departments in Negro
colleges indicates that the records in those departments might be well
classified as follows: three departments with adequate records, two
departments with acceptable records, and seven departments with very
inadequate records.
Examples of departments in which Inadequate records are almost in­
evitable— one department has six full-time teachers, all of whom seem to
be over-worked, and these teachers are responsible for all of their
clerical work.
Another department has seventeen teachers and only one
secretary for the entire department, and most of his time seems to be
spent running errands.
Maintenance Work for the College.
A problem because in most Negro
colleges which have industrial departments most of the actual trade
practice the students receive is doing repair work at the college.
Such
policy results into students not getting enough actual trade practice
performing all the kinds of trade operations they will need to be well
skilled in as teachers or tradesman after graduation.
The informat ion received in this study from sixteen Negro colleges
indicates that practically all the maintenance work for those colleges is
done by the industrial departments.
as practice work.
The students do most of the repairs
Students are also paid for much of their work.
Since so much maintenance work is done by the industrial departments
the investigator attempted to find out what the members (faculties and
students) in the various industrial departments thought about the main­
tenance work being done by their respective departments.
To ascertain
that information responses were compiled and compared from 1W1 students,
fifty-five teachers in industrial departments and thirteen heads of
industrial departments.
The question asked was, "Maintenance work for
the college (1) tends to exploit our industrial program, (2) helps our
industrial program, (3) does not affect our industrial program.11
Responses to that question indicate that 73.2 per cent of the
three groups believe maintenance work for the college helps the industrial
program; 23.2 per cent believe it tends to exploit the industrial program;
and 3.6 per cent believe it does not affect the industrial program.
Of interest was it to note that 42 per cent of the seniors believe
that maintenance work for the college tends to exploit the industrial
program; whereas only 6 per cent of the freshmen believe that maintenance
work for the college tends to exploit the industrial program.
National Defense Training Program. A problem as a result of the
"over-night" development of the program and the industrial departments
of Negro land-grant colleges were accepted as being convenient places
for giving such training to Negroes.
The basic problem is how to fit the defense training program into
the regular industrial program without disrupting the regular program
and at the same time do justice to defaise training.
Inasmuch as the defense training program is believed to be tenporary
it is not regarded as a serious problem to industrial departments in Negro
colleges.
Legislative Standards.
The first evidence of legislative standards
being a problem encountered by industrial departments in Negro colleges
is that the majority of the teachers in the industrial departments of
those colleges are not acquainted with the specific requirements of their
respective State Plans for trade and industrial education.
Responses from fifty-five teachers in this study indicate that with
the specific requ iron ait s of their respective State Plans for trade and
industrial education 34 per cent are well acquainted, 52 per ceit
98
slightly acquainted, and 14 per cent not at all acquainted.
The various states require two or more years of trade experience on
a journeyman's level before a person can qualify as a trade or industrial
teach a*.
Evidence of that standard presenting a problem to industrial
departments in Negro colleges is that only 14 per cent of the students
enrolled in those
departments (according to information secured in this
study) have ever been employed on a journeyman's level at a trade or
industrial job and a negligible percentage of those were employed the
minimum time required by State Plans.
However, the policy of soms states
is to accept the trade experience a teacher trainee gets in school as an
equivalent of the two or more years of journeyman experience.
Information
from eight states in which there are Negro teacher training industrial
colleges shows that in only two of those states there is a college the
training at which may be accepted as the equivalent of the journeyman
trade expe ri enc e.
Another evidence of legislative standards being a problem faced by
industrial departments of Negro colleges is shown In a survey that was
conducted with the State Supervisors of Trade and Industrial Education
to find out what are some of the major problems encountered by Negro
secondary schools wlnai trying to establish a trade and industrial program.
The survey showed that one of the major prohLems was "to find qualified
teachers."
"Dear Professor Jones:
We are in the malicet for a highly capable man to
teach automobile mechanics in the New Lincoln High
School. Since the auto mechanics is a new course
in our school the applicant should be able to
organize and initiate. We are prepared to pay
the right man a good salary and he should be able
to earn increments.
99
"If you have any graduates or friends whom, you
think are interested, kindly have them correspond
with me immediately.
Very truly yours,
John Doe
School Superintendent"
This is the exact copy (except the names) of a letter the head of
a department in a leading college often receives and for various reasons,
such positions are difficult to fill.
This is further evidence of a
legislative standard being a problem to industrial programs in Negro
colleges.
Contact With Trades and Industries.
A problem because the industrial
departments in Negro colleges do not have proper contact with trades and
industries, particularly in the local communities.
Three of the best
avenues of contact for an industrial department in an institution are trade
and industrial coordinators, advisory committees and placement officials.
According to information received from thirteen Negro colleges with
industrial departments only three of those departments have any service
from trade and industrial coordinators, five of those departments have
service from advisory committees and five have service from placement
officials.
Five of those departments have no service at all either from
trade and industrial coordinators, advisory committees, or placonent
officials.
See Table LIV.
The industrial departments in Negro colleges having such little
contact with trades and industries the investigator was not surpised
to find of the 383 students, in industrial departments of six Negro
colleges, who worked during the summer of 1940,62.2 per cent of those
students secured their jobs through their personal efforts.
Only 15 per
cent of those students secured their jobs through the efforts of the
100
schools they attended.
It was also found that 65 per cent of the students
employed during the summer were employed as farmers or common laborers
in types of occupations which have no training or practice value for the
type of trade or industrial pursuit the students are taking in school.
Table LIV
Thirteen Negro Colleges With or Without an Industrial Coordinator,
Advisory Committee and Placement Officials for the Industrial
Departments
College
Industrial
Coordinator
A
Wo
No
No
B
Wo
Yes
No
C
No
Yes
No
D
Yes
No
No
E
Wo
No
Yes
F
No
No
No
G
No
Yes
Yes
H
No
Yes
No
I
Yes
No
Yes
J
No
No
NO
K
Yes
Yes
Yes
L
No
No
Yes
u
No
No
No
Total
3-Yes
10-No
Advisory
Committee
5-Yes
8-No
Placement
Service
5-Yes
8-No
101
Coordination of the Industrial Department. With Other Departments
in the Same College.
A definite problem, particularly between the
industrial department and the agricultural department.
An explanation
will make clear why proper coordination between those two departments
presents a problem which should be considered.
The states in which most Negro colleges are located have large rural
populations.
For example, the writer*s home state is 89 per cent rural.
As a result of the rural population being much greater than the urban
population the federal funds available to that state for vocational
agriculture are much greater than the federal funds available to that
state for industrial education;
thus making it much easier for a small
town or rural district to employ a teacher of agriculture than to employ
a teacher of trades and industrial subjects.
Due to some salary tech­
nicalities, the agriculture teacher is often chosen as principal too.
A requirement of the vocational agriculture teacher is to operate a
farm shop.
Actual needs in the community sometimes cause the agriculture
teacher to devote much of his time in the farm shop to work in the building
trades.
His building trades' knowledge is usually very limited.
Duties as
principal in addition to duties as agriculture teacher make efficient
service in both capacities almost impossible.
This often results into
the principal encouraging the school board or superintendent to employ a
"certain" young man who has just graduated from college.
That young man
is often employed to teach some tiling in the regular academic department.
That young man very likely has taken quite a bit of woric in industrial
subjects.
The principal, knowing about the young man's training in
industrial subjects, asks him to teach the classes in the shop.
Two definite results usually grow out of such set-up.
First, the
farn shop work becomes a mixture of farm shop, industrial education and
102
"what have you."
Second, there often develops dissatisfaction on the
part of the new teacher toward the principal because the principal, vho
is also agriculture teacher, is receiving federal reimbursement, thereby
getting a much larger salary than the new teacher .
The basic problem is how can the teacher training departments in
agriculture and industrial education work together in order that such
conditions as just described will not continue to exist.
Requirements of Accrediting Agencies.
A problem because many Negro
colleges with industrial departments have had and are still having difficult;
in trying to qualify for an accreditable rating because of the status of
their industrial departments.
To illustrate the writer will cite two cases.
The first case— a college was trying to qualify for accreditment from
a rating association.
One of the specific requirements of that rating
association was that no teacher, in an institution accredited by it, may
do actual teaching in a college division and secondary division during
the same term or session.
There were six teachers and eighty-four
students in the industrial
department of that college. The majority
the students were in the secondary division.
of
For the college to continue
both divisions in the industrial department the policies of the accrediting agency would prevent the college from receiving the desired rating.
There were not enough college students in the industrial department to
justify maintaining that department if the secondary division was dis­
continued.
Both secondary and college divisions were continued andthat
college is still trying to qualify for accreditment.
The second case was similar to the first, but the results were
different in that the entire industrial department was discontinued, and
that college received an accreditable rating from the rating association.
103
The present administration (of the college which received the
rating) feels the need of industrial offerings in that college to the
extent that its 1939 catalog states, "Beginning September 1, 1939,
___________________ -
College will offer instruction in Mechanic Arts.
This department of the College is being provided because of a demand and
felt need for technical and trade training for youth in this state...."
This discussion is not presented as an argument for or against
policies of accrediting agencies.
It is presented to point out the
dilemma which some Negro colleges face, namely— If the industrial depart­
ment is continued, to become accredited is harder; if the industrial de­
partment is discontinued accreditment is more probable.
However, to dis­
continue the industrial department will deprive many Negro youth of an
opportunity to receive some much needed training.
104
Chapter VI
A SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS
1* During the pre—Civil War period there were several Negro skilled
tradesmen in America, most of whom learned their trades either through
apprenticeship or the "pick-up method."
2.
Plantation owners favored their slaves learning trades.
Free
Negro mechanics had difficulty in securing work in the North or in the
South.
3* A few attempts were made to establish industrial training schools
for Negroes prior to the Civil War.
successful.
Hardly any of those attempts were
In 1868, Hampton was established, that was the first
successful attempt to organize a trade and industrial school for Negroes
in this country.
4. Using Hampton as an example many other private institutions far
Negroes offered industrial training as a major part of their curricula.
5. By 1899, industrial training was offered for Negroes in ninetyeight different schools, most of which were private schools.
6. Twenty of those institutions had from fifty to 345 students en­
rolled in carpentry, bricklaying, plastering, painting, iron and sheet
metal work, forging and machine shop practice.
7. In the early part of the twentieth century many of the private
institutions began to discontinue their offerings in trade or industrial
training.
8. At present the bulk of the industrial training on a college level
for Negroes is concentrated in the seventeen land-grant colleges and a few
private institutions as Hampton, Tuskegee and St. Paul.
restricted to those twenty institutions.
This study was
105
9* Data for the study were collected by the library method, inquiry
blanks and personal visitations.
Eleven of the twenty institutions were
visited.
10. The data collected in this study are of two types——objective and
subjective.
The objective data are the facts and the subjective data are
opinions which may or may not be facts.
11. Several other studies were found to contain very valuable related
material for this study, among the most important ones were the Negro
Artisan by DuBois, Survey of Land-Grant Colleges and Universities by
Klein, Vocational. Education and Guidance of Negroes by Caliver, and the
Negro College Graduate by Johnson.
12.
The major objectives of Industrial education in Negro colleges
are (a) to train skilled tradesmen, (b) to train contractors, particularly
in the building trades, (c) to train teachers of trades, and ^d) to train
teachers of industrial arts.
13• The range of industrial majors in Negro colleges is from 52 to
463 students; the mean is 175*7 and the median is 143*3*
14.
The rangeof industrial
teachers in Negro colleges is from two
to forty; the mean is 13*2 and the median is 12.1.
15. In addition to drawing eighteen different types of trade work
are offered.
The mean number ofkinds.offered by an industrial department
is 8.37 and the median is 8.50.
16. College work on a teacher-training basis is given in practically
all of the eighteen trades.
17. More students take trade work in carpentry and auto-mechanics
than in any other two trades.
18. From. 1935 through 1940 Hampton granted more trade certificates and
diplomas than any of the other Negro institutions; during that same
106
period Tuskegee ranked first in number of degrees granted from its
industrial department.
19* In industrial departments of Negro colleges approximately 1*9
per cent of the teachers have Doctors' degrees* 11.5 per cent have
Masters' degrees* 42.3 per cent have Bachelors' degrees* and 44.3 per cent
have no degrees at all.
20. Approximately 62 per cent of the teachers in industrial depart­
ments of Negro colleges take in-service training.
That in-service train­
ing is usually taken in northern institutions.
21. As a whole the teachers with several years of actual trade ex­
perience do not have much formal training in industrial education and
vice versa.
22. The monthly salary range is from $60 to $216; the mean is
$130.70, and the median is $130.10.
23. Frank opinions from teachers indicate that some of the major
problems affecting industrial education in Negro colleges are (a) lack
of established standards* (b) ignorance of school officials of trade
and industrial work* (c) poor coordination between the industrual program
and the other programs of the same college* (d) inadequate facilities for
teaching* guidance* placement and follow-up* and (e) poorly qualified
teachers.
24. Approximately 93*75 per cent of the students live with their
parents; 75.31 per cent of those parents own their homes; 32.75 per cent
own farms and the average size is 67*69 acres.
25. The average student is responsible for 73*75 per cent of his
financial support.
26. The average ages in years are seniors 23 > juniors 22* sophomores
21* and freshmen* 19•
107
27. In secondary schools approximately 58 per cent of the students
had taken 17• 5 months of industrial arts or manual training eight hours
per week; 8.25 per cent had received training in a trade or industrial
school; 5.25 per cent have trade certificates and 13.75 per cent had some
working experience on a journeyman’s level.
28. Ninety—four per cent of the students have been employed In one or
more of the six kinds of work listed— farming, domestic service, hotel
work, automobile service, bartering, or the building trades.
The average
student has worked longer in farming or domestic service.
29* Approximately 58 per cent of the students are employed at wage
earning jobs during the summer vacations and 62.2 per cent of those
students who are employed secure their jobs through their personal
efforts; and 65 per cent of the students' jobs have little or no practical
value for the work the students are taking in school.
30. Eighteen per cent of the students are dissatisfied with their
majors and 33.3 per cent are dissatisfied with the teaching personnels in
their respective departments.
A larger percentage of seniors registered
dissatisfaction than any other group.
31. Thirty-one per cent of the students don't want to work in their
local communities after gradtuation.
Two reasons frequently given for
not wanting to work in their local communities were (a) home town is too
small, and (b) opportunities too limited.
32. Sixty-one per cent of the students are acquainted with at least
one Negro in their respective communities employed at the type of
vocation the students hope to follow.
33. The students believe that broader and more clearly defined offer­
ings and better qualified teachers are two of the most important needs
in industrial departments of Negro colleges.
108
34* The opinions of heads of industrial departments, industrial
teachers and students differ greatly on several important issues affect­
ing industrial education among Negroes.
Some of these issues are (a) the
most appropriate types of schools in which to teach vocational trade and
industrial work* (b) how maintenance work for the college affects the
industrial department j and (c) where graduate work for Negroes in
industrial education should be provided.
35* The magazines which industrial students regard most helpful to
persons taking teacher training in industrial education are (a) Popular
Mechanics, (b) Popular Science, and (c) Industrial Arts and Vocational
Education.
36. Three books which industrial students regard most helpful to
persons taking teacher training in industrial education are (a) The
Instructor, The Man and The Job by Allen, (b) Principals of Trade and
Industrial Teaching by Selvidge and Fryklund, and (c) Creative Teaching
by Struck.
37* Two magazines recommended by industrial faculties as being most
helpful to students majoring in industrial education are (a) Industrial
Arts and Vocational Education, and (b) Occupations.
38. Five books recommended by industrial faculties as being most
helpful to students taking teacher training in industrial education are
(a) Creative Teaching by Struck, (b) Foundations of Industrual Education
by Struck, (c) How to Teach a Trade by Selvidge, (d) Principles of Trade
and Industrial Teaching by Selvidge and Fryklund, and (e) Teaching
Problems in Industrial Arts by Ericson.
39. Twenty problems are pointed out in this study as definitely
affecting industrial education in Negro colleges.
Four of the most
vital problems are (a) teacher qualifications, (b) selection of students,
(c) placement of students, and (d) coordination of the industrial
department with other departments in the same college.
110
Chapter VII
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Coneluglong.
Among the conclusions justified by the findings of
this study are—
1. The objectives of industrial education programs in
Negro colleges
are based more on custom and tradition than on an analysis of actual
needs, interests and opportunities of students.
2.
The major objectives of industrial education programs in Negro
colleges are fairly uniform* but the extent to -which the various industrial
departments are prepared to carry out those objectives successfully varies
too greatly.
3.
The industrial departments in Negro colleges shifted from
vocational trade and industrial programs to teacher-training programs with­
out adequate provisions being made in the departments for the shift, and
as a result in too many of the industrial departments of Negro colleges
are found a rather d-i.lut.erf combination of vocational trade work, industrial
arts, teacher training and "what have you".
Such is not the case with all
industrial departments in Negro colleges, but that is true with too many.
4.
There are dangers in permitting industrial departments in Negro
colleges to conduct "below—par*' programs.
Foremost among those dangers
are (a) an over supply of poorly trained teachers, and (b) under-trained
tradesmen.
5. Better care needs to be taken in the selection of students who
major in industrial education either to become teachers or tradesmen.
6 . The industrial departments in Negro colleges need to establish
and follow better methods of placement and follow-up of their students
befoz’e and after graduation.
Ill
7* A large percentage of the students who graduate from industrial
departments in Negro colleges have difficulty in meeting the requirements of
State Plans for Trade and Industrial Education to receive state and federal
reimbursement as teachers because of their limited trade experience,
8 . Maintenance work for the college tends to determine too greatly
the types and amounts of actual trade experience the students have an
opportunity to get,
9, The offerings in some industrial departments of Negro colleges are
far too limited; however, the number of students, size of faculties and
limited facilities render additional offerings almost impossible,
10. There is not enough comparative contact among the faculties of
industrial departments in Negro colleges.
That is, the industrial faculty
in one college may not even know the industrial faculties of other colleges
in the same or adjacent states,
Rec ommendat ions
The writer believes the. following suggestions, if carried out, will
help to improve industrial education programs among Negroes.
1. A clear distinction should be made in actual practice as well as
theory between vocational trade work and teacher training in industrial
departments of Negro colleges.
2. Evaluative criteria need to be established to determine the extent
to which industrial programs in Negro schools are meeting actual needs.
3. An attempt should be made to determine what the duties of an
industrial teacher in a college should be and compare those duties with
the actual duties of teachers in industrial departments of most Negro
colleges.
The comparisons should be made known to some school adminis­
trators, particularly to deans and presidents of Negro colleges with
industrial departments.
______________ _______ _ _ -
112
4* lhere should be a distinction made in the requirements of
students with industrial education backgrounds who enter the industrial
department of a college from the students who do not have an industrial
education background.
Diagnostic testing to new students will indicate
the types of distinctions to be made.
5. Course offerings should be specific and based on the needs,
interests, abilities and opportunities of the students; also, on the
adequacy of the facilities and competency of the industrial faculty.
6 . As near as possible all of the practice teaching should be done
in the kinds of situations that
an actual teaching position.
the teacher
trainee is likely to facein
That means, in most cases, the practice
teaching is not to be done in the industrial departments of the colleges.
7. Special care should be taken to have graduate work in industrial
education for Negroes develop on a regional basis preferable to having
each institution now offering industrial education on a college level
attempt to offer it on a graduate level.
As Dr. kcCuistion pointed out
that "since there is a limited need for advanced work in certain fields a
larger unit of support for centrally located institutions serving a wider
area would be justified.
8 . The problems of housing, equipment and supplies in industrial
departments of Negro colleges can be solved best through careful and
meaningful planning and increased budgets.
9* The maintenance work of
pair
the college should be done by specialre­
men or by working students for pay not
during class hours except
maintenance work that may be done by the students as training work.
^IwlcCuistion, Fred, Op. cit*, p. 107*
113
10.
All industrial departments in Negro colleges should have the
services of trade and industrial coordinators, special advisory committees
and placement officials.
If the duties of those three groups are clearly-
defined and properly done, the following problems should be solved satis­
factorily— (a) contact with trades and industries, (b) practice work
opportunities for students, and (c) placement and follow-up of students*
11* A well trained clerical personnel should prepare and keep up to
date all important records and reports of the industrial department.
Certain phases of the record keeping may be done by the teachers or
delegated to working students.
12.
Since most Negro colleges with industrial departments are located
in the states which have large rural populations thus making the amount
of public funds (state and federal) available for vocational agriculture
much greater than the amount ibr industrial education, and since the needs
in most Negro communities make it necessary that the teachers of agriculture
spend much of their time trying to teach trade work (under the title Farm
Mechanics), also that the trade knowledge and experience of most teachers
of agriculture are not sufficient for them to teach the fundamentals of
trade work successfully, it seems quite logical to recommend that the
departments of industrial education and agriculture in Negro colleges shoulc
coordinate their programs in such way that a vocational agriculture teacher
and an industrial subjects teacher would be placed together in most
secondary rural school systems.
The industrial subjects* teacher would
conduct the farm mechanics phase of the program and the teacher of agri­
culture would conduct the plant and animal phase of the program.
This recommendation may be scmewhat contrary to present practices of
agricultural and industrial education programs, but it is based definitely
on actual needs in most Negro rural communities.
114
13.
Teachers in industrial departments of Negro colleges should
make special efforts to learn and understand clearly the legislative
standards of the state and federal governments as expressed in their re­
spective State Plans for Trade and Industrial Education; also, to learn
and understand clearly the requirements of accrediting agencies as the
North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools and the Southern
Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools.
As far as possible and ad­
visable try to adjust their industrial departments to meet the legislative
standards of the government and the rating requirements of the accrediting
agencies.
14• Definite standards for teacher qualifications in industrial depart­
ments of Negro colleges need to be established and adhered to in theory and
in practice.
This does not mean every teacher must have certain degrees
from a selected group of institutions; but, it does mean that no teacher
should be permitted to teach any subjects in any departments until he has
met accreditably the necessary minimum standards to enable him to be a
well qualified teacher.
15. Inasmuch as industrial teachers are expected to and should keep
abreast with industrial trends and developments in addition to educational
trends and developments, the teachers should be permitted and encouraged
to take special refresher and training courses at least every four years.
The courses are not to be offered merely for credit seekers, however,
credit may be given.
And ever-present topic to be always kept in mind
when planning those courses is CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION
AMONG NEGROES.
16. To prevent industrial teachers in Negro schools from receiving
salaries that are completely inadequate a definite attempt should be made
to determine aiequate salary scales for types of positions and as near as
115
possible school administrators should be influenced "to pay positions and
not people."
17- In each of the seventeen states which maintains separate schools
there should be a special organization of all the teachers of industrial
subjects (industrial arts and vocational) in Negro schools.
organization should meet at least annually.
The state
There should also be a
national organization of industrial subjects' teachers in Negro schools.
Representatives from the state organizations are to comprise the national
organization.
The national organization is to meet at least biannually.
The meetings of both groups should be conducted on an institute or seminar
basis preferable to the-type of usual annual or biannual convention.
18. There should be established (preferably in connection with the
United States Office of Education) a special consultative service on
industrial education among Negroes.
A major function of that service
should be to act as an informational "clearing house" on problems and
policies.
Chapter VIII
A SUGGESTED PLAN FOR IMPROVING INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION
PROGRAMS IN NEGRO SCHOOLS
Introduction.
Perhaps one of the greatest assets to an educational
program, if not the greatest asset to an educational program, is an
informational "clearing house."
The duties of such clearing house are
(l) to collect data, (2 ) to give information and advice, (3 ) to aid in
planning educational programs, and (4 ) to aid in establishing "evaluative
criteria" for programs.
The Trade and Industrial Education Service in the United States
Office of Education might be well regarded as an informational clearing
house.
The personnel of that Service consists of a chief and several
divisional and regional agents.
The regional agent for the southern division has a two-fold duty to
perform, in that there are seventeen states comprising his region, all of
which have dual school systems— one for Negroes and one for Whites.
The
range of the Negro population in those states to the total population in
those states, according to the 1930 census, is from 6.6 per cent in West
Virginia to 50.2 per cent in Mississippi.
The trade and industrial education programs in those states have
grown to the extent that it has become necessary to have a special State
Supervisor for Trade and Industrial Education for eacn state in charge of
the Negro division.
To date (1940) eleven of those seventeen states have
employed such persons*
On the basis of the investigator’s study, findings and conclusions
he feels it advisable to recommend the following plan to aid in improving
industrial education programs among Negroes.
The Plan
The most important part of this plan is a machinery to be established,
the nucleus of which is to serve as an informational clearing house for
industrial education among Negroes.
machinery.
The accompanying chart indicates the
Office of the Consultant of
Industrial Education for Negroes
Heads of Industrial
Departments in
Negro Colleges
Trade and
Industrial
Coordina­
tors
Trade and
Industrial
Teacher
Trainers
Guidance and
Placement
Personnel
Advisory
Committees
I
Teachers in
Industrial
Departments
School Admin­
istrators
Trade and
Industrial
Employers
Other Depart­
ment sj Agri­
culture, Home
Economics,
etc.
Students in
Industrial
Departments
Some groups who should be especially concerned with
improving industrial education programs among Negroes
oo
119
This, chart does not, by any means, indicate degrees of authority
of people in establishing or promoting industrial education programs
among Negroes.
The chart is set up this way to indicate how the nucleus
(Office of the Consultant) is to be related in an informational,
consultative and advisory capacity to other groups who are definitely
concerned with industrial education programs anong Negroes.
The functions of all groups represented in the chart are quite
clear, relative to their connections with industrial education programs,
except that of the Office of the Consultant.
For that reason, only its
duties shall be discussed here.
Office of the Consultant
There should be added to the Trade and Industrial Education Service
in the United States Office-of Education a special division for industrial
education among Negroes.
Personnel.
the office.
staff.
There should be a person serving full time in charge of
That office should be provided with an adequate clerical
The person in charge of the office may serve as an assistant to
the already existing personnel in charge of the Southern Region of Trade
and Industrial Education.
Duties.
The duties of the consultant shall be—
1. To collect and keep up to date all available data concerning
industrial work among Negroes.
.
a. Types of trade and industrial occupations in which
Negroes are engaged.
b. Trends of trade and industrial employment among Negroes.
c. Possibilities of future trade and industrial employment
for Negroes.
120
d. Trade and industrial training programs for Negroes.
2. To conduct and to aid in conducting surveys of states, counties,
cities and districts designed
to study industrial education
programs already existing or to study the advisability of
establishing new ones.
3. To visit school systems which have or which contemplate having
industrial education departments.
Those visits shall be to have
interviews and conferences with a few or all of the groups re­
presented in the chart.
To urge and help to plan programs that will lead to greater
coordination among the programs of industrial education, agriculture
home economics and academic education.
5. To conduct or assist in conducting special conferences for heads
of industrial departments, teacher trainers, trade and industrial
coordinators, guidance and placement officials, and advisory
committees.
6 . To assist in planning and conducting training courses for heads
of industrial departments, teacher trainers, trade and industrial
coordinators, and industrial teachers.
*7. To know some of the best institutions for Negroes to attend to
do graduate work in industrial education; also, what Negro
colleges * graduates may be admitted to those graduate xnstitutxons
as bona fide graduate students.
121
A SUGGESTED PLAN TO AID TEACHERS OF INDUSTRIAL
SUBJECTS
IN SCHOOL SYSTEMS CF SMALL TOWNS
AND RURAL COMMUNITIES
To developa worthwhile
Negroes in
program of trade and industrial work am
asmalltown or rural community it is a
difficult taskfrom many
angles as—
1. The scarcity of people.
2. A lack of large-scale trade and industrial work.
3. Low cash income per family.
*1
4. Pupils drop out of school early.
For example, less than 32 per cent
go beyond the fourth grade.
5. The preparation the teacher received in school, in most cases,
was not geared to meet real community situations.
With these and many other problems being quite obvious in most small
towns and rural communities, how to help develop a worthwhile program becomes
one of the first duties of an industrial teacher.
Parenthetically, the writer wishes to make clear that the proposed
plan is not considering the objectives of industrial arts or vocational
industrial education as the limiting guide for this plan.
Instead, the
actual needs of the community are to serve as the guide, and those needs
should serve as a challenge to industrial subjects1 teacher.
How to Develop Interest
First of all the teacher must be more than a craftsman.
have pioneeric vision.
He must
He must be able to see the needs of the community
in terns of a trade and industrial program and determine how his program
^"Caliver, Ambrose, “Elementary Education of Negroes,*' School Life 25:243-4,
May, 1940.
122
can be coordinated with other programs, as agriculture and home economics,
for the improvement of the entire community.
Interviews should be held with the principal, teachers (particularly
agriculture and home economics) and leading employers in the community.
Public opinion should be contacted through discussions at P. T. A.
meetings, announcements at churches, discussions with male adults,
discussions and field trips with students in school.
Whenever possible
secure any helpful visual aids (charts, pictures, slides, films, etc.)
that will help to describe conditions as they are, also as they should
not be.
Care should be taken to select appropriate visual aids for the
proper age or type people.
How to Plan a Program in a Given Community
In many rural communities the housing conditions indicate very
definitely that the average man in that community knows very little about
how todo any work at
suchwork,
all in the building trades, or isn't interested in
or doesn't have money enough to have his house repaired
or a
new house built.
Sanders2 pointed out in his study of fifty houses in a certain rural
community that four of the houses were painted, six had sanitary toilet
facilities, six were screened, one had adequate waste disposal and one
had electric lights.
The National Sinergency Council also stated that—
"Houses in the rural South are the oldest, have
the lowest value, and have the greatest need of
repairs of any farm houses in the United States....
More than a third of them have no screens to keep
out the mosquitoes and flies, and nearly a fifth
have no toilets at all...."-*
2Sanders, 0. VI., "Rural Housing Conditions in Mississippi," Unpublished
class project study of Alcorn A. & M. College, April 1940.
%lliamson, A. O'H., "Housing as a Vital Factor in Rural Negro Rehabilita-
123
Communities in which such conditions prevail the industrial teacher,
through the school, should try to aid in improving those conditions.
There should be promoted definite home improvement programs in which the
industrial subjects' teachers should be the foremost advocates.
For
example, such programs could be sponsored as house screening, steo build­
ing, sanitary toilet building, house painting and papering, lawn furniture
building and many others.
Special care should be taken to select projects
which the teacher would be able to offer whatever training necessary to
enable the men in the community to acquire enough trade knowledge to do
the work.
How to Conduct the Program
Conducting or putting such program into practice becomes the
specific task of the teacher.
To illustrate how a home improvement
program may be conducted through the school let's consider a house screen­
ing project.
Suggested procedures
1. Contact the men of the community with the idea of sponsoring
a project in home improvement.
The contacts may be made through
churches, clubs, newspapers, placards, etc.
2. Contact the employers and businessmen of the canmunity to see
what materials they will give or discounts on materials.
This
is especially important in communities in which most of the
people do not own their homes.
3. An invitation should be made by the principal to community men to
meet at the school house some given time,
ing.
preferably in the even­
At that meeting a clear explanation should be made pointing
out that in order for all the men to have
a chance to learn how
j
|
to perform all operations necessary in the home improvement program, J
instruction (theory and practice) would be offered to them through
124
the industrial department of that school.
Answer questions
that may be asked and set a definite time for the next meeting.
4. In almost every community, regardless of how small, there is
usually at least one or two people in it who know quite a little
about some phases of the building trades.. The good will,
cooperation and advice from such people are to be encouraged.
5. At the second meeting discuss house screening briefly.
It would
also be advisable to have samples of screen doors and windows
there for the men to see.
6 . The teacher (or a proxy) might explain (a) regular screening
prices, (b) the prices of screening materials, (c) the discounts
on materials which a certain merchant or merchants had agreed to
give,and (d) how much material certain employers and merchants
had agreed to contribute.
7. Ask each person there to count and measure all the outside open­
ings of his house, the number and sizes of porches he would like
to have screened and bring that information to the next meeting.
3 . if time still permits at that second meeting, the. group might be
allowed to do a little practice work with the hand tools in the
shop.
For example, making simple joints, .planing material,
sharpening planes or saws, etc*
Tnat bit of practice should nave
both diagnostic and prognostic value for the teacher• Diagnostic,
in that the teacher should be able to detect certain members of
the group who were fairly well skilled at performing certain
operations.
Prognostic, in that the teacner should get an idea
relative to organizing the men into working groups.
9. At the third meeting the measurements brou^it in by the men
(see number 7 above) should serve as a basis for a very
practical lesson in related mathematics.
The teacher or
proxy should then give whatever demonstrations in building screen
doors and windows believed to be advisable for the group.
If
interest warrants and time permits the group may do practice
work again as in number 8 .
10. Try to have arrangements made for the fourth meeting to be
held at a conveniently located home in the community, a home
which needs some screening done.
During that meeting actual
screening, as a demonstration project, should be done.
The
teacher should find out how many men were there whose homes
needed screening, also how many men would be willing to pay a
small sum to cover the cost of the material fo- screening their
respective homes.
If the proper approaches and explanations
have been made to the business men and employers of the
community the cost of the material should be very small.
11. At the fifth meeting the men should be organized into small
groups.
An attempt should be made to have a man, who knows
something about the operations to be performed, as chairman of
each group.
As near as possible the groups should be made up
of people living close together.
12. Bach group should endeavor to figure out the material needed
for the respective homes represented in the group.
13. Agree on a certain date to pay the money for the material in
order that the material may be purchased, as near as possible,
at the same time.
14. Purchase the material and have it delivered to the school shop.
15. The next meeting should be held in the school shop.
During tnis
meeting convenient times for the respective groups to work
126
should be determined.
The respective chairmen should find
out if there are any hbm.es represented conveniently located
with some facilities for a home work shop at which some of the
work may be done, that is, if the shop facilities are inadequate
to accommodate large groups.
16. By this time the teacher should know what theory* demonstrations,
practice and discussions are necessary to make the project a
success.
Meetings should then be arranged for the convenience
of the groups and the teachers, either as separate groups or
jointly.
17* A definite time should be agreed upon when the project is to be
completed and ready for inspection.
18. Periodic progress reports are to be made by the respective
chairmen to the teacher.
19« The teacher should make occasional visits to the homes being
screened to observe the work and offer any suggestions which
may seem advisable.
20. If the teacher has maintained an alert and pioneeric vision he
should know by this time the posability and advisability of
conducting other home improvement projects.
To conduct such program successfully would permit the teacher to spend
only part time with the day school pupils in traditional classroom and shop
work.
Also to conduct such program successfully the teacher should be
employed on a twelve—month basis.
How to Pay for the Program
How to pay for the program, especially the teacher’s salary, presents
a problem to the community.
Most school officials
superintendents,
127
principals and board member s— would Teel that the teacher’s salary should
be reimbursed from federal and state funds. A program of that nature may
have difficulty
in satisfying "StatePlans*'forreimbursement.
The program should be paid for easily if the following factors are
considered analytically:
1. Is it a worthwhile program?
2. Has the idea been presented properly to
the principal, superin­
tendent, board members, patrons, employers and business men of
the community?
3. What are the possibilities of receiving any federal or state funds
for such program under trades and industries, vocational agri­
culture or extension education.
The program is worthwhile and very much needed in many small towns
and rural communities.
Therefore, it becomes the duty of the local school
officials to see that the teacher's salary is paid in full from local
school funds, that is, if such program cannot by any means meet established
standards of "State Plans" for reimbursements.
SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE STUDIES
This study caused the writer to become conscious of several problems
relative to industrial education among Negroes which need immediate in­
vestigation.
Among those problems a r e ~
1. What types and by whom can trade and industrial programs be
conducted in small towns and rural communities in order that the masses
of Negro boys who hardly get beyond the eighth grade will be benefitted by
these programs?
2. How and where to establish and promote the proper types of
regional vocational trade and industrial schools on a secondary level
for Negroes?
3. What are the most appropriate provisions that should be made
for graduate work in industrial education for Negroes?
Why?
SELECTED AND ANNOTATED BIGLIOGRAPHY
The references here listed were chosen because of their
direct and indirect value to a study of the objectives and problems
of industrial education in Negro colleges.
The references are
divided into two parts—-major references and minor references.
The major references are factual studies, many of which are
dissertations\ the minor references are, for the most part,
personal or group reactions to facts or beliefs.
In addition to the references listed in the bibliography
catalogs from the twenty institutions included in this study
were also used quite advantageously.
Major References
BENNETT, C. A., History of Manual and Industrial Education Up to 1870
(Manual Arts Press, Peoria, Illinois, 1926) 461 pp.
A description of the philosophies, movements, main
events and people connected with the development
of manual and industrial education up to 1870.
BIDSE, D. T. , and CALIVER, A., Statistics of the Education of Negroes
(United States Office of Education, Bulletin #13, Washington, D. C.
1938)
67 pp.
That bulletin is quite unique in that it presents
in a very concise form data on the education of
Negroes in the United States. Instead of having
to use several large volumes to get a complete
statistical picture of the educational conditions
among Negroes that single bulletin may be used.
Most of the data show educational comparisons be­
tween the white and colored races*
BOND, K* E., Social and Economic Influences on the Public Education of
Negroes in Alabama* 1865-1930 (Unpublished dissertation.
versity of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 1936)
Uni­
541 pp.
A more thorough and voluminous description can
hardly be given on this subject than was given by
Dr. Bond. Although he restricted his study to
Alabama, many of his findings and conclusions
are quite applicable to public education of Negroes
as a whole in the United States.
CALIVER, A., Vocational Education and Guidance of Negroes (United States
Office of Education, Bulletin # 38, Washington, D. C., 1937)
The study includes data from 207 high schools which
offer vocational courses and forty-three Negro
colleges. Among the important findings reported
in that study were data showing trends in
vocational offerings in federally aided courses.
137 PP
131
CALIVER, A., Negro High-School Graduates and Non—Graduates (United
States Office of Education, Pamphlet #87, Washington, D. C., I940)
19 pp.
That pamphlet contains supplementary data to
6he bulletin 38. The material includes informa—
tion from 20,260 persons who had either graduated
or dropped out of high school. Special attention
was given to such items as present age and age
when they left school, grade reached in school;
curriculums pursued; effect of vocational training
in securing a job; for whom thy worked; etc.
CHERRY, D. K., Vocational Activities of Educated Negroes (Unpublished
dissertation, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 1931)
110 pp.
A sampling of 738 recent graduates of Negro
colleges revealed the following information
about their activities-— professions 54.6 per
cent; dead or unknown 22.6 per cent; house­
keeping 8 per cent; skilled labor 4.6 per cent;
students 3*9 per cent; business 2.8 per cent;
clerical 2 per cent; government work 1.1 per
cent; labor .4 per cent.
Of those in professions, 78*5 per cent are teach­
ing; teaching, the ministry and medicine consti­
tute nearly 93 P®r cent of the total occupations
followed.
DANIELS, V. R. M., Attitudes Affecting the Occupational Affiliation of
Negroes (Unpublished dissertation, University of Pittsburgh,
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1938)
127 pp.
This study is helpful to planners of industrial
education among Negroes, in that it presents
(1) attitudes and conditions existing in the
community, (2) attitudes of Negro youth, and
(3 ) attitudes of the guidance officers particularly
in northern schools which Negroes attend.
DRAKE, J. F*, Occupational Interests and Opportunities as Determinants
in the Construction of Curricula for a Negro Land-Grant College in
Alabama ( Unpublished dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca,
N. Y., 1938)
174 PP.
—
I
I
One of the major purposes of that study was
to set up guiding principles for functioning
curricula on the basis of revealed interests,
opportunities and educational demands. This
study might be well regarded as a valuable con­
tribution to curricula construction in ai q
Negro land-grant colleges.
DU BOIS, W. E* B., The Negro Artisan (Atlanta University Press,
Atlanta, Georgia, 1902)
192 pp.
That study presents a comprehensive description
of the training and status of the Negro artisan
from the pre-Civil War period until 1900.
HOLMES, D. 0. W., The Evolution of the Negro College (Published disserta­
tion, Columbia University, New York, N. Y., 1934)
221 pp.
•'The purpose of this study is to present, within
the limits of a single volume, the circumstances
surrounding the establishment and development
of the Negro college, in order to furnish an
integrated background upon which to project the
problems that arise from an inquiry into the
present plasma and function of this group of
schools in the scheme of higher education in
America
JOHNSON, C. S., The Negro College Graduate (University of North Carolina
Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1936)
399 pp.
A description of the number, distribution and
occupational adjustment of the Negro graduates
of colleges, professional and vocational schools*
A factual basis for further study and planning
of programs of higher education for Negroes is
furnished by that study.
KLEIN, A. J., Survey of Land-Grant Colleges and Universities (United
States Office of Education, Bulletin #9, Vol. II, Part X, Washington,
D. C., 1930).
A factual description of the establishment, de­
velopment and status of Negro land-grant colleges.
Interesting interpretations are also given to many
of the facts presented.
133
MC CUISTION, F •, Graduate Instruction for Negroes in the United States
(Published dissertation, George Peabody College for Teachers,
Nashville, Tennessee, 1939)
172 pp.
A discussion of the development, present status
and proposals of graduate instruction for
Negroes in the United States.
NORRIS, E. M., Determining Inplications for Vocational Education from
Certain Characteristics and Trends of the Negro Population in
Kentucky (Unpublished dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca,
New fork, 1934)
333 pp.
A study of the population shifts, occupational
and educational status of the Negro in Kentucky;
also the implications those factors have on
vocational education.
REID, I. DeA., In a Minor Key (Negro Youth in Story and Fact) (American
Council on Education, Washington, D. C., 1943)
134 pp.
Negro youth in Story and Fact is the subtitle
to that study and the subtitle implies the ex­
act contents of the book. The data are not re­
stricted to the Negro youth, instead he is merely
used as the nucleus of the discussion. Very
brief facts are given in such way that a complete
picture of the status of the Negro in America is
presented.
STODDARD, A. J., Industrial Opportunities for Negro Youth in the
Manufacturing Industries of Philadelphia (Board of Public Education
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1939)
35 pp.
This study is of special value to industrial
education among Negroes because it contains
the kinds of information a person should have
when planning or helping to plan programs m
industrial education.
134
.VEAVER, R. C., The Urban Negro Worker in the United States (United States
Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., Volume II, 1939)
87 pp.
’’This study analyzes the occupational shiftings
of male Negro skilled workers in the United
States during the period 1930-36. Its con­
clusions are based on a sampel of the urban
male Negroes usually engaged in skilled pursuits.
The data presented were collected in the spring
of 1936 and thus reflect the occupational mal­
adjustments of the 6-year period and the changes
in social and economic characteristics which
have accompanied them."
VJILKERSON, D. A., Special Problems of Negro Education (United States
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.G., 1939)
171 pp.
That study was prepared for the President's
Advisory Committee on Education. The contents
are what the title implies. Enrollment,
attendance and financial provisions are pointed
out as some of the basic problems affecting the
education of Negroes. Those problems are present
in elementary, secondary and higher education.
WORKS, G. A., and MORGAN, B., The Land-Grant Colleges (United States
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.G., 1939)
141 pp.
Study Number 10)
A description and brief discussion of the
provisions for the various phases of education
as provided for by the federal government through
the land-grant colleges. The study was prepared^
for the President's Advisory Committee on Education.
(Staff
135
Minor References
BANKS, ff. R., and others, Policies of Negro Land-Grant Colleges
School' and Society 49 :124, January 28, 1939.
A report submitted to the Conference of Landi^rant College Presidents in which recommendations
were made on what the colleges need to give
great consideration. Among the topics urged
to be considered were (1) aims and objectives
need to be clearer, (2) guidance problems,
(3) health, and (4) rural life.
CALIVER, A., Elementary Education of Negroes. School Life 25:243-244,
May, 1940; also School and Society 51:605, May 11, 1940.
A factual discussion of elementary education
among Negroes. Dr. Caliver points out the
grades reached by various percentages of
Negro pupils before they drop out of school.
Approximately 65 per cent do not go beyond the
fourth grade.
CANADY, H. G., Adapting Education to the Abilities, Needs and Interests
of Negro College Students. School and Society 46i437-439,
October 2, 1937.
"....Negro colleges as a whole seem to have be­
come resigned to being victims of circumstances,
and to lack vision and initiative to overcome
impediments and create a new program. The result
is a mechanized dehumanized school system lacking
in character and tradition....11
CROOKS, B. M. K., Is Negro Education Failing? Journal of Negro Education
8:19-25, January, 1939Professor Crooks read a paper on this topic at
the Conference of Presidents of Negro Land-Grarrt
Colleges. He stated that, "Many candidates for
admission are incapable of meeting the present
college standards.... Our curricula are for the
most part hazy; our teaching is, for the most
part, hazy; and so it is no wonder that our students
are, for the most part, hazy too.... Until teach­
ing can be made more attractive by state, federal,
or philanthropic funds, there will be poor teachers
for poor, low salaried jobs, and poor pupils will result."
136
FITCHET, H. E., Occupational Preferences and Opportunities of Negro
College Students, Journal of Negro Education 7:498-513, October,
1938.
A discussion of the limited number of
from which the Negro students tend to
their vocations* Recommendations are
cating how that number of occupations
creased.
occupations
choose
made indi­
may be in­
GREENE, H. W., Sixty Years of Doctorates Conferred Upon Negroes.
Journal of Negro Education 6:30-37, April, 1937.
A study showing the number of Negroes holding doctorates,
where received, in what, salaries, etc.
HOEDEN, H. P., After-School Careers of Negro High-School Graduates of
Houston. Texas, Journal of Negro Education 7:48-54, January, 1938.
The kind of data compiled in this study is a
kind that is much needed and very seldom obtained.
The study was restricted to high-school graduates
who did not go to college and that information
should be helpful to people concerned with
industrial programs among Negroes.
OAK, V. V., Some Outstanding Defects in Institutions of Higher Learning
For Negroes. School and Society 46:357—362.
Among the defects pointed out are—
1. Poor geographic distribution.
2. Selection of administrators is usually
dependent upon political "pull" and
tenure upon “playing the game".
3. Too much copying in the curriculums.
4« Not enough professional attitude with
most of the teachers.
SANDERS, 0. W ., Housing Conditions in Rural Communities, (Unpublished
study, Alcorn A. & M. College, Alcorn, Mississippi, April, 1940)
A ’description of fifty houses in a rural
community of Mississippi.
United States Report, Conditions of Tenant Farmers on Cotton Plantations,
Monthly Labor Review 44:1179, May, 1937.
"....Small proportions of urban and village dwellers;
scarcity of nonagricultural industries, especially
among Negroes; and a high mobile population, with
families frequently on the move in search of better
conditions; usually large families...."
United States Report, Negores in Industry. Monthly Labor Review 46:891,
April, 1938.
That report is confined to four topics on
the placement of Negro workers by the United
States employment service, The four topics
are:
1. Industrial distribution of Negro placements.
2. Concentration of Negro applicants in
certain occupations.
3. Ages of applicants placed.
4. Duration of unemployment among new
Negro applicants.
WATSON, J. B., The Negro Graduate School, Journal of Negro Education
7:533-534, October, 1938.
A philosophical description of two types of
graduate schools; also a prediction of the danger
which lies ahead for graduate work among Negroes
if special care is not taken in planning their
graduate programs.
WEAVER, R. C., Training Negroes for Occupational Opportunities,
Journal of Negro Education 7:486, October, 1938.
A discussion of provisions for training Negroes
to become skilled tradesmen.
APPENDIX
COPIES OF LETTERS AND INQUIRY BLANKS USED IN MAKING
THE STUDY
T H E
P E N N S Y L V A N I A
SCHOOL
OF
S T A T E
C O L L E G E
EDUCATION
STATE COLLEGE, P E N N S YLVANIA
pARTMENT
OF
INDUSTRIAL
EDUCATION
September 14 > 1940
Dear Dr. Whittaker:
The General Education Board is sponsoring a
study I am making of industrial education in Negro
colleges.
During the fall I am to visit several in­
stitutions for interviews, observation and study.
With your permission 1 shall be glad to visit your
college from October 6th to 10th.
Private sleeping accommodations are desired
For convenience 1 should like to know the address and
building (preferably on the campus) where I am to
stay before getting there, as
I
don't know the exact
hour for my arrival.
B. A. Turner,
Graduate Student
Dr. Miller F. Whittaker, President
State Agricultural and Mechanical College
Orangeburg, South Carolina
B. A* Turner
Department of Industrial Education
The Pennsylvania State College
Form A
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS
Notice:
Please read carefully.
This questionnaire represents one phase of a study of INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN
NEGRO COLLEGES. Facts and frank opinions are important and absolutely necessary
therefore, you are asked to be as complete and accurate as possible dn replying
to each question.
The questions that require a YES or NO answer, indicate the correct answer with
a check as (Yes
No ____.) if the answer is yes.
Questions with several possible answers from which to choose the best answer
should be answered thus, if POOR, in your opinion, is the correct answer:
I
The library facilities for our industrial department are (l) poor, (2)
fair, (3) good, (4) excellent.
wish to make about the- OBJECTIVES AND PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL
FOR STUDENTS
X, Nnmo of institution;________
8. Your classification^______________>_______________________ Your age;
4, Home (city or town); __________________
State
i
5u Population of your home-town;
6* Do you live with your parents or guardian?
Yes ___ . No
7, VJhat is your father*s occupation?
8. Do your parents own their home?
9. Do your parents own a farm?
Yes
Yes
. No
. No
.
If so, how many acres?
10. You are responsible for what per cent of your financial support? ___
11. You have had how many months job-working experience at which of the
following?
a* ■
farming
d, _
automotive service
b. ____ domestic service
e, _____ bartering
c. _ _ _ _
f.
hotel xvork
g ______others (name them)______
building trades (Name trades)
;_________________
12. What is your major?
13. Are you well satisfied with your major? Yes ___• No
. If not, state
your reasons briefly. ______________________________■ -
14. Are you well satisfied with the teaching personnel of the industrial de­
partment? Yes ____. No
•If not, state your reasons briefly.
15,
You selected your major for which of the following reasons; (l) po’ rental influence, (2) influence of a particular teacher, (3) seems to be
your best chance for permanent employment, (4) influence of a school, (5)
influence of friends and classmates, or (6) what reason?
...
'
16,-Whiie^in secondary school, how-many months of industrial arts or manual
training did you have?
How many hours per week?
.
17, How'many months have you worked as a learner or apprentice in a trr.de or
i industrial job? ____.
Name trade or industrial job.
lQ* tT\— 77 W?S
/4\ 05 5 ° ^ S >°5
(4) efforts of
or (6) efforts
W0I,k y0U
as Q leaner, or apprentice secured through
C school»
efforts of your parents, (3) youx- own ’
efforts,
friends and relatives, (5) efforts of a oarVi cwior teacher
of
_____________
^
19. Have you ever been employed on a journeyrann*s level in ate." -tradaY
No,
. If so, name trade:
■
Yes
20. How many months oi tro.de training have you had. in.
hiv.do or industrial
school?
Name of school:
_______
Location (town): ______ _____ __
Fta~~r
21. Do you hold a trade certificate?
school?
In which trade? __.
Yes
. No
___ ,
If so, from which
Date received?
22. Do you have any teaching experience? Yes
. No ____„ If so, how many
months?
V/hat did you teach?___________
VJhen? ___
Where?
23. What kinds of v;ork do you usually do during the summer?
24. Did you have a full-time job during the past summer? Yes
. No __ . If
so, where?
■
Doingwhat?__________ __________
25. _____
Wasthe job you had the past summer secured through (l) your own
efforts, (2) a particular teacher, (3) friends and relatives, (4) parents,
(5) school or (6) ___________.
__________
?
23, 1That vocation do you plan to follow? ■
27, At present are you acquainted with any Negroes employed in your local
community at the kind of vocation 3fou plan to follow? Yes
» No
.
•If you are acquainted with any do they, as a whole, seem to be (1)
very successful, (2) partly successful, (3) not'at all successful?
28. Do you prefer work in your local community ? Yes
state your reasons briefly. ■____
. No
. If not,
:
________
2-9.
~ ’Is the chance of your getting work in your local community after
you graduate (l) poor, (2) fair, (3) good, or (4) excellent?
50.
- • "With the specific requirements of your State Plan for trade and in*
dustrial education are you fl) well acquainted, (2) slightly acquainted,
or (3) not at all acquainted?
«tIon?haYesa PT S " 1 '1°Py if V° Y f nte
State Plan? If so, where and how often?
- - i
- * —
n
v
u
a
U . O
32• _____ Vo CGt lonal "fcrpclo nvir1 *i”*
“?■t.•1*■*■? r.■(
fered by (1) practice' ly ' •• <j
schools, (3) r o ^ . U
-j y
33.
—
■"
1
• -■•r
poor, (3. iVir,
34.
35.
T
■■ > h .
-1'- i
}z)
? »'.••«
c. ' l a
1
f°r Tr“ >* “ 4 Industrial Hlu-
y C
,
7',S--|n
mY
e.i
',tlto? okouio. be x?~
_-•■■ •**•.*«.,> J.J'.'uCOUrt
•' '■ j', T ,~rb.fi'ifi"n
r','3
c
w i -e
' <•
”
-*--ii-
••, +.;
- ~-la- xt ^
^
<-'
1 thi.jf
tn.. *. . •i
oiu« ox ’ch.o teachers in
industrial iernvt,
LL. our
VIU AIMUSTT
US “ *=•'•- P-'e (1) P-Oi, (Si!
(si Sa,i, i4i O K cU,! S ;
-n:
,,Ih® ®t’*ifnts in.oor <SeP‘-rti:eai, ns compared -..1th nho atuannin in the
other departments of the college, art. ii) below avorago, (2) overage (z)
above average.
36. — — — Maintenance for the college (l) tends to exploit our industrial de­
partment, (2) helps our industrial department, (S) does not offoot our in­
dustrial department.
37. — ;--- The maintenance work of the college should be done by (1) special repair msn, (2) trade students during their class hours for practice, (3)
trade students not during their class hours fox* pay, or (4)
38. _____ Tho greatest influence for determining the curricula of our indust­
rial department seems to bo (!) custom and tradition, (2) requirements of
the administration and uccrediting agencies, (■:') o. careful analysis of
pupil and community needs, interests, aptitudes aul abilities,
39*
Graduate work for Negroes in industrial education ohouj d be offered
in (1) every state inaintc.ir.ing separate schools, .(8) a few states carefully
chosen on a regional basis, .it} cone of t:>. southern states., but the south­
ern states would provide scholarships for Negroes to do all of their
graduate work in industrial education in northern institutions.
40.
The library facilities for our industrial department are (1) poor,
(2) fair, (3) good, (4) fcccce.llent,
41. Two books in our library, v;h:ich I regard most helpful for students taking
teacher training in our industrial department, are:
a.
b.
42. Two magazines, taken by our library, which I would especially recommend to
students taking teacher training in our industrial department are:
t h e
P E N N S Y L V A N I A
s c h o o l
o f
S T A T E
C O L L E G E
E d u c a ti o n
STATE COLLEGE, PENNSYLVANIA
USTRIAL
EDUCATION
September 25, 1940
Dear Sir:
Under the auspices of the General Education Board, I
am making a study of the OBJECTIVES AND PROBLEMS OF
INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN NEGRO COLLEGES.
The study,
sponsored by Dr. F. T. Struck, is being conducted
through our Department of Industrial Education.
The
benefits to be derived from the study should prove
quite helpful to the whole program of industrial edu­
cation among Negroes.
Will you please give the inclosed questionnaire to
the head of your industrial department, have him fill
it out and return it to me at his earliest convenience?
Your cooperation in this matter will be greatly ap­
preciated.
Turner
B. A. Turner,
Graduate Student
To the President of the College
A. and M. Institute
Normal, Alabama
B. A. Turner
Department of Industrial Education
The Pennsylvania State College
Form B
QUESTIONNAIRE K)R TEACHERS IN INDUSTRIAL DEPARTMENTS
Notice:
Please read carefully.
This questionnaire represents one phase of a study of INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN
NEGRO COLLEGES. Pacts and frank opinions are important and absolutely necessary;
therefore, you are asked to be as complete and accurateas possible in replying
to each question.
The questions that retjuiro a YES or NO answer, indicate the correctanswer with
a check as (Yes ✓**7 No ___ .) if the answer is Yes.
Questions with several possible answers from which to choose the best answer
should be answered thus, if Poor, in your opinion, is the correct answer:
1
The library facilities for our industrial department are (l) poor, (2)
fair, (3) good, (4) excellent.
■ remarks
, you wish
. . to make about the OBJECTIVES
AND PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL
Any
uujiluaxvjio
EDUCATION IN NEGRO SCHOOLS please place those remarks pp fyty/YYyy P¥
or on a separata piece of paper.
in the space above
FOR TEACHERS
1. Name of institution where you are employed:
2. What is your position?
3. What year were you elected or appointed to your present position? ______ ;
4. How many years have you been on the faculty at that institution?
'
5. How many years of teaching experience do you have?
6. How many years of teaching experienco do you have in industrial education
{trade and industrial or industrial arts)? _________ .
7. In how many different school systems have you taught?
8. What ia your present monthly salary? §___________ How many months per
year does the college pay you that salary for your present position? ____
9* Not including your experience as a teacher, hour many years of trade ex­
perience hi:ve you h a d ? _____________
10. Give your educational status:
Degrees, Diplomas
& Certificates hold.
In what?
(Give Dates)________________ ___
From what institutions?
List any special work
you have taken in in­
dustrial education.
(Give dates)
11. When did you take your last work in industrial education for xvhich you
received credit? ____ ____ __________________ .. ..
_______
12. At what institution was the work taken?
...
13. Givo the names of the magazines which you read frequently and would
recommend to a person holding a position similar to‘your3:
14, What books have you read in any phases of education during the last twelve
months? Givo authors, titles and dates of publication:
15. Givo the names of the magazines, taken by your school library, which you
would recommend to students taking teacher training in industrial education:
16, Give the authors, titles and dates of publication of five books in your
school library which you regard most helpful to studonts taking teacher
training in industrial education:
17, With the specific requirements of your State Plan for Trade and Industrial
Education are you (l) well acquainted; (2) slightly acquainted; or (3) not
at all acquainted?
_____
18. Do you have a personal copy of your State Plan for Trade end Industrial Edu
cation? Yes,
No
. If not, do you have access to a copy? Yes
.
No
. If so, where and how often? ------------------------------------
19.
Vocational trade and industrial programs, in my state, should be offared bjr (l) practically all secondary schools, (2) only large high schools,
(3) regional trade schools appropriately located.
.
20
Considering our department as a whole, I think it is (1) poor,. (2)
fair, (3) good, (4) excellent.
21 .
22
.
As a whole, I think the qualifications of the teachers in our depart­
ment are (l) poor, (2) fair, (3) good, (4 ) excellent.
The students in the industrial department of our college as compared
with students m other departments of the college are (l) belowaverage,
(2) average, (:3) ebo-ir© average,
23.
.. As a whol--:, cur shop equipment is 'I) old and out of date, (2) old
but adequate, (J > new but inadequate, 1.4 ) new and adequate.
24.
.
°ur industrial department does (1) y^ctical.ly all the maintenance
for the college, <2/ part of the maintenance workfor the eollege, (3)
none of the mainc enar.ce work for the col log?-.
25.
Maintenance;.- '.rork for the college, il) tends to exploit our industrial
program, (2) helps our industrial program.. (3< does not affect our indust­
rial program,
26.
Most of the clerical work in 011? department is done by (l) full-time
secretaries, (2) students, usually on KYI, (3) the teachers themselves.
27. _____ The library facilities for our department are (l) poor, (2) fair,
(3) good, (4) excellent;
28.
The greatest influence on determining the curricula for our depart­
ment is (1) custom and tradition, (2) requirements of the administration
and accrediting agencies, (3) a careful analysis of pupil and community
needs, interests ond abilities.
29.
Graduate vork for Negroes in industrial education should be offered
in (1J every stato maintaining separate schools, (3) a few states care­
fully chosen on a regional basis, (3) none of tlio southern states, but the
southern states would provide scholarships for Negroes to do all of their
graduate vnork in industrial education in northern institutions.
t h e
P E N N S Y L V A N I A
SCHOOL. O F
S T A T E
C O L L E G E
EDUCATION
STATE COLLEGE, PEN N S Y L V A N I A
jgpARTMENT
OF
INDUSTRIAL
EDUCATION
September 25, 1940
Dear Mr. Lee:
Under the auspices of the General Education Board, I
am making a study of the OBJECTIVES AND PROBLEMS OF
INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN NEGRO COLLEGES. The study
involves visiting several colleges.
I am to visit Arkansas State College October 24, 25
and 26. While there I would like to meet with all the
students and faculty of the industrial department, at
least an hour, in order that the students may fill out
a questionnaire and if time permits have a discussion
with the entire group on the topic I am studying.
Either morning, afternoon or evening, whatever is most
convenient for you will be suitable for me. We can
work out details for interviews with persons there
after my arrival. My visit is not to interfere with
the regular procedure of the school progrm.
Will you please fill out the inclosed questionnaire
and return it to me at your earliest convenience or
give it to me personally when 1 visit your campus?
Your cooperation in this matter will be appreciated
greatly.
Very truly yours,
B. A. Turner,
Graduate Student
Mr. William K. Lee, Head
Division of Mechanic Arts
Arkansas State College
Pine Bluff, Arkansas
B. A. Turner
Department of Industrial Education
The Pennsylvania State College
Form C
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR HEADS OF INDUSTRIAL DEPARTMENTS
Explanation:
Please read carefully.
This questionnaire represents one phase of a study of INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN
NEGRO SCHOOLS. Questions, which ask information about high schools in your
state, refer to Negro schools only. Facts and frank opinions are important and
absolutely necessary; therefore, you are asked to be as complete and accurate
as possible in responding to each question.
The questions that require a YES or NO response, indicate the correct response
with a check as (Yes
. No
.), that is, if the answer is Yes,
Questions with several possible answers from which to choose the best answer
should be answered thus, if Poor, in your opinion, is the correct answer.
Example:
1
The library facilities for our industrial department are (1) poor, (2)
fair, (3) good, (L) excellent.
Any remarks you wish to make about the OBJECTIVES AND PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL
EDUCATION IN NEGRO SCHOOLS please place those remarks in the soace below or on a
separate sheet of paper.
FOR HEADS OF INDUSTRIAL DEPARTMENTS
1. Name of institution where you are employed:
2. What ia your position?
3. What year were you elected or appointed to your present position? _______
4. How many years have you been on the faculty at that institution?
■
5. How many years of teaching experience do you have?
,
6.
How many years of teaching experience do you have in industrial education
(trade and industrial or industrial arts)? ____ ’
7. In how many different school systems have you taught?
8.
What is your present monthly salary? y
How many months per yea-*
does the college pay you that salary for your present position? ________
9. Not including your experience as a teacher, how many years
perience have you had? _____________
of tradeex­
10. Give your educational status:
Degrees, Diplomas
& Certificates hold
In what?
From what institution?
(Give dates)__________________________ ____________________________
List any special work
you have taken in in­
dustrial education.
(Give dates)
11. When did you take your last v/ork in industrial education for which, you re­
ceived credit? _____ ——
12. At what institution was the work taken? ____
13. Give the names of the magazines which you read frequently and would
recommend to a person holding a position similar to yours.
—
* S h 3 ? 0lCGive
§iveVa
u S r r at
J ? “ 7and
P dates
°fof
educati°n
^urliig the last twelve
montas/
authors,
titles,
publication.
15, Give the names of the magazines, taken by your school library, which you
would recommend to students talcing teacher training in industrial educatio
16. Give the authors, titles and dates of publication of five books in your
school library which you regard most helpful to students taking teacher
training in industrial education:
17. How many teachers are in your industrial department?
18. How many teachers are in your industrial department whose salaries are
subsidized in full by the federal government?
.. ..............
19. How many teachers are in your industrial department whose salaries are
subsidized in part by the federal government?
— --30. Give the total number of students in your industrial department majoring
in some phase of industrial education? ----How many freshmen
Sophomores? _______
Juniors?
;
----- Seniors? ----Special students?
a. Ho,; m a n y students in your industrial deportment ore taking vocational
trade and industrial work on a secondary level?------ „-- -
22. How many students in your department are taking industrial arts an a
secondary level?
23. Give tho number of students who received degrees from your industrial de­
partment during the following years: 1940
• 1939
1938
J 1937 ___________ 1936
t old 1935
1
24. Give the number of students who received trade certificates from your in­
dustrial department during the following years: 1940
• 1939
— —— ..... » 1938
; 1937
: 1936
■ and 1935
__________• In what trades were the certificates granted? Give the total
number granted in each trade during those six years. (Tbrnmpie;Carpentry 29)
25. List all the trades taught in your industrial department on a vocationd
basis:
26. List all the shop activities, including drawing, taught in your industrial
department on an industrial arts basis.
27. How many high schools in your stc;te offer full-time programs of vocational
trade and industrial work and do not offer part-time programs? ^
28. How many high schools in your state offer part-time programs of vocational
trade and industrial work and do not offer full-time programs? -__h.
29. How many high schools in your state offer both full-time and part-time
programs in vocational trade and industrial work? __— , .
30. How many high schools in your state offer programs of industrial arts or
and do noi off op p r o e m s of vocational trade and induat. rial work? __________ _
31. Is there a trade or industrial coordinator connected with your school?
Yes
. No ___ .
33. Does your department have a placement service for its students?. Yes
^ 3 0 * wk&t are the qualifications of the person in charge~~of***
the placement service?
About what per cent of his time is devoted to placement service?
What, if any, other position does he hold? __________
33. Is there an advisory committee to your industrial department? Yes
No ____ . If so, how many members are on the committee?
Give the
names and occupations of three members on the advisory committee.
a.
b.
c.
34. Give the number of trade students in your industrial department who were
employed the past summer by the college at the trades they are studying
in school. ___________
35. Give the number of your trade students vho were employed in the past summer,
not by the college, at the trades they are studying in school.___________
How many of those students received their jobs through the college? ______
How many received their jobs through their own efforts? ___________ Now
many received their jobs through the efforts of friends or parents? ___
36. How many months of practice teaching are required of your students before
graduat ion? _____________
37. A student is roqulred to spend how many clock hours per week doing actual
practice teaching? _____________
38. Where is the practice teaching done, at the college or in the high schools
of the state? ________________ ______________________________ — — ,
— ----39. Who supervises the practice teaching?
40. Is there an organization of the industrial education teachers (vocational
and industrial arts) in your state? Yes ____. No
. If so, ap­
proximately how many members belong to the organization? — _— ------- .
--41. When and how many times per year does the organization meet in regular
sessions?
__________________ ____ _____ ___________ ------ -- ----42* How many days are devoted to a regular session?
.
---- — .....
43. With the specific requirements of your State Plan for Trade and Indust­
rial Education are you (1) well acquainted; (2) slightly acquainted, or
(3 ) not at all acquainted?
I
44. Do you have a personal copy of your State Plan for Trade and Industrial
Education? Yes
. Mo
. If not, do you have access to a copy?
Yes
No____ . If so, where and how often? ______________________ _
45.
Vocational trado and industrial, programs, in my state, should he
offered by (1 ) practically all secondary schools, (2 ) only lerge
high schools. (3? regional trade schools a rrroqi i it el;y located.
46.
Considering our department as a whole, I thank it
(2) fair, {3} good, (4) excellent.
47.
As a whole, I thinlc the qualifications of cho teaclero in Our de­
partment are (1) poor, (2) fair, (3) good,
excellent.
48.
The students in the industrial department of our college as compar­
ed vjith student a in other departments.of the college are (!' oolow
average, (?) o.voragc, (3) above average.
49.
As a whole, our .chop equipment is (1) old and out of lato. (?) old
but adequate, {3} now but inadequate, (4) now :.ud ed v u.vr-e,
50.
Our industrial department does (l) practicably tlx the .m'-.intan-mco
’for the college, (2 ) part of the maintenance work for ta collage.
(3 ) none of tho maintenance work for the college.
51.
Maintenance work for the college (l) tends to exploit our indust­
rial program, ( 2) helps our industrial program, (3) does not af­
fect our industrial program.
52.
53.
54.
55.
1s
(1) poor,
Mbst of the clerical work in our department is done by (l) full' time secretaries, ( 2) students, usually on NYA, (3) the teachers
themselves.
The library facilities for our department are (l) poor, ( 2) fair,
‘ (3) good, ( 4 ) excellent.
The greatest influence on determining the curr^ ^ Ti^ ro°U^ 0“
’ nartment is (1 ) custom and tradition, (2> requirements
th
administration and accrediting agencies, (3) a careful analysis
of pupil and community needs, interests and abilib.-.es.
Graduate work for Negroes in industrial educa-tion ^°uld be of" fered in (1 ) every state maintaining separate schools, (2 ) a f
states carefully chosen on a ^ ^ 0 ^ 4 sP‘^ ilc provide scholarsouthern states, but
southera oto«^ ^alc
^
ships for Negroes to do ail of thex.
education in northern institutions.
t h e
T H E
P E N N S Y L V A N I A
SCHOOL
OF
S T A T E
C O L L E G E
EDUCATIO N
STATE COLLEGE. PENNSYLVANIA
d e p a r t m e n t
o f
i n d u s t r i a l
e d u c a t i o n
September,2 5 , 1940
Dear Mr . Breiti
Under the auspices of the General Education Board^^I
am making a study of the OBJECTIVES AND PROBLEMS OF
INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN NEGRO COLLEGES.
The study,
sponsored by Dr. F, T. Struck, is being conducted
through our Department of Industrial Education.
The
benefits to be derived from the study should prove
quite helpful to the whole program of industrial edu­
cation among Negroes,
Will you please fill out the inclosed questionnaire
and return it to me at your earliest convenience?
Your cooperation in this matter will be greatly ap­
preciated.
B. A. Turner
Graduate Student
Mr. W. J. Breit, State Supervisor
Trade and Industrial Education
Department of Education
Little Rock, Arkansas
B. A. Turner
Department of Industrial Education
The Pennsylvania State'College
Form D
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STATE SUPERVISORS OF TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION
Explanation:
Please read carefully.
This questionnaire represents one phase of a study of INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN
NEGRO SCHOOLS. All questions refer only to the Negro schools in your particular
state. Facts and frank opinions are important and absolutely necessaryj there­
fore , you are asked to be as complete and accurate as possible in responding to
each question.
The questions that require a YES or NO response, indicate the correct response
with a check as (Yes
No
.), that is, if the answer is YES.
Any remarks you wish to make about the OBJECTIVES AND PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL
EDUCATION IN NEGRO SCHOOLS, please place those remarks in the space below or on
a separate sheet of paper.
NOTE :-NOT E N O U G H U S A B L E D A T A WA#- RETURNED IN FORM D TO BE TABULATED
FOR STATE SUPERVISORS
1. Give the name of your state, ___
number o f 3t udeats en rolled in a U _ day trade eM in ta s t.
2' * r i E
3‘ ’E r J£ ^ 2 £
students
i
a
- *«*-««• * » -
4* f ° I w yrtSCh°°iS+?aVe trade a^d indus*rial programs (eithr- all-day or
evening or part-time, or both) also industrial arts programs? ___ 1 1 1 _
5*
111
ram
6.
?!!
schooisJ.1?GVe trade e^d industrial programs (either all-day o°r part“tlme» or botl1) and do not have an industrial arts prog-
how many schools have industrial arts programs and do not have trade and
industrial programs?
7. How many schools use the same shops for their indusiriej nrogi-mis (trade
and industrial, or industrial arts) as they do for thsir vocational ogriculturcl classes? ___________ _
'a
8.
How many schools use the same shop teachers for their irdistrial programs
(trade and industrial or industrial arts) as they do for their farm me­
chanics classes in vocational agriculture? ______
^* How many schools have attempted to establish trc.de and industrial urograms
within the last three years and did not establish them? _________ *_______
10. How many schools have attempted to get federal aid within the last three
years for their industrial programs and have not been able to meet the
requirements of our State Plan for Trade and Industrial Education? ______
State the reasons for those schools not being able to meet the require­
ments of your Stcte Plan.____________________________________ ______
11. In your opinion how many secondary schools in your state should be offering
some form of trade and industrial work and are not, either for the lack of
a shop, equipment, money, or teachers? ___________
* Totals for the ’school year 1939-40 are desired.
are for another year, please state what year.
If the figures you give
12‘ forT Irf SaJIi?rtn?OWJ ?nn7 ?clK,':,:Ls la y°ur stt>t e should be o ffe r in g some
arts ‘
■'nd cro not' either for the look of c shop, equipment, money, or teachers?
_____
13, Is it customary for all the federal f unds available for trade and indust­
rial programs for Negroes to be used each 3rear in your state? Yes
No
* If not» about what per cent of the available federal funds’ \re
U3ed oach your?
14, How
many tradeand industrial touchers are in yourstate whose salaries
are subsidized in full by the federal government?
15, How
many tradeand industrial teachers are in yourstate whoai solari';S
are subsidized in part by the federal government?
16, In your opinion, how many moro. trade and industrial teachers are needed
in your state at present?
17, How many years of trade experience, on a journeyman’s level, are required
of the teachers in your state in order for them to qualify as vocational
trade and Industrial teachers? ___________
18, Are there any schools in your state which give trade and industrial train­
ing that may be accepted as sufficient trade experience to qualify people
to teach trade and industrial work on a vocational basis? Yes ____.
No
. If so, give the names of the schools.
19. How many trade and industrial state coordinators are in your state who
give full-time to the Negro schools? _______ ^
20. How many trade and industrial state coordinators are in your state who
give part-time to the Negro schools? _____ ______
21. How many trade and industrial local (county, district or municipal) co­
ordinators are in your state who give full-time to the Negro schools?
22, How many trade and industrial local (county, district, or municipal) co­
ordinators are in your state who give part-time to the Negro schools?
23. In your opinion, how many additional trade and industrial coordinators,
local or state, are needed for the Negro schools in your state? ---- —
24, In your opinion, it is probable that how many trade and industrial coor­
dinators for the Negro schools may be employed in your state within the
next four year3 ?
25. Is there an assistant to you who supervises the trade and industrial work
in the Negro sohools? Yes ____ . No
. If so. does he give full or
part time to that work?
.— _
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