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The influence of *attitudes in automobile driving

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the
uicnrfsB siT r of o m a c m
CffiUOmB SCHOOL
* * IWUBSJCB OF .VFFITUKS IN ADT0SKBIL3 DRIVE©
il TM33S
33BMITTSD TO TH5 ( R W /J S FAJCULTf
la partial fu lflllflan t of the requirement* for the
degree of
DOCTOR OF PHILOSQIW
sy
JTOBN F3NICE
N em an , OlelafcOEia
1941
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o io
,
? 3 '? U
C 6 P '2 j
T!& IEFUJ8SC8 OF ATTIOTSS IS ADTOMOBXLB DRIFIJB
APPflOTO>
m s is c o n n s
z / n / r - ^
’■»-
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^CKMOflUSDOiBSIIB
The w r it e r i s p a r tic u la r ly indebted to Dr. Henry D,
Hjnainwt fo r d ir e c t io n and c o n s u lta tio n throughout t h i s
stu d y .
S p e c ia l o b lig a t io n and a p p recia tio n are due D r. L. B.
H oiein g to n , Dr, U, 0 . ' i l s o n , i r . C. H. Bumstead, D r. 0 . 0 .
Hewlun, and Dr, ISllsworth C o llin g s fo r rep eated and c r i t i c a l
judgments on th e a n a ly s is u n it s and th e q u e s tio n n a ir e .
The w r ite r w ish es to ex p ress deep g r a titu d e to th e
Oklahoma Department o f P u b lic S a fe ty and t o th e P o lic e Depart­
ment o f Kansas C ity , M isso u ri, f o r p u b lish in g and g iv in g ques­
t io n n a ir e s .
G ra tefu l acknowledgment i s giv en to th e in s t r u c t o r s and
workers in S a fe ty who cooperated in d ev elo p in g th e primary
a n a ly s is .
S p e c ia l thanks are due th ose who a s s is t e d in th e c l e r i c a l
work o f t h i s stu d y .
ill
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TABLS o f CONI'^NTS
Chapter
Page
I.
fflLililiUTIOlE FOR DRIV ES OF AUTOMOBILES . . . .
1
II.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF A QUHSTIONNAlRiS TO
M & i S t m THIS .ATTITUDES OF DRIVERS IN RELATION
TO THSIE SKILLS AND KM3WLHDGES..................................
14
III.
BBS EVALUATION OF THE QtLSSTIONKAIRE * ......................... 29
IV .
CONCIBBIOJB AND SUMMARY...........................................................56
BIBLIOGRAPHY................................
59
APPENDIX.................................................................................
53
DRIVING QUESTIONNAIRE...............................................63
SCORING K E Y ..........................................................................W
ir
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CHAPTER I
m M n afiT iom t o r d b iv sh s of mjtq&cbihss
Throughout th e p a s t d eca d e, d ea th s due to au tom obile a c c id e n ts
have exceeded t h i r t y thousand per y ea r (A ccid en t T a c ts , R a tio n a l S a fe ty
C ou n cil, 1 9 3 9 ),
a b le
3t
T his s it u a t io n i n i t s e l f la sh o ck in g , but store d ep lo r­
i l l i s th e number o f d is a b lin g in j u r ie s from su ch a c c id e n te .
1937, th ere were 36 0 ,0 0 0 in j u r ie s due t o t h i s c a u s e .
In
The most a p p a llin g
p a rt o f th e s i t u a t io n , how ever, i s tb s f a c t t h a t th e p u b lic c o n tin u e s t o
a llo w t h i s c o n d itio n t o e x i s t *
A n alyses have been made o f t h e u n safe ecu a o f d r iv e r s and pedes­
t r ia n s (A ccident
T a c ts , R a tio n a l 3 a f e t y C o u n cil, 1 9 3 9 ), but fu r th e r stu d y
should b e snad~ t o d eterm ine why th e s e a c c id e n ts co n tin u e and what th e
c o n tr ib u tin g f a c t o r s a re th a t cau se them*
Many d r iv e r s who a r e not phy­
s i c a l l y d e f e c t iv e or ig n o ra n t o f t r a f f i c r u le s have a c c id e n ts b ecau se
th e y a r e not, s u f f i c i e n t l y w n c w p i^ Jo, a m l A . , t t a i l _ t h e i r « »
n ot r ig h t ; the r i g h t s o f o th e r d r iv e r s and p e d e s tr ia n s are ig n o red .
..
One
may w e l l ask w hether p eo p le r e a l l y want n o t t o have a c c id e n ts or w hether
i
th ey p r e fe r t o rem ain .in d if f e r e n t to the d r iv in g know ledges and s k i l l s
i
V
and a t t it u d e s th a t would make them a ccid en t f r e e .
T arious co u rses o f procedure a r e n ecessa ry to remedy th e t r a f f i c *
a c c id e n t situ a tio n * s a f e t y e n g in e e r in g , law en forcem ent, and ed u ca tio n
1
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are among t h e s e .
With each nsvr model, th e m anufacturers o f au tom obiles
provide new m echanical s a f e t y d e v ic e s; hif.-to/ays are c o n s ta n tly b ein g t o proved to in su re s a fe tr a v e l f o r an in c r e a sin g number o f d r iv e r s a t a
speed thought im p o ssib le to a t t a in a few y ea rs ago; law e n fo r c in g a g e n c ie s,
design ed to c o n tr o l t r a f f i c s it u a t io n s , operate throughout the n a tio n ,
t h e ir e f f i c i e n c y varyin g w ith th e co o p era tio n g iven them, by th e p u b lic
whose s a fe ty th e y attem pt to in su r e .
The, human f a c t o r in volved in c o n t r o llin g a ca r h as not leapt pace
w ith the r a p id ly changing m echanical developm ents o f motor v e h i c l e s .
More
Money, tim e , and s o c ia l reward has gone to th e M echanical s id e o f d r iv in g .
The human a id e alw ays has been cheaper.
In a ero n a u tics and r a ilr o a d work,
th e number o f men in v o lv ed has been com p aratively few so th a t t h e ir tr a in in g
and performance have been kept under extrem ely r ig id c o n tr o l and t h e ir se ­
l e c t i o n i s a ls o h ig h ly lim it e d .
However, we have accumulated m illio n s o f
d r iv e r s who a r e , f o r th e g r e a te r p a r t, tra in ed in th e s c h o o l o f inadequate
ex p erien ce and r a r e ly submit to e f f i c i e n t t e s t s .
S in ce d r iv in g a ca r i s
not a p r o fe s s io n w ith most p e o p le , an^extrem ely la x m ental a t t it u d e r e la ­
t i v e to th e problem o f d r iv in g s a f e ly has developed.^
I t i s a b s o lu te ly n ecessa ry th a t p eop le be awakened to th e r e a liz a ­
t io n o f th e need f o r broad e d u ca tio n a l programs which aim to i n s t i l l proper
a t t it u d e s a s w e ll a s t o g iv e in s t r u c t io n in d e s ir a b le knowledges and s k i l l s .
tu d es i s because no adequate t e s t o f a t t it u d e s has been con stru cted * T i t I s
alm ost th e common statem ent o f anyone co g n iza n t of. the d r iv in g problem th a t
a t t it u d e s have a s much to do w ith good d r iv in g a s anything els®
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3
-very year m illio n s o f autom obile o p era to rs are examined in
some way; th e exam inations v a ry in g w ith the l o c a l f a c i l i t i e s , the tr a in ­
in g o f the exam ining s t a f f , the needs o f the d r iv e r , and th e v a lu e of
th e exam inations th em selv es.
Some t e s t i n g probably began a s a J u s t i f i ­
c a tio n fo r the c o l l e c t i o n o f a f e e and p a ssin g th e t e s t s was la r g e ly de­
pendent on w illin g n e s s to pay th e f e e .
F o rtu n a tely t h i s p r a c tic e has
g e n e r a lly stopped, f o r insurance companies have d iscouraged th e g ra n tin g
o f claim s where d r iv e r lic e n s in g has been in ad eq u ate, arri th e y have made
l i a b i l i t y and p rop erty damage r a t e s p r o h ib itiv e in ouch c a s e s .
Because
o f th e n e c e s s it y fo r reducing a c c id e n ts , many a g en cies have g r e a tly Im­
proved t h e ir methods and have taken up o b je c tiv e tech n iq u es in t e s t in g
d r iv e r s .
In th e l a s t two d eca d es, th ree g e n e r a l f o r c e s have le d to a great
Increase i n , and improvement o f , d r iv e r t e s t in g ; (1) th e in c r e a sin g speed
o f sto c k v e h ic le s ; (2) th e in c r e a sin g number and occurren ce o f v e h ic le s
on thoroughfares everywhere; (3 ) the in c r e a sin g number o f d r iv e r s h an d lin g
v
each v e h ic le , p a r t ic u la r ly th e fa m ily ca r which each member o f th e fa m ily
d r iv e s .
I'arly t e s t s were n ot p rim a rily adapted s p e c i f i c a l l y t o d r iv e r s o f
p r iv a te and commercial v e h ic le s , but t h e y w are, in la r g e p a r t, s im ila r to
t e s t s w hich had been used fo r th e s e le c t io n o f a i r p i l o t s and m ilit a r y
d r iv e r s ,s u c h a s
p h y s ic a l r e a c tio n te s t* *
The f a c t th a t none o f th e
p s y c h o lo g ic a l a s p e c ts was in clud ed allow ed a l l ex cep t th o se who were ob­
v io u s ly incom petent to secure a li c e n s e .
The r e l i a b i l i t y o f even th e s e
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4
r e s u l t s was q u e stio n a b le sin c e th e a p p lic a n t f o r th e d r iv e r ’ a lic e n s e
was co n d itio n ed to make a s fa v o r a b le grades as p o s s ib le by th e f a c t
th a t he was aware th a t h i s se c u r in g a li c e n s e was dependent on h is
a b i l i t y t o make a h ig h s c o r e ,
Such p h y s ic a l exam inations and road
t e s t s are now used fo r th e lic e n s in g o f c h a u ffe u r s, who are o n ly a
part o f the d r iv in g p u b lic o f over fo r t y m illio n .
The d if f e r e n t e x i s t i n g exam inations used in d r iv e r t e s t in g , both
comm ercial and p r iv a t e , w i l l be con sid ered in th ree groups: (1 ) f a c t u a l
o r in form ation t e s t s ; (2 ) p h y s ic a l o r c a p a c ity measurements which attem pt
t o determ ine th e a b i l i t y o f an in d iv id u a l to r e a c t t o c e r t a in s it u a t io n s ;
and (3 ) road t e s t s , w hich a r e d esign ed to measure by p r a c t ic a l roans th e
in te g r a tio n o f knowledge and s k i l l s o f the in d iv id u a l i n th e performance
o f a c tu a l o p e r a tio n s .
In T ab les I , I I , and I I I a re g iv en th e major inform ation about
th e most w id ely used and b e st known t e s t s . The s t r ik in g f a c t I s t h a t there?
are s o few t e s t s and s o l i t t l e i s known about th o se th a t are p u b lish ed .
TABLE I
FACTUAL TESTS
Name
Author
P u b lish er
G eneral
Inform ation
1 , N a tio n a l T e s ts in
S a fe ty Education
S t a f f , N ation­
a l C onservation
Bureau
N a tio n a l Conser­
v a tio n Bureau,
60 John S t r e e t ,
New York
One form , Cenex•**
a l f i e l d o f s a i ‘8 ty , 35 p er c e n t
T r a f f ic S a fety
i
2 , N a tio n a l S a fe
D riv ers T est
S t a f f , N ation­
a l C onservation
Bureau
N a tio n a l Conser­
v a tio n Bureau
Norms f o r Adult a
High and J r , Hi
S c h o o ls, E ntire
d r iv e r and peda 8—
t r ia n s a f e t y
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5
TABUS I (C oat'd )
Nome
3.
"Dust O ff Your
Gray M atter"
Author
S t a f f , N a tio n a l
C onservation
Bureau.
P u b lish er
R a tio n a l Conser­
v a tio n Bureau,
€0 John S t r e e t ,
New York
American Auto­
m obile A sso cia ­
t io n , Washington,
D. C.
General
Ia fo rfititio n
Norms fo r M u lt
Groups; T r a ffic
S a fe ty
4 . sta n d a rd ized
T ea ts -"The
D river"
N o il s in g e r ,
F . R.
5.
N O ffsin ger,
F . R.
American Automo­ Experim ental
b i l e A sso c ia tio n , Form
W ashington, D» C
3 , "Sound D riv in g
P r a c tic e s "
N o ffsin g e r ,
F . R.
American Automo­ E xperim ental
b i l e A ss o c ia tio n Form
W ashington, D. C.
? . S p ortsm anlike
D riv in g S e r ie s
N b ffs in g e r ,
F . R.
American Automo­ Experim ental
b i l e A ss o c ia tio n , Form
W ashington, D. C,
"Driver and
P e d e str ia n Re­
s p o n s ib ilitie s "
iixpariraental
Form
8 . " P roject o r T r o f- N b ffs in g e r ,
f i c and D riv in g
Knowledge"
American automo­ .Experimental
b i l e A s s o c ia tio n , Form
Washington, D. C.
9 . "T o-day's Pedes­
t r ia n s and To­
morrow's
D rivers"
B e t t e r T r a f f ic
Committee,
P itts b u r g , P a .
B e tte r T r a ffic
In d iv id u a l
Committee, P i t t s ­ Q u estion Anal­
y s i s Given
burg, P a.
S t a f f , Good
D riv in g
League
Ford Motor C o .,
Dearborn, Mich.
S t a f f , Royal
Indem nity Co.
Royal Indemnity Jsea i l l u s t r a ­
C o ., ISO I fillia m t io n s o f a c c i­
S t r e e t , N. Y.
dent s it u a t io n s
.0 .Exam ination on
Theory and Prac­
t i c e o f D riv in g
1 1 ,The Squeeze
Play
1 2 .What' s Wrong w ith S t a f f , I r a v o lTheae D r iv e r s and e r ' s Insurance
P e d e str ia n s?
Company
Sxperiraental
arm
T r a v e le r 's Insur­ U ses i l l u s tr a ­
ance Company,
t io n s o f a c c i­
H artford, Conn.
d en t s it u a t io n s
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
The t e s t s named, in Table I I are considered p rim a rily Tor psy­
c h o lo g ic a l r e a c t io n s , such as k een n ess o f v is io n , depth, p erce p tio n , g la r e
r e s is t a n c e , rec o v ery from, g la r e , tu n n el v is io n , s te r e o sc o p ic eye t e s t ,
c o l o r b lin d n e s s , eye dominance, blood p ressu re, e x c i t a b i l i t y , r ea c tio n
tim e, h ea rin g , co o r d in a tio n , s tr e n g th , Jerk te n d e n c ie s , anti e l e c t r i c
matching board ed u c a tio n a l t e s t e {th e la t t e r c o n s is tin g o f rad and green
l i g h t s which in d ic a te r ig h t and wrong answers t o t r a f f i c q u e s tio n s ).
TABUS I I
PHYSICAL TKSTS
D escrip tio n
Home
Author
P u b lish er
1*
Manual o f T ea ts
f o r Automobile
Operators
Lauer, A. R*
R a tio n a l K©3©arch
c o u n c il, ai3hingto n , D, c .
DatQ concerning
m echanical in s tr u ­
ments fo r ao a sor­
in g p h y sio -p sy ­
c h o lo g ic a l R ea ction s.
R esearch on D riv ­
in g S k i l l
D a S ilv a , U.R.
Mass. F .3.R .A .
P r o je c t, X3-F2725, B o sto n ,^ a ss.
Data concerning
aiachanieal in s t r u ­
ments fo r measur­
in g p h y sio -p sy c h o lo g ic a l R ea ctio n s.
R e su lts ob tained by
exp erim en tation
with th e s e in s tr u ­
ments are g iv e n .
3.
Methods o f m easur- Lauer, A. R.
lu g th e a b i l i t y to
D rive an Automobile
E ngineering Ex­
te n s io n S e r v ic e
B u lle t in U S
Iowa S t a t s Teach­
e r s C o lle g e ,
Ames, Iowa.
Data concerning me­
c h a n ic a l instrum ents
fo r m easuring p h y sio p sy c h o lo g ic a l r e tu r n s .
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
7
TABLE I I (Cont’ d),
Name
4,
author
D river T ea tla g lie v ic e 3 ,
D riv er H ating
Manual
P u b lish er
A lg a is r ,
L ari
S a fe ty and
T r a ffic Gag.
D ept. American
Automobile
A sso cia tio n
a h in gton ,
D. C.
D escrip tio n
Data concerning mechan­
i c a l instrum ents fo r
measuring p h y sio pcycholO;-i c . i l retu rn s
The road t e s t s are l i s t e d se p a r a te ly in. Table I I I and are copy­
r ig h te d by th e amerle&n Automobile a s s o c ia t io n ,
a sh in g to n , D. C ., where
.th e y may be o b ta in ed , o r from tbs Ford Motor Company, th e Good D rivers
' League, o r any s t a t e o r m unicipal department o f p u b lic s a f e t y .
D eta ile d
in form ation fo r s ir in g and grad in g comas w ith each t e s t .
TABLE I I I
ROAD Ti!STS
Name
1*
2,
3,
4.
D.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
P u b lish er
Open Koud D riv in g
Turn in Harrow S t r e e t
P arking in Line
Backing
AM
Stopping
W ashington, D. C.
Parking p a r a ll e l
(1937)
D riv in g in Heavy T r a f f ic
R igh t Turn
l e f t Turn
U Turn
P a s s in g
Knowledges f o r Laws o f V e h ic le Operation
D escrip tio n
Item s 1 -1 1 are
performance t e s t s
w ith an exam iner
in th e c a r .
Item 12 i s paper and
p e n c il t e s t o f inform­
a t io n . Dome o f th e s e
t e s t s a re in Manual
IS dition s.
I
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a
A b r ie f ©valu& tion o f some o f th o se t e s t s w i l l be ,,iv\ o n .
..ach
p a r t ic u la r t e s t o r group o f t e a t s i s d iscu sse d f o r i t s b earin g on p o in ts
p e r tin e n t to t i l l s study
and fo r
m easuring nor® part o f the f i e l d o f
d r iv e r ed u ca tio n th a t ha 3 n ot been covered .
The N a tio n a l T esta in L'afety Education are e s s e n t i a l l y Measures
o f t r a f f i c r u le s and con d u ct.
The q u e stio n s on t r a f f i c in p - r t s A, B,
and C are accompanied by o th er q u estio n s on p e d e str ia n t r a in in g , f i r e
s a f e t y , and g e n e r a l s a f e t y .
v a lu e .
T his in term ix tu re o f q u e stio n s la o f d o u b tfu l
These t e s t s are n ot intended as m easuring in stru m en ts o n ly , but
are intended to bo used a s instrum ents o f in s t r u c t io n .
The t e s t papers
are retu rn ed to the w r it e r s f o r c o r r e c tio n and stu d y .
The N a tio n a l S a fe D rivers T est r e p o r ts average s c o r e s f o r th r e e
♦v
groupst (1) the i n t e l l i g e n t a d u lt d r iv e r which ranges from 80 to 90;
(8)
g r a ta 0 11 to 12, w ith a range o f 80 to 85; (3 ) grades 8 t o 9 , w ith
a range o f 75 to 3 0 .
I f t h e re s u it a o f t h i s t e s t are to be con sid ered
an in d ic a t io n o f d r iv in g knowledge, th e i n t e l l i g e n t a d u lt d r iv e r i s
la c k in g in te n to tw enty per cen t o f th e sim ple in fo rm a tio n judged by
e x p e r ts t o be n e cessa ry f o r a c c id e n t-fr e e d r iv in g .
There i s probably
l i t t l e r e la t io n betw een such sc o r e s and the occurrence o f a c c id e n ts , fo r
i f n on -d riv in g c h ild r e n in th e e igh th and n in th grades make a sc o r e o f
s e v e n t y - f iv e th en th r e e -fo u r th s o f d r iv in g knowledges a r e g e n e r a l know­
le d g e s ,
The t e s t th en i s n o t a d r iv e r ’ s t e s t .
There are no d ata g iv en t o
in fi'cT te th a t such g e n e r a l knowledge i e r e la te d t o d r iv in g .
The t e s t , Dust O ff Your Gray H a tter, r e p o r ts average s c o r e s as
fo llo w s : t r a f f i c s a f e t y e x p e r ts , 90; le a d e r s in s a f e t y movement, 87;
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
9
IfertJiwestern U n iv e r s ity P o lic e S ch o o l, 85; Teachers C o l l i e d r iv e r s , 78;
Teachers C o lleg e n o n -d r iv ers, 8 2 .
not a s ig n if ic a n t d if f e r e n c e .
A v a r ia tio n o f two jo in ts la su rely
Th re i s a p o s s i b i l i t y tL..t ^ v a r ia tio n
o f ten o o in ts stay in d ic a te a f a i r l y si. : c if ic a n t d if f e r e n c e ; hew e v e r , raw
sco res are not r e l ia b le f o r t h i s purpose.
I f t r a f f i c a a fo ty e x p e r ts mate
a sco re o f o n ly n in e ty p er cen t compared with o th e r s c o r e s o n ly a few
p o in ts lower on th e s c a le , th en in form ation a lo n e should not be con sid ered
a s a d if f e r e n t ia t in g f a c t o r in s a fe d r iv in g .
D iffe r e n c e s o f s c o r e s and
t h e ir s ig n if ic a n c e are not g iv e n in t h is t e s t .
The American Automobile a s s o c ia tio n Standardised T en ts, koras
A, t , 1 , and ? , are examples o f t e s t s developed fo r h ig h s c h o o l stu d en ts
on th e assum ption th a t knowledges o f d r iv in g s k i l l s and tim e r e a c tio n s in
d r iv in g w i l l r e s u lt in more r a p id ly in te g r a te d s k i l l s in d r iv in g .
t o o t s g iv e sco re and p e r c e n t ile
o f su b je c ts.
These
The p e r c e n t ile r a t in g s were
b a sed , not on th e d if f e r e n t i a t io n s shown by d r iv e r s and n o n -d r iv e r s, but
on the d if f e r e n t ia t io n s shown between groups o f stu d e n ts who had and who
had not stu d ied a book oh d r iv in g .
The t e s t s do not s e t t l e th e q u estion
a s t o whether d r iv in g can be ta u g h t by a book and whether th o se who do
n o t d r iv e can be exp ected to have th e knowledge o f how t o d r iv e .
Those
t e s t s are r e a l l y n ot t e s t s o f d r iv in g .
The American Automobile A ss o c ia tio n Experim ental Form G h as many
q u e s tio n s th a t ask f o r o p in io n s o f d riv in g s it u a t io n s .
Most o f th e ques­
t i o n s , to o , are p e r tin e n t t o o p era tin g c o s t s or m ech an ical d e t a i l s o f op­
e r a tin g a motor v e h ic le .
Knowledge o f th e m echanics o f a motor v e h ic le
and f a m ilia r it y w ith the c o s t o f o p era tin g one a r e , perhaps, o n ly s l i g h t l y
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10
r e la te d to t i e f a c t o r s o f human f a ilu r e th a t are s t a t i s t i c a l l y proven
t o he the major ca u ses o f a t le a .,t n in e ty p er cen t o f n i l motor a c c i­
d e n ts , ( n a tio n a l S a fe ty C ouncil, 1939)
The m erit o f the te n t, P ro ject in T r a ffic and D riving Xnc*,'ledge,
which i s s im ila r to the h aoricua .U itoaobile -a sso cia tio n Fora <3, may b e s t
be judged by a Quotation from the D ir e c tio n s (page 2) to th e in s tr u c to r s ;
Purpose: T h is p ro ject on t r a f f i c and d riv in g knowledge i s
intended as a step in in t e r e s t in g high sch o o l stu d en ts in t r a f f i c
s a f e t y . .J.1 of the problems are p r a c t ic a l, and i t i s b e lie v e d
p a in ts are included w ith which the average h igh sc h o o l stud en t
i s not thoroughly f a m ilia r . They are intended to arouse in t e r e s t
and promote d is c u s s io n .
T his p r o je c t should g iv e th e stud en t an id ea o f some o f th e
elem en ts o f t r a f f i c and s a fe ty which he should know. Furthermore,
i t w i l l provide the teach er w ith an e x c e lle n t g u id e a s to what
p o in ts need s t r e s s in g more than o th e r s , and on which problem s the
stu d en ts want classroom d is c u s s io n .
Today*s P ed estria n s and To-morrow's D riv ers i s a t e s t o f b oth in ­
form ation and o p in io n .
S e c tio n I ask s f o r s p e c if i c inform ation con cern in g
t r a f f i c la w s, s a f e t y knowledges, and t r a f f i c f a c t s .
cerned w ith o p in io n s on t r a f f i c q u e s tio n s,
S e c tio n I I i s con­
p ertin en t s o c ia l problems of
car o p e r a tio n , and conduct toward p e d e s tr ia n s .
Thic t o o t i s unique among
s a f e t y t e s t s in th a t a rep ort o f the fin d in g s a f t e r broad exp erim en tation
i s a v a ila b le .
The g en era l ou tstan d in g co n clu sio n s are (Report on R e s u lts
o f T r a ffic S a fe ty Q uestion n aire T e s ts , B e tte r T r a ffic Committee, 1937,
page 1 ); ( I ) th a t the p u blic as a whole i s not swere o f r e c e n t changes in
th e v e h ic le co d e, o f pravlous t r a f f i c la w s, und o f g en era l t r a f f i c f a c t s ;
(2) th a t th e g en era l p u b lic d oes not hold o p in io n s in agreement on the
r e l a t iv e importance o f v a rio u s cau ses o f a c c id e n ts .
I
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11
The t e s t o f the Ford Good D rivers League, Exam ination on Theory
and P r a c tic e o f D r iv in g , measures o n ly th e m astery o f knowledges r e la ­
ted to d r iv in g s k i l l s and the knowledge o f th e m echanics o f th e automo­
b ile .
These knowledges h elp to in su re th e proper understanding o f b a s ic
p r in c ip le s th a t are the n ecessa ry groundwork of good d r iv in g .
An a n a ly s is
has been made w hich shows th a t s e v e n ty -fiv e p er cen t o f a l l a c c id e n ts in ­
v o lv e d r iv e r s who have d riv e n c a r s more than fo u r y e a r s w ith o u t an a c c i­
d en t (N a tio n a l S a fe ty C ou n cil, 1 9 3 9 ).
T h is f a c t in d ic a te s th a t m astery
o f th e m echanics o f car o p era tio n d oes n ot in su re s a fe d r iv in g a t a l l
tim es and t h a t th e two are not w e ll co rrela ted *
The two t e s t s , The Sijueeze P lay and what’ s Wrong w ith These D riv er s,
are exam ples o f b r i e f , il lu s t r a t e d t e s t s which ask f o r e x p la n a tio n s o f
p ic tu r e s o f dangerous t r a f f i c s it u a t io n s .
I f th e assum ption th a t car own­
e r s a r e d e lib e r a t e ly fo o lh a rd y in ca r o p era tio n were c o r r e c t , the t e s t s
would be ap p rop riate f o r e d u c a tio n a l p u rp oses.
However, ca r o p era to rs
do n ot d r iv e t h e ir c a r s w ith the in te n tio n o f wrecking them*
I t i s doubt­
f u l th a t n e g a tiv e te a c h in g i s o f more valu e in ca r o p era tio n than in any
o th e r f i e l d .
P h y s ic a l and m ed ical t e s t s f o r d r iv e r s have been developed to a h ig h er
d egree o f r e l i a b i l i t y and u s e fu ln e s s than in fo rm a tio n t e s t s b eca u se the r e ­
s u l t s are more o b j e c t iv e .
To convince a d r iv e r th a t he i s c o lo r b lin d or th a t
he r e a c t s slo w ly i s not co n fu sin g , but t o con vin ce th e average d r iv e r th a t he
d oes n o t have common knowledge i s b o th d i f f i c u l t and em b arrassin g.
p h y s ic a l t e s t s
have
m a jo rity o f c a s e s
not
in d ica te d
( S e ll in g , 1 9 3 7 ).
the a ccid en t-p ro n e
d r iv e r
The rea so n s f o r t h i s
may
So f a r ,
in
a
have
been th a t (1 ) few a g e n c ie s have been ab le t o fin a n c e th e la r g e p erso n n el
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12
and th e ex p e n siv e machines rep a ired fo r ex -•erim ent a 1 and t e s t i n g purposes}
(2)
th ere has 1)8 011 a la c k o f tr a in e d o p e r a to r s, f o r th e few u n it s now in
u se are not r e l i a b l e u n le ss in terp re ted by a tr a in e d p s y c h o lo g is t, ll e e t o n ,
CL935)
3ta ta s
th a t in th e case o f s t r e e t car o p e r a to r s, a t t e n t io n - r e a c t io n
m easures do not account f o r a l l th e d iffe r e n c e betw een low and h igh r a te
o p e r a to r s.
I f i t i s assumed th a t th ere i s a r e l a t i o n betw een low and h igh
r a t e o p e r a to r s o f au tom obiles as there i s between s t r e e t car o p e r a to r s,
w r itt e n in t e l lig e n c e t e s t s and em otion al adjustm ent t e s t s may i s o la t e
f a c t o r s r e la te d to a ccid en t pronaness*
Q,u i nan (1930) h as shown th a t th e
l o s s o f a hand or f o o t does n ot in c r e a se a c c id e n t proneness o f a d r iv e r .
A ll t h e s e s t u d ie s in d ic a te th a t som ething more th an th e t e s t i n g o f p h y si­
c a l a b i l i t i e s i s n e c e ssa r y .
Itoad t e s t s a re th e ob viou s means o f t e s t in g a d r iv e r and a l l would
be w e ll i f the exam iner were alw ays p resen t in a l l s it u a t io n s in v o lv in g
danger.
d e n t.
to
Few r o a d -te s tin g s it u a t io n s ev er in v o lv e an emergency o r a c c i­
For some rea so n n a tu ra l t o human n a tu re, p eop le ta k in g a t e s t tr y
a grade th a t w i l l meet a p p ro v a l, th en go out and d r iv e j u s t a s
!
th ey alw ays d id b efo re p a ssin g th e t e s t .
I t i s tru e th a t a d r iv e r can bo measured w ith an exam iner s i t t i n g
In th e car w ith him, b u t d r iv e r s can a ls o b e checked w ith rem arkable ac­
curacy by an ex p erien ced o b serv er who i s parked on a corner to w atch them
p ass (a common p o lic e te ch n iq u e).
The road t e s t i s an in d iv id u a l t e s t
and ta k e s even more t i n s than a com plete b a tte r y o f p h y s ic a l t e s t s .
makes such t e s t i n g ex p e n siv e .
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T h is
13
A complete review o f tbs fin d in g s froxa e x i s t i n g t e s t s I n d ic a te s
th a t in ord er t o sep a ra te good and had d r iv in g , d r iv e r s should h e te s te d
f o r (1 ) knowledges and s k i l l s by in fo n u a tio n and road t e s t s , (2) t e s t e d
fo r eosotional s t a b i l i t y in s it u a t io n s o f em ergency, and (3 ) t a s t e d in
a ttitu d e s .
The f i r s t two areas are f a i r l y w e ll covered by e x i s t i n g
t e s t s ; th e 1 - s t one i s n o t, and i s the su b je c t o f t h i s stu d y .
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CHAPTER I I
COMSTEUCTIOH OF k Q,IJ3STI0SKAIR3 TO 3JEASUKE THE ATTITODiij
OF DRIVERS IK R X.-iTIUN TO THEIR SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE
There are many ex p la n a tio n s o f autom obile a c c id e n ts ; th o se
apparent c a u ses which we roost o f t e n se e recorded are m echanical d e f e c t s
o f th e machine o r road, o r human f a ilu r e t o perform required r e a c tio n s .
The q u e s tio n , th e n , I s , i f th e r e were machine or road d e f e c t s , why was
the v e h ic le i n o p era tio n th ere; i f the a ccid en t was caused by human
f a i l u r e , why did the o p erator f a i l to fu n ctio n ?
i^'as i t due t o u n w illin g ­
n ess to concede th e r i g h t s o f another d r iv e r , or was i t due to an in d if ­
fere n c e concerning th e r ig h t s o f o th ers?
G reen sh ield s (1936) has s ta te d th a t d r iv e r s can compensate fo r
slow r e a c tio n tim e by d r iv in g more c a r e f u lly , and th a t i t i s o f paramount
importance th a t d r iv e r t e s t s should be checked a g a in s t d r iv in g ex p e r ie n c e .
T h erefore, d riv in g exp erien ce w i l l be a f a c t o r in determ ining tho v a l i d i t y
o f any t e s t fo r d r iv e r s .
The s e le c t io n o f groups o f d r iv e r s w ith known
c a p a c it ie s o f a ccid en t fr e e n e ss and a c c id e n t proneness i s a n e c e s s it y
sin c e i t i s c le a r th a t some d r iv e r s are more competent than o th e r s to cope
w ith s it u a t io n s whose m u ltip le s o lu t io n s are o f t e n c o n fu sin g .
14
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15
Johnson and Lauer (1937) have sluosn t h - t no one f a c t o r makes a
good d r iv e r and they conclude th a t more f a c to r s than are now known must
be in v e s tig a t e d .
T h erefore, the r e s u lt s o f a q u e stio n n a ir e th a t co v ers
many phases o f d r iv in g when g iv e n to groups o f p o d and bad d r iv e r s
s e p a r a te ly w i l l be o f v a lu e t o th e e x te n t t o w hich i t measures the f a c t s
in volved in e f f i c i e n t o p era tio n o f th e au tom obile.
The in v o lv e d f a c t s
are th e apparent ca u ses o f f a ilu r e ; la c k o f th e s k i l l s o r knowledges; o r
th ose a c tu a l cau ses o f f a i l u r e , la c k o f judgm ents, co n cep ts o f conduct,
or a t t i t u d e s .
S u b sta n tia tin g o th er in v e s t ig a t io n s o f d r iv e r s on a comprehensive
b a s is , S e ll in g (1937) o f th e D e tr o it T r a ffic C lin ic , s t a t e s , "Hobody
knows what i s good o r bad d r iv in g to d a y ," th a t i n t e l l i g e n c e in an in d i­
v id u a l i s no in d ic a tio n o f good d r iv in g a b i l i t y , and th a t th e r e are very
gum! ! groups which may be con sid ered to be d e f i n i t e l y a ccid en t-p ro n e.
These d e f i n i t e l y accid en t-p ro n e d r iv e r s should b e examined and th e cau se
o f t h e i r in e f f i c ie n c y d eterm ined.
Then th ey should b e tr a in e d to over­
came or compensate f o r t h e i r d e f ic i e n c ie s in d r iv in g b e fo r e b ein g allow ed
t o endanger oth ers*
Today, th ere are two p o s it io n s w ith regard to d r iv e r t e s t in g : (1)
th a t o f t r a in in g a l l d r iv e r s by s u b je c tin g them to ed u c a tio n a l t e s t s ; (2)
th a t o f w a itin g u n t i l an a c c id e n t occu rs t o s e l e c t th e a ccid en t-p ro n e
d r iv e r ani th en t o r e t r a in him in t e n s iv e ly in th o se areas in w hich he i s
found la c k in g .
K ith f o r t y m illio n d r iv e r s , n e ith e r o f th e s e methods has
been c a r r ie d f a r enough t o reduce a c c id e n ts m a t e r ia lly .
o r more com prehensive t e s t should
Some d ia g n o s tic
be used in order t o a r r iv e a t more
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16
c l e a r ly d efin ed methods o f d r iv e r tr a in in g .
TO b u ild such a t e s t i t i s f i r s t n ecessa ry to sak e an a n a ly s is
o f r e p r e se n ta tiv e s k i l l s , knowledges, concom itant Judgments, co n cep ts
o f con d u ct, and a t t it u d e s .
o k ill 3 were co n sid ered to be th o se c a p a c it ie s
f o r the e x e r c is e o f d r iv in g maneuvers w it h p r e c is io n .
Knowledges were
con sid ered to be th o se known f a c t s d ir e c t ly r e la te d to o p e r a tio n but not
in volved iEaaadiately in maneuvers.
Uoneept3 o f conduct and judgment were
con sid ered as I n te g r a l p a r ts o f a t t i t u d e s ,
a t t it u d e s were co n sid ered as
s p e c if i c q u a lif y in g ten d en cies in th e d r iv e r , d eterm in in g h is r e a c tio n s to
any unusual d r iv in g s it u a t io n ,
a t t it u d e s w ere, a l s o , co n sid ered an in te g r a te d
p art o f th e w hole p e r s o n a lity and not s u b je c t to b a in : c u t o u t a s in d iv id u a l
r e a c t io n s .
However, i t i s a rea so n a b le assum ption th a t th e r e i s enough
s im ila r it y in in d iv id u a ls , s o n e a r ly id e n t ic a lly co n stru cted a s man, th a t
a sum t o t a l o f corresponding v iew p o in ts m y be con sid ered in d ic a t iv e o f a
trend o f s im ila r it y in a t t it u d e .
The a t t it u d e s may be a m ental d eterm in ation
or s e t to respond to any p o s s ib le abrupt o r preconceived stim u lu s w ith a
g iv e n , p h y s ic a lly reh ea rsed , or o n ly m en ta lly reh ea rsed , r e a c t io n .
For
th e purpose o f t h i s stu d y i t w i l l be assumed th a t th e fo r e g o in g d e f in it i o n
i s adequate f o r the reason s s ta te d ; th a t i s , th a t a t t it u d e s are an in t e ­
grated p a rt o f th e w hole p e r s o n a lity aid n ot s u b je c t t o b ein g is o la t e d a s
in d iv id u a l p a tte r n s fo r r e a c tio n s or a s component p a r ts o f r e a c t io n s e x c e p t
in la rg e a rea s o f t h e i r s im ila r it y .
The m ental p r o p e r tie s , th o se powers en a b lin g an in d iv id u a l t o func­
t io n a s a d r iv e r , n ecessa ry f o r e f f i c i e n t car o p e r a tio n , were a r b it r a r ily
c l a s s i f i e d in to th e fo llo w in g a reas o f r e la t io n s h ip s :
(1 ) d r iv e r t o d r iv e r ;
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17
(2) d r iv e r t o p ed estria n } (3 ) d riv er to society*, (4 ) d r iv e r to o b je c t;
(5 ) d r iv e r to le g a l r e g u la tio n s .
T aelve hundred sta to u e n ts of conduct o r
a c t s under th e se a rea s were w r itte n , and fro© t h e s e , two hundred and f i f t y
q u e stio n s based on th e s e s ta te r a n ts were p resen ted to a consaittea o f s a f e t y
in s tr u c to r b . 1
The e n t ir e committee answered a l l th e q u e stio n s and a ls o
rep orted th a t th ey were a l l p e r tin e n t to th e problem o f d r iv in g .
They
a ls o agreed th a t such q u estio n s might g iv e some in d ic a tio n o f d r iv e r
a t t it u d e s .
Hach q u e s tio n was th en r e w r itte n in two o b j e c t iv e forms:
a lte r n a ­
t i v e q u e s tio n s in the form o f y e s and no answers; m u ltip le c h o ic e answ ers.
In t h i s second form, two ty p es o f answers ware p o s sib le : f i r s t , ch o ice
o f one o f fo u r , one-word answers; secon d , ch o ic e o f one o f f o u r , phrase
answ ers.
The r e s u lt in g q u estio n n a ire o f sev en hundred and f i f t y q u estio n s
-based on th e o r ig in a l two hundred and f i f t y a n a ly s is sta tem en ts wae pre­
sen ted t o a com m ittee o f f i v e p s y c h o lo g is ts , a l l o f whom have a d octor*s
degree and a l l o f whom had had ex p erien ce in Judging q u e stio n n a ir e s.
The
fo llo w in g in s tr u c tio n s were g iv e n t o t h i s commit te e i
^ In str u c to r s a t S a fe ty Short C ourse, summer, 1938, A. k M. C o lla g e ,
S t illw a t e r , Oklahoma:
^ .
(1 ) H, S . C a rter, Utah S ta te Agricultural C o lle g e , Logan, Utah
(2 ) 3 , L. M artin, S ta te Teachers* C o lle g e , S ilv e r C ity , hew Mexico
(3 ) Freemont H a r ris, S ta te Department o f E ducation, Oklahoma C ity
(4 ) Hoy S . T r o s t, C h ilocco In dian S ch o o l, C h ilo cc o , Oklahoma
(5 ) Fred H. I v e s , C en tral S ta te Teachers* C o lle g e , Sdmond, Oklahoma
(8 ) D. P. Hash, L ou isian a T ech n ica l I n s t i t u t e , Kushtoa, Io u is ia n a
( 7 ) Dr, F . K. M ofsinger, Amor, Automobile A ss’ n . , W ashington, 0 , 0 •
(8 ) Amos JS. Heyhart, P en nsylvania ytat© C o lle g e , S ta te C o lle g e , P a,
R e p ro d u c e d with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
18
1,
P le a se read th e a n a ly s is a k e a ts , marking K ith a c i r c l e the
number o f any s k i l l , knowledge, a t t it u d e , o r con cep t o f conduct th a t
you f e e l i s ir r e le v a n t to th e s it u a t io n . In case ap p rop riate a d d itio n s
o r c o r r e c tio n s occur t o you, p le a s e n o te them on a tta ch ed blank p a p er..
2,
In q u estio n n a ire A, p leu ee read item s and answer y e s o r no
to th e l e f t o f th e number. In ca se you fin d & q u estio n o f which you
doubt th e v a lu e , p le a s e check w ith th e a n a ly s is item o f th e same group
and number. Then in ca se the lu e s tio n i s ir r e le v a n t , p le a s e make a
c i r c l e around th e number* In ca se an oth er q u e stio n p r e se n ts i t s e l f to
y o u , p le a se g iv e i t th e same number and w r ite i t on the a tta ch ed blank
s h e e t.
3 , P le a s e read q u estio n n a ire B and u n d erlin e the statem en t out
o f th e fo u r th a t most n ea rly t e l l s what you th in k you would do in th e
g iv e n s itu a tio n * In d ic a te d e le t io n s and s u b s t it u t io n s a s in q u e s tio n a ir e A*
4 , P le a s e read q u estio n n a ire C and in d ic a te resp o n ses in a
s im ila r manner.
5 , P le a s e exp ress your op in ion on th e a tta ch ed b la s x paper
a s to w hether th e q u estio n should be put in th e f i n a l q u estio n n a ire w ith
(a ) f a c t u a l ana a t t it u d e statement© in sep a ra te s u b j e c t s , or w ith (bj
f a c t u a l and a t t it u d e statem en ts on even and odd numbers o f a s in g le
q u estion n aire*
A fte r th e committee o f ju d ges returned th e p a p ers, the a n a ly s is
u n it s remained in t a c t ex cep t f o r word s u b s t it u t io n s in th r e e c a s e s .
Any
q u e stio n th e v a lu e o f w hich had b een doubted, by any Judge was dropped.
Q u estion s which had been su b stitu te d were added and ca rried in th e n ext
s te p .
A system o f key numbering was developed so th a t a l l q u est io n s cou ld
be traced to t h e ir a n a ly s is sta te m e n ts.
A ll d e le t io n s end c o r r e c tio n s
were made a s recommended by th e ju d g e s.
The r e v ise d q u e s tio n n a ir e , b e in g composed o f q u e stio n s w hich no
judge had d e le te d and changed, was resu b m itted t o th e same f i v e ju d g es,
w ith the- same I n s tr u c tio n s and th e m atching a n a ly s is s ta te m e n ts.
At t h i s
su bm ission th e ju d g es made no c o r r e c tio n s ex cep t to d e le t e th e words
"ever* and '♦courtesy’* from a l l q u e stio n s where th ey had been u sed .
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
19
In th e fo llo w in g r e v is io n th e se q u e s tio n s ware tiro, pad excep t
in c a s e s '.'hare the j i<3~*e h d recorded them, in w hich case th e y were
Curried w ith the r e s t i t u t i o n s In d ica ted .
The f i v e ju d ges were then
in unanimous .sgreenent un to the relev a n ce o f th e q u e stio n s and the i r
a n a ly s is at& m aants t o the problem.
From th e rem aining body o f q u o stio m were yalaetod such ques­
tio n s us would ;iui:o - one .-iM o n e -h a lf hour q u e s tio n n a ir e .
was chedeed by g iv in g i t to a c l a s s in S a fe ty Hdueation.
T h is tim e
One hundred
f i f t y q u e s tio n s w ith o u t accompanying; a n a ly s is stateasanta were p resen ted
to the same judging coEBftitte©.
T h is q u estio n n a ire oi s k i l l s > know ledges,
and a t t it u d e s was judged to bo p s y c h o lo g ic a lly v a lid by a l l f i v e ju d g es.
The a n a ly s is s t a t e lie s t upon which the f i n a l q u e s tio n s were based
i s g iv e n b elow .
S lc ill item s are marked "3",
a t t it u d e
marked "A"* and knowledge item s are marked "K*.
item s
a re
These p o r ts , A, B,
and C, w ere f i n a l l y used i n the q u e s tio n n a ir e .
P a rt A
1.
(S)
Bow to buck th e cor
3.
(s)
Bow to stop from low gear
3.
(3 )
How to s h i f t from low t o second gear
4.
(s)
How to s h i f t from high t o second g ea r
5.
(3 )
Hot? t o stop from h igh goar
6.
(S)
How t o double c lu tc h
7.
<s)
How to back the cu r
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
20
8.
{ft} Hw t o do a U tu rn
9,
(S) How t o park p a r a l l e l t o th e curb
10.
(3) Ham t o u se c lu t c h and. a c c e le r a t o r to g eth er
11.
(S) How to s ig n a l f o r intended maneuvers
12.
(s) How to fo r e s e e t r a f f i c s it u a t io n s
13.
(S) Who has r ig h t o f way when stopped a t an in t e r ­
s e c t io n sim u lta n eo u sly
14.
(S) How t o d e te c t temporary d i s a b i l i t i e s
15.
(3 ) A b ilit y to check d e t a i l s c o n s is t e n t ly
16.
(K) Haw t o apply f o r a d riv er* s li c e n s e
17.
(K)
What th e c i t y o rd in a n ces are on p la y in g in s t r e e t s
18.
(A) A b ilit y to h old em o tio n a l c o n tr o l under s t r e s s
o f g r ie f or illn e s s
19.
(A) A b i lit y t o change d r iv in g h a b its whan th e need
i s reco g n ized
20.
(A) A b i lit y to l e t a lc o h o l a lo n e b efo re and w h ile d r iv in g
21.
(A) A b ilit y to make proper tu r n s c o n s is t e n t ly
22.
(A) A b i lit y t o r e s i s t th e u rg e to c u t co rn er s
23.
(ft) A le r tn e s s t o s ig n a ls
2 4.
(A) C apacity t o e x e r c is e judgment a s though s ig n a ls
w ere ab sen t
(A) W illin g n e ss t o w a it when n ecessa ry in any t r a f f i c
s it u a t io n whatever
25.
25.
(A) R e a liz a tio n o f th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a b ic y c le r id e r
28.
( a ) R eadiness t o reduce speed i n n ig h t d r iv in g
29.
(A) A tte n tio n t o k eep in g ca r under com p lete c o n tr o l
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
21
30,
(A)
31,
(a)
A b ilit y to meet e x a c t s it u a t io n s o f emergency
32,
(A)
C on sisten cy in ch eck ing the a b i l i t y to d rive
33,
(a )
B a sic co n cep ts and d is c r im in a tio n o f f a ir n e s s
t o th e o th e r d r iv e r
34,
A tten tio n to t r a f f i c d e t a i l s w ith in
span o f relev a n ce
the com plete
(A) A tten tio n t o c o r r e c t and adequate s ig n a lin g a t a l l
tim es
35,
{A}
S e n s it iv it y t o th e r ig h t s o f o th e r s
36,
(A)
A tten tio n to l i g h t c o u r t s s is a
37,
(A)
P a tien ce w ith the slow p e d e s tr ia n
38,
(A)
A tten tio n t o the p e d e str ia n when the s ig n a l i s
a g a in s t him
38,
(a )
Kxtreaa ca re a t a l l tim e s where th ere are no s ig n a ls
40,
(A)
T olerance w ith the p e d e str ia n who i n s i s t s on behav­
in g u n u su a lly
4 1 , . (A)
A tte n tio n t o g e n e r a l h a b its o f c h ild r e n p la y in g ,
fo llo w in g b a l l , e t c ,
42,
(A)
C o n sid era tio n o f t h e p e d e str ia n not on th e roadway
in c a se th e roadway should be l e f t
43,
(A)
C o n sid era tio n f o r the p ed estria n who i s p h y s ic a lly
u n f it
44,
(A)
R e a liz a tio n o f th e f a c t th a t th e p e d estria n may
have a d if f e r e n t co n cep tio n o f t r a f f i c
45,
(A)
P e d e str ia n s may f a i l to s e e warning s ig n s ; allow ­
a n ces to be made
46,
(A) P ed estria n s may d isreg a rd the in s tr u c tio n s o f o f f i c e r s
47,
(A) P ed e str ia n s may make e n t ir e ly u n p red icta b le r e a c tio n s
48,
(A)
T olerance f a r e r r a t ic a c tio n s o f p e d e str ia n s
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
22
49.
U)
Knowledge o f d r iv in g h a b it th at w i l l keep the
p ed e str ia n a t iflaxiiauja d is ta n c e
50.
(A)
A p p reciation o f th e f a c t th a t the p e d e str ia n i s
a m b or woman im portant to s o c ie t y
51.
(A)
C o n sid era tio n o f the p e d e s t r ia n 's s a f e t y a s an
o b lig a t io n
52,
(A)
P resence o f mind in em ergencies
53.
(A)
Knowledge o f w eather c o n d itio n s varyin g pedes­
t r i a n ' s h a b its
54.
(A)
C o n sid era tio n o f slow v e h ic le s ; wagons, b u g g ie s,
b ic y c l e s , e t c .
55.
(A)
C o n sid era tio n f o r th e m a n eu verab ility and lim it a ­
t io n s o f th e b ic y c le
56.
(A)
a b i l i t y t o fu n c tio n in th e fa c e o f an a c c id e n t
5?.
(A)
Keenness in s e e in g road hazards in advance
58,
(A)
Knowledge o f o n e 's own li m it a t io n s
59.
(A)
Knowledge o f p o s s ib le hazardous a c t io n s o f p a ssen g ers
and how to prevent them
60.
(A)
A b ilit y t o keep c o n tr o l r e g a r d le s s of d oin gs o f
p assen gers
61.
(A)
Working ra th er th a n reading knowledge o f a l l co d es
r e la t e d t o t r a f f i c c o n tr o l
62.
(A)
S p ir it o f co o p era tio n w ith a l l en forcem ent, en g in eerin g
and t r a f f i c ed u ca tio n a g e n c ie s
63.
(A)
C onception o f th e law o f ”tbe la B t chance t o p reven t"
64.
(A)
Knowledge o f a g e n d a s r e q u ir in g th e r e p o r tin g o f
a c c id e n ts
65.
(A)
Efaw t o p rop erly care fo r th o se in ju red
66.
(A)
Bow to meet the problem o f damage to another
p e r so n 's p rop erty
6?.
(A)
B jw t o meet th e problem o f damage t o o n e 's own c a r
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
23
68.
( a ) The v a lu es o f le g a l l i a b i l i t i e s
69.
(A) C onception o f rea so n a b le view point toward
o n e 's own ca p a city
70.
(a ) B squest q u e stio n Okl -J ooa H i^w ay P a tr o l
(A) T olerance fo r P o lic e .
B art B
1.
(3 ) How to use the a c c e le r a to r
in s t a r t in g
2.
(8 ) How to d isen gage clutch.
3.
(s) How t o s h i f t in to low gear
4.
(S) How t o m anipulate c lu tc h a t power p o in t
5.
(S) How t o s t a r t on a h i l l
6.
(s ) How t o c o n tr o l and know d r iv in g beams o f li g h t s
7.
(8 ) How to d r iv e o u t o f a garage - how to d r iv e in to a garage
8*
(3) How t o observe
9,
(S) How to cop© w ith p e d e str ia n t r a f f i c
10.
(S) How to cope w ith con gested t r a f f i c
11.
(S)
How to meet unexpected s it u a t io n s with c o r r e c t
prepared r e a c tio n s
12.
(f>) How t o conduct o n e s e lf w ith p a ssen g ers
13.
(S) 'shat e f f e c t s o f varying w eather c o n d itio n s may be
in ca r o p era tio n s
14.
(a ) How t o e s tim a te braking d is ta n c e s
15.
( s ) How t o d e te c t common road hazards
16.
(A) L im its o f to ler a n c e favored fo r on coming t r a f f i c
17.
(A}
18*
(A) A b ilit y to r e g u la te h a b its o f s le e p in p rep a ra tio n
fo r d r iv in g
J illin g n e s s to g iv e r ig h t of way to p a s se r s
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
u
19.
(A)
20.
(A)
are changing
21.
(A)
22.
(A)
23.
(A)
24.
U)
25 .
(A)
26.
(A)
27,
(A)
tio n a o f o f f i c e r s
28,
(A)
W illin g n ess t o g iv e o th er d r iv e r leew ay l a c a s e s
o f road hazards
29.
(A)
A b ilit y to r e s i s t d is t r a c t io n by ra d io o r o th e r
d is t r a c t io n
30.
(A)
A ttitu d e o f co o p era tio n w ith o th e r d r iv e r s to mice
t r a f f i c break p ro p erly
31.
(A)
F e e lin g o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y to meet th e problems
o f d r iv in g
32.
((A)
a)
A b ilit y t o o p era te o n e 's ca r in a sp ortsm anlike manner
33 .
(A)
W illin g n e ss t o go a l l th e way in a v oid in g t h e f o o li s h
chance
34.
(A)
35.
(A)
36.
(a )
o f nature
37.
(A)
Care In d r iv ix
d r iv e r s about
38.
(A)
Conception o f
th a t ahead
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Fu rther reproduction prohibited without permission.
35
39.
(A)
Judgment o f speed w ith re fa reace to braking d is ta n c e s
40.
(A)
Care at a i l tim es for p ed estria n s who may appear
from behind o b s ta c le s
41.
U)
/.t te a t io n to th o se le a v in g or en terin g v e h ic le s
42,
(A)
d iv in g ample d is ta n c e to th ose mounting or d i s ­
mounting s tr e e tc a r s
43.
(a)
C o n sid eration fox* workmen who must he in the lin e
o f tr a v e l
44.
(a)
S u f f ic ie n t w i l l power not t o pick up h itc h -h ik e r s
45.
(a )
C on sid era tio n o f lo c a l w alking c o n d itio n s
46.
(A)
Knowledge of the weakness o f human nature in a
crowd and com pensation f o r i t
47.
(A)
The
48.
(A)
B s a liz a tio n th at th e unusual or sm all o b j e c t , i f
h i t , may cause a s e r io u s a c c id e n t to the d riv er
49.
(A)
A tte n tio n t o th e v is u a l hazards o b je c ts may c r e a te
50.
(A)
C on sid eration o f o b je c ts to o sm a ll t o sea th a t
may be hazards
51.
(A)
In ta r o st t o keep informed on changing road and v e h ic le
p r a c tic e s
52.
(A)
U nderstanding, n ot f e a r , o f enforcem ent and co u rts
feeling th a t th e r e is no unavoidable a c c id e n t
Part C
1.
(3)
How to m anipulate s t e e r in g in to a parked p o s it io n
2.
(3)
How to s h i f t in to rev e r se g ea r
3*
(3 )
How t o s h i f t from second to high gear
4.
(3)
How to do an emergency stop
5.
(S)
Ebw t o turn the ca r around
z t t u f
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
i
26
6.
(3)
Soar to ta k e curves
7.
(8)
Bbtr to brake e f f e c t i v e l y w ith le a s t wear
3.
(3)
Ho* to keep power engaged and d e c e le r a te slo w ly
in a skid
9.
(s)
How to s t e e r in a sk id
10,
(3 )
How t o avoid a sk id
11.
(s)
How to p a ss an o th er c a r
12.
(3)
3bat to do in c a se o f an a c c id e n t
13.
(s)
Bow t o car© fo r t i r e s
14,
(3 )
Bow t o e s tim a te fo llo w in g d is ta n c e s
15.
(s)
Bow to ap p ly fo r a c e r t i f i c a t e o f r e g i s t r a t io n
13.
(s)
How to keep the lew s o f th e road
17 .
(A)
E xten t of a t t e n t io n t o surrounding d e t a i l s
18.
(A)
What c o n s t it u t e s th e s a f e t y equipment o f your ca r
19.
(A)
L im its o f to le r a n c e fa v o red fo r oncoming t r a f f i c
20.
(A)
W illin g n e ss to g iv e r ig h t c f way
21.
(A)
C o n sisten cy in a le r t n e s s t o s ig n s o f hazards
22,
(A)
A ttitu d e o f p lea su re and s a t i s f a c t i o n from d r iv in g
23.
(A)
A le r tn e s s to s ig n s o f m echanical d e f e c t s in your ea r
24 .
(A)
A b ilit y to
25.
(A)
A b ilit y t o make understanding r e a c tio n s r a th e r th an
p u r e ly memorized on es
26.
(A)
A le r tn e s s t o s e e in g w a lk ers on th e wrong s id e o f th e
road
27.
(A)
O bservation and allow an ce f o r p e d estria n f a c i l i t i e s :
s id e w a lk s , in d u s t r ia l zon es -
28.
(A)
Knowledge o f th e li m it a t io n s o f th e aged
o p era te o n e’ s c a r in a sp ortm anslik e manner
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
27
29 .
(A}
Request q u e stio n Oklahoma Highway P a tr o l
The Oklahoma Deport r®nt o f P u b lic ; a fe ty p rin ted f iv e hundred
c o p ie s o f t h i s t e s t .
Of t h e s e , one hundred were p i van to a c c id e n t-fr e e
commercial d r iv e r s by th e w r it e r , and two hundred were m ailed by the
P u b lic S a fe ty Department t o
d r iv e r who had had
d r iv e r s known t o be a ccid en t-p ro n e,
:jiy
th ree or more reported a c c id e n ts in one year was
con sid ered a ccid en t-p ro n e.
The retu rn from t h i s l a s t croup was not
p rom isin g, a s on ly t h ir t y - t h r e e q u estio n n a ires were retu rn ed .
Three
hundred more c o p ie s were p rin ted by the Oklahoma Department o f P u b lic
S a fe ty and m ailed to o th e r accid en t-p ro n e d r iv e r s .
Eight days la t e r
th e fo llo w in g p o s t a l card was m ailed to the same s u b je c ts :
Dear S ir : The Oklahoma Department o f P u b lic S a fe ty
h as s e n t you a q u estio n n a ire req u estin g your op in io n s
on some o f the
problems o f d r i v in g . May we a g a in a ssu re
you th a t th ere h a s been no record k ep t th a t might in v o lv e
your l i c e n s e . Would you p le a se ta k e tim e t o f i l l the
q u estio n n a ire ou t and retu rn i t in th e en clo sed en v elo p e.
I t i s most im portant th a t we have your resp on se to com­
p le t e t h i s study sponsored b y th e C o lleg e o f Education and
th e Department o f P sychology o f t h e U n iv e r s ity o f Oklahoma.
In c a s e you have alread y s e n t in the q u e stio n n a ir e ,
p le a s e ign ore t h i s n o t ic e .
Yours t r u ly ,
John Panick
T h is brought in a f o r t y p er ce n t retu rn on th e t o t a l o f
t h is group.
F iv e hundred c o p ie s were a ls o p rin ted by the P o lic e Depart­
ment o f Kansas C ity , M isso u ri.
These c o p ie s were g iv e n by th e w r ite r
to Y ellow Cab d r iv e r s and t o d r iv e r s a rre sted fo r a c c id e n ts w h ile
w a itin g f o r cou rt c a l l s .
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
28
From a l l o f tbs returned queG tionnaires, tbs fo llo w in g numbers
are r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f a c c id e n t-fr e e d r iv e r s:
66 from the U is t le t o e
Mxpress Company, 20 from the Jew el Tea Company, 25 from p o lic e o f f i c e r s
in Kansas C ity , M isso u ri, 125 from Yellow Cab d r iv e r s , and sev en from
Harvey T ransport.
fbaae were a l l commercial d r iv e r s who operated
co n tin u o u sly w itb no reported a c c id e n ts .
For accid en t-p ro n e d r iv e r s ,
41 q u e s tio n n a ir e s were from Kansas C ity d r iv e r s and 122 from Oklahoma
d r iv e r s .
Any q u estio n n a ire w hich had not been com pleted o r w hich w as
not l e g i b l e was d isca rd ed a s u n su ita b le fa r t h i s u s e .
R e p ro d u c e d with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
CHAPTER I I I
THE 37ALUATIQH 0? THE ERIVIEB Q,USi>TIOHKAJRS
The major o b j e c t iv e s f o r e v a lu a tin g the D rivin g q u estion n aire
were t o e s t a b l i s h th e v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y w ith which i t measured
d r iv in g s k i l l s and a t t it u d e s .
To e s t a b lis h a v a lid scheme f o r sc o r in g , i t was found n ecessa ry
to w eig h t ea ch item in term s o f i t s d if f e r e n t ia t in g a b i l i t y f o r a c c id e n tprone and a c c id e n t- f r e e groups o f d r iv e r s .
The d if f e r e n c e s in th e number
o f tim e s each icsp o n se was g iv en f o r each item was ta b u la ted fo r each group
and t i e d a ta are g iv e n in T ables 17 and 7 1 .
These d if f e r e n c e s were then
rep resen ted i n n e a r e st even p e rce n ta g e s, and th e s e d a ta are a l s o g iv e n in
T ab les IV and V I.
Those q u e stio n s which s u b je c ts refu sed t o answer w ere
rep orted in term s o f th e p ercen tages o f th o se who d id answer.
These r e s u lt s w ere p resen ted to a committee o f th r e e p s y c h o lo g is ts
and s t a t i s t i c i a n s , w ith th e se recommendations fo r p o s s ib le s c o r in g k eys
t o be used:
(1 ) th e standard e r r o r o f th e d iffe r e n c e o f p ercen ta g es; (2 )
raw d if f e r e n c e s in p ercen ta g es; (3 ) raw d if f e r e n c e s in p ercen ta g es w ith
groups o f te n per cen t a ssig n ed a sc o r in g valu e o f one; (4 ) p o s it iv e raw
p ercen ta g es in term s o f th e c r it e r io n (a c c id e n t-fr e e ) group o n ly ; (5)
sc a le d v a lu e s in r a t i o to th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f th e in d iv id u a l q u e stio n t o
29
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Fu rther reproduction prohibited without permission.
30
TABLE 17
ilUHBSR 01 CAOBS j'dffi HSRCSi
tin> PQfi
fcCU r i ’Lhi .w N o & ^ T f l S S ^ OH ^NO**
IN M B ACCIDENT PHONg /JSD A SC X ntfff TEES CROUPS ON QjUgSTXQBttlRZ ?.«BT A
a c c id e n t pro m
YSS
NO
qUSDTION Number P e r c e n t- Number P ercen t­
age
SUUBiEH
age
1
2
3
4
S
6
7
8
8
10
11
IS
13
14
15
IS
1?
13
19
SO
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
17
89
85
10
67
67
112
145
143
16
136
46
33
155
90
160
98
146
141
56
50
49
30
125
35
20
75
136
71
99
81
40
115
144
10
55
52
6
41
41
89
89
38
10
83
28
20
95
55
98
60
90
87
34
31
30
18
77
22
12
46
83
44
61
50
25
71
88
143
74
78
153
93
95
SO
17
19
147
23
117
129
7
79
3
62
16
22
104
110
113
133
38
128
141
86
26
92
63
80
123
47
19
88
45
48
94
57
58
31
10
11
90
15
72
79
4
44
2
39
10
13
64
67
69
82
33
78
87
53
16
56
38
49
75
28
12
ACCIDENT FEES
YS3
m
Number P e r c e n t- Number Perce
age
age
46
140
92
41
48
85
139
220
196
32
160
76
63
239
118
243
172
213
220
136
111
114
34
204
54
12
103
233
129
157
191
22
151
219
19
58
37
17
20
35
57
91
81
13
66
32
25
98
49
100
71
88
91
56
46
47
14
84
22
5
43
96
54
65
79
10
62
90
195
103
151
199
195
158
104
22
47
211
83
166
181
4
125
0
70
30
23
107
131
129
209
38
108
. 231
139
10
113
86
52
221
91
23
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
81
42
63
82
80
65
43
9
19
87
34
68
75
2
51
0
29
12
9
44
S3
86
16
78
95
57
4
46
35
21
90
38
10
21
TABUS IV (C oat'd)
,X’GID2i?r SHONE
YSb
NO
« iu estion Number P e r c e n t- Number PercenbKumbar
ag*
age
35
36
37
28
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
68
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
57
149
34
158
147
131
162
118
139
130
110
152
144
80
138
117
85
157
158
88
132
41
143
136
86
82
45
154
95
155
158
56
74
135
137
89
35
91
21
97
90
81
99
73
85
80
68
93
88
49
85
72
52
96
97
54
81
25
88
83
16
50
27
95
58
95
97
34
45
83
84
18
106
14
128
3
16
30
1
41
24
33
53
11
18
81
24
44
77
4
5
67
31
122
17
27
134
74
117
7
61
7
5
106
87
27
26
132
65
9
78
2
10
18
1
25
15
20
32
7
11
50
14
27
47
3
3
41
19
75
10
17
82
45
72
4
38
4
3
65
54
16
16
81
•yCCIDEJ.'T PRES
Y223
NO
Number P er cen t- Number P ercent
age
age
77
203
42
234
214
211
237
167
224
179
194
229
237
164
239
20*
142
237
238
149
209
61
230
231
29
164
125
236
113
233
231
136
133
208
209
44
32
84
17
96
88
87
98
69
92
74
80
94
98
68
98
84
59
98
98
61
86
25
95
95
12
68
52
97
47
96
95
56
55
86
86
18
166
40
199
9
29
32
6
76
19
63
49
12
6
76
3
41
99
6
5
89
34
182
13
12
214
78
117
7
128
10
12
103
110
35
34
199
68
16
82
4
12
13
2
31
3
26
20
5
2
31
Z
16
41
2
2
37
14
75
5
5
88
32
48
3
52
4
5
42
45
14
14
82
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
32
TABLE V
BIFKSRSNCSS IK ?nC 2M F.X £5 BJSF.-iSlSf IB S " * $ £ " ASn&HB OF TIE ACCIDENT FEES
a id teh j c c i m x m o rn o a m e s , asd m is wh o- amswsbs o f th e a c c id e n t f b s s
AMD BBS ACCIDENT PHONE BRIVEHS, AND THE ASSIGNED SCORING VALES FOR THOSE
DIFi’SRISHCBS IK FERCiStmCH, -iUESTIOKIL'OHS PART A
ACCIDENT fliiSE DRIVERS BKI?« POSITIVE: ACCIDENT? PROHS DRIVERS NEGATIVE
:;U3stion
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
3
9
10
11
12
13
14
IS
16
17
13
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
«SSS"
9 (a)
3
-1 5
11
-2 1
-6
-1 2
-2
-7
3
-1 7
4
5
3
-6
2
11
2
4
22
15
17
-4
7
0
-3
13
10
ASSIGNED VALUE
2
1
-3
2
—4
-1
-3
0
—1
1
—4.
1
1
1
-1
0
2
0
1
5
3
4
-1
1
0
-1
-1
3
2
"HO"
ASSIGNED V-JJJ
-9
—3
15
-1 2
23
7
12
1
8
-3
19
-4
-4
-2
7
-2
-1 0
2
-4
-2 0
-1 3
-1 6
4
-7
0
•8
4
-1 2
-1 0
^ A l l numbers ca rry in g no sig n arc p o s it iv e .
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-1
3
-3
4
1
3
0
2
-1
4
-1
-1
0
1
0
-2
0
-1
—4
-5
-4
1
-1
0
2
1
—3
-2
33
TABL3 T (Cont*d)
Q uestion
Huobar
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
’*Y23W
4
29
-15
•9
z
-3
-7
-4
-1
-2
6
-1
—4
7
-6
12
1
10
19
13
12
7
2
1
7
5
0
7
12
-4
18
25
2
-1 1
1
-2
12
10
3
2
0
i>::-ICK2) 7AUTS
1
8
-3
-2
0
—1
-1
-1
0
0
1
0
-1
1
-1
3
0
2
4
3
3
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
3
-1
4
5
0
-2
0
0
3
ry
1
0
0
'’NO"
AJkjlOitHD V.vXJJ3
-3
-2 8
15
10
—2
>s
W
7
4
O
w
2
«6
1
6
—7
6
-1 2
-2
-9
-1 9
-1 2
-1 1
-6
-1
—1
-4
-5
0
-5
-1 2
6
-1 3
-2 4
-1
14
0
2
-1 3
-9
• -2
-2
1
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-1
-6
3
2
0
1
1
1
0
0
-1
0
1
-1
1
-3
0
-2
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
0
-1
-1
0
-1
-3
1
-3
-5
0
3
0
0
-3
-2
0
0
0
34
TaBLE VI
u u m m or c a s s s m > vvbg& w & b
s m m o h rriaa in d ic a tin g
1, a , s ,
OB 4 , OF MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS, F.hETS D AMD C, IQR aGCIBSHT i W
DRIVERS
PAST B
Q uestion
Nuiaber
1
2
3
4
S
6
7
3
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
IS
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
PGBCE»T4CSS
JJfJMBER OF C.ASSS
1
2
3
0
0
109
9
7
4
17
15
85
134
92
91
131
75
95
1
134
18
8
143
147
159
141
199
0
7
154
US
2
2
15
5
7
7
104
13
14
48
24
29
9
13
35
48
19
71
40
25
84
35
3
22
28
34
IS
14
3
14
14
21
34
4
27
32
11
20
35
28
18
37
104
106
5
45
90
76
54
69
19
4
0
IB
4
3
11
19
5
61
83
4
1
0
1
40
80
85
0
10
79
48
61
69
87
76
14
4
1
2
46
39
1
34
37
74
78
41
9
3
0
9
2
0
18
140
2
56
38
0
0
0
6
89
62
116
3
4
49
100
66
54
41
62
8
0
0
67
6
4
3
10
9
52
82
57
55
81
46
53
1
82
11
5
83
90
97
86
12
0
4
95
73.
1
1
9
3
5
4
64
8
9
29
15
17
4
8
22
29
12
43
25
15
51
22
2
14
17
21
9
8
2
9
9
13
21
2
17
19
7
12
22
17
U
22
3
64
65
3
27
55
47
33
42
13
2
0
12
8
2
7
11
3
37
51 .
2
1
0
1
24
49
3
0
6
49
30
37
42
53
47
9
4
28
24
1
51
23
46
48
25
5
8
0
6
1
0
U
86
1
35
23
0
0
0
3
54
38
71
2
2
30
61
41
33
25
38
8
R e p ro d u c e d with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
35
X.J3L2 71 (C oat'd )
?:ii T B
q u e stio n
Nuaber
36
3?
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
PsT.CjSHTAGiffl
HOHBIiE Q
i*5
3
4
48
1
54
63
5
10
20
7
10
51
17
10
97
35
4
19
64
17
19
29
34
29
54
12
3
12
23
39
63
1
19
39
S3
26
16
48
10
2
45
29
41
16
29
20
25
19
1
23
39
24
10
17
31
6
0
21
5
23
69
49
4
B
7
0
23
18
<*
0
35
0
27
20
75
25
24
13
19
47
56
5
29
8
23
21
9
57
44
49
59
66
61
21
14
30
70
51
9
9
42
41
74
35
6
20
3
1
5
24
3
10
2
16
5
5
9
21
11
24
29
17
22
66
49
14
38
9
13
2
7
1
42
38
9
15
21
23
23
0
1
12
ft
V
18
15
13
1
£
3
4
1
78
2
87
103
8
IS
nn
wiw
11
17
84
27
IS
159
57
8
32
102
28
32
47
56
47
89
20
5
20
37
54
103
2
30
63
87
44.
26
77
17
3
73
47
67
27
47
52
41
51
1
38
63
39
17
23
£0
10
0
35
9
37
111
79
6
26
12
0
38
29
4
0
57
0
44
33
122
40
39
22
32
76
91
10
47
13
38
34
15
93
71
80
97
108
99
34
24
49
114
83
15
115
68
58
120
56
9
32
5
2
9
39
5
16
4
25
8
8
15
34
18
•39
47
29
36
104
80
23
62
14
21
3
11
1
69
62
14
25
34
47
38
0
1
22
6
28
24
22
PART
C
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
3
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
35
T.iBLS 71 (Coiit'd)
PjffiT C
y ie a tio u
Number
20
21
09
M
M
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
SIMJKR Of CU33S
u*z
1
2
23
67
114
117
£5
58
79
8
17
41
32
19
14
39
67
6
34
85
121
50
97
14
32
S
S9
107
58
47
5
46
PitSiC&CLtffiSS
4
1
2
3
4
7
37
1
1
2
11
16
13
15
20
14
41
70
72
15
20
11
9
24
41
80
9
19
3
42
4
23
1
1
2
7
4
3
23
4
65
48
3
10
28
15
52
75
31
31
29
4
28
9
12
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
37
In d ic a te w hether a d r iv e r belonged to one group o r th e o th er; (6 ) th e
S tron g a r b itr a r y w eig h tin g tech n iq u e
S tron g, (1927) per Syaonds, p . 249,
1 9 3 1 ).
The committee v o ted unanimously to use th e Strong method o f sc o r ­
in g .
S trong*s BBthod o f sco rin g was ap p lied to th e D riving Q u estio n n a ire,
w ith a d a p ta tio n s t o s u i t th e ob tained d a ta .
S ta tin g f ir s t ,r a n g e o f d i f ­
fe r e n c e s in p e r c e n ta g e s, and seco n d ,a ssig n ed v a lu e s , y ie ld e d th e f o llo w in g
sco rin g system :
o to 2 , o ; 3 to 7 ,
1;
8 to 1 1 ,
2 0 , 4; 21 to 3 6 , 5 ; 27 t o 3 2 , 6; 33 t o 3 7 , 7 .
2; 12 t o 1 5 , 3 ;
16 to
These v a lu e s w ere a p p lied to
p ercen tage d if f e r e n c e s in favor o f th e a ccid en t-p ro n e groups as n e g a tiv e
s c o r e s , and t o p ercen tage d if f e r e n c e s in fa v o r o f the a c c id e n t-fr e e groups
a s p o s it iv e s c o r e s ,
'The d ata r e s u lt in g from th e a p p lic a t io n o f t h i s sc o r ­
ing system, are g iv e n in T ab les VH and T i l l .
The sc o r e on ea ch p a rt a s w e ll a s th e sco re on th e t o t a l q u estio n ­
n a ir e was determ ined f o r each in d iv id u a l.
The d is t r ib u t io n o f t o t a l
s c o r e s a s w e ll a s th a t o f the s c o r e s on each p a r t, fa r each group, c l o s e l y
approximated the normal cu rve.
C onsiderin g t h e sm a ll number o f c a se s th e s e v a lu e s in d ic a te a r e la ­
t i v e l y c lo s e f i t to th e t h e o r e t ic a l normal c u r v e .
I t was apparent from
in s p e c tio n th a t th e d is t r ib u t io n o f the s c o r e s f o r th e p a r ts o f th e q u es­
tio n n a ir e
c l o s e l y approximated th e normal cu rve.
The procedure employed f o r f i t t i n g th e se d is t r ib u t io n s to th e normal
curve i s t h a t recommended by D ickey (1 9 5 4 ):
th e D ick ey G form ula is :
G - lOOE(fl)
lift)
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
33
T.4BL2 VII
r o a m <sr c m sn m ) PSBCJim cas fob &-&H i w im d icai'ieo anbm r 1 * 2 , 3 ,
OH 4 g OF mUSJ^lM CHOICE 4U3STI0KS P<*HTS B iiKB C, FOE -ACCIDENT FRSS BEIVEKS
PART B
Q ueation
Ktlabor
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
IS
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
PKRC3HT,UJSS
H'trICATINGr ANSWKR5
3
2
1
SUHBKR OF CASKS
1
2
3
4
5
1
209
7
4
16
49
3
146
191
124
153
194
144
130
0
185
37
8
214
220
229
214
27
12
4
216
188
6
0
17
4
9
8
103
138
7
13
19
31
27
8
IS
49
62
29
115
43
41
98
45
18
39
54
37
29
23
14
22
25
72
63
18
35
29
9
34
70
36
11
41
41
153
129
9
111
130
81
79
131
23
12
2
28
5
0
27
89
4
97
137
0
0
0
4
51
81
8
9
13
96
65
92
114
138
234
38
21
77
98
5
92
78
137
89
59
12
9
1
17
3
1
33
136
15
55
69
0
0
0
3
140
77
163
0
6
112
168
100
55
SO
90
60
42
2
1
86
3
2
7
20
1
60
78
51
63
80
59
57
0
76
15
3
88
91
94
%
11
5
2
88
77
3
0
7
2
4
3
43
57
3
5
8
13
11
4
7
20
28
12
47
17
17
40
18
7
16
22
15
12
9
6
9
10
30
28
8
14
12
4
14
29
15
5
17
17
63
53
4
45
54
33
33
54
9
5
1
12
2
0
11
37
2
40
52
0
0
0
a
21
33
4
4
6
39
27
37
48
56
55
16
8
4
31
40
2
38
32
56
37
25
5
4
1
7
1
1
14
56
6
23
29
0
0
0
1
58
32
66
0
3
46
69
42
21
25
37
24
18
R e p ro d u c e d with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
39
TABL3 n i (Cont‘d)
StKBJSR OF CASKS
paw b
q u estio n
Number
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
X KRCKi.TAGiiS
INDICATING AN5V/3RS
3
2
1
4
1
2
3
4
2
136
180
19
38
50
14
17
141
52
96
243
107
15
38
169
80
50
59
53
148
36
5
29
51
71
105
0
48
69
143
63
84
25
4
122
38
77
28
53
40
73
17
0
26
103
45
4
78
32
0
47
18
77
192
144
8
46
25
0
58
55
14
6
1
56
74
8
16
21
6
7
58
22
40
100
44
6
15
71
33
20
24
22
61
16
2
12
22
29
43
0
20
29
60
26
34
10
2
50
16
31
11
22
16
30
7
0
10
42
19
1
32
14
0
20
7
31
19
59
3
19
10
0
24
23
6
3
78
3
54
IS
216
40
39
73
45
142
142
21
75
32
78
53
21
120
208
171
169
10
25
85
137
112
28
20
113
111
172
57
24
48
6
3
£
41
5
53
7
3
33
18
18
37
52
32
50
145
85
34
27
15
13
5
122
108
26
46
58
58
65
0
3
49
16
81
32
1
23
7
90
16
16
30
13
58
58
8
31
13
32
. 22
9
50
86
70
70
4
11
35
56
46
6
8
47
45
71
24
10
20
2
1
1
17
2
22
3
1
13
19
8
15
22
13
21
60
35
14
11
6
5
2
50
45
11
19
13
24
27
0
1
20
7
33
PART C
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
R e p ro d u c e d with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
40
TABLB VII ( Coat'd)
p/an1 c
Q uestion
Number
18
19
SO
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
HI&B2R OF fV% i*
1
2
3
4
207
132
32
74
191
175
40
41
150
16
33
61
3
7
26
27
19
56
139
19
23
153
161
56
12
73
165
46
29
3
54
153
55
52
17
104
20
24
18
75
4
9
7
£5
14
18
28
16
•i'bliCSiTIVii} 35
INDICATING itfOKRS
1 2
3
85
56
13
30
79
72
15
17
52
7
13
25
2
3
10
12
8
rsrt
57
8
9
63
57
*5*1
5
31
68
19
12
1
23
63
23
22
7
43
4
3
10
3
31
1
4
3
11
6
7
12
7
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
41
TABLE T i l l
DIRgRMMMB IN PSiCSN-EAfiiS AND TILE hSSIGHED SCORING VALUES
Pi2lCfflffiaGS5 OF THIS ACCIDENT HJONS I M T f t m AND TiflS /JJCIP3iiT
INDICATE® ANSWERS 1 , 2, 3 , OH 4 OF PASTS B ill© C MULTIPLE
CTHiMTIGKO. ACCIDENT FHK3 DRIVERS BEING POSITIVE; ACCIDENT
FOR THCH8
FHES DRIYURS,
CHOICE
PHONE DRIVERS
NEGATIVE
Q uestion
Number
1
2
3
4
5
$
7
3
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
D im m iiC ES IN PERCENTAGE
.iSSIGNED SCORING VALUES
1
1
-2
1
19
-3
W w
4
10
-8
8
-4
-6
7
-1
13
-1
-1
-6
4
-2
0
1
-3
2
-1
5
-2
-7
4
2
0
-2
-1
-1
-1
2
-5
-4
-2 1
—2
-6
0
-1
-2
-3
0
4
—8
2
-1 1
-4
5
2
5
-6
3
1
4
0
1
17
7
6
-3
-7
-3
' 2
7
-2
-6
3
-1
—12
1
18
-1
—14
0
12
—4
3
1
0
0
0
4
26
-1
3
1
0
0
0
1
-3
-1 6
1
4
0
-1 0
-3
0
6
3
8
4
-3
IS
1
-1 3
9
10
11
0
0
2
1
1
0
1
3
-3 0
3
-1 2
6
0
0
0
-2
4
—6
-5
0
1
16
8
1
-1 2
0
-1
0
0
4
-1
0
1
2
-2
2
-1
—1
1
0
3
0
0
—1
1
0
0
0
-1
0
0
1
0
-1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
3
-1
-1
-5
0
-1
0
0
0
-1
0
1
-2
0
-2
-1
1
0
1
-1
1
0
1
0
0
4
1
1
-1
-1
-1
0
1
0
-1
0
-3
0
4
0
-3
9
3
-1
1
0
0
0
0
1
5
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
-1
-4
0
1
0
-2
-1
0
1
1
2
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4
-1
4
0
-3
2
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
-6
1
-3
I
0
0
0
0
1
-1
-1
0
0
4
2
0
-3
0
0
42
TASLii VIII (Cont’d)
Q uestion
Nuisfcar
PART B
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
DIPT,SM&OISL IN PERCr3WTA05
ASUGRi-J) SCORING VALU3
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
-2 1
9
0
2
11
3
6
1
-1
-3
7
5
30
3
9
2
-4
7
-5
0
14
-9
-1 0
-7
7
4
-1
0
-1
-1 0
-2 0
0
1
-1 0
7
0
7
—8
-1 4
0
0
5
-1 3
-1 0
-5
-7
-4
5
-1 2
0
-1 3
3
-5
-9
17
1
1
8
0
-1
1
8
10
10
-1
3
3
0
1
5
3
3
-5
2
0
0
2
1
1
0
0
-1
1
1
6
1
2
0
-1
1
-1
0
3
-2
-2
-1
1
1
0
0
0
-2
—4
0
0
-2
1
0
1
-2
-3
0
0
1
-2
-2
-1
-1
-1
1
-3
0
-3
1
-1
-2
4
0
0
2
0
0
0
2
2
2
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
-3
1
-4
-1 3
15
-9
-0
17
-1
11
2
2
2
5
9
1
1
27
4
9
-1 7
-3
5
-1 4
-5
-3
-2 3
-2
7
0
6
*2
-4
4 '
-2
-3
-9
-7
-4
-1
-6
5
-2
4
-2
1
8
7
2
4
-8
1
4
0
0
7
4
-1
0
-1
-3
3
-2
-2
4
0
2
0
0
0
1
' 2'
0
0
6
1
2
—4
—1
1
-3
-1
-1
0
1
1
—1
-2
1
-1
-5
0
1
0
1
0
-1
1
0
—1
-2
-1
-1
0
-1
1
0
1
0
0
2
1
0
1
-2
0
1
0
0
1
1
PART C
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
-1
S
4
-3
-1 1
4
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
43
TAIiO m i (C -.at'd)
<question
Ifuabar
PftRT c
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
DIETKKSNC3S IK PKBCEMViGg
1
2
0
18
12
-1
-1 1
9
0
1
-6
14
2
3
0
0
-1
2
-1 0
1
-1
-1
16
4
-6
11
-3
-8
3
-1 4
-9
-8
3 ■
10
-7
-2
-1 9
_o
-8
-7
5
15
:i£Joio.SI) SCCMia c Y«LHSS
4
1
2
3
4
16
-7
-3
4
8
0
3
1
4
2
-1
3
-5
0
4
3
0
-2
<y
W
0
0
-1
3
0
1
0
0
0
0
-2
0
0
0
4
1
-1
2
—3
-2
-2
2
2
-1
0
-4
0
■- 2
-1
1
3
4
-1
-1
1
2
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
-1
••2
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
44
where f^ I s th e freq u en cy o f th e le s s e r ;
p i s G, and q i s 1 -0 ,
i s th e t h e o r e t ic a l freq u en cy,
The p ercentages obtained, by t h i s n et hod w ere, f o r
th e a c c id e n t - f r e e -groups, 84*8 i 2*07 and f o r th e a ccid en t-p ro n e groups
8 7 .8 ■&2 ,6 1 .
Graphic i l l u s t r a t i o n o f th ese d ata are shown, in F ig u res
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , and 5 ,
These r e s u l t s a r e fu rth er in d ic a tio n s o f v a l i d i t y .
R insland (1936)
s a y s , " I f th e d is t r ib u t io n o f s c o r e s from a la r g e , u n se le c te d group shows
approxim ation t o a normal cu rv e, i t i s ev id en ce o f d is c r im in a tio n f o r
a b i l i t i e s which have b een aasuaad to e x i s t .
D iscrim in a tio n I s an index o f
v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y ; v a l i d i t y b ein g in fe r r e d from approxim ation to nor­
mal d is t r ib u t io n , and r e l i a b i l i t y b ein g in ferred from th e w ide range of
t o t a l s c o r e s ."
(From 130 to -5 4 }
Monroe (1925) s a y s , "This index o f
v a l i d i t y r e f e r s to th e d if f e r e n t ia t io n o f s c o r e s fo r p u p ils p o s s e s s in g
d if f e r e n t d eg ree s o f a b i l i t y .
I t i s ob viou s th a t any la c k o f o b j e c t iv i t y
or r e l i a b i l i t y w i l l r e s u lt in a la c k o f d is c r im in a tio n f o r c e r t a in p u p i l s . ”
Monroe and S n g leh a rt (1936) sa y ,
”A v a lid t e s t r e v e a ls d if f e r e n c e s in
a b i l i t y th a t e x i s t end one th a t f a i l s to r e v e a l a d if f e r e n c e th a t i s a t a l l
marked i s d i s t i n c t l y la c k in g in t h i s q u a lit y ."
The sam pling o f resp o n ses
f o r s k i l l s and a t t it u d e s i s w ell, d is t r ib u t e d over th e a rea o f d r iv in g as
the ob tain ed d is t r ib u t io n s o f s c o r e s approximate n orm ality fo r groups known
t o be t y p ic a l o f a c c id e n t fr e e n e s s and a c c id e n t p ro n en ess.
Because th e d egree o f f i t n e s s fo r b oth a ccid en t-p ro n e and a c c id e n tf r e e groups i s h ig h , 8 7 .8 per cen t and 8 4 .8 per cen t r e s p e c t iv e ly , the ques­
tio n n a ir e i s e q u a lly r e l i a b l e and v a lid f o r both g ro u p s.
T h is i s unusual in
q u e s tio n n a ir e s o f s im ila r le n g th , approxim ately one hour and t h i r t y m in u tes,
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced
with permission
ACCIDENT
ACCIDEN T
ACCIDENT
AC CIDEN T
PRONE
FREE
PRONE
FREE
Z
Li
U
CC
CL
20 25 20
Itr
FIG
I
I—
Further reproduction
SCORES
DR IVING Q U E S T I O N N A I R E
PART A
SK IL L S
A C C I D E N T P R O N E A N D A C C I D E N T F R E E D R IV E R S
FIG
prohibited without permission.
AC CIDEN T
PRONE
ACCIDENT
FREE
3
z
u
occ
5
SCORES
D R IV I N G Q U E S T I O N N A I R E
P A R T S A B.C
S K IL L S
A C C I D E N T P R O N E A N D A C C I D E N T F R E E D R IV E R S
A C C I D E N T PR ON E
ACCIDENT FR EE
PERCENT
of the copyright owner.
LI
± __
UJ
37%
SCORES
D R IV IN G Q U E S T I O N N A IR E P A R T A
A T T IT U D E S
AC CI DEN T P R O N E A N D A C C I D E N T F R E E D R IV E R S
SCORES
FIG 4
DR IVI NG Q U E S T I O N N A I R E
ACCIDEN T
PRONE
PARTS
A B C
AT TIT U D ES
A N D A C C I O E N T FR EE DRIV ERS
Reproduced
with permission
of the copyright owner.
A C C ID E N T
PRO NE
A C C ID E N T
F R E E
Further reproduction
$
w-
prohibited
28%
V E R L AP
without permission.
55
A5
35
25
25
35
65
i<T
75
85
95
05
RX —
SC O R ES
D R IV IN G
FIG . 5
Q U E S T IO N N A IR E
PA R TS
A C C ID EN T
A N D
PRONE
A B C
A T T IT U D E S
A C C ID E N T
FREE
A N D
D R IVER S
SKILLS
125
135
47
but th e range o f s c o r e s i s very g r e a t (130 to -5 4 )
The means, the standard e r r o r
o f the a sa a , and th e standard de­
v ia t io n o f each d is t r ib u t io n are g iv en in Table IX.
means, th e standard
errors
of
s ig n if ic a n c e are g iv e n in Table X.
The d if f e r e n c e s in
th e d if f e r e n c e s , and th e r a t io s o f
The comparison o f t i e moans o f each
p a rt o f th e q u e s tio n n a ir e show s ig n if ic a n t d if f e r e n t i a t io n s betw een the
groups o f a c c id e n t- f r e e and th e groups o f a ccid en t-p ro n e d r iv e r s .
The
standard d e v ia tio n s are h igh and in d ic a te th a t the v a r i a b i l i t y o f the s k i l l s
and a t t it u d e s o f th e
c o n tr a s tin g group3 are s u f f i c ie n t to j u s t i f y the con­
c lu s io n th a t b oth s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s a re n ecessa ry p a rts o f th e .a b i l i t y
to d r iv e an au to m o b ile.
The u s e fu ln e s s o f t e s t s which are v a lid a te d a g a in s t d i s t i n c t l y
d if f e r e n t groups depends upon the amount o f d iffe r e n c e between t h e ir means
and th e amount o f ov erla p p in g o f t o t a l d is t r ib u t io n s .
As t h i s amount o f
overlap p in g d e c r e a s e s , e s p e c ia l ly the amounts o f ea ch cu rve above and below
r e s p e c t iv e m eans, th e v a l i d i t y in c r e a s e s .
d is c r im in a tio n .
V a lid ity here i s synonymous w ith
One c r i t i c i s m o ffe r e d a g a in s t o th er p u b lish ed t e s t s of
s k i l l s and in form ation i s th e la r g e amount o f overlap p in g o f d if f e r e n t
grou p s, supposed to be r e a l ly d if f e r e n t in d r iv in g a b i l i t y .
In order t o
s e e th e d if fe r e n c e s o f o v erlap p in g i n s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s , th ese two phases
w ere in clud ed in th e t e s t in t h i s s tu d y .
Because o f the apparent d e f in it e n e s s o f s k i l l s and in form ation and
th e in d e f in it e n e s s even o f d e f in it i o n s o f a t t i t u d e s , one would not ex p ect a
f i n e r d is c r im in a tio n I n t h e t e s t o f a t t it u d e than in th e t e s t o f s k i l l and
in form ation , but t h i s i s the c a s e .
The amount o f o v erlap p in g in th e s k i l l s
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
48
TABLE EC
m s
m m , asm s t a n d a r d s e b o k , a n d m -. s z * k b a b d d b v i . - . t i o k , o f t h s h b a h f o
SACK PAH? OF TEE vjJJESTIOiKUIBE FOB THS ACCIDENT I50SS GROUPS AND THS
ACCIDENT PRONE GROUPS
Part o f
q u estio n n a ire
A ccid en t Free
Mean
Standard
Error
A ccident Prone
Standard
D ev ia tio n
Mean
Standard
Error
Standard
D eviation
"A" S k i l l s
- 2 .5 8
± .4 7
7 .4 2
- 8 .8 5
±
.2 6
3 .3 6
"A"Attitudes
5 2 .2 0
± .8 5
1 3 .4 1
1 6 .9 8
± 1 .2 2
1 5 .7 1
"B" S k i l l s
5 .9 2
± .5 5
8 .6 0
4 .4 4
"B"A ttitudes
4«S4
k
.6 6
1 0 .4 2
—8 .0 3
*C* S k i l l s
9 .0 6
± .3 ?
5 .9 1
4 .8 0
±
.5 5
7 .1 0
"C" A ttitu d e s
8 .7 1
±
.4 9
7 .7 0
4 .5 4
± .5 7
7 .3 4
1 2 .4 0
±
.9 2
1 4 .3 1
.39
4 5 .5 5
A 1 .0 9
1 7 .0 0
6 0 .3 0
£ 2 .6 6
4 1 .6 2
•A*, "B"t *C"
S k ills
"A*, "ET, "C"
A ttitu d e s
"A” , "B", *C»
S k i l l s and
A ttitu d e s to ­
g e th e r
r
±
*64 •-
=fc .7 8
8 .1 8
10 .0 0
.9 4
1 2 .0 8
1 3 .4 9
± 1 .8 7
24 .0 2
1 6 .0 0
± 1 .7 7
2 2 .7 2
±
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
49
TABLE X
THE DIFFERENCE IN MEANS AM) TEE SIGNIFICANCE OF TIE DIFFERENCE FOE &,iCH
past or m s qoksxionkairi for t j b accibsot f e e s and t s s accujknt
PRMBS OBOOPS
Part o f
Q u estion n aire
"A" S k i l l s
A ttitu d e s
"B» S k i l l s
A ttitu d e s
D iffe r e n c e
in
Means
Standard
Error o f
d if f e r e n c e s
6 .2 7
.5 3 7
R a tio o f
S ig n ific a n c e
U .6 .
1 0 .2
1 3 .0 2
1 .4 8
1 .4 8
.8 4
5 .6 8
1 2 .6 7
1 .0 2
1 2 .2 1
4 .2 6
.6 5
6 .6 4
4 .1 7
.5 6
7 .4 3
1 2 .0 1
1 .3 1
9 .1 1
3 2 .0 6
2 .1 5
1 4 ,8 4
4 4 .3 0
3 .3 8
13,86
"C" S k i l l s
A ttitu d e s
wA*t W
B’* "C*
S k ills
A ttitu d e s
*B" ”0*
S k ills
and
A ttitu d e s
and In form ation t e s t i s 73 p er c e n t, but the amount o f o v erlap p in g in
the a t t it u d e t e s t i s o n ly 32 per c e n t.
These o v erla p p in g s a r e graphic­
a l l y shown in F ig u r e s 3 and 4 r e s p e c t iv e ly .
These data a r e fu r th e r
ev id en ce o f th e f a c t t h a t a t t it u d e s have not o n ly been sb a sirred w ith soae
degree o f v a l i d i t y , but w ith a h ig h er degree o f v a l i d i t y than were s k i l l s
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
]/
SO
and in fo rm a tio n .
Whan th e se two d iv is io n s of the t e s t are combined, the amount
o f overlap p in g i s 28 per c e n t, g iv in g the t o t a l t e s t a higher v a lid i t y
or d is c r im in a tin g power th an each p a r t ta te n se p a r a te ly .
The w hole t e s t
in tfcj l i g h t o f th e so d a ta , may be sa id t o p o s s e s s a h ig h degree o f d is ­
crim in a tin g power, and, as su ch , i s probably much more d isc r im in a tin g than
o th er t e s t s o f s k i l l and inform ation o n ly .
These d ata a ls o support
claim s o f p r a c t ic a l u se fo r th e t e s t in measuring d r iv e r s o f unknown a b il­
ity .
As s c o r e s o f d r iv e r s agree more c l o s e l y w ith one or th e o th e r group,
th e ir tendency i s t o d r iv e l i k e th a t group.
D riv er’ s s c o r e s w hich f a l l
in the area o f maximum o v erla p p in g , th a t i a,midway betw een th e means a s
shown on F igure 8 , are an unknown q u a n tity and p r e d ic tio n s o f d r iv in g e f f i ­
c ie n c y are l a a s t a c c u r a te .
But th e number o f d r iv e r s making a sco re in
t h i s range i s sm a ll,
A r a t io o f s ig n if ic a n c e o f th r e e or more i s co n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t
by q u e stio n n a ir e c r i t i c s and s t a t i s t i c i a n s . ( G arrett (1 9 3 7 ), p , 213.) S in ce
a t t it u d e s are h ig h ly s u b j e c t iv e , and even t h e ir d e f in it io n s a re not w e ll
stan d ard ized , a r a t io o f s ig n if ic a n c e o f 3 would undoubtedly be s a t is f a c ­
to r y , b u t a r a t io o f s ig n if ic a n c e f o r a t t it u d e s of 1 4 .8 4 i s alm ost more
than m ight be ex p e c te d .
Combining s k i l l s and a t t it u d e s g iv e s a r a t io o f
s ig n if ic a n c e o f 1 3 .8 6 .
Therefore the q u estio n n a ire i s much more v a lid
than p e r so n a l judgment, and perhaps more v a lid th an any o th er e x i s t i n g
q u e s tio n n a ir e .
The c o r r e la t io n s between s k i l l s and a t t it u d e s f o r th e th r e e p a r ts
o f th e q u e stio n n a ir e s e p a r a te ly and a s a w hole are g iv en in Table XX*
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The
51
ta B L E
XE
CQRRSLAS’ION B2Tfe-SSH SKILLS AHD ATTITUDES FOR TH5 DRIFIJSC QD2STIQHKAISB
PARIS A, B» AKD C, iiitD Pi'iETS .1, 3 , AND C T0G2THSB FUR THB V O I ­
DEST ERES .J D TIE ;iCCIDEi.T HIGHS GROUPS
A ccident
Prone
.Accident
Free
P art o f
Q u estion n aire
C o r r e la tio n
Probable
Mirror
+ .1 ?
.0 4
- .0 6
.054
.2 3
"B"
S k i l l and
a t t it u d e
+ .1 4
•04
+ .1 9
.0 4 8
.0 5
"Cn
S k i l l and
A ttitu d e
+ .1 5
.0 4
—.0 7
.0 5 3
.2 2
«B» "C*
S k i l l and
A ttitu d e
+ .3 4
.0 4
- .0 2
.0 5 1
.3 6
"A*
S k i l l and
A ttitu d e
C o rrela tio n
Probable
Error
D if f e r ­
ence o f
Correia*
tio n a
c o r r e la t io n s are n o t h igh In any c a se ; how -ver. the c o n s is te n c y w ith which
lew p o s it iv e c o r r e la t io n s a re found betw een the sic i l l s and a t t it u d e s o f
th e a ccid en t—pron© d r iv e r s . in d ic a te t h a t f o r a c c id e n t f r e e d r iv in g in d i­
v id u a l d r iv e r s have acre h ig h ly in te g r a te d c o n tr o l o f the s k i l l s and a t t i ­
tu d e s than a ccid en t-p ro n e d r iv e r s have.
Low c o r r e la t io n s a ls o in d ic a te th a t
both s k i l l s and a t t it u d e s a n st be nsasured and th a t th e two cosh in ed make a
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
52
more v a lid t e s t tixaa e iU io r one a lo a e .
T h erefore, any c o a y ie ta t a s t in g
o f d r iv e r s req u ir es a ea su rca ea ts o f both, a t t it u d e s and s k i l l s .
The r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e q u estio n n a ire c a lc u la te d by th e s p l i t - h a l f
method o f c o r r e la tio n ami corrected by th e Brownr-tjpseriaan prophecy form ula,
fo r 100 a c c id e n t f r e e d r iv e r s and 100 a ccid en t prone d r iv e r s to g e th e r i s
,7 5 w ith a probable erro r o f ,0 4 ,
The r e l i a b i l i t y o f tha q u estio n n a ire
c a lc u la te d by th e same method fa r 100 a c c id e n t f r e e d r iv e r s , 100 a ccid en t
prone d r iv e r s , and 100 average d r iv e r s combined i s ,7 4 w ith a p ro b a tle
err o r o f ,0 2 ,
ayreonda {1931, p . 232) g iv e s the s e l f - r f o r e ig h te e n a t t i ­
tude q u e s tio n n a ir e s .
The average o f th e s e s e l f - r ’ a i s ,3 3 , o n ly th r e e o f
th e e ig h te e n b eing o v er ,7 5 fo r groups o f s ix ty -o n e s u b j e c t s .
T herefore,
the r e l i a b i l i t y fo r the d r iv in g q u estion n aire ia r e l a t i v e l y high in compari­
son t o o th e r q u e stio n n a ir e s o f a s im ila r n a tu re.
Another approach t o r e l i a b i l i t y i s through th e standard e r r o r o f a
score.
T h is u n it i s used to in te r p r e t the con stan cy o f each sco re in terms
c f both t i e c o e f f i c i e n t o f r e l i a b i l i t y and th e standard d e v ia t io n .
The
standard e r r o r o f a sco re i s in te r p r e te d a s the f lu c t u a t io n o f a score
68 tim es ou t o f 100 i f th e t e s t wore rep ea te d , or 100 e q u iv a le n t forms
were u ced .
The standard e rr o r o f th e score o f the whole t e s t fo r a l l
th r e e typ os o f d r iv e r s , a s one group, i s 3 1 ,
In
T able X II
a re giv en com plete fr e q u e n c ie s in f i v e - s t e p in t e r ­
v a ls f o r a l l p a rts o f th e t e s t and th e t e s t a s a w h ole, fo r each group.
In T able X III are g iv en p e r c e n t ile and norms f o r each group, and
f o r combined groups.
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
53
TABLE 211
DISTRIBOTIUi* OF KACff PAS? OF TRK K S T FUR ACCIHfcMT PEOSis,
SCORES
ACCIDENT PF OWE
TOT aL
PART B
FART r
PAST A
TOTAL
SKILLS ATT* SKILLS ATT. SKILLS ATT* S K IL i-3 ATT. A
. y rv r
A T.
130 t o
1 25 t o
120 to
115 to
1 10 t o
105 to
1 00 t o
95 t o
90 to
85 t o
80 t o
75 t o
70 to
6 * to
60 to
55 t o
50 t o
45 to
40 to
35 t o
30 t o
25 t o
20 to
15 t o
10 to
5 to
Q to
- 5 to
-1 0 to
-1 5 to
-2 0 to
-2 5 to
-3 0 to
-3 5 to
*4 0 to
-4 5 to
-5 0 to
PAT
.
t k il u
126
121
116
111
106
1 01
96
!
1
91
66
81
76
1
1
71
66
61
56
51
46
41
36
31
26
21
16
11
6
1
-4
-9
-1 4
-1 9
-2 4
-2 9
-3 4
-3 9
-4 9
*5 4
:
2
10
21
56
a
24
6
1
1
2
2
1
0
10
12
4
3
14
16
1
2
1
2
12
17
19
25
21
12
16
25
26
42
4
9
7
1
35
13
6
1
5
9
17
26
31
32
21
12
e
✓
2
1
9
25
46
5
5
23
a
38
40
20
10
37
10
4
1
3
1
5
8
16
14
19
32
23
28
10
3
1
1
19
12
12
20
17
1
7
3
3
8
IQ
10
10
13
8
15
15
13
11
10
20
7
2
2
9
5
1
4
2
2
3
1
1
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3
1
1
1
3
9
30
43
52
66
28
8
2
2
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
T'!3LL 2 1 1
FRSB AUD AVERAGE GROUPS
-•f FOR ‘CCIimMT P&OHB,
AVERAGE
ACCIDJJT FREE
TOTAL
TOTAL
ILLS ATT. ..KILL-
5IT.
"'OTA!,
PART A
PA&T E
PART C
TOTAL
TOTAL
iK IU S ATT. SKILLS ATT. SKILLS ATT, SKILLS ATT. SKILLS, L'AXL.Ll' ' £
ATT.
ATT.
2
2
1
4
2
1
14
14
4
4
7
7
7
1
2
4
3
14
16
7
3
3
6
22
1
8
10
17
30
3
11
53
32
24
2
19
10
10
5
12
12
20
15
15
13
14
19
32
23
17
13
11
10
20
28
10
2
2
1
8
16
6
7
8
2
11
9
5
1
3
4
3
1
1
2
2
1
3
9
30
43
52
66
28
8
2
2
?3
10
3
3
2
2
2
1
3
6
26
34
55
40
47
17
4
1
1
1
3
13
25
32
41
45
34
30
11
4
3
1
5
33
61
76
50
16
2
1
5
40
72
52
43
22
8
15
13
23
33
35
30
29
28
9
5
3
9
4
13
18
28
33
32
27
19
13
15
16
18
16
23
16
15
3
2
1
1
16
3
14
6
10
8
6
13
3
8
1
4
3
4
4
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
7
9
9
7
10
2
5
5
6
4
1
1
1
2
1
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
54
TABL3 X I I I
p ffie s w riL s s
m
m tm ?qk A ccjm tt m as, avciwiit m o w ,
«kd
imK>L o a m s
sco re A ccident a c c id e n t liorm- CofitFree
Prone
al
lin e d
Groups
Score A ccident Accident Non**
Free
Prone
al
130
126
113
113
112
103
107
106
LOB
LOS
LOO
99
98
97
96
94
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
78
77
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
100,0
9 9 ,5
9 9 .1
9 8 .3
97 .9
9 7 ,5
9 5 .4
9 4 .6
9 3 .8
9 2 .9
9 2 .1
9 0 .6
8 9 .7
8 8 .4
8 7 .2
10 0 ,0
8 6 .8
8 6 .4
8 5 .9
8 4 .7
8 3 .9
8 2 .7
8 1 .4
8 0 .2
7 9 .0
7 8 .1
7 7 .3
7 5 .7
7 4 .4
7 3 .6
7 2 .8
7 2 .0
7 0 ,3
6 9 .1
6 8 .3
6 6 .2
6 5 .4
6 3 .7
9 9 .4
1 0 0 .0
9 9 .0
10 0 .0
9 9 .8
99.6
9 9 .2
9 9 .0
9 8 .8
97 .8
9 7 .4
9 7 .0
9 6 .6
9 6 .2
9 5 .8
9 5 .0
9 4 .5
9 3 .9
9 3 ,7
9 3 .4
9 3 ,2
9 3 .0
9 S .5
9 2 .0
9 1 ,5
9 0 .9
90*3
8 9 .7
8 9 .3
8 8 ,9
8 8 .1
87 ,5
8 7 .1
8 6 .7
8 6 ,2
8 5 .4
8 4 .8
8 4 .3
8 5 ,4
8 2 .8
8 1 .6
6 2 ,1
5 6 .8
5 6 .7
54 .7
5 3 .4
5 2 .2
5 0 .6
4 8 .1
4 6 .9
4 5 .2
4 2 .7
4 0 .3
3 9 .4
3 8 .6
3 7 .0
3 6 .2
3 4 .9
3 3 .7
3 1 .2
3 0 .0
2 9 .2
2 7 .1
2 5 .9
2 3 .4
1 9 .7
IB. 9
17 .6
1 5 .2
1 3 .9
1 5 .5
1 2 .3
9 8 .8
9 8 .1
9 7 ,5
9 6 .9
9 6 .3
9 5 ,7
9 3 .9
9 3 .2
92 .6
9 2 .0
9 0 .8
9 0 .2
8 9 ,6
8 8 .9
8 7 .1
8 5 ,3
8 4 .0
8 2 .2
7 9 .1
7 7 .9
7 6 .7
7 5 .5
7 3 .0
7 1 .2
Coiabiued
Groups
8 0 ,8
7 9 .2
7 8 .2
7 7 .3
7 6 .7
9 7 .0 7 6 .0
7 5 .4
7 4 .5
7 3 .1
7 2 .3
7 1 .3
6 9 .6
6 8 .4
6 7 .7
6 7 .1
9 5 .0 6 6 .2
6 5 .6
6 5 .0
6 4 .4
6 2 ,8
9 4 .0 6 2 .1
6 1 .8
9 3 .0 6 1 .7
6 0 .1
5 9 .9
9 2 .0 5 8 .6
9 0 .0 5 6 .3
5 4 .3
8 8 .0 5 3 .6
5 2 .8
8 7 .0 5 2 .2
8 4 .0 5 0 .6
8 1 .0 4 8 .4
4 7 .2
4 6 .8
7 8 .0 4 6 .4
4 5 .0
7 6 .0 4 3 .9
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
55
TABIE X llK c o n t ’ d}
S core A ccid en t A ccident Horn- CooFree
Prone
al
binad
Croups
10.5
6 .6
5 ,3
4 ,9
4 .5
4 .1
6 5 .0
6 3 .0
6 0 .0
5 7 .0
5 4 .0
5 2 ,0
4 9 .0
4 7 .0
4 5 .0
4 2 .0
3 .3
2 .5
1 .6
1 .2
3 7 ,4
3 3 .7
3 3 .1
3 2 .5
3 0 ,7
2 7 .7
2 3 .3
2 1 ,5
1 8 .5
1B.0
1 5 .3
1 3 .5
1 2 .3
1 0 .4
4 0 .0
3 8 .0
3 6 .0
3 4 .0
3 1 .0
2 8 ,0
2 6 ,0
2 2 .0
4 2 .3
4 2 .1
4 1 .3
3 9 .3
3 8 .3
3 5 .7
3 5 .9
5 5 .3
3 4 .3
3 3 .0
3 2 .6
3 1 .4
3 0 .6
2 6 .8
2 7 .9
2 6 .5
2 5 .3
2 4 .3
2 3 .9
2 2 .9
2 1 .9
2 1 .5
1 9 .9
1 9 .5
1 8 .9
1 7 .9
1 6 .7
1 5 ,2
1 3 .6
1 3 .0
1 2 .0
1 1 .8
1 0 .6
9 .9
9 .2
8 .9
8 .1
-1 1
0 .8
1
8 .2
'7 i8
7 ,4
6 ,9
7 5 .0
7 3 .0
7 0 .0
6 8 .0
<SI
1 0 .2
6 9 .3
6 8 .1
6 6 .9
6 5 .0
6 1 .9
6 0 .1
5 8 .9
5 7 .7
S 4 .0
5 2 .8
5 0 .9
5 0 .3
4 8 .5
4 6 .6
4 4 .7
4 2 .9
4 1 .7
4 0 .5
3 9 .3
A ccid en t A ccident iforaFree
Prone
al
H
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
IS
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
mQ
-9
Score
-1 3
-1 5
-1 6
-1 7
-1 8
-1 9
-2 0
-2 1
—22
-2 4
-2 6
-2 7
-3 2
-3 4
-3 5
-3 6
-4 0
-4 6
-5 4
S
9 .9
8 .0
7 ,4
6 ,7
2 1 ,0
7 ,7
6 .3
6 .1
5 .5
4 .9
4 .5
4 .3
4 .1
3 .9
3 .3
3 .2
2 .8
2 .6
2 .4
3 .2
1 .8
1 .4
1 .2
1 ,0
0 ,5
0 .2
1 8 .0
1 6 .0
1 4 .0
1 2 .0
1 1 .0
0 .4
1 0 .0
8 .0
5 .5
7 .0
6 .0
4 .3
3 .6
3 .1
5 .0
4 .0
1 .8
1*2
0 ,6
243
163
5 .0
1 .0
100
Cosbinad
Groups
506
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CEAPTh'H 17
c o n c lu s io n s m i s v m m x
The purpose o f t h i s stu d y was to in v e s t ig a t e th e in flu e n c e s o f
a t t it u d e s and s k i l l s on au tom obile d r iv in g , by measuring th e e f f e c t s o f
s k i l l s and a t t it u d e s co n cu rre n tly on groups o f d r iv e r s known t o be a c c i­
d e n t-f r e e and a cc id e n t-p r o n e .
T h is program o f in v e s t ig a t io n n e c e s s ita te d
th e c o n s tr u c tio n o f a q u estio n n a ire w hich would c r i t i c a l l y d if f e r e n t i a t e
th e s k i l l s and the a t t it u d e s f o r the a c c id e n t- f r e e and the a ccid en t-p ro n e
d r iv e r s , and in d ic a t e a s n ea rly a s p o s s ib le t o what e x t e n t s k i l l s or a t­
t it u d e s w ere r e s p o n sib le f o r a c c id e n ts .
The procedure ca r r ie d ou t in th e
c o n s tr u c tio n o f t h i s q u estio n n a ire has been exp lained in d e t a i l in ch ap ter
two o f t h is stu d y .
An © valu ation o f tb s q u estio n n a ire by i t s p a r ts and
a s a w hole, shorn th a t i t i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y high in v a l i d i t y and d iscrim ­
in a t io n and th a t i t i s r e l a t i v e l y h igh in p r o p e r tie s o f r e l i a b i l i t y .
There­
f o r e , i t i s o f d e f i n i t e v a lu e f o r d ia g n o sin g ten d e n c ie s t o a c c id e n t-fr e e n e s s
or a c c id e n t-p r o n e c e s s,
Some p e r tin e n t f in d in g s are:
1.
The d if f e r e n c e s o f the means o f the s c o r e s o f th e two groups
are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r each p a r t o f th a q u estio n ­
n a ir e and th e q u e stio n n a ir e a s a w h o le, -and t h i s f a c t
56
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
57
ia ev id en ce th a t
idre i s a d e f in it e r e la t io n between
proper a t t it u d e s and a c c id e n t fr o e n e a s .
Proper a t t it u d e s are much ;aore important, than th e p o ssesio n
of s k ills
The p o s it iv e c o r r e la t io n s between s k i l l s and a t t it u d e s fo r
th e a c c id e n t-fr e e d r iv e r s , and th e n eg a tiv e c o r r e la tio n s fo r
s k i l l s and a t t it u d e s f o r the a c c id e n t prone d r iv e r s , asy in ­
d ic a t e th a t jtlie r e la t io n o f s k i l l s and a t t it u d e s i s a f a c t o r
o f a c c id e n t-fr e e d riv in g a s w e ll a s the p o s se s s io n o f expro­
p r ia t e s k i l l s and a t t i t u d
3 , The varying concerns!
o f o p in ion f o r the -too groups o f d r iv e r s
has shown t h a t i t would be v a lu a b le b a s ic data fo r tea ch in g
p roced u res,
4 , The w ide d iv erg en ce o f o p in io n on th e m ajority o f q u e stio n s i s
evid en ce th a t th e r e are probably no e m p ir ic a l c r i t e r i a o f r ig h t
and wrong r e a c tio n s f o r any g iv e n t r a f f i c s it u a t io n , c e r ta in ly
not f o r s it u a t io n s o f emergency,
5 , The procedure o f c o n str u c tin g th e Q u estion n aire used in t h i s
stu d y i s o f v a lu e fo r g e tt in g a l l q u e s tio n s d ir e c t ly r e la te d t o
the problem w ith th e minimum o f o b viou s purpose to th o se being
examined.
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58
RecoEEsendat io n s
I t i s in d ic a te d by in s p e c tio n o f the q u e stio n n a ir e s used in
t h i s stu d y th a t th ere nay be soma c o r r e la tio n between th e a b i l i t y to
read and te n d e n c ie s t o have a c c id e n ts , and th a t th e r e la t io n o f w i ll in g ­
n ess to read and f o llo w in s t r u c t io n s should be in v e s tig a te d a s an in d i­
c a tio n o f a c c id e n t-fr e e n e s s or a ccid ea t-p r o n o n ess.
The m atters o f re­
f u s a l to answer q u e stio n s w i l l i n g l y , r e f u s a l o r in a b i l i t y to make
d e c is io n s r e a d ily , and g en era l tr u th fu ln e s s are a ls o su ggested a s
s p e c if i c ph ases o f a t t it u d e th a t might w e ll be in v e s tig a te d more
th orou gh ly.
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BXBLlQGIiAPHX
A lla n , Thomas H ., S a fe and, Sane Use o f the H ljjw a y s.
M. Hale,Company, 1935,
A lla n , Thom s H ., S a fe ty on the Highways.
Company, 1933,
Milwaukee: 3 , L i, Hole
D ouglas, H, A ,, Common Sonso In D riv in g Tour Car,
Longmans, Green and Company, 1936,
D u ll, C, 2 , t S a fe ty F ir s t and La&t.
Company, 1938,
Milwaukee:
tow York;
tow York:
Henry H olt and
icier son , Haven, anti O thers, A lco h o l, I t s a f f e c t s on Man.
D, Appleton and Company, 1935,
tow York:
Emerson, Haven, and O thers,
Company, 1 9 3 2 ,
Macmillan
A lco h o l and Han,
Kreml, F . , s i l v e r , D ., R ic e , T ., P u b lic S a f e t y ,
B e r r i l l Corapany, 1937.
Import, R. F . , The O peration o f an au tom obile.
Company, 1932,
tow York:
tow York: Bobbs
Boston: Bruce Humphries
Monroe, l o i t e r S . , An In tr o d u ctio n t o th e Theory o f .Sducational Measurem ents. D a lla s ; Houghton M iff lin Company, 1935.
Monroe, S a lte r S . and S n g e lh a r t, Max D ., The S c i e n t i f i c Study o f Bdacat lo n a l Problem s. Sew York: Macmillan Company, 1936.
S to e c k e l, May K irby, Sense and S a fe ty on th e Road,
Company, 1939,
tow York: Macmillan
S t r e l t z , Ruth, S a fe ty E ducation in th e Elem entary S c h o o l.
Columbia U n iv e r s it y , 193E.
T ib b e r ts, C harles D», Highway S a fe ty .
New York:
Harrisburg; C o n tin en ta l P r e s3 , 1936.
59
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60
b h ita e y , J .b e r t, Man and, the Motor Car. i-iew York:
C asualty and S u rety U nderw ritere, 1936,
2.
A ccident F a c ts .
Bureau o f
B u lle t in s
N a tio n a l S a fe ty C oun cil, C hicago, I l l i n o i s , 1929.
Feport o f th e B e tte r T r a ffic Committee, B u lle t in No. 1 , P itts b u r g ,
P en n sy lv a n ie, 1938.
C leeto n , Glenn U ., "Measuring S u s p e p t ib illt y to A ccident In S tr e e t
Car O perators," A b stra ct, P sy c h o lo g ic a l B u lle t in lio. 32,
November, 1935.
"Course o f Study in Highway S a fe ty ." Departiaant o f P u b lic In str u c tio n
B u ll e t in Mo. 108, H arrisburg, P en n sylvan ia, 1935.
"Current Program o f th e Bureau f o r th e S tr e e t T r a ffic R esearch."
Harvard U n iv e r s ity , Cambridge, M assach usetts, 1936.
"j&ducation f o r S a fe ty ," Department o f P u b lic I n s tr u c tio n , B u lle t in
No. 3 0 3 , L ansing, M ichigan, 1936,
"Engineering f o r T r a f f ic S a fe ty ."
I l l i n o i s , 1937,
N a tion al S a fety C oun cil, Chicago,
"Examining A p p lica n ts fo r D r iv e r 's L ic en se s."
C hicago, I l l i n o i s , 1938.
" I n te llig o n t D r iv in g .”
1936.
N ation al S a fe ty C ouncil,
Bureau o f F ield S e r v ic e , H artford, C onn ecticu t,
Lauer, A. n . , "Methods o f Measuring th e A b ilit y to Drive in Autom obile."
E nginearing S xtan aion S e r v ic e , B u lle t in No. 115, Iowa S ta te
C o lle g e , Aiaea, Iowa, 1936,
McNulty, John, "Our P la n in Grover C leveland High S chool {few York."
G reater New York S a fe ty C o u n cil, 1937,
Marsh, Burton Vi., " F ir s t E ngineering S tep s to Improve the T r a ffic
S itu a t io n ," American Automobile A ss o c ia tio n , 1930.
"Motor V eh icle D riv in g ."
Texas, 1936,
Department o f V o ca tio n a l Education, A u stin ,
O u tlin e o f S y lla b u s f o r T rainin g o f Young Automobile D rivers i n the
P u b lic S c h o o ls, S ta te Board o f E ducation, Dover, Delaware, 1936.
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
61
Quiaan, C laren ce, "The P r in c ip a l S i n i s t r a l Types; the Handicaps and
Eyednaas o f s p e e d e r s ,f' A rchives o f ifeurology and P sy eh ia trv
Ju ly, 1930, pp. 3 5 -4 7 .
S a fe ty in P u p il tr a n s p o r ta tio n , il, Z,
B u lle t in X IV £5, Noveiaber, 1 9 3 6 .
S a fety la the Curriculum, Ju nior and s e n io r H ig h S ch o o ls, C u r r ic u lu m
B u lle t in Humber35, Kansas C ity P u b lic S ch o o ls, Kansas C ity
•iisaouri, 1937.
..safety on iiig h v a y s, Promoted by S ta te Highway Departm ents, .uaaricun
a s s o c ia t io n o i n tn te Highway O f f i c ia ls , hashing ta n , D. C ., 1936,
3. Magazines
’’A ccid en ts More F a ta l than Oar,"
"Childhobd A c c id e n ts ,”
L itera ry D in ea t. 1929.
S c ie n c e . August 2 1 , 1936.
"Comfortable D riving i s S a fe D r iv in g .” Woman’ s Home Companion.
June, 1936.
--------------------------- ---------D ickey, John SI., "ifttr&aloy As a S t a t i s t i c , ** Journal o f E d ucational
gs^ cb q logy. September, 1934, pp. 437-4461
--------------"Drive R ig h t ,” Reader’ s D ig e s t. August, 1934.
"Foolproof R oad s,”
Reader’ s D ig e s t, October, 1936.
G reen sh ield s, Bruce D ., "Reaction Time in Automobile D r iv in g ,”
Journal o f Applied P sych ology. June, 1936, pp. 3 5 3 -3 5 8 ,
"Higher Education fo r D r iv e r s ,”
Reader’ s D ig e s t . Hay, 1936.
Johnson, L o v ., and Lauer, A. R ., "A Study o f the E f f e c t o f Induced
Manual Hind le a p s on Automotive Performance in R e la tio n t o
R eactio n Tim e,” Journal o f Applied P sych ology. February, 1937,
pp. 85—9 3 .
Modern T r a ffic and the S a fe ty o f School C h ild ren ,”
February, 1929.
"Our D e lig h t f u l M an-K lller,"
sch o o l Board Journal
— — — --------------
A tla n tic Monthly. December, 1 931.
S e l l i n g , L. s . , "The P s y c h o lo g ic a l Approach to th e T r a ffic Problem ,”
a c i e n t i f j c Monthly. June, 1937, pp. 547-554.
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
B in sla n d , Martha A. O 'D anila, "A T est f o r Measuring Teacners* Know­
led g e o f th e Conduct and P e r s o n a lity o f C hildren from Giz
to Gi;iiit Y ears o f .-j.e,” Journal o f d x p eria e a ta l Education,
March, 1933,
,rTbe Autaoob 11 a and tiie S ch ool Children? S ch ool L if e , June, 1935,
«Hhen You D rive A fte r Dark,'’
Header*a. D ig e s t, May, 1936,
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afpshdix
Oklahoma s t a t e m s . t f T . ' - m
w p u b l ic s a f e t y
W aiter B. Johnson, Commissioner
U. T. S i n g l y , /a ssista n t
Commissioner
DRIVING qUIBTIGMLCEKE
F ill
Out
And
Return
by
Use In clo sed
Addressed
Envelope
John Penick
Under th e S u p e rv isio n o f th e C o lle g e o f E ducation
and th e Department o f P sy ch o lo g y , U n iv e r s ity o f
Q V Ifthtynn
INBTHUCTI0M5
1,
2,
P le a s e do n o t sig n you r name.
T h is w i l l have n o th in g to do w ith your li c e n s e .
S.
Your co o p era tio n in g iv in g th e h ea t answers you can as
h o n e s tly a s you can w i l l be a p p r e c ia te d .
4 , The purpose o f t h i s work i s to f in d o u t how good d r iv e r s
f e e l about xoad p rob lem s, so th a t people who are poor d r iv e r s or are
le a r n in g to d r iv e m y b e g iv e n b e t t e r in s t r u c t io n s ,
3 , I t i s hoped th a t some th o u g h ts may be brought t o your a t ­
te n tio n whereby you m y improve your own d r iv in g . However, your h onest
answers w i l l h elp u s t o h elp o th e r s ,
6* Below a r e g iv e n a number o f q u e s tio n s o r sta tem en ts req u ir­
in g an an sw er. P le a s e in d ic a te th e answer th a t most m a r ly in d ic a t e s
what you th in k by p la c in g I t s number in the p a r e n th e s is to th e l e f t o f
th e q u e s tio n .
C opyright 1939
by John PenieJt
m
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64
I
TteS OE HO -.tESTIOKi
}
1.
Do you buap o th er ea rs l i g h t l y ra th er o fte n w h ile backing?
1 Yea 8 N o
)
2.
In sto p p in g from low gear do you w a it a l i t t l e b efo re d is ­
engaging th e c lu tc h ? 1 Yes 2 rio
)
3 . In s h if t in g from low t o second g ea r do you go s t r a ig h t
ra th er than pausing in n eu tra l? 1 Yes 2 No
through
)
4.
Does your ca r p ing o r la b o r much a t loir speed?
2 No
)
5.
v/han you want a quick sto p from h ig h gear do you put both
f e e t t o the f l o o r a t th e aaae tim e? 1 Yes 2 No
)
6 . .ire you a b le t o s h i f t from second back in to low gear a t more
than te n m ile s per hour? 1 Yes 2 No
)
7.
Can you back alm ost as a ccu ra te ly as you d r iv e forward?
1 Yes 8 No
)
Q.
Do you atop t o look b efo re doing a U turn?
)
9.
Can you park p a r a ll e l t o th e curb w ith o u t opening your door
t o lo o k around? 1 Yes 2 No
) 1 0 . Are you tro u b led o fte n by the
low speeds? 1 Yes 2 No
) 11 .
1 Yes
1 Yes
c a r jumping when i t
2 No
i s a t very
Do you g iv e c o r r e c t s ig n a ls even though i t i s cold or ra in in g ?
1 Y ss 2 No
) 1 2 . Do you o f t e n have to brake a b ru p tly t o esca p e a bads it u a t io n
w h ich you do n o t fo r e s e e ? 1 Yes 2 No
) 13 .
when you a r e stopped a t an in t e r s e c t io n and s e e an oth er car
stopped a t your r ig h t , do you precede i t in s t a r t in g a cro ss?
1 Yes 2 NO
) 14,
Do you know when you a r e nob s e e in g w e ll o r r e a c tin g norm ally
when d r iv in g ? 1 Yes 2 Ho
) IS .
Have you w ith in th e l a s t th r e e y ea rs s ta r te d th e ca r and
found th a t you had a f l a t t i r e ; run out o f gas on th e road;
o r d riv en w ith poor h akes? 1 y e s 2 HO
} 16*
Do you know when and where t o g e t your d r iv e r ’ s lic e n s e ?
2 HO
1 Yes
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
65
17 .
Do you know what th e c i t y o rd in a n ces
s t r e e t s ? 1 Yea 2 Ik>
are on p la y in g in the
18.
Bo you th in k th a t g r i e f and worry may he the ca u se o f many
a c c id e n ts ? 1 Yes 2 Mo
19.
Do you t r y t o a n a ly ze and c o r r e c t your own d r iv in g ?
2 So
20.
Have you e v e r driven, when, you had had Just one drink?
2 Mo
21.
Do you th in k i t b e s t to b eg in a tu r n a l i t t l e in advance o f
th e curb l i n e th a t in d ic a te s i t ? 1 Yes 2 No
22 .
Save you o c c a s io n a lly turned a co rn er so c l o s e l y th a t you f e l t
your t i r e tou ch the curb? 1 Yes 2 No
23*
Do you o f t e n f a i l t o s e e t r a f f i c s ig n a ls u n t i l to o l a t e to
a l t e r your d r iv in g ? 1 Yss 2 No
24.
Do you g e n e r a lly fo llo w s t r e e t s t h a t a re p ro tected w ith s i g ­
n a ls even i f i t ta k e s lo n g er to do i t ? 1 Yes
2 f&»
25.
Have
you o fte n f e l t th a t o f f i c e r s were tr y in g t o rush t r a f f i c
to o f a s t ? 1 Yes 2 No
26 .
In a t r a f f i c jam when you hoar o th e r s blow t h e i r horns to you
blow you rs to o ? 1 Yea 2 No
27.
Do you th in k th a t c h ild r en have th e r ig h t to r id e bicyclou
on th e highway? 1 Yes 2 No
28 .
Taking in to c o n sid e r a tio n t r a f f i c c o n d it io n s , do you reduce
speed in n ig h t d r iv in g ? 1 Yes 2 So
29 .
Have you a t tim e s thought you l o s t c o n tr o l p a r t ia l ly and r e ­
gain ed i t b efo re anything happened? 1 Yes 2 No
30.
Do you a c c e le r a t e s l i g h t l y w h ile you are s t i l l in the in te r ­
s e c t io n r a th e r th a n w a itin g u n t i l you are a c r o ss? 1 Yes 2 No
31.
In your d r iv in g do you meet s it u a t io n s th a t you c o n sid e r as
em ergencies more than once a y ea r on th e average? 1 Yes 2 No
32.
I s i t o n ly a f t e r em barrassing in c id e n t s th a t you d r iv e more
c a r e f u lly ? 1 Yes 2 No
1 Yes
1 Yes
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
as
33.
./hea d r iv in g iiuve you gone too f a r a t tim es in being f a i r
t o th e o th er d r iv e r ? 1 Yos 2 No
34.
Do you th in k th a t a c c id e n ts would be reduced i f everyone
gave a ccu ra te s ig n a ls ? 1 Yes 2 Ho
35.
Have you d r iv e n when you f e l t s o mean th at you f e l t i t would
be w e ll "for ev ery f e llo w to look out fo r him self?" 1 Yes 2 No
36.
Do you h a b it u a lly dim your li g h t s when you meet oncoming ca rs?
1 Yes 2 No
37.
Do you h a b it u a lly stake sharp remarks about p ed estria n s th a t
are to o slo w i n c r o s s in g ? 1 Yes 2 Ik)
38.
Do you slow down somewhat a t an in t e r s e c t io n , even though you
have th e li g h t ? I Y es 2 Ho
39.
Do you th in k th a t in t e r s e c t io n s w ith o u t s ig n a ls a r e more dan­
gerou s than th o se with s ig n a ls even though th e t r a f f i c i s
u s u a lly lig h t e r ? 1 Yes 2 No
40.
Do you th in k th a t p e d e s tr ia n s who J&y-walk should be fin e d ?
1 Yea 2 No
41.
Do you en jo y s e e in g c h ild r e n p la y ?
1 Yes
2 No
42.
Do you th in k th a t many p e d e str ia n s s ta y on th e s t r e e t u n t i l
th ey are so fa tig u e d th a t th ey are n ot s a fe ? 1 Yes 2 No
43.
I s th e r e any d iffe r e n c e in your d r iv in g when you meet a
p e d e s tr ia n who i s e v id e n tly u n f it o r crip p led ? 1 Yes 2 No
44.
Do you b e lie v e th a t p e d e str ia n s would walk d if f e r e n t l y i f
th ey had had d r iv in g e x p erts nee? 1 Yes 2 No
46.
Do you th in k th a t p e d e str ia n s may in t e n t io n a lly f a l l to s e e
w arning sig n s? 1 Yes 2 No
46.
Do you b e lie v e th a t p e d e str ia n s conduct th em selves b e t t e r f o r
o f f i c e r s than they do f o r s ig n s ? 1 Yes 2 No
47.
Have you ev er f e l t th a t a p e d e str ia n had no id ea o f what he
wanted t o do? 1 Yes 2 No
48.
Hava p e d e s tr ia n s o c c a s io n a lly made you f e e l th a t th ey would g e t
where you c o u ld n o t p o s s ib ly avoid s t r ik in g them? 1 Yes 2 No
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
6?
49.
Do you bacons more c a u tio u s o f w a lk ers a s you approach
co rn ers? 1 Yes 2 No
50.
Are you s e n s i t i v e about th e f a c t th a t th e U nited S t a t e s has
more p e d e s tr ia n s k i l l e d than any o th er country? 1 Yes 2 No
51.
Do you th in k th a t the d r iv e r is more r e s p o n sib le f o r p ed es­
t r ia n s s a f e t y than th e p e d e str ia n ? 1 Yes 2 No
52.
Do you th in k th a t i f most d r iv e r s were very s k i l l f u l in s itu a ­
t io n s o f emergency th a t many a c c id e n ts would be avoided?
1 Yes 2 No
53.
Do you d r iv e more s lo w ly where p e d e s tr ia n s are w alking in the
ra in ? 1 Yes S No
54.
In g e n e r a l do you d r iv e in r e l a t io n to wagons and b u g g ies as
though t h e ir speed i s n e g li g ib le ? 1 Yes 2 No
55.
Do you th in k th a t i t would be p o s s ib le f o r a d r iv in g emergency
to so f r ig h t e n you th a t your d r iv in g a b i l i t y would be im paired?
1 Y es 2 No
56.
Do you e x p e c t boys on b ic y c le s t o weave about?
57.
Do you h a b it u a lly o b serv e how th e d r iv e r s in fr o n t o f you
compensate fo r road hazards? 1 Y es 2 No
58.
Do you know o f some th in g s th a t some d r iv e r s do c o n s is t e n t ly
th a t you would n o t attem p t y o u r s e lf? 1 Yes 2 No
59.
1 Yes 2 ho
W ill you l e t th e p assen ger b e s id e you h o ld th e w heel w h ile you
l i g h t a c ig a r e t t e o r lo o s e n you r b o lt o r put on make-up in ­
ste a d o f w a itin g u n t i l you have stopped? 1 Yes S No
60.
Could you prevent alm ost any p assen ger from g e t t in g h o ld o f
th e w h eel and d istu r b in g your s t e e r in g in c a se he t r ia d w ith
d eterm in a tio n to do s o . I Yes 2 No
61.
Do you th in k th a t you know more about d r iv in g customs than most
o th e r d r iv e r s , based on e x p erien ce in d r iv in g ? 1 Yes 2 Ho
62.
Do you f e e l t h a t the p o lic e , t r a f f i c e n g in e e r s, and a c c id e n t
p rev en tio n a g e n c ie s are r i g h t in most o f th e th in g s th e y do?
1 Yes 2 No
33 .
Do you b e lie v e i t i s u s u a lly j u s t t o h old th e l a s t person who
co u ld have prevented i t r e s p o n sib le fo r an accid en t? 1 Yes
2 NO
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68
54.
Do you think i t i s n ecessa ry f o r th a P „ b lic S a fe ty Deportment
t o r e q u ir e the rep o rtin g o f an a ccid en t? 1 Yos Z No
65.
iMould you fa v o r mandatory l e g i s l a t i o n req u irin g p r a c t ic a l
co u rses in f i r s t a id in a l l our s c h o o ls? 1 Yes 2 No
66*
Have you prepared any k in d o f plans th a t w i l l taka care o f
tha o th er parson*s p roperty in c a se you should cau se damage
t o i t i n an a c c id e n t? 1 Yes 2 Bo
67.
Have you made any p lan s to talas care o f your own car in case
o f damages to i t in an a ccid en t? 1 Yes 2 No
6 8 . Would you be in fa v o r o f th e government fu r n ish in g l i a b i l i t y
in surance to a l l d r iv e r s at c o s t and r e q u ir in g them to ca rry
i t ? 1 Yes 2 Bo
69.
Have you w ith in the l a s t th ree y e a r s avoided a c c id e n ts by
s k i l l f u l d r iv in g a t th e l a s t p o s s ib le in s ta n t? 1 Yes 2 Jto
70.
Do you th in k th e p o lic e a r r e st to o many persons fo r t r a f f i c
v io la t io n s ? 1 Yes 2 BO
n ouasTioBs
to be a m b r h s by a word
1.
When s t a r t in g do you flo o d ^ o u r carb u retor?
q u en tly 3 seldom '4 seldom ) y
1 o fte n
2.
Do you k i l l your isotor th s ta r tin g ?
3 seldom 4 never
3.
Do you u se low gear in s ta r tin g ?
3 seldom 4 never
4.
Have you h«d d u t c h r e p a ir s?
3 seldom 4 never
5.
Do you r o l l back a l i t t l e in s t a r t in g on a h i l l ?
2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seldom 4 never
6.
Have you in m eetin g e a r s r a ise d In stead o f lowered your l i g h t s ?
1 o f t e n 2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seldom 4 never
7.
Do you sto p and s t a r t over i n g e t t in g in o r o u t o f your garage?
1 o f t e n 2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seldom 4 never
8»
Do you g e t caught between t r a f f i c l i g h t s in an in te r s e c tio n ?
1 o f t e n 2 o c c a s io n a lly 3 seldom 4 never
1 o fte n
1 o fte n
1 fr e q u e n tly
2 fr e ­
2 fr e q u e n tly
2 fr e q u e n tly
2 o c c a s io n a lly
1 o fte n
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
69
9*
Do you. fin d d r iv in g a cre d i f f i c u l t wnera p e d e str ia n s are in ­
vo lv ed ? 1 always H fr e q u e n tly 3 se ld o a 4 never
ID*
Do you d r iv e w ith ware accuracy than u su a l in con gested t r a f f i c ?
1 always 2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seldom 4 never
11.
Do you sto p where you in ten d t o stop?
3 seldom 4 never
12.
Do you have th e hah i t o f k eep in g th e co n v ersa tio n lim ite d la
some way betw een y o u r s e lf and p a ssen g ers in your ca r? 1 alw ays
2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seldom 4 never
13.
Do you have t o d ecrease your d r iv in g speed in bad
1 alw ays 2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seldom 4 n ever
14.
Are you a good judge o f d is ta n c e f o r th e purpose o f stopping?
1 alw ays 2 alm ost alw ays 3 fr e q u e n tly 4 seldom 5 never
13.
Can you d r iv e J u st a s s a f e ly on hazardous roads as on good
road s by b ein g c a r e fu l? 1 alw ays 2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seldom
4 n ever
1 6.
Do you p a s s a c a r when tbore i s not a space d ir e c t ly in fr o n t
o f i t to drop in to ? 1 o f t e n 2 g e n e r a lly 3 seldom 4 never
17.
Do you move o v er when a d r iv e r behind you honks v ic io u s ly ?
1 alw ays 2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seldom 4 never
13.
Do you l i k e to taka long d r iv e s a t n ig h t?
q u en tly 3 se ld o a 4 never
19.
Whan you are v ery tir e d do you d r iv e on?
q u en tly 3 seldom 4 never
20.
Are you a b le to change your d r iv in g h a b its in case you f in d
any o f them th a t can be improved? 1 alw ays 2 freq u e n tly
3 seldom 4 n ever
21.
Do you s t a y w ith in th a l i m i t s o f reason ab le speed?
2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seldom 4 never
22.
Should you s t a y on tha r ig h t s id e o f th e road?
2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seldom 4 never
23.
I s i t dangerous t o d r iv e f a s t e r th an th e posted speed li m it in
a s a f e t y zone? 1 alw ays 2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seldom 4 n ever
1 alw ays
2 g e n e r a lly
weather?
1 alw ays
1 alw ays
2 fr e ­
2 fr e ­
1 alw ays
1 alw ays
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70
)
24.
jure th e r e traya o f judging when you can p a ss a cu r on a h i l l ?
1 alw ays £ freq u e n tly 3 seldom 4 n ever
}
2D.
Do you '.i3e aor« o f th e l e f t s id e o f tbs road in making a curve
to th e Heft in c a s e th e r e i s no oncoming t r a f f i c ? 1 always
2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seldom 4 never
)
26.
Have you been to ld th at you d id not s ig n a l i n t e l l i g i b l y ?
tim os 2 a few tim es 3 o f t e n 4 never
)
27.
Do you g r a c io u s ly a ccep t in s t r u c t io n s from o f f i c e r s ?
2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seldom 4 never
)
28.
Viken th e r e a r e bad h o le s in th e Is f t t r a f f i c la n e and tbs r ig h t
len a i3 good do you d r iv e so th a t the o th er d r iv e r can got
around? 1 alw ays 2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seldom 4 never
)
29.
Do you g la n ce a t p a ssen g ers a s v e i l a s t a lk to them w h ile you
d riv e ? 1 alw ays 2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seldom 4 novor
}
30.
Do you fo r c e o th er d r iv e r s t o d r iv e th e way you want them t o
by th a way you d r iv e ? 1 alw ays 2 fr e q u e n tly 3 se ld o a 4 never
)
31.
Have th ere been s it u a t io n s th a t made you f e e l a fr a id o f
ing? 1 o f t e n 2 fr e q u e n tly 3 se ld o a 4 s e v e r
)
32.
Do you tend t o c r i t i c i s e the o th er d r iv e r more th an y o q r s e lf?
1 alw ays 2 fr e q u e n tly 3 s e ld o a 4 nsvor
}
33.
Have you ta lo n an u n necessary chance w h ile d r iv in g ?
2 seldom 3 very seldom 4 never
)
34,
Have you fo rced your oar t o do th in g s th a t you have known wore
not good f o r the car? 1 very fr e q u e n tly 2 o f t e n 3 seldom
4 nevor
)
3D.
Do you reduce the amount o f your d r iv in g under u n favorab le
w eather c o n d itio n s? 1 always 2 fr e q u e n tly 3 s e ld o a 4 n ever
)
36.
Do you c o n s c io u s ly t r y to save your brakes?
q u en tly 3 seldom 4 never
)
37.
Do you f e e l th at you g u st p a ss a cur in fr o n t o f you?
2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seldom 4 never
)
38.
Do you watch a t th e s id e s and in th e r e a r v is io n m irror as
c l o s e l y a s you w atch in fro n t? 1 alw ays 2 fr e q u e n tly
3 seldom 4 never
1 alw ays
1 many
1 aL-rays
d r iv ­
1 o ften
2 fr e ­
1 alw ays
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71
39.
Do you th in k th a t you judge speed w ith rea so n a b le acciyracy?
1 always 2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seld o a 4 never
40.
ih a a i t i s aoro co n v en ien t to do s o , and you are w a lk in g , do
you c r o ss the s t r e e t in the middle o f the block? 1 alw ays
2 fr eq u en tly 3 seldom 4 never
41.
Do p eo p le su r p r ise you w ith th e p la ce s th ey p ick t o s e t in and
o u t o f a ca r? 1 alw ays 2 freq u en tly 3 seldom 4 never
42.
Do you fin d th a t s t r e e t ca rs s t a r t more q u ick ly than you exp ect
them to s ta r t? 1 o fte n 2 fr eq u en tly 3 se ld o a 4 never
43.
I f you were unemployed would.you r e fu s e to accept work where
you had t o be in the l i n e o f t r a v e l o f t r a f f i c ? 1 o f t e n 2 f r e ­
q u en tly 3 seldom 4 never
44.
Do you f e e l th a t i t i s s a f e far you t o p ick up h itc h -h ik e r s ?
1 alm ost a l l the tim e 2 freq u e n tly 3 seldom 4 never
45.
Do you th in k th a t w alk in g ex p erien ce in c r e a se s th e e f f ic ie n c y
o f p ed estria n s? 1 alw ays 2 freq u e n tly 3 seldom 4 nOver
46.
Save you w ith in the pust th r e e y ea rs avoided an a c c id e n t by
s k i l l f u l d r iv in g a t th e l a s t p o s s ib le momentwhere th e r e was
a crowd? 1 s e v e r a l tim es 2 a few tim es 3 not a t a l l
4 seldom
47.
Are a c c id e n ts unavoidable?
4 never
43.
Would you sto p i f n ecessa ry t o avoid h i t t i n g a f i f t y pound hog?
1 always 2 fr e q u e n tly
3 seldom 4 ndver
49.
Do you th in k th in g s look about tha seme to you a t a l l tim es
and a t a l l d is ta n c e s ? 1 alw ays 2fr eq u en tly
3 seldom 4 never
50.
Do you m iss s e e in g sm a ll o b je c ts in tha road? 1 o f t e n
tim es 3 se ld o a 4 never
51.
When you can , do you t a lk to o th er people about d r iv in g prob­
lem s in your v ic in it y ?
1 alw ays 2 fr e q u e n tly 3 seldom
4 never
52.
Do you th in k th a t our o f f i c e r s and c o u r ts do t h e b e s t th a t they
can in the l i g h t o f th e problems w ith w hich they have to contend?
1 alw ays 2 fr e q u e n tly
3 seldom 4 never
1 alw ays
2 fr e q u e n tly
3 seldom
2 some­
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72
n i
to e
:
by
,
(
}
1.
In y e t t in g In to a parking apace do you 1 o ie s r o n ly afcere you
want to go £ s t e e r wiiaro you want to jo am s e t w heels f o r
naxt maneuver 3 touch next ca r l i g h t l y 4 usa a parking s ta ­
t io n in ordar t o avoid h a rin g to park p a r a lle l?
(
)
2.
S h if t in g in t o r e v e r s e r e q u ir e s 1 h igh ciotor spaed 2 low motor
speed 3 sy n o ro -a esh tra n sm issio n 4 aedJLum motor speed?
(
)
3.
S h iftin g from second to high gear sh ou ld he done a t 1
2 20 mph 3 30 aiph 4 5 mph
(
)
4.
In an emergency atop th e f i r s t th in g t o th in k o f i s 1 where
you are g o in g 2 u sin g th e brake 3 o th er c a r s 4 what you
might h it ?
(
)
5.
In tu rn in g the car around in th e average s t r e e t do you u su a lly
do i t 1 w ith one backing;
2 w ith two backings 3 w ith s e v e r a l
b ack in gs 4 w ith extrem e d i f f i c u l t y ?
(
)
6.
In ta k in g a curve do you b eg in to a c c e le r a t e 1 a t th e b egin n in g
2 in th e m iddle 3 a t th e end 4 when you have sta r te d the
straigh taw ay
(
)
7.
Do you put on th e b rakes 1 a t th e b eg in n in g o f d e c e le r a tio n
2 When the:m otor ho lo n g er slow s th e c a r 3 j u s t in tim e t o
sto p on th e l i n e 4 lramed l a t e l y when you soa a sto p w i l l be
n ecessa ry
{
)
0.
In sk id d in g i t ia b e s t to
1 e h l f t in to second 2 sta y in h igh
and t h r o t t le th e motor g e n tly 3 u se tha brfcke 4 u se b oth
c lu tc h and brake?
(
)
10 mph
S te e r in g i n a sk id i s p o s s ib le 1 c lo s e t o the l i n e o f m otion
by w ig g lin g th e w heel c o r r e c t ly 3 n o t a t a l l 4 i f tha t i r e s
are new?
2
( )
10 .
A skid i s b e s t avoided by 1 k eep in g a t a rea so n a b le speed 2
d r iv in g as u s u a l but k eep in g more space between c a r s 3 s k i l l f u l
d r iv in g 4 u sin g t i r e ch a in s
{
)
11.
In d r iv in g on th e highway a t n ig h t do you pasa the ca r ahead
1 o n ly when th o re are no oncoming l i g h t s a t a l l 2 o n ly when you
s e e oncoming l i g h t s s e p a r a te ly 3 by judging speed as you would
in th e daytim e 4 when I t lo o k s u s i f you have enough room?
(
)
1*.
The th in g s to do in c a s e o f an a c c id e n t are 1 d if f e r e n t because
a l l a c c id e n ts are d if f e r e n t 2 decided by common sen se 3 fo llo w
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73
3 0 csa g e n e r a l r u le s about tae ssuttor
a r r iv e b e fo r e d o in g anything?
4 w a it u n t i l th e o f f i c e r s
{
) 13.
Do you c h a d your s ir e s 1 once a w e d 2 ev ery time you are in
a s t a t io n 3 when they look as i f th ey need i t 4 pay no a tte n ­
t io n to the m atter?
(
) 14.
Do you u s u a lly f o llo w in such a way t i n t 1 another car w i l l
n ot n et betw een you and th s car ahead 2 you uro su re not to
crowd 3 thore i s much d is ta n c e bateaon cars 4 you are near the
bumper o f th e n ex t car?
4
) 15.
Your c e r t i f i c a t e of r e g is t r a t io n shows you have bought your 1
ca r 2 li c e n s e 3 d r iv e r 's li c e n s e 4 r ig h t t o d r iv e ?
4*
) 16.
The law s o f tan road are n e c e ssa r y 1 when t r a f f i c i s heavy
2 o n ly when th ey a re w r it t e n law s 3 as a h a b it 4 in an emer­
gency o n ly?
4
) 17.
7,‘han d r iv in g do you r e c o g n ise 1 o n ly your f r ie n d s 2 a l l your
acq u ain tan ces 3 some o f your a cq u a in ta n ces 4 o n ly p eop le in
uniform?
4
) 13.
&. s a f e t y d e v ic e on your ca r i s 1 th® w in d sh ie ld w ip er
g a s o lin e gauge 3 the c lu tc h 4 th e bumper?
(
) 19.
Do you m eet oncoming t r a f f i c 1 a t th e same speed b u t a l i t t l e
t o your r ig h t 2 by working t o th e l e f t s l i g h t l y to move i t
over i f n e c e s s a r y , th en back t o th e extrem e r i g h t 3 by red u cin g
speed 4 by paying no a t t e n t io n to i t u n le s s i t i s over th e lin e ?
(
)
20 .
In yaur o p in io n which o f the fo llo w in g caueos th e most a c c i­
d en ts 1 o v e r d r iv in g l i g h t s 2 o v e r d r iv in g b rak es 3 o v erd riv in g
th e t r a f f i c s it u a t io n 4 d e f e c t iv e s t e e r in g gear?
(
)
21 .
Have you f e l t th a t you hud to o c lo s e a sq u eeze, from f a i l i n g to
a n t ic ip a t e c o r r e c t ly what a w a lk in g 1 c h ild 2 o ld person
3 curb stan d er 4 day-dreamer— would do?
(
) 22 .
*(
) 23.
Do you w atch your gauges
*(
) 24 .
Do you f e e l th at you are 1 an ex p ert d r iv e r 2 a good d r iv e r
5 an average d r iv e r 4 an u n u su a lly e x p e r t d riv e r?
*(
) 25 .
’Then seme one is r id in g w ith you, do you 1 d r iv e more c a r e f u lly
2 d r iv e more s lo w ly 3 d riv e j u s t th e same 4 t r y to d r iv e more
s k illfu lly ?
Do you t r y t o make y o u r s e lf com fortab le w h ile d r iv in g
fr e q u e n tly 3 3©ldora th in k o f i t 4 never?
1 alw ays
2 fr e q u e n tly
2 th e
1 alw ays
3 seldom
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2
4 never
74
*(
)
26.
In p a s s in g p e d e str ia n s who are w alking on th e wrong s id e o f
th e road do you 1 .slow down md g i w tboa a wide b erth
2 blow pour horn 3 make sore they se e you and go s tr a ig h t
ahead 4 d r iv e as U3U>.1 u n t il th ere i s 3 ora sign. th _ t they
are g o in g -,o cre a te a problem?
p(
)
2 7 . Do you f e e l th a t we should b u ild aid at-elk s and underpasses
f o r p e d e s tr ia n s 1 everywhere 2 in most p la c e s where there
i s much t r a f f i c 3 in a few more p la c e s than we now have them
-4 not n e c e s s a r ily in wore p la c e s-—ev en though i t would in cr ea se
ta x es?
(
)
2 8 . Do you th in k th a t 1 most p eop le p a st f o r t y le a r n to d riv e us
w e ll a s y o u n g sters 2 le a r n to d r iv e aa w e ll but co re slo w ly
3 should not attem pt to lea rn to d rlv o 4 should be allow ed
o n ly where t r a f f i c i s very lig h t ?
{
)
2 9 . In ca se your r ig h t w h e els on ly ware fo rced o f f th e paved p o rtio n
o f th e highway would you d r iv e back on a t 1 20 mph 2 15 nsph 3
10 mph 4 30 mph?
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
SCORIIiG KST
Page X
Yes
(1)
2
1
-3
2
-4
-1
-3
0
-1
1
(2 )
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-3
4
1
3
0
2
-1
-1
2
3
4
5
8
7
8
9
10
Page 3
Yea
{1}
m>
-4
1
1
—1
0
2
4
-1
0
1
0
-2
Page 4 (cont*d)
Ho
Yea
(2 )
(1)
Page 3
m
Tea
(2 )
(1)
m
(2)
U
12
14
15
16
17
-3
-2
0
-1
-1
-1
0
0
1
0
-1
1
-1
3
0
2
4
3
3
1
0
0
3
2
0
1
1
1
0
0
-1
0
1
-1
1
-3
0
~2
—4
-3
-2
-1
0
0
32
33
34
35
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