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THE CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF A SCALE FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES TOWARD SAFETY IN AUTOMOBILE DRIVING

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T H IS D IS S E R T A T IO N HAS BEEN M IC R O F IL M E D E X A C T L Y AS R E C E IV E D .
Pinal Document
Accepted,
THE CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF A SCALE FOR
THE MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES TOWARD
SAFETY IN AUTOMOBILE DRIVING
EIMER B. SIEBRECHT
V
/P i '
S ubm itted in p a r t i a l f u lf i llm e n t o f th e
req u irem en ts f o r th e degree of D octor of
E ducation in the School of E ducation of
Nev York U n iv e rsity
1941
5 1947
P L E A S E NOTE:
Some pages may have
in d istinct
p rin t.
F i l m e d as r e c e i v e d .
U n iv e rs ity M icrofilm s,
A X e ro x E d u c a t i o n Company
To th e young m o to ris t (1) c a r e f u l i n h is
d r iv in g , (2) c o n s id e ra te of o th e rs , (3) r e ­
sp o n sib le f o r h is a c tio n s , t h is s tu d y i s
r e s p e c tf u lly d e d ic a te d .
A7 4 2 5 6
PREFACE
In th e com pletion o f t h i s stu d y many p erso n s have
p a r tic ip a te d *
most d i f f i c u l t *
To acknowledge th e a ssl6 a n c e g iven by them i s
None th e le s s * to th o se whose e f f o r t s have
made t h i s study p o s s ib le — to p s y c h o lo g ists ; to school
s u p e rin te n d e n ts and p r in c ip a ls ; to te a c h e rs of academic and
d r iv e r - t r a in in g c o u rse s; to com missioners and exam iners in
motor v e h ic le d ep artm en ts; to d ir e c to r s of f l e e t and t r a f f i c
s a f e ty in in d u stry and b u s in e s s ; to s tu d e n ts in secondary and
c o lle g ia te i n s t i t u t i o n s ; to h is co llea g u es in th e C enter f o r
S a fe ty E ducation — to a l l th e w r ite r ex p resses a d eb t of
g ra titu d e .
To s e v e ra l In d iv id u a ls a s p e c ia l word o f acknowledge­
ment i s duet To Dr* C harles C. Hawkins and Dr* Leon Brody f o r
t h e i r g e n e ro s ity in tim e and su g g e stio n ; to Dr* H erb ert J .
S tack whose genuine i n t e r e s t made t h i s p r o je c t p o s s ib le ; and
to Dr* Frank S. Lloyd* Dr* B rian E* Tomlinson* and Dr* F re d e ric
H* T hrasher f o r t h e i r counsel* guidance* and h e lp f u l c r itio is m
th e w r i te r i s d eep ly g ra te fu l*
To one and a l l however g r e a t o r sm a ll h is c o n trib u tio n
may be only g r a titu d e i s due*
To th e w r ite r alone must go th e
r e s p o n s i b ilit y f o r a h a te v e r shortcom ings th e re may be in t h i s
in v e s tig a tio n *
1941
E.B .S.
iii
TABLE OP CONTENTS
C hapter
Page
PREFACE ...................................................................................
I.
II.
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE...........................................
iii
1
I n t r o d u c t i o n .....................................................................
The P r e s e n t P ro b le m .....................................................
The P urpose o f th e S tu d y .........................................
The Problem D e fin e d .....................................................
D e f i n i t i o n o f T erm s......................
S i g n i f ic a n c e of t h e S t u d y . . . . . ............................
A ssum ptions U n d e rly in g th e S tu d y ........................
D e l im i ta ti o n s of th e S tu d y ...........................
The M easurem ent o f A t t i t u d e s
..................
N a tu re o f th e S c a le f o r th e M easurem ent
o f A t t i t u d e s i n t h e S afe D riv in g o f
th e A u to m o b ile ............................................................
35
METHODS AND TECHNIQUES INVOLVED IN THE
CONSTRUCTION OP THE SCALE........................................
38
The D e te rm in a tio n o f t h e F a c to r s
C o n sid e re d Im p o rta n t i n th e S a fe
D riv in g o f th e A u to m o b ile ................
The S e l e c ti o n o f Item s Which W ill M easure
A t t i t u d e Toward th e F a c to r s C om prising
th e S a fe D riv in g A c t..............................................
S e l e c t i o n o f S ta te m e n ts i n L ig h t o f S tu d e n t
Comment
...............................................................
The D e te rm in a tio n o f th e R e l i a b i l i t y and
V a l i d i t y o f th e S c a l e . . . ......................................
E s t a b l i s h i n g T e n ta tiv e Norms and " S ta n d a rd
R esp o n ses" f o r t h e S c a le .....................................
iv
1
2
3
4
4
6
11
13
14
39
42
49
50
53
TABLE OP CONTENTS (C on clu ded)
C hapter
III.
Page
THE CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF THE SCALE;
TREATMENT OP DATA...........................................................
56
F a c to r s Im p o rta n t i n S afe D r i v i n g . . . . . . . . . . .
S e l e c t i n g S ta te m e n ts o f A t t i t u d e tow ard
F a c to r s C o n sid e re d Im p o rta n t i n th e S afe
D riv in g o f th e A u to m o b ile ...................... ..... .........
The R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y o f th e S c a le
f o r th e M easurem ent o f A t t i t u d e s Toward
S a fe D riv in g o f th e A u to m o b ile .....................
56
TENTATIVE NORMS AND STANDARD RESPONSES..................
87
The D evelopm ent o f Group Norms..............................
S ta n d a rd R e sp o n se s............................................. ............
87
91
V. GENERAL SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDA­
TIONS........................................................................................
99
G e n e ra l Summary.................................................................
C o n c lu s io n s ......................
Recommendat i o n s .........................
99
101
103
BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................
106
APPENDIX
115
IV.
62
80
LIST OP TABLES
T ab le
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
V I.
V II.
V III.
Page
P e r Cent of Vote o f Groups C om prising
Mixed J u r y f o r and Rank O rd er o f
F a c to r s C o n sid e red Im p o rta n t i n th e
S afe D riv in g of th e A u to m o b ile ..............................
58
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S ta te m e n ts by F a c to r s o r
A reas an d W eighted V a lu e s
..................
64
C r i t i c a l R a tio s o f D if f e r e n c e s Betw een
Means o f High and Low S c o rin g Segm ents
o f S e v e ra l H igh S chool G roups f o r
S ta te m e n ts i n th e P r e lim in a r y Form o f
th e S c a le ..........................................................................
69
A verage C r i t i c a l R a tio s o f D if f e r e n c e s
b etw een Means o f H igh and Low S c o rin g
Segm ents o f th e High S c h o o l P o p u la tio n s
When S ta te m e n ts Are G rouped...........................
76
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S ta te m e n ts o f F i n a l Form
by F a c t o r s , Item Number i n th e
P r e lim in a r y Form, and CR V a lu e ..........................
79
T e n ta tiv e Norms f o r C e r ta in H igh S ch o o l
G roups....................................
88
D if f e r e n c e s and S ig n if ic a n c e of D if f e r e n c e s
Betw een t h e Means o f C e r ta in H igh
S ch o o l G roups...........................................
89
S ta n d a rd R esponses f o r th e S ta te m e n ts
C om prising th e F i n a l Form o f th e S c a l e . . . .
95
vi
LIST OP GRAPHS
Graph
1.
2.
3.
Page
F a c to r s Im p o rta n t I n th e S a fe D riv in g o f
th e A utom obile a s D e term in e d by t h e
Vote o f E x p e r t s ......................
60
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C r i t i c a l R a tio s by
Popu la t i o n s .....................................................................
78
D i s t r i b u t i o n and Means o f S c o re s f o r
C e r ta in S ch o o l P o p u l a t i o n s . . . . ..........................
92
LIST OP EXHIBITS
E x h ib it
A.
Page
Q u e s tio n n a ir e t o E x p e rts t o D eterm ine
Im p o rta n t F a c to r s i n S afe D riv in g and
t o C o lle c t S ta te m e n ts o f O p in io n to w a rd
t h e s e F a c t o r s ...........................................
115
Q u e s tio n n a ir e t o E x p e rts t o D eterm in e th e
R e la ti v e V alue o f S ta te m e n ts o f O p i n i o n ...
118
C.
P r e lim in a r y Form o f t h e S c a l e . . . . . .......................
123
D.
F i n a l Form o f th e S c a le ................................................
124
E.
P ro p o sed Com m ercial Form o f th e S c a le w ith
D i r e c t i o n s .........................................
125
B.
v ii
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AMD ITS SCOPS
In tro d u c tio n
Since th e second decade of th e p re s e n t ce n tu ry
s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t in th e measurement of th e more in ta n g i­
b le a s p e c ts o f ed u c atio n has groan r a p id ly .
Led by Woodworth
w ith h is P erso n al Data Sheet d u rin g th e World War I , t h i s
i n t e r e s t f i r s t ex p ressed i t s e l f in th e development o f means
and ways f o r the stu d y o f p e r s o n a lity .
By th e end of th e
t h i r d decade a c o n sid e ra b le accum ulation of re s e a rc h was a t
hand to in d ic a te the v alu es in o b s e rv a tio n , r a t i n g s , i n t e r ­
view s. c h a r a c te r t e s t s , and q u e s tio n n a ire s f o r stu d y in g t h i s
a sp e c t of th e n o n - in te lle c tu a l and em otional phases of th e
m ind.
D uring th e 1930's emphasis in th e study o f th e noni n t e l l e o t u a l a s p e c ts s h if te d .
The stu d y of th e b ro a d e r,
more g e n e ra l phases of p e r s o n a lity gave way to th e i n v e s t i ­
g a tio n of th e more p e rso n a l and in d iv id u a l a sp e c ts such as
i n t e r e s t s , a t t i t u d e s . and a d ju stm e n t.
E n th u s ia s tic a lly , r e ­
se arch w orkers e n te re d upon t h i s work.
S ch ed u les, q u e s tio n -
1.
P e rc lv a l M. Symonds. Trends in E d u catio n al R esearch *
( E d i t o r i a l ) . J o u rn a l o f E d u ca tio n al R esearch . XXXV
(December. 1 9 4 0 ;, pp,“ 500-302.
2
n a i r e s , and s c a le s of v a rio u s ty p e s were developed as i n s t r u ­
ments f o r th e study o f th e s e areas*
In the f i e l d of a t t i t u d e measurement co n sid e ra b le
r e s e a rc h has been conducted.
In approxim ately te n y e a rs some
200 I n v e s tig a tio n s have been pursued in the stu d y of a t t i t u d e s .
In ad d itio n * upwards o f 100 se p a ra te s c a le s have been developed
whereby a t titu d e s of alm ost any is s u e mey be m easured.
To­
gether* th e y give elo q u en t testim o n y to th e growing s c i e n t i f i c
i n t e r e s t in th e stu d y of th e in ta n g ib le s of education*
The P re sen t Problem
T his in v e s tig a tio n r e p r e s e n ts an attem pt to extend r e ­
s e a rc h in t r a f f i o s a f e ty in to a new and as y e t u n tr ie d f i e l d .
H eretofore* re s e a rc h In e d u c a tio n a l and i n d u s t r ia l la b o ra to rie s
has been co n fin ed to th e in v e s tig a tio n o f problems concerned
w ith s o - c a lle d " e x te rn a l f a c t o r s " in t r a f f i c s i t u a t i o n s .
Types of road su rfa c e s have been stu d ie d t o determ ine t h e i r
n o n -sk id q u a l itie s in a l l k in d s of w eather; h e a d lig h ts on
autom obiles have been e n g in eered to reduce t h e i r g la re and
in c re a s e t h e i r p e n e tra tin g power f o r n ig h t d iv in g ; and th e
d riv in g p a tte r n s of m o to ris ts have been observed to a s c e r ta in
tim e re a c tio n * s te a d in e s s b eh in d th e wheel* and a b i l i t y to
handle v e h ic le s in t r a f f i c s itu a tio n s *
In one area* perhaps one of th e most im portant* n o th in g
s
h as a s y e t been done.
Mo one, d e s p ite th e in c re a s in g i n t e r ­
e s t in t h i s area g e n e ra lly d u rin g th e p a s t decade, has under­
ta k e n a stu d y p f th e a t t i t u d e s of m o to ris ts o r would-be
1
d r i v e r s . With some 40,000,000 d r iv e r s of more th a n
SO,000,000 motor v e h ic le s i n th e U nited S ta te s
2
as p o te n tia l
s u b je c ts t h i s phase o f t r a f f i c s a fe ty has rem ained u n ex p lo red .
I t i s th e f i e l d of a t t i t u d e s w ith which th e p re s e n t stu d y is
concerned.
The problem i s to pro v id e an in stru m en t whereby
th e a t t i t u d e s of d r iv e r s may be m easured.
The Purpose of th e Study
The purpose o f t h i s stu d y i s th e development of a
s c a le f o r th e measurement of a t t i t u d e s tow ard s a f e ty in th e
d r iv in g of th e au to m o b ile.
The f a c t , t h a t d e s p ite th e con­
c e rte d e f f o r t s o f numerous o rg a n iz a tio n s , th e d e a th t o l l in
t r a f f i c s itu a tio n s co n tin u es to be in ex cess of 30,000 an n u ally
i s evidence of th e need f o r a more thorough in v e s tig a tio n of
th e c a p a c itie s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d r iv e r s of m otor v eh i­
c le s ,
I t i s to provide a means whereby th e a t t i t u d l n a l b e ­
h a v io r of d r iv e r s may be measured th a t th e p re se n t stu d y has
been p r o je c te d .
1,
2,
American Automobile A s s o c ia tio n , S p o rts lik e D riv in g . 4
p. 2.
I b id . . p . 1 ,
4
The Problem D efined
The problem s t a t e d then I s th e c o n s tru c tio n of a
s c a le f o r th e measurement o f a t t i t u d e s tow ard s a fe ty In th e
d r iv in g of th e autom obile*
S p e c i f ic a ll y , th e problem i s
th a t o f c o n s tru c tin g , v a l id a t in g , and s ta n d a rd is in g a s c a le
f o r the measurement o f a t t i t u d e s tow ard f a c t o r s which a re
thought to be Im portant in s a fe d r iv in g .
To t h a t end th e
fo llo w in g sub-problem s must be in v e s tig a te d :
1.
To determ ine the f a c t o r s which a re co n sid ered
im p o rtan t in th e s a fe d r iv in g o f the a u t(m o b ile .
2.
To c o l le c t and e v a lu a te sta te m e n ts of o p in io n
which should measure a t t i t u d e s tow ard th e fa o to rs .
3.
To determ in e th e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of
th e s c a le .
4.
To e s t a b l i s h t e n ta t iv e norms f o r v ario u s h ig h
sch o o l groups o r c la s s e s of s tu d e n ts and sta n d ­
a rd resp o n ses f o r each of th e s ta te m e n ts .
D e fin itio n of Terms
In g e n e ra l th e term s used in t h i s stu d y a r e those a l ­
ready I n use among re s e a rc h w orkers.
In some in s ta n c e s , how­
e v e r, term s tak e on a meaning p e c u lia r to the type of stu d y
under c o n s id e r a tio n .
d e fin e d th u s :
In t h i s study th e fo llo w in g term s are
S c a le . The term s c a le i s h ere used to in d ic a te an
In stru m en t t h a t has been developed f o r th e purpose
of determ ing a t t i t u d e s toward a g iv en issu e* As
h e re in u se d , i t r e f e r s to an In stru m en t c o n s is tin g
of a s e r i e s o f sta te m e n ts o r item s o r in d ic a to rs
whioh have been o a s t in to an ex p re ssio n of o p in io n
b j which a t t i t u d e tow ard th e v a r ia b le s may be
m easured.
F a c to r. In t h i s stu d y the term f a c t o r r e f e r s to the
is s u e , o b je c t, v a r ia b le , o r area toward which a t t i ­
tu d e s a re b eing measured* In th e t r a f f i c s i t u a t i o n
f a c to r s in clu d e th o se o b je c ts , c irc u m sta n ces, re g u ­
l a t i o n s , a c t i v i t i e s , s e t s , and any o th e r event which
may In flu e n ce th e a t t i t u d e s of d r iv e r s of motor ve­
h ic le s .
I n d ic a to r s . Like th e words sta te m e n t and ite m , in ­
d ic a to r s ' r e f e r to th e ex p ressed opinions which com­
p r is e th e s c a le . They a re th e v e r b a lis e d sta tem en ts
used to measure a t t i t u d e s tow ard th e given is s u e s o r
v a ria b le s *
A ttitu d e s . These are th e p a r tis a n pro and eon te n d e n c le s ot th e in d iv id u a ls tow ard a given p e rso n , ob­
j e c t , s i t u a t i o n — th e sum t o t a l of h is in c lin a tio n s
and f e e l i n g s , p re ju d ic e s or b ia s e s , in t h i s stu d y ,
of d r iv in g s i t u a t i o n .
E xpressed O pinions. These r e f e r to th e c o lle c tiv e
sta te m e n ts of p s y c h o lo g is ts , sch o o l a d m in is tra to rs ,
te a c h e rs , in s p e c to r s , and exam iners in motor v e h ic le
d ep artm en ts, and s a f e ty e x p e rts in in d u s try re g a rd in g
th e Is s u e s o r f a c t o r s which have been reg ard ed im­
p o rta n t in th e sa fe d r iv in g s i t u a t i o n .
P lf f e r e n tia tln g n e s a . In t h i s stu d y th e term " d l f f e r e n c ia iln g n e s s ” and i t s eognatea a re used to in d ic a te
th e degree to which an in d ic a to r or statem en t r e f l e c t s
d if fe re n c e s of response between v ario u s groups o f p e r ­
sons* In a s p e c if ic sense i t i s used to in d ic a te th e
degree to which a given sta tem en t r e f l e c t s d if fe re n c e s
between groups o r persons whose t o t a l scorns on th e
s c a le p la c e them a t th e a n tip o d e s of th e rank o rd er
of t o t a l s c o re s .
Good d riv in g p r a c t ic e s . These a re th e a c t s , h a b i t s ,
s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e s o f d riv in g which d i f f e r e n t i a t e
th e sa fe d r iv e r from th e u n safe d r iv e r , th e good d r iv e r
from th e poor d r iv e r , th e d r iv e r w ith few or no a c c i ­
d en ts from the d r iv e r w ith many a c c id e n ts .
6
®«
O vert b e h a v io r* The a c t s , d ee d s, and observ ab le be­
h a v io r of in d iv id u a ls from which a t t i t u d e tow ard
given s itu a tlo n s and is s u e s may be i n f e r r e d , such
as in f e r r i n g o n e 's r e lig io u s a t titu d e from h is mem­
b e rs h ip in an a s s o c ia tio n f o r th e advancement of
ath eism .
S ig n ific a n c e of th e Study
More than t h i r t y y e a rs have ela p se d sin c e s o c ie ty
f i r s t ad d ressed I t s e l f s e rio u s ly to th e ta sk of c u rb in g th e
in ro ad s on l i f e , lim b , and p ro p e rty th ro u g h av o id ab le a c c i­
d e n ts .
During t h i s tim e p ro g re ss in th e d ecrease of a c c id e n ts
has been in some re s p e c ts commendable.
The d ea th t o l l from
a c c id e n ts o f a l l k l^ d s has d ecreased two p er o en t d u rin g th e
e le v e n -y e a r p e rio d from 1988 to 1939.
During th e same
p e rio d , however, one c la s s o f a c c id e n ts has In c re a se d s ix te e n
1
p er o e n t. T his I s In the f i e l d of t r a f f i c .
The in c re a se in t r a f f i c a c c id e n ts has been due in
p a r t to th e in c re a s e in the use o f th e autom obile, made po s­
s ib le by d ec re ase d c o s ts , te c h n o lo g ic a l Improvements, and
highway c o n s tru c tio n programs*
W ithin the l a s t f o r t y y e a rs
th e number of autom obile r e g i s t r a t i o n s has jumped from 8,000
to more th a n 3 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 , an in c re a se o f more th an 3,840 p e r
2
c e n t.
In th e te n y ears from 1929 to 1939, a lo n e , th e re has
^
A ccident F a c ts 1940 E d itio n .
Chicago; N a tio n a l S a fe ty
^
A ccident I n v e s tig a tlo n Manual. Chicago; N orthw estern Uni­
v e r s i t y T r a f f ic I n s t i t u t e , 1940, pp. 3 -5 .
7
been a 15.5 p e r cen t In c re a se from 26,501,445 to 29,485,680
v e h ic le s , w hile f o r the same tim e th e m ileage tr a v e lle d
1
Jumped from 180 b i l l i o n m iles to 270 b i l l i o n m ile s .
With
t h i s sh a rp In c re a s e in autom obile usage a c c id e n ts have i n ­
c re a se d .
The e f f e c t o f th e ra p id in c re a s e in th e use of the
autom obile soon became ev id en t in th e a c c id e n t s i t u a t i o n .
In
the f i f t e e n y e a rs from 1913 to 1928 m otor v e h ic le s ro se from
th e l e a s t to th e most im p o rtan t a s a cause of a c c id e n t d eath s.
Since 1928 autom obiles have been re s p o n s ib le f o r about onet h i r d of a l l a c c id e n t d e a th s .
Regarding th e r o le of motor v e h ic le s in the a c c id e n t
s i t u a t i o n f o r 1939, th e N atio n al S afety C ouncil s t a t e s :
With a d e a th o cc u rrin g every 16 m in u tes,
motor v e h ic le s a g a in ranked as a m ajor k i l l e r .
Motor v e h ic le s eq u a lle d th e d e a th t o l l of
d ia b e te s , h a l f th e t o t a l of tu b e r c u lo s is , or
two and a h a lf tim es th e number o f s y p h ilis
d e a th s . Among c h ild re n t r a f f i c d e a th s ex­
ceeded th e combined t o t a l of s c a r l e t f e v e r ,
d ip th e r i a , m easles, and whooping cough.3
However, th e d eath t o l l alo n e does n o t d e p ic t ade­
q u a te ly th e r o le of motor v e h ic le s in th e a c c id e n t s i t u a t i o n .
There a re th e c o n s id e ra tio n s re g a rd in g th e number o f perso n s
In ju re d and th e economic ooats*
b 1.
!j 2 .
A ccident P a c ts 1940 E d itio n .
C o u n cil, p . §6.
I b id . . p . 28.
When th e s e a re co n sid ered
Chicago: N atio n al S afety
8
th e s it u a ti o n i s r a t h e r s e n sa tio n a l*
In 1939, of th e
40,000,000 d r iv e r s of m otor v e h ic le s , alm ost 10,000,000 mere
involved in a c c id e n ts which r e s u lte d in damages to th e ve­
h ic le s and o n e -h a lf m illio n were involved in a c c id e n ts which
took a t o l l of 32,000 liv e s and l e f t 98,000 persons perm anently
in ju r e d and 1,043,000 te m p o ra rily in ju red *
In term s of eco­
nomic c o s ts t h i s s i t u a t i o n in v o lv ed th e sum of $1,500,000,000
in p ro p e rty damage, wage l o s s , m edical exp en se, and in su ran ce
1
co sts*
The im p lic a tio n s o f th e se f a c t s were obvious and
le a d e rs in v a rio u s w alks of l i f e ro se to th e challenge*
As
e a r ly a s 1926 a Bureau f o r T ra ff ic R esearch was founded a t
7 Harvard U n iv e rs ity , l a t e r tr a n s f e r r e d to Y ale U n iv e rs ity , f o r
th e purpose of d ev elo p in g means of red u cin g the t r a f f i c a c ­
c id e n t frequency th ro u g h en gineering*
In 1933 th e T r a f f ic
I n s t i t u t e a t n o rth w este rn U n iv e rsity was e s ta b lis h e d to t r a i n
o f f ic e r s in th e sc ie n c e of t r a f f i c sa fe ty *
And in 1938 the
C enter f o r S a fe ty E ducation was opened in New York U n iv e rs ity
2
f o r th e purpose o f tr a in i n g le a d e rs in s a fe ty education*
In
3
4
a d d itio n , approxim ately 8,000 h igh sch o o ls and 35 c o lle g e s
7 1.
i 2.
^ 3*
y>4.
A ccident F a c ts 1940 E d itio n , pp. 4 , 2 8 , and 62*
A ccident I n v e s tig a tio n Manual. p . 4*
H erbert J . S ta c k , tr a in i n g f o r L eadership on th e S afety
F ro n t, Phi D elta Kappan. (Ja n u a ry , 1939), pp. 194196*
American A sso c ia tio n of School A d m in is tra to rs, S a fe ty Edu­
c a tio n . p . 242*
Teacher (Training in S a fe ty , S afety E d u ca tio n . XX (1941),
pp* 298—
301, 330*
9
1
and numerous community groups and a g e n cie s - - C .C .C ., W .P.A.,
autom obile c lu b s , commercial c lu b s , s e rv ic e d u b s — have
opened co u rses to g iv e the p ro sp e c tiv e m otor v e h ic le d r iv e r
th e o r e tic a l or p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g , o r b o th , in th e a r t of
d riv in g .
D espite th e e f f o r t s of th e s e groups the t o l l in t r a f ­
f i c s itu a tio n s c o n tin u e s.
I n v e s tig a tio n of t r a f f i c a c c id e n ts
in d ic a te s t h a t human f a c to r s a re b a s ic in th e c a u sa tio n of
2
3
a c c id e n ts .
A ccording to Canning m echanical d e fe c ts o f a u to ­
m obiles p la y o nly a sm all p a r t in the cau sin g o f highway a c 4
c id e n ts . The stu d y by Toopa and Haven, on the o th e r hand,
re v e a ls a f a u l t y s t a t e of mind o r a t t i t u d e in th e f a c t t h a t
of 200 d r iv e r s q u e s tio n e d , only one of 160 involved in a c c i­
den ts thought h im se lf a t f a u l t .
F u rth erm o re, th e y e a r-b y -
y e a r r e p o r ts of th e N atio n al S a fe ty Council show th a t a v a s t
m a jo rity of m otor v e h ic le a c c id e n ts a re a t t r i b u t a b l e to
f a c to r s under th e c o n tro l of th e d r iv e r .
For example, an
a n a ly s is of th e cau ses of such a c c id e n ts f o r 1939 re v e a ls
the fo llo w in g f a c t s ;
1.
>' 1.
v>
) 2.
^3.
4.
Speed v io la tio n s c o n trib u te d t o one of every
f o u r f a t a l a c c id e n ts . Unsafe speed was the
most f re q u e n tly re p o rte d v io la tio n in f a t a l
a c c id e n ts .
Burton W. M arsh, Teaching Old Dogs New T r a f f ic T ric k s ,
Phi D elta Kappan. (Jan u a ry , 1939), pp . 187-193.
American A sso c ia tio n of School A d m in is tra to rs, S a fe ty
E d u ca tio n . E ig h te e n th Yearbook, p . 133.
W.S. Canning, Motor V ehicle in s p e c tio n Laws. Automotive
I n d u s t r i e s . LXXIV (February 2 9 , 1931), ppT' 538-55S.'
H.A. Toopa and S e th Haven, Viewing th e T ra ff ic S itu a tio n s ,
J o u rn a l of A pplied Psychology. XXI (1937), pp . 185-197.
10
2.
Improper d r iv in g , e x c lu siv e o f speed, was r e ­
p o rte d i n two o f ev ery th r e e f a t a l a c c id e n ts .
3.
One of every fo u r f a t a l a c c id e n ts involved a
d r iv e r o r p e d e s tria n who had been d rin k in g
. . . . one o f each n in e d r iv e r s in f a t a l a c c i­
d e n ts had been d rin k in g .
4.
A d r iv e r d e f e c t, b o d ily d e fe c ts and b o d ily im­
p a irm e n ts, in c lu d in g sle e p and f a t i g u e , were r e ­
p o rte d i n 4 p e r cen t of th e f a t a l a c c id e n ts .
5.
The very young and very o ld d r iv e r s a re more
fre q u e n tly inv o lv ed in a c c id e n ts . D riv ers under
20 y e a rs of age have th e h ig h e s t a c c id e n t r a t e .
6.
A d e fe c tiv e v e h ic le was re p o rte d to have been in ­
volved i n 9 p e r cen t of the f a t a l a c c id e n ts .
7.
Some o b s tru c tio n to v is io n ( r a in , snow, o r d i r t
on the wind s h ie ld ; s ig n s , embankments, t r e e s ,
o th e r v e h ic le s ) c o n trib u te s to 7 p er ce n t o f th e
f a t a l a c c id e n ts .
8.
In 6 p er cent of th e a c c id e n ts some highway d e­
f e c t was a c o n trib u tin g f a c t o r .
9.
Three o f every f iv e f a t a l a c c id e n ts o cc u rred a t
n ig h t.
10.
One of every f iv e a c c id e n ts oocurred i n cloudy,
f°S£y> r a in y , o r snowy w eather; and when th e
ro ad s were w et, muddy, snowy, o r ic y .
11.
Nine of 10 f a t a l r u r a l a c c id e n ts occurred in an
a re a d esig n a te d as open c o u n try . In c i t i e s . • •
54 p er ce n t o ccurred in r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s .1
The fo re g o in g p r e s e n ta tio n shows t h a t the m a jo rity
of th e se a c c id e n ts ocour most o fte n to young d r iv e r s on open
highways and i n r e s i d e n t i a l s e c tio n s on d ry , le v e l s t r a i g h t -
1.
A ccidents P acts 1940 E d itio n , pp . 30-31, 36-37.
11
of-ways d u rin g c le a r w eather u n d er ad v erse speed e o n d itlo n a .
These f a c t s seem to In d ic a te th e re fo r e th a t th e m a jo rity of
t r a f f i c a c c id e n ts may he a t t r i b u t a b l e to human f a c t o r s ,
among which i s th e problem of a t t i t u d e s .
An in v e s tig a tio n
of th e a t t i t u d e s of d r iv e r s would th en seem to be in o rd e r.
However, a t th e p re s e n t tim e t h i s i s Im possible because of
th e lack of an in stru m e n t whereby the a t t i t u d e s may be
s tu d ie d .
I t i s to f i l l t h i s need th a t th e p re s e n t stu d y has
been u n d e rta k e n .
T his re s e a rc h w i l l pro v id e an instrum ent
f o r the measurement of a t t i t u d e s , b u t th e re w ill s t i l l be th e
problem of th e development of a t t i t u d e s .
Assumptions U nderlying the Study
S ev eral assum ptions u n d e rlie t h i s s tu d y .
Tbs f i r s t
of th e se i s concerned w ith th e m e a s u ra b ility of a t t i t u d e s in
tr a f f ic s itu a tio n s .
R esearch workers have re p o rte d the
measurement o f a t t i t u d e s tow ard a la rg e v a r ie ty o f s o c ia l
problems and is s u e s .
For exam ple, T hurstone has measured
1
2
a t t i t u d e tow ard th e ohurch, Droba tow ard w ar, Borgardus
3
4
tow ard n a t i o n a l i t i e s , Watson tow ard fa irm in d e d n e ss, Smith
1.
2.
3.
4.
L .L . T hurstone and E .J* Chave, The Measurement of A t t i ­
tu d es .
D.D.”T5roEa, E ffe c ts of Various F a c to rs on M lllta ris m P ac ifism , Jo u rn a l o f S o c ia l and Abnormal Psychology.
XXVI (1951V, p p . iS I-1 5 3 ;
E .S . B orgardus, A S o o la l D istan ce S o a le , Sociology and
S o c ia l R esearch XVII (M ay-June, 1933), p p . 464-35?.
Goodwin B. Watson. The Measure of F a ir M indedness.
12
toward p r o h ib itio n .
1
I t seems lo g ic a l , th e r e f o r e , t o assume
th a t i t i s a ls o p o s s ib le and d e s ira b le to measure a t t i t u d e
tow ard a s o c ia l problem a s im p o rtan t a s s a f e ty in th e d riv in g
of th e autom obile.
As a c o r o lla r y to th e f e a s i b i l i t y of measurement of
a t t i t u d e s , i t i s assumed th a t i t i s p o s s ib le to determ ine
th e a re a s com prising th e sa fe d r iv in g a c t .
S ta te d d i f f e r ­
e n t ly , i t i s assumed t h a t i t i s p o s s ib le to determ ine th e
f a c to r s which sh o u ld be co n sid ered in the sa fe d riv in g of
th e au to m o b ile.
T his having been done, i t i s a ls o p o s s ib le
to e s ta b li s h the sta te m e n ts of a t t i t u d e which ought to be r e ­
garded a s p e r tin e n t in th e s a fe d riv in g s i t u a t i o n .
To t h a t
end c e r t a in e x p e rts in th e v ario u s f i e l d s of s a f e ty a re con­
sid e re d q u a lif ie d t o determ ine what th o se im portant a rea s o r
f a o to r s a r e and what those d e s ira b le a t t i t u d e s should b e .
I n s o fa r as t h i s study i s concerned i t i s assumed
th a t a t t i t u d e s toward s a f e ty in th e d r iv in g o f th e autom obile
are m easurable by means o f v e rb a liz e d e x p re s s io n s .
In a d d i­
tio n i t i s assumed th a t groups of persons who a re capable of
h o ld in g d i f f e r i n g o p in io n s about g iv en is s u e s a re a ls o capable
of d is c rim in a tin g between any two sta te m e n ts of opinion about
a giv en is s u e .
1.
T his i s to say t h a t p erso n s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y
H a ttie N. Sm ith, A S eale f o r M easuring A ttitu d e s about
P ro h ib itio n , Jo u rn a l of Abnormal and S o c ia l Psychology.
XXVI (Ja n u a ry ,
p p . 45b-437.
13
capable of fo rm u la tin g o p in io n s on g iv e n Is su e s are e q u a lly
capable of d is tin g u is h in g betw een e x p re s sio n s of statem en t
concerning t h a t issu e*
They a re th e r e f o r e n o t only capable
of ta k in g a p o s itio n of f o r o r a g a in s t an iss u e b u t a ls o
capable of e x p re ssin g th a t " fo rn e ss" o r a g a in stn e sa " in term s
of "more or le s s f o r " o r "more or le s s a g a in s t" th a t issu e*
F in ally * i t i s assumed th a t an ex p re ssio n of a t t i t u d e
toward a given is s u e may v ary as th e e x p e r ie n tia l background
o f th e s u b je c ts v a rie s*
For th e p re s e n t stu d y t h i s im p lies
th a t th e more in d iv id u a ls have been exposed to s it u a ti o n s r e ­
f l e c t i n g th e a t t i t u d e s under measurement* th e more li k e l y they
w ill ex p ress a t t i t u d e s which approach those co n sid ered most
" s o c ia lly d e s ira b le * "
And c o n v e rs e ly , th e le s s the e x p e rie n ­
t i a l background in s it u a ti o n s r e f l e c t i n g d e s ir a b le a ttitu d e s *
th e le s s li k e l y the s u b je c t w i l l r e f l e c t a t t i t u d e co n sid ered
s o c ia lly d e s ira b le *
C o ro lla ry to th is * th e g r e a te r th e ex­
p e r i e n t i a l background* the g r e a te r th e homogeneity of th e
group*
D e lim ita tlo n a o f th e Study
In s e v e r a l ways t h i s stu d y i s d elim ited *
In th e f i r s t
p la c e i t i s lim ite d by i t s n a tu re to th e in ta n g ib le a s p e c ts
of e d u c atio n and w ith in t h i s g e n e ra l a re a to t h a t phase con­
cerned w ith em o tio n al behavior*
In a more r e s t r i c t e d sense
i t i s d e lim ite d t o th e measurement o f a t t i t u d e s in th e s a f e ty
14
of autom obile d r iv in g .
S econdly, t h i s stu d y i s lim ite d a s to s u b je c ts .
S ince th e end p ro d u ct o f t h i s in v e s tig a tio n i s a s c a le f o r
th e measurement of a t t i t u d e s of p erso n s soon to become le g a l­
iz e d d r iv e r s o f au to m o b iles, the s u b je c ts a re f o r th e most
p a r t stu d e n ts o f h ig h sch o o l a g e .
Because of th e v ary in g
le g a l age lim its from s t a t e to s t a t e , th e se s u b je c ts a re s tu ­
d e n ts in th e n in th to tw e lf th g r a d e s , b o th s e x e s , d r iv e r s
and n o n - d riv e rs , and s tu d e n ts e n r o lle d and n o t e n ro lle d in
d r iv e r e d u c a tio n c o u rse s.
To p ro v id e re p re s e n ta tiv e n e s s of
popula tlo n , th e s tu d e n ts were drawn from h ig h schools s itu a te d
in communities re p re s e n tin g h ig h , a v e ra g e , and low a c c id e n t
1
r a te s as re p o rte d by th e N atio n al S a fe ty C o u n cil.
In th e
p re lim in a ry work a sam pling of 500 s tu d e n ts was u se d .
For
the v a lid a tio n and s ta n d a r d iz a tio n o f th e s c a le a p o p u la tio n
of 2,000 was u t i l i z e d .
The Measurement of A ttitu d e s
In g e n e ra l a t t i t u d e s may be m easured e i th e r through
th e observance o f o v e rt b eh av io r o r th ro u g h ex p ressed o p in io n .
That i s a t t i t u d e s may be in f e r re d from th e o v ert b eh av io r of
in d iv id u a ls or th e y may be I n te r p r e te d in th e l i g h t of th e
1.
A ccident F a c ts 1940 E d itio n .
15
resp o n ses of th e in d iv id u a ls to sta tem en ts of o p in io n .
S erio u s d i f f i c u l t i e s a tte n d th e measurement of a t t i t u d e s by
e i t h e r method.
In th e case of th e fo rm er the d i f f i c u l t i e s
are th o se of s e c u rin g r e l i a b l e m easures o f o v e rt b eh av io r
and th e im p o s s ib ility of p re s e n tin g a c t u a l s it u a ti o n s wherein
a t t i t u d e s toward g iven is s u e s may be m easured.
In th e case
of th e l a t t e r th e d i f f i c u l t y i s th a t of p ro v id in g an i n s t r u ­
ment whereby th e a t t i t u d e s of in d iv id u a ls may be measured and
in te r p r e t e d .
Because;
The ta s k of c o n tr o llin g l i f e s i t u a t i o n s so
t h a t a t t i t u d e s may be judged in term s of what
a person does in s te a d o f what he says has
p re se n te d suoh te c h n ic a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and
problem s of o b j e c t i v i t y . . • alm ost w ith o u t
e x c e p tio n th e w orkers i n t h i s f i e l d have
used v e rb a l methods .1
2
A ccording to Droba
th e se methods may be c l a s s i f i e d a s (1)
r e l a t i v e ra n k , (2) case s tu d y , (3) g rap h ic r a t i n g , (4) p a ire d
com parison, (5) eq u al ap p e arin g i n t e r v a l s , and (6) a b s o lu te
ran k .
In the fo llo w in g pages th e se methods w i l l be reviewed
and s tu d ie s showing the a p p lic a tio n o f s c a le s c o n s tru c te d by
the v a r io u s methods
1.
2.
w i l l be summarized.
Thomas H. B riggs e t a l . . The ^ n o tio n s 11 zed A ttitu d e s .
p . 10.
D.D. Droba, Methods f o r M easuring A ttitu d e s . P sychologi­
c a l B u l le t in . XXIX (May, 1932), p p . 309 fT T —
16
Method o f R e la tiv e Rank
As th e name in d ic a te s , t h i s method u t i l i z e s th e p r in ­
c ip le of ra n k in g one statem en t o r in d ie &t o r in term s of
an o th er to determ ine which of th e two i s o f th e h ig h e r m erit*
O ccupations, n a t i o n a l i t i e s , and stu d e n t a c t i v i t i e s a re among
th e s it u a ti o n s th a t have been s tu d ie d by th e method o f r e l a ­
tiv e ran k .
To a s c e r ta in t h e i r o cc u p atio n al a t t i t u d e s and ch o ices
1
Anderson had 609 N orth C aro lin a c o lle g e s tu d e n ts rank each
of 24 occupations on the b a s is of how th ey should r a t e
so c ia lly *
To guard a g a in s t a m is in te r p r e ta tio n of o cc u p atio n s,
Anderson fo llo w ed each o f th e names of th e o ccu p atio n s w ith
a q u a lify in g p h ra s e , such as:
Banker ( p a r t owner and d ir e c to r o f bank)
B arber (works in b a rb e r shop)
B a se b a ll p la y e r (p ro fe s s io n a l)
D itc h d ig g e r (works w ith p ic k and sh o v el)
Farmer (owns and o p e ra te s own farm)
P h y sician ( p r a c tic e s ’m ed icin e) * *
S o ld ie r ( in th e U nited S ta te s Army)
_____
_____
_______
_____
_____
_____
_____
Anderson found c lo s e agreement in th e resp o n ses o f stu d e n ts
as t o the s o c ia ll y d e s ira b le o c c u p a tio n s, th e c o r r e la tio n s
running t o .97 and h ig h e r .
1.
A ccording t o th e resp o n se s of th e
W.C. A nderson, The O ccupational A ttitu d e s and Choices o f
C ollege S tu d e n ts . S o c ia l F o rc es. VI (1 9 2 8 ). nn. 2782
8
3
. ---------------------
17
s tu d e n ts th e most s o c ia ll y d e s ir a b le occu p atio n s w ere:
clergym an, p h y s ic ia n , p r o fe s s o r , b a r b e r , and en g in e e r; and
th e l e a s t s o c ia lly d e s ir a b le were: b a s e b a ll p la y e r , s o ld i e r ,
c h a u ffe u r, man of l e i s u r e , and d i t c h d ig g e r.
On th e b a s is
of t h i s stu d y Anderson concludes th a t c o lle g e s tu d e n ts have
d e f in it e a t t i t u d e s tow ard th e o cc u p atio n s, and t h a t the
f a t h e r 's occu p atio n in flu e n c e s th e choice of th e s o n 's l i f e
1
work very l i t t l e .
To In q u ire in to th e p re ju d ic e s o f people Bogardus
2
had in d iv id u a ls r e p o r t the degree to w hich th e y would become
in tim a te w ith c e r t a i n e th n ic g ro u p s.
For each of th e 40 d i f ­
f e r e n t r a c i a l groups he asked h is s u b je c ts to check th e "degree
of intim acy" ac co rd in g to th e fo llo w in g p a tte r n ;
According to my f i r s t f e e lin g re a c tio n s I
would w illin g ly adm it members of each race
(as a c l a s s , and n o t th e b e s t I have know?
n o r th e w orst members) to one or more of the
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s I have e n c ir c le d :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
1.
2.
To c lo s e k in sh ip by m arriage
To my clu b a s p e rs o n a l chums
To my s t r e e t as n eighbors
To employment in my occupation
To c itiz e n s h ip in my oountry
As v i s i t o r only in my co u n try
Would exclude from my country
Anderson, oj>. c i t . . p . 283.
Emory S . Bogardus, Im m lgratlon and Race A ttitu d e s , pp . x i 268.
18
In g en e ra l th e r e s u l t s show t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of
th e n o rth e rn European ra c e s r a te d h ig h in th e sym pathetic
a t titu d e s of Americans and th a t th e A s ia tic and A frican
groups ex p erien ced th e g r e a te s t a n tip a th y .
Persons of
so u th ern and e a s te r n race s r a te d above the A s ia tic and A fr i­
can g ro u p s.
The T urks, N egroes, Japanese and Chinese were
th e s u b je c ts o f the g r e a te s t d is c rim in a tio n .
To supplement th e d ata d e riv e d through h is s o c ia l
d is ta n c e q u e s tio n n a ire Bogardus analyzed r e p o r ts o f "seven
hundred persons • • , secu red by p e rso n a l in te rv ie w • • •
1
and from l e t t e r s , u sin g th e c a se -stu d y method,"
He found
th a t " in th e main th e race re a c tio n s re v e a le d by th e case
s tu d ie s " c o r r e la te d c lo s e ly w ith th e re a c tio n s re c e iv e d
through th e q u e s tio n n a ire .
In t h e i r ex h au stiv e stu d y o f th e i n t e r e s t s , a c t i v i ­
t i e s , and a t t i t u d e s of s tu d e n ts in Syracuse U n iv e rs ity , Katz
2
and A llp o rt
re q u e s te d t h e i r s u b je c ts to check of
th e f o l ­
low ing, (a) once th o se a c t i v i t i e s which th e stu d e n ts c o n s i­
dered of some Im portance to them p e r s o n a lly , (b) tw ice
th o se which th e y reg ard ed v ery Im p o rta n t, and (c) th re e
tim es t h a t one a c t i v i t y which they co n sid ered most Im p o rtan t,
1.
2,
Bogardus, op, c l t . . p . 14,
D aniel Katz and Ployd H, A llp o r t, S tudents * A ttitu d e s .
pp. x x v iii-4 0 8 .
19
The a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d in c lu d ed :
M usical a c t i v i t i e s
A th le tic s
R e lig io u s a c t i v i t i e s
Personal', c o n ta c ts
w ith in s t r u c to r s
S c ie n tific , p o litic a l
and s im ila r s o c ie ­
tie s
College s tu d ie s
School p u b lic a tio n s
S o c ia l fu n c tio n s
D aily s o c ia l con­
ta c t s
F r a te r n ity o r so ro r­
ity lif e
L ite r a r y and d eb atin g
s o c ie tie s ^
Katz and A llp o rt found t h a t :
The g re a t m a jo rity of Syracuse s tu d e n ts se ­
le c te d e i t h e r c o lle g e s tu d ie s or d a ily
s o c i a l c o n ta c ts (as th e one most im portant
a c t i v i t y ) . College s tu d ie s were the choice
of 42 p er cen t and d a ily c o n ta c ts of 30 p er
c e n t. No o th e r a c t i v i t y a tta in e d any con­
s id e ra b le p o p u la r ity . F r a te r n ity l i f e , th e
h ig h e s t of th e o th e r n in e f a c t o r s , was r e ­
garded a s the most im portant c o lle g e a c t i v i t y
by only 9 p er c e n t o f th e s tu d e n ts .2
Among o th e r im portant fin d in g s were th e fo llo w in g :
A dm iration f o r s c h o la rsh ip and b r i l l i a n c e
i s found more o fte n w ith a h igh e v a lu a tio n
o f p e rs o n a l c o n ta c ts w ith in s tr u c to r s th a n
w ith a s im ila r v a lu a tio n of f r a t e r n i t y l i f e .
In d u s try has i t s g r e a te s t number of adm irers
among the s tu d e n ts who value r e lig io u s a c t i ­
v i t i e s h ig h ly . Those who d isp a ra g e th e
m otives of stu d e n ts seek in g th e acq u ain tan ce
of a p ro fe s s o r a re much more lik e ly to be
s tu d e n ts who em phasize f r a t e r n i t y l i f e th an
s tu d e n ts who s t r e s s c o n ta c ts w ith in s t r u c t o r s .
1.
2.
Katz and A llp o r t, oj>. c i t . . p . 2 4 .
X bld., p . 46.
20
D is s a tis f a c tio n w ith s tu d ie s as a means of
s e lf- e x p r e s s io n i s found l e a s t fre q u e n tly
among s tu d e n ts who v alu e o o lle g e s tu d ie s
o r c o n ta c ts w ith in s tr u c to r s * An a t h l e t i c
system which fa v o rs stro n g v a r s it y teams
r a th e r than g e n e ra l p a r tic ip a t io n f o r a l l
stu d e n ts f in d s support more o fte n among
s tu d e n ts who emphasize f r a t e r n i t y l i f e o r
d a ily s o c ia l c o n ta c ts th a n among th e r e s t
of th e L ib e ra l A rts s tu d e n ts . F in a lly ,
r e l a t i v e l y more s tu d e n ts who v alu e p erso n a l
c o n ta c ts w ith in s t r u c to r s th an who value
f r a t e r n i t y l i f e o r d a lly s o c ia l c o n ta c ts
work to meet a l l o r p e r t of t h e i r expenses*^
The Case Study Method
The case study method, h i s t o r i c a l l y our o ld e s t method
of re s e a r c h , r e f e r s to an o r a l or w r itte n running account of
o n e 's a t t i t u d e toward a g iv en issu e*
I t s h ig h ly s u b je c tiv e
n a tu re does n o t r e a d ily make i t s u b je c t to q u a n ta tiv e t r e a t ­
ment*
I t i s u s u a lly used i n conneotioh w ith o th e r in stru m en ts
to r e in f o rc e th e d a ta g ath ered th ro u g h o th e r means*
To a s c e r ta in the f e e lin g s and a t t i t u d e s of U n iv e rsity
of Chicago s tu d e n ts tow ard p r o h ib itio n and th e d rin k in g of
2
liq u o r , S to u ff e r
had them w rite a 1000-word account o f t h e i r
ex p erien ces and a t t i t u d e s toward those issu es*
He th e n had
th e h i s t o r i e s r a te d by fo u r ju d g es, advanced g rad u ate s tu ­
1*
2*
Katz and A llp o r t, op* c i t . . pp. 47-48*
Samuel A* S to u ffe rT E x p e rim e n ta l Comparison of a S t a t i s ­
t i c a l and a Case H isto ry Technique of A ttitu d e Re­
s e a rc h , Papers and Proceedings 2 5 th Annual C onference,
American S o c io lo g ic a l S o c ie ty , 1931, pp . 152-156*
21
d en ts In so c io lo g y , along a f iv e - in c h r a t i n g s c a le In term s
of fa v o ra b le n e ss o r u n fav o rab le n ess toward th e Is su e s of
p r o h ib itio n and toward d rin k in g liq u o r o n e 's s e l f .
Using
th e average of th e ju d g e s' r a t i n g s , S to u ffe r c o r r e la te d
th e se w ith th e sco res of the s tu d e n ts on th e Smith sc a le
of a t t i t u d e tow ard p r o h ib itio n and o b tain ed a c o rre c te d co­
e f f i c i e n t of .8 6 .
To check on th e r a tin g s o f th e fo u r
ju d g e s, which c o r r e la te d .96 among them, S to u ffe r had a
random sample of 99 of th e papers re a d by th e su p e rin te n d e n t
of the I l l i n o i s A nti-S aloon League and by th e s e c r e ta r y of
th e I l l i n o i s A sso c ia tio n Opposed to P ro h ib itio n and se c u re d
r e s u l t s alm ost i d e n tic a l w ith th o se from the fo u r ju d g e s.
On the b a s is o f h is fin d in g s S to u ff e r concluded th a t h is
case h is to r y teohnlque and th e Smith sc a le were doing th e
same th in g about e q u a lly w e ll, th e c o r r e la tio n between the
r e s u l t s o f th e tao b ein g *86.
H artshorne and May employed th e case study tech n iq u e
1
in t h e i r in v e s tig a tio n of h o n esty among school c h ild r e n .
They s tu d ie d th e problem from numerous an g les and In r e l a ­
tio n t o many f a c t o r s .
T h eir s u b je c ts , sch o o l c h ild re n of
ages 8 to 16, were g iven o p p o rtu n ity to ex p ress h o n esty or
d ish o n e sty In m anifold s itu a tio n s * in changing answers on
1.
Hugh H artshorne and Mark May, S tu d ie s In th e N ature of
C h a ra c te r. S tu d ies i n D e c e it.
22
p e n c il and p aper t e s t s ; s te a lin g co in s when the co in t e s t s
were i n p ro g re ss; o v e r s ta tin g a c tu a l perform ance in t e s t s
o f s k i l l ; ch e a tin g in s o c ia l games, such a s peeping w hile
p in n in g th e t a l l on th e donkey; f a l s i f y i n g t o q u e s tio n s in
th e "P u p il Data S h e e t," given a week subsequent to th e com­
p l e t i o n of th e p e n c il and paper t e s t s , su c h as th e fo llo w ­
ing*
1,
Did you e v e r ch eat in any s o r t o f t e s t ?
2*
Did you a c tu a lly do t h i s t e s t a l l alone
w ithout g e t tin g h elp on i t ?
45,
On some o f th ese t e s t s you had a key to
c o rre c t your p ap er by* Did you copy any
answers from the keys?
and d e lib e r a te ly in g through answers to a t t i t u d e q u e s tio n ­
n a ire s *
In a d d itio n th e home l i f e of th e c h ild re n was in ­
v e s tig a te d to determ in e th e e f f e c t of th e c u l tu r a l back­
ground of th e home on th e in fo rm a tio n , id e a s , a t t i t u d e s ,
em otions, and h a b its o f the ch ild re n *
In fo rm atio n was ob­
ta in e d from th e c h ild re n through q u e s tio n n a ire s on home
background and good manners and from th e p a re n ts through
p e rs o n a l in te rv ie w by an ex p erien ced " sc h o o l v i s i t o r . "
Data were g a th e re d from some 11,000 school ch ild ren *
The r e s u l t s were r e l a t e d to th e fo llo w in g f a c to rs *
Age, se x , i n t e l l i g e n c e , p h y s ic a l and em otional
c o n d itio n , socio-econom ic le v e l of home, th e
c u l tu r a l le v e l o f th e home, th e r a c e , n a tio n a l­
i t y , and r e l i g i o n o f p a r e n ts , sch o o l g rad e,
23
a tte n d a n c e , achievem ent, r e ta r d a tio n , d e p o rt­
m ent, a s s o c ia tio n with, f r ie n d s , c la s sm a te s ,
s o c i a b i l i t y , s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , a tte n d a n c e a t
m otion p i c t u r e s , p ro g re ssiv e v e rsu s conven­
t i o n a l sc h o o l m ethods, te a c h e r In flu e n c e ,
sch o o l and c la s s m o rale, membership In clubs
o r o rg a n iz a tio n s p u rp o rtin g to develop
c h a r a c te r , Sunday-school a tte n d a n c e , and c e r ­
t a i n e f f o r t s to te a c h o r a f f e c t h o n e s ty .1
In g e n e ra l th e fin d in g s in d ic a te t h a t ;
The m otives f o r c h e a tin g , ly in g or s te a lin g
are complex and in h e re f o r the most p a r t in the
g e n e ra l s it u a ti o n s th em selv es. The most com­
mon m otive f o r c h e a tin g on classroom e x e rc is e s
i s th e d e s ir e to do w e ll.
The oonocm itants of d e c e it a r e , i n o rd er of
t h e i r im portance, (1) classroom a s s o c ia tio n ;
(2) g e n e ra l p e rso n a l h an d icap s, such a s
r e l a t i v e l y low I . Q ., poor r e s is ta n c e to sug­
g e s tio n , and em otional i n s t a b i l i t y ; (3) c u l­
t u r a l and s o c ia l lim ita tio n s in th e home
background; and (4) such o th e r m iscellan eo u s
f a c t s as a re lo o se ly c o r r e la te d w ith d e c e p tio n .^
g rap h ic R atin g S cale
Like th e case stu d y te c h n iq u e , th e g rap h ic
r a t i n g sc a le i s used in c o n ju n c tio n w ith o th e r methods in th e
measurement of a t t i t u d e s .
D efined as a lin e alo n g which th e
s u b je c t checks th e e x te n t of h is a t t i t u d e tow ard a given i s ­
s u e , i t p ro v id es f o r two ty p es of r a t i n g s ; s e l f - r a t i n g and
r a tin g by o th e r s .
1.
2.
To guide the s u b je c t in h is r a tin g words
H artshorne and Hay, op. c i t . . p . 408.
I b id . . p . 412.
24
or f ig u r e s are p la c e d below th e lin e t o in d ic a te degrees of
a ttitu d e .
1
Thuratone and Chave
employed a g rap h ic r a tin g s c a le
to have t h e i r s u b je c ts r a t e them selves on t h e i r fav o ra b le n e ss
toward th e church:
1
S tro n g ly fa v o ra b le
to th e church
1
1
N eu tral
S tro n g ly u n fa v o ra b le to th e church
They o b ta in ed a c o r r e la tio n o f .67 between th e s e lf - r a tin g s
of t h e i r s u b je c ts and t h e i r sc o re s on th e s c a le f o r the
measurement o f a t t i t u d e toward th e church.
2
Droba
used a ten-segm ent r a t i n g s c a le whereby h is
s u b je c ts were re q u e s te d to r a t e them selves on th e is s u e of
m lllta rls m -p a c if is m .
1
1
M ilita ris m
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
P acifism
He secured a c o r r e la tio n o f .75 between th e s tu d e n ts ' s e l f r a tin g s and t h e i r sc o re s on h is s c a le of a t t i t u d e tow ard w ar.
3
As p re v io u s ly s ta te d S to u ffe r used r a tin g s c a le s by
which h is judges e v a lu a te d th e fav o ra b le n e ss o r u n fav o rab le­
n ess of h is s u b je c ts ' a t t i t u d e s toward th e is s u e s of p r o h lb l1.
2.
3.
T hurstons and Chave. op. c i t . . p . 78.
D.D. Droba. E ffe c ts on V arious F a c to rs on M llita rls m P a c lfls m . J o u rn a l o f Abnormal and S o c ia l Psychology.
XXVI (I9 3 1 ~ 7 7 p p 7 1*1-153.
-------S to u f f e r . op. c i t . . p . 154.
25
tio n and d rin k in g of liq u o r by o n e 's s e l f and secu red a co­
e f f i c i e n t of .86 between th e se r a tin g s and th e s tu d e n ts '
sco res on the Sm ith sc a le of a t t i t u d e toward th e s e is s u e s
of p r o h ib itio n .
In g e n e ra l s im ila r c o e f f ic ie n ts have been
re p o rte d by o th e r workers In th e f i e l d .
Method of P aired Comparison
In t h i s ty p e of t e s t th e s u b je c t checks th a t one
of th e two p a ire d words or sta tem en ts which he p r e f e r s .
Then
th e o rd er o f p re fe re n c e o f th e words is determ ined by com­
p u tin g th e p ro p o rtio n of s u b je c ts fa v o rin g a g iv en word over
every o th e r w ord.
This type o f s c a le i s used to compare r e ­
sponses of groups and does not le n d i t s e l f to use w ith in d i­
v id u a ls .
T hurstone f i r s t used t h i s technique to measure the
1
se rio u sn e ss o f crim es.
To U n iv e rsity of Chicago stu d e n ts
he subm itted 19 d i f f e r e n t crim es in 171 p a i r s , su ch a s :
A bortion-K idnapping
Adult ery-L arceny
Rape-K idnapping, e t c .
to be checked to in d ic a te w hich of ea ch was co n sid ered th e
more s e r io u s .
According to th e stu d e n t re sp o n se s, crim es
d e a lin g w ith sex were reg ard ed more s e rio u s th an p ro p e rty
1.
L .L. T h u rsto n e. The Method o f F a ire d Comparisons f o r
S o c ia l V alues. Jo u rn al o f Abnormal and S o c ia l
Psychology. XXI (192*7), p p . &84-400.
26
crim es, w i t h r a p e , hom icide, and se d u c tio n le a d in g .
An in te r e s ti n g a p p lic a tio n o f the paired -co m p ariso n
technique was made by P eterso n and Thurstone
to determ ine
th e e f f e c t of movies on the a t t i t u d e s of c h ild r e n .
P rio r
to and a f t e r th e showing of the film "Four Sons," fa v o ra b le
to th e Germans, an a t t i t u d e s c a le and a paired -co m p ariso n
t e s t on n a t i o n a l i t i e s was a d m in iste re d to c h ild re n in Grades
VII to XII*
The a p p lic a tio n of th e a t t i t u d e s c a le , c o n s is t­
in g of sta tem en ts lik e th e fo llo w in g ;
1.
Germans a re s u p e rio r to any o th e r
n a tio n a lity .
0 .5
2.
German people are no b e t t e r and no
worse th an o th e r s .
6.4
3.
The German people a re th e most d e s­
p ic a b le people in th e w o rld .
12.3
re v e a le d a s h i f t o f f r ie n d lin e s s to th e Germans, a s h i f t in
mean sc o re from 5 .6 to 5 .2 .
The r e s u l t s of th e p a ire d com­
p a ris o n s f o r b e fo re and a f t e r a ls o showed a s h i f t of p r e f e r ­
ence toward th e Germans.
The a u th o rs conclude th a t " th e
s o c ia l a t t i t u d e s o f c h ild re n are a f f e c te d in a m easurable way
by th e m otion p ic tu r e film s and . . .
1.
in te r n a tio n a l a t t i t u d e s
Ruth C. P eterso n and L.L. T h u rsto n e, The E ffe c t of Motion
P ic tu re Film s on C h ild ren s A ttitu d e s Toward Germans,
Jo u rn al o f E d u ca tio n al Psychology. XXIII (1932),
p p . 241-556.
27
can be guided by th e f ilm s ."
1
Method of E qual-A ppearing I n te r v a ls
The one I n v e s tig a to r who has made th e most s i g n i f i ­
ca n t c o n trib u tio n to the measurement of a t t i t u d e s is
T hurstone.
Through h is e f f o r t s th e re has been developed a
method whereby s c a le s f o r th e measurement o f a t t i t u d e s may
be c o n s tru c te d w ith f a i r l y uniform I n te r v a ls through th e a t ­
titu d e continuum .
B r ie f ly , th e ste p s in th e c o n s tru c tio n
of a s c a le b y t h i s method a re a s fo llo w st (1) numerous s t a t e ­
ments on th e is s u e a re o b ta in ed and checked acco rd in g to e s ­
ta b lis h e d c r i t e r i a f o r th e s e le c tio n of sta te m e n ts ; (2) th e
sta tem en ts a re tr a n s f e r r e d t o card s and su b m itte d (to many
judges) to be se g re g ate d in to elev en p ile s re p re s e n tin g
e q u a lly spaced I n te r v a ls ; (3) the sc a le v alu e f o r each s t a t e ­
ment i s d eterm in ed in term s o f th e median rank a ssig n e d by
th e Judges, and th e i n t e r q u a r t i l e range i s computed t o a s ­
c e r t a in the d eg ree o f am biguity; (4) th e sta te m e n ts f i n a l l y
s e le c te d a re th o se w ith sm all d is p e rs io n v alu es and w ith
sc a le v alu es which w i l l provide equal ap p earin g in te r v a ls
th e le n g th of th e sc a le from h ig h ly fa v o ra b le to h ig h ly un­
fa v o ra b le ; (5) to check on re le v a n c y the sta te m e n ts a re sub­
m itte d to an o th e r group, and any statem en t which i s in d o rsed
1.
P ete rso n and T h u rsto n e, op. c i t . . p . 246.
28
w ith o th e r sta te m e n ts o f w idely d i f f e r e n t s c a le v alu es is
d is c a rd e d .
The r e s u l t i s a s c a le , the I n te r v a ls of which
a re e q u iv a le n t th ro u g h o u t.
On t h i s sc ale th e su b je c t* s
sco re is th e s c a le value o f th e statem en t he c h e c k s.
With
th e h e lp of h is a s s i s t a n t s Thurstone has c o n s tru c te d a wide
v a r ie ty of s c a le .
Thurstone and Chave d e v ise d a s c a le to measure a t t l 1
tude toward th e ch u rch .
F o rty -fo u r statem en ts com prise
th e s c a le , ran g in g in sc a le v alu es from 0 .2 to 11.0 from
s tro n g ly f o r to s tro n g ly a g a in s t.
I b e lie v e th e ohurch i s th e g r e a te s t i n s t i t u t i o n
in America to d a y .
I b e lie v e in r e lig i o n
b u t seldom
go
I th in k th e church i s
a p a r a s ite on s o c ie ty .
0 .2
to church. 5 .4
11.0
The r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e s c a le , o b tain ed through th e s p l i t h a l f method and th e Spearman-Brown prophecy fo rm u la , is .9 2 .
When a p p lie d to groups presumed to p o ssess d if fe re n c e s of
a t t i t u d e tow ard th e ch u rch , th e s c a le was found t o d if f e r e n ­
t i a t e as fo llo w s: (1) D iv in ity s tu d e n ts were more s tro n g ly
fa v o ra b le t o th e ch u rch , and members of th e Chicago Forum
were more s tro n g ly a n ta g o n is tic tow ard th e ch u rch .
(2)
In s o fa r as r e lig io u s denom inations and s e c ts a re concerned,
1.
Thurstone and Chave, The Measurement of A ttitu d e s .
29
C a th o lio s were most fa v o ra b le , Jews in d if f e r e n t and antagon­
i s t , and P ro te s ta n t groups in te rm e d ia te in t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward
th e ch u rch .
These r e s u l t s were c o n s is te n t w ith e x p e c ta tio n
and a re in d ic a tiv e of th e v a l i d i t y of th e s c a le .
A c o r r e la ­
tio n o f .67 was o b tain ed between th e s e l f - r a t i n g s of s tu d e n ts
and t h e i r sco res on th e a t t i t u d e s c a le .
O bjecting to the la b o rio u s ta s k of c o n s tru c tin g a
s c a le f o r each s p e c if ic is s u e as Thurstone was d o in g ,
Reamers and h is a s s i s t a n t s , devised " g e n e ra liz e d s c a le s " em­
p lo y in g th e Thurstone te c h n iq u e .
This n e c e s s ita te d th e c a re ­
f u l s e le c tio n of sta tem en ts which would ap p ly to c la s s e s o r
r e la te d is s u e s .
K e lla r d ev ised a g e n e ra lis e d sc a le t o meas1
u re a t t i t u d e toward any homemaking a c t i v i t y , employing s t a t e ­
ments lik e th e fo llo w in g :
1.
20.
10.7
I d o n 't mind doing t h i s i f some one
h elp s me.
7 .0
I h a v e n 't any d e f i n i t e lik e o r d is l ik e
f o r doing t h i s .
6 .0
31.
I g et t i r e d of doing t h i s .
2 .5
45.
I th in k th e re l a no worse job in th e
w orld th an t h i s .
1 .1
CO
•
1.
I lik e t o do t h i s b e t t e r than an y th in g
e ls e Z can th in k o f.
B e a trix K e lla r , The C o n stru ctio n and V a lid a tio n o f a
S cale f o r M easuring A ttitu d e tow ard any HomeMaking A c tiv ity . Purdue U n iv e rs ity , S tu d ies in
Higher E d u catio n . Ho. 26, pp. 47-63.
30
By th e odd-even te c h n iq u e and prophecy form ula ahe o b tain ed
a c o e f f ic ie n t of .90 on " c a rin g f o r c h ild re n " a c t i v i t y and
•88 on "meal p re p a ra tio n ."
The v a l i d i t y of the sc a le has
been e s ta b lis h e d by a p p lic a tio n to groups of persons w ith
d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward these a c t i v i t i e s *
G irls in home
economics co u rses scored h ig h e r th a n th o se n o t e n ro lle d In
th e courses* and housewives scored h ig h e r on "c a rin g f o r
c h ild re n " and home economics te a c h e rs on "meal p re p a ra tio n "
th a n d id any of th e o th e r gro u p s.
Method of A bsolute Rank
A s c a le c o n s tru c te d by th e method of ab so lu te rank
c o n s is ts of a s e r ie s o f Independent sta te m e n ts r e la te d to
th e same g e n e ra l v a r ia b le o r is s u e .
A ttitu d e Is ex p ressed
s e p a ra te ly f o r ea ch sta tem en t by checking one of th e p o s i­
tio n s provided*
Because of th e independent n a tu re of th e
sta tem en ts t h i s ty p e of sc a le lack s a uniform u n it of m easure­
ment* and should th e re fo r e not be c a lle d a scale*
In I t s sim p le st form th is ty p e of s c a le i s composed
1
of Yes-Mo sta te m e n ts o r q u e s tio n s . Symonds used t h i s type
to measure "llb e ra l-m ln d e d n e ss" of s tu d e n ts from Grade V III
through oo llege* employing q u estio n s such as*
1.
P.M. Symonds* A S o c ia l A ttitu d e Q uestionnaire* Jo u rn al
of E d u ca tio n al Psychology. XVI (1925)* pp , &J.6322.
31
1.
Should th e c i t y hold community p ag ean ts
and c e le b ra tio n s ?
Yes
No
2.
Should th e c i t y provide parks lib e r a lly ?
Yes
No
34.
Should s o c ie ty deny any man the r i g h t
t o work?
Yes
No
85.
Should th e c i t y m a in ta in playgrounds?
Yes
No
Through th e use of comparable form s Symonds o b ta in ed on a
group of o o lle g e freshm en a r e l i a b i l i t y of .6 7 .
For th e
v a l i d i t y of h i s q u e stio n n a ire he depended upon a f o u r - f i f t h s
vote of f iv e judges to determ ine th e l i b e r a l te n d e n c ie s of
h is s ta te m e n ts , and f o r th e s e le c tio n of sta te m e n ts f o r th e
f i n a l form upon th e degree of d iscrep an cy of l i b e r a l answers
between two extrem e groups of freshmen having th e h ig h e st and
low est t o t a l s c o re s .
Symonds found very l i t t l e d iffe re n c e in
a t titu d e s between th e v ario u s s tu d e n t groups t e s t e d .
A more complex form of q u e stio n n a ire o f t h i s type i s
th a t devised by Vernon and A llp o rt to determ ine th e r e l a t i v e
prominence of th e p e rso n a l v alu es a s l i s t e d by Spranger.
1
Vernon and A llp o rt c o n s tru c te d a q u e s tio n n a ire in two p a r t s .
In F a rt I the s u b je c ts were asked t o in d ic a te t h e i r p r e f e r ­
ences to sta tem en ts such a s th e follow ings
The main o b je c t of s c i e n t i f i c re se a rc h s h a l l be
th e d isc o v e ry o f pure t r u t h r a th e r than i t s
p r a c t ic a l a p p lic a tio n .
1.
Yea
No
P h ilip E. Vernon and Gordon W. A llp o r t. T est f o r P erso n al
V alues. Jo u rn a l o f Abnormal and S o c ia l Psychology.
XXVI (19 o2 ) . pp. 231-248.
32
In F a rt I I th e s u b je c ts were re q u e ste d to ran k th e p o s s ib le
answers In o rd e r of t h e i r ch o ices from 1 to 4 , w ith 1 as
th e h ig h e s t v a lu e , to sta te m e n ts lik e th e fo llo w in g !
I f you should marry (o r are m arried) do you p r e f e r
a w ife (husband) who—
_____ a .
can achieve s o c ia l p r e s t i g e , commanding
ad m ira tio n f o r o th e rs ;
b.
lik e s to s ta y a t home and keep house;
c.
i s fu n dam entally s p i r i t u a l in h e r a t t i ­
tude tow ard l i f e ;
_____ d .
i s g if te d along a r t i s t i c l i n e s .
To a s c e r ta in th e " d lf f e r e n tia tln g n e s s " of sta tem en ts
th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o was determ ined through th e use of the
h ig h e st and low est s c o rin g s u b je c ts in a group of 160*
For
th e item s in th e f i n a l form an average c r i t i c a l r a t i o of
6.00 was obtained*
Through the s p l i t - h a l f technique a r e ­
l i a b i l i t y of *702 and th ro u gh a r e p e t i t i o n of th e t e s t a
r e l i a b i l i t y of .707 were e s ta b lish e d *
V a lid ity o f th e t e s t
was e s ta b lis h e d th ro u g h th e c o r r e la tio n of th e t e s t r e s u l t s
w ith r a t i n g s , .8 2 6 , and through the a p p lic a tio n of th e t e s t
on v a rio u s groups of p e rso n s.
The t e s t re v e a le d the f a c t s ,
more
as a n t ic ip a te d , th a t m ales were d i s t i n c t l y / t h e o r e t i c a l , eco­
nomic and p o l i t i c a l th a n th e average m ale. Boy Scout Leaders
more r e lig io u s and s o c i a l , and th eo lo g u es more s o c ia l and
r e lig io u s th a n th e o rd in a ry man.
On th e b a s is of th e fin d in g s
33
Vernon and A llp o rt conclude th a t Spsnger* s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
of p e rso n a l v a lu e s of man was
s u b s ta n tia te d .
O b jectin g to th e ls b o r in v o lv ed in th e c o n s tru c tio n
of a t t i t u d e s c a le s by th e method o f e q u a lr a p p e a rin g -in te r v a ls ,
L ik e rt has combined th e a b s o lu te method w ith a m odified form
of th e " i n t e r v a l technique" and has d ev ised a s c a le which
compares fa v o ra b ly w ith th e T hurstone type in th e r e s u l t s ob1
ta in e d . In h is ex p erim en tal s c a le s L ik e rt used statem en ts
w ith varyin g number of p o s s ib le p o s itio n s , such a s :
1.
Do you fa v o r th e en tra n ce o f th e U nited S ta te s
in to th e League of N ations?
Yes ? No
2.
Do you fa v o r government ownership of r a ilr o a d s ?
Yes ? No
4.
Income ta x es should be le v ie d
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
1.
1.
only
only
only
upon
upon
upon th ose w ith immense fo rtu n e s
upon th o se h aving ample means
upon th e upper and middle c la s s e s
a l l except th e very poor
a ll.
A ll men who have th e o p p o rtu n ity should e n l i s t in
th e C itiz e n * s M ilita ry T rain in g Corps.
S tro n g ly
Approve
Approve
Undecided
Disapprove
Renala L ik e r t, A Technique f o r th e Measurement o f A t t i ­
tu d e s . ArcKives o f Psychology, Wo. 146.
S tro n g ly
Disapprove
34
To each of th o se p o s itio n s he a s sig n e d n u m erical values from
one to f iv e and determ ined th e t o t a l sco re f o r ea ch su b je c t
on h is t e s t s o f I n te r n a tlo n a lls m , Im p erialism , and the
Negro,
The r e s u l t s of t h i s method c o r r e la te d ,99 w ith the
r e s u l t s of th e sigma s c o rin g he had f i r s t u se d .
He th en
had h is s u b je c ts f i l l out te n o f T h rsto n e’ s s c a l e , f i r s t
by th e re g u la r method and th e n by th e 1-5 m ethod.
The median
c o r r e la tio n betw een th e T hurstone and L ik e rt methods was .8 8 .
TJpon a p p lic a tio n o f h is Negro s c a le to groups of perso n s in
th e North and in th e South a mean d iffe re n c e o f 7 .8 7 p o in ts
above th a t o f a c o lle g e group in V irg in ia was o b tain ed f o r
th e n o rth e rn c o lle g e g ro u p s.
In view of h is fin d in g s
L ik e rt recommends th e u se of th e sim p ler m ethod, o r 1-5
m ethod, t o th e la b o rio u s Thurstone technique i n th e con­
s tr u c t io n o f a t t i t u d e s c a le s .
In th e p reced in g p ag e s, ty p e s of a t t i t u d e t e s t s have
been review ed.
For the most p a r t th e se t e s t a cannot be r e ­
garded a t t i t u d e s c a le s ; th e y la c k uniform u n its of measure­
ment throughout t h e i r a t t i t u d e continuum .
The t e s t s devised
by th e e q u a l-a p p e a rin g i n t e r v a l s , o r Thurstone te c h n iq u e ,
a re perhaps th e only r e a l s c a le s th u s f a r c o n s tru c te d .
How­
e v e r, in a sen se t e s t s developed by th e L ik e rt method may be
reg ard ed as having eq u a l ap p earin g s te p s .
Of th e f iv e
p o s itio n s of th e t e s t th r e e a re d e f i n i t e l y p o s itio n e d :
36
S tro n g ly agree and S tro n g ly d is a g re e a s th e extrem es of th e
a t t i t u d e continuum and Undecided as th e d iv id in g p o in t b e­
tw een them*
The rem aining two ste p s* Agree and D isagree
may then be assumed t o f a l l midway between t h e i r r e s p e c tiv e
maxima and th e p o s it io n of U ndecided.
However* as h as been
p o in te d out* the lo c a tio n of th e s e s te p s i s only an a p p ro x i­
m atio n .
That th e a t t i t u d e t e s t s a re m easuring som ething con­
s i s t e n t l y i s ev id en ced by the re p o rte d r e l i a b i l i t y c o e ffic ie n ts *
w hich range g e n e ra lly from .80 t o *90.
That th e y are d ia g ­
n o s ti c i s evidenced b y th e f a c t t h a t th e y do s e p a ra te or
d i f f e r e n t i a t e p erso n s who are presumed to p o sse ss d i f f e r ­
ences of a t t i t u d e tow ard th e is s u e or v a ria b le in q u e s tio n .
Consequently i t oan be sa id t h a t on th e b a s is of p u b lish ed
re p o rts * a t t i t u d e s c a le s a re m easuring r a th e r c o n s is te n tly
th a t whioh th ey do m easure.
Mature of the S cale f o r th e Measurement of A ttitu d e s in
th e £ a fe D riving of th e Automobile
The form of s o a le c o n s tru c te d in t h i s re s e a rc h i s
d e riv e d from th e Thurstone* Rammers, A llp o rt-V ern o n , and
L ik e r t form s.
I t is composed o f a s e r ie s of s p e c if ic and
g e n e ra l sta te m e n ts d esigned to m easure a t t i t u d e s tow ard th e
f a c t o r s com prising th e sa fe d r iv in g a c t*
Each statem en t i s
desig n ed to measure a t t i t u d e tow ard the is s u e c o n tain e d
36
w ith in i t s e l f w hile a t th e sane t i n e i t m easures a t t i t u d e
tow ard the g e n e ra l is s u e o f s a f e ty in autom obile d r iv in g .
The s c a le i s th e re fo r e b o th a v e r t i c a l and a h o r iz o n ta l a t ­
t i t u d e continuum .
The h o r iz o n ta l continuum i s com prised of
a s e r i e s o f ste p s to in d ic a te d eg ree s o f a t t i t u d e toward
th e iss u e in v o lv ed in a g iven s ta te m e n t; th e v e r t l o a l con­
tinuum i s composed of the s ta te m e n ts , f o r t y in number, which
measure a t t i t u d e tow ard th e broad iss u e of s a fe d r iv in g .
In
r e a l i t y th e r e f o r e th e p re se n t s c a le c o n s is ts of f o r t y se p a r­
a te s c a l e s , a l l c o n trib u tin g to th e measurement of a t t i t u d e s
i n th e s a fe d riv in g o f the au to m o b ile.
To perm it the measurement o f d egree of a t t i t u d e f o r
o r a g a in s t th e Issu e s inv o lv ed ea ch of th e sta te m e n ts is
follo w ed by a s e r ie s o f f iv e p o s itio n s ra n g in g from " s tro n g ly
ag ree" to " s tro n g ly d is a g r e e ."
The p a r t i c u l a r c a te g o rie s or
p o s itio n s provided in clu d e " S tro n g ly a g re e ," "A gree," "Unde­
c id e d ," "D isa g re e ," and "S tro n g ly d is a g r e e ." Workers in
1
th e f i e l d of a t t i t u d e measurement su g g est t h a t a 5 t o 7 p o in t s c a le re p re s e n ts th e p r a c t i c a l lim it o f the human
judgment t o d is c rim in a te h ig h ly s u b je c tiv e f a c t s .
Most
s c a le s of t h i s type u t i l i z e a 5 - p o s itio n c a te g o ry f o r ln d i-
i ' 1.
D. D. D roba, Methods f o r M easuring A ttitu d e s . P sychologi­
c a l B u l le t in . XXIX (1 9 3 2 ), p . 310.
P . M. dymonds, Loss of R e l i a b i l i t y in R a tin g s , Jo u rn a l
o f E xperim ental Psychology. VII (1924), p p . 456-461.
0 . iC n u o n and 0 . D. d toctaara, T ests and Measurements in
High School I n s t r u c t i o n , p . 314.
37
e a tin g degree of a t t i t u d e f o r o r a g a in s t an is s u e .
1
Through
ex p erim en tatio n i t has been shown th a t t h i s type of s c a le
a c tu a lly does i t s work a s w ell as th e s c a le s developed by
2
the Thurstone method.
F urtherm ore, t h i s ty p e of sc a le i s
e a s ily a d m in iste re d and sc o re d , sin c e th e s u b je c t i s r e ­
q u ested t o check th a t one of the f i v e p o s itio n s which b e s t
in d ic a te s h is a t t i t u d e tow ard the is s u e in v o lv ed ; and h is
t o t a l sc o re on th e s c a le can be d eterm in ed by a s sig n in g
num erical v alu es o f 1 t o 5 to th e v a rio u s p o s itio n s .
As a
consequence th e s u b j e c t 's a t t i t u d e may be in te r p r e te d in th e
term s of h is resp o n se s to the s in g le sta te m e n ts or in term s
of h i s t o t a l sc o re f o r the com plete t e s t .
In a d d itio n to th e sta te m e n ts of a t t i t u d e toward
th e v a rio u s f a c t o r s com prising th e s a fe d r iv in g s i t u a t i o n ,
th e p re s e n t s c a le i s provided w ith a g rap h ic r a tin g s c a le ,
A and B, w herein th e s u b je c t may r a t e h im se lf as a "p re se n t
d riv e r" from "Very poor" to "E xpert" or a s a p o te n tia l
d r iv e r from "Very poor" to "E x p e rt."
1.
2.
Droba, op. c i t . . p . 315.
L ik e r t, op. c i t . , p . 62.
CHAPTER I I
METHODS AND TECHNIQUES INVOLVED IN THE
CONSTRUCTION OF THE SCALE
The m ajor problem o f t h is stu d y i s th e c o n s tru c tio n
and v a lid a tio n o f a s c a le f o r th e measurement o f a t titu d e s
tow ard s a fe ty in th e d r iv in g of the au to m o b ile.
To th a t end
th e in v e s tig a tio n has been org an ized around th e sub-problem s
l i s t e d on page 4 .
The In fo rm atio n e s s e n t i a l to th e s o lu tio n
of th e m ajor problem has th e re fo r e been p re se n te d under th e
fo llo w in g headings}
1.
The d e te r a ln a tio n of the f a c t o r s co n sid ered im­
p o r ta n t in the sa fe d riv in g o f th e autom obile.
2.
The s e le c tio n o f th e sta te m e n ts of o p in io n w ith
which a t t i t u d e s tow ard th e v a rio u s f a c to r s
may be m easured.
3.
The d e te rm in a tio n of th e r e l i a b i l i t y and
v a l i d i t y of th e s c a le .
4.
And
The e s ta b lish m e n t of t e n ta t iv e group norms
and " sta n d a rd resp o n ses" whereby th e responses
o f s u b je c ts may be in te r p r e t e d .
38
39
The D eterm ination of th e P a c to ra Considered Im portant In
¥5e Sa^e d riv in g o7~~tlie Automobile
To answer th e f i r s t o f th e sub-problem s l i s t e d
above th e fo llo w in g p ro cedures have been employed:
Review of L ite r a tu r e
The a v a ila b le l i t e r a t u r e in th e f i e l d o f t r a f f i c
s a f e ty has been review ed f o r th e purpose of d is c o v e rin g th e
f a c t o r s o r a re a s which c o n trib u te t o th e sa fe d r iv in g
a c tiv ity .
Sources o f the l i t e r a t u r e in c lu d e d : (a) a r t i c l e s
ap p earin g in newspapers and m agazines; (b) r e p o r ts of com­
m issio n e rs of motor v e h ic le departm ents and th e Annual Con­
fe re n c e s of th e American A sso c ia tio n o f Motor V ehicle Ad­
m in is tr a to r s ; (c) re s e a rc h on th e n a tu re and a b i l i t y of the
d r iv e r s o f motor v e h ic le s ; and (d) te x t books and courses of
study in d r iv e r t r a i n i n g .
From t h i s so u rce a t o t a l of 15
f a c t o r s and approxim ately 50 sta tem en ts of a t t i t u d e were ob­
ta in e d .
These were o rg an ized in broad a r e a s , such as
exam inations f o r lic e n s e s , c o o p e ra tio n , c o u rte s y , knowledge
and s k i l l s .
In terv iew s
D uring the p re lim in a ry sta g e of th e in v e s tig a tio n
in fo rm al in te rv ie w s were had w ith approxim ately 50 p e rso n s.
Included among them were g rad u ate s tu d e n ts in th e C enter f o r
v
S a fe ty E d u catio n . New York U n iv e r s it y ,o f f io ia ls o f th e Amerl-
40
can Automobile A sso c ia tio n , te a c h e rs of d r iv e r - tr a in in g
c o u rs e s , p sy c h o lo g ists who were conducting in v e s tig a tio n s in
the n a tu re of d r iv e r s , sc h o o l a d m in is tra to rs who had had
p r a c t i c a l ex p erien ce in th e launching of d r iv e r - t r a in in g
c o u rse s, commissioners and exam iners in motor v e h ic le d e p a rt­
m ents, and persons of th e s t r e e t , th a t i s in d iv id u a ls who
were p e d e s tria n s or d r iv e r s of motor v e h ic le s , but n o t i n ­
cluded in any of th e above-m entioned gro u p s.
Each of th e se
persons was asked to l i s t the f a c t o r of f a c t o r s which he con­
s id e re d most im portant to the prom otion of s a f e ty in th e
d riv in g o f th e autom obile.
The d a ta g ath ered through i n t e r ­
views more or le s s d u p lic a te d th a t which had been o b tained
from l i t e r a t u r e .
However, s e v e ra l a d d itio n a l f a c to r s were
su g g ested ; th e se f o r th e most p a r t were break-downs of la r g e r
a r e a s , such as co u rtesy in d r iv in g , c o u rte sy to the p e d e s tr ia n ,
c o u rte sy to th e t r a f f i c o f f i c e r , in p lace o f the g e n e ra l
f a c t o r of c o u rte s y .
S tatem ents f o r m easuring a t titu d e toward
th e se f a c to r s were a ls o su g g ested by the p erso n s in te rv iew ed .
P re p a ra tio n of P re lim in ary Q u estio n n aire
On th e b a s is of th e in fo rm atio n d e riv e d from the
l i t e r a t u r e and the in te rv ie w s , the q u e s tio n n a ire , which
appears in th e Appendix, page llj> was c o n s tru c te d .
The
q u e stio n n a ire was dev ised to determ ine which a re th e im portant
f a c to r s in sa fe d riv in g and to secu re a d d itio n a l statem en ts
of a t t i t u d e toward each of th o se f a c t o r s .
41
The q u e s tio n n a ire was d e v ise d to in clu d e the
eig h te e n f a c to r s secu red through l i t e r a t u r e and in te rv ie w s ,
w ith a d d itio n a l space f o r th e resp o n d en ts to suggest any
o th er f a c to r s they regarded im p o rta n t.
Space was a ls o p ro ­
vided f o r the resp o n d en ts to submit sta te m e n ts of a t titu d e s
toward each o f th e f a c to r s th e y co n sid ered Im p o rtan t.
Samples
of f a c t o r s w ith statem en ts o f a t t i t u d e were g iv en to a s s i s t
the respond en ts In making t h e i r r e p o r t s .
Copies of the q u e s tio n n a ire were sen t to 115 e x p e rts
in the v a rio u s a re a s of s a fe ty and In the f i e l d of a t t i t u d e
measurement.
Inclu d ed in th e ju ry were 15 p s y c h o lo g is ts , 15
school a d m in is tr a to r s , 25 te a c h e rs o f d r iv e r - tr a in in g c o u r s e s ,
25 com missioners and examiners in m otor v eh icle d ep artm en ts,
and 40 d ir e c to r s o f sa fe ty i n in d u s try and motor f l e e t t r a n s ­
p o r ta tio n .
A 58 p e r cen t response was re c e iv e d to th e
q u e s tio n n a ire .
Tw enty-six a d d itio n a l f a c t o r s , im portant in
the safe d r iv in g of th e autom obile, were o b tain ed by t h i s p ro ­
cedure, and more th a n 400 sta te m e n ts of a t titu d e toward th e se
and the o r ig in a l f a c t o r s l i s t e d In the q u e stio n n a ire were g iv en .
An a n a ly s is of th e d a ta d e riv e d from the so u rces d i s ­
cussed above i s g iv en in Chapter I I I .
!
42
The S e le c tio n of Items Which W ill Measure A ttitu d e Toward
th e F a c to rs "Comprising the jSaTeTSrlvlng Acl;
The sta tem en ts of opinion toward f a c t o r s com prising
th e sa fe d riv in g ac t were g a th e re d from th re e so u rce s:
l i t e r a t u r e In th e f i e l d , In te rv ie w s, and resp o n ses to the
q u e s tio n n a ire .
From t h i s m a te r ia l were s e le c te d the s t a t e ­
ments of o p in io n which com prise th e sc a le th a t has been de­
v ise d th ro u g h t h i s stu d y .
These sta tem en ts were s e le c te d on
the b ases of the fo llo w in g c r i t e r i a :
1.
The statem en t must be re le v a n t to th e f a c t o r
or Issu e bein g m easured.
2.
The statem en t must be one of o p in io n and n o t of
fa c t.
Otherwise th e resp o n se becomes a measure
of knowledge and n o t of a t t i t u d e toward the
is s u e or f a c t o r in v o lv e d .
3.
The statem en t must be c l e a r ly s ta te d and in
language s u ite d to th e group f o r which th e
s c a le i s b ein g developed.
4.
The statem en t must p o ssess a s in g le idea or
th o u g h t.
5.
The statem ent must be co n cise and t o th e p o in t,
in g e n e ra l n o t over 15 words lo n g .
6.
The statem en t must d i f f e r e n t i a t e between groups
which p o ssess a d iffe re n c e of a t t i t u d e tow ard the
is s u e in v o lv ed .
43
7.
The s ta te m e n t s h o u ld be a u ao e ffilb s^ of one
and o n ly one I n t e r p r e t a t i o n .
T h at i s i t sh o u ld
c o n ta in no word o r p h ra s e w hich c a n be i n t e r ­
p r e t e d d i f f e r e n t l y b y d i f f e r e n t p e rs o n s o r
1
g ro u p s o f p e r s o n s .
The p ro c e d u re s f o llo w e d i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f th e
s ta te m e n ts c o m p risin g th e S ie b r e c h t A t t i t u d e S c a le In c lu d e d
th e f o llo w in g :
E lim in a tio n o f D u p lic a te and I r r e l e v a n t Item s
The s ta te m e n ts o f o p in io n g a th e r e d fro m th e th r e e
s o u r c e s - - l i t e r a t u r e , i n t e r v i e w , and re s p o n s e s to th e
q u e s t io n n a ir e — were f i r s t ch eck ed b y th e i n v e s t i g a t o r to
e li m in a te s ta te m e n ts w hich had b een d u p l i c a t e d from th e
v a r io u s s o u r c e s .
re le v a n c e .
The re m a in in g ite m s were th e n ch eck ed f o r
S ta te m e n ts w hich were h ig h ly p r e j u d i c i a l , su c h
a s " I f th e c o u r t s w e r e n 't so c o r r u p t fe w e r a c c id e n ts would
h a p p e n ;" s ta te m e n ts i n t h e n a tu r e of s id e com m ents, such as
"a good p o i n t" and " A ll r i g h t , b u t w h o 'll pay t h e b i l l ? " ;
and s ta te m e n ts o f a t t i t u d e u n r e l a t e d t o t h e i s s u e in v o lv e d ,
su c h a s " M a n u fa c tu re rs o f m o to r c a r s s h o u ld be r e q u i r e d to
1.
C h a rle s K. A. Wang, S u g g e ste d C r i t e r i a f o r W ritin g A t­
t i t u d e S ta te m e n ts . J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l P sy ch o lo g y
I I I (1 9 3 2 ), p p . 367' - W .
G ard n er Murphy and R e n s is L i k e r t , P u b lic O p in io n and th e
I n d i v i d u a l , p p . 2 8 1 -2 8 3 .
44
re d u c e th e h o rse p o w e r o f t h e i r c a r s " were e li m in a te d by th e
e x p e rim e n te r*
In c a s e o f d o u b t r e g a r d in g any ite m th e
reco m m en dations of two a d d i t i o n a l ju d g es w ere se c u re d *
C hecking t h e S ta te m e n ts fo r S in g le n e s s of I d e a .
C la r ity o ^ Expression. S u i t a b i l i t y of Language,
and Ease~~of I n te r p r e ta tio n
The i n v e s t i g a t o r w ith t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f a g ra d u a te
s tu d e n t an d a member o f t h e f a c u l t y in th e C e n te r f o r S a f e ty
E d u c a tio n , New York U n iv e r s ity , checked e a c h o f t h e s ta te m e n ts
f o r s i n g l e n e s s o f i d e a , c l a r i t y o f e x p r e s s io n , and c o n c is e ­
n ess.
T hose s ta te m e n ts c o n ta in i n g more th a n one id e a o r
th o u g h t w ere r e v i s e d i n t o two s e p a r a t e s t a te m e n t s .
For ex­
ample th e s ta te m e n t " P e d e s t r i a n s a r e r e s p o n s ib le f o r t h e i r
own s a f e t y a n d sh o u ld y i e l d th e way t o m o to r i s t s " was r e ­
c a s t i n t o t h e f o llo w in g fo rm s : " P e d e s tr ia n s s h o u ld a t a l l
tim e s be s o l e l y r e s p o n s ib le f o r t h e i r own s a f e t y " and
" P e d e s t r i a n s sh o u ld y i e l d th e r i g h t o f way t o m o t o r i s t s . "
E x c e s s iv e ly lo n g s ta te m e n ts w ere c o n d en se d .
A ll s ta te m e n ts
c o n s i s t o f 15 o r fe w e r w o rd s.
The s ta te m e n ts w ere th e n t y p e w r i t te n a n d s u b m itte d
t o a g ro u p o f 10 j u n i o r and s e n i o r h ig h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s o f
E n g lis h who w ere r e q u e s te d t o exam ine e a c h o f th e s ta te m e n ts
f o r c l a r i t y o f e x p r e s s io n , s u i t a b i l i t y o f la n g u a g e , a n d e a se
of in te r p r e ta tio n .
They were a s k e d t o w r ite i n t h e b la n k
sp ace below e a c h of th e s t a te m e n ts t h e i r s u g g e s tio n s f o r im­
45
p ro v in g th e s t a t e m e n t s .
T hese s u g g e s tio n s w ere in c o r p o r a te d
i n t o th e r e v i s e d s t a te m e n t s , w h ic h w ere a g a in ty p e d and
s u b m itte d t o a g ro u p o f j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s t o ch eck
f o r s u i t a b l e lan g u ag e and e a s e of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .
The s t a t e ­
m ents were r e v i s e d i n t h e l i g h t o f th e s u g g e s tio n s o f th e
j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d in g t o th e
f a c t o r s o r a r e a s w hich co m p rise th e s a f e d r i v i n g a c t , and
s e t u p i n t o fo rm f o r ra n k in g p u r p o s e s .
D e te rm in in g th e Rank O rder o f th e S ta te m e n ts
The fo rm c o n ta in i n g th e s t a t e m e n t s , a rra n g e d a c -
1
c o rd in g t o th e f a c t o r s
c o m p risin g th e s a f e d r i v in g s i t u a 2
t i o n , was s u b m itte d t o a g ro u p o f 25 s a f e t y e x p e r ts t o b e
ra n k e d i n o r d e r o f im p o rta n c e .
The e x p e r t s were r e q u e s te d
t o c o n s id e r e a c h s ta te m e n t i n th e l i g h t o f th e f o llo w in g
c r i t e r i a : T h a t th e s ta te m e n t
1.
2.
a.
i s n o t to o o b v io u s ,
b.
i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l a n d w i l l e l i c i t a d i f f e r e n c e in
an e x p r e s s io n o f o p in io n ,
c.
w i l l m easure an a t t i t u d e r e l a t e d t o t h e s a f e
d riv in g p a tt e r n ,
d.
i s n o t am biguous and i s n o t s u s c e p t i b l e t o
more th a n one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .
See A p p en d ix , p . 118.
The e x p e r t s in c lu d e d p s y c h o l o g i s t s , t e a c h e r s o f d r i v e r t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s , s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , com m ission­
e r s o f m o to r v e h ic le d e p a r tm e n ts , e x am in e rs i n m o to r
v e h ic le d e p a rtm e n ts , a n d d i r e c t o r s o f s a f e t y i n
in d u s try .
46
On th e b a s i s o f th e s e c r i t e r i a th e e x p e r t s w ere r e q u e s te d to
r a t e w ith an MEM th e s ta te m e n ts w h ich w ere e s p e c i a l l y w o rth y
o f i n c l u s i o n i n a s c a l e f o r th e m easurem ent o f a t t i t u d e s
to w ard s a f e t y i n th e d r i v i n g o f th e a u to m o b ile ; w ith a WGM
th o s e s ta te m e n ts w hich were o f a v e ra g e v a lu e ; and w ith a "P"
th o s e w h ich s h o u ld n o t be in c lu d e d i n t h e s c a l e .
To d e te rm in e th e r e l a t i v e v a lu e o f th e s ta te m e n ts
n u m e ric a l v a lu e s o f 1 0 , 5 , and 0 were a s s ig n e d th e r e s p e c t i v e
ra n k s and th e sum o f th e r a t i n g s was a s c e r t a i n e d .
F o r ex am p le ,
i f a s ta te m e n t r e c e i v e d 10E, 5G, an d 3P r a t i n g s , i t s r e l a t i v e
v a lu e would be (10 x 10) p lu s (5“ x 5) p lu s (3 x 0) o r 125.
The s ta te m e n ts c o m p risin g th e p r e l i m i n a r y form o f th e s c a l e ,
w hich was u s e d t o d e te rm in e t h e d e g re e o f " d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g n e s s " o f th e s t a t e m e n t s , w ere s e l e c t e d on th e b a s i s o f t h e i r
r e l a t i v e v a lu e and i n term s o f th e f o llo w in g c r i t e r i a :
(1)
t h a t e v e ry f a c t o r s h o u ld be r e p r e s e n te d b y n o t l e s s th a n two
n o r more th a n f o u r s ta te m e n ts and (2) t h a t tw ic e a s many
s ta te m e n ts s h o u ld be in c lu d e d i n th e p r e lim in a r y form o f t h e
s c a le a s a r e d e s i r e d i n th e f i n a l fo rm .
1
On th e b a s i s o f
th e s e c r i t e r i a 70 s ta te m e n ts w ere s e l e c t e d f o r th e P r e lim in a r y
Form o f th e s c a l e .
T h is form a p p e a rs a s E x h ib it C, A pp en d ix ,
page 123.
1.
G. 11. Ruch and George D. S to d d a rd , T e s ts and M easurem ents
i n High S c h o o l I n s t r u c t i o n , p . 3 2 9 .
47
A p p lic a tio n o f th e P r e lim in a r y Form o f th e S c a le
F o r t h e p u rp o se o f s e l e c t i n g th e Ite m s f o r th e f i n a l
fo rm o f th e s c a l e , th e p r e l i m i n a r y fo rm was a d m in is te r e d to
500 h ig h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s .
To s e c u re a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p o p u la ­
t i o n t h e s u b j e c t s u s e d w ere drawn from w id e ly s e p a r a te d s e c ­
t i o n s o f th e c o u n tr y .
Sam ples o f 50 t o 100 c a s e s e a c h were
draw n from s c h o o ls l o c a t e d a t M i l l e d g e v i l l e , G e o rg ia ; New
York C ity ; B ayonne, New J e r s e y ; C le v e la n d , O hio; G a l e s v l l l e ,
W isc o n sin ; T u ls a , Oklahoma; R e d la n d s, C a l i f o r n i a ; and E ugene,
O regon.
The e x p e rim e n te r h im s e lf a d m in is te r e d th e s c a le t o th e
s t u d e n t s In s c h o o ls w i t h in th e m e tr o p o lita n a r e a .
In th e d i s ­
t a n t s c h o o ls th e work was s u p e r v is e d by p e rs o n s known to th e
e x p e rim e n te r o r t o D r. H e r b e r t J . S ta c k , D i r e c t o r o f th e C e n te r
f o r S a f e ty E d u c a tio n , New York U n i v e r s i t y . Com plete i n s t r u c t i o n s
f o r th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f th e s c a le were s e n t t o t h e c o o p e ra tin g
p e rso n s.
The ite m s c o m p ris in g th e f i n a l fo rm o f th e s c a le were
s e l e c t e d on th e b a s i s o f th e e x t e n t t o w h ich th e y d i f f e r e n ­
t i a t e d p e rs o n s whose t o t a l s c o r e s on th e s c a l e p la c e d them
a t w id e ly s e p a r a t e d p o i n t s i n th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s . That
i s , i f an ite m showed a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n b e tw e e n h ig h - s c o r in g
and lo w - s c o rin g i n d i v i d u a l s m a th e m a tic a lly c o n s i s t e n t w ith t h a t
y i e l d e d by th e t o t a l s c o r e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s , th e ite m was
r e g a r d e d a s s u i t a b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n th e f i n a l form o f t h e s c a l e .
To d e te rm in e th e d e g re e t o w hich t h e i n d i v i d u a l ite m s
d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b etw een p e rs o n s w ith w id e ly s e p a r a te d t o t a l
s c o r e s , c r l t i o a l r a t i o s o f th e d i f f e r e n c e s betw een t h e means
f o r th e h i g h - s c o r i n g and th e lo w - s c o r in g segm ents were c a l c u ­
la te d .
For
t h i s p u rp o se th e h ig h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s were s e g r e ­
g a te d i n to t h e f o llo w in g groups? (a ) th e 500 u n s e l e c t e d h ig h
s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , (b) 300 f r e s h m e n - ju n io r s , (c ) 200 s e n i o r s ,
u n s e l e c t e d , (d ) 100 s e n i o r s n o t e n r o l l e d in d r i v e r - t r a i n i n g
c o u rs e s (Non D T rg) and (e ) 100 s e n i o r s e n r o l l e d in d r i v e r tra in in g c o u rse s .
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o s o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s betw een t h e
means o f th e h i g h - s c o r i n g and lo w - s c o r in g 2 0 - p e r c e n t s e g ­
m ents of e a c h g ro u p were th e n c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h of th e
s ta te m e n ts i n th e f o llo w in g m anner:
a.
The t o t a l s c o r e f o r th e s c a l e was d e te rm in e d f o r
e a c h s u b j e c t by a s s i g n i n g t h e v a lu e s o f 1 t o 5
t o e a c h o f th e p o s i t i o n s a p p e a rin g i n th e s c a l e .
The v a lu e o f 5 was a r b i t r a r i l y a s s ig n e d t o th a t
en d o f e a c h s ta te m e n t w hich a p p e a re d to b e th e
s o c ia lly d e s ira b le .
b.
The p a p e rs f o r th e
s u b je c ts of
t h e v a r io u s g ro u p s
w ere a rra n g e d i n ra n k o r d e r of
th e ir to ta l sc o re ,
fro m h ig h e s t t o lo w e st s c o r e .
c.
The p a p e rs f o r t h e h i g h e s t and lo w e s t 20 p e r c e n t
o f th e groups w ere s e g r e g a te d f o r t h e p u rp o se o f
a s c e r t a i n i n g t h e c r i t i c a l r a t i o s o f th e s t a t e m e n t s .
d.
F o r t h e s e two g ro u p s th e mean s c o r e s and th e d i f ­
f e r e n c e s betw een t h e means were c a l c u l a t e d f o r
e a c h o f th e s ta te m e n ts o f th e s c a l e .
*
P ractices vary from the use of 10 to 20 per cent on 100
c a s e s t o 7 p e r c e n t on more th a n 600 c a s e s .
49
e.
F i n a l l y th e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e
d i f f e r e n c e s b etw een th e means f o r th e two
g ro u p s was a s c e r ta in e d *
T h is h a s b een i n d i ­
c a te d i n te rm s o f th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o , o b ta in e d
th ro u g h th e s h o r t - c u t fo rm u la d e v e lo p e d by
S l e tt o *
CR «
f.
In th e fo rm u la
, w h e re^ fd ^ e q u a ls
t- tr P
- N(M^).
The c r i t e r i o n o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s a
2
c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3*00 o r h i g h e r .
The s t a t e ­
m ents y i e l d i n g c r i t i c a l r a t i o s o f 3 .0 0 o r h ig h e r
on th e u n s e l e c te d group o f h ig h s c h o o l s t u d e n ts
were r e g a r d e d a s s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l f o r th e
f i n a l fo rm o f th e s c a l e .
S e l e c t i o n o f S ta te m e n ts i n L ig h t o f S tu d e n t Comment
The s t u d e n t s t o whom th e e x p e r im e n te r p e r s o n a l l y
a d m in is te r e d t h e s c a l e w ere r e q u e s te d t o ch eck i n t h e m arg in
th o s e s ta te m e n ts i n th e p r e lim in a r y fo rm w hich th e y fo u n d d i f ­
f i c u l t to in te rp re t*
1.
2.
At t h e c lo s e o f th e p e r i o d th e s t u d e n t s
Raymond F r a n k l in S l e t t o , C o n s tr u c tio n o f P e r s o n a l i t y S c a le s
by t h e C r i t e r i o n o f In tern al C onsistency, p . 9 0 .
H enry E . G a r r e t t . S t a t i s t i c s i n T a y c h o lo g y and E d u c a tio n .
p* 213*
50
were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e why th e y f o u l d th e s ta te m e n t d i f f i c u l t
to i n te r p r e t.
T h e ir comments r e v e a l e d t h a t some o f th e
s ta te m e n ts w ere s ta te m e n ts o f f a c t , t o w h ich th e s t u d e n ts
had d i f f i c u l t y i n i n d i c a t i n g a t t i t u d i n a l r e s p o n s e s , and t h a t
some o f th e s ta te m e n ts c o n ta in e d v o c a b u la r y w hich th e y w ere
u n a b le t o com prehend*
S i m i la r comments w ere a l s o made by
s t u d e n ts fro m d i s t a n t s c h o o ls *
C o l l e c t i v e l y , th e s e comments
i n d i c a t e d t h a t some o f th e s ta te m e n ts c o n s id e re d a d e q u a te b y
p r e v io u s c r i t e r i a h a d t o be d i s c a r d e d , s in c e th e y c o u ld
h a r d ly be s a i d t o r e f l e c t a t r u e a t t i t u d e o f t h e re s p o n d e n ts *
The D e te rm in a tio n o f th e R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l l d l t y o f th e S c a le
The a p p l i c a t i o n of th e c r i t e r i a o f ”d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g n e s s ” and e a s e o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a s r e v e a le d th ro u g h t h e com­
m ents o f s t u d e n ts t o whom t h e p r e lim in a r y fo rm o f th e s c a l e
had b een a d m in is te r e d , i n d i c a t e d t h a t 26 o f th e 70 ite m s i n
th e p r e lim in a r y form m ight n o t be u s e d i n th e f i n a l fo rm of
th e s c a le *
o f 44 item s*
As a r e s u l t t h e r e c o u ld have b een d e v is e d a s c a le
H ow ever, t h e g o a l o f t h i s s tu d y has been th e
c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a s h o r t s c a l e w ith a d e q u a te r e l i a b i l i t y ,
w hich i n th e l i g h t o f e x i s t i n g d a ta w ould be *80 o r h ig h e r*
C o n se q u e n tly , r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were e s t a b l i s h e d upon
s c a l e s o f l e n g t h s fro m 20 t o 44 i te m s .
51
R e lia b ility
The r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e p r e s e n t s c a l e h a s b e e n e s ­
t a b l i s h e d upon th e 100 s t u d e n ts c o m p ris in g th e d r i v e r t r a i n i n g g ro u p in c lu d e d i n t h e p o p u la tio n upon w h ich th e
p r e lim in a r y fo rm o f th e s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d .
The r e l i a ­
b i l i t y h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d th ro u g h t h e s p l i t - h a l f te c h n iq u e .
The s t a te m e n ts c o m p risin g th e s c a le w ere d iv id e d i n t o two
fo r m s , th e odd-num bered ite m s c o m p ris in g one fo rm , th e e v e n num bered ite m s c o m p ris in g th e o t h e r fo rm .
The r e s u l t s on
th e two form s were c o r r e l a t e d by th e P e a rs o n m eth o d , th e n
th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e whole s c a l e was e s tim a te d b y th e
Spearm an-Brown p ro p h e c y fo rm u la i n w hich
11 “ j L - t - r J f g :
V a l i d i t y o f th e S c a le
The v a l i d i t y o f th e s c a l e was e s t a b l i s h e d upon two
p ro ce d u res.
In th e f i r s t p la c e v a l i d i t y i s i m p l i c i t i n th e
c o n s tru c tio n of th e s c a le .
E x p e r ts i n t h e f i e l d o f t r a f f i c
s a f e t y and a t t i t u d e m easurem ent have d e s ig n a te d t h e f a c t o r s
w hich a r e im p o rta n t i n th e s a f e d r i v i n g s i t u a t i o n , and have
1.
G a r r e tt, op. c i t . . p . 319.
52
e v a lu a te d th e s ta te m e n ts o f o p in io n b y w hich a t t i t u d e s to w ard
th e s e f a c t o r s may be m e a su re d .
The s c a l e i s th e n a s v a l i d
a s th e judgm ents o f e x p e r ts i n th e f i e l d o f t r a f f i c s a f e t y .
Then th e s ta te m e n ts c o m p risin g th e s c a l e have b e e n s e l e c t e d
on th e b a s i s o f t h e i r " d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g n e s s , " by th e c r i t e r i o n
o f I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , and a r e presum ed t o m easure th e
1
same t h i n g .
F i n a l l y , i t i s assum ed t h a t when a p e rs o n i a
a sk e d w h e th e r he a g r e e s o r d i s a g r e e s w ith an i s s u e i n a
g iv e n s ta te m e n t he com prehends t h a t s ta te m e n t an d i s i n t e l ­
l e c t u a l l y c a p a b le o f I n d i c a t i n g th e e x t e n t t o w hich he
a g r e e s w ith i t .
The s c a l e t h e r e f o r e i s b e l i e v e d t o m easure
iriiat i t p u r p o r ts t o m e a su re .
S e c o n d ly , th e v a l i d i t y o f th e s c a le h a s been e s ­
t a b l i s h e d by th e m ethod o f w id e ly sp a c e d g ro u p s .
The f i n a l
fo rm o f th e s c a l e h a s b e e n a d m in is te r e d t o g ro u p s o f h ig h
s c h o o l s t u d e n ts who a r e presum ed t o p o s s e s s d i f f e r e n c e o f
a t t i t u d e to w ard th e s a f e d r i v in g s i t u a t i o n .
The s c a l e was
a d m in is te r e d t o some 2000 fre s h m e n , sophom ores, j u n i o r s ,
s e n i o r s , s t u d e n ts e n r o l l e d i n d r i v e r - t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s , and
s tu d e n ta w ith d r i v i n g e x p e r ie n c e .
Mean s c o r e s , w ith t h e i r
sig m a s , a n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s betw een means and th e s i g n i f i c a n c e
o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s have b e en d e te rm in e d f o r th e g ro u p s .
1.
G a r r e t t , ojj. c i t . , p . 3 2 8 .
The
53
r e s u l t s a r e r e p o r te d In C hapter I I I *
E s t a b l i s h i n g T e n ta tiv e Norms and " S ta n d a rd R e sp o n se s"
f o r th e {Scale
To in c r e a s e th e u t i l i t y o f th e s c a l e two ty p e s o f
"norm s" h av e b e en e s t a b l i s h e d : t e n t a t i v e norms f o r th e h ig h
s c h o o l g ro u p s and " s ta n d a r d re s p o n s e s " f o r e a c h o f th e s t a t e ­
m ents o f th e s c a le *
To e s t a b l i s h t e n t a t i v e g ro u p n o rm s, th e f i n a l form
o f th e s c a l e was a d m in is te r e d t o some 2000 h ig h s c h o o l s t u ­
d e n ts fro m v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f th e c o u n tr y .*
The t o t a l
s c o r e s f o r t h e p a p e rs w ere a s c e r t a i n e d by a s s ig n in g n u m e ri­
c a l v a lu e s t o e a c h o f th e p o s s ib l e p o s i t i o n s fo llo w in g e a c h
o f th e s ta te m e n ts an d summing t h e i r v a lu e s *
Norms i n th e
form o f mean s c o r e s , w ith t h e i r sig m a s , w ere d e te rm in e d f o r
g ro u p s o f fre s h m e n , so p h o m o res, j u n i o r s , s e n i o r s , s t u d e n t s
i n d r i v e r - t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s , and s t u d e n ts w i t h d r i v in g e x p e r ie n c e .
#
To s e c u r e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sa m p lin g o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l
p o p u la tio n th e s c a l e was a d m in is te r e d t o s tu d e n ts
i n s c h o o ls lo c a te d i n : C a l i f o r n i a , O regon, S o u th
D a k o ta , M in n e so ta , W is c o n s in , M ic h ig a n , M is s o u r i,
O h io , Oklahoma, L o u is ia n a , G e o rg ia , West V i r g i n i a ,
W ash in g to n , D .C ., New Y o rk , New J e r s e y , M assa­
c h u s e t t s , and C o n n e c tic u t* These s c h o o ls w ere s e ­
l e c t e d on th e b a s e s o f th e w i l li n g n e s s o f th e a d ­
m i n i s t r a t o r t o c o o p e ra te i n th e p r o j e c t , a s c e r ­
t a i n e d th ro u g h c o rr e s p o n d e n c e , an d th e a v a i l a b i l i t y
o f a p e r s o n , known t o th e i n v e s t i g a t o r o r h i s com­
m i t t e e , t o s u p e r v is e th e a p p l i c a t i o n o f th e fo rm s .
54
In a d d i t i o n t o g ro u p norm s, a t e n t a t i v e key of
th e m ost l i k e l y c o r r e c t a t t i t u d e to w a rd th e i s s u e s o f e a c h
o f th e s ta te m e n ts h a s b e en p ro v id e d .
The t e n t a t i v e key h a s
b een e s t a b l i s h e d i n th e fo rm o f s ta n d a r d r e s p o n s e s f o r e a c h
o f th e s t a t e m e n t s .
The s ta n d a r d r e s p o n s e s have b e e n keyed by a g ro u p
o f 125 s a f e t y e x p e r t s c o n s i s t i n g o f c o m m issio n e rs o f m o to r
v e h ic le d e p a r tm e n ts , l i c e n s e e x a m in e rs , a n d a c c i d e n t - f r e e
d riv e rs of I n d u s tr ia l f l e e t s .
The a s s u m p tio n f o r t h i s p r o ­
ced u re i s t h a t t h i s group i s b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d th a n any o t h e r
t o i n d i c a t e w hat th o s e s t a n d a r d re s p o n s e s ought t o b e .
The
f i n a l fo rm o f th e s c a le was s u b m itte d t o t h e s e e x p e r ts w ith
i n s t r u c t i o n s t o ch eck th e s ta te m e n ts a s th e y b e lie v e d th e y
ought t o be c h e c k e d .
I n e s t a b l i s h i n g th e s ta n d a r d r e s p o n s e s t h e t o t a l
s c o r e s f o r t h e e x p e r t s were a s c e r t a i n e d i n t h e u s u a l m anner.
N u m erical v a lu e s from 1 t o 5 were a s s ig n e d t h e p o s i t i o n s o f
th e s c a l e , t h e v a lu e o f 5 b e in g a s s ig n e d t o t h a t end o f th e
s c a le w hich was th e s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e .
p o s i t i o n s were th e n summed.
The v a lu e s o f th e
The m edian v a lu e s w ere c a l c u l a t e d
f o r e a c h g ro u p on e a c h s ta te m e n t and t h e a v e ra g e of th e
m edians f o r e a c h s ta te m e n t was th e n d e te rm in e d .
These a v e r ­
ag es wore t r a n s l a t e d i n t o th e d e s c r i p t i v e te rm s o f th e
p o s i t i o n s whose n u m e ric a l v a lu e c o rre s p o n d e d t o th e whole
number o f th e a v e r a g e .
F o r exam ple, i f f o r a g iv e n s ta te m e n t
55
th e a v e ra g e o f m edians was 3 .8 5 , th e s ta n d a r d r e s p o n s e s b e ­
came " u n d e c id e d ," s in c e t h a t p o s i t i o n had b e en a s s ig n e d th e
v a lu e o f 3 i n th e c o m p u ta tio n s .
The d a ta fu n d a m e n ta l t o th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f th e
s ta n d a r d r e s p o n s e s a r e g iv e n in C h a p te r IV.
CHAPTER I I I
THE CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OP THE SCALE*
TREATMENT OP DATA
I n th e p r e v io u s c h a p te r th e p ro c e d u re s u t i l i z e d
I n t h e p r e s e n t s tu d y were e x p la in e d .
In t h i s c h a p te r th e
d a ta o f th e s tu d y a r e a n a ly z e d an d th e s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t ­
ment in v o lv e d I s p r e s e n t e d .
F a c to r s Im p o rta n t i n S a fe D riv in g
As s t a t e d I n t h e p re v io u s c h a p t e r , f a c t o r s im­
p o r t a n t i n th e s a f e d r i v i n g o f t h e a u to m o b ile w ere d e riv e d
fro m t h r e e s o u r c e s .
I n t h e p r e lim in a r y s ta g e s o f th e stu d y
th e i n v e s t i g a t o r re v ie w e d th e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f i e l d and
h e ld in fo rm a l in te r v ie w s w ith a p p ro x im a te ly 50 s a f e t y e x p e r ts
t o d is c o v e r w hat th o s e f a c t o r s w e re.
g a th e r e d from t h e s e s o u r c e s .
E ig h te e n f a c t o r s were
T hese w ere s e t up i n a
q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w hich was s e n t t o a J u ry o f 115 e x p e r t s i n
t r a f f i c s a f e t y and a t t i t u d e m easu rem en t.
q u e s te d t o ch eck of:
The j u r y was r e ­
th e l i s t e d f a c t o r s th o s e w h ich th e y
c o n s id e r e d im p o rta n t and t o w r i t e f o r e a c h a s ta te m e n t of
a ttitu d e .
They were a ls o r e q u e s te d t o ad d any o t h e r f a c t o r s
56
57
w hich th e y b e li e v e d Im p o rta n t and t o su b m it w ith I t a s t a t e *
ment o f a t t i t u d e ,
A 58 p e r c e n t re s p o n s e was r e c e i v e d from
th e j u r y ,
A t o t a l o f f o r t y - s i x f a c t o r s or a r e a s w ere c o l ­
l e c t e d from th e t h r e e s o u r c e s .
Of t h i s num ber, e ig h t e e n were
d e s i g n a t e d Im p o rta n t
by s i x t y - f i v e o r more
ju ry .
tw e n ty - e ig h t f a c t o r s were r e g a r d e d im­
The re m a in in g
per cent
o f the
p o r t a n t by l e s s th a n e le v e n p e r c e n t o f th e j u r y , one h a l f
o f su ch item s h a v in g b e en so d e s i g n a t e d by one i n d i v i d u a l .
T a b le I l i s t s th e v a r io u s f a c t o r s w hich were s u g g e s te d by
th e j u r y , w ith t h e p e r c e n t o f e a c h ty p e of j u r o r v o tin g
f o r e a c h f a c t o r , and
th e ra n k o r d e r o f th e
An a n a l y s i s
o f T able I shows t h a t
fa c to rs .
b a se d on
th e p e r
c e n t o f th e g ro u p s c h e c k in g th e s t a te m e n t s , th e s c h o o l a d ­
m i n i s t r a t o r s have m ost o f te n d e s ig n a te d f a c t o r s a s Im p o rta n t
i n th e s a f e d r i v i n g o f th e a u to m o b ile and t h a t th e p sy c h o lo ­
g i s t s have l e a s t o f t e n checked s u c h f a c t o r s .
In g e n e r a l
t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw een th e re s p o n s e s o f th e
t e a c h e r s of d r i v e r - t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s , c o m m issio n ers and e x ­
a m in e rs i n m otor v e h ic le d e p a rtm e n ts , and d i r e c t o r s o f s a f e t y
in in d u s try .
W hatever d i f f e r e n c e s t h e r e a r e o c c u r f o r t h e
m ost p a r t in t h e p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s , su ch a s f a t i g u e , c o u r t e s y ,
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , w hich th e te a c h e r s o f d r i v e r - t r a i n i n g c o u rs e s
ch eck ed more o f t e n . th a n d id th e o t h e r two g ro u p s .
I t would
seem t h a t a p o s s i b l e e x p la n a tio n o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e among th e
58
TABLE I
Per Cent of Vote of Groups Comprising Mixed Jury* for and Bank Order of Factors
Considered Important in the Safe Driving of the Automobile
Factors (or areas)
Psychol­ Sohool
ogists
Administrators
Teaohers
Driver
Train­
ing
Commis­
sioners
Examin­
ers MV
Dept.
Safety Per
Direc­ Cent
tors,
Jury
Indus­ Vote
try
Bank
Order
Vehicle inspection
Speeding
Drivers * examinations
Passing on curves and
hills
Enforcement of traffio
rules
90.0
100.0
80.0
100.0
90.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
90.9
100.0
95.7
100.0
100.0
97.1
96.2
96.0
1
2
3
80.0
100.0
92.3
100.0
100.0
94.5
4
80.0
100.0
100.0
90.9
91.4
92.5
5
Drinking drivers
Driving skill
Physioal condition of
drivers
Fatigue in driving
Burning traffio lights
80.0
70.0
100.0
100.0
92.3
100.0
90.9
90.9
95.7
95.7
91.8
91.4
6
7
80.0
70.0
80.0
100.0
100.0
90.0
92.3
9253
84.6
90.9
90.9
90.9
91.4
95.7
95.7
90.9 8
89.9 9
88.2 10
Hit-and-run drivers
Courtesy to pedestrians
Courtesy on the highway
The "road hog"
Courtesy to traffio
officers
60.0
80.0
70.0
70.0
90.0
100.0
90.0
90.0
100.0
64.8
84.6
76.5
81.8
81.8
90.9
81.8
95.7
91.4
82.6
73.5
85.5
84.4
83.6
82.4
60.0
90.0
76.5
81.8
65.3
74.7 15
Driving as a privilege
Sharing the road
Fair play on the highway
50.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
70.0
92.3
84.6
68.8
90.9
81.8
63.6
78.3
70.6
60.8
74.3 16
71.4 17
64.7 18
11
12
13
14
Four of the remaining factors have been indicated important by five to
ten per oent of the jury; they are ticket-fixing, age of driver, emotional sta­
bility of driver, and dimming of oar lights. Twenty-four were designated impor­
tant by less than five per oent. These inoludei cooperation, one-arm driving,
parking, responsibility of driver, training of driver, road signs, experience,
show-off attitude, condition of highway, weather conditions, rights of pedestrians,
re-examination of drivers, pedestrian movement, noise, adult example, self-rating,
safety slogans, insurance (lack of), hitch-hiking, night driving, keeping one's
Place in line, merging with traffic, ’
intelligence of the driver, fatalistic
attitude.
'
*
Mixed jury oonsisted of ten psychologists, ten sohool administrators, thirteen
teaohers of driver training oourses, eleven commissioners and lioense
examiners in motor vehicle departments, and twenty-three directors of
safety in industry and motor fleet transportation.
** Indicates per oent of given group designating given faotor as important in
safe driving.
59
s e v e r a l g ro u p s m ig h t be made In te rm s o f th e I n t e r e s t s o f th e
g ro u p s w ith r e s p e c t t o s a f e d r i v i n g .
The p s y c h o lo g is ts r e p l y ­
in g t o th e q u e s t io n n a ir e w ere ab o u t e q u a l ly d iv id e d b etw een
th o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n a t t i t u d e t e s t i n g p e r se and th o s e who had
done r e s e a r c h i n th e f i e l d o f t r a f f i c .
The mbmbers o f th e a d ­
m i n i s t r a t i v e and th e d r i v e r - t r a i n i n g g ro u p s were 100 p e r c e n t
i n t e r e s t e d i n th e t r a i n i n g o f h ig h s c h o o l s tu d e n ts t o become
s a f e d r i v e r s ; some had s e rv e d on th e Committee w hich p r e p a re d
S a f e ty E d u c a tio n . E ig h te e n th Y e arb o o k , o f t h e A m erican A s s o c ia ­
t i o n o f S ch o o l Adm inis Ira t o r s ;
a l l had had p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i ­
en ce i n p r o j e c t i n g c o u rs e s i n d r i v e r t r a i n i n g i n h ig h s c h o o ls
o r i n th e te a c h in g of su c h c o u r s e s .
T h e re fo re t h i s group
c o u ld b e s a i d to b e more f a m i l i a r w ith th e i s s u e s w hich e n te r
i n t o th e s a f e d r i v i n g s i t u a t i o n .
The co m m issio n ers and e x ­
a m in e rs and s a f e t y d i r e c t o r s i n i n d u s t r y , on th e o th e r h a n d ,
a r e more c o n c e rn e d w ith a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and e n fo rc e m e n t a s p e c ts
and w ould t h e r e f o r e be l e s s l i k e l y t o re c o g n iz e f a c t o r s o th e r
th a n th o s e r e l a t e d t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and e n fo rc e m e n t.
The im p o rta n c e o f th e s u g g e s te d f a c t o r s in te rm s o f
th e v o te o f th e j u r y i s d e p ic te d i n G raph 1 b e lo w .
An
a n a l y s i s o f t h e g ra p h shows t h a t o f th o s e f a c t o r s w hich have
b e en d e s ig n a te d im p o rta n t by 65 o r more p e r c e n t of t h e j u r y ,
1.
A m erican A s s o c ia tio n o f S ch o o l A d m i n is tr a t o r s . S a f e ty
E d u c a tio n . E ig h te e n th Y earb o o k . W ash in g to n , B .C .
N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n , 1940.
60
>
\D vO i r i ( n 0 1 r l H O a ) ' 0 « # ^ N i r t ^ H U \ 0 0 ' C N ' O s t m H
by the
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xiofq.Bnq.-Fg SufAfaa e js g eiqq. SufSfjdraog saoqoBj
Factors Important
Vote of Experts
o
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61
10 o f th e f i r s t 11 a r e c o n c e rn e d w ith t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and
e n fo rc e m e n t a s p e c ts o f th e s a f e d r i v i n g s i t u a t i o n *
Only o n e,
f a t i g u e i n d r i v i n g , i s c o n c e rn e d w ith th e p e r s o n a l o r i n d i ­
v id u a l p h ase.
Of th e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and e n fo rc e m e n t a s p e c t s , t h a t
o f v e h ic le in s p e c t io n h e a d s th e l i s t w ith a 97 p e r c e n t v o te
of th e Ju ry .
Then fo llo w i n o r d e r th e f a c t o r s o f : s p e e d in g ,
d r i v e r s 1 e x a m in a tio n s , p a s s in g on c u rv e s and h i l l s , e n f o r c e ­
ment o f t r a f f i c la w s, d r in k in g d r i v e r s , d r i v i n g s k i l l s , and
p h y s i c a l c o n d it i o n o f th e d r i v e r .
Only two ite m s o f t h i s
g ro u p , ru n n in g t r a f f i c l i g h t s and h i t - a n d - r u n d r i v e r s , a re
e x c e e d e d i n im p o rta n c e by any o f th e s o - c a l l e d p e r s o n a l o r
in d iv id u a l f a c t o r s .
Of th e l a t t e r g ro u p , f a t i g u e i n d r i v i n g ra n k s h ig h e s t
w ith a 90 p e r c e n t J u ry v o t e ; i t i s i n n i n t h p o s i t i o n among
a l l f a c t o r s s u g g e s te d .
Then f o llo w th e f a c t o r s o f c o u r t e s y t o
p e d e s t r i a n s , c o u rte s y on th e h ig h w ay , th e ro a d h o g , c o u rte s y
t o t r a f f i c o f f i c e r s , d r i v in g a s a p r i v i l e g e , s h a r in g t h e r o a d ,
and f a i r p la y on t h e highw ay.
I t was b e li e v e d t h a t th e
c o u r te s y f a c t o r s m ight have b een g ro u p e d u n d e r th e g e n e r a l
h e a d o f c o u r te s y : th e re s p o n s e s o f th e Ju ry i n d i c a t e th a t
e a c h h a s b e en re g a rd e d a s a d i s t i n c t f a c t o r in t h e s a f e d r i v ­
62
in g s i t u a t i o n , s in c e n o t one o f th e f i v e c o u rte s y - c o n c e r n
f a c t o r s h a s r e c e iv e d l e s s th a n a s i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t v o te of
th e j u r y .
Of th e re m a in in g tw e n ty - e ig h t f a c t o r s , f i v e have been
d e s ig n a te d im p o rta n t b y f o u r t o t e n p e r c e n t of t h e j u r y , and
tw e n ty -tw o have b een ch ec k ed by t h r e e o r l e s s p e r c e n t .
A
1
co m p ariso n o f Graph 1 and T ab le I w ith t h e q u e s t io n n a ir e
s e n t t o th e j u r y shows th e o r i g i n a l l i s t in t h e q u e s tio n n a ir e
c o n ta in s th o s e f a c t o r s w hich hav e b een m ost o f t e n checked
by t h e j u r y .
S e l e c ti n g S ta te m e n ts o f A t t i t u d e tow ard F a c to r s C o n sid e red
Im p o rta n t i n th e S a fe D riv in g o f th e A utom obile
~
A p p ro x im ately 600 s ta te m e n ts of a t t i t u d e to w a rd th e
f a c t o r s th o u g h t t o be im p o rta n t in th e s a f e d r i v i n g o f th e
a u to m o b ile were s e l e c t e d from l i t e r a t u r e , th ro u g h i n te r v ie w s ,
and fro m th e re s p o n s e s o f t h e j u r y t o th e a fo re m e n tio n e d
q u e s tio n n a ire .
Through th e e l i m in a ti o n o f d u p l i c a t e s and i r ­
r e l e v a n t i te m s , t h i s num ber was re d u c e d t o 107 s ta te m e n ts .
These s ta te m e n ts w ere c l a s s i f i e d a c c o rd in g t o f a c t o r s and su b 2
m it t e d t o a j u r y t o b e ra n k e d i n o r d e r o f im p o rta n c e .
The
j u r y w ere r e q u e s te d t o r a n k w ith an ME" th e s ta te m e n ts th e y
c o n s id e r e d e s p e c i a l l y w orthy o f i n c l u s i o n i n an a t t i t u d e
1.
2.
See A ppendix, p . 115.
E x h ib i t 5 , A ppendix, p . 118.
63
s c a l e ; w ith a WGM th o s e th e y re g a rd e d a s o f a v e ra g e v a lu e ;
and w ith a MPW th o s e th e y c o n s id e r e d unw orthy o f I n c l u s io n
In a s c a le .
The r e l a t i v e v a lu e s o f th e s ta te m e n ts were th e n
d e te rm in e d b y a s s i g n i n g th e n u m e ric a l v a lu e s o f 1 0 , 5 , and 0
t o th e r e s p e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s nE ,M nG ,n and MP , W and th e
1
w e ig h te d v a lu e s t o t a l e d ?
T ab le IIA
g iv e s th e r a t i n g s o f
e a c h s ta te m e n t b y c a te g o r y a s w e ll a s t h e i r r e l a t i v e v a lu e .
T ab le I I below shows th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f th e s ta te m e n ts a c ­
c o rd in g t o f a c t o r s and t h e i r r e l a t i v e o r w e ig h te d v a lu e s .
An a n a l y s i s o f T ab le I I shows t h a t a l l th e f a c t o r s
c o m p risin g th e s a f e d r iv in g s i t u a t i o n have one or more s t a t e ­
m ents w ith r e l a t i v e w e ig h ts a t o r above t h e m edian v a lu e o f
7 5 , and t h a t t e n of t h e s e f a c t o r s hav e f i f t y
c e n t o f t h e i r s ta te m e n ts above t h a t v a lu e .
(50) o r more p e r
Only one f a c t o r ,
d r i v i n g as a p r i v i l e g e , has no s ta te m e n t f a l l i n g below th e
m ed ian .
I n c i d e n t a l l y , i t sh o u ld be n o te d t h a t t h i s j u r y , a s
w e ll a s th e p re v io u s J u r y , hav e r a t e d th e s ta te m e n ts c o n ­
c e rn e d w ith th e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and e n fo rc e m e n t a s p e c ts
s u p e r i o r t o th o s e o f a more p e r s o n a l n a t u r e .
*
1.
V a rio u s n u m e ric a l v a lu e s w ere e x p e rim e n te d w i t h , v a lu e s
su c h a s 1 , 2 , 3 ; 1 , 3 , 5 ; 5 , 1 0 , 15; and 0 , 5 , 10,
S in c e no d i f f e r e n c e was fo u n d i n t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i ­
t i o n s o f th e s ta te m e n ts th r o u g h th e u se o f th e s e
s e r i e s , i t was d e c id e d t o u s e t h a t s e r i e s w hich
f a c i l i t a t e d th e s e l e c t i o n o f s ta te m e n t s . The v a lu e s
o f 0 , 5 , 10 was t h e r e f o r e u s e d .
See A ppendix, p . 133.
64
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65
In a d d i t i o n to show ing th e r e l a t i v e w e ig h ts o f
th e s ta te m e n ts f o r th e v a r io u s f a c t o r s , T ab le I I shows th e
maximum and minimum v a lu e o f th e s ta te m e n ts w hich w ere s e ­
l e c t e d f o r t h e P r e lim in a r y Form o f th e s c a le *
F o r th e s e ­
l e c t i o n o f t h e s e s ta te m e n ts th e f o llo w in g c r i t e r i a w ere
e s ta b lis h e d :
1.
The p r e lim in a r y form o f th e s c a l e sh o u ld
p o s s e s s a t l e a s t tw ic e a s many ite m s a s a r e
d e s i r e d i n t h e f i n a l f o r m ;1
2*
E ach f a c t o r c o m p risin g t h e s a f e d r i v i n g
s i t u a t i o n s h o u ld be r e p r e s e n te d by two b u t
n o t more th a n f o u r s ta te m e n ts ; and
3.
The c u t - o f f p o in t i n th e s c a l e o f r e l a t i v e
v a lu e s s h o u ld f a l l a t t h a t p la c e where a
n a t u r a l b r e a k o c c u r r e d , a s I n d i c a te d by
th e num ber o f s ta te m e n ts f a l l i n g w ith in
th e c a te g o ry o f any g iv e n r e l a t i v e v alu e *
On th e b a s i s o f th e s e c r i t e r i a s e v e n ty s ta te m e n ts w ere s e ­
l e c t e d t o c o m p rise t h e P r e lim in a r y Form o f th e s c a l e , w ith
no s ta te m e n t h a v in g a r e l a t i v e v a lu e s m a ll e r th a n 65*
2
T ab le IIB
l i s t s a l l o f th e s ta te m e n ts s u b m itte d t o t h e ju r y
a c c o rd in g t o t h e i r r e l a t i v e v a lu e s*
A p p lic a tio n o f t h e P r e lim in a r y Form o f th e S c a le
“ ***" 111
,
^
The P r e lim in a r y Form
1.
2.
3.
■i -
o f t h e s c a l e was a d m in is te r e d
Ruch and S to d d a r d , T e s ts a n d M easurem ents in H igh S ch o o l
In s tru c tio n , p .3 2 9 .
See A ppendix, p* 137.
See A ppendix, p . 123.
66
t o 500 h ig h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , fresh m en th ro u g h s e n i o r s , t o
d e te rm in e th e d e g re e t o w h ich th e s ta te m e n ts c o m p risin g th e
fo rm d i f f e r e n t i a t e d betw een th e h ig h and low s c o r i n g s t u ­
d e n ts *
To a s c e r t a i n t h e d e g re e o f " d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g n e s s "
th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o s o f th e d i f f e r e n c e s betw een t h e means
o f th e higjh and low s c o r in g segm ents of th e v a r i o u s h ig h
s c h o o l p o p u la tio n s were com puted f o r e a c h s t a t e m e n t .
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o s o f th e s ta te m e n ts w ere com puted
a s f o llo w s : The t o t a l s c o re f o r e a c h s u b j e c t was a s c e r t a i n e d
by a s s i g n i n g n u m erical v a lu e s from 1 t o 5 t o th e p o s i t i o n s o f
th e s c a l e , th e v a lu e o f 5 b e in g a r b i t r a r i l y a s s ig n e d t o t h a t
end o f th e s ta te m e n t w hich th e s tu d e n ts w ould be m ost l i k e l y
to fa v o r.
The p a p e rs o f a l l s u b j e c t s f o r th e v a r io u s g ro u p s
were th e n a rra n g e d i n ra n k o r d e r , from t h e h i g h e s t t o th e
lo w e st s c o r e , and a 20 p e r c e n t o f th e e x tre m e s was s e l e c t e d
t o c a l c u l a t e th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o s .
&
To i l l u s t r a t e : S ta te m e n t n o . 1 h a s b e e n checked by
20 h i g h - s c o r i n g s u b j e c t s .
Of th e s e 14 ch eck ed th e p o s i t i o n
" S tr o n g ly d i s a g r e e , " 1 ch eck ed " D is a g r e e ," 2 , " U n d e c id e d ,”
1 , " A g re e ,” an d 2 , " S tr o n g ly a g r e e ."
F o r th e lo w -s c o rin g
s u b j e c t s , th e f i g u r e s a r e 1 , 6 , 4 , 6 , and 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y .
M u ltip ly in g t h e s e f i g u r e s by t h e r e s p e c t i v e v a lu e s f o r th e
*
A wide v a r i a t i o n e x i s t s i n th e p r o p o r t i b n . o f e x tre m e s
u s e d , r a n g in g fro m 10 t o 30 p e r c e n t o f 100 c a se s
t o 7 o r more p e r c e n t o f 694 c a s e s .
67
p o s i t i o n s , 5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , and 1; and d i v i d i n g by N, th e num ber
o f s u b j e c t s i n e a c h g ro u p , p ro v id e s th e m eans, w hich f o r th e
h i g h - s c o r i n g g ro u p i s Mi a 4 ,2 and f o r th e lo w -s c o rin g g ro u p
M2 * 2 , 8 ,
The d i f f e r e n c e b etw een th e m eans, 1 ,4 , i n d i c a t e s
th e d i f f e r e n c e b etw een th e means f o r t h e two g ro u p s i n te rm s
o f th e f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e .
To d e te rm in e th e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f
t h i s d i f f e r e n c e cjne w ould o r d i n a r i l y u s e th e fo rm u la
<JD * JdH®
,
However, S l e t t o h a s d e v is e d a fo rm u la
w hich may be u s e d when t h e N o f th e g ro u p s i s th e sam e.
Apply*
in g t h i s f o r m u la , JCR - &fx - & f y \ where £ f d ^ e q u a ls
O T T O T )
£ fx
2
2
- N(M ) ,
2
'
p ro d u c e s a c r i t i c a l r a t i o f o r th e s ta te m e n t o f
3 ,4 8 8 .
T h is v a lu e i n d i c a t e s t h a t th e d i f f e r e n c e betw een
th e means o f th e tw o ex trem es i s s i g n i f i c a n t , s in c e i t i s
cu sto m ary t o r e g a r d a CR o f 3 .0 0 o r h ig h e r a s b e in g s i g n i f i ­
c a n t when d e a l in g w ith sigm a d i f f e r e n c e s .
I t i s cu sto m ary t o ta k e a r a t i o o f 3 a s i n d i ­
c a tiv e of s ig n if ic a n t d if f e r e n c e ( v i r tu a l
c e r t a i n t y ) s in c e t h e r e i s o n ly ab o u t 1 chance
i n 1000 t h a t a d i f f e r e n c e o f 3 ( T w ill a r i s e
when th e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e i s z e r o . 3 A D/<T D
g r e a t e r th a n 3 .0 may be ta k e n a s i n d i c a t i n g
J u s t so much a d d i t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . 4
1.
Henry E . G a r r e t t , S t a t i s t i c s i n P sy ch o lo g y and E d u c a tio n .
2.
Raymond F r a n k l i n S l e t t o , C o n s tr u c tio n o f P e r s o n a l i t y
3.
4.
G a r r e t t , o p . c l t . . p . 213.
I b i d .. p . 215.
p . 211,
S cales by th e C r ite rio n o f I n te r n a l C o n sisten cy ,
p . 9 0 .(See Appendix, p . 1 5 1 .)
68
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o s o f th e s ta te m e n ts f o r th e f i v e
p o p u la tio n s a re g iv e n i n T ab le I I I , b e lo w .
I t I s e v id e n t
t h a t a e p o p u la tio n s become more s e l e c t i v e th e s i z e o f th e
c r i t i c a l r a t i o s te n d s t o d e c r e a s e .
T h is i s i n d i c a t i v e o f th e
g r e a t e r h o m o g en eity o f th e g ro u p s , i n a t t i t u d l n a l r e s p o n s e s ,
a s th e y a p p ro a c h th e d r i v i n g a g e .
Of th e 70 s ta te m e n ts com­
p r i s i n g th e P r e lim in a r y Form o f th e s c a l e 6 1 , o r 87 p e r c e n t ,
have r a t i o s o f 3 .0 0 o r h ig h e r f o r t h e u n s e l e c te d g ro u p .
F or
th e re m a in in g g ro u p s t h e p e r c e n ta g e s a r e a s f o llo w s : F re s h ­
m en- j u n i o r s , 7 0 ; s e n i o r s , u n s e l e c t e d , 60; n o n - d r i v e r - t r a i n i n g
s e n i o r s , 50 ; and d r i v e r - t r a i n i n g s e n i o r s , 26 p e r c e n t .
The e f f e c t o f th e s e l e c t i v i t y o f p o p u la tio n s upon
th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o s o f s ta te m e n ts may b e c o n s id e re d fro m th e
e x te n t t o w hich t h e r a t i o s f o r t h e more s e l e c t g ro u p s e x ­
cee d th o s e f o r th e l e s s s e l e c t .
F o r e x am p le , o n ly 29 p e r c e n t ,
20 o f th e 7 0 , s t a te m e n t s have l a r g e r c r i t i c a l r a t i o s f o r th e
s e n i o r g ro u p th a n f o r th e fr e s h m e n - J u n io r g ro u p ; and 17 p e r
c e n t , o r 1 2 , s ta te m e n ts have l a r g e r r a t i o s f o r t h e d r i v e r t r a i n i n g g ro u p th a n f o r th e n o n - d r i v e r - t r a i n i n g s e n i o r s .
The
l a r g e r r a t i o s f o r t h e more s e l e c t g ro u p s may i n d i c a t e t h a t
g e n e r a l e x p e rie n c e and t h e o r e t i c a l t r a i n i n g have a l t e r e d th e
a t t i t u d e s o f s t u d e n t s and made them more v a r i a b l e .
At th is p o in t i t may be w e ll t o in d ic a te th e e x te n t
to which th e assignm ent o f num erical v alu es to th e p o s itio n s
of th e sta tem en ts ag rees w ith th e resp o n ses of th e p o p u la tio n s
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NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
•
LIBRARY
•
U** ri
^ (0 to (0
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o
&
76
in v o lv e d ,
A p o s itiv e c r i t i c a l r a t i o in d ic a te s agreement
between th e assignm ent of v alu es by th e experim enter and the
responses of s u b je c ts ; a n eg a tiv e value In d ic a te s d is a g re e ­
ment, and n e c e s s ita te s th e r e v e r s a l of v alu es f o r the s t a t e ­
m ents.
In t h i s study b u t a s in g le s ta te m e n t, No, 25, has
a minus v a lu e .
This in d ic a te s clo se agreem ent w ith re s p e c t
to th e in te r p r e t a ti o n of the s o c ia lly d e s ir a b le asp ect of
the sta tem en t by th e stu d e n t groups and th e assignm ent of
th e n u m erical v a lu e s ,
For f u r t h e r c o n s id e ra tio n of th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o s of
the sta te m e n ts in r e l a t i o n to the p o p u la tio n s upon which th e y
were o b ta in e d , th e sta te m e n ts com prising the P relim in ary Form
of th e s c a le have been d iv id e d in to fo u r g ro u p s.
The average
CR's f o r th e d if fe re n c e between means o f th e statem en ts by
groups and f o r the t o t a l p o p u la tio n , as w e ll a s th e average
c r i t i c a l r a tio s f o r th e groups of s ta te m e n ts , f o r the s e p a ra te
p o p u la tio n s, and f o r th e t o t a l stu d e n t p o p u la tio n a re given
in Table IV.
TABLE IV
Average C r i t i c a l R atio s o f D ifferen ces between Means of
High and Low S coring Segments of th e High School
P op u latio n s When Statem ents Are Grouped
Grouped
S tatem ents
(a)
Nos. 1-20
21-40
41-60
61-70
Avenge
4.87
5.14
5 .9 1
5.61
5.38
P o p u 1 a t i o n s
(c)
(d)
(b)
4 .05
3.78
4.66
4.36
4 .2 1
2,84
3.46
3.94
4.08
3.58
2.77
3.22
3.43
3.52
3.25
(e)
Average
C .R 's
1.97
2.07
2.66
2.16
2.25
3.30
3.55
4.12
3.95
3.72
77
A p ro g re ssiv e d im in u tio n of th e CR*s f o r th e v a rio u s
p o p u la tio n s in th e fo u r groups of sta te m e n ts i s re v e a le d in
Table IV.
In terms of average CR the moat d if f e r e n t i a t i n g
item s occur in th e t h i r d group, statem ents 4 1 -6 0 , th e l e a s t
d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g item s in the f i r s t group.
The average c r i t i ­
c a l r a t i o s f o r th e 70 sta te m e n ts f o r the v ario u s p o p u la tio n s
are 5 .3 8 , 4 .2 1 , 3 .5 8 , and 2.25; w ith an average c r i t i c a l
r a t i o of 3.72 f o r a l l p o p u la tio n s combined.
Graph 2 , below, p re s e n ts in g ra p h ic a l form th e d i s ­
tr ib u ti o n o f c r i t i c a l r a t i o s o f th e statem en ts f o r th e f iv e
p o p u la tio n s.
The graph shows a sharp d ecrease in th e s iz e of
c r i t i c a l r a t i o s from th e u n s e le c te d to the h ig h ly s e le c te d
group as in d ic a te d by th e d ecrease in th e range of the r a t i o s .
For the group o f 500 u n s e le c te d stu d e n ts six ty -o n e
sta tem en tso f a t t i t u d e p o ssess CR's s u f f i c i e n t l y la rg e to be
in clu d ed in th e F in a l Form o f th e s c a le .
However, the a p p li­
c a tio n of a d d itio n a l c r i t e r i a reduced t h i s number to f o r t y ­
's*
fo u r; which comprise th e F in a l Form of the s c a le . Table V
l i s t s th e se sta tem en ts by a re a s or f a c t o r s and by t h e i r num­
b e r in the P relim in ary Form of the sc a le and shows the CR
value f o r e a c h .
*■ A d is c u s s io n c f some o f th e item s by the s u b je c ts w ith the
in v e s tig a to r , who a d m in iste re d th e forms to some
300 p erso n s, re v e a le d th a t many item s were item s
of f a c t r a th e r th an of opinion (th e s u b je c ts found
i t d i f f i c u l t to d ecid e w hether th e statem en t were
a t r u e - f a ls e statem en t or one which might be de­
b ated) and th a t some were ambiguous and might in ­
te r p r e te d v a r io u s ly . (2) In s o fa r as p o s sib le item s
showing la r g e s t d ecrease in CR between groups (d)
and (e) given p re fe re n c e . (3) The s h o r te s t sc a le
p o s s ib le w ith th e re q u ire d r e l i a b i l i t y was d e s ir e d .
See pages 4 2 and 43f o r d is c u s s io n .
78
:;i: m: m i
m; r!ff ;m mi ’in ;m
79
TABLE V
D is tr ib u tio n of S tatem ents of P in a l Form by F a c to rs ,
Item Number in th e P relim in ary Form, and CR Value
F acto r or Area
Speeding*
D riv e rs ’ Exam inations
V ehicle In sp e c tio n
Enforcem ent, t r a f f i c
r u le s
P assing
Courtesy
On th e Highway
To o f f ic e r s
To p e d e s tria n s
P h y sica l c o n d itio n ,
d r iv e r
dumber of Item in
P relim in ary Form
24(6.080)
2(5.688)
3(8.901)
55(3.252)
26(5.268)
23(3.785)
32(7.967)
6(3.578)
48(4.117)
20(5.175)
14(7.090)
31(3.726)
49(3.910)
27(4.182)
70(5.531)
28(5.704)
42(9.207)
...
/ PR\
64(6,397)
53(8.303)
67(6.413)
56(10.141)
D riving S k ill
H it-a n d -ru n d r iv e r s
Running t r a f f i c
s ig n a ls
D riving as a
p r iv ile g e
D rinking d r iv e r s
38(6.438)
10(7.899)
41(6.913)
33(8.438)
50(6.686)
35(7.663)
47(7.805)
61(5.219)
15(6.914)
22(6.889)
17(7.073)
46(6.790)
58(5.990)
S haring th e ro ad
F atigue in d riv in g
M iscellaneous
52(6.498)
30(3.526)
37(6.904)
66(6.886)
*
59(8.201)
69(5.323)
Read Table th u si For th e f a c t o r of sp eed in g , item s 24, 55,
and 64 of th e p re lim in a ry form have been s e le c te d ;
t h e i r CR's a re 6 .0 8 0 , 3 ,2 5 2 , and 6,397, r e s p e c tiv e ly .
An a n a ly s is of Table V shows th a t th e CR v alu es of
the sta tem en ts in th e F in a l Form are w e ll above th e minimum r e -
80
f o r s ig n if ic a n c e .
6
2
5
15
6
3
1
1
have
have
have
have
have
have
has
has
Of the sta tem en ts
CR v alu es of 3.00
CR v alu es of 4.00
CR v alu es of 5.00
CR v alues of 6.00
CR v alu es of 7.00
CR v alu es of 8.00
CR value of !9 .00
CR value o f :1 0.00
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
3.99
4.99
5 .9 9
6.99
7.99
8.99
9.99
10.99
The average c r i t i c a l r a t i o f o r a l l sta te m e n ts i s 6.8 3 4 .
The F in a l Form of th e sc a le as ad m in istered to the
2,000 h ig h school s tu d e n ts f o r th e purposes of e s ta b lis h in g
t e n ta t iv e norms or sta n d a rd s i s given a s E x h ib it D in th e
Appendix, page 124.
The R e lia b ilit y and V a lid ity of th e S cale f o r th e Measurement
ot A ttitu d e s Toward Safe D iving oJ^ th e Automob 1 le
R eported s tu d ie s re v e a l th e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f ic ie n ts
1
of a t t i t u d e s c a le s to range in g e n e ra l from .80 to .9 0 .
T h erefo re , i t was d ecid ed to se t as a minimum r e l i a b i l i t y
the c o e f f ic ie n t of .80 f o r the p re se n t s c a le and i f p o ss ib le
to c o n s tru c t a s c a le of a d e s ire d minimum of tw enty to t h i r t y
sta te m e n ts .
To e s ta b li s h th e r e l i a b i l i t y of th e s c a le th e ln -
1.
B riggs and O th ers, The E m otionalized A ttitu d e s , p . 9 .
81
v e s t i g a t o r e x p e r im e n te d w i t h s c a l e s of v a i y i n g le n g th s * of
2 0 , 3 0 , 3 6 , 4 0 , and 44 ite m s e a c h .
By means o f t h e s p l i t -
h a l f t e c h n iq u e and th e Spearman-Brown p ro p h ecy fo rm u la
r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r t h e s e p ro p o s e d s c a l e s were e s t a b l i s h e d upon
a g ro u p o f 100 s e n i o r s e n r o l l e d i n th e d r i v e r - t r a i n i n g c o u r s e .
P r e l i m i n a r y e x p e r i m e n t a l work showed t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s
b e tw e e n t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h i s g ro u p and a group of 100
s e n i o r s n o t e n r o l l e d i n a d r i v e r - t r a i n i n g c o u r s e were s u c h
as n o t t o j u s t i f y th e l a b o r i o u s t a s k o f e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l i a ­
b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r b o t h g ro u p s f o r th e v a r i o u s s c a l e
le n g th s.
C o n se q u e n tly t h e r e p o r t e d c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e f o r a
g ro up o f 100 s e n i o r s e n r o l l e d i n a d r i v e r - t r a i n i n g c o u r s e .
At t h e o u t s e t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y f o r a 4 4 - ite m form was
e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o v id e a s t a n d a r d a g a i n s t w hich t h e r e l i a ­
b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e s h o r t e r form s m ight be com pared.
Through t h e u s e o f t h e s p l i t - h a l f te c h n iq u e and the form ula
f o r th e P e a rs o n " r ”
a raw c o e f f i c i e n t
r =
o f .6 9 was o b t a i n e d .
p ro p h e c y fo rm u la
The a p p l i c a t i o n of th e Spearman-Brown
gave th e e s t i m a t e d r e l i a b i l i t y f o r th e
whole s c a l e a s .8 2 .
1.
G a r r e t t, o g . c i t . , p . 3 1 9 .
82
The r e l i a b i l i t y o f two 2 0 - ite m form s was t h e n e s ­
ta b lish e d .
The raw c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e two fo rm s were a p ­
p r o x i m a te l y .5 5 ; t h e e s t i m a t e d r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e form s
becom ing s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r t h a n .7 0 .
These low c o e f f i c i e n t s
i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l o n g e r s c a l e th a n h a s been a n t i c i p a t e d
would be n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n a minimum r e l i a b i l i t y o f .8 0 .
1
The Spearman-Brown proph ecy f o rm u la
was u s e d t o e s t i m a t e th e
r e l i & i l i t y o f a s c a l e w ith tw ic e a s many i t e m s , t h a t i s 40
i n s t e a d o f 20 i t e m s .
By s u b s t i t u t i n g i n th e fo rm u la th e
r e l i a b i l i t y o b t a i n e d f o r t h e 2 0 - i te m s c a l e ,
r nn =
_____ =
nr
1 Ar ( n - D r u
2 x .7 0
1 + (2 -1 ).7 0
an e s t i m a t e d r e l i a b i l i t y
o f .8 2 was o b t a i n e d f o r a 4 0 - i t e m s c a l e .
T h is i s e q u a l t o
t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o b t a i n e d f o r t h e 4 4 - i te m form a s r e p o r t e d
above.
For t h e tw o 3 6 - ite m s c a l e s t h e raw c o e f f i c i e n t s were
.6 4 and . 6 1 , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
The a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Spearman-
Brown p ro p h ecy fo rm u la gave e s t i m a t e d r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r th e
two s c a l e as .7 9 and . 7 7 , w hich a p p ro a c h th e minimum r e l i a ­
b i l i t y so u g h t.
However, th e c o r r e l a t i o n of t h e s e form s
w i t h th e 4 4 - i te m fo rm p ro d u c e d c o e f f i c i e n t s o f .9 2 and .8 9 ,
r e s p e c t i v e l y , t o o low t o w a r r a n t t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t th e y
were d o in g t h e i r work e q u a l l y a s w e ll a s t h e l o n g e r s c a l e
and c o u ld t h e r e f o r e be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r i t .
1.
G a r r e t t,
0£
. c i t . , p. 315.
83
40
The r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t w o / it e m form s were t h e n
c a lc u la te d .
F o r t h e one th e raw c o e f f i c i e n t was .6 6 ; f o r
t h e o t h e r .6 8 .
When c o r r e c t e d t h e s e became .8 0 and .8 1 .
re s p e c tiv e ly .
The c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e fo r m e r w i t h t h e 4 4 -
i te m form p ro d u c e d a c o e f f i c i e n t of . 9 3 .
c o e f f i c i e n t i s .9 6 7 , o r . 9 7 .
F or t h e l a t t e r th e
F o r th e two 4 0 - i te m form s th e
r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s e q u a l th e minimum s e t , b u t f o r t h e
l a t t e r o f th e tw o, s h o r t e r form s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a l i d i t y
w i t h t h e l o n g e r i s t h e g r e a t e r . S in c e t h i s c o e f f i c i e n t o f
v a l i d i t y i s s u f f i c i e n t l y g reat;
to in d ic a te th a t th e sh o rte r
fo rm i s d o in g i t s work a s w e l l as t h e l o n g e r fo rm , i t i s
b e i n g d e s i g n a t e d t h e F i n a l Form o f t h e s c a l e , w hich h a s been
th e o b jec t of t h i s s tu d y .
The v a l i d i t y o f t h e s c a l e h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d upon
two b a s e s :
(1) i n t h e i n h e r e n t n a t u r e o f th e s c a l e and (2) by
t h e c r i t e r i o n o f " w id e ly s p a c e d g r o u p s ."
A t h i r d method o f
v a l i d a t i o n had b e e n a n t i c i p a t e d , t h a t o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a con­
n e c t i o n betw een t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s t o t h e v e r ­
b a l i z e d o p in io n s and t h e i r d r i v i n g r e c o r d i n terras o f a c c i ­
d e n ts f r e e n e s s .
B ecause so few o f th e s u b j e c t s d r i v e an d
b e c a u se a lm o st none o f th o s e who d r i v e r e p o r t e d in v o lv e m en t
i n a c c i d e n t s , t h i s a s p e c t of th e s t u d y h a s b e en d ro p p e d .
The v a l i d i t y o f th e p r e s e n t s c a l e i s i m p l i c i t i n
i t s c o n stru c tio n .
E x p e r t s i n t r a f f i c s a f e t y have a i d e d i n
t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f th e s c a l e .
The a r e a s o r f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d
84
im p o r ta n t i n t h e s a f e d r i v i n g a c t and th e s t a t e m e n t s o f
a t t i t u d e s to w a rd e a c h o f t h e s e a r e a s have b e e n s e l e c t e d
by th e s a f e t y e x p e r t s i n th e f i e l d s o f p s y c h o lo g y , e d u c a ­
t i o n , and t r a f f i c .
The s t a t e m e n t s of a t t i t u d e were th e n
r a t e d a s t o im p o rta n c e by a j u r y o f t h e s a f e t y e x p e r t s , and
th o s e w i t h th e h i g h e r " w e ig h te d v a l u e s ” were s e l e c t e d f o r
th e P r e l i m i n a r y Form of t h e s c a l e .
F i n a l l y , th e s t a t e m e n t s
c o m p r is in g th e P r e l im i n a r y Form o f t h e s c a l e were a n a ly z e d
in th e l i g h t of th e " c r i t e r i o n of i n te r n a l c o n sis te n c y ,"
T h is c r i t e r i o n a d m its i n t o th e f i n a l form of t h e s c a l e o n ly
t h o s e ite m s w h ich have b e e n fo u n d t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e tw ee n t h e
h i g h - s c o r i n g and l o w - s c o r in g members o f t h e g ro u p s t o w hich
the s c a le has been a p p lie d ,
"The ite m s o f t h e f i n a l t e s t ,
t h e r e f o r e , ’hang t o g e t h e r ’ i n t h e s e n s e t h a t th e y a l l work
i n th e same d i r e c t i o n and p re su m a b ly m easure t h e same common
1
tra it,"
F i n a l l y , t h e v a l i d i t y of t h e p r e s e n t s c a l e h a s been
e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e c r i t e r i o n o f " v a l i d i t y o f w id e ly sp a ce d ;
g r o u p s ."
The f i n a l fo rm was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 2 ,0 2 5 h i g h
s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , freshm en th r o u g h s e n i o r s , and d i f f e r e n c e s
betw een t h e means and sig m as f o r t h e g ro u p s were f o u n d .
The g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e b e tw ee n th e means h a s b een o b t a i n e d
b etw een g ro u p s presum ed t o p o s s e s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e
1,
G a r r e tt,
0£ ,
c i t . , p, 328.
85
to w a rd s a f e d r i v i n g , t h a t i s betw een t h e fre sh m e n group
and t h e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n d r i v e r - t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s as
w e l l a s betw een t h e fre sh m e n g ro u p and s t u d e n t s p o s s e s s i n g
d riv in g ex p erien c es.
The mean s c o r e s a n d sigma v a lu e s f o r
th e v a r i o u s g ro u p s t o whom t h e s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d a re
as fo llo w s:
Freshmen
Sophomores
Ju n io rs
S e n io r s
D r iv e r-tra in in g stu d e n ts
D rlv in g -e x p e rie n c e s tu d e n ts
Mean
1 4 4 .1 0
151.05
15 5 .8 1
158 .15
16 4.53
1 6 8 .2 0
Sigma
1 7 .5 4
1 7 .3 6
1 8 .4 4
1 8 .7 6
13.77
1 2 .8 4
A c o m p le te d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s c a l e t o
w id e ly sp a c e d g ro u p s and th e f i n d i n g s a r e g iv e n u n d e r t h e
c a p t i o n The Development o f Group Norms, i n t h e f o l lo w in g
c h a p t e r , p a g es 87 t o
91.
In t h i s c h a p t e r h as b e e n r e p o r t e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n
and v a l i d a t i o n o f a s c a l e f o r t h e m easurem ent o f a t t i t u d e s
to w a rd f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r ta n t i n t h e s a f e d r i v i n g o f
th e a u to m o b ile .
1.
T h is h a s in v o lv e d :
The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f th e f a c t o r s which a r e
im p o r ta n t i n t h e s a f e d r i v i n g s i t u a t i o n .
A t o t a l of f o r t y -
s i x f a c t o r s were s u g g e s t e d a s i m p o r t a n t , o f w h ich e i g h t e e n
were so d e s i g n a t e d by 65 o r more p e r c en t o f t h e J u r y , th e
re m a in in g t w n n t y - e i g h t f a c t o r s b y 10 o r l e s s p e r c e n t o f
86
th e ju ry .
2.
The s e l e c t i o n o f s t a t e m e n t s f o r t h e s c a l e .
A p p ro x im ately 600 s t a t e m e n t s o f a t t i t u d e were c o m p ile d .
Through t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f d u p l i c a t e s , i r r e l e v a n t i te m s ,
s t a t e m e n t s w i t h low r e l a t i v e v a l u e s , s t a t e m e n t s w i t h low
c r i t i c a l r a t i o s , an d s t a t e m e n t s w hich w ere am big u o u s, t h i s
number was re d u c e d t o 40 i t e m s , which c o m p rise t h e P i n a l
S c a le .
3.
R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y o f t h e s c a l e .
The
r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s c a l e h a s b e en e s t a b l i s h e d by th e s p l i t h a l f method and t h e Spearman-Brown p ro p h e c y f o r m u la .
The
raw c o e f f i c i e n t i s . 6 8 , t h e c o r r e c t e d c o e f f i c i e n t i s . 8 1 .
T h is i s r e g a r d e d a s a d e q u a te s i n c e th e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i ­
c i e n t s o f a t t i t u d e s c a l e s ra n g e i n g e n e r a l b e tw e e n .8 0 and
.9 0 .
The v a l i d i t y of t h e s c a l e h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d
t h r o u g h i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n and th r o u g h th e u s e o f t h e
c r i t e r i o n o f nv a l i d i t y by w i d e l y - s p a c e d ” g r o u p s .
The f i n a l
form o f t h e s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 2 ,0 2 5 h i g h s c h o o l s t u ­
d e n t s and r a t h e r s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean s c o r e s w ere ob­
t a i n e d b etw een g ro ups presum ed t o p o s s e s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n
a t t i t u d e s to w a rd t h e s a f e d r i v i n g s i t u a t i o n .
CHAPTER IV
TENTATIVE NORMS AND STANDARD RESPONSES
In t h i s c h a p te r th e s ta n d a r d is a tio n o f th e sc a le i s
d e s c rib e d .
P a r t I i s concerned w ith th e s ta n d a r d is a tio n o f
th e s c a le f o r s e v e ra l groups o f h ig h sch o o l s tu d e n ts .
P a rt
I I r e l a t e s th e e s ta b lish m e n t o f "stan d ard resp o n ses" f o r each
o f th e sta te m e n ts o f th e s c a le .
The Development o f Group Norms
I t has been th e purpose o f t h i s stu d y t o develop a
s c a le f o r th e measurement o f a t t i t u d e s tow ard f a c to r s im­
p o r ta n t In th e s a fe d riv in g o f th e autom obile.
To in c re a se
th e u t i l i t y o f th e s o a le , norms f o r th e v a rio u s groups of
h ig h sch o o l stu d e n ts are n e c e ssa ry .
However, sin c e th e de­
velopment o f perm anent norms i s n o t f e a s ib le in le s s th an
th r e e to f iv e y e a r s ' tim e, te n ta t iv e norms have f o r th e
p re s e n t been e s ta b lis h e d .
The te n ta t iv e norms have been e s ta b lis h e d upon th e
follo w in g groups o f h ig h sc h o o l s tu d e n ts : freshm en, sopho­
m ores, ju n io r s , s e n io r s , d r iv e r - t r a in in g s tu d e n ts , and s tu d e n ts
w ith d r iv in g e x p e rie n c e .
To a s s u re a r e p r e s e n ta tiv e sampling
o f th e h ig h school p o p u la tio n , th e s tu d e n ts used in th e e s ­
ta b lish m e n t o f th e t e n ta t iv e norms have been drawn from v ario u s
87
88
s e c tio n s o f th e U nited S ta te s .
1
The f i n a l form o f th e s c a le
was ad m in istered to a t o t a l o f 2,025 s tu d e n ts .
The groups
on whom th e norms were e s ta b lis h e d , th e number o f oases in
each g roup , t h e i r mean sc o re s,a n d th e sigma v a lu e s , a re
giv en in Table Vi below.
TABLE VI
T e n ta tiv e Norms f o r C e rta in High School Groups
Groups
Cases
Freshmen
Sophomores
Ju n io rs
S en io rs
D riv e r -tr a in in g
stu d en t s
"D riving-ex p erien ce"
stu d e n ts
Means A
Sigmas
102
472
360
413
144.10
151.05
155.81
158.15
1.264
.798
.971
*923
17.54
17.36
18.44
18.76
430
164.53 A .664
13.77
158
168.20 A 1.021
12.84
H 2,025
A
A
A
A
Av.156.97 i
That th e so a le does d i f f e r e n t i a t e between groups who
a r e presumed to p o ssess d if fe re n c e s o f a t t i t u d e tow ard s a fe ty
in autom obile d riv in g i s e v id e n t from th e ta b le above.
This
d if fe re n c e i s re v e a le d n o t only between groups which a re
w idely s e p a ra te d , a s th e freshmen and "d riv ln g -e x p e rle n c e "
g ro u p s, b u t a ls o between groups le s s w idely s e p a ra te d , as th e
fre8hmen)and sophomores.
The ta b le shows a r a th e r marked in ­
c re a se in th e mean sc a re from group to group, in d ic a tiv e of
1.
See page 53
f o r th e sojuroes o f th e p o p u la tio n .
89
th e p e r t th a t ed u catio n has played in th e development o f
a t t i t u d e s o f s tu d e n ts .
The in c re a s e in th e mean sco re fo r
th e d r iv e r tr a in in g group over t h a t o f th e s e n io r group
seems to in d ic a te t h a t s p e o ia l d r iv e r tr a in in g in s tr u c tio n
doe8 Improve the a t t i t u d e s o f s tu d e n ts , w h ile th e ap p aren t
In flu e n c e o f more extended exposure in p r a c t ic a l and th e o r e ti­
c a l tr a in in g on th e developm ent o f a t t i t u d e s is e v id e n t from
th e in c re a se in th e mean sc a re o f th e " d riv in g experience"
group over th a t o f th e d r iv e r - t r a in in g g ro u p .
To a s c e r ta in th e e x te n t to w hich th e d iffe re n c e s be­
tween th e means o f th e groups re p re s e n te d a tru e d if fe re n c e ,
th e s ig n ific a n c e o f th e d iffe re n c e s was determ in ed . For
1
t h is purpose th e form ula ^
lia'a u se d *
The s ig n ific a n c e o f th e d iffe re n c e s between th e means f o r
th e v ario u s groups i s g iv en in Table V II below.
TABLE VII
D iffe re n c e s and S ig n ific a n c e o f D iffe re n c e s Between
th e Means o f C e rta in High School Groups
High School Groups
Fre shmen/Sophomor es
Sophomore s /J u n io r s
Ju n io rs /S e n io rs
S enior s/D ri v e r - tr a in in g
D riv e r -tr a in in g /D riv e r ex­
p erie n ce
D riv e r-tra in in g /F re sh m e n
D ri ving-experienoe/Freshm en
1.
D iffe re n c e be­ S ig n ific a n c e o f
tween Means
D ifferen ce o f
Mean
6.95
4 .7 6
2.54
6.38
4.664
3.789
1.747
5.616
3.67
20.43
24.10
2.029
14.286
14.812
Henry B. G a r r e tt, S t a t i s t i c s in Psychology and E ducation,
p . 211.
-
90
That the d if fe re n c e s between th e means o f the
v a rio u s groups a r e s i g n i f i c a n t I s e v id e n t from Table V ii.
I n a l l b u t two in s ta n c e s th e degree o f s ig n ific a n c e exceeds
th e minimum o f 3 .0 0 .
In two ca ses th e r a t i o o f s ig n ific a n c e
i s alm ost f iv e tim es la r g e r th a n th e minimum; t h i s i s f o r the
d r iv e r -tra in in g /f re s h m e n and d r iv in g -ex p erien ce/fresh m en
g ro u p s.
For the ju n io r /s e n io r s and d r iv e r - t r a ln ln g /d r iv e r -
ex p erlen ce groups the r a t i o of s ig n ific a n c e i s 1.747 and
2 .0 2 9 , r e s p e c tiv e ly .
The chances, th e re fo r e , a re 96 and 98,
r e s p e c tiv e ly , in 100 t h a t th e o b tain ed d if fe re n c e s o f 2.34
and 3 .6 7 between th e means f o r th e r e s p e c tiv e groups a re
s i g n i f i c a n t , o r t h a t th e tr u e d if fe re n c e i s g r e a te r th an z e ro .
T ables VI and V n th e re fo re in d ic a te t h a t th e s c a le a c tu a lly
d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between groups of p erso n s who a r e presumed to
p o sse ss d iffe re n c e s o f a t t i t u d e toward sa fe d r iv in g o f th e
auto m o b ile.
And f u r th e r , t h a t the s c a le d i f f e r e n t i a t e s groups
i n term s o f t h e i r e d u c a tio n a l s ta tu s in th e p u b lic sc h o o ls,
t h a t i s , in term s
o f th e c la s s e s o f which th e y a re members.
Table VI above in d ic a te s t h a t o f th e various groups
t e s t e d , th e ju n io rs and se n io rs are the more v a r ia b le in
t h e i r re sp o n se s, th e sigmas f o r th e d is t r ib u t io n s o f th e two
groups being 18.44 and 18.76, r e s p e c tiv e ly .
The freshmen
and sophomore groups a r e s l i g h t l y le s s v a r ia b le , as ln d io a te d
by th e re s p e c tiv e sigmas o f 17.54 and 1 7 .3 6 .
The sigma
v a lu e s of 13.77 and 12.84 f a r th e d r i v e r - t r a in in g and "d riv in g ex p erien ce" groups, r e s p e c tiv e ly , in d ic a te l e s s s c a t t e r o f
sc o re s around th e means o f t h e i r d is t r ib u t io n s th a n i s found
91
In th e o th e r g ro u p s.
The sm a lle r sigmas th e re fo re in d ic a te
g r e a te r homogeneity f o r th e two groups in term s o f resp o n ses
and give evidence o f th e f a c t t h a t th e o r e tic a l and p r a c t i c a l
ex p erien ce i n " d riv in g th e autom obile" ten d s to make th e sub­
j e c t s more a lik e a t t i t u d i n a l l y .
The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f th e mean sc o re s f o r th e v ario u s
groups of s tu d e n ts i s shown g r a p h ic a lly in Graph 3 (see
page 92 ) .
d e n t.
C onsiderable o v erlap p in g o f th e groups i s e v i­
For a l l th e groups save one, th e d r iv e r - tr a in in g group,
th e d i s t r i b u t i o n s a re d i s t i n c t l y bim odal.
approaohe* n o rm a lity .
The l a t t e r alone
The b ro k e n v e rtic a l lin e s dropped from
th e ourves to th e b ase l i n e lo c a te th e means f o r th e v a rio u s
g ro u p s.
These li n e s show t h a t th e d if fe re n c e s between th e
means o f th e v ario u s s u c c e s s iv e groups from th e freshm en up­
ward i s r a th e r uniform , ex cep t between th e ju n io r /s e n io r and
d riv e r -tra in in g /d r iv in g - e x p e rie n o e g ro u p s.
I t a ls o shows
t h a t w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f the d r iv e r - t r a i n i n g and d riv in g ex perience groups th e sc o re s o f th e groups cover p r a o tio a lly
th e same ra n g e .
groups
The narrow er ran g e o f sc o re s o f th e se two
p o in t to th e g r e a te r homogeneity o f th e se groups as
oongjared w ith th e rem aining g ro u p s.
S tandard Responses
To f a c i l i t a t e th e use o f th e s c a le a second type o f
norm has been p ro v id ed .
S tandard resp o n ses have been e s­
ta b lis h e d f o r each s ta te m e n t.
They have been e s ta b lis h e d by
92
1;
Sesty
/»
Jtjiuity
93
25 commissioners o f motor v e h ic le d ep artm en ts, 73 lic e n s e
exam iners, and 27 a o o ld e n t-fre e d r iv e r s , th e assum ption being
th a t th e se groups were b e t t e r q u a lif ie d th a n any o th e r group
to in d ic a te what th e sta n d ard resp o n ses should be*
The f i n a l form o f th e s c a le was subm itted to th e
members o f th e se groups w ith t h e in s tr u c tio n s to check each
sta tem en t as he (th e judge) "b e lie v e d i t ought to be checked*"
The forms were sc o re d in th e u su a l manner, by a ssig n in g a r ­
b i t r a r i l y num erical v alues to each o f th e p o s itio n s in th e
s c a le , th e value o f 5 being assig n ed to th e s o c ia ll y d e s i r ­
ab le end o f th e statem ent*
The resp o n ses f o r a l l sta tem en ts
were th en ta b u la te d and the median response was th e n d e t e r ­
mined f o r ea ch group on each statem ent*
Then th e average o f
th e medians was c a lc u la te d and tr a n s la te d in to sta n d a rd r e s ­
ponses*
T his was done by g iv in g t o each average median th e
name o f th e p o s itio n whose num erical v alu e corresponded, in
whole number, t o th e
v a lu e o f th e average median*
For ex­
ample, th e average median resp o n se f o r statem en t number 1 i s
3*73*
Since th e v alu e of th r e e has been a ssig n e d to th e po­
s i t i o n o f "U ndecided," th e "sta n d a rd resp o n se" f o r th a t s t a t e ­
ment becomes Undecided* The average median f o r sta tem en t
number 2 i s 4*97*
I t s " s ta n d a rd response" becomes D isagree
sin c e t h a t p o s itio n was a ssig n e d th e v alu e o f 4*00*
Simi­
l a r l y , th e sta n d ard resp o n se s f o r a l l sta tem en ts was de­
term ined*
The median v alu es o f a l l sta tem en ts f o r th e th re e
groups, a s w e ll as th e 'Everage median and th e sta n d a rd resp o n se
94
f o r eaoh sta te m e n t a r e g iv e n In Table V III (see page 95 ) .
An a n a ly s is o f t h i s ta b le shows th a t In 17 o f th e 40 s t a t e ­
ments th e r a t e r s to o k th e extreme p o s itio n and In 19 s t a t e ­
ments they took th e ln tex m ed late p o sitio n *
In only 4 In ­
sta n c e s d id th ey In d ic a te th e p o s itio n o f Undecided as th e
sta n d a rd resp o n se; th ese were fo r numbers 1, 9, 22, and 31*
In t h i s c h a p te r th e s ta n d a r d iz a tio n o f th e s c a le has
been rep o rted *
Two forms o f norms have been p rovided:
( l ) groups norms In term s o f average s c o re s , and (2) sta n d ard
resp o n ses f o r eaoh o f th e sta te m e n ts com prising th e scale*
Groups norms have been e s ta b lis h e d f o r freshm en,
sophomores, ju n io r , s e n io r , d r iv e r - t r a in in g , and d riv in g ex p erien ce groups*
The mean sc o re s f o r th e groups a r e ,
r e s p e c tiv e ly : 144*10, 151*05, 155.81, 158*15, 164*53, and
168.20.
S tandard resp o n ses have been e s ta b lis h e d by sub­
m ittin g th e s c a le to 125 s a f e ty e x p e rts , commissioners o f
motor v e h ic le d ep artm en ts, lic e n s e exam iners, and a c c id e n tf r e e d r iv e r s o f I n d u s tr ia l f l e e t s .
The average o f the median
p o s itio n s f o r th e th re e groups o f e x p e rts was used to d e te r ­
mine th e sta n d a rd re sp o n se , w hich was th en s t a t e d in term s
o f t h a t p o s itio n o f th e so a le whose num erical value c o rre s ­
ponded t o th e whole number o f th e v alu e o f th e average o f
th e m edians.
>
95
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CHAPTER V
GENERAL SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The purpose o f th is study I s to p ro v id e fo r secondary
schools an In stru m en t f o r th e measurement o f a t t i t u d e s tow ard
th e f a c to rs co n sid ered im portant In th e s a f e d riv in g o f th e
au tom obile•
To t h a t end th e fo llo w in g a s p e c ts o f the prob­
lem have b een I n v e s tig a te d : th e f a c to r s im portant In sa fe
d riv in g have been determ in ed , sta tem en ts which r e f l e c t a t t i ­
tude toward eaoh o f th e fa c to rs have been s e le c te d , th e r e l i a ­
b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f th e so a le have been e s ta b lis h e d , and
te n ta tiv e group nom a and sta n d a rd resp o n se s have been de­
term in ed .
G eneral Summary
A t o t a l o f 46 f a c to rs were in d ic a te d Im portant by th e
e x p e rt ju r y .
Of th e se o n ly 18 were so d e s ig n a te d by 65 p er
c e n t o r more o f th e co o p e ra tin g e x p e rts .
The rem aining 28
f a c to rs were r a te d im p o rtan t by n o t more th a n
10
per cent
o f th e e x p e r ts .
More th a n 600 statem en ts o f a t t i t u d e tow ard th e
v a rio u s fa o to rs were c o lle c te d .
S le b re o h t A ttitu d e S c a le .
Of th e se 40 comprise the
The rem aining sta tem en ts were
e lim in a te d beoause o f d u p lic a tio n , irre le v a n c y , am biguity,
100
low r e l a t i v e v a lu e , o r la c k o f " d if f e r e n tia tin g n e s s " as in ­
d ic a te d by th e s iz e o f th e o r i t i o a l r a t i o s o f th e d iffe re n c e s
between th e means o f th e high and low sc o rin g segments o f
groups
upon which th e p re lim in a ry form o f th e s c a le was ad­
m in is te re d .
Some o f th e sta tem en ts w ith h ig h CR's were d is ­
carded because they proved to be statem en ts o f f a c t r a th e r
th an statem en ts o f o p in io n and were th e re fo re m easures o f
knowledge r a th e r th a n o f a t t i t u d e .
The average CR o f the
40 statem en ts i s 6 .234.
The form o f s c a le b e lie v e d b e s t s u ite d to th e measure­
ment o f a t t i t u d e s toward th e h ig h ly complex s it u a ti o n o f s a fe
d riv in g i s an a d a p ta tio n o f th e T hurstone, Remmers, A llp o r tVernon, and L ik e rt farm s.
I t c o n s is ts o f a s e r ie s of s p e c if ic
and g e n e ra l e f f e c tiv e sta te m e n ts, each o f which i s follow ed
by
a s e r ie s o f f iv e p o s itio n s w herein a t t i t u d e tow ard th e
issu e or v a r ia b le may be measured.
The sco re on eaoh s t a t e ­
ment i s determ ined by a s sig n in g values o f
1
to 5 to the po­
s i t i o n s , th e value o f 5 being assig n ed to the p o s itio n a t th e
extreme end
of th e sc a le which i s " s o c ia lly d e s ir a b le ."
The
t o t a l score th e n becomes th e sum o f th e sco res o f th e se p a ra te
s ta te m e n ts •
The r e l i a b i l i t y
of th e s c a le has been e s ta b lis h e d
by th e s p l i t - h a l f te c h n iq u e , and th e r e l i a b i l i t y f o r th e
whole s c a le has th e n been e stim a te d by th e Spearman-Brown
p ro p h e c y fo rm u la.
For th e s c a le th e raw c o e f f ic ie n t i s . 6 8 ;
i t s c o rre c te d r e l i a b i l i t y i s .81 £ .024 P .S .
The v a l i d i t y o f the^ s c a le has been e s ta b lis h e d through
101
I t s c o n s tru c tio n and through the c r i t e r i o n o f "w idely spaoed
groups*"
S trik in g d iffe re n c e s in th e mean sco res o f s ix h ig h
sohool s tu d e n t groups were o b ta in e d in accordance w ith ex­
p e c ta tio n *
Group norms f o r th e s c a le were e s ta b lis h e d upon 2,025
stu d e n ts from r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s e c tio n s o f th e co u n try .
For
th e freshm en, sophomores, j u n io r s , s e n io rs , d r iv e r - t r a in in g ,
and "d riv in g -e x p e rie n c e " groups the norms a re r e s p e c tiv e ly ,
144.10, 151.05, 155.81, 158.15, 164.53, and 168.20.
Standard resp o n ses f o r th e statem en ts com prising th e
s c a le have been e s ta b lis h e d .
ju ry o f 125
These were e s ta b lis h e d by a
p erso n s — commissioners and exam iners in motor
v eh icle departm ents and a c c id e n t- f r e e d r iv e r s — on th e a s ­
sumption t h a t th e se in d iv id u a ls more th a n any o th e r were
b e s t q u a lif ie d t o In d ic a te what a "sta n d a rd resp o n se" ought
to b e .
C onclusions
I n th e l i g h t of th is study th e follow ing co n clu sio n s
a re made:
The d r iv in g s i t u a t i o n can be analyzed in to f a e to r s
o r a re a s which a r e thought to be Im portant in th e sa fe
d riv in g s it u a ti o n .
A ttitu d e s toward s a f e ty in th e d riv in g o f the a u to ­
m obile can be measured in term s o f th e
p r is e th e d riv in g s i t u a t i o n .
f a c t o r s which com­
That i s , a t t i t u d e s tow ard th e
t o t a l s a f e d riv in g s it u a ti o h may be measured through th e u se
102
o f sta te m e n ts of o p in io n r e l a t e d to th e s e v e ra l f a c to rs
com prising th e s a fe d riv in g s itu a tio n *
T herefore I t I s
p o s s ib le to measure a g e n e ra l a t t l t u d l n a l s it u a ti o n through
the measurement of a t t i t u d e s tow ard th e s p e c if ic f a c to r s whloh
go to make up th e g e n e ra l s i t u a t i o n o f s a fe d riv in g *
A ttitu d e s tow ard s a f e ty In th e d r iv in g o f th e a u to ­
mobile oan be measured by th e use o f a s c a le employing s t a t e ­
ments o f o p in io n follow ed by a s e r ie s o f p o s itio n s whereby
th e s u b je c t may check th e d egree of agreem ent or d is a g re e ­
ment w ith th e o p in io n expressed*
The s c a le I s q u ic k -sc o rin g In t h a t th e exam iner can
t e l l a t a g lan ce th e e x te n t to whloh g iv en su b je o ts d e p a rt
from th e s o c ia lly d e s ir a b le tre n d s by t a l ly in g th e number o f
statem en ts t h a t have been checked to th e r i g h t o f th e Un­
decided p o sitio n *
As th e s c a le i s s e t u p , th e " s o c ia lly
d e s ira b le " p o s itio n s f a l l to th e l e f t o f th e Undecided column
o r p o s itio n .
T hat th e s c a le i s r e l i a b l e i s shown by th e r e l i a ­
b i l i t y c o e f f ic ie n t o f 181 £ .024, e s ta b lis h e d upon a group
of
100
s tu d e n ts e n ro lle d i n d r iv e r - t r a in in g courses*
The sc a le seems to show r e a l d if fe re n c e s in a t t i t u d e s
toward th e sa fe d r iv in g s it u a ti o n a s re v e a le d by the mean
v scores o f th e s e v e ra l h ig h school groups t?o whloh th e f i n a l
form was ap p lied *
The d if fe re n c e s re v e a le d were c o n s is te n t
w ith e x p e c ta tio n , in th a t th e groups presumed to have d i f ­
feren ces o f a t t i t u d e toward s a fe d riv in g d id show d iffe re n c e s
in resp o n ses on th e a t t i t u d e te s t*
The s c a le , th e r e f o r e , i s
103
presumed to measure a t t i t u d e s of h ig h sch o o l stu d e n ts toward
s a fe ty In th e d riv in g of th e au to m o b ile.
Reoommendat ions
Two types of recommendations a re made* th o se con­
cerned w ith th e use of th e sc a le and th o se proposing a d d i­
tio n a l re s e a rc h in th e measurement of a t t i t u d e s in safe
d r iv in g •
Use of th e S cale
1.
I t i s recommended th a t the s c a le be used to
in v e s tig a te and compare the a t t i t u d e s of high school s t u ­
dents of th e same sc h o o l, of d if f e r e n t schools in the same
system , o r of sch o o ls in d if f e r e n t systems on th e issu e s o f
safe d r iv in g .
Comparisons may be made in term s of (a) group
responses to th e t o t a l s c a le group norms, or (b) in terms
of group resp o n ses to th e in d iv id u a l f a c to r s or area s com­
p r is in g th e s c a le , or (c) in term s o f group resp o n ses to
the in d iv id u a l sta te m e n ts of the s c a le .
2
.
I t is recommended th a t th e sc a le be used to
In v e s tig a te th e a t t i t u d e s of in d iv id u a l s tu d e n ts toward th e
iss u e s of sa fe d riv in g by an a n a ly s is of t h e i r resp o n ses to
the in d iv id u a l sta tem en ts of th e s c a l e , or to th e f a c t o r s
com prising th e sa fe d riv in g a c t , o r in terms of t h e i r t o t a l
score as compared w ith th e norm f o r t h e i r r e s p e c tiv e g ro u p s.
1.
See
Exhibit E,
pafee 125,
for commercial form and directions.
104
3.
I t I s recommended t h a t th e s c a l e be u s e d t o
g iv e d i r e c t i o n t o th e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p ro c e s s i n t h e d r i v e r e d u e a tio n and d r i v e r - t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s ,
(a ) T hrough a p r e ­
t e s t a p p l i c a t i o n o f th e s c a le one may d e te rm in e t h e i s s u e s
w hich may n e e d em phasis i n th e d i s c u s s i o n o f th e s a f e
d r i v in g a c t .
(b) T hrough a p p l i c a t i o n of th e s c a l e in th e
t e s t - t e a c h - t e s t p ro c e d u re one may a s c e r t a i n t h e e f f e c t i v e ­
n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n te rm s of th e changes t h a t have been
made in t h e a t t i t u d e o f s tu d e n ts d u rin g th e c o u rs e o f th e
in s tru c tio n .
And (o) th ro u g h t e s t - t e a c h - t e s t m ethod i t
may be p o s s i b l e t o e v a l u a t e th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f one m ethod
a s a g a i n s t a n o th e r m ethod i n th e c h a n g in g o f t h e m inds o f
s tu d e n ts on t h e i s s u e s in v o lv e d i n th e s a f e d r i v i n g o f th e
a u to m o b ile .
F u r t h e r R e se a rc h
1.
I t i s recommended t h a t a s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s o f
t y p i c a l h ig h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s be c o n d u c te d t o d e te rm in e th e
r e l a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s to w a rd s a f e t y i n th e d r i v i n g o f th e
a u to m o b ile an d su c h f a c t o r s as d r i v i n g e x p e r ie n c e , a c c i ­
d e n t r e c o r d , law e n fo rc e m e n t a c t i v i t i e s ,
m u n itie s , t h a t
2.
i s u rb a n v s . r u r a l c o m m u n itie s.
It
t o e x te n d t h e u s e
3.
It
and n a tu r e o f com­
is recommended th a t re se a rc h be
conducted
of th e s c a le beyond th e h ig h s c h o o l l e v e l .
i s recommended t h a t r e s e a r c h be
c o n d u c te d t o
105
d e v is e a s h o r t e r s c a l e f o r u se by d e p a rtm e n ts c h a rg e d w ith
th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f l i c e n s i n g d r i v e r s o f m o to r v e h i c l e s .
4.
I t i s recommended t h a t a s e r i e s of s t u d i e s be
p la n n e d t o d e te rm in e th e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f d e v e lo p in g s c a l e s
f o r m e a su rin g a t t i t u d e s to w a rd s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s com­
p r i s i n g th e s a f e d r i v i n g a c t .
I f i t can b e shown t h a t
s c a l e s m e a su rin g s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s , — a s f o r e x am p le,
c o u r t e s y , know ledge and s k i l l s , r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s , e t c .
— w i l l do t h e same th in g a s t h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a l s c a l e ,
t h e r e may be no n e e d o f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h l i k e th e p r e s e n t
s tu d y .
However, a g e n e r a l s c a l e , l i k e th e p r e s e n t o n e , c an
s t i l l be u t i l i z e d t o r e v e a l t h e g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s o f i n d i ­
v id u a ls .
The s p e c i f i c s c a l e s , d e v e lo p e d by more r ig o r o u s
t e c h n iq u e s , may be u s e d t o s tu d y i n t e n s i v e l y th e a t t i t u d e s
o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n v e ry r e s t r i c t e d a r e a s .
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t o M easure A t t it u d e to w a rd any I n s t i t u t i o n , S tu d ie s
i n H ig h e r E d u c a tio n , XXVI (D ecem ber, 1 9 3 4 ), p p . 16-
35.
K e lle y , T. A ., a n d K rey , A u g u s t, T e s ts and M easurem ents in
th e S o c ia l S tu d ie s .
K i r k p a t r i c k , C l i f f o r d , A ssum ptions and M ethods i n A t t it u d e
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( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 6 ), p p . 7 5 -8 8 .'
K u lp , D a n ie l I , and D a v id so n , H elen H ., Can Neuman’ s A t t i ­
tu d e I n d i c a t o r Be U sed a s a T e s t? T e a c h e rs C o lle g e
R e c o rd . XXXII (1 9 3 1 ), p p . 3 3 2 -3 3 7 .
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_________ S o c i a l R e s e a rc h . New Y ork: Longmans, G reen and
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I ll,
P e te r s o n , R uth C ., and T h u r s to n e , L, L . , M otion P ic tu r e s
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1926.
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v e r s i t y , No. 3 1 , 1936.
_________ F u r t h e r S tu d ie s i n A t t i t u d e s , S e r i e s I I I , S tu d ie s
In H ig h er E d u c a tio n . Purdue U n i v e r s i t y , No. 3 4 , 1938,
_________ S tu d ie s i n A t t i t u d e s , S tu d ie s I n H ig h er E d u c a tio n .
Purdue U n iv e rs ity ^ N o . 2 6 , 1934.
R ic e , S . A ., S t a t i s t i c a l S tu d ie s i n S o c ia l A t t i t u d e s and
P u b lic O p in io n , In S . A. R ic e , E d i t o r , S t a t i s t i c s
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( F e b r u a r y , 19&7), p p . 3 -1 6 .
A Q u a n ta tiv e S tu d y o f S o c i a l A t t i t u d e s , S ch o o l
R ev iew . X L III (O c to b e r, 1 9 3 5 ), p p . 6 1 4 -6 2 0 .
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H igh S ch o o l I n s t r u c t i o n . Mew York:" W orld Book Com­
p a n y , 1927. P a r t F o u r, The C o n s tr u c tio n o f E duca­
t i o n a l an d M ental T e s t s , p p . 3 0 0 -3 7 5 .
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S u rv ey o f O p in io n s . M in n e a p o lis : U n i v e r s i ty oF”
M in n eso ta P r e s s , 1936.
S e a s h o re , R. H. and H ev n er, K a te , A T im e-S av in g D evice f o r
C o n s tr u c tio n o f A t t i t u d e S c a le s , J o u r n a l o f S o c ia l
P s y c h o lo g y . IV (A u g u s t, 1 9 3 3 ), p p . 3 6 6 -3 7 2 .
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XXVII (F e b ru a ry , 1 9 4 0 ), p p . 4 4 -4 6 .
S a fe ty .
112
Sherm an, M andel, T h e o rie s and M easurem ent o f A t t i t u d e s ,
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S m ith , R andolph B ., The D evelopm ent o f an I n v e n to r y f o r
th e M easurem ent o f I n f e r i o r i t y P e e lin g s a t th e
H ig h S ch o o l L e v e l, A rc h iv e s o f P sy c h o lo g y . No. 144
(1 9 3 2 ), p p . 1 -1 1 8 .
S l e t t o , Raymond F r a n k l i n , C o n s tr u c tio n o f P erso n a 11ty S c a le s
by th e C r i t e r i o n o f I n t e r n a l d o n s la te n c y . M in n e a p o lis :
The S o c i o lo g i c a l ¥ r e s s , 1937. Pp. v i i - 9 2 .
S ta c k , H e r b e rt J . , T r a in in g f o r L e a d e rs h ip on t h e S a f e ty
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S t a u f f e r , Samuel A ., E x p e rim e n ta l Com parison o f a S t a t i s t i c a l
and a Case H is to r y T echnique o f A t t it u d e R e s e a rc h ,
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3KV (May, 1931)7 “p p . Y 54-156 .
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'_____ A S o c i a l A t t i t u d e Q u e s tio n n a ir e , J o u r n a l o f E duca­
t i o n a l P s y c h o lo g y . XVI (May, 1 9 2 5 ), p p . fc1 6 -3 2 2 .
L oss o f R e l i a b i l i t y i n R a tin g s , J o u r n a l o f E x p e ri­
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________ T rends i n E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a rc h , J o u r n a l o f E ducat l o n a l R e s e a rc h . XXXV (D ecem ber, 1 9 4 0 ), p p . 3 0 0 -3 0 2 .
_
What I s an A t t i t u d e ? P s y c h o lo g ic a l B u l l e t i n .
XXIV (1 9 2 7 ), p p . 2 0 0 - 2 0 T T ----------------------
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p p . 4 0 5 -4 2 5 .
________ _ A M ethod o f S c a lin g P s y c h o lo g ic a l a n d E d u c a tio n a l
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1 9 2 5 ).
__________ A S c a le f o r M easuring A t t i t u d e to w ard M ovies,
J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a r c h . XXII (S e p te m b e r.
1 9 3 0 ), pp7 8 9 -9 4 .
113
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R e s e a rc h . V ( J u n e , 1 9 3 5 ), p p . 2 5 9 -2 7 2 .
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C o lle g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1925.
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The Commonwealth tV nd, 1929.
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(1 9 2 7 -1 9 2 8 ), p p . 431^412"
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SUPPLEMENT
M a iler, J . B ., B ib lio g rap h y o f C h aracter and P e r s o n a lity .
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U n iv e rs ity .
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In d iv id u a l.
Rammers
H. H ., G en eralized A ttitu d e S cales —- S tu d ies in
S o c ia l-P sy c h o lo g ic a l Measurements, S tu d ies In H igher
E d u catio n . Purdue U n iv e rs ity , No. 26 (December, 1934),
pp. 7-17.
_ A G eneralized A ttitu d e S cale T echnique, Journa 1 of
S o c ia l Psychology (May, 1934), pp . 298-312.
114
APPENDIX
E
X
H
IB
ITA
NEW
YORK
UNIVERSITY
DIVISION OF GENERAL EDUCATION
CENTER FOR SAFETY EDUCATION
2 0 WASHINGTON SQUARE NORTH
NEW YORK
ADVISORY COMM ITTEE
NED H. DEARBORN
Chairman
ALBERT W. WHITNEY
Vice-Chairman
E. J. BOND. J».
JULIEN H . HARVEY
ALBERT B. MEREDITH
J. W. RANDALL
THORNDIKE SAVILLE
RUFUS D. SMITH
HERBERT J. STACK
Director o f the Center
FRANK S. LLOYD
Cotuultdnt
We are developing a scale for the measurement of attitudes
of high-school students toward the factors involved in
safety in driving an automobile. It will be helpful to
us if you will cooperate in this preliminary work.
Will you please check on the enclosed list (1) the
factors or items which you believe should be considered
important in the safe driving act, and (2) write for it
a statement of attitude which you believe we should
strive to develop. Please add any other factors whioh
you oonsider important. Por your convenience, several
examples of statements are provided.
Will you please return your contribution as soon as
possible (by April 15 at the latest) in the enclosed
stamped, self-addressed envelope.
Very sincerely yours,
ELMER B. SIEBEECHT
Research Pellow
Ql
116
Directionst Please check those factors which you consider important in the safe
driving of an automobile and write a statement of attitude which- you believe should
be developedf similar to the examples given below. If there are additional factors
you consider important include them with appropriate statements of attitudes.______
Factor
Statement of Attitude
a.
Drivers' examinations
The existing drivers' examinations should be made
mere difficult to eliminate all but the best drivers.
b.
Ticket-fixing
Drivers guilty of ticket-fixing should have their
drivers' license revoked.
c.
Inspection of vehicle
The owner of an automobile should be the judge of
the mechanical fitness of his car for highway use.
1.
Speeding
2.
Drivers'
examination
3.
Vehicle
inspection
,4.
Enforcement ef
traffic rules
5.
Passing on
curves, hills
7 ....................
“
6.
,
Courtesy of
the highway
7.
Physical condition
of drivers
8,
Driving skill
9.
The "road hog"
10.
Hit-and-run drivers
11.
Courtesy to
traffic officers
12.
Sharing the road
13.
Running traffic
signals
14.
Fatigue in driving
D
D
” 13.7'
1
15.
Fair play on
the highway
16 . Driving as a
privilege
17.
Courtesy to
pedestrians
18 . Drinking drivers
19.
20'.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28 .
29.
-
30.
31.
32.
33.
-
fc
KXM1HIT H
NEW
YORK
UNIVERSITY
DIVISION OF GENERAL EDUCATION
CENTER FOR SAFETY EDUCATION
2 0 WASHINGTON SQUARE NORTH
NEW YORK
A d v is o ry C o m m itte e
NED H r DEARBORN
Chairman
ALBERT W. WHITNEY
Vice-Chairman
E. J . BOND, JR .
JU LIEN H. HARVEY
ALBERT B. MEREDITH
J . W. RANDALL
THORNDIKE SAVILLE
RUFUS D. SMITH
Below are listed statements of attitudes which a jury of psychologists,
sohool administrators, teaohers of driver-eduoation, Inspectors In
HERBERT J . STACK
Director of the Center motor vehicle departments, and general safety experts believe should
FRANK S. LLOYD
be taught high school students who will drive automobiles. Prom this
Consultant
llBt will be selected the statements which will comprise a soale for
the measurement of their attitude toward safe driving.
Till you as a member of a seoond jury rank these statements on the
basis of usability in this soale, marking with an "B" the statements
you feel are especially worthy of inclusion; with a "G" those whloh
are of average usefulness; and with an "P" those which you think
should not be included in the soale.
As a basis for your ranking please consider each statement in the
light of the following criteria; That the statement
1. is not too obvious,
2. is controversial and will elioit a difference in an
expression of opinion,
3. will measure an attitude related to the safe driving
pattern,
4. is not ambiguous and therefore susoeptible to more than
one interpretation.
Sinoe I desire to collect my data in part before the close of the
secondary schools in June, I shall appreciate receiving your re­
actions as soon as possible.
Of course, I need not emphasize my gratitude for your assistance
in this projeot. You may rest assured that I shall be happy to
reolprooate the favor at any time.
Very sinoerely yours,
Zlmer B. Siebreoht
Research Pellow
iiy
STATEMENTS OF ATTITUDES
TOWARD FACTORS IN THE SAFE DRIVING OF AUTOMOBILES
Directions* Please indicate with an "E" the statements which you feel are especially
worthy of inclusion in a scale for measuring the attitudes of high school students
toward the safe driving of an automobile; with a "G" those which areof average usefulness; and with an "F" those which you think should not beincluded in the scale.
*•
S P E E D I N G
1.
2.
3.
4.
5*
6.
7.
8.
A more rigid enforcement of speed laws is undesirable.
The sturdy construction of automobiles assures safety at any speed.
Drivers who violate speed laws should have their license revoked.
A driver really is the best judge of the speed he should drive.
Speeding should be permitted only in case of emergencies,
Most drivers lack the ability to control automobiles at high speeds,
Excessive speeding is no more hazardous than slow driving.
Excessive speeding should be regarded as evidence of the incompetence
of the driver.
— _____
______
______
______
______
______
______
_____
DRIVER'S EXAMINATIONS
1. Existing drivers’ examinations should be made more difficult to eliminate
all but the best drivers from the highways.
______
2. Examinations for drivers' licenses should be required of all persons at
least once every year,
______
3. The examinations for drivers' licenses are already too sevore and dis­
criminating.____________________________________________________________ ______
4. No one should be granted a driver's license unless he is at least nineteen
years of age.___________________________________________________________ ______
5. Examinations for drivers' licenses should be severe enough to eliminate
all persons who are physically unfit and emotionally unstable.
______
6. It is the right of every one to drive an automobile on public highways.
______
7. The possession of a driver's license is evidence of the ability of the
holder to drive safely.
______
8. Every prospective driver of an automobile should be required to pass an
examination on the rules of the road.___________________________________ ______
VEHICLE INSPECTION
1. The driver of an automobile should be the sole judge of the mechanical
fitness of his car.
2. Every driver should be required to have his car inspected tv/ice a year.
3. A person who drives a mechanically unfit car on the highways should
have his license revoked.
4. The inspection of automobiles is a racket sponsored by automobile
companies.
5 . Automobiles which are found to be mechanically unfit should not be driven
faster than thirty miles per hour.
ENFORCEMENT OF TRAFFIC LAWS
1.
2.
3.
4.
Every motorist should regard himself a deputy traffic officer.
On the whole the traffic laws are being.wisely and justly enforced,
The present emphasis on enforcement of traffic rules should be reduced.
Strict enforcement of traffic regulations is the only way to prevent
accidents.
5 . Violators of traffic laws should have their licenses revoked.
6. Violations of traffic laws and regulations are too few to warrant much
ooncern over their enforcement.
7« Only drivers with years of experience should be prosecuted for the
violation of traffic regulation.
DD
-1 2 0 P A S S I N G
1. Passing on hillB and curves should be legalized.
2. The expert driver should be permitted to pass another car whenever and
wherever he wishes.
3* Drivers who pass other cars on hills and curveB should be regarded as
incompetent.
4 . One's driver's license should be revoked for passing on hills and curves.
5. The driver of an automobile should decide when it is safe to pass on curves
COURTESY ON THE HIGHWAY
1. Motorists should be courteous to traffic officers for the purpose of
gracefully getting out of difficulties.
2. The possibility of traffic accidents makes courtesy by automobile drivers
an undesirable thing.
3. Lack of courtesy on the part of.the motorist should be cause for the
suspension of his driver's license.
4 . People are as courteous "behind the wheel" as they are at any other time.
5. Drivers of automobiles should be compelled tc take a course in courtesy.
PHYSICAL CONDITION OF DRIVERS
1. The possession of a driver's license is a guarantee of one's physical
fitness to drive an automobile.
2. The drivers of automobiles are best qualified to judge their own physical
fitness to drive cars.
3. Persons who drive when in poor physical condition should have their license
suspended for six months.
4 . Every person should be required to take a thorough physical examination
before being issued a driver's license.
5. Persons with physical handicaps are the more dangerous drivers.
DRIVING SKILL
1. Less skill is necessary for driving an automobile than for playing golf.
2. Skillful driving is as much a matter of showmanship as judgment.
3. Every motorist should be required to pass a driving-skill test once in five
years to continue to drive.
4 . Improved construction of automobiles makes driving skill less necessary
today than five years ago.
5. Until a person passes a driving-skill test he should not be granted a
license to drive a car.
6. Every prospective automobile driver should be required to take a course
in the driving of the automobile.
THE "ROAD HOG"
1. Drivers who take more than their share of the road should be crowded off
the highways.
2. The so-called "road hog" should be placed in a clinic for observation.
3. "Crowding on the highway" is one of the most serious violations of the
motorists.
4 . Drivers convicted of crowding on the highway should have their licenses
revoked.
5. A motorist should be entitled to all tho road from tho shoulder to the
middle of the center (dividing) line.
DD
■ 181HIT-AND-RUN DRIVERS
1. Hit-and-run drivers should be classified ascriminals.
_____
2. Drivers convicted of hit-and-run accidents should have their license
_____
revoked forever.
3. Because of the nervous tension at the time of the accident, hit-and-run
drivers should be held blameless.
____
4. Persons involved in hit-and-run accidentsshouldreceive life imprisonment, _____
5» By increasing the size of auto licenses to a foot high hit-and-run
accidents would be eliminated.
_____
COURTESY TO TRAFFIC OFFICERS
1. Traffic officers should receive courtesy from motorists only if they
themselves are courteous.
2. The insolence of traffic officers discourages courtesy on the part of
motorists.
3. Traffic officers are not deserving of courtesy from motorists._____________
4. Patrolmen are too ready to display their authority on highways.____________
5 . Courtesy to traffic officers should be given for the purpose of gracefully
getting out of difficulties.
6. Courtesy demands that all drivers assist traffic officers in the regula­
tion of traffic flow.
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
SHARING THE ROAD
1. Sharing the road should not be the concern of the driver who has the right
of way.__________________________________________________________________ _____
2. Driving is a cooperative affair in which motorists share alike on highways. _____
3. The sharing of the road is today the least serious of traffic problems.
_____
4. To accommodate the traffic volume the cooperation of all drivers is
necessary.
_____
RUNNING TIAFFIC SIGNALS
1. For running lights and signals motorists should have their license suspended.
2. Only drivers who deliberately run traffic lights should be punished.
_____
3. Motorists should be permitted to run signals and lights when thereis no
cross traffic visible.
_____
4. Inexperienced drivers should not be arrested for running traffic lights,
_____
5 . Running traffic signals and lights should be considered as serious an
offense as a hit-and-run accident.
_____
DRIVING AS A PRIVILEGE
1. No person should be denied the right to drive an automobile.
2. A person should be given the right to drive a car only so long as he does
not abuse his privilege.
3. The granting of a license to drive should imply a confidence in one's
ability to drive carefully.
4. So long as a driver can handle a car skillfully he should not be denied
the right to drive on the public highways.
DD
_____
_____
_____
_____
-leaCOURTESY TO PEDESTRIANS
1. The right of pedestrians should be of greater importance than the right
to drive a car.
2. Motorists who frighten elderly women should be disregarded because of
those "playful" pranks.
3. As a rule pedestrians are more at fault than are motorists.
4. Pedestrians should be given courtesy only in respect to the courtesy
they show motorists.
5 . Pedestrians should yield the right of way to the motorists.
DRINKING DRIVERS
1. The drinking of alcohol by drivers should be a matter for the considera­
tion of individual drivers alone.
2. Drivers who drink should be regarded as a menace to public safety,
3. Drivers convicted of driving while under the influence of liquor should
have their license revoked forever.
4. A few drinks increase the efficiency of a driver,
5 . Like persons in other situations, drivers of automobiles should be entitled
to the right of drinking their liquor.
FATIGUE IN DRIVING
1. Highway departments should provide "sleeping zones" for tired drivers.
2. A tired motorist should decrease the speed of his car until his drowsiness
leaves, him.
3. Motorists who pull to the side of the highway for a nap are a serious
menace to other motorists.
4. To eliminate fatigue while driving an automobile one should take alcohol.
5. Onlong trips motorists should eat sparingly.
6. Onlong trips motorists should eat a heavy breakfast so that they need
not stop along the way to eat.
MISCELLANEOUS
1. Motorists should be more courteous to women than to men.
2. Persons of nervous dispositions should be required to take special courses
before being granted a driver's license.
3. Only when they cause injury or damage should persons who disregard traffic
regulations be punished.
4. Drivers who take chances eventually become the expert drivers.
5 . Persons with many years of driving should not be required to submit to
examinations in later years.
6. Because "things just happen" one should not be concerned with the pre­
vention of accidents,
7. Ticket-fixing should be punishable with a six-month jail sentence.
8. Persons with criminal records should be denied the right to drive
automobiles.
9. The "road hog" is a driver that should be given little concern.
10. The rights and safety of pedestrians should be of greater importance than
the rights and safety of the drivers of automobiles,
LI. The occurrence of accidents is a matter of chance and should be regarded
a3 unavoidable.
L2. Pedestrians should at all times be solely responsible for their own safety.
13» Drivers of automobiles should be more concerned with the welfare of their
passengers than of themselves.
3D
128
E
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EXHIBIT D
125
EXHIBIT E
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Copyright 1941 by Elmer B. Siebrecht
All rights reserved.
No part of this scale may be reproduced
in any form without permission in writing from the author.
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ISO
MANUAL OF DIRECTIONS
S I E B R E C H T
A T T I T U D E
S C A L E
\
The Siebrecht Attitude Scale is designed to measure attitudes toward the
safe driving of the automobile. This it does by measuring attitude toward the
factors thought to be important in the safe driving of the automobile.
These
factors are listed below together with numbers indicating the statements appli­
cable to each item in the scale.
Factor
Scale Item Number
Passing on curves and hills
3, 17
Driving as a privilege
6, 54
Enforcement of traffic regulations 9, 25
Condition of the automobile
2, 11
14, 28
Responsibility
Speeding
21, 50
Cooperation
27, 59
Examinations for drivers' licenses 1, 22,
Violations
4, 12,
Condition of the driver
7, 18,
Courtesy, concern
5, 10,
Knowledge and skills
8, 15,
•
55
16,
19,
20,
15,
25
51, 55
52, 56, 57
24, 26, 29, 58, 40
Administering the Scale.
The scale is self-administering. However, to assure
an understanding of the procedures involved in making the responses, the exam­
iner should read aloud, while the subjects read silently, the directions on
first page of the scale. But the subjects must rely upon their own interpre­
tation of the statements of the scale. Not more than ten minutes should be re­
quired to complete the work. Most students will finish in less time.
Scoring the scale.
The scale may be scored quickly by summing the values of
the positions checked. Values from 1 to 5 have been assigned the positions
for each of the statements.
Interpretation of Scores.
The scores may be interpreted in terms of group
norms or standard responses. The high school groups for which tentative nroms
have been established, the number of cases in each group, the mean score
(norm), and the sigmas are given in .the table below:
TABLE.:i
:Cases : Mean : Sigma
Groups
Feeshmen
Sophomores
Juniors
Seniors
Driver-training students
Driving-experience students
192
472
560
415
450
158
144.10
151.05
155.81
158.15
164.55
168.20
17.54
17.56
18.44
18.76
15.77
12.84
For interpreting responses to the individual statements of the scale
standard responses have been established. These have been determined by 125
commissioners of motor vehicle departments, license examiners, and accidentfree drivers of industrial fleets. The standard responses are given below;
the numbers proceeding the responses indicate the respective statements of
the scale.
131
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly agree
Strongly agree
Strongly disagree
Strongly agree
Strongly disagree
Strongly agree
Undecided
Disagree
Agree
Disagree
Agree
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
Strongly disagree
Agree
Agree
Strongly agree
Agree
disagree
Agree
Strongly disagree
Undecided
Strongly disagree
Agree
Disagree
Disagree
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
35.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
Strongly agree
Strongly disagree
Strongly agree
Disagree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly agree
Strongly disagree
Strongly agree
Disagree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly agree
Disagree
Reliability*
By the split-half technique a reliability of .81 ±.024 has been
secured by the application of the scale on a group of 100 students enrolled in
driver-training courses.
Validity. The validity of the scale rests upon the dollowing bases:(1) the
judgments of safety experts were employed (a)to determine the factors believed
to be important in the safe driving of the automoble and (b)to select
the
statements of attitude for the preliminary form of the scale.
(2)-In the final form of the ,scale have been included only those statements
differentiated significantly between the mean scores of high and low scoring
groups of students. For none of the statements is the critical ratio of the
difference between themeans of the groups less than 2.00. The average critical
ratio is 6.254.
(5) The scale actually seems to differentiate between groups presumed to
possess differences of attitude toward the issue of safe driving. These dif­
ferences are evident from Table 1 above, in which the mean scores of the va­
rious groups of students are given. The greatest differences occur between
the groups presumed to be most widely separated in their attitudes. The crit­
ical ratios of these differences, between the freshmen and the driver-training
and driving-experience groups is almost five times the desired minimum of 3.00.
The differences between the means of the various groups and the critical ra­
tios are given in Table II below.
___________ .__________________TABLE II ____ ______________________
Difference be-:Critical
Groups
tween means : ratios
Freshmen/Sophomores
Sophomores/Juniors
Juniors/Seniors
^enlors/^river-training group
Driver-training/DrivLng-experience groups
Driver-training/Fre shmen
Driving-experience/Freshaen
6.95
4.76
2.34
6.38
3.67
20.43
24.10
4.66
3.79
1.75
5.62
2.03
14.29
14.81
NOTE: The norms reported in Table I are tentative and must be revised in
the light of additional data. Users of the scale are therefore requested
to report the results of the application of the scale on the blank accom­
panying this sheet of directions. Please send the report to
Dr. Herbert J. Stack
Center for Safety Education
flew Xork University
New ?ork, New York
132
SCORE DISTRIBUTION CHART
S I E B R E C H T
A T T I T U D E
S C A L E
The norms provided for the Siebrecht Attitude Scale are tentative and mast
therefore be revised as additional data Is secured. Users of the scale are
accordingly requested to report the results of the application of the scale
by (1)Indicating In the proper columns the number of subjects securing given
total scores and '2) providing the average for each group.
Range ofs
:
s
:
:Driver- :Driving ex-: Others—
scores
:Freshmen:Sophomores:Juniors Seniors:training:perience
:
:
:
: students: students
1&6-200 :
:
:
:
191-195 :
:
:
186-190 :
:
••
:
181-185 *
:
:
176-180 :
171-175 :
166-170 :
:
161-165 :
:
•
156-160 :
•
:
151-155 :
140-150 :
141-145 :
156-140 :
:
:
:
151-155 :
e
e
126-150 :
e
:
121-125 :
:
:
•
,116-120:
•
••
111-115 :
106-110 :
:
:
:
101-105 :
96-100 :
91- 95 :
:
86- 90 :
8 1 -8 5 :
:
••
76- 80 :
:
- 75 :
:
:
:
♦Average:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
••
:
:
••
••
••
e
e
:
••
••
:
••
:
••
e
e
:
:
••
••
••
:
••
:
:
♦Average equals the sum of the scores divided by the number in the group.
Sent b y ________________________________ _____________________________
School or Concern
City
State
To
THE PUBLISHERS
133
TABLE IIA ,
Rating of Statements by Categories. Including Weighted Values
(Weighted Values, WtV. derived from following formula: P(of little value)
(« 0, G(average value)- 5, and E (special value)- 10. For statement no.l)
(SPEEDING. WtV is (4 x 0 ) p 1 u s (P x 5)Plus (10 x 10) or 110.
)
S P E E D I N G
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
A more rigid enforcement of speed laws is undesirable.
The sturdy construction of automobiles assures safety at any speed.
Drivers who violate speed laws should have their license revoked.
A driver really is the best judge of the speed he should drive.
Speeding should be permitted only in case of emergencies,
Most drivers lack the ability to control automobiles at high speeds.
Excessive speeding is no more hazardous than slow driving.
Excessive speeding should be regarded as evidence of the incompetence
of the driver.
P G E
WtV
* 4 2 10
S85
29S
277
565
259
286
110
70
95
105
80
115
100
855
55
DRIVER'S EXAMINATIONS
1. Existing drivers' examinations should be made more difficult to eliminate
all but the best drivers from the highways.
2. Examinations for drivers' licenses should be roquir3d of all persons at
least once every year.
3. The examinations for drivers' licenses are already too sevore and dis­
criminating.
4. No one should be granted a driver's license unless he is at least nineteen
years of age.
5. Examinations for drivers' licenses should be severe enough to eliminate
all persons who are physically unfit and emotionally unstable.
6. It is the right of every one to drive an automobile on public highways.
7. The possession of a driver's license is evidence of the ability of the
holder to drive safely.
8. Every prospective driver of an automobile should be required to pass an
examination on the rules of the road.
6 5
5
75
5 8
5
90
6 8
2
60
8 4
4
60
5 2 11 120
5 5 6 85
4 9 5
75
4 4
8 100
5 8
5 70
5 8
5 90
4 7
5 85
9 4
5 50
8 4
4 60
VEHICLE INSPECTION
1. The driver of an automobile should be the sole judge of the mechanical
fitness of his car.
2. Every driver should be required to have his car inspected twice a year.
3. A person who drives a mechanically unfit car on tho highways should
have his license revoked.
4. The inspection of automobiles is a racket sponsored by automobile
companies.
5. Automobiles which are found to be mechanically unfit should not be driven
faster than thirty miles per hour.
ENFORCEMENT OF TRAFFIC LAWS
1.
2.
3.
4.
Every motorist should regard himself a deputy traffic officer.
On the whole the traffic laws are being wisely and justly enforced.
The present emphasis on enforcement of traffic rules should be reduced.
Strict enforcement of traffic regulations is the only way to prevent
'accidents.
5. Violators of traffic laws should have their licenses revoked.
6. Violations of traffic laws and regulations are too few to warrant much
concern over their enforcement.
7. Only drivers with years of experience should be prosecuted for the
violation of traffic regulation.
>D
*Indlea*ea number of Jury voting in each rank.
5 8 5
8 7 6
70
95
m
65
2 9 5
TTTT
8 6 g
95
60
50
8 6 4
60
-1 2 8 4 -
PASSIN G
1.
2.
p G E WtV
Passing on hills and curves should be legalized.
fl
The expert driver should be permitted to pass another car whenever and
wherever he wishes.
Q
3. Drivers who pass other cars on hills and curves should be regarded as
incompetent.
4.
4. One's driver's license should be revoked for passing on hills and curves.
V
5 . The driver of an automobile should decide when it is safe to passon curves.fl B
45
fi g
a 9. 45
fl 6 90
fl S 60
S 75
COURTESY ON THE HIGHWAY
1. Metorists should be courteous to traffic officers for the purpose of
gracefully getting out of difficulties.
2. The possibility of traffic accidents makes courtesy by automobile drivers
an undesirable thing.
3. Lack of courtesy on the part of the motorist should be cause for the
suspension of his driver's license.
4. People are as courteous "behind the wheel" as they are at any other time.
5. Drivers of automobiles should be compelled t? take a course in courtesy.
85 2
10 5 1
55
55
6 i i 65
6 5 7 85
10 4 2 40
PHYSICAL CONDITION OF DRIVERS
1. The possession of a driver's license is a guarantee of one's physical
fitness to drive an automobile.
5 7 4 75
2. The drivers of automobiles are best qualified to judge their own physical
fitness to drive cars.
6 8 8 60
3. Persons who drive when in poor physical condition should have their license
8 6 2 50
suspended for six months.
4. Every person should be required to take a thorough physical examination
2 4 W 120
before being issued a driver's license.
55
rrs
5. Persons with physical handicaps are the more dangerous drivers.
DRIVING SKILL
7 4 5
1. Less skill is necessary for driving an automobile than for playing golf.
772
2. Skillful driving is as much a matter of showmanship as judgment.
3. Every motorist should be required to pass a driving-skill test ence in five
26 8
years to continue to drive.
4. Improved construction of automobiles makes driving skill less necessary
558
today than five years ago.
5 . Until a person passes a driving-skill test he should not be granted a
5 5 10
license to drive a car.
6. Every prospective automobile driver should be required to take a course
56 7
in the driving of the automobile.
70
55
no
105
115
100
THE "ROAD HOG"
1. Drivers who take more than their share of the road should be crowded off
the highways.
2. The so-called "road hog" should be placed in a clinic for observation.
3. "Crowding on the highway" is one of the most serious violations of the
motorists.
4. Drivers convicted of crowding on the highway should have their licenses
revoked.
5. A motorist should be entitled to all tho road from tho shoulder to tho
middle of the center (dividing) line.
DD
952
45
45
95
J6JL5
70
JL t-2
55
-335-
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
HIT-AND-RUN DRIVERS
PG E
WtV
Hit-and-run drivers should be classified as criminals.
Drivers convicted of hit-and-run accidents should have their license
revoked forever.
Because of the nervous tension at the time of the accident, hit-and-run
drivers should be held blameless.
Persons involved in hit-and-run accidents should receive life imprisonment .
By increasing the size of auto licenses to a foot high hit-and-run
accidents would be eliminated.
5 2 11
120
5 5 8
105
4 75
cn ri
85
25
11 4 1
50
COURTESY TO TRAFFIC OFFICERS
1.
.
Traffic officers should receive courtesy from motorists only if they
themselves are courteous.
5 7
2. The insolence of traffic officers discourages courtesy on the part of
motorists.
4 8
10 4
3. Traffic officers are not deserving of courtesy from motorists.
4. Patrolmen are too ready to display their authority on highways.
6 9
5 . Courtesy to traffic officers should be given for the purpose of gracefully
getting out of difficulties.
94
6. Courtesy demands that all drivers assist traffic officers in the regula­
tion of traffic flow.
2 5
4
75
4
2
1
40
55
5
50
80
9 I lf * "
SHARING THE ROAD
1. Sharing the road should not be the concern of the driver who has the right
of way.
2. Driving is a cooperative affair in which motorists share alike on highways,
3. The sharing of the road is today the least serious of traffic problems.
4. To accomodate the traffic volume the cooperation of all drivers is
necessary.
5 2 9 100
2 5 9 115
4 10 2 70
5 4 9 110
RUNNING TRAFFIC SIGNALS
1. For running lights and signals motorists should have their license suspended^ f 5
m
2. Only drivers who deliberately run traffic lights
should be punished.
3. Motorists should be permitted to run signals
and
lights when there isno
4 7 5
cross traffic visible.
4. Inexperienced drivers should not be arrested
for
running traffic lights,5 8 IS
-£s Running traffic signals and lights should be considered
as serious an
4 10 8
offense as a hit-and-run accident.
85
as
85
78O•
70
DRIVING AS A PRIVILEGE '
1. No person should be denied the right to drive an automobile.
2. A person should be given the right to drive a car only so long as he does
not abuse his privilege.
3. The granting of a license to drive should imply a confidence in one's
ability to drive carefully.
4. So long as a driver can handle a car skillfully he should not be denied
the right to drive on the public highways.
DD
574
75
1 5 10 125
4 57
95
576
95
■136COURTESY TO PEDESTRIANS
P G
1. The right of pedestrians should be of greater importance than the right
to drive a car.
2. Motorists vho frighten elderly women should be disregarded because of
those ''playful" pranks.
3. As a rule pedestrians aremoreat fault than are motorists.
4. Pedestrians should be given courtesy only in respect to the courtesy
they show motorists.
5* Pedestrians should yield theright of way to the motorists.
8
E
5 6 105
18 2 1
8 "j6
7
4
WtV
20
95
6 5
8 4
60
80
4 8 4
8 & 6
80
95
4 8 4
5 8 2
80
60
6 6 4
70
1 . Highway departments should provide "sleeping zones" for tired drivers.
2. A tired motorist should decrease the speed of his car until his drowsiness
6 5 5
75
leaves him.
who pull to the side of
menace to other motorists.
4. To eliminate fatigue while driving
5 . On long trips motorists should eat
6 . On long trips motorists should eat
not stop along the way to eat.
4 9 8
75
4 10 2
8 8 0
6 8 2
70
40
60
DRINKING DRIVERS
1. The drinking of alcohol by drivers should
tion of individual drivers alone.
2. Drivers who drink should be regarded as a
3. Drivers convicted of driving while under
have their license revoked forever.
4. A few drinks increase the efficiency of a
5 . Like persons in other situations, drivers
to the right of drinking their liquor.
be a matter for the considera­
menaceto public safety*
the influence of liquor should
driver.
of automobiles should be entitled
FATIGUE IN DRIVING
3 . Motorists
the highway for a nap are a serious
an automobile one should take alcohol.
sparingly.
a heavy breakfast so that they need
1CL5-1
85
10 6 0
50
MISCELLANEOUS
1. Motorists should be more courteous to women than to men.
2. Persons of nervous dispositions should be required to take special courses
before being granted a driver's license.
3. Only when they cause injury or damage should persons who disregard traffic
regulations be punished.
4. Drivers who take chances eventually become the expert drivers.
5 . Persons with many years of driving should not be required to submit to
examinations in later years.
6. Because "things just happen" one should not be concerned with the pre­
vention of accidents.
7* Ticket-fixing should be punishable with a six-month jail sentence.
8. Persons with criminal records should be denied the right to drive
automobiles.
9. The "road hog" is a driver that should be given little concern.
10. The rights and safety of pedestrians should be of greater importance than
the rights and safety of the drivers of automobiles.
11. The occurrence of accidents is a matter of chance and should be regarded
as unavoidable.
12. Pedestrians should at all times be solely responsible for their own safety
13* Drivers of automobiles should be more concerned with the welfare of their
passengers than of themselves.
DD
2 15 1
75
5 10 5
10 5 1
80
55
4 6
6
6 5
5
90
75
AfO
7JL *J*
9 7 0
arr~8
56
40
4 7
6
85
5 6
6
80
137
TABLE IIB
_______ Bank Order of Statements of A ttitude by Weighted Values_________
______________________________
E tiL
1 A person should be given the rig h t to drive a car only so long as
2
5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
15
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
25
24
25
26
27
28
29
he does not abuse h is p riv ileg e.
125
Hit-and-run drivers should be c la ss ifie d as crim inals.
120
Every person should be required to pass a thorough physical exami­
nation before being issued a d riv e r's lic en se.
120
Examinations fo r d riv e rs' licenses should be d if f ic u lt enough to
elim inate persons who are physically u n fit and emotionally un­
sta b le .
120
Driving is a coflperative a f f a ir in which m otorists share a lik e on
the highway.
115
Courtesy demandB th a t a l l drivers a s s is t t r a f f ic o fficers in the
regulation of tr a f f ic flow.
115
U ntil a person passes a d riv in g -sk ill t e s t he should not be grant­
ed a license to drive a car on the highway.
115
Most d riv ers lack the a b ility to control automobiles a t high speed. 115
A more rig id enforcement of speed laws is undesirable.
110
Every m otorist should be required to pass a d riv in g -sk ill t e s t
once every five years to continue to d riv e.
110
To accommodate the t r a f f ic volume the cooperation of a l l drivers
is necessary.
110
A d riv er re a lly i s the best judge of the speed he should be per­
m itted to d riv e.
110
Improved construction of automobiles makes driving s k ill le s s ne­
cessary today than fiv e years ago.
105
Drivers convicted to hit-and-run accidents should have th e ir l i ­
cense revoked.
105
The rig h t of pedestrians should be of g reater importance than the
rig h t of one to drive an automobile.
105
Excessive speeding is no more hazardous than slow driving.
100
Every prospective automobile d riv er should be required to take a
course in the driving of the automobile.
100
Prospective drivers of the automobile should be required to pass
an examination on the ru les of the road.
100
Sharing the road should not be the concern of the driver who has
the rig h t of way.
100
Drivers who v io la te speed laws should have th e ir licenses revoked.
95
As a ru le pedestrians are more a t fa u lt thafc are m otorists.
95
As long as drivers handle a car s k ilfu lly they should not be de­
nied the rig h t to drive an public highways.
95
Crowding on the highway is one of the most serious violations of
m otorists.
95
On the whole the tr a f f ic laws are wisely and ju s tly enforced.
95
Drivers who drink should be regarded as a menace to public sa fety .
95
S tr ic t enforcement of t r a f f ic regulations is the only way to pre­
vent accidents.
95
The granting of a license to drive should imply confidence in one's
a b ility to drive c arefu lly .
95
Persons with many years of driving experience should not be re ­
quired to submit to examination in l a t e r years fo r a license
renewal.
90
Pedestrians should a t a l l times be solely responsible fo r th e ir
own sa fety .
90
Continued
138
_________________________ TABLE IIB (C o n tln u ed )___________________
50 The occurrence of accidents i s a matter of chance and should be
regarded as unaviodable.
51 Examinations fo r d riv e rs' licenses should be required of a l l per­
sons a t le a s t once a year.
52 Every d riv e r should be required to have h is car inspected twice
a year.
55 Drivers who pass cars on h i ll s and curves should be regarded as
incompetent.
54 Because of the nervous tension a t the time of the aecident h it-a n d run- d rivers should be held blameless.
55 M otorists should be permitted to run signals and lig h ts when there
i s no cross tr a f f ic approaching.
56 I t is the rig h t of every one to drive an automobile on public
highways.
57 People are as courteous "behind the wheel" as they are a t any
other time.
58 For running lig h ts and signals m otorists should have th e ir l i - .
censes suspended.
59 A person who drives a mechanically u n fit car on the highway should
have h is license Bvoked.
40 Only d riv ers who d e lib erately run tr a f f ic lig h ts should be pun­
ished.
41 The rig h ts and safety of pedestrians should be of greater import­
ance than the rig h ts and safety of drivers of automobiles.
42 The drinking of alcohol by d riv ers should be a m atter fo r the
consideration of the individual drivers alone.
45 Only when they cause injury or damage should persons who d isre ­
gard t r a f f ic regulations be punished.
44 The insolence of tr a f f ic o ffice rs discourages courtesy on the
p a rt of d riv e rs.
45 Pedestrians should y ield the rig h t of way to m otorists.
46
Speeding should be permitted only in case of emergencies.
47 Drivers of automobiles should be more concernedwith the welfare
of th e ir passengers than of themselves.
48 Drivers convicted of driving while under the influence of liquor
should have th e ir license revoked.
49 The d riv er of an automobile should decide wheni t i s safe to
pass on curves.
50 Because "things ju s t happen” one should not be concerned with
the prevention of accidents.
51 Existing driv ers examinations should be made more d if f ic u lt to
elim inate a l l but the best d riv e rs.
52 Possession of a drivers license is evidence of the a b ility of
the holder to driver safely.
55 Possession of a d riv e r's license is a guarantee of one's physical
fitn e s s to drive an automobile.
54 No person should be denied the rig h t to drive an automobile.
55 A tire d m otorist should decrease h is speed u n til the drowsiness
leaves him.
56 T raffic o ffic e rs should receive courtesy from m otorists only itf
they themselves are courteous.
57 The d riv er should be the sole judge of the mehanical fitn e s s of
h is automobile.
58 The sturdy construction of automobiles assures safety a t any speed.
Continued
139
TABLE IIB
(Continued)
59 Inexperienced drivers should not be arrested fo r running t r a f f ic
lig h ts .
60 The sharing of the road is tbday is the le a s t serious of tr a f f ic
problems.
61 Motorists who p u ll to the side of the raod fo r a nap are a ser­
ious menace to other m otorists.
62 Like persons in other s itu a tio n s, drivers of automobiles should
be e n title d to the rig h t to drink liq u o r.
65 Less s k i l l is necessary fo r ctiving automobiles than fo r playing
g o lf.
64 Highway departments should provide "sleeping zones" for-m otorists.
65 Drivers convicted of crowding on the highway should have th e ir l i ­
cense- revoked.
66 Running t r a f f i c signals and lig h ts should be considered an offense
as serious as a hit-and-run accident.
67 Persons of nervous d ispositions should be required to take spec­
i a l tra in in g before being granted a driverSs licen se.
68 Every m otorist should regard him self a deputy t r a f f ic o ffic e r.
69 The present emphasis on enforcement of t r a f f ic ru les should be
reduced.
70 Lack of courtesy on the p a rt of the p o to rist should be cause fo r
the suspention of his d riv e r 's lic e n se .
71 Examinations fo r d riv e rs' licen ses are already too severe and
discrim inating.
72 Drivers of automobiles are best q u alified to judge th e ir own phy­
s ic a l fitn e s s to drive automobiles.
75 Automobiles which are meohanically u n ift should not be driven
fa c te r than th ir ty miles an hour.
74 A few drinks of liquor increases the efficiency of the d riv er.
75 V iolators of t r a f f ic laws should have th e ir licenses revoked.
76 T icket-fixing should be punished with a six-month's imprisonment.
77 No one should be granted a d riv e r's license unless he is a t le a s t
nineteen years of age.
78 Pedestrians should be given courtesy only in respect to courtesy
they show toward m otorists.
79 Only d riv ers with years of experience should be prosecuted for
the v io la tio n of t r a f f ic regulations.
80 One's d riv e rs ' license should be revoked for passing on h ills
end curves.
81 On long tr ip s m otorists should eat sparingly.
82 Excessive speeding should be regarded as evidence of the incompe­
tence of the d riv er.
83 Patrolmen are too ready to display th e ir authority on highways.
84 Motorists should be courteous to tr a f f ic o ffice rs fo r the purpose
of gracefully getting out of d if f ic u ltie s .
85 A m otorist should be e n title d to a l l the road from the shoulder
to the center lin e .
86 Persons with physical handicaps are the more dangerous d riv e rs.
87 S k ilfu l driving i s as much a m atter of sportsmanship as judgment.
88 The inspection of automobiles is a racket sponsored by automo­
b ile companies.
Continued
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
65
. 65
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
55
55
55
55
55
55
50
140
TABLE IIB CCdntinuedV
8* Violations of t r a f f ic laws and regulations are too few to war­
ra n t much concern over th e ir enforcement
90 Persons who drive when in poor health should have th e ir license
suspended fo r six months.
91 Courtesy to t r a f f ic o ffice rs should be given for the purpose of
gracefully getting out of d if f ic u ltie s .
92 Drivers who take more than th e ir share of the road should be
crowded off the road.
95 The expert d riv er should be permitted to pass another car when­
ever and wherever he wrtshes.
94 Passing on h i l l s and curves should be legalized.
95 To elim inate fatigue while driving an automobile one should drink
alcbhol.
96 The so-called roadhog should be placed in a c lin ic fo r observation.
97 T raffic officers are not deserving of courtesy from m otorists.
98 The noadhog is a d riv er th a t should be given l i t t l e concern.
99 Drivers of automobiles should be compelled to take a course in
courtesy.
100 The p o ss ib ility of tr a f f ic accidents makes courtesy by m otorists
undesirable.
101 Drivers who take chances eventually become the expert d iv e rs.
102 Drivers with crim inal records should be denied the rig h t to drive
automobiles.
105 On long trip s m otorists should eat a heavy breakfast b o th a t they
need not stop along the way.
104 M otorists should be more courteous to women than to men.
105 By increasing the size of automobile lic e n s e p la te s hit-and-run
accidents would be elim inated.
106 Persons involved in hit-and-run accidents should be given l i f e
imprisonment.
107 Motorists who frig h ten elderly women should be disregarded be­
cause of th e ir "playful" tric k s .
50
50
50
45
45
45
40
40
40
40
40
55
55
55
55
50
50
25
20
141
SLETTO CRITICAL RATIO FORMULA
The formula commonly used to compute the critical ratio is
M1 “
®dif
.
K
I
M2
. .
Since
ST.
ra
/ tt
-*•
+ *
*
Mt —
5“
I f fd
-
the formula
-
Mo
in more complete form is
' (fd2 \V ( k t d 2 y*
r x . h J N
\r
pressions in the denominator removes the radical signs within them, so
the formula is
« a .„ _
6^f» =
IT
Since the N in the
IT
denominator is the same throughout when one works with equal segments,
Mi
Mg
the formula can be simplified to
JW
N
N
Ml f
I
«2
fdl 4-
f^
N(% —
J
«2
(fd l -+* & 4
N
Mg)
fdj -f- fd|
Since M. = i f d
N
n( O S l
more complete formula is
% ~
dif ~
C N
-£& )
H )
,
the
, or simply
gfdj — <fdj>
Raymond Franklin aletto, Construction of Personality Settle by the
Criterion of Internal Consistency, p. 90.
142
CALCULATION OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEANS AND OF
CRITICAL RATIOS FOR STATEMENTS
Statement no. 1:
A more rigid enforcement of traffic laws is inde­
sirable. (N equals 20 per cent of high and low scoring segments of
100 cases.)
Weight jHighest 20 per
yalue j
f
fx
Responses
cent slowest 20 per
;
f
ft
cent
fff
5
24
12
12
5
25
96
56
24
5
184
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Undecided
Strongly agree
56
Scale Value Difference = {
/
Critical ratio
4 .2 — 1 .8
M^
where
j ^ 9 i- 2 0 ( 4 .2 ) 2
184-20(2.8)^
28
8.024
CR
-
?fc^ -
3.488
* See previous page for derivation of formula.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
S C H 0 0 1 OF EDUCATION
•
LIBRARY
•
m
1 .4 .
*fx2 —
N(M*)*
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