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A CRITICAL SURVEY OF SCHOOL COSTS IN NINETEEN LONG ISLAND SCHOOL DISTRICTS

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University Microfilms
300 North Z e e b Road
Ann Arbor, M ichigan 48106
A Xerox E ducation Com pany
LD3907
IlcCleary, Edward James.
.E3
A critical survey of school costs in
1941
nineteen Long Island school districts...
.1125
New York, 1941.
2p.l.,103 typewritten leaves. tables.
29cm.
Final document (Ed.D.) - New York
university, School of education, 1941.
Bibliography: p.102-103.
AC7882
Slifclf List
University Microfilms,
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
T H IS D IS S E R T A T IO N HAS B EEN M IC R O F IL M E D E X A C T L Y AS R E C E IV E D .
Fin*;l D oc u m e n t
Accapted, Data fl£K.
A CRITICAL SURVEY OP SCHOOL COSTS IN NINETEEN
LONG ISLAND SCHOOL DISTRICTS
EDWARD J. Me CLEARY,
124-03
153 Street
Jamaica, L» I©
No Y.
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Education in the School of Education of
New York University
1941
JLJ24f
P L E A S E NO TE :
Some pages may have
i n d i s t i n c t pr i nt .
F i l m e d as r e c e i v e d .
University Microfilms, A Xerox Education Company
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Topic
The Importance of Relative Costs in
Educational Administration
Page
1
Need for the Study
X
Critical Aspect of the Study
4
Cautions
6
A Consideration of the Nineteen
School Districts as a Unit
8
School District #1
11
School District #2
16
School District #3
20
State Aid
22
,
School District #4
25
School District 7
#5
31
School District #6
34
School District #7
38
School District #8
42
School District #9
46
School District #10
50
TABLE’
, OP CONTENTS (Con'd)
Topic
School District #11
Adult Education
54
w
School District #12
58
School District #13
62
Special Classes
School District #14
Physical Education
64
67
69
School District #15
72
School District #16
75
Music Education
77
School District #17
80
School District #18
84
The School Building
86
School District #19
90
Conclusions & Recommendations
94
CHAPTER I
THE IMPORTANCE OF RELATIVE COSTS
IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION
Public school administration has always been confronted
with the fundamental problem of obtaining public approval for
every expenditure which it entails#
To the average taxpayer
of a community, it Is the cost which makes him decide whether
he will sanction the outlay of public moneys for a service
which the school might perform#
To meet this challenge, the
administrator must have within reach an authentic source of
information on school costs inasmuch as the effectiveness of
the public school organization Is directly in proportion to
the reliability, accuracy, and adequacy of the available data
on these costs#
Obviously, school officials and constituents
must have statistical Information on this vital matter if they
are to exercise intelligent control over finance#
This dissertation purports to be a comprehensive and
critical analysis of school costs in nineteen school districts
of Nassau County.
1939-40#
It is based on data for the school year
The population of the area included in this study
is approximately 100,000#
NEED FOR THE STUDY
Early in July 1940, the North Bellmore Board of Educa­
tion held its regular monthly meeting#
After the business had
2
"been transacted, one of the members of the hoard displayed a
copy of the "New York World-Telegram" and pointed out an edi­
torial which apparently had made a strong impression upon him.
A quotation from that article follows:
The United States is now embarking on the largest pro­
gram of national defense ever undertaken in peacetime
in this country, and the problem of how this will be
financed immediately arises....Since national defense
is the responsibility of the federal government, it is
obvious that states and other governmental units can
render a most important contribution to the general
welfare by reducing their own expenditures to the
greatest extent possible and thus making additional
funds available to finance the increased armaments
called for by present conditions.
One of the board members then raised the following ques­
tion: "How do our school costs compare with those in other
school districts and just where can we cut down?"
This survey attempts to answer not only this question but
also other pertinent inquiries of a similar nature which have
been raised by members of boards of education in the nineteen
school districts.
Two important questions have arisen in many of these nine­
teen school districts, as follows:
1.
How do the school costs of the various districts compare?
2.
Can any of the present costs be reduced without materially
lowering the educational efficiency of the school program?
The survey made of the districts yielded data which makes possible
definite answers to these questions.
In addition, it is expected
that this study will provide the school people and other interest­
ed groups with data by which they may evaluate the expenditures
in their own school districts.
It is important to emphasize the following caution:
If
a comparison is to he made between the costs of any two school
districts, a close scrutiny must be made of the scope of the
services rendered.
point:
The following example illustrates this
in a comparison of the costs of health service between
any two given communities, the per pupil cost in the first com­
munity may be much higher than the per pupil cost In the second
community| however, in the second community, there is practically
no dental service rendered; whereas, the first community has an
elaborate and efficient diagnostic and remedial dental program.
Since the scope of the service rendered in the first community
is greater than In the second community, it follows that the
cost will be greater in the first community.
The organizational plan used in developing and treating
the subjectmatter of the thesis is as follows:
1.
Chapter II contains a compilation of the expenditures of
the nineteen school districts under the following headings:
1.
General Control
2.
Instructional Service
3.
Operation of Plant
4®
Maintenance
5.
Auxiliary Agencies
6.
Fixed Charges
7.
Capital Outlays
8.
Debt Service
The Average Daily Attendance for the entire area was deter­
mined.
In this way the average per pupil cost for each of the
4
above-mentioned topics wa3 ascertained®
Chapter II includes a
calculation of the average total cost per pupil in Average
Daily Attendance of the entire area®
2*
The nineteen chapters which follow consider each school dis­
trict separately®
The per pupil cost of each individual item
mentioned previously was determined®
Then these data are com­
pared in a comprehensive and critical way with the per pupil
cost of the entire area®
This is not a mere mathematical com­
parison, inasmuch as there are cases in which services are
performed the values of which cannot be measured on a purely
monetary basis®
Such cases are studied in a particular way®
The data are presented in such a manner as to make clear the
school costs to the taxpayers.
3.
The survey is concluded with a final chapter containing a
summary of conclusions and recommendations®
The Critical Aspect of the Study
According to the 1940 census,^ the population in Nassau
County has risen from 303,053 in 1930 to 404,888 in 1940.
This represents an increase of 101,835 or 33.S per cent in
ten years.
The great proportion of this increase occurred in
the last two years, as evidenced by the fact that the number
of building permits issued in the past two years in the area
under consideration exceeded the number issued in the previous
eight years.
The assessed valuation of property in this ter­
ritory increased less than 16 per cent, although the population
1.
The World Almanac, 1941®
p. 502.
increased 33.6 per cent.
This difference in the increase in population and the
increase in assessed valuation may be attributed primarily to
the rise of lcv:=priced houses in Nassau County.
This program
of low-cost housing includes the homes under the $4000 price
on which the owners pay between $15 and $35 a year in school
taxes.
Furthermore, school statistics in this area show that
such homes average almost two children each.
Since it costs
about $250 a year to educate these two children, and since the
state contributes about $55 per child, or $110 for the two
children, the state aid ($110) and the property tax ($35) total
less than $150.
From these calculations, it can readily be
seen that the local community must contribute the difference,
which averages over $100 per house or approximately $50 per
child.
The taxpayers who have lived in the community several
years feel that the new properties are not paying their pro­
portionate share of the tax burden.
During the past year the
taxpayers who had resided In the area a longer period attempted
to prove to the Nassau County Board of Supervisors that it
would be constructive if zoning restrictions could be passed
which would seriously curtail the development of these pro­
jects.
This attempt was not successful, because the Nassau
County Board of Supervisors ruled that it lacked the authority
to pass these restrictions.
Nov/ the Nassau County Board of
Supervisors is faced v/Ith the alternative of increased school
taxes or drastic economies in the school budget.
To clarify this point, it may be helpful to use a specific
instance.
In the school year 1938-39, one of the nineteen com­
munities involved had 748 children with slightly more than
$12,000 assessed valuation per child; in 1939-40 this community
has 1,060 children but only about $9,100 assessed valuation per
child.
This is a decrease of about 25 per cent in the amount
of assessed valuation per child.
This study, therefore, may be of value to school adminis­
trators as well as to tax-payer organizations, because it ana­
lyzes the various school budgets on a per pupil basis.
These
data might then be used to consider the advisability of con­
tinuing, discontinuing, expanding or curtailing educational
services.
Cautions
One factor which must be kept in mind is that the comparative wealth of each district must be taken constantly into con­
sideration.
This unequal wealth of the several districts is
somewhat counterbalanced by the system of state aid in New York
State, but even so, the wealth of the district does enter into
the consideration of cost and expenditure.
Another consideration has to do with the relation of cur­
rent expenses of a school budget to the total annual cost.
For
purposes of comparison, the total annual cost of conducting
public schools has usually been measured by the total current
tfBy wealth of a district is meant the amount of assessed val­
uation of the district per pupil in average daily attendance.
7
expenditures®
In this way the expenditures for property
(capital outlay) and debt service have been excluded®
This
practice has come about because in most school systems build­
ing operations are periodic and the methods of accounting are
such as to prevent any equitable analysis®
It must be admitted
that in a complete report of financial costs, each year should
bear its fair share of plant costs®
Although the items on each budget devoted to capital out­
lay and debt service are included in the final comparisons to
make the survey complete, the foregoing reservation is con­
sidered.
Furthermore, current expenses have the capital outlay
and debt service added in order to show the total expenses®
8
CHAPTER II
'A CONSIDERATION OP THE NINETEEN SCHOOL DISTRICTS
AS A UNIT
A compilation of the total expenditures in all of the
nineteen school districts follows:
$
1.
General Control
2.
Instructional Service
3.
Operation of Plant
4.
Maintenance
5.
Auxiliary Agencies
6.
Fixed Charges
44,977.14
1,067,113.74
217,460.55
58,824.28
130,531.23
89,643.76
Total Current Expenses
$1,608,550.70
To obtain a complete picture of the total expenditures
in the nineteen school districts, it is necessary to add the
debt service total and the capital outlay total to the sum
of the current expenses*
This compilation follows:
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
$1,608,550.70
506,322.53
58,761.81
$2,153,635.04
9
The Average Daily Attendance for the entire area was
13,053.4 pupils.
Therefore, the per pupil cost for each of the
ahove mentioned topics is as follows:
$
3.45
1.
General Control
2.
Instructional Service
81.75
3.
Operation of Plant
16.66
4.
Maintenance
5.
Auxiliary Agencies
6.
Fixed Charges
Current Expense Cost
4.50
10.00
6.87
$123.23
It is fitting that the total for debt service and
capital outlay on a per pupil basis be added to the fore­
going total of current expense cost per pupil in Average
Daily Attendance in order that a picture of the complete
cost per pupil in Average Daily Attendance may be obtained,
as:
Current Expense Cost
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
$123.23
38.78
2.97
Complete Cost per Pupil in $164.98
Average Daily Attendance
This information may be interpreted in a different way
by explaining the distribution of the tax dollar.
10
Of every dollar of the taxpayer's money which is spent,
74 cents are for Current Expense.
This 74 cents is distributed
for s
General Control
$ .02
Instructional Service
.49
Operation of Plant
.10
Maintenance
.03
Auxiliary Agencies
.06
Fixed Charges
.04
Total
$ .74
To this amount must be added the 24 cents that are paid
for debt service and 2 cent3 for capital outlay.
The total assessed valuation for this area is $201,729,032.
Since the Average Daily Attendance is 13,053.4 pupils, these
figures indicate the average assessed valuation per pupil in
Average Daily Attendance is $15,454.
It is apparent that the
extent to which a school district may extend its educational
facilities depends, to a great extent, upon the wealth (page6)
of the school district.
11
CHAPTER III
SCHOOL DISTRICT #1
School District #1 is a district with approximately 6,500
people.
It has three school buildings, all of which are in
fairly good condition.
One of these buildings erected in 1936,
may be considered a comparatively new building.
The total registration for the year in these three build­
ings was 1,150 children, with an average daily attendance of
1,081.6 pupils.
The expenditures for the year are listed as follows:
General Control
Instructional Service
Operation of Plant
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Expenses
$
3,908.49
^83,620.30
15,177.50
8,317.29
11,450.85
6,864.16
$129,338.59
39,587.50
5,011.25
^173,937.32
The amount of the average assessed valuation per pupil in
Average Daily Attendance for the entire area is $15,454; whereas,
12
the amount for school district $1 is $16,198.
This indicates
that it is somewhat more wealthy than the average for the en­
tire area»
The per pupil in average daily attendance cost for each
of the budgetary items, as well as the per pupil cost for the
entire area, follows:
General Control
Average
$ 3.45
School District 7
fl
$ 3.61
Instructional Service 81.75
77.31
16.66
14.03
4.50
7.69
10.00
10.58
6.87
6.35
§123.23
$119.57
Operation of Plant
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Total Current
Expenses
2.97
4.63
$164.98
$160.80
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
36.60 ■
38.78
Debt Service
The close similarity betiTeen these figures can be noted
easily#
The average current expense cost is
approximatelyfour
dollars more per pupilj the
average complete cost
four dollars more per pupil
than in District #1.
A study of the averagecost for the area and
is alsoabout
District #1
shows that District #1 spent §,16 more for general control,
$3.19 more for maintenance, $.58 more for auxiliary agencies,
and $1.66 more for capital outlay, or a total of $5.59 on specif­
ic items than the average expenditure of the entire area on these
13
same items®
On the other hand District #1 spent $4.44 less for instruc­
tional services, $2.63 less for plant operation, $.52 less for
fixed charges, and $2.18, less for debt service, or a total of
$9.77 less on specific items than the average of the county for
the same items.
Whereas the district showed a greater expenditure on some
items than the average, $5.59, it also showed a far greater
difference on the other end of the scale in its lower expend!ture,
$9.77 or $4.18 below that of the average for the area.
The amount of money spent for textbooks and school supplies
is close to the average, but the average teacher's salary in
School District #1 is $1,658.90 per annum, whereas the average
for the entire area is $1,760.38.
than the average.
This is more than $100 less
This is a marked discrepancy in view of the
fact that the wealth of the district is somewhat more than the
average for the entire area.
The statements that follow concerning teachers' salaries
apply not only to school district #1, but also to the other
school districts whose average salary is less than the average
for the entire area.
There are many matters pertaining to teachers' salaries
which might be of interest to those who are confronted with
salary problems; but only two or three will be mentioned here
because this study is not intended as an exhaustive treatment
1 .Included in Instructional Service.
1
14
of the topic®
Until our antiquated tax machinery and formulas
for distributing state-aid are reconstructed, there will always
be communities which cannot afford to reward teachers adequately.
No matter how one arranges a schedule, if the salaries awarded are too small, the results will be most disheartening to
teachers®
The very good teachers, in such a community, will
have their talents recognized by administrators in other school
systems, where more attractive positions will be available.
As
a result, these superior teachers, who often act as stimuli to
the remainder of a faculty, are replaced with less able candi­
dates.
Perhaps the most difficult task confronting schedule makers
is that of enlisting the support of teachers, taxpayers, and
school board members •'in any salary problem designed to serve the
best interests of school children.
Pacts fall down like wooden
soldiers before the onslaught of emotions®
Salary questions
inevitably stimulate an emotional response since to both teachers
and taxpayer it is a highly personal matter®
The solution to this controversy does not appear immediate,
but in the opinion of the investigator it lies in a more demo­
cratic procedure in establishing salary policies®
The prepara­
tion of salary schedules cannot be considered a one-man job; it
is conversely, a matter to be undertaken co-operatively by all
parties concerned®
A few communities already recognize the
efficacy of this method and have submitted the whole problem to
representatives of the teaching group, the administrative and
supervisory staff, taxpayers, and board members.
While the a-
mount of time and patience required to establish schedules
15
through such a procedure is often great, the suspicion and ill
feeling resulting from the traditional methods, still so common­
ly used, should be considerably reduced.
16
CHAPTER IV
SCHOOL DISTRICT #2
School District #2 is a community of approximately 3,800
people*
It has two school buildings, one of which Is an ex­
cellent brick structure, whereas, the other is an old frame
building*
The total registration for the year in these two buildings
was 552 with an Average Daily Attendance of 527*6 pupils*
The expenditures for the year may be listed as follows;
General Control
Instructional Services
814.20
37,937.44
Operation of Plant
8,955.48
Maintenance
2,722.03
Auxiliary Agencies
3,768.39
Fixed Charges
5,828.11
Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
$ 58,025.65
15,788.75
721.28
| 74,535.68
The amount of the average assessed valuation per pupil In
average daily attendance for the entire area is $15,454, whereas
the amount for School District #2 is $14,057.
This indicates
17
that it is a little less wealthy than the average for the entire
area*
The per pupil in average dally attendance cost for each
of the general budgetary items, as well as the per pupil cost
for the entire area, follow::
Average
'jp 3 .15
General Control
School District #2
$ 1.54
Instructional Service
81.75
71.91
Operation of Plant
16.66
16.97
4.50
5.16
10.00
7.14
6.87
7.26
$123.23
$109.98
38.78
29.93
2.97
1.37
$164.98
$141.28
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Total Current
Expenses
Debt Service
•
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
There is one outstanding factor that should be taken into
consideration in any complete review of the school system of
School District #2.
This has to do with the overcrowded con­
ditions in both of its school buildings*
The school district
covers a very large area and the population is constantly in­
creasing.
Two years ago a proposition was placed before the
taxpayers concerning the erection of a third building.
The
Board of Education and the school administrators of School
District #2 believed that there were three important reasons
why this proposition should be approved:
first, this new build­
ing would relieve crowded conditions that exist in the other
two buildingsj second, many children who have to walk from two
18
to three miles to reach school would have a school nearer their
homes; third, the new school building would induce prospective
home owners to purchase homes in that part of School District
#2.
The addition of a school to this part of the district is
all that is needed to make it a very desirable residential area.
In connection with this third advantage, it may be mentioned
that any growth which would result in an increase of assessed
valuation in School District #2 would tend to decrease the taxes.
Furthermore, other civic improvements that would benefit the en­
tire community would soon follow.
Could the school district afford this new building?
On
answering this question it should be noted that the per pupil
cost for debt service is $9 les3 than the average community.
Since the average daily attendance of School District #2 is
527.6 pupils, the debt service total is more than $4,700 less
than the average debt service for the area.
ing that was proposed would have cost
The school build­
about $75,000.
It was to
have been a six-room structure that could be enlarged whenever
an increase in the population warranted an addition.
Even if
the school district had had to pay three per cent interest on
the bonds which It would have needed to issue, the annual amount of interest would have been about $2,200.
This means
that the §75,000 bond issue could have been amortized at the
rate of $2,500 per year on a thirty year basis.
Obviously, the
interest rate would decrease as the amortization increased. This
building program could have taken place and the per pupil cost
for debt service could have been kept
entire area.
below the average for the
The total cost per pupil would then become about
19
§150.
Even with the new building, and a total cost per pupil
of $150, School District #2 would have been able to employ a
special music teacher for its schools and increase all the
teachers' salaries to a point where the schedule would compare
favorably with other schools in this area.
A statement of policy concerning the formation of an equi­
table salary schedule commensurate with the wealth of the district
appears in a previous chapter of this study (Chapter III, page 14).
20
CHAPTER V
SCHOOL DISTRICT #3
School District #3 is a school district with a population
of approximately 5*100 people.
ings are new^
Neither of its two school build­
the brick structure is twenty years old
and the other, an old wooden building, is thirty-three years
old.
The total registration for the year was 844 with an aver­
age daily attendance of 773.3 pupils.
The expenditures of the
year may be listed as follows?
General Control
# 1,341.65
Instructional Services
50,459.81
Operation of Plant
10,532.44
Maintenance
3,884.08
Auxiliary Agency
7,828.44
Fixed Charges
4,562.86
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
#78,609.29
20,089.00
2,941.72
#101,640.01
The amount of average assessed valuation per pupil in
average daily attendance for the entire area Is #15,454.
■21
School District #3 has an average assessed valuation per
pupil in average daily attendance of $10,966.
This indicates
that the wealth of the district is far below the average of the
area.
The per pupil in average daily attendance cost for each
of the above mentioned items, as well as the per pupil cost for
the entire area follow--;:
Average
$ 3.45
General Control
School District #3
$ 1.73
Instructional Service
81.75
65.14
Operation of Plant
16.66
13.62
4.50
5.02
10.00
10.12
6.87
6.02
$123.23
$101.65
38.78
25.98
2.97
5.80
$164.98
$131.43
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
It can be readily observed that School District #3 is far
below the average In almost everyone of the above respects®
However, the Board of Education ha3 made satisfactory provision
for the children of the district from a relative point of view.
It was mentioned previously that the wealth per child was
$10,966, whereas the wealth per child in the entire area was
$15,454.
This indicates that the average per pupil wealth of
School District #3 was about 71.9 per cent when compared to the
wealth of the entire area.
However, the $131 that is spent per
22
pupil In average daily attendance Is 79.8 per cent of the aver­
age which Is $164 for the entire area®
This discrepancy is some­
what counter-balanced by our present system of state-aid in New
York State®
However, an adjustment of state-aid is certainly
in order.
State-Aid
The question arises:
What is state-aid?
State aid for
education is the payment to schools of money collected by what
Tire might call indirect tax (that Is, any tax not levied on prop­
erty - for example, Income tax, beverage tax, corporation taxes,
etc®).
The money for state-aid is collected by the state and
sent back to individual communities according to their needs and
their ability to pay taxes®
When the state was very young, the property owners In the
various school districts paid all school expenses through a tax
on real estate®
The plan was not unfair In those days because
the wealth of the nation was largely in land.
But with changing
times, wealth went into other things (automobiles, luxuries, etc.)
and much of the wealth left the farm for the city.
Any direct
tax on property fell on those who could least afford it.
Poorer
districts (those in which there was not much taxable property)
were badly handicapped since few taxes could be levied; the pub­
lic schools, which were dependent upon public taxes for their
very existence, could not be maintained at the level desired by
the people of the district.
The people of the state and the legislature saw that money
must be raised for the schools by some other method of taxation
which would be more equitable to all the people in the state®
■33
This resulted in the state tax system by which the state gathers
the money
by indirect taxes from all the people
according
to the need of each district®
andreturns it
Another question which is often asked, "Does New York State
spend too much for education"?
No matter how good an educational
program may be, taxpayers want to know whether or not Hew York
can afford it,
A consideration of the facts and figures mu3t be
studied, before a decision is made.
New York State ranks first among all the States in its sav­
ings accounts, in tax resources, in assessed valuation, in wages
paid, and
in the number of automobiles owned®
provision
of school books and school libraries,
13th among the States,
However, in the
NewYork ranks
Fourteen States raise more state taxes
for each child in school than New York; forty-four states spend
a larger part of their incomes to maintain their schools; and
forty-six states spend a larger part of their total taxes for
the education of their children®
The average citizen of Hew York
State spends 12 cents a day for the education of the boys and
girls.
All of these figures tend to substantiate the fact that New
York State should provide a more equitable system of state-aid
by increasing the amount of money that is given to the less
wealthy districts.
An equalization of educational opportunity
will thereby be enhanced.
Until this is done, -School District #3, as well as other
less moneyed school districts ivill not be able to provide as
extensive an educational program as the more wealthy districts.
School boards of education must use considerable discretion in
the preparation of a budget which must be raised to a great ex­
tent by real estate taxes that are already heavily burdened., A
more definite and concrete discussion of some suggested changes
in the state-aid law for New York State appear in the last
chapter.
'25
CHAPTER VI
SCHOOL DISTRICT #4
School District #4 is a sparsely settled community with
somewhat over 300 people.
of small farms.
The area consists, for the most part,
It has one school building with two classrooms.
The total registration for the year in these two class­
rooms was 52 with an average daily attendance of 43.3 pupils®
The assessed valuation for the area, which is comparatively high,
is $3,220,247.
The expenditures for the year may he classified
as followss
General Control
Instructional Services
$
64.00
3,804.00
Operation of Plant
954.83
Maintenance
373.30
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Total Current Expenses
37.20
383.35
§5,616 .68
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Total Expenses
1,547 .58
$7,164 .06
The average assessed valuation per child In average daily
attendance is $65,319 which is very much higher than the average
36
assessed valuation per child in average daily attendance for
the entire area ($15,464).
The per pupil in average daily attendance costs for each
of the general budgetary items as well as the per pupil cost
for the entire area follow::
Average
$ 3.45
General Control
School District 7
-f4
$1.30
Instructional Service
81.75
77.16
Operation of Plant
16.65
19.37
4.50
7.57
10.00
.75
6.87
7.77
Total Current Expenses$123.23
$113.92
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Debt Service
38.78
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
2.97
31.59
$164.98
$145.31
Here is a school district with all the necessary money at
its finger tips to have its schools far super*ior to those of
any of the surrounding districts, and It has a two-room build­
ing 'with twenty-six pupils to the room.
all the grades are taught.
But in these two rooms
There are very probably little more
than the accomplishments of the 3 R ’s of early schools, unless
there are two teachers of unusual ability and personality to
guide these pupils.
In this district the average complete cost
is $19.61 per pupil below the average cost of the area.
In recent years, the Board of Regents of New York State
had a group of distinguished educators make a study of the edu­
cational system of New York State.
This study was called "The
27
Regents' Inqxiiry into the Character and Cost of Public Education
in the State of Hew York."
The director of this inquiry was Dr.
Luther Gulick; the cost for the entire survey was about $500,000.
One of the basic findings of this survey coincides with a
feeling that pervades educational thinking throughout the states
this is to the effect that the old district system, though satis­
factory as a means of providing for common schools in the early
days of the state, is not satisfactory in operating schools
under modern conditions.
The boundaries of School District #4
are the same as they were in the latter half of the 19th century.
Changing conditions in educational practice make it advisable
to have these school districts of one and two rooms combine with
an adjacent district to provide a larger school#
Who profits by the formation of larger school districts?
This question is not difficult to answer on the basis of edu­
cational experience during the past twenty years.
Those who
profit by the formation of larger school districts are:
1.
All of the children who go to school in the larger school
districts profit.
The larger and newer schools are better equipped; there
are more classes; more subjects are offered with better prepared
teachers who are more closely supervised; there are more books
in the school libraries; the schools can give more attention to
health service and to other special needs for growing boys and
girls; and there are more opportunities for student life and a
better school spirit; the larger school offers more experiences
to build character.
These facts which are known by experience
are also well substantiated by the tests and observations made
.28
of the educational system by the Regents’ Inquiry.
In many
schools, the children are receiving an education which is just
as good as that received by those pupils who are in city schools.
A larger school Is a great benefit to the older youth; It is al­
so better for the younger child.
2»
The faculty of the larger schools benefit.
Teaching is trying work under ideal circumstances though
extremely rewarding to one who has a real personal interest in
growing children.
In the larger school districts the teaching
conditions almost always can be made finer and salaries more
attractive than in the smaller districts.
graded classes.
Most teachers prefer
They prefer good supervision, tenure, respect­
able salaries, modern buildings, and up-to-date laboratories
and libraries - none of which can be provided economically in
districts that are very small.
A great difficulty in a dis­
trict which has one and two room schools is that it Is scarcely
possible to extend teacher tenure to such districts.
It is not
wise to establish tenure unless there is continuous professional
supervision both during the probation period and afterward. This
cannot be done unless the district is large enough to warrant a
full-time supervising principal.
Furthermore, just like anyone
else, teachers want companions and adequate living conditions,
both of which are very often lacking In smaller districts.
3.
The local taxpayers themselves and those of the entire state
benefit.
It is very expensive to attempt to give an extensive, modern
education in a small district.
One of the big difficulties lies
in small classes which are very uneconomical; therefore, much
29
better education may be obtained at the same price, or even at
lower price than is being paid now.
With larger districts, fair
equalization can also be had because there will be greater equal­
ity in the valuations from district to district.
For example,
in School District #4, the average assessed valuation per pupil
in average daily attendance is over $65,000, although in a neigh­
boring district, the amount is less than $11,000.
This indicates,
on a per pupil basis, that School District #4 has six times as
much wealth as the neighboring districts.
unfair and should be revised.
This inequality is
Centralization pools the resources
and helps to even out the inequalities.
The larger districts
can take advantage of more efficient business methods; they can
buy more economically and, therefore, can get more for their
money.
The costs of the varied program’which future days will
demand will be impossible to finance unless districts of econom­
ical size are first set up.
4.
The community as a whole is rewarded by larger schools.
People use larger school buildings more often for meetings,
for entertainment, and for adult education, than the people of
smaller school districts use their one and two room schools.
This is natural; very many years ago, the one room school was
a community center for the whole neighborhood, but this is no
longer true.
Today, centers are found where larger schools
have been erected and a better program has been developed with
the aid of the facilities of the new and larger school.
The
best way for a community to provide itself with a meeting
place for these varied adult interests, is to arrange for a
larger and better equipped school.
30
If tlie district boundaries of School District #4 are re­
organized, the children will benefit because they will be able
to have the aggregate benefits that can be offered in a school
larger than one of two rooms.
The adults, too, will pi’ofit be­
cause they will be enabled to engage in adult education and the
recreational activities which can be offered in a larger school.
The neighboring school district will profit because the per
pupil wealth is less than 1/6 that of School District #4.
All
Indications seem to point to the fact that the educational
leaders in New York State will meet this difficulty in the
future by providing for more equitable district reorganization.
■31
CHARTER VII
SCHOOL DISTRICT #5
School District #5 Is a community with about 2,500 people*
It has two school buildings.
The total registration for the year in these two buildings
was 333 with an average daily attendance of 287.0 pupils.
assessed valuation for the area was $6,088,149.
The
The expendi­
tures for the year follow::
General Control
Instructional Services
$
1,994.63
28,017.03
Operation of Plant
9,894.71
Maintenance .
2,011.09
Auxiliary Agencies
6,841.22
Fixed Charges
2,595.17
Total Current Expenses $51,353.85
Debt Service
7,251.27
Capital Outlay
5,370.76
Complete Total
$61,975.88
The average assessed valuation per child in average daily
|
attendance is $21,213, as against $15,494 for the area.
The per pupil in average daily attendance costs for each
of the budgetary items as well as the per pupil cost for the
entire area follow::
52
General Control
Average
«jp 3 *45
School District #5
$ 6.95
Instructional Service
81.75
97.62
Operation of Plant
16* 66
34.46
4*50
7.00
10*00
23*87
6.87
9*03
$123*23
$178.93
38*78
25.27
2*97
11.74
$164.98
$215.94
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
Since the amount of average assessed, valuation per pupil
in average daily attendance for the entire area is $15,454 and
School District #5 has an average assessed valuation of $21,213
per child, it follows that School District #5 is a wealthier
district than the average of the area*
There are three items in the budget of School District #5
which are more than twice those of the general average:
Gener­
al Control, Operation of Plant, and Auxiliary Agencies#
It is
highly significant that School District #5, which has an average
daily attendance of 287*0 pupils should spend $2,462*51 for
1
fuel , whereas School District #5 with an average daily attend­
ance of 773*3 pupils should spend only $1,741.50*
A school
district with approximately one-third of the number of children
1*
Included in Operation of Plant item.
33
is spending about 40 per cent more than the larger district,
Furthermore, School District #3 spent $1,053,76 for light and
powerSout School District #5 spent $1,211,70.
In regard to
janitor supplies’1', School District #3 spent $384,36 but School
District #5 has an expenditure of $908,91.
To summarize, it
can be shown that School District $3 spent $3,179,62 for these
three items, but School District #5 with about one-third the
average daily attendance, spent $4,583,12 or $1,403.50 more®
The possibilities for economies In these cases should be care­
fully studied.
The per pupil cost of Auxiliary Agencies is $23,87, however,
the average is merely $10.00.
This discrepancy is easily ex­
plained! the bU3 service, in School District #5, costs $4,363.20.
This is about $15.20 per child for a year or almost 9 cents a
day.
This is approximately three times the average for the en­
tire area.
The State Education Department considered this a-
mount excessive because School District #5 does not include a
particularly large area and has ruled that School District #5
may transport only those children who reside beyond reasonable
walking distance.
The Capital Outlay is $11.74 compared with the average of
$2.90 for the entire area| hov/ever, a necessary investment of
$2,240,75 for the new apparatus brought up the Capital Outlay
per pupil cost far above the normal amount that School District
#5 usually spends.
1.
Included in Operation of Plant.
34
CHAPTER VIII
SCHOOL DISTRICT #6
School District #6 is a district with a population of over
4,500 people*
There are two school buildings, a wooden structure
which is quite old and a brick structure*
The total registration for the year was about 628 with an
average daily attendance of 582*5 pupils®
has an assessed valuation of $8,253,822®
School District #6
The expenditures of
the year may be listed as follows %
|
General Control
1,917.72
Instructional Service
48,618.67
Operation of Plant
10,011.98
Maintenance
4,851.78
Auxiliary Agencies
4,822.90
Fixed Charges
4,167.67
Total Current Expenses $ 74,390.72
Debt Service
24,052.00
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
$
98,442.72
The amount of average assessed valuation per* pupil in
average daily attendance for the district is $14,169.
The
per pupil In average daily attendance cost for each of the
35
budgetary items, as well as the per pupil cost for the entire
area follow::
Average
$ 3.45
General Control
School District #6
$ 3.29
Instructional Service
81.75
83.46
Operation of Plant
16.66
17.19
4.50
to
to
9
CO
10.00
8.28
6.87
7.17
$123.23
$127.72
38.78
41.28
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed 'Charges
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
2.97
$164.98
—
^169.00
Since the amount of average assessed valuation per pupil
in average daily attendance for School District #6 is f>14,169
and the average for the whole area is $15,454, it can be seen
that School District #6 is not quite so v/ealthy as the average
for the entire area.
Maintenance has an average per pupil expenditure of $8.33
compared with the expenditure of $4.50 for the entire area®
The fact that Maintenance was $3.83 above the average was neces­
sary because an expenditure of $4,401.50 to repair the heating
and plumbing plant was made.
It would seem, however, that
teachers’ salaries in School District #6 would be above the
average, since the per pupil cost for Instructional Service was
$1.71 more than the average.
This is not true because School
District #6 spent $1.20 more per pupil for text books and 98
cents more per pupil for school supplies.
These items should
36
be investigated because |>lo73, which is the average for text
books^for the entire area, is considered by book companies to
be an equitable amount.
Furthermore, $2*81, the average ex­
penditure for school supplies^for the entire area, is considered
by supply men to be well above the average in New York State#
It would seem that an investigation of these two items in the
budget of School District #6 is warranted. ^
Teachers’ salaries in School District #6 average slightly
less than the average for the entire area.
There is one feature
of a recently adopted salary schedule of School District #6 which
deserves comment.
The Board of Education of School District #6
had decided to arrange the salary schedule for their school dis­
trict so that the teachers of kindergarten, first, second and
third grades receive less money than teachers of grades four
through eight.
This procedure is contrary to the best educa­
tional thought regarding salary schedules.
Educators who have
studied this problem carefully have agreed, for the most part,
that equivalent training and equivalent experience should re­
ceive similar compensation throughout an entire school system.
The task of the primary teacher who receives less money
under the schedule of School District #6 is not an easy one.
These teachers are privileged to guide the development of the
coming generation.
As social agents they must Initiate those
who will be responsible for social change In their maturity.
To accomplish this goal, primary teachers must sense the full
1.
Included in Instructional Service.
57
social significance of their work, they must be concerned with
the social outcomes of their work as well as with the most
routine aspects of the curricula*
They must interpret life to
the child and direct his work as a re stilt of first-hand experi­
ences, so that the fundamental processes of living are made
meaningful and significant.
The primary teacher must set children on their way to a
more comprehensive understanding and critical insight into the
issues of modern life*
She must develop behavior and foster
motives to worth-while endeavor.
She must cultivate flexible
habits and open-minded attitudes while she may, because the
early years of the child are the ones that contribute so signif­
icantly to the social attitudes which he will cling to for the
rest of his life.
•38
CHARTER XX
SCHOOL DISTRICT #7
School District #7 is a district with approximately 6,400
people.
It has four school buildings.
The total registration for the year in these four build­
ings v/as 1,270, with an average daily attendance of 1,170 pupils.
The expenditures of the year may be listed as follows;
General Control
$
3.020.97
Instructional Service
71,944.34
Operation of Plant
12,902.94
Maintenance
869.27
Auxiliary Agencies
3,194.22
Fixed Charges
7,075.27
Total Current Expenses $ 99,005.01
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
44,404.90
5,575.98
$148,783.89
The average assessed valuation per child in average daily
attendance was $9,898.92.
The assessed valuation for the dis­
trict is $11,581,742.
The per pupil in average daily attendance costs for each
of the budgetary items as well as the per pupil cost for the
entire area follows.
39
Average
$ 3,45
General Control
Schooln Dis tr:
$ 2.57
Instructional Service
81.75
61.49
Operation of Plant
16,66
11.03
4,50
.75
10,00
2.74
6.87
6.05
$123,23
$ 84.63
38®78
57,96
2.97
4,59
$164.98
$127.18
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
School District #7 is one of the poorest districts in this
area®
Since the average assessed valuation per child in average
daily attendance is $9,898,92 and the average for the entire
area is $15,454, it follows that the per pupil wealth of School
District #7 is only 64 per cent of the average®
It is highly
significant that every item among Current Expenses is far below
the average®
Debt Service and Capital Outlay are about the same
because there is no possible way that the school board can cut
down on these two items®
Instructional Service is particularly hard hit®
$20,26 below the average®
It is
The average teacher's salary is
$1,476®60 compared with an average for the entire area of
1
$1,760.38. The per pupil text book cost is 95 cents compared
1®
Included in Instructional Service.
!
,40
with an average for the entire area of $1.75*
The per pupil
2.
expenditure for school supplies
was $1.08 compared with an ex­
penditure of $2.81 for the entire area.
The average for the
entire area for school supplies was more than two and one half
times that which was spent in School District #7.
The statements in a previous chapter V (p. 22) regarding
a reorganization of the method to calculate state-aid and also
statements (chapter III, p. 13) concerning teachers' salaries
should be particularly noted.
Both of these are very applicable
in the case of School District #7.
Although it Is necessary for the Board of Educati n to exer­
cise considerable discretion regarding expenditures, it is pos­
sible to attempt to,economize in some ways that may not be con­
sidered prudent.
The Board of Education of School District #7
had decided notto'have kindergartens until the state legislature
passed a la\v which would include kindergartens in state-aid cal­
culations.
At the present time, the school district must support
the kindergarten itself.
However, the compulsory education lav/
In Hew York State maintains that children must be provided for
in school when they reach their fifth birthday, if the parent
so desires.
A school without a kindergarten must place such
a child in the first grade.
IIany of these five year old children
are not ready for first grade work.
As a result, schools with­
out kindergartens have an unusally large percentage of first
grade repeaters every term.
unsound.
1.
This procedure is pedagogically
Harry of these children would have acclimated themselves
Included In Instructional Service.
41
properly In a kindergarten.
In the first grade, the work is
too difficult for them and they acquire a distaste for school
which often lasts for several years.
It is urgent that all
school people do their utmost to secure passage of the bill pro'
viding state-aid for kindergarten children at the earliest pos­
sible moment.
42
CHAPTER X
SCHOOL DISTRICT #8
School District #8 is a community with a population con­
sisting of approximately 4,700 people.
There is one school
■building.
The total registration for the year in this school was
59S with an average daily attendance of 551.3 pupils.
The as­
sessed valuation for the area was $12,139,182. The expenditures
for the year may he classified as follows:
General Control
Instructional Service
$
2,583.35
49,595.90
Operation of Plant
8,552.30
Maintenance
1,351.18
Auxiliary Agencies
8,568.02
Fixed Charges
5,647.61
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
$ 74,298.37
29,232.25
2,991.95
$106,522.55
The average assessed valuation per child in average daily
attendance is $22,019.
The per pupil costs in average daily attendance for each
•43
of the budgetary items as well as the per pupil cost for the
entire area follow: General Control
Average
$ 3.45
School District
8
4.69
Instructional Service
81.75
39.96
Operation of Plant
IS. 66
15.51
4.50
2.45
10.00
15.54
6.87
6.62
si>123.23
$134.77
38.78
53.03
2.97
5.42
$164.98
$193.22
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
School District #8 is one of the richest School Districts
in this area*
Since the average assessed valuation per child
in average daily attendance is $22,019 and the average for the
entire area is $15,454, it follows that School District #8 had
42 per cent more wealth per child than the average of the
area.
Debt Service in School District #8 is about .$15 more than
the average because School District #8 has a comparatively new
school building.
The amortization of the bonds for this new
building will be completed in less time than most school dis­
tricts usually require.
It can be noted, that the average per pupil cost for Cur­
rent Expenses in School District #8 is $134.77 compared with an
average expenditure of $123.23 for the area.
This indicates that
44
School District #8 spent £11*54 more than the average.
In view
of the fact that District #8 has a salary schedule which Is high
enough to attract the be3t type of teachers, and that the school
district has 42 per cent more wealth per child than the average,
this $11*54 can not he considered excessive.
There recently was a movement, however, to have the school
district co-operate with another school district and have only
one art teacher for the two schools.
This would he very In­
advisable, inasmuch as School District #8 has an art program
which is really superior and which may be considered well above
the average.
It would not be recommended to have an art teacher
In School District -//8 working on part-time because much of her
work in that instance would have to be of a supervisory nature,
and the art teacher would not have the direct personal contact,
sxich as she now has, with the children.
Many regular teachers
do not have adequate training in art to do good work with chil­
dren.
The extensive nature of modern art teaching demands com­
plete training in three fields: (l) modern educational theory,
(2) the skills necessary for art activity, and (3) esthetics and
art history.
Pew, if any, other fields of activity demand as wide a field
of Interests or require as many specialized abilities.
The art
teacher who is only a good painter can not adequately fill the
position.
The work demands a person who has a full command of
the tools of graphic expression combined with a clear vision of
the essential of art in modern situations, a knowledge of the
history of human culture, a full understanding of young people
and the processes of learning, and a sympathy with the entire
45
educational program.
The individual whose interests are limited to one phase of
the art program as outlined would not fit into the program of
any school system except that of a very large city in which a
sufficient number of specialists can he assembled to take care
of the needs of the school.
Even there, however, a limited in­
terest eliminates the possibility of discovering that intimate
relationship of art expression and human experience which is
necessary to a complete, vital, educational program.
.46
CHAPTER XI
SCHOOL DISTRICT #9
School District #9 Is a large community with a population
of over 10,000 people.
There are three school buildings in this
district»
The total registration for the year in these three schools
was l,976j the average daily attendance was 1,710.8 pupils*
assessed valuation for School District #9 was $19,395,832.
The
The
expenditures for the year may be listed as follows:
General Control
Instructional Service
Operation of Plant
$
5,025*82
129,673.44
26,080.546 ,020.88
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
16,187.43
Fixed Charges
11.645.02
Total Current expenses
$ 194,633.13
51,778.75
Debt Service
3.864.47
Capital Outlay
Cornplete To tal
# 250,276.35
The average assessed valuation per child in average daily
attendance is $11,629.
'The per pupil in average daily attend­
ance costs for each of the budgetary items as well as the per
47
pupil cost for the entire area follow.::
School District #9
0 2*95
Average
| 3.45
General Control
Instructional Service
81.75
75.79
Qpei*ation of Plant
16.66
15.24
4.50
O e52
10.00
9.46
6.87
6.81
$123.23
$113.77
38.78
30.26
2.97
2.26
$164.98
$146.29
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
School District #9 has an average assessed valuation per
child in average daily attendance of $11,629 and the average
for the entire area is $15,454.
It can be seen that School Dis­
trict #9 is considerably less wealthy than the average of the
area.
School district #9 has a budget which can almost be con­
sidered a model one.
Although the per pupil
C03t
can be noted
to be less than the average in every case, this is in keeping
with the wealth of the district*
The teacher salary schedule
1
1
and the amount spent for text books and school supplies are
very close to the average.
It is almost the same in every other
item of the budget*
Recently School District #3 had an extra nurse added to its
staff.
1*
With an enrolment of almost two thousand children, this
Included in Instructional Service
43
would seem to be a very necessary addition.
Some people in
the community, however, do not believe that this second nurse
is necessary.
It certainly is hoped that no change will be
forth- coming.
Since the school health program is comprised of specific
services which involve different methods of procedure and the
perception of many individuals, it must be administered by a
personnel which is well-trained in health education.
in such a program are the following services:
Included
health instruc­
tion, health examination, communicable disease control, pro­
motion of mental health, beneficial healthful environment,
health supervision of teachers and employees.
Health education is not a separate entity, but shoxild be
considered a part of the many activities which make up a total
health program.
One person in a school district as large as
School District #9 could not adequately perform all of the duties
that would be necessary in the administration of a complete
health program.
Some of the considerations in a complete program of health
instruction consist of first of all, acquainting the child with
the human organism and its functions including such topics as
susceptibility to disease and disease prevention, nutrition, and
the facts of reproduction! next, is the development of habits,
attitudes and knowledge favorable to good physical and mental
health; included here, for example, are such matters as environ­
mental and bodily cleanliness and first-aid.
An efficient edu­
cator not only teaches facts in these areas but also strives
to motivate the child to use the facts and experience gained in
49
order better to understand the basic principles of health and
to become an intelligent user of medical service.
Obviously, the school can not assume sole responsibility
for all these instructional functions.
Inadequately supervised
school personnel, however, is not favorable to the implication
of these basic facts only as the home and outside agencies are
wiiling to co-operate.
There Is no doubt that the future good
health of pupils can definitely be influenced through a sound
program of health instruction.
The provision for adequate super­
vision of health instruction in its public school is clearly a
responsibility of the Board of Education.
50
CHAPTER XII
SCHOOL DISTRICT #10
School District #10 is a district with a population of
approximately 6,100 people®
There are two school buildings in
the communi ty *
The total registration for the year in the two buildings
was 1,060, while the average daily attendance was 862®5 pupils.
The assessed valuation for the area is §12,036,350.
The ex­
penditures for the year follow:
General Control
$
3,026.10
Instructional Service
64,534.28
Operation of Plant
15,308.72
Maintenance
3,208.86
Auxiliary Agencies
7,379.49
Fixed Charges
4,796.61
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
$ 98,334.06
29,343.06
6,809.19
§134,486.31
The average assessed valuation per child in average daily
attendance is §13,955.
The per pupil in average daily attendance costs for each of
■51
the budgetary items as well as the per pupil cost for the en­
tire area follow:
General Control
Average
$ 3.45
School District #10
4 3.50
Instructional Service
81.75
74.83
Operation of Plant
16.66
17.85
4.50
3.72
10.00
8.55
6.87
5.56
Total Current Expenses 4 123.23
$114.01
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Debt Service
38.78
34.02
2.97
7.89
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
$164.98
$155.92
Since the average assessed valuation per child in average
daily attendance for the entire area is $15,454 and the average
for School District #10 is $13,955, it follows that School Dis­
trict #10 has less money per child in average daily attendance
than the average school district
of the area.
Operation of
Plant for School District ;/10 has a per pupil expenditure of
$17.85 compared with $16.66 for the average.
It would seem
that the $11,414.50 which is paid for janitors' salaries is high
compared with other school districts.
For example, it might be
1
mentioned that School District #3 has an expenditure of ^7419.84
with approximately the same number of classrooms included in two
buildings.
1.
Included in Operation of Plant.
52
Capital Outlay has an expenditure of $7.98 compared with
the average of $2*97.
The big difference in this item is a
legitimate discrepancy because it was necessary to appropriate
$5,581*53 for an addition to one of their buildings*
School District #10 has no public library.
The Board of
Education of School District #10 decided to make use of their
school facilities by providing for a public adult library in
conjunction with the school library*
ture of $730,54.
for home use.
This involved an expendi­
Fiction and non-fiction books may be borrowed'
In addition to this, this adult section of the
library is available for reference work.
For adults who can
not come during the school day, the library is opened one night
every week.
The public library, whether in a private building or a pub­
lic school, is an educational institution offering a specialized
educational service to the entire population.
It3 objectives
are to promote broad educational and leisure-time interests and
to further the advancement of knowledge among adults by making
available resources of books and related materials.
This library
is free and open to all citizens, thereby offering to the com­
munity a type of educational activity which is informal yet pur­
poseful.
Opportunities available to adults through free public
libraries supplement the educational program of the public school.
These institutions are instruments of democracy devoted to public
enlightment and to improvement of cultural standards.
The Board of Education of School District #10 is to be con­
gratulated for making these services available to its taxpayers.
Many of these people who do not have children in school can see
53
a tangible way in which some return, regardless how small, is
made for the school taxes which they must pay every year.
The
library helps to provide a mutual feeling of understanding be­
tween the citizens of the community and the school people because
both realize that the other is doing its part to promote the ad­
vancement of knowledge and to open profitable ways to spend lei­
sure time*
54
CHAFTER XIII
SCHOOL DISTRICT #11
School District #11 is a large district with two schools*
It has a population of over 9,500 people.
Trie total registration for School District #11 in these two
schools was 1,711, with an average daily attendance of 1,680.1
pupils.
The assessed valuation for the area was $26,528,841.
The expenditures for the year may he listed as follows:
General Control
Instructional Service
Operation of Plant
Maintenance
$
6,145.85
182,022.52
34,885.85
7,402.71
Auxiliary Agencies
19,772.55
Fixed Charges
12,961.04
Total Current Expenses $ 263,190.52
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
59,896.81
1,292.81
$ 324,380.14
The average assessed valuation per child In average daily
attendance Is $15,790.
The per pupil In average daily attendance costs for each
of the budgetary items as well as the per 'pupil cost for the
'55
entire area follow:;
Average
$ 3.45
General Control
School District
4 5.66
Instructional Service
81o75
108.34
Operation of Plant
16.66
20.76
4-.50
4.41
10.00
11.77
6.87
7.71
$123.23
$156.65
33.78
35.65
2.97
.77
$164.98
$193.07
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
The average assessed valuation per child in average daily
attendance of School District #11 is slightly more than that for
the entire area*
The difference is $336.
There is very little discrepancy in the items which are
listed in budget with the exception of Instructional Service.
First of all, School District #11 can be proud of a fine salary
schedule which it has provided for the faculty of its schools.
Of course, its proximity to New York City and its high salary
schedule is a contributing factorj however, it may be said that
the finer teachers are attracted to School District #11 because
of this excellent schedule.
The School District has an enviable
record for scholarship.
Another factor which contributes to the high per pupil cost
•ft The average assessed valuation for the area is $15,454; that of
District #11 is $15,790.
•56
for Instructional Service is that a full-time teacher is provided
for adult education In the evening*
This is an innovation in this
area which the School Board of School District #11 has Instituted.
Many of our school plants which are idle at night could he used
to advantage by adults who are anxious to better their education.
It is appropriate that the problem of adult education In the TJnited States be considered.
Adult Education
After the World War Armistice, there arose in the United
States a movement to "Americanize" the alien who had settled here.
Statistics which were compiled as a result of the draft had made
the country conscious of the alien’s presence.
Educational pro­
cesses were chosen after the Americanization incident but there
was no precedent for the movement and it lacked methods and mate­
rials.
Nevertheless, it grew and gradually began to take form.
By the middle twenties the term, "adult education", was being
used but the work to which it was applied had little In common
with the historic adult education movements in Europe, partic­
ularly in Britain and the Scandinavian countries.
Literature did not grow up within this field until 1926 and
did not assume professional proportions until the depression of
1930 through 1935 caused a deeper consideration of this gigantic
problem.
Hence, within the brief period of sixteen years, the
adult education In America rose from somewhat a hysterical and
•>:- The ideas that are expressed represent the opinions of the
investigator.
•57
sentimental amateur effort to a great movement which ha3 enlisted
the thought of the country’s foremost leaders, not only in edu­
cation but in other fields.
It is still suffering from growing pains.
not yet organized nor coherent.
It certainly is
The term "adult education" is
frequently applied to parts of the movement as If they were the
whole.
The general field of education itself sometimes acts
toward it a3 if it were a foundling left on a doorstep.
There
Is inadequate recognition of the need for further adult education
during the evening in our regular elementary schools.
The pre­
vious discussion does not exhaust the difficulties that exist at
present.
Nevertheless the movement has swept on In theory far
past the limits of its practical application, and its future can
best be considered in the hopes that have been pinned to it. It
Is significant that in the expenditure of relief funds for the
unemployed during the Roosevelt administration, unemployed teach­
ers were put to work in adult-education projects and not in the
overcrowded classrooms of the elementary and secondary schools
although they were badly needed there also.
In this urgent environment, adult education lives today.
A far-sighted Board of Education such as that of School District
#11 should be congratulated for starting the movement which edu­
cational people hope will spread to the other school districts.
58
CHAPTER XIV
SCHOOL DISTRICT #12
District #12 is a small community with a population of
2,500 people.
There are two school buildings in the district.
The total registration for the year in these two buildings
was 345 with an average daily attendance of 313.9 pupils.
assessed valuation for the area is $6,738,304*
The
The expenditures
for the year may be classified as follows j
General Control
Instructional Service
$ 1,270.82
31,928.08
Operation of Plant
7,461.04
Maintenance
1,624.50
Auxiliary Agencies
7,300.11
Fixed Charges
2,288.30
Total Current Expenses $51,872.85
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
15,883.30
505.79
#68,259.94
The average assessed valuation per child in average daily
attendance Is $21,466.
The per pupil in average daily attendance costs for each
of the budgetary items as well as the per pupil cost for the
59
entire area follows
General Control
Average
§ 3.45
School District #12
$ 4.05
Instructional Service
81.75
101.72
Operation of Plant
1S.SS
23.77
4.50
5.17
10.00
23.26
6,87
7.28
$123.23
$165.25
38.78
50.60
2.97
1.60
$164.98
$217.45
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Total Current expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
Since the average assessed valuation per child in average
daily attendance in School District #12 is §21,466 and the aver­
age assessed valuation per child in average daily attendance for
the entire area is §15,454, it follows that School District #12
had §6,012 more wealth per child in average daily attendance
than the average school district.
These figures indicate that
School District #12 had 39 per cent more wealth than the aver­
age school district, since the complete per pupil cost of School
District #12 was §217.45 compared with the average of §164.98.
It can be shown that School District #12 spends 32 per cent
more money than the average school district.
In view of the
fact that the district is 39 per cent richer than the average,
these figures would seem to indicate that the budget is very well-
.so
balanced In proportion with the wealth of the district.
How­
ever, a critical consideration of each of the budget items of
School District #12 does not substantiate this fact entirely.
The per pupil cost for Instructional Service in School District
#12 is #101.72 compared to an average area cost of #31.75. This
expenditure, which is #20 above the average, would indicate a
salary schedule that would be very equitable compared to the
wealth of the district.
Such is not the case,
The average
teacher's salary in School District #12 is considerably less
than the average of the area.
Why, then, is the per pupil In­
structional Service cost 30 high?
This can be easily explained.
School District #12 has an average daily attendance of
fewer than twenty children in each classroom.
the entire area is about 27 children.
The average for
Furthermore, School Dis­
trict #12 has two school buildings where it would seem that one
building could provide sufficient accommodations for a school
whose average daily attendance is 315.9.
Possibly the reason
which may be advanced for the two buildings is that if both are
used transportation expenses are eliminated.
A careful examina­
tion of the money that was spent for transportation Indicates
that very close to 9 cents per day is spent for each child In
average daily attendance.
In the entire area the daily aver­
age expense for transportation per child in average daily at­
tendance is less than 2 cents.
Certainly, an investigation of
the area covered by School District #12 does not indicate the
need for two schools.
However, it is explained that there are
two rival civic factions in School District #12.
factions is jealous of the other.
Each of these
Neither of these groups,
61
therefore, will agree to have merely one school located In the
other area.
The advantages of the plan of having one school can be
easily seen.
Duplication of expenditures in the Operation of
Plant and Maintenance items would be eliminated.
Special teach­
ers would not find it necessary to waste valuable time driving
from building to building.
Debt Service and Capital Outlay would
also be considerably lowered.
Moreover, the organisation of
classes could be accomplished more easily and the savings could
be transferred to a fairer salary schedule commensurate with
the wealth of the School District #12.
62
CHAPTER XV
SCHOOL DISTRICT #13
School District #13 Is a district with over 4,200 people.
There are two school buildings.
'•4ae total registration for the year in these two school
buildings was 636 with an average daily attendance of 586.6
pupils.
The assessed valuation for the area was $17,500,549.
The expenditures for the year follow:
General Control
Instructional Service
62,788.78
Operation of Plant
11,518.50
Maintenance
3,127.53
Auxiliary Agencies
4,313.55
Fixed Charges
5,425.26
Total Current Expenses
Debt Services
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
$ 90,938.05
23,695.00
1,941.62
$116,574.67
The average assessed valuation per child in average daily
attendance is $29,867.
The per pupil in average daily attendance costs for each
of the budgetary items as well as the per pupil co3t for the
.63
entire area follow:
Average
# 3.45
General Control
School District #13
# 6*4-2
Instructional Service
81*75
107*04
Operation of Plant
16*66
19*64
4*50
5*53
10.00
7*35
6*87
9.24-
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
$123*23
#155.02
38*78
40.39
2.97
5*51
$164*93
#198*72
The average assessed valuation per child in average daily
attendance of School District #13 is $29,867.
the entire area is $15,454.
The average for
It is highly significant that School
District #13 has almost tv/ice as much wealth per child in average
daily attendance as the average school district of the area. This
is greater than In any other school district other than the one
and two room school districts whose wealth is out of proportion
to the other school districts.
School District #13, for the most part, has a very wellbalanced budget.
Most of the items are above the general aver­
age but 1his may be expected In view of the fact that its wealth
is so much greater.
General Control, which has a per pupil ex­
penditure of $6.42, seems slightly out of proportion to the aver­
age expenditure of $3.45.
1*
School District #13 spent $1,441*23^
Included In General Control
64
for expenses of the office of the Board of Education. School
1
District #9 spent merely .pi,000 . This seems much out of pro­
portion because School District #9 has an average daily attend­
ance of 1,710.3 compared with an average daily attendance of
536.6 for School District #13.
School District #13 has a salary
schedule somewhat above the average for the entire area.
Fur the r-
2
more, it spends $3.05 per pupil for text books
average of $1.73.
compared to the
The per pupil expenditure for school supplies
is $3.82 compared with an average expenditure of $2.81.
It may
be concluded therefore, that the per pupil expenditure of In­
structional Service, $107.04, is very well apportioned, if the
comparative great wealth of the school district Is taken into
consideration.
School District #13 has done an exceptionally
fine job in its organization of special classes for subnormal
children.
It is appropriate, at this time, that a most detailed
discussion of the very vital problem should be considered.
Special Classes
There are two important reasons for the establishing of
special classes in the public schools.
One reason is that in
the classroom seriously subnormal children are troublesome in­
dividuals usually requiring more time and attention from the
teacher than all the rest of the children in the room together.
In spite of this additional attention, progress of the subnormal
1. Included in General Control.
2. Included in Instructional Service.
-iJ-These statements are the opinions of the Investigator based on
his own experience.
2
65
child is usually much less rapid than that of the others who have
received less attention.
Because he can not keep up with the
work, he often becomes a disciplinary problem and thus takes
still more of the teacher’s time.
It is, therefore, a matter of
protection to the progress of normal children to have the seri­
ously subnormal child eliminated from the regular classroom.
The second reason for the establishment of a special class
is to some extent a most important one.
whei’eas, the first rea­
son apparently neglects the welfare of the subnormal child for
the welfare of the average child, in reality the segregation in
special classes of the sei'iously subnormal children gives the
school an opportunity to plan its equipment and its curriculum
In other school activities more nearly In accordance with the
individual needs of these subnormal children.
In the past few
years we have come to a realization more than ever before of
the very great mental difference between individuals.
It has
been realized that all children of a chronological age of
twelve years are very far from being capable of doing the same
work.
Although the teaching of a class can be adjusted to take
care of considerable range of ability that is presented, it is
very difficult to do justice to those v/ho deviate extremely from
the average in the same class with more normal children.
If
these subnormal children are to receive any real education, they
need courses of study and methods not applicable to normal chil­
dren.
If this be true, a special class which Is not held to the
usual procedure is the only means that has proved successful in
providing real education for these out-of-the-ordinary children.
3y placing children in such classes, a teacher has more time for
S6
the training of the normal children.
Furthermore, the subnor­
mal child himself is greatly benefitted by such an organization
because the regular school procedure can be more easily modified
to meet his extra-ordinary needs.
■67
CHAPTER XVI
SCHOOL DISTRICT #14
School District 7^14 Is a district with a population of
approximately 5,000 people*
It ha3 one school building*
The total registration for the year in this school was 806
with an average daily attendance of 728*1 pupils.
valuation for the area is §12,571,268.
Hie assessed
The expenditures for
the year may be listed as folloY/s:
General Control
$
1,977*72
Instructional Service
61,094.85
Operation of Plant
10,588.56
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
fixed Charges
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
5,725.73
15,772*91
4,954*15
$ 100,113*90
28,217*47
673*97
$ 129,010. 34
The average assessed valuation per child in average daily
attendance is $17,265.
The per pupil costs in average daily attendance for each
of the budgetary items as well as the per pupil cost for the
68
entire area follow? :
General Control
Average
$ 3.45
School District #14
$ 2.72
Instructional Service
81.75
S3. 91
Operation of Plant
16.65
14.54
4.50
7.86
10.00
21.66
6.87
6.81
Total Current Expenses $123.23
$137.50
38.78
38.76
2.97
.93
$164.98
#177.19
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
School District #14 has an average assessed valuation per
child in average daily attendance of #17,265.
This is some­
what more than the average assessed valuation per child in aver­
age daily attendance for the entire area which is $15,454.
School District #14 has a very well-balanced budget.
It has
a fine salary schedule; it spends a little more per pupil for
1
1
text books and school supplies than the average district of
the area.
It has very fine special teachers.
It may be said,
therefore, that the expenditure of $83.91 for Instructional
Service, which is $2.16 more than the average is very well spent.
There has been 3ome criticism because School District #14
has two physical training teachers for the 728.1 pupils in aver­
age daily attendance.
1.
It has been pointed out that school dis-
Included in Instructional Service.
■69
tricts which have more children than School District #14 have
merely one physical education teacher®
However, School District
#14 specifically follows the recommendation of the New York
State Physical Education Department®
It is appropriate -to con-i?
sider the very Important part physical education plays in our
present curriculum.
Physical Education"
Different kinds of physical education programs have existed
in all human societies.
The type of physical education program
supported by a society is naturally determined by the religious
and social attitudes that exist in that society.
In the social structure to make physical education a part
of the education program, attitude has played an important part.
In fact, not so many years ago, teachers and administrators were
almost certain that all education happened in the schoolroom
and consisted of what was then known as the 3 R ’sj namely, read­
ing, writing and arithmetic.
Thus, contempt for the body, em­
phasis on book learning, and the fear of play as attitudes and
ideals prejudiced the schools for generations.
'These prejudices
associated with a narrow definition of culture, and the U3e of
the terms "special subjects" and "extra-curricular activities"
have handicapped physical education so severely that it has been
extremely difficult to convince educators and the public that
the physical education program has significant values.
School
administrators, teachers, and particularly the public must in­
still a favorable attitude toward physical education If it is
to be a valuable part of the school program.
Most of the people
■ftThese statements are the opinions of the investigator.
70
In School District #14- believe that their physical education
program has values that can not be easily discerned#
Physical Education has been included In the school program
because of Its health values, and its educational and recreation­
al values.
Physical education can be best offered as part of
the school program because of Its educational values.
Physical
education deals with one particular group of activities®
Prom the standpoint of the educator, educational results
occur whenever a pupil engages in activities.
The music teacher
sets the stage for her pupils to secure educational results from
music activities.
The English teachers sense adult leadership
so that pupils may secure development from communicative activi­
ties.
Likewise, the physical education teacher organizes the
pupils in a program designed to accept certain educational
measures through physical education activities.
Hence, it is
frequently said that physical education is education for big
muscle activities.
This conception demands that physical education activities
be considered a means of education; not only to produce big
muscles or posture or soldiers necessarily, but also to secure
as individuals, health, normal desirable attitudes and sxxitable
social conduct.
Adherents of the modern school are attempting
to provide for the development of the whole child.
that the organism is a whole or a unit.
They realize
In many schools physical
education does assist materially In all other fields of individ­
ualized education; so far this aspect of our curriculum has been
neglected.
School District #14 should be congratulated that it
has set the precedent for schools of an average daily attendance
of only a few over 700 by providing a male and a female teacher
so that both sexes can receive adequate physical education in­
struction.
.72
CHAPTER XVII
SCHOOL DISTRICT #15
School District #15 is a very small community with a popu­
lation of approximately 100 people»
It has one school building
with one classroom.
The total registration for the year in this one classroom
was 18 with an average daily attendance of 16.2 pupils.
assessed valuation for the area is $1,332,039.
The
The expenditures
for the year may be classified as follows:
General Control
Instructional Service
$
15.00
1,917.75
Operation of Plant
4-41.87
Maintenance
223.65
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
25.03
180.46
Total Current Expenses $2,803.76
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
____ ______
$2, 803.76
The average assessed valuation per child in average daily
attendance is $82,224 which is very much higher than $15,494,
the average assessed valuation per child in average daily at­
tendance for the entire area.
73
The per pupil in average daily attendance costs for each
of the budgetary Items as well as the per pupil cost for the
entire area follow:
General Control
Average
$ 3.45
School District
tp
a92
Instructional Service
81.75
113o34
Operation of Plant
16.66
27 a27
4.50
13o80
10.00
1,54
6.87
11.20
Total Current Expenses # 123.23
3173.07
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
38.78
--
2.97
__
3 164.98
#175.07
School District #15, a one room school district, is an ex­
cellent example to use in connection with a discussion which
advocates the need for district re-organization in Hew York
State9
A discussion of this matter appears in Chapter Vi. Dis­
trict #15, which has an average assessed valuation per child in
average daily attendance of #82,224 has about five and one half
times the wealth per child in average daily attendance than has
the average school district for the entire area (p. 72).
Some of the per pupil costs for School District #15 need
consideration.
The per pupil cost of Instructional Service is
the highest in the entire area, #118.34 per child.
Despite this
fact, the salary of the teacher in this school district is #1500
74
which is more than $200 less than the average salary of the
area#
The per pupil cost for Operation of Plant in School
District #15 is $27.27 compared with an average of $16.66, or
a total of $10.61 more per pupil.
Maintenance is more than
three times the average, or $13.80 for School District #15 as
compared with an average for the area of #4.50.
In spite of
fact that cost for Operation of Plant and Maintenance items are
so much greater than the average, it must be noted that the
children in the one room school of School District #15 have a
small coal stove which very inadequately heats the school and
which dispenses considerable coal gas and dust.
Auxiliary Agencies has a total of #1.54 per pupil but it
has absolutely no art service, music service, nurse service,
professional medical service, or dental service, which are con­
sidered essentials in most modern school systems.
Fixed Charges
for School District #15 was #11.20 compared with #6.87 for the
average.
This is a total of $4.33 In excess of the average of
the area.
The Total Current Expense was #123.26 per pupil.
It is
highly significant that the per pupil cost for current expenses
of School District #15 is just a few cents under #50 more per
pupil than for the average per pupil cost of the area.
This Is
inspite of the fact that the teacher receives much less payj
text books and school supplies are very limited, and many of the
other usual school services are either lacking entirely or are
offered to a very limited extent.
.75
CHAPTER XVIII
SCHOOL DISTRICT #16
School District #16 is a district with a population of
approximately 6,000 people.
It has three school buildings.
The total registration for the year in these three school
buildings was 977 with an average daily attendance of 946.8
pupils.
The assessed valuation for the district is $13,180,945.
The expenditures for the year are as follows!
General Control
$
2,134.59
Instructional Service
71,295,80
Operation of Plant
15,927.53
Maintenance
621.26
Auxiliary Agencies
3,140.17
Fixed Charges
5,755.12
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
$ 98,852.47
55,499.00
1,064.07
$155,415.54
The average assessed valuation per child in average daily
attendance is $13,921, as against $15,494 for the area.
The per pupil in average daily attendance costs for each
T S T york u n iv e r s it y
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
©
IIBRARY
®
76
of the budgetary items as well as the per pupil cost for the
entire area follows
Average
$ 3.45
General Control
School District #16
# 2.25
Instructional Service
81.75
75.30
Operation of Plant
16.66
16.82
4.50
.66
10.00
3.32
6.87
6.05
$123.23
$104.40
38.78
58.62
2.97
1.12
$164.98
$164.14
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Total Current Expense
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
Since the average assessed valuation per child in average
daily attendance for School District #16 is $13,921 and the
average assessed valuation per child in average daily attend­
ance for the entire area is $15,454, it follows that the per
pupil wealth of School District #16 is less than the average
for the entire area.
The budget of School District #16 is very
much in proportion to its wealth.
The complete per pupil cost
is 84 cents less than for the entire area, which was $164.98.
This would be much lower if the Debt Service cost were not
almost $20 more per pupil.
The salary schedule in School District #16 is a good one
if the wealth of the school district is taken into considera­
tion.
The average salary per teacher is about $50 less than
77
the average for the entire area.
Auxiliary Agencies is only
one-third of the average for the entire area, because the three
schools of School District #16 are located in such strategic
places that very limited bus service is necessary.
The administrators of School District #16 have been trying
very diligently to provide more adequate music instruction.
A
full-time teacher who has specialized in music education is not
only desirable in a school system which has an average daily
attendance of 946.8 pupils, but in these times it may be con­
sidered essential.
It is hoped that the Board of Education
will see its way clear to put this recommendation of the school
administrators into effect at any early date.
The per pupil
cost would be less than $1.50.
Music Education"
The study of music in the public schools may be considered
primarily as a human activity that is associated with every
phase of living.
To understand it better and to use it more
intelligently is the educational birthright of every child,
second only to the birthright of language®
If this is true, on what foundations in human experience
must we build In performance and education?
basic relationships are proposed:
(1)
The following
the relationship be­
tween music and language, (2) the relationship between music
and bodily movement, (3) the relationship between music and
human desires.
As for this third relationship, it is probably safe to say
-ftThese statements represent the opinions of the investigator.
•78
that it is inclusive and includes the first two*
Our feelings
are made known by means of language or a gesture and frequently
accompany our desires by putting forth effort that involves
physical movement*
Language conveys meaning not merely by rea­
son of the words used in sentence construction, but also be­
cause of inflections employed, the stresses chosen, and rhythms,
and tempos used*
Many simple sentences can take on a different
meaning with slight tone inflection*
Trained, imaginative music teachers occasionally get their
classes to converse in music.
To accomplish these ends, how­
ever, is more than can be expected of the ordinary classroom
teacher who may have no special ability in music.
Proper music
direction in our public schools can no longer be considered one
of the frills of education; it is one of the essentials.
A good music teacher is faced with the following chal­
lenges that must be met wherever work in music is really pro­
gressive:
(1)
Music is still a "subject11, in the old sense of the word
so far as the necessary skills are concerned in reading and
writing the symbols and in performance®
A trained teacher
understands, however, that this subject, with all its human
qualities bears vital relationships to other subjects in the
curriculum.
(2)
The music teacher is confronted with one of the most im­
portant of all tasks, namely, the training of individuals with
all their differences to co-operate in writing, singing, and
playing musical messages which express the feeling of the
group.
She must be able to single out the individual who can
79
go on to higher achievement in her subject and'give him the
necessary guidance without making others conscious of any feel­
ing of inferiority.
The voice of each of these is iraportant
and must be made as articulate a3 possible in an ensemble of
democratic society.
ao
CHAPTER XIX
SCHOOL DISTRICT #17
School District #17 is a community with a population a
few over 3,700 people.
There is one school building.
The
assessed valuation for the district is ^4,488,686.
The total registration for the year in this one building
Is 510 with an average daily attendance of 485.3 pupils.
The
expenditures of the year may be classified as follows:
General Control
Instructional Service
Operation of Plant
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
$ 2,000.17
31,315.96
7,082.03
648.64
5,948.88
. 5,518.42
Total Current Expenses sji> 50,514.10
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
20,800.61
144.84
$ 71,459.55
The average assessed valuation per child in average daily
attendance is <#9,249.
The per pupil in average daily attendance costs for each
of the above mentioned items as well as the per pupil cost for
•81
the entire area follow;
General Control
Average
$ 3.45
School District #17
$4.13
Instructional Service
31.75
64.53
Operation of Plant
16.66
14.59
4.50
1.33
10.00
8.13
6.87
7.26
Total Current Expenses $> 123.23
$ 99.97
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed. Charges
Debt Service
38.78
42.36
Capital Outlay___________ ___ 2.97
Complete Total
$> 164.98
.29
$143.12
School District #17 is by far the least wealthy district
in the area.
The average assessed valuation per child in aver­
age daily attendance is $9,249 compared with $15,454 in the
average school district of the area.
It is highly significant
that School District #17 has $649 less wealth per child than
any other district.
In spite of the fact that the district is so lacking in
wealth, it would seem that the Board of Education has not com­
pared its school costs very closely with other school districts.
Under the item of General Control the per pupil expenditure for
School District #17 was $4.15 compared with an area average ex­
penditure of $3.45.
This discrepancy may be traced directly
to an expenditure of $1.55 per child for an attendance officer.
1.
Included under General Control.
1
32
School District #3 has a per child expenditure for an attendance
officer of 51 cents •
The per pupil expenditure for an attend­
ance officer in School District #17 is more than three times that
in School District #3.
School District #17 makes a per pupil expenditure of $64,53
for Instructional Service} its salary schedule for the school is
the lowest in the area.
However, an expenditure was recently-
made of $1,700 for an organ for the auditorium.
It would seem
that the $lj?00 could have been used to better advantage, since
it was necessary for the district to economize so drastically
on other items.
School District #17 has just contracted for a teacher to
teach instrumental music to about fifty children in the school
with a view toward forming a school band.
be a most commendable procedure.
Ordinarily this would
However, School District #17
has neither a special art teacher nor a special music teacher.
A special art teacher and a special music teacher are services
which could be made available to each of the 510 children in the
school.
The instrumental music teacher, who comes to the school
only once a week, can take care of only fifty children In the
school or about ten per cent of the school enrollment.
It would
seem that the directors of School District #17 would do better
if they would delay employing an Instrumental music teacher un­
til both the musical and art instruction in the school compared
favorably with the other schools in its area.
Probably a close perusal of the per pupil cost in School
District #17 would convince the Board of Education that In some
1.
Included under General Control In Chapter V, p. 21.
83
cases the limited finances of the district could be spent
more judiciously#
.84
CHAPTER XX
SCHOOL DISTRICT #18
School District #18 is a district with a population of
approximately 3,400 people.
This community has one school build­
ing.
The total registration for the year in this school is 481
with an average daily attendance of 430.6 pupils.
valuation for the area Is §7,326,829,
The assessed
The expenditures for the
year may be classified as follows:
General Control
§
2,44-9.88
37,111.42
Instructional Service
Operation of Plant
5,753.31
Maintenance
2,979.45
Auxiliary Agencies
3,589.70
Fixed Charges
3,144.51
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
r!!>
55,028.27
14,595.07
195.74
'iP 69,819.08
The average assessed valuation per child in average daily
attendance Is §18,176, which is higher than the average as­
sessed valuation (§15,494), per child in average daily attend­
ance for the entire area.
85
The per pupil in average daily attendance costs for each
of the above mentioned items as well as the per pupil cost for
the entire area follow:
General Control
Average
$ 3.45
School District #18
6 5 .68
Instructional Service
81.75
86.18
Operation of Plant
16.66
13.36
4.50
6.92
10.00
8.34
6.87
7.31
$ 123.23
$127.79
38.78
oo ©89
2.97
.46
$ 164.98
6162.14
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
School District #18 is one of the wealthier school dis­
tricts.
It has an average assessed valuation per child in aver­
age daily attendance of 618,176; the average for the entire
area is 615,454.
The budget is very capably administered. In­
structional Service has a per pupil expenditure of 686.18.
The teacher-salary schedule is slightly above the average,
1
and the money that is spent both for text books and school
1
supplies is also a little bit more than the money which is
*32*
spent in the average school district.
A careful consideration
is warranted of two items in the budget of School District #18,
1. Included in Instructional Service.
■JfrArea average for text books - §1.73.
Area average for Supplies - $2.81.
86
i.e.:
Operation of Plant and Maintenance. The combined per
pupil expenditure for Operation of Plant
School District #18 was $20.23.
and Maintenance in
The combined expenditure for
these two items in the average school district was $21.16.
In spite of the fact that School District #18 is noted for its
very efficient manner in which its plant is administered by
its custodians, its per pupil expenditure for these two items
was 88 cents less than the average school district.
It happens
too often that these two items are neglected in school dis­
tricts.
The implications for the careful administration of
each deserve the following statements:
The School Building"
For a very long time improvement of educational practice
has been given much attention, but it is only recently that
much attention has been given to the improvement of the school
building facilities and to the methods of maintaining these
facilities®
The increasing complexity of the modern education
program has made it necessary to provide a great variety of
facilities In the present day school building.
School maintenance, therefore, should be administered by
people who are familiar with all of its problems.
With the
newer buildings and with the improvements In the older build­
ings have come demands for a better type of housekeeping.
This demand came first from those responsible for installing
the modern machinery and service features in the school build-
*-These statements are the opinions of the investigator.
87
Ing.
As the tax payers learned of the improvements that were
being made, the demand became equally imperative from the pub­
lic that the school building be maintained in a manner that
would provide more adequate heating facilities, ventilation
and temperature control, and sanitary facilities.
School
Maintenance involves more than serving and protecting property;
it also involves protection of the school building and siipplies
brought to the building for use.
A more important purpose in school housekeeping is to pro­
vide facilities for the protection of the children.
In a group
of children collected in the school building one may expect to
find some disarrangement and disorganization.
Briefly, one may
expect.the building to show the effects of being used.
While
pupils should aid in protecting the school building, the nature
of the work done in the building will be a contributing factor
to its good or poor condition.
The maintenance program should
be developed to operate the facilities needed with the least
possible building deterioration.
One of the essentials of a school program is that It
should preserve the health and safety of the pupils by provid­
ing suitable and attractive conditions.
Every building should
have fire-resistive exits, non-slide stair treads, and contain
safety features.
In housekeeping, it Is essential that there
be no obstruction in hall3 and exits and that all exits be un­
locked when the pupils are in the building.
safety is that of health protection.
Another phase of
To protect the health of
pupils, it is essential that buildings have properly regulated
temperatures, suitable air movement and adequate sanitation.
88
It is also essential that the pupils work In classrooms which
are free from draft®
The light should be of proper
intensity
to prevent eye strain, thus preventing eye fatigue and later,
sight defects®
the day®
Many children make a home of the school during
In the building that may be exposed to contagious
diseases and other ailments which are common, it Is essential
that these hazards be reduced to a minimum by proper care of
the building.
Another effect of proper school care is on the conduct of
the students®
An uninteresting room or building invites mark­
ing and marring much more than does a clean, attractive, 7/elllighted building.
let®
Children have energies that must have out­
Under conditions 7/here this energy is directed into
proper channels there will be less tendency on the children's
part to display non-sanctioned school activities®
Pupils v/ho
are proud of their school and v/ho feel it is theirs want to
support the school and be on their best behavior when in the
building.
Pride in the building can be developed if the build­
ing is v/orthy of appreciation.
Pew of us had any real pride in
the older school roomsj too often the school building and
grounds v/ere an eye-sore to the landscape.
Pupils learn best when in a cheerful mood.
A happy mood
is closely associated with comfort and cheerful surroundings.
Proper school care is of even greater importance when we real­
ize the value of the school building as a teaching device.
One
of the major purposes in education is to teach boys and girls
to want the better things in life and to help them to develop
the necessary skills to satisfy these wants®
For many boys and
89
girls the school building is the finest building that they will
ever call home®
For many of them it is the best appointed, the
most comfortable, the most sanitary, and the most convenient
building in which they will ever live®
Many of these boys and
girls set up their ideals of convention and comfort as well as
of housekeeping pictures by the conditions which they find in
the school building®
The administrators and custodians of School District #18
are to be congratulated in having a school plant that is handled
in such an efficient way®
90
CHAPTER XXI
SCHOOL DISTRICT #19
School District #19 Is a community with approximately
2000 people.
There are two school buildings.
The assessed
valuation for the district i s -£4,929,548.
The total registration for the year in these two school
buildings v/as 290 pupils, with an average daily attendance of
269.9 pupils.
The expenditures for the year may be listed as
follows:
General Control
Instructional Service
# 1,521.73
16,413.37
Operation of Plant
5,350.42
Maintenance
2,861.05
Auxiliary Agencies
2,590.17
Fixed Charges
1,874.69
Total Current Expense
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
,611.43
26,207.79
508.03
j>6G,127.25
The average assessed valuation per child in average
daily attendance is #18,264.
The per pupil In average daily attendance costs for
91
each of the bxidgetary Items as well as the per pupil cost for
the entire area follows.
Average
;ij> 3.45
General Control
School District
# 5.64
Instructional Service
81.75
71.93
Operation of Plant
16.66
19.82
4.50
10.00
10.00
9.59
6.87
7.55
#123.23
#124.53
38.78
97.10
2.97
1.14
#164.98
#222.77
Maintenance
Auxiliary Agencies
Fixed Charges
Total Current Expenses
Debt Service
Capital Outlay
Complete Total
School District #19 is a larger school district than
the average.
The average assessed valuation per child in
average daily attendance of School District #19 is #18,264
compared to an average assessed valuation per child in aver­
age daily attendance of v15,454 for the area.
These figures
indicate that School District #19 has approximately eighteen
per cent more wealth than the average foi* this area.
The
complete total cost per pupil was #222.77 for District #19
compared with the average of #164.98.
This #222.77 was the
greatest per pupil cost for the entire area.
This great
amount can be directly traced to a per pupil cost for Debt
Service of #97.10.
The average Debt Service cost per pupil
-92
in average daily attendance was #58.78.
The enormity of this
amount can best be realized by stating that it is #12.47 more
than the entire current expense cost per pupil of School Dis­
trict #7 (Chap. IX). furthermore, it is #58.48 mere than the
per pupil Debt Service cost for the district that is second
to School District #19 in the amount spent for Debt Service
(Chap. XVIII).
This example is a perfect illustration of the
necessity for re-districting this area in order that the dis­
tricts will contain enough children, that the per pupil costs
may be decreased as a result of judicious savings in those
budgetary items in which economies are possible.
In spite of the fact that the total per pupil cost is
greater than any other district, the teacher salary schedule
is very low.
The per pupil cost for Instructional Service is
#71.93 compared with an average expenditure of #81.75.
On
the other hand, the per pupil cost for Maintenance was vl0.60
which was a great deal more than twice the area average per
pupil expenditure of #4.50.
It is very difficult to reconcile
the discrepancy In these two items.
A careful Investigation
is warranted.
The per pupil cost for total current expenses in School
District #19 was #124.53 compared with an area average expend­
iture of #123.23.
This was only #1.30 more per pvipil 'which Is
not beyond the economic capacity of the district, because the
district has eighteen per cent more wealth per pupil than the
average school district of the area.
The per pupil Debt Serv­
ice cost, which is almost #100, is an unwarranted expenditure
.93
that is draining nearly one-half of all the money that is
spent in School District #19.
CHAPTER XXII
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The following comments summarize briefly the conclu­
sions and recommendations which may be made for this area as
a result of the study:
(1) The number of school districts which exist at the
present time should be reduced, through the formation of larger
administrative areas.
These larger areas could more economi­
cally and effectively administer the special services that
the small districts are now unable to afford.
Larger schools
could be established which would make it possible to provide
richer, broader instructional programs.
This larger administrative unit, In which a number of
smaller schools are consolidated, would make it possible to
,
have more effective supervision, better library units, more
special services, and more adequate provision for handicapped
children in all of these localities than is possible when
local administrative units are small.
The larger administra­
tive unit would also insure a more speedy elimination of small
schools•
(2) A more practical solution to the problem of more
adequately financing the educational program which the people
of this area want and need is necessary.
The facts clearly
indicate that the educational program which the people need
95
and want will demand an increase in state aid.
Although the
Increase may appear large when viewed hy itself, it will seem
relatively small when the amount needed is compared with the
educational service it will purchase.
This is not to imply
that the present state aid system is not basically sound.
It
s.imply indicates certain refinements In the present system
that have been made necessary by changes in our educational
curriculum and resulting increases in the cost of education
since 1925.
Khat needs to be done is to smooth out both old
and new inequalities.
The three changes
that are necessary
follow:
(A) A defensible foundation program of education should
be equalized throughout the state.
Every community should be
able to provide at least this minimum program of education.
(B) A greater portion of the tax burden for supporting
this foundation program should be allocated to taxes levied
and collected by the entire state.
This would relieve the
local property tax and would not change the present system of
home rule.
(C) The division of responsibility for control of the
educational program between local and. state agencies should be
handled in such a manner as to promote a co-operative opera­
tion of home rule and economic expenditure of public funds.
The fundamental change which Is suggested in (A), (B),
and (C) applies, for the most part, to a change in the formula
•{{■These are the opinions of the Investigator based on his
experience»
96
for the distribution of state aid.
This formula for state aid
which is called the Frieds am Formula, was put into effect in
1925.
The state guarantees that each community receives money
for a minimum program of education.
The financially poor com­
munity gets more, the richer community loss; but it is adjusted
so that each child is given an equal chance.
The money collect­
ed by the state through its broad taxing powers is sent back to
the communities and the poor community receives more than it
sends.
The formula actually works in this way:
(a) A reason­
able number of children for each class in the grade school was
estimated to be 27 pupils.
This group is called an "elementary
teacher unit" for which the state agrees to pay a sum of $1500
a year for the education of this group.
(b) This does not
solve the problem of evening up the burden between the rich
districts and the poorer districts.
the following way:
This is accomplished in
The assessed valuation of the district is
multiplied by six-tenths of a mill.
from the basic sum described in (a).
This amount is subtracted
Thus, the poorer a dis­
trict is, the more state aid it will reeeive.
However, times have changed.
The estimated cost of an
"elementary teacher unit" is now much more than V15G0«
A re­
cent recommendation by the Committee on State Aid of the Edu­
cational Conference Board of Hew York State is that the cost
of an "elementary teacher unit" is ijp3000.
If the amount al­
lotted £r an "elementary teacher unit" Is $5000 rather than
$1500, a large increase in the amount of state aid necessary
can be avoided by deducting three and six-tenths mill3 from
97
the full valuation rather than six-tenths of a mill.
This is
six times the present rate of six-tenths of a mill.
Recently,
Dr. Paul Mort estimated that the total increase in 3tate-aid
would be only about $4,000,000.
This is approximately an in­
crease of throe per cent over the present amount.
Other factors that would tend to eliminate even this
$4,000,000 increase are:
(A) A continuing decrease of attendance.
(33) Increase in property valuation in the forthcoming
years.
(C)
The creation of larger school districts that will
cost less under the plan recommended then, under the existing
plan.
A redistribution of state aid according to the plan
that is recommended above would be of inestimable value to
this particular area.
It would help considerably if "average
daily attendance" were to be abandoned as a basis of pupil
computation and substitute, "pupils registered”, which would
more, accurately measure the actual burden without encouraging
the attendance of sick children in school.
(3)
It is recommended that each elementary school shovOd
have a kindergarten.
Many educators are convinced that the
kindergarten is a very desirable addition to the elementary
school.
Youngsters five years old or less are just reaching
that stage of maturity when they are becoming interested in
children of their own age and adults who are not inside their
family circle.
A good kindergarten places an important em-
98
phasis on providing these children with experience in learning
to adjust themselves to other children and to adults.
It is a
profitable experience for the five year old to learn to live
with other children and to be given practice in developing
habits and instincts other than his baby tendencies and in­
stincts .
The good kindergarten should be vitally concerned with
physical and emotional aspects of child growth.
The experi­
ences which are chosen should develop the child immeasurably
in regard to personality.
Briefly, the kindergarten must not
be a mere prepatory school designed to fit the child to do
successfully the academic work of the elementary school.
It
is not a training schoolj It is a place in which broader expe­
riences are provided for the child.
• It is not proposed that the kindergarten should be an
integral part of the elementary school in the sense that each
school must have a kindergarten.
However, It is recommended
that each school consider the advisability and the practical
advantages of the kindergarten.
In addition, it should be stated that the state aid
program should recognize the kindergarten as an Important ele­
ment in the school program, to the financial support of which
the state should contribute through state aid.
(4)
It is recommended that each school district consid­
er its salary schedule from a very realistic point of view.
The wealth of the district must be taken into consideration;
however, It is recommended that each school arrange a salary
schedule that will most equitably fit its situation.
99
There are several fundamental characteristics of a good
salary schedule for teachers.'"'
One of the most Important is
that, it should be almost entirely automatic.
In other words,
It should not be suited to the personal judgment of adminis­
trators who are sometimes biased and uninformed, and are always
subject to ordinary human error In reaching their decisions.
Another characteristic which Is essentia,! is that the general
plan should be constructive in the sense that it encourages
continued professional growth on the part of each individual
teacher whose salary Is involved in the plan,
/mother very
difficult consideration to arrange Is an apparent contradic­
tion to the first requirement, i.e.:
that it must be flexible
enough so that the really outstanding teacher may be recog­
nised and rewarded financially for oxitstanding service.
(5)
Essential instructional supplies, materials and
equipment that are up-to-date, well constructed, adequate and
attractive, are necessary for an effective educational program.
Any locality that cannot afford to maintain the minimum stand­
ards should have help from the state.
The state must take
steps to equalize this vital aspect of educational opportunity
among the schools throughout the state.
(8)
It is urgent that a more adequate program for the
education of handicapped children be provided.
Regulations
should be provided by the state which would enable school dis­
tricts to establish the necessary services.
State regulations
ttThese statements are the opinions of the investigator.
100
should require adjacent districts to contribute jointly to the
maintenance of such services.
(7) Regulations which are set up by New York State should
make it feasible for several districts to form co-operative
service districts which would include central libraries, medi­
cal workers, and social service workers.
(8) Definite responsibility for developing control and
financing adult education should be assumed by New York State.
This vital part of our present day program should remain as it
is now.
Adult education should stay voluntary, purposeful,
and individual; however, In the immediate future the function
of the state should net do more than remove the obstacles and
facilitate individual and group action.
Furthermore, all of
these plans for adult education should remain primarily local
and entirely free to change with changing conditions.
(9) The school people In each of these districts should
consider very carefully the per pupil cost for each activity
in surrounding districts.
The conditions should be Investi­
gated and the ultimate decision should be guided by the results
of this investigation.
This investigation might indicate some of the following
possible activities;
first, certain services should be ex­
tended, such as libraries and health education; second, certain
services should be curtailed, such as janitorial service;
third, new services should be introduced, such as music and
art; finally, certain old services, such as bus service, may
be eliminated v/ithout endangering the educational efficiency
.101
of the school system.
(X)) The people In this area, as well as In other areas
of New York State, want certain things from their educational
system.
They demand equivalent educational opportunity, a
democratic plan of education, character building education,
competent teachers, useful schools, home rule in education,
and at all tlinos economy and efficiency.
These are the objec­
tives which all the school people in the area should strive to
attain.
102
Bibliography
The following selected bibliography of the subject
under investigation has been found useful:
Abolson, Harold H., The Art of Educational Research: Its
Problems and Procedures. Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York,
World Book Company, 1933.
Parley, D.M., What to Tell the People About the Public Schools,
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1S29.
Kelley, T .L ., Scientific Method: Its Function in Research
and in Education, Macmillan Co., 1932.
_________ A Research Bulletin, Can the Nation Afford to Edu­
cate its Children? National Education Association,
November, 1928.
Pittinger, B.F., An Introduction to Public School Finance,
Houghton Mifflin Co., 1935.
_________ The Regents1 Inquiry Into the Character and Cost
of Public Education in the State of New "‘
York, McGraw-Hill
Book Co., 1938. 12 vohunes
Eckert, Ruth and Marshall, Thomas 0,, When Youth Leave
School.
Grace, Alonzo, G. and Moe, C.A., State Aid and School
Costs.
Judd, Charles H., Preparation of School Personnel.
Laine, Elizabeth, Motion Pictures and Radio.
Mailer, Julius B., School and Community.
Norton, Thomas L., Education for Work.
Reeves, F.W., Pansier, T., and Houle, C.O., Adult
Education.
Spalding, Francis T., High School and Life.
Wilson, Howard E ., Education for Citizenship.
Winslow, C.-S.A., The School Health Program.
Strayer, G.D. and Haig, R.M., Educational Finance Inquiry.
.103
Bibliography - Continued
Reports, Macmillan Co., 1924.
13 volumes
Alexander, C., Bibliography on Educational Finance.
Elliott, E.C. and Stevens, E .b ., Unit Costs in Higher
Education.
Henry, N.B., A Study of Public School Costs In
Illinois Cities.
Hunt, C .w ., The Cost and Support of Secondary Schools
in the State of Mew York.
McGaughy, J.R., The Fiscal Admin1strat ion of School
Systems .
Morrison, H.C., The Financing of Public Schools in
the State of Illinois.
Newcomer, M . , Financial Statistics of Public Education
in the United States.
Reeves, F . V v . , The Political Unit of Public School
Finance in Illinois.
Russell, u
, Holy, T.C. and others., The Financing
of Education in Iowa.
Sears, J.B. and Cubberly, E.P., The Finaneing of Edu­
cation In California.
Stoops, R.A., Elementary School Costs in the State of
Mew York.
Strayer, G.D. and Haig, R.M., The Financing of Educa­
tion in the State of New York.
Willet, G.'i/., The Public School Debt In Illinois.
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