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FREE PRINTED MATERIALS IN HEALTH EDUCATION

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University Microfilms
300 N orth Z e e b R oad
Ann A rbor, M ichigan 48106
A X erox E d u c a tio n C om pany
13-3440
U39C7
.E3
Storey, Edward Jerome.
1941
Free printed materials in health
.38
education...
New York, 1940.
vi,157 typewritten leaves.
29cm.
Final document (Ed.D.) - Hew York
university, School of education, 1941.
"Annotated bibliography": p.115-120.
"C-er.eral bibliography": p. 121-131.
s'
Shelf List
Xerox University Microfilms,
Ann A rbor, M ichigan 48106
THIS DISSERTATION HAS BEEN MICROFILMED EXACTLY AS RECEIVED.
F\r.
DEC 2 3 1 9 4 0
FREE RRBfTBD MATERIALS IN
HEALTH EDUCATION j
EDWARD J . STOREY
S u b m itte d i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f th e
r e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e d e g re e o f D o c to r o f
E d u c a tio n i n th e S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n o f
Rev York U n i v e r s i t y
1940
PLEASE NOTE:
Some pages may have
indistinct print.
Filmed as received.
University Microfilms, A Xerox Education Company
TABIE OP CONTENTS
C h a p te r
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS........................................................................................ iv
I.
II.
INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY....................... . ...............................
THE PROBIEM............................
10
...........
S ta te m e n t of t h e P ro b le m .
L im ita tio n s o f th e S tu d y .................... .....
S i g n i f ic a n c e o f th e Study i n t h e E d u c a tio n a l
••••••
P ro g ram ....................................
D e fin itio n s
....................
• • • • • • 12
..................
R e la t ed S tu d io s
III.
IV .
10
10
11
15
THE NEED FOR THE STUDY.............................................................. 18
COLLECTION OF FREE MATERIALS FROMCITY , STATE
AND FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.............................................................
M ethod o f C o l l e c t i n g th e M a t e r i a l s .
V.
1
EVALUATING PROCEDURE
.............
59
43
..................................................... 49
S e l e c t i o n o f E v a lu a tin g A g e n c ie s ..............................
49
G overnm ental an d P r i v a t e P r o t e c t i o n S e r v ic e s
f o r C o n su m e rs...................... ......................................• • • • • 58
D e te rm in in g Grade L e v e l o f P r i n t e d M a t e r i a l s . . . . 68
S eco n d ary S ch o o l J u r y f o r th e G ra d e -L e v e l De­
te r m in a t io n o f F re e P r i n t e d M a t e r i a l s i n H e a lth
E d u c a tio n ................................................. • • • • • ..................
73
C o n tin u a tio n o f E v a lu a tio n P ro c e d u re and L i s t ­
in g S e r v ic e f o r H e a lth E d u c a t o r s . . . . . . . . • • • • • • 74
V I.
A LIST OF FREE PRINTED MATERIALS IN HEALTH EDU­
CATION......................................................................................................76
F o u rte e n H undred P le o e s o f L i t e r a t u r e E xam ined. • 77
L i s t o f F re e P r i n t e d M a t e r i a l s f o r H e a lth Edu­
c a tio n ...
80
F re e G uides t o P r i n t e d H e a lth M a t e r i a l s 96
ii
TABIE OP CONTENTS (C o n c lu d e d )
C h a p te r
Page
V II.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS........................................ 100
Ca n c l u s l o n s ......................
100
Recom m endations f o r F u r t h e r S tu d y ................
108
S p e c if i c Recom m endations f o r Im m ediate A ct i o n . • 109
SPECIFIC BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................ 115
GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................................. 121
132
APPENDIX......................
ill
ACKNOWIEDGEMENTS
I m ust e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dean E . George Payne
f o r h i s t h o u g h t f u l g u id a n c e and c o o p e r a tio n I n my i n v e s t i g a ­
t i o n a s p r o j e c t e d In t h i s d ocum ent.
My p ro fo u n d g r a t i t u d e i s due t o P r o f e s s o r F ra n k S .
L loyd f o r h i s s u g g e s tio n o f th e t o p i c and f o r h i s o v e r-v ie w o f
t h e docum ent upon i t s c o m p le tio n .
An e q u a l m easure o f a p p re ­
c i a t i o n i s d i r e c t e d t o P r o f e s s o r E a r l H. G a b le r f o r h i s ab u n d an t
a d v ic e and k i n d ly c r i t i c i s m .
A ll t h r e e gave me a v a lu a b le
s h a r e o f t h e i r know ledge and wisdom d u r in g my p o s t - g r a d u a t e
s t u d i e s i n t h e S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n , New York U n i v e r s i t y .
Acknowledgem ent o f In d e b te d n e s s i s a l s o made t o th e
i n d i v i d u a l s and s t a f f s o f t h e f o llo w in g p e r i o d i c a l p u b l i c a ­
tio n s :
Jo h n B enson, P r e s i d e n t , A m erican A s s o c ia tio n o f Ad­
v e r t i s i n g A g e n c ie s; A lf r e d T . F a l k , D i r e c t o r , B ureau o f R e­
s e a r c h and E d u c a tio n , A d v e r tis in g F e d e r a t io n o f A m erica; Henry
W. M ark s, M anager, R e a d e r 's S e r v i c e , P r i n t e r 's In k P u b l i c a t i o n s .
I n c . , and t h e s t a f f ; Anna S te e s e R ic h a r d s o n , D i r e c t o r Con­
sum er D i v i s i o n , C ro w e 1 1 -C o llie r P u b lis h in g Company: Irw in
R o b in so n , M anaging E d i t o r , a n d h i s s t a f f , o f A d v e r tis in g Age:
A. P . M i l l s , E a s te r n E d i t o r , A d v e r tis in g Age: C h r is to p h e r
B ro o k s, A s s i s t a n t E d i t o r , Good H o u sek eep in g : F re d C . K e n d a ll,
E d i t o r , A d v e r tis in g and S e l l i n g ; R o b e rt I . E l l i o t , M anaging
E d i t o r , A d v e r tis in g and S e l l i n g ; R ic h a rd R o le y , E d i t o r ,
iv
Modern L ith o g ra p h y : P h i l i p S a l i s b u r y , E d i t o r , S a le s Manage­
m en t; D avid F r e d e r i c k , P u b l i s h e r , T id e M agazine: M anuel R osen­
b e r g , E d i t o r and P u b l i s h e r , A d v e r ti s e r M agazine: N e lso n H. Budd,
E d i t o r , C anning Age; M r. A. Q. M a is e l, E d i t o r , and M r. C h a r le s
B r e s k ln , P u b l i s h e r , Modern P a c k a g in g ; M r. M. Ohm P o t t l l t z e r ,
E d i t o r , P a c k a g in g P a r a d e : M r. M i l l e r , Food I n d u s t r i e s : an d M r.
C a r l Dipman, P r o g r e s s iv e G ro c e r.
In d e b te d n e s s i s a l s o e x p re s s e d
f o r t h e i r c o n tin u e d c o o p e r a tio n t o th e s t a f f s o f th e f o llo w in g
p ro fe s s io n a l p u b lic a tio n s :
J o u r n a l o f th e A m erican M e d ic a l
A s s o c ia tio n ; J o u r n a l o f t h e A m erican D e n ta l A s s o c ia tio n ; P r a c ­
t i c a l Home E conom ics; H y g ela: J o u r n a l o f Home E conom ics; H e a lth ;
L if e and H e a lth : and th e J o u r n a l o f H e a lth and P h y s i c a l E duca­
t i o n ; I n s t i t u t e f o r P ropaganda A n a ly s is .
In th e p h a s e s o f H e a lth E d u c a tio n w hich r e q u i r e d s p e c i a l
c o n f e r e n c e s , I am I n d e b te d f o r much f a i t h f u l a s s i s t a n c e t o D r.
M arion L e r r i g o , D r. M a r i e t ta E l c h e l b e r g e r , D r. L i l l i a n E .
D a v is , M r. Raymond H o p k in s, D r. M a rg u e rite H ussey and D r. H.
F . K ila n d e r.
F o r th e in f o r m a tio n w hich p r o v id e s t h e b a ck g ro u n d f o r
th e d i s c u s s i o n s o f consum er e d u c a t i o n , g o v e rn m e n ta l f u n c t i o n s
p r o f e s s i o n a l consum er o r g a n i z a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l r e s e a r c h .
I
am p le a s e d t o acknow ledge my added d e b t t o D r. R . A. V o n d e rle h r
o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s P u b lic H e a lth S e r v i c e , t o M r. D onald Mont­
gomery o f t h e A .A .A ., Consum ers C o u n s e l, D epartm ent o f A g ri­
c u l t u r e , and t o M r. F r e d e r i c k J . S c h lih k o f C onsum ers1 R e­
se a rc h .
F o r d i s c u s s i o n o f e d u c a ti o n a l m eth o d , p h ilo s o p h y and
v
g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g ro u n d o f fu n d a m e n ta ls an d a p p l i c a ­
t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s , I am a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e g r e a t a s s i s t a n c e
g iv e n t o me by M r. W illia m A. Rex an d t o my p e r s o n a l f r i e n d
and c o n s ta n t a d v i s e r , C . Don M odlca, I n s t r u c t o r , D ep artm en t
o f t h e P h ilo s o p h y o f E d u c a tio n , New York U n i v e r s i t y , who h a s
k e p t dynam ic my a w are n ess o f c o n te m p o ra ry p h ilo s o p h ic t r e n d s .
F i n a l l y , my o b l i g a t i o n s a r e im m easurable t o M r. J . C.
M enkin, P u b lic R e la ti o n s C o u n se l an d fo rm e r C o n s u lta n t Edu­
c a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r o f a num ber o f T rad e A s s o c i a t i o n s , who h a s
ta u g h t me t o g a in a n u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e in n u m e ra b le r a m i f i ­
c a t i o n s o f t h e b u s i n e s s o f m a r k e tin g , m e rc h a n d is in g a n d a d ­
v e rtis in g .
I t r u s t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h i s s tu d y r e f l e c t s , a t
l e a s t i n p a r t , a d e q u a te t r e a tm e n t o f th e s u b j e c t w h ich he h a s
h e lp e d me t o r e a l i z e .
B ecause o f t h e p a t i e n c e and c o n s i d e r a t i o n e x te n d e d t o
me w h ile d e v e lo p in g t h i s d o c u m e n t, I h e re b y d e d ic a t e t h i s
s tu d y t o my lo v in g w i f e , H e le n .
Edward J . S to r e y
D ecem ber, 1940
vi
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY
■ E v ery man and woman who w alk s t h e s t r e e t s i s a p h i l o ­
s o p h e r; e a c h t h i n k s a b o u t l i f e , b u t d o e s n o t alw ay s know th e
" a n s w e r s ."
Econom ic s u r g e s su c h a s t h a t w h ic h f o llo w e d t h e
W orld War an d c u lm in a te d i n t h e d e p r e s s io n o f 1929 h a s b ro u g h t
A m erican c i t i z e n s t o t h i n k more a b o u t th e b u s i n e s s o f l i v i n g .
W hile many t h e o r i e s have b e e n a d v an ced t o b r i n g A m erica o u t
o f c h a o s th r o u g h s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l em p h a se s, th e c o n s ta n t
f a c t o r w ith w h ic h A m erica c o n tin u e s t o w r e s t l e i s e c o n o m ic .
P eo p le have become c a u t i o u s a b o u t s p e n d in g t h e i r m oney.
Those
who hav e had l i m i t e d Incom es have e x e r o l s e d c a r e , w h ile th o s e
who have p ro v e d th e m s e lv e s t o be more o u ts ta n d in g econom ic im­
b e c i l e s b y t h e i r c o m p u lsio n t o r e s o r t t o th e a i d o f t h e p u b lic
o r p r i v a t e w e lfa r e a g e n c ie s , h av e h ad l i m i t e d b u d g e ts t h r u s t
upon th em by t h e j u d i c i o u s an d lo v in g c a r e o f t h e s o c i a l
w o rk e rs.
In any e v e n t , A m erica i s b e in g t a u g h t t o b e c a r e f u l .
But i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f an e x tre m e , a n o t h e r , o p p o s ite
e x tr e m e , may b e e x p e c te d .
By t h e c o n s ta n c y o f P h y s ic a l lew ,
"ev e ry a c tio n has a r e a c tio n ."
I n A m erican econom ic l i f e ,
t h e r e f o r e , f o r e v e r y move d e s ig n e d t o sa v e d o l l a r s , t h e r e i s
a c o r r e s p o n d in g ly o p p o s ite move t o u rg e c i t i z e n s t o sp e n d
th o s e d o l l a r s .
Toward t h e s u c c e s s f u l a cco m p lish m en t o f t h i s
a im , m inds m ust b e " c o n d i t i o n e d ."
1
W itn e s s t h e c e a s e l e s s b a r -
2
ra g e of a d v e r t i s i n g p ro p a g a n d a by means o f p r e s s and r a d i o .
S e l l i n g m erc h an d ise has become more d i f f i c u l t .
As a r e s u l t ,
" h ig h - p r e s s u r e " m ethods i n s e l l i n g to t h e p u b l ic have become
more p r e v a l e n t .
Nov, s i n c e q u e s tio n a b le p r a c t i c e s have a p p e a re d b o ld ly
i n t h e p r a o t i o e s o f p u rv e y in g s a l a b l e p r o d u c t s , t h e n e ed o f
p u b lic e d u c a tio n t o c o u n te r a c t i t becomes a r e a s o n a b le I n ­
fe re n c e .
M a lp r a c tic e and m is r e p r e s e n t a t i o n have become so ob­
v i o u s , t h a t i n t e r v e n t i o n h a s r e s u l t e d fro m s o c i a l , econom ic and
p o litic a l so u rc e s.
A ll t h e s e f a c t o r s co m b in ed , t h e r e f o r e ,
have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e n u c le u s o f what h a s come t o be know i
a s t h e "consum er m ovem ent."
The f i r s t c o n c r e t i z a t i o n o f "C onsum ics," o r consum er
e d u c a ti o n , v a s b ro u g h t a b o u tin th e U n ite d S t a t e s b y F r e d e r ic k
J . S o h lin c k , i n 1929.
W ith t h e r a p i d g ro w th o f consum er a w a re ­
n e s s w hich f o llo w e d , added im p e tu s was g iv e n t o th e movement
by S c h l i n c k 's p u b l i c a t i o n o f " 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 G uinea P i g s ," i n
1933.
In th e m eantim e, two g o v e rn m e n ta l a g e n c ie s , t h e F e d e r a l
T ra d e Com m ission and th e Food and Drug A d m in is tr a tio n were
m aking t h e i r own c o n t r i b u t i o n s , n o t o n ly to w a rd consum er e d u ­
c a t i o n , b u t a l s o t o th e more p r e s s i n g and im m ediate n e e d o f
consum er p r o t e c t i o n .
But th e s o c i a l la g h a s c o n tin u e d t o have i t s c o u n te r ­
p a r t i n E d u c a tio n .
Lack o f a p p r o p r i a t i o n s i n s c h o o l b u d g e ts
h a s ev o k ed a new em phasis fro m b u s i n e s s .
F u r th e r e m p h a sis upon
th e a s p e c t s of v o c a t io n a l and o c c u p a tio n a l e d u c a tio n have a l s o
c o n t r i b u t e d t o consum er c o n s c io u s n e s s , a s h a v e , a l s o , t h e i n ­
3
t r o d u c t i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l g u id a n c e and home econom ics I n th e
c u r r i c u l a o f many o f o u r A m erican sc h o o ls*
B ig B u s in e s s , I t ­
s e l f , h a s f e l t th e n e e d f o r a b ro a d e r consum er e d u c a ti o n ,
d o u b t l e s s l y an " e d u c a tio n " com m ensurate w ith i t s aim s b a s e d
u p o n m o tiv e f o r p r o f i t •
But t h e S c h o o l h a s f a i l e d t o m eet
t h e p ro b lem fro m two p o i n ts o f v iew ; f i r s t , i n t h e m a t t e r o f
co n v ey in g g e n e r a l in fo x m a tio n c o n c e rn in g b u y in g and s e l l i n g ;
s e c o n d ly , i n t h e m a tte r o f m aking p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n s b a se d
upon d e f i n i t e stu d y and r e s e a r c h w h ic h c o u ld have c o n tr i b u te d
t h e n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s and know ledges t o a c h ie v e t h a t m a n i f e s tl y
d e s i r a b l e end*
P eo p le know what t o b u y b e c a u se B ig B u sin e ss
" I n d o c t r i n a t e s " them v i a p ropaganda*
P e o p le do n o t know i n ­
t e l l i g e n t l y what t o b u y b e c a u se fo rm a l e d u c a tio n h a s f a i l e d
t o m eet th e problem o f s e l e c t i o n *
Nor i s t h i s
p lic a tio n s *
in d ic tm e n t w ith o u t i t s p h i l o s o p h i c a l im­
W hile some p r e s e n t - d a y t h i n k e r s a c c u s e th e
Deweian p r a g m a tis ts o f U n i l a t e r a l i s m , o n e - s id e d n e s s , em phasis
upon " d o in g ," " s u c c e s s ," " a c c o m p lish m e n t," i t i s c l e a r t h a t
s o c i a l and econom ic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r y to t h e aim
o f " in te g ra tio n * "
T hese p h a s e s c a n n o t b e n e g le c te d *
E th i­
c a l l y , th e I m p li c a t io n s up on b u s in e s s an d e d u c a tio n a re
e q u a lly obvio u s*
p o n d in g d u ty *
T h ere c a n e x i s t no r i g h t w ith o u t a c o r r e s ­
T h e r e f o r e , i f th e c i t i z e n h as t h e r i g h t t o know
t h e t r u t h , i f he has th e r i g h t t o p r o t e c t i o n i n th e f a c t o r s o f
l i f e , l i b e r t y and th e p u r s u i t o f h a p p in e s s , th e n t h e p r o p e r
A m erican I n s t i t u t i o n s , th e s c h o o l s , a s w e ll a s t h e g o v e rn m e n ta l
4
a g e n c i e s , s h a l l l o g i c a l l y b e a r t h e b u rd e n o f d u ty .
A " la is s e z -
f a i r e ” a t t i t u d e im p lie s v i n c i b l e ig n o r a n c e , a n a t t i t u d e th o r o u g h ly
In co m p a rab le w ith so u n d e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e , p sy c h o lo g y and
e th ic s .
A sa n e p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a tio n demands h o s p i t a l i t y t o
t r u t h and p u r p o s iv e n e s s , c o n fid e n c e and i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s o f m in d .
A ll f o u r f a c t o r s have f a i l e d t o make th e m s e lv e s f e l t a d e q u a te ly
i n t h i s n e c e s s a r y econom ic f a c t o r o f t h e i n t e g r a t i o n p r o c e s s .
The n e e d f o r fo rm a l in f o r m a tio n a n d g u id a n c e i n c o n ­
sum er e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , w i l l be d e m o n s tra te d i n C h a p te r I I I ,
Need f o r S tu d y , a s w i l l t h e u s e o f o t h e r m a t e r i a l s t o s u p p le ­
m ent te x tb o o k i n a d e q u a c ie s .
b u s in e s s r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
E d u c a tio n m ust become aw are o f
To be s u r e , s c h o o ls a r e becom ing aw are
r a p i d l y o f t h e n e e d f o r th e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f e x a c t c o u r s e s in
"C o n su m ics," i n t o th e c u r r ic u lu m .
A d e m o c ra tic p h ilo s o p h y o f
e d u c a ti o n , I d e a l i s t i c o r P r a g m a tic , m akes t h e n o t i o n o f c u r ­
ric u lu m e l a s t i c i t y p e r m i s s i b l e .
In A p r i l , 1 9 3 9 , t h e f i r s t I n s t i t u t e o f Consumer E duca­
t i o n was fo u n d ed a t S te p h e n s C o l le g e , C o lum bia, M is s o u r i, w ith a
t r u s t f u n d o f $ 1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 endowed by t h e A lf r e d J . S lo an e Founda­
tio n .
The i n a u g u r a ti o n o f t h e p r o j e c t was w e l l a tt e n d e d and
e v a lu a te d s i g n i f i c a n t l y by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l , e c o ­
n o m ic, an d e d u c a t i o n a l cam ps.
The E d u c a tio n a l D i r e c t o r s h i p o f
th e I n s t i t u t e was aw arded t o D r. Jam es E . M e n d e n h a ll, f o r m e r ly o f
C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y , a p i o n e e r i n th e f i e l d o f consum er e d u c a ti o n .
Now, w h ile home econom ios t e a c h e r s have b e e n t e a c h i n g
consum er e d u o a tio n f o r y e a r s , fro m t h e l a s t g e n e r a tio n when
5
young g i r l s a t t h e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l l e v e l went once a week t o
th e D om estic S c ie n c e o l a s s , t o th e p r e s e n t t r e n d to w a rd t h e e n ­
r i c h e d Home Econom ics c u r r ic u lu m , t e a c h e r s c o u ld n o t e a s i l y e s ­
cape t a l k an d u se o f t h i s o r t h a t com m odity.
Consumer e d u c a ti o n ,
a s a m a t t e r o f f a c t , i s g o in g on m ost i n t e n s i v e l y i n o u r home
econom ics c l a s s e s t o d a y .
S h a l l E d u c a tio n d i s r e g a r d th e f u r t h e r
s e a rc h f o r p r a c t ic a l t r u t h s , p ro p e r s e le c tio n ?
F u rth e r, a re
g i r l s and women t h e o n ly consum ers?
I f , i n i t s econom ic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , e d u c a tio n w i l l
in c lu d e th e c o g n a te f a c t o r s o f economy i n t im e , e f f o r t , l a b o r
and ra w m a t e r i a l s i n " o o n su m ic s ," th e n i t w i l l have a c c o m p lish e d
p r o g r e s s i n one o f t h e g r e a t e s t m a t e r i a l and H u m an istic a s p e c ts
of our n a tio n a l l i f e .
A " w o rld -v ie w ” o f t h e p ro b lem becomes now n e c e s s a r y .
B u s in e s s h a s gone t o e x tre m e s i n a d v e r t i s i n g , d i s t r i b u t i n g and
p u rv e y in g c o m m o d itie s.
T h ere a r e i n d i c a t i o n s o f w h o le s a le d i s ­
r e g a r d f o r t r u t h s an d v a lu e s .
But e d u c a t i o n , a t t h e same t im e ,
h a s f a i l e d t o n o te t h e e x is te n c e o f th e p ro b le m , n o t t o m e n tio n
th e n e ed f o r i t s s o l u t i o n .
s h ip s b e tw een t h e s e f i e l d s .
M a n ife s tly , th e re e x i s t r e l a t i o n ­
T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e i s t h e p rim a ry
n e ed t o s y n t h e s i z e t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s , t o s e e k t h e e s ta b lis h m e n t
o f a u n ity o f p u rp o se .
T h a t , d o u b t l e s s l y , i s fc lo n g -ra n g e aim ,
b u t one t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y to th e d e te r m in a tio n o f a s t r a n g e r
N a tio n a l W il l , w ith c l e a r a lm s .
The W i l l , i n d i v i d u a l o r n a ­
t i o n a l , o b j e c t s t o d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , la c k o f d i r e c t i o n an d o r i e n ­
ta tio n .
The W i l l - l e s s l i f e
i s th e a i m - l e s s l i f e e v e ry t im e .
6
Consumer e d u c a tio n l a an AIM, c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d I n t h e i n ­
t e r e s t s o f A m sric a i U t i l i t a r i a n i s m and h e a l t h f u l l i v i n g .
Summary
Now t o p ro c e e d to w a rd th e f u l l e r i n t e g r a t i o n o f con­
sum ers i n h e a l t h e d u c a tio n (a f a c t o r w hich D r. Jo h n Dewey men­
t i o n s o n ly c a s u a l l y ) a g u id e t o th e l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e i n
t h e h e a l t h a s p e o t s o f s o c i a l and econom ic l i f e becomes a n e c e s ­
s a r y and v i t a l " i n s t r u m e n t ," t h e r e f o r e .
As w i l l be shown i n
t h i s d o cu m en t, t e a c h e r s n e e d an d w i l l u s e a g u id e t o f r e e p r i n t e d
m a t e r i a l s , an e v a l u a t i o n p ro c e d u re and a f l e x i b l e l i s t o f s o u rc e s
o f h e a l t h e d u c a tio n m a t e r i a l s , t o be u s e d a s s u b j e c t m a t t e r
to o ls .
T h e r e f o r e , ajpart o f t h i s t h e s i s i s a p io n e e r in g e f f o r t
d e v is e d t o t e n d to w a rd t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s p ro b lem and t o t h e
d evelopm ent o f an i n i t i a l m ethod w h ic h may be u s e d a s a p o in t
o f c o n t i n u i t y by e d u c a to r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and b u s in e s s and
p r i v a t e a g e n c ie s who c r e a t e and d i s t r i b u t e su c h m a t e r i a l s .
B e tt e r b u y in g p r a c t i c e s w i l l im prove t h e s o c i a l and
econom ic e f f i c i e n c y o f co n su m ers, a p re m ise a g a i n s t w hich n e i t h e r
t h e P r a g m a tis ts n o r th e I d e a l i s t s , i t i s a ssu m e d , s h o u ld u t t e r
any c o m p la in t.
Ig n o ra n c e o f fu n d a m e n ta l know ledges o f h e a l th y
l i v i n g h as opened t h e gatew ay f o r th e in v a s io n o f u n d e s i r a b l e
a d v e r t i s i n g and s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e s .
In view o f t h i s p ro b le m ,
t h e r e f o r e , t h i s s tu d y i s In te n d e d t o g iv e momentum t o t h e co n ­
sum er movement by c o n t r i b u t i n g a n o r g a n iz e d body o f know ledge
f o r t h e u se o f th e consum er and th e t e a c h e r .
7
F re e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s a r e b e in g u s e d w ith o u t much
th o u g h t g iv e n t o e v a l u a t i o n s and t o th e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f o b je c ­
tiv e r e a l i t i e s .
The mere o f f e r i n g o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s h a s d e t e r ­
m in e d , t o a l a r g e an d d a n g e ro u s m e a s u re , t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n and
su b se q u e n t a c c e p ta n c e .
In f a c t , t h e r e i s su c h a d e p lo r a b le
l a c k o f t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s i n some s c h o o l s , t h a t sany u n s e l e c te d
t o o l s o f t h i s n a t u r e a re em ployed, so lo n g a s th e y a r e a t t r a c ­
t i v e and have b e e n e f f e c t i v e l y p ro m o ted by th e ty p e o f a d v e r t i s ­
in g in te n d e d p r i m a r i l y and u l t i m a t e l y t o s e l l th e p r o d u c t .
W hile
s tr o n g e m o tio n a l a p p e a ls a r e m ade, l e t i t be ad d ed t h a t a more
s u b t l e a p p ro a c h i s f r e q u e n t l y u s e d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f m ore
" i n t e l l e c t u a l ” m inds; f o r , a d v e r t i s e r s , t o o , t h i n k and o p e ra te
in term s of I n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s !
E d i t i o n s an d r e p e a t e d r e - e d i t i o n s p ro v e t h a t t e x t- b o o k
m a t e r i a l s a re n e v e r c o m p le te ; c o n s e q u e n tly th e y do n o t alw ay s
f u l f i l l e x tr a m u r a l n e e d s .
T h e r e f o r e , f r e e p r i n t e d m a t t e r can
be u s e d f r e q u e n t l y t o supplem ent th e fo rm a l t o o l s .
T h is stu d y
s u g g e s ts t h e t o p i c s t h a t may be in c lu d e d i n th e c u rr ic u lu m and
t h e s o u r c e s fro m w hich th e y may b e o b t a i n e d .
W ith t h i s e v e r ­
p r e s e n t an d e x p a n d in g n e e d , new m a t e r i a l s m ust b e so u g h t con­
s t a n t l y i f , i n t r u t h , te a c h in g i s r e a l l y t o b e t h e "dynam ic
p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i f e , " w h i c h i t i s w id e ly p r o f e s s e d t o b e .
T h is r e s e a r c h , f u r t h e r , h a s b e en c o n d u c te d t o d e t e r ­
mine th e m ethods t h a t e x i s t i n A m erican s o c io -e c o n o m ic s f o r th e
a u t h e n t i c a t i o n an d s e l e c t i o n o f f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s w hich
a re b e in g c i r c u l a t e d a n d w h ich h a v e , a t t h e same t i m e , d e f i n i t e
c o n s t r u c t i v e and u s e f u l v a lu e s f o r t h e t e a c h e r o f h e a l t h e d u ­
8
c a tio n .
F o r s c i e n t i f i c d e te r m in a tio n a n d t h e developm ent o f
suoh an e v a l u a t i o n , th e m ethod a d ju d g e d p r o p e r h a s b een t o
em ploy e x i s t i n g g o v e rn m e n ta l and p r i v a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l a g e n c ie s
w hich have p r e v i o u s ly r e c o g n iz e d th e d e f i n e d n e e d , p r o v id in g
lis ts
o f a c c e p te d p r o d u c t s , b a s e d upon s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n
and s u b s e q u e n t l e g a l a p p r o v a l.
T h e r e f o r e , t h e m ethod i s n o t
d e li m it e d t o one i n v e s t i g a t o r , b u t may be u s e d a l s o b y an y i n ­
s t r u c t o r i n h e a l t h , s o c io lo g y , e c o n o m ic s, and i n t h e a l l i e d
fie ld s .
S tu d e n ts o f th e p ro b le m may e x p e c t f u t u r e im provem ent
i n t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f th e s e e v a l u a t i n g a g e n c ie s , and i n a more
co m p reh en siv e I n t e r e s t and a c t i v i t y , t h e r e f o r e , i t i s p r e d i c a t e d .
The e x a m in a tio n o f m ore th a n f o u r t e e n h u n d re d p ie c e s
o f m a t e r i a l e n a b le s s t u d e n ts an d t e a c h e r s t o c o n tin u e in d e p e n d e n t
r e s e a r c h a n d stu d y i n th e s u b j e c t , fro m t h e p a r t i c u l a r s t o th e
g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s , and vi&e v e r s a .
The l i s t o f m a t e r i a l s ,
f u r t h e r , i s f l e x i b l e , so t h a t s t u d e n t 3 an d i n v e s t i g a t o r s may
e x p e c t th e a u th o r t o sufcmit a d d it i o n s and ch an g e s i n f u t u r e e d i ­
t i o n s t o t h i s t r a c t , t o th o s e who may choose t o s u b s c r ib e t o
th em .
The c o n s c io u s n e s s o f th e n e e d f o r ni n t e g r a t l o n n i n ed u ­
c a t i o n i s now, more th a n e v e r b e f o r e , a p r o p o s i t i o n upon w hich
b o th I d e a lis m a n d P rag m atism i n A m erican e d u c a tio n a r e f u l l y i n
a c c o r d , i n th e l i g h t o f e t h i c a l , a s w e l l a s s o o i a l and e c o n o m ic ,
c o n s id e ra tio n s .
W ith t h o s e c o r r e l a t e d ends i n v iew , th e s tu d y
s u g g e s ts an d recom mends, s c i e n t i f i c a l l y and " v i c a r i o u s l y , 1* means
by w hich E d u c a tio n , Commerce, and Government c a n c o o p e ra te to w a rd
t h e p r o v i s i o n o f more a c c u r a te in f o r m a tio n f o r t h e g u id a n c e o f
9
c o n su m e rs.
A lth o u g h a p p a r e n t l y d e l i m i t e d t o t h e c o n s i d e r a ­
t i o n a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c h e a l t h m a t e r i a l s , th e same
p r in c ip le s a re a p p lic a b le t o o th e r p h ases o f e d u c a tio n a l, so ­
c i a l , eoonom lc a n d p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
w ith o u t o o o p e r a t ia n i s an a n a o h ro n ism .
In te g ra tio n
T o g e th e r , th e y c a n n o t
f a i l t o p ro v id e t h e consum er w ith a s te a d y d r i v e to w a rd a m axi­
mum d e g re e o f s o c i a l a n d econom ic e f f i c i e n c y , r a t h e r th a n t o
k e ep him re d u c e d t o a " s t a t i c minimum" by h i s c o n tin u e d Incom­
p e te n c e , t h e r e s u l t o f h i s v i n c i b l e ig n o r a n c e .
CHAPTER I I
THE PROBIEM
S ta te m e n t o f th e Problem
The p u rp o se o f t h i s s tu d y i s :
(1 ) To c o l l e c t and o r ­
g a n iz e f o r e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l u se f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s In
h e a l t h e d u c a tio n ; (2 ) t o s e t u p a m ethod o f e v a l u a t i o n , f o r
a c c u ra c y o f s ta te m e n t; (3 ) t o e s t a b l i s h a s o u rc e o f in fo rm a ­
tio n about e v a lu a te d f r e e p r in te d m a te r ia ls f o r u se In h e a lth
e d u c a ti o n , i n t h e p u b l ic a n d p r i v a t e e le m e n ta r y , j u n i o r and
s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o ls .
L im ita tio n s o f t h e S tudy
T h is s tu d y i s l i m i t e d t o t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f :
1,
F re e b o o k l e t s , p a m p h le ts a n d f o l d e r s p u b lis h e d
/ f o r t h e p ro m o tio n o f h e a l t h , w i t h th e e x c e p tio n o f th o s e
d e a l i n g w ith s a f e t y , w ith c u l i n a r y r e c i p e s , o r w i t h s e l f m e d ic a tio n ,
2,
F re e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s i n h e a l t h e d u c a tio n a v a i l ­
a b le f o r U n ite d S t a t e s d i s t r i b u t i o n ,
3,
A p ro c e d u re w h ic h u s e s e x i s t i n g e v a l u a t i n g a g e n -
c id a i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f A m erican l i f e .
10
11
S lp n if io a n o e of t h e S tu d y l a th e E d u c a tio n a l Program
The g u id a n c e o f t e a c h e r s i n h e a l t h e d u c a ti o n , a p h a se
o f th e w hole "consum er m ovem ent,n I s a n a c u te n e e d o f o u r tim e s
a s i s d e m o n s tra te d i n C h a p te r I I I ,
T h is I n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e r e ­
f o r e , was u n d e rta k e n w ith t h e p u rp o s e s o f f i n d i n g , ex am in in g
and r e v e a l i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s
w hich have b e e n and a re b e in g u s e d t o i n f lu e n c e consum ers t o
p u rc h a s e h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , f o o d s , an d p r o d u c ts o s t e n s i b l y u s e ­
f u l i n t h e p ro m o tio n an d m a in te n a n c e o f h e a l t h .
S in c e e d u c a tio n i s f a c e d w ith t h e p ro b lem o f s e l e c t ­
in g p ro p e r fro m m ixed h e a l t h m a t e r i a l s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e ­
te rm in e th e s o u rc e s o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s , w h e th e r o r n o t t h e y a r e
r e l i a b l e ; and a m ethod by means o f w h ic h t e a c h e r s may c o n t r i b u t e
a l a r g e r s h a re t o e d u c a ti o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n .
C u rre n t i n t e r e s t i n t h e consum er t o g e t h e r w ith h i s
p la c e i n th e econom ic scheme h as b e en s t i m u l a te d by th e g e n e ra l
c u r ta ilm e n t o f incom es d u r i n g t h e p a s t d e c a d e .
T hat b e t t e r
b u y in g p r a c t i c e s w ould im prove t h e a v e ra g e co n su m er’ s p o s i t i o n
and th e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t o a t t a i n p r o s p e r i t y i n c r e a s e d c o n ­
su m p tio n m ust accom pany i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n , i s a grow ing
c o n v ic ti o n .
W hatever t h e c a u s e , i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y p r a c ­
t i c a l A m erican f a s h i o n , t h e d u ty o f f a c t f i n d i n g h a s f a l l e n t o
th e s c h o o l s .
H e a lth e d u c a tio n h a s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o m ake.
T h e re ­
f o r e , t e a c h e r s i n h e a l t h e d u c a tio n demand m ethods and m a t e r i a l s
t o b r i n g a b o u t f u r t h e r im provem ents i n Am erican l i f e .
12
D e fin itio n s
P rin te d M a te ria ls :
T h is I s th e te rm u s e d t o In c lu d e
a l l b o o k l e t s , p a m p h le ts , c h a r t s and p o s t e r s w hich have b een
c o n c e iv e d and p ro d u ced f o r r e a d i n g and v i s u a l a id b y means
o f th e p r i n t i n g and l i t h o g r a p h i c p ro c e s s e s *
Consumer E d u c a tio n : T h is t e m i s u s e d t o I n d i c a te
t h e know ledges o f o n e 's n e ed s i n o r d e r t o l i v e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ,
knowing how t o u se o n e 's Incom e to s e c u r e maximum v a l u e s , and
how t o e v a lu a te t h e v a r io u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t a r e a v a i la b l e *
I t r e f e r s n o t o n ly t o t h e q u a l i t y o f f o o d s , t h e i r p r i c e s ,
and th e e v a l u a t i o n o f a d v e r t i s i n g p r a c t i c e s c o n c e rn in g th em ,
b u t a l s o t o t h e p la b e o f m e d io a l s c ie n c e i n our l i v e s , t h e ty p e s
o f m e d ic a l and d e n t a l s e r v i c e s t h a t we s h o u ld h av e b o th when
i l l and when i n h e a l t h , t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e f a m ily p h y s ic ia n
and d e n t i s t , t h e s p e c i a l i s t , t h e e f f e c t o f t h e e t h i c s o f t h e
m e d ic a l p r o f e s s i o n on i t s p r a c t i c e s , and th e form o f o rg a n iz a ­
t i o n an d s k i l l s o f th e m e d ic a l p r o f e s s i o n w hich w i l l g iv e th e
consum er th e b e s t s e r v i c e s a v a i la b l e *
The aim s o f e d u c a tio n t h a t c a l l f o r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s
h av e b een d e f in e d a s consum er e d u c a tio n — a d ju s tm e n t t o t h e
p ro b lem o f u s in g o n e 's means t o o b ta in t h e t h i n g s w hich con­
t r i b u t e t o s o c i a l , econom ic and p h y s io a l l i f e *
A n o th e r a s p e c t o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n i s t e n a b l e : Con­
sum er e d u c a tio n in c lu d e s a l l m ethods o f a c q u a in tin g i n d i ­
v i d u a l s w ith t h e in f o r m a tio n a v a i l a b l e t h a t w i l l e n a b le
them to u s e t h e i r p r e s e n t o r f u t u r e incom es to b u y a l l t h e
13
p r o d u c ts o r s e r v i c e s w hich th e y w ant f o r h e a l t h f u l an d happy
liv in g .
U ltim a te Consum er:
T h is te rm i s u s e d t o I n d i c a t e
t h e I n d i v i d u a l who a c t u a l l y oonsum es t h e p ro d u c t o r s e r v i c e
b e in g d i s c u s s e d o r s o l d .
B uying Consum er:
T h is te r m I s u s e d t o I n d i c a t e t h e
I n d i v i d u a l who a o t u a l l y p u r c h a s e s t h e p r o d u c t o r t h e s e r v i c e .
H e a lth E d u c a tio n :
T h is te r m I s u s e d t o In c lu d e a l l ed u ­
c a t i o n a l m ethods a n d a c t i v i t i e s w hich r e f e r t o t h e f u n c t i o n i n g
o f t h e o rg a n is m .
The s e l e c t i o n o f b o o k le ts o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l s
w h ich o la lm t o a f f e c t t h e h e a l t h o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s b a s e d
upon t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , a s t h e d e te r m in a n t f a c t o r .
D e f in i t io n s o f Eoonomio Term s Used i n
frh ls ^ tu 5 y
A d v e r ti s in g :
T h is te rm i s u s e d t o i n d i c a t e any p a id
fo rm o f n o n - p e r s o n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f g o o d s, s e r v i c e s o r Id e a s
t o a g ro u p , su o h p r e s e n t a t i o n b e in g m a n i f e s t l y s p o n s o re d by
th e a d v e r t is e r .
I t In v o lv e s t h e u s e o f a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l m edia su c h
a s th e f o llo w in g : m agazine a n d n ew sp ap er s p a c e , r a d i o , m o tio n
p i c t u r e s , o u td o o r m ed ia; c a r d s ( o a r , b u s , e t c . ) , c a t a l o g u e s ,
d i r e c t m a i l , d i r e c t o r i e s a n d r e f e r e n c e s , s t o r e s i g n s , program s
an d m enus, n o v e l t i e s , and c i r c u l a r s .
B ra n d :
T h is te r m i s u s e d t o I n d i c a t e a w ord, l e t t e r ,
g ro u p o f words com posing a nam e, a d e s ig n o r a c o m b in a tio n o f
t h e s e w h ic h i d e n t i f i e s t h e goods o r s e r v i c e s o f one s e l l e r o r
14
g ro u p o f s e l l e r s a n d /o r d i s t i n g u i s h e s them fro m th o s e o f com­
p e tito rs .
A b ra n d may in o lu d e a b ra n d nam e, a tr a d e -m a rk o r
b o th .
On t h e g ro u n d s o f u n f a i r t r a d i n g t h e c o u r t s w i l l g iv e
t o a b ra n d w h ic h d o e s n o t m eet t h e t e c h n i c a l r e q u ir e m e n ts o f
a tr a d e - m a r k a c e r t a i n amount o f l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n from g e n e r a l
u se b y c o m p e ti t o r s .
D i s t r i b u t i o n and M a rk e tin g :
I n t h i s s tu d y t h e s e te rm s
a r e u s e d synonym ously, t o I n d i c a t e t h e b u s in e s s a c t i v i t i e s In ­
v o lv e d I n th e flo w o f goods and s e r v i c e s from p r o d u c tio n t o
c o n su m p tio n .
M e ro h a n d lsin g :
T h is te rm h a s h a d a g r e a t v a r i e t y of
m ean in g s b u t I n t h i s s tu d y i t I s u s e d to I n d i c a t e t h e a d j u s t ­
m ent o f m e rc h a n d ise p ro d u ce d o r o f f e r e d f o r s a l e t o custom er
dem and.
I t in v o lv e s t h e c o o r d in a tio n o f s e l l i n g w ith p ro d u c ­
t i o n o r b u y in g f o r r e s a l e .
S e llin g ;
I n t h i s s tu d y t h e te rm I s u s e d t o I n d i ­
c a t e th e p e r s o n a l o r Im p e rs o n a l p r o c e s s o f a s s i s t i n g o r p e r ­
s u a d in g a p r o s p e c t i v e c u sto m er to b u y a commodity o r a s e r ­
v i c e , o r t o a c t upon an id e a w hich h a s o o s s s e r d a l s i g n i f i c a n c e
to th e s e l l e r .
S ta n d a rd iz a tio n ;
T h is te rm I s u s e d t o i n d i c a t e
(1 ) th e d e te r m in a tio n o f b a s i c l i m i t s o r g r a d e s , and (2 ) th e
e s ta b lis h m e n t o f m odel p r o c e s s e s an d m ethods o f p r o d u c in g ,
h a n d lin g and s e l l i n g goods an d s e r v i c e s .
T hese b a s i c l i m i t s
o r g ra d e s d e te rm in e t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s t o w h ich m a n u fa c tu re d
15
goods m ust conform an d t h e c l a s s e s i n t o w hich t h e p r o d u c ts o f
a g r i c u l t u r e and t h e e x t r a c t i v e I n d u s t r i e s may b e s o r te d *
R e la te d S tu d ie s
F our o f t h e s t u d i e s , w h ich h av e b e e n re v ie w e d , a id e d
t h e w r i t e r t o g iv e a p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e p ro b lem an d t o I n d i c a t e
th e n e e d f o r t h e s tu d y and t o s u p p ly d i r e c t e x a c t o r i e n t a t i o n *
The m o st r e o e n t and c o m p lete s tu d y c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n t o 1 1 1
l i t e r a c y I n h e a l t h e d u c a tio n I s t h a t o f E d g e rto n , who made a
s tu d y o f a d v e r t i s i n g I n s p e c i f i c w om ens m a g a z in e s , b r i n g in g
I n t o e v id e n c e t h e r e s u l t a n t b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g c la im s u s e d I n
th e s e a d v e r tis e m e n ts *
From t h e s tu d y E d g e rto n recommends th e
n eed f o r consum er e d u c a tio n w h ich s h a l l I n c lu d e h e a l t h know l­
edge an d t h e d evelopm en t o f th e d e s i r e t o b e co n su m er-w ise*
To f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h i t s a u t h o r i t y , t h e R e p o rt o f
2
t h e Com m ittee on P ro p ag an d a In t h e S c h o o ls , 1 9 2 9 , s u p p lie d
t h i s s tu d y w ith fu n d a m e n ta l I n f o r m a tio n and p r o v id e d c e r t a i n
p r i n c i p l e s t h a t h a v e b e en a c c e p te d I n e d u c a tio n , e * g * ,
(1) The w e lf a r e o f c h il d r e n I s th e p rim a ry
f u n c t i o n o f a p u b l ic s o h o o l and i s t h e o n ly
l e g i t i m a t e b a s i s f o r th e a c c e p ta n c e o r r e j e c ­
t i o n o f m a t e r i a l o f f e r e d f o r s c h o o l u se *
(2 ) The p r o t e c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n from p a r t i s a n
1*
2*
A v is E* E d g e r to n , H e a lth C laim s I n A d v e r tis in g w ith
S p e c i a l R e fe re n c e to th e B e lT e fs o f C e r ta in Women
C onsum ers* P!h,to* f H e s l s , New Y o r lT ^ J n iv e rs ity , 1938*
Com m ittee on ^Propaganda I n th e S c h o o ls , R e p o r t . J u l y ,
1929* P r e s e n te d a t t h e A t l a n t a M e e tin g o f t h e Na­
t i o n a l E d u o a tio n A s s o c ia tio n *
16
te x tb o o k m a t e r i a l i s a p ro b le m , w h ich f o r i t s
s o l u t i o n r e q u i r e s t h e e v a l u a t i o n and s e l e c t i o n
o f s u c h bo o k s b y s c i e n t i f i c I n v e s t i g a t i o n * The
te x tb o o k and t h e su p p le m e n ta ry m a t e r i a l n eed
eq u al c a re In t h e i r s e le c tio n ,
1
A s tu d y o f "How S c h o o ls U se A d v e r tis in g M a t e r i a l , 11
was c o m p lete d I n 1930 b y S t a r k end I n t h i s t r e a t i s e we f i n d
f o r t h e f i r s t tim e i n g r a d u a te s tu d y a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e Im­
p o r ta n c e o f a d v e r t i s i n g m a t e r i a l s *
The s tu d y I n d i c a t e s t h e v a s t
amount o f a d v e r t i s i n g m a t e r i a l s b e in g u s e d a s w e l l a s I t
r e c o g n iz e s t h e g e n e r a l e d u c a ti o n a l v a lu e o f them*
F o r b o th
r e a s o n s , t h i s a n te c e d e n t s tu d y b y S ta r k h a s b e e n o f d i r e c t
v a lu e t o t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h *
2
The s t u d y o f W lndelhake f o r th e d e g re e o f M a ste r o f
A r ts a t t h e U n i v e r s i ty o f M is s o u ri c o n tr i b u te d a d d i t i o n a l
v a lu a b le g u id a n c e t o t h i s s t u d y , b e c a u s e o f t h e m ethod w hich
h ad b e e n em ployed In I t t o d e te rm in e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f c la im s
o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s u s e d In t h e c la s s ro o m s o f t h e s c h o o ls o f
M is s o u ri*
From a s tu d y o f t h r e e h u n d re d b o o k l e t s , i t was fo u n d ,
I n 1 9 3 4 , t h a t m ore th a n s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t h a d " u n s u b s ta n t ia t e d ,
f a l s e and m is le a d in g s t a t e m e n t s ," I n t h e judgm ent o f te a c h e r s *
S o c i a l p r o g r e s s h a s a d v an ced i n f i v e y e a rs *
New p o e rs h av e
b e e n d e le g a te d t o t h e Food and D rug A d m in is tr a tio n and t o th e
F e d e r a l T ra d e Commission*
1.
2*
Consumer e d u c a tio n h a s advanced f a r
S a ld e e E* S t a r k , How S c h o o ls Use A d v e r ti s in g * New Yorks
A s s o c ia tio n o f N a tio n a l A d v e r t i s e r s , 1530*
M* E l i z a b e t h W ln d e lh a k e, A d v e r tis in g from t h e S ta n d p o in t
o f t h e Consumer* J o u r n a l o f Home E conom ics» XXVIII
( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 7 ), p p . 8 6 -9 2 7
17
beyond i t s i n i t i a l p r o p h e t i c s t a g e .
The s tu d y I s s i g n i f i c a n t ,
t h e r e f o r e , b e c a u s e I t p r o f e s s e s t o f o r m u la te c r i t e r i a f o r th e
e v a l u a t i o n o f su p p le m e n ta ry p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s f o r c la ss ro o m u s e .
F u r th e r a d v a n c e s from th e above p o i n t o f view a r e
p r e s e n te d b y t h e Com m ittee on E d u c a tio n a l Use o f Com m ercial
M a t e r i a l , o f t h e Home Econom ics A s s o c a tio n ,
T h e ir "Check
l i s t f o r h e lp i n g t e a c h e r s , s tu d e n ts a n d c lu b l e a d e r s t o e v a lu ­
a t e an d make i n t e l l i g e n t u s e o f com m ercial m a t e r i a l s , " i s d i s ­
c u sse d I n C h a p te r I I I o f t h i s s t u d y .
H ow ever, w h ereas E d g e rto n and S t a r k h a v e o b ta in e d a
c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l an d l a y o p in io n s on some w id e ly a d v e r t i s e d and u s e d com m odltes, th e p r e s e n t stu d y c o n t r i b u t e s
an o r g a n iz e d b o d y o f a u t h e n t i c a t e d c o m m o d itie s .
M o reo v er,
t h e m ethod t o e s t a b l i s h and d e te rm in e t h i s a u t h e n t i c i t y i s
a l s o p r e s e n te d and e x p la in e d .
CHAPTER I I I
THE NEED FOR THE STUDY
D e s p ite t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e p r e v a i l f i v e p r i n c i p a l
s c h o o ls o f p h ilo s o p h ic th o u g h t i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s to d a y ,
v i z . , R e a lis m , I d e a lis m , P ra g n a tis m , N a tu r a lis m , and S c h o la s ­
t i c i s m , t h e two p re d o m in a tin g and p a r t i a l l y opponent f i e l d s
a r e P ragm atism and O b je c tiv e I d e a l is m .
E d u c a tio n f o r u s e f u l
l i v i n g h a s ta k e n th e p la c e o f t h e academ ic e d u c a tio n f o r a
h o p e fu l f u t u r e .
The em phasis i s now on u s e f u l n e s s o f know l­
edge r a t h e r th a n on th e a c c u m u la tio n o f i t f o r i t s own s a k e .
H e a lth e d u c a tio n i s b a se d on a s i m i l a r p h ilo s o p h y , a lth o u g h
1
P r o f e s s o r John Dewey m e n tio n s i t m e re ly i n p a s s i n g . By means
o f a c t i v i t i e s a s w e ll a s o f f a c t s , e f f o r t s a r e b e in g made to
h e lp s t u d e n ts t o g a in cue a d e q u a te a p p r e c i a t i o n o f good h e a l t h
and t o p ro v id e t h e g u id a n c e n e c e s s a r y t o s e c u r e i t .
B ecau se o f t h e c o n tin u e d f l u x o f f i n d i n g s i n s c i e n t i f i c
r e s e a r c h , h e a l t h e d u c a tio n i s l i m i t e d ; f o r te x tb o o k s h av e b e e n
th e o n ly m eans o f o b ta i n i n g h e a l t h f a c t s .
T h e re fo re , i f p u p ils
and t e a c h e r s a r e t o be k e p t a b r e a s t o f c u r r e n t d e v e lo p m e n ts,
1.
John Dewey, Democracy and Eduoation. D.C. Health and
Company, hew 'York, 1934.
18
19
some d ep en d en ce upon th e re p o rts o f new r e s e a r c h and t h e i r
u s e I n t h e d a i l y te a c h in g p r o c e s s a r e m a n i f e s t l y n e c e s s a r y .
U n le ss l o o s e - l e a f te x tb o o k s a r e u s e d , s o u rc e m a t e r i a l s c a n n o t
b e k e p t tim e ly *
S u p p le m e n tary p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l p r o v id e s one
m ethod o f k e e p in g i n s t r u c t i o n f l e x i b l e and dynam ic*
B u t, b e­
c a u se o f th e v a s t n e s s o f th e s u p p ly o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s , some
g u id e seem s t o b e n e c e s s a ry *
L o g i c a l l y , th e i n d i v i d u a l te a c h e r
c a n n o t b e e x p e c te d t o f o llo w t h e d ev elo p m en t o f t h i s m a t e r i a l
w ith o u t a s s i s t a n c e and o r i e n t a t i o n *
The s o u rc e s a r e to o f a r
rem oved fro m t h e s u p p ly o f r e a d in g m a t e r i a l w ith w h ic h th e
e d u c a to r comes i n t o c o n ta c t*
I n t h e p a s t d e ca d e t h e r e h a s b e e n a s i g n i f i c a n t i n ­
c r e a s e i n th e number o f b o o k l e t s , p a m p h le ts and o t h e r p r i n t e d
m a t e r i a l s d i s t r i b u t e d i n s c h o o ls ; f i r s t , b e c a u se t h i s p e rio d
i s c o n s id e r e d th e "G olden Age" o f a d v e r t i s i n g ; t h e n , b e c a u se
t h e r e h a s b e e n a m ore e f f e c t i v e u s e o f p ro p ag an d a s i n c e th e
1
W orld War*
I t was d u r in g t h a t c o n f l i c t t h a t g e n u in e a p p re ­
c i a t i o n o f p ro p ag a n d a b e g a n t o b e f e l t *
S in c e t h a t tim e A m erica h a s b een bom barded w ith i n ­
n u m erab le d e s c r i p t i o n s o f p ro p ag a n d a f o r p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l ,
s c i e n t i f i c an d b u s in e s s o b j e c ti v e s *
We h av e cane t o re c o g 2
n l z e th e n eed f o r a g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h i s p ro p ag an d a
1*
2*
A lf r e d McClung L e e , The F in e A r t o f P ro p a g a n d a * The
I n s t i t u t e f o r P ropaganda A n a ly s is * A S tu d y o f
F a t h e r C o u g h lin 's S p e e o h e s, p* 14*
Com m ittee R e p o r t. P rop aganda i n t h e S ohools* P r e s e n te d
a t th e A t l a n t a M e etin g o f th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n
A s s o c ia t io n , J u l y , 1929*
20
so t h a t o u r s c h o o ls m ig h t a c t u a l l y t e a c h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and
c u l t i v a t e th e " i n q u i r i n g m ind" among t h e p u p ils *
H ow ever,
te a c h e r s h av e n e i t h e r th e tim e n o r t h e t o o l s t o d i s t i n g u i s h
b e tw ee n t r u t h s and h a l f - t r u t h s , f a c t an d fa n c y *
The i n d i s ­
c r im in a te a c c e p ta n c e o f a l l p ro p ag a n d a and a l l a d v e r t i s i n g
w ould d e s t r o y c o n fid e n c e i n th e t e a c h e r s o f o u r p u b lic sc h o o ls*
On th e o t h e r h a n d , I n t e l l i g e n t a n d f e a r l e s s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i n
s e l e c t i n g from t h e p ro p ag a n d a movement c e r t a i n e le m e n ts a s a id s
t o t h e ach iev em en t o f w e l l- c o n s i d e r e d and a c c e p ta b le n o rm al
e d u c a tio n a l o b j e c t i v e s , w i l l b e n e f i t t h e c h lld r e n a n d s t r e n g th e n
t h e s o c i a l and econom ic I n f lu e n c e s o f t h e s c h o o l upon th e mem­
b e rs o f i t s
com m unity, a d e s i r a b l e and h e a l t h y a r t i c u l a t i o n *
A g a in , t h e im p o s itio n o f f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s on
t h e p u b l ic s c h o o l s , b y m eans o f s o - c a l l e d " e d u c a tio n a l" cam­
p a ig n s b y a d v e r t i s e r s , i n d i c a t e s t h e a p p a r e n t n eed f o r more
In te llig e n t d iffe re n tia tio n *
When t h e m ere m en tio n o f f r e e
b o o k l e t s o r c h a r t s i n an e d u c a tio n a l j o u r n a l , w hich i s w r i t t e n
1
f o r e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , b r i n g s a r e q u e s t f o r 2 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0
o u t l i n e s from c la ssro o m t e a c h e r s w ith o u t r e g a r d f o r t h e v a lu e
o f t h e p ro d u c t o r t h e m a t e r i a l , an o b v io u s n eed e x i s t s f o r
c r i t i c a l e x a m in a tio n o f su o h m a t e r i a l and a t e a c h e r g u id e
f o r t h e t e a c h e r s vho a r e u s in g i t *
Only a f t e r c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n
can t h e s e b e a d m is s ib le t o t h e c la ss ro o m f o r e d u c a tio n a l u se *
Nor i s t h i s an I s o l a t e d c a s e ; i t i s m e re ly one o f t h e c o u n tl e s s
1*
The I n s t r u c t o r * How t h e I n s t r u c t o r F u l l s *
m a t e r i a I 7 U a n s v i l l e , New Y o rk , 1939*
P ro m o tio n a l
21
many w hioh have s e rv e d a s a p a t t e r n f o r a d v e r t i s e r s who w ish
t o u s e th e so h o o l a s an a re n a f o r f u r t h e r s a l e s prom otion*
1
The f o llo w in g l i s t o f a d v e r t i s e r s , t h e i r sp ao e u se d
f o r a d v e r t i s i n g t h e i r p ro d u o t and t h e i r su o o e ss I n o b ta in in g
r e q u e s t s f o r m a t e r i a l I s ta k e n from th e p ro m o tio n m a t e r i a l o f
2
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From th e v ie w p o in t o f I n t e g r a t i o n a s I t m ust b e d e ­
f i n e d e s s e n t i a l l y i n a d e m o c ra tio p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a tio n ,
th e A m erican s o h o o l i s a s o c i a l a s w e ll a s an aoadem le I n s t i ­
tu ti o n *
1*
2.
M ethods and m a t e r i a l s o f e d u c a tio n m ust p ro v id e s o o l a l
The I n s t r u o t o r ,
Ib id .
0£*
c lt*
22
e x p e r ie n c e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o m eet t h e p roblem s o f l i v i n g
i n a s o c i a l scheme o f t h i n g s .
D is c u s s io n s o f s o c i a l c u sto m s ,
econom ics and t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f s o c i a l l i f e a r e a s Im p o rta n t
as t h e a c t i v i t i e s th e m s e lv e s ,
freed o m t o d e p a r t from t e x t ­
book m a t e r i a l I s an a c c e p te d p r i n c i p l e .
One o f t h e means a t
h a n d , f o r g u a rd in g a g a i n s t th e c a s t i n g o f young m inds I n r i g i d
m o ld s , i s t o su p p lem en t te x tb o o k c o n te n t w ith o th e r p r i n t e d
m a t e r i a l , f o r t h e p ro c e d u re w i l l p ro v id e f u r t h e r m eans o f de­
v e lo p in g a f l e x i b i l i t y o f m ind w hich v i t a l i z e s r a t h e r th a n
s ta g n a t e s s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n , w hich makes e d u c a tio n dynam ic,
r a t h e r th a n s t a t i c .
A g u id e t o f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s , t h e r e ­
f o r e , w i l l p u t t h i s v a lu a b le d e m o c ra tic e d u c a tiv e p r i n c i p l e i n ­
to p r a c t i s e .
A n o th er n eed a r i s e s fro m t h e im m ediate f o c u s o f i n ­
t e r e s t i n t h e consum er m ovem ent, d i r e c t l y t r a c e a b l e t o t h e
d e p r e s s io n .
E c o n o m is ts , p r o f e s s i o n a l consum er o r g a n i z a t i o n s
and s o c i o l o g i s t s a g re e t h a t th e u l t i m a t e oonsum er c an b e ta u g h t
t o d e r iv e m ore v a lu e s from h i s s p e n d in g , t o d a y , th a n was t r u e i n
th e p a s t g e n e r a t i o n .
W aste i s , and c an b e , f u r t h e r p r e v e n t e d .
Changes i n e d u c a ti o n a l p h ilo s o p h y make i t n o t o n ly
p o s s i b l e , b u t a l s o n e c e s s a r y , f o r b u s in e s s and e d u c a tio n t o
jo in in t h i s e f f o r t .
To a c c o m p lis h t h i s i d e a l , e d u c a to r s m ust
hav e s p e c i f i c know ledges and new te a c h in g m a t e r i a l w h ich b u s i ­
n e s s can b e s t p r o v i d e .
S u f f i c i e n t fu n d s hav e b e en s p e n t i n
t h e p a s t t o p r o v id e th e m a t e r i a l s , b u t b e c a u se t h e r e h a s b e en
no a v a i l a b l e g u id e t o a s s i s t m a n u f a c tu r e r s , d i s t r i b u t o r s and
23
a d v e r t i s e r s i n t h e i r e d u c a ti o n a l p la n n in g , n o t th e b e s t u s e
was made o f t h e money a p p ro p r ia te d *
T h e r e f o r e , th e g u id e
s e r v e s b o th th e e d u c a to r and t h e b u s i n e s s man; u l t i m a t e l y ,
th e consum er*
In a t a l k w hich John H* P l a t t , D i r e c t o r o f A d v e r tis ­
in g f o r K r a f t- P h e n ix Cheese C o r p o r a tio n , gave r e c e n t l y b e f o r e
a g ro u p o f b u s in e s s -m e n I n t e r e s t e d i n b u s in e s s - a n d - s o h o o l r e ­
la tio n s h ip s , he s a id :
Q u e rie d a b o u t m a t e r i a l r e c e i v e d from a d v e r­
t i s e r s , some o f th e t e a o h e r s s a i d th e y had r e ­
c e iv e d a s m a ll amount of m a t e r i a l , e i t h e r i n
c h a r t o r p a m p h let form * A few s a i d th e y were
d u b io u s a b o u t m a t e r i a l com ing from an a d v e r t i s e r ,
b u t t h e s e w ere i n th e s m a ll m in o r ity * H ost s a i d
th e y w ould welcome in f o r m a ti v e , f a c t u a l a t t r a c ­
t i v e m a t e r i a l s u i t e d t o t h e i r t e a c h i n g n e ed s*
The jo b seems read y -m ad e f o r u s* F o r h e r e , i n
t h e s c h o o ls w here o u r c h i l d r e n a r e l e a r n i n g t o
b e i n t e l l i g e n t consum ers and i n t e l l i g e n t p ro ­
d u c e rs a l s o , l e t u s h o p e , t h e r e i s a c ry in g n e ed
f o r sound f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l * E d u c a tio n a l m a t e r i a l
a b o u t b u s i n e s s , b a s e d on f a c t , n o t f a n c y , m akes
good b u s i n e s s , b a s e d on f a c t , n o t f a n c y , m akes
good i n t e r e s t i n g r e a d i n g , w h e th e r i t d a a ls w ith
t e l e p h o n e s , m eat p a c k in g , p e tr o le u m , corn f l a k e s ,
r a d i o o r an y o t h e r com m odity w hich i s a f a m i l i a r
p a r t o f A m erican liv in g *
S im ple t r u t h , p r e s e n te d
i n s im p le , b u t i n t e r e s t i n g w a y s, does h a v e a
p la c e * 1
Mr* P l a t t r e c o g n iz e s th e n e ed f o r b u s i n e s s - s c h o l a s t i c
c o o p e r a tio n and th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f b u s i n e s s t o conform
t o f a c t s and t r u t h i n th e m a t e r i a l c re a te d *
1*
He h a s s e t a
Jo h n R* P l a t t , G u in ea P ig s and D onald D ucks* T a lk
d e l i v e r e d b e f o r e C hicago F e d e ra te d A d v e r tis in g C lu b ,
November 3 0 , 1939* P r i n t e d i n b o o k le t form and
d i s t r i b u t e d b y K r a f t- P h e n ix Cheese C o r p o r a tio n ,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s *
24
s ta n d a r d f o r t h i s m a t e r i a l nftiere none was r e c o g n iz e d b e fo r e #
He h a s s t a t e d th e n e e d i n h i s d is c u s s io n #
Many o c c a s io n s may b e c i t e d upon w hich o r i t i c s h av e
e x p re s s e d th e n eed f o r an a g en c y w hich w ould f u n c t i o n b o th
a s a c l e a r i n g h o u se an d a s a g u id e i n t h e j u d ic i o u s s e l e c t i o n
o f th e c o u n tl e s s h e a l t h b o o k l e t s e x ta n t#
R e c o g n iz in g th e n eed f o r b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r r e p r e s e n t a ­
t i v e s o f b u s in e s s and consum er e d u c a to r s f o r th e d i s c u s s i o n o f
t h e i r m u tu a l p ro b le m s , t h e f i r s t Consumer I n s t i t u t e was h e ld
a t S te p h e n s C o lle g e , C olum bia, M is s o u r i, A p r i l 3 , 1939#
One
o f t h e s p e a k e r s , a woman p ro m in e n t i n h e r f i e l d , and who h a s
made an a d e q u a te s tu d y o f s o u rc e m a t e r i a l i n t h i s p h a se o f
e d u c a tio n , s a i d :
I t I s e v id e n t t h a t t e a c h e r s n e e d h e lp i n o r­
g a n iz in g t h e i r so u rc e m a t e r i a l so t h a t i t can
b e e a s i l y fo u n d and used# Much v a lu a b le su b e c t m a t t e r i s o v e rlo o k e d b e c a u se i t i s b u r i e d
n o u r f i l e s and n e v e r c l a s s i f i e d a t a l l # I t
i s a p p a r e n t t h a t th e r e a l p roblem i s n o t th e
l a c k of s o u rc e m a t e r i a l b u t t h e f a c t t h a t much
o f i t i s s c a t t e r e d and u n c l a s s i f i e d , e a s i l y
p a s s e d o v e r b y b u s y te a c h e r s # Some o f t h e ma­
t e r i a l n e ed s t o b e a b s t r a c t e d , s i m p l i f i e d , i n ­
t e r p r e t e d and c o o rd in a te d w ith o th e r s u b j e c t
m a tte r # 1
i
M iss Howe p r e s e n t s ( s u p r a ) th e n eed f o r a g u id e and c l e a r i n g ­
h o u se f o r s o u rc e m a t e r i a l s #
She i s i n c h a rg e o f t h e Consumer
E d u c a tio n D iv is io n o f t h e A m erican Home Econom ics A s s o c ia -
1#
P r o c e e d in g s . I n s t i t u t e o f Consumer E d u c a tio n , S te p h e n s
C o lle g e , C olum bia, M is s o u r i, A p r i l 3 , 1 9 3 9 , p# 65#
25
t i o n , W ash in g to n , D.C*
Few p e o p le h a v e had t h e o p p o r tu n ity
t o g a in t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h i s problem t h a t M iss Howe h a s had*
H er s u g g e s t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , a r e d i r e c t l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s
stu d y *
S i s t e r Mary F l o r e n c e , R*S*M*, i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f ad­
v e r tis in g m a te r ia l, w rite s :
To s e p a r a t e t h e w heat from t h e c h a f f , t h a t i s
th e problem * We may n o t t h i n k l i g h t l y o f t h i s
o b l i g a t i o n o f d e v e lo p in g i n t h e n u rs e c r i t e r i a
o f judgm ent upon w h ich sh e may r e l y , when de­
p r iv e d o f th e s u p p o rt and p r o t e c t i o n o f h e r
te a c h e r s * As we d e v e lo p h e r e t h i c a l a n d h e r
s c i e n t i f i c s e n s e s s o we m u st t r y t o d e v e lo p a l s o
h e r e v a l u a t i n g se n se * 1
H e re , i n t h e f i e l d o f n u r s i n g , i s a n o th e r a u t h o r i t y e x p re s s in g
t h e same n eed f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l v h ic h i s to
b e u se d f a r e d u c a tin g i n h e a l t h y liv in g *
On June 5 , 1939, t h e B u sin ess-C o n su m er R e la ti o n s Con­
f e r e n c e was h e ld i n B u f f a lo , New Y o rk , u n d e r th e s p o n s o r s h ip
o f t h e N a tio n a l B e t t e r B u s in e s s B ureaus*
Many a u t h o r i t i e s
g a th e r e d to a n a ly z e some o f t h e p ro b lem s o f b u s i n e s s and con­
sum ers and t o s u g g e s t ways o f s e t t l i n g seme o f t h e i r m ost a c u te
and m u tu a l p roblem s*
Dr* Howard E . W ilson o f H a rv ard U n iv e r­
s i t y , w h ile s p e a k in g on p h a se s o f e d u c a tin g t h e s o h o o l consum er
s a id :
1*
A d v e r tis in g M a t e r i a l i n T each in g * The T r a in e d N urse
and H o s p it a l R eview . LXLVIH (F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 7 ),
p* 166*
26
P oor b u y in g h a b i t s s t i l l c h a r a c t e r i z e m ost o f u s
i n s p i t e o f W hatever i n s t r u c t i o n t h e s c h o o ls have
g iv e n * S ch o o l i n s t r u c t i o n h a s b e e n h a n d ic a p p e d
b y l a c k of a c c u r a t e I n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a ls *
W hile a few s c h o o ls h av e made u s e o f t h e b u l l e t i n s
on b u y in g d i s t r i b u t e d b y th e *B e t t e r B u s in e s s
B u r e a u s ', and many h a v e u s e d t h e p o p u la r debunk­
in g bo o k s o f t h e G uinea P ig v a r i e t y and p r i v a t e
an d g o v e rn m e n ta l r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l , t h e r e h a s b e e n
l i t t l e u p -to -d a te m a te ria l w r itte n e s p e c ia lly f o r
s c h o o l u s e an d th e t e a c h e r i s p r o p e r l y f e a r f u l o f
a c c e p t in g and u s in g i t *
1
Dr* W ilson h a s a g a in e x p re s s e d th e n e ed f o r m e e tin g t h e p roblem
o f m ore a c c u r a t e and b e t t e r a d a p te d m a t e r i a l s f o r consum er ed u ­
c a tio n *
But t h e n e ed f o r h e a l t h e d u c a tio n m a t e r i a l s i s o n ly a
p a r t o f t h e g e n e r a l n eed f o r th e s e i n s t r u c t i o n a l to o ls *
R e c o g n itio n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s and n e ed s f o r m aking
t h e i r f r e e te x tb o o k s a p a y in g p r o p o s i t i o n i s e v id e n t i n a r e ­
c e n t s u g g e s tio n made t o t h e M i s s i s s i p p i S t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e *
A r e p o r t o f t h i s s u g g e s tio n in c l u d e s :
A b i l l t o f i n a n c e M i s s i s s i p p i 's f r e e te x tb o o k s
i n p a r t b y a d v e r t i s i n g su c h p ro d u c ts a s b r e a k f a s t
f o o d s , chew ing gum and t o o t h p a s t e on t h e f l y ­
le a v e s o f t e x t s h a s b e e n in tr o d u c e d i n t h e h o u se
o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f th e M i s s i s s i p p i l e g i s l a t u r e
i n s e s s io n *
The a u th o r o f th e b i l l , R e p r e s e n t a t i v e G eorge M*
H o w e ll, J r * o f Monroe C o u n ty , e s t im a t e s t h a t
#100,000 c o u ld b e r a i s e d from a d v e r t i s i n g , o r ap­
p r o x im a te ly 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e $ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 t o t a l
t h e s t a t e a n t i c i p a t e s s p e n d in g t o b u y new books
u n d e r t h e McCoy-Owens f r e e te x tb o o k b i l l w hich
h a s p a sse d *
1*
Consumer E d u c a tio n i n th e S ch o o ls* B u sin ess-C o n su m er
R e la tio n s C o n fe re n ce P ro c e e d in g s * B u f f a l o , New Y o rk ,
Ju n e 5 , 1 9 3 9 , p* 45*
27
Under t h e p ro p o se d la w , t h e te x tb o o k
w ould b e a u th o r iz e d to a d v e r t i s e f o r
b i d s f o r t h e a d v e r t i s i n g w hich w ould
on t h e r e q u i r e d number o f f l y le a v e s
I n s id e c o v e rs o f 'f r e e * books*
com m ission
c o m p e titiv e
be p rin te d
and on t h e
P o in tin g o u t t h a t s i m i l a r law s have b e e n p a s s e d
b y o t h e r S o u th e rn s t a t e s , a lth o u g h nam ing no
s p e c i f i c s t a t e , R e p r e s e n ta tiv e H ow ell sa y s t h a t
t h e Commission w ould be a u th o r iz e d t o a c c e p t o n ly
p ro d u o ts t h a t w i l l b e i n k e e p in g w ith t h e s p i r i t
o f th e s c h o o ls , i n p ro m o tin g t h e c h il d p h y s i c a l l y ,
m e n ta lly and m o ra lly * 1
H e re , f u l l y i n v ie w , i s a d e f i n i t e p la n f o r more
c o o r d in a tio n b etw een b u s i n e s s and e d u c a tio n , s u g g e s te d b y a
l e g i s l a t o r whose a p p a r e n t aim i s downward r e v i s i o n o f l o c a l
t a x a t i o n f o r s c h o o l s u p p lie s *
By t h e s a l e o f a d v e r t i s i n g , th e
b u rd e n i s e x p e c te d t o b e d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r a w id e r b a se *
In
an y e v e n t, i t s u g g e s ts a f u r t h e r n eed f o r g u id a n c e i n th e k in d
o f a d v e r t i s i n g and t h e k in d o f p ro d u o ts w hich w i l l "prom ote
th e c h i l d p h y s i c a l l y , m e n ta lly and m o ra lly * "
W ith t h e i n c r e a s i n g num ber o f f a c t o r s e n t e r i n g i n t o
o u r l i v e s , com peting f o r t h e a t t e n t i o n and t h e a c t i v e i n t e r e s t
o f th e u l t i m a t e consum er, t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e n eed f o r a more
co m p reh en siv e e d u c a tio n t h a t w i l l a i d t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o b a s e
h i s b u y in g jud g m en ts upon c o r r e c t l y e s t a b l i s h e d fu n d a m e n ta ls o f
h e a l th y l iv i n g *
A r e o e n t change i n em phasis o f one o f th e
c e r e a l m a n u fa c tu re rs who sp e n d s a d v e r t i s i n g m i l l i o n s e a c h y e a r ,
s e r v e s t o f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on one s o u rc e o f c o n fu s io n i n t h i n k -
1.
Would S e l l Ads i n M i s s i s s i p p i 's F re e T extbooks*
t i s i n g A ge. (F e b ru a ry 1 9 , 1 9 4 0 ), p* 1*
A dver­
28
in g f o r t h e r e a d e r o f a d v e r t i s i n g p u r p o r t e d l y r e l a t e d t o h e a l t h .
A r e c e n t s t o r y i n A d v e r tis in g Age s a i d :
The n e ig h b o rh o o d g r o c e r y s t o r e was a g a in p i t t e d
a g a i n s t t h e l o c a l d ru g s t o r e t h i s week a s K e llo g g
la u n c h e d a new Pep cam paign w hich added v ig o r and
s a l e s am m unition to t h e c o n te n tio n p u t f o r t h l a s t
y e a r t h a t v ita m in s a l e s b e lo n g i n t h e fo o d and
n o t a p o th e c a r y shop*
In 1938 t h e i r e o f th e p r o p r i e t a r y m e d ic in e f i e l d
was a ro u s e d when A ll-B ra n copy b o l d l y w arned th e
consum er a g a i n s t t h e e f f e c t s o f c a t h a r t i c s , a t th e
same tim e recom m ending t h e n a t u r a l l a x a t i v e q u a l i ­
t i e s o f A ll- B r a n ; l a s t y e a r t h e company made i t s
f i r s t b i d i n a n e f f o r t t o d i v e r t th e r i c h v ita m in
m a rk e t from t h e d ru g s t o r e t o th e g r o c e r y ; and i n
i t s l a t e s t d r i v e K e llo g g expands i t s a tte m p t t o
d ra m a tiz e t h e a p p e a l t o v ita m in fo o d s*
The o p p o r tu n ity o f f e r e d g r o c e r s i n v ita m in m er­
c h a n d is in g i s d ra m a tiz e d b y K e llo g g w ith a p r e ­
s e n t a t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c s t o show a $ 5 0 0 ,0 0 0 volum e
f o r v ita m in o o n o e n tr a te s p u t up i n p i l l s , cap­
s u l e s , e tc * i n 1933 com pared w ith a 1937 s a l e s
r e c o r d o f $ 4 1 ,8 0 0 ,0 0 0 f o r t h e same p ro d u c ts * 1
H ere i s a r e c o r d , t h e r e f o r e , o f th e e n o rm ity o f t h e
f o r c e s w hioh a r e w o rk in g to c o n fu s e t h e i n d i v i d u a l who s e e k s
th e t r u t h f o r th e p r o te c tio n o f h is h e a lth *
The e d u c a to r can
d is p e n s e t r u t h s i f and when he knows them*
W ith t h e s e enorm ous
f i n a n c i a l f o r c e s p ro p a g a n d iz in g f o r t h e i r v e s te d I n t e r e s t s , a
g u id e i s n e c e s s a r y t o p o i n t o u t t h e m ed ia v i a , th e s a n e ,
s y n th e s iz e d way*
In a s tu d y o f a d v e r t i s i n g p ro m o tio n a l m a t e r i a l i n
1*
K e llo g g Renews G ro o e r-D ru g g is t V ita m in B a t t l e , A d v e r ti s ­
in g A ge, (F e b ru a ry 1 9 , 1 9 4 0 ), p* 1*
29
1
1930,
i t was fo u n d t h a t 2 1 ,3 p e r c e n t o f a l l home econom ics
w o rk e rs r e p o r t e d "N e a r ly A lw ays" d id th e y u s e f r e e p r i n t e d
m a t e r i a l s w h ich th e y r e c e i v e d from a d v e r t i s e r s *
T h a t educa­
t i o n a l a d v e r t i s i n g m a t e r i a l h a s v a lu e v h ic h c a n n o t h e o b ta in e d
i n a n y o t h e r w ay, was a f f i m e d by 7 1 .5 p e r c e n t o f th e home
econom ics w o rk e rs a n sw e rin g t h e su rv e y *
T h is s tu d y was a
d o c t o r a l t h e s i s w hich I n v e s t i g a t e d and p r e s e n te d t h e u s e s made
o f a d v e r t i s i n g m a t e r i a l I n home econom ics c la s s e s *
T h a t o t h e r a u t h o r i t i e s h a v e re c o g n iz e d t h e n e e d f o r
a m ore i n t e n s i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n h e a l t h e d u c a tio n i s f u r t h e r
2
e v id e n t i n t h e f i n d i n g s o f E d g e r to n ’ s s t u d y ,
E d g e rto n demon­
s t r a t e d t h a t ev en p h y s ic ia n s an d n u r s e s c o u ld n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e
b e tw ee n t r u t h a n d f a ls e h o o d i n a d v e r t i s i n g *
T h is l e d h e r t o
recommend "a n a d e q u a te d is s e m in a tio n o f m e d ic a l know ledge among
th e p r o f e s s i o n , " and t o s t a t e th e n e e d f o r " p r o t e c t i n g th e h e a l t h
o f th o s e in c a p a b le o f d i s c r i m i n a t i n g betw een t r u t h and f a l s i t y
i n a d v e r t i s i n g b y m aking a u t h e n t i c in f o r m a tio n a v a i l a b l e t o a l l , "
A r e c o g n itio n o f th e n e c e s s ity f o r e v a lu a tin g th e
p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s u s e d i n home econom ics c l a s s e s c a u se d th e
A m erican Home E conom ics A s s o c ia tio n t o a p p o in t a co m m ittee on
i l l u s t r a t i v e m a te r ia l, in 1931,
I n 1 9 3 4 , M iss J e n n ie I , H ow ntree
w ro te ;
1,
2*
S a id e e E , S t a r k , How S c h o o ls Use A d v e r tis in g M a t e r i a l s .
A s s o c ia tio n o f N a t io n a l A d v e r t i s e r s , 1 9 3 0 .
A v is E* E d g e r to n , H e a lth C laim s i n A d v e r tis in g w ith S p e c ia l
R e fe re n c e t o th e b e l i e f s o f “‘C e r ta in Women C onsum ers.
p T T 41"----------------------------------------------------------------------------
30
One o f t h e p rim a ry o b j e c ti v e s o f home econom ics
t r a i n i n g I s t h e developm ent o f consum er Judg­
m e n t. T h is may b e a cc o m p lish e d i n p a r t th ro u g h
t h e c a r e f u l c h o ic e a n d u s e o f i l l u s t r a t i v e ma­
t e r i a l * B e fo re a m a t e r i a l i s p r e s e n te d t o a
c l a s s , i t s h o u ld b e s u b je c te d to a r i g i d a n a ly ­
s i s and i t s e f f e c t upon s tu d e n ts c o n s id e re d *
C r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g c h a r t s , p o s t e r s , pam­
p h l e t s an d e x h i b i t s w hich a r e u s e d t o show fo o d
v a lu e s o r t o a d v e r t i s e fo o d s a r e u r g e n t l y n eed ed
b y home econom ics te a c h e r s * 1
A s u g g e s tio n f o r c r i t e r i a i n q u e s tio n form was p ro ­
v id e d a t t h a t t im e , f i r s t g iv in g a m a jo r p o i n t , th e n e x p la in ­
in g i t f u r t h e r w ith m in o r q u e s tio n s *
w ere:
The t h r e e m a jo r h e a d in g s
v
" S u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e M a t e r i a l f o r C lassroom
N eeds"
" E d u c a tio n a l V alue o f M a t e r i a l s from V a rio u s
S o u rc e s"
" A p p r a is a l o f A d v e r tis in g M a tte r"
T h is was one o f t h e f i r s t a tte m p ts t o f o r m u la te c r i t e r i a f o r
judgm ent*
M o reo v er, e a c h y e a r , t h e co m m ittee h a s made f u r t h e r
s u g g e s t i o n s , u n t i l M iss B e rn ic e Dodge s u b m itte d t o t h e N a tio n a l
C o n v en tio n o f t h e A m erican Home Econom ics A s s o c ia tio n i n San
2
A n to n io , T e x a s , i n J u n e , 1 9 3 9 , a c h e c k l i s t f o r t h e s e m a t e r i a l s ,
in g e n e ra l:
1*
J e n n ie I* R o w n tre e , C r i t e r i a f o r E v a lu a tio n o f I l l u s ­
t r a t i v e M a t e r i a l f o r Foods a n d N u t r i t i o n T eaching*
J o u r n a l o f Home Econom ics* (D ecem ber. 1 9 5 4 ).
2*
A m erican Home Econom ics A s s o c ia tio n P r o c e e d in g s . B u l l e t i n
S e r i e s 2 2 , Number 1 , A nnual M eetin g a t San A n to n io ,
T e x a s , June 1 8 , 1939, p* 30*
ppY3<5'- 9g T ----------------------
31
I.
C o n te n t
S u b je o t m a t t e r s c i e n t i f i c a l l y a c c u r a te
F re e from h a l f - t r u t h s and e x a g g e ra te d s ta te m e n ts
Backed b y l a b o r a t o r y t e s t s
Backed by re c o g n iz e d r e f e r e n c e s
Backed b y th e s i g n a t u r e o f a u th o r and h i s
p ro fe s s io n a l t i t l e
Backed b y th e name o f fix m w hich p u b lis h e s i t .
II.
T im e lin e s s o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r
F u rn is h e s th e m ost r e o e n t in f o rm a tio n
G ives th e d a te o f p u b l i c a t i o n
M eets th e n e ed s o f t h e tim e s
Adds in f o r m a tio n t o t h a t a v a i l a b l e i n m ost
te x tb o o k s
III.
M ethod o f P r e s e n t a t i o n
F a c t u a l , n o t c l u t t e r e d w ith I r r e l e v a n t ma­
te ria l
W ell o rg a n iz e d
S im p le , c l e a r , b r i e f
A t t r a c t i v e i n fo rm a t
D u ra b le
G ra p h ic , w e ll i l l u s t r a t e d
E a sy t o r e a d , s i g h t s a v in g
A p p ro p ria te f o r g ro u p f o r w hich i t i s i n ­
te n d e d
IV .
S u b je c t M a tte r U n b iased
C l e a r - c u t e d u c a tio n a l p u rp o se
I n fo rm a tio n a b o u t p r o d u c ts i n g e n e r a l r a t h e r
th a n p ro m o tio n o f s p e c i f i c b ra n d s
T e x t f r e e from a d v e r t i s i n g
P o s t e r s and c h a r t s f r e e fro m a d v e r t i s i n g
The A m erican Home Econom ics A s s o c ia tio n h a s made t h i s
c h e c k - l i s t a v a i l a b l e f o r i t s members a s a g u id e t o e v a l u a t e
t h e r e l a t i v e v a lu e s o f t h i s f r e e e d u c a ti o n a l m a t e r i a l .
How ever,
c r i t i c a l e x a m in a tio n o f th e l i s t r e v e a l s th e l m p r a c t l c a l i t y o f
i t s u s e f o r t h e a v e ra g e te a c h e r *
I f any te a c h e r w ere t o ex­
am ine th o r o u g h ly e a c h p ie c e o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l sh e r e c e i v e s ,
t h e r e w ould b e no tim e f o r a n y o t h e r e x t r a - s c h o l a s t i c a c t i v i t y *
F or i n s t a n c e , t h e answ er t o t h e f i r s t im p lie d q u e s tio n u n d e r
" C o n te n t," " S u b je c t m a t t e r s c i e n t i f i c a l l y a c c u r a t e ," w ould re -
32
q u i r e t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r e i t h e r t o go t o com m ercial l a b o r a t o r i e s
o r t o w r i t e t o m a n u fa c tu re rs f o r t h e a u t h e n t i c a t i o n o f e a c h
b i t o f in f o r m a tio n ; o r sh e w ould n eed a l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n ic i a n
w ith tim e enough t o make a d e q u a te t e s t s *
The amount o f d e t a i l
makes t h i s p ro c e d u re i m p r a c t i c a l a n d , a s w i l l b e shown h e r e ,
u n n e ce ssa ry .
F u r t h e r , a s M iss Dodge s u g g e s t s , " t im e li n e s s " o f
th e m a t e r i a l i s m ost im p o rta n t*
By t h e tim e i t had b e en checked
f o r a c c u ra c y , t h e in f o r m a tio n w ould b e i n c o r r e c t *
To keep
a b r e a s t o f e a c h new develop m ent i n food r e s e a r c h w ould ta k e th e
f u l l tim e o f a s p e c i a l i n v e s t i g a t o r *
The A m erican M e d ic a l
A s s o c ia tio n l i s t s a p p ro x im a te ly 3 ,0 0 0 p r o d u c ts i n i t s l a t e s t
1
b o o k , a lo n e * Add t o t h a t th e o th e r h u n d re d s w h ich h av e n o t .
b e en a c c e p te d and one h a s an a p p r e c i a b le f i g u r e *
The m ost c o n s t r u c t i v e a t t i t u d e seems t o b e t o depend
upon many so u ro e s f o r s u c h in f o r m a tio n and t o h av e a m eans o f
c h e c k in g i t w ith t h e f i n d i n g s o f governm ent a g e n c ie s o r p ro ­
f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s , s i n c e t h e r e a r e i n t r u t h d u ly c o n s t i t u t e d
a u th o ritie s *
T r u th , a s i t i s b e in g g e n e r a l l y a c c e p te d to d a y ,
may b e fo u n d t o b e o n ly h a l f - t r u t h tom orrow ; su c h i s t h e sp eed
o f re se a rc h *
The u s e o f w e ll- p la n n e d an d a u t h e n t i c a t e d s u p p le ­
m e n ta ry m a t e r i a l , t h e r e f o r e , may h e lp t o keep t h e te x tb o o k ma­
t e r i a l a d e q u a te t o m eet c u r r e n t n e ed s and r e v e a le d f in d in g s *
P u b lis h e r s o f m ag azin es and s e r v i c e s to s c h o o ls have
c a p i t a l i z e d upon t h e n eed f o r s u p p le m e n ta ry m a t e r i a ls *
1*
One
C o u n c il on F o o d s , A m erican M e d ica l A s s o c ia t io n , A ccepted
Foods and t h e i r n u t r i t i o n a l S i g n i f i c a n c e * 1939*
33
1
su c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s t a t e s i n a b o o k le t e x p la in in g i t s
s e rv io e s :
The o b j e c t o f t h i s s e r v i c e i s t o p ro v id e au­
t h e n t i c an d f a c t u a l d a t a r e g a r d in g su c h p ro ­
d u c ts •
To p ro v id e t e a c h e r s w ith su c h d a ta and le s s o n
h e lp s a s w i l l e n a b le them t o o b ta in t h e b e s t
r e s u l t s from t h e u s e o f recommended p ro d u c ts *
I t was fo u n d t h a t many t e a c h e r s d id n o t alw ays
u n d e rs ta n d how t o g e t t h e b e s t r e s u l t s from
v a r io u s p ro d u c ts * B ecau se o f t h i s , l e s s o n s o f ­
t e n p ro v ed d is a p p o in tin g *
T h is s e r v i c e h a s d i s t r i b u t e d , i n th e p a s t y e a r ,
1 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ite m s i n t h e form o f sam ple f o l d e r s , c h a r t s , sub­
j e c t m an u als and p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l a s r e q u e s te d and h a s r e c e iv e d
m ore th a n 7 5 ,0 0 0 com m unications I n d i c a t i n g t h e n e e d s o f i n 2
s t r u c t o r s whom th e y se rv e *
3
I n S eptem ber o f 1939 t h e i r b u l l e t i n c a r r i e d t h e
f o llo w in g a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r a n n u a l s u rv e y o f th e n eed f o r
t h e ir se rv ic e :
The f o llo w in g s t a t i s t i c s a r e g iv e n fro m a t a b u l a ­
t i o n o f one th o u sa n d q u e s t io n n a ir e s r e t u r n e d from
th e l a s t P r a c t i c a l V a lu e S u rv e y . They p ro v id e an
i n t e r e s t i n g p e r s p e c t iv e o f home econom ics te a c h ­
in g tr e n d s and th e v a lu e o f th e S e r v ic e r e n d e r e d
b y th e Home M akers E d u c a tio n a l S e rv ic e *
G e n e ra l D a ta
Yes
A re i l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s n e c e s ­
s a r y f o r home econom ics i n s t r u c t i o n ? 9 7 .5 #
1*
2*
3*
Ho
2 .5 #
B o o k le t d e s c r i b i n g th e s e r v i o e s o f Home M akers Educa­
t i o n a l S e r v i c e , S e r v ic e t h a t S e r v e s . p* 55*
L e t t e r from Home M akers1 Educational Service*
B u l l e t i n . Home M akers1 E d u c a tio n S e r v i c e , S e p tem b er,
1BSL, V o l. 2 5 , H o. 1 , p . 8 .
34
G e n e ra l D ata
No
Yes
A re you s t r e s s i n g Consumer B uying?
9 3 .4 #
6 .6 #
Do i l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s h e l p to
c a r r y o v e r i n t o s tu d e n ts * homes?
9 5 .9 #
4 .1 #
H e re , t o o , I s e v id e n c e t o s u p p o r t f u r t h e r th e h y p o th e ­
s i s w hich i n d i c a t e s th e n e ed o f d i s c r i m i n a t i v e s3Lection o f t h e
p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s t h a t a r e t o b e u s e d i n e d u c a tio n *
The u s e
o f 1 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ite m s o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s can r e a c h a l a r g e num­
b e r o f s o h o o l p u p ils *
T hese m a t e r i a l s hav e b e e n d i s t r i b u t e d
to t h i s g ro u p w ith l i t t l e o r no e v a l u a t i o n on th e p a r t o f
te a c h e r s *
They a r e a c c e p tin g them on f a c e - v a lu e b e c a u s e th e
Home M akers E d u c a tio n a l S e r v ic e se n d s them*
B ut t h i s o r g a n iz a ­
t i o n i s p a id b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l m a n u fa c tu re r s t o p e rfo rm t h i s
s e r v i c e f o r th em *
The e v a l u a t i o n w ould seem t o b e one t h a t i s
d e te rm in e d b y t h e p a id o r g a n i z a t i o n *
T h is i s d i r e c t l y d e te rm in e d
b y th e d e s i r e o f a m a n u fa c tu re r to d i s t r i b u t e m a t e r i a l*
Some
m a t e r i a l s may b e r e f u s e d b u t t h e s e r v i c e i s d e p en d e n t f o r i t s
e x is te n c e on t h i s ty p e o f b u s in e s s and c a n n o t h e lp b u t b e s u s ­
c e p t i b l e t o em phasis upon i t s own com m ercial s u r v i v a l r a t h e r
th a n upon t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f a d e m o c ra tic e d u c a tio n *
The p ro m o tio n a l m a t e r i a l d e v e lo p e d f o r th e s a l e o f
a d v e r t i s i n g sp a c e i n P r a c t i c a l Home E conom ics. a m ag azin e f o r
th e home e c o n o m is ts , c a r r i e s th e in f o r m a tio n t h a t :
The p ro p e r u se o f com m ercial a d v e r t i s i n g ma­
t e r i a l h a s b e e n a s u b j e c t o f much co n ce rn t o
members o f th e A m erican Home Econom ics A s s o c ia ­
t io n * A t t h e i r a n n u a l m e e tin g i n J u l y , 1936,
35
an i n t e r e s t i n g r e p o r t was su b m itte d * T h is was
i n f o u r p a r t s , p a r t o n e , s t a t i n g th e f u n c t i o n
and p o l i c i e s o f th e c o m m itte e , and l i s t i n g t h e
ty p e s and k in d s o f com m ercial m a t e r i a l s a s
(a ) m a t e r i a l s t h a t com m ercial com panies p r e p a r e
e s p e c i a l l y f o r e d u c a ti o n a l p u rp o se s in c l u d i n g
p r i n t e d b o o k l e t s , c h a r t s , f i l m s t r i p s and demon­
s t r a t i o n s ; (b ) th e e v e ry d a y a d v e r t i s i n g a s i n
d a i l y p a p e r s , r a d i o , c u r r e n t m a g a z in e s , s t o r e
p la c a r d s an d l a b e l s * 1
The s ta te m e n t r e l a t i n g t o t h e u s e o f com m ercial a d v e r t i s i n g
m a t e r i a l s i n a l l f i e l d s o f home econom ics e d u c a tio n c o n ta in s
t h e f o llo w in g :
T here i s a p la c e f o r th e u s e of com m ercial ad­
v e rtis in g m a t e r i a l s i n home econom ics program s
a s a m eans o f d e v e lo p in g consum er judgm ent*
A ll su c h m a t e r i a l s s h o u ld b e e v a lu a te d f o r
t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e e d u c a tio n a l p ro g ram . 2
They h av e re c o g n iz e d t h e n eed f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n th e ma­
t e r i a l s a v a ila b le in t h i s fie ld *
T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e s ta te m e n ts
th e m se lv e s s t a t e t h e n e ed f o r c r i t e r i a o f g e n e r a l ag reem en t*
W ith t h e p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t i n t h e consum er m ovem ent,
m o st w r i t e r s o f a d v e r t i s i n g a r e becom ing aw are o f s c h o o l p ro ­
m o tio n o p p o r t u n i t i e s and an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f th o s e a d v e r t i s e r s
who have made a s u c c e s s o f su c h cam paigns*
A l e t t e r t o members
o f t h e L ith o g r a p h e r s N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n s a y s :
S c h o o l P ro m o tio n O p p o rtu n ity
W ith v a r i o u s s t a t e s s l a s h i n g so h o o l b u d g e ts
( s a i d th e New York Tim es r e c e n t l y ) n a t i o n a l a d 1.
P am phlet on P ro m o tio n a l M a t e r i a l , The Use o f Com m ercial
A d v e r tis in g M a te r ia l* P r a c t i c a l Home E conom ics.
(S e p tem b er, 1 9 3 6 ).
2*
I b id *
36
v e r t l a e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e fo o d f i e l d , h a v e
an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r tu n ity t o o f f e r i n t e l l i g e n t
m a t e r i a l f o r u s e i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n , h e a l t h ,
home e c o n o m ic s, and o t h e r s c h o o l d e p a r tm e n ts ,
a c c o rd in g t o e d u c a tio n a l o f f i c i a l s . They empha­
s i z e d , h o w ev er, t h a t i n su c h m a t e r i a l company
'p lu g s * and a d v e r t i s i n g s h o u ld b e k e p t to a
minimum. T extbook a p p r o p r i a t i o n s hav e b e en c u r­
t a i l e d i n many s t a t e s , and t e a c h e r s a r e a n x io u s
t o l a y t h e i r hands on any m a t e r i a l w hich i s a t
a l l s u i t a b l e . A num ber o f com panies h a v e b e e n
h i g h ly s u c c e s s f u l w ith sc h o o l m a t e r i a l c o v e rin g
su c h s u b j e c t s a s v i ta m in s , d i e t s , c o o k in g , e t c . 1
H ere i s t h e n a t i o n a l A s s o c ia tio n o f L ith o g r a p h e r s
c a l l i n g t h e a t t e n t i o n o f i t s members t o th e o p p o r tu n ity t o
g e t more p r i n t i n g b u s in e s s b e c a u s e o f t h e n eed f o r p r i n t e d
m a t e r i a l t o m eet d e f i c i e n c i e s i n te x tb o o k a p p r o p r i a t i o n s .
T h is s u g g e s ts a n o th e r n e ed f o r s e t t i n g up some s o r t o f
e v a l u a t i n g p ro c e d u re f o r t h e u se o f su c h b o o k le ts f o r th e
g u id a n c e o f t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , p r i n t e r s and p r o s p e c tiv e
c re a to r s o f such m a te r ia l.
E f f o r t s a r e b e in g made i n many a r e a s o f e d u c a tio n t o
c o u n te r a c t t h e s o - c a l l e d ns u b v e r s iv e n e f f e c t s on b u s i n e s s o f
s u c h books a s 1 0 0 .0 0 0 .0 0 0 G uinea P ig s and o t h e r su c h consum er
ty p e p o p u la r e x p o ses o f q u e s t io n a b le b u s in e s s m e th o d s.
Most
a c t i v e i n t h i s f i e l d h a s b e e n th e C ro w ell P u b lis h in g Company,
w hich p u b lis h e s C o l l i e r ' s . A m erican M agazine and t h e Woman*s
§
Home Companion. T h e ir s t u d i e s o f t h e e x te n s iv e c i r c u l a t i o n o f
1.
2.
L e t t e r t o i t s members o f th e N a tio n a l L ith o g r a p h e r s
A s s o c ia tio n from th e e d u c a tio n a l d e p a rtm e n t,
J a n u a ry 1 2 , 1 9 4 0 .
R .A . R o b in so n , A d v e r tis in g and t h e Consumer M ovement.
Com piled b y Consumer D iv is io n o f th e C row ell P u b lis h in g Company, November 1 , 1 9 3 7 , p . 2 0 .
37
consum er books b ro u g h t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f b u s in e s s t h e need
f o r c h a n g in g t h e i r ty p e o f a d v e r t i s i n g and th e n e c e s s i t y f o r
r e c o g n iz in g t h e d e s i r e on t h e p a r t o f consum ers f o r f a c t u a l ad ­
v e rtis in g *
B u sin e ss h as become m ore th a n e v e r i n t e r e s t e d i n
s u p p ly in g t h i s n o n -fo rm a l e d u c a tio n a l m a t e r i a l t o m eet t h e com­
p e t i t i o n o f 1 0 0 .0 0 0 .0 0 0 G u in ea P ig s and o th e r books*
A n o th er e f f o r t t o " c o u n t e r a c t t h e i n f lu e n c e o f a
p e r io d when th e m o tiv e s and i n t e g r i t y o f b o t h news and a d ­
v e r t i s i n g colum ns o f new spapers have b e e n s u b j e c t t o su c h
1
c r i t i c i s m and s u b v e r s iv e a t t a c k s a s e x i s t to d a y ," h a s been
made i n W isco n sin *
The M ilw aukee J o u r n a l sh ip p e d t o t h e
5 ,8 7 6 one-roam sc h o o lh o u s e s i n W isconsin f r e e c o p ie s o f a new
384 pag e i l l u s t r a t e d b o o k , The N ew spaper i n th e C lassro o m , a
t e x t f o r te a c h e r s *
The book s u g g e s ts no c u rric u lu m chan g es b u t
s u g g e s ts how th e n ew spaper may b e u s e d i n a r i t h m e t i c , s o c i a l
s c i e n c e , home e c o n o m ic s, a r t s , h e a l t h an d s a f e t y c la s s e s *
T h is
i n d i c a t e s th e n e e d f o r s e t t i n g up a g u id e f o r e d u c a to r s who may
b e f lo o d e d w ith su c h m a t e r i a l i f t h i s a tte m p t i s p r o f i t a b l e
f o r t h e M ilw aukee J o u r n a l *
T e a c h e rs h av e b e e n t u r n i n g t o t h e u s e o f f r e e p r i n t e d
m a t e r i a l s and o t h e r s i m i l a r p a r a p h e r n a l ia w hich n e c e s s i t a t e d
v a s t e x p e n d itu r e s *
The Home M akers E d u c a tio n a l S e r v ic e d l s 2
t r i b u t e d 7 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 p ie c e s o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l l a s t y e a r* The
1*
2*
News an d S ch o o ls* T id e (F e b ru a ry 1 5 , 1 9 4 0 ), p . 61*
L e t t e r from Home M akers E d u c a tio n S e r v i c e , F e b ru a ry 1 2 ,
1940.
58
M e tr o p o lita n L i f e I n s u ra n c e Company d i s t r i b u t e d 6 9 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
b o o k le ts to i t s
c l i e n t e l e and t o t e a c h e r s who w ro te f o r s e 1
2
le c te d m a te ria ls *
O th e r b o o k l e t s w ere c i r c u l a t e d i n th e
1 0 0 ,0 0 0 c l a s s , w h ile B r is to l- M y e r s d i s t r i b u t e d 4 0 ,0 0 0 c h a r ts
f o r Ip a n a w ith o u t d i f f i c u l t y *
Many b o o k le ts w hich w ere w r i t t e n
f o r o t h e r u s e s r e c e i v e d e x te n s iv e s c h o o l c i r c u l a t i o n b e c a u se
o f t h e v a lu a b le and u s a b le in f o r m a tio n c o n ta in e d i n them*
The Corn P ro d u c ts R e f in in g Company d e v e lo p e d a book­
l e t a b o u t c o m f o r i t s s to c k h o ld e rs *
i t h a s gone th ro u g h a t h i r d p r in tin g *
I t becam e so p o p u la r t h a t
A lth o u g h many o f t h e s e
b o o k le ts w ere n o t w r i t t e n p r i m a r i l y f o r s c h o o l u s e , th e y w ere
fo u n d so v a lu a b le t h a t th e y w ere w id e ly a c c la im e d and a r e y e t
r e q u e s te d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y b y s c h o o ls f o r supplem entary i n s t r u c ­
tio n *
I t I s e v i d e n t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e r e a r e no a v a i l a b l e
d i r e c t o r i e s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a u t h e n t i c a t e d f r e e p r i n t e d ma­
t e r i a l s i n h e a l t h e d u c a tio n *
N e ith e r h a v e t h e r e y e t b een p r o ­
duced a c c e p ta b le s ta n d a r d s f o r th e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s w hich
t e a c h e r s s h o u ld u s e , o r t h a t a d v e r t i s e r s o r o t h e r c r e a t o r s o f
s u c h f r e e m a t e r i a l m ig h t em ploy f o r I n d i v i d u a l g u id a n c e i n edu­
c a tio n a l p ra c tis e *
Have g o v e rn m e n ta l a u t h o r i t i e s m et t h e i s s u e s o f con­
sum er e d u c a tio n and a d v e r t i s i n g p r a c t i c e s ?
We s h a l l se e n e x t ,
t o w hat e x te n t*
1*
2*
L e t t e r from M e tr o p o lita n L if e In s u r a n c e Company, Ja n u a ry 3 ,
1940*
L e t t e r from R a ls to n P u r in a Company, Decem ber 1 4 , 1939*
CHAPTER IV
COLLECTION OP FREE MATERIALS PROM CITY, STATE
AND FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
E v e ry c i t y , s t a t e and g o v e rn m e n ta l d i v i s i o n i s en­
gaged i n a s tu d y o f t h e d e v elo p m en t o f f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l
f o r t h e p ro m o tio n o f a v e s te d I n t e r e s t w i t h in t h a t d iv is io n *
Many a r e c o n c e rn e d w ith h e a l t h , and i t i s w ith t h e s e s p e c i f i c
m a t e r i a l s t h a t t h i s s tu d y i s concerned*
A c u rs o ry s u rv e y o f t h i s problem was made t o d e te r ­
m ine t o w hat e x te n t i t w ould b e p o s s ib l e t o d i s t r i b u t e t h i s
m a t e r i a l on a n a tio n - w id e b a s i s *
None o f t h e I n d i v i d u a l s t a t e s
o r c i t i e s w ould g u a ra n te e t o s u p p ly any su c h demand*
T h u s,
a f t e r c o l l e c t i n g t h e s e d a ta c o n c e rn in g i n d i v i d u a l , c i t y and
s t a t e " a t t i t u d e s , n i t i s s u g g e s te d t h a t t h e r e a d e r may f i n d
i n h i s own c i t y o r s t a t e v a lu a b le h e a l t h m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e ,
g ra tis *
I n 1936, t h e Consumers* C ounsel D iv is io n o f t h e
A g r i c u l t u r a l A d ju stm en t A d m in is tr a tio n p ro v id e d th e f i r s t p u b 1
l l c a t i o n o f c o o r d in a te d in f o r m a tio n f o r an y p e rs o n s i n t e r e s t e d
1*
I r i s C* W a lk e r, Consumer S e r v io e s o f Governm ent A g en cies *
A g r i c u l t u r a l A d ju stm en t A d m in is tr a tio n , P u b l i c a t io n
No* 1* W a sh in g to n , D*C«: D epartm ent o f A g r i c u l t u r e ,
1936*
39
40
i n th e s e r v i c e s o f f e n d by t h e f e d e r a l governm ent t o consum ers*
T h is h a s b e e n t h e f i r s t c o o p e r a tiv e a tte m p t t o c o l l e c t t h e s e
d a ta i n t o u s a b le fo rm , by t h e D ep artm en t o f A g r ic u ltu r e *
The l a r g e s t volum es o f g o v e rn m e n ta l f r e e p r i n t e d ma­
t e r i a l r e l e v a n t t o h e a l t h a r e o r g a n iz e d by t h e D epartm ent o f
A g r i c u l t u r e and th e U n ite d S t a t e s P u b lic H e a lth S e rv ic e *
The
Food an d D rug A d m in is tr a tio n and th e B ureau o f Home Econom ics
a r e m e re ly r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f th e D ep artm en t o f A g r i c u l t u r e ,
t h e l a r g e s t s o u rc e o f f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l p ro d u c tio n *
The U n ite d S t a t e s P u b lic H e a lth S e r v i c e , on t h e o t h e r
h a n d , i s a d i v i s i o n o f t h e F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y A gency, and i s
a ls o a la rg e d i s t r i b u t o r o f s im ila r p a ra p h e rn a lia , la r g e ly in
g ra p h e d copy*
T h is s e r v i c e i s c o n c e rn e d w ith r e s e a r c h e s su c h
a s t h e c a u s e s an d p r e v e n tio n o f d i s e a s e , c o o p e r a tio n i n p u b lic
h e a l t h m a t t e r s , i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f d i s e a s e s ; and i n a s s i s t i n g
s t a t e s t o e s t a b l i s h an d m a in ta in a d e q u a te p u b lic h e a l t h s e r ­
v ic e s *
T h e i r p u b lis h e d h e a l t h m a t e r i a l i s t h e b e s t a v a i l a b l e
b e c a u se o f i t s h ig h s ta n d a r d o f s c i e n t i f i c background*
Only t h e
w e lfa r e o f t h e A m erican c i t i z e n i s t h e m o tiv a tin g f a c t o r b e ­
h in d i t s p u b l l c a t io n s *
R e c e n tly , D r. P a r r a n 's work i n c r e a t ­
in g a w id e r a w are n ess o f S o c i a l H ygiene h a s fo c u s e d a t t e n t i o n
upon th e v a lu a b le work o f t h i s s e r v ic e *
I n o t h e r D e p a rtm e n ts , t o o , t h e r e a r e a few p r o j e c t s
and p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s c o n c e rn e d w ith good h e a l t h , su c h a s th o s e
o f t h e D epartm ent o f L a b o r, u n d e r t h e C onsum ers' P r o j e c t and
th e C h i l d r e n 's B ureau*
41
O th er p u b lic and p r i v a t e a g e n c ie s p r o v id e v a lu a b le
f r e e p r i n t e d s o u rc e m a t e r i a l s t h a t a r e u s u a l l y d i s r e g a r d e d b y
a l l b u t s tu d e n ts *
T hese In c lu d e t h e f o u n d a t i o n s , su c h a s t h e
C a rn e g ie , G uggenheim , Commonwealth, E li z a b e t h McCormick and
t h e M llbank*
A lth o u g h t h e i r p rim a ry I n t e r e s t i s n o t th e
d ev elo p m ent o f b o o k s, t h e y h av e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f g e n e r a l and
s p e c i f i c I n t e r e s t , a t a p p r e c i a b le i n t e r v a l s *
Some in s u r a n c e oom panles p u b l is h and d i s t r i b u t e m ore
p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s th a n a n y one o t h e r so u rc e *
M e t r o p o li t a n ,
P r u d e n t ia l and John H ancock a c c o u n t f o r th e l a r g e s t d i s t r i b u ­
tio n s *
The John Hancock and th e P r u d e n t i a l Companies h a v e n o t
b een so p r o l i f i c p u b l i s h e r s a s th e M e tr o p o lita n , b u t t h e y h a v e
c o n tr i b u te d f i n e m a t e r i a l , n e v e r t h e l e s s *
P ro m o tio n a l and a d v e r t i s i n g com m ercial m a t e r i a l p ro ­
v id e s t h e w id e r and m ore d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s o u rc e s o f f r e e book­
l e t s and c h a r t m a t e r i s l , w hich a re I s s u e d u n c e a s in g ly *
P ro ­
d u c tio n momentum i s i n te r m i n a b le , r e v i s e d and a l t e r e d con­
t i n u a l l y , a s new p ro d u c ts a r e b e in g d e v e lo p e d o r a s f a s t a s
r e s e a r c h d is c o v e r s new u s e s f o r o ld p ro d u c ts *
I t i s t h e m ain
s o u rc e o f t h e m ost e f f e c t i v e and fo c u s e d e d u c a tio n i n o u r
so d o - e c o n o m ic l i f e *
From t h i s u n c l a s s i f i e d m ass o f in fo rm a ­
t i o n , t e a c h e r s and a l l th o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n e d u c a tio n may f i n d
m a t e r i a l on an y p h ase o f l i f e and l i v i n g t h a t i s o f i n t e r e s t
t o men*
T h u s, one f i n d s a p r o d ig io u s volum e o f f r e e p r i n t e d
m a t e r i a l c r e a te d f o r d i v e r s e r e a s o n s , b u t m ore c o g e n tly
prom pted b y th e p r o f i t m o tiv e , m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s a r e r e q u i r e d
42
to c r e a t e , p l a n , p r i n t and d i s t r i b u t e t h i s p ro p a g a n d a , good
or bad, tru e o r f a ls e .
B ecau se o f th e w ide f i e l d s c o v e re d b y t h i s m a t e r i a l ,
t h e s o u r c e s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y o b v io u s; s i m i l a r l y , th e y a re
not easy to f in d .
T here d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o b e a f a c i l e m ethod
t o c o l l e c t t h i s m a t e r i a l , and t h e r e i s no c l e a r i n g h o u se f o r
i t s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n .
Much o f i t h a s b e e n d e ­
v e lo p e d b y th e I n d i v i d u a l m a n u fa c tu re r and much h a s b e e n d e ­
v e lo p e d b y a d v e r t i s i n g a g e n c ie s ; b u t n e i t h e r o f t h e s e g ro u p s
h a s a common mode o f d i s t r i b u t i o n .
To l o c a t e th e s o u r c e s , r e ­
s e a r c h , l a r g e l y b y c o rre s p o n d e n c e , was n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y o u t
t h is s tu d y .
Some s t a t e d e p a rtm e n ts o f h e a l t h and e d u c a tio n hav e
r e a l i z e d th e v a lu e o f t h i s m a t e r i a l and a r e u s in g i t f r e e l y .
I n f a c t , one su c h d e p a rtm e n t s e n t th e w r i t e r a c o m p le te s e t
o f M e tr o p o lita n L if e I n s u r a n c e m a t e r i a l i n an sw e r to a r e q u e s t
f o r t h e k in d s o f b o o k le ts th e y w ere c r e a t i n g f o r t h e i r s t a t e .
The r e c e n t " S a f e ty E d u c a tio n S u g g e s tio n s " f o r C ourse o f S tu d y
i n S a f e ty E d u c a tio n i n New York l i s t s s e v e r a l in s u r a n c e com­
p a n ie s a s s o u rc e s f o r s u c h p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s .
I n New York C ity ,
t h e V o c a tio n a l E d u c a tio n D ep artm en t h a s d i s t r i b u t e d a mimeo­
g ra p h e d o u t l i n e l i s t i n g so u rc e m a t e r i a l s , I n c lu d in g much com­
m e r c ia l m a t e r i a l .
An acknow ledgem ent o f t h e s e s o u rc e s h a s b e ­
come a p p a r e n t i n m ost s t a t e s , among r e a l i s t i c , p ra g m a tic ,
I d e a l i s t i c and n a t u r a l i s t i c e d u c a t o r s .
Few s t a t e d e p a rtm e n ts
h ave t h e fu n d s t o c r e a t e t h e i r own m a t e r i a l ; t h e r e f o r e th e y
43
u s e t h a t a l r e a d y c r e a t e d b y o th e r s *
M ethod o f C o lle c tin g th e M a t e r i a l s
The d i r e c t l e t t e r , c o n f e r e n c e , and q u e s t io n n a ir e
m ethods w ere u s e d I n th e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a ls *
E ach
s t a t e d e p a rtm e n t o f h e a l t h e d u c a tio n was a sk e d to su b m it f o r
u s e i n t h i s s tu d y a l i s t o f sam ples o f t h e i r p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s
and i t s own s u g g e s tio n s f o r c o l l e c t i n g f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l
I n h e a l t h e d u c a tio n *
Some o f th e le a d in g c i t i e s i n t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s were In c lu d e d i n th e r e q u e s t*
T h ir ty - s e v e n S t a t e De­
p a rtm e n ts o f E d u c a tio n and H e a lth a n sw e re d , p r o v id in g a b a c k ­
g ro u n d f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h *
E v ery d e p a rtm e n t of th e f e d e r a l governm ent w hich d i s ­
t r i b u t e s f r e e m a t e r i a l s was a l s o r e q u e s te d t o c o n t r i b u t e i t s
p ro p er l i s t *
I n q u i r i e s w ere s e n t t o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o l l e g e s , t o
d e te rm in e t h e ty p e s o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s w hich th e y i s s u e , and
t o w hat e x te n t and i n w hat volume th e y d i s t r i b u t e *
M agazines w ith n a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s , p u rv e y in g n a ­
t i o n a l a d v e r t i s i n g were a l s o p e ru s e d f o r l i s t i n g s o f f r e e book­
le ts *
I n e v e ry c a s e where one was o f f e r e d a l e t t e r o f r e q u e s t
was w r itte n *
T hese h av e in c lu d e d : Good H o u sek e ep in g . M cC all1s .
Woman*s Home Companion. L a d le s * Home J o u r n a l . S a tu rd a y E vening
P o s t . C o l l i e r *s . The A m erican M agazine, T im e. F o rtu n e and
P a r e n ts * M agazine*
The p r o f e s s i o n a l m ag a zin es su c h a s th e
J o u r n a l o f th e A m erican M ed ical A s s o c ia tio n and t h e J o u r n a l
44
o f t h e D e n ta l A a a o c la tlo n w ere ch eck ed I n t h e same m an n e r, a s
w ere a l s o e d u c a tio n a l j o u r n a l s su c h a s The N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n
J o u r n a l . The I n s t r u c t o r and The G rade T e a c h e r#
In t h e home eeonomfcs f i e l d , l e t t e r s were s e n t t o a l l
f ir m s l i s t e d I n P r a c t i c a l Home E conom ics. F o r e c a s t . W hat*s New
I n Home Econom ics and th e J o u r n a l o f Home E oonom lcs.
I t Is
c u sto m a ry e a c h Septem ber t o have s p e c i a l I n s e r t s o f e a s i l y r e ­
t u r n a b l e c a rd s f o r th e home econom ics te a c h e r t o send t o th e
r e s p e c t i v e e d i t o r s f o r a l l f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e In
t h a t i s s u e o f th e m a g a z in e .
T h is s e r v i c e was a l s o u sed #
I n th e s p e c i a l i z e d h e a l t h f i e l d , H y g e la . t h e J o u r n a l
o f H e a lth and P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n . H e a lth M agazine and th e
T ra in e d N urse and H o s p ita l Review p ro v id e d a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l #
More th a n f i f t y c o n fe re n c e s w ere h e ld w ith l e a d e r s I n
th e a d v e r t i s i n g and p ro m o tio n f i e l d i n o rd e r t o o b ta in c o o p e ra ­
t i o n I n c o l l e c t i n g th e f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s w hich t h e y w ere
o f f e r i n g t o th e p u b l ic f o r t h e i r a c c o u n ts #
T hese In c lu d e d su ch
g ro u p s a s t h e A s s o c ia tio n o f N a t io n a l A d v e r t i s e r s , A d v e r tis in g
F e d e r a tio n o f A m e ric a, A m erican A s s o c ia tio n o f A d v e r tis in g
A g e n c ie s , th e L ith o g r a p h e r s N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n and A s s o c ia te d
G ro c e ry M a n u fa c tu re rs A s s o c ia tio n #
M agazines and t r a d e p a p e rs i n th e a d v e r t i s i n g f i e l d ,
i t s e l f , h a v e b e e n o f p e r t i n e n t and v a lu a b le a s s i s t a n c e I n t h i s
resea rch #
The m ag azin es S a le s M anagem ent. A d v e r tis in g and S e l l ­
i n g . P r i n t e r s 1 I n k . A d v e r tis in g Age. Food F i e l d R e p o rte r an d
Drug T o p ic s c o n tr i b u te d s i g n i f i c a n t d a t a b y m aking i t p o s s i b l e
45
f o r c r e a t o r s and d i s t r i b u t o r s o f f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l t o know
a b o u t th e c o n d u c t o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n *
S e c tio n s o f n ew sp a p ers d e v o te d t o news o f a d v e r t i s i n g
have a l s o g iv e n p u b l i c p rom inence t o th e p r e s e n t w o rk .
N o tic e s
o f i t have a p p e a re d a t v a r io u s tim e s In The New Y ork T im e s. The
New Y ork H e ra ld T r ib u n e . and The New Y ork E v en in g S un.
Mr* Jo h n B enson, P r e s i d e n t o f th e A m erican A s s o c ia tio n
o f A d v e r tis in g A g e n c ie s , s e n t a s p e c i a l b u l l e t i n t o a l l
a g e n c ie s a s k in g them t o r e n d e r e v e ry p o s s i b l e a s s i s t a n c e t o
t h i s in v e s tig a tio n *
The A s s o c ia t io n o f N a tio n a l A d v e r t i s e r s gave s i m i l a r
a s s i s t a n c e , b u t I s s u e d no b u l l e t i n *
The L ith o g r a p h e r s N a t io n a l A s s o c ia tio n s e n t o u t a fo rm
2
l e t t e r on J a n u a ry 1 2 , 1940 w i t h in f o r m a tio n a b o u t f r e e p r i n t e d
m a t e r i a l s a n d h a s g iv e n t h e w r i t e r a s s i d u o u s l y a l l p e r t i n e n t
I n f o r m a tio n from t h e r e t u r n s , r e g a r d i n g p r i n t e d e d u c a t i o n a l
m a t e r i a ls *
A form l e t t e r was a l s o s e n t t o e a c h a d v e r t i s i n g agency
w h ich l i s t e d a p ro d u c t p u r p o r t in g t o have an y r e l a t i o n s h i p t o
h e a lth .
More t h a n f i v e h u n d red l e t t e r s w ere m a ile d t o s u c h
3
a g e n c ie s , fro m th e l i s t s i n The S ta n d a rd A d v e r ti s in g R e g i s t e r .
E v ery a d v e r t i s e r i n t h e c a t a l o g w h ic h w as p r e p a r e d
b y t h e C ro w e ll P u b l i s h i n g Company, i n 1 9 3 7 , was r e q u e s t e d t o
1*
2.
3*
See A ppendix B, p . 154*
See A ppendix B, p . 152*
See A ppendix C, p . 157*
46
subm it h i s m a t e r i a l f o r I n c l u s io n I n th e study*
1
L e t t e r s w ere w r i t t e n t o th e f o llo w in g o r g a n i z a t i o n s
w hich p u b l is h l i s t s
of f r e e p rin te d h e a lth m a te r ia ls :
A m erican D e n ta l A s s o c ia t io n , B ureau o f P u b lic
R e l a t i o n s , 212 E a s t S u p e rio r S t r e e t , C h ic a g o ,
Illin o is .
A m erican H e a rt A s s o c ia t io n , 50 W est 5 0 th S t r e e t ,
New Y o rk , New York*
A m erican Home Econom ics A s s o c ia t io n , 620 M ills
B u i ld i n g , W ash in g to n , D* C*
Am erican M e d ic a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 555 N o rth D earborn
S t r e e t , C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s *
A m erican P u b lic H e a lth A s s o c i a t i o n , 50 West 4 0 th
S t r e e t , New York C ity *
Am erican Red C ro ss N a tio n a l H e a d q u a r te r s , W ash in g to n ,
D. C.
A m erican S o c i a l H ygiene A s s o c ia t io n , 50 West 5 0 th
S t r e e t , New Y o rk , New York*
B u reau o f Home E conom ics, D ep artm en t of A g r i c u l t u r e ,
W ash in g to n , D* C*
B e t t e r V is io n I n s t i t u t e , R o c k e f e ll e r P l a z a , New
Y ork C ity *
C le a n lin e s s B u re a u , 11 W est 42nd S t r e e t , New York
C ity *
E l i z a b e t h McCormick M em orial Fund, 848 N o rth D ear­
b o rn S t r e e t , C h icag o , I l l i n o i s *
I r r a d i a t e d E v a p o ra te d M ilk I n s t i t u t e , 307 N o rth
M ich ig an A venue, C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s
G u ild o f P r e s c r i p t i o n O p tic ia n s o f A m e ric a, I n c * ,
705 B a ile y B u ild in g , P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n sy lv a n ia *
1*
R*A* R o b in so n , A d v e r tis in g and th e Consumer Movement*
co m p iled b y Consumer D iv is io n o f ’tfce C ro w ell P u b lis h ln g Company, November 1 , 1 9 3 7 , p . 12*
47
I l l u m i n a t i n g E n g in e e rin g S o c i e t y , 51 M adison A venue,
New Y ork C i t y .
L if e E x te n s io n I n s t i t u t e , 25 W est 4 5 th S t r e e t , New
York C i t y .
N a tio n a l C h ild W e lfa re A s s o c i a t i o n , 70 F i f t h A venue,
New Y ork C i t y .
N a tio n a l C om m ittee f o r M e n ta l H y g ie n e , 50 West 5 0 th
S t r e e t , New Y ork C i t y .
N a t io n a l C o n g re ss o f P a r e n ts and T e a c h e r s , 1201
1 6 th S t r e e t , W a sh in g to n , D. C .
N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n , 1201
N .W ., W ash in g to n , D. C.
1 6 th S t r e e t ,
N a t io n a l H e a lth C o u n c il, 50 West 5 0 th S t r e e t , New
York C i t y .
N a tio n a l O r g a n iz a tio n f o r P u b lic H e a lth N u rs in g ,
50 W est 5 0 th S t r e e t , New Y ork C i t y .
N a tio n a l S a f e ty C o u n o il, 20 N o rth W acker D r iv e ,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
N a tio n a l S o c ie ty f o r P r e v e n tio n o f B lin d n e s s , 50
West 5 0 th S t r e e t , New Y ork C i t y .
N a tio n a l T u b e r c u lo s is A s s o c i a t i o n , 50 West 5 0 th
S t r e e t , New Y ork C i t y .
R o c k e f e ll e r F o u n d a tio n , 49 W est 4 9 th S t r e e t , New
Y ork C i t y .
R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a tio n , 130 E a s t 22nd S t r e e t , New
Y ork C i t y .
U n ite d S t a t e s O ff ic e o f E d u c a tio n , D epartm ent o f
th e I n t e r i o r , W a sh in g to n , D. C .
U n ite d S t a t e s D epartm ent o f L a b o r, C h i l d r e n 's B u re a u ,
W ash in g to n , D* C .
U n ite d S t a t e s D ep artm en t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , W a sh in g to n ,
D. C .
U n ite d S t a t e s P u b lic H e a lth S e r v i c e , F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y
A gency, W a sh in g to n , D* C .
48
Wheat F lo u r I n s t i t u t e , 309 West Ja c k so n B o u le v a rd ,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s *
Good T e e th C o u n c il f o r C h ild r e n , 400 N o rth M ichigan
B o u le v a rd , C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s *
A r e - o h e c k o f a l l n a t i o n a l a d v e r t i s e r s and th e ma­
t e r i a l s w h ic h th e y d i s t r i b u t e was made b y exam in in g e a c h suc­
c e e d in g i s s u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l m a g a z in e s , c l i p p i n g th e coupons
w here o f f e r s w ere m ade, r e q u e s t i n g in f o r m a tio n when none was
o ffe re d g r a tu ito u s ly *
But ev en b e f o r e th e d a ta a c t u a l l y w ere
begun t o b e c o l l e c t e d , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h th e
v a lu e s and a u t h o r i t y , n o t o n ly o f t h e a g e n c ie s , t h e i r u l t i m a t e
a lm s , I n t e g r i t y ; b u t a l s o o f th e a d v e r t i s e d p r o d u c t s , them ­
s e lv e s *
What c r i t e r i a o f e v a lu a tio n s and ju d g n e n ts a r e em­
p lo y e d b y t h e a g e n c ie s ?
To w hat e x te n t a r e t h e i r e n e r g ie s
d i v e r t e d t o consum er e d u c a tio n and p r o t e c t i o n ? • • • • •
CHAPTER V
EVALUATING PROCEDURE
S e l e c t i o n o f E v a lu a tin g A g e n cie s
One o f th e n e c e s s a r y o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s tu d y h a s b een
t o d e v e lo p a m ethod f o r e v a l u a t i n g f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s f o r
h e a l t h e d u c a tio n w i t h in th e l i m i t s o f t h e A m erican p o l i t i c a l ,
s o c i a l an d econom ic s y s te m , w ith t h e aim of a s s i s t i n g ed u ca­
t o r s and u l t i m a t e consum ers t o o b ta in r e l i a b l e , a c c u r a te i n ­
fo r m a tio n f o r a m ore i n t e g r a t e d h e a l t h e d u c a tio n .
T here i s no a g e n c y i n o u r so c io -e c o n o m ic s t r u c t u r e
a s i t i s now o rg a n iz e d w h ich p ro v id e s su c h an e v a l u a t i o n o f
f r e e p rin te d m a te ria ls f o r n a tio n a l d i s t r ib u t i o n .
The m a t e r i a l s
h av e n o t alw ay s b e e n c o n s id e r e d a s an e n t i t y b u t r a t h e r a s a
r e l a t e d p ro b le m .
B ut t h e y a r e a v e ry c l o s e l y r e l a t e d e le m e n t
i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f consum er goods f o r t h e A m erican c i t i z e n .
I t i s n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , t o d e te rm in e w hat e v a lu a ­
t i o n s a r e b e in g made o f consum er goods i n o r d e r to o b t a i n c o r­
r e l a te d e v a lu a tio n s o f p r in te d m a t e r i a ls .
T hese h a v e b e e n made
a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e in f o r m a tio n o f c o n su m e rs, a s a d v e r t i s i n g o r
p ro m o tio n a l k n o w le d g e s.
W hatever a g e n c ie s e x i s t f o r th e p ro ­
t e c t i o n o f t h e u l t i m a t e consum er a s a b u y e r , e x i s t a l s o f o r
t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f th e r e a d e r and i n t e r p r e t e r o f t h i s p r i n t e d
49
50
m a t e r i a l*
The f u n c t i o n o f com m odity t e s t i n g and r a t i n g a g e n c ie s
I s p e r t i n e n t i n a sy stem o f d e m o c ra tic economy; w hether i t e x i s t s
m e re ly t o p r o t e c t c i t i z e n s fro m p o is o n s , o r t o s u g g e s t b r a n d s ,
g ra d e s a n d q u a l i t i e s , t h e p r i n c i p l e i s t h e same*
F u n d a m e n ta lly ,
I n a u t i l i t a r i a n governm ent a s i s t h a t o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
su c h a f u n c tio n i s a d m i s s i b l e , n e c e s s a r y , i n c o n s is te n c y w ith
d e m o c ra tic p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s *
T h e r e f o r e , t h e t e s t i n g may b e p e rfo rm ed b y ( 1 ) b u s in e s s
i n t e r e s t s , (2) g o v e rn m e n ta l a g e n c ie s , o r (3) p r i v a t e , m u tu a l,
n o n - p r o f i t r e s e a r c h o r g a n iz a tio n s *
The f i r s t h av e b e e n diown
t o b e t h e m ost p r e v a l e n t w ith d i v e r s e ty p e s o f s e a l s and c e r t i ­
f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l t e s t p ro c e d u re s t o " c o n d itio n "
p u b l i c th in k in g *
W ith o u t t h e e x is te n c e o f a m ethod to " t e s t
th e s e t e s t e r s , " i t h a s b e e n Im p o s s ib le t o s e p a r a te t h e good from
th e m e d io c re , d e l e t e r i o u s , unw orthy*
R e a s o n a b ly , b u s i n e s s t e s t ­
in g a g e n c ie s a r e b i a s e d i n f a v o r o f t h e p r o d u c t, m a n u f a c tu r e r ,
d i s t r i b u t o r and a d v e r t i s e r ; t h e s e a r e th e s o u r c e s o f t h e i r im­
m e d ia te f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t .
A m ethod d e v is e d t o c e r t i f y t h e s e
t e s t i n g s e r v i c e s o f b u s i n e s s s h o u ld r e n d e r r e l a t i v e v a lu e s t o
a l l consum ers*
Such a p ro c e d u re i s b e in g s u g g e s te d f o r l e g i s ­
l a t i v e e n actm en t*
1*
Would Make PTC A r b i t e r o f A ll S e a ls o f A pproval* A d v e r tis ­
in g Age (M arch 4 , 1 9 4 0 ), On p a g e 1 th e r e p o r t s t a t e s :
"The u s e o f any ty p e o f s e a l o f a p p r o v a l on d r u g , fo o d ,
c o sm e tic o r t h e r a p e u t i c p ro d u c t w ould b e p r o h i b i t e d ,
e x c e p t when su c h s e a l h a d r e c e i v e d th e s p e c i f i c a p ­
p r o v a l o f F e d e r a l T rad e C om m ission, u n d e r th e two com­
p a n io n b i l l s i n tr o d u c e d i n t o th e h o u se t h i s week by
Rep* Lemke, R e p u b lic a n o f N o rth D akota* Congressm an
Lemke s a i d t h a t h e b e l i e v e s t h e p r e s e n t PTC A ct g iv e s
t h e com m ission t h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n and h i s amendment w i l l
sej*ve ^ c ^ a ^ ifX , th e s i t u a t i o n and p r o t e c t b o t h p u b l ic
I
51
The se c o n d g ro u p , t h e g o v e rn m e n ta l a g e n c i e s , m ust
p r o v id e t e s t i n g and t h e m a c h in e ry f o r e n fo rc em e n t o f d e f i n i t e
s ta n d a r d s ; e l s e A m erican c i t i z e n s s h o u ld s u f f e r i n s u f f i c i e n t
p r o t e c ti o n *
The t h i r d g ro u p , th e r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s , c a n , and
u s u a l l y d o , a th o ro u g h jo b o f t e s t i n g a s m a ll num ber o f com­
p a r a b le ite m s f o r p u rc h a s e rs *
In th e o r d e r o f t h e i r u t i l i t a r i a n s e r v i c e , t h e r e f o r e ,
t h e governm ent i s f i r s t i n ra n k ; t h e o t h e r s f o llo w fro m t h e i r
r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n th e l i g h t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h w ith p ro ­
f e s s i o n a l a g e n c ie s su c h a s t h e A m erican M e d ica l A s s o c ia t io n ,
t h e A m erican D e n ta l A s s o c ia tio n and th e W isco n sin Alumni Re­
s e a r c h F o u n d a tio n , t h e l e a d e r s , a s i s d e m o n s tra te d h e re *
A m ethod o f e v a l u a t i n g f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s depends
upon t h e r e s u l t s o f com m odity t e s t i n g and t h e d evelopm ent o f
s t a n d a r d s , w h e th e r t h e s e be g o v e rn m e n ta l, b u s in e s s o r r e s e a r c h
g ro u p s , so lo n g a s t h e r e i s ag re em e n t c o n c e rn in g th e b a s i c
n e ed s f o r h e a l t h y l i v i n g .
U nder t h e p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e th e
A m erican M e d ica l A s s o c ia tio n h a s done t h e m ost o b j e c t i v e t e s t ­
in g i n th e d e v elo p m en t o f h e a l t h s ta n d a r d s f o r p ro d u c ts *
T h e r e f o r e , t h i s s tu d y s u b s c r ib e s t o i t s le a d e r s h ip *
T here i s no c le a r in g - h o u s e f o r th e c o n fu s e d m ass o f
s e a l s and s ta n d a r d s s e t up b y th e v a r io u s o t h e r a g e n c ie s *
How­
e v e r , b y u s i n g t h i s m ass o f i n d i v i d u a l , c l a s s i f i e d s ta n d a r d s
f o r ju d g in g t h e m a t e r i a l p r i n t e d a b o u t t h e s e p r o d u c t s , an
e v a l u a t i o n p ro c e d u re can b e d e v e lo p e d b y a n e d u c a te d , s p e c i a l i z e d
52
p e r s o n , o r group*
The f e d e r a l g o v e rn m e n t, p r o f e s s i o n a l a g e n c ie s an d r e ­
s e a r c h g ro u p s have e s t a b l i s h e d c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d s f o r p r o d u c ts
w hich a r e I n d a l l y u s e , I n a c c o rd w ith t h e i r p r o t e c t i v e ob­
je c tiv e s *
The m e d ic a l a s s o c i a t i o n was t h e o n ly one t o I n ­
c lu d e a s w e ll a s t o a c c e p t h e a l th y l i v i n g I n t h e same s ta n d a rd s *
Even th o u g h i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o g a t h e r f o r s tu d y a l l t e s t i n g
s ta n d a r d s i n an y one p l a c e , t h e i r u s e i s m aking i t p o s s i b l e
f o r A m ericans t o l i v e
h e a l t h i e r l i v e s t h a n was p o s s ib l e a
g e n e r a t i o n ago*
T hese t e s t i n g s ta n d a r d s f o r h e a l t h p r o d u c ts an d s e r ­
v i c e s c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d i n e d u o a t la n a l te rm s*
By t h i s i n ­
t e r p r e t a t i o n , an e v a l u a t i n g p ro c e d u re t h a t any e d u c a to r c a n
u s e , i s p o s s i b l e f o r f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a ls *
As a r e s u l t
o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a m ethod h a s b e e n d e v e lo p e d t o make u s e
o f th e b e s t p ro c e d u re s *
P r in te d , m a t e r i a l , w h ich may be u s e f u l i n s c h o o l h e a l t h
e d u c a tio n c a n b e oh eck ed f o r a u t h e n t i c i t y a n d a c c u ra c y o f
s ta te m e n t i n t h e f o llo w in g m anner:
I f i t i s t o be i s s u e d by
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s P u b lic H e a lth S e rv ic e i n t h e F e d e r a l Se­
c u r i t y A gency, t h e m a t e r i a l r e p r e s e n t s t h e b e s t in f o r m a tio n
t h a t i s p o s s i b l e f o r t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e F e d e r a l governm ent
t o a ssem b le on t h e s u b je c t*
E v ery s ta te m e n t i s s u p p o r te d by
a u th o r i ty *
I f t h e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l i s c o n c e rn e d w ith a fo o d
p r o d u c t , th e n e d u c a to r s s h o u ld e x p e c t i t t o b e a r th e s e a l o f
$
53
1
th e C o u n c il on Foods
o f t h e .American M ed ical A s s o c ia tio n *
T h is w i l l e s t a h l i s h th e c la im o f t h e m a n u fa c tu r e r to a u th e n ­
t i c i t y f o r th e c la im s w h ic h h e i s m aking f o r h i s p ro d u c t*
M a t e r i a l t h a t i s c o n ce rn e d w ith O ral H ygiene sh o u ld
e x p e c t t o have i t s c la im s checked b y t h e C o u n c il on D e n ta l
2
T h e r a p e u tic s o f th e Am erican D e n ta l A s s o c ia tio n * They hav e
a s e a l o f a p p r o v a l, a s does th e C o u n c il on F o o d s, and a f t e r
c a r e f u l c h e c k in g o f th e p ro d u c t and t h e a d v e r t i s i n g make t h e consum er
aw are o f t h i s sym bol o f a u t h e n t i c a c c e p ta n c e .
P r i n t e d m a t e r i a l t h a t i s is s u e d b y p ro d u c e rs who make
u s e o f any o f t h e c o n t r o l l e d p r o c e s s e s o f th e W isco n sin
Alumni R e se a rc h F o u n d a tio n i s a c c u r a t e and a u t h e n t i c i f i t so
3
s t a t e s ; th e F o u n d a tio n ch eck s a l l a d v e r t i s i n g o f i t s l i c e n s e e s
and compels a c c u ra c y ; o th e r w is e , i t d e n ie s th e u se o f th e p ro ­
cess*
Each o f t h e s e a g e n c ie s a c t s a s a s e l e c t i v e t e s t i n g
s e r v i c e f o r t h e e x a m in a tio n o f p ro d u c ts and t h e i r c la im s*
When t h e p ro d u c ts a r e a c c e p te d f o r t h e v a r io u s s e a l s o f ap­
p r o v a l , t h e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l and th e copy u se d f o r a d v e r t i s 4
ln g and p ro m o tio n i s in c lu d e d i n th e a c c e p ta n c e * When ad­
v e r t i s i n g o r p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l f a i l s t o conform t o a c c u ra c y
1*
2*
3,
4*
C o u n c il on F o o d s, Am erican M edical A s s o c ia tio n , A ccep ted
Foods » 1 9 3 9 .
C o u n c il on D e n ta l T h e r a p e u t ic s , A m erican D e n ta l A s s o c ia ­
t i o n , M im eographed M a t e r i a l . J a n u a r y , 1940*
L e t t e r from Mr* S l e t z i e n o f W isco n sin Alumni R e s e a rc h
F o u n d a tio n , J a n u a ry 5 , 1 9 4 0 ,
C o u n c il on F o o d s, 0£ . c l t *. p , 2*
54
o f s t a t e m e n t , th e u se o f t h e s e a l o f a p p ro v a l i s f o r b i d d e n .
The t e s t i n g and e v a l u a t i n g s e r v i c e s o f th e A m erican
M e d ic a l A s s o c ia t io n , t h e A m erican D e n ta l A s s o c ia tio n and th e
W isc o n sin Alum ni R e s e a rc h F o u n d a tio n a re i n a d d i t i o n t o th e
e v a l u a t i n g s e r v i c e s w hich a r e p r o v id e d by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e rn ­
m e n t.
T h is l a t t e r s e r v i c e in c lu d e s t h a t o f th e Food a n d Drug
A d m in is tr a tio n i n t h e F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y A gency, and o f th e
F e d e r a l T rad e C om m ission.
The Food an d D rug A d m in is tr a tio n p r o t e c t s t h e co n ­
sum er by r i d d i n g t h e m arket o f p o is o n o u s p r o d u c ts a n d b y i t s
l e g a l i n s i s t e n c e upon a n a c c u r a t e l a b e l f o r e a c h p r o d u c t .
The
power o f t h e F e d e r a l T ra d e Com m ission was i n c r e a s e d on M arch 2 1 ,
1938 t o i n c lu d e t h e c o n t r o l o f f a l s e a d v e r t i s i n g .
The new a c t
w h ich gave th e Food and Drug A d m in is tr a tio n th e pow er t o deny
i n t e r s t a t e commerce t o p o iso n o u s an d d a n g e ro u s d ru g s o r c o s m e tic s
became e f f e c t i v e a s l a t e a s Ju n e 2 5 , 1 9 3 9 .
B u t, s in c e t h e n ,
b o th o f t h e s e a g e n c ie s have b e e n a c t i v e , k e e p in g e le m e n ts in
b u s in e s s who d e a l i n q u e s tio n a b le m e r c h a n d is e , p r e o c c u p ie d .
The a g e n c ie s r e p r e s e n t th e fu n d a m e n ta l p r o t e c t i o n p ro v id e d by
o u r governm ent t o t h e co n su m er.
Consum ers s h o u ld be aw are o f t h e p r o t e c t i o n p ro v id e d
by t h e s e governm ent a g e n c i e s .
P ro d u c ts and p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l
t h a t i s n o t i n t h e I n t e r e s t o f h e a l t h may be f o r c e d o u t o f
b u s in e s s .
T hese governm ent a g e n c ie s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y p re v e n t
t h e m a n u fa c tu re o r s a l e o f u n h e a l t h f u l p r o d u c ts and t h e f a l s e
a d v e r t i s i n g , t h a t m ight b e u s e d t o s e l l them i f t h e r e i s enough
55
governm ent a p p r o p r i a ti o n t h e r e w ould b e l i t t l e n eed f o r th e
s e r v i c e s o f t h e s e o t h e r m ore s e l e c t i v e a g e n c ie s n o te d above*
E ach y e a r , h o w ev er, t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r t h e s e h e a l t h p r o ­
t e c t i n g a g e n c ie s a r e s u b j e c t t o r e v i s i o n b y c o n g r e s s io n a l comm it t e e a
T here i s n e v e r enough money a v a i l a b l e t o p o l i c e
p r o p e r l y and e f f e c t i v e l y th e v a s t num ber o f p ro d u c ts and s e r ­
v ic e s *
E v e n tu a lly m ost o f t h e v i o l a t o r s a r e c a u g h t, b u t t h i s
l a c k o f f i n a n c e a f f o r d s them much o p p o r tu n ity t o c o n tin u e i n
b u s i n e s s u n t i l t h e y a r e f a c e d w ith s p e c i f i c c o m p la in ts*
T h ere re m a in s so much d i f f e r e n c e o f o p in io n r e g a r d in g
t h e r i g h t o f t h e governm ent t o g iv e a p p ro v a l t o d e f i n i t e
b ra n d s t h a t no p ro c e d u re e x i s t s f o r t h i s p u r p o s e .
I t is n eces­
s a r y t o u se t h e s e o t h e r s p e c i a l l y s e l e c t e d a g e n c ie s to g e t
t h i s in fo rm a tio n *
They w i l l commend d e f i n i t e b ra n d names and
p r o d u c ts a f t e r t e s t i n g *
B ut t h e y a l s o depend f o r in f o r m a tio n
1
upon t h e fu n d a m e n ta l governm ent s e r v i c e s , and so s t a t e * T h is
in f o r m a tio n i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a p p l i c a t i o n t o th e A m erican
M ed ical A s s o c ia tio n f o r i t s S e a l o f A pproval*
The e d u c a to r may b e in fo rm e d o f th e p ro d u c e rs who
h av e t r a n s g r e s s e d t h e r u l e s *
The Food a n d Drug A d m in is tra ­
t i o n i s s u e s a m o n th ly b o o k l e t , N o tic e s o f Judgm ent. s e t t i n g
f o r t h d e t a i l s o f a l l s e i z u r e s and t h e a c t i o n ta k e n a g a i n s t
t h e p r o d u c ts and t h e i r p u rv e y o rs*
T h is p ro v id e s a means o f
c h e c k in g p r o d u c ts an d th e p r i n t e d l a b e l s o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l s
1*
C o u n c il on F o o d s, og>* c i t . « p* 4*
56
w h ich th e y h av e d e v e lo p e d .
I f t h e p ro d u c t h a s b e en s e iz e d *
u n t i l th e m a n u fa c tu re r h a s made some s ta te m e n t o r p ro v e n h i s
c a se w i t h some o t h e r e v a l u a t i n g a g e n c y , h i s p ro d u c t an d ma­
t e r i a l a r e e x c lu d e d from t h e a p p ro v e d l i s t s *
The F e d e ra l T rad e Commission h a s a s i m i l a r m ethod o f
i n f o m i n g t h e p u b lic o f i t s l e g a l a c t i v i t i e s e a c h month*
By
m eans o f th e s e two s e r v i c e s , N o tic e s o f Judgm ent and th e
M on th ly Summary o f Work, i t i s p o s s ib l e f o r th e t e a c h e r and
co n su m er, b o t h , t o b e f u l l y in fo rm e d about a l l a c tio n s ta k e n
a g a in s t p ro d u c ts and t h e i r a d v e r t i s i n g .
H ow ever, i f p r o d u c ts
h av e h ad no l e g a l a c t i o n ta k e n a g a i n s t th e m , i t d o e s n o t mean
t h a t t h e i r a d v e r t i s i n g and l a b e l s h a v e b e e n a p p ro v e d .
I t Is
n o t p o s s i b l e t o s e c u re a p p ro v a l p r i o r t o p u b l i c a t i o n , from
e i t h e r agency*
T hey a c t o n ly when t h e law h a s b e e n b ro k e n *
The l i s t o f e v a lu a te d f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s in c lu d e d
h e r e c o n ta in s o n ly th o s e m a t e r i a l s whose p ro d u c e rs h a v e n o t
a p p e a re d i n a n y a c t io n s b e f o r e th e Food Drug A d m in is tr a tio n o r
th e F e d e r a l T rad e C om m ission, u n l e s s th e y h a v e had a p r e lim in a r y
h e a r in g and a r r a n g e d s t i p u l a t i o n s t o " c e a s e and d e s i s t " some
a c t i o n and h a v e conform ed s u b s e q u e n tly t o p r e s c r i b e d la w , r e g u l a ­
t i o n and c o n tr o l*
I f t h e m a t e r i a l i s c o n c e rn e d w ith a fo o d p r o d u c t , th e
p ro d u c t m ust be l i s t e d a s one o f t h e 3 ,0 0 0 fo o d s i n t h e C o u n c il
on Foods book o f A ccep ted Foods o f t h e .American M e d ic a l A sso­
c ia t i o n *
I f t h e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l i s c o n c e rn e d w ith O ra l H ygiene
57
o r D e n ta l H e a lth , I t m ust h a v e an a p p ro v e d H a t i n g w ith th e
C o u n c il on D e n ta l T h e r a p e u tic s o f t h e A m erican D e n ta l A sso­
c ia tio n .
I f t h e p ro d u c t makes u se o f a n y o f t h e c la im s o f
V itam in D c o n te n t o r o t h e r p r o c e s s e s c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e Wis­
c o n s in Alumni R e s e a rc h F o u n d a tio n , I t m ust h av e t h e a p p ro v a l
o f t h a t F o u n d a tio n f o r I t s p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l and so s t a t e .
The U n ite d S t a t e s P u b lic H e a lth S e r v ic e m a t e r i a l i s
in c lu d e d w ith o u t a n y s p e c i a l e v a l u a t i o n s i n c e t h e s o u r c e o f
t h i s m a t e r i a l i s g o v e rn m e n ta l and h a s no c o n n e c tio n w ith any
e x tra n e o u s econom ic i n t e r e s t .
The U n ite d S t a t e s P u b lic H e a lth S e r v ic e o f th e
F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y A gency, m o re o v e r, is s u e d f o r t h e f i r s t tim e
in M arch, 1 9 4 0 , An A n n o ta te d L i s t f o r A d u lt S tu d y G roups and
T ea ch e rs.
I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o o b se rv e w hat M iss E l i z a b e t h
G . P r i t c h a r d , I n f o r m a t io n a l A s s i s t a n t o f th e Agency s a y s , i n
p a r t , i n h e r r e p o r t t o t h i s s tu d y : " . . . y o u may b e a s s u r e d t h a t
1
c o p ie s a r e a c t u a l l y a v a i l a b l e a t th e p r e s e n t t i m e . . . . "
The e v a l u a t i o n and p o l i c i n g s e r v i c e o f t h e g o v e rn ­
m ent a n d t h e added t e s t i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l e v a l u a t i n g s e r ­
v i c e s o f t h e A m erican M edical A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e A m erican D e n ta l
A s s o c ia t io n , and t h e W isco n sin Alumni R e se a rc h F o u n d a tio n p ro ­
v id e s consum ers an d e d u c a to rs w ith a s ta n d a r d iz e d m ethod f o r
d e te r m in in g a p p ro v e d p ro d u c ts and t h e a c c u r a c ie s i n t h e i r
1.
L e t t e r a d d re s s e d t o a u th o r : W ash in g to n , D . C ., M arch,
12, 1940.
58
p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l f o r th e m a in te n a n c e o f h e a l t h y l i v i n g *
G o v ern m ental an d P r i v a t e P r o t e c t i o n S e r v ic e s f o r Consumers
Food and Drug A d m in is tr a tio n — F e d e r a l
s e c u r i t y Agency
The Food an d Drug A d m in is tr a tio n I n a u g u r a te d a new
a c t i v i t y on Ju n e 2 5 , 1 9 3 8 , when t h e F e d e ra l Food, Drug and
C o sm etic A ct w ent I n t o e f f e c t *
C osm etics f o r t h e f i r s t tim e
came w ith in th e ra n g e o f F e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n , t h e law empower­
in g t h e d e p a rtm e n t t o b a r p o iso n o u s c o s m e tic s fro m I n t e r s t a t e
tra ffic *
Food s e c t i o n s o f t h i s Act c o n ta in new m ea su re s o f
p r o t e c t i o n f o r consum ers and h o n e s t p ro d u c e rs*
Any fo o d w hich
I s n o x io u s t o human h e a l t h I s now a l s o b a r r e d from I n t e r s t a t e
c h a n n e ls *
P o iso n o u s and d e l e t e r i o u s s u b s ta n c e s may n o t b e
added t o fo o d , e x c e p t w here t h e y a r e I n d is p e n s a b le o r u n a v o id ­
a b le I n p r o d u c t i o n .
I n t h e l a t t e r e v e n t , t h e D epartm ent o f
A g r i c u l t u r e h a s d e fin e d t h e maximum am ounts o f p o iso n o u s sub­
s ta n c e s w hich may be l e f t i n t h e fo o d w ith s a f e t y , b u t i n
e v e ry i n s t a n c e t h e q u a n t i t i e s a r e f a r b elo w U n ite d S t a t e s
P h arm aco p eia minimum p r e s c r i b e d d o sa g es*
T h is e n t i r e f u n c t i o n ,
h o w e v er, h as b e e n t r a n s f e r r e d to th e F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y A gency,
s i n c e Ju n e 3 0 , 1940*
S ta n d a rd s o f i d e n t i t y f o r fo o d s a r e to b e p ro m u lg a te d
b y t h e S e c r e t a r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e a f t e r p u b l ic h e a r i n g s f o r i n ­
d u s t r y and c o n su m e rs, an d t h e s e s ta n d a r d s w i l l h av e t h e f u l l
59
f o r c e o f law*
I t l a now r e q u i r e d t h a t In fo r m a tiv e l a b e l s t e l l p u r­
c h a s e r s a l l a b o u t m i n e r a l s , v i ta m in s , c o a l t a r c o l o r s , a r t i ­
f i c i a l c o l o r i n g , c h e m ic a l p r e s e r v a t i v e s and a l l o f th e o th e r
i n g r e d i e n t s when more th a n one i s I n t h e p ro d u c t*
T r a f f i c i n d ru g s an d d e v ic e s w hich a r e d a n g ero u s t o
h e a l t h when u s e d a s d i r e c t e d on th e l a b e l s i s fo rb id d e n *
D rugs
whose c la im s a r e " f a l s e o r m is le a d in g i n any p a r t i c u l a r " a r e
o u tlaw ed*
The law makes t h e param ount c o n s i d e r a t i o n , n o t th e
p r o d u c e r ’ s i n t e n t , b u t t h e c o n sig n e r's h e a lth *
Law i s a s e f f e c t i v e a s i t s en fo rc em e n t meohanlsm*
1
S e iz u r e p r o v is io n s o f t h e r e c e n t l y e n a c te d l e g i s l a t i o n p e rm it
m u l t i p l e c o n f i s c a t i o n o f a d u l t e r a t e d and s e r i o u s l y m isb ran d e d
f o o d s , d r u g s , d e v ic e s and c o sm e tic s*
The c r i m in a l p e n a l t i e s
f o r v i o l a t i o n o f t h e law h a v e b een i n c r e a s e d t o $ 1 ,0 0 0 f o r th e
f i r s t o f f e n s e t o a s h ig h a s $10,000 and t h r e e y e a r s ’ im p ris o n ­
m ent f o r t h e se c o n d v i o l a t i o n *
F or t h e f i r s t tim e t h e governm ent i s a u th o r i z e d t o
i n s p e o t f a c t o r i e s and o th e r e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro d u c in g o r pack­
in g f o o d s , d r u g s , d e v ic e s an d c o s m e tic s *
W ithout t h i s n e c e s ­
s a r y p o w er, i t h a s b e e n o f t e n d i f f i c u l t and e x p e n s iv e to de­
t e c t v io la tio n s *
A lth o u g h th e F o o d , D rug and C osm etics A ct d o e s n o t
p ro v id e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n o f a d v e r t i s i n g , th e l a b e l l i n g p r o v l-
1*
S ee Appendix A, p* 152.
I
60
s io n i s a fu n d a m e n ta l p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e consum er*
The
c r im in a l p e n a l t i e s a r e s e v e r e enough t o make m a n u fa c tu re rs
v e ry c a r e f u l o f t h e in f o r m a tio n w hich th e y d is s e m in a te *
The f u n c t i o n s o f p r e v e n tin g f a l s e o r m is le a d in g ad­
v e r t i s i n g o f f o o d s , d ru g s , and c o s m e tic s , a s d i s t i n c t from
m is b ra n d in g and a d u l t e r a t i o n , has b e e n a l l o c a t e d t o th e
F e d e r a l T rad e Commission b y th e r e c e n t W heeler-L ee A ct*
F e d e r a l T rad e Commission
The F e d e ra l T rad e Commission was o rg a n iz e d o r i g i n a l l y
t o p r e v e n t t h e u s e o f " u n f a i r m ethods o f c o m p e titio n i n com­
m erce*"
Now i t h a s e n la r g e d i t s sc o p e t o p r o t e c t th e c o n su n e r
from f a l s e , i n a c c u r a te and m is le a d in g a d v e r t is in g *
The
d e f i n i t i o n o f w hat i s f a l s e a d v e r tis e m e n t i s c o m p re h e n siv e ,
in c lu d in g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s or s u g g e s tio n s b y spoken o r w r i t t e n
word o r d e s i g n , sound o r o t h e r d e v ic e *
T h is i s one o f t h e
m ost Im p o rta n t c o n s i d e r a ti o n s and f u n c t i o n s o f t h e com m ission,
s in c e i t a f f e c t s t h e e d u c a to r c o n c e rn e d w ith p r i n t e d m a t e r i a ls *
T h is i s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e p rim e e v a l u a t i n g ag en cy f o r p r i n t e d
m a t e r i a l*
F u r t h e r , t h e Com m ission’ s o l d power t o i s s u e o r d e r s
a g a i n s t u n f a i r m ethod o f c o m p e titio n b e tw e e n b u s in e s s men
1
h a s b e e n expanded, so t h a t i t may now i s s u e " c e a s e and d e ­
s i s t " o r d e r s a g a i n s t " u n f a i r o r d e c e p tiv e a c t s o r p r a c t i c e s
i n com m erce," w hich p resu m ab ly in c lu d e s a c t s o r p r a c t i c e s
1*
See Appendix A, p* 139
61
a g a i n s t consum ers*
some tim e *
The Commission h a s s o u g h t t h i s power f o r
The p a s t y e a r h a s se e n c o n s id e r a b le e x e r c i s e o f
t h i s power and th e a c c u m u la tio n o f " c e a s e and d e s i s t " a c t i o n s
h a s made o f t h i s agency an e v a l u a t o r o f g r e a t p o te n c y f o r a c ­
c u ra te p rin te d m a te r ia l.
The Food and Drug a d m i n i s t r a t i o n h a s p rim a ry j u r i s ­
d i c t i o n o v e r l a b e l i n g b u t s in c e t h i s I s a l s o a d v e r t i s i n g , i n
c a s e s o f c o m p la in t w here f a l s e a d v e r t i s i n g i s c la im e d , t h e s e
two a g e n c ie s may work c o n c u r r e n t l y .
P r i m a r i l y , th e s e a g e n c ie s a c t on c o m p la in t, b u t h av e
t h e r i g h t to i n t i t l a t e l e g a l a c t i o n and h av e done so In many
c a s e s now u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
U n ite d S t a t e s P u b lic H e a lth S e r v ic e
The p r i n c i p l e u n d e r ly in g a l l P u b lic H e a lth S e r v ic e
a c t i v i t i e s i s t h e p r e v e n tio n o f d i s e a s e and t h e p r o t e c t i o n
o f h e a l t h , w hich n e c e s s a r i l y r e q u i r e s t h e c l o s e s t c o o p e ra tio n
among t h e m e d ic a l, d e n t a l , n u r s i n g g r o u p s , s o c i a l s e r v i c e o r ­
g a n i z a t i o n s , s c h o o ls and governm ent a g e n c ie s .
The m ore Im p o rta n t a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e P u b lic H e a lth
S e r v ic e in c l u d e com prehensive r e s e a r c h i n t h e c a u se and p r e ­
v e n tio n o f d i s e a s e , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f m a ritim e q u a r a n t in e ,
I n p r e v e n tin g th e l n r o d u c t io n o f d i s e a s e from a b ro a d , co­
o p e r a tio n w i t h s t a t e s I n p u b l ic h e a l t h m a t t e r s and th e c o l l e c ­
t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c s and o t h e r s a n i t a r y i n f o r ­
m a tio n .
T h is l a t t e r in f o r m a tio n i s m ost v a lu a b le i n an a d e -
62
q u a te program o f h e a l t h e d u c a tio n a n d p r o v id e s t h e b e s t so u rc e
f o r t h i s k in d o f p r a c t i c a l p u b l ic h e a l t h i n f o r m a ti o n .
T h ere
i s a c o n s id e r a b le volume o f m a t e r i a l on m ilk c o n t r o l , m o sq u ito
c o n t r o l and many p h a se s o f s a n i t a t i o n .
R e c e n tly , u n d e r th e
l e a d e r s h i p o f D r. P a r r a n , a t t e n t i o n h a s a l s o b e e n d i r e c t e d to
s e x e d u c a tio n and to a n a t i o n a l program o f s o c i a l h y g ie n e .
H ere
i s a so u rc e o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l i n h e a l t h e d u c a tio n t h a t h a s
b een e x p lo re d b u t l i t t l e b y c la ssro o m t e a c h e r s .
T h is s tu d y
I n c lu d e s p e r t i n e n t m a t e r i a l s w hich may b e c l a s s i f i e d i n t o th e
v a r io u s f i e l d s o f s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n .
A m erican M ed ical A s s o c ia tio n
In a d d itio n to t h i s p r o te c tio n s e r v ic e o f e v a lu a tio n s
w h ich t h e governm ent h a s i n a u g u r a te d , c o n t r o l of i n t e r s t a t e
commodity t r a f f i c c o n ti n u e s .
T h ere a r e s e v e r a l o t h e r ag en ­
c i e s w h ich a s s i s t th e consum er t o l e a r n a b o u t t h e p ro d u c ts
b y e v a l u a t i n g t h e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l w hich i s d i s t r i b u t e d .
One o f th e m ost i n t e n s i v e t e s t e r s and e v a l u a t o r s f o r
t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e h e a l t h o f A m erican consum ers i s th e
1
A m erican M e d ic a l A s s o c i a t i o n . T hrough t h e C o u n c il on Foods
th e A s s o c ia tio n h a s made a v a i l a b l e a book o f some 3 ,0 0 0
A c ce p ted Foods and t h e i r n u t r i t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .
In t h i s
b o o k a re l i s t e d t h e fo o d s w hich h a v e b e en t e s t e d and ap p ro v ed
b y th e C o u n c il.
The p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l id ilc h h a s b e e n d e v e lo p e d
t o in fo rm t h e consum er c a r r i e s t h e same a p p r o v a l.
1.
See Appendix A , p . 1 5 2 .
63
"A fo o d i s n o t a c c e p te d i f i t d o es n o t com ply w ith
t h e r e q u ire m e n ts o f c o m p o s itio n , s ta n d a r d s and l a b e l s fo rm u 1
l a t e d b y t h e U n ite d S t a t e s Pood and Drug A d m in is tr a tio n ,"
s a y s th e C o u n c il on Foods*
They r e c o g n iz e t h a t t h e fu n d a ­
m e n ta l e v a l u a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e consum er
e x i s t s i n t h e fram ew ork o f o u r g o v e rn m e n ta l s t r u c t u r e *
The C o u n c il f u r t h e r s t a t e s :
A fo o d i s n o t a c c e p te d i f t h e s u b m itte d a d v e r­
t i s i n g u se d i n i t s p ro m o tio n c o n ta in s u n w a rra n te d
n u t r i t i o n a l o r h e a l t h c la im s , ev en th o u g h t h e
c o m p o sitio n ,m e th o d o f m a n u fa c tu re and l a b e l i n g
o f fo o d p ro d u c ts a p p e a r i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s t o con­
form t o t h e re q u ir e m e n ts o f th e C o u n c il* 2
I t fu rth e r s ta te s th a t:
The S e a l o f A ccep tan ce o f t h e C o u n c il s i g n i f i e s
t h a t t h e fo o d a r t i c l e , i t s l a b e l and a l l ad­
v e r t i s i n g i n i t s p ro m o tio n o r t h e g e n e r a l ed u ca­
t i o n a l a d v e r t i s i n g , w h e th e r t h e S e a l b e u s e d o r
n o t , com ply w ith t h e re q u ir e m e n ts o f th e C o u n c il
a s f o r m u la te d i n i t s R u le s and R e g u la tio n s * 3
A m erican D e n ta l A s s o c ia tio n
A n o th e r o f th e s e l e c t i v e a g e n c ie s w hich h a v e b e en o r ­
g a n iz e d t o a s s i s t t h e p r o f e s s i o n and th e consum er i s th e
A m erican D e n ta l A s s o c ia tio n *
W ith in t h e fram ew ork o f t h i s
4
o r g a n i z a t i o n a s p e c i a l C o u n c il on D e n ta l T h e ra p e u tic s was e s ­
t a b l i s h e d i n 1930*
I t i s now a s ta n d in g c o m m itte e , and r e p o r t s
o f i t s a c t i o n s a r e in c lu d e d i n th e J o u r n a l o f t h e A m erican
1* C o u n c il on P o o d s , A c ce p ted F o o d s. p* 4*
2 * L o c» o l t *
3* t o e , c l t *
4* A m erican D e n ta l A s s o c ia t io n , P am phlet d e s c r i b i n g th e
S t a t u s , P e r s o n n e l and S e a l o f A c ce p tan c e o f t h e A sso­
c i a t i o n , M im eographed, 1939*
64
D e n ta l A s s o c ia t io n *
One o f th e alm s o f t h i s C o u n c il I s t o " p r o t e c t th e
p r o f e s s i o n and t h e p u b lic a g a i n s t f r a u d o r I m p o s itio n , un­
d e s i r a b l e s e o re e y and o b j e c t l o n a l a d v e r t i s i n g i n c o n n e c tio n
w ith t h e m a rk e tin g o f p r o p r i e t a r y d e n t a l a r t i c l e s * "
I t is
n o t a b l e t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a c l e a r s ta te m e n t o f t h e r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip o f t h i s C o u n c il o f t h e A m erican D e n ta l A s s o c ia tio n t o
t h i s s tu d y o f e v a l u a t i n g f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s In h e a l t h
e d u c a tio n *
A ll th e d e n t i f r i c e s an d m outhw ashes come u n d e r
t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f " p r o p r i e t a r y d e n ta l a r t i c l e s * "
T h u s,
b y u s i n g t h e recom m endations o f t h i s C o u n c il, t h e s t u d e n t o f
p r i n t e d b o o k le ts can d e te rm in e th e t r u t h and a c c u ra c y o f s t a t e ­
m ent when t h e S e a l o f A c ce p tan c e o f t h e A m erican D e n ta l A sso­
c i a t i o n i s u se d *
" P ro d u c ts w h ich s u c c e s s f u l l y m eet t h e t e s t s
and r e q u ire m e n ts o f t h e C o u n c il a n d w hich a r e prom oted w ith
1
h o n e s t c la im s may b e aw arded t h e S e a l of A ccep tan ce* "
By m aking u s e o f t h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l ag en c y f o r th e
e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l w hich i s c l a s s i f i e d a s
d e n t a l o r o r a l h y g ie n e m a t e r i a l , one h a s a r e l i a b l e , a u t h e n t i c
m ethod o f d e te r m in in g t h e a c c u ra c y o f t h e a d v e r t i s i n g s t a t e ­
m ent*
Now, com bined w i t h th e e v a l u a t i o n s p r e v io u s ly made by
th e governm ent a g e n c ie s , t h e e d u c a to r i s p ro v id e d w ith a more
th o ro u g h m ethod f o r c l a s s i f y i n g and e v a l u a t i n g f r e e p r i n t e d
m a t e r i a ls *
1*
A m erican D e n ta l A s s o c ia tio n P a m p h le t, oj>* c l t * , p* 2*
65
W lao o n sln Alum ni R e s e a rc h F o u n d a tio n
The work o f t h e W isc o n sin Alum ni R e s e a rc h F o u n d a tio n i n
l i c e n s i n g v a r i o u s fo o d p r o d u c ts t o u s e t h e fam ous S te e n b o c k
p r o c e s s em bodying V itam in D I n t o t h e i r p r o d u c ts i s w e l l known.
V ery l i t t l e
i s known o f t h e many r a m i f i c a t i o n s t h e i r Founda­
t i o n h a s d e v e lo p e d i n t h e f i e l d o f n u t r i t i o n .
Some o f t h e
m ost im p o rta n t r e s e a r c h e s i n c o p p e r and i r o n h av e come o u t o f
th e s e l a b o r a to r i e s .
I t i s a l s o n o t common know ledge t h a t th e
F o u n d a tio n m a in ta in s s t r i c t s u p e r v i s i o n o v e r a l l p r o d u c ts and
t h e i r p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s w h ic h a r e u s i n g i t s p a t e n t s o r p a te n te d
p ro c e sse s.
As M r. K l e t z e i n , D i r e c t o r o f P u b l i c i t y f o r W isco n sin
Alumni R e s e a rc h F o u n d a tio n , s a y s i n a com m unication t o t h e
w rite rs
A c c o r d in g ly , w h ile we have t h e r i g h t t o c o n t r o l
a d v e r t i s i n g , we n e ed o n ly r a r e l y e x e r c i s e t h e
r i g h t . The l a r g e r com panies a r e e a g e r t o make
t h e i r a d v e r t i s i n g t r u t h f u l and a r e se ld o m , i f e v e r ,
i n e r r o r . The s m a ll e r c o m p a n ie s, a s f o r i n s t a n c e ,
f l u i d m ilk d i s t r i b u t o r s , a r e s u p p l i e d w i t h p r a c ­
t i c a l l y a l l t h e i r a d v e r t i s i n g m a t e r i a l s fro m t h i s
d e p a rtm e n t a n d hence a r e u s u a l l y a u to m a t i c a ll y
p r e v e n te d fro m m aking e rr o n e o u s s t a t e m e n t s . 1
I t i s e v id e n t t h a t t h e W isc o n sin Alum ni R e s e a rc h Foun­
d a t i o n m a in ta in s a s t r i c t s u p e r v i s i o n o v e r a l l copy t h a t i s
w r i t t e n f o r e i t h e r g e n e r a l o r l i m i t e d co n su m p tio n r e g a r d in g
2
any p ro d u c t w h ic h u s e s t h e i r p r o c e s s e s .
T h e re fo re , i t s
1.
2.
L e t t e r fro m M r. H o b art H. K l e t z e l n , W isc o n sin Alum ni Re­
s e a r c h F o u n d a tio n , J a n u a ry 5 , 1 9 4 0 .
See A ppendix A , p . 1 5 0 .
I
66
e v a lu a tin g s e rv ic e f o r th e u s e r o f f r e e p r in te d m a te ria ls I s
e s t a b l is h e d *
S ta n d a rd s f o r P r i n t e d M a te r ia ls
A c a s u a l c o n s i d e r a ti o n o f t h i s p roblem o f g ra d e l e v e l d e te r m in a tio n w ould s u g g e s t f i n d i n g o u t from th e c r e a t o r s
o f t h i s m a t e r i a l , w hat a g e , o r g ra d e l e v e l th e m a t e r i a l had
b een p la n n e d f o r *
W ith t h i s th o u g h t a s t h e g u id in g e le m e n t,
one h u n d red i n d i v i d u a l l e t t e r s w ere w r i t t e n t o a d v e r t i s i n g
a g e n c ie s and o t h e r c r e a t o r s o f e d u c a tio n a l l i t e r a t u r e t o a s ­
c e r ta in t h e i r p ra c tic e s *
C o n s id e ra b le p e r s o n a l c o rre sp o n d e n c e
was c a r r i e d on a s t h e r e s u l t o f th e s e l e t t e r s , and th e f i n d ­
in g s a r e o f v a lu e and d i s t i n c t s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h i s stu d y *
Only one o f th e c r e a t i n g a g e n c ie s seemed t o have a
d e f i n i t e I d e a o f t h e a g e - o r g r a d e - l e v e l s f o r w hich th e y w ere
p la n n in g t h e m a t e r i a ls *
H e a lth S e rv ic e *
T h is was th e U n ite d S t a t e s P u b lic
Ik1* V o n d e rle h r s a i d , r e g a r d i n g su c h p r e p a r a ­
tio n :
Our r e g u l a r s e r i e s o f v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e p u b l ic a ­
t i o n s I s w r i t t e n t o m eet t h e n e ed s o f t h e more
o r l e s s t y p i c a l laym an* W hile we h av e n o t b een
e n t i r e l y s u c c e s s f u l i n o u r e f f o r t s , t h i s means
t h a t we a r e a tte m p tin g t o g e a r t h e v o c a b u la ry
and th e a p p ro a c h t o a p p ro x im a te ly a n e ig h t h g ra d e l e v e l , b e c a u s e , a s you may know, more th a n
tw o - t h ir d o f th e a d u l t p o p u la tio n h a s had n o t
m ore th a n a n e i g h t h g ra d e e d u c a tio n , and 87 p e r
c e n t n e v e r co m p leted h ig h sc h o o l* 1
1*
L e t t e r from Dr* R* A* V o n d e rle h r, U n ite d S t a t e s P u b lic
H e a lth S e r v i c e , W ash in g to n , D*C*, Feb r u a r y 2 8 , 1940*
67
S in c e M arch, 1 9 3 8 , t h i s d e p a rtm e n t o f our governm ent h a s d i s ­
t r i b u t e d 1 ,8 0 0 ,0 0 0 o f t h e i r s p e c i a l f o l d e r s on v e n e r e a l
d is e a s e a lo n e *
T h is i n d i c a t e s c l e a r l y th e su o o e ss th e y h av e
h ad i n r e a c h in g th e r e a d in g p u b l i c , b y t h e i r c o n s i d e r a ti o n o f
age and g r a d e - l e v e l o f t h e i r m a t e r i a l*
O th er b ra n c h e s o f th e governm ent h av e d e v e lo p e d
1
s ta n d a r d s f o r t h e i r w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l . T h is h a s n o t ta k e n
th e fo rm o f s ta n d a r d s f o r ag e o r g ra d e l e v e l b u t m e re ly o f
f o r m a t•
None o f th e many a d v e r t i s i n g a g e n c ie s , o r t h e manu­
f a c t u r e r s t h a t th e y r e p r e s e n t e d , u s e d an y s o r t o f word s t a n ­
d a r d , age o r g r a d e - l e v e l s ta n d a r d f o r t h e p la n n in g o f t h e i r
p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l*
S e v e ra l a d v e r t i s i n g a g e n c ie s r e p o r t e d t h a t
i f th e y had a re q u ire m e n t t o c r e a t e su ch m a t e r i a l th e y would
m e re ly d e c id e who th e y w a n te d th e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l t o b e
w r i t t e n f o r , and th e n h i r e som eone, who knew t h e r e a d in g
a b i l i t y o f th e gro u p t o do t h e job*
T h is i s a u s u a l custom i n
a d v e r t i s i n g a g en c y p r a c t i c e a s e v id e n c e d b y t h e r e s u l t s o f
t h i s su rv e y *
2
The M e tr o p o lita n L if e In s u r a n c e Company r e p o r t s
t h a t a lth o u g h th e y do n o t w r i t e t h e i r m a t e r i a l i n conform a­
t i o n t o any p a r t i c u l a r woncj a g e , o r g r a d e - l e v e l s t a n d a r d , i t
1*
2.
B ureau o f Home E co n o m ics, B u l l e t i n No* 1 3 2 1 , Types o f
P u b l i c a t i o n s . W a sh in g to n , D*C*: D epartm ent o f T g r i c u lt u r e *
L e t t e r and p e r s o n a l c o n fe re n c e w ith M r. H enry M c C lin to c k ,
i n c h a rg e o f p r o d u c tio n f o r M e tr o p o lita n L if e I n ­
s u ra n c e Company*
68
i s v e ry c a r e f u l l y w r i t t e n and r e w r i t t e n u n t i l i t i s t h e ju d g ­
m ent o f t h e e x p e r t s co n ce rn e d w ith t h e m a t e r i a l , t h a t i t c o u ld
n o t b e m is u n d e r s to o d .
T h is ag en cy d i s t r i b u t e s 6 9 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
p ie c e s o f m a t e r i a l e ac h y e a r .
From t h e s e f i n d in g s i t was d i f f i c u l t to a s s ig n an
ag e o r g r a d e - l e v e l e v a lu a tio n t o t h e m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d .
T h e r e f o r e , i t becam e n e c e s s a r y to u s e a t e a c h e r j u r y t o de­
te rm in e t h i s m o st Im p o rta n t m easurem ent o f t h e m a t e r i a l .
In s p i t e o f th e a tte m p ts o f th e P u b lic H e a lth S e r­
v ic e t o w r ite t h e i r m a t e r i a l down t o e ig h t h g r a d e r s , many
te a c h e r s f e l t i t b e lo n g e d a t t h e s e n i o r h ig h s c h o o l l e v e l .
D e te rm in in g G-rade L e v e l o f P r i n t e d M a t e r i a l s
For e f f e c t i v e sc h o o l u s e , th e m a t e r i a l s h a v e b e en o r ­
g a n iz e d i n t o t h e c a t e g o r i e s w h ic h p ro v id e t h e u s u a l d i v i s i o n s
o f t h e e d u c a ti o n a l program i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l s c h o o l s , i , e ,
th e p r im a r y , I n t e r m e d i a t e , th e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l and th e
s e n io r h ig h s c h o o l.
S in c e t h e r e a r e many b o o k le ts and pam­
p h l e t s w hich e x i s t s o l e l y f o r t h e t e a c h e r s , a d i s t i n c t s e c t i o n
h a s b e en r e s e r v e d f o r th em .
From t h e e v id e n c e s s u b m itte d b y v a r io u s m m b e rs o f
th e t e s t i n g j u r i e s th e fo lo w in g a r e i n c l u d e d , n o t f o r any o u t­
s ta n d in g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , b u t a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a f a i r c r o s s s e c t i o n o f a l l th o s e who r e p o r t e d t h e i r f i n d i n g s :
$
69
A v is E . E d g e rto n , Ph., D ., C h airm an, D epartm ent o f H e a lth
and P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n , S a ra to g a S p r in g s , N .Y .:
I had a b o u t d e c id e d t h a t you h a d enough r e t u r n s
w ith o u t m in e l B ut I have c o l l e c t e d some o f th e
view s o f o t h e r t e a c h e r s who h a v e lo o k e d o v e r th e
p a m p h le ts ....m o 3 t o f them c o n ta in e d r e c i p e s . . . I t
i s o u r j o i n t o p in io n t h a t th e i n t r o d u c t o r y s t o r y
( in t h e p a m p h le ts) i s o f t e n w r i t t e n on th e l e v e l
o f s i x t h o r s e v e n th g ra d e and can b e u s e d i n
S o c i a l S t u d i e s , b u t th e r e s t o f t h e p am phlet i s
s u i t a b l e o n ly t o home econom ics c l a s s e s .
D r , E d g e rto n a l s o s u b m itte d w ith t h i s com m unication a
l i s t o f s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t s - l i t e r a t u r e , i n d i c a t i n g a d a p ta ­
b i l i t y o f th e m a t e r i a l s f o r d e f i n i t e g r a d e - l e v e l s f o r
S o c ia l SttuttM, Home Econom ics and H e a l t h , P h y s ic a l E duca­
t i o n and H ygiene c l a s s e s .
Je a n V, L a tim e r , C o o rd in a to r o f H e a lth E d u c a tio n ,
D iv is io n o f C h ild H y g ie n e , D ep artm en t o f P u b lic H e a lth ,
B o s to n , M a ss .:
M iss C a r r , o f o u r S t a f f , and I h av e lo o k e d o v er
t h e m a t e r i a l w hich you had th e v a r io u s com m ercial
p e o p le sen d u s . Our r e a c t i o n i s t h a t a l l o f t h i s
m a t e r i a l i s w e ll g o tte n up and t h a t i t can b e u se d
i n d i v i d u a l l y by th e s t u d e n ts th e m s e lv e s , o r f o r
lib ra ry re fe re n c e .
I n t h i s s t a t e , o f c o u r s e , we a r e u n a b le t o recom ­
mend d i r e c t l y i t s u s e ; a l l t h a t we can do i s t o
t e l l t h e S u p e rin te n d e n ts t h a t su ch m a t e r i a l i s
a v a i l a b l e and t o h av e th a n c o n ta c t th e company
th e m se lv e s d i r e c t l y .
In lo o k in g o v er th e m a t e r i a l , h o w ev er, I do n o t
f e e l t h a t any o f t h i s com m ercial m a t e r i a l i s e s ­
p e c i a l l y s u i t e d f o r u s e b elo w t h e J u n io r H igh
S ch o o l l e v e l ..........
D onald D , D unn, D i r e c t o r o f P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n , A ndover
S c h o o l D e p a rtm e n t, A ndover, M a ss.:
We have a p p r e c i a te d th e m a t e r i a l t h a t was s e n t t o
u s t h i s p a s t y e a r ,..» .W e h a v e made l i b e r a l u se o f
much o f t h e m a t e r i a l i n th e v a r io u s c l a s s e s . A l­
th o u g h we c o u ld n o t u s e a l l o f t h e m a t e r i a l we
hav e i t l i s t e d an d f i l e d i n o u r s c h o o l l i b r a r y . . . .
70
E th e l M ealy , C o n s u lta n t, H e a lth E d u c a tio n , Oregon S t a t e
B oard o f H e a lth , P o r t l a n d , O re*:
• • • • • t h a n k you f o r t h e enorm ous am ount o f m a t e r i a l
w hich h a s p a s s e d o v e r my d e sk th ro u g h y o u r i n ­
i t i a t i v e . I h av e gone o v e r some o f t h i s m a t e r i a l
m y s e lf and h av e h a d a group o f P u b lic H e a lth N u rses
who h av e b a c h e lo r * s d e g r e e s , and a l s o two gro u p s o f
t e a c h e r s i n U n i v e r s i t y E x te n s io n c l a s s e s e v a lu a te
t h i s m a t e r i a l * . . . I have done my b e s t t o c o m p ile
th e s e e v a lu a tio n s and am g la d to su b m it t o you o u r
j o i n t f i n d i n g s , b a s e d upon a th o ro u g h ag re em e n t on
th e p a r t o f members o f b o th g r o u p s . , . .
F r a n k lin G, A rm stro n g , D i r e c t o r o f H e a l t h , P h y s ic a l Edu­
c a t i o n and R e c r e a t io n , P u b lic S c h o o ls , M o n t c la ir , N .J * :
E n c lo se d you w i l l f i n d y o u r o u t l i n e o f p r i n t e d ma­
t e r i a l s f o r h e a l t h e d u c a tio n w hich I am r e tu r n in g *
I h a v e r e c e i v e d a g r e a t d e a l o f m a t e r i a l and you
w i l l n o te t h a t I have p e n c i l l e d my comments op­
p o s i t e th e m a t e r i a l l i s t e d * * * .
M a rg a re t J* M cA rdle, C h aiim an , D e p artm en t o f E n g lis h ,
Weehawken, New J e r s e y , H ig h S c h o o l:
• •••Y ou h av e g iv e n u s a r e a l jo b t o do w ith th e
s tu d y e v a l u a t i o n , and g ra d e -p la c a m e n t o f t h e
p r o d ig io u s volume o f f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s
w hich you h a v e had s e n t t o u s d u rin g t h i s a c a ­
dem ic y e a r (1 9 3 9 -4 0 ), The r e s u l t s o f two t e a c h e r
j u r i e s i n d i c a t e t h e s e c t i o n s u n d e r ifliich t h e p l a c e ­
m ents w ere m ade, v i z * , one group in c lu d e d t e a c h e r s
o f E n g l i s h , S o c i a l S c ie n c e s , Home E conom ics,
H ygiene ahd V o c a tio n a l E d u c a tio n i n t h e Weehawken
H igh S chool* The seco n d g ro u p was composed o f a
c l a s s i n P h ilo s o p h y of E d u c a tio n c o n d u c te d by
C» Don M odica, D iv is io n of G e n e ra l E d u c a tio n ,
Off-Campus P ro g ra m s, New Y ork U n i v e r s i t y , h e ld a t
t h e M em orial H igh S c h o o l, W est New Y o rk , N .J* Of
th e tw e lv e te a c h e r s i n t h i s g ro u p t h e r e w ere th o s e
whose t e a c h i n g e x p e r ie n c e c o v e ra g e ra n k e d from
th e se c o n d g ra d e e le m e n ta ry l e v e l , and E n g li s h ,
S o c ia l S o ie n c e s , I n d u s t r i a l A r t s , P h y s ic a l E duca­
t i o n , Home E co n o m ics, C h e m istry , B io lo g y and
P h y s ic s , a t t h e J u n io r a id S e n io r H ig h S ch o o l
l e v e l s * E ach o f t h e s e t e a c h e r s , a s you can s e e
b y th e a n n o t a t i o n s , h a s r e n d e r e d a n o p in io n o f
g ra d e -p la c e m e n t f o r eao h item * P le a s e n o te a l s o ,
t h a t i n c a s e s w here o n ly one a n n o ta tio n a p p e a r s , i t
s i g n i f i e s t h a t a l l te a c h e r s w ere i n ag reem en t*
71
A ll members o f b o t h t h e j u r i e s w ish me t o e x p re s s
t h e i r e n th u s ia sm o v e r y o u r I n i t i a l w o rk . P le a s e
k e ep u s a d v is e d o f f u r t h e r d e v e lo p m e n ts and a d d i­
t i o n s t o y o u r w o rk .
The f u n c t i o n a l u s e o f t h e m a t e r i a l h a s b e e n t h e c h ie f
c r i t e r i o n f o r c o n s i d e r a ti o n i n t h i s s t u d y .
T h e re fo re , d e te r ­
m in a tio n o f g r a d e - l e v e l h a s b e e n made on t h e b a s i s o f t e a c h e r s e le c tlo n f o r u s e .
E x p e rie n c e d t e a c h e r s , te x tb o o k w r i t e r s
and h e a l t h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , w ith t h e i r com prehensive know ledge
o f a g e - i n t e r e s t s and g e n e r a l r e a d i n g a b i l i t y o f p u p i l s a r e
a d m is s ib le a s e x p e r ts w ith a b i l i t y t o ju d g e th e a d a p t a b i l i t y
of m a te ria l.
The m a t e r i a l l i s t e d i n C h a p te r VI was f i r s t u s e d b y
t e a c h e r s i n t h e p u b lic s o h o o ls o f Mamaroneck d u r in g 1 9 3 8 -4 0 .
In o rd e r to o b ta in a g e n e ra l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h i s m a te r ia l
f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f g r a d e - l e v e l , a t e n t a t i v e l i s t was o r g a n iz e d
from t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e t e a c h e r s who h a v e u s e d t h e s e m a t e r i a l s
i n t h e Mamaroneck s c h o o ls .
S u b s e q u e n tly , t h e l i s t was s u b m itte d t o t h e e n s u in g
j u r y o f t e a c h e r s , l i s t e d belo w w ith a c o m p le te s e t o f th e
p r i n t e d b o o k l e t s f o r t h e i r s tu d y and e v a l u a t i o n . A l e t t e r was
1
s e n t t o e a c h o f t h e members o f th e j u r y e x p la in in g t h e t e n ­
t a t i v e l i s t i n g and th e g e n e r a l p ro c e d u re o f c h e c k in g t h e ma­
t e r i a l a u t h e n t i c i t y and a o c u r a c y .
From t h e p r e lim in a r y s u rv e y o f t h e m a t e r i a l c o n d u c te d
1.
See Appendix C, p . 1 5 5 .
72
i n t h e Mamaroneck s c h o o l s , i t was fo u n d t h a t t h e r e w ere o n ly
f i v e p ie c e s o f m a t e r i a l t h a t f e l l i n t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r
g r a d e - l e v e l b elo w th e j u n i o r h ig h sc h o o l*
T hese m a t e r i a l s
w ere b e in g p ro v id e d b y th e M e tr o p o lita n L if e In s u r a n c e Company
and th e U n ite d F r u i t Company*
S in c e i n b o th c a s e s th e s e com­
p a n ie s have d e v e lo p e d m a t e r i a l s w ith th e a i d o f te a c h e r s and
th e y h av e been u s e d f o r f i v e y e a r s i n t h e Mamaroneck s c h o o ls
and fo u n d s a t i s f a c t o r y , i t was deemed u n n e c e s s a r y t o f u r t h e r
e v a lu a te them*
B ecau se o f th e l a c k o f su p p le m e n ta ry m a t e r i a l f o r
th e s e lo w er g ra d e s no j u r y was s e t up f o r t h i s c h e c k in g o f
m a t e r i a l*
The s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l j u r y was a sk e d to g iv e an
o p in io n on t h e m a t e r i a l t o d e te rm in e w h e th e r i t was o f j u n i o r
h ig h l e v e l o r s e n i o r h ig h l e v e l*
By means o f l e t t e r and
q u e s t io n n a ir e a d v e r t i s e r s and d i s t r i b u t o r s w ere a sk e d to send
1
t h e i r m a t e r i a l t o t h i s ju ry *
When t h e r e was a s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t a g reem en t b y
th e tw e lv e members o f th e j u r y th e m a t e r i a l was l i s t e d i n
t h a t c a te g o ry *
I f t h e r e was n o t , an e i g h t y p e r c e n t a g re e ­
m ent on th e s e n i o r h ig h l e v e l , f o r i n s t a n c e , th e m a t e r i a l
was l i s t e d t e n t a t i v e l y a t th e j u n i o r h ig h l e v e l and th e n r e ­
s u b m itte d t o t h e j u r y f o r c o n s i d e r a ti o n a t t h a t l e v e l*
If
t h e r e had b e e n d is a g re e m e n t on th e j u n i o r h ig h l e v e l , th e
m a t e r i a l w ould have b e en l i s t e d f o r th e in te r m e d i a t e g ra d e s*
1*
See Appendix C, p . 156.
73
T h ere w ere no c a s e s o f t h i s k in d , how ever*
S eco n d ary S ch o o l J u ry f o r t h e G ra d e -L e v e l D e te rm ln a t io n
o f F re e P r i n t e d M a terials* I n H e a lth E d u c a tio n
1*
M iss D o ro th y B a c h e ld e r, M*A«, S u p e rv is o r o f Home Eco­
nom ics o f th e Mamaroneck P u b lic S c h o o ls , T ea ch e r o f
J u n io r and S e n io r H igh S ch o o l c l a s s e s , M am aroneck,
New York*
2*
Mr* F r a n k l in G. A rm stro n g , M*A*, D i r e c t o r o f H e a lth
and P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n , M o n t c la ir , New J e r s e y , n a t i o n a l l y
known h e a l t h a u t h o r i t y , i n s t r u c t o r on s t a f f o f s e v e r a l
s c h o o ls and c o lle g e s *
3*
Mr* Raymond H o p k in s, T ea ch e r o f H e a lth E d u c a tio n , Wood­
row W ilson H igh S c h o o l, Weehawken, New J e rs e y * S e c re ­
t a r y o f th e H e a lth I n s t r u c t i o n S e c t i o n , E a s te r n D is ­
t r i c t o f th e Am erican A s s o c ia tio n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s ic a l
E d u c a tio n and R e c re a tio n * Member o f N a tio n a l A sso c ia ­
t i o n Com m ittee on v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s i n h e a l t h e d u c a tio n *
4*
Dr* M arion L e r r i g o , 99 W illow A venue, L archm ont, New
York* A s s i s t a n t t o J o i n t Com m ittee o f t h e A m erican
M e d ic a l A s s o c ia tio n and th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A sso­
c i a t i o n , and c o - a u th o r o f th e W ood-L errigo s e r i e s o f
h e a l t h te x tb o o k s *
5*
M iss M a rg a re t M cA rdle, M .A ., 885 B o u le v a rd E a s t , Wee­
haw ken, New J e rs e y * D i r e c t o r o f t h e E n g lis h D e p art­
m ent f o r t h e Weehawken P u b lic S c h o o ls and p ro m in e n tly
known f o r h e r a s s o c i a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s *
6*
M iss E th e l M e ale y , M .A ., S t a t e D e p artm en t o f H e a lth ,
P o r t l a n d , Oregon* F o r many y e a r s an a c t i v e p a r t i c i ­
p a n t i n th e w ork o f th e A m erican C h ild H e a lth A s so c ia ­
t i o n and now i n c h arg e o f h e a l t h e d u c a tio n work f o r
t h e S t a t e o f Oregon and V ic e - P r e s id e n t o f th e A m erican
A s s o c ia tio n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n an d R e c re a ­
t io n *
7*
M iss Je an V* L a tim e r , C o o rd in a to r o f H e a lth E d u c a tio n
D e p artm en t o f P u b lic H e a lth , Commonwealth o f M a s s a c h u s e tts
B o s to n , Mass* P ro m in en t f o r h e r work w ith s t a t e and
n a t i o n a l h e a l t h g ro u p s and a s a r e g u l a r c o n t r i b u t o r t o
t h e m ag a zin e i n t h e f i e l d o f h e a l th * She i s a r e g u l a r
c o n t r i b u t o r t o H y g ela and t h e J o u r n a l o f H e a lth and
P h y s i c a l E d u ca tio n * ' and te x tb o o k w r i t e r i n th e h e a l t h
HefS--------------
74
8,
M iss Rae K a u fe r, D i r e c t o r o f H e a lth E d u c a tio n , Lynn T u b er­
c u l o s i s A s s o c ia t io n , L ynn, M a s s a c h u s e tts * Member o f
S t e e r i n g C om m ittee, H e a lth S e c tio n o f A m erican A s s o c ia ­
t i o n o f H e a lth , P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n an d R e c re a tio n *
9*
Dr* M a r i e t ta E i c h e l b e r g e r , 307 N o rth M ich ig an A venue,
C h ica g o , I l l i n o i s * P ro m in en t a s a member o f th e
w r i t e r s o f f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e E v a p o ra te d
M ilk A s s o c ia tio n and a s a member o f t h e im p o rta n t com­
m i t t e e s o f t h e A m erican Home Econom ics A s s o c ia t io n ,
t h e A m erican D i e t e t i c A s s o c ia tio n and t h e N a tio n a l
N u rs e ry S c h o o l A s s o c ia tio n * More th a n a n y o t h e r p e r ­
s o n , sh e h a s s tu d ie d t h i s f i e l d t o p ro v id e t h e b e s t
i n p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s f o r u s e b y h e r a s s o c i a t io n *
10*
Mr* D onald D* Dunn, A ndover J u n i o r H igh S c h o o l, A n d o v er,
M a s s a c h u s e tts * J u n io r h ig h s c h o o l t e a c h e r o f h y g ie n e
and p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n who i s i n t e r e s t e d i n su p p le m e n ta ry
m a t e r i a ls *
11*
Dr* H* G. K ila n d e r , Dean o f P a n z e r C o lle g e , E a s t O range
New J e rs e y * T e a c h e r o f e x te n s io n c o u rs e s f o r th e S chool
o f E d u c a tio n , New York U n i v e r s i t y , a u th o r o f th e K lla n d e r
H e a lth Knowledge T e s t and a member o f s e c t i o n a l an d
n a t i o n a l co m m ittee s on p ro c e d u re s i n h e a l t h e d u c a tio n ,
a s w e ll a s member o f th e co m m ittee w hich a s s i s t e d i n
th e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e N a t io n a l A s s o c ia tio n a s a De­
p a rtm e n t o f t h e N .E .A .
12*
Mr* Howard L* C onrad, M.A*, D i r e c t o r o f H e a lth E d u c a tio n ,
P u b lic S c h o o ls o f P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n sy lv a n ia * As an
i n s t r u c t o r o f H e a lth E d u c a tio n a t Temple U n i v e r s i t y ,
i n a d d it i o n t o h i s d a i l y p u b l ic s c h o o l w o rk , Mr* Conrad
h a s done o u ts ta n d in g r e s e a r c h i n t h e d e v elo p m en t and
c o o r d in a tio n o f c u rric u lu m p la n s f o r h e a l t h e d u c a tio n
i n th e p u b lic s c h o o ls o f P h ila d e lp h ia *
C o n tin u a tio n o f E v a lu a tio n P ro c e d u re an d L i s t i n g S e r v ic e
f o r h e a l t h b d u c a to r s
On th e h y p o th e s is t h a t t h e s e r v i c e p r o v id e d b y t h i s
s tu d y i s o f v a lu e t o e d u c a to rs who w ish t o k eep a b r e a s t o f
new d e v e lo p m e n ts i n t h e f i e l d o f h e a l t h e d u c a tio n , a s w e ll
a s t o add f l e x i b i l i t y t o t h e i r own te a c h in g p r o c e d u r e s , t h e
w r i t e r p la n s a s e r v i c e on a p o s s i b l e m o n th ly , s e m i-a n n u a lly
75
o r a n n u a l b a s i s to p r o v id e t h i s f u r t h e r f u t u r e d e v e lo p e d i n ­
fo rm a tio n *
I t i s p la n n e d t h a t t h i s s e r v i c e w i l l r e l e a s e i n ­
fo rm a tio n a b o u t new p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s , t h e i r a u t h e n t i c a t i o n
and t h e i r s u g g e s te d te a c h in g g rad e l e v e l*
T h is w i l l e i t h e r
ta k e t h e form o f a l e t t e r s e r v i c e on a s u b s c r i p t i o n b a s i s o r
a s a r e g u l a r e d i t o r i a l d e p a rtm e n t i n an a p p ro v e d h e a l t h p e r i o d i ­
c a l o r a p am p h let s e r v i c e to th o s e i n t h e e d u c a tio n a l f i e l d *
A s i m i l a r p ro c e d u re t o t h a t u s e d b y th e C o u n cil on
Poods o f t h e A m erican M edical A s s o c ia t io n , in c lu d in g t h a t
w hich h a s b een u se d i n t h i s s t u d y , w i l l b e c o n tin u e d *
When a
new b o o k le t i s p u b l is h e d , th e a d v e r t i s e r o r m a n u fa c tu re r w i l l
b e r e q u e s te d t o subm it c o m p lete in f o r m a tio n about th e m a t e r i a l
In c lu d e d i n th e b o o k l e t ; s o u rc e o f th e m a t e r i a l , f a c t s and r e ­
s e a r c h in f o r m a tio n ; name o f t h e a u th o r o r S5me a u t h e n t i c a t i o n
o f th e m a t e r i a l i n b o o k l e t ; t o p i c m a t e r i a l and p h a se o f educa­
t i o n p la n n e d ; num ber a v a i l a b l e f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n *
The b o o k le t w i l l th e n b e d i s t r i b u t e d t o th e members
o f th e j u r y f o r g r a d e - l e v e l p lacem en t and g e n e r a l r e v ie w , a t
w h a te v e r g r a d e - l e v e l s u g g e ste d *
I t i s p la n n e d t o have two
j u r i e s f o r g r a d e - l e v e l d e te r m in a tio n ; one f o r t h e e le m e n ta ry
and one f o r th e se c o n d a ry sc h o o ls*
I f th e b o o k l e t , p am p h let
o r C h a r t i s fo u n d t o b e s u b s t a n t i a l l y a u t h e n t i c a t e d f o r t r u t h
and a c c u ra c y , i f i t f i t s i n t o t h e t o p i c s o f h e a l t h e d u c a tio n
and t h e b a s i s o f g r a d e - l e v e l i s d e te rm in e d , i t w i l l b e th u s
lis te d *
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
o
IIBRARY
e
CHAPTER VI
A LIST OP FREE PRINTED MATERIALS IN HEALTH EDUCATION
H e a lth e d u c a tio n I s a s y s te m a tic p ro g ram o f t r a i n i n g
and I n s t r u c t i o n a d a p te d t o t h e a g e s and I n t e r e s t s o f p u p i l s
I n t h e v a r i o u s g r a d e s , an d d e s ig n e d t o d e v e lo p th e a t t i t u d e s
and h a b it s t h a t w i l l I n s u r e t h e b e s t p h y s i c a l , m e n ta l and
s o c ia l h e a lth .
I f t h e s e f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s a s s i s t In
t h e d ev elopm ent of t h e a b o v e -m e n tio n e d k now ledges and a t t i ­
t u d e s , t h e y have b e n e f i t n o t o n ly a s s u p p le m e n ta x y , b u t a l s o
a s te x tb o o k m a t e r i a l .
In o r d e r t h a t th e s e h e a l t h k n o w le d g e s,
a t t i t u d e s a n d p r a c t i c e s may a c c u m u la te In t h e e d u c a tio n o f
th e c h i l d , some o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t o p i c s i s n e c e s s a r y t o a s ­
s i s t t e a c h e r s t o f i n d and u se th e m .
T h e r e f o r e , a f t e r s u r v e y in g t h r e e s e t s o f s ta n d a r d
h e a l t h b o o k s , v i z . , A n d re s s , G o ld b e rg e r and H a llo c k S e r i e s ;
Wood L e r r lg o a n d Lambkin S e r i e s ; T u r n e r , H a llo c k S e r i e s , e x ­
t r a c t i n g fro m th em t h e i n d i v i d u a l l i s t s o f t o p i c s t r e a t e d ,
t h e a u th o r d e v e lo p e d ffcem a l l o f them com bined, h i s own l i s t
76a
o f t o p ic s *
And s i n c e th e f r e e b o o k le ts e a s i l y f i t I n t o th e
su rv e y e d t o p i c s , t h e l i s t h e re s u b m itte d r e p r e s e n t s a n ad ­
ju s tm e n t o f t h e te x tb o o k l i s t i n g s t o f i t and In c lu d e th e a c ­
t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f r e e b o o k le ts a n d o t h e r p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s *
N a t u r a l l y , i t i s n o t a c o m p le te l i s t f o r h e a l t h i n s t r u c t i o n ,
b u t r a t h e r a n I n i t i a l e f f o r t t o g a th e r f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s
a s t h e y e x i s t , w i t h e v a lu a tio n *
The f o llo w in g o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s b een d e v e lo p e d fro m
a s tu d y o f th e s e su p p le m e n ta ry m a t e r i a l s a s t h e y e x i s t f o r
fre e d is trib u tio n *
The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t o p i c s in c lu d e s
1.
2*
3.
4*
5.
6*
7.
8.
9*
10.
Canned Foods i n N u t r i t i o n
C are o f t h e E a rs
C are o f t h e Eyes
C are o f t h e F e e t
C are o f t h e T e e th
C are o f t h e S ic k
C h ild C are and I n f a n t F e e d in g
C lo th in g
C o f f e e , T ea and Cocoa
E x e r c is e f o r H e a lth y L iv in g
77
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
E x e r c is e and D ie t I n W eight C o n tro l
F i r s t Aid
Food V a lu e s , E a t in g an d Food H a b its
F u n c tio n a l D is e a s e
G e n e ra l H e a lth I n f o r m a tio n
Good P o s tu r e
H i s t o r y o f H e a lth E d u c a tio n
In f o r m a tio n f o r E x p e c ta n t M others
M e n tal H ygiene
M ilk I n N u t r i t i o n
N a r c o tie an d T obacco
P e r s o n a l H ygiene
The C o n tro l o f Communicable D is e a s e s
The V alu e o f F r u i t s i n N u t r i t i o n
F re e G uides t o P r i n t e d H e a lth M a t e r i a l s
F o u rte e n H undred P ie c e s o f l i t e r a t u r e Examined
A p p ro x im a te ly f o u r t e e n h u n d re d s e p a r a t e and d i s ­
t i n c t p ie c e s o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l h av e b e e n c o l l e c t e d and ex­
am ined d u r in g t h e t h r e e y e a r s r e q u i r e d f o r th e developm ent
of t h i s stu d y .
T hese r e p r e s e n t a l l k in d s o f m a t e r i a l and
i n c l u d e : m ag a zin es d e v e lo p e d b y c o r p o r a t io n s a s h o u se o r g a n s ,
b o o k l e t s , p a m p h le ts , p o s t e r s .
M a t e r i a l t h a t was n o t a v a i l a b l e f r e e f o r n a t i o n a l
d i s t r i b u t i o n was a b a s i c c o n d itio n f o r t h e s tu d y ; t h e r e f o r e ,
a l l th o s e m a t e r i a l s w h ich w ere l o c a l i n c h a r a c t e r and a s k e d
f o r e v en a s m a ll f e e f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n c o u ld n o t b e in c l u d e d .
T h is e lim in a te d a b o u t f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e b o o k l e t s .
As
was p o in te d o u t i n a n o th e r p a r t o f t h i s s t u d y , t e a c h e r and
p u p i l h a v e much m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e f o r h e a l t h I n s t r u c t i o n
I n th e c i t i e s an d s t a t e s w here th e y may r e s i d e .
T h is m a t e r i a l
I s alwayB a v a i l a b l e f r e e t o r e s i d e n t s b u t I s r e s t r i c t e d from
n a tio n a l d is tr ib u tio n .
78
A c o n s id e r a b le amount o f governm ent m a t e r i a l
r e q u i r e s a s m a ll paym ent o f from f i v e t o t w e n ty - f iv e c e n t s .
T h e s e , t o o , w ere e l i m i n a t e d .
F o r i n s t a n c e , i n th e O f f ic e o f
E d u c a tio n t h e r e i s a f r e e g u id e t o p u b l i c a t i o n s b u t r a r e l y
a r e t h e b o o k le ts th e m s e lv e s p r o v id e d f r e e .
Most o f them a r e
in e x p e n s iv e and e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e t o m ost s c h o o l t e a c h e r s f o r
th e few c e n ts m e n tio n e d ,
A s i m i l a r sy ste m p r e v a i l s i n o t h e r
d e p a r tm e n ts .
From th e lo n g l i s t o f f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s t h a t
w ere t h e n a v a i l a b l e t o s tu d e n ts i n h e a l t h e d u c a ti o n , th e
d v a l u a t l n g p ro c e d u re e x p la in e d i n C h a p te r V was u s e d ; by
means o f t h i s d e v ic e a l i s t was o b ta in e d t h a t c o u ld be ch eck ed
f o r a cc u ra c y .
I t i s t h i s f i n a l l i s t w hich h a s b e e n e v a lu a te d
f o r a c c u ra c y o f s ta te m e n t a n d g r a d e - l e v e l t h a t a p p e a rs i n
C h a p te r V I,
S o u rc e s o f M a t e r i a l
A etna C a s u a lty and S u re ty Company, H a r tf o r d ,
C o n n e c tic u t•
A g r i c u l t u r a l A d ju stm en t A d m in is tr a tio n , C o n su m er's
C o u n se l D i v i s i o n , W a sh in g to n , D. C,
A l l i e d Y o u th , 1201 S i x t e e n t h S t r e e t , N ,W ,, W ashing­
t o n , D, C,
A m erican A s s o c ia tio n f o r H e a lth , P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n ,
and R e c r e a t io n , a D epartm ent of t h e N .E .A ., 1201
S i x t e e n t h S t r e e t , N .W ., W a sh in g to n , D, C,
Am erican A s s o c ia tio n o f M e d ic a l S o c i a l W o rk e rs, N o rth
A t l a n t i c B ra n ch , 428 W est 5 9 th S t r e e t , New Y o rk ,
N. Y.
A m erican A utom obile A s s o c ia t io n , P e n n sy lv a n ia Avenue
a t 1 7 th S t r e e t , W a sh in g to n , D. C.
A m erican Can Company, 230 P a rk A venue, New York C i t y ,
A m erican D e n ta l A s s o c i a t i o n , B ureau o f P u b lic R e la ­
t i o n s , 212 E , S u p e r io r S t r e e t , C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
A m erican E u g e n ic s S o c i e t y , 50 W est 5 0 th S t r e e t , New
Y o rk , N . Y.
79
A m erican F o u n d a tio n f o r t h e B lin d , 15 West 1 6 th
S t r e e t , New York C i t y ,
A m erican Q e n e tic A s s o c ia t io n , Room 3 0 8 , V i c to r
B u ild in g , W ash in g to n , D. C,
A m erican H e a rt A s s o c ia t io n , 50 W est 5 0 th S t r e e t ,
New York C i t y ,
A m erican Home Econom ics A s s o c ia t io n , 620 M i l ls B u ild ­
i n g , W a sh in g to n , D, C,
A m erican M e d ic a l A s s o c i a t i o n , B ureau o f H e a lth Edu­
c a t i o n , 535 N, D e arb o rn S t r e e t , C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s ,
A m erican Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , 7 7 th S ,C . 2nd Cen­
t r a l F a rk W est, New Y ork C i t y ,
A m erican N a t io n a l Red C r o s s , W ash in g to n , D , C ,
A m erican O c c u p a tio n a l T h era p y A s s o c ia t io n , 175 F i f t h
A venue, New York C i t y ,
A m erican P u b lic H e a lth A s s o c ia t io n , 50 W est 5 0 th
S t r e e t , New Y ork C i t y .
A m erican S e a tin g Company, 14 E a s t Ja c k s o n B o u le v a rd ,
C h io a g o , I l l i n o i s ,
A m erican S o c i a l H ygiene A s s o c ia t io n , 50 W est 5 0 th
S t r e e t , New York C i t y .
A m erican S o c ie ty f o r t h e C o n tro l o f C a n c e r, 1250 S i x t h
A venue, New York C i t y .
A m erican S o c ie ty f o r t h e Hard o f H e a rin g , 1537 T h i r t y F i f t h S t r e e t , N .W ., W a sh in g to n , D. C.
A s s o c ia tio n f o r F a m ily L iv in g , 220 S o u th S t a t e S t r e e t ,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
A s s o c ia tio n o f A m erican Soap and G ly c e rin e P r o d u c ts ,
I n c . , C l e a n li n e s s B u re a u , 11 W est 42nd S t r e e t ,
New York C i t y ,
B auer and B la c k Company, D iv is io n o f th e K e n d a ll
Company, 2500 S o u th D earb o rn S t r e e t , C h ic a g o ,
Illin o is ,
B e t t e r V is io n I n s t i t u t e , I n c , , 3157 I n t e r n a t i o n a l
B u ild in g , R o c k e f e ll e r C e n te r , New Y ork C i t y .
B ike Web M a n u fa c tu rin g Company, 41 W est 2 5 t h S t r e e t ,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s ,
B i r t h C o n tr o l F e d e r a t io n o f A m erica, I n c . , 501 M adi­
son A venue, New Y ork C i t y .
B r i s t o l M eyers Company, 630 F i f t h A venue, New Y o rk .
B ureau o f P u b lic R e l a t i o n s , V ite x L a b o r a t o r i e s ,
H a r r is o n , New J e r s e y .
B ureau o f F i s h e r i e s , D ep artm en t o f Commerce, W ashing­
t o n , D, C,
C a l i f o r n i a F r u i t Growers E x ch an g e, Box 5030 M e tro ,
S t a t . , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a ,
C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e Auto A s s o c i a t i o n , S a c ra m e n to ,
C a lifo rn ia .
C a r n a tio n M ilk Company, Oconomowoc, W is c o n s in .
C hicago H e a rt A s s o c ia t io n , 203 N, W abash A venue,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s ,
79a
C h ild S tu d y A s s o c ia tio n o f A m erica, I n c . , 221 West
5 7 th S t r e e t , New Y ork C i t y .
C h ild W e lfa re League o f A m erica, I n c . , 130 E . 22nd
S t r e e t , New York C i t y .
C hurch an d Dwight Company, 70 P in e S t r e e t , New Y o rk .
C ity o f C h icag o M u n ic ip a l T u b e r c u lo s is S a n ita r iu m ,
2049 W ash in g to n B o u le v a rd , C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
C lay Adams Company, 25 E a s t 2 6 th S t r e e t , C h ic a g o ,
Illin o is .
C o lle g e F ilm C e n te r , 59 E a s t Van B uren S t r e e t , C h ic a g o ,
Illin o is .
Commonwealth F u n d , 4 1 E . 57 S t r e e t , New York C i t y .
Community S e r v ic e S o c ie ty o f New Y o rk , 105 E a s t 22nd
S t r e e t , New Y ork C i t y .
Cream o f Wheat C o r p o r a tio n , 730 S tin s o n B o u le v a rd ,
M in n e a p o lis , M in n e so ta .
Denoye r-G e p p e rt Company, 5235 Ravenswood A venue,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
D e n ta l S o c i e t i e s ( S t a t e ) .
Drug and C osm etic I n d u s t r y , New York C i t y .
Dwight P o s tu re M odel, 222 B eacon S t r e e t , B o sto n , M assa­
c h u s e tts .
E astm an T e a c h in g F ilm s , I n c . , 343 S t a te S t r e e t ,
R o c h e s te r , New Y o rk .
E d u c a tio n D e p artm en ts ( S t a t e ) .
E r p i C lassro o m F ilm s , L i e . , 3 5 -1 1 T h i r t y - F i f t h A venue,
Long I s l a n d C i t y , New Y o rk .
E u g e n ic s R eco rd O f f i c e , C old S p rin g H a rb o r, Long
I s l a n d , New Y o rk .
E u g e n ic s S o c ie ty o f N o rth e rn C a l i f o r n i a , 720 C a p i t a l
N a t io n a l Bank B u ild in g , S a c ra m e n to , C a l i f o r n i a .
E v a p o ra te d M ilk A s s o c ia t io n , R e s e a rc h and E d u c a tio n ,
307 N o rth M ichigan A venue, C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
F e d e r a l C o u n c il o f C hurches o f C h r i s t i n A m erica, 297
F o u r th A venue, New York C i t y .
F e d e r a l T rad e C om m ission, W ash in g to n , D. C .
F l o r i d a C i t r u s C om m ission, L a k e la n d , F l o r i d a .
Good T e e th C o u n c il f o r C h i ld r e n , 400 N. M ichigan
A venue, C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
G e n e ra l E l e c t r i c Company, 1285 B oston A venue, B rid g e ­
p o r t , C o n n e c tic u t.
G e n e ra l M i l l s , I n c . , 323 F o u r th A venue, M in n e a p o lis ,
M in n e so ta .
Golden G u ern sey , I n c . , P e te rb o r o u g h , New H am p sh ire.
G u ild o f P r e s c r i p t i o n O p t i c i a n s , I n c . , B a ile y B u ild ­
i n g , P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y lv a n ia .
Hay F e v e r P r e v e n tio n A s s o c ia t io n , 927 C a n a l S t r e e t ,
New O r le a n s , L o u is ia n a .
H e a lth D ep artm en ts ( C i t y ) .
79b
H e a lth D ep artm en ts ( S t a t e ) .
H einz Company, R e s e a rc h D e p a rtm e n t, P i t t s b u r g h ,
P e n n s y lv a n ia •
Human B e tte rm e n t F o u n d a tio n , 234 E . C o lo ra d o S t r e e t ,
P asad en a, C a lif o r n ia .
H ynsen, W e s tc o tt, and D unning, I n c . , C h a rle s and
Chase S t r e e t , B a ltim o r e , M a ry lan d .
I l l i n o i s S o c ie ty f a r th e P r e v e n tio n o f B lin d n e s s , 203
N . W abash A venue, C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
I n s t i t u t e o f F a m ily R e l a t i o n s , 607 S o u th H i l l S t r e e t ,
Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a .
I n t e r n a t i o n a l C e llu o o tto n P ro d u c ts Company, 919 N.
M ichigan A venue, C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c ie ty f o r C rip p le d C h i ld r e n , E l y r i a ,
O h io .
I n t e r s t a t e N a r c o tic A s s o c ia t io n , 53 W. J a c k s o n B o u le ­
v a r d , C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
Io d e n t Company, D e t r o i t , M ic h ig a n .
Iowa C h ild W e lfa re R e s e a rc h S t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i ty o f
Iow a, Iowa C i t y , Iow a.
Iowa S t a t e C o lle g e , V is u a l I n s t r u c t i o n S e r v i c e , Ex­
t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , Ames, Iow a.
I r r a d i a t e d E v a p o ra te d M ilk I n s t i t u t e , 307 N. M ichigan
A venue, C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
K r a f t C heese C o r p o r a tio n , 500 P e s h tig o C o u r t, C h ic a g o ,
Illin o is .
Jo h n Hancock M utual L ife In s u ra n c e Company, L ife Con­
s e r v a t i o n S e r v i c e , B o s to n , M a s s a c h u s e tts .
J u l i u s R osenw ald F und, 4901 E l l i s A venue, C h ic a g o ,
Illin o is .
Kehoe D is p la y F i x t u r e Company, 541 M arket S t r e e t ,
San F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a .
K olynos Company, 130 B r i s t o l S t r e e t , New H aven,
C o n n e c tic u t.
L a d ie s Home J o u r n a l , R e fe re n c e L ib r a r y , P h i l a d e l p h i a ,
P e n n s y lv a n ia .
L ever B r o th e r s Company, 164 B roadw ay, D epartm ent 199,
C am b rid g e, M a s s a c h u s e tts .
L ib e r ty M utual In s u ra n c e Company, 175 B e rk e le y S t r e e t ,
B o s to n , M a s s a c h u s e tts .
M a lte x Company, L u c ., B u r lin g to n , V erm ont.
M cC alls M ag azin e, D a y to n , O h io .
M a s s a c h u s e tts S o c ie ty f o r S o c i a l H y g ie n e , 1145 L i t t l e
B u ild in g , B o s to n , M a s s a c h u s e tts .
M a te r n ity C e n te r A s s o c ia t io n , 654 M adison A venue, New
Y ork C i t y .
M e d ic a l S o c i e t i e s ( L o c a l) .
M e d ic a l S o c i e t i e s ( S t a t e ) .
79c
M e tr o p o lita n L if e In s u ra n c e Company, 1 M adison A venue,
New York C i t y .
M ilk I n d u s tr y F o u n d a tio n , C h r y s le r B u ild in g , New Y o rk .
N a t io n a l B e t t e r B u sin e ss B u re a u , 405 L e x in g to n A venue,
New York C i t y .
N a t io n a l B i s c u i t Company, N ia g a ra F a l l s , New Y o rk .
N a t io n a l B oard o f F i r e U n d e r w r ite r s , 85 Jo h n S t r e e t ,
New Y ork C i t y .
N a tio n a l C a n n e rs A s s o c ia t io n , 1739 H. S t r e e t , N.W .,
W a sh in g to n , D. C .
N a t io n a l C h ild W elfare A s s o c i a t i o n , 70 F i f t h A venue,
New York C i t y .
N a tio n a l C om m ittee f o r M e n ta l H y g ie n e , I n c . , 50 West
5 0 th S t r e e t , New Y ork C i t y .
N a tio n a l C o n s e r v a tio n B u re a u , D i v i s i o n o f A s s o c ia tio n
o f C a s u a lty and S u re ty E x e c u ti v e s , 60 Jo h n S t r e e t ,
New York C i t y .
N a tio n a l D a iry C o u n c il, 111 N. C a n a l S t r e e t , C h ic a g o ,
Illin o is .
N a t io n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n , 1201 S i x t e e n t h S t r e e t ,
N .W ., W a sh in g to n , D. C.
N a t io n a l F i r e P r o t e c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ,60 B a t t e r y M arch
S t r e e t , B o sto n , M a s s a c h u s e tts .
N a t io n a l F o o t H e a lth C o u n c il, R o c k la n d , M a s s a c h u s e tts .
N a t io n a l Hay F e v e r S o c i e t y , I n c . , 657 Rand T ow er,
M in n e a p o lis , M in n e s o ta .
N a t io n a l H e a lth C o u n c il, 50 W est 50 S t r e e t , New York
C ity .
N a t io n a l L ive S to c k and Meat B o a rd , D epartm ent o f Nu­
t r i t i o n , 407 S . D earb o rn S t r e e t , Room 8 2 5 ,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
N a t io n a l O rg a n iz a tio n f o r P u b lic H e a lth N u rs in g , 50
West 5 0 th S t r e e t , New York C i t y .
N a t io n a l R e c r e a tio n A s s o c ia t io n , 315 F o u r th A venue,
New York C i t y .
N a t io n a l S a f e t y C o u n c il, 20 N. W acker D r iv e , C h ic a g o ,
Illin o is .
N a t io n a l S o c ie ty f o r t h e P r e v e n tio n o f B lin d n e s s , I n c . ,
50 West 5 0 th S t r e e t , New Y ork C i t y .
N a t io n a l Women’ s C h r i s t i a n Tem perance U n io n , 1730
C hicago A venue, E v a n s to n , I l l i n o i s .
N a t io n a l T u b e r c u lo s is A s s o c ia t io n , 50 West 50 S t r e e t ,
New York C i t y .
New Y ork L ife In s u ra n c e Company, New York C i t y .
New Y ork S t a t e C om m ittee on M e n ta l H y g ie n e, 105 E a s t
22nd S t r e e t , New Y ork C i t y .
O rth o p e d ic Shoe Company, P o rts m o u th , O hio.
P e p so d e n t Company, E d u c a tio n a l D e p a rtm e n t, 6901 West
6 5 th S t r e e t , C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
P e r s o n a l P ro d u c ts C o r p o r a tio n , 500 F i f t h A venue, New
Y ork C i t y .
79d
F e t r o l a g a r L a b o r a t o r i e s , I n c . , 536 Lake S hore D r iv e ,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
P h i l a d e l p h ia C h ild H e a lth S o c i e t y , 311 S . J u n i p e r
S t r e e t , P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y lv a n ia .
P r o p h y la c tic B xush Company, F l o r e n c e , M a s s a c h u s e tts .
P r u d e n t i a l L if e In s u ra n c e Company, N ew ark, New J e r s e y .
P u b lic H e a lth S e r v i c e , F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y A gency,
U n ite d S t a t e s P u b lic H e a lth S e r v i c e , W ash in g to n ,
D. C .
P urdue U n i v e r s i t y , E x te n s io n S e r v i c e , I a f a y e t t e ,
I n d ia n a .
Q uaker O ats Company, R e s e a rc h L a b o r a t o r i e s , 345 E .
2 5 th S t r e e t , C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
R a ls to n P u rin a com pany, E d u c a tio n a l S e rv ic e D i v i s i o n ,
C h e c k e rb o a rd S q u a re , S t . L o u is , M is s o u r i.
S c h o o l, D r ., 211-213 W. S c h i l l e r S t r e e t , C h ic a g o ,
Illin o is .
S c i e n t i f i c T em perance F o u n d a tio n , 400 B o y ls to n S t r e e t ,
B o sto n , M a s s a c h u s e tts .
S h e l l O il Company, San F r a n o ls c o , C a l i f o r n i a .
S i m p l ic it y P a t t e r n Company, I n c . , 200 M adison A venue,
New Y o rk , N. Y.
S o c ie ty f o r V is u a l E d u c a tio n , I n c . , 100 E a s t Ohio
S t r e e t , C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
S ta n d a rd B rands I n c . , V ita m in D D i g e s t , 695 M adison
A venue, New Y ork C i t y .
S t a t e C o n g re ss o f P a r e n t s and T e a c h e r s .
S t a t e U n i v e r s i t i e s , E x te n s io n S e r v io e .
S u p e r in te n d e n t o f D ocum ents, Government P r i n t i n g Of­
f i c e , W a sh in g to n , D. C .
Takam lne C o r p o r a tio n , 132 F ro n t S t r e e t , New Y ork C i t y .
Tem perance E d u c a tio n F o u n d a tio n , I n c . , W e s t e r v i l l e ,
O h io .
T ex as S t a te C o lle g e f o r Women, E x te n s io n S e r v i c e ,
D e n to n , T e x a s .
T u b e r c u lo s is S o c i e t i e s ( S t a t e ) .
T r a v e le r s in s u r a n c e Company, 700 M ain S t r e e t , H a r tf o r d ,
C o n n e c tic u t.
U n ite d S t a t e s D ep artm en t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , W ash in g to n ,
D. C .
U n ite d S t a t e s D ep artm en t o f I n t e r i o r , O f f ic e o f E duca­
t i o n , W a sh in g to n , D. C .
U n ite d S t a t e s D epartm ent o f l a b o r , W ashington^ D .C .
U n ite d S t a t e s T re a s u r y D e p a rtm e n t, P u b lic H e a lth S e r­
v i c e , W a sh in g to n , D. C .
U n ite d F r u i t Company, E d u c a tio n D e p a rtm e n t, 1 F e d e r a l
S t r e e t , B o s to n , M a s s a c h u s e tts ,
W ashington I n f o r m a tio n B u re a u , 1013 T h i r t e e n t h S t r e e t ,
W a sh in g to n , D. C .
79e
W estin g h o u se lamp Company, P i t t s b u r g h , P e n n s y lv a n ia .
Wheat F l o u r I n s t i t u t e , 309 W. J a c k s o n B l v d ., C h ic a g o ,
Illin o is .
W hite L a b o r a t o r i e s , I n c . , 113 W orth T h i r t e e n t h S t r e e t ,
N ew ark, New J e r s e y .
W isc o n sin Alum ni R e s e a rc h F o u n d a tio n , M ad iso n ,
W is c o n s in .
Women's Home C om panion, S e r v ic e B u re a u , 250 P ark
A venue, New Y ork C i t y .
Y .M .C.A. M otion P i c tu r e B u re a u , 19 S . L a S a lle S t r e e t ,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
' 80
L i s t o f F r e e P r i n t e d M a t e r i a l s f o r H e a l t h E d u c a tio n
Canned Foods I n N u t r i t i o n
T e a c h e rs
—
— T itle
D is trib u to r
The H aw aiian I s l a n d and
th e S to r y o f P in e a p p le *
48 pp*
A m erican Can Company
S e n io r H ig i S ch o o l
How t o S e r v e , How t o Buy,
Canned Salmon* 22 pp*
L ib b y , M cNeil & L ib b y ,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s
N u t r i t i v e A s p e c ts o f Canned
Foods* 112 pp*
A m erican Can Company
S e t t i n g an A d eq u ate D i e t b y
Use o f Canned Foods ( f o l d e r )
A m erican Can Company
A l l About Canned Foods*
60 p p .
L ib b y , M cNeil and L ib b y ,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s
F a c ts a b o u t Canned F o o d s,
23 pp*
L ib b y , M cN eil and L ib b y ,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s
J u n io r H igh S c h o o l
4
The S to ry o f S alm on, 48 pp*
Am erican Can Company
W h a t's I n a Can o f F r u i t s ,
V e g e ta b le s , F is h ? 20 pp*
A m erican Can Company
The S to ry o f th e T in Can*
11 p p .
A m erican Can Company
More About Canned Foods f o r
th e Heme E conom ist* 38 pp*
A m erican Can Company
C om m ercially Canned Foods*
V pp.
A m erican Can Company
Canned Food F a c ts *
A m erican Can Company
VI pp*
81
Care o f t h e E ara
S e n io r S ig h S ch o o l
T itle
H earin g *
D is trib u to r
10 pp*
M e tr o p o lita n
C are o f th e Eyes
S e n io r H igh S c h o o l
S e e in g — a G uide t o th e
B e s t Use and C are o f th e
E yes* 32 pp*
B rooklyn H e a lth C o u n c il,
1313 B e d fo rd A venue,
B ro o k ly n , New York
C are o f th e eyes*
M e tr o p o lita n
E yes*
12 pp*
18 pp*
G u ild o f P r e s c r i p t i o n
O p tic ia n s o f A m erica,
I n c * , B a ile y B u ild in g ,
P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y lv a n ia
E yes and A t h l e t i c s
(fo ld e r)
N a tio n a l S o c ie ty f o r t h e
P r e v e n tio n o f B lin d n e s s ,
I n c * , 50 W est 5 0 th S t r e e t ,
New Y ork C ity
J u n io r H igh S ch o o l
L ig h t C o n d itio n Your Home*
20 pp*
I*E*S* B e t t e r S ig h t Lamp
M a k ers, 2116 B*F* K e ith
B u i ld i n g , C le v e la n d ,
Ohio
L ig h t I n t h e Home, b y Dr*
Howard H aggard* 64 pp*
W estlnghouse Lamp Com­
pany, P itts b u rg h ,
P e n n s y lv a n ia
C are o f t h e T e e th
T e a c h e rs
N u t r i t i o n and D e n ta l C a rie s *
4 pp.
A m erican P u b lic H e a lth
A s s o c ia t io n , 50 W est
5 0 th S t r e e t , New York
82
T itle
The R o le o f V ita m in D i n t h e
C o n tro l o f D e n ta l C a rie s i n
C h ild re n * 16 pp*
D is trib u to r
B u reau o f P u b lic R e la ­
t i o n s , V ite x L a b o r a t o r i e s ,
I n c * , H a r r is o n , New J e r s e y
J u n io r H igh S ch o o l
Good T e e th a t A l l Ages*
16 pp*
M e tr o p o lita n
B e t t e r T e e th , B e t t e r H e a lth
v i t h M ilk-M ade Foods* 16 pp*
I r r a d i a t e d E v a p o ra te d
M ilk I n s t i t u t e
The C are o f t h e T e e th ,
20 p p .
Church and Dwight Company,
70 P in e S t r e e t , New York
C ity
Mouth H e a lth , 15 pp*
L a c to n a , I n c * , St* P u u l,
M in n eso ta
V itam in D and D e n ta l D ecay,
a D ig e s t o f F a c ts and
O p in io n s (m im eo g rap h ed )•
12 p p .
B ureau o f P u b lic R e la ­
t i o n s , V ite x L a b o r a t o r i e s ,
I n c * , H a r r is o n , New J e r s e y
The Im p o rta n c e o f V ita m in D
t o D e n tis tr y * 28 pp*
W isco n sin Alumni R e s e a rc h
F o u n d a tio n , M ad iso n ,
W isco n sin
The D ie t and D e n ta l D is e a s e
(fo ld e r)
N a tio n a l L iv e S to ck and
Meat B oard
C are o f th e S ic k
Jtan lo r H igh S c h o o l
C a rin g f o r t h e S ic k i n th e
Home* 30 pp*
John Hancock
D iv e r s io n s f o r t h e S ick*
32 pp*
John Hancock
C h ild C are and I n f a n t F e e d in g
T ea ch e rs
P ro c e e d in g s o f C o n fe re n ce
on B e t t e r C are f o r M others
and B a b ie s , #246* 25 pp*
C h i l d r e n 's B ureau
D ep artm en t o f L abor
83
T itle
D is trib u to r
The M a te rn a l an d C h ild W e lfa re Program and t h e T ask
Ahead* R e p rin t* 3 pp*
C h i l d r e n 's B u reau
N u t r i t i o n a l C h a rts * 35 pp*
H .J* H einz Company
V ita m in C hart*
A b b o tt L a b o r a to r ie s *
N o rth C hicago* I l l i n o i s *
14 pp*
S e n io r H igh S ch o o l
C a lo r ic C o n ten t o f H einz
P ro d u c ts * (P o ld e r)
H ,J * H einz Company
H einz S t r a in e d Foods*
12 p p .
H .J* H einz Company
A C r i t i c a l Review o f t h e
P r e p a r a t io n o f S o l i d Poods
f o r I n f a n t s * 32 pp*
L ib b y , M cN eill and L ib b y ,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s
I n f a n t N u tritio n *
N a tio n a l D a iry C o u n c il,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s
7 pp*
The P a c ts About C e r t i f i e d
M ilk* 14 pp*
A m erican A s s o c ia tio n o f
M e d io a l M ilk C om m issions,
1265 B roadw ay, New York
C ity
The Baby*
M e tr o p o lita n
32 pp*
H e lp f u l S u g g e stio n s f o r th e
C are o f t h e Baby - - Home
N u rs in g S e r ie s #1* 7 pp*
M e tr o p o lita n
S oapsuds Enema ( f o l d e r )
Home N u rs in g S e r i e s #9
M e tr o p o lita n
T o n s ils and A denoids
(P o ld e r)
M e tr o p o lita n
Good H h b lts f o r C h ild re n *
16 pp*
M e tr o p o lita n
Out o f Babyhood i n t o C h ild ­
hood* 26 pp*
M e tr o p o lita n
Foods f o r Baby*
29 pp*
G e rb e r P ro d u c ts Company,
P re e m o n t, M ichigan
84
T itle
B a b y 's B ook.
D is trib u to r
G e rb e r P ro d u o ts Company,
F re em o n t, M ich ig an
32 p p .
I n f a n t N u t r i t i o n S tu d e n ts
H andbook. 4 p p .
G e rb e r P ro d u c ts Company,
F re em o n t, M ichigan
Your B a b y 's C a re .
John Hancock
32 p p .
M ilk Foods and D a riy P ro ­
d u c ts (L esso n f o r s t u d e n ts )
( F o ld e r )
The " J u n k e t F o lk s"
L i t t l e F a l l s , New York
Your B a b y 's F i r s t V e g e ta b le s
and F r u i t s . 23 p p .
L ib b y , M c N e ill and L ib b y ,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s
H e lp in g Baby Grow B ig and
S tr o n g . 20 p p .
L ib b y , M cN eill a n d L ib b y ,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s
The C h i l d 's D ie t ( f o l d e r )
N a tio n a l L iv e S to c k and
Meat B oard
Why D rin k M ilk ? M ilk i s
th e I n d is p e n s a b le Food f o r
C h ild r e n . 8 p p .
Why W alker-G ordon?
14 p p .
C h i l d r e n 's B ureau
The B orden Company,
New Y ork C ity
A p p ly in g N u rs e ry S c h o o l
M ethods o f C h ild T r a in in g
i n t h e Home. 40 p p .
K ansas S t a t e A g r i c u l t u r a l
C o lle g e , M a n h a tta n , K ansas
Good H a b its f o r C h ild r e n .
16 p p .
M e tr o p o lita n
F a c ts a b o u t C h ild H e a l t h .
6 pp.
C h i l d r e n 's B ureau
F a c ts a b o u t M a te rn a l and
E a r l y I n f a n t C a re . 4 p p .
C h i l d r e n 's B ureau
J u n i o r H lg i S chool
A p p roxim ate C o m p o sitio n o f
M ilk , Cream an d " J u n k e t"
R en n et P r o d u c t s . 4 p p .
N u t r i t i v e and T h e r a p e u tic
V alu es o f t h e B an an a. 143 p p .
The " J u n k e t" F o lk s
L i t t l e F a l l s , New York
U n ite d F r u i t Company
85
D is trib u to r
T itle
N u t r i t i v e A sp e c ts o f Canned
Foods* 112 pp*
A m erican Can Company
The P h y s ic ia n and Our D a ily
B read* 19 pp*
A m erican I n s t i t u t e o f
B a k in g , 9 R o c k e f e lle r
P l a z a , New York C ity
A S tu d y o f t h e Banana*
16 pp*
U n ite d F r u i t Company
The S to r y o f M a lte x C e re a l
(fo ld e r)
The M alt ex Company, In c*
N u t r i t i o n i n C h ild h o o d ,
#654* 10 p p .
P u b lic H e a lth S e r v ic e
C o ff e e . T e a . Cocoa i n N u t r i t i o n
S e n io r H igh S ch o o l
The S to ry o f C o ffee*
39 p p .
A m erican Can Company
My V i s i t t o a C o ffee P la n ­
t a t i o n i n Colom bia* 7 pp*
B eech-N ut P a c k in g Company,
C a n a jo h a r ie , New York
T h is Cup o f Good C o ffe e
3 pp*
A m erican Can Company
T e a c h in g th e C o ffee
L esson* 6 pp*
A m erican Can Company
J u n io r H igh S c h o o l
C h o c o la te , The S to ry o f
Cocoa (W all C h a rt)
H ersh ey C h o c o la te Cor­
p o r a t i o n , H e rsh e y ,
P e n n s y lv a n ia
The S to r y o f C h o c o la te and
Cocoa* 20 pp*
H e rsh e y C h o c o la te Cor­
p o r a t i o n , H e rsh e y ,
Penns y b v a n ia
86
E x e r c is e f o r H e a lth y L iv in g
S e n io r H igh S ch o o l
T itle
D is t r i b u t o r
S tr o n g B o d ie s , Sound
M inds* 17 p p .
P r u d e n t ia l
E x e r c is e and D ie t i n W eight C o n tro l
S e n io r H igh S c h o o l
O verw eight and U nder­
w e ig h t. 32 p p .
M e tr o p o lita n
W a is tlin e s .
John Hancock
20 p p .
J u n io r H igh S ch o o l
K eeping P i t th ro u g h E x er­
c i s e . 22 p p .
M e tr o p o lita n
H eaL th th r o u g h E x e r c is e .
16 p p .
P ru d e n tia l
F i r s t A id
J u n io r H igh S ch o o l
M ercuroehrom e — i t s Use
i n F i r s t A id . 17 p p .
H ynson, W e s tc o tt a n d
D u n n in g , I n c . , B a ltim o r e ,
M aryland
F i r s t A id .
M e tr o p o lita n
25 p p .
A r t i f i c i a l R e s p r i a t io n
15 p p .
M e tr o p o lita n
F i r s t A id .
P r u d e n t ia l
32 p p .
When t h e U n ex p ected Hap­
p e n s , F i r s t A id . 31 p p .
John Hancock
87
T itle
D is trib u to r
The Home M ed icin e C a b in e t
22 p p .
Consumers* P r o j e c t , U n ite d
S t a t e s D epartm ent o f L a b o r,
W a sh in g to n , D* C*
Pood V a lu e s * E a tin g and Food H a b its
T e a c h e rs
N u t r i t i o n and t h e Im p o rt­
an ce o f M eat* 44 pp*
N a tio n a l L ive S to c k and
M eat B oard
S a rd in e s *
D e p artm en t o f Commerce,
B u reau o f F i d i a r i e s ,
W a sh in g to n , D* C*
15 pp*
S e n io r H igh S ch o o l
T h ree M eals a Day*
14 pp*
P ru d e n tia l
What t o E a t , 15 pp*
Pood a f t e r F o rty *
P la n n in g M eals*
M e tr o p o lita n
12 p p .
14 pp*
F e e d in g a F a m ily a t Low
C o st
P ru d e n tia l
Jo h n Hancock
E v a p o ra te d M ilk
A s s o c ia tio n
F u n c tio n a l D is e a s e s
S e n io r H igh S ch o o l
S im ple G o ite r ( f o l d e r )
M e tr o p o lita n
P e l l a g r a , I t s N a tu re and
P re v e n tio n * 8 pp*
P u b lic H e a lth S e r v ic e
P e lla g ra ( f o ld e r )
M e tr o p o lita n
A p p e n d ic itis *
John Hanoock
5 pp*
A p p e n d ic itis * ( f o l d e r )
M e tr o p o lita n
88
T itle
D is trib u to r
What i s Rheum atism ?
C o n cern in g D ia b e te s *
D ia b e te s *
C ancer*
12 pp*
11 pp*
M e tr o p o lita n
John Hancock
M e tr o p o lita n
8 pp*
John Hancock
12 pp*
A M essage o f Hope ab o u t
C ancer ( f o l d e r )
M e tr o p o lita n
C an cer Must Be C ured E a r l y
(fo ld e r)
M e tr o p o lita n
H e a t, E x h a u s tio n and Sun­
s tro k e (f o ld e r )
M e tr o p o lita n
G e n e ra l H e a lth Informafc io n
T e a c h e rs
H e a lth E d u c a tio n * 55 pp*
M e tro p o lita n
H e a lth Program s*
47 pp*
M e tr o p o lita n
T ea ch in g H e a lth *
13 pp*
M e tr o p o lita n
The T e a c h e r 's H e a lth *
32 pp*
M e tr o p o lita n
The N a tu re o f B a c te r ia *
58 pp*
M e tro p o lita n
T w e n ty -fiv e Y ears o f L i f e
C o n se rv a tio n * 48 pp*
M e tr o p o lita n
C onsum ers' C o u n sel S e r i e s
P u b l i c a t io n #1j Consumers* S e r­
v ic e s o f Government A g e n c ie s ,
A C om plete Ind ex *
A*A*A* C onsum ers'
C ounsel D i v i s i o n ,
W ash in g to n , D* C*
S e n io r H igh S ch o o l
R e p r in ts from C onsum ers' G uide:
1* Do You Buy b y C o lo r?
2* F r e s h P o u l t r y C a le n d a r
3* B read F a c ts f o r Consumers
A* A* A* C onsum er's
C ounsel D iv is io n
W ash in g to n , D* C*
89
4*
5.
6*
7.
8.
9.
T itle
Meat G rades a t Your S e r v ic e
New R u le s f o r Pood and D rugs
U nder t h e P u rp le Stamp
Do You Know Your Egg Laws?
A ll Y ear F r u i t G uide
How Cans Compare
D is trib u to r
H e a lth B u l l e t i n f o r T e a c h e rs
( i s s u e d m o n th ly )
M e tr o p o lita n
H e a lth B u l l e t i n f o r P a r e n ts
( is s u e d m o n th ly )
M e tr o p o lita n
The J u n io r H igh S ch o o l
H e a lth B u l l e t i n f o r Boys and G i r l s
M e tr o p o lita n
( i s s u e d m o n th ly )
The H e a lth y S c h o o l C h ild .
12 p p .
John Hancock
I n t e m e d i a t e G rades
M other G o o se.
21 p p .
M e tr o p o lita n
Prlm gy G rades
A»B. C•
M e tr o p o lita n
15 p p .
Good P o s tu re
S e n io r H igh S chool
Good P o s tu re i s an A id
t o Good H e a lth ( f o l d e r )
S . H . Camp and Com­
p a n y , J a c k s o n , M ich ig an
S ta n d in g Up t o L if e
M e tr o p o lita n
H i s t o r y o f H e a lth E d u c a tio n
T e a c h e rs
B io g r a p h ic a l and S c ie n ­
t i f i c M a t e r i a l In H e a lth
T e a c h in g . 48 p p .
M e tr o p o lita n
90
T itle
D is trib u to r
S e n io r High. S ch o o l
H e a lth th ro u g h th e A g e s.
64 p p .
M e tr o p o lita n
J u n io r H igh S chool
H e a lth H e ro e s :
L o u is P a s t e u r . 32 p p .
F lo re n c e N i g h t i n g a l e . 24 p p .
R o b e rt K ooh. 30 p p .
Edward L iv in g s to n T ru d e a u .
24 p p .
W a lte r R eed . 24 p p .
M e tr o p o lita n
I n f o r m a tio n f o r E x p e c ta n t M o th ers
T e a c h e rs
A Review o f R e c e n t Work on
D ie ta r y R e q u ire m e n ts i n P re g ­
n a n c y an d L a c ta tio n * w ith an
a tte m p t t o A sse ss Human Re­
q u ire m e n ts* V ol 5 , 1 9 3 5 -3 6 ,
33 p p .
C h ild r e n ’ s B ureau
S e n io r H lrii S ch o o l
In f o r m a tio n f o r E x p e c ta n t
M o th e rs. 48 p p .
M e tr o p o lita n
F a c ts About M a te r n a l and
E a r ly I n f a n t C are (m lm eo.)
4 pp.
C h ild r e n ’ s B ureau
To E x p e c ta n t M others — A
Good D ie t W ill S u p p ly Your
Needs and Your B ab y * s.
( P o s t e r , 20 x 3 0 ")
C h ild r e n ’ s B ureau
D ie t D u rin g P reg n an cy
(fo ld e r)
N a tio n a l L iv e S to ck and
M eat B oard
91
M e n tal H ygiene
S e n io r H igh S chool
T itle
D is trib u to r
C o n cern in g th e B e t t e r H a lf
o f L ife * 13 pp*
John Hancock
L iv in g th e H e a lth y L if e *
16 pp*
John Hancock
T ak in g Your B e a rin g s *
M e tr o p o lita n
10 p p .
H e a lth y H a p p in e ss and Long
L ife * 23 pp*
M e tr o p o lita n
Good H a b its f o r C h ild re n *
15 pp*
M e tr o p o lita n
M ilk I n n u t r i t i o n
T e a c h e rs
M ilk*
63 pp*
B o rd e n 's Faxra P r o d u c ts ,
110 Hudson S t r e e t , New
Y ork C ity
I r r a d i a t e d E v a p o ra te d M ilk*
15 pp*
W isc o n sin Alumni R e se a rc h
F o u n d a tio n , M ad iso n ,
Wis c o n s in
S ta te m e n ts C o n c ern in g
E v a p o ra te d M ilk ( f o l d e r )
E v a p o ra te d M ilk As so e l a ­
tio n
T e s tin g I r r a d i a t e d Evap­
o r a t e d M ilk f o r V itam in MD"
(fo ld e r)
W isco n sin Alumni R e s e a rc h
F o u n d a tio n , M ad iso n ,
W isoonsln
M ilk Foods a n d D a iry P ro ­
d u c ts (L esso n M a t e r i a l f o r
E d u c a to rs ) * 31 pp*
The " J u n k e t” F o l k s ,
L i t t l e F a l l s , New York
M ilk F a c ts ( s t a t i s t i c s )
29 pp*
M ilk I n d u s t r y F o u n d a tio n ,
C h ry s le r B u ild in g , New
Y ork C ity
92
T itle
D is trib u to r
S e n io r High S cho ol
E v a p o ra te d M ilk - P ure
Cows M ilk - p o s t e r
E v a p o ra te d M ilk A s s o c ia ­
tio n
The P a c ts About C e r t i f i e d
M ilk* 14 pp*
A m erican A s s o c ia tio n o f
M ed ical M ilk C om m issions,
1265 B roadw ay, New York
C ity
The S to r y o f I r r a d i a t e d
E v a p o ra te d M ilk i n o u r
Supper* 16 pp*
I r r a d i a t e d E v a p o ra te d
M ilk I n s t i t u t e
M ilk f o r M illio n s *
M ilk I n d u s t r y F o u n d a tio n ,
C h ry s le r B u ild in g , New
York C ity
20 pp*
Herdsm en o f H e a lth *
12 pp*
M ilk I n d u s t r y F o u n d a tio n ,
C h r y s le r B u i ld i n g , New
York C ity
M ilk I n d u s t r y News*
12 pp*
M ilk I n d u s t r y F o u n d a tio n ,
C h ry s le r B u ild in g , New
York C ity
R e p o rt to t h e P r e s i d e n t on
C heese (p am p h let #21)
U .S . T a r i f f C om m ission,
Second s e r i e s 1937
C h eese: A T r e a t i s e on th e
M a n u fa c tu re o f A m erican
C heddar and Some O th e r V a rie ­
tie s
Van S ly k e and P r i c e
Orange Judd P u b lis h in g
Company, 15 E a s t 2 6 th
S t r e e t , New York C ity
Romance o f Cheese
K r a f t Cheese C o r p o r a tio n ,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s
E v a p o ra te d M ilk - What I t
I s and How I t I s Made*
P o s te r — c o lo r .
E v a p o ra te d M ilk A s s o c ia ­
tio n
R o q u e fo rt*
18 pp*
Buchanan and Company, In c*
919 N* M ichigan A venue,
C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s
J u n i o r H igh S ch o o l
A p p ro x im ate C o m p o sitio n of
M ilk , Cream and nJ u n k e tn
R e n n e t P ro d u c ts * 4 pp*
The nJ u n k e t" F o l k s ,
L i t t l e F a l l s , New York
93
T itle
D is trib u to r
The S to r y o f I r r a d i a t e d
P e t M ilk ( f o l d e r )
P e t M ilk Company, S t*
L o u is , M is s o u ri
I r r a d i a t e d E v a p o ra te d
M ilk (C o lo r P o s te r )
I r r a d i a t e d E v a p o ra te d
M ilk I n s t i t u t e
N a r c o tic s and Tobacco
T e a c h e rs
I n f lu e n c e o f H y g ro sco p io
A gents on I r r i t a t i o n from
C i g a r e t t e Smoke* 7 p p .
P h i l i p M o rris and Company,
L t d . , I n c . , 119 F i f t h
A venue, New York C ity
P e r s o n a l H ygiene
T e a c h e rs
Sex E d u c a tio n , # 8 6 .
58
pp.
P u b lic H e a lth S e r v ic e
S e n io r H igh S chool
H e a lth Happy Womanhood
( b u l l e t i n #60)
P u b lic H e a lth S e r v ic e
M ale:
K eeping F i t .
F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y Agency
20 p p .
S le e p
S e n io r H igh S ch o o l
S le e p .
8 pp.
S le e p , t h e R e s t o r e r .
M e tr o p o lita n
23 p p .
John Hancock
d
'. I
94
The C o n tro l o f Communicable D is e a s e s
S e n io r H lg l S c h o o l
T itle
D is trib u to r
T h at Mean Cold* 11 pp*
Jo h n Hancock
T u b e r c u lo s is *
M e tr o p o lita n
10 pp*
Your E r le n d , t h e H e a lth
O f f ic e r* 14 pp*
John Hancock
Home C are o f Communicable
D is e a s e s * 31 pp*
John Hancock
A bout T u b e r c u lo s is *
John Hancock
16 pp*
Pneum onia - - I t s Care a n d
P r e v e n tio n * 12 pp*
John Hancock
P r e v e n tin g D i p h t h e r i a .
6 pp*
John Hancock
I t ' s Only M easles* 6 p p .
John Hancock
S c a rle t F e v e r.
John Hancock
Whooping Cough*
6 pp.
6 pp*
John Hancock
C o ld s , I n f l u e n z a ,
Pneumonia* 14 pp*
M e tr o p o lita n
The C onquest o f T yphoid
F ev er* 7 pp*
M e tr o p o lita n
Hookworm D is e a s e ( f o l d e r )
M e tr o p o lita n
S c a rle t F ever (fo ld e r)
M e tr o p o lita n
M e a sle s ( f o l d e r )
M e tr o p o lita n
M a la ria (A gue, C h i l l s and
F e v e r ) . 7 pp*
M e tr o p o lita n
I n f a n tile P a ra ly s is (fo ld e r)
M e tr o p o lita n
D ip h th e r ia ( f o l d e r )
M e tr o p o lita n
C o ld s , I n f l u e n z a , Pneumona*
8 pp.
M e tr o p o lita n
95
T itle
D is trib u to r
Whooping Cough ( f o l d e r )
M e tr o p o lita n
The G re a t I m i t a t o r
(P am phlet on S y p h i l i s ) * 14 pp*
M e tr o p o lita n
The V a lu e s o f F r u i t s i n N u t r i t i o n
T e a c h e rs
The S to r y o f D rie d F r u i t s
w ith Cookery L esson* IS pp*
N u t r i t i v e and T h e r a p e u tic
V a lu es o f t h e Banana* 143 pp*
C a l i f o r n i a D rie d F r u i t
R e s e a rc h I n s t i t u t e , 1
Drumm S t r e e t , San F r a n c i s c o ,
C a lifo rn ia
U n ite d F r u i t Company
J u n io r H i^h S ch o o l
Sunsw eet*
C a l i f o r n i a P ru n e and
A p r ic o t G row ers A s so c ia ­
t i o n , 1 Drumm S t r e e t ,
San F r a n c i s c o , C a li f o r n i a
44 p p .
Answers to Q u e s tio n s F re ­
q u e n tly A sked d>out B ananas*
(fo ld e r)
U n ite d F r u i t Company
B ananas*
U n ite d F r u i t Company
21 pp*
Som ething ab o u t B ananas*
(fo ld e r)
U n ite d F r u i t Company
The S to ry o f th e Banana*
56 pp*
U n ite d F r u i t Company
A S tu d y o f t h e Banana*
16 pp*
B ananas (C h a rt show ing fo o d
v a lu e )
U n ite d F r u i t Company
U n ite d F r u i t Company
I n t e r m e d i a t e G rades
R ad io Bound f o r B anana
Land* 43 pp*
U n ite d P T u it Company
96
T itle
D is trib u to r
A U n it on th e B anana ( f o l d e r )
U n ite d F r u i t
Company
B ananas and M ilk ; Good Team­
m ates ( c o lo r e d c h a r t )
U n ite d F r u i t
Company
F re e G u ides t o P r i n t e d H e a lth M a t e r l a l s
G uides t o f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s a r e p u b lis h e d by
many a g e n c ie s *
T hese b i b l i o g r a p h i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f r e e *
T e a c h e rs v i l l f i n d them t o b e a n e a s y g u id e t o w h a te v e r ma­
t e r i a l s t h e y may w ish o r r e q u i r e *
T hese in c lu d e :
H e a lth E d u c a tio n P u b l i c a t i o n s ; N a tio n a l Educa­
t i o n A s s o c ia tio n o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s , 1201
S i x t e e n t h S t r e e t , N*W*, W a sh in g to n , D* C*
H e a lth E d u c a tio n M a t e r i a l f o r T e a c h e rs ; Ameri­
c an A s s o c ia tio n of H e a lth and P h y s ic a l E duca­
t i o n o f th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n ,
W ash in g to n , D* C*
U n ite d S t a t e s Government P u b l i c a t io n s on
H e a l t h , P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n , and R e c r e a tio n ,
B ib lio g r a p h y No* 61; U n ite d S t a te s Government
P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a sh in g to n , D* C*
A d v iso ry Com m ittee on U ltim a te Consumer G oods,
A m erican S ta n d a rd s A s s o c ia t io n , 29 West 3 9 th
S t r e e t , New Y o rk , New York*
G e n e ra l F e d e r a tio n o f Women's C lu b s, 1734 N*
S t r e e t , W ash in g to n , D . C*
B u reau o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E co n o m ics, D epartm ent
o f A g r i c u l t u r e , W a sh in g to n , D* C*
C onsum ers' C o u n sel of t h e N a tio n a l B itu m in o u s
C oal C om m ission, D ep artm en t of I n t e r i o r ,
W a sh in g to n , D* C*
Consumer D i v i s i o n , The C ro w ell P u b lis h in g Com­
p a n y , 250 P a rk A venue, New Y ork C ity *
i
£
97
Consumers* G u id e , C onsum ers' C ounsel o f t h e
A g r i c u l t u r a l A d ju stm en t A d m i n is tr a t io n ,
W ash in g to n , D . C.
Some P u b lic H e a lth S e r v ic e P u b l i c a t io n s Suit-*
a b le f o r G e n e ra l D i s t r i b u t i o n ( l i s t b ro u g h t
u p - t o - d a t e s e m i- a n n u a lly ) ; U n ite d S t a t e s D e p a rt­
m ent o f P u b lic H e a lth , W a sh in g to n , D. C.
H e a lth — D i s e a s e s , D rugs and S a n i t a t i o n ; S u p er­
i n te n d e n t o f D ocum ents, U n ite d S t a t e s Government
P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W ash in g to n , D# C.
H e a lth E d u c a tio n i n E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls ; A B r ie f
B ib lio g r a p h y f o r t h e C lassroom T e a c h e r; Ameri­
can A s s o c ia tio n o f H e a lth , P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n
and R e c r e a t io n , W ash in g to n , D. C.
A B r i e f B ib lio g r a p h y f o r A d m in is tr a to r s and
I n s t r u c t o r s o f H e a lth E d u c a tio n i n J u n io r and
S e n io r H igh S c h o o ls ; A m erican A s s o c ia tio n o f
H e a l t h , P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n and R e c r e a t io n ,
W ash in g to n , D . C.
Some P u b lic H e a lth S e r v ic e P u b l i c a t i o n s S u i t ­
a b le f o r G e n e ra l D i s t r i b u t i o n ; F e d e ra l S e c u r ity
A gency, W a sh in g to n , D . C.
The B ureau o f P u b lic R e l a t i o n s ; A m erican DentdL
A s s o c ia t io n , 212 E« S u p e r io r S t r e e t , C h ic a g o ,
Illin o is •
H e a lth P u b l i c a t i o n s ; t h e A m erican M e d ic a l A sso­
c i a t i o n , 535 N o rth D earb o rn S t r e e t , C h ic a g o ,
Illin o is .
The Normal D ie t; ( a v a i l a b l e S e p te m b e r, 1 9 3 9 ),
A m erican M e d ica l A s s o c i a t i o n , 535 N o rth D e ar­
b o rn S t r e e t , C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
P a r t i a l B ib lio g r a p h y of Books and Im p o rta n t
A r t i c l e s R e la te d t o t h e Economic P roblem s o f th e
C onsum er, Consumers* R e s e a r c h , W ash in g to n , N . J .
C a t& o g o f H e a lth L i t e r a t u r e , The M e tr o p o lita n
L if e I n s u r a n c e Company, 1 M adison A venue, New
York C ity
Memorandum on H e a lth P u b l i c a t i o n s ; John Hancock
M u tu al L if e I n s u r a n c e Company, B o s to n , M assa­
c h u s e tts .
98
L i s t o f A v a ila b le M a t e r i a l ; A m erican S o c ie ty
f o r t h e C o n tro l o f C a n c e r, R o c k e f e ll e r C e n te r ,
New York C i ty .
E d u c a tio n a l M a t e r i a l ; B u reau o f N u t r i t i o n ,
B orden*s Farm P r o d u c ts , 110 Hudson S t r e e t , New
York C i ty .
A B uying G uide: Good H o usekeeping I n s t i t u t e ,
5 7 th S t r e e t a t E ig h th A venue, New Y ork C i ty .
A R e fe re n c e Key and S u b je c t- M a tte r In d e x ,
Good H ousekeeping I n s t i t u t e , 5 7 th S t r e e t a t
E ig h th A venue, New York C i t y .
H e a lth P la y s f o r S ch o o l U se; A m erican A s s o c ia ­
t i o n o f H e a lth , P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n and R e c re a ­
t i o n , W ash in g to n , D. C.
H e a lth E d u c a tio n i n th e R u r a l S c h o o l; A m erican
A s s o c ia tio n o f H e a lth , P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n , and
R e c r e a t io n , W ash in g to n , D . C.
R e fe re n c e s on C h ild C are and T r a in in g f o r
T e a c h e r and P a r e n t G roups; A m erican A s s o c ia tio n
o f H e a lth , P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n and R e c r e a t io n ,
W ash in g to n , D . C.
Some R e fe re n c e s on th e S ch o o l L unch; A m erican
A s s o c ia tio n o f H e a lth , P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n and
R e c r e a tio n , W ash in g to n , D. C.
L i s t o f P r i n t e d P u b l i c a t i o n s ; B u re au o f Home
E co n o m ics, U n ite d S t a t e s D e p artm en t o f A g r ic u l­
t u r e , W ash in g to n , D. C.
S u g g e s tio n s f o r S e l e c ti n g a B a la n c e d D i e t;
B ureau o f Home E conom ics, U n ite d S t a t e s D e p a rt­
m ent o f A g r i c u l t u r e , W ash in g to n , D. C.
L i s t o f A v a ila b le P u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s D ep artm en t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , M is c e lla n e o u s
P u b l i c a t io n N o. 60; U n ite d S t a t e s D epartm ent o f
A g r i c u l t u r e , W ash in g to n , D . C.
P u b l i c a t io n s o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s D ep artm en t o f
t h e I n t e r i o r , O f f ic e o f E d u c a tio n , U n ite d S t a t e s
D ep artm en t o f th e I n t e r i o r , W a sh in g to n , D. C.
S e le c te d L i s t o f P u b lic a t i on s-j C h ild r e n ’ s B u re au ,
U n ite d S t a t e s D epartm ent o f L a b o r, W ashington,
D. C.
:?
99
A C l a s s i f i e d L i s t o f S o c i a l H ygiene P a m p h le ts;
The A m erican S o c i a l H ygiene A s s o c ia t io n , I n c . ,
50 W est 5 0 th S t r e e t , New Y ork C i t y .
E l i z a b e t h McCormick M em orial F u n d , 848 N o rth
D e arb o rn S t r e e t , C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s *
The Canned Food Handbook; A m erican Can Company,
230 P a rk A venue, New Y ork C i t y ,
L i s t o f F re e M a t e r i a l f o r S c h o o l U se; E d u c a tio n a l
D e p a rtm e n t, U n ite d F r u i t Company, 1 F e d e r a l S t r e e t ,
B o sto n , M a s s a c h u s e tts ,
N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n f o r th e P r e v e n tio n o f B lin d ­
n e s s , 50 W est 5 0 th S t r e e t , New York C ity *
N a tio n a l C o n g re ss o f P a r e n ts and T e a c h e r s ,
1201 S i x t e e n t h S t r e e t , N.W*, W a sh in g to n , D* C ,
R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a tio n , 130 E a s t 22nd S t r e e t ,
New Y ork C ity *
A m erican Home E conom ics A s s o c ia t io n , 620 M ills
B u ild in g , W ash in g to n , D* C*
P u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s D epartm ent
o f t h e I n t e r i o r , O f f ic e o f E d u c a tio n * R e v is e d ,
1939* O f f ic e o f E d u c a tio n , W ashington* ( B u lle ­
t i n s , P a m p h le ts , L e a f l e t s , R e fe re n c e B i b l i o ­
g r a p h ie s ) •
An A n n o ta te d L i s t f o r A d u lt S tu d y G roups and
T ea c h e rs* P re p a re d by t h e I n f o r m a tio n a l S e r v i c e ,
D iv is io n o f S a n i t a r y R e p o rts a n d S t a t i s t i c s ,
U* S* P u b lic H e a lth S e r v i c e , F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y
A gency, W a sh in g to n , D* C*
D ir e o to r y o f G overnm ental Consumer S e r v ic e s a n d
A g e n c ie s , O f f ic e o f t h e Consum er A d v is e r , The Ad­
v i s o r y Com m ission t o t h e C o u n c il o f N a t io n a l De­
f e n s e , W a sh in g to n , D* C*
N a t io n a l T u b e r c u lo s is A s s o c ia tio n P u b l i c a t i o n s ,
50 W est 5 0 th S t r e e t , New Y ork C ity *
A m erican S o c ie ty f o r S o c i a l H y g ie n e, 50 W est 5 0 th
S t r e e t , New Y ork C ity *
A s s o c ia tio n f o r t h e H ard o f H e a rin g , 50 West 5 0 th
S t r e e t , New Y ork C ity *
CHAPTER V II
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
C o n c lu s io n s
To r e - s t a t e t h e p ro b lem an d su b -p ro b le m s i n c o n c l u s i o n ,
t h e r e f o r e , e . g . (1 ) t o c o l l e c t and o rg a n iz e f o r e f f e c t i v e
s c h o o l u s e f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s i n h e a l t h e d u c a tio n ; (2) t o
s e t up a m ethod o f e v a l u a t i o n , f o r a c c u ra c y o f s ta te m e n t;
(5 ) t o e s t a b l i s h a s o u rc e o f in f o r m a tio n a b o u t e v a l u a t e d f r e e
p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s f o r u s e in h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n , I n t h e p u b lic
and p r i v a t e e le m e n ta r y , j u n i o r a n d s e n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s , t h e
a u th o r h a s t
1.
A ssem bled suoh f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s fro m a c o l ­
l e c t i o n a n d sa m p lin g o f 1 ,4 0 0 p i e c e s .
2.
P r e s e n te d an e v a l u a t i o n w i t h t h e a i d o f a u t h o r i ­
t a t i v e e v a l u a t i n g a g e n c ie s ; h a s a l s o em ployed a
j u r y t o ju d g e a n d d e te rm in e t h e m a t e r i a l s f o r g ra d e
p la c e m e n t an d w i l l c o n tin u e t o em ploy su c h a j u r y
i n f u t u r e e d i t i o n s o f t h i s w o rk , p r o b a b ly a n n u a lly
o r s e m i- a n n u a lly , s i n c e th e n e e d s f o r a m p l i f i c a ­
t i o n i n t h i s ty p e o f work a r e o b v io u s .
3.
E s t a b l i s h e d a f i r s t s o u rc e o f su o h c o l l e c t e d ,
o r g a n iz e d and e v a lu a te d in f o r m a tio n f o r p e rs o n s
i n t e r e s t e d In. t h i s f i e l d o f r e s e a r c h an d s tu d y .
I n t h e e v e n t o f t h e d em ise o f a j u r y member, a d e q u a te
re p la c e m e n t w i l l be m ade.
A d d itio n s and a l t e r a t i o n s w i l l a l s o
b e made a c c o r d in g t o an y p e r s o n n e l o r b u re a u c h an g e s a s w i l l
o o o u r fro m tim e t o t i m e , i n - t h e p u b l l o , p r o f e s s i o n a l and
100
100a
p r i v a t e e v a l u a t i n g a g e n c ie s h e r e i n e n u m e ra te d , s in c e th e
a u th o r h a s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d perm anent c o n ta c t w i t h e a c h o f
t h e a g e n c i e s , s e t t i n g up a c lo s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w ith t h e s e o r ­
g a n i z a t i o n s , b a s e d upon a m u tu a l know ledge o f t h i s work fro m
i t 8 i n c e p t i o n u n t i l i t s f i r s t i n t e g r a t e d a p p e a ra n c e .
F a u l ty o r in a d e q u a te e d u o a tlo n h a s made t h e a v e ra g e
c i t i z e n a s o c i a l s h ip w ith o u t a n econom ic r u d d e r .
C ritic s
hav e s a i d t h a t e d u c a tio n h a s f a i l e d i n i t s e f f o r t s t o b e a p r o ­
c e s s , n o t o n ly o f a c q u i r i n g k n o w led g e, b u t a l s o o f m a s te r in g ,
i n h i s t o r i c a l s e q u e n c e , any a c c u m u la te d fu n d o f s k i l l s , con­
v e n tio n s a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s .
L i t t l e o r no a tte m p t h a s b een made i n t h e p a s t t o r e ­
l a t e e d u c a ti o n a l c o n te n t t o t h e l i f e o f t h e w o rld o u ts id e o f
th e s c h o o l , a lth o u g h th e t r e n d i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n h a s now d e ­
f i n i t e l y a p p e a re d .
O th e rw is e , t h e r e w ould n o t be law s a n d
r u l i n g s t o p r e v e n t an y c o n ta c t o f t h e s c h o o l w ith th e w o rld o f
b u s in e s s a n d i n d u s t r y .
le g is la tio n does.
T h i s , p r e c i s e l y , i s w hat a n t i - a d v e r t i s i n g
E d u c a tio n h a s o n ly p a r t i a l l y su c c e e d e d i n
t e a c h i n g t h a t p e o p le l i v e i n a p a r t i a l l y d y n a m ic, c o n s t a n t l y m oving w o rld .
T h is r e s e a r c h h a s s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h e a u t h o r 's p r o p o s i t i o n
e x p r e s s e d i n t h e n e e d f o r t h e s tu d y , v i z , , t h a t a d u l t s a r e woe­
f u l l y In a d e q u a te t o cope u n a id e d w i t h t h e i n d o c t r i n a t i n g
f o r c e s o f p ro p ag an d a and a d v e r t i s i n g .
T hese f o r c e s d e ­
te r m in e th e u l t i m a t e o h o lo e o f t h e consum er r a t h e r th a n t h e
c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f h i s econom ic n e e d s .
W ith t h e i n c l u s i o n o f
th e o b j e c t i v e o f o i t l z e n s h i p _ l n e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e , more
•$
I
101
and c o n tin u e d a t t e n t i o n m ust b e g iv e n t o t h e s tu d y o f p ro p a ­
g a n d a , s in c e c i v i c dynamism i s so d e e p ly a f f e c t e d b y i t .
Some
o f t h e b e s t p r i n t e d h e a l t h m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s stu d y
f a l l in to t h i s c a te g o ry .
The l i s t p r e s e n te d above may b e
u s e d a s a b e g in n in g f o r su c h a s tu d y w ith th e know ledge t h a t
t h e c la im s a n d copy a r e a c c e p te d b y r e p u t a b l e e v a l u a t i n g ag en ­
c i e s i n o u r so c io -e c o n o m ic a n d p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s .
The i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n w hich i s b e in g g iv e n to th e
p ro b lem o f t h e consum er i n c u r r e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s and i n academ ic
d i s c u s s i o n s , make c o g e n t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s problem i n
th e s c h o o ls .
The huge sums o f money s p e n t f o r p a te n t- m e d ic in e s
and t h e c o r r e s p o n d in g ly sm a ll p r o p o r tio n s p e n t f o r m e d ic a l c a re
a r e m a jo r i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e n e ed f o r t h e p ro fo u n d c o n s id e r a ­
t i o n o f consum er h e a l t h p ro b le m s .
The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s tu d y hav e d e f i n i t e i m p l i c a ti o n s
f o r e d u c a tio n , b u s i n e s s , t h e p r o f e s s i o n s and g o v e rn m e n ta l agen­
c ie s .
The u s e o f f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s i n t h e s c h o o l i s b a s e d
upon a so u n d , e c l e c t i c , p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a tio n i n c l u d i n g a l l
v a lu e s i n t h e i r b r o a d e s t c o m p re h e n sio n s.
1
The r e c e n t R e g e n ts ' I n q u i r y p o i n ts o u t
" th e d e s i r a ­
b i l i t y o f d e te r m in in g a d e f i n i t e g o a l f o r s e c o n d a ry e d u c a ti o n ."
2
T h ere i s an a d m is s io n t h a t
" t h e p r e s e n t e x p re s s e d aim s do n o t
r e o o g n iz e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f b e co m in g , and o f b e in g , a good
c itiz e n ."
I t a l s o c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t " th e edu­
c a t i o n a l sy ste m h a s n o t c a u g h t up w i t h t h e a c c u m u la tio n s o f
s c i e n t if i c f in d in g s ."
I n d u s t r y f i n d s i t p r o f i t a b l e t o k e ep
m a t e r i a l dynam ic and a u t h o r i t a t i v e r e g a r d in g i n v e n t i o n s .
1.
2.
T e x t-
The R e g e n ts I n q u i r y , H igh S c h o o l and L i f e . New Y ork: McGraw
H i l l, 1938, p . 261.
The R e g en ts I n q u i r y , E d u c a tio n f o r A m erican L i f e . New
Y ork: McGraw H i l l , 1 9 3 6 , p . 5 .
|
102
books can n e v e r be c u r r e n t In t h e i r i n f o r m a tio n .
E d u c a to r s ,
a s w e ll as o th e r s ,m u s t depend upon n e w s p a p e rs , m a g a z in e s , pam­
p h l e t s and t h e r a d i o f o r in f o r m a tio n o f t h i s t y p e .
The l i s t
o f f r e e p r i n t e d h e a l t h m a t e r i a l s p r o v id e s a so u rc e o f c u r r e n t
a u t h o r i t a t i v e In fo rm a tio n g le a n e d from a l l t h e s e s o u r c e s .
1.
E d u c a tio n .
I t i s e v i d e n t , fro m t h e r e s u l t s o f
t h i s s t u d y , t h a t e d u c a to r s a r e u s in g v a s t num bers o f f r e e
p rin te d m a te r ia ls .
The M e tr o p o lita n L if e In s u ra n c e Company,
a lo n e , h a s d i s t r i b u t e d 6 9 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 c o p ie s of b o o k le ts and pam­
p h le ts in 1937.
1938.
B r is to l- M y e r s d i s t r i b u t e d 4 0 ,0 0 0 c h a r t s in
The Government and th e many o th e r a g e n c ie s w hich have
m a t e r i a l f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n s w e l l t h e s e f i g u r e s t o a s tr o n o m ic a l
p ro p o rtio n s •
The flo w o f t h i s m a t e r i a l i s d e te rm in e d l a r g e l y by
t h e I n i t i a t o r s , r a t h e r t h a n b y th e r e c e i v e r s .
T h ere h a s b e en
n o ag en cy e s t a b l i s h e d f o r th e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h i s m a t e r i a l o r any
s o r t o f g u id e f o r s p e c i f i c u s e s .
The i n d i s c r i m i n a t e u se o f
su c h m a t e r i a l b y t e a c h e r s shows an u r g e n t n eed f o r i n - s e r v i c e
t r a i n i n g i n t h e f l e j .d of h e a l t h e d u c a ti o n and f o r a c r i t i c a l
e v a l u a t i o n o f h e a l t h p ro p a g a n d a /
T here i s much c o n fu s io n i n th e m inds o f c o n s c ie n tio u s
t e a c h e r s ab o u t th e use o f th e s e f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s .
On t h e
cne h a n d , t h e b u l l e t i n s o f C onsum ers' R e s e a rc h and C onsum ers'
U nion p ro v id e i n f onnat i o n , w h ile t h e m o tiv e pow er o f t h e b u s i ­
n e s s d o l l a r u s e s r a d i o , t h e new spaper and t h e p e r i o d i c a l in
e f f o r t s t o c o n v in c e c o n su m e rs-o f r e a l o r f a n c i e d c la im s .
Con­
103
sum ers n eed a g u id e th r o u g h t h i s c o n fu s in g m o rass o f c o n f l i c t ­
in g and u n o rg a n iz e d in f o r m a tio n i n o r d e r t h a t th e y may d e ­
te r m in e t r u t h and fa ls e h o o d *
The e v id e n c e t h a t e d u c a to rs m ust c a r e f u l l y fo r m u la te
t h e i r p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a tio n , econom ics and governm ent i s em­
p h a s iz e d by t h e f r e q u e n t c o n fe r e n c e s on consum er e d u c a tio n and
a s tu d y o f t h e i r p ro c e e d in g s *
T h is i s a l s o u p h e ld by a r t i c l e s
w r i t t e n b y b u s i n e s s m en, e d u c a to r s and th e l e a d e r s o f consum er
o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a s w e ll a s i n t h e r e p o r t s o f th e consum er i n ­
s t i t u t e s w hich a r e b e in g p u b lis h e d *
T h is p h ilo s o p h y m ust be
s t a t e d s u c c i n c t l y and d e f i n i t e l y i n te rm s o f e d u c a tio n a l v a lu e s
and a im s , so t h a t th e c o o r d in a te members o f t h e A m erican so ­
c i a l s t r u c t u r e may u n d e rs ta n d them*
F o r h ig h s c h o o l u se t h e r e a r e am ple f r e e p r i n t e d
h e a l t h m a t e r i a l s c o v e r in g a wide v a r i e t y o f h e a l t h t o p i c s and
s u b j e c t m a tte r*
T here i s a la c k o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s a t th e
j u n i o r h i g h and e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l le v e l*
Much o f t h e s e a v a i l ­
a b le h ig h s c h o o l m a t e r i a l s a r e n o t l i s t e d b e c a u s e e v a l u a t i o n s
o f th em have n o t b e e n p o s s ib l e w ith t h e f a c i l i t i e s o f th e s e ­
l e c t e d a g e n c ie s *
The g o v e rn m e n ta l a g e n c ie s a r e p r o v id in g a u t h o r i t a t i v e
f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e u se of th e consum er and t h e
e d u c a to r , b u t th e y a r e u n i n t e r e s t i n g , la c k in g th e e m o tio n a l
and s e n s u a l a p p e a l o f m a t e r i a l s is s u e d by l a r g e a d v e r t i s i n g
c o n c e rn s whose e x p e r t s know t h e i r p sy c h o lo g y b f e d u c a tio n - and u se i t I
They do n o t com pare f a v o r a b ly i n ty p o g ra p h y , i n
104
I l l u s t r a t i o n s o r I n "m ak e-u p ," w ith t h e a t t r a c t i v e a r t work
i n th e com m ercial m a t e r i a l s .
The a u t h e n t i c r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l s
o f th e governm ent a g e n c ie s s u f f e r b e c a u se o f t h i s la c k o f a t ­
t r a c t i v e n e s s ; y e t , th e y c o n v ey s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h .
T e a c h e rs s h o u ld su p p lem en t t h e i r t e a c h i n g o f t h e t r a ­
d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s b y m aking u se o f th e m a t e r i a l s a p p ro v e d by
su ch e v a l u a t i n g a g e n c ie s a s have b e e n l i s t e d i n t h i s s tu d y .
S in c e few n a t i o n a l l y a d v e r t i s e d t o o t h p a s t e s o r
pow ders c a r r y t h e s e a l o f a p p ro v a l o f th e Am erican D e n ta l As­
s o c i a t i o n , th e s e a l d o e s n o t y e t seem t o b e e f f e c t i v e among
c o n su m e rs.
A v e ry s m a ll num ber o f t h e n a t i o n a l l y a d v e r t i s e d
d e n t i f r i c e s have a p p li e d f o r A s s o c ia tio n a p p r o v a l.
One co n ­
c lu d e s t h a t consum ers n e e d t o b e e d u c a te d t o e x p e c t t h e p r o ­
t e c t i o n s e r v i c d o f th e Am erican D e n ta l A s s o c ia t io n .
Then
m a n u fa c tu re rs w o u ld , n e c e s s a r i l y , se ek t h i s a p p ro v a l f o r t h e i r
p r o d u c ts a n d t h e i r c la im s .
The v a lu e o f th e s e a l s o f a p p ro v a l o f t h e A m erican
M e d ic a l A s s o c ia tio n an d t h e A m erican D e n ta l A s s o c ia tio n would
be en h an ced by th e e d u c a ti o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r p r o t e c ­
t i v e v a lu e t o c o n su m e rs.
B o th a s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e i r s e r v i c e s
s h o u ld be d is c u s s e d i n c l a s s e s o f h e a l t h e d u c a tio n a s a p a r t
o f th e fu n d a m e n ta l e d u c a ti o n o f a co n su m er.
E d u c a to rs s h o u ld c o o p e r a te w ith b u s i n e s s .
T h ere i s
l i t t l e n e e d f o r books w h ich a t t a c k b u s in e s s i n s c h o o l.
The
in c r e a s e i n se c o n d a ry s c h o o l a tte n d a n c e h a s b ro u g h t chan g es
o f c u r r ic u lu m .
T h ere w i l l be-m ore c h a n g e s; r e c o g n i t i o n m ust
105
be g iv e n t o * c c n s u m ic s .w
2.
Government A g e n c ie s .
The en actm en t o f law s w h ich
have c l a r i f i e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f th e F e d e r a l T rad e Com mission
and t h e Food a n d Drug A d m in is tr a tio n w i l l be o f a s s i s t a n c e
t o t h e consum er o f th e f u t u r e .
T hese a g e n c ie s a re d o in g
e v a l u a t i n g work w h ic h i s o f r e a l , t a n g i b l e v a lu e t o a l l co n ­
su m e rs.
The p u b l i c a t i o n s w h ic h r e n d e r in fo x m a tlo n c o n c e rn in g
l e g a l a c t i o n s a re fu n d a m e n ta l t o a n y s tu d y o f governm ent and
i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o consum er e d u c a ti o n .
The B ureau o f S ta n d a rd s h a s d e v e lo p e d s ta n d a r d s w hich
have become in d is p e n s a b le t o governm ent p u r c h a s in g a g e n t s ,
i n d u s t r y , b u s in e s s and c o n su m e rs.
I t i s n o t y e t p o s s ib l e t o
o b ta in l i s t s o f m an u factu rers who a r e w i l l i n g t o a t t e s t t h e i r
c o n fo rm a tio n t o th e s e s t a n d a r d s .
No s u c h c e r t i f i c a t i o n s can
be o b ta in e d f o r th e h e a l t h p r o d u c t s .
The B ureau h e s i t a t e s t o
r e l e a s e b ra n d names and w i l l do so o n ly i n v e ry l i m i t e d f i e l d s .
T h ere seem s t o b e no r e a l r e a s o n why a l l o f th e in f o r m a tio n
o f t h e B ureau o f S ta n d a rd s s h o u ld n o t be made a v a i l a b l e t o
e d u c a to r s a n d c o n su m e rs.
The new l a b e l i n g p r o v i s i o n o f th e Food and D rug a d ­
m i n i s t r a t i o n w i l l n o t be a c t i v e so f a r a s many o f t h e im­
p o r t a n t h e a l t h p r o d u c ts a r e c o n c e rn e d , f o r tw o y e a r s .
B re a d ,
f o r i n s t a n c e , does n o t f a l l i n t o t h e l a b e l i n g p r o v i s i o n f o r
t h a t p e r io d o f tim e . Y et i t
i s m an d ato ry t o p ro v id e d e t a i l e d
l a b e l i n g f o r cow f o o d , c a l f m e a l, and s c r a t c h g r a i n f o r
p o u ltry 1
106
S tu d y o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f governm ent a g e n c ie s and
t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s s u g g e s ts a n e e d f o r more c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f th e
co n su m er.
The s u g g e s tio n h a s b e e n ad v an ced t h a t a c a b i n e t
o f f i c e b e c r e a t e d f o r th e I n t e g r a t i o n and r e - a lig n m e n t o f co n ­
sum er i n t e r e s t s .
How ever, t h e c r e a t i o n o f a n o th e r d e p a rtm e n t
i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y th e e n sw e r, b u t more d e f i n i t e c o o r d in a tio n
o f thB se e x i s t i n g a g e n c ld s w ould be o f s i g n i f i c a n t a i d t o th o s e
i n t e r e s t e d i n consum er e d u c a tio n and u l t i m a t e l y t o t h e c o n ­
sumer h i m s e l f .
S.
B u s in e s s and I n d u s t r y .
B oth b u s in e s s and i n d u s t r y
a r e com ing t o r e c o g n iz e th e consum er movement and i t s e f f e c t s
upon n a t i o n a l l y a d v e r t i s e d p r o d u c ts ; t h i s i s made e v id e n t
fro m c o n fe r e n c e s and c o rre s p o n d e n c e w ith t h e s e l e a d e r s .
They
a r e c o n fu s e d a b o u t t h e i r f u t u r e p o l i c i e s .
T here i s a n e f f o r t on t h e i r p a r t t o p ro v id e t r u t h f u l
and a u t h o r i t a t i v e in f o r m a tio n i n t h e f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s
w h ich th e y p r o v i d e .
Most o f th e w ell-know n n a t i o n a l l y d i s ­
t r i b u t e d m a n u fa c tu re d fo o d p ro d u c ts have a lr e a d y r e q u e s t e d
e v a l u a t i o n s by t h e C o u n c ils o f t h e A m erican M e d ic a l A s s o c ia t io n .
The N a tio n a l B e t t e r B u s in e s s B u re a u , prom pted by th e b e s t i n ­
t e r e s t s I n a d v e r t i s i n g and I n d u s t r y , c o n t i n u a l l y a c t s t o keep
a d v e r t i s i n g c la im s t r u t h f u l and t r a d e p r a c t i c e s f a i r .
They
a l s o p l a n t o a s s i s t th e consum er t o s e c u re f a i r t r e a tm e n t
fro m e n t e r p r i s e •
A c o m p a r a tiv e ly s m a ll amount o f t h e a p p r o p r i a ti o n s
107
f o r n a t i o n a l a d v e r t i s i n g I s now b e in g s p e n t In e d u c a tio n a l o r
i n s t i t u t i o n a l a d v e r t i s i n g , d u e l a r g e l y to t h e g u id a n c e o f th e
a d v e r t i s i n g a g e n c ie s *
Few m a n u fa c tu re rs have an y r e a l i z a t i o n
o f t h e s u c c e s s o f su c h s t o r i e s a s t h a t o f Ip an a T o o th p a s te ,
who have made a v e ry in te n s i v e u se o f th e s c h o o l m a rk e t.
Ad­
v e r t i s i n g a g e n c ie s c an make much more money by u s in g r a d i o
pro g ram s and p e r i o d i c a l s f o r t h e i r a d v e r t i s i n g m e d ia .
They
work on com m ission a n d t h e t o t a l am ount o f money s p e n t w i l l be
f a r g r e a t e r I n su c h m edia w ith a minimum o f copy w r i t i n g .
In
th e f u t u r e m ore a n d more I n d u s t r i e s w i l l t r y t o " s e l l " t h e
f u t u r e consum er, w h ile he i s s t i l l a s t u d e n t.
A d v e r tis e r s who have engaged in s c h o o l p ro m o tio n , have
made no d e f i n i t e a tte m p ts t o m easure t h e i r s a l e s a c c u r a t e l y .
P r o f i t s , how ever, a r e s u f f i c i e n t f o r them t o c o n ti n u e .
H ence,
t h e use o f v a s t volum es o f t h e i r f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s seems
t o have j u s t i f i e d t h e e x p e n d i tu r e s .
Most o f th e f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s a r e d e v e lo p e d f o r
t h e h ig h s c h o o l a g e , so t h a t th e y c a n be u s e d i n g e n e r a l c i r ­
c u la tio n .
V ery l i t t l e
a tte m p t i s made t o o b t a i n th e a d v ic e
o f t r a i n e d e d u c a to rs t o e i t h e r p r e p a r e , o r t o c a p t u r e th e
. i n t e r e s t of a n y p a r t i c u l a r ag e o r g r a d e .
C o rresp o n d en c e and
c o n fe r e n c e s w ith a d v e r t i s e r s and t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s show
t h e i n e f f i c i e n c y o f p r e p a r a t i o n i n many o f th e s e p r i n t e d ma­
te ria ls *
In s p i t e o f t h i s f a c t , th e y have b e e n s u c c e s s f u l a s
a v e h ic le f o r c a r r y i n g p ro d u c t in fo rm a tio n *
108
Recommendab Io n a f o r F u r th e r S tudy
The i n c i p i e n t n a tu r e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h n a t u r a l l y su g ­
g e s ts a s e rie s of r e la te d f u tu r e in v e s tig a tio n s in t h i s f i e l d
o f g ra d u a te s tu d y .
1.
I t recommends t h a t :
A c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f th e m ethods u s e d by a d v e r­
t i s e r s i n e d u c a tio n be e n t e r t a i n s d .
2.
A s tu d y o f th e l e g a l a s p e c ts w hich now e x i s t t o
p r e v e n t t h e u se o f n e w sp a p e rs , n a t i o n a l a d v e r t i s i n g , maga­
z in e s and r a d i o i n some s c h o o ls .
(A s tu d y of t h e n e c e s s a r y
r e v i s i o n s o f th e s e law s so t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e w i l l
co n fo rm w ith t h e la w s .)
3.
A s tu d y o f ways i n w h ic h th e p r e s e n t t e s t i n g
s e r v i c e s o f p r i v a t e l a b o r a t o r i e s , governm ent b u re a u s and
co m m ercial s e r v i c e s m ight be c o o r d in a te d i n t o a v a s t s t o r e ­
house o f s ta n d a r d iz e d in f o r m a tio n f o r consum er e d u c a tio n and
b u y in g .
4.
A stu d y o f ways and m eans by w h ich c o o p e r a tiv e
e f f o r t i n com m odity t e s t i n g m ig h t be r e a l i z e d .
5.
A s tu d y o f th e way i n w h ic h e d u c a tio n m ig h t c o r r e ­
l a t e th e n e e d s o f t h e consum er i n t h e p r e s e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n of
s u b jd c ts i n t h e c u r r ic u lu m .
6.
A s tu d y o f th e B ureau o f S ta n d a rd s and i t s s e r v i c e s
t o d e te r m in e how i t m ight s e r v e e d u c a to r s and consum ers a s a
so u rc e o f s t a n d a r d i z e d in fo rm a t io n on b ra n d name p r o d u c ts a s
w e ll a s t o p r o v id e commodity In fo r m a tio n f o r governm ent b u y ­
in g .
1
109
7.
A s tu d y o f th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f c o o p e r a tio n be­
tw een t h e m ajor b u s in e s s i n t e r e s t s an d th o s e i n e d u c a tio n .
8.
A s tu d y o f t h e e f f e c t o f th e u se o f f r e e p r i n t e d
m a t e r i a l s i n e d u c a tio n on t h e s a l e o f t h e p ro d u c t a d v e r t i s e d
and t o d e te rm in e how e f f e c t i v e su ch m a t e r i a l s a r e i n m aking
s a le s .
9.
A stu d y o f w ays and means f o r a c h ie v in g c o o p e ra ­
t i o n betw een t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s e a l o f a p p ro v e d a c c e p ta n c e s e r ­
v i c e s and g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e co n su m er.
10.
F u rth e r stu d y o f i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g s e r v i c e s .
S p e c if ic Recommendat io n s f o r Im m ediate A c tio n
I f i n d t h a t t h i s s tu d y h a s p r e s e n t I m p lic a tio n s f o r
e d u c a ti o n , b u s i n e s s , governm ent an d p r o f e s s i o n s i n t h e g e n e r a l
f i e l d o f p u b lic h e a l t h .
T h e r e fo r e , c o o p e r a tio n among t h e s e
g ro u p s i s d e s i r a b l e i n a dem ocracy.
Toward t h a t e n d , c o n s e ­
q u e n tl y , I o f f e r th e f o llo w in g s u g g e s tio n s s
E ducat io n
a.
The r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e n e ed f o r e d u c a tio n t o c o ­
o p e r a te w ith th e a c t i v i t i e s o f b u s in e s s i n t h e I n t e r e s t o f
p u b lic h e a l t h .
O rg a n iz a tio n o f a com m ittee r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
o f b u s i n e s s , e d u c a tio n and th e p r o f e s s i o n s on a n a t i o n a l
b a s i s , t o d e te rm in e t h e c o u rs e t h a t su c h c o o p e r a tiv e a c t i o n
s h a ll p u rsu e .
b.
S in c e s p e c i f i c e d u c a ti o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s th e
110
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f th e s t a t e , a s tu d y and r e v i s i o n o f th o s e
law s and p o l i c i e s w hich have t o do w i t h p ro p ag an d a and a d ­
v e r t i s i n g i n th e s c h o o l s , i s o f p rim a ry im p o rta n c e .
Such a
s e r v i c e s h o u ld be s u p e r v is e d by a c o o r d i n a ti n g com m ittee
s i m i l a r t o t h a t o rg a n iz e d f o r n a t i o n a l a c t i o n .
c.
As a means o f p r o v i d in g su p p le m e n ta ry in fo rm a ­
t i o n i n th e h e a l t h e d u c a tio n p ro g ra m , l o c a l u n i t s m ight u s e
e i t h e r th e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s tu d y o r f o llo w a s i m i l a r m ethod
o f e v a l u a t i n g f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s i n h e a l t h e d u c a ti o n .
d.
S t a t e o r c i t y sy s te m s s h o u ld p ro v id e t h e h e a l t h
e d u c a to r s i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h e v a lu a te d and ap p ro v ed
l i s t s o f s u p p le m e n ta ry M a t e r i a l s s u c h a s t h e New York C ity
d e p a rtm e n t i s now u s i n g i n v o c a tio n a l e d u c a tio n o r l n th e same
m anner a s t h i s s tu d y p r o v i d e s .
B u sin e ss and In d u stry
a.
T h is g ro u p m ust r e c o g n iz e th e n e c e s s i t y o f co ­
o p e r a tin g w ith e d u c a to r s by p r o v id in g f r e e p r i n t e d h e a l t h ma­
t e r i a l s , a u t h o r i t a t i v e i n f a c t a s w e l l a s a d a p te d t o th e n e e d s
an d i n t e r e s t s o f th e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n .
A u s e f u l s e r v ic e
m ig h t be p e rfo rm s d b y s u g g e s tin g t h e u s e s f o r w h ic h t h e ma­
t e r i a l s m ight be u s e d and by f u r n i s h i n g s h o r t sum m aries f o r
r a p i d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c r o s s r e f e r e n c e of th e s e m a t e r i a l s .
b.
The n e e d f o r a d d i t i o n a l f r e e p r i n t e d h e a l t h ma­
t e r i a l s i s a p p a re n t i n th e j u n i o r h ig h sc h o o l an d e le m e n ta ry
school le v e ls .
c.
I t i s a l s o a p p a re n t t h a t t h e r e i s a n e e d f o r f r e e
Ill
p r i n t e d h e a l t h m a t e r i a l s t o b e d e v e lo p e d more a d e q u a te ly a b o u t
th e n u t r i t i v e v a lu e o f f r u i t s , p o t a t o e s , a l l o t h e r v e g e t a b l e s ,
i
'
soy b e a n s , cooked c e r e a l s i n p r e f e r e n c e t o d r y c e r e a l s and
t h e u se o f d ry an d c an n e d m ilk . .
d.
T here sh o u ld be a c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f th e a c t i v i t i e s
f o r p r o d u c t t e s t i n g , so t h a t a c o l l e c t i o n o f s ta n d a r d s f o r t e s t ­
in g may b e made a v a i l a b l e t o t h o s e who may be i n t e r e s t e d i n
su c h a c t i v i t i e s , and s o f a i r c o m p a riso n s o f t e s t i n g r e s u l t s
may be m ade.
e.
S in c e i t i s n o lo n g e r t r u e t h a t h e a l t h e d u c a tio n
i s l i m i t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t o f home e c o n o m ic s, b u s in e s s and I n ­
d u s t r y s h o u ld n o t l i m i t t h e i r e d u c a tio n a l a c t i v i t i e s t o th e
a d v ic e a id e f f o r t s o f t h o s e t r a i n e d i n t h i s h ig h ly s p e c i a l i z e d
fie ld .
A r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f th e s e e d u c a t i o n a l d e p a rtm e n ts
s h o u ld b e m ade, i n l i n e w ith t h i s exp an d ed i n t e r e s t , p l a c in g a t
t h e i r h e a d s , e x e c u ti v e s t r a i n e d i n th e b r o a d e r f i e l d s o f ed u ­
c a t i o n , c a p a b le of c o o r d i n a t i n g th e c o m m ercial h e a l t h e d u c a tio n
i n t h e same way t h a t i t i s b e in g done i n t h e p u b lic s c h o o ls .
f . Im m ediate a c c e p ta n c e o f f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l c a n
be o b ta in e d i f a s u b s t a n t i a t i o n o f th e c la im s i n th e b o o k l e t s
i s made on th e f i r s t o r s e c o n d page o f th e b o o k l e t .
s o u r c e s , t h e name and t i t l e
O rig in a l
o f th e a u th o r w i t h h i s s c h o o l, c o l­
le g e o r r e s e a r c h a f f i l i a t i o n s a r e o f t h e u tm o st im p o rta n c e t o
a c r i t i c a l r e a d e r o f th e m a t e r i a l .
g.
I t i s m ost Im p o rta n t t h a t a l l t h e in fo x m a tlo n i n ­
c lu d e d i n t h e s e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s be a c c u r a t e , f a c t u a l and
112
u p -to -d a te •
R e s e a rc h p ro c e e d s so f a s t t h a t an a w a re n e ss of
s o u rc e s o f p rim a ry I n f o rm a tio n a r e a n e c e s s i t y b e f o r e book­
l e t s o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l I s p r in te d *
P r o f e s s i o n a l A gencies I n P u b lic H e a lth
a*
A m erican M edical A s s o c ia t io n .
A lth o u g h t h e A m eri­
c an M e d ica l A s s o c ia tio n and th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia ­
t i o n have a j o i n t c o m m itte e , i t h a s n e v e r been s p e c i f i c a l l y
c o n c e rn e d w i t h th e e v a l u a t i o n o f f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s I n
h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n , o r , f o r t h a t m a t t e r , any h e a l t h m a t e r i a ls *
The a c t i v i t i e s o f t h i s com m ittee o r o f t h e v a r io u s c o u n c ils
w hich e x i s t I n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s h o u ld be ex p an d ed t o m eet th e
b a s i c n e e d f o r a u t h o r i t a t i v e g u id a n c e f o r t h e i r members a s
w e l l a s th e g e n e r a l p u b lic *
As an a i d t o t h i s e x p a n s io n we
c o n c lu d e t h a t more p u b l i c i t y sh o u ld b e g iv e n t o t h e s e a l o f
a p p ro v a l and I t s s i g n i f ic a n c e *
An a tte m p t t o s e e th e s o c i a l
I m p lic a tio n s a s w e l l a s th e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s p e c t o f th e e d u c a ­
t i o n a l p ro b lem s w i l l g r e a t l y a s s i s t th e consum er and e d u c a to r
t o make w is e r s e l e c t i o n s .
b*
A m erican D e n ta l A s s o c ia t io n .
H e a lth e d u c a to r s w i l l
p r o g r e s s i v e l y e x p e c t more s e r v i c e an d g u id a n c e fro m t h i s a s s o ­
c i a t i o n a s th e a c t i v i t i e s become b e t t e r known*
E v a lu a tio n s o f
b ra n d e d p r o d u c ts a re e x p e c te d by co n su m ers an d t h i s a s s o c i a ­
t i o n s h o u ld have s u c h in f o r m a tio n a v a i l a b l e when r e q u e s t e d ,
i f it
i s to s e rv e th e p u b l ic i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f i t s
s i o n a l advancem ent*
M ed ical A s s o c ia t io n .
own p r o f e s ­
Such a s e r v i c e i s r e n d e r e d by t h e A m erican
A c l o s e r c o o r d in a tio n o f th e A m erican
113
D e n ta l A s s o c ia tio n c o u n c i ls w ould r e s u l t i n b e t t e r h e a l t h I n ­
f o r m a tio n s e r v i c e t o consum ers and e d u c a t o r s .
A p o s s ib l e l a i s o n
w ith e d u c a tio n a n d th e m e d ic a l a s s o c i a t i o n w ould make a pow er­
f u l com bine f o r h e a l t h e d u c a ti o n .
The p u b lic a t Io n o f t h e i r
b ra n d e d a c c e p ta n c e s s i m i l a r t o t h e l a t e s t book on A ccep ted
Foods o f t h e A m erican M edical A s s o c ia tio n w ould b e h ig h ly d e ­
s ira b le .
c*
Home E c o n o m ists.
The com m ercial home e c o n o m ists
o f t h i s g ro u p have I n t e r e s t e d th e m s e lv e s i n t h e d evelopm ent
o f f r e e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s f o r u s e i n th e p u b l ic s c h o o l s .
Edu­
c a t o r s now r e c o g n iz e t h e te a c h in g o f h e a l t h a s a n i n t e g r a t e d
f u n c t i o n o f th e s c h o o l, and as s u c h , t h i s t o p i c i s n o t l i m i t e d
t o an y one d e p a r tm e n t.
The s u b j e c t o f home econom ics becomes
one p h ase o f t h i s I n s t r u c t i o n .
Home e c o n o m is ts , t h e n , no
lo n g e r have th e com plete d e te r m in a tio n of t h e c o n te n t o f th e
su p p le m e n ta ry m a t e r i a l , w hich w i l l be In c lu d e d i n t h e c u r r i c u ­
lum .
The c o m m ercial e d u c a tio n d e p a rtm e n t h a s I n t e r e s t e d them ­
s e l v e s i n g ra d e l a b e l i n g , g r a d in g and s t a n d a r d s .
Boys a r e buy­
in g more th a n e v e r b e fo r e b e c a u s e o f th e s u p e r - m a r k e ts ; c o n ­
sum er b u y in g i s a most im p o rta n t p h a se o f e d u c a tio n f o r boys
a s w e ll as g i r l s .
Home econom ics i s more o r l e s s l i m i t e d t o
c o o k in g , se w in g , th e h o u se h o ld s c ie n c e s an d c o n su m p tio n fro m
th e s ta n d p o in t o f t h e woman o f th e h o u s e h o ld .
G overnm ental A g en cies
a.
C o n tin u e d r e s e a r c h b y m u n ic ip a l, s t a t e and f e d e r a l
b u re a u s t o d e te x m in e noxm sl and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s of v a lu e s ;
\
!
114
t b s p u b l i c a t i o n and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e i r f i n d i n g s .
b.
C o o p e ra tio n betw een g o v ern m e n ta l a g e n c ie s and
I n d u s t r y , p r o f e s s i o n a l a g e n c ie s and e d u c a tio n .
c.
S t a b i l i z e d an d c o n tin u e d b u d g e ta ry i t e m i z a t i o n
i n l e g i s l a t i v e a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r consum er e d u c a tio n and p r o ­
te c tio n .
ABHDTATHD BIBLIOGRAPHY
A d v e r tis in g
A d v e r tis in g Age (w eek ly) • What About th e Consumer?
turnery 8 , 1 9 4 0 ), p p . 2 3 -2 8 .
X I,
The fu tu r e o f many b u s in e s s e s depends upon t h e i r
a b i l i t y t o w e a th e r th e f i n a n c i a l a t o m s w h ic h th e y
have found th em selv es i n b eca u se o f t h e i r t r e a t ­
ment o f con su m ers. T h is v e r y com prehensive t r e a t ­
ment o f th e consum er movement b r in g s t o th e a t t e n ­
t i o n o f b u s in e s s and a l l o f i t s r a m if ic a t io n s , t h e
n eed f o r a th orou gh c o n s id e r a tio n o f th e oonsumer
movement. Three p h a ses a r e d ls c u s s e d t f i r s t , a
h is t o r y and a c le a r -o u t e a se o f what i t i s ; se o o n d ly ,
a rev iew o f t h e a ttem p ts by b u s in e s s t o approach a
r e a so n a b le s o lu t io n ; t h i r d l y , t o fo rm u la te a g e n e r a l
o u t l i n e o f a fu tu re program f o r b r in g in g th e consumer
and b u s in e s s man c l o s e r t o g e t h e r . I t i s com plete
and p r o v id e s a com plete p ic t u r e from th e sta n d p o in t
o f th o s e in t e r e s t e d p r im a r ily i n b u s in e s s .
B u sin e ss Week. The Consumer Movement, (A p r il 2 2 , 1 9 3 9 ),
p p . 4 6 -5 2 .
T h is i s t h e stu d y o f o r g a n ise d d is c o n te n t — th e
d is c o n te n t a t some consumers w ith th e th in g s t h e y
buy and t h e ways th o se t h in g s a r e s o ld t o them . I t
i s a d is c o n te n t w h ich f e e d s upon I t s e l f and w hloh
b u s in e s s can n ot a f f o r d t o o v e r lo o k b eoau se i t has
a lr e a d y assumed th e p r o p o r tio n s o f a r e a l th r e a t
t o p rod u cers and d is t r ib u t o r s o f a d v e r tis e d b r a n d s.
The stu d y i s an e f f o r t t o answ er th o se q u e s tio n s
about th e consum er movement w hich b u s in e s s men a r e
a sk in g and t o p ro v id e a d ir e c t o r y f o r th e movement
o f e x e c u t iv e s who want t o d o som ething about i t .
Canning A ge.
Canned Foods Prom otion P le o e s T o ta l 7 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
i n Four Y e a r s, XX (December, 1 9 3 9 ), p p . 5 2 0 -5 2 8 .
T h is a r t i c l e p r e s e n ts t h e en om alty o f t h e In flu e n c e
w hich p r in te d m a te r ia ls oan e x e r t . Seven m i l l i o n
li5
I
116
prom otion p ie c e s were d is t r i b u t e d i n fou r Tears
in t b s i n t e r e s t o f canned fo o d s by a company which
o n ly made th e ca n s* The m a te r ia l w h ich h a s b een
d ev elo p ed by means o f a home econ om ics e x p e r t and
th e a u t h e n t ic a t io n o f th e Abb r ic a n M ed ical A s so c ia ­
t i o n has r e c e iv e d w id e a c c la im a s t h e d i s t r i b u t io n
f i g u r e s w i l l show . T h is a r t i c l e i s s i g n i f i c a n t b e ­
cau se i t d e s c r ib e s j u s t how t h e campaign was i n i t i a t e d
and c a r r ie d -o u t*
Grumbine, E v a ly n , R eaching J u v e n ile M arkets. Hew York:
McGraw H i l l Book company, 1 9 8 6 . IPp. x v i + 4 3 0 .
A b r i e f h is t o r y o f c h ild r e n and t h e i r developm ent
w ith a c o n s id e r a tio n o f th e many f a c t o r s w h ich
c o n tr ib u te and make s e l l i n g t o boys and g i r l s a
p r o f it a b le in v e stm e n t. Chapter I I s u g g e s ts need
fo r s p e c i f i c a p p lic a t io n t o g r a d e p le v e l f o r b e s t
r e s u lt s *
Gundlach, E .T ., F e tis h e s i n A d v e r tis in g . C hicago: C o n so li­
d a ted Book P u b lis h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 5 1 . Pp. x i v 4 6 7 2 .
The book s e t s f o r t h some p r in c ip le s o f a d v e r t is in g
showing how i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s ca n b e in c r e a s e d b y
t h e i r a p p lic a t io n and b y t h e e lim in a t io n o f many
f e t i s h e s , whloh have n o b a s is in f a c t .
G reene, Edwin L ., A Guide t o R a tio n a l A d v e r tis in g . Hew York:
R a tio n a l B e tte r B u sin e ss b u re a u s, I n c . , 1 9 3 8 . Pp.
76 l o o s e l e a f .
The immediate purpose o f th e "Guide" i s t o a s s i s t
a d v e r tis e r s and a g e n c ie s t o prepare copy which i s
t r u t h f u l a d in fo r m a tiv e and t o a id media t o d e ­
term ine th e a c c e p t a b i l it y o f co p y su b m itted t o
them i n l i n e w ith t h e Food and Drug A d m ln lstrat io n
and th e F e d e r a l Trade Com mission. T h is "Guide" i s
o f in e s tim a b le h e lp t o any r e se a r c h e r who must f o l ­
low th e c o m p lic a te d l e g a l language o f th e Wheels r Lea Act and t h a t of t h e F e d e r a l Food, Drug and
Cosm etic Act*
P it k in , W a lter , Let*a Get What We Want.
S h u ster ,^ S S r7,“m F T ^ P p 7 3 5 5 7
Hew York: Simon and
T h is b ook i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g because o f
117
h i s p r a c t i c a l p o in t o f v ie w w h ich i s e x p r e ss e d
when he s a y s , "Our p u b lic s c h o o ls swarm w ith
te a c h e r s who knew l e s s th a n n o th in g about th e Art
o f l i v i n g and who p a ss p r e c io u s l i t t l e s c ie n c e on
t o each r i s i n g g e n e r a tio n . As consum ers most o f u s
a re com p lete im b e c ile s ."
P l a t t , John H ., Quinea P ig s and Donald Ducks. C hicago:
K raft Cheese C o r p o r a tio n , 19fc9. Pp. 5 5 .
Coming on th e h e e ls o f t h e d is c o v e r y o f th e "Con­
sumer Movement," t h i s b o o k le t , a r e p o r t o f a t a l k
d e liv e r e d by Mr. P la t t on November 3 0 , 1939, a t th e
Chicago F ed era ted A d v e r tis in g C lub, w as th e f i r s t
t o r e c o g n iz e t h a t th e r e was a p o s i t i v e approach f o r
b u s in e s s men. A d m itting some f a i l u r e on th e p a r t
o f b u s in e s s , he s u g g e s ts c e r t a in v e r y c o n s t r u c t iv e
m easures o f w h ich a most s a l i e n t one i s th a t o f th e
p r e p a r a tio n o f good p r in te d m a t e r ia l.
S i s t e r Mary F lo r e n c e , A d v e r tis in g M a te r ia l i n T ea ch in g .
The T rained Nurse a id H o sp ita l R eview . IXVIII
TFebruary,"lOTT7 pp7 TgBSsg. --------
For th e f i r s t tim e a n u rse w r it e s on th e n e c e s ­
s i t y f o r d is c r im in a tio n i n what we r ea d th e th e
in fo r m a tio n t h a t i s p a sse d a lo n g t o o t h e r s . T h is
i s a m ost advanced v iew p o in t f o r th o s e who l i v e in
an atm osphere where knowledge i s d ig e s t e d and im­
p o sed .
S ta r k , S a id ee B . , How S c h o o ls Use Advert la ln g M a te r ia ls .
New York: A s s o c ia tio n o f 'N ation al A d v e r t is e r s ,
1 9 3 0 . Pp. i x * 184.
T h is i s th e f i r s t stu d y w h ich had th e courage t o
c o n s id e r th e problem o f a d v e r tis in g m a t e r ia l in
th e s c h o o ls . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t beoau se i t pro­
v id e d an e a r ly su rv ey o f e x a c t l y what m a te r ia l was
b e in g u s e d , what home econ om ics te a o h s r s th ou gh t o f
i t and t h e i r id e a s f o r th e im provem ent. I t i s a l s o
s i g n i f i c a n t th a t th e A s s o c ia tio n o f N a tio n a l Adver­
t i s e r s th ou gh t w e l l enough o f th e book and i t s con­
t e n t t o p u b lis h i t f o r D r. S ta r k .
H ealth and Consumer E d u cation
C o u n c il on P o o d s, American M ed ical A s s o c ia t io n . A ccented
F oods. C hicago: American M edical A s s o c ia t io n , 1039.
F p. xx * 4 9 2 .
T h is book I s th e m ost im portant one-book pub­
lis h e d from th e sta n d p o in t o f a n y stu d y o f h e a lt h
and consumer e d u c a tio n . I t p r o v id e s a compendium
o f fo o d s , a c t u a l ly t e s t e d and t h e i r p r in t e d ma­
t e r i a l s a u th e n tic a te d f o r u s e In h e a lt h in s t r u c ­
t i o n . I t I s a b l b l e o f n u t r i t i o n a l in fo r m a tio n .
I t i s s l g n i f ic e n t f o r t h i s s tu d y b e c a u se w ith o u t
i t th e r e s e a r c h e r w ould have t o go th rou gh
volum inous m a te r ia l to ch eck I n d iv id u a l p r o d u c ts .
Consumer E d u c a tio n . Jou rn al o f , Consumer E d u cation A s s o o la t i o n . V o l. 1 , N o s. 1 and 2 , V o l. I I , N o. 1 .
These Jou rn als a r e most s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h i s s t u d y ,
s in c e e v e r y c o n tr ib u tio n t o t h e s e f i r s t th r e e i s ­
su es had some r e l a t io n s h ip to t h e s tu d y . Subse­
quent I s s u e s may d i f f e r e n t i a t e . These o r ig i n a l
ones d e a l w ith fun dam entals o f consumer e d u c a tio n
and methods o f d is s e m in a tin g In fo rm a tio n by th e
p r in te d word i s fundam ental t o a l l such e d u c a tio n .
I n s t i t u t e f o r Consumer E d u c a tio n , Next S te p s in Consumer
E d u c a tio n . P r o c e e d in g s , Colum bia, M isso u r i: Stephens
C o lle g e , 1 9 2 9 . Pp. 1 8 9 .
T h is book i s most s i g n i f i c a n t t o any stu d y o f con­
sumer e d u c a tio n b ecau se i t c o n ta in s th e com p lete
p r o c ee d in g s o f th e F i r s t N a tio n a l C onference on
Consumer E d u c a tio n . T h is was p a r t ic ip a t e d i n by
members o f a l l p h ases o f consumer i n t e r e s t ; govern ­
m en t, b u s in e s s and u lt im a t e consum ers.
N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n o f B e t te r B u sin e ss B u reaus, I n c . B u si­
n e s s Consumer R e la tio n s C o n feren ce, P r o c e e d in g s.
B u ffa lo (June 5 , 1 9 3 9 ) . Pp. 1 1 5 .
T h is book i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h i s stu d y b eca u se i t
r e p r e s e n ts th e p r o c e e d in g s o f a n a t io n a l c o n fer en ce
c a l l e d by th e r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s o f b u s in e s s i n th e
i n t e r e s t o f b u s in e s s and consum ers. The sp o n so r sh ip
119
I s d l - l a t e r a l h e r e i n c o n tr a s t t o th e u n i - la t era ln e s a
o f th e Stephens C o lle g e C onference f o r th e Consumer*
Every phase o f t h i s problem was th o r o u g h ly d i s ­
cu ssed and th e book p ro v id ed a th orou gh t r e a t i s e on
a l l p h a se s o f consumer and b u s in e s s r e l a t io n s h ip
w ith th e e d u c a tio n a l p o in t o f view i n j e c t e d by
s e v e r a l speakers*
W indelhake, E liz a b e th M ., A d v e r tis in g from th e S tan d p oin t
o f th e Consumer* Jou rn al o f Home Economic a . XXVIII
(F eb ru ary, 1 9 3 7 ), pp* 86-9ST
S ig n if ic a n t beoause o f i t s b e in g th e f i r s t r e se a r c h
stu d y o f p r in t e d m a te r ia l w ith a check f o r f a c t u a l
in fo r m a tio n and a u t h e n t ic a t io n i n th e b o o k le ts*
Propaganda
Committee R ep o rt, N a tio n a l E d u cation A s s o c ia t io n , Propaganda
in tn e S c h o o ls ,( J u ly , 1 9 3 9 ), Pp. 4 7 .
U n t il t h i s rep o rt was p r e se n te d b e fo r e th e annual
m eetin g o f th e N a tio n a l E d u cation A s s o c ia tio n
l i t t l e c o n s id e r a tio n o f propaganda i n th e sc h o o ls
bad been g iven * T h is r e p o r t s t a r t e d a v e r it a b le
avalan ch e o f s t u d i e s , d is c u s s io n s and e v e n t u a lly
th e i n s t i t u t i o n o f Propaganda A n a ly s is was born*
T his i s a 1 i f le a n t o f th e b e g in n in g o f a r e a l i s t i c
approach t o problem s i n ed u oatlon * T h is stu d y i s
concerned w ith propaganda a s e x p r e sse d by a d v e r t i s ­
in g and s o t h i s com m ittee r e p o r t p r o v id e s a founda­
t i o n f o r su ch r e s e a r c h .
L ee, A lfr e d McClung and L ee, E liz a b e t h B r la n t, The F ine Art
o f Propaganda« New York: Harcourt B race and Company,
T?3§* Pp. x i 4 140.
The s tr e n g th o f a democracy depends upon th e i n t e l ­
l ig e n c e and a l e r t n e s s o f i t s c i t i z e n r y , o r , as
A lexander H am ilton once pu t i t when d is c u s s in g f r e e ­
dom o f th e p r e s s , ’’Whatever f i n e d e c la r a t io n s may be
in s e r t e d i n a n y c o n s t i t u t i o n r e s p e c t in g i t , must a l ­
to g e th e r depend on p u b lic o p in io n , and on th e g e n e r a l
s p i r i t o f th e p eop le and o f th e governm ent." Today,
i n a w orld o f u n u s u a lly f a o i l e in str u m e n ts o f com-
f
120
m unioatIon,propaganda f a c e s u s a t e v e r y tu r n .
T h is p u b lic a tio n o f th e I n s t i t u t e f o r Propaganda
A n a ly s is g iv e s g u id an ce and a s s i s t a n c e in e v a lu a t­
in g a s e r i e s o f a d d r e sse s by Reverend C h arles F .
C oughlin o f D e t r o i t . T h is s c h o la r ly a n a ly s is by
A lfr e d and E liz a b e th Lee i s h e l p f u l t o th e average
man or th e stu d e n t who i s t r y in g t o f i n d out what
he c m and cannot b e l ie v e in to d a y 's w e lt e r o f
propagandas. I t g i v e s th e f i r s t a n a ly s is o f th e
ABC's o f propaganda.
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i
APPENDIX
A ppendix
A.
Page
EVALUATING AGENCIES................................................................ 132
American M edical A s s o c ia t io n a s an
E v a lu a tin g A g e n c y ......................................................... 132
American D en ta l A s s o c ia tio n a s an
E v a lu a tin g A gency...........................................................136
F e d e r a l Trade Commission a s an E v a lu a tin g
Agency..................................................................
139
Food and Drug A d m in istr a tio n o f th e F e d e r a l
S e c u r ity Agency a s an E v a lu a tin g A gency. . . 147
W iscon sin Alumni R esearch F oundation a s an
E v a lu a tin g A gency.............................
150
B.
LETTER FROM LITHOGRAPHERS NATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 152
C.
LETTERS SENT BX WRITER..........................................................155
To E d u c a to r s
......................
155
To A d v e r tis e r s and D is t r ib u t o r s o f
P r in te d M a te r ia ls .......................................
156
To A d v e r tis in g A g e n c ie s.........................• • • • • • • • • • 157
132
APPENDIX A
EVALUATING AGENCIES
American M ed ical A s s o c ia tio n a s an E v a lu a tin g Agency
The American consumer i s m ost in t e r e s t e d in fo o d s ,
c o s m e tic s , and th e g e n e r a l care o f h i s body a s i t r e l a t e s t o
h e a lt h , h a p p in e s s, and s u c c e s s .
T h e r e fo r e , i t i s most n e c e s ­
sa ry t h a t adequate e v a lu a t io n s h e made o f t h e s e a r t i c l e s
w hich c o n tr ib u te so much t o h e a lt h f u l l i v i n g .
Americans are
n o ta b ly I n t e r e s t e d in h ig h -p r ic e d a r t i c l e s , bu t a c t u a l ly ,
h e a lt h can be p r o te c te d w it h v e r y l i t t l e money in d ee d .
T eachers who a r e r e s p o n s ib le fo r h e a lt h in s t r u c t i o n , not
o n ly n e e d , b u t w a n t, a method o f e v a lu a t io n w h ich cpn be d e ­
fen d ed a g a in s t a l l p o s s ib le c r i t i c s .
G reater e f f o r t s have been made t o c o n t r o l th e manu­
f a c t u r e , a d v e r t is in g and d i s t r i b u t io n o f p r o p r ie ta r y medi­
c in e s by th e American M ed ical A s s o c ia tio n th an by th e f e d e r a l
governm ent, b eca u se th e p o l i c i e s o f th e form er have been un­
hampered by o th e r h ie r a r c h ic a l a g e n c ie s .
W ithout d o u b t,
th e A s s o c ia tio n i s fu n d am en tally i n fa v o r o f th e American
d o c to r .
I t i s a d e f i n i t e kind o f tra d e a s s o c i a t i o n , t o
w hich most o f th e d o c to r s b e lo n g .
I t i s com m ercial o n ly t o
th e e x t e n t t h a t i t c a r r ie s a d v e r t is in g in i t s tw o m a g a zin es,
The American M ed ical A s s o c ia tio n J o u r n a l, and H ygela.
H ygela
133
1
h as c o n s i s t e n t l y l o s t m oney,
hut th e Jou rn al pays th e ex­
p e n se s f o r th o se o th er p u b lic a t io n s w hich l o s t money. The
2
Journal showed n e t e a r n in g s o f $ 6 7 0 ,0 0 0 in 1937.
It is
one o f th e m ost p r o f it a b le m agazines i n th e c o u n tr y .
Every
l i n e o f a d v e r t is in g copy i n i t , a t $408 p er p a g e, must be
approved by same one or o th e r o f th e C o u n cils b e fo r e th e
J o u rn a l w i l l a c ce p t i t .
I t i s s a id th a t ap p roxim ately on e-
h a l f o f a l l th e a d v e r tis in g su b m itted t o i t i s r e f u s e d .
I t i s apparent th a t th e American M edical A s s o c ia t io n
i s th e b e s t e v a lu a t in g agen cy in th e h e a lt h f i e l d .
Concern­
in g th e American M ed ical A s s o c ia t io n , Fortune has t h i s t o
sa y :
Though he may b e an ignoramus on most sub­
j e c t s e x c e p t b a s e b a ll and p r i z e f ig h t in g th e
ch an ces a r e th a t th e average man in th e s t r e e t
knows som eth in g or o th e r about th e American
M ed ical A s s o c ia t io n . He may know on ly t h a t he
buys c e r t a i n g r o c e r y and drug s t o r e ite m s th a t
b ear a p r in te d b lu e s e a l s t a t i n g th a t th e p ro­
d u ct has b een a c c e p te d by th e A.M.A. The s e a l
i s s im ila r t o th e s e a l o f th e Good H ousekeeping
I n s t i t u t e , and w h ile he h a s n 't a v e ry c le a r no­
t i o n o f what i t means or why i t sh o u ld be t h e r e ,
i t su g g e s ts a l o t o f d o c to r s m u llin g over d l f f e r e n t k l n d s o f t o o t h p a ste and c e r e a l and baby
f o o d , and somehow i t r e a s s u r e s him about t h e s e
a r tic le s .
He probab ly d oes n o t know t h a t th e American
M edical A s s o c ia t io n i s one o f th e main rea so n s
why he i s w a rier about p a te n t m ed icin es and l e s s
i n c lin e d t o t r y f a d d is h h e a lt h sy stem s th an h i s
f a t h e r u sed t o b e , bu t from tim e t o tim e he read s
1.
2.
F o rtu n e . The American M edical A s s o c ia t io n , (H ovenber,
IS5& ), p . 9 2 . (L ost $ 3 0 ,0 0 0 i n 1 9 3 7 ).
Ib id .
133
w arnings I s s u e d by th e A.M.A. a g a in s t c e r ta in
p r e p a r a tio n s and p r a c t i c e s . He remembers th a t
th e A.H.A. was m ixed up In th e in v e s t i g a t io n o f
John R. B r in k le y , th e Kansas g o a t-g la n d s p e c i a l ­
i s t , and he has a dim r e c o l l e c t i o n o f th e A .M .A .'s
carrying on a dram atic G*man hunt f o r some u n so ld
b o t t l e s o f s u lfa n lllm ld e i h d ie th y le n e g l y c o l ,
which cau sed a number o f f a t a l i t i e s l a s t y e a r .
He would s c a r c e ly know th a t th e A.M.A. at p r e se n t
i s b e in g sued f o r s e v e r a l m i ll i o n d o l l a r s by t h e
maker o f a c o sm e tic th a t was th e s u b je c t o f an
u n fa v o ra b le n o t ic e some tim e a g o , nor would he
know th a t i n th e p a s t t h i r t y y e a r s th e A.M.A.
has b een th r e a te n e d w ith s i m i la r s u i t s t o t a l i n g
# 3 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 . He would not know th a t o n ly two
s u i t s have e v e r came t o t r i a l , or t h a t damages
a s s e s s e d a g a in s t th e A.M.A. have amounted t o
e x a c t ly one c e n t . l
For i t s own e v a lu a tio n a c t i v i t i e s , th e Amerioan
M edical A s s o c ia tio n has s e t up s e v e r a l a d v is o r y gro u p s, i n ­
c lu d in g th e C ou n cil on F ood s, t h e Committee on C o sm etics,
and th e C ounoil an I n d u s t r ia l H ealth ( e s t a b lis h e d in 1 9 3 7 ),
a C ouncil on P h y s ic a l Therapy and a C o u n cil on Pharmacy
and Chem istry (s ln o e 1905 engaged i n th e t e s t i n g o f d ru gs
and m ed icin es o f e v e r y d e s c r i p t io n , l i s t i n g th e approved and
th e unapproved ite m s in t h e J o u r n a l) .
A l l o f t h e s e C o u n cils
op erate a d m in is t r a t iv e ly , under th e d i v i s i o n o f d r u g s,
fo o d s , and p h y s ic a l th e r a p y .
The C ou n cil on Foods t e s t s and r e p o r ts on manufac­
tu r ed fo o d p r o d u c ts In t h e Jou rn al f o r th e in fo r m a tio n o f
p h y s ic ia n s , d i e t i t i a n s , and others i n t e r e s t e d in n u t r i t i o n a s
a p r o f e s s io n and p u b lis h a 'book, A ccepted F o o d s, l i s t i n g a l l
1.
Fortune, op. c l t . . p. 89.
135
approved p r o c h o ts .
The f a m i li a r b lu e "Seal o f Acceptance"
i s awarded by t b e American M ed ical A s s o c ia tio n t o approved
ite m s .
Tbe t r u t b o f s ta te m e n ts and g e n e r a l c h a r a c te r o f tb e
a d v e r t is in g o f tb e product p a r t ly d eterm in e w hether any given
product w i l l b e a p p roved .
T h is i s p a r t i c u la r ly tr u e o f
fo o d s whose sp o n so rs c la im t o have h e a lt h p r o p e r t ie s .
Thus
th e C ou n cil w ith h e ld a p p ro v a l o f K e llo g g "A ll-Bran" b reak ­
f a s t f o o d , an u n a cc e p ta b le p rod u ct b eca u se i t employed t e s -
2
t im o n la l a d v e r t is in g .
But t h e American M edical A s s o c ia tio n
A d v e r tis in g Committee does a c c e p t th e a d v e r tis in g o f
c i g a r e t t e s — n o ta b ly , t h e P h ilip M orris brand.
I t i s c r e d i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , th a t th e c o n tin u e d u se
o f t h i s e v a lu a tin g agency b y consum ers w i l l d e v e lo p one o f
th e b e s t p o s s ib le s e r v i c e s f o r th e t e s t i n g o f m anufactured
fo o d p rod u cts i n our s o c i a l econom y.
U ndoubtedly, t h i s Coun­
c i l h a s d en e more f o r t h e h e a lt h p r o t e c t io n o f th e n a t io n
than any o th er group i n our p r o f e s s i o n a l or com m ercial o r gani z a ti ons •
E very m anufactured fo o d product w h ich has p r in te d
m a te r ia l f o r u se in h e a lt h in s t r u c t io n and d e s i r e s American
M edical A s s o c ia t io n ap p roval h a s h ad t h e in fo r m a tio n su b ­
m itte d t o t h e Amsrioa n M edical A s s o c ia tio n C ou n cil on Foods
3
f o r c o n s id e r a t io n .
1.
2.
3.
C o u n cil on F o o d s, A ccep ted F o o d s. American M ed ical A sso­
c i a t i o n , 1939, p . 2 .
F o rtu n e , oj>. c l t . . p . 9 2 .
Loo, c l t .
^
136
S in ce t h i s stu d y d o e s n o t con cern I t s e l f w ith drugs
and p h a rm a o e u tio a ls, no c o n s id e r a tio n h as b een g iv e n t o t h i s
d i v i s i o n o f th e American M ed ical A s s o c ia t io n a s an E v a lu a tin g
A gency.
However, e v e r y stu d e n t o f h e a lth and ev ery o n e who
i s in t e r e s t e d In th e h e a lth o f th e n a tio n sh o u ld be f u l l y
aware o f th e cru sa d es w hich t h e American M ed ical A s s o c ia t io n
has made t o e lim in a t e t h e fr a u d u le n t p r a c t ic e s o f th e 360
m i ll i o n d o lla r p a te n t m ed icin e in d u s tr y .
Of c o u r s e , t h e
American M edical A s s o c ia t io n i s b ia s e d i n fa v o r o f p r o f e s ­
s io n a l m ed ical tre a tm en t r a th e r th an i n th e methods o f s e l f d ia g n o s is and th e r a p y .
American D en ta l A s s o c ia tio n a s an E v a lu a tin g Agency
The American D e n ta l A s s o c ia t lo n , f o llo w in g th e le a d
o f t h e American M edical A s s o c ia t io n , e s t a b l i s h e d a C ou n cil
on D e n ta l T h era p eu tics in 1930.
T h is i s a sta n d in g com m ittee
o f the o f f i c i a l n a t io n a l o r g a n iz a tio n o f d e n t i s t s in th e
U n ited S t a t e s .
I t c o n s i s t s o f t e n members, f i v e o f whom are
d e n t i s t s , and f i v e o f whom a r e engaged in th e f i e l d s o f
m ed icin e or c h e m istr y ; th e y are ch osen b y th e g o v ern in g body
o f th e Am erican D e n ta l A s s o c ia t io n .
None o f t h e s e members
r e c e iv e s f i n a n c i a l rem u n eration f a r h is s e r v i c e s .
t a r y i s th e o n ly p a id member o f th e C o u n c il.
The s e c r e ­
A Bureau o f
Chem istry i s a l s o o p e r a te d in c o n ju n c tio n w ith th e a c t i v i t i e s
137
1
o f t h i s c o u n c i l.
Tbe C ou ncil o p e r a te s i n th e i n t e r e s t o f t b e American
d e n t i s t and g iv e s in fo r m a tio n t o consumers
#10
w ish t e c h n i c a l
knowledge about t o o t h p a s t e s , m o u th w a sh e s, and o th e r d e n t a l
h e a lt h a c c e s s o r i e s .
The p u b lic a t io n s o f th e C o u n cil appear
i n th e Jou rn al o f th e American D en ta l A s s o c ia t io n , th e o f ­
f i c i a l organ o f t h e
American D e n ta l A s s o c ia t io n .
A S e a l o f A cceptance i s awarded t o p r o d u cts w hich
s u c c e s s f u l l y meet th e t e s t s and req u irem en ts o f th e C ou n cil
and w hloh are not promoted by f a l s e and fr a u d u le n t c la im s
in t h e i r a d v e r t i s i n g .
The C o u n cil p r o v id e s , f r e e o f c h a r g e , a l i s t o f den­
t i f r i c e s w hich i t h a8 approved and o f f e r s t o p ro v id e any
in fo r m a tio n on d e n t a l th e r a p e u tic a g e n ts prom oted f o r pub­
l i c consu m ption.
A c o n sid e r a b le volume o f t h e i r t e s t i n g
work i s done by t h e N a tio n a l Bureau o f S ta n d a rd s.
The req u irem en ts f o r th e S e a l o f A cceptance ln o lu d e :
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
P r e s e n ta tio n o f com p lete fo r m u la . S ec re t
p r e p a r a tio n s are not a c c e p ta b le .
S a t is f a c t o r y e v id en ce o f th e s a f e t y o f th e
p r e p a r a tio n s . Harmful a b r a s iv e s and harm­
f u l ch em ica ls are not p e r m itte d .
T r u th fu l a d v e r t is in g o f t h e p r o d u c ts . F a ls e
c la im s are not p e r m itte d . D e n t r if io e s do
n o t cu re or p r e v e n t d e n t a l d i s e a s e s . They
a id th e t o o t h b ru sh i n o le a n in g th e a c c e s ­
s i b l e s u r fa c e s o f th e t e e t h . 2
C o u n cil on D e n ta l T h e r a p e u tic s , A1ms and R e la tio n s h ip
t o th e P u b lic . C hicago, I l l i n o i s : American b e n ta l
T sso cla b io n V '
Loo, p i t .
138
I t i s apparent t h a t th e .American D en tal A s s o c ia tio n
has n o t d e v e lo p e d an e v a lu a tio n a g en cy comparable t o th e
American M ed ical A s s o c ia t io n .
In th e f i r s t p la c e , th e D en tal
A s s o c ia tio n has been o r g a n iz e d o n ly s in c e 1 9 3 0 , whereas the
f i r s t C o u n cil o f th e
in 1 9 0 5 .
Am erican M ed ical A s s o c ia tio n was formed
I t d o e s n ot have the fu n d s t o m a in ta in so la r g e a
t e s t i n g s t a f f and s e r v ic e b u rea u .
Years o f e x p e r ie n c e , how­
e v e r , do not n e c e s s a r i l y denobe su p e r io r com petency.
So f a r a s e d u c a tc r s are c o n c e r n e d , th e r e e x i s t s no
b e t t e r e v a lu a tio n agency a t p r e s e n t w h ich g i v e s t h i s kind o f
s e r v ic e than t h e American D en ta l A s s o c ia t io n C ou n cil on
D en ta l T h e r a p e u tic s .
In a l l o f t h e d e n t a l c la im s o f a com m ercial p r o d u ct,
t h a t have b e e n ch eck ed fo r t h e i r a u t h o r it y , i t h as b een found
alm ost u n iv e r s a lly th a t th e r e i s a q u o ta tio n o f some one i n %
v e s t i g a t o r o r group o f d e n t i s t s who have m erely w r itt e n in
and s a i d , "This i s a f i n e t o o t h p a s t e , ” or "This i s a f i n e
mouth w ash."
Such in fo r m a tio n i s u n s c i e n t i f i c and so th e
C ou n cil o f t h e American D e n ta l A s s o c ia t io n h as p io n e e r work
t o d o in p u b lic r e l a t i o n s .
They n eed t o c o n v in c e b o th manu­
f a c t u r e r s and the p u b lic t h a t e v e r y e f f o r t i s b e in g made t o
h e lp th e m anufacturer t o make a b e t t e r t o o t h p a s te or powder
and t o h e lp t h e consumer t o se cu re more f o r h is money w ith a
maximum d e g r ee o f p r o t e c t io n .
The f o llo w in g q u o ta tio n i l l u s t r a t e s a ty p e o f a c ­
t i v i t y c a r r ie d on by th e American D e n ta l A s s o c ia t io n .
The
139
form ula qu oted I s b a s i c f o r c o n s id e r in g any d e n t i f r i c e
w hich c a r r i e s t h e S e a l o f Approval o f th e A s s o c ia tio n *
From tim e t o t im e , I n q u ir ie s have b e e n r e ­
c e iv e d from in d iv id u a l d e n t i s t s and from d e n t a l
s o c i e t i e s c o n c er n in g a r e c ip e f o r th e m anufacture
o f a t o o t h pow der. N a tio n a l Formulary VI c a r r ie s
a form ula f o r a d e n t i f r i c e th a t may b e c o n sid e r e d
t o f u l f i l l a l l th e le g it im a t e req u irem en ts o f a
d e n t i f r i c e ; nam ely, t o a id th e to o th b r u sh In
c le a n in g th e s u r fa c e s o f th e te e th * Furtherm ore,
t h i s d e n t i f r i c e i s nonm edicated*
T h is i s th e fo n n u la th a t has ccue t o be known as
th e P h ila d e lp h ia D e n ta l D isp en sa ry T ooth Powder*
C oncerning th e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f a p rodu ct o f
t h i s ty p e f o r A*D*R*, i t has b een d e c id e d th a t
such a product may b e a c c e p ta b le f o r a d m issio n
t o A*D*R* p r o v id e d : 1* I t s h a l l be la b e le d
D e n tlfr io e -A .D .R , (B ran d ), T ooth Powder-A*D*R«
(B rand), So-an d-S o*s D e n tifr lc e -A .D .R * , So-an dS o 's Tooth Powder-A*D*R* or S o -a n d -S o 's D e n t if r ic e
or Tooth Powder, compounded i n Accordance w it h t h e
S p e c i f ic a t io n s in A ccepted D en ta l Remedies* (The
d e s c r ip t io n N*F* D e n t if r ic e i s n o t m ean in gfu l
enough f o r t h e C o u n c il's p u rp o se, s in c e th e Coun­
c i l r e q u e s ts in fo r m a tio n not o n ly r eg a r d in g th e
ch em ica l p r o p e r t ie s , b u t a l s o r e g a r d in g th e phy­
s i c a l p r o p e r tie s o f th e d e n t i f r i c e * ) 2* The p re­
c ip it a t e d oalolu m carb on ate u sed i n th e p r e p a r a tio n
o f th e d e n t i f r i c e i s an a c c e p ta b le brand* 3* I n form at io n on th e a b r a s iv e n e s s o f t h e f i n i s h e d
product i s subm itted* 4* E vidence i s su b m itted o f
adherence o f th e f i n i s h e d product t o th e p u b lish e d
form ula* 5* A odeptable a d v e r tis in g i s su b m itte d ,
i f any i s issu e d * 1
F e d e r a l Trade Commission a s an E v a lu a tin g Agency
The F ed era l Tirade Com mission, a s an e v a lu a tin g a g e n c y ,
1*
Samuel U* Gordon, The D e n ta l Cosmos. XXIV (March, 1 9 3 7 ),
p* 469*
140
p r o t e c t s th e consumer In a n e g a tiv e way.
No a d v e r t is e r or
m anufacturer knows In advance w hether or not h i s product or
h i s a d v e r tis in g w i l l h e Immune from stu d y and l e g a l a c t io n
by t h e F ed era l Trade Commission*
I t i s one o f th e d u t ie s o f
th e Commission t o determ ine th e e x is t e n c e o f u n f a ir or de­
c e p t iv e a c t s and p r a c tic e s i n commerce, and t o a o t s p e c i f i c a l l y
In o a se s o f u n la w fu l d is s e m in a tio n (a d v e r tis e d m isr e p r e se n ta ­
t io n s con cern in g f o o d s , d r u g s , d e v i c e s , and c o sm e tic s ) and
t o d e f in e a d v e r tise m e n ts a s f o o d s , d r u g s , d e v ic e s or c o s ­
m etic s*
I f th e u s e o f th e commodity a d v e r tis e d may b e i n ­
ju r io u s t o h e a lt h when u sed under th e c o n d itio n s p r e sc r ib e d
In th e a d v e r tise m e n t, o r under custom ary or u s u a l c o n d it io n s ,
th e p a r t i e s in v o lv e d a r e g u i l t y o f misdemeanor and a r e sub­
j e c t t o f i n e , im prisonm ent, or b oth *
The f i r s t F ed er a l Trade Commission Aot was p a ssed
in 1914, b u t i t had no "teeth " f o r enforcem en t u n t i l th e
1
W heeler-L ea Amendments i n 1958*
These were e n a c te d b ecau se
_
th e o ld law had f a i l e d t o o p e r a te a s an e f f e c t i v e d e te r r e n t
t o m is le a d in g , fr a u d u le n t a d v e r t i s e r s , or t h e a d v e r tis in g o f
com m odities were d e le t e r io u s t o h e a lth *
S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e new W heeler-Lea Amendments t o th e
o r ig i n a l F e d e r a l Trade Commission A c t, w h ic h w ere p a s se d by
1*
F e d e r a l Trade Commission, Procedure b e fo r e th e F e d e r a l
Trade Com m ission, W ashington, D*C ,, F e d e r a l Trade
C on m lssion , B u l l e t i n . November S 3 , 1 9 3 8 , p* 2*
141
C ongress on Mareh 2 1 , 1 9 3 8 , a r e n o t a p p lic a b le t o a l l com­
m o d itie s but r e l a t e t o t b e a d v e r tis in g o f f o o d s , d r u g s , d e 1
v ic e s and c o s m e tic s o n ly .
Congress added se v en e n t i r e l y
new s e c t i o n s t o t h e A c t, f i v e o f them endowing th e Commission
w ith s p e c i f i c powers t o c o n t r o l th e d is s e m in a tio n o f th e a d 2
v e r t i s l n g o f f o o d s , d r u g s , d e v ic e s and c o s m e tlo s .
S e c tio n
12 d e c la r e s I t t o b e " u n la w fu l, and makes I t an u n fa ir or
d e c e p tiv e a o t or p r a o t lo e , t o d is s e m in a te , or cau se t o b e
d is s e m in a te d , by U n ited S t a t e s m a lls , any f a l s e a d v e r tisem en ts
f o r th e purpose o f in d u c in g , or w h ich I s l i k e l y t o In d u ce, d i ­
r e c t l y or I n d i r e c t l y , th e purchase o f f o o d , d r u g s , d e v ic e s
3
or c o s m e tic s ,"
I t i s lik e w is e made u n la w fu l t o d is se m in a te
by a ny means a f a l s e a d v ertisem en t f o r th e purpose or w ith
tb e l ik e l i h o o d o f in d u cin g th e pu rchase In I n t e r s t a t e com­
merce o f fo o d , d r u g s , d e v ic e s and c o s m e t ic s ,
A very Im portant a f f e c t o f t h e s e new amendments i s
th e j u r i s d i c t i o n g iv e n t h e Commission t o a c t when th e
" f a ilu r e t o r e v e a l" th e in g r e d ie n t s o f any fo o d , d r u g , or
c o sm etic c a u se s damage t o th e u s e r .
The C om m ission's j u r i s d i c t i o n a tta c h e s under
any one o f th r e e c o n d itio n s s
F i r s t , when an a d v e r tisem en t i s d isse m in a te d
by U n ited S t a t e s m a ils ;
1,
2,
3,
F e d e r a l Trade Com m ission, o p , p i t ,
I b id .
I b id .
I
142
Secon d , -rtien a n a d v ertisem en t I s d i s ­
sem in ated In I n t e r s t a t e commerce b y any
means; and
T h ir d , when an a d v e r tise m e n t b y any means
i s in te n d ed t o or i s l i k e l y t o ind uce a purchase
in i n t e r s t a t e com m erce.!
The purpose of th e a d d it io n a l language in t h e amend­
m ents was t o make i t no lo n g e r n e c e s s a r y f o r th e Commission
t o o f f e r e v id e n c e e s t a b l i s h in g in ju r y t o an a c t u a l or
p o t e n t i a l co m p etito r but m erely t o prove " u n fa ir or d e ­
c e p t iv e a c t s i n commerce•"
The Commission o p e r a te s b oth a s an a d v is o r y board
and a s a r e g u la r agen cy o f th e government whloh w i l l ta k e
a c t io n t o th e c o u r ts i f no o th e r method can be d e v is e d t o
c o n t r o l what i t deems t o b e u n f a ir c o m p e titio n o r m isle a d ­
in g or fr a u d u le n t a d v e r t i s in g .
The
method w h ic h i t u s e s ,
how ever, i s v e r y f a i r .
When an a d v e r tise m e n t ap p ears t o be fr a u d u le n t, th e
company i s ask ed t o f i l l out a que s t io n n a ir e r eg a r d in g th e
a d v e r tise m e n t, and t o g iv e t e c h n ic a l and docum entary p ro o f
f o r w h atever s ta te m e n ts may be q u e s tio n e d .
The Commission
has a c c e s s t o t h e l a b o r a t o r i e s , l i b r a r i e s , and o th er f a c i l i ­
t i e s o f th e f e d e r a l governm ent t o w h ic h i t may r e f e r m a tte r s
f o r s c i e n t i f i c o p in io n s and in fo x m a tio n .
The Commission
a l s o o b ta in s any n e c e s s a r y c h e m ic a l, m ed ica l and o th e r
-a
s c i e n t i f i c in fo r m a tio n and o p in io n s from government h o s p i t a l s ,
1,
N a tio n a l B e tte r B u sin e ss B ureau, I n c , , A Guide t o Na­
t i o n a l A d v e r t is in g , s e c , 1 ,
**
143
c l i n i c s , and l a b o r a t o r i e s ,
A com m issioned m ed ical o f f i c e r
o f t h e U n ited S ta te s P u b lic H ealth S e r v ic e i s d e t a i le d t o
th e Commission t o a c t a s a d v is e r and c o n s u lta n t .
I f i t i s found th a t th e a d v e r tis in g o f any product
i s t r u l y fr a u d u le n t, th en an attem p t i s made t o se cu re a
"m eeting o f m inds," so t h a t th e m anufacturer be g iv e n th e
o p p o r tu n ity to change h is p rodu ct or h is a d v e r t is in g w ith ou t
b e in g ordered in t o c o u r t about i t . When and where t h i s i s
p o s s i b l e , t h e a d v e r t is e r or m anufacturer i s ask ed t o s i g n a
s tip u la tio n .
R arely has anyone broken t h i s k in d of c o n t r a c t .
In c a se i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o g o t o c o u r t and c a r r y on
a t r i a l o f th e c a s e , th e e n d - r e s u lt f o r th e lo s in g manufac­
tu r e r i s a " cease and d e s i s t " order w h loh , o f c o u r s e , has a l l
th e power of t h e f e d e r a l government b eh in d i t .
Examples o f
some o f t h e s e a c t io n s in c lu d e :
Joseph V ic to r ! and C o ., I n c , and D an n em iller
C o ffe e Company, New York, c o f f e e d e a l e r s , have
e n te r e d in t o s t i p u l a t i o n s w ith th e Commission t o
c e a s e c e r t a in m isle a d in g r e p r e s e n t a t io n s .
B oth o cmpanles a g r e e t o c e a s e em ploying th e name
R ico Cafe a s a tra d e name or o th e rw ise t o d e s i g ­
n a te a b le n d o f c o f f e e s o ld by them s o a s t o im ply
th a t such product i s P u erto R ican c o f f e e or a
b len d t h e r e o f , when su ch i s n ot a f a c t .
A ccording t o th e s t i p u l a t i o n s , b o th com panies
d is t r ib u t e d a b len d o f c o f f e e a d v e r tis e d a s
'C afe R ic o , B lended and R o a sted , S o l i v e l l a s &
C o ,, S u e r s ,, Y auco, P u erto R ic o ,' when in f a c t
th e c o f f e e so d e s ig n a te d was not produced in
P u erto R ic o , b u t was a b le n d o f c o f f e e s im ported
from C e n tr a l and South America and A ra b ia , and
b len d ed and r o a s te d by D an n em iller C o ffe e Company
a t i t s p la n t i n B rook lyn ,
•a
144
Joseph V io to r i & C o ., I n c . a g r e e s t o d is c o n tin u e
l i s t i n g or d e s ig n a tin g any c o f f e e p rodu ct a s
Cafe B ico w h ich i s not th e a c tu a l b le n d o f c o f ­
f e e packed and m arketed b y C a fe te r o s de P u erto
R ic o , a c o o p e r a tiv e o r g a n is a t io n o f P uerto R ican
c o f f e e b le n d e r s , who m arket a h ig h -g ra d e o o f f e e
under th e tra d e name Cafe R ic o .
D an nem iller C offee Company a g r e e s t o s to p r e p r e ­
s e n tin g by means o f l a b e l s , or in any o th e r
way, th a t i t i s a b le n d e r and r o a s t e r o f c o f f e e
in Tauco or e lse w h e r e i n P u erto R ic o , when su ch
i s u n tr u e . 1
A lthough t h i s i s a k in d o f " c lo s e th e s t a b le - d o o r
a f t e r th e h c r se i s s to le n " c o n t r o l , i t i s , n e v e r t h e le s s ,
about th e o n ly way t h a t su ch a l e g a l i s t i c k in d o f g o v ern ­
ment c o n t r o l can op era te s u c c e s s f u l l y .
Every e f f o r t has
been made, how ever, b y t h e F e d e r a l Trade Commission t o o u t­
l i n e i t s r u le s and r e g u la t io n s , and t o g iv e g e n e r a l ad­
v i c e t o b o th m anufacturers and a d v e r t i s e r s , d e s ig n e d t o sa v e
each th e n e e d le s s expense o f cop y p r e p a r a tio n and p u b lic a ­
tio n .
Another s i g n i f i c a n t phase o f th e a c t i v i t i e s o f th e
Commiesion h as b een i t s tr a d e p r a o t ic e c o n fe r e n c e work.
T h is
procedure a ffo r d s a means w hereby members o f any in d u str y
can co o p era te v o lu n t a r ily w ith t h e Commission in th e e s t a b ­
lish m e n t o f f a i r tr a d e p r a c t ic e r u l e s , th e purpose of which
i s th e u ltim a te e lim in a t io n o f u n fa ir m ethods o f c o m p etitio n
1.
P r i n t e r ' s I n k .'C ease and D e s i s t ' Orders o f th e F e d e r a l
tr a d e Commission, (February 2 , 1 9 3 9 ), p . 2 2 .
145
and I l l e g a l a c t s , p r a c t i c e s , and tr a d e a b u s e s .
Other exam ples o f th e work o f th e F ed er a l Trade Com­
m is s io n In clu d e t h i s example o f an a c t io n a g a in s t Ipana
to o th p a s te m anufactured by B r is to l-M y e r s .
From th e H earings
b e fo r e th e Temporary N a tio n a l Economic Committee we le a r n :
In th e December, 1936 is s u e o f Good House­
k e e p in g , an a d v ertisem en t o f Ipana s t a t e d :
'But th e c i v i l i z e d way t o b u i l d fir m gums i s
Ipana and m a s s a g e .1 B r is to l-M y e r s agreed in
Jun e, 1 9 3 7 , t o 'c e a s e and d e s i s t ' from sa y ­
i n g , 't h a t Ipana and m assage i s th e c i v i l i z e d
way t o b u ild fir m gum s.' In th e Jnauary, 1937
is s u e o f t h i s m agazine an a d v ertisem en t o f Ipana
s t a t e d : 'D o n 't r is k b e in g a d e n t a l c r i p p le .
Change t o Ipana and m a ssa g e .' B r isto l-M y e r s
a g reed i n Ju n e, 1 9 3 7 , t o 'c e a s e and d e s i s t ' from
sa y in g th a t 'Ipana and m assage w i l l p reven t one
from becom ing a 'd e n t a l c r i p p l e .'
In th e A p r il, 1937 is s u e o f Good H ousekeeping, an
a d v e r tisem en t s t a t e d : 'Rub a l i t t l e e&tra Ipana
i n t o your gums. You can f e e l — alm ost from t h e
f i r s t — a change tow ard new h e a lth y fir m n e s s , as
Ipana wakens th e la z y gum t i s s u e s , and a s new c i r ­
c u la t io n c o u r s e s th rou gh th e m i'
Three months l a t e r , B r is to l-M y e r s agreed t o 'c e a se
and d e s i s t ' from s a y in g : 't h a t th e rubbing o f a
l i t t l e Ipana t o o t h p a s te in t o th e gums w i l l p ro­
duce a new c i r c u l a t i o n , aw akening th e gum w a lls
th e m s e lv e s . '
Another ln a te n c e o f in c o n s is t e n c y betw een adver­
t i s i n g c la im s presum ably p a ssed upon by th e maga­
z in e and s t i p u l a t io n s o f th e F e d e r a l Trade Commis­
s io n have come t o our a t t e n t io n .^
1.
Temporary N a tio n a l Economic Com m ittee, H e a r in g s. F art 8 ,
Problems o f th e Consumer, May 1 0 , 1 9 3 9 , W ashington,
D .C .: Government P r in tin g O f f ic e , 1 9 3 9 , p . 3 3 8 0 .
146
T h is I s bow th e government p r o t e c t s th e consumer
from th e u s e o f f a l s e cla im s*
The a c tio n I s d ir e c t when
s t a r t e d bu t u n fo r tu n a te ly has t o w a it f o r a c t io n u n t i l th e
a d v e r t is in g i s a c t u a l ly p r in te d *
The consumer has a much
Improved p r o t e c t io n now w ith t h e p a ssa g e o f th e W heeler-Lea
A c t, b ecau se i t g i v e s th e F ed er a l Trade Commission d ir e c t
c o n t r o l over a l l a d v e r t is in g and th e new s e c t i o n d e f in e s
" f a ls e a d v e r tise m e n t."
The " c e a s e and d e s is t * ord ers are
str e n g th e n e d making i t n e c e s s a r y f o r th e a d v e r tis e r t o go
t o c o u r t i f he w is h e s to d is p u t e th e C om m ission's fin d in g s *
T his k in d o f s e r v i c e , p o l i c i n g in d u s tr y and ad ver­
t i s i n g i n order t h a t t h e consumer may be p r o te c t e d , i s a v e r y
n e c e s s a r y s e r v i c e i n any scheme o f economic e n te r p r is e *
The
Com m ission, t h e r e f o r e , i s one of th e n a t io n 's most v i t a l
u n it s c o m p ellin g th e r e p r e s e n ta tio n o f t r u t h in commerce*
As an e v a lu a t in g agency in t h i s stu d y , we must d e ­
p en d , f o r our in fo r m a tio n , on a reco rd o f i t s "cease and
d e s is t " o r d e r s , and w h atever s t i p u l a t i o n s have b een made
w ith m anu factu rers t o p r o te c t consumsrs*
The r u le s and regu­
l a t i o n s w hich th e Commission h a s made f o r th e gu id an ce of
a d v e r t is e r s and m anu factu rers i s v e r y im portant Infoxm atlon
f o r e v er y h e a lt h e d u c a to r t o h a v e , in order t h a t he may know
what h i s government i s d o in g t o p r o t e c t th e h e a lt h o f i t s
c itiz e n s *
i
147
Food and Drug A d m ln lstratIon o f th e F ed eral S e c u r ity
Agency as an E v a lu a tin g Agency
Ever s in c e J u ly 1 , 1 9 2 7 , th e Food and Drug Adminis­
t r a t io n has been a c t i v e in fo r c in g through a group o f a c ts
w hich were p assed upon th e recommendation o f th e S e c r e ta r y
o f A g r ic u ltu r e .
These were d e sig n ed p r im a r ily t o promote
p u r ity and t r u t h f u l la b e lin g in c e r t a in com m odities e s s e n t i a l
to th e p e o p le 's h e a lt h and th e econom ic w e lfa r e of th e n a t io n .
These a c ts were based on th e p r o v is io n o f th e con­
s t i t u t i o n w hich g iv e s th e f e d e r a l government th e power t o
r e g u la t e i n t e r s t a t e and f o r e ig n commerce.
The Food and Drug Act p r o h ib its th e a d u lte r a tio n
or m ishranding o f any fo o d , drug or m e d ic in e .
The volume o f food and drug p rod u cts th a t e n te r in t o
i n t e r s t a t e commerce and are im ported in t o t h i s cou n try i s
enormous.
In order t o s u p e r v is e t h i s t r a f f i c e f f e c t i v e l y ,
a p r o je c t system has b een put in t o e f f e c t .
The v a r io u s ty p e s
o f fo o d s and drugs w hich come w ith in th e scope o f th e a c t are
d iv id e d in t o c l a s s e s , such as canned f o o d s , c e r e a l p r o d u c ts,
f r u i t and f r u it - p r o d u c t s , c a t t l e - f o o d s , m ed icin es and pharma­
c e u tic a ls .
B ecause o f th e d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered in the ad m in is­
t r a t io n o f th e o ld law and b ecau se o f t h e f a c t th a t i t d id
n o t cover la r g e groups o f p rod u cts which i t seemed n e c e s s a r y
to c o n t r o l, a new F e d e r a l Food, Drug and Cosm etic A ct was
en a cted on June 2 5 , 1 9 3 8 .
I t s g e n e r a l p r o v is io n were t o
148
become e f f e c t i v e one yea r from th a t d a t e .
I t la a r e v is io n
o f th e fo rm er 3aw and broadens th e powers o f th e Food and
Drugs Act o f 1 9 0 6 .
W hereas, th e W heeler-Lea Aot d e a ls p r im a r ily w ith
th e a d v e r t is in g and s e l l i n g o f fo o d and drug d e v ic e s and
c o s m e tic s , th e F e d e r a l Food, Drug and Cosm etio A ct r e g u la t e s
a l s o th e l a b e l i n g , m anu factu ring and s a l e o f t h e s e com m od ities.
The Food and Drug A d m in istra tio n i s d i r e c t l y con­
cerned w ith t h e a d m in is tr a tio n o f t h i s g r e a t l y broadened scope
o f t h e Aot under w hich t h e y o p e r a te .
A d u lte r a tio n and m is­
b rand ing a r e t h e two most im portant f e a tu r e s o f t h e i r c o n t r o l .
They ta k e a c t i o n when f o o d , d ra g s o r c o sm e tic s are deemed to
be a d u lte r a te d ; when th e y c o n s i s t in p a r t o f any f i l t h y ,
p u tr id o r decom posed su b sta n c e ; i f i t has b een p rep ared ,
packed cr h e ld under u n s a n ita r y c o n d itio n s whereby i t may
have become contam inated w ith f i l t h or ren d ered in ju r io u s
t o h e a l t h , or i f i t s
c o n ta in e r i s composed in whole o r i n
p a r t o f any p o iso n o u s or d e l e t e r i o u s su b sta n ce w hich may
ren der th e c o n te n ts in ju r io u s t o h e a l t h .
A f o o d , d r a g , d e v io e o r c o s m e tic w i l l b e deemed
t o be m isbranded — I f any word, sta te m e n t, or
o th e r Amfiermation r e q u ir e d b y or under a u th o r ity
o f t h i s Aot to appear on th e l a b e l or l a b e lin g i s
n ot p ro m in en tly p la c e d th e r e o n w ith su ch c o n sp io u o u sn esa (a s compared w it h o th e r w ords, s t a t e ­
m en ts, d e s ig n s , or d e v i c e s , i n th e la b e lin g ) and
in such t e r n s a s t o ren d er i t l i k e l y t o b e rea d
and u n d erstood by tb s ' o r d in a r y in d iv id u a l under
custom ary c o n d itio n s o f p u rch ase and u s e .^
1.
F e d e r a l Food, Drug and C osm etic A o t, S e c . 4 0 3 , C hapter
375 , 3rd S e s s io n , 7 5 th C on gress, W ashington, D .C ., 1 9 3 8 .
Commodities co v ered :
The f o llo w in g com m odities f a l l
w ith in t h e sco p e o f t h e a o t :
1.
F ood, d e fin e d a s " a r t i c l e s u sed f o r fo o d or
d r in k f o r man or o th er anim als" and components
t h e r e o f , and s p e c i f i c a l l y "chewing gum."1
2.
D ru gs, em braoing e v e r y th in g o r d in a r ily In­
c lu d e d in t h a t term o r fo u n d in t h e N a tio n a l
F o m u la r y , drugs u sed in th e d ia g n o s is o f d i ­
s e a s e , and a r t i c l e s (o th e r th a n fo o d ) in te n d ed
" to a f f e c t th e str u c tu r e or any f u n c t io n o f th e
body" such a s w e ig h t r e d u c e r s .*
3.
D e v ic e s , em braoing " in str u m e n ts, ap p aratu s and
co x * rlv a n o es" in c lu d in g t h e i r com ponents, p a r ts
and a c c e s s o r i e s . 3
4.
C o sm e tic s, d e fin e d a s " a r t i c l e s in ten d ed t o be
rubbed, p ou red , s p r in k le d , or sprayed o n , i n ­
tro d u ced i n t o , or o th e r w ise a p p lie d t o th e
human body or any p a r t th e r e o f f o r c le a n s in g ,
b e a u t i f y i n g , prom oting a t t r a c t iv e n e s s o r a l t e r ­
in g t h e appearance" and components o f su ch a r ­
t i c l e s , n o t , how ever, In c lu d in g s o a p .4
H ere, a g a i n , we have a n o th e r government agency s e t
up f o r t h e s p e c i f i c purpose o f p r o t e c t in g t h e consumer by
p r o v id in g a r e g u la t in g body iftiioh o p e r a te s under th e D epart­
ment o f A g r ic u lt u r e .
I t i s not p o s s ib le f o r any p rod u ct t o o b ta in s p e c i f i c
app roval from t h e Food and Drug A d m in istr a tio n u n t i l i t i s
a c t u a lly on th e c o u n te r s and b e in g s o l d .
The procedure i s
t o oheok th e l a b e l s o f a l l p r o d u c ts and by means o f l a b e l
1.
2.
3.
4.
F e d e r a l Food, Drug and C osm etic A c t, op. c l t . . S e c . 2 0 1 ( f ) .
I b id . . S e c . 201 (g j
, S e c . 201 (h
f b l d . . S e c . 201 (i!
150
a n a ly s is t o d e t e m in e th e t r u e s t a t u s o f th e product and
w hether or n o t th e l a b e l g i v e s th e consumer a c c u r a te I n fo r ­
m a tio n ,
However, i t d oes not p r o te c t th e consumer who r e ­
f u s e s t o r e a d th e l a b e l .
In order t o b e inform ed o f th e s t a t u s o f p rod u cts
i n w h ich a consumer m ight b e i n t e r e s t e d , i t i s a d v is a b le t o
peru se t h e f i l e s o f N o tic e s o f Judgment under t h e Pood and
Drug A c t,
m onth.
These a r e a v a i la b l e to anyone who wants them each
They In clu d e a l i s t o f a p e o if io l e g a l a c tio n s ta k e n
a g a in s t w hatever p rod u cts have b een a d ju d ic a te d under th e
j u r i s d i c t i o n o f th e A d m in istr a tio n d u rin g th e cu r re n t m onth.
From a stu d y o f the s e N o tic e s o f Judgment, th e l i s t
o f f r e e m a t e r ia ls h ere g iv e n was ohecked t o make c e r t a i n th a t
no product l i s t e d by t h e Government f o r a d u lt e r a t io n , m is­
b rand ing or f a u l t y l a b e lin g w as in o lu d e d i n th e f i n d i n g s ,
W isco n sin Alumni R esearch F oundation a s an E v a lu a tin g Agency
Many e d u a s te r s a r e aware o f th e Steenbook p r o c e s s f o r
I r r a d ia t in g p rod u cts w it h u l t r a v i o l e t r a y s w hich m y s te r io u s ly
c o n c e n tr a te s V itam in D i n v a r io u s f o o d s t u f f s , m ilk s and
m ilk p r o d u c ts .
Very few a r e aware o f th e method w h ich h a s
been u sed t o p e r p e tu a te th e r e se a r c h o f s o le n o e by means o f
t h e inoome from th e p r o c e s s ,
Steen bock gave t o a F oun dation
w hich d e v e lo p e d from t h e g i f t s o f money b y W isoon sin Alumni
h i s b a s i c p a te n t f o r t h i s i r r a d i a t io n t o o o n c e n tr a te V itam in D ,
161
The r o y a l t i e s accrue to t h e F oun dation and by h ie s t i p u l a t i o n s
are u se d t o p a y f o r f e l l o w s h i p s f o r young s c i e n t i s t s , and
f o r r e se a r c h l a o th er s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d s *
They a r e w orking
on such p r o j e c t s a s t u b e r c u l o s i s , a r t h r i t i s , t o o t h d e c a y and
r ic k e t s *
G ra d u a lly , t h e F oundation i s g a in in g prom inence be­
cau se o f t h e r a m if ic a t io n s o f i t s p a te n ts *
c o n t r o llin g p a te n ts
I t now h old s
on th e u s e o f oop p er and ir o n i n th e
treatm en t o f anemia and i s c o l l e c t i n g r o y a l t i e s on i t s use*
Many o th e r l e s s s p e c ta c u la r d is c o v e r ie s have emanated from
t h e s e la b o r a to r ie s *
The c o n t r o l o f a d v e r t is in g a s w e l l a s th e u s e o f th e
p a te n te d p r o c e s s e s comes under th e w a tc h fu l eye o f th e Foun­
d a tio n *
T h e r e fo r e , t h e y a r e a d m is s ib ly a v e r y a c t iv e agency
f o r th e e v a lu a tio n o f p r in te d m a te r ia l*
C on traots w ith m an u factu rers g iv e WARF th e
p r i v i l e g e o f c e n s o r in g any a d v e r tisem en t men­
t io n in g V itam in D. To make su r e th a t V itam in D
i s in th e product a s a d v e r tis e d th e WARF con­
s t a n t l y t e s t s m a n u fa ctu rers1 sam p les o f ir r a d ia t e d
p rod u cts — p lu s sam ples bought a t random by f i e l d
a g e n t s *1
1*
J . C* Furnas and W illia m F* McDermott, "About a Man Who
Gave a M illio n - D o lla r No*" The R o ta r la n . V (Jan u ary,
1 9 4 0 ), p p . 1 8 - 2 1 , 2 0 .
152
APPENDIX B
L I T H O G R A P H E R S
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION
295 Madiaon Avenue
New Y ork, N . Y .
January 1 2 , 1940
SCHOOL PROMOTION OPPORTUNITY...
"With v a r io u s S t a t e s s la s h in g s c h o o l b u d g e ts," s a id
th e New York TIMES r e c e n t l y , " n a tio n a l a d v e r t i s e r s , p a r tic u ­
l a r l y i n th e fo o d f i e l d , have an e x c e l l e n t o p p o rtu n ity t o
o f f e r i n t e l l i g e n t m a te r ia l f o r u s e i n p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n ,
home econom ics and o th e r s c h o o l d ep artm en ts, aoco rd in g t o
e d u c a tio n a l o f f i c i a l s . They em p h a sized , how ever, th a t i n
su ch m a t e r ia l, company 'p lu g s 1, and a d v e r t is in g sh ou ld be
kept t o a minimum. Textbook a p p r o p r ia tio n s have b een c u r ­
t a i l e d i n many s t a t e s and te a c h e r s a r e an xiou s t o l a y t h e i r
hands on an y m a t e r ia l w h ich i s a t a l l s u i t a b l e . A number o f
companies have b een h ig h ly s u c c e s s f u l w ith s c h o o l m a te r ia l
c o v er in g su ch s u b j e c t s a s v ita m in s , d i e t s , c o o k in g , e t c ."
T h is we q u oted i n our Members' B u ll e t i n # 1 7 3 3 , and i n t h i s
c o n n e c tio n , we r e f e r r e d t o —
THE INSTRUCTOR, " tra d e” p u b lic a t io n o f th e edu­
c a t io n a l f i e l d , (w hich) has p rep ared a number o f
s t a t i s t i c a l l i s t s on t h e volume and c h a r a c te r o f
th e S ch o o l f i e l d , in c lu d in g data a s t o th e ty p e
o f p r in te d m a te r ia l w h loh h a s b e e n u sed w ith s u o c e s s in t h a t f i e l d b y n a t io n a l a d v e r t i s e r s .
*
*
*
*
COPIES OF THESE DATA SHEETS we e n c lo s e h e r e w ith , th rou gh th e
c o u r te s y and c o o p e r a tio n o f George “umage, A d v e r tis in g
Manager o f THE INSTRUCTOR.
B ea rin g in mind t h a t t h i s m a t e r ia l h a s b e e n prepared f o r th e
s p e o l f l o p rom otion and s a l e o f a d v e r t is in g sp ace i n THE IN­
STRUCTOR ( i n w hloh no lith o g r a p h e r would be d i r e c t l y i n ­
t e r e s t e d ) , you w i l l n e v e r t h e le s s f i n d , we a r e s u r e , t h a t
t h e s e oampaign s t o r i e s and c a se h i s t o r i e s a r e s u g g e s tiv e
and e x tr e m e ly i n t e r e s t i n g .
153
You w i l l n o te tb e o f f e r o f a d d it io n a l d e t a i l e d market d a ta ,
and a copy o f THE INSTRUCTOR, i f you a r e in t e r e a t e d ; sim p ly
s i g n and r e tu r n tb e e n o lo se d "Acceptogram" and b u s in e s s
r e p ly e n v e lo p e .
Ve sh o u ld a ls o b e bappy t o have you c a l l upon u s f o r s e r v ic e
and in fo r m a tio n , e t c . , i n c o n n e c tio n v i t h your s p e o i f i o i n ­
t e r e s t s or problem s i n t h i s f i e l d .
Yours c o r d i a l l y ,
THE EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENT
1B’4
U r. John B enson, P r e sid e n t o f t h e American A s so c ia ­
t i o n o f A d v e r tisin g A g e n c ie s, s e n t a s p e c i a l b u l l e t i n t o a l l
a g e n c ie s a s k in g them t o ren d e r ev ery p o s s i b l e a s s is t a n c e t o
t h is in v e s tig a tio n .
A copy o f t h i s b u l l e t i n f o l l o w s :
A .A .A .A . B u ll e t i n No. 1 0 9 7 , December 1 6 , 1938
An O pportunity t o Help
I n C r a s u g r Tf o r C io n s
"A U r. Edward J . S to r e y may a sk you f o r o o p le s
o f b o o k le t s , pam phlets or a d v e r t i s in g , put out
by fo o d and drug c l i e n t s , f o r u se i n p rep a rin g
a t h e s i s f o r a Ed. D. d e g r e e .
He p la n s t o co m p ile a l i s t o f f r e e m a t e r ia l on
h e a lt h w h ich te a c h e r s may u se in c l a s s e s as
r e l i a b l e and in fo r m a tiv e .
The stu d y may b e u se d w id e ly by t e a c h e r s , and
hence you may c o n s id e r i t d e s ir a b le t o have
your c l i e n t s ' m a te r ia l in c lu d e d .
I t i s a r e l i a b l e u n d e r ta k in g , I am t o l d by th e
Dean o f New York U n iv e r s it y , S ch o o l of Educa­
t i o n . U r. S to r e y i s D ir e c to r o f th e Department
o f H ea lth and P h y s io a l E duoation i n th e Uamaroneok (N . Y .) P u b lic S c h o o ls .
I t r u s t you w i l l co o p era te w it h U r. S to r e y when
and i f he c a l l s on you ."
The A s s o c ia tio n o f N a tio n a l A d v e r tis e r s gave s im ila r
a s s i s t a n c e , a s d id th e A d v e r tis in g F e d e r a tio n o f A m erica.
155
APPENDIX C
BOARD OF EDUCATION
UNION FREE SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 1
TOWN OF MAMARONECK, N. 7 .
Department o f Health, and P h y s ic a l E d u cation
Edward J . S to r e y , D ir e c to r
Dear F e llo w -ed u o a to r :
B ecause o f your e x p e r ie n c e and e d u c a tio n a l background,
your a s s is t a n c e I s s o l i c i t e d In th e s o lu t io n o f an e d u c a tio n a l
problem . You a r e an e x p e r t In you r f i e l d o f s p e c i a l i s a t i o n
and a s su ch your o p in io n would be d e s i r a b l e .
You w i l l r e c e iv e a s e t o f c h a r t s , b o o k le t s and pam­
p h le t s and a l i s t o f f r e e p r in te d m aterials grouped f o r sc h o o l
u se in h e a lt h e d u c a tio n . The problem I s t o d etexm ln e w hether
t h i s l i s t r e p r e s e n ts t h e b e s t and m ost e f f e c t i v e l i s t i n g o f
t h e s e m a t e r ia ls f o r s c h o o l u se i n h e a lt h e d u c a tio n .
T hese p r in te d m a te r ia ls have been checked by w e l l
a u th e n tic a te d e v a lu a t in g a g e n c ie s f o r accuracy o f sta te m e n t.
W ill you r e a d t h e s e b o o k le ts and I n d ic a te your agreement
or d isagreem en t w ith t h e l i s t i n g in th e l e f t hand m argin o f
th e l i s t w hloh h a s b een s e n t t o you?
E f f e c t i v e s c h o o l u se depends upon h a v in g t h e s e ma­
t e r i a l s l i s t e d f o r t e a c h e r s a t t h e p rop er grade l e v e l . T h is
m lg it be d eterm in ed b y o th e r m eth od s, b u t your o p in io n i s
b e in g sou ght in order t o make t h i s method a p r a o t ie a l o n e.
Yon a s s o c i a t e w it h c h ild r e n a t v a r io u s age l e v e l s e v e r y day
and th e r e a r e b e t t e r a b le t o judge t h e a d a p t a b i l it y o f t h i s
m a t e r ia l th a n a p erso n who would u s e a p u r e ly la b o r a to r y
approach.
Would you l i k e t o have a co p y o f t h i s stu d y and th e
l i s t i n g s when com pleted? I f s o , p le a s e I n d ic a te when you
r e tu r n t h e l i s t w ith your o p in io n s o f th e m a t e r ia l.
Thank you f o r your a s s is t a n c e and hoping t h a t t h i s
m a te r ia l may b e o f su pp lem en tary u se t o you In your work.
C o r d ia lly y o u r s ,
(S ig n ed ) Edward J . S to r e y
I
156
IETTER SENT TO ADVERTISERS AND DISTRIBUTORS
OF PRINTED MATERIALS
Gentlemen:
As a p a r t o f th e req uirem en ts f o r tb e d o c to r a te
d eg ree a t New York U n iv e r s it y , I have b een stu d y in g p r in te d
m a te r ia l t h a t i s a v a ila b le f r e e t o t e a c h e r s in th e U n ited
S ta te s*
The l i s t w hioh i s b e in g se n t t o you i s a t e n t a t iv e
one and i s b e in g u se d t o fu r th e r check t h e grade l e v e l o f
t h i s m a te r ia l f o r s c h o o l u se* I f you a r e I n t e r e s t e d in
g e t t in g f u r t h e r d is t r i b u t io n o f your p r in te d m a te r ia l by
h avin g i t l i s t e d f o r proper g r a d e - l e v e l , w i l l you p le a s e
send f i v e c o p ie s o f e a c h p ie c e o f f r e e p r in te d m a te r ia l
th a t you have now a v a ila b le on a n a t io n a l b a s i s to th e
e n c lo s e d l i s t o f h e a lt h e d u o a to r s , home e c o n o m is ts , g e n e r a l
s c ie n c e te a c h e r s and s c h o o l a d m in istr a to r s*
W ill you p le a s e w r ite me when you sen d t h i s ma­
t e r i a l and a l s o th e e x a c t m a te r ia l w h ich you e r e send ing?
I would a p p r e c ia te h a v in g d u p lic a t e s o f a l l t h i s m a t e r ia l,
too*
I f you a re i n t e r e s t e d in any o th e r d e t a i l s o f t h i s
s tu d y , I s h a l l be p le a s e d t o p rovid e them .
C o r d ia lly y o u r s.
EJSsmfia
P.S*
A copy o f th e l e t t e r s e n t t o e d u c a t io n a l e v a lu a to r s
i s in c lu d e d f o r your in form ation *
On th e r e v e r s e s id e i s a l i s t o f e d u c a to r s who w i l l
e v a lu a te your m a te r ia l*
EJS*
II
IS *
MAMAROHEOK PUBLIC SCHOOLS
Department o f H e a lth and P h y s ic a l E d ucation
Mamaraneck, N. Y .
Septem ber 1 5 , 1938
Oentlemen:
American In d u stry h a s c r e a te d many in**
t e r e a t i n g and in fo r m a tiv e b o o k le ts o f v a lu e t o
stu d e n ts o f h e a lt h e d u c a tio n .
A stu d y I s b e in g made o f t h e s e p a m p h lets,
b o o k le ts and c h a r ts . P la n s a re b ein g made f o r
t h e i r e v a lu a t io n . T h is stu d y i s b e in g conducted
a s one o f th e req u irem en ts f a r a d o c to r a te d eg ree
in e d u c a tio n a t New York U n iv e r s it y .
May I have your c o o p e r a tio n i n ord er th a t
I may c o l l e c t a l l f r e e p r in te d m a te r ia ls t h a t may
be o f v a lu e t o te a c h e r s o f h e a lt h e d u ca tio n ?
P le a s e sen d me c o p ie s o f t h o s e th a t you
have a v a ild b le f o r f r e e d i s t r i b u t i o n , or have i n
rough form t o b e p r in te d f o r t h e coming y e a r .
C o r d ia lly ,
The above l e t t e r was s e n t t o f i v e hundred a d v e r t is in g
a g e n o le s chosen b e c a u se o f th e a cco u n ts w hich had a
r e la t io n s h ip t o h e a lt h e d u c a tio n .
jfJEW YORK UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
,
UBRARY
•
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