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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY ADJUSTMENT AND ACHIEVEMENT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ACTIVITIES

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67
Sperling, Abraham P
The relationship between personalify
adjustment and achievement in physical
education activities...
New York,
1941.
vii,115 typewritten leaves,
tables,
diagrs..forms. 29cm,
Thesis (Ph.D.) - New York university,
School of education, 1941.
Bibliography: p.102-105.
A67861
Shelf List
Xerox University Microfilms,
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
T H IS D IS S E R T A T IO N HAS BEEN M IC R O F IL M E D E X A C T L Y AS R E C E IV E D .
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY ADJUSTMENT AND
ACHIEVEMENT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ACTIVITIES
ABRAHAM P. SPERLING
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy in the School of Education of
New York University
1941
PLEASE NOTE:
Some pages may have
indistinct print.
Filmed as received.
University Microfilms, A Xerox Education Company
A CKHOV/LEDGMEH T3
Sincere thanks are hereby expressed to Professor Prank S.
Lloyd, Professor Brian E. Tomlinson, and Professor Paul V. Y/est
for their sagacious guidance and unstinted helpfulness in the
conduction of this study. A deep feeling of appreciation is
extended to the many students and instructors of the College of
the City of Hew York who generously and conscientiously assisted
in furnishing the data.
To Mr. James D. Perry of the City Col­
lege Personnel Bureau is due an acknowledgment for many valuable
suggestions and favors granted.
To Dr. Isidore Chein, Dr. Max
Hertzraan, Professor John Gray Peatman and Professor George Mil­
ton Smith, members of the Department of Psychology at City
College, is due an indebtedness for their cooperation in ob­
taining the data for the preliminary investigation. An expres­
sion of gratitude is accorded Mr. Y/illiam Spinka, Mr. Joseph
Ballison and Mr. Milton Markowitz for their faithful work in
acting as scorers and general helpers in the preparation of the
manuscript.
To my wife, Jean Sperling, is due an especial tri­
bute for her ever-ready assistance in the many details of the
study. An invaluable indebtedness is due my mother and father
for their never-failing encouragement and inspiration during
the completion of this work.
Abraham P. Sperling
A 67 861
ii
TABLE OP CONTENTS
Chapter
Topic
Page
I
ORIENTATION TO THE PROBLEM
The Problem. — Need for the Study. — Delimita­
tions of the Study. -- Specific Problems. -- Defini­
tion of Terms. — Historical Background.
1
II
SELECTION AND DESCRIPTION OF DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENTS
Selection of Basal Adjustment Scale. — Selection
of Introversion-Extroversion Scale. — Selection of
a Scale of Dominance. — Selection of a Scale of
Social Values. — Selection of a Scale of Social At­
titudes. — The Information Blank. — Summary.
12
PROCEDURE IN SELECTION OF SUBJECTS AND COLLECTION
OF DATA
The Subjects. — The Groups. -- Obtaining the
Data. — Summary.
31
TREATMENT OF THE DATA AND RESULTS
Characteristic Distributions of Scores in the In­
ventories for the Varsity, Intramural, and NonAthlete Groups. — Comparison of Central Tendencies
of the Three Groups in the Personality Inventory
Scores. — Comparative Background Information About
the Groups. — Comparisons Within the Varsity Group
Based on Semesters of Varsity Experience. — Com­
parisons Based on Varsity Team Membership. — Com­
parison of Individual Sports Teams with Group Sports
Teams. — Comparisons Between Body-Contact Sports
Teams and Non-Body-Contact Sports Teams. — Inter­
correlation of the Scales.
37
INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS
Social Significance of Scores on Personality
Scales. — Comparison of the Main Groups. — Back­
ground Information About the Main Groups. -- Com­
parison Within the Varsity Group Based on Seasons
of Varsity Experience. — Comparison of Varsity
Sports Teams. — Comparisons Between Group and In­
dividual Sports and Body-Contact with Non-Contact
Sports.
78
Ill
IV
V
iii
Chapter
VI
VII
Topic
3UI.X.AHY AED C01ICLU3I0HS
Summary of Procedure. — Summary of Results of
Measurements. — Conclusions.
DISCUSSIOi:
Educational Implications. —
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX
Recommendations.
LIST OP TABLES
Table
Title
Page
Intercorrelation Between Human Behavior Inventory,
Bell Inventory, and Glark-Thurstone Inventory
16
II
Scores of Test Group in Human Behavior Inventory,
Bell Inventory, and Clark-Thurstone Inventory
17
III
Intercorrelation of Parts of Bell Inventory with
Each Other and with Total
18
IV
Intercorrelation of Parts of Human Behavior Inven­
tory with Each Other and with Total
19
V
Comparative Scores for the Three College Groups on
the Personality Traits of the Bive Inventories
45
Critical Ratios of the Differences Between Mean
Scores for the Varsity, Intramural, and TTon-athlete
Groups on the Human Behavior Inventory and Its Sub­
sections
46
Critical Ratios of the Differences 3etween Mean
Scores for the Three Groups on the IntroversionExtroversion Scale, Ascendance-Submission Scale,
and Conservatism-Liberalism Scale
48
Critical Ratios of the Differences Between Mean
. Scores for the Varsity, Intramural and Non-athlete
Groups on the Scale of Values
49
I
VI
VII
VIII
IX
Age in Years of the Three College Groups
51
X
Religious Derivation of the Subjects by Groups
51
XI
Parental Nationality of the Subjects by Groups
52
Educational Status of the Subjects by Groups
52
Curriculum Specialization of the Subjects by Groups
53
Percentiles of the Three Groups in the American
Council on Education Psychological Examination
54
Ratings on the Beckman Scale of Occupations for the
Parents of the Subjects in the Three Groups
55
Scores in the Personality Variables for Seven Var­
sity Groups Differentiated on the Basis of Seasons
of Varsity Experience
59
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
XVI
v
Table
Title
Page
XVII
Critical Ratios of the Differences Between Means
in Several Personality Variables of Two Combined
Varsity Groups Differentiated on the Basis of
Seasons of Varsity Experience
63
XVIII
Critical Ratios of Differences Between Means in
Several Personality Variables of the Least Ex­
perienced and Most Experienced Varsity Groups
65
Critical Ratios of the Differences Between the
Means of Ten Varsity Team Groups and the Total
Varsity Group in the Personality Variables
67
XX
Analyses of Variance of the Personality Variables
for the Ten Varsity Sports Groups
69
XXI
Critical Ratios of the Differences Between Com­
bined Means in the Personality Variables of Group
Sports Teams and Individual Sports Teams
73
Critical Ratios of the Differences Between Means
in the Personality Variables of Body-Contact and
Non-Body-Contact Sports Groups
75
Intercorrelation of Human Behavior Inventory, A-3
Reaction Scale, Introversion-Extroversion Scale,
and Conservatism-Liberalism Scale
77
XIX
XXII
XXIII
vi
LIST OP DIAGRAMS
Diagram
Title
Page
1
Comparison of the Distributions of the Varsity,
Intramural, and Hon-athlete Groups on Their
Scores in the Human Behavior Inventory.
38
2
Comparison of the Distributions of the Varsity,
Intramural, and Hon-athlete Groups on Their
Scores in the Introversion-Extroversion Scale.
40
3
Comparison of the Distributions of the Varsity,
Intramural and Kon-athlete Groups on Their
Scores in the Conservatism-Liberalism Scale,
41
4
Comparison of the Distributions of the Varsity,
Intramural and I!on-athlete Groups on Their
Scores in the Aesthetic Value,
42
5
Comparison of the Distributions of the Varsity,
Intramural, and Lon-athlete Groups on Their
Scores in the Political Value,
43
vii
CHAPTER I
ORIENTATION TO THE PROBLEM
The Problem
It Is the purpose of this study to determine the relation­
ship between personality adjustment and achievement in physical
education activities among male college students.
Heed for the Study
Previous studies have measured the relationship between
personality adjustment and such factors as age, sex, and con­
jugal status,1 intelligence,2 academic grades,3 physique,4 and
physical condition,5
The results of these studies have indi­
cated little relationship between personality adjustment and the
factors studied.
This study may be considered a logical step in
the foregoing series of investigations.
Much of the literature in the fields of physical education
1. R, R. Willoughby, Relationship to Emotionality of Age, Sex,
and Conjugal Condition, American Journal of Sociology,
XLIII, (May, 1938), pp. 920-931.
2. R. Stagner, The Intercorrelation of Some Standardized Per­
sonality Tests, Journal of Applied Psychology, XVI, (1932),
pp. 453-464,
3. D, Harris, Relationship to College Grades of Some Factors
Other Than Intelligence, Archives of Psychology, Ho, 131,
1931.
4. P. S. DeQ, Cabot, The Relationship Between Characteristics of
Personality and Physique in Adolescents, Genetic Psychology
Monographs, XX Ho. 1 (February 1938), pp. 3-120.
5. F. McKinney, Concomitants of Adjustment and Maladjustment in
College Students, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology,
XXXI, (January, 193V), pp. 435-457.
2
and psychology has intimated a close relationship between eff­
iciency in physical education activities and adequate personality
adjustment.
Several statements from the literature in support
of this viewpoint are cited in the last section of this Chapter.
On the basis of opinion that participation in physical education
activities influences personality development, these activities
have been advocated as a hygienic and therapeutic measure to be
employed as a preventive of personality maladjustment1 and pos­
sible resultant mental disease.
In view of the fact that no ob­
jective data can be found to support the belief concerning the
positive relationship between efficiency in physical education
activities and personality adjustment, any empirically verifiable
evidence to affirm or negate the kind and degree of relationship
that is intimated to exist between them, would be a valuable con­
tribution to the fields of psychology and physical education. This
2
need was expressed by Burnham in his address delivered at the de­
dication of the Hew York University School of Education Building,
in which he said;
Since physical education gives superior opportunity
for the response of the personality as a whole, nat­
urally the question may arise whether those who have
had the advantage of the best training show the re­
sults in a higher development of the personality.
This is a difficult problem. No satisfactory data
2
can be cited and the question hardly concerns us here.
Though this statement was made in 1930, apparently it is equally significant today, for the investigator could discover no
satisfactory proof which has been offered in the interim.
1. G. B. Watson, Personality Growth Through Athletics, Journal of
Health and Physical Education, IX (September, 1938), p. 408.
2. J. B. Hash et. al., Interpretations of Physical Education, I
p. 163.
3
Delimitations of the Study
The study will include only male students from the College
of the City of New York in order to enable the investigator, who
teaches at this institution, to obtain subjects with whom the
necessary rapport can be established for best results from the
self-scoring pencil and paper tests to be used in the study.
While it is recognized that many other factors are related
to, and involved in the problem of personality adjustment, this
study is limited to the consideration of athletic achievement as
it is related to personality adjustment.
Due to the empirical
treatment employed, whatever relationship is indicated to exist
may not necessarily be regarded as causal except in so far as in­
ferences may be justified.
The number and nature of the personality characteristics be­
ing considered will be limited to those which may be identified by
the battery of inventories to be administered to all the subjects.
The varsity athletic teams included in this study are foot­
ball, basketball, baseball, track, lacrosse, boxing, wrestling,
swimming and tennis.
Specific Problems
In the solution of the problem it is designed that answers
to the following questions will be found.
1.
Is there a distinguishable difference between the
personality patterns of those who show outstanding
achievement in physical education activities (as
evidenced by membership on a varsity team), a group
of intramural sports participants, and a group of
non-athletes?
4
2.
Are there differences in the personality patterns
of varsity athletes who differ with respect to the
extent of their varsity experience?
3.
Do the personality patterns of the various varsity
team groups differ from the total varsity group?
4.
Is there a difference between the personality pat­
terns of members of varsity individual sports teams
and members of varsity group sports teams?
5.
Is there a difference between the personality pat­
terns of members of varsity body-contact sports
teams and varsity non-body-contact sports teams?
Definition of Terms
Varsity athletes, as used in this study, will be those indi­
viduals who are designated as members of the squad by the respec­
tive coach of a varsity sport, and who have participated in at
least one varsity meet while in college.
Hon-athletes, as used in this study, will be those individ­
uals who have never been a member of a junior high school, senior
high school, or college athletic team, nor of an intramural,
class, or club athletic team in any of these institutions.
Intramural sports members, as used in this study, will be
those individuals who have participated in one or more intramural
athletic events at the college for a period of at least two se­
mesters.
Personality adjustment, as used in this study, will refer to
the adequacy of social and emotional reactions as indicated by
the measuring instruments employed in the study.
Personality patterns, as used in this study, will refer to
the individual or group concatenation of trait characteristics
5
included in the battery of inventories submitted to the sub
jects of this study.
Historical Background
A review of the literature on the subject of personality ad­
justment and athletic participation uncovers a wealth of theoret­
ical discussion by physical educators, psychologists and sociolo­
gists who have written on the subject.
The general opinion exists among some physical educators and
some mental hygienists that participation in athletics makes for
more wholesome personalities.
The following are typical state­
ments to this effect found in the literature.
Emotional stability is only achieved through prac­
tice in controlling and modifying the feelings re­
leased. Physical education makes a most substantial
contribution to education in providing a laboratory
setting in which emotional control is practiced.
In
view of this fact the curriculum of physical educa­
tion should include those activities which are par­
ticularly valuable in arousing and offering an outlet
for emotional expression. Body-contact activities
such as football, basketball, soccer, boxing and
wrestling are very effective in this respect, because
they exercise deeper, more powerful emotions than
many of the non-contact activities.1
The mental stimulation and the emotional satisfaction
derived from participation in physical education ac­
tivities either by oneself alone or with others, are
a large element in the development of personality.2
1. P. Voltmer and A. Esslinger, The Organization and Administra­
tion of Physical Education, p. 90.
2. A Special Report, Child Health and Recreation Extension Activ­
ities, The Thirty-seventh Annual Report of the Superintendent
of Schools of the City of New York. 1934-35, p.' 6l.
6
Mental hygiene, concerned with the welfare of the
student as an individual, would give hearty approval
to the tendency to develop athletics for the many
instead of for the few.l
Physical education organized about games and sports
which not only build up bodily strength but also
bring zest into life and encourage comradely rela­
tions with other players; ranks high in its value
for mental hygiene. 2
Recreation (through athletics) is no longer considered
to be among the superfluities of life, but is one of
the primal essentials for the development of healthy,
well-rounded, balanced personalities.3 (Material in
parentheses my own.)
Mental hygiene authorities state that physical recrea­
tion is not only of value to the physical organism, but
is of even more importance in mental h y g i e n e . 4
Contrary to the views indicated in the above quotations,
there may be found in the literature opinions expressed which
question the influence of athletics on personality development.
Examples of these judgments are contained in the quotations that
follow.
• The competitive spirit in sports, as promoted by news­
papers, schools, and recreational agencies, is perhaps
the greatest handicap to the emergence of socialized
attitudes.5
The. social prestige and general publicity given the high
school athlete have combined to produce abnormal person­
alities in many boys who were entirely normal until
their period of athletic prominence.6
1. E. R. Groves and P. Blanchard, Introduction to Mental Hygiene,
p. 299.
2. P. A. Witty, C. E. Skinner, et al., Mental Hygiene in Modern
Education, p. 512.
3. C. Basset, Mental Hygiene in the Community, p. 324.
4. J. R. Sharman. Modern Principles of Physical Education, p. 24.
5. S. R. Slavson, Creative Group Education, p. 165.
6. L. Cole, Psychology of Adolescence, p.~29.
7
The physical education department has a heavy obliga­
tion in releasing youngsters from fears about their
physical adequacy and in refraining from so setting up
competitive activities that some youngsters are ex­
cluded altogether and made to feel inferior.
Boys of
slight build or boys who are short are likely to worry
about their acceptability.
They may have their worries
increased by the kind of physical education program
that is set up.l
Specializing (in a physical education activity) is an
instance in which the lack of a broad range of activi­
ties stimulates the student to dominate one particular
field, in order to fulfill thwarted ambitions he has
tried in vain to find elsewhere, hence cultivating an
unbalanced line of interest for later maturity. Whether
praiseworthy character traits are always developed by
athletic competition has been doubted. 2 (Material in
parentheses my own.)
Despite the differences in opinion manifested by the fore­
going illustrations, the investigator could find little evidence
of an objective nature which might be used to substantiate the
assertions of either group.
The only experimental article found by the investigator,
which was devoted entirely to the relationship between personal­
ity adjustment and athletic participation was a recent four page
study reported by Carter
gation was undertaken.
Sc
Shannon3 after the present investi­
In the introduction of the article the
authors make the following statement concerning the previously
described situation; "Assertions are frequently made that ath­
letic achievement develops certain personality traits.
These
are, however, assertions only; evidence is not presented to sup­
port the content!on".4
1. Witty and Skinner, og. cit., p. 262.
2. B. E. Blanchard, Behavior Frequency Rating Scale for the Measure
ment of Character and Personality in Physical Education Class­
room Situations, Research Quarterly, VII (May, 1936) p. 56.
3. C. G. Carter and J.~Rl Shannon, Adjustment and Personality
Traits of Athletes and Non-Athletes, The School Review,
XLVIII No. 2 (February, 1940), pp. 127-130.
4. Ibid., p. 127.
8
Their investigation, according to the authors was semi­
objective in nature.
They compared 100 high school athletes with
100 non-athletes in social adjustment and personality traits.
The
Symonds Adjustment Questionnaire was used as the measure of soc­
ial adjustment.
This questionnaire contains seven separate sections
pertaining to adjustment to: 1. the school curriculum, 2. the ad­
ministration, 3. the teachers, 4, the social life of the school,
5. other pupils, 6. the home, and 7. the family.
A home-made score
card of personality traits including cooperation, self-control,
leadership, reliability, agreeability, sociability, was used as
the basis for subjective ratings of the individuals by the coach,
the principal, and two classroom teachers.
They selected 3rd and
4th year boys from ten small high schools in southern Indiana,
using 200 students in all.
The athletes were letter men, but,
"Kost of the high schools used in the study gave letters in basket­
ball only.11-1- Non-athletes were those who were not on varsity teams.
Using critical ratios to determine the significance of the differ­
ences between the two groups with respect to each of the factors
they reach the following conclusions: 1, Although some differences
exist between athletes and non-athletes with respect to the seven
items of the Symonds Questionnaire none have full significance.
The non-athletes were favored in the "academic11 items of adjust­
ment (curriculum, administration and teachers), while the athletes
excelled in the "social" items (social life of the school, other
pupils, home and family).
1. Ibid., p. 128.
2. With respect to the personality
9
traits the athletes are favored in leadership and sociability
with full statistical significance, C.R. equal to 4.7 and 5.71
respectively.
With the exception of the item "agreeability"
the other three slightly favor the athletes.
3. The sums of
the scores on the six personality traits favor the athletes more
noticeably than do the scores on most of the individual traits.
The present study differs from that of Carter and Shannon
in several respects.
The measurement of personality traits in
this study is to be determined objectively.
The varsity ath­
letes will be chosen from about ten sports.
The non-athletes
will not be merely individuals who have not earned a varsity let­
ter, but will be those who have not participated in sports as
members of class, club, or varsity teams during their school
days.
A group of intramural sports participants will be included
in this study which was not true of the study described above.
McKinney1 in a personality adjustment study of college stu­
dents, reaches conclusions favoring athletes in adjustment.
He
used two groups adjudged to be well adjusted and poorly adjusted
by selected students on the campus who were familiar with the
subjects.
With a total of sixty cases he employed personal his­
tory questionnaires along with three pencil and paper personality
scales and a personal interview.
Prom the autobiographical in­
formation thus gleaned he gathered his information pertaining to
1. F. McKinney, Concomitants of Adjustment and Maladjustment in
College Students, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology.
XXXI (January, 1937), pp. 436-457.
10
the subjects1 athletic careers.
Although he does not record
the statistical data, he states;
The athletic careers of the two groups show a signi­
ficant difference. Decidedly in favor of the well
adjusted is the number who were members of athletic
teams.1
In his conclusions is contained the following statement;
The adjudged well adjusted tend to come from more
stable families, have more intelligence, earn bet­
ter grades, tend to be more athletic . . . .
These
data tend to substantiate many of the precepts of
the mental hygienist regarding the advantages of
recreation, sports . . . .2
McKinney's study is only incidentally concerned with the
problem of athletic participation and personality adjustment.
Here again there is a reliance upon subjective judgment for the
determination of personality development.
Dugganu in a comparative study of women physical education
majors and non-majors gives evidence indicating the presence of
personality trait differences between groups that differ in mot­
or ability.
She administered the Bernreuter Inventory, the Brace
motor ability Test, and the Jump and Reach Test, to 200 under­
graduate women physical education majors and 200 non-majors.
In the conclusions of her findings she states;
On both the Brace Scale and the Jump and Reach Test,
the majors manifest superior motor ability as meas­
ured by those two instruments.
According to the results of the Bernreuter Personality
1. Ibid., p. 455.
2. Ibid., p. 457.
3. A. S. Duggan, A Comparative Study of Undergraduate Women Majors
and Non-Majors in Physical Education with Respect to Certain
Personal Traits, Teachers College, Columbia University,
Contributions to Education No. 682, New York, 1936.
11
Inventory, these undergraduate women majors are
more emotionally stable than the non-majors, more
extroverted, and more dominating. They tend also
to be more self-sufficient, but there is a greater
overlapping of scores on this scale.1
Although Duggan was primarily interested in comparing phy­
sical education majors with non-majors her findings are pertin­
ent to the present study in that they offer objective data
related to the expected outcome of this investigation.
The studies described above include all that the investiga­
tor could find, which give experimental evidence pertaining to
the relationship between athletic achievement and personality
traits.
Many articles and books concerned with personality analy­
sis of one kind or another have been reviewed by the investigator
with a view toward making comparisons between them and some of
the results to be obtained from the present study.
As the occa­
sion arises references to them will be made and recorded in the
body of this report.
From the foregoing presentation in this chapter one may
readily note that there is a paucity of objective evidence on
the subject under investigation and that there still remains to
be recorded in the literature any intensive experimental study
devoted to answering the question of the relationship between
athletic achievement and personality adjustment.
1. Ibid., p. 106
CHAPTER II
SELECTION AMD DESCRIPTION OP THE DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENTS
A comprehensive survey of the literature on personality
analysis indicated that the two most favored techniques in the
field are the laboratory or clinical analysis, and the stand­
ardized test procedures.
The latter method of approach was
decided upon for several reasons.
Namely, the limitation of
the investigator's training for carrying out the procedure of
clinical analysis, the necessity of examining several hundred
subjects which is a general prohibitive of the clinical method,
and the desire to secure as objective and quantitative data as
possible.
In order to obtain a personality profile of each individ­
ual to be studied, the use of a battery of questionnaires per­
taining to traits of personality was thought advisable.
Since
the number of variously named traits avowedly is large it was
thought best to follow the advice of an authority on the sub­
ject.
Consequently it was planned to obtain a diagnosis of the
traits Included in the psychograph illustrated by G. W. Allport1
in his text on personality.
This indicated the necessity for
selection of (1) a basal adjustment scale, (2) a scale measur-
1. G. Vf. Allport, Personality, A Psychological Interpretation,
p. 403.
12
13
ing introversion, (3) a scale of dominance,
(4) a scale of
social values, and (5) a scale of social attitudes.
The spe­
cific tests or scales to be used called for an extensive and
intensive review of the literature on personality diagnosis
with a view to discovering the validity and reliability of
various tests and their applicability to the present study.
Selection of Basal Adjustment Scale
Choice of the major instrument to measure personality ad­
justment presented one of the first enigmas of the study,
A
scale was desired which would yield a total score for person­
ality adjustment and contain subsections descriptive of several
personality traits.
In addition it was desired that the scale
be not too long, for it was to be used in conjunction with sev­
eral other scales.
To meet a frequently voiced objection a-
gainst personality scales, one was sought which provided for
answers on a five point basis rather than the categorical
Yes-No replies.
And of course the scale should be reliable and
valid.
After a rather extensive perusal of general personality
scales, the Human Behavior Inventory, devised by Randolph Smith
for his study,
scale sought.
was regarded by the investigator as being the
This questionnaire met all of the requirements
of a good research instrument except for the fact that, in the
1. R. B. Smith, Growth in Personality Adjustment Through Mental
Hygiene.
14
opinion of the investigator the validity of the instrument
had been inadequately established.
The inventory had been
developed to yield a total score which might serve as a mea­
sure of general personality adjustment, together with separate
sub-scores on six individual sections (1. work efficiency,
2. superior!ty-inferiority or degree of self-confidence,
3. social acceptability and adjustment, 4. emotional stability
with reference to neurotic symptoms, ease of adjustment to new
experiences and general sex adjustments, 5. objectivity toward
others behavior, 6. family attitudes and relationships) which
may be regarded as major characteristics of mental health and
emotional maturity.
The scale contained 102 questions, an­
swers to which were based on a five degree multiple choice.
The reliability by odd-even correlation for 1125 cases was
.89 + .01 and by test retest correlation for 465 cases after
six months was .81 4r .01.
These coefficients are indications
of high reliability with respect to a test of personality.
The
claim for validity made by the author was dependent upon the
fact that the instrument was developed by the inclusion of the
more diagnostic items from a number of personality inventories
of similar kind.
Herein also lay its possible inadequacy.
Therefore a preliminary investigation was undertaken to examine
its validity by intercorrelating the inventory with previously
validated tests.
A description of the preliminary investiga­
tion follows.
It had been the practice of the instructors in elementary
15
psychology at the College of the City of Hew York to adminis­
ter one or more standardized personality tests to their classes
each semester.
Advantage was taken of this opportunity to ask
several of the instructors to administer the Human Behavior In­
ventory to their classes in addition to the Bell Adjustment
Inventory3' which they had been using for the past year.
At the
suggestion of a member of the staff at Hew York University,
another scale, very convenient for the situation, was added.
This was the short form of the Thurstone Personality Schedule as
revised by R. R. V/illoughby, and which is known as the ClarkThurstone Inventory.2
The establishment of the validity, relia­
bility, and standardized norms for these scales is described in
the bibliographical references noted.
To each class in elementary psychology both the Human Be­
havior Inventory and the Clark-Thurstone were given during the
same period.
The Bell Inventory was given during the subse­
quent class meeting.
One hundred seven complete sets of inven­
tories were handed over to the investigator for scoring and
compilation of the data.
The results of the intercorrelation
of the three scales are arranged in Table I.
1. H. M. Bell, Manual for the Adjustment Inventory, Stanford
University Press, Stanford University, California, 1934.
2. R. R. V/illoughby, Clark-Thurstone Personality Inventory,
Journal of Social Psychology, III 1932, pp. 401-422.
16
TABLE I
Intercorrelation Between Human Behavior Inventory,
Bell Inventory, and Clark Thurstone Inventory
Coefficient of
Correlation
Inventories
Human Behavior
Inventory
and
Bell Inventory
Clark-Thurstone
and
Human Behavior
Inventory
Bell Inventory
and
Clark-Thurstone
Ho. of Items
in Respective
Scales
102
Ho. of Similar
Items Between
Scales
.736 ± .030
12
140
25
.748 ± .029
7
102
140
.785 t .026
18
25
The coefficients of correlation between the Human Behavior
Inventory and the Bell and Clark-Thurstone scales were .736 + .03,
and .748
.029 respectively.
While the correlation between the
Bell and Clark-Thurstone was .785 ± .026.
With respect to the
generally determined coefficients of intercorrelation between
scales of personality measures, these figures are considered high.
Statements deploring the situation of low correlations between
personality scales are frequently found in the literature.
Ex­
emplification of this situation is contained in the following
quotation from an article by Cantril and Allport.
They say; "In
numerous studies of the interrelationship of tests of personality,
low coefficients of correlation are usually found, a fact which
for some strange reason, often leads the investigator to despair
of the tests employed".1
1. H. Cantril and G. W. Allport, Recent Applications of the Study
of Values, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psvcholoev.
1
XXVIII (19331, P. 263.---------
17
An item analysis (summarized in Table I) showed that there
were eighteen identical items between the Bell and Clark-Thurstone
scales, whereas there were only seven between the Human Behavior
Inventory and Clark-Thurstone, and twelve between the Human Behav­
ior Inventory and Bell.
Thus, there is a certain amount of spur­
ious correlation in all three instances but to a lesser extent in
the two cases wherein the Human Behavior Inventory is concerned.
This adds greater weight to the slightly lower coefficient of cor­
relation between the Human Behavior Inventory and the other scales.
From the data there were obtained the ranges, means and stand­
ard deviations for the group in the three scales.
These appear in
Table II.
TABLE II
Scores of Test Group in Human Behavior Inventory
Bell Inventory, and Clark-Thurstone Inventory*
Scales
Range
Mean
3. D
Coefficient
Reliability
.918
(.89)
(.93)
38.55 + 1.77
120
(123) (39.23)
1-77
33.2 16.50 -t .76
(32)
15.07 ± .69
26
Clark-Thurstone
(.91)
2-67
(29) (13.70)
Inventory
N=107
19.5
17-24.6
Age
* FLgures in parentheses are from the original studies by the
authors.
Human Behavior
Inventory
Bell Inventory
36-202
Examination of Table II indicates rather close agreement in
mean scores and standard deviations between the test group of this
study and the groups on which the scales were originally standard­
ized.
In the case of the Human Behavior Inventory the coefficient
of reliability computed from the correlation of the odd and even
items gave a similarly satisfactory r for this study as in the
original study.
18
The intercorrelation between the sections of the scales
were computed and are reproduced here for two reasons: first, to
offer a record of the data for the benefit of others who may wish
to make comparisons; and second, to demonstrate the degree of sim­
ilarity of results obtained in this study and in the original
studies by the respective authors.
TABLE III
Intercorrelation of Parts of Bell Inventory
with Each Other and with Total*
Parts
Health
Social
Home
.39
(.43)
.21
(.04)
.18
(.24)
Health
Emoti onal
Total
.54
(.38).
.45
(.53)
.44
(.47)
Social
.757
.629
.655
.832
Emotional
* Figures in parenthesis are from the original study by
the author of the Bell Test.
Table III shows the closeness of the intercorrelations ob­
tained from the 107 subjects of this study to the r's obtained
from the 258 subjects of Bell’s study.
the r's range from .03 to .17.
The differences between
The intercorrelation of the sep­
arate sections with the total scale contain a certain amount of
spurious correlation.
Since each section in the Bell scale con­
tains the same number of items, the degree of spuriousness may
be assumed to be equal for all four sections.
The higher corre­
lation then, of the emotional section with the entire scale, may
be a significant reflection of the relationship of this trait to
the total score of the Bell Adjustment Inventory.
19
TABLE IV
Intercorrelation of Parts of Human Behavior Inventory
with Each Other and with Total*
Sup. Soc. Emot. Obj. Fam. Total Total
S.D
No. of
M
Inf. Acc. Stab.
Rel.
Less
Items
This
in
Sec.
Sec.
Work
.60 .47 .56
.58 .508 12.87
4.81
.42 .38
9
Eff.
(.59) (.52 ; (.56) (.40) (.44) (.68)
(12.94)
(4.90)
.68 .73
Sup.
.78 .772 14.12
.59 .43
5.86
11
Inf.
(.ee; (.65) (.46) (.46) (.76)
(15.57)
(5.96)
.56 .53
Soc.
.76
6.66
.80 .797 16.86
13
Acc.
(17.75)
(7.05)
(.72) (.47) (.54) (.80)
Emot.
.66 .64
.92 .908 28.59
26
11.20
Stab.
(.63) (.60) (.88)
(30.22) (11.55)
.77 .615 18.58
7.43
.45
14
Obj.
(18.08)
(.55) (.74)
(6.93)
12.26
.:7s" .607 29.43
29
Fam.
(28.50) (11.85)
(.84)
Rel.
# Figures in parenthesis are from the original study by R. B. Smith.
h h The abbreviations of the subsection names are in accordance with
the suggested designations found at the end of this chapter.
Parts
The figures of Table IV indicate a rather high degree of
resemblance between the 107 subjects of this study and the 1145
of Smith's in their intercorrelations, standard deviations, and
mean scores on the subsections of the Human Behavior Inventory.
The differences between means of the two groups range from .07
in work efficiency to 1.63 in emotional stability.
The range of
differences in standard deviations is from .09 to .50.
The dif­
ferences between the coefficients of intercorrelation are rather
small, ranging in size from .00 to .13 with a majority of the
differences being less than .05.
It may be noted that the inter-
correlation of the separate sections with the total scale was
repeated with each section in turn eliminated.
The amount of
spurious correlation resulting from the inclusion of that section
in the total scale was thus eliminated.
A comparison of the re-
20
spective r's shows a small amount of spurious correlation in
all of the subsections, the highest being .18 in the section
relating to family relationship.
In this scale as in the
Bell Inventory, the emotional stability section indicates the
highest correlation with the total scale.
The similarity in results obtained from the two groups
could be due to good random sampling and reliable reports or
merely to a similarity of individuals employed in the studies.
That the former is most likely the case may be evidenced from
the fact that the agreement in results are characteristic of
both comparable sets of data and that the individuals of each
of the three studies were drawn from a seemingly different type
of population.
In view of the similar positive coefficients of intercor­
relation among the three Scales (Table I), it may be concluded
that the Human Behavior Inventory is as valid for use as a di­
agnostic measure of personality adjustment as either of the
other two measures with which it was compared.
A copy of this
scale is contained in the Appendix (p. 107).
Selection of Introversion-Extroversion Scale
In their first article on factor analysis the Guilfords-1give a detailed account of the construction of their original
thirty-six item scale of Introversion-Extroversion.
It was found
1. J. P. Guilford and R. B. Guilford, An Analysis of the Factors
of a Typical Test of Introversion-Extroversion, Journal of
Abnormal and Social Psychology. XXVIII (1934), pp. 377-399.
21
to have a reliability of .81 by self correlation and a validity
of .87 by correlation of the items with the 11G" factor by means
of the Spearman-Dodd technique.
In this article they mention
the fact that six of the items showed zero correlations with
what they considered to be the factor of introversion-extroversion.
This was the basis of Cabot's'1' revision of the scale
which was preferred for this study.
A further refinement of the use of this scale was found to
be necessary.
Cabot‘S employed the scale in such a manner, that
by differential scoring he was able to obtain measures for four
traits of personality.
It is true that he used these scores in
conjunction with other data gathered clinically from his subjects.
With respect to this procedure the Guilfords^ concluded
that scoring the same items in a short inventory for two or more
factors was questionable.
In their first article^ they conclude
that the factors found by Thurstone's method of multiple factor
analysis may be regarded as aspects of introversion-extroversion,
because they correlate with the Spearman "G" factor which had
been assumed to be the introversion-extroversion dichotomy.
correlations range from .00 to .51.
These
For the purposes of this
study it was deemed most desirable to score for introversionextroversion only those items that the Guilfords had shown to be
1. P. S. DeQ, Cabot, The Relationship Between Characteristics of
Personality and Physique in Adolescents, Genetic Psychology
Monographs, XX Ro. 1, (1938), p. 32.
2. Ibid., p. 3l.
3. J. K Guilford and R. B. Guilford, Personality Factors S E and
M and Their Measurement, Journal of Psychology, II (1936),
p. 126.
4. Guilford and Guilford, 0£. cit., p. 398.
22
definitely diagnostic.
Thus only the twenty items that had a
correlation with the "G" factor of .2 or over were considered.
These are listed in the Appendix (p. 112).
As may be inferred from the twenty items, introversion as
manifested by this scale would be characterized by individuals
who are withdrawing in social attitude, emotionally oversensi­
tive, and deliberative in behavior.
Extroversion would be pic­
tured by individuals who are highly sociable, overtly express
their emotions, are adaptive to new situations, and are not emo­
tionally oversensitive.
Selection of a Scale of Dominance
It is popularly assumed that varsity athletes in high
schools and colleges are more dominant in demeanor than the nonathletic students.
Therefore to check the accuracy of such an
assumption an inventory for this purpose was included.
The split half reliability for the Ascendance-Submission
Reaction Test'1' is about .35, repeat reliabilities range around
.78.
As validated against ratings, various correlations have
yielded coefficients ranging from .29 to .79.
Additional in­
formation concerning the scale, the theory upon which it is
based, and its recent applications, is contained in a report by
Ruggles and Allport.
o
The nature of ascendance is described as an individual's
1. G. V/. Allport and F. H. Allport, A Test for Ascendance-Sub­
mission, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. XXIII
(1928), pp. 118-136.
2. R. Ruggles and G. W. Allport, Recent Applications of the A-S
Reaction Study, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology,
XXXIV (1939), pp. 518-526.
i
|
I
23
tendency to dominate others and to take an active role in social
face to face situations, to manifest organizational, executive
and administrative qualities.
Submission is characterized by an individual's disposition
to yield, agree, placate or take a passive role in face to face
situations.
Allport^- points out that each of these traits is separate
even though they are cast into a single continuum for convenience
in scales.
Submission is not merely the absence of ascendance
and vice versa.
They are each a "modus vivendi" in themselves.
Like other traits of personality they seem to possess a certain
degree of stability, consistency, and are not merely manifesta­
tions of the immediate environment or stimulus response situation.
Selection of a Scale of Social Values
Five of the six variables included in the Allport and Vernon
Study of Values^ constitute the last five items of the psycho­
graph.
Singularly the Study of Values is one of the few instru­
ments in the field of personality testing that purports to measure
these traits.
As reported in the Manual of Directions
the split half re­
liability of the total test ranges from .72 to .82.
According to
the authors; "Rating methods for establishing validity have been
considered inadequate because of the unfamiliarity of most raters
1. G. V/. Allport, Personality, A Psychological Interpretation,
p. 335 and p. 412.
2. G. V;. Allport and P. E. Vernon, A Study of Values. Pp. 11.
3. Ibid., p. 6.
24
with the conceptual nature of the values.
Considering the test
as a whole, correlations of-f- .45 to -j- .59 with ratings have
been obtained (if corrected for attenuation they would indicate
1
2
an agreement of about +- .83)".
A survey of studies using the
Scale of Values indicates that the separate values of the scale
vary in their reliability and validity and that while the 'aes­
thetic' and 'religious' values are most satisfactory the 'social'
value is the least reliable.
The scale aims to measure the relative prominence within an
individual of six basic interests or motivational traits in per­
sonality.
Individuals highly motivated by these traits are
briefly characterized by the authors as follows;*5
Theoretical - The theoretical individual's dominant
interest is the discovery of truth. He takes a cog­
nitive attitude, looks for identities and differences,
since his interests are empirical, critical and ra­
tional, he is an intellectualist, frequently a scien­
tist or a philosopher. He aims to order and systemize
his knowledge.
Economic - This individual is characteristically in­
terested in what is useful.
The interest in utilities
develops to embrace the practical affairs of the bus­
iness world. He wants education to be practical and
regards unapplied knowledge as waste.
In his personal
life he is likely to confuse luxury with beauty. In
his relations with people, he is more likely to be in­
terested in surpassing them in wealth than in dominat­
ing them (political attitude) or in serving them (soc­
ial attitude).
1. Ibid., p. 6.
2. H. Cantril and G. '.V. Allport, Recent Applications of the Study
of Values, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. XXVIII
(1933), pp. 259-273.
3. Allport and Vernon, 0£. cit., pp. 8-10.
25
Aesthetic - The aesthetic man sees his highest value
in 'form* and ‘harmony1. He judges experiences from
the standpoint of grace, symmetry, or fitness. Life
is regarded by him as a manifold of events; each
single impression is enjoyed for its own sake. The
aesthete tends toward individualism and self suffi­
ciency and finds his chief interest in the artistic
episodes of life.
Social - Love of people, conjugal, filial, friendly
or philanthropic is the highest value for this type.
He prizes other persons as ends, and is therefore
kind, sympathetic and unselfish.
Political - The political individual is interested
primarily in 'power1. Kot necessarily politics, but
whatever his vocation or interests, he looks for
might. His uppermost wish is for personal power,
influence and renown.
The desire for a 'direct'
expression of this motive is very strong in such
personalities.
Religious - The highest value of the religious man
may be called 'unity'. He is mystical, and seeks
to comprehend the cosmos as a whole, to relate him­
self to its embracing totality.
Some men of this
type are 'inherent mystics1, that is, they find in
the affirmation of life and in active participation
therein, their religious experience.
As the test indicates, there exists in every personality
all of the six values, although usually in varying degrees of
prominence.
Further, Cantril and Allport^ cite results from
several studies to substantiate the theory that the values
(social excepted) are self-consistent, pervasive, generalized
traits of personality.
The scale measures fundamental and en­
during attitudes which are firmly established.
Experiments
demonstrating a clear relationship between values and conduct
show that a person's activity is not determined exclusively by
a momentary stimulus, a transient interest, nor a specific at­
titude peculiar to each situation.
Rather, that general evalu-
1. Cantril and Allport, op. cit., p. 272.
26
ative attitudes enter into the common activities of every-day
life.
Select!on of a Scale of Social Attitudes
Though the traits of radicalism-conservatism are not in­
cluded in the psychograph, Allport speaks favorably of such
scales.
He says; "Numerous scales show that radicalism and
conservatism, broad as they are, can be reliably measured.
Hence the variable is widely accepted".1
A scale of this type
was included because of the existent popular notion that ath­
letes traditionally tend toward conservatism while non-athletes
ally themselves with radical institutions as a form of compen­
sation for lack of an emotional outlet along athletic lines.
Q
The Harper Social Study which represents a scale of soc­
ial beliefs and attitudes ranging from purported extreme con­
servatism to extreme radicalism was chosen to complete the
battery of inventories.
Like the others this scale was chosen
because of its administrative feasibility, high validity and
proven reliability.
A detailed description of the construction of the scale is
contained in Harper's
publication of the study.
The validity
of the scale as originally established showed an average agree­
ment of over 98 per cent on the 71 propositions by the 47 judges
1. G. Yf. Allport, 0£. cit., p. 431.
2. M. H. Harper, A Social Study, Bureau of Publications, Teachers
College, Columbia University, Hew York, 1927.
3. M. H. Harper, Social Beliefs and Attitudes of American Educators.
pp. 35-43.
27
who were chosen for the task.
A coefficient of correlation be­
tween the median judgments of ten educators and the scores was
found to be .759
.032.
The split half coefficient of relia­
bility for three different groups of educators ranged between
.751 ± .029 and .817 i ,027.
Test retest reliability over a
period of three weeks gave a coefficient of correlation of
.904 i .013.
Before describing the characteristics of the variables ob­
tained from Harper’s study, a rather lengthy quotation from the
same is necessitated.
The type of response, sometimes called radicalism,
which manifests itself in an expression of mere
agitated desire for change without regard for the
consideration of facts is illogically designated
by that term. According to the findings of this
study this disposition to disregard facts in their
social bearings is one of the most fundamental
characteristics of conservatism, conservatism as
it functions extensively in the large majority of
our educators and, by logical inference, as it
functions even more extensively in the vast major­
ity of the general population.
On the whole, this
type of response, this so-called 'radicalism reg­
isters in the direction of conservatism on the
scale of this inquiry and in reactions to the more
fundamental phases of social problems. In the in­
terest of clarity of thought, the disposition to
such reaction should be called not radicalism but
agitated conservatism.
On the contrary the type of response, sometimes
called conservatism, which manifests itself in a
cautious but reasoned approach to social problems
with a high regard for the consideration of all
pertinent facts, is illogically designated by that
term. The data of this study have shown such a
disregard for facts in their social bearings to
be one of the most outstanding characteristics
of extreme liberalism or radicalism, liberalism
as it functions in social reconstruction through
reflective thinking of the small minority.
This
kind of response, this so-called 'conservatism'
28
registers in the direction of liberalism on the
scale of this inquiry and in reaction to social
problems.
In the interest of clarity of thought
the disposition to such reaction should be called
not conservatism but cautious-liberalism.1
In view of the above statement, the extremes of high and
low scores on the scale will be designated respectively, as
liberalism and conservatism.
Thus, what might otherwise be con­
sidered a radical score, will here be considered the extreme of
liberalism.
The propositions of the scale involve considerations
of topics such as; the role of facts in progress, the ethics of
indoctrination, growth as a social concept, the place of reflec­
tive thinking in education, the nature of the individual, etc.
Turning to the author again for a delineation of the nature
of conservatism and liberalism the following descriptions are
given;
Extreme conservatism is characterized by: Conformity to the
world and life as they exist.
Ethical tendencies and aspiration.
Ken's moral aims and efforts are the key to morality.
Belief in
a general order of things, an all pervasive and unifying force.
Down to the lowest points reached on the scale, the
greater the conservatism the less stable, the less
independent, the less consistent, the less scienti­
fic is the thinking on the problems of the test.
Conversely, up to the highest points reached on the
scale decreases of conservatism have been found to
accompany increases in the characteristics just
given, increases in the characteristics essential to
reflective reaction on the issues involved.2
1. Ibid., p. 78.
2. Ibid., p. 66.
29
Extreme liberalism is characterized by: An ideal conception
of the world, into line with which the scheme of things must be
brought.
A scientific concept of the world.
beliefs based on the contemporary science.
Moral and religious
]£ree individuality,
in which each individual has a distinctive worth.
A greater
tendency toward reflective thinking.
Additional confidence in the choice of these scales was ex­
perienced by the investigator at the subsequent appearance of the
1940 report of the National Society for the Study of Education'1’
in which the first three of the last four scales described, out
of some three hundred possible choices, were indicated as being
the foremost instruments for measuring the aspects of personality
they purport to measure.
The Information Blank
In addition to the questionnaires described previously,a
personal information sheet (which appears in the Appendix p. 114 )
was prepared by the investigator.
On this form each student was
asked to supply data concerning his class in college, age, re­
ligion and athletic experience.
Summary
The instruments chosen for the measurement of personality
adjustment and the personality variables diagnosed by them may
1. L. S. Hollingsworth, Intelligence, Its Nature and Nurture,
National Society for the Study of Education, Thirty-ninth
Yearbook, 1940, pp. 271-308.
30
be listed as follows;
The Human Behavior Inventory (H. B. I.)*
a. Work efficiency
(Work Eff.)
b. Superiority-inferiority (Sup. Inf.)
c. Social acceptability
(Soc. Acc.)
d. Emotional stability
(Emot. Stab.)
e. Objectivity
(Obj.)
f. Family relationships
(Fam. Rel.)
Introversion-Extroversion Scale (I-E)
g. Introversion
(Int.)
h. Extroversion
(Ext.)
Ascendance-Submission Reaction Scale
i. Ascendance
(Asc.)
j. Submission
(Sub.)
A Social Study (C-L)
k. Conservatism
1. Liberalism
(Con.)
(Lib.)
A Study of Values (Val.)
m. Theoretical
n. Economic
o. Aesthetic
p. Social
q. Political
r. Religious
(Theo.)
(Eco.)
(Aes.)
(Soc.)
(Pol.)
(Rel.)
(A-S)
An information sheet was prepared to obtain data from each
subject concerning his class in college, age religion, and ath­
letic experience.
The abbreviations in parentheses are the designation of the
scales and variables as they may be used on occasion for
conservation of space.
(
J
CHAPTER III
PROCEDURE IN SELECTION OP SUBJECTS AND COLLECTION OP DATA
To investigate the problems it was decided to secure if
possible three groups of subjects differentiated with respect
to athletic achievement; namely, a group of varsity athletes,
a group of intramural athletes, and a group of non-athletes.
These groups were to be as uniform as possible with respect to
age, education, sex, economic status, nationality, and religious
background.
The groups were to be compared on the basis of sev­
eral traits diagnostic of personality development.
Additional
personality comparisons were to be made within the groups.
The Subjects
All of the subjects included in the study were male students
drawn from the College of the City of New York in which institu­
tion the investigator is a member of the Department of Hygiene.
The college is a tax supported, non-fee institution, therefore
only residents of New York City are eligible for admission.
are of course no subsidized athletes.
There
Entrance requirements are
exceptionally high (at least eighty per cent total high school
average) and the rules are rigidly adhered to.
group ideally suited to the task of this study.
This makes the
Por whatever the
results of the comparisons between the three groups, they cannot
possibly be ascribed to the fact that the varsity group is an
atypical school group as might be the case at some other insti-
31
32
tuitions wherein the athletes are chosen on the basis of their
athletic prowess rather than their previous schooling.
Being
chosen from this institution the total group of four hundred
thirty-five cases might be considered a more homogeneous group
than is generally found on a college campus.
The Groups
The selection of students to whom to administer the bat­
tery of inventories plus the personal information sheet (des­
cribed in Chapter II and reproduced in the Appendix p. 114) was
determined by the conditions set forth in the first paragraph of
this chapter.
Thus there was sought a representative sample of
cases to constitute a varsity group, an intramural group, and a
non-athlete group.
1. Varsity Group
The varsity group, by definition, was to include individuals
who were members of a college varsity squad and who had partici­
pated in at least one varsity meet.
It was thought desirable to
include as many varsity athletes as could be mustered.
Hence
these students were identified through coaches, managers, and cap­
tains, as well as at varsity club meetings.
In several instances
when a team was contacted at practice there were present, members
of their junior varsity and freshman squads.
Rather than raise
the issue of the eligibility of the junior varsity and freshman
athletes for inclusion in the study, the battery of inventories
was submitted to them along with the varsity men.
In placing
these men in one of the three groups namely varsity, intramural,
or non-athlete, separate consideration had to be given to each
33
one.
It was filially decided that of the thirty-eight junior var­
sity and freshman athletes thus included, all who had been varsity
men in high school were placed in the present varsity group,
total of eighteen were so placed.
A
The remaining sixteen were in­
cluded in the intramural group,
2. Intramural Group
The intramural group, by definition, was to include individ­
uals who had participated in one or more intramural athletic events
at the college for a period of at least two semesters.
An attempt
was made to obtain representatives from as many sports as possible,
in order to include individual sports such as handball and badmin­
ton, as well as the group sports like softball and volleyball.
Hence these individuals were frequently contacted in the gymnasia,
handball courts, swimming pool and playing fields.
Others were
canvassed through some of the college clubs, fraternities, house
plan groups, independents, classes in required public speaking,
economics, and German and the investigator's classes in required
physical education.
3. Kon-athlete Group
The non-athlete group, by definition, was to include individ­
uals who had never been members of a junior high school, senior
high school, or college athletic team, nor of an intramural, class,
or club athletic team in any of these institutions.
The constit­
uents of this group were obtained through some of the college fra­
ternities, clubs, house plan groups, independents, classes in
required public speaking, economics, and German and the investi­
gator's classes in required physical education.
34
Although an attempt was made to keep the age and grade
status of the three groups very close, this was not entirely pos­
sible because the varsity men seemed to be older than the average
student of the same grade.
Obtaining the Data
The battery of five inventories previously enumerated plus
the personal information sheet was submitted to 447 students to
be filled out and returned within two days or over a week-end.
Of
this number, three in the intramural group claimed to have lost
their sets and two varsity men negligently failed to return theirs.
One other varsity and one intramural candidate returned their bat­
teries incomplete and these men could not be recontacted,
five
others could not be classified into any of the three groups on the
basis of their answers on the information blank.
They claimed to
have had athletic experience at junior high school and on club
teams during their high school days but had not participated in
the intramurals at college.
The study thus
included a total of 435 cases.
there were 171 in the varsity group, 138 in
Of this number
the intramural, and
126 in the non-athlete class.
The data from the information blank regarding college, var­
sity and intramural
athletic experience was checked through the
files in the office
of the college athletic manager and the intra­
mural division of the department of Physical Education and Hygiene.
Additional information for each student as to his father's occu­
pation and nationality and the student's score on the American
35
Council on Education Psychological Examination (given at the
time of college entrance) was obtained from the records of the
Medical Office and Personnel Bureau,
The investigator personally distributed and collected all
of the sets of questionnaires.
ual were the same,
The instructions to each individ­
namely that he was being asked to volunteer
his time and efforts in a research study being conducted by the
investigator which would have no bearing on the student’s grades
or standing at the college.
Each individual was told that his
replies would be treated entirely confidentially and to all in­
tents and purposes anonymously, for all the inventories were scored
automatically by key sheets.
He was asked to be sincere and ob­
jective and to inform the investigator if he felt his report was
not valid.
As an added incentive for an honest expression of
their own characteristics as they know them, the students were
told that they would be given the results of their tests in such
a manner that they could compare their scores with the average of
others taking part in the study if they so desired.
A majority
of the subjects were known to the investigator in a rather friend­
ly student-teacher relationship.
It may be pertinent to mention
at this point that in the opinion of the investigator the impor­
tance of establishing rapport between experimenter and subject for
best results from pencil and paper tests of personality cannot be
overemphasized.
As a result of the establishment of this rapport
the investigator felt a great deal of confidence in the sincerity
with which the students claimed to have answered the question­
naire.
That this confidence was justified would seem to be war-
36
ranted by the fact that when a notice was posted informing the
students that they might obtain their scores, 202, came in person
to receive their results from the investigator during the week
set aside for the purpose.
At least fifty others came to the
office at a time when the investigator was not present and many
more have since asked for their scores.
As further evidence of the reliability and validity of the
scales used, a check was kept of each student's opinion of the
results of his scores.
Deciles for each variable of the five in­
ventories for the entire group were posted in the investigator's
office.
When a student appeared for his results he was given-a
composite form (see Appendix p. 115 ) indicating his score in each
personality variable of the five inventories.
After finding his
positions on the percentile charts the student was casually asked
whether he thought the results were accurate, inaccurate, or as
often wrong as right.
To the investigator's complete surprise
180 of the 202 stated that the results were very accurate, seven
were in the middle group, five thought the results inaccurate and
ten left before they could be questioned.
Summary
The five inventories were administered to 435 City College
students, 171 of whom were varsity athletes, 138 intramural ath­
letes and 126 non-athletes.
Information was obtained concerning
each student as to his age, class, course of study, religion,
American Council on Education Psychological Examination percen­
tile, and parental occupation and nationality.
CHAPTER IV
TREAThiiiKT OP THE DATA AI5D RESULTS
Characteristic Distributions of 5cores in the Inventories
for the Varsity, Intramural and Hon-Athlete Groups
The scores on the battery of inventories for all three
groups were recorded and organized in frequency distribution
tables.
Prom those tables cumulative frequency per cent graphs
were constructed for several personality traits that illustrated
the most typical trait variations between the groups.
These are
reproduced in diagrams 1 through 5.
In plotting the ogives larger step intervals and their cor­
responding frequencies were found by collecting frequencies.
It
should be noticed that the points are plotted at the upper limits
of the intervals.
Inspection of the distributions indicates that
they are fairly symmetrical or unskewed.
That the frequencies in­
crease more rapidly at both extremes in most of the graphs is
indicated by their greater steepness in these areas.
In Diagram 1 of the Human Behavior Inventory, the higher
scores are in the direction of poor personality adjustment.
The
similar ogives for the varsity and intramural group demonstrate
the typical resemblance found in the adjustment scores between
these two groups.
The consistently higher ogive for the non­
athlete group indicates them as differing at all the parts of the
distribution.
For example there is a difference of about thirty
37
38
10 SQUARES
TO
THE
IN C H
<7
nir
»J r T T T ^ IB M H I
«tbi
in
39
points between the scores of the non-athlete group and the other
two groups at both the median and Qg.
In the introversion-extroversion scale the higher scores in­
dicate extroversion.
The ogives of these variables illustrated
in Diagram 2 (p. 40) show the intramural group to be uniformly
more extroverted than the other two groups.
The non-athlete group
contains the most introverted scores and has many fewer cases at
the upper extremes of extroversion than the varsity or intramural
group.
The varsity group falls between the intramural and non­
athlete group but is much closer to the intramural in its entire
distribution.
This picture is repeated for the groups in their
ascendance-submission scores with the intramural group manifesting
the highest ascendance scores and the non-athlete group, the low­
est.
The ogives for the Conservatism-Liberalism scale represented
in Diagram 3 (p. 41), indicate the least degree of variability among the three groups in any of the personality scales.
At both
extremes the curves for the three groups seem to be merged, the
only differences being manifested between about the 10th and 50th
percentiles.
Here the non-athlete group scores indicate slightly
greater liberalism than those of the other two groups.
Diagrams 4 and 5 (pp. 42-43) for the aesthetic and political
values respectively, illustrate the typical ogives for the three
groups in the motivational interests that compose the Scale of
Values.
From the "S" like shape of the ogives the normalcy and
symmetry of the distributions may be noted.
In the aesthetic
40
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10 SQUARES
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44
value the non-athlete group la shown to have somewhat uniformly
higher scores than the varsity and intramural groups.
V/hile the
scores of the latter groups are shown to be very close along the
entire distribution.
The same is true for the political value
except that the varsity and intramural group show the higher
scores.
The characteristic ogives presented in Diagrams 1 through 5
illustrate very adequately the great degree of overlapping in
scores amongst the three groups in the various personality traits
considered in this study.
Comparison of Central Tendencies of the Three Groups
in the Personality Inventory Scores
From the distribution tables there were obtained the means,
medians and standard deviations for each group on the respective
scales and the personality variables of these scales.
These data
are summarized in Table V.
In reading Table V it should be borne in mind that higher
scores on the Human Behavior Inventory are in the direction of
maladjustment.
For the Introversion-Extroversion, Ascendance-
Submission and Conservatism-Liberalism scales, the higher the
scores the greater the extroversion, ascendance, and liberalism.
Conversely, the lower the scores the greater the introversion,
submission, and conservatism.
On the Values scale, the higher
the score the greater the relative strength of that value and
vice versa.
45
TABLE V
Comparative Scores for the Three College Groups on the
Personality Traits* of the Five Inventories
CO
01
II
Varsity
H::171
M
Md
S. D.
t—1
Scales
and
Traits
Non-athlete 1
Md
M
S.D.
Intramural
Md
M
N =138
S. D.
• •
H. B. I.
112.19 113.64 32.75 146.34 150.78 37.50 111.50 114.57 30.80
Total
Work
12.44 12.19 4.80 14.87 14.56 5.22 12.50 12.06 4.40
' Eff.
Sup.
13.54 13.14 4.80 18.09 18.13 5.56 13.58 13.40 5.08
Inf.
Soc.
15.22 14.72 5.90 20.67 20.30 6.80 14.92 14.77 5.40
Acc.
Emot.
27.74 27.66 9.51 36.77 36.50 11.22 27.32 27.02 8.85
Stab.
Obj.
17.73 17.96 6.14 19.13 19.03 7.00 17.91 17.83 6.20
27.10 12.06
36.09
36.13 11.40
28.31
29.25
9.66
Int.
Ext.
Asc.
Sub.
Con.
Lib.
65.61
64.16
8.68
58.67
57.96
8.62
67.47
68.27
7.72
7.11
7.50 16.52
-7.58
-8.06 16.50
10.78
12.22 17.52
56.86
56.96 10.46
59.03
59.65
8.88
57.45
58. 54 10.22
Theo.
Eco.
Aes.
Soc.
Pol.
Rel.
32.78
30.16
27.45
34.50
33.08
22.54
32.83
30.13
27.19
34.94
33.78
21.60
35.18
29.68
30.47
33.14
29.83
22.74
35.37
29.83
30.00
33.70
29.47
22.16
7.50
6.64
8.80
6.60
6.96
6.30
34.27
30.91
26.68
34.13
32.30
20.93
34.73
30.90
26.25
34.92
32.22
20.55
1
27.95
6.92
6.40
8.30
5.'80
6.84
7.16
7.04
7.10
7.92
6.10
6.46
7.40
*The abbreviations of the trait names are as follows:
Human Behavior Inventory
Work efficiency
Superiority-inferior!ty
(S O C . ACC. )
Social acceptability
(Emot. Stab.) Emotional stability
Objectivity
(Obj.)
(Fam. Rel.)
Family relationships
(Int.)
Introversion
Extroversion
(Ext.)
Ascendance
(Asc.)
(H. B. I.)
(Work Eff.)
(Sup. Inf.)
(Sub.) Submission
(Con.) Conservatism
(Lib.) Liberalism
(Theo. )Theoretical
(Eco.) Economic
(Aes.) Aesthetic
(Soc.) Social
(Pol.) Political
(Rel.) Religious
Judging from the figures of Table V there appears to be a var­
iation in the differences between the mean scores and standard devi-
46
ations for the three groups in the respective traits.
It is
apparent though, that the varsity and intramural groups differ
little in their scores as compared to the differences between
the non-athlete and varsity groups or the non-athlete and intra­
mural groups.
To determine the reliability of the differences
in mean scores the technique of critical ratios^ or mean differ­
ence (M diff.) divided by the standard error of the difference
between the two means (
diff.) was adopted.
The computations of the reliability of the differences in
mean scores between the three groups for all of the personality
variables appear in Tables VI, VII, and VIII.
TABLE VI
Critical Ratios of the Differences Between Fean Scores for the
Varsity, Intramural, and.non-athlete Groups* on the Human Be­
havior Inventory and Its Subsections
Scale and
Varsity Non-athlete
Intramural Non-athlete C.R
C.R
C.R
Variables
M NA
M NA
VA IA
M VA
l: ia
Human Behavior
.19
Inventory Total 112.19 146.34 8.19 111.50 146.34 8.19
''.York
14.37 3.95
14.87 4.00
12.50
.11
12.44
Efficiency
Superiority
.07
13.58
13.09 6.83
18.09 7.34
13.54
Inferiority
Social
.47
20.67 7.56
20.67 7.23
14.92
Acceptability 15.22
Emotional
36.77 7.50
.40
36.77 7.34
27.32
27.74
Stability
.25
19.13 1.50
17.91
19.13 1.79
17.73
Objectivity
Family
.29
36.09 5.98
28.31
27.95
36.09 5.94
Relationship
* Designation of group names have been abbreviated as follows:
Varsity (VA), Non-athlete (HA), and Intramural (IA).
1. H. E. Garrett, Statistics in Psychology and Education,
Longmans Green & Co., New York, 1937, pp. 128-130.
47
In Table VI the critical ratio of 8.19 between the mean
scores of the varsity and non-athlete groups for the complete
Human Behavior Inventory indicates with statistical reliability
that there is a decided difference in the personality adjust­
ment of those groups as measured by this scale.
is in favor of the varsity group.
This difference
The same may be said for the
intramural group as compared with the non-athlete group in their
mean scores on the total Human Behavior Inventory for the critical
ratio happens to be identical with that between the varsity and
non-athlete group.
On the other hand the difference between the
varsity and
intramural group is negligible, the critical ratio
being .19.
Similarly in the subsections of
the scale we
findthe
varsity and intramural groups to be reliably favored over the non­
athlete group in the factors of emotional stability, social accep­
tability, self-confidence, family relationships and work efficiency
in that order of significance.
For the section known as 'objec- '
tivity1 the critical ratios (1.79 and 1.50) are not large enough
to be considered fully statistically reliable.
chances are
Although the
96 out of 100 and 93 out of 100 respectively that
varsity and intramural groups will be found
the
to be superior tothe
non-athlete group in the matter of objectively judging others1 be­
havior.
In no case was there a reliable difference between the
two athlete groups in mean scores on the subtests.
This may read­
ily be noted by the magnitude of the critical ratios of the differ­
ences between these groups which range from .07 to .47.
48
TABLE VII
Critical Ratios of the Differences Between Mean Scores for the
Three Groups on the Introversion-Extroversion Scale, AscendanceSubmission Scale, and Conservatism-Liberalism Scale
Scale and
Variables
Introversion
Extroversion
Ascendance
Submission
Conservatism
Liberalism
Varsity Ilon-at,hlete
C.R
M VA
M UA
Intramural llon-athlete
C.R
I,' M
M IA
65.61
58.67
6.94
67.47
58.67
8.70
1.99
7.11
-7.58
7.57
10.78
-7.58
8.78
1.88
56. 86
59.03
1.93
57.45
59.03
1.36
.50
VA IA
C.R
The critical ratios in Table VII indicate both the varsity
and intramural groups to be significantly more extroverted and
ascendant than the non-athlete group.
Though the intramural group
is shown to be more extroverted and ascendant than the varsity
group the critical ratios do not reach 3, which is considered in­
dicative of complete reliability,
nevertheless the critical ra­
tios of 1.99 and 1.88 indicate that the chances are respectively
98 and 97 out of 100 that the true differences between these groups
will always be greater than zero.
To about the same extent the
non-athlete group shows a greater mean score in the aspect of lib­
eralism than the varsity and intramural groups.
In this case the
chances are 97 out of 100 that the true difference in the liber­
alism score between the non-athlete and varsity group will always
be greater than zero.
In the same direction the chances of a
difference are only 82 out of 100 between the non-athlete and
intramural group.
The difference between the means of the var­
sity and intramural group on the scale of conservatism-liberalism
is too small to be considered a real difference, the critical
ratio being .50.
49
TABLE VIII
Critical Ratios of the Differences Between Mean Scores for the
Varsity, Intramural and Non-athlete Groups on the Scale of Values
Scale
and
Variables
Values Scale:
Theoretical
Varsity Non-athlete
Intramural Non-athlete
C.R
C.R
35.18
1.01
1.87
29.68
1.45
.96
o. 02
30.91
26.68
30.47
3.79
.83
33.14
1.85
34.13
33.14
1.26
.54
29.83
4.00
32.30
29.83
2.94
1.02
22.54
22.74
.25
20.93
22.74
2.10
1.91
180.51
181.04
179.22
181.04
i.: i a
M 'NA
2.83
34.27
29.68
.62
27.45
30.47
Political
34.50
33.08
Religious
M VA
M NA
32.78
35.18
Economic
30.16
Aesthetic
Social
Total
VA IA
C.R
In examining the comparative scores for the three groups in
Table VIII it should be borne in mind that the mean score for a
group on any of the values (these may be termed motivational
traits or basic interests) is relative to the other five factors
of the scale.
As was previously described the total score for
the six interest drives for each individual must equal a score
of 180.
Thus the sum of the means of the six values for each
group approximately equals 180, minor discrepancies being due
to statistical methods of computation.
Between the varsity and intramural groups none of the mean
differences is large enough to be considered statistically re­
liable.
The only two differences between these groups that may
indicate a trend are the higher 'theoretical' score for the
intramural group and the higher 'religious' score for the varsi­
ty group.
The critical ratios being 1.87 and '1.91 respectively.
!
50
In the comparison "between the varsity and non-athlete
groups the latteavare significantly higher in the 'aesthetic'
value and show a critical ratio of 2«83 in their favor in the
'theoretical1 value.
The varsity group is significantly higher
in the 'political' value.
The same relationship holds true
between the intramural and non-athlete group but with a much
smaller difference in the 'theoretical' value and the appear­
ance of a higher 'religious' score for the non-athlete group.
Other than the differences noted above the critical ratios are
too small to bear any import for data resulting from the val­
ues scale.
Although the data of Tables VI, VII, and VIII show signifi­
cant differences amongst the varsity, non-athlete, and intramural
groups in many of the personality traits, it must be remembered
that these data are to be interpreted for the differentiation of
groups only.
In individual scores there was a large overlapping
amongst the groups on all of the measures as indicated by the
preceding analyses of distributions (pp. 38-43).
Comparative Background Information About the Groups
The general descriptive information for each.student obtained
from the Information Blank and records of the Personnel Bureau
was arranged in tabular form and variously treated to illustrate
best the similarity or differences that existed between the var­
sity, intramural, and non-athlete groups.
in Tables IX through XV.
The data are presented
These tables require no special explan­
ation as to procedure, since very simple tabulations and treatment
were involved*
\
i
X
J
51
TABLE IX
Age in Years of the Three College Groups
Groups
Mean
3.D
Varsity
20.00
1.58
171
Non-athlete
19.08
1.75
126
Intramural
19.23
1.33
138
19.50
1.58
435
Total Group
N
from the mean ages in Table IX the varsity group is found
to be .9 of a year older than the non-athlete and about .75 of
a year older than the intramural.
The difference in mean ages
between the intramural and non-athlete groups is very small,
the latter being only .15 of a year older.
TABLE X
Religious Derivation of the Subjects by Groups
Groups
Hebrew
No. of
P
Cases
Catho U c
No. of
%
Cases
Protestant
Other
cf
No. of
No.
of
%
p
Cases
Cases
Total
Varsity
126
73.7
32
18.7
12
7.0
1
.6
171
Non-athlete
114
90.5
7
5.5
5
4.0
-
-
126
Intramural
115
83.3
16
11.5
5
3.7
2
1.5
138
The per cent calculations in Table X indicate a larger pro­
portion of Hebrews in the non-athlete group and a smaller propor­
tion in the varsity group.
There is a larger proportion of the
Catholics in the varsity and intramural groups than in the non­
athlete group.
It may be worthwhile in a subsequent study to
investigate the significance of those differences by a more uni­
versal sampling from several institutions rather than from one,
which is the case at present.
52
TABLE XI
Parental nationality of the Subjects by Groups
Natal Country
of Father
Varsity
No.
%
Non-athlete
%°
No.
/
28 22.2
United States
38
22.2
Russia
50
29.3
44
Poland
28
16.4
23
Austria
Hungary
Germany
Latvia
Rumania
Lithuania
Italy
Miscellaneous
Total
Intramural
NO.
%
36
26.1
34.9
40
29.0
25
19.8
19
13.8
13.5
18
14.3
17
12.3
11
6.4
5
4.0
10
7.2
10
5.8
3
2.4
7
5.1
11
6.4
3
2.4
9
6.5
171
100
126
100
138
100
The rather similar percentages in the table above for the
three groups in their parental nationality indicate a remarkable
degree of commonness in this aspect of their background.
TABLE XII
Educational Status of the Subjects by Groups
Varsity N«171 Non-athlete N«126 Intramural N«138
0/
No.
No.
No.
%
/o
College
Class
Lower Freshman
9
5.3
2
1.6
1
.7
Upper Freshman
15
8.8
12
9.5
6
4.3
Lower
Upper
Lower
Upper
23
29
24
27
13.5
16.9
14.0
15.8
41
27
17
32.6
21.4
13.5
44
19
20
31.9
13.8
14.5
8
6.3
10
7.2
15
22
7
8.8
12.8
8.8
6.3
-
24
14
-
17.4
10.2
4.1
11
8
-
5
100
4.21
100
4.79
100
Sophomore
Sophomore
Junior
Junior
Lower Senior
Upper Senior
Post Graduate
Average No. of
Semesters in
College
-
The athlete groups show a greater average number of semesters
in college.
This is in agreement with the facts of Table IX in
53
which they are indicated to have the highest mean age.
TABLE XIII
Curriculum Specialization of the Subjects by Groups
Registered
College
Specialization
Varsity
NO.
c
/°
Liberal Arts
Social Science
Bachelor of Science
Business
Administration
B. 3. in Education
Engineering
Public Service
Training
Total
Non-athlete
Cf
No.
/O
Intramural
No.
%
17
38
46
13.5
30.2
36.5
9
30
37
6.5
21.7
30
5.3
19.2
17.5
36
21.0
3
2.4
14
10.2
27
31
15.8
18.3
21
1
16.6
.8
38
10
27.5
7.2
5
2.9
-
171
100
126
9
33
100
26.9
138
100
The differences in curriculum specialization shown between
the groups are probably due to the manner in which the subjects
were selected.
The largest differences appear in the smaller
number of non-athletes in the Business Administration Course.
This can be accounted for by the fact that the Business Adminis­
tration branch of the City College is located about ten miles
away from the main division of the college which offers all of
the other courses of study listed.
Since the investigator is lo­
cated at the main branch, and a sufficient number of non-athletes
were contacted in this division, none were sought from the Busi­
ness school.
In the case of the varsity athletes all of the
athletic activities are conducted at the main branch thus making
it possible for the investigator to obtain the cooperation of
the athletes who were enrolled in the Business Administration
Course.
54
Close inspection of Tables X, XI, XII, and XIII, would seem
to indicate that the three groups are similar enough in their
religious derivation, national derivation, and educational status
to justify the supposition that the aim of obtaining three col­
lege groups that differed in athletic experience but not very
much with respect to these factors, has been adequately realized
for the purposes of this study.
TABLE XIV
Percentiles of the Three Groups in the American Council on
Education Psychological Examination
Groups
Varsity
Non-athlete
Varsity
Intramural
Non-athlete
Intramural
N
M
S.D
146
120
146
134
120
134
68.27
74.79
68.27
72.67
74.79
72.67
24.50
21.04
24.50
20.54
21.04
20.54
C.R
2.33
1.63
.81
The mean scores of Table XIV represent the average of the
percentile ratings for the respective groups on the American
Council on Education Psychological Examination taken by the sub­
jects at the time of their admission to the college.
This ex­
amination is considered a test of general intelligence for college
freshmen.
The lesser number of cases represented in each group
is due to the fact that a certain per cent of the entering stu­
dents for one reason or another fail to take this examination,
which is not a requirement for college entrance at City College.
Though the critical ratios presented in Table XIV (2.33 and 1.63)
are not large enough to be statistically reliable they may indi­
cate a tendency in this situation for the non-athlete and intra-
55
mural groups to score higher than the varsity group on the in­
telligence test.
The difference between the non-athlete and
intramural group is so small as to be negligible (C.R
.81).
In order to compare the three groups on the basis of their
parents occupation the Beckman Scale of Occupations^ was used to
evaluate the vocations of the parents of the subjects included
in this study.
The evaluations, showing the number of cases and
the corresponding per cents in each occupational class.for the
three groups are presented in Table XV.
TABLE XV
Ratings on the Beckman Scale of Occupations for the
Parents of the Subjects in the Three Groups
Grades of
Occupational Scale
I Unskilled Manual Occupation
II Semi-skilled Occupation
III a)skilled Manual Occupation
b) skilled White Collar
IV a) sub-professional
b) business
c) minor supervisory
a) professional (linguistic)
V
b) professional(scientific)
c) managerial and executive
Total N=
Varsity Non-athlete Intramural
No.
No.
No.
5
11
64
37
2
19
2
4
9
4
157
1
4
57
27
2
16
1
7
1
4
120
1
6
49
29
3
22
3
6
8
2
129
Adopting the hypothesis that the varsity, non-athlete and
intramural groups are similar with respect to the occupational
1. R. 0. Beckman, A New Scale for Gauging Occupational Rank,
Personnel Journal, XIII (1934), pp. 225-233.
I
56
status of their parents the Chi-square (X2 ) test of homogeneity!
was applied to the data of Table XV to test this hypothesis.
Following the generally accepted procedure of not having
less than five cases in any one interval or cell a contingency
table was set up for the three groups employing only five cate­
gories of occupational status as appears below.
Contingency Table of Occupational Status*
Occupational
Varsity
Non-athlete
Intramural
Totals
Grade
Group
Group
Group
I & II
16 (10.83)
5 ( 8.28)
7 ( 8.90)
28
Ilia
64 (65.74)
57 (50.25)
49 (54.01)
170
37 (35.96) 27 (27.49)
29 (29.55)
93
m b
23 (27.07) 19 (20.69)
28 (22.24)
70
IV
17 (17.40) 12 (13.30)
45
16 (14.30)
V
157
120
129
406
Totals
* Figures in parentheses represent theoretical frequencies,
others are actual frequencies.
The theoretical frequency of each cell is found by dividing
the product of the corresponding row and column total frequencies
by the grand total frequency.
For example, the theoretical fre­
quency in the upper left-hand cell is 157 x 28 / 406 = 10.83 and
the remaining 14 theoretical frequencies are similarly computed.
Then for each cell the difference between the actual and theo­
retical frequency is squared and divided by its theoretical fre­
quency.
For the upper left hand cell this would be
^ /r
Since the formula for Chi-square is X 2=
)•? ,.
~ |2*8^=»47.
r± u
^
---
where
fo r actual frequency, the sum of the results for each cell gives
X 2 which in this case is equal to 2.69.
To determine the signi­
ficance of this X2 the number of degrees of freedom of the table
must be known.
In a problem testing homogeneity, the number of
1. E. F. Lindquist, Statistical Analysis in Educational Research,
pp. 30-46.
57
degrees of freedom in the contingency table is one less than the
number of rows times one less than the number of columns.'1' In
this instance (5-1)(3-1) = 8.
For the interpretation of the re­
sult a quotation from Lindquist will serve best.
In general the median value of X^ under a true hypo­
thesis is very nearly the same as the number of
degrees of freedom. Hence if a value of X^ less
than the number of d.f. is obtained we may conclude
at once that the hypothesis is tenable without both­
ering to refer to the Table of Percentages for values
of X^ with given degrees of freedom.2
In the above problem X^ is considerably less than the number of
degrees of freedom.
It may be assumed that the three groups are
similar with respect to the occupational status of their parents.
Comparisons Within the Varsity Group Based
on Semesters of Varsity Experience
From the students reports of their varsity athletic experi­
ence in high school and college a frequency distribution based on
differentiation of experience was made for the 171 subjects.
Each
season of membership on a varsity team was counted as one unit of
experience.
For example, if a student was a three letter man dur­
ing any one year, he was credited with three units of varsity ex­
perience.
If this same student had been a three letter man
through three years of high school and three years of college he
would be credited with a total of eighteen seasons of varsity.
The range of experience units was from one to fourteen.
quencies for each unit ranged from one to thirty-three.
1. Ibid., p. 45.
2. Ibid., p. 35.
The fre­
58
Because the number of subjects who had only one season of var­
sity experience amounted to five they were combined with those
having two seasons of varsity experience to form one group.
There
were a sufficient number of students having three, four, five, six
and seven seasons of experience respectively to comprise separate
groups, namely groups two, three, four, five and six.
Individuals
having eight or more seasons of varsity experience were combined
to form the seventh group with a total of fifteen cases.
There
was thus formed seven groups of varsity athletes differentiated as
to numbers of seasons of varsity experience.
For the purpose of comparing these seven varsity groups with
respect to the personality variables, separate means and standard
deviations for each group had to be computed.
These results are
summarized in Table XVI.
iixamination of Table XVI indicated differences between the
mean scores of the seven groups on several of the personality var­
iables.
To determine whether those differences were significant
or could be explained in terms of chance fluctuations in random
sampling, analysis of variance-*- was employed.
By this technique
a so-called null hypothesis for differences between the means of
the groups is set up.
In other words it is postulated that there
are no real differences between the means of the groups which are
samples of the original homogeneous varsity group and this postu­
lation is to be tested by applying to the data the method of
analysis of variance.
1. G. W. Snedecor, Statistical Methods, pp. 195-197.
59
TABLE XVI
Scores in the Personality Variables for Seven Varsity Groups Differentiated
on the Basis of Seasons of Varsity Experience
Groups and Their Seasons of Vars: ty Experience
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7
3
4
5
6
8 to 14
1 to 2
7
seasons seasons seasons seasons seasons seasons seasons
Soales
and
Traits
122.51
25.92
116.00
35.38
115.83
29.57
118.76
25.12
108.84
28.30
88.27
27.90
114.69
36.80
13.13
4.92
14.24
5.17
16.03
7.00
27.16
11.03
17.18
6.58
28.37
14.26
12.28
3.62
13.83
5.11
15.55
4.19
30.34
7.86
19.10
6.09
31.07
10.68
12.71
4.72
13.58
5.02
15.39
5.55
28.59
11.31
17.61
6. 81
28.13
9.42
12.33
5.39
13.83
3.09
15.25
4.92
28.17
7.46
17.54
3.51
29.08
13.96
13.85
5.63
13.85
4.20
17.47
5.19
27.76
7.65
18.28
5.63
27.42
9.48
12.00
5.13
12.54
3.10
14.31
5.46
27.31
7.39
18.54
7.05
24.15
10.56
9.66
3.60
10.06
4.40
10.00
5.43
19.53
6.49
16.20
4.64
21.93
12.95
12.50
4.87
13.50
4.67
15.24
5.85
27.51
9.54
17.68
6.33
27.88
12.18
M
S .D
64.82
7.69
65.31
6.87
65.96
9.08
67.08
9.16
62.14
7.09
68.54
7.86
68.46
10.75
65.70
9.12
U
4.50
17.11
.05
14.10
4.93
11.30
11.08
16.40
6.42
16.90
16.77
10.00
20.60
20.70
7.40
18.88
54.67
10.01
32.87
6.69
30.21
6.74
27.39
8.64
34.16
5.59
32.53
6.44
23.13
8.36
55.72
12.04
32.33
6.46
29.48
4.31
27.93
9.43
33.67
7.97
33.57
5.99
22.45
6.76
58.16
10.41
32.61
6.04
30.48
5.19
26.52
7.82
36.16
4.66
57.46
9.07
33.75
8.74
30.44
7.24
28.02
8.06
33.23
6.66
33.33
4.44
22.06
7.47
57.19
9.71
33.45
6.69
30.30
3.96
26.61
8.17
35.35
5.41
32.80
6.24
22.35
7.35
60.08
8.88
31.42
5.86
29.77
3.79
28.57
7.55
34.04
9.01
33.65
6.93
21.92
4.46
55.13
10.99
31.93
6.98
28.50
5.34
29.03
7.46
33.93
6.30
33.53
8.30
22.40
7.13
56.63
10.16
32.44
6.92
29.99
6.40
27.55
8.30
34.42
5.80
33.02
6.84
22.30
7.16
TT *T> * *r
M 117.11
S .D 42.67
Wo r k
Eff.
Sup.
Inf.
Soc.
Aoc.
Emot.
Stab.
Fam.
Rel.
M
S .D
M
S .D
M
s .D
M
s •D
M
s .D
M
s .D
Int.
Ext.
Asc.
Sub.
s .D
Con.
Lib.
M
S .D
Theo.
M
s •D
Eco.
s •D
H.B.I
AV J
Obj.
M
AA M
Aes
•
Total
Group
M
s •D
M
Soc.
s .D
Pol.
s .D
Rel.
s .D
M
M
32.55
7.13
21.39
7.31
60
The exact steps entailed in carrying out the analysis in a
case wherein there are unequal numbers in the groups are des­
cribed by Snedecor*1- with the appropriate formulas for each step.
In the present study the analysis was first applied to the groups
with reference to the mean' scores on the Ascendance-Submission
scale because it appeared to the investigator that the mean dif­
ferences there were greatest.
Accordingly there was obtained from the data and represented
in the following tabulation of Analysis of Variance, the "total
sum of squares" (47010), the "sum of squares" between the
groups (5981) and within the groups (41029).
Dividing these by
their respective degrees of freedom (6 and 164) gave the "mean
squares" or variance between groups (997) and within groups (250).
From the latter is found what is termed F, the ratio of variance
"between the groups" to variance "within the groups" 997/250 =3.99.
Analysis of Variance
Degrees of
Freedom
Source of Variation
6
164
170
Between group means
Within groups
Total
Sum of
Squares
Mean Squares or
Variance Ratio
F
5981
41029
47010
997
250
3.99
Referring to what is known as the "F" Table^ with 6 and 164 d.f.
it is found that F need only exceed 2.92 to be significant at the
one percent level.
Hence it is clear that for the ascendance-
subinission variable the null hypothesis must be false and the
1. Loo, cit.
2. Ibid., pp. 184-187.
61
differences in means could not be due to chance alone.
And
since the groups were originally organized on the basis of sea­
sons of varsity experience it is safe to assume that the variation
in means for ascendance-submission is associated with the differ­
ences in varsity experience.
Applying the analysis of variance to the seven groups for the
other scales yielded decreasing P's in the following order:
1. Human Behavior Inventory F=2.181 which according to the
F Table is significant at the 5 per cent level, indicates that
the chances are 95 out of 100 that the differences in means are
not due to chance.
2. Introversion-Extroversion scale F=1.313.
This indicates that
the variance between the groups is slightly larger than the var­
iance within the groups.
For the degrees of freedom involved,
an F of 2.16 would occur in 5 per cent of all random samples.
The
observed F of 1.313 would occur in considerably more than 5 per
cent of such samples, and we may ascribe the differences between
groups to random sampling.
3. Conservatism-Liberalism scale F=.470.
This indicates that
the variance within the groups was greater than the variance be­
tween the groups.
Differences in the group means for this scale
are similar to those that may be obtained by random sampling.
In view of the fact that the mean scores for the seven
groups seemed to show lesser differences in the remainder of the
personality variables it was considered unnecessary to further
examine this data by variance analysis.
It may therefore be as­
sumed that there is no general relationship between seasons of
)
62
varsity experience and the theoretical, economic, aesthetic,,
social, political and religious motivational interests of the
varsity groups.
While the P test indicated for some of the variables that
there were differences in the means, attributable to differences
in the groups' seasons of varsity experience, it did not indicate
the nature and magnitude of these differences amongst particular
groups.
Since by inspection of Table XVI it was evident that the
mean differences do not increase or decrease in any regular order
from group 1 to group 7, a combination of groups was made and the
differences examined.
The means and standard deviations were combined for groups
1, 2 and 3 on the Ascendance-Submission, Human Behavior Inventory,
Introversion-Extroversion and Conservatism-Liberalism scales.
Similarly the means and standard deviations of groups 4, 5, 6
and 7 were
combined.
The formulas used for combining the means
and standard deviations were taken
There
viduals in
from Garrett.^-
were thustwo varsity groups
with ninety-eight indi­
the first group who had from one to four seasons of
varsity experience and a second group with seventy-three cases
having five or more seasons of varsity experience.
The differ­
ences in the combined means for these groups were investigated
by the critical ratio method.
With a view toward determining
the relative contribution of the subsections of the Human Behav­
ior Inventory to the mean difference of the total, the same
1. H. E. Garrett, Statistics in Psychology and Education,
pp. 192-194.
63
treatment of the data for the subsection variables was carried
out.
As a check, computations were also made for the "aesthetic”
variable of the values scale because it showed greater mean dif­
ference than'the other values.
The results of these computations
are summarized in Table XVII.
TABLE XVII
Critical Ratios of the Differences Between Means in Several
Personality Variables of Two Combined Varsity Groups Differ­
entiated on the Basis of Seasons of Varsity Experience
Personality
Variables
Ascendance
Submission
Introversion
Extroversion
Conservatism
Liberalism
Human Behavior
Inventory
Work
Efficiency
Superiority
Inferiority
Social
Acceptability
Emotional
Stability
Objectivity
Family
Relationships
Aesthetic
Combined Groups
1 2 and 3
M
S.D
Combined Groups
4 5 6 and 7
Ivl
S.D
C.R
3.46
14.70
12.71
17.45
4.38
65.32
8.17
66.20
9.17
.75
56.08
10.97
57.36
9.83
.80
118.35
36.20
109.76
30.05
1.69
12.74
4.54
12.16
5.30
.75
13.91
5.12
12.95
3.94
1.39
15.68
5.85
14.64
5.83
1.15
28.55
10.37
26.12
8.06
1.72
17.88
6.56
17.65
5.21
.25
29.09
11.94
26.26
12.31
1.51
27.28
8.66
27.92
7.95
.50
N : 98
N : 73
In Table XVII the C.R. of 4.38 for ascendance-submission in­
dicates that the combined varsity group which has five or more
64
seasons of experience is reliably more ascendant than the lesser
experienced group combination.
With respect to the other varia­
bles none of the critical ratios reach 2 which is regarded as the
minimum criterion of significance.^
There seems to be a slight
tendency for the more experienced group to be favored in the to­
tal score on the Human Behavior Inventory and its subsections
which, listed in order of decreasing critical ratios are; emo­
tional stability, family adjustment, superiority-inferiority or
self confidence, social acceptability or adjustment, work effi­
ciency and objectivity.
The more experienced group appears to be
slightly more extroverted and liberal although the critical ratios
are so small that they may well be due to chance.
The critical
ratio for the 'aesthetic value', as was expected, is very small
and was merely computed to illustrate that the critical ratios
for any of the Other motivational traits would be even smaller
because the means for this value showed the greatest differences
amongst the groups.
To examine further the trend of differences in some of the
variables which seemed to be related to seasons of varsity exper­
ience, critical ratios of the differences between the means of
the least and most experienced groups were computed.
Since the
number of cases in each group are small the formula used for
Standard Error of the mean was s* D
as suggested by Guilford.^
The results of this treatment of the data appear in Table XVIII.
1. J. P. Guilford, Psychometric Methods, p. 433.
2. Ibid., p. 52.
65
TABLE XVIII
Critical Ratios of Differences Between Means in Several
Personality Variables of the Least Experienced and Most
Experienced Varsity Groups
Objectivity
Family
Relationships
Group 1
LI
N=38
S.D
Group 7
M
N=15
S.D
4.50
17.11
20.60
20.70
2.52
64.82
7.69
68.46
10.75
1.12
54.67
10.10
55.13
10.99
.13
117.11
42.67
88.27
27.90
2.76
13.13
4.92
9.66
3.60
2.71
14.24
5.17
10.60
4.40
2.46
16.03
7.00
10.00
5.43
3.19
27.16
11.03
19.53
6.49
4.06
17.18
6.58
16.20
4.64
CO
LO
.
Personality
Variables
Ascendance
Submission
Introversion
Extroversion
Conservatism
Liberalism
Human Behavior
Inventory
Work
Efficiency
Superiority
Inferiority
Social
Acceptability
Emotional
Stability
28.37
14.26
21.93
12.95
1.50
C.R
Comparing the results that appear in Table XVIII with those
of Table XVII it may be concluded that there is a definite ten­
dency for an increase in varsity experience among individuals
to be associated with an increased trend toward improved general
personality adjustment as measured by the scores on the total
Human Behavior Inventory and its subsections.
For example, in
Table XVIII the critical ratio for the trait, emotional stability
is 4.06 whereas in Table XVII it is 1.72, the former is regarded
as indicating a statistically reliable difference, while the lat­
ter is not.
Large increases in the critical ratios are also
shown for the variables of work efficiency, superior!ty-inferiority
66
and social acceptability when comparisons are made between the
results shown in Table XVII with those of Table XVIII.
There is
a similar but slight increase in the aspect of extroversion.
Al­
though the critical ratio for the ascendance-submission variable
has decreased it is still largely significant being 2.52 which in
terms of chances is 99 out of 100 that the more experienced group
will be more ascendant than the less experienced group.
The low
critical ratio for the conservatism-liberalism variables indicates
that there is probably no relationship between these factors and
increased varsity experience.
Again differences for the parts of
the Scale of Values were not computed because a glance at the sim­
ilar means Table XVI (p. 59), made it clear that there was but
little relationship between increased varsity experience and moti­
vational interests as measured by the Scale of Values.
It may be of interest to note that with the exception of the
conservatism-liberalism and motivational interest variables (which
show no relationship to seasons of varsity experience) the differ­
ences in personality traits between the more experienced and less
experienced varsity groups are similar in trend to those of the
varsity group and non-athlete group summarized in Tables VI and
VII.
Comparisons Based on Varsity Team Membership
In grouping the individuals according to varsity sports teams
a uniform procedure had to be decided upon for individuals who
were members of more than one team.
Consequently these individ­
uals were placed in the sport in which they were most experienced.
]
67
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68
In order to compare the ten varsity teams with respect to
the personality variables, means and standard deviations for each
team in every variable had to be computed.
in Table XIX.
These are presented
The fact that there are only 153 cases represented
in this table is due to the exclusion of the eighteen individuals
mentionedin Chapter III (p. 33) who were members of a freshman or
junior varsity team.
Though it appears from Table XIX that there are differences
in the mean scores of the varsity teams with respect to several of
the personality variables it must be borne in mind that the num­
ber of cases in each group was rather small.
Hence to determine
whether these differences were significant or could be ascribed
to chance fluctuations of random sampling an analysis of variance
was made of the variables considered.
As previously the same pro­
cedures outlined by Snedecor1 were used.
A summary of the analy­
sis of variance of the personality variables for the ten varsity
sports groups appears in Table XX.
For the degrees of freedom (9 and 143) involved in the analy­
sis of variance presented in Table XX an F as large as 1.94 would
occur in 5 per cent of all random samples and one as large as 2.53
might be expected only once out of 100 random samplings.
The ob­
served F's in Table XX of 3.511, 2.131, and 1.970, then, indicate
that the differences between the varsity sports groups on conser­
vatism-liberalism scores, social acceptability scores and emotion­
al stability scores respectively are probably due to something
other than chance.
1. G. \V. Snedecor, Statistical Methods, pp. 195-197.
69
TABLE XX
Analyses of Variance of the Personality Variables
for the Ten Varsity Sports Groups
Personality
Variables
Conservatism
Liberalism
Introversion
Extroversion
Ascendance
Submission
Human Behavior
Inventory
Work
Efficiency
Superiority
Inferiority
Social
Acceptability
Emotional
Stability
Variation Between
Groups
Variation Within
Groups
F
2.275
.648
3.511
.524
.486
1.078
1.308
1.782
.734
11.453
7.478
1.531
.107
.151
.708
.283
.152
1.862
.422
.198
2.131
1.127
.572
1.970
.331
.254
1.303
.876
.980
.893
.532
.463
.487
.353
.238
.519
.319
.247
.468
.243
.316
.382
1.668
1.874
1.041
1.453
.753
1.359
Objectivity
Family
Relationship
Theoretical
Economic
Aesthetic
Social
Political
Religious
As may be noted in Table XX the F's for only three other var­
iables seem to be close to the five per cent level; these are
superiority-inferiority (1.862),
'theoretical' (1.668), and
'economic' (1.874).
Judging by the results of the analyses of variance some of
the sports groups should be found to differ significantly from the
total varsity group in those variables that shdwed significant or
near significant F's.
Also few if any differences should be found
between the sports groups and the total varsity group on the var­
70
iables that presented smaller F's, namely; introversion-extroversion, ascendance-submission, work efficiency, objectivity, and the
aesthetic, social, political, and religious values.
In order to determine the extent and nature of the differences
between certain varsity team groups and the entire varsity group in
the personality variables, critical ratios of the differences in
mean scores were computed for the ten sports groups in the sixteen
personality variables.
These results are given in Table XIX (p.67),
which also contains the means for each group and for the total
group.
ilone of the critical ratios presented in Table XIX is three
times as large as the standard error of the difference between the
means that they represent.
Therefore none of the personality trait
differences between a varsity team group and this entire varsity
group may be considered statistically certain.
There might be re­
liable differences between particular sport groups, but since the
sport groups were composed of rather small numbers the more valid
and conservative approach was considered to be the determination
of differences between the respective groups and the total varsity
group.
Several of the critical ratios in Table XIX are over 2
which according to Guilford**- is commonly used as the minimum cri­
terion of significance for a test item.
The greatest differences
between the mean scores of a team and that of the entire varsity
group occur in the conservatism-liberalism, social acceptability,
1. Psychometric Methods, p. 433.
71
superiority-inferiority or self confidence and emotional stability
variables.
That this would be so was expected from the F ratios
of the analyses of variance presented in Table XX (p. 69).
The
results of the analyses of variance are further borne out in that
none of the varsity sports groups show significant critical ra­
tios (2 or over) in the variables which gave the lowest F ’s,
namely; ascendance-submission, introversion-extroversion, work ef­
ficiency, aesthetic, political, and religious interests.
Of the ten varsity team groups the fencing group shows the
greatest number of significant differences from the total group.
In the direction of poorer adjustment, the group is shown to be
somewhat higher in their scores in the total Human Behavior In­
ventory (C.R. 2.24), social adjustment (C.R. 2.75), emotional
stability (C.R. 2.52), family relationship (C.R. 1.94), and
self confidence (C.R. 1.87).
They are lower in ascendance (C.R 1.46)
and extroversion (C.R. 1.04) traits.
The team is higher than
the total varsity group in their liberalism score (C.R. 1.59) and
theoretical interest score (C.R. 1.98).
The baseball group has a low theoretical score (C.R. 2.11)
and a low liberalism score (C.R. 1.97).
The basketball group manifests rather high self confi­
dence (C.R. 2.35) and high social motivational interest (C.R. 2.20).
The football team manifests its greatest divergence by its
very low liberalism score (C.R. 2.68).
The track group present a rather high score in objectivi­
ty (C.R. 2.33) and low economic motivation (C.R. 2.11).
72
The highest scores of the swimming group occur in the di­
rection of extroversion (C.R. 1.95) and theoretical motiva­
tion (C.R. 1.93).
The tennis team has the highest liberalism score (C.R. 2.36).
The wrestling team, it appears, does not diverge to any ex­
tent from the total group in any of the variables.
Its highest
critical ratio being 1.45 with a mean somewhat lower than that
of the total group.
Comparison of Individual Sports Teams V/ith
Group Sports Teams
In order to determine whether personality trait differences
existed between members of individual sports teams as a group and
members of group sports teams, the scores for the teams comprising
the respective groups had to be combined.*'"'
Hence the means and
standard deviations of the baseball, basketball, football and la­
crosse teams in the sixteen personality variables were combined to
represent the averages for the group sports.
In like manner the
scores for the boxing, fencing, swimming, tennis, track and wrest­
ling teams were combined to make up the individual sports group.
Critical ratios of the differences between means of these two
groups were computed for the sixteen personality variables.
The
results are summarized in Table XXI.
iH i
ihe formulas employed were the same as those previously men­
tioned in this report (p. 17).
73
TABLE XXI
Critical Ratios of the Differences Between Combined
Means in the Personality Variables of Group Sports
Teams and Individual Sports Teams*
Individual Sports N=82
Personality
Group Sports 11=71
C.R
M
M
S.D
S.D
Variables
Conservatism
58.47
10.04
10.67
2.36
54.52
Liberalism
Introversion
8.88
65.39
8.36
.79
66.49
Extroversion
Ascendance
17.48
7.53
9.60
14.13
.80
Submission
Human Behavior
116.97
32.15
55.81
111.49
1.00
Inventory
Work
4.77
.39
12.40
4.74
12.10
Efficiency
Superiority
4.9413.50
.63
4.89
13.00
Inferiority
Social
15.71
5.87
14.66
5.34
1.30
Acceptability
Emotional
26.47
9.38
1.06
28.10
9.70
Stability
5.63
17.89
6.78
Objectivity
.16
17.73
Family
11.63
29.30
12.49
26.78
1.29
Relationships
7.46
Theoretical
34.32
6.41
2.21
31.80
29.85
5.33
29.84
7.00
Economic
.01
7.84
Aesthetic
28.10
.61
27.32
8.90
Social
34.94
5.82
34.30
.66
6.12
6. 66
7.28
33.47
31.84
Political
1.50
21.47
7.32
Religious
7.30
1.54
23.30
* Group sports teams - Baseball, basketball, football and lacrosse.
Individual sports teams - Boxing, fencing, swimming, tennis,
track and wrestling.
Although none of the differences between means represented
in Table XXI are large enough to be considered entirely reliable
statistically, the individual sports group is indicated to be
significantly more liberal (C.R. 2.36) and theoretical (C.R. 2.21),
and slightly more aesthetic (C.R. .61).
The group sports com­
bination manifest statistically, to a non significant degree,
74
critical ratios representing slightly greater extroversion, as­
cendance, work efficiency, self confidence, social acceptability,
emotional stability, family adjustment and social, political and
religious motivational interests.
Comparison of the results contained in Table XXI with those
obtained for the differences between the original varsity and non­
athlete groups shown in Tables VI, VII, and VIII (pp. 46-48), in­
dicates that with the exception of one item (religious value) the
direction of the personality trait differences between the group
sports and individual sports combinations, are exactly the same in
trend (although smaller in magnitude) as the differences between
the varsity group and non-athlete group.
It may therefore be con­
cluded that as a group the individual sports members are more sim­
ilar to the original non-athlete group, than are the group sports
members.
Comparisons Between Body-Contact Sports Teams
and Non-Body-Contact Sports Teams
Proceeding in the same manner as described for the dichotomy
of individual and group sports, critical ratios were computed for
the differences in the personality variables of two varsity groups
differentiated according to membership on varsity teams engaging
in body-contact and non-body-contact sports.
The body-contact
sports group consisted of the basketball, boxing, football, la­
crosse and wrestling teams.
The non-body-contact group included
the baseball, fencing, swimming, tennis and track teams.
Since
the division on the basis of contact and non-contact sports ne­
cessitated a small shift in teams namely,the removal of the base­
ball team and the addition of the boxing and wrestling team to
75
what was previously the group sports combination, the differ­
ences between personality variables for the two new groups may
be expected to be similar to those of the previous dichotomy.
The results of the comparison of the contact and non-contact
sports groups are contained in Table XXII.
TABLE XXII
Critical Ratios of the Differences Between Means in the
Personality Variables of Body-Contact and Non-BodyContact Sports Groups*
Personality
Contact Sports N=75
M
Variables
S.D
Conservatism
56.45
9.90
Liberalism
Introversion
8.46
66.82
Extroversion
Ascendance
10.96
16.75
Submission
Human Behavior
112.18
33.13
Inventory
Work
12.21
5.24
Efficiency
Superiority
4.83
12.59
Inferiority
Social
4.97
14.25
Acceptability
Emotional
26.87
9.28
Stability
Non-Contact Sports H=78
S.D
M
C.R
57.65
11.42
.70
65.01
8.82
1.29
6.13
14.93
1.87
116.59
35.41
.80
12.36
4.95
.18
13.94
5.15
1.68
‘ 16.19
5.90
2.22
27.81
10.02
.61
6.37
17.36
.93
Objectivity
18.30
6.21
Family
12.26
11.98
.87
27.27
28.97
Relationships
6.76
7.81
.29
Theoretical
32.87
33.21
6.86
5.87
29.87
.13
Economic
29.91
8.86
.17
Aesthetic
27.63
6.80
27.84
5.95
.76
Social
34.97
34.23
6.32
7.31
.75
Political
5.53
32.22
33.00
7.57
6.85
22.97
1.14
Religious
21.65
* Contact sports teams - basketball, boxing, football, lacrosse,
wrestling.
Non-contact sports teams - baseball, fencing, swimming, tennis,
track.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
•
II3R A R Y
•
76
By a comparison of the results contained in Tables XXII and
XXI it may readily be recognized that with the exception of a change
in the direction of the traits of objectivity and religious inter­
est, the differences in personality traits between the contact and
non-contact sports groups take the same direction as the differ­
ences between the group sports and individual sports combinations.
V/ith regard to the magnitude of the critical ratios they are
slightly but not significantly larger for the contact group in the
traits.extroversion, ascendance, self confidence, and social ad­
justment.
On the other hand the critical ratios become somewhat
smaller for the contact group in the traits conservatism, emo­
tional stability, theoretical and political interest.
Since the nature of the differences between the body-contact
sports group and non-body-contact sports group are the same as
those between individual and group sports, it may be concluded
that as a group the non-body-contact sports members are more sim­
ilar to the original non-athlete group than are the body-contact
sports members.
Interoorrelation of the Scales
The repeated similarities in trend of differences between
groups, with reference to the adjustment variables, introversionextroversion aspects, and ascendance-submission traits, indicated
that some degree of correlation should be found to exist between
the scales representative of these traits.
Hence the scores of
the 435 cases in the Human Behavior Inventory, IntroversionExtroversion scale, A-S Reaction scale, and the ConservatismLiberalism scale were intercorrelated with each other by the
77
Pearson product-moment method of correlation.
The resulting co­
efficients of correlation appear in Table XXIII.
TABLE XXIII
Intercorrelation of Human Behavior Inventory, A-3 Reaction
Scale, Introversion-Extroversion Scale, and ConservatlsraLiberalism Scale
Scales
r
Ascendance-Submission...Human Behavior Inventory
Ascendance-Submission...Introversion-Extroversion
Introversion-Extroversion...Human Behavior' Inventory
Conservatism-Liberalism...Human Behavior Inventory
Conservatism-Liberalism...Introversion-Extroversion
Conservatism-Liberalism...Ascendance-Submission
.395
.508
.494
.043
.069
.113
P.E.
±.028
±.025
025
±.033
±.033
±.033
In constructing the scatter diagrams for the correlations be­
tween the scales the distributions were so arranged as to yield
positive coefficients.
The r's of Table XXIII indicate the traits
ascendance and extroversion to be positively correlated with fa­
vorable scores in the Human Behavior Inventory and with each other,
r's are respectively .395, .494, and .508.
Conversely it may be
stated that submission and introversion are correlated with less
favorable adjustment scores and with each other.
The relationship
between The Social Study or Scale of Conservatism-Liberalism and
the other scales shows no correlation, for none of the obtained
r's is four times as large as its probable error.
Comparisons and interpretations of the findings outlined in
this chapter will be dealt with at length in the following chap­
ter.
A detailed summary of the results is contained in Chapter VI.
CHAPTER V
INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS
Social Significance of Scores on Personality Scales
Before proceeding to an interpretation of the results it may
he well to review the facts concerning the social status indicated
by scores on several of the personality scales considered.
Concerning the Human Behavior Inventory and its subsections,
it may be taken for granted that the higher scores are les 3 soc­
ially desirable.
A high score in the total scale indicates a lack
of personality adjustment or what may be termed maladjustment.
Sim­
ilarly high scores in the subsections indicate respectively, poor
work efficiency, lack of self confidence, poor social adjustment,
emotional instability, lack of social insight and lack of adjust­
ment to the home.
Y.’ith respect to the traits introversion-extroversion and
ascendance-submission, an issue arises.
Although there are those
who would disagree, the majority of opinions in the literature ap­
pear to regard extroversion and ascendance respectively as more
wholesome traits of personality than introversion and submission.
Diamond, after a review of the literature concerning the social
status of the traits introversion and extroversion in which he
quotes such authorities as Thurstone, Heidbreder and Downey, comes
to the following conclusion:
78
79
Many considerations combine therefore to support the
view that introversion is associated with a decreased
effectiveness and satisfaction in social contacts,
and that it must be regarded as a mild form of mal­
adjustment. 1
In a report on the applications of the Ascendance-Submission
Reaction Study is found the following:
That a neurotic tendency goes with submissiveness is
the conclusion of investigators 'who have correlated
scores on the Ascendance-Submission Reaction Study
with scores on the Thurstone Personality Inventory.^
These conclusions are confirmed to some degree by the findings
of this study.
The intercorrelations in Table XXIII (p. 77) indi-*
cate a positive correlation between introversion and submission
scores with poorer adjustment scores in the Human Behavior Inventory.
Similarly in Tables VI and VII the non-athlete group which shows
significantly poorer adjustment scores than the varsity and intra­
mural groups also shows significantly greater scores in the traits
introversion and submission.
Comparison of the Main Groups
The results of the comparisons of the varsity group, intra­
mural group, and non-athlete group with respect to personality
traits of adjustment (summarized in Tables VI, VII, and VIII
pp. 46-48) indicate that both the varsity and intramural group
have significantly more favorable scores in the traits representa­
tive of best adjustment.
Since this study did not concern itself
1. 3. Diamond, A Study of the Influence of Political Radicalism
on Personality Development, Archives of Psychology, llo. 203,
1936, p. 10.
2. R. Ruggles and G. W. Allport, Recent Applications of the
Ascendance-Subraission Reaction Study, Journal of Abnormal
and Social Psychology, XXXIV (1939), p. 522.
80
with eliciting causal factors for the differences manifested be­
tween the groups, no positive assertion can be made as to the
reasons for these differences which may be purely a matter of
selection.
But in view of the many claims made by physical edu­
cators and psychologists (referred to in Chapter I) for the char­
acter and personality development influences of physical education
activities, it would seem safe to assume that the participation in
athletics was in some degree related to the manifest superior per­
sonality traits of the athlete groups over the non-athlete group.
The intramural group showing somewhat higher mean scores than
the varsity group in the traits ascendance and extroversion seems
to be contrary to the popular notion that varsity athletes are more
domineering and extroverted than the average student.
In the conservatism-liberalism scores of the three groups it
is of interest to note that the mean score (56.86) of the most
conservative group (the varsity group), was well above the aver­
age score of 53 for educators having the masters degree as re­
ported by Harper.^
These results for City College students, who
in large part, are Jewish residents of Hew York City, support
Vetter's^ study in which he found the majority of the extreme
liberal, and radical scores amongst Hew York City students who
were of the Jewish race.
That attitudes are frequently carried from one activity to
1. K. H. Harper, Social Beliefs and Attitudes of American Educators,
Teachers College, Contributions to Education, No. 290,
Hew York City, 1927, p. 67,
2, G. B. Vetter, The Measurement of Social and Political Attitudes
and the Related Personality Factors, Journal of Abnormal and
Social Psychology, XXV (1930), p. 178,
81
another is generally accepted as a psychological principle.
Hence
the slightly greater conservatism score for the athlete groups
may be explained as a carry over of the attitude of conformity to
rules, standards, and traditions fostered by athletic procedures.
Similarly the constant striving for success, mastery, recognition
and distinction which are so much a part of athletic events would
make it seem natural that participants in these activities should
be found to score higher in the political value which has been
described as the desire for a direct expression of power.
In con­
trast to this motive is the aesthetic and theoretical drives in
which the non-athlete group were found to score significantly high­
er.
These results are in harmony with the popular conception that
individuals who are not interested in physical activities find con­
trasting interests in linguistic and aesthetic pursuits.
Background Information About the Hain Groups
That the three groups were found to be similar in their re­
ligious faith, national derivation, educational status and parental
occupational status, might have been expected from the general ho­
mogeneity of background of the entire student body of the college.
Added to this is the fact that in choosing the cases of the study
an attempt was made to obtain proportionate representation from
the various grades and courses of study at the college.
The higher mean age of the varsity group may be partially ex­
plained by the fact that there were more upperclassmen and several
graduate students in this group which condition was not true of
the other groups.
82
The greater mean age of the varsity group may not be of­
fered as a factor to account for the personality differences be­
tween this group and the non-athlete group because similar trait
differences exist between the intramural and non-athlete groups
yet the mean age difference between them is so small as to be
negligible.
The mean of the percentile scores of the varsity group in
the American Council on Education Psychological Examination was
significantly above the mean for college freshmen in general.
This is probably due to the exceptionally high entrance require­
ments (described in Chapter II) for all students admitted to the
college.
Nevertheless the mean of the varsity group was somewhat
lower than the non-athlete mean.
This may possibly be explained
on the basis of a selective factor.
That is, the varsity athletes
having the added incentive of membership on a college team will
tend to seek a college education and persevere in college to a
greater extent than the non-athletes.
Hence the less mentally
alert non-athletes drop out of college while the varsity men do
not.
Evidence to this effect is offered by Williams and Hughes
in their review of a study of athletics conducted at the Univer­
sity of Minnesota which offers the following as one of its con­
clusions:
There is much less elimination from the University dur­
ing the fall and winter quarters among the freshman
football candidates than among non-athletes. When those
who practiced twenty-five or more times are considered,
a surprisingly negligible elimination rate is disclosed.
Here is definite evidence that seriousness of athletic
purpose produces not only good scholastic work but also
serves as a powerful magnet in holding men in college.1
1. J. F. Williams and W. L. Hughes, Athletics in Education,
W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1937, p. 94.
83
Comparisons Within the Varsity Group Based on
Seasons of Varsity Experience
The findings summarized in Tables XVII and XVIII (pp. 63-65)
illustrate that a greater number of seasons of varsity experi­
ence amongst the members of the varsity group, is accompanied by
scores indicating more favorable personality adjustment.
This
might further substantiate the opinions of those who claim that
partaking in physical education activities is a factor in the
development of a wholesome personality.
In this connection it is interesting to note that frequent­
ly when such claims are made they include the reservation that
adequate development will accrue if the activities are under prop­
er guidance or leadership.
Typical of such statements is the fol­
lowing one by Lloyd in which he is discussing the possibilities of
personality development through physical education activities.
He
states:.
It is the thesis of this paper that the physical
education activities may contribute to this full
development of an individual and, if there is a
proper selection of activities and adequate lead­
ership, may be a highly valuable contributory to
character development.!
The association of increased varsity experience with improved
personality adjustment might by inference, according to this view,
be considered as evidence of adequate guidance and leadership of
the physical education activities indulged in by the athletes in­
cluded in this study.
1. J. B. Hash, et. al., Interpretations of Physical Education. I
A. S. Barnes and Co., 1931, p. 170.
84
Comparison of Varsity Sports Teams
The comparisons of the mean scores of various sports team
groups in the sixteen personality variables with the scores of
the entire varsity group show no differences in terms of critical
ratio which are large enough to he considered statistically re­
liable.
Some of these differences however are large enough to be
considered somewhat significant (critical ratio over 2).
That per­
sonality differences on a group basis exist amongst the membership
of the various sports has been suggested in the theoretical liter­
ature but so far as this investigator knows this situation has not
been tested experimentally.
Griffith, who has written several
full-length books on the subject of psychology and athletics of­
fers the following:
Some games depend more than others, upon the fact of
personality.
It is a personality that one charges
against in the football game.
The personal element
in a game makes a difference.
The question is: V/hat
kind of a difference? How can personality be used?
'.Vho has it? 7/ho can get it? These too are psycho­
logical questions.1
The work of the Committee on Curriculum Research of the Col­
lege Physical Education Association may shed some light on the
answers to Griffith's questions.
the most intensive work to date
The Committee has perhaps done
on the evaluation of physical
education activities in terms of their relative contributions to
the objectives of physical education.
The five objectives listed
by the Committee may be described briefly as physical and organic
development, social traits, psychological development, safety
1. C. R. Griffith, Psychology and Athletics, p. 27.
85
skills, and recreational skills.
In the report of this Com­
mittee, compiled by LaPorte, charts are found which show the
ranking of physical education activities in order of the im­
portance of their contribution to each and all of the objec­
tives.
For the present needs it may be worth while to list
the Committee's rankings of the sports included in this study,
with reference to their psychological, and all-round contri­
butions. 1
The numbers to the right of the sports indicate the
Committee point evaluations.
The numbers to the left represent
the rank order of the sports as indicated by the Committee.
Evaluative Rankings of Sports by the Committee on Curriculum
Research of the College Physical Education Association
Relative Rank of
Sports in Psycho­
logical Contribution
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
S.
S.
Football —
BasketballBaseball -Tennis
—
Track
—
Swimming —
Boxing
—
Fencing —
Wrestling—
9
8
7
7
7
7
7
6
5
Relative Rank of
Sports in All-Round
Contribution
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Swimming —
Football -BasketballTennis
—
Baseball —
Boxing
-Track
-Vfrestling—
Fencing --
&J8
7-J
7
6§
6$
6£6?
4j
Ranking of Teams on
Basis of Adjustment
Scores Obtained in
this Study
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Football
Basketball
Track
Baseball
Boxing
Swimming
Wrestling
Tennis
Lacrosse
Fencing
Thus some of the personality trait variations manifested by the
sport groups of this study may be worth considering.
Of all the teams considered in this study the fencing group
1. '.V. R. LaPorte, The Physical Education Curriculum, Report of
The Committee on Curriculum Research of the College Physical
Education Association.
The Rice Institute, Houston, Texas,
1937, pp. 8-13.
86
showed the largest and most consistent trait mean deviations
from the total varsity group.
Its constellation of differ­
ences from the total varsity group was similar to that of the
non-athlete group with respect to the varsity group.
The mean
scores indicated the fencing group to be least well adjusted,
most introverted, least ascendant, highly liberal and most
theoretical.
A ranking of the team groups based on the results of this
study places the fencing group last in personality adjustment.
This, interestingly enough, coincides with the psychological and
all-round evaluative rankings of sports by the Committee on Cur­
riculum Research as presented on page 85.
Concerning activities that violate the natural principle of
opposition of movements, Williams makes the following statement
concerning fencing:
It is interesting that fencing as an activity is not
very popular today. It has gradually lost its place
among sports. This may be due in part to the deca­
dence of the feudal spirit, but it may also be due to
the fact that as an activity it violates a natural
principle, and hence it fails to give organic satis­
faction. 1
The above suggests two possible explanations for the seeming
atypicality of the fencing group.
As a non-popular sport it may
attract those individuals who see in it an opportunity to excel
or make varsity in an area where the competition is not so great.
As an unnatural activity it offers an opportunity of successful
1. J. F. Williams, The Principles of Physical Education,
pp. 323-324.
87
mastery for those who may not otherwise be so-called natural
athletes of the caliber that seam generally to make up the mem­
bership of varsity college teams.
In an effort to ascertain whether the differences of the
fencing group were not due merely to chance sampling of this
season's team, the varsity fencing coach was interviewed by the
investigator.
It was the coach's opinion that the sport seemed
to attract the same type of students every year.
He character­
ized them as aesthetic minded and emotionally sensitive individ­
uals.
This suggests that further study of the personality traits
of a larger group of fencers drawn from a variety of schools may
prove interesting.
From the group means of Table XIX (p. 67) or from the sports
rankings (p. 85), it was noted that the football and basketball
groups showed the most favorable adjustment scores.
These acti­
vities are similarly indicated to be the top sports by the Cur­
riculum Committee as contributing to the psychological and all­
round objectives of physical education.
Further comparison of
the rankings discloses a rather close agreement between the two
lists.
.Vith the exception of the tennis group no two of the
teams are separated by more than two steps.
Such close agree­
ment between postulated outcomes of certain activities and empir­
ical evidence pointing to the presence of these outcomes in the
postulated areas, is surely deserving of further exploration.
Comparisons Between Group and Individual Sports
and Body-Contact with Non-Contact Sports
The small but consistent concatenation of personality trait
88
differences is repeated for the fifth time when hoth the in­
dividual sports and non-contact sports groups are indicated
to lean slightly in the direction of the traits characteriz­
ing the non-athlete group.
This suggests that at least two
types of trait-consistency exist between groups differentiated
on the basis of athletic participation.
It is recognized that
the concomitant variations of personality traits and athletic
experience brought out in this study can only suggest rela­
tionship by inference.
Nevertheless it must be remembered that
these differences were empirically investigated because of theo­
retical expressions by authorities intimating that specific types
of athletic activities were associated with characteristic per­
sonality traits.
For example in Griffith’s Psychology and Ath­
letics the following statements are found:
There is something about close bodily contact that
puts boxing and wrestling under indebtedness to the
emotions just as was the case in football.
Football teaches courage, team-work, fair play,
stick-to-it-iveness, regard for personality and
control of emotional life.
Baseball is a more intellectual game than football.
Baseball provides also a way of learning steadiness
and control. Basketball is fine training for men­
tal quickness and alertness.1
Thus while the present study has not investigated specifi­
cally some of the suggestions found above, the findings do .tend
to confirm the hypothesis that trait differences are associated
with differences in athletic participation.
1. Griffith,
0£.
cit., p. 27.
89
Finally it must "be stated that due to the empirical nature
of this investigation it cannot be known whether participation
in the activities causes the obtained personality status, whether
those with the characteristic personality status are attracted to
the activity, or whether the activities are such that only those
with the required personality status will be successful partici­
pants.
CHAPTER VI
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Summary of Procedure
After surveying the literature of personality development
and its relationship to physical education activities, definite
problems were formulated for investigation.
These problems ap­
pear in the second section of this chapter.
A survey of the available devices for diagnosing personality
traits, resulted in the selection of five inventories to be used
for this purpose.
Of these inventories the Allport Ascendance-
Submission Reaction Scale, The Harper Social Study and the All­
port and Vernon Scale of Values had been previously standardized
and used in other studies.
The original Guilford list of thirty-
five items, diagnostic of introversion-extroversion, was modified
for the purposes of this study.
A preliminary investigation was
conducted to establish the validity of the Human Behavior Inven­
tory which was chosen as the measure of general personality ad­
justment.
The battery of five inventories plus a personal information
sheet were distributed by the investigator to 435 City College
students, 171 of whom were varsity athletes, 138 intramural ath­
letes and 126 non-athletes.
The personal information sheet re­
quested data concerning the students' age, class, course of study
religion and athletic experience.
90
Prom the college records addi-
91
tional information was obtained as to the students scores on
the American Council on Education Psychological Examination,
the parental occupation and nationality.
The statistical analyses applied to the results of the meas­
urements, included analysis of variance, chi-square test, critical
ratios between means and Pearson product-moment correlation.
Summary of Results of Measurements
By use of cumulative frequency per cent graphs some typical
variations were noted in the distributions of the varsity, non­
athlete and intramural groups on their scores in the personality
inventories.
The groups were shown to differ more in the adjust­
ment scale, the Ascendance-Submission scale and the IntroversionExtroversion scale, than in the Conservatism-Liberalism scale
and the Scale of Values.
The variations between the group distributions were further
examined by use of critical ratios of the differences between the
mean scores of the groups in the sixteen personality traits.
The
varsity and intramural groups were shown to be favored over the
non-athlete group with full statistical reliability in their scores
in the personality adjustment inventory and its subsections of
work efficiency, self confidence, social adjustment, emotional
stability, and family adjustment.
In the subsection termed ob­
jectivity the critical ratios still favoring the varsity and in­
tramural group -were only 1.79 and 1.50 respectively.
The differ­
ences between the varsity and intramural group on this scale and
its subsections were negligible, the critical ratios ranging
from .07 to .47.
On the introversion-extroversion scale and the
92
ascendance-submission scale the varsity and intramural group
v/ere indicated with statistical certainty to be more extro­
verted and ascendant than the non-athlete group.
The intra­
mural group means, showed them to be more extroverted and
ascendant than the varsity group, the critical ratios for the
respective traits being 1.99 and 1.88.
The non-athlete group
manifested the highest liberalism scores on the ConservatismLiberalism scale.
The differences between the groups were not
statistically significant.
Between the non-athlete and varsity
group the critical ratio was l.So, between the non-athlete and
intramural group the critical ratio was 1.56.
The difference
between the varsity and intramural group was smallest, the crit­
ical ratio being .50.
In the motivational interest scores on
the Scale of Values the varsity and intramural group were found
to be reliably higher than the non-athlete group in their polit­
ical interest score and less significantly higher in the social
interest score (critical ratios slightly less than two).
The
varsity and intramural group were undifferentiated in these val­
ues.
The non-athlete group was reliably higher than both the
varsity and intramural groups in the mean score for the aesthetic
value while the latter groups showed no difference.
In the theo­
retical value the non-athlete group was almost reliably higher
than the varsity group (C.R. 2.83), but not significantly higher
than the intramural group (C.R. 1.01).
The higher mean score for
the intramural group over the varsity group in the theoretical
value gave a critical ratio of 1.87.
The differences between the
mean scores of the groups in the economic and religious values
93
were not large enough to be considered significant except for
the critical ratio of 2.10 representing a higher religious score
for the non-athlete group over the intramural group.
Comparisons of the varsity, non-athlete and intramural groups
with respect to religious affiliation, national derivation, edu­
cational status and occupational status of the parents disclosed
small differences; so that the groups were therefore considered
to be comparable.
These comparisons are contained in Tables X,
XI, XII, XIII and XV (pp. 51-55).
The varsity group proved to be
.9 of a year older than the non-athlete group and .75 of a year
older than the intramural group.
In the percentile scores in the
American Council on Education Psychological Examination the non­
athlete group mean was the highest of the three groups.
The crit­
ical ratio between the non-athlete group and varsity group was
2.33, between the non-athlete and intramural groups, the critical
ratio was .81 and between the intramural and varsity groups it
was 1.63.
Application of analysis of variance showed, some differences
in personality traits amongst the varsity group differentiated on
the basis of seasons of varsity experience.
Further investigation
of mean differences gave evidence that a greater number of seasons
of varsity experience was associated with a trend toward more
favorable scores in the personality adjustment inventory and its
subsections and with scores favoring extroversion and ascendance.
There seemed to be no associationship between greater varsity ex­
perience and conservatism-liberalism scores or any of the moti­
vational interests of the Scale of Values.
94
Analyses of variance and critical ratios applied to differ­
ences in mean scores in the personality variables between the ten
varsity sports team groups and the entire varsity group disclosed
no differences large enough to be considered statistically cer­
tain.
Some team differences in several personality traits seemed
significant, (critical ratio above 2).
The fencing group showed
the greatest number of trait differences from the total group.
In
the adjustment traits their mean scores indicated them to be the
least well adjusted of any varsity group.
The critical ratios of
their mean differences from the total group, arranged in descend­
ing order, were as follows: Human Behavior Inventory (C.R. 2.24),
social adjustment (C.R. 2.75), emotional stability (C.R. 2.32),
family relationship (C.R. 1.94), self-confidence (C.R. 1.87),
ascendance (C.R. 1.46) and extroversion (C.R. 1.04).
The team
was higher than the total varsity group in its liberalism score
(C.R. 1.59) and theoretical interest score (C.R. 1.98).
The
baseball group had the lowest mean score in the theoretical val­
ue (C.R. 2.11) and in its liberalism score (C.R. 1.97).
The bas­
ketball group manifested rather high self-confidence (C.R. 2.35)
and high social motivational interest (C.R. 2.20).
The football
team demonstrated its only significant divergence from the total
group by its low liberalism score (C.R. 2.68).
The track group
showed the best objectivity score (C.R. 2.33) and the lowest
economic interest (C.R. 2.11).
The highest mean scores of the
swimming group occur in the direction of extroversion (C.R. 1.95)
and high theoretical interest (C.R. 1.93).
the highest liberalism score (C.R. 2.36).
The tennis team had
The wrestling team
1
95
showed smaller mean differences in the traits than any of the
other groups.
Comparison of varsity groups differentiated on the "basis of
group sports and individual sports, showed small mean differences
between the groups in most of the personality variables.
Although
the trait differences were small, their direction indicated that
the group sports combination deviated from the individual sports
combination in the same trend that the original varsity group
varied from the non-athlete group.
A differentiation of the varsity group on the basis of bodycontact and non-body-contact sports gave results similar to the
comparison of group and individual sports.
The body-contact sports
group being similar to the group sports combination.
Conclusions
It was thought that the clearest presentation of the con­
clusions of this study could be given by coupling them directly
to the original problems set for the investigation.
Hence the
problems are restated below and are followed in each case by a
statement of the conclusions resulting from the study of that
particular problem.
1.
Is there a distinguishable difference between the per­
sonality patterns of those who show outstanding achievement in
physical education activities (as evidenced by membership on a
varsity team), a group of intramural sports participants, and a
group of non-athletes?
Statistically reliable differences were found in the per­
sonality patterns of the varsity and intramural groups as dis-
96
tinguished from those of the non-athlete group.
In personality adjustment scores, ascendance, and extro­
version, the varsity and intramural group proved to he reliably
superior to the non-athlete group.
In attitude, the non-athlete group was found to be more lib­
eral minded than the two athlete groups but the differences were
not statistically significant.
In interests or motivational values, the varsity and intra­
mural group scored themselves as being significantly more moti­
vated by a desire for power and to a lesser extent by a social
love of people.
The non-athlete group showed itself as being
more aesthetic and theoretically minded.
It was found that there are no significant personality trait
differences between the varsity and intramural groups examined
in this study.
2.
Are there differences in the personality patterns of var­
sity athletes who differ with respect to the extent of their
varsity experience?
There was shown to be differences between two groups of var­
sity athletes differentiated on the basis of number seasons of
athletic experience only in the personality traits referring to
adjustment, ascendance and extroversion.
In this the group having
greater experience was found to have the more favorable scores.
In attitudes and interests no differences were indicated.
3.
Do the personality patterns of the various varsity team
groups differ from the total varsity group?
Some teams were identified as differing significantly from
97
the total varsity group in several traits but nonl?of the differ­
ences were large enough to be considered statistically certain.
The fencing group was the most atypical of any varsity group.
The mean scores of the fencing group in the respective person­
ality traits indicated this group to be more similar to the non­
athlete group than any of the athletic groups.
The football and basketball groups received the best adjust­
ment scores.
The baseball group was shown to be significantly less theo­
retically minded and more conservative than the other team groups.
The tennis team had the most significantly high liberalism
score.
The wrestling team distinguished itself by not varying signi­
ficantly from the total group means in any of the personality
traits.
4.
Is there a difference between the personality patterns of
members of varsity individual sports teams and members of varsity
group sports teams?
As a group there are small but consistent personality trait
differences between members of varsity individual sports teams
and members of the varsity group sports teams.
The differences
indicate the individual sports group to be slightly inclined in
the same direction as that of the original non-athlete group.
5.
Is there a difference between the personality patterns of
members of varsity body-contact sports teams and varsity non-bodycontact sports teams?
A similar series of small differences are indicated between
98
the personality traits of the body-contact sports group and the
non-contact sports group, as existed between the group sports and
individual sports combinations.
The differences indicate the
non-contact group to be similar in personality pattern to the
individual sports group.
CHAPTER VII
DISCUSSION
Educational Iraplications
This study is educationally significant in that it has indi­
cated that a more socially desirable degree of personality devel­
opment accompanies a greater degree of experience in physical
education activities.
This by inference, tends to confirm the
/
contentions of those writers in Chapter I who asserted a positive
relationship between participation in physical education activi­
ties and personality development.
It is now incumbent upon those
who make contrary claims, to prove their contentions concerning the
negative contributions of varsity athletics to personality devel­
opment.
The findings tend more firmly to establish the results of
previous studies which indicated that traits of introversion and
submission were correlated with poorer personality adjustment and
with each other.
They lend further support to the fact that Jew­
ish residents of New York City tend to describe themselves as
more liberal in their views than college students in general.
The results indicate that different patterns of personality
might be found amongst the respective members of various varsity
sports teams.
The results indicate that the chances of picking a better
adjusted group from amongst athletic participants is far greater
99
100
than from a non-athlete group.
The results indicate that a similar degree of personality
development will he found amongst varsity athletes as amongst
intramural athletes.
This might tend to strengthen the conten­
tions of educators who advocate the extension of the intramural
athletic program on the ground that it offers opportunities for
athletic achievement to many more participants than the varsity
athletic program.
Recommendations
A weakness of the findings of this study with reference to
the trait differences of the respective varsity teams is that they
are based on small numbers.
For example, frequently a large mean
difference is reduced to a non-significant critical ratio due to
the large standard error that results from having a small number
of cases.
Another general weakness is that some of the differ­
ences indicated may be due merely to the local situation in which
the study was conducted.
It may therefore be worthwhile to con­
duct a similar investigation of the personality traits of the
team groups employing many more cases drawn from a more repre­
sentative sampling.
Finally, it is recommended that a study be conducted to an­
swer the problems posed at the end of Chapter V.
Karnely, whether
the obtained personality differences are due directly to partici­
pation in the physical education activities, or whether'those with
the characteristic personality status are attracted to the physical
education activities, or whether the activities are of such nature
101
that only those with the required personality status will he
successful participants.
The effect of such a study might be the formulation of ex­
perimental evidence to determine the contribution of physical
education activities to personality changes.
i-s
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of Values, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, XXVIII
(April, 1933), pp. 259-273.
Carter, C. G. and Shannon, J. R., Adjustment and Personality
Traits of Athletes and Hon-Athletes.
The School Review.
Vol. XLVIII, Ho. 2, (February, 1940), pp. 127-130.
Cole, L., Psychology of Adolescence. Hew York: Farrar and Rine­
hart , 1936. Pp. 503.
DeQ Cabot, P. S., The Relationship Between Characteristics of
Personality and Physique in Adolescents.
Genetic Psychology
Monographs, Vol. XX, Ho. 1, (February, 1938), pp. 3-1&0.
Diamond, S., A Study of the Influence of Political Radicalism
on Personality Development. Archives of Psychology. Ho. 203,
1936, pp. 5—53.
102
103
Duggan, A. S., A Comparative Study of Undergraduate Women
Majors and Non-Majors In Physical Education With Respect
to Certain Personal Traits. Contributions to Education,
No. 6&2. Hew tfork: Bureau of Publications, Teachers Col­
lege, Columbia University, 1936.
Pp. 117.
Garrett, H. E,, Statistics in Psychology and Education,
New York: Longmans Green and Co., 1937. Ppu 493.
Griffith, C. R., Psychology
Scribner's Sons, 1928.
and Athletics. New
York:Charles
Groves, E. R. and Blanchard, P., Introduction to Mental Hygiene.
Hew York: Henry Holt and Company, 1930. Pp. 467.
Guilford, J. P., Psychometric Methods.
Company, 1936. Pp. 566.
Hew York: L.cGraw Hill
Guilford, J. P. and Guilford, R. B., Personality Factors S E and
LI and their Measurement, Journal of Psychology, II (1936)
pp. 109-127.
________________ An Analysis of the Factors of a Typical Test of
Introversion-Extroversion, Journal of Abnormal and Social
Psychology. XXVIII (March, 1934), pp. 377-399.
Harper, 1.1. H., Social Eeliefs and Attitudes of American Educators.
Contributions to Education, Ho. 294. New York: 3ureau of
Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1927.
Pp. 91.
_________ A Social Study, Bureau of Publications, Teachers
College, Columbia University, New York, 1927. Pp. 4.
Harris, D., Relationship to College Grades of Some Factors Other
Than Intelligence, Archives of Psychology, No. 131 (1931)
pp. 5-55.
Hollingworth, L. S., Intelligence, Its Nature and Nurture,
National Society for the Study of Education.
Thirty-ninth
Yearbook, 1940.
Pp. 471.
La Porte, V/. R., The Physical Education Curriculum. Report of
the Committee on Curriculum Research of the College Physical
Education Association.
The Rice Institute, Houston, Texas,
1937. pp. 61.
Lindquist, E. F., Statistical Analysis in Educational Research.
New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1940. Pp. 266.
104
McKinney, P., Concomitants of Adjustment and Maladjustment in
College Students, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology,
XXXI (January, 1937), pp. 435-457.
Murray, H. A., Explorations in Personality.
University Press, 1938.
Pp. 761.
New York: Oxford
Nash, J. B., et. al., Interpretations of Physical Education, I
New York: A. 3. Barnes and Company.
Pp. 2V6.
Ruggles, R. and Allport, G. W., Recent Applications of the A-S
Reaction Study, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology,
XXXIV (1939), pp. 518-528.
Sharman, J. R., Modern Principles of Physical Education.
York: A. 3. Barnes and Company, 1937. Pp. 208.
Slavson, S. R., Creative Group Education.
Press, 1938.
Pp. 247.
New
New York: Association
Smith, R. B., Growth in Personality Adjustment ThroughMental
Hygiene. Albany, New York, 1936.
Pp. 7l.
Snedecor, G. YJ., Statist!cal Methods.
Ames, Iowa, 193£m
Pp. 38&.
Collegiate Press, Inc.
Stagner, R., The Intercorrelation of Some Standardized Person­
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pp. 453-464.
Symonds, P. I.I., Diagnosing Personality and Conduct, New York:
Century Press, Inc., 1931. Pp. 602.
Vernon, P. E. and Allport, G. Y/., A Test for Personal Values,
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, XXVI (1932),
pp. 231-248.
Vetter, G. B., The Measurement of Social and Political Attitudes
and the Related Personality Factors, Journal of Abnormal and
Social Psychology, XXV (1930), pp. 149-1&9.
Voltmer, F. and Esslinger, A., The Organization and Adminlstration of Physical Education. New York: F. 3.Crofts and Company,
T93BT Pp. 467.
V/atson, G. B., Personality Growth Through Athletics, Journal of
Health and Physical Education, IX (September, 1938")
pp. 408-410.
Williams, J. F., The Principles of Physical Education.
delphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1930. Pp. 481.
Phila­
105
Williams, J. P. and Hughes, V;. L., Athletics in Education.
Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1934. Pp. 59S.
Willoughby, R. R., Relationship to Emotionality of Age, Sex,
and Conjugal Condition, American Journal of Sociology,
XLIII (May, 1938), pp. 920-931.
_______________ Clark-Thurstone Personality Inventory, Journal
of Social Psychology, III (1932), pp. 401-422.
Witty, P. A. and Skinner, C. P., et. al., Mental Hygiene in
Modern Education. Hew York: Farrar and Rinehart, Inc., 1939.
Pp. 539.
APPXKDIX
The Human Behavior Inventory
Identification
Directions:
Age in Years and Months
Sex
Date...,
Read carefully
This booklet contains a list of statements describing the way
people act and feel in different situations.
Certain of these re­
actions are probably common to all of us at one time or another,
but no one knows just how common. There are consequently no ''right”
answers. Each person will answer differently.
In answering each item consider how frequently your own be­
havior or feelings are like those in the statement and then encircle
that answer which most truly represents that fact. Guard against
answering the way you would like, or perhaps think you ought, to
feel or act. You are assisting in an important study. Your close
attention to directions, and to the accuracy of your own judgements,
will be appreciated.
This is a study of human behavior in general, not of any par­
ticular individual. Pill in the above blanks, giving your age, sex,
and the date.
The following sample indicates how you are to answer the dif­
ferent items.
SAMPLE ITEM
I enjoy going to parties and dances.
A P O S H
If
If
If
If
If
ALWAYS
FREQUENTLY
OCCASIONALLY
SELDOM
NEVER
is
is
is
is
is
your
your
your
your
your
correct
correct
correct
correct
correct
answer
answer
answer
answer
answer
to
to
to
to
to
the
the
the
the
the
above
above
above
above
above
item
item
item
item
item
encircle
encircle
encircle
encircle
encircle
A
F
0
S
N
Follow the same plan in answering all of the remaining items.
(Your replies will, of course, have nothing to do with your school
grades or school standing.)
Work carefully but rapidly. Do not delay too long over any
one item.
If in doubt, encircle that answer which seems most
nearly correct. Be sure to answer each item.
Begin here:
(Work Efficiency)
1 I consider myself a very efficient and energetic worker.
2 I daydream a great deal at my work.
3 I put off hard work or disagreeable jobs until circum­
stances actually force me to do them.
4 I take my work responsibilities calmly and do the best
I can with each one in the order of its importance.
5 I am challenged by difficult work and like the responsi­
bility of it.
A F 0 S N
A F 0 S N
A F 0 S N
A F 0 S N
A F 0 S N
108
Human Behavior Inventory Continued
6 I work so slowly and haltingly that I get quite dis­
gusted with myself.
7 When I have much work to do I get into such a jam
that I can hardly do any of it.
8 I find it difficult to be at all satisfied with my
work.
9 I get very restless when working and have to move
around frequently or change to other activities.
A F 0
A P 0
A P 0
A P 0
sN
sN
sH
sN
(Supe ri ority-Infe ri ori t y )
10 I feel I am going to make good in life if I get a little
A
more experience.
11 I am enthusiastic about my ability to do good work in
A
whatever I undertake.
12 I am very much hurt when anyone criticizes me or finds
fault with my work.
A
13 I feel it takes quite a lot to get me embarrassed.
A
14 I am so conscious of my different personal limitations
that it is hard for me to accept responsibility.
A
15 I am so sure of myself that success seems to come
easily.
A
16 I have to "kid" myself into thinking I am somebody in
order to enjoy myself at all.
A
17 I feel miserable because of my general ignorance and
incompetence.
A
18 I dislike disapproval so much that I prefer not to do
anything rather than to get in wrong.
A
19 I can trust my own judgment without anxiety or uncer­
A
tainty.
20 My self-confidence is unusually dependent on the praise
A
and flattery of my friends.
P 0
sM
P 0 8 H
P 0
P 0
P 0
P 0
P 0
P 0
P 0
P 0
F 0
sN
sK
sW
sM
sM
sN
sN
sN
sH
(Social Adjustment)
A P 0
CO
21 I feel other people enjoy my company and like to have
me around.
22 I live up to the good impression people have of me
quite well.
23 I feel people criticize me and dislike me.
24 I feel I am a credit to the good name of my family.
25 I have to do and say things I don't mean in order to
keep up with the crowd.
26 I feel I have no friends who really understand me.
27 I feel I am "in" on things when anything interesting
or important is going on.
28 I get along very well with other people.
29 I feel the need of a great deal of sympathy and
approval.
30 People seem to be attracted to me because of my confi­
dent personal appearance and bearing.
N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0
M
A P 0
A P 0
s
sN
sN
109
Human Behavior Inventory Continued
31 I like to spend a large share of my time with other
people.
32 I feel anxious and ill at ease when I have to meet new
people.
33 I worry for fear of making mistakes which will lose me
the respect of my friends.
A F 0 S N
AP 0 S N
AF 0 S N
(Emotional Stability)
34 I have good insight into my own personality and accept
my particular abilities and deficiencies intelli­
gently.
A
35 I worry over humiliating experiences long after they
have passed.
A
36 My likes and dislikes are quite erratic and unpre­
dictable.
A
37 I accept disappointments or unfortunate happenings with
no crying over spilt milk.
A
38 I can cheer up quickly when discouraged.
A
39 I accept the consequences of my own behavior without
blaming personal difficulties on other people.
A
40 I suspect other people of making unfair comments about
me behind my back.
A
41 If people are disagreeable to me or dislike me I spend
considerable time thinking of ways of getting even.
A
42 I feel other people like to treat me mean for no
reason at all.
A
43 I am able to face unpleasant facts about myself with­
out taking out my spite on other people.
A
44 I feel at home in new situations and experiences
easily.
A
45 I enjoy the adventure and uncertainty of constantly
changing circumstances and responsibilities.
A
46 I enjoy the company of persons of the opposite sex
very much.
A
47 I consider getting married an essential part of my
future plans.
A
48 I feel my attitudes and behavior with reference to sex
matters are entirely healthy and matter of fact.
A
49 I live a very happy and well-contented life.
A
50 I find life so much fun that I don't want to run away
from any of it.
A
51 I get sore at myself and everybody else when I lose
things, or when things don't go the way I want
them to.
A
52 I feel I am improving in my ability to face my personal
problems without fear or evasion.
A
53 I get irritable and touchy very easily.
A
54 I find it easy to keep good-natured and maintain a
sense of humor.
A
55 I feel all played out when I first wake in the morning. A
P 0
S M
F 0 S N
P 0
S M
P 0
P 0
S N
S N
P 0
S N
P 0
S N
P 0 S N
P 0 S N
P 0 S H
P 0 S N
P 0 S N
P 0 S N
? 0 S I
P 0 S N
P0 SI
P0
SI
P 0
S I
P O S I
P0
SI
P 0 S N
P 0 S N
110
Human Behavior Inventory Continued
56 My sleep is disturbed by frightening dreams and night­
mares.
57 I feel that my personal appearance is against me.
58 I can look people in the eye without timidity or selfconsciousness.
59 I have difficulty postponing the gratification of imme­
diate desires for the sake of larger future satis­
factions.
A F 0S N
A F 0S N
A P 0S N
A F 0 SN
(Objectivity)
60 I am very tolerant of the personal peculiarities and
habits of other people.
A P 0S N
61 I am able to differ with other people and have them
differ with me without getting emotionally upset.
A P 0S N
62 I like to "show up" other people when I get a chance.
A P 0S N
63 I remain composed and calm when other people fly off
the handle at me.
A P 0S N
64 I find it easy to understand other people's varying
moods and desires, and to adjust to them sympa­
thetically.
AP 0S N
65 I get so annoyed when people make careless mistakes
that it is all I can do to forgive them.
AP 0S N
66 I am slow to take offense from what other people do or
say.
A P 0S N
67 I excuse other people's thoughtless or unkind remarks
knowing that anyone might do the same, given similar
circumstances or past experiences.
A F 0 SN
68 Other people get on my nerves very easily.
A P 0 SN
69 If a person does anything that I disapprove of I find
it difficult to have any confidence in him thereafter. A P 0 S N
70 When subjected to criticism I wait calmly for a chance
to reply and then state my position without anger or
resentment.
A P 0 S M
71 I feel somewhat antagonistic toward other people on
first acquaintance.
A P 0 S N
72 I have considerable difficulty trying to control my
temper.
A P 0 S N
73 I am very lenient in the way I try to understand the
reasons for other people's attitudes and behavior
before judging them.
A P 0 S N
(Family Relationship)
74 I am so proud of my parents that I like to show them
off to my friends.
75 I feel guilty when I make my own plans and decisions
without consulting my parents.
76 I consider myself very thoughtful of my parents' needs
for appreciation and understanding.
77 I treat my parents like friends and pals.
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
Ill
Human Behavior Inventory Continued
iH
O
i
—1
78 I feel uneasy and self-conscious in the presence of
other members of my family.
79 I try to keep my patients ignorant of the way I spend
my free time.
80 I make proper allowances when my parents are tire or
ill, and do not get upset if they are irritable.
81 I feel my parents do the best they can to make life
happy and successful for me.
82 I hesitate to talk over intimate personal matters with
my parents.
83 I am troubled with homesickness when away from home.
84 I am equally devoted to both of my parents.
85 I overlook mistakes my parents make in dealing with me,
just as I like to have them overlook my mistakes.
86 I am careful to avoid personal mannerism or other habits
that irritate other members of my family.
87 I feel definitely antagonistic toward one or more of my
brothers and sisters.
88 I worry considerably for fear my parents may disapprove
of things I want to do.
89 My affection for my parents is subject to marked fluc­
tuations of mood.
90 I like to have my friends visit my home.
91 If unpleasant discussions arise between members of my
family I refrain from saying things which aggravate
the situation.
92 I feel as though my parents are not my real parents.
93 I am able to accept criticism from members of my family
without undue resentment or feeling of injury.
94 I like to assume my share of family responsibilities.
95 I feel myself inferior to other members of my family.
96 I am free to select my friends without parental super­
vision or interference.
97 I wish I did not have to live at home.
98 I am easily discouraged when the opinions of other
members of my family differ from my own.
99 I feel embarrassed by my parents' old-fashioned ideas
and attitudes.
100 I have a tendency to be bothered by sick headaches or
indigestion when things go wrong at home.
I feel lost when my parents aren't available to help
me solve my personal problems.
102 I have increasing affection for my parents the longer
I live with them and the better I come to know them.
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S M
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S M
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S N
A P 0 3 H
A P 0 S K
A P 0 S N
A P 0 S M
A P 0 S N
112
Introversion-Extroversion Scale
Name.......................
Off,Class........
Age..........
Below you will find statements which may be completely or
partially true or untrue about yourself.
Carefully read each
statement in turn. If you think the statement is "definitely
true", write the figure 1 in the space provided by the line on
the right hand side of the sheet after the statement; write 2
if it is "generally or mostly" true; write 3 if it is "sometimes
true and sometimes untrue"; write 4 if it is "generally untrue"
and 5 if it is "definitely untrue",
REMEMBER: —
1
2
3
4
5
means
means
means
means
means
that
that
that
that
that
the statement
the statement
the statement
the statement
the statement
is DEFINITELY TRUE
is GENERALLY TRUE
is SOMETIMES TRUE AND SOMETIMES UNTRUE
is GENERALLY UNTRUE
is DEFINITELY UNTRUE
BE SURE TO ANSWER EVERY QUESTION.
* 1 1 like to sell things.
_______
* 2 I am inclined to limit my acquaintances to a select
few.________________________________________________ _______
* 3 1 like to read about a thing rather than experience
it.
_____ _
* 4 I am inclined to worry over possible misfortunes.
_______
5 I dislike to change opinions I have already formed. _ _ _ _ _ _
6 I prefer to work things out for myself rather than
accept suggestions from others.
_______
* 7 I am inclined to keep quiet when out in company.
_______
8 I am inclined to think about myself much of the time._______
* 9 1 get rattled easily in exciting situations.
_______
*10 I am inclined to keep in the background on social
occasions.__________________________________________ _______
11 I like to confide in others.
*12 My feelings are easily hurt.
*13 I enjoy getting acquainted with most people.
_______
14 I like to take the lead in group activities._________ _______
*15 I like to speak before a large group.
_______
*16 I like to have people watching me when I am working. _______
*17 I prefer to work with others rather than alone.
_______
18 I like competition.___________________________________ _______
*19 I adapt myself easily in new conditions, i.e., to
new environments, situations, places, etc.
_______
*20 I have ups and downs in mood either with or without
apparent cause._____________________________________ _______
* Only the items so marked were scored for the traits
introversion and extroversion.
113
Introversion-Extroversion Scale Continued
21 I am inclined to act on the spur of the moment
without thinking things over.
*22 I am inclined to he slow and deliberate in movement.
23 I express such emotions as delight, sorrow, anger,
etc., readily.
*24 I daydream frequently.
*25 I am frequently absentminded.
*26 I express myself better in speech than in writing.
*27 I prefer to take the lead in group activities.
28 I am inclined to study the motives of others.
*29 I like to persuade others to my point of view.
30 I work much better when praised.
31 I am more interested in athletics than in intellec­
tual matters.
32 I feel hurt and very much depressed when I receive
a low mark in school or when I lose a game.
33 I am bustled and become excited when for some reason
or other the usual routine is upset.
34 I feel much happier in my work when I know that I am
competing with others for some distinction.
* Only the items so marked were scored for the traits
introversion and extroversion.
Name
Religion- Hebrew(
114
Information Blank
Off . Class ..«.««,, A£6 In Yrs&Mos.» • ••«•
), Protestant(
), Catholic(
) other
.
VARSITY ATHLTTT (
)
•If you are a member of a varsity team at the college, or have
been on a varsity team, fill in the pertinent information below and
disregard the reference to intramural and non-athlete.
Directions: In the parentheses( ) next to the sport record the number
, of years for each sport in which you have participated in at least
one varsity meet.
Thus if you played basketball for two seasons in High
School and football for 4 seasons in college, place a 2 in the
parentheses after basketball under the High School section; a 1 in
the parentheses after football in the J.V.^Freshman section, and
a 3 in the parentheses after football in the College section,
Hireh School or Frep School Experience
Baseball( ) Basketball^
) Boxing( J Footbe1 1 {
J Handball {
Football(
) Lacrosse( ) Soccer( ) Swimming & Diving( )
Tennis( ) Track & Field(
) Wrestling( ) Fencing(
)
)
J.V. or Freshman Experience
Baseball^ ) Basketball(
) Boxing(
) Football(
) Lacrosse( )
Swimming & Diving(
) Tennls(
) Track & Field(
) Wrestling( )
Fencing! )
College Varsity Txperlence
Baseball( ) Basketball(
) 3oxing(
) Fencing(
) Footbell( )
Lacrosse( ) Swimming & Diving( ) Tennis( ) Track & FIeld( )
Wrestling( )
*
*
*
*
*'
*
*
#
#
*
*
*
INTRAKURAL PARTICIPANT (
)
If you have participated in one or more intramural athletic ev­
ents at the college for at least two semesters please indicate the
names of the sports and the number of semesters you have participated
in each.
For example if in one semester you entered a handball tourn­
ament and were eliminated after the second match, and you were a
member of a six man football team that was eliminated in the first
round, you should record:
handball and football— 1 semester
If in addition you participated in intramurals in subsequent
semesters in the same or different sports record them accordingly.
Thus your record may read:
Baseball and Volley ball— 1 semester, handball— 3 semesters,
Badminton and basketball— 6 semesters, football-2 semesters.
Non-athlete (
)
If you are a non-athlete, i.e., you have never been a member
ef a junier high school, senior high school, er college athletic
team, nor ef an intramural, class, or club athletic team in any ef
these institutions, place a check within the parentheses next to
the heating Non-athlete above.
115
Composite Score Form of Results Distributed to Subjects
PROFILE ANALYSIS
TOE
cDSs
ASCENDANCE SUBMISSION SCALE
INTROVERSION EXTROVERSION SCALE
^
SOCIAL STUDY FOR ATTITUDES OF
LIBERALISM AN D CONSERVATISM
STUDY OF VALUE SCALES
th e o r e tic a l
e c o n o m ic
_
_
a e s th e tic
-
s o c ia l
p o litic a l
r e lig io n s
■—
■—
_
-------------------- -
H UMAN BEHAVIOR INVENTORY OF
PERSONALITY ADJUSTMENT
w o r k efficiency
superiority,
inferiority
sooial aeoeptibility
Emotional stability
objectivity
family relationships
________
A SOCIAL STUDY
By kANLY H. HARPER, Ph D.
DIRECTIONS
A. FILLING THE BLANKS BELOW
Fill only such blanks as the Director of the Study instructs you to fill.
1. D a te ...................... ..................................................
2. Your number. .............................. .
3. A g e .............................
5. Name ............................................
4.S e x ...................
. . . . . . ................................. ..................... .
6. If you are now a student in an educational institution give:
a. Name of institution you are attending.............................. ................ .................. .....................................
b. Address of the institution.
......... .............. ......................................... ......... .
7. If you are now or were previously employed in educational work give:
a. Latest grade or subject taught, or other woric dime.
................ ........................... .
b. Kind of institution. ..................... ........... ............................................................. ...............
e. Gty or village................. .......................or (if in a rural school) in what county
.............
d. State...................................... .....................
8. Extent of your educational preparation:
a. Number of years of work completed on the high school level.. .............................
b. Number of years of work completed oiow the high school level..........................
e. Degree or degrees held, if any.
....... ................ .
B. MARKING THE PROPOSITIONS OF THE STUDY
Before turning to mark the following three pages of prppositioas please read these directions carefully.
In plans for die development of good citizenship full weight and proper consideration should be given to the
ojnniahs and ideals of teacters and other educators. Your sincere cooperation is desired, therefore, in marking the
propositions of Bus study. Use care but do not take more time than you need. You should be able to complete
m a rk in g in 3S n r, a t m nat, 45 m inutes.
If you agree effli a proposition more fidly Burn you disagree, mark it by placing a phn sign ( + )
m the parentheses a t the left of the nmnber.
If you disagree more faDy than yon agree, mark die proposition by placing a mhms sign (— ) in
dm parentheses at dm left of die number.
Please mark each propoeitkm even if in some cases yolt feel that yon are merely guessing.
Make sure that yon understand the above directions in the blackface type.
P ublished sa d copyrighted, 1927, by B u re au o r P u s u c a tto o t, T e a c h e rs C c u jg i,
C o u n m U aim snr , New Yoek Ccnr
H M f iS W fa 1923 ftr trim* w b w w r t Snbfi BOUtm jrittti IM S.'
THE PROPOSITIONS
1. In teaching the vital problems of citizenship, teachers should so impress on the students the approved opin­
ions in these matters that life’s later experiences can never unsettle or modify the opinions given.
2. If our people were willing to try the experiment fairly the government ownership of railroads would be for
the best interests of the country.
3. The practice of democracy, as developed in the United States, has no serious or far-reaching defects.
4. As a rule, the laborer in this country has as favorable an opportunity to obtain a fair price for his labor as
his employer has to obtain a fair price for die goods which the laborer produces.
5. One should never allow his own experience and reason to lead him in ways that he knows are contrary to
the teachings of the Bible.
6. The government should provide to all dasses of people opportunity for insurance at cost against accident,
sickness, premature death, and did age.
7. For the improvement of patriotism our laws should forbid much of the radical criticism that we often hear
and read concerning the injustice of our country and government
8. If aim facts should be found favorable to socialism they should be omitted from histories written fen: high
school use.
9. Among die poor, many more individuals fall short of highest satisfaction on account of too many desires
than on account of lade of income.
10. The United States should exercise a wider and firmer control in Latin Ainerica.
11. Very large fortunes gained in this country have, in almost all cases, been obtained by proportionately large
service to die common welfare.
12. The United States is justified in refusing to join the League of Nations.
13. Licenses to teach in the public schools should be refused to persons believing in socialism.
14. The measure of right or wrong in human action is in direct proportion to the measure in which the action
enriches or impoverishes human experience.
15. On the whole in this country, die reward given manual laborers, as compared with the share taken by their
empkyers, has been in just proportion to the services they have tendered.
16. The United States should avoid any extensive program of government ownership and operation in the
generation, transmission, and distribution of hydroelectric power.
17. The present curricula of our schools ate wdl suited to die devdopmentof broiad and sympathetic under­
standing among ourvarious economic groups—farmers,, miners, manufacturers, etc.
18. During die dangers of impending war otu government should prevent vay groups of citizens from oppos­
ing, through public discussions or through publications, die government’s most thorough preparation for the
possible conflict
19. Without directly teaching religion a teacher’s influence in the public schools should always be definitely
and positively favorable to the purposes and activities of our generally recognized religious organizations.
20. The wage system of industry operates with desirable efficiency in promoting the interest of laborers in
die work they are employed to do.
21. Someevents in the history of the United States during the past 40 years show that influential groups
among our people have at times swayed our government into imperialism, the selfish policy of controlling
and exploiting the people of another nation.
^
22. Because of conditions developed by science and invention, nations that continue to grow in strength and
justice will inevitably become less interdependent :
23. Most students of our high schools should give a larger proportion of their time to the study of ancient lan­
guages, in view of the benefit of general mental development and refinement to be derived therefrom.
24. Our generally recognized religious organizations retard progress by continuing to operate as the dead hand
of the past, hindering, through subservience to mythical superhuman authority, efficient search for truth
and justice.
25. No normally healthy individual can justly appropriate and enjoy more property than he has earned by
service to the common good.
26. The development of the highest welfare of the country will require government ownership of important
minerals.
27. World conditions seem now to insure enduring peace among the nations.
28. In the industries of this country proper opportunity and encouragement are usually given to laborers to
progress from lower to higher positions ofall grades of responsibility and reward.
29. The methods and curricula now commonly employed in teaching citizenship insure our country’s efficient
progress in democracy.
30. Our educational forces should be directed toward a more thoroughly socialistic order of society.
31. For the sake of our continued prosperity teachers should endeavor to give students of suitable age a firm
Understanding of and belief in the protective tariff polity.
32. Many more industries and parts of industries should be owned and operated cooperatively by the producers
(all the workers) themselves.
33. The power of huge fortunes in this country endangers democracy.
34. In the elementary schools a direct study of the Constitution of the United States has greater possibilities
for building citizenship than has any study or work that can be properly undertaken in the practical arts—
such as home-making, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, etc.
35. Events since the World War have shown dearly that the permanent polity of the United States should be
to let Europe settle its political problems without our government’s participation.
36. Considering the present lack of respect for authority, teachers should rise to the occasion by depending
less on the self-direction o f students and more on the firmly enforced plans and directions given by the
teacher.
37. As a rule, the time spent on Latin by the girls in our high schools could much better be spent on such sub­
jects as music, fine arts, home-making, literature, or social studies^
38. Some form Of public regulation of business or some form of taxation should be used that would make
impossible the accumulation or holding of a fortune as large as some fortunes now held.
39. Reproduction should be made impossible, by segregation-or by surgical operation, for all those below cer­
tain low standards of physical and mental fitness.
40. Teachers can get no practical help from psychology that cannot be better obtained from mere common
sdise experience.
41. Chi the wholes we have had too much of government interference or regulation in private business.
42. The history of protective tariff legislation in this country is a worthy record of our government’s impartial
and efficient devotion to the welfare of all the people.
43. It should become common practice for owners of capital to share profits and management with their em­
ployees.
;
44. A large majority of those who usually vote the Republican ticket are influenced in their voting more by
ignorance and prejudice than by rational thought (No comparison with other parties isimplied.)
45. Every boy and girl in American schools should be taught to give unquestioning and unlimited respect and
support to tiie American.-flag.
46. History shows no development to encourage the hope that there can ever be a practical international or
world government to deaf with international or world affairs.-
( ) 47. Our radical papers exaggerate greatly when they say that 5 per cent of our population owns 95 per cent of
all the property in this country.
48. The development of the highest welfare of the country will require government ownership of the land.
49. The members of Congress from the agricultural sections should cooperate to make the laws of greatest pos­
sible advantage to the farmers.
50. There is no probability that die means of
public opinion (especially the schools and the press)
will be unfairly influenced or controlled by the
ilthy interests.
51. Any self-direction by students of the elementary school should be limited to routine matters and special
projects, leaving the regular work to be planned and directed entirely by the teacher.
52. We should attempt to give students in our public schools an abiding faith in the Constitution of the United
States in all its parts and principles.
53. No school, college, or university should teach anything thatis found to result in its students doubting or
questioning the Bible as containing the word of God.
54. If every nation were as wise and just as the United States there would be no danger of more great wars.
55. In these days of lack of thoroughness, elementary teachers should give their attention more singly and
directly to teaching the funda: entals—in reading, handwriting, arithmetic, etc.
56. The only god we should serve is truth revealed through the interpretation of experience by clear, unselfish,
rational thought.
57. In matters of citizenship the student’s interests, mental attitudes, and methods of work are not so vital as
his desire to remember the conclusions emphasized by the teacher and other qualified authorities.
; information, even to adults, concerning birth control, through public meet58. Our laws should \
ings or through 1
59. By legislative and executive action, government in this country has often given manufacturing and com­
mercial interests special advantages seriously detrimental to other important interests.
60. The man whose vacant lots in a thriving city increase many fold in value because the city’s homes and
business grow up around those lots, should, in justice, be required to repay in taxes a large part of the un­
earned profits to the city that created the increased values.
61. A league or association of nations, including the United States, is the only kind of organization sufficiently
inclusive to deal adequately with broader international affairs.
62. The opportunities for education offered to the young of this country show that our people are properly
sensitive and loyal to the principle of equality of opportunity for all.
63. A larger proportion of time in our high schools should be given to such subjects as modem history, civics,
economics, and sociology.
64. If it were true that 1 per cent of the citizens of the United States owned more property than the other 99
per cent, it would be of great importance in our high schools to seek to interest the students in a study of
the causes operating to produce this unequal distribution of wealth.
65. Gtizens should desire our elementary and high schools to give unprejudiced and vigorous study and discus­
sion to important social and political issues upon which community opinion is divided.
66. It would be undemocratic for the United States to surrender any of its sovereign power to ah international
super-govemment in order to become a member of such an organization.
67. Taxes on very large inheritances should be high enough to prevent any heirs receiving huge fortunes.
68. The classroom teacher should be given a larger and more responsible share in organizing the curriculum
of the school and in determining the subject matter and method of her own teaching.
69. It would be well to give a larger proportion of the time in our elementary schools to elements involved in
the problems of capital and labor.
70. Histories written for elementary or high school use should omit any facts likely to arouse in the minds of
the students questions or doubt concerning the justice of our social order and government.
71. The life and work of the school cannot properly be like the activities of life outside of school because the
school has its own work to do in preparing young people for later life.
■
II
I NEW YORK UNIVERSITY I
1SCHOOL OF EDUCATION]
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