close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

A STUDY OF STUDENT-TEACHING IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS IN STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES, STATE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES, AND SELECTED PRIVATE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

код для вставкиСкачать
IN F O R M A T IO N T O U S E R S
T h is d iss e rta tio n was p r o d u c e d fro m a m icrofilm c o p y o f th e original d o c u m e n t.
W hile th e m o s t a dvanced technological m eans t o p h o to g ra p h a n d re p r o d u c e this
d o c u m e n t have been used, th e q u a lity is heavily d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e q u a lity of
t h e original s u b m itte d .
T h e fo llo w in g e x p la n a tio n of te c h n iq u e s is provided t o help y o u
m ark in g s o r p a tte rn s w h ic h may a p p e a r on this re p ro d u c tio n .
u n d e rsta n d
1.
T h e sign o r " ta r g e t " fo r pages a p p a re n tly lacking f r o m t h e d o c u m e n t
p h o to g ra p h e d is "Missing Page(s}". If it w as possible t o o b ta in the
missing page(s| or section, th ey are spliced into t h e film along with
a d ja c e n t pages. This m ay have necessitated c u ttin g t h r u a n image and
duplicating a d ja c e n t pages t o insure y o u c o m p le te c o n t i n u i t y .
2.
W hen an im age on th e film is o b lite ra te d w ith a large ro u n d black
m ark, it is a n indication t h a t the p h o to g ra p h e r s u s p e c te d th a t th e
c o p y may have m oved d u rin g exp o su re a n d th u s c a u se a blurred
image. Y ou will find a g o o d image of t h e page in t h e a d ja c e n t frame.
3.
W hen a m ap, draw ing o r chart, etc., w as p art o f t h e m aterial being
p h o t o g r a p h e d th e p h o to g ra p h e r fo llo w e d a d e f i n i te m e th o d in
" s e c tio n in g " t h e material. It is c u sto m a ry t o begin p h o t o in g at th e
u p p e r left h a n d corner o f a large sheet a n d to c o n tin u e p h o to in g from
left t o right in equal s e c tio n s w ith a small overlap. If necessary,
sectioning is c o n tin u e d again — beginning b e lo w t h e firs t row and
c o n tin u in g o n until c o m p le te .
4.
T h e m ajority o f users indicate th a t th e te x tu a l c o n t e n t is o f greatest
value, however, a s o m e w h a t higher q u a lity r e p r o d u c ti o n could be
m a d e fro m " p h o to g r a p h s " if essential t o t h e u n d e rs ta n d in g o f the
disse rta tio n . Silver p rin ts of " p h o to g r a p h s " m ay b e o rd e re d at
additional c harge by w ritin g t h e O rder D e p a r tm e n t, giving t h e catalog
n u m b er, title, a u th o r a n d specific pages y o u wish r e p r o d u c e d .
University Microfilms
300 N orth Z a e b R oad
Ann Arbor, M ichigan 48106
A Xerox E d u ca tio n Com pany
L D 39 07
I 1 Ci o
2
41
47
G i l b r e t h , H arold B r i t e , 1S08A s t u d y o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g In b u s i n ess s u b je c ts in s t a t e teachers co lleg es,
s t a t e c o l l e g e s a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s , an d s e ­
l e c t e d p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
...
New Y o r k , 1 9 4 1 .
::,320 t y p e w r i t t e n l e a v e s .
ta b les,
form s.
29cm,
F i n a l d o c u m e n t { E d . D . ) - New Y ork
u n i v e r s i t y , S ch ool o f ed u ca tio n , 1941.
B ib liograp h y: p . 305-308.
.74234
Xerox University Microfilms,
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
T H IS D IS S E R T A T IO N HAS B E EN M IC R O F IL M E D EX ACTLY AS RECEIVED.
3-Z
Final Document
Accepted, Date
A STUDY OF STUDENT TEACHING IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS
IN STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES, STATE COLLEGES
AND UNIVERSITIES, AND SELECTED PRIVATE
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
HAROLD BRITE GILBRETH
S u b m itted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e
r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e d e g r e e o f D o c to r o f
E d u c a t io n i n t h e S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n o f
New York U n i v e r s i t y
1941
134f
TABLE OF C O I .'m i’S
Chapter
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
V li.
Page
The p r o b l e m , L i m i t i . t i o r i s , D e f i n i t i o n s ,
arm P r o c e d u r e . . . . . .
]
The P r o b l e m S t a t e d ..........................................
The I m p o r t u r c e o f t h e p r o b l e m . . ........................................................
].i m i t a t i o n s of t h e S t u d y ....................
D e l' i r.it i o n of Ter m s U s e d ............................
method o f P r o c e d u r e and B o u r n e s o f D ' - t a ....................................
1
1
4
5
7
P r o v i s i o n s made f o r
3 t \ d o r t Teaching in B usiness S u b j e c t s .
10
The i n s t r u c t i o n a l S t a f f R e s p o n s i b l e f o r S t u d e n t T e a c h i n g
i n B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s .............................................................................................
7o
O b s e r v a t i o n r- s :■ F a c t o r i n t h e C o n d u c t o f S t u d e n t
Te a ch in g i n B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s .....................................................
148
The S e l e c t i o n , V'. r l o t y , E x t e n t , and E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e
'orb o f S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s of b u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s ...............................
ICS
C o n f e r e n c e s w i t h o t u o e n t Teac; e r s
233
of B u s in e s s S u b j e c t s . . . .
C o n c l u s i o n s t r d R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ............................. .............. ................. .*.
C o n c l u s i o n s .....................................
................................
rieaomj e n d a t i ons
259
294
- i b l i o g r a p h y ...............................
305
A p p e n d i x A, I n s t i t u t i o n s C o o p e r a t i n g
A p p en d ix B, I n s t i t u t i o n a l
259
in th e Q u e s tio n n a ire
S tu d y ...
310
Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ...................................................................
313
A p p e n d ix C, P e r s o n n e l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ..........................................................
A 74 23 4
ii
319
LIST OF TABLES
dumber
Page
I.
dumber o f I n s t i t u t i o n s O f f e r i n g S tu d e n t Taaohing i n
B u s in e s s S u b j e c t s and t h e Number o f R esp on d en ts
in c lu d e d i n T his S t u d y ................................................................................................ 10
II.
Types o f F a c i l i t i e s Used f o r S t u d e n t Teaohing i n
b u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 b - 1 9 3 9 .................................................................................. 13
III.
P u rp oses f o r Which Campus S c h o o ls a re Used by
I n s t i t u t i o n s O f f e r in g S tu d e n t 'l’e a o h in g in B u s in e s s
S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ........................................................................................................ 16
IV.
P u rp oses f o r ’Which Off-Campus S o h o o ls /ire Used by
I n s t i t u t i o n s O f f e r in g ^ ;u d e n t T ea ch in g i n B u s in e s s
S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ........................................................................................................ 18
V.
C o n tr o l o f Off-Campus S o h o o ls Used f o r F u rp o ses o f
S tu dent T e a c h in g in B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 6 - 1 9 3 9 . .............................. 20
VI*
Name and Number o f B u s i n e s s T each er T r a in in g
C u r r ic u la i n I n s t i t u t i o n s O f f e r i n g More th an One
Such C u r r i c u l a , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ......................................................................................... 21
V II.
Number and Per Cent o f E i g h t y - E i g h t I n s t i t u t i o n s U sin g
D i f f e r e n t m ethods o f C o o r d in a t in g t h e 7/ork o f D epartm ents
or S o h o o ls o f E d u c a tio n and D ep a rtm en ts or S o h o o ls o f
Commerce w i t h th e Work o f T r a i n i n g S c h o o ls i n Vfhich
B u s in e s s S u b j e c t s Are Taught, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 .............. ........................................... 24
V III.
Number and Per Cent o f I n s t i t u t i o n s U sin g D i f f e r e n t
Methods o f C o o r d in a t in g t h e Work o f D ep artm en ts or
S o h o o ls o f E d u c a tio n w i t h t h e Work o f t h e Campus
T ra in in g S o h o o l s , .1 9 3 6 - 1 9 3 9 .................................................................................... 26
IX.
Number and Per Cont o f I n s t i t u t i o n s U sin g D i f f e r e n t
methods o f C o o r d in a tin g t h e Work o f D ep artm en ts or
S o h o o ls o f E duontion w i t h t h e Work o f t h e Off-Campus
T r a in in g S o h o o ls , .1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 .................................................................................... 27
X,
Number and Per Cent o f I n s t i t u t i o n s U sin g D i f f e r e n t
Methods o f C o o r d in a t in g t h e Work o f Commerce D ep artm en ts
w i t h th e Work o f t h e CampusT r a i n i n g S c h o o l s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 .................... 33
Page
Number
XI*
X II.
X lll.
XIV.
XV.
XVI.
X V II.
X V I I I.
XIX.
XX.
XXI.
Number and P e r Cent o f I n s t i t u t i o n s U sin g D i f f e r e n t
k e t h o d s o f C o o r d i n a t i n g t h e Work o f Commerce r o p u ^ t rnents w i t h t h e Work o f t h e Off-Campus T r a i n i n g S o h o o ls *
1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ................................................................................................................................
34
Number and Per Cent o f I n s t i t u t i o n s O f f e r i n g B u s in e s s
S u b j e c t s Taught b y S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s i n E i t h e r Campus
or Off-Campus T r a i n i n g S c h o o ls * 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ....................................................
35
Number and Per Cent o f S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e s and
S t a t e U n i v e r s i t i e s O f f e r i n g B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s Which
Are Taught by S t u d e n t T ea ch er s i n Campus T r a i n i n g
S c h o o l s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ..........................................................................................................
40
Number and Per Cent o f I n s t i t u t i o n s O f f e r i n g B u s in e s s
S u b j e c t s Which Are 'fought by S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s i n O f f Campus T r a i n i n g S c h o o l s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ...........................
41
k e d ia n C l a s s S i z e o f B u s in e s s S u b j e c t s Taught by
S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s i n Campus and Off-Campus S c h o o l s ,
1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ................................................................................................................................
43
O b j e c t i v e s W hich E i g h t y - S i x R esp o n d en ts B e l i e v e To Be
D e s i r a b l e or U n d e s i r a b l e fo r S t u d e n t T ea ch in g i n
B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ........................................................................
47
R eason s G iv e n by R esp o n d en ts f o r S t a t i n g That C e r t a in
L i s t e d O b j e c t i v e s a re U n d e s i r a b l e , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 .........................................
50
Number and P er Cent o f I n s t i t u t i o n s R e p o r t in g t h e
F orm u la tio n o f a D e f i n i t e L is t o f O b je c tiv e s fo r
D i r e c t e d T e a c h in g i n B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ...........................
53
I n d i v i d u a l s R e s p o n s i b l e fo r t h e F o r m u la tio n o f D e f i n i t e
L i s t s o f O b j e c t i v e s f o r S tu d e n t T ea ch in g i n B u s in e s s
S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 .......................................................................................................
55
Number and Per Cent o f I n s t i t u t i o n s R e p o r t in g C e r ta in
Types o f Equipment w i t h Which S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s o f
B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s b a y Become F a m i l i a r i n Roth Campus
and Off-Campus S c h o o l s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ................................................................
57
Number and Ter Cent o f S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e s R e p o r tin g
C e r t a i n Types o f Equipment w it h Which S t u d e n t T ea ch er s o f
B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s may Become F a m i l i a r i n Tw enty-N ine
Campus S c h o o l s and i n S i x t e e n Off-Campus S o h o o l s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 . . .
60
iv
XXII.
XXII I .
XXIV.
XXV.
XXVI.
XXVII.
XXVIII.
XXIX.
XXX.
XXXI.
XXXII.
XXXIII.
XXXIV.
Peg®
Number and P e r C en t o f S t a t e C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s
. R e p o r t i n g C e r t a i n Types of equipment w i t h .Vhich S t u d e n t
T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s may Become F a m i l i a r i n
T h i r t e e n Campus S c h o o l s and i n F o u r t e e n u f f - C a m p u s
S c h o o l s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ..............................................
Number and P e r C en t o f P r i v a t e U n i v e r s i t i e s R e p o r t i n g
C e r t a i n T y p e s o f E q u i p m e n t with C h ic h S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s
o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s L a y Become F a m i l i a r i n E l e v e n
O ff -C am p us S c h o o l s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 .....................................................
T y p e s of D e s k s Used i n T y p e w r i t i n g , S h o r t h a n d , and
B o o k k e e p i n g C l a s s e s T a u g h t By S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s o f Th es e
S u b j e c t s i n B o t h Campus and Cff-Campus T r a i n i n g S c h o o l s ,
1 6 - 3 8 - 1 0 3 9 . ................................................................................................................................
.
61
.
Number
62
65
T y p e s of C h a i r s Used i n T y p e w r i t i n g , S h o r t h a n d , and
B o o k k e e p i n g C l a s s e s T a u g h t by S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s o f
B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s i r . B o t h Campus and a f f-Cajnpus
T r a i n i n g S c h o o l s , 1 C 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ..................................................
Lumber o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f S tu d en t T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s
S u b j e c t s VP o l a v e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e P e r s o n n e l B l a n k s
a nd t h e I.um ber o f I n s t i t u t i o n s R e p r e s e n t e d ay T h e s e
S u p e r v i s o r s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ............................................................................................
77
h i g h e s t L e v e l o f T r u k i i . fa of S u p e r v i s o r s o f S t u d e n t
T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 2 3 c - 1 9 3 j ......................................................
78
H ig h e st E a rn e d Degrees of Supervisors of E t u a e n t T ea ch ers
o f B u s i n e s s S u i j o o t a , 1 6 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 .............................................................................
80
S o u r c o o f E a r n e d b a c h e l o r ' s D eg re es o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f
E t u d e n t T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s E u h j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ..............................
S o u r c e o f b u r n e d m a s t e r ’ s Degrees o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f
S t u d e n t T e a o h e r s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ....................................
83
85
S o u r c e o f E a r n e d D o c t o r ’ s De grees of S u p e r v i s o r s o f
S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 .................................
Recency o f b u r n e d B a c h e l o r ' s Degrees o f S u p e r v i s o r s of
S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ..............................*
R e c e n c y o f b u r n e d m a s t e r ' s D egrees o f S u p e r v i s o r s
o f S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s o f B u s in e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 .........................
R e c e n c y o f E a r n e d D o c t o r ' s Degrees o f S u p e r v i s o r s
o f S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s o f Bu s in es s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ...................
v
86
87
88
69
I! umber
XXXV.
XXXVI.
XXXVII.
XXXVIII.
XXXIX.
XL.
X LI.
XLI1•
X L III.
XLIV.
XLV.
XLVI,
Page
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f U n d er g ra d u a te C o l l e g e k a j o r s o f
S u p e r v i s o r s o f S tu d e n t T o u ch ers o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s ,
1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ...............................................................................
90
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f U n d er g ra d u a te C o l l e g e k i n o r s o f
S u p e r v i s o r s o f S tu d e n t T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e o t s ,
1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 9 ...................................................................................................................
93
Number and P er Cent o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f S t u d e n t
T e a c h e r s o f B u s in e s s S u b j e c t s VVho Nave Had C e r t a in
Types o f T each ing E x p e r i e n c e , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 . . ...................
95
k e d ia n Y ears o f C e r t a i n Types o f T e a c h in g E x p e r i e n c e
o f S u p e r v iso r s o f S tu dent T eachers o f B u sin e ss
S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 9 ...........................................................................................
98
Number o f D i f f e r e n t Types o f F u l l or P a r t-T im e
B u s i n e s s E x p e r ie n c e R ep o rted by S u p e r v i s o r s o f
S tu d e n t T ea o h ers o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ..................
108
Types o f F u ll-T im e or P a rt-T im e B u s i n e s s E x p e r ie n c e
R ep o rted by S u p e r v i s o r s o f S t u d e n t TeacherB o f
B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 5 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 . . . . . . . ...................................................
109
Types o f F u ll- T im e B u s i n e s s E x p e r i e n c e R ep orted b y
S u p e r v i s o r s o f Stu dent T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s ,
1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ............
114
Typos o f ia r t - T i m e B u s i n e s s E x p e r i e n c e R ep o rted by
S u p e r v is o r s o f Stu dent T eachers o f B u s in e s s S u b j e c t s ,
1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ...................................................................................................................
115
F o r m a lly S ch ed u led T e a c h in g C o l l e g e and T r a i n i n g
S c h o o l Load i n Hours Tor .Veek o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f
S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e o t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 . . ...............
117
Load o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s
S u b j e o t s i n Terms o f Range and k e d i a n Number o f Hours
For Reek D evoted t o C e r t a i n I n s t r u c t i o n a l R e s p o n s i b i l ­
i t i e s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ..................................................................................................
120
F re q u en cy o f C e r t a in D u t i e s Terform ed b y S u p e r v i s o r s
o f S t u d e n t T ea o h ers o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ..........
126
D e p a r tm e n ta l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f
S t u d e n t T ea ch ers o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ....................
128
vi
Number
XLVII.
X L V III.
XLIX.
L.
L I.
L II.
LI1I.
LIV.
LV.
LVI.
LVI I .
L V III.
LIX.
Page
Academic Hanks Hold by S u p e r v i s o r s o f S t u d e n t
Teaoh ers o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 0 - 1 9 3 9 ................................... ..
130
Summary o f T o t a l Y e a r l y S a l a r i e s o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f
S tu d e n t T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e o t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 . . . . . . . .
133
S a l a r i e s o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f S tu d e n t T e a c h e r s o f
B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s i n S t a t e T ea ch er s C o l l e g e s ,
1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ..............................................................................................................
S a l a r i e s o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f S t u d e n t T ea ch er s o f
B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s i n S t a t e C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s ,
1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ......................................................................................................................
136
138
S a l a r i e s o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f S tu d e n t T ea ch er s o f
B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s i n P r i v a t e C o l l e g e s and U ni­
.................................................................
v e r s i t i e s , 1 D 3 8 -1 0 3 9 .
B u s i n e s s E d u o a t io n M a ga zin es Bead R e g u l a r l y by
S u p e r v i s o r s o f S t u d e n t T ea oh ers o f B u s in e s s S u b j e c t s ,
1 S 3G -193 9...................................................................................................................
139
141
Number o f Books P u b l i s h e d S in o e 1933 by S u p e r v i s o r s
o f Stu dent T eachers o f 3 u s in e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 . . . . .
142
Number o f M a gazin e A r t i c l e s P u b l i s h e d S in c e 1933 b y
S u p e r v i s o r s o f S t u d e n t T ea ch er s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s ,
1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ...................................................................................................................
144
Number and P er Cent o f I n s t i t u t i o n s ITnich kake Some
P r o v i s i o n f o r O b s e r v a t i o n P r e c e d in g t h e S t u d e n t s '
E n r o llm e n t i n S t u d e n t T e a c h in g , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ......................................
C l a s s e s Uaed f o r P u r p o s e s o f O b s e r v a t i o n and t h e
Number o f P a y s D ev o ted t o O b s e r v a t i o n by S t u d e n t s
E x p e c t i n g t o E n r o l l f o r S tu d e n t T ea ch in g in B u s i n e s s
S u b j e o t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ..........................................................................................
A v erage L e n g th o f O b s e r v a t i o n P e r i o d s i n m in u t e s ,
1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ......................................................................................................................
151
155
157
P e r s o n s "Aho Teach D e m o n s t r a t io n or O b s e r v a t i o n L e s s o n s
i n B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s P r e c e d in g t h e S t u d e n t s ' E n r o llm e n t
i n S t u d e n t T e a c h i n g , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ..............................................................
159
Types o f P r e p a r a t i o n Made by B u s i n e s s S t u d e n t s f o r
P u r p o s e s o f O b s e r v a t i o n B e fo r e T h e ir E n r o llm e n t in
S t u d e n t T e a o h in g , 1 9 3 6 - 1 9 3 9 .....................................................................
160
vii
Number
LX.
L X I.
LXII*
L X III.
LXIV.
LXV.
LXVT.
L X V II.
LXVI1I*
LXIX*
LXX.
LXXI.
L X X II.
L X X III.
UCXIV.
LXXV.
Page
P e r s o n s Who Teach D e m o n s tr a t io n or O b s e r v a t i o n
L e s s o n s in B u s in e s s S u b j e c t s D u r in g t h e P e r i o d
o f t h e S t u d e n ts ' E n ro llm en t i n S t u d e n t T e a c h i n g ,
1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 .........................................................................................................................
163
Types o f P r e p a r a t io n Made by B u s i n e s s S t u d e n t s f o r
P u rp oso s o f O b s e r v a t io n D u r in g T h e ir E n r o ll m e n t i n
S tu d e n t T e a c h in g , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 . . . . . .................................................................
165
P r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r S tu dent T e a c h in g i n 3 u s i n e s a
S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 .................................................................................................
171
P r e r e q u i s i t e s i n P s y c h o lo g y f o r S t u d e n t T e a c h i n g i n
B u s in e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 * ...........................
175
Means by Whioh S tu dent T e a c h e r b o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s
Are S e le c t e d f o r Stu dent T e a c h i n g , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 * ................................
178
Types o f A c t i v i t i e s i n ’Whioh S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s Engage
B e f o r e They a re Given F u l l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f C l a s s ­
room T e a c h e r s, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 * * . ........................................................................
183
Number of Weeks P a s s in g B e f o r e S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s Are
A llow ed to Teach P art o f a P e r i o d , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ...................................
167
Number o f Weeks P a s s in g b e f o r e S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s Are
Given F u ll R e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f T e a c h in g C l a s e e s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 . . .
191
Number of M in u tes a Day Taught b y S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s ,
1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 .........................................................................................................................
193
Number of Weeks o f S tu d e n t T e a c h in g i n B u s i n e s s
S u b j e o t s R equired fo r G r a d u a tio n , 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9 *
...............
196
R equired Number o f C lo ck Hours o f S tu d e n t T e a c h i n g i n
B u s in e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 * ........................................................................
198
Number o f S em ester Hours o f C r e d i t ’Whioh May b e Earned by
S tu d e n t T ea ch er s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e o t s , 193 8—1 9 3 9 .........................
199
P r o p o r tio n o f TeaJ.*ing Done by S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s o f
B u s in e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ......................................................................
203
Number o f S tu d e n t T each ers A s s i g n e d t o One S u p e r v i s o r ,
1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 . . .....................................................................................................................
2 06
A verage Number o f D i f f e r e n t S u b j e o t s Taught b y
S t u d e n t Teaohers o f B u s in e s s S u b j e o t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ...................
2 11
Number and P er Cent o f I n s t i t u t i o n s Whioh P r o v i d e
E x p e r ie n c e i n C e r t a in T ea ch in g A c t i v i t i e s E aoh Week,
1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 .........................................................................................................................
213
v iil
Number
DOCVT.
LXXVI1.
u a n r r il.
LXXIX.
LXXX.
LXXXI.
1XXXII.
LXXXIII.
LXXXIV.
LJOOCV.
Page
Number and Ter Cent o f I n s t i t u t i o n s "Which P r o v id e
E x p e r i e n c e i n C e r t a i n T each in g J v c t i v i t i e s L e s s O ft e n
Than W eek ly, 1 D 3 8 -1 9 3 9 ................................................................................................
The T i t l e o f I n d i v i d u a l s 7/ho D e te r m in e t h e F i n a l Grades
o f S t u d e n t T e a o h e r s o f b u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ...................
216
221
The E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e Work o f S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s o f
B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ............................................................
P e r s o n s "Who Hold I n d i v i d u a l C o n f e r e n c e s W ith S t u d e n t
T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ...................................................
Types o f P r e p a r a t i o n Made f o r I n d i v i d u a l C o n f e r e n c e s by
S tu d e n t T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 .............................
224
236
242
P r o c e d u r e s "uead i n C o n d u ctin g I n d i v i d u a l C o n f e r e n c e s ,
1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 .......................................................................................................................
245
P e r s o n s Who h o ld Group C o n fe r e n c e s "With S t u d e n t
Te&ohers o f B u s in e s s S u b j e o t s , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 . . . . . ......................................
246
Types o f P r e p a r a t i o n Made f o r Group C o n f e r e n c e s b y
S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s , 1 9 3 S - 1 9 3 9 ...............................
£51
P r o c e d u r e s Used i n C o n d u ctin g Group C o n f e r e n c e s ,
1 9 3 6 - 1 9 3 9 ................................................................................................................................
253
R e l a t i v e Rank o f Three Types o f I n s t i t u t i o n s i n
Terms o f S e v e n t e e n i o i n t s I n v o lv e d i n t h e Conduct
o f Programs o f S t u d e n t T e a c h in g i n B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s ,
1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ................................................................................................................................
292
ix
A C K I’ CCTLEDGL. E I-ITS
This study has been u c o o p e r a tiv e u n d e r ta k in g .
T herefore, the w rite r
w i s h e s t o ack n o ’.vl e d g e t h e g r e a t h e l p w h i c h has b e e n r e c e i v e d f r o m many
su p erv iso rs of s tu d e n t te a c h e rs
ing sch o o ls, c o lle g e
The s t u d y c o u l d n o t
of b u s i n e s s
preoidents,
subjects, d ire c to rs
of t r a i n ­
and h e a d s o f d e p a r t m e n t s o f co m m e r c e .
hav e b e e n c o m p l e t e d w i t h o u t t h e h e l p o f t h e s e
individuals.
The w r i t e r i s
e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o t h e members o f h i s
sponsoring
c o m m i t t e e , P r o f e s s o r s P a u l S. Lomax, F r i t h i o f C a r l B o r g e s o n , and A l o n z o
F. L y e r s .
They h a v e g i v e n g e n e r o u s l y o f t h e i r t i m e and e f f o r t i n t h e
guidance o f th e i n v e s t i g a t o r .
xhe v / r i t e r e x t e n d s h i s m o st a p p r e c i a t i v e
thanks fo r t h i s v a lu a b le s e r v ic e .
I
x
CHAPTER I
THE PRObLEM, LIMITATIONS, DEFINITIONS OF TERMS, AND PROCEDURE
The P r o b le m S t a t e d
The p r im a r y p u r p o s e o f t h i s stu d y i s t o d i s c o v e r w h e t p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e s
are in v o lv e d
i n t h e o on d u o t o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s i n s t a t e
tea o h ers o o lle g e s ,
s t a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s , end in s e l e c t e d p r i v a t e t e a o h e r s
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s h a v in g o o l l e g e s o f oonuneroe and o o l l e g e s o f
e d u c a t io n as a p a r t o f t h e i r a d m in istra tiv e o rg a n iz a tio n *
The p u r p o s e g i v e n i n t h e p reoed ing paragraph i s t r e a t e d
t o f i v e m ajor c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .
They are a s f o l l o w e i
in r e la t io n
(1 ) p r a c tic e s in
r e g a r d t o p r o v i s i o n s made f o r stu d en t t e a c h i n g c o u r s e s i n b u s i n e s s
su b jeo tsi
sib le
(2) p r a c t ic e s in r e la tio n to th e in s tr u c tio n a l s t a f f resp on ­
f o r t h e o o n d u o t o f s t u d e n t t e a o h in g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s }
(3)
p r a c t i c e s i n r e l a t i o n t o o b s e r v a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i r e c t e d
te a o h in g c o u r se s in b u sin e ss su b jects)
(4 ) p r a c tic e s In r e l a t i o n to
s u p e r v is e d s t u d e n t te a o h in g in b u sin ess s u b je c ts )
(6)
p r a c tic e s
f o l l o w e d i n t h e o on d u o t o f c o n f e r e n c e s as t h e y r e l a t e t o
stud en t
te a o h in g in b u s in e s s s u b je c ts .
The I m p o r ta n c e o f t h e Problem
Many s t u d i e s nave been made a tte m p tin g t o show t h e v a l u e o f o o u r s e a
in d ir e c te d te a o h in g .
Mead l i s t s th e f o l l o w i n g a t t e m p t s w h io h h a v e b een
2
made t o v a l i d a t e suoh v a l u e s t
(1) o p i n i o n s o f l e a d e r s i n t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g , ( 2 ) ju d g m e n ts
o f s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f s o h o o l s , ( 3 ) ju d g m e n ts o f t e a o h e r s them­
s e l v e s , ( 4 ) ju d gm en ts o f s u p e r v i s i n g ( o r l t i o ) t e a o h e r s , (5 )
a n a l o g i e s w i t h t r a i n i n g f o r o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s , (b ) m easured
r e s u l t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n s o h o o l s w h ic h p r o v i d e s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g , ( 7 ) c o r r e l a t i o n b etw een s t u d e n t - t e a o h i n g and l a t e r
s u o o e s 8, (B) d a t a sh ow ing i n e f f i c i e n c y o f b e g i n n i n g t e a o h e r s
who have had no s t u d e n t - t e a a h i n g , and ( 9 ) ju d g m e n ts o f s t u d e n t
tea ch ers.
Mead r e p o r t e d T h i r t y suoh s t u d i e s on t h e v a l u e o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g .
From t h e s t u d y o f t h e s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s , he drew t h e f o l l o w i n g con ­
c lu sio n !
O p in io n and o b j e c t i v e d a t a on t h e v a l u e o f e t u d e n t - t e a o h i n g
are n o t u n a n im o u s ly f a v o r a b l e t o I t and a l l i e d w o rk , but i n
o a s e s o f w e l l a d m in istered s t u d e n t - t e a o h in g t h e e v id e n o e i s
f a v o r a b l e . O ther p r o f e s s i o n s , n u r s in g and m e d i c i n e , u s e t y p e s
o f t r a i n i n g l i k e o b s e r v a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s t u d e n t - t e a o h i n g .
I n o a s e s i n w h io h m e a s u r a b le r e s u l t s have b e e n s c o u r e d , some
have shown t h a t p u p i l s t a u g h t b y s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r a had n o t e s ­
p e c i a l l y b e n e f i t e d by t h e w orkj o t h e r s t h a t d e s i r e d p r o g r e s s had
been a tta in e d .
U s u a l l y t h e low q u a l i t y w as found I n p o o r l y ad­
m i n i s t e r e d t r a i n i n g s o h o o l s . N eo p h y te s i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n w i t h o u t
h e lp o f s u p e r v i s o r s c a u s e a l o s s t o t h e l e a r n e r .
The need t o o v e r ­
come t h i s i n i t i a l " p r a o t i c e - t e a c h i n g " y e a r ca n h e met b y w e l l o r g a n iz e d s u p e r v is e d s t u d e n t - t e a c h i n g . *
The N a t i o n a l S o o i e t y o f C o l l e g e T e a c h e r s o f e d u c a t i o n r e c o g n i z e s
s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g as b e in g o f v a lu e f o r p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s .
S a h o r lin g
g i v e s t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e co m m ittee i n c h a r g e o f t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f one
o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s y e a r b o o k s when he w r i t e s , " D i r e c t e d t e a o h i n g i s a
n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n o f a t e a c h e r ." ®
1 . A. R. Mead, S u p e r v is e d S t u d e n t - T e a c h i n g . Riohmond, V i r g i n i a *
J o h n so n P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 3 0 , pp. 1 1 0 - 1 1 1 .
2 . Ib id . ,
pp. 139-140.
3 . R alph S o h o r l i n g , The E d u c a t io n o f T e a c h e r s , The N a t i o n a l S o o i e t y
o f C o l l e g e T e a c h e r s o f E d u o a t io n , T w e n t y - t h i r d Y earb ook , 1 9 3 5 ,
p. 132.
3
E. U. Rugg r e p o r t s i n The N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f t h e E d u o a t io n o f
T eao h ere t h a t , “i t
i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t e v e r y t e a o h e r s c o l l e g e have
a d e q u a te t r a i n l n g - s o h o o l f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e t y p e s o f t e a o h e r s t h e y
p r e p a r e ." I
W. E . P e i k r e p o r t s i n t h e same s t u d y t h a t , “ The p r e s c r i p t i o n b y
S t a t e s and i f n o t b y them b y i n s t i t u t i o n s o f p r e s e r v i o e p r a o t i o e
t e a o h i n g i n e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s o h o o l s s h o u ld b e a b a s i o
JZ
r e q u ir e m e n t f o r a l l p r o s p e c t i v e t e a o h e r s .
I n t h e s t u d y m en tio n ed a b o v e , F . K. F o s t e r reoommends, “A l l
i n s t i t u t i o n s en gag ed i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e a o h e r s sh o u ld make p r o v i s i o n f o r an i n i t i a l p e r io d o f s u p e r v i s e d p r a o t i o e i n ea o h t y p e o f
e d u c a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n f o r w h ioh s t u d e n t s a r e p r e p a r i n g .
The Am erican A s s o c i a t i o n o f T ea o h ers C o l l e g e s r e q u i r e s o o l l e g e s
a c c r e d i t e d b y t h e A s s o c i a t i o n t o p r o v id e f a c i l i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h ­
in g .4
In a s h o r t in tr o d u c tio n t o a lim ite d
stu d y o f stu d en t te a o h in g
i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s . B l a c k s t o n e r e p o r t s , “ I t would seem t o b e n e c e s s a r y
t o i n v e s t i g a t e p r a c t i c e t e a o h i n g i f f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n th a n t h a t o e r t i f i o a t i o n r e q u ir e m e n t s about i t v a r y s o w i d e l y among t h e s t a t e s . "
1.
, The N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f t h e E d u o a t io n o f T e a o h e r s ,
W a s h in g to n , D. C .j
Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , U n ite d S t a t e s
O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 1 9 5 3 , No. 1 0 , V o l . I l l , p . 9 7 .
2. I b id . ,
p. 362.
3* I b i d . , p . 4 0 0 .
4 . A m erican A s s o c i a t i o n o f T e a o h e r s C o l l e g e s , Minimum S ta n d a r d s f o r
A c c r e d i t i n g T ea oh ers C o l l e g e s and Normal S o h o o l s , F e b r u a r y ,
1 9 3 9 , S e c t i o n V I.
5 . _____________ , P r a o t i o e T e a o h in g and B u s i n e s s E x p e r i e n c e i n C om m ercial
T ea ch er T r a i n i n g , The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Commercial
T e a o h e r - T r a in in g I n s t i t u t i o n s , B u l l e t i n N o. 1 1 , 1 9 3 7 , p . 3 .
I n s t u d y i n g t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g p h a s e o f t h e b u s i n e s s e d u o a t io n
o > ir r io u la o f f i f t y - s i x
o o lle g e s,
b u s i n e s s o o l l e g e s , n orm al s c h o o l s , t e a o h e r s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s . Tonne d raw s t h i s o o n o l u s i o n , "In a l l
t y p e s o f s c h o o l s t h e r e i s muoh room f o r im provem ent i n t h e methods
o f c o n d u c t i n g t h i s p h a s e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . ” ^S h over i n d i c a t e s h i a b e l i e f i n t h e v a l u e o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g
when he s u g g e s t s ,
"The c o m m e r c ia l t e a c n e r - t r a i n i n g departm ent s h o u ld
r e q u i r e a c o u r s e o f t h r e e s e m e s t e r h o u r s i n o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e
t e a c h i n g d u r in g t h e s e c o n d
s e m e s t e r o f t h e s e n i o r y e a r ." ^
From t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h s ,
in b u sin e ss s u b je c ts i s
i t may b e s e e n t h a t s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g
c o n s i d e r e d o f v a l u e b y some i n d i v i d u a l s who have
g i v e n t h o u g h t t o t h e m a t t e r , t h a t some b e l i e v e t h a t improvement may b e
a c h ie v e d b y w e l l - o r g a n i z e d
jects,
and t h a t i t
is
c o u r s e s i n s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g in b u s i n e s s su b ­
o n l y t h r o u g h an e v a l u a t i o n o f p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e s and
p o l i c i e s t h a t s u o h im p rov em en t may r e s u l t .
purposes o f t h i s
T h e r e f o r e , i t i s one o f t h e
s t u d y t o c o l l e c t and p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t io n from w h io h
suoh an e v a l u a t i o n may b e made and w h io h w i l l r e s u l t i n an improvement
in th e t r a in in g
o f b u sin e ss te a c h e r s.
L im ita tio n s o f th e S tu dy
The f o l l o w i n g l i m i t a t i o n s s h o u ld be k e p t i n mind by t h e r e a d e r o f
t h i s document*
F i r s t , th e s t u d y I s lim it e d t o s tu d e n t te a o h in g in s ta te te a o h e r s
c o lle g e s,
sta te
u n i v e r s i t i e s and o o l l e g e s ,
and s e l e c t e d p r i v a t e t e a o h e r s
1 . H, A. T on n e, C om m ercial Teao h er T r a i n i n g C u r r i c u l a . Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n ,
hew York U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 2 8 , p . 1 3 8 .
2 . W i l l i a m G le n S h o v e r , S u g g e s t e d Program s f o r Commercial T e a o h er-T r a in in g
I n s t i t u t i o n s , The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Commercial T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s , B u l l e t i n N o. 1 4 , 1 9 3 6 , p . 18.
6
c o lle g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s h a v in g b o t h o o l l e g e s o f commerce and o o l l e g e s
of e d u c a tio n as a p a r t of t h e ir
a d m in istr a tiv e o r g a n is a tio n .
T h ese
t h r e e g ro u p s w ere s e l e c t e d i n o r d e r t o show a co m p a riso n i n p r a o t i o e s and
p o lic ie s
as t h e y r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
Second,
a d e ta ile d
a n a ly s is o f th e s p e c i f i o a c t i v i t i e s
t e a c h e r s i s n o t a tte m p te d i n t h i s d ocu m en t.
of so great
im p o r ta n c e that; i t
o f stud en t
P r o b a b ly s u o h a s t u d y i s
s h o u ld be t h e b a s i s o f a c o m p l e t e
docu m en t.
T h ir d , t h e dooument i s b a s e d on a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n a l y s i s .
r e a liz e d th a t th is i s
a d e f i n i t e l i m i t a t i o n i n term s o f a b s o l u t e
It is
a ccu ­
racy.
F o u r t h , o h a n g in g c o n d i t i o n s w i l l t e n d t o i n v a l i d a t e t h e f i g u r e s
p r e s e n t e d h e r e so f a r a s a l a t e r d a t e i s c o n o e r n e d .
For i n s t a n o e ,
s e v e n o o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t e d t h a t s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n
b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s w o u ld be
o f f e r e d i n t h e n e x t y ear
or t w o .
N a tu r a lly ,
a d d i t i o n s t o t h e number o f
s o h o o ls o f f e r i n g stud en t
te a o h in g
in
b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s a t a l a t e r t im e would ch an g e t h e r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n
t h is stud y.
However t r u e t h i s may b e , i t d o e s n o t d e s t r o y t h e v a l u e
o f th e s t u d y , for r e s e a r o h
w o r k e r s i n t h e f u t u r e may w i s h t o c h e c k
c o n d i t i o n s from t im e t o tim e as o f
a g iv e n d a te .
D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Used
The t e r m " s t a t e t e a o h e r s c o l l e g e "
i s used in t h i s dooum ent t o
d en ote c o l l e g e s fo r t h e p r e p a r a tio n of t e a c h e r s l i s t e d
i n t h e 19 39
E d u c a t i o n a l D l r e o t o r y as t e a o h e r s o o l l e g e s w hioh a r e l e g a l l y c o n t r o l l e d
by s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s .^
1 . E d u c a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r y , 1 9 3 9 , W a s h in g t o n , D. C .i
Government P r i n t i n g
O f f i c e , U n it e d S t a t e s O f f i o e o f E d u c a t io n , B u l l e t i n 1 9 3 9 , No. 1 ,
Part I I I .
“
6
The term " s t a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s and o o l l e g e s "
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s l i s t e d
i s u sed t o d e n o t e t h e
i n t h e 19 39 E d u c a t i o n a l D i r e o t o r y as
o o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s w h ic h are l e g a l l y c o n t r o l l e d b y s t a t e g o v e r n ­
m e n ts ,^
The te r m " p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s "
c o lle g e s, u n iv e r s itie s ,
i s u sed t o d e s i g n a t e
and t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s w h ic h a re l i s t e d
1 6 3 9 E d u car.ion al D i r e o t o r y as b e in g l e g a l l y c o n t r o l l e d
s o u r c e s in d e p e n d e n t o f s t a t e or c h u r c h .
and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
in th e
by p r i v a t e
In th e case o f th e o o lle g e s
o n l y t h o s e a r e in c l u d e d w h ic h have c o l l e g e s o f
commerce and o o l l e g e s o f e d u c a t i o n a s a p a r t o f t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
€*>
o r g a n iz a tio n .
The te r m s " d i r e c t e d t e a c h i n g , " " s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g , " and " p r a o t i o e
t e a o h in g " a re u sed i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y and i n a b road s e n s e t o d e s i g n a t e
t h e p r o c e s s w h e reb y a p r e s e r v i o e t e a c h e r i s
in d u c te d
in to th e a ctu a l
c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n f o r p u r p o se o f m aking im provem ent i n t h e t e a c h i n g
p r o c e s s o v e r and above a n a t u r a l a b i l i t y w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t may p o s s e s s ,
" D i r e c t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g " i s u sed t o d e n o t e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
o f f i c i a l who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g in a l l
fie ld s.
One who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e g e n e r a l d i r e e t i o n o f s t u d e n t
t e a c h i n g i n a l l f i e l d s and who iB a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i r e c t i o n or
s u p e r v is io n o f stu d e n t te a c h e r s in b u s in e s s s u b je o ts i s t o be p la ce d i n
th is c la s s ific a tio n .
" D i r e c t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s " i s u sed t o
d e s i g n a t e an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i o i a l who i s r e s p o n s i b l e o n l y f o r t h e
d i r e c t i o n o f stu d en t t e a c h in g in t h e f i e l d
1 . Ib id .
2. Ib id .
o f b u s in e s s e d u o a tio n .
" T r a in in g s u p e r v i s o r " i s u sed t o d e s i g n a t e a p e r s o n who h as a
f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n a s a s u p e r v i s o r or a o r i t i o t e a c h e r o f s t u d e n t
t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s and a p u b l i c s o h o o l t e a c h e r who d e v o t e s
p a r t o r a l l o f h i s t im e t o t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
su b jects.
The t r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r may b e one w h o se s a l a r y i s p aid b y
t h e c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y , b y some o t h e r a g e n c y s u c h as t h e p u b l i o s o h o o l
s y s t e m , or b o t h .
The t r a i n i n g
s u r e r v i s o r may c o n d u c t h i s work i n a
campus t r a i n i n g s o h o o l , i n an o f f- o e m p u s s c h o o l , or i n b o t h .
"Departm ent s u p e r v i s o r "
i s u sed t o d e s i g n a t e a p e r s o n who h a s a
p a r t - t i m e p o s i t i o n a s a s u p e r v i s o r or o r i t i c t e a c h e r o f s t u d e n t t e a o h ­
er s o f b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s ,
and who a l s o d e v o t e s p a r t o f h i s tim e t o
t e a c h i n g f o r m a l l y s c h e d u l e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r or m eth od s c l a s s e s i n b u s ­
i n e s s e d u o a t i o n i n t h e c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y .
"N on -d ep artm en t s u p e r v i s o r " i s used t o d e s i g n a t e a p e r s o n who
has a p o s i t i o n a s a s u p e r v i s o r or a c r i t i c t e a c h e r o f s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s
o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s b u t who i s n o t a member o f t h e r e g u l a r b u s i n e s s
e d u ca tio n f a c u l t y , t h a t i s ,
he i s n o t a s p e c i a l i s t i n b u s i n e s s
edu­
c a tio n .
Method o f P ro c ed u r e and S o u r c e s o f D ata
The f i r s t
s t e p i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s dooument was e x t e n s i v e
r e a d i n g r e l a t i v e t o t h e p ro b lem s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n e l ]
fo r th e f ie l d
o f b u s in e s s ed u o a tio n in p a r t i c u l a r .
a number o f m ajor p r o b le m s p r e s e n t e d t h e m s e l v e s .
fie ld s
and
From t h i s r e a d i n g ,
On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e
m ajor p r o b le m s , two t e n t a t i v e q u e s t i o n n a i r e form s w ere p rep a red r e l a t i v e
t o t h e p r a o t i c e s and p o l i c i e s f o l l o w e d i n v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s
w h io h had a s one o f t h e i r p ^ u p o s e s t h e t r a i n i n g o f t e a o h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
8
su b jeots.
The p r a c t i c a b i l i t y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w as t e s t e d
by
means o f s e n d in g them t o p e r s o n s i n c h a r g e o f b u s i n e s s e d u o a t i o n
o o u r s e s and c o u r s e s i n s tu d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s i n f o u r
s t a t e t e a o h e r s c o l l e g e s and two s t a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s .
w ere ask ed t o f i l l
T h ese p e r s o n s
i n t h e form s and t o g i v e c o n s t r u c t i v e
a s t o how t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s m ig h t b e im p r o v e d .
o r itio ism s
The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s
w ere r e v i s e d upon t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s .
A
A l e t t e r was w r i t t e n t o t h e head o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f b u s i n e s s
e d u o a t i o n i n e a c h o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s w h io h f e l l w i t h i n t h e o l a s s i f i o a t i o n o f term s p r e s e n t e d on p a g e s 8 and 6 .
c o o p e r a t i o n i n s e c u r in g t h e n e c e s s a r y d a t a .
He w as a s k e d f o r
In a d d i t i o n , he was
r e q u e s t e d t o r e p o r t t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s who w e r e
r e s p o n s i b l e i n any way f o r t h e c o n d u c t o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g I n
b u sin e ss s u b je c ts.
I n o a s e s w here t h i s p r o o e d u r e b r o u g h t n o re^
spcnse, t h e same ty p e o f l e t t e r was m a i l e d t o t h e d i r e o t o r o f s t u d e n t
t e a c h i n g a s k in g f o r t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n .
Upon t h e r e c e i p t o f p r o ­
m is e d c o o p e r a t i o n , a co p y o f Form I o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w as m a i l e d
t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l g i v i n g t h e p r o m is e .
He was ask ed t o f i l l
fo rm o r t o s e l e c t a q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n t o do s o .
o f Form I I w ere s e n t w h ic h w ere t o b e f i l l e d
In a d d itio n ,
in th e
o o p ie e
in by th e d i f f e r e n t
in d iv id u a ls r e sp o n sib le fo r the con d u ct o f s tu d e n t te a c h in g i n c l a s s ­
room s i t u a t i o n s .
At t h r e e l a t e r d a t e s , f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r s
in c lu d in g o o p ie s o f th e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere m a ile d t o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h o s e i n s t i t u t i o n s
1 . S e e A p p e n d ix , p . 3 1 3 .
w h io h had n o t r e s p o n d e d but w h ic h had p r o m ise d t o do s o .
At t h e same
t i m e , l e t t e r s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere s e n t t o t h o s e i n s t i t u t i o n s from
w h io h no r e s p o n s o w h e n s o e v e r had been r e c e i v e d , a s k i n g f o r c o o p e r a t i o n
i n each in s t a n c e .
I
As a r e s u l t o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e , i n f o r m a t i o n w as c o l l e c t e d from
n in ety -tw o i n s t i t u t i o n s .
When t a b u l a t i o n w ere b e i n g made, f o u r o f t h e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had t o b e e l i m i n a t e d b e c a u s e o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and inad
q u ate d a ta .
The in f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s d o cu m en t, t h e r e f o r e , i s
basad on r e t u r n s f r o m e i g h t y - e i g h t i n s t i t u t i o n s p r e p a r i n g s t u d e n t s t o
tea ch b u sin e ss su b je c ts.^
th e reader i s
w ere c o lle c t e d
As t c t h e r e s p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e d a t a
r e f e r r e d t o p a g e s 10 and 11
o f t h i s d ocum ent.
The d a t a
i n t h e s p r in g o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9 and t h e f a l l
o f th e so h o o l year 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 .
R e f e r e n c e i s made t o a number o f s t u d i e s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g .
T h ese s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s appear i n t h e form o f f o o t n o t e s w i t h i n t h e
d oou m en t, a s w e l l as i n t h e a n n o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y .
1 . S ee A p p e n d ix , p . 3 1 0 .
CHAPTER I I
PROVISIONS MADE FOR STUDENT TEACHING IK BUSINESS SUBJECTS
Number o f I n s t i t u t i o n s O f f e r i n g S t u d e n t T e a o h in g i n B u s i n e s s S u b j e o t s
and t h e Number C o o p e r a t in g i n T h is S tu d y
An a n a l y s i s o f T a b le I shows two f a o t o r s o o n o ern in g t h i s dooument*
F irst,
su o h an a n a l y s i s
shows t h e number o f s t a t e t e a o h e r s o o l l e g e s ,
o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
sta te
and p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s w h io h
o f f e r stu d en t te a c h in g i n b u sin e ss s u b je c ts .
S e c o n d ly , i t
shows t h e
e x t e n t o f r e t u r n s and t h e b a s i s w h i o h t h e y p l a y i n t h e d a t a found i n
t h iB document*
TABLE I
NUMBER OF INSTITUTIONS OFFERING STUDENT TEACHING IN BUSINESS SI'BJECTS
AND THE NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS INCLUDED IN THIS STUDIf
Number l i s t e d i n t h e 1 9 3 9 E d u c a t i o n a l
D i r e o t o r y a o o o r d ln g t o d e f i n i t i o n s
Number n o t r e s p o n d in g i n any way
a f t e r f o u r a ttem p ted c o n t a c t s
Number r e p o r t i n g no o f f e r i n g s i n s t u ­
d en t te a o h in g in b u s in e s s s u b je o ts
Number r e t u r n in g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n d i ­
c a t in g o f f e r i n g s in s tu d e n t te a o h in g
in b u sin e ss su b jeo ts
Number o f f e r i n g s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g b u t
r e p o r t i n g t h a t t h e y o o u ld n o t c o o p ­
era te
Number known t o o f f e r s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g
in b u sin e ss su b jeo ts b u t not ooopera tin g
S tate
T eaohers
C o lle g e s
S tate
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r sitie s
147
93
41
12
8
4
74
33
14
40
33
16
4
4
2
17
16
6
P riv a te
C o lle g e s
and U n i ­
v e r sitie s
11
Of t h e 135 s t a ‘.e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s r e p o r t i n g as t o w h e t h e r or n o t
t h e y o f f e r s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s , 6 1 , or 4 5 , 1 p er c e n t ,
i n d i c a t e t h a t p r o v i s i o n i s made i n t h i s manner for t h e t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h ­
ers o f b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s .
Of t h e 85 s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
r e p o r t i n g as t o w h e th e r or n o t t h e y o f f e r e d s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g
s u b j e c t s , 52,
in b u sin e ss
or 6 1 . 1 p er c e n t , i n d i c a t e t h a t p r o v i s i o n i s made i n t h i s
manner f o r t h e t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s .
Of t h e 37
p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t i n g as to w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y o f f e r
6 t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s , 23, or 6 2 .1 p er c e n t ,
in d ic a te th a t
p r o v i s i o n i s made in t h i s manner f o r th e t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
su b jects.
T h is i n d i c u t e s t h a t
so f a r as t h e s e d a t a may be c o n s i d e r e d
as
b e i n g v a l i d , p r o v i s i o n f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h in g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s i s made
m ost o f t e n i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , f o l l o w e d b y s t a t e o o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
and s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s ,
in t h e o r d e r named.
A f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f T a b le I i n d i c a t e s th at o f t h e 1 3 6 i n s t i t u t i o n s
known t o o f f e r
s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s , 8 0 ,
c o o p e r a t e d in f u r n i s h i n g d a t a f o r t h i s document.
or 6 4 .7 per c e n t,
A n a ly z in g th e s e d a ta
f u r t h e r , i t c a n b e s e e n t h a t 4 0 , or 6 5 .5 p er c e n t , o f t h e s t a t e t e a c h e r s
c o l l e g e s , 3 3 , or 6 3 .4 p er c e n t , o f th e s t a t e c o l l e g e s
and 1 5 , or 6 5 . 2 p e r c e n t ,
and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
o f t h e p r iv a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s c o o p ­
e r a t e d i n f u r n i s h i n g d a t a f o r t h i s document.
Table I shows t h a t t h e r o are 147 s t a t e t e a o h e r s c o l l e g e s , 93 s t a t e
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
and 41 p r iv a te c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
liste d
i n t h e 193S E d u c a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r y which f a l l w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h e
d e f i n i t i o n s l i s t e d on p a g e s 5 and 6.
281.
The t o t a l number o f i n s t i t u t i o n s
Of t h i s t o t a l o f 2 8 1 i n s t i t u t i o n s , 8 8 ,
o o m p le te d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .
is
or 3 1 .3 p e r c e n t , r e t u r n e d t h e
Of t h e 147 s t a t e t e a o h e r s o o l l e g e s , 4 0 , o r 2 7 . 2
12
p e r o e n t , r e t u r n e d t h e c o m p lete d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .
o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , 3 3 ,
p lete d
q u estio n n a ires.
Of t h e 93 s t a t e
or 3 6 . 4 p e r c e n t , r e t u r n e d t h e com­
Of t h e 41 p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
1 6 , or 3 6 . 6 per c e n t , r e t u r n e d t h e co m p le te d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .
Types o f S o h o o ls I n Whioh S t u d e n t T ea on in g i n B u s i n e s s S u b j e o t s i s O f f e r e d
T a b le I I snows t h e t y p e s o f s o h o o l s w h ic h a r e u sed f o r p u r p o s e s o f
s tu d e n t te a o h in g in b u s in e s s s u b j e o t s .
E l e v e n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s or combina­
t i o n s o f t y p e s e r e used f o r t h i s p u r p o s e .
s i v e l y i s th e off-cam p u s s o h o o l.
The t y p e m ost o f t e n u sed e x c l u ­
Of t h e t o t a l 88 s o h o o l s in c lu d e d i n t h i s
s t u d y , 3 2 , or 3 6 . 3 p er c e n t , p r o v id e s c h o o l s o f t h i s k in d f o r t h e t r a i n i n g
o f stu d e n t te a c h e r s in b u sin e ss s u b j e o t s .
fir st
T h is t y p e o f f a c i l i t y ra n k s
i n t h e c a s e o f s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
ra n k s f i r s t ,
and in p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s
I n t h e o a a e o f t e a c h e r s o o l l e g e s , t h e campus s o h o o l
f o l l o w e d by t h e o ff-c a m p u s s o h o o l .
The campus s o h o o l t a k e s
s eco n d p l a o e i n t h e o a s e o f t h e s t a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
p r i v a t e c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y in c lu d e d i n t h i s
s o h o o l i n w h ich a l l
No
s t u d y p r o v i d e s a campus
o f th e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s do t h e i r
w ork .
The campus and t h e o f f- c a m p u s s o h o o l t a k e s t h i r d p l a c e a s t h e c o m b in a t io n
o f t y p e o f f a c i l i t y w h ic h i s u sed f o r p u r p o s e s o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n b u s ­
in e ss s u b je c ts.
Ten s o h o o l s , or 1 1 . 4 p er o e n t , p r o v i d e b o t h o f t h e s e t y p e s
o f f a o i l i t i e s fo r stu d e n t te a c h in g in b u s in e s s s u b j e o t s .
Of t h e s e t e n s c h o o l s
e i g h t a re s t a t e t e a c h e r s o o l l e g e s , one i s a s t a t e o o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y , and
one i s
a p r iv a te o o ll e g e .
The c o m b in a t io n o f o ff-o a m p u e s o h o o l s and s u b j e c t m a t t e r c l a s s e s i n t h e
i n s t i t u t i o n ra n k s f o u r t h among t h e t y p e o f f a c i l i t i e s
tea o h in g in b u s in e s s s u b j e o t s .
p r o v id e d f o r s t u d e n t
Seven s o h o o l s , or 8 . 0 p er o e n t , a l l o w s t u d e n t
1
15
TABLE I I
TYPES OF FACILITIES USED FOR STUDENT TEACHING IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
Typo s o f
F a c ilitie s
O ff-cam p u s s c h o o l s
Campus s c h o o l s
Campus and O ff-cam pus
sc h o o ls
O ff-cam p u s s o h o o l s and
s u b je c t m a tter
c l a s s e s In i n s t i t u ­
tio n
Campus s o h o o l s and
s u b j e c t m a tt e r
c l a s s e s in i n s t i t u ­
tio n
Campus and o f f- c a m p u s
s o h o o l s and s u b j e c t
m atter c l a s s e s in
in stitu tio n
S u b ject m atter o la s s e s
in in s t it u t io n
Campus and o ff - o a m p u s
s o h o o ls, p r iv a te bus­
i n e s s s c h o o l s and
s u b je c t m atter
c l a s s e s in
in s titu tio n
O ff-oam p u s s o h o o l s ,
p r iv a te b u sin e ss
s c h o o l s and s u b j e c t
m atter c l a s s e s in i n ­
stitu tio n
Gff-a&mpus s c h o o l s and
p r iv a te b u sin e ss
s o h o o ls
Campus s c h o o l s , o f f oampus s o h o o l s , and
p r iv a te b u sin ess
so h o o ls
T otal
S ta te
C o lle g e s
■■■nd U ni­
v e r sitie s
S ta te
Teaohers
C o lle g e s
T otal
P riv a te
C oll ep’e s
and U ni­
v e r sitie s
Num­
b er
Per
C ent
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
P er
Cent
7
15
IV .5
3 7 .5
16
13
4 6 .5
3 9 .4
9
0
6 0 .0
0 .0
32
28
3 6 .3
3 1 .9
8
2 0 .0
1
3 .0
1
6 .7
10
1 1 .4
3
7 .5
2
6 .1
2
1 3 .3
7
8 .0
4
1 0 .0
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
4
4 .6
2
5 .0
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
2
2 .3
0
0 .0
1
3 .0
0
0 .0
1
1 .1
1
2 .5
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
1 .1
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
6 .7
1
1 .1
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
6 .6
1
1 .1
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
6 .6
1
1 .1
40
1 0 0 .0
33
1 0 0 ,0
15
1 0 0 .0
88
1 0 0 ,0
14
t e a c h e r s t o u se t h i s c o m b in a tio n f o r p u r p o s e s o f d i r e c t e d t e a c h i n g in
b u sin e ss su b jects*
The o t h e r s ev en c o m b in a tio n s o f t y p e s o f f a c i l i t i e s
a r e u sed by
fo u r or f e w e r i n s t i t u t i o n s .
If
T a b le I I i s c o n s id e r e d from a n o th e r p o i n t o f v ie w , i t may be
o b s e r v e d t h a t 5 6 , or 6 2 , 5 per c e n t ,
of t h e 88 i n s t i t u t i o n s in c l u d e d
in
t h i s s t u d y p r o v id e o ff-c a m p u s s c h o o l s f o r p u r p o s e s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h in g
in b u s in e s s s u b je c ts.
Of t h e s e 55 s c h o o l s , 2 1 , o r 5 2* 5 p er c e n t , are s t a t e
t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s ; 1 9 , o r 5 7 ,5 p er c e n t , ©re s t a t e
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ;
and 1 5 , o r 1 0 0 . 0 per c e n t , are p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
Of t h e 88 i n s t i t u t i o n s in a lu d e d i n t h i s s t u d y , 4 6 , or
p ro v id e
jects.
5 2 , 2 p er c e n t ,
campus s c h o o l s f o r p u r p o se s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s sub­
Of t h e s e 46 s c h o o l s , 3 0 , or 7 6 . 0 p e r c e n t ,
c o lle g e s,
1 4 , or 4 2 . 4 p er c e n t , ©re s t a t e o o l l e g e s
and 2 , o r 1 3 .3 3 per c e n t ,
are s ta te tea o h ers
and u n i v e r s i t i e s ;
ere p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
S i x t e e n i n s t i t u t i o n s , or 1 8 . 1 8 per c e n t , r e p o r t t h a t s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s
may m eet t h e req u ir em en t f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g b y t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t m a tter
c l a s s e s i n the c o l le g e o le a s e s o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n
ro lle d .
i n w h io h t h e y are en­
Ten s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s , t h r e e s t a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
and t h r e e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t t h i s p r a c t i c e .
c o lle g e
One s t a t e
or u n iv e r s it y i s th e o n ly i n s t i t u t i o n t o r e p o r t t h i s ty p e of f a c i l i t y
t o be u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y .
F iv e in s t it u t io n s rep o rt th a t stu d en t te a c h in g i n b u sin e ss su bjects
may be d o n e i n p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s s c h o o l s .
is
One o f t h e s e f i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s
a s t a t e t e a c h e r s o o l l e g e and t h e f o u r o t h e r s a r e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s or
u n iv e r sitie s.
A summary o f t h e l a s t f o u r p a ra g ra p h s i n d i c a t e s t h a t p r o v i s i o n i s
m ost o f t e n made f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g in b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s i n o ff-o a m p u s
15
s c h o o ls , fo llo w ed
i n t h e o r d e r named b y campus s o h o o l s , s u b j e c t m a tter
c l a s s e s i n th e I n s t i t u t i o n s , and p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s s c h o o l s *
I n 19 3 0 ,
a s t u d y o f t h i s p o i n t made i n 67 i n s t i t u t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e cam­
pus s c h o o l ranked f i r s t , t h e o ff-o a m p u s s o h o o l ranked s e c o n d , s u b j e o t
m a tte r c l a s s e s ranked t h i r d , and p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s s c h o o l s f o u r t h . ^
T h is w ould seam t o i n d i c a t e an i n c r e a s i n g t e n d e n c y f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s
t o u s e t h e o ff-o a m p u s s o h o o l s f o r p u r p o s e s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n
b u sin e ss s u b je o ts .
I n t h e s t u d y m en tion ed above i t w as r e p o r t e d t h a t
25 o f t h e 67 i n s t i t u t i o n s u sed f a c i l i t i e s p r o v id e d by p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s
s c h o o ls f o r stu d en t teeo h in g w h ile in th e ca se o f t h i s stu d y o n ly f i v e
out o f 88 I n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t e d t h e u se o f c l a s s e s i n p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s
o o ll e g e s fo r purposes of stu d en t tee o h in g *
2
T h is would seem t o i n d i c a t e
t h a t t h e r e i s a v e r y d e f i n i t e t e n d e n o y t o r e d u c e t h e number o f s o h o o ls
u s in g t h i s t y p e o f f a o l l i t y f o r t r a i n i n g
stud ent te a c h e r s o f b u sin e ss
su b jects.
P u rp o ses For Whioh Campus S o h o o ls Are Used
T a b le 111 shows th e p u r p o s e s f o r w h io h campus s o h o o l s are u sed i n
c o n n e c t i o n w it h t h e c o u r s e i n s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s .
An
e x a m in a t io n o f t h e t a b l e shows t h a t more i n s t i t u t i o n s u s e t h e campus t r a i n ­
in g s c h o o l s f o r a l l o f t h e f o u r p u r p o s e s l i s t e d
f o r any o t h e r c o m b in a tio n o f p u r p o s e s .
i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e th an
That i s , 1 9 , o r 4 1 . 3 per o e n t
1 . E a r l W. B a r n h a r t, 'What I s and What Should be t h e O r g a n i s a t i o n And
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f D i r e o t e d T ea ch in g i n B u s i n e s s Teacher T r a in in g
I n s t i t u t i o n s , E a s t e r n Commercial T ea oh ers A s s o c i a t i o n , Third
Yearbook, 1 9 3 0 , p . 2 1 4 .
2 . L oo. o i t .
16
TABLE I I I
PURPOSES FOR WHICH CAMPUS SCHOOLS ARE USED BY INSTITUTIONS OFFERING STUDENT
TEACHING IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
S tate
C o lle g e s
and Uni­
v e r sitie s
S tate
T ea o h ers
C o lle g e s
P riv a te
C o lle g es
and U n i­
v e r sitie s
T otal
Purpose
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
S tu d en t t e e o h i n g ,
d e m o n s t r a t io n , ob­
s e r v a t i o n , end e x ­
p e r im e n t a t io n
S tu d e n t t e a c h i n g ,
o b s e r v a t i o n , and
d e m o n str a tio n
Stu dent t e e o h i n g 'nd
o b s o r v ft io n
S tu dent t e a c h in g
S tu dent t e a c h in g end
demonstrn t i o n
S tu d e n t t e e o h i n g end
exper ime n t pt i on
S tu d en t t e e o h i n g , e x ­
p e r i m e n t a t i o n , and
o b serv a tio n
T o ta l
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
P er
Cent
11
3 6 .7
6
5 7 .2
0
0 .0
19
4 1 .3
8
2 6 ,7
3
2 1 .4
0
0 .0
11
2 3 .9
6
3
20.0
1 0 .0
0
2
0 .0
1 4 .3
0
0
0 .0
0 .0
6
6
1 3 .0
1 0 ,0
1
3.3
0
0 .0
1
50.0
2
4 .4
0
0 .0
1
7 .1
1
5 0 .0
2
4 .4
1
3 .3
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
2 .1
30
1 0 0 .0
14
1 0 0 .0
2
1 0 0 .0
46
1 0 0 .0
o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s u se t h e s e s o h o o ls f o r purposes o f stu d en t t e a c h in g ,
d e m o n s t r a t io n , o b s e r v a t i o n , end e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n *
i n terms o f per c e n t ,
t h i s c o m b in a tio n ranks h ig h e r t h a n a n y o th e r co m b in a tio n .
stud en t te a c h in g , o b s e r v a tio n ,
c o m b in a tio n , s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g
The o o m b i n a t i o n ,
and d e m o n s t r a t i o n , ranks s e c o n d , w h i l e t h e
and o b s e r v a t i o n , r a n k s t h i r d .
These same
r a n k in g s h old t r u e i n t h e o e a e o f t h e s t a t e t e a o h e r s o o l l e g e s and s t a t e
o o l l e g e s end u n i v e r s i t i e s .
little
P r i v a t e c o l l e g e s end u n i v e r s i t i e s make v e r y
use o f oamous t r a i n i n g s o h o o l s f o r t e a c h i n g b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s .
F a c t s r e g a r d i n g t h e two i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h i s t y p e r e p o r t i n g t h e u s e o f
campus s o h o o l s a r e g i v e n here f o r w hat t h e y may be w o rth *
A fu rth er
a n a ly sis of th e ta b le in d ic a te s th a t a ll
in stitu tio n s
u s e t h e campus t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s f o r p u r p o s e s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g ; 3 7 ,
or 8 0 * 4 3 p e r c e n t , u s e them f o r p u r p o s e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n ; 3 2 , or 69*5 per o e n t ,
u s e them f o r p u r p o s e s o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n ; and 2 2 , or 4 7 . 8 p er c e n t , u s e them
f o r purposes o f e x p e r im e n ta tio n .
These same r a n k in g s h o ld t r u e i n t h e
ca se o f th e s t a t e teaoh ers c o lle g e s .
s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g ranks f i r s t ,
I n s t a t e c o l l e g e s end u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
o b s e r v a t i o n and d e m o n s t r a t i o n ra n k secon d and
t h i r d w i t h an e q u a l number, and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n r a n k s l a s t .
How ever, o n l y
4 0 *0 p er o e n t o f t h e s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s u s e campus t r a i n i n g
so h o o ls
f o r p u r p o s e s o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w h i l e 64*2 p er c e n t o f t h e s t a t e
c o lle g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s u s e campus s c h o o l s f o r t h i s p u rpose*
The N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f t h e E d u c a tio n o f T e a c h e r s r e p o r t s t h e p u r p o s e s
f o r w h ic h campus s c h o o l s e r e u sed i n t r a i n i n g t e a o h e r s o f s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s .
Commercial t e a c h e r s a r e in c l u d e d
i n r.nis g r o u p .
u s in g campus s c h o o l s f o r e a c h p u r p o se f o l l o w s ;
9 4 . 1 p er o e n t ; f o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n , 7 6 . 5 oer c e n t ;
o e n t , and f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , 3 5 . 3 p er c e n t . ^
an a n a l y s i s o f t h o s e found i n T a b le I I I , i t
The p e r c e n t o f I n s t i t u t i o n s
for p r a c tic e te a c h in g ,
f o r o b s e r v a t i o n , 7 0 . 5 per
Comparing t h e s e f i g u r e s w i t h
can be s e e n t h a t p r o v i s i o n s are
made f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g , o b s e r v a t i o n , and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n b u s i n e s s
s u b j e o t s t o a s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r e x t e n t th a n t h o s e r e p o r t e d f o r t h e com*
b in e d " s p e a i a l s u b j e c t s '* i n The N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f t h e E d u c a t io n o f
T ea ch ers*
P r o v i s i o n i s made f o r d e m o n s t r a t io n t o a s l i g h t l y l e s s e x t e n t *
1* F . K. F o s t e r , The T r a i n i n g S c h o o l i n t h e E d u c a t io n o f T e a o h e r s , The
N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f t h e E d u c a t io n o f T e a c h e r s , W a s h in g to n , D* i f . '*
Government P r i n t i n g O f f i o e , U n ited S t a t e O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n ,
B u l l e t i n 1 9 3 3 , N o. 1 0 , Volume I I I , p . 3 8 9 .
16
P u rp o ses For Whioh Off-Campus S o h o o l s Are Used
T able IV shows t h e p u r p o s e s f o r w h io h o f f - o a m p u s s o h o o l s a r e
u se d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e c o u r s e i n s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s
su b jects*
An e x a m in a t i o n o f t h e t a b l e
and o b s e r v a t i o n ran k f i r s t ;
shows t h a t s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g
stu d e n t t e a c h i n g , d em o n str a tio n , o b s e r ­
v a t i o n , and e x p e r i m e n t s t i o n rank s e c o n d ; s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g , o b s e r v a t i o n a
and d e m o n s t r a t io n rank t h i r d ;
s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g ra n k s f o u r t h ;
t e a o h i n g and d e m o n s t r a t io n rank f i f t h .
purposes ran k s f i r s t
and s t u d e n t
The c o m b in a t io n o f a l l
fou r
i n t h e c a s e o f s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s and s t a t e
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s but t h e l a r g e number o f n r i v a t e c o l l e g e s
and
u n i v e r s i t i e s w h ic h u s e o f f - c a m p u s s c h o o l s f o r p u r p o s e s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g
and o b s e r v a t i o n o n l y , t e n d s t o ch an g e t h e t o t a l a .
TABLE IV
PURPOSES FOR V/liICH OFF-CAkPUS SCHOOLS ARE USED BY ,NSTITl'T10NS OFFERING
STUDENT TEACHING IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
S tate
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r sitie s
S tate
Teachers
C o lle g e s
Pu rp ose
P riv a te
C o lle g e s
and Uni­
v e r sitie s
T o ta l
Num­
ber
P er
C ent
Num­
ber
Per
C ent
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
S t u d e n t t e a o h i n g and
o b serv a tio n
6
28*6
5
2 6 .3
9
6 0 .0
20
3 6 .4
Student t e a o h in g ,
e x p e r im e n ta tio n ,
d e m o n s t r a t i o n , «nd
o b se rv a tio n
8
3 8 .1
9
4 7 .4
1
6 .7
18
3 2 .7
Student t e a o h in g ,
o b s e r v a t i o n , and
d e m o n s t r a t io n
3
1 4 .3
3
1 5 .8
3
2 0 .0
9
1 6 .4
S tu d e n t t e a c h i n g
2
9 .5
2
1 0 .5
1
6 .7
6
9 .0
S t u d e n t t e a c h i n g and
d e m o n s t r a t io n
2
9 .5
0
0 .0
1
6. 6
3
5 .5
21
1 0 0 .0
19
1 0 0 .0
16
1 0 0 .0
56
1 0 0 .0
T o ta l
19
A fu rth er a n a ly sis
o f th e t a b l e shows t h a t a l l o f t h e
65 i n s t i t u t i o n s
u s e o f f - c a m p u s s o h o o l s f o r p u r p o s e s o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g } 4 7 , or 8 5 . 4 p er
c e n t, use
o ff-c u m p u a s c h o o l s f o r p u r p o se s o f o b s e r v e t i o n ;
o e n t , u s e them f o r p u r p o s e s o f d e m o n s tr a tio n }
u s e them f o r p u r p o s e s o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n .
3 0 , or 54 *5 p er
end 1 8 , or 3 2 . 7 per c e n t ,
The same p o s i t i o n r a n k in g s are
t r u e in th e c a se o f th e th ree d i f f e r e n t ty p e s
of in stitu tio n s.
I n The N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f t h e E d u c a tio n o f TeaoherB i t
th a t tea ch ers c o lle g e s
i s rep orted
end normal s o h o o ls u s e o f f - o a m p u s s c h o o l s f o r
p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g i n 9 2 . 8 oer c e n t o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s s t u d i e d f o r ob­
s e r v a t i o n i n 6 4 . 3 p e r c e n t , f o r d e m o n s t r a t io n i n 4 2 . 9 per c e n t , and f o r
e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n 1 4 . 3 p er c e n t * *
Comparing t h e s e f i g u r e s w i t h an
a n a l y s i s o f t h o s e fou n d i n T ab le IV , i t can b e s e e n t h a t p r o v i s i o n s
a r e made f o r
a l l t h e s e purposes in b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s t o a s l i g h t l y
g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n f o r t h e com bined " s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s ” m e n t io n e d i n
The M a t io n a l S u r v e y o f th e E d u c a t io n o f T e a c h e r s .
A o o m p a r is o n o f t h e p u r p o s e s f o r whioh campus and o f f - o a m p u s
s c h o o l s a r e u sed f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s
su b jects
shows t h a t
campus s o h o o l s are more f r e q u e n t l y used f o r o b s e r v a t i o n , d e m o n s t r a t i o n ,
end e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n p u r p o s e s t h a n are t h e o f f - o a m p u s s o h o o l s .
d iffe r e n c e
s tr a tio n ,
i n per c e n t i s 5 . 0 i n t h e c a s e o f o b s e r v a t i o n ,
and 1 5 . 1
The
1 5 . 0 in demon­
in e x p e r im e n ta tio n .
C o n t r o l Of Off-Campus S c h o o ls Used f o r P u r p o s e s o f S t u d e n t T ea ch in g
in B u sin e ss S u b jeo ts
1 . Loo. c i t .
20
T a b le V shows t h a t o ff-o a m p u s s o h o o l s a r e p r i m a r i l y c o n t r o l l e d by
th e p u b lio sc h o o ls system s.
th e ir
T hree s t a t e t o u c h e r s c o l l e g e s r e p o r t t h a t
o f f - o a m p u s s o h o o l s are p u b l i o s c h o o l s o p e r a te d b y t h e i n s t i t u t i o n .
T h ese t h r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s are t h e o n l y e x c e p t i o n s t o t h e p r a c t i c e o f
p la c in g
stud en t te a c h e r s of b u s in e s s s u b je o ts in o ff-ca m p u s t r a i n i n g
s c h o o l s w h ich a r e under t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m .
or u n i v e r s i t y d i d n o t r e p o r t
s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e and one s t a t e c o l l e g e
on t h i s
One
p o in t.
TABLE V
CONTROL UF OFF-CALFUS SCHOOLS USED FOR PURPOSES OF STUDENT TEACHING
IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
S ta te
T eachers
C o lle g e s
Type o f
C ontrol
P u b l i o S o h o o ls
P u b l i o s o h o o l s op­
e r a t e d by t h e
in s titu tio n
S tate
C o lle g es
and Uni­
v e r sitie s
P riv a te
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r sitie s
Num­
ber
P er
Cent
T o ta l1
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
P er
C en t
17
8 5 .0
18
1 0 0 .0
15
1 0 0 .0
50
9 4 .3
3
1 5 .0
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
3
5 .7
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
D i f f e r e n t C u r r i c u l a i n Ahloh S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s May
R e o e iv e T r a i n i n g
A lt h o u g h t h e t e a o h i n g o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s i s i n many o a s e s a r a t h e r
s p e c i a l i z e d u n d e r t a k i n g , th e I n s t i t u t i o n s p r e p a r in g b u s i n e s s t e a o h e r s f o r
1 . Two i n s t i t u t i o n s u s i n g o ff-o a m p u s s o h o o l s f a i l e d t o r e p o r t on t h i s p o i n t .
21
s e o o n d a r y s o h o o l s do n o t , as a g e n e r a l t h i n g , o f f e r s p e c i a l i z e d
w ith in t h is f i e l d .
c u r r ic u la
T ab le VI shows t h a t o n l y e l e v e n o f t h e 88 i n s t i t u t i o n s
i n c l u d e d in t h i s s t u d y r e p o r t s p e c i a l i z e d c u r r i c u l a w i t h i n t h e f i e l d
b u sin ess tea c h e r -tr a in in g .
Where t h i s p l a n i s
i s t h e number most o f t e n m en tio n ed .
of
f o llo w e d , fou r c u r r ic u la
T h ese are t h e S e c r e t a r i a l C u r ricu lu m ,
t h e A c c o u n tin g C u rricu lu m , t h e M e r c h a n d isin g C u r ricu lu m , and t h e G eneral
B u s i n e s s C u rricu lu m .
I n term s o f p e r c e n t a g e s , t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and
u n i v e r s i t i e s o f f e r more s p e c i a l i z e d c u r r i c u l a t h a n t h e o t h e r two t y p e s
of in s titu tio n s .
TABLE VI
NAME AliD NUMBER OF BUSINESS TEACHER TRAINING CURRICULA IN INSTITUTIONS
OFFERING MORE THAN ONE SUCh CURRICULA, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
Name o f C u r r ic u l a
S t a te
T eaoh ers
C o lle g e s
S tate
C o lle g e s
and U ni­
v e r sitie s
P riv a te
C o lle g e s
and Uni­
v e r sitie s
T otal
S e c r e t a r i a l , A o o o u n tin g , Mer­
c h a n d i s i n g , G eneral B u s in e s s
3
0
1
4
S e c r e t a r ia l, S o c ia l B u sin e ss,
A c c o u n t i n g , M e r c h a n d is in g ,
and G eneral B u s in e s s
0
1
1
2
S e c r e t a r i a l , A c c o u n t in g , and
S o c i a l B u s in e s s
0
0
2
2
S e c r e t a r i a l , A o o o u n tin g , and
G e n e ra l B u s in e s s
1
0
0
1
B u s i n e s s P r i n o ip le B and Occu­
p a tio n a l
0
1
0
1
S e c r e t a r i a l and G eneral Bus­
in ess
0
0
1
1
22
Aa t h e r e l a
a l a c k o f a g r e e m e n t on n om en clatu re. I t should be
k e p t i n mind t h a t t h e r e rr.ay b e some o v e r la p p in g i n t h e o u r r i o u l a
names g i v e n h ere*
P r a c t i c e s i n t h e C o o r d i n a t i o n o f D ep a rtm en ts or S o h o o ls o f E d u c a t io n and
D e p a r tm e n ts or S o h o o ls o f Commerce w i t h th e Vfork In S tu d e n t T eaohing
Done i n Campus and O ff-C am pus T r a i n i n g S oh ools
I n t h e C a r n e g ie F o u n d a t i o n E u l l e t i n , The P r o f e s s i o n a l P r e p a r a t io n
T e a c h e r s f o r A m erican P u b l i o S c h o o l s , a stu d y b ased upon an e x a m in a t i o n
o f t h e t a x - s u p p o r t e d n orm al s c h o o l s i n th e S t a t e o f M i s s o u r i w hioh was
p u b lish e d in 1 9 2 0 , t h i s
s t a t e m e n t a p p ea rs
By f a r t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t w eakness o f t h e c o u r s e s i n
o b s e r v a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and p r a c t i o e - t e a o h i n g i s th e g e n e r a l
l a c k o f c o r r e l a t i o n o f a l l t h e work o f th e normal s c h o o l w i t h
t h e t r a i n i n g s o h o o l*
h o t o n l y d o e s th e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l as a r u l e
o c c u p y a s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n i n th e normal s o h o o l o r g a n i s a t i o n
i n s t e a d o f b e i n g a p i v o t p o i n t end fo o u s of a l l d e p a r tm e n ts , b u t
t h e work o f t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l seems i n many, i f n o t m o st, o a s e s
t o be d e t a c h e d , t o l a c k a fu n d a m e n ta l r e l a t i o n t o what i s t a u g h t
and l e a r n e d i n c l a s s r o o m s ’ u p s t a i r s * '
I t i s no u n u su a l t h i n g f o r
t h e norm al s o h o o l s t u d e n t t o c o m p la in t h a t t h e t h e o r y t h a t has
b e e n t a u g h t t o him i n t h e c o u r s e s i n p s y c h o lo g y , p r i n c i p l e s o f
t e a c h i n g , and s p e c i a l m ethods ( t o say n o th in g o f t h e p u r e ly ' a c a ­
dem ic ' o o u r s e s ) h a s no p e r c e p t i b l e c o n n e c tio n w i t h t h e work o f t h e
t r a i n i n g s o h o o l*
T h is i s so m etim es d u e, no d o u b t, t o th e f a c t t h a t
t h e ’ t h e o r y ’ i s i m p r a c t i c a b l e , and t h a t th o se r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e
p r a c t i c e t e a o h i n g know i t , and i n con seq u en ce, w i l l have no com­
m erce w i t h i t , b u t i s o f t e n e r d u e m ere ly t o a c o m p le te m e c h a n io a l
s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e t r a i n i n g d e p a rtm en t b oth from t h e departm ent o f
e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y and from t h e academic d ep a rtm en ts— a s e p a r a t i o n
w h io h r e s u l t s i n t h e t o t a l ig n o r a n c e o f each p a r t y r e g a r d in g w hat
t h e o t h e r i s t e a o h i n g or p r a c t i c i n g , i f n o t , in d e e d , i n a c t u a l
o p p o s i t i o n o r opwn f r l o t i o n *
1* W. S . L e a r n e d , W i l l i a m C. B a g l a y , C* A* hokurry, George D, S t r a y e r ,
7 / a l t e r F* D e a r b o r n , I s a a c L* Kand e l , and Homer W. J o s s e l y n ,
T h e P r o f e s s i o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n o f Teachers f o r Am erican P u b lio
S c h o o l s , Mew Yorki
Tno C a r n e g ie Foundation f o r t h e Advancement
o f T e a o h in g , 1 9 2 0 , p* 199*
I n t h e r e p o r t o f The N a t io n a l
Survey o f t h e E d u c a tio n o f T e a c h e r s , t h e
same x’roblem i s p r e s e n t e d c s f o l l o w s : ^
The n e c e s s i t y f o r c l o s e r c o o r d i n a t i o n t e t w e o n c o l l e g e d e p a r t m e n t s
r nd t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l i s u n q u e s t i o n e d ...................Only f o r t y p er c e n t
o f th e n o r m a l s c h o o l s end t e a o h e r s o o l l e g e s and about t e n p e r cen t
o f t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s r e p o r t e d t h a t s t a f f members a rra n g e
f o r r e g u le r d e m o n str a tio n s ta u g h t by t r a in i n g sch o o l c r i t i c t e a c h e r s .
When t h e s e p e r c e n t a g e s are f u r t h e r r e d u c e d b y t h e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e
number o f m o st f a c u l t i e s who do n o t make r e g u l a r u se o f t h e t r a i n i n g
s c h o o l , t h e a c t u a l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h i s im p o r ta n t p r o f e s s i o n a l f a c t o r
becomes r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t *
I n w r i t i n g on t h i s t o p i c , P r i B t o e s t a t e s t h a t , "The im p o r ta n c e o f t h e
p ro b lem must b e r e c o g n i z e d and s t u d i e d by e v e r y member o f t h e f a c u l t y .
O
S o h o r l i n g b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s p ro b lem I s one w h ich i s o f g r e a t im p o r ta n c e
i n t h e c o n d u c t o f a program o f d i r e c t e d t e e o h i n g .
One o f h i s m ajor p r i n ­
c i p l e s for t h e c o n d u c t o f d i r e c t e d t e a o h i n g I s es f o l l o w s :
d ir e c te d te a c h in g
"The work o f
s h o u ld s e e k t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e s t u d e n t - t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n
w i t h t h e a o a d e m ic and p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u r s e s . " ^
T ab le V II i n d i c a t e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h D ep artm en ts or S c h o o l s o f
E d u c a t io n and D e p a r tm e n ts or S o h o o ls o f Commerce have a tte m p te d t o c o o r d i n a t e
t h e w ork o f t h e s e d e p a r t m e n t s or s o h o o l s w i t h t h e work done i n b u s i n e s s
s u b j e o t s i n oampus and o f f - o a m p u s t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s .
The t a b l e
in d io a te s
t h a t a t l e a s t 83 p e r o e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s u s e some means o f c o o r d i n a t i n g
t h e work o f o n e o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e s e two d e p a r t m e n ts w i t h t h e w ork o f t h e
tr a in in g s c h o o ls.
The method m ost o f t e n u s e d i s t h a t o f h a v in g d e p a r tm e n t
members sh are i n t h e
b u sin e ss s u b je c ts .
s u p e r v is io n o f stu d en t te a c h in g in t r a in in g sc h o o l
The method m e n tio n e d n e x t most o f t e n i s t h e p a r t i c i p a ­
t i o n b y d ep a rtm en t members i n t h e f o r m a t io n o f t r a i n i n g s o h o o l p o l i c i e s
1 . F. K. F o s t e r , o p . o l t . , p . 389 and p . 399
2 . Dewey F r i s t o e , C o o r d in a t io n o f L a b o r a t o r y - S o h o o l P r a c t i c e and E d u c a t i o n a l
Theory i n t h e T ea o h ers C o l l e g e , E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Super­
v i s i o n , XXV ( A p r i l , 1 9 3 9 ) , p . Z iZ l
3* R a le i g h S o h o r l i n g , op . o l t . , p . 1 4 7 .
24
r e l a t iv e t o b u sin e ss su b je o ts .
Tne method m e n tio n e d t h i r d most o f t e n
i s t o have members o f t n e c o l l e g e f a c u l t i e s t e a c h one o r more b u s i n e s s
su b jects
in th e t r a in in g s c h o o ls .
W ith r e g a r d t o t h e s e end o t h e r
p r a c t i c e s i n c o o r d i n a t i o n , The N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n o f
Teaohers o o n o lu d e s jl
S t a f f members— b o th t e a c h e r s o f t h e s o - o a l l e d a c a d e m ic s u b j e o t s
and t h o s e t e a c h i n g t h e s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s s h o u ld be e n c o u r a g e d and,
i f n e c e s s a r y , c o m p e lle d t o make more p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t a c t s w i t h
th e t r a in in g s o h o o ls .
T h ese c o n t a c t s may w e l l t a k e t h e form s o f
d em o n str a tio n l e s s o n s , c o o p e r a t iv e s u p e r v is io n , c o n s t r u c t io n
o f t r a i n i n g s o h o o l c u r r i c u l a , or t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f r e s e e r o h
and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g m eth od s a t v a r i o u s g rad e
l e v e l s in th e ir su b je o ts.
TABLE VII
i'!UMBER AND PER CENT OF EIGHTY-EIGHT INSTITUTIuNS USING DIFFERENT METHODS
OF COORDINATING THE XRK OF DEPARTMENTS OR SCHOOLS OF EDUCATION AND DE­
PARTMENTS OR SCHOOLS OF COMMERCE WITH THE WORK OF TRAINING SCHOOLS IN
WHICH BUSINESS SUBJECTS ARE TAUGHT, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
M ethods o f C o o r d in a t io n ^
S h are s u p e r v i s i o n o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g In t r a i n i n g
soh ool b u sin ess su D jects
P a r t i c i p a t e i n th e fo rm a tio n o f t r a i n i n g so h o o l
p o lic ie s r e l a t iv e to b u sin e ss su b je c ts
Number
Per C ent
51
5 7 .9
40
4 5 .4
Teach one o r more b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s i n t h e t r a i n i n g
school
35
3 9 .7
A rran ge f o r o c c a s i o n a l and s p e c i a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n s
taught by tr a in in g sch o o l te a c h e r
22
2 5 .0
Teach o c c a s i o n a l s p e c i a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n t h e
t r a in in g sohool
21
2 3 .8
A s s i s t i n o r g a n i z a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n o f e x p e r i ­
m e n t a t i o n In b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s i n t r a i n i n g s c h o o l
17
1 9 .3
No method o f c o o r d i n a t i o n r e p o r t e d
15
1 7 .0
Teaoh r e g u l a r l y s o h e d u le d d e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n t h e
tr a in in g sohool
16
1 7 .0
A rra n g e f o r r e g u l a r d e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n t h e t r a i n i n g
sohool
12
1 3 .6
1 . F. K. F o s t e r , o p . o l t . , p . 401
2.
S e v e n t y - t h r e e , or 8 3 . 0 p er o e n t , o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s
t h e s e methods o f c o o r d i n a t i o n .
u s e one o r more o f
26
F a c u l t y members i n o n l y o n e - f o u r t h o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s make u s e o f
a r r a n g i n g f o r s p e o i a l and o c c a s i o n a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n s t a u g h t by t h e
tr a in in g sohool te a o h e r s.
Fewer t h a n o n e - f o u r t h o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s
f o l l o w th e p r a c t i c e o f h a v in g
t h e members o f
th e
c o l l e g e f a c u l t i e s g iv e
s p e o i a l d e m o n str a tio n s i n t h e
t r a in in g sc h o o l.
F ew er t h a n o n e - f i f t h
of
t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s make p r o v i s i o n s f o r f a o u l t y members i n d ep a rtm en ts or
s c h o o l s o f e d u c a t i o n and comm erce t o a s s i s t i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f
e x p e r i m e n t a l r e a e a r o h as i t
r e l a t e s t o s tu d e n t t e a c h in g in b u sin ess
su b jects.
P r a c t ic e s in th e C o o r d in a tio n
o f D e p a r tm e n ts or S o h o o l s o f E d u ca tio n
w i t h t h e Work o f t h e T r a i n i n g
S o h o o ls
In d isc u ssin g
c o o r d i n a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , t h e t e r m s " d ep a rtm en ts or
s o h o o l s o f e d u c a t i o n * and " d e p a r t m e n t s or s o h o o l s o f commerce" are
used.
I n some c a s e s , t h e r e i s
terni6*
For i n s t a n c e ,
in some i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f b u s i n e s s
e d u c a tio n i s c l a s s i f i e d
in o th e r s i t
is
an o v e r l a r m in g i n t h e m eaning o f t h e s e
a s b e i n g a p a r t o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f e d u c a tio n }
c la ssifie d
a s a p a r t o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f commerce.
f a c t s r e p o r t e d h e r e may be m i n im i z e d t o
o f term s.
T h is l i m i t a t i o n
The
some e x t e n t b y t h i s o v e r la p p in g
s h o u l d be k e p t i n mind b y t h e reader o f t h e s e
paragraphs.
A c o m p a r is o n o f ' f a b l e s V I I I and IX shows t h a t t h e r e i s some attem pt
t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e work o f t h e f a c u l t y members In d e p a r t m e n t s or s o h o o ls o f
e d u c a t i o n w i t h t h e w ork o f t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s t o th e
e x t e n t o f 6 6 . 6 p e r o e n t i n o f f - c a m p u s s o h o o l s and t o t h e e x t e n t o f 4 7 .5
p er o e n t i n campus s o h o o l s .
F o r t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f t h e d ep a rtm en ts or
s c h o o l s o f e d u c a t i o n a t t e m p t t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r work w i t h t h a t o f t h e o f f -
26
TABLE V I I I
1IIMER AND PER CENT OF INSTITUTIONS US I NO DIFFERENT METHODS OF
COORDINATING THE WORK OF DET'A.-TIENTS OR SCHOOLS OF EDUCATION
WITH THE WORK OF THE C:u,lMJS TRAINING SCHOOLS, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
■1M-1 l 1
-1 ■■—................I l l -LM- |
Methods o f
C o o r d in a t io n
S ta te
T eachers
C o lle g e s
S tate
C o lle g es
and Uni­
v e r sitie s
T otal
lum­
b er
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
17
6 2 .9
4
3 0 .7
21
5 2 .6
Share s u p e r v i s i o n o f s t u d e n t t e a o h ­
in g in t r a i n i n g s o h o o l b u s i n e s s
su bjects
9
3 3 .3
5
3 8 .4
14
3 5 .0
P a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e form at io n o f
tra in in g s c h o o l p o l i c i e s r e l a ­
tiv e to b u sin e ss su b jects
6
1 8 .5
9
6 9 .2
14
3 5 .0
Arrange f o r o c c a s i o n a l end s p e ­
o i a l d e m o n s t r a t io n s t a u g h t by
tr a in in g s c h o o l te a c h e r
2
7 .4
3
2 3 .0
5
1 2 .5
Teaoh one or more b u s i n e s s c l a s s e s
i n th e t r a i n i n g s o h o o l
3
1 1 .1
6
4 6 .1
9
2 2 .0
A s s i s t in o r g a n i z a t i o n and s u p e r ­
v is io n o f e x p e r im e n ta tio n in
b u sin ess s u b j e c t s in t h e t r a i n ­
ing soh o ol
4
1 4 .8
4
3 0 .7
8
2 0 .0
Teaoh r e g u l a r l y s o h e d u le d demon­
str a tio n s in th e tr a in in g
sch o o l
1
3 .7
5
3 8 .6
6
1 5 .0
Arrange f o r r e g u l a r d e m o n s t r a t i o n s
in the t r a i n i n g s o h o o l
0
0 .0
2
1 5 .3
2
5 .0
Teaoh o c c a s i o n a l s p e c i a l demon­
stra tio n s in t r a in in g soh ool
0
0 .0
2
1 5 .3
2
e.o
No method o f c o o r d i n a t i o n r e p o r t e d
Number o f o a s e s
27
13
40
27
TABLE IX
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF INSTITUTIONS US-NG DIFFERENT iViETHODS OF
COORDINATING THE VO RK OF DEPARTMENTS OR SCHOOLS OF EDUCATION
WITH THE WORK OF OFF-CAiiiPUS TRAIN NG SCHOOLS, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
Methoda o f
C o o rd in a tio n
S tate
T eaoh ers
C o lle g e s
!
Num­
ber
Share s u p e r v is io n o f
atu d en t te a o h in g in
t r a in i n g aohool bus­
in e s s su b jeots
No method o f o o o r d in a t i o n rep orted
P a r t i c ip a t e in the
form at i o n o f t r a i n ­
in g soh ool p o l i c i e s
r e l a t i v e t o b u sin e ss
su b jeo ts
A rra n g e f o r o o o a s i o n a l
and s p e o i a l demon­
s t r a t i o n s t a u g h t by
tr a in in g school
tea ch er
Teaoh one or more b u s i ­
n e s s su b je o ts in th e
tr a in in g school
Teaoh o o o a s i o n a l s p e ­
o i a l d e m o n s t r a t io n s
i n t r a in in g sohool
Teaoh r e g u l a r l y
s c h e d u l e d d em o n str a ­
t io n s in th e tr a in ­
in g soh ool
A rra n g e f o r r e g u l a r
d e m o n str a tio n s in th e
t r a in in g sohool
A s s is t in o r g a n iz a tio n
and s u p e r v i s i o n o f
e x p e r im e n ta tio n in
b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s in
t r a in i n g sohool
|
r
r
Number o f o a s e s
S tate
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r sitie s
Per
! Num­
Cent , ber
■
1!
P er
C en t
P riv a te
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r sitie s
T otal
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
9
4 7 .3
11
6 7 .8
5
3 8 .4
25
4 9 .0
8
4 2 .1
6
3 1 .5
3
2 3 .0
17
3 3 .3
4
2 1 .0
5
2 6 .3
4
3 0 .7
13
2 6 .4
0
0 .0
6
2 6 .3
2
1 5 .3
7
1 3 .7
1
6 .2
3
1 5 .7
2
1 5 .3
6
1 1 .7
2
1 0 .5
4
2 1 .0
0
0 .0
6
1 1 .7
3
1 5 .7
2
1 0 .6
0
0 .0
5
9 .6
1
5 .2
3
1 5 .7
0
0 .0
4
7 .8
2
1 0 .6
2
1 0 .5
0
0 .0
4
7 .0
19
19
13
61
oampus s o h o o l s by means o f s h a r i n g s u p e r v i s i o n o f s t u d e n t t e e o h i n g i n
tr a in in g sch o o l b u sin ess su b jeo ts*
T h i r t y - f i v e per oent o f th e i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s a t t e m p t t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e work o f t h e d e p a r tm e n ts o r s o h o o ls o f
e d u c a t i o n w i t h t h e w ork o f t h e oampus t r a i n i n g s o h o o l s by means o f
sh a rin g s u p e r v is io n o f stu d en t t e a c h in g in t r a in i n g so h o o l b u s in e s s
su b jeots.
C o o r d in a t io n o f t h e work o f t h e d e p a r tm e n ts or s o h o o l s o f
e d u c a t i o n w i t h th e work o f t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s i s
co m p le te ly la c k in g
m ost o f t e n i n t h e c a s e o f s t a t e t e a o h e r s o o l l e g e s , f o l l o w e d by s t a t e
o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s and p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i n
t h e o rd er named.
The p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s u s e o n l y fo u r m eth od s o f
c o o r d i n a t i o n w h i l e t h e o t h e r tw o t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s u s e a l l e i g h t
o f t h e m eth o d s l i s t e d
in th e o h e o k - l i s t f o r t h i s
study.
P r a o t l o e s i n t h e C o o r d i n a t i o n o f D ep a rtm en ts or S o h o o ls
o f Commerce w i t h t h e Work o f t h e T r a in in g S o h o o ls
A. co m p a riso n o f T a b le s X and XI shows t h e e x t e n t t o w h io h f a c u l t y
members o f d e p a r tm e n ts or s o h o o l s o f commerce a tt e m p t t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r
work w i t h t h a t o f t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
In 5 6 . 1
p er c e n t o f oampus s c h o o l s a t t e m p t s at c o o r d i n a t i o n are made i n one way
or a n o t h e r .
I n 4 1 . 7 p er c e n t o f t h e o f f - c a m p u s s o h o o l s a t t e m p t s a t
c o o r d i n a t i o n e r e made i n one way or a n o t h e r .
r a n k in g f i r s t f o r oampus s c h o o l s
i s t h e s h a r in g o f s u p e r v i s i o n o f s t u d e n t
tea o h in g in tr a in in g so h o o l b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s .
in off-cam p u s s o h o o ls .
The t y n e o f c o o r d i n a t i o n
T h is method ran k s seco n d
The t y p e o f c o o r d i n a t i o n r a n k in g f i r s t i n o f f -
oampus s c h o o l s i s t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f f a c u l t y members i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n
29
j
o f t r a i n i n g so h o o l p o l i c i e s r e l a t i v e t o b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s .
method ra n k s second i n t h e o a s e o f t h e oampus s o h o o l s .
T h is
I f th e
i n f o r m a t i o n o o n o ern in g c o o r d i n a t i o n i n o f f - o a m p u s s o h o o l s b y
t
p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s w ere o m i t t e d , s h a r i n g o f s u p e r ­
v i s i o n o f stu d e n t t e a o h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s w o u ld rank f i r s t
in b o t h i n s t a n c e s and t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y f a c u l t y members i n t h e
f o r m u l a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s r e l a t i v e t o t r a i n i n g s c h o o l b u s i n e s s sub­
j e c t s w o u ld rank s e c o n d .
A com p arison o f t h e two t a b l e s a l s o
shows t h a t
in ev e r y c a s e ,
t h e r e e r e more attempts c-t c o o r d i n ! : i o n i n t h e campus t r a i n i n g
t h a n i n t h e off-cam pus t r a i n i n g
sc h o o ls
sc h o o ls.
The p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s u s e o n l y tw o m e t h o d s o f
c o o r d l n e t i o n w h i l e t h e o t h e r two t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s
e i g h t w h ic h were in c l u d e d i n t h e o h e a k - l i s t f o r t h i s
use a l l o f th e
stu d y.
T h is
number i s l e s s than t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t m eth od s u s e d b y d e p a r t m e n t s
o f e d u o a t i o n of p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r p u r p o s e s o f
c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e work o f t h e s e d e p a r t m e n t s w i t h t h a t o f t h e t r a i n i n g
so h o o ls.
However, t h e r e are fe w e r p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s
i n v o l v e d than th e o t h e r two i n s t i t u t i o n a l t y p e s .
Some attem pt a t c o o r d i n a t i o n i n o f f- o a m p u s
s o h o o l s i s made m ost
o f t e n by f a c u l t y members o f d e p a r tm e n ts o f oommeroe i n t e a o h e r s o o l l e g e s
t h a n i n t h e s t a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s and i n p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and
u n iv e r sitie s.
This f a c t i s
shown when i t
i s r e p o r t e d t h a t no method o f
c o o r d i n a t i o n i s attem p ted b y 4 7 . 0 p er o e n t o f t h e
b y 5 5 . 6 p er c e n t of t h e s t a t e and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
t h e p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
s ta te teach ers c o lle g e s ,
and b y 7 6 . 9 p e r c e n t o f
Some a t t e m p t a t c o o r d i n a t i o n i n
30
oampus s o h o o l s i s made more o f t e n b y f a c u l t y members o f d e p a r t m e n t s o f
oommeroe i n t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s th a n i n s t a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
T h is f a c t i s
shown when i t
i s r e p o r t e d t h a t no method o f c o o r d i n a t i o n
I s a tte m p te d b y 3 2 , 1 per o e n t o f t h e s t a t e t e a c h e r s o o l l e g e s and by
6 9 , 2 per o e n t o f t h e s t a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
In fo r m a tio n
r e l a t i v e t o t h i s p o in t i s not a v a ila b le w ith regard to th e p r iv a t e
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
T h is s t a t e m e n t i s
i n agreem ent w i t h one
fou n d i n The n a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f t h e a d u o a t i o n o f T e a o h e r s s t a t i n g ,
" I n g e n e r a l , t h e i n d i c a t e d p r a c t i o e s o f c o o r d i n a t i o n w ere p erfo rm ed
b y t h e d i f f e r e n t o o l l e g e d e p a r t m e n t s more f r e q u e n t l y i n t e a c h e r s
o o l l e g e s and norm al s c h o o l s th a n i n u n i v e r s i t i e s . " l
iiem bers o f oommeroe d e p a r tm e n t f a c u l t i e s i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l g e s
attem pt t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e w ork o f t h e i r d e p a r tm e n ts w i t h t h a t o f t h e
t r a i n i n g s o h o o l s b y means o f d e m o n s t r a t io n s o f v a r i o u s s o r t s t o
a
s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r e x t e n t th a n i s t h e e a s e f o r oommeroe d e p a r t m e n ts i n
s t a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
kem bers o f commerce d e p a r tm e n t f a c u l t i e s
in s t a t e te a c h e r s c o l l e g e s
a tte m p t t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e work o f t h e i r d e p a r tm e n ts w i t h t h a t o f t h e
t r a i n i n g s o h o o l s b y means o f a s s i s t i n g i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and s u p e r v i o f e x p e rim e n ta tio n in b u sin e ss su b je o ts t o a s l i g h t l y g r e a te r e x te n t
t h a n i s t h e c a s e f o r commerce d e p a r tm e n ts i n s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r a itie s.
Commerce d e p a r tm e n t s i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s make
no a tte m p t a t c o o r d i n a t i o n by means o f s u p e r v i s i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f
1 . F . K. F o s t e r , o p . o i t , , p . 3 9 1 .
31
r e s e a r c h i n o ff-o a m p u s s c h o o ls *
in f o r m a t io n i s
I n t h i s ty p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n , no
a v a i l a b l e r e l a t i v e t o t h i s method i n oampus s o h o o ls *
A c o m p a r is o n o f T a b le s V I I I , IX , X , and XI w i l l
show t h a t d e ­
p a r t m e n t s or s c h o o l s o f e d u o & tio n a tte m p t t o p r o v i d e some method o f
c o o r d i n a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e c o l l e g e d e p a r tm e n ts and t h e t r a i n i n g s o h o o l s
to
a g r e a t e r e x t e n t th e n i s t r u e o f d ep a rtm en ts o r s o h o o l s o f commerce.
A co m p a r is o n o f t h e same t a b l e s shows t h a t i n t h e c a s e o f s h a r in g
s u p e r v i s i o n o f stu d e n t t e a o h in g in b u sin e ss s u b j e o t s , departm ents o f
e d u c a t i o n te n d t o a tte m p t s l i g h t l y more c o o r d i n a t i o n i n t h i s r e s p e c t th a n
d o d e p a r tm e n ts or s c h o o l s o f oommeroe*
The same s t a t e m e n t a p p l i e s t o t h e
c a s e o f c o o r d i n a t i n g by means o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n o f e x p e r i ­
m e n ta tio n in b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s .
In the c a se o f d e m o n s tr a tio n , s c h o o ls
o f oommeroe t e n d t o e m p h a siz e t h i s method o f c o o r d i n a t i o n t o a s l i g h t l y
g r e a t e r d e g r e e t h a n do t h e s o h o o l s or d e p a r tm e n ts o f e d u c a t io n *
B u s i n e s s S u b j e o t s O ff e r e d Whioh May be Taught b y S t u d e n t T e a o h e r s
T a b le X II shows t h e b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s w hioh a re o f f e r e d
campus and o ff-o a m p u s t r a i n i n g s o h o o l s .
F i r s t - y e a r t y p e w r i t i n g i s by
f a r t h e m o st p o p u la r s u b j e c t o f f e r e d i n t h e s e s o h o o l s .
It is
i n 7 2 , o r 9 8 . 6 p er o e n t , o f t h e 73 i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t i n g
o ffe r in g s.
i n b o th
o ffered
su b ject
F i r s t - y e a r sh o r th a n d ra n k s second w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f 5 9 ,
o r 8 0 . 0 p e r o e n t , and f i r s t - y e a r b o o k k e ep in g ra n k s a c l o s e t h i r d w it h
57,
or 7 8 . 0 p e r o e n t .
c ile m e n t e r y b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g and s e c o n d - y e a r
t y p e w r i t i n g rank f o u r t h , e a c h b ein g o f f e r e d i n 4 b , or 6 3 , 0 p er o e n t ,
o f t h e 73 i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t i n g o f f e r i n g s i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
one oth er s u b j e c t , seco n d -y ea r ty p e w r it in g , i s
h a lf o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
o ffered
Only
i n more th a n o n e-
I t i s o f f e r e d i n 4 6 , or 61*6 p er c e n t , o f t h e
i
i
32
73 s o h o o ls r e p o r t i n g o f f e r i n g ! i n b u s in e s s s u b j e o t s .
I n g e n e r a l , t h e s e f i n d i n g s are i n o lo s e a greem en t w i t h a
s t u d y made o f b u s i n e s s e d u o a t i o n o f f e r i n g s i n t h e s m a ll h i g h s c h o o l s
o f t h e U n ited S t a t e s d u r i n g t h e s o h o o l year o f 1 9 3 6 -1 9 3 7 *
In th at
s t u d y , C o lv in found t h a t t y p e w r i t i n g was the m o st p o p u la r o o u r s e ,
f o ll o w e d by b o o k k e e p i n g ,
s h o r t h a n d , ju M or b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g ,
b u s i n e s s a r i t h m e t i c i n t h e o rd er named.^
and
The v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e p e r ­
c e n t a g e s r e p o r t e d h e r e and in t h e on es rep orted b y C o lv in a r e v e r y
s l i g h t i n ea oh c a s e .
m e tic .
The g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e i s
C o lv in r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i s
in b u sin ess a rith ­
s u b je c t was o f f e r e d i n 5 6 p er c e n t o f
t h e sm all h ig h s c h o o l s , w h i l e T a b le XII shows t h a t i t i s
o ffe r e d in 4 3 .8
p er c e n t o f t h e t r a i n i n g s o h o o l s u sed fo r p u r p o s e s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g
in b u sin ess s u b je c ts .
B u s in e s s la w , s e c r e t a r i a l o f f i o e p r a c t i c e , eoonom lo g e o g r a p h y ,
b u s i n e s s E n g l i s h , r e t a i l s e l l i n g , and c l e r i c a l o f f i o e p r a c t i c e ran k
n e x t i n t h e order nam ed.
T h ese s i x cou rses have p e r c e n t r a n k i n g s o f
b etw een 16 and 40 p e r o e n t .
Advanced b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g , m e r o h a n d i s i n g ,
;
f i l i n g , oonsumer e d u o a t i o n , eo o n o ro ics, and p en m anship, a r e e a c h o f f e r e d
i n few er t h a n t e n p er o e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t i n g
on t h i s p o i n t .
The l a s t t h r e e , oonsum er e d u o a t i o n , eco n om ics, >nd penm anship w ere
r e p o r t e d a s b e in g s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d but not l i s t e d
on t h e c p j e s t i o n n a i r e .
Table XII a l s o sh o w s t h a t s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s may have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y
t o s e l e c t more s u b j e c t s i f t h e y a r e e n r o lle d i n p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and
u n i v e r s i t i e s th a n t h e y may i f t h e y are e n r o l le d i n t h e o t h e r two
1 . A* 0 . C o l v i n , A Summary of B u s i n e s s E duoation i n A C r o s s S e c t i o n o f The
S m aller h ig h S o h o o l s o f t h e U nited S t a t e s , 1 9 3 6 - 1 9 3 7 , The N a t i o n a l
B u s in e s s E d u c a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , V (March, 1 9 3 7 ) , p p . 3 2 - 3 3 .
33
TABLE X
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF INSTITUTIONS USING DIFFERENT METHODS OF
COORDINATING THE 710RK OF COMMERCE DEPARTMENTS WITH THE 7fQRK OF
THE CAMPUS TRAINING SCHOOLS, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
S ta te
T eaohers
C o lle g e s
M ethods o f
C o o r d in a t io n
T otal
S tate
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r sitie s
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
17
6 0 .7
3
2 3 .0
20
4 8 .7
9
3 2 .1
9
6 9 .2
18
4 3 .9
11
3 9 .2
5
3 8 .4
16
3 9 .0
Teaoh o c c a s i o n a l s p e o i a l dem­
o n s t r a t io n s in the t r a i n i n g
sohool
7
2 5 .0
1
7 .6
8
1 9 .6
Arrange f o r o o o a s i o n a l ond
s p e o ia l d em o n str a tio n s ta u g h t
by t r a i n i n g s o h o o l t e a c h e r
6
2 1 .4
2
1 5 .3
8
1 9 .5
Arrange f o r r e g u l a r d e m o n str a ­
t i o n s in t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l
3
1 0 .7
4
3 0 .7
7
1 7 .0
S h are s u p e r v i s i o n o f s t u d e n t
tea o h in g i n t r a in in g so h o o l
b u sin ess su b jeo ts
No method o f c o o r d i n a t i o n
rep orted
P a r t i o i p e t e i n th e f o r m a t io n o f
tr a in in g sohool p o l i c i e s r e la ­
t iv e t o b u sin e ss s u b je c ts
A s s i s t i n o r g a n i z a t i o n and s u p e r ­
v i s i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t a t io n i n
b u sin e ss su b jeo ts in th e
tr a in in g sch ool
5
1 7 .6
1
7 .6
6
1 4 .6
Teaoh r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u le d demon­
s t r a t i o n s in t r a in in g soh ool
3
1 0 ,7
1
7 .6
4
9 .7
Number o f c a s e s
28
13
n i.r tx c
41
34
TABLE XI
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF INSTITUTIONS USING DIFFERENT METHODS OF
COORDINATING THE WORK OF COMMERCE DEPARTMENTS VII.TH THE WORK OF
THE OFF-CAMPUS TRAINING SCHOOLS, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
Methods o f
C o o r d in a t io n
State
Teaohers
C o lle g e s
Num­
ber
Number o f o a s e s
No method o f c o o r ­
d in a tio n rep orted
P a r tic ip a te in th e
fo rm u la tio n o f
tr a in in g sohool
p o lic ie s r e la tiv e
to b u sin ess
Share s u p e r v i s i o n o f
stu d en t te a c h in g
in tr a in in g school
b u sin ess s u b j e c t s
Teach one or more
b u sin e ss c la s s e s
in th e tr a in in g
school
Arrange f o r r e g u l a r
d e m o n s t r a t io n s i n
th e tr a in in g sch o o l
Arrange f o r o c c a s i o n a l
d e m o n s t r a t io n s i n
the t r a in in g sc h o o l
Teach o o o a s i o n a l
s p e o i a l d e m o n s tr a ­
t i o n s in t r a i n i n g
scnool
A s s is t in o r g a n iz a ­
t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n
o f ex p erim en ta tio n in
b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s in
the t r a in in g so h o o l
Teach r e g u l a r l y
so h ed u led demon­
str a tio n s in t r a in ­
in g s o h o o l
Per
Cent
17
S ta te
C o lle g e s
and U ni­
v e r sitie s
Pr i v a t e
C o lle g es
and Uni­
v e r sitie s
Num­
ber
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
18
Per
Cent
T o ta l
Num­ P e r
ber C ent
48
13
8
4 7 .0
10
5 5 .5
10
7 6 .9
28
5 8 .3 3
6
3 5 .2
4
2 2 .2
3
2 3 .0
13
2 7 .0
9
5 2 .9
3
1 6 .6
0
0*0
12
2 6 .0
4
2 3 .5
3
1 6 .6
0
0 .0
7
1 4 .6
4
2 3 .6
3
1 6 .6
0
0 .0
7
1 4 .5
3
1 7 .6
3
1 6 .6
1
7 .6
7
1 4 .5
4
2 3 .6
2
1 1 .1
0
0 .0
6
1 2 .5
3
1 7 .6
1
5 .5
0
0 .0
4
8 .3
2
1 1 .7
1
5 .5
0
0 .0
3
6 .2
35
TABLE X II
NUMBER AND fJSK CENT OF INSTITUTIONS OFFERING BUSINESS SUBJECTS TAUGHT
BY STUDENT TEACHERS IN EITHER CAMPUS OR OFF-CAMPUS TRAINING SCHOOLS
1938-1939
S tate
T ea ch ers
C o lle g e s
S ta te
C o lle g e s
and U ni­
v e r sitie s
S u b je c t
F ir s t-y e a r ty p e w r it­
in g
S eco n d -y ea r
ty p e w r itin g
F i r s t - y e a r shorthand
Second-Y ear shorthand
F i r s t - y e a r b ook keep in g
S e c o n d -y e a r bookkeep­
in g
E le m en ta r y b u s i n e s s
tr a in in g
B u s in e s s a r i t h m e t i c
B u s i n e s s Law
S e c r e ta r ia l o f f ic e
p r a o tio e
Economlo geography
B u s i n e s s E n g li s h
R e ta il s e llin g
C le r ic a l o ffic e
p r a c tic e
Advanced b u s i n e s s
tr a in in g
M erch an d isin g
F ilin g
Consumer e d u c a t io n *
Economics*
Penmanship*
Based on r e p o r t s from
* F i lle d in
P r iv a t e
C o lle g e s
and Uni­
v e r sitie s
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
T o ta l
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
35
9 5 .6
27
1 0 0 .0
9
1 0 0 .0
72
9 8 .6
17
26
17
28
4 5 .9
7 0 .2
4 5 .9
7 5 .7
20
24
19
20
7 4 .0
3 8 .8
7 0 .3
7 4 .0
9
9
9
9
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 ,0
46
59
45
57
6 3 .0
8 0 .0
6 1 .6
7 6 .0
8
2 1 .6
7
2 5 .9
7
7 7 .7
22
3 0 .1
28
20
16
7 5 .7
5 4 .0
4 3 .2
11
6
5
4 0 .7
2 2 .2
1 8 .5
7
6
0
7 7 .7
6 6 .6
6 8 .8
46
32
29
6 3 .0
43*8
3 9 .7
9
2 4 .3
5
1 8 .5
8
8 8 .8
22
3 0 .1
6
5
1 6 .2
1 3 .4
1 3 .5
7
4
2
2 5 .9
1 4 .8
7 .4
8
6
5
8 8 .8
6 6 .6
5 5 .5
21
16
12
2 8 .7
2 0 .5
1 6 .4
5
1 3 .5
2
7 .4
4
4 4 .4
11
1 5 .0
1
2 .7
3
1 1 .1
3
3 3 .3
7
9 .5
3
1
1
8 .1
2 .7
2 .7
5 .4
2 .7
0
0
2
0
0
0 .0
0 .0
7 .4
0 .0
0 .0
2
4
0
0
0
2 2 ,2
4 4 .4
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
5
5
3
2
1
6 .8
6 .8
4 .1
2 .6
1 .3
1 5
1
37
27
9
73
36
c l a s s i f i o a t i o n s o f e d u c a tio n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .
t r a i n i n g , m e r c h a n d is in g , f i l i n g ,
Advanced b u s i n e s s
end c l e r i c a l o f f i o e p r a c t i c e a r e
s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d i n fe w e r t h a n 5 5 per c e n t o f t h e p r i v e t e c o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s *
T h is may be e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t most o f
t h e p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s u s e many p u b l i o s c h o o l s f o r
p u rp oses o f stu d en t tea ch in g
c itie s.
in b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s i n t h e l a r g e r
I n a l l t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , f i r s t and
s e c o n d - y e a r t y p e w r i t i n g , s h o r t h a n d , and b o o k k e e p in g a r e o f f e r e d i n
th e tr a in in g so h o o ls.
B u s in e s s la w , s e c r e t a r i a l o f f i c e p r a c t i o e ,
and eco n o m ic g e o g r a p h y are o f f e r e d b y 8 3 . 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r i v a t e
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
E le m e n ta r y b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g , and s e c o n d -
y e a r b oo k k e ep in g a r e o f f e r e d i n t h e t r a i n i n g s o h o o l s o f 7 7 . 7 p er o e n t
o f t h e p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
B u s i n e s s a r i t h m e t i c and
b u s i n e s s E n g l i s h a r e o f f e r e d i n P 6 .6 per c e n t o f t h e t r a i n i n g
sc h o o ls
o f p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
I n t h e s t a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s , f i v e s u b j e c t s a re o f f e r e d
i n t h e t r a i n i n g s o h o o l s o f more t h a n 50 p er c e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
These f i v e
su b jects,
i n t h e o rd er o f t h e i r f r e q u e n c i e s ,
are f i r s t -
y e a r t y p e w r i t i n g , f i r s t - y e a r s h o r t h a n d , f i r s t - y e a r b o o k k e e p in g ,
year ty p e w r itin g ,
and s e c o n d - y e a r s h o r t h a n d .
second-
A ll o f th e s e f i v e su b je o ts
a r e o f f e r e d b y a t l e a s t 7 4 . 0 p er o e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
E le m e n ta r y
b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g i s o f f e r e d by 4 0 . 7 p e r o e n t o f t h e s t a t e c o l l e g e s and
u n iv e r sitie s,
and s e o o n d - y e a r b oo k k e ep in g and eo on o m io g e o g r a p h y are e a c h
o f f e r e d b y 2 5 . 9 p er c e n t o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
I n th e s ta te te a c h e r s o o ll e g e s , f i v e s u b je o ts are o ffered in th e
t r a i n i n g s o h o o l s o f more th a n 5 0 . 0 per o e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
These
f i v e s u b j e o t s a re f i r s t - y e a r t y p e w r i t i n g , f i r s t - y e a r b o o k k e e p in g , f i r s t -
37
yetr
s h o r t h a n d , e l e m e n t r r y b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g t,nd b u s i n e s s a r i t h m e t i c .
A l l o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f b u s i n e s s a r i t h m e t i c are
o ffered
oy a t l e a s t . 7 0 . 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e
business
a r ith m etic i s o f f e r e d
o o lle g e s.
tu tio n s.
B u s i n e s s law i s
st.-te te a c h e r s c o lle g e s ,
by 5 4 . 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t a t e t e a c h e r s
o ff e r e d by 4 3 .2 p e r cen t o f t h e s e i n s t i ­
The o t h e r t w e l v e s u b j e o t s a re o f f e r e d by f e w e r t h a n £ 5 . 0 p e r
cent of th e s ta te tea ch er s o o ll e g e s .
W ith regard t o i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s , t h e r e a re e number o f p o i n t s
w hich a r e d i s c e r n i b l e from a s t u d y o f 'fa b le X I I .
In th e f i r s t p la c e ,
t h e p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s and t h e s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i ­
v e r s i t i e s te n d t o e m p h a s is e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e o t s , t y p e w r i t i n g and
sh orthan d as a seo o n d -y e & r o o u r s e t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n do t h e
sta te teaoh ers c o lle g e s .
Fewer t h a n h a l f o f t h e l a t t e r t y p e o f i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s o f f e r a seco n d y e a r o f t y p e w r i t i n g and s h o r t h a n d .
In th e c a se
o f t h e p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , t h i s may be e x p l a i n e d by t h e
f a c t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s o f t h e i r t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s may be a b l e t o s e c u r e
p o s i t i o n s i n b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n t h o s e in t h e
tr a in in g
sc h o o ls o f th e s t a t e te a c h e r s o o l l e g e s .
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e l o c a t e d
As m ost o f t h e p r i v a t e
i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , i t would
seem t h a t t r a i n i n g s o h o o l p u p i l s w ould have more o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a p p ly f o r
suoh p o s i t i o n s w i t h o u t h a v in g t o l e a v e home.
a p p ly t o
located
T h is same e x p l a n a t i o n may
some o f t h e s t a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e
in th e la r g e r c i t i e s
o f th e v a rio u s s t a t e s .
A noth er p o s s i b l e
e x p la n a tio n o f t h i s f a c t i s t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y la r g e r p ercen ta g e o f th e
a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e t r a i n i n g s s o h o o l s o f t h e p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and
39
u n iv e r sitie s
and i n t h e s t a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a n a d m i n i s ­
t r a t o r s i n t h e t r a i n i n g s o h o o ls o f t h e s t a t e t e a o h e r s c o l l e g e s may
e m p h a s iz e a v o c a t i o n a l b u s i n e s s e d u o a t io n p h ilo s o p h y r a t h e r t h a n o n e
w h ic h e m p h a s i z e s p e r s o n a l use and s o c i a l v a lu e s *
S e c o n d l y , b o o k k e e p in g
i s more o f t e n r e g a r d e d a s a o n e-y ea r s u b j e c t i n t h e s t a t e t e a c h e r s
and s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s *
su b jects,
o o lle g e s
In th e th ir d p la c e , tn e t e c h n i c a l
s e c r e t a r i a l o f f i c e p r a c t i c e and c l e r i c a l o f f i c e p r a c t i o e ,
n o t g i v e n much e m p h a s is i n many o f t h e I n s t i t u t i o n s .
F ou rth , i n s p i t e
t h e e m p h a s i s w h i c h h a s b e e n p la c e d on t r a i n i n g fo r t h e d i s t r i b u t i v e
tio n s
in b u s in e s s ed u o a tio n 's p r o fe s s io n a l lit e r a t u r e
in th e l a s t
t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s do n o t p r o v i d e , i n many o a s e s ,
for th e tr a in in g
are
of
occupa­
few y e a r s ,
•p r o v isio n s
o f fu tu r e tea o h ers of th e s e s u b je c ts*
B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s O ffer ed i n Campus T r a in in g S c h o o l s
T a b le X I I I shows t h e number and p e r oen t o f s t a t e t e a c h e r s o o l l e g e s
and s t a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s o f f e r i n g b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s w h ic h may be t a u g h t by
stu d en t te a c h e r s
i n campus t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s ,
i n f o r m a t io n r e l a t i v e
p o i n t from t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i s n o t a v a i l a b l e *
t y p i c a l oampus t r a i n i n g
to th is
The
s o h o o l c u r r ic u lu m o f f e r e d by t h e s t a t e t e a c h e r s
o o l l e g e s , a s e v i d e n c e d by o f f e r i n g s i n more th a n 5 0 . 0 per c e n t
of th e
in s titu tio n s,
fir s t-
is
f i r s t - y e a r ty p e w r itin g , f i r s t - y e a r shorthand,
y e a r b o o k k e e p i n g , and e le m e n t a r y b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g .
On t h e same b a s i s , t h e
t y p i c a l o u r r l o u l u m i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s i n s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
is
fir st-y e a r
s h o r t h a n d , s e co n d -y ea r s h o r th a n d , f i r s t - y e a r t y p e w r i t i n g ,
s e c o n d - y e a r t y p e w r i t i n g , and f i r s t - y e a r b oo k k eep in g .
shows t h a t more s t r e s s
C o m p a r a tiv ely , t h i s
i s placed on s e o o n d -y e a r b o o k k e ep in g I n t h e
o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s th a n in the s t - i t e t e t o h e r s o o l l e g e s .
same t i m e ,
le ss
sta te
At t h e
s t r e s s i s plaoed on e le m e n t a r y b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g i n t h e
39
s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a n i n t h e s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s .
A g a i n , as r e p o r t e d on page 37 , t h i s shows e p o l i o y t e n d i n g t o f a v o r
v o c a t i o n a l b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n r a t h e r th a n b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n f o r
p e r s o n a l u s e and s o c i a l v a l u e s i n th e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s o f t h e s t a t e
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
S t a t i n g t h i s a n o th er w a y , i t may b e s a id
t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l c u r r i c u lu m i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s i n s t a t e
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s t e n d s t o be s l i g h t l y more " t r a d i t i o n a l "
th an in s ta te tea ch ers c o lle g e s .
a tr a d itio n a l
However, b u s i n e s s a r i t h m e t i c , lo n g
s u b j e c t i n t h e co m m ercia l c u r r i c u lu m , i s t a u g h t i n 4 3 . 3
p e r c e n t o f t h e s t a t e t e a o h e r s c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s w h i l e no s t a t e
c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y r e p o r t s t h i s
s u b j e c t a s one o f i t s campus t r a i n i n g
sch ool o ffe r in g s .
B u s in e s s S u b j e c t s O ffe r e d i n Off-Campus T r a i n i n g S c h o o ls
T a b le XIV shows t h e number and per c e n t o f t h e t h r e e t y r e s o f
i n s t i t u t i o n * w h ich o f f e r c e r t a i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s i n o f f - c e m p u s t r a i n i n g
so h o o ls.
As e v i d e n c e d by o f f e r i n g s i n more th a n 5 0 . 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e
i n s t i t u t i o n s , tn e t y p i c a l c u r r i c u la of th e p r iv a te c o l l e g e
tr a in in g sc h o o ls c o n s is t s of t h ir t e e n su b jects*
not o ffered
The s u b j e c t s w h ic h a re
in at l e a s t 5 0 .0 per cen t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o ls
ere c l e r ic a l o f f ic e p r a c tic e ,
filin g ,
and u n i v e r s i t y
advanced b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g , m e r c h a n d i s i n g ,
consum er e d u c a t i o n , e c o n o m ic s , and p en m a n sh ip .
The l a s t t h r e e
s u b j e c t s w e r e n o t p r i n t e d on t h e c h e c k s h e e t but w ere f i l l e d
in b y repre­
s e n t a t i v e s o f some i n s t i t u t i o n s *
The t y p i o a l c u r r ic u lu m i n o ff-c a m p u s s c h o o l s as b a s e d on o f f e r i n g s
o f 5 0 . 0 p e r c e n t or more t h e s u b j e c t s b e i n g o f f e r e d i n t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l *
o f s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i s f i r s t - y e a r t y p e w r i t i n g , s e o o n d -y e a r
40
TABLE X I I I
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES AND STATE UNIVER­
SITIES OFFERING BUSINESS SUBJECTS 1ITHICH ARE TAUGHT BY STUDENT
TEACHERS IN CAMPUS TRAINING SCHOOLS, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
S tate
C o lle g e s
and Uni­
v e r sitie s
S tate
T ea o h ers
C o lle g e s
Su bject
Number
Per C ent
1 0 0 .0
6 1 .5
6 9 .2
6 1 .5
5 3 .8
1 6 .6
5 3 .3
4 3 .3
2 3 .3
1 3 .3
1
2
0
1
1
7 .6
1 5 .3
0 .0
7 .6
7 .6
3
2
1
1
1
1 0 .0
6 .6
3 .3
3 .3
3 .3
1
0
0
1
2
7 .6
0 .0
0 .0
7 .6
1 5 .3
1
1
1
1
1
3 .3
3 .3
3 .3
3 .3
3 .3
0
0
1
0
0
0 .0
0 .0
7 .6
0 .0
0 .0
27
11
20
8
18
9 0 .0
36* 66
6 6 .6 6
2 6 .6 6
6 0 .0
S e c o n d - y e a r b o o k k e e p in g
E le m e n t a r y b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g
B u sin e ss a r ith m e tic
B u s i n e s s law
S e c r e ta r ia l o f f ic e p r a c tic e
5
16
13
7
4
Econom io g e o g r a p h y
B u sin e ss E n g lish
R e ta il s e llin g
C le r ic a l o f f i c e p r a c tic e
Advanced b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g
M e r c h a n d is in g
F ilin g
Consumer e d u c a t io n * 1
E con om ics*
Penmanship*
t-i ■ ;■■■. i i
♦ F ille d
In
30
t-sss
P er C en t
13
8
9
8
7
F ir s t-y e a r ty p e w r itin g
Secon d -year ty p e w r itin g
F i r s t - y e a r a h orth an d
S e c o n d - y e a r ahorthand
F i r a t - y e a r b o o k k e ep in g
Number o f c a s e s
Number
13
41
TABLE XIV
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF INSTITUTIONS OFFERING BUSINESS SUBJECT JTrilCH
ARE TAUGHT BX STUDENT TEACHERS IN OFF-CAHPUS TRAINING SCHOOLS
1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
S tate
Teachers
C o lle g e s
S u bject
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
F ir s t- y e a r ty p e w r itin g
S econ d -year t y p e w r itin g
F i r a t - y e a r sh orthan d
S e c o n d - y e a r s h o r th a n d
F i r a t - y e a r b o o k k e e p in g
11
5
10
8
9
6 4 .7
2 9 .4
5 8 .6
4 7 .0
5 2 .9
13
13
13
11
13
S e c o n d - y e a r b o o k k e e p in g
E le m e n t a r y b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g
B u sin e ss a r ith m e tic
B u s i n e s s la w
S e c r e t a r ia l o f f i c e p ra o tio e
3
13
8
9
5
1 7 .6
7 6 .4
4 7 .0
5 2 .9
2 9 .4
Eoonomio g e o g r a p h y
B u sin e ss E n g lish
R e ta il s e llin g
C le r ic a l o f f i c e p r a c tic e
Advanced b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g
3
3
4
4
1
M erch a n d isin g
F ilin g
Consumer e d u c a t i o n *
E oon om ios*
Penm anship*
2
1
0
0
0
Number o f o a s e s
*
F ille d
in
17
P riv a te
C o lle g e s
and U n iv e r sitie a
S tate
C o lle g e s
end Uni­
v e r sitie s
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
8 4 .6
1 0 0 .0
9
9
9
9
9
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
6
9
6
3
3
4 6 .1
6 9 .2
4 6 .1
2 3 .0
2 3 .0
7
7
6
8
8
7 7 .7
7 7 ,7
6 6 .6
8 8 .8
8 8 .8
1 7 .6
1 7 .6
2 3 .5
2 3 .5
5 .8
5
4
1
1
1
3 8 .4
3 0 .7
7 .6
7 .6
7 .6
8
6
5
4
3
8 8 .8
6 6 .6
5 5 .5
4 4 .4
3 3 .3
1 1 .7
6 .8
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0
0
1
0
0
0 .0
0 .0
7 .6
0 .0
0 .0
2
4
0
0
0
2 2 ,2
4 4 .4
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
13
Per
Cent
9
42
ty p e w r itin g , f ir s t - y e a r
B h o rth a n d , s e o o n d -y e a r a h o r t h a n d , f i r s t - y e a r
b o o k k e e p in g , and e l e m e n t a r y b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g .
T h is t y p i c a l c u r r i c u l u m
i s t h e same as t h a t f o r t h e campus s c h o o l s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t e le m e n t a r y b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g h a s b een added i n t h i s
in sta n c e .
The t y p i c a l c u r r i o u l u m i n o f f - c a m p u s s c h o o l s o f s t a t e t e a c h e r s
c o lle g e s c o n s is ts o f f ir s t - y e a r ty p e w r itin g , f ir s t - y e a r
year b o o k k e e p in g , e l e m e n t a r y b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g ,
t y p i c a l c u r r io u lu m i s t h e
sh orthan d , f i r s t -
and b u s i n e s s la w .
T h is
same as t h a t f o r t h e campus s c h o o l s w i t h t h e
e x o e p t i o n t h a t e l e m e n t a r y b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g h a s b een added i n t h i s i n ­
stan ce.
S e v e n t e e n d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s are m e n tio n e d as b e i n g o f f e r e d i n t h e
off-cam pus t r a i n i n g s c h o o ls o f s t a t e te a o h e r s c o l l e g e s *
m en tio n ed by s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
by p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s
s ix t e e n are
and s e v e n t e e n are m e n tio n e d
and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
S ize o f C la sses in B u s in e s s S u b je c ts in T ra in in g S ch o o ls
.R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s f i l l i n g
i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere
asked t o g i v e t h e e n r o l l m e n t s i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s w hich w ere t a u g h t b y
student te a o h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s .
Table XV shows m ed ian c l a s s s i z e s
f o r t h e v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s i n campus end o f f -c a m p u s s c h o o l s o f s t a t e t e a c h e r s
c o l l e g e s , and s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
and t h e m ed ian c l a s s s i z e In
o ff-c a m p u s t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s o f p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
F acts
shown i n t h e t a b l e i n d l o a t e t h a t t h e s i z e o f o l a s s e s are l a r g e r i n o f f campus t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s o f p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s th a n i n t h e
o th e r t y p e s o f t r a i n ' n g s c h o o l s .
fo r t h i s type o f t r a i n i n g
teaoh ers o o lle g e s ,
T h i r t y i s r e p o r t e d as b e in g th e m edian
school o la s s .
O ff-oam p u s s c h o o l s o f s t a t e
o f f -o a m p u s s c h o o l s o f s t a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
43.
TABLE XV
MEDIAN c l a ss s i z e of b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s taught b y student teachers
IN CAMTUS AND OFF-CAKFUS TRAINING SCHOOLS, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
S tate
Teachers
C o lle g es
S ubject
S tate
C o lle g e s
and U ni­
v e r sitie s
P riv a te
C o lle g e s
and U ni­
v e r sitie s
Campus
S c h o o ls
O ffCampus
S c h o o ls
F ir s t- y e a r ty p e w r itin g
20
26
1 8 .5
30
30
S econ d -year ty p e w r itin g
15
30
12
2 2 .5
30
F i r s t - y e a r s h o rth a n d
14
25
20
26
30
20
1 0 .5
19
30
2 4 .5
20
25
30
S e o o n d - y e a r sh o rth a n d
F i r s t - y e a r b o o k k e e p in g
9 .5
15
S e o o n d - y e a r b o o k k e e p in g
Campus O f f S c h o o l s Campus
S c h o o ls
O ffCampus
S ch o o ls
8
34
X
1 6 .5
30
E lo m e n t a r y b u s i n e s s
tr a in in g
15
30
X
2 6 .5
35
B u sin ess a r ith m e tic
28
25
X
30
3 2 .5
B u s i n e s s law
20
25
X
30
30
2 7 .5
X
20
30
29
X
34
30
2 3 .5
30
S e c r e ta r ia l o ffic e
p r a c tic e
E con om ic g e o g r e p h y
X
45
B u sin e ss E n g lish
X
X
X
R e ta il s e llin g
X
33
X
X
30
C le r ic a l o f f i c e p r a c tio e
X
20
X
X
30
Advanoed b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g
X
X
X
X
30
M e r c h a n d is in g
X
3 6 .6
X
X
X
F ilin g
X
X
X
X
M edian o f t h e ab ov e m edians
15
2 7 .5
1 6 .5
25
2 8 .7
30
44
campus s c h o o l s o f s t a t e o o l l e g e s
end u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
and oampus s c h o o ls
o f s t a t e t e a c h e r s o o l l e g e s rank n e x t I n t h e o r d e r nam ed.
Medians f o r
t h e s e f o u r t y p e s o f t r a i n i n g s o h o o l s a r e 2 7 . 6 , 2 5 , 1 8 , 5 , and 15
r e sp e c tiv e ly .
The c l a s s
s i z e i n o f f -o a m p u s s o h o o l s i s
oampus s o h o o l s .
l a r g e r t h a n t h a t o f th e
T h is i s t o be e x p e o t e d as t h e off-o& m pus s c h o o l s a r e ,
i n m ost i n s t a n c e s , p u b lic
d e p r e s s i o n has t e n d e d t o
so h o o ls
s u p p o r t e d by p u b l l o t a x e s .
in o re a se t h e s i z e o f th e c l a s s e s in th e se
s o h o o l s or t o a t l e a s t p r e v e n t r e d u c t i o n s i n s i z e .
c h a r g e d i n many o f t h e oampus s c h o o l s .
A tu itio n fee is
T h e s e two f a c t o r s combined
e x p l a i n a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y why t h e o l a s s
is
The
siz e
i n t h e o ff-o a m p u s s o h o o ls
l a r g e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e campus s o h o o l s .
The two c l a s s e s w h ioh have t h e l a r g e s t m ed ian o l a s s s i z e s i n
oampus t r a i n i n g
raphy
s c h o o l s o f s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s a r e econom ic geog­
‘ nd b u s i n e s s a r i t h m e t i c .
45 and 28 r e s p e c t i v e l y .
s iz e s
The m ed ia n s i n t h e s e two c a s e s are
The two c l a s s e s w h io h have t h e l a r g e s t c l a s s
in off-cam p u s t r a in i n g
s o h o o l s o f s t a t e t e a o h e r s c o l l e g e s are
m e r c h a n d is in g and s e c o n d - y e a r b o o k k e e p i n g .
c a s e s a re 36*5 and 34 r e s p e c t i v e l y .
The tw o c l a s s e s w hich have th e
l p r g e s t o l a s s s i z e s i n oampus t r a i n i n g
u n i v e r s i t i e s are f i r s t - y e a r
u n iv e r sitie s
;
j.
V
a
I
*
i.
20.
s i z e in o ff-oam p us t r a i n i n g
is
ec o n o m ic g e o g r a p h y *
F ir s t-y e a r ty p e w r itin g , b u sin e ss
m e d ia n o l a s s s i z e
[
s o h o o l s o f s t a t e o o l l e g e s and
s h o r t h a n d and f i r s t - ^ r e a r b o o k k e e p in g .
m ed ia n i n e a c h o f t h e s e tw o o a s e s i s
la r g e st c la ss
The m ed ia n s in t h e s e two
The o l a s s w hioh has t h e
s o h o o l s o f s t a t e c o l l e g e s and
The m ed ia n f o r t h i s o l a s s i s 34*
a r ith m e tic ,
and b u s i n e s s law ea ch have a
o f 30 in t h i s ty p e o f t r a in in g
w h io h have t h e l a r g e s t s i z e s
The
sc h o o l.
in off-oam p u s t r a in in g
The two c l a s s e s
sc h o o ls o f p riv a te
45
o o l l e g e s end u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e s e o o n d - y e a r b o o k k e e p in g and b u s i n e s s
a rith m etio .
The m e d ia n s in t h e s e tw o c a s e s a re 3 7 . 6 and 3 2 . 5 r e s ­
p ectiv e ly .
F a c t s in t h e t w o p r e o e d i n g
p a r a g r a p h s show t h a t c l a s s e s i n
b u s i n e s s a r i t h m e t i c , eco n o m ic g e o g r a p h y ,
tend t o be th e l a r g e s t c l a s s e s
in g s o h o o l s .
o ffered
and s e c o n d - y e a r b o o k k e e p in g
in th e v a r io u s t y p e s o f t r a in ­
B u s i n e s s a r i t h m e t i c i s m e n t io n e d t h r e e t i m e s i n t h e
p reoed in g paragrap h w h i l e t h e o t h e r two s u b j e c t s a r e m e n t io n e d t w i c e .
It is p o s s ib le
that: t h e s u b j e c t s , b u s i n e s s
geograp h y, are
req u ir ed c o u r s e s
p o ssib le th a t th e s e
a r i t h m e t i c and
in t h e t r a i n . 1ng s c h o o l s .
s u b je c ts a r e r e q u ir e d
commeree m a jo rs and t h o s e who a r e n o t .
e c o n o m ic
It is
a lso
o f b o t h s t u d e n t s who a r e
T h is may have some b e a r i n g on
t h e r e a s o n fo r th e l a r g e e n r o l l m e n t s i n t h e s e tw o s u b j e c t s .
In a d d itio n ,
b u s in e s s a r i t h m e t i c i s u s u a l l y t a u g h t i n t h e f i r s t two y e a r s o f t h e h i g h
s ch o o l c o u r s e ,
p r e v i o u s t o t h e t i m e o f many " d r o p - o u t s . "
in some o f t h e
c o u r s e s in t h e l a s t
c l a s s e s a re s m a lle r t h a n t h o s e
That i s t o s a y
two y e a r s o f h i g h s c h o o l , some o f
th e
i n t h e f i r s t two y e a r s b e c a u s e o f th e
la r g e r number o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d
at t h a t t i m e .
A p o s s ib le e x p la n a tio n
o f the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e o l a s s s l 2 e s
i n s e c o n d - y e a r b o o k k e e p in g i s
t h e r e may be few er
s u b j e c t i n t h e u pper g r a d e s and,
se c tio n s o f t h i s
th at
co n seq u en tly , s p i l i n g - u p o f e n r o llm e n t s c a u s in g la r g e c l a s s e s .
O b j e c t i v e s or P u r p o s e s o f D i r e c t e d
T e a c h in g i n B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s
The p u r p o se s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g n a v e b een s t u d i e d b y a number o f
d iffe r e n t in v e s t ig a t o r s .
One o f t h e s e r e p o r t s t h e f o l l o w i n g in d e v e l o p i n g
46
a s t a t e m e n t w h i c h w i l l show b c o m p r e h e n s iv e v ie w o f purposes?
The m ajor r e s u l t s t o be sec u r e d th r o u g h p r a c t i c e
t e a o h i n g may be d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s t
(1) A p r o g r e s s iv e ,
p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t i t u d e w h ioh i n c l u d e s a d e s i r e t o advance
and e x o e l i n t e a c h i n g , e s p i r i t o f i n q u i r y and i n v e s t i g a t i o n
toward p r o b le m s o f t e a c h i n g , an i n t e r e s t i n modern edu­
c a t i o n a l m e th o d s , t h e d ev elo p m en t o f d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l
q u a litie s o f a s u c c e ssfu l te a c h e r , a f e e l in g o f r e sp o n si­
b i l i t y f o r t h e p r o g r e s s o f e a c h p u p i l , and a w i l l i n g n e s s t o
c o o p e r a t e i n a l l u n d e r t a k in g s o f t h e s c h o o l } ( 2 ) k n ow led ge
o f a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l s j f i n s t r u c t i o n and an u n d e r s t a n d in g
o f modern e d u c a t i o n a l m e t h o d s , o f t h e p u r p o s e s o f t e s t i n g , o f
v a l i d p r i n c i p l e s o f c l a s s r o o m management, and o f s t a n d a r d s o f
a c c o m p lis h m e n t} ( 5 ) s k i l l i n t h e t e c h n i q u e o f t e a c h i n g , i n
c la s s r o o m m anagem ent, i n e f f e c t i v e s t u d e n t l e a d e r s h i p , and i n
t h e s e l e c t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e u n i t s o f s u b j e c t
m a tte r .1
This i n v e s t i g a t o r h a s been a b le t o f i n d o n l y one s t u d y r e l a t i v e t o
p u r p o s e s or o b j e c t i v e s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
In 1939,
a com m ittee on s t a n d a r d s f o r p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g i n com m ercial e d u c a t i o n
e p p o in t e d by t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Com m erical T e a c h e r - T r a in in g
I n s t i t u t i o n s , r e p o r t e d a l i s t o f d e s i r a b l e and u n d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e s .
From t h e p u r p o s e s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g l i s t e d
2
in t h e p r e c e d in g q u o t a t i o n
and from t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Commercial T e a c h e r - T r a in in g I n s t i ­
tu tio n l i s t ,
th e
i n v e s t i g a t o r adapted a l i s t o f o b j e c t i v e s f o r d i r e c t e d
t e a c h i n g in b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
r e t u r n e d by 88 i n s t i t u t i o n s
T h is l ’< st was in c l u d e d
in t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s
o f f e r i n g s tu d e n t t e a c h in g in b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s .
These o b j e c t i v e s or p u r p o s e s w ere oheoked b y 86 r e s p o n d e n t s as b e in g e i t h e r
1 . E r n e s t R. B r e s l i o n and o t h e r s , The S u p e r v i s i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f
P r a c t i c e T e a o h in g , E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n ,
XI ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 2 5 ) , p . 1 .
2 . E. G. b l a o k s t o n e and o t h e r s , P r a c t i c e T e a c h in g and B u s i n e s s E x p e r i e n c e
i n Comm ercial T each er T r a i n i n g , The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Commercial
T e a c h e r - T r a in in g I n s t i t u t i o n s , B u l l e t i n No. 1 1 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 7 , p p . 4 - 6 .
47
TABLE XVI
OBJECTIVES WHICH EICHTY-SIX RESPONDENTS BELIEVED TO BE DESIRABLE OR
UNDESIRABLE FOR STUDENT TEACHING IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
E>e a i r a b l e
U n d e s i r a b le
O b jectiv e
Not
Checked
E ith e r
W&y
1 . To d e v e l o p p o i s e , b e a r i n g , t a c t and
p r e s e n c e o f mind i n h a n d lin g s t u d e n t s
85
0
1
2 . To t e a c h a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e n e e d s fo r
human r e l a t i o n s h i p s in h andlin/* s t u d e n t s
84
0
2
3 . To d e v e l o p a f e e l i n g o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r
th e p rog ress o f in d iv id u a l p u p ils
84
1
1
84
1
1
83
0
3
83
0
3
7 , To g i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n m e e t i n g many o f
t h e s i t u a t i o n s t o be met by a t e a c h e r
82
1
3
8 . To im p rove a b i l i t y i n l e s s o n p r e s e n t a t i o n
82
3
1
9 . To d e v e l o p t o as g r e a t an e x t e n t as p o s ­
s i b le d e sir a b le personal q u a lit ie s of
a su ccessfu l teach er
81
1
4
To d i s c o v e r and c o r r e o t i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h ­
i n g and p e r s o n a l i t y f a u l t s as brought
t o l i g h t by t e a o h e r - p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p s
80
4
2
To improve a b i l i t y i n l e s s o n p la n n in g
79
5
2
1 2 . To d e v e l o p a s k i l l i n t h e s e l e c t i o n
and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a p p r o p r ia t e u n i t s
o f su b jeo t m atter
79
5
2
1 3 . To g i v e t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r a b e t t e r
u n d e r s t a n d in g o f g u id a n c e work
78
3
5
1 4 . To a c q u a i n t t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r w it h
p r o m p tn e ss i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reoord
d
e ta ils
1
78
3
5
4.
To d e v e l o p v a l i d p r i n c i p l e s o f c l a s s ­
room management
5 . To f a c i l i t a t e th e a b i l i t y t o d e t e c t and
c o r r e c t le a r n in g d i f f i c u l t i e s
6* To f a c i l i t a t e t h e a p p l i c a t on o f edu­
c a tio n a l th eo ry t o p r a o tic e
10.
11.
(C o n tin u e d on n e x t p a g e )
48
TABLE XVI (C o n t in u e d )
OBJECTIVES Y/HICH EICHTY-SIX RESPONDENTS BELIEVED TO BE DESIP-ABLE OR
UNDESIRABLE FOR STUDENT TEACHING IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1D3U-1939
D e sir a b le
U n d esira b le
O b jectiv e
Not
Checked
E ith e r
’l a y
1 5 . To d e v e l o p an i n t e r e s t i n modern e d u c a ­
t i o n a l methods
78
5
3
1 6 . To d e v e l o p t h e a b i l i t y t o c o n s t r u c t , ad­
m i n i s t e r , s c o r e and i n t e r p r e t t e s t s
77
6
3
1 7 . To d e v e l o p a p r o g r e s s i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l
a t t i t u d e w h io h i n c l u d e s a d e s i r e t o
ad van ce and e x c e l in. t e a c h in g
77
4
5
18. To d e v e l o p a s p i r i t o f i n q u ir y end i n ­
v e s t i g a t i o n toward problems o f t e s o h in g b u sin e ss su b jects
77
4
5
1 9 . To p r o v id e knowledge o f a p p r o p r ia t e
m a te r ia ls o f in str u c tio n
76
5
5
2 0 . 're f a c i l i t a t e th e developm en t o f know­
l e d g e s o f r e l a t i v e sta n d a rd s o f a c­
c o m p lish m e n t in b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s
75
4
7
2 1 . To d e v e l o p s k i l l in e f f e c t i v e
le a d e r sh ip
75
7
4
2 2 . To a c q u a in t t h e s tu d e n t t e a c h e r w i t h
t h e n e c e s s i t y o f b e in g on t h e j o b
ea c h d ay
69
12
6
2 3 . To i n c r e a s e t h e s t u d e n t t e e c h e r ' s
i n t e r e s t i n b u s i n e s s e d u c a t io n
66
14
6
2 4 . To g i v e e x p l o r a t o r y e x p e r ie n c e t o t h e
stu d en t teach er
63
16
7
2 5 . To e l i m i n a t e t h o s e s t u d e n t s who d i s p l a y
a l a c k o f t e a c h in g a b i l i t y
57
24
5
2 6 . To p r o v id e a good r e v ie w of th e s u b j e c t
m a t t e r o f t h e co u r se b ein g t a u g h t
44
35
7
2 7 . To g i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n m eeting a l l t h e
s i t u a t i o n s t o be met by a t e a c h e r
41
36
9
stud en t
.
49
d e s i r a b l e or u n d e s i r a b l e .
T a b le XVI shows t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from t h e s e
36 r e s p o n d e n t s .
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e t a b l e
i n d i c a t e s t h a t o n ly in th e ca se o f th e l a s t
f i v e aim s or o b j e c t i v e s i s t h e r e a b e l i e f b y more t h a n 6 0 . 0 per c e n t o f t h e
r e s p o n d e n t s t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e s a r e n o t w o r t h w h il e f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n
b u sin e ss su b je c ts.
Only one o b j e c t i v e or aim i s
o b j e c t e d t o b y more th a n
h a lf o f t h e resp o n d en ts.
A f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e t a b l e w i l l show t h a t , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g ,
t h e s e aim s or o b j e c t i v e s c o v e r t h e m ajor aim c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a s g i v e n by
Iitead.'*’
He b e l i e v e s t h a t aims f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n g e n e r a l s h o u ld c o v e r
such t o p i c s a s t w( l ) t h e k n o w le d g e ,
comes s o u g h t ;
d esired ;
or s u b j e c t m a t t e r , o r s c h o l a r s h i p o u t ­
( 2 ) t h e t e c h n i q u e s , p r i n c i p l e s or m ethod, and t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s
(3 ) p r o fe ssio n a l id e a l s ,
i n t e r e s t s and a t t i t u d e s ;
(4) th e " e x tr a
sc h o o l" or community r e l a t i o n s o f t h e t e a o h e r ; and ( 5 ) p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s . "
In a d d itio n , th e l i s t
i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s much agreem en t a s t o
what t h e aims are f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
I n t h i s con ­
n e c t i o n , k a x w e ll and R eu sser b e l i e v e , "The aims and o b j e c t i v e s o f d i r e c t e d
t e a o h i n g a s t h e y a r e s t a t e d by t h o s e i n c h a r g e o f t h i s w ork i n v a r i o u s
i n s t i t u t i o n s show much o v e r l a p p i n g , w h io h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s g e n e r a l
agreem ent c o n c e r n i n g th e o u tco m es s o u g h t i n t h e
c o u rse."^
The r e s p o n d e n t s w ere a s k e d t o t e l l why t h e y checked p a r t i c u l a r
o b j e c t i v e s or aim s a s b e i n g u n d e s i r a b l e .
T a b le XVII shows t h e r e a s o n s
why c e r t a i n o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e u n d e s i r a b l e .
The
numbers o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e numbers o f t h e aims or
o b j e c t i v e s g i v e n i n T a b le X V I.
1 . Mead,
c i t » , p. 32.
2 . 0 . R. Maxwell and VI. C. R e u s s e r , i b s e r v a t i o n s and D i r e c t e d T ea oh in g in
S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s . New Yorki
P r e n t ic e - H a l l, I n c . , 1939, p. 47
TABLE XVII
REASONS GIVEN BY RESPONDENTS FOR STATING THAT CERTAIN LISTED OBJECTIVES
ARE T7JDESIHABLE
Number o f
Time a
M en tio n ed
O b j e c t i v e s end R easons G iven f o r C l a s s i f y i n g
t h e O b j e c t i v e s as U n d e s i r a b l e *
To d e v e l o p a f e e l i n g o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e
p rogress o f th e in d iv id u a l p u p il
a . T h is o b j e c t i v e s h o u ld be d e v e lo p e d b e f o r e
e n r o llm e n t in stu d e n t t e a c h in g .
7 . To g i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n m e e t in g many o f t h e s i t u a ­
t i o n s t o b e met by a t e a c h e r
a . This o b j e c t i v e s h o u ld b e a t t a i n e d e l s e w h e r e
8 . To im prove a b i l i t y i n l e s s o n p r e s e n t a t i o n
a . T h is o b j e c t i v e s h o u ld be a t t a i n e d e l s e w h e r e .
b . The good t e a c h e r d o e s n o t need l e s s o n p la n s *
1 2 . To d e v e l o p a s k i l l i n t h e s e l e c t i o n and o r g a n i z a ­
t i o n of a p p ro p ria te u n it e o f s u b je c t m atter
a . Judgment d e v e l o p s from e a r l i e r o o u r e e e .
b . The s t u d e n t n e e d s e x o e r i e n o e t o be
in d iv id u a lis tic .
1
1
1
2
1 3 . To g i v e t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r a b e t t e r u n d e r s te n d i n g
o f g u id a n c e work
a . Time d o e s n ot p e r m it t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h i s
O b jectiv e.
I t c a n be d e v e lo p e d b e t t e r i n
other w ays.
1 4 . To e o q u a in t t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r w i t h p rom p tn ess
in a d m in istr a tiv e record d e t a i l s
a . T h is o b j e c t i v e s h o u ld be a t t a i n e d e l s e ­
w here and at an e a r l i e r t i m e .
b . R eco rd s v a r y i n d e t a i l
2
1
1 5 . To d e v e l o p an i n t e r e s t in modern e d u c a t i o n a l
m ethods
a . T h is o b j e c t i v e s h o u ld be a t t a i n e d e l s e ­
w here and a t an e a r l i e r t i m e .
1 6 . To d e v e l o p t h e a b i l i t y t o o o n s t r u o t , a d m i n i s t e r ,
s o o r e , and i n t e r p r e t t e s t s
a . T h is s h o u ld be l e a r n e d e l s e w h e r e .
b . T e s t i n g s h o u ld be done o n l y a s an admin­
i s t r a t i v e req u ir em en t.
5
1
(C o n tin u e d on t h e n e x t p a g e . )
*The r e a s o n s a r e s t a t e d
i n th e w ords o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s .
w e r e n ot w o rd ed t h e same b u t t h o s e s e l e c t e d
The r e a s o n s
are t y p ic a l r e s p o n s e s .
51
TABLE m i
(C o n tin u ed )
REASONS GIVEN 3Y RESPONDENTS FOR STATING THAT CERTAIN LISTED
OBJECTIVES ARE UNDESIPABLE
O b j e c t i v e s and R e a s o n s G iven f o r C l a s s i f y i n g
t h e O b j e c t i v e s as U n d e s i r a b l e
1 7 . To d e v e lo p a p r o g r e s s i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t i t u d e
w h io h i n c l u d e s a d e s i r e t o a d v a n o e end e x o e l
in tea ch in g
a . Such on a t t i t u d e sh ould be d e v e lo p e d in
c o u r s e s ta k e n p r i o r t o s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g .
18.
19.
20.
21.
To d e v e lo p a s p i r i t o f i n q u i r y and i n v e s t i g a t i o n
tow ard prob lem s o f t e a c h i n g b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s
a . This o b j e c t i v e s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d p r io r
t o e n r o llm e n t i n s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g .
b . This s h o u ld be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a
g r a d u a te c o u r s e .
Humber o f
Times
M en tion ed
3
1
1
To p r o v id e k n ow led g e o f a p p r o p r ia t e m a t e r i a l s
o f in str u c tio n .
a . I t w ould be b e t t e r t o p r o v i d e t h i s e l s e w h e r e .
3
To f a c i l i t a t e t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f knowledges o f
r e l a t i v e s t a n d a r d s o f a c c o m p lis h m e n t i n b u s in e s s
su b jects.
a . B usiness e x p e r i e n c e needed t o jud g e th e se
stand ard s .
o . T h i s s h o u l d be l e a r n e d e l s e w h e r e .
1
1
To d e v e lo p s k i l l i n e f f e c t i v e s t u d e n t l e a d e r s h i p
a . The s t u d e n t t e a c h e r d o e s n o t have t i m e .
b . The l u c k o f e x p e r i e n c e p r e v e n t s t h e
accom plishm ent o f t n i s .
o . Other f i e l d s o f e n d e a v o r sh ould be u t i l i z e d .
2 2 . To a c q u a in t th e s t u d e n t t e a e h e r w ith t h e n e o e s e i t y
o f b e in g on th e jo b e a c h d a y
a . This sh ould be le a r n e d p r e v i o u s l y and e l s e w h e r e .
b . T h is o b j e c t i v e i s o f m in o r im p o rta n ce.
2 3 . To i n o r e a s e th e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r ’ s i n t e r e s t i n
b u sin e ss ed u ca tio n
a . T h is I n t e r e s t s h o u ld b e a ro u sed b e f o r e th e
s t u d e n t i s e n r o l l e d in s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g .
(C o n tin u ed on t h e n e x t p a g e . )
1
2
2
5
5
12
52
TABLE XVII ( C o n t i n u e d )
REASONS GIVEN BY RESPONDENTS FOR STATING THAT CERTAIN LISTED
OBJECTIVES ARB UNDESIRABLE
O b j e c t i v e s and R easons G iv en f o r C l a s s i f y i n g
t h e O b j e c t i v e s as U n d e s ir a b le
2 4 . To g i v e e x p l o r a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e t o t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r
a. P u p i l s s h o u ld b e p r o t e c t e d .
b . E x p l o r a t i o n s h o u ld n o t be p o s tp o n e d u n t i l
t h i s t im e .
o . I am n o t s o l d on t h e u n i t p la n i n o u r f i e l d .
d . T h is o b j e c t i v e i s o f m inor i m p o r t a n c e .
e . Time i s not s u f f i c i e n t f o r e x p l o r a t i o n .
2 5 . To e l i m i n a t e t h o s e s t u d e n t s who d i s p l a y a l a c k o f
te a o h in g a b i l i t y
a. T h is o b j e c t i v e s h o u ld be met p r e v i o u s l y
i n o t h e r w a y s.
b . O b j e c t i v e s s h o u ld b e p o s t i v e , n o t n e g a t i v e .
2 6 . To p r o v id e a good r e v i e w o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f
t h e c o u r s e b e in g t a u g h t
a . The s t u d e n t t e a c h e r sh o u ld have a t h o r o u g h
k n ow led g e o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r b e f o r e b e i n g
e n r o lle d in stu d en t te a c h in g ,
b . T h is i s n ot an o b j e c t i v e ; i t i s a c l a s s r o o m
fu n o tio n ,
o . T eaoh in g s h o u ld b e c o n s t r u c t i v e and i m a g i n a t i v e .
I f i t i s r e v i e w , t h e t e a c h e r i s n o t d o in g much
c o n s t r u c t i v e w ork .
2 7 . To g i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n m e e tin g a l l t h e s i t u a t i o n s
t o be met b y a t e a c h e r
a . No s t u d e n t t e a c h e r cou ld p o s s i b l y m e e t a l l
s i t u a t i o n s o f a regu lar t e a c h e r . I t i s
i m p o s s i b l e t o a c c o m p lis h t h i s o b j e c t i v e ,
b . The h ig h s o h o o l h as t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
f o r t h e p u p i l — many s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s c a n n o t
h a n d le i t .
o . I m p r a c t i c a l a p p ro a ch . Tends t o make e x p e r i e n c e
a r t i f i o i a l — n o t a tru e s it u a t io n .
d. A l l s i t u a t i o n s a r e n o t e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t .
Number o f
Times
M en tion ed
2
6
1
2
1
16
1
15
10
1
28
1
1
1
53
I n s t i t u t i o n s Vfhioh Hava D e v e lo p e d L i s t s
o f O b j e c t i v e s f o r S tu d e n t 'Peaching
i n B u sin ess S u b je c ts
S e h o r lin g i s
o f th e o p in io n t h a t "the s t a f f o f th e t r a i n i n g sc h o o l
sh o u ld f o r m u la t e a f a i r l y d e f i n i t e
and known by a l l c o n c e r n e d .
»1
list
o f o b j e c t i v e s w h ic h i s agreed upon
I n a d d i t i o n , he b e l i e v e s t h a t a l i s t
o b j e c t i v e s w hioh w i l l a p p l y t o one f i e l d may n o t a p p ly t o a n o t h e r .
of
2
T h erefo re, th e resp o n d en ts r e p r e s e n tin g th e d if f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s
w ere asked t o i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r or n o t t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s had fo r m u la te d
a d e fin ite l i s t
o f o b j e c t i v e s f o r s t u d e n t te a c h '.n g in b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
Table JTVIII shows t h e e x t e n t t o w h ich t h i s
has been d o n e .
TABLE X VIII
KT13KR AND PER CEli'f CF INSTITUTIONS REPORTING T O FORMULATION OF A
DEFINITE LIST OF OBJECTIVES FOR DIR3QIBD KLVJILlNG ITT ’-.CIVESS
SUBJECTS, 1 S 3 8 -1 9 3 9
: a a i .t
L ist not
Formal a t ad
L i s t F orm u lated
Type o f
I n s t i t u t i on
Dumber
Fer
Cent
S ta te T eachers C o lle g e s
IS
4 0 .0
24
6 0 .0
0
S t a t e C o l l e g e s and b raversitie s
12
3 C .7
19
61 • 3
2
7
5 0 .0
7
5 0 .0
1
P r i v a t e C o l l e g e s and Uni­
v e r sitie s
ITumber
Per
Cent
,7o R ep o rt
1 . R a le ig h S e h o r l i n g , D i r e c t e d T e a o h in g , The E d u c a t io n o f T e a c h e r s ,
N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f C o l l e g e T e a o h e r s o f e d u c a t i o n , T w e n t y - t h ir d
Y earbook, 1 9 3 5 , p . 1 3 8 .
2 . L oo. o i t «
Number
54
An examirr. r i o n o f t h e tu: l e shows t h a t t h e f ormul^t io n of such l i s t s
i s m o s t l i k e l y t o t a k e p l a c e in p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
S tate
t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s and s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s f o l l o w in th e o rd er
named.
F u rth er e x a m in a t io n shows t h a t 4 1 , 1 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s
have p rep a red d e f i n i t e l i s t s
su b jects.
of o b je c tiv e s fo r
s t u d e n t t e a o h in g in b u s i n e s s
The t a b l e a l s o shows t h a t none o f t h e t h r e e
has p rep a red l i s t s
i n s t i t u t i o n typ es
o f t h i s n a tu re t o t h e e x t e n t o f more t h a n 5 0 . 0 per c e n t .
The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s w ere asked t o
send l i s t s o f o b j e c t i v e s w h ic h had b een p rep a red f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h in g i n
b u sin e ss s u b je c ts.
Only one i n s t i t u t i o n , a p r i v a t e u n i v e r s i t y , com plied
w ith t h i s r e q u e s t.
The l i s t
fo llo w sj
1 . A th o r o u g h u n d e r s ta n d in g o f t e a c h i n g p r a o t i o e B i n oommerioal
e d u c a t i o n as t h e y e x i s t i n t h e p u b l i c s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l to d a y .
2 . xi t h o u g h t f u l , i n t e l l i g e n t , end op en -m in d ed a t t i t u d e toward
t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s and r.roblems i n v o l v e d i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f
com m ercial s u b j e c t s .
3 . An a t t i t u d e o f c o n f id e n c e in o n e ' s a b i l i t y t o t e a c h comi.'-ercial
s u b j e c t s i n p u b l ic h ig h s c h o o l s .
I n d i v i d u a l s R e s p o n s ib le f o r t h e Development o f O b j e c t i v e s o f S tudent T eaoh in g
in B u sin e ss S u b jects
S e h o r l i n g b e l i e v e s t h a t c r i t i c t e a o h e r s , t e a c h e r s o f aoademio s u b j e c t s ,
t e a c h e r s o f t h e o r y c o u r s e s i n th e f i e l d
o f e d u c a t i o n , t h e p erson in ch a rg e
o f t h e progrem, and a d m in is t r a t o r s and s u p e r v i s o r s i n o ff-ca m p u s s c h o o ls
s h o u ld have a p a r t in th e d evelopm en t o f o b j e c t i v e s
fo r student te a c h in g .^
T ab le XIX i n d i c a t e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h c e r t a i n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s
m e n tio n e d above have p la yed a part i n t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f s tu d e n t t e a c h in g
in b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s .
1 . L oo. o i t .
The p e r s o n most o f t e n r e p o r t e d a s having a part i n
TABLE XIX
INDIVIDUALS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FORI.lULA.TlON OF DEFINITE LISTS OF
OBJECTIVES FOR STUDENT TEACHING IN UUSINESS SUBJECTS,
1938-11-39
R e sp o n sib le
In d iv id u a l
S ta te
T ea oh ers
C o lle g e s
State
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r sitie s
Per
C ent
Per
Cent
T otal
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
r< r
Per
Cent
14
8 7 .5
5
4 1 .6
5
7 1 .4
24
6 8 .5
D ep a rtm en t S u per­
v iso r s
9
5 6 .2
2
1 6 .6
2
2 8 .5
13
3 7 .1
T ra in in g S u p e r v is o r s
5
3 1 .2
5
41.6
1
1 4 ,2
11
3 1 .1
D irec to r o f
S t u d e n t T each in g
4
2 5 .0
3
2 5 .0
2
2 6 .5
9
2 5 .4
T ra in in g s u p e r v is o r s
in off-cam p u s
so h o o ls
5
3 1 .2
3
2 5 .0
0
0 .0
8
2 2 .8
Teachers o f th e o r y
con r s e s i n educa t io n
3
lo .7
2
1 6 .6
2
2 8 .5
7
2 0 .0
P r i n c i p a l s or s u p e r ­
in te n d e n t s in o f f oampus s o h o o l s
1
6 .2
0
0 .0
1
1 4 .2
2
5 .7
D ep a rtm en t o f Commer­
c i a l E d u ca tio n in
m eetin g *
0
0 .0
1
6 .3
0
0 .0
1
2 .8
D ean, S c h o o l o f
E d u c a t io n *
0
0 .0
1
8 .3
0
0 .0
1
2 .8
D ep artm en t o f Edu­
c a t i o n and D ep a rt­
ment o f Commerce
i n m eetin g*
0
0 .0
1
8 .3
0
0 .0
1
2 .8
dumber o f o a s e s
D i r e c t o r o f S tu d e n t
T ea o h in g i n Bus­
in e s s S u b jects
♦ F ille d
in
Num­
ber
12
P r iv a te
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r s itie s
Num­
ber
7
Num­
ber
35
56
B u sin e ss S u b je c ts .
The i n v e s t i g a t o r
h a s r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t m ost o f
t h e r e s p o n d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d t h i s p e r s o n t o be t h e head o f t h e d e p a r tm e n t
o f oommerce or o f t h e d e p a rtm en t o f e d u c a t i o n .
p r e c l u d e s su ch an a s s u m p t io n .
The l i s t
of d e fin itio n s
Be t h a t a s i t may, 2 4 , or 6 8 . 5 p e r c e n t , o f
t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t e d t h a t tn e d i r e c t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s
s u b j e c t s has a p a r t i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s f o r
in b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s .
stud en t te a o h in g
The t y p o o f p e r s o n n e l h a v in g t h e n e x t m ost im p o r ta n t
p a r t i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f s u c h o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e d e p a rtm en t s u p e r v i s o r .
I n 1 3 , or 3 7 . 1 p er c e n t , o f t h e c a s e s , t h i s p e r s o n p l a y s some p a r t i n th e
fo r m u la tio n o f o b j e c t iv e s fo r stu d en t te a o h in g in b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s .
d e p a r tm e n t s u p e r v i s o r i s c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d b y t h e t r a i n i n g
Tne
su p e r v iso r .
In
3 1 . 1 p er c e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s , t r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r s h ave a p a r t i n t h e
fo r m u la tio n o f o b j e c t i v e s .
The d i r e c t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g a i d s I n t h e
d e v e lo p m e n t o f o b j e c t i v e s i n o n l y 2 5 . 4 p er c e n t o f t h e c a s e s .
t h e o r y ooursea in t h e f i e l d
T eaohers o f
o f e d u o a t i o n , t r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r s i n o ff-o a m p u s
s c h o o l s , and p r i n c i p a l s or s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s i n o f f - c a m p u s s o h o o l s p l a y a r a t h e r
m in o r r o l e i n t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f o b j e c t i v e s f o r B tu d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s
su b jects.
G e n e r a lly sp e a k in g , th e r e i s l i t t l e
d i f f e r e n c e in th e ra n k in g s o f
persons r e s p o n s ib le fo r th e fo r m u la tio n o f o b j e c t iv e s o f stu d e n t te a c h in g
i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s i n t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s s t u d i e d and t h o s e
rep orted fo r a l l th e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
S u p e r v iso r s o f v a rio u s s o r ts in s t a t e
t e a o h e r s o o l l e g e s seem t o have a more d e f i n i t e p a r t in t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f
o b j e c t i v e s th a n s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h e s t a t e c o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s
and in
p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
Equipm ent A v a i l a b l e t o S t u d e n t T eao h ers f o r T ea o h in g P u r p o se s
T ab le XX shows t h e t y p e s o f eq u ip m en t p r o v id e d i n t r a i n i n g s o h o o l s
57
TABLE XX
NUMBER AND FER CENT OF INSTITUTIONS REPORTING CERTAIN TYPES OF EQUIPMENT
VflTH YimCH studetjt t eac her s cf b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s may become f a m il ia r
IN BOTH CAMPUS AND OFF-CAMPUS SCHOOLS,
1938-1939
Type o f
Equipm ent
S ta n d a r d t y p e w r i t e r s ,
p ic a type
S te n o il d u p lic a to r s
.Adding m a c h in e s
S ta n d a r d t y p e w r i t e r s ,
e l i t e ty p e
S t o p w a tch
H e c to g r a p h d u p l i c a t o r s
S ta n d a r d s i z e c o r r e - ■
spondence f i l e s
I n t e r v a l tim er
C a l c u l a t i n g m a c h in e s
N o is e le s s ty p e w r ite r s
D i c t a t i n g m a c h in e s
C o p y h o ld e r s
B o o k k e e p in g m a ch in es
M in ia tu re s i z e c o r r e »
s p o n d en ce f i l e s
L ong c a r r i a g e t y p e ­
w r ite r s
B u sin e ss r e fe r e n c e
fo ld e r s
A d d r e s s in g m a c h in e s
M a ilin g s c a le s
P lu g b o a r d t e l e p h o n e
eq u ip m en t
P o rta b le ty p e w r ite r s
"New s c i e n t i f i c " k ey ­
b oard t y p e w r i t e r s
M u lt i g r a p h *
E l e c t r i c ty p e w r ite r s
V io tr o la *
P a p er c u t t e r *
S ta p le r *
Comptometer*
V a rity p er
Number o f o a s e s
*
F ille d in
S tate
Teachers
C o lle g e s
S ta te
C o lle g e s
and Uni­
v e r sitie s
Num­
Per
ber
Cent
P riv a te
C o lle g e s
and Uni—
vers i tie s
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
34
27
26
8 9 .4
7 1 .0
6 8 .4
27
19
15
9 0 .0
6 3 .3
5 0 .0
14
10
12
20
23
19
52. 6
6 0 .5
5 0 .0
20
12
15
6 6 .6
4 0 .0
5 0 .0
16
19
19
16
12
16
10
4 2 .1
5 0 .0
5 0 .0
4 2 .0
3 1 .5
4 2 .1
2 6 .3
18
16
10
12
13
10
6
11
2 8 .9
10
T otal
Num­
ber
P er
C en t
1 0 0 ,0
7 1 .4
8 5 .7
75
56
53
9 1 .4
6 8 .2
6 4 .6
11
11
8
7 8 .5
7 8 .5
5 7 .1
51
46
42
6 1 .2
5 6 .0
6 1 .2
6 0 .0
5 3 .3
3 3 .3
4 0 .0
4 3 .3
3 3 .3
2 0 .0
7
6
10
10
9
6
9
5 0 .0
4 2 .8
7 1 .4
7 1 .4
64.2
4 2 .8
64,2
41
41
39
38
34
32
26
5 0 .0 '
5 0 .0
4 7 .6
4 6 .3
4 1 .4
3 9 .0
3 0 .4
7
2 3 .3
7
5 0 .0
25
3 0 .4
2 6 .3
7
2 3 .3
7
5 0 .0
24
2 9 .2
9
3
6
2 3 .6
7 .8
1 5 .7
8
4
1
2 6 .6
1 3 .3
3 .3
3
3
3
2 1 .4
2 1 .4
2 1 .4
20
10
10
2 4 .3
1 2 .1
1 2 .1
1
1
2 .6
2 .6
1
0
3 .3
0 .0
4
3
2 8 .5
2 1 .4
6
4
7 .3
4 .8
0
2
1
2
1
1
0
0
0 ,0
5 .2
2 .6
5 .2
2 .6
2 .6
0 ,0
0 .0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0 .0
3 .3
0 .0
0 ,0
0 .0
0 ,0
3 .3
0 .0
4
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
2 8 ,5
0 .0
7 .1
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
7 .1
4
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
4 .8
3 .6
2 .4
2 .4
1 .2
1 .2
1 .2
1 .2
38
30
Num­
b er
14
Per
Cent
82
58
w hioh are u sed b y s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s f o r t e a c h i n g p u r p o s e s .
The t y p e o f
eq u ip m en t w h io h i s m ost o f t e n u sed iB t h e sta n d a r d t y p e w r i t e r w i t h p i o a
ty p e.
Of t h e e i g h t y - t w o s o h o o l s r e p o r t i n g on t h i s p o i n t , 9 1 . 4 p e r c e n t
u s e t h i s t y p e o f m a c h in e .
S tan dard t y p e w r i t e r s w it h e l i t e t y p e a r e p ro ­
v id e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s in 8 1 . 2 p er o e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
N o i s e l e s s t y p e w r i t e r s are p r o v id e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s in 4 8 . 3 per
oent o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
P o r t a b l e t y p e w r i t e r s and t y p e w r i t e r s w i t h t h e
" s c i e n t i f i c k ey b o a rd " are p r o v id e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s i n 4 . 8 per
oent o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
O n ly two i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t t h a t e l e o t r i o
t y p e w r i t e r s a r e u sed f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s .
The V a r i t y p e r i s
u se d i n
o n l y one s c h o o l .
The s t e n o i l d u p l i c a t o r i s t h e t y p e o f eq u ip m en t p r o v id e d seo o n d m o s t
o f t e n f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s and w i t h w h io h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
s u b j e c t s are a l l o w e d t o become f a m i l i a r i n te r m s o f t e a o h i n g p r o c e d u r e s .
S i x t y - e i g h t and t w o - t e n t h s p er c e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t t h i s t y p e o f
eq u ip m en t may be u sed by s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s ,
n e c t o g r a p h d u p l i c a t o r s are
p r o v id e d i n 5 1 . 2 p er c e n t o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i l e o n l y 3 . 6 per c e n t o f t h e
in stitu tio n s
r e o o r t t h e u s e o f th e i. u l t i g r e p h .
In a d d i t i o n t o t h e t y p e s o f eq uipm ent m en tion ed i n t h e two p r e o e d i n g
p a ra g ra p h s 6 0 . 0 p er c e n t o r ..:ore o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s
chines,
stop w atch e s,
in te r v a l tim e r s.
provide
s ta n d a rd s iz e correspondence f i l i n g
S t a t i n g t h i s a n o t h e r w ay, i t
ad d in g ma­
e q u ip m e n t , and
can be s a i d t h a t e i g h t t y p e s
o f m ach in e e q u ip m e n t , or 3 4 . 7 p er c e n t o f t h e t w e n t y - t h r e e l i s t e d
q u e s tio n n a i r e , a r e p r o v id e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l
i n th e
p u r p o se s i n 6 0 * 0 p e r o e n t or
more o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e o n es l i s t e d , f i v e
w r i t t e n i n on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .
a d d i t i o n a l t y p e s o f e q u ip m en t w ere
■1
59
S tan d ard t y p e w r i t e r s w i t h p i c a t y p e a re l i s t e d
as b e in g u sed most
o f t e n in ea ch o f the t h r e e ty p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s in c lu d e d in t h i s stu d y .
The s t e n o l l d u p l i c a t o r ra n k s seoon d I n t h e o a s e o f s t a t e t e a o h e r s o o l l e g e s
and s t a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
but ta k es fo u r th p la c e in th e ca se o f th e p r iv a te
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
The a d d in g m ach in e ran k s seoond i n p r i v a t e
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , t h i r d i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s o o l l e g e s ,
and s i x t h i n
s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
E i g h t t y p e s o f e q u ip m e n t , or 3 4 . 7 p er c e n t o f t h e t w e n t y - t h r e e l i s t e d
i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a re p r o v id e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s i n 5 0 . 0 p er
o e n t or more o f t h e s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s r e p o r t i n g on t h i s p o i n t .
t y p e s o f e q u ip m e n t, or 3 0 . 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e t w e n t y - t h r e e l i s t e d
q u estio n n a ire,
Seven
in the
are p r o v id e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s i n 5 0 . 0 p er c e n t
o r more o f t h e p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t i n g on t h i s
p o in t.
Equipment A v a i l a b l e t o S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s f o r T each in g
P u rp o ses i n t h e T r a i n i n g S c h o o l s o f S t a t e T eao h ers C o l l e g e s
T ab le XXX shows t h e t y p e s o f eq u ip m en t p r o v id e d i n t w e n t y - n i n e campus
and s i x t e e n o ff-o a m p u s t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s o f s t a t e t e a o h e r s c o l l e g e s .
ta b le
The
shows t h a t t w e n t y - f o u r t y p e s o f e q u ip m en t a r e p r o v id e d i n t h e campus
s c h o o l s w h i l e s i x t e e n t y p e s o f eq u ip m en t a re p r o v id e d i n t h e campus t r a i n i n g
s c h o o ls o f t h i s typ e o f i n s t i t u t i o n .
o f th e tw en ty -th re e l i s t e d
E i g h t t y p e s o f eq u ip m en t, o r 3 4 . 7 p er c e n t
i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , are p r o v id e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l
p u r p o s e s i n 5 0 . 0 p er c e n t or more o f t h e campus t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s w h i l e f i v e , or
2 1 . 7 p e r o e n t , a re p r o v id e d i n 5 0 . 0 p er c e n t or more o f t h e o ff-o a m p u s t r a i n i n g
so h o o ls.
Four t y p e s o f eq uipm ent n o t l i s t e d
i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were f i l l e d
i n as b e i n g p r o v id e d i n t h e oampus s o h o o l s w h i l e no a d d i t i o n a l t y p e s w ere f i l l e d
i n as b e in g i n the off-ca m p u s t r a in i n g s c h o o l s .
60
TABLE XXI
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF STATE TEACJUERS COLLEGES REPORTING CERTAIN TYIES OF
EQUIPMENT WITH WHICH STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS k A l BECOME
FAMILIAR IN T.7EN'1'Y-NINE CjjMFUS SCHOOLS AND IN SIXTEEN OFF-CAMPUS SCHOOLS,
1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
Campus S o h o o l s
Types o f
Equipm ent
Stan dard t y p e ’. v r i t e r s ,
p ic a typ e
S te n c il d u p lic a to r s
Adding m a c h in e s
S tan d a rd t y p e w r i t e r s ,
e l i t e typ e
S t o p w a tch
P
i
t
t
|
i
\i.
i
Number
Off-Campus S o h o o ls
Per Cent
Number
Per Cent
27
22
20
9 3 .1
7 5 .8
6 8 .9
16
10
10
1 0 0 .0
6 2 .5
6 2 .5
17
16
5 8 .2
5 5 .1
7
8
4 3 .7
6 0 .0
H e c to g r a p h d u p l i c a t o r s
S ta n d a r d e l s e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e
file s
I n te r v a l tim er
C a l c u l a t i n g m a c h in e s
N o ise le ss ty p e w r ite r s
13
4 4 .8
8
5 0 .0
13
17
16
14
4 4 .8
5 8 ,2
5 5 .1
4 6 .2
6
5
5
4
3 7 .5
3 1 .2
3 1 .2
2 5 .0
D i c t a t i n g m a c h in e s
C o p y h o ld e r s
B o ok k eep in g m a c h in e s
M in ia tu r e s i z e c o r r esp o n d en ce
file s
Long c a r r i u g e t y p e w r i t e r s
9
16
8
3 1 .0
5 5 .1
2 7 .5
6
3
5
3 7 .5
1 0 .7
3 1 .2
8
0
2 7 .5
2 7 .5
5
2
3 1 .2
1 2 .5
B u sin e ss r e f e r e n c e f o l d e r s
a d d r e s s i n g m a c h in e s
M a ilin g S c a le s
P lu g b o a rd t e l e p h o n e e q u ip m en t
P o rta b le ty p e w r it e r s
6
2
6
1
1
2 0 .6
6 .8
2 0 .6
3 .4
3 .4
3
0
0
0
0
I S .7
0 ,0
0 .0
o .c
0 .0
"New s c i e n t i f i c k e y b o a r d ”
ty p e w r ite r s
L u ltig r a p h
E le c t r ic ty p e w r ite r s
V ic tr o la
Paper c u t t e r
0
2
0
2
1
0 .0
6 .8
0 ,0
6.8
3 .4
0
0
0
0
0
0 .0
0 .0
O .o
0 ,0
0 .0
S ta p le r
Comptometer
V a r ity p e r
1
0
0
3 .4
0 .0
0 .0
0
0
0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
61
TABLE XXII
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF STATE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES REPORTING CERTAIN TYPES
OF EQUIPMENT WITH WHICH STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS LAY BECOME
FAMILIAR IN THIRTEEN CALP US SCHOOLS AND IN FOURTEEN OFF-CAMPUS SCHOOLS,
1938-1939
Campus S c h o o l s
Types o f
Equipm ent
Off-Campus S o h o o ls
Number
P e r Cent
13
8
6
1 0 0 .0 0
6 1 .5
4 6 .1
14
11
10
1 0 0 ,0 0
7 8 .5
7 1 .4
11
2
8 4 .6
1 5 .3
8
10
5 7 .1
7 1 .4
7
5 3 .8
6
4 2 .8
6
7
4
7
4 6 .1
5 3 .8
3 0 .7
5 3 .8
10
B
5
5
7 1 .4
5 7 .1
3 5 .7
3 5 .7
D i c t a t i n g m a ch in es
C o p y h o ld e r s
B o o k k eep in g m a ch in es
M in ia tu re s i z e correB pondence
file s
Long c a r r i a g e t y p e w r i t e r s
5
4
1
3 8 .4
3 0 .7
7 .6
6
5
6
4 2 .8
3 5 .7
4 2 .8
2
3
1 5 .3
2 3 .0
4
4
2 8 .5
2 8 .5
B u sin e ss r e f e r e n c e f o l d e r s
A d d r e s s i n g m aohine3
M a ilin g s o s l e s
P lu g b o a r d t e l e p h o n e e q u ip m en t
P o rta b le ty p e w r ite r s
2
1
1
0
0
1 8 .3
7 .6
7 .6
0 .0
0 .0
6
2
1
1
0
42. B
1 4 .2
7 .1
7 .1
0 .0
"New s c i e n t i f i c k ey b o a rd 1*
ty p e w r ite r s
M u lt ig r a p h
E le 'r h r io t y p e w r i t e r s
V io tr o le
Paper o u t t e r
0
0
0
0
0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0
1
0
0
0
0 .0
7 .]
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
S ta p le r
Comptometer
V a r ity p e r
0
0
0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0
1
0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
Stan dard T y p e w r i t e r s ,
p io a ty p e
S te n c il d u p lic a to r s
Adding m a c h in e s
Standard t y p e w r i t e r s ,
e l i t e typ e
S to p w u to h
H e c to g r a p h d u p l i c a t o r s
Standard s i z e c o r r e s p o n d e n o o
file s
I n t e r v a l tim er
C a l c u l a t i n g m a ch in es
N o is e le s s ty p e w r ite r s
Number
P er Cent
62
TABLE XXIII
NUHBER AND PER CENT OF PRIVATE VNIVE CITIES REPORTING CERTAIN TYPES
OF EtJJIEkENT WITH YJHICH STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS S rB.JECTS HAY
BECOLiE FAULIAR IN ELEVEN OFF-C/-HPITS SCHOOLS, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
Off-Campus S o h o o ls
T yp es o f E quip m en t
Number
Standard t y p e w r i t e r s , p i o r t y p e
S te n o il d u p lic a to r s
A dding m a ch in es
Standard t y p e w r i t e r s , e l i t e t y p e
S to p w atch
11
7
9
o
9
Per Cent
1 0 0 ,0
6 3 ,6
3 1 .8
3 1 .8
8 1 .3
H e cto g ra p h d u p l i c a t o r s
S tan dard s i z e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e f i l e s
I n te r v a l tim er
C a l c u l a t i n g m ach in es
N o is e le s s ty p e w r ite r s
6
6
7
4 5 .4
5 4 .5
5 4 .5
5 4 .5
6 3 .6
D i c t a t i n g m a ch in es
C o p y h o ld e r s
B o o k k eep in g m ach in es
k in ia tu r e s iz e correspondence f i l e s
Long c a r r i a g e t y p e w r i t e r s
5
7
7
5
7
4 5 .4
6 3 .6
6 3 .6
4 5 .4
6 3 .6
B u sin ess r e f e r e n c e f o l d e r s
A d d r e s s in g m a ch in es
H a ilin g s c a le s
P lu gb oard t e l e p h o n e eq u ip m en t
P o rta b le ty p e w r ite r s
3
3
3
2
2
2 7 .2
2 7 .2
2 7 .2
1 8 .1
1 8 .]
"New s c i e n t i f i c k e y b o a rd " t y p e w r i t e r s
Hu l t i g r s p h
E le c t r ic ty p e w r ite r s
V ic tr o la
Psp er o u t t e r
4
0
1
0
0
3 6 .3
0 ,0
9 .0
0 .0
0 .0
S ta p le r
Comptometer
V a rity p er
0
0
1
0 .0
0 .0
9 .0
5
6
1
63
E q u ip m en t A v a i l a b l e t o S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s f o r T e a c h in g Purpo s e s
i n t h e T r a i n i n g S c h o o la o f P r i v a t e C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s
T a b le X XIII shows t h e t v p e s o f eq u ip m en t p r o v i d e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l
p u rp oses in e le v e n off-cam p u s t r a in i n g s c h o o ls
u n iv e r sitie s.
1mo d a ta a r e a v a i l a b l e
o f p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and
f o r e q u ip m e n t i n t h e fe w campus t r a i n ­
i n g s c h o o l s u sed b y i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h i s t y p e .
sh ow s t h a t t w e n t y - t h r e e t y p e s
campus t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s .
th e tw en ty -th re e li s t e d
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e t e t l e
o f eq u ip m en t a r e p r o v i d e d i n t h e s e o f f -
T w elv e t y p e s o f e q u i p m e n t , o r 5 2 . 6 p er o e n t o f
i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , e r e p r o v id e d i n 5 0 . 0 per
c e n t or more o f t h e s e t r a i n i n g
sc h o o ls.
A c o m p a r i s o n o f T a b l e s X XIII, X X II,
and XXXI shows t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l y more c h o i c e s o f e q u ip m e n t are p rovid ed
stu d en t tea ch er s of b u sin e ss
s u b j e c t s i n t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and
u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a n i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s end s t a t e c o l l e g e s and
u n iv e r sitie s.
T h is i s
c r o b e b ly e x p la in e d by t h e f a c t t h a t th e r e s -
nu nd en te in t h i s ty p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n in c lu d e d
in t h e ir q u estio n n a ire
a n s w e r s t h e t y p e s o f e q u ip m e n t a v a i l a b l e i n t h e many p u b l i c h i g h s o h o o ls
at th e ir d isp o sa l,
so h o o ls
th e
A o s t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h i s t y o e u s e many h ig h
in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s
for t h e i r t r a i n i n g
s c h o o l s , w h e r e a s many o f
o t h e r tw o t y p e s o f I n s t i t u t i o n s u s e one or o n l y a few t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s
f o r purposes o f stu d en t te a c h in g
In b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
T ypes o f D e s k s Used i n T y p e w r i t i n g ,
S h o r t h a n d , and B ookkeeping
C l a s s e s T aught by S t u d e n t T e a o h e r s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s
Are s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s b r o u g h t i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h s u i t a b l e
se a tin g
e q u ip m e n t f o r t h e c l a s s e s w h i c h t h e y w i l l b e a p t t o t e a c h upon t h e i r
en tran ce in to th e f ie l d ?
I s p r o v i s i o n made f o r
correct
s e a t in g o f p u p ils
under th e d i r e c t i o n o f s t u d e n t te a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s ?
These are
64
q u e s t i o n s which t h i s s tu d y a t t e m p t s t o a n sw er .
B la o k sto n e , in d is c u s s in g
t h e problem o f proper s e a t i n g a r r a n g e m e n ts f o r t h e t y p e w r i t i n g c l a s s r o o m ,
has t h e f o ll o w i n g t o say w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t y p e w r i t i n g d e s k :
The c r i t e r i a fo r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a d e s k s h o u ld b e
s e r v i c e a b i l i t y , a d eq u a cy , s i z e o f c l a s s , s i z e o f room , end
c o s t per s t u d e n t hour.
I f t h e t y p e w r i t i n g room i s n o t used
fo r t y p e w r it in g t h e e n t i r e s c h o o l d a y , t h e d ro p -h ea d d e s k i s
p r e f e r a b l e , i n s p i t e o f a somewhat g r e a t e r i n i t i a l o u t l a y ,
as o th e r c l a s s e s may u s e t h e room v/hen i t i s not o c c u p ie d by
a t y p e w r it in g c l a s s , . . .
I f t h e room i s used f o r t y p e w r i t i n g
e v e r y period o f t h e d a y , th e n t h e lo n g t a b l e i s p r e f e r a b l e
because o f i t s g r e a t e r econom y und i t s a d j u s t a b i l i t y t o ch a n g in g
e n r o llm e n t s .
Under e i t h e r c o n d i t i o n t h e r e i s l i t t l e j u s t i ­
f i c a t i o n fo r th e s m e l l , i n d i v i d u a l t y p e w r i t e r d e s k .
Desks should o r d i n a r i l y be about 27 i n c h e s h i g h , but a
few should be h ig h er and a fev/ lo w e r t o p r o v i d e f o r t a l l and
s h o r t s t u d e n t s . The a d j u s t a b l e d e s k and c h a i r a r e n o t
a d v i s a b l e , b e c a u s e t h e y r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e tim e t o a d j u s t ,
end i t would be v e r y t r o u b l e s o m e t o a d j u s t a d esk f o r ea ch
p eriod of t h e d a y . -Lf t h e d e s k i s a d j u s t e d t o a c e r t a i n
h e ig h t end l e f t a t t h a t h e i g h t f o r & c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r io d
of t im e , i t i s no b e t t e r th a n a n o n a d ju s t& b le d e s k .^
In d i s c u s s i n g t h e p h y s i c a l eq u ip m en t o f t h e sh o rth a n d c l a s s r o o m ,
Lomax and ’.Valsh w r i t e , "Desks w i t h s l o p i n g t o p s should be a d j u s t a b l e as
t o h e ig h t ." ^
Table XXIV i n d i c a t e s t h e e x t e n t t o which t h i s ty p e o f d e s k
i s used end, in a d d i t i o n , i n d i c a t e s t h e o t h e r t y p e s o f d e s k s w h ic h are
used in t h e cla ssro o m s where sh o r th a n d i s t& u g h t .
The d e s k w h ic h i s
rep orted t o be used most o f t e n i s t h e t a b l e w h ic h i s o f one h e i g h t .
This t y p e i s r e p o r te d aa t h e
one m ost o f t e n u sed i n t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s
o f a l l th r e e typ es of i n s t i t u t i o n s .
A fu rth er
a n a ly s is o f the t a b l e
d i s c l o s e s that p r o v i s i o n s oro made i n about an eq u a l number o f i n s t a n c e s
1 . E. G. B la o k sto n e , o £ . o i t . ,
pp. 7 1 -7 2 .
2 , Paul S . Lomax and John V. IT alsh, Problem s o f T each in g S h o rth a n d , New
Yorki P r e n t i o e - H a l l , I n c . , 1 9 3 0 , p . 1 6 4 .
66
TABLE XXIV
TYPES OF DESKS ISED IK TYPEWRITING, SHORTHAND, AND BOOKKEEPING CLASSES TAUGHT
B y STUDENT TEACHERS OF THESE SUBJECTS iN BOTH CAMPUS AND UFF-CALPUS TRAINING
SCHOOLS, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
T im es M en tion ed
T ypes o f D esk s
S tate
T eaoh ers
C o lle g e s
S tate
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r sitie s
P riv a te
C o lle g e s
and Uni­
v e r sitie s
T otal
TYPEWRITING CLASSES
T a b les o f v a r i o u s h e i g h t s
T a b le s o r e h e i g h t
C losed t y p e w r i t e r d e s k s
S oh ool d e s k s o f v a r i o u s h e i g h t s
Soh ool d e s k s one h e i g h t
T a b le s a d j u s t a b l e a s t o h e i g h t
S oh o o l d e s k s a d j u s t a b l e as t o
h eig h t
T a b le s or d e s k s accom m odating
two or more p e r s o n s
SHORTHAND CLASSES
T a b le s one h e i g h t
S o h o o l d e s k s one h e i g h t
Sohool d e sk s o f v a r io u s h e ig h ts
T a b les o f v a r i o u s h e i g h t s
S c h o o l d e s k s a d j u s t a b l e as t o
h eig h t
C lo sed t y p e w r i t e r d e s k s
T a b le s a d j u s t a b l e a s t o h e i g h t
T a b le s o r d e s k s accom m odating
two o r more p e r s o n s
BOOKKEEPING CLASSES
T a b le s one h e i g h t
Soh ool d e s k s o f v a r i o u s h e i g h t s
T a b le s o f v a r i o u s h e i g h t s
S oh o ol d e s k s one h e i g h t
S c h o o l d e s k s a d j u s t a b l e as t o
h eig h t
T a b le s a d j u s t a b l e as t o h e i g h t
C lo sed t y p e w r i t e r
T ab lee or d e s k s accom modating
two or more p e r s o n s
19
16
5
2
4
3
18
10
4
5
2
1
4
6
6
4
2
1
41
32
14
11
8
5
1
1
1
3
5
7
3
15
10
7
4
3
6
3
5
6
6
1
4
1
21
11
13
10
6
2
0
1
1
1
2
3
1
9
6
2
2
8
3
13
6
3
4
6
7
5
4
1
5
2
1
1
10
10
9
8
6
1
1
0
2
1
2
1
0
8
4
2
6
4
3
13
66
f o r a d j u s t i n g t h e p u p i l s t o t h e h e i g h t s o f t h e d e s k s or t h e d e s k s t o t h e
h e i g h t s o f t h e p u p i l s , and o f i n s t a n c e s w h e re no p r o v i s i o n s a re made f o r
ad ju stm en ts.
A r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll
c l o s e d t y p e w r i t e r d e s k s a r e u sed
number o f i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t t h a t
i n s h o rth a n d c l a s s r o o m s .
T a b le s accommo­
d a t i n g two or more p e r s o n s seem t o b e u sed more o f t e n i n t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s
of s ta te co lleg es
tu tio n s.
and u n i v e r s i t i e s
t h a n i n t h e o t h e r tw o t y c e s n f i n s t i ­
T h e r e seems t o bo j:o s e t t y p e
e x c l u s i o n o f o th e r t y p e s i n t h e
Xn d i s c u s s i n g
o f d e s k w h ic h i s u sed t o t h e
sh o r th a n d c l a s s r o o m .
t h e p h y s i c a l e q u i p m e n t o f tri e b o o k k e e p i n g c l a s s r o o m ,
Lomax tnd Agnew w r i t e , "Desks s h o u l d be f i x e d t o t h e f l o o r and sh ould be
a d j u s t a b l e or o f v a r i o u s h e i g h t s . T h e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e d id n o t c a l l f o r
in fo r m a tio n r e l a t i v e to d esk s b e in g fix e d t o th e f l o o r b u t resp on d en ts w ere
s sk ed t o i n d i o a t e as
t o w h e th e r o r n o t d e s k s w ere a d j u s t a b l e or o f v a r i o u s
h e ig h ts.
shows t h a t t a b l e s o f one h e i g h t e r e u sed more o f t e n
T a b le XXIV
t h a n any o t h e r t y p e o f d e s k i n t h e
b o o k k eep in g c l a s s r o o m .
desks o f v a r io u s h e i g h t s , s c h o o l d e sk s
v a r i o u s h e i g h t s , and
However, s c h o o l
a d ju s ta b le ast o h e ig h t , t a b le s o f
t a b l e s a d j u s t a b l e as t o h e i g h t , a r e u sed more f r e ­
q u e n t l y t h a n a re d e s k s and t a b l e s w h ich a r e n o t a d j u s t a b l e a s t o h e i g h t or o f
t h e same h e i g h t s .
The same i s t r u e o f s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s and s t a t e
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
An e q u a l number o f t h e p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and
u n i v e r s i t i e s u s e t a b l e s or d e s k s w h ich a r e o f v a r i o u s h e i g h t s or a d j u s t a b l e
as t o h e i g h t s .
Very l i t t l e
u s e i s made o f c l o s e d t y p e w r i t e r d e s k s .
Rel­
a t i v e l y * s p e a k i n g , v e r y few o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s u s e t a b l e s accommodating
1 . Paul S . Lomax and P e t e r L. A gnew , Problem s o f T ea ch in g B o o k k eep in g ,
New i o r k t P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n o . , 1 9 3 0 , p . 1 9 4 .
two or more p e r s o n s i n t h e bookkeeping c la s a r o o m s c f t h e i r t r a i n i n g
sc h o o ls.
Types o f C h a i r s Used i n T y p e w r itin g , S h o r th a n d , and B o o k k e e p in g
C l a s s e s T au gh t by S tu d e n t T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s
B l a o k s t o n e d e s c r i b e d w hat he b e l i e v e s to be t h e b e s t t y p e o f c h a i r
for th e t y p e w r itin g
o la s s r o o in as f o l l o w s t
The o r d i n a r y kind o f ch air i s p r o b a b ly s a t i s f a o t o r y f o r
ty p e w r itin g .
V a r io u s makes o f s p e c i a l c h a i r s a r e on t h e m a r k e t ,
and t h o s e w i t h a s p e c i a l p osture b a ck are p r o b a b ly d e s i r a b l e *
The c h a i r s h o u l d n o t be fa s t e n e d t o t h e f l o o r b e c a u s e s t u d e n t s may
w i s h t o move n e a r e r t o or fa r th e r from t h e t y p e w r i t i n g m a c h in e
e i t h e r b e c a u s e o f t h e le n g t h o f t h e i r arms, or f o r some o t h e r
good r e a s o n .
The c h a i r should be a r m l e s s , s i n c e arms t e n d t o
o b s t r u c t t h e f r e e movements o f t h e t y p i s t s ; end w h i l e s w i v e l
c h a i r s may b e d e s i r a b l e , they are more e x p e n s i v e and a re n o t
e sse n tia l.
Lomax and Agnew have w r i t t e n th e f o l l o w i n g w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o
type o f c h a ir w h ic h i s
th e
s u i t a b l e for u s e i n the b o o k k e e p in g c l a s s r o o m ;
The c h a i r s s h o u ld b e c o m fo r ta b le and s h o u ld be e i t h e r
a d j u s t a b l e o r o f v a r i o u s h e ig h t s .
V/here c o n d i t i o n s p e r m i t ,
m ovable c h a i r s may be u s e d . They som etim es c a u s e t h e c l a s s ­
room t o b e a b i t n o i s y , but t h i s d i f f i c u l t y c a n e a s i l y be
overcome b y p l a c i n g r u b b ers on t h e bottom o f t h e l e g s . 2
T a b le XXV sh o w s t h a t th e cu rren t p r a c t i c e r e l a t i v e t o t h e t y p e o f
c h a ir u sed i n t h e
sh orth a n d cla ssr o o m o f t h e t r a i n i n g
t h e a u t h o r i t a t i v e s t a t e m e n t g iv e n a b o v e.
A lth ou gh t h e t y p e o f c h a i r w h ic h
i s m ost o f t e n u s e d i s m o v a b le, it i s o n e which i s n o t
However, t h e t y p e
vjhich i s
s o h o o l s d i f f e r s fro m
e d ju ste b le
o f c h a i r w hich i s u sed secon d most o f t e n i s t h e m ovable c h a i r
e d j u s t o b l e as t o h e ig h t ,
'.7ith one e x c e p t i o n , t h e same
be made i n t h e e s s e o f e a c h ty p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n s t u d i e d i n t h i s
1. B la o k sto n e , o p .
as to h e ig h t.
o lt.,
p. 72.
2 . Lomax and A gnew , o p . o i t . ,
p. 196.
s t a t e m e n t s can
d o c u m e n t.
In
68
th e t r a in in g s c h o o ls o f te a c h e r s c o l l e g e s ,
t h e t y p e o f c h a i r s u sed second
most o f t e n in t h e b o o k k e e p in g c l a s s e s i n u n a d j u s t a b l e as t o h e i g h t and
a t a t io n a r y *
TABLE XXV
TYPES OF CHAIRS USED IN TYPEWRITING, SHORTHAND, AND BOOKKEEPING
GLASSES TAUGHT BY STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS IN BOT1I
CALFUS AND OFF-CAMPUS TRAINING SCHOOLS, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
Times M en tion ed
Types o f ChairB
I
<
S tate
T eachers
C o lle g e s
i
S tate
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r sitie s
P riv a te
T otal
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r sitie s
TYPEWRITING CLASSES
U n a d ju s ta b le a s t o h e i g h t and m ovable
A d j u s t a b l e as t o h e i g h t and m ovable
A d j u s t a b l e as t o h e i g h t and s t a t i o n a r y
U n a d j u s t a b le a s t o h e ig h t and s t a t i o n a r y
28
6
2
3
18
4
2
2
5
4
2
0
51
14
6
5
22
2
5
2
15
4
4
2
4
4
0
3
41
10
9
7
21
2
6
3
11
8
2
1
2
4
0
3
34
14
8
7
SHORTHAND CLASSES
U n a d j u s t a b le as t o h e i g h t and m ovable
A d j u s t a b le as t o h e i g h t and m ovable
U n a d ju s ta b le as t o h e i g h t and s t a t i o n a r y
A d j u s t a b l e as t o h e i g h t and s t a t i o n a r y
BOOKKEEPING CLASSES
U n a d j u s t a b le as t o h e i g h t and m ovable
A d j u s t a b l e as t o h e i g h t and m o vab le
U n a d j u s t a b le as t o h e i g h t and s t a t i o n a r y
A d j u s t a b l e as t o h e i g h t and s t a t i o n a r y
69
T a b le XXV shows t h a t t h e m ov ab le c h a i r i a u sed i n f a r more o a s e s t h a n t h e
sta tio n a r y c h a ir .
I t w ould seem , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
b u y in g t h e eq u ip m en t used i n t r a i n i n g s o h o o l t y p e w r i t i n g c l a s s e s would
g e n e r a l l y a g r e e w i t h t h e s e c r i t e r i a f o r c h a i r s e l e c t i o n as g i v e n by
B la o k sto n e.
little
It is
a l s o e v i d e n t from t h e s t u d y o f th e t a b l e t h a t r e l a t i v e l y
p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r e d j u s t i n g th e c h a i r s as t o h e i g h t s .
The s t a t e ­
m e n ts i n t h i s p a ra g ra p h w ould seem t o t p g l y e q u a l l y as w e l l t o e a c h o f t h e
ty p e s of I n s t i t u t i o n s
in c l u d e d
in t h i s
stud y.
Lomax and '.Velsh p r e s e n t c r i t e r i a f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f eq u ip m en t f o r
t h e s h o rth a n d c l a s s r o o m .
s h o u ld be a d j u s t a b l e .
They s t a t e w i t h r e g a r d t o c h a i r s t h a t , " C h a ir s
Some p r e f e r t h e m ovable c h a i r .
’.Then m ovab le o h a i r s
are p r o v i d e d , t h e y s h o u ld b e p r o v id e d w i t h r u b b e r f e e t . " ^
The t a b l e show s
t h a t c h a i r s used i n t r a i n i n g s c h o o l sh orthan d c l a s s e s a re most o f t e n un­
a d ju sta b le as t o h e ig h t
and m o v a b le .
I n term s o f a d j u s t a b i l i t y , t h i s p r a c t i c e
w ould seom t o d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e o r l t e r i a g i v e n by Lomax and Y alah.
The t y p e
o f e h ^ ir m ost o f t e n u sed i n g e n e r a l i s t h e t y p e w hich i s most o f t e n u s e d oy
ea o h ty p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n in c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y .
Summary
1.
E i g h t y - e i g h t o f t h e 13 6 i n s t i t u t i o n s known t o o f f e r s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g
i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s c o o p e r a t e d i n making t h i s
stud y p o s s i b l e .
T h is number
i s 6 4 . 7 per o e n t o f t h e number known t o o f f e r c o u r s e s i n s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g
in b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s .
T h is p e r c e n t a g e r e p r e s e n t s 3 1 . 3 p er o en t o f t h e
t o t a l number o f s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s ,
1 . Lom&x and Yfalah, o £ . o l t . , p . 1 5 4 .
s t a r e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
and
70
p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s end u n i v e r s i t i e s l i s t e d
w hich f a l l 'w ithin t h e l i m i t s
i n th e 1939 E d u c a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r y
o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n s r i v e n on p a g e s
£ and 6 o f
t h i s docum ent.
2 . E le v e n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s or com binetion.3 o f t y p e s o f s c h o o l s a r e used
f o r p u r p o se s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g
of fa c ilitie s
are cs f o l l o w s i
in b u sin e ss su b je c ts.
o ff-c M n n u s s c h o o l s , campus s c h o o l s , c o l l e g e
s u b j e c t m a tter c l a s s e s and p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s s c h o o l s .
itie s
The d i s t i n c t t y p e s
T h ese t y p e s o f f a c i l ­
are g i v e n i n t h e o r d e r o f t h e i r fr e q u e n c y of m e n t io n .
3 . I n s t i t u t i o n s p r e p a r in g t e a c h e r s
th e f a c i l i t i e s o f th e p r iv a te b u sin e ss
o f b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s a r e n o t u s i n g
s o h o o ls f o r p u r p o s e s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h ­
in g i n b u s i n e s s t o th e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y d id in th e p a s t .
trend
T h is p r a c t i c e or
i s in agreem ent w i t h t h e b e s t t h o u g h t o f t h o s e who have s t u d i e d th e
f e e l l i t i e s w hich should be used f o r p u r p o s e s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g in b u s i n e s s
su b jects,
4 . The p u r p o se s f o r w h ic h campus s c h o o l s are u s e d ,
f r e q u e n c y o f m e n tio n , f o l l o w *
end e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n .
in t h e o r d e r o f t h e i r
s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g , o b s e r v a t i o n , d e m o n s t r o p io n ,
P r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s make v e r y l i t t l e
u se
o f th e cwnpus s c h o o l s f o r any o f t h e f o u r r v r o o s e s m e n t io n e d .
5 . The p u rp o se s fo r w h ich off-eararjus s o h o o ls a re u s e d , i n t h e o r d e r
o f t h e i r fr e q u e n c y o f m e n t io n , f o l l o w *
d e m o n s t r a t io n , ■nd e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n .
student te a c h in g , o b s e r v a t io n ,
Campus s o h o o ls are more f r e q u e n t l y
used f o r t h e l a s t t h r e e p u r p o s e s th a n a r e th e o ff-c a m p u s s o h o o l s .
6 . Of th e 53 i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t i n g on t h i s p o i n t , 5 0 , or 9 4 . 3
p er o e n t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i r o f f - c a m p u s s c h o o ls are c o n t r o l l e d
sch o o l system s.
by p u b l i c
The o t h e r t h r e e , o r 5 . 7 p er c e n t , are p u b l i c s o h o o l s con­
t r o l l e d by th e i n s t i t u t i o n s
in v o lv e d ,
71
7.
sp e c ia lise d
'//here t h i s
m e n tio n e d .
E l e v e n of t h e 88 i n s t i t u t i o n s
c u rricu la w ith in th e f i e l d
in c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y r e p o r t
o f b u sin e ss tea ch er tr a in in g .
p l a n i s f o l l o w e d , f o u r c u r r i c u l a i s t h e number m ost o f t e n
These are t h e
J e c r e t ' j r i a l C u r r ic u lu m , t h e n o c o u n t in g
C u rricu lu m , t h e m e r c h a n d is in g C u r r ic u lu m , end t h e G eneral B u s i n e s s
C u rricu lu m .
I n term s o f p e r c e n t a g e s , t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i­
v e r s i t i e s o f f e r more s p e c i a l i z e d
c u r r i c u l a th en th e oth er tw o ty p e s
of i n s t i t u t i o n s .
0.
In 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 0 , a p p r o x im a t e l y 3 . 2 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o l l e g e s o f f e r i n g
student te a c h in g in b u sin e ss
s u b j e c t s D rovid ed a c u r r ic u lu m w h ic h was
et le a s t f i v e years in le n g th .
per c e n t i s
9 . 2 per c e n t .
T h is i n c r e a s e i n t h e l e n g t h o f t h e b u s i n e s s
tea ch er t r a in in g c u r r ic u la i s
H
D u r in g t h e s c h o o l y o u r , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 , t h i s
a d v o c a t e d oy some s t u d e n t s o f t h e p rob lem .
&I 30 may be cau sed by i n c r e a s e d l e n g t h r e q u ir e m e n t s o f s t a t e c e r t i ­
f ic a t in g a g en cies.
9.
w h ic h o f f e r
At l e e a t 8 3 . 0 per c e n t o f t h e
stu d en t te a c h in g in o u s in e s s
a t i n g t h e w ork o f D ep a rtm en ts
i n s t i t u t i o n s in clu d ed in t h i s stu d y
s u b j e c t s u s e some means o f c o o r d i n ­
or S o h o o l s o f E d u c a t io n and D ep artm en ts or
S c h o o ls o f Commerce w i t h t h e work o f t h e t r a i n i n g s o h o o l s .
W riters g e n e r a l ly
a g r e e t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e i s w i s e and one w h ic h s h o u ld be g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w e d .
The method m ost o f t e n m en tio n ed i s t h a t o f h a v in g d e p a rtm en t members s h a r e
in th e s u p e r v is io n o f stu d e n t t e a c h in g
in t r a i n i n g s o h o o l b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
Two o t h e r m eth od s o f c o o r d i n a t i o n a re p r o v id e d i n a t l e a s t o n e - t h i r d
of th e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
or more
They a re p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t r a i n i n g
s o h o o l p o l i c i e s r e l a t i v e t o s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g in b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s and t h e
Y2
t e a c h i n g o f one o r more b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s i n t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l .
D ep a rtm en ts or S o h o o l s o f E d u c a t io n a ttem p t t o p r o v id e some method
o f c o o r d i n a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e c o l l e g e d e p a r tm e n t and th e t r a i n i n g
s c h o o l s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t th a n i s t r u e o f t h e D ep artm en ts or
S c h o o ls o f Commerce.
1 0. B u sin ess s u b je o ts o ffe r e d
in g s o h o o l s a re f i r s t - y e a r
i n more t h a n o n e - h a l f o f t h e t r a i n ­
t y p e w r it in g , f i r s t - y e a r sh orthan d , f i r s t -
y e a r b o o k k e e p in g , e l e m e n t a r y b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g ,
secon d -year t y p e w r it in g ,
and s e o o n d -y e a r s h o r t h a n d .
1 1 . In g e n e r a l , th e o f f e r i n g s In t r a in i n g sch o o l b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s
are i n c l o s e a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e o f f e r i n g s in t h e sm all h ig h s o h o o l s o f
t h e U n ited S t a t e s d u r in g 1 9 3 6 - 1 9 3 7 .
1 2 . S t u d e n t t e a c h e r B o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s may have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y
t o s e l e c t more s u b j e c t s i n w h ich t o do s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i f t h e y are
e n r o l l e d i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s th a n t h e y may i f t h e y are
e n r o l l e d i n t h e o t h e r two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f e d u o a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s
in c lu d e d in t h i s
stu d y.
I n t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
t h i r t e e n s u b j e o t s a r e o f f e r e d i n more th a n o n e - h s l f o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s *
I n t h e s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s and i n t h e s t a t e
fiv e
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
s u b j e o t s a r e o f f e r e d i n more t h e n o n e - h a l f o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
13. D istin c tiv e
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e c u r r ic u la o f th e t r a i n i n g
s c h o o l s e r e a s c e r t a i n a b l e from a s t u d y o f t h e d a t a found i n t h i s d o c u ­
m en t.
P r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s and s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i ­
v e r s i t i e s t e n d t o e m p h a siz e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s t y p e w r i t i n g and
sh o rth a n d as a u e c o n d - y e r r c o u r s e t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t thF3n t h e s t s t,e
73
tocch ers colleges.
tu tio n s
Thi s p r o b a b l y means t h a t t h e s e tw o t y p e s o f i n s t i ­
a d v o c a t e th e t r a i n i n g o f h ig h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s f o r v o c a t i o n 1
e f f i c i e n c y t o a pres t e r
col]ages.
ten d t o
o x t e n t t h a n i s e d v o o r te d i n t h e
hers
S t a t e te a c h e r s c o l l e g e s and s t a t e c o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s
em p h a size u ookkeeping as e o n e - y e a r c o u r s e t o
a g reater exten t
t h a n t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s end u n i v e r s i t i e s .
c le r ic a l
sta te te'
o ffic e
S e c r e t a r ia l o f f ic e p r a c tic e ,
p r a c t i c e , and t r a i n i n g f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i v e o c c u p a t io n s
a r e n o t g i v e n much emphasis i n many o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s in c l u d e d i n
th is
stu d y.
14.
The c l a s s s i z e s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s
are g e n e r a l l y l u r g e r in
o f f - c a m p u s s o h o o ls than t h e y are i n campus s o h o o l s *
b u sin e ss
C la ss s iz e s of
s u b j e c t s are g e n e r a l l y l a r g e r i n t h e o f f - c a m p u s s c h o o l s o f
t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a n t h e y a r e i n e i t h e r t h e cam­
pus o r o ff-c a m p u s s o h o o ls o f th e o th e r two t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
1 5 . There i s r a th er g e n e r a l agreem ent as t o t h e p u r p o s e s o f stu d e n t
te a c h in g
in b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
For th e m o st p a r t t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s ta k e
t h e fo r m o f proper knowledge or s u b j e c t m a t t e r o u t c o m e s , t h e developm ent
o f t e c h n i q u e s and methods o f t e a c h ng b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s , t h e developm en t
o f p r o fe ssio n a l
id ea ls, in t e r e s t s ,
and a t t i t u d e s , t h e d ev elo p m en t o f
e x t r a - c l a s s r o o m r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f p ro p er p e r s o n a l
q u a litie s.
A number o f a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e f i e l d
g e n e r a l h o \ e o u t lin e d s i m i l a r l i s t s
o b j e c t i v e s can be c l a s s i f i e d
o f s tu d e n t tea ch in g in
of o b je c tiv e s.
T h e r e f o r e , th e s e
as b e in g d e s i r a b l e .
v 16* A p p ro xim ately t w o - f i f t h s o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s
have prepared
d e f i n i t e l i s t s o f o b j e c t i v e s fo r s tu d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s .
The o b j e c t i v e s a re u s u a l l y d e v e lo p e d b y t h e d i r e c t o r o f s t u d e n t t e e e h i n g
in b u sin e ss su b jects*
He i s ,
in some i n s t a n c e s ,
a id ed i n t h e d ev elo p m en t
o f s u c h l i s t s b y t h e t r a i n i n g or d e p a r tm e n t s u p e r v i s o r s .
u a l s have l i t t l e
stu d en t te a c h in g
p a rt in t h e d evelop m en t o f l i s t s
in b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
d e v e lo p m e n t o f such l i s t s
a u t h o r i t i e s tro c o r r e c t ,
Other i n d i v i d ­
o f o b je c tiv e s for
A u t h o r it ie s b e li e v e th a t th e
s h o u ld be a c o o p e r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e .
it
If th ese
i s p r o b a b le t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f s t u d e n t
t e a c h i n g in b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s c o u ld be made t o f u n c t i o n more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y
i f more d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s were g iv e n a p a r t i n t h e d ev elo p m en t o f
su ch l i s t s ,
1 7 , E ig h t t y p e s o f m achine equipm ent e r e p r o v id e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l
p u r p o s e s in 5 0 , 0 p er o e n t or more o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g s t u d e n t
t e a c h in g in b u sin e ss s u b j e o t s .
These e i g h t t y p e s , i n t h e o r d e r o f f r e ­
q u en cy o f m e n t io n , are s ta n d a rd t y p e w r i t e r s w it h p i c a t y p e , s t e n c i l
d u p l i c a t o r s , adding m a c h in e s , stan d ard t y p e w r i t e r s w i t h e l i t e t y p e s , e
s to p w a tc h e s, hectograph d u p l ic a t o r s ,
a t ndard s i z e
correspondence f i l e s ,
, end i n t e r v a l t i m e r s .
1 8 , E ig h t t y p e s o f equipment i n t h e s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s ,
t y p e s i n t h e s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
seven
and t h i r t e e n t y p e s o f
eq u ip m en t i n t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e p r o v id e d f o r
i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s i n 5 0 , 0 per c e n t o r more o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f
th ese th ree ty p es,
1 9 , luiore d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f eq uipm ent a r e u sed in t h e campus s o h o o l s
t h a n i n t h e o ff-c a m p u s s c h o o l s o f t h e s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s .
The o p p o s i t e
i s t r u e i n t h e c a s e o f t h e s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
\ 2 0 . The t y p e s o f d e s k s and c h a i r s m ost o f t e n u sed i n t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l
76
d e s s e s i n t y p e w r i t i n g e r e t a b l e s o f v a r i o u s h e i g h t s and o h a i r s w h ich
are u n a d j u s t a b l e as t o h e i g h t and m o v a b le .
In g e n e r a l, t h e s e ty p e s o f
d e s k s and c h e i r s conform t o t h e t y p e s recommended b y B la o k s t o n e f o r
ty p e w r itin g cla ssro o m s.
21* The t y p e s o f d e s k s and c h a i r s u s e d most o f t e n in t h e t r a i n i n g
s c h o o l c l a s s e s in sh o rth an d
are t a b l e s o f one h e i g h t and c h o i r s w h ich
are u n a d j u s t a b l e as t o h e i g h t end m o v a b le .
T a b le s o f one h e i g h t do n o t
conform t o t h e t y p e recommended b y Lomax and 7 a ] s h .
2 2 . The t y p e s o f d e s k s and c h a i r s u sed most o f t e n in t h e t r a i n i n g
s c h o o l c l a s s e s i n b o o k k e ep in g e r e t a b l e s
are u n ad ju sted l e
o f one h e i g h t and c h a i r s w h ic h
as t o h e i g h t and m o v a b le ,
h e i t h e r t h e d e s k s nor c h a i r s
used i n t h e b o o k k e e p in g c l a s s r o o m s co n fo rm t o t h e t y p e s recommended by
Lomax and Agnew.
2 3 . There i s a g r e a t v a r i a t i o n
fa c ilitie s
p r o v id e d in t h e
c la v e s
in t h e t v p e s o f d e s k s and s e a t i n g
in t y p e w r it in g , sh orthan d ,
k e e p in g i n t h e " training s c h o o l s o f t h e I n s t i t u t i o n s
stud y.
and b o o k ­
in clu d ed in t h i s
T h is v a r i a t i o n e x i s t s n o t o n l y i n t h e c a s e o f a l l t y p e s o f
i n s t i t u t i o n s combined b u t a l s o i n t h e c a s e o f campus and . ff-oem rjus
sc h o o ls
i n o-=ch ^yne o f i n s t i t u t i o n .
r»:vv
y
j ! •k u m v ^ s i i Y
CHAPTER I I I
THE INSTRUCTIONAL STAFF RESPONSIBLE FOR STUDENT IE ACHING IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS
An a t t e m p t l a made h e r e t o a s c e r t a i n th e s t a t u s o f t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
th e conduot o f d ir e c t e d te a c h in g
c o lle g e s,
s t a t e c o lle g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
in b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
and in s e l e c t e d
p riv a te c o l l e g e s
I n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the s t a f f r e -
^ x n s i b l e f o r t h e c o n d u c t o f a program o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g , Head w r i t e s a s
fo llo w s t
The modern l a b o r a t o r y s o h o o l has a v a r ie d group o f w o r k e r s ,
w i t h a d i f f i c u l t s e t o f ou tcom es and o b j e c t i v e s t o a t t a i n .
T h is
s t a f f m u st b e w e l l p r e p a r e d , r i c h i n e x p e r i e n c e o f c e r t a i n t y p e s ,
a d a p t a b l e , p r o f e s s i o n a l i n a t t i t u d e , and p o s s e s s e d o f an u n u s u a l
m o r a le .
On t h e w ork o f t h i s s t a f f depends th e s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e
o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s and t h e s u c c e s s or f a i l ­
u r e o f modern e d u c a t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n .^
I n t h e seme c o n n e c t i o n . Gamble r e p o r t s in The N a t io n a l S u rvey o f t h e
E d u c a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s , " A lth o u g h t h e r e i s a lm ost no s a t i s f a c t o r y e v i d e n c e
t o show t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n snd e x p e r i e n c e o f a c o l l e g e f a c u l t y has a
d i r e c t b e a r i n g upon t h e q u a l i t y end e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e g r a d u e t e s , t h e r e
a re fe w p e r s o n a who w i l l q u e s t i o n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f suoh a r e l a t i o n s h i p . "2
1 . H ead, o p . c i t . , p. 5 6 5 .
2 . Guy C. G am ble, e t a l , The N a t i o n a l S u rvey o f t h e E d u ca tio n o f T e a c h e r s ,
iV a a h in g t o n , D. C . * Government P r i n t i n g O f f i o e , U nited S t a t e s O f f i c e
o f E d u c a t i o n , b u l l e t i n 1 9 3 3 , No. 1 0 , V o l. I l l , p . 1 4 3 .
77
TABLE XXVI
NUMBER OF SUPERVISORS OF STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS vVHO CAVE
INFORMATION ON THE PERSONNEL BLANKS AND THE NUMBER OF INSTITUTIONS
REPRESENTED BY TEJESE SUF5RVISCRS, 1 9 3 5 - 1 9 3 9
Tvpe o f I n s t i t u t i o n s
Number o f
R espondenta
Number o f
In stitu tlo n s
S t a t e Teachers C o lle g e s
72
38
S t a t e C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s
41
30
P r i v a t e C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s
23
12
Number o f I n s t i t u t i o n s n o t r e p r e s e n t e d
Tot a l
8
1 36
88
Number o f R e p l i e s R e c e iv e d
T a b le XXVI shows t h a t Form 11^- o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e t u r n e d by
136 s u p e r v i s o r s
o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s c f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s r e p r e s e n t i n g 86
o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s c o o p e r a t i n g in making th e s t u d y p o s s i b l e *
On t h i s
b a s i s o f 1 . 5 4 s u p e r v i s o r s f o r each i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e r e a r e 209 i n d i v i d u a l s
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u p e r v i s i n g s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
t h r e e t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d in t h i s
stu d y.
s u b j e c t s in th e
Of t h e s e , 94 e r e
w o r k in g w i t h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s tnd u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
and 3b a r e w o r k in g w i t h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s in t h e s e l e c t e d
end u n i v e r s i t i e s
in c lu d e d
in t h i s stu d y .
t o o lo w a s no r e s p o n s e w as r e o e i v e d
1 . S e e A p p e n d ix , p . 319.
T hese f i g u r e s
p r iv a te c o lle g e s
are l i k e l y t o be
from a few i n s t i t u t i o n s )
some o f t h e
78
i n s t r u c t o r s i n some o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s d i d n o t f i l l
end t h e r e i s
in th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s ,
e v i d e n c e t h a t many o f t h e t e a c h e r s w o rk in g i n p u h l i o s c h o o l
s y s t e m s who c o o p e r * t e i n t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g programs d id n o t f i l l
in th e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e on p e r s o n n e l .
Of t h e 1 3 6 i n d i v i d u a l s who r e t u r n e d t h e p e r s o n n e l q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,
t h i r t e e n , or 9 . 5 p er c e n t , are p a id f o r s u p e r v i s i n g s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f
b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s by b o t h t h e c o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s
p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m s , and f i v e ,
r u b lic sohool sy ste m s.
In t h i s
and by
or 3 . 6 p e r c e n t , a r e p a id o n l y b y
s t u d y , t h e s e two g r o u p s are compared
w i t h t h e group w h ich r e c e i v e s i t s
u n iv e r s it y in v o lv e d .
in v o l v e d
c o m p e n s a t io n o n l y from t h e c o l l e g e or
I t was o r i g i n a l l y I n te n d e d t h a t tV:eso two g ro u p s
w h ic h d id n o t r e c e i v e a l l o f t h e i r c o m p e n s a t io n from t h e c o l l e g e or
u n i v e r s i t y i n v o lv e d w ould be b ro k en down i n t o t h e t h r e e i n s t i t u t i o n a l
t y r e s rep resen ted in t h i s
® n ts
stu d y.
However, t h e 6 m all number o f r e s p o r d -
o f t h i s t y p e w ould te n d t o i n v a l i d a t e s u c h a d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n .
TABLE y x v i l
RICHEST LEVEL OF TRAINING OF SHPuRVISCRS OF STUDENT TEMPERS OF
BUSINESS SlbJKCTS, 1 9 3 6 - 1 9 3 9
H ig h est L evel
of Training*
S tate
Teachers
C o lle g e s
S tate
C o lle g e s
end TJniv e r sitie s
"Total
P riv a te
C o lle g e s
and U n lv e r sitie s
Hum­ Per
Num­
b er
Cent b er
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
P er
C ent
6
3 .6
4
1 0 .3
0
0 .0
10
7 .6
One y e a r o f g r a d u a te work
39
5 5 .7
18
4 6 .1
10
4 3 .5
67
5 0 .8
Two y e a r s o f g r a d u a te work
16
2 2 .8
13
3 3 .3
3
1 3 .0
32
2 4 .2
T hree or more y e a r s o f
g r a d u a t e work
9
1 2 .9
4
1 0 .3
10
4 3 .5
23
1 7 .4
T otal
70
1C 0.0
39
1 0 0 .0
*-- —.
23
1 0 0 .0
132
1 0 0 .0
Four y e e r s o f C o l l e g e
*
Per
Cent
One year o f g r a d u a t e work i s u n d e r s to o d t o mean 32 s e m e s t e r h o u rs or
th e ir e q u iv a le n t.
1
79
H igh est Level o f Training
S u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s were asked t o
in d ic a te th e h ighest le v e l of t h e i r tr a in in g .
d istrib u tio n
types
of th e ir responses
included in t h i s
in. i n t e r p r e t i n g
study.
T e b l e XXVII shows t h e
according to th e th r e e in s titu tio n a l
A l i m i t a t i o n w h i c h s h o u l d be k e p t i n mind
th is tab le is
the
f a c t t h a t y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n do n o t
n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f d e g r e e s w h i c h o r d i n a r i l y accompany
th e c o m p le tio n of c e r t a i n p e r i o d s
of ed u catio n al preparation.
p a r i s o n o f t h e t a b l e w i t h T a b l e XYVTII w i l l
XXVII shows t h a t a l l t h e t e a c h e r s
college tr a in in g
have co m p le te d a t l e a s t
of the
supervisors
su p e rv iso rs in
show t h i s t o be s o .
had c o m p l e t e d
and o v e r 9 0 . 0 p e r c e n t had
year of graduate study.
A ll p r i v a t e
one y e a r
in s ta te
Table
a s much es f o u r y e a r s o f
c o m p l e t e d t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f one
c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y s u p e r v i s o r s
o f g r a d u a t e w o r k , w h i l e 91.4 p e r c e n t
teach ers co lleg es,
sta te colleges
A com­
and u n i v e r s i t i e s
and 8 9 . 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e
h av e c o m p l e t e d t h e sume amount
of tr a i n i n g .
In the h ig h e st c l e s s i f i c e t i o n r e p o r te d ,
■work, s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h e s t a t e
supervisors
v iso rs
in p riv ate colleges
in t h e
state teao h ers
colleges
t h r o e o r more y e a r s o f g r a d u a t e
and u n i v e r s i t i e s r a n k f i r s t ,
and u n i v e r s i t i e s r a n k s e c o n d ,
colleges l a s t .
and s u p e r ­
By c o m b i n i n g t h e two h i g h e s t
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , t h r e e o r m o r e y e a r s o f g r a d u a t e w o r k and two year:; o f
g r a d u a te w ork,
t h e number o f s u p e r v i s o r s who n a v e had two or more y e a r s
o f g r a d u a t e work i s o b ta in e d *
In th is
respect,
c o l l e g e s and
u n iv ersities
rank f i r s t ,
u n iv ersities
rank second,
and s u p e r v i s o r s
rank t h i r d .
s u p e r v is o r s in the p r i v a t e
s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h e s t r d . e c o l l e g e s and
in th e
s t a t e teachers colleges
80
TABLE XXVIII
HI'-HEST EARNED DECKELS OF SUE,RV1 SOPS OF S T i,m r T TEACHERS OF
BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 6 -1 5 3 9
State
Teachers
Col l e g e s
Private
C olleges
and Tfn1 ver s i t i e s
State
C olleges
and Uni ­
v ersities
Degree
lum­
ber
Per
Cent
Hum­
ber
Per
Cent
Bachelor's degree
13
16.0
12
29.3
7
m a s t e r ' s de g re e
53
73.6
26
63.4
Doctor1s degree
6
8.4
3
72
100.0
41
Total
total
Hum- I Per
ber
Cent
Hum­
ber
Per
Cen t
30.4
32
23.5
10
43.5
89
65,5
7.3
6
26.1
15
11.0
100.0
23
100.0
136
100.0
H i g h e s t Earned D e g r e e s
T ab le XXVIII shows t h e h i g h e s t ear ned d e g r e e s o f s u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t
teachers of b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s .
An a n a l y s i s
of the t a b le
shows t h a t s l i g h t l y
more t h a n t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s have e a r n e d a m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e or
doctor's degree.
In t h i s r e s p e c t , s u p e r v is o r s in the s t a t e te a c h e r s c o l l e g e s
rank f i r s t , w i t h 6 2 , 0 p e r c e r t ,
supervisors in sta te
v e r s i t i e s rank s e c o n d , w i t h 7 0 , 7 per c e n t ,
end s u p e r v i s o r s i n n r i v a t e c o l l e g e s
end u n i v e r s i t i e s ra n k t h i r d , w i t h 6 9 , 6 per c e n t ,
t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l y more o f t h e
c o l l e g e s and u n i ­
nowever,
it
s h o u l d be n o t e d
s u p e r v i s o r s i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
have e a r n e d d o c t o r ' s d e g r e e s t h a n i s
other two t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
true in the case of supervisors
in t h e
T h i s i s p r o b a b l y e x p l a i n e d by t h e f t c t t h a t
i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h i s t y p e p a y h i g h e r y e a r l y s a l a r i e s t h a n do t h e o t h e r two
81
types of i n s t it u t io n s
and, c o n s e q u e n tly , are ab le t o secu re the s e r v i c e s
o f i n d i v i d u a l s who h^ve e a rn ed t h e d o c t o r ' s d e g r e e t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t
t h a n t h e s t a t e t e a h e r s c o l l e g e s and s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
The s a l a r y s t a t u s o f s u p e r v i s o r s i s
shown i n r u b l e XLVIII.
S e c t i o n IV o f t h e ii.ir.imum S t an dar ds f o r A c c r e d i t i n g Teacher s C o l l e g e s
and normal S c h o o l s r e a d s a s f o l l o w s *
The minimum s c h o l a s t i c r e q u i r e m e n t f o r members o f the
f a c u l t y ( c o l l e g e and t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s ) s h a l l be t h e p o s s e s s i o n
of e m aster's degree or i t s eq u ivalent.
P r e p a r a t i o n should
i n c l u d e e t l e a s t 24 s e m e s t e r hours or u n d e r g r a d u a t e and/or
gr a d u at e work i n t h e f i e l d t a u g h t and a l s o p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u r s e s
i n that f i e l d .
B e c a u s e o f l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , and b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y
o f s e c u r i n g d e g r e e s i n some o f t h e s p e c i a l s u b j e c t f i e l d s , an
i n s t i t u t i o n may be c o n s i d e r e d t o have met t h i s s t a n d a r d i f n o t
more t h a n \h % o f t h e t e a c h i n g f a c u l t y d o e s n o t have t h e m a s t e r ' s
degree or i t s e q u i v a l e n t .
The q u a l i t y o f ^ i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s p i r i t
o f tn e s c h o o l , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y can be d e t e r m i n e d , s h o u l d
be c o n s i d e r e d i n a p p l y i n g t h i s st andard*^
I n terms o f d e g r e e r e q u i r e m e n t s , a l l t h r e e o l & s s e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s
( p r e p a r i n g t e a c h e r s f o r t h e com mer cia l t e a c h i n g f i e l d ) f a i l t o meet t h e
r o q n irementE s e t up by t h e American A s s o c i a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e s f o r
accrediting c o l le g e s
and normal s c h o o l s .
An e x a m i n a t i o n o f Table X V I I ,
h o w e v e r , shows t h a t I n t e r m s o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f "a m a s t e r ’ s d e g r e e or i t s
o
equivalent,"
a l l t h r e e c l a s s e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y have
met t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t .
An a n a l y s i s
o f th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s in d ic a t e s th at the h ig h est earned
degrees of the f i v e s u p e r v is o r s of student te a c h e r s of b u sin e ss s u b je c ts
1 , American A s s o c i a t i o n o f T ea ch er s C o l l e g e s , Minimum Standa rd s f o r A c c r e d i t i n g
Teaohers C o l l e g e s end Normal S c h o o l s , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 9 , S e c t i o n IV .
2 , I t a l i c s are t h o s e o f th e i n v e s t i g a t o r .
82
who are p a i d o n l y b y p u b l i c s c h o o l s s y s t e m s ere e s f o l l o w s i
d e g r e e s , 4 0 . 0 per c e n t * m e s t e r ' s d e g r e e s , 4 0 . 0 per o e n t ,
degrees,
2 0 . 0 per c e n t .
bachelor's
and d o c t o r ' s
This i n d i c a t e s f o r t h i s gr ou p a h i g h e r r a n k i n g
i n te rm s o f d o c t o r ' s d e g r e e s earned b u t a lo w er r a n k i n g i n t e r m s o f
ea rn ed m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e s as compared w i t h t h e w h o l e g rou p o f s u p e r v i s o r s
of student teach ers of business su b jec ts.
In a d d i t i o n , th e
sm a ll number
of supervisors
i n c l u d e d i n t h i s grou p t e n d s t o i n v a l i d a t e s u c h a com­
p a r i s o n and i s
g i v e n h er e f o r whet i t may be w o r t h .
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e h i g h e s t e a r n e d
degrees of the t h ir t e e n su p erv iso rs o f student tea ch er s of business
s u b j e c t s who are p a i d by b o t h t h e p u b l i c
s o h o o l s y s t e m s and t h e i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s i n v o l v e d a r e as f o l l o w s *
b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e s , 5 3 .8 per cent;
m a s t e r ’ s d e g r e e s , 4 6 . 2 par c e n t .
Ko s u p e r v i s o r i n c l u d e d i n t h i s gr ou p
has e a r n e d a d o c t o r ’ s d e g r e e .
found i n T a t l e XXVIII s h o w s ,
is
'"el - +:■ v e l y l e s s
in t h is
A c o m p a ri s o n o f t h e s e f i g u r e s w i t h t h o s e
i n terms o f e a r n e d d e g r e e s ,
thet th is
v /e ll p r o ; - r e d t h a n a l l the oth er s u p e r v i s o r s in clud ed
s t u d y . The some s t a t e m e n t may be made i n co m p ar in g t h i s
w i t h + he group
of
group
group
s u p e r v i s o r s who er e p. id o n ly b y p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m s .
S ou rce o f Earned D e g r e e s
The s u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s were
asked t o g i v e t h e s o u r o e o f t h e i r earned d e g r e e s .
T h i s w as done i n
orde r t o o b t a i n an i d e e o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l background o f t h e super­
v isors.
S o u r o e o f Earned Bao helo r* s D e g r e e s
i a b l e XXIX p r e s e n t s t h e s o u r o e o f earned b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e s o f
supervisors of student teachers of business su bjeots.
Some o f t h e
83
TABLE XXIX
SOITRCE CF E..RNED BACHELOR'S DECREES OF SUPERV ISO RS OF S 'ii DEFT
TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SU B JEC TS? 1 S 3 6 - 1 S 3 9
Type o f I n s t i t u t i o n
f o r which Supervisors
work
Number
o f De­
grees
Involved
Per Cent by Type o f I n s t i t u t i o n s from w h i a h
th e D egrees were gran ted
State
Teachera
C olleges
State
C olls geo
and U n i ­
v ersities
Fr i v a t e
C olleges
end U n i v ersitie a
Other
Types o f
In sti­
tu tion s
S t a t e Teachers
C ollege
73
52.0
26.0
4.2
17.8
S t a t e C o l l e g e s and
U n iversities
37
21.6
56.8
0.0
21.6
P r i v a t e C o l l e g e s end
Univers i t i e s
21
19.1
14.3
33.3
33.3
131
38.2
32.8
7.6
21.4
Total
•
T h i s t a b l e should be re ad as f o l l o w s t
Of 73 b a c h e l o r d e g r e e s e a r n e d b y
s u p e r v i s o r s working i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s , 5 2 , 0 per o e n t w e r e ea rn ed
in s t a t e teachers c o l l e g e s , 2 6 .0 per cent were earned i n s t a t e o o ll e g e a
and u n i v e r s i t i e s , 4*2 p er c e n t w e r e e a r n e d i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and
u n i v e r s i t i e s , end 1 7 . 8 per c e n t w e r e e a r n e d i n o t h e r t y p e s o f i n s t i ­
tu tio n s.
s u p e r v i s o r s have earned more than one b a o h e l o r ' s d e g r e e and t h i s d u p l i c a t i o n
i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the t a b u l a t i o n s .
colleges
The t a b l e sh ow s t h a t t h e s t a t e t e a c h e r s
and s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
are t h e two group o f i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s i n w hic h the l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f s u p e r v i s o r s ha ve o b t a i n e d t h e i r
undergraduate eduoation.
Of t h e s e tw o c l a s s e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l t y p e s ,
t h e s t a t e t e t h e r s c o l l e g e ranks f i r s t ,
38.2 per cen t o f th e undergraduate
d e g r e e s having been earned i n t h i s t y p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n .
State
colleges
and u n i v e r s i t i e s rank s e c o n d , 3 2 . 8 p e r o e n t o f t h e u n d e r g r a d u a t e d e g r e e s
h a v i n g b e e n earned in t h i s t y p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n .
34
Tab le XXIX a l s o shews t h a t t h e r e i s
e strong tendency t o r e c r u it
s u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s from i n s t i t u t i o n s
of th e
same t y p e i n which t h e y are employed t o t e a c h .
i f s t r o n g e s t in s f t e o ->11 « e s ,n.d u n i v e r s i t i e s
teachers c o lle g e s
This t e n d e n c y
followed
by t h e s t a t e
and by p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
This
t e n d e n c y i s t h e same as t h a t found i n The n a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f t h e e d u c a t i o n
o f T e a c h e r s f o r r e g u l a r c o l l e g e i n s t r u c t o r s and f o r s u p e r v i s o r s i n p r a c t i c e dem onstration sch ools,^
Souroe o f Earned 1/iC.ster1s D e g r e e s
Table XXX shows t h e t 103 s u p e r v i s o r s r e p o r t e d t h e s o u r c e o f t h e i r
earned m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e s .
Of t h e s e ,
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
51*5 per o e n t w e r e e a r n e d i n t h e s t a t e
3 2 . 0 r e r c e n t were e a r n e d in p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s
1 1 . 6 p e r c e n t were earned i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s ,
and 4 . 9 per c e n t were ea rn ed in o t h e r t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
a l s o shows t h a t t h e r e i s
a tendency t o r e c r u it
teachers of b u siness su bjects
from t h e
i n which t h e y are employed t o t e a c h .
t h i s tendency i s
su p e rv iso rs of student
same t y p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n as t h a t
I n ter m s o f earned m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e s ,
about t h e same In s t a t e
p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
The t a b l e
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s and i n
The f a c t t h a t t h i s t e n d e n c y i s n o t
v e r y s t r o n g i n tne> c a s e o f s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l a g e s may be e x p l a i n e d by
t h e f a c t t h a t v e r y few i n s t i t u t i o n s
o ffe r m aster's degrees.
o f t h i s ty p e , r e l a t i v e l y speaking,
This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e for s t a t e tea c h e r s
c o l l e g e s preparing tea ch er s of business s u b je o ts .
th e r e i s a strong tendency t o r e c r u it
1 . Gamble, 0 £ . e f t . ,
p.
The t a b l e shows t h a t
supervisors w ith m aster's degrees
164 and p . 2 0 8 .
85
TABLE XXX
SOURCE OF K--RNED
a
Type o f I n s t i t u t i o n
f o r Which S u p e r v i s o r s
Work-
A S T E R 'S DEGREES OF SUPERVISORS OF STUDENT TEACHERS
OF BUSINESS SU B JEC TS, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 *
Number
o f De­
grees
Involved
Per Cent by Type o f I n s t i t u t i o n s from
Which t h e D e g r e e s Were Grunted
State
Teachers
C olleges
State
C olleges
and Uni­
versities
Private
C olleges
and U n i v ersltie a
Other
Types o f
In stit u t i one
S t a t e T ea ch er s
C olleges
60
20.0
48.3
26.7
5.0
S t a t e C o l l g e s and
U n iversities
27
o.o
81.5
14.8
3.7
P rivate C olleges
and U n i v e r s i t i e s
16
0.0
12.5
81.3
6.2
103
11.6
51.5
32.0
4.9
Total
*
Th is t a b l e should be r e t d os f o l l o w s !
Of 60 m a s t e r d e g r e e s ear ne d by
s u p e r v i s o r s wor kin g i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s , 2 0 . 0 per c e n t were
g r a n t e d b y s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s , 4 8 , 3 per c e n t were g ra n t ed by
s t a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , 2 6 . 7 per c e n t were g r a n t e d b y
p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and 5 . 0 per o e n t w e r e grt-nted by
other typ es of i n s t i t u t i o n s .
f o r s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s fro m s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
S o u ro e o f Earned D o c t o r ’ a D e g r e e s
F i f t e e n su p e rv iso rs o f student te a c h e r s of b u sin e ss su b je c ts reported
t h e souroe o f t h e i r earned d o c t o r ’ s d e g r e e s .
T a b le XXXI shows t h a t the
l a r g e s t number, or 53*4 p e r o e n t , r e c e i v e d t h e i r d e g r e e s from p r i v a t e
o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
T h is i s p r o b a b l y e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t
m ost o f t h e s t a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s and s t a t e t e a c h e r s o o l l e g e s do n o t p r o v id e
c u r r i c u l a l e a d i n g t o t h e d o c t o r ’ s d e g r e e i n b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n and t o t h e
86
e x c e l l e n c e o f s u o h pr o gr am s i n t h e few o u t s t a n d i n g p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and
u n i v e r s i t i e s w h i o h h a ve p r o v i d e d f o r suoh i n s t r u c t i o n .
i s least n oticeab le
number o f o a s e s i s
This ten d en cy
i n s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s *
How eve r, t h e
t o o s m a l l t o have much v a l i d i t y i n making suoh a
comparison.
TAHLE XXXI
SOURCE OF EARNED DOCTOR'S DECREES OF SUPERVISORS uF STUDENT TEACHERS
OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 193 8- 1 93 9
Type o f i n s t i t u t i o n
f o r Which S u p e r v i s o r s
Work
Number
o f De­
grees
Involved
Per Cent by Type o f I n s t i t u t i o n s
’Which t h e D e g r e e s ’.'ere Granted
State
Teaohers
Colleges
Private
C olleges
and Uni­
v ersities
State
C olleges
and Uni­
versities
from
Other
Types of
In sti­
tu tion s
S t a t e T eec her a
Colleges
6
0,0
33.3
50.0
16.7
S t a t e C o l l e g e s and
U niversities
3
0*0
33.3
33.3
3 3.4
T r i v u t e C o l l e g e s and
U niversities
6
0,0
33.3
66.7
0 ,0
15
c.o
33.3
53.4
13.3
Total
■■ '
j-
i„ g
i- t --a _ r
i "T
■t
"fra *
lt t
1i
t
x r r a
- :1z
Recency o f Earned D e g r e e s
S u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s w e r e asked t o
g i v e the y ea r in w h i c h t h e i r most r e c e n t b a c h e l o r ' s , . m a s t e r ' s and d o c t o r ' s
d e g r e e s were g r a n t e d i n o r d e r t o show t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e y e a r s i n w h i c h
the various d e g r e e s were r e c e i v e d .
R eo en oy o f Earned Bachelor *a D eg re es
Table XXXII s h ew s t h a t t h e l a r g e s t group o f s u p e r v i s o r s r e o e i v e d t h e i r
t ^ -a
87
TABLE XXXII
RECENCY OF EARNED BACHELOR'S DECREES OF SUPERVISORS OF S T 'D E U T TEACHERS
OF BUSINESS 3 O BJECTS, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
Year
1
lumber o f Cases f o r Each Type o f I n s t i t u t i o n
T o t a l lumber
o f Cases
State
Te a c h e r s
C olleges
ctete
C o l l e g e s and
U niversities
P riv a te C olleges
and U n i v e r s i t i e s
1938-1934
17
7
9
1
1 9 33 -1 92 9
34
21
8
5
1928-1924
43
21
10
12
1913-1919
14
8
5
1
1010-1914
16
8
6
2
9
7
1
1
133
72
39
22
B e f o r e 1914
Total
bachelor'a d ecre es
sometime d u ri n g t h e f i v e year p e r i o d o f 1 9 2 4 - 1 9 2 8 .
f i v e year p e r i o d m en t io n ed second most o f t e n was t h a t o f 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 3 .
per c e n t o f t h e b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e s h»ve been earned s i n c e 1 9 2 4 .
teachers c o l l e g e s ,
s i n c e 19 2 4 ,
s i n c e 1924*
In th e s t a t e c o l l e g e s
st '*te
In t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and
81*8 per c e n t o f th e b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e s have b e e n earned
These f i g u r e s show a t e n d e n c y on t h e p e r t o f t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s
has b e e n more r e c e n t th a n i s
in stitu tio n s.
In t h e
end u n i v e r s i t i e s , 6 9 . 2 per c e n t o f t h e
u n i v e r s i t i e s t o employ s u p e r v i s o r s whose t r a i n i n g ,
degrees,
Seventy
6 8 , 0 per c e n t o f t h e b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e s h a ve been e a r n e d
b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e s have been earned s i n c e 1 92 4 .
u n iversities,
The
i n terms o f b a c h e l o r ' s
t h e c a s e i n t h e othe r t w o t y p e s o f
88
TABLE X X X III
RECENCY OF e.ARnED 1-ASTER’ S DEGREES OF SUPERVISORS CF STUDENT TEACHERS
OF BLSINES3 SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
Year
T o t a l Number
o f Cases
Number o f c a s e s f o r Each Type o f I n s t i t u t i o n
State
Teachers
C olleges
State
C o l l e g e s and
■Universities
Private C olleges
and . n i v e r s i t i e s
1938-1934
43
26
12
5
1933-1929
36
22
9
5
1928-1924
15
7
5
3
1923-1919
0
0
0
0
1913-1914
2
0
1
1
B e f o r e 1914
2
1
0
1
56
27
Total
98
15
Reoen cy o f Earned f a s t e r ' a D e g r e e s
Table XXXIII shows t h a t t h e l a r g e s t group o f s u p e r v i s o r s r e c e i v e d t h e i r
m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e s sometime d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d of 1 9 3 4 - 1 9 3 9 .
tion ed
sec on d most o f t e n was t h t t o f 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 3 .
The p e r i o d men­
A r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number
o f t h o s e who have earned m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e s have don e s o b e f o r e 1 9 2 4 .
fiv e
and n i n e - t e n t h s per c e n t o f t h o s e who have e a r n e d t h i s d e g r e e have done
so sin ce th a t date.
In t h e s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s ,
m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e s have be en ea rn ed s i n c e 1 9 2 4 ,
u n iversities,
1924.
N inety-
In t h e
9 8 . 2 per o e n t o f t h e
s t a t e c o l l e g e s and
9 6 . 2 per c e n t o f t h e m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e s have b ee n ea rn ed s i n c e
I n t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , 8 6 . 6 per o e n t o f t h e m a s t e r ' s
09
d e g r e e s have b e e n earned s i n c e 1924*
I n t e r m s o f m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e s , the
p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s t en d t o e m p lo y a s s u p e r v i s o r s t e a c h e r s
w hos e m a s t e r ’ s d e g r e e s we re gr an t ed at a l e s s
r e c e n t d a t e than i s t r u e
i n t h e case of t h e o t h e r two t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
t h i s may be e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e
To some e x t e n t ,
i n s t i t u t i o n s have b e e n pro­
v i d i n g programs o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g for a l o n g e r t i m e t h a n have t h e other
two t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
As a r e s u l t , t h e y may h a ve r e t a i n e d t h e i r
su p e r v iso r s for a lon ger p er io d , th e r e b y i n f l u e n c i n g t h e s e f i g u r e s .
a d d i t i o n , higher y e a r ly s a l a r i e s fo r t h e s e
In
s u p e r v i s o r s , as r e p o r t e d i n
T ab le XLVHI may draw i n d i v i d u a l s who have had more e d u c a t i o n a l e x ­
p e r i e n c e end, c o n s e q u e n t l y , who have e a r n e d t h e i r m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e s a t en
e a r l i e r time t h a n t h o s e earned by s u p e r v i s o r s
in stitu tion .
i n t h e o t h e r two t y p e s of
T h i s t e n d e n c y i s d i r e c t l y o p p o s i t e t o t h a t found f o r t h e
bachelor's degrees.
TABLE XXXIV
RECENCY OF EARNED DOCTOR’ S DEGREES OF SUPERVISORS OF STTPENT TEACHERS
OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
Number o f C a s e s f o r Each Tyne o f I n s t i t u t i o n
Ye or
To ta l Number
o f Cages
St a t e
Teachers
C olleges
State
C o l l e g e s and
U niversities
Private C olleges
and U n i v e r s i t i e s
1938- 193 4
8
3
2
3
1933- 192 9
5
3
0
2
1928- 192 4
2
0
1
1
15
6
3
Total
6
-f
;i
m T T -is s a a a
DO
Recency o f tu rn ed D o c t o r 1s D e g r e e s
T ab le X7JQV shows t h a t I n d i v i d u a l s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f
s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s have r e c e i v e d t h e i r d o c t o r ' s d e g r e e s
at a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t d a t e .
~it
me nt
degrees
Th i3 may be due t o t h e r e c e n c y o f t h e d e v e l o p ­
.rogrM.is i n b u s i n e s s educ: r i o n .
since
ever
j n e - t i t . l f have r e no Ived t h e i r
1934 and none whe g r u n t e d b e f o r e 1924*
The s m a l l number o f
c a s e s i n v o l v e d f o r each t y p e o f I r s t i t u t i -ri would t e n d xo I x v l I 3d • t-© r r y
c >r •• r i s c n whi ch might be :nrde Letv.teer t h e v - r i ons r y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
TAHLE XXXV
DISTRIhLTlOw OF UNDERGRADUATE COLLEGE mAJORS CF SUPERVISORS OF
ST'-'DWVf TEAuitERS CF FT-srKnSS s IBJECTS, 1938 - 1 9 3 9
^ at e
C olleges
end U n i v ersitie s
rrivate
C olleges
and U n i ­
v ersities
Total
44
16
6
64
Education
6
8
1
14
Commercial E d u c a t i o n
9
3
0
12
Other t h a n above
34
15
13
62
Tot a l
92
41
19
152
St a t e
Teachers
C olleges
Kaj or
Commerce or B u s i n e s s
U nd ergraduate fcaj o rs and Minors
S u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s were asked t o i n d i ­
c a t e t h e u n d e rg ra d u at e majors and m in or s t h e y had ea rn ed i n p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e i r
t e a c h i n g work.
The t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e i r r e s p o n s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i a
'I
91
c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s a g r e e m e n t as t o t h e meaning o f t h e terma ’’major" and "minor";
some o f them r e p o r t i n g s e v e r a l m a j o r s i n c a s e s where t h e y had a t t e n d e d o n l y
one i n s t i t u t i o n and o t h e r s who had a t t e n d e d more t h a n one i n s t i t u t i o n a s an
undergraduate stu d en t reported
o n l y one major or m i n o r .
In a d d i t i o n ,
there
w e r e e v i d e n c e s o f d i f f e r e n c e s and o v e r l a p p i n g s i n n o m e n c l a t u r e w i t h r e g a r d
t o names g i v e n to m a j o r s and m i n o r s .
An a t t e m p t was made by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r
t o c l a s s i f y t h e s e o v e r l a p p i n g names in ter ms o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s g i v e n
in the t o b i e s .
1" i s may hove r e s u l t e d
i n some d i s c r e p a n c i e s .
These l i m i ­
t a t i o n s s h o u l d be k e n t i n mind a s one r e a d s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s g i v e n h e r e ,
'.There t h r e e or f o u r m a jo rs or m i n o r s were r e p o r t e d , t h o s e w e r e i n c l u d e d i n
t h e t e b u l t a t i on s.
Table TtXAV shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f u n d e r g r a d u a t e c o l l e g e m a j or s
of s u p e r v is o r s of s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s
of business s u b je c ts.
t h e t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t 9 2 , or 5 7 . ti per c e n t ,
An a n a l y s i s
of
o f t h e c o l l e g e majors e a r n e d
by t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t f - t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s were ear ned i n e i t h e r commerce
or b u s i n e s s , or c om m er c ia l e d u o u t i o n .
In th e s t a t e c o l le g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s
t h e per c e n t f o r t h e s e m a j o r s i s 4 3 . 9 ; f o r t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r ­
sities it
i s 2C .3; and f o r a l l o f t h e t h r e e d e s s e s
cent i s 5 0 .0 .
o f i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e per
This v/ould seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s more g e n e r a l l y t h e
p o l i c y o f s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s t o employ p e r s o n s a s s u p e r v i s o r s o f
d e n t t e t c n e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s when t h e y ha1 e r e c e i v e d
stu­
a major i n a
commerce or commercial e d u c a t i o n s eq u en oe t h a n i s t r u e i n t h e ca s e o f t h e
o t h e r two t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
The t e n d e n c y t o employ commerce or com­
m e r c i a l e d u c a t i o n m a j o r s as s u p e r v i s o r s i s
l e s s prevelen t in private c o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a n I t i s i n e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r two t y p e o o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
92
S u p e r v i s o r s who have e a r n e d t h e i r m a j o r s i n ’’ e d u c a t i o n * ' h a v e n o t
received
e m p l o y m e n t as s u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
subjects to
any g r e a t e x t e n t .
This i s p r o b a b l y d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t
p e r s o n s who h a v e e a r n e d m a j o r s i n e d u c a t i o n have n o t b e e n i n t e r e s t e d
in th e f i e l d
received
o f b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n t o any g r e a t e x t e n t or h a v e t h e y
s u f f io ie n t train in g
supervisors
in t h i s f i e l d
to q u a l i f y f o r
o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s of b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
n o sitlo n s
as
O n ly 9 . 2 p e r c e n t
o f t h e 1 5 2 m a j o r s r e p o r t e d b y t h e s u p e r v i s o r s have b e e n e a r n e d
in education.
The p o l i c y o f i n s t i t u t i o n s t o employ i n d i v i d u a l s who hav e e a r n e d t h i s
ty p e of m ajor i s
v ersities
reported
-chan i t
as being s t r o n g e r i n s t a t e c o l l e g e s
i s in t h e
Liejors earned
o t h e r two t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s ,
in f i e l d s other th e n ed u catio n ,
and c o m m e r c e '-nd b u s i n e s s a r e r e p o r t e d
number o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s
commercial e d u c a t i o n ,
as b e i n g e a r n e d by a c o n s i d e r a b l e
of student te a c h e r s
of b u s in e s s
has b e e n
s a id b e f o r e , u n t i l e com paratively re c e r t d o te,
provided
p r o g r a m s f o r t h e t r a i n i n g of t e a c h e r s
graduate
lev el.
‘. Then p r o ”ra,i.s of p r e p ' r a M o n
began t o
expand,
i t mry h ev e been r. e co ns a’-y t o
received t h e i r
b a c k g ro u n d
t o t ak e c o n s i d e r ? l i e
iness
subjects.
training
5r .
su b jects.
o f fruei n e s s
subjects
P?r t r a i n i n g b u s i n e s s
teachers
c a l l unon t e a c h e r s who h ' d
f i e l d s other than b u s in e s s e d u c a tio n
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y in s t u d e n t te'■■■Mr.,’ » r o g r a m s i n b u s ­
and e d u c t i o n .
o consider­
S l i g h t l y over 4 0 .0 p e r c e n t o f t h e
m a j o r s r e p o r t e d b y t h e s u p e r v i s o r s neve beer, e a r n e d In f i e l d s
The t e n d e n c y t o e m pl o y s u p e r v i s o r s o f
o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s w ith majors o th e r t h a n e d u c a tio n ,
and b u s i n e s s
«n t h e
s u p e r v i s o r s r e t o r t majors o th e r th a n b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n ,
commerce o r b u s i n e s s ,
th e ones m e n tio n e d .
As
few i n s t i t u t i o n s
T h i s may e x p l a i n t o sumc e x t e n t t h e f a c t , t h a t
a b l e n u m b e r of t h e
and u n i ­
other th a n
student teachers
com m ercial e d u c a tio n ,
and oommeroe i s s t r o n g e r i n t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s
93
than i t
is
i n t h e o t h e r two t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
Supervisors in p rivate
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t t h a t 6 8 . 4 per c e n t o f t h e i r u nde r­
g r a d u a t e m a j o r s were earned i n f i e l d s o t h e r t h a n t h e o n e s j u s t m e n t i o n e d .
S u p e r v is o r s in s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s r e p o r t th a t 3 6 . 9 per cen t of t h e i r
u n d e r g r a d u a t e majors were e ° r n e d in f i e l d s o t h e r t h a n t h e o n e s j u s t men­
t i o n e d w h i l e 3 6 . 5 per ce n t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s in s t a t e c o l l e g e s
v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t t h e same t y p e o f e a r n i n g s In t e r n s
'nd u n i ­
of majors.
TArvLE XXXVI
DISTRIBUTION OF UNDERGRADUATE COLLEGE I/.iNOHS OF SUPERVISORS OF STUDENT
TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
Tot a l
L i nor
Commerce or B u s i n e s s
13
4
5
22
Education
12
3
4
19
1
0
1
2
82
34
13
129
108
41
23
172
Commercial E d u c a t i o n
Other t h a n above
Total
S t at e
C olleges
and Uni­
versities
P rivate
C olleges
and V n i v e r s i t ie a
St a te
Teachers
C olleges
T ab le XXXVI shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f u n d e r g r a d u a t e c o l l e g e m in o r s o f
su p e rv iso rs of student teach ers
of business s u b je c ts.
The t a b l e
indicates
a v e r y d e f i n i t e t e n d e n c y t o e a r n minors i n f i e l d s o t h e r t h a n com m er c ia l
e d u c a t i o n and commerce or b u s i n e s s .
i f th e s u p e r v is o r s are tr a in e d
jects,
T h i s i s p r o b a b l y t o be e x p e o t e d , f o r
in t h i s s p e c i a l i s e d f i e l d
o f b u s i n e s s sub­
n a t u r a l l y , t h e y are r e q u i r e d t o t a k e t h e i r f u r t h e r s p e c i a l i z e d
94
t r a i n i n g in f i e l d s
business.
field s
o t h e r t h a n com mer cia l e d u c a t i o n and commerce or
Exactly th ree-fou rth s
n f t h e earned minors v/ere earned i n
other then t h o s e j u s t mentioned.
v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s c-f
The p o l i c y t o employ s u p e r ­
u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s who have earned m i n o r s
i n f i e l d s o t h e r t h e n commercial e d u c a t i o n , e d u c t i o n ,
b u s i n e s s seems t o b e
it
is
str o n g e s t in s t a t e c o l l e g e s
i n t h e e t h e r two t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s ,
and commerce or
and u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a n
t e r c e n t s o f earned mino rs
in fie ld s
o t h e r t h a n t h o s e m en tio n ed i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e n t e n c e ar e as
follow st
s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
82,9;
7 5 . 9 ; and p r i v r t e c o l l e g e s end u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
minors
v iso rs.
56.5.
i n co m m erc ial e d u c a t i o n have no t b e e n earned by many s u p e r ­
Only two m in e r s o f t h e t y p e are r e p o r t e d *
Li nor s i n e i t h e r
commercial e d u c a t i o n or commerce or b u s i n e s s have
b e e n earned b y a r e l a t i v e l y
ers of business su b jec ts.
s ta te teachers c o lle g e s ,
small number o f s u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h ­
Of minors ea rn ed by s u p e r v i s o r s employed i n
1 2 . 9 Tier c e n t have b e e n ea rn ed i n one or t h e
o t h e r o f t h e s e two f i e l d s .
For s t a t e c o l l e g e s
p er c e n t i s 9 . 7 and f o r s u p e r v i s o r s i n
is
sta te tecchers c o lle g e s ,
and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
th is
' r i v a t e c o l l e ee and u n i v e r s i t i e s i t
26.0.
Type 3 o f E d u c a t i o n a l E x p e r i e n c e
I n or d e r t o p r e s e n t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f s u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u ­
dent te a c h e r s o f b u s in e s s s u b je c ts q u e s tio n s were in s e r t e d in the in q u ir y
b la n k s r e l a t i v e t o t h e t y p e s o f e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h t h e s e s u p e r v i s o r s m ig h t
have h a d - - s e c o n d a r y ,
teachers,
elem entary, as s u p e r v i s o r s o f n o n -b u sin e ss stu d e n t
as s u p e r v i s o r s c f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s ,
s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s or a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f s c h o o l s ,
as
in p r iv a te b u sin ess
95
TABLE XXXVII
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF SUPERV ISO RS OF STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS
YfflO HAVE HAD CEi TAIN TYPES OF TEACHING EXPERIENCES, 1 9 3 6 - 1 9 3 9 *
Type o f E x p e r i e n c e
State
Teache ra
C o ll eg e s
State
C olleges
and Uni­
versities
Prive t e
C o lie ges
end TTc i ­
ver s i t i e s
Num­
ber
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
dum­
ber
Per
Cent
jmum­
ber
Per
Cent
Her
C en t
Total
In secondary sc h o o ls
as t e a c h e r , p r i n ­
c i p a l , cr s u p e r i n ­
tendent
64
88,6
34
90.2
19
82.6
120
83.2
In i n s t i t u t i o n s other
t h e n t h e one i n
■//:i i c h n 07; employed
22
30,5
12
29.2
5
21.7
39
20.6
In elem en tary sch o o ls
Gs t e a c h e r , p r i n ­
c i p a l , or s u p e r i n ­
tendent
21
29.1
7
17.0
9
39.1
37
27.2
As s u p e r v i s o r o f n o n ­
b u sin ess student
teachers
6
8,3
6
14.6
6
26.0
18
13.2
In p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s
schools
9
12.4
4
9.7
3
13.0
16
11.7
As s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or
a s s i s t a n t superin­
tendent
6
b,3
1
2.4
1
4.3
3
5.8
r
*
■
T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
Of t h e 72 s u p e r v i s o r s in. s t a t e t e a c h e r s
c o l l e g e s f i l l i n g i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , 64, or b o . c oer c e n t , r e p o r t t h e y have
had e x p e r i e n c e i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s as t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , or s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ;
o f t h e 41 s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s f i l l i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a , 3 4 , or SG,2 p e r c e n t , r e p o r t t h e y have had e x p e r i e n c e i n s e c o n d a r y
s c h o o l s as t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , or s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ; o f t h e 23 s u p e r v i s o r s i n
o r i v u t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i o s f i l l i n g i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , 1 9 , or u 2 , 6
p er c e n t , r e p o r t t h e y h a v e had e x p e r i e n c e i n se con da ry s c h o o l s as t e t c h e r s ,
p r i n c i p a l s , or s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ; and o f the 136 s u p e r v i s o r s in a l l t y p e s o f
i n s t i t u t i o n s who f i l l e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , 1 2 0 , or b e , 2 per c e n t , r e p o r t
t h e y have had e x p e r i e n c e i n s e c o n d a r y s o h o o l s as t e a c h e r s , a r i n o i r o l s , or
s u pe r! n t e n d o r . t s .
v
96
school?;, and i n 5 n s t i t u t i c n s
em p loy ed .
othe r thr.n t h e one in which t h e y
ore now
The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e as r e p o r t e d by
s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h e d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s c f i n s t i t u t i o n s i s i~ivor. in Tqt l e
r /y .iii.
lixper i e n c e In Second a r y S c h o o l s
An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t c ^ l e shows t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n
second-try s c h o o l s
student t o 1chers
is
the t y p e most o f t e n r e p o r t e d b y s u p e r v i s o r s o f
o f t> - s i n e s e s u b j e c t s .
The number ard per c e n t o f
s u p e r v i s o r s '."ho r e p o r t t h i s t y p e c f e x p e r i e n c e i s f'*.r ahead o f t h e
other t y p e s .
T h i s would seem t o i n d i c a t e a p o l i c y un the p a r t
of those
r e s p o r s i v l e f o r e m p l o y i n g s u p e r v i s o r s t o s e l e c t t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who
b’ive had e x p e r i e n c e
i r t h e t y p e c f work f o r w hic h t h e y are t o b e a s s i g n e d .
The t a b l e shows r p f t
a l m o s t n i n e - t e n t h s o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s h a v e hod e x ­
p e r i e n c e i n s o cc m d er y s c h o o l s ,
J-t was found in The r a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f t h e
E d u c a t io n o f T e a c h e r s t h a t s l i g h t l y over h a l f t h e t e a c h i n g s t a f f
of p r a c tic e -
demonrtra.t i on s c h o o l s had had e x p e r i e n c e
Th is would
seem t o i n d i c a t e t h e t
in s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . ^
su pervisors o f student tea ch ers of b u sin e ss
subjects
have had more e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s s o r t t h a n i u v e s u p e r v i s o r s c f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s
in a l l f i e l d s ,
h o w e v e r , as The b a t i , n a l S u rv ey o f t h e K d u o a t io n o f T ea ch er a
i n c l u d e d b o t h s u p e r v i s o r s who were employed i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y and t h e s e c ­
ondary f i e l d s ,
it
i s l i k e l y t h a t any s uch c o m p a r i s o n , as b as ed
found t h e r e , wo ul d t e n d t o be i n v a l i d a t e d t o come e x t e n t .
on f i g u r e s
T his lim ita tio n
shoul d be k e p t i n mind by t h e r e a d e r when o t h e r compa riso ns o f t h i s t y p e are
made i n t h i s
s e c t i o n o f t h i s document.
There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r n e e i n
t h e number o f s u p e r v i s o r s who r e p o r t s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l e x p e r i e n o e i n t h e t h r e e
olessea of in s t it u t io n s .
1 . Gamble, o p . c i t . ,
S u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s and in s t a t e
p. 204.
97
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h i s
r e r c e n t and 9 0 . 2 per c e n t ,
t y p e are r e p o r t e d
colleges
resp ectively,
w hile exp erien ces of t h i s
by 8 2 . 6 per c e n t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n p r i v a t e
and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
Cf t h e t h i r t e e n
s u p e r v i s o r s who '.re p s i d
ou b lic school system s, tw e lv e ,
seoondory s c h o o ls .
sch ools.
cla ssifica tio n s,
by b o t h t h e c o l l e g e s and
or 9 2 . 3 per c e n t ,
have had e x p e r i e n c e i n
Of t h e ^ i v e s u p e r v i s o r s who are p a i d o n l y b y t h e
p u b lic school sy ste m s, fo u r ,
3eoondsry
s o r t i n Bo.ft
or 8 0 . 0 per c e n t ,
have had e x p e r i e n c e i n
Of t h e e i g h t e e n s u p e r v i s o r s i n c l u d e d i n t h e s e two
sixteen ,
secondary s c h o o ls .
or B o . 8 p e r c e n t have had e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e
T n i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e per c e n t o f s u p e r v i s o r s
i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n who have had t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n o e i n
s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i s t h e same as t h a t f o r t h e w ho le g rou p o f s u p e r v i s o r s .
Taule XXXVIII shows t h a t o f t h o s e s u p e r v i s o r s who have had t e a c h i n g
e x p e r ie n c e s i n secondary s c h o o ls ,
business subjects
supervisors of student tea ch ers of
i n t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s have had more
e x p e r i e n c e , i n terms
o f t h e median number o f y e a r s ,
v is o r s in s t a t e teachers c o lle g e s
t h a n have t h e s u p e r ­
and in s t a t e c o l l e g e s end u n i v e r s i t i e s .
The median number o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l
s u b j e c t s i s r e p o r t e d as s i x i n t h e s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s ,
t h e s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
eig h t in
and n i n e i n t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
S u p e r v i s o r s pa id by b o t h c o l l e g e s and p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m s have had
more e x p e r i e n c e in t e a c h i n g i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t h e n t h e w h o l e group o f
supervisors.
The median l e n g t h o f t i m e s p e n t by t h e s e s u p e r v i s o r s i n
t e a c h i n g i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i s 14 y e a r s .
The median l e n g t h o f t i m e s p e n t
b y s u p e r v i s o r s who e re p a i d o n l y by t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m s i s 4 y e a r s .
The median l e n g t h o f t i m e s p e n t by t h e s e two gr o u p s combined i s
12 y e a r s .
98
TAr.LE X X X V III
MEDIAN YEARS OF CERTAIN TYPES OF TEACHING EXPERIENCE OF SUFE17VISOKS OF
STUDENT TEACHERS OF B U S IN E S S S U B JE C T S , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 *
State
Teachers
C olleges
Type o f E x p e r i e n c e
State
C olleges
and Uni v ersities
Num­
ber
Median
Number
o f years
I n s e o o n d a r y s c h o o l s as t e a c h e r ,
p r i n c i p a l , or s u p e r i n t e n d e n t
64
6 ■
34
In p resen t p o s i t i o n
74
5,2
6
5.5
As su per i n t e n d ei t or a s s i s t a n t
superintendent
Num­ Median
ber Number
o f ye ar s
Private
Colleges
and Uni­
versities
Num­
ber
Median
Number
o f years
8
19
9
37
4
21
7
1
4
1
5
22
2
12
3
5
4
6
7
6
6
6
4
As s u p e r v i s o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r E
o f Business su b jects
70
6
32
3
20
3
I n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s as t e a c h e r ,
p r i n c i p a l , or s u p e r i n t e n d e n t
21
4
7
3
9
3
9
5
4
2.5
3
2
On o t h e r c o l l e g e t e a c h i n g s t a f f s
As s u p e r v i s o r o f n o n - b u s i n e s s
student tea ch ers
In p r i v a t e
m •
*
business schools
i ~ t™;1r*r r t v
- i.:
: : —
Read t a b l e XXXVIII es f o l l o w s i
For 64 s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s who r e p o r t on t h i s p o i n t
s i x r e p r e s e n t s t h e m ed ian nuirber o f yoe.re o f e x n e r i e n c e i s a t e a c h e r , p r i n c i p a l ,
or s u n o r i n t e n d e n t i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s j f o r 34 fi - n er vi s o r s i n s t a t e c o l l e g e s
end u n i v e r s i t i e s who r o p o r t on t h i s p o i n t , e i g h t r e p r e s e n t s th e median number
o f y e t r s c r e x p e r i e n c e as a t e a c h e r , p r i n c i p a l , or s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n secondary
s c h o o l s ; f o r 19 s u p e r v i s o r s i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s r e p o r t i n g on t h i s p o i n t , nine
r e p r e s e n t s t h e median number o f y e a r s o f e x n e r i e n c e a s a t e a c h e r , p r i n c i p a l ,
or s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s .
99
bxper l e n o e
in I n s t i t u t : ons Ct hor Than t h e One i n A'hich
1'ovr Employed
An a n a l y s i s o f
the
i n q u i r y t Ionics i n d i c a t e s
teaching expedience r e p o r te d
that the ty p e of
se cond m os t o tt er . w«s ■‘-hat r e c e i v e d
in
i n s t i t u t i o n s o t t e r t h a n t h e one in w h i c h t h e s u p e r v i s o r s t,re now em­
p lo ye d .
Tn l e ”7 7/VI I
2 8 . 6 per c e n t , o f t h e
shows t h r t s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n t h r e e - t e n t h s ,
c u o o r v i s o r s novo hod e x p e r i e n c e i n i n s t i t u t i o n s
other t h a n the one i n v.-hich t h e y a re now e m p l o y e d .
type o i e x p e r i e n c e b y s u p e r v i s o r s
there i s l i t t l e
or
A lt h regard to t h i s
in the d i f f e r e n t type of i n s t i t u t i o n s ,
s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e per c e n t o f s u p e r v i s o r s
student t e a c h e r s o t h e r t h a n t h e one i n which t h e y e r e now e m p lo y e d .
visors i t
of
Super­
s ta te t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s rep ort e x p erien ces of t h i s tyne in 3 0 .5
per c e n t o f tho c a s e s ,
t h o s e i n s t a t e c o l l e e and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t t h i s
ty p e o f e x p e r i e n c e i n 2 9 . 2 p e r c e n t o f t h e o a s e s , w h i l e t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n
p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t t h i s t y p e o f e x p e r i e n c e i n 2 1 . 7
per cent o f the o a s e s .
A c o m p a r i s o n o f f i g u r e s p r e s e n t e d i n The M a t i o n e l
Survey o f t h e K d u c a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s and o f t h o s e p r e s e n t e d h er e show ap p ro x­
im a t e l y t h e same f i n d i n g s . ^
of a l l s u p e r v i s o r s
I n t h a t s t u d y i t was found t h a t 3 5 . 1 p e r o e n t
in sta te teachers c o lle g e s
visors in sta te u n i v e r s i t i e s
and 2 9 . 4 p er c e n t o f t h e s u p e r ­
and l u n d - g r u n t c o l l e g e s
had had e x p e r i e n c e i n
c o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s o t h e r t h a n t h e ones i n w h i c h t h e y were employed a t
the t im e t h e s u r v e y w a s made.
Table XXXVIII s h o w s t h a t ,
in te r m s o f th e median l e n g t h o f e x p e r i e n c e ,
s u p e r v i s o r s employed b y p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s h a ve had l o n g e r
e x p e r i e n c e on th e s t a f f o f o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s
I. Hid.,
p . 203.
t h a n have
100
s u p e r v i s o r s employed b y t h e s t a t e t e a o h e r s c o l l e g e s and s t a t e c o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
The same t a b l e a l s o shows t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s employed
by p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s
end u n i v e r s i t i e s have had more e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s
t y p e t h a n s u p e r v i s o r s employed by t h e o t h e r two c l a s s e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
The median number o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e r e p o r t e d on s t a f f s
tutions
of in s t i­
o t h e r t h a n t h e on es i n w hi ch t h e y are now employed i s f o u r f o r
s u p e r v i s o r s i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s end u n i v e r s i t i e s , t h r e e i n s t a t e c o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
and two f o r s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s .
S u p erviso rs of student teachers of business subjects
h a ve had more
e x p e r i e n c e as members o f t h o i r own s t a f f s t h a n t h e y have had as members
o f other s t a f f s .
S u p e r v i s o r s in s t e t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s r e p o r t t h r e e
o n e - f o u r t h more y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ,
number o f y e a r s ,
Supervisors
^nd
i n ter m s o f t h e median
on t h e i r own s t u f f s t h a n cn s t a f f s o f o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s .
in sta te c o lle g e s
snd u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t one more y ea r o f
t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e on t h e i r own s t a f f s t ha n on s t a f f s o f o t h e r i n s t i ­
tutions
and s u p e r v i s o r s
more y e w s
in p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t t h r e e
o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e on t h e i r own s t a f f s t h a n on s t a ' T e o f
ot h er i n s t i t u t i o n s .
An a n a l y s i s o f T a b l e y 517.Vi l l
shows t h e s e f a c t s .
Of t h e t h i r t e e n s u p e r v i s o r s who a r e paid by b o t h t h e c o l l e g e s
end
p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m s , t w o , or 1 5 . 3 p e r c e n t , have had t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e
on t h e s t a f f s
e m p loy ed .
o f i n s t i t u t i o n s o t h e r t h a n t h e one b y whom t h e y a re now
T h i s per c e n t i s
c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r t h a n t h e one r e p o r t e d i n
T able XXX1/II f o r t h e w h o l e group o f s u p e r v i s o r s .
paid o n l y by t h e p u b l i c s o h o o l s y s t e m s ,
Of th e f i v e
supervisors
tw o, or 4 0 . 0 per c e n t , r e p o r t t h e y
have b ee n em p lo y ed on s t a f f s o t h er t h e n t h e one on which t h e y e r e now
e m p lo ye d .
The s m a l l number o f c a s e s i n v o l v e d p r o b a b l y i n v a l i d a t e s any com­
p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h i s group and o t h e r g r o u p s .
Of t h e two who r e p o r t t h i s
101
type o f exp erien ce,
one had worked p a r t - t i m e f o r two y e a r s on t h e s t a f f
o f a n o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n and t h e o t h e r s u p e r v i s o r had worked f o r two
summers on t h e s t a f f o f a n o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n .
E x p e r i e n c e in E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s
T w e n t y - s e v e n -;nd t w o - t e n t h s per c e n t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t
t e a c h e r s of b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s r e p o r t r e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e
in elementary
s c h o o l s as t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s ,
prob ab ility,
t h i s type of experience i s
or s u p e r v i s o r s .
^f l i t t l e
te a c h e r s of b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s .
In a l l
valu e t o t h e su p e rv iso r o f student
The p ro b le m s o f t h e a l e m e n t e r y s c h o o l
and t h o s e of t h e h ig h s c h o o l are d i f f e r e n t in many r e s p e c t s .
it
is
Therefore,
n o t l i k e l y t h a t such e x p e r i e n c e would be o f much v a l u e i n a d v i s i n g
t h e p r o s p e c t i v e b u s i n e s s t e a c h e r about t y p i c a l r u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n prob­
lem s
found i n t h e high s c h o o l s .
e x p e r i e n c e , whether i t
On t h e o t h e r hand,
some p u b l i c s c h o o l
i s t y p i c a l o f t h e t y p e d e s i r e d or n o t , may be
v a l u a b l e i f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e has n o t been a c q u i r e d .
This type of e x p erien ce
(l)
i s reported
as b e i n g more t y p i c a l f o r
s u p e r v i s o r s employed by p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s t h e n i t
s u p e r v i s o r s employed i n t h e o t h e r two t y p e s c f
p erce n ta g e s l e s s than h a l f of the
in stitu tio n s.
i s for
In t e r m s o f
( 2 ) number o f s u p e r v i s o r s in s t a t e
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i^nd a p p r o x i m a t e l y e f o u r t h l e s s
s u p e r v i s o r s in
s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s have had t h i c t y p e o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e t h e n i s
r e p o r t e d by s u p e r v i s o r s i n p r i v a t e
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
t h e medi&r. l e n g t h o f t i m e t a u g h t i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s ,
s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s have had t h e most e x p e r i e n c e .
I n terms o f
s u p e r v i s o r s in
Supervisors in
t h i s t y p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n r e p o r t a median t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f f o u r y e a r s
w h i l e s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s and p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t a median t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f t h r e e y e a r s e a c h .
102
Of t h e t h i r t e e n s u p e r v i s o r s who e r e p a i d by b o t h t h e c o l l e g e s end
p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m s , t h r e e , o r 2 3 . C p e r c e n t , h a v e had t e a c h i n g e x ­
perience
in e le m e n ta ry schools a s p r i n c i p a l , t e a c h e r or s u p e r v i s o r .
A com parison of t h i s fig u re v d th th e 27.2 p er cen t o f a l l
v i s o r s who r e p o r t t h i s ty p e o f e x n e r i e n c e s ho ws l i t t l e
d ifferen ce.
ence,
th is
Of t h e t h r e e s u p e r v i s o r s who r e p o r t t h i s
o n e e a c h r e p o r t s on e, f o u r ,
ty re.
system s,
of the
super­
sig n ifican t
type of experi­
end t w e l v e y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e of
Of t h e f i v e s u p e r v i s o r s who e r o r a i d o n l y by p u b l i c s c h o o l
one r e p o r t s f i v e y e a r s
o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e in t h e e l e m e n ta r y
schools.
E x p e r i e n o e as S u p erv iso r o f I ' o n - g u s i n e s s S tu d e n t
Teachers
T a b le TY.yMU shows t h a t t r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e s u p e r ­
v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s h* ve had or a r e h av in g
e x n e r i e n c e a s s u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s who f re not e n r o l l e d i n
t h e b u s i n e s s education curriculum.
T h i r t e e n and t w o - t e n t h s p e r c e n t o f
th e s u p e r v is o r s report t h is type o f e x p e r i e n c e .
supervisors
su p ervise student t e a c h e r s
The p r a c t i c e
of having
o f more t h a n one s u b j e c t f i e l d
or
o f r e c r u t i r g s u p e r v i s o r s f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s fro m t h e
" g e n e r a l " s u p e r v i s o r s i s r e p o r t e d us b e i n g most p r e v a l e n t
colleges
end u n i v e r s i t i e s .
in sta n ces,
guidance
Th is i s
in t h e p r iv a t e
p r o b a b l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t ,
stu d en t teachers o f b u s i n e s s
o f r e g u l a r l y employed t e a c h e r s
i n some
s u b j e c t s a r c p l a c e d under the d i r e c t
in t h e p u b l i c h i g h s c h o o l s used by
t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r p u r p o s e s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g and
t h e s u p e r v i s o r s who answered t h o q u e s t i o n n a i r e are g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s o r s who
m e r e l y s u p p le m e n t t h e work o f t h e high s c h o o l s p e c i a l i s t
jects.
A little
over o n e - f o u r t h o f t h e
o f i n s t i t u t i o n report, e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s
i n b u sin e ss sub­
s u p e r v i s o r s employ ed by t h i s t y r o
sort.
This p r a c t i c e
seems t o be
103
le s s p re v a le n t in th e
sta te teachers
two t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s ,
supervisors in the
p e r i e n c e and t h e
visors
in s t - t e
co lle g e s then i t
b i g h t and t h r e e - t e n t h s
same t y p e i f
r e p o r t e d by 1 4 .6 p e r c e n t of t h e
super­
c o l l a g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
3 hews t h a t
i r t e r m s o f t h e me d ia n number c f v e e r s o f
e x n e r i e n c e as s u p e r v i s o r s o f n o n - h u s i r e s s
th is
per cent o f th e
s t a t e te a c h e r s c o lle g e s r e p o r t t h i s type o f ex­
T a b l e 7XTVI7 I
ir the
is in th e o th e r
s t i h o + gi .e u e r s c o l i e
s o r t tlv.-r. t h a t
cf i n s t i t u t i o n s .
reported
s t u d e n t t; e i t o r s ,
supervisors
e s h a *.3 hi.d r. o r o or l o n g e r e x p e r i e n c e s
by th e
superviso-c
of
i n t h e o t h e r two c l a s s e s
Tho median number o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e us s u p e r v i s o r s
cf n o r-h u o iress s tu d e n t te a c h e rs is rep o rte d
as s e v e n f o r s u p e r v i s o r s
s ta te teachers c o lle g e s ,
i n s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i ­
v ersities,
Of t h e
two,
and f o u r
six fo r supervisors
in
f o r s u p e r v i s o r s i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
f i v e s u p e r v i s o r s who a.ro p a i d w h o l l y by p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m s ,
or 4 0 . 0 p e r c e n t , r e p o r t e x p e r i e n c e as s u p e r v i s o r s o f n u n - b u e i n e s s
student te e c h e rs .
perience
One o f t h e s e r e p o r t s f o u r y e a r s o f t h i s t y p e o f e x ­
and t h e o t h e r t e n y e a r s .
th e c o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s
Hone o f t h e
s u p e r v i s o r s p a i d by b o t h
and b y p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m s r e p o r t e x n e r ­
ience of t h i s ty p e .
Sxperi enoe in P r iv a t e
Supervisors
Busi n e s s S ch o ol a
o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s who h a v e had
teaching ex rerien o e
i n p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s s c h o o l s r-re n o t v e r y n u m e r o u s .
This i s p ro b a b ly due to th e
fact th a t
su p e rv iso rs w ith a t l e a s t m a s te r 's
d e g r e e s h av e b e e n a b l e , i n m o s t i n s t a n c e s , t o
s e c u r e more r o r . u r e r o t i v e
p o s itio n s in other ty n e s of I n s t i t u t i o n s than is
privately c o n t r o l l e d
business
schools.
p o s s ib le i n most of t h e
T a b l e 7XX.VIT shows t h a t 1 1 , 7 p e r
104
c e n t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s have had t h i s t y p e o f e x p e r i e n c e .
little
There i s
s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in the p ercentage o f su p e rv iso rs in the
t h r e e t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s who have had t h i s t y p e o f e x p e r i e n c e .
Five
i s t h e median number o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s t y p e r e p o r t e d by
nine su p erv iso rs in s t a t e tea ch er s c o l l e g e s .
Two and o n e - h r . l f i s t h e
median number o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s t y p e r e p o r t e d by f o u r
supervisors in state c o lle g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
Two i s t h e median
number o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s t y p e r e p o r t e d by t h r e e s u p e r ­
v i s o r s i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
Of t h e f i v e s x t p e r v i s o r e who are p a i d w h o l l y by p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m s ,
o n e , or 2 0 , 0 per c e n t , r e p o r t s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s
schools.
Of t h e t h i r t e e n s u p e r v i s o r s who are p a i d by both p u b l i c s c h o o l
s y s t e m s and c o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
o n l y o n e , or 7 . 6 per c e n t , r e p o r t s
teach in g experience in private business sch o o ls.
e x p e r i e n c e as S u p e r i n t e n d e n t or A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t
The t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e number and per o e n t o f s u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t
teachers
o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s who have had e x p e r i e n c e as s u n e r i n t e n d e n t s
or a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f s c h o o l s i s
i n T a b le XXXVII.
The t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t e i g h t , or 5 . 8 per c e n t , o f a l l
t h e s u p e r v i s o r s have had e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s
is
Ti v e n b y t y n e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s
sort.
Although the p ercentage
lov/ i n c o m p a r is o n w i t h t h e o t h e r s shown i n t h e t a b l e , i t i s p r o b a b l y not
low when t h e number o f p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e
superintendent i s taken into c o n sid e r a tio n .
as s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or a s s i s t a n t
The p e r c e n t a g e o f s u p e r v i s o r s
o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s who have n o t had such e x p e r i e n c e i s
a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same as t h a t r e p o r t e d b y s u p e r v i s o r s i n a l l t y p e s o f
i n s t i t u t i o n s i n The N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f t h e B d u o a t i o n o f T e a ch er *. ^
1* I b i d . . p. 404
105
None o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s p a i d o t h e r t h a n w h o l l y by c o l l e g e s
or u n i v e r s i t i e s
r e p o r t t h i s ty p e o f e x p e r i e n c e .
Types o f b u s i n e s s E x p e r i e n c e
A number o f w r i t e r s h o ve a tt em p t ed t o show t h e im p o r t a n c e o f b u s i n e s s
t r a i n i n g as a ^ a rt o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t o t e a c h b u s i n e s s
subjects.
Although t h e s e w r i t i n g s p e r t a i n t o t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e
t e a c h e r i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t t h e s e some
w r i t e r s would a g r e e t h a t t h i s
q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s one w h i c h s h o u l d be
met by s u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
Lomax has em p h a siz ed t h i s problem i n a r e c e n t a r t i c l e .
from ^his p e r t i n e n t a r t i c l e
Ex^r'-ctB
follow i
Another p h a se o f t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f p r o s p e c t i v e s e c o n d a r y school te a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s i s b u sin e ss ex p e r ie n c e , which i s r e ­
garded by moBt s c h o o l l e a d e r s as a most d e s i r a b l e q u a l i f i c a t i o n .
S e v e r a l t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s have a l s o made b u s i n e s s
e x p e r i e n c e a d e g r e e r e q u i r e m e n t in t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s o f
business.
-*-t i s t h e w r i t e r ' s b e l i e f , however, a f t e r s e v e r a l y e a r s
o f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t , t h a t such e x p e r i e n c e s h o u l d be
v e r y c a r e f u l l y o r g a n i z e d and c l o s e l y s u p e r v i s e d , a s i s d o n e i n w e l l managed s u p e r v i s e d s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n p u b l i c - s c h o o l s y s t e m s , i f w o r t h w h i l e r e s u l t s a r e t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d ..................................
,
;
i
i
N e v e r t h e l e s s , i f b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n i s t o be p r o p e r l y a d j u s t e d
to th e repid changes o f th e present-dey business w o rld , b u s i n e s s t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s must p e r s e v e r e i n w o r k in g o u t s a t i s ­
fa cto ry plans o f s u p e r v is e d business exp erience.
The t e a c h i n g
v a l u e s a c c r u i n g t h e r e f r o m have t o o important a b e a r i n g on t h e ade­
qu at e p r e p a r a t i o n o f s e o o n d a r y - s c h o o l youth t o p e r m it t h i s o m i s s i o n .
These v a l u e s are s u g g e s t e d by P r o f e s s o r John k . T r y t t e n , o f t h e
U n i v e r s i t y o f L i c h i g a n S c h o o l o f Eduoation*
' ( 1 ) They o l a r i f y f o r
a p ers on t h e mea nin g o f s t a n d a r d s , t h e need f o r them, and t h e l i m i ­
t a t i o n s o f s t a n d a r d s j ( 2 ) They make t h e t e a c h e r b e t t e r a b l e t o c o o p e r a t e
w i t h b u s i n e s s b e c a u s e o f t h e o o n t a o t s made, t h e v o o a b u l o r y , and t h e
p o i n t s o f vi e w t h a t become u n d e r s ta n d a b le ; and ( 3 ) .They f u r n i s h t h e
t e a c h e r w i t h a fund o f e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t m o t i v a t e t e a c h i n g , and make
t h e s u b j e c t r e a l . ' ................... ..
f u r t h e r m o r e , b u s i n e s s e x j e r i e n c e c f a proper kind sh o ul d
prove h e l p f u l t o b u s i n e s s t e a c h e r s i n o r g a n i z i n g and o p e r a t i n g a
s u p e r i o r v o o a t i o n a l - g u i d a n c e program................................
j
;
'■
106
I t i s no t enough t h a t b u s i n e s s t e a c h e r s have a f i r s t
b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e —t h e y sho uld re n ew s u ch e x p e r i e n c e
o c c a s i o n a l l y i n order t o keep t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n v i t a l l y
u p - t o - d a t e and in l i n e w i t h what t h e i r p u p i l s ore and w i l l
be i m m e d i a t e l y e x p e r i e n c i n g i n b u s i n e s s em p lo y m e n t . 1 .............
I n commenting on t h e seme p ro b le m , D o u g l a s s s t a t e s :
He has a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s
s h o u l d have had some b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e e v e n i f he had t o
o b t a i n i t d u r i n g summer v a c a t i o n s .
I n f a c t , i t m ig h t e v e n be
b e t t e r t h a t way so t h a t he would be i n c l i n e d t o be a n a l y z i n g
h i s b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e c o n s t a n t l y , t o s e e what l e s s o n i t had
f o r him as a t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
He has a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e t e a o h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
e d u c a t i o n s u b j e o t s sh o ul d v i s i t p l a c e s o f b u s i n e s s and o b s e r v e
t h e p r a c t i c e o f b u s i n e s s e m p l o y e r s and h o u s e s m a n u f a c t u r i n g
b u s i n e s s m a ch in es end s u p p l i e s and s t u d y t h e i r c a t a l o g u e s ,
k e e p i n g e b r e e s t o f d e v e l o p m e n t s t h a t sh ou ld r e v e a l t o him whe t
s k i l l s h i s s t u d e n t s w i l l need in t h e b u s i n e s s world o f t o m o r r o w . 2
Tonne a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s should have
business experience
and t h a t t h i s e x p e r i e n c e s h o u l d be o f a s i g n i f i c a n t
narure.®
In c o n c lu d in g a study o f a c t u a l b u s in e s s e x p e r ie n c e as a requirement
o f b u s i n e s s t e a c h e r s , Dodd s t a t e s *
T h erefo r e, although th e o p p o r tu n itie s fo r s ecu rin g
b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e may be f a r f r o m i d e a l , a c t u a l e x p e r i ­
e n c e should be r e q u i r e d a s a p a r t o f th e p r e p a r a t i o n o f
business teach ers,
i i a l f a l o a f i s b e t t e r — e v e n much
b e t t e r - - t h a n no l o a f a t a l l . ^
For t h e m o s t p a r t ,
subjects
s u p e r v is o r s o f student te a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
seem t o have met t h i s
suggested requirement fo r t e a c h i n g
1 . Paul S . Lomax, B u s i n e s s T e a ch er s V e r s u s B u s i n e s s , Busl n e s s E d u c a t i o n
World, XX (November, 1 9 3 9 ) , pp. 2 2 2 - 2 2 3 .
2 . Harl R. D o u g l a s s , Comments o f t h e Department E d i t o r , B u s i n e s s Fiduoation
World , XX (November, 1 9 3 9 ) , pp. 2 2 2 - 2 2 3 .
3 . H e r b e r t A. T o n n e, B u s i n e s s E d u o a t i o n , B a s lo P r i n c i p l e s end T r e n d s .
New Yorki
Cregg P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 3 9 , p . 3 1 0 .
4 . J . H. Dodd, A c t u a l B u s i n e s s E x p e r i e n c e as a Requirement o f B u s i n e s s
T e a o h e r s , The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Commercial T e a c h e r - T r a i n i n g
I n s t i t u t i o n s , B u l l e t i n No. 1 1 , 1 9 3 7 , p. 2 2 .
1 07
efficien cy .
T h is may be p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t many
ad m in istra to rs r e s p o n sib le f o r the h i r i n g of su p e rv iso rs of student
t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s a - r e e w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f Lomax, Tonne,
D o u g l a s s , and Dodd p r e s e n t e d
in the p recedin g paragraphs.
Table XXXI;
shows t h a t 1 1 , 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s have had no b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e .
The l a c k o f b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e i s ■'’" e a t e s t
colleges
and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
Tlir.ost o n e - f i f t h
had no b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e ,
u n :v ersitio s,
among t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e
o f t h i s group r e p o r t t h e y heve
Among t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and
a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t w o n t i e t h r e p o r t no a c t u a l b u s i n e s s ex­
perience.
Ta ble XXXIX a l s o shows t h a t t h e median number o f d i f f e r e n t t y o e s o f
p o s i t i o n s which have oeen h e l d by s u p e r v i s o r s
b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s i s two.
o f student te a o h e r s o f
T h is same med ian h o l d s t r u e f o r t h e s u p e r v i s o r s
i n s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
and p r i v a t e c o H g e a end u n i v e r s i t i e s .
The s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s h av e had s l i g h t l y l e s s e x p e r i ­
ence,
i n terms o f t h e median number o f p o s i t i o n s , t h a n t h e s u p e r v i s o r s
i n t h e o t h e r two c l a s s e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
The two gro u p s o f s u p e r v i s o r s who are n o t paid w h o l l y by c o l l e g e s or
u n i v e r s i t i e s , t h a t i s , th e - r o u p w h i c h i s p‘ id w h o l l y b y p u b l i c s c h o o l
s y s t e m s "nd t h e group which i s
ir id b y both p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m s and
c o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s , r e p o r t more b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e i n ter m s o f t h e
number o f d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s held t h a n i s r e p o r t e d by t h e w ho le group o f
supervisors.
A l l s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h e s e two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s r e p o r t having
had some b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e .
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s two.
The m ed ia n number o f p o s i t i o n s f o r e ao h
Of t h e s u p e r v i s o r s who are p t i d w h o l l y by p u b l i c
s c h o o l s y s t e m s , t w o r e p o r t t h e y have h e l d one b u s i n e s s p o s i t i o n , two
r e p o r t t h e y have h e l d two p o s i t i o n s ,
and one r e p o r t s h a v in g b e e n employed
108
T4BLE XXXIX
THE NUMBER OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF FULL OR PART-TIME BUSINESS EXPERIENCES
REPORTED Pi SUPERVISORS OF STUDENT TOAC HERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS,
1938-1939.
D i f f e r e n t Types
o f Experience
State
C olleges
and Uni ­
v ersities
State
Teechers
Colie ges
Total
Private
C olleges
and U n i­
versities
Per
Cent
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
8
19.5
1
40.2
12
29.2
14
19.4
15
11
1C .2
Four
8
Fi v e
Six
Num­
ber
Pe r
Cent
7
9.7
One
29
Two
Three
hone
Num­
ber
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
4.3
16
11.7
5
21.7
46
33.8
36.5
9
39.1
38
27.9
4
9.7
5
21.7
20
14.7
11.1
0
0.0
3
13.0
11
8.0
1
1.3
1
2.4
0
0.0
2
1.4
2
2.7
1
2.4
0
0.0
3
2.2
Median
1.5
Fumber o f C a se s
72
in s i x d i f f e r e n t types o f poeit.ionc.
2
2
2
41
23
136
Of t h e t h i r t e e n . s u p e r v i s o r s who are
pa id by b o t h p u b l ic s c h o o l s y s t e m s and c o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s , four r e p o r t
t h e y ha ve h e l d one p o s i t i o n ,
s i x r e p o r t t h e y have h e l d two p o s i t i o n s ,
one
r e p o r t s h a v i n g held t h r e e p o s i t i o n s , one r e p o r t s h a v i n g h eld f o u r p o s i t i o n s ,
and one r e p o r t s having b e e n employed i n s i x d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s .
109
TABLE XL
TYFS8 OF FULL-TIM E OR FA R T-TIK E B U SIN ESS EXPERIENCE REPORTED BY
SUPERVISORS OF STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SU B JEC TS,
1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9 *
Type o f
Experience
State
Te ac h er s
C oli e g e a
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
State
C olleges
and U n i ­
v ersities
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
41
Private
C olleges
and Uni­
v ersities
Num­
ber
Total
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Number o f Cases
72
136
C lerical
26
36.1
13
31.7
9
39.1
48
35*2
Stenographio
34
47.2
19
46.3
8
34.7
61
44.8
Bookkeeping
34
47.3
18
43.9
12
52.1
64
47.0
S ellin g
25
34.7
13
31.7
9
39.1
47
34.5
Manegerial
15
20.0
e
14.6
8
34.7
29
21.3
23
* T h is t a b l e 3h o u ld be r o a d as f o l l o w s *
Of t h e 72 s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s
c o l l e g e s , 41 s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and 23 s u p e r v i s o r s
i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , or a t o t a l o f 136 s u p e r v i s o r s f u r n i s h i n g
d a t a about b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e , 26 s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s , or
3 6 . 1 per c e n t , r e p o r t t h e y h av e had e x p e r i e n c e as c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s ; 13 s u p e r ­
v i s o r s i n s t o t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , or 3 1 . 7 per c e n t , r o p o r t t h e y have
had e x p e r i e n c e as c l e r i c a l Y o r k e r s ; 9 s u p e r v i s o r s i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and
u n i v e r s i t i e s , or 3 9 . 1 per c e n t , r e p o r t t h e y have had e x p e r i e n c e as c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s ; and 48 s u p e r v i s o r s i n a l l t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s , or 3 6 , 2 per c e n t ,
r e p o r t t h e y have had e x p e r i e n c e as c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s .
Table XL shows t h e t y p e s af f u l l - t i m e or p a r t t im e b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e s
r e p o r t e d by s u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s .
An exam­
i n a t i o n o f t h e t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t more o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s r e p o r t b u s i n e s s
e x p e r i e n c e i n a bo ok keeping c a p a c i t y t h a n i n any o t h e r .
e noei
Bo ok keeping e x p e r i -
are c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d b y e x p e r i e n c e s i n a s t e n o g r a p h i c c a p a c i t y .
110
S l i g h t l y over on e-th ird of the supervisors report actu al b u sin e ss e x p e r i­
ences
in s e l l i n g end c l e r i c a l work.
A little
o v er o n e - f i f t h o f t h e s u o e r -
v is o r s report a c t u a l b u sin e ss ex p erien ce in a m anagerial c a p a c i t y .
I n Table X I I ,
Chapter I I ,
i t is reported that typ ew ritin g i s
in 9 6 . 6 per c e n t o f t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s .
per c e n t o f t h e t r a i n i n g
Just p re se n te d ,
it
are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
is
sch ools.
Shorthand i s
offered
offered in 80.0
Comparing t h e s e f i g u r e s w i t h t h e one s
o b s er ve d t h a t t h e r e may be many s u p e r v i s o r s who
student teaching
in t y p e w r i t i n g and s h o r t h a n d who
have n o t hod a c t u a l b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e i n a s t e n o g r a p h i c c e p a c i t y .
Of
c o u r s e , t h e d i s c r e p a n c y i n t h e f i g u r e s may be caused t o some e x t e n t by
t he f e e t t h t t some s u p e r v i s o r s do n o t s u p e r v i s e t y o e w r i t i n g end sh o rt h an d
•:.nd t h a t on ly t h o s e who have v,ed a c t u a l b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s
field
are s c b e d led f o r t h i s t a s k .
The s', me c a s e may be made f o r b o o k k e e p i n g .
bookkeeping i s r e p o r t e d as b e i n g o f f e r e d
sobools.
In f a b l e XL i t
is
I n Table XTI, Cha pt er I I ,
in 7 « . 0 per c e n t o f t h e t r a i n i n g
r e p o r t e d t h a t o n l y 4 7 . 0 per c e n t o f t h e s u p e r ­
v i s o r s r e p o r t a c t u a l b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e in t h i s f i e l d .
Again,
i t would
seem t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f s u p e r v i s o r s who a re r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
book kee pin g c l a s s e s
e x p e r i e n c e in t h i s
i n t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l have n o t had a c t u a l b u s i n e s s
field .
ho wever, t h e l i m i t a t i o n p r e s e n t e d
ce d in g paragra ph h o l d s t r u e in t h i s
case.
The s i t u a t i o n f o r m e r c h a n d i s i n g i s
it is
in t h e pre­
quite d if f e r e n t .
In Table X II,
r e p o r t e d t h a t o n l y 6 . 8 per c e n t o f t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s i n c l u d e t h i s
su bject in t h e i r c u r r i o u l a .
Table XL shows t h a t ove r e t h i r d o f t h e
s u p e r v i s o r s a v a i l a b l e f o r t e a c h i n g t h e s u b j e c t have had a c t u a l b u s i n e s s e x ­
p e r i e n c e in t h e f i e l d
of s e l l i n g .
The s i t u a t i o n f o r m e r c h a n d i s i n g and c l e r i c a l p r a c t i o o
is
sim ilar.
Over o n o - t h i r d o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s h a ve hurt a c t u a l b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e i n
the c l e r i c a l f i e l d w h ile * l i t t l e
l e s s than o n e - a i x t h o f t h e t r a i n i n g
s c h o o l s i n c l u d e c l e r i c a l o f f i c e p r a c t i c e in t h e i r c u r r i c u l a .
Table XL shows t h e t i n t h e c a s e o f e v e r y t y p e o f B c t u e . l b u s i n e s s
experience except
■nrivate c o l l e g e s
s t e n o g r a p h i c , r h i g h e r per ce n t o f f v ^ e r v i s o r s in t h e
and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t t h e y '-'ava hed each t y p e o f
ex p erien ce than i s
classification s.
supervisors
reported
by s u p e r v i s o r s in the o t h e r two i n s t i t u t i o n a l
T h is may be due, t o
some e x t e n t , t o the f e e t t h a t t h e s e
>:ra now t o r c h i n g or have been t e a c h i n g i n l f . r ; e c i t i e s whore
op p ortu nities
f o r s e c u r i n g employment a re ,
In some c a s e s , more numerous.
I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s may be c a u s e d by t h e f a c t t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s
in t h is
type of in s t it u t io n
ar3 p a i d h ig h e r y e a r l y s a l a r i e s t h e n s u p e r v i s o r s i n
t h e o t h e r two t y p e s
of in s t it u t io n s .
for
adm inistrators h iring
those
Beoi-use of t h i s , i t may b e p o s s i b l e
s u p e r v i s o r s t o c h o o s e as members o f t h e i r f e c u l t i e s
i n d i v i d u a l s who ha ve hed c o r s i d e r c b l e emounts o f b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e .
S u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s rank h ig h e r t h a n t h o s e i n t h e s t a t e
c o l i e e s and u n i v e - s i t i e s
Of t h e f i v e
in th is respect*
s u p e r v i s o r s who ure paid w h o l l y by p u b l i c s c h o o l
s y s t e m s , o n e , o r 2 0 . 0 per c e n t r e p o r t s c l e r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , t w o , or
4 0 . 0 p er c e n t , r e p o r t s te n o gr '-r h ie e x p e r i e n c e , 1 0 0 . 0 per c e n t r e p o r t
b o o k k e e p i n g e x p e r i e n c e , two or 4 0 . 0 per c e n t , r e p o r t s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e ,
and o n e ,
or 2 0 . 0 p e r c e n t r e p o r t s m a n a g e r i a l e x p e r i e n c e *
The p e r c e n t a g e s
r e p o r t e d h e r e a r e h i g h e r i n t h e c a s e o f bookkeeping and s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e and
low er in th e oth er t h r e e c a s e s than the percentages reported f o r t h e whole
group o f s u p e r v i s o r s .
Of t h e t h i r t e e n s u p e r v i s o r s who are p a id by b o t h p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m s
112
and b y o o l i t e s
end u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
c le rio a l experience,
n iie,
fiv e,
or 3 8 , 4 p e r c e n t , r e p o r t
o r G9.2 p e r c e n t , r e p o r t s t e n o g r a p h i c e x ­
p e rie n c e , seven, o r 53.8 p er c e n t, r e p o r t bookkeeping e x p e rie n c e , f i v e ,
o r 3D.4 p e r c e n t ,
report sellin g
re p o rts m anagerial e x p e rie n c e .
e x p e r i e n c e , and o n e , o r 7*6 p e r c e n t ,
The p e r c e n t a g e s r e p o r t e d
fo r th is group
a re h ig h e r t h e n t h o s e r e p o r t e d by t h e whole g ro u p o f s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h e
case of c l e r i c a l ,
s t e n o g r a p h i c , and s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e b u t
are lower i n
t h e c c s e o f b o o k k e e p i n g and m a n a g e r i a l e x p e r i e n c e .
The s u p e r v i s o r s w ere as k ed t o l i s t t y p e s o f a o t u a l b u s i n e s s e x p e r ­
ie n c e o th e r than t h o s e l i s t e d
time jo b s were l i s t e d
on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .
by t w e l v e s u p e r v i s o r s .
Ten d i f f e r e n t f u l l ­
Young wens' C h r i s t i a n
A s s o c i a t i o n and s u b s t i t u t e o f f i c e work were each l i s t e d by two s u p e r ­
visors,
The f o l l o w i n g f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n s were l i s t e d
s e o r e t a r y t o county f a i r ,
general o f f i o e ,
ad vertising, o iv il se r v ic e , o il refining,
s t a t i s t i c i a n , warehouseman, and r e p o r t o r i e l .
The f o l l o w i n g p a r t - t i m e p o s i t i o n s w e r e l i s t e d
co llectio n s,
one t im e e a c h i
one t i m e e a c h t
Young Le ns * C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n w o r k e r , a d v e r t i s i n g ,
church t r u s t e e ,
oollege r e g i s t r a r ,
a u d itin g , g e n e ra l o f f ic e worker,
m u s i o i n n , and p e r s o n n e l w o r k e r .
T a b l e s XLI and XLII show t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f f u l l - t i m e and p a r t t im e b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e r e p o r t e d by s u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s
business
subjects.
of
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e t a b l e s shows t h a t more o f t h e
s u p e r v i s o r s have had e x p e r i e n c e s as f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r s t h e n a s p a r t - t i m e
workers.
T h is i s t r u e f o r a l l t y p e s o f p o s i t i o n s l i s t e d i n t h e t a b l e
w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f s e l l i n g .
I n t h a t i n s t a n c e , an e q u al number o f
s u p e r v i s o r s r e p o r t p a r t - t i m e and f u l l - t i m e e x p e r i e n c e .
There i s some
113
d u p l i c a t i o n i n t h e s e f i g u r e s a s some o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s r e p o r t e d b o t h
fu ll
and p a r t - t i m e e x p e r i e n c e *
Thes e r e p e t i t i o n s
are i n c l u d e d i n t h e
tables*
The s u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s r e p o r t
b o o k k e e p i n g e x p e r i e n c e more o f t e n t h e n any o t h e r t y p e o f p a r t - t i m e
b u sin ess experience.
T w e n t y - n i n e , or 2 1 . 3 per c e n t , o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s
rep o rt business experience o f t h is nature.
B o o k k e e p in g e x p e r i e n c e i s
f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by p a r t - t i m e s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e .
1 9 . 0 per c e n t o f t h e s u n e r v i s o r s .
I t i s r e p o r t e d by
T trt-tim e stenographic experience is
r e p o r t e d by 1 P . 1 per c e n t , p a r t - t i m e c l e r i c a l e x n e r i e n c e i s
12.4
per c e n t ,
r e p o r t e d by
and p a r t - t i m e m a n a g e r i a l e x p e r i e n c e i s r e p o r t e d by 5 , 6 per
cent of the supervisors.
The median number o f y e a r s w hic h s u p e r v i s o r s r e p o r t t h e y have worked
i n t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p a r t - t i m e p o s i t i o n s r a n g e s from one t o t w o .
There
i 3 no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s e medians e i t h e r f o r t h e c l a s s e s o f
in stitu tio n s
or t h e t y p e s o f p o s i t i o n s .
T a b le XLII shows t h a t t h e ap pr oxi m at e median o f y e a r r e c e n c y f o r
p a r t - t i m e employment. In t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f work i s ,
1929.
T h is i s
sign ifican t
in t h a t i t
in most c a s e s , a f t e r
shows t h a t many s u p e r v i s o r s have
t a k e n a d v a n t a g e o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o work under c h r n g i n g hue i n e s s c o n d i t i o n s
and t o keep t n e i r kno wledg e o f t h e b u s i n e s s w o rl d and i t s
procedures u p -to -
date.
S u p e r v iso r s of student t e a c h e r s of b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s r e p o r t f u l l - t i m e
s t e n o g r a p h i c e x r e r i e n c e more o f t e n th- n any o t h e r f u l l - t i m e b u s i n e s s e x ­
perience.
T h i r t y - e i g h t , or 2 7 . B per c e n t ,
in e s s experience of t h is ty p e .
Full-tim e
o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s r e p o r t bus­
stenographic exnerience is
114
TABLE X L I
TYPES u F FU LL-TIM E B U SIN ESS EX PERIEN CE REPORTED BY SUPERVISORS OF
STUDENT TEACHERS OF B U SIN E SS SU B JEC TS, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
Tyre o f E x p e r i e n c e
S t a t e Teacher*
C olleges
State
Colleges
and Uni­
v ersities
Private
C olleges
end Uni ­
versities
■ r ' ~ ■ -j r mu - ■ ■■
C lerical
Number
Per c e n t
Median number o f y e a r s
Range o f number o f y e a r s
A pp rox im ate med ian o f y e a r
recency
Range o f y e a r r e c e n c y
Stenographic
Number
Pe r c e n t
Median number o f y e a r s
Range o f number o f ye&rs
Approximate m edi an o f y e a r
recency
Range o f y e a r r e c e n c y
Bo o k k ee p in g
Number
Per c e n t
Median number o f y e a r s
Range c f number o f y o c r s
Approximate median o f ye r
recency
mange o f y e t r r e c e n c y
S ellin g
Number
Pe r c e n t
Median number o f y e a r s
Range o f number o f y e a r s
Appr ox im ate xriedian o f y e a r
recency
Range o f y e a r r e c e n c y
Managerial
Number
Per c e n t
Median number o f y e a r s
Range o f number o f ye a r a
Appr ox im at e med ian o f y e a r
recency
Range o f y e a r r e o e n o y
11
15.2
1
1-9
1-4
7
30.4
2
1-6
1928
1909-1935
1925
1922-1330
1925
1921-1927
20
27.7
1.75
1-4
11
26.8
1
1-5
7
30.4
2
1-4
1922
1903-1938
1930
1918-1937
1927
1921-1931
17
23.6
2
1-10
11
26.8
1
I-*
e
26.0
2
1-2
1027
1910-1939
1930
1914-1936
1926
1 92 5 -1 9 2 9
15
20.5
2
1-7
5
12.1
2
1- 8
7
30.4
1
1-2
192 6
1902-1939
1930
1923-1938
1927
1920-1930
11
15.2
2
1-6
3
7.3
1
1-4
7
30.4
1
1-4
1921
1900-1939
Not given
Not given
1927
19 1 9 - 1 9 2 9
5
12.1
115
TAJJLE x l i i
TYPES CF FA R T-TIM 3 BUSINESS EXPERIENCE REPORTED i;Y SUPERVISORS OF
S T 'D E P T TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECT'S, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
Type o f E x p e r i e n c e
C lerical
Number
Per c e n t
E ed ia n number o f y e e r s
Range o f number o f y e a r s
Apj r o x i m a t e median o f yea r
recency
Ron, e o f y e a r r e c e n o y
Stenographic
Number
Per c e n t
L e d i e n number o f y e a r s
P.uige o f number o f y e a r s
Approximate median o f yea r
recency
?.! nge o f y ea r r e c e n c y
Bookkeeping
Number
Per c e n t
i. e d i a n numoer o f y e a r s
Range o f number o f y e a r s
Approximate meal an o f ye a r
recency
tenge o f y e a r r e c e n c y
Selling
Numbe r
Per c e n t
Eedi&n number o f y e a r s
Range o f number o f ye rs
Approximate median o f ye a r
recency
Range o f y e a r r e c e n c y
Een ag eri & l
Number
Per c e n t
Median number o f y e a r s
Range o f number o f yc " rs
Approximate median o f ye-.r
recenoy
Range o f year reoe r oy
S t a t e Teacher s
C olleges
State
C olleges
e nd Uni v ersities
Private
C olleges
and Uni ­
v ersities
7
9.7
1.5
1-4
5
12.9
3
2-11
5
21.7
2
1P22
1908-1939
19 29
1927-1934
1926
1913-1939
14
19.4
1
1-7
10
£4.3
2
1-8
2
8.6
5
5.5
1932
1921-1938
1 9 32
1925-1938
1930
1928-1931
13
18.0
2.5
1-5
9
21.9
1
1-7
7
30.4
1931
19 1 6 -1 9 3 9
1935
1923-1938
1532
1925-1939
u7
1 -7
19.4
o
1-15
7
17.0
1
1-4
6
26.0
2
1930
1 9 19 -1 9 3 7
193 4
1919-1939
1927
1912-1559
5
6.9
4.5
2*10
1
2.4
10
3
2
8.6
1932
1525-1939
1938
19 38
1934
1928-1539
" ■*—----- -—
1-8
4
1-7
116
f o l l o w e d by f u l l - t i m e e x p e r i e n c e i n b o o k k e e p i n g .
Exactly one-fourth of
the su p ervisors report t h i s type of e x p erien ce.
t i m e s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h 1 9 . 8 per o e n t ,
w i t h 1C.9 per c e n t ,
Kext i n o r d e r comes f u l l ­
fu ll-tim e c l e r i c a l experience
and f u l l - t i m e m a n a g e r i a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h 1 C .4 per o e n t .
The m ed ian number o f y e a r s w h i c h s u p e r v i s o r s r e p o r t t h e y have worked
i n t h e v r . r io u s t y p e s o f f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n s r a n g e s from one t o tw o .
There
i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s e m ed ian s e i t h e r f o r t h e c l a s s e s o f
in stitu tio n s
or t h e t y p e s o f p o s i t i o n s .
Tab le X U
shows t h a t t h e a p p r o x i m a t e median o f year r e c e n c y f o r f u l l ­
t i m e employment e s r e p o r t e d by t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i s
a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same
e.s or b e f o r e t h e d e p r e s s i o n w h i c h b e g a n i n 1 9 2 9 .
Th is would seem t o i n d i ­
c a t e t h e t t h e p a r t - t i m e b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e s have t a k e n p l a c e a t a l a t e r
d ate than th e
v isin g
fu ll-tim e business ex p erien ces.
student t e a c h e r s, w ith a l l of i t s
R e s p o n s ib il it y fo r super­
v a r i e d r e q u i r e m e n t s , t.nd t h e
a c c e p t a n c e c f f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n s o f t h i s n a t u r e as a l i f e ' s
account fo r t h i s
work m a y
fact.
Schedul e d Teac h i n g Load
Table XLIIT shows t h e f o r m a l l y s c h e d u l e d te&cVing lo a d o f s u p e r ­
v i s o r s c i s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s i n terms o f h ou rs per
week ar.d t h e median number c f ho urs o f t e a c h i n g
data.
Thes e d a t e rauy r.ot be v a l i d
as t h e r e
lo a d
bused on vrgrouped
i s e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t
the resp o n d en ts confused the t e r n s " f o r m a lly scheduled t r a in * n g sch o o l
t e a c h i n g load"
and
"supervision of student teaching."
It
w bs
o f t h e i n v e s t j g & t o r t o show t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f rhe s u p e r v i s o r s '
t h e
in ten t
t im e w h i c h
wee s p e n t i n a c t u a l s u p e r v i s i o n i n o o m p a r ie o n w i t h a o t u e l s o h e d u l e d t e a c h ­
in g t i m e ,
h o w e v e r , I t would seem t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , i n some c a s e s ,
117
TAi’LK X L I I I
FORMALLY SCIffiDULcD TE.'.Cr:i:'C COLIJSUiS '.KD TRAIN.HO SCbGOL LC.7D iN HOURS
I-ER I’RuK uF Scii,RVI3CRS OF .7lTDbl!T IE ACHEPS OF E’JBIUKSS SIBJECTS,
1938-1939
State
T e a ch er s
C olleges
Number o f Hours
State
Colie ges
and Tn i v ersitie s
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
To ta l
Private
C olleges
and I n i v ersitie a
Num­
ber
Fer
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­ T e r
ber Cent
1- 3
7-9
10-lii
13-15
16 -16
1
4
10
4
22
1.4
P .8
14.7
5.6
-ip i
0
1
1
7
3
0.0
2.8
2.8
20.0
8.5
2
0
7h>
3
4
12.5
0.0
16.7
18.7
25.0
3
5
14
14
29
2.5
4. 2
11. 7
11 .7
24.3
19-21
22-94
25-27
26 - 3 0
31-33
o
S
3
4
2
13.2
13.2
4.4
c.e
2.9
7
2
4
8
0
20.0
5.7
11.4
22.8
0.0
3
0
0
1
0
18.7
0.0
0.0
6.2
o.c
19
11
7
13
2
15 .9
9.2
5.6
1 0. 9
1.6
34-36
0
0.0
2
5.7
0
0.0
2
1. 6
Number o f ci s e e
68
35
16
U e d ic n hours
17
21
15.5
m i s c o n s t r u e d t h e t y p o o f answer d e s i r e d *
bo kept i n mind by t h e r e a d e r o f t h i s
of fa cts presorted
i n Table XI.1V*
Consequently, t h i s
sent ion.
119
18
l i m i t a t i o n should
The scone l i m i t a t i o n
is true
The i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n i n t h e two t a b l e s i s
p r e s e n t e d f o r what i t may be worth*
Table XT.Ii 1 shows t h a t t h e median number o f s c h e d u l e d h ou rs per week o f
teaching; l o a d i s e i g h t e e n .
This median i s
s l i g h t l y above t h a t recommended
f o r c o l l e g e f a c u l t i e s by t h e American A s s o c i a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s C o l l a g e s .
The recomme nda tion o f t h a t a c c r e d i t i n g body i s t h a t , "The a v e r a g e t e a c h i n g
I
118
l o a d fo r t h e e n t i r e c o l l e g e should n o t e x c e e d ,
for regular,
part-tim e
end e x t e n s i o n c l a s s e s , f i f t e e n r e c i t a t i o n p e r i o d s o f r.ot more t h e n
s i x t y m inu tes each per week or i t s e q t i i v a l e n t .
til
An a n a l y s i s of d a t e p r e s e n t e d i n The N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n
o f Teacher s shows that, t h e median h o u r s per w e e k o f s c h e d u l e d t e a c h i n g
load
of su’-or-vi so rs o f s t u d e n t t e u . - h e r s i n
c o 3 l e g e s and s t a t e t e a c h e r s
colleges
3t.tr.te
u n i v e r s i t i e s or l e n d g r u n t
i s higher than th at reported
r\
s t u d y f o r s u p e r v i s o r s c f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s su bjects**"
in t h i s
S upe r­
v i s o r s i n t h e s e two t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t e d t h e i r t e a c h i n g l o a d i n
h o u r s per y/euk ■*u b e i n g 2 2 . 4 and 2 6 . 3 hours r e s p e c t i v e l y .
S u p e r v i s o r s of s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s
o f busj r e s s
subjects
In s t a t e
colleges
and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t t h e g r e a t e s t median number o f s c h e d u l e d t o u c h i n g
h o u r s in comparison w i t h s u p e r v i s o r s
Supervisors in t h i s
i n t h e o t h e r two t y p e s c f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
’-ype o f i n s t i t u t i o n r e s o r t
e. median o f 21 h o u r s , t h o s e
i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s r e p o r t s luedir-n o f 1 7 h o u r s ,
p r i v a t e col l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t 1 5 . 5 h o u r s .
end s ' m e r v i f ' T S
in
T his l e t t e r group i s
t h e o n l y one o f the t h r e e which approxirm t e l y m e e t s t h e r n q -i r o r . n n + s c f t h e
American A s s o c i a t i o n o f T ea ch er s C o l l ' jes m e n t i o n e d
it. t h e
second p ara gra ph
7
a* n v e . 1'
~f the f i v e s u p e r v i s o r s p id w h o l l y by o u t l i e
r e p o r t a sch ed u led to - .c h i r.j !r.;1 o f
school
g i v e ho urs p e r w ea k ,
s y s t e m s , twe
one r e p o r t s
1 . American A s s o c i a t i o n ‘i f "’ei.ohers C o l l e g e s , Linimuiu Ati nd-.rds f o r
i . c c r e d i t i n g Teac he rs Col l o g o s ar.d f o r m a l
S c h o o l s , F e b r u a r y , 193 9,
u o c t i o n V.
2.
-Iambie, o £ . a i t . , p. 204.
3 . American A s s o c i a t i o n o f T e a ch er s C o l l e g e s ,
ojo. c i t .
119
s e v e n t e e n , one r e p o r t s t w e n t y - f i v e ,
nd t h e o t h e r t h i r t y hours per
w eek.
S u p e r v i s o r s who are paid by b o t h p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m s and c o l l e g e s
or u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t t h a t 25 i s t h e median number o f ho ur s per week
t h e y are s c h e d u l e d t o t e p c h .
schedules,
This i n d i c a t e s ,
of co u rse, t h a t th e ir
i n t e r n 3 o f hours per w e e k , are somewhat h e a v i e r t h a n ^hose
r e p o r t e d by t h e v.hole group o f s u p e r v i sorr*
T h is may h e e x p l a i n e d p a r ­
t i a l l y v y t h e f a c t t h a t a number o f t h e s e s u p e r v i s o r s are t e a c h i n g i n o f f cwipus t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s c o n t r o l l e d
lic
school
i n some r e s p e c t s ,
i f no t w h o l l y , by pub­
system s.
Ta b le XLIV shows t h e l o a d o f s u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s o f b u s ­
i n e s s s u b j e c t s i n t er m s o f t h e r a n g e end median number o f ho urs per week
devoted t o c e r t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e t 1t i e
i n d i c a t e s t h a t 6 1 . 7 per c e n t o f t h e s u p e r ­
v i s o r s who f u r r i s h o d d cta f o r t h i s
classes.
s t u d y ar e s c h e d u l e d t o t e a c h c o l l e g e
S u p e r v i s o r s in s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s ore more o f t e n s c h e d u l e d
t o t e a c h c o l l e g e c l a s s e s t h a n are t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h e o t h e r two t ^ e s
in stitu tio n s.
T h is may be c a u s e d b y two f a c t o r s .
ments ’- r e found i n e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ,
engage f a c u l t y members who aro s p e c i a l i s t s
particular f i e l d .
of
F i r s t , where l a r g e e n r o l l ­
i t i s u s u a l ly the p o l i c y to
i n one or more p h as e s o f a
Where t h e e n r o l l m e n t s are r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , as i n t h e
case o f the s t a t e te a c h e r s c o l l e g e s ,
s u p e r v i s o r s a r e sometimes employed
who can g i v e t h e i r t i m e t o more t h a n one or two s p e c i a l i z e d t a s k s .
S e c o n d l y , t h e p r a c t i c e under d i s c u s s i o n may mean t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n
s ta te teachers c o lle g e s fo llo w th e p o lic y of requiring c o lle g e s p e c i a l i s t s
i n v a r i o u s s u b j e c t m at t er f i e l d s t o s u p e r v i s e t h e w o rk o f t h e s t u d e n t te' -c he r
I
120
TABLE X LIV
LOAD CF SUPERVISORS OF STUDENT TEACPERS OF BUS!LESS SUBJECTS IN TERkS OF
RANGE AND MEDIAN NUMBER OF JiCURS PER 'VSEK DEVOTED TO CERTAIN
INSTITUTIONAL RESPOMSI BILITI E S ,
1938-1S39
Duty
State
T e a ch er s
C olleges
State
C olleges
and Uni­
versities
Frivate
C olleges
and Uni­
versities
F o r m a l ly s c h e d u l e d c o l l e g e
teach in g load^
Number o f t e a c h e r s ^
l e d i a n number o f hours
Range o f number o f hours
49 ( 6 8 / )
12
5/6-30
24 ( 58 .5/ 7)
6
1- 28
11 ( 4 7 . 8 / )
12
6-14
18
8
5/6-30
18
17.5
5- 35
4
6.5
1.5-30
62
10
5/6-30
25
10
1-35
20
5.5
2-15
44 ( 6 1 . 1 7 0
1
A
5
8 -b
17 ( 4 1 . 4 7 0
1
1-3
11 ( 4 7 . 8 / 0
2
1-2
50 ( 6 9 . 4 ? 0
2.5
8-10
25 ( 60 . 97?)
2
1/3-8
16 ( 6 9 . 5 7 0
2.5
1.5-10
F or m a ll y s c h e d u l e d t r a i n i n g
s c h o o l * e t c h i n g lo ad ^
Number o f t e a c h e r s
Median number o f hours
Range o f number o f hours
S u p erv isio n o f stud en t teaching^
Number o f t e a c h e r s
Median number o f hours
Range o f number o f hour6
Group c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h s t u d e n t
teachers
lumber o f t e a c h e r s
L e d i a n number o f hours
Range o f number o f hours
In d iv id u a l con feren ces with
student t e e c h e r s
Number o f t e a c h e r s
Median number o f h o u rs
Range o f number o f hours
1.
T h is t a b l e s h o u l d b e reed us f o l l o w s t
o f t h e 72 s u p e r v i s o r s r e p o r t i n g from
s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s , 4 9 , or 6 8 / , i n d i c a t e t h e y t e a c h f o r m a l l y s c h e d u l e d
(college) c la ss e s .
The median number o f hours per week d e v o t e d t o t h i s d u t y
i s 12.
The r a n g e o f t h e number o f h o u rs per week d e v o t e d t o t h i s d u t y i s
5/6 to 30.
2.
Besed on 72 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e t u r n e d from r u p o r v i s o r s i n s t a t e t e c h a r s c o l l e g e s ,
41 f rom s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t . t t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and 23 from s u p e r v i s o r s
in p r iv a te c o l l e g e s
nd u n i v e r s i t i e s .
3 . D ata i n c o r r e c t due t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .
121
t o e - r e n t e r e x t e n t t h a n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e o t h e r two t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s
i n t h e hope t h a t t h i
e
t y p e nf t e a c h e r may be eb] e t o p r e s e n t e more a d e q u a t e
s u b j e a t m a t t e r ba ck gro un d ^nd at th* stnie t im e be a b l e t o show o t h e r s hew
th is
s u b j e c t m a t t e r sh ou l d be p r e s e n te d t o t h e h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l .
b ixty-
e i g h t per c e n t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s in s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s , 5 8 . £ p er c e n t
o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t e t e c o l l e g e s end u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
end 4 7 , 8 per o e n t o f
t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s are s c h e d u l e d t o t e a c h
college c la ss e s .
i n two types of i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e
p e r c e n t a g e s are h i g h e r
t h a n t h o s e fo u n d f o r s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s
sities
co lleg es,
state un iver­
and l a n d - g r e n t c o l l e g e s , and p r i v a t e n o n d e n o m i n e t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t i e s or
c o l l e g e s i n The N a t i o n a l Survey o f t h e E d u c a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s ,
In t h a t
study,
Gamble r e p o r t s t h a t 3 2 , 8 per oent o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s ,
4 8 . 8 per c e n t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s and l a n d - g r a n t o o l l e g e s ,
and 5 2 , 0 per c e n t o f t h e s u p e r v is o r s i n p r i v a t e n o n d e n o m i n a t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t i e s
or c o l l e g e s a r e s c h e d u l e d t o t e a c h o o l l e g e c l a s s e s .
The t a b l e
i n d i c a t e s th a t supervisors in s t a t e
teachers
c o l l e g e s and i n
p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s are s c h e d u le d t o t e a c h c o l l e g e o l a s s e s two
t i m e s as many hours p er week as s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e
There i s a l s o
colleges
and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t th e r a n ge ir. t h e number o f hours f o r t e a c h i n g
college e l f s s e s
i s considerably greater for s u p e r v is o r s in
s ta te teachers
o o l l e g e s and i n s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a n f o r s u p e r v i s o r s
p rivate c o lle g e s
F ifty-th ree
in
and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
and e i g h t - t e n t h s per c e n t of t h e
s u p e r v i s o r s paid b y b o t h
o o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s and p u b l ic s c h o o l s y s t e m s are s c h e d u l e d t o t e a c h
college c la ss e s .
1. I b i d . . p. 206.
T h is would seem t o i n d i o a t e t h a t t h e s e s u p e r v i s o r s
122
are n o t c a l l e d upon t o t e a c h c o l l e g e c l a s s e s t o as g r e a t an e x t e n t as are
a l l o f t h e s u p e r v is o r s included i n t h i s study*
I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s group
r e p o r t s t h a t t h e m ed ia n number o f ho ur s p er week s p e n t i n t e a c h i n g c o l l e g e
classes i s three.
T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t w he re t h e s e s u p e r v i s o r s are c a l l e d
upon t o t e n c h c o l l e g e c l a s s e s ,
t h e i r t e a c h i n g load in t h i s r e s p e c t i s not
as g r e a t as t h a t o f t h e w h o l e g r o u p o f s u p e r v i s o r s .
'Two o f t h e f i v e
s u p e r v i s o r s p a id w h o l l y by p u b l i c s c h o o l s ys te m s ar e
s c h e d u lo d t o t e a c h c o l l e g e c l a s s e s .
t h i r t y h o u r s and t h e o t h er e l o a d
One r e p o r t s
a college c la ss
load o f
o f tw elve hours.
As ho3 be en s a i d i n e p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o show
t h a t t h e r e was a m i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t e r m s " t r a i n i n g s c h o o l t e a c h i n g
load " i nd " s u p e r v i s i o n of s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g . "
Therefore, the date presented
i n Table XLIV r e l a t i v e t o t h e s e two p o i n t s i s p r o b a b l y not v a l i d .
The d a t a
are p r e s e n t e d f o r w hat th ey may be w o r t h .
The t ‘ b l e shows t h a t 7 2 ,
or 5 2 . 9
per c e n t ,
of u ll the supervisors
are
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e conduct o f g r o p c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h s t u d e r t t e a c h e r s o f
business
subjects.
This p r o b a b l y d o e s n o t moan t h a t al m os t h a l f o f t h e
i n s t i t u t i o n s do not r e q u i r e g r o u p c o n f e r e n c e s as
a part of t h e i r
of student teach ers o f business
p o s s i b l e , i n a numhor o f
subjects.
i n s t a n c e s , t h a t group c o n f e r e n c e s
It is
train ing
are held w ith a l l the s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s
i n v o l v e d ; w h i l e t h e y meet i n a g r o u p ,
o n l y a few o f t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g are c a l l e d upon t o c o n d u c t t h e s e c o n f e r e n c e s .
Th is r s e p -
o n s i b i l i t y I s g r e a t e s t among t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e t e a c b e r s c o l l a g e s .
Of t h i E g r o u p , 6 1 . 1 per oent r e p o r t t h e y c o n d u c t group c o n f e r e n c e s .
Forty-
one and f o u r - t e n t h s par c e n t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i ­
v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t t h e y conduct gro> p c o n f e r e n c e s .
Almost h a l f , 4 7 , 8 per
123
o e n t , o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t t h e y
c o n d u c t group c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s .
Two hours p e r w e e k , t h e m ed ia n number o f hours d e v o t o d t o t h i s
resp­
o n s i b i l i t y by s u p e r v i s o r s i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , i s
t w i c e t h a t r e p o r t e d by s u p e r v i s o r s
tjons.
—h o t h e r two t y p e s o f i n s t i t i w -
This may be a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e ra ng e o f hours
t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s i s
fo r
somewhat l a r g e r t h a n t h a t f o r t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n
t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
S3 -ht o f t h e t h i r t e e n s u p e r v i s o r s who a r e pa id b y b o t h p u b l i c s c h o o l
s y s t e m s and c o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s , or 6 1 . 5 per c e n t , co n d u ct group
conferences.
The r a n g e i n
f i v e and t h e m ed ia n t w o .
t h e number o f h o u rs f o r
T h is i n d i c a t e s ,
t h i s group i s one t o
i n ter m s o f b ot h t h e med ian
number o f hours and t h e r a n g e o f t h e number o f h ou rs , t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s
i n t h i s group t e n d t o c o n d u c t gr ou p c o n f e r e n c e s more o f t e n t h a n e l l
the s u p e r v is o r s in clu d ed i n t h i s
Two o f t h e f i v e
study.
s u p e r v i s o r s whose s a l a r i e s are p a i d w h o l l y by p u b l i c
s c h o o l s y s t e m s c o n d u c t group c o n f e r e n c e s .
One i n d i c a t e s
two hours per week t o t h i s
type of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
hour per week t o t h i s t y p e
of resp on sib ility.
hinety-one
of
su pervisors,
t h a t he d e v o t e s
The o t h e r d e v o t e s
one
or 6 6 . 9 per c e n t , r e p o r t t h e y c o n d u c t
in d iv id u a l con ferences w ith student tea ch ers of business s u b je c ts .
i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e in the percentages for
There
s u p e r v i s o r s i n a t £+ e t e a c h e r s
o o l l e g e s and i n p r i v e .t o c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
S i x t y - n i n e and f o u r -
t e n t h s per c e n t o f t h e fo rm er group and 6 9 . 5 per c e n t o f t h e l a t t e r group
report they conduct con feren ces of t h i s nature.
J i x t y and n i n e - t e n t h s per
c e n t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s c o n d u c t i n d i v i d u a l
conferences.
The a p p ro x im a t e t h i r d o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s who do n o t co n d u ct
]
5
'
124
i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s do n o t
seem t o b e l i e v e in t h e imnorton ce o f
S c h o r l i n g ' s s t a t e m e n t t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t , tt0 f t h e many t a s k s t h a t
t h e o r i t i o t e a c h e r needs t o d o ,
none a r e more important t h a n h i s d u t i e s
r e l a t i n g t o t h e c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l student."-'/in a n a l y s i s o f t h e m e d ia n number o f houre per week d e v o t e d t o
i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s by s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s i n d i ­
c a t e s nhat s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s and i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s d e v o t e a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y minu tes per d e v to t h i s
resp on sib ility.
S u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s d e v o t e
s l i g h t l y l e s s time t o t h i s f u n c t i o n .
They spend ahout t w e n t y - f o u r m i n u t e s
per day i n t h e con duct o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s .
This same group d e v o t e s
l o s s tim e t o t h i s f u n c t i o n , i n t e r m s o f t h e range of number o f h o u r s per
week, t h a n do t h e s u p e r v i s o r s
i n t h e o t h e r two t y p e 3 of i n s t i t u t i o n s .
S u p e r v i s o r s who a r e p a i d b y b o t h p u b l i o s c h o o l s y s t e m s end by c o l l e g e s
o r u n i v e r s i t i e s d e v o t e more t i m e t o t h i s
number o f h o u r s p e r w e e k , t h ; n do t h e
f u n c t i o n , in te rm s of t h e median
supervisors
as a w h o l e .
T h is group
r e t o r t s t h a t f i v e i s t h e m e d i a n number o f h o ur s p e r week 3 p e n t i n t h e
conduct of i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
jects.
In a d d i t i o n , 84*6 p e r
sub­
c en t r e p o r t th a t t h e y conduct c o n fe re n c e s
o f t h i s n a t u r e w hi ch i s a h i g h e r p e r c e n t t h a n i s r e p o r t e d b y t h e w h o l e
group o f s u p e r v i s o r s .
This i n d i c a t e s t h a t approxim ately o n e - s i x t h o f t h i s
g r o u p do n o t c o n d u c t i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s as compared w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y
one-third fo r a ll
of th e r e s p o n d e n t s .
Four o f t h e f i v e
s u p e r v i s o r s who e r e paid w h o l l y by p u b l i o s c h o o l
sy stems oonduot I n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s .
One r e p o r t s one hour per w eek,
another r e p o r t s t w e n t y m i n u t e s p er w e e k ,
and a t h i r d r e p o r t s two h ou rs
1. Sohorllng, o£, c i t . , p. 171.
125
per week d e v o t e d t o t h i s work.
The o t h e r s u p e r v i s o r r e p o r t s t h a t she
oonducts in d i v i d u a l c o n fe r e n c e s "as needed."
S e r v i o e Load o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e o t a
Adapted from a s t u d y o f t h e f u n c t i o n s
made by k c i . u l l e n ,
a list
o f 42 7 s u p e r v i s i n g t e a c h e r s
o f p o s s i b l e d u t i e s or f u n c t i o n s o f s u p e r v i s o r s
o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s was p r e p a r e d end i n c l u d e d i n t h e
q u estionnaire.*
The r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r t h e y
u s u a l l y performed t h e s e d u t i e s d e i l y , w e e k l y , or m o n t h l y or l e s ?
often.
The f r e q u e n c y o f p erf orm an ce o f t h e s e d u t i e s or f u n c t i o n s i s r e p o r t e d i n
Table XLV.
In a d d i t i o n t o t h e d u t i e s l i s t e d
on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , rhe
s u p e r v i s o r s w ere as ked t o i n d i c a t e any o t h e r d u t i e s w hic h t o o k a p a r t o f
th e ir tim e.
sponsorship,
The o n l y d u t y mentioned f i v e
or more t i m e s i s t h a t o f c l u b
'six s u p e r v i s o r s r e p o r t t h i s d u t y .
th e tim e element in v o lv e d .
end f o r t h e o t h e r i t
or f u n c t i o n s r e p o r t e d
For o n e , s p o n s o r i n g a c l u b i s a w e e k l y d u t y
i s a m o n t h l y dut y.
are as f o l l o w 3 j
s u p e r v i s i o n o f boa d r i v e r s ,
Only two o f t h e s i x r e p o r t
A dditional
a c t iv i t ie s , d u ties,
s u p e r v i s i o n o f school newspaper,
s u p p l y s h o p , home room, group g u i d a n c e ,
class
s p o n s o r , Doan o f Le n , m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t a c t s w i t h h i g h s c h o o l s , e x a m i n a t i o n
for s ta te c e r t i f i c a t e s , 'in te r v ie w s w ith c o lle g e a d v iso r y groups, d i r e c t io n
of o f f i c e s t a f f ,
s c h e d u l i n g com.,Brci al s t u d e n t s ,
'u d ito r of student funds,
bookroom, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , c o n t e s t c h a i r m a n , o f f i c e r
z a t i o n s , chairman u f a t h l e t i c ho ar d , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ,
in n o n - s c h o o l o r g a n i ­
au d itin g,
sponsor o f
a n n u a l , s t u d e n t c o u n c i l work, t y p i n g and mimeograph work f o r t e a c h e r s ,
1 . L. B. MoKullen, S e r v i c e Load of tho C r i t i c TeacherB i n S t a t e T e a c h e r s
C o l l e g e s , 19 26 Yearbook o f t h e S u p e r v i s o r s o f S t u d e n t T e a c h i n g , p . 1 4 .
126
TABLE XLV
FHSQUKhCI OF CKBl'AlU DUTIES PERFORMED BY SUPERVISORS OF Sl'UDEBT TEACHERS
OF BUSIDESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 5 8 -1 9 9 9
Number o f Time* Mentioned
D uty
D a ily
P re p a ra tio n o f te a o h in g
m a te r ia la
Reoord keeping
C o rreo tin g paper*
P re p a ra tio n f o r l n a tr u o tio n
o f o o lle g e o laaaee
R e p a r a tio n f o r s u p e rv is io n
o f a tu d e n t te a o h e ra
P r e p a r a tio n f o r In d iT ld u a l oonfe re n o e a w ith a tu d e n t te a o h e ra
S u p e rv isio n o f atudy
P r e p a r a tio n f o r o b se rv a tio n
P r e p a r a tio n f o r non-dem onatrat l o n high aohool te a o h in g
O ffic e r e la tlo n a h ip a
N on-dem onstration h ig h aohool
te a o h in g
D e n o n a tra tio n te a o h in g
R e p a r a ti o n f o r d e n o n a tra tio n
te a o h in g
R e p a r a ti o n f o r group o o n fe renoea w ith s tu d e n t te a o h e ra
Committee work
R e p a r a ti o n f o r a u p erT ia io n o f
a tu d e n t te a o h in g
8ohool assem blies
F a o u lty m eeting*
F ie ld t r i p *
Chaperoning
Coaohing a th l e t l o a
P a re n ta l oonferenoea
Weekly
M onthly or
l e a s o fte n
Perform ed
bu t tim e
n o t g iv en
81
68
68
18
19
26
5
10
9
0
1
1
61
12
0
0
66
55
7
1
40
55
55
46
14
20
9
5
11
1
1
1
55
55
6
17
5
9
0
1
26
20
9
26
7
27
0
1
20
22
18
0
15
15
68
30
10
59
0
1
6
48
42
1
6
6
2
1
1
0
45
25
2
4
0
6
26
78
59
49
6
52
0
1
1
1
0
1
127
c r e d it union, graduate student,
s a le of a t h l e t i c t i c k e t s ,
honor-roll
c a r d s , s t u d e n t a d v i c e , a s s i s t a n t r e g i s t r a r , f or m a l program o f e v a l u a t i o n ,
a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s in the f i e l d ,
s ta te course o f s tu d y p r e p a r a tio n , in
c h a r g e o f d o r m i t o r y and d i n i n g room, s p e e c h e s , and s t u d e n t employment
work.
The q u e s t i o n r o i r e l i s t p r e s e n t e d in T e l l e XLV and d u t i e s
the l i s t
p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g paragraph i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e ere many
d u t i e s w h i c h t h e s u p e r v i s o r s are o&lled upon t o p e r f o r m .
the t a b le
su pp le m en tin g
An e x a m i n a t i o n o f
chows, ho we ver , t h a t t h e r e i s no g e n e r a l ag re e m en t
as t o w h e t h e r
or not m o st o f ^ h e s s d u t i e s are p r i m a r i l y d a i l y d u t i e s , m o n t h l y d u t i e s , or
w eekly d u t i e s .
Departmental C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Supervisors
T ab le XLVI chows t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s l i s t e d by s u p e r v i s o r s
o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s of b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
only.
These a r e o l a s s i f i o a t i o n e
i n name
R e s e r v a t i o n s and e x p l a n a t o r y comments on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n d i c a t e
that t h i s
is
so.
The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h e l i c k o f a oommon u n d e r s t a n d i n g
o f what i s meant by c e r t a i n o f t h e t e r m s .
For i n s t a n c e t h e q u e s t i o n was
r a i s e d a s t o w h e t h e r or n o t a Department o f Commerce i n a t e a c h e r s o o l l e g e
i s no t t h e same a s a Department o f Commercial ( B u s i n e s s ) E d u c a t i o n i n a
state u n iv ersity .
I n s t u d y i n g depo rtme nts i n w h i c h s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o u r s e s
i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s were o f f e r e d , L e s s e n b e r r y found t h e
concluding t h a t ,
same l i m i t a t i o n s ,
"We do not have a common u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what i s meant
by t h e t e r m B u s i n e s s E d u ca tio n Department.
r e f l e c t s t h i s g e n e r a l oonfusion."^-
The w id e r a n g e o f answers
One f e e t s t a n d s out when a study i s
1 . D. D. L e s s e n b e r r y , Curriculum P r a c t i c e s and P rob le m s o f B u s i n e s s
T e a c h e r - T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Commercial
T e a c h e r - T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s , B u l l e t i n No. 6 , 1 9 3 5 , p . 4.
128
mod© o f t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n Tab le XLVI.
The t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s seem
t o have a more u n if o r m s e t - u p t h e n i s t r u e f o r t h e o t h er t w o t y p e s o f
in stitu tio n s.
Two-thirds of the su p e rv iso rs in t h i s tyne o f I n s t i t u t i o n
report th e y ere c l a s s i f i e d
as members o f D ep artments o f Commerce.
C lass­
i f i c a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s o r s seems t o be l e s s u n if o r m i n the s t a t e c o l l e g e #
and u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a n i t
i s i n t h e o t h e r two t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
A p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s in t h i s t y p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n
ar e c l a s s i f i e d
i n Deportments o f E ducation w h ile t h e remaining t w o - t h i r d s
TABLE XLVI
DEPARTMENTAL c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s u p e r v i s o r s of student teachers OF BUSINESS
SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
Departmentel
C lassi f i c u t i o n
Stete
T ea ch er s
C olleges
State
C olleges
and Uni­
v ersities
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
37
66.0
7
19.0
E d u ca t io n
7
12.6
12
Public h ig h sohool
4
7.1
Commerce and E d u c a t i o n
2
Commercial E d u c a t i o n
Num­
ber
Num­
ber
Total
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
1
4 .5
45
39.4
33.3
12
54.5
31
27.1
6
16.6
4
18.1
14
12.2
3.5
4
11.1
4
18.1
10
8.7
4
7.1
4
11.1
1
4.5
9
7.8
Training Sohool only
1
1.7
3
8.3
0
0 .0
4
3.5
‘T eaching D ep a rt m en t
1
1.7
0
0.0
0
0 .0
1
O.S
Commaroe
ere scattered
ove r v a r i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .
Per
Cent
Private
C olleges
and U n i ­
v ersities
i.,ore o f t h e r u p e r v i s o r a
Per
Cent
in
p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s are c l a s s i f i e d i n D ep a rt m en t s o f E d u c a t i o n
than in o th e r departm ents.
I n t h i s t y p e o f i n s t i t u r i r n , v e r y few o f t h e
129
s u p e rv is o rs a re c l a s s i f i e d a s members o f D epartm ent a or Schools o f
Camneroe.
The ta b le a ls o in d lo a te s t h a t a p p ro x im ately o n e -e ig h th o f th e
s u p e rv is o rs Included i n t h i s study a re c l a s s i f i e d as p u b lio h igh sohool
te a c h e rs *
S l i g h t ly l e s s th a n o n e -tw e n tie th o f th e s u p e rv is o rs a re
o l a a s l f l e d as t r a i n i n g so h o o l te a c h e rs only*
That i s t o s a y , in most
in s ta n c e s . In d iv id u a ls re s p o n s ib le f o r th e s u p e r v is io n o f s tu d e n t te a o h ­
ing i n b u sin e ss s u b je c ts a re given some s o r t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as members
o f o o lle g e d ep artm en ts.
Three of th e fiv e s u p e rv is o rs who are p a id o n ly by p u b lio sohool
system s a re c l a s s i f i e d as p u b lio sohool te a o h e r s , one a s a member o f a
D epartm ent of Commeroe, and th e o th e r as a member o f a D epartm ent of
Commercial E d u catio n .
Seven of th e t h i r t e e n s u p e rv iso rs who a re p a id by b o th p u b lio school
system s and by o o lle g e s o r u n i v e r s i t i e s , or 5 9 .8 per c e n t , a re c l a s s i f i e d
as p u b lio high sohool te a o h e r s .
Of th e o th e r s i x , t h r e e a re c l a s s i f i e d as
members o f a Departm ent o f Commerce, one as a member o f a Departm ent of
Cmmneroial E d u catio n , one a s a " s u p e rv is in g c r i t i c , " and th e o th e r a
member o f both a D epartm ent o f Commeroe and a D epartm ent o f Xduoation*
Aoademio Ranks Held by S u p e rv iso rs o f Student T eaohers o f B u sin ess S u b je c ts
The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f th e tea o h in g s t a f f s o f th e th r e e ty p e s o f i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s in c lu d e d in t h i s stu d y aooording to t h e number and p e r o en t o f th e
f a o u l t i e s h o ld in g each aoademio or o th e r rank i s g iv e n in Table XLT11*
The a n a ly s is of th e ta b le shows t h a t 3 4 , or 27*4 per o e n t, o f th e 124
i n d iv id u a ls who answered t h i s q u e stio n re p o rt th e y e i t h e r have no ran k in g
o l a s s i f l o a t l o n o r a re g iv e n a ran k w hloh i s u n lik e th e u s u a l aoademio
130
TABLE XLVI I
academic ranks held bt supervisors of student teachers of business
SUBJECTS, 1938-1939
Sank o r
C la s s ific a tio n
S ta te
Teaehe r s
C o llag a s
Hum­
ber
No ran k in g c l a s s i ­
fic a tio n
P ro fa sso r
A sso o ia ta P ro fa s s o r
A s s is ta n t p r o f a s s o r
In a tru o to r
P er
Cant
S ta ts
C ollages
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
P riv a te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
T o ta l
Num­
ber
Num­
ber
P er
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Par
Cant
8
12
6
17
17
11*9
1 7 .9
7 .4
2 8 .3
2 5 .3
6
3
0
4
12
17.1
8.6
0 .0
11.4
34.2
2
1
3
4
12
9 .0
4 .4
13.6
1 8 .1
5 4 .6
16
16
6
26
41
1 2 .9
12 .9
6 .4
2 0 .1
3 3 .0
0
0 .0
1
2,8
0
0 .0
1
0 .8
0
1
1
0 .0
1 .4
1 .4
1
0
0
2.8
0.0
0.0
0
0
0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
1
1
1
0 .8
0 .8
0 .8
2
0
2 .9
0 .0
3
1
8.5
2.8
0
0
0 .0
0 .0
6
1
4 .0
0 .8
A sso o iata *
D ira o to r o f Seoondary
X duoation
D ira o to r
A s s is ta n t R e g is tr a r
I n s t r u o t o r p a id by
p u b lio h ig h aohool
C r i ti o te a o h e r
I n s t r u o t o r p a id by th a
o o lla g a and p u b lio
h ig h sohool
A s s is ta n t te a o h s r o f
oammeroe
S u p e rv isin g o r i t l o
F ie ld s u p e rv is o r
Commeroe te a o h e r
1
1 .4
1
2.8
0
0 .0
2
1 .6
2
0
1
0
2 .9
0 .0
1 .4
0 .0
0
2
0
1
0 .0
5.7
0 .0
2.8
0
0
0
0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
2
2
1
1
1 .6
1 .6
0 .8
0 .8
T o ta l number o f o a se s
67
*
36
22
124
A ll ra n k s o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s below t h l a p o in t war# f i l l e d I n on th a
q u e s tio n n a ir e .
131
ran k in g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
The p o lic y of n o t g ra n tin g s u p e rv is o rs o f
a tu d e n t te a o h e rs o f b u s in e s s s u b je c ts u s u a l aoademio ran k in g s i s more
p re v a le n t i n s t a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s th an i t i s In th e o th e r two
ty p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
S ix te e n , or 4 6 .7 p e r o e n t, o f th e s u p e rv is o rs i n
t h i s ty p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n e i t h e r have no aoademio ra n k in g or a re g iv en a
ran k w hioh i s u n lik e th e u s u a l aoademio ran k in g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
Tha same
p ra o tio e i s tr u e f o r 23.8 p e r oen t o f th e s u p e rv is o rs i n s t a t e te a o h e rs
o o lle g e s and 9 .0 p er oen t o f th e s u p e rv is o rs in p r i v a t e o o lle g e s and u n i­
v e rs itie s .
Of th e tw en ty s u p e rv is o r s in t h i s l a t t e r group, who have
ran k in g o l a s s i f i o a t i o n a , none r e p o r t o l a s s i f l o a t i o n s o th e r th a n th e u su a l
o n es.
A f u r t h e r a n a ly s is o f T able XLVII shows th a t o f th e s u p e rv is o rs who
have th e u su a l aoademio r a n k in g s , 4 5 .6 p er oent a re i n s t r u o to r e , 27.7 per
o e n t a re a s s i s t a n t p r o f e s s o r s , 8 .8 p e r o en t are a s s o o ia te p r o f e s s o r s , and
17.7 p e r o en t are p r o f e s s o r s .
Of th e su p e rv is o rs employed in p r i v a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s who
hold th e u su a l aoademio ra n k in g s , 6 0 .0 per oent h old th e aoademio rank of
i n s t r u o t o r , 2 0 .0 p er o en t hold th e aoademio rank o f a s s i s t a n t p ro fe s s o r,
1 5 ,0 p e r oent hold th e aoademio ra n k o f a s s o o ia te p r o f e s s o r , and 5 .0 p er
o ent hold th e aoademio ra n k o f p ro fe s s o r.
Of th e s u p e rv iso rs employed i n s t a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s and
who hold th e u su a l aoademio r a n k in g s , 63.1 p e r oen t hold th e aoademio ran k
o f i n s t r u o t o r , 2 1 .0 p er o e n t hold th e aoademio ran k o f a s s i s t a n t p r o f e s s o r ,
and 1 5 .7 p er oent a re ranked as p r o f e s s o r s .
None a re ranked as a s s o o ia te
p ro fe sso rs.
Of th e s u p e rv iso rs employed i n s t a t e te a o h e rs o o lle g e s and who hold
132
t h e u su a l aoademio ra n k in g s , o n e -th ird a ra o l a s s i f la d as i n s t r u o t o r s ,
o n a -th ir d as a s s i s t a n t p r o f e s s o r s , 9 .8 par o a n t a s a s s o o ia ta p r o f e s s o r s ,
and 23*6 p a r o a n t as p r o f e s s o r s .
Tha fo llo w in g q u o ta tio n ta k e n from Tha n a tio n a l S u rrey o f th a E d u catio n
o f T eaohers may in d io a te t o some e x te n t th a
re a so n f o r th a r e l a t i v e l y sm all
p a r o ant o f i n s t r u o t o r s and th a la rg e p ar oant o f p ro fe s s o rs and a s s i s t a n t
p r o f e s s o r s i n th a s t a t e te a o h e r s o o lle g e s who ara r e s p o n s ib le f o r s tu d e n t
te a o h in g i n b u s in e s s s u b je c ts t
I n te r g ro u p oom parisons should make allow anoe fo r th e
f a o t t h a t many o f th e ju n io r o o lle g e s do n o t u se th e f u l l
range o f aoademio ra n k s nor do most o f th e normal so h o o ls
and some o f th e te a o h e rs o o lle g e s . I n some o f th e i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s i n th e s e groups a l l o f th e te a o h e rs a re o a lle d
i n s t r u o t o r s . This aooounts f o r some a t l e a s t o f th e l a r g e r
p e ro e n tag e o f in s t r u o to r s i n th e s e two g roupe. The heavy
p ero en tag e o f f u l l p r o f e s s o r s in th e d enom inational u n i­
v e r s i t i e s and o o lle g e s was p ro b ab ly caused by th e number o f
sm a ller I n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h a t group. In th e s e sm a lle r c o lle g e s
a number o f th e dep artm en ts have o n ly one te a o h e r who i s
u s u a lly a f u l l p ro fe s s o r and head o f th e d e p a rtm e n t.!
Of th e f i v e s u p e rv is o rs who a re p a id o n ly by p u b lio sohool sy stem s,
one i s o l a s s i f l e d as an i n s t r u o t o r , one as an a s s i s t a n t p r o f e s s o r , and th e
o th e r th r e e e i t h e r do n o t have an aoademio ran k or a re g iv e n a t i t l e whioh
i s n o t s i m il a r t o th e u s u a l aoademio ran k in g o l a s s i f i o a t i o n s .
Of t h e t h i r t e e n s u p e r v is o rs who are p aid by b o th p u b lio sohool system s
and o o lle g e s o r u n i v e r s i t i e s , one, or 7.6 p e r o e n t, i s o l a s s i f i e d a s an
a s s o o ia te p r o f e s s o r , t h r e e , or 2 3 .0 per o e n t, a re o l a s s i f i e d a s i n s t r u o t o r s ,
and th e o th e r n in e , o r 6 9 .2 p er o e n t, e i t h e r do no t have an aoademio rank
o r a re g iv e n a t i t l e w hioh i s n o t s im ila r t o th e u s u a l aoademio ra n k in g
o la s s ifio a tio n s .
1 . G ssfele, o p . o i t . , p . 1 5 8 .
133
S a la ry C o n d itio n s of S u p e rv iso rs o f S tudent T eaohera o f B usiness Subjaota
Tables XLIX, L, and LI show th e n o d lan and ran g e o f s u p e rv iso rs'
s a l a r i e s f o r d i f f e r e n t numbers o f months In th e th r e e ty p es o f I n s t i ­
t u t i o n s s tu d ie d in t h i s dooument.
In a d d itio n , th e s e th r e e ta b le s show
th e same f a e t s f o r s u p e rv is o rs who a re p aid by th e o o lle g e s or uni­
v e r s i t i e s , f o r su p e rv is o rs who are p aid by p u b lio aohool systems only,
and f o r s u p e rv is o rs who a re p a id by b o th p u b lio sohool system s and oolleges
or u n i v e r s i t i e s .
Table XLVIII
summarises s a l a r y c o n d itio n s in the th re e
ty p e e o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
I n t h i s d is o u s s lo n o f s a l a r i e s g r e a t e s t o o n s id e ra tio n i s given to the
t o t a l y e a r ly s a la r y o f th e v a rio u s g ro u p s.
T his i s done beoause th e small
number of o a se s f o r o e r t a in month-payments would te n d to in v a lid a te any
com parative sta te m e n ts whioh m ight be made r e l a t i v e t o them .
TABLE XLVIII
SUMMARY OP TOTAL YEARLY SALARIES OF SUPERVISORS OF STUDENT TEACHERS OF
BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1938-1939
S ta te
Teaohers
C o lleg es
F i r e t Q u a r tile
S ta te
C o lle g es
sad Uni­
v e rs itie s
P riv a te
C o lleg es
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
T otal
91800.00
11337.60
#2426.00
#1710.00
Median
2144.00
1800.00
2772.00
2160.00
T hird Q u a r tile
2743.76
2484.76
3366.26
2718.76
67
31
13
101
lum ber r e p o r tin g
134
Table XLVIII shows a s u m a ry of t h e t o t a l y e a r ly s a l a r i e s , t h a t
i s , monthly p lu s a d d itio n a l summer s e s s io n s a l a r i e s , o f su p e rv is o rs o f
stu d e n t te a o h e rs o f b u sin e ss su b je c ts*
I n making a com parison o f th e
s a la r ie s o f s u p e rv is o r s i n d i f f e r e n t ty p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s , th e t a b l e
in d ic a te s t h a t th e h ig h e s t m edian s a l a r y I s p a id to th o se in d iv id u a ls
employed in th e p r i v a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s *
Both th e f i r s t and
th ir d q u & rtile s a l a r i e s are h ig h e r in t h i s type o f i n s t i t u t i o n th a n in
th e other two ty p e s o f i n s t it u t io n s *
There may be a t l e a s t two re a so n s why y e a r ly s a l a r i e s i n p r iv a te
o o lleg es and u n i v e r s i t i e s a re hig h er t h a n th e y a r e In th e o th e r two
ty p e s of i n s t i t u t i o n s *
* 'i r s t , i n s t i t u t i o n s in t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a re
u s u a lly found i n th e l a r g e r c i t i e s w here expenses a re h ig h er th a n th e y
a re in the o i t i e s or towns in whioh t h e o th e r ty p e s of i n s t i t u t i o n s a re
lo o a te d .
Seoondly, T ab le s XXVII and XXXIX and t h e d ls o u s s io n s th e r e o f show
t h a t th is ty p e of i n s t i t u t i o n u s u a lly em ploys t h e s u p e rv iso r who has had
r e l a ti v e ly more b u s in e s s ex p erien ce and e d u o a tio n a l t r a i n in g th a n i s t r u e o f
th e su p e rv iso r employed i n th e o th er tw o ty p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s *
T his
a d d itio n a l b u sin e ss e x p e rie n c e and e d u o a tio n a l t r a i n i n g may r e s u l t In th e
employment o f th e s u p e rv iso r who oan demand a h ig h e r y e a r ly s a l a r y th a n
t h a t of th e su p e rv is o r in th e o th e r two ty p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s *
In term s of m edian s a l a r i e s , s u p e r v is o r s i n s t a t e te a o h e rs o o lle g e s
a re paid n e x t h ig h e s t.
Both th e f i r s t and t h i r d q u a r t i l e s a la r y i s h ig h er
i n t h i s ty p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n th a n i t i s i n th e s t a t e c o lle g e s and u n iv e r­
s itie s .
The t a b l e a ls o in d ic a te s t h a t t h e f i r s t q u a r t i l e s a la r y in th e
s t a te te a o h e rs o o lle g e s i s t h e same a s t h e m edian s a la r y in th e s t a t e
136
o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
The f i r s t q u a r t i l e s a l a r y i n t h e
p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
in the atate teachers c o l le g e s .
i s h i g h e r t h a n t h e median s a l a r y
I n the ungrouped d a t a fro m whioh
t h e t a b l e was p r e p a r e d ,
i t was found t h a t none o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s
in the private c o lle g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s wer e i n c l u d e d i n t h e low er
q u artile for a l l s a la r ie s .
Furth er a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a from w h i c h Table XLVIII was p r e ­
pa red i n d i c a t e s t h a t 9 2 . 3 per o e n t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n p r i v a t e
o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
r e c e i v e d s a l a r i e s e q u a l t o o r more t h a n
t h e median s a l a r y f o r a l l
o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s com bin ed.
The same s o r t
o f a n a l y s i s a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t 4 9 . 1 per c e n t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n
s ta te teachers c o lle g e s
and 3 6 . 4 p e r o e n t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e
o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e c e i v e s a l a r i e s e q u a l t o o r more th a n t h e
m ed ia n s a l a r y f o r a l l
o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s com bin ed.
The same t y p e o f a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t 5 3 . 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u p e r ­
v i s o r s i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
v is o r s in s t a t e teaoh era o o l l e g e s ,
2 6 , 3 per o e n t o f t h e s u p e r ­
and 9 . 6 per c e n t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s
i n s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e c e i v e s a l a r i e s e q u a l t o or above t h e
t h i r d q u a r t i l e s a l a r y f o r a l l o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s combin ed.
Not one o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s , 1 7 . 5
p er c e n t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and
4 8 . 3 per o e n t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e c e i v e
a s a l a r y w hi ch i s l e s s
v i s o r s combined.
than t h e f i r s t q u a r t i l e s a l a r y f o r a l l o f the super­
136
S a l a r i e s in S ta te Teachers C o lle g es
Table I I I ! shows th e s a l a r i e s o f s u p e rv is o rs o f s tu d e n t te a o h e rs o f
b u sin e ss s u b je o ts i n s t a t e te a o h e rs o o lle g e s in c lu d in g a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n
o f s a l a r i e s p a id b y v a rio u s ty p e s o f o rg a n is a tio n s .
The t a b l e in d lo a te e
t h a t most o f th e te a o h e r s a re p a id f o r a p e rio d o f e i t h e r n in e months or
tw elve m onths.
The form er type o f payment p e rio d p r e v a i l s to a g r e a te r
TABLE XLIX
SALARIES OF SUPERVISORS OF STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS IN
STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES.
1938-1939
S a la ry p a id by th e
Teaohers C ollege
months
9 months
9 ^ months
10 months
10& months
11 months
12 months
R egular and summer
s e s s io n
Number o f
Cases
Uedian
S a la ry
Range o f
S a la r ie s
1
26
6
3
3
1
10
H 960
1860
2072
2700
2376
4200
2460
# 720-4000
1900-2200
1600-6000
2000-2600
1200-3600
50
2162
796-6000
6
1
2096
3250
1470-2600
-
6
2273
1470-3260
1
1600
-
S a la ry p a id by th e
Teaohers C o lle g e and
P u b lio Sohoole
9 months
12 months
Regular and su sn er
s e s s io n
S a la ry p aid by P u b lio
Sohool System
10
months (no summer s a la r y )
137
e x te n t th a n th a 1a tta r *
ilia t a b l e shows t h a t s a l a r i e s , e x e lu d in g th o s e
p a id f o r summer se s s io n work, wary from #720 f o r a p e rio d o f c in e months
t o #6000 f o r a perio d o f te n months*
I t i s a ls o in d ic a te d t h a t th e
m edian t o t a l y e a rly s a la ry paid th e s e s u p e r v is o r s by th e o o lle g e s and
p u b lio sohool system s i s a l i t t l e over #100 g r e a t e r th a n t h e m edian
s a la r y p a id to su p e rv iso rs who reo e iv e a l l o f t h e i r rem u n e ratio n from th e
s t a t e te a o h e rs o o lle g e s .
A lthough the t o p s a l a r y p a id t o a member o f
t h i s group i s not as high as t h a t paid t o a s u p e rv is o r who re c e iv e s a l l of
h is rem u n e ratio n from th e te a o h e rs o o lle g e , th e low est s a l a r y p a id t o any
one s u p e rv is o r i s over twioe t h a t paid t o t h e lo w e st p a id s u p e rv is o r in
th e o th e r group*
S a la r ie s in S ta te C olleges and U n i v e r s i ti e s
Table L in d io a te s the s a l a r i e s p a id t o s u p e rv is o rs o f s tu d e n t
te a o h e rs o f bu sin ess su b je cts i n s ta te o o l le g e s and u n i v e r s it i e s *
An
a n a ly s is o f th e ta b l e in d io a te s t h a t f i f t e e n , alm o st h a l f of th e t h i r t y one r e p o r t i n g , reo eiv e th e ir s a l a r i e s on t h e b a s i s of payments f o r n in e
m onths.
S lig h tly l e s s than o n e -fo u rth r e o e iv e t h e i r s a l a r i e s on t h e
b a s is of payments f o r twelve months*
The m edian t o t a l y e a rly s a l a r y p a id t o s u p e r v is o r s who a re p a id
w h o lly by th e o o lle g es involved i s h ig h e r th a n th e median t o t a l y e a r ly
s a l a r y p a id only by publio sohool system s Dr b y p u b lio sohool system s
and o o lle g e s oombined*
The t a b l e shows th a t s a l a r i e s , e x o lu d ln g th o s e p a id f o r sumoer
s e s s io n w ork, v a ry from #900 f o r a n in e m o n th s' p e rio d t o #3200 f o r
e i t h e r a t e n or tw elve months' period*
The to p s a l a r i e s o f #3200 a re
TABLE L
SALARIES OP SUPERVISORS OF STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS IN
STATE COLU5GES AND UNIVERSITIES, 1638-1939
S a la ry P aid by th e S ta te
C ollege or U n iv e rs ity
9 eontha
10 months
11 nonths
12 nonths
Time not g iv e n
R egular and sunmer s e s s io n
Number o f
Cases
Median
S a la ry
Range of
S a la r ie s
10
6
1
&
1
22
91660
2000
2100
2300
2300
2047
9 900-2800
1600-3200
2
1
1266
1290
1066-1424
as
3
1
1
1
6
1466
2670
1800
2000
1746
1360-1670
-
m
1300-3200
900-3200
S a la r y P aid by th e
P u b lio Sohoolsa
9
12
months
Months
S a la ry Paid by th e S ta te
C o lleg e or U n iv e rs ity and
by P u b lio Sohools
9 months
10 months
12 Months
Time n o t g iv e n
R eg u lar and summer s e s s io n
-
1560-2670
* No aiaew r se ssio n s a l a r i e s paid any o f th e s e t h r e e te a c h e r s
p a id t o su p e rv iso rs who a re p a id w h o lly by th e o o lle g e s o r u n i v e r s i t i e s
involved*
The sane i s t r u e o f th e lo w est paid s u p e rv is o r.
S a la r ie s I n P r iv a te C o lle g es and U n iv e r s itie s
Table LI shows th e s a l a r i e s p a id to s u p e rv is o rs o f stu d e n t te a o h e rs
o f b u sin e ss su b je o ts i n p r i v a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
An a n a ly s is o f
th e ta b le in d io a te s t h a t , u n lik e th e o th e r two ty p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s , su p e r-
139
TABLE LI
SALARIES OF SUPERVISORS OF STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS
IN PRIVATE C0I2EGSS AND UNIVERSITIES, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
S a la ry P a id by th e P riv a te
C ollege o r U n iv e rs ity
9 months
10 months
12 months
R egular and simmer s e s s io n
Number o f
Case a
Median
S a la ry
Range of
S a la r ie s
2
9
1
12
$3300
2676
2300
2724
$2400-4200
1600-3600
1800-4800
1
3226
S a la ry P aid by th e
P u b lio Sehoola
12 months
-
v is o r s i n th e s e i n a t l t u t i o n a a re moat o fte n p a id on th e b a a ia o f to n sum thly
payment®.
Nine o f th e t h i r t e e n s u p e rv is o rs re p o r tin g a a l a r l e a i n t h i a ty p e
o f i n a t i t u t i o n r e p o r t t h a t payments a re made in t h l a m anner.
Only one su p e r-
▼iaor r e p o r ta r e c e iv in g oom peneation from any o th e r aouroe o th e r th a n th e
c o lle g e o r u n i v e r s it y in v o lv e d .
The t a b l e in d io a te a t h a t s a l a r i e s , exoluding e x tr a oom penaation p a id
f o r summer a e a sio n work, v a ry from $1800 f o r a te n months* p e rio d to $4200
f o r a n in e m onths' p e rio d .
Buaineae E d u o atlo n M agaslnea Read by S u p erv iao ra o f S tudent Teachera o f
B usiness S u b je o ta
The number and per oen t o f a u p e rv iao re o f e tu d e n t te a o h e re o f buaineae
au b jeo te who re a d v a rio u a b uaineaa e d u c a tio n ju g a z in e s la re p o r te d in Table
L II.
The t a b l e would ae«m t o in d io a te t h a t th e a u p erv lao ra a re c o g n is a n t o f
th e p a r t p ro f e a e io n a l re a d in g p la y s i n e f f i o i e n t te a c h in g .
The r e l a t i v e l y
140
high par oant of te a o h e ra who read moat of th e m agazine a would a earn
to in d lo a te t h a t many o f them read re g u la r ly two o r more p u b llo a tlo n a *
Only fo u r o f th e s u p e r v is o rs in d lo a te t h a t th e y do n o t re a d any o f th e
p ro fa a a io n a l m agazine a in t h e f i e l d of buaineae e d u c a tio n *
One o f th e a e
eu p erv iao ra ia employed by a a ta te teao h ara c o lle g e and th e o th e r th r e e
are employed by a t a t e o o lle g e a or u n i v e r s it i e s .
Of th e fo u r who in d lo a te
t h a t th e y read no b uaineae e d u c a tio n magazine*, tw o a re non -d ep artm en t
euperviaora*
The Balanoe Sheet ia re a d by more e u p e rv iao ra th a n any o th e r magazine*
Thia may be p a r t i a l l y e x p la in e d by th e fa o t t h a t i t i a a f r e e p u b lic a tio n *
The Buaineae B duoation World and The Journal o f B uaineae B d u o atio n ran k
aeoond and t h i r d r e a p e c tiv e ly *
Modern Buaineae g d u o a tio n , a q u a r t e r ly
p u b lic a tio n of th e S outhern Buaineaa Bduoation A a e o o ia tio n i a th e o nly
magazine H a te d on th e q u e a tio n n a ire which ia no t read r e g u l a r l y by a t
l e a s t f i f t y per c e n t or more of the s u p e rv iso rs.
Thia i a p ro b a b ly t o be
expeoted as t h i s p u b l ic a t i o n is devoted to th e i n t e r e s t s o f te a c h e r s in
one g eo g rap h io al area*
Fewer th a n f i v e s u p e rv is o rs re p o rt reading th e fo llo w in g p u b lic a tio n s
whioh were n o t l i s t e d on th e q uestionnaire*
T yp ew ritin g Mews„ The P itm a n ! te ,
Buaineae B duoation Observer* Consumers* D ig e st, Prefix Mews L e tte r * B e tte r
Buaineae Bureau R e p o rts* S p e o ia lty Salesman* Oklahoma Review* A ccounting
Review, Jo u rn a l o f Aooountanoy, p a r tn e ll M a te r ia ls , "A rm ais,* Z uT avern's
B u lle tin * American V o c a tio n a l As soot a t io n Jo u rn al* B a ll S ta te Com nerolal
Journal* Consumer a * Q uids, A d u lt Bduoation B u l l e t i n , L o u is ia n a C onm erclal
Teacher* and Commercial Bduoation*
An exam ination o f th e t a b l e shows l i t t l e d lf f e r e n o e in th e p e rc e n ta g e
o f e u p erv iao ra in s t a t e te a c h e r s oollegea and in p r iv a te o o lle g e a and
141
u n i v e r s i t i e s who re a d th e v a rio u s b u s in e s s e d u o a tio n m agazines.
Tha t a b l e
does i n d lo a t e , however, th a t th e a u p e rv le o rs I n a ta te o o lle g ea and u n i▼er a l t le a do n o t rea d b uaineae e d u o a tio n m agazine a t o aa g re a t an e x te n t
ae do t h e a u p erv iao ra in th e o th e r two ty p e e o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
TABLE LI I
BUSINESS EDUCATION MAGAZINES HEAD REGULARLY B2f SUPERVISORS OP STUDENT
TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1938-1959
S ta te
Teaohera
C ollegee
Magazine
Num­
ber
P er
Cent
T otal
S ta te
C o lle g ee
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
P r iv a te
C o lleg es
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
Nustber
P er
Cent
Nustb er
P er
Cent
Num­
ber
P er
Cent
Balanoe Sheet
71
98.6
34
8 2 .9
21
91.3
126
9 2 .6
B ualneaa E duoation
World
66
90.2
31
7 6 .6
18
78.2
114
8 3 .8
J o u rn a l of Buaineae
E d u ca tio n
63
73.6
28
68.2
22
96.6
103
7 6 .7
Rowe Budget
66
76.3
29
7 0 .7
12
62.1
96
70.6
Gregg W rite r
46
63.8
24
5 8 .5
12
62.1
82
60.2
N a tio n a l Buaineae
E d u o atio n Q u a rte rly
45
62.6
19
4 6 .3
15
66.2
79
5 8 .0
Modern Bualneaa
E d u o atio n
12
16.6
12
2 9 .2
6
26.0
50
2 2 .0
8
11.1
4
9 .7
3
13.0
15
1 1 .0
B ualneaa E ducation
D igest*
Number o f caeee
72
e F i l l e d i n on th e Q u e stio n n a ire .
41
23
196
142
TABLE L I I I
NUMBER OF BOOKS PUBLISHED SINCE 1 9 3 3 BY SUPERVISORS OF STUDENT TEACHERS
OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
Number o f Books
One
1*00
Four
Seven
S ta te
T eaohers
C o lle g es
S ta te
C o lle g es
and U nivar s i t le a
2
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
P r iv a te
C o lle g e s
and U niver s i t l e s
T o ta l
3
1
0
1
6
1
1
1
Books P u b lish ed by S u p e rv iso rs o f S tu d e n t Teaohers o f B u sin ess S u b je o ts
I t ep peere from e stu d y o f T able L I I I t h a t n in e of th e s u p e rv is o rs
o r 6*6 p e r o e n t, have w r i t te n books s in o e 1933*
Two and tw o -te n th s p e r
o en t o f th e s u p e rv is o rs i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o lle g e s have w r i t t e n books sinoe
1935, w h ile 4*6 p er oen t o f th e s u p e rv is o r s i n s t a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
and 21*7 p e r oen t o f th e s u p e rv is o rs i n p r iv a te o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s have
w r i t te n books sin o e th e same d a te .
The ta b le a ls o in d lo a te s t h a t th e ty p lo a l
number o f books produoed by th e s u p e r v is o r s sin o e 1935 i s o n e.
Only th re e
s u p e rv is o rs hare w r i t te n more th a n one book.
A lthough th e p er oent o f s u p e rv is o rs in s t a t e te a o h e rs o o lle g e s and
s t a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s who have n o t p u b lish ed books sinoe 1935
i s r e l a t i v e l y h ig h , th e same p e rc e n ta g e s a re s l i g h t l y h ig h er th an th o se
re p o rte d f o r s u p e rv iso rs i n s t a t e te a o h e ra o o lle g e s and i n s t a t e u n i­
v e r s i t i e s and la n d -g ra n t o o lle g e s In The n a tio n a l Survey o f th e E duoation
o f T eaohers. 1
T his would seem t o in d lo a t e t h a t th e su p e rv is o rs o f stu d e n t
1 . I b id ., p . 206.
143
te a o h e r s of b u sin e ss s u b je c ts have p u t s l i g h t l y l e s s e f f o r t i n to th a
p ro d u o tio n of books th a n have a l l typo a o f a u p arT iao ra in thaaa two
ty p a a o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l
A a l i g h t l y h ig h a r p ar o a n t o f th a su p e rv iso rs
o f a tu d a n t te a o b ara of buainaaa s u b je c ts i n p r i v a t e oollagaa and u n iT ara i t ia a have p u b liah ad booka th a n hava a l l o f t h a au p arrlo o ra in
p riY a ta nondenom inational u n iT a ra itia a or o o lla g a a aa rep o rted in Tha
n a ti o n a l Surrey o f th e E duoation o f T e a c h e rs.^M agasino A rtlo la a Publiahad by SuparT laora o f S tu d e n t Teaohera of Buainaaa
S u b je o ta
T able L1V ahowa t h a t f o r ty - f o u r , or a l i g h t l y le a a th a n o n e -th ird ,
o f th a eu p erviaora o f atudent te a o h e ra o f b u a in a a a s u b je c ts hare w r itte n
m agaaina a r tlo la a ainoe 1935.
Tha par o a n t o f s u p e rv is o rs w ritin g magaaina
a r t l o l a a Tariea from 29*1 per oent in th a a t a t e te a o h e ra oollag aa to 31*7
par o a n t in the a t a t e o o llag aa and u n i v e r s i t i e s , t o 45.4 per oant in th a
p r i v a t e oollagaa and u n iT a r a itia a .
Tha t y p i c a l number of a r t l o la a w r itte n
by a u p e rrla o ra o f a tu d e n t te a o h e ra o f b u e in e aa s u b je o ta i s one.
Almoat
aa many hare w r i t t e n tw o, t h r e e , and fo u r a r t l o l a a .
Seventy and n in e - te n t ha p ar oant o f th e a u p arT iao ra of stu d e n t te a o h e r s
o f buainaaa a u b je o ta in a ta te te a o h era o o lle g e a have not published magazine
a r t l o l a a ainoa 1935, whioh ia a sm a lle r p e r o a n t th a n 89.2 par o a n t, re p o r te d
f o r a l l of the s u p e rv is o rs in a ta te te a o h e rs o o lle g e a in The n a tio n a l Survey
o f th a EduoatIon of Teaohera.
1 . I b i d . . p. 206
2 . Loo. o i t .
Thia same c o m p arativ e p ro d u c tiv ity ia t r u e o f
144
TABLE LIV
NUMBER OF MAGAZINE ARTICLES PUBLISHED SINCE 1935 BY SUPERVISORS OF
STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
S ta te
Teaohera
C ollegea
S ta te
C o lleg es
and Uni­
v e ra itie a
P r iv a te
C o lle g e s
and Uni­
v e ra itie a
T o ta l
One
Two
Three
Four
Five
6
4
1
3
2
6
1
2
0
1
5
1
1
0
0
14
6
4
3
3
Seven
Eifcht
Ten
Twelve
F if te e n
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
2
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
2
1
4
1
1
E ig h te e n
T w enty-five
S e v e ra l
0
0
2
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
3
Number o f M agazine
A rtic le s
th e s u p e rv ia o ra o f a tu d e n t te a o h e ra of b u a ln e aa a u b je o ta i n th e p r iv a te
o o lle g e a end u n iv e r s itie s *
They r e p o r t t h a t 56*6 per o e n t have n o t w r i t te n
any m agazine a r t l o l e e alnoe 1935 w hile th e e u p erv iao ra i n p r i v a t e non­
d en o m in atio n al o o lle g e a o r u n iv e r a itie a re p o r tin g in The N a tio n a l Survey
o f th e E d u o atio n o f Teaohera in d lo a te t h a t 79.9 p er o e n t o f t h e i r number
have n o t w r i t t e n any magazine a r t l o la a * 1
There l a no s i g n i f l e a n t d iffe ro n o e
in th e p e r o en t o f a u p e rv lao re o f a tu d e n t te a o h e ra of b u ein eaa a u b je o ta i n
a ta te o o lle g e a and u n iv e r a itie a re p o r tin g th e w r itin g o f no magazine
a r t l o l a a and a u p e rv iao ra in a t a t e u n i v e r a lt l e s and la n d g r a n t o o lle g e a ,
re p o rte d i n The N a tio n a l Survey o f the B duoation of T eaohera, who have
w r itte n no magazine a r t l o l a a .
1* Loo* o l t .
145
From th e d a ta p re s e n te d In t h i s c h a p te r co n cern in g th e s t a t u s o f th e
i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t a f f r e s p o n s ib le fo r stu d e n t te a c h in g in b u sin e ss s u b je c ts ,
i t i s e v id e n t t h a t th e f o l l o w i n g c o n d itio n s p re v a il*
1.
S l i g h t l y over n in e - te n th s o f th e s u p e rv is o rs r e p o r t th e y have
com pleted a t l e a s t one y e a r o f g rad u ate work.
S u p e rv iso rs who here com­
p le te d a t l e a s t one y e ar o f g ra d u a te work meet th e re q u ire m e n ts o f th e
American A s so c ia tio n o f Teaohera C o lle g es f o r a c c r e d itin g te a o h e r s c o lle g e s
and normal sohoola.
2• S l i g h t ly over th r e e - f o u r th s o f th e s u p e rv is o rs have earned a
m a s te r 's d eg ree or a d o c t o r 's d e g re e .
*nterm s o f d e g re e re q u ire m e n ts ,
a l l th e t h r e e c la s s e s o f e d u e a tlo n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s p re p a rin g te a o h e rs fo r
th e comm ercial te a o h in g f i e l d f a i l t o meet th e re q u ire m e n ts s e t up by th e
Am erican A sso c ia tio n o f Teaohera C olleges f o r a c c r e d itin g o o lle g e s and
norm al s c h o o ls.
Only a l i t t l e over o n e -te n th o f th e s u p e rv is o rs r e p o r t
th e y have earned a d o c t o r 's d e g re e .
5 . There i s a s tro n g tendenoy t o r e o r u i t s u p e rv is o rs o f stu d e n t
te a o h e rs o f b u sin e ss s u b je c ts from i n s t i t u t i o n s o f th e same ty p e i n
w hich th e y a re employed.
T his i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n th e oase o f earned
b a c h e lo r 's d e g re e s.
4.
S l i g h t ly over o n e -h a lf o f th e s u p e rv is o rs earn ed t h e i r m a s te r 's
d e g re e s i n s t a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s w h ile a p p ro x im ately o n e -th ird
earned th e m a s te r 's d egree i n p r iv a te o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
6 . Of th e s u p e rv iso rs who have earned d o c t o r 's d e g re e s , s l i g h t l y over
o n e - h a lf , o r 63.4 per o e n t, d id so i n p r iv a te o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
146
6* Tha t y p io a l su p e rv iso r earned h is h a o h e lo r's degree some tim e
betw een th e y e a rs o f 1924 and 1928} th e m a s te r's d eg re e was e a rn e d some
tim e betw een 1934 and 1939) th e d o c to r 's degree was earned a f t e r 1934.
7.
N in e -te n th s o f th e su p e rv iso rs o f atudent te a o h e r s o f b u s in e s s
s u b je o ta have had experienoe as te a o h e rs o f secondary sohool s u b je c ts *
T his ty p e o f e x p erien o e i s rep o rte d more o fte n th a n any o th e r ty p e o f
te a c h in g ex p erien o e*
As su p e rv iso rs d e a l w ith high so h o o l s tu d e n ts as
w e ll as w ith s tu d e n t te a o h e rs of high sohool b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s , i t would
seem t h a t a d m in is tr a to r s have been wise in employing in d iv id u a ls who hare
had e x p erien o e o f t h i s type*
8* The ty p lo a l su p e rv iso r
ty p e s o f b u s in e s s p o s itio n s .
e i t h e r one o r two years*
re p o rts t h a t he has been employed i n
two
Baoh of th e s e p o s itio n s has l a s te d f o r
A u th o rita tiv e opinion in d lo a te s t h a t te a o h e rs
o f b u s in e s s s u b je o ts should have b u sin e ss experienoe o f a s i g n i f i c a n t
n a tu re *
N a tu r a lly , t h i s would apply to su p e rv iso rs o f s tu d e n t te a o h e rs
o f b u s in e s s s u b je o ta as w ell as to r e g u la r ly employed high so h o o l te a o h e rs
o f b u sin e ss su b je o ts*
Those su p e rv iso rs who have
no t had some ex p erien o e
o f t h i s ty p e should make plans fo r g e ttin g i t .
9 . The median number of hours per week whloh
sch ed u led t o te a o h i s e ig h te e n .
th e s u p e rv is o rs
a re
Approxim ately t h r e e - f i f t h s o f t h e su p er­
v i s o r s r e p o r t t h a t a p a r t o f t h i s te a o h in g load i s oonoerned w ith th e
te a c h in g o f o o lle g e o la s s s s .
Host of th e su p e rv iso rs a re c a lle d upon to
p erfo rm many e x tr a - o la s a d u ties*
These a re in a d d itio n t o t h e fo rm a lly
soheduled te a o h in g load and th e in d iv id u a l and group oonferenoe load*
I t would seem, th e n , t h a t th e I n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f th e
s u p e rv is o rs a re to o heavy to allow th e b e s t type of work p o s s ib le *
147
10.
Thor* la l i t t l o agreem ent aa t o th e d e p a rtm e n ta l o l a a a i f i o a t io n
o f s u p e rv is o rs of a tu d o n t t* a o h s ra o f buainaaa s u b je c ts .
'■ 11. Almoat th ro o - ta n th a o f th e su p e rv is o rs e ra not g iv e n aoadamio
ran k in g * s im ila r t o th a u a u al ty p e s of ra n k in g s .
Of th o aa who a ra g iv en
a oad ami a ra n k s , 4 6 .6 par o a n t cure i n s t r u c t or a and 27.7 p e r oant ara
a s s is ta n t p ro fe sso rs.
Tha p r a c t i c e o f n o t g iv in g s u p e rv is o rs , in o lu d ln g
su p e rv is o rs o f stu d e n t te a o h e r s o f b u s in e s s s u b je o ts , th e u su a l aoadamio
ra n k in g s i s an u n d e sira b le p r a o tio e and should be o o rrao te d in th o s e
i n s t i t u t i o n s e h io h do not g iv e them..
12. The median y e a r ly s a l a r y o f a l l s u p e rv is o rs r e p o r tin g i s
# 2 ,1 6 0 .0 0 .
The median s a la r y i n s t a t e te a o h e rs o o lle g ea i s #2,144.00)
in s t a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i t ia # 1 ,8 0 0 .0 0 ) and i n p r iv a te o o lle g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s i t i s # 2 ,7 7 2 .0 0 .
13. Almost a l l of th e s u p e r v is o r s re a d two o r more m onthly or
q u a r t e r ly p u b lio a tio n s in th e f i e l d o f b u sin e ss e d u o a tio n .
14. Six and s ix - te n th s p e r o e n t o f th e s u p e rv iso rs r e p o r t t h a t th e y
have p u b lish ed books sinoe 1933.
S l i g h t ly le a s th a n o n e -th ird o f th e
s u p e rv is o rs have w r i t t e n m agazine a r t i c l e s sinoe 1933.
As a g e n eral
th in g , su p e rv is o rs of s tu d e n t te a o h e rs o f b u s in e s s s u b je o ts have shown
more p r o d u c tiv ity i n th e w r itin g o f magazine a r t i o l e s th a n have su p e r­
v is o r s o f stu d e n t te a o h e rs i n g e n e r a l.
CHAPTER IV
OBSERVATION AS A FACTOR IN THE CONDUCT OF STUDENT TEACHING IN
BUSINESS SUBJECTS
O b serv ation as a F a o to r I n S tudent Teaohing
There seems t o be c o n sid e ra b le agreem ent t h a t o b se rv a tio n p la y s an
im p o rtan t p a r t i n an adequate program o f su p e rv ise d stu d e n t teaohing*
The stu d e n t te a c h e r o f b u s in e s s s u b je o ts i s seldom o a lle d upon t o e n te r
d i r e c t l y upon h is d u t ie s a s a te a o h e r o f high sohool o la s se a w ith o u t f i r s t
having had th e o p p o rtu n ity t o observe th e p ro c e d u re s , te c h n iq u e s , and
methods o f e x p erien ced te a o h e r s i n h andling v a rio u s classroom s itu a tio n s *
This p o in t i s shown i n Table LV.
I t would seem, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t th o se
re s p o n s ib le f o r th e conduct o f s tu d e n t te a o h in g i n b u sin e ss s u b je o ts
would ag ree w ith th e g e n e ra l prem ise t h a t o b s e rv a tio n has j u s t as im­
p o r ta n t a plaoe i n auoh a program as i t has f o r s tu d e n t te a o h in g in
g en eral*
The Amerioan A s s o c ia tio n of Teaohers C o lle g e s evidences th e b e l i e f
t h a t o b se rv a tio n p la y s an im p o rtan t p a r t in auoh a program by in c lu d in g
in i t s a c c re d itin g s ta n d a rd s th e fo llo w in g req u irem en ts*
Eaoh te a o h e r s o o lle g e or norm al sohool s h a l l m a in ta in
a tr a i n in g sohool f o r purposes o f o b s e rv a tio n ,* d e m o n stra tio n ,
and su p e rv ised t e a o h i n g .......................... ...................................................
1* I t a l i o s a re th o s e o f t h e in v e s ti g a t o r .
149
A t l e a s t t w o - f i f t h s o f th e te a o h in g in th e tr a in in g
•o h o o l should be done by r e g u la r te a o h e r s of th e tr a in in g
sohool o r by o th e r members o f th e fa o u lty *
From t h e q u o ta tio n i t oan b e seen t h a t t h i s a s s o c ia tio n n o t only
b e lie v e s t h a t o b s e rv a tio n should p la y a p a r t in the program of stu d e n t
tea o h in g b u t , i n a d d i t i o n , i t advooates t h a t a t le a s t tw o - f if th s o f th e
a o tu a l te a o h in g should be done by r e g u la r members of f a c u l t i e s .
This
n e c e s s i t a t e s , o f c o u r s e , t h a t a c o n s id e ra b le amount o f o b se rv a tio n must
be dons b y th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r .
In t h i s same c o n n e c tio n , S o h o rlin g b e lie v e s t h a t a program o f
stu d e n t te a o h in g sh o u ld in o lu d e a p e rio d o f o b se rv atio n b u t t h a t th e
le n g th o f su ch a program should n o t be a f ix e d minimum and should
depend upon th e in d iv id u a l s tu d e n t te a c h e r i n terms of h is a b i l i t y to
sto p o b se rv in g and to ta k e h is p la c e as a te a o h sr of th e s u b je o t t o
whioh he h a s b e en a s s ig n e d .
2
Rugg and P e ik , w r i t in g i n The R a tio n a l Survey of th e B duoation of
T eaohers, p ro p o se i n o o n n e ctio n w ith p ro f e s s io n a l s tu d ie s and tre a tm e n t
o f s u b je o t m a tte r m a t e r i a ls t h a t i
T here should be c o n s ta n t o p p o rtu n ity for stu d e n ts t o observe
good te a c h in g . F a r t o f t h i s o b s e rv a tio n should be th e g ra d u a l
grow th o f in d iv id u a l s tu d e n ts , s y s te m a tic a lly soheduled t o spend
a s t a t e d number o f p e rio d s eaoh week i n tra in ln g -s o h o o l c l a s s e s ,
and p a r t of i t sh o u ld be c la s s o r group observ atio n w ith o o lle g e
i n s t r u c t o r s i n o h a rg e .3
1 . im e rlo a n A s s o c ia tio n of T eachers C o lle g e s , Minimum Standards f o r
A c c re d itin g T eaohers C o lle g e s and Normal Sohools, F ebruary,
1939, S e o tio n V I.
2 . S o h o rlin g , op. o l t . . p . 156.
3 . S. TJ. Sugg and W. B. P e ik , The N a tio n a l Survey of th e B duoation of
T e a o h e rs, W ashington, D. C .i Government P rin tin g Of f lo e . U nited
S t a t e s O ffic e o f B d u o atio n , B u lle tin 1933, No. 10, Volume 111, p . 97.
160
Head b e lie v e * t h a t , "P ro b ab ly th e most u n iv e r s a lly used and misused
ty p e o f la b o r a to r y work in te a o h e r p re p a ra tio n i s t h a t o f o b s e rv a tio n o f
t e a o h in g ," 1
A rm entrout in d lo a te s h is b e l i e f in th e v alu e o f o b s e rv a tio n i n a
program o f s tu d e n t te a o h in g in th e fo llo w in g q u o ta tio n s
The a r t o f te a o h in g w i l l always be dependent t o a o e r t a in
e x te n t upon th e a b i l i t y of stu d e n ts to im ita te t h e work of
o th e r te a o h e rs who are su o o e a a fu l. I f an in tr o d u c to r y oon o rete
atudy o f th e tech n iq u e o f an a r t i s needed anyw here, i t i s
needed i n th e p r e p a r a tio n o f te a o h e rs . To have a s tu d e n t b e g in
h is s tu d e n t teao h in g b e fo re he has had an o p p o rtu n ity to ob­
serv e and stu d y e x p e rt te a o h in g i s u n ju s t to th e s tu d e n t as
w e ll as th e p u p i l s .2
R e p re s e n ta tiv e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s p re p a rin g te a o h e rs f o r b u sin e ss
o la s s e s in h ig h sohool s a re alm ost unanimous in t h e i r agreem ent t h a t
o b s e rv a tio n should be a req u irem en t o f a tu d e n t te a o h in g i n b u sin e ss
s u b je c ts .
F o rty -se v e n o f th e s e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s were ask ed to answer
th e fo llo w in g q u e stio n )
Should (a tu d e n t ) te a o h e rs o b se rv e e x p ert
te a o h e rs sad p rep a re c r i t i c a l r e p o r ts ?
A ll exoept one in d iv id u a l
answered t h i s q u e s tio n i n th e a ffirm a tiv e .®
P ro v is io n s Made fo r O b serv atio n P reoeding S tu d en t Teaohing
Table LV shows t h a t s l i g h t l y l e s s th a n n in e - te n th s o f th e i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s r e p o r tin g on t h i a p o in t make some p ro v is io n f o r o b s e rv a tio n be**^
f o r e th e s tu d e n t i s g iv e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a te a o h e r .
These p ro v isio n s
1 . Mead, op. a l t . , p . 160.
2 . W. 0 , A rm entrout, The Conduot o f Student Teaohing i n S ta te Teaohers
C o lle g e s , G reeley, d oloradoi Colorado S tate Teaohera C o lle g e , 1927,
pTTeT
3 . Committee on S tandards f o r P r a c tic e Teaohing, P r a c tic e Teaohing and
B u siness Experienoe i n Cosm eroial T e a o h e r-T ra in in g , The N a tio n a l
A s s o o ia tio n o f Cammeroial T eaoher-T ralning I n s t i t u t i o n s , B u lle tin
No. 11, 1937, p . 17.
1
151
a ra mad* e i t h e r b efo re th a a tu d a n t'a en ro llm e n t i n s tu d e n t tea o h in g or
a f t a r hi* a n ro llm a n t b u t preoading th a p erio d whan h* ta k a * th e re s p o n s i­
b i l i t y of te a c h in g th e o l a s s .
PriT& te o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s re p o r t
t h i s p r a o tie e t o a la s s e x te n t th a n do th e o th e r two ty p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
However* i t should be noted th a t l i t t l e d if f e r e n o e in th e p ercen ta g es i s
found f o r sny one ty p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n as oompared w ith th e o th e r ty p e s o f
in s titu tio n s .
TABLE LV
NUMBER AND FBR CBN! OF INSTITUTIONS WHICH HAKE SOME PROVISION FOR
OBSERVATION PRECEDING THE STUDENTS' ENROLLMENT
IN STUDENT TEACHING* 1938-1939
■-----------L- u au --------- —
P ro v is io n s Hade
f o r O b serv atio n
S ta te
Teaohers
C o lleg es
Num­ Per
ber Cent
S ta te
C o lle g es
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
P riv a te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
i*- i....>
T o ta l
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
I n s t i t u t i o n s Whieh
Hake P ro v isio n s
f o r O b serv atio n
32
88.8
26
8 9 .6
11
84.6
69
8 8 .4
I n s t i t u t i o n s Which
Do Not Hake Pro­
v is io n s f o r
O b serv atio n
4
11.1
3
10.3
2
15.3
9
11.6
T o ta l Number
R eporting
36
29
13
78
The p ero en tag e o f i n s t i t u t i o n s p re p a rin g te a o h e rs o f b u sin e ss s u b je o ts
w hich o f f e r some form o f o b se rv a tio n preo ad in g s tu d e n t te a o h in g i s a p p ro x i­
m ately th e same as th a t found in The N a tio n a l Survey o f th e B duoation o f
T eaohers.
I t ia re p o rte d In t h a t stu d y t h a t ap p ro x im ately n in e -te n th s o f
th e i n s t i t u t i o n s p rovide some means o f o h s e r r a tio n preced in g th e time
th e stu d e n t i s g iv e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a classroom te a c h e r* 1
In a d d itio n t o a sk in g th e re sp o n d e n ts w hether o r n o t t h e i r i n s t i ­
t u tio n s p ro v id ed means fo r o b s e rv a tio n p re c e d in g a c tu a l te a c h in g , th ey
were a ls o asked to In d lo a te t h e i r re a so n s why th e y d id or d id n o t provide
suoh a program .
The re a so n s g iv e n fo r p ro v id in g o b s e rv a tio n preoeding
stu d e n t te a o h in g , s ta te d i n th e words o f th e v a rio u s re s p o n d e n ts, are from
th o se i n s t i t u t i o n s w hich make some p r o v is io n f o r suoh a p ra o tio e *
S ta te Teaohers C o lle g es
1*
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
18.
16.
N ecessary f o r a o o lim atin g th e s tu d e n t.
To t r y t o p re s e n t model le s s o n s f o r th e s tu d e n t t o o b se rv e.
b e t t e r u n d e rsta n d in g o f work.
F e l t v a lu a b le .
I d e a l way f o r s tu d e n t te a c h e r t o g e t s t a r t e d .
To beoome acq u ain ted w ith te a c h e r , c la ssro o m and a c t i v i t i e s i n g e n e ra l.
lluoh i s le a rn e d th ro u g h o b serv atio n *
To d em onstrate good p r a c tic e and t o p re v e n t to o much fo llo w in g of own
e a r lie r tra in in g .
I t g iv e s th e s tu d e n t (1) a b e t t e r knowledge o f (a) methods (b ) m a te ria ls
(o ) s tu d e n ts (2) g iv e s him a tim e t o a d ju s t h im self t o th e olassroom
w ith i t s problems*
Gives p u p il some concept o f problem s he w i l l meet as a p ra o tio e teaoher*
(1} So th e y may se e how t o c a r r y on. (2) So th e y may g a in an idea
a s t o w hat i s b ein g done.
Gives th e a tu d e n t th e o p p o rtu n ity t o beoome a cq u a in ted w ith th e o la s s­
room p ro o ed u re.
S u p e rv iso r has t o te a o h and show th e s tu d e n t te a o h e r how. S ets b e tt e r
w ith th e p a tro n s .
Seems obvious to me.
S tu d en t e x e r t more e f f o r t .
D ire c te d o b s e rv a tio n g r e a t ly a id s th e a tu d e n t te a o h e r in c a rry in g out
th e b e s t te a o h in g p ra o tio e when he b e g in s te a o h in g . Many stu d e n ts
need to have each s te p of o la s s prooedure p o in te d o u t.
1. F . K. F o s te r , op* o l t ». p . 392.
163
17*
18*
19*
20.
21.
To b e t t e r equip th e stu d e n t in h is work f o r teaohing*
Give teaoher some id e a o f p ro o ed u re .
In order t h a t th e atudent may a d ju s t h im s e lf t o th e environm ent*
Completed w ith c la s s e s i n e d u o a tio n and psychology.
P o licy of i n s t i t u t i o n . I t would seem t h a t t h i s should be done in
order to acquaint th e s tu d e n t w ith th e teao h er* m a te ria ls * olass*
and methods.
22. Students beoome acq u ain ted w ith th e p u p ils and a re b e t t e r able to
plok up the work where i t was dropped by p reoeding s tu d e n t te a o h e r.
23. Required.
S ta te C olleges and U n iv e r s itie s
24* To observe te a o h er* s methods* t o g e t ao q u ain ted w ith p u p ils* to
s o c ia liz e stu d e n t te a o h e rs w ith h ig h sohool groups*
25* B elieve i t e s s e n t ia l to g iv e s tu d e n ts oonoept o f te a o h in g under
normal publio sohool c o n d itio n s .
26* Required as a p re re q u is ite *
27. To g iv e the stu d e n t te a o h e r t h e o p p o rtu n ity t o beoome aoquainted
w ith th e students* eto*
28* C hiefly to safeguard p u p i ls .
29. To g e t aoquainted w ith t h e w ork.
30* Seeing and hearing f i r s t h e lp s in d o in g l a t e r .
31. O bservation fo r teao h in g te c h n iq u e .
32* C o n tin u ity in o la s s e s in off-oam pus sc h o o ls.
33. Tofa m ilia riz e them w ith th e s i t u a t i o n and t o observe th e d em o n stratio n
of gen eral p r in c ip le s being ta u g h t in g e n e ra l methods o la s s e s .
34. S ta te requirem ent*
36. To o r ie n t th e s tu d e n t.
56. Lack o f oooperation w ith th e t r a i n i n g so h o o l. Also to o r ie n t th e
stu d e n t.
37. To e s ta b lis h confidence and f a m i l i a r i t y w ith s e ttin g * h igh school*
atudent morale* and a t t i t u d e .
38. B en efit of those who expeot to teaoh*
39* To beoome b e tte r aoquainted w ith th e s i t u a t i o n .
40. Acts as a * l a s t minute ohook-up* and g iv e s s tu d e n t much needed
praotioe*
41. Builds oonfidenoe* p ro v id e s in tr o d u o tio n t o system* e to .
42. To enable th e stu d e n t to form o o r re o t ideas o f p ro o ed u re.
43. Gives p ra c tic e teao h er some o r i e n t a t i o n .
P riv a te C o lle g es and U n iv e r s itie s
44. P a rt of course i n stu d e n t te a o h in g .
46. I t g ives th e stu d en t an o p p o rtu n ity t o become acoustowed t o t h i s
new s itu a tio n . W ill h elp him beoome more c o n fid e n t.
46. Requirement fo r degree o f Baohelor o f Eduoat io n .
47. So th a t student teao h in g may be more m ean in g fu l.
48. T ria l and e rr o r o f stu d e n t o u t downi b e t t e r q u a li t y o f p o ise and
teaohing in a o tu a l s i t u a t i o n .
49. To give student oonfidenoe i n c la ssro o m t en ab le him t o f a m ilia r iz e
him self w ith techniques* stu d e n t* suod equipm ent.
60. Observe q u a lity of te a c h in g o f o r i t i o te a o h e r.
154
These a re sta te m e n ts made as t o why o b s e rv a tio n i s no t provided
fo ri
S ta te Teaohera C o lleg es
1* Under s t a f f i n g .
2. L im ited by lo o a l c o lle g e c o n d itio n s .
S ta te C ollegee and U n iv e rs itie s
3 . Not p rovided by C o lle g e o f E d u o atio n .
P r iv a te C olleges and U n iv e rs itie s
4 . Lack o f f a o i l i t i e s .
U nnecessary.
An a n a ly s is o f t h e re a so n s g iv e n f o r p ro v id in g f o r o b se rv a tio n
p receding s tu d e n t te a o h in g in d lo a te s t h a t th e r e i s no g e n e ra l agreement
as t o why t h i s p o lic y should be fo llo w e d ,
however, i t does in d lo a te t h a t
th e fo llo w in g re a so n s f o r p ro v id in g fo r o b s e rv a tio n a re of value*
to
o r ie n t or a c q u a in t th e s tu d e n t w ith th e p ro c e d u re s , olassroom s i t u a t i o n ,
m ethods, and p u p ils ; t o d evelop oonfidenoe on th e p a r t of th e te a o h e rj
to safeguard p u p ils ; and to p le a s e p a tr o n s .
For th e fo u r i n s t i t u t i o n s whloh gave re a so n s why no p ro v is io n s fo r
o b se rv a tio n are made, th e la c k o f p roper f a o i l i t i e s was th e re a so n
m entioned most o f te n .
Amount o f O b serv atio n i n C onnection w ith C ollege C ourses P receding
E nrollm ent i n Student T eaching.
Table LV1 shows th e o la s s e s used f o r purposes o f o b se rv a tio n and
th e number o f days d evoted t o o b s e rv a tio n by stu d e n ts expeoting t o e n ro ll
f o r stu d e n t teao h in g i n b u s in e s s s u b je c ts .
The t a b l e in d ic a te s t h a t th e
155
TABLE LVI
CLASSES USED FOR PURPOSES OF OBSERVATION AND THE NUMBER OF DAYS DGVOrED
TO OBSERVATION BY STUDENTS EXPECTING TO ENROLL FOR STUDENT TEACHING IN
BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
C l a s s e s Used f o r F u r p o s e s o f
O b s e r v a t i o n i n V a r io u s Types
of In stitu tio n s
I n s t i t u t i o n s R e p o r t in g
T h is C la s s Used
Number
M edian Num­
b e r o f Days
D e v o te d t o
O b serv a tio n
Per C en t
STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES
Methods c o u r s e s i n b u s i n e s s
su b jeots
Technique o f t e a o h i n g (su o h
as I n t r o d u c t i o n t o E d u o a t io n ,
I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T e a o h in g , e t o . )
O b serv a tio n
C o lle g e s u b j e o t m a t t e r c o u r s e s
13
3 2 .5
16
11
9
2
2 7 .5
2 2 .5
5 .0
15
24
*
10
3 0 .3
5
9
8
2
2 7 .2
2 4 .2
6 .0
5
15
*
1
6 .6
*
4
3
1
2 6 .6
2 0 .0
6 .6
4 6 .5
6
*
24
2 7 .2
10
24
20
5
2 7 .2
2 2 .7
6 .6
14
1 9 .5
1 0 .5
STATE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
Methods c o u r s e s i n b u s i n e s s
su b jeots
Technique o f t e a o h i n g (su o h
as I n t r o d u c t i o n t o E d u o a t io n ,
I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T e a o h in g , e t c . )
O b s e r v a t io n
C o lle g e s u b j e o t m a t t e r c o u r s e s
PRIVATE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
Methods c o u r s e s i n b u s i n e s s
su b jeots
Technique o f t e a o h i n g (euoh
as I n t r o d u c t i o n t o E d u o a t io n ,
I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T e a o h in g , e t o . )
O b serv atio n
C o lle g e s u b j e o t m a t t e r c o u r s e s
TOTAL FOR ALL THREE TYPES OF
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
Methods c o u r s e s i n b u s i n e s s
su b jeots
Teohnique o f t e a o h i n g (su o h
as I n t r o d u c t i o n t o E d u o a t io n ,
I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T e a o h in g , e t c . )
O b serv atio n
C o lle g e s u b j e o t m a t t e r c o u r s e s
|
-----------------------* Thia i n f o r m a t i o n n o t r e p o r t e d .
166
asms p e rc e n ta g e of i n s t it u t io n s uae methods o o u raes and I n tr o d u c to r y edu­
o a tio n o r te a o h in g oouraes fo r purpoaes of o b se rv a tio n *
Theae two
o la a e e s a re re p o rte d as being th e ones moat o f te n uaed f o r t h i a p u rp o ae .
Almost aa many of th e i n s t it u t io n s p ro v id e o b s e rv a tio n e x p e rie n c e s
th ro u g h t h e medium o f a o la ss in o b s e rv a tio n as th e y do th ro u g h t h e
medium o f th e two p rev io u sly m entioned c la s s e s *
In v e ry few i n s t i t u t i o n s ,
o n ly 6*6 p e r o e n t, do su p e rv iso rs ta k e t h e i r o o lle g e s u b je c t m a tte r o la s s e s
t o th e t r a i n i n g sohools fo r o b s e rv a tio n a l work or allo w p r o s p e c tiv e
te a o h e ra t o make o b serv atio n s of a form al n a tu re in o o lle g e s u b j e c t m a tte r
o o u ra e s.
I n h is study o f stu d e n t te a o h in g i n a t a t e te a o h e ra o o lle g e ,
H enderson found th e same th in g t o be tr u e w ith re f e re n o e t o o o lle g e
s u b je o t m a tte r o la s s observations*^
The p o lio y o f n o t a llo w in g o b se r­
v a tio n s in o o lle g e c la s s e s i s p ro b ab ly w ise as auoh a s i t u a t i o n ia n o t
a norm al one t h a t would be found in th e ty p lo a l h ig h sohool a n d , t h e r e f o r e ,
i s n o t t h e t y p e o f o b se rv a tio n a l t r a i n in g whioh th e p r o s p e c tiv e te a o h e r o f
b u s in e s s s u b je c ts needs*
The same statem en ts made above f o r th e whole gro u p o f i n s t i t u t i o n s
a p p ly in th e oase o f the s ta te te a o h e rs o o lle g e s and s t a t e o o lle g e s and
u n iv e rs itie s *
The use of v ario u s o o lle g e o la s s e a f o r p u rp o se s o f f u r ­
n is h in g o b s e rv a tio n s d i f f e r s in th e oase o f th e p r i v a t e o o lle g e s and
u n i v e r s i t i e s in t h a t t h i s type of i n s t i t u t i o n makes r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e
uae o f m ethods oouraes in b u sin e ss su b je o ta f o r t h i s purpose*
Only one
i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h i s type re p o rts t h a t s tu d e n ts i n methods o l a s s e s in
b u s in e s s s u b je o ts observe classroom s i t u a t i o n s as a r e s u l t o f being
e n r o lle d i n t h i s p a r tic u la r type o f course*
Table LVI a ls o shows th e median number of days whioh a r e , on th e
157
a v e ra g e , davoted t o o b se rv a tio n s by s tu d e n ts e n ro lle d i n v a rio u s o o lle g e
courses*
As a u s u a l th in g , more tim e i s devoted to th e o b s e rv a tio n o f
b u s in e s s o la s s e s i n th e h igh sohool in oourses o rg an iz ed p r im a r ily as
sch ed u led o b s e rv a tio n o la s s e s .
For th e most p a r t , o b s e rv a tio n s a re
made on a p p ro x im ate ly from te n to tw en ty days i n o la s s e s in methods
c o u rse s i n b u s in e s s s u b je c ts , oourses in v o lv in g th e te o h n iq u e of
te a c h in g , o b s e rv a tio n o o u rse s, and o o lle g e su b je o t m a tte r o o u rse s.
TABLE LVII
AVERAGE IENGTH OF OBSERVATION PERIODS IN MINUTES, 1938-1939
Number of
M inutes
S ta te
Teaohers
C o lleg es
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
S ta te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
P r iv a te
C o lle g e s
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
T o ta l
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
30 m inutes
0
0 .0
1
6.2
0
0 .0
1
2.2
40 m inutes
0
0 .0
1
6.2
0
0 .0
1
2.2
46 m inutes
3
12.6
2
12.6
1
2 0 .0
6
13.3
48 m inutes
1
4.1
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
2.2
60 m inutes
10
41.6
5
31.2
4
8 0 .0
19
42.2
66 m inutes
4
16.6
3
18.7
0
0 .0
7
16.6
60 m inutes
6
26.0
4
26.0
0
0 .0
10
22.2
T o ta l number o f i n s t i ­
t u ti o n s r e p o r t i n g
24
16
6
46
Table LVII shows th e average le n g th o f o b s e rv a tio n p e rio d s in m inutes
f o r th e o la s s e s m entioned i n th e p reced in g p a ra g ra p h .
An a n a ly s is o f th e
158
ta b le shows t h a t 8 0 .0 p e r oent o f th e I n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r tin g on t h i s
p o in t in d lo a te t h a t th e o b s e rv a tio n p e rio d s a re f o r f i f t y m inutes or
mors.
E ig h ty -th re e and th r e e t e n t h s per o e n t o f th e s t a t e te a o h e rs
o o lle g e s , 80.0 p e r o e n t o f th e p r i v a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and
75.0 p e r oent o f th e s t a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t th a t ob­
s e rv a tio n s a re held f o r a perio d o f f i f t y s tin u te s o r lo n g e r.
D em onstration or O b serv atio n Teaohing Observed by S tu d e n ts B efore S tu d en t
Teaohing
The d a ta i n Table LV11X show th e p e rso n s who te a o h d e m o n stra tio n or
o b s e rv a tio n le s s o n s in b u sin e ss s u b je o ts p reo a d in g th e stu d e n ts* e n r o l l ­
ment i n a tu d e n t tea o h in g i n b u sin e ss s u b je o ts .
The d a ta show t h a t th e
t r a i n i n g su p e rv is o r i s th e in d iv id u a l who i s most o f te n r e s p o n s ib le f o r
th e te a o h in g o f d e m o n stra tio n or o b s e rv a tio n le s s o n s .
T his ty p e o f
f a c u l ty member I s most o f te n re s p o n s ib le f o r d e m o n stra tio n or o b se r­
v a tio n le s so n s i n a l l o f th e th r e e ty p es o f i n s t i t u t i o n s inoluded in
t h i s stu d y .
R e la tiv e ly sp eak in g , o th e r ty p e s o f f a c u l ty members a re n o t
o fte n o a lle d upon to te a o h d e m o n stratio n le s s o n s .
The t a b l e shows t h a t
s l i g h t l y over o n e -fo u rth o f th e methods te a o h e rs in th e v a rio u s ty p e s of
i n s t i t u t i o n s te a o h d e m o n stra tio n o r o b s e rv a tio n le s s o n s .
I n t h i s oonneo-
Hon, H enderson s t a t e s >
M a jo rity o p in io n fa v o rs th e p r a o tio e t h a t th e p erso n
who te a o h e s any oourse in methods o f te a o h in g should
d e m o n stra te th e m ethods he te a c h e s by a c t u a l l y te a o h in g
o h ild re n e i t h e r i n th e elem en tary sohool or i n th e h ig h
so h o o l. That seems to be th e s u r e s t way of r e a l l y co­
o r d in a tin g th e o ry and p r a o tio e , beoause th e p e rso n who
te a o h e s th e t h e o r e t i c a l s id e of te a o h in g oould th e n a c tu a lly
d em o n stra te f o r th e s tu d e n ts th e way h is th e o ry oould be put
i n t o p r a c t ic e .*
I t i s e v id e n t from th e fo re g o in g t h a t i t ia n o t a p o lic y i n most o f
th e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r tin g d a ta f o r t h i s stu d y t h a t methods te a o h e rs be
1. I b i d . , p . 62.
159
TABLE LV III
PERSONS WHO TEACH DEMONSTRATION OR OBSERVATION LESSONS IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS
PRECEDING THE STUDENTS' ENROLLMENT IN STUDENT TEACHING, 1938-1939
Teaohers o f
O bservation or
Dem onstration
Lessons
S ta te
Teaohers
C o lleg es
S ta te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e r s i ti e s
P riv a te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
Num­
b er
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
C ent
Nus»b er
Per
Cent
Per
C ent
T o ta l
12
4 1 .4
9
62.9
3
3 7 .6
24
4 4 .4
Department su p e rv iso r
6
2 0 .6
4
23.5
2
2 6 ,0
12
22.2
D ire o to r o f stu d e n t
teao h in g
3
1 0 .3
0
0 .0
2
2 5 .0
6
9 .2
D ire o to r o f s tu d e n t
tea o h in g in b u sin e ss
su b je o ta
5
17.2
4
23,6
2
2 5 .0
11
20.3
Teaohers of methods
in b u sin e ss su b je o ts
9
3 1 .0
6
29.4
1
1 2 .6
16
2 7 .7
N on-supervi si ng
o o lle g e tea o h er of
b u sin e ss su b je o ts
0
0 .0
1
6.8
1
1 2 .5
2
3 .5
Student tea o h ers
2
6.8
2
11.7
0
0 .0
4
7 .0
Non-department
su p erv iso r
2
6.8
0
0 .0
1
1 2 .6
3
6.5
Number of oases
29
T raining S upervisor
17
8
64
*
given th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f te a o h in g o b se rv a tio n le s s o n s ,
in s titu tio n a l
p o lio y would sessi t o d is a g r e e w ith th e m a jo rity o p in io n m entioned by
Henderson*
In a d d itio n , th e p r e s e n t p o lio y in th is re g a rd would seem t o
agree w ith th e f a o t s found by A rm entrout in 1927.
At t h a t tim e he w ro te ,
"Most d em onstration tea o h in g i s done by th e tr a in in g te a o h e rs j however,
1(50
In a few sch o o ls th e I n s tr u c to r o f th e th e o r y o la a s te a o h e s th e
d e m o n stra tio n le s s o n .
TABLE LXIX
1'YFES OF PREPARATION MADE BY BUSINESS STUDENTS FOR PURPOSES OF OBSERVATION
BEFORE THEIR ENROLLMENT IN STUDENT TEACHING, 1938-1939
Type of
P r e p a ra tio n
S ta te
T eaohers
C o lle g es
Num­
ber
No p r e p a r a tio n
P er
Cent
S ta te
C o lleg es
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
P r iv a te
C o lleg es
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
T o ta l
Num­
ber
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Per
Cent
6
2 4 .0
2
13.3
1
11.1
9
18.3
Study ty p e s o f
le s s o n s to be ta u g h t
12
4 8 .0
10
66.6
6
66.6
28
67.1
Study su b je o t m a tte r
t o be ta u g h t
12
4 8 .0
9
60.0
7
77.7
28
57.1
Study te a o h in g d i f ­
f i c u l t i e s o f su b je o t
m a tte r to be ta u g h t
11
4 4 .0
8
53.3
6
66.6
26
61.0
Assigned method or
psychology re a d in g s
8
3 2 .0
7
4 6 .6
5
55.5
20
40.8
A s s is t dem onstrator
in p re p a rin g le s so n
to be ta u g h t
4
1 6 .0
2
13.3
2
22.2
6
16.3
P re p are c r i t i o a l
r e p o r ts a f t e r le sso n
has b een ta u g h t
9
3 6 .0
5
33.3
2
22.2
16
32.6
Number o f o ases
25
1 . Arm entrout, op, p i t , , p, 89*
16
9
49
161
N o n -su p erv isin g o o lle g e te a o h e rs o f b u sin e ss s u b je o ts , stu d e n t
te a c h e r s , and non-departm ent s u p e rv is o rs have a r e l a t i v e l y sm all p a rt
in th e te a o h in g o f o b s e rv a tio n le s s o n s f o r p ro s p e c tiv e s tu d e n t te a o h e rs
o f b u s in e s s su b jeo ts*
P r e p a ra tio n Made by S tu d e n ts fo r O b serv atio n Before E nrollm ent in S tu d e n t
te a o h in g i n B usiness S u b je o ts
Table LXIX i s a rra n g ed t o show what kind o f p r e p a r a tio n o o lle g e
stu d e n ts make fo r o b se rv in g le s s o n s i n b u sin e ss s u b je o ts b e fo re t h e i r
en ro llm e n t in th e oourse i n stu d e n t tea ch in g *
The d a ta show t h a t th e
th r e e ty p e s of p r e p a r a tio n most o fte n re q u ire d o f p ro sp e o tiv e stu d e n t
te a o h e rs o f b u sin e ss s u b je o ts are th e stu d y of ty p e s o f le s s o n s to be
ta u g h t, th e study o f s u b je o t m a tte r t o be ta u g h t, and th e s tu d y of
te a o h in g d i f f i c u l t i e s o f s u b je o t m a tte r t o be ta u g h t.
These th r e e ty p e s
o f p r e p a r a tio n are r e p o rte d as bein g re q u ire d i n o v e r o n e -h a lf of a l l
th e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r tin g on t h i s p o in t*
Henderson found t h i s same
f a c t to b e t r u e in h i s s tu d y o f t h ir t y - o n e te a o h e rs c o lle g e s .*
Assigned
method or psyohology re a d in g s a re s tu d ie d in a f a i r l y high p e r oent o f
th e i n s t i t u t i o n s re p o rtin g *
A pproxim ately o n e - th ir d of th e f a c u l ty members g iv in g d e m o n stra tio n
le s s o n s r e q u ir e th e p ro s p e o tiv e b u sin e ss te a o h e rs t o p rep are o r i t i o a l
r e p o r ts o f th e le s s o n a f t e r i t has been ta u g h t*
Henderson found th a t
t h i s prooedure was fo llo w ed in a p p ro x im ately 60*0 p e r oen t o f th e o a se s
In h is stu d y o f s tu d e n t te a o h in g i n g e n e ra l in s t a t e te a o h e rs o o lle g e s .
1* H enderson, op. o l t . , p . 55*
2* Loo* o i t .
2
162
No p re p a r a tio n i s re q u ire d in 18.3 p er o e n t o f th e in s t it u t io n s *
'.Twenty-four per oent of th e s t a te te a o h e rs o o lle g e s , 13*3 per oent of
th e a t a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and 11.1 p e r oent o f th e p riv a te
o o lle g e a and u n iv e r s itie s re p o r t t h a t no p r e p a r a tio n i s re q u ire d fo r
o b s e rv a tio n s made by p ro sp e o tiv e stu d e n t te a o h e rs of b u s in e s s s u b je o ts .
No s i g n i f i c a n t d iffe re n c e s e x is t in th e v a rio u s ty p e s of p re p a ra tio n s
made by p ro sp e o tiv e student teao h ers o f b u sin e ss s u b je o ts in the th r e e
ty p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s included in t h i s study*
D em o n stratio n or O bservation Teaohing Observed by S tudent Teaohers During
T heir E n ro llm en t i n th e Course
The d a ta in Table LX a re arranged t o show p e rso n s who teao h demon­
s t r a t i o n le s so n s in bu sin ess su b je o ts d u rin g th e p e rio d o f th e stu d en ts*
e n ro llm e n t in stu d en t teaohing*
The d a ta show t h a t th e tr a in in g su p er­
v is o r and th e departm ent su p erv iso r a re th e ty p e s of f a c u l ty members who
a re m ost o fte n re sp o n sib le f o r th e te a o h in g o f d e m o n stra tio n or o b se rv a tio n
le s so n s*
These two ty p es o f fa o u lty members a re moot o fte n re s p o n sib le
f o r d e m o n stra tio n or o b se rv a tio n le sso n s in a l l o f th e t h r e e ty p es o f
i n s t i t u t i o n s inoluded in t h i s study.
R e la tiv e ly sp e a k in g , o th er ty p e s
o f f a o u l t y members are not o fte n c a lle d upon to p re s e n t d em o n stratio n
le s s o n s f o r stu d e n t te a c h e rs who have a c t u a l l y been e n ro lle d in th e course
in s tu d e n t te a o h in g .
The t a b l e shows th a t s l i g h t l y fewer th a n o n e - f i f t h o f t h e methods
te a o h e rs a re o a ile d upon t o teaoh d em o n stra tio n le s so n s a f t e r th e s tu d e n ts
have b een e n ro lle d in stu d e n t teaohing in b u sin e ss su b je o ts*
This
p r e p a r a tio n
i s o n ly s l i g h t l y le s s th a n t h a t rep o rte d fo r methods te a o h e rs who p re se n t
d e m o n stra tio n lesso n s preoading the students* e n ro llm e n t in stu d e n t teao h in g
in b u s in e s s subjects*
TABLE LX
PERSONS WHO TEACH DEMONSTRATION OR OBSERVATION LESSORS IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS
DURING THE PERIOD OF THE STUDENTS' BNROLLfiiEN'f IN STUDENT TEACHING,
1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
T eaohers o f
O b serv a tio n or
D e m o n str a t i o n
L essons
St ate
T eaoh ers
C o lle g e s
S tate
C o lle g e s
and Uni­
v e r sitie s
P riv a te
C o lle g e s
and U ni­
v e r sitie s
T otal
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Nun*b er
Per
C ent
Num­
ber
T ra in in g s u p e r v is o r
12
3 6 .3
18
6 9 .2
8
6 6 .6
38
5 3 .5
D ep artm en t s u p e r v i s o r
12
3 6 .3
6
2 3 .0
3
2 5 .0
21
2 9 .5
D ire o to r o f stu d e n t
te a o h in g
4
1 2 .1
2
7 .6
2
1 6 .6
8
1 1 .2
D ir e o to r o f stu d e n t
t e a c h in g in b u s in e s s
su b jects
6
1 8 .1
4
1 5 ,3
2
1 6 .6
12 1 6 . 9
T eao h ers o f m eth od s
in b u s in e s s s u b je c ts
7
2 1 .2
4
1 5 .3
2
1 6 .6
13 1 8 . 3
N o n - s u p e r v ls i n g
o o lle g e tea ch er o f
b u sin ess su b jeo ts
0
0 .0
1
3 .6
1
8 .3
2
2 .8
Student te a o h e r
3
9 .0
4
1 5 .3
0
0 .0
7
9 .8
N o n -d ep a rtm en t
su p e r v iso r
0
0 .0
3
1 1 .5
1
8 .3
4
5 .6
Number o f c a s e s
33
26
12
P er Num­ P e r
C ent ber Cent
71
164
A pproxim ately o n e -s ix th o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t t h a t th e d i r e c t o r
o f s tu d e n t te a c h in g i n b u s in e s s s u b je c ts p r e s e n ts d e m o n s tra tio n le s s o n s
a f t e r th e s tu d e n t has e n ro lle d i n th e o la s s i n s tu d e n t te a c h in g .
Al­
th o u g h th e l i s t of d e f i n i t i o n s p re o lu d e s such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t h e r e
i s ev id en ce on th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s t o i n d ic a t e t h a t some of th e resp o n d ­
e n ts i n t e r p r e t t h i s nom en clatu re t o in c lu d e th e head o f d e p artm e n ts o f
oommeroe r a t h e r th a n th o s e in te n d e d by such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
The t a b l e shows t h a t s tu d e n t te a c h e rs o b se rv e d e m o n s tra tio n le s s o n s
ta u g h t by o th e r s tu d e n t te a c h e rs i n th e s t a t e te a c h e r s c o lle g e s and i n
th e s t a t e c o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
t h e l a t t e r ty p e of i n s t i t u t i o n .
This p r a c t i c e i s most p r e v a le n t i n
I n c o n n e c tio n w ith t h i s p o i n t, a
com m ittee o f N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n o f C onm eroial T e a c h e r-T ra in in g
I n s t i t u t i o n s asked th e fo llo w in g q u e s tio n o f f o r ty - s e v e n i n s t i t u t i o n a l
r e p r e s e n ta t iv e s !
"S hould s tu d e n t te a c h e r s be r e q u ir e d t o observe o th e r
s tu d e n t te a c h e r s and p re p a re o r i t i o a l r e p o r t s o f such o b s e rv a tio n s ? " ^
T w en ty -eig h t a f f ir m a tiv e answers and n in e te e n n e g a tiv e answ ers w ere re c e iv e d .
A lthough m a jo r ity o p in io n seems t o agree w ith th e a f f i r m a t i v e answ er, th e r e
seems t o be c o n s id e ra b le d isa g ree m e n t on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t.
P r e p a r a tio n Made by S tu d e n ts f o r O b se rv a tio n D uring B nrollm ent i n S tu d e n t
T eaching i n B usiness S u b je c ts
Table LXI I s a rra n g e d to show th e k in d o f p r e p a r a tio n c o lle g e s tu d e n ts
make f o r o b se rv in g le s s o n s i n b u sin e ss s u b je c ts d u rin g t h e i r e n ro llm e n t i n
t h e oourse i n stu d e n t te a c h in g .
No p r e p a r a tio n i s re p o rte d i n s l i g h t l y
l e s s th a n o n e -te n th o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
H enderson found t h a t no p re p a ra ­
t i o n was siade f o r o b s e rv a tio n s i n f i v e o f t h i r t y - o n e t r a i n i n g h ig h
1 . C om nittee on S ta n d a rd s f o r P r a o tio e T eao h in g , op. o l t . , p . 17.
2 . H enderson, op. o l t . , p . 65.
sch o o ls.^
TABLE LXI
TYPES OF PREPARATION HADE BY BUSINESS STUDENTS FOR PURPOSES OF
OBSERVATION during t h e ir enrollment in student teaching ,
1938-1939
Type o f
P r e p a r a tio n
S ta te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
S t a te
T eaohers
C o lle g es
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
P r iv a te
C o lleg es
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
Per
Cent
T o ta l
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
No p r e p a r a tio n
2
6 .2
1
4.3
5
2 3 .0
6
8 .8
Study ty p e s o f
le s s o n s t o be
ta u g h t
19
59.3
14
60.8
e
3 8 .4
38
55.8
S tudy s u b je o t m a tte r
t o be t a u g h t
21
65.6
16
69.6
6
4 6 .1
43
63.2
Study te a c h in g d i f ­
f i c u l t i e s o f s u b je o t
m a tte r t o be ta u g h t
18
46.2
14
60.8
4
3 0 .7
36
5 2 .9
A ssigned method o r
p sy ch o lo g y r e a d in g s
10
31.2
11
47.8
4
3 0 .7
26
3 6 .7
A s s i s t d s m o n s tra to r
in p r e p a rin g le s s o n
t o be ta u g h t
12
37.5
9
39.1
2
1 5 .3
23
3 3 .7
P re p a re o r i t i o a l
re p o rts a f te r le s so n
has b e en ta u g h t
21
65.6
15
66.5
9
69.2
43
63.2
Number o f o a se s
32
25
13
68
These so h o o ls w ere s tu d ie d t o d eterm ine th e s ta tu s o f s tu d e n t te a c h in g i n
g e n e ra l and d id n o t ln o lu d e a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n as to ty p e s o f s u b je c ts *
would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t s u p e rv is o rs o f stu d e n t te a c h e rs o f b u s in e s s
s u b je o ts more o f t e n r e q u ir e t h e i r stu d e n t te a o h e rs to make some ty p e o f
T his
166
p r e p a r a tio n f o r o b s e r v a tio n s th a n do s u p e r v is o r s o f a l l t y p e s o f s t u d e n t
te a o h e rs .
The d a t a i n T ab le DCI show t h a t th e fo u r ty p e s o f p r e p a r a tio n f o r
o b se rv a t io n most o f t e n r e q u ir e d o f s tu d e n t te a o h e r s o f b u s in e s s s u b je c ts
a re th e s tu d y o f ty p e s o f le s s o n s t o be t a u g h t , th e p r e p a r a t i o n of o r i t l o a l
r e p o r t s a f t e r t h e l e s s o n haB been t a u g h t , th e s tu d y o f s u b j e o t m a tte r t o
be t a u g h t , and th e s tu d y o f te a c h in g d i f f i c u l t i e s o f s u b je o t m a tte r t o be
ta u g h t.
These fo u r ty p e s o f p r e p a r a t i o n a re r e p o r te d as b e in g re q u ire d i n
o v e r o n e - h a lf o f a l l o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r tin g on t h i s p o i n t .
The p e r c e n t o f i n s t i t u t i o n s w hioh r e q u i r e s tu d e n t te a o h e r s to p r e ­
p a re c r i t i c a l r e p o r t s a f t e r th e le s s o n has been ta u g h t i s alm o st d o u b le
th e p e r o e n t of i n s t i t u t i o n s w hioh r e q u ir e p r o s p e c tiv e s tu d e n t te a o h e r s t o
p re p a re suoh r e p o r t s .
A pproxim ately o n e - t h i r d of th e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e q u i r e s tu d e n t te a o h e r s
t o a s s i s t t h e d e m o n s tra to r i n th e p r e p a r a tio n o f th e le s s o n t o be t a u g h t o r
t o re a d a s s ig n e d m a t e r i a l s i n p sy ch o lo g y o r m ethods o f t e a c h i n g .
W ith th e e x o e p tio n o f th e p r e p a r a t i o n of o r i t i o a l r e p o r t s a f t e r a
d e m o n stra io n le s s o n h a s b e e n t a u g h t , s tu d e n t te a c h e r s i n t h e p r iv a te
o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s a re r e q u ir e d t o make l e s s p r e p a r a tio n in a l l o f
th e tapes l i s t e d i n th e t a b l e th a n 1 b t r u e in th e c a se o f s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s
i n th e o th e r two ty p e s of i n s t i t u t i o n s .
Summary
1 . S l i g h t l y fe w e r th a n n i n e - t e n t h s , o r 8 6 .4 p e r c e n t , o f th e i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s r e q u i r e t h a t s tu d e n t te a o h e r s o r p r o s p e c tiv e s tu d e n t te a o h e r s
o b serv e te a c h in g te c h n iq u e s and p ro c e d u re s b e fo re th e y a re g iv e n re s p o n ­
s i b i l i t y f o r a o tu a l te a c h in g *
A u t h o r i ta ti v e o p in io n in d io a t e s t h a t t h i s
167
sh o u ld b e done*
T h e re fo re , i n th o e e i n s t i t u t i o n s w hioh do n o t fo llo w
t h i s p r a c t i c e , t h e s i t u a t i o n should be c o rre o te d *
2* A lthough t h e r e i s r a t h e r g e n e ra l agreem ent t h a t o b s e r v a tio n
should b e r e q u ir e d b e fo r e th e s tu d e n t te a o h e r i s given te a o h in g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e r e i s l i t t l e g e n e r a l agreem ent a s to t h e re a s o n s f o r
r e q u i r i n g o b s e r v a tio n b e fo re a c tu a l te a o h in g *
However, t h e re s p o n d e n ts
i n d i c a t e t h a t th e fo llo w in g r e a s o n s f o r r e q u i r i n g o b s e r v a tio n a re o f
v a lu e t
t o o r i e n t o r a c q u a in t th e s tu d e n t w ith th e p ro c e d u re s used i n
th e c la s s ro o m ; t o a c q u a in t t h e s tu d e n t w ith th e p u p i l s , m e th o d s, and
s i t u a t i o n ; t o d e v e lo p c o n fid e n c e on th e p a r t o f th e p r o s p e c t i v e t e a o h e r j
to s a f e g u a rd p u p i l s ; and t o p le a s e p a r e n t s .
3* A lthough m ethods c o u rs e s i n b u s in e s s s u b je c ts and i n tr o d u c to r y
e d u c a tio n or te a o h in g o o u rs e s a re used f o r p u rp o se s o f o b s e r v a tio n t o a
c o n s id e r a b le e x te n t p re v io u s t o e n ro llm e n t in s tu d e n t t e a o h in g , t h e r e
i s no g e n e r a l ag reem ent aB t o what p a r t i c u l a r c o u rse s h o u ld b e used f o r
t h i s purpose*
4* P r o s p e c tiv e s tu d e n t te a o h e r s o f b u s in e s s s u b je c ts a re seldom
r e q u ir e d t o make fo rm al o b s e r v a tio n s i n c la s s e s ta u g h t b y s tu d e n t te a c h e rs *
T his p r a o t i o e i s i n accord w ith th e m a jo r ity o p in io n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
members o f th e N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n o f Commeroial T e a c h e r-T ra in in g
In s titu tio n s *
5* E ig h ty p e r c e n t o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t t h a t o b s e r v a tio n a l
p e rio d s a r e f o r a p e rio d o f f i f t y m in u te s or m ore.
6.
In m ethods c o u rs e s i n b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s , o o u rse s in v o lv in g t h e
te c h n iq u e o f te a c h i n g , o b s e rv a tio n o o u r s e s , and c o lle g e s u b je o t m a tte r
o o u r s e s , th e number o f days on whioh o b s e r v a tio n s are made v a ry from te n
168
t o tw enty*
7* The p ro s p e c tiv e s tu d e n t te a o h e r and t h e s tu d e n t who i s e n ro lle d
i n s tu d e n t te a o h in g in b u s in e s s s u b je c ts u s u a l l y o b se rv e
by th e t r a i n i n g s u p e r v is o r .
8.
A little
o la s s e s ta u g h t
T his p o lic y w ould se e n t o be w is e .
over f o u r - f i f t h s of th e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e q u ir e t h a t some
p r e p a r a t i o n b e made f o r o b s e r v a tio n by p r o s p e c tiv e stu d e n t teao h ers*
little
A
over n i n e - t e n t h s o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e q u i r e t h a t some types of
p r e p a r a t i o n be made f o r o b s e r v a tio n a f t e r th e c o lle g e s tu d e n t i s e n ro lle d
i n s tu d e n t te a o h in g in b u s in e s s s u b j e o ts .
9* The p r o s p e c tiv e s tu d e n t te a o h e r o f b u s in e s s s u b je o ts observes
l e s s o n s ta u g h t b y th e m ethods te a o h e r i n 2 7 .7 p e r c e n t o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
A f te r t h e o o lle g e s tu d e n t has b e en e n r o lle d i n s tu d e n t te a c h in g , he ob­
s e r v e s le s s o n s ta u g h t b y th e m ethods te a o h e r i n 18*3 p e r oent of th e
in s titu tio n s *
From t h i s , i t would seem t h a t th e m ethods te a o h e r does n o t
make a s im p o rta n t a p a r t in th e t r a i n i n g o f b u s in e s s te a o h e rs as should be
th e case*
CHAPTER V
THE SELECTION, VARIETY, EXTENT, AND EVALUATION OF THE WORK OF STUDENT
TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS
I t i s th e p u rp o se o f t h i s c h a p te r t o show th e s t a t u s o f t h r e e f a c t o r s
i n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e oonduct o f p rogram s o f s tu d e n t te a o h in g i n b u s in e s s
s u b je c ts in s t a t e te a c h e r s o o l le g e s , s t a t e c o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and
a s e le o te d group o f p r iv a te o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s *
These t h r e e f a c t o r s
are th e p r o v is io n s made f o r th e s e l e o t i o n o f s tu d e n t te a c h e r s o f b u sin e ss
s u b je c ts , th e v a r i e t y and e x te n t o f t h e d u t i e s o f s tu d e n t te a o h e r s o f b u s­
in e s s s u b je c ts , and th e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e work o f s tu d e n t te a o h e r s o f b us­
in e s s s u b je c ts .
The S e le o tio n o f S tu d en t T eao h ers o f B u sin e ss S u b je c ts
In a number o f i n s t i t u t i o n s , v a r io u s te c h n iq u e s a re used t o s e l e c t
th o se in d iv id u a ls who show prom ise o f m aking a suooeas o f th e p r o f e s s io n
of teao h in g *
I n th e s e c a s e s , s t u d e n ts a re o f t e n g iv e n v a r io u s t e s t a
whioh a ttem p t t o e lim in a te o r o a l l a t t e n t i o n t o o a se s w hich need more
th a n th e u su a l am ount o f e d u o a tio n a l gu id an ce*
By o f f e r i n g suoh a program
o f t e s t i n g , g u id a n o e , and s tu d e n t p e rs o n n e l s e r v i o e , i t i s hoped by th o se
re s p o n s ib le f o r i t s
a d m in is tr a tio n t h a t a s u p e r io r te a c h e r w i l l bo tr a in e d
and t h a t p u p ils o f th e s e te a c h e r s w i l l th e r e b y be p r o te c te d t o a g r e a t e r
e x te n t th an w ould b e th e e a se i f suoh a program were n o t fo llo w e d .
T his
p h ilo so p h y i s e x e m p lifie d i n th e f o llo w in g q u o ta tio n c o n c e rn in g t h e New
170
J e r s e y S t a te T eaohera C o lle g e a t Newark*
F r a o t i o a l l y a l l o f th e o b v io u s and m ore e a s i l y d is c o v e r a b le
p e r s o n a l i t i e s u n a u ite d f o r t h e p r o f e s s io n have been e lim in a te d
p r i o r t o s tu d e n t t e a c h i n g , so t h a t th e d e p a rtm e n t o f e d u c a tio n
has t o work o n ly w ith th o s e who show a p p a re n t f i t n e s s f o r th e
p ro fe s s io n *
Some i n s t i t u t i o n s do n o t fo llo w a v ig o ro u s program o f guidanoe and
s e l e o t io n .
S o h o rlin g p o i n ts o u t t h i s f a o t when he w r i t e s , "The te a o h in g
p r o f e s s io n i s a t t r a c t i n g to o few o u ts ta n d in g p e r s o n a l i t i e s and too many
m ediocre s tu d e n ts .
An i n f e r i o r o r d u l l norm al p e rs o n oan become a t e a o h e r
by ohoosing c a r e f u l l y h i s i n s t i t u t i o n and h is u n d e rg ra d u a te c o u rs e s .
The scope of t h i s docum ent does n o t a llo w f o r a f u l l d is c u s s io n o f
t h i s problem and i s , t h e r e f o r e , l im i te d to two p a r t i c u l a r q u e s tio n s .
These q u e s tio n s a re a s fo llo w s *
What o o lle g e c o u rs e s a re p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r
s tu d e n t te a o h in g i n b u s i n e s s s u b je c ts ?
What m eans o th e r th a n o o lle g e o o u rs e s
a re used i n s e l e o t in g o o lle g e s tu d e n ts f o r s tu d e n t te a o h in g in b u s in e s s su b ­
je c ts ?
The s tu d ie s p re p a re d b y H enderson'' and b y t h e C om nlttee on S ta n d a rd s
f o r P r a c t i c e Teaohing i n Conaneroial E d u c a tio n
4
w ere used a s a b a s is f o r
v a li d a t i n g th e q u e s t io n n a ir e w ith re g a rd t o t h e f i r s t q u e s tio n m entio n ed
above.
The p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r s tu d e n t te a c h in g i n g e n e ra l i n s t a t e te a o h e r s
o o lle g e s found by H en d erso n and p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r s tu d e n t te a c h in g i n b u s­
in e s s s u b je c ts found b y t h e com m ittee on th e N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n o f
C onm ercial T e a c h e r-T ra in in g I n s t i t u t i o n s are l i s t e d in t h e f i r s t oolumn
1 . Alonzo F . M yers, L o u is e M* K i f e r , Ruth C* M erry , and F ran ces F o le y .
C o o p e rativ e S u p e r v is io n in th e P u b lic S c h o o ls . New York* P r e n t i c e E t l l , Ino*, 1936, p . 8 l .
2* S o h o rlin g , op. o l t , , p . 161*
3 . S* L* H enderson, o p . o i t . , p p . 16-19*
4 . The N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n o f Commercial T e a c h e r-T ra in in g I n s t i t u t i o n s ,
B u l l e t i n No. 1 1 , oj>. o i t . , p . 11.
171
TABLE LXII
PREREQUISI TIES FOR STUDENT TEACHING IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
S ta te
Teaohers
C o lleg es
S u b je c ts
S ta te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
P riv a te
C o lleg es
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
T otal
Num­
ber
P er
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
26
73.6
16
57.1
8
57.1
49
64.4
9
26.4
9
32.1
4
2 8 .6
22
28,9
18
62.9
14
6 0 .0
11
78.5
43
66.5
21
61.7
10
3 6 .7
6
35.7
36
47.3
16
4 7 .0
7
2 6 .0
6
4 2 .8
29
38.1
21
61.7
11
39.2
7
50.0
39
51.3
32
94.1
22
78.6
11
78.5
65
85.6
9
2 6 .4
6
17.8
2
14.2
16
21.0
7
20.6
2
7 .1
2
14,2
11
14.4
16
44.1
13
4 6 .4
6
36.7
33
43.4
19
66.8
12
4 2 .8
4
28.6
36
46.0
3
8 .8
4
14.2
4
28.6
11
14.4
8
23.6
5
17.8
3
21.4
16
21.0
6
14.7
3
1 0 .7
2
14.2
10
13.1
1. I n tr o d u c tio n to
e d u c a tio n
2. C lassroom
management
3 . Methods in
commerce su b je o t
to be ta u g h t
4. G eneral methods
in b u sin e ss
s u b je o ts
5. h i s t o r y of
e d u c a tio n
6. T e s ts and
m easurem ents
7. P r i n c i p l e s of
seoondary
e d u c a tio n
8. S u p ervised
p a rtic ip a tio n
9. P r in c ip le s of
guidanoe
10. D lre a te d
o b s e rv a tio n
11. G eneral (non-com­
m e rc ia l methods
o f te a o h in g
12. I n tr o d u c tio n t o
s tu d e n t te a o h in g
13. Eoonomio and so c io ­
l o g i c a l background
t o th e h igh school
14. Methods i n m inor
s u b je o t
16. At l e a s t one o o lle g e
s u b je o t m a tte r
o o u rse in su b je o t
t o be ta u g h t
16. Two o r more o o lle g e
s u b je o t m a tte r
o o u rse s i n su b je o t
t o b e ta u g h t
8
23.62
6
21.4
0
0 .0
14
18.4
24
70.68
14
6 0 .0
10
71.4
48
63.1
T o ta l number r e p o r tin g
34
26
14
76
172
o f Table LXI I .
S ev e n ty -six , or 86*3 per c e n t, o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s
in clu d ed in t h i s stu d y fu rn ish ed d a ta on t h i s q u e s tio n .
The d a ta in Table LXI I in d ic a te s t h a t , i n most i n s t a n c e s , th e
oourse in p rin c ip le s o f secondary e d u c a tio n i s th e one co n sid ere d as b e in g
a v alu ab le p re p a ra to ry oourse fo r stu d e n t te a o h in g .
The oourse ran k in g
second in importance i s in tro d u c tio n to e d u c a tio n .
The f a o t t h a t th e s e
two oourses rank as high as th ey do i s p ro b a b ly t o b e expected as th e y
a re oourses whioh u s u a lly oome e a r ly in th e s t u d e n t's program o f s tu d ie s .
The only two other oourses which are p r e r e q u i s i t e t o s tu d e n t te a c h in g i n
more th an f i f t y per c e n t of th e i n s t i t u t i o n s a re methods in th e oommeroe
s u b je c t to be tau g h t and t e a t s and m easurem ents.
The ta b le shows t h a t b oth methods i n t h e s u b je o t whioh stu d e n t te a o h e r s
expeot to tea ch and g e n e ra l methods in b u s in e s s s u b je c ts a re p r e r e q u is ite s
f o r student teaching i n only ap p ro x im ately f i f t y p er c e n t o f th e i n s t i ­
t u ti o n s .
This would seem to in d ic a te t h a t th e s e two c o u rs e s , as in d iv id ­
u a l oourses, a re , in th e opinion o f a p p ro x im ate ly o n e -h a lf o f th e o u rrio u lu m
b u ild e r s , of l i t t l e v a lu e as p r e r e q u is ite s t o s tu d e n t te a o h in g in b u sin e ss
s u b je c ts .
Even so, th o s e re sp o n sib le f o r th e fo rm a tio n o f th e b u sin e ss
te a o h e r p rep a ratio n c u r r ic u la b e lie v e t h a t th e s e o o u rse s should be p re ­
r e q u is ite s f o r stu d en t te a o h e rs t o a g r e a te r e x te n t th a n do th o s e who a re
re sp o n sib le fo r a l l ty p es of o u r r ic u la .
Henderson found t h a t fewer th a n
o n e -th ird of the i n s t i t u t i o n s re p o r tin g on t h i s p o in t w ith re s p e c t t o a l l
ty p e s of c u rric u la made suoh courses p r e r e q u i s i t e to s tu d e n t te a c h in g .^ 1
The s itu a tio n mentioned above i s somewhat m odified by th e f a o t t h a t a
1 . E. L. Henderson, op. o l t . . p. 20.
173
number o f th e resp o n d en ts in d ic a te d t h a t th e oo u rses in s p e c ia l methods
or g e n e ra l methods in b u sin e ss s u b je c ts were ta k e n a t th e same tim e as
stu d e n t tea o h in g and, t h e r e f o r e , were not p r e r e q u i s i te to stu d e n t te a c h ­
in g .
T his prooedure i s in accord w ith th e f in d in g s o f B rink who s tu d ie d
th e v alu e o f i n te g r a t i o n of methods and stu d e n t te a o h in g .
He s t a t e s , ” I n
th e two co n seo u tiv e experim ents d e s c rib e d th e r e s u l t s c l e a r l y favored th e
i n te g r a t i o n o f methods oourses w ith p r a c t ic e te a o h in g .
I t i s a ls o signify
l e a n t t h a t th e e x p erim e n tal prooedure produced g r e a te r i n t e r e s t in th e
stu d y o f methods o f te a o h in g , s tim u la te d more th in k in g , and aroused g r e a te r
i n t e r e s t i n e d u c a tio n as a p ro f e s s io n th a n d id th e o o n tro l p ro c e d u re .” 1
I n a d d itio n , th e t a b l e does n o t show, as do th e o r i g in a l q u e s tio n n a ir e s ,
th e f a o t t h a t 76.4 per cen t o f th e s t a t e te a o h e rs o o lle g e s , 75.0 per cen t
o f th e s t a t e c o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , 8 5 .7 per cen t of th e p r iv a te o o lle g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and 77.6 p e r c e n t o f a l l th e i n s t i t u t i o n s involved in th e
study r e q u ir e e it h e r methods in th e com m ercial su b je o t t o be ta u g h t or
g e n eral methods i n commercial s u b je c ts as p r e r e q u i s i te s f o r stu d e n t te a o h ­
ing in b u sin e ss s u b je o ts .
A nother s i g n i f ic a n t f a o t shown i n Table LXI1 i s t h a t alm ost o n e - f i f t h
o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s allow c o lle g e s tu d e n ts t o te a o h c la s s e s i n t h e i r
t r a i n in g sohools w ith o u t having com pleted more th a n one o o lle g e su b je o t
m atter oourse in th e su b je o t whioh th e stu d e n t te a c h e r te a o h e s .
The lao k
of m astery in some s u b je o ts a f t e r th e com pletion o f only one oourse in
t h a t s u b je o t would seem t o I n d ic a te a r a t h e r in ad eq u ate t r a i n i n g on th e
1 , W illiam Q. B rin k , I n t e g r a ti o n o f Theory and F ra o tio e in th e P ro fe s s io n a l
B duoation of T eaoherst An E x p erim en tal Study. E d u c a tio n a l Trends I I I
(F e b ru ary , 1934), p . 27.
174
p a r t o f th o se who a re p e rm itte d to e n te r th e t r a i n i n g sohool of a
te a o h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n .
S t i l l an o th er f a o t w hich i s shown in Table DCII i s th e p r a o tio e o f o u rrio u lu m b u ild e r s i n s t a t e te a o h e rs o o lle g e s t o p re s o rib e to a g r e a t e r e x te n t
c e r t a i n s u b je c ts f o r s tu d e n t te a c h in g th a n do th e c u rrio u lu m b u ild e r s in
th e oase of e le v e n o f th e s ix te e n p r e r e q u i s i te s l i s t e d in th e f i r s t column
o f ta b le UCII.
However, th e d if f e r e n c e s i n th e p e rc e n ta g e s are n o t r e l a t -
iv e ly g r e a t i n many in s ta n c e s .
P r e r e q u is ite s w hich are c o n sid ered as o f r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e v a lu e f o r
stu d e n t tea o h in g i n b u s in e s s s u b je c ts are su p erv ised p a r t i c i p a t i o n , p r in ­
c ip le s o f guidance, in tr o d u c tio n to stu d e n t te a o h in g , economic and soc­
io lo g i c a l background t o th e high sc h o o l, methods in a m inor s u b je o t, and
a t l e a s t one o o lle g e s u b je c t m a tte r course i n th e s u b je c t t o be ta u g h t.
Less th a n o n e -fo u rth o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s re q u ire d th e s e as p r e r e q u is ite s
fo r s tu d e n t te a o h in g in b u sin e ss s u b je o ts .
P r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r stu d e n t te a c h in g not l i s t e d f o r checking on th e
q u e s tio n n a ire and w hioh were f i l l e d i n by v a rio u s resp o n d en ts a re as
fo llo w s t
1 . " Q u a lity p o in t re q u ire m e n t."
2 . "O n e-h alf o f s u b je c t m a tte r oourses to be ta u g h t."
3 . "Shorthand and ty p e w ritin g n o t ta u g h t here b u t p r o fic ie n c y
exam ination g iv e n b e fo re te a c h in g allo w e d ."
4 . "School a d m in is tr a tio n and law ."
5. "Problems o f th e b eginning te a c h e r ."
b. " P a rt of o o u rse in e x t r a - i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and
p a r t o f a c o u rs e in s tu d e n t te a o h in g ."
7 . " P r in o ip le s o f b u sin e ss e d u o a tio n ."
8 . "Must com plete o u rrio u lu m ."
Bach o f th e s e p r e - s tu d e n t- te a c h in g re q u ire m e n ts was w r i t te n in on th e
q u e s tio n n a ire only one tim e .
175
TABLE LXIII
PREREQUISITES IN PSYCHOLOGY FOR STUDENT TEACHING IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS
1938-1959
S ta te
Teaohers
Colleges
S u b je o t
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
S ta te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
P r i v a te
C o lle g e s
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
T o ta l
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
P er
Cent
E d u o atio n al
Psychology
34
89.4
24
88.96
12
8 0 .0
70
86 .4
G eneral P sychology
27
71.0
19
67.8
10
66.6
56
69.1
6
21.0
4
14,2
0
0 .0
12
14.8
A dolescent
Psychology
38
Number r e p o r tin g
28
81
16
ftre re g u l s i t e s In Psychology
Table U I I I shows th e p r e r e q u i s i t e In psychology f o r s tu d e n t te a o h in g
In b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s .
E ig h ty -o n e, or 92.0 per c e n t, o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s
in d ic a te t h a t t h e y re q u ir e some oourse i n psychology a s a p r e r e q u i s i t e
fo r s tu d e n t te a c h in g in bu sin ess s u b je c ts .
E v id e n tly th e o o u rse i n psy­
chology o f a d o le a o e n ts has no place as a p r e r e q u is ite f o r s tu d e n t te a c h in g
in b u sin e ss s u b je o ts as only 14.8 per cen t of th e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o rte d i t
as suoh.
E d u c a tio n a l psychology is more o fte n re q u ire d a s a p r e r e q u i s i t e
f o r s tu d e n t te a o h in g in b u sin e ss su b je o ts th a n i s g e n e ra l p sy c h o lo g y .
e v e r, th e d if f e r e n c e i n th e percentages i s r e l a t i v e l y sm all „
How­
T his same f a o t
i s i n agreem ent w ith th e stu d y made by th e Committee on S ta n d a rd s f o r P r a o tio e
Teaohing i n C om oeroial Eduoation and re p o rte d in 1937.1
1 . The N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n o f Camneroial T eao h er-T rain in g I n s t i t u t i o n s ,
B u lle tin No. 11, o£. o l t . , p. 11,
176
Mama by Which Stud a n t Taaohars Are S alaoted f o r S tudent Teaching In
Buainesa S u b je cts
The second m ajor q u e s tio n whioh th ia s e o tio n o f th ia dooument a tte m p ts
t o answer i s what means are used in s e le c tin g o o lle g e s tu d e n ts fo r stu d e n t
te a o h in g in b u sin e ss su b je o ts*
A number of w r i t e r s on t h i s to p io have i n ­
d ic a te d what th e y b e lie v e t o be v a lu a b le te o h n iq u e s and p ro ced u res t o use
i n th e attem p ted s o lu tio n to t h i s problem*
In t h i s c o n n e c tio n , Mead w r ite s
as follow s*
The f i r s t g r e a t need i s t h a t th e w o rk e rs i n th e i n s t i t u t i o n
should eome t o some agreement as to what i s meant by th e term s
good te a o h in g and good te a c h e r s ............................. A second p ra o tio e
should be th e e sta b lis h m e n t and enforcem ent o f q u a n tita tiv e and
q u a l i t a t i v e c o n d itio n s o f work and t r a i n i n g p r e r e q u i s i t e to
s tu d e n t- te a c h in g . . . . . . . A t h ir d v e ry d e s ir a b le p r a c tic e
i s th e c o lle c tin g and re c o rd in g o f d a ta on th e s t u d e n t's a t t a i n ­
(He in c lu d e s here th e s o h o l a s t io re c o rd of th e
m ents......................
s tu d e n t, p e rso n a l d a ta , p h y sio a l d a ta , m o ral d a ta , s o c i a l d a ta ,
and p r o fe s s io n a l d a t a .) . * . * . . N ext, t h e r e should be req u ire d
from each stu d e n t a form al w r i t te n r e q u e s t o r a p p lic a tio n fo r
s tu d e n t-te a o h in g . . . . A nother u s e fu l p ro o ed u re i s th e p e rso n al
conference w ith th e a p p lic a n t f o r s tu d e n t-te a o h in g . . . . . A
d ep artm en tal c o n feren ce conoerned w ith any c e r t a i n group of
a p p lic a n ts (c a n d id a te s ) o fte n proves u s e f u l .
Henderson b e lie v e s t h a t o a re f u l c o n s id e r a tio n should be given th e
s t u d e n t 's s o h o la s tio re c o rd , h is p h y sio a l c o n d itio n , and h is em otional
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b e fo re he i s s e le c te d as a s tu d e n t te a c h e r .
2
S o h o rlin g b e lie v e s t h a t th e re should be some measure o f g e n eral
in te l l i g e n c e o f th e p ro sp e c tiv e stu d e n t te a c h e r , t h a t h is s o h o la s tio
re c o rd should be c o n sid e re d , t h a t he should p a s s a comprehensive t e s t on
th e fundam entals o f B n g lish , t h a t p e rs o n a l o o n ta o ts , re p e a te d o b se rv a tio n s,
and in te rv ie w s should p la y a p a r t i n th e s e l e o t io n o f th e s tu d e n t te a o h e r .
1 . Mead, op. o i t . , pp. 403-406.
2 . H enderson, oj>. o l t . , p. 22.
177
t h a t ho should p o s s ib ly be examined on h is knowledge of contem porary
a f f a i r s and on h is knowledge o f e d u c a tio n a l th e o r y and methods*^
The q u e s tio n n a ire fo r t h i s stu d y was p rep ared in such a way as to
in clu d e th e s e suggested to o ls f o r s e le c tin g s tu d e n t te a c h e rs o f b u sin e ss
su b je cts*
The d a ta in Table UtlV show th e methods used f o r s e le c tin g
stu d e n t te a c h e r s of b u sin e ss s u b je o ts i n i n s t i t u t i o n s in clu d ed i n t h i s
document.
The ta b le shows t h a t o th e r th a n th e c o n s id e ra tio n o f th e
p ro s p e c tiv e stu d e n t t e a c h e r 's s o h o la s tio re c o rd in a l l th e s u b je c ts
whioh he has completed w h ile i n o o lle g e and h is s o h o la s tio rec o rd in
b u sin e ss s u b je o ts whioh he has co m p leted , r e l a t i v e l y few o th e r means are
used fo r s e l e c ti v e p u rp o ses.
These a re th e o nly two means used in more
th a n o n e -h a lf of th e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
The in te rv ie w w ith th e s e le c tiv e
o f f ic e r i s th e prooedure re p o rte d t h i r d most o f te n .
per cen t o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
I t i s used i n 42.6
Reasons f o r u sin g only a few methods o f
s e le o tio n may be oaused by th e e x o e ssiv e demand f o r commerce te a c h e r s
which has e x is te d in th e p a s t and a ls o to a la c k o f adequate s e le c tiv e
p ro o esu res on th e p a r t of th e i n s t i t u t i o n s in v o lv e d .
I t i s a ls o e v id e n t from a stu d y o f th e ta b le t h a t i n te l li g e n c e t e s t s ,
q u a lif y in g t e s t s in su b jeo t m a t t e r , contem porary a f f a i r s t e s t s , t e s t s in
e d u c a tio n a l th e o ry and m ethods, and e s tim a te s o f s o c ia l q u a l i f i c a t i o n have
o n ly a v e ry minor plaoe in th e s e l e c ti v e p ro ced u res used in i n s t i t u t i o n s
in clu d ed in t h i s stu d y .
A lthough th e p e rc e n ta g e s do n o t v a ry g r e a t l y , i t i s e v id e n t from a
stu d y of th e ta b le t h a t th e p r i v a t e o o l i t e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s tend to
1 . S o h o r lin g ,
0 £*
o i t . , pp. 1 6 2 - 1 6 6 .
178
TABLE LXIV
MEANS BY WHICH STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS ARE
SELECTED FOR STUDENT TEACHING,
1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
Means o f
S e leo tio n
Used
1. In te llig e n c e t e s t s
2. S oholastio rec o rd in
a l l o o lleg e oourses
oompleted
3. Soholastio record in
business su b je o ts
oompleted in o o llege
4. Q ualifying t e s t s in
su b jeo t m a tte r to be
tau g h t
6. Test in fundam entals
of E nglish
6. Contemporary a f f a i r s
te s t
7. Physioal o o n d itio n
standard
8. Moral q u a lif ie a tio n s
9. General comprehensive
t e s t in e d u ca tio n
th eo ry and methods
10. In terv iew w ith
s e le c tin g o f f io e r
P
e
rso n a lity r a tin g s
U.
E
stim
ates o f so o ia l
12.
q u a lif ic a tio n s
13. A pplication (only)
o f p ro sp ectiv e
stu d en t te a o h e r
f o r teaohing
14. No means of s e le o tio n
used
IS . Achievement i n methods
oourse*
16. S o h olastio reoord in
p sychological methods
and p rin o lp le s o f se e ondary education*
T o tal Number R eporting
S ta te
Teaohers
C o lle g es
S ta te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
P riv a te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
T o ta l
Nun** Per
ber
Cent
Num­
ber
Num­ Per
b e r Cent
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
5
14.2
3
11.1
3
21.4
11
14.6
22
62.8
17
62.9
9
64.2
46
64.0
21
60.0
15
55.5
9
64.2
45
60.0
4
1 1 .4
3
11.1
3
21.4
10
13.3
5
14.2
6
18.6
4
26.6
14
18.6
1
2.8
0
0.0
1
7.1
2
2 .6
7
10
2 0 .0
28.5
6
6
22.2
22.2
7
6
50.0
35.7
20
21
2 6 .6
2 8 .0
2
5 .7
4
14.8
3
21.4
9
1 2 .0
15
3
4 2 .8
8 .6
10
7
37.0
25.9
7
4
50.0
28.5
32
14
4 2 .6
18.6
3
8.6
6
22.2
2
14.2
11
1 4 .6
12
34.2
10
37.0
1
7.1
23
30 .6
5
14.2
5
18.6
2
14.2
12
1 6 .0
0
0 .0
0
0.0
1
7.1
1
1.3
0
0 .0
0
1
1.3
■~
r r ~
* A c tiv itie s l i s t e d but n o t p r in te d on q u e s tio n n a ire .
0.0
1
Per
Cent
7 .]
TIT”
\
179
use v a rie d m ethods o f s e le o tio n t o a g r e a te r e x te n t th a n do th e o th e r
two ty p e s o f I n s t i t u t i o n s .
A g r e a te r p er oent o f th e p r i v a t e o o lle g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s use t h i r t e e n of th e s ix te e n d i f f e r e n t means l i s t e d in
Table 1XIV.
S ix te e n p e r cent o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o rtin g on t h i s p o in t i n d l oate t h a t no method o f s e le o tio n i s u se d .
The p e rc e n ta g e s o f s t a t e
o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s which r e p o r t t h a t no means o f s e l e c ti n g stu d e n t
te a c h e r s i s used i s s l i g h t l y hig h er th a n in th e s t a t e te a o h e rs o o lle g e s and
in th e p r i v a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
I n a d d itio n to ask in g th e resp o n d e n ts to oheok th e means whioh were
used in s e le o tin g s tu d e n t te a o h e rs of b u sin e ss s u b je o ts , th e y were asked
to In d io a te th e re a so n s fo r th e
use o f th e v a rio u s m ethods. The resp o n se s
to t h i s r e q u e s t are g iv e n in th e words o f th e resp o n d en ts in th e
s ta te m e n ts .
fo llo w in g
The numbers fo llo w in g th e sta te m e n ts r e f e r t o th e means o f
s e le o tio n used as re p o rte d i n th e corresponding numbers in th e f i r s t oolumn
o f Table H IV .
STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES
To p re v e n t s tu d e n ts e n te rin g te a c h e r t r a i n i n g who are n o t q u a l i f i e d .
(1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 6 , 7, 8 , 10, 11, 12)
I t has been done t h i s way in th e p a st b u t i s not s a t i s f a o t o r y or
s c i e n t i f i c . (13)
To q u a li f y , s tu d e n ts must have nC" average or b e t t e r and a t l e a s t
of sem ester hour g rad es must be a *D" or above* (2 , 3, 7 , 8 , 11)
76%
S tu d e n ts must have a t l e a s t a "CM average b e fo re te a c h in g i s p e rm itte d .
We f e e l t h a t t h i s should be th e minimum average. (2, 8 , 10, 11)
I t i s b e lie v e d t h a t h igh sohool p u p ils should n o t s u f f e r by having stu d e n t
te a o h e rs whose work i s below a C a v erag e . (2)
Always b een u sed h e re . (2 , 14)
180
The s tu d e n t must have n e a e ssa ry m oral and I n t e l l e c t u a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ,
m ust make e p p lio a tio n , and from th e s e th in g s ! s e le c te d by d i r e c to r of
s tu d e n t teaohing* (4 , 8 , 10, 13)
A ttem pt i s made to l e t them do p r a c tic e te a c h in g In th e su b je o t th e y
w i l l be re q u ire d t o handle when th e y s t a r t te a c h in g . (3 , 10)
We r e q u ir e but two— s o h o la s tio and s t u d e n t 's own a p p lic a tio n f o r e n tra n c e
t o t r a i n i n g sc h o o l. (2 , 13)
E very s tu d e n t re q u ire d to do p ra o tio e te a o h in g b e fo r e g ra d u a tio n . (14)
"C" average r e q u ir e d . (2)
S tu d en t must pass p r e r e q u i s i te s w ith a t l e a s t an k average b e fo re he i s
allow ed to te a o h . (2 , 3, 8 , 13)
Must have average o f "Cn to weed out poor s tu d e n ts . (2 , 3 , 13)
A s c h o la r s h ip average o f C i s re q u ire d o f a l l s tu d e n ts who make
a p p lic a tio n f o r s tu d e n t te a o h in g . This e lim in a te s s tu d e n ts who
a re not o f a t l e a s t average a b ility * (2 , 13)
We lik e them to te a o h what th e y d e s ir e w here p o s s ib le b u t t h e i r reco rd
must be a o o e p ta b le , to o . (3 , 10, 13)
A ll must spend 16 weeks in p ra o tio e te a o h in g . (14)
D i f f i c u l t t o sa y . Perhaps i t i s beoause we have found them f a i r l y
s a tis f a c to r y * ( l , 2 , 3 , 9)
These combined g iv e us a f a i r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y prom ise o f good work.
(2 , 3 , 6 , 10)
Must have stu d e n t te a o h e rs c r e d i t in o rd e r to q u a li f y fo r s t a t e
c e r t i f i c a t e * (13)
A ll o th e r means m entioned ore inoluded i n o o lle g e g ra d e s . (2 , 3)
C aver age i n a l l o la s s e s . (2 , 3 , 4 , 7)
To allow o nly th o se stu d e n ts whioh we b e lie v e a re re a so n a b ly q u a lif ie d
t o e n te r upon t h i s experience* (1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 7, 8 , 10, 12)
Must have average grad es in a l l o o lle g e o o u rse s and "A* average o r b e t t e r
i n b u s in e s s s u b je o t ta u g h t. Suoh a p la n h e lp s t o in s u r e a d e q u a te ly tr a in e d
te a o h e r s . (2 , 3)
STATS COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
When th e y re a c h s e n io r y e ar and have oompleted p r e r e q u i s i t e s in e d u o a tio n
s u b je o ts and enough b u s in e s s s u b je o ts t o o a rry on high school work. We
181
have n o t aa y e t attem pted to a e t up s e le c tiv e c r i t e r i a aa in d ic a te d in
your q u e s tio n n a ir e . (14)
P o lic y fo rm u la te d by C ollege of E duoation. The s u p e rv is o r i a on th e
f a c u l t y o f th e College of Business A d m in istra tio n . (2)
To p re v e n t u n q u a lifie d persona e n te rin g th e o o u rse .
To keep u n f i t persona from th e te a o h in g f i e l d .
(2 , 3 . 12, 13)
(2 , 3 , 9 , 1 2 , 13)
To a s s u r e
(2 , 3 , 4 ,
aa f a r as p o s s ib le th a t th e y w ill be s u o c e s a fu l on th e jo b .
6 , 7 , 11)
They m ust
be s e n io rs and have had c e r t a i n re q u ire d c o u rs e s .
For p u rp o se s
o f s e le o tio n .
(34 )
(2, 3, 4 , 5 , 7, 8, 10, 1 1 , 12)
Our p o l ic y i s uniform f o r sohool as a w hole.
( 2 , 3 , 5)
E d u c a tio n a l and b u sin e ss req u irem en ts a re q u ite r i g i d and a f t e r th e s e
have been co m p leted , stu d e n t ia u s u a lly prepared f o r te a c h in g . (10, 13)
T r a d itio n and f a i l u r e o f a d m in is tra tio n to allow any more r i g i d
s e l e o t io n . (3 , 3 , 1C, 13)
meansof
S o a ro ity of s tu d e n t te a c h e rs in t h i s departm ent. C o lle g e work i s given
in a cc o u n tin g o n ly . S e c r e ta r ia l s tu d ie s are g iv en in a n o th e r o o lle g e
i n t h e s t a t e . Student te a o h e rs in a l l departm ents must have a c e r t a i n
s o h o la s tio a v erag e . (14)
I do n o t know.
(10, 13, 14)
S tu d e n ts must have a C average i n b u sin e ss s u b je c ts ande d u c a tio n su b je o ts in
o rd e r t o be g iv e n a c la s s . The stu d e n t must have a s e n io r sta n d in g a ls o .
(2 , 3)
We have i n th e u n iv e r s ity , of o o u rse , a record o f th e i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s ,
th e E n g lis h t e s t s , and o th e r s tak en by each and e v e ry s t u d e n t. The so h o la stio
re o o rd a tta in e d in the u n iv e r s ity work i s in c lu d e d . A ll o f th e o th e r points
a re a c q u ire d by p e rso n al o o n tao ts i n o la s s e s , o u t- s id e o f so h o o l, and in th e
p ro c e ss of s u p e rv is io n . Sometimes a number o f th e members o f th e f a c u lty w ill
d is c u s s a c e r t a i n cadet b efo re p la c in g th e stamp o f ap p ro v al upon him.
(1 , 2 , 3 , 7 , 8 , 10, 11, 12, 13)
S tu d e n t m ust have C average.
S ta te requirem ent
T echniques o f s e le o tio n a re being developed.
fo r c e r tif ic a te .
(2 , 3, 8, 11, 12)
To e r a d i c a te th o s e not d e s ira b le * (2 , 3 , 7, 8 , 10, 11, 13)
(2)
182
PRIVATE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
E lim in a tio n over a p e rio d o f 2 o r 3 y e ars p receding s tu d e n t te a o h in g (3)
P re re q u is ite .
(1 , 2)
We a re r ig o r o u s ly lim ite d in th e number o f stu d e n ts we may p lac e i n th e
p u b lio high sohool as p r a c tic e te a c h e rs . ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 6, 7, 10)
We admit only o o lle g e g ra d u a te , and only th o se who show i n t e r e s t and
prom ise in th e p r o f e s s io n . (14)
To in su re b a s ic p r e p a r a tio n fo r th e ta s k . Suoh o th er means of s e l e c t i o n
as you have l i s t e d a re a p p lie d d u rin g th e f i r s t th re e y e a rs o f o o lle g e
work. (2 , 3)
A te a o h e r must have good h e a lth and she must know her s u b je o t.
Every stu d e n t te a o h e r must have a
n Bm
grad e or b e t t e r .
(3 , 7)
(2 , 3, 7t 8)
A stu d y o f th e p reo ed in g sta te m e n ts indio& tes a number o f f a o ts
concerning th e re a so n s g iv e n fo r u sin g o e r t a in methods of s e l e c t i n g
stu d e n t te a c h e rs o f b u s in e s s s u b je o ts .
In th e f i r s t p la c e , th e r e seems
to be l i t t l e , i f any, oonoensus of o p in io n aa t o why o e r ta in m ethods
a re used.
Secondly, t h e s ta te m e n ts , f o r th e most p a r t , e x p la in or
d is c u s s th e methods used r a t h e r th a n g iv e re a so n s
fo r t h e i r u s e .
In
th e t h i r d p la o e , th e sta te m e n ts in d ic a te where th e s o h o la s tio average
i s used fo r p u rposes o f s e le o tio n , th e g rad e of C i s th e r a t i n g whioh i s
most o f te n a c c e p ta b le a s a c r i t e r i o n by whioh stu d e n ts are a d m itted to
stu d e n t te a o h in g .
F o u rth , th e r e is evidenoe in a t l e a s t some in s ta n c e s
t h a t t r a d i t i o n , r i g h t or w rong, p lay s a p a r t in th e acceptance o f o e r t a in
methods by whioh s tu d e n ts a re adm itted t o stu d e n t te a o h in g .
A ll t h i s adds
up t o th e c o n c lu sio n t h a t l i t t l e thought has been g iv e n t h i s p o in t by th o se
re s p o n s ib le f o r stu d e n t te a c h in g in b u sin e ss su b je o ts and t h a t , p o s s ib ly ,
a more thorough stu d y o f t h i a s i t u a t i o n m ight be a v a lu a b le c o n tr ib u tio n to
th is f ie ld .
TABLE LXV
TYPES OF ACTIVITIES IN WHICH STUDENT TEACHERS ENGAGE BEFORE THEY ARE GIVEN
FULL RESPONSIBILITY OF CLASSROOM TEACHING,
1938*1939
Typo of
A c tiv ity
S ta te
T eaohers
C o lle g es
Num­
ber
Take p a r t i n th e
t r a i n i n g sch o o l
c la s s aa a p u p il
A s s is t i n ro u tin e
m a tte r s ( v e n ti­
l a t i o n , c a llin g
r o l l , lin i n g b la c k ­
b o a rd s , e t c . )
Coaching in d iv id u a l
p u p ils
P re p a rin g le s s o n
m a te r ia ls
Accompanying
s tu d e n ts on c la s s
e x c u rsio n s
A rranging d ram a tic
p r o je o ts
A c tiv e p a r t i c i p a t i o n
in re c e s s a c t i v i t i e s
Teaches s h o r t d r i l l s
w ith o u t f u l l respon­
s i b i l i t i e s as a te a c h e r
Taking p a r t in
e x tra -c u rric u la r
a c tiv itie s not lis te d
h e re
Grade pap ers*
O b serv a tio n and w r ite ­
up o f o b se rv a tio n s*
C lu b s, horns room,
guidanoe program s,
a t h l e t i c s , school
fin a n e e *
None i f te a o h in g
s t a r t s im m ediately*
^ o ta l Humber k sp o rtin g
Per
Cent
S ta te
C o lleg es
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
P r iv a te
C o lle g es
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
Num­
ber
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
Per
Cent
T o tal
Num­
b er
P er
Cent
7
23*3
2
7.1
1
7.1
10
13.8
25
83.3
23
86.3
14
100.0
62
6 6 .1
24
80,0
21
7 5 .0
9
64.2
54
7 5 .0
25
83.3
24
86.8
13
92.8
62
8 6 .1
11
36.3
8
2 9 .6
3
21.4
22
30.6
5
16.6
2
7 .1
0
0 .0
7
9 .7
4
13.3
2
7.1
2
14.2
8
11.1
16
53.3
14
5 0 .0
7
5 0 .0
37
51.3
4
0
13.5
0 .0
4
2
14.2
7 .1
1
3
7.1
2 1 .4
9
6
12.5
6 .9
1
3.5
0
0 .0
1
1.3
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
7.1
1
1 .3
2
6 .6
1
3 .5
0
0 ,0
3
4 .1
30
3d
"TT""'
1z
-----
*
"O ther a c t i v i t i e s * l i s t e d by resp o n d en ts on q u e s tio n n a ire s *
fcJ
Ib4
Typos of A c t i v i t i e s i n Whioh S tu d e n t Teaohers Engage Before They Are
Given F u ll R e e p o n slb il i t y as Classroom Teaohers
T able IXVII shows t h a t o v e r 80.0 p er oent of th e i n s t i t u t i o n s do not
allow t h e i r s tu d e n t te a c h e rs t o ta k e f u l l r e s p o n s i b i li t y as te a c h e rs a t
th e b e g in n in g o f t h e i r e n ro llm e n t in th e oourse.
This would in d io a te
t h a t th e y a re g iv e n o th e r d u t i e s whioh allow them t o beoome o rie n te d in
t h e i r new s i t u a t i o n .
This s e o tio n attem p ts to show what th e se d u tie s
a re and th e e x te n t t o whioh o aah d u ty i s req u ired i n th e v a rio u s ty p e s o f
in s titu tio n s .
The M isso u ri stu d y r e l a t i n g t o te a c h e r ed u catio n whioh was sponsored
by th e C arnegie F oundation f o r th e Advanoement of Learning advocates th e
in o lu a io n o f a number o f a c t i v i t i e s in th e program o f the stu d e n t te a o h e r
b e fo re he i s g iv en f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a classroom te a o h e r.^
su g g e sts o th e r s .
2
Mead
From th s e s two so u rces, th e q u e stio n n a ire was p re ­
pared in suoh a way as t o c a l l f o r th e oheoking of o e rta in a c t i v i t i e s
whioh a re re q u ire d o f s tu d e n t te a o h e rs of b u sin e ss subjeotB preoeding
th e tim e when th e y a re g iv en f u l l r e s p o n s ib ility of olassroom te a o h in g .
Table LXV shows th e a c t i v i t i e s re p o rte d by the resp o n d en ts.
The t a b l e shows t h a t t h e r e are fo u r a c t i v i t i e s whioh are re q u ire d
o f s tu d e n t te a o h e rs by a t l e a s t 60.0 per cen t of th e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
They
a re a s s i s t i n g in r o u tin e m a tte r s suoh as v e n ti l a t io n , o a llin g r o l l , lin in g
b la c k b o a rd s , e t o e t e r a ; coaching in d iv id u a l p u p ils ; p rep arin g le s s o n
m a t e r i a ls ; and te a c h in g s h o rt d r i l l s w ith o u t th e f u l l r e s p o n s i b i li t y of a
te a o h e r.
There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d iffe r e n c e in th e percentages as th e y
1 . Mead, op. o l t . , p . 221.
2 . L earned, s t s i , op. o l t . , p p . 224-225.
186
r e l a t e t o t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s in c lu d e d i n t h i s
stu d y .
I n eaoh of th e t h r e e ty p e s , t h e r e a re fo u r ty p es o f a c t i v i t i e s whioh
stu d e n t te a o h e rs must perform in over o n e -h a lf o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s
b e fo re th e y a re given f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as classroom te a c h e r s .
A c tiv itie s w hich a re not o fte n re q u ire d of student te a o h e rs b e fo re
th e y tak e f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r classroom te a o h in g are as follow s*
ta k in g p a r t in th e o la s s as a p u p il, accompanying stu d e n ts on f i e l d
t r i p s , a rra n g in g d ra m a tic p r o j e c ts , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n reo ess a c t i v i t i e s ,
and ta k in g p a r t i n e x t r a - e u r r i o u l a a c t i v i t i e s .
The fa o t t h a t some of
th e s e a c t i v i t i e s a re n o t engaged in to a g r e a te r e x te n t may be e x p la in e d
b y th e f a o t t h a t th e tim e elem ent may p rev en t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a ti o n in
some a c t i v i t i e s u n t i l a f t e r th e stu d e n t has been given f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
a s a te a o h e r.
A rranging d ram atic p r o j e c ts , ta k in g p a rt in e x tr a - o u r r i o u l a
a c t i v i t i e s , and accompanying stu d e n ts on e x c u rsio n s may f a l l in to t h i s
o la s s ifio a tio n .
I n a d d itio n , many high sch o o ls do not have a re o e s s an d ,
t h e r e f o r e , t h i s a c t i v i t y i s n o t o fte n r e q u ir e d .
The resp o n d en ts w ere asked to in d io a te o th e r a c t i v i t i e s which th e y
m ight r e q u ire o f t h e i r s tu d e n t te a ch e rs*
Among th o s e Included in t h e i r
answ ers are making o b s e rv a tio n s and w ritin g -u p o f th e o b s e rv a tio n s , c lu b s ,
home room a c t i v i t i e s , guidance program work, a t h l e t i c s , school fin a n c e
a o t i v i t i e s , and th e g ra d in g o f p a p e rs.
Five respondents in d io a te t h a t
t h i s l a s t a c t i v i t y i s re q u ire d and le a d s th e in v e s tig a to r t o b e lie v e t h a t
many more resp o n d en ts would have checked t h i s a c t i v i t y i f i t had been
p r in te d on th e q u e s tio n n a ir e .
The Rate of In d u c tio n I n to S tudent Teaohing
Sohorling p o in ts
o u t t h a t , "The oourse i n d ire o te d teaohing as re g a rd s
k in d , amount, and r a t e of in d u o tio n should be a d ju ste d to th e a b i l i t y
e x p e rie n c e , and need o f th e in d iv id u a l stu d e n t t e a c h e r . T h i s p r ln o ip le
1.- S o h o rlin g . op. o i t . , p7 166.
186
in v o lv e s not j u s t th e f e e t whioh a re p re se n te d i n T able LTV, b u t a ls o
th e s tu d e n t t e a c h e r 's induction, as a p a rt-p e rio d te a o h e r and h is in ­
d u ctio n . as a f u l l- p e r i o d te a c h e r .
P a rt-P e rio d Teaohing
T able IXVI shows th e number of weeks whioh p a s s b e fo re th e stu d e n t
te a o h e r i s allow ed to te a o h a p a r t of a p e rio d .
The d a ta in d io a te th a t
on th e average two weeks pass b e fo re th e stu d e n t te a o h e r o f b u s in e s s
s u b je o ts i s allow ed to te a o h a p a r t of a p e rio d .
T his same sta te m e n t
h o ld s t r u e in th e case o f a l l th r e e ty p es of i n s t i t u t i o n s re p o rte d in
t h i s dooument.
The d a ta in th e ta b le a ls o in d io a te t h a t th e p e rio d o f
tim e e la p s in g betw een th e s t u d e n t 's en ro llm en t in th e oourse and th e tim e
when he i s f i r s t allowed to te a o h fo r a p a r t of a p e rio d v a r ie s i n alm ost
o n e - f i f t h of th e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
Thia p r a o tio e i s i n agreem ent w ith S o h o rlin g ' a
s ta te m e n t t h a t , "The r a t e o f in d u c tio n should be a d ju s te d to th e a b i l i t y ,
e x p e r ie n c e , and need of th e in d iv id u a l stu d e n t te a c h e r ." *
F u rth e r stu d y of th e d a ta in Table LXVI in d ic a te s t h a t s l i g h t l y more
th a n o n e - f i f t h o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s allow t h e i r s tu d e n t te a o h e rs to b e g in
te a o h in g , a t l e a s t a p a r t of a c la s s p e rio d , b e fo re one week has p assed .
T his i s c o n tr a r y to S ohorling*s b e l i e f t h a t th e s t u d e n t 's in d u c tio n should
be a g ra d u a l p ro c e ss and th a t he should n o t have t o ta k e a " c o ld plunge"
in to h i s te a o h in g d u tie s a t onoe.
g
In a l l p r o b a b i l it y , th o se re s p o n s ib le
f o r th e oonduot of s tu d e n t teao h in g in b u sin e ss s u b je o ts do n o t b e lie v e
t h a t th e s tu d e n t should be g iv en f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a t onoe.
A number
o f i n s t i t u t i o n s are faced w ith t h i s n e o e s s ity as a r e s u l t o f la r g e numbers
1 . Loo, o l t .
2 . I b i d ♦, p . 150.
187
TABLE LXVI
NUMBER OP WEEKS PASSING BEFORE STUDENT TEACHERS ARE AILOWKD TO TEACH
PART OP A H5RI0D, 1 9 3 6 - 1 9 3 0
Number o f
Weeks
S ta te
T eaohers
C o lleg es
S ta te
C o lle g e s
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
Num­
ber
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
P r iv a te
C o lleg es
and U ni­
v e rs itie s
T otal
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Nun»*
bar
Per
Cent
0
9
2 6 .0
5
1 6 .6
2
1 6.6
16
20.5
1
6
16.6
7
2 3.3
3
2 6 .0
16
20.6
1*
1
2 .7
1
3 .3
0
0 .0
2
2.6
2
6
16.6
7
2 3 .3
3
2 6 .0
16
20.6
a*
1
2 .7
1
3 .3
0
0 .0
2
2.5
3
6
16.6
1
3 .3
0
0 .0
7
8.9
3*
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
8.3
1
1.2
4
0
0 .0
1
3 .3
0
0 .0
1
1.2
4*
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
8 .3
1
1.2
5
1
2 .7
1
3 .3
0
0 .0
2
2.5
6
16.6
6
1 0 .0
2
1 6 .6
14
17.9
V a rie s
Median
T o ta l number
r e p o r tin g
2
2
2
2
36
30
12
78
o f stu d e n t te a o h e r s and t r a i n i n g so h o o l c l a s s e s and a r e s t r i c t e d budget
w hioh p re v e n ts th e h i r in g o f an a d eq u a te number o f s u p e rv is o rs t o tak e
o a re o f th e s e stu d e n t te a c h e r s and c la s s e s *
The in v e s tig a to r has know­
188
ledge o f & number o f i n s t i t u t i o n s w hioh would f a l l in to t h i s c la s s ­
if i c a t i o n and, c o n se q u e n tly , which are alm ost fo rc e d t o in d u o t t h e i r
stu d en t te a o h e rs in to a c t u a l te a c h in g s i t u a t i o n s a t to o g r e a t a ra te *
The respondents w ere asked to in d io a t e th e re a s o n s f o r having th e
stu d en t te a c h e rs w a it a o e r t a i n le n g th of tim e b e fo re th e y were giv en
th e o p p o rtu n ity to te a c h a p a r t of th e p e r io d .
in t h e i r own words, f o llo w .
T h e ir re s p o n s e s , g iv en
The numbers fo llo w in g t h e i r re sp o n se s in ­
d io a te th e le n g th o f t im e , i n term s of w eeks, whioh th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s
u s u a lly observe or p a r t i c i p a t e in come form b e fo re th e y a re g iv e n p a r t p erio d teao h in g d u t ie s .
S ta te T each ers C o lle g es
Depends on c a d e t,
(v a rie s )
The tim e v a r i e s on t h i s
p o i n t b u t t h r e e w e e k s seam t o b e a good t im e .
(3 )
C r itio su p e rv iso r does t h e te a o h in g f o r th r e e weeks to o r ie n t th e s tu d e n t
te a c h e rs and develop a p p r e c ia tio n of p lan n in g and tea o h in g d a t a . (3)
Introduced in to te a o h in g e x p e rie n c e s e a r l y . We c o n s id e r te a o h in g a
broader th in g th s n m e re ly c lassro o m w ork, ( v a r i e s )
So he may a d ju s t h im s e lf and f e e l l e s s tim id in ta k in g up a c tu a l te a c h in g .
(2)
P o lio y . (3)
Do not want high sohool p u p ils t o s u f f e r . S tu d en t te a c h e r s coach in d iv id u a l
p u p ils from b eg in n in g and a tte n d to r o u tin e d u t i e s , g r a d u a lly ta k in g on more
and more u n t i l th e y have f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . (1)
Ho d e fin ite r u l e as t o le n g th o f tim e in c la s s b e fo re te a o h in g . ( v a r ie s )
Waste of tim e o th e rw is e . (1 )
I f e e l time i s sh o rt and th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r a p p re c ia te s problem s more
w ith a l i t t l e e x p e rie n c e . (1)
S upervisors o rd e rs , (2 )
has alread y prepared to ta k e com plete c h a rg e . (0)
Load of su p e rv iso rs— u s u a lly has two o la s s e s a t same hour in B usiness
E ducation D epartm ent.
(1)
To give high sohool s tu d e n ts b e n e f its o f tr a i n e d s u p e r v is o r , in s te a d o f
having to le a r n from a s tu d e n t J u s t le a r n in g to te a c h . (5)
Depends on th e a b i l i t y o f th e s tu d e n t t o h andle th e o l a s s . ( v a r ie s )
Me should te a o h a t o n c e . (0)
I t i s n e ce ssa ry fo r him to s t a r t te a c h in g a t onoe as th e re i s no o th e r
teach er o f commerce a v a ila b le (O)
has proven t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y . The way to le a r n t o te a c h i s t o te a c h . (0 )
To observe o o o p eratin g te a c h e r s m ethods and g e t a c q u a in te d w ith th e
stu d e n ts . (2)
Ho p relim in a ry d e la y .
(0 )
189
He begins im m ed iately . (0)
V aries w ith th e d i f f e r e n t sch o o ls in th e s t a te in whioh our s tu d e n ts
tak e s tu d e n t te a c h in g . (1)
Due to th e l a r g e number who must r e c e iv e tea ch in g e x p e rie n c e , we have
to put them t o work w ith as l i t t l e d e la y as p o ssib le * (1 )
To allow f o r o r i e n t a t i o n , g e ttin g acq u ain ted w ith th e p u p i l s , e t c . (2)
S ta te C o lleg es and U n iv e rs itie s
Theory o f g ra d u a l in d u c tio n . (2)
Each s tu d e n t i s g iv e n a s h o rt t r i a l period* (3)
To give tim e f o r o rie n ta tio n * (1)
To o r ie n t t h e s tu d e n t te a o h e r. (1)
The p r a c tic e te a o h in g program i s in co n n ectio n w ith th e p u b lio sohools
and th e y want to be sure th e te a c h e r i s w orthy to te a o h b e fo re she
is g iv e n t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . (4)
V aries w ith o la s s and student* (v a r ie s )
Long enough o b s e rv a tio n re q u ire d to p rev e n t break in course* (l£ )
So ho may g r a d u a lly a d ju s t h im se lf to th e c o u rs e . (2)
C r itic te a c h e r s and Board of E d u catio n govern th e s e p o l i c i e s ,
( v a r ie s )
Depends on th e s u b j e c t s , ( v a r ie s )
Have f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from th e begin n in g la r g e ly due t o our g r e a t
numberb end only one s u p e rv is o r. (0)
J u s t an in tr o d u c tio n to th e c l a s s . He g a in s confidence by o b s e rv a tio n . (1)
We want him t o know s tu d e n ts ' names and be f a i r l y w ell a c q u a in te d i n room.
(1)
Depends on school and c r i t i c te a c h e r ,
( v a r ie s )
1 b e lie v e i t i s d e s ir a b le f o r stu d e n t te a c h e r t o b eg in te a o h in g as soon as
he knows what ty p e o f work i s b ein g done. (1 )
To g r a d u a lly in d u c t p ro s p e c tiv e te a o h e r in to te a o h in g . (2^-)
P r iv a te C o lle g es and U n iv e r s itie s
O r ie n ta tio n p u rp o se s. (1)
G en erally he te a c h e s th e f u l l p e rio d th e f i r s t tim e . ( 7 )
To get him accustomed to th e jo b . (3§)
V aries w ith l o c a l i t y i n whioh stu d e n t i s a ssig n e d , ( v a r i e s )
Each o i t y te a o h e r h as her own id e a , (v a r ie s )
O r ie n ta tio n , stu d e n t te a c h e r i s supposed t o become f a m i li a r w ith p u b lio
aohool r o u t in e .
(2)
So as t o b e sure o f good te a o h in g . ( l )
A. s tu d y of th e re a so n s j u s t g iv en by th e resp o n d en ts in d io a te s t h a t
not only i s th e re no agreem ent as t o th e amount of tim e w hioh should e la p se
b efo re th e stu d e n t te a c h e r i s giv en p a rt-p e rio d tea o h in g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
b u t a lso t h e r e i s no agreement as t o th e reasons f o r a llo w in g th e s ta te d
190
amount o f tim e to elap se*
However, a number o f p h ilo s o p h ie s a re
a s o e r ta ln a b le from a study o f th e resp o n ses*
They a re as follow s*
1* Some s u p e rv is o rs b e lie v e t h a t th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r should
be g iv en p a rt- p e rio d te a c h in g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a t onoe be­
cause i t i s t h e i r philosophy t h a t , "Vl a l e a r n t o do by d o in g ."
2* Other s u p e rv is o rs b e lie v e th a t t h e r e should be a w a itin g
period in o rd e r to o r ie n t the s tu d e n t te a o h e r in his new
s itu a tio n .
S. Some s u p e rv is o rs b e lie v e th e re should be a w a itin g p e rio d in
o rd er t o p r o te c t th e i n t e r e s t s o f th e h igh school p u p ils*
4* C e rta in s u p e rv is o rs b e lie v e th e le n g th o f th e w a itin g p erio d
should v a ry dependent on th e a b i l i t y of th e stu d e n t te a o h e r ,
th e s iz e of th e c l a s s , and th e s u b je o t w hioh i s to be tau g h t*
F u ll-P e rio d Teaching
Table UCV11 shows th e number of weeks w hich p a ss before th e stu d e n t
te a o h e r i s allow ed t o te&oh a f u l l perio d *
The d a ta in d ic a te t h a t in
th e s t a t e te a c h e r s c o lle g e s th e period o f tim e i s u s u a lly two w eeksj in
th e s t a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s it i e s and in th e p r i v a t e o o lle g e s and u n i­
v e r s i t i e s i t i s u s u a lly th r e e weeks*
The median le n g th of tim e in a ll
o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s re p o rte d in t h i s document
i s two weeks.
T his s t a t e ­
ment shows t h a t , i n comparison w ith th e f a c t s p re s e n te d in T able LXV1
th e stu d e n t te a c h e r s in th e s t a t e te a c h e r s o o lle g e s a re more l i k e l y to
te a c h a f u l l p e rio d when th e y are f i r s t allow ed t o te a c h them a re th e
B tudent te a o h e rs in th e o th e r two typeB o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
In t h e s t a te
te a c h e r s o o lle g e s , th e median number o f weeks f o r p a rt- p e rio d te a c h in g
and f u ll- p e r io d te a o h in g i s th e same*
I n th e o th e r two ty p es o f i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s two weeks p a ss b e fo re p a rt-p e rio d te a c h in g i s allowed and th r e e
weeks p ass b e fo re f u ll- p e r io d teach in g i s allowed*
191
TABLE IXVTI
NUMBER OF WEEKS PASSING BEFORE STUDENT IE ACHERS ARE GIVEN FULL RESPONSIBILITY
OF TEACHING CLASSES, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
St at<•
reao hers
Colli»ges
S ta te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
Number o f Weeks
P r iv a te
C o lle g e s
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
P er
Cent
Num­
ber
0
9
24.3
3
1 0 .3
1
1
4
10, 8
1
3 .4
1*
1
2 .7
1
2
9
24.3
9
Num­
ber
P er
Cent
6.6
13
1 6 .0
1
6.6
6
7 .4
3 .4
1
6.6
3
3 .7
3 1 .0
2
13.3
20
2 4 .6
1
6.6
1
1 .2
z i
3
4
3*
0
4
2
5.4
6
3
9
1
10.6
Per
Cent
T o ta l
3
10.3
2
13.3
9
11.1
2
6 .8
2
13.1
4
4 .9
5
17.2
2
13.1
9
11.1
8.1
3
3 .7
2.7
1
1 .2
1
1 .2
11
1
3 .4
12
1
6.6
1
1 .2
2
13.3
10
12.3
V a ris s
4
Median
2
3
3
2
37
29
16
81
T o ta l R e p o rtin g
10.8
4
1 3 .7
l* b l# UCVII a lto shows t h a t t t u d t n t te a c h e r s i n t t a t t te a o h a r t c o lle g e s
u s u a lly begin f u ll- p e r io d teao h in g d u rin g an e a r l i e r week th a n i t t r u e f o r
s tu d e n t te a o h e rs in th e other two c la s s e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
The d a ta in d ic a t e
192
t h a t two weeks la th e minimum w a itin g period f o r f u l l- p e r io d te a o h in g
In 62.1 p e r oent o f th e a ta te te a o h e rs o o lle g e s , 48.2 p e r oent o f th e
s t a te o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and 33,3 per o e n t of th e p r i v a t e
o o lle g e s and u n iv e r s itie s *
F u rth erm o re, a l a r g e r p e ro e n tag e of th e
a ta te te a o h e r s c o lle g e s allow t h e i r stu d en t te a o h e rs to b e g in te a o h in g
a t onoe t h a n i s t r u e in th e o th er tw o types o f i n s t i t u t i o n s *
The re a s o n f o r t h i s e a r l i e r f u ll- p e r io d te a c h in g on th e p a r t o f th e
stu d en t te a o h e r s i n s t a t e te a c h e rs o o lle g e s i s n o t a s c e r ta in a b le from a
stu d y o f th e re a so n s given fo r th e v a rio u s w a itin g p e rio d s f o r f u l l p erio d te a o h in g as g iv en by the resp o n d en ts.
The reasons g iv e n f o r th e
v ario u s w a itin g p e rio d s f o r f u l l- p e r io d tea ch in g are i d e n t i c a l i n alm ost
e v ery oaee w ith th e s e re p o rte d fo r p a rt-p e rio d te a c h in g ,*
A stu d y o f th e
sta te m e n ts on th e s e pages shows no s a t i s f a c t o r y reason f o r a lo n g e r w a it­
in g p erio d f o r f u l l- p e r i o d tea o h in g i n s ta te te a c h e r s o o lle g e s th a n i n th e
o th e r two ty p e s of i n s t it u t io n s *
T h is would seem to in d ic a te m erely a
d iffe re n o e i n p h ilo so p h y in regard t o t h i s p o i n t.
Time Spent i n S tu d e n t Teaohing
The fre q u e n c y and le n g th o f s tu d e n t te a o h in g p erio d s i s l a r g e l y
an a d m in is tr a tiv e problem over whioh Departm ents o f B u sin ess E d u catio n
have no c o n tr o l .
The len g th of d a il y periods i s s e t by t r a i n i n g sohool
and p u b lio sohool a d m in is tra to rs *
I n same in s ta n c e s the inadequacy o f
f a o l l i t i e s n e c e s s a r il y l i m i t s th e p e rio d of th e stu d e n t t e a c h e r s ' t r a i n i n g .
1 , See p a g e 1 8 8 .
193
TABLE LJCVIII
NUMBER OP MINUTES A DAx TAUGHT BY STUDENT TEACHERS, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 5 9
Number o f
M inutes
Per Day
S ta te
Teachers
C olleges
S ta te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
P riv a te
C o lle g es
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
T o tal
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
P er
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
30
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
1 0 .0
1
1 .6
40
0
0 .0
1
3 .6
0
0 .0
1
1 .5
46
3
11.5
3
10.7
3
3 0 .0
9
14.0
60
12
46.1
7
2 6 .0
2
2 0 .0
21
32.8
55
3
11.5
6
17.8
0
0 .0
8
12.5
60
3
11.6
10
35.7
2
2 0 .0
15
23.4
80
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
10.0
1
1 .6
90
1
3.8
1
3 .5
1
1 0 .0
3
4 .6
110
0
0 .0
1
3 .5
0
0 .0
1
1 .6
120
1
3 .8
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
1 .6
160
2
7 .6
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
2
3 .1
180
1
3.8
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
1.5
Number R eporting
26
28
10
64
Median
50
56
60
62.5
In a d d itio n , th e t r a d i t i o n a l o rg a n is a tio n o f th e sohool y ear on a sem ester
or q u a r te r ly b a s is te n d s to f i x th e amount o f s tu d e n t te a o h in g .
These f a o ts
should be k e p t in mind by th e re a d e r o f t h i s s e c tio n of t h i s document.
194
M in u te s Par D a y o f Stud a a t T eaoh in g
T a b le LXVIII shows t h e num ber o f m in u te s a d ey ta u g h t b y s t u d a n t
te a o h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
te n d e n o y i s tow ard a f i f t y t o
The d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e g e n e r a l
s i x t y m in u te p e r io d .
T h is a g r e e s w it h
th e f in d i n g s o f The N a t io n a l S u r v e y o f t h e E d u c a tio n o f T e a c h e r s . 1
In a s tu d y o f th e t im e e le m e n t in v o l v e d
i n s tu d e n t t e a c h in g in
sta te
te a o h e r s c o l l e g e s , H en d erso n fo u n d a s l i g h t l y h ig h e r m in u t e - p e r - d a y - s c h e d u l e
th an i s r e p o r te d i n T a b le L X V I I I .
He r e p o r t s t h a t s i x t y m in u t e s i s
th e
m ed ian number o f m in u te s p e r d a y t a u g h t b y s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s i n h ig h s c h o o l s .
The t a b l e p r e s e n t s e v id e n c e t o
show t h a t i t
i s not g e n e r a l l y t h e p r a c t i c e
t o a s s i g n s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s t o more th a n one p e r i o d p er
day o f s tu d e n t t e a o h in g .
O n ly 1 2 . 2 p e r o e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s u s u a l l y
a s s i g n s t u d e n t t e a c h in g d u t i e s
o f m ore th a n n in e t y m in u te s p e r d a y .
T h is
p r a o t io e m igh t r e a s o n a b ly i n d i c a t e a s s ig n m e n ts o f tw o or m ore p e r i o d s o f
f o r t y ^ f i v e m in u te s or m ore.
D ays Per We e k o f S tu d e n t Teao h ing
T h ir t y - s ix s t a t e t e a c h e r s o o l l e g e s r ep o rt th a t stu d e n t t e a c h e r s o f
b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s a r e r e q u ir e d t o t e a c h f i v e d a y s p er w eek i n t h i r t y t h r e e o a s e s , fo u r d a y s p er w e e k i n tw o o a s e s , and t h r e e d a y s p er w eek
in on e c a s e .
T w e n ty -n in e s t a t e
o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t t h a t
s tu d e n t t e a o h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s a r e r e q u ir e d t o t e a c h f i v e d a y s
per w eek in t w e n t y - s e v e n o a s e s ,
t h r e e d ays p er w eek i n one c a s e .
1, F o ste r , op, o i t » » p . 3 7 9 .
2 , H e n d er so n , o p . o i t . , p . 2 9 .
f o u r d a y s p er w eek in one c a s e , and
Ten p r iv a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
2
195
r e p o r t th a t s tu d e n t te a o h e r s of b u sin e ss s u b je c ts a re re q u ire d to
te a o h fiv e d a y s per week in e ig h t c a s e s , one day per week in one
c a s e , and from a ero t o f i v e days p er week i n an o th er case*
The re a so n fo r an assignm ent o f le a s th a n fiv e p e rio d s p er week
may be ex p lain ed by th e f a c t t h a t some of th e s u p e rv iso rs understood
th e q u e s tio n n a ire to mean t h a t out of a p o s s ib le fiv e
p erio d s th e y were
to in d ic a te t h e number o f p e rio d s p er week ta u g h t by t h i s group of
te a c h e rs*
stu d e n t
A nother e x p la n a tio n m ight be t h a t th e o o lle g e s tu d e n ts a re
a ssig n e d to m eet th e o la s s le s s th e n f iv e p e rio d s
per week or t h a t th e
high sohool m et fewer th a n fiv e tim es w eekly.
Weeks of S tudent Teaohing R equired fo r G raduation
Table LX1X in d ic a te s t h a t th e r e i s a o o n sid e ra b le range i n th e
number of w eeks o f s tu d e n t te a o h in g in b u sin e ss su b je o ts re q u ire d fo r
g ra d u a tio n in t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s re p o rte d in t h i s dooument*
number of w eeks re q u ire d f o r g ra d u a tio n i s e ig h te e n .
The m edian
This would seem to
in d io a te t h a t s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s , on th e a v erag e , have to ta k e th e e q u iv a le n t
o f one s e m e s te r's work i n s tu d e n t te a o h in g in b u sin e ss s u b je c ts b e fo re
th e y are allow ed to g ra d u a te .
This ag re es w ith th e fin d in g s o f The
N a tio n a l Survey o f th e E d u ca tio n of T eachers1.
The t a b l e a ls o shows
t h a t ap p ro x im ately o n e -fo u rth o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s re q u ire e n ro llm e n t in
s tu d e n t te a o h in g fo r two q u a rte rs or m ore.
Only a sm all number o f i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s , 8.3 p e r o e n t, r e q u ir e f o r g ra d u a tio n as much as f u l l y e a r 's work
In stu d e n t te a c h in g in b u sin e ss s u b je o ts .
As has b een s ta te d p re v io u s ly , th e above tim e req u irem en ts a re o f a
g e n e ra l a d m in is tra tiv e n a tu re and are not p o l ic i e s developed by D epartm ents
1. F o s te r , op . o l t . , p . 379.
196
TABLE LXIX
NUMBER OP WEEKS OF STUDENT TEACHING IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS REQUIRED FOR
GRADUATION, 19 3 6 * 1 9 3 9
Number of
Weeks
S ta te
Teaohers
C o lleg es
S ta te
C o lleg es
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
P riv a te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
T otal
Num­
ber
P er
Cent
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
Num­
b er
P er
Cent
3-8
4
6
7
8
0
0
0
0
1
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
2 .7
0
2
1
0
0
0 .0
8 .0
4 .0
0 .0
0 .0
1
0
0
1
1
9 .0
0 .0
0 .0
9 .0
9 .0
1
2
1
1
2
1 .3
2 .7
1 .3
1 .3
2 .7
9
10
12
16
16
0
1
6
0
1
0 ,0
2 .7
1 6 .6
0 .0
2 .7
2
0
3
1
1
8.0
0 .0
12.0
4 .0
4 .0
0
0
1
2
0
0 .0
0 .0
9 .0
18.1
0 .0
2
1
10
3
2
2 .7
1 .3
1 3 .8
4 .1
2 .7
18
20
24
30
36
9
1
10
1
6
2 8 .0
2 .7
2 7 .7
2 .7
1 6 .6
13
0
1
1
0
62.0
0 .0
4 .0
4 .0
0 .0
3
2
0
0
0
27.2:
18.1
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
26
3
11
2
6
3 4 .7
4 .1
15.2
2 .7
8 .3
Num—
bor
Median Number o f
Weeks
19
18
16
18
Number R ep o rtin g
36
25
11
72
P er
Cent
o f B u sin e ss E d u ca tio n ,
Clook Hours o f Student Teaohing i n B usiness S u b jeo ts
In a d d itio n t o th e number of weeks of s tu d e n t te a o h in g , th e number o f
19?
days p a r week, and th e number o f m inutes a day dev o ted t o a tu d e n t teaohing
by c o lle g e student a, another c r i t e r i o n by whioh th e amount o f student
te a c h in g may be measured i s t h e number o f olook hour a .
T able LXX shows
th e number of olook hours of atu d en t te a o h in g in b u s in e s s s u b je c ts r e ­
q u ired i n th e th re e c la ss e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s in c lu d e d in t h i a re p o rt.
The
d a ta in d io a te th a t 90 is th e median number o f hours o f a tu d e n t teaohing
re p o rte d f o r a ll ty p es of i n s t i t u t i o n s .
This a g re es w ith th e fin d in g s
o f th e Committee on P ra c tic e Teaohing of th e N a tio n a l A s so c ia tio n of
Commercial Teaoher-Training I n s t i t u t i o n s in a stu d y w hioh th e y made of
t h i r t y member schools of t h e i r own a s s o c ia tio n and w hioh th e y rep o rted i n
1937*^
The median fo r a ll o f the sch o o ls and f o r t h e s t a t e te a c h e rs c o lle g e s
i s th e same.
For th e s ta te te a c h e r s , c o lle g e s , t h i s i s p ro b ab ly explained
by th e f a c t th a t many of th e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s are members of th e American
A s s o c ia tio n of Teachers C o lle g e s, one of whose s ta n d a rd s f o r acoreditm ent
s t a t e s , "The minimum amount o f stu d e n t te a o h in g re q u ir e d of every graduate
o f a te a c h e r s o o lle g e or norm al sohool s h a l l be 90 h o u rs of supervised
te a c h in g . m 2
E ig h ty -fiv e per oent of th e s t a t e te a o h e r s c o lle g e s re q u ire
n in e ty o r more olook hours o f stu d en t te a o h in g i n b u s in e s s s u b je c ts .
I n th e p r iv a te o o lleg es and u n i v e r s i t i e s , th e re q u ire d number o f c lo ck
hours i n stu d e n t teaohing in b u sin e ss s u b je c ts i s 120,
Seventy-two and
f i v e - t e n t h s per c e n t of th e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e q u ir e 120 or more olook hours
o f s tu d e n t teaohing in b u sin e ss s u b je o ts .
This median p ro b ab ly does not
1 . The N ational A sso ciatio n o f Commercial T e a ch e r-T ra in in g I n s t i t u t i o n s ,
B u lle tin No. 11, 0£. o l t . , p. 10.
2 . American A ssociation o f Teaohers C o lle g e s , Minimum S tan d ard s for A c c re d it­
in g Teachers C olleges and Normal S ch o o ls, F e b ru a ry , 1939, Standard
Number VI.
198
TABLE LXX
REQUIRED NUMBER OF CLOCK HOURS OF STUDENT TEACHING IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS.
1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
Clook Hours
S ta te
Teaohers
C olleges
S ta te
C o lleg es
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
P riv a te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
T o ta l
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
6
20
21
25
30
0
0
1
0
0
0 .0
0 .0
5 .0
0 .0
0 .0
1
1
0
1
1
6 .6
6 .6
0 ,0
6.6
6 .6
0
0
0
0
0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
1
1
1
1
1
2 .3
2 .3
2. 3
2 .3
2 .3
45
60
60
70
76
1
0
1
0
0
6 .0
0 .0
5 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0
1
1
1
1
0 .0
6 .6
6 .6
6 .6
6.6
0
0
1
0
0
0 .0
0 .0
1 2 .6
0 .0
0 .0
1
1
2 .3
2 .3
1
1
2 .3
2 .3
80
90
108
120
126
0
8
0
3
1
0 .0
4 0 .0
0 .0
16.0
5 .0
1
3
1
1
0
6.6
20.0
6 .6
6 .6
0 .0
1
0
0
3
0
1 2 .6
0 .0
0 .0
3 7 .6
0 .0
11
1
7
1
4 .6
2 6 .6
2 .3
16.2
2 .3
150
175
180
606
2
1
2
0
10.0
5 .0
10.0
0 .0
1
0
0
0
6.6
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0
0
2
1
0 .0
0 .0
2 6 .0
1 2 .5
1
4
1
6 .9
2 .3
9 .3
2 .3
Number R e p o rtin g
20
16
6
43
Median Clook Hours
90
76
120
90
Per
Cent
r e s u l t from & sta n d a rd s e t by an a c c re d itin g agency bu t p ro b a b ly does
r e f l e o t th e id e a of th o se re s p o n s ib le f o r th e program o f s tu d e n t te a o h in g
t h a t more th a n n in e ty olook hours should be r e q u ire d .
The sm all number of
oases may have some b e a rin g on th e s i t u a t i o n i n t h i s type o f sohool and.
3 99
TABLE
LXXI
NUMBER OP SEMESTER HOURS OF CREDIT WHICH MAY BE EARNED BY SxUDEN'f TEACHERS
OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
Semester Hours
S ta te
Teachers
Colleges
S ta te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e rsitie s
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
0- 3
6
17.1
6
4- 6
12
34.2
7- 9
8
10-12
T otal
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
2 9 .6
6
4 5 .4
19
26.0
16
6 5 .6
4
36.3
31
42.4
22.8
1
3 .7
1
9 .0
10
13.6
1
2.8
1
3 .7
1
9 .0
3
4 .1
13-16
1
2.8
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
1 .3
16-18
2
6.7
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
2
2 .7
22-24
0
0 .0
1
3 .7
0
0 .0
1
1.3
31-33
1
2.8
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
1.3
34-37
1
2.8
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
1 .3
34-37
1
2 .8
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
1.3
3
8 .5
1
3 .7
0
0 .0
4
6 .4
Over 37
Median
Number Reporting
6
36
Per
Cent
P riv a te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
6.2
4 .7
27
11
6 .1
73
t h e r e f o r e , th e d a te may n o t r e f l e c t t r u e c o n d it i o n s i n o th e r i n s t i t u t i o n s of
e s i m i l a r n a tu r e .
I n th e s t a t e o o lle g e s end u n i v e r s i t i e s , t h e median number o f clo ck hours
200
o f s tu d e n t te a o h in g in b u s i n e s s su b je o ts i s 76.
Only 40.0 per oent of
t h e s t a t e o o l le g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s re q u ire 90 or more clook hours of
s tu d e n t t e a c h in g in b u s in e s s s u b j e o ts .
This would seem to i n d io a te
t h a t i t i s t h e p h ilo s o p h y o f th o s e resp o n sib le for th e stu d e n t teao h in g
program i n t h i s type o f i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t i t i s not necessary t o provide
as muoh s tu d e n t te a c h in g as i s found in the other ty p es of i n s t i t u t i o n s .
C r e d it f o r S tu d e n t Teaohing in Business Subjeots
Table IXXI shews th e number of semester hours of c r e d i t which may be
earn ed by s t u d e n t te a o h e r s of b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s .
The t a b l e i n d i c a t e s
t h a t th e l a r g e s t numbers o f hours in t h i s su b je c t may be earned i n the
s t a t e t e a c h e r s o o l l e g e s , fo llo w e d , in the o rd er named, by the s t a t e c o l­
le g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and p r i v a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
The m edians,
6 , 5 , 2 , and 4 .7 r e s p e o t i v e l y , a re s l i g h t l y h ig her th an th e amount of o r e d i t
recommended by Shover.
he s t a t e s t h a t , "The commercial t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
departm ent should r e q u i r e a course of t h r e e semester h ours' o r e d i t i n
o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e te a c h in g during th e second semester o f th e s e n io r
y e a r." ^
L ik e w ise , B laokstone recommends t h a t th e a tu d e n t te a c h e r of bus­
i n e s s s u b j e c t s should r e c e i v e t h r e e semester hours' o r e d i t f o r a f u l l t e r m 's
w o rk .2
A com parison o f t h e median d a ta in Table LXXI and UCX i n d i c a t e s t h a t
s t a t e t e a o h e r s o o lle g e s u s u a l l y g ran t one semester h o u r 's o r e d i t f o r approx­
im a te ly f i f t e e n clo c k h o u r s ' work i n t h i s s u b je c t.
The same sta te m e n t may
1 . W illiam Glen Shover, Suggested Programs fo r Commercial T each e r-T ra in in g
I n s t i t u t i o n s , The N a tio n a l A sso c ia tio n of Commercial T each er-T rain in g
I n s t i t u t i o n s , B u l l e t i n , No. 14, February, 1938, p. 18.
2 . The N a tio n a l A s s o c ia t io n o f Commercial Teaoher-Training I n s t i t u t i o n s ,
B u l l e t i n No. 11, o£ . o i t . . p . 18.
201
be made fo r t h e a t a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
However, th e p r i v a t e
o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s u s u a l ly g r a n t one sem ester h o u r 's c r e d i t f o r
approxim ately tw e n ty -fo u r d o c k h o u rs' of work in t h i s s u b j e c t .
The
f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n th e amount of o r e d i t fo r v a rio u s
amounts of work in olook hours s i g n i f i e s t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e under­
stan d in g o f t h e meaning o f th e term "sem ester hour" i n term s of t h e
number of c lo o k hours o f work re q u ir e d t o e a r n i t .
This sta te m e n t i s
in agreement w ith t h e one made by K le in t h a t !
W ith such v a r i a t i o n s th e se m ester-hou r u n it o f o r e d it i s
an extrem ely orude measure of s tu d e n t achievement i n t h i s c o u rs e
( p r a o tio e t e a c h in g ) and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see how one i n s t i ­
t u t i o n oan a c c e p t sta te m e n ts from o th er i n s t i t u t i o n s w ith any
o e r t a i n t y as t o what such o r e d i t r e a l l y s i g n i f i e s . *
however, t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s one over whioh departm ents o f comneroe have
no o o n t r o l.
I n s p i t e of th e f a c t t h a t i t i s an a d m in is tr a tiv e problem
beyond th e soope o f suoh d epartm ents, i t s u r e l y i s of i n t e r e s t t o th o se
concerned w ith th e conduct o f th e stu d e n t te a c h in g program in b u s in e s s
e d u c a tio n .
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a ta found in Table LXXI i n d i c a t e s t h a t seven
s c h o o ls , or 9 .3 per o e n t, r e p o r t t h a t stu d e n t te a o h e rs o f b u s in e s s sub­
j e o t s may e a r n more th an 18 semester h o u rs' o f o r e d i t f o r t h i s c o u rs e .
What
would o r d i n a r i l y seem t o be an e x o e ss iv e amount o f c r e d i t may be t h e r e s u l t
of t h e p o lic y of some i n s t i t u t i o n s r e q u i r i n g an i n t e r n s h i p p e rio d o f
stu d e n t te a c h in g d u rin g whioh time th e s tu d e n ts spend a h a l f day or more
i n th e t r a i n i n g schools t o whioh t h e y are a ssig n e d .
The q u e st!o n n ei re from
whioh t h e d a t a were ta k e n d id not show th e e x te n t t o which t h i s m ight be
tru e.
Another e x p la n a tio n o f t h i s f a c t may l i e i n a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of
1. Arthur J . K le in , Survey o f Land Grant C olleges and Univer s i t i s s ,
Washington, D. C .i Government P r i n t i n g O f fic e , United S t a t e s
O ffioe o f E d u ca tio n , B u l l e t i n No. 9, 1930, p. 189.
202
j u s t what waB d e s i r e d as an answer t o t h i s q u e s tio n .
P r o p o r t i o n o f Teaohing Done by Student
Teaohers
of B usiness S ubjeots
I t has been suggested from time t o time t h a t t h e amount o f te a c h in g
whioh th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r does should be l i m i t e d , t h e r e b y p r o t e c t i n g th e
i n t e r e s t s o f th e p u p ils and a ls o th o se o f the s t u d e n t t e a o h e r .
Learned,
B agley, e t a l . recommend t h a t n o t more th a n o n e - h a l f o f th e teao h in g be
done by t h e stu d e n t t e a c h e r s . 1
B a rrin g e r recommends t h a t s tu d e n t te a o h ­
e r s i n a g r i c u l t u r e should no t be given more th a n t w o - t h i r d s o f the te a c h in g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
2
The American A s s o c ia tio n o f T eaohers C olleges r e q u i r e s
t h a t members of t h a t o r g a n iz a tio n i n s i s t t h a t at l e a s t t w o - f i f t h s o f the
te a c h in g i n t r a i n i n g scho ols be re q u ire d of s u p e r v i s o r s .
3
Table LXXII shows th e p r o p o r t io n o f tea o h in g done by stu d e n t te a c h e r s
o f b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s i n the t h r e e ty pes of i n s t i t u t i o n s inclu ded i n t h i s
dooument.
In s p i t e of the recommendations mentioned above, alm ost one-
f o u r t h o f a l l t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s involved r e p o r t t h a t f o u r - f i f t h s or more
o f t h e te a c h in g i n t r a i n i n g schoo ls i s done by th e s tu d e n t t e a c h e r .
This
p r a c t i c e i s r e p o r te d In 28.9 per c en t o f th e 3 t a t e te a o h e r s c o ll e g e s and in
23 .4 per c e n t o f th e s t a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
h a v in g
The p r a c t i c e o f
t h e s tu d e n t te a c h e r do 80*0 per oent or more o f th e te a c h in g in
t r a i n i n g sohool c l a s s e s in b u sin e ss s u b je o ts i s not p e rm itte d i n s i x
p r i v a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t i n g on t h i s p o i n t .
The f a c t t h a t
t h i s p r a o tio e i s allowed i n some of th e i n s t i t u t i o n s may be e x p la in e d by
t h e f a c t t h a t la r g e numbers o f stu d e n t t e a c h e r s , sm all numbers o f s u p e rv is o rs
1. L earned, Bagley, e t a l . , op. o i t . , p . 194.
2 . B. E. B a rrin g e r, Student reaching i n A g r i c u l t u r e , pp. 118-120, as quoted
by Mead, op. cl'tT. , p .~ 824.'
3 . American A s s o c ia tio n of Teaohers C o lle g e s , op. c i t . , Standard VI.
1
203
table l x x ii
PROPORTION OF TEACHING DONE BY STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS,
1 9 3 B -1 9 3 9 •
S ta te
Teaohers
C o lle g es
P ro p o r tio n
Num­
ber
S ta te
C o lle g e s
and Uni­
v e rsitie s
P riv a te
Colleges
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
Total
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
1/5
1
3 .2
7
41.1
3
50.0
11
20,3
2/5
3
9 .6
3
17.6
1
16.6
7
12.9
1/2
B
2 6 .8
0
0 .0
1
16.6
9
16.6
3/5
10
3 2 .2
3
17.6
1
16.6
14
26.9
4/5
6
1 9 .3
1
6 .8
0
0.0
7
12.9
A ll
3
9 .6
3
17.6
0
0.0
6
11.1
Number R e p o rtin g
31
17
6
54
* This t a b l e should be re a d as fo llo w s* I n one s t a t e te a c h e rs c o lle g e , o r 3.2
p e r c e n t, o n e - f i f t h o f th e te a c h i n g i s done by stu d e n t teachers* i n seven
s t a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , or 41.1 p e r c e n t , o n e - f i f t h o f th e te a c h ­
ing i s done by s tu d e n t te a o h e rs * i n t h r e e p r i v a t e oolleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s
r e p o r t i n g on t h i s p o i n t , or 6 0 .0 p er o e n t , o n e - f i f t h of the teach in g i s
done by s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s . These f i g u r e s a re based on rep o rts from 31 teaoh­
e r s o o l l e g e s , 17 s t a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and 6 p r iv a te c o lleg e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
and l im ite d budgets p l a y a p a r t i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f time which the student
te a c h e r s d e v o te t o th e te a o h in g o f th e v a r i o u s c l a s s e s .
The re s p o n d e n ts were asked t o i n d i a a t e why c e r t a i n proportions of
te a c h in g were done by stu d e n t t e a o h e r s .
w ords, f o llo w .
T h e ir r e p l i e s , given in t h e i r own
The f r a o t i o n s i n p a r e n t h e s i s r e p r e s e n t the p ro p o rtio n of
te a o h in g done by s tu d e n t t e a o h e r s i n th e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r whioh th e responses
204
a re given.
S t a t e Teachers C olleg es
We follow the sta n d ard s o f t h e .American A s s o c ia tio n of Teaohers C o lle g e s .
C r i t i o s do some o f th e t e a c h i n g .
(4 /6 )
To provide as muoh e x p e r ie n c e as i s c o n s i s t e n t w ith sound e d u c a tio n a l
p rin c ip le s.
( l / Z )
V a r ie s —about l / 2 . ( 1 / 2 )
S u p erv isin g t e a c h e r t e a c h e s 3 /5 . (3 /5 )
T he a t u d e n t t e a o h e r n e e d s a s m uoh t i m e a s p o s s i b l e .
(l/2 )
Required by North C e n tra l A s s o c ia t io n of C o lle g e s .
(3 /5 )
Our plan.
(3 /5 )
N ot more t h a n t h r e e - f i f t h s .
(3 /5 )
(3 /5 )
P r a c t i c a l l y a l l i s done by t h e s t u d e n t b u t some c l a s s e s a re t a u g h t e n t i r e l y
by th e s u p e r v i s o r . ( 3 /o )
S t a te re q u ire m e n t. ( 2 / 5 )
Most o f t h e te a c h in g i s done by t h e s tu d e n t.
(4 /5 )
Requirement o f th e American A s s o c ia tio n of T eachers C olleg es makes t h a t &
lo g lo a l re q u ire m e n t.
(3 /5 )
S t a t e C o lle g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s
To g i v e t h e r e g u l a r
tea ch er
a la r g e r
sh are
in
te a o h in g
h ig h
(2 /5 )
P ra c tic a lly a l l .
(all)
W ill average 46 s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s t o & s t a f f o f 350 t e a c h e r s .
soh ool p u p ils.
(l/5 )
T h is am ount i s t h o u g h t t o b e b e s t t o g i v e
stu d e n t s u f f i c i e n t tim e
t o g e t t o know t h e c l a s s , e t c .
(3/5)
Teaoher6 are a ll f u ll- t im e .
T h ere is no g u a r a n te e t h a t t h e y w i l l
stu d en t te a o h e r s .
(l/5 )
Found to b e s t s u i t n e e d s .
(l/5 )
T r a in in g s u p e r v i s o r s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e fo r t h e t e a c h i n g and
tea c h e r s tea ch as d ir e c te d by th e tr a in in g su p e r v iso r .
The a c t u a l p r o p o r t io n i s p r o b a b ly n e a r o n e - f i f t h .
( 1 /5 )
V a rie s w ith t h e c r i t i c t e a c h e r .
The
su p e r v iso r
has no tim e
be
fo r
stu d en t
(?)
(2 /6 )
te a c h in g ,
(a ll)
A fter s t a r t i n g t h e s tu d e n t t e a c h e r goes on w ith th e d e s s l i k e a re g u la r
t e a c h e r . (1 /5 )
S tu den t te a o h e r o b se rv es o th e r c l a s s e s one d ay a week on c l a s s tim e.
I n t e r e s t o f p u p i ls i s p r im a ry ; t h e r e f o r e ,
s k i l l e d t e a c h i n g o f su p e r­
v i s o r d e s i r a b l e i n most i n s t a n c e s .
(l/5 )
P r i v a t e C o lle g e s and U n i v e r s i ti e s
In clu d e s classro o m te a o h in g and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s .
(l/5 )
Because i t i s an average f o r a i l s t u d e n ts .
(l/2 )
Very l i t t l e . uur t h i r t y s t u d e n t s a year t e a c h in th e c i t y s c h o o ls .
They t e a c h
o n e -p e r io d
each
day.
(l/5 )
(l/o )
Ruling s t a t e s t h a t 3 /6 i s t o be done by r e g u l a r t e a c h e r .
(2/fc)
Stud ent te a c h e r s average about t h r e e days o u t of f i v e i n a c t u a l t e a c h i n g . (3y£ )
205
A stu d y o f th e re a so n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e agreement a s
to why s tu d e n t te a c h e r s are allowed t o te a c h c e r t a i n p r o p o r tio n s o f t im e .
Where t h e r e 1 b any agreem ent, i t seems t o ta k e t h e form of s ta n d a r d s o f ac­
c r e d i t i n g a g e n c ie s , th e p r o t e c ti o n o f th e i n t e r e s t of th e p u p i l s , and
l i m i t a t i o n s imposed on the c o lle g e s by pub lio sohool systems i n whioh
o o lle g e s t u d e n ts complete t h e i r s tu d e n t tea o h in g work.
Number of S tudent 1'eaohers Per T rain in g S upervisor
The American A s s o c ia tio n o f Teachers C olleges r e q u ire i t s member
schools t o l i m i t th e number of s tu d e n t te a c h e r s per t r a i n i n g te a c h e r p e r
year t o e ig h t e e n .
I f t h i s number i s d ivided i n to q u a r t e r s , t h e s u p e r­
v is o r may su p e rv is e s i x studen t t e a c h e r s during one q u a rte r* i f t h e number
i s d iv id e d i n t o s e m e s te rs , th e s u p e rv iso r may su pervise n in e s tu d e n t
te a o h e rs a t one tim e .
How w ell t h i s requirem ent i s met i n term s of
stu d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u sin e ss s u b je o ts i s shown i n Table UCXIII.
The
d a te p r e s e n te d i n th e t a b l e show t h a t th e i n s t i t u t i o n s in c lu d e d i n t h i s
document, i n term s o f th e median, a s s i g n th r e e stu dent t e a c h e r s t o a
su p e rv is o r a t one tim e .
This median i s s l i g h t l y lower t h a n t h a t whioh
Flowers found in h is stu d y of 46 s t a t e te a o h e rs o o lle g e s .
He r e p o r t s
fo u r a s t h e median number of s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s assigned t o s u p e r v i s o r s
a t a g iv e n tim e .
2
His d a ta are not re p o rte d f o r d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t
groups.
The t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t , i n term s of th e median, o n ly one s tu d e n t
te a o h e r i s a ssigned a t one time to su p e rv is o rs i n p r iv a te o o lle g e s and
1. American A s s o c ia tio n of Teaohers C o lle g es, op. o i t . , S tand ard VI.
2 . John 0 . F lo w ers, Content of Student-Teaohing Courses Designed f o r th e
T ra in in g o f Seoondary Teaohers i n S ta te Teachers C o lle g e s . New York*
Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , Teachers C o lle g e, Columbia U n i v e r s i ty .
C o n tr ib u tio n s t o E d u ca tio n . No. 658. p . 12.
n
206
TABLE UCXIII
NUMBER OF STUDENT TEACHERS ASSIGNED TO ONE SUKRVISOR, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
S ta te
Teachers
C olleges
S ta te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e rs itie s
P r i v a te
C olleg es
and Uni­
v e rsitie s
Total
Average
kledian
R»nge
Number r e p o r t i n g
3
1-20
29
3
1-22
22
1
1-6
7
3
1-20
68
6
1-17
23
4
1-16
23
3
1-17
8
1-17
64
Maximum
Median
Range
Number r e p o r t i n g
u n iv e rsitie s*
This i s probably oaused by th e f a c t t h a t i n moat of the i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s inoludad i n t h i s r e p o r t , the s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s are assigned to re g u la r
te a o h e r s i n p u b lio high sohools in la r g e c i t i e s th e r e b y *spreading-o ut" the
number assigned t o a p a r t i c u l a r s u p e rv is o r a t one tim e .
In term s of th e
sta n d ard s
o f th e American A s s o c ia tio n o f Teaohers
C o lle g e s , some of th e i n s t i t u t i o n s in clu d ed i n t h i s s tu d y a re assigning
to o many s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s per su p e rv is o r during a q u a r t e r or a semester*
The range o f th e num ber-assignm ents shown i n Table LXXIII i n d ic a t e t h i s
t o be so*
A n a ly s is o f t h e d a ta from whioh th e t a b l e was prepared shows th a t
a t feast seven i n s t i t u t i o n s are a ssig n in g more th a n n in e stu d e n t tea o h ers
t o one s u p e rv iso r a t one time*
The medians a re s i g n i f i c a n t b u t th e extreme
oases play an im p o rta n t p a r t i n th e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s ' functions*
The resp o n d en ts were asked t o i n d io a te th e re a so n fo r holding to
th e number o f assignm ents g iv en .
f o llo w .
Their r e p l i e s , g iv e n i n t h e i r own words,
The numbers i n p a re n th e s is fo llo w in g th e s ta te m e n ts r e p re s e n t the
207
average number of studen t te a c h e r s assigned t o one su p e rv iso r a t one time
in t h a t p a r tic u la r i n s t i t u t i o n .
S t a te Teachers C olleges
We t r y -g o give only one stu d e n t t o eaon te a c h e r whenever p o s s i b l e . ( 2 )
Depends upon in s t r u c t i o n a l lo a d ; most of our oonmeroe s u p e rv is o rs a ls o
have some oollege i n s t r u c t i o n a ssig n m en ts. (10)
Rules of American A sso ciation o f T eachers C olleges p e rm it only 18
studen t teachers under one s u p e r v is o r d u rin g a sohool year. (9)
Sohool polioy. (9)
S ta te re g u la tio n . (6)
S ta te requirement t h a t stu dent must t e a c h o e r t a i n number of hours and
observe c e rta in numberfor oe r t i f i o a t i o n . (4—maximum)
Anything e ls e im p racticab le. (1)
These numbers take care of our commercial s tu d e n t t e a o h e r s .
(3)
Our f i e l d i s orowded, hence i t i s n e a e s s a r y . (3)
We have only one su p e rv iso r, (b)
Depends on the number r e g i s t e r e d f o r t h e te a o h in g in t h e f i e l d } a ls o
upon number of vaoanoies to be s u p p lie d in t h e t r a i n i n g so h o o l. (2)
Mo d e f i n i t e lim it fo r assignment o f a tu d e n t t e a o h e r s . (2)
1 d o n 't th in k they are fo rm u lated . I t i s u s u a l t o su p e rv ise more
th an one teaoher an hour. (2)
Only one sup ervisor. (15—maximum)
We are compelled to beoause o f lao k o f fun ds. (11)
We have no speoial t r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r s . Eaon o f the te a c h e r s in th e
Department of Commerce s u p e rv ise s 1 or 2 p r a c t i c e te a o h e rs a q u a r t e r . (2)
Limit of our plant and equipment. (t>)
Coopertttre teachers do not te a c h enough d i f f e r e n t s u b je o ts t o allow more
more student te a c h e rs. (2)
Development of r e la tio n s h ip w ith t h e p u b lio s c h o o ls , budget; l i m i t a t i o n ,
a v a ila b le stu d e n ts. (9)
Looal s i t u a t i o n . (3)
S itu a tio n and time of a v a ila b le s t a f f members.
(8—maximum)
Subjeots lim ite d , hence a orowded c o n d itio n u s u a l l y . (3)
T h e s e num bers depend on t h e
dem and
and
t h e num ber
o f c la sse s
a v a ila b le .
Two on a c la s s i s i d e a l, (lo )
A supervisor oan not give s u f f i c i e n t h e lp and a t t e n t i o n t o eaoh stu d e n t
teacher i f th e re are more th a n f o u r . Also t h e y oannot g e t s u f f i c i e n t
prao tio e in a c tu a lly teao h in g i f t h i s number i s exceeded. (3)
In one c la s s , t h i s i s s u f f i c i e n t . (3)
S ta te C o lle g es and U n i v e r s i t i e s
This i s the average number—-but t h e r e i s no d e f i n i t e number a ss ig n e d . (8)
To keep o r l t i o teaoher load a re a s o n a b le one; t o p re se rv e a re a so n a b le
r a t i o between high sohool p u p ils and a tu d e n t t e a o h e r s . (4)
Department is new, t h e r e f o re we had o n ly 6 p r a o t i o e te a o h e rs d uring t h i s
y e a r. (1)
208
C r i t i c # who a ls o t e a c h i n p u b lio sohools cannot e f f i c i e n t l y handle more—
We c o n sid e r th e s t u d e n t te a o h e r as an a p p re n tic e* (1—-maximum1)
To e q u a liz e th e number o f s tu d e n t te a c h e r s i n each c la s s p e r i o d . (3)
We l i m i t s in c e en ro llm e n t i s v e ry low. (6)
This ta k e s care of t h e stu d e n t te a o h e rs a t p r e s e n t , May in c re a s e i f
n e c e s s i t a t e d . (4—maximum)
The p o lic y i s not t o o v e r- lo a d any one te a o h e r w ith too many student
tea ch e rs.
(2)
R e su lt of e x p e rie n c e .
(10)
The t r a i n i n g s u p e rv is o rs a re r e g u la r te a c h e r s a t th e off-campus sohool—
so as not t o overwork them. (3)
M erely a p r a c t i c e . (1)
The number must be l i m i t e d i f th e stu d e n t i s t o have time r e q u ire d i n
clook h o u rs, (4—maximum)
There are 6 p e rio d s i n th e school day w ith one p e rio d where 2 c la s s e s
sire t a u g h t . D e s ira b le t h a t s u p e rv is o r te a c h a t l e a s t one c l a s s . (6)
E xcessive demand f o r i t .
(22)
Only one p erson to a te a o h e r i s assigned now. We have only 6—6 a y e a r .
( 1)
A vailab le p lao e s ample. ( l )
L argely a m a tte r o f a p p l i c a n t s r a t h e r th a n s e l e o t i o n . (6)
One s u p e rv iso r in b u s i n e s s e d u c a tio n i s r e s p o n s ib le fo r a l l th e s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s i n t h i s f i e l d .
(3)
We accommodate a l l who a p p ly , d i s t r i b u t i n g them throug h t h e t h r e e
q u a r t e r s . (4)
A good job oannot be done w ith more th a n s ix or seven. (4)
P r i v a t e C olleg es and U n i v e r s i t i e s
Planned by p u b lio h ig h sohool i n whioh stu d e n t teao h in g i s done to
spread out studen t te a c h in g lo a d . (1)
Because we a re eager f o r s tu d e n t te a c h e r s t o have b e s t p o s s ib l e help
from high sohool o r i t i o t e a o h e r s . (2)
Six courses i s a f u l l tim e lo a d . Seven and a h a l f s tu d e n ts i f the
e q u iv a le n t of one o o u rs e . ^enoe, 45 (7j| x 6) e q u a ls a f u l l load.
R arely a s s ig n more t h a n 15 (two o o u rse s) t o any one i n s t r u c t o r .
More th a n t h a t c an not be done w e l l . (Number n o t given)
We a s s ig n a p pro xim ately 3 s tu d e n ts f o r every 2 hours of i n s t r u c t i o n a l
schedule. An i n s t r u c t o r may have 12 hours o f teach in g and 9 stu d e n ts
t o su p e rv ise or s i x hours o f te a c h in g and 15 stu d e n t t e a o h e r s ,
(Number n ot g i v e n .)
I t i s an a d m i n i s t r a t iv e m a t t e r . (15)
One s tu d e n t teaoher t o one r e g u l a r o r i t i o t e a c h e r . (4)
L im ita tio n of f a c i l i t i e s .
(1)
During r e g u l a r year one c a d e t f o r each c r i t i c t e a c h e r —r u l i n g of c i t y
s u p e rin te n d e n t of s c h o o ls . (1)
Ruling o f t h e p u b lic s c h o o ls . (2)
As in th e o th er " re a s o n " l i s t s found in preo ed in g s e c t i o n s of t h i s
document, t h i s l i s t shows t h a t th e r e i s no concensus of o p in io n as t o
why o e r t a i n numbers o f s tu d e n t te a o h e r s of b u s in e s s su b je o ts are assig ned
209
t o one s u p e rv is o r a t one tim e .
A stud y o f th e l i s t does show,
however, t h a t t h e resp o n d en ts are c o g n is a n t o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s which
tend t o p r e s c r i b e th e number o f s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s assigned t o one su p e r­
v is o r a t one tim e .
These may be summarized as follow s*
( l ) re g u la tio n s
of a c c r e d i t i n g a g e n c ie s , (2) r e g u l a t i o n s o f p u b lio sohool systems i n
whioh s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s are a ssig n e d , (3) p r o t e c t i o n of t h e i n t e r e s t s
o f t h e high sohool p u p i l s , (4) p r o t e c t i o n o f th e i n t e r e s t s of th e stu d e n t
t e a c h e r s , (5) r e g u l a t i o n o f the s u p e r v i s o r ’ s load t o p rev e n t over-work
on h is p a r t , and (6) l i m i t a t i o n s of p l a n t , equipment, and th e demand f o r
stu d e n t te a c h in g i n t h i s f i e l d .
D i f f e r e n t S u b j e o t s Taught b y S tu d e n t T e a c h e r s o f B u s in e s s S u b j e c t s
The g r e a t e r th e number o f te a c h in g s i t u a t i o n s w ith which th e stu d e n t
te a o h e r o f b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s i s allow ed to d e al w ith s u c c e s s f u l l y , th e
g r e a t e r w i l l he h i s chanoe of g iv in g s a t i s f a c t o r y s e rv ic e i n th e p u b lio
schools i n whioh he w i l l be employed i n th e fu tu re *
A number o f w r i t e r s
have in d ic a t e d t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t s tu d e n t te a o h e r s should be re q u ire d to
te a c h more th a n one s u b je c t while e n r o lle d in th e stu d e n t tea o h in g c o u rs e ,
henderson found t h a t the s tu d e n t te a c h e r in s t a t e te a o h e rs c o lle g e s was
l i k e l y t o t e a c h a t l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s . 1
advocates a continu an ce of such a p r a o t i o e .
At th e same time ho
S chorling oontends t h a t th e
stu d e n t te a o h e r should have d u tie s whioh w i l l be e x te n siv e enough to give
him sn o p p o r tu n ity t o stu d y and und erstan d most o f the im p o rtan t t a s k s i n volved i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l f u n c tio n s of a t e a o h e r .
s e n t a t i v e s o f member
T h irty -e ig h t re p re ­
sohools of t h e N atio nal A s so c ia tio n o f Uommeroial
1 . H e n d e r so n , o p . o l t . , p . 2 8 .
2 . S o h o r lin g , o £ . o l t . , p . 138.
210
Teaoher T r a in in g I n s t i t u t i o n s were asked t o i n d i c a t e w hether th e y th o u g h t
t h a t s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s sh o u ld t e a c h more th a n one s u b j e c t .
F i f t y p er o en t
b e lie v e d t h a t t h e y s h o u ld .1 Dodd contends t h a t , "Lack o f s i m i l a r i t y o f
s u b je c t m a tte r and o b je c tiv e s in business make i t d e s i r a b l e f o r th e
s tu d e n t to have p r a c t i c e teaohing experience i n more them one b u s in e s s
-2
s u b je c t f i e l d . "
The average number o f d i f f e r e n t su b je o ts whioh s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s o f
b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s te a c h i s se t f o r t h in Table LXXIV.
The d a t a show
t h a t t h e s t u d e n t te a o h e r i s apt t o teaoh two or more s u b j e o t s i n 61.1
per oent o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s repo rted in t h i s document.
In th e s ta te
te a o h e rs o o l l e g e s , 70.9 p e r cent o f the s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s te a o h two o r more
s u b je o ts .
I n t h e s t a t e oolleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s , 6 0 .6 p er o e n t of t h e
stu d e n t t e a o h e r s te a o h two or more s u b je o ts .
and u n i v e r s i t i e s t h i s p e r cent i s 35.6.
I n t h e p r i v a t e o o lle g e s
The f a o t t h a t t h e s tu d e n t
te a c h e rs i n t h e p r i v a t e oolleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e a s s ig n e d s tu d e n t
tea ch in g d u t i e s i n fewer subjeots than is t r u e fo r t h e t e a o h e r s i n t h e
o th er two t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s i s probably e x p la in e d by t h e f a o t t h a t
i n t h i s type o f i n s t i t u t i o n , te a c h e rs are more l i k e l y t o be t r a i n e d f o r
p o s itio n s in l a r g e c i t y sohool systems where more s u b j e o t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n
and d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n i s required than i s t r u e i n t h e s e r v io e a r e a s o f
th e o th e r two ty p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
This agrees w i t h H e n d e rs o n 's s t a t e ­
ment t h a t t
1. The N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n of Commercial T e a c h e r-T ra in in g I n s t i t u t i o n s ,
B u l l e t i n No. 11, op, o l t . , p . 9.
2. J , H. Dodd, What i s t h e Most S ffe o tiv e F la n of S u p e r v i s i o n o f S tu d e n t
Teaoheraf The N a tio n a l A sso ciation of Commercial T e a o h e r-T ra in in g
I n s t i t u t i o n s , B u l l e t i n Ho. 17, 1939, p . 24.
For a te a o h e r who would be e x p ec te d to ta a o h not more
th a n two s u b j e o ts , suoh an amount (two s u b j e o ts ) and v a r i e t y
of teao hin g m ight re a so n a b ly w a ll p r e p a r a him f o r h is d u t ie s
i n th e classroom . But f o r a s tu d e n t who might f i n d him self
In a high sohool where he would have t o te a o h t h r e e or more
s u b je o ts i n a l l fo u r g r a d e s , such t r a i n i n g seems t o be
in adequ ate#!
TABLE LXXIV
AVERAGE HUMBER OF DIFFERENT SUBJECTS TAUGHT BY STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS
SUBJECTS, 1936-1939
S t a te
Teachers
C olleges
Number of
Bubjeots
S ta te
C o lle g es
and U niv e ra itie s
P r i v a te
C olleges
and Uni­
v e rsitie s
Num­
b er
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
64.2
31
38.7
2
14.2
33
41.2
10.7
3
21.4
11
13.7
10 .7
0
0 .0
6
6.2
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
I
11
26.9
11
39.2
9
2
20
82.6
11
29.2
3
5
13,1
3
4
2
8.2
3
Number Reporting
38
28
Per
Cent
Per
Cent
T o ta l
80
14
A c t i v i t i e s Provided f o r Stu dent Teaohing i n B usiness S ub jeots
L im ita tio n s o f tim e , equipment, f a o i l i t i e s , and o rg a n iz a tio n c o n d i­
tio n
t h e number of a c t i v i t i e s in whioh s t u u e n t t e a o h e r s o f b u sin e ss s u b je o ts
may p a r t i c i p a t e .
The e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h whioh th e p urposes of suoh a pro­
gram may be c a r r i e d out depends upon t h e
s e l e c t i o n o f an adequate number of
a c t i v i t i e s in whioh stu d e n t te a c h e rs may p a r t i o l p a t e .
1# H en d erso n , o p # o l t . , p . 2 8 .
Table LXXVshows th e
212
e x te n t t o whioh v a rio u s ty p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s provide c e r t a i n
weekly a c t i v i t i e s i n which s t u d e n t te a o h e r s o f b u sin e ss s u b je o ts may
p a rtic ip a te *
The l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s i s f a r from being th o s e which
might be included i n such a program*
The a c t i v i t i e s whioh were included
i n t h e q u e s tio n n a ir e were adapted from th o s e sen t t o i n s t i t u t i o n s cooper­
a tin g i n The M ational Survey o f th e E d u ca tio n o f Teaohers**
Because t h i s
problem i s suoh an im portant one i n th e c a r r y in g out o f an e f f e c t i v e program
i n s tu d e n t tea o h in g i n b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s , i t i s hoped t h a t a f u t u r e i n v e s t i ­
g a to r w i l l find i t f e a s i b l e t o go i n t o th e problem more f u l l y t h a n i s
p o s s ib l e here*
Weekly A c t i v i t i e s o f S tu d e n t Teaohers o f Business S ub jeo ts
Table LXXV shows t h a t of t h e tw en ty a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d , t e n a re p e r­
formed a t l e a s t w eekly by s t u d e n t te a o h e r s i n f i f t y per o e n t or more of
th e i n s t i t u t i o n s ,
f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of th e t a b l e shows t h a t ele v en a c t i ­
v i t i e s a re provided a t l e a s t w eekly i n f i f t y per oent or more o f th e s t a t e
te a o h e r s o o lle g e s , t e n a c t i v i t i e s a re p rov id ed a t l e a s t weekly in f i f t y
per c e n t or more o f t h e s t a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and s i x a c t i v i t i e s
are provided a t l e a s t weekly i n f i f t y per o e n t or more o f t h e p r i v a t e o ol­
leg es and u n i v e r s i t i e s *
I n t h e case of f i f t e e n a c t i v i t i e s , t h e p e r oent of i n s t i t u t i o n s
p ro v id in g o p p o r t u n it i e s f o r them i s lower i n t h e p r i v a t e c o lle g e s and
u n i v e r s i t i e s th a n i t i s in t h e o th e r two ty p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
This
would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , th e s t a t e t e a c h e r s o o lle g e s and
th e s t a t e o o lle g es and u n i v e r s i t i e s make more n e a r ly adequate p ro v isio n s
£
t
f o r t h e s e a o t i v i t i e s than do th e p r i v a t e o o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s *
i
I
I
1* F o s t e r , op, o i t . , p . 396*
This
213
TABLE LXXV
NUMBER AND PER CENT OP INSTITUTIONS WHICH PROVIDE EXPERIENCE IN CERTAIN
TEACHING ACTIVITIES EACH WEEK,
1938-1939
S ta te
T ea o h ers
C o lle g e s
A c t i v i t y w h io h
i e Perform ed e t
l e a s t W eek ly
A d ju st p u p ils t o
r o u tin e o f
ol& ssroom
A d ju st p h y s io a l
fe a t u r e s t o p u p ils
Keep r e o o r d s and
make r e p o r t s
Care fo r m a t e r i a ls
and m aohines
O rganize p u p il
m o n ito r ia l sy ste m s
P rep are l e s s o n p la n s
S e l e o t and o r g a n iz e
s u b je o t m a tte r fo r
in s t r u o t io n a l pur­
p o ses
Teaoh s e v e r a l o o n s e o u t iv e d a y s
D ir e o t th e s tu d y
o f p u p ils
D is c o v e r m eans t o
promote m o ra le
P r e p a r e , g i v e , and
in t e r p r e t t e s t s
H andle r e m e d ia l
d is c ip lin e
A d ju st i n s t r u c t i o n
t o in d iv id u a l
d iffe r e n c e s
Teaoh th e u se o f th e
so h o o l l i b r a r y
O rganize and d i r e o t
e x c u r s io n s
S ta te
C o lle g e s
and U ni­
v e r s itie s
P r iv a t e
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r s itie s
T o ta l
Num­
ber
P er
C en t
5 4 .5
39
6 2 .7
7
6 3 .6
40
6 4 .0
9 2 .3
3
2 7 .2
59
7 9 .7
21
8 0 .7
5
4 5 .4
67
7 7 .0
5 .4
4
1 5 .3
0
0 .0
6
8 .1
31
8 3 .7
23
8 6 .4
11
1 0 0 .0
66
8 7 .8
31
8 3 .7
19
7 3 .0
10
9 0 .9
60
8 1 .0
31
8 3 .7
23
8 8 .4
7
6 3 .6
61
8 2 .4
30
8 1 .0
20
7 6 .9
6
5 4 .5
66
7 5 .6
20
5 4 .0
13
5 0 .0
2
1 8 .1
35
4 7 .2
20
5 4 .0
15
5 7 .6
3
2 7 .2
38
5 1 .3
12
3 2 ,4
10
3 8 .4
2
1 8 .1
24
3 2 .4
27
7 2 .9
16
6 1 .5
5
4 5 .5
48
6 4 .8
3
8 .1
1
3 .8
0
0 .0
4
5 .4
3
8 .1
2
7 .6
0
0 .0
5
6 .7
Num­
b er
P er
Cent
Num­
ber
P er
C ent
Num­
ber
20
5 4 .0
13
5 0 .0
6
21
5 6 .7
12
4 6 .1
32
8 6 .4
24
31
8 3 .7
2
(C o n tin u e d on n e x t p a g e)
Per
Cent
214
TABLE LXXV ( c o n t i r t u o d )
N1MBER AND PER CENT OF INSTITUTIONS WHICH PROVIDE EXPERIENCE IN CERTAIN
TEACHING ACTIVITIES EACH WEEK,
1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
S ta te
T eachers
Col l e g e s
A c t i v i t y Wh-i oh
i s P erform ed
a t L e a s t W eek ly
P r iv a te
C o lle g e s
and U ni­
v e r s itie s
T o ta l
Num­
b er
Per
C ent
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
6
1 6 .2
1
3 .8
0
0 .0
7
9 .4
2
8 .4
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
2
2 .7
8
2 1 .6
A
3 .8
0
0 .0
9
1 2 .1
2
5 .4
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
2
2 .7
D ir e o t p u p i l s ’
e x tr a -o la s s
a c tiv itie s
P re p a r e s p e o i a l
h o lid a y program s
G ive v o c a t i o n a l and
e d u c a t io n a l
g u id a n c e
E s ta b lis h r e la t io n ­
s h ip s w i t h th e
com m unity
Number R e p o r tin g
S ta te
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r s itie s
37
26
11
P er
C ent
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
74
may be c o n d it io n e d t o some e x t e n t b y t h e f a c t t h a t t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s
o f t h i s t y p e in c lu d e d i n t h i s s t u d y a re u s u a l l y lo c a t e d i n m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s
w here t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s
a re more l i k e l y t o b e under t h e c o n t r o l o f p u b lic
s c h o o l s y s te m s th a n a re t h e campus t r a i n i n g s c h o o ls i n t h e o t h e r tw o t y p e s
o f in s titu tio n s *
The a c t i v i t y w h ich i » p r o v id e d m o st o f t e n i n t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and
u n i v e r s i t i e s I s t h e p r e p a r a t io n o f l e s s o n p la n s *
t h i s ty p e o f i n s t it u t i o n
A ll o f t h e r e s p o n d e n ts i n
ln d io a t e t h a t t h e i r s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a re r e q u ir e d
215
t o p r e p a r e l e s s o n p la n s a t l e a s t w e e k ly .
I n th e s t a t e te a o h e r s c o lle g e s
and s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , 8 3 .7 p e r o e n t and 8 8 .4 p e r c e n t
r e s p e c t i v e l y , r e q u ir e t h i s p h a se o f s tu d e n t t e a c h i n g .
T h is i n d i c a t e s
t h a t l e s s o n p la n s a r e r e q u ir e d more o f t e n t h a n w ould be t h e c a s e w ere
t h e o p in io n s o f b u s i n e s s e d u o a to r s i n t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s
f o llo w e d .
T h ere i s
a lm o s t an e v e n d i v i s i o n o f o p in io n w it h r e s p e c t t o
t h e p r e p a r a t io n o f l e s s o n p la n s by s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s
a s e v id e n c e d b y a s u r v e y made by t h e N a t io n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Com m ercial
T e a c h e r -T r a in in g I n s t i t u t i o n s . *
h o w ev er, t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o p in io n s are
b a se d on t h e p r e p a r a t io n o f d a i l y l e s s o n p la n s r a t h e r th a n t h o s e p rep a red
a t l e a s t w e e k ly .
The a c t i v i t y w h ic h i s p r o v id e d m ost o f t e n in t h e s t a t e t e a o h e r s o o l l e g e s
sind i n th e s t a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i s t h e k e e p in g o f r e c o r d s and
m ak in g
o f re p o r ts.
T h is a c t i v i t y ran k s v e r y lo w among
t h e p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
t h o s e p r o v id e d i n
S l i g h t l y m ore th a n o n e - f o u r t h
o f th e
i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h i s ty p e p r o v id e o p p o r t u n i t i e s in th e k e e p in g o f
sch ool
r e c o r d s and t h e m aking o f s o h o o l
re p o r ts.
A c t i v i t i e s Perform ed But Not a s O fte n As W eekly
T ab le LXXVI shows t h a t o f t h e 20 a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d , none a r e p er­
form ed l e s s th a n w e e k ly i n more th a n f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
E ig h t a r e p erform ed l e s s
in s titu tio n s
o f t e n th a n w e e k ly i n o n e - t h ir d or more o f th e
in o lu d e d i n t h i s stu d y *
A f u r t h e r e x a m in a tio n o f t h e t a b l e sh ow s t h a t t h e p r iv a t e c o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s and t h e s t a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s u s u a l l y have
1 . The N a t io n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Com m ercial T e a c h e r - T r a in in g I n s t i t u t i o n s ,
b u l l e t i n No. 1 1 , o p . o i t . , p . 1 4 .
216
TABLE LXX71
HUMBER AND PER CENT OF INSTITUTIONS WHICH PROVIDE EXPERIENCE IN CERTAIN
TEACHING ACTIVITIES LESS OFTEN THAN WEEKLY, 1938-1939
A c t i v i t y W hioh
I s P erform ed
L e e e O f te n Than
W eek ly
A d ju st p u p ils t o
r o u tin e o f
c la s s r o o m
A d ju st p h y s ic a l
f e a t u r e s t o p u p ils
Keep r e c o r d s and
make r e p o r t s
C are f o r m a t e r i a l s
and m a ch in es
O r g a n ise p u p il
m o n ito r ia l
s y s te m s
P r e p a r e l e s s o n p la n s
S e l e o t and o r g a n iz e
s u b je c t m a tte r fo r
in s tr u c tio n a l
p u rp o ses
T each s e v e r a l con ­
s e c u tiv e d ays
D ir e c t th e stu d y
o f p u p ils
D is o o v e r m eans t o
p rom ote mored
P r e p a r e , g i v e , and
in te r p r e t t e s t s
H an d le r e m e d ia l
d is c ip lin e
A d ju st in s t r u c t io n s
t o in d iv id u a l
d iffe r e n c e s
Teaoh t h e u s e o f th e
sch o o l lib r a r y
O r g a n iz e and d i r e c t
exou rsd on s
S ta te
T eaoh ers
C o lle g e s
Num­
ber
Per
C ent
S ta te
C o lle g e s
and U ni­
v e r s itie s
P r iv a te
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r s itie s
Num­
b er
Per
C ent
Num­
b er
T o ta l
' Per
Cent
dum­
ber
Per
Cent
5
1 6 .6
9
5 2 .9
4
3 6 .3
18
3 1 .0
6
2 0 .0
9
6 2 .9
2
1 8 .1
17
2 9 .3
4
1 5 .3
2
1 1 .7
5
4 6 .4
11
1 8 .9
4
1 3 .3
5
2 9 .4
4
3 6 .3
13
2 2 .4
11
3 6 .3
8
4 7 .0
2
1 6 .1
21
3 6 .2
3
1 0 .0
4
2 3 .6
2
1 8 .1
6
1 0 .3
4
13*3
5
2 9 .4
3
2 7 .2
12
2 0 .6
2
6 .6
3
1 7 .6
6
5 4 .6
11
1 8 .9
3
1 0 .0
6
3 5 .2
4
3 6 .3
13
2 2 .4
6
2 0 .0
7
4 1 .1
6
4 6 .4
18
3 1 .0
5
1 6 .6
12
7 0 .5
8
7 2 .7
25
4 3 .1
11
3 6 .3
9
5 2 .9
5
4 6 .4
26
4 8 .1
3
1 0 .0
7
4 1 .1
3
2 7 .2
13
2 2 .4
11
3 6 .3
9
6 2 .9
1
9 .0
21
3 6 .2
11
3 6 .3
12
7 0 .5
4
3 6 .3
27
4 6 .5
(C ontinued on n ex t p a g e )
217
TABLE LXXVI (C ontinued)
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF INSTITUTIONS WHICH FROVIDE EXPERIENCE IN CERTAIN
TEACHING ACTIVITIES LESS OFTEN THAN WEEKLY, 1938-1939
S ta te
T ea o h ers
C o lle g e s
A o t i v i t y W hich
I s P erform ed
L e s s O fte n
Than W eekly
D ir e c t p u p ils '
e x tr a -o la s s
a c tiv itie s
P repare s p e c ia l
h o lid a y program s
G ive v o c a t i o n a l and
e d u o a t io n a l
g u id a n c e
E s ta b lis h r e la tio n ­
s h ip s w it h th e
com m unity
Number R e p o r tin g
th e ir
S ta te
C o lle g e s
and Uni­
v e r s itie s
P r iv a t e
C o lle g e s
and Uni­
v e r s itie s
T o ta l
Num­
b er
Per
Cent
Num­
b er
Ter
C ent
Num­
b er
P er
C ent
Num­
b er
P er
C ent
10
3 3 .3
8
4 7 .0
5
4 5 .4
23
3 9 .6
10
3 3 .3
6
3 6 .2
3
2 7 .2
19
3 2 .7
5
1 6 .6
11
6 4 .7
4
3 6 .3
20
3 4 .4
10
3 3 .3
9
5 2 .9
3
2 7 .2
22
3 7 .9
17
30
11
58
s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s p erfo rin t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s l e s s o f t e n
th a n w e e k ly t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n do t h e s t a t e t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s .
S in c e
t h e s t a t e t e a c h e r s o o l l e g e s r e p o r t t h a t t h e s e same a c t i v i t i e s a r e p erform ed
a t l e a s t w e e k ly t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t th a n t h e y a re i n t h e o th e r tw o t y p e s o f
i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h i s i s t o b e e x p e c te d *
The le s s - t h a n - w e e k l y a o t i v i t y p r o v id e d m ost o f t e n i n t h e p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s i s p r e p a r a t io n , a d m in is t r a t io n , and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t d s t s .
S e v e n ty -tw o and s e v e n - t e n t h ' s p e r c e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h i s ty p e r e p o r t
t h a t t h i s a c t i v i t y i s p e rfo rm ed by s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s o f b u s in e s s s u b j e o t s l e s s
o f t e n th a n w e e k ly .
In t h e s t a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , 7 0 .5 p e r c e n t
r e p o r t t h a t t h i s a o t i v i t y and t h a t o f o r g a n iz in g and d i r e c t i n g e x c u r s io n s i s
p erfo rm ed l e s s th a n w e e k ly .
T h ese tw o a c t i v i t i e s ra n k f i r s t i n t h e o a s e o f
218
t h i s type o f i n s t i t u t i o n .
R e a so n s f o r N on -P erform an oe o f C e r t a in A c t i v i t i e s
I n a d d it io n t o a s k in g t h e r e s p o n d e n ts t o i n d i c a t e t h e d u t i e s w h ic h
a re p erform ed b y s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s e i t h e r w e e k ly or
le s s
o f t e n , t h e y w ere a sk ed t o i n d i c a t e t h e r e a s o n s f o r n o t r e q u i r i n g t h e
p erfo rm a n ce o f c e r t a i n d u t i e s .
T h eir r e s p o n s e s , g iv e n i n t h e i r own w o r d s,
f o llo w *
A d ju s t p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s t o p u p ils *
Taken c a r e o f b y r e g u l a r c r i t i c s
i n w h o se c l a s s t h e y t e a c h .
O r g a n ize p u p i l m o n i t o r i a l sy ste m s*
M o n it o r ia l s y ste m n o t u s e d .
T his i s d o n e th r o u g h t h e o f f i o e o f a d m in is t r a t io n .
A c t i v i t y d i r e o t e d b y o r i t i o t e a c h e r or i n o th e r c l a s s e s .
Taken c a r e o f b y r e g u la r i n s t r u c t o r .
C la s s e s a r e u s u a l l y t o o s m a ll,
ho m o n i t o r i a l s y s te m u s e d .
O rgan ized b y r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t o r .
S o h o o l-w id e m o n i t o r i a l s y s t e m under o th e r d i r e c t i o n .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p u b lic s c h o o l s y s t e m .
Done b y c r i t i c t e a o h e r s .
D i r e o t s tu d y o f p u p ils *
T eaoh ers t i m e s p e n t in t e a c h in g .
I s n o t s c h e d u le d t o a s tu d y h a ll*
D is c o v e r m eans t o p rom ote m o ra le*
Teacher d o e s n o t come i n c l o s e c o n t a c t o u t s id e o f c l a s s .
H an d le r e m e d ia l d i s c i p l i n e *
H andled b y s u p e r v i s o r .
I f any s h o u ld h a p p en , s u p e r v is o r w o u ld h a n d le i t .
U s u a lly d o n e by t r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p u b lio s o h o o l s y s t e m .
Done b y c r i t i c t e a c h e r .
T each th e u s e o f t h e s o h o o l lib r a r y *
Done b y l i b r a r i a n .
Taken o a r e o f by l i b r a r y s t a f f .
T his i s d o n e by l i b r a r i a n .
A o t i v i t y d i r e o t e d b y o r i t i o t e a o h e r or in o t h e r c l a s s e s .
Taken o a r e o f by l i b r a r y a s s i s t a n t .
219
P r o v id e d e l s e w h e r e .
The b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s we t e a c h r e q u ir e l i t t l e l i b r a r y w ork.
G e ts t h i s t h r o u g h a d i f f e r e n t m ea n s.
T au g h t b y l i b r a r i a n .
H an d led b y r e g u l a r t e a c h e r .
D one i n o t h e r c l a s s e s .
L ib r a r ia n d o e s t h i s .
R e fe r e n o e m a t e r ia l i n our own room .
E aoh room h a s i t s own l i b r a r y o f b o o k s.
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p u b l i c s o h o o l sy ste m .
D one b y o r i t i o t e a o h e r s .
O r g a n iz e and d i r e c t e x c u r s i o n s !
Done b y c l a s s s p o n s o r .
A o t i v i t y d i r e o t e d b y o r i t i o t e a c h e r or i n o th e r o l a e s e s .
T aken c a r e o f e l s e w h e r e .
O c c a s io n a l v i s i t s a re made t o b u s in e s s a o n o e r n s .
No t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e .
Enough e x c u r s i o n s i n t h e o th e r s o h o o l a c t i v i t i e s w h ich a re
h a n d le d b y o t h e r s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s .
E x c u r s io n s r e q u ir e m ore tim e t h a n b e n e f i t s w a r r a n t.
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p u b l i c s o h o o l sy ste m .
D one by o r i t i o t e a c h e r .
D ir e c t p u p ils '
e x tr a o u r r io u la r a c t i v i t i e s i
T h is i s d o n e th r o u g h t h e o f f i c e o f a d m in is t r a t io n .
A o t i v i t y d i r e o t e d b y c r i t i c t e a c h e r in o th e r o la a a e s .
A s s ig n e d t o r e g u l a r h ig h s c h o o l f a c u l t y .
S p e c i a l s t u d e n t a s s ig n m e n ts a r e made t o o a re f o r t h i s — r e g u la r
c r e d i t i s g iv e n f o r t h i s .
P r o v id e d e l s e w h e r e .
No c o n t a c t o u t s i d e o f c l a s s h o u r .
H an d led b y o t h e r d e p a r tm e n t.
D one b y a d v is o r y g r o u p s .
P r e p a r e s p e c i a l h o l i d a y p ro g ra m s!
N o t d o n e a t t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n b y h ig h s o h o o l s t u d e n t s .
T h is i s d on e th r o u g h t h e o f f i c e o f a d m in is t r a t io n .
A o t i v i t y d i r e o t e d by c r i t i c t e a o h e r or i n o th e r c l a s s e s .
A s s ig n e d t o r e g u la r h ;g h s c h o o l f a c u l t y .
T hat h a s b e e n c h i e f l y a g ra d e a o t i v i t y .
P r o v id e d e l s e w h e r e .
No c o n t a c t o u t s i d e a c l a s s h o u r .
H an d led b y a s s e m b ly c o m m itte e •
D one b y a d v i s o r y g r o u p s .
E x t r a o u r r i o u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a re d ir e o t e d b y r e g u la r h ig h s o h o o l
t e a o h e r s and t h e y m ay b e a s s i s t e d by s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s .
H an d led b y r e g u l a r t e a o h e r .
S p e o i a l h o l i d a y p rogram s n o t p rep a red by Com m ercial d e p a r tm e n t.
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p u b l i o s o h o o l sy stem .
D one b y o r i t i o t e a c h e r .
220
G ive v o o a t io n a l and e d u o & tio n a l g u id a n c e :
T h is i s d on e th ro u g h t h e o f f i c e o f a d m in is t r a t io n .
A o t i v i t y d ir e o t e d b y o r i t i o t e a c h e r or i n o th e r o l a o s e s .
L ack o f s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g .
C a rrie d o u t b y o r i t i o t e a o h e r .
S p e ic o l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p la n f o r t h i s .
H andled th r o u g h home room.
Done by head o f Commeroe D e p a r tm e n t.
H andled b y r e g u la r t e a c h e r .
Handled b y o t h e r s .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p u b lic s o h o o l s y s te m .
Done by o r i t i o t e a o h e r .
E s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s w it h t h e oom m unityi
No o p p o r t u n it y .
A o t i v i t y d i r e c t e d by o r i t i o t e a c h e r or i n o th e r o l a e s e s .
Our com m unity i s p r e t t y s m a l l .
B u s in e s s i s m o s t ly s m a ll s o a l e .
C a r r ie d o u t by o r i t i o s u p e r v is o r *
P r o v id e d e ls e w h e r e .
N ot p r a c tic a b le in a o it y t h i s s i z e .
H andled b y o t h e r s .
H andled b y r e g u la r t e a c h e r .
H andled b y o t h e r s .
L im ite d t im e w ith f u l l s c h e d u l e s .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p u b l ic s o h o o l s y s te m .
Done by o r i t i o t e a c h e r .
A s tu d y o f t h e s e r e a s o n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e a t l e a s t two
p r im a r y c a u s e s w hy t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s are n o t p r o v id e d f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s
o f b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s .
Some o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s ,
in t h e o p in io n o f th e
r e s p o n d e n t s , a r e f u n c t io n s w h ic h sh o u ld be p erfo rm ed i n o t h e r o o l l e g e s
o la s s e s .
In a d d i t i o n , t h e y b e l i e v e t h a t c e r t a i n o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s sh o u ld
b e h a n d led by f a c u l t y members r a t h e r th a n b y t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s .
E v a lu a t io n o f t h e Work o f t h e S tu d e n t T eaoh er o f B u s in e s s S u b j e c t s
T a b le IAXVII i n d i c a t e s t h e t i t l e
o f i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e r e s p o n s i b le
f o r th e f i n a l g r a d in g o f s t u d e n t t e a c a e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
The t a b l e
shows t h a t , g e n e r a l l y , e i t h e r t h e t r a i n i n g s u p e r v is o r or t h e d ep a rtm en t
221
TABLE LXXTII
THE TITUS OF INDIVIDUALS WHO DETERMINE THE FINAL GRADES OF STUDENT IEAGHERS
OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1936-1939
I n d i v id u a ls
D e te r m in in g
F i n a l Grade
T r a in in g S u p e r v is o r
D ep artm en t s u p e r ­
v is o r
Head o f D ep a rtm en t
o f Commerce
N on -d ep artm en t
s u p e r v is o r
D lr e o t o r o f s t u d e n t
t e a c h in g
D ir e c t o r o f s t u d e n t
i n b u s in e s s
su b je o ts
Head o f D ep artm en t
o f E d u o a tlo n
S u p e r in te n d e n t o f
O ff-o sm p u s s c h o o l
Head o f D ep artm en t
o f Commerce i n
H igh S oh ool
Number R e p o r tin g
S ta te
T ea o h ers
C o lle g e s
S ta te
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r s itie s
P r iv a t e
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r s itie s
Num­
b er
P er
C ent
Num­
b er
Per
C ent
Num­
b er
16
4 1 .0
22
7 0 .9
7
17
4 3 .5
4
1 2 .9
4
1 0 .2
0
0
0 .0
11
T o ta l
Num­
ber
Per
C ent
6 0 .0
45
5 3 .5
4
2 8 .5
26
2 9 .7
0 .0
2
1 4 .2
6
7 .1
1
3 .2
0
0 .0
1
1 .1
28 .2 :
13
4 1 .9
7
5 0 .0
21
3 6 .9
9
2 3 .0
7
2 2 .5
3
2 1 .4
19
2 2 .6
0
0 .0
1
8 .2
0
0 .0
1
1 .1
0
0 .0
1
3 .2
0
0 .0
1
1 .1
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
2
1 4 .2
2
2 .3
39
31
P er
C ent
14
84
s u p e r v is o r i s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e g r a d in g o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r
o f b u s in e s s s u b je c ts *
The t a b l e a l s o show s t h a t i n s l i g h t l y o v e r o n e -
t h i r d o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e d i r e c t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a o h in g h a s a p a r t i n
t h e a s o e r ta in m e n t o f t h e f i n a l g r a d e o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r .
is
T h is s t a te m e n t
i n agreem en t w i t h t h a t o f H en d erso n who a l s o found t h a t i n a p p r o x im a te ly
o n e - t h i r d o f t h e s t a t e t e a o h e r s o o l l e g e s w h io h he s t u d i e d , t h e d i r e c t o r o f
222
s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g c o o p e r a t e s w i t h s u p e r v is o r a o f v a r i o u s t y p e s i n d e t e r ­
m in in g t h e f i n a l g r a d e s o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s . 1
In t h i s stu d y , t h is
t e n d e n c y I s s t r o n g e s t i n t h e p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
o n e -h a lf o f th e in s t it u t io n s
E x a c tly
o f t h i s t y p e r e p o r t t h a t t h e d i r e c t o r co o p er­
a t e s o r a c t u a l l y d e te r m in e s t h e f i n a l g r a d e o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s ­
in e s s s u b je c ts .
A s h as b e e n s a i d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o
show t h a t th e te r m s
* d i r e o t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h in g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s * and "head o f the D ep a rt­
ment o f Commerce* w e r e c o n fu s e d b y t h e r e s p o n d e n t s .
T h is p r o b a b ly a c c o u n ts
f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s i n d i v i d u a l i s r e p o r t e d t o h ave a s s i s t e d i n d e te r m in in g
t h e f i n a l gru.de o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i s r e p o r te d i n th e
ta b le .
Of t h e 88 i n s t i t u t i o n s
in c lu d e d i n t h i s
s t u d y , 71 r e p o r t t h a t t h e y
make u s e o f r a t i n g c a r d s i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e w ork o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s in e s s
su b je o ts.
fa ile d
T w elv e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t t h a t t h e y do n o t u s e them and f i v e
t o o h e o k t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e on t h i s p o i n t .
S a y in g t h i s
anoth er way
o f t h e 83 i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t i n g on t h i s p o i n t , 8 5 . 6 p e r c e n t u se r a tin g oard s
i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e w ork o f t h e
stu d e n t te a c h e r *
T h ere i s l i t t l e
t h i s fig u r e fo r each o f th e th r e e ty p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
v a r i a t i o n in
Of t h e 39 s t a t e
t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s r e p o r t in g on t h i s p o i n t , 8 2 . 0 p e r o e n t u s e r a t in g c a r d s .
O f t h e 3 0 s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t i n g on t h i s p o i n t , 9 0 ,0 p e r
c e n t u se r a tin g o a rd s.
Of t h e 14 p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t in g
on t h i s p o i n t , 8 5 .7 p er o e n t u s e r a t i n g c a r d s .
One s t a t e t e a o h e r s o o l l e g e ,
t h r e e s t a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and one p r i v a t e o o l l e g e or u n iv e r s it y
fa ile d
t o o h eo k t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e on t h i s p o i n t .
I t w ould seem from a s t u d y
o f t h e a b o v e f i g u r e s t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e programs o f
1 . H enderson, op. o i t . , p . 4 3 .
223
stu d e n t te a o h in g i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s in d u c t e d i n t h i s r e p o r t g e n e r a l l y
a g ree w ith t h e s t a t e m e n t o f Mead t h a t , " T here a r e some e d u o a to r s who
t h in k no a tte m p ts s h o u ld be made t o r a t e s t u d e n t - t e a c h i n g *
we would be fr e e d from many d i f f i c u l t i e s
A lth o u g h
i f we o o u ld a v o id making su c h
e v a l u a t i o n s , we a r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , f a c e d b y th e n e c e s s i t y o f m aking t h e m ,” *
T h is seem s t o be t h e o p in io n o f a number o f r e s p o n d e n ts who do n o t u s e t h e
r a t in g oard as a m eans o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e w ork o f t h e s t u d e n t te a o h e r *
Of
t h e tw e lv e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e y do n o t u s e r a t i n g o a r d s ,
se v e n r e p o r t t h a t a s y s t e m a t io rec o rd o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f th e s t u d e n t
te a c h e r i s k e p t by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n *
I n c o n n e c t io n w i t h t h e s y s t e m a t io
e v a lu a tio n o f t h e w ork o f t h e s tu d e n t t e a c h e r , a number o f w r i t e r s i n d i c a t e
t h a t th e y b e l i e v e t h a t one o f t h e m ost e f f i c i e n t wayB o f d o in g t h i s i s t o
u s e a r a t in g oard o f some ty p e *
ities
S c h o r lin g s t a t e s , "The p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v -
o f a s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s h o u ld be e v a l u a t e d I n a s y s t e m a t io way*
For
th iB p u rp ose many r a t i n g c a r d s or oheok l i s t s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f
2
t h e s tu d e n t t e a c h e r a r e a v a il a b l e *
S h o v e r a d v o c a t e s t h a t , "Two r a t i n g
s c a l e s , one f o r o b s e r v a t io n and a n o th er f o r p r a o t l o e t e a o h i n g , ea ch t o be
fille d
in w e e k ly by t h e c r i t i c t e a c h e r , sh o u ld a f f o r d t h e t e a o h e r - t r a i n i n g
departm ent in fo r m a tio n r e l a t i v e t o th e g r a d e o f w ork t h e p r a c t i c e t e a c h e r
does*
h
3
Dodd b e l i e v e s t h a t r a t i n g s c a l e s
a re one m eans b y w h ich t h e s t u d e n t
te a c h e r o f b u s in e s s a u b j e o t s m ay be m o t iv a t e d and d i r e o t e d t o h ig h e r l e v e l s
o f t e a o h in g e f f i c i e n c y .
4
1* Mead, £ p , c i t . ■ p . 4 6 7 .
2* S c h o r lin g ,
0£ .
o l t * , p. 166.
3* S h over, The n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f C om m ercial T e a c h e r -T r a in in g I n s t i t u t i o n s ,
b u l l e t i n Mo. 1 4 , o p * o i t . , p . 18*
4* Dodd, The N a t io n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f C om m ercial T e a a h e r -T r a in in g I n s t i t u t i o n s ,
B u l l e t i n , No. 1 7 , o£* o l t . . p* 2 6 .
224
TABLE LXXVIII
THE EVALUATION OF THE WORK OF STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1938-1939
Number
R esp on d in g
U se Made o f R a tin g Card
Yes
num­
rer
b er
C ent
No
num­
ber
F er
C ent
36
18
5 1 .4
17
4 8 .6
34
5
1 4 .7
29
8 5 .3
34
32
9 4 .2
2
6 .8
35
25
7 1 .4
10
2 8 .6
35
22
6 2 .9
13
3 7 .1
25
14
5 6 .0
11
4 4 .0
22
2
9 .1
20
9 0 .9
29
27
9 3 .1
2
6 .9
26
22
8 3 .1
4
1 6 .9
25
10
4 0 .0
15
6 0 .0
STATE IEACTIERS COLLEGES
1* D oes t h e s tu d e n t t e a o h e r u s e
t h e r a t i n g card f o r p u r p o s e s
o f h i s own a p p r a is a l?
2 . D oes t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r
r a t e o th e r s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s
b y means o f a r a t in g c a r d ?
3 . D oes your i n s t i t u t i o n k e e p
a s y s t e m a t ic r e c o r d o f
e v a l u a t i o n o f th e i n d i v i d u a l
s tu d e n t te a o h e r ?
4 , D oes you r s u p e r v is o r y s t a f f
make more th a n a s i n g l e
r a t i n g o f t h e w ork o f t h e
s tu d e n t t e a c h e r ?
5 . I s t h e r e an en d ea v o r t o e v a l ­
u a te t h e work o f t h e s t u d e n t
te a o h e r b y means o f p u p i l
a c h ie v e m e n t (ch an ge i n p u p i l
sta tu s)?
st a t e colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s
1 . D oes t h e s tu d e n t t e a o h e r u s e
th e r a t i n g oard f o r p u r p o s e s
o f h i s own a p p r a is a l?
2* D oes t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r
r a t e o t h e r s tu d e n t t e a o h e r s
by m eans o f a r a t in g o a rd ?
3 . D o es your i n s t i t u t i o n k e e p
a s y s t e m a t ic rec o rd o f
e v a l u a t i o n o f th e i n d i v i d u a l
s tu d e n t te a o h e r ?
4 , D oes your s u p e r v is o r y s t a f f
make more th a n a s i n g l e
r a t i n g o f th e work o f t h e
s t u d e n t te a c h e r ?
6 . I s t h e r e an en d ea v o r t o e v a l ­
u a te t h e work o f t h e s t u d e n t
te a o h e r by means o f p u p i l
a c h ie v e m e n t (ch a n g e i n p u p i l
sta tu s)?
(C o n tin u e d on n e x t p a g e )
|
TABLE LXXVIII (C o n tin u e d )
THE EVALUATION OF THE WORK OF STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
Use Made o f R a tin g Card
Number
R esp o n d in g
Num­
b er
Y es
Per
C ent
No
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
PRIVATE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
1 . D oes t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r use
t h e r a t i n g ca rd f o r p u r p o se s
o f h i s own a p p r a is a l?
2 . D oes t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r
r a t e o t h e r s t u d e n t te a o h e r B
by m eans o f a r a t i n g oard?
3 . D oes y o u r i n s t i t u t i o n keep
a s y s te m a tic record o f
e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e in d i v i d u a l
stu d e n t te a o h e r ?
4* D oes y o u r s u p e r v is o r y s t a f f
make m ore t h a n a s i n g l e
r a t i n g o f t h e w ork o f t h e
stu d e n t tea ch er ?
5* I s t h e r e an e n d e a v o r t o e v a l­
u a t e t h e w ork o f t h e s tu d e n t
t e a o h e r b y m eans o f p u p il
a e h le v e m e n t (ch a n g e i n p u p il
sta tu s)?
13
8
6 1 .5
6
3 8 .5
11
0
0 .0
11
1 0 0 .0
13
13
1 0 0 .0
0
0 .0
13
11
8 4 .6
2
1 5 .4
11
6
5 4 .5
6
4 5 .5
73
40
5 4 .8
33
4 6 .2
67
7
1 0 .4
60
8 9 .6
76
72
9 4 .7
4
5 .3
74
68
7 8 .4
16
2 1 .6
71
38
6 3 .3
33
4 6 .6
TOTAL FOR ALL TYPES OF INSTITUTIONS
1 . D oes t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r u se
t h e r a t i n g oard f o r p u r p o se s
o f h i s own a p p r a is e d ?
2 . D o es t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r
r a te o th e r stu d e n t te a o h e r s
by m eans o f a r a t i n g oard ?
3* D oes y o u r i n s t i t u t i o n k eep
a s y s te m a tio reoord o f
e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e in d i v i d u a l
stu d en t te a o h e r ?
4* D oes y o u r s u p e r v is o r y s t a f f
make m ore t h a n a s i n g l e
r a t i n g o f t h e w ork o f t h e
stu d e n t te a o h e r ?
5 . I s t h e r e an e n d e a v o r t o e v a l­
u a t e t h e w ork o f t h e s tu d e n t
t e a o h e r b y m eans o f p u p il
a c h ie v e m e n t (ch a n g e i n p u p il
sta tu s)?
226
T a b le LXXVIII shows c e r t a i n p r a c t i c e s I n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e w ork
o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s
th is
stu d y *
in
I t i s t h e b e l i e f o f some w r i t e r s t h a t t h e r a t i n g oard i s
m o st u s e f u l when th e s tu d e n t t e a o h e r u s e s i t
s e lf-a p p r a is a l.
f o r p u r p o s e s o f h i s own
Among o t h e r s , H ead1 and S o h o r lin g 2 m ay b e c i t e d
a u t h o r i t i e s who b e l i e v e in t h i s p r a c t ia e *
s lig h tly
in c lu d e d
o v e r o n e - h a l f , or 5 4 ,8 p e r c e n t ,
The t a b l e
as
show s t h a t o n ly
o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s have t h e i r
s t u d e n t s make u se o f t h e r a t in g oard fo r h i s own s e l f - a p p r a i s a l *
I t w o u ld
seem t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s w h ich a re u s in g r a t i n g c a r d s and n o t u s in g t h i s
p r a c tio e
a r e o m ittin g an e x c e l l e n t means w h e r e b y t h e y c o u ld d i r e c t t h e i r
s t u d e n t s t o h ig h e r l e v e l s o f e f f i c i e n c y *
By i t s
ca rd c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o w e a k n e ss e s and p o i n t s
t o im p ro v ed t e a c h in g t e c h n iq u e s .
own i m p l i c a t i o n s t h e r a t i n g
o f s u p e r i o r i t y t h a t may le a d
In a d d it io n , th e s t u d e n t 's u se o f th e
r a t i n g ca r d a t t h e same tim e t h a t one i s made b y t h e
s u p e r v is o r le a d s t o
a common u n d e r sta n d in g o f d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n w h ic h w i l l s e r v e a s an
e x c e l l e n t p o in t o f d e p a r tu r e i n t h e co n d u ct o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e .
T a b le U tXV III alBO shows t h a t i t
is n o t th e p r a c tic e o f th e in s t it u t io n s
i n c l u d e d i n t h i s stu d y t o have s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s r a t e
b y m eans o f a r a t in g c a r d .
th is
p r a c tic e ,
o th e r stu d e n t te a c h e r s
O nly 1 0 .4 p er o e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t
* t i s n o t r e p o r t e d by any o f t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and
u n iv e r s itie s .
S c h o r li n g b e l i e v e s t h a t one o f t h e w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e u s e o f r a t i n g
c a r d s i s t h e p r a c t ic e o f n o t a e o u r in g more t h a n a s i n g l e r a t in g *
1* U e a d , o p . o l t *, p . 6 0 4 .
2 . S o h o r l i n g , o p . o i t *, p . 1 6 6 .
3 . I b id * , p . 167.
3
The
227
t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t more th a n a s i n g l e r a t i n g i s made i n 78*4 p e r o e n t
o f t h e b u s i n e s s t e a o h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s in c lu d e d i n t h i s stu d y *
The p r a c t i c e o f r e q u ir in g o n ly a s i n g l e r a t i n g i s m ost p r e v a le n t in th e
s t a t e te a o h e r s o o lle g e s *
The p r a c t i c e i s f o llo w e d
th e in s t it u t io n s o f t h is ty p e .
i n 28*6 p e r o e n t o f
S in g le r a t i n g s a re r e q u ir e d i n 1 6 ,9
p er o e n t o f t h e s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s and i n 18*4 p e r o e n t
o f t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
Where more th a n a s i p g l e r a t i n g i s
r e q u ir e d , tw o i s t h e m ed ia n
number* t h e h i g h e s t number o f r a t i n g s r e q u ir e d by an y one i n s t i t u t i o n
i s 90.
Of t h e f o r t y i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t in g t h e number o f r a t i n g s u s u a l l y
r e q u ir e d , 2 7 , or 6 7 .4 per c e n t , r e p o r t t h a t t h r e e or l e s s r a t i n g s a re
made.
T h ree i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t t h a t t h e number o f r a t i n g s v a r y .
T ab le LXXV1II show s t h a t s l i g h t l y more t h a n h a l f o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s
r e p o r t t h a t an en d ea v o r i s made t o e v a l u a t e t h e w ork o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r
o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s b y m eans o f an e v a l u a t i o n o f p u p i l a c h ie v e m e n t or a
ch an ge i n t h e s t a t u s o f t h e h ig h s a h o o l p u p il*
The q u e s t i o n n a i r e d id nob
a tte m p t t o show how t h i s w as don e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , an y e x p la n a t io n o f t h i s
p r a o t io e s h o u ld p r o b a b ly r e s u l t fro m f u r t h e r s t u d y on t h e p a r t o f a f u t u r e
in v e s tig a to r *
A t th e same tim e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere r e tu r n e d t o t h e i n v e s t i ­
g a t o r , t h e r e s p o n d e n ts i n t h i r t y i n s t i t u t i o n s
th e ir in s t it u t io n s .
in o lu d e d r a t i n g o a rd s u s e d i n
A s tu d y o f t h e s e r a t i n g o a r d s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y w ere
t o b e u sed f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g p u r p o se s*
As a r e c o r d o f th e f i n a l g ra d e o f
t h e s tu d e n t t e a o h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s , a s m ed ia b y w hioh s u p e r v is o r s
r e p o r t t h e r e s u l t o f o b s e r v a t io n s made o f v a r i o u s s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s , a s a
r e o o r d f o r p la c e m e n t b u r e a u s , and a s a means w h ereb y t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r
228
m ig h t e v a l u a t e h i s own t e a o h in g e f f i c i e n c y .
The m ajor h e a d in g s w h ic h a r e u s u a l l y in c lu d e d on su ch r e c o r d s are
s i m i l a r t o t h e f o ll o w i n g *
p erson al q u a lit ie s ,
s o c ia l q u a litie s ,
pro­
f e s s i o n a l q u a l i t i e s , t e a c h in g s k i l l s , management q u a l i t i e s , s c h o l a r s h i p ,
and d i s c i p l i n e .
E ach o f t h e s e m ain h e a d in g s a re in c lu d e d on f o u r or
more o f th e r a t i n g o a r d s .
T w en ty -o n e o t h e r m ain h e a d in g s appear on th e
o a r d s in a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e l i s t e d
ab ove.
H ow ever, t h e y a l l seem t o be
s u b -h e a d in g s o f t h e t o p i o s m e n tio n e d a b o v e and may b e c l a s s i f i e d
f o r p u r p o se s o f t h i s d o cu m en t.
a s such
None o f t h e fo rm s s e n t t o th e i n v e s t i g a t o r
a re c a r d s w h io h a re p r e p a r e d f o r t h e p u rp o se o f m aking o b s e r v a t io n s in
s p e c i f i c h ig h s o h o o l com m erce c l a s s e s .
p r e p a r e d f o r s c h o o l- w id e u s e and n o t f o r
T hey a re a l l form s w h io h a r e
s p e c i f i c o b s e r v a t io n .
Summary
'4'his summary i s g i v e n f o r t h e p u rp o se o f sh ow in g i n b r i e f fo rm t h e
p r o v i s i o n s made f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s j
th e
v a r ie ty
and e x t e n t o f t h e i r d u t i e s , and t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r w ork.
' 1 . The f o l l o w i n g
a r e s u b j e c t p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r s t u d e n t t e a o h in g i n
b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s i n m ore th a n h a l f o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r te d i n t h i s
docum ent*
I n t r o d u c t i o n t o E d u c a t io n , a m ethods c o u r s e i n t h e s u b j e o t t o
be t a u g h t , T e s t s and M ea su rem en ts, P r i n c i p l e s o f S eo o n d a ry E d u c a tio n ,
E d u o a tio n a l P s y c h o lo g y , G e n e r a l P s y c h o lo g y , and tw o or more c o l l e g e sub­
j e o t m a tte r o o u r s e s i n t h e s u b j e c t t o b e t a u g h t .
A lm ost o n e - f i f t h o f th e
i n s t i t u t i o n s do n o t r e q u ir e p r o s p e c t iv e s tu d e n t t e a o h e r s t o m eet t h e l a s t
re q u ir e m e n t m e n tio n e d a b o v e .
th e
s tu d e n t
fo llo w e d .
I n o rd er t o p r o t e c t t h e h ig h s o h o o l p u p i l s ,
t e a c h e r s , and t h e s u p e r v i s o r s , t h i s p o l i c y sh o u ld n o t be
229
2 . Other t h a n t h e s t u d e n t ' s s o h o l a s t i o reoord i n a l l o o l l e g e
o o u r s e s c o m p le t e d , r e l a t i v e l y fe w o f t h e s c h o o ls u s e any m eans o f
s e l e c t i n g s t u d e n ts fo r s t u d e n t tea o h in g in b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s .
A u th o ri­
t a t i v e o p in io n d e c r e e s t h a t more m ethods o f s e l e c t i o n s h o u ld be u sed
t h e n i s r e p o r t e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s .
3 . I n c a s e s w h e re a t t e m p t s a re made t o s e l e o t s t u d e n t s f o r s t u d e n t
t e a o h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e agreem ent as t o why
p a r t i c u l a r m e th o d s o f s e l e o t i o n
a r e used or should b e u s e d .
4 . B e fo r e t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r I s c a l l e d upon t o ta k e f u l l r e s p ­
o n s i b i l i t y fo r te a c h in g
h i s a s s i g n e d o l a s s , he i s o a l l e d u p o n i n
more than h a l f t h e s c h o o l s t o a s s i s t i n r o u tin e m a t te r s s u c h as v e n t i ­
l a t i o n , o a l l i n g r o l l , l i n i n g b l a c k b o a r d s , e t c . , t o ooach i n d i v i d u a l
p u p i l s , t o p r e p a r e l e s s o n m a t e r i a l s , and t o t e a c h s h o r t d r i l l s w i t h o u t
ta k in g f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a s a te a o h e r .
5 . Two w e e k s u s u a l l y p a s s b e f o r e t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s
su b je c ts is a llo w e d t o t e a c h p a r t o f a p eriod .
T h is same number o f
w eeks a lso a p p l i e s t o t h e t e a c h in g of a f u l l p e r io d .
A lm ost o n e - f i f t h
o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t t h a t t h e y vary t h e r a t e o f i n d u c t i o n i n t o
s t u d e n t t e a o h in g d e p e n d in g upon t h e a b i l i t y , e x p e r i e n c e , and need o f
th e in d iv id u a l a tu d e n t t e a c h e r .
T h is p r a c t i c e conform s t o t h e o p i n i o n
o f c e r ta in a u t h o r it ie s i n th e f i e l d
of stu d en t t e a o h i n g .
6 . S tu d e n t t e a o h e r a o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s , a s e v id e n c e d b y d a t a
r e p o r te d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , u s u a l l y te a c h f o r - e i g h t e e n w e e k s , f i v e
d a y s per w eek , and f o r s l i g h t l y
o v e r f i f t y m in u tes per p e r i o d .
T h ese
p r a o t i o e s are i n accord w i t h t h e a c c r e d i t i n g s ta n d a r d s o f t h e A m erioan
A sso c ia tio n o f Teaohers C o l l e g e s .
230
' 7 . I n te r m s o f t h e median*
stud en t tea o h ers o f b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s
i n s t a t e t e a o h e r s c o l l e g e s a re r e q u i r e d t o t a k e 9 0 c l o c k h o u r s o f s t u d e n t
te a o h in g .
I n t h e s t a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s * t h e r e q u i r e d number
o f o l o o k h o u rs o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s i s
p r i v a t e o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i t
is 120.
75 and i n t h e
There s e e m s t o be no j u s t i ­
f ic a t i o n for th e se d iffe r e n c e s .
8 . The s t a t e t e a o h e r s c o l l e g e s
and t h e s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
r e q u i r e * a s a median* a p p r o x im a t e l y 15 c l o c k h o u r s ’ o f work f o r one s e m e s t e r
h o u r’ s c r e d i t in stu d e n t te a c h in g in b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s .
The p r i v a t e o o l -
l e g e B and u n i v e r s i t i e s u s u a l l y g r a n t one s e m e s te r h o u r ' s c r e d i t f o r 24
o l o o k h ours o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s .
Some a u t h o r i t i e s
b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e i s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r o f f e r i n g t h e same amount o f
c r e d i t f o r d i f f e r e n t amounts o f w ork i n s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g .
9 . I n a p p r o x im a t e l y o n e - f o u r t h o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s , f o u r - f i f t h s or
more o f t h e t e a o h i n g i s done by s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s .
In a p p ro x im a te ly o n e -fo u r th o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s , s tu d e n t te a c h e r s te a o h
t h r e e - f i f t h s o f th e tim e .
I n a p p r o x im a t e l y h a l f o f t h e
in stitu tio n s,
s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s t e a c h 5 0 . 0 p er c e n t o f t h e tim e or l e s s .
I t i s ev id en t
fro m t h e s e d a t a t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e a l l o w i n g
th e ir
s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s t o do a g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f t h e
t e a c h i n g t h a n i s reoommended b y r e s e a r o h e r s and a c c r e d i t i n g b o d i e s .
1 0 . T hree s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a r e a s s i g n e d t o one s u p e r v i s o r a t one
tim e in th e i n s t i t u t i o n s
in c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y .
T h is number i s t h e
m e d ia n .
1 1 . S t u d e n t t e a o h e r s t e a c h o n l y one s u b j e c t i n 3 8 . 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e
i n s t i t u t i o n s * tw o s u b j e c t s i n 4 1 * 2 p er c e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s *
and t h r e e
231
o r m ore i n 2 0 . 1 p er o e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
A u th o r itie s g e n e r a lly
a g r e e t h a t s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s s h o u ld have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t e a c h wore
th an one s u b j e c t .
T h e r e f o r e , a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s
f a i l t o p r o v id e what i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t o be a g o od p r a o t i c e i n t h i s
resp ect.
1 2 . Tw enty sampled a c t i v i t i e s w h io h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
s u b j e o t s m ig h t be c a l l e d upon t o p e r fo r m w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a r e s .
The d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a re p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y
t o p e r fo r m t e n a c t i v i t i e s
in stitu tio n s
a t l e a s t w e e k ly i n more t h a n o n e - h a l f o f t h e
in c l u d e d i n t h i s
stud y.
T h ese a c t i v i t i e s a r e a s f o ll o w s t
a d ju st p u p ils t o r o u tin e o f th e cla ssro o m , a d ju s t p h y s ic a l fe a t u r e s t o
p u p i l s , keep r e c o r d s and make r e p o r t s , o a re f o r m a t e r i a l s and m a c h in e s ,
p r e p a r e l e s s o n p l a n s , s e l e c t and o r g a n iz e s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l
p u rp o ses, te a c h sev era l c o n se c u tiv e d ays, d ir e c t th e stu d y o f p u p ils ,
prepare, g iv e ,
and i n t e r p r e t t e s t s ,
and a d j u s t i n s t r u c t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l
d iffe r e n c e s.
1 3 . G e n e r a l l y , t h e d ep artm en t s u p e r v i s o r or t r a i n i n g
su p e rv iso r i s
p r im a r ily r e s p o n s ib le f o r the g r a d in g of s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s in e s s
su b jeo ts.
I n s l i g h t l y o v er o n e - t h i r d o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e d i r e c t o r
o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g c o o p e r a t e s i n t h e g r a d in g o f s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s o f
b u sin e ss su b jeo ts.
1 4 . A r a t i n g oard i s used i n 8 5 . 6 p er o e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n
e v a l u a t i n g t h e work o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s .
Most
a u th o r itie s agree th a t t h i s i s a d e s ir a b le p r a c t ic e .
1 5 . S tu d e n t t e a c h e r s u se r a t i n g c a r d s f o r p u r p o s e s o f s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n
i n 5 4 . 8 per o e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
t h is i s a d e sir a b le p r a c tic e .
A number o f a u t h o r i t i e s a g r e e t h a t
232
1 6 . S tu d en t t e a o h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s r a t e
t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s by means o f a r a t i n g
o t h e r stu d e n t
card in 1 0 .4 per o e n t o f
th e in s titu tio n s .
1 7 . Two r a t i n g s , in term s o f t h e m e d ia n , a r e made i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e
w ork o f t h e s tu d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s
su b jeots.
Idore th a n a s i n g l e
r a t i n g i s made in 7 b .4 per c e n t o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
A u t h o r i t i e s be­
l i e v e th a t a s in g le r a t in g i s not s u f f i c i e n t f o r p rop er e v a lu a tio n o f
t h e work o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s .
10.
Major h ea d in g s u s u a l l y found o n r a t i n g c a r d s u sed i n t h e e v a l ­
u a t i o n o f t h e work o f th e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s in c l u d e
p e r so n a l q u a l i t i e s , s o c i a l q u a l i t i e s , p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i t i e s , tea ch in g
s k i l l s , management q u a l i t i e s , s c h o l a r s h i p ,
and d i s c i p l i n e *
CHAPTER VI
CONFERENCES WTrtt STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS
There seems t o be g e n e r a l a g ree m en t t h a t t h e c o n f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e
s t u d e n t t e a c h e r and t h e s u p e r v i s o r i s
an im p o r t a n t and w o r t h w h ile p a r t
o f a program o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n any f i e l d *
Much has b e e n w r i t t e n on
t h i s p h a se o f t h e work i n m a g a z i n e s , m o n o g ra p h s, y e a r b o o k s , and book s
d e a lin g w ith stu d en t te a c h in g .
The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s i n d i o a t e t h e
g e n e r a l b e l i e f o f t h o s e who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p ro b lem t h a t i t
ia
a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e e f f o r t w h ioh i s made t o i n c r e a s e t h e
e f f i o i e n o y o f th e p r o s p e c tiv e tea o h er*
M ax w ell and R eusaer b e l i e v e , "Throughout t e a o h i n g , t h e c o n f e r e n c e s
b etw een j u n i o r t e a c h e r and s e n i o r t e a c h e r a r e a most im p o r ta n t p h a se o f
t h e w o r k ." *
S o h o r lin g b e lie v e s t h a t
one o f t h e major p r i n c i p l e s o f a c o u r s e i n
s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i s t o o r g a n i z e t h e w o rk i n s u c h a way as t o r e c o g n i z e
t h e im p o r ta n c e o f t h e c o n f e r e n o e b e tw e e n t h e o r i t i o t e a c h e r and t h e
in d iv id u a l stu d en t te a c h e r .2
1 . M axw ell and R e u s s e r , o p .
c i t *. p . 2 1 .
2* S o h o r l i n g , o £ . c i t . , p . 1 7 1 ,
234
M ott w r i t e s i
I t w o u ld seem t h a t t h e v e r y c e n t e r o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r
i n d u c t i o n p r o c e s s w ould b e t h e c o n f e r e n c e .
In f a c t th e con­
f e r e n c e would ap p ea r t o be a lm o s t t h e o n ly s a t i s f a c t o r y f o c a l
p o i n t i f o n e ' 3 e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y in c l u d e d t h e d o o t r i n e
th a t th e in d iv id u a l i s th e p o in t o f d ep a rtu re.
The e o n f e r e n o e
t e o h n iq u e p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e c r i t i c t e a c h e r t o be
i n f a c t a c o u n s e l l o r t e a c h e r .* D ickBon a l s o shows h e r b e l i e f i n t h e v a l u e o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e when
she s t a t e s i
I b e l i e v e v e r y many o f t h e y o u n g er t e a c h e r s , r e c a l l i n g
t h e i r months o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g , w ould r e a l i z e t h a t t h e
p eriod s g iv e n t o c o n fe r e n c e w ith t h e i r t r a in in g te a c h e r con­
t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r l a t e r s u c c e s s more t h a n a n y o t h e r one s t u d e n t
t e a c h i n g a o t i v i t y , p r o v i d e d , o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e i r w ork i n
t h o t r a i n i n g s c h o o l w a s g u id e d by h e l p f u l and c o n s t r u c t i v e
su p e r v isio n .
D io k s o n a r r i v e d a t t h i s b e l i e f a s a r e s u l t o f a s t u d y w h ic h s h e
5
made o f form er s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s .
They w e r e asked t o
in d io a te th e
t r a i n i n g s o h o o l a c t i v i t y w h io h had b e e n m o st h e l p f u l t o th em and t h e i r
r e p l i e s i n d i c a t e d t h e c o n f e r e n c e t o be t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g .
Sh over b e l i e v e s t h a t , “ C o n f e r e n c e s s h o u ld b e an im p o r ta n t p a r t o f
t h e p r a c t i c e t e a o h i n g p rogram ."^
He a d v o c a t e s t h a t c o n f e r e n c e s f o r
s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s s h o u ld b e o f f o u r k in d s *
freq u en t
c o n f e r e n c e s o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r and s u p e r v i s o r , i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s
1* George Fox M o t t , The C o n f e r e n c e T eoh n iq u e as a C e n te r o f t h e S t u d e n t
Teaoher I n d u o t i o n P r o c e s s , E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n ,
XXIV ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 5 5 .
2 . b e l l e L . P i o k s o n , S u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e Improvement o f S tu d e n t T e a o h in g ,
E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n . XVII (J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 1 )
p . 15.
3 . Loo, c i t .
4 . Shover, o£. c i t . ,
p. 18.
23£
w i t h t h e i n s t r u o t o r i n c h a r g e o f th e t r a i n i n g c l a s s , w e e k ly g r o u p c o n ­
f e r e n c e s f o r a l l t r a i n e e s , and group c o n f e r e n c e s o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s
w ith o u t th e p resen ce
of
th e
cIebs
in s t r u c t o r * ^ -
I n d i s c u s s i n g an e f f e c t i v e p la n o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s
s u b j e o t s , Dodd s a y s , " I n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s should b e su p p le m e n te d b y
g ro u p c o n f e r e n c e s .
I n th e f i r s t p la c e , in d iv id u a l c o n fer e n c e s a re e x ­
p e n siv e .
I n t h e s e o o n d p l a o e , group c o n f e r e n c e s have much t o command them
2
i n t h e w a y o f added i n t e r e s t . "
From t h e p r e c e d i n g q u o t a t i o n s , i t can b e s e e n t h e r e i s a g r e e m e n t
among t h e s e w r i t e r s t h a t t h e co n fe r e n c e i s an im p o rta n t p a r t o f a p ro g ra m
o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g and t h a t t h e c o n f e r e n c e sh ould p r o b a b ly b e o f a t l e a s t
t w o t y p e s , n a m e ly , t h e g ro u p c o n fe r e n c e and t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e .
I n an e n d e a v o r t o s e e t o what e x t e n t t h e c o n f e r e n c e p l a y s a p a r t
i n t h e p ro g ra m o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s , t h e q u e s t i o n s
o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w e r e arranged i n such a way as t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n
on t h i s t o p i c i n t e r m s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who con d u ct t h e c o n f e r e n c e s , t h e
p r e p a r a t i o n made f o r t h e c o n f e r e n c e s , and t h e prooed u re f o l l o w e d
conduct o f t h e c o n fe r e n c e s .
in th e
P r a c tio e s fo llo w ed in th e i n s t i t u t i o n s
in c lu d e d
i n t h i s s t u d y , as t h e y r e l a t e t o th e a s p e c t s o f t h e program j u s t m e n t i o n e d ,
a r e shown i n t h e t a b l e s w hioh f o l l o w .
I n d iv id u a l C onferen ces
R espon d en ts o f a l l
o f t h e s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s and p r i v a t e
1 . Leo.
2 . Dodd, 0£. o l t . , p . 27.
236
o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t t h a t b o t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e and
t h e group c o n f e r e n c e a re a p a r t o f t h e i r program o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n
b u sin e ss s u b je o ts .
In th e oase o f th e s t a t e teaoh ers c o l l e g e s , th e
r e sp o n d e n ts i n d i c a t e th a t in t h i r t y - t w o i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h i s
s o r t , b oth
g ro u p and i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s a r e h e l d ; group c o n f e r e n c e s o n l y a r e
h e l d i n one i n s t i t u t i o n , and i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s o n l y a r e h e ld i n s i x
in s titu tio n s .
I n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t a v a i l a b l e from one s t a t e t e a c h e r s o o l ­
le g e .
TABLE LXXIX
PERSONS WHO HOLD INDIVIDUAL CONFERENCES WITH STUDENT TEACHERS OF
BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
Num­
ber
P er
Cent
S tate
C o lle g e s
and U ni­
v e r sitie s
Num­ Per
ber
Cent
T r a in in g S u p e r v iso r
19
5 2 .7
22
7 3 .3
8
D ep a rtm en t
S u p e rv iso r
13
3 6 .1
8
2 6 .6
D ir e c t o r o f Stu dent
T e a o h in g
13
3 6 .1
12
D i r e c t o r o f S tu d e n t
T e a c h in g i n B u s i­
n ess S u b jeo ts
11
3 0 .5
N o n - d e p a r tm e n t
S u p e r v is o r
2
Head o f D e p a r tm e n t
o f Commaroe
8
P e r s o n s H o ld in g
W eek ly
C onferen ces
Number o f I n s t i ­
t u t i o n s R e p o r t in g
S tate
Teachers
C o lle g e s
36
P riv a te
C o lle g e s
and U n iv e r sitie s
Num­
Per
ber
C ent
T otal
"N1um­
ber
Per
C ent
6 6 .6
49
6 2 .8
4
3 3 .3
25
3 2 .0
4 0 .0
3
2 5 .0
28
3 6 .6
7
2 3 .3
6
4 1 .6
23
2 9 .4
5 .5
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
2
2 .6
2 2 .2
2
6 .6
0
0 .0
10
1 2 .8
30
12
76
237
P e r s o n s Who Conduot I n d i v i d u a l C o n f e r e n c e s
T a b le LXXIX shows t h a t i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s w h e re i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s
a r e h e l d , t h e t r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r o r d ep a rtm en t s u p e r v i s o r i s most o f t e n
r e s p o n s ib le fo r th e oonduct o f th e c o n fere n c e.
T h is i s
t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s are i n c l o s e c o n t a o t w it h t h e
s t u d e n t t e a c h e r d u r in g h i s
t e a o h i n g p e r io d and are n a t u r a l l y q u a l i f i e d t o
t o b e e x p e o t e d as
a d v ise th e stu d en t in a
c o n s t r u c t i v e way a s t o w h at m ethods s h o u ld be u s e d i n i n c r e a s i n g h i s t e a c h i n g
e ffic ie n c y .
S l i g h t l y more th a n o n e - t h i r d o f t h e d i r e c t o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g
a l s o h o ld i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
su b jeots.
T h is may be e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d i r e c t o r o f s t u d e n t
t e a c h i n g i s i n some o a s e s r e s p o n s i b l e t o some e x t e n t f o r t h e p la o e m e n t o f
th e stu d e n t te a o h e r in a te a c h in g p o s it i o n .
In a d d it io n , th e d ir e c to r of
s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g may c a l l t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s f o r a
c o n f e r e n c e i n c a s e s w here poor or m e d io c r e work i s
b e i n g p e r fo r m e d .
A lso ,
t h e t y p e o f c o n f e r e n c e may r e s u l t from t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d i r e c t o r o f
s tu d e n t te a o h in g i s a ls o a su p e r v iso r o f s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s in e s s
su b jeo ts.
R esp o n d en ts i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s
is th e c a se in at l e a s t th ree
d iffe r e n t in s titu tio n s .
The d i r e c t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g in b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s i s c a l l e d upon
t o c o n d u c t i n d i v i d u a l o o n f e r e n o e s i n 2 9 . 4 p er c e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s
r e p o r t i n g on t h i s p o i n t .
As has b een s a id p r e v i o u s l y , t h i s t i t l e
seems t o
have b e e n c o n f u s e d i n a number o f i n s t a n c e s w i t h t h a t o f t h e head o f t h e
d ep a rtm en t o f oommeroe or b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n .
a b l y h a s no s i g n i f i c a n c e .
T h e r e fo r e , t h i s f i g u r e prpb-
236
The ho ad o f t h e d e p a r tm e n t o f oommeroe o r b u s i n e s s e d u c a t io n i s
c a l l e d upon t o o o n d u o t i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s i n 12*8 per o e n t o f t h e
i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t i n g on t h i s p o i n t .
I n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s between
s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s and t h e head o f t h e commerce or b u s i n e s s e d u c a t io n
d e p a r tm e n t may r e s u l t fr o m t h a t i n d i v i d u a l b e i n g a s u p e r v is o r o f s tu d e n t
t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s ; from h i s d u t y o f a s s i g n i n g p r o s p e c t i v e
s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s about m eth o d s o f t e a o h i n g and t h e improvement o f t e a c h ­
in g e f f i c i e n c y i n g e n e r a l .
I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t s b e i n g a s k e d who c o n d u c ts t h e i n d i v i d u a l
c o n f e r e n c e s , t h e y w e r e ask ed t o i n d i c a t e t h e r e a s o n s why t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s
are c a l l e d upon t o p e r fo r m t h i s t a s k .
w ord s, f o llo w .
The t i t l e s
T h e ir a n s w e r s , g i v e n i n t h e i r own
i n p a r e n t h e s i s i n d i c a t e th e t i t l e s o f t h e
p e r s o n s who o o n d u o t t h e c o n f e r e n c e s
i n t h e i n s i t u t i o n t o w h ic h th e s t a t e ­
m ent a p p l i e s .
S t a t e Teaohers C o lle g e s
P o l ic y o f th e D ir e c to r o f stu d en t t e a o h in g .
Kach s u p e r v i s o r o f a c o u r s e
group c o n fe r e n c e s w ith th e
m ent head h o l d s c o n f e r e n c e s
( T r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r , head
(Departm ent S u p e r v is o r )
w i l l be e x p e c t e d t o have b o th i n d i v i d u a l and
s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s i n t h e o o u r s e . The d e p a r t ­
w i t h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n one o ff-cam p u s s c h o o l .
o f d e p a r t m e n t o f commerce)
Bach s u p e r v i s o r d o e s t h i s t o g i v e i n s t r u c t i o n and c r i t i c i s m i n d i v i d u a l l y .
(D ep artm en t s u p e r v i s o r )
The one who o b s e r v e s t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r seem s t o be b e t t e r a b le t o d i s c u s s
h i s w ork w i t h h im .
('T r a in in g s u p e r v i s o r )
A c o n fe r e n c e i s h e ld by th e o r i t i o t e a o h e r w it h th e stu d en t teaoher e v e r y
d a y a t f i r s t , e i t h e r I n d i v i d u a l l y o r i n g r o u p s t o d iB ou ss t h e i r s u c c e s s e s
and f a i l u r e s .
The o r i t i o t e a o h e r i s b e t t e r p rep a red th a n anyone e l s e t o
do t h i s w o r k .
(T ra in in g s u p e r v is o r )
T r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r l e c t u r e s on m a n n e r s , e t c .
C r i t i o t e a o h e r l e o t u r e s on
tea o h in g te c h n iq u e s .
( T r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r , a s s i s t a n t i n departm ent o f
oommeroe)
C o m plete s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f c h a r g e d w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n - s e r v i c e
w ork.
( T r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r , d e p a r tm e n t s u p e r v i s o r )
1
259
Our l a b o r a t o r y s o h o o l w ork I s hand l a d b y members o f t h e c o l l e g e t e a c h i n g
s t a f f i n tec h n iq u e s u b j e c ts *
(D e p a r tm e n t s u p e r v i s o r )
B eoause t h e y have c h a r g e o f s u p e r v i s i n g h i s t e a c h i n g i n t r a i n i n g .
(D ep artm en t s u p e r v i s o r )
The d e p a r t m e n t s u p e r v i s o r h as im m e d ia te c h a r g e o f a l l o f t h e work o f t h e
stud en t t e a c h e r .
(D ep a rtm en t s u p e r v i s o r )
The s u p e r v i s o r n e e d s t o make c r i t i c i s m s and s u g g e s t i o n s and t o l a y o u t
t h e w ork.
The d i r e c t o r s h o u ld know t h e s t u d e n t ' s a t t i t u d e .
(T rain in g
s u p e r v i s o r , d i r e o t o r o f B tu d e n t t e a c h i n g )
C o n f e r e n c e s a re h e ld a s needed b y t h e c r i t i c
su p e r v isio n .
(T ra in in g s u p e r v is o r )
s u p e r v i s o r s who have c o n s t a n t
To i n s u r e c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n oommeroe d e p a r tm e n t and g e n e r a l t e a c h e r
tr a in in g a c t i v i t i e s .
(Head o f d e p a r t m e n t o f com m erce)
To c o r r e c t i n d i v i d u a l p r o b l e m s .
s u p e r v iso r )
(D ep a rtm en t
s u p e r v i s o r , n o n -d e p a r tm e n t
D i r e o t o r o f C o l l e g e D ep a rtm en t d e t e r m i n e s p o l i c i e s and s e t - u p .
C o o r d in a t e s
w ith th e so h o o l system .
I n f l u e n c e s th e cu r r ic u lu m .
C o lle g e su p e r v iso r i
c o n f e r s on p o l i c i e s , o o u r s e , m e t h o d s , i n f l u e n c e s q u a l i t y and method o f
l o o a l s u p e r v i s i o n ! a l s o s u p e r v i s e d i r e c t l y and h o ld i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s .
Head o f D ep a rtm en t i n S o h o o l i
E x e r t s c l o s e i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p s u p e r ­
v i s i o n , d e m o n s t r a t e s , h e l p s i n p l a n n i n g and g a t h e r i n g m a t e r i a l s , e t c .
On
t h e j o b a t a l l t im e s *
L o c a t e d i n on e s c h o o l .
C o l l e g e men o o v e r s e v e r a l
sc h o o ls.
(T r a in in g s u p e r v i s o r , d ep artm en t s u p e r v i s o r , d i r e o t o r o f stu d e n t
t e a c h i n g , head o f d e p a r tm e n t o f com m erce)
D e f i n i t e l y assig n ed t h i s w ork.
su b jects)
(D ir e c to r of stu d en t te a c h in g in b u sin e ss
To d i s c u s s p l a n s , w e a k n e s s e s , s t r o n g p o i n t s , e t c .
(T ra in in g s u p e r v is o r ,
d i r e c t o r o f t r a i n i n g s o h o o l , head o f d e p a r t m e n t o f com merce)
B e c a u s e t h e y have t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e t r a i n i n g .
v iso r )
(T ra in in g su p e r­
S t a t e C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s
They a r e t h e one m o s t c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e w ork o f t h e s t u d e n t
teach er.
(T ra in in g s u p e r v is o r )
T r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r ( c r i t i c t e a o h e r ) knows more i n t i m a t e l y t h e m o th e r s
t h a t s h o u l d be t a k e n up i n c o n f e r e n c e s .
(T ra in in g s u p e r v is o r , d ir e o to r
o f stu d en t te a c h in g .)
S t u d e n t t e a c h e r w o r k s d i r e o t l y u n d e r o r i t i o who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e
w e lfa r e o f p u p ils (T ra in in g s u p e r v is o r , d i r e c t o r o f stu d e n t te a c h in g )
240
I t e a c h t h o s e boys i n s u b j e o t m a t t e r , m e th o d s, and d i r e c t t h e i r work i n
stu d en t te a c h in g .
I am a o n e - t e a o h e r b u s i n e s s t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g d e p a r t ­
m en t.
(T ra in in g s u p e r v is o r )
O b serves a l l c l a s s e s t a u g h t b y s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s .
o la ss ta u g h t.
(T ra in in g s u p e r v is o r )
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y p la c e d i n t h e i r h a n d s .
Then a c o n f e r e n c e on
( T r a in in g s u p e r v i s o r )
To c o o r d i n a t e t h e w ork o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r and t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r .
(T ra in in g s u p e r v is o r , d ir e o t o r o f stu d en t t e a c h in g , d ir e o t o r o f
stu d en t tea c h in g in b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s )
D ir e c t ly r e sp o n sib le fo r th e stu d en t te a c h e r s .
d ep a rtm en t s u p e r v i s o r )
Work under t h e i r d i r e c t i o n .
te a c h in g )
(T ra in in g s u p e r v iso r ,
(T ra in in g s u p e r v is o r , d ir e o to r o f stu d en t
They s u p e r v i s e a l l p l a n s made b y s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s and are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
g ra d in g .
(T rain in g s u p e r v is o r )
Has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h e r .
( T r a in in g s u p e r v i s o r )
F a m ilia r w i t h p r o b le m s .
The D i r e o t o r o f S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s and T r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r s a r e d i r e c t l y
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s t u d e n t s ' m aking a d e q u a te p r e p a r a t i o n and d o in g
c r e d i t a b l e w ork .
(T ra in in g s u p e r v is o r , d ir e c to r o f stud en t te a c h in g )
C o o p e r a t iv e ' p la n n in g and e v a l u a t i o n .
( T r a in in g s u p e r v i s o r , d ep artm en t
s u p e r v i s o r , and d i r e o t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g )
Work o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r i s t a k e n d i r e o t l y under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f
d e p a rtm en t s u p e r v i s o r .
(T ra in in g su p e r v iso r , d ir e c t o r o f stu d en t
te a c h in g )
T r a in in g s u p e r v i s o r b e t t e r e q u ip p e d t h r o u g h c l o s e c o n t a c t t o h an d le
c o n f e r e n c e s d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c w ork.
('Training s u p e r v i s o r )
P r i v a t e C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s
B eca u se t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s have o b s e r v e d s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g .
s u p e r v i s o r , d e p a rtm en t s u p e r v i s o r )
(T ra in in g
S u p e r v is o r c o n f e r s w i t h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r a f t e r e a c h o b s e r v a t i o n .
D ir e o to r
c o n f e r s o n l y on p r o b le m o a s e s .
(D ep artm en t s u p e r v i s o r , d i r e o t o r o f
stud en t te a c h in g in b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s )
E v e r y s t u d e n t t a k e s a o o u r s e w h i c h i s a s p e c i a l m eth o d s c o n f e r e n c e
m e e t in g t w i c e a w e e k . A member o f t h e D epartm ent o f E d u c a t io n i s
a s s i g n e d a s s u p e r v i s o r o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e t e a c h e r and o b s e r v e s
and c o n f e r s w i t h him about f o u r t i m e s d u r in g t h e s e m e s t e r .
The form er
a r e g r o u p and t h e l a t t e r i n d i v i d u a l .
B o te*
T h is i s a d e p a r tm e n t
p r a c t i c e d e v e l o p e d i n term s o f v a r i o u s p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s , but i s n o t ,
i n my o p i n i o n , a v a l i d o n e .
(E e t h o d s i n s t r u c t o r . T r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r )
O b v io u s .
(T ra in in g
su p e r v is o r , d ir e c to r o f stu d on t te a c h in g )
C r i t i c t e a o h e r i n c i t y h ig h s o h o o l u s u a l l y h e l p s s t u d e n t a a l l y and
c r i t i c i z e s w ork a f t e r e v e r y l e s s o n t a u g h t .
Our o b j e c t i s t o g i v e a s
muoh c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m , a s we o a n p o s s i b l y g i v e , i n d i v i d u a l or
group.
(T ra in in g s u p e r v is o r , d ir e c to r o f stu d en t te a c h in g in b u sin ess
s u b j e c t s , d i r e o t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g , n o n - d e p a r tm e n t s u p e r v i s o r ,
head o f d e p a r t m e n t o f aoraneroe)
I n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s a re h e l d a f t e r e a c h t e a c h i n g l e s s o n .
su p e r v iso r )
( T r a in in g
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s fo u n d ab ove i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s u p e r ­
v is o r i s c o n sid ered
a s t h e p e r s o n b e i n g m ost c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h
t h e work o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s and, t h e r e f o r e , he
i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s o c c u r i n g fro m tim e t o t im e .
The s t a t e m e n t s ab ove a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e d i r e o t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a o h in g
i s u s u a lly r e s p o n s ib le for
i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s i n p r o b le m o a s e s and
i n s i t u a t i o n s w here g e n e r a l t e a c h i n g p r o b le m s a r e c o n c e r n e d .
Number o f C o n f e r e n o o s Per Week
T h i r t y ^ s i x r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t t h e number o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s
w h i c h , on t h e a v e r a g e , are h e l d e a o h w eek b e t w e e n s t a f f members o f v a r io u s
t y p e s and s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s
o f b u sin e ss s u b je c ts.
Of t h e 3 6 r e p o r t i n g ,
2 4 h o ld o n e c o n f e r e n c e per w e e k , t h r e e h o ld tw o c o n f e r e n c e s per w e e k ,
t h r e e h o ld t h r e e c o n f e r e n c e s p er w e e k , and s i x h o ld f i v e c o n f e r e n c e s per
w eek.
T h is shows t h a t , as a g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e , w h ere c o n f e r e n c e s o ccu r
more or l e s s
a t s t a t e d i n t e r v a l s , on e c o n f e r e n c e p e r w eek i s
w h ic h t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r i s
t h e number
apt t o have w it h a p e r so n in v o lv e d in th e
242
b u s i n e s s te a o h e r t r a i n i n g program .
c o n n e c t io n w it h t h i s s t a t e m e n t ,
A l i m i t a t i o n t o be observed in
h o w e v er, i s t h e f a c t t h a t a v a r i a t i o n
in t h e number o f c o n f e r e n c e s p er w eek i s r e p o r t e d f o r 93 s t a f f members
who a t one tim e or a n o th e r c o n f e r w i t h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
su b jects.
TABLE LXXX
TYPES OF PREPARATION N.ADE FOR INDIVIDUAL CONFERENCES BY STUDENT
TEACHERS OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
S tate
Teachers
C o lle g e s
Type o f
P r e p a r a t io n
Num­
ber
Per
C ent
T otal
S tate
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r sitie s
P riv a te
C o lle g es
and U ni­
v e r sitie s
Num­
ber
Num­
b er
P er
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
C ent
Per
Cent
R eadings a s s ig n e d
before th e
con ference
11
3 1 .4
3
1 0 .3
2
1 6 .6
16
2 1 .0
L esso n plane p r e ­
pared b e fo r e
conference
26
7 4 .2
20
6 6 .9
7
5 8 .3
53
6 9 .7
4
1 1 .4
2
6 .6
2
1 6 .6
6
1 0 .6
N otes t a k e n by s t u d e n t
on l e s s o n w h lo h has
j u s t been t a u g h t
13
3 7 .1
16
5 1 .7
4
3 3 .3
32
4 2 .1
Dependent on imme­
d i a t e needs o f
stu d e n t t e a o h e r
26
8 0 .0
24
8 2 .7
10
8 3 .3
62
8 1 .5
No p r e p a r a t io n
r e q u ir e d f o r
c o n fe r e n c e
Number o f I n s t i ­
t u t i o n s R e p o r tin g
35
29
12
76
245
P r e p a r a t i o n Made f o r I n d i v i d u a l C o n f e r e n c e b y S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s
o f B u sin e ss S u b je cts
T a b le LXXX shows t h e t y p e o f p r e p a r a t i o n made f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l
co n feren ce b y th e stu d e n t teaoh er o f b u s in e s s s u b j e o t s .
The d a t a i n d i ­
c a t e t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e i s one w h ic h i s more or l e s s d ep en d en t
upon t h e im m ed ia te n e e d s o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r .
There i s e v i d e n o e h e r e
t h a t t h e t im e s p e n t i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e i s
u sed f o r p u r p o s e s
w h ic h w i l l b e s t s u i t t h e i n d i v i d u a l needB o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r .
p r e p a r a tio n f o r th e c o n fe r e n c e d o es ta k e p l a c e ,
Where
i t u s u a lly in v o lv e s th e
e v a l u a t i o n o f l e s s o n p l a n s w h ich t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r w i l l b e e x p e c t e d
t
t o t e a c h in th e fu tu r e .
H is p r e p a r a t i o n may a l s o c o n s i s t o f n o t e s w h ic h
have b een t a k e n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a l e s s o n w h i c h he h a s j u s t o b s e r v e d .
H en d erson fo u n d t h e s e l a s t two p r o c e d u r e s t o be t h e o n es w h ic h w ere m o st
o f t e n f o l l o w e d i n t h e s t u d y w h ic h he made o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n s t a t e
tea ch ers c o lle g e s .^
R e a d in g s a s s i g n e d b e f o r e t h e c o n f e r e n c e have a
p l a c e i n t h e con d u ot o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e i n s l i g h t l y o v e r o n e fifth
o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s
o on feren oe i s
o f t h is stud y.
Ho p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l
r e q u ir e d i n a p p r o x im a t e l y o n e - t e n t h o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s
in v o lv e d .
There i s l i t t l e
d if f e r e n c e i n th ese f ig u r e s in term s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t
ty p es o f in s t it u t io n s in v o lv e d .
P r o c e d u r e s Used i n C o n d u c tin g I n d i v i d u a l C o n f e r e n c e s
The i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
1 . Henderson, o£. o l t . , p . 59.
244
s u b j e c t s and v a r i o u s members o f t h e t e a o h i n g s t a f f s seem t o be o f an
in fo rm a l n a tu r e .
H end erson a l s o fo u n d t h i s t o be t h e o a s e i n t h e s t a t e
t e a o h e r s o o l l e g e s i n w h io h he s t u d i e d
stu d e n t te a o h in g in g e n e r a l,^
S l i g h t l y o v e r o n e - f o u r t h o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i o a t e t h a t no s e t p r o ­
c e d u r e i s f o l l o w e d i n t h e oonduot o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s h e l d
i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s w h io h t h e y r e p r e s e n t .
p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w e d i n many i n s t i t u t i o n s
In a d d it io n , th e ty p e o f
seem s t o be t h a t o f h a v in g t h e
s t u d e n t t e a o h e r a sk q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g h i s p r o b le m s and w o rk , w i t h
a n sw er s o f an a d v i s o r y n a t u r e b e i n g g i v e n by t h e s u p e r v i s o r .
L ik e w ise ,
i n many i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e s u p e r v i s o r a s k s q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n in g t h e work
o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r p r o b a b ly i n an a t t e m p t t o s e c u r e an e v a l u a t i o n o f
t h e p r o c e d u r e s and t e c h n i q u e s w h io h t h e s t u d e n t h a s used or i s e x p e c t i n g
to use.
L e c t u r e s b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g t h e c o n f e r e n c e s have a v e r y
m in or p l a c e i n th e oon d u ot o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s .
O nly 5 . 7 p e r cen t
o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t t h a t t h i s p r o c e d u r e i s f o l l o w e d i n t h e oon d u ot
o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s w h io h t h e y r e p r e s e n t .
The p r a c t i c e o f f o l l o w i n g no d e f i n i t e p r o c e d u r e in t h e o o n d u o t o f
t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e and o f p r o v i d i n g l e c t u r e s i s r e p o r t e d t o a
g r e a t e r e x t e n t i n t h e s t a t e t e a o h e r s c o l l e g e s t h a n i t iB i n t h e o t h e r
tw o t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
The q u e s t i o n i n g p r o o e d u r e , e i t h e r f r o m t h e
s t u d e n t or s u p e r v i s o r , i s r e p o r t e d t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t i n t h e p r i v a t e
o o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s th an i t
tio n s.
1 . I b i d . , p . 69
I s i n t h e o t h e r two t y p e s o f i n s t i t u ­
246
TABLE LXXXI
PROCEDURES USED IN CONDUCTING INDIVIDUAL CONFERENCES,
1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
State
T each ers
C o lle g e s
Procedure
S tate
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r sitie s
P riv a te
C o lle g e s
and U n i v e r sir ie s
T otal
Num­
ber
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
b er
P er
Cent
Num­
ber
L e c t u r e b y t h e one
h o ld in g t h e
con feren ce
3
8 .8
1
3 .5
0
0 .0
4
5 .7
Q u e s t i o n s fro m t h e
on e h o l d i n g t h e
co n fere n c e w ith
a n s w e r s from
stu d en t tea c h e r s
17
5 0 .0
18
64. 5
6
8 5 .7
41
5 9 .4
Q u e s t i o n s from
stu d en t tea ch er s
w i t h a n sw ers from
p e r so n s co n d u ctin g
con feren ce
20
6 8 .8
22
7 8 .5
6
6 5 .7
48
6 9 .5
No d e f i n i t e p r o c e ­
d u re f o l l o w e d
11
3 2 .3
6
2 1 .4
1
1 4 .2
18
2 6 .0
Number o f I n s t i ­
tu tio n s R e p u tin g
34
26
7
Per
Cent
69
Per
Cent
240
TABLE LXXXII
PERSONS WHO HOLD GROUP CONFERENCES WITH STUDENT TEACHERS OF BUSINESS
SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
P ersons
H o ld in g
C onferen ces
S tate
Teachers
C o lle g e s
S tate
C o lle g e s
and U ni­
v e r sitie s
P riv a te
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r sitie s
T otal
Num­
ber
P er
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
C ent
Num­
ber
P er
Cent
Num­
ber
P er
Cent
10
2 9 .4
12
4 8 .0
3
2 3 .0
26
3 4 .7
D epartm ent
S u p e r v is o r
9
2 6 .4
1
4 .0
4
3 0 .7
14
1 9 .4
D ir e o to r of
S t u d e n t T ea o h in g
8
2 3 .6
13
5 2 .0
6
3 8 .4
26
3 6 .1
D ir e o to r o f S tu dent
T eaoh in g i n B u s i ­
n ess S u bject
7
2 0 .5
6
2 0 .0
3
2 3 .0
15
2 0 .8
N on-d ep artm en t
S u p e r v is o r
1
2 .9
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
1
1 .3
Head o f D ep artm en t
o f Commerce
5
1 4 .7
0
0 .0
0
0 .0
5
6 .9
T r a in in g S u p e r v i s o r
Number o f I n s t i ­
t u t i o n s R e p o r t in g
34
25
13
72
Group C o n f e r e n c e s
T a b le s LXXXII, LXXXIII, and 1XXXIV i n d i c a t e t h e p e r s o n s who h o ld grou p
c o n f e r e n c e s , t h e p r e p a r a t i o n w h io h i s made f o r t h e s e c o n f e r e n c e s , and t h e
p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d i n t h e o o n d u o t o f t h e g ro u p c o n f e r e n c e s *
247
F o r s o n s Who Conduct Group C o n f e r e n c e s
T a b le LXXJII shows t h e p e r s o n s who are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e oonduot
o f group c o n fe r e n c e s w it h stu d en t te a o h e r s o f b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s .
D a ta
i n t h e t a b l e i n d i o a t e t h a t e i t h e r t h e d e p a r tm e n t s u p e r v i s o r o r t h e
t r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r i s t h e p e r s o n m o s t l i k e l y t o be c a l l e d upon t o oon­
d u ot t h e g r o u p c o n f e r e n c e s .
T h is a g r e e s w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f H end erson
who r e p o r t s t h a t i n a lm o s t a l l o f t h e s t a t e T ea o h ers C o l l e g e s w h ic h he
s t u d i e d t h e s u p e r v i s o r , e i t h e r d e p a r tm e n t or t r a i n i n g , i s
t o oonduot c o n fe r e n c e s o f t h i s n a tu r e .
c a l l e d upon
As i n t h e c a s e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l
c o n f e r e n c e s , t h i s p r o b a b ly r e s u l t s fro m th e c l o s e c o n t a c t w h io h t h e
s u p e r v i s o r m a i n t a i n s w it h t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s , t h e r e b y
c a l l i n g f o r a s s ig n m e n t t o t h i s t a s k .
I n 3 6 , 1 p er c e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e d i r e o t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g
i s o a l l e d upon t o
c o n d u ct t h e grou p c o n f e r e n o e .
I n some i n s t a n c e s , t h e group
c o n f e r e n c e s oonducted by d i r e c t o r s o f stu d e n t te a o h in g are i n a d d it io n t o th e
onea c o n d u c t e d b y t h e s u p e r v i s o r s .
T h is i s p r o b a b ly e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t
t h a t t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u ch a program f e e l t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r c a n p r e ­
s e n t v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l s and a d v i c e p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e b u s i n e s s
s u b j e c t s t a u g h t w h i l e t h e d i r e o t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g oan p r e s e n t v a l u a b l e
a d v i c e and m a t e r i a l s o f a more g e n e r a l n a t u r e .
The h e a d s o f d e p a r tm e n ts o f commerce and n o n -d e p a r tm e n t s u p e r v i s o r s
do n o t have a l a r g e p a r t i n t h e o on d u ot o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h
stu d en t te a c h e r s o f b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s .
In t h e c a s e o f t h e s t a t e c o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s and t h e p r iv a u e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , t h e y have no
1• I b id • , p• 60.
248
p a rt at a l l .
I n d i v i d u a l s o t h e r th a n t h e o n e s l i s t e d
on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and
r e p o r t e d i n Table UtXXII who c o n d u c t g r o u p c o n f e r e n c e s a re an a s s i s t a n t
i n a departm ent o f commerce, t h e head o f a d ep artm en t o f e d u c a t i o n , t h e
s u p e r in t e n d e n t of a p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m ,
and a s p e c i a l methods i n s t r u c t o r .
The r e s p o n d e n ts r e p o r t t h a t t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o n ­
d u c t o f t h e group c o n f e r e n c e i n one c a s e f o r e a c h .
I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t s b e i n g a sk ed who c o n d u c ts t h e group
c o n f e r e n c e s , t h e y w ere asked t o i n d i o a t e t h e r e a s o n s why t h e s e i n d i v i ­
d u a ls are c a l l e d upon t o p erform t h i s t a s k .
own words f o llo w *
The t i t l e s
T h eir a n s w e r s, g i v e n i n t h e i r
in p a r e n th e s is in d ic a te th e t i t l e s of th e
p e r s o n or p erso n s who conduct c o n f e r e n c e s o f t h i s n a tu re in t h e i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s t o whioh t h e s ta te m e n t a p p l i e s .
S tate T eaohers C o lle g e s
B ecau se t h e y have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e t r a i n i n g .
For c o n v e n ie n c e .
(T r a in in g s u p e r v i s o r )
( T r a in in g s u p e r v i s o r , d i r e c t o r o f s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s )
D e f i n i t e l y a s s ig n e d t h i s w o rk .
su b jects)
( D i r e c t o r o f s tu d e n t t e a c h in g i n b u s i n e s s
To d i s c u s s problems o f common i n t e r e s t ,
(Department s u p e r v i s o r )
The d i r e c t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a o h in g m e e t s a l l s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a t s c h e d u le d
g a t h e r in g s f o r a g e n e r a l l e c t u r e on m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o p r o f e s s i o n a l
success.
( D ir e c t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g , d ep a rtm en t s u p e r v i s o r )
Our la b o r a t o r y s c h o o l work i s
s t a f f in t e o h n i o a l s u b j e c t s .
L e c t u r e s on m anners, e t o .
h a n d led by members o f t h e c o l l e g e t e a o h in g
(D ep a rtm en t s u p e r v i s o r )
( A s s i s t a n t i n D epartm ent o f Commerce)
G eneral i n s t r u c t i o n s are g i v e n a l l t e a c h e r s a s a means o f t r a i n i n g .
( D ir e o to r o f stu d en t t e a o h i n g )
P o l i c y of t h e D ir e o t o r o f S tu d e n t T e a c h i n g .
(Department s u p e r v i s o r )
2*9
S t a t e C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s
To c o o r d i n a t e and d i s o u s s g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n .
te a c h in g , t r a in in g su p e r v iso r )
(D ir e o to r o f stu d e n t
A ll stu d e n t te a o h e r s are e n r o l le d in a c l a s s w ith t h e d ir e c t o r o f stu d e n t
te a o h in g .
(D epartm ent s u p e r v i s o r , d i r e o t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g )
A l l c a d e t s m eet f o r an hour onoe a w eek w i t h t h e D i r e o t o r o f S t u d e n t
T e a o h in g .
(D ireo to r o f stu d en t te a c h in g )
P o l i c y , common p r o b le m s .
(D ir e o to r o f stu d en t te a o h in g )
The head o f t h e d ep artm en t c f e d u c a t i o n and t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f s c h o o l s
g i v e s t u d e n t f u r t h e r s u g g e s t i o n s and g e t b e t t e r a c q u a in t e d w i t h t h e i r
tea c h in g p r o s p e c ts .
(Head o f D epartm ent o f E d u c a t i o n , S u p e r in t e n d e n t o f
sc h o o ls)
h a k e s g e n e r a l p l a n fo r w o rk o f t h e t e a c h e r .
I n c l o s e to u c h w i t h t h e
c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n , c o o p e r a t i v e a tm o s p h e r e f u r t h e r e d .
(T ra in in g
su p e r v iso r )
Our w e e k l y group c o n f e r e n c e i s a t t e n d e d b y fo u r s t a f f members. The
m ethods work i n c a r r i e d d u r in g s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g and i s c o n c o m it a n t
w it h i t .
(D ir e c to r of stu d en t t e a o h in g , d ir e c to r o f stu d en t te a c h in g in
b u sin e ss su b je c ts)
They s u p e r v i s e a l l p la n s made b y s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s and are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
g r a d in g .
(T rain in g s u p e r v is o r )
A l l c a d e t t e a c h e r 6 come t o g e t h e r f o r c o n f e r e n c e two t i m e s e a c h w eek .
(D ir e o to r of stu d en t te a o h in g in b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s )
To c o o r d i n a t e t h e work o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r and t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r .
(T ra in in g s u p e r v is o r , d i r e c t o r o f stu d e n t t e a o h in g , d ir e o to r o f
s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g in b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s )
I t s a c h t h e b o y s i n a u b j e o t m a t t e r , m e t h o d s , and d i r e c t t h e i r w ork in.
s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g . I am a o n e - t e a c h e r b u s i n e s s t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g d e p a r t m e n t .
(T ra in in g s u p e r v iso r )
A p p a r e n t l y t h e b e s t way t o h a n d le group p r o b le m s .
te a o h in g )
(D ire o to r o f stu d e n t
C r i t i o t e a o h e r f o r o b v io u s r e a s o n s ] D i r e o t o r o f S u p e r v is e d T eaching*
to
keep i n t o u c h w i t h t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n g e n e r a l .
(T rain in g s u p e r v is o r ,
d ir e c to r o f student te a o h in g )
P r i v a t e C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s
Group c o n f e r e n c e s h eld w e e k l y b y t h e d i r e c t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g .
(T ra in in g s u p e r v is o r , d i r e c t o r o f stu d e n t te a o h in g )
26.0
Group c o n f e r e n c e s h e ld w e e k ly t o d i s c u s s p ro b lem s o f t e a c h i n g , e x c h a n g e
e x p e r i e n c e s , b r i n g ab ou t im p ro vem en t.
In c h a r g e o f e n t i r e s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g program i n c o m m erc ia l s u b j e c t s .
(D ep a rtm en t s u p e r v i s o r )
For g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s and s o l u t i o n o f v a r i o u s p r o b le m s t h a t a r i s e .
(D ir e o to r o f stu d en t te a c h in g )
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e above i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e s o n l y on e p o i n t a b o u t
w h ich t h e r e
i s agreem en t.
I t i s t h e b e l i e f o f many o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s
t h a t t h e d i r e c t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g s h o u ld c o n d u c t g r o u p c o n f e r e n c e s
i n o r d e r t o d i s o u s s p r o b le m s or a g e n e r a l n a t u r e .
How ever, w h ere t h i s
r e a s o n i s r e p o r t e d , a number o f t r a i n i n g or d ep a rtm en t s u p e r v i s o r s a re
a l s o r e p o r t e d t o c o n d u c t group c o n f e r e n c e s .
th a t th e
T h is would se e m t o im p ly
grou p c o n f e r e n c e c o n d u c te d b y t h e s u p e r v i s o r s w o u ld be o f a n a t u r e
d e a lin g w it h th e
p ro b lem s t h a t c o n c e r n b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n i n
g e n e r a l and
n o t n e c e s s a r i l y g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b le m s .
T h ere i s
no a g reem en t a s t o t h e number o f grou p c o n f e r e n c e s w h ioh
s h o u ld b e h e l d e a c h w e e k .
I n m ost in s t a n c e s th e re sp o n d e n ts in d ic a t e
t h a t t h e number v a r i e s t o su ch an e x t e n t t h a t t h e y c a n n o t r e p o r t t h e
a v e r s e number p e r w e e k .
i s r e p o r t e d , t h e number i s
Vfhere t h e number o f c o n f e r e n c e s h e ld p er week
a lm o s t i n v a r i a b l y o n e .
P r e p a r a t i o n Made f o r Group C o n f e r e n c e s by S tu d e n t
T ea o h ers o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s
The d a t a i n T a b le LXXX1I1 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e t y p e o f p r e p a r a t i o n made
f o r t h e g r o u p c o n f e r e n c e betw een s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s and
members o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f s i s more l i k e l y t o be t h a t o f a s s i g n e d
261
TABLE LXXXXII
TYPES OF PREPARATION IJfflS I OH 2ROUF CONFERENCES uY STUDENT TEACHERS
OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 -1 P 3 B
T yp es o f
P r e p a r a tio n
State
Teachers
C o lle g e s
S tate
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r sitie s
P riv a te
C o lle g e s
and t n i v e r sit ie s
T o ta l
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
N tim­
ber
P er
C ent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
R e a d in g s a s s i g n e d
b efo re th e
con feren ce
15
5 0 .0
14
6 3 .6
8
6 1 .5
37
5 6 .9
L esson p la n s pre­
p a red b e f o r e
con ference
7
2 3 .3
4
1 8 .1
5
3 8 .4
16
2 4 .6
Ho p r e p a r a t i o n
r e q u ir e d fo r
con feren ce
7
2 3 .3
2
D.O
2
1 5 .3
11
1 6 .9
N otes ta k en by
stu d en t teach er
on l e s s o n s p r e ­
v io u s ly taught
5
1 6 .6
8
3 6 .3
2
1 5 .3
15
2 3 .0
d e p e n d e n t on imme­
d i a t e needs o f
stu d en t teach er
8
2 6 .6
7
3 1 .8
3
2 3 .0
18
2 7 .6
Number o f I n s t i ­
t u t i o n s R e p o r tin g
30
r e a d i n g s t h a n a n y o th e r t y p e .
22
13
65
F i f t y - s i x and n i n e - t e n t h s p er c e n t o f th e
r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s t y p e of p r e p a r a t i o n i s mode in t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s .
T h is t y p e o f p r e p a r a t i o n i s r e q u ir e d in a l l t h r o e t y p o s
e x t e n t t h a n a r e o th e r t y p e s of p r e p a r a t i o n .
o f i n s t i t u t i o n s to a g r e a t e r
I n a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - f o u r t h o f th e
268
i n s t i t u t i o n s , l e s s o n p l a n s and n o t e s on o b s e r v e d l e s s o n s
b a s i s o f d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e grou p c o n f e r e n c e *
a re used a s a
In th e p r iv a t e c o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s , l e s s o n p l a n s a r e used a s a t y p e o f p r e p a r a t i o n f o r
t h e group c o n f e r e n o e i n a c o n s i d e r d i l e number o f i n s t a n c e s .
In t h i s ty p e
o f i n s t i t u t i o n s , a lm o s t t w o - f i f t h s r e q u i r e t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f l e c t o r p l a n s
as a b a s i s o f t h e grou p d i s c u s s i o n *
I n a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f s c h o o l s , th e r e i s no s e t t y p e o f p rep ­
a r a t i o n made by s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s f o r t h e g ro u p con­
feren ces.
T h is i s r e p o r t e d t o be t h e c a s e i n 2 7 . 6 p er c e n t o f t h e i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s r e p o r t i n g on t h i s p o i n t .
Other t y p e s o f p r e p a r a t i o n l i s t e d
t o t h o s e p r i n t e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,
by the r e s p o n d sr ta , i n a d d itio n
a r e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t e a c h i n g and
t e a c h i n g under o b s e r v a t i o n , o b s e r v a t i o n s i n o t h e r c o u r s e s r e p o r t e d a t
c o n f e r e n c e s , o b s e r v a t i o n s made, p e r s o n a l p r o b le m s , o b s e r v a t i o n s made b y
r e g u l a r t e a o h e r , and r e p o r t s f o l l o w e d by group d i s c u s s i o n .
Bach o f t h e s e
t y p e s o f p r e p a r a t i o n , i f t h e y o r e s u o h , a r e r e p o r t e d one tim e e a o h .
P r o c e d u r e s Used i n C o n d u c tin g Group C o n f e r e n c e s
I n c o n n e c t i o n w it h g r o u p c o n f e r e n c e s .-old f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f
b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s , Dodd w r i t e s a s f o l l o w s *
B s p e c i a l l y i n t h e c a s e o f grou p c o n f e r e n c e s , p r e p a r a t i o n
sh o u ld be made i n th e way o f a f o r m u l a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s o f
t o p i c s t o be d i s c u s s e d .
The g ro u p c o n f e r e n c e a c t i v i t i e s should
c o n s i s t o f s o l v i n g p r o b le m s t h a t a r i s e i n t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s ,
and o f e f f o r t s t o c o r r e c t a d v e r s o a t t i t u d e s .
Good work s h o u ld
be commandedj s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s s h o u ld make a n a l y s e s o f v a r i o u s
s i t u a t i o n s a r is in g in c o n n e c tio n w ith te a c h in g , in c lu d in g
e v a l u a t i o n s o f work d o n e , and o f t h e i r own s u c c e s s .^ -
1. Dodd, op. o i t . . p. 27.
2ES
TABLE LXXXIV
PROCEDURES USED IN CONDUCTING GROUP CONFERENCES, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
S tate
Teaohers
C o lle g e s
Procedures
S ta ts
C o lle g e s
and U n lv e r s it ie s
P riv a te
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r sitie s
T otal
Num­
ber
Per
C ent
Num­
ber
Per
Cent
Num­
ber
Per
C ent
L e e t u r e b y t h e one
h o ld in g t h e
con feren ce
11
3 1 .4
13
5 4 .1
7
5 3 .8
31
4 3 .0
Q u e s t io n s f r o m t h e
one h o l d i n g t h e
co n feren ce w ith
an sw ers fro m
stu d en t te a c h e r s
18
5 1 .4
14
5 8 .3
9
6 9 .2
41
6 6 .9
Q u e s t io n s fr o m
stu d en t te a c h e r s
w i t h a n sw e r s from
p erso n s co n d u ctin g
con ference
18
6 1 .4
20
8 3 .3
9
6 9 .2
47
6 5 .2
No d e f i n i t e p r o c e ­
d u re f o l l o w e d
3
8 .5
1
4 .1
1
7 .6
Number o f I n s t i ­
t u t i o n s R e p o r t in g
36
24
13
Num­ P e r
b er C ent
6
6 .9
72
T a b le LXXXIV show s t h a t g ro u p c o n f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f
b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f members i n many i n s t a n c e s , f o l l o w
t h e a d v io e o f Dodd,
Over o n e - h a l f o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s In a l l o f t h e d i f f e r e n t
ty p es o f i n s t i t u t i o n s as w e ll as th o se in sep a ra te ty p es re p o r t t h a t q u estio n s
a r e f o r m u l a t e d b y e i t h e r t h e p e r s o n h o l d i n g t h e c o n f e r e n c e or b y s t u d e n t
1
254
t e a c h e r s f o r purposos o f d i s c u s s i o n .
T his would seem t o l e a d t o t h e
c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e , fo rm a l or i n f o r m a l , has an
I m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n t h e o o n d u c t o f w e e k l y group c o n f e r e n c e s h e ld f o r
stu d en t te a c h e r s.
I n 4 3 . 0 p er o e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t i n g on t h i s p o i n t ,
l e o t u r e s b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l h o l d i n g t h e c o n fe r e n c e are p r e s e n t e d a t some
o f th e m eetin g s.
T h is i s t r u e i n s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f t h e
s t a t e t e a c h e r s o o l l e g e s and i n s l i g h t l y more t h a n o n e - h a l f o f t h e
o t h e r tw o t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
I n many o a s e s f o r e a c h t y p e o f i n s t i ­
t u t i o n , t h e l e c t u r e t e c h n i q u e i s f o l l o w e d in a d d i t i o n t o t h e q u e s t i o n
t e c h n i q u e r e p o r t e d i n t h e p a r a g r a p h a b ov e.
A c o m p a r is o n o f T a b le LXX3CIT and LXXX1 I n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e group
c o n f e r e n c e s t e n d t o b e b e t t e r o r g a n iz e d than i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s .
In t h e form er t a b l e ,
it
is
shown t h a t no d e f i n i t e p r o ced u re i s f o l l o w e d
i n 6 . 9 p e r o e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i l e i n Table LXXXI i t
t h a t no d e f i n i t e p r o c e d u r e i s
i s shown
f o l l o w e d i n 2 6 . 0 p er o e n t o f t h e i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s r e p o r t i n g on t h i s p o i n t .
C o n f e r e n c e s H eld L e s s O f t e n Than ffo c k ly
S e v e n s t a t e t e a c h e r s o o l l e g e s oonduot group c o n f e r e n c e s l e s s o f t e n
th a n w e e k ly .
W ith r e g a r d t o t h e number of t im e s t h e s e group c o n f e r e n c e s
a r e h e l d , t h e r e s p o n d e n t i n one s c h o o l i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y are h e ld as
n e e d e d , i n tw o t h e y a r e h e ld
a t ’’various?’ i n t e r v a l s ,
i n one s o h o o l t h e y
a r e h e l d on e t im e o n l y , i n a n o t h e r s o h o o l t h e y a re h e ld e v e r y two w e e k s ,
and i n s t i l l
a n o t h e r s o h o o l ’"The s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s r e p o r t t o t h e o o l l e g e
o n o e f o r a gro u p c o n f e r e n c e . *
I n t h e s ev en th s o h o o l , group o o n f e r e n o e s
a r e h e l d ’’o c c a s i o n a l l y . "
The p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e oonduct o f t h e s e group o o n f e r e n o e s
256
h e l d l e s s o f t e n t h a n w e e k ly 1 b t h e head o f a d e p a r tm e n t o f oommeroe and
a fie ld
s u p e r v i s o r i n one o a s e e a o h .
I n tw o o a s e s e a o h , t h e d i r e c t o r s
o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g and t h e t r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
t h e oon d uot o f t h e s e group o o n f e r e n o e s .
One i n s t i t u t i o n f a i l e d t o r e ­
p o r t on t h i s p o i n t .
The r e s p o n d e n t s from one s t a t e u n i v e r s i t y and one p r i v a t e c o l l e g e or
u n i v e r s i t y r e p o r t t h a t group o o n f e r e n o e s a re h e ld e v e r y tw o w e e k s and one
t i m e a m onth, r e s p e c t i v e l y .
v e r s i t y , th e con ference i s
I n t h e o a s e o f t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e or u n i­
co n d u cted by a t r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r .
respondent in th e s t a t e u n iv e r s ity f a i l e d t o rep o rt th e t i t l e
The
o f th e
p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e oonduot o f t h e group c o n f e r e n c e .
I n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s h e ld l e s s
o f t h e program i n many i n s t i t u t i o n s .
o f t e n th a n w e e k l y a re n o t a p a r t
One s t a t e t e a o h e r s o o l l e g e and one
p r i v a t e c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y r e p o r t s t h a t c o n f e r e n c e s o f t h i s t y p e are
h e ld as n e e d e d .
In th e s t a t o te a c h e r s c o l l e g e , th e c o n fe r e n c e i s con­
d u c t e d b y t h e head o f t h e d e p a rtm en t o f commerce.
In th e p r iv a te o o lle g e
o r u n i v e r s i t y , t h e c o n f e r e n c e i s c o n d u c te d by t h e d i r e o t o r o f s t u d e n t
te a o h in g in b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s .
Summary
' 1 . I n a l l o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y , o n ly one f a i l s
t o i n d i c a t e t h a t c o n f e r e n c e s a re a p a r t o f t h e program o f s t u d e n t t e a c h ­
in g in b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s .
C o n f e r e n c e s a r e an e s s e n t i a l p h a se o f su ch
a program.
A u t h o r i t i e s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e t h a t t h e y are v a l u a b l e and
e sse n tia l.
A l l t h e s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s and a l l t h e p r i v a t e
25fi
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e p o r t t h a t b o t h i n d i v i d u a l and group con­
f e r e n c e s a re h e ld a t l e a s t w e e k ly *
I n 82*0 p e r o e n t o f t h e s t a t e
t e a o h e r s c o l l e g e s , b o t h i n d i v i d u a l and group o o n f e r e n o e s a re h e ld a t
l e a s t w e e k ly *
\
2* I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e w e e k l y o o n f e r e n o e s , c o n f e r e n c e s h eld l e s s
o f t e n t h a n w e e k l y a r e c o n d u c te d by a s t a f f member i n on e p r i v a t e c o l l e g e
or u n i v e r s i t y and i n one s t a t e c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y .
In th e s ta te
t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s , s e v e n i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t t h a t o o n f e r e n o e s a re h e ld
lo s s
o fte n th an w eek ly .
One f a i l s t o r e p o r t any t y p e o f c o n f e r e n c e ,
w e e k l y , l e s s t h a n w e e k l y , g r o u p , or i n d i v i d u a l .
T h is s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d ,
o f c o u r s e , be c o r r e c t e d *
'
3 . I n m o st i n s t a n c e s , t h e t r a i n i n g or d e p a rtm en t s u p e r v i s o r i a
r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e con d u ct o f t h e w e e k ly in d iv id u a l o o n fe r e n c e .
T h is
seem s t o b e a w i s e p l a n a s t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s a r e i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h
t h e w ork o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s and a r e , t h e r e b y ,
q u a l i f i e d t o a d v i s e w i t h t h e s t u d e n t r e g a r d i n g h i s work*
The d i r e o t o r
o f stu d e n t te a c h in g i s r e s p o n s i b le f o r th e conduct o f w e e k ly in d iv id u a l
c o n f e r e n c e s i n 35*8 p e r c e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
T h ere are good r e a s o n s
why t h i s p r a c t i c e , i n some i n s t a n c e s , may be a d v i s a b l e *
4.
The t r a i n i n g or d e p a r tm e n t s u p e r v i s o r i s m ost l i k e l y t o be o a l l e d
upon t o c o n d u ct t h e w e e k l y i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e b e c a u s e i t
is f e l t th at
he i s i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e work o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r o f b u s i n e s s
s u b j e c t s and i s , t h e r e f o r e , b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d t o c o n d u c t t h e s e c o n f e r e n c e s
t h a n anyone e l s e *
6* In m ost i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e number o f w e e k l y i n d i v i d u a l o o n f e r e n o e s
v a ries.
Where an a v e r a g e number o f c o n f e r e n c e s per w e e k i s r e p o r t e d .
257
a p p r o x im a te ly tw o -th ir d B o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s
i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s number i s
one*
\
6 . The p r e p a r a t i o n w h io h t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s
i s o a l l e d up on t o make f o r i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s i s d ep en d en t upon h i s
im m ed ia te n e e d s i n 8 1 . 5 p er o e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
t o be a w i s e p l a n .
T h is w ould seem
The p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e w e e k l y i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e
i s moat l i k e l y t o b e t h a t o f p r e p a r i n g l e s s o n p l a n s f o r l e s s o n s t o be
t a u g h t o r o f t a k i n g n o t e s on l e s s o n s w h io h have b een o b s e r v e d .
These
t y p e s o f p r e p a r a t i o n a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e r e q u i r e d b y s u p e r v i s o r s in
f i e l d s o th e r th a n b u s in e s s e d u c a tio n .
7.
I n c o n d u c t i n g t h e w e e k l y i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s , s t a f f memVbers
u s u a l ly f o l l o w tw o p r o c e d u r e s .
The s t u d e n t t e a c h e r a s k s q u e s t i o n s about
h i s p r o b le m s or t h e s t a f f member a s k s t h e
s t u d e n t t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s about
p r o b le m s w h io h he t h i n k s r e l a t e t o t h e Im provem ent o f t e a c h :n g .
The
l e c t u r e m ethod o f c o n d u c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s i s used i n o n ly 5 . 7
p er o e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s
s h o u ld be a v o id e d
in o l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y .
The l a t t e r method
a s i t d o e s n o t le n d i t s e l f t o t h i s c o u r s e i n an ad eq u a te
m an n er•
8* The t r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r or t h e d e p a r t m e n t s u p e r v i s o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e
f o r t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e w e e k l y g ro u p c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f
b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s in 5 4 .1 per c e n t o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
stud en t te a c h in g i s
c a lle d
The d i r e c t o r o f
upon t o o o n d u c t w e e k ly group c o n f e r e n c e s i n
3 6 .1 per o e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s *
9.
The d i r e o t o r
g ro u p c o n f e r e n c e s
of s tu d e n t te a o h in g i s
c u llo d upon t o c o n d u ct w e e k ly
i n o rd er t o d i s o u s s p r o b le m s o f a g e n e r a l n a tu r e and
n o t t h o s e r e l a t i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y t o p r o b le m s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g in b u s i n e s s
268
su b jects.
There i s a d e f i n i t e p lc .c e i n & program, o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g
f o r c o n f e r e n c e s co n d u c te d b y t h e d i r e o t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g .
S uch a
p r e n t i c e should he commended.
1 0 . The p r e p a r a t i o n w hioh t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s
i s c a l l e d upon t o make f o r w e e k l y g r o u p c o n f e r e n c e s i s t h a t o f r e a d i n g
m a t e r i a l s v/hich have b e e n a s s i g n e d p r e v i o u s t o t h e g ro u p m e e tin g *
i s t r u e i n 5 6 . 9 per o e n t of t h e
o f th e j n s t i t u t i o n s ,
in stitu tio n s.
T h is
I n a p p r o x im a t e l y o n e - f o u r t h
t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s may be o& lled
upon t o p r e p a r e f o r t h e w e e k ly grou p c o n f e r e n c e s b y w r i t i n g l e s s o n p la n s
o f t a k i n g n o t e s on l e s s o n s w h io h have been o b s e r v e d .
1 1 . The w e e k l y g r o u p c o n f e r e n c e u s u a l l y f o l l o w s a d e f i n i t e p r o c e d u r e .
In o lu d e d i n t h i s d e f i n i t e p r o c e d u r e may be l e c t u r e B g i v e n b y t h e one con­
d u c t in g t h e c o n f e r e n c e o r a q u e s t i o n p r o o e d u r e , t h e q u e s t i o n s b e i n g o r i g ­
i n a t e d b y e i t h e r t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r or by t h e p e r s o n c o n d u c t in g t h e
con ference.
Dodd.
I n g e n e r a l , t h e s e p r a c t i c e s f o l l o w t h e rec o m m e n d a tio n s o f
CHAPTER VII
CONCLUSIONS AND RECGMuENDATIONS
C o n c lu s io n s
The c o n c l u s i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s
p resen ted in p reced in g c h a p te r s .
c h a p t e r a re b ased upon t h e d a t a
No a t t e m p t i s made t o s u p p ly i n t e r p r e ­
t a t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s w hioh a re n o t b a s e d upon t h e d a t a o f t h i s d o cu ­
m en t.
P r a c t i c e s i n Regard t o P r o v i s i o n s Made f o r S t u d e n t T eaoh in g
C o u r se s i n B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s
1.
The e u o o e s a o f ^ program o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s ,
l i k e t h a t o f a n y d e p a r t m e n t a l i s e d s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g program , i s d e p e n d e n t
upon a p r o p e r o o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e t h e o r y p r e s e n t e d b y c o l l e g e i n s t r u c t o r a
i n s u b j e o t m a t t e r c o u r s e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l o o u r s e s and t h e work p r e s e n t e d
by th e s u p e r v is o r s in the t r a in i n g s c h o o l s .
Some a t te m p t i s made t o p r o ­
v id e c o o r d in a tlo n o f v a rio u s ty p e s in s l i g h t l y over f o u r - f i f t h s o f t h e in ­
s t i t u t i o n s in c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y .
There i s g e n e r a l agreem ent among w r i t e r s i n t h e f i e l d
th a t t h is p ra o tio e i s
tea o h in g .
o f s t u d e n t tea o h in g
a n e c e s s a r y e le m e n t i n a a d e q u a te program o f s t u d e n t
No o p p o s i t i o n has b e e n found b y t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r w hioh w i l l show
d is s e n tin g o p in io n s.
The r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o p a g e s 22 and 23 o f t h i s docu­
ment f o r s u b s t a n t i a t i n g c r i t e r i a as p r e s e n t e d b y L e a r n e d , B a g le y , Mcilurry,
260
S t r a y e r , D e a r b o r n , K a n d el, J o s s e l y n , F o s t e r , F r i a t o e , and S o h o r l i n g .
In
a d d i t i o n , A rm entrout e m p h a s iz e s t h i s p o i n t when he s t a t e s i
The s u c c e s s o f a n y program o f t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g d ep en d s
upon a p ro p er c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e ; t h e d e v e l o p ­
m ent o f a o l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e t r a i n i n g d ep a rtm en t
and t h e acad em ic and p r o f e s s i o n a l d e p a r t m e n t s . 1
D a ta in t h i s document show t h a t a lm o s t o n e - f i f t h o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s
t r a i n i n g t e a o h e r s f o r b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s do n o t p r o v id e an y means o f
c o r r e l a t i n g t h e work o f t h e c o l l e g e d e p a r tm e n ts o f e d u c a t i o n and oomraeroe
and t h a t o f t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s .
T h is, o f c o u r s e , i n d i c a t e s a d e f i n i t e
w e a k e n s s i n t h e program o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s i n t h e s e
s o h o o l s — a w e a k n e ss w hioh c a n b e overoom e, t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g a more su b ­
s t a n t i a l program i n t h i s f i e l d .
Methods t o b e f o l l o w e d i n b r i n g i n g ab ou t a c l o s e r c o r r e l a t i o n
b e tw e e n t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e a re s u g g e s t e d from t h e a n sw ers g i v e n i n t h e
retu rn ed q u e s tio n n a ir e s .
Among t h e s e a re ( l ) t h e s h a r i n g o f s u p e r v i s i o n
o f b u s i n e s s s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g d u t i e s by members o f t h e c o l l e g e f a c u l t y *
(2)
a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y members o f t h e oommeroe and e d u c a t i o n f a c u l ­
tie s
i n th e fo r m u la tio n o f t r a in i n g s o h o o l p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g t o b u sin e ss
su b jects*
( 3 ) arrangem ent f o r or a c t u a l t e a c h i n g o f d e m o n s t r a t io n l e s s o n s
by t h e s u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s or q u a l i f i e d
members o f t h e r e g u l a r oommeroe or e d u c a t i o n f a c u l t y * and ( 4 ) t h e a s s i s t a n c e
by o o l l e g e oommeroe and e d u o a t i o n f a o u l t y members I n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and
s u p e r v is io n o f e x p e r im e n ta tio n in b u s in e s s s u b je c ts in th e t r a in in g s c h o o ls .
I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , no m e n t io n was made b y t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a s t o t h e v a lu e
o f p r o f e s s io n a l iz e d s u b j e c t m atter c o u r s e s i n e i t h e r th e retu rn ed q u e s tio n ­
n a i r e s or l e t t e r s aooom panying t h e r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .
1 . Armentrout, op. c l t . , p . 38.
261
2 • S u p e r v is o r s i n d i o a t e t h a t t h e o b j c o t I v e s o f o o u r s o s i n
s t u d e n t t e a o h in g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s a r e o f su o h _a n a t u r e aa t o
p r o v i d e , where f a c i l i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e , a d e q u a te i n s t r u c t i o n i n
b o th c l a s s and n o n - o la s a a o t i v l t i e s n e o e a s a r y f o r t h e d e v e lo p m e n t
of e f f i o l e n t tea o h ers.
S u p e r v i s o r s o f stu d en t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s g e n e r a l l y
agree w i t h a u t h o r it ie s in th e f i e l d
o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g a s t o w hat
th e p u r p o se s of c o u rses in s tu d e n t te a o h in g sh o u ld b e .
Mead b e l i e v e s
t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g are o b j e c t i v e s w h io h are o f m a jo r im p o r ta n c e t
" ( 1 ) t h e know led ge, or s u b j e c t m a t t e r , or s c h o l a r s h i p o u tc o m e s s o u g h t ;
( 2 ) t h e t e c h n i q u e s , p r i n c i p l e s or m e th o d , and t e a c h i n g d e v l o e s d e s i r e d ;
(3 ) p r o f e s s i o n a l i d e a l s , i n t e r e s t s
and a t t i t u d e s ;
(4) th e
'e x tr a '
sohool
or com m unity r e l a t i o n s o f t h e t e a c h e r ; and ( 5 ) p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s .
A somewhat s i m i l a r l i s t
i s p r e s e n t e d b y M ax w ell and H e u s s e r .
T h ese
a t t h o r s b e l i e v e t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s f o r s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g s h o u ld be c o n ­
ce r n e d w i t h th e t e a o h e r 1s p e r s o n a l i t y ,
s o h o o l and o l a s s r o o m m an agem en t,
an u n d e r s t a n d in g o f p u p i l s , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r ,
s k i l l in
t h e s e l e c t i o n and u s e of m e th o d , and aim s r e l a t i n g t o p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t i t u d e s
and p r o f e s s i o n a l grow th .
p
B r e s l i o h a l s o prepared a l i s t
o f o b je o tiv e s fo r stu d en t te a c h in g
w hioh a r e B im ilar t o t h o s e a d v o c a t e d b y Mead and M axw ell and H e u s s e r .®
The r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o p a g e 4 6 o f t h i s docu m en t f o r a c o m p le te
su m m arizin g s ta te m e n t o f t h i s w r i t e r .
1 . Mead, op. o i t . , p . 32.
2 . Maxwell and R e u tser, o£. o i t . , p p . 3 -1 0 .
3 . B r e s lio h , 0£ . o i t . , p . 1.
262
A com parison, o f t h e d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g
in b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s w ith th o s e l i s t e d
fie ld
by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e
o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g shows g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t.
T h is f a c t i s
i n d i c a t i v e o f a p r o g r e s s i v e a t t i t u d e on t h e p a r t o f t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e
for th e tr a in in g o f fu tu re tea o h ers o f b u sin e ss s u b j e c ts .
a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l i m i t a t i o n s and f a c i l i t i e s
T ru e, t i m e ,
som etim e p r e v e n t t h e accom­
p l is h m e n t o f a l l o f t h e v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f t h e s e d e s i r a b l e o u t c o m e s .
In s p it e o f t h i s ,
i t i s o f v a l u e t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r t o know w hat s h o u ld
be done i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e t y p e o f b u s i n e s s t e a c h e r who
w i l l b e an a s s e t t o t h e s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h ic h em p lo y s him .
A lt h o u g h t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n d i o a t e a g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f
what s h o u l d be a c c o m p lis h e d i n a c o u r s e i n s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s
su b jects,
a list
o f su ch o b j e c t i v e s i s n o t g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t
t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s or t o o t h e r s c o n c e r n e d w i t h su c h a program .
L e s s t h a n o n e - h a l f o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s have p rep a red s u c h l i s t s .
S c h o r l l n g b e l i e v e s t h a t , "The s t a f f o f a t r a i n i n g s o h o o l s h o u ld
f o r m u l a t e a f a i r l y d e f i n i t e l i 3 t o f o b j e c t i v e s w h ich i s
and known b y a l l o o n c e r n e d . * 1
a g r e e d upon
Then, t o o , and l i k e S o h o r l i n g , t h e
i n v e s t i g a t o r b e l i e v e s t h a t such a l i s t
s h o u ld n o t be o f a g e n e r a l
n a t u r e b u t s h o u ld a p p ly s p e c i f i o i a i l y t o s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n b u s i n e s s
e d u c a tio n .
S o h o r l i n g s a y s , " I t sh o u ld n o t b e I n f e r r e d t h a t a l i s t
s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s w ould s e r v e a l l f i e l d s
or e v e n any tw o f i e l d s .
O b v io u s ly a l i s t f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f f i n e a r t s m ig h t d i f f e r i n
many r e s p e c t s from one f o r m u la te d f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f L a t i n . " ^
1 . S o h o rlin g , oj>. o i t . , p . 138.
2 . Loo. o i t .
of
26 3
The c o o p e r a t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n o f l i s t s
o f o b je c tiv e s f o r stu d en t
t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h have n o t
a l r e a d y p r e p a r e d them s h o u ld be a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e
im provem ent o f program s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
The names o f t h e
su b jects o ffered in d io a te th e c u r r ic u la
o f t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s t o w h ic h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
s u b j e c t s are a s s i g n e d a r e t y p i c a l l y o f t h e “t r a d i t i o n a l * v o c a ­
tio n a l typ e.
The c u r r i c u l a a re s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e b u s i n e s s
c u r r i c u l a o f t h e s m a l l e r h ig h s c h o o l s i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s .
The s u b j e c t s w h io h a r e o f f e r e d i n more th a n o n e - h a l f o f t h e
t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s a re f i r s t - y e a r t y o e w r i t i n g ,
s h o r t h a n d , and book­
k e e p i n g j s e c o n d - y e a r t y p e w r i t i n g and s h o r th a n d j and e l e m e n t a r y
b u sin ess tr a in in g .
C o l v i n found t h a t t h e same s u b j e c t s w ere o f f e r e d
i n m ore th a n o n e - h a l f o f t h e s m a l l e r h ig h s c h o o l s o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
d u r in g 1 9 3 6 - 1 9 3 7 .^
The C o lv in s t u d y i n c l u d e d b u s i n e s s
a r ith m e tic as
w e l l a s t h o s e m e n tio n e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g l i s t .
Much h as b e e n w r i t t e n about t h e f u n c t i o n s o f b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n
i n -ehe s e c o n d a r y s o h o o l s .
shown and i s Slowing
is
The l i t e r a t u r e o f b u s i n e s s e d u o a t i o n has
t h a t some b u s i n e s s e d u c a t o r s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e
and s h o u ld be a t e n d e n o y away from o f f e r i n g b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s f o r
v o c a tio n a l pu rp oses,
b e t h a t a s i t may, i t
is s t i l l
th e c o n te n tio n
o f m ost b u s i n e s s e d u c a t o r s t h a t seoond&ry b u s i n e s s e d u o a t i o n sh o u ld
be o f a v o c a t i o n a l n a t u r e .
Hanna r e c e n t l y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e o p in io n s
o f l e a d i n g b u s i n e s s e d u c a t o r s as t h e y r e l a t e t o fu n d a m e n ta l i s s u e s
in b u sin e ss e d u c a tio n .^
1 . C o lv in , o p . o i t . ,
One o f t h e q u e s t i o n s ask ed was*
Should t h e
pp. 32-33.
2 . J . M a r s h a ll Hanna, Fundam ental I s s u e s i n B u s i n e s s E d u o a t io n .
C in c in n a ti!
S o u t h - W e s t e r n P u b l i s h i n g C o ., Monograph 4 8 , 1940, p . 1 3 .
264
p rim ary o b j e c t i v e o f b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l
be v o c a t i o n a l , n o n - v o o a t i o n a l , or b o t h .
in d ica te d th e v o c a t io n a l o b j e c t i v e ,
v o o a tio n a l o b j e c t i v e ,
F o r ty -e ig h t resp o n d en ts
seven teen in d ic a te d th e n on -
and t h i r t e e n r e s p o n d e n ts s a i d t h a t b o t h
o b j e c t i v e s w e r e o f e q u a l im p o r t a n c e .
From t h i s i t may be assum ed
t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l c u r r i o u l a are o f t h e t y p e s a d v o c a t e d b y
le a d e r s in th e f i e l d
o f b u s i n e s s e d u o a t io n .
In regard t o t h e s e
an sw ers, hanna comments a s f o l l o w s :
1/fe s h o u l d n o t f o r g e t t h a t t h e v o c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e
has t h e a d v a n ta g e o f t r a d i t i o n .
The r e s p o n s e s i n t h i s
s t u d y do n o t show w h e t h e r t h e r e i s a g r o w in g t e n d e n c y o n
t h e p a r t o f b u s i n e s s e d u c a t o r s away f r o m t h e v o c a t i o n a l
to th e n o n -v o o a tio n a l o b je c tiv e .
The r e s p o n s e s o a n b e
in te r p r e te d o n ly a s o f th e p r e s e n t tim e ; i . e . , th e
m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e now o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t
th e p r im a r y o b j e c t i v e o f b u s in e s s e d u o a tio n sh o u ld b e
v o c a tio n a l.
T h is com m ent i s
n atu re
of th e
im p o r ta n t
su b jects
to
be
fo r
t h o s e who a r e
o ffered
c o n sid e r in g
in th e t r a in in g
th e
so h o o ls.
S c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , g r a d u a t e s , and o t h e r s lo o k t o t h e c o l l e g e s
f o r l e a d e r s h i p i n a s c e r t a i n i n g w h a t should b e o f f e r e d i n t h e p u b l i c
sc h o o ls.
T h erefore, i t
i s p r o b a b le t h a t p r o g r e s s i v e i d e a s s h o u ld
be f o l l o w e d i n t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s and t h a t new c o u r s e s w h io h
seem t o have v a l u e s h o u ld f i r s t app ear i n t h e o u r r i o u l a o f t h e
tr a in in g s c h o o ls .
I f t h i s i s n o t d o n e, t h e r e w i l l be a t e n d e n c y
fo r th e b u sin e ss d ep artm en ts in t h e tr a in in g s c h o o ls t o r e ta r d
growth in t h e p u b l i c a o h o o l s o f t h e v a r i o u s s t a t e s .
Lack o f
265
progress w ill
r e su lt
from
o f b u s i n e s s te a c h e r B who
a la c k
of
le a d e r sh ip
are tr a in e d
in
th e
and
an in a d e q u a te
p r e se n ta tio n
su p p ly
o f new and
p r o g r e ssiv e s u b je c ts .
The names o f t h e s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d
su b je c ts of a v o c a tio n a l n atu re.
in th e t r a in i n g so h o o ls in d ic a te
H ow ever, i t i s a l t o g e t h e r p r o b a b le t h a t
many o f t h e s e s u b j e o t s a r e n ot t a u g h t from a v o c a t i o n a l p o i n t o f v i e w .
The i n v e s t i g a t o r
th a t th e
w h ic h
fo r
has
ta lk e d
n o n -v o c a tio n a l
m a n y y esL rs
v o o a tio n a l p o in t
t u t i o n s w h ic h
4.
are
p o in t
have
o f v ie w
not
w ith
of
m any o f th e
v ie w
is
been t y p i c a l l y
is
lik e ly
lo c a te d
to
be
resp on d en ts
o ften
stressed
v o c a tio n a l
stressed
in m e tr o p o lita n
in
in
and
in
has
th e
courses
n a tu re.
th e
fou n d
sm a lle r
The n o n in sti­
areas.
S tu d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s are p r o v id e d w i t h t h e
o p p o r t u n i t y t o u s e e q u ip m en t o f many d i f f e r e n t t y p e s .
a v a i l a b l e equipm ent i s
a c c e p t a b le i n term s o f t h e t y p e s recommended by
b u s i n e s s e d u o a t i on a i t h o r i t i e s .
reoomrnended
Some o f th e
Q th er t y p e s f a i l t o meet s t a n d a r d s
b u sin e ss e d u o a tio n a u t h o r i t i e s .
There are a number o f p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t y p e s
o f eq u ip m en t.
I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , many o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s have p r o v id e d
tr a in in g school f a c i l i t i e s
th ese
o ld er f a c i l i t i e s
f o r a number o f y e a r s .
Some o f t h e eq u ip m en t i n
a r e more or l e s s o b s o l e t e b u t s t i l l
u sa b le.
S eco n d ­
l y , some o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s have no c o n t r o l o v er t h e equipm ent u sed i n
sc h o o ls w hich c o o p e r a t e a s t r a i n i n g c e n t e r s f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s­
in ess su b jeo ts.
T h is i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n t h e c a s e o f i n s t i t u t i o n s
w hioh u s e th e f a c i l i t i e s
p u r p o se s*
o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s y ste m s f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g
I n t h e t h i r d p l a c e , w i t h so many d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s i n v o l v e d ,
t h e r e i s l i k e l y t o be a d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n a s t o w hat t y p e s o f d e s k s ,
c h a i r s , m a c h i n e s , and o t h e r eq u ip m en t w i l l b e s t f i t t h e i n d i v i d u a l
situ a tio n *
In t h e f o u r t h p l a c e , a f i n a n c i a l p ro b lem i s I n v o l v e d w h ic h
w i l l not a l l o w t h e u se o f d e s i r a b l e or a d e q u a te eq u ip m en t.
D esks w h ic h a r e m ost commonly u sed f o r t h e t y p e w r i t i n g c l a s s r o o m
d i f f e r from t h o s e recommended by B l a o k s t o n e . ^
D e s k s w h ic h a re m ost
commonly u sed f o r t h e s h o r th a n d c l a s s r o o m d i f f e r from t h o s e recommended
b y Lomax r>nd .,'alsh#
2
D e s k s w h i c h a re m ost commonly u sed i n t h e b o o k k e e p in g
c l a s s r o o m d i f f e r fr o m t h e t y p e recommended b y Lomax and Agnew.
t h e most commonly u s e d c h a i r f o r t h e t y p e w r i t i n g c l a s s r o o m i s
t h a t recommended b y B l a c k s t o n e .
4
3
In g e n e r a l,
sim ila r to
The c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e r e l a t i v e t o t h e
t y p e o f c h a i r m ost commonly u sed i n t h e b o o k k e e p in g c l a s s r o o m d i f f e r s from
t h e ty p e recommended b y Lomax and Agnew.^
I n g e n e r a l , t h e m o st commonly
u s e d c h a ir f o r t h e s h o r th a n d c l a s s r o o m i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t reoommended b y
g
Lomax and Walsh*
For a c o m p le t e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e c r i t e r i a f o r t h e
s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s e t y p e s o f eq u ip m en t as recommended b y b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n
a u t h o r i t i e s , t h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o p a g e s 6 4 - 6 7 o f t h i s document*
Are s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s b rou gh t i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e t y p e s o f s u i t a b l e
eq u ip m en t f o r t h e c l a s s e s w h ic h t h e y w i l l be a p t t o t e a c h upon t h e i r e n ­
tr a n c e in to th e te a c h in g f i e l d ?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
B la c k s to n e , op. o i t . ,
Lomax
and W a ls h , o p .
Lomax
and Agnew, o p .
B la c k s to n e , op. oT t. ,
Lomax
and Agnew, o p .
Lomax
and .7 a ls h , o p .
O b v i o u s l y , t h e answer t o t h i s
pp. 71-72.
o i t . , p. 154.
o i t . , p . 194.
p. 72.
o i t . , p . 195.
o i t . , p. 154.
q u estio n
£67
b a s e d upon t h e d a ta p r e s e n te d i n t h e docum ent and t h e c r i t e r i a m en tio n ed
i n t h e p r e c e d in g p a ra gra p h , i s a n e g a t i v e one#
An e v a l u a t i o n o f t h i s
p r a c t i c e can le a d t o no o th e r c o n c l u s i o n t h a n t h a t r.he t e a c h e r may n o t
b e a b le t o e v a l u a t e or a d v is e as t o t h e t y p e s o f equipm ent w hich s h o u ld
b e p u rch ased by h is em p lo y er .
It
i s t r u e t h a t some knowledge may a c c r u e
from a s tu d y o f th e methods c o u r s e s o f f e r e d i n t h e v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s .
However, f i r s t h a n d knowledge and u s e o f t h e b e t t e r t y p e s o f equipm ent
sh o u ld be and i s a v a l u a b l e d e v i c e in a o q u i r i n g t h e power to e v a l u a t e t y p e s
o f equipment w hich should be u s e d .
T h erefore, i t
is th e co n te n tio n o f t h i s
i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t a d m in is t r a t o r s s h o u ld p r o v i d e t h e b e t t e r t y p e s o f e q u ip ­
ment f o r c l a s s e s w hich are ta u g h t by t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
su b jects.
P r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s s o r t w i l l n o t o n l y p r o v id e a b e t t e r k n o w l-
• d 6® o f what should b e used and w h a t s h o u ld n ot be u s e d , but t h e a d e q u a te
p r o v i s i o n o f th e proper t y p o s o f e q u ip m en t w i l l a l s o induce b e t t e r t e a c h i n g
effio ie n o y .
T h is , i n t u r n , w i l l a id i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e
tr a in in g school p u p il.
The I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t a f f f l e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e Conduct o f
S tu d e n t Teaching i n B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s
6 . I n g e n e r a l , t h e p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f t h e F u p e r v iso r o f s t u d e n t
t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t i s e q u a l t o o r b e t t e r th a n t h e s t e t u e o f th e
t y p l o a l s u p e r v is o r a s r e p r e s e n t e d b y d a t a c o l l e c t e d f o r th e N a t i o n a l Sur­
v e y o f t h e E d u ca tio n o f T e a c h e r s .
Assuming t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f *h e
t y p i c a l s u p e r v is o r o f s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s , t h e t y p i c a l
d ep artm en t a n d /o r t r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r may be d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s *
(1)
He has e a rn ed a m a s t e r ' s d eg ree and has c o m p le te d o th e r work i n a d d i t i o n
268
to th is degree.
sc h o o ls.
( 2 ) Ho h a s t a u g h t s e v e n y e a r s i n p u b l i c s e c o n d a r y
( 3 ) He has t a u g h t i n a t r a i n i n g s c h o o l f o r f o u r y e a r s .
( 4 ) H is s o h e d u le d te a c h :
g lo a d i s a p p r o x im a t e l y 18 h ou rs p e r w e e k .
( 5 ) He i s m ost o f t e n c l a s s i f i e d
but i s ,
a s a member o f t h e Commerce D epartm ent
i n many i n s t a n c e s , c l a s s i f i e d
E d u ca tio n .
( 6 ) h i s aoadem io r a n k , i f
i s th a t of in s tr u c to r .
as a member o f t h e D ep artm en t o f
he i s g i v e n on e o f t h e u s u a l r a n k s ,
(7 ) h is y e a r ly s a la r y i s $ 2 1 6 0 .0 0 .
la r ly r e a d s s i x p r o f e s s i o n a l b u s i n e s s e d u o a t i o n m a g a z i n e s .
( 8 ) He r e g u ­
( 9 ) He has
n o t w r i t t e n a b ook or m a g a zin e a r t i c l e p e r t a i n i n g t o b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n .
( 1 0 ) Ho has had at l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e .
A v a i l a b l e and com p arab le d a t a t a k e n from The n a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f t h e
E d u c a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s show t h a t t h e t y p i o a l s u p r v i s o r i n a l l t y p e s o f
i n s t i t u t i o n s may be d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s ( 1) He h a s e a rn ed a m a s t e r ' s
d e g r e e and has c o m p le te d o t h e r work i n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s d e g r e e .
The
amount o f a d d i t i o n a l work i s n o t e q u a l t o t h a t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r o f s t u d e n t
te a c h e r s o f b u sin e ss s u b je c ts .
( 2 ) He h a s t a u g h t i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s f o r
f i v e y e a r s , tw o y e a r s l e s s t h a n t h e b u s i n e s s s u p e r v i s o r .
H ow ever, t h i s i s
t o be e x p e c t e d as t h e n a t i o n a l s u r v e y i n c l u d e s n o t o n l y s e c o n d a r y s u b j e c t
s u p e r v i s o r s , b u t e l e m e n t a r y s u p e r - v is o r s a s w e l l .
( 3 ) He h a s t a u g h t i n
a tr a in in g school a l i t t l e
He o u t r a n k s t h e b u s i n e s s
more t h a n f i v e y e a r s .
su p e r v iso r in t h i s r e s p e c t .
T h is i s p r o b a b ly e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t
program s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g
i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s a r e r e l a t i v e l y new in
many i n s t i t u t i o n s
and, t h e r e f o r e , th e b u s i n e s s s u p e r v i s o r has n o t had
t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s e c u r e a s muoh e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s k in d a s has t h e
1 . Gamble, o p . o i t . ,
pp. 2 0 1 -2 0 6 .
g e n e r a l su p e r v iso r .
w eek.
( 4 ) H is s c h e d u le d t e a c h i n g lo a d i s
26 hours p e r
The s t a t u s o f t h e b u s i n e s s s u p e r v i s o r i s f a v o r a b l e i n t h i s
co n n ectio n .
The d i f f e r e n c e b etw een t h e t e a c h i n g lo a d o f t h e g e n e r a l
s u p e r v i s o r and t h a t o f t h e b u s i n e s s s u p e r v i s o r may r e f l e c t t h e ch an ge
w h i c h has boon s u g g e s t e d by a u t h o r i t i e s
in g .
Among o t h e r s , A r m e n t r o u t ,
7
in th e f i e l d
H enderson,
e r e a g r o e d t h a t t h e t e a o h i n g lo a d o f t h e
2
o f stud en t te a c h -
S o h o r lin g ,
7
and Myers
A
s u p e r v i s o r has b e e n e x c e s s i v e .
( 5 ) The y e a r l y s a l a r y o f t h e g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s o r w as a p p r o x im a t e ly
$ 2 5 0 0 .0 0 in 1 9 3 1 -1 9 3 2 .
p r o b a b ly r e f l e c t e d
The lo w er s a l a r y o f t h e
b u sin e ss su p e r v iso r i s
i n t h e g e n e r a l s a l a r y r e d u c t i o n s w h ioh t o o k p l a c e
a f t e r t h a t tim e and t o t h e s h o r t e r t e n u r e o f t h e b u s i n e s s
s u p e r v iso r .
The s a l a r y o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r i s im p o r t a n t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h e f f i c i e n t
program s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g .
To d e v e l o p e f f i c i e n t programs o f s t u d e n t
t e a c h i n g , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s must have w e l l - t r a i n e d , e x p e r i e n c e d , and
e f f i c i e n t s u p e r v iso r s o f stud en t t e a c h e r s o f b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s .
If
s a t i s f a c t o r y s a l a r i e s are n o t a v a i l a b l e , t h e s e t e a c h e r s w i l l aooept
p o s i t i o n s e l s e w h e r e or w i l l s e r v e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r o n l y a s h o r t
t i m e , t h e r e b y c a u s i n g a r a p id t e a c h e r t u r n - o v e r .
In t h i s c o n n e c tio n ,
A rm entrout w r i t e s , *Aa lo n g as s t a t e t e a c h e r s o o l l e g e s p a y t h e i r t r a i n ­
in g t e a c h e r s a m edian amount o f $1 0 0 0 l e s s p e r y e a r t h a n t h e y pay t h e
o t h e r members o f t h e i r f a c u l t y , j u s t s o lo n g w i l l i t
1.
2.
3.
4.
be i m p o s s i b l e f o r
A rm en tro u t, o p . o i t . , p p . 1 2 2 - 1 2 3 .
H e n d er so n , op . c i t . , p . 1 1 3 .
S o h o r l i n g , j3£. c i t . , p . 1 7 2 .
A lo n z o F. M yers, F i f t e e n - H o u r Load f o r C r i t i c T e a c h e r s a t Ohio
U n iv e r sity .
1 9 2 6 Yearbook o f t h e S u p e r v i s o r s o f S tu d e n t
T e a c h e r s , pp. "ld-2TI
270
t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s t o f u n c t i o n i n t h e way t h e y s h o u l d I n
th e
sam e v e i n
is
o f th o u g h t.
J iv e n d o n w r i t e s ,
tr a in e d a s a s p e c i a l i s t ,
th e s t a f f ,
not
u n til
th e
su p e r v iso r
and, " i s as w e l l - t r a i n e d a s t h e o t h e r members of'
and a s a r e s u l t r e v e i v e s t h e same s a l a r y as t h e o t h e r members
o f th e s t a f f ,
s h a l l wo b e a b le t o make much p r o g r e s s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t
o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u o a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s i n t h i s c o u n t r y ."
2
( 6 ) The g e n e r a l
s u p e r v i s o r , l i k e t h e t y p i c a l b u s i n e s s s u p e r v i s o r , has n e i t h e r w r i t t e n
a book n o r a m ag azin e a r t i c l e .
S u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s , f o r t h e m o st
p a r t , a r e n o t o n l y c o m p a r a t i v e l y w e l l - t r a i n e d i n term s o f d e g r e e s h e l d
and t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s e a r n e d , b u t t h e y a l s o m eet a n o th er c r i t e r i o n
f o r e f f i c i e n c y i n te a o h in g b u sin e ss s u b j e o t s —b u s in e s s e x p e r ie n c e .
A lm o st n i n e - t e n t h s o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s have had t h i s ty p e o f e x p e r i e n c e .
T h is i s
T on n e,
6
s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t a u t h o r i t i e s suoh as Lomax,® D o u g l a s s , 4
and Dodd
6
a l l in d ic a t e t h e ir b e l i e f th a t b u sin e ss e x p e r ie n c e i s a
p rim e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t t e a c h i n g o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
reader i s r e fe r r e d t o pages
m e n ts o f t h e s e a u t h o r i t i e s .
in e ss
105-106 o f t h i s document f o r c o m p le t e
The
sta te­
The s u p e r v i s o r o f 8 tu d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s ­
s u b j e c t s who has had b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e s h o u ld be a b le t o t r a i n
t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n a more p r a c t i c a l way.
In a d d itio n , th e h ig h sch ool
p u p i l s s h o u ld b e n e f i t fro m t h e p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e w hich has b e e n earn ed
1 . A r m e n tr o u t, o p . o i t . , p . 1 7 8 .
2 . £ • S . E v e n d e n , C o o p e r a t io n o f T ea ch er s o f Academic S u b j e c t * w i t h t h e
T r a i n i n g S c h o o l , E d u c a t io n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , XI
A p r il, 19 2 5 ), p. 113.
3 . Lomax,
o i t . , p p . 2 2 2 —2 2 3 .
4 . D o u g la s s , op. o i t . , pp. 222-223.
5 . T onne, o £ . o i t . . p . 3 1 0 ,
6 . Dodd, o p . o i t . . p . 2 2 .
271
b y th e su p erv iso r*
P r a o t i o e s i n R e l a t i o n t o O b s e r v a t i o n i n S tu d e n t T ea o h in g C ou rses
i n B u sin ess S u b je o ts
6.
S tu d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s a r e , i n g e n e r a l , r e q u ir e d
t o p recede t h e i r a c tu a l stu d e n t te a o h in g e x p e r ie n c e s w ith p erio d s o f
o b se r v a tio n o f in s t r u c t io n .
T h e r e f o r e , i t may be c o n c lu d e d t h a t , f o r
t h e m ost p a r t , programs o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s
in c l u d e
o b s e r v a t i o n a s an e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t i n t h e t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s o f b u s ­
in e ss su b je c ts .
Student te a o h in g a u t h o r i t i e s g e n e r a l ly contend th a t t h i s
p h a se o f t h e program i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e a d e q u a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g
o f tea ch ers.
Among t h e a d v o c a t e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n programs are The A m erican A s s o e i a t i o n o f Teachers C o l l e g e s ,
A rm en tro u t,
1
S o h o r lin g ,
2
Rugg and P e i k ,
3
Mead,
4
5
and th e C om m ittee on S t a n d a r d s f o r P r a c t i c e T e a c h in g o f t h e
g
N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Commercial T e a c h e r - T r a in in g I n s t i t u t i o n s .
The r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o p a g es 1 48-160 o f t h i s dooument f o r c o m p le te
s u b s t a n t i a t i n g q u o t a t i o n s from t h e s e a u t h o r i t i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
The v a l u e s o f program s o f o b s e r v a t i o n In t h e i n d u c t i o n o f b u s i n e s s
s tu d e n t te a c h e r s In to a o tu a l cla ssro o m s i t u a t i o n s a r e , in g e n e r a l, th e
same a s t h o s e a d v o o a ted b y a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e f i e l d
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
o f stu d en t te a c h in g .
A m erican A s s o c i a t i o n o f T e a o h e r s C o l l e g e s , o p . c i t . , S e o t i o n V I .
S o h o r lin g , op. o i t . , p . 155.
Rugg and F o l k , o p . o i t . , p . 9 7 .
Mead, op. o i t . , p . 1 6 0 .
A rm en tro u t, o p . c i t . , p . 7b .
Committee on S ta n d a r d s f o r P r a o t i o e T e a o h in g , The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n
o f Commercial T e a c h e r - T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s , op. o i t . , p . 1 7 .
272
The b u s i n e s s s u p e r v i s o r s r e p o r t t h a t t h i s t y p e o f program i s im p o r t a n t
i n t h a t i t f u r n i s h e s a means w h e r e b y t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s are o r i e n t e d
o r a c q u a in t e d w i t h t h e p r o o e d u r e s t o b e f o l l o w e d i n o o n d u o t in g d e s s e s ,
t h e a o t u a l c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n , and t h e p u p i l s t h e m s e l v e s *
th ey b e lie v e th a t o b se r v a tio n i s
im p o rta n t i n t h a t i t d e v e l o p s o o n f i d e n o e
on t h e p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r .
fo rm a tio n o f a l i n k
In a d d itio n ,
Then, t o o , o b s e r v a t i o n p e r m it s t h e
b etw een t h e o r i e s le a r n e d i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u r s e s
and t h e a c t u a l p r a c t i c e t o b e f o l l o w e d i n t h e o la s s r o o m *
O b serv a tio n
p r e c e d i n g a c t u a l t e a o h i n g a l s o p r o t e c t s t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e h ig h s o h o o l
stu d en ts.
More a t t e n t i o n iB g i v e n t o t h i s l a t t e r p o i n t i n a f o l l o w i n g
paragraph.
A rm entrout c o n t e n d s t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n h as t h e f o l l o w i n g v a l u e s *
The p u r p o s e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e t o
g r a d u a lly in tro d u o e th e p r e - s e r v i c e te a o h e r t o th e a a tu a l
c o n d i t i o n s t h e i n - s e r v i c e t e a o h e r i s c a l l e d upon t o meet*
t o e n a b le t h e s t u d e n t t o g a i n some i d e a o f t h e s o h o o l a s
a w h ole* t o form t h e c o n n e c t i n g l i n k b e tw e e n t h e o r y and
p r a c t i c e ; t o make t h e s t u d e n t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c l a s s e s i n
w h ic h h i s s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i s t o be d o n e ; t o f u n c t i o n a s a
fin d in g c o u r s e .*
A com p arison o f t h i s
s t a t e m e n t w i t h t h a t found i n t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r a ­
grap h w i l l show s u b s t a n t i a l a greem en t o f t h e i d e a s o f t h e b u s i n e s s s u p e r ­
v i s o r s and t h o s e o f A rm en tro u t.
A lth o u g h program s o f o b s e r v a t i o n f o r s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
s u b j e c t s are g e n e r a l l y p r o v i d e d , t h e r e i s e v i d e n o e o f w e a k n e ss i n some
p h a s e s o f t h i s p a r t o f t h e program .
D ata fo u n d i n t h i s dooument show
t h a t b e tw e e n 1 6 * 0 and 2 0 . 0 p er c e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s a l l o w t h e i r
s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s t o e n t e r upon t e a c h i n g d u t i e s a lm o s t i m m e d i a t e ly a f t e r
t h e y have b e e n e n r o l l e d
i n t h e c o u r s e i n s t u d e n t t e a c h in g *
1* A rm en tro u t, o p . o i t *, p . 9 5 .
T h is i s n o t
273
a d e sir a b le s it u a t io n .
it
I n o r d e r f o r t h e v a l u e s o f o b s e r v a t io n t o a c c r u e ,
i s n e c e s s a r y f o r s t u d e n t s t o o b s e r v e good t e a o h i n g .
A f a i l u r e to
p r o v i d e s u o h o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i l l r e s u l t i n t h e t e a o h e r l e a r n in g b y th e
t r i a l and e r r o r m e th o d .
and w i l l
T h i s , i n t u r n , w i l l r e s u l t i n wasted e n e r g y
be d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e high s o h o o l p u p i l s
in th e t r a i n i n g
sohool b u sin ess c la s s e s .
o f not a llo w in g
o b s e r v a t i o n p r e v i o u s t o s t u d e n t t e a c h in g t o , " p l a o i n g t h e
su rg eo n 's k n if e
i n t h e hands o f t h e m e d i c a l s t u d e n t who has n e v e r w i t n e s s e d
an o p e r a t i o n . "
1
A rm entrout l i k e n s t h e p r a c t i c e
O
7
Mead6 and S c h o r l i n g w ould v a r y t h e tim e f o r a l l o w i n g t h e
s t u d e n t t e a o h e r t o e n t e r upon t e a c h i n g d u t i e s , d ep en d in g upon t h e s t u d e n t ' s
a b i l i t y and t h e
c h a r a c t e r o f t h e work t o be d o n e .
T h is, of c o u r s e , im p lie s
t h a t , f o r m o st s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s , t h e r e s h o u ld b e a p erio d o f o b s e r v a t i o n
p reced in g a c t u a l te a c h in g e x p e r ie n c e .
T h e r e f o r e , In i n s t i t u t i o n s whioh
o f f e r no o b s e r v a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , an e f f o r t s h o u ld be made t o c o r r e c t
t h i s phase o f t h e
s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g p rogram .
A s e c o n d w e a k n e s s i n t h e program o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g in b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s
a s i t r e l a t e s t o t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l f e a t u r e i s t h a t t h e methods t e a c h e r t o o
o f t e n f a i l s t o t a k e a d v a n ta g e o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o u s e t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l
a s a p l a c e f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e m e t h o d s , t e c h n i q u e s , and d e v i c e s w i t h w h ic h
th e stu d en t w i l l
oome i n c o n t a o t upon e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e c la s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n .
H e n d e r so n g i v e s t h e p o i n t o f v ie w o f t h i s
i n v e s t i g a t o r when he w r i t e s i
M a j o r i t y o p i n i o n f a v o r s t h e p r a c t i c e t h a t th e p erson
who t e a c h e s a n y c o u r s e I n m eth o d s o f t e a o h i n g should demon­
s t r a t e t h e m e th o d s he t e a c h e s by a c t u a l l y t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n
e i t h e r i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s o h o o l or i n t h e h igh s o h o o l. That
seem s t o b e t h e s u r e s t w ay o f r e a l l y c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e o r y and
p r a c t i c e , b e c a u s e t h e p e r s o n who t e a c h e s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l s i d e
o f t e a c h i n g c o u ld t h e n a c t u a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e f o r h ie s t u d e n t s
t h e w ay h i s t h e o r y c o u ld b e p u t i n t o p r a c t i a e .
1.
2.
3.
4.
I b i d . , p . 81.
op. o i t . , p . 86 3 .
S o h o rlin g , op. o i t . , p . 155.
H enderson, op. o i t . , p . 52.
sra r,
274
E v en i f
i n s t i t u t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d o e s n o t p e r m it t h e m ethods
t e a o h e r t o be t h e s u p e r v i s o r , i t would seem d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e p r o * ■
s p e c t iv e t e a c h e r t o
o b s e r v e t h e work i n t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l i n o rd er
t h a t t h e work t o be done would n o t b e b a sed upon d i s c u s s i o n s w h ic h
w ould be o f a t h e o r e t i o a l n a t u r e .
S u r e l y , c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e work
o f t h e m eth o d s t e a o h e r and t h e work o f t h e t r a i n i n g s o h o o l c l a s s e s
w ould r e s u l t
i n p r a c t i c a l and u s e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n a l p e r i o d s .
A n o th e r w e a k n e s s w h ic h i s found i n some o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l
program s i s t h a t o f n o t r e q u i r i n g any t y p e o f p r e p a r a t i o n f o r ob­
s e r v a t i o n s made e i t h e r p r e c e d i n g or d u r in g t h e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l m e n t
in stu d en t te a c h in g in b u sin ess s u b je o ts .
D a ta i n t h i s d ocu m en t i n ­
d i c a t e t h a t no s u c h p r e p a r a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d o f s t u d e n t s p r e c e d i n g
t h e i r e n r o l l m e n t i n s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n 1 6 , 3 p er c e n t o f t h e
tio n s,
in s titu ­
No p r e p a r a t i o n f o r o b s e r v a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d o f s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s
a f t e r t h e i r e n r o llm e n t in stu d en t te a o h in g in b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s in th e
c a se o f 8 ,6 per c e n t o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
H en d erso n s t a t e s ,
In d is c u s s i n g t h i s p r a c t i c e ,
''This p r a c t i c e v i o l a t e d a fu n d a m en ta l p r i n o i p l e o f
p s y c h o l o g y s i n c e t h e l e a r n e r was n o t p r o p e r l y p r e p a r e d f o r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n
o f s i t u a t i o n s t o w h ic h he was e x p e c t e d t o r e a c t , B e f o r e t h e s t u d e n t
t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s or one p r e p a r in g t o become a s t u d e n t t e a c h e r
of b u sin e ss
su b jects is
a b l e t o u n d e r s ta n d t h e aim o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n
he s h o u ld b e p r o p fr o d t o know what t o e x p e c t .
I f he i s n o t p r e p a r e d , he
i s n o t l i k e l y t o know w h e th e r t h e l e s s o r , has Leer, s u c c e s s f u l l y t a u g h t o r
n ot.
T h e r e f o r e , s u p e r v i s o r s and d i r e c t o r s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s h o u l d e v a l u a t e
t h e i r p la n s in order t o
observe.
a s c e r t a i n w hat t h e p r o s p e c t i v e t o a o h e r s h o u ld
I n s t r u c t i o n s s h o u ld be g i v e n as t o what s h o u ld b e o b s e r v e d or
1 . I b i d . , p . 63
275
o r an a t t e m p t s h o u ld b e made by t h e s t u d e n t and t h e s u p e r v i s o r t o
c o o p e r a t i v e l y p r e p a r e t h e l e s s o n t o be t a u g h t*
The w e a k n e s s e s j u s t o u t l i n e d a re found i n a m i n o r i t y o f t h e
s c h o o ls f u r n is h in g d ata f o r t h i s
t o t h i s m in o r it y group.
stu d y .
The s t a t e m e n t s a p p ly o n l y
As a w h o l e , t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l p h a s e s o f t h e
program s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s a r e o f a s a t i s f a c t o r y
n atu re.
P r a c t i o o s i n R e l a t i o n t o t h e S e l e c t i o n , V a r i e t y , E x t e n t , and E v a l u a t i o n
o f t h e Work o f S t u d e n t T ea o h ers o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s
7.
The s e l e c t i o n o f s t u d e n t s f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g a s s i g n m e n t s i s
more or l e s s haphazard u n d e r t a k in g i n most o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s f u r ­
n ish in g d a ta fo r t h i s stu d y .
There I s no g e n e r a l a g ree m en t a s t o what
m eth od s o f s e l e o t i o n s h o u ld be u s e d *
I n i n s t i t u t i o n s u s i n g t h e same
m eth od s o f s e l e o t i o n , t h e r e i s no g e n e r a l agreem en t a s t o why t h e s e
m eth od s s h o u ld b e u s e d .
is s t i l l
T h e r e f o r e , i t may be c o n c lu d e d t h a t s e l e o t i o n
one o f t h e u n s o lv e d p r o b le m s o f program s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g
in b u sin e ss s u b je o to .
I n d i s o u s s i n g t h e p ro b lem o f s e l e o t i o n o f s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s , S o h o r l i n g
p r e s e n t s a s one o f h i s fu n d a m e n ta l p r i n c i p l e s f o r e v a l u a t i n g program s o f
s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g t h e f a c t t h a t , "No s t u d e n t s h o u ld be a d m it te d t o d i r e c t e d
t e a o h i n g u n t i l h e h a s met e s t a b l i s h e d s t a n d a r d s t h a t t e n d t o s e l e c t t h e
s u p e r i o r fr o m t h e g e n e r a l o o l l e g e p o p u l a t i o n . i n
t h e same d i s o u s s i o n
he c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t s u p p ly o f t e a o h e r s makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r
a d m in is tr a to r s t o r e q u ir e th e f o llo w in g c h a r a c t e r is t io s o f t e a c h e r s t
1. S c h o r lin g ,
0£ .
o i t . , p. 161.
276
h e a l t h o r p h y s i c a l v i g o r , g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , t h o r o u g h k n ow led ge or
s u b j e c t m a t t e r , and a b i l i t y t o u ee good E n g l i s h .
O ther i n v e s t i g a t o r s and a u t h o r i t i e s t a k e s i m i l a r
stan d s.
Mead
b e l i e v e s t h e b e t t e r i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l and s h o u ld p r o v i d e methods of
s e l e o t i n g th e b e t t o r stu d e n ts f o r stud en t t e a c h in g .^
He b e l i e v e s t h a t
t h e s e l e o t i o n s h o u ld t a k e p l a c e when t h e p r o s p e c t i v e s t u d e n t a p p l i e s f o r
e n t r a n c e and when he a p p l i e s f o r e n r o l lm e n t i n s t u d e n t t e a o h ' n g .
Hender­
son s t a t e s t h a t , " C arefu l c o n s id e r a tio n o f a s t u d e n t ’ s s c h o la s t ic record,
p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , and e m o t i o n a l e h s . r a o t e r i s t i o s s h o u l d p r e o e d e h i s
s e l e c t i o n and p la c e m e n t a s a s t u d e n t t e a o h e r .
„2
An e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e d a t a o o l l e o t e d f o r t h i s
c r ite r ia ,
itie s
s t u d y , i n te r m s o f t h e s e
i n d i c a t e s a number o f t h o u g h t p r o v o k in g f a c t s .
A lth o u g h author­
seem t o a g r e e t h a t p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i s o r s h o u ld be a c r i t e r i o n o f
s e l e o t i o n , o n ly 2 6 .6 per oent o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e q u ir e a p h y sio a l
c o n d i t i o n sta n d a r d f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r a o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a p h y s i o a l s t a n d a r d , Me*d w r i t e s a s f o l l o w s i
P h y s i o a l s t a t u s s h o u ld b e c o n s i d e r e d . S t a n d a r d s i n
o e r t a l n p h y s i o a l q u a l i t i e s s h o u ld be e s t a b l i s h e d and e n f o r c e d .
Some p h y s i o a l q u a l i t i e s would s u r e l y e l i m i n a t e a c a n d i d a t e no
m a t t e r how p r o m is in g he i s i n o th e r p h y s i c a l q u a l i t i e s .
For
e x a m p le , a p e r s o n w i t h a d e c id e d n e u r a s t h e n i c t e n d e n o y sh o u ld
be d i r e c t e d i n t o a n o th e r c a r e e r .
The a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s
o f t h e e n t r a n t a s t o s o c i a l and c i v i c p r a c t i c e s h o u ld b e ex ­
amined in some w a y. S u r e l y t h o s e who a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n
b e t t e r i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f g r o u p s ( c o m m u n it ie s ) s h o u ld be
p l a c e d on p r o b a t i o n a t l e a s t . 3
The f a c t t h a t su c h a s m a ll group o f i n s t i t u t i o n s i s r e q u i r i n g a p h y s i o a l
c o n d i t i o n sta n d a r d i n d i c a t e s t h a t a u t h o r i t a t i v e o p i n i o n i s n o t b ein g
1 . Mead, o ju c i t . , p . 8 5 4 - 8 5 7 ,
2 . H e n d er so n , o p . o i t . , p . 2 2 .
3 . Mead, o p . o i t . , p . 8 5 5 .
1
277
g e n e r a l l y f o ll o w e d i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
su b jects.
The f a c t t h a t t h i s means o f s e l e c t i o n i s
u sed t o s u c h a
sm all e x t e n t i s p r o b a b ly n o t c a u s e d b y t h e a t t i t u d e o f th o B e d i r e c t l y
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e program o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g
in b u sin e ss s u b je o ts .
The r e a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e s t s w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f o r c e s r e s p o n s i b l e
fo r t h e g e n e r a l program o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g .
The most u sed o r i t e r i o n f o r s e l e c t i n g
stu d en t tea o h ers o f b u sin e ss
su bjects i s th a t o f a c o n s id e r a tio n o f s tu d e n ts '
i n a l l completed c o l l e g e
courses.
r e p o r t the use o f t h i s m e th o d .
i s g iv e n t o t h e s t u d e n t s '
p l e t e d in c o l l e g e .
s c h o la s t ic records
S ix t y - f o u r per oent o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s
S ix ty per oent rep o rt th a t c o n sid e r a tio n
s c h o l a s t i c r e c o r d i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s com­
S o h o r l i n g c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e s c h o l a s t i c s ta n d a r d i s
one o f s e v e r a l c r i t e r i a w h i c h s h o u ld be u sed f o r p u r p o s e s o f s e l e o t i n g
stu d e n t teachers."*'
L i k e w i s e , Mead c o n t e n d s t h a t t h i s c r i t e r i o n i s one
o f the im portant e l e m e n t s t o be c o n s i d e r e d when a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f o r c e s a r e
se le o tin g stud en ts fo r stu d en t te a c h in g
a ssig n m en ts.
2
A c o n sid e r a tio n o f
t h e knowledge o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s a commendable s e l e c t i o n f e a t u r e o f
programs o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
H ow ever, t h e l a c k
o f a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a k n o w le d g e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n a p p r o x im a t e l y t w o f i f t h s of t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s seem s t o
corrected .
S o h o r lin g s t a t e s
i n d i c a t e a w e a k n e s s w h i c h sh ou ld b e
t h e c a s e f o r t h e u s e o f t h i s c r i t e r i o n when
he w r i t e s i
In t h i s day when t h e d i f f e r e n t s p e c i a l f i e l d s (a a f o r e x a m p le ,
s c i e n c e ) are making g r e a t s t r i d e s and when t h e newer m eth o d s
r e q u ir e t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n t b r a n c h e s be r e l a t e d i n t e a c h i n g u n i t s
i f t h e work o f a s o h o o l i s t o b e m e a n i n g f u l , s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s
more im p ortan t t h a n e v e r .
The t e a c h e r u s i n g modern m eth od s must
know more s u b j e c t m a t t e r and know i t b e t t e r .
He n e e d s t o draw
m a t e r i a l s from v a r i o u s r e l a t e d f i e l d s .
He m u st know i t w e l l
enough t o be a b l e q u i c k l y t o f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t s from a v a s t
1 . S o h o r lin g , o p . o i t . , p . 1 6 3 .
2 . Mead, op. o i t . . p . 8 6 6 .
278
amount o f s o u r c e m a t e r i a l *
In th e e a r l y days o f th e p r o j e c t
m eth o d , J e n n ie H a l l u s e d t o s a y t h e r e w s b n o t h i n g wrong w i t h
t h e p r o j e c t m eth o d , b u t s h e s im p ly d i d n o t know en ou gh t o r e l a t e
t h e s u b j e c t m a tt e r i n t h e d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s *
I f t h iB g i f t e d
t e a o h e r and a u t h o r d i d n ' t know enough s u b j e c t m a t t e r t o t e a o h
f o u r t h g rad e c h i l d r e n t h e n s u r e l y t h e t y p i c a l s t u d e n t t e a o h e r
n e e d s a h ig h d e g r e e o f m a s t e r y o f a v a s t amount o f s u b j e c t
m atter i n r e l a t e d f i e l d s .
I t i s becom in g i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r
t h a t g r e a t e r im p o rta n ce w i l l be a t t a c h e d t o s u b j e c t m a t t e r .
One o f t h e b a s e s f o r a d m i s s i o n t o a c o u r s e i n d i r e c t e d t e a c h i n g
s h o u ld b e c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r c o n t r o l s
t h e s u b j e o t m a t t e r and u n d e r s t a n d s t h e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e l i k e l y
t o be u s e d * !
As i n t h e c a s e o f p h y s i c a l s t a n d a r d s and s c h o l a s t i o s t a n d a r d s , t o o
few o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t t h e u se o f m ea su res o f g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e
and m ea su res w h ic h a t t e m p t t o
in d ic a t e th e a b i l i t y of th e p r o s p e c tiv e
s t u d e n t t e a o h e r t o u s e good E n g l i s h .
O n ly 1 4 . 6 p er o e n t o f t h e i n s t i ­
t u tio n s g iv e gen eral in t e l lig e n c e t e s t s
te a c h in g assig n m en ts.
as p r e r e q u is ite s fo r stu d en t
Only 1 8 . 6 p er o e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s a tte m p t
t o m ea su re t h e p r o s p e c t i v e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r ' s kn ow led ge o f t h e fu n d a m e n ta ls
o f E n g lish .
T h is i s
c o n t r a r y t o t h e r ec o m m e n d a tio n s o f a u t h o r i t i e s su ch
a s S o h o r lin g ^ and Mead.^
And s o , a g a i n , i t may b e c o n c lu d e d t h a t t h e r e i s
no g e n e r a l agreem en t as t o w h a t m ethods s h o u ld be uBed i n s e l e o t i n g
tea ch er s o f b u sin e ss
stu d en t
s u b j e o t s f o r a s s i g n m e n t s i n t h e t r a i n i n g s o h o o l s , and
t h a t t h i s p rob lem r e m a in s one o f t h e u n s o l v e d p h a s e s o f a program o f t h i s
k in d .
8.
The g e n e r a l a c t i v i t i e s
o f th e o o u rse o f stu d en t te a o h in g in
b u sin e ss su b je o ts c o n s i s t s o f o b s e r v a t io n , p r e p a r a tio n o f l e s s o n m a t e r ia ls
and e q u ip m e n t , p a r t i o i p a t i o n , t e a o h i n g more t h a n one s u b j e c t f o r v a r i o u s
p e r i o d s o f t i m e , i n d i v i d u a l and g ro u y c o n f e r e n c e s , e x t r a - o l a s B a c t i v i t i e s ,
and t h e h a n d l in g o f r o u t i n e and management p r o b le m s .
a t t e n t io n i s g iv e n t o e x t r a - c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s .
1 . S o h o r l i n g , 0£ . c i t . , p . 1 6 3 .
2 . I b id . , p . 162.
3 . Mead, oj^t o i t . , p . 6 6 6 .
Of t h e e e , l e a s t
279
I n g e n e r a l , t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a re i n agreem en t w i t h t h o s e recommended
f o r s u c h c o u r s e s by a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e f i e l d
o f stu d en t te a o h in g .
To be
s u r e , t h e r e a r e many i n s t i t u t i o n s w h ic h om it some o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s .
L ik e w ise , th e r e
are o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s w h ie h i n c l u d e t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s
w it h v a ry in g d eg ree s o f i n t e n s i t y .
T h is i s t o be e x p e c t e d a s d i f f e r e n t
t y p e s o f f a c i l i t i e s a re a v a i l a b l e f o r
su c h p ro gram s, p h i l o s o p h i e s d i f f e r ,
and fu n d s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e program a r e n o t a lw a y s s u f f i c i e n t t o m eet t h e
n eed s o f th e d e sir e d ou tcom es.
In s p i t e o f th e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , th e general
p a t t e r n o f programs o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s a r e s i m i l a r
t o t h o s e recommended by a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h i s f i e l d .
A co m p a riso n o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d
lis t
in t h i s c o n c lu s io n w ith th e
o f a c t i v i t i e s as d e t e r m i n e d b y A rm entrout from a s t u d y o f in f o r m a t io n
fu r n ish e d by t h i r t y s u p e r v is o r s o f stu d en t tea o h ers in d ic a t e s th e v a l i d i t y
o f th e c o n c lu sio n .
A r m e n tr o u t ’ s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a s f o l l o w s *
1 . A c t i v i t i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s e t t i n g i n w h ic h t h e t e a o h i n g
and l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s t a k e s p l a c e .
2 . A c t i v i t i e s concerned w ith th e o r g a n iz a tio n o f s u b je c t m a tte r .
3 . A c t i v i t i e s con cern ed w ith th e tea ch in g o f s u b j e c t m a tter.
4 . A c t i v i t i e s p e r t a in in g t o th e d i s c i p l i n e o f p u p i ls .
5 . A c t i v i t i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th .
6 . A c t i v i t i e s concerned w ith th e o r g a n iz a tio n o f th e s c h o o l.
7 . Community a c t i v i t i e s .
8 . A c t i v i t i e s in v o lv e d i n th e o b se r v a tio n o f t h e t r a in in g te a o h e r .
9 . A c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r ,^ 1
A co m p arison o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s found i n A r m e n t r o u t's l i s t w i t h t h e
a c t i v i t y d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s document i n d l o a t e s tw o d e f i c i e n c i e s .
1 . A r m e n tr o u t, o p . c i t . ,
pp. 43-61.
280
In t h e f i r s t p l a c e , s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s a r e g i v e n
very l i t t l e
o p p o r t u n i t y t o make community c o n t a c t s *
T h is may be
e x p l a i n e d b y t h e l a c k o f tim e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r o f
b u sin ess s u b je o ts ,
t h e p h ilo s o p h y o f t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r o ­
gram and t h e h a n d l i n g o f t h i s f u n c t i o n by r e g u l a r f a c u l t y members*
The se c o n d d e f i c i e n c y
i s th a t o f a la c k o f e v i d e n c e o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r
engagem ent i n a c t i v i t i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o w t h .
f i c i e n c y i s p r o b a b l y n o m in a l i n s t e a d o f r e a l .
T h is d e ­
The q u e s t i o n n a i r e u s e d
i n c o l l e c t i n g t h e d a t a f o r t h e stu d y f a i l e d t o i n o l u d e q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i v e
to t h is p o in t.
The r e s p o n d e n ts were asked t o m e n t io n o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s
n o t in c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .
For t h e m ost p a r t ,
In a few i n s t a n c e s , t h i s w as done*
h o w e v er, t h e r e s p o n d e n ts f a i l e d t o
com p ly w i t h t h i s
req u est.
L ik e A r m e n tr o u t,
b o th Shover and F lo w e r s i n d i c a t e t h e i r
c o u r s e s i n s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g should in o lu d e t h e a c t i v i t i e s
c o n c lu sio n ,
b e lie f th at
liste d
in t h i s
S h over b e l i e v e s t h a t a s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s
sh ould o b s e r v e , t e a c h more than one s u b j e c t , p a r t i c i p a t e i n grou p and
I n d iv id u a l c o n f e r e n c e s , su p e rv ise e x t r a - c u r r ic u la r a c t i v i t i e s ,
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f management p ro b lem s,^
and assum e
From a s t u d y o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g
i n t h i r t y I n s t i t u t i o n s , Flow ers l i s t s t h e f o l l o w i n g among h i s c o n c l u s i o n s !
1* The g e n e r a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e c o u r s e i n s t u d e n t - t e a c h i n g a r e ;
o b s e r v a tio n , p a r t ic ip a t io n , tea c h in g , p r e p a r a tio n , c o n fe r e n c e s ,
e x t r a - c l a s s , and management and r o u t i n e . J u d g i n g from t h e e v a l u a t i o n
o f t h e d a t a s e c u r e d , th e g e n e r a l a c t i v i t i e s o f p r im a r y im p o r t a n c e
are o b s e r v a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t e a c h i n g , and o o n f e r e n o e s *
E xtrac l a s s , managem ent and r o u t i n e a c t i v i t i e s o c c u p y a p l a c e o f s e c o n d a r y
im p ortan ce.
1* F l o w e r s , op* o i t . , p p . 1 8 - 2 0 .
261
2* T h ere i s no oommon p r a c t i c e w i t h r eg a r d t o t h e amount o f
t i m e g i v e n t o e a c h a c t i v i t y i n t h e co u rse# ^
And s o , a g a i n , i t may be s a i d t h a t t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e c o l l e g e
B tu d en t e n r o l l e d
i n stu d e n t te a c h in g in b u sin e ss s u b je c ts are s im ila r
t o t h o s e reoommended b y a u t h o r i t i e s
in the f i e l d
and t o t h o s e w h ic h
a re t y p i c a l f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n g e n e r a l .
The a c t i v i t i e s
o f th e stud en t te a c h e r o f b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s
i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y are n o t a l l - i n c l u s i v e #
th ere is
o n l y a s a m p lin g o f th e a c t i v i t i e s
T h e r e f o r e , b e c a u s e t h e n a tu r e o f a c t i v i t i e s
I n some r e s p e c t s ,
in v o lv e d I n t h e c o u r s e #
is
so im p o rta n t, i t
is
hoped by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t a s t u d y w i l l be made i n t h e n ear f u t u r e
w h ich w i l l b r i n g a b o u t an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e many d i t i e a p erfo rm ed by
stu d en t te a c h e r s o f b u sin e ss s u b je o ts .
A s t u d y o f t h i s t y p e w ou ld be a
v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h o im provement o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e t r a i n i n g
s o h o o l s and i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n w h ic h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s w ou ld e v e n t u ­
a l l y be em ployed#
9.
K a t in g s c a l e s
are g e n e r a l l y u s e d by s u p e r v i s o r s ,
and so m e tim e s
by o t h e r s , f o r p u r p o s e s o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e work o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f
b u sin ess s u b je o ts .
These s c a l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y used more t h a n one t im e
d u r in g t h e s tu d e n t * s e n r o l lm e n t in t h e c o u r s e #
A lt h o u g h 8 6 . 6 p er c e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s f u r n i s h i n g d a t a f o r t h i s
s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t s o o r e c a r d s are u sed f o r p u r p o s e s o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e
work o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s , t h i s d o e s n o t mean t h a t
1 . F lo w e r s, op. o i t . , p. 63.
262
t h e s c o r e c a r d s are v a l i d m easu res o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y .
It
is
n o t one o f t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y t o show t h e v a l i d i t y o f r a t i n g
s c a l e s or s c o r e c a r d s .
However, a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e l a c k o f v a l i d i t y
o f s u ch m e a s u r in g d e v i c e s i s im p o r t a n t t o t h o s e who are i n t e r e s t e d
th e ir u se.
in
Lie ad sums up t h e s i t u a t i o n when he w r i t e s *
The f i r s t f a c t n o ted i s t h a t a l l t h e m eth od s u sed
a re d e r i v e d from c u r r e n t s y s te m s o f s c h o l a s t i c r a t i n g
and r a t i n g o f t e a c h e r s in s e r v i c e . .
& se c o n d f a c t
i s t h a t d e v i c e s o f r e a l o b j e c t i v e m easurem ent r a r e l y
a p p ea r i n any form* most o f t h e r a t i n g d on e i s more
or le s s s u b j e c t i v e .
The t h i r d f a c t i s t h a t t h e weak*
n e s s e s end f a c t o r s o f s t r e n g t h a p p e a r in g i n s u b j e c t i v e
s y s t e m s a re p r e s e n t i n t h e s e m e th o d s, i n some c a s e s i n
e x a g g e r a t e d form b e c a u s e o f t h e great, c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e
p ro b lem and t h e n a i v e t e o f t h e p e r s o n s d o in g t h e r a t i n g .
L ik e m ead , A rm entrout b e l i e v e s t h a t s c o r e c a r d s a re u n s a t i s f a c t o r y as a
2
means o f m e a su r in g t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s .
He d o e s b e l i e v e ,
h o w e v er, t h a t t h e y h ave d e f i n i t e v a l u e s and t h a t t h e y s h o u ld b e u sed u n t i l
a b e t t e r method i s fo u n d f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r e s s made by t h e
stu d en t te a c h e r .
A rm en trou t s t a t e s t h e s e v a l u e s a s f o l l o w s *
1 . An a n a l y s i s iB p r e s e n t e d o f t h e q u a l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y
f o r s u c c e s s f u l t e a o h i n g end o f t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e s e q u a l i t i e s
t o one a n o t h e r .
2 . I n t h e hands o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s , t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l
t e n d t o promote s e l f - c r i t i c i s m and s e l f - i m p o r v o m e n t .
3 . I n t h e h ands o f t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s , t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l
t e n d t o promote t h e i r c o m p r e h e n s iv e n e s s o f ju d g e m e n t i n r a t i n g
stu d en t te a c h e r s' e f f i c i e n c y .
4 . The r a t i n g s s h o u ld d e s i g n a t e p o i n t s o f s t r e n g t h end
w e a k n e s s i n th e s t u d e n t ' s t e a c h i n g , and s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e ,
p r o v e v a l u a b l e i n g u i d i n g t h e t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s in t h e i r
c o n s t r u c t i v e work w i t h Btu d en t t e a c h e r s .
1 . Jtead , op. o i t . , p p . 4 7 0 - 4 7 1 .
2 . A r m e n tr o u t, o p . c i t . , p . 1 9 2 .
283
5 . A s c o r e oard m akes p o s s i b l e an o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s
o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y i n m aking a p p l i c a t i o n of method and
p r i n c i p l e under a c t u a l t e a c h i n g c o n d i t i o n s .
6 . The r e c o r d s on t h e s c o r e card may be used as a
p a r t i e d b a s i s f o r recommending g r a d u a t e s f o r a p p o in tm en t.
7 . A s c o r e card s e r v e s t o d e f i n e t h e purpose o f a
t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n , and s h o u ld become a means
o f c h e c k in g up t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e o u r r ic u lu m and o f t h ^
t e a o h i n g i n t h e c o l l e g e i n a c c o m p l i s n i n g i t s p u r p o se s.
S o h o r l i n g ' s a t t i t u d e to w a r d t h e u s e
work nf t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r i s
o f s c o r e ca rd s in e v a l u a t i n g t h e
i n d i o a t e d b y th e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n *
^he
p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f a s t u d e n t s h o u l d be e v a lu a te d i n a s y s t e m a t i c
w ay.
For t h i s p u rp o se many r a t i n g c a r d s or oheok l i s t
a c tiv itie s
of th e
stud en t t e a c h e r are a v a i l a b l e .
good r a t i n g card i s
found in i t s
s t u d e n t t e a c h e r r a t h e r th an i t s
of p r o f e s s io n a l
The chief* v a lu e o f a
u se as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e f o r t h e
u se a s a m easuring d e v i c e f o r p r e d i c t i n g
success."**
Some b u s i n e s s e d u c a t o r s h a v e i n d i c a t e d t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t t h e s c o r e
oard i s v a l u a b l e i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e w ork o f t h e s tu d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s
su b jects.
Shover b e l i e v e s t h a t two t y p e s o f s c a l e s should b e u s e d , on e
f o r o b s e r v a t i o n and a n o th er f o r
stu d en t te a c h in g .
3
Dodd a l s o b e l i e v e s
t h a t r a t i n g s c a l e s have a p l a c e i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f th e work o f t h e
s tu d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s . ^
Data i n t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t
o n l y 5 4 .8 p er oent o f t h e i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s a ll o w t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s t o u s e th e s c o r e
1#
2.
3.
4.
A rm en trou t, op. o i t . , p . 1 9 2 .
S o h o r l i n g , 0£ . c i t . , p . 1 6 6 .
Shover, 0£ . c i t . , p . 2 6 .
Dodd, ojp. o i t . , p . 2 6.
284
c a r d s or r a t i n g s o a l e s f o r p u r p o s e s o f s e l f - a p p r a i s a l ,
A fa ilu r e to
fo llo w t h i s p r a c tic e i s in o p p o sitio n to th e su g g estio n s o f exp erts in
th is f ie ld .
Among t h e s e a r e S o h o r l i n g ,
D ata o o lle o te d for t h i s
1
Mead,
2
and A rm en tro u t.
3
stu d y in d io a t e t h a t th e s u p e r v is o r i s
t h e p e r s o n most o f t e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e f i n a l
grade o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
be.
It is
T h is i s
as i t
s h o u ld
l o g i c a l t h a t t h e p e r s o n who comes i n c o n t a o t w i t h t h e work
o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s h o u ld be t h e p e r s o n who d e t e r m i n e s h i s f i n a l
grade.
S u r e ly i t
would be i l l o g i c a l f o r a n y o t h e r p e r s o n t o be s o l e l y
or p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e g r a d e .
The s u p e r ­
v i s o r s e e s t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r b e g i n h i s work and s e e s him d e v e l o p a s tim e
passes.
No o t h e r p e r s o n i s
a s c a p a b le a s t h e s u p e r v i s o r i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n
o f th e grade of th e stu d en t t e a c h e r .
T h e r e f o r e , he s h o u ld have t h e major
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f d eterm in in g th e f i n a l grade o f th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r o f
b u sin e ss su b jeo ts.
T here are p e r s o n s who b e l i e v e t h e s t u d e n t ' s gra d e s h o u ld n o t be
d e te r m in e d by t h e s u p e r v i s o r o n l y .
A rm en trou t s t a t e s , "The r a t i n g s
o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s w i l l b e more r e l i a b l e i f b a s e d upon s e v e r a l in d e p e n d ­
ent
j u d g m e n t s , r a t h e r t h a n upon t h e ju d gm ent o f one c r i t i o t e a c h e r . 1,4
H en d erson s t a t e s , "The s t u d e n t t e a c h e r ' s f i n a l g ra d e s h o u ld b e a c o m p o s ite
o p i n i o n o f t h e t r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r and a l l o t h e r s who come i n t o d i r e c t
oontfcot w i t h t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r ' s w o r k ."
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
S o h o r lin g , op. o i t . , p. 1 66.
lie a d , o p . o i t . , p . 5 0 4 .
A rm en tro u t, o p . o i t . , p . 1 9 2 .
I b id ., p. lsT .
H en d erso n , o p . c i t . , p . 1 1 8 .
D a t a o o lte c t e d f o r t h i s
I
286
document i n d i o a t e t h a t p e r s o n s o t h e r t h a n t h o s u p e r v i s o r so m etim es
have t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e f i n a l g ra d e o f t h e s t u d e n t
teaoh er.
This i n v e s t i g a t o r h o l d s t o t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e i s
s a t i s f a o t o r y o n l y i f t h a t p e r s o n h a s had a s u f f i c i e n t number o f o o n t a o t s
w i t h t h e work o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r t o q u a l i f y him f o r t h a t r a t i n g .
I f p e r s o n s o t h e r t h a n t h e s u p e r v i s o r have had few c o n t a c t s w it h t h e work
o f t h e s tu d e n t t e a o h e r , t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e f i n a l g r a d e s h o u ld
r e s t w ith th e s u p e r v is o r a lo n e .
Over t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s u s e t h e s c o r e c a r d s or
r a t i n g s c a l e s more t h a n on e t im e d u r in g t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r ' s e n r o l l ­
ment i n s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
T h is p r a c t i c e i s i n
agreem ent w i t h t h e rec o m m e n d a tio n s o f a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h i s f i e l d .
sh o u ld b e c o n t in u e d
It
i n i n s t i t u t i o n s f o l l o w i n g t h e p r a c t i c e and ad a p ted
t o t h o s e who do n o t f o l l o w t h e p r a c t i c e .
I t i s lo g ic a l to sta te th a t
t h e w e a k n e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e u se o f t h e s e s c o r e ca rd s can be o v e r ­
come somewhat b y m aking s e v e r a l e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r ' s
w ork.
A c o m p o s it e e v a l u a t i o n s h o u ld r e s u l t i n a more r e l i a b l e f i n a l
e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r ' s w ork .
S o h o r lin g b e l i e v e s th a t
i n s t i t u t i o n s , f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , s h o u l d , " f in d i t f e a s i b l e and d e s i r a b l e
t o g e t from two t o
f i v e r a t i n g s o f ea o h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r . " *
t h a t t h e r a t i n g s o a l e s s h o u ld b e f i l l e d
Shover s t a t e s
out w e e k l y by t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e
for stu d en t te a c h in g in b u sin e ss s u b je c ts .
2
A l i t t l e more t h a n one h a l f o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s endee ror t o e v a l u a t e
t h e work o f t h e
s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s by means o f p u p i l
1 . S o h o r lin g , o p . o i t . . p . 167.
2• S h o v e r , o £ . o i t . , "p. 1 8 .
286
a c h ie v e m e n t
(o h a n g e i n p u p i l s t a t u s ) r a t h e r t h a n p l a c e f u l l
on t h e e f f o r t s
o f th e stud en t tea o h er.
em p h asis
In r e g a r d t o t h i s p r a c t i c e ,
B a g l e y c o n t e n d s , "In a l l e f f e o t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t e a o h i n g , t h e r e f o r e ,
t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e s u p e r v is o r must be su p p lem en ted by o b j e c t i v e t e s t s
t h a t w i l l d e t e r m i n e th e growth t h a t t h e p u p i l s have made u n d e r t e a c h e r ' s
d ir e c t io n .* *
Itead a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s method o f m e a s u r in g t h e work
o f t h e s tu d e n t teaoh er i s o f v a lu e .
He s t a t e s , "The t i m e w i l l oome when
t h e r a t i n g s w i l l be an in d e x (or i n d i c e s ) o f t h e change i n t h e p u p i l ' s
s t a t u s and t h e ch an ge i n t h e e t u d e n t - t e a c h e r e x p r e s s e d i n some f a s h i o n
lik e a sc a le
o r l i k e an A.41.1*
T h is method o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e work of
t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r should be t h e m a jo r b a s i s upon w h ic h t h e s t u d e n t
t e a c h e r ' s r a t i n g s are made.
I t i s i n term s o f p u p i l g r o w th t h a t t h e
o u tco m es o f t e a o h i n g must b e u l t i m a t e l y e v a l u a t e d .
The s t u d e n t t e a c h e r
o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s should be t a u g h t from t h e f i r s t t h a t h i s work w i l l
be e v a l u a t e d
i n term s o f p u p il g ro w th .
The u t i l i z a t i o n o f s u c h a s t im u lu s
s h o u ld c o n t r i b u t e m a t e r i a l l y to t h e growth o f b o t h t h e s t u d e n t and t h e
p u p il e n r o lle d
i n h is c l a s s .
I n c o n n e c t i o n w ith t y p e o f m easurem ent, t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s c o g n iz a n t
o f c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s w h ic h are i n h e r e n t i n s u c h a p r a c t i c e .
In t h e f i r s t
p l a o e , t h e s t u d e n t teach er o f b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s , l i k e a l l o th e r stu d en t
t e a c h e r s , i s n o t e n r o l l e d i n s t u d e n t t e a o h in g c o u r s e s f o r a l o n g p e r i o d of
tim e .
O f t e n t h i s l i m i t a t i o n o f tim e w i l l make i t d i f f i c u l t t o measure the
p u p i l g r o w th w h i c h has t a k e n p la o e d u r in g t h e t im e t h e s t u d e n t t e a o h e r has
been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c l a s s .
A n o th er l i m i t a t i o n i s t h e l a c k of s u i t a b l e
1 . L e a r n e d , B a g l e y , and o t h e r s , o£. c i t . , p . 2 1 9 .
2 . Mead, o p . o i t . , p . 8 6 5 .
237
t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r suoh m easurem ent i n some o f t h e b u s i n e s s c l a s s e s
i n t h e h ig h s o h o o l .
I n s p i t e o f t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s i t w ould seem t h a t
t h i s i s a d e s i r a b l e means o f m ea su rin g t h e work o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r
o f b u sin ess s u b je o ts .
H ow ever, i t i s p r o b a b ly t r u e t h a t e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n
i n t h i s method o f m easurem ent oan and w i l l r e s u l t i n more n e a r l y o b j e c t i v e
m eans o f e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e work o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s *
P r a o t i o e s i n R e l a t i o n t o C o n f e r e n c e s i n S t u d e n t T e a o h in g C o u r se s i n
B u s in e s s S u b jeo ts
10* From d a t a c o l l e c t e d
f o r t h i s stud y*
i t may be oo n o lu d ed t h a t
t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e program o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s
c o n s i d e r i n d i v i d u a l and group c o n f e r e n c e s an Im p o r ta n t and e s s e n t i a l e le m e n t
i n th e p r o f e s s io n a l tr a in in g of tea o h ers of b u sin e ss s u b je o ts *
By i n c l u d i n g
t h i s p r a c t i c e , t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e program a r e f o l l o w i n g t h e s u g g e s t i o n s
o f a u t h o r i t i e s i n the f i e l d
o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n g e n e r a l and o f b u s i n e s s
e d u c a t o r s who have g i v e n t h o u g h t t o t h e m a t t e r .
Among t h o s e who have a d v o c a te d c o n f e r e n c e s a s a p o r t o f a program o f
s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g a r e m a x w ell and R e u s s e r ,^ S o h o r l i n g , ^ M o tt,^ D ic k s o n ,^
5
6
Shover,
and D odd.
The re a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o p a g e s 2 3 3 -3 3 5 f o r c o m p le t e
s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e s e w r i t e r s as t o t h e v a l u e o f t h e con ­
feren ce.
So f a r as t h i s i n v e r t i g a t o r has b e e n a b l e t o a s c e r t a i n , t h e r e
h a s n e v e r been an a u t h o r i t y i n t h e f i e l d
o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g who has n o t
a d v o o a te d t h e u s e o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e t e c h n iq u e *
1.
2.
3.
4*
6*
6.
M axwell and R e u s s e r , o p . o i t . , p . 2 1 .
G c h o r lin g , o p . c i t . , p . 1 7 1 .
M o t t , op . o T t * , p. 5 5 .
D ic k s o n , o p . c i t . , p. l b .
Shover, op. o i t . , p. 16.
Dodd, o p . c i t . , p. 2 7 .
D a t a found i n t h i s document
238
in d ic a te t h a t th o se r e sp o n sib le fo r
stu d en t te a o h in g in b u s in e s s
s u b j e o t s a r e u n a n im o u s ly agreed t h a t t h i e p h a s e
an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e work
D a ta c o l l e c t e d
o f t h e program
is
of th e n o v ic e .
f o r t>’i s docum ent show t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r i s
m ost o f t e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e .
T h is i s a d e s i r a b l e p r a c t i c e and a l o g i c a l
one.
The s u p e r v i s o r i s
fend l i a r w i t h t h e work o f t h e
t e a c h e r t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n any
oth er p erso n .
s u p e r v i s o r s h o u ld
T h e refo r e, th e
a s s i s t a n c e and c o n s t r u c t i v e g u i d a n c e .
Mo o t h e r p e r s o n can c o n t r i b u t e
more t o t h e c o n f e r e n c e th a n t h e s u p e r v i s o r .
r e a c h e d a p o i n t where he can be e n r o l l e d
p e r s o n s have much t o c o n t r i b u t e ,
be t h e p e r s o n t o o f f e r
A f t e r t h e s t u d e n t has
i n s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g f e w o th e r
by means o f c o n f e r e n c e s , t o t h e im p rove­
ment o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n B u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
P o i n t s o f s t r e n g t h are e v i d e n t from an e x a m in a t io n o f d a t a c o l l e c t e d
c o n c e r n in g t h e c o n f e r e n c e s o f s t u d e n t t e a o h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s and t h e
su p e r v iso r s.
L esso n p l a n s are d i s c u s s e d i n c o n f e r e n c e s in 6 9 , 7 per c e n t o f
t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t i n g on t h i s
p o in t.
The c o n f e r e n c e h a s much t o c o n ­
t r i b u t e t o t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f p u p i l growth and s t u d e n t ^e&cher growth when
t h i s c . - n s i c c r a t i o n i s g l von e m p h a s i s .
In c a s e s w h ere r e g l i g a b l e u- t e n t i cn
i s g iv e n t o t h i s phase o f t h e p rog ram , t h e work m a y become d i s o r g a n i z e d .
D e s ir e d r e s u l t s may n ot be p r o d u c e d .
sh ould d i c t a t e v.V&t s h o u ld be d o n e .
of such u p o l i c y .
T h is c o o s n o t mean t h a t
the su p e r v iso r
C rea tiv e te a c h in g i s n o t the r e s u l t
C :n a tr ; e t i v e g u i d a n c e i n term s o f l e s s o n p la n n in g w i l l
r e s u l t i n t h e d ev elo p m en t o f c r e a t i v e t e a c h i n g .
In t u r n , t h i s w i l l l e a d
t o i n c r e a s e d p u p i l and s t u d e n t t e a o h e r g r o w t h .
A nother p o i n t o f s t r e n g t h i n t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e
239
lie s
i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e c o n f e r e n c e s are not r i g i d i n n a t u r e .
I n 8 1 . 5 p er c e n t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s th e i n d iv i d u a l c o n fe r e n c e i s
p r i m a r i l y d e p e n d e n t upon t h e n e e d s o f t h e stu d en t t e a c h e r of b u s i n e s s
su b jects.
T h is i s
as i t
s h o u ld b e .
in te a c h in g b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s .
There are many problems in v o l v e d
The l e s s o n p la n , a lth o u g h v ery impor­
t a n t , sh o u ld not r e c e i v e t h e t o t a l a t t e n t i o n o f th e c o n f e r e e s .
A con­
f e r e n c e program b a s e d upon t h e im m ediate needs o f t h e stu d en t t e a c h e r
o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s w o u ld seem t o b e t h e moat d e s i r a b l e t y p e .
It is
l o g i c a l t o b e l i e v e t h e s u p e r v i s o r s a re v i s e in f o l l o w i n g t h i s p r a c t i c e .
An a p p aren t w e a k n e s s i n t h o conduct o f th e i n d i v i d u a l c o n fe r e n c e
l i e s i n t h e number o f c o n f e r e n c e s h e ld each week w it h stu d en t t e a c h e r s
of b u sin ess su b jects*
t h a t one i s
E x a c t l y t w o - t h i r d s o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p o r t
t h e a v e r a g e number o f c o n f e r e n c e s hold e a c h week.
In t h e
o t h e r t h i r d , more t h a n one i n d i v i d u a l c o n fe r e n c e i s h e ld each week w it h
each s tu d e n t t e a c h e r .
The d a t a do n ot show whether t h e s u p e r v is o r s w ould
l i k e t o have more i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s .
A com parison o f th e d a t a p r e ­
s e n t e d i n t h e docum ent and t h a t fou n d i n H enderson's s t u d y d oes show t h a t
s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s are not g iven t h e o p p o r t u n it y f o r
i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s t o a s g r e a t an e x t e n t as are t h e stu d en t t e a c h e r s o f
h ig h s c h o o l c l a s s e s
in g e n e r a l ,
Henderson found t h a t 7 7 ,2 per c e n t o f t h e
i n s t i t u t i o n s w h ic h he s t u d i e d p r o v id e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l c o n ­
f e r e n c e s more o f t e n t h a n one t im e a week."'"
This shows a weakness in t h e
c o n f e r e n c e program o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s .
t h e s i t u a t i o n in t h e s e w o r d s i
Head sums up
" S tu d en t t e a c h e r s f in d t h a t s c h e d u l e s , t h e
s u p e r v i s o r ' s lo a d o f w o r k , and o t h e r t h i n g s o f t e n s h o r t e n th e c o n f e r e n c e or
1 . H enderson, op. o i t . , p . 6 0.
290
p reven t i t s b e in g h e ld .
A n oth er c o m p la in t t h e y make i s t h a t c o n f e r e n o e s
are t o o few and t o o b r i e f t o m eet t h e i r n e e d s .
I n t e r m s o f p r e p a r a t i o n r e q u ir e d and d e f i n i t e p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d ,
t h e group c o n f e r e n c e s a t t e n d e d by s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s
seem t o b e b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d t h a n t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s .
T h is i s
n o t an u n d e s i r a b l e s i t u a t i o n as t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e i s h e ld f o r
t h e p u r p o se o f d i s c u s s i n g im m ediate p r o b le m s .
task t o
I t i s a rath er d i f f i c u l t
o r g a n i z e m a t e r i a l s and t o p r e p a r e d e f i n i t e o u t l i n e s o f w h a t i s
t o b e done i n i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s .
The n e e d s o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r
s h o u ld be t h e e l e m e n t w h i c h w i l l g o v e r n t h e c o n d u ct o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l
con feren ce.
The group c o n f e r e n c e , w h ic h many t i m e s i s composed o f s t u d e n t
t e a c h e r s fro m a l l f i e l d s ,
n a t u r a l l y l e n d s i t s e l f t o a more d e f i n i t e o r g a n i ­
z a tio n .
G eneral C o n c lu s io n
Assum ing t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , t h e program
o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s i s b e s t o r g a n iz e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d
in th e fo llo w in g o rd eri
s e l e c t e d p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , s t a t e
t e a c h e r s c o l l a g e s , and s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
T h is c o n c l u s i o n i s b a s e d e n t i r e l y on t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d
The b a s i s o f t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s found i n T ab le LXXXV.
for t h i s
stu d y.
The t a b l e su m m arizes
th e r e l a t i v e ran k o f each ty p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n in term s o f t h e c r i t e r i a l i s t e d
in th e t a b le .
These c r i t e r i a ha<.e b een s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r s i g n i f i ­
c a n c e , s u i t a b l e c o m p a r a t iv e q u a l i t i e s ,
and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o t h e m a jo r s e c t i o n s
o f t h e dooum ent m a t e r i a l .
T h is c o n c l u s i o n d o e s n o t assume t h a t a l l p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
h ave b e t t e r o r g a n iz e d programs o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s t h a n
t h e o t h e r two t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .
The p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
291
r e p r e s e n t a s e l e c t group.
For t h e m ost p a r t , t h e y a r e i n s t i t u t i o n s
w i t h ample f i n a n c i a l b a c k in g t o p r o v id e a d e q u a te programs o f t h i s
n atu re.
T h e r e f o r e , i t i s t o b e e x p e c t e d t h a t program s o f s t u d e n t
t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s w ould be more a d e q u a t e l y o r g a n i z e d and
a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t h i s group t h a n would be t h e o a s e i n o t h e r t y p e s o f
in s titu tio n s .
It is
p r o b a b ly l o g i c a l t o assume t h a t t h e program o f s t u d e n t
t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s w ould be f a i r l y w e l l o r g a n iz e d and
a d m in istered i n th e s t a t e te a c h e r s c o l l e g e s .
T h ese i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e ,
a s t h e name i n d i c a t e s , s c h o o l s w h ic h p l a c e p r im a r y em p h a sis on t h e
tr a in in g o f tea ch ers.
I n many i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h i s t y p e , t h e t r a i n i n g
s c h o o l and i t s program i s t h e f i n a l i n t e g r a t i n g d e v i c e u s e d t o j u s t i f y
t h e e f f o r t w h ic h h a s b e e n exp en d ed i n t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s .
it
T h erefore,
i s l o g i c a l t h a t , r e l a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , t h e y have a tt e m p te d t o p r o ­
v i d e a d e q u a te programs o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n b u s i n e s s
su b jects.
R e l a t i v e l y , t h e s t a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s have f a i l e d t o
p ro v id e th e f a c i l i t i e s
f o r a program o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n b u s i n e s s
s u b j e c t s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y have been p r o v id e d by t h e o t h e r tw o
ty p e s of in s titu tio n s *
So l o n g as e x p e r t s a g r e e , a s t h e y d o , t h a t
s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i 3 an e s s e n t i a l e le m e n t i n t h e t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s
i t would seem t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u ld be g i v e n t o
in o re a sin g th e
e f f i c i e n c y o f s u ch program s i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s i n s t a t e c o l l e g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
lia iy b eg in n in g te a c h e r s r e c e i v e t h e i r n o v ic e t r a i n ­
in g in th e t r a in in g s c h o o ls o f i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h i s t y p e .
I f th ese
i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n s i d e r one o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n s t o be t h a t o f t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r s o f b u sin e ss s u b je o ts , c e r t a in ly i t
i s t h e i r d u t y and r e s p o n -
292
TAj;LE lxxxv
THE RELATIVE RANK OF THREE TYPES OF INSTITUTIONS IN TERMS OF SEVENTEEN
POINTS INVOLVED IN THE CONDUCT OF PROGR/JiS OF STUDENT TEACHING
IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9
P o i n t s E v a lu a te d
H igh s o h o o l b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s
a v a il a b l e f o r t e a c h in g p u rp oses*
F o rm u la tio n o f o b j e o t i v e s
Types o f e q u ip m e n t a v a i l a b l e f o r
stu d en t teao h er use
S u p e r v i s o r s w i t h M a s te r and D o c to r
degrees
S u p e r v i s o r s who h a v e had t e a c h i n g
ex p erien o e in seoondary sc h o o ls
L en g th o f s u p e r v i s o r s ' e x p e r i e n o e
in second ary s c h o o ls
S u p e r v i s o r s who have had soma t y p e
o f b u sin e ss ex p erien o e
H e a v i n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l lo a d
S a la r y B tatu s o f s u p e r v is o r s
R ea d in g o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e
P r o v is io n s fo r o b se r v a tio n
S u b j e c t m a t t e r c o u r s e s c o m p le t e d a s
a p r e r e q u is it e to stu d en t tea ch in g
P r o v is io n s for s e l e c t i o n o f
stu d en t tea ch er s
Number o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a s s i g n e d
t o one s u p e r v i s o r a t one tim e
S tu dent te a c h e r s g iv e n o p p o r tu n ity
t o t e a c h more t h a n one s u b j e c t
D if f e r e n t ty p e s o f te a o h in g ex ­
p e r ie n c e s p ro v id ed
P r e p a r a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r grou p
co n feren ce
T otal P o in ts
S ta te
Teachers
C o lle g e s
S tate
C o lle g e s
and Uni­
v e r sitie s
P riv a te
C o lle g e s
and U n i­
v e r sitie s
2
2
3
3
1
1
2
3
1
1
2
3
2
1
3
3
2
1
2
2
2
1
3
3
3
3
1
1
1
2
2
1
3
2
3
1
2
3
1
2i
2—
1
1
2
3
1
3
2
3
1
2
32&
4lfc
26
* T h is t a b l e s h o u ld be r e a d as f o l l o w s *
I n te r m s o f t h e h ig h s o h o o l b u s i n e s s
s u b j e c t s a v a i l a b l e f o r t e a c h i n g p u r p o s e s , t h e s e l e c t e d p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and
u n i v e r s i t i e s r a n k f i r s t , s t a t e t e a c h e r s o o l l o g e s ra n k s e c o n d , and s t a t e
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ran k t h i r d .
293
a i b i l i t y t o p r o v id e ad eq u a te programs w h ic h w i l l r e s u l t i n such t r a i n i n g .
This should n o t im p ly t h a t a l l
attempt t o do t h i s .
In f a c t ,
sta te c o lle g e s
and u n i v e r s i t i e s do n o t
some o f th em a r e v e r y c o n s i d e r a t e o f such
programs and are t o be commended f o r m aking a d e q u a te p r o v i s i o n s .
294
Recommendat i o n s R e g a r d in g P r o v i s i o n s Made f o r S t u d e n t T ea ch in g i n B u s i n e s s
S u b jects
l s A ll t e a c h e r - t r a in in g i n s t i t u t i o n s p rep a rin g c o l l e g e stu d e n ts fo r
te a c h in g p o sitio n s in th e f i e l d
fa c ilitie s
o f b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n s h o u ld p r o v id e
for a co u rse in stu d e n t te a c h in g in b u sin e ss s u b j e c t s .
If
a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y p o s s i b l e , b o t h campus and o f f- o a m p u s s o h o o l s sh o u ld be
u s e d f o r p u r p o se s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s *
is
U n less th e r e
a demand f o r i n e x p e r i e n o e d t e a c h e r s i n p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s s c h o o l s i n t h e
s e r v ic e areas o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s
i n v o l v e d , f a c i l i t i e s f u r n i s h e d by t h e s e
s o h o o l s s h o u ld not b e u s e d f o r p u r p o s e s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s
su b jects.
L i k e w i s e , c o l l e g e s u b j e c t m a tter o l a s s e s s h o u ld n o t be u s e d f o r
purposes o f stud en t te a c h in g in b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s .
I n v e s t i g a t o r s and a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e f i e l d
t a k e s i m i l a r p o i n t s - o f - v i e w a r e H e n d er so n ,
1
o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g who
2
Mead,
S c h o r lin g ,
3
P eik ,
4
and
F o ster * '’
2.
U n less s p e c i a l i z e d p r e p a r a tio n w ith in th e f i e l d
t i o n i s demanded i n t h e s e r v i o e a r e a s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s
t e a c h e r s sh ou ld n o t b e g e n e r a l l y r e q u ir e d t o s p e c i a l i z e
b u s in e s s tea o h in g f i e l d s .
o f b u sin e s s educa­
in v o lv e d , stu d en t
in r e s tr ic te d
S t u d i e s have shown t h a t t h e co m m erc ia l t e a c h e r iB
m o st o f t e n r e q u ir e d t o t e a c h more th a n one p h a se o f t h e f i e l d
o f b u sin e ss
e d u c a t i o n and h i s p r e p a r a t i o n s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , t a k e t h e form o f g e n e r a l i z e d
p r e p a r a tio n in th e f i e l d .
P r o v i s i o n s sh o u ld be made f o r p l a o i n g t h e n o n -
s p e o i a l i z e d program o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g in b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s a s near a s
p o s s i b l e t o th e s t u d e n t ' s f i n a l g r a d u a tio n .
T h is p la c e m e n t , when and
w h e r e f e a s i b l e , may t a k e t h e fo r m o f a s o r t o f i n t e r n s h i p p e r i o d .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
H e n d er so n , op . o i t . , p . 1 1 0 ,
Mead, o p . c i t . , p . B31.
S c h o r l i n g , op . o i t . , p . 1 3 2 .
P e ik , op. o i t . , p. 362.
F o s t e r , op. c i t . , p . 4 0 0 .
Mead i s
i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h i s r e c o m m e n d a tio n .
He s t a t e s , " R e s p o n s i b l e s t u d e n t - t e a o h i n g w i l l o c c u r i n t h e l a s t y e a r o f
e a c h c u r r i c u lu m p r o v id e d f o r p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s . " *
At t h e same t i m e ,
he a d v i s e s more ad van ced t y p e s o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g w here program s a re f o r
a p e r i o d l o n g e r th a n f o u r y e a r s .
2
3 . The c u r r i c u l a o f t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s s h o u ld b e arra n g ed i n such
a manner as t o p r o v i d e s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n t h e o o u r s e s w h ich t h e s t u d e n t s
w i l l m ost l i k e l y be o a l l e d upon t o t e a c h when t h e y s e o u r e em p loym en t.
I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t r a i n i n g s o h o o l c u r r i c u l a s h o u ld be o r g a n iz e d i n su ch a
way a s t o p r o v id e s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g c o u r s e s w h loh are n o t g e n e r a l l y t a u g h t
i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l s o f t h e s e r v i c e a r e a s i n v o l v e d .
T hese, n a t u r a lly ,
s h o u ld be o o u r s e s w h i c h t h e b e s t and m o s t modern p h i l o s o p h y o f b u s i n e s s
e d u c a tio n in d ic a t e s
s h o u ld be o f f e r e d
i n t h e p u b l i c h ig h s o h o o l s .
p r e se n t tim e , a c a s e in p o in t i s th a t o f d i s t r i b u t i v e e d u c a tio n .
At t h e
The s i z e
o f t h e c l a s s e s w h ic h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s a re o a l l e d upon t o
t e a c h s h o u ld b e , a s n e a r l y a s p o s s i b l e , o f t h e same s i z e as t h o s e o f t h e
t y p i o a l h ig h s o h o o l i n w h ic h t h e s t u d e n t s are l i k e l y t o be e m p lo y e d .
H enderson a g r e e s w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t made i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e n t e n c e . ^
4 . I n i n s t i t u t i o n s p r e p a r i n g t e a c h e r s f o r p o s i t i o n s i n t h e commerce
c l a s s e s o f t h e p u b l i c h ig h s c h o o l s , t h e r e s h o u ld be some means o f c o o r d i ­
n a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e w ork o f t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l and t h e work o f t h e c o l l e g e
s u b j e c t jiiatter d e p a r t m e n t s .
A ttem p ts s h o u ld be made t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e work
o f t h e t r a in i n g sc h o o l b u s in e s s c l a s s e s w ith t h a t o f p r o f e s s io n a l c l a s s e s
in e d u c a tio n .
T h is c o o r d i n a t i o n s h o u ld t a k e t h e form o f a s s i g n i n g c o l l e g e
s u b j e c t m a t t e r t e a c h e r s t o t e a c h or s u p e r v i s e c l a s s e s i n t h e t r a i n i n g s o h o o l
1 . Mead, o p . c i t . , p . 8 4 8 .
2 . Loc. c i t .
3 . H e n d er so n , o p . c i t . , p . 1 1 1 .
296
w h ic h t h e y s r a e s p e c i a l l y w e l l - p r e p a r e d t o t e a c h as a r e s u l t o f s p e c i a l
s u b j e c t m a t t e r p r e p a r a t io n or e x p e r i e n c e
stu d en ts.
in d e a l i n g w i t h h ig h s c h o o l
I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s c o o r d i n a t i o n s h o u ld t a k e t h e fo r m o f c o o p e r ­
a t i v e s h a r i n g o f d evelop m en t o f p o l i c i e s w i t h r e g a r d t o t r a i n i n g s c h o o l
b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s , t h e making o f a r r a n g e m e n ts f o r s p e c i a l o r r e g u l a r
d e m o n s t r a t i o n s t a u g h t by t h e s u p e r v i s o r ,
or t h e t e a o h i n g o f s p e c i a l
d e m o n s t r a t i o n s by c o l l e g e s u t j e o t m a t te r
or m eth o d s t e a c h e r s .
r eco m m en d a tio n i s
b a g le y ,
T his
i n agreement w i t h t h e r e c o m m e n d a tio n s o f L ea rn ed and
F o s te r ,* * F r i s t o e , ^ and S c h o r l i n g . ^
The p r im a r y o b j e c t i v e s w h ich should be a c c o m p li s h e d b y a program
of s tu d e n t te a c h in g in b u sin ess s u b je c ts
s h o u ld be d e f i n i t e l y o u t l i n e d f o r
u s e o f s t u d e n t s , s u p e r v i s o r s , and f o r anyone e l s e o o n o e r n e d .
of th e se o b je c tiv e s
stood .
The s t a t e m e n t
should be b r i e f and s p e c i f i c en o u g h t o be c l e a r l y u n d e r­
They s h o u ld r e s u l t from a c o o p e r a t i v e u n d e r t a k i n g .
The p e r s o n n e l
o f t h e f o r m u l a t i n g group sh o u ld c o n s i s t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s , d e p a r t m e n t h ead s
in S c h o o l s
in g ,
o f E d u c a t io n and S c h o o ls o f Commerce, d i r e c t o r s
and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s in o ff-c a m p u s s c h o o l s .
o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g in b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s
and r e o r g a n i z a t i o n from tim e t o t i m e .
d a tio n i s
S c h o r lin g .
1.
2.
3*
4.
5.
6.
7.
of stu d en t tea ch ­
The p u r p o s e s o r o b j e c t i v e s
s h o u ld be s u b j e c t t o e v a l u a t i o n
S u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s recommen-
fo u n d i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f B l a c k s t o n e ,
7
L ea rn ed , B a g le y , e t a l . , o £ . c i t . , p. 1 9 9 .
F o s t e r , o p . c i t . , p . 38 9.
F r i s t o e , op. c i t . , p . 2 7 5 .
S c h o r l i n g , £jo. c i t . , p. 1 4 7 .
B l a c k s t o n e , op. c i t . , pp. 4 - 6 .
L a x w e ll and R e u s s e r , op. c i t . , p . 4 .
S c h o r l i n g , _0 £ . c i t . , p. 1 3 8 .
6
M a xw ell and R e u s s e r ,
6
and
297
R ecom m endations R eg a rd in g t h e I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t a f f R e s p o n s i b l e f o r S tu d e n t
T e a c h in g i n b u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s
1* I t i s
recommended t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
s u b j e c t s nave s c h o l a s t i c p r e p a r a t i o n e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t r e q u i r e d f o r t h e
m a ster's degree*
As t h e s u p p ly i n c r e a s e s , t h e s u p e r v i s o r s h o u ld have
s c h o l a s t i c p r e p a r a tio n e q u iv a le n t to th a t req u ir e d f o r th e d o c t o r ' s degree*
The s u p e r v i s o r
o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s s h o u ld c o m p le t e
b o t h h i s g r a d u a t e and u n d e r g r a d u a te work i n t h e f i e l d
fie ld s.
Ir, a d d i t i o n ,
w h ic h w i l l
o f commerce or r e l a t e d
he should have a broad g e n e r a l u n d e r g r a d u a t e e d u c a t i o n
a l l o w him t o t a k e h i s p la c e
as an i n t e l l i g e n t member o f s o c i e t y *
As a p a r t o f h i s g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g , t h e s u p e r v i s o r of s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f
b u sin e ss s u b je c ts
s h o u ld have s p e c i a l t r a i n •r.g i n t h e i.urk .-f t h e
super­
v is in g teach er*
2* The e x p e r i e n c e o f a s u p e r v i s o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s
s u b j e c t s s h o u l d be c f tw o k i n d s ,
he s h o u ld p r o b a b ly have a t l e a s t f i v e
y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n o e a s a t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s in t h e s e c o n d a r y
sc h o o ls.
D u r in g t h a t t im e he s h o u ld have shown e v i d e n c e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l
grow th ,
i n a d d i t i o n , he s h o u ld have l ad e x p e r i e n c e o f a b u sin e ss ; n e t u r e .
T h is b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e s h o u ld be
g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d in g o f a t l e i s t
p o s t t i m s w h ic h w i l l g i v e him a
s e v e r a l p h a s e s o f t h e b u s i n e s s w o rld *
T h is e x p e r i e n c e s h o u ld be o f r e c e n t d a t e , and i f p o s s i b l e ,
renew ed from t i n e t o t i m e .
term s ■•■f t h e
s h o u ld be
Any such r e n e w a l s h o u ld be a c c o m p lis h e d in
s u b j e c t s w hich t h e s u p e r v i s o r i s t e a c h i n g or i n t e r m s o f t h e
b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h w h ic h he he.s hud l i t t l e
or no c o n t a c t .
T
reco m m en d a tio n i s
su p p o rted by t h e o p i n i o n s o f Lomax,
T h is
O
D o u g la ss,
«T
Tonne,
and D odd.^
1 . Lomax, o p . c i t . , p p . 2 2 2 - 2 2 3 .
( B u s i n e s s E d u c a t io n W o rld , November, 1S39J
2 . D o u g l a s s , o p , c i t . , pp. 2 2 2 - 2 2 3 .
3 . Tonne,
^^ * j 1* 3 1D•
A
T \r k /1 r l
vs
n l
r ’ ^ 9 .
298
3 . The h o u r - p e r - w e e k t e a c h i n g lo a d o f s u p e r v i s o r s o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s
o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e o t s s h o u ld be no g r e a t e r th an t h a t o f c o l l e g e t o a o h e r s
who are n o t a s s i g n e d t o t h i s w ork.
of th ese
s u p e r v i s o r s s h o u ld be even l e s s th a n t h e h c u r - p e r - w e e k t e a c h i n g
lo a d o f r e g u la r c o l l e g e t e a c h e r s .
15 h o u rs p e r w e e k , or e v e n l e s s ,
th e
I f at a l l p o s s i b l e , t h e t e a o h i n g lo a d
A r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d t e a c h i n g lo a d o f
i s rec o n rien d ed .
An o v e r l o a d p l a c e d upon
s u p e r v i s o r w i l l t e n d t o c o n d i t i o n t h e amount o f t im e s p e n t in c o n f e r e n c e
w ith stu d en t te a c h e r s .
T h is may r e s u l t i n a program o f t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n
w h ic h w i l l b r in g about in a d e q u a t e t r a i n i n g nnd a l e s s e f f i c i e n t a t t a in m e n t
o f t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l o f t e a c h e r p r e p a r in g i n s t i t u t i o n s — t h e d ev elo p m en t o f
t e a c h e r s who are t r a i n e d t o t h e p o in t o f s u c c e s s f u l a c c o m p lis h m e n t upon
t h o i r en tra n ce in to th e te a c h in g f i e l d .
An o v e r - l o a d
is
b e in g c a r r i e d a t
t h e p r e s e n t t im e b y s u p e r v i s o r s i n a number o f i n s t i t u t i o n s
t h i s stu d y.
in c l u d e d i n
Those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f such programs
s h o u ld s t u d y t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s w i t h u n d e r s t a n d in g , sy m p a th y , and a r e a l
d e s i r e t o r e d u c e t h i s lo a d f o r p u r p o s e s o f p r o t e c t i n g t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e
p u b lic
s c h o o l s , t h e s u p e r v i s o r s , t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s , a n d , above a l l , t h e
fu tu r e stu d en ts o f th e se stu d en t te a c h e r s .
fie ld
A number o f i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n t h e
o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g have co n clu d ed t h a t t h e lo a d
is e x c e ssiv e .
Among t h e s e a r e L earned and B a g l e y ,
1
o f th e su p e r v iso r
H enderson,
2
end F l o w e r s .
4 . The s u p e r v i s o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s s h o u ld b e
g i v e n t h e same r a n k in g p r i v i l e g e and s a l a r y s t a t u s as t h a t g i v e n t o o t h e r
members o f t h e c o l l e g e t e a c h i n g s t a f f .
Of c o u r s e , t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s ran k
and s a l a r y s t a t u s s h o u ld be b ased upon t h e amount o f s t u d y done b y t h e
s u p e r v iso r , h is i n s t it u t io n a l r e s p o n s ib ilit y ,
vnd h i e a c c o m p lis h m e n t i n
1 . L e a r n e d , B a g l e y , e t a l . , op . c i t . , p p . 2 1 3 - 2 2 0 .
2 . H e n d e r so n , op . c i t . , p . l T 3 .
3* F l o w e r s , op . o i t . , p p . 6 9 - 7 0 .
299
term s o f t h e aim s o f t h e
o o u r s e i n stu d en t t e a c h i n g .
T h is reco m m en d a tio n i s
H end erson ,
2
G a r r iso n ,
3
1
i n agreement w ith t h e o p i n i o n s o f F l o w e r s ,
and McMullen*
4
Recommendations R e g a r d in g O b s e r v a t i o n as
F a cto r i n t h e Conduct o f S t u d e n t
T each ing i n Busi n e s s S u b j e o t s .
1.
In i n s t i t u t i o n s p rep a rin g teach ers of b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s ,
recommended t h a t c o l l e g e
F ir st,
is
s t u d e n t s be g iv e n th e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e
in a program o f w e l l - s u p e r v i s e d d i r e c t e d o b s e r v a t io n *
be o f two k in d s *
it
O b s e r v a t i o n s h o u ld
o b s e r v a t i o n should ta k e p l a c e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h
methods c o u r s e s i n t h e f i e l d
o f b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n , and, t o
some e x t e n t ,
in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h n o n -m e th o d s c o u r s e s tau gh t by i n s t r u c t o r s i n D e p a r tm e n ts
of E d u c a t io n .
I n t h e seo o n d p l a c e , o b s e r v a t io n s h o u ld be p r o v id e d a f t e r t h e
s t u d e n t i s e n r o l l e d i n s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g in b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s *
should be made f o r t h i s
t y p e o f o b s e r v a t io n p r e v i o u s t o t h e s t u d e n t 1 s i n ­
d u c t io n i n t o f u l l - t i m e t e a c h i n g *
stu d e n t e n r o l l e d
P r o v isio n s
The p r o s p e c t i v e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r and t h e
i n s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g should be r e q u i r e d t o make m e a n in g f u l
and p r a c t i c a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r o b s e r v a t i o n s .
The o b s e r v a t i o n should be
f o llo w e d b y a c o n f e r e n c e p e r io d f o r purposes o f d i s c u s s i o n .
S u p p o r t in g e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s recommendation i s
found on p a g e s 1 4 8 ,
1 4 9 , end 180 o f t i i s d o cu m en t,
2* The t r a i n i n g o r d e p a r tm e n t s u p e r v is o r sh o u ld t e a c h d e m o n s t r a t i o n
l e s s o n s o b s e r v e d by c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s who e x p e c t t o e n r o l ]
i n stu d en t te a c h in g
1. F l o w e r s ,
o i t . , pp. 6 9 -7 0 .
2* H e n d er so n , o p * o i t . , p . 1 1 4 .
3 . K. L . G a r r i s o n . 'S t a t u s and Vfork o f the T r a in in g S u p e r v i s o r . New Yorkj
B u reau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T ea ch er s C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ,
1927, pp. 8 6 -8 8 .
4 . M cM ullen, o £ . o i t * , p . 1 6 .
300
i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s or who are a l r e a d y e n r o l l e d i n s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n
b u sin e ss s u b je c ts .
The t e a c h e r o f methods i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s s h o u ld
a l s o be o a l l e d upon t o t e a c h d e m o n s t r a t i o n l e s s o n s but t h i s i n d i v i d u a l
s h o u ld a l s o be c l a s s i f i e d
is ,
it is
a s a d e p a r tm e n t or t r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r .
That
recommended t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r s h o u l d a l s o be t h e i n d i v i d u a l
a s s i g n e d t o t h e t a s k o f t e a c h i n g t h e m ethods c l a s s e s i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s .
H enderson i s
a l s o o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e s e p r a c t i c e s s h o u ld be f o l l o w e d i n
c o n n e c t i o n w i t h th e o b s e r v a t i o n p h a s e o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n g e n e r a l . ^ ”
Re com:.end a t i on s R eg ard in g t h e S e l e c t i o n , V a r i e t y , E x t e n t , and E v a l u a t i o n
o f t h e Work o f S tu d e n t T e a c h e r s o f B u s i n e s s S u b j e c t s .
1.
It is
recommended t h a t s t u d e n t s be a ll o w e d t o e n r o l l f o r s t u d e n t
t e a c h i n g o n l y a f t e r c e r t a i n minimum r e q u ir e m e n t s have b e e n m e t .
The
f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i n d i c a t e s t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a s t o what
t h e s e r e q u ir e m e n t s s h o u ld b e .
A g e n e r a l m eth o d s c o u r s e i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s
or s p e c i a l m eth od s c o u r s e s i n b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s s h o u ld be p r e ­
r e q u i s i t e t o or o f f e r e d c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s
su b jects.
C a r ls o n
and Shover
b o t h a g r e e w i t h t h i s rec o m m e n d a tio n .
In
a d d i t i o n , s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s s h o u ld n ot be a s s i g n e d
t o t e a c h h i g h s o h o o l s u b j e c t s i n t h e t r e i n i n g s c h o o l s unle s s a s u f f i c i e n t
amount o f t r a i n i n g has b een r e c e i v e d t o f u r n i s h t h e s t u d e n t w i t h ad eq u ate
k n o w led g e o f and s k i l l i n t h e s u b j e c t i n v o l v e d .
The t r a i n i n g i n t h e s u b j e c t
t o be ta u g h t should a p p ro x im a te or e x c e e d t h a t r e q u ir e d o f t e a c h e r s f o r
1 . H e n d e r so n , o p . o i t . , p . 1 2 0 .
2 . P a u l A. C a r ls o n , O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Methods C o u r se s a t Y fhitew ater S t a t e
T ea oh ers C o l l e g e , The R a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Commercial T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s , B u l l e t i n , No. 1 4 , F eb n u ary, 1 9 3 8 , p . 1 1.
3 . A lo n z o . F . Myers and E d i t y E . B e e c n e l , Manual o f O b s e r v a t i o n and
P a r t i c i p a t i o n . New Yorkt A m erican Book Company, 1 9 2 6 , p . 1 .
301
minimum c e r t i f i c a t e s i n t h e s t a t e i n w h ich t h e t r a i n i n g i s b e in g s e c u r e d *
A noth er p r o t e c t i v e m easu re m ig h t b e t h e r e q u ir e m e n t o f a p r o f i c i e n c y t e s t
i n t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e c o u r s e or o o u r s e s i n v o l v e d .
T h is p l a n i s
f o l l o w e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h m ethods c o u r s e s i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s a t New
York U n i v e r s i t y .
The program i n s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s s h o u ld be p r e c e d e d
b y a rran gem en ts t o
in g f i e l d
s e l e c t t h e s t u d e n t s who a r e ap t t o s u c c e e d i n t h e t e a c h ­
and t o e l i m i n a t e t h o s e who are n o t a p t t o be s u c c e s s f u l .
T h is
s e l e c t i o n s h o u ld p r o b a b l y t a k e t h e form o f s t a n d a r d s o f p h y s i c a l v i g o r ,
general in t e llig e n c e ,
a b i l i t y t o u s e good E n g l i s h , and a th o r o u g h k n ow led ge
o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r t o be t a u g h t .
w i t h t h e w r i t i n g s o f Mead
l
T h is reco m m en d a tio n i s
and S c h o r l i n g ,
2
in agreem ent
As o t h e r c r i t e r i a f o r t h e
s e l e c t i o n o f good t e a c h e r s a re f o u n d , t h e y s h o u ld be e d o p ted by t h o s e
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e program o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g w h ich , o f c o u r s e , w o u ld
in c lu d e stu d en t t e a c h in g i n b u s in e s s s u b j e c t s .
2.
The s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s s h o u ld be in d u c t e d i n t o
a c t u a l t e a c h i n g i n t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s a t a r a t e d ep e n d in g upon h i s n a t i v e
a b i l i t y , e x p e r i e n c e , and n e e d s .
As a g e n e r a l p r a o t i c e ,
it
i s recommended
t h a t t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s h o u ld n o t be a llo w e d t o do much, i f a n y , t e a o h i n g
b e f o r e two w e e k s have p a s s e d f o l l o w i n g h i s e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e c o u r s e .
i n th e f i e l d
B e e c h e l,
3
W riters
o f s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g who a g r e e w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t a r e Myers and
Mead,
4
and S c h o r l i n g .
5
D u r in g t h e t i m e t h e s t u d e n t i s e n r o l l e d
i n s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g i n b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s , he s h o u ld be g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
S h o v er, o p . o i t . , p . 1 1 .
Mead, 0£ . o i t . , p . 3 9 5 .
Myers and B e e c h e l , o p . o i t . . p . 1 .
Mead, o p . o i t . , p . 2 3 6 .
S o h o r lin g , op. o i t . , p. 156.
302
t o t e a c h more th a n one o f t h e b u s i n e s s
su b jects.
S u p p o r tin g ev id o n oe
f o r t h i s recom m endation i s found on p a g e s 2 1 0 and 211 o f t h i s dooument,
3 , Those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s t u d e n t t e a o h in g i n
b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s s h o u ld n ot a s s i g n more t h a n one s t u d e n t t e a c h e r t o one
t r a i n i n g or d ep artm en t s u p e r v is o r p er o l a s s p e r i o d .
An a ssig n m en t o f a
number l a r g e r th a n t h i s i s d e t r i m e n t a l t o a program f o r t h e developm en t
of e f f ic ie n t teach ers.
4,
S tu d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s s h o u ld be f u r n is h e d w i t h
t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o havo d u t i e s , b o th i n s t r u c t i o n a l and n o n - i n s t r u c t i o n a l ,
w h ic h w i l l a llo w them an o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e and p a r t i c i p a t e in m ost o f
th e t a s k s o f th e te a c h e r .
In stitu tio n s
s h o u ld exam in e t h e d u t i e s o f t h e
stu d e n t te a c h e r s o f b u sin ess s u b je c ts i n order t o
t h e y a r e b e i n g f u r n is h e d w it h such o p p o r t u n i t i e s .
a s c e r t a i n whether or n o t
'/There such p a r t i c i p a t i o n
i s n o t b e in g p r o v id e d , r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e program s h o u ld be a t t e m p t e d .
S c h o r l i n g a g r e e s w i t h t h i s reco m m en d ation ,^
5 , The work o f th e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s should be
e v a l u a t e d i n a s y s t e m a t i c way,
Suoh e v a l u a t i o n 6 h o u ld t a k e p l a c e more
t h a n one tim e d u r in g th e s t u d e n t ' s e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e c o u r s e .
The t r a i n i n g
or d ep a rtm en t s u p e r v i s o r sh o u ld be p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e g r a d in g
o f t h e b u sin e ss stud en t t e a c h e r 's w ork.
I f oth er
s t a f f members are
a ll o w e d d o s e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s , t h e y
s h o u ld b e c a l l e d upon t o c o o p e r a te i n a r r i v i n g a t
a f in a l e v a lu a tio n of
t h e work o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r .
The s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s s h o u ld be f u r n is h e d w i t h
p r o p e r g u id a n c e in e v a l u a t i n g h i s own w o r k .
1 . I b i d . , pp. 1 3 8 - 1 4 4 .
T h is may be made p o s s i b l e
303
b y f u r n i s h i n g , &t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s d u r in g a s e m e s t e r , r a t i n g s c a l e s w h ic h
t h e s u p e r v i s o r and o t h e r s u s e i n a r r i v i n g at a f i n a l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e
w ork .
S tu d e n t t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s s h o u ld n o t r a t e o t h e r s t u d e n t
t e a c h e r s o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s by means o f t h e s e fo r m a l r a t i n g s c a l e s .
S u p p o r t in g e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s recom m en d a tion i s fou n d i n t h e w r i t i n g s
o f Shover,
1
Dodd,
2
A r m e n tr o u t,
3
and Mead.
4
Recom m endations R e g a r d in g C o n fe r e n c e s W ith S t u d e n t T ea ch er s o f B u s i n e s s
S u b jects
1 . A l l c o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s w h ic h o f f e r s t u d e n t t e a o h i n g i n
b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s s h o u ld p r o v i d e c o n f e r e n c e p e r i o d s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h
th e o o u r se .
These c o n f e r e n c e s should be o f a t l e a s t t w o t y p e s , group
and i n d i v i d u a l .
The w r i t i n g s o f Maxwell and R e u s s e r , S c h o r l i n g , M o tt ,
and D ic k s o n are i n agreem en t w i t h t h i s r e c o m m e n d a tio n .
T h eir o p i n i o n s
are p r e s e n t e d on p a g e s 233 and 2 3 4 ,
2 . I n vie w o f t h e c l o s e c o n t a c t w h ic h e x i s t s b etw een t h e s u p e r v i s o r
and t h e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t ,
it
i s recommended t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e
be c o n d u c t e d , as a u s u a l t h i n g , by t h e t r a i n i n g or d e p a r tm e n t s u p e r v i s o r .
The s c h e d u l e o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r and t h e s u p e r v i s o r s h o u ld be a rran ged
t o p r o v id e ample t i m e f o r c o n f e r e n c e a s s o o n as p o s s i b l e a f t e r t h e l e s s o n
has been t a u g h t .
It is
n ot n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e t o be
o f a s e t l e n g t h and p r e s c r i b e d f o r a c e r t a i n number o f m e e t i n g s per w e e k .
The l e n g t h and number o f c o n f e r e n c e s s h o u ld depend upon t h e im m ediate n e e d s
o f th e stu d en t.
The i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s h o u ld be o f an in f o r m a l n a t u r e
and s h o u ld be p r i m a r i l y co n cer n e d w i t h t h e im provement o f i n s t r u c t i o n
1.
2.
3.
4.
S h o v e r , 0£ . o i t . , p . 1 8 .
Dodd, o p . c i t . , p . 2 6 .
A rm en tro u t, o p . o i t . , p . 1 8 1 .
Mead, o p . o i t . , p . 5 0 4 .
304
in b u sin ess s u b je c ts ,
Ib e c o n f e r e n c e
sh o u ld be one i n w hich ample
e v a l u a t i o n o f l e s s o n s are made and one in w h ic h th e e v a l u a t i o n o f p la n s
fo r fu tu re le s s o n s i s
a prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
3 , The s t u d e n t t e a c h e r o f b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s s h o u ld be r o q u ir e d t o
a t t e n d g ro u p c o n f e r e n c e s o f tw o t y p e s .
The f i r s t s h o u ld be t h a t c o n ­
d u c te d by t h e d i r e c t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g o r p r i n c i p a l o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l
u n it of th e t r a in i n g s c h o o l.
At t h i s c o n f e r e n c e t h e r e s h o u ld b e an in f o r m a l
d i s c u s s i o n o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s and p ro b lem s w hich r e l a t e t o
t h e work o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s .
s c h e d u le d
in te r v a ls,
Henderson
1
T h is c o n f e r e n c e s h o u ld be h eld a t r e g u l a r l y
and Dodd
2
have shown i n t h e i r w r i t i n g s a
s u b s t a n t i a l a greem en t w i t h t h i s r e c o m m e n d a tio n .
The seco n d t y p e o f group
c o n f e r e n c e sh ould b e one w h ich w i l l be a t t e n d e d by s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s o f
b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s o n l y and w h ic h w i l l
d ep a rtm en t s u p e r v i s o r .
be c o n d u c te d by t h e t r a i n i n g or
I t s h o u ld b e o f an i n f o r m a l n a t u r e and s h o u ld
be c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r i n c i p l e s ^nd p ro b lem s r e l a t i n g t o t h e f i e l d
e d u c tio n .
As w i t h t h e o th e r t y p e o f group c o n f e r e n c e , i t
o f b u sin ess
sh ould he
r o g u l n r l y s c h e d u l e d , p o s s i b l y on an i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e d a t e s c h e d u l e w i t h
t h e c o n f e r e n c e c o n d u c te d by t h e d i r e c t o r o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g or t r a i n i n g
school p r in c ip a l.
1 , H e n d er so n , op . c i t . , p . 1 1 9 .
2 . Dodd, o p . c i t . . p . 2 7 ,
305
B ib lio g r a p h y
1 . A m eric a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f T eachers C o l l e g e s , Minimum S ta n d a r d s f o r
A c c r e d i t i n g T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e s and Normal S c h o o l s , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 9 .
2 . A r m e n tr o u t, W. D . , The Conduct of S tu d e n t Teaohing in S t a t e T eaahera
C o lle g e s , G r e e le y i
C olorado S t a t e Teaohers C o l l e g e , 1 9 2 7 .
3 . B a r n h a r t , E&rl W. , What I s and What Should be t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n and
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f D i r e c t e d Teaohing in B u s in e s s Teacher T r a i n i n g
I n s t i t u t i o n s , E a s t e r n Commercial Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n , T h ir d
Y earb o ok , 1 9 3 0 .
4 . B l a c k s t o n e , E . G. and o t h e r s , P r a c t i c e Teaohing and B u s i n e s s E x p e r i e n c e
i n Com m ercial T each er T r a in in g , The N a tio n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Commercial
T e a c h e r - T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s , B u l l e t i n No. 1 1 .
5 . B l a o k s t o n o , E . G. and S m ith , 3 . L . , Improvement o f I n s t r u c t i o n , in
T y p e w r i t i n g . New York* P r e n t i o e - H a l l , I n c . , 1 9 3 6 .
6 . B r e s l i o h , E r n e s t R. and o t h e r s , The S u p e r v is io n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
o f P r a c t i c e T e a c h i n g , E d u c a t io n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n ,
XI ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 2 5 ) .
7 . B r e w in g t o n , Ann and B e r g , E v e ly n , S t a t e C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s o f
B u s i n e s s K d u o a t io n , The N a tio n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Commercial T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s , B u l l e t i n No. 16 , May, 1939 and T a b le VI i n
A p p e n d ix .
8 . B r i n k , W i l l i a m , G. , I n t e g r a t i o n o f T heory and P r n c t i o e i n t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l
E d u c a t io n o f T e a c h e r s j
An e x p e r im e n t a l Stu dy.
E d u c a t i o n a l Trends
I I I (F eb ru a ry , 1 9 3 4 ).
9 . C a r l s o n , P a u l A . , O r g a n i z a t i o n of Methods Courses a t W h ite w a te r S t a t e
T e a o h e r s C o l l e g e , The N a t io n a l A s s o o l a t i o n o f Commercial T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s , B u l l e t i n No. 1 4 , F e b r u a r y , 1938,
1 0 . C o l v i n , A. 0 . , A Summary o f B u s in e s s E d u ca tio n i n a Cross S e o t i o n o f
The S m a lle r H i g h S o h o o ls o f th e U n ited S t a t e , 1 9 3 6 - 1 9 3 7 , The
N a t i o n a l B u s i n e s s E d u c a tio n Q u a r t e r ly , V (March, 1 9 3 7 ) ,
1 1 . C om m ittee on S t a n d a r d s f o r I r a c t i o e T ea o h in g , p r a c t i c e T e a c h in g and
B u s i n e s s E x p e r i e n o e i n Commercial T e a c h e r - T r a in in g , Tho N a t i o n a l
A s s o c i a t i o n o f Commercial T ea ch er -T ra in in g I n s t i t u t i o n s , B u l l e t i n
No. 1 1 ^ 1 9 3 7 .
1 2 . D i c k s o n , B e l l e , L . , S u g g e s t i o n s fo r t h e Improvement o f S t u d e n t T e a o h in g ,
E d u o a t l o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v is io n XVII (J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 1 ) .
306
13* Dodd, J . H. , A c t u a l B u s i n e s s E x p e r ie n o e a s a Requirem ent o f B u s in e s s
T e a o h e r s , The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Commercial T e a c h e r - T r a in in g
I n s t i t u t i o n s , B u l l e t i n No. 1 1 , 1 9 3 7 .
1 4 . Dodd, J . H . , What i s t h e Most E f f e c t i v e P la n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n o f
S tu d e n t T e a o h e r s ? The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o m m r o la l T e a o h e r T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s , B u l l e t i n N o. 1 7 , 1 9 3 9 .
1 5 . D o u g l a s s , H a r l , R. , Comments o f t h e D epartm ent E d i t o r , B u s i n e s s
E d u c a t i o n a l W orld , XX (November, 1 9 3 9 ) .
1 6 . E d u o - t i o n a l D i r e c t o r y , 1 9 3 9 , W a s h in g to n , D* C .i
Government P r i n t i n g
O f f i c e , U n it e d S t a t e s O f f i o e o f E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 1 9 3 9 , No. 1 ,
P a rt I L I.
^
1 7 . Evenden, E . S . , C o o p e r a t io n o f T e a c h e r s o f Academ ic S u b j e c t s w i t h t h e
T r a in in g S c h o o l , E d u o u t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , XI
(A p r il, 1 9 2 5 ), p. 113.
I B . F l o w e r s , John G . , C o n te n t o f S t u d e n t - T e a c h i n g C ourses D e s ig n e d f o r t h e
T r a i n i n g o f S e c o n d a r y T ea ch er s i n S t a t e T ea ch er s C o l l e g e s . New York:
Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T ea ch er s C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ,
C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o E d u c a t i o n , No. 5 3 8 .
1 9 . F o s t e r , F . K . , The T r a i n i n g S ch ool i n t h e E d u c a t io n o f T e a o h e r s ,
The N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f t h e E d u c a t io n o f T e a c h e r s , Y /a sh in g to n ,
D. C . i
Government P r i n t i n g O f f i o e , U n ite d S t a t e O f f i o e o f
E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 1 9 3 3 , No. 1 0 , Volume I I I .
2 0 . F r a z i e r , B en ja m in W ., D evelop m en t o f S t a t e Programs fo r t h e C e r t i f i e s ! ; i o n
o f T e a c h e r s , W a s h in g to n , D. C .i
Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , U n ite d
S t a t e s O f f i o e o f E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 1 9 3 8 , No. 1 2 .
2 1 . F r i s t o e , D ew ey, C o o r d i n a t i o n o f L a b o r a t o r y - S o h o o l P r a c t i o e and
E d u o a t lo n a l Theory i n t h e T ea o h ers C o l l e g e , Eduoejftonal A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
and S u p e r v i s i o n , XXV ( A p r i l , 1 9 3 9 ) .
22.
Gamble, Guy C . , e t a l . The N a t io n a l S u rv ey o f t h e E d u c a t io n o f T e a o h e r s ,
W a s h in g to n , D» C .i
Government P r i n t i n g O f f i o e , U n ite d S t a t e s O f f i o e
o f E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 1 9 3 3 , No. 1 0 , V o l . I I I .
2 3 . Hanna, J* M a r s h a l l , Fundam ental I s s u e s i n B u s in e s s E d u c a t io n .
C in c in n a ti*
S o u t h - W e s t e r n P u b l i s h i n g Company, Monograph 4 8 , 1 9 4 0 , p . 1 3 .
2 4 . H e n d er so n , E. L . , The O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f S t u d e n t T e a c h in g
i n S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e s , New York, N. Y .i Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s ,
T ea ch er s C o l l e g e , Colum bia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 7 .
2 5 . K l e i n , A rth ur J . , S u rv ey o f Land Grant C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s ,
W a sh in g to n , D. C .i
Government P r i n t i n g O f f i o e , U n ite d S t a t e s O f f i o e
o f E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n No. 9 , 1 9 3 0 .
307
2 6 . L e a r n e d , Vf. S . , B a g l e y , W i l l i a m C ., MoMurray, C. A . , S t r a y e r , George
D . , D ea rb o rn , W alter F . , K a n d el, I s a a o L . , and J o s s e l y n , Homer W . ,
The P r o f e e s l o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n o f r e a o h e r e f o r A m erloan P u b l l o S o h o o l e ,
New Yorki
The C a r n e g ie F o u n d a tio n f o r t h e A dvancem ent o f T e a o h in g ,
1920.
2 7 . L e s s e n b e r r y , D. D . , C u r ricu lu m F r a o t i o e e and P ro b lem e o f B u a in e e e
T e a o h e r - T r a in in g I n e t i t u t i o n e , The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Commercial
T e a o h e r - T r a in in g I n s t i t u t i o n s , B u l l e t i n No. _6, 1 9 3 5 .
2 8 . Lomax, P a u l S . , B u s i n e s s T eaoher V ersu s B u s i n e s s , B u s i n e s s E d u o a tlo n
W orld, XX (Novem ber, 1 9 3 9 J.
2 9 . Lomax, P a u l S . and Agnew, p e t e r L . , 1 r o b le m s o f T ea o h in g B o o k k e e p in g ,
New York* P r e n t i o e - H a l l , I n o . , 1 9 3 0 .
3 0 . Lomax, P a u l S. and W a lsh , J o h n V . , 1 r o b le m s o f T e a o h in g S h o r th a n d ,
New York* P r e n t i c e - H a l 1 , I n o . , 1 9 3 0 .
3 1 . M a x w e ll, C. R. and R e u s s e r , W. C ., O b s e r v a t i o n s and D i r e o t e d T e a c h in g
i n S eco n d a ry S o h o o l s , New Yorki P r e n t i o e - H a l l , I n o . , 1 9 3 9 .
3 2 . Mead, A. R . , S u p e r v is e d S t u d e n t - T e a c h i n g .
J o h n so n P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 3 0 .
R ichm ond, V i r g i n i a i
3 3 . M oM ullen, L. B . , S e r v i o e Load o f t h e C r i t i c T e a o h e r s i n S t a t e 'Teachers
C o l l e g e s , 1926 Yearbook o f t h e S u p e r v i s o r s o f S t u d e n t T e a c h ' n g .
3 4 . M o t t , George F o x , The C o n fe r e n c e T ech n iq u e a s a C e n te r o f t h e S t u d e n t
T e a o h e r I n d u c t i o n P r o c e s s , E d u c a t io n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n ,
XXIV (J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 8 ) .
3 5 . M y er s, A lo n z o F . , F i f t e e n - H o u r Load f o r C r i t i c T e a c h e r s a t Ohio U n i v e r s i t y .
1 9 2 6 Yearbook o f t h e S u p e r v i s o r s o f S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s , p p . 1 6 - 2 1 .
3 6 . M y e r s, A lo n zo F . , K i f e r , L o u i s e M ., Merry R uth C . , and F o l e y , F r a n c e s ,
C o o p e r a t iv e S u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e P u b l i c S h h o o l s .
New York* P r e n t i o e H a ll, I n o ., 1938.
3 7 . Rugg, E . U. and J e i k , iV. E . , The N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f t h e Eduout i o n o f
T e a o h e r s , W a sh in g to n , D. C . i Government P r i n t i n g O f f i o e , U n ite d
S t a t e s O f f i o e o f E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 1 9 3 5 , No. 1 0 , Volume I I I .
3 8 . S o h o r l i n g , R a l e i g h , D i r e o t e d T e a o h in g , The E d u c a t io n o f T e a c h e r s ,
N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f C o l l e g e T eaoh ers o f E d u o a t i o n . T w e n t y - t h ir d
Y ea rb o ok , 1 9 3 5 .
39.
S h o v e r , t f i l l i a m G le n , S u g g o s te d Programs f o r Com m ercial T e a o h e r T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s , The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Commercial
T e a o h e r - T r a in in g I n s t i t u t i o n s , B u l l e t i n No. 1 4 , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 8 .
303
4 0 . T a r k i n g t o n , R o b e r t N . , The S u p p ly o f and t h e Demand fo r Commercial
T e a o h e r s i n t h e H^gh S o h o o ls o f t h e U n it e d S t a t e s , The B alanoe
S h e e t , XXI ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 9 ) .
——
4 1 . T a r k in g t o n , R o b e r t N . , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y Programs f o r P r e p a r a t io n o f
B u a i n e s s T e a c h e r s , Pew York U n i v e r s i t y , Eel. D. Document, 1 9 3 8 .“
4 2 . T on n e, h . A . , C om m ercial T eaoh er T r a i n i n g C u r r i c u l a .
d i s s e r t a t i o n , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 2 8 .
Ph. D.
4 3 . T on n e, H e r b e r t A , , B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n , B a s i c i - r i n c l p l e s and T rends.
New Yorkt G regg P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 3 9 .
”
30!?
APPENDIX
310
APiENDIX A
IKSTITU I’IQNS COOPERATING IE THE liUsSTIORMAIHE STUD *
( A l p h a b e t i c a l A c c o r d in g t o S t a t e s )
S t a t e T eaoh ers C o l l e g e s
A r iz o n a S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , F l a g s t a f f , A r iz o n a
San D ie g o S t a t e C o l l e g e , San D i e g o , C l a i f ' o r n i a
San J o s e S t a t e C o l l e g e , San J o s e , C l a i f o r n i a
C o lo rad o S t a t e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n , G r e e l e y , C olora d o
E astern I l l i n o i s S ta te T eachers C o lle g e , C h o r le sto n , I l l i n o i s
I l l i n o i s S t a t e fo rm a l U n i v e r s i t y , lio r m a l, I l l i n o i s
YJestern I l l i n o i s S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , Macomb, I l l i n o i s
I n d i a n a S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , T err e h a u t e , I n d ia n a
Iow a S t a t e T ea ch er s C o l l e g e , Cedar F a i l s , Iowa
K ansas S t a t e T ea ch ers C o l l e g o , E m p oria, Kansas
K ansas S t a t e T ea ch er s C o l l e g e , I i t t s b u r g , Kansas
E a s t e r n K entucky S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , Richmond, K entu ck y
I'sorohead S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , iuorehead, K entucky
Murray S t a t e T eu ch ers C o l l e g e , Murray, KenJ ucky
S t a t e T ea ch er s C o l l e g e , S alem , M a s s a c h u s e t t s
L .iah ig an S t a t e normal C o l l e g e , Y p s i l a n t i , M ich ig a n
h o r t h e r n S t a t e T ea ch er s C o l l e g e , M a r q u e t t e , k ich jg & n
S t a t e T each ers C o l l e g e , h a t t i e s b u r g ,
ssissip p i
C en tra l M isso u ri S ta te T eachers C o lle g e , Jarren sb u rg, m isso u r i
K o r th e a s t t - i s s o u r i S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , T i r k s v i l l e , M i s s o u r i
N o r th w e st M is s o u r i S t a t e
S o u th w est M i s s o u r i S t a t e
N eb raska S t a t e "’ e a c h e r s
N eb ra sk a S t a t e T ea ch er s
N eb rask a S t a t e T ea ch er s
Teachers C o lle g e , m a r y v ille , Missouri
Teachers C o lle g e , S p r in g f ie l d , M isso u ri
C o l l e g e , Chadron, N ebraska
C o l l e g o , K e a r n e y , N ebraska
C o l l e g e , n a y n e , k eh ra sk a
Flom outh f o r m a l S c h o o l , F lym o u th , hew T'-ripshire
K'ew J e r s e y S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , T r e n t o n , Dew J e r s e y
New v ork S t a t e C o l l e g e f o r T e a c h e r s , A lb a n y , hew York
E a s t C a r o li n a T ea ch er s C o l l e g e , G r e e n v i l l e , f o r t h Curoliinu
S t a t e T e u c ' e r s C o l l e g e , . n y v i l l e , f o r t h D akota
S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , i, .i n o t , N o r th D a k o ta
S t a t e T ea ch er s C o l l e g e , V a l l e y C i t y , N o r th D akota
N o r t h e a s t e r n S t u t o T o u ch ers C o l l e g e , T a h leq u a h , Oklahoma
S o u th w e s te r n S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , ’Y e a t h e r f o r d , Oklahoma
S t a t e T each ers C o l l e g e , ^ lo i.o t' r g , I 'e n n s y lv a n ia
S t a t e TeaoherB C o l l e g e , I n d i a n a , l e n u s y l v a n i a
N o rth ern Normal and i n d u s t r i a l S o h o o l , A b e r d e e n , South D ak ota
f o r t h Texas S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , D en to n , Texas
Sam Houston S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , H u n t s v i l l e , Texas
S o u th w est Texan S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , San M a r c o s, Texas
S t a t e C o l l e g e s and U n i v c r s i t i e s
Alabama C o l l e g e , M c n t e v a l l o , Alabama
U n i v e r s i t y o f A labam a, U n i v e r s i t y , A l a b a m a
U n i v e r s i t y o f A r i z o n a , T u c s o n , A r iz o n a
U n i v e r s i t y c f A r k a n s a s , F a y e t t e v i l l e , A rkansas
F l o r i d a S t a t e C o l l e g e f o r Women, Tel l a h a s s e e , F1 or Id a
U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a , C u i 1?l e , F l o r i d a
C c o r g ia S t a t e Co] l e g e f o r 'Tome'", * i l l e d g e v i l l o , G e o r g ia
U n i v e r s i t y o f I d a h o , L o e c o w , Idaho
T’n i v c r c i t y o f K e n tu c k y , L e x i n g t o n , K entu ck y
F o r t Hays Kansas S t a t e C o l l e g e , F o r t H ays, Kansas
U n i v e r e i t y o f K a n s a s , L a w r e n c e , Kansas
L o u i s i a n s S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , Baton R ouge, I o u i s i a n a
U n i v e r s i t y o f Maryl&r.d, C o l l e g e l u r k and =? -.It i m o re, 1. a r y l and
U n iv e r s it y o f M in n esota, M in n e a p o lis, a in r e s o t a
U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i , C olu m b ia, M i s s o u r i
Montana C ta te U n i v e r s i t y , M i s s o u l a , Montana
U n i v e r s i t y o f New H am p sh ire, Durham, Lev/ Hampshire
U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r th D o k a ta , U n i v e r s i t y , North D akota
Kent S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , K e n t , Ohio
Miami U n i v e r s i t y , Miami, Chiu
Ohio U n i v e r s i t y , A t h e n s , Ohio
Oklahoma A g r i c u l t u r a l and M e c h a n ic a l C o l l e g e , S t i l l w a t e r , Oklahoma
U n i v e r s i t y o f O r eg o n , E ugene and P o r t l a n d , Oregon
Viinthrop C o l l e g e , The S o u th C a r o li n a C o l l e g e f o r Women, Rock H i l l ,
South C a r o li n a
Sou th D akota S t a t e C o l l e g e o f A g r i c u l t u r e and M e c h a n ic a l A r t s ,
B r o o k in g s , S o u th D akota
U n iv e r sity of
U n iv e r sity o f
U n iv e r sity of
S t a t e C o lle g e
U n iv e r sity of
S ou th D a k o t a , V e r m i l l i o n , South Dakota
T en n esseo , K n o x v ille , T ennessee
U t a h , S a l t Lake C i t y , Utah
o f W a s h in g to n , Pullm an, W ashington
W a sh in g to n , S e a t t l e , ’W ashington
M a r s h a ll C o l l e g e , H u n t in g t o n , West V i r g i n i a
West V i r g i n i a U n i v e r s i t y , a o r g a n t o w n , .Vest V i r g i n i a
U n i v e r s i t y o f 'Wyoming, L a r a m ie , Wyoming
312
P r i v a t e C o lle g e s and L ir r j v a r s it ie s
U n i v e r s i t y o f C h io a g o , C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s
B u t le r U n i v e r s i t y , I n d i a n a p o l i s , I n d i a n a
The M unicipal U n i v e r s i t y o f W i c h i t a , W i c h i t a , Kansas
B oston U n i v e r s i t y , u o s t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s
harvard U n i v e r s i t y , C a m b rid ge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s
The Teachers C o l l e g e o f t h e C i t y o f B o s t o n , 3 o E t o n , l i a s s a c h u s e t t s
C o lle g e o f th e C i t y of fe w York, New York, New York
New York U n i v e r s i t y , New Y o r k , New York
S yracuse U n i v e r s i t y , S y r a c u s e , New York
U n i v e r s i t y o f T o l e d o , T o l e d o , Ohio
Duquesne U n i v e r s i t y , P i t t s b u r g , P e n n s y l v a n i a
Temple U n i v e r s i t y , P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y l v a n i a
U n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a , P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y l v a n i a
U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g , P i t t s b u r g , P e n n s y l v a n i a
B aylor U n i v e r s i t y , Waco, T e x a s
AFFIHBIX B
STUDENT TEACHING IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS
FORM I
of institution:
......................................
pntess stated otherwise, «u statement* and questions refer only to student-teaching In. business subjects.)
.Check the type of training school organisation used by your Institution for purposes of observation, demonstration, studeoiiching, and experimentation In business subjects:
P r in t* Business
Campus
Off Campus
Subject Classes
School
School
School
In Institution
•rvatlon------------------------ ------------— ■------------------------------------Indent Teaching
------------------------------------jperlmentatlon------------------- ------------------------------------campus schools are: Public schools-----------------; operated by your institution-----------------.
Check the year-length of your curriculum for the preparation of business teachers: One
;
|u r
; F iv e
If you have more than one business teacher training curriculum, please
nonstratlon
—
--------------
-------------------------Two
name:
; Three ■
Indicate by a check mark the methods used by instructors to coordinate the work of the Department of Education (School
Education) and the Commerce Department (School of Commerce) with the work of the training school:
Department of Education
Commerce Department
Off-campus
Campus Off-campus
Campus
School
School
School
School
}ach one or more business
classes in the training school
ich regularly scheduled
----------iemonstratlons in training school
ch occasional special
Iemonstratlons In training school
----------range for regular demonstrations
In the training school
---------[range for occasional and special
Iemonstratlons taught by
inlng school teacher
----------Lrtlclpate in the formation of
>r
training school policies relative
bnslness subjects
----------kre supervision of student teaching
training school business subjects
■■■ ■■t In organisation and supervision
of experimentation In business
----------|subjects in training school
Indicate by number the enrollment, grade, location (0th, 10th, etc.), and average class slse of training school classes
Ithe following subjects:
Off-Campus Schools
Campus Schools
Total
Enrollment
Subject
st-year shorthand
nd-year shorthand
rst-year typewriting
end year typewriting
A-year bookkeeping
l-year bookkeeping
ntary business training
vanned business training
ness law
tineas BagHsfc
ilnsas arithmetic
eretarial o®oe practice
■rlcal oS m praetlo*
ill
lemlc geography
(as separate course)
(list)
Location
Grade
Average
class
Slse
Total
Enrollment
Grade
Location
Average
Class
g § i . , - r It i n i ^ opinion the
column to marked. I t you couM w them undesirable, VhocVtn the eolutnn so marked:
( ’* ..
'
:‘ '
.
Desirable
IDs
To facilitate the application o f educational theory lo practice
’— —’■< ' ' '■■_u-i
To give the student teacher a bett6> understanding 6 l guidance work
■— —- ''
—
To acquaint the student teacher with the necessity of being on the job each day
—— ——
To acquaint the student teacher with promptness In administrative record details
-----------To develop poise, bearing, tact, and presence of mind In handling students
—--------To teach appreciation of the needs for human relationships U uanaiiug students
-------To Improve ability In lesson planning.
r —■
To Improve ability In lesson presentation.
-iJTo give experience in meeting all the situations to be met by a tescher
—
To give experience in meeting many'of the situationsto be metby a teacher
—
----------To eliminate those students who display a lack of teaching ability
To provide a good review of the subject matter of the course being taught
-----------To Increase the studoat teacher’s Interest In business education
■
---To give exploratory experience to the student teacher
-------To dlsoover and correct individual teaching and. person illty faults as brought to light by
teactaer-pupil relationships
—
16. To develop the ability to construct, administer, score and Interpret tests------------------------------------17. To facilitate the ability to detect and correct learning difficulties------------------------------------- ----------18. To develop a progressive, professional attitude which included a desire to advance and
excell in teaching----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------18. To develop a spirit of inquiry and Investigation toward problems of teaching business
subjects------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------30. To develop an Interest in modern educational methods
----------31. Todevelop to as great an extent as possible desirable personal qualities of a successful
teacher------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------It. To develop a feeling of responsibility for the progress of Individual pupils
----------15. To provide knowledge of appropriate materials of Instruction
-— -------------- ---34. To develop valid principles of classroom management
----------35. To develop skill in effective student leadership
*
-------—36. To facilitate the development of knowledges relative to standards of accomplishment In
-------——
business subjects
37. To develop a skill In the selection and organisation of appropriate units of subject matter
----------6. In the parenthesis, number the objectives or purposes of student teaching which you have checked aa being undesl
and state briefly your opinion as to why these objectives or purposes are not desirable for student teaching in bu
subjects:
1,
"8.
8,
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
8.
10.
11.
18.
13.
14.
16.
-1. '
■
; )>,
( ) .......................................................................................................................................................................................
. .
(
> - v .......................... ........................................;........................................................................................................... .........................................................................
( )
( )
(
)
■
’
...........
—
..............
- .........................................................................................
7. Mas your Institution formulated a definite lis te f objectives or purposes for student teaching In general?
(Ch
— Yes;
No. Has a definite list of objectives or purposes been formulated for student teaching In businss su
(Check)-Yes;
No.
3. If you hare answered Question 7 by checking “yes" In either section ploaseIndicate by
check marks thoseindlvl
who have been responsible for the development of these objectives or purposes.(See definitions).
V-* :
Student Teaching
In General
Director of student teaching
■.........
Director of student teaching In business subjects----------------------------------------------------Department supervisors------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -------Training supervisors-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Teachers of theory courses In the field of education------------------------------------------ -------Non-department supervisor---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Principal or suprlntendent In off-campus schools----------------------------------------------------Training supervisors In cooperating off-campus schools---------------------------------------------
Others (Pleaee name)
Student Teaching
In Business Bub;
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
316
•“Hot the business teacher training deportment ef your listltotlon i k t i m i m l the n u to el M c h lM i (R ifat, PndiiriMiil.
omptometsr, Sundstrand, etc.) which arc moat frequently w ed in the high ichoola and in the business odious of
»cher service area? (Check)
!
In High Schoola
In Bualncaa Offices
Typewriter*
-Yea
-No
—Yos
-No
Calculating machines
-Yea
—Yen
No
-No
-Yea
-No
Adding machines
—*Yee
No '
Yes
No
Bookkeeping machines
-Yea
-No
p. Aa a usual practice, how often In terms of years arc used typewriters replaced or traded In your training schools T
h— Campus school;
Off-campus schools.
State why this practice la followed: ...............................................................
L ‘Check the type of equipment used for Instructional purposes by student teachers of business subjects in the tra in in g .
thools.
If the equipment is found In the campus school, place the check mark In the column marked (C).
If the
lulpment la found In the off-campus school, place the check mark In the column marked (OC).
OC
r
C
OC
C
Adding machines
tandard typewriters, pica type
Bookkeeping machiues
undard typewriters, elite type
Addressing machines
New scientific" keyboard typewriters
Mailing scales
plaelesa typewriters
Plugboard telephone equipment
urityper
long carriage typewriters
Dictating machines
Standard else correspondence files
prtable typewriters
Miniature size correspondence files
Metric typewriters
Interval timer
alcnlsting machines
Stop watch
pencil duplicators
Copy holders
[ectogrsph duplicators
Others (List) ...................................
lutineas reference folders
I. Desks (Cheek types of equipment used):
Typewriting
Classes
C
OC
losed
nblee
i Um
ablw
nkoel
pbool
phoot
las
f
Shorthand
Classes
C
OC
Bookkeeping
Classes
C
OC
typewriter desks
all one height
of rarlous heights
adjustable as to height
desks all one height
desks of rarlous heights
desks adjustable as to height
or desks accomodating two or more pupils
Chairs (Check types of equipment used):
Shorthand
Campus Schools
Off-campus Schools
Bookkeeping Typewriting Shorthand Bookkeeping Typewriting
ble as to height and stationary
tie aa to height and movable
hie m to height and stationary
Ms aa to height and movable
Is provision made to r observation of teaching preceding actual student teaching
f, give the reason tor this practice:............................................. ...................................
(Check)
Yes;
No.
In connection with the following college courses, write the number of days which are on the average devoted to observation
students who expect to enroll In student teaching:
Methods courses In business subjects
-----------Technique of teaching (such as Introduction to Teaching, Introduction to Hduostlon, etc.)
-----------
Observation
College subject m atter ooursea (such as Shorthand, Accounting, etc.)
i average length of each observation hi these classes l i ------------ minutes.
-------------------]
316
16. In the proper column*, Indicate by a check mark the peraon(e) who teacbe* demonstration or observation 1
business subjects both preceding and during the period ot student teachings: (See definitions)
Before Enrollment in During Enrollment In
Student Teaching
Student Teaching
Training supervisor-------------------------------------------------------------------------Department supervisor
—-----------Director of student teaching----------------------------------------------- --------------Director of student teaching in business BubJectB------------------ ----------------------------Teachers of methods in business subjects
Non-supervising college teacher of commerce
--------------Student teachers-------------------------------------------------------------- --------------Non-department supervisor
-------------17. In the proper columns, Indicate by a cluck murk the type of preparation made by business students for purpo
observations:
During Enrollment Before Enrollment
-------No preparation------------------------------------------------------------------------Study types of lessons to be taught------------------------------------ --------------Study subject matter to be taught
--------------Study teaching difficulties of subject matter to be taught--------- ---------------Assigned method or psychology readings
--------------Assist demonstrator in preparing lessons to be taught------------ --------------Prepare critical reports after lesson has been taught-------------- --------------18. After the student has been enrolled in student teaching, how many weeks pass before he is usually given
responsibility for teaching his assigned class or c l a s s e s ? ------------- State briefly why this practice is followed: ..............
18. After the student teacher has been enrolled In Btudent teaching, how m any weeks pass before he is for the first
allowed to teach for a part of a period?------------- : State briefly why thiB p ractice Is follow ed: .................................................
20. During the student’s enrollment in student teaching In business subjects, what per cent of his time, as a usual thi
Bpent In actual teaching? -----------; In observation and participation?---------- . Btate briefly why this practice is folio
81. Check the types of activities usually participated in by Btudent teachers before they are given full responslblll
classroom teaching:
Take part In the training school class as a pupil
Assist in routine matters (ventilation, calling roll, lining blackboards, etc.)
Coaching Individual pupils
Preparing lesson materials
Accompanying students on class excursions
Arranging dramatic projects
Active participation In recess activities
Teaches short drills without full responsibilities as a teacher
Taking part in extra-curricular activities not listed here
List other activities ........................................................................
22. Check the means by which student teachers of business subjects aro selected for student teaching.
entrance)
Intelligence tests--------------------------------------------------- ---------Physical condition standard
---------Moral qualifications
Scholastic record in all college courses completed
Scholastic record In business subjects completed
Oeneral comprehensive test In
in college
education theory and methods
Qualifying tests in subject matter to be taught
---------Interview with selecting officer
Test in fundamentals of English
---------Personality ratings
Contemporary affairs test
---------Estimates of social qualifications
Application (only) of prospective
student teacher for teaching
No means of selection used
Btate briefly why this method(s) is used:
(Not c"
-Check the courses which hr* prereqslsite to student teaching Ik bnlulM lik )w lli
action to, education
Directed observation
General (non-commercial) methods of teaching
nUMCMMnt
In commerce eubjoct to be taught
Introduction to student teaching
Economic and sociological background
erel methode in business subjects
lory ot education
to the high school
Methods In minor subject
ts end measurements
dples of secondary education
At least one college subject mattei
course In subject to be taught
lsed participation
Two or more college subject matter
elples of guidance
courses in subject to be taught
Others (List) ................................................—
■f, ■i.
k the psychology courses prerequisite to student teaching In business subjects:
; Adolescent pschology
ucatlonal psychology ------- ; General psychology
‘
; u ii
Write the number of student teachers of business subjects assigned to one training supervisor at one time. (Indlca^^h*
(mum
: A verage--------; Maximum ----- —. state briefly why you hold to these number assignments:..............
In the blank write the number of minutes a day which ycur student teachers teach:
How many weeks of
dent teaching is required for graduation? ---------- . Write the number of days per week student teachers teach:
t is the required number of dock hours of student teaching In your institution? ----------. What proportion of the teaching
the training schools Is done by student teachers? (Circle the nearest portion.) All, 1-6, 2-5, 1-2, 2-5, 4-5. State briefly
y you have circled this proportion: .......................................................
....
On the average, how many different subjects do your student teachers teach? Circle the number: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6.
How many different student teachers of business subjects were enrolled In your campus school during the current school
r ? ---------- . ‘ In the off-campus schools?----------- .
Indicate the number of hours of credit which a student teacher of business subjects may earn in your institu tio n ;-------ester hours (OR) ---------- quarter hours.
If your student teachers engage In the following activities at least weekly, check in column so marked. It your
dent teachers engage in these activities, but less than weekly, check in the column so marked. Do not check If no provision
ade for the activity.
Activities engaged
in weekly
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
2.
7.
Activities engaged in
loss than weekly
Adjust pupils to routine of classroom
——
■
-------Adjust physical features to pupils
——
Keep records and make reports
■■ .
------Care for materials and machines
-------------Organise pupil monitorial system ■
-------------Prepare lesson plans
Select and organise subject matter for instructional
■■
------purposes
— .—.-------------------- —
8. Teach several consecutive days
- ■. ■■
9. Direct the study of pupils
-------------0. Discover means to promote morale
-------------1. Prepare, give and interpret tests
■
———
2. Handle remedial discipline
■
3. Adjust Instruction to Individual differences----------------- -------------4. Teach the use of the school library
-------------Organise and direct excursions
-------------- 4. Direct pupils' extra class activities
—----------7. Prepare special holiday programs------------------------------ ------------- 8, Give vocational .and educational guidance------------------ -------------Establish relationships with the community
■
■
------------------ ------bar the activities in the, above list which are not provided for and indicate briefly why no provision is made for them?
*******************************
w » * * e * * * » » M >*♦»!■*«♦»»*■*■»■«♦♦* >*♦»♦»*■—**»*»♦»•*■
19. Chech the tltl* oC tbsIndMdual(s) ;whe deterssine# the
Training supervisor
Department supervisor
..........
Hoad ot Department ot Commerce
---------Non-department supervisor ,
------ —
dnal grade of the etedeet teesber:
Director ot studenttsechiag
Director ot student teaching la business subjects ;
Others (Llat) ........------------- --------- ------------
11. Ia ttalnc rating carda tor evaluating the work ot tho ntudeni teacher, please check the answers to the following qnestlo
Tea
Does
Does
Does
Doss
the student teacher use the rating card tor purpojos ot his own appraisal T-----------------------------------—----the student teacher rate other student teachers by means ot a rating cardT
-------your Institution keep a systematic record ot evaluation ot the Individual student teacher?
your supervisory staff make more than a single rating of the work of the student teachsr?
(If so, how many? -<------ )
-------Is thore an endeavor to evaluate the work of the student teacher by means of pupil achievement
(.change in pupil status)?---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- — ---PLEABB ENCLOSE A RATING CARD USED BY YOUR INSTITUTION FOR PURPOSES OF EVALUATING TUB WO
YOUR STUDENT TEACHERS. If none is used, check here: ---------- ,
31. In the proper columns, check the number of individual and group conferences hold weekly between student teachers
the persons named in the co.umn at the left:
Individual Conferences
1 8
8
4 f t
Varies
1
Training supervisor------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------
2
Group Conferences
3
4
ft
V
------------------------ -——
-------------- --------- ----------------------------------------
Department supervisor----------------------------------- ------------------------------- ----------Director of student teaching---------------------------- ------------------------------- ----------Director of student teacm .g in business
subjects------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------
------------------------------
Non-department supervisor
— ------------ -----------------------------------------Head of Department of Commerce---------------------------------------------------- ------ ----------------------------------Otbera (List) ................................................... .................................................. ...............
..........................................
Briefly state why these persons are responsible for the conferjncea: (Individual conferences) ..........................................
(Group conferences)
If conferences are held less frequently than weakly, pleaso fill in the following: How frequently are group confe
held?.............
Individual conferences ■——-------? Who holds the group conference(s) ? -----Individual conferences ? --------------------33. In the proper columns, check the type of preparation usua'ly made for Individual and group conferences by student
era of business subjects:
UReading assigned before conference
Lesson plans prepared before conference
No preparation for conference
Notes taken by the student teacher on lesson which has Just been taught
Dependent on immediate needs of the student teacher
Others (List) .....................
— ..„...._
!.
’■• t L \
' ' '
I
i, , : >
* *».!.'
I’ .
Individual
Conferences
Group
Confe
< (...
:
34. In the proper columns, check the type of procedure usually followed in the group and individual conferences for
teachers of business subjects:
Individual
Conference
Lecture by the one holding the conference
Questions from the one holding the conference with answers
from student teeohers
Questions from student teachers with answers from persons holding conference
Mo dots tie procedure followed
Group
Conference
a ppen d h
O'
V'-v.1' 'M;;;!r
STUDENT TEACHING IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS
FORM II
(To be completed by teachers who supervise student teachers)
ame (U nderscore: Miss, Mr., M rs.................................................................................................... School.................................... ...........
. Check your highest level ot college training: Less than high school graduate
; High school graduate — — I
ss than one year ot c o lle g e
; One year ot cortege ■
-------- : Two years ot co lleg e
; Three years of college ----------;
our years of c o lle g e
; One y ear ot graduate w o r k
; Two years of graduate work
; Three yearB or more of
aduate w o rk
.
.
LlHt the earned degrees you hold:
Degree
(Do not include honorary degrees.)
Name of institution grunting degree
Date granted
. List your undergraduate college m a j o r .....................................
; Undergraduate minorB ---------------List the number m years of teuching experience you have had, including the presen t one, in the following capacities:
f you h av e had 11.1 .such e x p e rie n c e , pieusc Ind icate,) Total years employed by present Institution ---------;
Total years’
perlence on other teachers college or university s ta f f s
; Total y ears’ cxpriencc in elem entary school as teacher,
lncipul, or s u p e rv is o r
; T otal years’ experience in private business sch o o l
; Total years’ experience In secondary
■bools as teacher, principal, or s u p e rv iso r
; Total years' experience us superintendent or assistant su p e rin te n d e n t
;
tal years’ experience as a supervisor of business student te a c h e r s
; Total y ears’ as supervisor of nun-buslncss
udent te a c h e r s
.
Indicate the am ount of business experience you have had in the following capacities:
ind of position
Full-time
(Hive (latest
Clerical---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.
Stenographic------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Bookkeeping-------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------Selling
—--------------------Managerial---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Others (list type) ..............................................................
..............................
Less than full-tim e
(Give dates)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.............................
. Write the average num ber of hours per week devoted to the following dutleB: (If less than one hour, Indicate the
mber of m inutes.) Form ally scheduled college teaching load -------- ;
Form ally scheduled train in g school teaching
ad -------; Supervision of student te a c h e rs
; Group conference with student teach ers --------- ; Individual conference
1th student teach ers
•
Check the following duties us to w hether they are dully duties, or duties which you perforin m onthly or less often:
Daily
Weekly
Monthly or less
aperonlng---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------aching athletics
-----------------------------------------m onstratlon teaching----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------eparatiun of teaching m aterials
-----------------------------------------ving exam inations
eld trip s
----------- ---------------------------------------------pervlsion of Btudy--------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------n-dem onstratlon high school teaching---------------------------------------------------------------------------eparatlon for dem onstration teaching
----------- ---------------------------------------------eparatlon for observation
-------- —-------------------------------------eparation for non-dem onstration high school teaching---------- ----------------------------------------- eparatlon for Instruction of college classes--------------------------- -----------------------------------------eparatlon for group conferences with student teachers----------- -----------------------------------------eparatlon for individual conference w ith student teachers
--------------------- ---------------------------eparatlon for supervision of student teaching
----------- ---------------------------------------------mmlttee work--------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------- -----------------------------rrectlng papers------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- ---------------------------hool assemblies
-----------------------------------------culty meetings-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ce relationships
------------------------------------------rental conference----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ord keeping
--------------------- -------------- ------------er duties (please list) ..................................................................... ........... ■
—
----------- ----------------------------
(OVER)
,
& Chack tha .doputmant in vrtdch f m arm -oiaasgai: O o a n m i ---------- j Edtaa*4on
; Training
; Public high school
; Others <li*U— ....... ............................................................................. .
only
9. Check tha academic rank you now hold: No ranking classification
Profeasor
; Associate professor
Assistant professor
: Instructor---------; Other (list) ............................................................................................
10. List y o u r salary {strictly confidential) fo r the current school year: $........................ for -------- months.
List s
school salary $................. f o r -------------- weeks:
Check th e educational organization which pays y o u r salary for supervising stu d e n t teachers: College or university
Public schools —;-------- ; Combination of b o th -------------.
11.
C heck th e business education magazines w hich you regularly read:
Jo u rn a l of B usiness E d u c a tio n ------------ ;
; National Business Education Q u a rte rly ------------- ; Modern Business
t l o n -------------; Rowe B u d g e t------------ ; The G regg W r ite r
;
Others
.....................................................................
S h e e t -------------; B usiness Education World
12. In d ic a te the nu m b er of hooks you have published since September, 1 9 3 3 :
artic le s you have had published since Septem ber, 1933: ----------- .
N EW YORK U N I V E R S I T Y !
S C H O O i. OF E D U C A T IO N !
■J’i
«
UBRAFY
• ]
;
Indicate the num ber of m
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
2
Размер файла
13 531 Кб
Теги
sdewsdweddes
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа