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A comparative study of home economics and liberal arts students

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This thesis, having been approved by the
special Faculty Committee, is accepted by
the Committee on Graduate S tu dy o f the
University o f Wyoming,
in partial fulfillm ent o f the requirements
fo r the degree o f
....
Chairman o f the Committee on Graduate Study.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
A C om parative Study o f Home Economics and
L ib e r a l A rts S tu d e n ts
by
K ath ry n Mumm Cornwell
* l ‘
T h e s is su b m itte d to th e D epartm ent o f Psych­
olo g y and th e Committee on G raduate Study a t
th e U n iv e rs ity o f Wyoming, i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l ­
ment o f th e re q u ire m e n ts f o r th e d e g re e o f
M aster o f A rts
ubba BV
m
U NiV ERfW f*
gf
^Q M fN G
' *-
L aram ie, Wyoming
1941
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
UMI Number: EP18302
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Hebard Room
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
To D r. L i l l i a n P o r te n i e r f o r h e r c o n s ta n t en­
couragem ent and guidance d u rin g th e p r e p a r a tio n o f
th is th e s is ;
to P r o f e s s o r E liz a b e th M c K ittric k ,
th e Home Economics D epartm ent, and many o th e r s who
a s s i s t e d in r a t i n g th e s tu d e n ts and in g iv in g v a lu ­
a b le in fo rm a tio n ; and to th e s tu d e n ts in th e D iv i­
sio n o f Home Economics and th e C ollege o f L ib e r a l
A rts o f th e U n iv e rs ity o f Wyoming who so w i l lin g ly
gave o f t h e i r tim e f o r th e t e s t s , acknowledgment
i s g r a t e f u l l y e x p re sse d .
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TABLE OP CONTENTS
CHAPTER
PAGE
Acknowledgment 8
I
I n tr o d u c tio n and Statem ent o f
Problem --------------------------------------------- —
1
A Survey o f th e L i t e r a t u r e P e r ta in in g
to th e Problem -------------------------------------
5
III
P la n o f Study---------------------------------------
11
IV
P r e s e n ta ti o n and A n a ly sis o f D ata
19
V
Summary and C o n clu sio n s-----------------------
44
B ib lio g ra p h y ----------------------------------------
49
II
Appendix
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLES
TABLE
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
V II
V III
IX
PAGE
Means, C e rta in Median S c o re s, S tan d ard D e v ia tio n s
and C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r th e D iffe re n c e s i n th e
Medians o f th e Home Economics and L i t e r a l A rts
S tu d e n ts on th e Ohio S ta te U n iv e rs ity P s y c h o lo g ic a l
T e s t--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
21
M edians, Means, S tan d ard D e v ia tio n s and C r i t i c a l
R a tio s f o r th e D iff e re n c e s in th e Means o f th e
Home Economics and L ib e r a l A rts S tu d e n ts in S ocioEconomic S ta tu s --------------------------------------------------------------
24
M edians, Means, S tan d ard D e v ia tio n s and C r i t i c a l
R a tio s f o r th e D iff e re n c e s i n Means o f th e Home
Economics and L ib e r a l A r ts S tu d e n ts on th e I n f o r ­
m atio n T e st on Foods-------------------------------------------------------
25
P e rc e n ta g e s o f C o rre c t Item s on Each o f th e F o u rte e n
P a r t s o f th e In fo rm a tio n T est on Foods------------------------
28
Median S c o re s, Means, S tan d ard D e v ia tio n s and C r i t i c a l
R a tio s f o r th e D iff e re n c e s i n th e Means o f th e Home
Economics and L ib e ra l A rts S tu d e n ts on th e C lo th in g
T e st--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
30
P e rc e n ta g e s o f C o rre c t Item s on Each o f th e F iv e
P a r t s o f th e C lo th in g T est--------------------------------------------
32
C o e f f ic ie n ts o f C o r r e la tio n f o r th e Socio-Economic
and th e C lo th in g T est S co res Among Home Economics
and L ib e r a l A rts G ir ls --------------------------------------------------
33
Median S c o re s, Means, S tan d ard D e v ia tio n s and th e
C r i t i c a l R a tio f o r th e D iffe re n c e in th e Means o f
th e Home Economics and L ib e r a l A rts S tu d e n ts in
H e a lth -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
35
Median S c o re s, Means, S tan d ard D e v ia tio n s and th e
C r i t i c a l R a tio f o r th e D iffe re n c e i n th e Means o f
th e Home Economics and L ib e ra l A rts S tu d e n ts in th e
S o c ia l Usage T est----------------------------------------------------------
36
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TABLES
TABLE
X
XI
X II
X III
XIV
XV
PAGE
C o e f f ic ie n ts o f C o r r e la tio n f o r th e O.S.U. and
th e S o c ia l Usage T e s ts S co res Among Home Economics
and L ib e r a l A rts G ir ls --------------------------------------------------
37
M edians, Means, S tan d ard D e v ia tio n s and C r i t i c a l
R a tio s f o r th e D iff e re n c e s i n th e Means o f th e Home
Economics and L ib e r a l A rts S tu d e n ts on th e F iv e P a r ts
o f th e M innesota P e r s o n a lity S cale-------------------------------
38
A verages o f th e Combined R a tin g s o f Three P e rso n s
and A verages o f S e l f - r a t i n g s on th e Ten T r a i t s f o r
th e R a tin g s f o r Home Economics and L ib e r a l A rts
S tu d e n ts ---------------------------------------------------------------------- —
Average P e rc e n ta g e s in tim e s t h a t S e l f - r a t i n g S cores
o f Home Economics S tu d e n ts and T h eir C o n tro ls on th e
Ten T r a i t s o f th e R a tin g S cale were o v e r - r a te d , u n d e r­
r a te d o r r a te d th e Same As th e Average R a tin g s o f
O th e rs-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
40
42
I n d iv id u a l S cores f o r Each S u b je c t and C o n tro l on
P a r t I I and T o ta l o f O .S.U . and T o ta l o f S o c ia l Usage
T e s ts ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appendix
In d iv id u a l S c o re s f o r Each S u b je c t and C o n tro l on
Poods, C lo th in g and H e alth T e s ts ----------------------------------
Appendix
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CHAPTER 1 .
I n tr o d u c tio n and S tatem en t o f Problem .
P e r s o n a lity a s a f i e l d o f r e s e a r c h i s r a t h e r new i n p sy ch o lo g y .
The p r e s e n t tre n d i s tow ard a g o al which aims to h e lp a p e rso n d ev elo p
more wholesome a d ju s tm e n ts , which w il l g iv e him a f u l l e r and a more
com plete l i f e .
Thus psychology i s b ro u g h t in to a new fu n c tio n - t h a t
o f b u ild in g in in d iv id u a ls a c c e p ta b le t r a i t s o f p e r s o n a l it y .
I s i t no t
to be e x p ec te d t h a t w ith t h i s new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p sy ch o lo g y w il l become
more p r a c t i c a l ?
S tu d ie s o f home and fa m ily l i f e i n th e p r e s e n t educa­
t i v e p ro c e s s a r e becoming p a r t o f th e modern c o lle g e c u r r i c u l a .
These
c o u rs e s in c lu d e form s o f self-im p ro v em en t and, i n d i r e c t l y , p o in t to
b e t t e r a d ju s te d in d iv id u a ls .
I t i s u n im p o rtan t w hether th e s e new de­
v ic e s come i n c o u rs e s la b e l l e d p sy ch o lo g y , home l i f e , so c io lo g y o r
home econom ics.
p s y c h o lo g ic a l.
S t o t t (38) b e lie v e s th a t th e stu d y o f fa m ily l i f e i s
He s t a t e s t h a t ”i n th e fa m ily s i t u a t i o n s a re p ro v id e d ,
th e s e t t i n g , th e s tim u la tio n and th e guidance which d e term in e w hether
th e c h ild s h a l l dev elo p in to a p e r s o n a lly w e ll- a d ju s te d and s o c i a l l y
u s e f u l in d iv id u a l.
In a sen se th e n th e ’ s u c c e s s ' o f any fa m ily may
b e judged in term s o f th e p e r s o n a lit y o f th e in d iv id u a ls ” .
A cceptance o f th e view , e d u c a tio n f o r b e tte rm e n t o f o n e 's s e l f ,
i s h e re .
Home e co n o m ists, in whom l i e s p a r t o f th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f
d e v e lo p in g b e t t e r a d ju s te d in d iv id u a ls , have become a l e r t to t h e i r own
in a d e q u a te t r a i t s .
A sco re o f y e a rs ago home eco n o m ists were c r i t i ­
c iz e d , p e rh a p s j u s t i f i a b l y , by women o u ts id e th e home econom ics p ro ­
f e s s i o n f o r p e r s o n a lit y w eaknesses such a s:
f a i l u r e to h o ld up
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2
s ta n d a rd s o f p le a s in g p e rs o n a l a p p ea ra n ce , f a i l u r e to u se a p p r o p r ia te
c o lo r c o m b in a tio n s, and o f te n f o r p ro d u c in g unwholesome p e r s o n a l i t y
t r a i t s i n homemakers.
At th e p r e s e n t tim e s ta te m e n ts a re h eard f r e q u e n tly to th e e f f e c t
t h a t s tu d e n ts in th e f i e l d o f home economics do n o t have a s h ig h in ­
t e l l i g e n c e a s s tu d e n ts m a jo rin g i n o th e r f i e l d s .
One sometimes re c e iv e s
th e im p re s sio n t h a t home econom ics s tu d e n ts a re l e s s m e tic u lo u s i n t h e i r
p e r s o n a l appearance th a n a r e s tu d e n ts o f o th e r c o lle g e s .
H ale (16)
b e lie v e s th a t th e r e a re t r a i t d if f e r e n c e s betw een home econom ics and
o th e r g i r l s .
She s a id th a t a g i r l developed s e l f - c o n t r o l and p o is e by
w earin g c o r r e c t l y s ty le d h a ts and sh o es.
A home econom ics g i r l , th e n ,
sh o u ld dev elo p th ro u g h h e r i n s t r u c t i o n in home econom ics c la s s e s
d e s ira b le t r a i t s .
R e p o rts a re n o t in f r e q u e n tly h eard th a t home econom ics g i r l s a re
more narrow -m inded i n t h e i r p o in t o f view than a re o th e r c o lle g e g i r l s .
W ith th e grow th o f such a t t i t u d e s th ro u g h many y e a rs q u e s tio n s have
a r i s e n which b e a r upon th e w o rth o f t r a i n i n g women in th e a r t o f homem aking.
Do g i r l s w ith a home econom ics background have m ental c a l i b r e ,
p o is e and s e lf - a s s u r a n c e com parable to l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts ?
Have
th e y a s b ro a d a p e r s p e c tiv e tow ard m a tte r s o f g e n e ra l i n t e r e s t a s
s tu d e n ts in g e n e ra l th ro u g h o u t any c o lle g e w ith in th e u n iv e r s ity ?
Are g i r l s w ith a “b e n t" tow ard home econom ics in d iv id u a ls w ith a
p r a c t i c a l u n d e rs ta n d in g o f problem s?
Have they m o tiv es based funda­
m e n ta lly upon s e c u rin g a s much v a lu e i n t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y work a s
p o s s ib le f o r im m ediate and d i r e c t a p p lic a tio n i n t h e i r ev ery day liv e s ?
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3
I n a p p ro a ch in g th e s e problem s i t i s n e c e s sa ry to d i r e c t o n e ’ s
th in k in g tow ard th e p e r s o n a lit y o f in d iv id u a ls .
d e f i n i t i o n s o f p e r s o n a lit y .
There a re many and v a rie d
T r a x le r (42) says th a t th e re i s d i f f i c u l t y
i n m e asu rin g p e r s o n a lit y because th e r e i s no g e n e ra l agreem ent con­
c e r n in g i t s d e f i n i t i o n .
He assum es th a t p e r s o n a li t y i s a r a t h e r
d e f i n i t e e n t i t y made up i n p a r t o f a number o f g e n e r a liz e d t r a i t s .
M arsh (23) says t h a t " p e r s o n a lity e x i s t s o n ly in s o c ia l s i t u a t i o n s , "
and t h a t " th e term cannot be s e p a ra te d from s o c ie ty " .
She c o n tin u e s
by sa y in g t h a t th e r e a r e numerous en v iro n m en tal f a c t o r s which make
g i r l s d ev elo p in to ty p e s .
They a r e :
home c o n d itio n s , number o f
c h ild r e n in th e fa m ily , a t t i t u d e o f p a r e n ts tow ard th e c h ild , age o f
th e c h i l d r e l a t i v e to h e r b r o th e r s and s i s t e r s , and th e p o s i tio n she
o c c u p ie s i n r e fe re n c e to o th e r p lay m ates o u ts id e th e fa m ily , to school
m ates and to te a c h e r s .
A c c id e n ts, i l l n e s s e s , and p h y s ic a l d e f e c ts
a l s o c a l l f o r t h d e f i n i t e re s p o n se s.
Each o f th e s e f a c t o r s in flu e n c e
th e in d iv id u a l a c c o rd in g to h e r d eg ree o f s e n s i t i v i t y " .
From th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f th e s e men and women, whose stu d y o f
p e r s o n a l i t y h a s extended o v er a p e rio d o f y e a r s , i t seem s s a fe to con­
c lu d e t h a t a stu d y o f th e improvem ents o f p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f home eco­
nom ics s tu d e n ts b e a r s many im p lic a tio n s .
I t i s a c h a lle n g e to home
e co n o m ists to pro d u ce women in t h e i r d ep artm en ts who have p e r s o n a li t y
t r a i t s t h a t make them a s s e t s to s o c ie ty .
G a rriso n (14) f e e l s th a t
th ro u g h home econom ics th e r e i s an o p p o rtu n ity to d ev elo p c o o rd in a ­
t i o n , s k i l l s i n m a n ip u la tio n , judgm ent, p la n n in g , and problem s o lv ­
in g .
A le r t home e co n o m ists a g re e w ith G a rriso n .
They have a c c e p te d
th e c h a lle n g e o f p ro d u c in g women tr a in e d to meet th e problem s o f l i f e .
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4
A stu d y o f work done in u n i v e r s i t y home econom ics d e p a rtm e n ts
r e v e a l s t h a t some d e p artm en ts have been c o n sc io u s o f t h i s new d iv i s io n
o f t h e i r work s in c e ab o u t 1926.
I t i s e v id e n t t h a t much h a s been done
to improve th e p e r s o n a lit y o f c o lle g e g i r l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y so th e home
econom ics g i r l .
There i s a r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t th e ta s k i s u n fin is h e d .
The p r e s e n t s tu d y , th e r e f o r e , was p la n n ed to make a com parison o f
p e r s o n a l i t i e s and home making a p t itu d e s o f s tu d e n ts i n home econom ics
and s tu d e n ts i n th e c o lle g e o f l i b e r a l a r t s .
One p u rp o se o f th e stu d y
was to d e term in e w hether g i r l s who s e l e c t home making c o u rs e s i n th e
u n i v e r s i t y a r e g i r l s o f low , a v e ra g e , o r s u p e r io r p e r s o n a lity t r a i t s .
A nother purpose o f th e stu d y was to d e term in e w hether home economics
g i r l s e x e r c is e n a tiv e and a c q u ire d t r a i t s which w ill make them more
s u c c e s s f u l in th e a b i l i t i e s u s u a ll y c o n sid e re d e s s e n t i a l to home making.
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CHAPTER 2 .
A Survey o f th e L i t e r a t u r e P e r ta in in g to th e Problem .
1.
A su rv ey o f s tu d ie s b e a r in g on th e i n t e l l i g e n c e o f home
economics s tu d e n ts .
I n any stu d y in which two g ro u p s o f s tu d e n ts a re b e in g compared,
i t i s w ise to d e term in e th e i n t e l l e c t u a l le v e l o f each;
see how one group compares w ith th e o th e r .
and th en to
Some s tu d ie s com paring in ­
t e l l e c t u a l s c o re s betw een homemaking and l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts have
been made.
E ngle (11) made a stu d y o f th e i n t e l l i g e n c e o f h ig h sch o o l
home econom ics s tu d e n ts .
Her stu d y found th a t g i r l s e n r o lle d i n home
Economics sco red about f iv e p o in ts low er in i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g s than
d id s tu d e n ts in academ ic c la s s e s .
These in t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g s were s c o re s
made on t e s t s , e . g . , th e Terman o r O tis t e s t o f m ental a b i l i t y .
M iss
E ngle p o in te d out t h a t th e s e i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t in g s d e a l t l a r g e l y w ith ab­
s t r a c t id e a s o f th e c lassro o m .
She in d ic a te d t h a t such t e s t s may n o t
show th e home econom ics s tu d e n ts ' tr u e i n t e l l i g e n c e , b ecau se th e r e i s no
lo n g e r any q u e s tio n b u t th a t th e r e a re many ty p e s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e .
Hood (21)
re p o r te d a stu d y o f d if f e r e n c e s in th e grade achievem ent o f home economics
and l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts .
She showed t h a t a la r g e p ro p o r tio n o f g ra d e s
e a rn e d by home econom ics s tu d e n ts were i n th e f i e l d s o f E n g lis h , c h e m istry ,
and econom ics.
A com parison o f th e g ra d e s earn ed in th e s e s u b je c ts
and in c l a s s e s in home economics in d ic a te d th a t home econom ics in ­
s t r u c t o r s d id n o t g iv e h ig h e r g ra d e s th a n do i n s t r u c t o r s i n o th e r
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6
s u b je c ts .
Simpson (35) a ls o compared th e g ra d e s o f s tu d e n ts in home
econom ics and academ ic s u b je c ts .
She found th a t th e a v erag e o f g ra d e s
i n academ ic s u b je c ts was somewhat low er th an th e av erag e o f g ra d e s in
home econom ics s u b je c ts .
However she found th a t th e r e was a c lo s e
r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een g ra d e s o f s tu d e n ts in home econom ics c o u rs e s and
c o u rs e s in c h e m istry .
Montgomery (26) found a f a i r l y h ig h c o r r e l a t i o n
betw een i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y and g ra d e s in home econom ics.
2.
A su rv ey o f th e f i e l d o f p e r s o n a lit y s tu d ie s b e a rin g on
home econom ics.
A s c i e n t i f i c stu d y o f v a rio u s p e r s o n a lit y t r a i t s , such a s
i n t e r e s t s and a t t i t u d e s , i s a f a i r l y r e c e n t one.
Most o f th e re s e a rc h
i n th e f i e l d h a s been done d u rin g th e p a s t two d ecad es.
One o f th e
e a r l y s tu d ie s , t h a t was in d ic a tiv e o f a tu rn tow ard i n t e r e s t s and
t r a i t s a s r e l a t e d to v a rio u s v o c a tio n a l f i e l d s , had i t s b e g in n in g in
p s y c h o lo g ic a l and v o c a tio n a l l i t e r a t u r e d u rin g th e p e rio d 1926-1928.
The Home Economics S e rv ic e B ureau (20) made a stu d y o f th e p e r s o n a lit y
and v o c a tio n a l i n t e r e s t s o f s tu d e n ts .
T h is was a summary o f informar-
t i o n se c u re d from t h i r t y - t h r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s approved f o r t r a i n i n g
home econom ics te a c h e r s .
I t sec u re d from th e se i n s t i t u t i o n s th e
m ethods t h a t were used to d ev elo p in p ro s p e c tiv e home economics
te a c h e r s d e s ir a b le q u a l i t i e s o f p e r s o n a l it y and le a d e r s h ip .
The
r e s u l t s o f t h i s e a r ly in q u ir y in d ic a te d th a t many home econom ics
te a c h e r t r a i n i n g d e p a rtm e n ts were en d eav o rin g to produce d e s ir a b le
p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s in t h e i r s tu d e n ts .
T h is was done th ro u g h r e g u la r
o r s p e c ia l c o u rs e s , th ro u g h s p e c ia l c o n ta c t betw een f a c u l ty and
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7
s tu d e n t s , and thro u g h e x tr a c u r r i c u l a a c t i v i t i e s and clu b work.
S c o tt (34) made a s im ila r stu d y o f a home econom ics e d u c a tio n c l a s s a t
T e a c h e rs' C o lle g e, Columbia.
A q u e s tio n n a ir e b e a r in g th e qu ery ,
"Have you any p la n s f o r h e lp in g a s tu d e n t d ev elo p h e r p e r s o n a lity ? "
was su b m itte d to s i x ty - f o u r p e rs o n s who d ir e c te d te a c h e r t r a i n i n g in
home econom ics d e p artm en ts in v a rio u s p a r t s o f th e c o u n try .
The f in d ­
in g s from t h i s q u e s tio n n a ir e showed th a t e ig h ty - s ix p e r c e n t o f th e
i n s t i t u t i o n s made some p ro v is io n f o r th e developm ent o f p e r s o n a l i t y
tra its .
In some d ep artm en ts t h i s guidance was p ro v id e d th ro u g h in ­
d iv id u a l c o n fe re n c e s, p e rs o n a l c o n ta c ts , and c u l t u r a l s u rro u n d in g s.
Most commonly, how ever, th e a tte m p t to d ev elo p d e s i r a b le t r a i t s was
approached th ro u g h o rg a n iz ed pro g ram s, th e main o b je c tiv e s o f which
w ere th e improvement o f p e r s o n a li t y .
T h is stu d y showed th a t home
econom ics d e p a rtm e n ts a re more c o n sc io u s o f th e need fo r p e r s o n a lit y
developm ent than a re o th e r d i v is io n s w ith in th e u n i v e r s i t y .
I t showed,
to o , t h a t l i t t l e work had been done in t h i s f i e l d .
Two o th e r s tu d ie s which were made a re th o se by C h a rte rs (5 )
" T r a i t s o f Homemakers" and Maxwell (24) " D e s ira b le T r a i t s f o r High
School D aughters and Means o f D eveloping Them in Home Economics
C la s s e s ."
With th e r e s u l t s o f th e s e two s tu d ie s th e r e was com piled
a l i s t o f f o u r te e n t r a i t s th a t were found to be needed by homemakers.
Among th e s e were s e l f - c o n t r o l , c o o p e ra tiv e n e s s , d e p e n d a b ility ,
economy, and c o u rte s y .
In 1929 Coon (7) d e v ise d o th e r means o f d e v e lo p in g t r a i t s which
sh o u ld r e s u l t in more e f f i c i e n t homemakers.
She su g g ested t h a t th e se
t r a i t s be d is c u s s e d d i r e c t l y in s o c ia l o r fa m ily r e l a t i o n s h i p c l a s s e s ,
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8
o r t h a t th e y he handled, i n d i r e c t l y hy u se o f l a b o r a t o r i e s which were
c le a n , n e a t, o r d e r ly and e f f i c i e n t .
Coon s tr e s s e d t h a t home econom ics
le a d e r s must o u tlin e c a r e f u l l y th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t th e y hope to
d e v e lo p i n t h e i r s tu d e n ts , and th e n p ro v id e f o r o p p o r tu n itie s to d i s ­
c u ss and p r a c t i c e th e s e o b je c tiv e s .
H ess (18) and Cox (9 ) m a n ife ste d t h e i r i n t e r e s t in th e d ev elo p ­
ment o f t h i s new a s p e c t o f homemaking e d u c a tio n , when each , in d ep en d en t
o f th e o th e r , su g g este d th e u se o f problem s a s a means to d ev elo p
needed i d e a l s .
A fte r a stu d y o f th e problem s su g g este d by th e s e two
women, i t became e v id e n t t h a t t h i s method sh o u ld , i f s u c c e s s f u lly
u s e d , d ev elo p d e s ir a b le homemaking a t t i t u d e s .
Beeman (2 ) in d ic a te d
i n h e r re s e a rc h t h a t a g i r l d e s i r e s r e c o g n itio n and s o c ia l a p p ro v a l
and th a t she w ants to have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
From 1930 on numerous o th e r s tu d ie s were re p o rte d from a l l s e c tio n s
o f th e c o u n try which in d ic a te d t h a t a tr e n d tow ard b e t t e r home l i f e
th ro u g h p e r s o n a l i t y ad ju stm en t was b e in g lau n ch ed in home econom ics
e d u c a tio n .
Mrs. Cozard (8) and M iss R ountree (38) em phasized a marked
n e ed f o r c o n s id e rin g p e r s o n a lit y developm ent in home econom ics c l a s s e s .
M rs. Cozard s tr e s s e d th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f home econom ics t r a i n i n g in
d e v e lo p in g d e s ir a b le c i t i z e n s o u t o f g i r l s and boys by h e lp in g them
to e s t a b l i s h s u c c e s s fu l homes.
R o u n tre e ’ s stu d y showed t h a t home
econom ics s tu d e n ts a re b e t t e r tr a in e d to produce a p le a s a n t and con­
s t r u c t i v e environm ent th a n a r e s tu d e n ts w ith no home economics back­
g ro u n d .
She f e l t t h a t g i r l s who had been g iv e n a s c i e n t i f i c ap p ro ach
to c h ild c a re would be more a b le to u n d e rsta n d th e problem s o f t h e i r
p a r e n ts a s w e ll a s o f t h e i r c h ild r e n .
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9
P r ie u r (3 1 ), F in sk e (12) and Neuman (27) conducted e x p erim en ts
i n c l a s s e s o f home economics g i r l s .
P r ie u r and F in sk e a tte m p te d to
h e lp each g i r l d is c o v e r f o r h e r s e l f t r a i t s th a t she needed to d ev elo p
w hich would make h e r more l i k a b l e .
F in s k e ’ s fin d in g s showed t h a t
most s tu d e n ts made d e f i n i t e improvement i n t h e i r p e r s o n a lit y t r a i t s ,
th e g r e a t e s t improvement b e in g made by th e av erag e m e n ta lity g ro u p .
N eum an's r e s u l t s in d ic a te d t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y can be developed by
g i r l s in a p e rio d o f a few weeks o f in te n s iv e t r a i n i n g .
E o b e rtso n
(32) worked on th e developm ent o f p e r s o n a lit y i n c la s s e s o th e r th a n
home econom ics.
A ccording to h e r f in d in g s i t was d o u b tfu l w hether
s tu d e n ts in c o lle g e , who m ajored in th e comm ercial s c ie n c e s , changed
much i n r e s o u r c e f u ln e s s , t a c t and independence d u rin g t h e i r p e rio d
o f such stu d y .
E o b e rtso n b ased h e r c o n c lu sio n s on th e f a c t th a t such
s tu d e n t s th ro u g h t h e i r c la s s work had l i t t l e o r no d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n
w hich would ten d to prom ote th e developm ent o f more d e s i r a b le t r a i t s .
Most in v e s t i g a t i o n s have shown t h a t p e r s o n a l i t i e s a re improved i n
c o u rs e s o n ly where th e re a re o p p o r tu n itie s and in c e n tiv e s p r e s e n te d
to d e v elo p d e s ir a b le t r a i t s .
The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s from 1926 to 1939 re v e a l t h a t th e problem
o f d e v e lo p in g p e r s o n a lit y t r a i t s i s s t i l l u n so lv ed .
They have shown,
a l s o , th e need f o r em phasis on d e v e lo p in g wholesome p e r s o n a l i t i e s in
home econom ics c la s s e s .
In a more rec e n t study Hood reported t e s t s to be used in s e l e c t ­
in g g i r l s who Bhould become su c c e s sfu l stu d en ts in home economics.
She u se d a q u e s tio n n a ir e which was s e n t to o v er two hundred l i b e r a l
a r t s and a ls o two hundred home econom ics women.
The approach to h e r
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10
stu d y and th e p r e s e n t one a re somewhat s im ila r .
H ood's work showed
t h a t s tu d ie s w ith home economics s tu d e n ts a s c o n tr a s te d to o th e r c o lle g e
g roups were opening a new f i e l d o f re s e a rc h .
In 1940 G a s k ill, Zwemer,
and U ic k e ll (15) su g g ested t h a t a com parison o f tr e n d s i n a t t i t u d e s
h e ld "by women in l i b e r a l a r t s a s c o n tr a s te d w ith a t t i t u d e s o f women
in a c u rric u lu m in home econom ics should he made.
T h is r a t h e r in te n s iv e survey o f th e f i e l d h a s em phasized th e need
f o r f u r t h e r in v e s t ig a ti o n i n to t h i s s u b je c t.
The c h a lle n g in g r e s u l t s
o f th e s e i n v e s t i g a t o r s have g iv en im petus to th e p r e s e n t stu d y and
p ro v id e d h e lp f u l s u g g e s tio n s f o r ap p ro ach in g th e problem .
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CHAPTER 3.
P la n o f Study.
In u n d e rta k in g t h i s stu d y an a tte m p t was made to d eterm in e
w h eth er c e r t a i n t r a i t s were more prom inent in home econom ics g i r l s
th a n s tu d e n ts r e g i s t e r e d in o th e r d ep artm en ts o r c o lle g e s o f th e
u n iv e rs ity .
There were t h i r t y - s i x advanced women s tu d e n ts who were
a t th e tim e e n r o lle d in the d iv i s io n o f home econom ics.
Of th e s e
e le v e n were s e n io r s w ith fo u r y e a rs o f home economics stu d y beyond
h ig h sc h o o l.
The o th e r tw e n ty -fiv e women were e n r o lle d a s ju n i o r s .
Some o f th e s e had t r a n s f e r r e d to th e d ep artm en t o f home econom ics
from a n o th e r c o lle g e a t th e c lo s e o f t h e i r f i r s t o r second y e a r a t
th e u n i v e r s i t y .
C onsequently, some o f th e s u b je c ts had had o n ly
from th r e e to s ix q u a r te r s o f homemaking stu d y .
Of th e e n t i r e group
s tu d ie d th e r e were th r e e g i r l s who had t r a n s f e r r e d to home econom ics
a t th e b e g in n in g o f t h e i r th i r d y e a r in c o lle g e , and seven g i r l s who
had begun t h e i r home econom ics stu d y a s th e y e n te re d th e second y e a r
o f c o lle g e .
There w ere, th e n , te n s u b je c ts who had had l e s s home
econom ics study th a n th e o th e r tw e n ty -s ix s u b je c ts .
These te n sub­
j e c t s co u ld be c l a s s i f i e d , p e rh a p s, a s h av in g th e same background a s
th e g i r l s who began t h e i r home econom ics stu d y upon t h e i r e n tra n c e to
th e u n i v e r s i t y .
T his m ight be assumed because r e g a r d le s s o f th e de­
p a rtm e n t o f stu d y o f a g iv en s tu d e n t, she has c e r t a i n b a s ic r e q u ir e ­
m ents to m eet.
F or th e g i r l , who e n r o lle d in home econom ics upon
e n te r in g th e u n i v e r s i t y a s a freshm an, th e se b a s ic re q u ire m e n ts a re
m et g r a d u a lly ov er a fo u r y e ar p e rio d .
I f a s tu d e n t was u n d ecid ed
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12
a s to w hich f i e l d she wanted to e n te r , she m ight f u l f i l l th e academ ic
re q u ire m e n ts in th e f i r s t and second y e a r o f stu d y .
Then, d u rin g th e
t h i r d and f o u r th y e a r she would "be f r e e to c o n c e n tra te h e r stu d y in
h e r s e le c te d f i e l d .
The te n s u b je c ts who had been in th e d iv is io n o f
home econom ics l e s s than th r e e y e a rs c o n c e n tra te d t h e i r stu d y alm ost
e n t i r e l y to homemaking d u rin g th e t h i r d and f o u r th y e a r s .
They h ad , in
g e n e r a l, th e same number o f q u a r te r h o u rs o f work in th e d ep artm en t o f
home econom ics a s d id th e o th e r s u b je c ts .
Thus, i t would seem t h a t
th e t h i r t y - s i x home economics s tu d e n ts s e le c te d a s s u b je c ts f o r stu d y
sh o u ld be r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f s tu d e n ts w ith homemaking i n c l i n a t i o n s .
As c o n tr o ls f o r th e home econom ics s tu d e n ts l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts
were chosen.
T his c h o ice was made b ecau se l i b e r a l a r t s c o u rs e s have
been p la n n ed to a p p ea l to s tu d e n ts w ith b ro ad i n t e r e s t s .
E n r o lle e s
in l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e s u s u a ll y have been s tu d e n ts who do n o t c a re
to s p e c ia liz e to o e a r ly in t h e i r c o lle g e c a r e e r.
An a tte m p t was made
to m atch in age and background each home econom ics g i r l w ith a g i r l
in l i b e r a l a r ts .
A p e rs o n a l in te rv ie w w ith each s u b je c t and c o n tr o l
gave n e c e s s a ry background d a ta ,
f a c t o r s i n th e background which
were c o n sid e re d in m atching th e s tu d e n ts were:
1.
The f a t h e r 's o c c u p a tio n ,
2.
The economic s t a t u s o f th e fa m ily ,
3.
The s iz e o f th e home town o r th e type o f community
from which th e g i r l came,
4.
The g i r l ' s s o c ia l s t a t u s a t th e u n i v e r s i t y a s d eterm in ed
by h e r membership o r non-membership i n a s o r o r ity ,
5.
The g i r l ' s su p p o rt o f h e r s e l f b e fo re and w h ile in
c o lle g e ,
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13
6.
The g i r l ' s home l i f e w ith c o n s id e ra tio n to homes b ro k en
by d iv o rc e o r d e a th o f a p a r e n t,
7.
The r e l i g i o n o f th e in d iv id u a l where r e l i g i o n was a
dom inant f a c to r i n th e home,
8.
The amount o f p re v io u s home economics stu d y .
R e la tiv e to t h i s l a s t ite m , i t was b e lie v e d t h a t i f th e c o n tr o l
had had a lim ite d amount o f stu d y i n home econom ics h e r a t t i t u d e s would
te n d to show more i n t e r e s t s in homemaking a c t i v i t i e s th an would one who
had no knowledge o f homemaking a s a s c ie n c e .
The amount o f p re v io u s
home econom ics stu d y was a s c e r ta in e d by th e number o f home econom ics
c o u rs e s s tu d ie d in h ig h school and through p a r t i c i p a t i o n in 4-H clu b
work.
By com paring th e home econom ics s tu d e n ts w ith th e c o n tr o l group
on a l l th e above f a c t o r s , i t would seem th a t any d if f e r e n c e s betw een
th e two groups o f s tu d e n ts m ight be d is c o v e re d .
Seven c o n tr o ls were ta k en from th e c o lle g e o f e d u c a tio n .
T h is
c h o ic e was made when th e e d u c a tio n stu d e n t had had a background th a t
was more n e a r ly th e same a s th a t o f th e home econom ics s tu d e n t w ith
whom she was m atched th an co u ld be found among l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts .
T h is was done in th e case o f two s u b je c ts who were g i r l s o f fo re ig n
p a re n ta g e .
In a n o th e r case th e homemaking g i r l had had s e v e ra l
y e a r s o f te a c h in g e x p e rie n c e p r i o r to h e r home econom ics s tu d y .
The
seven s tu d e n ts ta k en from th e c o lle g e o f e d u c a tio n met p r a c t i c a l l y
a l l o f th e l i b e r a l a r t s re q u ire m e n ts.
Three had had o n ly one y e a r
o f f o r e ig n language in s te a d o f th e two re q u ire d , and fo u r had s tu d ie d
no f o r e ig n la n g u ag e .
Two o f th e se c o n tr o l s tu d e n ts had s tu d ie d one
y e a r o f sc ie n c e o r m athem atics o n ly in s te a d o f th e two y e a rs w hich
were r e q u ir e d in th e c o lle g e o f l i b e r a l a r t s .
The stu d y th e n i s based
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14
on d a t a sec u re d from t h i r t y - s i x j u n io r s and s e n io r s e n ro lle d in th e
d e p a rtm e n t o f home economics and t h e i r c o n tr o ls s e le c te d from th e
c o lle g e s o f l i b e r a l a r t s and e d u c a tio n m atched g i r l f o r g i r l a s de­
s c r ib e d above.
What d e f i n i t e t r a i t s m ight one ex p ect to f in d in home economics
s tu d e n ts Which a r e n o t o b se rv a b le in s tu d e n ts in l i b e r a l a r t s ?
In
c o n s u lt a tio n w ith th e head o f th e home econom ics d e p artm en t, a se ­
l e c t e d l i s t o f t r a i t s was com piled which, i t would seem should re v e a l
d i f f e r e n c e s in i n t e r e s t s .
1.
T his l i s t in c lu d e d :
S u p e rio r knowledge o f homemaking, e s p e c ia ll y o f fo o d s
and c lo th in g .
As a m echanic has a p en ch an t f o r an
au tom obile o r t r a c t o r , so m ight a home econom ics g i r l
want to know about a d r e s s p a t t e r n , th e m echanics o f
an e l e c t r i c m ix er, and th e fu n d am en tals o f food p r e ­
s e r v a tio n .
2.
S o c ia l a c c e p ta n c e o f s e l f in s o c ie ty .
I t would seem
t h a t g i r l s s tu d y in g home economics would d is p la y an
i n t e r e s t in s o c ia l e t i q u e t t e .
3.
S u p e rio r h e a l t h a t t i t u d e s .
B e c k w ith 's ( l ) stu d y o f
th e h e a lth among home econom ics s tu d e n ts in d ic a te d
t h a t h e a lt h t r a i n i n g i s done in home econom ics c la s s e s
in d ire c tly .
T h is m ight r e s u l t in s u p e rio r h e a lt h
a t t i t u d e s on th e p a r t o f home econom ics s tu d e n ts .
4.
S u p e rio r t r a i t s in c e r t a i n o th e r a s p e c ts o f p e r s o n a li t y .
P erh ap s such t r a i t s a s t a c t , c o u rte s y , a d a p t a b i l i t y ,
c o o p e ra tio n , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and le a d e r s h ip would be
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15
dev elo p ed i n in d iv id u a ls who a re home-minded.
One way
i n which home econom ics s tu d e n ts m ight d ev elo p co o p era­
t i o n more th an do l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts i s th ro u g h
h a v in g more need to sh are classro o m equipm ent and to
c a r ry on c o o p e ra tiv e p r o j e c t s .
U sing th e s e p o in ts a s a p o s s ib le b a s i s f o r d if f e r e n c e s betw een
th e s u b je c ts and t h e i r c o n tr o ls , an a tte m p t was made to f in d o b je c tiv e
m easu res o f th e se d if f e r e n c e s .
P o s s ib le methods th a t p re s e n te d them­
s e lv e s were th e t e s t i n g , th e p e rs o n a l in te rv ie w , and th e r a t i n g s c a le
m ethods.
M a rsh 's com prehensive stu d y o f t e s t s and r a t i n g s c a le s was
a d e q u a te enough to in s u re s a t i s f a c t i o n in th e u se o f b o th in th e
p r e s e n t stu d y .
Her stu d y in d ic a te d t h a t t e s t s were most s a t i s f a c t o r y .
I t was n e c e s sa ry to s e l e c t th e t e s t s m ost a p p lic a b le .
In s e l e c t i n g a
t e s t an a tte m p t was made to e v a lu a te i t in an o b je c tiv e m anner.
T h is
p u r p o r te d ly would show p e r s o n a l it y t r a i t s th a t would d i s t i n g u i s h home
econom ics s tu d e n ts from s tu d e n ts i n o th e r f i e l d s .
Of th e many t e s t s
c o n s id e re d , f iv e seemed p e r t i n e n t to th e stu d y , and were s e le c te d and
a d m in is te r e d to a l l s u b je c ts and c o n tr o ls .
The t e s t s s e le c te d were:
1.
F r e a r and Coze C lo th in g T e st (1 3 ),
2.
I l l i n o i s Home Economics A s s o c ia tio n In fo rm a tio n T e st
on Foods (2 2 ),
3.
T r u s le r - A r n e tt H e a lth Knowledge T est (4 3 ),
4.
Stephenson and M ille t S o c ia l Usage T e st (3 7 ),
5.
D a rle y and McNamara M innesota P e r s o n a lity S cale (1 0 ).
A ccording to Hadley (4 ) th e F re a r and Coze C lo th in g t e s t was
d e sig n e d to cover fundam ental knowledge o f th e p r i n c i p l e s o f c l o t h -
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16
in g c o n s tr u c tio n said, r e l a t e d m a tte r.
The t e s t a c c o rd in g to Hadley
was s a t i s f a c t o r y in t h a t i t re v e a le d p u p il p ro g r e s s .
The s e c tio n s
d e a li n g w ith th e h y g ie n e, th e a p p ro p ria te n e s s , and th e econom ics o f
c lo th in g would in d ic a te a s t u d e n t 's knowledge on th e s e p o in ts .
Brown (3) found th e In fo rm a tio n T e st on Foods s i g n i f i c a n t i n
t h a t th e t e s t ite m s d e a l t w ith f a c t u a l m a te r ia l o f food s o u rc e s ,
c o m p o sitio n , t h r i f t , and p r e p a r a tio n .
These p o in ts should in d ic a te
th e woman who i s foods-m inded.
The H e a lth Knowledge T e st was in c lu d e d b ecau se i t was b ased on
f a c t o r s o f g e n e ra l h e a lth w ith some re fe re n c e to th e p la c e o f fo o d s
in h e a l t h .
The S o c ia l Usage T e st was s e le c te d because i t in c lu d e d a know­
le d g e o f p o is e and a b i l i t y to h an d le o n e 's s e l f w e ll in s o c ia l s i t u a ­
tio n s .
The t e s t a tte m p ts to m easure th e fo llo w in g p o i n ts :
L iv in g
w ith O th e rs , I n tr o d u c tio n s , L e t t e r W ritin g , A ccep tin g I n v i t a t i o n s ,
M ealtim e B eh a v io r, D a tin g , D ancing, I n v ite d O ut, When in P u b lic ,
Going P la c e s , S ta y in g Aw hile, and As O th e rs See You.
Of a l l th e
above m entioned p o in ts th e fo llo w in g seemed p a r t i c u l a r l y apropos to
t h i s stu d y :
L iv in g w ith O th e rs, M eeting P e o p le , A ccep tin g I n v i t a ­
t i o n s , M ealtim e B e h a v io r, How to Act when I n v ite d O ut, and th e
Q u a l i t i e s o f b e in g a House G uest.
The M innesota P e r s o n a lity S c a le i s a very r e c e n t t e s t .
It
p ro v id e s s c a le s f o r f iv e s e p a ra te m easures o f in d iv id u a l a d ju stm e n t.
The f i r s t o f th e s e i s M orale.
High s c o re s in t h i s s e c tio n a re in ­
d i c a t i v e o f b e l i e f in s o c ie ty and r e p r e s e n ts a n a iv e o r - u n c r itic a l
a c c e p ta n c e o f s o c ie ty a s th e b e s t o f a l l p o s s ib le w o rld s.
Low s c o re s
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17
in d i c a t e cy n icism and la c k o f hope f o r th e f u tu r e .
th e t e s t r a t e s S o c ia l A djustm ent.
The second p a r t o f
High s c o re s on t h i s u n i t te n d to
he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f g re g a rio u s n e s s and d i f f e r e n t i a t e s th e in d iv id u a ls
who a r e s o c i a l l y m ature in r e l a t i o n to o th e r p e o p le .
I t d e a ls w ith
e x c e s s iv e over and u n d er s o c i a l i z a t i o n in c lu s iv e o f e x tro v e rs io n and
in t r o v e r s i o n .
a d ju s tm e n t.
B oth p a r t s one and two a r e in d ic a tiv e o f th e d e g re e o f
P eo p le who a r e p r a c t i c a l , i t i s g e n e r a lly b e lie v e d , w ill
a c h ie v e more wholesome a d ju stm e n t.
The t h i r d p a r t o f t h i s t e s t ,
Fam ily E e la tio n s , should have a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w ith th e g i r l s 1
achievem ent in homemaking a r t s .
High s c o re s on t h i s p a r t o f th e t e s t
s i g n i f y a f r i e n d l y and h e a lth y p a r e n t- c h i ld r e l a t i o n s h i p .
In t h i s
stu d y one m ight e x p e c t th e h ig h s c o re s on t h i s p a r t to be e arn ed by
g i r l s w ith an e d u c a tio n in home econom ics.
th e g i r l i s ov er-d ep en d en t on th e fa m ily .
E m o tio n a lity .
T his i n d ic a te s a ls o w hether
The f o u r th p a r t d e a ls w ith
Ik n o tio n a lity may be in flu e n c e d by th e d eg ree o f s ta b ­
i l i t y o f th e in d iv id u a l d eveloped th ro u g h p a r e n ta l c o n d itio n in g .
This
may in d ic a te t h a t p e o p le who a re p r a c t i c a l would n o t e x h ib it e i t h e r
e x tre m e ly h ig h o r low e m o tio n a lity , b u t would be r a t h e r s t a b l e .
High
s c o r e s on e m o tio n a lity a re in d ic a tiv e o f s ta b l e o r s e lf - p o s s e s s e d
i n d i v i d u a l s , w h ile low s c o re s u s u a ll y r e s u l t from a n x ie ty s t a t e s o r
o v e r - r e a c ti v e te n d e n c ie s .
P a r t f i v e , Economic C o n se rv a tio n , in d ic a t e s
c o n s e rv a tis m tow ard economic p o l i c i e s i f the s c o re s a re h ig h .
Low
s c o r e s r e v e a l a ten d en cy tow ard l i b e r a l view s on c u rre n t econom ics
and i n d u s t r i a l p roblem s.
The r a t i n g s c a le method o f m easu rin g p e r s o n a lit y i s h e lp f u l
in e v a lu a tin g t r a i t s which le n d th em selv es to d e s c r ip ti o n .
By t h i s
m ethod one g e ts o p in io n s o f a c q u a in ta n c e s upon th e t r a i t s c o n sid e re d
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18
i n th e s c a le .
w ere:
T r a i t s which com prised th e s c a le u sed in t h i s s tu d y
in d ep en d en ce, a d a p t a b i l i t y , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , c o o p e ra tio n , p o is e ,
t a c t and c o u rte s y , le a d e r s h ip , v o ic e , p e rs o n a l appearance and b re a d th
o f c o n ta c ts .
Each s tu d e n t was asked to s e le c t two u n i v e r s i t y f a c u lty
members, and one p e rso n who knew h e r in s i t u a t i o n s o u ts id e th e c l a s s ­
room a s r a t e r s .
A lso each in d iv id u a l was asked to r a t e h e r s e l f .
T h is
was done to d e term in e a tendency tow ard u n d er e s tim a tio n o r o v er e s t i ­
m a tio n o f o n e ’ s own t r a i t s .
The s e le c ti o n o f th e s e t e s t s and r a t i n g
s c a le s a s d e v ic e s to a s c e r t a i n t r a i t d if f e r e n c e s d id n o t imply t h a t
a l l t r a i t d if f e r e n c e s in th e two g ro u p s would be re v e a le d .
Some d if f e r e n c e s in s tu d e n ts r e s u l t from d if f e r e n c e s in i n t e l l e c ­
tu a l a b ility .
C onsequently, i t was n e c e s s a ry to c o n sid e r i n t e l l i g e n c e
i n m aking com parisons.
The t e s t u sed was th e Ohio S ta te U n iv e rs ity
P s y c h o lo g ic a l T est (4 1 ).
p a r t m easures v o c ab u la ry ;
The t e s t c o n ta in s th re e s u b - t e s t s .
th e second p a r t m easures re a so n in g , grammar,
s p e l l i n g and l o g i c a l a s s o c ia tio n ;
a b ility .
The f i r s t
and th e t h i r d p a r t m easures re a d in g
Since each p a r t in t h i s t e s t would in d ic a te a d i f f e r e n t type
o f a b i l i t y , th e s c o re s f o r th e s u b - t e s t s , a s w e ll a s f o r th e t o t a l ,
w ere u s e d .
The r e s u l t s o f th e s e t e s t s and s c a le s were t r e a t e d s ta r­
t i s t i c a l l y to d e te rm in e p e r s o n a lit y d if f e r e n c e s betw een th e two groups
o f s tu d e n ts .
Socio-econom ic s t a t u s m ight a ls o account f o r some d if f e r e n c e s in
th e i n t e r e s t s and th e p e r s o n a li t y t r a i t s o f th e s tu d e n ts .
C o n seq u en tly ,
th e s c o re f o r th e socio-econom ic s t a t u s was d eterm in ed f o r each s tu d e n t
from in fo rm a tio n found on th e O.S.U. t e s t .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER 4 .
P r e s e n ta tio n and A n a ly sis o f D ata.
The m ental a b i l i t y and th e socio-econom ic s t a t u s o f a s tu d e n t
may he f a c t o r s which w i l l in flu e n c e h e r t e s t s c o re .
I f th is i s tru e ,
i t w i l l be e q u a lly so o f any g i r l w hether th e s tu d e n t i s in home
econom ics o r l i b e r a l a r t s .
T h e re fo re , i t was f e l t t h a t a stu d y o f
th e m en tal le v e l and socio-econom ic s t a t u s of each group was e s s e n t i a l
b e f o r e d a t a from th e o th e r t e s t s and r a t i n g s c a le s co u ld be g iv en
p r o p e r c o n s id e r a tio n .
As a l o g i c a l o rd e r fo r p r e s e n tin g each s e p a ra te
t e s t , th e r e s u l t s which showed w holly o r p a r t l y r e l i a b l e d if f e r e n c e s
a r e g iv e n f i r s t i n th e d is c u s s io n .
T h is i s fo llo w ed by a su rv ey o f
th e t e s t s and r a t i n g d e v ic e s which b ro u g h t o u t s l i g h t o r no d if f e r e n c e s
betw een th e two g ro u p s s tu d ie d .
The r e s u l t s a r e shown by s u i t a b l e
ta b le s .
A.
M ental A b i l i t y .
The m en tal a b i l i t y of th e s u b je c ts u se d f o r t h i s stu d y was
d e te rm in e d from s c o re s on th e Ohio S ta te U n iv e rs ity P s y c h o lo g ic a l
T e s t.
A ll s tu d e n ts in Wyoming h ig h sc h o o ls a re g iv en t h i s t e s t
d u rin g th e second sem e ster o f t h e i r s e n io r y e a r u n d er th e d i r e c t i o n
o f th e p e rs o n n e l d epartm en t o f th e s t a t e u n i v e r s i t y .
Any s tu d e n ts
who e n r o ll a t th e U n iv e rs ity o f Wyoming, f o r whom s c o re s a re n o t on
f i l e , a re g iv en t h i s t e s t upon e n te r in g th e u n i v e r s i t y .
The r e s u l t s
o f Form 18 were u s e d in t h i s s tu d y .
H i l l (19) o f I l l i n o i s and Noble and Arps (28) o f Ohio u se d th e
Army A lpha T est on th o u san d s o f s tu d e n ts .
In H i l l ' s stu d y th e
m edian s c o re f o r s tu d e n ts e n ro lle d in th e c o lle g e o f l i b e r a l a r t s
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20
was 148, w h ile th e m edian sc o re f o r th e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o lle g e was
1 3 9 .7 5 .
Noble and A rps had an a rts-c o m m erce -j o u rn a lism median o f
147, and an a g r i c u l t i v e median o f 133.
These s tu d ie s would seem to
in d ic a te t h a t th e r e were i n t e l l e c t u a l d if f e r e n c e s in l i b e r a l a r t s
s tu d e n ts and s tu d e n ts who a re e n r o lle d in a g r i c u l t u r e .
The d i f f e r ­
ence i n m ental l e v e l betw een home econom ics and l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts
may n o t be a s marked a s th e se s tu d ie s in d ic a te .
P o r te n ie r (29) found
t h a t th e mean m ental t e s t sco re f o r th e home econom ics s tu d e n ts was
e le v e n p o in ts h ig h e r th an i s th a t f o r th e men who a re e n r o lle d in
th e c o lle g e o f a g r i c u l t u r e .
I f d if f e r e n c e s in i n t e l l i g e n c e do e x i s t , i t m ight account f o r
c e r t a i n d if f e r e n c e s betw een home econom ics and l i b e r a l a r t s g i r l s .
C o n se q u e n tly , to determ in e w hether th e home econom ics g i r l s , in
s e l e c t i n g t h e i r c o n tr o ls , had chosen g i r l s o f ap p ro x im a te ly e q u al
m e n ta l l e v e l , th e mean i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s c o re s were com piled f o r
th e s u b je c ts and t h e i r c o n tr o ls .
Mean s c o re s were d eterm in ed f o r
th e fo llo w in g g ro u p s:
1.
home econom ics s e n io r g i r l s and t h e i r c o n tr o ls ,
2.
home econom ics ju n io r g i r l s and t h e i r c o n tr o ls ,
3.
t o t a l home economics g i r l s and t h e i r c o n tr o ls .
The O .S.U . t e s t c o n s is ts o f th r e e s u b - t e s t s , each o f which
a tte m p ts to m easure d i f f e r e n t a s p e c ts o f m ental a b i l i t y .
Means were
d e te rm in e d f o r each o f th e s e th r e e s u b - t e s t s , a s w ell a s f o r th e
t o t a l t e s t , f o r a l l th e g ro u p s l i s t e d above.
W ith b u t one e x ce p tio n
th e mean s c o re s on th e th re e s u b - t e s t s , and on th e t o t a l t e s t , was
somewhat h ig h e r f o r th e c o n tr o ls , i . e . , th e l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts ,
th a n f o r th e home econom ics g i r l s .
(T able I . )
However, most o f
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21
TABLE I
Means, C e rta in Median S c o re s, S tan d ard D e v ia tio n s and C r i t i c a l
R a tio s f o r th e D iff e re n c e s i n th e Medians o f th e Home Economics
and L ib e r a l A rts S tu d e n ts on th e Ohio S ta te U n iv e rs ity Psych­
o l o g i c a l T e st
Median
Means
P a rt I
P a r t 11 P a r t I I I T o ta l
S e n io rs
Home Economics
L i b e r a l A rts
20.82
21.50
28.27
32.90
30.00
30.00
79.09
8 6.00
J u n io r s
Home Economics
L i b e r a l A rts
20.44
23.17
27.88
32.13
29.00
31.46
77.32
87.28
T o ta l
Home Economics
L i b e r a l A rts
20.60
22.34
28.06
32.52
29.50
3 0 .7 3
77.86
86.64
th e s e d if f e r e n c e s were n o t m arked.
P a r t I I T o ta l
2 8 .0 0
29.75
S.D.
C.E.
7 5 .0 0 23.05
8 8.33 1 9 .5 0
1.1 7
8 2 .9 0 14.95
7 8 .5 0 30.50
.5 2
81.46 1 9 .0 6
8 2 .8 0 27.70
.19
As may be seen from Table I th e mean
s c o r e s f o r th e home economics s e n io r s and t h e i r c o n tr o ls a re e x a c tly
th e same in p a r t I I I .
While th e home econom ics g i r l s were i n s t r u c t e d to
s e l e c t g i r l s a s n e a r ly com parable to th em selv es a s p o s s ib le w ith th e ex­
c e p tio n o f t h e i r f i e l d o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n most o f th e g i r l s s e le c te d
f r i e n d s who sco red somewhat h ig h e r th a n th em selv es on th e O .S.U. t e s t .
The s c o r e s f o r th e s e n io r s u b je c ts and lik e w is e f o r t h e i r c o n tr o ls gave
a f a i r l y norm al d i s t r i b u t i o n .
Neuman's stu d y showed s im ila r r e s u l t s .
I n h e r stu d y th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f th e in te l l i g e n c e s c o re s approached
a norm al c u rv e .
Por th e ju n io r l i b e r a l a r t s g ro u p , however, th e d i s ­
t r i b u t i o n was s l i g h t l y skewed.
The s c o re s f o r th e ju n io r c o n tr o l
women ranged from 38-124, w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f one g i r l who sco red
184.
Hence, th e mean was n o t a r e l i a b l e measure o f c e n tr a l ten d en cy .
C o n se q u e n tly , th e median s c o re s a ls o were d eterm in ed f o r a l l
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22
g ro u p s.
U sing th e m edians a s m easures o f com parison f o r s u b je c ts and
c o n t r o l s th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f th e d if f e r e n c e f o r th e s e n io r s was found
to be 1 .1 7 .
While somewhat s i g n i f i c a n t , a c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 1 .1 7 i n d i ­
c a te d t h a t th e d if f e r e n c e in th e median in t e l l i g e n c e s c o re s f o r th e two
g ro u p s was n o t w holly r e l i a b l e .
T h is would mean t h a t in o n ly ab o u t
e ig h ty - e ig h t c a s e s o u t o f one hundred would such a d if f e r e n c e be found.
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o f o r th e d if f e r e n c e i n th e m edians f o r th e two ju n io r
g ro u p s , (.5 2 ) in d ic a te d th a t th e d if f e r e n c e was w h o lly u n r e l i a b l e , as
was a ls o th e d if f e r e n c e between th e m edians o f th e t o t a l group o f sub­
j e c t s and t h e i r c o n tr o ls (C.R. .1 9 ) .
While th e group o f l i b e r a l a r t s and e d u c a tio n g i r l s u se d a s
c o n tr o ls had h ig h e r mean s c o re s on a l l th re e o f th e s u b - t e s t s , th a n
d id th e group o f home economics women, th e d i f f e r e n c e s were sm all on
p a r t s I and I I I .
A lthough n o t w holly r e l i a b l e , s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e s
betw een th e means were found on p a r t I I .
C o nsequently, th e s e s u b je c ts
and t h e i r c o n tr o ls cannot be c o n sid e re d e x a c tly e q u al in m ental a b i l i t y .
P a r t I I o f th e O.S.U. t e s t i s a m easure o f re a s o n in g , judgment and
l o g i c a l a s s o c ia ti o n .
T his may acco u n t in p a r t f o r th e h ig h e r s c o re s
e a rn e d by th e c o n tr o l s tu d e n ts on some o f th e o th e r t e s t s u se d , and
th u s th e d if f e r e n c e s found may n o t show tr u e d if f e r e n c e s betw een th e
home econom ics s tu d e n ts and t h e i r c o n tr o ls .
B.
Socio-Econom ic S t a t u s .
In th e p e rs o n a l d a ta re c e iv e d from each s u b je c t and c o n t r o l, i t
was found t h a t many o f th e s tu d e n ts in c lu d e d in th e stu d y were s e l f s u p p o rtin g .
G ir ls who have more tim e f o r s o c ia l a c t i v i t i e s m ight have
a b e t t e r chance to d ev elo p p le a s in g p e r s o n a l i t i e s th a n do g i r l s who
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23
work many h o u rs a day.
Neuman found th a t g i r l s , a f t e r th e y had earn ed
money th e m selv e s, became more re s p o n s ib le and c o o p e ra tiv e .
A s tu d y o f
th e socio-econom ic s t a t u s o f b o th g roups was made to d eterm in e w hether
a d if f e r e n c e d id e x i s t .
te s t.
A p e rs o n a l d a ta sh ee t accom panies th e O.S.U.
I t i s composed o f about f i f t y ite m s , some o f which re v e a l th e
socio-econom ic s t a t u s o f th e in d iv id u a l a s d eterm in ed by th e Sims (36)
S core Card f o r Socio-Econom ic s t a t u s .
P o r te n ie r (29) s e le c te d f i f t e e n
ite m s from t h i s d a ta sh e e t ld iich were c lo s e ly s im ila r o r i d e n t i c a l to
th e ones found on th e Sims S c a le.
In g e n e r a l, th e method u sed by Sims
was fo llo w e d in h e r a b b re v ia te d form o f th e s c a le .
The r e s u l t s showed t h a t th e mean socio-econom ic sco re o f th e home
econom ics s e n io r s was s l i g h t l y g r e a te r th a n th e mean sco re f o r th e
l i b e r a l a r t s s e n io r s .
(T able I I . )
The d a ta were m arkedly re v e rs e d
f o r th e ju n io r g roups w ith th e r e s u l t t h a t th e t o t a l mean socio-econom ic
sc o re f o r th e l i b e r a l a r t s group was c o n s id e ra b ly h ig h e r th a n f o r th e
home econom ics s tu d e n ts .
P o r te n ie r (29) made a stu d y o f th e s o c io ­
economic l e v e l s o f s tu d e n ts in d i f f e r e n t c o lle g e s w ith in th e u n i v e r s i t y .
In h e r stu d y th e mean socio-econom ic sco re f o r l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts
was 2 9 .0 0 , w hile f o r th e a g r i c u l t u r e s tu d e n ts , which in c lu d e d th e de­
p a rtm e n t o f home econom ics, th e mean sco re was 2 4 .5 7 .
betw een th e mean s c o re s in h e r stu d y was 4 .4 3 .
The d if f e r e n c e
However, in a fo llo w -
up s tu d y (3 0 ) o f th e s e groups she s t a t e s th a t th e home econom ics sco re
on socio-econom ic s t a t u s was s ix p o in ts h ig h e r th a n f o r th e s tu d e n ts
in a g r i c u l t u r e .
I n th e p r e s e n t stu d y th e d if f e r e n c e in mean s c o re s
was 2 .5 6 , which would seem to compare w ith h e r f in d in g s .
These d a ta
te n d to su g g est th a t home econom ics s tu d e n ts have a somewhat lo w er
so cio -eco n o m ic s t a t u s th a n do l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts .
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24
TABLE I I
M edians, Means, S tan d ard D e v ia tio n s and C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r
th e D iff e re n c e s i n th e Means o f th e Home Economics and L ib e r a l
A rts S tu d e n ts in Socio-Econom ic S ta tu s .
Median
Mean
S.D.
C.R.
S e n io rs
Home Economics
L i b e r a l .Arts
21.83
25.00
27.00
25.64
6 .1 0
8.01
.4 4
J u n io r s
Home Economics
L ib e r a l A rts
27.75
32.00
26.92
31.20
9.1 4
9.28
2.0 1
T o ta l
Home Economics
L ib e r a l A rts
26.50
3 0 .3 0
26.94
29.50
8 .8 5
9 .6 3
1 .1 3
C.
In fo rm a tio n T e s t on F oods.
The In fo rm a tio n T e st on Foods i s composed o f one hundred -un­
f i n i s h e d s ta te m e n ts . Each u n f in is h e d sta te m e n t i s fo llo w ed by fo u r
w ords o r p h ra s e s .
One o f th e fo u r words or p h ra s e s c o r r e c t l y com­
p l e t e s th e u n fin is h e d s ta te m e n t.
Each stu d e n t s e le c te d th e one word
o r p h ra s e o f th e fo u r which she f e l t was c o r r e c t .
The mean s c o re s
f o r th e r e s u l t s o f each group showed i n t e r e s t i n g d if f e r e n c e s . (T ab le I I I . )
The l a r g e s t d if f e r e n c e in th e means, 1 2 .7 2 p o i n t s , was found betw een
th e l i b e r a l a r t s and home econom ics s e n io r s .
The d if f e r e n c e betw een
th e means f o r ju n io r l i b e r a l a r t s and home econom ics g i r l s was 8 .3 2 .
The d if f e r e n c e betw een th e mean s c o re s f o r th e to te d group o f home
econom ics g i r l s and t h e i r c o n tr o ls was 9 .6 6 .
A ll o f th e s e d if f e r e n c e s
betw een th e means a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a s shown by c r i t i c a l r a t i o s o f 5 .2 3 ,
3 .2 1 , and 5 .1 3 r e s p e c tiv e l y .
(T able I I I . )
d i c a t e h ig h ly r e l i a b l e d if f e r e n c e s .
Such c r i t i c a l r a t i o s in ­
The sm a lle r s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n s
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25
o f th e s e n i o r s in d ic a te l e s s v a r i a b i l i t y in th e s c o re s earn ed on th e
fo o d s t e s t , which i s no d o u b t, due to th e foods t r a i n i n g g iv e n th e
home econom ics g i r l s .
TABLE I I I
M edians, Means, S tan d ard D e v ia tio n s and C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r
th e D iffe re n c e s in Means o f th e Home Economics and L ib e ra l
A rts S tu d e n ts on th e In fo rm a tio n T e s t on Foods.
Median
Mean
S.D.
C.R.
S e n io rs
Home Economics
L i b e r a l A rts
89.00
76.16
89.40
78.68
4 .6 2
6 .6 0
5.23
J u n io r s
Home Economics
L i b e r a l A rts
85.66
78.50
84.74
7 6.42
8.5 6
9.4 8
3.21
T o ta l
Home Economics
L i b e r a l A rts
87.10
76.50
86.16
76.50
7 ,8 6
8 .0 8
5.1 3
The i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t and fo o d s t e s t s c o re s f o r th e two g ro u p s
were compared.
1.
The r e s u l t s o f t h i s com parison showed:
The s e n io r women in b o th home econom ics and in th e l i b e r a l
a r t s g ro u p s ,
who made h ig h sc o re s on th e i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t , e arn ed
r e l a t i v e l y h ig h e r s c o re s on th e fo o d s t e s t r e g a r d le s s o f w hether th e y
were in
2.
home econom ics o r l i b e r a l a r t s .
The ju n i o r women in home econom ics and l i b e r a l a r t s , who
made h ig h s c o re s on th e in te l l i g e n c e t e s t , d id n o t make h ig h s c o re s
i n a l l c a s e s on th e foods t e s t .
T h is was more t r u e f o r th e l i b e r a l
a r t s group th an f o r th e home econom ics group.
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26
3. The
s e n io r women in b o th home economics and l i b e r a l a r t s , who
made th e lo w e st s c o re s i n
on th e fo o d s t e s t .
i n t e l l i g e n c e , d id n o t make th e lo w e st s c o re s
T h is was tr u e e s p e c ia l l y o f th e home econom ics
s tu d e n t s .
4.
The
who made th e
J u n io r women in home econom ics and a ls o i n l i b e r a l a r t s
lo w e st s c o re s on th e
lo w e s t s c o re s on th e fo o d s t e s t .
i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t d id n o t make th e
T h is a g a in was more t r u e o f th e home
econom ics g i r l s th a n o f th e l i b e r a l a r t s g i r l s .
5.
S e n io r s tu d e n ts b o th in l i b e r a l a r t s and home econom ics earned
h ig h e r s c o re s b o th i n i n t e l l i g e n c e and fo o d s, th a n d id th e J u n io r
s tu d e n ts .
The foods t e s t i s d iv id e d in to fo u r te e n s u b - t e s t s .
1.
F u n ctio n and Com position o f Food
2.
D ig e s tio n and A b so rp tio n o f Food
3.
H eal S e le c tio n
4.
Food P r e p a r a tio n
5.
P r in c i p le s Employed in th e P r e p a ra tio n o f Foods
6.
L eavening A gents
7.
Food S a n ita tio n
8.
Food Economics
9.
P r e s e r v a tio n and S to rag e o f Food
10.
Meal S e rv ic e and E t iq u e tt e
11.
H ousew ifery
12.
F u e ls and Cooking
13.
Food A d ju n cts
14.
Sources o f Common Foods
They a re s
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27
In th e above s u b - t e s t s some item s were missed, much more f r e ­
q u e n tly by th e c o n tr o ls th an by th e s u b je c ts .
A s t a t i s t i c a l a n a ly s is
showed t h a t th e fo llo w in g s u b - t e s t s , in th e o rd e r g iv e n , were much
more d i f f i c u l t f o r l i b e r a l a r t s women th a n f o r home econom ics women
a s shown by th e p e rc e n ta g e o f item s p a sse d on each .
(T able I V .)
( l ) , P r i n c i p l e s Employed in th e P r e p a r a tio n o f Food and Food Preparart i o n , ( 2 ) , L eavening A gents,
tio n ,
(5 ) H ousew ifery,
Cooking,
( 3 ) , Food Economics,
( 4 ) , Meal S e le c ­
( 6 ) , Sources o f Common Foods and F u e ls and
(7 ) , D ig e s tio n and A b so rp tio n o f Food and Food S a n ita tio n ,
( 8 ) , F u n c tio n and C om position o f Foods and Food A d ju n c ts.
Two sub­
t e s t s , Meal S e rv ic e and P r e s e r v a tio n o f Food, were m issed about
e q u a lly o f te n by th e s u b je c ts and c o n tr o ls .
T h is would seem to in ­
d i c a t e t h a t in th e s e two s u b - t e s t s , th e l i b e r a l a r t s g i r l s were a s
w e ll inform ed a s were th e home econom ics g i r l s .
by a stu d y o f th e s u b - t e s t s were:
A few f a c t s re v e a le d
In th e Meal S e le c tio n s u b - t e s t ,
th e l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts were n o t f a m i l i a r w ith some food term s and
t h e i r f u n c tio n , i . e . , c a l o r i e and p r o te in .
In th e F u el and Cooking
A p p a ra tu s d iv is io n , th e l i b e r a l a r t s g i r l s were u n a c q u a in te d w ith th e
f u n c tio n o f a p r e s s u r e co o k er.
Under Food A d ju n c ts, home econom ics
s tu d e n ts were ab o u t s ix tim e s a s f a m il ia r w ith condim ents a s were
l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts .
The c o n tr o ls knew l i t t l e a b o u t le a v e n in g
a g e n ts , e s p e c ia ll y y e a s t co m p o sitio n and soda s u b s t i t u t e s .
An i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e rv a tio n was made from T ab le IV.
T h is t a b l e
showed t h a t home econom ics g i r l s were sev e n te en p e r c e n t b e t t e r in ­
form ed th a n l i b e r a l a r t s g i r l s on Foods P r e p a r a tio n , and e ig h te e n
p e r c e n t b e t t e r inform ed on th e P r i n c i p l e s Employed in th e P r e p a ra tio n
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28
TABLE IV
P e rc e n ta g e s o f C o rre c t Item s on Each o f th e F o u rteen
P a r t s of th e In fo rm a tio n T e st on Foods.
P a rt
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII V III
IX
X
S e n io rs
H. E.
L .A .
88
85
83
73
98
86
85
62
77
48
91
74
95
84
93
80
90
91
100
96
98
93
85
80
93
85
90
78
J u n io r s
H .E.
L.A .
91
87
79
74
99
88
79
63
67
55
83
71
92
84
86
73
83
82
95
100
96
85
93
84
91
83
87
81
T o ta l
H.E.
L.A.
90
86
81
74
99
87
81
64
70
53
86
72
93
84
88
75
85
85
97
98
97
87
91
83
92
88
88
80
o f D if f e r e n t Foods.
XI X II X III XIV
A stu d y o f th e f a c t s idiich th e s e two s u b - t e s t s
c o v ered showed s p e c if ic p o i n ts i n which th e home econom ics women were
s u p e r io r to th e l i b e r a l a r t s women.
I t showed t h a t home econom ics
s tu d e n ts were b e t t e r inform ed by
fo rty -e ig h t per
cent
on
th e p r i n c i p l e s o f
cooking
p r o t e in d is h e s ,
fo rty -e ig h t p er
cent
on
th e p r i n c i p l e s o f
cooking
g reen v e g e ta b le s ,
fo r ty - o n e p e r c e n t on th e meaning o f c e r t a i n te rm s, such a s
s a u te in g ,
e ig h te e n p e r c e n t on th e s te p s o f p ro c e d u re to fo llo w in p r e ­
p a r in g a luncheon o f
fo u r
The above f a c t s
tend
d is h e s .
to
su g g e st t h a t home econom ics s tu d e n ts
have a s c i e n t i f i c knowledge o f fo o d s.
Thus, i t would seem t h a t home
econom ics s tu d e n ts r e c e iv e p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g which should p ro v e ex­
tr e m e ly v a lu a b le in homemaking, and w hich most l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts
do n o t re c e iv e .
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29
On some food p r i n c i p l e s "both, l i t e r a l a r t s and home econom ics
g i r l s had l i t t l e
in fo rm a tio n .
These were:
1.
The fo o d s tu f f a c te d on "by th e v a rio u s d ig e s tiv e j u i c e s ,
2.
The le n g th o f tim e re q u ire d f o r cooking v a rio u s c u ts o f m eat,
3.
The p r i n c i p l e s employed i n cooking d i f f e r e n t fo o d s, a s deep
f a t f r y in g , and su g ar cooking.
The fo o d s t e s t c l e a r l y in d ic a te d th a t th e two g roups were n o t
e q u a lly w e ll inform ed on knowledge o f fo o d s.
I t showed th a t i n
te c h n i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c fo o d s work th e home econom ics s tu d e n ts were
s u p e r io r to th o s e in l i b e r a l a r t s .
On some food f a c t s th e two groups
w ere m atched a b o u t e q u a lly , i . e . , i n th e p r e s e r v a tio n o f food and
m eal s e r v ic e .
In a few cookery p r i n c i p l e s b o th g ro u p s were e q u a lly
u n in fo rm ed .
D.
C lo th in g T e s t .
The means, m edians, s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n s , and c r i t i c a l r a t i o s
f o r th e c lo th in g t e s t s c o re s g iv e n to th e l i b e r a l a r t s and home
econom ics s tu d e n ts a re shown in T ab le V.
The d if f e r e n c e betw een th e
means o f home econom ics and l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts in th e ju n io r ,
s e n i o r , and t o t a l groups were r a t h e r marked.
The d if f e r e n c e i n th e
means fa v o re d home economics women from a p p ro x im a te ly seven to t h i r ­
te e n p o in ts i n each o f th e th re e r e s p e c tiv e g ro u p s.
The s e n io r
home econom ics s u b je c ts , a s a gro u p , were b e t t e r inform ed in c l o t h ­
in g problem s th an were th e ju n io r s u b je c ts .
However, a s im ila r
d if f e r e n c e was n o t found between th e s e n io r and ju n io r c o n tr o ls .
T h is would in d ic a te th a t t r a i n i n g in home economics g iv e s s tu d e n ts
th e in fo rm a tio n c a ll e d f o r in th e c lo th in g t e s t , and a lo n g e r p e rio d
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30
o f t r a i n i n g r e s u l t s in more such in fo rm a tio n .
There were no marked
d i f f e r e n c e s betw een mean and median s c o re s o f any o f th e g ro u p s w ith
th e e x c e p tio n o f th e s e n io r l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts .
T h is d if f e r e n c e
betw een th e mean and median sco re was due to a few extrem e s c o re s in
th e group.
However, s in c e , on th e w hole, no la r g e d if f e r e n c e s betw een
th e mean and median s c o re s were fo u n d , th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o s were d e t e r ­
m ined from th e mean s c o re s .
(T able V .)
H ighly r e l i a b l e d if f e r e n c e s
i n mean s c o re s were found betw een th e s e n io r home econom ics and l i b e r a l
a r t s g i r l s (C.E. 3 .4 8 ) and betw een th e t o t a l group o f home econom ics
and l i b e r a l a r t s g i r l s (C.R. 3 .5 4 ) .
A s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e was
found betw een ju n io r l i b e r a l a r t s g i r l s and home econom ics g i r l s a s
shown by th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2 .0 6 .
w h o lly r e l i a b l e .
However, t h i s d if f e r e n c e i s no t
These f in d in g s su g g est t h a t home econom ics s tu d e n ts
have a much g r e a te r fund o f c lo th in g knowledge th an do l i b e r a l a r t s
s tu d e n ts .
TABLE 7
Median S c o re s, Means, S tan d ard D e v ia tio n s and C r i t i c a l
R a tio s f o r th e D iffe re n c e s in th e Means o f th e Home
Economics and L ib e ra l A rts S tu d e n ts on th e C lo th in g T e s t.
Median
Mean
S.D.
C.R.
S e n io rs
Home Economics
L ib e r a l A rts
106.00
96.90
104.68
90.86
8 .7 4
1 2 .3 0
3 .4 8
J u n io r s
Home Economics
L i b e r a l A rts
100.30
89.50
98.86
91.86
9 .3 8
1 4.28
2 .0 6
T o ta l
Home Economics
L i b e r a l A rts
1 00.92
90.50
100.50
90.94
9 .3 4
1 3 .2 6
3 .5 4
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31
T able VI i n d i c a t e s th e fo llo w in g f a c t s re g a rd in g th e f i v e subt e s t s on th e c lo th in g in fo rm a tio n s c a le :
1.
The s e n io r home econom ics s tu d e n ts were s u p e r io r to th e
s e n io r l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts in a l l o f th e s u b - te s ts .
2.
The ju n io r home econom ics s tu d e n ts were s u p e r io r to th e
j u n i o r l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts in a l l th e s u b - te s ts w ith th e e x ce p tio n
o f th e one on th e Care and R ep a ir o f C lo th in g .
3.
The s e n io r home economics s tu d e n ts were s u p e r io r to th e
j u n i o r home econom ics s tu d e n ts in a l l s u b - te s t s w ith th e e x c e p tio n
o f t h a t on C lo th in g C o n stru c tio n .
M l women, w hether th ey have been tr a in e d in home econom ics o r
n o t , have c lo th in g to c a re f o r .
B ecause o f t h i s p r a c t i c a l l y ev ery
g i r l h a s had, i n d i r e c t l y , some t r a i n i n g in th e r e p a i r o f c lo th in g .
T h is may be th e re a so n th a t l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts earn ed a s h ig h
s c o r e s on t h i s t e s t a s d id th e home econom ics g i r l s .
There were s e v e r a l e x p l i c i t f a c t s from d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f th e
t e s t in which home econom ics g i r l s e x c e lle d l i b e r a l a r t s g i r l s .
T hese,
in th e m ain, showed t h a t home econom ics women were b e t t e r by*
t h i r t y - s i x p e r c e n t on th e p r i n c i p l e s o f a l t e r i n g a p a t t e r n ,
tw e n ty -sev e n p e r c e n t on th e a d u l te r a t io n o f woolens and s i l k s ,
tw en ty -o n e p e r c e n t on th e
wisdom o f buying a t b a rg a in s a l e s ,
t h i r t y - s i x p e r c e n t on th e
m echanics o f a sewing m achine,
f o u r te e n p e r c e n t on th e im p o rtan ce o f s e le c tin g a costum e which
d o e s n o t dom inate th e w e a r e r 's p e r s o n a lit y ,
tw en ty -sev e n p e r c e n t on th e k in d o f p a tc h to u s e where la u n d ry
id r e q u ir e d ,
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32
TABLE VI
P e rc e n ta g e s o f C o rre c t Item s on Each o f th e Five P a r ts o f
th e C lo th in g T e s t.
P a rt I
C lo th in g
c o n s tru c ­
tio n
P a rt I I
C lo th in g
c a re
P a rt I I I
C lo th in g
h y g ien e
P a r t IV
C lo th in g
a p p ro p ri­
a te n e s s
P a rt V
C lo th in g
econom ics
S e n io rs
H. E,
L.A.
71
57
78
75
89
78
92
83
75
71
J u n io r s
H.E.
L.A .
74
54
73
76
82
79
88
85
69
63
T o ta l
H.E.
L.A .
73
55
75
76
84
79
89
85
70
66
th ir ty - tw o p e r c e n t on th e p ro p e r w idth o f "belt f o r la r g e and
sm all women,
f o u r te e n p e r c e n t on th e re a so n why l in e n i s more ex p en siv e
th a n c o tto n ,
e ig h te e n p e r c e n t on s u it a b le m a te r ia l to u s e f o r u n d erg arm en ts,
s ix te e n p e r c e n t on th e Im portance o f a h a t b e in g s u ita b le to
th e f ig u r e o f th e w earer.
Most o f th e above ite m s would h e lp any homemaker to be more
s u c c e s s f u l.
C o lle g e g i r l s , who s tu d y th e sc ie n c e o f home econom ics,
a r e b e t t e r inform ed on th e s e p o in ts .
Thus, s tu d e n ts o f home econom ics,
i t would seem, a c q u ir e more p r a c t i c a l in fo rm a tio n on c lo th in g w hich
may be a p p lie d to t h e i r d a ily l i v e s th a n do s tu d e n ts in th e c o lle g e o f
lib e ra l a rts .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
33
The d a t a on socio-econom ic s t a t u s m ight acco u n t in p a r t f o r th e
d i f f e r e n c e s betw een th e groups on some o f th e t e s t s .
I t would seem
t h a t g i r l s who had a h ig h socio-econom ic s t a t u s would do w e ll i n t e s t s
on c lo th in g s e le c tio n and s o c ia l u sag e r e g a r d le s s o f w hether th e y were
i n th e d iv is io n o f home economics o r in th e C o lleg e o f l i b e r a l a r t s .
The c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n betw een th e socio-econom ic s t a t u s and
c lo th in g t e s t s c o re s f o r th e home econom ics s tu d e n ts was - . 5 8 , w h ile
f o r th e l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts i t was - . 7 3 .
(T able V I I .)
TABLE VII
C o e f f ic ie n ts o f C o rre la tio n fo r th e Socio-Econom ics and th e
C lo th in g T e s t S co res Among Home Economics and L ib e r a l A rts G ir ls .
C lo th in g
Socio-E conom ics
Home Economics
- .6 0
L i b e r a l A rts
- .7 5
The c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed by th e method o f ra n k d i f f e r e n c e s .
The l a r g e n e g a tiv e c o r r e l a t i o n in d ic a te s th a t th e r e i s an in v e rs e r e ­
l a t i o n i n th e k in d o f in fo rm a tio n c a lle d f o r i n th e c lo th in g t e s t and
th e p a r t i c u l a r ite m s u s e d in d e te rm in in g th e socio-econom ic s t a t u s .
The l i b e r a l a r t s g i r l s have a h ig h e r n e g a tiv e c o r r e l a t i o n th a n th e
home econom ics g i r l s .
T h is m ight su g g e st t h a t th e t r a i n i n g re c e iv e d
by th e home econom ics g i r l s o f f s e t s in p a r t th e in f lu e n c e s c a u s in g
t h i s in v e rs e r e l a t i o n s h i p .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
34
I n com paring O.S.U. and C lo th in g s c o re s i t was found t h a t :
1.
There was l i t t l e r e l a t i o n betw een O.S.U. t e s t s c o re s and
c lo th in g t e s t s c o re s f o r e i t h e r home econom ics j u n io r s o r s e n io r s .
Some o f th e lo w e st c lo th in g s c o re s were earn ed by in d iv id u a ls who
had th e h ig h e s t O.S.U. s c o re s and v ic e v e rs a .
2.
The r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een O.S.U. and c lo th in g s c o re s f o r b o th
th e c o n tr o l groups was a ls o v ery low .
However, in g e n e r a l, l i b e r a l
a r t s g i r l s o f low in t e l l i g e n c e were low in c lo th in g s c o re s .
T h is
seems to su g g e st t h a t g i r l s o f low in t e l l i g e n c e need a d d itio n a l
g u id a n ce in c lo th in g problem s.
X.
H e a lth .
The r e s u l t s f o r th e two g roups on th e H e alth Knowledge T e st a re
shown in T able V III.
A s n a il d if f e r e n c e was found in th e mean s c o re s
betw een th e t o t a l home econom ics and t o t a l l i b e r a l a r t s g ro u p s.
The
c r i t i c a l r a t i o would in d ic a te t h a t home economics s tu d e n ts have a
s l i g h t l y b e t t e r knowledge o f h e a lt h th a n do l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts .
A c a r e f u l in v e s t i g a t i o n was made o f th e q u e s tio n s most f r e q u e n tly
m issed by each group.
In g e n e r a l, home econom ics g i r l s were s u p e r io r
in h e a l t h problem s which were r e l a t e d to fo o d s.
Home econom ics g i r l s
were tw ic e a s w e ll inform ed on q u e s tio n s which d e a l t w ith v ita m in
d e f ic ie n c y .
Home econom ics s tu d e n ts were alm ost tw ic e a s w ell in ­
form ed a s th e l i b e r a l a r t s g i r l s i n q u e s tio n s which d e a l t w ith d a ily
c a l o r i c re q u ire m e n ts.
H e a lth a t t i t u d e s c o re s f o r l i b e r a l a r t s and home economics s tu ­
d e n ts were compared w ith t h e i r O .S.U. s c o re s .
In g e n e ra l th e s tu d e n ts
who were lo w e st in i n t e l l i g e n c e made low s c o re s i n h e a lt h .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
T h is was
35
t r u e p a r t i c u l a r l y o f th e te n lo w e st c a s e s , h u t a c o rre sp o n d in g r e ­
l a t i o n s h i p was n o t found in th e h ig h s c o re s .
These f in d in g s were
s im ila r f o r b o th home econom ics and l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts .
TABLE V III
Median S c o re s, Means, S tan d ard D e v ia tio n s and C r i t i c a l R a tio
f o r th e D iffe re n c e in th e Means o f th e Home Economics and
L ib e r a l A rts S tu d e n ts in H e a lth .
Median
Mean
S.D.
Home Economics
118.83
118.55
7.8 6
L i b e r a l A rts
117.50
115.77
7 .64
C.R.
1 .5 3
E.
S o c ia l U sage.
The S o c ia l Usage T e s t, m entioned i n C hapter I I I , page 16, was
d e v is e d to m easure L iv in g w ith O th e rs , M eeting P e o p le , A ccep tin g
I n v i t a t i o n s , M ealtim e B eh a v io r, How to Act when I n v it e d O ut, and
B eing a House G uest.
The mean sco re on th e s o c ia l u sag e t e s t was 4 .3 4 p o in ts h ig h e r
f o r th e t o t a l group o f home econom ics s tu d e n ts th a n f o r the t o t a l
g ro u p o f l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts .
(T able IX .)
T h is gave a c r i t i c a l
r a t i o o f .9 7 which in d ic a te d t h a t th e d if f e r e n c e betw een th e s u b je c ts
and c o n tr o ls in s o c ia l u sag e i s n o t h ig h ly s i g n i f i c a n t ;
t h i s would
i n d i c a t e , however, t h a t in e ig h ty th r e e c a se s o u t o f one hundred th e
r e s u l t s would be s im ila r .
T hat i s , th e r e was a ten d en cy in t h i s stu d y
f o r home economics s tu d e n ts to e x c e l t h e i r c o n tr o ls in s o c ia l u sa g e .
In two o f th e s u b - te s t s th e home economics s tu d e n ts were n o tic a b ly
s u p e r io r to th e l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts .
Comes and When I n v it e d Out.
These t e s t s were When M ealtim e
These s u b - te s ts showed t h a t th e home
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
36
econom ics s tu d e n ts compared to l i t e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts were:
f i v e and o n e -h a lf tim es "b etter inform ed on th e s o c i a l l y a c c e p t­
a b le tim e o f a r r i v a l and d e p a r tu re o f a d in n e r g u e s t,
th r e e tim e s a s f a m ilia r w ith th e c o r r e c t th in g to do when one i s
s e rv e d food which he d i s l i k e s ,
th r e e tim es a s f a m ilia r w ith th e p ro ced u re to be u sed by a g e n tle ­
man in s e a tin g a la d y a t d in n e r,
fo u r tim es a s w e ll inform ed on t e a e t i q u e t t e , e s p e c i a ll y on th e
i
c h o ic e o f foods and methods o f s e rv in g fo o d s a t a t e a .
TABLE IX
Median S c o re s, Means, S tan d ard D e v ia tio n s and C r i t i c a l B a tio
f o r th e D iffe re n c e in th e Means o f th e Home Economics and
L ib e r a l A rts S tu d e n ts i n th e S o c ia l Usage T e st.
Home Economics
Median
Mean
S.D.
131.50
126.72
20.04
C.B.
.97
L i b e r a l A rts
122.38
122.50
17.48
C o r r e la tio n s were computed by th e method o f ran k d if f e r e n c e s
betw een s c o re s made on th e O.S.U. t e s t and th o se made on th e s o c ia l
u sag e t e s t .
(T ab le X .)
B oth c o e f f i c i e n t s a re low.
The f a c t t h a t th e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r
th e home econom ics g i r l s i s alm o st tw ice t h a t o f th e l i b e r a l a r t s g i r l s
may be s i g n i f i c a n t .
I t m ight te n d to in d ic a te t h a t g i r l s in home econ­
om ics who a r e ab o u t e q u al in i n t e l l i g e n c e , when g iv e n th e o p p o rtu n ity
to l e a r n s o c ia l u s a g e , b e n e f i t g r e a t l y from t h i s form al i n s t r u c t i o n .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
37
TABLE X
C o e f f ic ie n ts o f C o r r e la tio n f o r th e O.S.U. and th e S o c ia l
Usage T est S cores Among Home Economics and L ib e r a l A rts G ir ls .
S o c ia l Usage
In te llig e n c e
Home Economics
.5 2
L i b e r a l A rts
.29
G.
M innesota P e r s o n a lity S c a le.
The d if f e r e n c e s i n th e mean s c o re s betw een th e home econom ics and
l i b e r a l a r t s women on th e M innesota P e r s o n a lity S cale a re s l i g h t .
Of
th e f i v e p a r t s o f th e s c a le , th e l a r g e s t d if f e r e n c e s i n th e mean s c o re s
betw een th e home econom ics and th e l i b e r a l a r t s g ro u p s were found in
M orale and B n o tio n a lity .
(T able X I .)
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o f o r th e
d if f e r e n c e i n th e mean s c o re s f o r M orale, w hile o n ly 1 .2 0 , i s s l i g h t l y
s ig n ific a n t.
I t s u g g e s ts t h a t th e home econom ics g i r l s have a some­
what more n a iv e and u n c r i t i c a l a c c e p tan c e o f s o c ie ty a s th e b e s t o f
a l l p o s s ib le w o rld s.
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 1 .5 6 f o r E m o tio n a lity
a l s o i s s i g n i f i c a n t , though n o t id io lly r e l i a b l e .
I t seems to in d ic a te
t h a t th e group o f home econom ics g i r l s stu d ie d were a l i t t l e more
B ta b le and s e lf - p o s s e s s e d th a n was th e group o f l i b e r a l a r t s g i r l s .
I t was p o in te d o u t i n C hapter I I I th a t p e o p le w ith a p r a c t i c a l tu r n
o f mind m ight be th e more s ta b le in d iv id u a ls .
Hence, i f home econom ics
p e o p le a re p r a c t i c a l , th e y should have more em otional s t a b i l i t y a s in ­
d ic a t e d by th e above d a ta .
In S o c ia l A djustm ent and Fam ily R e la tio n s
th e d i f f e r e n c e s betw een th e two groups were n e g l i g i b l e .
The c r i t i c a l
r a t i o , .8 8 , fo r Economic C onservatism , a ls o i s low , b u t i t may su g g est
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38
TABLE XI
M edians, Means, S tan d ard D e v ia tio n s and C r i t i c a l B a tio s f o r
th e D if f e r e n c e s in th e Means o f th e Home Economics and L ib e r a l
A rts S tu d e n ts on th e F ive P a r t s o f th e M innesota P e r s o n a lity
S c a le .
.
Home Economics
L ib e ra l A rts
C.E.
I . M orale
Median
Mean
S.D.
174.17
173.16
1 2 .2 2
1 73.50
170.33
1 4 .7 2
1 .2 0
I I . S o c ia l A d ju st.
Median
Mean
S.D.
202.50
197.77
26.45
195.35
198.05
24.40
.46
I I I .F a m i l y R e la tio n s
Median
Mean
S.D.
149.50
143.72
24.64
151.00
146.11
1 9 .4 6
.45
IV. E m o tio n a lity
Median
Mean
S.D.
171.75
171.33
18.93
164.50
164.25
20.17
1 .5 6
V. Economic Con­
s e rv a tis m
Median
Mean
S.D.
93.30
92.11
10.08
94.50
94.50
12.76
.88
some d if f e r e n c e s in th e tw o g ro u p s.
The h ig h e r mean sco re f o r th e
l i b e r a l .a r ts g i r l s seems to be somewhat in d ic a tiv e o f c o n se rv a tism
tow ard economic p o l i c i e s , id iile th e home econom ics mean sco re seemed
to be i n d ic a tiv e o f a more l i b e r a l o r r a d i c a l view on c u r r e n t economic
o r i n d u s t r i a l p ro b lem s.
Thus, w h ile none o f th e d if f e r e n c e s f o r th e
two g ro u p s on th e p e r s o n a lit y s c a le a r e marked, th e r e s u l t s seem to be
c o n s is te n t.
They te n d to su g g est th a t a s a group th e home econom ics
g i r l s h a d , p e rh a p s, a more l i b e r a l view p o in t th a n d id t h e i r c o n tr o ls .
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39
H.
R a tin g S c a le s .
The r a t i n g s c a le th a t was u sed f o r t h i s stu d y was a m o d ified form
o f th e M innesota R a tin g S cale f o r P e rs o n a l Q u a litie s and A b i l i t i e s (2 5 ).
Each o f th e te n p o in ts s e le c te d was p u t on a f iv e p o in t g ra p h ic s c a le .
The p e rs o n s who r a te d th e home econom ics and l i b e r a l a r t s g i r l s sco red
them from one to f iv e a c c o rd in g to th e d eg ree o f th e t r a i t which th e
g i r l p o ssessed .
One in d ic a te d a s u p e r io r and f iv e an i n f e r i o r d eg ree
o f th e t r a i t m easured.
In com paring th e r a t i n g s f o r th e same t r a i t
f o r two in d iv id u a ls , th e n , a p o s i t i v e d if f e r e n c e o f one p o in t would
s u g g e s t t h a t th e one in d iv id u a l was s u p e r io r to th e o th e r in t h a t t r a i t .
S in c e o n ly th re e r a t i n g s were sec u re d f o r each g i r l , th e r e s u l t s are
n o t a s r e l i a b l e a s i f th e r e had been a t l e a s t f i v e , b u t th ey may su g g est
p e r s o n a l i t y tre n d s .
The av erag e o f th e th re e r a t i n g s was found f o r each t r a i t f o r th e
j u n i o r and s e n io r su b-gro u p s and a ls o f o r the t o t a l s o f th e home
econom ics and o f th e l i b e r a l a r t s g ro u p s.
(T able X I I .)
On th e w hole,
th e d i f f e r e n c e s in th e a v erag e s betw een th e home econom ics and l i b e r a l
a r t s g i r l s were sm a ll.
A f a i r l y la r g e d if f e r e n c e in av erag e s c o re s
was found betw een th e s e n io r home econom ics and l i b e r a l a r t s g ro u p s
in le a d e r s h ip .
The home economics av erag e was alm ost one p o in t above
th e l i b e r a l a r t s a v erag e on t h i s t r a i t .
(T able X I I .)
Due to th e
sm all sam pling o f c a s e s , t h i s d if f e r e n c e i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .
In a d d itio n to th e r a t i n g s by th r e e p e rso n s who knew th e
s u b je c t, each g i r l was ask ed to make a s e l f - r a t i n g on a l l o f
th e t r a i t s .
The home economics s e n io r s u n d e re stim a te d t h e i r
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40
TABLE X II
A verages o f th e Combined. E a tin g s o f Three P e rso n s and A verages
o f S e lf- E a tin g s on th e Ten T r a i t s f o r th e E a tin g s f o r Home Econ­
om ics and L ib e r a l A rts S tu d e n ts
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
8
9
10
A verages
S e n io rs
H .E .- 3 r a t e r s
2.36
2 .5 4 2.1 1 2 .1 ? 2.20 2 .2 8 2 .56 2.31 2 .1 9 2 .6 0
H .E .- s e l f - r a t i n g
2 .3 2
2.36 2.1 4 1 .8 2 2.27 2.0 5 1 .9 5 2.36 2 .6 6 2.05
L .A .- 3 r a t e r s
2.15
2 .0 2 1 .6 1 2.0 4 1.7 5 2.46 1 .5 9 2.05 2 .2 5 2.37
L . A. - s e l f - r a t i n g
2 .0 ?
2.16 1 .6 9 1 .7 7 2.33 1 .9 5 2.95 2.7 3 2 .5 0 2.41
H .E .- 3 r a t e r s
2 .3 2
2.51 2 .2 9 2 .1 0 2.54 2.1 4 2 .8 0 2.37 2 .2 4 2.77
H .E . - s e l f - r a t i n g
2.49
2.3 0 2.1 8 1 .9 4 2.6 2 2 .2 2 3 .0 9 2.7 9 2 .4 4 2.57
L .A .- 3 r a t e r s
2.08
2.06 2 .0 7 1 .9 8 2.26 1 .9 9 2.48 2.0 3 2 .1 8 2.4 0
L .A .- s e l f - r a t i n g
2.15
2.3 0 2.31 2 .3 0 2.47 2 .3 0 2.98 2 .4 3 2 .6 2 2.49
H .E .- 3 r a t e r s
2 .3 4
2 .5 3 2 .2 0 2 .1 4 2.37 2.21 2.68 2.3 4 2 .2 2 2.69
H .E . - s e l f - r a t i n g
2.41
2.3 3 2 .1 6 1 .8 8 2.45 2.14 2 .5 2 2.58 2 .5 5 2.31
L .A .- 3 r a t e r s
2.12
2.0 4 1 .8 4 2.01 2.01 2 .2 3 2 .0 4 2.04 2 .2 2 2.39
L . A. - s e l f - r a t i n g
2.11
2.2 3 2 .0 0 2.0 4 2.35 2 .1 3 2.97 2 .5 8 2.5 1 2.45
J u n io r s
T o ta l
1.
Independence
6.
T act and C ourtesy
2.
A d a p ta b ility
7.
L e a d ersh ip
3.
E e s p o n s ib ility
8.
Voice
4.
C o operation
9.
P e rs o n a l A ppearance
5.
P o is e
10.
B re ad th o f C o n tacts
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41
a b i l i t y in le a d e r s h ip .
T h is was shown by a d if f e r e n c e o f .61 p o in ts
betw een th e a v erag e o f th e s e l f - r a t i n g s and th e av erag e o f th e th r e e
r a t i n g s f o r th e e n t i r e group on le a d e r s h ip .
Through home econom ics
e d u c a tio n g i r l s may have developed an a b i l i t y in le a d e r s h ip o f which
th e y a re n o t aw are.
C o d ell (6) found t h a t u n i v e r s i t y s tu d e n ts who had
s tu d ie d home econom ics in h ig h school r a te d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h ig h e r in
c o o p e ra tio n and le a d e r s h ip th a n d id a group who had n o t had such t r a i n ­
in g .
The d if f e r e n c e s in mean s c o r e s , in a d a p t a b i l i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
te n d e d a ls o to su g g e st t h a t home economics s tu d e n ts were s l i g h t l y
s u p e r io r i n th e s e t r a i t s .
s c o r e s were n e g l i g i b l e .
On a l l o th e r t r a i t s th e d if f e r e n c e s in mean
O ther s tu d ie s in t h i s f i e l d have found home
econom ics s tu d e n ts s u p e r io r i n c e r t a i n t r a i t s .
T u l l y 's (44) stu d y
in d ic a te d th a t home econom ics t r a i n i n g developed in g i r l s a f i n e r
s p i r i t o f c o o p e ra tio n a t home.
Hearn (17) found t h a t home econom ics
g i r l s made h ig h s c o re s i n p e rs o n a l ap p earan ce and t r a i t s t h a t d e a l t
w ith s o c ia l q u a l i t i e s .
No d if f e r e n c e was found in th e mean s c o re s
f o r p e rs o n a l ap p earan ce f o r th e home economics and l i b e r a l a r t s g i r l s
in t h i s stu d y .
(T able X I I I .)
I t w il l be r e c a l l e d t h a t th e s o c io ­
economic s t a t u s f o r th e home econom ics women was low er th a n t h a t f o r
th e l i b e r a l a r t s women.
(T able V I.)
T h is m ight su g g est t h a t home
econom ics s tu d e n ts spend t h e i r money more w ise ly on p e rs o n a l grooming
th a n do l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts .
S ince th e socio-econom ic l e v e l f o r
home econom ics s tu d e n ts was low er th an th a t f o r th e l i b e r a l a r t s g i r l s ,
i t may be th a t th e developm ent o f t h e i r d e s ir a b le p e r s o n a lit y t r a i t s
d id n o t depend on socio-econom ic s t a t u s .
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42
TABLE X III
Mean P e rc e n ta g e in Times t h a t S e lf-R a tin g S co res o f Home
Economics S tu d e n ts and L i t e r a l A rts S tu d e n ts i n th e Ten
T r a i t s o f th e R a tin g S cale were O v e r-ra te d , U n d e r-ra te d
o r Same a s th e Average R a tin g s o f O th e rs.
O v e r-ra te d
U n d e r-ra te d
Same a s
S e n io rs
Home Economics
L i t e r a l A rts
30.00
1 8 .5 0
1 8 .2 0
23.40
51.80
58.10
J u n io r s
Home Economics
L i t e r a l A rts
22.80
1 7 .2 0
26.00
35.60
51.20
4 7 .2 0
T o ta l
Home Economics
L i t e r a l A rts
26.40
17.90
22.10
29.50
51.50
52.70
T ahle X III seems to in d ic a te t h a t home econom ics s tu d e n ts te n d ed ,
on th e w hole, to o v e r - r a te th em selv es and l i t e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts to
u n d e r - r a t e th em selv es a s compared w ith th e av erag e o f th e th r e e r a t e r s .
The home econom ics s e n io r s o v e r - r a te d th em selv es m ost, id iile th e
l i t e r a l a r t s j u n io r s u n d e r - r a te d th em selv es m ost.
The r e s u l t s from t h i s r a t i n g s c a le survey a re n o t c o n c lu s iv e .
r a t i n g s c a le can t e u sed o n ly to show tr e n d s .
A
Sweetman (39) s a id t h a t
in th e u s e o f r a t i n g s c a le s th e re would alw ays t e a c e r t a i n amount o f
e r r o r te c a u s e o f th e human elem ent in v o lv e d .
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43
W hile n o t a l l t e s t s and d e v ic e s u se d in com paring th e groups
showed s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e s , on th e w hole, th e y d id te n d to d i f f e r ­
e n t i a t e th e groups i n many r e s p e c ts .
T h is was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f
th e fo o d s and c lo th in g t e s t s , and o f some s u b - t e s t s i n th e s o c ia l u sag e,
th e h e a l t h a t t i t u d e s , and th e p e r s o n a l i t y s c a le s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER 5 .
Summary and C o n clu sio n s.
P e r s o n a lity a s a stu d y d a te s back to P la to .
B ut l i t t l e more was
known a b o u t p e r s o n a l i t y and i t s developm ent, th a n t h a t some in d iv id u a ls
were more i n t e r e s t i n g th a n o th e r s .
I t was n o t u n t i l a f t e r th e World
War i n 1918 t h a t e d u c a to rs a tte m p ted to approach th e stu d y o f p e rso n ­
a l i t y from a s c i e n t i f i c s ta n d p o in t.
Home econom ics, a s a p a r t o f th e e d u c a tiv e p r o c e s s , was o rg a n iz e d
o r i g i n a l l y to d ev elo p s k i l l s .
Through decades o f p ro g r e s s in home
econom ics e d u c a tio n i t s aim s have changed.
U sing th e G e s ta lt ap p ro ach ,
home econom ists have b u i l t a program w ith a view to s e e in g th e g i r l in
h e r t o t a l s u rro u n d in g s .
The aim was d ir e c te d tow ard h e lp in g th e g i r l
become a more c o n s tr u c tiv e member o f th e home i n a v a r ie t y o f ways.
T hat i s , a g i r l should want to l e a r n how to d ev elo p t r a i t s th a t would
make h e r more p le a s in g and to e lim in a te t r a i t s t h a t would make h e r an
u n d e s ir a b le in d iv id u a l.
T h is new approach to home econom ics came a t
a b o u t th e tim e t h a t p e r s o n a lit y was b e in g s tu d ie d a s a s c ie n c e .
A
su rv ey o f home econom ics l i t e r a t u r e showed t h a t p e r s o n a li t y d e v elo p ­
ment i n home econom ics began ab o u t 1926.
Since th e n much r e s e a r c h h a s
b e en done to d is c o v e r which p e r s o n a lit y t r a i t s a re m ost d e s ir a b le i n
home econom ics s tu d e n ts and how th e s e d e s ir a b le t r a i t s can be d eveloped
m ost e f f e c t i v e l y .
To th e w r i t e r 's knowledge no stu d y h as been made to
d e te rm in e d if f e r e n c e s i n in fo rm a tio n , i n c l i n a t i o n s , and p e r s o n a l i t i e s
betw een home econom ics s tu d e n ts and a l e s s s p e c ia liz e d group.
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T h is
45
s tu d y was u n d e rta k e n to d eterm in e w hether th e r e were such d if f e r e n c e s
betw een home econom ics and l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts .
T e s ts were s e le c te d
w hich, i t was hoped, would show any d if f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n g betw een th e
two g roups o f s tu d e n ts .
These t e s t s were a d m in is te re d to a l l advanced
s tu d e n t s r e g i s t e r e d in th e d i v is io n o f home econom ies and to a m atched
group o f l i b e r a l a r t s and e d u c a tio n s tu d e n ts o f th e U n iv e rs ity o f Wyoming.
The mean s c o re s o f th e O.S.U. t e s t in d ic a te d t h a t th e two groups
were n e a r ly e q u al in i n t e l l i g e n c e , b u t th e l i b e r a l a r t s g i r l s e x c e lle d
s lig h tly .
The c o n tr o l group was somewhat h ig h e r in socb-econom ic s t a t u s .
These f a c t s may a cco u n t f o r some o f th e d if f e r e n c e s on th e t e s t s .
How­
e v e r , th e fo llo w in g c o n c lu s io n s seem j u s t i f i a b l e :
1.
H ighly r e l i a b l e d if f e r e n c e s betw een th e home econom ics and
l i b e r a l a r t s g ro u p s were found on knowledge o f fo o d s.
In
p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f th e s u b - d iv is io n s o f t h i s t e s t , th e home
economics women earned h ig h e r s c o re s .
(1) D i s t i n c t and c l e a r - c u t d if f e r e n c e s betw een th e two groups
were found on b o th s u b - t e s t s r e l a t i n g to fo o d s p r e p a r a tio n .
The home econom ics women were f a r more f a m i lia r w ith th e
p r e p a r a tio n o f fo o d s.
(2) The home economics s tu d e n ts showed v a s t l y s u p e r io r a b i l i t y
in th e p a r t s o f th e s c a le which had to do w ith m eal s e le c ­
t i o n , econom ics, s a n i t a t i o n and d ig e s t io n o f fo o d s, and
f u e ls and cooking.
(3) L ess marked d if f e r e n c e s fa v o rin g th e home econom ics g i r l s
were found on th e s u b - t e s t t r e a t i n g th e source and composi­
ti o n o f fo o d s.
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46
(4) On m eal s e r v ic e and. food p r e s e r v a tio n th e home econom ics
and l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts were about e q u a lly w ell inform ed.
(5) The home econom ics s e n io r s e x c e lle d th e home econom ics
j u n io r s in a l l foods f a c t s except meal s e le c tio n on which
b o th groups were p r a c t i c a l l y e q u a l.
T h is f a c t would seem
to in d ic a te t h a t home economics t r a i n i n g i s p ro v in g h e l p f u l .
2.
H ighly r e l i a b l e d if f e r e n c e s betw een th e home economics s tu d e n ts
and t h e i r c o n tr o ls were found in a knowledge o f c lo th in g and
r e l a t e d problem s.
(1) D i s t i n c t and c l e a r - c u t d if f e r e n c e s were shown in a know­
le d g e o f c lo th in g c o n s tr u c tio n .
On t h i s s u b - te s t th e home
econom ics ju n io r s e x c e lle d s l i g h t l y th e home econom ics s e n io r s .
(2 ) The home econom ics s tu d e n ts had f a r g r e a te r in fo rm a tio n on
c e r t a i n c lo th in g p ro b lem s, e . g . , th e h y g ie n e, th e a p p r o p r ia te ­
n e s s and th e econom ics o f c lo th in g .
In a l l th e s e r e s p e c ts
th e home econom ics s e n io r s e x c e lle d th e home econom ics
ju n io rs .
(3) The home econom ics s tu d e n ts and t h e i r c o n tr o ls had about
e q u al knowledge on th e c are and r e p a i r o f c lo th in g .
3.
Home econom ics s tu d e n ts were b e t t e r inform ed th a n th e c o n tr o l
group on h e a lth f a c t s a s th e y a re r e l a t e d to fo o d s.
4.
Home econom ics g i r l s were found to be c o n s id e ra b ly s u p e r io r i n
t e a e t i q u e t t e , e s p e c ia ll y in th e ways to serv e and what foods
to serv e a t t e a s .
5.
Some r a t h e r c l e a r - c u t d if f e r e n c e s were shown on th e r e s u l t s
o f th e p e r s o n a lit y s c a le .
(1) The home economics s tu d e n ts were a l i t t l e more s ta b l e
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47
e m o tio n a lly th an were t h e i r c o n tr o ls .
(2 ) I n m orale th e home econom ics women in d ic a te d th a t th ey
were s l i g h t l y l e s s c r i t i c a l o f s o c ie ty , and a c c e p te d i t
more n a iv e ly th an d id the l i b e r a l a r t s s tu d e n ts .
(3) On c u r r e n t economic and i n d u s t r i a l p ro b lem s, th e r e s u l t s
in d ic a te d th e home econom ics s tu d e n ts were somewhat l i b e r a l
o r r a d i c a l in p o in t o f view , w h ile t h e i r c o n tr o ls were
more c o n s e rv a tiv e .
6.
I n a l l b u t one o f th e te n t r a i t s m easured on th e r a t i n g s c a le
th e home econom ics s tu d e n ts were r a te d h ig h e r by th e th r e e
r a t e r s th a n were th e l i b e r a l a r t s g i r l s .
(1) In q u a l i t i e s o f le a d e r s h ip th e home economics s tu d e n ts
were s u p e r io r.
The same group a ls o was a v ery l i t t l e
s u p e r io r i n a d a p t a b i l i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
( 2 ) On c o o p e ra tio n , t a c t , and c o u rte sy th e d if f e r e n c e s were so
s l i g h t a s to be n e g li g ib le .
(3) There was no d if f e r e n c e i n th e r a t i n g o f th e two g roups
in p e rs o n a l a p p ea ra n ce .
I t must be o bserved t h a t i n a l l th e s e m easures th e sample o f c a s e s
i s to o sm all to in s u re a p p lic a tio n to home econom ics s tu d e n ts i n g e n e r a l.
T hree r a t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c lu s io n s b ro u g h t o u t by th e stu d y a r e :
1.
I n t h e i r home economics c la s s e s th e s e g i r l s le a rn e d s c i e n t i f i c
s u b je c t m a tte r t h a t should make them more ad eq u ate i n homemaking.
2.
T h e ir home econom ics t r a i n i n g seemed to be o f f e r in g th e g i r l s
o p p o r tu n itie s to develop a g r e a t e r sen se o f s o c ia l p o is e which
would e n a b le them to d e v elo p more wholesome p e r s o n a l i t i e s .
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48
3.
The home econom ics s tu d e n ts gave ev id en ce o f few er i n c l i n a ­
tio n s i n c e r t a i n homemaking s u b je c ts th an was th o u g h t would
be found.
P erh ap s th e se i n c l i n a t i o n s do e x i s t b u t a stu d y
such a s t h i s d id n o t d e t e c t them.
Symonds (40) say s t h a t p e r­
s o n a lity i s too complex and to o e lu s iv e to be c a p tu re d and
c o n fin e d to th e l i m i t s o f a s in g le p a p er t e s t o r any group
o f t e s t s th a t can be d e v is e d .
I f Symonds c o n c lu sio n i s
c o r r e c t i t may acco u n t in p a r t f o r th e ab sen ce o f some
r e s u l t s th a t were ex p ected in t h i s stu d y .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.
B eckw ith, G race Rea. A Study o f H e a lth T eaching in Home Econom ics.
U npublished M a s te r’ s T h e s is , Ohio S ta te U n iv e r s ity , 1938.
2.
Beeman, Mary. A B r ie f Study o f th e I n t e r e s t s o f High School G ir ls
in Home A c t i v i t i e s . J o u rn a l o f Home Econom ics, 1929, 21, 900904.
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B u ro s, O scar K rise n . The N in e tee n F o rty M ental M easurem ents Year­
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The N in e tee n F o rty M ental M easurem ents Year­
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E n g le , Edna. How I n t e l l i g e n t i s th e G ir l Who E l e c ts Home Econm ic s? J o u rn a l o f Home Econom ics, 1926, 21, 171-178.
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U n iv e r s ity o f Wyoming P u b lic a tio n s , 1941, 8, 4 :6 1 -6 7 .
31.
P r i e u r , M. H. Some Techniques f o r Prom otion and C oncurrent
E v a lu a tio n o f O b je c tiv e s in Fam ily R e l a tio n s . U npublished
M a s te r's T h e s is , Ohio S ta te U n iv e rs ity , 1937.
32.
R o b ertso n , A rrie E liz a b e th . Does C ollege L ife A ffe c t P e r s o n a l ity ?
U npublished M a s te r's T h e s is , Oklahoma A. and M., 1938.
33.
R o u n tre e, J e n n ie I . Home Economics As an I n t e r p r e t e r o f L i f e .
J o u rn a l o f Home Economics, 1934, 26, 17-19.
34.
S c o tt, D orothy D. H elping P r o s p e c tiv e T eachers o f Home Econ­
om ics in th e Development o f P e r s o n a li ty . J o u rn a l o f Home
Econom ics, 1937, 29, 84-87.
35.
Simpson, Mrs. O ris s a P a r i s . The S c h o la s tic B ehavior o f a
S e le c te d Group o f Freshmen Home Economics S tu d e n ts . Un­
p u b lis h e d M a s te r's T h e s is , Tennessee U n iv e r s ity , 1936.
36.
Sim s, V erner M. Manual o f D ir e c tio n s f o r th e Score Card f o r
Socio-Econom ic S ta tu s . P u b lic School P u b lis h in g Company,
B loom ington, I l l i n o i s , 1927.
37.
S tephenson, M argaret B. and M i l l e t , Ruth L. A T e st on S o c ia l
U sage. McKnight and McKnight, B loom ington, I l l i n o i s , 1935.
38.
S t o t t , L eland H. P e r s o n a lity Development in Farm, Small-Town
and C ity C h ild re n . U n iv e rs ity o f N ebraska, C o lleg e o f
A g r ic u ltu r e , A g r ic u ltu r a l Experim ent S ta tio n , R esearch
B u l l e t i n 114, 1939.
39.
Sweetman, M. D. S c i e n t i f i c Study o f P a l a t a b i l i t y o f Food.
J o u rn a l o f Home Economics, 1931, 23, 161-172.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
52
BIBLIOGRAPHY
40.
Symonds, P. M. Review o f R esearch on B eh av io r and P e r s o n a lity
a t T e a c h e rs 1 C o lle g e . The Advanced School D ig e s t, T e a c h e rs ’
C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , 1938, 3, 3 -6 .
41.
Toops, H e rb e rt A. Ohio S ta te U n iv e rs ity P s y c h o lo g ic a l T e s t .
Ohio S ta te U n iv e rs ity .
4 2.
T r a i l e r , A rth u r 1 . The Use o f R a tin g D ev ices in th e A p p ra is a l
o f P e r s o n a l i t y . E d u c a tio n a l R ecords B u l l e t i n , E d u c a tio n a l
R ecords B u reau , 1938, 23, 3 -4 .
43.
44.
T r u s le r , V. T. and A r n e tt, C. E. H e alth Knowledge T e s t. B ureau
o f E d u c a tio n a l M easurem ents, K ansas S ta te T each ers C o lle g e ,
Em poria, K ansas, 1940.
T u lly , Mary E liz a b e th . C o n trib u tio n s o f Home Economics to th e
P e rs o n a l Development o f H igh School G i r l s .
U npublished
M a s te r's T h e s is , U n iv e rs ity o f C a lif o r n ia , 1934.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE X IY
I n d iv id u a l S co res f o r Each S u b je c t and C o n tro l on P a r t I I and
T o ta l o f O .S.U . and T o ta l o f S o c ia l Usage T e s ts .
Sub­
je c t
No.
S e n io rs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
J u n io r s
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
Sub.
T o ta l
O.S.U.
T e st
Con.
T o ta l
O.S.U.
T est
23
17
43
26
32
38
53
*
37
25
35
64
60
119
52
56
102
53
103
76
100
85
36
24
22
41
25
23
*
37
22
78
32
46
26
20
46
44
49
26
38
34
13
23
30
13
23
84
88
59
65
56
86
83
84
50
75
91
97
73
60
77
88
78
99
88
100
45
68
86
67
86
Sub.
II
O.S.U.
T est
Con.
II
O.S.U.
T e st
21
20
45
17
21
40
22
35
22
42
26
31
29
27
23
23
30
28
38
19
21
34
31
25
25
25
28
28
37
35
37
22
19
27
23
32
Sub.
S.U.
Score
Con.
S.U.
Score
52
61
109
74
84
90
119
102
91
88
76
150
142
144
160
108
116
140
134
150
144
148
108
104
166
114
116
132
126
112
138
118
112
93
67
55
111
57
74
101
95
61
184
77
115
70
68
114
114
124
78
103
97
38
79
89
49
69
90
146
116
114
130
146
108
144
112
114
132
134
148
126
98
134
138
64
132
137
126
102
120
130
102
116
110
86
130
141
140
92
108
122
136
94
120
126
108
138
138
146
130
150
128
146
100
128
134
110
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE XV
In d iv id u a l S co res f o r Each S u b je c t and C o n tro l on Foods,
C lo th in g and H e a lth T e s ts .
Sub­
je c t
No.
S e n io rs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
J u n io r s
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
Sub.
Foods
Score
Con.
Foods
Score
Sub.
C lo th in g
Score
82
86
98
95
88
83
88
91
90
95
87
73
75
85
76
71
65
78
74
84
88
75
100
103
97
118
87
99
106
116
108
110
107
80
98
74
78
66
95
84
87
95
84
93
93
91
87
65
83
87
76
93
90
88
81
81
94
76
66
85
88
80
61
89
69
82
67
83
75
97
82
79
83
82
72
81
67
75
77
59
69
85
58
104
101
101
99
96
105
87
101
100
86
106
111
115
100
92
90
90
77
100
111
107
107
103
99
82
Sub.
H e a lth
Score
Con.
H e a lth
Score
69
95
113
82
95
89
102
87
100
95
73
119
119
125
127
112
116
124
128
118
123
111
97
118
124
111
109
110
118
110
124
126
106
84
92
75
93
80
107
77
85
83
106
79
127
105
102
99
107
93
76
63
102
105
73
79
90
85
120
128
119
106
127
124
119
125
118
102
125
116
118
119
115
108
122
94
131
126
126
105
116
119
116
120
112
110
123
101
118
112
116
108
124
113
124
120
115
119
118
122
117
118
121
131
113
103
124
108
Con.
C lo th in g
Score
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Illinois Food T est
.
RiMisl*ffdri>o ih e
”
TublicSchoolPuMishmqCo.
B lo o m in g to n ,I llin o is
%J j >
^
Revised, 1939
C opyright 1921
b y the
Public School P ub. Co.
P rin te d in U. S. A.
An Information Test on Foods
Prepared by
Test Committee of the Illinois Home Economics Association
Adah H. Hess, formerly Supervisor of Vocational Home Economics Education.
Georgina Lord, Manual Training High School, Peoria.
Mabel Trilling, Carnegie Institute of Technology.
Anna Belle Robinson, (Chairman), University of Illinois.
Name........................................................................................ Date...
Age............................................ Tear in High School.....................
Name of School...................................................................................
City............................................................................................. State.
Teacher.................................................................................................
in what grades have you taken foods or cooking?.......................
The exercises on the following pages are to be done by underlining the statement which
will make a true sentence and the most exact statement. Two illustrative exercises are
given below. A time limit of 35 minutes for the entire test was made in giving the test for
determination of standards.
1. A food rich in fa t is
carrots
peanuts
beets
bread
In this exercise, the word “ peanuts” is underlined because it will make a true sentence
and the most exact statement.
2. Food should De served attractively because it
stimulates the flow of digestive juices
saves time
the teacher advises it
is more sanitary
In this exercise, the statement “ stimulates the flow of digestive juices” is underlined be­
cause it will make a true sentence and the most exact statement.
1
253-8p
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I.
FU N C T IO N A ND COM POSITION
1. A food rich in calcium is
meat
milk
potatoes
2. The body uses protein for
laxative effect
bulk
bread
muscle building
body regulating
3. The body uses starch and sugar for
bulk
muscle building
a meat substitute
4. A food rich in cellulose is
cake
jelly
cabbage
5. A food rich in iron is
cream of wheat
supplying energy
peanut butter
sugar
liver
butter
6. The body uses calcium for
a laxative
supplying energy
bone building
7. A food rich in phosphorus is
tapioca
fish
molasses
a meat substitute
butter
8. A body uses vitamins for
bulk
growth and health
a laxative
supplying energy
9. A food rich in vitamins is
macaroni
sugar
lean meat
leafy vegetables
10. The fibrous material which makes up the framework of fruits and vegetables is called
connective tissue
fibers
cellulose
mineral matter
11. The body uses water for
supplying energy regulating its activities
H.
an appetizer
a source of vitamins
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF FOODS
12. A foodstuff acted upon by the gastric juice is
starch
cellulose
protein
mineral matter
13. A foodstuff acted upon by the saliva is
protein
starch
sugar
cellulose
14. The pancreatic juice acts upon the food in the
stomach
small intestine
mouth
15. Foods to be absorbed must be
solid
in solution
16. The saliva is formed in the
stomach
liver
coagulated
mouth
liver
partially softened
small intestine
17. The most slowly digested of all foodstuffs is
sugar
fat
starch
protein
18. The amount of water an adult should drink daily is approximately
1 or 2 glasses
6 or 8 glasses
3 or 4 glasses
14 or 15 glasses
III.
MEAL SELECTION
19. A calorie is
growth promoting substance
regulating substance
20.
mineral element
unit of measuring heat
Our bodies should get their greatest number of calories from
mineral matter
proteins
fats and carbohydrates
vitamins
2
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
21. I f you brought from home a cheese sandwich and a ham sandwich, a suitable combina­
tion for the rest of your school lunch would be
vegetable soup and baked apple
baked beans and lemon pie
doughtnuts and rice pudding
macaroni and chocolate pudding
22. A food which may be used as a substitute for meat is
beets
cheese
bread
butter
IV.
POOD PREPARATION
23. One should be very careful when adding hot liquid to
eggs
sugar
butter
vegetables
24. In preparing soft custard, you cook until
stiff
starch is gone
it coats the spoon
curds have disappeared
25. In making white sauce, you
melt fat, add flour, then add milk
add butter to hot milk, then add dry flour
mix flour with hot milk, then add butter
combine fat, flour, and milk simultaneously
26. The most satisfactory method of making beef broth is to
sear meat and put in boiling water
put meat into cold water and let it come gradually to boiling point
put into boiling water
steam several hours
27. The object of adding cream of tartar to granulated sugar in the making of cream
candies is to
thicken the mixture
make mixture tart
give a creamy consistency
whiten it
28. The best method of mixing muffins is to combine ingredients and
beat thoroughly a long time
fold in beaten egg whites carefully at the last
let stand 10 minutes before baking
quickly without stirring put the batter into muffin pans
29. The most desirable way of cooking a piece of brisket is to
broil
fry
roast using no water
cook in presence of water
30. Baking powder biscuits should be baked in
a cool oven
hot oven
cool and increased to very hot oven
moderate oven,
31. When eggs are expensive, in recipes calling for more than one egg as leavener, one may
omit eggs entirely
substitute 1 teaspoon of soda for one egg
substitute y2 teaspoon baking powder for one egg
substitute y2 teaspoon of cream of tartar and y2 teaspoon of cornstarch
32. The element partially destroyed in cooking vegetables is
minerals
cellulose
vitamin C
vitamin A
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
33. A desirable ice cream should be
fine grained, good flavor, melt slowly
fine grained, good flavor, retain its shape indefinitely
coarse grained, good flavor, melt slowly
fine grained, good flavor, melt very rapidly
34. A five pound rib roast of beef medium rare requires approximately
1 hour
3 hours
2 hours
4 hours
35. A desirable cake should be
of fine texture, good flavor, tender and light
rich, good flavor, waxy and light
moist, crumbly, fine grained
good flavor, porous, rich, yellow
36. A luncheon of hot home-made rolls, omelet, pineapple salad, and hot tea would be
prepared in the following order:
salad, rolls, tea,omelet
omelet, salad,rolls, tea
rolls, salad, omelet, tea
rolls, tea,omelet, salad
37. A breakfast of grapefruit, oatmeal, buttered toast, poached eggs, and coffee would be
prepared in the following order:
grapefruit, coffee, oatmeal, toast, egg
oatmeal, grapefruit, coffee, egg, toast
egg, toast, grapefruit, oatmeal, coffee
toast, oatmeal, egg, coffee, grapefruit
38. Cooking in a small amount of hot fat is
frying
broiling
stewing
sautding
39. When a liquid feels neither hot nor cold when a drop is tried on the wrist, it is
scalding
lukewarm
simmering
boiling
40. The whites of eggs beaten stiff to which a small amount of sugar has been added is
called
omelet
fondant
consomme
meringue
V. PRINCIPLES EMPLOYED IN THE PREPARATION OF
DIFFERENT FOODS
41. A principle employed in the cooking of mild flavored vegetables is
water lost in evaporation is replaced by soaking in water several hours
mineral m atter and flavor are saved by cooking in a small amount of water and
serving with vegetables
vegetables retain their shape by boiling gently in a large amount of water
odor and flavor are improved by changing water twice in cooking
42. A principle employed in the cooking of tender cuts of meat is
mineral matter, extractives and volatile oils are soluble in water
heat and moisture soften and dissolve connective tissue
moderate heat frees fa t from the cell walls which inclose it
a constant low to moderate temperature throughout the cooking prevents excess
shrinkage
43. A principle employed in the cooking of protein dishes is
a high temperature makes protein tender
salt is added to make protein tender
a low temperature does not toughen protein
cooking in the presence of fa t makes protein tender
4
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
44. A principle employed in the baking of leavened mixtures is
starch swells and gelatinizes when heat is applied
dry heat carmelizes sugar
heat kills bacteria and other parasites found in food
gas and air expand when heated and gluten is hardened by heat
45. A principle employed in cooking in deep fa t is
a very high temperature inmires a well done product
a low temperature prevents product becoming grease soaked
a very high temperature decomposes fa t
cooked foods should be fried at a lower temperature
46. A principle employed in the cooking of green vegetables
the color is retained if a small amount of vinegar is added
a pinch of soda is added to prevent destruction of vitamins
the color is retained if cooked in an uncovered pan
salt is added just before serving to prevent destruction of vitamins
47. A principle employed in the cooking of sugar is
acid softens cellulose
alkalies invert sugar
acid inverts sugar
dry heat changes sucrose to glucose
VI.
LEAVENING AGENTS
48. Baking powder consists of
baking soda, a substance having an acid reaction and a starchy material
iron, carbon dioxide and a fa tty material
baking soda, a substance having a neutral reaction and a starchy material
carbohydrates, proteins and fa t
49. The amount of baking powder used depends upon the
kind of flour used
amount of liquid used
amount of flour and eggwhites used
acidity of the liquid
50. The object of all leavening is to
retain mineral m atter
develop flavor
produce some gas th at maybe expanded by heat in a dough or batter
coagulate the protein
51. The amount of soda depends upon the
amount of flour used
number of egg whites used
time required for baking
amount and acidity of the liquid
52. Yeast consists of
little rod shaped cells called bacilli
a mass of microscopic plants
substance called ptomaine
enzymes found in the air
53. Air is used as a leavening agent in
sponge cake
baking powder biscuit
cookies
bread
54. Yeast grows best in bread making when put into
cold liquid
lukewarm liquid
boiling liquid
cold liquid and brought to boil
vn.
FOOD SANITATION
55. A good citizen supports pure food legislation because
it gives him prominence in the community
people can find out the character of the food to be purchased
the people demand it
it is more economical
5
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
56. The Federal Food Laws protect foods sold
in the city
country
state
transported from state to state
57. You would buy wrapped bread instead of unwrapped because
fewer germs are on it
clerk recommends it
package is attractive
it keeps better
58. The chief reason for buying pasteurized milk is because
Pasteur recommended th at it was an advisable thing to do
milk dealers have found th a t pasteurized milk keeps better
pasteurization destroys most harmful bacteria which occur in milk
less money is wasted through spoiled milk
T m . POOD ECONOMICS
59. One would expect to pay less money per pound for
porterhouse steak
round
chuck
neck
60. The percent of the income to be spent for food
is constant for all
varies with the size of the income
should not be considered
should never exceed 10 percent
61. The quality of food to buy should be dependent upon the
intended use
age of the members of the family
season of the year
occupation of the members of the family
62. An inexpensive substitute for meat is
baked potatoes
suet pudding
rice
baked beans
63. A food budget is advisable because
it allows more money for food
it apportions the proper amount to be spent considering one’s income for the
various types of food
it lessens the amount of work
it is recommended by food experts
IX. PRESERVATION AND STORAGE OF FOODS
64. Pasteurized milk is
milk which has been boiled for several minutes
milk coming from tested cows
milk which has been heated to 145° F for a period of 20-30 minutes
milk which has been passed upon by the inspector
65. The best way to prevent waste in foods is to
buy just before using
buy in small amounts
buy from a reliable grocer
provide suitable storage
66. Jelly does not spoil easily because
covering glasses with paraffin sterilizes it
bacteria will not grow in acid
a large amount of sugar acts as a preservative
it is boiled in the making
67. The proper conditions for keeping perishable fruits in the home are
in a fruit dish in the dining room
in a paper bag in cupboard
in a paper bag in ice box
spread out in a cool dry place
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
68. Meats are kept in the packing house to ripen in
a light place
a warm place
cold storage
69. The proper conditions for storing bread are in
wrapped cloth in a stone jar
paper hag in the cupboard
salt water
ventilated tin box in a cool place
wrapped cloth in a drawer
70. Dried fruits do not spoil easily because
the skin is left on
conditions are sanitary in the drying process
acid is present in the fruit
microorganisms need moisture for growth
X.
MEAL SERVICE AND ETIQUETTE
71. Proper table service is most desirable because
it indicates the amount of money one has
it requires less time to eat
it indicates the social circle to which one belongs
the comfort, cheerfulness, and refinement of the family depends upon it
72. The customary way of placing the silver has been determined
by historical precedent
by convenience and order
arbitrarily
by a few authorities
73. When one has no help and has dinner guests, one should
prepare foods which must be served immediately
serve a four course meal
serve a simple meal easily prepared
spend several days in preparing it
74. After the spoon is used
it should be left in the coffee cup
on the dinner plate
on the saucer
the handle should rest on the table cloth
75. After the knife is used
it should be placed on the plate
the handle should rest on the table cloth
it should be placed by the side of the plate
it should be placed on the salad plate
XI.
76. A fuel saver is
a coal range
FUELS AND COOKING APPARATUS
a gas stove
a pressure cooker
a thermos bottle
77. A suitable utensil for both cooking and serving is
double boiler
platter
casserole
tureen
78. The cleanest fuel to use is
kerosene
wood
electricity
gas
79. The utensil in which a temperature higher than that of boiling water is obtained is
called
flreless cooker
double boiler
steamer
pressure cooker
XU.
80. In measuring flour, one should
scoop flour from bin with cup
shake down in cup
HOUSEWIFERY
measure before sifting
measure after sifting
81. I t is advisable to use “ labor saving devices” if
one has no help
storage space is sufficient
one has plenty of money
they save time and energy
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
82. In cooking it is convenient to know that one cup of butter equals
one-half pound
one-fourth pound
one pound
three-fourths pound
83. Before washing greasy cooking utensils, the most desirable thing to do is
turn the hot water from the faucet on them
wipe them out with a soft piece of paper
scrape them with a knife
sprinkle Dutch Cleanser on them
84. In selecting kitchen utensils, one should
select the cheapest
buy only aluminum
consider the use and wearing quality
select the most expensive
85. In selecting a refrigerator, the most important thing to consider is
the outside finish
the metal of which the shelves are made
the latest conveniences
non-conducting properties of the walls
x m . FOOD ADJUNCTS
86. Condiments are used for
building tissue
a laxative
giving flavor and stimulation
bulk
87. Green tea is
the fermented and dried leaves of a shrub
the dried leaves of a shrub
the bark of a tropical tree
a powdered seed of the fruit of an evergreen tree
88. Coffee is made from
chicory
seed of a berry
tuber
nut
89. The best beverage for girls and boys is
tea
cocoa
coffee
Coca-Cola
XIV. SOURCES OF OUS MORE COMMON FOODS
90. Macaroni is made from
starch
wheat
rye
barley
91. Cereals are made from
leaves
seeds
roots
stems
92. Molasses is obtained from
glucose
cane
com
raisins
93. Chocolate is made from
cocoanut
a vegetable oil
cocoa bean
nuts
94. Porterhouse steak is obtained from the
rump
chuck
flank
loin
95. Most of our coffee comes from
Great Britain
United States
South America
Ceylon
96. The most of the sugar produced in U. S. is made from
cane
beets
com
trees
97. Pork is obtained from
beef
sheep
hog
calf
98. Celatin is obtained from
tissue and bones of animals
apples
cereals
sea weed
99. Mutton is obtained from
lamb
sheep
hog
calf
100. Most of our dried fruits come from
Maine
Wisconsin
California
Texas
8
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Frear-Coxe
Clothing T est
Student's Score >
P a rt
P a rt
P a rt
P a rt
P art
P rinted in U. S. A.
I - ..........................
I I —.......................
I I I ................ ........
IV
....................
V
....................
T o ta l..............................
CLOTHING TEST
FLORENCE D. FREAR
New York State College for Teachers, Albany, N. Y.
and
WARREN W. COXE
New York S tate Education D epartm ent
Name............................................................................................
Year in High School..............................
School................................
Age..
Date....................................
City..............................
Examiner.......
INSTRUCTIONS TO BE READ ALOUD TO THE CLASS: This is a test
to find out how much you know about the construction, selection, and care oi
clothing. There are several parts to the test. Read the directions at the begin­
ning of each part and then answer the questions in the way in which you are
directed. For the first testing you will find two columns in the right hand mar­
gin of every page. Place your answers in the outside column.
You will be given sufficient time to answer all the questions. You will work
most advantageously if you think about each item carefully as you come to it.
When you have finished one part turn the page to the next, read the directions
and begin working without further instructions from the examiner.
647-16p
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
16
23. Careful calculation of amounts of material is a factor in wise
buying because:
1—P art of the planning of the problem is done ahead of time
2—Surplus goods is seldom used in remodeling
3—More money can go into the grade of material
24. Installment buying in clothing is unwise because:
1—Clothing depreciates before paid for
2—Future earnings are mortgaged and emergencies unprovided
for
3—Undue extravagance is fostered
25. Exercising the return privilege in merchandise has economic
bearing because:
1—The consumer ultimately pays
2—I t leads to establishing charge accounts
3—I t leads to over buying through enjoyment of such privileges
PART V,
No. right...
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2
PART I. FUNDAMENTALS OF CLOTHING CONSTRUCTION
DIRECTIONS: Select correct answer and place its number in the
outside column in order that this paper may be used again, as in the
example below.
EXAMPLE:
In cutting a garment the center front should be
on the:
1—Crosswise
2—Lengthwise
3—Bias
1. Sewing machines should be placed so that the light falls:
1—Directly on the plate from the front
2—Over the left shoulder
3—Directly from the back
2. When
1—To
2—To
3—In
stitching, the bulk of the material should b e:
the right
the left
the lap
3. The bobbin-winder on the machine is always found:
1—Toward the right side
2—Toward the left side
3—Near the center
4. The work should be removed from the machine:
1—Back to the left
2—Back to the right
3—Towards the worker
5. The power is transmitted from the large wheel to the small wheel:
1—By the treadle
2—By the belt
3—By the rod connecting treadle and wheel
6. If loops of thread show on the under side of the stitching:
1—Turn the tension to the right
2—Turn the tension to the left
3—Adjust the needle
7. The part of the machine which makes the work move along is
called:
1—The foot
2—The plate
3—The feed
8. The part of the machine which holds the work in place is called
1—The tension
2—The feed
3—The presser foot
9. A perfect stitch requires that:
1—The two threads pull equally
2—The upper thread pulls harder
3—The lower thread pulls harder
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15
15. The most important test in buying cotton materials is:
1—Sizing
2—Weave
3—Balance of warp and woof threads
16. The choice of one color for the season’s wardrobe is an economy
because:
1—Harmony may he achieved at less cost
2—Variety may be brought about by use of shades and tints
3—I t gives individual distinction
17. Woolen materials are expensive because:
1—They are warm
2—The manufacture involves many processes
3—The supply of wool is limited
18. Nine-tenths of all textile fabrics are made of cotton fibre be­
cause cotton
1—Costs less to produce
2—Can be made to imitate the other fibres
3—Has excellent laundering qualities
19. Every girl should have an allowance for clothing and be re­
sponsible for its expenditure because:
1—I t is fairer to her family
2—I t gives her an appreciation of economic values
3—I t checks impulsive spending
20. Too frequent changes in fashion should be discouraged because:
1—They encourage the use of cheap materials
2—Employment is made less steady
3—They increase prices
21. Training in selection of clothing is more important than train­
ing in construction because:
1—The home constructs only part of all the clothing used
2—Construction is less difficult than selection
3—The standard of ready-to-wear clothing is higher than for­
merly
22. The value of clothing courses is best shown when a girl is:
1—Better dressed
2—A more helpful member of her family
3—Has more clothes to wear
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3
10. In setting a needle, which has a flat side, the flat side should be
turned:
1—To the left
2—To the right
3—To the back
11. In turning a comer in stitching you should:
1 —Stop and turn with the needle down in the cloth
2—Stop and turn with the needle raised
3—Stitch around without stopping
12. In placing the feet on the treadle:
1—The right foot should be placed forward of the left
2—The left foot should be placed forward of the right
3—They should be placed evenly
13. The number of stitches to the inch on fine material compared
with coarse should be:
1—The same
2—Greater
I
3—Smaller
14. When winding a bobbin you should:
1—Turn the tension
2—Turn the stop-motion screw
3—Turn the stitch regulator
15. We oil sewing machines chiefly because:
1—They run easier
2—We can sew faster
3—I t decreases the wear on the machinery
Indicate how the following parts of garments should be cut ac­
cording to the thread of the material. P ut number of correct
answer in outside column to the right.
16. A band or belt:
1—Bias
2—Crosswise
3—Lengthwise
17. Binding:
1—Lengthwise
2—Bias
3—Crosswise
18. Sleeves:
1—Lengthwise
2—Crosswise
3—Bias
19. Ruffles (in general):
1—Lengthwise
2—Crosswise
3—Bias
20. For fine handsewing one should use thread numbered:
3—Eighty
2—Fifty
1—Forty
21. For fine handsewing one should use a needle numbered:
3—Six
2—Four
1—Tern
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
14
7. The part of clothing study which will be of highest economic
value in the home is:
1—Systematic care and repair of clothing
2—Construction of simple garments
3—Knowledge of how textiles are made
8. Certain silks crack because:
1—They crease easily
2—They deteriorate with time
3—They are chemically adulterated
9. For good wearing qualities I would select for an afternoon dress:
1—Taffeta
2—Crepe de chine
3—Satin
10. In buying woolens the most important test is for:
1—Sizing
2—Weave
3—Adulteration of fibre
11. Standard fabrics are more economical to buy because:
1—They are always in good taste and can be used longer
2—They are generally guaranteed
3—They can be produced a t less cost than novelties
12. Inexperienced buyers should avoid bargain sales because:
1—Reduced prices are a temptation
2—Knowledge of merchandise values is necessary
3—Wise buying is based on need
13. Rayon is used more than silk at the present time because:
1—An artificial fibre is less expensive than an animal fibre
2—I t is more lustrous
3—I t does not turn yellow
14. Conservative style is the wisest choice in ready-made garments
because:
1—I t is generally becoming
2—I t will last more than a season
3—Extremes in style are not adopted by the best dressed people
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22. For sewing on lace one should use the stitch called:
1—Combination
2—Overhanding
3—Hemming
23. For hand-made tucks one should use the stitch called:
1—Stitching
2—Overhanding
3—Running
24. For finishing a raw seam one should use the stitch called:
1—Overcasting
2—Overhanding
3—Hemming
25. In making a night-gown one should use:
1—French seams 2—Plain seams
3—Felled seams
26. In making a middy-blouse one should use:
1—Plain seams 2—Hemmed fells
3—Stitched fells
27. In making a voile dress one should use:
1—Felled seams 2—French seams
3—Plain seams
28. The best seam-finish for a linen dress is:
1—Binding
2—Overcasting
3—Pinking
29. Buttons should be sewed on:
1—Tightly
2—Loosely
3—The thread should be wound for a shank
30. In working buttonholes:
1—The fan should come where the strain is
2—The bar should come where the strain is
3—Both ends should be equally strong
31. In a strip of true bias
1—The warp threads are longer than the woof threads
2—The woof threads are longer than the warp threads
3—Warp and woof threads are of equal length
32. Which of the following garments should be made by hand!
1—A voile blouse
2—A baby’s dress of batiste
3—A child’s dress of dotted swiss
33. Hemstitching
1—The edges
2—The edges
3—The edges
can
are
are
are
be used when
curving
bias
straight
34. In purchasing a commercial pattern for a one piece dress, th*
most important measure to consider is:
1—The waist measure
2—The bust measure
3—The hip measure
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13
PART V. ECONOMICS OF CLOTHING
DIRECTIONS: Three answers are given to the following state­
ments, none of which is really wrong, but one is most important. In
the outside column place the number of the one which, in your judg­
ment, seems the best answer from the standpoint of economics, as in
the example below.
EXAM PLE: A boy’s khaki shirt should be made on the machine
because:
1—I t saves time
2—I t looks better
3—I t is stronger
1. The first reason for high school girls taking clothing courses
should be:
1—To have clothes to wear
2—For school credits
3—To gain independence in solving clothing problems
2. Home laundering is preferable to commercial laundering because:
1—There are fewer losses
2—I t is cheaper
3—Fabrics last much longer
3. One should spend more money on every-day clothes because:
1—They get more wear
2—-You are seen in them more often
3—You need more changes
4. Linen is more expensive than cotton because:
1—There is less demand for it
2—I t is made from a bast fibre
3—Flax can not be profitably raised for fibre in this country
5. Ready-made garments, in general, should be bought:
1—Through a mail order catalogue
2—In your home town at a reputable store
3—Through a professional shopper
6. The family clothing budget should be based on:
1—Its proportion to total expenditures
2—Individual desires of the members of the family
3—The social status of the family
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5
35. In using a commercial pattern the most important markings to
understand are those:
1—Relating to grain of material
2—Relating to putting seams together
3—Relating to placing of decorative pieces
36. I f a full-length sleeve pattern is too long it should be altered:
1—Between elbow and top
2—A t the top
3—At the bottom
37. I f it is necessary to decrease the girth measurement of a sleeve
p attern:
1—I t should be cut off on the front edge of the pattern
2—I t should be cut off on the back edge of the pattern
3—A fold should be placed down the center
38. If length is to be added to a gored skirt pattern, it should be done:
1—At the top
2—At the bottom
3—Near the hip line
39. If it is necessary to increase the bust measure of a blouse pattern:
1—I t should be cut and spread apart between center front and
sides
2—I t should be added on at the sides
3—Allowance should he made in the center front
40. In calculating the length of a strip for plaiting, one requires:
1—Twice the measurement of the space
2—Three times the measurement of the space
3—Four times the measurement of the space
41. In calculating the length of a strip for a ruffle, one requires:
1—One and one-half times the measurement of the space
2—Twice the measurement of the space
3—Three times the measurement of the space
4& In calculating the amount of yard-wide material for a simple
one-piece dress one should estimate
1—Twice the length from shoulder plus length of sleeve
2—Twice the length from shoulder plus twice the length of
sleeve
3—Three times the length from shoulder plus twice the length
of sleeve
43. The seams in a two-piece skirt should:
1—Slant towards the front
2—Slant towards the hack
3—Be perpendicular to the waist line
44. Pins holding a skirt hem for basting should be:
1—Parallel to the edge
2—At right angles to the edge
3—Slanting
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12
18. Decoration should not be considered apart from the construc­
tion of garments.
19. The intensity of color used in costume is determined by the
amount of space.
20. Vertical decoration near the center of the figure is not good1for
the stout woman.
21. Stout people should adopt tight fitting rather than loose fitting
clothes.
22. Neutralized colors are more becoming than pure colors.
23. Pure white is more becoming to people with sallow complexions
than cream white.
24 A person’s good features need to be considered in successful
dressing as well as the poor features.
(Turn to next part and begin at once without further instructions.)
PART IV,
Right...............minus wrong.
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45. A collar to lie flat around the neck is c u t:
1—The same shape as the neck
2—Slightly curving on the neck line
3—Straight on the neck line
46. Flaring cuffs are cut:
1—Straight on the edge to be attached
2 Curving in on the edge to be attached
3—Curving out on the edge to be attached
47. Collars and cuffs are best put on with
1—Straight binding
2—Bias facing
3—One edge hemmed over the seam
48. The measurement of the top of a plain sleeve should b e:
1—A little smaller than the arm size
2—A little larger than the arm size
3—The same size as the arm size
49. Fullness in sleeves should be distributed:
1 Evenly around the whole arm size
2 Evenly around the upper half of the arm size
3 All forward of the shoulder seam
50. Notches in patterns should be indicated on garments:
1—By cutting
2—By using pencil or chalk
3—By stitches
(Turn to next part and begin at once without further instructions.)
PART I,
No. right.
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11
PART IV. THE SELECTION OF CLOTHING FROM THE STANDPOINT
OF APPROPRIATENESS
D IR EC TIO N S: Below is a list of statements some of which are
true and some false. Place a pins sign ( + ) in the outside column
after the ones you think are true, and a zero sign ( 0 ) after the ones
you think are false. Note the example below.
E X A M PL E : Earrings are more suitable for evening wear than
for other occasions.
1. Cambric is -the most satisfactory material for fine underwear.
2. Crepe de chine is better than satin for a silk graduation dress.
3. Cotton net is preferable to a fine white voile for a June gradua­
tion dress.
4. School is a good place to wear out your old clothes.
5. Long, straight, simply cut sleeves are the best for the short,
stout figure.
6.
The V neck is the best line for the stout figure.
7. Dressing does not fulfill its highest function if it dominates the
personality of the individual.
8.
Crepe has a better texture than satin for the large figure.
9. Large people should choose light colors rather than dark ones.
10. Kimono sleeves are becoming to people with slooping shoulders.
11. Good judgment in the selection of clothing is more important
than technical knowledge.
12. Money is the most im portant factor in good dressing.
13. H ats should be selected with reference to the figure of the wearer.
14. To plan a clinging gown of taffeta is to misunderstand the fabric.
15. A narrow belt makes the waist look larger than a wide belt.
16. The short, stout woman should not select a dress with long panels.
17. F or a cotton school dress dotted Swiss is as satisfactory as
gingham.
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+
PART II. CARE AND REPAIR OP CLOTHING
D IR EC TIO N S: The following questions can be answered by “ yes”
or “ no.” Place your answer in the outside column, as in example
below.
EX A M PLE:
Would you spend as much time in remodeling a
cotton dress as a wool one
1.
Should colored garments be dried in the sun after laundering?
2.
Should silk fabrics be rubbed?
3. Is a warm iron better than a hot one for silk garments?
4. Should clothes be put to soak in cold water rather than hot?
5. Should clothes be mended before they go to the laundry rather
than afterwards?
6.
Does the daily laundering of silk hosiery decrease the wearinglife?
7. Should a woolen sweater, when laundered, be dried on a coat
hanger?
8.
In washing woolens should the rinsing water be hotter than the
first water?
9. Is the kitchen a good place in which to do dry cleaning?
10. Is turpentine a good paint remover?
11. W ill soap and boiling water remove iron rust?
12. W ill gasoline remove ink stains?
13. W ill boiling water remove clear coffee stains?
14. W ill warm water and pure soap remove grease from woolen
garments ?
15. Does frequent pressing prolong the life of garments?
16. Would you use boiling water to remove fru it stains?
17. Is the economic value of the care of one’s clothing equal to the
time spent?
18. Is cleanliness more important than moth preventives when stor­
ing away woolens?
19. Should closet doors always be kept closed ?
20. When not in use should hats be placed flat on the closet shelf?
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10
8.
In general, present day styles are more hygienic than former
styles because:
1 —Construction is more simple
2—The body is less restricted
3 —Silk has replaced cotton extensively
9. W aist linings are put in wool dresses chiefly:
1 —Because wool can not he easily cleansed
2 —To look attractive
3 —To hold the dress in place
10. In the choice of clothing the most im portant question should he:
1 —Is it becoming?
2 —Is it new and up-to-date?
3 —Does it conform to the hygienic requirements of the body?
(Turn to next p a rt and begin a t once w ithout fu rth er instructions.)
PART III,
No. right....
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8
21. Should wet shoes be dried quickly?
22. Has the wearing of several pairs of shoes in rotation an economic
value equal to the expenditure?
23. I n extending the life of shoes, are shoe trees more im portant than
daily polishing?
24. Should gloves be pulled off by the finger tips?
25. Can dust be removed from cotton garments better by shaking
than by brushing?
26. Should coats be hung on hangers unbuttoned?
27. Is a diamond shape better for a stocking dam than a round shape ?
28. Does a hemmed patch launder better than an overhand patch?
29. Is it better to d am a woolen skirt than to patch it?
30. In matching plaids does a hemmed patch show less than an overhandi patch?
31. Does remodeling always pay?
32. Is it wiser to combine two partly worn garments than to buy
p art new material?
33. W hen dyeing a garment a dark shade, is it necessary to remove
grease spots?
34. Do vegetable fibres dye more satisfactorily than animal fibres?
35. Is a small amount of water better to use in steaming velvet than
a full kettle?
36. Should silk umbrellas be kept rolled?
37. Does gasoline cleaning remove wrinkles and creases better than
water?
38. Can egg stains be removed with cold water?
39. Should cotton garments be starched and ironed before storing
away?
40. Should kid gloves be mended with silk thread?
(Turn the booklet over to P art III and begin a t once w ithout
fu rth er instructions.)
PART n ,
R ight.............. .minus wrong.
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9
PART III. CLOTHING PROM THE STANDPOINT OF HYGIENE
D IR EC TIO N S: In the following statements place the number of
the answer you consider correct in the outside column, as in example
below.
EX A M PLE:
The weight of clothing should hang:
the shoulders
the waist
3—The weight divided- between the shoulders and
waist
1 —Prom
2 —Prom
i
1. Sensible dressing requires th at:
1 —Woolens should be worn in winter
2 —Thin clothing should be worn in summer
3 —All clothing should be selected according to the temperature
in which one is
2. Garments worn next to the body, when removed a t night, should
be:
1 —Hung where air will reach them
2 —Hung in the closet
3 —Laid in a drawer
3. W et or damp clothing should be removed a t once because:
1 —I t feels uncomfortable
2 —The garments may get out of shape
3—W et clothing conducts heat from the body quicker than dry
4. Clothing is worn chiefly because:
1 —I t is warm
2 —I t attracts attention to the individual
3—I t helps maintain the body tem perature
5. Materials worn next to the skin should be:
1 —Tightly woven
2 —Porous in weave
3—Made of wool
6.
Cotton is a good material for underwear because:
can be sterilized in laundering
does not soil easily
3—I t is the coolest fibre
1 —I t
2 —I t
7. P u r is warm because:
1 —I t is thick
2 —I t holds a large percentage of air
3—I t is heavy
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A Test on Social Usage
Form A
M a r g a r et B . S t e p h e n s o n and R u t h L . M il l e t t
N am e ......................................................................................................................
(L ast name)
A g e ..........................
(F irst name)
S e x .................................................................
Y e a r in school ........................................................
Hom e address ......................................................................................................
T here a re c ertain fundam entals of social usage w hich w hen
m astered do a g re a t deal to m ake living w ith o thers pleasant— both
fo r them and fo r yourself. T his te s t is concerned w ith th e A. B. C.’s
of courtesy, a knowledge of w hich will help you in m eeting every­
day situ atio n s w ith self-assurance founded on a sincere reg a rd fo r
others.
On th e following pages a re statem ents and questions reg a rd in g
these fundam entals. M ark them according to th e directions im ­
m ediately preceding each group. Do not search fo r an exception,
b u t base your answ er upon w h a t is generally accepted as tru e . Be
su re to answ er every statem ent. A fte r checking the answ ers to
each of th e tw elve divisions, copy th e scores into the p ro p er spaces
on page 16 and add to g et th e to ta l score.
The a u th o rs have also p rep ared a booklet which contains all
th e inform ation necessary to answ er all questions in th is test. The
title of th is booklet is A s O thers L ike You.
T est on Social Usage
There are two, separate, sixteen page tests. The first is Form A. The second
is Form B. I t is recommended th a t they be given, one a t the beginning and
the other a t the end of the school year or on alternate years.
A s O thers L ike Y ou
the Inform ation Book for the Test.
Price 25c single copy, postpaid;
Copyright 1935
by
M c k n ig h t
a
M c k n ig h t
A.U r ig h ts reserved. N o p e r t o f th is book
m a y be reproduced, m a n y fo r m , w ith o u t
perm ission in w r itin g fr o m the publishers.
M cK N lG H T 6* M cK N IG H T, B loom ington, Illinois
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Living with Others
If th e correct answ er to a question is “Yes”, d raw a circle
around the “Y es” . If th e answ er is “ No” , draw a circle
around the “ N o” .
1.
Yes
No
Is it b e tte r to break a rule of etiquette th a n to h u rt
an o th er person’s feelings?
2.
Yes
No
Do perfect m anners m ake up fo r a lack of genuine
in te rest in others?
3.
Yes
No
Is it necessary to w ait fo r a sign of recognition
before in te rru p tin g a busy person?
4.
Yes
No
Should one telephone an o th er d u ring his dinner
hour?
5.
Yes
No
Does criticizing th e behavior of oth ers show th a t
one has had excellent social tra in in g ?
6.
Yes
No
Is it necessary to knock before enterin g a room be­
longing to a m em ber of one’s fam ily?
7.
Yes
No
Does a person have a rig h t to use his room m ate’s
possessions?
8.
Yes
No
If one is a t fau lt, is it best to m ake elaborate ex­
planations ?
9.
Yes
No
Is it preferable to say, “P ardon me” , ra th e r th an
“ Excuse m e” , w hen w alking in fro n t of another?
10.
Yes
No
Does one have the rig h t to ask personal questions
of a very good frien d ?
11.
Yes
No
Is it good ta s te to discuss personal or fam ily affa irs w ith acquaintances?
No. r ig h t
M inus No. w rong
= Score
Meeting People
1.
Yes
No
Should a stu d en t introduce a college chum, “M other,
m eet Alice Jo n es?”
2.
Yes
No
Should one say, “M r. Brown, m ay I p resent Miss
S m ith ?”
3.
Yes
No
W ould it be correct to say, “ Mrs. Sm ith, Miss
B row n,” when introducing tw o women?
2
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4.
Yes
No
Should one say, “Miss F reshm an, m ay I present
M r. S enior?”
5.
Yes
No
Is an introduction correctly acknowledged by “How
do you do?”
6.
Yes
No
M ight one acknowledge an introduction by saying,
“I am pleased to m eet you” ?
7.
Yes
No
In introducing a person to a group is it necessary
to rep eat his nam e each tim e?
8.
Yes
No
W hen being introduced to a woman, m ay a m an
o ffe r his hand?
9
Yes
No
Do men alw ays shake hands when being introduced
to each other?
10.
Yes
No
Is it proper fo r people in th e sam e college class to
speak to each other w ithout having f ir s t been in­
troduced ?
11.
Yes
No
Do men rise fo r all introductions?
12.
Yes
No
Do women ever rise fo r introductions?
13.
Yes
No
M ay one ignore a pro ffered hand?
14.
Yes
No
May a m an keep on his glove when a wom an ex­
ten d s a b are hand?
15.
Yes
No
M ay a wom an shake hands w ithout rem oving h er
rig h t glove?
16.
Yes
No
W hen a m an and wom an a re being introduced on
the street, m ay the m an keep on his h a t?
17.
Yes
No
Is it presum ptuous to introduce oneself to a person
who is nearby a t a social function?
18.
Yes
No
W ould it be all rig h t to say, “ I am glad to have
m et you,” when leaving a newly made acquaintance?
19.
Yes
No
Is it quite all rig h t fo r one to correct an o th er who
has m ispronounced his nam e?
20.
Yes
No
Should the visiting card of a girl of m ore th a n six­
teen have “ M iss” before the nam e?
21.
Yes
No
M ust a m an in college have “ M r.” on his visiting
c ard ?
No. r ig h t........ M inus No. w rong........ — Score........
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Pen in Hand
1.
Yes
No
M ay a business le tte r be w ritte n on personal s ta ­
tionery ?
2.
Yes
No
Is it m ore form al to begin a le tte r w ith “ D ear Mr.
Jo n es” th an “ My d ear Mr. Jo n es” ?
3.
Yes
No
M ay a business le tte r be w ritte n on both sides of
th e p ap er?
4.
Yes
No
Does a wom an sign a le tte r “ Miss R uth S m ith ” ?
5.
Yes
No
May a frien d ly le tte r be ty p ew ritte n ?
6.
Yes
No
May th e date on a note be w ritte n a fte r the sig­
n a tu re ?
7.
Yes
No
May a note of sym pathy be ty p ew ritten ?
8.
Yes
No
Should a bread -an d -b u tter note be w ritte n w ithin
a few days a fte r a visit?
9.
Yes
No
10.
Yes
No
W ould it be correct fo r a m arried wom an to sign
h er nam e to a business lette r
“ E lizabeth Leonard Brooks” ?
(M rs. A rnold J. Brooks)
Is it b e tte r to ty p ew rite business lette rs th an to
w rite them longhand?
No. r ig h t
M inus No. w rong
=
Score........
Accepting with Pleasure
1.
Yes
No
May one ever answ er a form al invitation in fo r­
m ally ?
2.
Yes
No
M ay a hostess give an inform al invitation over the
telephone ?
3.
Yes
No
M ay an invitation to te a o r to lunch be w ritte n on
th e hostess’s v isiting card?
4.
Yes
No
M ust an in vitation to a te a be answ ered?
5.
Yes
No
Is a form al invitation w ritte n in the f ir s t person?
6.
Yes
No
Does a person re fe r to him self by name in answ er­
ing a form al invitation?
7.
Yes
No
Does “A t Hom e” on an invitation indicate form ality ?
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
8.
Yes
No
May one accept a d inner invitation w ith a provi­
sion such as, “ If I can get th ro u g h w ork in tim e” ?
9.
Yes
No
M ust a house guest be included in any invitation
extended th e hostess?
10.
Yes
No
M ust an invitation to a small church w edding be
answ ered ?
11.
Yes
No
M ay an inform al in vitation be ty p ew ritten ?
12.
Yes
No
Is it necessary to answ er a d inner invitation when
the le tte rs R. s. v. p. a re not on the invitatio n ?
13.
Yes
No
Is “The fav o r of an answ er is requested” a cor­
rect a lte rn a tiv e fo r R. s. v. p.?
14.
Yes
No
If th e nam es of several hostesses appear on an in­
vitation, is it necessary to send a reply to each
one?
15.
Yes
No
M ust an invitation to a reception be answ ered when
th e lette rs R. s. v. p. do not ap p ear on th e in v ita ­
tion?
N o. r ig h t
M inus No. ivrong
=
Score........
When Mealtime Comes
1.
Yes
No
Is it custom ary to a rriv e a few m inutes before
th e hour set fo r a dinner p a rty ?
2.
Yes
No
Is it necessary fo r a hostess to w ait m ore th an
tw en ty m inutes fo r a ta rd y guest?
3.
Yes No If a wom an a rriv e s late a t a dinner p a rty , should
th e m en rise?
4.
Yes No Should a m an seat the woman on his rig h t a t the
table ?
5.
Yes No Should a m an and his w ife be seated side by side
a t a d inner p a rty ?
6.
Yes No If a d in n er p a rty is large, need one w ait, a fte r those
n e a r him have been served, before beginning to eat.
7.
Yes
No
W hen a meal is finished, is th e guest of honor the
f ir s t to rise?
5
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
8.
Yes
No
Is th e hostess solely responsible fo r th e conversa­
tion a t th e d inner table?
9.
Yes
No
Is leaning on the table w hile eating now an ac­
cepted practice?
10.
Yes
No
A re such topics as illnesses, operations, and deaths
suitable fo r conversation a t th e table?
11.
Yes
No
Is it b e tte r to tak e food and attem p t to eat it th an
th a n to refuse food w hich is offered?
12.
Yes
No
Does disliking a variety of foods indicate th a t one
is sophisticated?
13.
Yes
No
Should liquid foods be tak en from th e side of the
spoon ?
14.
Yes
No
Should a soup spoon be dipped to w ard th e person
using it?
15.
Yes
No
M ay soup be d ru n k w hen served in a bouillon cup?
16.
Yes
No
M ay a spoon be left in a cup?
17.
Yes
No
W hen both a fo rk and spoon are used in a serving
dish, is the fo rk held in th e rig h t hand?
18.
Yes
No
Should one use th e silver n e arest th e plate fo r the
f ir s t course?
19.
Yes
No
Should fish bones and fre sh f ru it p its be removed
fro m th e m outh w ith the fin g ers?
20.
Yes
No
Should b u tte r be p u t on vegetables w ith a fo rk ?
21.
Yes
No
Is b u tte r served a t form al dinners?
22.
Yes
No
Should jelly be p u t on bread w ith a knife?
23.
Yes
No
May one b u tte r a whole biscuit while it is still hot?
24.
Yes
No
Should an ice served w ith the m ain course of a
dinner be eaten w ith a spoon?
25.
Yes
No
Should food dropped on th e table be le ft th ere ?
26.
Yes
No
May salad ever be cut w ith a knife?
27.
Yes
No
Does a guest leave his napkin folded a t th e side of
his plate a t th e end of a d in n er p a rty ?
28.
Yes
No
Should one w ait fo r the hostess to place h er nap­
kin on the table before placing one’s own on the
table ?
6
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
29.
Yes
No
Should candlelight be used fo r form al dinners?
30.
Yes
No
Is candlelight ever used a t lunch?
31.
Yes
No
Should a hostess m ake apologies fo r poor service
or food?
32.
Yes
No
W hen an accident occurs should one m ake profuse
apologies to th e hostess?
33.
Yes
No
In cu ttin g m eat should the handle of the fo rk press
into th e left hand?
34.
Yes
No
Is it ever perm issible to convey m eat to the m outh
w ith th e fork, prongs down, in the left hand?
35.
Yes
No
If th e re is no spoon in an open salt dish, would it
be perm issible to help oneself w ith a clean knife?
36.
Yes
No
Should one say, “ No th a n k you” , when refusing
food p ro ffered by a serv an t?
37.
Yes
No
M ay a piece of silver dropped to the floor be re ­
tu rn e d to th e table?
38.
Yes
No
Is it necessary fo r a d inner guest to stay m ore
th a n h alf an hour a fte r th e meal is finished?
39.
Yes
No
M ay one use his individual silver to help him self
from a serving plate?
40.
Yes
No
Should th e doily be removed w ith the fin g e r bowl
when the plate beneath is to be used fo r fru it?
N o. r ig h t
M inus No. w rong
= Score...,
Dating
1.
Yes
No
Is it tac tfu l fo r a m an to ask a girl fo r a date by
saying, “A re you going to be busy S atu rd ay n ig h t? ”
2.
Yes
No
W ould it be b e tte r fo r a m an to say “Will you go
to th e T hanksgiving dance w ith me S a tu rd a y
n ig h t? ” th a n “ May I have a date S atu rd ay n ig h t? ”
3.
Yes
No
Is it necessary fo r a girl to explain fu rth e r her
inability to accept an invitation th an to say, “ I ’m
sorry, b u t I already have an engagem ent fo r S at­
urday n ig h t” ?
4.
Yes
No
Should a m an open and close a car door fo r a g irl?
7
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
5.
Yes No Should a girl th an k h er escort for a pleasant eve­
ning?
6.
Yes No If a m an has asked a girl fo r a date some tim e in
advance, does she have a rig h t to expect th a t he
will call her again a day or tw o before the tim e
specified?
7.
Yes No Should a m an take a girl by the elbow except to
assist her w here the footing is dangerous?
8.
Yes No Should a girl introduce the m an whom she is d a t­
ing, to her m other or housem other?
9.
Yes No Is it th o u g h tfu l of a m an to w ait u ntil th e last
m inute to ask a g irl fo r a date so th a t she m ay be
free to accept her m ost in terestin g invitation?
10.
Yes No Does a person have th e rig h t to b reak a date be­
cause of a m ore in terestin g invitation?
11.
Yes No Is a m an responsible fo r a g irl’s being criticized
by o th ers w hen he has taken her to a questionable
place ?
12.
Yes No Should a g irl help a m an w ith his coat w hen he is
ready to leave a fte r having called on h er?
No. r ig h t
M inus No. ivrong
=
Score........
Dancing
1.
Yes
No
If a guest has spoken to the hosts and chaperons
upon a rriv a l a t a dance, is it necessary to do so
again before leaving?
2.
Yes
No
M ust a m an ask fo r a dance w ith the guest of
honor ?
3.
Yes
No
Should a m an leave his p a rtn e r in the middle of
th e dance floor a t the end of a dance so th a t her
next p a rtn e r can fin d h er easily?
4.
Yes
No
W here “cu ttin g in ” is allowed, m ay the p a rtn e r
who is f ir s t dancing w ith a girl cut back on the
m an who took her from him ?
5.
Yes
No
Is -a m an obliged to assum e responsibility fo r all
m ishaps while dancing?
6.
Yes
No
Is it custom ary fo r a m an to claim m ore th a n the
f ir s t and last dances w ith his p a rtn e r?
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
7.
Yes
No
W hen th ere is no one to serve punch should the
g irl serve h er p a rtn e r and herself?
8.
Yes
No
May a g irl refuse to dance w ith one m an and then
im m ediately dance w ith an o th er?
9.
Yes
No
M ay a girl who is dancing refuse to change p a r t­
ners w hen another cuts in?
10.
Yes
No
Is it a m an’s privilege to stop dancing if he does
not wish to fin ish th e dance?
11.
12.
Yes
Yes
No
No
May a g irl atten d a public dance unescorted?
Is it correct fo r a g irl to say, “ I enjoyed it too”,
w hen a m an th an k s h er fo r a dance?
13.
Yes
No
In hot w eath er is it perm issible fo r a m an to re ­
move his coat a t a dance?
14.
Yes
No
W hen a m an is introduced to a girl who has no
p a rtn e r a t th e m om ent, is he expected to ask her
to dance?
No. r ig h t
M inus No. ivrong
— Score........
Invited Out
Yes
No
Should a person a rriv e la te r th an tw enty m inutes
before th e close of a te a or reception?
2.
Yes
No
Should a guest rem ain a t least an hour a t a tea
o r reception?
3.
Yes
No
If no one is near to introduce the guest to th e head
of th e receiving line, should he introduce him self?
4.
Yes
No
Is it all rig h t fo r guests to form a line when w a it­
ing to be served?
5.
Yes
No
Is it presum ptuous fo r a guest to say to the one
pouring, “M ay I have a cup of te a ? ”, if no one has
asked him to be served?
6.
Yes
No
Is it im polite fo r a guest to sta te his preference as
to su g a r o r lemon?
7.
Yes No Should a wom an guest a t an afternoon
move h er h a t?
tea re ­
8.
Yes No Do guests usually help them selves to sandw iches
and o ther foods a t a tea?
9
permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
9. Yes
No
A t a large reception is it necessary to speak to the
hostess upon leaving if she is receiving other
guests ?
10. Yes
No
Need a hostess rise to greet her guests if they a re
m en?
No. r ig h t
M inus No. ivrong
=
Score........
In the Public Eye
1.
Yes
No
A re dem onstrations of affection in public in good
ta ste ?
2.
Yes
No
Is chew ing gum in public indicative of a lack of
good breeding?
3.
Yes
No
If a m an happens to be w alking w ith tw o women,
should he w alk betw een them ?
4.
Yes
No
In going to any public perform ance is p ro m p t­
ness of extrem e im portance?
5.
Yes
No
Do people of good breeding avoid m aking them ­
selves conspicuous in public?
6.
Yes
No
Is it ever good taste to call a girl by only her last
nam e?
7.
Yes
No
May a m an keep a cig arette in his m outh w hen he
lifts his h a t?
8.
Yes
No
Should one o ffe r one’s seat in a stre e t c a r to an
older person who is standing?
9.
Yes
No
Should a m an alig h t fro m a stre e t car f ir s t and
then assist the woman w ith him ?
10.
Yes
No
Should a m an rem ove his h a t in a hotel elevator?
11.
Yes
No
On en terin g a re s ta u ra n t w here th ere is a head
w aiter, does a wom an follow th e m an w ith whom
she is dining?
12.
Yes
No
Should a m an take his h a t and top coat to the
table of a re s ta u ra n t?
13.
Yes
No
Should gloves and purse be placed on th e table?
14.
Yes
No
W hen a meal is served fo r a fixed price, is the
service called a la carte?
10
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
15.
Yes
No
Is it usually less expensive to buy a complete meal
according to the table d’ hote service th a n a la
carte ?
16.
Yes
No
Is it custom ary to leave a tw enty-five per cent tip
fo r th e w a ite r in a re sta u ra n t?
17.
Yes
No
Does a blue plate d inner indicate th a t each dish
is priced separately?
18.
Yes
No
Should gentlem en alw ays rise when a woman leaves
or re tu rn s to th e table?
19.
Yes
No
Should a wom an precede the m an w ith whom she
dined in leaving a re s ta u ra n t?
20.
Yes
No
Should a chaperon’s expenses be paid by the mem­
bers of a group who ask h er to accom pany them
on a trip ?
21.
Yes
No
In hot w eather m ay a m an rem ove his coat while
eating?
22.
Yes
No
23.
Yes
No
W hen a wom an stops to ta lk a t a table, should the
m en stand if they do not know her?
I f th ere is an usher a t the head of the aisle of a
th e a te r, should the wom an precede the m an down
th e aisle?
24.
Yes
No
keep you stan d in g ,” to a m an w hen the tw o of them
a re stan d in g talk in g ?
No. r ig h t
M inus No. ivrong
= Score........
Going’ Places
1.
Yes No Is it im p o rta n t th a t a wom an trav elin g alone be
especially careful not to a ttr a c t a tten tio n to h e r­
self?
2.
Yes No Does the occupant of an upper b erth ride in the
seat facing fo rw ard d u ring th e day tim e?
3.
Yes No Is it necessary to tip a red cap fo r carry in g one’s
bags w ithin a station?
4.
Yes No Should one go from a Pullm an b erth to the dress­
ing room in dressing gown and slippers?
11
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
5.
Yes
No
Should an un m arried wom an w rite “ M iss” before
her nam e w hen signing a hotel reg iste r?
6.
Yes
No
Is it correct fo r a m an to sign his nam e in a hotel
reg iste r “ M r. R ichard S m ith ” ?
7.
Yes
No
Is it custom ary in large cities to tip a tax i d riv er?
8.
Yes
No
If a person desires inform ation upon a rriv a l in a
stra n g e city, m ay the T ravelers Aid rep resen tativ e
in the station be relied upon?
9.
Yes
No
Unless the distance is very short should a m an pay
fo r a w om an’s ticket, even though she is going to
his home to visit?
10.
Yes
No
Is it p roper fo r a woman to ask a m an into her
hotel room ?
11.
Yes
No
Should a wom an go on a m otor trip w ith a m an
if th ere a re to be over-night stops?
12.
Yes
No
In an “A m erican p lan ” hotel a re the m eals and
room priced separately?
13.
Yes
No
In m ost city hotels is th e re a charge on room telephone calls m ade w ithin th e city?
No. r ig h t
M inus No. w rong
= Score
Staying Awhile
1.
Yes
No
Should an in vitation fo r a house guest indicate how
long th e guest is to stay?
2.
Yes
No
Should a young wom an accept an in vitation to visit
in a young m an ’s home unless the in vitation has
been issued by his m other?
3.
Yes
No
M ay a hostess accept an invitation to a social a f ­
fa ir to which h er house guest is not also invited?
4.
Yes
No
Need a guest consult his hostess before accepting
an invitatio n ?
5.
Yes
No
Should a guest state preferences as to his likes and
dislikes when asked by his hostess?
6.
Yes
No
Need a house guest feel any obligation to be on tim e
fo r m eals?
7.
Yes
No
May a guest show his appreciation fo r hospitality
by giving a small g ift to his hostess?
12
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout permission.
8.
Yes No If a “bread and b u tte r” g ift has been given, is it
necessary to w rite a “th an k you” note?
9.
Yes No In a household w here the hostess does not have a
maid, should the guest o ffer to assist in some of
th e household duties?
10.
Yes No Should a person th an k a serv an t fo r any service
rendered outside of th e se rv a n t’s routine duties?
No. rig h t
M inus No. w rong
= Score........
As Others See You
1.
Yes
No
Is it alw ays necessary fo r a wom an to w ear a h at
and gloves to church?
2.
Yes
No
May a wom an go into a re s ta u ra n t w ithout a h a t
if she is w earing stre e t clothes?
3.
4.
Yes
Yes
No
No
Should a wom an w ear a h a t and gloves to a tea ?
Is a floor length “S unday-night” dress correct fo r
inform al dances?
5.
Yes
No
May a wom an w ear a h a t w ith an evening dress?
6.
Yes
No
If an evening reception is not form al, should one
dress as fo r an afternoon tea?
7.
Yes
No
May a fra te rn ity
clothes?
8.
Yes
No
May a m an w ear a w ristw atch when he w ears din­
ner clothes?
9.
Yes
No
A re active and spectator sports clothes interchange­
able?
10.
Yes
No
Does good taste perm it a m an to comb his h a ir in
public?
N o. r ig h t
badge be w orn
M inus No. w rong
w ith
dinner
= Score........
Below a re listed common social situations in which you m ight
find yourself. T here are no set rules to guide you. Think through
the situation and check th e solution which seems to you to be the
best w ay to m eet it.
1.
You have accepted a d inner invitation fo r seven o’clock. A t
six -th irty on the n ight of the d in n er som ething unpreventable
happens th a t will m ake it im possible fo r you to a rriv e a t your
13
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
h o st’s house before seven-thirty. U nder th e circum stances
which of these th ree courses of action seems m ost courteous
to you?
a. Go as soon as possible and apologize to your hostess
w hen you arrive.
b. Telephone to your hostess im m ediately and explain th e
situation to her.
c. Decide th a t you will m iss th e dinner and apologize the
next day.
2.
You are a guest a t a house p arty . A group of excellent bridge
players ask you to m ake a fo u rth a t th e ir table. You have
played bridge only a few tim es and do not feel sure of your
game. W hich would be the m ost considerate th in g to do?
a. A gree to play w ith o u t explanation.
b. Say, “ I ’m so rry to say no, but I’m ju s t learn in g to
play.”
c. Say, “ Yes, I ’ll play, b u t I w arn you beforehand th a t
I ’m not very good.”
3.
You a re in a group of th re e couples who are going to g eth er to
a movie. In w h at ord er would the six of you w alk down the
aisle so as to cause as little confusion as possible?
a. The th re e women firs t.
b. A ny order.
c. E ach wom an followed by h er escort.
4. If you belong to an organization which is giving a dance, w hat
would be th e m ost gracious way of providing fo r the chaperons
d u rin g interm ission?
a. Provide bridge tables and cards so th a t they m ay play
w ith each other.
b. L et them plan th e ir own am usem ent.
c. H ave ce rtain m em bers of the group responsible fo r
e n te rta in in g them .
5. If in a group conversation someone has m ade a rem a rk which,
by its personal im plication, has offended or h u rt an o th er mem­
ber of the group, how could you best help the situ atio n ?
a. H astily introduce a new topic of conversation.
b. L et th e speaker re p a ir the damage.
c. Allude to th e situ atio n yourself in a lig h ter vein.
14
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
6.
I f you w ere in a group of people who w ere ch attin g and leav­
ing a stra n g e r, who knew none of th e persons about whom
they w ere talking, entirely out of th e conversation, w h a t would
you do?
a. Guide th e conversation to w here you could ask him a
question about someone or som ething in which you
knew he was interested.
b. Say, “ Do you realize th a t we a re all talking about peo­
ple M r. Jones doesn’t know ? L et’s change th e sub­
je c t!”
c. W ait fo r him to find an opening in the conversation
w here he can introduce a topic in which he is in te r­
ested.
7.
If you inad v erten tly w alk into a room or a situation w here
you are out of place, which course of action would be best?
a. Acknowledge the situ atio n by a b rie f apology and leave
a t once.
b. Ignore the situation completely and leave.
c. Apologize fo r in te rru p tin g and rem ain.
8.
W hen a m an takes a woman out to eat, which would it be best
fo r him to do?
a. W ait fo r her to m ake a choice.
b. S uggest some choices w ithin the price range which he
can afford.
c. Give his ord er f ir s t so th a t she m ay know w hat type
of ord er to m ake and th en w ait fo r her to choose.
9. A m an has m ade a date fo r a definite tim e but not fo r a spe­
cific event. W hen he arriv es, which of the following proce­
d ures would be best?
a. H ave a definite suggestion fo r the evening’s e n te rta in ­
m ent.
b. W ait fo r th e woman to m ake a suggestion.
c. A nnounce his decision as to his plans.
10. W hen you a re a tten d in g a concert or a play and your com­
panion in sists upon talk in g to you d u rin g th e perform ance,
which m ethod would it be best fo r you to follow?
a. P reten d th a t you do not hear.
b. Shake your head in disapproval.
c. A nsw er questions as b riefly as possible.
15
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
11.
If you are host fo r a p a rty and a frie n d who has n o t been
invited stops by to call, w h a t would be the m ost th o ughtful
way to m eet th e situation?
a. N ot m ention th a t you have a p a rty and invite th e
caller in.
b. E xplain th a t you a re e n te rta in in g and give th e caller
an opportunity to w ithdraw .
c. E x plain th a t you are having a p a rty and in sist th a t
the caller join th e group.
12.
If you have guests who a re ill-at-ease because they are not
accustom ed to th e social procedure of your group, how could
you best help them ?
a. Say, “W e usually do so-and-so.’"
b. L et them go ahead w ithout explanation.
c. T u rn th e a tte n tio n of the other guests aw ay from the
one who is ill-at-ease.
F IN A L SCORE AND P E R C E N T IL E
Possible
Score
Score
Test
11
Living w ith O thers
21
M eeting People
10
Pen in H and
15
A ccepting w ith P leasure
40
W hen M ealtim e Comes
12
D ating
14
D ancing
10
Invited Out
24
In th e Public Eye
13
Going Places
10
S taying Awhile
10
As O thers See You
190
T otal S core
and
R A N K IN G
Percentile
R anking
Rank
16
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Published by
Bureau of Educational Measurements
Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia
TRUSLER- ARNETT
FORM A
Time: 50 minutes
HEALTH KNOWLEDGE TEST
For High School
and College
By V. T. Trusler, C. E. Arnett, and H. E. Schrammel,
Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas
Possible score ................1 4 4
Number wrong
and omitted ..
FINAL SCORE
N a m e ..................................................................................... A g e .......................................G rade.....................................
School.................................................................................... S tate.................................... D a te........................................
PART I
(
DIRECTIONS: Read the following sentences carefully. If
a statem ent is true, place a plus (+ ) in the parenthesis be­
fore the sentence, as in example A below. If the statement
is false, make a minus (—) in the parenthesis, as in ex­
ample B.
) 16. When children under ten years of age ask ques­
tions concerning sex, it is best to ignore them.
(
) 17. Shifting eyes are a reliable index of an unstable
and vascillating character.
(
) 18. Human emotions are significant factors for de­
termining what individuals strive for or seek to
avoid.
Examples:
( + ) A. Bread is a food.
( — ) B. Potatoes grow on trees.
(
) 1. Medical doctors are considered to be better qual­
ified to treat the sick than are chiropractors.
(
) 19. Physical defects are often a cause of maladjust­
ment.
(
) 2. Babies should be taught to walk as soon as possible
after birth.
(
) 20. All children should be immunized for protection
against smallpox and scarlet fever.
(
) 3. When obtaining glasses, it is im portant th a t care
(
be exercised in selecting a competent examiner of
one’s eyes.
) 21. Poison from snakes attacks the body through the
circulatory system.
(
) 22. Emotional strain may result in the most serious
kind of fatigue.
(
) 23. One whose mental life, interests, and activities are
largely centered around himself is an introverted
personality.
(
) 4. Milk is a nearly perfect food.
(
) 5. When food is eaten rapidly, the digestive processes
function more efficiently than when it is eaten
slowly.
(
) 6. I t is impossible for one to gain pleasure from his
work.
) 24. Blindness in new born babies is often caused by
gonorrhea.
(
) 7. One has greater power to ward off fatigue while
in training than when not in training.
) 25. Syphilis germs are more prevalent in unclean,
poorly attended rest rooms than in clean ones.
(
) 8. Hobbies may serve as a means of compensation
for certain deficiencies in life.
) 26. A reflex is a common reaction of the lower animals,
but not of man.
(
) 9. The highest recovery in all symptoms of fatigue
is secured during sleep.
) 27. Headaches and bodily pains of various kinds are
often found among hysterical individuals.
(
) 10. The best thing to do for an infection is to see a
physician immediately.
(
) 11. The ductless glands have no significant connec­
tion or effect upon a person’s emotional life.
) 29. Strenuous exercise increases our desires, but de­
creases our need for food.
(
) 12. Intimacies between a boy and a girl, commonly
called “petting” or “necking,” are harm ful because
they frequently lead to immoral social conduct.
) 30. If one desires to develop a strong character, few
pleasurable pursuits should enter his life.
C
(
(
) 13. Washing the hands frequently is of value in the
prevention of infection.
) 14. Human behavior is a combination of our innate
and acquired behavior patterns.
) 15. Recreational activities offer an opportunity to
offset tensions in the hum an organisms.
P ublished 1940.
) 28. During work there is little increase in oxygen
consumption.
) 31. I t is comparatively safe to reduce one’s weight in
large amounts upon one’s own initiative.
) 32. The causes and cures for cancer cure now scien­
tifically established.
) 33. Syphilis may be transmitted by a mother to her
child during the pre-natal period.
) 34. Ccsmetics may be harmful to the skip.
lig h ts reserved.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
) 35. “Athletes foot” is a disease confined only to the
feet.
) 58. Butter is more healthful as a part of one’s diet
) 36. The burden of establishing m ental health rests
with the individual.
) 59. The canine teeth are those used for the grinding
) 37. Blue eyes are usually weaker than brown eyes.
) 60. Puberty is a term applied to maladjusted glandular
th an oleomargarine.
of food.
development.
) 38. Fears beyond the normal amount are conducive
to healthful personalities.
) 39. The practice of closing schools when epidemic
diseases appear is unjustified from the point of
view of health conservation.
) 40. I t is not advisable for a prospective mother to be
under a doctor’s supervision.
) 41. The cortex is the outer layer of the brain.
) 42. Fear is shown by a response to withdraw and in
some instances temporary paralysis.
) 43. The best thing to do when a person faints is to
throw cold water in his face.
) 44. Frequent baths are advisable for students when
classrooms are crowded.
) 45. If a person fails to adjust himself efficiently to
life’s situations, he is said to have failed in de­
veloping an integrated personality.
) 61. Proper knowledge of the lungs with respect to
tuberculosis can be obtained without the use of
the X-ray.
) 62. Normal development of the heart is secured by
increasing the demand for oxygen in the skeletal
muscles.
) 63. Because diabetics are easily infected, they should
exercise extreme care in cases of abrasions on the
skin.
) 64. The vitamin content of meat is reduced by cook­
ing.
) 65. The tendency of adults to practice childish be­
havior is an unwholesome mental attitude.
) 66. Hypnosis is frequently used to secure information
from young children.
) 67. Cretinism is a particular type of feeblemindness
caused by a lack of thyroxin.
) 46. Most of the advertisements heard over the radio
may be accepted as reliable and true.
) 68. If an artery is cut, a tourniquet should be placed
between the cut and the nearest joint.
) 47. Nervous breakdown may be functional and not
organic in character.
) 69. Whether or not cancer is inherited is not definitely
) 48. Sitting in a straight chair is better for posture
than sitting in overstuffed chairs.
) 70. The proper air for breathing should consist of
about one-fourth water vapor.
) 49. Tuberculosis germs are spread by mosquitoes.
) 71. Bluffing is a prominent characteristic of the
“dare-devil.”
) 50. Loss of weight, unless by reason of diet or ex­
ercise, indicates approaching illness.
known.
) 72. Silver nitrate is dropped into babies’ eyes a t birth
to prevent weakening of sight.
) 51. Phantasy is characteristic of child life.
) 52. Work without satisfyingness shows little decrease
in the efficiency of one’s output.
) 73. As one ages he outgrows his emotional difficulties.
) 74. The problem of fatigue is not very well understood.
) 53. If one feels faint, the best thing he can do is to lie
down.
) 75. An oculist is better qualified to treat the eyes than
) 54. Unless chemical and bacterial tests have been
made of water, it is not certain th a t it is safe for
drinking purposes.
) 76. The best way to develop organic vigor is to ex­
ercise the visceral muscles directly.
an optometrist.
) 77. Probably there is no such thing as mental work
) 55. The circulation of the blood goes out from the
heart through the veins and comes back to the
heart through the arteries.
) 56. A mother’s diet during the pre-natal period is an
important factor in the development of a sound
set of teeth in a child.
) 57. The more intelligent a person is, the less likely he
will be of developing neuroses, or nervous dis­
orders.
except as it is in some way an aspect of physical
activity.
) 78. Young people need longer but fewer rest periods
th an adults to ward off fatigue.
) 79. Lung capacity is a reliable index of the condition
of the lungs.
) 80. The common blood disease called haemoglobin is
characterized by a deficiency of anemia in the
blood.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
) 81. The daily diet of the average high school student
should consist of approximately five thousand
calories.
) 94. Personality is principally a: 1. product of hered­
ity. 2. problem of nature. 3. social product.
<
) 82. I t is a lack of vitamin D th a t causes teeth to decay.
(
) 83. One who brags or bullies his fellows is suffering
from a superiority complex.
) 95. The immediate contraction of muscle tissue is de­
pendent upon the: 1. nucleus of the m uscle cell.
2. blood supply. 3. nerve stim ulus. 4. food supply.
(
) 84. Nearly every deformed person has an inferiority
complex.
(
(
(
4. m atter of intelligence.
) 96. Football is a dangerous game unless one has:
1. efficient officials. 2. a soft field for playing.
3. easy opponents. 4. adequate equipment.
) 85. During the adolescent period the lack of proper
food is more harmful than a t any other period in
life.
) 97. Tissue develops from a single cell through proces­
ses of: 1. cleavage. 2. cell m aturation. 3. ad­
) 86. Reliable evidence indicates th a t regular exercise
enhances one’s resistance to infection.
dition of other cells. 4. cell division.
) 98. The main function of the nervous tissue is: 1. ir­
ritability. 2. contractility. 3. conductivity. 4. m e­
tabolism.
PART n
DIRECTIONS: Place the number of the p art which makes
the best answer to the statem ent in the parenthesis before
the sentence, as in the example.
Example: ( 2 ) Bread is made from: 1. meat. 2. flour.
3. fruit. 4. eggs.
In this example “flour” is the correct answer; therefore,
a figure 2 has been placed in the parenthesis.
(
(
1. ac­
) 101. Neurotic dispositions are present in: 1. a ll in ­
dividuals. 2. very few individuals. 3. no in­
dividuals. 4. only those individuals w ith organic
(
) 102. Endocrinology refers to the study of: 1. duct
glands. 2. crim inal instincts. 3. ductless glands.
4. nerve supply of the endothelium .
(
) 103. Chicken pox is easily confused w ith:
2. diptheria. 3. acne. 4. smallpox.
(
) 104. Bacteria in outdoor air: 1. are very dangerous.
2. cause little contagion. 3. are killed by sunshine.
4. m ultiply rapidly.
(
in blood volume. 2. a stim ulation of the m ental
processes. 3. a lowering of heart rate. 4. a lowered
efficiency in m ost activities.
) 105. Measles are most contagious: I. before the rash
appears. 2. when the rash appears. 3. when the
skin is peeling. 4. as the rash disappears.
(
) 106. The peritoneum serves as: L protection. 2. in ­
sulation. 3. w aste collector. 4. bllood supply.
) 93. A common form of examination of the condition
of the stomach consists of: 1. palpation. 2. com­
(
) 107. Of all cases of paralysis, the majority are:
1. anesthesias. 2.organic in nature. 3. functional
in nature. 4. hysterically developed.
) 89. In tennis the word for a zero score is:
Z. tent. 3. love. 4. court.
(
) 90. The instrument used by physicians to listen to the
heart is called: 1. a stethoscope. Z. an audioscope.
3.
1.
let.
a cardiometer. 4. a microscope.
) 91. A dangerous poisonous gas in automobile exhaust
is: 1. carbon trioxide. 2. carbon monoxide. 3. car­
bon dioxide. 4. carbon tetraoxide.
(
) 100. The ultimate source of hum an energy is:
tivity. 2. food. 3. proteins. 4. sunshine.
) 88. Pasteur is considered to be the: 1. father of
bacteriology. Z. inventor of X -ray. 3. father of
(
(
on i t 2. com plete rest and elevation. 3. rubbing
w ith linam enk 4. painting it w ith iodine.
) 87. Wholesome mental attitudes can be: 1. suddenly
acquired. 2. easily won. 3. developed through con­
sistent right thinking. 4. inherited.
m edicine. 4. discoverer of insulin.
(
) 99. The best first aid for a turned ankle is: 1. walking
) 92. Habitual use of alcohol may cause: 1. an increase
plete gastric analysis. 3. sensitization tests. 4. blood
cultures.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1. m easles.
PART m
DIRECTIONS: Prom the list of words in Column II, select the one which matches or
completes each item of Column I, and write its number in the parenthesis. No word in
Column II should be used more than once. Match items of a section only with answers
of the same section. Be sure to fill in a number in each parenthesis. The sample has been
correctly answered.
Example: Man eats a. (12 ) and wears b. ( 5 ).
Section B
Section A
Column II
Column I
Failure of the heart to send blood in
normal amounts to the brain causes
108. (
).
Death may result in a short time if
bleeding from a 109. (
) is not
stopped immediately after the injury
occurs.
There need be no cause for great ex­
citement when 110. (
) of the nose
occurs.
1. ambulance
2. attempt
3. blushing
4. carbohydrates
7. doctor
8. epidermis
9. epiglottis
) repair but call 14. large blood
vessel
) 19.
20.
Four places on the hum an body, other
21.
than the wrist, where one may test
pulse rate are 120. (
), 121.
) 22.
122. (
), 118. (
), 119. (
), and 123. C
).
)
125. (
), 126. (
),
128. (
).
), 127. (
6. cold
15. medulla
Three important kinds of food the
16.
neck (base of)
body needs are:
114.
(
),
17. popliteal space
115. C
), and 116. C
).
Three functional parts of the skin are: 18. protein
117. (
The five special senses are 124. (
5. clothes
10. fainting
When a bruise first occurs, common
first aid would be to apply 111. (
) 11. fats
12. food
to the injury.
In case of dislocation of a joint one 13. hemorrhage
should not 112. (
a 113. (
).
Column II
Colum n I
Five
of
the
important
glands are: 129. (
131. (
endrocrine
), 130. (
), 132. (
), 133. (
),
).
13.
Five commonly named parts of the
arm are: 134. (
136. (
), 135. (
), 137. (
), 138. (
),
).
The six major structural parts of the
radial artery
sabaceous gland
sweat gland
temple
23. vitamins
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
digestive
system are:
140. (
), 141. (
143. (
), 144. (
139. (
),
), 142. (
),
).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
adenoids
adrenal
arm
elbow
esophagus
equilibrium
feeling
fingers
forearm
gonads
hearing
intestines
(small)
intestines
(large)
lungs
lymph
mouth
pituitary
rectum
shock
sight
smell
spleen
stomach
taste
thigh
thyroid
wrist
R a tin g S cale f o r P e rs o n a l Q u a litie s and A b i l i t i e s
R a tin g of
R ated by
Da te
P le a s e re c o rd your judgm ent by ch eck in g (x ) th e d eg ree o f th e fo llo w in g t r a i t s
in com parison w ith o th e r s tu d e n ts o f a b o u t th e same
o f _________
age and e x p e rie n c e .
Demands too much
Very s e l f ­
a tte n tio n
Av.
c o n fid e n t
Independence
___________ 1
1_____________
1
5
4
3
2
1
A d a p ta b ility
R e s p o n s ib ility
C o o p eratio n
P o is e
T a c t and
C o u rte sy
L e a d e rsh ip
V oice
A d ju sts
slow ly
i
5
i
4
C a re le s s ,
n o t d ependable
i
i
5
4
Av.
t
3
T r ie s to g e t
e asy jo b
t
i
5
4
Av.
t
3
111 a t e a s e ,
la c k s s e l f c o n tro l
i
i
5
4
Av.
i
3
Rude,
in c o n s id e ra te
t
i
5
4
Av.
1
3
Remains in
background
i
5
Av.
t
3
«
4
D is a g re e a b le , d i f f i ­
c u lt to u n d e rstan d
i
t
5
4
Poor groom ing,
unbecoming c lo th e s
P e rs o n a l
A ppearance
B re a d th o f
C o n ta c ts
Av.
i
3
\
i
5
4
Very narrow
in te re s ts
i
i
5
4
Av.
i
3
Av.
t
3
Av.
i
3
i
2
A d ju sts
w ell
i
1
i
2
C a r rie s on w e ll
under d i f f i c u l t i e s
i
1
t
2
Works w e ll w ith o th e r s
c a r r i e s sh are of lo a d
i
1
i
2
S e lf p o s se ss e d in
tr y i n g s i t u a t i o n
•
1
i
2
T o le ra n t, o b se rv e s
s o c ia l c o n v e n tio n s
t
1
t
2
Manages group a c t i v i t i e s
s u c c e s s f u lly
i
1
«
2
P le a s in g , w e ll
m odulated
i
1
t
2
Immaculat e ,
good t a s t e
i
1
i
2
P a r t i c i p a t e s in e x t r a ­
c u rric u la r a c ti v iti e s
t
1
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
^ \ < v w v w <aJ!
\i
< "1 r* ' - < - ' I
V-
-? Aa c
C r t t < ^ V\
■VVl? 4
A^ri \ 114 4
-faith the TechniciansA Com parison of S tu den ts1
T raits and aptitudes of homeeconomics and liberal-arts students
were studied, especially those traits
which are considered m ost essential
for successful homemakers. In con­
sultation with the head of the
home-economics departm ent of the
U niversity of Wyoming, the follow­
ing list of such traits was compiled:
knowledge in subjects related to
homemaking, social situations, health
attitudes, and personality traits
such as tact, courtesy, adaptabil­
ity, co-operation, responsibility, and
leadership.
W ith these points in mind an
attem p t was made to determine w hat
differences, if any, m ay be found
between home-economics and liberalarts students. Tests were selected
and administered to a group of young
women from each departm ent. The
tests used were the Illinois Home
Economics Association Inform ation
T est o f Foods, Frear-Coxe Clothing
T est, Trusler-A rnett H ealth Knowl­
edge Test, Stephenson and M illet
Social Usage Test, and Darley and
M cN am ara M innesota Personality
Scale. Each girl was asked to rate
herself, and to obtain ratings from
three persons who knew her inti­
m ately, on a rating scale which
included the following traits: adapta­
bility, independence, responsibility,
"* s
R eported by Kathryn Mumm Cornwell. This
paper is a digest of a M aster’s thesis on file in the
library of the University of Wyoming.
co-operation, poise, tact, leadership,
voice, personal appearance, courtesy,
and breadth of contacts.
T he home-economics students used
as subjects were Juniors and Seniors
who were enrolled in the D epartm ent
of Home Economics a t the University
of Wyoming a t the time of the study.
I t was believed th a t any young woman
who had a homemaking inclination
would have discovered th a t bent by
the time she had finished two years
of college work, and would therefore
have enrolled in the D epartm ent
of Home Economics. Each woman
selected from the College of Liberal
A rts was matched with a homeeconomics woman of similar age and
background. P ertinent background
factors considered were intelligence
rating, the father’s occupation, the
socioeconomic status of the family,
the type of community from which
the girl came, and the degree of
self-support of the girl before and
while in college.
Thirty-six students in each depart­
m ent were given the tests mentioned.
A comparison of the mean scores for
m ental ability and for socioeconomic
status showed th a t the group of
liberal-arts women used as controls
had a slightly higher mean m entalability score than did the homeeconomics women, and, also, th a t
they had a somewhat higher mean
score on socioeconomic status than did
the home-economics students.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
214
The main findings of the study may
be summarized as follows:
1. In knowledge of specific scientific
facts on various aspects of food and
clothing the home-economics women
were superior to the liberal-arts women.
2 . Home-economics students were significandy superior to liberal-arts stu­
dents in information pertaining to
etiquette.
3 . Home-economics students were better
informed on health facts, especially on
food facts related to health.
4 . The home-economics students appeared
to test more stable emotionally than
the liberal-arts students and were
slighdy less critical of society.
The study does indicate quite con­
clusively th a t home-economics classes
develop a knowledge of scientific
subject-m atter which should make
for more efficient homemakers. I t
should be pointed out th a t the
sampling of cases was too small for
reliable results. However, less evi­
dence of specific inclination for homem aking was found than it was thought
m ight exist when the study was begun.
Stereotypes a n d College
S ororities2
We all have stereotypes— pictures
in our heads—which come to mind
when we hear the name of a nation­
ality, a college, or any one of many
other groups. Each group has a rep­
utation which affects the ways we
respond to it. One nationality is
thought crafty, or stingy, or goodnatured; one college is known as
sophisticated, or “ easy” ; persons of a
2Reported by Lee J. Cronbach, Associate Pro­
fessor of Psychology, School of Education, State
College of Washington.
JOURNAL OF HIGHER EDUCATION
particular profession are expected to
be temperam ental, or absent-minded,
or strait-laced. As with any easily
identified group, college sororities
tend to develop stereotypes. The
study of these reputations is of
practical as well as theoretical interest.
The prim ary purpose of this inves­
tigation was to permit a college class
in psychology to observe the nature
of stereotypes. The d ata were gath­
ered by asking sophomore students to
check a form for each o f six sororities
chosen by a class committee in W ash­
ington State College. T he form listed
11 characteristics—good-looking, pin
collectors, poised, activity hounds,
dead, brainy, friendly, snobbish,
campus leaders, fast, and rich— which
were chosen as pertinent by the
psychology students. This guaranteed
the use of authentic student language
in the descriptive adjectives.
Students were asked to check for
each house the words which best
described the group. R eturns from
65 girls were tabulated. A larger
sample m ight offer greater precision
b u t would not alter the basic
conclusions.
Striking evidence was obtained th a t
stereotypes indeed exist. P atterns of
ratings of the houses differed signif­
icantly; for this reason it is inferred
th a t most of the variations found
were not due to sampling. Among
the girls’ ratings no trait is attributed
equally to all sororities. Houses 2 and
3 were conspicuously not judged
good-looking; as pin collectors, Houses
3 and 4 are high ranking. The brainy
houses are 5 and 6; 3 is definitely not
considered snobbish; and so on.
From this set of data, it is possible
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