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1MPR1SOHMEHT AS A PSrOWWOIQAh SITUATION
hy
Maurice l»« Berber
d i s s e r t a t i o n s u b m itte d i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e
r e q u ir e m e n ts f o r t h e d eg ree o f D octor o f
P h i lo s o p h y f In t h e D epartm ent o f C h ild
W e lfa re , In t h e G ra d u a te C o lle g e o f
t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa
A u g u st, 1940
ProQuest Number: 10592858
All rights reserved
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uest
ProQ uest 10592858
Published by ProQ uest LLC (2017). Copyright of th e Dissertation is held by th e Author.
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ii
ACKH0HaE DGEMEKTS
The w r i t e r w ish e s t o express h i s appreci-*
a t i o n t o a l l who h e r e h e lp e d i n t h i s study} t o
D r. K urt hewn and By. F re d E. Haynesp who d ir e c t e d
t h e r e s e a r c h ; t o Oar* Tamara Brabo f o r h e r g e n e ro u s
guidance and a d v ic e ; t o Br* W alter A. V a r v e l, J r .
f o r a s s i s t a n d s i n r a t i n g ; t o Warden G lenn G. H aynes,
Deputy Warden Eugene Mahoney and members o f t h e
s t a f f o f t h e Iowa S t a t e P e n i t e n t i a r y f o r t h e i r
c o o p e r a t i o n ; and f i n a l l y t o t h o s e p r i s o n e r s who must
rem ain n am e le ss who gave i n many way© o f t h e i r
s i n c e r e aid*
51&938
ill
TABIift OF COMMITS
C h a p te r
Page
I . IirTROSUOTXOir................................ . . . . .....................................1
A. Background o f the- P roblem . . . . . . . . . .
R. The Problem
1
......................................7
XX. MHTHOB . . . . . . . . . ...................... . . . . . . . .
A, G en eral C o n s i d e r a t i o n s
9
. . . . . . ........................ 9
B. C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e I n t e r v i e w . . . . . . . .
11
0* A d m i n i s tr a t io n of t h e I n t e r v ie w . . . . . . .
13
B. Sam pling P ro c e d u re
IS
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
F* t r e a t m e n t o f t h e B a ta . . * . . . . * . . . . 1 9
....................... m
x u . m sutfs a h d B x s o B s s x o i
A. R e s u l t » by S t a t i s t i c a l .Analysis . . . . . . .
30
1* F a c t o r s B e la te d t o S u f f e r i n g . . . . . .
30
S . An E xam ination ©f Some Symptom©
o f S u ffe rin g . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 . F a c t o r s B e la te d t o Escape
. . . . . . .
B. A L o n g itu d in a l B eh av io r Sequence
49
BB
....................... §6
0 . O r i g i n a l Types and P r i s o n B eh av io r
. . . . .
D* F u r t h e r A sp ects o f P r i s o n B e h a v io r
................... 71
1. 8 ex
3 . e>X©©p
. . . . .
. . . .
. . .
. . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I ? . THE CASE STUBT APPROACH
5?
. . 71
.7 3
....................................75
A. F ig h t Mem Whose Chance© o f i v e r G e t t i n g
Out Are S l i g h t
............................ . . . . . 7 8
tv
C h a p te r
Page
1 7 , THE 0A3S STUDY APPROACH ( o o n t * d .)
B. A C ase S tu d y - P r is o n e r Bumber 1 1 ................................. 93
V. SUMS ART AMD OOBCLUSIOWS...........................................
A. S u m m ary...................................
B. C o n c lu s io n s . . . . . . . . .
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX A
APPKMOIX B
98
• ..............................98
....................
. . .
........................
100
103
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
..........................................................
110
118
i
om vtm . i
im m u w tim
A* Background o f t h e Problem
For somewhat ©For a hund red y e a r a now t h e c h i e f
m ethod w hich w e s te r n s o c i e t i e s have a d o p te d f o r t h e t r e a t *
ment o f a w ide ra n g e o f s e r i o u s i n f r i n g e m e n ts o f t h e law
h a s b e e n im prisonm ent*
n e v e r t h e l e s s o u r knowledge o f
p r i s o n s * b o t h a® t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n s o c i e t y
th e ir
r e l a t i o n t o t h e human m a t© ria l t h a t pas®#® th ro u g h them i s
© t i l l r e l a t i v e l y u n d e v e lo p e d .
S t u d ie s o f prison® h av e d e r iv e d from s e v e r a l aims
and v ie w p o in ts *
Probably t h e e a r l i e s t a p p ro a c h was t h e
n o n - s o i e n t i t l e , r e f o r m i s t , hum anitarian a p p ro a c h o f su ch
men ®s Jo h n Howard ( 4 0 ) .
Howard*® m e t i c u l o u s d e s c r i p t i o n s
o f c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e E n g lish J a i l s , o f t h e i r eommisary, and
o f t h e i r p lu m b in g , were h i s t o r i c a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y o f
c o n s i d e r a b l e Im p o rta n c e ,
t h e more r e c e n t p e r i o d i c p u b l i c s *
t i o n s o f t h e American P r i s o n A s s o c i a t i o n and Osborn# Asso­
c i a t i o n , base d upon i n v e s t i g a t i o n ® o f p r i s o n c o n d i t i o n s ,
a r e in d i r e c t l i n e a l d e s c e n t .
l o g i c a l l y a n a ly s e d , th e y a r e
s c i e n t i f i c a l l y on a d e s c r i p t i v e l e v e l , th o u g h w ith occa­
s io n a l shrewd i n s i g h t s o f e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s , w ith an ad­
m i x tu r e o f more o r l e s s a r t i c u l a t e v a lu e Judgm ents o f a
8
$ m e lio r is tio to n e .
S i m i l a r l a t h a t t h e y to o a r e c o n c e rn e d w i t h a
p r a c t ic a l p r i s o n p ro b le m , th o u g h i n a f a r d i f f e r e n t t r a d i ­
t i o n , a r e t h e s t u d i e s c o n c e rn e d w ith m ethods o f p a r o l e
p re d ic tio n *
t h e s e m eth ods, p i o n e e r e d fey Sam B. W arner, and
Horn-all H a r t ( 3 8 ) , d e v e lo p e d fey B urgess ( I S ) and th e
Q luM ko ( 2 9 ,3 0 ) , a t t e m p t t o r e l a t e f a c t o r s i n th e back­
g ro u n d and l i f e s i t u a t i o n s o f p ris o n e r© w ith p a r o l e s u c c e s s ,
and t© p r e d i c t from t h e s e s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i o n s t h e s u c c e s s
o f o th e r p riso n ers*
P a ro le p r e d i c t i o n m ethods h a v e , o f
c o u r s e , p u r e ly s c i e n t i f i c a s p e c t s , p r i m a r i l y i n t h e empir­
i c a l r e l a t i n g o f f a c t o r s and s e c o n d a r i l y I n t h e p roblem s o f
th e m e th o d o lo g ic a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t o o l s .
In th e p u re ly s c i e n t i f i c t r a d i t i o n , d o u b tle ss th e
l a r g e s t group o f p r i s o n s t u d i e s h a s b een c o n c e rn e d w i t h th e
d iffe re n tia e of c rim in a lity .
Many i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f c r im in ­
a l i t y have b ee n im p re ss e d w ith t h e a p p a r e n t l y g o ld e n r e ­
s e a r c h o p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t e d by t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r s tu d y
o f a l a r g e group o f c r i m i n a l s i n p r i s o n .
S u re ly som ething
o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c r i m i n a l ©ould be d is c o v e re d *
P a r t i c u l a r l y c o n v e n ie n t f o r s tu d y by t h i s e x p e r i ­
m e n ta l d e s ig n h av e been J u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s , ch o se n from a
s c h o o l f o r d e lin q u e n t© and -compared w ith p u p i l s o f compar­
a b l e age o f a n o t h e r school*
V a rio u s t e c h n i q u e s have b e e n
3
employed I n ©caking t h e d i f f e r e n t i a ® ? f o r examplef p sy c h o n e u r o t i c i n v e n t o r i e s ( 1 3 ) , p a p e r and p e n c i l t e s t s ( 1 5 ,1 6 ,
I B ) , p e rfo rm a n c e te a t® ( 1 5 ) , e t h i c a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n te s t®
( 1 3 ) , w r i t t e n q u e s t lo xm aires (S B ), a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s , f r e ­
q u e n t l y w it h a p p a r a t u s ( 4 3 , 4 4 ) , p s y c h i a t r i c in terv iew ® (14)
and s o c i a l d&t® (3 8 ,5 1 )*
f h e t y p i c a l f i n d i n g has been a
d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e u n f a v o r a b l e d i r e c t i o n on t h e p a r t of t h e
c r i m i n a l and d e l i n q u e n t group*
U -h f© riu aately , t h e r e a r e two c h i e f d i f f i c u l t i e s
i n t h i s method*
th e f i r s t i s t h a t th e p ris o n p o p u la tio n i s
n o t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ©ample o f t h e c r i m i n a l p o p u la tio n *
P r i s o n e r s a r e c r i m i n a l s who w ere oought,
0 o rta in ty p e s,
n o t a b l y what S u th e r la n d (83) c a ll® t h e "whit®**c o l l a r crim ­
i n a l " a r e p ro b a b ly r a r e l y found i n p ris o n *
T his d i f f i c u l t y ,
how ever, need n o t p ro v e s e r i o u s i n many kind® o f s t u d i e s o f
p riso n er® #
The second d i f f i c u l t y I s p ro b a b ly more s e r i o u s ,
y e t i t i s f r e q u e n t l y ig nored*
That i s , t h e e f f e c t o f th©
p r i s o n s i t u a t i o n upon th© measure® mad® i n p ris o n *
i n p r i s o n behave d i f f e r e n t l y from c r i m i n a l s o u ts id e *
C rim in a ls
^any
o f t h e d i f f e r e n t i a e r e p o r t e d betw een c r i m i n a l s and nonc r i m i n a l s may w e ll b e l i t t l e more th a n d i f f e r e n t i a e betw een
p r is o n e r ® and, n o n - p r i s o n e r s *
We have t r e a t e d t h i s problem
i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l e ls e w h e re ( 3 3 ) .
4
A r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t d ev e lo p m en t, n u r t u r e d In the
s o c i o l o g i c a l t r a d i t i o n , I s t h e s tu d y o f t h e p r i s o n as a
community*
P r is o n e r s re p re s e n t a r e l a t i v e l y se g re g a te d
g ro u p o f men l i v i n g t o g e t h e r , w ith a u n iq u e s e t o f s o c i a l
re la tio n s*
These c a n be s t u d i e d i n t h e s p i r i t o f ethnology*
t h e s tu d y by Hayner and Ash (3 3 ) and th e s tu d y o f l e a d e r s h i p
i n p r i s o n by Clenmter (1 7 ). a r c o f t h i s type*
A nother group o f s t u d i e s m ight be c h a r a c t e r i s e d
a s b e i n g t h e r e s u l t o f g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n o r im p re s s io n
( 1 0 ,3 3 ,3 4 ,3 6 , 3 8 , 5 3 ,0 8 ) *
Bo s h a r p l y d e f i n e d t e c h n i q u e i s
em ployed o r d e s c r i b e d , b u t t h e w r i t e r , f r e q u e n t l y a p r i s o n
p s y c h i a t r i s t o r someone i n c o n t a c t w ith n. p r i s o n , m e re ly
w r i t e s down t h e f r u i t s o f hi© e x p e rie n c e *
In c lu d e d i n t h i s
g roup a r e s e v e r a l s t u d i e s by ffiuropesn c r i m i n o l o g i s t s , w ith
whom t h e t r a d it io n o f e x p l i c i t l y d e s c r i b e d t e c h n iq u e i s n o t
so s tro n g *
S t u d i e s i n t h i s g ro u p f r e q u e n t l y c o n t a i n v a l u ­
a b l e m a t e r i a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e - e f f e c t s o f im p riso n m e n t,
b u t l a c k i n g any i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e p s t h s t a k e n to t h e con­
c l u s i o n s , o t h e r w o rk e rs a r e u n a b le t© se p a r a te th e v a l i d
from t h e i n v a l i d o r t o r e p e a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s *
Bomewhat i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n , th o u g h more s y s t e m a t i c ,
i s t h e s tu d y by H e r b e r t s (.37)*
Here p r i s o n e r s were ques­
t i o n e d by t h e a u t h o r and a p s y c h o l o g i s t u n d e r h i s d i r e c t i o n
upon s u c h su b je c t© as t h e i r l i f e i n g ro u p s and in i s o l a t i o n ,
t h e i r opinion® ab out f r e e and r e s t r i c t e d p r i s o n s , t h e i r
a t t i t u d e ® to w ard punishm ent and t h e i r r e a c t i o n s w h ile
c a r r y i n g o u t t h e i r s e n te n c e s *
The I n v e s t i g a t o r f i n d s t h a t
p r i s o n e r s , e s p e c i a l l y lif e r ® ., l o s e t h e i r n ee d f o r a d a p tin g
t o t h e o u t s i d e w o rld and become e g o c e n tric *
T hree k in d s
o f b e h a v i o r , c o r r e s p o n d in g t o t y p i c a l m o d a l i t i e s found
among p r is o n e r © , a r e r e p o r t e d ! s e l f - d e c e p t i o n , s e l f - r e ® i g n a t i o n and r e t r e a t i n t o f a n ta s y *
T h is s tu d y i s one o f t h e
v e r y few w hich have a t tem pted t o ©tudy t h e a t t i t u d e s and
r e a c t i o n s o f p ris o n e r© to t h e p r i s o n s i t u a t i o n by an inter**
view t e c h n iq u e .
I n t h i s c o n n e c t io n , a n o th e r s tu d y m ight be men­
t i o n e d as r e l e v a n t , th o u g h i t d e a l s n o t w i t h a p r i s o n a t
a l l , b u t w ith a m e n ta l h o s p i t a l .
T h is i s t h e s tu d y by Bembo
and Hanfmann {EG) on t h e p a t i e n t s 1 p s y c h o l o g i c a l s i t u a t i o n
upon a d m is s io n t o a m e n ta l h o s p i t a l *
S ir c h a ra c te ris tic
t y p e s o f a t t i t u d e s tow ard t h e h o s p i t a l s i t u a t i o n a s s whole
were found among t h e incom ing p a t i e n t s .
T h is work 1© im­
p o r t a n t as one o f t h e f i r s t s y s t e m a t ic a t t e m p t s to s tu d y t h e
im p o rta n c e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r w ith i m a t e s o f an
in s titu tio n *
S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s have b een co n c ern ed w ith
d i s c i p l i n a r y p ro b lem s i n p r is o n *
Hanks (3) a tte m p te d to r e ­
l a t e p r i s o n m is b e h a v io r t o ty p e o f c r im e , o c c u p a t i o n a l
s t a t u s and s i m i l a r s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s .
The Gluecks (39)
p r e s e n t some s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a on t h e p o i n t d u rin g t h e p r i s o n
term a t which a maximum o f d is o rd e r® o c c u r s ,
Branham (10)
exam ined t h e r e p o r t s o f p r i s o n e r s 1 m isbehavior su b m itted by
th e p r i s o n guard® and p r e s e n t s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p r i s o n e r
t y p e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r m isb e h a v io r*
The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
1® b a s e d upon a r a t h e r a p r i o r i us® o f f r e u d i a n c o n c e p t s ,
vies® m isb eh avior a s psych opathy, snd t e n d s t o m in im ise
s i t u a t i o n a l and e n v iro n m e n ta l fa c to r ® .
The i n v e s t i g a t i o n by R eph art (4 3 ) 1® in t e r e s t in g
i n t h a t i t w&© c o n c e rn e d w ith changes i n r e s p o n s e d u r in g t h e
s e r v i n g o f an I n s t i t u t i o n a l s e n t e n c e ,
Employing t h e h u rla
a p p a r a t u s , he found reform s c h o o l boys l e a s t 44d is o r g a n is e d ^
on a d m is s io n , s o r e *d is o rg a n is e d * 4 a f t e r s i x m onths, and most
* d is o r g a n is e d 14 J u s t b e f o r e r e l e a s e .
Mot t o be ig n o re d a s s o u rc e s o f h y p o th e s e s a r e th e
w r i t i n g s o f p r i s o n e r s such a® l e l s o n (49) and T a sk e r ( 6 4 ) ,
and th e m a t e r i a l I n l i t e r a t u r e - b y p s y c h o lo g ic a lly a c u te
n o v e list® .
R e c e n tly t h e r e h?*® b een so me f o c u s i n g upon m ethods
o f e x a m in a tio n and r e s e a r c h w ith p r i s o n e r s *
S e l l i n g (55)
©tree®©® t h e v a lu e o f an i n d i r e c t p s y c h i a t r i c ap p ro a c h , o f
a u to b io g ra p h ic ® , end o f t h e R orsch ach t e s t .
The p r e s e n t
w r it e r (3 3 ) ha® em phasised t h e im p o rta n c e o f t h e way i n
w hich t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s p e r c e i v e d by t h e p r i s o n e r .
7
.8* t h e Problem
The g e n e r a l problem o f t h i s re sea ro b i s b r i e f l y
th is:
S hat a r e some o f t h e m ain fa c to r® d e te r m in in g p r i s o n
b eh avior?
The v a s t l y complex problem o f t h e sy stem a tica *
t io n o f th e d eterm in an t® o f human b e h a v io r i s in d e e d t h e
t a s k o f p sy ch o lo g y i t s e l f *
t h e p r e s e n t aim i s c o n s i d e r a b l y
more m odest; i t i s c o n c e rn e d w ith d eterm in an t® c h i e f l y ©u
t h e l e v e l o f c o n s c io u s a t t i t u d e ® and w ith o n ly c e r t a in seg­
ments o f b eh a v io r*
Moreover* im p riso n m e n t, by l i f t i n g a
man o u t o f hi® more complex w o rld and © o b je c tin g Mm t o a.
new s e t o f e o n d itio n ® which seems t© be c h a r a c t e r i s e d by
few er b u t more i n t e n s e value® o f t h e . b e h a v i o r d e te r m in in g
v a r i a b l e s , may w e ll p r e s e n t a s im p le r problem*
One o f t h e fe a tu re ® o f t h e p r i s o n s i t u a t i o n i s
t h a t i t im p oses, i n an im p o rta n t and d r a m a tic way, P e r t a i n
tim e r e la t io n s h ip s upon t h e l i f e o f a p erso n *
The p r i s o n e r
ha® m s e n te n c e o f so many y e a r s , he ha® s e r v e d so many and
e x p e c t s t o s e r v e so many m ore.
How do t h e s e tim e fa c to r©
i n f l u e n c e b e h a v io r , a t t i t u d e s , e m o tio n a l re s p o n s e s ?
On th e
t h e o r e t i c a l ©id©, su c h r e s u lt© m ig ht th ro w l i g h t upon t h e
i m p o r t a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l problem o f tim e p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e
m anner i n which t h e p a s t end t h e f u t u r e a s s e e n a t t h e p r e s ­
e n t tim e i n f l u e n c e b e h a v io r .
P r a c t i c a l l y , su ch n s t u d y , i n
r e g a r d t o l e n g t h o f s e n te n c e and. r e l a t e d p ro b le m s , i s o f
8
i n t e r e s t to a p p l i e d c r im in o lo g y .
On t h e r e s p o n s e s i d e , such a f a c t o r as s u f f e r i n g
i s a s a l i e n t one i n p ris o n *
o c c u r?
Under what co n d itio n ® does i t
Some l i g h t s h o u ld be thro w n upon t h e o r e t i c a l p ro b ­
lems o f e m o tio n a l r e s p o n s e , and upon p r a c t i c a l pro blem s o f
p u n ish m en t i n r e l a t i o n t o p ris o n *
B efo re t h e main problem c o u ld be a tta c k e d * t h e
s u b o r d i n a t e problem o f th© developm ent o f a method f o r g e t ­
t i n g a t t h e a t t i t u d e s , s i t u a t i o n , and r e s p o n s e s o f a group
o f p r i s o n e r s had t o b® solved*
For c a r r y i n g on t h e s t u d y , th© f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e
low® S t a t e P e n ite n tia r y a t F o r t Madison, w ere a v a i l a b l e *
9
OMAPMB I I
tt&THOD
A. G e n e ra l C o n sid e ra tio n ®
The natu r© o f t h e d a t a feeing ©ought, i*e* r a t h e r
©omplex a t t l t u d l n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e c o g n it iv e s t r u c t u r e a s
w e l l a s ©motions! and b e h a v i o r a l r e s p o n s e s , s u g g e s te d th®
i n t e r v i e w , o r t h e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , o r a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e , as th e
most p r a c t i c a b l e method*
S y s te m a tic o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e
o v e r t b e h a v io r o f th© p r i s o n e r s , even i f i t were f e a s i b l e ,
c o u ld n o t a lo n e y i e l d such d a ta *
O b s e r v a t i o n , m o reo v e r, even
o f t h e more c a s u a l t y p e , I s s h a r p l y l i m i t e d by t h e e o n s p io u o u s n e s s o f t h e c i v i l i a n o b s e r v e r and th© m arked e f f e c t upon
t h e b e h a v io r o f p r i s o n e r s o f t h e i r aw aren ess t h a t th e y a r e
b e in g observed*
T h is , how ever, does n o t p reclu d e some ob­
s e r v a t i o n s mad© In fo rm a lly a b o u t t h e p r i s o n , n o r m a t e r i a l
o b t a i n e d from i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s w ith p r i s o n e r s *
The
l a t t e r , which a p p ro a c h e s t h e I n te r v ie w t e c h n i q u e i t s e l f ' ,
p ro v e d in t h e p r e s e n t s tu d y t o be o f c o n s i d e r a b l e value*
I n f a c t , we may w e ll be c o n t r a s t i n g to o s h a r p l y th e i n t e r view w ith t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l m ethod, f o r m e t h o d o lo g ic a ll y
th© i n t e r v i e w i s no more th a n th© o b s e r v a t i o n o f v e r b a l r e ­
sponse© and e x p r e s s i v e movements I n a c e r t a i n s o c i a l s i t u a ­
t i o n , i n which t h e response© a r e p a r t l y c o n t r o l l e d , by t h e
10
n a lu r© o f t h e i n t erview er* s q u e stio n © 1*
I t was d ecid ed f u r ­
t h e r , I n view o f t h e k in d o f m a t e r i a l b e in g s o u g h t, t h a t a
s m a l l e r number o f more e l a b o r a t e I n t e r v i e w s would be o f
g r e a t e r v a lu e t h a n a l a r g e r number o f more s u p e r f i c i a l o n e s.
B e fo re any a c t u a l I n t e r v i e w i n g c o u ld be a tte m p te d ,
t h e groundwork h ad t o be l a i d f o r making t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r
a c ce p tab le to th e p ris o n e rs ,
P r i s o n e r s a r e f r e q u e n t l y h ig h ­
ly a n t a g o n i s t i c to th e p r i s o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a s w e ll
d e e p ly s u s p i c i o n s .
bb
I f th e y se e an i n t e r v i e w e r a s r e p r e s e n ­
t i n g some h o s t i l e g ro u p , t h e y may w e l l , and f r e q u e n t l y do,
r e f u s e t o d iv u lg e any in f o r m a t i o n about th e m s e lv e s o r
d e l i b e r a t e l y p ro d u c e m is le a d in g in fo rm a tio n .
The way i n
w hich t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s p e r c e i v e d by t h e p r i s o n e r s be­
comes t h u s o f g r e a t im p o rta n c e and must be c a r e f u l l y co n ­
tro lle d *
We have t r e a t e d t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e t e c h n i q u e o f
p r i s o n r e s e a r c h i n somewhat f u l l e r d e t a i l e ls e w h e re ( 3 3 ) .
B r i e f l y , two main device© w ere u s e d a t t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y
s t a g e t o meet t h e problem*
F i r s t , t h e I n v e s t i g a t o r to o k
p a i n s t o d iv o r c e h i m s e l f i n t h e ©ye© o f t h e p riso n e r© from
th e p ris o n a d m in istra tio n ,
I n c o n v e r s a t i o n s w ith p r i s o n e r s
and o f f i c i a l s i t was em phasised t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was
a t t a c h e d t o a n e u t r a l agency, t h e s t a t e u n i v e r s i t y , end not
to th e p riso n a d m in istra tio n .
F u r t h e r , he d id n o t a s ­
s o c i a t e a g r e a t d e a l w ith t h e p r i s o n g u a r d s .
XI
The sec o n d d e v ic e was t o become f r i e n d l y w ith
c e r t s i n p riso n e rs*
Some o f th es© were men o f c o n s i d e r a b l e
p r e s t i g e I n p r i s o n c irc le ® *
The g a i n i n g o f t h e c o n f id e n c e
o f t h e s e key fig u re © te n d e d t o make th® i n v e s t i g a t o r ac­
c e p t a b l e t o t h e l a r g e r group® w i t h i n which t h e s e men w ere
in flu e n tia l*
B, C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Interview - Form
The f i r s t s t e p i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n was t o make a©
c o m p le te a l i e t a s p o s s i b l e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n ® , a t t i t u d e s
and r e s p o n s e s t h a t seemed r e l e v a n t to o u r problem*
Ques­
t i o n s w ere t h e n f o rm u la te d w hich a tte m p te d t o g et a t t h i s
info rm atio n .*
The la n g u a g e u s e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n s was r a t h e r
s i m p le , a v o id in g academic te rm in o lo g y on t h e one hand and
t h e a r g o t o f t h e p r i s o n on t h e o t h e r as e q u a ll y a r t i f i c i a l
u n d e r t h e c irc u m sta n c e ® ,
te o n g t h e q u estio n ® u s e d , s e v e r a l v a r i e t i e s may
fee p o i n t e d o u t .
S in c e o u r i n t e r e s t w©@ n o t p r i m a r i l y i n
s h e e r f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t r a t h e r i n a t t i tu d e ® and emo­
tio n ® , some o f t h e qu estion© a r e r e l a t i v e l y vague and am­
b ig u o u s , so t h a t th e y m ight fee str u c tu r e d fey t h e p r i s o n e r
in accor&ane® w i t h h i s own fram e o f r e f e r e n c e *
P sych olog­
i c a l l y such question® are s im ila r t o M u r r a y 's p r o j e c t i o n
t e s t s (4B) or t h e E o rsc h a c h t e s t *
Some question ® a r c
13
co u c h ed i n Impar&cnsl te r m s , though s p e r s o n a l l y t i n g e d
answ er i s u s u a l l y e l i c i t e d ( e . g . q u e s t io n s 21 and 32®),
A n o th er group o f q u e s t lone, m ight he c a l l e d * e m o tio n a lly
lo a d e d * * I . e . th e y a tte m p t t o s t i r up t h e p r i s o n e r ’ s emo­
t i o n s and p e rh a p s c a u s e an ©motional o u t b u r s t - ( e . g . ques­
t i o n s 33 and S3)*
The o r d e r and g ro u p in g o f t h e q u e s t i o n s w ere
d e te r m in e d by s e v e r e ! c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .
Th© o p en in g ques­
tion® a r e r e l a t i v e l y f a c t u a l and n e u t r a l , so t h a t t h e i n t e r ­
view c o u ld be warmed up b e f o r e more p e r s o n a l q uestion® were
in tro d u c e d *
An a tte m p t was a l s o made t o a v o id t h e s t r u c ­
t u r i n g o f s u b s e q u e n t r e p l i e s by p r e v io u s o n e s , i . e . where
an e a r l y c a u t i o u s o r d i s h o n e s t r e p l y would commit t h e
p r i s o n e r t o r e p l y i n t h e same v e i n l a t e r i n th e i n t e r v i e w .
Thus t h e q u e s t i o n s i n r e g a rd t o t h e ori&s® and t o e sc ap e
p l a n s , f o r exam ple, a r e p o s tp o n e d u n t i l w e ll a f t e r t h e
m id d le o f th® i n t e r v i e w ,
f i n a l l y , smooth t r a n s i t i o n i n
m eaning between q u e s t i o n s were so u g h t to a v o id s h a rp
b r e a k s i n th e r a p p o r t .
Th© i n t e r v i e w form was n ex t ta k e n t o t h e p r i s o n
and d i s c u s s e d q u e s t i o n by q u e s t i o n w ith two h ig h ly i n t e l ­
l i g e n t p r i s o n e r s w ith whom t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was on good
term s.
They s u g g e s te d c e r t a i n d e l e t i o n s and a d d i t i o n s ,
Wh©r® t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s seemed J u s t i f i e d and f e a s i b l e , th e y
13
war© a c t e d upon*
a . A d m i n i s tr a tio n o f t h e I n t e r v i e w
The i n t e r v i e w s were c a r r i e d on i n t h e room u s e d
h r t h e Board o f P a r o l e on i t s v i s i t s t o t h e p ris o n *
The
p r i s o n e r was r e q u e s t e d th ro u g h th e d ep u ty w arden1a o f f ie ©
and b ro u g h t t o t h e room fey a guard* where he w-aa l e f t a lo n e
w i t h th e i n t e r v i e w e r .
He was t h e n ashed t o s i t down i n on©
o f t h e more o r n a t e c h a i r s i n th e room* o f t h e ty p e u s e d fey
t h e B oard o f P a ro le * r a t h e r t h a n in one o f t h e o r d i n a r y
c h a ir s i n which p r is o n e r s © it when in t e r v i e w e d fey t h e Board
o f Parole*.
T h is maneuver we a aimed a t m in im isin g any
8up©?0 rdi&ete»*ufe0 r d ln a te r e l a t i o n and s t r e s s i n g t h e man*-to*
man a s p e c t s o f th e s i t u a t i o n *
The fo llo w in g i n t r o d u c t o r y
re m a rk s w ere made fey t h e i n t e r v i e w a r t
'^You p ro b a b ly know
what I* a doing down here*
I*® con n ected w ith th e U n i v e r s i t y
*
up i n Iowa C ity* and w#*xe making a s tu d y u n d e r th e d i r e c ­
t i o n o f P r o f e s s o r H ayw es^you m ig h t have h e a rd ab o u t him **
You know* p e o p le on th e o u t s i d e t a l k a l o t ab o u t t h e p la c e s *
feut t h e y r e a l l y d o n 11 know much about them*
Ho one e v e r
t h i n k s o f a s k in g t h e men i n h e r e what th e y t h i n k .
1
P r o f e s s o r Haynes was m en tio n ed b ec au se o f the
cod r e p u t a t i o n he e n jo y s i n t h e p r i s o n , and a l s o t o u n d e r in® t h e c o n n e c tio n w ith t h e U n i v e r s i t y .
14
*Mow I c a n ’ t h e l p you i n any way, t o g e t a p a r o le
o r a n y th in g l i k e t h a t , b u t whet we f i n d o u t sh o u ld h e lp con­
v ic t® i n g e n e r sl*
A ll t h i s s t u f f s t a y s w it h me* and you
don’ t have t o answ er a n y th in g you don’ t want to*
*fef d j u s t
l i k e t o g e t y o u r o p i n io n on some o f t h e s e q u estio n ® * 0
The i n t e r v i e w was t h a n begun*
The q u e s t i o n sheet©
l a y i n f r o n t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r , h u t he soon became s u f f i ­
c i e n t l y w e ll acq u ain ted w ith t h e q u e s t i o n s so t h a t he c o u ld
m e re ly g la n c e q u i c k l y down a t t h e s h e e t and th e n ask th e
q u e s t i o n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l l y w h ile lo o k in g a t - th e p r i s o n e r *
T h is a llo w e d f o r g r e a t e r o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e p r i s o n e r ’ s ex­
p r e s s i v e movement®*
The i n t e r v i e w was n o t r i g i d l y c irc u m s c rib e d *
If
i n any r e p l y t h e p r i s o n e r d i g r e s s e d , he was n o t i n t e r r u p t e d
bb lo n g a s he ws® ju d g e d t o be producing' a n y th in g o f i n t e r ­
est*
Thee# s p o n ta n e o u s d ig re s s io n © p ro v ed o f t e n t o be o f
h ig h v alue*
I n momm i n t e r v i e w s , where su ch an ap p ro a c h ap­
p e a r e d a d v i s a b l e , t h e i n t e r v i e w e r a d o p te d an a i r o f n a i v e t e ^
p r e t e n d i n g to know l e s s t h a n he did*
T h is p i e c i n g o f t h e
p r i s o n e r i n t h e s & t ls f y in g ly s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n o f knowing
more t h a n t h e i n t e r v i e w e r o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n ®n e x p a n s iv e
p ro d u c tiv ity .
With o t h e r s , t h e o p p o s i t e te c h n iq u e o f t h e
i n v e s t i g a t o r ’ s seem ing t o know more t h a n he r e a l l y d i d i n
15
M® I n c i d e n t a l c o n v e r s a t i o n te n d e d t o en c o u rag e c e r t a i n
r e v e la tio n ® *
R e p lie s were r e c o r d e d im m ed iately i n lo n g h a n d , i n
somewhat a b b r e v i a t e d form*
'R e p lie s ju d g ed t o b e im p o r ta n t
r a r e reco rded, v e r b a tim t o r e t a i n t h e i r f la v o r *
O c c a s io n a l
n o t e s w ere made on e m o t i o n a l i t y and e x p r e s s i v e movements.
1 few g e n e r a l ob servation ® were o f t e n r e c o rd e d a f t e r t h e
i n t e r v i e w was over*
The i n t e r v i e w to o k from t h r e e t o f i v e
hour® t o a d m i n i s t e r ;
t h e l o n g e r i n t e r v i e w s were i n t e r ­
r u p t e d by lu n c h and resumed a f t e r i t ;
On© p r i s o n e r r e f u s e d
t o b© i n te r v ie w e d a f t e r b e in g b ro u g h t t o t h e i n t e r v i e w i n g
room*
t h e to n e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s and t h e n a t u r e o f th e
m a t e r i a l d iv u lg e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t w ith v e ry few exception©
a h i g h d e g re e o f r a p p o r t was o b ta in e d ' w ith h o n e s ty and
■o
f r a n k n e s s i n t h e re p lie s;* *
B# Sam pling Procedure
1* S i s e o f Sample
The sis© o f t h e ©ample— f o r t y o a s e s — wee l i m i t e d
by t h e d e c i s i o n t o o b t a i n a. s m a l l e r number o f more e l a b o r ­
a t e I n t e r v i e w s r a t h e r th e n a l a r g e r number o f more s u p e r ­
f i c i a l ones.
I t was f e l t t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s betw een t h e
v a r i a b l e s s t u d i e d were o f s u f f i c i e n t m ag n itu d e t o a p p e a r
c l e a r l y w ith t h i s number o f o ase s*
kB Moiemar (4 7 , p . 430)
SA sam ple i n t e r v i e w i s g iv e n i n Appendix B
1©
p o in t© outs, ‘’On© r u l e w hich can be fo llo w e d w ith compare*
tiw « s a f e t y .Is t h a t th e d em on stration o f a d iffe r e n c e ( o r
e f f e c t ) which i s l a r g e enough t o have any p r a c t i c a l or
s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e w i l l n o t r e q u i r e l a r g e samples**
3 . Type o f Sample
Our sam ple la n e i t h e r a c c id e n ta l* in. which th e
c h o i c e i s due p u r e l y i© a c c i d e n t , n o r random* i n which acme
e a s e from a f i l e I s ex&d e­
I t 'resem b les somewhat a . s t r a t i f i e d sample in? t h a t
scheme such as c h o o s in g e v e ry
p lo y e d .
no a t t e m p t was made t o s e c u r e group© p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e i r
freq u en cy l a t h e p r i s o n 'p o p u latio n *
B ecause o f t h i s u n o rth o d o x sam p lin g p r o c e d u r e ,
and b ecau se o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y u n d ev e lo p e d s t a t e o f sam p lin g
t h e o r y , i t i s f e l t t h a t th e b e e t procedure i s t o d e a c r i h e
t h e sam ple a s c o m p le te ly a s p o s s i b l e ,
little
I n f o r m a tio n
was a v a i l a b l e t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a s t o t h e c o m p o s itio n o f
t h e u n i v e r s e from, which t h e sam ple was drawn, i . e . th e
p r i s o n p o p u la tio n *
I t was known t h a t l i f e p r i s o n e r s con***
s t i t u t e d ab o u t 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , and a p r e v io u s
stu d y by Irb e& o f t h i s same l i f e r group had y i e l d e d some d a ta
on t h e i r s o c i o l o g i c a l b ac k g ro u n d s.
More im p o r ta n t was p e r ­
s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h I r b e , who was a b le t o f u r n i s h some
$% b e, Fred 0 . , A S tudy o f th© S o c i a l Backgrounds
©f t h e L i f e In m ates a t F o r t M adison P e n i t e n t i a r y . To be
p u b l i s h e d in th e ' J o u r n a l o f C rim inal law and O rtaln ology..
17
i n f o r m a t i o n and s u g g e s t i o n s -about some o f t h e l i f e r s #
i n g e n e r a l , we w ere i n t e r e s t e d in g e t t i n g examples
o f e a s e s w ith v a r i o u s l e n g t h s o f s e n t e n c e s , w ith d i f f e r e n t
l e n g t h s o f tim e s e r v e d and ti m e t o be s e r v e d , o f d if f e r e n t
a g e s , Borne p r o f e s s i o n a l c r im in a ls* some case® o f bed p r i s o n
b e h a v io r , and some o a s e s w ith l i t t l e ch a n ce o f e v e r g e t t i n g
out#
T his a s s o r tm e n t was l e f t p a r t l y t o ch ance d i s t r i b u t i o n
and p a r t l y t o d e l i b e r a t e s e l e c t i o n o f o ase s*
S p e c ific a lly ,
t h e e a s e s were o b t a i n e d a s f o ll o w s :
a* F iv e e s s e s were men w ith whom t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r
had become w e ll ae<tma.iated during h i s p re lim ­
i n a r y work i n t h e p ris o n *
to* F iv e c a s e s were recommended by s e v e r a l ©f t h e
above group a® b e in g i n t e r e s t i n g case® to
in te rv ie w .
o . The names o f f o u r p r o f e s s i o n a l t h i e v e s were
f u r n i s h e d by a p r i s o n e r o f group n#
d* Ten name® were o b t a i n e d from Krhe, f o u r o f
t h e s e as men w ith l i t t l e ch a n ce of ev e r g e t ­
t i n g o u t , f o u r a© l i f e r s who would f u r n i s h
good i n t e r v i e w s , one as a **m®n who d o e s n 't
want t o g a t o u t1* and one as a wd e s p a r s t e M
p riso n e r.
e# S ix case® were o b t a i n e d by c o n s u l t i n g w ith t h e
18
Inmate eeh o o l t e a c h e r s , f o u r as o a s e s who
had b ee n I n a lon g tim e and were g e t t i n g o u t
in
B0 on and two a s hawing b©enAs s h o r t tim e and
w i t h lo n g sentence© to s e r v e ,
f • two o a s e s were m e n tio n e d i n some c o n n e c tio n by
p r i s o n e r s d u r in g in terv iew s*
g« Four names were o b t a i n e d from t h e d ep u ty war­
d en , t h r e e o f them as bad b e h a v io r problem s
and on© b e c a u se he ( t h e d e p u ty warden) was
c u r i o u s t o o b t a i n t h e I n v e s t i g a t o r 1s o p in ­
i o n o f t h e p r i s o n e r 1© c h a r a c t e r ,
h* On© o aae-'wa® c h o s e n becau se h© had w r i t t e n an
a r t i c l e i n t h e p r i s o n magasin© which i n d i c a ­
t e d t h a t he was a r t i c u l a t e and r a t h e r i n ­
te llig e n t.
i . Two c a s e s were o b t a i n e d from t h e p r i s o n
r e c o r d s a s h a v in g s e rv e d a s h o r t tim e , having
lo n g s e n t e n c e s , and b e in g o l d men.
3 . One case;- was c h o se n b e c a u se he was a v e ry
young new a d m is s io n who had committed, a sen­
s a t i o n a l c r im e .
To what e x te n t, now, c a n we c o n s i d e r c u r sample
r e p r e s e n ts tiv e ?
L acking know ledge o f t h e c o n s t it u t io n o f
th e u n i v e r s e in cfu estlen , and more i m p o r t a n t , o f w h eth e r
18
th© basi® o f s e l e c t i o n in tro d u c e © any b i a s , i t 1® d i f f i c u l t
t o any*
One b i t o f e v id e n c e i s a v a i l a b l e , and t h a t i a t h e
f a c t t h a t mmtf o f t h e r e l a t i o n s betw een v a r ia b le ® * c a l c u l a t e d
a f t e r twenty*® <w®& e a s e * had b ee n i n t e r v i e w e d were fo u n d to
b e h i g h l y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e c a l c u l a t e d l a t e r from a l l f o r t y
o ase s*
t h i s te c h n i q u e la recommended by b o th S oren son {58,
p p*330*321) and 0 a r r © t t ( 2 6 , p«343) f o r t e s t i n g rep reaenta* tiven®©© b u t , as ftoKama* ( 4 ? , p p , 346*34?) c r i t i c a l l y point©
c u t , t h e r e 1© no c e r t a i n t y t h a t th e c o n c e a le d h ia a i s mot
w ork in g i n t h e a d d i t i o n a l sam pling*
?h® r e l a t i v e l y unsye**
tem ail© sam pling i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , how ever, would
r e n d e r t h e c a r r y i n g o v er o f th e b i a s t o t h e a d d i t i o n a l
sam ple somewhat im p ro b a b le ,
l e would th e r e f o r ® p l a c e some
w e ig h t upon t h i s t e a t and be w i l l i n g , t e n t a t i v e l y a t l e a s t ,
t o e x te n d t h e fin d in g s o b t a in e d beyond t h e sample i t s e l f .
Can t h e f i n d i n g s be e x te n d e d t o o t h e r p r i s o n e r s ?
P riso n © d i f f e r among th e m s e lv e s .
The low® S t a t e P e n ite n *
t i a r y i s p e rh a p s ao&swhst more in fo rm a l and l e n i e n t i n i t s
p s y c h o l o g i c a l atm o sp h e re t h a n many p r i s o n s ,
n e v e rth e le ss,
i t appear® t h a t t h e kind© o f f a c t o r s b e in g s t u d i e d h e r e a r e
much more dom inated by t h e p r o p e r t i e s which p r i s o n s have i n
common t h a n by d if f e r e n c e s i n s t r i c t n e s s o f d i s c i p l i n e ,
E* T reatm ent of t h e Data
G iven t h e f o r t y i n t e r v i e w s , t h e problem p r e s e n t e d
30
i t s e l f m t o « m ethod o f a n a l y s i s .
The m ethod o f t r e a t i n g
ea ch p r is o n e r ’ * i n t e r v i e w as an in & iv id u e l c a se 'S tu d y had
c e r t a i n p o i n t s t o re e o mmend, i t , , c h i e f l y t h e r i c h sugges­
t i o n s o f r e l a t i o n s between f a c t o r s ,
The e a s e stu d y a p p ro a c h
a l o n e , how ever, c a n n o t p ro v e t h e e x is te n c e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
I t was decided* t h e r e f o r e , t o i a h e a d v a n ta g e o f t h e c a s e
s tu d y a p p ro ach by e x tr a c tin g s u g g e s t i v e h y p o th e se s from a
s t u d y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l o a s e s , anti th e n s u b je c tin g t h e s e
h y p o th e s e s t o q u a n t it a t iv e t e s t *
T w enty*eight f a c t o r s were in v o l v e d i n t h e h y p o th ­
eses.
Employing a t e c h n iq u e s im ila r t o t h a t o f R* f . Telman
(6 0 ) i t mm fo u n d p o s s i b l e to r a te p r a c t ic e U y a l l t h e s e
f a c t o r s on f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e s »
Given t h i s q u a n t i f i c a t i o n ,
c o r r e la t io n a l t e c h n i q u e s c o u l d be employed t o d i s c l o s e t h e
d e g r e e o f r e la t io n s h ip among t h e v a r ia b le s*
The fa c to r® sr© d e s c r i b e d and t h e r a t i n g c r i t e r i a
g iv e n
in Appendix A**
I t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t many o f t h e
fa c to r® a r c » e n t a l l o t l o t e r m s , and t h a t t o as g r e a t an ex­
t e n t a s p o s s i b l e b e h a v i o r a l c r i t e r i a a r e g iv e n f o r them .
T h ere i s c l e a r l y an elem ent o f r e l a t i v i t y i n t h e r a t i n g s ,
i . e . ea c h i s made r e l a t i v e l y t© th e
o t h e r s and t o t h e ra n g e
^Rating® a r e g iv e n o f t h e sam ple i n t e r v i e w i n
Appendix B*
510988
ax
o f t h e e n t i r e group*
M oreover, many r a t i n g s a r e b a s e d upon
a c o m p le x ity o f symptoms, t h e <|uaaatif lo o t io n and, w e ig h tin g
o f w hich would a t t h e p r e s e n t be a h o p e l e s s ta s k *
Soma i n ­
d i c a t i o n o f t h e syndromes o f b e h a v io r c o n s i d e r e d I s g iv e n
i n th e f o llo w in g examples o f f i v e o a s e s a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s
on th e i i g a i M jjufctoaflre lM
.li,
P r iso n e r lumber 8$ - Age S9
P r iso n e r i s r e l a x e d and t a l k a t i v e i n t h e i n t e r v ie s *
O u ts id e o f m ild g o s s ip # he h a s no com p lain ts a b o u t
t h e p r i s o n , and i s , in f a c t , e n t h u s ia s t ic a b o u t some r e c e n t
im provem ents*
He s a y s , f*X d o n ’ t mind s p e n d in g t h e r e s t o f
my days here*
My l i f e i s b e h in d me*
I f I knew I c o u ld
walk o u t , 1 wouldn’ t * a
He h as d e l i b e r a t e l y o u t o f f c o n t a c t w ith t h e o u t­
s i d e by l e t t e r o r v i s i t , i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t th in k in g ab o u t
t h e o u t s i d e makes f o r Hhard. tim e**
He ha© e s t a b l i s h e d a
r a t h e r p le a sa n t r o u t i n e in p r i s o n *
His j o b i s v e ry e a s y ,
h e r e a d s m egasln ee, lis te n © t o t h e r a d i o news f l a s h e s ,
w atc h es t h e b a l l games i n t h e y a r d , and g i v e s f a t h e r l y
advio© to th e younger p r i s o n e r s *
"The l o n g e r you’ r e h e re ,* 1 he s a y s , ifth e more r e ­
c o n c ile d you arc to it* #
H ating! 1
;: ;
; j;
Hi* V
22
P r i s o n e r Mumber 1 «*. Ago 32
P r i s o n e r i s a t t e n t i v e and r a t h e r goo&*humorc& i n
th e in te rv ie w .
He t a l k s n a t u r a l l y w ith o u t s t r a i n * i n h i b i t i o n
o r e m o tio n a l o u t b u r s t a .
He w o r r ie s v e r y l i t t l e *
he says*
th o u g h he does o c c a s i o n a l l y w orry ab o u t h i s w ife and. a b o u t
when he w i l l g e t o u t .
g u a r d s o v e r him#
He i s somewhat annoyed a t h a v in g
He t a l k s c h e e r f u l l y a b o u t t h e e f f o r t s h i s
f r i e n d s o u t s i d e a r e making t o g e t him out*
He i s p la n n in g t o make d o i l i e s i n h i s c e l l .
In
t h e y a r d h e p l a y s c a r d s , and s e m e r a t h e r p l e a s e d a t b e in g
a c c e p t e d i n a game w ith some n o t o r i o u s c r im i n a ls *
At n i g h t
he s l e e p s w e l l ,
111 d o n H do h a r d t i m e , 8 he s a y s , ttI*m p r e t t y
e a sy going**1
B atin g ? 2
P r i s o n e r lum ber 4 ** Age 38*
P r i s o n e r i s -absorbed i n t h e in te rv ie w * b u t some­
what tens©*
Though g e n e r a l l y ©aim th r o u g h o u t , he b r e a k s
o u t i n deep em o tio n when t a l k i n g o f t h e p a r o l e board*
He has made s t r e n u o u s e f f o r t s t o g e t o u t l e g a l l y *
b u t t o no a v a i l *
He sa y s t h a t he throw© h i m s e l f I n t o hi©
work t o make th e tim e go f a s t e r .
During e a r l i e r p r i s o n
sentence® ., he was q u i t e a re b e l* but now conform s o utw ardly*
th o u g h i n d i c a t i n g an u n d e r l y i n g contem pt f o r t h e a u t h o r i t i e s *
2%
H© I s a c t i v e i n a t h l e t i c ® end q u i t e p o p u l a r .
11The o u t s i d e i s alw ays a t t h e back o f y o u r m in d ,1*
h e say®, ftand I g e t p r e t t y b l u e o c c a s i o n a l l y , b u t 1 do
p r e t t y easy tim e .#
■B ating* 3
P r i s o n e r lum ber 7 - Age 28
P r i s o n e r i s q u i t e t e n s e d u rin g t h e i n t e r v i e w .
He
i s i r r i t a t e d by t h e r o u t i n e and co m p lain s o f t h e l a c k o f
o p p o rtu n ity to e x e rc is e i n i t i a t i v e ,
p u trid ,# h e says.
*Th© atm osphere i s
He w o r r ie s a g r e a t d e a l abou t when he w i l l
g e t o u t and how he w i l l g e t a lo n g a f t e r h© i s o u t .
Me i s
r a t h e r b i t t e r t h a t a p ro m ise by t h e c o u n ty a t t o r n e y t o h i m
was b ro k e n when he was s e n t e n c e d .
He o f t e n h as d i f f i c u l t y
f a l l i n g a s l e e p , b e c a u s e he s a y s he i s to o t e n s e .
He ha® on© o f t h e b e s t Job® i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ,
w hich a f f o r d s him q u it® a few p r i v i l e g e s , and he i® r a t h e r
p ro u d o f h ift r e s p o n s i b l e p o s i t i o n .
M® i s making s t r o n g e f­
fo rt® t o g e t o u t , and v a c i l l a t e ® betw een hop© and d i s c o u r ­
agement »
#1 *m d o in g p r e t t y h a r d tim e ,# h e s a y s .
**P e o p le
u s u a l l y do a l o t ©f tim e on a s e n t ©nee l i k e m ine. **
B a tin g ! 4
24
P r i s o n e r lum ber 2S - Age 40
P r i s o n e r I s e x tre m e ly t e n s e d u r in g t h e i n t e r v i e w .
H is m anner i s s a d and c r u s h e d .
H is tend© tre m b le and ha
f r e q u e n t l y s m ile s a weak, m i r t h l e s s s m i l e .
He c la im s he i s
He h m f i v e c h i l d r e n who have b een p u t i n t o va­
innocent*.
r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s s i n c e hi® i n c a r c e r a t i o n , and m he c o n tlm & a lly return® t o t h i s them e h i s eyes f i l l w ith t e a r s .
He
i s u n a b l e t o engage i n any a c t i v i t i e s i n h i s c e l l and m e re ly
t a l k s t© one o r two men i n t h e y a r d .
He t a k e s no i n t e r e s t
i n p r i s o n a c t i v i t i e s and d e s p i t e fo u r and one h a l f y e a r s i n
t h e i n s t i t u t i o n knows v ery l i t t l e about t h e p r i s o n .
t h e name© o f h a r d l y any o t h e r p r i s o n e r s ,
He knows
41I ’ ve drop ped about
e v e r y t h i n g , * he s a y s ,
wI f m s o r r y my s e n te n c e was commuted t o l i f e im p r is ­
onm ent.
Death would have b ee n b e t t e r , w B@ cannot f a l l
a sle e p a t n ig h t,
HI keep t h i n k i n g ©f t h i n g s . 8
H ating? S
B e lla b ility
F r a c t i o a l c o n s id e r a tio n ® r e n d e r e d t h e u s u a l ty p e
o f o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y im p o s s i b l e ,
t h e s u c c e s s o f th e in ­
terview ® r e s t e d h e a v i l y upon t h e p r i v a c y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n
and t h e p r i s o n e r 1® f e e l i n g o f c o n f id e n c e i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r .
The p r e s e n c e o f o b s e r v e r s would have p u t t h e p r i s o n e r on
25
g u a r d ; a r r a n g e s e a t 9 f o r a h id d e n o b s e r v e r were im prac­
tic a b le .
For s i t u a t i o n s where t h e p r e s e n c e o f s e v e r a l ob­
s e r v e r s l a f e a s i b l e * s a t i s f a c t o r y t e c h n i q u e s have been
d e v e lo p e d f o r o b t a i n i n g o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y .
I n t h e s tu d y
by Spence ( 5 9 ) , f o r example * o f t h e r e a c t i o n s o f a m other
ch im panzee to t h e s i g h t o f h e r baby, a f i v e - p o i n t r a t i n g
s c a l e o f th© b e h a v io r o f t h e m o th er was em ployed.
T his
s c a l e was b a s e d upon s im p le r b e h a v i o r a l a s p e c t s th a n a r e
t h e s c a l e s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , b u t s t i l l c o n t a i n e d elem­
e n t s o f s u b j e c t i v e ju dgm ent.
The problem o f r e l i a b i l i t y was
h a n d le d by c a l c u l a t i n g r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each
s u b j e c t and f o r each p e r i o d o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s , and by
c a l c u l a t i n g t h e i n f e r o o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e o b s e r v e ^ .
I f , in our in v e s tig a tio n , th e presen ce o f se v e ra l
Observer© was i m p o s s i b l e , i t s t i l l re m a in e d p o s s i b l e t o
p re s e n t th e re co rd ed in te rv ie w s to o th e r r a t e r s .
t h e method, employed by Tolman ( 6 9 ) .
T his was
S i n c e , however, t h e
record© were n o t e n t i r e l y c o m p le te , b e in g somewhat ab b re ­
v i a t e d and o f t e n l a c k i n g w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e manner
i n w hich c e r t a i n r e p l i e s were made, and s i n c e th e e v a lu a ­
t i o n s o f some r e p l i e s p re s u p p o s e d a knowledge o f th e p r i s o n
s i t u a t i o n , i t was d e c id e d t h a t th© b e s t te c h n iq u e would be
f o r th e i n v e s tig a to r to read th e reoords to th e r a t e r s ,
26
S u p p le m e n tin g th© r e a d i n g w ith a m p l i f i c a t i o n and e x p la n a ti o n
w here n e c e s s a ry *
Oar© was t a k e n m e re ly to ex te n d t h e know­
l e d g e o f t h e r a t e r s and n o t t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r r a t i n g s *
The r a t i n g s f o r r e l i a b i l i t y to o k p l a c e a f t e r a l l
t h e c a s e s had b e e n r a t e d in d e p e n d e n tly by t h e I n v e s t i g a t o r *
Two p s y c h o l o g i s t s * b o th a c q u a i n te d w ith t h e n a t u r e o f t h e
r e s e a r c h and b o t h h a v in g had c l i n i c a l t r a i n i n g * a c t e d a s
ra te rs*
Ho a t t e m p t was made t o m a in ta in s t r i c t ind epend ence
b etw e en t h e two r a t e r s *
Th© t o n e o f t h e r a t i n g p ro c e d u re
was on© o f a d i s c u s s i o n g ro u p a ttem p tin g t o check upon t h e
r a t Inga o f t h e I n v e s t i g a t o r .
A fter an i n t e r v i e w had been
r e a d by th© i n v e s t i g a t o r * an item was named and th e r a t e r s
c o n s i d e r e d i t f o r a moment.
alo u d .
Then ea c h gave h i s r a t i n g
Th© elem ent o f s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e se c o n d r a t i n g by
th© f i r s t was m in im is e d by t h e f a c t t h a t e a c h r a t e r h ad
d e c id e d upon a r a t i n g b e f o r e h ea rin g th© o t h e r .
F r e q u e n tly
d i s c u s s i o n en su ed a t t h i s p o in t* w ith th© i n v e s t i g a t o r
f o r c e d t o d e fe n d h i s r a t i n g and to s u p p ly f u r t h e r in fo rm a­
t i o n a b o u t a s p e c t s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w which were n o t r e c o r d e d ,
and ©bout r e l e v a n t f a c t s about th e p r i s o n i n g e n e r a l .
In
some c a s e s a r a t e r changed h i s r a t i n g * b u t th© i n v e s t i g a t o r
©hamged non© o f M s*
T h is p ro c e d u re 1© f a r from t h e i d e a l
on© o f s t r i c t l y in d e p e n d e n t r a t i n g s , y©t a p p e a re d a f t e r
c o n s id e r a b le d e l i b e r a t i o n and some t r i a l and e r r o r t o be
8?
th© m eet f e a s i b l e one*
f e n ease© were r a te d *
The ease© were ch o se n
r a t h e r a t random* t h e o n ly p r i n c i p l e o f © e le c tio n b e in g
t h a t th e y c o n s t i t u t e a d iv ers© a sso rtm e n t*
The c o r r e l a t i o n ©
f o r t h e t o t a l number o f r a t i n g s and f o r ea c h item a r e g iv e n
i n f a b l e 1* page 3 8 .
A b r i e f m e th o d o lo g ic a l e x c u rs u s m ig h t b© made
here*.
An w© w r i t e t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l atmosphere i s t h i c k and
h e a t e d w ith d isc u s sio n © o f t h e *o p e r a tio n a l d e f i n i t i o n ?
Som© o f o u r i t m s l a c k s t r i c t o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n *
duch
a n ite m as l e p g t h o f, sqht.ena.ff 1® s t r i c t l y d e f in e d o p e r a t i o n a lly *
One need o n ly c o n s u l t t h e p r i s o n re c o rd s *
The ite m
t i m e e x a a o t* J a S££S& h as a t i t s c o r e a n o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s one s s h s t h e p r i s o n e r .
Her®, how ever, t h e r a t i n g i s
a l s o b a s e d upon i n f e r e n c e from o t h e r s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e p r i s ­
oner*
The extrem e c a s e i s t h e r a t i n g f o r M a m £LL m U §X ~
i ,h g t w hich i s b a s e d upon e m p ir ic a l* b e h a v i o r a l symptoms* b u t
o f m m u ltifo rm en d complex type*
The manner i n which t h e
symptoms a r e w e ig h te d i n m aking t h e l a t t e r r a t i n g i s b a s e d
upon som eth ing which m ight fee c a l l e d ^ c l i n i c a l i n s i g h t 41.
T h is p r o c e d u r e i s s u r e l y n o t th© f i n a l aim o f s c i e n c e , b u t
no o t h e r i s a v a i l a b l e f o r su ch m a t e r i a l a t t h e p r e s e n t
tim e*
The f a c t t h a t h ig h r e l i a b i l i t i e s were o b t a i n e d
among t h r e e r a t e r s would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t “c l i n i c a l
28
TABLE I
RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS AKOHG THREE RATERS
Number o f R a tin g s
Dfluabo
V a rv e l
A l l ite m s
;3 08
F e e lin g o f I n j u s t i c e o f
s e n te n c e
10
F e e lin g o f i n j u s t i c e o f
10
tim e s e r v e d
D e f i n i t e n e s s a s t o when
10
w ill g et out
10
L e v e l o f a m b i t io n
S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h jo b
10
D egree o f s u f f e r i n g
10
Annoyance a t c o n c r e te
th in g s
10
Invo lv em en t i n c e l l a c ­
tiv itie s
10
Xnvolvsanent I n f @o r op­
tio n a l a c tiv itie s
10
Degree o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n
of in sid e
10
P e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w ith
o u tsid e
10
R e a c tio n t o v i s i t s ,
9
a c c e p ta n e e -re je c tio n
a u e o e p t l b l l i t y t o e sc a p e 10
E x p e c ta tio n of g e t t i n g
o u t soon a t T» o r T*
10
T i m id i t y a t T o r
10
Source® o f w o rry In '" o u t­
sid e s i tu a tio n
10
E x p e c t a ti o n o f g e t t i n g a
"b reak * I n oircum ® tanceslO
H a tr e d o f a u t h o r i t i e s
10
M i s t r u s t o f by a d m i n i s t r a m
tlo n
0
T ro u b le ©omen©s s
10
10
S o c ia b ility
BomboF arb er
V a r v e lF a rb e ?
209
F
*90
rh o
r
*94
rh o
10
*78
.8 1
10
*98
*98
10
10
10
10
*90
•91
#95
*95
*97
*91
*95
*91
10
*98
*92
10
*82
*72
10
#95
•95
10
.9 5
#84
10
1*00
*98
10
10
1*00
#87
.#97
*87
10
10
*89
*96
#89
*96
10
1.00
1*00
10
10
#95
#98
*96
*90
9
10
10
#94;
1*00
*94
*9©
1*00
*95
Hot©! Th© value© o f vho a r e s p u r i o u s l y s l i g h t l y nigh.* Con­
c e n t r a t i o n s o f r a tin g ® a t g iv e n p oint© on th© f i v e - p o i n t
scale© d e c r e a s e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l rang© o f rh o so t h a t a c o r r e ­
l a t i o n o f -1 * 0 0 l a Im p o s s ib le * T h is l i m i t a t i o n does n o t a p p l y
t o th© c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r a l l t h e ite m s ta k e n to g e th e r # f o r her©
th© P e a rs o n p r oduet-m oment c o r r e l a t i o n was employed*
39
i n s i g h t * i s b a s e d upon so m eth in g v a lid *
n e v e rth e le ss, i t
w ould be i n c o r r e c t t o i d e n t i f y t h i s r e l i a b i l i t y p ro c e d u re
w ith th® s t r i c t o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n , s i n c e no r i g o r o u s
p h y s i o a l i s t i e c o o r d i n a t i o n s a r e made*
In no f a r as t h e
p r o c e d u r e i s e m p iric a l* b e h a v i o r a l an d i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e , i t
a p p r o a c h e s t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n , w it h o n ly t h e com- .
p l e x i t y o f t h e m a t e r i a l r e n d e r i n g s t r i c t o p e r a tio n is m a®
y e t im p o s s ib le #
SO
CHAPTER XII
BESULT8 k m DISCUSSION
Two m ain re s p o n s e s t o t h e p r i s o n were s e l e c t e d
f o r a n a l y s i s : s u f f e r i n g and e s c a p e .
S u f f e r i n g , an emo-
^
t l o n a l r e s p o n s e , was chosen as a s a l i e n t f e a t u r e o f p r i s o n
life *
M oreover, i t i s o f im p o rta n c e t o t h e th e o ry o f pun­
is h m e n t i n crim in o lo g y *
E scape, a p h y s i c a l r e s p o n s e , i s
a l s o o f p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t *
Under what c o n d i t i o n s do t h e s e re s p o n s e s o c c u r?
How do th e y v ary w ith t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s ?
We s h a l l c o n s i d e r
f i r s t some f a c t o r s a s th e y may he r e l a t e d t o s u f f e r i n g .
A* R e s u l t s hy S t a t i s t i c a l A n a ly s is
1 . F a c t o r s a s R e la te d t o S u f f e r i n g
L e n g th o f S e n te n c e and Degree o f S u f f e r i n g
Do p r i s o n e r s w ith lo n g s e n te n c e s s u f f e r more t h a n
t h o s e w i th s h o r t s e n te n c e s ?
Our s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n ­
d ic a te s a n e g lig ib le re la tio n sh ip s
r
l e n g t h o f s e n t e n c e , d e g re e o f s u f f e r i n g - .10 —.10
C u r i o u s l y enough, t h e r e i s a w id e sp re a d b e l i e f
among t h e p r i s o n e r s t h a t t h e *s h o r t tim er* s u f f e r s more
t h a n does t h e " lo n g tim e r * .
In our d a t a , i n r e p ly t o t h e
q u e stio n ," W h o does h a r d e r tim e , do you t h i n k , a man w ith a
lo n g s e n te n c e o r a man w ith a s h o r t se n te n c e ? * tw e n ty -tw o
c a s e s , o r s i x t y p e r c e n t o f t h o s e aak ed , r e p l i e d t h a t t h e
31
man w i t h t h e s h o r t sentene© doe® #h a r d e r tim e 11•
o n e r #3 p u t i t ,
th e life r*
A© P r i s ­
rtThe man w ith on© y e a r doe® h a r d e r tim e th a n
The s h o r t tim e r i s an x io u s t o g e t o u t and g e t
s t a r t e d , and d o e s n ’ t s e t t l e down t o t h e r o u t i n e l i k e t h e
l i f e r * 1* P r i s o n e r #4 p o i n t s © u t , w$ b e lo n g ti m e r c a n * t s e e
h i s e x p i r a t i o n d a t e , so he ©an ©oast a lo n g i n a r u t . 11 Al­
th o u g h o u r o o r r e l a t l o n © © e ffic ie n t does n o t ©onfirm t h e s e
o b s e rv a tio n ® , t h e i r t r u t h may h e r e he o b s o u re d by t h e f a c t
t h a t o u r group c o n t a i n s p r a c t i c a l l y no v e ry s h o r t term
p riso n e rs.
That t h i s may be t h e ®ase i s s u g g e s te d by t h e
s t a t e m e n t o f P r i s o n e r #11, *?©ry s h o r t t i m e r s do easy tim e ,
b u t t h e men w ith f i v e and t e n y e a r s e n te n c e s do p r e t t y h a r d
ti m e b e c a u s e th e y keep e x p e c tin g a break*
T h e ir crime©
w e re n ’ t so s e r i o u s , so th e y e x p e c t p a ro l® , and worry f o r
f e a r t h e y won’ t g e t i t .
t h a t w ay .”
Th© lo n g t im e r s have i t e a s i e r
T h is f i v e and t e n y e a r s e n te n c e group I s t r e a t e d
as t h e s h o r t e s t term group i n o u r c o r r e l a t i o n a l d iag ra m .
S e v e r a l p r i s o n e r s p r e s e n t © more s u b t l e o b s e rv a ­
tio n s
** The s h o r t t im e r d o esn ’ t do h a r d e r tim e , but he
squawks more ©bout i t , * i . e . he co m plains more o v e r t l y .
We
s h a l l l a t e r p r e s e n t some d a ta which te n d somewhat t o s u p p o rt
t h i s view .
I n any c a s e , t h e v a r i a b l e l e n g t h off s e n t ©nee h a s
no c l e a r o r d i r e c t l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o d e g re e o f
S u ffe rin g *
We must p ro c e e d to a f i n e r c h o i c e o f fa c to r©
F e e l i n g o f I n j u s t i c e o f S e n te n c e and Degree o f S u f f e r i n g
-
We h av e c o n s id e r e d t h e s h e e r p h y s i c a l l e n g t h o f
s e n te n c e *
t h a t o f th e p la c e o f th e sen ten c e in th e p r i s ­
o n e r 1® v a lu a tio n © ! system ?
Krery p r i s o n e r h a s
bom b
a t t i t u d e to w a rd h i s s e n te n c e s was i t h i g h l y u n j u s t , was i t
a b o u t what c o u ld h e e x p e c te d i n t h e o i r c u m s t a n c e s , or was
i t r i c h l y d e s e rv e d o r even a "lu o k y b r e a k 11?
appear t o grow o u t o f t h r e e m ain b a s e s ,
These a t t i t u d e ©
f i r s t , th e re i s th e
g u i l t d im e n sio n , a t t h e one ex tre m e o f which i s t h e c a s e o f
t h e p r i s o n e r who f e e l s he i s t o t a l l y i n n o c e n t o f t h e c rim e
o f w hich he was c o i r r t c ^ t e d , and a t t h e o t h e r t h e p r i s o n e r
who fe e l® t h a t h i s c rim e was ®o enormous a© t o d e s e rv e p e r ­
hap s an even more s e v e r e s e n t e n c e t h a n he r e c e i v e d .
Second,
t h e r e I s co m p ariso n w ith t h e sentence® w hich o t h e r s r e c e i v e
f o r com parable crime®*
The p r i s o n e r g iv e n a l i f e s e n t e n c e
f o r s e c o n d d e g re e m urder f o r a crim e which seems t o him
s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r which o t h e r s r e c e i v e e i g h t y e a r man­
s l a u g h t e r sentence® o f t e n feel® d e e p ly t h a t he has b een
wronged*
T h ir d , t h e r e a r e b ro k e n o r u n k ep t promise® made
t o t h e p r i s o n e r s by t h e p r o s e c u t i n g a t t o r n e y o r judge*
th e
p r i s o n e r 1® p ro m is e d t h a t i f h e p l e a d s g u i l t y , he w i l l be
g i v e n a l i g h t s e n t e n c e , o r c e r t a i n charge© w i l l be d ro p p e d .
When, f o r some r e a s o n , th e s e promise© a r e n o t k e p t, str o n g
© m otional response® u s u a l l y f o l l o w ,
Our d a t a y i e l d t h e f o llo w in g o o r r e l a t l o m
r
■=
f e e l i n g o f i n j u s t i c e ©f s e n t e n c e , d e g re e o f s u f f e r i n g
.5 7 + .0 ?
l e n g t h o f Time S e rv e d and Degree of B u f f e r i n g
The h y p o t h e s i s m ight p l a u s i b l y b e h e l d t h a t s u f*
f a r i n g i n c r e a s e s w it h l e n g t h o f s t a y in p r i s o n , o r p e r h a p s
th e o p p o s ite , th a t as h a b itu a tio n tak es p la c e , s u f f e r in g
d ecreases,
Our r e s u l t s c o n firm n e i t h e r ?
r
= .1 9 ± a o
l e n g t h o f tim e s e r v e d , d e g r e e o f s u f f e r i n g
The r e s u l t i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t
i t in d ic a te © t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll i n f l u e n c e upon e m o tio n a l
r e s p o n s e o f what m ig h t seem t o be an im p o r ta n t a s p e c t o f
p a s t e x p e rie n c e .
F e e l i n g o f I n j u s t i c e o f Time S e rv e d and Degree o f S u f f e r i n g
U n lik e a p r i s o n e r 1s f e e l i n g o f t h e i n j u s t i c e o f
h i e s e n t e n c e , w hich u s u a l l y h a s i t s i n c e p t i o n b e f o r e he
e v e r r e a c h e s th© p r i s o n , t h e f a c t o r o f f u e l i n g p f i n l u s t i q e
o f tim e s e r v e d b e g in s to d e v e lo p o n ly a f t e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e
s t a y i n p ris o n *
a s a f a c t o r o f im p o rta n c e i n th© p sy c h o lo g y
o f p u n ish m e n t, i t may be exam ined somewhat more c l o s e l y .
Our d a t a y i e l d t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s
34
^ .66 'S- .08
r
fe e lin g of in ju s tic e
o f tim e s e r v e d ,
^
degre© o f
su ffe rin g
A moo who ha® co m m itte d a c rim e u s u a lly has ©
f e e lin g of g u i l t shout i t .
Even i f t h i s f e e l i n g i® low o r
a b s e n t , t h e r e i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , i f h e i s c a u g h t, c o n v i c t e d
and s e n ts n o o d , t h e f e e l i n g t h a t a c c o r d in g t o s o c i e t y *0 cod©,
a t l e a s t , i t i s p r o p e r f o r Mm t o s e r v e some tim e I n p r i s o n ,
t h a t i t i s i n t h e o r d e r o f th in g © .
A© t h e p r i s o n e r b e g in s
t o s e r v e hi© s e n t e n c e , a vague id e a o f how lo n g i t would be
p r o p e r t o s e r v e be&ine t o c r y s t a l l i s e I n h i s mind .
Time
p a s s e s and h i s g u i l t f e e l i n g s , o r fe e lin g © o f th© p r o p e r
n e s s o f hi® im prison m ent d ecrease*
crim e* l p u n ish m en t d r a i n s g u i l t .
He i s *paying f o r h i s
F i n a l l y , I f he ha© n o t i n
t h e m eantim e been r e l e a s e d , t h e tim e comes when t h e p r i s o n e r
s a y s , »This i s enough*
s h o u l d l e t me out.**
in te n s ifie d .
I have p a i d f o r my c rim e .
How th e y
I f he i s k e p t beyond t h i s , s u f f e r i n g i s
B i t t e r n e s s s e t s i n , o r d e s p a ir *
P r i s o n e r #31, who has served t h i r t e e n y e a r s on a
s e n t e n c e f o r w hich t h e a v e ra g e tim e s e r v e d i s c o n s i d e r a b l y
s h o r t e r , b r e a k s i n t o tear® d u r in g th© i n t e r v i e w .
Time and
a g a i n , no m a t t e r what q u e s t i o n i s p u t t o him, he r e t u r n s to
th© them® o f th© i n j u s t i c e o f t h e lo n g tim e he has s e r v e d .
A lth o u g h he i s t o be r e l e a s e d i n a s h o r t tim e , t h i s h a r d l y
o c c u p ie s hi® th o u g h t® .
He 1® f i x a t e d on t h e i n j u s t i c e done
35
Mm*
#1# s a y s , “when X f i r s t ©am© i n , X a d j u s t e d
m y s e lf t o do in g a l o t o f tim e*
W©w at mn t f m l 1 s h o u ld be
g i v e n b b r e a k , I c a n ’ t h e l p t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e o u ts id e more
end more * * .* P e n i t e n t i a r y i s n ’ t f o r reform *
I t ’ s f o r re**
v en g e * * * A f t e r you’ r e done enough ti m e , y ou’ r e no lo n g e r
ashamed o f h a v in g b e e n i n p r i s o n *11
There appear© t© be a s im p le e a le u lu s o f punish-*
meni«
I f t h e p r i s o n e r pays to o much, th e n s o c ie t y owes Mm
som ething*
A f e e l i n g which m ig h t be s a i l e d *snt;L»guilt*
d e v e lo p s , so t h a t he gan commit a new erim e en d s t i l l ,
M s own mind, h av e don® no wrong*
in
P r i s o n e r #S b i t t e r l y
announced, * t f I g e t a p a r o l e i n s p r i n g , 1*11 t r y t o go
stra ig h t*
a crook*
I f I h av e to w a ste t h r e e more year© h e r e I ’ l l be
I ’ l l be alm o st f i f t y by t h e n .
I ©an l e a r n enough
a ro u n d h e r e a b o u t t h i e v i n g t o p r o v i d e f o r m y s e lf r i g h t
q u i c k #*1
Modern crim in o lo g y h o ld s m one o f i t s main t e n e t s
th a t a man i s s e n t t o p r i s o n n o t f o r punishment b u t f o r r e ­
h a b ilita tio n .
Our f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e , how ever, t h a t under
p r e se n t condition® a t l e a s t , th e id e a o f punishm ent e x i s t s
in th e mind o f th e p r i s o n e r a® a h a r d r e a l i t y .
Humanitarian
cr im in o lo g y w i l l hew© t o c o n sid e r t h i s r e a l i t y i n i t s
programs*
56
Time E x p ec ts t o S e rv e and D egree o f B u f f e r i n g
S h i f t i n g now t o t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u t u r e , how i s
s u f f e r i n g r e l a t e d t o t h e l e n g t h o f tim e a p r i s o n e r e x p e c ts
to s e rv e ?
We f i n d a d e f i n i t e l y c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p ,
w ith low s u f f e r i n g i n t h e g ro u p e x p e c tin g t o g e t out i n l e s s t h a n two year©,, h i g h s u f f e r i n g i n t h e g ro u p e x p e c tin g t o geto u t i n two to f i v e year® , and low s u f f e r i n g i n th© group ex­
p e c t i n g to g e t o u t i n more t h a n f i v e y e a rs *
p ag e 37*)
(See f i g u r e 1 ,
The a v e ra g e s u f f e r i n g r a t i n g s f o r t h e t h r e e r e ­
s p e c t i v e g roup s a r e 3U?f 4 .1 and 3 . 5 .
The d i f f e r e n c e s be­
tw een t h e medium group and t h e s h o r t tim e g ro u p , and t h e
medium and lo n g tim e g roup s a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y h i g h l y s i g ­
n i f i c a n t a t f a r beyond t h e 2$ l e v e l by t h e f i s h e r t t e s t .
To what can we a t t r i b u t e t h e s e f i n d i n g s ?
The
f a s t e r AMfiltaA t/ffles,9 &£ f a a i i f t f l j f t m l a M m a U L a s k j a s i
seems to throw l i g h t on t h e p ro b lem .
I n d e f i n i t e n e s s o f Knowledge a s t o When W ill Get Gut and
Degree o f S u f f e r i n g
Only a s m a ll p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p r i s o n e r s know
e x a c t l y when th e y a r e t o be r e l e a s e d .
T hese i n c lu d e men
© lo se t o th© e x p ir a tio n o f t h e i r s e n t e n c e s , and men q uit©
c e r t a i n th e y w i l l n e v e r b e p a r o l e d and w i l l have t o s e r v e
t h e i r f u l l se n te n c e s.
Fox t h e b u lk o f t h e p r i s o n e r s , how­
ev e r, u n c e rta in ty e x is ts .
Men hop© f o r p a r o l e .
The l i f e
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TIMS KXPSCTS TO SERVE
V ig u re 1
l e n g t h o f Time E x pects t o S erv e
s a d Degree o f S u f f e r i n g
p r is o n e r © hope f o r com m utation o f t h e i r s e n t e n c e s and ©ub• e l u e n t p a r o le *
r
T&e r e l a t i o n t o s u f f e r i n g i© a s f o l l o w s t
i n d e f t n t t e a se s o f know ledge
a s t o when w i l l g e t o u t*
d e g re e o f
su ffe rin g
i= .sidi.os
V a r io u s p r i s o n e r s p r e s e n t a r t i c u l a t e ev id en ce f o r t h i s
re la tio n s h ip *
P r i s o n e r #3 s a y s , *Xf 1 were s u r e how much
tim e I had t o do, 1 c o u ld do my tim e ©w©Xl.,,
h u r s t out e m o tio n a lly ,
P r i s o n e r #7
p r e f e r b e in g t o l d I* d do a d ef­
i n i t e amount o f t i m e , even i f i t were t e n y e a r s ,49 P r i s o n e r
#6 say©., **fh© P a r o l s Board o o u ld a v o id a l o t o f n e e d le s s
s u f f e r i n g i f th e y j u s t s a i d • l a s 1 o r •Mo1 i n s t e a d o f *Your
e a s e i s op m a t a l l t i m e s 1*
I t makes men go o u t e a g e r t o
k i l l t h e P a r o l e B oard, **
t h i s r e s u l t has p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e *
P e n o lo ­
g i s t s have f o r some tim e b een a d v o c a tin g t h e in d e t e r m i n a t e
s e n t e n c e a s a d e s i r a b l e reform *
The i n d e t e r m i n a t e s e n te n c e
n e c e s s a r i l y I n v o lv e s a h ig h d e g r e e ©f i n d e f i n i t © n e s s w hieh,
o u r r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e , o-suae® s u f f e r i n g ,
We would n o t , t o
be s u r e , condemn t h e i n d e t e r m i n a t e s e n t e n c e , w ith a l l i t s
o b v io u s a d v a n ta g e s , on t h e s e grounds*
n e v e rth e le ss, in -
d e f i n i t e n e s s re m a in s a f a c t o r w h ich must be c o n s id e r e d i n
any p e n o l o g i c a l program*
I t m ust be n o te d t h a t ou r r e s u l t s
a p p ly t© t h e s i t u a t i o n a t t h e p r e s e n t ti m e .
I t may w e l l b©
t h a t a s th© id e a and aims o f th e i n d e t e r m i n a t e s e n te n c e be­
come more c l e a r t o p r i s o n e r s , a k in d o f c o n d i t i o n a l
39
d e f i n i t e n e s s w i l l s u p p l a n t th© p r e s e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l la & e fi n i t e n e s s which t h e » « a t e a c 8 now c a r r i e s *
T h e o re tic a lly th e r e s u l t i s in te re s tin g ' in p o in tin g
t o th© import&nee o f t h e f u t u r e tim e p e r s p e c t i v e and s p e c i f ­
i c a l l y th© c o n d i t i o n o f uaelearn®®® i n I t i n d e te r m in in g
b e h a v io r.
We a r e now i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o u n d e r s t a n d th©
r e l a t i o n betw een l e n g t h &£ l i a s , JSLgfiffilS 1& OgXM end .degree '
off s u f f e r in®:«
A n a ly s is i n d i c a t e s t h a t th© g roup e x p e c tin g
t o s e r v e l e s s t h a n two y e a r s h a s a mean d e f i n i t e n e s s r a t i n g
o f $*9‘3* t h e g ro u p e x p e c tin g t o s e r v e two t o f i v e year®
1#75* and th© g ro up e x p e c tin g t o s e r v e more t h a n f i v e y e a rs
3 ,4 S .
(B©© F i g u r e 3 # page 39a)
The h i g h l y s u f f e r i n g group
e x p e c t in g t o s e r v e two t o f i v e y e a r s i s tim e ale© t h e most
i n d e f i n i t e group* which would seem t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e i r
su ffe rin g in p a r t, a t l e a s t ,
Hope o f d o t t i n g a *Break* Under th© C irc u m s ta n c e s and
D egree o f S u f f e r i n g
0 iv@n a man1© s e n t e n c e , h i s c r im e , and h i s p r e ­
v io u s r e c o r d , d o es he e x p e c t t o g e t o u t s o o n e r t h a n on©
m ig h t n o rm a lly e x p e c t , t h a t i s , so o n e r t h a n o t h e r s do
under s im ila r c o n d itio n s?
r
- - . 4 0 1 *09
hope o f g e t t i n g a *b r e a k 11, d e g re e o f s u f f e r i n g
39a
5
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KDOWLEDCrE AS TO
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expects
to
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serve
F ig u r e 2
L en gth o f Time E x pects t o S erv e and
D e f i n i t e n e s s o f Knowledge as t o When
W i l l Get Out
Two p o i n t s a r e n o te w o rth y h e r e .
F i r s t , i t i s n o t th e
p h y s i c a l l e n g t h o f t h e s e n t e n c e , b u t i t s p l a c e in a complex
sy stem t h a t i s im p o r ta n t i n d e te r m in in g e m o tio n a l re a p o n s e j
and se c o n d , t h i s sy ste m i s i n th© f u t u r e tim e p e r s p e c t i v e .
U n f r i e n d l i n e s s o f t h e O u ts id e a n d Degree o f S u f f e r i n g
Does t h e p r i s o n e r s e e t h e o u t s i d e w orld a® h o s t i l e
and i n d i f f e r e n t t o h i s
p l i g h t , o r a s c o n t a i n i n g a c t i v e and
fr ie n d ly fo rces try in g
to h e lp M a t
r
u n f r i e n d l i n e s s o f o u t s i d e , d e g re e o f s u f f e r i n g
a . 4 5 ± .09
43f | i c u l a t e e v id e n c e f o r th© r e l a t i o n s h i p appear© i n t h e
In te rv ie w s.
P r i s o n e r #® s a y s , *X u s e d t o go down i n t h e
dumps ©very o t h e r month.
weeks and n o t s a y much.
X, d j u s t s i t a ro u n d f o r a few
But l a t e l y i t 1s been O.K. b e c a u s e
\
)
I know p e o p le o u t s i d e a r e helping*®
T h is f a c t o r would seem t o have som© r e l a t i o n t o
th e p r e v io u s o n e , £&££ 2i gffl.Uog, & fereak uniter
sfta n o e a .
T h is i s fo u n d t o b© t h e case*
olrcum -
The r e l a t i o n i s :
r
•= - . 6 5 1 .0 6
hop© o f g e t t i n g a ttbr©ak% u n f r i e n d l i e s s o f t h e
o u ts id e as seen
S o u rc e s o f Worry i n O u ts id e S i t u a t i o n and Degree o f S u f f e r i n g .
Ha© th© p r i s o n e r l e f t h i s fa m ily d e s t i t u t e ?
How
much do su c h f a c t o r s i n th© p r e s e n t o u t s i d e s i t u a t i o n con­
t r i b u t e to s u ffe rin g ^
41
*
= *30 ± . 1 0
s o u r c e s o f w orry l a
o u tsid e s itu a tio n ,
d e g re e o f
su ffe rin g
T h e re I s t h u s e v id e n c e f o r s. s l i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p ,
lihat we
s©em t o f i n d i s t h a t th© f a c t o r i s h i g h l y im p o rta n t f o r a
few e a s e s b u t does n o t a p p ly t o m o st.
O b j e c t i v e b e v e l o f dob and D egree ©£ S u f f e r i n g
How a r e t h e d a y - to - d a y a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e p r i s o n e r
r e la te d to su ffe rin g ?
t h a n © th e re .
Some p r i s o n e r s have f a r b e t t e r j o b s
How im p o rta n t a r e t h e s e jo b s ?
From c o n v e r s e
t i o n w ith t h e p r i s o n o f f i c i a l s and, many p r i s o n e r s i t was
p o s s i b l e t o r a t e t h e jo b s on a g o od-bad a x i s .
a r e g iv e n i n Appendix A*
r
The c r i t e r i a
The r e l a t i o n found i s ©s f o l l o w s t
=
o b je c tiv e le v e l o f jo b , degree o f s u f f e r in g
T h is i s a s t r i k i n g r e s u l t .
.01 -.11
I t in d ic a t e s t h a t what would
seem t o be one o f th© most i m p o r t a n t , o f d a y -to -d a y a c t i v i t i e s
b e a r s no r e l a t i o n t© s u f f e r i n g .
B u f f e r i n g i s r e l a t e d to
b ro a d er, l e s s im m ed iate aspect® o f t h e l i f e s i t u a t i o n .
S a t i s f a c t i o n w ith J o b and Degree o f S u f f e r i n g
J i m ight fee p r o t e s t e d t h a t r a t i n g o f jo b s m e re ly
by c o n c e n su s a s above i s i n s u f f i c i e n t .
A f t e r a l l , a man
may have a good jo b and s t i l l d i s l i k e i t , w h ile a men w ith
a b a d j o b m ight fee w e ll s a t i s f i e d .
wLlf h jot? *®8 r a t e d .
T h e re fo r® , s a t i s f a c t i o n
I t must be n o t e d t h a t t h i s r a t i n g would
42
b e exp 60te d p a r t s ! a l l y t o r e f l e c t s u f f e r i n g , f o r a man who
i s s u f f e r i n g h i g h l y would t e n d t o lo o k upon h i s jo b w ith
d issa tisfa c tio n *
Th© r e l a t i o n i s as fo llo w s*
T
= —.1 9 i *10
s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith j o b , d e g r e e o f s u f f e r i n g
T h u s, even h e r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p I s n e g l i g i b l e *
Age and Degree o f S u f f e r i n g
Thus f a r we have t r e a t e d f a c t o r s l a r g e l y o f a
s i t u a t i o n a l n a tu r e *
What r o l e do p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s p la y ?
Two su c h f a c t o r s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d .
F i r s t , what i s t h e
r e l a t i o n o f ago t o s u f f e r i n g ?
The r e l a t i o n h e r e i s c u r v i l i n e a r #
The mean euf~
f a r i n g f o r t h e g ro u p below twenty* s i x y e a r s i© 2*18, f o r
t h e twenty** seven t o f i f t y y e a r o l d group 3*34, and f o r t h e
g ro u p o v e r f i f t y y e a r s 2 * 4 .
{See F ig u r e 3 , page 43*5
Th®
d i f f e r e n c e betw een th© j&ean s u f f e r i n g o f th© m iddle g ro u p
and th© s e a s s u f f e r i n g o f t h e young g roup i© s i g n i f i c a n t a t
t h e %$> l e v e l by t h e F i s h e r t t e s t *
The d i f f e r e n c e betw een
t h e m id d le and o l d g ro u p i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t , but betw een
th© m iddle and t h e young and o l d gro ups ta k e n t o g e t h e r th e
d i f f e r e n c e 1® s i g n i f i c a n t a t beyond t h e X’:f l e v e l*
Some l i g h t i s throw n upon t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s by
m a t e r i a l r e v e a l e d i n th e interview © *
Th© young g roup i s
r e l a t i v e l y ©anguine**—l i f e lie© a h e ad , th e y w i l l s t i l l be
§
4
fett&XS
Of
mmmmu
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3; '
l l , —______ <_______
< m
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im m
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yeah*
44
young when th e y g e t o u t .
T&e p r i s o n t e r n I s m erely a tem­
p o r a r y m arking o f tim e b e f o r e th e y b e g in th© © r o ttin g b u s i ­
n e s s o f l i f e o u tsid e *
They ©r@ annoyed b u t th e y do n o t
s u f f e r t o o deeply*
t h e m id d le group i s more d e s p e r a t e .
s l i p p i n g by and th e y a r e s t a g n a t i n g i n p ris o n *
L i f e i®
i#X1m c a s t i n g
t h e b e s t y e a r s o f my l i f e feera,* s a y s P r i s o n e r #8 .
#9 says*
g e ttin g o ld .
P riso n e r
1*11 be m iddle aged, -when 1 g e t
o u t* ©nd I* ve g o t t o f i n d some way o f making a living.**
Men i n suoh a fram e o f mind s u f f e r .
f o r th© o l d group* l i f e
is- b e h in d » e #* say® P r i s o n e r # $ $ .
e v e r came i n h e r e .
1© m o s tly l i v e d . rtMy
life
51I t was l i v e d b e f o r e I
T his i s no p a r t o f i t ;
i t * a j u s t th e end
o f i t . 11
T h is i s an extreme ca se* t a t som eth in g o f
t h e same
a ttitu d e
s e w s p r e s e n t i n most o f ou r o l d men.
o n ly one
In
c a s e was h ig h s u f f e r i n g fo u n d in. an ©Id man* and t h e r e mat­
t e r s were were c o m p lic a te d by t h e man*® s t r o n g f e e l i n g o f
t h e i n j u s t i c e o f h i s s e n t ©no®,, by t h e f a c t t h a t h© was a
r e c e n t adm ission* and by e e h y s i o a l a f f l i c t i o n which c a u s e d
him much m is e r y .
It
i® p o s s i b l e t h a t r e c e n t l y a d m itte d o ld
men w i t h lo n g sentence© do s u f f e r h ig h ly * th ough w© Is o k
e v i d e n c e on t h i s p o in t*
L e v e l o f A m bition and Degree o f S u f f e r i n g
The h y p o t h e s i s m ig h t be b a ld t h a t th© p e r s o
45
f a * t o * Iflg fll &£ mflLtiSfrimg*
im p o rta n t In d e te r m in in g s u f f e r
& man ©£ low a m b itio n i n l i f e , a© one o o n te n t to be a
tr a m p , m ight n o t f i n d im prisonm ent p a r t i c u l a r l y f r u s t r a t i n g ,
w h ile an a m b itio u s man w ith h i g h goal® m ig h t be e x p e c te d to
s u f f e r deep ly *
y
The f o llo w in g r e l a t i o n was founds
l e v e l o f a m b itio n , d e g re e o f ©uff © ring « *08 £ .11
Mo a p p r e c i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e v id e n t*
I f any e x i s t s , i t
i s o b s c u r e d by more p o w e rfu l fa cto rs.*
We h ave d e a l t th u s f a r w ith c o n d i t i o n s which m ight
a f f e c t s u f f e r i n g , t h a t i s , f a c t o r s w hich a r e p r i m a r i l y 8tim~
ulu© s i t u a t i o n s *
S e v e r a l more complex f a c to r ® , which m ight
b e a f f e c t e d b y , a© w e ll a s a f f e c t i n g s u f f e r i n g , w i l l now be
c o n s id e r e d *
P e r s o n a l Oemteot With t h e O u t s i d e and Begxee o f S u f f e r i n g
P e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w ith t h e out©id© i s a f a c t o x ©£
t h e ty p e J u s t d e s c rib e d *
P r i s o n e r s re sp o n d t o t h e i r p e r s o n a l
c o n t a c t w ith t h e o u t s i d e th r o u g h v i s i t s and l e t t e r ® , b u t t h i s
f a c t o r i s o o n t r e l l o d by t h e p r i s o n e r and t h e r e f o r e ©onsti-*
t u t e s a r e s p o n s e a s well*
The r e l a t i o n s h i p w ith s u f f e r i n g was found t o be
c u r v i l i n e a r , w ith t h e low c o n t a c t gxoup low i n s u f f e r i n g ,
t h e medium c o n t a c t group h i g h , and t h e h ig h c o n t a c t g ro u p
low*
The r e s p e c t i v e mean s u f f e r i n g r a t i n g s a r e 1 ,7 5 , 3 .4 6
an d 3*67#
The d i f f e r e n c e betw een t h e low and medium c o n ta c t
g r o u p s i s s i g n i f i c a n t by t h e F i s h e r t t e s t a t beyond th© 1$
V
'
46
le v e l.
P r i s o n e r # 34, who h m o u t o f f a l l p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t
w ith th e o u t s id e , s a y s , **1 d o n 't do h a r d t i m e .
I t ' a much
e a s i e r i f you g e t t h e o u t s i d e o f f your mind and J u s t f o r g e t
a b o u t your fa m ily , your f o l k s and your w i f e **1 For some
c a s e s a t l e a s t , c u t t i n g o f f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s w ith t h e o u t­
s id e seem® t o he an e f f e c t i v e means o f a v o id in g f r u s t r a t i o n ^ *
An a n a lo g o u s d e v ic e ha® been found by W right (71) in work
w ith c h i l d r e n .
f o r t h o s e e a s e s whose p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w ith t h e
o u t s i d e i s l i m i t e d n o t d e l i b e r a t e l y but p e r f o r e s , b e c a u s e
t h e y s im p ly l a c k p e r s o n a l c e n t act® , t h e f a c t o r o f s o u r c e s o f
w orry i n th e o u t s i d e s i t u a t i o n I s e l i m i n a t e d , r e n d e r in g them
l e s s l i a b l e to -su ffe rin g .
M e ept&fioe-M e j e c t io n A l t i t u d e Toward V isit® and Degree o f
S u ffe rin g
I t was th o u g h t t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e tow ard t h e ad­
v i s a b i l i t y o f h a v in g v i s i t o r s from o u t s i d e , r a t h e r th a n t h e
a c t u a l b e h a v io r , m ig h t b e e r some r e l a t i o n to s u f f e r i n g .
A c t u a l l y no r e l a t i o n s h i p was fo u n d .
= .08 ±-.11
r
a c c e p ta n c © -re je c tio n a t t i t u d e
to w ard v i s i t ® ,
d e g re e o f
su ffe rin g
4?
Siunsftary o f F a cto rs as B e la te d t o Degree o f S u ffe r in g
Five factors have been found to be appreciably
related to the A m x m of
th ey ares
I* f e e l i n g o f i n j u s t i c e o f s e n te n c e * x ^ .S ?
3* f e e l i n g o f i n j u s t i c e , o f tim e served* r - . g a
3« I n d e f i n i to n e s s o f knowledge a® t o when w i l l
g e t out* r=*5X
4* h o p e .o f g e t t i n g a wb r e a k 1* u n d e r th e circum ­
s t a n c e s , r****4G
5i u n f r i e n d l i n e s s o f t h e o u t s i d e a a seen* r»*45
t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e c l e a r l y n o t u n r e l a t e d among
them ® elves 4
x
f o r example*
1*3
-* 4 0 , t
1 ,3
=*43, r
3 ,5
= *56, r
^***65
4 ,5
C hoosing t h e t h r e e f a c t o r s m ost h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w ith th e
independent v a r ia b le &$£%$£ jg£ jaa££a£ilR*
R
= .76
d e g re e o f s u f f e r i n g 1 , 3 , 3
t h e s t a n d a r d © rro r c a l c u l a t e f r o » t h e u s u a l fo rm ula i s . 0?,
b u t o t h e r p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s o f e r r o r u n d o u b te d ly r e n d e r t h i s
f i g u r e to o low*
t h e c o e f f ic ie n t o f m u ltip le d e te rm in a tio n ,
o b t a i n e d by s q u a r i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n , i s e q u a l to *58, i n ­
d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e f a c t o r s 1 , 2 and 3 a c c o u n t f o r 68# o f th e
v a r ia n c e in th e &$%£&$. S i m f £ » r i w .
From t h e s i g e o f t h e
i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among th e f a c t o r s , i t a p p e a rs d o u b tf u l
l
••■See F igu re 4 , page 48
49
w h e th e r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e re m a in in g f a c t o r s would f u r ­
n i s h any a p p r e c i a b l e i n c r e a s e i n t h e m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n
ahd c o e f f i c i e n t o f m u l t i p l e d e te r m in a tio n *
3 . t o E x am in atio n o f Some Symptoms o f S u f f e r i n g
I t w i l l he r e c a l l e d t h a t w h ile t h e r a t i n g o f euf«
f a r i n g i s b a s e d upon e m p i r i c a l b e h a v io ra l c r i t e r i a (se©
Appendix A), the©® c r i t e r i a a re complex and were ev a lu a ted
by what we c a l l e d ttc l i n i c a l i n s ig h t* 1.
I t s h o u ld now p ro v e
in t e r e s t in g * a p o s t e r i o r i * t o c o r r e l a t e some r a t i n g s o f
t h e s e symptoms a g a i n s t d e g re e o f s u f f e r i n g .
The c o r r e l a ­
t i o n s o b t a i n e d w i l l b e l a r g e l y c i r c u l a r , g iv i n g us some
n o tio n o f t h e d e g re e t o w hich t h e symptom © ntered I n t o our
" e lln lo & l in s ig h ts * * b u t i t w i l l a l s o c o n t a i n some unknown
elem en t o f t h e e m p i r i c a l o r "true* c o r r e l a t i o n *
D egree o f In v o lv em en t i n D e l l A c t i v i t i e s and Degree o f
S u ffe rin g
The h y p o t h e s i s ' was t h a t a p r i s o n e r who was u n a b le
to i n t e r e s t h i m s e l f in any a c t i v i t y i n h i s c e l l was s u f f e r ­
i n g h i g h l y , w hereas one who was a b so rb e d i n v a r io u s p la n n e d
a c t i v i t i e s was n o t s u ffe r in g a g r e a t d e a l .
A p p aren tly t h i s
h y p o t h e s i s h e a v i l y w e ig h te d th e r a t i n g s ?
r
= - .8 3 £ .0 6
d e g re e o f in v o lv em en t
in c a ll a c t i v i t i e s ,
d e g re e o f
su ffe rin g
50
D egree o f In v o lv em en t in R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s and
begre© o f S u f f e r lu g
An h y p o t h e s i s s i m i l a r t o t h e above was h eld h e r e .
th e r e l a t i o n s h i p fo u n d 1s t
x
d e g r e e o f in v o lv e m e n t i n
re c re a tio n a l a c t i v i t i e s ,
d e g re e o f
su ffe rin g
= -.3 3 ^ .0 9
Degree o f Annoyance a t C o n c re te Things and Degree o f
B u ff© rin g
Was t h e man who co m p la in s a g r e a t d e a l ab o u t spo­
o l fi© aspect® o f t h e p r i s o n r a t e d h ig h on s u f f e r i n g ?
A
c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n was fo u n d , w ith t h e low s u f f e r i n g
g ro u p showing a mean annoyance r a t i n g o f 3 . 1 , t h e medium
s u f f e r i n g g ro u p 3*9, and t h e h ig h s u f f e r i n g g ro up 2 *6 .
th e
d i f f e r one® betw een t h e low an d medium s u f f e r i n g group and
b etw e en t h e h ig h and medium s u f f e r i n g group a r e s t a t i s t i c a l ­
l y s i g n i f i c a n t by t h e F i s h e r t t e s t a t beyond t h e 14 l e v e l .
T h is i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n making
t h e ra tin g © f o r s u f f e r i n g t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , a f t e r c o n s i d e r in g
a l l t h e symptom©, wa© cons t r a i n e d from g i v i n g h ig h s u f f e r i n g
r a t i n g s to p riso n e r© who co m p lain ed a g r e a t d e a l .
T his r e ­
l a t i o n s h i p , w hich may w e ll be t h e rtt r u e 14 on e, i s q u i t e p la u ­
sib le .
The man who i s s u f f e r i n g l i t t l e has few c o m p la in ts :
t h e mam who i s s u f f e r i n g s e v e r e l y i s beyond co m p lain in g a t
r e la ti v e l y t r i v i a l th in g s.
I t i s t h e medium s u f f e r i n g
51
g ro u p w h ich i s a t t h e s t a t e o f maximum i r r i t a b i l i t y *
D eg r ee o f D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e P r is o n and Degr©© o f
b u ffe rin g
How much d o e s th© p r is o n e r know a b o u t th e p r is o n ,
it ® o r g a n i s a t i o n , ami©®, p e r s o n n e l?
£© some e x t e n t t h i s I s
a f u n c t i o n o f M s I n t e l l i g e n c e and g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i n su ch
m a tte r s *
In a d d i t i o n , th© h y p o t h e s is was h e ld t h a t d eep
s u f f e r i n g w ould r e s u l t i n s l i g h t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f th©
p r is o n f ie ld *
t h e r e l a t i o n , h o w ev er, was fo u n d t o h e low ;
X
= ~*19±.X G
degree of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n
o f t h e p r is o n ,
degree of
s u ffe r in g
I n a few i n d i v i d u a l o a s e s t h e r e l a t i o n doe® appear
t© e x i s t *
p r is o n e r # M , p r o b a b ly th® m ost s e v e r e ly s u f f e r ­
in g o f ou r e n t i r e g r o u p , ©hows a p ro fo u n d la c k o f know ledge
o f t h e p r i s o n , ev e n a f t e r f o u r and a h a l f y e a r s*
WX h a r d ly
know t h e names o f any o f t h e m en ,1* he sa y s*
S o c i a b i l i t y and B&gre© o f S u f f e r in g
Doe© t h e p r i s o n e r h av e a wide c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s or
i s h© r e l a t i v e l y s o l i t a r y i n hi© h a b i t s ?
While t h i s beha­
v i o r p a r t l y r e f l e c t s g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s , i t was th o u g h t t h a t
i t m ight a l s o r e f l e c t t h e d e g r e e o f s u f f e r i n g *
T his f a c t o r
was n o t employed I n making t h e s u f f e r i n g r a t i n g s and would
t h e r e f o r e in v o lv e no a r b i t r a r y elem ent i n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n .
The r e l a t i o n was fo u n d t o fee lo w :
r
a o o i a f e i li t y * d e g re e o f s u f f e r i n g
= - . 2 4 ± .1 0
3* F a c t o r s B e l a t e d t o Escape
Under what c o n d i t i o n s does a p r i s o n e r a tte m p t to
escape?
The p r a c t i c a l v a l u e o f th e r e p l y t o t h i s q u e s t i o n
i s o b v io u s $ t h e o r e t i c a l l y too* i t i s im p o r ta n t t o know under
what c o n d i t i o n s a man i s w i l l i n g t o r i s k M s l i f e i n a t ­
te m p tin g e s c a p e from a w a lle d p r i s o n h e a v i l y gu ard ed fey
armed men.
Each p r i s o n e r was r a t e d on s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o
f s c a p e and g iv e n a n e sc a p e s c o r e ,
d e s c rip tio n o f th ese r a tin g s .)
(Bee Appendix A f o r
th e w r i t e r was f o r t u n a t e i n
h a v in g o b t a in e d t h e c o n f id e n c e o f most o f t h e p riso n er® i n ­
t e r v i e w e d t o th e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y were f r a n k i n t h e i r
statem en t® ab o u t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s tow ard e s c a p e # two a c t u a l l y
a d m i t t i n g t h a t th e y were p l o t t i n g t o esc ap e a t th© tim e .
E x p e c ta ti o n o f >G e t t i n g Out Soon and Escape Score
l i t t l e h op e o f g e t t i n g o u t b e f o r e a lo n g tim e
seems t o fee t h e p sy ejs© lo g ic al s i t u a t i o n o f th o s e who a tte m p t
to escape.
A t y p i c a l s t a t e m e n t i s t h a t o f P r i s o n e r #39,
s e r v i n g l i f e f o r f i r s t d e g r e e m u rd er.
j o i n t a f t e r X was i n her® a b o u t a year*
*X t r i e d t o b e a t t h i s
1 had such a lo n g
t i m e a h e a d I h a d bo t h i n g t o lo s e *
But I* v e p u t i n so much
tim e bob C e ig b te e n yearsQ t h a t 1*11 t r y t o g e t o u t on t h e
l e g i t * 11 P r i s o n e r #31, a n o t h e r " l i f e r * s a y s , "X t r i e d ( j o
esoapO
f i r s t y e a r and a h a l f , b u t when I found th e y
h ad no h o ld e r e re on me, I d e c id e d t o work my way o u t (a tte m p t
to g et out l e g a l l y ) . *
i n g t o ©scape*
P r i s o n e r #34 f r a n k l y ad m its he i s t r y ­
*1 h a y s no c h a n c e ©f g e t t i n g o u t any o t h e r
way* *
Th® s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i o n i s as fo llo w s :
r
e x p e c ta tio n o f g e ttin g
o u t so o n ,
esc a p e s c o r e
= -*.49 ± .00
T i m id i t y end £*o«tp© S co re
C le a r ly , th e s i t u a t i o n o f h o p elessn e ss i s not a l l .
As t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s c a t t e r diagram and c o e f f i c i e n t i n d i c a t e ,
t h e r e a r e p r i s o n e r s i n h o p e l e s s s i t u a t i o n s who do n o t e s c a p e .
P e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s must be i n v o l v e d .
Th© p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r which seemed b e s t t o .char­
a c t e r i z e th e p r i s o n e r s i n r e l a t i v e l y h o p e le s s s i t u a t i o n s who
d i d n o t attem pt t o ©soap© was t i m i d i t y *
To a v o id c i r c u l a r ­
i t y , t i m i d i t y we® r a t e d p u r e l y on th e b a s i s o f th e p r i s o n ­
e r f s p a s t l i f e and e x p r e s s e d a t t i t u d e s w ith o u t c o n s i d e r in g
escape a ttitu d e s *
h a lo e f f e c t.
A c o n s c io u s a tte m p t was made t o a v o id
Th© r e l a t i o n was found t o be as follow®:
54
x
si —*68 i *06
t i m i d i t y * ©scape ©cor©
The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e two f a c t o r s w ith th e escape
scor® l e t
R
exoap© s c o r e * ex p e ct a t i o n o f
t i m i d i t y =? *76
g e t t i n g o u t soon,
Th© c a l c u l a t e d s t a n d a r d e r r o r i s .0 7 , which i s u n d o u b ted ly
t o o low *
The c o e f f i c i e n t o f m u l t i p l e d e te r m in a tio n i s *58,
i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e two f a c t o r s acco u n t f o r 58$ o f th e
x a r lan e© i n th® e s c a p e sco re*
I t w i l l he shown l a t e r i n
t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f c r i m i n a l t y p e s t h a t th© c r im i n a l ty p e s
c h a r a c t e r i s e d by t i m i d i t y hair© th© lo w e s t esc ap e s c o r e s .
I n F ig u r e 5, page 5 5 , an ©scape g ro u p , c o n s i s t i n g
o f p ris o n e r ® w ith an ©soap© s c o r e o f 8 ( t h o s e who have ac­
t u a l l y ©soaped o r a r e p l o t t i n g esc ap e) i s compared w ith a l l
th© o t h e r e a s e s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e com bined e x p e c t a t io n o f
g e t t i n g o u t soon and t i m i d i t y r a t i n g s *
The two d i s t r i b u ­
t i o n s a r e shown b a r e l y t o o v e r l a p .
S u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o JSseep© and Degree o f S u f f e r i n g
Are h i g h l y s u f f e r i n g p r i s o n e r s a p t t o ©scape?
In
t e s t in g t h is hypothesis the ra tin g s on B u so eo tib llity £a
th e tim e o f i n t e r v ie w ) were u s e d , s i n c e th e o n ly
d a t a on s u f f e r i n g a v a i l a b l e r e f e r r e d t o t h e time of i n t e r ­
view*
The r e l a t i o n was fo und to be i n s ig n if ic a n t i
m
a
4
S
•
*
mmm wm w m w i m
t
m
n
or
U M i
*«***«»#& tlMMT
JHMT
O l o t t i f t g # 00*90
fifw t §
&iOt*&%tttlOft Of Oool&Md gopoototio* Of O tttif tf
Oof- i#0m
tim
iM
&
f M ita g # foar
000*9# *04 0000000090 0*f©ttp#
12
56
r
d e g re e o f s u f f e r i n g , s u s c e p t i b i l i t y
t o esc a p e
- *20 ± .10
B* A l o n g i t u d i n a l B eh avior Sequence
k s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n o f b e h a v io r which a p p e a re d
r a th e r fre q u e n tly in th e p ris o n h is to ry o f our su b je c ts
( P r i s o n e r s #10, 1 1 , 13, 14, 1 ? , 2 7 , 28, 39) and w ith r e ­
m a rk a b le u n i f o r m i t y may be p o i n t e d o u t .
An a g g r e s s i v e young c r i m i n a l 1© c o n v ic te d o f some
c r im e o f v i o l e n c e and g iv e n a lo n g s e n t e n c e .
The s i t u a t i o n
a p p e a r s h o p e le s s t o hlmj he ha© l i t t l e to l o s e .
he h ave much r e s p e c t f o r th© a u t h o r i t i e s .
Bex does
He a tte m p ts es­
c a p e , som etim es even from th© j a i l b e f o r e b e in g s e n t to
p riso n *
U s u a lly th© esc a p e a tt e m p t f a i l s .
For a few y e a rs
h e i s b a d ly b e h a v ed , r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t th© a u t h o r i t y o f th e
p r i s o n and o f t e n c o n t i n u i n g t o p l o t ©scape.
There may b©
so m eth in g o f a t a p e r i n g o f f In hi© bad b e h a v io r a s i t b e cornea o b v io u s th ro u g h b i t t e r e x p e r ie n c e t h a t i t can g e t him
no p l a c e .
One day h e becomes aware t h a t he h as s e rv e d con­
s i d e r a b l e ti m e , and l e g a l r e l e a s e by p sro l© i s a p o s s i b i l i t y ,
fie m a r s h a ls w h a te v e r o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e ha c a n , such a© fa m ily
o r f r i e n d s , t o work f o r hi© r e l e a s e .
They may have t r i e d
b e f o r e , b u t now t h e r e i s r e a l l y r e a s o n t© hope.
R e a lisin g
t h a t b a d b e h a v io r ©an be h e l d a g a i n s t him by th e p a r o l e
b o a r d , he becomes v ery w e ll b eh a v ed .
The sequence i s
5?
i l l u s t r a t e d I n f i g u r e 6 , peg© 58*
C o rre sp o n d in g t o p o l o g i c a l
r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s may be found i n f i g u r e 7 , peg® 59*
The eeq u en ee m ight be p o i n t e d t o a s a m inor and
Im p e r f e c t example o f n " h i s t o r i c a l law% i*e* on© i n which
b e h a v io r a t each p o i n t i® o f c o u r s e d e te rm in e d by th e con­
d itio n ® a t t h a t p b i n i , h u t i n w hich t h e r e i s a c h a r a c t e r i s ­
t i c seq u e n ce o f t h e s e © h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n c o n s t e l l a t i o n s *
F u r t h e r , t h e seq u e n c e d r a m a t i c a l l y i n d i c a t e s how p r i s o n
b e h a v io r l a d o m in a n tly d e te r m in e d by what might he c a l l e d
" t h e g ettin g « * o u t com plex” *
0* C r im in a l Type© and P r i s o n B ehavior
The p rim a ry fo c u s o f t h i s s tu d y 1® upon t h e p r i s o n
s i t u a t i o n and p r i s o n b e h a v io r*
I t i s c l e a r , however, t h a t
p r i s o n b e h a v io r i s d e te rm in e d n o t s o l e l y by t h e p r i s o n s i t u ­
a t i o n , b u t by t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e p r i s o n e r as w e l l ,
&en
o f w id e ly d i v e r s e tem peram ents and c h a ra c te r© e n t e r t h e
p r i s o n w a lls*
To some e x t e n t a t l e a s t we must t r e a t t h i s
a s p e c t o f t h e problem*
To a tt e m p t t o c l a s s i f y o u r g rou p i n t o p e r s o n a l i t y
type© would be fo o lh a rd y *
The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y
1® s t i l l i n a p r i m i t i v e s t a t e *
We have in c lu d e d among our
r a t i n g ite m s two p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s , asce and l&YSl &IL
a m b i t i o n , a g e , o f c o u r s e , b e in g n o t s t r i c t l y a p e r s o n a l i t y
f a c t o r b u t h av in g concom m ltants In p e r s o n a l i t y . I t seems
* See l e w i n , K u rt, P r i n c i p l e s of TopoI pjlIp ^ I ff sycholff&y,
lew York: S o a rs* H i l l , 1936.
58
TIME
SITO.fi.TX0S
Bw m vxon
OGSVtOTXOR
TEAKS
I,
KS0APE ATTEMPT.
m
b o p f o f o s T fx ia
GOT FOB A 1 0 * 0 TIME.
MOTHIMG TO LOSS.
II.
LOW HOPS. LITTLK TO
LO SS. OOMFLXOT IB
RS6AHD TO AMOTHER
ESOAFS A t r m p f ,
1«.
p s m m n m that bad
BKKAVIOR I S W h Y
e m B i m KIM T R 00SU '
If.
$
BAD BEHAVIOR
4
I
p m O S P tX O S THAT LfiSfiL
8 ELSAS® IS A SOT-SO*
DJSTAJHf PO SSIBILITY ASO
THAT OOOB S8SAVIQR
WILL HSU*.
i
I
I
10
MORE CAUTIOUS BEHAVIOR.
dOKBOXOUSLY OOOB
BS'AVIOR.
RELSAS*
F ig u r e 6
A TTPI6 AL BKKAVIOR 8 K0 UEKGS OF A TOOSO ABB AOORSSSIVJS
miSOS.CR M W IBS SOIDITIOSS OS 0 8 8 * 8 1 0 8 IT DOCTORS
59
rigour* 7
TO PotoaiO At w B p a tttK sm io B S or th s l g b g it o b is a i ,
BEHAVIOR SffiQUSHOE OF A YOUKG AMO AGGRESSIVE
mzsoBxit m m a bos© a m o e s
S it a a tlo a
a lo n g l i n e .
He e n t e r s p r i s o n w itfe no hope o f g e t t i n g o u t f o r
H is s i t u a t i o n asjr h e r e p r e s e n t e d a s f o l l o w s !
tex.ftg.tat.B.'UfiB. &*
I
He e x p e c ts* m m l e v e l o f arealt t y , th e s i t u a t i o n in th e near
fu tu r e { fa x ) and i n th e d is t a n t fu tu r e (£u») t o he e s s e n t i a l l y
th e same mm i t i s a t p r e se n t {p t4 * KeXeaee.&s so fa r ©way as
to he o u t o f s ig h t#
F o r m © llf ttio a lly s t a t e d * S<p*$ *
» ^(f% >
% r t «*pr arspf© seats © f o r c e t o g e t o u t o f p ris o n * I t correspond©
t o t h e & ie a g r e e a b la n e s s o f t h e p r i s o n t o g e t h e r s i t h t h e a ttram *
t i v e n e s s o f t h e o u ts i d e *
h o t u» c o n s i d e r somewhat more c l o s e l y u n d er what co n­
d i t i o n s e s c a p e s o c c u r * By d e f i n i t i o n , e s c a p e o c c u rs i f i
i t } l*pyf«*pr( > - l^par#esol
Ecu d o e s t h e p r i s o n e r , i n c o n s i d e r i n g e s c a p e , s e e t h e
a l t e r n a t i v e # b e f o r e him? The p o s s i b l e r e s u lt® o f an esc ap e a tte m p t
a r e e i t h e r iferssdom» &{Fy)f o r f a i l u r e and r e t u r n t o p r i s o n , S(0)*
59a
A nalysing fpT 9m
, th * sum o f th * fo rc e * a o tin g a g a in s t
escap e, we see t h a t i t depends upon th e n e g a tiv e valence o f the
f u tu r e s i t u a t i o n and th e p r o b a b ility t h a t i t w ill o ccu r, fh is
e o n s t i t u t e s In th e p re s e n t e a se th e n e g a tiv e valance o f both the
d an g ers o f escape and o f th e eonsequenoes o f bein g caught, as
w ell as h is e s tim a te o f th e p r o b a b ility o f h ia attem p t being u s .
s u c c e s s fu l* fo llo w in g Ssoalons* we may re p re s e n t t h i s p robabil­
i t y roughly by th e r e l a t i v e w eight o r potency (Po) t h i s fu tu re
s i t u a t i o n w ill have upon th e p re s e n t d e c is io n .
Thus; (8 )
|fp*7«*ej
( a s ) |f p r , . p r l
# f [fa (8 (C )) • P© (S(O)]).
» 1 & • Cf*) •
and,
*© & **2
S u b s t i t u t i n g (2 ) m& ( 3 a) i n ( l ) t
(2 )
Vh <3<pr)) •
to
(iCpar))^* Va W 0 ) >
« to (3(0)}
B at $ ( $ ) , i * a . r o t wm t o p r is o n * i© s c a r c e l y more u n p le a s a n t t o
Mm th a n M s p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i ( p r ) * fit® v a la n c e s e y e b u t
s l i g h t l y d i f f e r a n t* l e t m s a y :
Va(px)
end
Va{0) * » u
But* i n a d d i t i o n , h e h a s some h o p e o f s u c c e s s f u l e sc a p e *
Even
i f t h i s h op e l a i o n and h e s e e s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y (F o ) o f b e in g
c a u g h t a s r a t h e r h ig h , e . g . Po{@) * * # , t h e n , s u b s t i t u t i n g In
e q u a tio n (3)
11
x
I t w i l l h e s e e n t h a t V « (p r)® P o (p r) > V a (S (0 )* F e (3 (O ) and
e s c a p e occurs© (A w ord o f e x p la n a t io n i n r e g a r d t h t h e v a lu e o f
F o (p r ) » « ? ho n e c e s s a r y . The p r is o n s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s a t p r e s e n t ,
i t s p r o b a b i l i t y o f o c c u r r in g I s t h e r e f o r e t h e maximum l i m i t i n g
v a lu e , l ,« * 1 .)
I n o t h e r word©, t h e c e r t a i n u n p le a s a n t n e s s o f
t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i s r e a d i l y abandoned f o r ev en a s l i g h t l e s s
c e r t a i n u n p le a s a n t n e s s o f t h e f u t u r e , i f t h e f u t u r e u n p le a s a n t*
n e s s i s n o t m m h g r e a t e r th e n t h e p r e s e n t one* t h u s , e s c a p e s
o ccu r ffhsnf
1* f h e d i f f e r e n c e b etw e en t h e u n a ttraetlv em ee s o f t h e
s i t u a t i o n a t p r e s e n t and i t s u n a tir a e tlv m e s s a f t e r p o s s i b l e r e ­
c a p t u r e i s sm e ll, i . e .
% ( 0 ) *» V a (p r) m s m a ll
and 3* Seme h o p e e x i s t s , ev en th o u g h s l i g h t , t h a t e s c a p e
c a n b e a c c o m p lish e d *
S it u a tio n l i t
For «b* sake ©f c o n tr a s t, l o t u* preeeed to
*K*©alena, 8 .K ., “ The E ffe o t of Suooess and F a ilu re
upon tb e Level o f A sp ira tio n and Behavior In M enlo-Depressive
P sy ch o ses* , Hail- a t lsu& SlWtt&S. la 9M
M
X
V
I. 3.
199-303.
S itu a tio n IV, which nay he re p re s e n te d a s fo llo w s;
P-U'TUfiB. I
O*-© =■
fiere th©
p r is o n e r
r e le a s e ,
somewhat
6
fu tu r e lo c k s cu lt© d i f f e r e n t from th e p r e s e n t, th e
h im s e lf a t th e p r e s ©at (p*$ m loeom oting toward
to th e e a r ly fu tu r e (fn ^ ) as b ein g nearer r e le a s e , and
l a t e r (fu g ) a s g e t t i n g o u t.
m m
ft (p a l *£ M f u x ) dt 3 ( f u s )
Ho* h i s e n t i r e p e r c e p tio n o f m m m pe i s q u it s d if f e r e n t . lew i f
he were t o attem pt esca p e end f a i l M s s it u a t io n would he fa r
w orse th an i t I s a t p r e s e n t s in c e ho would tee back a g a in , w ith
added tim e to s e r v e and no hope o f p a r o le , th a t i s , th e n eg a tiv e
v a le n c e o f ft{0) I s v ery g re a t* andi
TcCC) * Ta(py) m la r g e
and
T a tp r) *Fo{pr) << Va{3ic}}.f*©(s(d))
th e o n ly o o n d itlo n u nder which escape might ©ecur would he i f the
c e r t a i n t y (Potency) o f s u c c e s s fu l escape were very h igh.
There a r e a d d itio n a l M ffe r e a c e s between S itu a tio n s
How th e p r is o n e r mem good b eh avior m a path to re­
l e a s e . t n 1 , 'th ere was but one p a th , ©soaps (<Wfc a deseape)*
How h e s e e s an oth er way o u t, good b eh a v io r, w a itin g , and o u tsid e
h e lp toward p a r o le , fftgmt * %©od b eh a v io r, e t c .) * ** tfelSJf!!tb
i s r a th e r c le a r th e te n s io n w o p s and th e io o d improve®. This
i s In l i n e w ith ou r f in d in g in regard to th e le n g th o f tim e a
man e x p e c ts to s e r v e , th a t i s , a man w ith a sh ort tim e l e f t suf­
f e r s b u t l i t t l e . , d l e a r l y , betw een S itu a t io n I and IT a change )
i n th e c o g n it iv e s tr u c tu r e has taken p la c e . E xactly at which
p o in t and ho* t h i s change ta k e s p la ce depends upon th© I n d iv id -t
n e l* s p e r s o n a lit y s tr u c tu r e and h is p a r tic u la r s it u a t io n .
IT and I*
S i t u a t i o n j t t , He may ho* retu rn to S itu a tio n I I . He i s back in
a s i t u a t i o n s im ila r t o t h a t in H © presentation 1 , but w ith c e r ta in
m o d if ic a t io n s , i n u n s u c c e s s fu l attem pt has been made t o escap e,
and he i s back i n p r is o n . low escap e appears to be p r a c t ic a lly
im p o s s ib le s That i s , th e o n ly way which he s e e s o f g e t t in g out
o f p r is o n i s b lo c k e d . The d is a g r e e a b le n e s s o f th e p r iso n i s
l a In c re a se d because o f th e punishment he undoubtedly receiv ed
and t h e shame o f f a i l u r e . So* b o th Va(0) and P©(e) hare be­
come vesy h ig h ein o e h® has e x p e rt ©need f a i l u r e l a escaping.
I . e . P o(0)« alm ost 1 . The s t a t e o f a f f a i r s I s probably
V a(p r)•P o (p r) a l £gb t l * f a ( 0 ) .p o ( 0 )
a l t h b o th fo ro es s tr o n g . C o n flic t and te n s io n r e s u l t , s l t h
r e s t l e s s , b i t t e r n e s s and bad b e h av io r.
S it u a tio n J J 2 . A fte r S itu a tio n IX has co n tin u ed fo r a tim e , th e
p r is o n e r r e a l i s e s t h a t h is bad behavior only causes him tro u b le ,
and t h a t he m ight as s e l l be o em fo rtab le.
J& m m a S a S le ft
BfhP eeHGVfoR
CftuT/O i
-T^—
-T >
TT9o u
= - 0 '
e t - e-
f>t i I
i n which
«,t*
8
t o g e t m t o f t r o u b le d
Hot® t h e e f f e c t i v e X if© -s p a c e i t n a rro eed # h i s b e h a v io r feeing?
d@t.exmlne€ fey th e im m ed ia te s i t u a t i o n *
t h i s I s in agreem en t w ith
e x p e r im e n ts m f r u s t r a t i o n ( e . g * FmjmM*) w hich M v e shown th a t
a r e g i o n t h a t d e f i n i t e l y becom es i n a c c e s s i b l e ( g e t t i n g o u t) more
o r l e s s l o s e s I t s i n f l u e n c e . f & ls ch a n g e i n im m ediate s i t u a t i o n
may w e l l f a c i l i t a t e t h e s h i f t from t h e la r g e r S it u a t i o n I t o t h e
la r g e r S itu a t io n I f#
f i t f e Come c a s e s , S i t u a t i o n IV may change
f i r s t * c a u s in g a c o r r e s p o n d in g ch a n g e i n S i t u a t i o n XII*
♦ F a ja n s, S«|*»Ble Bedeutusg Car t n t f e r m m g fHx d ie
S iir h e e ln e s Aufforderrnigsoharahtears helm S&ugling und K l e i n h in d ? IS X tite lo i t o S f c * , 19S25t X?t 3 15-367.
60
possible to go sott-ewtat beyond this,
We can c l a s s i f y crim­
inal t y p e s , p o s t u l a t i n g some relationship betw een criminal
ty p e and personality type*
T h is w i l l have th e advantag e of
possible finding® o f p r a c t i c a l consequence f o r p e n a l ad*
ministration*
Various e la @ s iflc s.tio n ® of criminals have a p p e ared
in the l i t e r a t u r e ,
V ario u s classifications ©.re p o s s i b l e ,
depending upon t h e i n t e r e s t s and purpose® o f t h e c l a s s i f i e r .
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s o f t e n on, a l e g a l b a s i s , such as c r im i n a l s
a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y , a g a i n s t person® , etc*
P s y c h o a n a ly tic
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s have been made ( £ , 3, 4 , 60}*
th e p re se n t
clarification grows o u t o f no one t h e o r y , u n le s s it b® t h e
t h e o r y ©f t h e multiple causation o f c rim e .
and. empirical
It i s e c l e c t i c
I t s t y p e s o v e r l a p somewhat, b u t seem t o allo w
for a p r a c t i c a b l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n te rm s of th e dominant
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each case*
The ty p e s ares
IM
g*e»p i®
young, w ith an elem ent o f b ra v a d o .
crystallised, c r i m i n a l id e o lo g y .
I t lack® a
I is crim es do
n o t i n v o l v e h ig h c r im i n a l s k i l l , but usually
acme d a r i n g , and a r e not p erfo rm ed under sharp
economic p r e s s u r e .
The e t i o l o g y seems to be
com plex, in v o lv in g n e u r o t i c and c u l t u r a l as
well n.B im m ediate s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s .
61
JM .
.to m *
These p o s s e s s c r im i n a l
s k i l l s , make t h e i r l i n i n g fey c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y ,
and a r e r e c o g n i s e d fey t h e i r fellow©
p ro fessio n als*
bb
feeing
There i s a degree of cooperation
w i t h i n t h e group*
I t has feeen well d e s c r i b e d
fey S u t h e r l a n d * T h e s e , m w ell m t h o s e i n t h e
f o l l o w i n g g ro u p , may have f o r m e r l y been o f th©
y o u t h f u l - * a g g r e s s i v e type*
Ih& M M M m k t o m *
Though engaging r a t h e r f r e ­
q u e n t l y I n c rim e , t h i s group l a c k s th e h ig h
c r i m i n a l s k i l l o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l m- w ell a©
th e group^feelongingness*
Ifee
ty p e *
The e t i o l o g y i s complex*
Mere no p a r t i c u l a r I n c e n t iv e s
f o r co m m ittin g t h e c rim e a p p e a r i n t h e e x t e r n a l
situ a tio n *
The c rim e i s a p p a r e n t l y a symptom
o f i n n e r n e u r o t i c c o n f l i c t , and indeed t h e spe­
c i f i c form o f th© c rim e i s o f t e n sym bolic of
th a t c o n flic t*
T h is ty p e h as been d e s c r ib e d fey
A lex a n d er and S ts u b ( 4) •
Tfap a l t p a t i o n p i type*
l i t t l e or no p r e m e d it a t i o n
o r c r i m i n a l i d e o l o g y e x i s t s here*
IM
1937.
The crim e i s
s S u t h e r l a n d , &*H « ( a n n o t a t o r and i n t e r p r e t e r ) ,
XMi&» Chicago; Univ. o f Chigaeo P r e s s ,
x iii,3 5 6 p p .
83
co m m itted undos th© p l e a s u r e of e x t r a o r d i n a r y
e v e n ts, in th e e x te rn a l s i t u a t io n , or re p re s e n ts
an i s o l a t e d y i e l d i n g t o t e m p t a t i o n .
t n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t e have one p r i s o n e r who i s
apparently Innocent*
H« b e l o n g s , o f c o u r s e , t o no c r im i n a l
t y p e , b u t f o r t h e purpose© o f analysis he i & c l a s s e d w ith
the situational t y p e b e c a u se o f t h e s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e la c k
o f c r i m i n a l id e o lo g y *
T hat t h i s classification o f c r i m i n a l s i s p r a c t i c ­
a b l e i s i n d i c a t e d by the p e r f e c t agreem ent o f two r a t e r s
w i t h t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i n c a t e g o r i s i n g t e n o f th© cases*
The e n t i r e group was c l a s s i f i e d a s fo llo w s?
y o u t h f u l * a g g r e s s i v e , 8 Cases o r 20$ o f t h e group
professional, 11 o a s e s o r 87,5$ o f th e group
h a b i t u a l , 4 case© ©r 10$ o f th© group
n e u r o ti c * 4 o a s e s o r 10$ o f th e group
s i t u a t i o n a l , 13 c a s e s or 3 8 .5 $ o f t h e group
Tr o u b l esorn ©ness
The mean tro u b le s o m e n e s s r a t i n g s fo x th e c r im i n a l
group© a r e as fo llo w s ?
y o u th f u l * a g g r © s s i v e * 3 .0 6
p r o f e s s i o n a l , 1 .5 5
h a b i t u a l , 3 .0 0
n e u r o t i c , 1 .7 5
63
s i t u a t i o n a l , 1*88
Most s t r i k i n g , p e r h a p s , i s t h e h ig h tro u b le so m e moss o f t h e y o u t h f u l * a g g r e s s i v e g rou p.
I t is sig n ific a n tly ^
h i g h e r , a t t h e 8 $ l e v e l by t h e F is h e r t t e s t , th a n th e mean
Of a l l t h e o t h e r group© com bined.
f h l a i s i n k eeping w ith
t h e o b s e rv a tio n ® o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f p r i s o n s which c o n t a i n
a larg © p r o p o r t i o n o f in m a te s o f t h e y o u th f u l* a g g r e s s iv e
ty p e ,
B e h a v io r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e found t o be f a r more p re ­
v a l e n t and d i f f i c u l t t o manage t h a n i n i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n ta in *
I n g o t h e r ty p e s ©£ c r i m i n a l s .
The p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro u p i s low i n tro u b lc so m e n e ss ,
b e in g s i g n i f i c a n t l y Ice-er th e n th e .mean o f a l l th e o t h e r
g ro u p s com bined.
The r e l a t i v e l y s o p h i s t ice. t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l
i s aw are t h a t g e t t i n g i n t o t r o u b l e w ith t h e ■orison o f f i c i a l ©
w i l l o n ly make h i s s t a y t h e more u n p le a s a n t mud may h u r t h i s
chance© o f r e l e a s e ,
Uoo6 b e h a v io r a l s o b r i n g s a minimum o f
a t t e n t i o n on t h e p r i s o n e r , so he i s more f r e e to c a r r y on
c e r t a i n su b * ro se a c t i v i t i e s a© w e ll &s t o d s n f o r an escape
i f he i s ao inoli& ded*
h* p r i s o n e r #86, a p r o f e s s i o n a l , r e ­
m ark ed , * I t , s s m a rt t o obey t h e r u l e s . 11
The s i t u a t i o n a l group i s a ls o low i n tro u b leso m eness,
I t d i f f e r s a i g n i f l e a n t l y a t t h e Bp l e v e l from th e
y o u t h f u l * a g g r e s s i v e g ro u p , b u t not from t h e o th e r type©
tak en to g e th e r,
T h i s , t o o , i s r e a s o n a b le .
The s i t u a t i o n a l
84
giroup in l a c k i n g i n c r i m i n a l Id e o lo g y and l a lawu a b id in g and
r e s p e c t f u l of a u th o rity *
The h a b i t u a l group contain© to o few e a s e s t o allow
f o r th® p o s s i b i l i t y o f f i n d i n g s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s .
Its
t r e n d a p p e a rs t o b e to w ard h i g h tro n b !e a o m o n e c s , which would
b e i n k e e p in g w i t h t h e g e n e ra ! t d e c l o g l e r l d i s o r g a n i s a t i o n
o f t h e group*
The n e u r o t i c group doe© not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c & n t l y
from any o f th® other©*
S u ffe rin g
The me am ra tin g © f o r t h e d e g re e o f s u f f e r i n g a r e ^
a® fo llo w s ?
y o u t n fn I * a g g r e s s i w a , 3*85
p r o f e s s i o n a l , $*4S
h a b i t u a l , 8 .7 5
n e u r o t i e , 8*85
s i t u a t i o n a l , 3*98
Hon® o f t he d i f f ®r eno es. :'4 s St a t i @11o a l l y h i g h ly
sig n ific a n t*
The d i f f e r e n c e betw een t h e p r o f e s s i o n s ! and
n e u r o t i c g ro u p s m ight i n d i c a t e a t r e n d , f o r i t i s s i g n i f i ­
c a n t a t t h e 10$ l e v e l *
The low s u f f e r i n g o f t h e n e u r o t i c
g ro u p , i f a c t u a l l y e x i s t e n t , would a g re e w ith t h e psycho­
a n a l y t i c a s s e r t i o n t h a t soma n e u r o t i c c r i m i n a l s perform
t h e i r ©rime© b e c a u s e o f u n c o n sc io u s g u i l t and need f o r
65
p u n is h m e n t, w ith t h e punishm ent u n c o n s c io u s ly p l e a s u r a b l e .
Th© number o f p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s a p p r e c i a b l y I n f l u e n c i n g so
s m a ll a group i e so la rg e * how ever, t h a t no c o n c lu s io n s can
b e v e n tu re d *
P r i s o n Jo b s
t h e mean r a t i n g s a r e a s fo llo w ss
youthful** a g g r e s s i v e , 2 .3 5
p r o f e s s i o n a l , 3 .5 5
h a b i t u a l , 3 .0 0
n e u r o t i c , 5*00
s i t u a t i o n a l , 3 .6 9
The k in d o f jo b a man has i n p r i s o n i s b o th a r e s p o u s e and a s t i m u l u s .
I t I s a re s p o n s e i n t h a t i t o f t e n
r e f l e c t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e man1® e f f o r t s t o g e t h im s e lf
th e b e st p o s s ib le b e rth .
I t may r e f l e c t th e p r i s o n e r 1^ in ­
g e n u i t y a t m a n ip u la tin g t h e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n .
I t is a
s t i m u l u s complex i n t h a t t h e p r i s o n e r re sp o n d s to h is jo b
once he h as i t .
I t i s t h e r e s p o n s e a s p e c t i n which we ere
a t p resen t in te re s te d .
The n e u r o t i c group h a s a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h ig h e r job
r a t i n g a t beyond t h e 1$ l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e th a n that, o f
t h e o t h e r t y p e s t a k e n t o g e t h e r and t h a t o f th e y o u th f u la g g r e s s i v e ta k e n a l o n e . 1 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o te t h a t th e
n e u r o t i c group p o s s e s s e s h ig h p e r s o n a l charm as w e ll as
66
a b ility ,
t h e s e m m d i d n o t .commit Crimea b ecau se th e y
© ould n o t make an economic a d ju s tm e n t i n s o c i e t y ; th e y com*
« i t t e d %hm i n © p it# o f t h i s a b i l i t y .
T h e ir a b i l i t y and
p e r s o n a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s u n d o u b te d ly c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r
a c q u i r i n g o f good p r i s o n J o b s ,
& p s y c h o a n a l y ti c i n t e r p r e ­
t a t i o n s a ® s t e n t a t i v e l y a p p l i c a b l e } Fraud has d e s c r ib e d
t h e n e u r o t i c c r i m i n a l ty p e who f i r s t g e t s h im s e lf w e ll l i k e d
by h i s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , and th e n p ro c e e d s t o commit a crim e
a g a i n s t t h o s e who now t r u s t him. "
t h e a p p a r e n t i n d i c a t i o n o f a low Job l e v e l o f the
y o u t h f u l * a g g r e s s i v e group seems more e a s i l y e x p lic a b le *
They a r e a more o v e r t l y r e b e l l i o u s group who u s u a l l y c e r e
l e s s a b o u t B aking a .good im p r e s s io n upon t h e a u t h o r i t i e s .
The p r o f e s s i o n a l group p r e s e n t s an i n t e r e s t i n g
situ a tio n *
The wp u r e tt p r o f e s s i o n a l Id e o lo g y in v o lv e s no
a c t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n w ith t h e p r i s o n a u t h o r i t i e s ,
#31 e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s p o s i t i o n *
P riso n er
He consider© i t u n e t h i c a l
and b e n e a t h h i s d i g n i t y to c u r r y fa v o r w ith th e a u t h o r i t i e s .
H is Job c o n s i s t s i n d ig g in g d i r t on t h e h i l l behind th e
p r i s o n , which rank© w ith t h e l o w l i e s t o f Jobs*
In c o n tra s t,
P r i s o n e r #8, a l s o & p r o f e s s i o n a l , h o ld s th® jo b o f e d i t o r o f
t h e p r i s o n mag©sine, one o f th e h i g h e s t ra n k in g i n th e in*
s t i t u t i o n , and one w hich o f n e c e s s i t y involve© c o o p e r a tio n
w ith t h e a u t h o r i t i e s ,
P r i s o n e r #8 explain® M s ta k in g o f
S7
t h e Job ®s f o l l o w s : *V<?hsn t h e Job was l e f t open and I mm
o f f e r e d i t , I consulted, my f r i e n d s (p ffo fe B s ie n a lO about it*
t h e y th o u g h t i t would b e - b e t t e r f o r e r i g h t guy to have t h e
Jo b th a n f o r a r a t.* 11 t h u s t h e r e has been a m o d if ic a tio n of
t h e p u r e p r o f e s s i o n a l ideo logy,, th e s p l i t t i n g o f f o f & more
o p p o r t u n i s t i c group *
P r i s o n e r #31 i s f r a n k l y contem ptuous.
* fd w a rd s3 ( p r i s o n e r #© u se d t o be a good g u y ,3 he says*
P a r t l y as a r e s u l t ©£ t h i s sch ism we f i n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s ,
m ost o f them h i g h l y c a p a b le men, i n b o th good and p oo r
p r i s o n j®bs*
i s o ape
I t would, a p p e a r p l a u s i b l e t h a t t h e l e s s t im i d
criminal g ro u p s , i . e .
th e p r o f e s s i o n a l , th e y o u th f u l- a g g r e s ­
s i v e an d t h e h a b i t u a l s h o u ld show h ig h e r esc ap e scores th a n
t h e r e l a t i v e l y more ti m i d s i t u a t i o n a l and n e u r o t i c types*
S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s shows t h a t t h i s i s t h e c a s e .
The mean
e s c a p e s c o r e f o r t h e p r o f e s s io n ® ! , y o u t h f u l - a g g r e s s i v e and
h a b i t u a l groups com bined I s 3*44, f o r th e situation and.
n e u r o t i c 1 .1 3 .
The d i f f e r e n c e i s h ig h ly s i g n i f i c a n t a t
beyond t h e 1$ l e v e l , t h e f i s h e r t v a lu e b e in g 5.35 l o r
th ir t y * * e i g h t d e g r e e s o f freedom .
k P r i s o n ty p e r The "ftoiwOooformiat*
O b s e r v a tio n o f and. c o n v e r s a t i o n w ith many
s The name i s f i c t i t i o u s .
p r i s o n e r s l e i t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a p r i s o n t y p e m ig h t be
i s o l a t e ® w hich m ig h t be c a l l e d t h e a e a - a a n f o r m l s t i a n * .
It
Seemed t o b e c h a r a c t e r i s e d by h a v i n g p o o r p r i s o n J o b s , by
h ig h troublssom eness, h a tre d o f th e p riso n a d m in istra tio n
•and b e i n g m i s t r u s t e d by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
The r a t i n g s on
e a c h o f t h e s e I t e m s w a r e summed f o r e a c h e a s e *
f ig u r e 8,
page 8 9 , I n d i o a t e s th e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e pooled sc o re s fo r
th e e n t i r e f o r ty eases*
shewed*
The c u r v e i s
seen t o be s tr o n g ly
When, t h o s e e a s e s c h o s e n by c l i n i c a l i n s i g h t
bb
be­
l o n g i n g t o t h e n o n c o n f o r m i s t g r o u p a r e s e p a r a t e d from t h e
rest*
t h e summed s c o r e s o f t h e two g r o u p s a r e s e e n t o b e
r a t h e r w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t ( F i g u r e 9 , p a g e 70)*
The M a n o f
t h e a o n - c o n f o r m i s t g r o u p i s 1 7 * 3 , a n d o f t h e o t h e r s 8*1*
v
T h e d i f f e r e n c e l a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t b e y o n d t h e 1$ l e v e l ,
t h e v a l u e o f t b e i n g 9*3 f o r t h i r t y - e i g h t d e g r e e s o f f re ed o m *
What we may c a l l a t y p e ,
la te d p ro p erties,
rises:
i n t h e s e n s e o f a syndrome o f r e ­
d o e s seem, t o e x i s t *
The q u e s t i o n now a -
i n what p r o p o r t i o n do t h e c r i m i n a l t y p e s c o n t r i b u t e
to t h i s p ris o n type?
T able 11, page 71, i n d i c a t e s th e
d istrib u tio n *
t h e s m a l l number o f c a s e s i n v o l v e d n e c e s s i t a t e s
t h e most c a u t i o u s
exam ple,
in te rp retatio n *
k ch i square t e a t ,
for
indicate® t h a t th e chances a re le a s th an f iv e In
a h u n d r e d t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s a r e t h e same, b u t one
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AMD 1010301FOHMIST QBOUF
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would h e s i t a t e t o a c c e p t t h i s c o m p le te ly u n d er th e circum ­
sta n c e s „
The l a r g e s t d i s c r e p a n c i e s betw een t h e two d i s ­
t r i b u t i o n s seem t o be in th e h ig h p r o p o r t i o n of th e
y o u t h f u l - a g g r e s s i v e ty p e and t h e low p r o p o r t i o n of th e
s i t u a t i o n a l ty p e i n t h e n o n -c o n fo rm is t g ro u p .
These a r e
i n t h e e x p e c te d d i r e c t i o n s , w i t h th e y o u t h f u l - a g g r e s s i v e
h ig h i n r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t a u t h o r i t y and t h e s i t u a t i o n a l
p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n f o r m is t .
D. F u r t h e r A sp ects o f P r i s o n B ehavior
1 . Sex
P o p u la r o p in io n * as w e ll as some w r i t e r s on t h e sub­
j e c t * h o ld s t h e d e p r i v a t i o n of. norm al s e x u a l o u t l e t s to con­
s t i t u t e one o f t h e most s e r i o u s problem s i n p r i s o n a d ju s tm e n t.
The r e p l i e s to Q u e s tio n 40, “ Do you worry much about women?*1
do n o t seem t o s u p p o r t t h i s v iew .
The most f r e q u e n t re p ly *
o c c u r r i n g i n 41.6$? p£ t h e c a s e s * is* wI u s e d to* when I f i r s t
oarae in* b u t I d o n * t any more.*'
72
The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e p l i e s t o t h e q u e s tio n *
*Do you worry much s h o u t women?*4 i s as follow s*
No* © o a s e s o r 33$
Yes* © o a s e s o r I S . 7 $
wDid a t f i r s t * b u t n o t any lo n g er® , IS oases*
o r 4 1 .6 $
*3©me* b u t n o t so much®, 6 o a s e s o r 16*7$
n o n c o m m itta l* 1 e a s e o r 2*8$
Thus o n ly s i x o a s e s , o r 16*7$, s t a t e d t h a t th e y
w ere t r o u b l e d by s e x , and an e q u a l number s a i d t h a t th e y
w ere somewhat b o t h e r e d by t h e pro blem .
A p p aren tly some
s o r t o f a d ju s tm e n t do es t a k e p l a c e w ith most p r i s o n e r s ,
w h ich , i f n o t h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , i s n e v e r t h e l e s s f a i r l y
ad e q u ate .
H om o sexuality u n d o u b te d ly e x ist® — and h e r e we
draw n o t upon t h e im m ediate d a t a o f t h i s s tu d y but upon
more g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s — b u t i t does n o t ap p e ar t o be
w id esp re ad *
S e x u a lly c o l o r e d c o n v e r s a t i o n i s p r e v a l e n t ,
p e r h a p s f u n c t i o n i n g as a s l i g h t r e le a s e *
I t i s o f c o u r s e p o s s i b l e t h a t th e r e p l i e s were
n o t e n t i r e l y f r a n k upon so i n t i m a t e a them© as ©ex*
The
g e n e r a l l y f r a n k and r e v e a l i n g l e v e l upon which most o f t h e
i n t e r v i e w s to o k p l a c e , how ever, would seem t o r e n d e r t h i s
p o s s i b i l i t y d o u b tfu l.
73
One m ig h t s p e c u l a t e on t h e c a u s e s o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y
m i ld consequence® o f t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f so s tr o n g a n e e d .
A
p l a u s i b l e h y p o t h e s i s i s t h e t t h e p r i s o n atmosphere i s d e p re s­
s i n g t o t h e s e x u a l d r i v e f o r two wessons-} f i r s t , th e l a c k o f
s t i m u l a t i n g se x o b j e c t s , and se c o n d , t h e ev©rshadowiqg.y de­
p r e s s i n g o f f s o t o f t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f o t h e r Im p o rtan t n e e d s ,
p a r t ic u la r ly t h e n e e d f o r freedom *
Evidence f o r b o th o f
t h e s e appear© a r t i c u l a t e l y i n some o f t h e r e p l i e s *
S everal
p r is o n e r s p o i n t e d ou t t h a t t h e absence o f women made t h e
s i t u a t i o n l a s s d i f f i c u l t , and t h a t t h e s i g h t o f o c c a s io n a l
woman v i s i t o r s a r o u s e d them*
A nother p o i n t e d o u t , i h ex­
p l a i n i n g hi© l a c k o f c o n c e rn w ith s e x , w! have o t h e r
w o rries.®
2 . S le e p
I t had b e e n a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e s l e e p
d i s t u r b a n c e would be found among p r i s o n e r s b ecause o f t h e i r
tro u b le d s itu a tio n s .
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e p l i e s t o q u e s t i o n
4 1 a , ttH©w have you been s l e e p i n g l a t e l y ?
tr o u b l e f a l l i n g a sle e p ?
Do you have any
I® i t a d i f f e r e n t k in d o f s l e e p
from on t h e o u ts id e !® f a i l s to b e a r o u t t h i s e x p e c t a t io n .
The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e p l i e s t o t h e s e question® i s a©
fo llo w s)
S le e p s w e l l , IS o a s e s o r 51$
Sleep© w e l l , b u t makes some c o m p la in ts , 3 o a s e s
74
03? 13*8$
S le e p s f a i r l y w ell* 5 o a s e s o r 13*
S le e p s p o o rly # 3 o a s e s o r 8*1$
S le e p s to o lo n g o r lo o k s fo rw a rd to s l e e p g r e a t l y ,
& e s s e s (izioluU iog 1 which s l e e p s poorly} o r
10*3$
t h e overw helm ing h u lk o f t h e p r i s o n e r s do n o t
a p p e a r to s u f f e r from marked s l e e p d is tu r b a n c e *
fox some#
s l e e p may w e l l s e r v e a n e u r o t i c purpose* as a r e fu g e where
t h e d e p r e ssin g p r i s o n w o rld c a n toe tolotted out*
75
CHAPTER IT
THE CASE 8TB0T APPROACH
S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s hee led. us t e th e d is c o v e r y
o f Seme o f t h e main f a c t o r s o p e r a t i n g t o d e te rm in e a t t i ­
tude® and b e h a v io r among a group o f p r i s o n e r s *
h o w ev e r, aims beyond t h i s *
p sy c h o lo g y ,
I t aim© e v e n t u a l l y eh e x p l a i n i n g
and p r e d i c t i n g t h e I n d i v i d u a l ease*
Such s p ro c e d u re w i l l
r e q u i r e t h e developm ent o f psycho l o g i c a l la w s , which a t th©
p r e s e n t tim e we lack *
I t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s p r o f i t a b l e , even
a t p r e s e n t , t o s t u d y t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a s e , f o r i t exposes
a f a c e t not v i s i b l e i n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i o i e m t .
A b r i e f excursus on t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e c a s e study
m ig h t b e i n o r d e r .
I t w i l l be n o te d t h a t th e c a s e s tu d y
p r o v i d e s c l u e s t o th e d is c o v e ry o f th e f a c t o r s d e te r m in in g
an e v e n t 5 t h a t , f o r example, I n t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n
msny o f t h e f a c t o r s l a t e r shown to be o f im p o rtan ce by
s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s were f i r s t s u g g e s te d by th© i n d i v i d ­
u a l in te rv ie w s.
M oreover, t h e s t a t i s t i c a l l y d e te rm in e d
f a c t o r s ca n be s e m i n t h e i r p a t t e r n s and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s i n
a p a r t i c u l a r co n c re te cose.
I n t h i s c o n n e c tio n , w ith o u t
s u b s c r i b i n g to t h e a n t i - e x p e r i m e n t a l t e n e t s of t h e Mv e r s t e h e n d e P sy ch o lo g ic" s c h o o l, i t may be p o in te d out t h a t
th e empathy which i s @0 r i c h a Isaw m f o r t h e p r o d u c tio n o f
78
h y p o t h e s e s , and which i s p r o b a b ly a t th e h e a r t of t h e
c l a i m s o f t h e p e r s o n a l i s t i c s c h o o ls o f W illiam S t e r n and
Cordon A l l p f r t ($ ) i s o f f e r e d i t s g r e a t e s t scope i n th e
c a s e stu d y *
And f i n a l l y , i t must be remembered t h a t t h e
c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f p s y c h o a n a l y s is r e s t e n t i r e l y upon t h i s in*,
v a c t I g a t lire t eo b n i que*
A. l i g h t Men Whose Chances o f I v o r C e t t i n g Out Are S l i g h t
l i g h t men whose c h a n c e s of e v e r g e t t i n g ' o u t a r e
s l i g h t were c h o s e n f o r c o n c i s e c a s e s tu d y .
They were chosen
b e c a u s e th e y were i n a p p r o x im a te ly th e same s i t u a t i o n , and
t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s a p p a r e n t l y one o f a l l - p e r v a d i n g im p ortance,
T h is t e c h n i q u e , i t was f e l t , m ight p r o v e . t o be f r u i t f u l ,
b o t h i n y i e l d i n g sam ples o f t h e k in d s o f p o s s i b l e a d j u s t ­
m ents t o su ch a s i t u a t i o n and i n s u g g e s tin g o th e r v a r i a b l e s
t h a t m ight e n te r*
P r i s o n e r humber 1 2 «
Inm ate i s s i x t y - n i n e y e a rs
o l d and has s p e n t a lm o s t a l l o f h i s l i f e in p ris o n *
Out­
s i d e he was m o s tly a d r i f t e r , d r i n k i n g and engaging i n
p e t t y c r im e .
He l a s e r v i n g a l i f e s e n te n c e f o r ra p e , and has
77
b e e n i n t h i s p r i s o n £0 * th lrtyw fiw © yea-rs, t h e l o n g e s t o f
any man In t h e I n s t it u t io n *
P a i r l y r e c e n t l y he wag r e f u s e d
com m utation* i n d i c a t i n g t h a t M s ch a n ces f o r r e l e a s e &r©
slig h t*
f o r a lo n g tim e he has b een t h e p r i s o n p h o to g ra p h e r,
a j o b which c a r r i e s w ith i t some p r e s t i g e and p r i v i l e g e s *
Be i s q u i t e i n d e f i n i t e a s t o when he i s g e t t i n g
o u t , h u t h a s no e x p e c t a t i o n o f g e t t i n g o u t w i t h i n t h e n e x t
f i v e y e a rs *
He s t i l l m a i n t a in s t h e f a i n t h ope, how ever, t h a t
some- day, p e rh a p s by g e t t i n g t h e g o v e r n o r 1e e a r i f he came
d o m t o p r i s o n f o r a v i s i t , he w i l l g e t out*
During t h e in ­
t e r v i e w he ash e d i f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r c o u ld n o t h e lp Mm.
These h o p e s , how ever, a r e somewhat u n re a l*
He s t o u t l y m ain­
t a i n s t h a t he w ants t o g e t o u t a s s t r o n g l y as he d id t h e day
he came in*
He -e x h ib its a remarfcably good a d ju s tm e n t t o th e
p r is o n *
Be i» r a t h e r c h e e r f u l , h ig h ly s o c i a b l e and a l e r t *
He shows no s i g n s o f deep s u f f e r i n g *
He re a d s t h e news**
papers, i n d e t a i l and i s I n t e r e s t e d in - ‘S t a t e p o l i t i e s *
He
i s , i n g e n e r a l , w e ll behaved and i s t r u s t e d by th e a dmi n i b~
f r a tien, though he h a s d u rin g hi® lo n g stay g o t t e n drunk
t h r e e tim e s on l i q u o r s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y manufactured in t h e
p riso n ,
P r iso n e r t o t e , 2£U
o ld .
inmate i s sev e n ty -o n e y ee rs
He had no c r im in a l reco rd b efo r e b is p resen t crim e,
?6
iM ofe c o n s is t© d i n k i l l i n g a man d u rin g a f i g h t *
He i s o f
a ru g g e d , in d e p e n d e n t f r o n t i e r type*
B is s e n t e n c e i s l i f e , f o r aeoond d e g re e m urder;
Be h a s s e r v e d t h i r t y - f o u r y e a rs *
t h e f a c t t h a t no e f f o r t s
a r e feeing made on hi® B e h a lf tow ard hi® r e l e a s e , and t h e
fa o t t h a t fee has Been k e p t so lo n g ,
would l e a d t o t h e eon**
e lu sio n th a t
a r e v e ry slim*
M s c h a n ces o f r e l e a s e
He fees an easy Job i n t h e
p r i s o n which he l i k e s .
Be I s e x tre m e ly vague m
to when he w i l l g e t o u t
feut s t a t e s t h a t fee s t i l l w ants to*
Be a v o id s t h i n k i n g o f
t h e f a s t t h a t h e may d i e i n p r i s o n ,
A f a i n t sp ark o f hop©
rem ains t h a t fee may some day g e t o u t .
Be l a w a ll a d j u s t e d t o t h e p r i s o n and w e ll be­
haved.
He i s r a th e r c h e e r f u l and ©hows no s i g n s ' o f ap p re ­
c i a b l e su ffe rin g *
Me seems t o have e v o lv e d a f a i r l y
p le a s a n t rou tin e*
P r i s o n e r Ipmfeer gjfc*
old*
Inm ate i s f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s
He had a lo n g and 'S u c c e s s fu l c a r e e r a® a p r o f e s s i o n a l
h o ld -u p man u n t i l i n h i s p r e s e n t crim e he k i l l e d a p o l i c e man w h ile a t t e m p t i n g to make h i s getaway*
He i s s e r v in g a
l i f e se n te n c e f o r f i r s t d e g re e m urder, and i n view o f h i s
crim e and r e p u t a t i o n , fee has p r a c t i c a l l y no chance o f e v e r
g e t t i n g ou t l e g a l l y *
te n c e .
He fees s e r v e d s i x y e a r s o f M s sen­
H is w ife h a s d iv o rc e d Mm,
and
he no lo n g e r has any
c l o s e p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t io n s w ith t h e o u t s i d e .
?9
He i s w e ll ©war© t h a t h i s chance© o i l e g a l r e l e a s e
are practically nonexistent*
intend © t o a tte m p t escape*
f u l e ffo rt*
B& confesses, however, that ha
He h as a l r e a d y made on u n su cc ess­
l a d e n i ©a Being prep ared , a t t h e p r e s e n t moment
f o r tm f a ttem p t*
T here i s , m o reo v e r, sots© i n d i c a t i o n t h a t
hi© e s c a p e p l e n a c t s m a k i n d o f mechanism, f o r in r e g a r d
t o i t h e s a y s , f,Tout ve g o t to have com © thing to lo o k f o r ­
ward to**f
He i s w e ll behaved i n p r i s o n , th o u g h t h e a u th o r ­
i t i e s a r e w e ll aw are t h a t h e I s a man t o he watched and keep
b d o m e eye on him*
He i s r a t h e r w e ll a d j u s t e d t o t h e
p r i s o n , i n v o lv e d I n M s c e l l a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r e s t e d i n
t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n th e p r i s o n yard*
th e re is
no i n d i c a t i o n of m arked s u f f e r i n g *
JSS&BftftftT. »uaA«« M ’
old*
laaata l a aixty-nlne years
He i s a d e n t i s t , and was, in f a c t , a t one time the
v i s i t i n g d e n tis t a t t h i s p a r tic u la r p riso n .
He was a l s o
a c t i v e i n p o l i t i c s and p ro m in e n t i n t h e s o c i a l l i f e of h i s
Community*
He was, however, a heavy d r i n k e r , and s e rv e d a
s h o r t s e n te n c e p r e v i o u s l y f o r p a s s in g a had ch e ck .
t h e c rim e f o r which, he i s s e r v i n g h i s p r e s e n t
s e n t e n c e i s t h a t o f k i l l i n g h i s B e st f r i e n d w hile d ru nk.
B© m a i n t a i n s t h a t he was fra m e d , h u t t h i s i s d o u b t f u l .
He
was s e n t e n c e d t o d e a th , h u t t h e s e n te n c e was l a t e r commuted
80
to l i f e im prisonm ent*
Under s u c h olreumstsnoes i t
p reoend en iad th a t a man ever bo paroled*
i s un~
H is chances o f
r e l e a s e a r e th u s n e g l i g i b l e *
He h a s s e r v e d n i n e y e a r s o f hi© s e n t e n c e , d u rin g
w hich he h a s d e v e lo p e d a r o u t in® which he seems a c t u a l l y to
enjoy*
Hi© jo b i s very e a s y .
He 1® w e ll b ehaved.
One of
th e s tr o n g e s t o f h i s a t t i t u d e s i s t h a t o f w anting th e
p r i s o n to run s m o o th ly , p r o b a b ly so th a t no p riv ile g e © w i l l
be ta k e n away.
On® gain© th e im p re s s io n t h a t he i s d e e p ly
o o n o e ra e d w ith k e e p in g t h e p r i s o n as com fortab le as p o s s i b l e ,
th o u g h p ro b a b ly n o t a "stOQlpigeom** he a d m its on one occa­
s io n w arn in g th e o f f i c i a l © when t h e r e wa® a p lo t a f o o t t o
k i l l one o f t h e g u a r d s .
When a sk e d about r e l e a s e he s a i d , *X wouldn1t go
o u t i f th e y o ffe re d , i t t o me*
1 c o u ld n ’ t g e t alo n g o u t
t h e r e any m ore, and 1 don’ t want t o b e a bu rd en on anyone
. . * My l i f e i s b e h in d me; i t mm l i v e d b e f o r e I came
down h e r e . w f h e r e i s some e v id e n c e , how ever, t h a t he i s
n o t e n t i r e l y r e s ig n e d *
In two year© he expect© t o r e c e i v e
some money from a m atu red in c u r anoe p o l i c y .
i t , # h e ©aay@, “th e n we* 11 see*
MWhen I g e t
t may d e c id e th e n t h a t I
want t o . 11
There i s l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n o f any su ffer in g *
g y ia a n a a Mumtoer
o ld .
81
i m a t e i s t h i r t y - f o u r y e a rs
He fee© a young w ife and b ab y .
He s t a t e s t h a t unem­
ploym ent a t t h e a g e o f tw e n ty -s e v e n d ro ve him I n t o bank
robbery*
He soon became a s s o c i a t e d , however, w ith a gaxgof
h i g h l y o f f i c i a n t an d d e s p e r a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l bank r o b b e rs
w i t h n a t i o n - w i d e © © m entions and engaged i n a a e r i e s o f bank
r o b b e r i e s u n t i l ©might*
He r e c e i v e d a l i f e s e n te n c e f o r
s e c o n d d e g re e m urder a® a r e s u l t o f a k i l l i n g by h i s gang
d u r i n g m bank ro b b ery *
A f t e r b e had s e rv e d about two year®,
a n o t h e r l i f e s e n t e n c e was added by t h e f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s
f o r bank ro b b e ry and k id n a p p in g .
He i s a p p a r e n t ly con­
s i d e r e d h i g h l y d an g e ro u s by them , and th e y a r e an x io u s to
make c e r t a i n t h a t he w i l l n e v e r g e t out*
Be has now s e rv e d
two year® and n i n e months*
Hiss j o b i n t h e p r i s o n i n one on which he can be
w atc h ed by th e g u ard s*
When he f i r s t ©am# i n , bb he s a y s ,
h e *©old* s h o u ld e r e d t h e b i g - s h o t s H b ec au se he s t i l l hoped
■at t h a t tim e t o g e t o u t l e g a l l y *
The seco n d l i f e s e n t e n c e ,
h e ©ays, “ alm o st c l o s e d t h e door o f hope#.
His fa m ily i s
a t t e m p t i n g to g e t him o u t , b u t t h e r e i s r e a l l y p r a c t i c a l l y
no c h a n c e o f t h e i r succeed in g *
“They don’t know what I ’m
u p a g a i n s t , 11 he s a y s .
Hi® p r e s e n t p la n i s t o b re a k o f f c o n t a c t w ith h i s
w i f e and fa m ily and th e n a tte m p t t o e s c a p e .
He i s d e e p ly
82
a tta c h e d t o h ie tBM.ilf t b u t f e e l s th a t m.y e sc ap e a tte m p t
w h i l e ho i s s t i l l i n c o n ta c t w ith them w i l l h u r t them*
n ev er­
t h e l e s s , c l m® h i s o n ly hop© l i a s i n e s c a p e , he must a f f e c t
th e break w ith them*
He i s w e l l behaved i n p r i s o n , th o u g h n o t h ig h ly
so ciab le*
He h as b ee n a t t e m p t i n g t o w r i t e s h o r t s t o r i e s i n
h is c e ll*
l a i s h i g h l y i n t e l l i g e n t and does n o t a c c e p t th e
f a c i l e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s cu rr en t among t h e p r i s o n e r s ,
Hewer**
t h e l e c c , m a r e s u l t o f h i s s i t u a t i o n , he h as d ev elo p ed a
d ee p an d b l i n d i n g h a t r e d f o r t h e o f f i c i a l s and s o c i e t y .
If
he e s c a p e s he i n t e n d s t o engage i n f u r t h e r crim lm al a c t i v i t y .
Re daydream s, ho w ev er, t h a t i f he w ere l e t out soon, he
would go o f f and l i v e a lo n e i n a shaok i n t h e woods away from
h u m a n ity .
He shows s i g n s o f h i g h t e n s i o n and s u f f e r i n g ,
a l t h o u g h o v e r t l y , he has a f a i r l y good g r i p upon h im s e lf,
.-although h i s f a m ily i s g e t t i n g a lo n g w e l l , h e d i s p l a y s eon*a id e r a h le a n x i e t y a b o u t t h e i r h e a l t h and w e l f a r e ,
ffXltMRgJE m a l a x 3&«
o ld ,
Inmate i s fo r ty -fo u r years
He has no p r e v i o u s c r i m i n a l r e c o r d , h av in g been a
t r u c k e r , m echanic and p o lic e m a n .
He had b een h av in g diffi**
e u l t l e c w ith h is w i f e , who was p r e p a r in g t o le a v e him.
He
had come t o a t t e m p t a r e c o n c i lia t i o n , and when she r e f u s e d ,
he l o s t h is h ea d and k i l l e d h e r .
Re was a s s a i l e d by
83
tre m e n d o u s g u i l t , bagging t h e a u th o r itie s * t o hang him .
He
was sent© need t o d e s t h , b u t a f t e r e i g h t e e n month© i n t h e
d ea th h o u s e , M s sentene© was commuted t o l i f e im p riso n m en t.
Hi© e h e n e e e f o r r e l e a s e a r e n e g l i g i b l e *
Be h a s s e rv e d f o u r
y e a r s and e i g h t months o f h i s se n te n c e *
Hi© hope o f g e t t i n g o u t i© low b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s
e x ists*
H© r e a l i s e s t h a t h i s c rim e as© s e r i o u s , b u t hope®
that*«o»© day th e y M i l M e t h a t X1v© done enough tim e and
l e t me o u t **1 In o r d e r n o t t o p r e j u d i c e t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y ,
h e i s v e ry c a r e f u l ab o u t hi© p r i s o n b e h a v io r ,
^ t h a t 1© my
m ain o b j e c t , t o heap o u t o f t r o u b l e . H
There a r e i n d i c a t i o n s o f h ig h
t e n s i o n and s u ffe r ­
ing*
Although h i s fa m ily and r e l a t i v e © a r e g e t t i n g a lo n g
w e ll,
he d i s p l a y s c o n s id e r a b le b a s e l e s s a n x i e t y and worry
about them »
PriaoneT Humber £&.
and- & b a c h e lo r .
o f hi© l i f e *
Mb
Inmate I s a lx ty -o n e years old
ha© b een a l a b o r e r and fa rm e r f o r most
About f o r t y y e a r s ago he bed an a c c i d e n t which
r e s u l t e d in a s t r i c t u r e o f t h e oeso p h ag u s,
t h i s made e a t i n g
and sw allow in g e x tre m e ly d i f f i c u l t f o r him and has a p p a re n t­
l y c a u s e d him c o n s i d e r a b l e m is e r y .
He i s a h ard -w o rk in g and
s o lit a r y ty p e .
Hi© c rim e c o n s i s t e d i n h a v in g s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s
w i t h two g i r l s who were a l i t t l e below t h e age o f c o n s e n t.
84
F o r t h i s he r e c e i v e d a t w e n t y ^ f i r e . y e a r s e n te n c e f o r r a p e .
He s t a t e s t h a t t h e g i r l s were p r o s t i t u t e s whom he h ad lo n g
known e n d o f t e n h elp ed *
B x e v io u s ly he had s e rv e d t h r e e
y e a r s i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , f o r a s i m i l a r c rim e in v o lv in g t h e
same two g i r l s #
He h a s th u s f a r s e rv e d a b o u t t h r e e y e a r s
o f th e p re se n t se n te n c e .
He f e e l s d e e p ly t h a t h i s s e n te n c e i s u n j u s t , es~
p e e i a l l y s i n c e s e v e r a l o t h e r men who t e d t e d r e l a t i o n s w ith
t h e g i r l s r e c e i v e d o n ly s i x month j a i l se n te n c e s*
I f he
d oes n o t r e c e i v e a p a r o l e , he w i l l have t o s e r v e ab o u t
s e v e n y e a r s more b e f o r e r e l e a s e .
He c a n n o t s t a n d t h e tho u g h t
o f d y in g i n p r i s o n and make® d e s p a r a t e b u t f u t i l e attem pt® to
have so m eth in g done f o r him*
He has no c o n t a c t s o f t h e ty p e
t h a t m ight h e lp him g e t a p a r o le ,, b u t m erely write® lo n g
l e t t e r s t o t h e B oard o f B a r o le and oth er® .
He grasp® a t any
p o s s i b l e s tra w o f hope, such a© h i s i n t e r v i e w w ith t h e p re s ­
ent in v e stig a to r*
He ha® no id e a when h e w i l l g e t o u t .
He p r e s e n t s
a p i c t u r e o f d e s p e r a t i o n and s u f f e r i n g , and 1®, m oreover,
m o rb id ly c o n c e rn e d w ith hi® a f f l i c t i o n , co m p lain in g a b o u t i t
c o n t i n u a l l y i n a manner which approach©® f i x a t i o n .
He say®
h e would l i k e t o g e t out t o have an o p e r a t i o n a t th e Mayo
C lin ic .
He i s w e ll behaved i n p r i s o n .
85
laateSE a S .
Inmats Is foxty yeaxo o ld .
H« h as no p r e v io u s c r im in a l r e c o r d , having been a foreman
in a sh ip p in g company*
He has a w ife ©nd f i v e c h ild r e n .
He i s r a t h e r n a i v e and h a s had l i t t l e e d u c a t io n .
He was
c o n v i c t e d o f f i r s t d e g re e m urder i n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e
k i l l i n g o f a man d u r in g a h o l d - u p .
He d e n ie s h i s g u i l t ,
w hich i s I n i t s e l f no r a r i t y , h u t i n t h i s c a s e t h e r e i s
s t r o n g e v id e n c e t h a t he a c t u a l l y I s in n o cen t*
He was a t
f i r s t s e n te n c e d t o d e a t h , h u t a f t e r t h i r t y months In th e
d e a t h h o u s e , h i s s e n te n c e was commuted to l i f e imprison**
m en t.
He h a s s e r v e d f o u r y e a r s and s i x months*
*1 d id e a s i e r tim e i n t h e death-.house,** he s a y s ,
b eca u se 1 knew I wan*t g u i l t y and was s u r e th ey w o u ld n 't
hang me.
t o t a f t e r th e y commuted my s e n t e n c e I began to
s e e th a t th e y p r o b a b ly w ou ld n 't do a n y th in g more f o r me,
and t h a t made i t harder**
He s t i l l re ta in © a vague hope
th a t somehow he w i l l b® v i n d i c a t e d , b u t he© l i t t l e id e a
when t h a t m ight t a k e p l a c e .
He g i v e s e v id e n c e o f s t r o n g s u f f e r i n g .
He i s
c o n t i n u a l l y d e e p ly w o r r ie d ab o u t h i s c h i l d r e n , who have
been s c a t t e r e d I n d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s *
f i x a t e d on t h e problem o f h i s c h i l d r e n .
d o c i l e and c r u s h e d .
in h is h a b its.
He seams to be
His manner i s
He i s w e ll behaved and r a t h e r s o l i t a r y
H is 'knowledge of and i n t e r s t in th e p r i s o n
as
a r e low*
H© i© umthl© t o become In v o lv e d i n any a c t i v i t y
In M « c e ll*
I n g e n e ra l* h® p r e s e n t * a p i c t u r e o f c o n s i d e r -
a b le d iso rg a n is a tio n *
A n a ly s is and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n
I t I s Im m ed iately a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e e ig h t c a s e s do
n o t r e a c t in t h e same way to t h e s i t u a t i o n .
I f we a c c e p t
s c l e n t i f i e d e te rm in is m i n psychology* th e n i t follow© t h a t
t h e r e a r e d e t e r m i n a n t s i n t h e b e h a v io r o f t h e s e men beyond
t h o s e o f t h e i r p r i s o n s i t u a t i o n a lo n e .
m o t i v a t i o n and p e r s o n a l i t y e n t e r .
That i s , f a c t o r s o f
For th© re a c tio n © which
we a r e stu d y in g * f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o t h e o u t s i d e have been
fo u n d t o be g e n e r a l l y u n i m p o r ta n t.
Are t h e r e any s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e re sp o n s e s?
S e v e r a t t y p e s o f r e a c t i o n s do ©merge.
P r i s o n e r s 13 and 30,
t h e two o l d men who have b ean l o n g e s t i n t h e p r i s o n , p r e ­
s e n t re m a rk a b ly s i m i l a r p i c t u r e s .
Each h a s made an e x c e l­
l e n t a d ju s tm e n t t o t h e p r i s o n , w ith l i t t l e s u f f e r i n g or
a n x i e t y a p p a re n t*
M oreover, t h e r e i s n o th in g o f a crushed
a s p e c t t o t h e i r b e h a v io r ; r a t h e r a c e r t a i n s e s t .
Each
m a i n t a i n s t h a t he s t i l l want© t o g e t o u t , and nurture© a
f a i n t hop© t h a t he w i l l .
Her© t h e r e i s sn elem ent o f s e l f -
d e c e p t i o n , which was a l s o found i n t h e s tu d y by H e r b e r ts
(3 7 ).
P r iso n e r s 24 and 2 6 , th© hold-up man and th e ,
87
ar® s i m i l a r i n t h a t n e i t h e r c a n ao e ap t t h e . id e a o f sp ending
t h e r e s t o f h i s l i f e i n p r i s o n n o r d e c e iv e h im s e lf about
h i s chances o f g e ttin g o u t.
and t h e i r u s e .
ho w ev er.
n e i t h e r i s a s t r a n g e r t o guns
The r e s p o n s e — © scape.
T here a r e d i f f e r e n c e s ,
P r i s o n e r #34 i s o l d e r and has no fa m ily c o n n e c tio n s .
P r i s o n e r #36 h as a w ife and baby and a s l a t e r who come t o
s e e him .
B© c a n n o t a tte m p t e s c a p e u n t i l he ha© broken co n­
n e c t i o n s w ith them .
P e rh a p s l a r g e l y f o r t h i s re a s o n h i s
s u f f e r i n g and a n x i e t y a r e much more s e v e r e th a n w ith P r i s ­
o n e r #84* th o u g h t h e l a t t e r * e g e n e r a l e a s y -g o in g n e s s may
a lso be a fa c to r*
P r i s o n e r s 33 and 3 5 , th e man who s h o t h i s w ife
and t h e a p p a r e n t l y in n o c e n t man, show a c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t y
i n t h e erusbedne®© o f t h e i r r e s p o n s e .
Both show h ig h s u f­
f e r i n g and a n x i e t y | n e i t h e r t h i n k s o f e s c a p e .
little ,
i f any, s e l f - d e c e p t i o n .
There i s
They a p p e a r to be “t a k i n g
i t * , - which., s e w s t o be t h e moat p a i n f u l way.
In c o n t r a s t
t o P r i s o n e r s 34 and 86, t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y
damage*
Th© p o s s i b i l i t y o f an o v e r t r e a c t i o n t o th© un­
b e a r a b l e s i t u a t i o n , i . e . an a tte m p t t o e s c a p e , e x i s t s f o r
P r i s o n e r s 34 and 38 but n o t f o r P r i s o n e r s 83 and 25.
The
a n a lo g y s u g g e s ts i t s e l f , th o u g h we would no t p r e s s i t to o
f a r , w i t h t h e s o - c a l l e d Me x p e rim e n ta l n e u r o s is * in a n im a ls .
One o f t h e s i t u a t i o n © which a p p e a rs to p ro d u c e ‘'n e u r o s is *
86
i s t h a t in which t h e an im al I s f o r c e d to a c t b u t has no
a v a i l a b l e way o f a c tin g *
The p r i s o n e r ' s need s i n t h i s
o a t a a t r o p M o s i t u a t i o n demand t h a t he a c t .
The ©seape-
p l o t t e r © have a w&yj t h i s g ro u p does not*
P r i s o n e r #35 i l l u s t r a t e s d r a m a t i c a l l y how s u f f e r ­
i n g i® d e te r m in e d l a r g e l y fey th© o u tlo o k f o r t h e f u t u r e and
n o t fey t h e im m ediate s i t u a t i o n *
I n th© d e a th - h o u s e , o f f i ­
c i a l l y a w a itin g h a n g in g , he s u f f e r e d l e s s th a n l a t e r , when
hi® s e n t e n c e had b e e n commuted t o l i f e imprisonment*
In
t h e f i r s t s i t u a t i o n he s t i l l ex p e c te d to fee freed * h i s out­
lo o k was b r i g h t *
A f t e r t h e com m utation I t boom® d a rk .
The re m a in in g two o a s e s do n o t seem to resem b le
e i t h e r o f t h e above t y p e s .
P r i s o n e r #33, t h e d e n t i s t , does
b e a r c o n s i d e r a b l e t o th e f i r s t g ro u p (13 and 3 0 ), b u t M s
m echanism s a p p e a r t o fee d i f f e r e n t .
He to© i s w e ll a d j u s t e d ,
w ith o u t s u f f e r i n g , a n x ie t y o r ©soap© p l a n e .
H ere, however,
t h e r e i s a c o n s c io u s and d e l i b e r a t e a tte m p t to c u t h im s e lf
o f f from th© o u t s i d e and t o make t h e p r i s o n a s com fort a b le
a p la c e as p o s s ib le .
T here i s , i n a d d i t i o n , h i s d e c l a r a t i o n
t h a t h e h a s l i v e d hi® l i f e , and t h a t t h i s im prisonm ent i s no
p a r t o f it*
T h is c o n c e p t o f *my l i f e ” ta k e s form as an impor­
t a n t one i n t h i s s t u d y .
What i s meant can b e s t fee i l l u s ­
t r a t e d fey example®, ©uch as wfhe.t have I done w ith my l i f e ? *
89
o r 0Xf m watttlng th© h m t p e a r s o f my life ,* * o r , as w ith
P r i s o n e r #23, "My l i f e i s b e h in d me. I t was l i v e d b e f o r e
an
I same down hors** I t ie ^ o fte n w n verbaliged b u t p o te n t
frame o f r e fe r e n c e w hich, f o r example, makes th© y o u th
lo o k a h e a d t o l i f e , and t h e o ld man lo o k bank upon i t .
It
i s a none apt w hich a p p e a rs to have b ro a d a p p l i c a t i o n , and
w hich undoubtedly d i f f e r s i n d i f f e r e n t m ix tu r e s .
With
P r is o n e r #03, t h e p r o t e c t i v e d e v ic e seems to be t o exclude
h i s p r e s e n t c r im e and i n c a r c e r a t i o n from t h e frame of r e f ­
e r e n c e ©f h i s • l i f e * , so t h a t i t would ©scape h is u s u a l s e t
o f v a lu e s #
In F r e u d ia n te r m s , p e rh a p s , i t i s a m y o f deny­
in g c e r t a i n Wgo d r i v e s and p a r t l y a v o id in g th e c e n s u re o f
th© S u p e r-e g o ,
T h ere 1© e v id e n c e t h a t t h i s maneuver i s n o t en­
t i r e l y eu o o eo sfu l*
He i s n o t c o m p le te ly r e s i g n e d t o dying
i n p r i s o n , th o u g h ha s t o u t l y m aintain© t h a t he does n o t
want t© g e t o u t a t p r e s e n t*
Me h i n t s t h a t when i n a few
y e a r s he re ceiv e® c e r t a i n in su ra n ce money, he may want t o
g e t o u t.
t h i s bring® u s t o a g e n e r a lis a t io n , which i s t h a t
l a a& l
a
ala a fla ai& a s L I t e s a m u . s M u s . alumaaft a t a x e s
g e t t i n g g a l jbx£ a c iA l,s ifts . I s . Ubs$a tuaroli l a gjft*gna.tlfla l a
d y in g In o r is o n .
That most dism al o f a l l p la t it u d e s ,
* Where th e r e i s l i f e t h e r e 's hop®" ta k es on a new fr e s h n e s s .
90
fh© f i n a l e a s e , P r i s o n e r #38, th© o ld man who i s
s e r v i n g a t w e n t y - f iff* y e a r soutane© f o r rap©, i s s h a r p ly
u n l i k e any o f t h e o t h e r s I n c l u d i n g th© t h r e e o th e r o l d men,
P r i s o n e r s 13* 30 an d 31*
g r a s p i n g a t s tra w s #
He i s p o o rly a d j u s t e d , s u f f e r i n g ,
One o f th© most im p o rta n t d i f f e r e n c e s
b etw e en M s s i t u a t i o n and t h a t o f th e t h r e e o t h e r o l d men
who a r e w e ll a d j u s t e d i s t h e f a c t t h a t he h as s e rv e d a r e l ­
a t i v e l y s h o r t tim e 4
I f t h i s war© t h e o n ly d i f f e r ©nos, we
m ig h t a t t r i b u t e h i s p o o r a d ju s tm e n t to h i s s h o r t stay*
t h e r e a r e o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s , however*
He f e e l s s t r o n g l y
t h a t h i s s e n te n c e was u n j u s t| he i s p la g u e d by h i s a f f l i c ­
t io n ; and he h a s a s t r o n g f e e l i n g t h a t he h a s n o t y e t
g o t t e n a n y th in g o u t o f l i f e *
The i s o l a t i o n o f t h e r e l e v a n t
v a r i a b l e i s t t e s d i f f i c u l t , and we would n o t be i n c l i n e d t o
a t t r i b u t e poor a d ju s tm e n t t o r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t a r r i v a l i n
p r i s o n among o ld men w ith l i t t l e chance o f r e l e a s e , though
I t may w e ll be a f a c t o r *
I t i s I n t e r e s t i n g t o n o te t h e
c o n t r a s t in t h e i r a t t i t u d e s tow ard t h e i r ^ l i v e ©*1 between
P r i s o n e r # 3 8 , who f e e l s b i t t e r l y t h a t he has g o t t e n l i t t l e
o u t o f i t , end p r i s o n e r #03, who i s s a t i s f i e d t h a t he has
liv e d M s l i f e fu lly *
p r i s o n e r #85 i l l u s t r a t e s th© c l o s e r e l a t i o n be­
tw een s u f f e r i n g and h o p e,
w h ile i n th e d e a th - h o u s e , he
d i d n o t s u f f e r v e ry much, becaus® he was s u r e th ey would
91
h an g an In n o c e n t men*
A f te r b i s s e n te n c e was c o u n t e d
t o l i f e im pria© nm ent, and i t became c l e a r t o him t h a t
n o t h i n g e l s e would e v e r he done f o r him, s e v e r e s u f f e r i n g
ensued*
Th© r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een hope and s u f f e r i n g i s
f a r from s im p le , however*
I t depends upon th© e n t i r e con**
s t e l l s t t c n , w ith s u f f e r i n g , as i s shown I n t h e l a r g e r
a n a l y s i * f & fu n c tio n o f s e v e ra l fa cto rs#
We may now p ro c e e d to a more g e n e r a l a n a ly s is *
F i r s t we would p r e s e n t th© h y p o th e s is t h a t t h e p r o s p e c t o f
n ev er g e t t i n g out o f p ris o n i s g en e rally in to le r a b le to th e
p e rso n a lity *
F iv e malm ways o f m eeting t h e s i t u a t i o n may
b e d i s t in g u i s h e d *
1 * S e lf* .d e c e p tio n i n r e g a r d t o m e * * chances o f
g e t t i n g o u t , making th e s i t u a t i o n t o l e r a b l e
and p ro d u c in g b e t t e r a d ju s tm e n t t o th e
p ris o n *
( P r i s o n e r s 12 and $ 0 .)
3 , S e lf - d e c e p tio n . in r e g a r d t o o n e 1® d e s i r e to
g e t out*
( ttI d o n 't want to g e t o u t 1*, b u t
w ith i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t a deep d e s i r e t o g e t
o u t does e x i s t , )
This to o i s accompanied
by 'a good a d ju s tm e n t.
( P r i s o n e r # 2 3 .)
S* maapBl b re a k in g th ro u g h th e b a r r ie r © and de­
s tr o y in g th e in to le r a b le s i t u a t i o n .
( P r i s o n e r s 24 and 2 6 .)
92
4 . HT aking i t H$ u n a b l e to In d u lg e i n s u c c e s s f u l
s e lf* * d e c e p tio n , oar in esc a p e p l a n s , th e y
re m a in i n t h e s i t u a t i o n , w ith r e s u l t i n g
h ig h s u f f e r i n g and p e r s o n a l i t y damage *
(P ris o n e r© 33 and 2 5 .)
5 . D e s p e ra te f l o u n d e r i n g , g r a s p i n g a t s t r a w s .
The s i t u a t i o n i s a c u te ly i n t o l e r a b l e ,
b u t ©scape i s u n th in k a b le *
(P riso n e r
#*8 .)
t h e s e r e s p o n s e s a r e n o t s t r i c t l y m u tu a lly e&clu^
s i v e , y e t seem e l e a r » e u t enough t o w a rra n t i s o l a t i o n .
W©
l a c k s u f f i c i e n t d a ta t o throw much l i g h t upon t h e fa c to r©
t h a t d e te r m in e w hich r e s p o n s e a p a r t i c u l a r man w i l l a d o p t.
T h e re a r e I n d i c a t i o n s t h a t age i s im p o r ta n t, a s i s t h e
c r i m i n a l ty p e to w hich th e p r i s o n e r belong® .
Again we see
t h a t i t i s t h e v i o l e n t l y i n c l i n e d c r im i n a l who ch o oses t h e
©scape r o u t e .
The d o c i l e s i t u a t i o n a l c r i m i n a l te n d s t o
" t a k e i t * , ©r f l o u n d e r d e s p e r a t e l y .
There ca n be no do u b t,
how ever, t h a t d e e p e r p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s a r e in v o lv e d and
w i l l h ave t o be i s o l a t e d by t h e p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h o f
th e fu tu re .
93
A Gas© Study ** P r i s o n e r lum b er 11
H.
I n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e c o n c r e te ly t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n
o f f a c t o r s i n a s p e c i f i c c a s e and a® an ex p erim en t i n t h e use
o f t h e m ethod, a ©as© s tu d y i s p r e s e n t e d .
F a c t and i n t e r p r e ­
t a t i o n a r e i n t e r m i n g l e d , h u t an attem pt i s made t o i n d i c a t e
w hich i s b e in g p r e s e n t e d ®t t h e moment.
P riso n er i s twenty**eight y e a r s o l d , t a l l and power­
fu lly b u ilt.
He i s a t r u c k d r i v e r by t r a d e , and ha© a young
w ife o u t s i d e .
He has s e r v e d t h r e e y e a rs and seven months on
’
a t h i r t y - y e a r s e n t e n c e , c o n s i s t i n g o f t w e n t y - f i v e year© f o r
robbery w ith a g g r a v a t i o n and f i v e y e a rs fo r k id n a p p in g .
ITir-
therm ©re, he was o n p a r o l e from t h e r e f o r m a to r y when con­
v ic t e d and w i l l have to c o m p le te M s r e f o r m a to r y .sen ten ce.
He d e sc rib e ® h i s c r im e as fo llo w s ? nt was o u t on
p a r o l e end d r i v i n g a t r u c k f o r my f a t h e r , b u t was h av in g a
to u g h tim e making a l i v i n g .
I was p r e t t y down I n t h e mouth
and g o t drunk on t h e money I had c o lle c t e d on t h e j o b .
Bo
I h e l d up a man and th e n d ro v e Mm a few nil®© In h i s o a r
away from t h e s c e n e o f t h e c r im e .
T h a t 1s what they p u t t h a t
k id n a p p in g c h a rg e on for.**
H is p r e v io u s s e n t e n c e , o f which he sp e n t tw en ty
m onths at t h e r e f o r m a to r y b e f o r e b e in g p a r o l e d , was f o r c a t t l e
ste a lin g .
He s a y s , rtI was b ro k e t h a t tim e , t o o .
when t h e y d e s p e r a t e l y n ee d money.
P e o p le s t e a l
I b e l i e v e I c o u ld hav© made
B4
i t s f t e w t g o t o u t i f I h&d h ad a j o b , b u t I was p a r o l e d t o
my S a t b a r #®1
Ha f e e l s %b a t hi® s e n te n c e &asss unduly s e v e r e ,
since? h i s sen te n c e ® , by ru n n in g c o n s e c u t i v e l y , make i t im­
p o s s i b l e f o r him t o bo p a r o l e d b e f o re h i s tw e n ty * fiv e y e a r
s e n t e n c e i s c o m p le te d u n l e s s t h e s e n te n c e f o r k id n a p p in g and
t h e b a l a n c e o f th e re f o r m a to r y s e n te n c e c a n be removed*
“t h e y n e v e r s h o u ld h ave p u t t h a t k id n a p p in g c h a rg e o n . ft
Bln m onths a f t e r he e n t e r e d t h e p r i s o n , he and
a n o t h e r p r i s o n e r made a d a r in g b u t u n s u c c e s s f u l a tte m p t t o
escape#
I n t h e a t t e m p t , h e t i e d and b e a t a guard#
He say®,
"Hhezk 1 f i r s t came in I th o u g h t i t was t h e end o f ev e ry th in g #
1 thought X1d n e v e r g e t out*
away i V s bad.®
'&hen th e y t a k e a man1® hope
( I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g W n o te t h a t probably
t h e p r i s o n e r 1s o n ly u n t r u t h f u l statem en t c u r in g t h e i n t e r ­
view was made in r e g a r d to t h e b ea tin g o f th e g u a rd , which
he denied#
Mis p r e s e n t a t t e m p t s to g e t out l e g a l l y a r e o f
such im p o rta n c e t h a t , h© was w i l l i n g to l i e i n t h i s one a r e a
in ®n a tte m p t t o e r a d i c a t e a f a c t o r which m ight p ro v e an
o b s t a c l e tow ard t h i s end#)
He p s m on to s a y , “For t h e f i r s t
y e a r and s h a l f X k e p t t h i n k i n g o f e s c a p e , b u t th e n X de­
c i d e d t o s e t t l e down#11
He was s e v e r e l y p u n is h e d f o r t h e escap e a tte m p t
by b e i n g p u t i n t o i s o l a t i o n on b r e a d and w a te r f o r a
9on#l d e r a b le p e r l o t *
The pun ishm ent su c c e e d e d only in
making him m©r@ b i t t e r and a n t a g o n i s t i © tow ard t h e p r i s o n
o f f i c i a l © and g u a r d s .
On t h e i r s i d e , t o o , t h e o f f i c i a l ©
b e g a n t o lo o k upon him m a v i c i o u s and dangerous c h a r a c t e r
who had t o b@ w atch ed c l o s e l y and t r e a t e d more s t r i c t l y .
II© was tw ic e more p u n is h e d fo x m isb e h a v io r he c o n s id e r e d
t r i v i a l , c o n t r i b u t i n g f u r t h e r t o h i s f e e l i n g o f b e in g un­
j u s t l y t r s a t e d , an d t o hi® b i t t e r n e s s and r e b e l l i o u s n e s s .
t h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s m ight be c a l l e d
sequence*.
th e s p i r a l
I n t h i s c a s e , t h e p r i s o n e r r e a c t e d by an e sc ap e
a t t e m p t t o a s i t u a t i o n which he c o n s id e r e d i n t o l e r a b l e #
H is a t t e m p t had t h e e f f e c t o f c a u s in g th e o f f i c i a l s to
©lamp down upon him*
He r e a c t s by b i t t e r n e s s , f u r t h e r
e s c a p e p l o t t i n g and m is b e h a v io r .
The o f f i c i a l ® r e a c t by
s i n g l i n g him o u t t o p u n is h f o r o f f e n s e s which m ight have
gome u n p u n is h e d w i t h o t h e r p r i s o n e r s .
b i t t e r l y a g a i n s t th e i n j u s t i c e .
He r e b e l s s t i l l more
Thus we f i n d t h a t each
r e a c t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t t o h i s s i t u a t i o n changes t h a t s i t ­
u a t i o n i n a s t i l l more u n f a v o r a b l e d i r e c t i o n , t o which he
re s p o n d s anew.
k in d o f s p i r a l .
Thu® s i t u a t i o n and. r e a c t i o n i n t e r a c t i n a
Under o t h e r c o n d itio n ® , i t i s r e c o g n i s e d ,
t h e s p i r a l may move i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y f a v o r a b l e & i i a c t i o n ,
and i n d e e d t h i s c o n c e p t saems to have wide a p p l i c a t i o n i n
p s y c h o lo g y .
96
fht© seq u e n c e p r o b a b ly had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e
upon th e p l a c e o f t h e p r i s o n e r i n t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f
th e p riso n .
He i s p o p u la r among th e more r e b e l l i o u s , :irfci-
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n g ro u p s m b e in g * s o l i d * , i . e . dependably r e t l e a n t w ith any i n f o r m a t i c s t o t h e o f f i c i a l s *
Hot t r u s t e d by
t h e o f f i c i a l s and p r o b a b ly l a c k i n g c l o s e c o n t a c t w ith t h o s e
p r i s o n e r g ro u p s
w hich m ight have
I n f lu e n c e i n re g a rd t o jo b
a s s ig n m e n ts , he
h as -ap o e t j o b in p r i s o n , d ig g in g d i r t
out
on t h e *h i 1141*
He i s c l e a r l y no p r i s o n " p o l i t i c i a n * *
»The
p r i s o n e r s d o & 't
s t i c k t o g e t h e r , * he com plains*
E ls m ain c o n c e rn i s , o f c o u r s e , w ith g e t t i n g -out.
* I f m n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e work o r a n y th in g e l s e I n h e r e , "
h e say s*
His w ife I s e x tre m e ly a c t i v e i n a tte m p tin g to g e t
p a ro l© f o r him and h as r e t a i n e d .an i n f l u e n t i a l a t t o r n e y to
work on t h e c a s e .
H© i s r a t h e r h o p e f u l, p ro b a b ly u n re a li© -
t i e e l l y , t h a t he may g a t o u t i n about a y e a r a© a r e s u l t o f
th e se e f f o r t s .
He h i m s e l f i s h e lp l e s s *
w rapped up i n my w ife*"
"kjr whole f a i t h i s
On t h e n e g a tiv e s i d e , he see;:* t h e
w arden, whom he has Im p re sse d b a d ly by hi® b e h a v io r , as an
o b s t a c l e to hi® r e le a s e *
t h e u n c l e s r n e s s and u n c e r t a i n t y of t h e e n t i r e s i t ­
u a t i o n c a u s e him c o n s i d e r a b l e s u f f e r i n g .
" I f a p e r s o n on ly
knew how much tim e he had to do i t would *!11 be so bad*
It
w ould be b e t t e r i f th e y gave a f l a t f i v e y e a r s e n te n c e f o r
97
r o b b e r y w ith a g g r a v a t i o n t h a n t h e hope o f b e in g p a r o le d i n
a few y e a r s . "
S in c e h i s hopes of l e g a l r e l e a s e have been r a i s e d
h e no lo n g e r p l a n s f o r e s c a p e .
111 prom ised my w ife X*d be­
h a v e , end X h a v e , s i n c e t h e law y e r too k up th e uas©.*'
He i s c y n i c a l a b o u t p r i s o n s .
"They1r e j u s t a
g r a f t to make Jo b s fo x g u a r d s , th o u g h ," he a d m its , Hfhey*ve
g p t to have them ."
Ho point® t o example® o f a l l e g e d c o r­
r u p t i o n among t h e o f f i c i a l s , whereas© he t h i n k s p r i s o n s
should, bo- models o f j u s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
T hus, w h ile r e ­
f l e c t i n g t h e t y p i c a l a t t i t u d e s o f h i s p r i s o n g ro u p , t h e r e
i s n e v e r t h e l e s s a n o t e o f i d e a l i s m i n hi© a t t i t u d e .
Thus we f i n d Mm a t p r e s e n t , b i t t e r toward t h e
a u t h o r i t i e s , h o p e f u l b u t t o r n by u n c e r t a i n t y , w a itin g f o r
new® o f e n c o u ra g in g p r o g r e s s from h i s w i f e .
98
m rnnm
?
SCUMART M 0 OOB0UJS10B3
A* Summary
Thi 0 s t u d y , c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e Iowa S t a t e P e n ite n ­
t i a r y , i s c o n c e rn e d w ith t h e main d e te r m in a n ts o f t h e a t t i t u d e s
and b e h a v io r o f p r i s o n e r s .
a s e m i* fre e i n t e r v ie w t e c h n iq u e
mm d e v e lo p e d , and a p p l i e d a f t e r t h e groundwork was l a i d f o r
m aking t h e I n v e s t i g a t o r a c c e p t a b l e to t h e prisoner® *
The i n ­
t e r v i e w was b u i l t aro u n d some on e hundred s t a n d a r d q u e s t i o n s
w hich a tte m p te d t o g e t a t su c h f a c t o r s a s t h e p r i s o n e r * s a t ­
t i t u d e to w ard h i s s e n t e n c e , to w ard t h e t l .s e he had s e r v e d ,
h i e p r i s o n way o f l i f e , h i s p l a n s f o r g e t t i n g o u t, r e l a t i o n s
w i t h t h e o u t s i d e , etc*
F o r t y in terv iew ® were o b ta in e d .
The
i n t e r v i e w s were r a t e d , u s u a l l y a lo n g a ftve*>point s c a l e , on
tw e n t y - n i n e item s*
E a ti n g s o f thee® ite m s fey t h r e e r a t e r s
i n d i c a t e d a h ig h r e l i a b i l i t y .
Both s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s and c a s e stu d y
m ethods were a p p l i e d t o t h e d a t a .
C o r r e l a t i o n a l technique©
showed f i v e f a c t o r s t o fee s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to t h e de­
g re e o f s u f f e r in g of a p riso n e rs
1 . f e e l in g o f i n j u s t i c e of sen ten c e, r - . 5 ?
3* f e e l i n g o f i n j u s t i c e o f l e n g t h of tim e
s e r v e d , r=-*80
99
3* hope o f g e t t i n g a •break'* u n d e r t h e eircum *
e t «»$«** r»w $0
4.
u n f r i e n d l i n e s s o f t h e o u t s i d e as s e e n , r ? , 4 5
5#
i n d e f i n i t e n e e s o f knowledge as t o when w i l l
jf©t o u t , T-* Bl
B oth age end t h e tim e a p r i s o n e r e x p e c ts to s e r v e
show c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o t h e d e g re e o f s u f f e r i n g *
If e i t h e r t h e l e n g t h o f s e n t e n c e {r~#lG) n o r t h e l e n g t h o f
tim e s e r v e d { r ~ .l § } a r e r e l a t e d t o s u f f e r i n g *
O ther f a c t o r s
fo u n d n o t t o h e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e d eg ree o f s u f­
f e r i n g i n c l u d e su ch an im m ediate d a y - to - d a y f a c t o r in th e
p r i s o n s i t u a t i o n a s t h e j o b h e l d and l e v e l o f a m b itio n ,
p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w ith t h e o u t s i d e , and a c c e p ta n c e * * e je c tio n
a t t i t u d e tow ard v i s i t s .
Escape® were found t o be p e r p e t r a t e d u n d er c o n d i­
t i o n s o f low e x p e c t a t i o n o f g e t t i n g o u t soon ( y - .4 9 ) by
p r i s o n e r s w ith low t i m i d i t y , r a t i n g s ( r » .0 8 ) •
The m u l t i p l e
c i r r e l a t i o n f o r t h e s e two f a c t o r s i s .7 6 .
The i n f l u e n c e o f p e r s o n a l i t y fa cto r® was s t u d i e d
I n d i r e c t l y by a n a l y s i s o f t h e response© o f c r im i n a l ty p e s
to th e p riso n s it u a t io n .
The s o p h i s t i c a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l
t h i e f was found n o t t o be tro u b le s o m e , i n c o n t r a s t w ith
th e y o u th fu l-a g g re s s iv e ty p e .
Ife u ro tio c r i m i n a l s h o ld good
p r i s o n j o b s , y o u t h f u l - a g g r e s s I v e s poor o n e s .
100
Case s t u d i e s o f e i g h t p r i s o n e r s whose ch a n ces of
e v e r g e t t i n g o u t a r e s l i g h t r e v e a l e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c modes
o f re sp o n se to t h i s s i t u a t i o n .
A r a t h e r t y p i c a l sequen ce
o f b e h a v io r d u r in g a lo n g p r i s o n term was a l s o i s o l a t e d and
d e sc rib e d .
I n our g ro u p o f p r i s o n e r s t h e problem o f ©ex
a c t i v i t y d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be acute, and s l e e p was found t o
b e r a t h e r n o rm a l, th o u g h w ith some i n d i c a t i o n s o f i t s
ao tin g as a re fu g e .
B. Oonclueion®
From t h e t e c h n i c a l p o i n t o f view i t may be con­
c lu d e d t h a t i n t e r v i e w method© may be s u c c e s s f u l l y a d a p te d
f o r s tu d y in g t h e a t t i t u d e ® and b e h a v io r o f even ©o g e n e r a l l y
r e c a l c i t r a n t a g roup as p r i s o n e r s .
T h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h e s e c o n c lu s io n s may be drawn.
F i r s t , i t a p p e a rs t h a t f o r com plex b e h a v io r and a t th e p r e s ­
e n t s t a t e o f d evelopm ent o f p sy c h o lo g y , p s y c h o lo g ic a l v a r i ­
a b l e s d e r iv e d from th e i n t e r a c t io n o f th e p e rso n and hi® ob­
j e c t i v e s o c i o l o g i c a l e n v iro n m e n t, e . g . f e e l i n g o f i n j u s t i c e
o f s e n t e n c e , f e e l i n g o f i n j u s t i c e o f tim e s e rv e d , can be more
r e a d i l y r e l a t e d t o b e h a v io r t h a n v a r i a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g o f
d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e environm ent in p u r e ly p h y s i c a l o r o b je c ­
t i v e s o c i o l o g i c a l te r m s , ©*&• l e n g t h o f s e n te n c e , l e n g t h of
tim e se rv e d .
The s p r i n g s o f b e h a v io r a r e a p p ro a c h a b le th ro u g h
com plex a t t i t u d e s c o n s i s t i n g o f th e i n t e r a c t i o n o f m o tiv a tio n s ,
i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n s and t h e p h y s i c a l e n v iro n m en t.
101
S eco n d ly , and t h i s Is. p e rh ap s o u r main c o n c lu s io n ,
p r i s o n b e h a v io r appear® to he dom inated fey t h e need t o g e t
o u t and t h e p e r c e i v e d p a th s to w ard t h i s g o a l .
F a c to rs in
t h e im m ediate d a y - to - d a y s i t u a t i o n , d e s p i t e c o n tin u e d ex­
p o s u re t o them, a r e n o t o f im p o rta n c e .
R a th e r, t h e c r u c i a l
ones a r e fa cto r® i n v o l v i n g tim e p e r s p e c t i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y
t h e f u t u r e o u t l o o k , and fa c to r® in v o lv in g t h e p o s i t i o n o f
t h e p e r s o n on h i e p a t h t o t h e g o a l as m easured by h i s com­
p le x v a lu a tio n s ! y a r d s tic k s .
The d a te o f r e l e a s e r e p r e s e n t s
t h e boundary o f t h e e f f e c t i v e f u t u r e tim e p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e
d a t e t h e s e n te n c e was imposed t h e main boundary o f t h e e f­
fe c tiv e p a st.
T hese a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e frame of
r e f e r e n c e from which p r i s o n b e h a v io r d e r i v e s .
For p r a c t i c a l p e n o lo g y , s e v e r a l c o n c lu s io n s may be
draw n.
E f f e c t i v e r e h a b i l i t a t i v e p ro c e d u re s must r e s t s o l i d ­
l y on a ’b a s i s o f sound e m p i r i c a l knowledge o f th e psychology
o f t h e p r i s o n e r . ^ T h e p r e s e n t s tu d y r e v e a l s a $lc a lc u l u s o f
punishment** i n th e mind o f t h e p r i s o n e r , w ith th e tim e h©
h as s e r v e d b a la n c e d a g a i n s t h i s g u i l t and h i s debt t o s o c i­
e ty .
S u c c e s s f u l p a r o l e must be a l e r t to th e p r o g r e s s i v e
ch a n g es i n a t t i t u d e o f a p r i s o n e r l e s t e m b itte r e d and v in ­
d i c t i v e c r i m i n a l s be r e l e a s e d .
S e l e c t i o n o f th e o p tim a l
p o i n t f o r r e l e a s e must r e s t a t l e a s t p a r t l y in th e hands of
ex p ert c lin ic ia n s .
The f i n d i n g o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een
103
i n d e f i n l i e n e s s o f knowledge o f t h e d a te o f r e l e a s e and s u f ­
f e r i n g r a is e s a problem i n r e g a r d t o t h e in d e te r m i n a t e
s e n te n c e *
Ab we have p o i n t e d o u t , t h i s f a c t o r , b a se d upon
a s t u d y o f p r e s e n t c o n d itio n ® , doe® n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n v a l ­
id a te th e in d e te rm in a te se n te n c e ,
t o elem ent o f s u f f e r i n g
may s t i l l n o t o u tw e ig h a l l t h e a d v a n ta g e s , and f u r t h e r , i t
i s q u i t e p o ssib le t h a t a w e l l - a d m i n i s t e r e d i n d e t e r m i n a t e
s e n t e n c e sy stem , by t h e s e t t i n g o f d e fin ite r e h a b ilita tiv e
goal® , w i l l re d u c e t h e elem en t o f indsfinitexteas i n th e
f u t u r e tim e p e r s p e c t i v e *
From t h e c u s t o d i a l p o i n t o f view th e f i n d i n g s in
r e g a r d to ©scape a r e o f In te r e st to p r i s o n a d m i n i s tr a t o r s *
I t i s t h e p r i s o n e r whose r e c o r d and r e a c t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t
he does n e t f e a r t o engage i n v i o l e n c e and who has a lo n g
s e n t e n c e ah ead o f him who I s a p t to e s c a p e .
I t must he
added t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n has lo n g ago ta u g h t t h i s fa ct to
e x p e rien ce d p ris o n o f f ic ia ls .
I n c o n c lu d i n g , i t can o n ly he em phasised t h a t th e
e m p i r i c a l s tu d y o f human b e h a v io r , even i n t h e h e a t o f it®
com plex f u n c t i o n i n g i n s o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n s , can f r u i t f u l l y
be c a r r i e d on*
104
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1 9 3 3 , 24 , 7 3 6 - 7 4 7 .
------------- ----2 8 . G i l l i n , J . L , , " B a c k g r o u n d s o f P r i s o n e r s I n W is c o n s in
S t a t e P r i s o n a n d T h e i r B r o th e r s * 1, Amar. S n c l n i . R ev . ,
1937, 2 , 3 0 4-212.
3 9 . G l u e c k , S . , a n d B .T ., l i s £ H u n d re d C r i m i n a l C a r e e r s .
Bew Yorks Knopf, 1930. x j n r t i , 363pp.
30*
, ■■ « I l X g
K n o p f, 1 9 3 4 .
B e l l n q u e n t Women.
H e . Yorks
3 1 . H a n k s , L . ’-. , J r . , " P r e l i m i n a r y f o r a S tu d y o f D i s c i p ­
l i n a r y P r o b le m s i n P r i s o n " ( A b s t r a c t ) , P s y c h . B u l l . .
1938, 35, 630-631.
3 3 . H a r t , H . , " P r e d i c t i n g P a r o l e S u c c e s s " , £ . o f P r i m . Law
and C r im in a l. . 1 4 , 405-413.
3 3 . H a y n e s , Borman S . , a n d A sh , E . , wThe P r i s o n e r Community
a s a S o c i a l Group**,
§m X& L>
» 1 9 3 9 , 4 , 3,
383—3 6 9 .
3 4 . H a y n e s , F r e d IS., C r i m i n o l o g y .
1930.
417pp. .
3 5 ........ ..... - j — .
H ill , 1939.
P ris o n
v i i7 377pp.
le w York? 'MeOraw H i l l ,
Bew Y ork: McGrsw
3 8 . H e n t i g , H. V . , 3 u r F s y c h o l o g i e d e s G e f a n g e n e n (The
F s y c V lo p /y o f P r i s o n e r s ) . , Sa.hwteg.« 3s_oh. £ .
S0XM £*t6% L* 1 9 3 0 , 4 4 , 4 5 2 - 4 7 4 .
3 7 . H e r b e r t s , H ., S e e l e n l e b e n de© 6 t r a f g e f a n g e n e r i (T he
M e n ta l L i f e o f P r i s o n e r s ) , .jfo&w&lg,. &££&. £ .
flte a fa w fth l. 1930, 4 4 , 36 -4 8 .
3 8 . H e r n e t t , M i c h a e l , D ie G e d a n k e n w e lt im K e r k e r (Th© l o r l d .
o f T h o u g h t i n P r i s o n ) , B l a t t e r f i x G e fh n ^ ix ls k u n d e ,
1928, 59, 1 0 -2 4 .
V''
\/
/
107
39* Houtoken©* H.M. ttA S tu d y o f M e n ta l C o n f l i c t I n D e l i n ­
q u e n t a n d H o n - B e l l n q u e n t B o ys’*, j l . J u v . R e a . » 1 9 3 5 ,
19, 180-193.
40. H ow ard, J o b n , 1 M . S j i a l a f i t j&S. £ s A f i M <
London an d
T o r o n t o ? ^ J * M . D e n t 'a n a o o n s , L t d . , 1 9 3 8 . x x iiS G S p p .
H x n t p u b lis h e d I n 1 7 7 7 .)
41. K a rp m a n , Ben* J ftji A a ^ l f a t o A
BIse&s© M onog*, 5 9 , 1 9 3 5 ,
Nerv* a n d M e n ta l
4 3 , K e p h a r t , HeweXX Q*, **An E x p e r i m e n t a l S tu d y o f t h e *Bi&o r g a n i s a t i o n * o f M e n t a l f u n c tio n ®
( I n ) B o u t c h e n s , IC ephart an d S h a r p ,
h M m M m k 11*
U n iv . Iowa
^ h ild ^ ^ ^ e l T a r e 7 l 9 3 7 , 1 5 , 1 , 1 9 6 p p .
i n t h e D e lin q u e n t %
S tu d l e a i n faqoS tu d ., S tu d , in
(p . 6 9 -9 6 ).
43* K e p h n r t * K .O * , **3ome C h a n g e s i n D e l i n q u e n t s D u rin g
I n s t i t u t i o n a l C om m itm ent1*, £• Ju v ., §,©$-. t 1937.
21 , a , 67-75*
44* L & s l e t t , H .R .,
^ P r e l i m i n a r y H o te s on a T e s t o f D e l i n ­
q u e n t T e n d e n c ie s 11, £ . D e lin g . f 1935, 9 , 223-330.
45. L a u n e , F . F . ,
fla to r
v i a r on p a r o l e , F /v an sto n and O hioago? H o r t h w e s t e m
U n iv . P r e s s , 1 936. 1 6 3 p p .
46. Mao D o n a ld , M ,, 1,O r l m l n a l l y A g g r e s s i v e B e h a v io r i n P a s­
s i v e E ff e m in a te B oys” , MMX,* .£*
*
8 , 1 , 1938*
4 7 . M e H m a r , Q«, nS a m p lin g i n P s y c h o l o g i c a l B§s@ srchH
£ m M * M I m 194-0, 3 7 , B, 3 3 1 - 3 6 5 .
4 8 . M u r r a y , H. A., a n d o t h e r s , E x p l o r a t i o n © i n P e r s o n a l i - t v .
Hew Y ork a n d London! O x f o r d U n iv . P r e s © , 1 9 3 8 ,
x iv , 701pp.
4 9 . He l s o n , V i c t o r E . , £ r l | m J m &
L i t t l e , Brown a S G o*, 1 9 3 3 .
B o s to n :
rx iti,2 8 3 p p .
108
50. Osborne, Thomas Kott, Society and ErlSong. Hew Havent
Yale Unix. Press, 1S16. 246pp.
51. Hoot, ■■!.'£., A. Lsx,sJ|?,<rijU>.sJLP.:;.l £24 Educational Purvey
2JUJL Ea.i.feaaai.a, AlkJ&£ .toteyn Renttentiarv.
P i t t s b u r g h , W e s te rn P e n i t e n t i a r y , 1 3 2 7 .
52* K o u o ek , J . S * , "The k i n d o f t h e P r i s o n e r H, J. Abn. a n d
» 3 ? # 5 1 , 375-383.
,
.
53* H o l l a n d , Howard,. “S e g r e g a t e d C o m m u n ities a n d M e n t / s l
H e e ltli " ( I n )
fc&aJJiJa, J4S&I* OL M s x .» » A s s o c .
f o r t h e Adv* o f S c i e n c e , Mo* 3 . , ( M o u lto n , F. E. ,
e d i t o r ) , The S c ie n c e P r e s s , 1933. (2 6 3 -3 6 8 ),
5 4 . S e h i l d e r , p* “ The A t t i t u d e o f M urderer© Toward Death**,
2. & & • M M *
E M S m o l* , 19 36 , 31, 3 4 8 -3 6 3 .
55* S e l l i n g , L . S . , *A p s y c h i a t r i c T e c h n iq u e f o r t h e Txamin & tio n o f C r i m i n a l s M, M&JL* £♦ &L £ M
&
1937,
1 9 3 7 -0 3 , 10 97-1108.
56* Shaw , O. H* , The J a c k B o i l e r .
F re e s , 1930.
xv, 2 0 5 p p .
C h ic a g o : H n iv , o f C h ic a g o
^
5 7 . S i e v e r t s , H u d o l f , **Die i^ irk u n g e n d o r F r e i ^ e l t s s t r a f e ■
u n d D n tc x s u e h im g s h a f t a u f d en P s y c h e d e r Gef&ngenen**'-, 1
gB B tottaU aste
m u &mm&m
iy iflsen .tto h ax t. Kor&uegesroben vo n D r. k. L iep m an, H e f t
1 4 , Kanrikeiiii., 1 9 2 9 .
5 8 . So r e n e o n , P . , p gtl& tL lG E . 1&£ S tu d o iitg &&
E d u c a t i o n , Mew York? KoGxaw H i l l , 1 9 3 6 .
m&
v i i i ,373pp
59. S pen ce, K e n n e th , "Helvetians des m e re s ohimpanzc?© a
l 1 e g a r d dog e n f a n t s ehij&n&nzeg a p r o a s e p a r a t i o n . 1*
C o n d u i t s , S e n t i m e n s , F e n s e e d es Animaux. P a r i© :
T T B W rfT e T O S X T W b nT T T O H .
""
8 0 . S t a u b , H . , " P s y o h a n a l y e e e t C r i m i n o l o g l e ” , Hcv. P p ? n o .
F s v o h a n a l . , I S 3 4 , 7> 469-40© .
61. S u t h e r l a n d , > . a . . P r i n c i p l e , © o l Q$%mXl\£ll$Mlt - C h ic a g o
and. P h i l a d e l p h i a i t - i p p i n c o t t C o . , 1 9 3 9 . v i i , 6 5 I p t > .
109
©2* S u t h e r l a n d - , P*K* , MThe P r i s o n a s a C r i m i n o l o g i c a l
l i b e r a t e r y w, Annal* Amer* Acad. P o l* Soc* S c i e n c e ,
££&&&&£ JOi lo m X T G S .* 1 9 3 1 , 15 7, 131-136*
63* ___
r_..t “ W hite C o l l a r C r i m i n a l i t y ” , ffmer* S o o i o l . Rev**
1 9 4 0 , 5 , 1 -1 2 *
64* T a s k e r , K* J . , fiylmha.Y.en,.
Mew York: Knopf , 1928* 34lpp*
65* T hom as, 0 * , "A C o m p a riso n o f I n t e r e s t s o f D e l i n q u e n t
a n a M o n -n e lin o u o n t. B o y s1*, J* Jnv* R e s * . 1 9 3 2 , 1 6 ,
310 -31 8*
66* Thom pson, 0* 8 . ,
**A P s y c h i a t r i c S tu d y o f R e c i d i v i s t s * ,
fonsr* £ . o f P a v o h ln t* . 1937, 94, 591-604*
67*
68*
. “ Horne Dew A s p e c ts o f t h e P s y c h i a t r i c A p p ro a ch
!**, Ment* Fygj* , 1938, 30, 539-545*
...
. ...f “ The E ff e c t© o f Inoarjftc o r a t i o n on t h e Adult
O r i g i n a l a s O b s e rv e d i n a P s y c h i a t r i c C o u rt C l i n i c 11,
M e n ta l H y g ie n e . 1 9 4 0 , 2 4 , 5 0 - s a .
6 9 . T o lm a n , R u th a . , D i f f e r e n c e s BetMggn £gft
aL M vM
C r l r n i r t a l a . G e n e t i c FayolriL F o n o g . , 2 0 , 3 , 1 9 3 8 ,
353-458*
70* W i l l i a m s , *h 8 * , * The M ethod o f U n d e r s t a n d i n g a s A p p lie d
t o t h e P ro b le m o f S u f f e r i n g ? J> Atetu $& & • p s y c h o .! * ,
1 9 4 0 , 35, 5 1 , 3 6 7-385*
7 1 . W r i g h t , M.i!*, “ The I n f l u e n c e o f F r u s t r a t i o n u p o n t h e
S o c i a l H e i s t i o n s h i p s o f Young C h i l d r e n ” , u n p u b l i s h e d
D o c t o r s d i s s e r t a t i o n , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Io w a , 1940*
is s
110
AFPWDIX A
BBSCRIPTIORS OF RATISGS
( I n p a r e n t h e s e s , q u e s t i o n s o f i n t e r v i e w on which judgment
mm u s u a lly b ased*)
1.
Sentence (3 and
X-
prison records)
T en y e a r s o r l e s s *
8 + Haven to f if t e e n years*
3 «* Sixteen to f i f t y years*
4 *— L if e *
5 - L i f e p lu s h o l d o v e r , or l i f e commuted from d e a t h .
2* Tim® e^geote to serve (S§, 60, 67, S7s, €8,
74, p l u s f • •
short•.W ' B h d o r tw o y e a r s .
Medium - Two t o f i v e y e a r s *
l o n g - More t h a n f i v e y e a r s .
89, 70* 71,
3 . Tim e s e r v e d ( 2 a n d p r i s o n r e c o r d s )
1 - two years*
3 - Two to four years*
3 - Four to s i s years*
4 - S i x to t w e l v e y e a r s *
5 «* More t h a n t w e l v e y e a r s .
4 . F e e l i n g o f i n j u s t i c e o f s e n t e n c e ('©$, 7 8 , 7 7 , 78)
1 - Highly s a t is f ie d with sentence because f e e l© t h a t
h e com m itted a t e r r i b le crim e j u s t i f y i n g s e v e r e
p u n i s h m e n t ; o r , f e e l s h e r e c e i v e d an e x c e l l e n t
* brook* c o m p a re d w i t h o t h e r s .
2 - F a ir ly s a t i s f i e d w ith se n te n c e b ecau se f e e l s M s
c r i m e w as p r e t t y s e r i o u s , re q u irin g some p u n i s h ­
m e n t; o r , f o o l s h e r e c e i v e d a f a i r “b r e a k ” .
3 - S lig h t fo o lin g of in ju s tic e of se n te n c e -a v e ra g e *
4 - F o o ls s e n to n c e i s u n j u s t .
5 - F e e l s s t r o n g l y th a t, s o u ta n e ® i s i m j i i s t b e c a u s e
feel® in n o c e n t o f o r to o ; o r , h e re c e iv e d a v ery
s e v e r e s e n t o n c e c o m p a re d w i t h o th e r © ; o r , prom­
i s e s m ade t o him by law e n f o r c e m e n t o f f i c i a l s i n
r e g a r d t o h i s s e n t e n c e w ere b r o k e n .
5 . F eelin g o f i n j u s t i c e o f l e n g t h o f time s e r v e d ( 3 , 8 3 ,
M b, 88)
1 - C o m p le te ly s a t i s f i e d he h a s n H
y e t.
s e r v e d en o u g h ti m e
I l l
3 ** F a i r l y s a t i s f i e d h e h a s n ’ t s e r v e d en ou gh t i m e y e t .
3 «* M e i t h e r s a t i s f i e d , n o r r e s e n t f u l .
4 ** F e e l s h e h a s s e r v e d somewhat t o o l o n g .
§ <* F e e l s s t r o n g l y t h a t h e h a s b e e n K e p t l o n g e r t h a n i s
Ju st.
S . E x p e c t a t io n o f g e t t i n g o u t s o o n (6©)
t ** Mo e x p e c t a t i o n o f g e t t i n g o u t i n n e x t f o u r o r f i v e
y ears.
3 ** S l i g h t e x p e c t a t i o n o f g e t t i n g o u t w i t h i n f o u r o r
fiv e y ea rs.
3 ** F a i r e x p e c t a t i o n o f g e t t i n g o u t w i t h i n f o u r o r f i v e
y ears.
4 «» Q uit® c o n f i d e n t o f g e t t i n g o u t w i t h i n two o r t h r e e
y e a rs a t m o st.
5 «* C e r t a i n o f g e t t i n g o u t i n a y e a r o r l e s s .
7 . D e f i n i t e n e s s o f k n o w le d g e as t o when w i l l g e t o u t ( 6 3 ,
66 )
1 - H ig h ly u n c e r t a i n ©s t o wb®n w i l l g e t o u t .
**! h a v e
no i d e a . 11
2 mm B a t h e r u n c e r t a i n , a s , *Xn a b o u t tw o t o f i v e y e a r s . *
3 • n e i t h e r v e r y d e f i n i t e n o r i n d e f i n i t e , a s , “A b ou t
two o r t h r e e m ore y e a r s •**
4 - F a i r l y c e r t a i n a b o u t, when w i l l g e t o u t , a s , “ I ’ l l
b e h e r e s i x o r s e v e n y e a r s more.®
3 «*■ .E x a c tly c e r t a i n , a®, “ O c to b e r 1 9 4 3 . “
8 . L e v e l o f - a m b it io n ( S 3 , 3 4 , S3)
1 ~ E x tre m e ly lo w , e .g * s a t i s f i e d t o b e m d r i f t e r .
2 mm F a i r l y lo w .
3 ~ A v e r a g e , n e i t h e r h i g h n o r lo w .
4 — F a ir ly h ig h .
5 - E x tr e m e ly ’ h i g h , ®*g* w a n ts t o b e a w r i t e r , o r t o
liv e lu x u rio u sly .
S . F r ie n d lin e s s o f th e o u ts id e as seen (6 ? , 67a, 6 8, 69, 70,
71 74)
1 - “jfobedy i s i n t e r e s t e d i n h e l p i n g me.*1
2 mm " H a r d l y a n y b o d y i s t r y i n g t o h e l p m e . “
3 «, “ A few f r i e n d s ©re t r y i n g t o h e l p m e . M
4
“Q u it® a fern p e o p l e ar© t r y i n g t o do som ething; f o r
m®.w
3 «». “L o t s o f p e o p l e a r c i n t e r e s t e d i n h e l p i n g m e."
Sign® o f enthusiasm.
112
1 0 . O b je c tiv e l e v e l o f p r i s o n jo b (1)
%,** t h e “ b i l l * * , k i t c h e n , a n d o t h e r u n p a i d j o b s o f few
a d v a n ta g e s.
3 • P a id jo b s o f fe e a d v a n ta g e sf o r u n p a id jo b s o f
f a i r a d v a n ta g e s,
3 * J o b s o f g r e a t a d v a n ta g e s , as pow er, l e i s u r e , e a s e ,
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , v a r i e t y , e . g . e d i t o r s h i p ©f
m a g a z i n e , r u n n e r f o r d e p u ty w a r d e n , h o s p i t a l
a tte n d a n t,
11# S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r i s o n j o b ( 1 , 31)
1 #* H igh d l e e e t i s f a c t i o n , a s , “ t o r s i j o b i n t h e in**
e tltu tlo n * *
2 *» B a t h e r d i s s a t i s f i e d *
“ I t 1® n o t ®o good#*1
3 -* l e i t h e r s a t i s f i e d n o r d i s s a t i s f i e d .
“ I t 1© ©11
r i g h t I eupposo# “
4 - F a i r l y s a t i s f i e d , a s , “It* © © p r e t t y g o o d job#*1
6 *• H i g h l y s a t i s f i e d , a©, "fey j o b i s t h e b e s t j o b I n
• th e in s titu tio n # *
1 2 . D egree o f s u f f e r i n g ( ! , 1 0 , 1 2 , 1 3, 1 4 , 1 6 a , 4 1 , 4 1 a ,
4 2 , 31, 19, 4?)
1 * P r a c t i c a l l y n o s u f f e r i n g ; e n j o y i n g s e l f t o some
e x te n t*
2 mm Yexy l i t t l e s u f f e r i n g .
3** About a v e r a g e , s u f f e r i n g #
4 «* F a i r l y h i g h s u f f e r i n g *
© «. E x tr e m e ly h i g h s u f f e r i n g *
B e h a v i o r a l symptoms o f s u f f e r i n g !
( E a c h symptom m ust b e c o n s i d e r e d i n it®
n o n t e x t * P r o b a b l y non© b e a r s a d i r e c t l i n e a r
r e l a t i o n to th e d egree of s u f f e r i n g .)
a* I .M
£11,
In r e p ly to
Q u e s t i o n 66" a s " t o w h e t h e r h e i s d o in g ’
“h a r d tim e * • The e v a lu a tio n o f t h e
r e p l y depend® u po n t h e t e n o r o f t h e
e n t i r e in te rv ie w -*
Some c r im i n a l© w i t h
s tr o n g m a sc u lin e id e o lo g ie s c o n s id e r
i t weak t o r e v e a l s u f f e r i n g *
F e a tu re d u rin g th e in te r v ie w . I s he
r e l a x e d o r d o e s h e © it a n d move
te n se ly ?
C rushed p o s t u r e .
e . M aimer &£ X M ilX 1& S H & S il'S M .’ T one o f
v o i c e , e m o t i o n a l c o l o r , e . g . ©ad, e t c .
F ssiX y t a l k a t i v e , o r t e n s e l y i n h i b i t e d .
113
E m otio nal o u t b u r s t s , c r y i n g , c o n t i n u a l
r e t u r n i n g to a g rie v a n c e *
a* iM ftlygffiasI M s s a l a o .t l y i ti .e » . I s be
u n a b le t o c o n c e n t r a t e on any a c t i v i t y
f o r any p e r i o d o f tim e , o r I s he s t e a d ­
i l y engaged i n p la n n e d , c o n s t r u c t i v e
a c t i v i t i e s ? Does b e in g lo c k e d i n M s
c e l l b o t h e r Mm? {This f s o t o r was ap­
p a r e n t l y h i g h l y w e ig h te d i n t h e d e g re e
o f s u f f e r i n g r a t i n g s , f o r th e item
“ d eg ree o f Involvem ent i n c e l l tim e ac­
t i v i t i e s ' * c o r r e l a t e d -* 5 3 w ith s u f f e r i n g . )
j& £ S S £ S S U S B S l
poos he m e r e l y :s ta n d around a i m l e s s l y ,
o r doe© h e ta k e f u l l a d v a n ta g e o f th e
re c re a tio n a l f a c ilitie s * ?
(The c o r r e ­
l a t i o n betw een t h i s ite m and d e g re e o f
s u f f e r i n g was found t o be -* 3 3 * )
IS. M . J t e
M g M & t.
l e a l about th e
know
p r is o n o p e r a tio n and o r g a n i s a t i o n o r i s
ho q u i t e ig n o ra n t and u n i n t e r e s t e d
d e s p i t e o p p o r t u n i tie s to know!
g . Kxaxaaa-ad M M tM M £& .fiflJagRfeta IhlOKft*
Boos he ®e®m s a t i s f i e d w ith t h e way
t h in g s a r e ru n around th e p r i s o n , o r 1©
he i r r i t a t e d by many l i t t l e t h i n g s ?
h . p i e c e * Boeo he s le e p w e l l, o r doe© w orry
keep him awake?
13* Annoyance a t c o n c r e te t h in g s (3 4 , 31}
1 «* P r a c t i c a l l y no annoyances acceptance— n© c o m p la in ts*
a - Very s l i g h t annoyance*
3 - Medium annoyance*
4 - High annoyance*
5 - E xtrem ely h ig h am oyanc® . C o m p lain ts ab o u t many
th in g s *
14* S o c i a b i l i t y (1 1 , I S , I f , 3 8 f 4)
1 - Very low : much S o l itu d e , few c o n t a c t s ,
a - F a i r l y low s o c i a b i l i t y *
Few f r i e n d s o r a c q u a in ­
ta n c e s *
3 - W ith o t h e r p riso n e r© ab o u t a v e ra g e .
4 ** f a i r l y s o c i a l — w ith o th e r p r i s o n e r s f r e q u e n t l y .
5 ** H ighly s o c i a l — r a r e l y a lo n e , many 'frie n d s i n p r is o n .
114
l >
10 * In v o lv em en t In c e l l m t i v i t a s (1 3 , 14)
1 - d a n * t b e s o m 's ''in te r e s te d in any a c t i v i t i e s i n c e l l .
Has no p la n n e d p r o j e c t s *
U — R a th e r few a c t i v i t i e s — i n t e r e s t n o t deep.
& — About a v e ra g e I n t e r e s t and involvem ent*
4 - f a i r l y h ig h I n t e n t i n c e l l a c t i v i t i e s .
$ — High i n t e r e s t i n a c t I w it l e t — lo n g ra n g e p r o j e c t s .
T a lk s e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y ab o u t them*
IS* Inv olvem ent i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s (1®, 19, 33)
1 - I© i n t e r e s t I n s p o r t s o r games* Only s l i g h t a c ­
t i v i t y i n yard* U n i n t e r e c t e d s p e c t a t o r .
3 — S l i g h t in v o lv em en t— wo®© w a tc h in g o f game®*
5 — A verage e o t i v i t y ^ c o c a ^ s i o n a l in v o lv em en t i n ac­
t i v i t i e s — w atc h in g games*
4 — F a i r l y h ig h in v o lv e m e n t and i n t e r e s t .
S - High in v o lv em en t I n game®, team s o i l wily* Know­
l e d g e of' p e r s o n n e l o f t e r n s , score® ,, etc*
fnt&usiawm ab o u t the® .
IV* Degree o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f in sid ® (1 0 , 1 3 , 30)
1 - Tory l i t t l e in fo rm a tio n * Knows l i t t l e o f p r i s o n
o r o th e r p ris o n e rs.
3 - S l i g h t knowledge o f p riso n *
3 - A verage knowledge o f .p r is o n .
4 «* f a i r l y good i n f o r m a t i o n 'about p r i s o n .
5 - ■fide and a c c u r a t e 'i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u t o t h e r p r i s o n ­
e r s , r a le ® , p o p u l a t i o n / o f p r i s o n farm®, p r i s o n
i n d u s t r y , ©to*
1 3 . P e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w ith o u t s i d e '(3 0 , 44, 45, 45©, 45)
1 - Very low . l i t t l e o r up -o o n tact w ith fa m ily o r
f r i e n d s by l e t t e r ©4 -v i s i t v 3 - la th e r s lig h t c o n ta c t^
3 - About a v e ra g e c o n ta c t* 'fa m ily and a few f r i e n d s .
4 - F a i r l y h ig h e c n te c t* ■■;
© - Very h i g h . F req u e n t l e t t e r s and v i s i t s from fam­
i l y ' and friends*. -Knowledge o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s .
1 9 . R e a c ti o n t o v i s i t s , a o c e p ts h o o -w .e je o tio n (4 5 , 45®, 48,
mm)
1 .-* D i s c o u r a g e s -'v i s i t s .
,3 34 5 -
T r ie s to c u t .sc.If o f f from
p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s w i t h o u ts id e *
Some d isco u ra g em en t o f v i s i t s .
R a th e r n e u t r a l re a c t!© n fto , v i s i t s .
T hinks v i s i t s a r e p re tty ., good. Encourage® them .
H ig h ly e n jo y s and. encourage© v i s i t ® .
B e lie v e s
th e y a re a fin e t h i n g . ;
±15
30. S u s c e p tib ility to escape (73)
1 -
3 -
3 -
Would refuse to ©soap© if he had chance. Wouldn’t
consider it. Idea is ©hooking to M m #
Would b a r e l y c o n s i d e r e s c a p e .
la th e r n e u tr a l, Does not b e lie v e escape Is advis­
able or a good p o lic y for him.
4 - Might try escape with opportunity, though not
p lo ttin g a c tiv e ly at present#
5 — Admit® p lo ttin g soa-apo*
31* Is®ape score#
(The escape seox® was 'devised to make a v a ila b le a max­
imum of d a ta on escape®. I t co n sist® , in a l l case®
where an esc ape from w ith in th e p ris o n w alls or from
th e j a i l w hile aw aitin g tr a n s f e r to p ris o n was a t­
tem pted, o f th e rating"S * For a l l o th e r case®, th e
escape sco re r a tin g s a r e id e n tic a l w ith th e fsusoep-*
t i b i l l t y to escape* ra tin g ® * In c o r r e la tin g f a c to r s
a g a in s t th e escape s c o r e ,‘th e c o n d itio n s a t th e tim e
o f th e escape attem pt ( T^} .are used fo r ©11 oases who
have attempted escape, w hile con d ition s a t th e tim e o f
th e in te rv ie w (% ) axe used . fo r a l l e th e r s .
Escape® from the prison farms,or camps are not con­
sid ered a® escape® here* these are r e la t iv e ly easy to
accomplish and seem o ften t o take p la ce on Impulse.
What we are In terested in are the con d ition s under
which a man i s w illin g to risk M s l i f e attempting to
©scape from a w alled, c lo s e ly guarded in stitu tio n #
Escape from th e farm® and camp® may w ell occur under
other kinds of condition*#)
3, 3, 4 - Identiaal with “s u s c e p tib ility to ©soap©9.
6 - Sa® a c t u a l l y a t te m p t e d , or i s now p l o t t i n g ©scape,
I ,
33, Expectation o f g e ttin g out ©con, at time o f ©scape (T@)
( i f has attempted escap e), at time of interview (TjJ
I f ha© not attempted escape) (35, 7$)
1, 3, 3, 4 , 5 - O rlteria same as for expectation o f
g e ttin g out soon.
33# T im id ity, at Ta or 7* (4 , 5, 6, 7, 8, 8 a , 9, 70, 7 0 s,
70b)
I ** past l i f e in d ic a te s he Is not a fra id o f d ir e c t,
v io le n t a ctio n .
116
B
Hot much a v e r s i o n t o d i r e c t , v i o l e n t a c tio n *
3 m M eiihay t i m i d n o r p a r t i c u l a r l y p ro n e to d i r e c t ,
v i o l e n t a c tio n *
4 *» l e t t e r tim id *
5 » f a s t l i f e i n d i c a t e s he i s t i m i d , a f r a i d o f a u th o r ­
ity * S h rin k s from d i r e c t a c tio n *
24*
S o u rc e s o f w orry i n o u t s i d e s i t u a t i o n (41)
(A n x ie ty w ith o u t any © t r a c t i v e b a s i s # which i s fo u n d
i n some c a s e s i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s r a t i n g * fh©
q u e s t i o n c o n s id e r e d i n making t h e r a t i n g i s i
Boes
t h e r e e x i s t i n t h i s p r i s o n e r worry ©bout an o u t s i d e
s i t u a t i o n w hich seems t o J u s t i f y w o rr y t)
1 - I© w orry ab o u t o u t s i d e s i t u a t i o n * Fam ily and
f r i e n d s , i f any, a r e doing w ell*
2 «* Very l i t t l e worry*
3
F a i r amount c f worry* A verage.
4 — C o n s id e r a b le w o rry ,
5 - High w orry abo ut f a m ily o r f r i e n d s i n g r ie v o u s
s itu a tio n ,
2$» E x p e c ta ti o n o f g e t t i n g a ab f e a k *1 u n d e r t h e c irc u m s ta n c e *
( 6 5 , 66 , $ 7 , 0 7 a , S i , 69* 7 0 , 71* 74)
(Boss t h e p r i s o n e r ^ c o n s i d e r i n g h i s c rim e , c r i m i n a l
r e c o r d and t h e l e n g t h o f tim e u s u a l l y s e rv e d u n d e r
th e s e c o n d itio n s , expect to serve a r e l a t i v e l y s h o rt
amount o f t i m e t )
1 — E xp ects no *tw©ak*. E x pects t o s e r v e maximum tim e .
3 - l i t t l e exp eo t a t io n o f a *break***
3 «* Sees e x p e c t a t i o n o f a *break** A verage.
4 - F a i r l y h ig h e x p e c t a t i o n o f a *break*.
5 - C o n fid e n t e x p e c t a t i o n o f a ^ b re a k * .
3 6 . TroubleeciBenees (3 3 , 34, 35 and d i s c u s s i o n w ith p r i s o n
o ffic ia ls )
1 *» Very w e ll behaved j. p o i n t e d l y c a r e f u l n o t t o b re a k
any p r i s o n r u l e s . "
Z - F a i r l y w e ll behaved*
3 - A verage. O c c a s io n a l b re a k in g o f m inor r u l e s .
4 - B a th e r b a d ly b ehav ed .
5 - F r e q u e n tly b r e a k in g th e r u l e s and b ein g p u n is h e d .
3 7 . H a tr e d o f p r i s o n a u t h o r i t i e s ' (3 1 , 53, 58®, 60a)
1 - Ho h a t r e d o f p r i s o n a u t h o r i t i e s .
2 - Very l i t t l e h a t r e d o f p r i s o n a u t h o r i t i e s .
117
08* M i s t r u s t o f p r i s o n e r by p r i s o n a u t h o r i t i e s (fbi® r a t i n g
i s b a s e d upon i n f e r e n c e * from t h e i x t t e r y l s * and in fo rm a l
© om reraetloa© about t h e p r i s o n e r s w ith t h e p r i s o n a u t h ­
o r i t i e s m d w ith o t h e r p r is o n e r s * }
m Weil tr u ste d by th e prison authorities*.
3 ** F a irly w ell trusted*
3 - S lig h tly m istrusted*
V: , :
1
4 * C o n s id e r a b ly m i s tr u s te d * .
O\
5 ** Highly mistrusted*. C o n sid ered a prisdAer to be
c l o s e l y mat©had*
i
118
APPE1MI B
A SAMPLE XriEHVXEW
P r i s o n e r lum ber 3S * Age $4
1 * What h i n d o f work do you do h ere?
I* » I n t h e t a i l o r shop*
J u s t what do you do?
I make c o a t s .
I s i t a p r e t t y good J o b , o r n o t so good?
I t * s mot a pay j o b , so i t 1© mot m good. But i t 1®
oom gam lal, and i t 1® an easy p l a c e t o do time*
Xf Ye b een t h e r e n e a r l y t h r e e 'y e a r s .
Do you g e t any tim e f o r smoking?
Ho, b u t you can sn eak a smoke once In a w h i l e .
I s t h a t t h e k i n d o f work you d id on t h e o u ts id e ?
Mo, o u t s i d e I was a p a i n t e r and d e c o r a t o r , I want
t o w r i t e , h u t th e y d i d n 't p u t me on P r e s i d i o
(jfch© p r i s o n maga&ine) b ec au se th ey o an * t keep an
©ye on you t h e r e .
Do you f o r g e t a b o u t th e o u t s i d e w h ile you*re working?
I 'm alw a y s t h i n k i n g ab out th e o u t s i d e . 1 have a
w ife and baby and a l i t t l © s i s t e r o u t t h e r e .
3 . How lo n g have you been h ere?
Almost t h r e e y e a r s ~ t w o y e a rs and n in e month©,
3 . How much tim e a r e you doing?
L i f e , and a f e d e r a l l i f e s e n te n c e a f t e r t h i s one.
4 . Are you a f i r s t tim e l o s e r ?
Yea,
5 . I n whet o t h e r p l a c e s haw® you done tim e?
(omitfeed)
6 . What s o r t o f plae© was
?
___ ?
( P l a c e s named by th©
p ris o n e rs ,)'
( o m it te d )
7 . ‘Which was t h e e a s i e s t t o do tim e in?
t h i n g s t h a t msde i t e a s i e r ?
( o m itte d )
t h a t were ih©
119
8 . Which was t h e h a r d e s t t o do tim e In?
t h a t made I t h a r d e r ?
( o m itt e d )
What were t h e t h i n g s
Sa* What was y our o p in io n o f p r i s o n s a f t e r
m e n tio n e d .)
( o m i t te d )
?
(L ast p la c e
9 . What k i n d o f j o b d id you h a r e t h e r e ?
( o m i t te d )
10 * I® w orking i n a p r i s o n w orse or b e t t e r th a n working on th e
o u t s i d e ? How i s i t d i f f e r e n t ?
t o n d o n 't work so hard* b u t i t ' s l i k e b e in g a g a l­
l e y s l a v e , Y o u 're doing i t f o r n o th in g . You
have t o do i t .
How many o f t h e men a r e on pay jobs* do you know?
About h a l f th e men.
Are t h e r e many men w orking o u t in th e farm s and camps?
I d o n 't know. I d o n 't pay any a t t e n t i o n to i t .
How do you g e t one o f t h o s e farm jo b s i f you want one?
You have t o be a s h o r t - t i m e r .
Do l o n g - t i m e r s g e t p r e f e r e n c e on jo b s ?
th e y say l o n g - t i m e r s g e t b reak s* b u t a c t u a l l y I
d o n 't know. I h a v e n 't g o t t e n any favor® .
1 1 . Bo you have any f r i e n d s i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ?
I have one or two r e a l f r i e n d s , and a c o u p le o f
h u n d re d a c q u a i n ta n c e s .
13 . What can a man do i n h i s c e l l tim e?
Almost a n y th in g . Head, s tu d y , t i n k e r . I t ' s t h e
b e s t p a r t o f t h e p r i s o n f o r me, b e t t e r th a n th e
yard.
13. S uppose you want a c e r t a i n book from th© l i b r a r y , how can
it?
You t a k e your ch a n ces on i t . You a t t a c h a n o t e t o
yo u r l i b r a r y c a r d .
How c a n you g e t a message o u t o f h a re i n a h u rry i f you
h av e to? Can you te le p h o n e o r t e l e g r a p h ?
Y es, t h e y 1XI l e t you i f i t ' s an emergency.
120
Can you s e e t h e Warden i f you want to ?
Y es, on S a tu rd a y m o rn in g s. But I t h i n k I t ' s a
good t h i n g t o a v o id him. I keep away.
How do you go a b o u t g e t t i n g t o t h e h o s p i t a l ?
T h ere* © s i c k l i n e Monday* Wednesday and F rid a y
m ornings* and i f you g e t s i c k any o t h e r tim e
you ©an g e t p e r m is s io n from t h e g u a r d .
1 4 . How do you sp en d your c e l l tim e?
I s tu d y s h o r t s t o r y w ritin g * and r e a d , X d o n 't
do mny t i n k e r i n g , X u se d t o , h u t X g o t t i r e d
of it,
I w r i t e some s t u f f f o r P r e s i d i o .
1 5 . What do some o f t h e o t h e r s do?
L e a th e r work, d o i l i e s , c r o c h e t .
s o lita ry .
X p r e fe r b e in g
18a.* When t h e c e l l door i s lo c k e d on you i n th e e v e n in g ,
how do you f e e l ?
I'm g l a d t o be a l o n e . I t d o e s n 't b o th e r me a t
a ll.
1 7 . Bo you t h i n k t h e r e ought t o be more work tim e an d l e s s
© e ll tim e , o r more c e l l tim e and l e s s work tim e?
I ' d p r e f e r i f t h e y 'd lo o k me i n my c e l l and
throw t h e key away,
1 8 . S hat ca n a man do d u rin g y a r d tim e?
About a n y th in g i n t h e l i n e r e c r e a t i o n .
fig h tin g ,
Except
19 . What do you do d u rin g y a r d time?
X walk and t a l k , m o s tly , X d o n 't engage i n o r­
g a n i s e d s p o r t s . I h a r d ly e v e r watch t h e b a l l
gam es. X w a s n 't much i n t e r e s t e d on t h e o u t­
sid e e ith e r .
30. Bo you t h i n k t h e r e ought t o be more y a r d tim e?
lo .
S I , Bo you t h i n k a man ought t o be c a r e f u l ab o u t whom he
t a l k s t o i n t h e yard?
*Humbers o m itte d i n d i c a t e q u e s t i o n s dropped from
t h e o r i g i n a l i n t e r v i e w form . The o r i g i n a l num bering scheme
was r e t a i n e d f o r c o n v e n ie n c e .
121
You ©an t a l k t o a lm o s t ev ery o n e. There a r e n ' t
a s many s t o o l p lg c o n s aro u n d a* i s thought*
About p e r s o n a l t h i n g s I t a l k t o two o r th re e *
3 3 , A re you i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s p o r t s and d i f f e r e n t team s
a ro u n d her©? Bo you w r i t e o u t a b o u t s p o r t s ?
(© m itt © U nansw ered above)
3 3 . B© you r e a d P r e s i d i o ? How do you l i k e i t ?
Y es, I t 1a m il r i g h t .
Bo you t h i n k i t ' ® a r e a l in m a te 1a m agasine?
Yes* % suppose so* Edwards* IQih© ® dito£) i s a
f r i e n d o f mine*
3 4 . How1© t h e foo d been l a t e l y ? Bo you g e t p r e t t y t i r e d o f
it?
Very t i r e d , f t ' s t h e monotony o f i t . It*.a n o t
so much t h e food* ®s b e in g i n p r i s o n t h a t makes
you 9 o t i r e d o f i t .
I t was t h e same i n t h e
n av y .
3 4 a , Bo you e a t on t h e main l i n e ( d u r in g t h e u s u a l meal
h o u r s , r a t h e r th a n a t s p e c i a l meal tim es* a t some o f
which t h e fo o d i s s u p e r i o r ) ?
Ye s ,
Bo you g e t any e x t r a s from t h e ©antsen.?
Yes, q u i t e a b i t*
3 5 . Do you re a d t h e new spapers much? What do you l i k e t o
r e a d i n them?
1 J u s t s c a n them, n a t i o n a l new®* t h e w ar,
p o litie s .
Bo you r e a d them more t h a n you d id on t h e o u ts id e ?
P e rh a p s a l i t t l e more*
What1® you r i d e a a b o u t w h a t1® happening In Europe now?
I d o n 't condemn e i t h e r H i t l e r o r C h a m b e rla in . I
d o n 't b e l i e v e much o f what I r e a d t h e s e days*
3 6 . Whet axe t h e r u l e s about r e a d in g and r e c e i v i n g l e t t e r ?
(D iv e s t h e rule® c o r r e c t l y , )
36®. Bo you w rit© and r e c e i v e many l e t t e r s ?
I w r i t e my f u l l q u o ta , s i x a m onth, t o my wife*
SA11 name® a r e f i c t i t i o u s .
122
and © 1 stex* I r e c e i v e a b o u t s i x o r ©even a
week* I t ' s h a r d e r a l l t h e tim e t o f i n d t h i n g s
t o w rit® about* I t o l d my f r i e n d s n o t t o w r i t e ,
so I c o u ld have my whole q u o ta f o r my fam ily*
B e s i d e s , I w anted t o b re a k c o n t a c t w ith my
frie n d s*
37*
Bo you l o s e c o n t a c t w ith most o f t h e p e o p le you u s e d
t o know?
Ye®, b u t i t 1® p a r t l y my f a u l t * I w o u ld n 't
want t o c o n t a c t them o u t s i d e a g a in .
28*
When you were a kid* was t h e r e anyone i n your s c h o o l o r
crowd who l a t e r g o t i n t o t r o u b l e and went to re fo rm
school or p riso n ?
Ho, t h e r e w a s n 't anyone*
38®. How do you a c c o u n t f o r y o u r g e t t i n g i n t o t r o u b l e ?
I was a p a i n t e r end d e c o r a t e r , b u t 1 r a n o u t o f
work and money, and 1 w o u ld n 't beg* 1 was
twenty**seven b e f o r e I e v e r b ro k e a lew* Sev­
e r a l o f u s g o t t o g e t h e r and robbed a bank*
l a t e r , I became a p r o f e s s i o n a l bank ro b b e r
and worked, w ith a gang which had n a tio n w id e
c o n n e c tio n s * We would g e t t o g e t h e r o n ly t o
p u l l a J o b , and t h e n go back hems®. I was
a b o u t to q u i t when on© o f my p a rtn e r© p e r­
su ad ed me t o p u l l a n o th e r bank ro b b e ry w i t h
him and we were caught* C^t t h i s p o i n t h©
e l a b o r a t e d a b o u t t h e te c h n iq u e o f bank ro b ­
b e r y , and was a llo w e d to c o n t in u e b e c a u s e o f
t h e in f o r m a t i o n ab o u t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and
b ack g ro u n d which c o u ld be i n f e r r e d from t h i s
m a t © r i a l .3
39*
How d id you sp en d y o u r s p a r e tim e on t h e o u ts id e ?
H u n tin g , f i s h i n g , d r i v i n g .
30.
What ©re t h e rule© ab o u t v i s i t o r s ? Gan f r i e n d s com®
t o s e e you? How does I t work ou t?
I t r y t o d is c o u r a g e v i s i t s *
th e y t e a r me u p ,
and them , too* I doubt w hether I ' l l e v e r go
o u t o f h e r e a f r e e man. I t ' s b e s t t o l e t i t
t a p e r I t o ff*
31*
What t h i n g s a b o u t t h i s o la.ee g e t on y our nerve© m ost?
What thing® annoy you most?
123
The itm m fm * lo t© o f them axe l i k e anim als*
p e t t i n e s s aroun d h e r e .
How would you improve t h e s e th in g s ?
S e g r e g a te t h e r a p e f i e n d s and t h e oolored*
a l s o t h e t h i e v e s , th e y t h i n k more a l i k e .
The
And
32a* What do you t h i n k a p r i s o n sh o u ld b e l i k e !
Dive a f i r s t tim e l o s e r a ch ance t o make good on
t h e o u t ©Id® | i n s t e a d o f k e e p in g hiss here* I f
he d o e s n 't make good, p u t him hack* I would
h av e b e e n 0 *K* i f th e y had l e t me out a f t e r a
y e a r o r two* flow 1 d o n 't c a r e any mores i t ' s
p u t i r o n i n t o me* Cfeign o f emotion**} Also, th e y
s h o u ld p u t r e a l t r u s t i n t h e men, n o t "trust*
um&ar t h e gun* When y o u 'r e t r u s t e d , you f e e l
l i k e a human being*
33* What c a n a i^an do when he* a g e t t i n g © raw d e a l i n her®?
J u s t t a k e i t * I f you k i c k , you g e t a w orse one*
34.
Have you e v e r had; any r e p o r t s a g a i n s t you?
Ho. I t r y t o obey t h e r u le s *
I t ' s ©mart t o
35.
Howd i d i t happen?
{ o m itte d )
B id you r e a l l y d e s e r v e
obey.
It?
38. How d i d you spend your tim e i n t h e h o le ?
( o m i t te d )
37* What *3 t h e b e s t way t o do ea sy tim e i n t h e ho le?
( o m it te d )
38* Bo you l i k e t o keep m o s tly t o y o u r s e l f , o r do yon. l i k e
t o t a l k t o a l o t o f p e o p le ?
1 keep m o s tly t o m y s e lf , ex c ep t f o r two o r thro©
fa llo w s *
39. Bo you t a l k a b o u t your r e a l l y p e r s o n a l a f f a i r s t o any­
b ody , o r do you keep t h o s e t o y o u r s e l f ?
X don' t ta lk to anyone about my f a m ily , b u t ab o u t
th e c a n ( p r i s o n ) X t a l k t o a few p e r s o n a l
frie n d s.
4 0 . Bo you have t h e ©am® k in d o f f r i e n d s i n h e r e as on t h e
o u tsid e?
124
Ho, -out©id© a l l my friend© war© l e g i t i m a t e . My
f a m ily d i d n ' t know o f my a c t i v i t i e s .
I used
t o m eet my f a l l - p a r t n e r s o n ly f o r co m m ittin g a
©rime*
41* Bo you w orry much? What do you worry a b o u t most? I s
t h e r e anyone o u t s i d e y o u 'r e w o rrie d about?
I w orry a l o t , a b o u t alm ost an y th in g * About
f a m i l y t r o u b l e s o u t s i d e , i f t h e y ' r e s i c k and
su c h things.* M o s tly , my f e a r s a r e g r o u n d l e s s .
T h e y 'r e a c t u a l l y g e t t i n g a lo n g q u i t e w ell*
But th e y d o n 't u n d e r s ta n d t h e r e a l s i t u a t i o n
I 'm in* They th in k th ey # i g h t g e t me out*
4 1 a, low have you b e e n s l e e p i n g l a t e l y ? Do you have any
t r o u b l e f a l l i n g a s le e p ? I s i t t h e same k in d o f s l e e p
a s on t h e o u t s i d e ?
About t h e samev i n h e r e a© on t h e o u t s i d e .
42* When y o u 'r e l y i n g I n your c e l l , do you daydream abou t
d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s y o u 'd l i k e t o do? I t ' s a p r e t t y
n a t u r a l t h i n g t o do*
Y es, q u i t e a b i t *
About thing© I ' d l i k e t o do,
place© I ' d l i k e t o be* I o f t e n t h i n k I ' d
l i k e a ©hack i n t h e woods away from any
hum.an b e in g .
48a* Do you dream much? What do you dream about?
Very little now, 1 had lots o f n ig h tm a re s th e
f i r s t y e a r 1 was h e r e , I had a r e c u r r i n g
dream i n which I was I n a r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n
and a s t a t e a g e n t ©am© up and I oouldn* t g e t
t h e s a f e t y c a t c h o f f my gun,
4 3 . B© you t h i n k much ab o u t women?
I d i d a t f i r s t , b u t I d o n 't any l o n g e r .
was m o stly a b o u t my wife*
4 3 a . How lo n g were you m a rrie d ?
About f o u r year© when I cam h e r e .
44 * Bo you g e t v i s i t s o f te n ?
( o m i t te d — answ ered - shove)
4 5 . How do you f e e l b e f o r e © v i s i t ?
( o m it te d )
It
125
45a* How d© you f e e l d u r in g a v i s i t ?
I u s u a l l y e n jo y them, e x c e p t when my w ife and k i d come,
H© do earn* t know me.*
4 6 , Bow do you f e e l a f t e r a v i s i t ?
P r e t t y blu e*
46a* Do you t h i n k i t * s good f o r a man to r e c e i v e v i s i t o r s ?
I t 1s 'g o o d f o r t h e f i r s t y e a r , a f t e r t h a t i t i s o 1! . A
man 1® b e t t e r o f f t o b re a k c l e a r away, b u t o f b i s own
and hi© p e o p l e 1®.a c c o r d , n o t b e c a u s e b e 1® f o r c e d by
a u t h o r i t y * I t ah© uldn*t be don® to o s h a r p l y , th o u g h ,
th e same t h i n g b o ld s f o r l e t t e r ® , A man c o u ld do
b e t t e r tim e t h a t way*
47 . Compared w ith most o f t h e men i n h e r e , have you b een do­
i n g p r e t t y b a r d tim e o r n o t?
About a v e r a g e , I have more t© l o s e th a n m o st. 1
have a w if e and c h ild *
48* Wh© do es h a r d e r t i m e , d© you t h i n k , a man w ith ® lo n g
s e n te n c e o r a man w ith a s h o r t s e n te n c e ?
A mam w ith a s h o r t s e n t e n c e . Maybe t h e l o n g - t i m e r
i s more &©s«&| h e c a n 1! ©cunt on wham h e 111 g e t
o u t , i t 1® so fa x away*
49* When does t h e tim e go f a s t e s t w h ile y o u * re s e r v i n g , a t
t h e b e g in n i n g , d u rin g t h e m id d le , o r n e a r th e end o f
y o u r s e n te n c e ?
I t * s g o in g f a s t e r now t h a n a t f i r s t .
S ix m onths ago
when I g o t t h a t f e d e r a l l i f e senterne®, i t j u s t about
c l o s e d t h e door o f hop®. Sine® them I* v e b een do­
in g h a r d e r time*
50, Bow d i d you f e e l when you f i r s t ©am© h e re ?
P r e t t y b a d . But 1 wa® p r e t t y g la d t o have b e a t e n
h a n g in g . But I f e l t p r e t t y bad on my p e o p l e 1®
ac co u n t,
5 1, t h a t d i d you t h i n k o f t h e p la c e ?
I t was much b e t t e r t h a n I had e x p e c te d .
5 2 , Did you r i d e a s o f t h e p l a c e change a f t e r a w hile? Did
y o u r idea® change a b o u t how t o a c t t o t h e g u ard s?
Ho, t h i s i s an easy p e n i t e n t i a r y *
Bow I h a t e t h e
u ard a i n © t i n © l iv e l y , b ec au se I*m so b i t t e r .
l& so tlo n a lly O And I hat© t h e p u b l i c , t h e news­
paper® . T here were r a d io program s about my c rim e
f
126
©ml s o - c a l l e d t r u e d e t e c t i v e s t o r i e s .
g a r b l e d t h e whole th in g *
They
S5*. Whet t h i n g s ch an ged your i d e a s end f e e l i n g s a b o u t i t ?
Did any of t h e p e o p le you met h e r e , e i t h e r in m a te s o r
p e o p le work h e r e , change your id e a s a b o u t t h e p la c e ?
1 l e a r n e d most f o r m yself*
5 4 . When you were a k i d what s o r t o f p i c t u r e d i d you have i n
y o u r mind ©f what a p r i s o n was l i k e ?
fv e ry b c d y wore a b a l l and c h a i n , and s t r i p e s ,
5 4 a . Does a man f e e l ashamed o f h av ing been in p r is o n ?
1 im ag ine he would*
5 5 , 'tew lo n g d id i t t a k e you b e f o r e you g e t u s e d t o t h e In ­
s titu tio n ?
S ix m o n th s.
56* What was y o u r a t t i t u d e t h e f i r s t tim e you war© i n p r i s o n ?
(o m itte d )
5 ? . Would you m y t h a t most o f t h e men her® a r e a b o u t t h e
same k in d of fellow® a s you o r d i f f e r e n t ?
I f e e l i n a somewhat h ig h e r c l a s s t h a n m o st. I'm
more i n t e l l i g e n t and have more p r i n c i p l e . " In­
c i d e n t a l l y , I n e v e r c o u ld ro b when I was 'd ru n k .
58* What make® a man p o p u l a r w ith th e i m a t e s h e re ?
Being known t o be s o l i d , o r t o have done some­
th in g d a rin g ,
50©.Whet make® him p o p u la r w i t h t h e o f f i c i a l s ?
t d o n ' t know* l o t t h e s t o o l p i g e o n s .
59* Which 1© m o r e im p o r ta n t a s f a r a® r e p u t a t i o n g o e s , what
he d id o u t s i d e , o r t h e way h® act® her©?
They 1r© ®feont e q u a ll y im p o rta n t u n l e s s you t u r n
s h a r p l y i n here*
60* Where would you say you s ta n d ? Do you t h i n k you1r e
p r e t t y p o p u l a r w ith most o f th e in m a te s o r h o t?
I 'm n o t o o p u l a r , I *m about a v e r a g e . I c o l d
s h o u ld e r a l o t o f them . When I f i r s t cam i n ,
I k e p t away from t h e to u g h guy® b e c a u se X was
h o p in g th e n t o b e a t t h e case*
127
60®* Bo you t h i n k yon* re p r e t t y p o p u la r w it h th e guard® and
o f f i c i a l * o r n o t?
E x tre m e ly n o t* My r e c o r d makee the® f e e l t h a t
way* They w atch me p r e t t y c l o s e l y . They know
t h e w a l l a w o u l d n 't e x a c tly have t o f a l l down
f o r me to t r y t o g e t out*
©1 * that doe® p r i s o n do t o a
It embitters him*
m m t
It drives him Into himself*
Ton become i n f e a t e d w ith m s e n s e l e s s b i t t e r ­
n ess* I t ' s now p r e s e n t i n me, too*
6 2 . Bo you t h i n k h e become® more n erv o u s t h e l o n g e r h e 4® i n
h e r e , o r l e s s nervous?
You become more s e n s i t i v e to s m a ll a f f r o n t s *
T here a r e l o t s o f f i g h t s b e c a u s e t h e men a r e
tense; l i t t l e t h i n g s g e t you*
S3* t h a t good do you t h in k p r i s o n s do?
A b s o lu te ly n one.
84* Bo you t h i n k p r i s o n s p r e v e n t crim e?
A b s o lu te ly not*
6 4 e , ( l . f n o t ) How do you a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a s t t h a t some men
. s t o p c o m m ittin g c rim e s when th e y g e t o u t?
Those who g o s t r a i g h t a f t e r p r i s o n would have
w ith o u t p ris o n * They do b re a k th e s p i r i t s o f
a few .
People commit c rim e s b e c a u se th@y 4r©
b o m t h a t way, o r g e t t h a t way i n e a r l y c h i l d ­
h o o d , or b e c a u se of need*
6 4 b * I f a men were p a r o l e d a f t e r about n y e a r i n h e r e , do
you t h i n k t h e r e would be more .chance o f h i s g o in g
s t r a i g h t ? Why?
I t would be a good t h i n g , e s p e c i a l l y f o r f i r s t
o ffe n d e r® .
6 5 . When do you e x p e c t to. g e t o u t?
I 'm p r e t t y s u r e 1 * 1 1 n e v e r g e t out by legal
m eans. But l #m n o t r e s i g n e d . My s i s t e r
w i l l t r y t o h e l p , but t h e r e 4® r e a l l y l i t t l e
s h e can do. I won41 t r y t o ©scape b e c a u s e
t h a t w i l l c a u s e my fa m ily m is e r y . O th e r­
w ise I would have t r i e d i t lo n g ago* I ' d
r a t h e r be dead, than be h e r e .
86 . I s t h a t t h e e x p i r a t i o n o f your s e n te n c e o r do you
128
e x p e c t a. p a r o le *
tim e o f f ?
( o m it te d )
( I f e x p i r a t i o n ) I s t h a t w ith good,
67* On what do you t h i n k y o u r g e t t i n g o u t o f her© depend®?
I c a n ' t think, o f a n y th in g t h a t would g e t me o u t .
67a# What 1a w orking a g a i n s t y o u r g e t t i n g o u t?
Two l i f e s e n te n c e s * They t h i n k I k i l l e d a few
mem, th o u g h I d i d n 't *
SB. Bid t h e ju d g e o r t h e a t t o r n e y t e l l you t h a t good beha­
v i o u r I n S e r e would h e l p you g e t a p a r o le ?
Wo*
©9. th y d o n 't you e x p e c t a p a r o l e ? ( o r ) Why do you t h i n k
y o u ' l l make p a r o le ?
( o m i t te d )
70* Have you b ee n to t h e p a r o l e hoard?
I ' v e n e v e r b een up*
70 ( c o n t ' d ) . How many tim e s? What happened? when do you
e x p e c t t o come up a g a in ? ( I f any chan ge I n p ro s p e c t® ,
how d i d i t a f f e c t a t t i t u d e s end b e h a v io r ? )
( o m itte d )
71 .Can you t h i n k o f som ething t h a t m ig h t happen t o g e t you
o u t?
Wothing*.
73* Do you e v e r have thought® about esc a p in g ?
Yery o fte n * But I'm h an d ica p p ed by my p e o p l e ,
and t h e w a l l s , t o boot*
73 ( o o & t 'd ) . Do you e v e r Im ag in e y o u r s e l f e s c a p in g w ith o u t
r e a l l y m eaning t o c a r r y i t o u t?
escape?
B id you ev er t r y t©
( o m itte d )
74 , 'What t h i n g s have you been d o in g a b o u t g e t t i n g commuta­
t i o n ( o r p a r o le } ?
Only what my s i s t e r h as been doing*
78* What was t h e often#® you were c h a rg e d w ith?
Second d e g re e m u rd er.
129
7 6 a . How d i d i t happen?
We w are t a k i n g a man1® c a r a f t e r a. bank ro b b e ry ,
t h e r e was a gun f i g h t , and a man was k i l l e d .
I p le a d e d g u i l t y t o ®#©omd d e g r e e m u rd er, so
a t l e a s t X" w o u l d n 't h an g . The f e d e r a l l i f e
s e n t snow i s f o r hank ro b b e ry and k id n a p p in g ..
7 6 b . What do you t h i n k a b o u t when y o u 'v e a b o u t t o commit a
crim e? d o t t i n g ©aught? P unishm ent?
J u s t how to p u l l i t o f f w ith o u t f u s s , so n oth in g
happen#*
77* Did you g e t a p r e t t y d e c e n t b re a k on t h e s e n te n c e ?
On t h i s one h e r # X g o t a f a i r b r e a k . But t h e
f e d e r a l , on# I s t o o s t r o n g . They s u s p e c te d me
o f th i n g # th e y mover proved* That was a r o t ­
t e n t h i n g t© do* X was a l r e a d y doing l i f e .
7 8 , Bo you f e e l y o u 'r e lu c k y compared w ith some o f t h e men
i n h e re ?
S o . X have one o f t h e w o rst s e n te n c e s i n t h e
JljEL©"t!%% *$*jL0Jim
7 9 . How much do you t h i n k p o l i t i c s com®# i n i n g e t t i n g
p a r o le ?
l o t a# muoh a s t h e a v e ra g e p r i s o n e r t h i n k s .
l e a s t i t ' s p r e t t y s m a ll now*
At
80* B© you t h i n k p o l i t i c s a r e p r e t t y ©rooked i n g e n e r a l ?
A b so lu te ly *
8 1 . Bo you t h i n k b u s i n e s s men a r e ab o u t m ©rooked a® p o l i ­
t i c i a n s or m ore h o n e s t i n t h e i r ways o f making money?
I t ' s n o t a s bad a s p o l i t i c s , l i n e t y - n i n e p e r
c e n t p f human# -a r e t h i e v e s a t h e a r t , A baby
w i l l t a k e a n o t h e r 's p l a y t h i n g , i t ' s an
in s tin c t*
8 2 , What do you e x p e c t t o do i f you g e t o u t?
I ' d g e t t h a t shack i n th e woods X t o l d you a b o u t
b e f o r e , X w o u l d n 't ro b , b e c a u s e o f my f a m i l y ,
• I f th e y l e t me o u t , Hut i f X e s c a p e d , I
would be ro u g h , and t a k e revenge*
83* Doe# a p r i s o n r e c o r d make I t to u g h f o r a man o f t h e
o u tsid e?
Hot a# much a s th e y c la im . I t ' s o v e r r a t e d .
130
8 4 , Bo you t h i n k p e o p le oar© v e ry much a b o u t im proving
p riso n s?
Hot a t a l l * I f th e y temm t h e c o n d i t i o n s , t h e y ' d
make them worse*
85* Most p e o p le on t h e o u t s i d e have q u e e r idea© ab o u t what
p r i s o n * a r e l i k e * t h a t do you t h i n k p e o p le on t h e
o u t s i d e s h o u ld know a b o u t p r i s o n s t h a t th e y d o n 't
know now?
That t h e p r i s o n e r 1© m human a© they* About de­
g e n e r a t i o n , end how t h e a u t h o r i t i e s c l o s e t h e i r
eyes t o i t *
I t sicken© me* There s h o u ld be
more © q u a lity , e q u a l pay f o r e q u a l work*
85a*. what ab o u t t h e c o n n iv in g ?
C o n n iv in g g o es on anywhere# the p u b l i c s h o u l d n 't
know* A man w i l l t r y t o g e t to b a c c o i f he
h a s n ' t a penny* Men have t o l i e , i f i t involve©
g o in g t o p ris o n # The p u b l i c i s h y p o c r i t i c a l
ab o u t i t * The c o n v i c t l o s e s h i s r e s p e c t f o r t h e
p u b lic *
8 0 . I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g you would l i k e t o add?
They s h o u ld do away w ith I M e r a Creform ©ohooO
and Ansatcss £r© fcrasstovy) f where crim e and de­
g e n e ra c y s t a r t *
A d d itio n a l n o te a t
Maimer q u i e t b u t te n s e *
O o n v e r s a tio n w ith t h e p r i s o n o f f i c i a l s rev eal©
t h a t t h e y c o n s i d e r him one o f t h e most d an g e r­
ous men i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n *
They b e l i e v e he
k i l l e d s e v e r a l men i n t h e c o u r s e o f h i s crim ­
i n a l c a r e e r . The f a c t t h a t t h e f e d e r a l a u t h ­
o r i t i e s took t h e t r o u b l e t o have a n o th e r l i f e
s e n t e n c e added t o h i s f i r s t would seem t o i n ­
d i c a t e t h a t th e y w anted t o make s u r e t h a t he
n e v e r g o es o u t a f r e e man* C o n v e rs a tio n w ith
s e v e ra l, p ris o n e r ® i n d i c a t e s t h a t he was a
member o f a desparafc© and h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t
gang o f bank robber® , as he ad m itte d *
Hating®*
1*
2#
3*
4.
S e n te n c e - S
Tim© s e r v e d - 3
Time e x p a c ta to s e r v e - lo n g
F e e l i n g o f i n j u s t i c e o f s e n te n c e - 4
131
5. F e e l i n g o f I n j u s t i c e o f tim e s e r v e d - 4
6 . E x p e c ta ti o n o f g e t t i n g o u t soon - 1
7 . D e f i n i t e n e s s o f knowledge a s t o when w i l l
g e t out — 1
8 * L e v e l o f a m b itio n - 4
8 . F r ie n d lin e s s of th e o u ts id e as seen - 4
10. O b j e c t i v e l e v e l o f p r i s o n j o b - 1
11 . S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r i s o n j o b - 4
1 3 , Degree o f s u f f e r i n g - 4
13. Annoyance a t c o n c r e t e t h i n g s - 3
14. S o c ia b ility - 3
15* In v o lv em en t i n c e l l a c t i v i t i e s - 4
15 . Inv o lv em en t i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s - 1
17, Degree o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f i n s i d e - 3
18, P e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w ith o u t s i d e - 4
19 , R e a c ti o n t o v i s i t s ; s e e © p t a n o e - r e j e c t i o n - 1
8 0 . S u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o e sc ap e - 5
2 1 , E scape s c o r e - 5
33. E x p e c ta tio n o f g e t t i n g o u t soon a t (T e o r )
Ti * 1
2 3 . T im id it y a t (*%or) Tf - 1
24. Source® o f w orry i n o u t s i d e s i S s a t i o n - B
25. E x p e c ta ti o n o f g e t t i n g ' a
i n u ie
c irc u m sta n c e s1
.36. T roublesom eness — 2
87* H a tr e d o f p r i s o n a u t h o r i t i e s - 5
8 8 . M i s t r u s t o f by p r i s o n a u t h o r i t i e s - 5
C r im in a l ty p e - P r o f © e s io n a l
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