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A study of the effectiveness of selected auditory presentations at the adult age level

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A m s m
OP THE ESpaSCTKHKSS
P B E S E H 3» f » a i S AT THE ADTOHP AGE-'
Helene Eeye
A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requlr ements
for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, in the Department
of Child Welfare, in the Graduate College
of the State University of Iowa
August, 1940
ProQuest Number: 10592861
All rights reserved
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AcXmowl e&gements
h
q
writer wishes to express her appreciation to
the many people, both as Individuals and groups, who assisted
her throughout the progression of this study*
To th© two
hundred fifty women who left their household duties, at times
at great inconvenience to themselves and their families, she
is especially indebted*
She wishes to express appreciation
to Richard Wynne of W3TA for the excellent direction of the
scripts for the recordings; also to Professor Harry Erxgwieht
of San Jos© State College, for the designing .and supervision
of the building of the phonograph necessary for presenting
the recordings*
To Miss Jessie Harris and Dr. Drusilla Kent
of the University of Tennessee, she Is grateful for assistance
In the arrangement of cooperating groups*
Mrs. Urban lleas,
Knoxville City President of PT-A, Miss Qaaa Worley, District
Home Demonstration Agent, and Miss Hita HcFee, Parent Edu­
cation Specialist of the Tennessee Congress of Parents and
Teachers, to whom fell the responsibility of making ar­
rangements with the various groups and who spent many hours
in doing this necessary and tedious step, are gratefully
acknowl edged *
Th© writer also wishes to express her appreciation
for the help given her by Dr. Ralph H* Ojeinarm, under whose
direction this study was completed..
Contents
Chapter
Page
1*
Statement ofProblem
1
2*
Procedure
6
5*
Analysis of Data
15
4#
Summary and Conclusions
44
References
50
Appendix As Scripts
52
/
Appendix Bj Tests
Appendix
229
0: Tables of Test Scores of Groups 248
Appendix X>:
Tables of Education and Radio
Listening Time
255
iv
Tables
1. Arrangement
ofScores on Basis of Education; Clotiling
2* Arrangement
ofScores on
3# Arrangement
ofScores on Basis of Education; The Aver­
Basis of Education; Security
age Child
Page
20
21
22
4* Arrangement
ofScores on
Basis of Education; nutrition
5* Arrangement
ofScores on Basis of Age; Clothing
28
6* Arrangement
ofScores on Basis of Age; Security
29
7* Arrangement
ofScores on Basis of Age: Th© Average Child
30
8* Arrangement
ofScores on Basis of Ages Nutrition
31
9# Arrangement
ofScores on Basis of Badio Listenings
Clothing
23
34
10* Arrangement of Scores on Basis of Radio Listenings
Security
35
11* Arrangement of Scores on Basis of Radio Listenings
The Average Child
36
12. Arrangement of Scores on Basis of Radio Listenings
ITutrition
37
13# Test
Scoresof Groups: Clothing
249
14. Test
Scores of Groups; Security
250
15# Test
Scores of Groups; The Average Child
251
16* Test
Scores of Groups: Nutrition
252
17. Education
andRadio Listening Time; Clothing
254
18. Education
and Radio Listening Times Security
255
19* Education
andRadio Listening Timet The Average Child
256
20. Education
and Radio Listening Time: Nutrition
257
1
Chapter X
Statement or Problem
Xhe potentialities of radio In the field of par­
ent education have been practically ignored in most parent
education programs, yet radio promises a very helpful
means of approach to parent problems.
During the past decade, reflecting th© Interest
in scientific consideration of problems affecting th© wel­
fare and education of young children, much material in
printed form lias been developed for the guidance of par­
ents*
Kadio not only affords a supplement of vitality
and variety to these articles and books, but offers unique
contributions of its own because of the personal element
Introduced through the use of the human voice.
Speech, in
print, may convey any one of several interpretations to
the reader because emphasis or meaning may depend upon the
inflection with which it was said*
A presentation of a
conversation between parent and child, for example, with
the inflections given for the suggestions made by the par­
ent that Billy eat his lunch, together with the inflections
of Billyfs MH o ,s ,T to these suggestions, would be meaningful
to parents when presented by radio, while the same conver­
sation presented in print might be entirely without point.
By radio, too, Billy and his parent become much more real
than the printed page can ordinarily make thorn*
2
It, too, offers a universality of approach, which
not only favors economy in terms of reaching large numbers
of people who are already interested in making use of avail­
able information and resources in the field of parent edu­
cation, but should also encourage a feeling of group respon­
sibility for attacking subversive influences which are oper­
ating outside the home to seriously affect the ultimate wel­
fare of young members of th© family*
llxe practical problems of preparing programs ef­
fectively for broadcasting should be considered one of major
significance, not only in the field of parent education, but
in the field of radio education in general*
Since the lit­
erature in the field of radio education listed few experi­
mental studies on the relative effectiveness of the types
of radio presentation offered in informational broadcasts
at the time tills study was formulated, this aspect was se­
lected for experimental consideration*
The primary purpose of this study is to establish,
under experimental conditions, whether one or more ways of
preparing radio scripts are more effective as a medium for
learning meaningful material and which ways are liked best
by th© audience*
An examination of literature in regard to opinion
regarding the relative effectiveness of methods of preparing
scripts showed rather general agreement that dialogue and
drama were regarded as superior to the lecture*
biller
3
(XI, p. 151,152} says, "The lecture form in educational
broadcasting is the most satisfactory to gain maximum con­
tent in minimum time; conversation takes second place, with
dramatization a weak third•
This order is reversed, however,
in evaluating interest-holding qualities, as most listeners
prefer a story to concentrated education.
Conversation is
superior to a lecture, since additional voices break the
monotony of a single speaker.
Conversations are most sat­
isfactory in presenting a well-rounded view of a subject
with the different sides most adequately championed,fT
Manser (10, p. 158,160,163) says,
erhaps the patriarch
of all types la the talk.....a discuss ion presented by a
single vole©....* Too many times, the speaker has been se­
lected only because he is an authority on his subject.1*
He says, regarding the dialogue or (question and answer type
of interview; "It is, within its limits, excellent technique*
Contrast of two voices is in itself an attention getting
mechanism."*.*.* In regard to dramatization he says, "This
is the most difficult of all techniques, because it involves
so much by the way of preparation and presentation.
With
ingenuity it can be adapted to a great many subjects."
Abbot says (1, p. 215}, "The most popular method from the
listeners1 viewpoint is the dramatic playlet.
If the dram­
atic sketch is carefully constructed from the standpoint
of both play writing and the scientific facts presented, it
will roach them more effectively than either the monologue
4
or the Interview.r? In regard to popular programs, Contril
and AlXport state tliat (2, p. 93): "Apart from these general
preferences, there are marked differences depending upon the
age and. sex of the listener*"
Little experimental work In method of preparing
script for adults has been reported.
study of modes of oral style in radio.
Pulton (6) made a
He used formal, in­
formal, and dialogue methods In presenting material to 73
college students*
recall.
Completion tests were used to measure
He found that the formal method, was much preferred
over dialogue, and slightly more than the informal method.
He reports relatively little difference in the number of
facts recalled.
The completion test asked for the recall of
many names and dates and therefore this study may give little
indication of results which would be obtained from recall of
meaningful material*
Vdxitahead (13) used the same methods of pres­
entation with 15 college students in each group.
Pie con­
cluded that formal style is better than informal or dialogue
for college audiences.
It is his opinion that*...."per­
haps dialogue Is best for entertainment purposes, but it Is
poorest for presenting facts to be remembered."
Tills problem, as developed for research purposes,
was limited to a study of four methods of preparing radio
scripts, and to their relative effect upon retention of Ideas
and concepts*
A study of preference In regard to method
5
of presenting radio programs was also included.
methods chosen for consideration were:
dialogue, and drama#
The four
lecture, story,
The field of content was limited to
four areas of special interest to parents#
plan of procedure is included in Chapter 2#
The detailed
6
Chapter 2
Procedure
A number of problems had to be considered in plan­
ning a procedure which would enable the writer to determine
the relative effectiveness of the four methods of presenting
scripts which were chosen for study*
methods be presented to groups?
How should these
If all four were presented,
how could the effect of order of presentation be eliminated,
and how could the effect of the content area be equated in
terms of personal preference for the content areas repre­
sented?
Could any technique be developed for equating
scripts so that comparisons could be made basically on the
method of presentation and not on other characteristics of
the scripts?
How could scripts be presented most effective­
ly and uniformly?
Th© plan as evolved, and as carried out in this
study, is outlined briefly in this paragraph, and was de­
veloped in an attempt to control factors such as those
which have been mentioned which might tend to obscure the
effectiveness of method as the primary consideration in the
learning of ideas and concepts*
It was decided to prepare
sixteen scripts, four in each of four content areas.
In
each content area, the four scripts prepared would represent
a different method of presentation: a lecture, a story, a
dialogue, and a drama*
These scripts would then be combined
into four sets, representing four different methods of pre­
7
sent&tlon and all content areas*
Each set In recorded form
would be presented to four groups, and the order in which
the recordings would be presented would be rotated to con­
trol the effect of novelty in the first presentations' and
of fatigue In the last ones*
The general plan for such
presentation is represented by the following table:
Content
area 1
Content
area 2
Content
area 3
Content
area 4
Set I
Lecture
Story
Dialogue
Drama
Set II
Story
Dialogue
Drama
Lecture
Set III
Dialogue
Drama
Lecture
Story
Set IV
Drama
Lecture
Story
Dialogue
The principal steps in attacking the problem
as outlined were defined as:
(a
Preparation of scripts
(b
Recording of scripts
(c
Preparation of tests to measure learning
(d
Administration of the testing technique
to cooperating groups*
The preparation of scripts was considered one
of the most important steps in this study.
Two things were
regarded as desirable: (1 professional advice and opinion
in the mechanics of expression for radio, (2 a technique
for equating such expression among the sixteen scripts.
8
The scripts were prepared from an educational point of view*
and then the help of experienced broadcasters was secured
in adapting them for recording*
Various techniques were considered in th© equating
of scripts*
The most feasible plan for this equation was
suggested by Gray and Leary {7, p. 199) in evaluating
reading material at the adult level*
The decision that the
technique used, in this research would be practical for
judging auditory copy was based on opinions expressed by
authorities in the broadcasting field as to desirable
qualities of radio scripts.
Salisbury (12* p.78) says,....*
"the effective radio speaker writes and speaks in the first
and second person, the active voice, end the indicative
and imperative mode."
Dale (4, p.115) says, "If you can
solve the vocabulary problem, you have accomplished a
major task in manuscript building.rt Dal© (5, p.250) also
suggests the use of Thorndike’s Word Book or of his own list
to cheek the vocabulary used in script.
Koon ( 8), too,
recommends the use of Thorndike*s Word Book or of Dale’s
list of evaluated words*
He suggests the use of "we" and
"you" to make the message direct and. personal, th© use of
more nouns and less qualifying words, and th© us© of short,
concise statements.
The research of Gray and Leary In evaluating
reading material at the adult level Indicates that reading
difficulty may be judged by the analysis of five primary
9
variables:
(a
The number of different hard words
(b
The number of first, second, and third
personal pronouns
(c
The average sentence length in words
(d
The percentage of different words
(e
The number of prepositional phrases
Four content areas were chosen for the scripts;
Clothing, Security, the concept of the “Average Child", and
Nutrition*
In these fields of content, an attempt was made
to present information which was both recent in nature and
which would not be likely to be known by the average person*
Spontaneous remarks from the audiences later indicated that
this criterion was met In a satisfactory way*
An outline was prepared from extensive reading and
then used to prepare four scripts In each subject:
in lecture, story, dialogue, and drama form*
one each
Each script
was approximately 13 minutes In length*
These scripts were then scored on the G r a y - L e a r y
equation and rewritten if they were too difficult.
Three
100 word passages taken from approximately the same places
in all scripts were used for this evaluation*
Dale*s list
( 3 ) of words was used to check vocabulary*
All scripts scored between *84 and 1.15,
which
Is evaluated as "easy" by Gray and Leary.
the range
10
The Individual ©valuation of each script follows:
Lecture
Story
Dialogue
Drama
Average
Child
Clothing
Security
1*112
*885
*925
1.057
1.005
*944
1*100
.965
1*139
.967
*976
1.089
1.023
.967
1*15
Nutrition
1.020
No way to measure the true merit of the scripts
when finished was devised*
Although the structure in the
form of language could he controlled to some extent, there
was no way devised by the writer to control ideas in regard
to expression*
Many of the points selected for emphasis
were doubtless expressed more skillfully in some scripts
than in others*
In general, the lecture type of script
was easier to develop since a definite plot was not neces­
sary as a general reference background*
A great deal of
ingenuity was necessary in order to present ideas in dif­
ferent settings and preserve some measure of spontaneity*
It was necessary, too, to watch that consequent revisions
did not leave the scripts lifeless*
The only evidence obtainable that this did not
happen, or at least that the scripts did not become entirely
devitalised, was the frequent comment of members of groups
who heard them that they enjoyed them*
11
Objective tests were prepared from the outlines
used for writing the scripts.
Ten “best answerf? type of
question and twenty “true false" questions were used in the
test covering each subject matter field.
These questions
were checked by several critics as to clarity, ambigu­
ity, and general merit*
They were then checked for infor­
mational content by people who had professional and per­
sonal contacts with the type of adult who would be likely
to take part in the research program.
A pre-test was assembled by an arbitrary selection
of two best answer type of questions and four true false
questions from each content area*
These questions were
selected by number, and the same numbers were then taken
from each content area test so that no discrimination would
be used In their choice*
Only a part of the test prepared
for administration after the recording was selected for the
pre-test because of anticipated fatigue reactions, practice
factors, and because it was desired to limit the tirae of the
entire experiment to two hours if possible.
The recordings were made by a metropolitan company
specialising in this type of work and under the direction
of a man who is in the broadcasting field and who was highly
recommended by the recording company.
Trained personnel
was used, and on the whole, the recordings were very well
12
don©*
A few people reported some recordings as more diffi­
cult for them to understand than others, but in the opinion
of the writer, the recordings were creditably done*
These
recordings are on file at the Iowa Child Welfare Research
Station*
In order to control selection on the basis of
individual preference for certain voices, all eight of the
one-voice recordings (the lecture and story types) were
mad© by the same persons a man who has had considerable
experience in broadcasting and who has an excellent voice
for recording purposes*
This voice was used for one of the
voices in all dialogue forms, and again as one of the par­
ticipants In the dramatic forms*
Other persons who assisted
with the dialogue and dramatic recordings had professional
dramatic training.
Sixteen groups participated in this study.
Groups
range in size from six to twenty-two, with an average size
of fifteen*
An effort was mad© by cooperating leaders In
PT-A groups and in Extension Service to arrange groups with
a minimum of fifteen adults, but In several instances home
and neighborhood emergencies caused numbers to fall below
th© expected fifteen*
Eleven groups were scheduled near or
in Knoxville, Tennessee, and five In th© vicinity of Hashville.,
Tennessee.
Five of the groups were from rural communities
and in number made up approximately on© third of the total
13
number*
In one group, composed of preschool parents, six
members of the group were men.
The other members of the
groups who cooperated in this study were women*
The recordings and test material was presented
to all groups by the writer*
The equipment necessary for
the playing of recordings was a small, portable radio and
a phonograph which was specially built to play slow speed
transcriptions and for which the radio furnished the loud
speaker*
The experiment was presented in the same way to
all groups*
first.
The members of a group checked th© pre-test
Four recordings, composing one set, were then pre­
sented to the group, one each in the four content areas
included in the study, and each presented in a differ­
ent style; lecture, story, dialogue, and drama*
An
objective test was checked immediately following the
presentation of each recording*
The general plan and order
of presenting recordings has been explained earlier in this
chapter*
Each subject was asked to fill out an information
blank which requested the designation of the last year of
school completed, the approximate age, the approximate time
spent listening to the radio, his preference in regard to
the four recordings which were presented, and an Indication
as to which recording he liked the least*
Excellent cooperation was secured In all groups*
14
Whenever possible, groups with similar backgrounds
were placed in parallel positions in regard to the different
sets of recordings.
For example, it was anticipated that
two groups composed largely of community leaders might be
above average in initiative and, education, therefore one
group was given recordings in Set X, the other those in
Set XI.
This division of groups among Sets I-XV to roughly
equate anticipated educational status was made in regard,
to rural groups In three sets of recordings*
Tests were checked and learning scores computed
by subtracting weighted pre-test score© for each content
area from the entire content area test which followed the
recording*
Since scores on the pre-test did vary in the
content fields, this procedure was judged a fairer method
of scoring the amount of learning than the use of final
scores on subject matter tests*
The reliability of the tests was computed for a
sample of four groups representing 56 subjects*
On ap­
plication of the Spearman-Brown ^prophecy*1 formula, the
reliability of the test on Clothing was *72, of Security
*75, of The average child *81, and of nutrition .64*
Chapter 3
Analysis of Data
Sine© four groups of subjects listened to each
set of recordings, these four groups were considered as a
unit in equating groups in regard to the other three sets
of recordings*
Thus, each unit was composed of four groups
who heard the same set of recordings, although in rotating
order*
The four units, composed then of four groups each
who heard four different sets of recordings, were equated
on mean pre-test scores.
The final composition of groups
is given in the following table:
Set I
Group
Group
Group
Group
1
2
3
4
H
13
18
15
10
56
Set II
Group
Group
Group
Group
e;
w
6
7
8
17
18
15
11
61
Set III
Group
Group
Group
Group
9
10
11
12
11
11
6
16
44
Set IV
Group
Group
Group
Group
13
14
15
16
12
16
15
16
59
Total
220
16
Th© mean pre-test scores and standard deviation
of the four groups are given below;
Set
Set
Set
Set
I
II
III
IV
■Mean
14*82
14.92
14.84
14.88
S*D.
4*53
4*57
3.78
6.38
The experiment was then divided into four major
parts paralleling the content areas;
1. Clothing, 2. Se­
curity, 3. Th© average child, 4. Nutrition*
3y using this technique, each Individual is
represented once in each experimental group since each
set of recordings contained one recording dealing with
each subject listed above*
Such an arrangement of data
tends to equate Individual differences such as auditory
acuity, experience, education, knowledge in the four
fields of content, in sets I, II, III, IV*
If all four
sets, or fields of content, were considered together,
correlation between scores of the same individual would
tend to cover up, or cancel, any actual differences in
th© effectiveness of different methods of presentation.
Therefor© each field of content (I.e* Clothing,
Security, Th© average child, Nutrition) has been analyzed
separately, and each content field Includes the scores of
two hundred twenty subjects*
The method of analysis of
variance { 9 ) was used for statistical procedures.
For each field of content the following compari­
sons were made:
1*
Effect of method of presentation
(Lecture, story, dialogue, drama)
2.
Effect of order of presentation
(Rotation of recordings)
3.
Effect of level of education
4.
Effect of age
5*
Effect of amount of radio listening
An analysis of preferred recordings and re­
cordings which were liked the least was also made#
It was possible to arrange data In one table to
make the first three comparisons*
Separate tables were
made to judge the effect of age and the effect of the
amount of radio listening*
All tables have the same general structure.
The scores of each group are listed in column form under
the type of presentation used In this group and in the
order in which the recording was heard, whether first,
second, third, or fourth.
The columns are divided
crosswise to segregate scores In relation to education,
age, and radio listening.
Each figure represents the
scores of the subjects in one group.
A comparison of
the figures of any table with the figures in Tables
13-16 in Appendix A which tontain the test scores of
groups will show that groups remain intact*
In other
words, any division within groups regarding education,
18
age, or radio listening does not affect the structure
and identity of groups and thus can be used also for
comparisons concerning method and order of presentation
of recordings*
fables 1-4 show a division of scores within
groups in regard to level of education.
education were anticipated:
Three levels of
college education, high
school education, and grade school education*
hhen data
regarding education were examined, however, it was found
that most of the subjects had attended high school and
almost half of the entire group had attended college
on© or
more years*
Since there were few subjects who
had only a grade school education, and many with some
college education, two developmental groups were ar­
ranged, with college attendance of one or more years as
the criterion chosen for th© group representing high
education*
Division of scores into age groups was made
at forty years as is shown in fables 5-8*
groups were anticipated;
Three age
20-30, 30-40, and over 40*
However, only 24 people of less than thirty years of age
are represented in this study and the developmental groups
in regard to age were divided into two groups:
subjects
under forty years of age and subjects over forty years
of age*
19
Tb.er© was a wide range of time reported for
radio listening.
In terms of hours per week, some sub­
jects reported no listening, several reported as much as
fifty to sixty hours.
The average of reported time spent
listening to the radio for the subjects of all sixteen
groups was 13*55 hours per week.
This average was used
as the division point in th© preparation of the tables
on radio listening, Tables 9-12.
Computations derived from each table are sum­
marized In the same way.
The sum of squares (s.s.), the
degrees of freedom (d.f*), and variance (v.) is given
in each summary for method of presentation, order of
presentation, and for the one of the following the table
considers:
education, age, or radio listening time.
teracting variances are also given.
In­
For example, In the
first table, th© M x E variance is the interacting variance
of method of presentation and level of education, the M
representing method, and the E representing education.
Similarly, the M x 0 variance is the interacting variance
of method and order of presentation, and the E x G vari­
ance, the Interacting variance of education and the order
of presentation.
The M x E x 0 variance Is the error
varIanc e »
In the summary of Tables 5-8 !tA rt will represent
age In the interaction variances; in the summary of the
Tables 9-12, nRL” will represent radio listening time*
20
’Table 1
Arrangement of Scores on Basis of Education:
60
GN 1318 15 10
6
3
5
6
H
Cl
9 13
CO
3
{ or1 less)
20
28
4
29
34
37
11
28
25
33
21
19
Education
39
11 24 23
6
1 11 S
10 29 9
28
14
2
27
15
15
9
30
23
2
7
7
25
»6
UO
vH
r-t
to
5
7
5
3 10
c—
02
17 18 15 11
11 11
6 16
37 10 18
13 11 20
21
22
28
16
33
9
26
6
35
13
11
13
5
32
18
15
H
Cl
198
CO
4
H
CO
CO
7
7
o
466
02
t
o
ca
39 28
38 20
39 16
22
32
44
21
32
43
29
35
37
34
198
9
to to
to to
19
27
46
23
30
29
32
35
27
466
9
o
to
CO
Cl
rH
Drama
2 3 4
139
10
CO
HI
265
3
N
o
113
4 13 9
Gf § to i>
co
T
328
to
132
CO
CD
<M
217
02
5>
276
25
23
19
14
23
29
19
25
11
441
29
21
32
14
27
16
30
8
16
17
22
35
16
High School
27
30 18 15
19
37 33 22
10 34 15
18
21 33 27
11 22 26
27 20 28
28 41 11
38 4 24
44 12 14
30
281
18
19
21
14
7
to to to ca
to H
to
H 02 H H
7 9 6 6
248
6
t-
rH
02
33
11
17
30
35
120
o
24
18
27
24
35
12
25
188
N
o
02 H
9 5
Ol
37
24
31
40
28
26
31
179
1
24
30
18
19
24
34
174
m
8
27
25
22
28
1
282
16
26
38
14
23
23
29
25
30
1
►tory
Dialogue
2 3 4
1 2 3 4
College Education
39 27 28
35 23 19 20
21 22 14 18
17 19 24
16 24 25
28 17 23 22
27 16 0
24 20
27
31 36 33
18
25
12 24 22
28
23
22
23
26
115
Lecture
1 2 3 4
Clo tiling
13
Cl
to
01
12 16 15 16
2355
5041
220
21
Table 2
Arrangement of Scores on Basis of Educations
12
18
17
23
19
19
13
22
12 11
13 13
25 10
19
18
23
11
17
25
11
21
19
29
CD CO to
C~ rH OJ to 1499
<H
5 9 13 3 104
17
25
5
14
17
02
11 11
o
!>
148
0‘
s
213
104
116
css
02
17 18 15 11
153
i>
CO
rH
10
254
142
197
831
to
H
GT § CO 0
04 02 3
GH13 18 15
136
121
'S^'l j> CO
Os o CO
CO to
to
§ o
CD
to
£- CO
o
s
iH
«H
9 6 6
4 6 3 6
7
N 9 5 6 7
High. School {or less) Education
21
24 4 12 20
15 11 -9 3
19 29 14 30
-9
16
9
11 13 15 -1
1 •9
20 15 33 17
16 -12 11 13
11
23 11 18 21
28 20 18 5
27
9 —9
8
11 9 3 12
9 -11 **1
12
4 -15
9
15 12 15 18
20 11
—2
12
13
7 18 16
9 20
7
-1
3
4 7 11
27 14
15
24 2 1
14 16
16
5 7 16
19 17
16
13
0
16
10
7
o
to rH 03
o co to
02
CO
to
OS CO to
T J2
to
1
7
7 5 3 10
10 9 9 5
N 4 13 9 3
T
21
16
20
11
9
8
4
13
16
15 15 6
15 1 7
32
12
14
20
9
8
22
5
19
9
16
14
12
16
16
23
tD
164
19
12
4
13
18
7
12
1382
7
2 13
116
,198
16
11
22
12
2
10
2881
rH
259
12
10
30
13
25
1
Storr
2 3 4
126
18
21
15
17
9
18
21
4
6
1
Drama
Lecture
2 3 4
1 2 5 4
College Education
20 9 14
18 26 14 10
25 3 5
10 13 9 5
14 9 15 20
16 28 14
14 4 14
25
7 9
26 15 16
7
3
14
6
8 8 0
20
13
244
Dialogue
1 2 3 4
Security
'16, "• :12- i6*:15*
* •* *16 *.;?2o
22
Table 3
Arrangement of Scores on Basis of Education!
9 *2 9
—I 11 8
15 5 16
10 17 14
11 3 18
14 16
8
14
132 44 48 89
9
5
6
12 4 0
10 -2 8
9 7 6
-1 0 0
-2 9
0 11
24 3
4 9
5 2
9
14
4
4
4 13
GT §
*-H
72 79 80 63
15 45 26 53
1
Lecture
£ 3 4
2 12 10 18
15 6 18 19
5 18 22 -2
21 17 23
6 -1 21
1 6
0 -9
17 31
15 29
5
16
18
24
49 85 214 35
7
4 6 3 6
7 9 6 6
5 9 13 3
High School (or less) Education
o 0 19 4
19 4 11 14
9
11 0 3 9
2 10 10 2
-3 0 9 7
13 5 10 4
5
-10 0 9 14
13 —1
3
7 -1 13 17
0
0 6
15
5 5 9 14
12 7
-1
9 -3
-3
O 8
0
5 16 6 12
16
5
1
8 10 5
0
4
2
9
7
16 9 15
1 10
2
13 -3 1
12
26
—3
16 -5 4
14
1
11
16
17
9
T 30 71 48 14
N
Dialogue
Drama
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
College Education
2 20 **1 6
10 0 23 9
4 13 15 0
0 12 16 6
17 20 12 7
12 12 11 14
4 18 12 9
1 -6
10
10 7 12 25
2
18
10 1 6 13
5
•1
17 11
9
3
to to to
H o> 9
iH
GH13 18 15 10
308 36 66 56
4
3 37 85
5
Y
5
3 10
o to to 05
rH
00
rH
3 rH rH
17 18 15 11
05
rH
CO
to oo
to to
10
9
9
11 11
rH
6 16
55 39 21 93
766
2 13
116
7
7
00
1895
01
O
rH
H
12 16 15 16 220
235
10
2
27
17
8
12
13
22
21
Story
2 3 4
124
1
The Average Child
23
Table 4
Arrangement of Scores on Basis of Education:
1
Drama
2 3 4
30 14 25 31
12 16 10 25
22 1 33 27
25 7 27 37
3 11 41 20
16
24 IB
26
9
22
19
1
5
23
28
24
24
10
22
to Gi o £>
£>
to to
**H
rH rH
N 9 5 6 7
20 14 7
20 18 17
20 8 5
15 7 22
19 31
15 29
20 7
2 11
6 9
3
18
19
19
UJ
ID COCO CCOO
oO
* t
oo t
fc
r> tt
rH r*
HI
N 4 13 9
1001
O t ' - C 0CO
tx
o
pm t
If)
rH
C
Ji
o
r
H
C
J
i
M3
M
ftl
03 0
0
3
m
Lecture
Story
2 3 4
1 2 3 4
Colle>ge Education
27 21 15
21 14 13 20
oo 12 27
10 30 10 32
28 7 1
34 10 16 29
25 29 0
22 13
14
22 19 34
23
18
10 21 28
32
28
2
19
28
60 i
&
to DO O
o
rH rH r
H
7 99 6 6
Hi,gh. £•ciiool
23 14 0
19
18
11 7 22
32
25 27 9
17 18 29
2 23 20
16 20 13
-2 29 12
24 22 9
18 7 18
31
cOs
r>
t
too
3
>
to
toCO
03
ftl
rH
13 18 15 10
Dialogue
0a 3 4
1 O
16
18
31
27
21
to
to 03 Oi
to
rH
03 to
O
i
r
H
rH
rH
rH
rH
6
4 66 3 3 6 6
5
(or lesis) Education
12
19 -14 18 26
22
22
32
10 -14 3 B
12
14 28 19 24
24
rjf —5
25
13
33
14
16 12
8
28
12
20
26
0
19
—2
32
20
15
tto
o O*£- 0W3 G>
tt
o£> t£t
>o 6C0O OO
rH
i
H H rrHH irHHi H
10 9 99 5 5
1115
rrH
H 03
03 Oo
03
03
O tfl
^ N03
t
D
O
HTV
t
o *r\
to #V»
03 m03
18 15 11
CO C?i
Oi ow two
OO
J>
^ CC
H
rl
7 55 3 3 10
709
H c>
£
>
tt
0o rrH
C> t
tD
t—CoOi O' hCi
002
2
|>
£
>
to
rH rH
uj
11 11
6 16
Nutrition
Ui
o
>
to
H
7
37 21
2d 9
23 15
18
13
25
25
20
30
19
35
32
36
Oi rH LO
O
03 to
9 9 13 3
10
14
37
25
29
25
18
2Q
25
2197
104
20 10 13
9 Id 21
28
16
29
12
26
6
23
—6
40
2
14
24
3
26
15
-2
CO ttij
o
rQQ 0033
f
rH
H
77 2 2
1191
3 <t£>
003
3 0
o
03
t
o
I
D
E
ID
£»
C0
M
03 K5
to
to lO
C*j
tt£)
o
t
Do
rH
13
rH
rH
OO
03
03
12 16 15 16
*1 q-i q
116
401A
-,X O
220
24
Data In tables are Interpreted significant or
not significant by applying the lfF fi test to variances
(v.) which are being tested*
For example, In the sum­
mary of Table 1, the variance for the interaction vari­
ance M x £ is tested against the error variance, M x E x 0*
M x E is 3*48 times as large as the error term*
By re­
ferring to an ”Frt table (9, p.62-65) and to the appropri­
ate column for degrees of freedom represented {in this
case 3 and 9}, we find that the variance should bo 3*86
or larger In order to be significant at the five per cent
level of confidence*
In other words, the ratio between
the M x E variance and the error terra, M x E x 0, would
have to be 3*86 or more before we could say that the
chances are 5 out of 100 that we would not get a similar
difference in another sample of subjects*
In this study, the five per cent level of con­
fidence has been chosen for the lower limit of signifi­
cance for the UF U test*
Data relative to the content area "Clothing”
are given in Table 1*
Method
Education
Order
M X E
M x 0
E x 0
M x E x 0
The corresponding analyses are:
3*3.
1004*03
3249*70
858.4-3
6206.39
8597.66
6351.99
5347.96
d.f .
3
1
3
3
9
3
9
V*
334.68
3249.70
268.14
2068*80
955*30
2117.33
594.22
When the wFfl test Is applied, the ratio of the
M x E variance is not significantly larger than the error
25
term, M x E x Q.
variance*
Tills statement Is true also of the M x 0
There is no significant difference for Method
or Order*
p
3*482
*583
M x £
Method
Sir**.*
3.86
3.86
^-Figures In this column represent values
from an MFM table which show significance
at the five per cent level
The results in the content area "Security”
are presented in Table 2.
The analyses of this table
follows:
Method
Education
Order
M x E
M x 0
E x 0
H x E x 0
S *3 •
888*71
690*38
97.82
2742*89
3335*45
3531.78
2645*07
d.f *
3
1
3
3
9
3
9
V.
295.57
690.38
32.61
914.30
370*60
1177.26
293*90
When the ”Fn test Is a;oplied, there are :
nificant differences in method or in order of presenta­
tion of recordings*
m x E
Method
F
3.111
1.007
SlfXm
3.86
3.86
Corresponding data for th© content area r,Th©
average child” are given in Table 3*
yields i
Variance analyses
26
Method
Education
Order
M x E
M x 0
E x 0
M x E x 0
V.
d.f.
143.89
3
1537*47
1
331.12
3
412.90
3
203*64
9
3
225.67
27.26
9
s.s.
431*68
1587.47
993.37
1238.70
1832*80
677.01
245.53
When the nF n test is a p p l i e d , the M x & variance
shows a difference of significance,
iiiere is no signifi­
cant difference when Method is tested by the error term,
M x 0.
F
15.147
M x B
Sig.
5.86
Sine© M x E is significant, we divide the orig­
inal group into two subgroups:
low educational group.
high educational group and
Fn@ analysis of those two groups
shows the following:
High Educational Group
Method.
Order
M x 0
s.s*
557.34
267.32
5111.31
d.f.
3
3
9
F
1.63
Method
v.
109.11
567.92
Sig.
3.86
Low Educational Group
Method
Order
M x 0
Method
s.s.
164.06
257.10
4631.80
d.f.
3
3
9
v.
54.69
514.64
F
.10
SI?.
3.86
27
Data relative to the area nNutrition” are given
in Table 4*
This table, when analysed, gives the follow­
ing:
Method
Education
Order
M x K
M x 0
E x 0
M x E x 0
s.s.
474.61
2883.57
718.07
2585*74
4751.24
2342.28
1867.67
d.f.
3
1
3
3
9
3
9
v.
158.20
2883.57
239.35
861.91
527.92
780.76
207.52
When the flFtt test Is applied, the M x E vari­
ance is significantly larger than the error variance,
M x E x 0*
When Method is tested by the error term,
M x 0, there is no significant difference*
F
4.154
M x B
Sig*
3.36
Since M x iS is significant, we divide the ori­
ginal groups into two subgroups:
and low educational group.
high educational group
The analysis of these two
groups shows the following:
High Educational Group
S.S.
Method
Order
M x 0
Method
d.f.
266.56
180.37
1307.90
3
3
9
F
.61
v.
83.58
60.12
145.32
3.86
28
Table 5
Lecture
2 3 4
1
24
31
27
19
18
86
N
8 10 10
23
14
23
23
18
21
8
27
16
30
17
22
16
24
18
19
19
34
6
37
40
28
31
to
LO HI to
T o
rH H H H
N 5 8 5 4
ON 13
to
0T o
03
18 15
to c*o to
CO CO
10
H
CO
03
O Cl
o
to to 0
3 rH
iH 03 rH 03
6 9
Above 40
39 15 28
34 27 O
12 24
20 22
4 15
12 27
22 26
23 28
24
6 10
30
37
18
27
21
24
35
27
28
30
25
03 <0 CO CD
to
03
O
to rH o
03
11 8 9 2
17 18 15 11
H3* Q CO o”
3
c
sjO* 0
SO 03
rH
03
661
CM tD so to
0> £0 03
rl 03 03 rH
0>T
10
11
12
30
44
Dialogue
1 2 3 4
Years
37 23 14 23
35 Q O
6
28 17
20
21 20
22
28 18
9
25 1
15
21 15
25
24 28
23
30
7
25
—6
c&
rH
8 8 1 12
Years
11 11 19 18
33 10 24 2
19 14 23 27
11 2
29
CO
to
to
3
3
11
11
Cl
CO
CM
rH
to
o
rH
O
Drama
2 3 4
39
33
11
27
30
35
27
46
30
29
33
26
•so
35
35
27
39
38
39
22
32
44
21
10
43
37
34
o>
LO
to
9
13
28
20
32
18
15
16
151
30
25
23
14
19
23
24
29
25
11
Story
2 3 4
Below 40
18 19 20
on
oo
33 16 «
17 36 24
33 24 4
16 11 25
27 14 33
22
31
22
89
34
41
26
320
29
32
14
27
8
16
25
35
22
28
1
175
16
38
29
25
19
21
30
14
Clothing
144
1
Arrangement of Scores on Basis of Age:
6 10 11
8
6
23
9
23
7
17
19
37
18
23
21
28
32
11
29
35
18
20
22
16
6
11
13
5
O
O
CD
sF
rH
?>
o
H
rH
H
rH
4
6
6
4
8
6 16
12
16
15
16
5
o
03
rH
CO
st*
02
LO
to
03
CD
tO
to
to
si*
02
to
CM
3119
129
1922
91
5041
29
Table 6
Arrangement or Scores on Basts of Age:
Dialogue
1 2 3 4
1
Drama
2 3 4
Lecture
1 2 3 4
Security
1
Story
2 3 4
Below 40 Years
18
15
21
4
20
28
6
9
29
20
11
10
14
19
30
10
13
25
**3
02
H
rH
CD
rH
Q
11 12
14 4
33 30
-1 17
12 5
11 7
2
20
16
17
to
to
pH
10 10
12
23
15
19
24
5
11 3 3
13 4 14
25 15 5
9 8 21
16 11 14
14 16 16
26
0
12
12
7
18
22
CO to
to
o> to to o
*h
pH
6
6 10
15
12
20
9
27
0
16
7
16
22
18
14
10
19
13
18
12
T 84 106 80 62
H
5
GT
ID
O
02
13
m
8
5
9
o
S
CD
9 20
16
10
20
13
12
3
14
13
15
IS
16
cr>
CO
CD
rH
8
1
12
21 16 12 8
17 20 13 9
25 9 25 11
27 8 19 13
14 9 18 16
17 22 23 16
4 11 23
19 15 10
13 25
16 19
29
rH
03
pH
CD
o>
rH
02
to o
6 10 11
CD
O
rH
8
1316
129
kbowe 40 Years
»
21
17
9
18
19
6
24 26
18 13
16 9
10 9
14 7
9 —9
_ 0 -05
7 6
4
o to E—
co rH to
02 02 rH
18 15 10
—9 *1
9 14
28
15
18
3
15
16
1
1 4 14 5
4 -12 12 8
3 -9 15 25
9 7
11
-9
11
9
12
-1
5
35L 99 96 13
8 —17 61 45
27 108 50 92 1065
15
11
18
17
11
23
19
7
4
13
13
11
20
11
8
18
2
7
20
13
8
9
2
0>
to CD
to LO H
02 02 rH rH
17 18 15 11
3
3
5
4
o
o> o t
rH
o 02
iH
02
11 11 6 16
6
CD
rH
_L<c./
21 17 6
15 1 7
15 11 12
11 21 20
32
5
14
16
14
12
6
4
8
91
Oi CD 2881
to 05
03 02 rH
16 15 16 220
30
Table 7
Arrangement of Scores on Basis of Are:
1
Story
2 3 4
The Average Child
dialogue
Drama
1 2 3 4
1 O 3 4
Below 40 Years
10 4 11 8
£7 7 0 16
13 0 8 9
22 -1 0 5
10 4 17 0
9 5 9 16
21 15 3
*1 4 11
10 9
11 2
10 0 15 9
7 5 12 9
5 13 12 0
10 5 6 17
13 20 15 7
16 18 4 25
7
13
16
14
12
9
14
-X) 12
0 -6
12 2
0 0
4 -3
1 5
59 70 54
61107 64 306
11 42 16 314
m
8 10 10
6
6 10
6
9
2 20 16
2 12
p
o
8
47
6
14
14
-3
18
~1
16
12
26
1
1 12
Lecture
1 n 3 4
19 6 10 0
o 18 18 7
15 -1 22 18
12 1 23 19
21 8 21 16
6 1 o 17
0 —9 9
10 11 -2
17 29
15 18
24
f-~a
r>
75 75 175 84 1222
6 10 11
n
129
Above 40 Years
0
-W»l
1
10
-3
-5
11
*5
3
23
12
10
13
9
6
5
1
4
9
-3
9
2
0 -1 6
0 19 -1
6 11 10
9 9
9
11
119
8 82 13
8
6 47 24
K
11
8
2
3
3
CO
0»
5
4
11 11
6 16
o
rH $
to
to
133
02
U>
r!
17 18 15 11
119
OT
103
13 18 15 10
115
m
9
146
4
115
5
ISO
8
12 31 14
' 4 10 2
10 5 3
17 16 15
-1
0
7
2
—3
T 51 56 26 49
5
9
13
3
5
1
5
29 49 62 44
6
6
673
8
91
12 16 15 16
220
CJ
rH
4
235
4
ii
13
4
17
5
4
10
8
16
14
17
104
2 -2 -2 9
17 9 5 14
8 —2 6 18
12 0 3 a
12 24 14
9
14
CO
03 1895
rH
31
Table 8
Arrangement of Scores on Basis of Age:
Lecture
1 2 3 4
Beloer
0
t*
o
rH
6
14
7
22
18
28
25
12
29
19
21
12
18
22
23
29
28
lO
CO
6 10
rH
rH
pH
6
12
15
27
12
1
34
28
25
28
rH
9
B
8
5
4
8
093
GT
i>
rH
03
298
GH 15 18 15 10
to
to
03
37
28
23
IB
13
25
25
10
30
32
36
6
2
21
9
26
15
-2
15
CO
to
02
e-
03
O
2496
8
129
C2
to
rH
1 12
6
10 -14 13 32
16 28 18 13
0 -3 16 14
3 19
19
22
24
14
26
-2
31
10
20
9
25
16
pa
20
15
19
35
13
21
28
12
—6
14
24
3
02
10 11
Years
O
CO
rH
o
cD
03
rH
rH
O
CD
CO
o
tO
rH
rH
o>
O
rH
05
CO
Ci
O
i—i
11
8
9
2
3
3
5
4
6
6
4
8
91
12 16 15 16
220
CD
co to
4016
17 18 15 11
222
5
14
37
29
25
26
23
18
40
26
25
to
241
H
0 32
21 8
7
22
9
29
20
13
9
CO
22
16
18
33
27
21
rH
550
o> o>
rH
27
27
10
20
22
7
2
19
o
Dialogue
1 2 3 4
217
«£> <0
£> 02
23
11
23
28
17
24
24
16
-2
31
22
302
T
18 25 31
14 33 37
19 5 20
15 7 9
20 24
5
18
19
Years
19 14 10 26
21 30
8
14 10
20
18 13
29
34 23
24
7 -14
a
12 12
IB
22 32
28
20
32
20
15
05
rH
Above <
12
25
3
16
20
Story
2 3 4
182
o
t~r
H 8 10 10
5
26
2
10
24
18
216
H
T
204
30 14 10 25
22 8 7 27
26 7 17 19
22 16 22 18
20 2 27 32
20 6 31 18
19 1 41
15 19 29
7 11
11 9
1
10
1
Drama
2 3 4
Nutrition
11 11
to
«H
rH
to
rH
6 16
05
E"*“
CD
03
CO
CM
ID
03
03
CD
rH
O
03
1520
32
Low Educational Group
Method
Order
M x Q
s.s*
386.36
101*22
2021.-62
d.f.
3
3
9
F
.57
Method
v.
128.67
224.62
Sig.
3.86
Tables 5*8 and their summaries show the effect
of age upon scores which were mad© in the tests.
The
analyses of Table 5 is summarized as follows:
Method
Age
Order
M x A
M x 0
A x 0
M x A x 0
d.f.
3
1
3
3
9
3
9
s.s.
1004*03
539*50
858*43
8916*59
8597*66
9062*19
8058*16
v*
334*68
539*50
236*14
2972*20
955*30
3020.73
895*35
When the ”Frt test is applied, non© of the inter­
action variances are significantly larger than the error
variance, H x A x 0»
F
3.32
3.37
*37
M x A
A x 0
Method
Sir:.
3.86
3.86
3.86
Analysis by age in the area ,TSecurity” is proTable 6.
Method
Age
Order
M x A
M x 0
A x 0
M x A X 0
It s summary follows:
3,3,
886*.71
275*58
97.32
3157.69
3335.45
3946.58
8059.87
d.f.
3
1
r-p
O
3
9
3
9
v.
295.57
275.53
32.61
1052.56
370*60
1315.53
339.99
33
When the wF*f test Is applied, none of the in­
teraction variances are significantly larger than the
error variance, M x A x 0*
F
3*10
3.29
*86
M x A
A x 0
Method
Sig.
3*86
3*86
3*86
Table 7 presents data relative to age in
content area of **fhe Average Child.*
Analyses of these
data yield:
Method
Age
Order
M x A
M x 0
A x 0
M x A x 0
s* s *
431.68
243.48
993.37
2582.69
1832.80
2021.00
1589.32
d.f.
3
1
3
3
9
3
9
V.
143.89
245.48
331.12
860.90
203.64
673.67
176.59
When tli© 1!F” test is applied, the K x A variance
is significantly larger than the error term, M x A x 0.
F
4*88
M x A
Sig*
3*86
Since M x E Is significant, we divide the
original group into two subgroups:
high age group*
low age group and
The analysis of these two gio ups shows
the following:
Low Age Group
Method
Order
K x 0
s*s*
546*60
305*45
818*69
d*f*
3
3
9
v#
182*20
90*97
34
Table 9
Arrangement of Scores on Basis of Radio Listening:
m
6 10
CO o
o
H 02
to IsO
Os O
01 to
to
H
24 37
30 40
18 31
14
19
24
6
o
03
rH
£>*
to
3
o
CD
CO
13 18 15 10
5
to
rH
30
24
18
27
21
35
11
12
27
38
30
25
8
7
6
3
5
03 o £>•
o
05 CO OS
«H
Below 13*35 Hours
37 11 23
18 15 28
33 27 24
35 23
34 19 33
11 17
17 24 22
28 20
16 27 34
25 18
33 1
31 28
21 14
22 24
15
12 14
22
23
12 10
CO CO
Os c i
iO
8
5
CO rH
!>
rH rH
rH o CO
CO 03
CO CQ
17 18 15 11
Cl
4
7
6
2
01
ID
rH
154
7
106
21
32
27
16
8
16
17
25
22
16
9
5
6
*5^i
6
20
18
2
15
23
30
33
6
9
23
7
35
19
37
27
46
23
29
28
33
35
35
39
38
39
44
21
10
32
43
11
29
35
37
34
2
7
25
-5
6
94
o 2128
LO o
s
20
22
16
9
6
13
28
11
32
15
1 11
05
CO 02
rH 01 rH
rH
6 10 13 10
01 2913
to Cl
rH 5—f
rH CO
rH
Os
i—f
10
to
Cl
8
11 11
031
IT
1
Dr sum
2 3 4
CO
02
G 16
ZQ
ZD
■Si'
466 412
T
8
282 190
N
Dialogue
1 2 3 4
106
s
38
14
23
18
25
30
Story
2 3 4
202
T
7
281
H
1
Radio Listening Above 13*35 Hours Per Week
28 22 19 23
29 25 24
37 39 22 20
39 18 22 18
14 23 31
21 10 24 22
28 30 32 13
10 33 13 28
19 28 14 9
24 27 15 4
8 19 28
11 21
5
24
30 23 27
28 12 36 25
27 26
20
11 27
44 20 26 0
29 25
17 32
27 29 19
18
41
29
30 27
35 19 18
11
16
4 24
22 25 26
26
28 34
11
208
16
26
23
29
19
21
14
Lecture
2 3 4
193
i
Clothing
01
CO
01
12 16 15 16
35
Table 10
Arrangement of Scores on Basle or Radio Listening:
Drama
3 4
Dialogue
1 2
5 4
o
H
>
Radio 3
Lecture
1 o o 4
16 13 14 20
10 -12 12 5
3 6 9 20
9 12
7
11 25
29
11
12
27
10
10
13
25
14
33
18
11
20
14
16
10
17
12
4
18
30
17
5
7
11
23
23
4
5
15
9 4
18
15
15
7 11
2 1
22
3
"«1
21
14
14
12
7
8
9
7
5
7
6
4
SO to
2
t>
o to Cs
<0
to
to
to
to
o
t
15
17
18
19
4
6
H
15
20
20
9
14
19
0
30
16
7
rH
16 19
11 13
22 12
-1
12
2
6 10 6
<3* o 03
H 0- iO to
T
3
r*4
r- to CQ rH £
O
Oi 02 S
rH
o r 13 18 15 10
vr JIi- '*LO
©
02
15
12
18
17
11
19
15
19
7
24
13
13
o
3
5
5
to
to
to
rH
rH
11
7
CO
8
to
02
03
o
O
02
11
11
rH
5
to 03
to co
Below 13*35 Hours
24 4 15
11 ~9 14
13 9 5
18 26
16
1 9
11 3
14 9
25 28 0
9 7
16 3 18
26 16
4 -9
-2 -9
12 S
7 16
-35
20
13
12 10 8
to
CO to i>
rH H
0> N*» to
to to
02 03 J—1
17 18 15
bLorv
2 3 4
13*35 Hours per Week
10
21
9
21
20
28
9
03
rH
1
Security
16
10
13
8
3
14
13
7
15
16
16
1 11
in
t—i
o
6
rH
21
11
25
27
5
14
6
6
17
-9
9
12
-1
17
21
15
16
20
11
8
14
9
19
13
6 10
LO
rH
to
rH
co
V1
02
H
16
12
02
16
rH
**
o
2
94
to CO t> rH
9 Oi so O'
to
SO
15 19 6
9 18 14
32
12
22
13
4
16
16
10
12
13
25
23
11
15
17
25
1
11
21
19
29
7
12
20
8
5
9
11
16
16
23
13 10
02
126
02
002
Xv IU
C-2
rH
05
in
02
CO
2381
a
15
16
rH
220
36
Table 11
Arrangement of Scores on Basis
of Radio Listenings The Average Child
1
Story
2 3 4
Dialogue
1 2 3 4
1
Drama
2 5 4
Lecture
1 2 3 4
Radio Listening Above 13*35 Hours per Ifeek
to
o
8
5
17 18 15 11
to rH rH CO
05 CO iH j>
7 8 1 11
11 11
o
rH
CO
6 16
t
o
co
6
2
6
816
94
2 12 10 2
2 4 18 3
3 6 22 15
5 18 6 0
1 17 -9 0
*
6 1 11 r/
7 31 18
8 29 2
10 10 16
17 5 9
16
18
24
rH
03
o & t> 1079
rH
6 10 13 10 126
o> o
iH
rH
12 16 15 16
03
rH
235
13 18 15 10
12 10
7
6
6
*■1
—3
-1
16
9
12
26
I
6
104
3
5
138
6
119
6 10
t> o
to t> to
rH
146
SO to
4 3 5
8 7 6
Below 13,►55 Hours
2 0 11
0 3 9
2 20
5 23 0
—3 12
-1 15 25
1O -6
13 12 13
20 9 12
0 2
9 0
7 5
4 6
16 6
-3
-5 4
11
-5
10 23 14
-1 21 -3
-1
11
1
19
0
17
-2
15
881
GT
rH
H
rH
rH
180
m
85 24 44 56
11
10
4
17
5
10
5
10
8
15
14
17
103
H
-7 17 52 60
27 -2 -2 9
17 7 11 14
12 •2 5 8
12 0 0
22 4 17
21 5 3
9
15
14
4
115
T
56 54 69 60
5
8
9
19
13
15
12
5
21
7
7
162
H
-ID 12 -1 4
0 0 19 14
2 5 16 14
9 10
1
9 18
124
T 51 61 62 72
10 9
12 4
13 17
12 7
6 9
15 14
1
0
5
4 18
16 1
16 10
9
-3
14
13
115
10 4 0 8
2 0 8 16
8 9 6 18
13 24 9 9
10 *1 11 5
9 4 3 0
-1 10 9 16
11 14
2
220
1895
37
Table 12
Arrangement of Scores on Basis of Radio Listening:
1
Dialogue
1 2 3 4
120
7
155
159
9
O
o
5 88 77 6 6
9 18 13
29 13 24
16
3
23
9
18
15
25
15
111
140
8
£>
120
108
7
N
Story
2 3 4
Radio Listening Above is*;35 Hours ;
per
14 30 13 26
22
14 7 25
11 27 22 12
18 28 18 29
24
26 18 29 32
7 17 27
0 32 10 24
24 25 9 12
18
14 5 20
5o
22
3 14
-2 10 19 1
20 31 19
ul
19 18
16 29 18
18 20 20 8
27
29 12 25
19 7 32
22 9
7 11 IB
28
11 24
9
126
30
12
3
26
20
20
15
Lecture
1 2 3 4
179
1
Drama
2 3 4
nutrition
rH
-14 16 8
14
20
32
10
13
13
8
23
-14
28
20
-3
12
19
32
20
15
16
22
14
26
-2
21
10
20
14
37
25
25
29
26
40
26
37
28
23
25
25
10
20
30
15
19
35
32
36
to
to oo CD
4 33 5 5 5 5
a '
to i> 1
6 66 2 2 6 6 94
Below 13* 35 Hours
22 18 25 31
25 8 10 37
16 19 33 9
20 15 22
22 2 27
19 6 41
3
1
IB
19
23
5
23
28
17
24
2
10
16
24
31
14
7
27
22
28
22
23
7
0
21
12
7
29
13
21
18
15
27
34
28
23
19
21
10
34
7
16
12
2
19
oo
m
Oi
o
oi
rH
K
CO 0 -
10 t>
i—1
rH
6 10
6
3
lO
H
r-f 03
w
>
cj
03
rH
rH
12 10
0
ro
r-H
5
a
rH
rH
7
rH
a
O-
rH
O
CO
O
02
O
rH
02
02
03
02
tO
W
03
X ID
tO
O i O ^ W
03
03
rH
to
rH
03
1 11
6 16
cr> to
t
o HrH 05
tO
^
to
rt 0 E£> 0 0
23
D
to
H‘ rH
11 n
ram O
O
02
tO
& 03
6 10
12 16
0^2 02
02 to
^
to
t- 18
to fT
21
28
12
6
-6
2
21
14
26
-2
38
P
2*00
Method
Sig*
3*86
High Age Group
s.s.
58*01
282.15
4643*00
Method
Order
M x 0
d* f .
3
3
9
v*
19*34
515.89
P
*04
Method
3.86
Table 8 presents data relative to age in the
content area of “Butrition.”
Analyses of these data
yields
Method
Age
Order
M x A
K x 0
A x 0
M x A x 0
s.s.
474.61
407*85
718*07
5061*46
4751.24
4818.00
4343*39
d.f.
3
1
3
3
9
3
9
v.
158.20
407*85
239.35
1637.15
527.92
1606.00
482.60
Hone of the interaction variances show sig­
nificant differences when the error term, M x A x 0,
is considered.
Other differences are also not sig­
nificant*
M x A
Method
P
Sijct.
3*50
.33
3.86
3.86
Tables 9-12 and the summaries of their variances
show the effect of the amount of radio listening per week*
Data for the area “Clothing” are presented in Table 9.
Summaries for the variances of these data are:
39
s.s.
1004*05
Method
Radio Listening 55*50
858*43
Order
9400*59
M x RL
M x 0
8597*66
RL X 0
9546*19
M x KL x 0
8542*16
d.f.
3
1
3
3
9
3
9
v.
334.68
55*50
286.14
3133*53
955.30
3182.06
949.13
When the nP” test is applied, M x RL is not
significant
M x RL
Method
P
5.30
*35
Sig*
3.86
3.86
Data for the content area "Security" in regard
to the effect of radio listening are showiin Table 10.
Summaries for the variances of these data are:
s *s .
Method
886.71
Radio Listening 73.64
Order
97.82
M x RL
3359.63
M x 0
3335*45
RL x 0
4148*52
M x RL X 0
3261*81
d.f.
3
1
3
3
9
3
9
V*
295.57
73.64
32.61
1119.88
370.60
1382.84
362.42
When the 11Pf* test is applied, the M x RL
variance is not significantly larger than the error
variance, H x RL x Q.
U x RL
Method
P
3.09
.82
Sig.
3.86
3.86
Data for the content axyea "The Average Child"
in regard to the effect of radio listening are shown
in Table 11*
ar©«
Summaries for the varlaxxces of these data
s.s.
431*68
Method ■
10*06
Radio Listening
993.37
Order
2816.11
M x RL
1832*80
M x 0
RL x 0
2254.42
M x EL x 0
1822.74
d.f.
3
1
3
3
9
3
9
V.
143.89
10*06
331*12
938.70
203.64
751.47
202,53
When the 11F n test is applied, M x RL is sig­
nificantly larger than the error variance, M x RL x 0,
M x RL
F
Sig*
4.63
3.86
Since I x HL is significant, w© divide the
original group into two subgroups:
tening and low radio listening*
high radio lis­
The analysis of
these two groups shows the following:
High Radio Listening Group
s.s*
d.f*
Method
127.70
3
Order
249*66
3
M x 0
977*76
9
F
,39
Method
v.
42.57
108*64
Sig.
3*86
Low Radio Listening Group
Method
Order
M x G
Method
s.s.
357*19
374.54
1260*27
d.f*
3
3
9
v.
119*06
140.03
P
Sig.
.85
3*86
Bata for the content area 11Nutrition’1 in
regard to the effect of radio listening are shown in
Table 12,
Summaries for the variances of these data are
41
Method
Radio Listening
Order
m x rl
M x 0
El# x 0
M x M» x 0
s.s.
474.61
57.65
718.0?
5411.66
4751.24
5168.30
4893.53
d.f
3
1
3
•
wx
9
3
9
V.
158.30
57.65
239.35
1803.89
537.93
1723.73
531.51
ten the ,#F n test is applied , M x RL is not
sign!fieant*r
F
3.46
.30
H X RL
Method
sig.
3.86
3.86
In summarising data from Tables 1-13, in
none of the foregoing analyses were there significant
differences common to all four content areas*
In two
areas there was some tendency for method of presenta­
tion to interact with education but this was not the
ease in the remaining two areas*
when data were analysed
by age only one significant interaction variance was found.
Similarly, only one was found for radio listening* n"hen
the factors in the interaction variances were considered
separately, no significant differences were found.
In the foregoing analysee, factors, such as
education, ago, amount of time spent listening tc the radio,
were dealt with singly.
A teacher, when dealing with a
class does not deal with characteristics in such a way.
Fox example, if she divides a class in terms of education,
the groups are still heterogeneous with respect to other
characteristics.
Ultimately, in learning studies it would
be helpful if we could classify students in terms of many
characteristics at once, and then answer the question;
given pupils representing wcluster
of a group of
characteristics, what method will be most effective for
them?
This same question would be posed for nupils
representing ncXuster B w or ^cluster C# or any other
feasible group of characteristics.
In this study, the yarlances are small and a
division of subjects in terms of two or more characteristic
at once would be expected to show no differences.
To test
this out, the subjects were divided into four groups us­
ing four characteristics at once* high education with high
radio listening, high education with low radio listening,
low education with low radio listening, low education with
high radio listening.
The variances for all four subject
matter areas were not significant.
The pertinent data are given in tables 17-20,
Appendix D.
Each participant in this study was asked to
express his preference in regard to the recordings heard,
also to indicate the recording which he liked the least.
A few subjects indicated that they liked all four record­
ings which they had heard.
These cases were not used in
43
the following analysis. Bom© subjects said that they
were unable to decide which of two recordings they liked
the most*
In these cases, each choice was counted as
one half of a choice*
Preferences as classified in
regard to method used in presenting the content area are;
Method
Liked
Disliked
Lecture
Story
Dialogue
Drama
61
54
50
50
50
60
5B
43
When the -X**(or Chi square) test for '‘Goodness
of Fit*1 was applied to recordings liked and disliked,
is significant at the 89 per cent level.
reason to reject
our hypothesis
We have no
that thelisteners in this
sample liked onetype of presentation as
often ae another,
©r that there was no preference indicated.
is significant at the 40 per cent level.
reason to reject
our
hypothesis
For dislikes,
We have no
that onetype of presenta­
tion was disliked as frequently as the other types were
disliked.
44
Chapter 4
Summary and Conclusions
Sills study endeavors to measure the effective­
ness for the development of concepts of four types of
auditory presentations at the adult age level*
recordings were prepared on four subjects2
security, the average child, and nutrition#
Sixteen
clothing,
Pour scripts
were prepared for each subject, one each in lecture, dia­
logue, story, and drama form*
These scripts were equated
as to ideational content, also for difficulty by using
the technique developed by Gray and Leary for testing the
difficulty of reading material at the adult level.
i n g s of these scripts were then arranged in four
Record­
sets,
each set containing a lecture, a dialogue, a story, and a
drama#
In order to equate differences which might be
caused by the positions of the recordings in the experiment,
the order in which they were heard was rotated and each set of
recordings was heard by four groups*
Groups were equated on pre-test scores.
Learning
scores were then analysed for differences in method of
presentation, order of presentation, educational level of
subjects, time spent listening to the radio, and age.
Findings are reported on 220 subjects.
are as follows*
They
45
(X
With the techniques used in this study, and
with this sample of 220 adult & , there were no significant
differences shown in the effectiveness of the type of radio
script used for presenting the four content areas*
(2
As to preference, one method was preferred by
as many people as another#
The differences In the distri­
bution of recordings nlik©A the least” were not significant
and could occur by chance*
(3
Order of presenting the recordings did not
significantly effect scores*
{4
Educational attainment, as measured by the
number: of years of school attendance, did not effect scores
significantly except in the case of one content area mid
except for two cases of significance of the interaction
variables, Education x Method,
In the case where education
was significant In one content area, Method tested, alone
was not significant, so this finding Indicates only that
the group; with higher education mad© scores significantly
higher than the group with less education and has no bear­
ing on establishing the most effective method of presenting
material*
The Interaction variances, Education x Method
(E x M), showed a significant difference at the five per
cent level of confidence for two content areas*
Again,
these findings have no bearing In establishing the effect­
iveness of method of presenting material since Method In
46
both cases showed no significant difference when considered
separately*
However, there Is some evidence in this study that
education is reflected in some degree in attainment in terms
of learning scores*
The mean scores of the group with high
education was approximately five points higher than the
means for the group with less education In every content
area*
This indicates a tendency hut the difference Is not
great enough to he highly significant*
(5
If scores are considered in relation to age
groups, the mean score of the group below forty Is slightly
higher In all four content areas than that of the group
above forty*
Since we are not interested In differences in
scores as affected by age but only as they effect method
of presenting material, no analysis of differences of age
subgroups was made.
(8
There was practically no difference in scores
between the groups that reported much and little time spent
in listening to the radio.
In summarising the results of this study, then,
there are no significant differences in the methods used
to present auditory material In four selected content areas.
Educational status operated with other variances
to give a significant interaction variance with Liethod*
This is an indication that education was operating to in-
47
fluence scores but when the entire group was divided into
educational subgroups and analysis made there were no signi­
ficant differences shown in the effectiveness of methods used.
There are no significant differences when the sub­
jects were separated into two age groups with forty years
taken as the division point#
There was practically no differences in the mean
scores of groups in which subjects were divided according
to radio listening habits*
The division point was taken at
13.35 hours per week, the average time reported:, by the en­
tire group of 280 subjects.
The mean score of the low-
listening group was nearly identical to the high-listening
group for each content area*
We may present the hypothesis, then, that within
the limits of the techniques used in this study and with
this sample of 880 adults, there are no significant differ­
ences in the four methods employed in presenting auditory
material for the development of ideas and concepts in four
content areas*
Mean scoi’es tend to favor the more highly
educated groups and the subjects below forty years of age,
but the tendencies are not sufficiently strong to be sig­
nificant*
Radio listening habits seem to have little or
no effect upon learning scores.
The results of this study suggest that, at least
In an experimental situation, adults who are interested in
getting information will learn as effectively by one method
48
as another*
Many subjects expressed a preference for the
lecture method when they wanted information*/bhile it is
th© general contention in broadcasting thp't the lecture
method is a poor and unlnter es tlng way to present script,
it should he remembered that in this study scripts pre­
pared in lecture forms were equated on the same basis as
the other scripts*
This means that techniques suggested
by broadcasters as good techniques for writing script were
employed in their preparation (i*e* frequent use of per­
sonal pronouns, deletion of hard words, control of sen­
tence length}*
Then, too, differences in recordings which
might influence both learning and preferences were con­
trolled in this study by the use of the same excellent
recording voice in the eight single voice recordings, the
use of this voice in the four dialogues, and as one of the
voices in th© dramatic productions*
The objections fre­
quently heard concerning the lecture type of broadcast
may be caused by scripts which are too difficult to be
understood easily, or by poor presentation, or perhaps
by both factors*
Since the sample represented in this study was
a selected group and not a random sample of the population,
real differences between methods of presenting auditory
material may exist for people in general*
VJhen such
49
studies are made on the population at large care must he
taken to reduce to a minimum the dependence of test scores
on reading facility*
Further experimental evidence is needed using
other types of adult groups before generalisations can he
made for the population at large*
If real differences
in the effectiveness of th© method chosen for broadcasting
meaningful material do not exist, broadcasters may choose
th© method which best suits the material they wish to
present*
50
Reference©
1*
Abbot, Waldo: Handbook of broadcasting.
McGraw Hill. L937, Pp. x±-424,
2*
GantriX, Hadley and A1Xpert, Clordon Vv. z The p sychoXogy
of radio* Hew York* Harper and Bros., 1935, Pp*
x-276.
■
3*
Bale, Edgar t A comparison of two word lists* Columbus,
Ohio State University* Educational Research Bul­
letin, 1931, 10, Ho* IS, 484*489.
4#
Dale, Edgar: Preparing radio talks for children. (In)
Education on the air. Columbus, Ohio, Ohio State
University, Vol. 3, 1932, Pp, vl-375, p. 105*117,
5*
Bale, Edgars The vocabulary level, of radio addresses,
(In) Education on the air* Columbus, Ohio, Ohio
State university, Vol. 2, 1931, Pp, viii-301,
p * 245*254.
Fulton, Albert Linear; A study in modes of oral style
in radio broadcasting. Unpublished Master of Sci­
ence thesis. University of Wisconsin, 1931, Pp* 59.
6,
Hew York,
7* Cray, William S., and Leary, Bernice E*: What makes a
book readable with special reference to adults
of limited reading ability* Chicago, University
of Chicago Press, 1936. Pp#vxviii, 358,
8*
Koon, Cline II.s The art of teaching by radio* (Bull.)
Washington, D* 0,, U, S. Department of Interior, Ho.
4, 1933* Pp. vii, 92*
9.
Lindquist, E. F.i Statistical analysis in educational
research* Hew York, Eoughton Migglin, 1940, (c.d.)
Pp. xil*j
10*
Mens or, 0 «£*■)0*
demonstration of contrasts in techniques
for education,
(In) Education on the air. Col­
umbus, Ohio, Ohio State University, Vol. 7, 1936,
Pp. viii-263, p. 157-175,
11.
Miller, Allen: Techniques of presenting dialogue. (In)
Education on the air and radio in education*
Chicago, Illinois, University of Chicago Press.
Vol. 6, 1935, Pp. ix-317, p. 149-157.
12.
Salisbury, Morse; Administering agricultural programs.
<In1 Education on the air, Colunouo, Ohio, Ohio
State University, Vol. 3, 1932. Pp. vi-375, p. 73-84.
0
51
13*
Whitehead, Albert Edwards iba objective study In oral
. styles In radio broadcasting* Unpublished Master
of Philosophy thesis*' University of Wisconsin,'
1930* Pp* 61*.
Appendix A
lectures
Announcer:
Clothing
Miss Helene Hey© presents a talk on Clothing,
which, deals with a few of the problems con­
fronting the maker, seller and buyer of textiles*
The making and selling of textiles Is one of the
headaches of modern business.
This headache Is often passed
along to you and me when we buy a garment or a piece of fabrl
We buy as best vie can.
Someone has aptly termed the kind of
buying most of us do as blind buying.
A piece of fabric gives unsatisfactory service.
The buyer blames the person who sold it.
sold It blames th© person who made it.
in turn, blames the buyer.
The person who
The manufacturer,
He makes, so he says, what people
will buy.
Many merchants say frankly that they cannot stand
back of the fabrics they sell.
We cannot expect them to do
thi3 until th© manufacturer Is willing to do It.
Manu­
facturers say they cannot guarantee quality until the con­
sumer knows what he wants to buy and then Is willing to pay
a reasonable amount for quality fabrics.
A vicious circle?
do his part to change It.
Perhaps.
But the consumer can
He is the key person.
He controls
the market by what he buys.
And there are hopeful signs that he is doing this.
The consumer, with less money to spend, spends more carefully
He wants to know more about what he buys.
He asks questions.
problems.
He reads labels.
He joins a group interested In consumer
He reads magazine articles and pamphlets which,
have been written to help him buy intelligently.
It Is hard for us, as consumers, to recreate th©
pattern of this century.
During th© past ten years, consumers
in general have considered fashion before wearing quality.
Before 1911, and to some extent, as late as 1921, we bought
what the mill produced.
Befor© 1921, styles rose and died
down again much more slowly than they do now*
The manu­
facturer must guess what we, the public, will buy.
He
must predict fashion trend with fair accuracy.
Faria is still th© world1s fashion center.
Late
summer changes there set the styles of clothing for the
following year.
The study and prediction of style trends
has developed Into a special business for a few firms♦
Amos Parrish and Borsodi Analytical are two well known
flxms that specialise in fashion trends.
mills buy their services.
Only
Some of the larger
a few mills style their
own fabrics.
Design in fabrics does not differ from good design
in other material.
At its best, it must be original, beauti­
ful, and fashionable.
If there must be a choice among them,
fashion wins because It is fashion that sells*
We often
overlook other values until defects appear In the material.
The Icind of y a m used to weave cloth partly determines
whether it will wear well*
The way th© yarn is spun and
woven and the way it is finished also affects the quality
of th© cloth*
We should, as Intelligent consumers, decide
how much service we expect and then consider color and
design in relation to th© service we expect to get*
Sometimes a garment does not wear well through
no fault of the manufacturer.
of any garment*
Good care prolongs the life
Some fibers must be handled very carefully
and unless we know this, we are likely to be dissatisfied
with them*
In laundering fabrics, hot water, hard rubbing or
wringing, or strong soaps are likely to injure allies, woolens,
and synthetic fibers*
Kayon is the general term applied to
all synthetic fibers*
They are called synthetic because the
fiber from which the yarn Is made Is artielally made.
Other
textile fibers come from either animal or vegetable sources.
It is still necessary to handle synthetic fibers very
carefully when they are wet as the fibers become weak and
are likely to split*
A mild soap free from excess alkali
should- be used for all fin© fabrics.
A simple way to test
soap is to grate it and drop vinegar on It.
If strong foaming
follows, choose another soap for laundering delicate colors
or fibers.
We buy most clothing in ready-to-wear form*
We
buy the garment, including whatever has been put into it*
Later, we may find that the fiber we bought for silk is rayon*
Or we may find th© material which we expected to wear for a
season has fallen apart in a few weeks •
Labels telling us
how the fabric was made would talc© part of the guess work
out of buying a ready-to-wear garment*
Until such labels become more common, we can. esti­
mate the quality by a series of simple tests*
It is well
to remember, however, that the manufacturing of textiles
is now not the simple process it was even in the early
1900*s*
And that the results of several of the tests given
should be pooled before a decision Is made*
For the simplest of these tests pick up the fabric
and rub It between your fingers*
Each fiber— providing it
has not been mad© in imltlation of another— has a definite
character of its own.
It takes experience, of course, to
tell silk from rayon and linen from cotton*
Judgment Is
built up from such qualities as weight, smoothness, stretch,
and other qualities.
But even, experts sometimes mistake
one fiber for another if they use only this test.
Another simple way to tell quality in a fabric is
to examine the firmness with which, it is woven*
If threads
slid© from, position easily when you gently pull on the material,
seams are likely to pull out.
A firm even weave will wear
better than on© which is uneven*
You can easily see uneven­
ness in weaving If you hold the material up so that light
can shine through It*
Tests in the laboratory show that a
material in which nearly th© same number of threads cross
each other wears longer*
which is balanced.
Such a material is known as one
You can tell for yourself If you mark
off an inch square and count
up and down the square*
each thread across and those
If there are 30 threads across and
30 up and down, the material is perfectly balanced sine© for
each warp thread (that is, the threads which run parallel
to the selvedge) there is a crosswise or filling thread.
When trades people talk about thread count they mean the
sum of these lengthwise and crosswise threads In one inch
of material*
In our sample of 30 crosswise threads and 30
up and down threads the thread count would be 60*
Generally
speaking, the more threads there are per Inch and the more
nearly divided these are between the warp and filling, the
longer the fabric will wear.
If you have actual samples of material you use,
you can Identify the fiber by either the burning test or by
examination under the microscope*
which calls for some experience*
The burning test is one
Wool and silk are animal
fibers and smell like v/ool or hair when burned*
Cotton and
linen, both plant fibers, b u m rapidly with an odor and ash
of burning paper.
like cotton*
Three of the four types of rayon burn
The fourth (acetate) melts to a black roass
and is Inclined to drip like sealing wax.
58
The characterlstics of each fibers
cotton, linen,
wool, silk, or rayon, can be clearly seen if they are magnified
by the microscope#
You can then identify your basic fiber by
comparing it with pictures in any standard textile book.
This test is more reliable than those which call for experi­
ence in identifying fibers*
This is Hie only way you can
be sure that material sold ms linen is not cotton*
Unless,
of course, th© manuiaeturer or merchant labels Its fabrics
in regal'd to eontent.
The Federal Trad© Commission has been of some help
in regard to the labeling of certain fabrics*
Silk with 10
per cent or more weighting can not be advertised as pure silk,
to exception Is made of black silk which may contain up to
15 per cent*
wool*
Articles labeled nall wool?r must be 98 per cent
Cotton and wool mixtures must contain at least 5 per
cent wool*
Before this ruling, goods sold as part wool
sometimes were less than on© half of one per cent wool*
The consumer, vexed and impatient because of the
large quantities of substandard, unreliable fabrics on the
market, wants something done about if.
not entirely at fault*
period*
The manufacturer is
Me are living in a transitional
We are shifting from the old time plant and animal
fibers to the man made ones*
is dominated by rayon.
since 1927*
At the present time the market
This textile has developed largely
In this year the crepe twist was developed*
This process made softer fabrics possible.
59
Silk manufacturers had not been interested in rayon
up to this time*
Silk is our most expensive textile fiber
as a raw material*
silk Is gum*
Much of the original weight of natural
The fabric must be de gummed in order to dye it.
The fiber that remains must be sold for enough to make up
this large loss.
The processes of spinning, weaving, and
dyeing are also expensive*
The depression intensified the
problem of marketing silk.
Few people could afford to buy
It*
Silk dropped in price from $4.95 per pound in 1929 to
#1*56 in 1955*
Rayon dropped too, but not as much.
It
dropped from 55 cents per pound in 1929 to 29 cents in 1953.
Many silk manufacturers took up the weaving of rayon.
Today,
there Is no separate silk and rayon Industry.
All but fifteen per cent of all broad goods woven
Is turned over to garment cutters.
Most of this is rayon*
We bought, In six months, fifty million dresses according
to Hie returns of a questionnaire sent to 1,700 merchants.
More dresses were sold in the price-range of $3*75 than at
any other price.
The manufacturer estimates that dress
goods increases in price four or five times between the mill
and the consumer*
According to this estimate, he received
from 75 to 94 cents for the material used in the $5*75 dress.
It Is not surprising to learn, therefore, that in one of the
chief rayon and silk weaving cities as many as 15 or 20
changes in ownership of mills has been reported in one week.
Manufacturers of fabrics made from wool have
problems just as serious*
dress goods markets*
to other material.
Tim© was when wool dominated the
After 1900, the demand gradually shifted
In 1909, each woman consumer in the
United States bought 6 and one half square yards of wool
material.
In 1929, she bought only one yard*
There had
been a change In dress that manufacturers had not noted*
Women began to wear lighter clothing*
In 1915, women wore
clothing that weighed about 50 per cent less than they wore
In 1900*
Men’s clothing has followed this same trend,
Suiting now weighs 8 to 12 ounces per square yard*
Several
years ago the average was 12 to 16 ounces*
About 1925, there was a general demand for light
weight materials*
It was not until 1928, however, that the
wool manufacturer marketed a light weight fabric that could
compete with silk*
weight fabrics*
In 1929, they began to advertise light
By 1951, light weight wool dresses had
Increased from 15 to 50 per cent of the total day time
dresses advertised in Hi© papers.
Wool, however, is less susceptible to extreme
style changes than is cotton, silk, or rayon.
It Is
prlmarlally the raw material of the m e n ’s clothing trade*
Men’s fashions are more stable than those of women*
Almost
70 per cent of all the goods made from wools is used to clothe
men*
Most of the wool (over 70 per cent) Is used in worsted
G1
suitings*
A worsted fabric Is on© in which long fibers of
wool ar© used and the thread Is spun tightly.
an extremely serviceable fabric.
developed until after 1850.
This gives
This process was not
More than half of all woolen
goods manufactured today are worsted.
Harked changes In living during this century
greatly affected the textile markets.
Consumers, In
general, have not known or appreciated, the serious problems
of the manufacturer.
This Is partly due to the location
of the mills In one section of the country.
For example,
Massaehussets produces nearly one third of the country’s
supply of woolen and worsted goods.
Mills In seven states
make 80 per cent of all wool products,
then one small
section of the country produces almost all of a commodity,
the general public Is likely to be biased in favor of their
own interests*
ditions*
Fabrics should be made under sanitary con­
Reliable manufacturers should be protected
against the unfair competition of family sweat shops.
They say they are willing to give pertinent information to
Hie consturier*
When the consumer has been educated to
understand this Information she will be able to buy more for
her money.
And she will b© protecting her own Interests
as well as those of manufacturers of reliable merchandise.
Announcers
You have Juet heard the first of a series of
talks written by Helene ITeye dealing with the
problems of home economics *
entitled "ClothingfI*
This lecture was
*
Storys
S3
Clothing
Announcer;
Miss Helene ITeye presents "Clothing11, a story.
Mrs* Anthony Perrin picked up her shawl and settled
down in her old Boston rocker*
a fire for her*
and chilly*
the walls*
She was glad they had built
The living rooms down stairs seemed bleak
She missed the family pictures that had covered
She missed the hedge podge of furniture that
had been collected over four generations*
Even though she
knew she could not expect her grandson and his wife to give
up everything they liked when they came a year ago*
house
The
was charming, she knew, now that enough of its furnish­
ings had been taken out so that you could see it.
And John
and Estelle had preserved all of Its loveliness.
But she felt more at home in
her own up stairs
sitting room with its small Georgian fireplace.
This room
had always been a favorite of hers and her family,
been the scene of many special confidences.
full of memories.
It had
The room was
Her pictures, her husband, her boys.
mill in all its stages.
A picture of each change.
The
Textiles
from her mill as well as rare textiles she and her husband
had collected,
She was an old, old lady.
Still influential in
town affairs, still Interested in the problems of the mill
workers.
Still the person to whom people of means, and
people without, came to for help*
She had lived well— this
lady who would be eighty— come her next birthday*
The party downstairs had mad© her sad*
years ago she had come to this house,
then, only a few looms.
Fifty
The mill was small
There on the wall was the first
piece of worsted made at the mill.
It had been finished
just the day before their new home was finished,
mills had tried It some years before.
Other
Special long \too 1
fibers had to be spun into a tight yarn.
The cloth made
from the yarn was much more serviceable.
The demand for it
had grown.
Her grandson had told her yesterday that more
than half of all the fabric they made now was worsted.
Her thoughts were interrupted by a knock.
It was
John, her grandson.
"The party bored me.
up to talk to you*
X told Estelle X was coming
If I may," he said.
The boy knew that he could talk to her at any time.
Wasn’t he named for her own John?
nX was just thinking about that piece of cloth
on the wall," she said*
"The first piece of worsted made
by our mill."
"Over 60 per cent of all material made from wool
is worsted now, Granny, and over 70 per cent of all goods
made from wool is used for m e n ’s clothing.
And 70 per cent
of men’s clothing, In turn, is worsted suiting.
fancy suitings."
He grinned.
Staple and
lfI know those figures* Granny*
afternoon just for you.
looms*
Learned them this
I ’m thinking of adding a few worsted
For suitings In
Granny smil ©d , too*
"Maybe* it wouldn’t be a bad idea* John*
I re­
member the time when nearly all dress goods were wool*
th© turn of the century*
At
Hand me that little black book*
Some of the figures in it are interesting*
Here in 1909,
every woman bought 6 and on© half yards of wool*
years later, in 1929, she bought only one yard *
see what was happening to clothes*— and to people.
were wearing fewer clothes and lighter ones I
Twenty
He didn’t
Women
Why in 1915,
women’s clothes weighed about half what it did in 1900*
Oh! I know we haven’t finished with that yet.
heat and air conditioning!
kith steam
Didn’t you tell me men’s
suiting weighs four ounces a pound loss than it did five
years ago?"
She paused*
John nodded but did not speak*
"Tour father was in charge of the mill then*
How
well I remember that day in 1927 when we thought the mill
would have to be closed*
Robert had woxtked for weeks and
he finally convinced the directors that they needed to make
a very light weight wool fabric to compete with silk*
For
five years there had been a strong demand for light weight
fabrics*
So one should watch figures!"
The old lady paused again*
"As you know, they did try Robert’s idea.
light weight fabrics on the market in 1927.
followed the next year.
V/e put
Other mills
By 1929, about 15 per cent of all
day time dresses advertised were light weight wools.
Two
years later, this percentage rose to about 50 per cent."
John spoke slowly.
"That promotion saved the mill.
suitings should be our field now*
angle*
But 1 think men’s
I ’d like to develop that
With some pieces of very fine women’s dress material*
Combining high quality with fashion*
Since I haven’t time
to watch Paris, I ’m planning to use Amos Parrish or Borsodi
Analytical for their style prediction service*
I think,
Granny, X should send you to Paris to watch late summer
changes*
W e fd know then what would be in style the next
year!
The old lady laughed*
But she was pleased*
John
had confidence in her opinion*
"This business of fashion, " went on John*
"If we
make fabrics for men’s clothing, we don’t have to ^Yorry about
it quite as much as rayon, silk, or cotton mills*
change too rapidly today.
Styles
Fashion is more Important to the
average woman who buys than is the quality of cloth*
nGh, an original, beautiful design— like that
print you have between those wlndoY/s there— Is aproreciated
by a few*
But do you remember how long that piece stayed
on gut stock shelves?
That peculiar blue green didn’t fit
In with the yellow green In fashion then*
saw it, promoted It , and we were saved*
Marshall Fields
But— we wondered I
The fire crackled cheerily on the hearth.
flYes, John, I remember*
And times have changed.
Before the war, and in some respects, as late as 1921, what
the mill made, women bought *
It took longer for styles to
become known, and- they stayed in fashion longex*.fi
f,Ha& a letter from Jeff today, Granny. v
John pulled it out of his pocket.
fashion reminded me*
l,This talk about
He still thinks he can make that rayon
mill in Mew Jersey pay*
There is no doubt about it in my
mind, these artificially made or man made fibers are im­
portant *”
The old woman spoke again*
HX wonder if you* 11 live to see the day when all
clothing is made from artificial fibers.
about European developments.
I fve been reading
Xt would be hard on Biassachusetts
Its mills produce one third of the nation’s supply.
Those
seven states, up there on that map that are inked in, produce
80 per cent*
I t ’s a fine industry.”
She sighed, then went on.
f?Garment cutters get about 85 per cent of all broad
goods woven*
Most of this in rayon*
hy, I read in a
textile trade magazine yesterday that fifty million dresses
were sold In six months by X,’?O0 firms.
And the most of
these dresses were sold in the @3.75 range*
If the usual
estimate that fabrics increase in price four or five times
is right, how much would Jeff get for the rayon in those
dresses? n
John figured busily for a minute.
’’Anywhere from 75 to 94 cents.
if four yards went into each dress I
Mot much a yard
Ho wonder there’s
such a turnover in silk and rayon mills.
Jeff says
sometimes as many as 15 to 20 mills change hands in one week
in his city.
I wonder if he can make it go.
He wanted to
mill silk fabrics entirely but importing the raw silk takes
capital.
Bilk is not only our most expensive fiber, but
spinning, weaving and dyeing it are expensive processes.
Jeff said when he degummed a piece of silk fabric, he
always felt sick because he had paid a high price for all
the weight that was lost*
silks some day*
He still plans to do hand blocked
He thinks the most beautiful designs on the
most beautiful textile will sell even though it is expensive.
Of course, when he tells me that, I have a few arguments
for wool.*1
A silence fell in the room.
ing of a college friend of Robert’s.
mill for his insurance company.
for silk fabrics*
Granny Perrin was think­
He had taken over a
There had been little demand
They were too expensive for depression
Incomes*
She thumbed through her little black book*
John
had called it her insurance book because It was full of
figures that no one but herself could understand*
Silk had
dropped from five dollars a pound in 1929 to one and one half
dollars In two years time.
Rayon, during the same time,
dropped less In price— from fifty cents a pound In 1929 to
thirty cents in 1933.
Jim Barr had studied the market and
begun to manufacture rayon.
either.
His fabrics hadn’t been bad,
Be used the crepe twist which had been developed
a few years before and all of his fabrics were soft.
bad, at all.
Hot
Many a silk manufacturer had followed his
example— manufacturing both rayon and silk fabrics.
John spoke, his words telling what he had been
thinking.
T?Ybu know we have another problem on our hands.
Eventually we will have to label our goods, Granny, or we
won’t be able to get a decent price for them,
be can’t
compete with low grade material unless the person who buys
our fabric knows what to expect from it.
Vixen people buy
clothing, they can’t tell what the material Is.
I know
they think they can tell If its wool or rayon by the way It
feels*
They can finish rayon now so it feels like wool.
has fooled even experts.
It
They might burn a sample of material
and tell something about it by the way it b u m s and smells.
Or better yet, they might put it under the microscope and see
what it’s made of*
garments.
But you can’t do that with ready made
You have no samples.
Weaving is so complicated
today that labels seem to be the only practical thing to do.”
RBut, John, until women learn to read them, they
✓
will do little good.”
Granny was remembering Mrs* Benson and her sheets.
"Mrs. Benson was buying sheets for the hotel the
other day.
She brought the samples over to me.
I had to
tell her wh&t the "thread count” meant— it was on the label
the store had made out for her.
I had to mark off an Inch
square on all her samples, give her a magnifying glass, and
have her count them before she understood.
She finally
saw that a balanced fabric was one that had th© same, or
about the same, number of threads running across as up and
down.
And that ”thread count” was the number up and down
and across added together.
She was finally convinced that
a firm, balanced material might wear longer.
And the more
threads per inch, the longer it might be expected to wear.”
John looked up.
"She didn’t have the problem of mixed fibers In
cotton sheeting, though, Granny.
don’t have our problems.
Cotton manufacturers
The Federal Trad© Commission tells
us "all wool” must be 98 per cent wool.
And cotton and wool
mixtures must contain at least 5 per cent wool.
weight his pure silk more than 10 per cent."
Jeff can’t
"Remember black silk can have 15 per cent weighting!?i
Both. John ancl Granny Perrin laughed,
rather read trade journals than fiction*
Granny would
It was her great
delight to display her technical knowledge*
Granny continued
after a minute*
ffHo# she didn* t have to worry about buying part
cotton*
And the person who sells sheeting doesrd t have to
worry about sheets going to pieces the first time she washes
them*
We need to give washing directions with our wool fabrics*
Ho hot water, hard rubbing or wringing* and no strong soap*
Jeff needs labels too, with his silk and rayon.
with his rayon*
Especially
Rayon fibers are weakened by wetting*
Many
women rub them too hard or twist them too much when they wash
them*
Poor Jeff!
He probably gets blamed plenty!
not his fault but theirs.
launder*
Rhen Its
Because they don*t know how to
Jerry, the little boy visiting next door, saw me
show Sarah how to test for strong soap*
samples of all
vinegar on it*
So he*s grated
the soap In the neighborhoodand pours
Is he pleased when It foams and he can
report the soap Is no good for fine fabrics1?*!
John looked around at the little , old fashioned
clock on the shelf behind him*
He sighed*
"Your word *foam1 reminds me of the time, Granny I
X promised
our
head foreman
1*01
drop In to that
Deer parlor
over on Hastings Street at nine o ?clock and see what the place
Is like,
His young son is spending some of his evenings
there and h e 1d like to know what sort of company h e fs
keeping* n
Granny sighed*
"If I were younger, I ’d go with you*
Better use the hack stairs.
party where you ’re going.
Run along*
It wouldn’t do to tell the
I ’ll sit here and rock until the
fire goes out* ,
She smiled*
"It’s a lovely room to me,° she said.
And she’s a lovely, dear old lady," said John as
he slipped down the back stairs*
Announcer;
You
have just heard a story written by
Miss Helene Keye entitled "Clothing".
DIALOGUE*
CLOTHING
CHARACTERSs
MBS# RILEY:
President of the conauraer's
group of* the Roman’s Club.
MR, BARER:
President of a large
department store.
SCENEs
Mr. Baker’s office
ANNOUNCER:
Miss Helene Heye presents another inter­
esting discussion of one of the many
problems which confront the m o d e m woman.
Today’s episode concerns a conversation
between Mrs. Riley, president of the
consumer’s group of the Woman’s Club and
Mr* Baker, president of a large department
store.
The scene of the dialogue, the
subject of which is "Clothing", is in
Mr. Baker’s office.
MRS, RILEY:
Mrs. Riley speaks.
Mr* Baker, I asked for this appointment
because your wife told us you would be
willing to help us plan our consumer’s
program for the year*
As president of our
largest department store, we think you can
help us get the merchants view point.
section of the Woman’s Club Is now the
largest*
Mrs* Baker is one of our most
enthusiastic members.
Our
MR. BAKER:
(SMXLIHG) Yea, X know*
Mrs* Baker is
enthusiastic about buying problems*
And
X fm glad of* it, because she has given me
something to think of besides selling*
I
told her, Mrs * Riley, that X f& be glad to
help the group
MRS . EILEYs
anyway X could,
We are going to study textiles for the first
part of the year and would like your criti­
cism of our program*
MR* BASER:
X have studied it very carefully»
And made
a few notes on the marginal
MRS F RILEY:
In general, as you already know, we want to
consider the problems of the consumer*
w© donit want to be one-sided*
But
he want to
consider the problems Qf the manufacturer
and merchant, too*
I fve done a great deal
of reading on the subject and their problems
are serious, too*
We women are likely to
think all the problems in the world, are ours
ME*. BAKER:
You, I see, are going to begin this study
with a historical background.
Why do you
include this?
MBS
RILEY:
X think historic trends have a great deal to
do with our m o d e m problems*
We are only
touching a few points before 1900, however,
because our time Is lira!ted*
MB* BAKER:
Do you mind sketching the material you plan
to Include?
UBS* RILEY:
Mot at all.
I have my notes here.
I plan
to start with the dress goods market In the
1900fs*.
Xt was dominated by wool goods*
In
1909, every woman consumer in the United States
bought 8 and one half square yards*
Twenty
years later, in 1929, she was buying only one
square yard.
She was also wearing less*
By
less I mean In the sense that she was wearing
both fewer and lighter clothing*
In the
fifteen years from 1900-1915 the weight of
women1© clothing dropped about 50 per cent.
MR. BAKER:
That Is true of menfs clothing, too.
Men1'©
suiting now weighs 8 to 12 ounces per square
yard*
Several year© ago the average was 12
to 16 ounces*
MRS, RILEYs
Men* s suiting dominates the wool fabric market*
Seventy per cent of all goods mad© from wool
is used for men's wear, and over 70 per cent
of these fabrics are staple and fancy worsted
materials*
MR. BAKER;
Worsteds are very serviceable.
their popularity,
Which explains
They use long wool fibers
and the y a m is spun very tightly.
They have
been greatly improved, since they wore first
woven in the last half of the 1800fs*
MES. KXLEYs
There 1b another Interesting fact about the
recent history of wool fabrics*
About 1923,
was a general demand for light weight materials
The wool manufacturers did not begin to make
light weight fabrics which could compete with
silk fabrics until 1928, five years later*
They began to advertise immediately, however,
and in 1929 advertisements of wool dresses
averaged 15 per cent of total day time dresses
advertised*
Two years later, in 1931, this
percentage had risen to 50 per cent*
MB* BAKER
What are you going to say about fashiont
Fashion has been most important in selling
fabrics for the past ten years*
Before 1911,
and to a certain extent, as late as 1921, we
bought what the mills produced.
MRS* RILEY:
Before 1921, styles become popular much-more
slowly and were popular much longer*
should discuss fashion, of course.
We
I think
that will be the hardest part of the program.
We can at least point out that good design
is original, beautiful, and fashionable.
If
there must be a choice among them, most of us
choose fashion*
But X think you should point out that the
real value of a fabric is determined, partly
by the quality of the fiber which went Into
It, and partly by weaving and finishing
processes*
Fabric can be durable as well as
fashlonable *
MBS * RILEY:
m.
BAKER:
Lhat can w© do about style trends?
You can understand how they originate, for
on© thing*
You probably know that Paris Is
still the fashion center of the wo id,cl*
Late
summer changes there set the styles for
clothing for the following year*
An inter­
esting American development Is the study
and prediction of style trends*
MRS. BILEY:
X donft remember reading about that.
MR* BAKER:
Amob Parrish and Borso&i Analytical are two
well-known firms in this line.
A few mills
Ilk© Forstmaxm,s have their own stylist, but
more of them use professional style services.
MBS. RILEY:
It Is interesting to me to find that wool is
less susceptible to extreme style changes
than is cotton, silk, or i^ayon.
I suppose
that proves that men’s clothing is more
conservative than women*s, since men’s 'wear
does take the largest part of wool materials.
*o
e
MB. BAEBE:
Difficulties in handling the fibers and its
cost may be partly responsible, too.
rules the textile market today*
Eayon
Garment
cutters receive about 85 per cent of all
broad goods woven.
Most of this Is rayon.
We are replacing our animal fibers— wool
and silk— and our plant fibers— cotton and
linen— with one which we make ourselves.
Rayon, you know, is a general term applied,
to all goods made of synthetic or artificial
fibers.
A special questionnaire aent to
nearly 2,000 firms over a six month’s period
showed a sale of fifty million dresses#
With
more of these sold in the $3.75 price range
than In any other.
MRS
RILEY:
Manufacturers estimate that fabrics have
their price multiplied four or five times
between the mill and the buyer.
That doesn’t
give the manufacturers very much, does It?
MB. BAKER:
Let’s see— It’s about 75 to 94 cents.
MRS
I ’m not surprised that mills .change hands!
RILEY:
In
one report, I read there have been as many as
15 to 20 changes of ownership in on© week In
one of our Important weaving cities.
'9
MR* BAKERs
M a m m a e tubers of silk materials, of course,
have had trouble competing with fabrics from
other fibers*
material*
gum*
They have to import their raw
Much of the original v/eight is
The fabric mist be degummed In order
to dye it*
The fiber that remains must
stand the cost of this loss in weight •
The
processes of spinning, weaving and dyeing
are also esspenslve*
MBS* BXLET:
Arenrt many stores buying rayons instead of
silks now?
MR* BAKER!
The depression Intensified the problem of
marketing silk*
buy it*
Few people could afford to
Silk dropped in price from five
dollars a pound In 1929 to one and one half
In 1953*
Rayon dropped too, but not as much*
It dropped ixx>m 50 cents to 30 cents a pound
over the same period*
The development of
the crepe twist In rayon weaving made softer
fabrics possible*
With this development,
In 1927, many silk manufacturers took up
rayon weaving*
There is no longer a separate
ailk and rayon weaving industry.
MBS* RILEY:
Woolen mills are more specialised, aren*1
they?
HE* BAKER:
I think they are.
Most fabrics of wool are
produced in a few states.
Massachusetts
alone produces nearly one third of the
nation*s supply.
Seven states produce
eighty per cent of our ¥/oolens and worsteds.
IKS . RILEY:
That brings up a question I especially want
to ask you.
What can the consumer do about
adulterated fabrics?
I mean, for example,
a fabric that is sold for wool and is mostly
cotton.
ME. BAKER:
The Federal Trade Commission protects the
consumer to some extent.
Silk with 10 per
cent or more weighting must not be advertised
me pure silk.
silk which
An exception is made of black
may have as much as 15 per cent.
Fabrics advertised as all wool must be ninetyeight per cent wool.
Cotton and wool mixtures
must contain at least 5 per cent wool.
MRS ► RILEY:
But most clothing is bought ready to wear.
You buy It as a piece of clothing*
How do
you know what kind of material was used in
making it?
ME. BAKER:
We have no control over this problem*
Con­
sumer groups such as yours are asking that
garments have labels.
These labels would
■si
name the fiber on fibers used In the y a m ,
with other Inforroation which would indicate
quality*
MRS* RILEY*
Do you mean the same kind of Information
which you give in this store on sheetings?
MR* BAKERt
1 doubt whether we need as much detail*
1
do know we need to teach women what infor­
mation on labels moans*
How are you going
to teach women to recognize quality fabrics
until garments are labeled?
MRS* RILEY:
About all we can do is tell them about the
simple tests*
Which, we know, are not
reliable*
HR* BARER:
Y o u 1re right there*
The inexpensive fibers,
cotton and rayon, can be finished now so they
look and feel like linen, wool, or silk*
Each fiber in its natural state lias charac­
teristics of its own*
mistakes now In
of cloth*
Even experts make
naming the fiber in a piece
We use the microscope here in the
store laboratory so we may be positive about
the fiber befor© we place large orders for
yard goods*
HRS* RILEYj
But the use of the microscope isn’t practical
except for yard goods*
HE-* BAKERs
I know*
Mor is the burning test*
to have a sample of the cloth*
are not attached to dresses*
You have
And samples
Even when used,
judgment has to be developed In regard to
how different fabrics b u m and how they small*
MRS.* RXLEY:
Do you think consumers should know any other
simple tests?
ME* BARER:
They
should know what thread count means*
It means the sum of the threads in one row
of crosswise threads in one inch of material*
You mark off a square and count up one edge
and across the other one*
If there is
exactly or approximately the same number of
crosswise threads as lengthwise threads we
say the material Is balanced*
Generally
speaking, the more threads per Inch and the
more nearly they are balanced, the longer a
fabric will wear*
Providing It Is cared
for in the right way*
MRS* EILEY:
Rayon still needs to be handled carefully
when it is wet, doesn’t it?
MR* BARER:
Yes, the rayon fiber is weak while wet*
Strain will split It very easily*
All
silks, wools, and rayons are hurt by hot
water, hard rubbing or wringing, and strong
soap*
MRS* RILEY'S
We plan to show garments which have not "been
eared for In the right way*
We also plan to
have a demonstratlon In laundering fine fabrics.
MR* BAKER:
Are you including a test for soaps?
MRS. b i l e s ::
Yes, a soap with excess alkali will foam a
great deal If It is grated and vinegar dropped
on It*
MR* BAKER:
Wlmt do you think of our program in
1 think your program is well planned*
Xou
consider problems of the person who buys
fabrics, the person who sells them, and the
person who makes them.
I like your back­
ground work In regard to recent changes in
the industry*
You might spend a little time
learning to know the characteristics of each
fibers
rayon, silk, wool, cotton, and linen*
I think that would help In buying a fiber for
a special purpose.
include
a little more about weaving and
finishing processes*
tlS* RILEY:
MR. BAKER:
And perhaps yo\i should
They affect quality, too*
I appreciate your criticisms.
If you M l bring in your plans for your program,
I M l scout around and see if I can find ma­
terials to use with them.
If 1 don’t have
them, I think 1 can get them if 1 have a
little time*
And If you care to visit our
testing laboratory, I would be glad to
arrange for our Mr* Kenton, who is in
charge here, to take you through#
MBS* RILEY;
I*d like to, very much*
you again*
week.
MR* BAKER;
Please let me thank
I ’ll biding the plans in next
Goodbye, Mr* Baker*
Goodbye, Mrs. Riley*
X fm sure your group
will learn a great deal about fabrics.
AMOOTCER;
The discussion you have just heard between
Mrs, Riley and Mr, Baker Is another in a
series of stories and dramas written for
radio by Miss
Helene Heye*
85
DRAMA:
o m m x m
{MAEACTEKSs
TQM FULfOlIt
guide
MRS* POROTR*
BILL:
mother
©oh, age 18
COTTHIAs
daughter, age 14
SCKBEs
A rayon mill
AOTOBHOEBs
We present "Clothing”, a drama in one act by
Helen© Heye#
Today’s play deals with the
problems of the buyer, seller, and manu­
facturer of ."clothing,fabric©,
Hie scene opens
as Mrs# Porter and her son and daughter. Bill
and Cynthia, are approaching a rayon mill, where
they will shortly make a tour of inspection
with Tom Pulton, mill guide«
SPUEDi
SOtlHP OP AUTOMOBILE
erom-iiAt
Here.it is, Bill, I ’m
BILL:
Think so- myself*
How to find, a parking space*
Boy I are we lucky?
out*.
sure that’s It*
Everybody out*
There’s a car now, backing
Here is sister’s mill*
Why she wants to go through a mill, I can’t
guess*
MOTHER:
How, Bill*
We went to the ball game with you
yesterday#
W© decided, jon know, that everyone
was to do one thing they especially wanted to
doi
BILL:
{LAUGHS, GOOD-NATO REDLY}
I was only kidding
Cynthia, mom.
CYNTHIA;
Yes, you tried to convince me yesterday that
I specially wanted another ball gameI
BILL:
But why do you want to visit this mill?
CYNTHIA:
Oh, I just liked the work I had In textile
design in high school this year.
I ’d like
to see some cloth made*
SQUIB):
SOUND OF STEPS ON GRAVEL
MOTHER:
I ’m Mrs, Porter*
I called, here about a
tour of your mill,
TOM FULTON;
Oh, yes, Mrs, Porter*
manager, Tom Fulton*
I ’m the assistant
Mr * Menser asked me
to show you through,
MRS, PORTER;
This Is my daughter, Cynthia, and my son,
Bill,
Both, if they act at all natural,
will ask dosens of questions*
TOM FULTON:
(LAUGHS)
We don’t mind that, you know*
If you’re ready, w e ’ll start#
How,
The mill closes
In two hours and w e ’ll Lave to hurry to get
around. 1
W e ’ll leave the displays here until
we finish the mill.
nine this evening.
The office Is open until
W e ’ll- go through this
door and over to the spinning department.
SOUND:
SOUND OF STEPS— DQQK-~STSPS'
TQM FULTON:
You know, of course, that rayon is an arti­
ficial or man made fiber*
I t ’s a chemical
mixture forced into thin filaments under
pressure.
These tiny filaments are spun
together into yarn*
And then woven Into
cloth*
Eayon Is our most important textile
today*
Nearly 85 per cent of all broad goods
woven Is turned over to garment cutters today*
Most of this Is rayon*
A special question­
naire was sent to about 2,000 firms last
year*
These firms reported a sal© of 50,000
dresses in six months*
The largest number
of dresses was sold in the $3*75 price range.
CYNTHIA;
Imagine that!
TOM FULTON;
It’s surprising, isn’t it?
We generally
estimate that the price of fabrics Is
multiplied four or five times between the
mill and the buyer*
That gives the manu­
facturer 75 to 94 cents for his share.
Our
rayons sell for more than that because our
production costs are higher*
We have a
testing laboratory and try for quality fabrics*
Here we are*
Th© spinning machines are noisy*
If you’ll walk through, I ’ll answer your
questions afterwards.
SQTODj
SQTOD OF MACHINERY. WHIRRING
gyntbxas
That was noisy*
TOM FULTON:
The power looms are worse.
We don’t do much
talking when w e ’re busy I
MRS* FOETOK:
TOM FULTON;
Those silky Ilk© fibers are rolled together
to make thread?
Is that spinning?
Yes, that’s it,
The yarn you saw there all
has a crepe twist.
in
Until this was developed
1927, rayons were not soft in texture,
We' manufactured silks exclusively until
after this crepe twist was developed*
CYNTHIA:
You still manufacture them, don’t you?
TOM FULTON;
Yes, we do*
That part of the plant, though,
Is not in operation just now.
down for a month two weeks ago.
He closed
W e ’re waiting
for spring designs and our too style services
are making their report for us now*
mills have their own stylists.
A few
We don’t
make enough expensive fabrics to pay for a
service of our own*
So we buy this service
from Amos Parrish or Bor sod I Analytical.
MOTHER:
But how do they know what will be fashionable,
Mr* Fulton?
TOM FULTON;
They guess, of course.
Since they’ve analysed
trends for many years they don’t often miss,
They keep an eye on Paris, too.
Late summer
changes in Paris set the style, for the
rest of the world for the next year.
GYNTHIAl
I suppose fashion is important In designing
textiles, isn’t it?
TQM FULTON;
It has been for the past ten years, at least.
An original and beautiful textile design
goes begging unless it ties in with the
current fashion.
Most women w o n ’t admit
this but observation of buying habits shows
that they consider fashion before quality.
Fifteen or twenty-five years ago, women bought
what the mill© made.
BILL:
That’s not true today.
Don 11 styles change more quickly?
Maybe
that’s why.
TQM FCJLTON s
That explains part of it.
Before 1920, styles
developed more slowly, and died out more
slowly.
That’s one reason many people buy
garments of less expensive fibers.
They
buy more often.
MRS. PORTER;
You spoke of silk a.few moments ago.
Silk is
one of the more expensive fibers, isn’t it?
TOM PULTON:
I t ’s our most expensive one*
It has to b©
imported, first.
Then spinning and weaving
it is expensive.
Much of the original weight
of natural silk is gum.
fh© fabric must be
d,©gummed in order to dye it.
The fiber
must be sold for enough to make up this
large loss*
The depression intensified the
problem of marketing silk.
afford to buy it*
Few people could
Silk dropped in price from
$5 a pound, in 1929 to about $1*50 In 1933*
Rayon dropped too, but not as much*
It
dropped from 50 cents a pound to 50 cents
in the same years*
Most of the manufacturers
of silk now manufacture rayon, too.
There
la no longer a separate silk and rayon
w a v i n g industry*
along*
But we must be getting
W e ’ll see the weaving processes next,
then the finishing*
Perhaps you can re**
member your questions until we return to
the office*
These processes are noisy
things and I* 11 point to the things 1
especially want you to notice*
SOUND:
SOUND OF STEPS— DOOR--MAGE INERT
MUSIC FADE IB— UP— OUT
(20 seconds)
TOM FULTON:
Well, here we are.
BILL:
Am I glad to see a chair?
too*
Back In the office.
I t ’s comfortable,
W© walked a couple of miles, didn’t we?
MRS* PORTER:
I ’m tired, too*
All those stairsI
CYNTHIA:
1 think the noise Is worse than the walking,
ears are tired.
TOM FULTON;
I hope you don’t regret your visit.
(LAUGHS)
We put comfortable chairs in here so our
guests would have a chance to restl
Of course,
it also gives them a chance to see samples
of our merchandise *
We have some very Inter­
esting textiles in our cases, here.
Some of
them are very expensive and valuable.
Nov/,
any questions?
CYNTHIA;
You said most dresses are made from rayon.
I ’ve been wondering what they used before
that*
TOM FULTON;
In the early 19001a most of the dress goods
were of woolen material*
The demand gradually
shifted to other material*
In 1909, each
woman consumer In the United States bought
8 and one half yards of wool material*
Twenty years later, In 1929, she bought only
one yard.
CYNTHIA:
But why did she change?
TOM FULTON;
Living conditions changed for one thing.
Lomen began to wear lighter clothing*
By
1915, women wore clothing that weighed about
half of what it did In 1900*
has continued.
This same trend
Men’s suiting now weighs 8
to 12 ounces per square yard •
Several years
ago the average was 12 to 16 ounces*
But I fve had several wool dresses in the
past few years*
Wool sheers --they were*
So wos&en must be buying more wool now*
TOM FULTOlf:
,£hatfs an interesting angle to the textile
markets*
About 1923, there was a general
demand for light weight materials*
It was
not until 1928, however, that the wool manu­
facturers marketed a light weight fabric that
could compete with silk*
They began to
advertise these dresses In 1927 and that
year about 15 per cent of all day time dresses
advertised were wool sheo p s
*
By 1931, half
of the day time dresses advertised were light
weight wools!
BXLLj
Ihat cut in on your market, then, 31&n*t It?
TOM FULTOlh
Yes, it did*
On our silk market*
But wool
Is primarily the raw material of the nerds
clothing trade*
It Is less susceptible to
style changes than are other fibers*
Almost
70 per cent of all goods made from wools is
used to clothe men*
Most of the wool (over
70 per cent) is used in worsted suitings*
A
, worsted fabric Is one In which only fibers
of wool are used and the thread Is spun
tightly*
tills gives an extremely serviceable
fabric*
This process was not developed until
after 1850*
More than half of all woolen
goods manufactured today are worsteds#
MRS* PORTER:
X lived In Massachusetts when X was a child.
In one of the woolen mill towns*
Many of the
mills have closed now*
TOM FULTOXJ
Massachusetts produces nearly one third of
the woolen materials*
Eighty per cent of
fabrics made from wool are produced in seven
states*
But the wool mills are not the only
fabric mills to have trouble*
In our field,
rayon and silk, as many as 15 or 20 mills
have changed hands In one week in our larger
mill cities#
MBS* PORTER:
You spoke of making only the better ray on
fabrics*
How do you get people to buy this
If cheaper ones are on the market?
TOM FULTOH:
We are planning to use labels with specifi­
cations as to what service the consumer can
expect within several months*
serious problem there*
We*ve had a
Most clothing is
bought in rea&y - to-wear form*
The garment
is bought, including whatever has been put
into it#
Re will have to educate you women
to read them, though*
They will be useless
unless the person who buys the garment knows
what the label says*
CCTTHIAs
But what should we know?
know it?
Bon1! wo already
Our clothing teacher said we could
tell something about equality by the fJfeelrr
of the fabric, by thread count and by the
burning test#
BIlLs
Cynthia burned a couple of holes in the table
top before she learned how to do that burning
test..
Then she couldn,t tell much about the
pieces she did burn.
CYNTHIA:
But I had to learn, Bill*
Animal fibers,
silk and wool, smell something like hair*
Plant fibers, cotton and linen, smell and
burn like paper.
TOM FULTON:
Bach one burns differently.
It takes judgment for that test*
be too
And donft
confident that you eon tell the
difference between rayon and wool, letfs
say, by the way it feels.
that feels like wool!
fooled*
We can make rayon
Even experts can be
You can tell a lot about a fabric
by thread count, of course.
BILL:
Did you use that test, Cynthia?
I don9t
remember it*
TOM FULTON:
Thatfs an easy one.
Here
Here, 1*11 show you.
are two samples of cloth.
We mark
off an inch square on each one.
Then we
count the up and d o m threads and the
crosswise threads along two edges of our
square*
are;
We add them together and there you
that 1a the thread count.
Which Fabric
is the better one, do you think?
gctthia:
While Bill *s counting w± 11 you tell us more
about the labels you think should be put
on materials?
TOM FULTON*
Certainly I
course.
The Fiber should be given, oF
I mean by that whether wool, silk,
cotton, linen, or rayon was used.
We always
veriFy all our tests on Fabrics, those that
we are analysing, by using the microscope.
Each Fiber has its own characteristics and you
eanft be Fooled IF you use the microscope.
Mixtures of Fibers are harder to identify*
A testing laboratory uses chemical tests to
determine this*
The Federal Trade Commission
has some rulings on mixtures.
Silk cannot
be advertised as pure silk if it has 10 per
cent or more weighting.
Except black silk
which may have up to 15 per cent*
Fabrics
labeled all wool must be 98 per cent wool.
Fabrics labeled part wool must have at
least 5 per cent wool.
Then I #d have
9&
thread, count, the strength of* the Tiber,
whether the color is fast, and how much the
material will shrink.
And 1 think I fd
include washing directions.
This is es­
pecially important with our rayon fabrics.
Rayon fibers become weak when they are wet
and split or break unless they are handled
very carefully*
If fine fabrics were washed
carefully we wouldn*t have so many complaints
about poor fabrics*
MBS. PORTER:
Can those washing directions be given in
simple words?
TOM FULT01J:
In very simple words*
Silk, woolens, and
rayons should never be washed, in hot water
or with strong soap*
They should not be
rubbed hard and should be squeezed dry,
not wrung*
Did your clothing teacher show
you how you can toll if a soap has too much
alkali for fine fabrics?
CYNTHIA:
I think she did but I *ve forgotten.
pour something
TOM FULTORs
You
it.
grate the soap fine and then pour vinegar
on it.
SOUND:
011
You
If you get
a lot of foam the soap
has
excess
alkali and should not
for
silks,
rayons,or wools*
MILL Lh IS TLK- -LIUTED
be used,
BILL:
I fv@ got this thread count.
and dom i and 30 across.
One is 30 up
That makes 60.
The other lias 10 across and 20 up and down,
thatfs 30*
The one that counts 60 is the
best piece*
I can push the threads around
with my nail on this other one.
TOM FULTON:
Y o u 1r© right. Bill.
Generally speaking, the
cloth with the most threads per Inch and in
which the up and down and crosswise threads
are nearly equal In number gives the best
service.
That first piece of material is
perfectly balanced.
There is one crosswise
thread for each lengthwise thread.
BILL;
Now that X Tv© finished that, I think we should
go and come back tomorrow and look at these
other cases.
The five o fclock whistle blew
some time ago.
CYNTHIA:
Oh, BillJ
If you will, I* 11 vote for another
ball game.
TOM FULTON;
W e fd b© very glad to have you come back anytime,
MRS. PORTER:
he appreciate your kindness, Mr. Fulton.
W e fve learned a great deal.
And it looks as
If you will be seeing us tomorrow.
BILL:
Thanks a lot, Mr* Fulton.
MR. FULTON:
All right, Bllli
Goodbye.
MRS.. POKIER, CYNTHIA and BILL:
Goodbye
SOTOD:
MUSIC - FADE OUT
AKRGUWCER:
You Lave Just heard another In the series
of dramas by Helene Heye* dealing with the
problems of the consumer*
entitled wClothing11•
Today *s play Is
Lecture t
Announcer:
Ins ecurity
We present a talk on one of tlie most serious
problems of family life, "Insecurity" - which
in this case, as the listener will see, can
seriously affect tlx© attitude of the growing
young man or woman whose parents have neglected
to guarantee them security*
r
j
It was a few minites after four*
The school bus
was waiting Just around, the corner from the main entrance of
the high school*
The doors burst open*
First there was a
group of bright- eyed boys and girls - eager and laughing,
all of them talking at the same time*
nD© you think your dad and mother will let you?17
asked one*
"Awb, sure, tr said the curly-headed blonde boy, laugh­
ing* "They’XX let me*
They’re swellln
"Guess I ’d better not ask mine*"
dark-eyed girl with him*
This was the lively,
"They talk and talk and then when
I come back they ask and ask*V
"Well, we won’t be doing anything they shouldn’t
know about, n said another boy*
"Oh, I know, but I don’t want to feel I have to
tell them ©very single thing*"
Then, discretely changing
the subject, "Shall w© ask Sally?"
"No, let’s not#
She tries too hard to be nice*
If mother hears, she’ll say w© should*
So don’t tell,
anyone*rr
No on© objected to this calm settling of the
question by the little red haired girl*
It was evident that
the group agreed*
The door© opened, again as this group were settling
themselves in the bus*
This time it was three boys*
had his hat pulled over hi® eyes*
Hi© hands were tense*
His mouth was set tight.
Not unattractive except for his
complexion, X thought as X watched him*
walked confidently to the bus*
swaggered just a little?
group on the bus*
One
The second boy
Did I imagine that he
He spoke in a loud voice to the
He poked several of them playfully as he
went to a place in the rear of the oar*
The third boy did
not raise his ©yae a© he found his place*
Taller than the
other®, hie shoulders stooped, he was pale, listless,
unhappy *
The youngsters who had clambered into the bus first
paid no attention tb the three except to formally acknowledge
their presence*
It was evident that they did not "belong"*
It was also evident that the three boys realised this*
There was the sound of the horn*
to leave*
A girl ran across the sidewalk*
The bus was about
i o f
f,Hurry, Sally, w called the dark-eyed girl who had
asked if Sally were to he included in their plane*
fYou* re
always late*”
Poor Sally*
A pathetic little figure in her old-
fashioned dress and black sailor hat*
The kind of a girl
who would never be noticed if she happened to be quiet*
And Sally was quiet, shy, and sensitive*
But she wanted to
be noticed, to be liked, so sh© tried wtoo hardTf, as her
school mates said, to please*
The bus moved away*
And I found myself thinking
of those youngsters all the way home*
The first group;.of children ^belonged511
held than together*
Something
You felt that they understood each
other, shared each other1s problems, liked each other.
were sure of themselves,
liked*
They
They were noticed by people they
They just "belonged**.
The boy with the set mou^th*
excluded?
Why had h© been
Because of his unattractive complexion?
been left, out years before?
Or had he
Maybe it was his home that left
young bitterness in his face*
that boys of his age need pals?
Did his parents understand
And respect and love and
freedom at home in order to find their place outside?
I
had seen a picture in the city Post Office the day before,
a 11Wanted!J picture with a reward offered*
of this boy reminded me of that face*
And the set lips
1 0 2
The boy with the loud voice and the over-confident
walk, what of him?
to please#
He, like Sally, was trying ”too hard11
And doing all the wrong flings#
because he couldn't be Ignored#
blunder along?
Would he continue to
To slap people on the back?
And the tall, pale boy?
his ©yes as he entered th© bus?
others?
Being noticed
The on© who did not raise
Didn't he care about the
Or had he tried before to join the group, and had
now given up hope?
Was he the same at home?
Perhaps he
didn't have a home or anyone who cared for hira*
sorrier for him .than for the others#
I felt
Somehow he looked as if
he were through trying, as though life were something to be
endured*
youth?
Had he never been fired with the enthusiasm of
Or, a more important question, would he never feel it?
I felt sorry for Sally, too*
so hard?
Why was she trying
Because six© was plain, quiet, unbecomingly dressed?
Her mother needed to see what these other girls were wearing*
What if they weren't dressed warmly enough*
healthier than Sally*
They looked
Acid infinitely happier* Sally might
not be unattractive if her face were animated*
Sally might
be a different girl if she were given a large dose of f,the
joy of living”#
Why were these children left out?
We do not know*
But most people who have studied this problem think it can
be answered by one words
insecurity*
Most people need three
kind© of security, a place in a family group, a place in
groups outside the family, and a fair opinion of oneself as
a person*
Everyone needs recognition, respect, and affection
as an individual person, both at home and at school*
In
addition to this he needs the belief in himself that comes
from confidence in his own ability to handle himself and his
problems#
Often a child feels inadequate for some reason, and
is therefore so self-conscious that the other children never
see their possibilities as companions*
Often it is appearance
that causes extrema self-consciousness*
Awkwardness, a poor
complexion, a ”lxtmpy ” figure, unbecoming or inappropriate
clothing, a more attractive brother or sister; any of these
may be at fault#
Sometimes it is failure In school*
This
may not mean acuta! failure as expressed in school marks, It
may simply mean failure to do as well as the child would
flike to do#
Difficulty with reading, or In talking easily,
may cause a child to feel very inadequate in school#
Then,
too, he may be entirely adequate to handle school subjects,
and yet be immature in social ways*
Into a personality*
Perhaps he has not developed
He can't decide things for himself, he
doesn't think for himself, he can't give anything that is
Interesting to his f © H
o t /- stud exits*
to do or say when others are around
He doesn't know what
him•
But botii the home and the school can help this child
Both can encourage self-confidence#
or he stops trying*
Every child needs success
The argument that a child needs to learn
'through failure may be sound, but It Is sound only if there
are more successes on the whole than failures*
Continual
failure teaches but one thing, the futility of trying to
succeed*
Sometimes parents - and teachers, too - expect too
much of a child*
A child who is afraid lie will not measure
.up to these ©xpeotions sometimes becomes very tense and fails
largely because he becomes emotional*
If it apparently
matter© very little that this failure occurs, this tension
may relax, and the child may clo the thing he thought he couldn't
do in a very creditable manner#
Usually It is easier to handle failure in school
subjects than failure to make the ”gangr?*
All children need
to belong to a group of lively youngsters of their own age#
This group demands certain tilings of its members, but it also
gives something in return#
For loyalty and unselfishness
it gives a feeling of belonging, a sens© of being liked, admired,
respected*
It gives a sense of security that a child gets In
no other way*
It helps establish a person as an individual*
It gives confidence In oneself#
The child that is excluded from a special group
needs
Borne
help*
The child that can do many things can usually
find a place for himself*
The child who is shy when with
other children should be encouraged to join a band, or a
swimming class, or a garden club*
Encourage him to try
something you are sure he can do, something he will like
to do, and through which he will meet people of his age*
A common interest also help© the child who does not talk
easily*
Then there is something Interesting to talk about.
If a child shows no enthusiasm about music, or
athletics, or clubs, perhaps the activity has not been made
attractive enough*
Tickets to a musical event of real talent
will often result In a child asking If he might be allowed
to learn to play a musical Instrument*
Enjoyment In any form
has a noarry-over” value, and enthusiasm la likely to be
contagious«
And of real value in making social contacts*
A comfortable horn© situation to Which a child may
bring his friends also helps the shy one.
This gives him
a background of-familiar things, and with discreet hospitality
from the family, will encourage the ^budding” personality.
The home situation itself is important.
Hot only
must the adolescent feel that he belongs in 'the family group,
but he must feel that the entire family belongs together*
Disagreements between the parents may seem rather casual to
the two involved, but may be a source of extreme anxiety to
the children*
Mutual love, respect and understanding does
more for the atmosphere of a home than the most elaborate
or attractive scheme of interior decoration.
Sometimes, ©specially in the case of high school
children, parents overlook the great desire for independence*.
Adolescents are so nearly grown-up, they want to skip the
few years still lacking, and to he treated as grown-ups*
They want to decide things for themselves, whether they are
ready to or not#
And they want to do all the things the
other boys and girls of their &g© do*
If there is disa­
greement between what parents want and what his special
group wants, the parents usually lose.
His group will ridicule him, or maybe drop him if
he can't do as they do*
tod if this-happens, either a child
openly rebels and demands his ’'liberty or else”, or he loses
his spirit, and becomes quiet, listless, and unhappy*
Books,
day-dreams, and movies eventually provide for him a happier
world than hi© own*
Such a child is learning to take life as it comes,
without doing anything about it himself*
He should be learning
to decide what things In life are worth planning and working for,
to manage himself and his world so that Ills life gives him
more satisfaction*
Obviously, Sally and her throe boy companions felt
that life could be more satisfying for them, but they didn't
know what they could do that would help them.
The sympathy,
love, and understanding of their teachers and parents might
help them, but that is not enough*
They need to be helped to
help themselves#
Encouragement, activities that are
too difficult, success;
selves#
not
these will help them to find them-
Anything that gives them confidence In themselves
helps them*
Anything that Improves their appearance helps
immeasurably *
Set the stage with Interesting things and
people, and then let the adolescent take his time about taking
his place in the group*
It doesn't matter how long it takes,
what matters Is whether the child is ready*
A shy child may
not enter into group activity the first time, or even the
second*
long*
But If he la deeply Interested, he won't stay out
Some evening he will forget himself, and find himself
"in things” - "belonging ”I
A child who has found for himself a group Interested
In challenging, worthwhile activity is leas likely to b©
diverted Into activity which may hurt himself, his family,
or his community*
And the self respect which comes from enjoyable work
or play with friends of slmlli&r tastes plays its part (and
an Important part it is) In developing Independence, poise,
and personality#
Awkward adolescents, grown up, will ever be grateful
to parents, both wise and discreet, who have given them a
chance to be themselves#
Announcers
The talk you have just heard Is entitled "Insecurity”
and Is on© of a series dealing with various subjects
and problems of the family*
108
Storys
Insecurity
tenouncers
We present another in a series of stories
entitled "Insecurity"#
The telephone rang#
Mrs# Thomason stirred suddenly*
She was aware that it must have been ringing for some time*
She looked at the clock on the opposite wall and then at the
dishp&n full of crab apples she was holding in her lap#
”How stupid* " she thought* JiIt *s ten o *clock and. X *ve
been sitting here for an hour holding a heavy pan of apples and
doing nothing#I!
The telephone rang, again and still again*
Wearily*
she put the apples on the table and walked carefully into the
next room#
She hoped fervently that it would not be another
woman she scarcely knew with vague reason for calling her#
She had had many calls these last few weeks, all of them
reasonable if she could have believed the careful words of
explanation*
But before the end there was always a little
embarrassed pause and a slightly hurried, "And what do you
know about the Crowley’s?
Did Elsa really intend to commit
suicide, and is Mrs* Crowley going to apply for a divorce?
The papers have said so little the past few days#rf Mm *
Thomason decided grimly that this time she would not answer
these questions;
she would ©imply hang up instead#
She had
tried to be noneoramital, she had tried to say that she did
109
n^pt know, she bad even grown rather deaf and asked stupidly
for repetitions of questions that she did not want to answer*
But it tired her and these women v/ere persistent*
Tills time, she decided suddenly, she would hang up#
And she felt defeated when she discovered that no one
answered her careful Tlhellon*
A little later, she smiled as
suddenly she thought that not answering was a much better
Idea than hanging up#
If she didn’t know the Crowley’s so well she would
not be bothered with all this*
They had been neighbors for
years*
She fougnd that she was figuring the exact number of
years#
Elsa was four when they moved next door, and now she
was nineteen*
Elsa had spent much of her leisure time with
her children, Jim, a year older than she, and Agnes, who was
a year younger*
shivered#
What if this had happened to Agnes?
She
She remembered that Agnes had put her arms around
her when she had cried about Elsa*
And Agnes said, ffBut,
Mother, people have to be desperately unhappy to try that.
They should try to do something before it is so hopeless
that they c an’t see any way out*
anything for herself#
Elsa has never decided
Then when she tried to, she was too
frightened to know what she was doing*M
Mrs# Thomason moved her head*
thinking*
happen?
She was tired of
Why couldn’t they have seen years ago what would
Why couldn’t she have told Louise that Elsa was
much too young to skip the sixth grade*
That she was very
intelligent, hut that she was such a child she couldn’t
understand these older children*
That her age and blondness
and her smallness had set her apart and caused her to be
nicknamed ftOur Smart Baby”,
for herself *
Ho one expected her to do things
Ho one suspected that she wanted to but most
of the time m s afraid to try*
If Elsa spent much, much too
much time day dreaming, no one noticed, because it, in some
strange way, seemed natural for quiet, fragile, fair-skinned
Elsa*
She thought again of that night four weeks ago when
Elsa, dark eyes biasing in a pale face, had flung herself
into her kitchen with the violence of a strong and frustrated
animal#
She remembered how the air seemed to become electric
the curious sensation of a chill settled on the back of her
neck and traveled slowly downward, and inward until even her
heart seemed slowly congealing*
how absurd to be so disturbed %
She remembered thinking
she had seen Elsa angry before
But she also had a emulous sensation of a strangeness in this
anger, of a desperation that was new#
She was vaguely sur­
prised to find that she must have known that this would
happen for a long time#
Elsa spoke - hurriedly, almost incoherently.
Jule, X #m running away#
nAunt
1 cam© back from the station to tell
you, so that I wouldn11 'kill mother*
write to her later*
doing#
Toil her that I 1IX
Ho* don’1 interrupt*
And X don’t want to ait down*
Aunt Xule, I want to live my own life*
I know what X hi
X can’t sit down*
I*m in love, hut
Mother ©ays I ’m not old enough to he in love*
Bob isn’t
good enough for me, and I fm not to see him any more*
he ©topped seeing me*
the matter is*
Then
H e ’s gone away and I don’t know what
X mean too much to Mother and Dad# ' All these
years they’ve stayed together because of me#
I*v©
known
ever sine© X was a little girl, even if they haven’t told me*
X used to cry when X went home from here*
At my house we
helped each other because it would hurt someone If we didn’t*
You helped each other because you loved and understood each
other*
Both of them loved me, and I loved both of them but
we didn’t all belong together*w
Mrs* Thomason remembered trying to be calm, trying
to reassure herself that Elsa couldn’t be serious#
she endured th© next hour#
furiously*
Somehow
Elsa paced the floor, talking
Th© older woman wondered how the girl had been
strong enough to repress all the things young people must
have to be happy*
When sh© thought she could not bear another
minute, the girl would sit down for a few minutes, and
Mrs# Thomason’s soul
breathe again*
and spin© would relax and she could
!;Xt*s over, n she would think, but it wouldn’t
But finally the girl was through.
Mrs* Thomason
then talked, quietly ~ and for houj*s, it seemed to her and Elsa promised to stay overnight, and go with her in the
morning to see her parent©*
She had promised, much against
her will, not to call them*
But it had not been over, after all*
night Elsa made another decision*
For In the
She was sorry she had
com© hack, she was sorry she had promised to see her parents*
She didn’t have the courage to tell them what she had told
Aunt Jule*
But neither did she have the courage to live the
kind of life she was running away from.
If only Bob hadn’t
gone away*
It was her husband who heard the tiny click of the
glass In the bathroom.
He had sensed Elsa1© hopelessness
more strongly than she had*
not heard*?
She shivered.
What if he had
And If Dr* Deenon had not lived but a block away?
She refused to think of that half hour when they hadn’t known
if they had been quick enough*
Resolutely, she tried to forget the final part of
the episode by thinking of some of the things ©he Elsa said
earlier*
What was it she had said? ?JI ’ve always had to be
better - better than the others in my class - than all the
others In town*
You *r© not liked, if you’re better In
everything . I didn’t knvow how to make friends*
know how to play#
I didn’t
I was skinny and didn’t have much pep*
It’s always been hard for m© to eat*
Mother has so insisted
on my eating and on ny eating the right things*
have had more children, many more children*
Mother should
Then 1 could
have grown up without trying so hard • n
Mrs* Thomason refrained from commenting that Elsa
had usually eaten fairly well when she had eaten with Jim and
Agnes*
She sighed*
Elsa’s mother should have had more children*
u0r Mother should have gone out more.
she was happy at home*
But she wasn’t.
Neither was Dad*
Maybe that Is why he is such a good lawyer*
be at the office than at home*
She said
He would rather
Oh, he does care for me*
H^e would let me do anything I wanted to even if It wasn’t
good for me#
Mother won’t let me do anything because she’s
afraid something might happen to me*
about me?
Why must she worry
Why must I tell them everything?
to parties?
Or shows?
Or have dates?
Why can’t I go
I know that they have
given up a lot fox’ me, but I don’t want them to give up so
much*
It isn’t fair*
I see Bob?
even know
for me?
Why can’t I bring him to the house*
They don’t
him* How can they know whether he is good enough
Why can’t
Why can’t
Maybe I ’m not in love, but why can’t
I buy my own clothes? I ’m old
enough*
I decide whether to go to work or go to college?
”1 don’t
never be able to#
understand either.
know why X can’t, but I can’t*
You don’t know mother.
And I ’ll
And Pad doesn’t
He feels sorry for Mother, and he can't
see why X haven’t everything to be thankful for*
them unhappy, X make myself unhappy, too*
To be myself*
When I make
X want to be happy*
X don’t want to b© moody and angry and hurt
people# Bornetimes I fve really hated Mother and Dad*
X*m really afraid*
X should have been your child*
Jim and Agnes be free*
Then
You
let
And you never worry about them."
Mrs* Thomason did not interrupt to speak of sleepless
ni^its she had spent herself - when she had told herself over
and over that her children were old enough to choose their
friends, and If the gang had an occasional ni^it when they
had to stay out most of it, she should be able to bear it*
She had had to remind herself over and over again that Jim
and Agnes could b© trusted to think things out for themselves*.
She had not scolded them, although she had wanted to.
And
she had wanted to ask questions, many of them, but she had not*
Young people couldn’t be expected to tell all#
Incident after Incident of conflict and misunder­
standing had poured itself out#
Both Bis a and Mrs* Thomason
were weak and whit© when It was over#
com© home#
Later her husband had
After a little, Elsa had excused herself and Mrs*
Thomason had turned down the covers of the guest room bed
for her*
Again she turned her thoughts resolutely from the
rest of the nl^it#
And she felt sorry for Louise and John, Elsa’s
parents•
They hadn’t seen that their own lack, of happiness
made Elsa’s impossible#
They had not understood her outbursts,
her apathy, her pitiful need for friends*
She remembered their faces when she had told them
what had nearly happened#
She wished they could have kept
out the little that did get into the papers*
Then she would
not have all this trouble with the telephone*
John end Jim
together had persuaded the newspapers that the news story
was not worth the price Elsa would have to pay for It*
Weary with her thoughts, a knock on the door was
a welcome interruption*
back*
serene*
Jim had said that Elsa would come
This was a different Elsa - older, more serious, more
X cam© back this morning#
Mother said she would
call you, but X wanted to talk to you and I was afraid you
would worry until X could get away*
Do you mind if I bug you?
In Chicago#
Every things settled*
I ’m going to business college.
I ’m staying with Aunt Mab el.
she knows exactly what X want*
She’s a dear, and
And no matter what happens
you need never b© afraid I ’ll be such a coward again*
didn’t even have nerve enough to run away a month ago.
didn’t really come back to help Mother*
1
I
You talked to me and
It seemed as If every tiling would be all right.
Only I went
to sleep, and when X woke up I was alone and I was afraid
again*
Mother has been grand*
but eh© seems happier*
She’s pale and nervous,
X fm sure you must be helping her#
±£6>
flo&s© don’t forget her*
I think ah© and Dad are closer to
each other than I *ve ever seen them#
Maybe, now that they
don1t have to stay together because of me, they111 be
happier*11
,fAnd Bob?f! asked Mrs. Thomason#
The girl smiled bravely*
X have to face*
"That is something that
I haven11 heard from him#
heard, or maybe, he doesn't care*
Maybe he hasn’t
I won’t be foolish, and
if 1 have to, I 1!! get over it."
After Elsa had gone, Mrs# Thomason found that she
was looking for her handkerchief *
Was this necessary - this
price for happiness, for independence?
clock*
Was It already two?
of apples In her lap*
She looked at the
Then she looked at the diahpan
They were already over-ripe*
She
had spent days 'this week with thesame dishpan and
the same
apples in her lap*
the bov/1
on th© table*
She began to add to the few in
There was still time to finish them before
dinner*
The telephone rang*
She arose with alacrity#
She would tell them, sweetly, firmly, and confidentially,
that newspapers just had to have something to write about,
and sometlmea they did make a good story out of nothing*
Didn’t they think newspapers should be sued for doing such
things*
Or would she just hang up?
It seemed rather a pity
to do that now that everything was hopeful again*
Aanounoers
You have just heard a story entitled "Insecurity51*
DIALOGUEi
XHSECTOITY
CHARACTERS*
MRS* HOLMES *
Mother of a student
MR. JGHHSQN*
High School principal
AMOOTCER:
We present another interesting discussion
of one of the many problems which confront
the parent of today*
This episode concerns
a conversation between Mr. Johnson, high
school principal, and Mrs • Holmes, the
mother of a student*
The scene of the
dialogue, the subject of which is "Insecurity”,
is laid in Mr# Johnson’s office*
Mrs* Holmes
speaks*
MRS* HOLMES %
MR* JOHRSOHt
Your secretary told me to come in, Mr. Johnson.
Oh, yes, Mrs#
expecting you*
Holmes, come in#
I was
I think this chair is probably
the most comfortable*
MRS* HOLMES:
Thank you,
I know that you must be very busy
but I thought you might be able to help
me*
That 1© Why I called for an appointment.
MR. JOHHSOMs
I ’m never too busy to talk to the parents
of the boys and girls of our high school.
X wish I could talk to more of them*
If we
only knew a little more about some of these
children we could help them so much more than
we do*
It’s your son that you want to talk
about, isn’t it?
MRS* HOMES:
Yes#
I t ’s Frank*
Joe had a hard time when
he entered high school, too, but now that
h e ’s been her© three years, h© seems very
sure of himself, and very happy.
isn’t*
But Frank
And X thought maybe you could tell
mp why*
MB. JOHNSON*
I ’ve been watching Frank for a month now*
Usually by Hovember most of the new ones have
found themselves*
I ’ve had a number of
Informal chats with him.
H e ’s helping me
with some of the office routine for his class*
MRS* HOLMES:
Yes, I know*
He speaks of you with much
enthusiasm*
MR. JOHNSON*
Gan you tell me what is bothering him?
I ’m
quit© sure he has ability, plenty of It*
I ’ve
been watching him, and he seems to stand on
the edge of things.
MRS* HOLMES:
I haven’t realised that until this fall.
always been on the edge of thi^jogs*
H e ’s
X don’t
know what to do about It now that X see it.
We have only the two boys*
Joe Is big for
1\JLb age, and X know w e ’ve expected things
of him which were expected of boys two or
119
.
three years older.
But he was good In
athletic@4 and the bellows overlook his
Immaturities in many ways because h e ’s good
on the class team*
Ills age*
And Frank is small for
You know* it’s hard to know what
to do with these children who are different
from other children*
ME. JOHNSON t
They wouldn’t be very interesting if they
were all alike.
But it does seem easier for
them to find a place for themselves with others
of their age if they are not very different*
If they can’t do what others are doing they
get discouraged* if they do it too easily,
they are likely to get conceited and lazy.
Maybe happiness and adjustment Is easier
for the child with many average abilities*
MRS* HOLMES:
I suppose they can understand children like
themselves more easily £ they have more In
common*
MR. JOHNSON:
Yes, and it gives more stimulation*
A child
will try if he thinks he will be successful*
Praise and success «* when It really means
something, are powerful incentives*
MRS* HOLMES:
I ’m certain that is part of the trouble with
Frank.
H e ’s always been small for his age,
and we have expected as much from him as from
Joe, who Is not only two years older, hut
large for his age*
HR* JOHNSON:
But Frank has real ability In expressing
himself, and even if h© can’t do all the
things, physically, that Joe can, he could,
1 have no doubt, snake a real contribution on
the debate
team and In dramatics*
Maybe
you could encourage that*
MBS
HOLMES t
We haven’t encouraged that*
H e ’s always been
an imaginative child, and can tell stories
so that all the neighborhood children listen
entranced*
But that sort of thing seems so
tfsissy” to me*
And it does to Mr* Holmes
and Joe, too*
MR* JOHNSON:
Nothing la nslssyfs if It I® done with real
talent and earnestness*
And finding himself
there will give him confidence In other
situations*
It’s this question of size again,
Isn’t It?
MRS
HOLMES:
(SURPRISED) I hadn’t thought of that, but
maybe it is*
HR* JOHNSON:
Do you mind If I ask a few questions about
Frank?
121
MBS* H O M E S *
Ho, indeed*
Both Mr* Holmes and X would like
to change anything we can*
I suppose we should
have noticed long ago that Prank was too quiet
to he like other hoys*
MB* JQIi'HSMO;
Few adults, and that means teachers, too,
notice the quiet children*
It *s the children
who make all the noise that we worry about.
And they can usually talc© care of themselves,
MBS* HOLMES:
Frank reads a great deal#
Lately, though,
he had been spending a great deal of time
just sitting, looking into space*
It worries
me#
MR* JOEKSGH:
Every one clay dreams, of course*
But if he
spends a great deal of time at it we should
interest him In something active,
Does he
have any special interests that we could
©tart with?
MBS, H OLESs
He wanted to play in the school band#
Uncle
Tim offered to buy him an instruxaont,
X wasn11
enthusiastic because I thought X wouldn't
enjoy a horn around the house,
Frank and Jo© are different*
I see now that
Joe keeps on
insisting If h© really wants something#
Frank doesn’t*
Yesterday X saw his eyes when
the band marched by*
X wouldn’t object again.
MR, JGEH30H:
Fz*ank Is a very sensitive child and he probably
sensed that you did not car© to have him play
in the band*
If he still wants to, w e ’ll
give him a chance to join*
MRS > HOLMES:
And he wanted to join the Boy Scouts until
he found there was only on© troop, then very
suddenly he said he didn’t want to*
MB, JOHHSOH:
Does Joe belong to that troop?
MRS
Yes, he does*
MR, JOHHSON*
Frank may be afraid he won’t do as well as
But why****--*
his big and athletic brother*
reactions
A very normal
I know the scout director, and I
know he Is dividing the group next month
because it Is too largo#
I ’ll see that
Frank Is invited to that second group*
MBS * HOLMES:
If 1 could do something about his weight.
MR, JGHMSOHs
You
MBS , HOLMES*
He doesn’t, most of the time.
aay that as if he doesn’t ©at well 1
He has never
eaten as Jo© has, and it’s worse now.
MB, JOHHSOH*
He hasn’t been very active or very h^appy,
and it probably affects his appetite,
Vhy
don’t you leave him at the school cafeteria
for a while?
I ’ll have the dietician watch
his selection and then maybe we can do a little
1"
/wO
general directing through the scouts later#
Feeding children seems to work "better in
"bunches %
MBS* HOLMESt
One other thing bothers me, and perhaps I
shoul&rdt worry about it*
There is some
sort of a neighborhood gang being organised#
They are to have the garage at the Manning4©
who live just across the street as headquarters#
When Frank told me about 1% I told him X fd
rather he didn#t belong*
The other
will feel the same, X*m sure*
kn ow what they are doing#
parents
We would never
Yesterday, Frank
slipped away, and when he came back h© said
he had been out delivering papers*
I know he
lied to me because he slipped out with the
papers early this morning#
Since X had this
appointment X decided, not to say anything
to him#
MR# JOHNSONi
But what shall I do now?
You made your boy choose between you and his
friends, between staying at home and something
that sounded so interesting that he couldnft
stay away*
H e fs probably very unhappy about it,
but he* 11 go again if he does what he wants to#
If you forbid his going, he m y not say any­
thing but be resentful that other boys can do
things
that ho canTt •
Or he may sneak away *
1 would certainly not want my boy to feel
anything, but affection toward me if I oouwld
help it*
How about this gang#
I know most
of the boys in your neighborhood fairly well*
I
don’t think they1d be likely to get into
serious difficulty*
They have too many
interesting things to do*
Tim is the leader
of that gang, and h e ’s interested in radio now*
Those kids will learn a lot from him*
Do
you know most of the parents?
MBS# H O M E S $
Mot all of them, but many of them*
Some rather
well*
MK# JOHHSOMj
I wouldn’t object then*
Be interested mid
sympathetic when things go wrong and those
kids will probably tell you most of what
they are doing*
MRS# HOLMES*
(SURPRISED)
Don’t ask them, though*
Did you say, "Don’t ask them?"
Why not?
MR* JOHMSONj
I shouldn’t have said that because it might
be all right*
What I meant was if you ask
them with the slightest suggestion in your
ton© that you are trying to supervise their
activities, y o u ’ll get no information, or
carefully prepared information, which is worse
than none at all#
If parents are interested,
most of the exploits of their children will
he likely to be volunteered without any
questions asked#
* HOLMES*
I think I ’ve taken bringing up my children
too seriously#
Op maybe I should say not
seriously enough#
I ’m afraid I haven’t been
very intelligent about som© things either*
Oh, I ’ve taken good care of them— fed them
and dressed them well*
let them grow up#
But X mean I ’ve not
I ’ve decided so many
things they should be deciding*
But they’ve
grown up so fast X have to stop and tell myself
that they are in high school*
But both of us,
my husband and X, are trying to help them so
that they will be able to decide most of the
things which concern them by the time they
are through high school*
I know we could
have, and should have, started sooner, but I ’M
sure it’s not too late now*
JOHHSOH*
Many parents never realise it.
So I ’m sure
that you will b© very successful#
v.he-n
children have been taught to talc© responsibility
a little at a time, when they leave high school,
mjsmy of them scarcely know how long they have
been deciding things fop themselves*
In
fact (LATJOHXNG) I know a boy now who looked
at me In amazement last week when I asked,
him how long he
load bought his own clothing*
"Why, always, ” he £ai&*
That boy probably
will never appreciate how much time his mother
has spent with him teaching him good taste
and good value*
I ’ve watched her and I know
the boy didn’t inherit his knowledge of
clothing*
Yet her son says, "I’ve always
known this."
It’s just another example of the
uxrappareclativeness of the younger generations
, HOLMES*
Maybe I t ’s a tribute to real teachings
He
has learned something so well that It’s really
a part of himself#
JOHNSON*
(SIGHING) Well, most of our learning here is
different#
I hear the students say, "I
v ©member It’s In our book, and I should know
that because we just had it, but 1 can’t
think*"
Sometimes they can remember the number
of the page, or the picture, but the facts
they— and we— thought they had learned had
gone*
They could remember "where*1 but not
"what!i2
clothing#
them*
But Toil
knew the facts about buying
He didn’t remember "where" he learned
MBS*
HOLMESs
Maybe we do more teaching of that kind than
we know— at home I mean#
us mothers*
I was thinking of
I wonder if w e ’d be more careful
about what we taug£ht if we were reminded of
that occasionally#
ME* JOHNSONs
Many educators do think that many of our
attitudes toward certain things and people are
pretty largely laid down by home attitudes*
Sometimes It’s difficult to change them, too*
MBS.
HOLMES %
1 think that they can be changed, though,
If
one will b© honest and. if one has enough,
courage*
X confess that It took a .great deal
to call on you#
But we wanted to help Frank
if we can, and X decided pride was not going
to keep me quiet#
tod you have helped me
see Frank’s problem differently*
May X drop
in next week and see how he is getting along?
X think I can find many ways to help him to
find himself*
X think that Is what he needs
first#
This contrast with Jo© must be hard
on him*
I never realized before just how
hard*
Maybe we could send him to a summer
camp this year where he can at least get a
vacation from the family«
MB* JOHNSON;
That miefht be a fine idea.
the Idea#
If Frank likes
Why not have the invitation come
from someone outside the family so that he
doesn’t think you are s@nd.Ing him away to
relieve yourselves of his care*
What he needs
now is security In his family and In school
so that he can develop as a person.
IBS. HOLMES;
1 think I could arrange about camp*
I ’ll
Invite his cousin Tim over for the week end.
ME. JOHNSON;
That’s fine,
time.
ted I ’ll be glacl to see you any
If you M l call first w© can arrange
our work here so It won’t be necessary to
wait.
MBS* HOLMES;
Goodbye, Mr* Johnson*
I 111 writ© Tim tonight *
ted if you can arrange about the band—
MB. JOHNSON:
Goodbye, lira* Holmes*
(GRINS) W© need a
clarinet player and I think w e ’ve found him I
AHHOUHCEBt
The discussion you have just heard between
Mr. Johnson and Mrs* Holmes Is another in a
series of stories and dramas written for radio
by Miss Helen© Hey©.
DRAMA:
INSECURITY
CHARACTERS:
MRS* GORDON
M R * GORDON
BETTYt
Their B ix-year-old daughter
THE PORTER
JANE)
Friends of the Gordons
BOB)
TIME:
A few days before Christinas
PLACE:
A Pullman, enroute from Chicago to Boston
ANMOOTCBH:
We present "Insecurity", a drama in one act#
The characters of today’s play are Mr. and
Mrs. Gordon, Betty, their six-year-old
daughter, and Jan© and Bob, friends of the
Gordons1»
Christmas.
The times
just a few days before
The pceno Is a Pullman oar enroute
from Chicago to Boston.
MRS* GORDONt
Porter, how much time have we before the train
leaves?
PORTER:
Oh, about ten minutes, miss.
It certainly
Is snowing outside.
BETTY:
Yes, it is.
MRS. GORDONs
X wish your father would hurry and come.
And thank you very much*
said he*d b© here In plenty of time*
He
Child,
Isn’t your nose almost frozen, stuck against
ISO"3
that window,
Donft you want to sit bade
on tli© seat and take off your coat?
But I ’m watching Tor Daddy*
Ob* I see him, Mother*
(EXClTDDLt;')
Book* you can hardly
see him for the snow*
MRS* GGHDOKs
(EMLXBVED)
Oh, yes* there ho isi
Maybe 1
can settle down mid bo comfortable now,
SETXY;
l*m going to go meet him.
ms* oomoiu
Yes, run along* dear.
But Betty* you remember
that you have to go to bed soon* dear.
BKXTYt
But*mother* X was six last week*
MBS, GORDON;
Yes* X knov/*
now*
BBCTY:
But it*e jj&most nine o ’clock
Fast even a six^year-old’s bedtime,
(DASHING UP XKK AXSLB)
Hjore’s Daddy* Mother.
All snowy.
ME* GORDON;
Hollo*
Getting nervous?
taxi with all this snow,
X would make It*
X couldn’t get a
Bogan to wonder if
X almost sent a message
telling you to go on.
That I would take the
next train.
MRS . GOIiBOH:
Oh* Bobi
We wouldn’t have liked that,
he
would Just have piled off and waited* too,
ME* GORDON;
With all these bags and a six-year-old child?
I*ra glad you Peel that m y .
it wasn’t necessary.
But X fm glad* too*
Sleepy* Betty?
Put your
head over here* against my a m ,
Think y o u ’ll
like sleeping on the train?
betty;
Oh* X think it will be Dun*
The porter asked
if I ’d be afraid in an upper berth* and I
told him X asked for it.
to ring the bell,
ladder, too*
above*
He showed me how
X like the long step-
That’s why X wanted to sleep
?*hen will we get to grandma's* '.Mom?
MRS« GORDONS
Hot until Tuesday,
BETTY 5
I want to see Grandma* but I'm glad it will
This is Saturday,
take until Tuesday*
Mother* I'm sleepy,
I
guess I 111 get my bag and undress.
M S * GORDON;
Do you want me to help you* dear?
BETTY s
He* you showed me the dressing room*
fun having all these bells.
It’s
I ’ll put on
m$r new pajamas* and climb up the steps to bed.
And then the porter takes the steps away,
and you have to ring to get them back*
(GALLING BACK) Don’t ring for the steps while
I'm gone*
X want to.
ME. GORDON;
All right, we won’t,
MRS. GORDONS
You know* Bob* she’s really enjoying this*
Promise*
She bought her bag herself and had a hard
time deciding whether she would have a brown
silk lining or a striped cotton.
And she
:■ . \
insisted on packing it herself* too#
!
She came
and watched me a while and when she was through
I couldn’t think of anything she had forgotten
exc ept ?fSambo %
and she had already decided
to leave him here* because* she said* ”h©
takes too much room” and eh© could go to
sleep wi thout him being as she was six I
So
you see, Mr* Gordon* (DRAMATICALLY) you have
a most remarkable child I
MB* GORDONj
(LAUGHING)
Yea, Indeed.
(HI LIKE MANNER)
And your little girl* Mrs# Gordon* I ’ve heard
she 1b remarkable* too,
(SERIOUSLY)
Well*
if anyone had ever told me that a aix-yearold could do as many things for herself* I
wou^ldn’t have believed it I
Gerald may be
two years older* but h e 1a a mere babe-In-thewoods when h e ’s with Betty,
I hat© saying
this about my slater* but Mae doesn’t know
how much she1s doing for him*
If she doesn’t
change* h e ’s going to sit around and wait for
orders all his life*
But* (SIGHING) of course#
we will probably spend the next fifteen years
of our lives wondering what Betty will b© in
next# and just what sort of people she Is
hob-nobbing with*
She spent a half hour
yesterday morning discussing the best ways
of cleaning the office with the janitor*
And she tallied intelligently, too*
I*d
hate it if she pulled this fiI rm a cute
little girl stuff**~come talk to me.
1 want
to be entertained I**
MBB* GORDOKi
I don't want Betty to be a bother at the
office#
But she thinks lt*s such a treat
when you let her go*
But 1 thought X*d
rather not take her to the hospital yesterday*
MR* GORDON:
(LAU0HIHO'}
X wasnft complaining*
is seldom a bother*
come#
Betty
And 1 like to have her
Shers really adorable*
As a matter
of fact, she asked, me very seriously if she
would he in the way
and wou^JLd X tell her
when X was through being busy so she could
play with the things on my desk*
Then she
looked at her book tint11 X was through#
Oh,
here she comes now*
Here I am, all ready fox* bed*
like my new pajamas, Daddy?
How do you
X bought dark ones*
Mother says dark ones are better for travel.
Will you put my bag up?
bell*
X want to ring the
±34"
ME* GORDONS
X cou^lcl lift you ujp, Betty, "out you want
the steps, I suppose?
bbtojt *
Gh, I ’d Better imvo the steps#
know how* next time*
Then 1*11
Her© I am, porter*
You showed me where upper five was, now let’s
see if X can find it*
Tills room
looks so
f u m y , doesn’t it, it’s so green#
ME. GORDONS
She was so interested in those steps she forgot
to say good night* if you notice ~
MRS* GORDONS
Xt seems a little queer to have such a selfsufficient daughter*
It makes me feel old*
But I was such an ignoramus when I went to
college, I had such a struggle deciding things
for myself*
I often wonder what would have
happened’ to me if
mother’s college chum
hadn’t Been on the faculty and taken me in
hand.
She did her best, too, but 1 did get
some terribly hard bumps*
And I shudder to
think what might have happened to me several
times if fat© hadn’t been kind*
Must have
been born under a lucky star— I certainly
got some lucky breaks!
Then I think of some
of the tilings that did happen to some of my
■classmates— well anyway, I ’m going to see
that Betty can think for herself by that time.
±30
Only, I *m truly startled at how mucia eh©
can think for here elf now,
But here we are*
talking about our child again,
PORTER*
Excuse me* please* but the little girl asked
me to tell you all goodnight,
Guess she forgot
it* on account of the steps,
MRS* OOHDOH:
Shank you* porter*
and the bell#
She does like the eteps
X hope she*s not too excited
to sleep*
PORTER*
She1a a lively girl*
tod smart *too,
I fv©
told her all X know about railroads already,,,*
Excuse me* please* there*s my bell,
MR, GORDOIt
I *11 go back and see if she’s asleep.
Be back
in a minute.
BOH ABBOTs
Bo you, by any chance, live in Chicago, and
know the Gordons?
MEB* OORDOHs
(SURPRISED)
for ages,
Why, Bon, X haven*t seen you
Eh ere are you going1?
And where
is Janet
BGH:
Jane's two cars back, waiting for me to com©
back with you and Bob*
She's getting things
set ao that w© can play cards*
We are going
©as t- ~Albany •
ICRS* GORDON*
What a lovely coincidence,
It’s just the
right time of year to believe in Santa Glaus,
too.
Well, I hat© to disillusion you— but X called
Bob on business yesterday and he said you
wore going east on this train.
So Jane and I
rushed around, hadn’t planned to go until
Thursday*
But here we are!
I t ’s good manage-
m ent, my dear, not fatel
MR* BOBDOTt
Betty is fast asleep*
it, X seel
Oh, hello, Don*
Made
You didn’t sound like you thought
you could, yesterday*
X didn’t tell Jean
about it hoc axis© X thought she’d he disap­
pointed*
DOT*
Well, as a matter of fact, I didn’t think I
could*
Bow that w e ’re here, will you come
hack and play cards?
We have a compartment
©0 we can talk all night if we want to without
getting put off the train*
MBS* GOKDOH:
Oh, I ’d like to*
But Boh, do you think Betty
is all right?
MR* GORDON*
I ’ll go see the porter and tell him where w e’ll
he*
(MUSIC FADE 111)
MRS, GORDOH*
Oh, Jane, X ’m so glad you. decided to go early*
am u %
Vie didn’t know if we would make it until we
were on the train*
latoi
Lucky it was ten minutes
But it would have been funny if you’d
changed your minds*
bring Jerry hack*
Don says you’re going to
X hope there’s nothing
seriously wrong with your mother, Bob,
IE. OORDOHt
She's not very well*
But w© are really more
worried about Jerry#
Mother has tried, to make
him forget his own mother deserted him after
his father died,*
hut he's quiet*
happy*
He's not hard to handle,
Mother thinks h @ fs not very
And while Mabel and Jim have been
home, it's been worse*
Bo w e 1re going to
take him for awhile*
BOH?
I'd say a fourteen year old boy is some
responsibility!
X suppose there are boys
in your neighborhood of his age?
BOB?
hoads of them*
Pot© (he's the boss's son
living three doors down) was in to see me
this morning*
His club needs eleven members.
He woul&n* t tell me why *
ten*
Mow they have only
33mt bunch gets pretty rowdy, but I
know all the follows* parents and they're a
decent bunch*
I've talked frankly about
Jerry, but they want him.
And pete won't let
them get too rough at first, I'm sure*
MBS. GORDON*
Wouldn't it be better to wait, Bob?
What if
Jerry is so different from the boys he'll
feel out of place?
ME# GORDON?
I thought of that, too, but there may not be
an eleventh place later.
JIBE*
If you can miXce him happy at home, maybe he
can talc® a few knocks outside if he has to*
tod h e #d better start going out right away
or you will be expecting him to stay home
every evening*
MRS# GORDON*
It would be easy to feel that way about Jerry*
In
spite of his shyness he does have charming
ways*
1 think he is interesting as a person,
and the only encouragement he needs is being
placed with people who don’t overwhelm- him
or tell him what do do*
DON*
1%
afraid we forget that youngsters of Jerry’s
age aren’t children any more*
We tell them
n^ot to be babies, and yet we don’t help them
to be grown-up*
They want to be and do all
the tilings we do and we could help them*
I
guess it is hard to tell what people need
when we see them every &ay****#My Goodness!
Just look at it snowj.
MR* GORDON*
Tea, a little wind with that and w e ’ll have
snow drifts that will be snow drifts*
Betty
will love the pines of Hew England against
all of this snow*
Funny, isn’t it, how a
trip home makes one think of things one just
takes for granted*
That you leave home without
appreciating moat of the fine things i t ’s
done for you*
JAHE*
Sometimes homes don’t do fine things*
Sometimes
people want to get away and they canrt, sometimes
they go away and then they find they can’t
live any other place#
Home is the only place
they are understood and loved*
BOH t
You are thinking of Lula now, aren*t you?
JAHE:
Yes, mostly*
Lula can1t decide things for
herself, even after working for ten years*
Even the simplest thing ties hex’ up in knots*
And Elen - he resents feeling he must go home
so mjuch*
It must he pretty terrible having
a sense of duty as the only bond between one
and home*
HE * dOHDOHs'
It ’s hard to get the right balance, 1 suppose*
Between responsibility, and independence*
Between what we want to do and what we should
do if we think of others*
for herself*
Lula can*t think
That whole family has to go
Into a huddle every* time anything is decided*
Ken gets no i’eturns on what he gives his
family*
It’s expected of him and that’s that*
How we were expected to give'u p some things
for the good of the family, but we had our
own life, too •
We told Mom and Dad nearly
everything we did*
If they disapproved they
were careful not to say much about it*
But
in a few days something new and interesting
would pop tap- aomewhere In town*
I suspect
n wow it was largely a case of ”r emote control”!
MRS• GORDON*
X wish X had been handled that way*
Grand­
mother and Father decided every move X made*
X can see how it happeded with Mother dying
when 1 was a baby*
An only child brought
up by a flock of relatives*
Spoiled consider­
ably, but (LAUGHING) I ’ve outgrown It all*
She how charming I am mujow*
3A m i
(LAbGHlMG)
Bragging, aren’t you?
But were
you a problem child in college? *, **.Seriously,
an only child doesn’t need to be queer and
different*
It depends on ho%? they are
brought up*
IBS. GORDON:
Of course y o u ’re right*
But If there are more
children, all the mistakes aren’t made on one
child*
But I suppose no home is perfect.
Certainly the people in it aren’t#
HE* GORDON*
Nothing personal In that, Is there?
MRS* GORDON*
Of course not, silly!
What I meant was that
even the beet people and the best homes make
mistakes *
DON*
But don’t forget there are all kinds of hjomes,
from good to poor*
I think m j Mother and
Father did a fine job*
They did Interesting
things by themselves, so did we*
manor things together, too*
We did
A sort of j d i y
constellation, each star going off In a
constellation of his own, yet there la a family
pattern, too*
JANE*
(LAUGHING)
Is that supposed to be astronomy?
Sounds like sky rockets to me*
(SIGHS)
But It
la a pretty picture*»•«*But I think candles
would be more fitting for a living room*
With two large, bright candles representing
love and understanding*
MK* GORDON c
Sentimental Jane I
But maybe a more domestic
scene!
BON*
Speaking of candles gives me an Idea#
Let’s
go back and see the Christmas tree in the
Club oar#
The porter said there was one#
don’t seem to be In the mood for cards#
has been shuffling that deck hours#
We
Jean
(TEASING)
Have to do something or she’ll wear out the
only deck we brought#
Hover mind, Joan*
JANE*
Don didn’t want to play
any more than w© did*
I think he offered m
much philosophy {X think that’s what we’ve
been doing) as anyone#
cards later*
mrs*
GORDON*
Oh, let’s*
W e ’ll come back to
Want to go?
There should be a radio and
Christmas m a l e *
An end to seriousness,
enter levity and laughter!
We’re on our wayi
FADE OUT—
CHRISTMAS MUSIC
Ready, everyone?
Lectures
The Average Child
The Myth of the Average Child
Parents are confused and often alarmed when they
compare their child with th© “average11 child#
weight.#
Bobby Is under­
Katherine la falling In her work at school#
Tom is
finding sixth grade so easy that he has become bored and lazy*
William is having trouble with his reading*
a monotone#
Nancy sings in
All may be tragedies of everyday living#
Tragedies
which may seriously effect the personality of the child, and
tragedies which call for parents «ftio understand#
The problem, in general, is that of comparing one
child, not with another* child, but many other children*
'We
are comparing little, thin Bobby with other children of his ago,
We look at the number which stands for what he should weigh,
we look at Bobby, and shake our heads#
And at William, who.
In the sixth grade, does not read any bettor than the thirdgraders#
Bobby and William may not mind being different from
other children#
Whether they feel inferior depends upon how
important they think it is to be big and husky, or to be able
to read well*
However Bobby and William may feel, we know that
many children do feel inferior*
do what they would like to do.
Many of them are not able to
Host children want their parents
to ‘
be proud of them* of what Uiey are and what they can do •
They are &i©appointed and discouraged if they do not succeed
in this#
And many parents* because they do not understand
how much a group of children* normal in every sense of the
word, may vary* often make a child feel more inferior by
comparing him with a sister, or cousin, or Johnny-next-door,
"who does so much better”*
Ho parent can help Bobby or
William unless they know more than what one child can do,
or even the average performance of many children*
Let me explain what 1 mean*
Then large numbers of
children are measured in regard to any on© thing, we understand
the figures much better if they are organised*
The simplest
way of doing this is to average them by groups, say by age,
and then arrange them in a table,
called 3norasn«
These av ex’ages ax'1© often
Often, however, the very neaning of average
Is forgotten when such norms are used*
It must be kept in
mind that each average was made by adding many numbers - each
number representing one child.
The average is this total
divided by the number of children.
Very few of these children
(perhaps not a single child) will have the same measurement
as this average.
Tills means that the children who made up
the average differ from It,
Children should be shown,
The differences among these
ierhaps several rlittle Billys”
were in the group of children weighed, and if Billy is a
healthy youngster, maybe ho shouldn11 be stuffed ancl urged
to be an "average” child2
115
We need to know, of course, how far a child can
vary from an average before special attention should be
given to him#
In the case of weight, for example, we
know that children who are very thin or very heavy need a
medical examination to decide if the child is perfectly well*
In some measurement a, there is a large difference
In normal, healthy children, In other© there may be but
small differences*
very greatly*
Parent© need to know which measurements
Kronas have little meaning unless the ©mount
of variation Is given, the number of children which were
used In making the norms is indicated, and unless you know
that these children represent the general population In a
fair way*
like patent medicine, every table of norms should
be clearly labeled as to what Its content© represent*
And what should be Included Is more than the
^averageMt
It should, give a picture of the variation among
many children*
To IXXus'krate this Idea, a number of traits
In which the amount of variability differs has been ©elected.
Since the height and weight are easily and accurately
measured, let us begin with them*
There is less variation
i n height at a given age than in weight*
ket us, for
illustration, take the figures from one Investigation on boys.
The average height for the seven-year-olds was 47 Inches,
for eight-year-olds 49 Inches, for 15 and 18 year-olds 63
inches*
But these averages were made up from boys who were
taller and shorter* and it is Interesting to see that while
the average of the seven-year-olds is 47 inches* the shortest
hoy was 42 inches tall, the tallest was 54.
This difference
between the smallest arid largest number is called the range.
The range in weight for the seven-year-olds is greater than,
that of height*
Here the lightest individual weighed
pounds, the heaviest, 96 pounds*
55 1/2
that you do not know is
whether these two boys are very different from the rest.
Maybe there were several very light boys, but only one heavy
boy*
Because the average is 51, which is closer to 35 l/2
than to 96, we know there must have been more lighter boys
in the group*
In order to get a better picture of the group,
therefore, on© of the following ways is often used,
be find
out how much the weight of each child differs from the
average, add these differences and divide by the number of
children*
This gives the average variation, or the average
deviation, as it is usually called*
This method is not as
easy to use, or as accurate as another way of figuring the
amount of variation known as the standard deviation*
The
differences are figured but are squared before they are
added*
They are then divided by the total number of
measurements as In the other case*
Extracting the square
root is the final step in this process*
147
Since It Is assumed that most traits are fou^nd
amoung people in varying ©mounts hut In a very definite pattern,
this method of expressing variation (that of the standard
deviation) helps us In getting a fairly clear picture of
most of the group whose measurements w© are studying*
It
is assumed that if enough people ar© measured, most of them
will he somewhat near the average, with many just above and
many just below it*
As people begin to differ more, we find
fewer of them and finally, find only a very few who are way
above, or way below*
It is simply assumed there are as many
below the average as above It, and as far below as above it*
If we do not find these two things equal. It is thought to
be caused by picking people to measure who ar® not typical
of the population*
If there are many more measures above or below the
average, it does not give as time a picture of the typical
Child aa a number called the median*
mean*
Let me show you what I
Among two hundred fourth grade students It was found
that their scores on a standard reading test varied from
third grad© averages to those of the eleventh grade*
“
The
average does not give a true picture of ability since there
were more low scores than high*
If we arrange these scores in order from highest
to lowest, and then pick out the middle score, w© have
the median*
In this group we had two hundred children, so we
look for the score of the hundredth one*
ease Is fifth grade*
The median in this
Because of a few very high scores,
the average would have been higher.
The range. If it had
been given with no figures to show how (as well as how much)
the children*© scores differ, would have been misleading*
The range above the median was three times that below it*
Only a few children had very high scores, many more had low
scores«
If we want to get an idea of what the group Is like
without theones who are lowest and highest, we
two
things * We
per
cent of the children, and down 25 per cent*
can. do one of
can count up from the median to include 25
This gives
u© the range of ability of the middle 50 per cent of the
children#
In the fourth grade reading class mentioned, this
middle 50 per cent of the children, or the quart 11 ea as it Is
called, is from grade four to 6 1/2*
This is quite different
from th© range including the other children, that of third
to twelfth gx»ade*
The second method uses th© standard deviation*
The
standard deviation, you remember, Is a number express tog the
amount of variation of the scores from the average or median*
One standard deviation below and on© above the average or
median represents the middle two-thirds of the scores*
This
figure Is helpful, too, because on© can always figure the
entire rang© if it is given,
toe average or median is given
and Is followed by a plus sign over a minus sign, and then
by the figure which is the standard deviation*
For example,
if a teacher gave a teat to her class, and sh© represented
the average grade for the group as 80^
85*
5,
or between 75 and
Three times the standard deviation gives the entire
range#
So you would also know, then, that 15 (3 x 5) added
to 80, and subtracted from it, would give you the range of
class grades#
And you would know that the lowest grade was
6-5, and highest 95#
How let
vlb
return to norms#
You can see that they
have little meaning if an average Is the only figure given#
And that this average is not the ideal for every child.
Bobby may not need an anxious mother stuffing him and
urding him to ©at because he Is ”thr©e pounds underweight ■'*
Children are different, and parents need to know that, and.
to learn that variations occur, and how. they occur*
In
some traits, such as artistic and personality traits there
seems to be so much variation that norms mean practically
nothing#
Horms for physical growth are more constant,
partly because bones and muscles can be measured more
easily than temperament or ability to draw.
Understanding
these variations in a general way should help the adult to
direct th© c h i l d e x p e r i e n c e s and handle his environment in
such a way that the child does not become miserable and
unhappy because he feels inadequate and inferior*
An under­
standing parent will not expect so much of the child that he
o a m o t possibly succeed.*
150
Most children want to succeed in those things which
they think are important to their parents*
If parents, by
their attitudes, place a premium on abilities which their
children either do not have or have not developed, a double
disappointment results*
his parents*
First, the child, has disappointed
For many children, this disappointment is greater
than the failure to succeed in a given activity*
Most children
need to build up a philosophy of life to accept their limitations*
They can not do this If they fail to live up to the values
which 'their parents hold as fundamental *
Parents need to
examine their attitudes and ambitions in relation to the
abilities of their children*
Each child is endowed differently.
An attempt to mold all the children on any given street into
a fixed pattern is certain to result in frustration for either
the children or their parents*
as a child matures*
Certain abilities develop
The five year old should not be
expected to do things as well as his seven year old brother
does them*
Parents need to study other ohildx^en as well as
their own*
And they need to understand one fundamental
concept*
Children need success*
And certainly the concept
of th© average child, ml sunder stood by many parents, has
made security difficult for large numbers of children because
they have lost faith in their own ability*
Storys
The Average Child
AMOTOCBls
wo present another in a series of stories by
Helen© Hey©.
Today's episode is entitled
"The Average Child”*
"Hi* Sheila* how do you like your new job?*'
Th© red-haired secretary turned a startled face,
laid a sheaf of papers carefully on the table, and visibly
relaxed#
ftQh, hello. Bob#
1 didn11 hear you come in#
You
taow, X*& like taxis job if there weren't ©o many figures to
it*
X just can't get th© hang of this stuff#
pretty wonderful#
It must be
Mr* Allen comes back almost every
evening and studies them#
What brings you around here?"
nQh, your Mr# Allen phoned me. Wants me to play
with some to those figures you evidently don't like*
one of my hobbiess
juggling figures.
lust
I've helped him
before*11
Sheila's face brightened*
”Then X don't hav© to do anything with them?”
Bob laughed.
"I hat© to disappoint you, but since my service
is voluntary, X do only the parts I like*
You do the rest,"
"I know It was too good to be true*
But, honestly
these humbers mean nothing to me."
"You probably dislike them because you don't under
stand them*
What's bothering you at the present minute?}r
152
Sheila picked up the papers she had placed so care­
fully on the desk#
Bob Preston* Mr* Allen’s affable volunteer* had
been a classmate of Sheila1® at the City College two years
before#
He thumbed rapidly through, the papers#
reading* arithmetic* art* music* height*
weight %
he enumerated*
sphere are a mess of figures here*
I ’d get discouraged* too* I guess* if 1 didn’t know what *s
back of these numbers*
Bo you know what It Is?"
"Oh, X have a vague idea*
Something to do with
njarms or average performance* hasn’t it?"
The principal* Mr* Allen* had found time to explain
some of her duties* but May was a hard month to train a new
office secretary and do the many other things the last month
of school demanded*
’’Let*a start at the beginning#
you lots of things you already know*
1*11 probably tell
But, in salesmanship,
X was taught never to take things for granted*
aren’t careful, 1*11 convert you#
tod if you
I ’m sold on the Idea,
myself I"
Shelia laughed*
Y o u ’re making It easy for me#
little*
I really know very
Mr* Allen comes in, starts telling me reasons for
things but then the telephone rings, or a parent comes calling#
So I ’ve just been doing things without knowing why*.
0# it#,
begin{w
"Mr.* Allen has two main ideas#
The first Is to
develop 1norms’, and the second one is to teach, parents what
norms mean#
You know by tills time, I ’m sure, that norms
are usually averages*
A test of some kind is concocted, all
the scores are averaged, arranged in table form, and presto,
the majority of people think that’s the final word!
children aren’t average, they need to be pushed#
It ruins a lot of them#
If
Poor kids,
They S©t discouraged and. sometimes
they are so afraid they can’t do something they won’t even
try#"
Sheila knew several youngsters In such difficulty*
"But these figures will stop that? " she asked*
Bob nodded*
"Horms that are just averages mean nothing#
hr#
Allen wants to use several numbers that show the child’s
ability and performance in relation to the ability and per­
formance of a great many children#
This average child, of
most ’norms1 does not exist, only we don’t have sexise
enough to know it*"
Sheila looked up in amazement •
"But all my life I ’ve been told I was very average,
In comparison with lane*"
154
"That’s just the point#
average all the time*
And you were probably above
Your family just didn’t know That the
ordinary lot of children were like*
And you were probably
stuffed because you were skinny and the drug story scales
said you should weigh morel
Eight?"
"Ye®, of course, but#*#*,11
Bob laughed#
"I’m not a mind reader#
reaction#
I t ’s just the general
That’s the way averages are#
for instance#
Those weight averages,
People forget hundreds of children have been
weighed for them#
Many children are considerably heavier
than the average, many of them are lighter*
lumped together for the average*
They are all
Probably not one child
In the hundred weighed will happen to have the exact weight
of th© average of the group.
And yet, when you collect those
averages In table form, everyone thinks that all children
of a certain age should weigh just that figure#"
Sheila thought of her family’s effort in that
direction#
And she sigh©&, thinking of all th© food she had
unwillingly consumed#
She wondered if she could remember
enough about all this to explain to her mother#
Perhaps she
could apply Mr, Allen’s ideas to her own home problems*
Hastily, she brought her attention back to Bob*
"Bo it Is with many norms*
much variation there is*
You need to know how
And if ther© is a great deal, you
m_ight as well jpnko.th© whole business*
How much do you
know about this idea of the so-called ’normal distribution’
of traits and abilities?ri
Sheila flushed*
"I don’t know anything about it*
Does It have any­
thing to do with these papers?"
Bob smiled*
r,X did put that pretty bluntly*
Everything I say
is directly related to these papers, believe it or not*
You’ll
see*
I ’ll get the background work for
these papers done eventually*
underatandIng
Then w e ’ll get at the papers.
It is assumed that all traits and abilities that we have are
distributed through the general population In a certain,
definite way*
Here, let me sketch a bell-shaped curve*
You
see, it’s almost like a triangle standing on th© longest
side*
How, I ’ll draw rows of circles inside, starting with
this longest side*
W e ’ll suppose each circle represents a
person* I ’ll label one end of this base line ’little or no
ability1, the other,
I ’ll write ’average’*
’great ability’*
How, half way between,
You see how many more circles there
are above, let’s say, an Inch at the middle than at either
end? "
Sheila was busy
counting*
"Why that means
there are many more people who are
nearly alike, doesn’t it?"
Suddenly she stopped*
156
’’Y o u ’r© quick#
Bo© if you can follow this,
This
principle la supposed to be true of everything we can
measure#
That Is, here w© have people of average and near-
average ability*
TJp here, we have a genius, down here, a
person with apparently no ability ** let’s say in music#
There are people ranging from average to great ability ov©r
here* and from average to no ability on this side.
Theoreti­
cally* for ©very person over here* there is one to exactly
balance him on this side#
Get the idea?”
Sheila smiled* undaunted •
t!I i fs just like a tee ter- totter*
side* very poor on the other*
Very good on one
lust th© same goodness or
badness* or it doesn’t work*11
Bob looked surprised for a minute*
"Yho ’& teaching this class?
up th© examples#
I ’m supposed, to think
Especially the good ones*" and he added.*
after stopping to light a cigarette*
Ilk© girls who are too smart.
pretty#
Then he grinned.
"You know men don’t
That is* unless they are very
And red-headed*'3
Sheila flushed*
Before she could find anything to
say, Bob laughed#
"Just wanted to see if you still blush when teased*
As charmingly as ever*
How about a dinner and movie date
t o n i g h t ? 11
But Sheila had recovered her self-assurance*
1:5?
"I never make dates during office hours.1'
"Well, 2 can wait.
o ’clock#
It*e only two hours until four
And, if 1 must talk shop In the meantime, I 1'!! do
it in a big way#"
Sheila felt that she was going to have difficulty
concentrating#
Disconcerting, was this young man!
She was
relieved to hear Mr# Allen!e step in th© hall#
The men greeted each
other cordially*
"I’m explaining thisGreek to Sheila ", explained
Bob#
"Oh, X know her in college so don’t think X met her
this afternoon and am already calling her by her given
name*
Was too scared to ask her to dinner two years ago,
though*
her*
And now X have to wait until after work to ask
After 1 have finally mustered up enough courage 1!f
Sheila’s face was scarlet#
Then he said, "X have half an hour*
do with two teachers#
Th© older man laughed*
Let’s see what she can
If she learns rapidly, X may let
her go ten minutes early#"
So Sheila quickly forgot her embarras sment *
had to keep up*
Bob picked up the conversation easily#
"How this normal distribution*
a bunch of kids who don’tscore like that#
scores,
She
Sometimes we get
A lot of
low
but a few so high
they pull the average up*" Then,
sensing Sheila’s question*
"That may be because we haven’t
a good test for ?daat©ver we ’re testing, or because these
Children aren’t good representatives of the general run of
loS
children, or it may he because we haven11 tested enough children
to get any idea what children are like#
At any rate, if the
average looks 1phony * we try by another way to get a picture
of a typical child*
We arrange all the scores in order ~
high to low ~ and pick out the middle one*
That*s called
the median* M
13Isn’t that a lot of work?” Sheila managed to ask*
Mr# Allen laughed*
"There are short outs*
l'efXX teach you those later*
Bob is going In for principles in a big way*
I ’m waiting
to see what he is going to say about variability •n
Bob lit another cigarette*
!!That’s harder, and you know it*
these terms now, Madam Secretary*
average and the median are*
and low score is called
Make a note of
You already know what the
The difference between the high
the ’range**
If the lowest scoreon
a test la 5 and th© highest is 90, the xsange
Th© trouble with it is this:
is
from 5 to90*
Maybe there was only one very
low score, but several very high ones*
Or a low score of 5,
and th© n©3tt lowest scores were 35 and 45*
All you get Is
some Idea If the scores
scatter a great deal or
not*
To get
the real picture of how
much the individuals In
the group
vary, we need to know how close the scores of a large part
of th© group com© together*
Do you see what I mean*?1.
159
Fortunately, Sheila did#
nTh© average variation gives some indication of this#
The principle of this is easy*
You start with the average
(or the median if y o u ’ve decided to us© that instead) and
find the difference between each score and it.
'These are
added and divided by th© total number of scores*
This gives
the average variation* or average deviation, as it is usually
called*
The standard deviation is considered more scientific,
more accurate, and easier to use*
the same*
Only the differences are squared before they are
divided by th® total scores*
extracted*
In principle, It’s much
I t ’s handy*
Then th© square root is
Because, starting at th© average or
median, one standard deviation in each direction gives the
range of ©cores for th® middle two-thirds*
In other words,
It cut© out th© very high and, the very low scores, and give©
us an Idea what the middle scores are like*
nice thing about th© standard deviation, too.
It gives th© entire rang©#
There is another
Three times
If a teacher sent In a grad© for
a class as 80* 5 to 411 ©n here, (that’s written this way,
with a plus sign over a minus, see?)
Allen would know that
two-thirds of th© class had grades between 80 plus 5 and 80
minus 5, or between 75 and 85.
And that the lowest grade was
80 minus 15 (three times five) and the highest 80 plus 15,
or 65 and 95*
°feo
“Sometime©, we use the ’quartlie’ Instead of the
©t|nd&rd deviation#
Again, we ©tart at the average or median*
We coujnt twenty-five per cent of the score© in each direction
from If, thus giving the rang© of fifty per cent or half of
the children*
“How let’s get at these scores*
for both height and weight#
W e ’ll use the average
You can see, just from examination,
that an average for height has more meaning than one for weight
because there Isn’t so much variation In height*
Xncldently,
the deviation will be less in it, too#
"What you want, Allen, is the range, standard devi­
ation, and median on these, don’t you?
Before we start these
figures, tell us why you are doing thi_s, will you ? n
111 suppose X do take It for granted that every one
knows why X believe it so thoroughly *
We have many children
who feel Inferior - mostly because they have failed to measure
up to what their parents expect*
that children are different*
I want to convince parents
If they can see that, and then
let us decide what the child can do, and how well, many
children would have a different woi*l& to live In*
X think, need success*
If w© know a child’s ability we can
plan his education nor© intelligently*
X mean enjoyable living*
And by education,
There1& th© bell*
©@e Miss Black about a school order#
Bob# "
Children
I ’ll have to
That was a good lesson,
He winked at Sheila *
Then he added, “You could call
Sheila about that dinner date, Bob*
One would think you
didn’t have a job*"
Bob looked up*
B© sighed, picked up
“I ’ll take this set of papers with me#
help me this evening#
Announcers
hla hat*
I ’ll have Sheila
After dinner I<s
Y^.ou have just heard another In a series of
stories by Miss Helene Heye, entitled
“The Average Child"*
^ite2
DIALOGUE:
SCENE:
THE AVERAGE CHILD
The principal's office of a large high school
CHARACTERS5
ANNOUNCER:
MR. GORDON:
Th© principal
MRS. BATES:
The mother of a high school student
Miss HeleneHey© presents another
interesting
discussion of one of the many problems which
confront the modern
woman and th© mother*
Today's episode concerns a conversation
between Mrs* Batesf the mother of a high
school student and Mr. Gordon, the principal
of th© high
school*
The scene of the
dialogue, th© subject of which
Average Child%
office*
MR* GORDON:
is MThe
is laid in Mr* Gordon's
Mr* Gordon speaks*
Come In, Mrs* Bates*
1
suppose y o u 1ve come
to see me about Bob's weight?
MRS « BATES;
(SURF El SEP) Yes, I have*
But how did you
know?
MR* GORDONS
I've talked to several Eiothersfifl.no© Tuesday*
That was th© day, wasn't it, when you women
Imported that high-powered lecturer?
MRS. BATES:
Be
was recommended very highly*
But I want
to know how much truth there is In what he
said*
1G3
IE* GORDONS
He
told the truth, but It wan11 the whole
truth#
And hi© interpretation was misleading*
At least, most of hie audience seemed to get
th© wrong Idem about "norms".
That was what he
talked about, wasn't It?
MRS* BATES;
He talked on "The Average Child*ft And he
showed us all sorts of tables and charts*
Norms are just averages, aren't they?
MR. GORDONS
Many tables of no m s give more information
than "Just averages11*
People who have had
no experience in actually making these tables
are not likely to notice this*
X judge, overlooked it*
Your lecturer,
At any rate, his
audience seemed to be impressed, with the Idea
that "the average child" m s
desirable*.***
the on© most highly
X haven't forgotten that you
came about Bob's weight, but I would like
first to talk about some of th© tilings your
lecturer forgot to mention.
MRS* BATES;
I'd be extremely grateful if you would*
ME* GORDON;
In the first place, ©very average is made by
adding many numbers.
Each number represents
a child in some way*
It may be In weight,
height, score on a test, a pexvsonality trait*
This number can represent anything we can
measure, or anything we think we can*
th© point I want to make is this.
But
Very few
of the children measured for these "norms"
(perhaps not a single child) will have th©
same measurement as the average*
Some are
higher, some are lower*
MRS. BATES:
Then how can we expect all th© children who
weren't measured to be exactly that figure?
MB* GORDON5
W© shouldn't*
meaning*
Averages alone have little
They tell us very little about the
group which was measured*
picture of the group*.
What we need Is a
We need to know how
many children are higher than the average,
how many lower, and how much*
MRS* BATES;
is
there any way of telling about these tilings?
MR* GORDON:
In a general way, yes*
he have to know how
the measurements were taken, on whom they
were taken, and on how many*
mathematical concepts*
Then we use
We assume that all
human traits vary, but that they vary according
to a certain pattern*
Exp©rintental evidence
seems to support this assumption*
something Ilk© height, for example*
Take
If we
meaner© people who are typical of the general
population, and If we measure enough of them,
1G5
we find that moat people do not vary a great
deal#
Thar© are very short people and very
tall ones* hat not nearly so many of them*
Or* suppose that we have a musical ability
test to all the sixth grade children in
Chicago*
If we took the average of all the
scores, we would probably find that most of
the children would have scores fairly close
to this average*
As the scores become high,
we find there are fewer of them*
’This is also
true of the low ones*
MBS. BATESj
Do you mean there is a sort of f*spread of
ability?fl
MR* G-ORDOHt
Yes, Just that*
will help*
Maybe thinking of a triangle
Here, 1*11 draw it*
six inches long*
of it*
A line about
Bow a dot above the center
And now 1*11 draw in the other two
sides, from the dot to each end of the line*
Beginning at this base line, I fm drawing rows
of circles*
You
Each circle represents one child*
notice at both ends of the triangle there
is only one circle*
"no
I*m labeling on© end
musical ability %
musical ability11*
way between*
the other ngreat
The word average goes half
Bow count th© circles above an
inch of base line at the ends and In the middle*
ms
, BATES*
There are many more In the middle, of course*
I© everything we measure like that?
ME* GORDOB:
We don’t know the answer to that.
We do
know that people have different abilities*
Fart of this may be due to training, part of
it, we know, is due to difference In natural
ability*
MBS * BATES:
Yfti&t I meant Is this*
Do all the things
measured give those general results?
ME* G0RDOH:
There is much more variation in some traits
than others*
There is less, for example,
In height than in weight, reading ability,
or drawing*
And the people measured must
be typical of the general population*
Averages for traits In which there are large
amounts of variation mean practically nothing*
MRS . BATES:
Yon mean that averages shouldn’t be used for
weight tables?
MR* GORDON:
Bo, I should have added:
mat Ion is Riven*
unless other Inform
We need to know the spread
or range of scores*
We should know, too,
the rang© of the middle group of people after
we have dropped out those who have a great
deal of th© thing we are measuring and those
who have practically non©*
These high and low
people affect the average of a group a great
deal, even if there are only a few of them*
MRS* BATES:
If you mean by rang© the difference between
th© lowest person in th© group and the highest
one, I should think the difference would be
so large that you couJL&n’t tell anything
about the group from It*
Why do you us© it
at all?
MR* GOK&GNs
it does have some value*
I have some height-
welght norm© here for school children#
If
you look In this column,you see that the
average height for seven-year-olds is fortyseven inches, for elght-year^olda, forty-nine,.
and so on*
The range of the seven-year-olds is
from thirty-seven to fifty-four*
The shortest
child, In other words, is thirty-seven inches
tall, the tallest:
fifty-four.
Having th©
rang© with th© average is better than just
having th© average alone.
You know then that
there 1© a difference of seventeen inches in
In th© height of this group of children*
The
rang© In weight of this same group of children
Is even greater*
Th© lightest child weighed
thlrty-fiv© pounds, th© heaviests
ninety-six#
Th© difference her© is sixty pounds*
ids
ma * BATES %
Wh&t are these extremely light and heavy
children like?
MR* g g r d o h *
Some of them may he entirely normal*
But
always suspect that extremely high or low
cases need special attention— -medical care,
or food, or exercise*
Or special training
If it is school subjects*
As time goes on,
we hope to know more about th© needs of children
with very little ability in on© or more things,
and about those with a great deal*
MRS , BATES:
X fra afraid our lecturer mad© all this much
too simple*
MR* GORDOH:
Th© most popular speakers frequently do that*
But going back to a picture of the abilities
of most children, we can drop out these 5’high
and low11 children in several ways*
We start
by finding the average of the whole group*
Or the median, if there is a tendency for the
whole group to score high or low*
MBS ► BATES:
Y o u ’ll have to stop and tell me what th© median
la*
MR*
rORDGH:
I ’m sorry#
Why is it that when we know some­
thing very well we always take it for granted
others do too?
Th© median is the score half
way between th© highest anc- lowest one*
Let
me show you#
Here we have the scores of two
hundred fourth-grade students on a standard
reading test#
They vary from third-grade
averages to those of the eleventh-grade*
Since there are many more low scores than
high the average Is not typical of the group#
These six or seven very high scores pull the
average up too far*
typical of the group*
The median is more
We arrange them in.
order from the highest to the lowest.
The
middle one is th© median#
Half of th© scores
are above it, half below#
The median in this
case is grad© five*
The average would have
been a grade higher*
.BATES i
I think 1 understand*
But isn't that a lot
of work?
GORDON*
(LAUGHING) There are mathematical formulas
that make It much more simple than it sounds.
I'm merely explaining the principles.
Well,
starting from th© average or median, to get
an idea of what the group is like, we count
a certain number of scores one way, then go
back and count the same number in the opposite
direction*
We call it the quartile if we
count to include twenty five per cent of the
" ■■:
'1t o
scores above the average and twenty five
below*
This, you see, gives us the range
of the middle fifty per cent of the scores.
In th© reading class th© quartile Is from
grade four to six and one half*
MRS* BATES 5
That1s very different from the entire range*
That was from three to twelve, wasn*t it?
MR * GORDON t
Yes*
However, th© quartil© lsnft used as
often for our work as the standard deviation*
Since we, in most of our studies, figure
the amount of variation mathematically,
we us© a number representing the variability*
With It, we can show the range of the middle
two-thirds, also the entire range, very easily*
Let mo show you how it is don©*
very simple*
1*11
It 1s really
have to explain the method
of figuring the variation first*
start with the average or median.
Again, we
We *11
use the median this time as the point of
reference.
The differences between each
score and the median are added and then,
divided by the total number of scores to get
th© average amount of variation of all the
scores from the median.
average deviation.
This is called the
The standard deviation*
474
-
however, Is considered more accurate and is
easier to use#
Essentially* the same general
procedure Is used.*
The sum of the differences
between the scores and the median are squared*
this divided by the total number of scores*
then the square extracted*
standard deviation*
This gives the
tod this number added
to the median* and subtracted from it* gives
two numbers which are the range of the middle
two thirds of the scores*
HRS* BATES;
(hABXrHXECr) I*n not sure*
Simple, isnft it?
And X fm not sure
I followed perfectly*
MR* GGKDGHt
Well* looh here*
Suppose one of our teachers
gave a test to her class*
She told me the
average grade was eighty with a standard
deviation of five*
I would know that two thirds
of her class got a grade somewhere between
seventy five and eighty five, or between
eighty minus five (75) and eighty plus five
(85)*
Three times the standard deviation
In directions also gives the entire range*
So I would lmwow that fifteen (three times
five) added to eighty would give the highest
score, and subtracted from eighty would give
the lowest score.
In other words, the
grades ranged from sixty five to ninety five,
with the middle two thirds of the grades from
seventy five to eighty five,
MRS * BATES»
1 don?t know if I fv© understood all of this,
Mr* Gordon*
But at least I do understand that
children are different*
MR. GORDON;
If you understand that, I wish youf& do a
little missionary worlc among the parents of
our students*
Ton know most of them and they
have confidence in your opinion*
MRS . BATES;
(SdEREXSKD) But you think itfs important for
them to know this?
ME, GGRBGih
Very important!
You see, most children want
their parents to he proud of them*
They are
disappointed and discouraged if they are
not successful in this*.
MBS , BATES:
I think I see what you mean.
We parents may
expect too much, and our children are unable
to measure up#
ME, GORDON:
Exactly*
If parents could understand that
there are differences in ability, and that
the important tiling is, after all, the efficient
use of ability, not the amount*
And no one Is
efficient If they are afraid to try, or too
discouraged to try.
MHS > BATES:
Oh, 1 know l fve taken too much of your time,
Mr* Gordon*
But if doing missionary work,
as you call it, will he of any help to you,
1*11 gladly do it*
You notice, I hope,
that 1 haven11 asked you about BobTs weight*
1 haven11 forgotten Bob, but when you were
talking about variation, I decided he was
all right, and that I wouldn't stuff him or
lose any sleep worxylng about him*
hr* Jones
gave him a health examination last fall and
said his health was excell exit1
go, hr* Gordon*
But I must
And thank you very much*
ME* GORDON:
Thank you, Mrs* Bates*
MRS , BATES:
Goodbye*
And goodbye*
DRAMA:
THE AVERAGE CHILD
CHARACTERS:
MRS* CARRON
MR* CARHON
JKRRYs
their fifteen, year old son
JANICE:
their ten year old daughter
SCENE:
The living room of the Carron*s home*
ANNOUNCER:
We present !fThe Average Child %
on© act by Helene Hey©#
a drama In
It is the purpose
of the play to explain the various ways In
which the averages of school children are
computed#
We take you now Into the living
room of the Carron horn© where Mr* and Mrs*
Carron and their son and. daughter, Jerry
and Janice, are about to begin an interesting
discussion*
SOUND:
DOOR SLAMS* . JERRY WHISTLES OUTSIDE*
MRS* CARRON:
Jerry's home early tonight*
JANICE:
(CALLIMG) Jerry, will you help me with this
story?
JERRY*
1 can't make It end right*
(CALLING FROM THE HAIL) Just a minute.
to find a paper for Dad to sign*
Got
( C O L L S IK,
DRAMATICALLY? Well, folks, here I am. Home
early for a little visit with the family.
MRS* 0AKRONi
And how did dress rehearsal go?
Everyone
In tune?
JERKY*
(IN MATTEFUOF^FACT TONE) So well that we did
everything just once*
I thought dress
rehearsals were supposed to be punkf
But,
boy, not this oneI
MR* CARRON*
W e 111 be glad when all this Is over and we'll
get to see more of you, Jerry*
We've practically
seen, nothing of you for weeks *
Except at
meal timesI
JERKY*
(LAUGHING)
times*
JANICEt
You can always be sure of meal
Well, Jan, how about the story?
It ends too suddenly*
sleep over It*
Mother says I'd better
If X let It go now, will yon
help me on the way to school?
It's got to
b© in Tuesday*
JERKY:
Sure thing*
Where's the paper*.*»«(STOPS) oh,
speaking of things that have to be done reminds
me!
Mother, I can't find a paper you and Dad
are supposed to sign*
It's sort of funny
looking, with figures and lines*
MRS * CARRON!
I saw something of that description I believe*
Have you looked in the desk?
JERKY*
Ho, but I hop© it's there*
back*
Have to take It
JANICE:
I'll help you look*
MRS* CARRON:
(SIGHING) That means, I suppose, that I'll
have to straighten up the whole desk again*
JANICE;
Oh, no
Mother *
We'll put everything hack.
Look, Jerry, Is It this funny paper?
JERKY:
Good girl, Jan.
That's It.
(DRAMATICALLY)
Now, Mr. Carron, here is a pen*
her©,
MR. CARRONs
You sign
Then Mom,
(DRYLY) I'm in the habit, son, of reading
what 1 sign!
JERRY s
(SIGHING)
I was afraid of that*
How I'll
have to explain it, and I'm not sure if I
can.
We've had a course all semester about
these new report cards, and if our parents
don't ■understand them, we are to explain them.
MR. CARRON:
You might as well start In*
What do these
figures mean?
JERRY;
It's an experiment,
out in our class.
Mr# Wilson is trying it
If it works, he will us©
It for the whole school*
He says grades
don't mean anything unless you know a lot
about people and their abilities.
complicated*
It's very
Are you sure you wouldn't
rather just sign It?
explain it very well.
I'm quite sure I can't
MR* CARRON*
I ’m very sure I W o u l d n ’t rather just sign
itlr•
In f ac t, you are maiding mo very curious*
1 1IX just insist now that you da make every­
thing clear*
JERRY s
(SIGHING)
MRS* CARRON s
One© you get started, it may not be so hard*
I always do things the wrong way*
w e 1!! listen very carefully*
JERKY*
A hint to get down to business*
here goes*
you*
Well, (SIGHS)
And Jan. ♦*»*no wise cracks from
This, until w e ’re through, Is business*
No foolishness* Promise?
JANICE:
0* R*, boss, I promise*
JERRY:
You see, Big Bill* .*.*(ST'OPb* £>AY& HASTILY)
that’s Mr* Wilson****.Doesn’t Ilk© the idea
of a report card not explaining anything*
This first sheet shows what they know about
variation in ability*
important#
HR* CARRON*
The next sheet. ••.•«
Just a minute#
sheet first#
He thinks that Is
W e ’d like to look at this
Now, let’s see.
Here’s one
for reading, (ENUMERATING) music, mathematics,
height, weight, art*
mean?
JERRY:
Why
What do these lines
some of them longer than others?
The longer the line, the greater the variability,
How, Jan, before you ask what variability Is,
X *11 tell you#
difference#
It*© just another word for
Deviation means the same thing *
(SMILXHG*) Swell words, .aren’t they?
as If you know lots!
Sounds
(IB MATTSR-OF-FACT
MA M E B ) In some things there is a great deal
more variation than in others*
for instance*
Take weight*
Much more than in weight*
And there’s more variation in musical and
art ability than in mathematics*
Big Bill
says maybe i t ’s the way these subjects are
taught*
And we need to know lots more about
them* but from the little we know now* it
really looks as if ability varies more*
MRS, CARRON:
But I should think that natural ability and
what training one had would be all mixed up
in this*
JERRY:
It la# Mother*
In giving intelligence tests,
though, they claim they are measuring native
Intelligence#
Is time#
Hot everyone agrees that this
Musical tests claim to measure native
ability, too*
But Big Bill says that most
tests can’t help but measure training, too*
MBS* CARRON*
But there is a difference In ability to begin
with, isn’t there*?
JEBKSTt
Oh, yes*
Tfa® theory is that all traits and
abilities are given to men according to a
certain pattern*
Some things are spread
out further than others*
according to this pattern*
But they all vary
It*s like drawing
a triangle and putting in rows of people*
Here* Jan, that wouJLd be a good thing for
you to do*
jah*
X fll put it on the front page of my theme*
Tell me what to do*
Draw a line****-about six inches long*
Find
the middle of it and put a dot, oh, about
six inches above It,
Have & rulert
0*K*
How draw a line from both ends of the line
to the dot*
Fine*
and draw in people#
How start at the bottom
A row across the bottom,
first*
JANi
But I can’t draw people very well*
MR- CAKROMs
Here’s a penny*
Praw around that*
We ’ll
play they’re people*
JERBYj
It ’s believed that most everything shows this
same variation*
That is, If we can measure
accurately, If we measure enough people, and
If these people fairly represent the general
population*
ISO
JABs
I ’m through, Jerry*
JtBBXt
Bobly done, sister.*
Mow, I ’m going to write
!lv©ry little abilityw at this end of the
triangle, and **great ability n over at this
end, and !laveragen half way between them*
I will now (ASSTOXTO A “GRAND liAMMKR”) test
Janice Margaret Carron on her ability in
arithmetic*
Mow, Miss Carron, tell me how
many circles are above an Inch of this line
th© triangle is standing on, here at this top
point#
JAM 5
That1s easy*
One at th© very tip*
And parts
of two more*
JERRY*
And at th© other end?
JAMs
I t ’s just the same*
JEHHXs
And here in the middle?
JAMS
Oh, lots more*
eleven, twelve *
JKRRX:
let’s see, {OQTOTIHCf) ten,
Twelve is right *
All I wanted to show is that there are lots
more of ^'averagen people*
And there are fewer
and fewer people as you come up here to those
with little or no ability*
It’s the same way
with those who have a great deal of ability*
\
There are just a few of those, too*
ME* CAEROHs
So that’s what average means?
jerky*
Most poepi© think It’s something everyone
should be*
If you’re below average you’re
subnormal, if y o u ’re much above, you’re a
freak#
MRS* CARROH:
Then one shouldn’t be average?
JERKY*
Very few people are exactly average#
the “average” In weight, for example*
Take
Most
everyone thinks he should, be the figure it
says on the drug store scales*
That figure
Is the average of th© weight of many people,
heavy, medium, and light ones#
Probably only
-
a few just happened to be th© weight of that
average#
Th© figures do not tell the weight
of the lightest person weighed, or the heaviest
on©*
If they did, people wouldn’t get so
excited because they are three pounds under­
weight}
HRS* CARROH?
But how would w© know how much we should weigh?
JERKYs
The average or the standard deviation is a
help#
Then you get a picture of these people
In the middle group, where most people are*
Th© difference between the lowest weight# or
score, and the highest one - we call this the
rang© » doesn’t give on© any idea about these
middle people#
ME# CABKON*
How slow up*
What is this 51average or standard
deviation” ymi spoke of?
JERKY j
It *s really quite simple*
the average*
lsnvt about
You start by finding
Or the median, If the average
half way between the top and
bottom scores*
JJlHICEs
But Jerry* •»«•
JERBY:
How, don* t interrupt, 1*11 explain*
mean is this*
What I
If you gave a test and three-
fourths of th© grades were very low, a few
very high grades might bring the average up
so high that it wou!dn*t be very typical of
the whole class.
I seel
JERRY5
You*d get the wrong idea*
In a case like
that we*d use the median*
That is simply the
grade mad© by the middle person if we lined
them all up from th© highest grad© to the
lowest*
If there were one hundred, in the
class, w©*d take the flfteith score*
th© median score*
This is
If we had to use one number
that represented a group, this number would
In many oases be a better one to use than the
average*
ME* OARROKt
Yau've been saying all this time, haven't
you, that the average has very little valtie
or meaning?
JERRY;
Yes, X am*
Especially If there Is much
variation in a group*
It really should
not be used unless there is great consistency
in the traits or abilities which are being
measured.
MR* CARRON :
You started to explain this middle group*
JERRY;
Oh, yes*
The average deviation Is one way
Of judging this variation*
First, you find
th© average, or median, whichever appears
to be most typical of the group*
i'll use
the median here*
MR* CARBON;
All right*
JERRY;
We find how much each grade or score differs
from the median, add these together, and
divide by the total number of measurements
we have*
This gives the average ©mount of
variation*
It's exactly what it sounds like*,
the average of the deviations, or th© average
deviation*
MR* CARRON:
I see*
JERKYt
Th© standard deviation is much the earn© in
do on. .
principle, but It's easier to use and It's
■considered more accurate from a mthermtical
standpoint#
At leasts that *s the idea I got*
You find the difference between each score
and the median, as you did before*
Then you
square this number, divide by the total number
of measurements, and extract the square root*
The nice thing about
the standard deviation
is, once you have it, that adding it to, and
subtracting it from th© average gives you two
njucabers which mark the range of the scores
\
of th© middle two-thirds of the group you
are measuring*
In other words, you are cutting
out th© very high and th© very low scores*
3Mt
Qoujia you explain
that better, Jerry?
I
think I can see it, but X fm not sure*
JERKY*
If I explain something else, Xhu sure y o u 111
see both of them*
If you start with the average,
and count up until you find one-fourth of tin©
scores, and then down the same amount, you
have the middle fifty per cent of them*
rang© is called the quartile*
This
If, for example,
you have scores on on© hundred children*
After
you find the average you couwnt up and down 25
scores#
The end score each time gives the
range of the middle sixty-eight per cent
Instead of the middle fifty gev cent that
th© qu&rtile gives,
JAHt
Show me how you do it, Jerry*
JEHBYs
Well, If a teacher gave a test and she said
th© grade was 80 with a standard deviation of
5,
(y o u 1a write it this way,, 80& S. with the
plus written over th© minus this way followed
by the 5 ) y o u r& Ioolow that tv/o-thirds of th©
group had a score between 80 minus 5 and 80
plus 5, or between 75 and 85.
The nice thing
about the standard deviation is that three
times it, added to the average, and subtracted
from
it gives the range of all the scores,
or 99 per cent of them.
Throe times 5 is 15,
so 80 minus 15 and 80 plus 16 gives a range of
••••.let me see*...,65 and 95*
MRS* CARBON;
Hie lowest score was 65, the highest 95?
JBRKY;
Yes, Simple, i s n H it?
And. that1s all I
know, folks I
MR. CARBONs
Now, wait a minute*
What has all this to do
with these sheets?
JERRY;
Oh,yes.
that I
Was so proud of myself, X forgot
You see, Big Bill, Kr. Wilson, X mean,
thinks we should, in some way, explain this
difference in ability*
Some parents want
186
their kids to do so much better than they can,
the kids get all tied up
In knots*
Sometimes,
they get so discouraged, they don’t even try
any more*
Hoy/, these stars on this line show
what your child is doing in relation to his
grade*
That1s this shorter line her©*
This
longer line here shows the range in vari­
ability when all the studies they have made
in regard to this particular thing are put
together*
The standard deviations are these
marks which divide each, half of the line
into thirds*
Pox* example, here I am, above
th© first standard deviation above the median*
That means 1 am better than two-thirds of the
elas s!
JAli;
But here’s a star m y down here in this one*
JERRY s
You would see that*
That1a music*
1 not
only have very little ability, but I didn’t
try very hard to use what I had*
what the double star means#
Hint’s
I ’d only have
one if I ’d tried hard*
MRj> 0 CAKEOr-i;
This sounds like a complicated, idea to me*
MR* CARRON;
But a good on©*
You should have some idea
if your child needs special help from these
reports *
JERKS';
That*8 what.. . . . ( HESITATES. BUT DOES KO;3? IJSjjj
gHI5 PRII501fAh*3 m a m A m ) Mr# Wilson said,
If you haven*t much ability, you should have
©specially good teachers*
And that1© true
of those with lots of ability, too*
If parents
like the Idea, h e *s got several things', planned#
MBS* CARROHs
And wo parents would know much more about
what we should do at home*
VJe.fd know when to
encourage* when to discourage*
(SldHlhG) I
guess we all "spank" too muchl
JERKS:
Mother, dear, I should warn you that all you
say will b© used, against you*
MR. CARROT!:
Well, X*ve read this over again*
right to me#
Bounds all
Are you ready to sign, mother^
All right, here you are, Jerry*
JERRY;
thanks*
Coxa© on, Jan#
(BOTH CALL BACK)
Race you up-stairs•
Good night*...
Lectures
Hutrltion
A m o m i c e r ? We present another in the series of talks and
lectures by Helene
Heye*
,,rhitpItIonTf is the
- title chosen for the following discussion, which
concerns the diet of the growing boy and girl.
If you have excellent health, it Is probably no
secret to those who know you*
Excellent health is evident
in appearance - in bright eyes, glossy hair, in posture,
activity, and in temperament*
If you have poor health, it Is Just as evident*
Shoulders droop, eyes are ?ishadowed %
serious, and old beyond it *a years*
the face is pale, pinched,
Muscles are flabby, in­
fections and colds are frequent, and fatigue is chronic if
the condition has existed for more than a short period of
time*
With health, as It should be, a primary goal of
educational philosophy today, we turn to the progressive
school to see what Is being done*
a certain
How can we know whether
child is in need of special health treatment?
How can we Judge whether th© health status of a child at
the yearly physical examination is typical or Is a tempo­
rary condition?
Time was when the height - weight table dominated
the health examination.
This is no longer true*
Many
children who carried home the card of approval in regard
to weight were physically unfit*
Health is not a matter
of pounds hut of well being*
The present tendency seems much more sound in
practice*
The weight and height of Tommy Is compared to
Tommyfs height and weight when last he was measured*
If
he shows "no gain" the report of the medical examination
is checked to see if Tommy is well*
If this record shows no
organic troubles - and this is true of many children who arc
not growing as they should - then Tommy Is questioned In
regard to health and food habits#
Playing?
How much Is lie sleeping?
What is he eating?
A nutritional program supplemented with an adequate
amount of sleep and exercise will often result In Immediate
improvement *
Barring, of course, those children whose diffi­
culty Is fear and tension caused by groat emotional Insecurity*
Psychiatric treatment or a reorganisation of family or school
Ilf© would need to be considered in these cases*
But Tommy could bo growing and still be malnourished#
He would show a gain but this gain is less than is to be
expected in children who are growing normally•
What can be
done for Tommy if this is the case?
Perhaps the answer Is th© examination of Tommy ?s
teeth more often than once a year (which is usually th© only
provision which many schools do make in this respect) by a
1 9 0
.
dentist who feels that his responsibility does not end with
filling the decayed teeth and telling Tommy to brush his teeth
af ter every meal.
Brushing promotes mouth cleanliness* comfort* and
beauty - *tis true - but It is no insurance against decay*
And brushing the gums* since it encourages good circulation
and so stimulates the blood vessels supplying the teeth with
nourishment* is thought to be of greater value than the kind
of brush or tooth paste or powder used.
The favored answer to tooth decay today is poor
food and health habits*
Experiiaente in many research fields
prove this is not mere theoiy or a t‘hunch” of persons seeking
publicity via the means of new scientific discovery*
Surveys have shown a surprising and astounding
prevalence of dental defects.
From 50 to 75 per cent of an
average* unaelected group of children have defective teeth.
Research has shown that decayed teeth is evidence
of malnutrition, for* in many cases* dental decay has stopped
with improved nutrition*
If certain minerals or vitamins
are not included in the food supply, teeth decay before other
more noticeable symptoms appear.
Especially important in
building strong teeth and bones are the minerals calcium and
phosphorus and the vitamins C and D*
posited in the bony structures*
to this process in a subtle way;
The minerals are de­
The vitamins are necessary
without them this just does
,
131
not occur*
How they influence the use of calcium and phosphor­
us is yet to be shown - we know they do because of what happens
when they are
omitted from the diet*
Strong teeth and bones do not develop without calci­
um, yet more diets are deficient in this mineral than any
other known food element.
Shortage of calcium over a long
period of time is serious even though the amount almost equals
the amount the body needs*
In the opinion of some authorities,
a mild shortage over a long period of time affects growth as
much as a severe shortage over a shorter period*
Calcium is found in th© bones in the form of calci­
um phosphate.
This means that
phosphorus too must be present
in the right proportion for the most effective use of calcium*
/Is
And this/ not the whole story, important as these
minerals are*
They are not effective unless vitamins are
given a place in the daily food plan*
Orange juice or other
foods supplying vitamin 0 and sunshine directly on the skin
or cod liver oil are necessary If the calcium and phosphorus
Is to be used in the development of teeth and bones,
lack of either vitamin causes a typical disease.
A
But before
the more advanced symptoms of deformed bones or sore and
enlarged joints are noticed, in both cases the decay of teeth
are early indications.
Th© addition of vitamins C and D through giving
foods which are rich in them - orange juice, cod liver oil.
1.02;
green leafy vegetables — lias given Immediate Impr oveinent In
the condition of gums and teeth in reported studies.
This
is true even vlien diets are low in calcium and phosphorus.
Through the exercise of" some magic we yet do not under s tand,
these vitamins are able to stretch the supply and make it
go farther.
Adults need only approximately one half the amount
of calcium and phosphorus that growing children do*
Milk
is the food which Is most valuable in supplying the body
needs of these minerals*
There la no measure at present of the optimum or
most favorable amount of vitamin C that
should be given*
authorities agree
There seems to be no harmful effect of an
over-supply, so present knowledge favors generous servings
of food rich in vitamin C*
Orange Juice, tomato juice and
green leafy vegetables are excellent food sources.
If toxmto
juice is substituted for orange juice, double the amount
served.
In special cases, an extra supply of this vitamin
is beneficial*
In one experiment upon adults, immediate
improvement in swollen, bleeding gums and tooth decay
resulted by adding a pint of orange juice mixed with lemon
juice
and a half head of lettuce to the diet each day.
One caution in regard to this
and storing affect the content.
vitamin.
Cooking
It Is more perishable than
the other vitamins»
Cooking vegetables, even parboiling them,
with soda means "sure death11 to vitamin G*
Cooking vegetables
in clear water is less harmful, but the shorter the time, th©
more vitamin content.
cabbage
is cut in half at the end, of thirty minutes of
cooking*
gone*
For example, the vitamin potency of
At the end of two hours practically all of it is
Cook greens only until barely tender to conserve this
elusive vitamin*
Curiously enough* after a fair trial, many
people enthusiastically endorse the improvement in flavor,
too.
Vitamin X> is the sunshine vitamin#
source in food materials - cod liver oil - is
bottled sunshine*
The richest
known as
For the history of the discovery of this
vitamin showed the relation between climate and defective
bones, sunshine and cod liver oil.
It was found that
children were free from rickets in those countries where
a great deal of time was spent unclothed in the sunshine*
In spite of low standards in housing, food, sanitation.
In
sections of the world where there Is little sunshine or the
climatic conditions are such that the skin cannot be exposed,
cod liver oil benevolently takes over Its function.
Some experts think cod liver oil Is not necessary
In the simmer months when children are spending a great
deal of time playing in the sunshine.
Others decrease the
amount but think a small quantity is added protection against
104
_f .
.
infection© and faulty development, ©specially during the
first few years.
Since this oil is also rich, in vitamin A,
it gives additional fortification In this respect.
But although it Is important to see that enough
vitamin C and D are present so that calcium, and phosphorus
may b© used to the best advantage, we must not forget that
these minerals must also be supplied.
Milk Is our most
important food as the foundation for strong bones and teeth.
It is an excellent source of calcium and phosphorus.
to Its virtue© important proteins and vitamin A.
Add
Cheese,
which is essentially milk with a large part of Its water
removed, is the richest source of calcium if weight of the
food material is considered*
However, it can scarcely be
used in the ©am© generous way that milk can in the American
diet.
Vegetables, too, are rich in calcium*
One experiment,
in which the calcium of a pint of milk was replaced by an
equal amount in the form of carrots and spinach, showed that
the calcium of vegetables Is not used as effectively as that
of milk.
But these vegetables, as well as greens, cauli­
flower, and cabbage are good sources for this mineral.
Education of the parent to the importance of the
food children ©at is only, unfortunately, part of the problem.
Ihis Is the easiest part of the program.
problem as leading a horse to water#
selected, appetising and attractive#
Itfs the same
Food may be well
3_De>,
food, exorcise, and sleep may be on the board.
The real
crux of the problem is to get the child to adopt the
schedule and to ©at the food, willingly and promptly.
Parents
are complaining more and more frequently about the lack of
appetite of their children.
One study reports that sixty-
five out of the one hundred children examined were not hungry
at meal time*
Illness, fatigue, or emotional disturbances
may contribute to this condition, but there is general agreement
that diet is the important factor in a large number of cases.
Providing a variety in foods does not seem to be necessary
for the young child.
after day.
He is content with the same foods day
Often he prefers only a few favorites served over
and over again*
If these foods are balanced so that they
provide for body needs, refusal of one or two foods might
be ignored.
Impersonal, consistent, and pleasant relations
at meal time will usually cause even the hardened tyrant of
four years to mend, his ways and eat without dramatics.
It
helps if adults can be coaxed to do the same.
Responsibility for the mechanics of eating bolsters
self esteem and seems to divert attention from too attentive
examination of the fare.
Even tiny tots of three and four
can help with a garden and pull their own carrots for dinner,
or help in marketing or in preparing food.
I know of on©
preschool where there is a special laboratory for these
tiny cooks and it is a treat indeed to be allowed to use it
to prepare their own lunches*
Interest in food is not to be scorned.
It may be
a lowly bond in the estimation of aesthetically minded people*
but it is a bond of importance between geographic and economic
groups*
The traveler longs to get back to his native land
and his native foods*
Wandering sons and daughters yearn
for mother *s cooking*
Mutual enthusiasm for dill pickles*
or rare steaks* or cherry pie has initiated many a friendship.
These food delights and the traveler^ fare are not
for the adult who has always been delicate and who must be
careful what he eats*
He is so easily upset by foods that
do not agree with him,
for real living.
A strong constitution is necessary
And a strong constitution depends a great
deal on the right start*
The child who has always been physically fit has
also been adequately nourished*
For straight bones and strong
teeth* energy and health* give four stars to the following
features:
to milk for calcium and phosphorus; to orange
juice and green leafy vegetables for vitamin C; to cod liver
oil and sunshine for vitamin B*
Taking a "plug** from radio, "the smile of beauty"
and "the smile of health" probably belong to the same person,
Announcer:
The talk you have just hear Is entitled "Nutrition"
and was written by Helen© Heye,
Story ;
Hu tr 1 tlon
Announcers
Be present another in a series of* stories
written by Helene IIeye.
This is entitled
"nutrition".
It was a cool August day - unexpected and welcome*
The first sign of the end of a long, hot summer.
Dr. Kate Benson, up for an early bx^eakfast before
starting for the hospital, was sober and quiet*
proceeded silently,
Breakfast
Hrs, Davies, who had been the Benson
housekeeper for many years, tactfully Ignored the unusual
mood of her employer.
Dr. Kate finished her second cup of coffee.
"That puts me in a little better frame of mind,"
she said, speaking at last.
"You know, Ellen, ray month* s
vacation has ruined my career,
the hospital this morning.
I don’t want to go back to
I don’t want to see sick children.
We never see the healthy and happy ones*
exist,
We hardly know they
I can’t even be thankful it’s a cool day."
Mrs. Davies carefully set her cup on the table.
She hoped that her face did not show how disturbed she was.
Dr. Kate had meant life and hope to many a family struggling
on a meager income*.
She couldn’t mean what she was saying.
"Maybe tomorrow yoxx’ll feel differently,” she said.
rrI hope so," Dr, Kate answered without conviction,
as she arose from the table.
ICS
.K.
...
Thirty minutes later she was being warmly greeted
by her associates at the large down town clinic*
Even the warm welcome left Dr* Kate strangely cold*
Upstairs, In her own office, she turned, to the
neatly piled, letters and office files that had accumulated
with a feeling of relief*
Here was something that would take
her mind off herself*
"I’m sorry. Dr* Kate*"
Julia, her secretary, spoke*
''That pile I© pretty deep,
I could*
X took care of everything
But they are referring all these clinical cases
with no organic basis from the east side school to you*:;
Dr, Kate looked up.
"That means all the droopy children, doesn’t it?"
She said,
old faces,
"These children with flabby muscles, and pinched,
With circles under their eyes and chronic colds,
I wish there weren’t so many of them,"
Julia looked distressed.
"I wish so, too, Dr, Kate*
b o
much work.
It’s too bad to have
And you just home
Dr. Kate turned a surprised face toward her.
"Oh, Julia.
many of these children.
1 meant that I ’m sorry there are so
X didn’t mean the reports.
I ’ll
read through some of these and then w e ’ll see what has to
be done.11
A n hour later she called Julia.
"Y/e’ll have to make out sosue diets.
these children have poor appetites.
have very poor teeth.
Hearly all of
And nearly all of them
Of course, it Is estimated that from
one-half to three-fourths of American children have at least
one decayed tooth.
But these children average three apiecei."
She glanced up.
"Book ready?” she asked *
f*YouT11 have to rewrite this - hut y o u ’re good at
organisation*
every day.’
How ~ let’s see - head this:
’To he given
Put milk first - three to four glasses.
we could print that in red ink.
I wish
More diets are low in
calcium than in any other one known food element.
Milk is by
far the best source of calcium among the usual foods we eat.
It’s a good source for phosphorus, too*
A combination of
these two minerals form most of the bone tissue*
need twice as much of these minerals as adults*
Children
Milk is the
answer to this problem, Julia*
We have to get milk Into
these children to begin with.
I t ’s good for protein, too,
and has some vitamin content."
"But if they don’t like milk?" asked Julia, biting
her pencil.
"That’s the real problem, of course," answered Dr.
Kate, frowning.
"Cheese is our richest food in calc inn, if
we take foods pound for pound.
But i t ’s highly concentrated,
if we use it in a child’s diet, we have to dilute it
with something like rice or potatoes#
Vegetables have some
calcium, too, but the calcium of vegetables Is not used as
effectively as the calcium of milk#
cabbage have a fair supply, however#
G-reena, cauliflower, and
W e 111 add them later
to the list of vegetables especially recommended for these
children#
We*!! see if we canft make them like it#
"Now, let1s see#
most important*
We have the minerals that are
How, to get in the necessary vitamins,
©specially need A, C* and X> for healthy teeth.
he
Lack of C
causes scurvy finally, but one of the first effects is decay
of the teeth.
Put orange juice next to milk in the list we
are making*Tl
"You havenTt told me how much, Dr. Kate, Tf prompted
Julia.
"LetVs put down one cup#
Add in parenthesis;
double this amount if tomato juice is used.
or
For these eight
children with ten to fifteen cavities, I fm going to add a
note asking that one pint of orange juice mixed with lemon
juice and. half a head of lettuce be given each day for a
couple of weeks.
In one study the dental conditions of adults
improved at once on this diet."
"Can*t cooked foods be used for C, Dr. Kate,"
asked Julia.
"The foods you*ve mentioned are raw*"
"Yes, but cooking quickly destroys tills vitamin.
Vitamin C is the most perishable of all the vitamins known.
Greens, however, are a good source»
Cabbage cooked for thirty
minutes loses about half of the vitamin*
And If It is cooked
for two hours, practically all of the vitamin has been
destroyed.
Xf soda Is added to the water In which vegetables
are cooked, the vitamin is destroyed.even if cooked only a
few minutes*
That1s why we recommend today that vegetables
be served raw or cooked frare1*u
nls vitamin 0 found In the same foods?” asked Julia.
!JThe richest source of D is fish livers.
X should
add cod liver or hallver oil to this list of foods that these
children should be having each day*
But 1 f11have to do some
lecturing about that first, X guess* Vitamin D helps the
use calcium and phosphorus more efficiently*
body
In animals, it
helps the development of bones when the supply is low*
The
development of cavities in the teeth of school children has
been stopped in several studies by adding fish liver oil
to the daily diets*”
Dr* Kate smiled.
”Most people are interested in the fact that
children do not develop rickets If they spend most of the
day unclothed in the sun.
Lack of D causes rickets. No
matter how low the housing and food standards may be.f'
Now she laughed*
,1You do look surprised, Julia.
We know that there
la some connection between climate and defective bones.
And
sunshine and cod liver oil seem to have the same effect on
the body*
rickets*
f t least In sufficient quantities, both prevent
The problem of tooth decay links
upwith rickets
as well as with scurfy*"
tfWhy can’t foods be put under artificial sunlight?
Then we wouldn’t have to take these oils?” asked Julia*
wIrradiation, as v/e call that process, Julia, is
not practical at present for furnishing quantities of
vitamin D.
Maybe some day t h e process will be perfected*.u
11What about vitamin A, Dr* Kate?
going to add for It?
What food are we
You see, I ’m full of questions.
I ’m
learning a lot,11 said Julia*
nI*m educating you deliberately.
When your interest
Is at sufficient peak 1 intend to tell you that you are going
to write an article for the school paper*
Oh, I ’ll give you
the general Idea, and give you a few books to read.??
Julia gasped*
This was not the first time she had
been asked to step out of her role as secretary*
Dr* Kate had not missed, Julia’s reaction*
r?Don* t be scared *
You can do it.”
11How w e ’ll go on rapidly from here.
So you won’t
have time to think up reasons why you can’t do It.
I wonder
If we dare say anything about tooth paste and tooth brushes*
W e ’ve been taught to put too much confidence in them*u
Julia looked up in surprise.
that we don’t need to brush our teeth.”
n3ut you can’t mean
Dr* Kat© hesitated*
t!Ho, I don’t mean that.
Exercise of the gums Is good for the teeth.
of brushing Is good for the gums.
©lean makes them Zook better*
The right kind
And keeping the teeth
What I meant was this*
We
think now a good supply of material for building bones and
teeth supplied by the food we ©at is more important than
brushing the teeth*
HBut how, Dr. Kate, can you make children eat?
Nancy is two now and Sis has always had to coax her to eat.
What can we do?”
rfMany doctors think lack of appetite is an early
sign of malnutrition, Julia*
Eating the wrong foods, or
omitting some of the essential ones may affect appetite.
Of course, other things may be responsible.
A child that Is
tired, or sick, afraid, or unhappy may not want to eat.
Anorexia, the technical name for the lack of appetite, is
©21
increasing complaint of parents.
One piece of research
reports 65 out of 100 children studied as non-hnngry.
There
is consistent agreement among students in this field that
diet Is the important factor in a large number of cases.
a few questions.
How,
Does your sister insist that Haney eat
everything on her plate?
Are there many foods she does not
like?,r
Julia recalled the night before.
Carrol’s for dinner.
She had been at
Nancy had eaten her lamb chop and peas
204
but had refused her spinach.
She had refused emphatically
and then cried because her smother had insisted that she
eat It or she would get no chocolate pudding*
Haney loved
chocolate pudding*
f,3h© always objects to spinach*
eat it if Carrol insists,
Usually she will
hast night she wouldn’t*
tod
didn't."
"Why doesn't Carrol stop serving her spinach for
a while?
greens*
If she'll eat cabbage, feed her cabbage*
Or any other food rich in Iron.
spinach to children.
Or beet
Ihat's why we feed
For iron and vitamin C.
And she can
take some extra orange juice for vitamin 0 *11
"But both Carrol and X thought that Haney had to
have spinach!"
Dr. Kate laughed*
"Variety is not necessary for
the child of preschool years provided that the diet is
adequate in essential constituents*
extended*
Gradually tastes can be
Forcing a child to eat a food he has refused
seldom makes him like it.
Continued refusals of whole classes
of foods which a child should have call for the help of the
physician and the psychologist."
Dr* Kate's eyes suddenly widened*
"Do you see what I see, Julia?"
she asked*
"It's
twelve thirty and a half hour past your lunch time*"
"But it's half an hour past yours, too, Dr. Kate*
tod w e ’ve been talking about iny personal problem, "Haney"!"
“Run on to lunch.
X fm going to lunch, down stairs
so I can get hack to start scheduling interviews for these
poor little starv od kidd 1e ?.*
She ran her finger up the stacked folders *
“Poor kids*
Maybe we can give them a bit more of
a break in life*”
When Julia returned a half an hour later, Dr. Kate
was still at her desk.
She looked up with a start when
Julia entered.
r*You know, Julia, I ’ve just been sitting here being
glad 1 *m hack*
X think It needs a special celebration.
you call Mrs. Davies for* me?
Tell her that I ’m having a
dinner party for eight tonight*
differently by ten o ’clock*
mean*
Would
And tell her that I felt
Do on, she’ll know what you
And she’ll be glad to get that dinner*
If I ’m any
judge of faces and people!fs
Announcer:
You have just heard another in a series of stories
written by Helene Heye and entitled “Nutrition”*
,
206
vE J'I
DIALOGUES
NUTRITION
CHARACTERS:
DR* JOHNSON;
Pediatrician and In charge
of a recent health, survey in
a midwestem city*
MRS* BENTLEY;
President of the P.T.A. in
this city.
SETTING:
Dr. Johnson^ office.
ANNOUNCER*
Miss Helene Heye presents another interesting
discussion of the many problems which confront
the modern woman and the mother«
Today 1s
episode concerns a conversation between
Dr. Johnson, pediatrician and in charge of a
recent health survey in a Midwestern city
and Mrs. Bentley, president of the P.T.A.
in this city.
The scene of the dialogue,
the subject of which is "Nutrition” is in
MRS* BENTLEY;
Dr. JohnsonTs office. Mrs. Bentley speaks.
M ? s*
Dr. Johnson, I ha/Bentley, chairman of the
P.T.A.
DR. JOHNSON;
Your secretary asked me to see you*
Dr* Dally, our superintendent of schools,
and I went over these final reports on the
health examination of our public school
children yesterday,
be decided that making
the survey was one thing;
getting something
2Q&.
done about it was another*
'The money we
spent in finding out what should be done
is wasted unless we do something to correct
undesirable conditions*
And we can11 do
much unless our parents will cooperate*
Thst*s why we want your organisation to help
and why we called you*
MRS. BEFI/LEY:
Of course, we are willing to help, Dr* Johnson*
If you can tell us what we can do*
BE* JOHNSON:.
We want parents to understand what these
reports mean*
We are planning to give
several talks to parent groups •
We want the
P*T*A. to get the parents to attend, for one
thing*
MRS* BENTLEY %
That shouldnTt be hard to do*
Most parents
are interested In the welfare of their children*
DR* JOHNSON:
Then we want publicity given to the value of
milk.
fruits*
And the leafy vegetables and the citrus
We have too many children with symptoms
of rickets in our elementary schools.
And
the dental report is not encouraging.
It was
this report that made us decide that we needed
an educational campaign*
MRS. BENTLEYs
Then the reports were worse than you expected
them to be?
JOHNSON*
We weren’t prepared for this dental report.
We could see these cases of very poor posture
and advanced rickets.
That report didn’t
surprise us greatly.
Recent research indi­
cates that decayed teeth are often early
symptoms of more serious ailments.
We think
the problem of tooth decay links up with two
diseases caused by the lack of certain food
elements*
Decayed teeth are symptoms of
both rickets and scurvy.
These diseases are
caused by a lock of vitamin D and G.
One
other vitamin, A, is important in the de­
velopment of teeth*
What we need to do is
to advertise vitamins A, o9 and. D, therefore,
to the general public.*
* BENTLEY;
JOHNSON:
And that’s why we advertise milk?
Milk Is not as rich a source of vitamins as
it la of building material for teeth and
bones.
It does have a fair supply of vitamin
A, but Its supply of calcium and phosphorus
Is its chief value.
Calcium In the form of
calcium phosphate is the main mineral in
bones*
Then the protein in milk is a very
fine type, too.
Which adds to the general
value of our dairy product.
MRS
BENTLEY;
DR* JOHNSON;
Is milk the only food that supplies calcium?
By no means*
Milk Is byj&r the richest source of
calcium among th© usual foods we eat.
Cheese,
being the solid part of milk, is the richest
source if you consider food material pound
for pound*
Vegetables are good sources of
calcium, especially greens, cauliflower, and
e&bb&ge.
not
But the calcium of vegetables Is
used with th© same effectiveness as
the calcium of milk.
It Is hard to find a
practical solution to this problem of getting
enough calcium into a child’s diet unless
he drinks milk*
A child needs about twice
as much, calcium and phosphorus as do grown­
ups*
And more diets are deficient in calcium
than In any other known food element*
MKS
BENTLEY;
But these vitamins I
Why are they necessary
If calcium Is th© material from which bones
and teeth are built?
DR. JOHNSON:
Certain vitamins are important because calcium
and phosphorus are not used effectively without
them*
Of these vitamins, D is, in on© sense,
the most peculiar of the three that are es­
pecially important for healthy teeth.
the skin to direct sunlight prevents
rickets*
So does cod liver oil*
There seems
to be a direct relation between climate and
development of bones*
Children are free
from rickets if they spend most of the day
unclothed in the sunshine, no matter how
low food and housing standards may be*
In
climates or in cultures where children are
not exposed to sunlight, an effective substi­
tute has been found in the oils extracted
from the livers of certain fish*
Ood liver
oil has been widely advertised, as you *ve
probably noticed, as bottled sunshine.
It
helps in the development of bones even if
animals are getting a diet low in calcium*
It seems in some way to "stretch” the supply
of calcium*
How It does, we donft know.
We
know, In the cases where vitamin D has been
added to the diets of school children, the
number of cavities has been reduced,
I fve read of Irradiated foods, Hr* Johnson*
Couldnft they take the place of cod liver oil?
Maybe they will some day*
They are not
practical as a source of vitamin D yet.
SldL
MRS. BEHTLETi
And vitamin C*
la It a a important as vitamin
D?
DR* JOIIHSOHi
The first effects of a lack of G (which is
diagnosed as scurvy In later stages) is tooth
decay*
Citrus juices, in particular, prevent
the development of scurvy*
In one piece of
research the dental condition of adult patients
improved rapidly when one pint of orange juice
mixed with lemon juice and a half a head of
lettuce was added to th© diets*
MRS* BEHTLEY %
But oranges, grapefruit, and lemons are
expensive for part of each year*
Can’t we
use cheaper foods for this vitamin?
DR* JOHKSOIU
Tomato juice can he used hut we should double
the amount If it Is substituted for orange
juice*
Green vegetables have a considerable
amount of G, too*
Especially If served raw*
Vitamin 0 Is the most— shall I say delicate—
of th© vitamins*
Cabbage, for example, which
Is rich in this vitamin, loses almost all of
the vitamin content If it is cooked for two
hours.
Half of the vitamin is destroyed if
th© cabbage is cooked for thirty minutes.
So, you see, the less w© cook vegetables th©
more vitamin they have.
Mow, your question
about expense*
We think orange or tomato
juice should be in every growing child’s
diet each day*
There should be a definite
plan to include milk, orange or tomato
juice, and green leafy vegetables In children’s
diets*
And cod liver oil, too, at least during
th© winter months*
Many families spend too
puch of their food budget on expensive cuts
of meat*
Perhaps a meatless day each week,
or smaller servings of meat would leave
enough money for these bone and teeth building
foods *
MRS* BENTLKST;
X think we could get Miss Bawley, our school
nutritionist to help us with some inexpensive
meals*
W e ’ll need some practical help in
planning meals around these foods w e ’re
promoting*
And Miss Riley of the art
department might help us, too*
She put out
some clever booklets on posture last week
for the health classes*
DR, JOHNSON;
The mothers of many of these clinic children
have asked us for help of this kind.
We are
too busy feeding our hospital patients to do
very much to help them.
MRS* BENTLEY;
Should we try to do much besides campaign for
better teeth this first year, Dr* Johnson?
Whatever w© do should be done very well,
shouldn’t it?
DK* JOHRSOM;
That’s my feeling, too.
Of course, the foods
we are emphasizing for good teeth will build
health in general*
But I think w© should do
one other thing this first year*
MRS
BENTLEY:
1 suppose you are going
to say that we need
to teach these children how to brush their
teeth*
Op perhaps I should say— to brush
their teeth*
That would help keep their
teeth in good condition, wouldn’t it?
DR. JGHMSGM:
Yes, It would help, but It doesn’t prevent
the decaying of teeth*
The correct diet
helps more for that than, any amount of brush­
ing*
At one time we thought brushing the
teeth after every meal would result In healthy
teeth*
I don’t mean to say that clean, bright
teeth are not an asset.
more beautiful*
Certainly, they are
And massage or exercise of
the gums is good for the teeth*
A few dentists
are showing people how to brush their gums
as well as their teeth*
Clean teeth are as
desirable from a sanitary aspect as clean
hands.
MBS . BEHTLKYs
Then th© typ© of tooth past© or tooth brush
Is not as important as the way they are used?
DR. JOHNSON
That’s my opinion#
Maybe not all doctors
•would agree#
MBS * BENTLEY;
Since my guess about this other thing which
you wanted done was wrong, Dr# Johnson, what
was It?
DR. JOHNSON;
I think we need to write a primer for feeding
small children#
For mothers of children who
are just learning to eat*
have no appetite*
Mary children today
A Chicago study of 100
children reported sixty-five of them as non
hungry.
There is consistent agreement among
experts that the diet Itself is one of Hie
contributing causes#
Back of appetite may
be an early sign of malnutrition#
MRS
You think, then, that we should help mothers
plan meals for small children?
DR. JOHNSON;
Hot only how to plan meals but how to direct
th© actual eating habits of the two and threeyear-old child.
Which means under standing
the needs of th© child#
And his moods, too#
Mothers often make their own problems by
insisting that a child eat something he does
not want*
If mothers could only understand
that a great variety of food is not necessary
for the small child if the diet is adequate
in all essential constituents.
But they
Insist that Tommy eat his spinach I
And if he
refuses it there Is often open warfare.
With
the victory of th© strongestI
MRS* BENTLEYs
But you can’t mean that spinach isn’t good
for children.
DK# JOHNSON;
(LAHG-HS) Ho, I didn’t mean that.
1 only meant
that too much attention to food refusals often
teaches a child that he can dominate his
family by not eating*
If a child does not
©at after he has been at the table for twenty
or thirty minutes it is better practice to
dismiss him than to Insist that he ©at.
He
may be tired or upset or he may b© !lplaying
for attention'1.
MRS* BENTLEY:
Do you think w© can help with those problems,
Dr* Johnson?
W e ’ll need to find someone who
is specially trained, won’t we?
DR. JOHNSON:
Maybe we can borrow one of the Chicago people
to help us*
If we can’t w e ’ll have to leave
that part of the program until next
year.
W e ’ll find someone If we have to add a special
person to the hospital staff1
2 1 G
MRS. BENTLEY $
ibid the program later?
What do you think
we should work on next?
DR* JOHNSONs
I fd like to stop these serious epidemics of
children1® diseases we*ve been having*
Including colds.
W© canft do that until
we have the full cooperation of every
child and family In our public schools*
Our
health department has don© some good work,
but It isnft enough*
help there* too*
Your organization can
If you can get your members
to see our problem, and understand it, our
town will b© a much healthier one*
MRS# BENTLEY;
1 am sure our P.T.A. will do everything it
can to help you do this*
I will meet with
the executive committee next week*
In the
meantime I will call both Miss Dawley and
Miss Riley about the booklet*
DR. JOHNSON;
My secretary has a folder of material that
she has collected that you might like to see.
She said she would be glad to loan It to your
committee*
She has It ready If you want to
stop on your way out*
1*11 b© expecting a
call from you next week, then, Mrs. Bentley.
Good afternoon and I do appreciate your
cooperation.
MBS* BENTLEYs
Good afternoon. Dr* Johnson#
I *11 stop for
th© material on my way out*
ANNOUNCER:
The discussion you have just heard between
Dr* Johnson and Mrs* Bentley is another in a
series of stories and dramas written for
radio by Miss Helene IIeye*
DRAMA:
NUTRITION
CHARACTERS 5
BILLY CAERGN:
a ten year old Hoy
MRS. CAKRGN:
Billy's mother
DR. FRED ALLEN:
MISS WILSON:
dental clinician
Dr. Allen's assistant
SCENE:
Billy's Lome
ANNOUNCER:
"Nutrition" - a drama in one act.
It is the
purpose of this play to stress the importance
of the correct diet of the growing child and
its effect upon the bone and tooth structure
of the body.
The scene opens at the home of
the Carrors.
Billy, age ten, is objecting
to a necessary trip to the Dentist.
SOUND:
MDSXC ~ FADE IN
BILLY j
Mother, do I have to go?
Today?
Dan and
Jerry are going swimming.
MRS* CAERGN:
But Billy, you made the appointment and v/e
postponed it once already.
And that tooth
should be filled.
BILLY:
I don't want to go*
swell.
Even if Dr. Fred is
And Miss Wilson is pretty in that
white dress and funny cap*
suppose I have to.
(SIGHS) But I
( XI4 A VERY RESIGNED VOICE)
Will you tell Dan and Jerry if they call?
sommt
•SHORT MUSIC - FADE IN AMD FADE OUT
DR. FRED;
Gould you open your mouth a little wider,
Billy?
That1s fine*
Now Miss Wilson, I ?ll
have that gadget over there.
MISS WILSON:
Yes, doctor.
DR. FRED:
Now just a moment, Billy - just a moment here.
How open wide*
That*s It*
Thei^eI
big cavity in that tooth, Bill,
we have It now*
more minutes*
That*s a
But I think:
It*s just a matter of a Lew
Open wide, now, once more.
SOUND:
fr>
SHOE1
t .tV^t
DR. FEED;
It*s all over, Billy.
USIC - FADE IN AND FADE OUT
You *re lucky, though.
You only had one to fill.
Your pal Dan was
In last week and he had four.
I talked to
Dan a long time about his teeth*
pictures over there?
See those
I showed them to him.
They are some of the pictures we took at the
dental clinic*
BILLY;
Why did you take those pictures, Dr* Fred?
Are they X rays?
DR. FRED;
Some of them are.
You know, some of the
fellows In your bunch have poor teeth.
I
think you and Dan and Ferry could help them,
if you would*
BILLY;
(SURPRISED) But, Dr. Fred, we can't do anything
about' their teeth.
Of course, we do fight
220
once in a while DR. FRED:
I didn't mean fighting, Billy,
But these
fellows aren't talcing care of their teeth.
BILLY;
(EMPHATICALLY) Well, we certainly can't make
them Brush their teeth.
It would be sissy
to carry our tooth brushes aroimd*
DR. FRED:
I wouldn't care especially if they didn't
brush their teeth.
Of course, a clean mouth
Is more comfortable.
better*
And clean teeth look
But brushing isn't the tiling which
would most
help the boys in your gang.
Shall I tell you what I mean?
BILLY:
{DOXTBTFULLY) I don't think I can do a thing
with them*
But I'll listen.
DR, FRED:
Let's go In here*
SOUND:
STEPS, SOUHD OF DOOR OPENING
BILLY:
But doesn't everyone have to have teeth filled?
DE* FRED:
Hot quite everyone.
I like these chairs better.
You looked up that figure
yesterday, Hiss Wilson.
MISS WILSGH;
What was it?
For an average group, we estimate from onehalf to three-fourths of all children have
at least one decayed tooth*
BILLY:
Well, if nearly everyone has one, what can
you do about It?
MISS WILSON*
We think people would have better teeth If
they ate plenty of the right kinds of food*
At least we know that if these foods are
not eaten, the teeth break down*
Dr* Fred
will tell you why you should eat certain
things and then I *11 tell you what you should
e&t?
DR* FRED;
Billy, Miss W 11 son is passing off the hard
part to me*
Anyway, I 111 do Day part quickly.
There are five food substances which seem to
be very important for healthy teeth*
Two of
these are substances that make up a large
part of the weight of teeth and bones j
calcium and phosphorus*
Then there are three
vitamins, A, C, and D, that are necessary,
too*
Children need about twice as much
calcium and phosphorus as do grown ups*
BILLY;
Is that because they are growing, Dr* Fred?
DR* FRED;
Yes, Billy* that*s why*
BILLY;
And can they stop that by Just feeding them
something?
DR* FRED;
You*ve read those studies more recently than
I, Miss Wilson*
kill you tell Billy about
them?
MISS WILSOH;
Yes, doctor*
How, Billy, in one study a group
222
of grown ups whos* teeth, and gums were in a
very had condition were given a pint of
orange juice mixed with lemon juice, and
half a head of lettuce each day#
The
decay of teeth stopped almost immediately
and the gums became healthy again*
In
another study cod liver oil (vitamin 13}
was given to the children*
This also
stopped the teeth from decaying*
Vitamin D
seems to natretch!! the supply of calcium
and phosphorus*
If a diet is too low in
calcium for proper growth, the shortage is
not as noticeable if vitamin 1> Is added.
DR. FRKD*
There*s .a funny thing about this vitamin D,
Billy*
You know I told you that if it were
missing from food over a period of time it
would cause rickets.
‘
T hatfs not always true.
Climate affects the growth of bones.
In
countries where children spend most of their
waking time unclothed in the sunshine, they
don11 have rickets.
Ho raatter If the children
have very limited diets*
The action of the
sim on the skin manufactures this vitamin.
But If we take cod liver oil we don’t need
the sunshine.
So sunshine and cod liver oil
00^7
do the same thing*
They protect ua from
rickets*
BILLY:
But my Aunt Martha gives Jimmy cod liver
oil and gives him a sun bath, too.
I3K• FEED:
But she probably gives him more cod liver
oil in the winter*
You ask her*
In our
climate we can hardly turn our children
out in the snow in the winter time to get
their vitamin DJ
•
V
artificial light*
Or by putting food under
Irradiation, that1© called.
Your Aunt Martha Is probably playing safe
and. making sure Jimmy will have straight,
strong bones*
BILLY:
But I can’t tell my pals they have to take
cod liver oil, Dr* Fred*
They wouldn’t
do that, not even for me*
DR. FREDs
Ho, Billy*
You needn’t, Mis a Wilson and I
will have to sell them on that Idea,
But
we think you could, help sell them some other
foods,
MISS VuILSGHS
I)o you like milk, Billy?
BILLY:
Oh, yes, I do.
MISS WILSGH:
Well, milk is rich in the minerals Dr. Fred
mentioned:
calcium and. phosphorus.
Milk is
the e t w e e t way of getting these minerals into
the diets of children*
It Is the richest
source among the foods w© eat ©very day*
And it has a fine kind of protein, too.
DR. FREDj
We could ©at other foods hut they don’t fill
the hill as well a© milk does*
are fairly rich In calcium*
Some vegetables
Greens, cauli­
flower, and cabbage are all good sources*
But the calcium of vegetables Is not used as
effectively as the calcium of milk*
Cheese,
of course, is rich in calcium because it’s
mad© from the solid part of milk*
It ’s
richer, pound for pound, than any of our
natural foods*
But it’s too concentrated
to us© In large ©mounts and therefore is not
the best source of calcium#
MISS WILSGK:
More diets are lacking in calcium than In any
other known food substance#
And It Is some­
thing that the body needs for growth*
So
you see we have to get your pals to drink
milk*
It can b© buttermilk or malted milk
or chocolate milk*
Just so they get three
glasses a day#
BILLY:
If they had a foujntaln in the cafeteria It
would help*
Hi© fellows were talking about
that new bar they opened in Kansas City
last week#
BE* FEED:
Oh yes* that new milk bar*
Do you think some
of them would help us make one?
■BILLY:
Well, (EESIIATXHG-) w e 1re working on the loft
over our gur&g© now *
we would*
But after that maybe
We*re going to have a studio up
there #
MISS WILSOH*
What sort of a studio* Billy?
BILLY:
Oh* sort of arty#
We don*t know yet just
what It111 be like.
We need an architect*
but dad says they 1re awful expensive*
BE* FEED:
My brother is an. architect*
He is going
to spend next week visiting me*
Look* Billy,
If I send him around to help you* will you
promise to try to get all your pals to take
manual training next fall?
Max Evans will
have his class do that milk bar#
It?
How about
If that gang of boys goes for milk* w e 111
have milk sold to your school,
BILLY:
0* K«* Lr# Fred*
like*
1*11 do it.
(G-RlHHIHCf) 1*11 bet 1*11 have all of
them in that class!
(ANXIOUSLY) If you won*t
over tell I did. It*
BE* FEED:
Sort of subtle*
You can count on me, Billy,
MISS WILSON:
And on mo, too*
BILLY:
Vhat els© should they eat?
You talked, about
orange juice and tomato juice*
And y o u 1re
going to take car© of the cod liver oil*
MISS WILSON:
W e 1& like them to eat lots of vegetables and
fresh fruits*
Especially green leafy vegetables*
Do you think that would
BILLY:
be so hard?
Dan doesn’t like spinach*
'
•is mother used
to make him eat it every clay*
His little
brother doesn’t like it, either#
I tod
over there last night and Johnny was blowing
It all over his plate*
His mother finally
gave It up, it got so mossy*
MISS WILSON:
Maybe I should call Mrs* Owen and tell her
to try some other leafy vegetable*
Billy,
is there any other special food or vegetable
that the boys like?
BILLY:
They like cabbage all right*
If it Isn’t
cooked so long it smells kind of funny*
MISS WILSON:
They could eat cabbage then*
And the shorter
the tin© they cook it, the more vitamin G
It has I
Cabbage cooked for half an hour loses
half of its vitamin*
The old fashioned way
of cooking it for two hours or more destroys
all of the vitamin*
BILLY:
Johnny doesn’t ©at very well*
worries about' him*
Kis mother
She’s always cooking
something new for him*
He just isn’t
hungry*
DK* FEED:
Variety is not necessary for the two and
three year old child if the diet Is adequate
in all the essential foods for growth*
Maybe Johnny’s lack of appetite Is a sign
of malnutrition*
We would need to have a
nutrition person check his food to see If
this Is true*
Most dieticians agree that
a diet lacking In certain foods Is often
the important cause of poor appetite*
One
hundred children were studied In Chicago
and sixty*five of them were described as
not being hungry#
So you see Johnny’s
mother has plenty of company*
BILLY:
If Dan would ©at better, Johnny would, too*
So if the milk, bar works -
SOUND:
TELEPHONE BELL
MISS WILSON;
Dr# Fred Allen’s dental office*#*.#0h, yes***
H e 1s here# •*•*Billy , It *s your mother *
She *s
down stairs waiting for you*
If you’re ready
to go, she’ll take you home*
K^jsr car is
parked In a ten minute zone#
And incidentally,
Dan and Jerry are waiting for you to go
awtaming*
BILLY:
Oh, boy!
Tell her I ’m coming*
Dr* Fred,
you will send your brother over?
DR* FRED:
Yes, I will*
BILLY:
Goodbye*
SOUND:
STEPS RECEDING
BILLY:
(FROM OUTSIDE)
ANNOUNCER:
You have just heard the drama ’’Nutrition*1•
Gooclby®, Billy*
Goodbye, Miss Wilson*
’’Nutrition” is one of a series of radio plays
dealing with the problem of the parent and
the homemaker#
229
2o0
No.
pretest
-r '"»•*■—
Directions:
Each of the questions in this section is to be answered by selecting
one of the answer's given below it.
Decide which is the best answer in terms of
what is known at present, and then put a check mark at the left of this answer.
Read the whole question carefully before you answer it.
If you do not know the
answer, do not guess, but
leave the space blank.
out what you already know
aboutthe material to be presented in record form later.
This is an example of the
correct way to do this section:
Yfhat activity is most
light exercise?
1 * Swimming
t/2.
Wa Iking
3.
Tennis
4.
Skating
5.
Boxing
In this test we are trying to find
often recommended by physicians when they recommend
(Since walking is the right answer, walking is checked as above.)
1.
Which of the following is considered by manyauthorities as
a positive and early
sign of poor nutrition in a child between the ages of six and nine?
1. Lack of appetite
2. Many cavities in the child1s teeth
3.
Deformities of the bones, such as
bow legs
4. Inflamed eyes and susceptibility to infection
5.
Sore and stiff joints
2.
Which of
normally
1.
2.
3.
4.
5#
3.
Between the mill and the consumer, fabrics have their price increased
approximately how much?
1.
Very little, less than ten per cent
2#
Doubled
3#
Increased four or five times
4.
Increased ten or more times
4.
Which of
1#
2.
3.
4*
5*
the following when added to the diet best helps bones to develop more
Y/hen the amount of calcium in the
diet is low?
Eggs, at least one a day
Meat, especially fish
Irradiated cereals
Cod or fish liver oil
Green, leafy vegetables
the following interpret style trends for fabric manufacturers?
Helena Rubenstein
Amos Parrish
Adrian
Retailing, Incorporated
Lucien Lelong
231
Pretest, p# 2
5.
What is frequently the effect when children try to do a great many things
which are so hard for them that they are seldom successful?
1. It keeps them from becoming satisfied with low standards in
worth while activities
2. It gives them training and discipline which is valuable in building
strong character
3* It develops an attitude of uncertainty and lack of confidence in
their general ability
4* It gives them a sense of power and confidence in their ability to
-meet situations
5# It stimulates them to try to do their best in other situations as
well as in these situations
6.
The father of a girl of sixteen complains that he has scarcely seen her for
weeks. The daughter explains that she is busy with a play and with the band
at the high school. In order to prevent this family from losing all common
interests because leisure time is not spent together, which of the following
procedures would you advise?
1. That the girl drop some of her extra-time school work so that she
can be home more of the time
2* That leisure time activities be made so attractive in the family
that the daughter will decide that she is spending too much time
outside the home
3. That the daughter be encouraged to substitute piano for band and
dramatic monologues for the school plays
4. That the family make an effort to share the daughter’s activities
outside the home
5. That the parents begin the custom of a family movie night once a
week and require all members of the family to attend together
7.
Which of the following best expresses the meaning of the word "norms"?
1. A number which represents the rate at-which a trait or ability
develops over a certain length of time
2. A number which represents the ideal development of a trait or
ability at a certain time
3. A number which represents the average development of a trait or
ability at a certain time
4. A number which represents the lowest figure possible for normal
children. Any number below this figure Is an indication of an
"Abnormal" child
5. A number which represents the dividing line between an average
child and one described as a genius
8.
Which of the following would be most helpfulto the
teacher, who at the end
of the year, Is trying to describe the abilityof a class inarithmetic
to a
group of parents?
1.
The average grade
2*
The median grade
3.
The range of grades
4-.
The quartile range of grades
5.
The average and the range of grades
Pretest,
p.
Directions:
3
Some of the following statements are true, some are false# Decide
which they are, and then place the answers in the parenthesis at the left,
-|-
for those which are true, 0 for those which are not true#
using
If you do not know
the answer, do not guess, but leave the space blank.
These are examples of the way to answer these questions:
(+)
( 0 )
Spe ch is an ability that is learned.
A child’s nap time should be arranged so that there is absolutely no noise
to disturb him at this time#
(
) 1#
Children whose diets are limited and inadequate do not develop rickets
if their skins are exposed to the sunlight the larger part of the day.
(
) 2*
Children need approximately half as much calcium and phosphorus as
adults do.
(
) 3#
A cup of tomato juice has approximately the same amount of vitamin C
as a cup of orange juice.
(
) 4.
If the diet of a preschool child is adequate in meeting the needs of
growth and health, serving a limited number of foods apparently has
little effect upon the child’s appetite.
(
)
Manufacturers of rayon textiles have developed the industry into one
that is comparatively stable.
(
) 6#
According to a ruling of the Federal Trade Commission, black silk is the
only silk fabric that can have more than ten per cent weighting and be
advertised as pure silk.
(
) 7*
Examination of a fabric under the microscope is one of the best ways of
determining the material from which it is made.
(
) 8#
Late summer changes in Paris fashions largely determine styles in the
clothing of the rest of the world for the following summer.
(
) 9.
Situations or activities that habitually end in giving a child a feeling
that he is unable to handle them adequately are likely to give a feeling
of insecurity in new situations or activities which are similar in nature.
(
) 10. It is difficult to supervise adolescents so skillfully that such
supervision is not detected and resented.
(
) 11. Marked rebellion and emotional outbursts are inevitable during adolescence
and families should expect them.
(
)
(
) 13. Every child who does not reach the "norm1' for his group is a child who
is "subnormal" for this trait or ability.
^
5*
12.
In high school years, forbidding an activity often leads to behavior
much worse than the activity asked for.
233
Pretest, p. 4
(
)
14. The range of scores is more helpful in understanding
group of children than the standard deviation.
the scores of the
(
)
15* Three standard deviations added to and subtracted from the average
gives almost the entire range of all the scores.
(
)
16. It is assumed that all people have equal ability andthat differences
■which exist later are caused by the training which the individual has
Clothing
Directions:
Each of the questions in this section is to be answered by selecting
one of the answers given below it.
Decide which is the best answer in terms of
y/hat is known at present, and then put a check mark at the left of this answer.
Read the whole question carefully before you answer it.
1#
Between the mill and the consumer, fabrics have their price increased
approximately how much?
1. Very little, less than 10 per cent
2. Doubled
3* Increased four or five times
4. Increased ten or more times
2.
At tho present time, which tends to be the most important thing in selling
fabrics?
1. The raw material from which the material is woven
2. The weave used in the structure of tho cloth
3* The originality of the design
4. The beauty of the design
5. The fashion of the season
3.
"Which of the following states leads in the production of woolen and worsted
goods?
1# Pennsylvania
2* Massachusetts
3. New York
4. Connecticut
5. Maine
4.
Which of the following fabrics represents the greatest yardage in a season*s
production?
!• Men’s fancy worsted suitings
2. Women*s vfoolen coatings
3. Women’s woolen dress fabrics
4. Automobile upholstery cloth
5* Men*s woolen topcoatings
5.
Which of the
fabrics were
1. 1900
2. 1910
3. 1920
4. 1930
6«
Which of the following interpret style trends for fabric manufacturers?
la Helena Rubenstein
2. Amos Parrish
3. Adrian
4. Retailing, Incorporated
5. Lucien Lelong
followingrepresents theperiod
in which light weight wool dress
definitely promoted in the general .trade?
to 1909
to 1919
to 1929
to 1939
235
Clothing, p. 2
7.
Which of the following textile fibers is the most difficult to style and to sell?
1* Woolens and worsteds
2. Rayon
3. Linen
4. Cotton
5. Silk
8#
A recent study shows that the largest number of dresses sell at what price?
1. $4.99 or less
2. $5.00 to 9.99
3.
$10.00 to$14.99
4.
$15.00 to$19.99
5.
$20.00 to$24.99
6. $25.00 and up
9.
The thread count of a piece of material is the sum of the threads crossing
each other in one inch of the fabric. Which of the following would be likely
to give the longest wear?
1* 75 up and down threads and 24 across
2. 150 up and down threads and 50 across
3. 66 up and down threads and 34 across
4.
50 up and down threads and 50 across
5. 25 up anddown threads and 75 across
10. Which of the following simple tests Is considered the most reliable
to deciding what raw material was used In a piece of fabric?
1. ”Feeln of the material
2. Weave of the material
3. Examination by microscope
4. Thread count
5. Burning test
inregard
Directions: Some of the following statements are true, some are false. Decide
v/hich they are, and then place the answers in the parenthesis at the left, using
-f- for those which are true, 0 for those which are not true. If youdo not
know
the answer, do not guess, but leave the space blank.
Example:
( -f- ) Speech is an ability that is learned.
( 0 ) A child’s nap time should be arranged so that there is absolutely no noise
to disturb him at this time.
(
) 1.
(
) 2.
(
)
3.
(
)
4.
(
)
5.
(
)
6.
Style changes are likely to be less extreme in materials made from wool
than In those made from silk or rayon*
Since 1850, the dress goods market has never been greatly affected
by fabrics made of wool.
Manufacturers of textiles, as a general rule, have an independent
styling service of their own.
Rayon is a general term applied to all goods made from synthetic or
artificial fibers.
Manufacturers of rayon textiles have developed the industry into one
that Is comparatively stable.
The making and selling of rayon is a distinctly separate industry
from that of the making and selling of silk.
236
Clothing, p. 3
[
)
7.
Rayon fabrics increased in value per yard between 1929*1933.
)
8.
More than three fourths of the cloth (yard goods) cut by garment
manufacturers at the present time is rayon.
)
9*
Silk fabrics are the most difficult to sell at the present time.
) 10. According to a ruling of the Federal Trade Commission, black silk is
the only silk fabric that can have more than ton per cent weighting
and be advertised as pure silk.
)
11. !,A11 wool” fabrics must contain 98 per cent wool.
)
12. According to the Federal Trade Commission, fabrics woven of a mixture
of cotton and wool must contain at least 25 per cent wool if they are
to be sold as "part wool".
)
13. Problems in buying fabrics and clothing would be ended if the manufact­
urer would attach figures representing thread count, tensile strength,
weight, color fastness, and shrinkage.
)
14. Simple tests, such as the way a fabric
reliable tests In buying clothing.
)
'
’
)
15.
feels and looks, are
Examination of a fabric under the microscope is one
of determining the material from which it is made.
fairly
ofthe best ways
16. When rayons were first made,it was necessary to handle them with
extreme care when laundering them. Recent developments in spinning
and weaving make rayons as easy and satisfactory to launder as cottons.
)
17.
)
18.
Excess alkali insoaps can be discovered by a simple home test.
The consumer can depend upon simple household tests
togive her
reliable information regarding the quality of yard goods.
)
19*
The weight of men’s suiting has been reduced as much as
of a pound per square yard during the past five years.
one fourth
)
20.
Late summer changes in Paris fashions largely determinestyles in
c lothing of the rest of the world for the foil oiling summer.
the
0^
KJ
2 9
1'J O *
____
Security
Directions:
Each of the questions in this section is to be answered by selecting
one of the answers given below it#
Decide which is the best answer in terms of
what is known at present, and then put a check mark at the left of this answer.
Read the whole
question
_
^
carefully before you answer it.
1.
What is frequently the effect when children try to do a great many things
which are so hard for them that they are seldom successful?
1# It keeps them from becoming satisfied with low standards in worth
while activities
2* It gives them training and discipline which is valuable In building
strong chatacter
3. It develops an attitude of uncertainty and lack of confidence in
their general ability
4# It gives them a sense of power and confidence in their ability to
meet sit in t ions
5. It stimulates them to try to do their best in other situations as
well as in these situations
2#
Which of the following list is not characteristic of the normal, active
adolescent?
1# To do as the crowd does even when parents disapprove
2# To habitually spend much time in day-dreaming
3# To be interested in adventure and mystery
4. To want to be like other adolescents rather than different from them
5* To want to make their own decisions and to plan their awn activities
3* Which of the following methods is considered the best one for the development
of the high school child?
1# Supervision by parents of most of the activities In which the child
takes part
2, Decide for the child, what things he should do and what friends he
should have, being sure that the child understands that there are
good reasons for such decisions
3# Arrange for many interesting activities, especially those involving
children of about the same age, and encourage the children to plan
and carry out these activities
4# Encourage activities with children of younger ages so that the
adolescent can have many experiences in which he dominates
4.
Which of the following methods is most likely to result In a child taking his
parents into his confidence In regard to what he has l^een doing outside the
home?
-1. Ask for a careful account of what the child has been doing each day
2* Obtain a fairly good picture of what the child has been doing by
asking such questions as 1fHas anything interesting happened today1'
or "To whom have you talked today?"
3. Develop an attitude of great interest in everything that happens to
children outside the home, encouraging them to be the center of the
family group at all times
4. Encourage activities that are interesting for all of the family, and
then encourage the sharing of interesting experiences by everyone
without emphasizing those of the children
5, Show no great interest in outside activities so that the child will
Security, p# 2
238
5,
Which of the following suggestions is given most frequently at present to
parents of children who have great difficulty making friends at school?
1. Arrange interesting activities with a few children of the same age,
gradually increasing the group
2# Emphasize the importance of good deportment and behavior in school
3,
Emphasize the importance of high grades as a
mark of prestige
4#
Encourage the child to take part in athletic
games involving team
work
5, Give him a list of people who are important in their professions
and who have had great difficulty in making friends
6.
The father of a girl of sixteen complains that he has scarcely seen herfor
weeks#
The daughter explains that she is busy with a
play and with theband
at the high school. In order to prevent this family from losing all common
interests because leisure time is not spent together, which of the following
procedures would you advise?
1* That the girl drop some of her extra-time school work so that she
can be home more of the time
^2* That leisure time activities be made so attractive in the family
that the daughter will decide that she is spending too much time
outside the home
3# That the daughter be encouraged to substitute piano forband and
dramatic monologues for tho school plays
4, That the family make an effort to share the daughter’s activities
outside the home
5, That the parents begin the custom of a family movie night once a
week and require all members of the family to attend together
7*
Which of the following is the best description of the typical adolescent?
Consider many adolescents in answering this question. What is the average one
like?
1, Quiet in manner, with long periods in which he does nothing, Is
easily fatigued
2, Moody, temperamental, emotional
3# Confident in manner, very active, with apparently no limit to energy
4, Easily influenced by the behavior of people of their own age,
impatient of prohibitions
5, Easily distracted with few interests ivhich last long, easily in­
fluenced to react to people if their emotions are appealed to
8#
In case of disagreement between parents and a child as to whether the child
should be allowed to do as the rest of the children he knows, which policy
is generally recommended as the best educational procedure?
1, Ask the child to accept the decision of the parents until he is of
legal age
2, Insist that the child accept the authority of the parents
3, Encourage the child to make and carry out his own decisions regard­
less of the parent’s wishes
4, Discussion of the problem by parents and child, the parents stating
their opinion and reasons, but allowing the child to make his own
decision after he has considered the problem carefully
5, Removal of the child to another environment which has conditions
better suiting the parent’s viewpoint
239
Security, p. 3
9,
"Which of the following is most likely to Influence tho behavior of most
children of high school age?
1* The desire of being recognised as an individual with a definite
personality and with rights of his own
2# The desire for the approval of their parents
3. The desire for the approval of their teachers
4. The desire to be like certain persons whom the parents admire and
with whom the child has often been unfavorably compared
5. The desire for economic freedom
10# Which adolescent of the following descriptions Is regarded by many
sociologists and psychologists as the child who needs help in adjusting
himself to other people?
1# The girl who dresses in extreme style an& uses too much make-up
2# The boy who insists on wearing a sweat shirt, old trousers, and
sneakers for every occasion
3* The child who is constantly getting into difficulties because he
tries new things
4# The extremely boistrous, roudy child
5# The extremely quiet, good child who tries very hard to please his
teachers and parents and who does nothing he thinks might displease
them#
Directions:
which they
-|-
Some of the following
statements
aretrue, some are
false.
are, and then place the answers in
theparenthesis at
the left,using
for those which are true, 0 for those which are not true.
If
Decide
you do not know
the answer, do not guess, butlea ve the space blank.
Example:
(
) Speech Is an ability that is learned,
( 0) A child’s nap time should be arranged so that there is absolutely no
noise to disturb him at this time,
(
) 1#
An unattractive child or one that is unattractively dressed usually
has more trouble finding a place in social groups than one who has a
fine personal appearance.
(
) 2.
Teasing usually makes a sensitive adolescent less
(
) 3*
The ability to talk easily and well seems to have no relation to
general adjustment of self-confidence.
(
) 4#
According to modern psychological thought, security and adjustment are
taught less by parental example than bypolicies and discipline which
parents use In handling children.
(
) 5*
Situations or activities that habitually end in giving a child a
feeling that he is unable to handle them adequately arelikely to
give
a feeling of insecurity in new situations or activities which are
similar in nature.
sensitive.
240
ecurity, p. 4
) 6#
Having a place in an intelligently sympathetic and understanding
family is a good substitute for the child who cannot make or keep a
place in a social group of his own.
)
7.
Undesirable behavior may be caused by close supervision as well as
lack of supervision.
)
8. Success in many things which are attempted gives a general feeling of
ability and is necessary for the development of self-confidence.
) 9.
It is possible to develop a high degree of self-reliance in children
if they are helped to see the reasons for doing things In certain
ways and then given a chance to make judgments of their own.
)
10. It is difficult to supervise adolescents so skillfully that such
supervision is not detected and resented,
)
11
.A
)
12
.As
)
13. Most adolescents resent being told that they are too young to decide
everything for themselves.
)
14. Adolescents should not be expected to make intelligent decisions on
matters of importance if they have never been allowed to decide many
less important problems.
)
15. Marked rebellion and emotional outbursts are inevitable during ad­
olescence and families should expect them.
)
16. The ideal family is interested in children’s activities outside the
home but does not force the confidences of the children by demanding
detailed accounts.
)
17. Emotional outbursts at adolescence are usually not significant and
ignoring them is often a good way to treat them..
)
18. The very quiet, unassertive child is as likely to be unadjusted as
the delinquent child.
)
19. Strict discipline is one of the best ways of teaching self control.
child often refuses to try to do a thing if he feels that he cannot
do it.
a general policy, individuality is highly desirable and all marked
differences of a child from his group should be emphasized and de­
veloped if this is possible.
) 20. In high school years, forbidding an activity often leads to behavior
much worse than the activity asked for.
241
The Average Child
Directions:
Each of the questions in this section is to be answered by selecting
one of the answers given below it.
Decide which is the best answer in terns of
what is known at present, and then put a check mark at the left of this answer.
Read the whole question carefully before you answer it,
1,
"Which of the following best expresses the meaning of the word "norms”?
1. A number which represents the rate at which a trait of ability
develops over a certain length of time
2m A number which represents the ideal development of a trait or
ability at a certain time
3* A number which represents the average development of a trait or
ability at a certain time
4. A number which represents the lowest figure possible for normal
children. Any number below this figure is an indication of an
"abnormal" child
5, A number which represents the dividing line between an average child
and one described as a genius
2m
"Which of the following is defined as the differenco between the highest and
lowest score?
1# Average
2m Average variation
3. Median
4. Range
5. Normal distribution
3,
Which one of the following statements is considered true in regard to such
general traits as intelligence or height and weight?
1. People vary very little
2m One-half to two thirds of the population will not vary greatly from tho
average of the group but there will be extremes both above and below
this average
3, General traits vary greatly and are distributed in an unpredictable
pattern
4# In any one trait, roughly one third of tho population has little ability,
one third has average ability, one third has great ability.
4#
A group of 100 children have been given a test to measure their ability in
reading. After the results are computed, which of the following is best to
show the variation in the results?
1* The average
2# The median
3m The range
4* The standard deviation
5* Tho quartile
5.
What does the standard deviation show about a set of measurements?
1. The number of children measured and their description
2m That measurements were recorded in the most recent standard method
3. The amount of variation In certain parts of the group as well as in
the whole group
4. The amount of variation ofeach child from the standard or average
5. The number of childrenbelowthe average score
242
The Average Child, p. 2
6*
Which of the following would be most helpful to the teacher, who at the end
of the year, is trying to describe the ability of a class in arithmetic to a
group of parents?
1» The average grade
2. The median grade
3. The range of grades
4. The quartile range of grades
5* The average and the range of grades
7#
For which of the following traits is there the least varistion from the average
1. Artistic ability
2. IQ
3# Musical ability
4# Weight
5. Height
8.
Variations of traits or abilities can be roughly described in the following
ways. For which group is the "average" of it the most accurate in describing
it?
1* When the high soore and the low score are about equal in their
distance from the average
2« When there are few low scores in comparison to high scores
3# When there is a great deal of variation in the trait or ability
measured
4. When there are few high scores in comparison to other scores
5# "When there seems to be very little variation in the trait or ability
being measured
9.
At the present time, tests given to measure the general ability of school
children measure which of the following most accurately?
1. Inherited ability
2. Early training
3. General environment
4# Influence of home and school
5. Inherited ability and training
10. A group of children have been weighed. There are a number of very heavy
children in this group. Which of the follo\ving will the weight of these
heavy children affect the least?
1, The average
2* The range
3# The median
4. The quartile
5. The average deviation
Directions: Some of the following statements are true, some are false. Decide
which they are, and then place the answers in the parenthesis at the left, using
-)- for those which are true, 0 for those which are not true. If you do not know
the answer, do not guess, but leave the spaco blank.
Example:
(—j— ) Speech is an ability that is learned.
( 0 ) A child*s nap time should be arranged so that there is absolutely no noise
to disturb him at this time.
243
The Average Child, p. 3
'
)
1. Averages vary less for height than for weight.
)
2. There are few people who have "average" musical ability, either they
have very little ability or they have a great deal of ability,
)
3. "Norms" are usually averages obtained by measuring large groups of
children in regard to a certain trait or ability.
)
4# Norms do not express the amount of variation found among children.
)
5* Every child who does not reach the "norm" for his group is a child who
is "subnormal" for this trait of ability.
)
6, A knowledge of the norms for his age is usually a great incentive for
the "far below average" child.
) 7*
A set of norms should not be used without the teacher and parent under­
standing clearly the amount of variation which existed in the children
who were measured to make the norms.
)
8* If norms are emphasized a great deal in school work, "below average"
children are likely to become discouraged and to feel inferior.
)
9. A comparison of the score of one child In relation to individual scores
made in his group is usually of more value than a comparison of one
score with the average of the group.
) 10. The range of scores is more helpful in understanding the scores of a
group of children than the standard deviation.
’
!
)
11. The standard deviation helps one to get a picture of the variation in
the middle two thirds of the measured group*
)
12. The quartile has more meaning and is more useful than the average.
)
13.
)
14.
)
The
range calls attention to
extreme values.
One
standard deviation added
to and subtractedfromthe
average gives
the limits within which two thirds of the measurements taken will fall,
15# Three standard deviations added to and subtracted from the average
gives almost the entire range of all the scores.
)
16.
)
17.
The
median is never higher than the average.
The average development of a
development.
group representstheideal
rateof
)
18. Most tests measuring a trait or ability measure only natural or in­
herited characteristics and are not a measure of training and experience.
)
19. The difference between the highest and lowest score made on a test is
called the range.
)
20. It is assumed that all people have equal ability and that differences
which exist later are caused by the training which the individual has
received.
244
Nutrition
Directions!
Each of the questions in this section is to he answered by selecting
one of the answers given below it.
Decide which is the best answer in terms of
what is known at present, and then put a check mark at the left of this answer.
Read the whole question carefully before you answer it*
1,
Which of the following is considered by many authorities as a positive and
early sign of poor nutrition in a child between the ages of six and nine?
1* Lackof appetite
2, Many
cavities in
the
child’s teeth
3, Deformities of the bones, such as bow legs
4, Inflamed eyes and susceptibility to infection
5# Sore and stiff joints
2m Which of the following seems to be true of most young children in regard to
the variety of food given to them?
1«
Theytire quickly of the same foodsprepared
in the same ways
2*
Lack of appetite
follows
lack of varietyeven when allessential
food materials are provided.
3* Variety in food is not necessary but variety in the way it is served
is very important
4. Variety does not appear to be important if all essential food
materials are provided
5# Children demand a much larger variety in foods and in the way they
are prepared than adults do
3,
Which of the following foods is most highly recommended to meet the daily
calcium requirements of growing children?
1. One quart of orange juice
2* Generous servings of three vegetables daily, including spinach and
carrots
3, One pound of cheese
4* One quart of milk
5* Two servings of whole grain cereals daily
4,
In comparing the needs of children from six to fourteen years of age with the
needs of adults, which of the following statements is true in regard to
calcium and phosphorus?
1, Children need about the same amount as adults do
2. Children need about one third as much as adults
3m Children need about one half as much as adults
4* Children need about twice as much as adults
5, Children need about three times as much as adults
5,
Which of the following food elements is found in milk in such small amounts
that other foods must be included especially for it?
1* Protein
2, Vitamin D
3, Calcium
(4, Phosphorus t
5, Iron
6#
Which of the following when added to the diet best helps bones
more normally when the amount of calcium in the diet is low?
1# Eggs, at least one a day
2, Meat, especially fish
3, Irradiated cereals
4* Cod or fish liver oil
5, Green, leafy vegetables
7.
Early signs of rickets are most evident in which of the
1* Bones
2. Teeth
3, Eyes
4* Joints
5* Sinus cavities
to develop
bodystructures?
8*
Which of the following foods should be added to a diet of milk, eggs, butter,
and fresh green vegetables in order to encourage the development of good teeth?
1# Zwiebach or other hard breads
2, Orange juice
3, Cereals
4* Meats and fish
5, Liver
9#
Which of the following ways of preparing cabbage is best for preserving its
content of vitamin C?
1. Steaming for ten minutes
2m Cooking for five minutes with one fourth teaspoon of soda
3.
Cooking for thirty minutes
4* Cooking very slowly for one hour
5* Simmering for two hours
10, Infection of the gums with bleeding and loose teeth will often show Immediate
improvement if which of the following recommendations is followed?
1, More cereals are substituted for some of the sugar in the diet
2, Natural sugars such as honey, brown or maple sugar are substituted
for candies and white, refined sugar
3, Hard or raw foods requiring chewing are added each day
4, Two cups of orange juice and a large serving of lettuce salad are
added each day
5, Liver and spinach are added each day
Directions:
Some of the following statements are true, some are false.
Decide
which they are, and then place the answers in the parenthesis at the left, using
for those which are true, 0 for those which are not true. If you do not know
4
"
the answer, do not guess, but leave the space blank.
This is an example of the way to answer these questions:
( -j-) Speech is an ability that is learned.
( 0) A child’s nap time should be arranged so that there is absolutely no noise
to disturb him at this time.
(
) 1#
Undernourished children, as a rule, have poor teeth with many
cavities.
^
^ 2#
When a certain diet has been described as not meeting the needs of the
body for growth, the food element which has been most frequently lacking
is calcium.
Nutrition, P. 3
(
) 3.
Among the ordinary foods served, milk is by far the richest source of
calcium*
(
) 4.
Green cabbage is an excellent food source of calcium and vitamin D#
(
) 5.
Children whose diets are limited and inadequate do not develop rickets
if their skins are exposed to the sunlight the larger part of the day.
(
) 6 * Tooth decay is usually the first sign of rickets.
(
) 7.
Calcium is used by the body more efficiently if cod liver oil is also
in the diet, or if the skin is exposed to sunlight for a part of each
day.
(
) 8.
Irradiated foods provide the body with all the vitamins known to science
today.
(
)
The calcium present in vegetables such as carrots and spinach is used
by the body as effectively as the calcium in milk.
(
) 10. Children need approximately half as much calcium and phosphorus as
9*
adults do.
( ) 11.A
quart of milk per day for each person in the family is the surest way
of providing an adequate amount of vitamin C and D,
(
) 12. The first results of a lack of vitamin C is tooth decay.
(
) 13. Liberal amounts of grapefruit, orange, or lemon juice and lettuce or
green cabbage added to the diets of persons with gum infections and teeth
in poor condition results in immediate improvement in dental condition.
(
) 14. Cooking cabbage for thirty minutes does not affect its vitamin C content
to any great degree.
(
) 15. A cup of tomato juice has approximately the some amount of vitamin C
as a cup of orange juice.
(
) 16. Sunlight or fish liver oils are needed to help the body use calcium.
(
) 17. Bread, potatoes, and candies are foods which should be avoided by
growing children if they wish to have strong, hard teeth.
(
) 18. A clean tooth seldom decays*
(
) 19. American children have excellent teeth.
( ) 20.If
the diet of a preschool child is adequate in meeting the needs of
growth and health, serving a limited number of foods apparently has
little effect upon the child1s appetite.
247
N°* ________
Information Blank
It has been argued that learning by means of the radio is influenced by a
number of factors*
is not asked for*
I would appreciate the following information.
Your name
This information will be used only in relation to scores
which were made on the tests over the records you have heard*
1.
Circle the last grade you completed in school:
Grade School 1 2 H
5 6 7 8
High School
9 10 11 12
College
12 3 4
Graduate Work 1 2 3
2*. Check
18
30
40
50
60
70
the age group in which your age falls:
to 29 years
to 39 years
to 49 years
to 59 years
to 69 years
to 79 years
3.
What is your husband’s profession? _____
■■
4.
What is your family's approximate yearly income?
5.
Check any of the following which your family has and uses for food and
for family use:
Chickens
Cow
Garden
i
6*
If you have a profession outside of your home, what is it?
_________
7* Approximately how many hours sl week do you listen to the radio?
How many hours do you listen to musical programs? _________________
How many hours do you listen to informational programs? _______
8. Which of the records which you heard did you like the best?
9.
Which of the records did you like the least?
Appeia&iM C
Table 13
22
28
16
m to
1 c>
02
N 13
eo o
o> to
60 to
18 15
56
Groups I
r-i
CD
10
20
28
24
<08
4
25
0
33
22
29
34
37 11 19 23
35 23 24 6
11 22 14 20
28 17 23 18
21 20 11 22
28 18 29 9
2
25 1
15
33 10
27
21 14
25
19 15
23
24 28
30
28 41 11
38 4 24
44 12 14
30 22
25 23
26
CO
02
to
17 18 15
r-?
2
7
25
*•*6
03
03
CD
03
11
11
o
ID
61
CD
o
03
r! 03
6 16
11
44
III
1
39 19 39
33 37 38
6 27 39
28 18 22
11 46 32
27 23 44
9 30 21
23 21 10
7 29 32
17 28 43
30 33 11
35 26 29
32 35
35 37
35 34
27
32
18
15
16
262
50
14
11 12
12 22
27 20
15
0
u*7
I
19
24op
t
«f£<
16
15
27
36
25
28
24
1
Drama
2
3 4
12
466
21
39
18
33
34
10 17
27 33
21 16
24 27
35 31
30
24
37
18
Dialogue
w
a 4
2
466
16
26
38
14
23
25
18
29
25
19
1
Story
2
5 4
179
1
Lecture
3 4
2
29 24 37
21 30 24
32 18 31
14 25 40
8 23 28
27 19 27
16 14 19
30 19 18
27 23 26
8 24 31
13 29
17 19
25 25
22 34
35 11
Clothing
265
Test Scores of Groups:
18
20
22
16
9
6
13
28
11
13
5
20
16 15 16
59
XV
250
Table 14
Test Scores of Groups:
Dialogue
1 2 3 4
18
21
15
17
9
18
19
21
4
20
28
6
9
29
15
20
11
12
20
9
27
10
14
19
0
30
16
10
13
25
7
IS 19
11 12
22 4
14 13
33310
18 30
-1 17
12 5
11 7
2 12
20
14
16
10
17
D tr> I
60
co fH «
H
CM CM
18 15 10
1
15
12
11
18
23
17
U
23
19
15
19
7
4
24
5
13
13
Drama
2 3 4
20 -9 3
11 9 14
13 3 5
11 28 -1
25 15 21
9 4 14
16 18 14
14 3 16
26 15 0
a 15 12
12 16 13
IB 8
7- 11
2 1
Y 16
20
13
Security
Lecture
1 2 3 4
24
13
1
16
10
14
9
4
*2
3
4
26
13
9
9
7
•9
-12
-9
-15
6
14
12
9
15
9
11
20
16
10
5
20
13
8
12
25
3
14
13
7
15
16
16
1
21
17
-9
11
25
27
9
12
-1
5
14
17
Story
2 3 4
21
15
16
15
20
11
9
32
8
14
9
22
4
19
13
16
12
13
25
19
18
23
11
15
17
25
1
11
21
19
29
6
7
12
20
8
5
9
11
16
14
12
13
16
16
23
10
22
to to
to ID H
CM CM r-5 r4
17 18 15 11
o>
O
H
Oi
CM
11 11
t—t
o
1
CM
6 lu
O
co ^ Oi co 2881
lo <C>
H W N
H
12 16 15 16 220
Table 15
Test Scores of Groups:
1
10
2
27
17
6
12
12
13
22
10
9
21
-1
T
03
o
H
Story
2 S 4
4 -2
11
7 5
0 0
9 8
—2 6
0 0
24 17
-1 9
4 3
5 11
9 3
15 9
14 14
4 2
10
11
4
LQ
r-1
05
N 13 IB 15
9
8
16
14
18
9
5
0
16
8
60
o
H
10
The Average Child
1
2
3
4
11
10
13
4
7
17
5
4
10
5
10
8
16
13
16
14
17
0
0
5
-1
13
5
20
18
7
1
16
10
9
—3
—5
11
—5
14
3
23
15
12
10
12
13
9
12
6
5
6
15
1
4
9
9
0
4
17
7
9
25
13
14
12
to o 05
H
rHi
4
r~4 (H f“
17 18 15 11
o
05
Lecture
Drama
Dialogue
3
4
1
2
3
4
2 0 -1
2 20 19
4
7
6
6
14
14
-1
~3
10
18
-1
16
9
12
26
1
19
2
2
13
15
12
3
5
1
5
21
6
12
4
Q
10
18
17
-1
—1
1
7
8
1
0
10
17
15
10
18
22
23
21
6
-9
11
31
29
10
5
16
18
24
14
2
3
15
0
0
7
18
2
-3
11
19
16
17
9
-2
1
2
-3 12 16
-10 12 11
0 -6 9
12 2 9
0 0
9 0
4 6
2 -3
1 5
05 CD to
t0
H
11 11
CD
CO
rl
6 16
^
O
H
3.2
3
& 1895
OJ!E £
tQ 03
H
CQ
rf
16 15 16
220
Table 16
Test Scores of 0-roups;
Drama
1
30
12
22
25
3
16
20
26
22
20
20
19
15
2
14
18
8
7
14
19
15
20
16
2
6
3
1
18
19
7
11
19
o i>
tO r l
T 04 04
m
Story
Lecture
4
31
25
27
37
20
19
o o 18
27 32
31 18
41 9
29
7
11
249
3
25
10
33
7
17
5
CO
cO
03
04
to
N 13 I B 15 10
1
23
5
11
23
23
28
17
24
24
2
27
14
7
27
22
18
28
2
10
23
20
29
22
7
10
16
-2
24
18
31
22
03
O
OR
22
3 4
0 12
21 15
12 27
vy
32
po 12
29 1
9 8
29 34
19 28
20 25
13 28
21
12
9
18
Nutrition
1
19
21
10
14
18
34
7
16
12
0
22
2
-14
14
30
10
13
23
*3,4
28
-3
12
32
3
13
18
10
16
3
19
2
Dialogue
4
26
8
20
32
29
24
13
8
14
18
28
20
19
38
20
15
1
22
15
22
24
18
33
14
26
o
31
27
21
CD
02
L0
02
10
20
14
9
37
25
29
16
25
29
26
25
18
40
26
25
3 4
•Zi7
l 13
28 21
23 28
lb 12
13 6
25 -6
25 2
10 21
20 14
30 24
15 3
19 9
35 26
32 15
36 -2
15
02
CO
2
19
28
O
to
to to
rH
^•i
05
oa
02
03
17 18 15 11
to rH
£> to
rH
<J>
to
H
11 11
03
6
16
pH
£> CD Q 4016
to to CJ
12 16 15 16 220
o
)"W°|J53
Ap#®s3.i3£ D
25-1
Sable 17
Education and Radio Listening Time#
1
18
2©
23
29
T 94
N 4
58
14
25
25
30
-
Lecture
3
,
E
8
,
34
27
22
23
85
4
25
34
1
24
50
18
19
24
3L50 25 115
N 5
1
5
High
18 2 1 14
32
27
16
8
16
17
22
16
14
175
T 18
1
9
N 1
Hi eh
19 29 25
14 23
21
14 50 19
55 23
Story
4
1
2
5
4
College educations
24 24 59 16 25
31
27 5©
0
28
12
2©
28
109 24 104 52 25
4
1
4
2
2
College educations
57 24 17 27 28
40 18 16 19 24
51 27 51 24 33
35 22 24 22
12
25
2-5
T a, loa
5
4
174
0
Dialogue
Drama
1 2
5
4
1 2
5
High radio listening
21 22 19 22 11 50 2 2
24 28 14 27 17 32 52
25 50 27
45
SO
35
54
2
2
2
2
74 SB 89
5
3
3
Low radio listening
55 22 25 20 33 19
28 17
18 35 27
20
25
46
18
23
29
55
69
38
39
44
4
20
16
36
2
2 = 41
28
21
52
45
Z9
35
37
34
108 141 109 94 107 63 78 25 61 68 179 391 28 - 1720
© 11
5
2
5
6
4
2
4
1
3
4
1 ^
65
School (or less) educations Low radio listening
6
37 10 20
30 18 15 34 37 1 1
6
9 28 1 1 22
2
11
1
53 27
21
16
15 23 33
54 28
25 14
11
7
9
30
55
55
15
2
2
27
14
6
2
21
38 1 2
13
7
30
11
25
-6
52
15
81 45 155 21 144 , 1193
157 119 84 34 127 41
2
9 , 63
4
4
8
0
4
1
5
5
4
0
6
School (or less) educations High radio listening
10
27 57 S3 22 2 0 28 1 0 24 25 39 18
13
28
21
11
9
28
19
19 10 20 15
27 26
5
29
4
18 28 41 26
10
4 1 1 29
44
£9
19
£5
11
Clothing
24
54 119 98
3 4 4
98 81 47 10 64 32
5 4 2 1 5 2 3
94 65
3 0 4
*
54 , 1162
5 5
o ~ r-
Table 18
Education and Radio Listening Times
Dialogue
1
2
3
18
21
9
21
69
4
IS
17
18
4
6
N
60
5
19
•
19
1
20
28
9
57
N 3
Drama
2
5
1
4
4
College educations
12 io" 12 25 20
4 14
10
4
14 15 14
IS
18
8
85
7
22
60 10 41 25 64 19 28
4
1
4
1
4
2
2
College educations
50
19 12 25
9 14
li 15 18 16
5
5
22 12 17 26 28 16
12
19 20
8
0
2
19 13
IS
Security
Lecture
Story
1
2
3
4
1 2
3
4
High radio listening
10 15 14 20 25
9 19 IS
7
6
9 25
5
4 18 10
5 14 16
17
2
Low
18
14
19 25 48 44
2
2
3
3
radio listening
26 15 10 17
9
5 17
9
14
7
29
5
57
2
25 = 554
2 = 41
21 12 11
16 13
20 25
11 23
8 17
25
11
21
19
29
98 100 48 35 32 51 15 29 34 89 208 11 * 945
8
4
2
5 4
4
1
5
2
6 11
1 = 65
(or less) education:i Low radio listening
4
16 —9 15 15
7
15 11 -9 18 24
~9
8
9 14
3
1
1 12
11 13
12 12
9
9 —9
20
15 11 16
13 -1 19
7 12 16
4 “-15
8
—2
7
24
5
7
9
15
13
16
16
16
16
25
103 11 57 16 116 * 651
85 54 26 18 36 -•29
2
4
4
0
8
9-65
5 4
1
6
S 4
(or less) educations High radio listening
8
9 IS
3 16 -12 12 20 21 15
11
9
15
11
32
14
18
-1
3
18
23
27 22
12
11
7 15 21
4
16
12
11
2
5
*1
SO 65 44
1
5
3
High School
IS -1
20
20
9
14
19
0
16
7
120 *•1
0
9
1
High Sahool
29 14 30
11 35 17
5
27 18
10 11
20
14
16
17
77 145 52 43
4
3
8
4
36
4
60 55 19
5 4
2
12
1
52
3
53
2
59
3
69
3
0
48 - 751
4~53
2881
Table 80
50
12
5
26
T 71
N 4
22
25
16
22
19
Education and Radio Listening Tim©: Nutrition
Drama
Lecture
Story
Dialogue
8
4
4
3 4
2
5
College education; High radio listening
9
1 18 30 13 29 18 29 18
14 24 85 24 27 29
16
27
25 19
8 22 32 10 14 51 18 13 15
10
7
20
18 27 25
11
18
28
48 24 90 24 90 48
9 40 62 25 61 76 72 51 24 - 793
2
2 = 41
4
2
2
4
1
4
2
2
3
1
2
5
5
College educations Low radio listening
1 25 31
5 22 21 15 21 14 16 20 16 10 57 21
32 21 14 28
10 37 23 28 12 87 £)4 10
7 34
88
22
57 25
9
2
c
.
i
15
35
ou
2
21
27
26 25
24
83
41
10 19
85 25
28 20
50
19
55
32
56
N
.04
5
20
T 20
N 1
20
20
15
16 80 37 137 510
6 11
2
1
3
Low radio listening
8 22 20 10
15 14 29 15
8 26 26
40
20
19
52
20
15
21
1 156 77 112 93 61 104 55 60
1
2
4
5
4
4
P
6
1
5
High School (or less) educations
21
0 28 19 -14
23 14
18 22
28
10 -14
7 29
8
17
12
7 — 5
19
2 27 15
6
16 12
18 23 18
15
-6
12
7
24
2
2
6
31
14
3
26
18
—2
19
135 60 115 25 101
113 78 60 28 64 -19
108 22
4
4
2
9
0
8
4
0
6
6
9
5 4
1
1
High School (or less) educations High radio listen!n/;y
9
15
7 19 11 18 22 12 14 28 18 26 22
14
24
9 52
0
3 24 24 16
7 17 18 26 20
CT£T 23
19
3
5 52 -2 29 20 12
20
18
22
12
25
15
19 51
29
9
= 1404
= 65
= 9X0
r 63
7
T 55
N 3
11
9
GO 116
4
8
69
53 89 72
3 4
4
5
51 14
4
2
20
1
40 50 79 48
3 2 3 3 0
55 ’= 909
; 53
4016
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