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Nostalgia: A descriptive and comparative study

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V oetalgia?
A D e s c rip tiv e and Comparative Study
by b\ro
yV1
£»V
W illis H. McCann
y.
Subm itted to th e F acu lty o f th e Graduate School in
p a r t i a l f u lf illm e n t o f th e req u irem en ts f o r th e
d e g re e , Doctor o f P hilosophy, in th e Department o f
Psychology, In d ia n a U n iv e rs ity .
ProQuest Number: 10295169
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Table o f C ontents
F ast X.
I.
Review o f th e L ite r a tu r e
C ircum stances le a d in g to th e P re se n t
In v e s tig a tio n .
........... ..
Review ©f th e L i t e r a t u r e
II
A.
.
4
C r i t i c a l Summary o f th e L i t e r a t u r e . . .
it
136
F*
IV.
P re se n t I n v e s tig a tio n
Procedure
A*
B*
0.
D.
E.
1
...............
P a rt IX .
m
1
In tro d u o t io n . . . . . . . . . . . .........
A,
pagi
154
IntT oduet io n and Def i n i t i o n s
............. ....
The S u b je c ts* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The T est M a te ria ls *
.............
S e le c tio n of the S ubjects*. . .
Method o f P re se n tin g th e Q u estio n n aire s
to th e Sub j so ts
Method o f Scoring th e Q u e stio n n a ire s* .
R e s u lts
154
155
158
161
ITS
IT 6
178
ITS
A* Sym ptom atology.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
• * 236
1. Summary o f Symptomatology * .........
22?
• ♦
B. P e rs o n a lity D if f e r e n c e s . ............. ..
1 . Summary o f P e rs o n a lity D iffe re n c e s *. 237
239
0 . b i o l o g i c a l F a c to r s ..................................
1 . Summary o f E tio lo g ic a l F a c t o r s ...
307
V.
VI.
V II.
V III.
XX*
T h e o re tic a l C o n trib u tio n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
309
S uggestions f o r P rev e n tio n and Treatm ent
313
G eneral Summary and C onclusions * . . . . . . . . . . . .
318
S uggestions f o r F u rth er R e s e a rc h .
335
A ppendices
.
.............................................................
338
n o s ta lg ia i
A D e s c rip tiv e and Comparative Study
In tro d u c tio n
There i s a s to r y , on good a u th o r ity , t h a t a sh o rt tim e
ago a s tu d e n t who was s u ffe rin g an a tta c k o f hom esickness
c a lle d a t th e o f f ic e o f a prom inent p s y c h o lo g ist and asked
f o r h e lp .
This stu d e n t wanted to le a rn a l l he could about
hi© problem and put many q u e stio n s to th e p s y c h o lo g is t.
He
in q u ire d as to th e cause o f hom esickness, i t s u su al symptoms,
i t s d u r a tio n , and i t s tre a tm e n t.
He wanted to know w hether
o r n o t everyone was s u s c e p tib le to i t , and i f n o t, what type
o f in d iv id u a l was s u s c e p tib le .
He wanted to know whether i t
was due t o tr a in in g and e x p e rie n c e , or to th e so -c a lle d
c o n s t i t u ti o n a l make-up o f th e In d iv id u a l.
He wanted to know
f a c t s ; he wanted to know what sc ie n c e had to say about th e
problem o f hom esickness.
0m f© rtunately f o r t h i s s tu d e n t, and f o r th e many o th e rs
who s u f f e r th e pangs o f n o s ta lg ia , science could o f f e r no
f a c tu a l In fo rm atio n about hom esickness.
The p sy c h o lo g ist
had no f a c t e th a t he could say were baaed upon th e fin d in g s
o f a th o roughly s c i e n t i f i c and sy stem atic In v e s tig a tio n o f
th e problem .
The o n ly in fo rm atio n he could g iv e th e stu d e n t
was t h a t based upon popular b e l i e f s and arm chair th e o r iz a ­
tio n s .
The in c id e n t was, o f c o u rse , somewhat em barrassing
fo r th e p s y c h o lo g is t, and he a t once re so lv e d to check th e
l i t e r a t u r e c a r e f u lly f o r w hatever i t might c o n ta in about
n o s ta lg ia *
A problem so w e ll-n ig h u n iv e r s a l, and in v o lv in g
such profound human B uffering must su re ly have aroused th e
s c i e n t i f i c c u r io s i t y ©f some in v e s tig a to r 1 He th e re fo re
tu rn e d to th e l i t e r a t u r e to see what i t had to o f f e r , but
h is e ffo rt® th e re were s c a n tily rewarded*
There was
p r a c t i c a l l y n o th in g in th e contem porary l i t e r a t u r e on th e
s u b je c t.
F u rth e r in v e s tig a tio n d isc lo s e d t h a t se v e ra l
d i s s e r t a t i o n s had been w ritte n on th e problem o f n o s ta lg ia
by German and French s tu d e n ts o f th e l ? t h and 18th
c e n tu r ie s , and t h a t th e problem had been d isc u sse d by sewe r a ! w r ite r s o f th e 19 th c e n tu ry ; but re fe re n c e to th e
problem was s u r p r is in g ly la c k in g in the l i t e r a t u r e o f th e
p re s e n t c e n tu ry .
A ccordingly, in th e f a l l o f 1937, th e p re se n t w r ite r
undertook to make as com plete a survey of th e l i t e r a t u r e on
n o s ta lg ia a® p o s s ib le .
The se a rc h lead t o th e disco v ery o f
31 a r t i c l e s , most o f which co n tain ed re fe re n c e s to many o ld
a rtic le ® o f th e 1 7 th and 18th c e n tu r ie s w hich, u n fo rtu n a te ly ,
were n o t a v a ila b le .
Of th e se 31 a r t i c l e s , only 9 belong to
th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry ; th e rem aining 22 belong to th e p re se n t
century*
These 31 a r t i c l e s form th e b ib lio g ra p h y fo r t h i s
d is s e rta tio n .
F o rtu n a te ly , th ey do give us some knowledge
o f th e h is to r y o f n o s ta lg ia and o f th e a tte m p ts to under­
stan d i t *
Since th e e a r l i e r works were not a v a ila b le , we
have re c o n s tru c te d th e h is to r y o f n o s ta lg ia from th e so u rce s
a t hand.
The m a te ria l i s p re se n te d in c h ro n o lo g ic a l o r d e r .
When a u th o rs whose works were n o t a v a ila b le a re m entioned,
th e secondary source w ill be in d ic a te d by p la c in g th e
b ib lio g ra p h y number i n p a re n th e sis* d i r e c tl y fo llo w in g th e
a u th o r1s name*
3
Review o f th e L ite r a tu r e
1% k&s been argued th a t n o s ta lg ia , o r hom esickness, i s
o ld e r and more fundam ental th a n human n a tu re i t s e l f (2 5 ),
and t h a t a l l p eo p le ©f th e w o rld , a l l ages and a l l tem pera­
m ents, weak and s tr o n g , a re more o r l e s s s u b je c t to it# (31)
Although th e a n c ie n ts seldom m entioned i t in t h e i r w r itin g s ,
we know t h a t th ey d id ex p erien ce i t .
The p o et Homer (1?)
w rote t h a t U lysses wept and r o l l e d on th e f l o o r when he
thought o f home, and th e p s a lm ist t e l l s us t h a t :
®By th e r i v e r s o f Babylon
T here we s a t down, y e a , we wept
When we remembered Z ion.*1
Again l a t e r th e p s a lm is t c r ie s o u t th e q u e s tio n :
we sin g th e hordes song in a s tra n g e land?*^
*How s h a l l
About 400 B. C.
H ip p o crates ( ? , 19) w rote o f a q u a s i- i d e n t i f i c a ti o n betw een
th e human ra c e s and th e p la c e s o r c lim a te s am idst which t h e i r
development was accom pli shed.
He noted t h a t whenever th e
p eo p le o f th e m ountains, or p l a i n s , o r p r a i r i e s were s e n t to
an o th e r c o u n try a t e r r i b l e p e r tu r b a tio n always follow ed
them*
From th e moment o f b i r t h people seemed to be impreg­
n ated by to p o g ra p h ic a l in flu e n c e s .
H ip p o crates (19) has
been accused o f co n fu sin g n o s ta lg ia w ith f e e lin g s of
m elancholy, b u t, f o r th a t m a tte r,
we have no reaso n
b e lie v e t h a t Dr. O u e it, h is a o c u so r,
113? Psalm, ▼. 1 .
21S? Psalm , v . 4 .
4
n o t to
had confused f e e lin g s
©f m elancholy w ith n o s ta lg ia .
These re fe re n c e s a r e , o f
e© urse, ©f l i t t l e v a lu e except in so f a r as th ey inform us
t h a t th e a n c ie n t w orld was a c q u a in te d w ith th e co n d itio n *
The l i t e r a t u r e on n o s ta lg ia , o r Heimweh 111 er a t u r .
p ro p e rly b eg in s in 1678, w ith a d i s s e r t a t i o n on th e s u b je c t
by Jo a n , H ofer.
(1 6 , 17, 19, 3 1, 31}
T his d i s s e r t a t i o n ,
which was w r itte n in L a tin , d e s c rib e d two c a s e s which H ofer
had o b served to be q u ite s im ila r to a c o n d itio n c a lle d
ftSehwei z e rk ra n k h e it * by th e Germans, ®Mal du pays® by th e
F ren ch , and #Malati& d e l pais® by th e S p a n ia rd s,
Hofer was
th e f i r s t to d e s c rib e th e c o n d itio n as an i l l n e s s and to
c a l l i t n o s ta lg ic , a term w hich, l i k e i t s E n g lish e q u iv a le n t,
comes from th e Grech words no e tc s (to r e tu r n ) and alg o s ( t o
su ffe r).
The term s nosomania and p h ilo o a tr id a lg ja were used
by H ofer a s synonyms f o r n o s t a l g i c .
The symptoms o f n o s ta lg ia which were d e sc rib e d by
Hofer in clu d ed th e follow ing?
p e r s is te n t th o u g h ts about
home, f e e lin g s o f m elancholy, insom nia, a n o re x ia , lo s s o f
t h i r s t , w eakness, a n x ie ty , la c k o f b re a th , p a l p i ta t io n s o f
th e h e a r t , s tu p o r, and f e v e r .
He b e lie v e d t h a t th e d is e a s e
began i n th e in n er p a r t o f th e b r a in where th e animal s p i r i t s
were supposed to d w e ll.
The dominant thought o f th e f a t h e r -
lan d was exp lain ed as being due to a m ig ra tio n o f th e anim al
s p i r i t s , a c o n d itio n which was supposed to th ic k e n th e blood
and to r e t a r d th e h e a r t , te rm in a tin g e v e n tu a lly in death*
P ro g n o sis depended s o le ly upon whether o r not th e p a tie n t
5
could b e re tu rn e d to h is home, b u t o fte n p u rg a tiv e s were
g iv en In o rd e r to h e lp b a l l a s t th e p a t i e n t .
N o sta lg ia was
b e lie v e d t o be more fre q u e n t in th e f a l l because o f th e
m elancholy th o u g h ts and fe e lin g s aroused by th e dead le a v e s
and th e c o ld , hazy sun.
Follow ing th e p u b lic a tio n o f Hofer*s work In 1685 by
B ile , th e r e appeared many a r t i c l e s on th e s u b je c t, most o f
them by m edical w r i t e r s . % A d i s s e r t a t i o n appeared by
F e rh e v itz (1?) in 1703, one by fa e k u ls (17) in 1707, and one
by Swinger (17) in 1710.
Swinger d iscu ssed th e d is o rd e r as
a p u re ly p sy ch ic phenomenon, s t a t i n g th a t i t s psychogenesis
was due to c irc u m sta n c e s, such as th e cow c a l l s , which when
sounded from th e h e ig h ts aroused memories and em otional f e e l ­
in g s in th o se who had m igrated to th e low lands.
Since th e n
cow c a l l s have h eld an im portant p la c e in th e e ti o l o g ic a l
d is c u s s io n s o f n o s ta lg ia *
7winger also observed th a t th e
d is o rd e r was somewhat common among th e Swiss people l i v in g
i n l©w**lying regions*
An i n t e r e s t i n g account o f n o s ta lg ia was a ls o given by
Soheuohzer, (17, 31) whose H atu rg esch leh te des Schw elzerlan&es co vers th e p e rio d 1706 to 1716.
Seheuohzer gave a
very unique e x p la n a tio n fo r th e p rev alen ce o f n o s ta lg ia
among th e Swiss p e o p le .
He observed th a t th e people o f th e
3 A v a lu a b le b ib lio g ra p h y o f 86 t i t l e s , in clu d in g t i t l e s
back to th e 17th c e n tu ry , i s g iv en by J a s p e r s . (17)
6
high m ountain re g io n s who mowed down to th e low -iands were
th e ones most fre q u e n tly a ffe c te d *
Being s k e p tic a l o f a
p u re ly p sy ch ic e rp la a a tio n ^ h© argued* as d id Swinger, t h a t
v a rio u s circu m stan ces c o n trib u te d to th e c o n d itio n .
He
sought a more ta n g ib le e x p la n a tio n th an th e h ea rin g o f cow
c a l l s * and i t i s n o t stra n g e t h a t he found one in th e change
in atm ospheric p re ssu re *
From such o b serv atio n * Scheuehzer
concluded th a t th o se whose p h y s ic a l c o n s titu tio n s were ad­
ju s te d t o th e l i g h t a i r p re ss u re o f th e m ountains would,
when moved to a low re g io n w ith i t s in c re a se d a i r p r e s s u r e ,
s u f f e r fro® a com pression o f th e blood a g a in s t th e h e a rt and
brain *
Such compress ion* he argued* would n a tu r a lly aro u se
f e e lin g s o f fear* and th e d e s ir e to re tu r n to th e h ig h la n d s.
His b e l i e f th a t young people* and e s p e c ia lly th o se w ith a
f in e to r tu r e d skin* were more s u s c e p tib le th an o ld e r p eo p le
whose h e a v ie r* '© c a re e r sk in would help r e s i s t th e in c re a se d
a i r p re ssu re * i s i n harmony w ith t h i s exp lan atio n *
B ch eu ch se^ s th e o ry , however* f a i l e d to account fo r homesick­
n ess among people m ig ratin g from a low to a high a l t i t u d e ,
and among people moving to p la c e s having th e same a l t i t u d e
A
as t h e i r homeland* ■ I t i s p ro b a b le th a t th e people
^Subsequent f a c t s which re n d e r a th e o ry u n ten ab le a re
n ot v a lid c r itic is m s a g a in s t th e o r ig in a l ad o p tio n o f th e
theory* Whether o r not a th e o ry was worthy o f adoption
depends upon th e circu m stan ces and fund o f knowledge a t th e
tim e; subsequent f a c t s can be used only as argument f o r o r
a g a in s t r e te n tio n o f th e theory*
7
m ig ra tin g t© th e low lands were more e a s ily a c c e s s ib le f o r
o b s e rv a tio n and s tu d y , and t h a t m ig ra tio n to h ig h e r re g io n s
o r r e g io n s o f th e same a l t i tu d e was too in fre q u e n t to g iv e
r i s e t o many e a se s o f hom esickness.
The frequency w ith which
c a se s were observed among th e Swiss le a d many o f th e s e e a r ly
w r ite r s t o b e lie v e t h a t th e Swiss were ex trem ely s u s c e p tib le
to th e malady and fo r t h i s re a so n I t was o f te n r e f e r r e d to
In 1774*. n in e ty - s ix y e a rs a f t e r H ofer*8 d i s s e r t a t i o n ,
J » B. 2immeriaann (17) re p o rte d th e presence o f n o s ta lg ia
among p e o p le s o th e r th a n th e Swiss*
Thousands o f S c o ttis h
s o ld ie r s were s a id t o have d ie d w ith i t * b u t th e se f a t a l i t i e s
m ight have been due to d is e a s e s n o t reco g n ised a t t h a t tim e*
The r e p o r t , however, t h a t r e tu r n to th e fa th e rla n d worked
th e r a p e u tic wonders f o r many in d ic a te s th e presen ce o f some
n o s ta lg ia *
S im ilar c a s e s were observed among E nglish and
L applander s o ld ie rs *
(16)
In th e A u strian army th e c o n d itio n
was l e s s p re v a le n t among s o ld ie r s serv in g w ith in th e
b o u n d aries o f t h e i r home s t a t e s th a n among th o se serv in g in
fo re ig n s ta te s *
I t was re p o rte d th a t in th e tim e o f
Brandtbme (31) o ld s o ld ie r s took th e young r e c r u i t s in hand
and tr a in e d them th o ro u g h ly in th e ways o f th e world a s a
means o f p re v en tin g hom esickness*
A tte n tio n was f i r s t c a lle d to th e p re se n ce o f n o s ta lg ia
among an im als in 1783 by Blumenbach (2 1 ).
He observed t h a t
anim als when moved to stran g e p la c e s o fte n showed b e h a v io r
q u ite s im ila r to hom esickness in man*
Toward th e c lo s e o f th e 1 8 th cen tu ry d e s c r ip tio n s o f
n o s ta lg ia had become s u f f i c i e n t l y numerous to encourage
e x p la n a to ry th e o riz a tio n s *
The symptoms th e s e th e o r ie s
attem p ted to e x p la in in clu d ed p a le r and d ig e s tiv e tr o u b le s
and were e s s e n t i a l l y th o se g iv en by Hofer (17) in 1678.
Boerhaave (19, 31) b e lie v e d th a t n o s ta lg ia was a cause o f
m elancholia* and jo in e d w ith Tan Swieien (19) in a t t r i b u t ­
in g i t to an a l t e r a t i o n o f th e b la c k b ile *
We have no
re aso n f o r t h i s e x p la n a tio n ex cep t th a t both men wanted to
g iv e ah o rg a n ic e x p la n a tio n o f th e tro u b le*
During t h i s
p e rio d th r e e p r o f e s s o r s , each o f a d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t y ,
t r i e d in d ep en d en tly to assig n n o s ta lg ia to a p la c e in th e
ca te g o ry o f th e major m ental d iso rd e rs*
Sauvages, (1 9 , 31)
o f M o n tp e llie r, c l a s s i f i e d i t as a morbid e n t i t y somewhat
l i k e veea&la* but w ith an e tio lo g y and symptoms d i s t i n c t
from th o s e ©f m elancholia*
Sagar (19, 31) o f Vienna,
c l a s s i f i e d i t as a d e p re ssio n o f th e f e e lin g s , te rm in a tin g
e v e n tu a lly in a d e te r io r a tio n in which th e so u l no lo n g er
seemed to r e s id e w ith in th e body,
C ullen (1 9 , 31), p ro fe s s o r
a t Idim bourg, c l a s s i f i e d i t , w ith ves&nia, as a n e u ro sis o f
th e i n t e l l e c t and a form o f m elancholia*
F in e l (19, 31)
agreed w ith C ullen t h a t n o s ta lg ia was a form o f m ental
a lie n a tio n o f th e m elancholic v a rie ty #
Homesickness and crim e, according to J a s p e rs (1 7 ), were
r e la te d f o r th e f i r s t tim e in 1795, when a serv a n t g i r l who
9
was t e r r i b l y homesick s e t f i r e t o th e home o f her em ployer.
Haro (1 ? ) r e l a t e s a c ts o f s e t t i n g f i r e s , which he c a lle d
pyr©mania, to a monomania i n s t i n c t , and many b e lie v e d t h a t
when n o s ta lg ia came a t p u b erty i t would ta k e one o f two
form si
m elan ch o lia o r pyrom ania.
In 1790 an i n c o r r ig ib le
te n y e a r ©Id c h i l d , who was known to have s p e ll s ©f anger
and f i g h t i n g , d e l i b e r a te ly choked an o th er c h ild to d e a th .
I n v e s tig a tio n o f th e ea se le a d to a s u p p o sitio n th a t th e
c h ild * s abnormal b e h a v io r was th e r e s u l t o f an a tta c k o f
hom esickness*
(17)
At about th e same tim e , a 23 y ear o ld
g i r l , abnormal from ch ild h o o d , k i l le d a c h ild in h er c a re by
h o ld in g h e r fin g e r down i t s t h r o a t .
She s a id she k i l le d th e
c h ild because she wanted to run away and le a v e i t . (17)
In
1801 a g i r l b e lie v e d by some to be a v ic tim o f n o s ta lg ia was
condemned to d eath f o r s e ttin g two fir e s * (17)
fh e m a t e r i a l i s t s o f t h i s p e rio d were anxious to e x p la in
hom esickness in o rg a n ic term s.
B rouseais (1 9 , 31), le a d e r of
th e m a t e r i a l i s t i c s c h o o l, a t t r i b u t e d i t s o r ig in t© a
sy m p ath etic i r r i t a t i o n tra n s m itte d to th e b r a in by an in ­
flammed o rg an .
Inflam m atory I r r i t a t i o n s and g a s tr i c d i s ­
tu rb a n c e s which r e s u lte d in b ra in a f fe c tio n s le a d him to
en v isag e n o s ta lg ia in term s o f *an at omo-pat ho 1ogi oue s M
le s io n s ,
tre a tm e n t was lim ite d to th e c e r e b r a l i r r i t a t i o n s
and th e *gastr©—e n te r ! tie * * (31)
Wi&al (31) s ta te d th a t
B ro u sa a is, as w ell as h is co n tem p o raries, L a rre y , G eorget,
and B eg in , confused n o s ta lg ia w ith m e n in g itis and
10
e n c e p h a l i ti s .
Begin (19) c a lle d i t an 9e x c ita tio n enc©ph-
a l l que p e re ls ta n te * 1, which, he s a id , would c r e a te f e e lin g s
o f m elancholy and a& i r r e s i s t i b l e d e s ire to r e tu r n home.
However, o th e r w r i t e r s , In clu d in g Mormeret (19) and F le u ry
(1 9 ), f a i l e d to d is c o v e r th e se " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 11 le s io n s .
F urtherm ore, th e th e o ry did not account f o r th e immediate
re c o v e rie s o b tain ed by sending th e s u f f e r e r s home.
Many
p a tie n ts i n m ilita r y h o s p ita ls d u rin g th e Beige o f Mayence
in 1814 were g r e a tly re lie v e d and com forted, and some were
a c tu a lly cu red , when Laurent (31) and Percy (31) showed them
fo rg ed c e r t i f i c a t e s g u aran teein g a l l c o n v a le scen ts le a v e and
f r e e p assag e through th e enemy l i n e s .
In th e meant 1m See Genet te e (17, 19, 23, 31) re p o rte d
in h is Memolres many oases o f homesickness which he had
found among B as-B reton s o ld ie r s , and l a t e r among s o ld ie r s in
th e army o f th e A lps.
Des G en ettes b e lie v e d th a t liv in g in
an unaccustomed h o t o r cold c lim a te would c o n trib u te to th e
development o f th e malady.
In t h i s way he accounted fo r
many c a s e s which o cc u rred among s o ld ie r s who were f a r away
from t h e i r homeland.
Larrey (1 6 , 17, 19, 23, 31), who once
served as c o u rt p h y s ic ia n to S apoleon, p u b lish e d in h is
MemoI r e s « In 1831* accounts o f homesickness In th e French
army d u rin g th e r e t r e a t from Moscow.
malady as having th r e e s ta g e s .
He d e sc rib e d th e
The f i r s t was c h a ra c te riz e d
by a lo n g in g f o r one*a co u n try , which, not b ein g s a t i s f i e d ,
le a d p ro g re s s iv e ly to r e s tle s s n e s s and a p e rio d of g e n e ra l
11
e x c ite m e n t, w ith f e v e r , ra p id speech, c o n s tip a tio n , and
v a rio u s b o d ily a ilm e n ts ; th e second by a f e e lin g o f f a tig u e
over th e e n t i r e body and r i s i n g fe v e r; and th e th ir d by a
*
profound weakness, sin k in g s p e l l s , and m elancholy f e e l in g s ,
e v e n tu a lly te rm in a tin g in s u ic id e o r d e a th .
He spoke o f th e
c o n d itio n as th e d ry consumption o f th e melancholy-mad
w herein th e i n t e l l e c t and th e p a tie n t p e r is h to g e th e r.
From
h is o b s e rv a tio n s he concluded t h a t th e d e s ir e fo r home p ro ­
duced a c e re b ra l inflam m ation n ea r th e p e rip h e ry of th e
b r a in , e v e n tu a lly r e s u ltin g in d e f in i te l e s i o n s .
I t Is
I n t e r e s t in g to n o te t h a t h arrey b e lie v e d th a t th e n o s ta lg ic
c o n d itio n came f i r s t and th a t th e le s io n s in th e c e re b ra l
system came l a t e r as a r e s u l t o f t h i s prolonged c o n d itio n .
In h is o p in io n th e c o n d itio n was, in g e n e ra l, one of b r a in
expansion*
L arrey (18, 31) re p o rte d t h a t e s p e c ia lly in tim es o f
war, when re v e rse s and d is a s te r s come, and when th e s o ld ie r s
are under stra n g e s k ie s , and i n a stran g e c lim a te , under­
going th e p r iv a tio n s and d is e a s e s of a campaign, n o s ta lg ia
may explode in epidem ic fa sh io n among them.
In such in ­
s ta n c e s , th e new r e c r u i t s were not th e only ones to s u f f e r .
Old s o l d i e r s , n o ted f o r t h e i r b rav ery and long s e rv ic e , were
o fte n v ic tim s o f & profound n o s ta lg ia , as was th e case
among th e seasoned tro o p s from Egypt a f te r th e cap tu re o f
S a in t «£eam d* i r e , where, acco rd in g to Dec G enettes (1 9 , 23,
3 1 ), i t added h o rro r to th e p la g u e .
12
According to P a p illo n (23) I t o fte n appeared among
s o ld ie r s in epidemic* form* © sp e c ia lly d u rin g th e wars o f th e
R ev o lu tio n and o f th e Empire*
On th e pontoons a t Cadiz and
Plymouth* which were used as p ris o n s fo r th e s o ld ie r s o f
G eneral Dupont* i t k i l l e d as many French as th e yellow fe v e r
did*
I t a ls o a tta c k e d many p r is o n e r s throughout Germany.
In 1812 i t a tta c k e d th e army o f Pologne which was s u f f e r in g
from c o ld and p riv a tio n s * (31)
A ndral (19* 31) argued in h i s P at hoi
i e in te rn e th a t
th o se who develop hom esickness have a p r e d is p o s itio n f o r it*
Me was c h ie f o f th e e c le c tic school o f h is day* and very
much opposed to e x c lu siv e p h y s io lo g ic a l d o c trin e s*
N everthe­
le s s * he accepted C ullen*s id e a th a t tru e n o s ta lg ia was a
c e r e b r a l n e u ro sis w ithout p a th o lo g ic a l anatom ical l o c a liz a ­
tio n *
G r ls o lle (31) and HeQuin(31) held s im ila r o p in io n s f
and Kequin (19) added th a t th e malady would, in severe c a s e s ,
d e g e n e ra te In to a m ajor m ental d iso rd er*
F l a t tn e r (16)
argued in h is Q u estio n er M edicoforenses of 1824 th a t c a se s
o f pyrom ania commonly b eliev ed due to n o s ta lg ia were r e a l l y
due to a m ental d isease *
In 1825 A lib e rt (1 7 , 3 l) d ec la red th a t th e re was much
hom esickness among u n c iv iliz e d peoples because i t was t h e i r
n a tu re to be th a t way*
In th e H isto ry o f Qourame he
p e r s o n if ie d n o s ta lg ia in a young savage who l e f t th e b e s t
th a t s o c ie ty could o f f e r in o rd e r to r e tu r n to th e m iserab le
h u t o f h ie p aren ts*
A lib e rt b e lie v e d th a t i t was a p a ssio n
13
a r is in g from a s p e c ia l d is p o s itio n o f th e mind and an In n e r
lo v e f o r one*s c o u n try which made home in d is p e n s ib le t o
th e e x is te n c e o f th e in d iv id u a l.
Prolonged c a s e s , he s a id ,
would le a d to v a rio u s d is e a s e s such as tu b e rc u lo s is o r ex­
trem e n erv o u sn ess, and would in tim e r e s u l t in c rim in a l be­
h a v io r o r d e a th .
F u rth e r symptoms were d e sc rib e d a t t h i s
tim e by P . Jessen (1 7 ).
These in clu d ed c o n g e stio n in th e
head and bach, d e liriu m , h a llu c in a tio n s , f e v e r , and even­
t u a l l y d e a th ,
fxtrem e narrowness o f one*s h o rizon was g iv en
as th e c h ie f cause o f th e d is o r d e r .
I t was p o in te d out th a t
f o r th o s e who rem ained c lo se to home th e c o n tr a s t o f a new
environm ent would be much g r e a te r than fo r th o se not so
c lo s e ly a s s o c ia te d w ith home.
The d istu rb a n c e was d e sc rib e d
as an unconscious s t a t e in th e m edulla o b lo n g ata and low er
b ra in c e n te r s , which produced i n th e c e re b ra l co rte x and
co n scio u sn ess profound fe e lin g s o f m elancholy.
Follow ing
le s s e n * a d is c u s s io n many d i s s e r t a t io n s on th e su b ject
ap p e ared ,^
M ichel bevy (2 3 , 31), w hile w ith th e 2 1 st Regiment o f
l i g h t I n f a n tr y in Morea In 1331, saw many young C orsican
r e c r u i t s f a l l v ic tim to n o s ta lg ia .
In 1835, F r ie d r ic h (IS ) affirm ed th e b e l i e f th a t th o se
who had always liv e d in th e s u n lig h t and t h i n a i r of th e
m ountains would, when tra n s p la n te d to o th e r environm ents,
^Most o f th e se a r e mentioned in J a s p e r s ^ l ? ) l i s t o f
re fe re n c e s.
14
develop hom esickness and would, w h ile v ic tim s o f i t s de­
p re s s iv e e f f e c t , s e t many f ir e s *
At th a t tim e th e re was
a ls o a common b e l i e f t h a t th e r e was a r e la tio n s h ip between
hom esickness and some d e f ic ie n t behavior development in th e
S w iss, H o rth la n d e rs, and o th e r p eo p les d w ellin g in lo n e ly
re g io n s , which made an im pression on t h e i r em otional l i f e .
Meyer (16) agreed w ith F rie d ric h (16) th a t hom esickness was
some k in d o f an a e s th e tic m ental i l l n e s s , b u t F rie d ric h (17)
a ls o b e lie v e d t h a t arso n crim es a ro se from a d e s ir e f o r
l i g h t and oxygen*
Dagonet (19) argued th a t i t must be a
p u re ly m ental d is o rd e r because I t always d isap p eared im­
m ed iately upon removal o f th e cause I danger 1 (17) a ls o be­
lie v e d t h a t i t was a m ental d is tu rb a n c e , which in i t s l a t e r
s ta g e s came to a f f e c t th e body.
In a d d itio n to t h i s view ,
which was expressed in 1840, Zanger 1 m aintained th a t n o rth e rn
p eo p le and mountain people were th e ones most o fte n a f f e c te d .
He ex p la in e d th a t th e in d iv id u a l In th e co u rse o f h is growth
and developm ent tu rn e d to h is fam ily and home, and to th e
m ountains and n a tiv e scenery in such a way t h a t they became
an interw oven p a r t o f h is l i f e .
In th e same y e a r H e ttie h
(17) p o in te d out t h a t flHeimweh* could have an e x c ita to ry o r
a d e p re s s iv e e f f e c t upon th e in d iv id u a l, and th a t I t could
le a d t o m ental d is o rg a n iz a tio n and crim e.
On th e o th e r
hand, he h e ld th a t murder and pyromania d id n o t always have
hom esickness as a b a s i s .
I n Mrs* D ev o n sh ire 's t r a n s l a t i o n o f The l i f e of P a s te u r
by T allery ^H ad o t (30) an account i s given o f a severe a tta c k
©f hom esickness s u ffe re d by Louis P a ste u r in 1838.
T his i s
p re s e n te d h ere not o n ly because i t g iv es a good d e s c r ip tio n
o f homesicknesB b u t a ls o because i t r e f u te s a more o r l e s s
common b e l i e f o f t h a t tim e, namely, th a t o n ly in d iv id u a ls o f
low i n t e l l e c t were s u s c e p tib le to n o s ta lg ia .
According to
t h i s account P a s te u r , who was th e n 15 y e a rs e l d , was u n a b le
to com plete h is f i r s t y ear o f stu d y away from home because
o f hom esickness,
*When Louis P a s te u r reached P a ris he d id
not f e e l l i k e B alz a c ’ s student h e ro , c o n fid e n tly d efying th e
g re a t c i t y .
In spit© o f th e s tro n g w ill a lre a d y v i s i b le in
h is p e n siv e f e a t u r e s , h is g r i e f was too deep to be reasoned
away.
Ho one a t f i r s t suspected t h i s ; he was a reserv ed
yo u th , w ith none o f th e d e s ire to t a l k which le a d s weak
n a tu re s to ease t h e i r sorrow© by pouring the® o u t; b u t, when
a l l was q u ie t In th e Impasse des F e u illa n tln e s and hi©
sle e p in g comrades co u ld not break in upon h is r e g r e ts , he
would l i e awake f o r hours th in k in g o f h is home said re p e a tin g
th e m ournful l i n e — *How en d less unto w atchful anguish n ig h t
doth se e ® .*
9The stu d e n ts o f th e B arbet school a tte n d e d th e c la s s e s
©f th e Lycee S t. L o u is.
In s p ite of M s w illin g n e s s and h i s
p a s s io n a te love o f s tu d y , Louis was overcome w ith d e s p a ir a t
being away from home,
le v e r was hom esickness more a c u te .
• I f X co u ld only g e t a w hiff o f th e tan n ery y ard * , he would
say to J u le s f e r c e l , *1 f e e l I should be cu red .*
16
M. BaTbet
endeavoured in v a in to amuse and tu r n the th o u g h ts o f t h i s
lad o f f i f t e e n so absorbed in h i s sorrow .
At l a s t he
th o u g h t i t h i s d u ty to warm th e p a re n ts ©f t h i s s t a t e o f
mind, which th re a te n e d to become m orbid.
®Gme morning in November Louie F asteux was to ld w ith an
a i r o f m ystery t h a t he was wanted*
’They a re w aiting fo r
you c lo s e by*, s a id th e m essenger, in d ic a tin g a sm all c a fe
a t th e c o rn e r o f th e s tre e t*
L ouis en tered and found a man
s i t t i n g a t a sm all t a b l e a t th e back o f th e shop, h is fa c e
in h is h an d s.
I t was h is f a t h e r .
he s a id sim ply.
*1 have come to fe tc h you1,
Ho e x p la n a tio n s were n e c e ssa ry ; th e f a t h e r
and son understood each o th e r ’ s lo n g in g s.* (3 0 , pp. 11-12)
According to Estjhre ( 7 ) , on March 7 , 1844, Dr. F i l e t o f
T alo g n es, aide^m ajor t o th e f i r s t Regiment o f In fa n try , p re ­
sen ted b e fo re th e F a c u lty o f P a r is h is t h e s i s :
n o s ta lg ie consider©© chez I ’homme de g u e rre * .
"De l a
Fst^ve p o in te d
o ut t h a t many i n t e r e s t i n g o b se rv a tio n s were p re se n te d in t h i s
monograph.
For in s ta n c e , F steve re p o rted a statem ent made
by Dr. F i l e t to th e e f f e c t th a t in s p ite o f war c o n d itio n s ,
h a rd s h ip s , and d is e a s e , n o s ta lg ia was never more fre q u e n t in
troop® a t th e fro n t th an in th o se in t h e i r b a rra c k s d u rin g
peace tim e s .
T his statem ent i s i n d ir e c t o p p o sitio n to th e
observation® o f o th e r s , such as th o se a lre a d y re p o rte d f o r
L arrey^ and Des G enettes.®
T his d isc re p a n c y , however, may
^ L a rre y ’s and Des G enettes* o b se rv a tio n s are re p o rte d
on page 12 o f t h i s t h e s i s .
b© th e r e s u l t o f d if f e r e n c e s in m orale, and In th e lo c a tio n s
and c o n d itio n s o f l i f e in th e b a rra c k s and in th e f r o n t
lim es*
P i l e t may have observed tro o p s engaged in su c c e s s fu l
e n c o u n te rs , sh o rt cam paigns, o r d efen siv e m issio n s n ear th e
homeland, whereas th e o th e rs may have observed tro o p s broken
by th e h a rd sh ip s o f a long and l e s s v ic to r io u s campaign f a r
away from home*
I t i s a lso p o s s ib le th a t th e d if f e r e n t
o b se rv e rs were u sin g d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a fo r t h e i r d ia g n o s is
©f n o s t a l g i a , sine© th e term was used In a wide and v ary in g
sense*
P i l e t a ls o re p o rte d more n o s ta lg ia in th e army th an
in th e navy*
T h is , he b e lie v e d , was due to a g re a te r amount
o f monotony in th e army.
P r is o n e r s , because o f th e c o n d itio n s
o f t h e i r e x is te n c e , were a l l b e lie v e d to be s u s c e p tib le to
n o s ta lg ia .
I t s p re v alen ce in th e young and i t s eontageous
n a tu re was c le a r ly dem onstrated by numerous epidem ics which
aro se e i t h e r through d ir e c t su g g estio n o r by mimicry.
P i l e t c l a s s i f i e d i t as a form o f psyoh& ethenia, to which
nervous and melancholy temperaments were more p re d isp o se d .
The c e r e b r a l for®, however, d id n o t cause him to lo s e view
o f th e h e c tic and I n t e s t i n a l form s d escrib ed by Haspel (7)
and B ro u ssais ( 7 ) .
Aided by th e e a r l i e r work of B egin, (7)
he enum erated th e p r in c ip a l som atic d is o rd e rs o ccu rrin g in
t h i s m elancholic and d e p re ssiv e p a ssio n .
These included
headache, m ental e x a s p e ra tio n , sudden o u W b u rsts of tem per,
insom nia, p a in fu l awakening from s le e p , f e e lin g s of w eakness,
anem ia, p a lo r , a le a d e n colored f a c e , and a g e n e ra l and
18
p ro g re s s iv e d e b i l i t y .
Then follow ed a w asting away of th e
body, com plete d e p re ssio n o f th e p h y sic a l f o r c e , r e ta r d a tio n
o f movements, d e je c tio n and g e n e ra l o rg an ic d e g ra d a tio n .
He
d id n o t om it re fe re n c e s to th e p r in c ip a l o rg an s o f th e
V isc e ra and t h e i r accompanying fu n c tio n a l tr o u b le s .
That
th e p e r tu r b a tio n a c te d on th e c ir c u la to r y and d ig e s tiv e
system s was evidenced by e a rly p a lp ita tio n s and p u ls a tio n
d is tu r b a n c e s , and by many p a in s along th e d ig e s tiv e tr a c t*
le s io n s o f th e d ig e s tiv e t r a c t were d e sc rib e d as s u p e r f i c ia l
o r p ro fo u n d , p a r t i a l o r g e n e ra l, according to the d u ra tio n
and i n t e n s i t y of th e a f f lic tio n *
Lack o f a p p e tite , d y sp ep sia,
a fo u l stom ach, and an a lte r n a tio n between c o n s tip a tio n and
d ia r r h e a c o n trib u te d t o th e in c re a s in g d isco m fo rt and weak­
n ess o f th e p a t i e n t .
F i l e t c a lle d a tte n tio n to a s im ila r ity
between tb© c e re b ra l le s io n s re p o rte d in o ase s o f n o s ta lg ia
and th o se appearing in c e r ta in forms o f m e n in g itis , and r e ­
marked t h a t n o s ta lg ic fe e lin g s were o fte n th e m ental symptoms
dom inating th e in d iv id u a l a t a tim e when m edical care was
th e e s s e n t i a l need .
E n o e p h a litic d is o r d e r s , he p o in ted o u t,
were c h a ra c te r is e d by e x a lte d p e rv e rsio n s o f memory and an
e x h a u s tiv e , though u n ceasin g , wandering o f th e mind*
Accord­
in g to Ist& v e, F i l e t b e lie v e d , as d id Dr. Const an, th a t i t
was in th e s e cases t h a t th e p a t i e n t 's th o u g h ts became fix a te d
upon home*
According to Estchre, P i l e t , and l a t e r l o u i s , argued th a t
n o s ta lg ia was a p re d isp o sin g c o n d itio n fo r o th e r d is e a s e s .
19
The eo u re e o f ty p h o id f e v e r , f o r in s ta n c e , was more se v e re
and t h e p ro g n o sis l e e s c e r t a i n when com pile abed w ith
noetom&nla*
C o llin s , according t o Est&ve, p o in te d out t h a t
th e ty p h o id ©pldemio o f Mayenee in ISIS was made much worse
by th e p re se n ce o f n o s ta lg ia as was th e epidem ic a t Rennes
t o 1824* where e s p e c ia lly th e B reton s o l d i e r s , who were o n ly
r e c e n tly removed from t h e i r n a tiv e la n d , end th e re fo re p re y
to m e t ©mania, s u ffe re d severely*
Psycho th e ra p y , which a t
t h a t tim e was g r e a tly lim ite d , was th e recommended treatm ent*
th e d o c to r u s u a lly h e ld b e fo re th e eyes o f th e s tr ic k e n
s o ld ie r t h e lu r e o f a fu rlo u g h and th en scru p u lo u sly h e ld to
h is prom ise t o h e lp th e p a tie n t o b ta in one when he shoved
eigne o f recovery*
I t was mtmo mimtmwxy to p la y th e m ili­
t a r y a i r s and marches o f th e homeland* w ith th e in te n tio n o f
aro u sin g th e m orale o f th e botsestok victim©*
According t o libers? (16) t C asper, in 1846, s ta te d t h a t
a l l pyrom ania was d i s t i n c t l y p sy c h o lo g ic a l, and th a t crime©
and © citin g fir#© which were p u rp o rte d to he due t o hom esickno©#, were In th e f i n a l a n a ly s is due to b ab y ish 1 sein ese *
char a c t e r i s t i c o f in s o lv e n t and illfe re d hoy# and g ir l s *
Tib erg a ls o re p o rte d th a t Flemming d e c la re d th e r e t i a no
reaso n fo r b e lie v in g n o s ta lg ia to be th e cau se o f s e t t i n g
fire s *
He mm in th e s e mmm$ which were un ifo rm ly found
among s e rv a n t g i r l a , an attem pt t o lo s e se rv a n t sta tu s*
O riesltige** IXfeerg s a i d , b e lie v e d th a t n o s ta lg ia was a
p sy c h ic i l l n e s s accompanied by h a llu c in a tio n s and illu sio n ©
in i t s se v e re forms*
In 1855, acco rd in g to J a s p e r s (1 7 ), L. Meyer, who l a t e r
became p ro fe s s o r a t G o ttin g en , concluded, a f t e r in v e s tig a t­
in g f i v e c a s e s , t h a t 8!teimweh* was a p a s s iv e m ental a s th e n ia ,
o u t ©f which m an ic-d ep ressiv e p s y c h o s is , o r a cyclothym ic
d e p re s s io n , would develop*
Hom esickness, he b e lie v e d , had
i t s o r i g i n in narrow -m inded, l o c a l b e h a v io r, s o l i t a r y occupa­
t i o n s , and th e m i li t a r y p ro fe ssio n *
He a ls o b eliev ed t h a t
th e r e was a d is p o s itio n f o r i t in some people*
I n th e February 14th is s u e o f th e American Medical
Times,, 1883, appeared th e a r t i c l e ;
^Remarks on th e E v ils o f
Y outhful E n listm en ts and n o s ta lg ia * , by Be W itt G* P e te rs
(3 4 ), a s s i s t a n t Surgeon G eneral, United S ta te s army.
At
t h a t tim e F ed eral law re q u ire d a c e r ta in number o f e n lis te d
men b e fo re a Regiment could be m ustered In to s e rv ic e .
In
o rd e r t o meet t h i s re q u irem en t, o f f i c e r s o f Regiments below
th e minimum s tre n g th o fte n e n l i s t e d y o u th fu l, immature, and
sometimes d ise a se d r e c r u i t s ; a p r a c tic e t h a t soon f i l l e d th e
m ilita r y h o s p ita ls *
Br* P e te rs p o in ted o u t th e f o lly and
expense o f t h i s p r a c tic e and advocated some kind o f proba­
t io n p e rio d fo r r e c r u i t s s im ila r to th e one them in use by
th e French*
D r. P e te rs d e sc rib e d th e average r e c r u i t o f th a t tim e
as young, f r e s h , and f u l l of p a tr io tis m .
The good h e a lth of
th e s e r e c r u i t s , e s p e c ia lly ©f th o s e from r u r a l a re a s , and
t h e i r b r ig h t a n tic ip a tio n s f o r th e fu tu re h elped them r e s i s t
21
d is e a s e f o r a tim e , b u t co n tin u ed h a rd s h ip s , long m arches,
guard d u ty , e to * , u s u a lly brought despondency to th e young
s o l d i e r f s mind.
O ld er s o l d i e r s , who were m atured b e fo re
e n te r in g th e army and eh© were made stu rd y through y e a rs o f
t r a i n i n g , w ithstood d isap p o in tm en ts which weighed h e a v ily ©n
y o u th fu l r e c r u i t s ,
Br* P e te rs recommended th e ca v alry as
th e b e s t branch o f th e se rv ic e f o r a youth because i t was
l e s s monotonous and because th e r e c r u i t would soon f e e l a
co m fo rtin g attachm ent to h is h o rs e ,
The need f o r s t r i c t hygiene and h e a lth d is c ip lin e was
emphasized above a l l o th e r reg u latio n ® ,
* I t is* he s a id ,
*by a la c k o f d i s c i p l i n e , c o n fid e n c e , and r e s p e c t, th a t many
a young s o ld ie r h as become d isco u ra g ed , and made to f e e l th e
b i t t e r pangs o f hom esickness, which i s u s u a lly th e p re c u rs o r
h 1 V
o f more s e rio u s a ilm e n ts .
L
*That p e c u lia r s t a t e o f mind denominated n o s ta lg ia by
m edical w r i t e r s , i s a sp ec ie s o f m elancholy, o r a m ild ty p e
o f i n s a n i t y , caused by disappointm ent and a continuous long-*
in g f o r home*
I t i s fre q u e n tly aggravated by derangement of
th e stomach and bow els, and i s d a ily met w ith in i t s w orst
form , in o u r m ilita r y h o s p ita ls and p ris o n s , and I s espe­
c i a l l y marked in young s u b je c ts .* (p . 75}
-------
Hom esickness, he s a id , was c h a ra c te riz e d by a wg re a t
m ental d e je c tio n , lo s s o f a p p e ti t e , in d iffe re n c e to e x te r n a l
in f lu e n c e s , i r r e g u l a r a c tio n o f th e bow els, and s lig h t
h e c tic f e v e r .
Then, as th e d is e a s e p ro g re sse s i t i s atte n d e d
£2
fey h y s t e r i c a l w eeping, a d u ll p a in in th e h e a d , th ro b b in g o f
th e tem p o ral a r t e r i e s , anxious e x p ressio n o f th e fa c e ,
w a tc h fu ln e s s , in o o n tin en o e o f u r i n e , sperm atorrhoea, in ­
c re a s e d h e c tic f e v e r , and a g e n e ra l w asting o f a l l th e v i t a l
powers*
The d is e a s e may te rm in a te i n r e s o lu tio n , or rim on
In to c e r e b r a l derangem ent, ty p h o id f e v e r, o r any epidem ic
p r e v a ilin g in th e immediate v i c i n i t y , and fre q u e n tly w ith
f a t a l r e s u lts *
Among young p r is o n e r s o f war i t i s th e
w orst co m p licatio n to fee en co u n tered , as th e w r ite r can
t r u t h f u l l y a ffirm , a f t e r a few months* ex p erien ce in t r e a t ­
in g s e v e r a l hundreds o f th e se p ris o n e r s under th e most
fa v o ra b le circu m stan ces* 11 (p* 75)
D iagnosis was not con­
sid e re d d i f f i c u l t in th e e a rly s t a t e s , although th e v ic tim s
o fte n were u n w illin g to confess t h e i r m ental weakness*
A
d ep ressed s t a t e o f m ind, r e s u ltin g from unexpected bad news,
o r s im ila r d iscouragem ent, was sometimes found to fee com­
p l i c a t i n g th e c o n d itio n .
O ther co m p licatin g f a c t o r s , espe­
c i a l l y in fre s h tro o p s in th e so u th who s u ffe re d t e r r i b l y
from n o s t a l g i a , were th e ir r e g u la r m ail and com m unications,
and th e h o t c lim a te which was v e ry d e b i l i t a t i n g .
The
h o s p ita ls o f Mew O rlean s and v i c i n i t y during th e summer o f
186& were f i l l e d w ith th e se c a s e s , many o f which were com­
p lic a te d by fe v e r and d ia rr h e a .
The m a jo rity o f th e young
v ic tim s were from E a ste rn s t a t e s , where th e lo v e o f home and
k in d red was co n sid ered a c h a r a c t e r is t i c t r a i t .
According to D r. P e te r s ,
.tr e a tm e n t. . . . .would
appear vary sim p le, could w© alw ays a t i t s o n se t remove th e
e x c itin g cause* lay allow ing th e p a tie n t th e f r e e e x e rc is e o f
hi© w i l l * .
Bine# t h i s was Im p o ssib le under m ilita r y ru le s *
h# s t a te d th a t x
*The surgeon must c a r e f u lly attem pt to r e -
11 eve th e patient*© mind o f i t s In ju rio u s burden by o th e r
means, such as k in d n e s s , f r e e ex ercise* b a th in g , and a g ree­
a b le a s s o c ia tio n s , w hile he improves th e to n e o f th e stomach
and bow els by generous d ie t and to n ic s*
In c a se s where
coffiplleatterns e x i s t , symptoms w i ll fre q u e n tly b a f f le h i s
s k i l l , and th en as a l a s t r e s o r t , and in o rd e r to save l i f e ,
or p re v e n t permanent d i s a b i l i t y he must recommend, th e man’s
d isc h a rg e from th e servic© .*
(p . 76)
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o te t h a t Dr* P e te r s re fe rr e d
i
s p e c i f i c a l l y t o young mm from r u r a l re g io n s , where lo v e o f
home and community lo y a lty were considered c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ,
a# th e one© most a f fe c te d by n o s ta lg ia *
T his suggests t h a t I
y o u th , a r u r a l background, and a high community s p i r i t a re
\
p re d is p o s in g factor© #
By* Calhoun ( 3 , 16) s ta t e d , in a paper on C iv il War
troop© and
h o m e s ic k n e s s
in 1864, t h a t r u r a l tro o p s were more
s u s c e p tib le th an c i t y r e c r u i t s because th ey had been r e a r e d
c lo s e r to home and had fewer c o n f lic tin g i n te r e s ts *
Calhoun
c o n sid e re d b a t t l e a g r e a t c u r a tiv e agent f o r n o s ta lg ia among
sold ier© In th e f i e l d , becau se, he
argued,
th e in te n s e
ex citem en t and a c t i v i t y l e f t l i t t l e tim e f o r homesickness*
In 186S Belasiauv© (19) d e fin e d n o s ta lg ia , in the
34
<—
J o u rn a l ,..4# Mddeclne M entals, a s a p a r t i a l i n s a n i ty .
l o s t a l g i a appeared in epidem ic p ro p o rtio n s among th e
p eo p le moved to P a r le d u rin g th e war and th e sie g e o f 1870,
e s p e c ia lly d u rin g th e l a t t e r p a r t o f th e s ie g e when p r iv a — "
tio n s and d e f e a ts were b ein g ex p e rien ced ,
The s e rio u s n e ss
o f th e s i t u a t i o n was re c o g n ise d by l f Acaddmie d© Mddeeine,
which e s ta b lis h e d a fund f o r in v e s tig a tin g th e malady.
T his
fund was d iv id e d betw een H aspel and B enoist de l a G ran d !ere.
(1 9 , 3 3 , 31)
I t was a t t h i s moment, acco rd in g to Le d o le
(19) t h a t th e h i s t o r y o f n o s ta lg ia underwent an im p o rtan t
change*?
I n 1874, w h ile B en o ist do l a G rand!ere and Haspel w ere
working on th e problem , an a r t i c l e by Fernand F a p illo n (33)
t i t l e d "n o s ta lg ia * appeared i n F om ilar S cience M onthly.
T his a r t i c l e , t r a n s l a t e d from th e French by A* R. Macdonough,
d is c u s s e d th e symptoms, th e n a tu re o f th e p eo p le a f f e c te d ,
th e p re v a le n c e o f th e malady in c e r t a i n n a t i o n a l i t i e s , th e
f a c t o r s in flu e n c in g i t , and i t s n a tu re and treatm en t*
F a p illo n d e fin e d n o s ta lg ia as a d is e a s e o ccasio n in g a
group o f symptoms and d is tu rb a n c e s o f a d e f i n i t e c h a r a c te r ,
and o f te n ending in death*
He gave th e same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
which were g iv en e a r l i e r by S alvages (31) such as s l e e p le s s n e s s , want o f a p p e t i t e , sa d n e ss, and e x h a u stio n .
C ou rtin g
?U n fo rtu n a te ly th e r e p o r ts made by H aspel and B en o ist
de l a Grand!fee© were n o t a v a ila b le fo r t h i s rev iew .
25
s o litu d e and s u rre n d e rin g h im se lf to one fix e d idea* th e
th o u g h t ©f M s n a tiv e c o u n try , th e v ic tim dw elled in charmed }
r e p e t i t i o n upon memories o f h i s e a rly l i f e , l e t t i n g h is
im a g in a tio n c a rry him in to a w orld o f dreams from which
n o th in g co u ld awaken him*
Thus preoccupied he shunned h i s
loved ones and was angered by any attem pt to arouse him*
T his d e s c r ip tio n sounds very much l i k e sc h iz o p h re n ia and
le a d s one to wonder w hether or n o t some o f th e s e ca ses were
o ase s o f sc h iz o p h re n ia r a th e r th a n homesickness*
F u rth erm o re, th e v ic tim was possessed w ith a c o n v ic tio n
t h a t he would n ev er see home a g a in , a c o n v ic tio n th a t soon
le a d t© g rav e f u n c tio n a l d is tu rb a n c e s , in c lu d in g anemia, d ry ,
©r clammy s k in , p a le mucous t i s s u e s , weak p u ls e , d is tu rb e d
c i r c u l a t i o n , and d is o r d e r s of th e g a s tr ic and d ig e s tiv e
fu n c tio n s*
Stupor and a b o u lia became th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
f e a tu r e o f h i s la n g u id p e r s o n a lity .
Marked c h lo r o s is and an
in c re a s in g n e g le c t in d re s s and co q u etry c h a ra c te riz e d
women v ic tim ’s*
F a p illo n confirm ed B ro u s s a is * d e s c r ip tio n of
c h i l l s , n ig h t s w e a ts, and h e c tic f e v e r, and L a rre y 1a con­
c lu s io n s t h a t th e i n t e l l e c t and p a tie n t p e ris h e d to g e th e r
i n t h i s d ry ©onsumption o f th e melancholy-mad*
The v ic tim
"knows” he must d i e and may th e r e f o r e v o lu n ta r ily s ta rv e to
d e a th o r commit su ic id e *
T his was tr u e o f a 34 year o ld
M arquis, a m obile from F i n i s t e r r e . who was P a p illo n 1s p a tie n t
a t Bie&fcre H osp ital*
According to P& pillon, t h i s young man
had liv e d a l i f e o f e a s e , t y p i c a l of w ealthy gentlem en,
38
b e fo re g o ing to w ar.
On th e f o u r th o f Jan u ary he was adm it­
te d to th e h o s p ita l b u t ©Ten under h o s p ita l c a re h is co n d i­
t i o n c o n tin u e d to grow worse*
On th e 23rd o f January he had
a p u ls e o f 110 , h i s s h in was d r y , h is eyes b r i l l i a n t , and
h i s mind wandering*
He knew he co u ld n o t l i v e , and f i n a l l y
on Jan u a ry 38th he d ie d dreaming o f th e home he would n ev er
see again*
Young p e o p le , P a p illo n s a id , were u s u a lly th e v ic tim s
o f t h i s malady w hich he b e lie v e d a ffe c te d a l l tem peram ents,
The p r iv a tio n s and d e f e a ts exp erien ced d u rin g th e s ie g e o f
1870 he b e lie v e d to be th e cau se o f th e in c re a s e d freq u en cy
o f n o s t a l g i a a t t h a t time*
Com pelling people to leav e t h e i r
homes, as were th e A rcad ian s, and th e French around P a r is in
1870, m ight w ell be an im portant e ti o l o g ic a l f a c to r in th e
o r i g i n o f hom esickness.
This appeared to be th e o r ig in o f
303 c a s e s w ith 8 f a t a l i t i e s , among I t a l i a n c o n s c rip ts moved
to o p p o s ite p a r ts o f th e co u n try from 1867 to 1870.
The
unchanging customs and language is o l a tio n o f B retons and
C o rsican s were c o n d itio n s b e lie v e d by P a p illo n to be
re s p o n s ib le fo r th e p rev alen ce o f n o s ta lg ia among th e s e
tro o p s w h ile th ey were se rv in g in fo re ig n c o u n trie s*
P a p illo n d id n o t agree t h a t n o s ta lg ia was a form o f i n s a n ity o r a s o r t o f mania o r m elancholy.
He argued t h a t
n o s ta lg ia was n o t an in s a n ity because th e n o s ta lg ic p a t i e n t
had no s e n s e le s s o r e x tra v a g a n t n o tio n s , such as b e lie v in g
h im se lf 0 odj no d re ad o r t e r r o r o f an imagined i l l ; he d id
27
^
i
i
n o t en jo y good h e a lth as d id e a s e s o f mania and hypochondria;
th e f i r s t e f f e c t s o f n o s ta lg ia were seen in th e changing
fu n c tio n s o f n u t r i t i o n ; i t s d is tu rb a n c e s o f te n proved f a t a l ;
i t was n e v e r h e r e d ita r y ; and f i n a l l y , i t was a b s o lu te ly
cured by r e tu r n in g th e p a tie n t to M s home and fa m ily ,
tre a tm e n t t h a t c e r t a i n l y would n o t cure a "ma.d-man*.
th e tre a tm e n t recommended by P a p illo n as a su re cu re
f o r n o s t a l g i a was t o r e tu r n th e p a tie n t to h i s n a tiv e home*
When r e t u r n home was im p o ssib le , P a p illo n s ta te d th a t he
r e s o r te d t o o th e r form® o f tre a tm e n t w ith su ccess in some
in s ta n c e s *
M edical tre a tm e n t was lim ite d to m ental and
h y g ie n ic p a l l i a t i v e s , and to an attem pt to p re v en t a f a t a l
te rm in a tio n *
employed*
A c t i v i t ie s and d iv e rs io n s o f a l l kinds w ere
P a p illo n b e lie v e d t h a t i t was l e s s common in th e
navy th a n in th e army because s a i l o r s were more c a r e f u lly
guarded a g a in s t f e e l in g s o f e n n u i, and because songs and
g a ie ty were used to m ain tain a h ig h m orale.
He f a ile d t©
m ention, however, t h a t th e navy a ls o o f f e r s t r a v e l and ad-*
v e n tu re o f a kind q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from th a t o ffe re d by th e
army*
R em issions, and sometimes c u r e s , r e s u lte d from a s s o c ia ­
t i o n w ith people who spoke th e p a t i e n t 1® n a tiv e language.
S s q u iro l (S3) cured some o f h i s B reton p a t i e n t s by a rra n g in g
f o r s tu d e n ts from t h e i r n a tiv e c o u n try to come and t a l k w ith
them.
P a p illo n s t a t e d t h a t th e r e were o th e r c a se s where
weak, t h i n p atien t© became c h e e r f u l and improved a f t e r
38
t a l k i n g t© t h e i r own kind o f people*
Q
When ev e ry th in g e l s e
f a i l e d and r e tu r n home was im p o ssib le , he ad v ised th e use of
s tra te g y *
During th e investm ent o f Ifayence, many ty p h o id
and n o s t a l g i a p a t i e n t s reg ain ed courage and hope when th e y
were prom ised le a v e and passage through th e lin e s *
lik e w is e
M arceray (33) was c r e d ite d w ith c u rin g a monk o f homesick­
n e ss by showing him a f i c t i t i o u s l e t t e r which promised t h a t
he would soon be re tu r n e d to h i s convent*
The need f o r such
s k i l l f u l and ju d ic io u s m ental in te rv e n tio n was co n sid ered
param ount * Qrugs were d e c la re d t o be as pow erless in c a se s
o f n o s t a l g i a as in o th e r nervous d is o r d e r s , a statem en t to
which l a t e r w r i t e r s 17 took e x c e p tio n .
P a p illo n 1s statem en t
i s s i g n i f i c a n t , how ever, because i t in d ic a te s th a t he made a
d i s t i n c t i o n between in s a n ity and nervous d is o r d e r s .
P a p illo n based hi® d is c u s s io n o f th e p re se n ce o f nos­
t a l g i a in d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s upon a s im ila r d is c u s s io n
by B e n o ist do l a 0 ran d i& re.(3 3 )
Among th e c i v i l i s e d r a c e s ,
th e F rench were c o n sid e re d more p red isp o sed to n o s ta lg ia
th a n o th e r p eo p les because o f t h e i r c lo s e attachm ent to t h e i r
c o u n try .
B retons and C orsicans were b e lie v e d to be second
because o f th e unchanging custom s o f t h e i r c o u n trie s*
The
Swiss were t h i r d because o f t h e i r mountainous c o u n try , and
th e I t a l i a n s were f o u rth because o f th e c a se s o cc u rrin g in
^ P a p illo n d id n o t g iv e re fe re n c e s to th e s e c a s e s.
^ E s p e c ia lly E atev e . (?)
29
j
t h e i r army between th e y e a rs 1867-1870,
The E n g lish and
German p eo p les were co n sid ered l e s s p re d isp o se d to n o s ta lg ia ;
th e E n g lis h because o f t h e i r adventurous s p i r i t , and th e
Germans because o f t h e i r cosm opolitan n a tu r e .
Ssgar {23)
re g ard ed savages as b eing more p red isp o sed to n o s ta lg ia th an
a l l o th e r p e o p le s, because he supposed th a t lo v e o f co u n try
would he s tro n g e r in th o se n e a r e s t to n a tu r e ,
th o u g h t Sagar was c o r r e c t in t h i s view .
P a p illo n
He p o in te d o u t t h a t
c e r t a i n G reen lan d ers re tu rn e d from Denmark to Greenland by
canoe, a most hazardous t r i p u n d ertak en s o le ly f o r the
purpose o f liv in g a g a in in G reenland,
He a ls o p o in ted out
th a t an American In d ia n g i r l , who had been adopted by a
w ealthy w h ite fam ily and given a good home, ra n o f f w ith a
t r i b e o f In d ia n s a t h e r f i r s t o p p o rtu n ity .
An i n t e r e s t i n g and com prehensive account o f n o s ta lg ia ,
and rev iew o f th e l i t e r a t u r e , was w ritte n by Widal (31) in
I§ 7 9 ,
Widal b e lie v e d th a t r e g r e t fo r o n e 's n a tiv e land was th e
dom inant, b u t n o t e x c lu s iv e , ca u se o f hom esickness,
He would
n o t ac cep t th e term s '•nostomania# and Hp h ilo p a trid o m a n ia H as
synonyms f o r n o s t a l g i a , because he did not b e lie v e t h a t nos­
t a l g i a was a monomania,
The term n o s ta lg ia , he S a id , n o t
only a p p lie d to an I r r e s t i b l e d e s ir e to r e tu r n to o n e 's n a tiv e
c o u n try , b u t a ls o to an t r r e s t i b l e d e s ir e to be w ith o n e 's
p a re n ts ©r frie n d s ^ o r to have c e r t a in o b je c t s ,
T h e re fo re ,
he d e fin e d n o s ta lg ia ^ as d id S a s p e l| as nl e r e g r e t exagere
que cau se I^ lc ig n e m e n t des MILIEUX dans le sc m e ls nous avons
30
veeu un © evtain tem ps, avee l a d ^ s ir i r r e s i s t i b l e d fy r e tourr-er* * {p. 357)
Widal d iv id ed th e e t i o l o g i c a l factor© in to two g ro u p s:
P re d is p o s in g and th e O c c a sio n a l» The p re d isp o s in g cau ses
in clu d ed ag e , sex , tem peram ent, e d u c a tio n , p ro fe s s io n , t r a n s ­
p o r t a t i o n , and n a tio n a lity .;
He recognized t h a t a l l c h ild r e n
were n o t e q u a lly in c lin e d to n o s ta lg ia , t h a t in f a n ts some­
tim es showed n o s ta lg ic b e h a v io r, o r a t l e a s t vague sig n s o f
i t , when th e o ld n u rse was re p la c e d by a new o n e, and t h a t
o ld e r c h ild r e n sometimes ex p erien ced s li g h t a tta c k s when
away a t school*
He concluded, however, t h a t a© a r u le nos­
t a l g i a had l i t t l e e f f e c t on them .
T heir r e g r e t s a t th e
moment o f le a v in g f o r school u s u a lly d isap p ea red when in th e
new s o c ie ty and w ith o th e r c h ild r e n t h e i r age*
The jo y s and
d i s t r a c t i o n s of ch ild h o o d were d e sc rib e d as f l e e t i n g , a
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which made adjustm ent to a new so c ie ty l e s s
d iffic u lt*
A dolescence was given as th e u su al age f o r n o s t a lg ia .
The i l l u s i o n s and lo v e s o f t h i s p e rio d , and th e c le a r im­
p r e s s io n s o f happy childhood memories, were b e lie v e d to ex­
pose th e a d o le sc e n t to fre q u e n t a tta c k s .
Also in cluded in
t h i s group were th e young men betw een 18 and 30 who were
le a v in g home f o r th e f i r s t tim e to seek c a r e e r s and fo rtu n e s .
A fte r t h i r t y n o s ta lg ia was c o n sid e re d r a r e .
The a d u lt was
d e sc rib e d as b ein g to o p reoccupied w ith h i s work and f u t u r e ,
and w ith th e h ap p in ess o f h is fa m ily , to dw ell on memories
31
o f th e p a s t*
f o s t a l g i a was b e lie v e d to have l i t t l e e f f e c t on o ld
p eo p le who wove f o r t i f i e d by lo n g ex p e rien ce and d i s i l l u s i o n raents, and whose p h y s ic a l and m oral f a c i lit i e s were d im in ish ed .
This* W idal said* was because t h e i r e s ta b lis h e d s e t o f
h a b its co u ld not be e a s il y i n t e r f e r r e d w ith , a c o n d itio n
re n d e rin g them g e n e ra lly i n d i f f e r e n t to t h e i r surroundings*
But e x c e p t io n s were noted*
He p o in te d o u t t h a t L aurent and
Percy had re p o rte d th e case o f a m edical o f f ic e r * who took
p a r t i n a l l th e war® o f th e R epublic and th e Empire* who, in
spit© o f h ie long e x p e rie n c e , s u ffe re d a se v e re a tta c k o f
n o s t a l g i a d u rin g th e campaign in Russia* and th a t A lib e rt had
re p o rte d th e c a se o f an old d o c to r who B uffered an a tta c k o f
n o s ta lg ia d u rin g a v ery lo n g jo u rn e y .
Women, he s a i d , were g e n e r a lly b e lie v e d to be l e s s sub­
je c te d to n o s ta lg ia th a n men*
Although th e fem ale nervous
temperament was g iv en a s one re a so n fo r t h i s , Widal argued
t h a t women were more disposed t o changes in h a b its and to
new im p re s s io n s , and t h a t th ey a p p lie d t h e i r v e r s a t i l e
s p i r i t t o a l l o c c a s io n s .
There i s a lso a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t
th e women o f th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry were more l i k e l y to rem ain a t
home, and th e r e f o r e l e s s l i k e l y to be exposed t o circu m stan ces
fa v o ra b le to th e development o f hom esickness.
He p o in te d
o u t , how ever, t h a t M ichel Levy had re p o rte d t h a t o f th o s e
who m ig ra te d , th e fem ale was l e s s a ffe c te d by hom esickness
because sh e c a r r ie d w ith her th e re so u rc e s o f h er n a tu re ,
32
t e r a c t i v i t i e s , and h e r i n t e r n a l w orld which was more r e a l
t o t e r th a n th e o u te r w orld.
Widal a lso argued t h a t young
g i r l s were l e s s s u s c e p tib le t o n o s ta lg ia because a f te r
le a v in g home t h e i r c o n c e n tra tio n on m arriage and c h ild re n
caused t h e i r memories o f th e p a r e n ta l home to become l e s s
fre q u e n t*
On th e o th e r hand, he re p o rte d c a s e s o f young
g i r l s who, when fo rc e d to le a v e home to work a s se rv a n ts in
th e c i t y , would sometimes s u f f e r such profound n o s ta lg ia
t h a t r e t u r n home was th e only mean® o f r e l i e f .
He s ta t e d
t h a t S auvages, Sw inger, and P in e l had re p o rte d many such
eases*
However, Widal p o in ted o u t t h a t w ith th e in c re a se d
e a se o f communication and th e b e tte rm e n t o f m a te ria l co n d i­
t i o n s , th e in c id e n c e o f n o s ta lg ia among s e rv a n t c la s s e s was
d e c re a s in g .
D if f e r e n t tem peram ents were re p o rte d as having d i f f e r e n t
d eg rees o f s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to n o s t a l g ia .
H ervous, s e n s i t i v e ,
tim id , q u i e t , morose in d iv id u a ls Widal b e lie v e d to be more
s u s c e p tib le th a n o t t e r s .
A meager ed u catio n and th e ex­
c lu s iv e a t t e n t i o n o f fam ily were th e c h ie f reason® g iv en f o r
in c re a s in g a c h ild * s s e n s i t i v i t y to th e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f l i f e
and h i s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to n o s ta lg i a .
C u ltu re was c o n sid e re d
th e c h i e f assu ran ce a g a in s t hom esickness b ecause i t f u r ­
n ish e d a l l s o r t s o f in te re s t® , d i s t r a c t i o n s , and co n so la­
tion® unknown to th e i l l i t e r a t e .
I n t e r e s t in one1® work,
and devout r e li g i o u s b e l i e f s were a ls o given as p re v e n tiv e s
a g a in s t n o s ta lg ia .
S3
'
Th© m i li t a r y p ro f e s s io n was co n sid ered to be more p re ­
d is p o s in g t o n o s t a l g i a th a n a l l o th e r p r o f e s s io n s .
Accord­
in g t o W idalf H aspel had p o in ted out th a t c o n s c rip ts o f te n
undergo extrem e changes i n t h e i r h a b it s , c lo th in g , and fo o d ,
as w e ll as c lim a tic ch an g es.
S in ce young s o l d i e r s were
c o n sid e re d easy v ic tim s o f n o s t a l g i a , i t s frequency among
them was n o t c o n sid e re d s u r p r is in g ,
Widal b e lie v e d t h a t
th e y alw ays h eld th e f r e e and easy l i f e o f form er tim es in
c o n tr a s t t© th e ru d e e x ig e n c ie s o f th e p r e s e n t,
Some, he
s a id , s tru g g le d a g a in s t n o s ta lg ia and trium phedj o th e r s , f o r
a tim e a t l e a s t , su b m itted to th e malady.
U su ally i t dev el­
oped a t th e b eg in n in g o f m i li ta r y s e rv ic e when th e r e c r u i t
was f r e s h from horn# and th e m i li t a r y ro u tin e s t i l l fo re ig n
t© horn,
th e n h i s memories o f th e p a s t were e ra se d by d e s ir e
f o r advancement and lo v e ©f g lo ry *
Michel Levy, according
t o W idal, re p o rte d t h a t th e d i s l i k e which young s o ld ie r s
sometimes developed f o r th e p ro fe s s io n o f arms was due in
la r g e p a r t to an e x c e s s o f work, d i s t r ib u te d w ithout g ra d a­
t i o n , and to th e s e v e r ity ©f some o f f i c e r s .
Medical o f f i c e r s
found l e s s n o s ta lg ia in Regiments o f young s o ld ie r s where
th e o f f i c e r s were k in d and sy m p a th e tic , and where th e d u tie s
were J u s t l y d i s t r i b u t e d .
t h e in f a n tr y r e c r u i t was b e lie v e d to be more in c lin e d
to n o s t a l g i a because he was l e s s occupied th a n r e c r u i t s in
o th e r b ra n c h e s o f th e s e rv ic e .
The c a v a lry r e c r u i t , on th e
©they h an d , had h i s h o rs e and many o cc u p atio n s to keep him
34
busy*
R e c r u its from la r g e c i t i e s were b e lie v e d to be more
ex p e rie n c e d i n th e s u f fe rin g s and d ec ep tio n s o f l i f e and
were th e r e f o r e c o n sid e re d l e s s s u b je c t to n o s ta lg ia th a n
t h e i r more n aiv e comrades from th e country*
Maurice&u
Beauchamp* acco rd in g t o Widal* observed t h a t many who
r a p id ly a d ju s te d t o th e e x e rc is e s and h a b its o f th e Regi­
ment* and who r e s i s t e d n o s ta lg ia in tim e o f peace* developed
i t q u ic k ly in tim e o f war because th e f a tig u e and h a rd sh ip s
o f war were more th a n they could stand*
Those from more
v i t a l f a m ilie s and u sed to h a rd sh ip s and f a tig u e could r e ­
s i s t hom esickness by a tte n d in g s t r i c t l y to th e d u tie s which
c a ll e d them from t h e i r home®.
V o lu n te e rs, who chose th e
m i li t a r y p ro fe s s io n o f t h e i r own f r e e w ill* were not always
immune t o n o s ta lg ia *
Im patience* th e d e s ir e f o r advancement,
and th e i n f l e x i b l e d i s c i p l i n e o f army l i f e sometimes broke
th e ir re s is ta n c e .
I n g e n e ra l, n o s t a l g ia appeared to be se v e re among
young s o l d i e r s , and e s p e c ia lly among th o se o f a sp o rad ic
n a tu r e .
I t s freq u en cy sometimes reached epidem ic p ro p o rtio n s
among s o l d i e r s o f th e same departm ent o r Regim ent.
During
th e French R ev o lu tio n t h i s was p a r tl y because young p eo p le
from th e same p ro v in ce e n lis te d in th e same Regiment.
In
F rance th e law o f 1832, on th e re c ru itm e n t o f th e army, was
en acted to remedy t h i s c o n d itio n .
I t provided th a t each
Regiment be r e c r u ite d from a l l p ro v in c e s , and p ro h ib ite d th e
re c ru itm e n t o f a Regiment from a s in g le p ro v in c e .
35
Under
|
t h i s law n o s ta lg ia "became r a r e i n th e French army, a f a c t
which lo a d Widal to conclude t h a t i t was t r u l y a m ental con­
ta g io n t th e f r u i t o f a m utual exchange o f r e g r e t s and mem­
o r i e s f o r th e same p la c e .
Widal accep ted l a r r e y f s o b s e rv a tio n t h a t n o s ta lg ia was
in c re a s e d d u rin g tim e s o f w ar, and p o in te d out t h a t B en o ist
de l a Grandiifcre had found t h a t i t com plicated th e d y se n te ry
in th e army o f th e M o selle.
The monotony o f th e s e a , poor food, poor pay, and bad
tre a tm e n t c re a te d in s a i l o r s a d is g u s t fo r th e s e rv ic e and
le a d to se v e re hom esickness in e a r l i e r tim e s , but by 1879
th e s e c o n d itio n s were changed.
S a ilo r s , fo rm erly r e c r u ite d
w ith o u t d i s c r e t i o n , were being r e c r u ite d c h i e f ly from th e
p eo p le alo n g th e se a c o a s t who, sin c e ch ild h o o d , were fa m il­
i a r w ith th e problem s o f n a v ig a tio n , and w ith th e s te r n
d i s c i p l i n e o f th e s e a .
C o n sc rip ts from th e i n t e r i o r , Widal
p o in te d o u t , were unaccustomed to th e sea and to th e dangers
o f n a v ig a tio n , and as would be ex p ected , were awkward and
co n fu se d , and s u ffe re d from sea—s ic k n e s s , m elancholy, and
n o s ta lg ia .
F o n ssa g riv e s, acco rd in g to W idal, re p o rte d in
h i s Hygiene Havale t h a t t h i s , and th e i n a b i l i t y to speak in
n a u tic a l term s, a c tu a ll y brought i s o la tio n t o in la n d con­
s c rip ts .
Widal agreed w ith G ilb e rt t h a t d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s
had s p e c ia l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which caused them to vary in
t h e i r s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to n o s ta lg ia .
36
The amount and degree of
n o s t a l g i a , he b e lie v e d , v a rie d in v e rs e ly w ith th e amount
o f e iv lliz & llo n and d i r e c t l y w ith th e ruggedness o f th e
p e o p le .
For exam ple, he s ta te d t h a t B enoist de l a G randi^re
had r e p o r te d th a t as th e in h a b ita n ts o f th e Pyr^ndes were
f o r c ib ly c i v i l i z e d th e y became l e s s and l e s s a tta c h e d to
t h e i r n a tiv e la n d , and l e s s s u s c e p tib le to n o s ta lg ia .
Widal
a ls o p o in te d out t h a t th e lap o n s wanted to r e tu r n t© t h e i r
h u ts and t h e i r snow p l a i n s , and t h a t th e G reenlanders i n
Denmark had braved a l l th e d angers o f th e s e a in o rd e r to
r e tu r n t o t h e i r n a tiv e la n d ,
n o s ta lg ia was o f te n seen among
th e n e g ro e s and c r e o le s serv in g t h e i r m asters in Furope*
These s e r v a n ts , he s a id , would fre q u e n tly le a v e t h e i r m asters
and a co m fo rtab le e x is te n c e in o rd e r to r e tu r n to th e c o l­
o n ie s ; o th e rw ise th e y would become so unhappy th a t they
would p o iso n th e m se lv e s.
Cook, according to W idal, re p o rte d
t h a t n o s t a l g i a was a v ery r e a l problem among th e Mew
Z ea la n d ers who embarked w ith him on h is e x p e d itio n .
Of th e c i v i l i z e d p e o p le s, th e French were l i s t e d by
t i d a l as th e n a t i o n a l i t y most p red isp o sed to n o s ta lg ia , and
f i r s t p la c e among th e French was given to th e province o f
l a B retag n e w ith i t s firm r e l i g i o n and sim ple mores.
Lee C o rse s, w ith th e in h a b ita n ts o f Montagues and o f th e
l i t t l e is la n d s in th e ocean, were given second p la c e .
P eople o f th e c e n t r a l re g io n s o f France were co n sid ered
somewhat l e s s su s c e p tib le *
The people o f so u th e rn F ran ce,
who were c h a r a c te r iz e d by t h e i r gay d is p o s itio n s and t h e i r
a c tiv e im a g in a tio n s, were seldom hom esick, Widal s a id , be­
cause o f t h e i r a b i l i t y to accommodate to th e p re se n t and to
f o r g e t th e p a s t-
The in d u s tr y , e d u c a tio n , and th e numerous
ways o f com m unications which c h a r a c te r is e d n o rth and c e n t r a l
France h elp ed to red u ce hom esickness in th e s e regions*
The
re g io n s o f 1 A u v e rg n e « l a C reu se. and l e s Aloes f r a n y a is e s .
where t h e r e was a p e r io d ic a l m ig ra tio n and r e tu r n o f th e in ­
h a b i t a n t s , had a sm all in cid en ce o f n o s ta lg ic o ases-
The
f a c t t h a t few s o l d i e r s from A lsace became homesick fo r t h e i r
f e r t i l e p la in s and b e a u tif u l m ountains he a t t r ib u te d to th e
m i li t a r y s p i r i t which imbued t h a t region*
N e v e rth e le ss,
many y o u th s from A lsace ex p erienced th e to rm en ts o f n o s ta lg ia
w h ile s e rv in g in fo re ig n g a r r is o n s .
Widal s ta te d t h a t th e Germans were in c lin e d to n o s ta lg ia
and c i t e d a s im ila r r e p o r t by R. Chenu.
S w itz e rla n d , acco rd in g to W idal, co n tin u ed to be
re c o g n iz e d by a l l as th e c l a s s i c la n d o f n o s ta lg ia -
I t was
g e n e ra lly b e lie v e d t h a t th e f r e e and independent l i f e o f i t s
in h a b i t a n t s , t h e i r deep community s p i r i t , th e pure m ountain
a i r , and th e b e a u t i f u l scenes c u t such deep grooves in to th e
memories o f th e Swiss people t h a t absence from t h e i r n a tiv e
co u n try always caused g re a t p a in and s u f f e r in g .
N o sta lg ia
was r a r e among I t a l i a n s , th o se l i v in g in th e Alps and
Apennee showing th e g r e a t e s t in c id e n c e o f i t ,
He p o in te d
o u t , how ever, t h a t B en o ist de l a G rand!ere had found t h a t
th e g r e a t e s t freq u en cy o f c a se s in th e I t a l i a n army o cc u rred
38
among s o l d i e r s fro® S a rd in ia and S i c i ly .
t i d a l re p o rte d t h a t th e E n g lis h , because o f t h e i r lo r e
f o r t r a v e l , t h e i r s p i r i t o f a d v e n tu re , t h e i r cosm opolitan
n a t u r e , and t h e i r com m ercial p re o c e u p a tIo n s, r a r e ly
s u ffe re d n o s ta lg ia alth o u g h th ey were c lo s e ly a tta c h e d t o
t h e i r n a tiv e co u n try *
t h i s he b e lie v e d to be th e s e c r e t o f
t h e i r c o lo n is in g gen iu s*
Be made no re fe re n c e to th e U nited
S ta te s ex c ep t to say t h a t th e neg ro es ex p erien ced l i t t l e
n o s t a l g i a because o f t h e i r freedom and th e humane tre a tm e n t
which th e y receiv ed *
$© m ention was made o f th e re c e n t
p r a c t i c e o f s la v e ry I n th e U nited S tates*
Poor tr a n s p o r ta ­
t i o n , c a p t i v i t y , and e x ile were th e c o n d itio n s which he
c o n sid e re d most fa v o ra b le t o th e development o f n o s ta lg ia .
Under o c c a sio n a l causes Widal l i s t e d :
memory o f c h i l d -
hood p l a c e s , f a m i l i a r songs, l e t t e r s from home, and s ic k n e s s.
Comparing i t t o a sm oldering f i r e , he sa id t h a t any l i t t l e
o cc u rren c e o r c irc u m sta n c e , such a s a l e t t e r o r th e s ig h t o f
a f r i e n d , might s e t i t o ff*
t h i s was th e e f f e c t o f *Kanz
des V eches*, melody o f th e Swiss m ountains, on Swiss
s o l d i e r s In th e F rench serv ic e*
Widal s ta te d th a t acco rd in g
t o B e n o ist do l a G ran d iere t h i s melody aroused a b u rn in g de­
s i r e i n th e Swiss to r e tu r n to t h e i r m ountain homes*
He
a ls o s t a t e d t h a t th e songs and b a lla d s from th e m ountains ©f
l a g a m io le aroused s im ila r f e e l in g s I n th e B retons from
th a t re g io n *
S ic k n e s s , coming to one away from home, Widal b e lie v e d
m
m m t t m g r e a t e s t and. most common o f th e o c c a s io n a l c a u se s o f
n o s ta lg ia * p lu n g in g t h e in d iv id u a l move d e e p ly in to hom esickn e s s th a n re v e rs e s o r d is a s te r *
I© amount o f h o s p ita l c a re
and tr e a tm e n t, he s a i d , could r e l i e v e t h i s d i s t r e s s and sad-*
ness*
M ercen aries and i n t e l l e c t u a l in d iv id u a ls * i l l in
h o s p ita ls * w ere, Widal s a id , d a i l y s p e c ta c le s o f human
m ise ry , dy in g f o r th e te n d e r c a re o f a m other o r s is te r *
He
b e lie v e d t h a t th e p re v a le n c e o f such oases* e s p e c ia lly in
th e m i l i t a r y h o s p i t a l s o f France* c le a r ly shoved th e r o l e o f
s ic k n e s s i n th e developm ent o f n o s ta lg ia *
He noted a ls o th e
rem ark ab le r e l i e f b ro u g h t to th e s e in d iv id u a ls by th e
prom ise o f a fu rlo u g h *
W idal reco g n ised n o s ta lg ia as m ailm en t common to a l l
p eo p le and t o a l l ag es and temperaments*
n e ith e r th e weak
n o r th e s tro n g w ere co n sid ered immune when p lace d in a
s tra n g e s o c ie ty o r a new environm ent.
tid a l* s e t i o lo g ic a l
stu d y was p re se n te d from a r e tr o s p e c tiv e and h i s t o r i c a l
s ta n d p o in t * t o p o in te d o u t t h a t th e g e n e ric ca u ses o f nos­
t a l g i a had la r g e ly d isap p ea red and th a t as a consequence th e
malady had become more and more ra re *
In h is s ix o r seven
year© p r a c t ic e in m i li t a r y h o s p i t a l s he nev er saw th e alarm ­
in g symptom© re p o rte d by some w r i t e r s .
H is p a ti e n t s were
n o t la c k in g In s e n tim e n t, and always recovered when prom ised
a t r i p hom e*y'in th e h o s p ita l a t 1 *Alg&rie he never saw more
th a n one sev e re c a s e which r e s i s t e d recovery fo r a tim e a f t e r
th e p a t i e n t knew he would be re tu rn e d to F ra n c e , nor d id he
« f e r s e e a c a s e , even in way tim e* th a t r e b e lle d s u f f i ­
c i e n t l y t o n e c e s s i t a t e th e im m ediate r e tu r n o f th e p a t i e n t
t o M s home.
On th e o th e r hand* alm ost ev ery ea se which he
d id se e was co m p licated by o th e r tro u b le s*
He a t t r ib u t e d
th e d e c re a s e o f n o s t a l g i a to such f a c to r s as th e ease and
speed o f com m unication, th e g e n e ra l d if f u s io n o f knowledge,
th e advancement o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , and th e p ro g re s s iv e e lim in a ^'“T fon o f l o c a l custom s and languages*
In th e army more f r e e ­
dom was g ra n te d to th e s o l d i e r s , e a tin g c o n d itio n s were im­
p ro v e d , work and d u t i e s were more c a r e f u lly a p p o rtio n e d , and
th e s o l d i e r s were b e t t e r tr e a te d by t h e i r o f f ic e r s *
These
improvements and th e law o f 1333 he held re sp o n s ib le f o r th e
d e c re a se i n m ilita r y cases*
Kor d id i t appear to him t h a t
o b lig a to r y s e rv ic e would produce e f f e c ts l e s s wholesome*
Widal p re d ic te d t h a t mixing r e c r u i t s from a l l c la s s e s of
p eo p le in th e same Regiment would e lim in a te th e p ea san t* s
f e e l in g s o f in e q u a lity and would cau se him to support w ith
p a tie n c e and r e s ig n a tio n , dangers and p r iv a tio n s which o th e r­
w ise h e would n o t en d u re.
W idal re p o rte d t h a t th e d e c lin e in th e number o f c a s e s
in th e navy i n 1879 was b e lie v e d by B enoist de l a G randiere
t© be due to th e a b o l i t io n o f c o rp o re a l punishm ent, a more
r a t i o n a l employment o f tim e sp en t on board s h ip , a g r e a t e r
v a r i e t y o f e x e rc is e s f o r th e s a i l o r s , and a more i n t e l l i g e n t
s e le c tio n o f o f f ic e r s *
Widal added th a t r a p id communication
and t r a n s p o r ta ti o n s in c e th e advent o f th e w ire le s s and o f
41
th e s t e m e n g in e , a re d u c tio n in th e number o f len g th y
c r u i s e s , and th e g r e a t e r r e g u l a r i t y o f th e m a ils a ls o h elp ed
to re d u ce th e freq u en cy o f n o s ta lg ia on th e sea*
He p o in te d
o u t t h a t th e b e s t d o c to rs w ritin g in th e a rc h iv e s o f n av a l
m edicine had n o t m entioned n o s t a l g ia sin c e 1870, and t h a t
th e E n g lis h s t a t i s t i c a l re p o rt on th e h e a lth o f th e navy fo r
th e y e a r s j u s t p re c e d in g 1879 d id not m ention a s in g le c a s e .
In th e te n y ea r p e rio d p reced in g 1879, hom esickness alm ost
d isa p p e a re d from th e p ris o n s o f th e Seine and th e p e n ite n ­
t i a r y o f T oulon, and, according to W idal, o f 30,000 p o l i t i c a l
c r im in a ls ru le d under p e n ite n tia r y e sta b lish m e n ts B en o ist de
l a (g ra n d lire d id n o t observe a s in g le case o f n o s ta lg ia as
an o r i g i n a l i l l n e s s .
W idal re c o g n ise d a l l degree® o f n o s ta l g i a , but in
g e n e ra l th e fo llo w in g were c o n sid e re d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c :
en n u i,
e v e n tu a lly g iv in g way to profound m elan ch o lia; an u n n a tu ra l
re s e rv e and s ile n c e ; com plete in d if f e r e n c e to th e Immediate
s u rro u n d in g s | vague f e e lin g s o f u n r e s t; so rro w fu l se n tim e n ts,
r e le a s in g t e a r s o f d e s p a ir ; and above a l l , an overwhelming
d e s ir e to r e tu r n home,
long f o r g o tte n m em ories, re a c h in g
back t o e a r ly c h ild h o o d , o f te n re tu rn e d l i k e swarming b ee s
to a s s a i l and overwhelm th e v ic tim , who, p erh ap s had been
away from home many y e a rs and had acquired h a b its and cus­
toms quit© d i f f e r e n t from th o se o f h is childhood*
liv in g
in a p le a s a n t and p ic tu re s q u e co u n try gave no assurance
a g a in s t b e in g suddenly se iz e d by a f e e lin g o f sorrow and a
d e f i n i t e i l l n e s s f o r th e ways and h a b its o f ch ild h o o d , and
f o r th e n a tiv e m ountains and f i e l d s , which even though a r i d ,
become more b e a u ti f u l th a n a l l o th e r p la c e s on earth*
Even
th o s e am idst th e sp le n d o rs o f n a tu r e o r th e lu x u r ie s o f th e
c i t y h a v e , a t tim e s , longed f o r th e tr a s h heap they once
c a lle d home.
W idal p o in te d o u t t h a t th e lo n g in g s in hom esickness
were v e ry much l i k e th o s e o f an unhappy l o v e r ,
|
l i t t l e by
\
l i t t l e , he s a i d , th e y ta k e on th e p ro p o rtio n s o f a r e a l
\J
p a s s io n , sometimes c a u sin g th e v ic tim to seek s o litu d e in
^
V
o rd e r t o c o n c e n tra te more f u l l y upon h is c h e rish e d memories
j
o f home.
!
i
j
In t h i s c o n d itio n he av o id s a l l t h a t might d i v e r t
h i s th o u g h ts , even e f f o r t s o f h i s b e s t friend© to co n so le
him*
Sometimes he t a l k s w ith a companion f o r a w h ile , speak­
ing h i s n a tiv e to n g u e, but such c o n s o la tio n i s sh o rt liv e d
fo r he q u ic k ly r e tu r n s to h is profound sorrow .
His i s o l a ­
t i o n becomes a s t a t e o f m e la n c h o lia , g iv in g new s tre n g th and /
v io le n c e t o h i s d eliriu m * i^In^his^ e tru g g le a g a in s t n o s ta lg ia
he s u f f e r s many r e l a p s e s , which v ery soon c r e a t e a s t a t e o f
c o n sc io u sn e ss th a t p re v e n ts him fro® acknowledging h is home­
s ic k n e s s e i t h e r t o h im s e lf o r t o o th ers*
He u se s any means
t o defend h im self a g a in s t th e f e a r o f co w ardice, e s p e c ia lly
i f he i s a s o l d i e r .
He r e s i s t s a i l h e lp fu l su g g e stio n s fro®
h ie p h y s ic ia n , and blam es h is c o n d itio n on circu m stan ces in
no way connected w ith th e f e e lin g s u n d erly in g h is r e a l
tro u b le .
However, i f h i s c o m p a trio ts arouse in him th e
s l i g h t hope o f r e tu r n in g to h ie home, o r i f th e y even men­
t i o n h i e home, h is fa c e p a le s and flu sh e s a l t e r n a t e l y , h is
h e a r t pounds, h is p u ls e Q uickens, a f la s h o f p o o rly r e ­
p re ss e d l©y sweeps h ie e y e s, and f o r a moment h is whole body
tre m b le s a s i f re c e iv in g an e l e c t r i c shook*
C on tin u in g th e d e s c r ip tio n , Widal s ta te d th a t th e
v ic tim ’ s dom inating d e s ir e f o r home causes l o s s o f sle e p and
a p p e t i t e , which in tu r n c o n tr ib u te to h is m ental and
p h y s ic a l c o lla p se *
In re v ery he may see h i s p a r e n ts , and
h ear t h e i r names and v o ic e s ; h a llu c in a tio n s and i l l u s i o n s
which may le a d t© a d eep er m elan ch o lia o r to an e x a lta tio n
so g r e a t t h a t be lo s e s c o n tro l o f h is f e e lin g s which h© be­
t r a y s by h i s g roans and h o p eless d e s p a ir .
H is only comment
may be ^R eturn me home o r I w il l d ie 0 * U nless he i s th e n
re tu rn e d t o h is home h is m ental s u ffe rin g in c re a s e s and h is
p h y s ic a l c o n d itio n s te a d ily becomes weaker*
His face lo s e s
i t s f r e s h n e s s , he grows p a le , h is head becomes f e v e r is h , and
h i s movements become slow and p a i n f u l, u n c e rta in and noncha­
la n t*
Mis gaze becomes fix e d , h i s look vague and d i s t r a c t e d ,
and h i s e y e s, sunken in t h e i r o r b i t s , grow d u l l and fe eb le*
He becomes anemic, h i s p u lse grows weak, i r r e g u l a r , and a t
tim es c o n sid e ra b ly s la c k , and he fre q u e n tly ex p e rien ces
p a l p i t a t i o n o f th e h e a rt*
reduced t o deep s ig h s .
R e s p ira tio n i s I r r e g u la r and i s
Vague e r r a t i c p a in s o f v a r ia b le in ­
t e n s i t y a re u s u a lly p r e s e n t.
The a p p e tite d im in ish es u n t i l
i t I s co m p letely l o s t , th e mouth f e e l s dry and empty, and
44
th e a s s i m i la ti v e fu n c tio n s a re so re ta rd e d t h a t th e re I s a
pronounced w astin g away o f th e body*
The e p ig a striu m be­
comes s o re and th e r e i s some d y sp e p tic nervousness*
These
c o n d itio n s a r e accompanied by an a l te r n a tio n between a tta c k s
o f d i a r r h e a and c o n s tip a tio n , which u s u a lly r e s u l t s in th e
a b s o lu te r e f u s a l o f a l l food*
The g e n i t a l fu n c tio n s a re e i t h e r e x tin g u ish e d o r com­
p l e t e l y r e p r e s s e d , and i n women, th e m en stru al p e rio d s be­
come ex tre m e ly d i f f i c u l t o r a r e even suppressed*
Her
n a t u r a l co q u e try i s l o s t and h e r d e s ir e to p le a s e d isa p p e a rs
under th e in flu e n c e o f h e r dom inating d e s ir e f o r home.
Augmented by th e s e fu n c tio n a l t r o u b le s , th e d e p re ssio n
makes r a p id p ro g re s s .
The in c re a s in g p a l e r , © h ills , n ig h t
sw eats# and Insom nia, and th e la c k o f fo o d , and i r r e g u la r
bowel a c ti o n , le a d t o a g e n e ra l weakness and a ra p id d e c lin e
o f th e whole organism *
F in a lly , w ithout agony o r lo s s ©f
i n t e l l e c t , th e v ic tim c o n s e c ra te s h i s l a s t words and th o u g h ts
to h i s home and th e n d ie s*
Sometimes, how ever, d ea th comes
i n th e m iddle o f a co n v u lsiv e a t t a c k , o r in some o th e r
tum ultuous manner*
The h e c tic o r sev ere form o f n o s ta lg ia
u s u a lly te rm in a te s in t h i s way.
T h is d e s c r ip tio n i s s i m ila r , Widal s a id , to t h a t g iv en
by B ro u s s a is i n h i s in a u g u ra l t h e s i s :
f i e v r e h e c tlc u e
morale* in which B ro u ssa is s ta te d t h a t n o s ta lg ia r e s u l t s
from a co n tin u ed c e r e b r a l hyper ex c i t a t i o n le a d in g e v e n tu a lly
to pro fo u n d n u t r i t i o n a l d y sfu n ctio n s*
4i
T h is, Widal s a id , was
th e * p h th is ie n e r v eu ae 11 d e sc rib e d by Bauvages and M orton, or
* Ia p h t h i s l e seohe d es m elan eo liq u es1* d e s c rib e d by L a rre y *
W idal d is c u s s e d in d e t a i l th e forms o f n o s ta lg ia and
i t s v a r io u s c o m p lic a tio n s and p a th o lo g ie s .
Most p a th o lo ­
g i s t s had d e sc rib e d th e more s e r io u s form , c a lle d “h e c tiq u e
n o s ta lg ic * * and a l l had d isc u sse d th e p sy ch ic phenomena and
th e v a r io u s fu n c tio n a l tr o u b le s u s u a lly p re se n t*
W idalf s
c r i t i c i s m o f th e s e w riter© was t h a t th ey s a c r i f i c e d s c ie n ­
t i f i c r e s e a r c h , and in s te a d f i l l e d t h e i r w r itin g s w ith
p o e tic c i t a t i o n s and c o n sid e r a t io n s more s e n tim e n ta l th a n
e d u c a tio n a l*
He s t a t e d t h a t H aspel *s r e p o r t o f 1873 f o r
1 *Academic de medeoine had th e m e rit o f p la c in g in r e l i e f
th e c l i n i c a l p i c t u r e o f n o s t a lg i a , which had been abandoned
by many, and o f in c lu d in g m ental and concom itant d iso rd e rs*
A tte n tio n was d ir e c te d toward th e n o s ta lg ic elem ents r e ­
s p o n s ib le f o r th e o rg a n ic d is tu rb a n c e s and t o th e th e r a ­
p e u tic p ro ced u res f o r e lim in a tin g th e s e elem ents*
H asp el,
he s a i d , p o s tu la te d an anatom ical pathology and sought to
e s t a b l i s h a mechanism by which th e m ental d is tu rb a n c e could
d eterm in e th e l o c a l d is tu rb a n c e s and th e a l t e r a t i o n s found
in th e t e x tu r e o f v a rio u s organs*
According t o t i d a l ,
H aspel p o in te d o u t t h a t we see o n ly th e s u rfa c e o f human
em otions w ith o u t knowing th e e x te n t o f t h e i r d e p th , b u t he
co n clu d ed , on th e s tr e n g th o f numerous o b se rv a tio n s o f
v a r io u s d eg rees o f hom esickness, t h a t many o f th e o rg a n ic
a l t e r a t i o n s , in s te a d o f being r e s u l t s o f n o s t a l g i a , were
46
a c tu a ll y c a u s a l f a c to r s *
O fte n , he s a i d , H aspel found form s
o f n o s t a l g i a which in c re a se d th e p atien t* © s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to
d is e a s e s w hich, when p r e s e n t, would co m p licate th e co n d itio n *
Thus sim p le n o s t a l g i a might le a d to c e r e b r a l d is o r d e r s ,
g a s t r o e n t e r i t i s * tu b erc u la r-p n eu m o n ia, ©r t o o th e r s e r io u s
co m p licat io n s ♦ However * sim ple n o s ta lg ia was never com­
p l i c a t e d w ith o rg a n ic le s io n s o r d is o rd e rs*
I t was th e most
common form* and was c h a r a c te r is e d by p h y s ic a l and m ental
d e p re s s io n from which th e p a t i e n t u s u a lly recovered w ith o u t
b ein g re tu r n e d to h i s tome*
n e v e rth e le s s* H aspel b e lie v e d
t h a t t h i s form o f n o s ta lg ia co u ld te rm in a te In d e a th , e i t h e r
slo w ly by e x h a u s tio n , o r ra p id ly by c e r e b r a l e x c ita tio n *
th e form which Widal s a id was d e sc rib e d by b o th H aspel
and h& rrey a s * la n o s ta lg ia c e r e b r a ls s u ra iq u e * , was
c h a r a c te r is e d by m extreme d e g re e o f m ental ex c item en t,
such a s re p o rte d by B egin, and o f te n was accompanied by con­
v u ls io n s , coma* and d e liriu m , and by c o n g e stio n s in th e
b r a in which sometimes caused c e r e b r a l hem orrhages,
W idal,
however* d id n o t a g re e w ith H aspel th a t c e r e b r a l hemor­
rh ag es * which Widal s a id Masson de Neuf-Maison had found in
a hom esick c o n s c rip t* were th e immediate r e s u l t s o f v e s s e ls
d is te n d e d by m ental d istu rb a n c e *
An a p o p le c tic a tta c k , he
p o in te d o u t , m ight end f a t a l l y w ith o u t th e p resen ce o f
n o s ta lg ia *
A ccording to Widal* H aspel c a lle d th e m ost sev ere form
o f n o s ta lg ia !
*forme © drebraie ch ro n iq u e* .
H aspel d id n o t
h e e ii& ie t o a t t r i b u t e t o t h i s form o f n o s ta lg ia th e c h ro n ic
n c n iis g ite e which bed been d e s c rib e d by le re y -D u p re in cobn e e tio n w ith a n o th e r d ts « 8s « # and th e c h ro n ic e n c e p h a litis
which had been discovered. 1b a n o s ta lg ic p a t i e n t by Bevaux.
H asps! b e lie v e d t h a t a s in g le d m iiia n t e x c i t a t i o n , such a s
a s s c la n c h c lic preoccM pation, would by it® p e r s is te n c e and
energy le n d t o an a l t e r a t i o n o f o rg a n ic t e x t u r e , a f t e r
which th e t r e b l e c o u ld o n ly be a r r e s te d by r e tu r n in g th e
p a t i e n t t o h i s home,
t i d a l b e lie v e d t h a t H asps! was u n a b le
t o co n firm t h i s th eo ry *
He argued t h a t th e le s io n s and a l ­
t e r a t i o n o f t o r t u r e found in th e meninges and b ra in were,,
on t h e c o n tr a r y , th e o r ig in a l d is o r d e r s o u t o f which n o s t a l g ia
sometimes developed*
O therw ise, he said* th e p re c is e o f a
le a v e t o th o s e s u f f e r in g h c M sle b n e ss would n o t d is s ip a t e
th e W 8| « l | i t m * r e l i e v e i t s c e r e b r a l sltsr& ilo B S *
U d a l re p o rte d L&rrey*® argument th a t t h e ch ro n ic ty p e
o f n o s t a l g i a a l t e r e d th e p e rip h e ry o f th e b r a in f i r s t * and
th en l i t t l e by l i t t l e p e n e tra te d th e deeper p a r t s , c a u sin g
d is te n s io n o f th e v e s s e l s and expansion o f th e c e re b ra l sub­
s ta n c e , weakening th e i n t e l l e c t u s ! f a c u ltie s * producing
h a llu c lism tlc n s r e l a t i v e to th e home, and f i n a l l y r e s u l t l a g
%M p e r v e rs io n s o f th e fu n c tio n s o f se n sa tio n and movement *
gsstyw M N ftsrttift* p n ettao-fcaatrie stu p o r* and p r o s t r a t i o n ,
l t d ml saw l i t t l e d if f e r e n c e betw een t h i s th e o ry and th e
th e o ry p re se n te d by H aspel, end concluded t h a t th e f a c t s
would n o t su p p o rt e i t h e r o f them .
48
Be b e lie v e d th a t th e
an a to m ical Aosioma « » y i le s io n s r e s u l ti n g from e n c e p h a litis
m m e n in g itis * and t h a t th e r e s u l t i n g d e liriu m would n atu ­
r a l l y c e n te r about th e patient*® dominant id e a s , which in
th e hom esick p a t i e n t would be idea© o f home and lowed ones*
Widal s t a t e d t h a t S o n d e s.t in h i s re p o rt on c e r e b r a l- s p in a l
m e n in g itis* o ite d many o ase s where th e d e liriu m took a
nostom anic form*
W |dal d e sc rib e d an o th er form o f n o s ta lg ia which he s a id
H&spel c a ll e d •form e i n t e s t i n a l e 8 * This i n t e s t i n a l form was
c h a r a c te r is e d by d ig e s tiv e d is tu rb a n c e s which le a d eventu­
a l l y t© o rg a n ic l e s io n s o f th e stomach and la r g e in te s tin e s *
S ince t h i s d e s c r ip tio n was based upon only two o ase s which
H aspel had observed i n A lg e rle . Widal f e l t j u s t i f i e d i n con­
s id e r in g th e ev id en ce i n s u f f i c i e n t to prove t h a t n o s ta lg ia
could have an u l c e r a t i v e a c tio n on th e i n t e s t i n a l mucous*
Widal b e lie v e d t h a t th e s e wears more l ik e ly e a s e s o f u l c e r a ­
t i v e d ia r r h e a which were com plicated by n o s ta l g i a and th e
m elancholy u s u a lly accompanying g a s tr o - i n t e s t i n a l d is o r d e r s .
He p o in te d o u t t h a t th e good news t h a t th ey were to be r e ­
tu rn e d t o France co u ld e a s ily cau se a momentary a r r e s t o f
th e d ia r r h e a and i t s symptoms.
Widal agreed w ith H aspel th a t
d ia r r h e a o f te n accom panies n o s t a l g i a , but he argued t h a t such
d ia r r h e a could c o n tin u e i n d e f i n i t e l y w ithout cau sin g s e rio u s
an ato m ical le s io n s o r u l c e r a t io n s .
The d e c re a s e in d ia r r h e a
tro o p s r e tu r n in g from A fric a to F ran ce, he s a id , was
p ro b a b ly duo t© th e b e t t e r food and c lim a te t o which th e y
r e tu r n e d , %hm t o t h e i r r e l i e f from n o s t a l g i a .
Widal a ls o
agreed w ith H aspel t h a t n o s ta lg ia in flu e n c e s th e development
o f pneum onia, p l e u r i s y , and tu b e r c u lo s is , b u t h i s ex p lan a­
t i o n was t h a t hom esickness m o d ified th e nervous system so
t h a t th e r e s is ta n c e to in f e c tio u s d is e a s e s was reduced*
He
p o in te d o u t t h a t any w eakness, p h y s ic a l o r m e n ta l, w i ll p re ­
d is p o s e o n e to i l l h e a lth and d ise a se *
Thus n o s ta lg ia m ight
cau se an in f e c tio u s d is e a s e such as pneumonia to fo llo w a
dynamic and in s id io u s course*
To prevent n o s ta lg ia o b scu rin g
th e d ia g n o s is , Widal ad vised t h a t tre a tm e n t m ust tak e in to
account th e e f f e c t s which th e m ental c o n d itio n can have on
o rg a n ic d is o rd e rs *
He d id not mean by t h i s t h a t a prom ise
to r e t u r n th e p a t i e n t to h is home would cause re a b s o rp tio n
in th e p l e u r a l , b u t t h a t th e h o p efu l a t t i t u d e would prompt
th e p a t i e n t t o co oper a te in th e tre a tm e n t,
la e n n e c , he s a id ,
s t a t e d t h a t prolonged m elancholy had an In flu e n c e on pulmonary
t u b e r c u lo s i s , and t h a t n o s ta lg ia probably had a s im ila r
e ffe c t.
The c o in c id e n c e o f tu b e r c u lo s is and n o s ta lg ia was
C u lts common in th e army, and w hatever th e cause o f th e t u ­
b e r c u l o s is , i t was e v id e n t to W idal th a t th e presence o f
n o s ta lg ia com p licated i t and gave i t an in s id io u s course*
W idal re p o rte d t h a t h e a rt tr o u b le m s a n o th e r o rg a n ic
d is o r d e r a t t r i b u t e d t o n o s ta lg ia by H aspel, and th a t P i n e l ,
C o r v is a r t, and Masson de Weuf-Maison b e lie v e d th a t n o s ta lg ia
co u ld c a u s e v a lv u la r d is o rd e rs i n th e h e a r t , le s io n s in th e
c i r c u l a t o r y c e n te r , and d is tu rb a n c e s in th e r e s p i r a t i o n and
m
p u ls # 4 He a ls o re p o rte d th a t M utel end M alaper du Peux had
s t a t e d t h a t h e a r t tr o u b le s oould r e s u l t from n o s ta lg ia , and
t h a t th e y accepted t h e common b e l i e f th a t n o s ta l g i a dim in*
1 shed th e c o n t r a c t i l e fo rc e o f th e h eart* c a u sin g an in ­
e f f i c i e n t c i r c u l a t i o n o f th e blood*
Widal b e lie v e d t h a t a l l
th e s e tr o u b l e s were im aginary f o r th e v ic tim o f n o s ta lg ia
sin c e th e y were h e a le d q u ic k ly and n ic e ly by re tu r n in g th e
p a t i e n t t o h ie home*
Typhoid f e v e r , com plicated by n o s ta lg ia , Widal d e sc rib e d
a s ta k in g a more fa v o ra b le co u rse when th e p a tie n t was prom­
is e d a v i s i t home*
He b e lie v e d t h a t th e fe v e r and n o s ta lg ia
to g e th e r o v e r -e x c ite d th e nervous system* and t h a t i t was
th e n o s t a l g i c elem ent which was e lim in a te d by th e prom ise o f
a v i s i t home*
When new a r r i v a l s were s tr ic k e n w ith ty p h o id
i t was u s u a lly found t h a t hom esickness d id not e x i s t b e fo re
th e ty p h o id ; in s te a d n o s ta lg ia appeared to be a r e s u l t o f
th e f e v e r and th e new su rro u n d in g s.
He re p o rte d t h a t many
o f th e ty p h o id v ic tim s were happy and gay* and w ell s a t i s ­
f ie d b e fo re th e o n s e t o f th e fe v e r* and concluded t h a t nos­
ta lg ia * l i k e any d e p re s s iv e agent* could p re d isp o se one to
typhoid* b u t t h a t i t co u ld not cau se ty p h o id .
10
According
to Widal* 1 . O olin b e lie v e d t h a t th e morbid e f f e c t o f nos­
t a l g i a would ta k e t h e form o f ty p h o id fe v e r o r o f tu b e r c u la r -
^ B a c i l l u s ty p h o su s, though observed by Koch, E b e rth ,
and o th e r s about 1879, was f i r s t thoroughly worked out i n
1884 by Dr* G affky, a p u p il o f Koch.
A
pneum onia, th u s e x p la in in g th e fre<tuem y o f ihe&e d is e a s e s
among m i l i t a r y re p la cem en ts I
W idal p o in te d o u t t h a t i t would he in p o s s ib le t o l i s t
a l l t h e d is o r d e r s n d m alad ies whose o r ig in o r ag g rav atio n
had b een a t t r i b u t e d t o n o s ta lg ia *
He s a id t h a t none b e­
lie v e d n o s t a l g i a p re p a re d th e war fw r g r e a t ep id em ics, b e­
cau se s o l d i e r s d em o ralised end d e je c te d by n o s ta lg ia were
th e one® among who* epidem ics m ousily had t h e i r o rig in *
io o o rd in g to Widely S e lo n , H otel* and Hasp#! agreed t h a t
•
homesick p eo p le wore s u s c e p tib le t o a p ro lo n g ed , ag g rav ated
fe v e r o f m I n te r m itte n t c h a r a c te r which could n o t be r e ­
lie v e d by s u l f a t e o f omlaifie*
P r in g le , he s a i d , re p o rte d
t h a t i t ©smsred. &cu rv y among s a i l o r s on f n g lis h and H olland
v e s e e Is *
^ td a l a le # re p o rte d a f t e r B en cist do- l a G randiere
e d D u p le se ts th e e a e e o f an u lc e r a t th e neck o f th e
u te r u s which prom ptly healed when th e p a t ie n t w m re tu rn e d
home*
I n g en e ral* suxgio&l tr o u b le s were n o t a t t r i b u t e d t o
n o s t a l g i a n& o f te n a s were i n t e r n a l d is o rd e rs*
Widal r e ­
p o rte d t h a t Mmmimrnm^mmrnhmp and a r a s M s in l had observed
t h a t homes lo b s o l d i e r s succumbed to wounds wore q u ie tly
th a n th o s e n e t homesick*
He s i t e d s im ila r e a s e s a f t e r
B u llio n , J a s q m is r, and Degree* de lo n g er 11*
t i d a l would not
admit t h a t n o s t a l g i a could a c tu a ll y e x e rc is e such a p e r n i­
c io u s l o c a l e f f e c t on wounds* n o r would he adm it th a t th e
n o s t a l g i a p re c e d in g ©y fo llo w in g an i l l n e s s could cause
o rg a n ic le s io n s *
He d id ad m it, how ever, t h a t n o s ta lg ia
m
c o u ld , w ith i t s accompanying c o n v u lsio n s and nervous
phenomena, co m p licate and a g g rav ate wounds and o rg an ic d i e o r d e r s , b u t , he added, i f th e c o u rse o f e n c e p h a litis was
a l t e r e d by n o s ta lg ia i t was Im p o ssib le a t t h a t tim e to show
th e p la c e o r th e n a tu r e o f such an a l t e r a t i o n .
From th e s e
o b s e rv a tio n s he concluded t h a t , w hatever n o s ta lg ia m ight h e ,
i t c e r t a i n l y was n o t an anatom ical pathology*
Xn th e d ia g n o s is o f n o s t a l g i a , Widal s a id th a t i t was
easy to co n fu se hom esickness w ith o th e r a ilm e n ts , e s p e c ia lly
i n th e army where th e v ic tim m ight he a f r a id th a t he would
he lau g h ed a t o r c a l l e d a coward.
-
In such c a se s d ia g n o s is
was more o r l e s s d i f f i c u l t , and depended la r g e ly upon th e
t a c t and in t e l li g e n c e o f th e d o c to r-
/
K© recommended t h a t
th e d o c to r v i s i t th e p a tie n t f r e q u e n tly , s tu d y h i s h a b its
and a t t i t u d e s . I n v e s tig a te m il th e circum stanced w ithout th e
p a t i e n t 's knowledge, and e s t a b l is h a stro n g frie n d s h ip w ith
th e p a t i e n t i n o rd e r t o o b ta in h i s co n fid en ce and le a r n th e
s e c r e t o f h is t r o u b l e ,
The n o s ta lg ic elem ent was c o n sid e re d
im p o rtan t f o r th e ra p y because o f it® in flu e n c e on th e co u rse
o f o th e r d is e a s e s t h a t might be d eveloping In th e in d iv id u a l.
W idal s ta te d t h a t sometimes n o s ta lg ia m s sim ulated by
s o l d i e r s who wanted a fu rlo u g h , b u t t h a t th e s e m a lin g e re rs
were e a s i l y d e te c te d by o b serv in g them when th e y spoke o f
home.
Those who d id n o t f lu s h and p a le , whose eyes f a i l e d
to b r i g h t e n , and whose p u lse rem ained calm were th e ones
fe ig n in g hom esickness f o r , he s a i d , by th e s e c r i t e r i a no
profoundI em otion was in d ic a te d .
They were th e om& who
la c k e d f u n c tio n a l d istu rb a n c e s* who a n tic ip a te d th e d o c to r *8
q u e s tio n s * who v e ry q u ic k ly ex p ressed t h e i r d e s ir e to go
home* and who were e a s il y ch ag rin n ed m d re fu s e d a l l medi­
c in e ,
L au ren t and P e rc y , he said * had succeeded in uncover­
in g many c a s e s o f fe ig n e d hom esickness by g iv in g th e p e rso n
v ery h i t t e r co n c o c tio n s t o d rin k and by re d u c in g t h e i r d i e t ,
A ccording to Widal so many t r i e d to f o o l th e army d o c to rs in
t h i s way t h a t many c l a s s i f i e d n o s ta lg ia as a sim ulated o r
im agined d is tu r b a n c e , o r agreed w ith Haspel t h a t i t belonged
to i l l u s i o n and fancy*
d an g e rs t o avoids
Widal warned t h a t th e r e were two
f a i l u r e to look f o r hom esickness d u rin g
th e p e r io d s o f sad n e ss fre q u e n tly p re se n t i n s o ld ie r s , and
th e d e n ia l t h a t n o s t a l g i a co u ld e x i s t in th e army*
Widal
re p o rte d t h a t Lasagne had made such a d e n ia l i n an a r t i c l e
c r i t i c i s i n g Haspel* which appeared in A rchives g e n e ra le s dp
m edeclne f o r 1875,
Lasagne, be s a id , d e sc rib e d th e c o n d i-
l i e n a s a d is g u s t f o r m ilita r y l i f e which became prom inent
as a n erv o u s p e rv e rsio n *
W idal*s comment on t h i s was t h a t
L&segne must have p r a c tic e d o n ly i n a c i v i l i a n s o c ie ty where
n o s t a l g i a was much l e s s common th a n in th e army*
He agreed
t h a t n o s t a l g i a u n d o ubtedly im p lied a s p e c ia l p re d is p o s itio n *
and t h a t i t had become l e s s fre q u e n t* but he b e lie v e d i t
would be to o much o f an e x a g g e ra tio n to t r y t o reduce th e
malady to fancy*
L&segme argued t h a t i t p r o te c te d i t s e l f
from o b s e rv a tio n to o fre q u e n tly f o r i t not to be an im aginary
clOfeM'M*
He a ls o argued th a t many became d isco u rag ed w ith
army l i f e * and s ic k t o r h©me* n o t because th e y m issed t h e i r
fa m ilie s * b u t because th e y co u ld s o t stand s u b o rd in a tio n ,
f e e k in d s o f n o s ta lg ia were reco g n ized by W idal.
One
was th e m ental s u f f e r in g cau sed by th e p a t i e n t s d e s ir e t o
r e tu r n home* and th e o th e r was a s p e c ia l morbid s t a t e which
he c a l l e d "nostaX gie o rg an! quo e t physique® , and which had
i t s so u rc e in th e i n a b i l i t y o f th e organism t o adapt t o a
changed clim ate#
H a sp e l, acco rd in g to W idal, p o in ted o u t
t h a t t h e s e had th e same p o in t o f d ep artu re*
absence from
home o r from th e p la c e one i s h a b itu a te d t o liv e *
The
p a t i e n t w ith th e m en tal form was conscious o f h is tr o u b le ,
w h ile th e one w ith th e o th e r form was u n co n scio u sly in ­
flu e n c e d * The f i r s t was c o n sid e re d c u ra b le w ithout r e t u r n ­
in g th e p a t i e n t t o h i s home, th e second, which w«e b e lie v e d
in h e re n t i n th e d e le te r io u s in flu e n c e o f th e c lim a te , was
not*
W idal re p o rte d t h a t th e p ro g n o sis in hom esickness was
o f te n d isco u rag in g #
In te n s e n o s t a lg ia , which r e s is te d th e
c e r t a i n t y o f b ein g re tu rn e d home, he d e sc rib e d as a grave
d is o r d e r which would by i t s p ro g re s s iv e d e p re s s io n , i t s
a g g ra v a tio n o f o th e r d is e a s e s , and i t s co m p licatin g e f f e c t s
on wounds, r e s u l t in death*
In g e n e ra l i t was d e sc rib e d as
fo llo w in g a slew , p ro g re s s iv e c o u rse r e s u l t i n g in a g e n e ra l
weakness and d e c lin e *
There w ere c a s e s , how ever, where i t
fo llo w ed a b r is k c o u rse to d e a th o r su ic id e *
According to
W idal, H aspel d id n o t b e lie v e t h a t s u ic id e committed by a
homesick p erso n was th e r e s u l t ©f m i r r e s i s t i b l e manic
impulse-f i n s te a d , b e b e lie v e d t h a t i t was a eonscioue a c t
r e s u l t i n g from r e f l e c t i o n and d e li b e r a ti o n , and w ith th e
f u l l i n t e g r i t y o f th e i n t e l l e c t u a l fu n c tio n s ,
t i d a l s a id
s u o h e u ic id e © were r a r e l y re p o rte d among c i v i l i s e d p e o p le ,
aw ag s la v e s and sa v a g e s, in c lu d in g
th e I n d ia n s , who b e lie v e d t h a t th e y would be re in c a rn a te d
"In t h e i r n a tiv e land*
L* G e lin , according to t i d a l , s t a t e d
t h a t , o f a l l th e m e la n c h o lia s, th o se s u f f e r in g from home**
s ic k n e s s were th e ones having th e g r e a te s t tendency to
d e s tro y them selv es .
Widal a ls o s ta te d th a t M« B rie r r e do
Boisisont had re p o rte d fifty ^ tw o s u ic id e s due t© monomania,
and had tr&oed t h i r t e e n o f them t o hom esickness.
th e r a r e
number o f such s u ic id e s in 1879 le a d Widal to q u e stio n
w hether o r n o t th e many suicide© a ttr ib u te d to hom esickness
by e a r l i e r w r ite r s w ere e x c lu s iv e ly due to n o s ta lg ia .
T h is ,
how ever, would ap pear to be i n harmony w ith th e r e p o r ts t h a t
n o s t a l g i a was becoming ra re *
W idal s ta te d t h a t in seme in d iv id u a ls n o s ta l g i a ap*
p eered o n ly a© a p a s s in g sen tim en t which d isa p p e a re d more o r
l e s s q u ic k ly , e i t h e r sp o n tan eo u sly o r by th e p a tie n t r e tu r n ­
in g heme*
U s u a lly , he s a id , i t d isap p eared soon a f te r th e
p a t i e n t beeame c e r t a i n t h a t he would be re tu rn e d home, b u t
sometimes i t would n o t d isa p p e a r u n t i l th ey were e n ro u te , o r
even u n t i l th ey a c tu a lly a r riv e d a t home.
56
Widal a lso
p o in te d o u t t h a t a v io le n t em otion would some tim es b rin g
re lie f*
He c ite d a s a ease in p o in t th a t o f T h e rrin , an
a r tille r y m a n , who fo u g h t a d u el in which he was v ic to r io u s
alth o u g h he s u ffe re d in ju r y to h i s fin g e rs*
A fte r th e d u e l,
which aro u sed in him th e Joy o f v ic to r y , T h e rrin had com­
p l e t e l y fo r g o tte n h ie a tta c k o f homesickness*
As t o r e la p s e s , Widal s t a t e d t h a t o f a l l m aladies*
n o s t a l g i a was th e one l e a s t l i k e l y t o be re p eated *
t h e l e s s , e x c e p tio n s were re p o rte d *
n ev er­
Bdgin, he s a id , had
o b serv ed r e la p s e s where th e re m issio n had r e s u lte d fro© a
f a l s e hope o f r e tu r n in g home, and la u re n t and Percy re p o rte d
t h a t th e y had seen homesick p a t i e n t s d ie on th e very day
th e y had appeared much Improved,
n e a r ly a l l th e e a r l i e r w r i t e r s b e lie v e d th a t n o s ta lg ia
wag some form o f m en tal d ise a se *
Some, in c lu d in g W idal, be­
lie v e d t h a t i t was a sim ple c e r e b r a l n e u ro sis* o th e rs be­
lie v e d t h a t i t was an inflam m ation o f th e b ra in *
H aspel,
acco rd in g t o W idal, b e lie v e d t h a t i t could ca u se m e n in g itis
o r e n t e r i t i s , b u t t h a t n e ith e r o f th e s e was n o s ta lg ia *
He
a ls o s t a t e d t h a t H aspel co n sid ered n o s ta lg ia and monomania
Q uite d i f f e r e n t .
H asp e l1s argument a g a in s t c la s s if y in g
n o s t a l g i a as an i n s a n ity was;
t h a t th e v ic tim o f in s a n ity
ig n o red h i s tr o u b le s and l o s t b o th h is l i b e r t y and h is
m ental r e s p o n s i b i l l t i e s ; t h a t d ig e s tiv e and o th e r fu n c tio n a l
d is o r d e r s le a d in g t o tu b e r c u lo s is and p h y s ic a l d e c lin e
c h a r a c te r is e d n o s t a l g i a , w hereas th e in san e s u ffe re d no lo s s
57
o f ap p etite ear p h y s ic a l s to u tn e s s ; th a t n o s t a lg ia u s u a lly
aitacfced ?w m g p e o p le , whereas in s a n ity was a malady o f more
m ature in d iv id u a ls * t h a t th e v a rio u s c o u rse s ta k e n by nos­
t a l g i a w ere a l l tr a c e a b le to th e same o r i g i n , whereas t h e
v a rio u s i n s a n i t i e s w ere tr a c e a b le t o d i f f e r e n t o r ig in s ; t h a t
n o s t a l g i a r e s u lte d from a c c id e n ta l c irc u m sta n c e s, whereas
i n s a n i t y was due t o h e r e d ita r y f a c t o r s ; and f i n a l l y t h a t i n
n o s t a l g i a th e i n t e l l e c t was u n a f f e c te d , w hereas in monomania
i t was r a p id ly co m p letely c o rru p te d .
A ccording to Widal,Ben© 1 s t de l a Crrandiere used alm ost
t h e same argument t o prove t h a t n o s ta lg ia was n e ith e r a
monomania n o r a form o f m elancholia*
Be b e lie v e d t h a t i t
was a slo w , c o n tin u o u s passion* r e s u l t in g from a fu s io n o f
th e im a g in a tio n and memory*
W idal, who h e ld t h i s same view ,
s a id t h a t n o s ta lg ia resem bled monomania in th e sense t h a t i t
r e s te d upon a f i r e d id e a which e x c lu s iv e ly absorbed th e
th o u g h ts o f th e p a t i e n t , and t h a t i t resem bled m elan ch o lia
in th e sorrow which accompanied th e f ir e d idea*
A ll p a s s io n s ,
Widal p o in te d o u t, c a n , under th e r ig h t c o n d itio n s , g iv e
\
r t m t o f ix e d Ideas*
lo v e , under c e r ta in c irc u m sta n c e s,
Tf
ta k e s th e p ro p o rtio n s o f a p a s s io n , and t r a i t s s im ila r to
th o s e o f n o s ta lg ia appear*
The lo v e sic k become sa d , tim id ,
in c lin e d t o s o l i tu d e , lo s e a p p e ti t e , w e ig h t, and sleep*
T his c o n d itio n , l i k e n o s ta l g ia , was co n sid ered q u ite d i f ­
f e r e n t from in s a n ity *
Widal s t a t e d t h a t th e accomplishment
o f one *0 d e s i r e s would cu re e i t h e r love s ic k n e s s o r hom esick-
neas, whareaa tbe © atiefaetlon o f the delusions o f the in­
sane would never reesta b lish h is reason,
to Widal, n osta lg ia
was a passion due, by virtu e ©f a sp ecial p red isp osition , to :
the exaggeration o f a sentiment common to a ll ment
the love [
f o r jiiijj^ ^
" “
The tre a tm e n t o f n o s ta lg ia i n W idal*s tim e no lo n g e r
fo llo w ed th e example o f B re u se a is and h ie fo llo w ers*
Widal
ad v ised t h a t when i t was lim ite d s o le ly t o th e mind, an
IsBse&iate attem p t sh o u ld be ©ado t o modify th e m ental s t a t e
o f th e p a tie n t*
A -thorough in v e s tig a tio n o f th e accompany**
tu g f u n c tio n a l d is o r d e r s was n o t co n sid ered n e c e ssa ry in a s ­
much as t h ese were d e s t ined t o d isa p p e a r w ith th e home s ic k ­
ness©
B e n o ist do l a -Orandtere, he s a id , was re sp o n s ib le f o r
most o f th e p re v e n tiv e tre a tm e n t knows in 1879.
According
t o W idal, B enoist d© l a Or and i e r e s ta te d in h ie re p o rt on
th e h y g ien e o f hom esickness t h a t i t had become r a r e , and
t h a t i t s most fre q u e n t appearance was in th e army during war
tim e*
th e p ro g re s s o f c o v i l i s a t i o n , e x te n s iv e e d u c a tio n ,
b e t t e r means o f oeramunte&tion, and an in c re a se d cosm opolitan
s p i r i t w ith in th e European n a tio n s were given as th e p r i n c i ­
p le f a c t o r s c o n tr ib u tin g t o I t s d e c re a se .
P ro p h y la c tic
tre a tm e n t was based w holly upon th e d ir e c tio n given to edu*
c a ti o n , and th e developm ent o f numerous s o c i a l re la tio n s©
Hot o n ly was i t c o n sid e re d n e c e s sa ry to g iv e th e c h ild
l i t e r a r y and s c i e n t i f i c I n s tr u c ti o n , b u t i t was c o n sid e re d
very im p o rtan t to te a c h hi© d u tie s and s a c r i f i c e s which h i s
m
f
c o u n try had th e r i g h t to impose upon him, and t o w ell in ­
c u lc a te i n him e a r l y th e courage to c a rry p a t i e n t l y a l l h i s
t r o u b le s whenever th e i n t e r e s t s o f h i s co u n try commanded i t .
The e a r l i e r th e age a t which e d u c a tio n became s t r i c t and
manly th e sooner th e c h ild was supposed to a c q u ire a sm ooth,
firm d i s c i p l i n e which would make th e more rig o ro u s d u t ie s
o f l a t e r l i f e e a s ie r f o r him.
The study o f geography was
recommended as a means o f a c q u a in tin g th e c h ild w ith th e
i n d u s t r i e s , b o u n d a rie s , and custom s o f d i f f e r e n t c o u n tr ie s ,
th u s p re v e n tin g th e l a t e r s u r p r is e s and f e a r s which o f te n
s e is e young people i n fo re ig n la n d s .
The stu d y o f neighbor**
in g la n g u ag e s was a ls o co n sid ered a pow erful p re v e n tiv e
a g a in s t hom esickness.
C ontact w ith d i f f e r e n t people was
recommended as a means o f a c q u irin g knowledge o f v a rio u s
c h a r a c t e r s , o f becoming m en tally a l e r t to o n e’ s own f a u l t s ,
and o f g a in in g an a n tic ip a to r y ex p erien ce w ith l i f e *
On th e
o th e r h an d , th e s l i g h t , g e n tle e d u c atio n th e c h ild re c e iv e d
from i t s fam ily was b e lie v e d to in c u lc a te in him a g r e a te r
lo v e f o r h i s p a r e n ta l home, th u s d isp o sin g him to n o s ta lg ia
whenever he d e p a rte d .
Young p eo p le were encouraged to develop th e h a b it o f
making t r i p s to f o r e ig n c o u n tr ie s , and c o lle g e stu d e n ts were i
urged t o become ac q u ain te d w ith th e c o lle g e p r a c tic e s in
Germany and E ngland.
A g ric u ltu ra l m eetings, reu n io n s f o r
s in g in g g ro u p s, and e x p o s itio n s o f a l l s o r t s were recom­
mended a s a mean® o f improving re la tio n ® betw een th e
in h a b ita n te ©f th e d i f f e r e n t T illa g e s and p ro v in c e s , and as
e x c e lle n t t r a i n i n g f o r th e g r e a t e r d isp lacem en ts t h a t ^ ould
be o c c a sio n e d l a t e r by m ilita r y s e rv ic e and th e changing
c o n d itio n s o f l i f e .
A ll m easures re p o rte d f o r p h y s ic a l
hy giene were to be follow ed sim u ltan e o u sly w ith th o se f o r
m ental h y g ie n e .
G ym nastics, fe n c in g , m i li t a r y e x e r c is e s ,
e tc * , w hich tended t o t r a i n th e c h ild fo r m i li t a r y s e r v ic e
were o o n d ise re d th e key to w ell-tem p ered s o l d i e r s ad eq u ately
f o r t i f i e d a g a in s t hom esickness re g a rd le s s o f where th e y
s e rv e d .
C apable army o ffic e r© , W idal p o in ted o u t, were I n f lu e n t l s l i n p re v e n tin g hom esickness.
He ©aid B en o ist de l a
t
,s
G randi^re, b e lie v e d t h a t i t was th e duty o f t h e 'o f f i c e r to
see t h a t th e s o l d i e r , a f t e r t i r i n g and monotonous d r i l l , d id
V
n o t abandon h im se lf t o id le n e s s , th e mother o f m elancholy
thought© and b i t t e r d e s ir e s f o r th e p a s t,
^
fh e s o l d i e r , o r s
s a i l o r , should fin d i n h is b a rra c k s p roper in s tr u c tio n s to
d i s t r a c t him from th o u g h ts ©f home.
I f i l l i t e r a t e , he
sh o u ld be ta u g h t t o re a d and w r ite b e fo re le a v in g the H egi\
ment*
i
l i b r a r i e s , g y m n astics, fe n c in g , m usic, e t c . were g iv er
as means f o r r e li e v i n g th e m ental and p h y s ic a l e n e rg ie s o f
V
th e ©©Idler*
I t was b e lie v e d t h a t th e s e a c t i v i t i e s would
b rin g a flow o f new id e a s which would drown a l l te n d e n c ie s
and a sp ira tio n © tow ard th e p a st*
D is c ip lin e was d e c la re d e s s e n t i a l , but i t was to be a
k in d d i s c i p l i n e , b en ev o len t and j u s t , which would f a c i l i t a t e
61
©bedienoe and I n s p ir e lo irs f o r th e s e r v ic e .
Young s o l d ie r s
were n e v e r t o be th e la u g h in g -sto c k o f t h e i r com panies; in ­
s te a d th e y were t o be p laced u n d er th e s u p e rv is io n o f o ld
s o l d i e r s fro® t h e i r n a tiv e r e g io n s , as was done in th e tim e
©f Brandtbm e.
They were a ls o t o be encouraged in t h e i r
r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s i n o rd e r t h a t th e s e m ight h e lp b rin g con­
s o la tio n and r e l i e f t o s u f f e r i n g , d isco u rag ed so u ld , and an
a t t i t u d e fa v o ra b le t o a com plete c o n fe ssio n o f any con cealed
th o u g h t o f weakness * Because th e s o ld ie r s had no ch o ice in
s e le c tin g th e d o c to r assig n ed to c a re f o r the® , th e d o c to r
was u rg ed t o re d o u b le h i s i n t e r e s t and k in d n ess toward th e
men, and t o l e t the® know when th ey f i r s t a r r iv e d in th e
Regiment t h a t he was th e r e to look a f t e r t h e i r h e a lth in
peace ©r w ar.
They were to n e g le c t nothing in th e attem p t
to g a in th e co n fid en ce o f t h e i r p a t i e n t s and to d isco v er th e
so u rce o f th e s u f f e r in g s and r e g r e t s .
I t was b eliev ed t h a t
th e s e n c e r t a i n a s o l d i e r was o f fin d in g r e l i e f from h i s
t r o u b le s by tu rn in g t o h is d o c to r , th e le e s l i k e l y i t ^ould
b© t h a t he would tu r n t o h is home fo lk s fo r co m fo rt, and th e
more co u rag e he would have to fa c e th e ad v e rse chances o f
com bat.
In w artim e, when th e chances o f n o s ta lg ia were c o n sid e re d
more f r e q u e n t, i t was e s p e c ia lly urged t h a t a l l m ental and
m a te r ia l needs o f th e s o l d i e r be s a t i s f i e d .
The argument
was t h a t th e co u n try owed th e s o l d ie r p r o te c tio n and c a re in
k eeping w ith th e s a c r i f i c e s Imposed upon him.
m
During th e
h a rd s h ip s o f a cam paign i t was co n sid ered th e duty o f th e
o f f i c e r s t o sh are i n th e p r iv a tio n s and to encourage th e men
by example*
Whether in camp o r combat, th e n e c e s s ity o f
p ro v id in g d i s t r a c t i o n s cap ab le o f r e lie v in g th e minds o f th e
s o l d i e r s was alw ays c o n sid e re d paramount*
According to
Widal , L&rrey and Bes Genet te e had long b e fo re re p o rte d th e
I n s p ir in g In flu e n c e o f m i li t a r y music upon th e s p i r i t o f th e
s o l d i e r | an in flu e n c e no ted by H aspel d u rin g th e campaigns
o f Ai*g%ie and C rim ee* Widal s t a t e d th a t a l l n a v ig a to rs
s in c e Book, B o u g a in v ille , and F ra n k lin had observed th e
s a lu ta to r y e f f e c t s o f m usic, g a m s* dances* e tc * upon th e
g a i e t y , s p i r i t s * and h e a lth o f th e s a ilo r s #
Even th e regu­
l a r i t y o f th e m ail* which in tim e o f war keeps th e s o ld ie r
im c o n ta c t w ith h i s fa m ily , was n o ted as a pow erful p re s e rv ­
a t i v e a g a in s t th e to rm en ts o f i s o l a t io n and sorrow f o r h i s
homeland*
t h e remedy recommended f o r i l l n e s s and th e long h o u rs
o f id le n e s s o ccasio n ed by confinem ent in a h o s p ita l was t o
occupy a l l c o n v a le s c e n ts w ith some kind o f minor work on
t h e i r wards* t o i n s t a l l games and l i b r a r i e s i s a l l h o s p ita ls ,
and to r e q u ir e a l l who were a b le to be up t© e a t a t th e same
tim e and p la c e , a req u irem en t which i s 18?9 had ©sly r e ­
c e n tly been In tro d u c ed in th e m i li t a r y h o s p i ta l s o f P a ris*
Widal b e lie v e d t h a t m ilita r y m usic played from tim e to tim e
in th e c o u r ts o f th e h o s p ita ls would prove an e x c e lle n t
means ©f r e c a l l in g many p a t i e n t s to t h e i r R egim ents, as w e ll
a s tem p erin g th e w earin ess ©f t h e i r s e q u e s tr a tio n .
He
p o in te d o u t t h a t th e adm ission o f s i s t e r s o f c h a r ity t o th e
h o s p i t a l s e x e rc is e d a profound s a lu ta r y In flu e n c e upon th e
Kinds o f s ic k s o l d i e r s , and ex p ressed th e d e s i r e t h a t t h i s
m easure, whidh was th e n lim ite d to a c e r ta in number o f
h o s p i t a l s , would soon be extended to a l l h o s p ita ls *
The p ro g n o s is , Widal b e lie v e d , depended upon w hether or
n o t t h e p h y s ic ia n would tak e th e tro u b le to apply m ental
tre a tm e n t acco rd in g t© th e temperament o f th e p a tie n t rnd
th e c h a r a c te r o f th e malady; th e d o cto r b ein g re sp o n s ib le
f o r th e manner and method o f tre a tm e n t s u i tin g th e i n c lin a ­
t i o n s , i n t e l li g e n c e and f e e lin g s o f th e p a tie n t#
Games,
d a n c e s, t h e a t r e s , e t c , , should be u t i l i s e d whenever p o s s ib le ,
t h i s k in d o f d iv e rtis m e n t, and a p re ss in g ap p eal to th e
r i g h t s e n tim e n ts , was e s p e c ia lly recommended by Widal fo r
f a i n t - h e a r t e d and weak-n&tured in d iv id u a ls .
R elig io u s
d u tie s o f te n r e lie v e d v i lla g e r s by e le v a tin g t h e i r sim p lic­
i t y and f a i t h ; gym nastics r e lie v e d many n erv o u s, i r r i t a b l e
i n d i v id u a ls , who found d iv e rs io n from t h e i r c e re b ra l ex­
c i t a t i o n s i n th e e x e rc is e ©f t h e i r m uscles.. The d o c to r was
ca u tio n e d to guard a g a in s t h u rtin g o r blaming th e p a t i e n t ,
and a d v ise d to l i s t e n to h is tr o u b le s w ith i n t e r e s t and to
sy m pathise w ith him in o rd e r to g a in h is com plete c o n fid e n c e .
According t o W idal, Max Simon s ta t e d in h is Hygjeoe dn co rp s
e l fle l*ltme. th a t f o r , t h e d o c to r to cure th e m alady, he must
show some p i t y f o r th e victim *
64
The purpose o f t h i s tre a tm e n t
was t o b rin g th e p a t i e n t to spontaneous co n fid e n c e s which
would r e l i e v e h i s tr o u b le d f e e lin g s and th e b i t t e r n e s s o f
h ie so rro w ,
M ichel IȤvy, acco rd in g to W idal, b e lie v e d t h a t
th e whole cause o f n o s ta lg ia would d isa p p e a r w ith i t s mani­
f e s t a t io n , and t h a t co n tin u o u s ta lk in g about home, p a r e n ts ,
and f r i e n d s would le s s e n th e p e rc e iv e d d is ta n c e from them ,
Widal b e lie v e d t h a t new viewpoint© would g iv e a d i f f e r e n t
d i r e c ti o n to th e se n tim e n ts c a u sin g n o s t a l g i a , and fo r t h i s
p urpose he recommended th a t th e s o ld ie r be shown th e glamour
o f m i l i t a r y l i f e and th e honor and g lo ry which had crowned
th e c a r e e r s o f o th e rs*
He p o in te d out t h a t where argum ents,
re a s o n in g , and s t e r i l e e x h o rta tio n s would not console th e
p a t i e n t , sympathy, k in d n e s s, and u n d erstan d in g would.
P er­
h ap s, W idal s a id , Fom ssagrlves was c lo se to th e t r u t h when
he s a id n o s ta lg ia was an id ea f ixed by th e h e a rt and th e r e ­
fo re t o be cu red by th e h e a rt r a th e r than by th e methods o f
scien ce*
Some c a se s r e s i s t e d a l l tre a tm e n t o u ts id e re tu rn in g th e
p a t i e n t to h is home, o th e rs improved by m erely ta lk in g w ith
someone who spoke t h e i r n a tiv e to n g u e,
Widal re p o rte d th a t
b rin g in g th e p a t i e n t in to c o n ta c t w ith someone who spoke h is
n a tiv e tongue was s u c c e s s fu lly used by G ilb e rt w ith t h e
B reto n s a t camp de M o n treu il, by E sq u iro l w ith th e B retons
p la c e d i n th e w ards o f th e S alp M ri& re, and by m ilita r y
d o c to rs d u rin g th e s ie g e o f P a r i s ,
He a ls o had unexpected
su c c e ss when he t r i e d t h i s p ro ced u re w ith a wounded s o l d i e r
65
jdW to 5tb# to # a p a tie n t ftt th e h o s p ita l do Kaubeuge*
Thto pattern %
$ mho wan of i n t f t i o rig in , was so d is tre ss e d by
mrnmmmm th a t
he refused a l l food and spent .a tt b is tim e
under tb s movers*
T h is alarm ing s ta te disappeared tb s day a
toman fM * tbft
mbs bad lim ed i s b is country,
«A*S*ttft tit# She nam
e tolly to talfe to kls in bis satire
tongue mkM%. he m m tolly recovered*
T h to h e to s to to e # # rem ained i n s p i t s o f a l l t h a t c o u ld
p o s s ib ly b s done t o r e l i e v e 1%, and eireu m atan aes p re v e n te d
r e tu r n in g t b s p a t i e n t to M s borne, t b s d o c to r mas advised
t o t a b s re c o u rs e t o in n o cen t fa lse h o o d s i n o r d e r to m ale tb s
p a t i e n t b e lie v e he would m m b e re tu rn e d home*
Widal
p o in te d o u t t h a t d u rin g tb s s ie g e o f bayenoe %n 1814# X&urent
and tm m f fu rn ish e d t b s n o s ta lg ic p a tie n ts in th e m ilit a r y
h o s p i t a l s w ith c e r t i f i c a t e s which im plied t h a t th e General**
lm *$htof had g ra n te d them le a v e , and th a t arrangem ents bad
been made w ith th e enemy t o r f r e e passage t o r a l l ocnvalea*
c e n ts *
t h i s s t r a t e g y , he s a id , re lie v e d w m h unhappiness
to d a c t u a l l y cured many ******
The on# remedy that never failed was, o f course, to
retoto the victim t o h i s home* to e n th e re was nothing to
prevent sending the patient home, V idal b e lie v e d that i t was
the duty o f the doctor t o p ro v id e t o r the immediate dspw*
t a t o - # £ t o e p a t i e n t , r e f a r d le s a o f h i s p h y s ic a l p a le n e ss and
regardless of the p re s to # # o f o th e r fu n c tio n a l d iso rd e rs*
The miraculous recoveries resu ltin g from t h e hope o f
m
r e tu r n in g hose le a d W idal t o ©emment t h a t i f n o s ta lg ia could
Gam* d eath # no i l l n e s s ev e r h e a le d so r a p id ly by th e a c e to p lis h w e u t o f th e d e s i r e i n w hich i t had i t s o r ig in .
P h a rm a c e u tic a l trea tm en t# according t o Widal# brought
o n ly p a r t i a l r e l i e f # and t h i s was u s u a lly accom plished in d i r e c tl y *
The advantages# i f any* frem a n ti- p h lo g is to n s
and r e p u ls iv e m edicines# were more lifc e ly due t o th e r e a c ­
t i o n a g a in s t th e d isco m fo rt a cau sed by them r a th e r th a n t o
th e ir p o s itiv e v a lu e s .
Widal argued th a t s in c e n o s ta lg ia
e s s e n t i a l l y d ep riv ed th e p a t ie n t o f h is p h y s ic a l and m ental
s tre n g th # o n ly to n ic s and m ild e re i t a n ts sh o u ld be used ex­
c e p t where th e n o s t a l g i a was secondary to pneumonia o r h e a rt
tro u b le .
H ydro-therapy was recommended a s a means o f
bog
th ­
in g t h e mere e x c ite d p a t i e n t s .
W idal s a id H aspel had w r itte n a long c h a p te r on th e
tre a tm e n t a p p lic a b le t o each o f th e numerous forms o f nos­
t a l g i a which he had d e sc rib e d b u t th a t H aspel was c a r e f u l to
add th a t# inasmuch a s n o s ta lg ia had continued to e x is t# a l l
th e a c c e s s o ry means o f tre a tm e n t had f a i l e d to e lim in a te i t
e n tir e ly *
In c o n c lu s io n , Widal p re d ic te d t h a t th e r e a l
p ro p h y la x is fo r n o s t a l g i a would be found i n m ental and In —
i e l l e o i u s i education# and in th e ex ten sio n o f s o c ia l r e l a ­
tio n s .
He f u r t h e r p re d ic te d t h a t w ith co n tin u ed advancement
i n hygiene p lu s th e ste a d y p ro g re s s ©f c i v i l i z a t i o n n o s ta lg ia
would d is a p p e a r e n t i r e l y .
I n I S N h th e th e s is # ha n o s t a l g ic i t , son d ia g n o stM ^
wm
19 H %y
t v %km f a c u l ty o f m edicine and pharmacy a t
Get© i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f th e req u irem en te
few t h e d eg ree o f d o c to r o f m ed icin e,
Reviewing th e h i s to r y
o f n o s ta lg ia * i»o t o t s p o in te d ©at t h a t th e i n t e r p r e ta t i o n
gtireii hy P in e l11 t h a t n o s ta lg ia was a form o f m ental a lie n a ­
t i o n o f th e m e la u e to lie ra y l e t y , was s t i l l g e n e ra lly ac­
c e p te d I n X4PV*
A ccording to t h i s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n n o s t a l g ia
warn onw lssged a s a s p e c ia l k in d ©f m elan ch o lia dom inated by
a c e n t r a l Id eas
g r i e f f o r homo and lowed ones*
Eey, he Oslo
s a id , had re p o rte d t h a t t h i s dom inant id e a a ls o crash ed th e
v o l i t i o n a l p ro c e s s e s , h o t even s o , he Goto s t i l l saw no
re a so n f o r w anting t o g le e n o s t a l g i a a s e p a r a te c l a s s i f i c a ­
t i o n i n t h e c a te g o ry o f m ental d iso rd e rs*
He b e lie v e d t h a t
th e r e wore c e r t a i n g e n e ra l c o n d itio n s such a s .race* c lim a te *
ed u catio n * m i m is fo rtu n e s , under which n o s ta l g i a was l i a b l e
t o d ev elo p * and t h a t th e v ic tim was bound, by an in d is s o lu b le
a s s o c ia tio n * t o h i s home and lo v ed o n es,
fh e in flu e n c e o f
IS
race *ae shows, be sa id , by anthropologloal stw iles
which
diaoloaed that bxeohycephalies were the ones aost ssiaceptl-.
h ie to hoaeelchnesB<
These stu d ies also d isclosed th at
people vere sore lik e ly to shoe greater lo w fo r an arid
cxmotry than for a rich one, for exaaple, the Baa Bretons
showed ooze lo r e fo r th eir country then the Herldlenaox
■iM
M
OOW
i.ijisije-'Jii.wnJ"iw>M
ani
—w»W,.< '"»■»'' '"tjtw'■,■«»»!n"s«
■*»"-"wn«'«.»»iuu»■.»■■■. "mi"
^ ® » « re fe re n c e t o P in e l en page 9*
"Ki
Qe%m d id n e t w it# th e re fe re n c e s to th e s e s tu d ie s*
d§
P4&P&* d id Jtar tfc c lr ric h * f e r t i l e la u d ,
f h i s waa ex p lain ed
mf im m m n a tu re s im ila r to th e g r e a te r l o r e
aa a
a m e tie r i n s t i n e t i v e ly has f a r th e c h ild who s u f f e r s and
C rie s t h e m c s tt lik e w is e th e freq u en cy o f n o s t a lg i a among
th e C e lts * th e r a c e co n sid ered by Le Got© a s most m iseept i-*
b le t o n o s ta lg ia * was ex p lain ed a s m ©ver*«development o f
th e m a te rn a l i n s t i n c t I
he Oo'ic re p o rte d t h a t th e v ic tim s
were u s u a lly young men from a re g io n fa v o rin g th e appearance
o f n o s t a l g i a such a s B reton, Savoy* o r S w itzerland*
Domes**
t i c s from th e s e re g io n s* e s p e c ia lly fro® B reton* su ffe re d
mere hom esickness th a n a l l o th e rs*
th ey were th e ones who
im m ediately fo rg o t th e work* h ard sh ip s* and s ta r v a tio n 1st
t h e i r own homes when th e y were fo rc e d t© work i n a n o th e r
v i l l a g e , © sp e c ia lly i f th e v i l l a g e r s spoke a fo re ig n tongue*
h srre y * he said * had p o in te d o u t t h a t i n some oases even an
unaccustom ed h o t o r c o ld c lim a te encouraged t h e developm ent
o f n o s ta lg ia .
E d u catio n was c o n sid ered an im portant p re v e n tiv e
a g a in s t n o s ta lg ia * b ecau se th e malady had been observed such
wore f r e q u e n tly among i l l i t e r a t e s th a n among educated people*
1© Col© concluded from t h i s t h a t th e amount o f n o s ta lg ia
would v a ry in v e r s e ly w ith th e amount o f c i v i l i s a t i o n *
■
H e v e rth e le s s , s e v e r a l e a se s tot* observed among I n t e l l e c t u a l
-
and le a r n e d in d iv id u a ls ,
a t h e s i s by P e tro v ic h :
l e S o le s i t e d a c a se in p o in t from
a youth who l a t e r beeasie a d o c to r ,
l e f t burnt sh ea he was seventeen y e a rs old t o a tte n d sch o o l
89
td 'Strdebeusrg,
perienced
*
At th e m m
he was leaving home he ex­
depressed fe e lin g nhleh quickly passed daring
*h* Jewrasy, h st returned *b*n he arrived a t school.
2»~
aefltately a l l h ie thoughts became eeaoentxated en h is fam ily,
h is horns, and h is »atIve v illa g e ,
Be was enable to maintain
h ie high sch o la stic standing because he could no longer
sms**** h ie p rofessors,
s i s stu d ie s, hooks, and fa v o rite
sm ep et len s enddeniy l e St t i l appeal.
B is sleep was agitated
sad r e s t le s s , and M s dreams Mire always about hone.
Intense
dyspenla, anorexia, and p a lp lta tien s o f th e heart added t e
M s fears*
At la s t when he M eld no longer eentrol h is
atten tion and ideas o f suicide began to flood h is mind, he
l e f t fo r hens*
During the sours* o f h is Journey, a ll these
sysptena suddenly disappeared,13
th s asn al for* o f n eeta lg ia ,
This, he do'ls sa id , was
the organic accompaniments
MiM as anorexia, dyspenla, and p alp ita tion s were, he he*
itsv a d , symptoms in d icatin g a secondary degree of the malady.
f n a th ese observations he d ele concluded th at the problem
o f homesickness among students seriou sly needed in vestiga­
tio n .
M ile s , she knew they se sld never return to th eir
n ative country, vers the ones he Oole believed would she*
th e g rea test .g rief fo r th eir n ative homes.
sVVSw*iM l tf.iO|U!ii,iV*t^eMw«e»M awe»eMTWiM rai'' ^ » ieM*vo«e»eV'''i"ow"~l,' e '"»i*Mo*eie.ww^ii!<ie »#*iii iiw»i« ii»Mi<nun,*
From common ob""""■
£* s i m il a r t # tfee d e s c r ip tio n ©f th e a tta c k o f
homoatokoooc s u ffe re d t o k o u is P a s te u r which l e re p o rte d on
pm **
m & W o f t i l s th e sia .
s e r r a t i o n t o knew t h a t i ' I M
m
, e s tra n g e d i n a fo re ig n
m%e« y # would re jo in © a t th e o p p o rtu n ity t o t a l k w ith som©one who m m & speak b i s n a tiv e tongue# and t h a t h i s com­
p a t r i o t s w e r e t h e s o lo o b je c ts o f h i s a t t e n t i o n .
f h e f a c t o r s w hich t o b e lie v e d to d a more s p e c if ic in ­
flu e n c e o n th e developm ent o f n o s t a lg i a were age# se x , and
p ro fe s s io n *
The age ra n g e fa v o ra b le f o r n o s ta lg ia was g iv en
a s t e n weeks t o t h i r t y y e a r s , b u t young p e o p le were con­
s id e re d t t o ©nee m ost e a s ily a f f o o te d .
Ower-anxtouo p a r e n ts
who p e t t e d t h e i r c h ild r e n e x c e s s iv e ly wore blamed f o r th is *
and admen 1 shed f o r th e poor p re p a ra tio n th e y were g iv in g
t h e i r c h ild r e n f o r l i f e by d ev elo p in g an e x c ita b le n e rv o u sn e ss i n them .
Mm was b e lie v e d to in flu e n c e th e developm ent o f nos­
t a l g i a b ec au se men were u s u a lly th e ones most s e rio u s ly
a ffe c te d .
This# o f course# was a t a tim e when young women
w ere l e s s f r e e t o t r a v e l th an th e y a re to d a y , whereas young
men found o p p o r tu n itie s f o r t r a v e l i n th e arm y, navy, and
v a rio u s o th e r p r o f e s s io n s .
M arried women w ere co n sid ered
alm ost immune t o n o s ta lg ia #
T h is was b e lie v e d to be th e
r e s u l t o f a t r a n s f e r o f a f f e c tio n s from th e p a r e n ta l home
t o th e new to a e j & t r a n s f e r t h a t c re a te d a r e a l b a r r i e r to
n o s ta lg ia *
The p re se n c e o f hom esickness among ©migrants who l e f t
t h e i r f a m i l i e s and t h e i r homes was n o t m entioned by t o Gole#
t o t be d id s t a t e t h a t th o se Who l e f t t h e i r fa m ilie s and t h e i r
country fo r r e lig io n s m issions, snob as m ission aries, were
m to
bothered with i t because th e ir relig io n lib erated them
from home and Country.
6 s tits other band, be seriou sly
doubted th at a p h ysically activ e occupation would decrease
th# chances fo r n o sta lg ia .
He pointed to the army and nary
a« two very native p rofess Iona which gave r is e to n o sta lg ia .
Be b elieved th is m e because n o sta lg ia often to o t the fo re
o f withdrawal from actu al l i f e , the victim liv in g i s a
neoary-*world ewes w hile sarehing with, h is regim ent.
A
sim ilar con d ition , ea iled "Sostalgle de la aer», was ob­
served in sa ilo r e .
One o f the f ir s t causes o f n o sta lg ia , he sa id , m s
entrance to e e lle g e or into the m ilitary p rofession ,
he
d els added that 1 . C olin had a lso observed th at an over­
whelming m elancholia often came over young so ld iers ju st
arriving at th e ir sta tio n s.
In seme earns, which were con*
sidsred s f as hereditary nature, the malady would begin as
as in ten se sadness, soon developing in to a profound melan*
e h o lia .
B soelly in th ese oases, which fortunately were
rare, th e disturbance would reach such proportions as to
render I lf # im possible.
he d e ls did n et regard the f ir s t fe e lin g s of sadness
which o ften follow ed a change o f h a b its, such as the change
from hem* to c o lle g e ox to th e m ilitary p rofession , as
n o sta lg ia h u m s# they were generally found to be very
fle e tin g im pressions.
I t wen the la te r depressions which
?S
fa* ImtfMMtt arttkad th e onset o f n o sta lg ia ,
These u sually
began 1* tb s so ld i s i a fte r M s in it ia l period o f professional
even* e x cita tio n sad tra in in g , and were charact erized by a
growing d esire toy b is former lib e r ty .
In th is sta g s,
assignment o f a s s d u tie s sas b elieved to M ing soar age and
I s d ie p s ll tb s melancholy,
d aiety and song sere also
rsoenaeaded, sad be 6e‘l o urged th at the r e c r u it, esp ecia lly
I f a Breton or Savoyard, be exposed to d iversion s eharactex1 stte o f b is homeland,
However, be pointed eat that
Boraehe had reported that s o ld ie r s, esp ecia lly those in the
fareneh arssy, usually spent th eir apart tin e dw elling on
tb e lr trou b les end discouragements} a condition which l>e
Solo deeorlbed as leading d ir e c tly te n o sta lg ia . Renan,
according to be d e le , reported th at the Bretons, whose
strong lo r e sentiment for th eir country gate r it e to an
a ffe c tio n mare profound than p assion , suoeembed to a so rt of
in d e fin ite leaguer shea overcome by n o sta lg ia .
Their lo ve
sentim ents, be Sole said , were ind issolu b ly aasedated with
country, v illa g e and parish,
be d ele disagreed with e a r lie r w riters who argued that
con scrip ts fo r the same regiment should not be recruited
fr e e th e same region .
Be b elieved that fa ilu r e to hear
one's n a tiv e tongue was a eommea factor in the development
o f hom esickness, and therefore advised that the recruit
s a t is f w ith a home companion.
th ree stages wexe described by be Sole in the develop-
?#
meat e* n o sta lg ia ,
The f ir s t was a period o f melancholy
accompanied toy headache, in d igeetion , sad con stip ation ,
tin
esssnd was characterised toy a la s s o f s p ir it , In attention,
aad lowered resista a o ej the p a tien t autom atically executing
orders, marching without a murmur, aad q u ietly becoming ex*
haaeted,
fo a l breath, r e s tle s s sle e p , alternatin g periods
• f con stip ation and diarrhea, p a ler, deareased heart r a te ,
fe e b le p u lse , peer c ir c u la tio n , lo s s o f te n s e , modified
se c r e tio n s, dyspepsia, thickening o f the d ig e s tifs tube, is *
te a tin a l disturbances, aad fever were some o f the sore
sa lie n t featnree occurring in t h is stage.
This was follow ed
toy deers&sad cerebral circu la tio n , low blood-pressure, and
the fix ed idea o f h ose.
The weakened v oloe, dreeas o f hose,
and th e monotone o f a ll behavior, whether asleep or awake,
c le a r ly indicated th e presence o f a profound melancholia,
he Geie pointed out that a d eta iled an alysis o f dreams o f
hose and loved woes sig h t contribute sig n ific a n tly to an
understanding o f both the p atien t and the malady.
He urged
prompt a ed ieal atten tio n and cea seless ears in the effo rt
te r e lie v e th e salady before i t reashed the third stag e.
The th ird sta g e, whieh was th e soet severe, had two
forms{
the *ataxo-adynamique*, aad the *eosplequ£e de
stapes**.
The •ataxo-adynaialqae* .form was characterized toy
extreme m elancholia, whieh originated as a profound depres­
sion i» the f ir s t sta g e, became complicated with dreams in
the second sta g e, aad with h a llu ei» a ticn e, high fever, aad
A
delirium t e t t e third stage * aad toy an isocoria, th read -like
pulse* ep ilep teid convulsione, coma* aad death,
he Sole
h ailed a tten tio n te th e apparent sim ila rity between th is .
fe ta and typ teid fev erj a sim ila rity whieh he said made
d iagn osis d if f ic u lt I fhe ^complequ^© &e siupeur* form was
Wither and le s s dramatic.
parted* only te degree*
I t d iffered from the f ir s t two
the p u lse was sere rapid * the body
secretion s were retarded* and the general in d ifferen ce and
immobility were increased*
the membranes were swollen* and
increased circu latory disturbances forced the heart te
greater a ctiv ity *
However * th is form was considered curable
even a fte r i t had advanced to a sta te of stuporous melan­
choly in which many succumbed*
F o n s a s g riv e s , acco rding t o t e Q ole, argued t h a t b ecause
n a u tic a l l i f e excluded a l l hopes f o r & d o m estic l i f e * th e
Choice betw een th e s e two in co m p atib le d e s i r e s , p lu s th e
d u tie s re q u ire d o f s a ilo r s * would c r e a te an a t t i t u d e l e s s
s u s c e p tib le to n o s ta lg ia *
l e Solo re p o rte d t h a t n o s ta lg ia
had become v ery r a r e among s a ilo r s * because th e y had been
tr a in e d from y o u th t e brave th e h a rd sh ip s o f th e s e a .
S a ilo r s t e th e c o lo n ie s n a tu r a lly experienced some q u ie te n ­
in g o f t h e h e a rt a t th e m ention o f t h e i r n a tiv e land* and
th o s e who no lo n g e r s a i l e d o f te n became homesick f o r th e sea*
he t e t e b e lie v e d t h a t n o s ta lg ia was a form o f melan­
c h o lia , which te rm in a te d t e m an iacal d e liriu m o r stupor*
He
c a ll e d Jtetetthtem t e many s i m i l a r i t i e s between n o s ta lg ia and
m
m%e a e fc o lia ,
in c lu d in g
mmh c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
as p h y s ic a l and
r e t a r d a t i o n , I n t e s t i n a l d is tu rb a n c e s , c e p h a la lg ia , and
ineoBm ia.
B lffe re n c e s Between th e two were B elieved to Be
only d i f f e r e n c e In degree*
W hether ©r n e t le s io n s co u ld cause n o s t a lg ia ©t any
t& m o f s e l a m t t e l l a rem ained an ©pea g w w tlm f o r Be G oic.
h a f f s y , Be p o in te d t u t , Bad B eliev ed t h a t n o s ta lg ia was th e
r e t e l l o f a c e r e b r a l l o c a l i s a t i o n n e a r th e p e rip h e ry ©f th e
B rain w hieh Brought about a g e n e ra l r e te n tio n ©f th e organ*.
is » .
S» a ls o p o in te d ©at t h a t Bdgin had d e fin e d n o s ta lg ia
as a p e rs is te n t
t i e e x c it a t i o n , and t h a t Haepel
b e lie v e d t h a t th e r e must Be some m a te ria l p e r tu r b a tio n *
M & iret, he M&d* had concluded in h is De l a Dliaea©©
m elaneol 1one t h a t m elan ch o lia was te e to i r r i t a n t s a t th e
h a s t o f th e b r a in j how ever, when he In je c te d th e liq u id
I r r i t a n t s un d er th e sp h en o id al lo b e s o f d ogs, he f a i l e d t o
rut© o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e s u l t i n g le s io n s causing t h e
m elan ch o lic s tu p o r.
According t o he G oic, B en o ist do l a
Gytedifer© b e lie v e d t h a t th e s e a u th o rs a r riv e d a t t h e i r co n e lu s io n s th r te g h e r r o r s o f d ia g n o s is , end c r i t i c i s e d H aspel
f o r g o in g so f a r a s t o say homesiefcness was due t e sone
m a te r ia l tr o u b le I n t h e enoephalloa*
he Gel© b e lie v e d t h a t
th e a n a to a ie a S a l t e r a t i o n s re p o r te d by sons a u th o rs w ere
r e a l l y dm© t© o t h e r d is e a s e s * F or him th e r e a l problem was
t© prow s th e f u n c tio n a l n a tu re o f n o s ta lg ia , and to © stabl l » h p r o o f t h a t i t was th e r e s u l t o f poor c e r e b r a l
W
Tenoue blood would
f r e ta rd e d p u ls e , fo u l b r e a t h , u rin a ry
»
d e c re a se d sp eech, and because o n ly th e th o u g h t
seemed to r e t u r n th e p a t i e n t t o l i f e .
However, th e
o f r i g h t pulmonary p a in s le a d to a more com plete
in v e s t i g a t io n which d is c lo s e d t h a t th e d is o r d e r was r e a l l y
c h a r a c te r is e d by a bleached to n g u e, lo s s o f
a p p e tite *
o f e x c it a t io n , n ig h t c r y in g , weak p u ls e ,
m ental
, and a g ita tio n in th e p re se n c e o f o th e r s ,
and lungs w ere norm al, and th e r e was no
I n d ic a tio n o f
T h is ca se was f i n a l l y di& gn
,
to he O d e , any o f th e s e d is e a s e s
co u ld ap p e ar in epidem ic form.
Thus, th e g r e a t epidem ics o f
n o s t a l g i a a t th e b eg in n in g of th e 19th c e n tu ry could h a re
o f ty p h o id fe w e r, o r o f c e re b ro -s p in a l meninand d ig e s tiv e d istu rb a n c e s in women were
u s u a lly diagnosed as h y s te r ia o r n eu rasth en ia* but th e d ia g ­
n o s is c o u ld as e a s i l y have been n o s ta lg ia .
According to
he C o le , th e r e a l d ia g n o s tic d i f f i c u l t i e s were between n os­
and in f e c tio u s d is e a s e s , r a th e r th an between r e a l and
n o s ta lg ia .
Slow p u ls e , fe v e r, p re se n ce o f pbos-
i n th e u r i n e , la c k o f a p p e ti t e , dim inished p h y s ic a l
[t w astin g away o f th e body, and coma were symptoms
o f t r u e n o s ta lg ia which were n o t e a s ily fe ig n e d .
l o r was
th e m a lin g e re r g e n e r a lly aware t h a t v i s i t s from o n e 's
7®
mt& oonvere& tione w ith them would h elp r e l i e v e
true n ostalgia*
he Goto was
t h a t n o s ta lg ia c r e a te d a p r e d i s -
p o o ltIo n t o i n f e c ti o u s d ise a se s*
fo llo w in g c a s e from By* Q hm m
As evidence he re p o rte d th e
Dr* m m m a tte n d e d a l i t t l e
f i n who accompanied t e r f a t t e r from B o c te fo rt to Toulon*
While i n Toulon she became home s ic k and soon a fte rw a rd a t e
was d e le r io u s w ith ty p h o id f e to r *
The c o n c lu sio n from t h i s
was t h a t n o s ta lg ia p re d isp o se d h e r t o th e In v a sio n o f th e
i n f e c t i o u s d ise a se #
Typhoid and tu b e r c u lo s is , t e a o io s a i d ,
were alw ays more fre q u e n t among s o ld ie r s who were s u f f e r in g
from hom esickness*
He allm s t a t e d th a t many b e lie v e d t h a t
scu rry * c h a r a c te r iz e d by l a s s i t u d e , and g r e a t m ental de­
p re s s io n * was caused by hom esickness, bwt p o in te d o u t t h a t
T u ille m in had r e f u te d t h i s w ith th e argument t h a t n o s ta l g i a
was o n ly a p re d is p o s in g fa c to r*
The s t a t i s t low o f t e Goie *e tim e in d ic a te d a su b stan ­
t i a l d e c re a s e in n o s t a l g i a i n t t e m ilita r y h o s p ita ls *
te
Got© b e lie v e d t h i s d e c re a se was la r g e ly due t© improved
methods o f d ia g n o sis* s h o rt e n lis tm e n t p e r io d s , t e t t e r
tr e a tm e n t, and good fo o d ,
P ro g n o sis he c o n sid e re d good in t t e f i r s t a te second
p e r io d s o f t t e n o s t a l g i a , b u t t e h e ld l i t t l e hope f o r t t e
p a t i e n t i n t t e t h i r d p erio d *
mended f o r sev ere ca ses*
Bor n a tiv e dru g s were recom­
Where th e r e appeared to be an
anemic c c n d itlc n o f t t e b ra in th e p a tie n t was kept In a
h o r iz o n ta l p o s itio n ,
he Golc recommended 3 t e 5 m illig ra m s
o f hyosey amine d u rin g th e stu p o ro u s p e r io d s , and th e u s e o f
morphine as needed*
S try ch n in e was r e je c te d because i t gave
r i s e t© t e t a n i c c o n tra c tu re s *
P ro p er nourishm ent f o r th e
p a t i e n t was co n sid ered one o f th
e e s s e n t ia l s in trea tm en t*
.-i
Enemas w ere recommended as a mean® o f r e g u la tin g th e bowels*
M enial tre a tm e n t, a® in an o rd in a ry case o f m elan ch o lia,
gave good r e s u lts *
Dr* ja c o lo t de L o rie n t, according to
he 0© ie, re p o rte d t h a t fee o fte n stren g th en e d young B reton
s o ld ie r s d u rin g a campaign by ta lk in g to them in t h e i r
n a tiv e tongue* and from h ie e x p e rie n c e s he concluded t h a t a
s h o rt c o n v e rs a tio n would produce more good e f f e c t s th an an
>
a r s e n a l o f therapy*
Three g e n e ra l co n c lu sio n s were given by he Go’i c i
F irs t,
t h a t n o s ta lg ia could b e confused w ith th e o n se t o f in fe c ­
tio u s d is e a s e s , w ith m ild in f e c tio u s d is e a s e s , o r w ith
v a rio u s nervous d is o r d e r s ; second, th a t th e r e were o b je c tiv e
and s c i e n t i f i c m ethods fo r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t r u e n o s ta lg ia
from fe ig n e d n o s t a l g i a ; t h i r d , t h a t although n o s ta lg ia had
d e c re a s e d , i t had mot by any mean® disappeared*
A pparently
he Go’i e had much in s ig h t in to th e d ia g n o stic d i f f i c u l t i e s
o f h is d a y , and, u n d oubtedly, h i s a r t i c l e g iv e s us a t r u e
p ic tu r e ©f th e s t a t u s o f n o s t a l g i a , i t s h i s t o r y , d ia g n o s is ,
c o u rs e , and tre a tm e n t In 1890.
In 1893, T€t 6 (8 ) made a b r i e f re fe re n c e to th e problem
o f n o s t a l g i a in h i s a r t i c l e on th e p a th o lo g ie s o f emotions*
80
He d e fin e d n o s ta lg ia a s an Hid e e f ix e dn coeur* , which, he
a a id , ©ons la te d o f an e x c lu siv e lo v e fox th o se w ith whom th e
p a t i e n t had liv e d s in c e b i r t h .
He b e lie v e d t h a t th e con­
d i t io n developed o u t o f one* s memory o f c o u n try , home and
loved o n e s , which, in th e absence o f o th e r e x c ita ti o n s ,
would re a c h an e x c lu s iv e and o p p re ssiv e pr©dominance«
In d i­
v id u a ls ©f low i n t e l l i g e n c e , t r a v e le r s in fo re ig n c o u n tr ie s ,
and p eo p le engaged i n u n in te r e s tin g o c c u p a tio n s were th e
ones l i s t e d as b ein g most s u s c e p tib le to n o s ta l g i a .
A u n ique ease o f n o s ta lg ic b eh a v io r was re p o rte d in
1896 by DeXboemf* (6 )
P edro,
The v ic tim was a l l z z a r d 1^ named
T h is lizss&xd re fu se d a l l fo o d , even such d e lic a c ie s
as i n s e c t s aad earthworms which he had always r e lis h e d , dur­
ing a th r e e weeks absence o f h is l i s s a r d companion.
Un­
f o r t u n a te ly , B elboeuf did n o t l e a r n whether th e absent
11 assa rd w ith sto o d th e th re e weeks w ithout s u f f e r in g home­
sic k n e s s o r not*
He d id p o in t o u t, however, t h a t th e person^
a l i t i e s o f th e tw© 1 i s sard s were q u ite d i f f e r e n t .
Pedro was
w ild , u n tam ab le, a n ta g o n is tic , and s o l i t a r y , whereas P ie r r e
was tam e, f r i e n d ly , c o o p e ra tiv e , and s o c ia b le .
P ie r r e a ls o
lik e d t© go on e x p lo ra to ry e x p e d itio n s ; a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
which r e s u l t e d in h i s th re e weeks absence d u rin g which tim e
he was re p o rte d e i t h e r l o s t o r d ea d .
Pedro was th e home-
^ A a was re p o rte d on page 8 o f t h i s t h e s i s , a t te n t io n
was f i r s t c a lle d to th e presence o f n o s ta lg ia among anim als
in 1783 by Sluraenbaeh. (31)
81
lo v in g ty p e who sta y e d a t horns aad g rie v e d f o r h is ab sen t
companion*
T his in c id e n t i s n o t re p o rte d because o f i n t e r e s t
in t h e problem o f n o s t a lg ia among liz z a r& s , b u t because i t
r a i s e s th e q u e s tio n a s to w hether ©r not th e symptoms o f
m elan ch o lia and d e sp a ir* whieh so o fte n appear in th o se who
rem ain a t home and g rie v e fo r th e absent ones a re symptoms
o f n o s ta lg ia ,
I n 189? K ail (12) ex p lain ed n o s ta lg ia on th e b a s is o f
two te n d e n c ie s o r i n s t i n c t s in c h ild re n s
\
i
j
th e © ik o tro p ic
I n s t i n c t , which was c e n t r i p e t a l , in c lin in g th e c h ild to i t s
/
/
own home o f which th e mother i s th e h e a rt , and th e o ik o fu g ic j
i n s t i n c t which was c e n tr if u g a l , in c lin in g th e c h ild away
/
from i t s home,
Homesickness was explained as r e s u ltin g fromj
i
a c o n f l i c t between th e s e opposing te n d e n c ie s o r i n s t i n c t s . $
In some p eo p le he b e lie v e d th e s e i n s t i n c t s were u n eq u a lly
\
i
developed* For in s ta n c e , he p o in te d out t h a t some c h ild r e n \
\
wander away, lau n ch in g out i n to th e b ig world* le a v in g a l l
\
behind them w ithout f e a r or r e g r e t , w hile o th e r s show an
\
I
e q u a lly abnormal d re ad o f g e ttin g away from f a m ilia r fa c e s*
H all b e lie v e d t h a t i n th e form er o a se s th e o ik o fu g ie in-*
sttm e t was s tro n g e r whereas in th e l a t t e r th e o ik o tro p ic
i n s t i n c t was more developed*
S e v e ra l in s ta n c e s o f n o s t a lg i a , o r s im ila r b e h a v io r, I s
anim als were re p o rte d in 1898 by K lin e. (18)
He observed
2§0 e a s e s ©f t h i s b eh a v io r i s dom estic a n im a ls, and quoted
42 o f th e s e i s h i s a r t i c l e *
One o f th e se o a se s was t h a t o f
82
;
a h o rse w hich, when ta k e n to a s tra n g e environm ent, re fu s e d
food and w a te r, and t r i e d to s t a r t f o r i t s ©Id home a t ev ery
o p p o r tu n ity .
F in a lly th e h o rse d ied o f 0home s ic k n e s s * .
K lin e p o in te d out t h a t dogs, h o r s e s , cows, and o th e r domes-*
tie an im als o fte n show g r e a t weakness and em aciatio n from
r e f u s a l t o e a t w h ile away from home*
N e v e rth e le ss , th e
a p p e tite and h e a lth o f th e se anim als always re tu rn e d when
th e y were back in t h e i r o ld environm ent * According to K lin e ,
Hartman, O h a lllo n , and o th e rs re p o rte d t h a t young monkeys
o fte n d ie soon a f t e r c a p tu re and Hudson re p o rte d th a t a d u lt
pumas in v a r ia b ly p in e away and d ie a f t e r c a p tu re *
On th e
o th e r h and, Hudson (15) p o in te d o u t in 1904 t h a t pumas
r a is e d i n c a p ti v i t y In v a ria b ly made p la y f u l , a f f e c tio n a te
p e t s , and were g e n tle toward a l l human beings*
This i s
s i g n i f i c a n t fo r i t in d ic a te s t h a t th e d e a th o f cap tu red
a d u lt pumas was due t o th e change from t h e i r accustomed mode
o f l i v i n g r a th e r th a n t o c a p t i v i t y .
K lin e r e f e r r e d t o D elboeuf1s (5) l i z z a r d s , and s ta t e d
t h a t a s p e c ie s o f snake c a lle d P e lia s Serus would r e f u s e
food w h ile in c a p t i v i t y u n le s s th e flo o r o f i t s cage was
made l i k e i t s n a tiv e moor*
He ale© re p o rte d th a t tame hawks
and f a lc o n s develop s u ic id a l te n d e n c ie s when a lo n e .
K lin e
concluded t h a t any sudden change o f th e environm ent, w hether
i s fe e d in g grounds o r in th e lo s s o f com panionship, would
c a u se d w arfin g , s ic k n e s s , and even death in w ild anim als*
He b e lie v e d th a t a p p re c ia tio n and lo v e f o r home was w ide-
spread t o dom estic an im als, and t h a t i t was sometimes pa­
t h e t i c a l l y expressed*
Any change, such as a new b ed , a new
k e n n e l, a new manger w ith s tra n g e sm ells and e ig h ts , o r a
new m a ste r w ith s tr a n g e h a b its and methods o f tre a tm e n t was
b e lie v e d ca p ab le a t tim e s , o f producing a c u te oases o f nos­
t a l g i a in d ogs, © ate and h o rs e s .
K lin e knew o f many in c id e n ts o f hom esickness in p e o p le ,
and e s p e c ia lly in c h ild r e n .
re p o rte d by him?
The fo llo w in g a r e ty p ic a l c a s e s
One c h ild became homesick and c r ie d w h ile
s ta y in g o v e rn ig h t w ith h er s i s t e r .
A f iv e —y e a r o ld boy be­
came so homesick w h ile sta y in g o n ly a few ro d s away from
home t h a t he had to be c a rrie d back in th e m iddle o f th e
n ig h t#
An e ig h t- y e a r o ld g i r l f e l t fo rsa k en and fo rg o tte n
w h ile away from home, and c r ie d h e r s e l f to s le e p because she
f e l t t h a t some t e r r i b l e c a la m ity had happened to h er p a r e n ts .
One te n - y e a r o ld c h i l d was s e is e d w ith a trem endous lo n g in g
f o r home a t n ig h t*
The next m orning, w hile s h e llin g p e a s ,
t h i s c h i l d t r i e d t o e a t one but found he co u ld not sw allow .
Im m ediately, w ithout speaking a word, he walked two m ile s to
h is home.
A tw e lv e -y e a r old c h i l d su ffe re d from n o s ta lg ia
w h ile away a t s c h o o l.
He wanted to sta y a t sc h o o l, b u t
w hile t h e r e he wms c o n s ta n tly lo o k in g f o r houses o r sce n ery
t h a t resem bled h i s home.
W ithin th re e months he had com­
p l e t e l y l o s t h i s a p p e ti te , and had become so i l l and t h i n ,
and had developed such a bad cough, th a t he was b e lie v e d to
have consum ption.
When he was s e n t home, however, he
reco v ered in a few d a y s.
Another boarding school stu d e n t
f e l t dazed f o r a tim e and always c r ie d a t sundown, but n ev er
became s e r io u s ly i l l *
He wanted to
l a t e r s t a t e d t h a t he would n o t have
sta y a t sc h o o l, and
gone home i f he had been
g iv en th e o p p o rtu n ity *
One c h ild who was l e f t a t home w hile h i s p a re n ts ^ e re
sway s u f f e r e d an i l l n e s s resem b lin g n o s ta lg ia *
th e symptoms
In clu d ed n a u se a , l o s s o f a p p e t i t e , and d iz z in e s s when walk­
ing a c ro s s th e room*
com fort h i s fa ile d *
He r e f used to ta lk and a l l a tte m p ts to
Here ag ain we see a n o s ta lg ic l i k e con­
d i t i o n i n th e one who remained a t home and g rie v e d fo r th o se
who were away,
K lin e asked s e v e r a l in d iv id u a ls f o r sta te m e n ts a s to
how th e y f e l t when th e y were homesick*
a v a r i e t y o f fe e lin g s *
The r e p li e s covered
One f e l t an in d e s c rib a b le lo n g in g ,
and was * a l l choked up** in s id e ; another was n au se ated , and
had a f e e lin g o f p a in a l i t t l e below th e
sm othering s e n s a tio n s and a f e e l in g
h e a r t ; an o th er had
th a t e v e ry th in g was
c lo s in g i n ; an o th er f e l t dow nhearted, and m elancholy; an o th er
f e l t a lump in th e th r o a t and th e need fo r a good c ry ;
an o th er f e l t unloved and u n lo v in g , w ith a c o n v ic tio n t h a t
a l l h a p p in e ss was a t home; one had to q u it work and. r e tu r n
home b ecau se o f l o s s in w eight due to a la c k o f a p p e tite ;
one h a te d to s ta y away fro® home fo r fe a r t h a t something
t e r r i b l e would happen to th e hom e-folks o r th a t one o f them
would s u r e ly d ie ; one f e l t f a i n t and sic k a l l over w ith a
sm art la g sen ea t ion in th e stom ach, and could n o t ea t f o r
choking *
Most o f th e v ic tim s f e l t lo n e ly , d e s o l a te , fo rs a k e n ,
and co u ld th in k o f n o th in g h u t home#
The o n s e t was u s u a lly
sudden, th e s e n s a tio n o f sm othering and th e f e e lin g o f
d e s p a ir swooping down and c lo s in g in a l l a t once*
th e r e was
an im m ediate lo s s o f a p p e tit e , I n t e r e s t , and a m b itio n s.
Women l o s t t h e i r c o q u e try , t h e i r d e s ire to p l e a s e , and t h e i r
re g ard f o r th e o p p o s ite sex .
Many wanted to c r y o r scream
as th e mind f i l l e d w ith thought o f home o r w ith fe a r o f go­
in g in san e*
Many became ic o n o c la s tic , f i l l e d w ith a d e s i r e
to d e s tro y w ithout having mercy f o r man o r b e a st*
The l a s t
s ta g e was c h a ra c te r is e d by h a llu c in a tio n s and d e liriu m ,
follow ed by com plete p r o s t r a t i o n , stu p o r, syncope, and d e a th .
The b o d ily phenomena r e s u l t i n g from n o s ta lg ia were as
d i s t r e s s i n g as i t s p s y c h ic a l e f f e c t s .
The th r e e most gen­
e r a l and u n iv e rs a l effect® were lo s s o f a p p e ti t e , g a s tr o ­
e n t e r i t i s , and i r r e g u l a r r e s p i r a t io n in te r r u p te d by s ig h s .
Vague e r r a t i c p a in s o f v a r ia b le i n t e n s i t i e s and lo c a liz e d in
th e head and stomach were common.
Vom iting, i n anim als a s
w ell as i n humans, o f te n appeared in th e e a r ly s ta g e s , th e
eye® grow d u l l , f ix e d , la n g u id , sunken^ th e fa c e anem ic 5 th e
whole body em aciated .
There was p a l p it a ti o n o f th e h e a r t,
th ro b b in g o f th e tem p o ral a r t e r y , and an i r r e g u l a r , weak­
ened p u l s e .
The mouth was u s u a lly dry and s t ic k y , and
nervous d y sp e p sia , w ith d ia rrh e a and c o n s tip a tio n , was
eommbiw
O ften th e r e w&e an in e o n t inuanee o f u r i n e , and
cheeked o r stopped m en struat io n *
The sex fu n c tio n s w ere
d u lle d | b u t sp erm a to rrh ea sometimes occurred#
The a n a b o lic
p ro c e s s e s were reduced to a minimum and th e k a ta b o lic
p ro c e s s e s reached a maximum, c a u sin g a predom inate b o d ily
p h th is is *
I t i s l i t t l e wonder t h a t K line d e sc rib e d home­
s ic k n e s s a s th e most a p p a llin g th in g under th e sun I
The b e l i e f s o f e a r l i e r p h y s ic ia n s , such as Haspel and
L arrey * t h a t n o s t a l g i a was due to b ra in o r s p in a l le g io n s*
c e r e b r a l hem orrhages, sw ellin g o f th e arach n o id membrane,
o r g & s trte n a n te ric le s io n s were d is c a rd e d .
K lin e s ta te d
t h a t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f n o s ta lg ia was In flu e n ced by th r e e
p h y s ic ia n s :
Galhoun, Hack fuke* and Sausages*
According to
K line* Calhoun b e lie v e d t h a t n o s ta lg ia was an a f f e c tio n o f
th e mind and th a t i t must be so tre a te d * Sack Tuke b e lie v e d
th a t i t was a com bination o f p s y c h ic a l and b o d ily d is tu r b ­
ances* and Salvages b e lie v e d t h a t I t was a .c o n d itio n o f sad­
ness* s le e p le s s n e s s * anorexia* and a s th e n ia .
K line en­
v isag ed i t a© a v e ry fundam ental re a c tio n o f an organism to
a f a i r l y d e s o rib a b le group ©f s tim u li which w ere:
prim a­
r ily * th e absence o r lo s s o f th e f a m ilia r , and th e p re se n c e
o f th e s tra n g e and u n tr ie d ; and sec o n d arily * th e r e s t r i c t i o n
©f p e rs o n a l lib e r ty * d i f f e r e n t food* changed h a b its , etc*
There was* fo r him* no sharp d i s t in c t i o n betw een lo n e lin e s s
and hom esickness* alth o u g h he d id b e lie v e t h a t th e l a t t e r
was o f t e n preceded by a b r i e f p e rio d ©f th e former*
F a d e r® which K lin e found to c o n trib u te to th e l o r e o f
home w ere, acco rd in g to t h e i r im portance, th e fo llo w in g :
members o f th e fa m ily , n a tu r a l scenery about th e home, th e
house, f a m ilia r ways and h a b i ts , freedom o f home, c lo s e r e l ­
a tiv e s and f r i e n d s , dom estic an im als, p le a s a n t memories,
f u r n i t u r e , sympathy, a p a r t i c u l a r member o f th e fam ily , r e ~ X igion and ch u rch , o u td o o r l i f e , and cheer f u l n e s s .
Those
whose homes were c i t y f l a t s , a p a rtm e n ts, h o t e l s , e t c . , had
no house o r scen ery attachm ents*
They gave th e fo llo w in g as
t h e i r c h i e f a tta c h m e n ts to home i
love f o r p a r e n ts , p e rso n a l
p o s s e s s io n s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and th e co n g e n ia l ways o f
home l i f e , and th e r e l a t i o n o f th e s e to th e s e lf *
The
s tro n g e r th e sy m p ath etic r e la tio n s h ip th e g r e a te r was th e
lo v e f o r home.
Many people f e l t th a t le a v in g home would
p r e c i p i t a t e a calam ity *
Such p e o p le , K line s a id , were te n s e
and n erv o u s a t th e tim e ©f le a v in g and would o fte n abandon
th© t r i p a t th e l a s t moment*
I f th e t r i p was n o t abandoned
th e y would f e e l a vague u n re st and an x iety about t h e i r homes
and p o s s e s s io n s a l l d u rin g t h e i r absence, and would examine
e v e ry th in g im m ediately upon r e tu r n in g home*
K line d e s c rib e d
th e lo v e r o f home as a p r o v in c ia l, p lo d d in g , tim id soul
whose i n t e r e s t s w ere i d e n t if i e d w ith th e c o n se rv a tiv e and
m icro sco p ic a f f a i r s o f l i f e .
w orld#s h o d - e a r r i e r s .
Such p eo p le, he s a id , were th e
The m ig ra n t, in c o n tr a s t to th e home-
l o v e r , was d e sc rib e d as a cosm opolitan, having m anifold
i n t e r e s t s and fin d in g p r o f it a b le o b je c ts and kindred s p i r i t s
S@
l a a v a r i e t y o f s itu a tio n s *
These were th e p e o p le , he s a id ,
who were com m ercial, s p e c u la tiv e , d a rin g , and who were
i d e n t i f i e d w ith th e p ro g re s siv e and m acroscopic a f f a i r s o f
life *
K lin e re p o rte d on 176 p eo p le in c lu d in g c h ild re n 4 y e a rs
o ld , 6 p e rc e n t o f whom had never been homesick and 87 p e rc e n t
o f whom were fem ales*
Of 168 c a s e s , 43 p e rc e n t f i r s t ex-*
p e rie n c e d hom esickness when 18, 1 7, o r 18 y e a rs o f age*
T h is, K lin e p o in te d o u t, was th e age fo r going avey t o
s c h o o l, t o seek jo b s , o r t o se rv e in th e army o r navy, and
n a tu r a lly more c a se s were expected fo r t h i s age group.
K lin e p o in te d out t h a t Widai (31) had s ta te d t h a t ad o les­
cen ce, th e age o f d e lu s io n s and lo v e , was th e age fo r p re ­
d i l e c t i o n to n o s t a l g i a ; t h a t P a p illo n (23) had s ta te d t h a t
n o s ta lg ia a tta c k e d by p re fe re n c e young p eo p le and th o se j u s t
e n te r in g y o u th , a f f e c tin g a l l temperaments w ithout d i s t i n c ­
t i o n ; and t h a t P e te rs (24) had s ta te d th a t n o s ta lg ia was th e
most co m p licated d is e a s e to be encountered among young
s o l d i e r s , a statem en t which was confirm ed by French and
German army d o c to rs e s p e c ia lly f o r fre s h , y o u th fu l tro o p s
from r u r a l areas*
K lin e , however, b e lie v e d t h a t in q u a lity
said q u a n tity n o s ta lg ia was j u s t as se v e re , and i f unchecked
would le a d to as f a t a l r e s u l t s , i n childhood and o ld age as
in a d o le sc e n c e , b u t t h a t th e ad o lesc en t
th a n th e c h ild o r a d u l t .
was
more p re d isp o se d
Old p e o p le , he s a i d , were o fte n
heard t o remark t h a t th ey co u ld n ’t g e t away from home, o r
89
t h a t th e y could s le e p b e t t e r in t h e i r own b e d s .
With re fe re n c e t e sex d if f e r e n c e s , K lin e doubted
W id a l's (31) c o n c lu sio n th a t women were l e s s sub j ect to nos­
t a l g i a th a n men.
K lin e found t h a t o f 178 p e o p le , only 6
p e rc e n t o f whom had newer been hom esick, 87 p e rc e n t were
women,
t h i s c o n tra d ic to r y r e p o r t , he s a id , tended to sus­
t a i n a statem en t made by Haek Take to th e e f f e c t th a t th e r e
was m© g e n e ra l r u l e f o r i t s o ccu rren ce in d if f e r e n t s e x e s,
ag e s, or tem peram ents *
The most d iv e rs e tem peram ents, K line s a i d , o fte n p a id
t r i b u t e to n o s ta lg ia ,
The s e n s i t i v e , n erv o u s, tim id ,
a f f e c t i o n a t e , and s o l i t a r y in d iv id u a ls were a l l supposed to
ta k e d e lig h t in th e s im p lic ity and s h e lte r o f dom estic l i f e .
K lin e b e lie v e d , however, th a t th o se who appeared s ta b le ,
showed s o l i d i t y o f c h a r a c te r , loved o rd e r, were fond o f
s y ste m a tic work, and who saw v i r t u e in doing th in g s a t fix e d
tim es were th e ones most s u s c e p tib le t© n o s t a lg ia .
T hese,
he s a i d , were th e ones who spend t h e i r l i v e s in one p la c e ,
who have few f r i e n d s , who a re r e t i r i n g in d is p o s itio n , and
who dread m eeting s tr a n g e r s .
These were th e ones who
dreaded new p la c e s , s tra n g e b e d s, who had many fears* and
who were fond o f company but d islik e d , crow ds.
Commercial
peo p le were b e lie v e d to be cosm opolitan and r a r e l y i f ever
became hom esick.
He b e lie v e d t h a t th e p h leg m atic, t a c i t u r n
in d iv id u a l who p r e f e r r e d to be a lo n e , who was hard to e n te r ­
t a i n , sad who moved i n a s e l f c re a te d world would f a l l
90
v ic tim t o n o s ta lg ia i f fo rced to t r a v e l .
Many c o n d itio n s and f a c to r s which c o n trib u te d to th e
developm ent o f hom esickness, o r which served to ag g rav ate i t ,
were d is c u s s e d by K lin e .
Me s a id th a t SO p e rc e n t o f a l l th e
c a s e s re p o rte d were o ase s o f young people e n te r in g school o r
c o lle g e *
Hard le s s o n s end s t r i c t d i s c i p l in e under new con­
d i t i o n s , and th e d isco m fo rt o f o d d h a l ls and rooms were
g iv en a s f a c to r s c o n tr ib u tin g t o hom esickness among s tu d e n ts .
Wight f a l l , w ith th e c h irp o f th e c r i c k e t , th e song o f th e
K aty d id , and th e sough ©f th e w ind, was b e lie v e d to exceed
a l l o th e r f a c to r s In ag g rav atin g and in te n s if y in g th e long­
in g s f o r home and in causing th e v ic tim o f n o s ta lg ia to c ry
h im se lf to s le e p .
Sometimes l e t t e r s o r v i s i t o r s from home,
and dream s about home, were found t o be p r e c i p ita t i n g fa c ­
to rs .
Bad news, such as d ea th o r sick n ess a t home, o fte n
p roduced, by i t s sudden shock, a com plete d e s p a ir lik e t h a t
o f se v e re hom esickness,
th e p r e c i p ita t in g e f f e c t o f f a m ilia r
songs was reco g n ized by th e o rd e r th a t fo rb id p lay in g c e r t a i n
a i r s b e fo re Swiss s o ld ie r s In th e se rv ic e o f F ran ce.
I d le ­
n e ss and f e a r th a t some ca la m ity would b e f a l l th o se a t home
o fte n p lay ed im p o rtan t e t i o l o g i c a l r o l e s .
O ften th o se who
moved w ith t h e i r p a r e n ts from th e ©Id house were seized w ith
lo n g in g s t o r e tu r n .
But th e r e were those who su ffe re d nos­
t a l g i a when l e f t a t home w hile th e p a re n ts were away, re ­
g a r d le s s o f th e f a c t th a t home was co n sid ered th e c e n te r o f
th e fa m ily p o s s e s s io n s .
Among s o ld ie r s and s a i l o r s , th e
91
b eg in n in g and © losing p e rio d s ©f m ilita r y l i f e , and th e
p e rio d s o f I d le n e s s ,' su spense, and lim ite d freedom , were th e
ones most marked by n o s ta lg ia *
Calhoun, acco rd in g to K lin e ,
had o b serv ed t h i s and had re p o rte d th a t u n le s s farm erso ld ier® were g ra n te d a fu rlo u g h during an a tta c k o f n o s ta l­
g i a th e y would v ery l i k e l y d ie from th e malady*
th e c u r a tiv e e f f e c t of re tu r n in g home was w ell i l l u s ­
t r a t e d , K lin e s a i d , by th e e a se o f a p a tie n t who was so i l l
when he was brought horn© th a t i t was n e c e ssa ry to c a rry him
to th e bed u p s t a i r s .
A few h o u rs l a t e r t h i s p a tie n t was
a b le to e a t a h e a rty m eal, and beginning t h a t n ig h t h is
s le e p was sound and u n d isturbed*
e n t i r e l y w ell again*
In le s s th a n a week he was
According to K line a n o th e r in d iv id u a l,
who had n ev e r s u ffe re d in te n s e n o s ta lg ia , s ta te d th a t th e
lo n g in g which he had f o r home seemed to wear o f f as he be­
came more and more in te r e s te d in h is work*
K lin e sa id t h a t
o fte n t h i s lo nging f o r home would d isap p ear a f t e r a n i g h t ’ s
s le e p .
l i k e many o ld e r w r i t e r s , K lin e co n sid ered S w itzerland
th e c l a s s i c lan d o f n o s ta lg ia .
He explained th e p re v alen ce
o f n o s t a l g i a among th e Swiss a s being due to t h e i r g r e a te r
freedom and independence, th e f r e s h a i r and th e scen ic
beau ty which c h a ra c te r iz e d t h e i r c o u n try , and t h e i r ty p e o f
fam ily l i f e *
France was b e lie v e d to hold second p la c e be­
cause o f th e thousand® o f case© tr e a te d in th e French m il­
i t a r y h o s p i t a l s , b u t , ha p o in te d out th a t th e frequency ©f
n o s ta lg ia d ecreased as one advanced toward th e middle o f th e
country*
Englishmen and Germans were b e lie v e d to have
l i t t l e re lu c ta n c e about le a v in g t h e i r n a tiv e c o u n trie s*
Of
th e s e l a t t e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s more o ases had been re p o rte d
among th e German tro o p s in fo re ig n lands*
Englishmen were
b e lie v e d to have to o g re a t a cosm opolitan s p i r i t to be v ery
s u s c e p tib le to n o s ta lg ia *
C ountry boys K lin e b e lie v e d to be more s u s c e p tib le be­
cause th e y were a t home more; e a tin g and s le e p in g t h e r e , and
working th e re *
For th e s e same re a so n s he b e lie v e d th a t th e
co u n try boy had more lo v e f o r hi® home and l e s s tem p tatio n
to le a v e i t th a n th e e l t y boy who spent h is day in an o f f i c e ,
h is n ig h ts a t amusements* and who u s u a lly a te M s meals in a
r e s ta u r a n t *
K lin e p o in ted o u t th a t fa in tn e s s * n au sea, d iz z in e s s ,
and d&sed feeling© were c h a r a c t e r is t i c o f se a sic k n e ss and
v e r tig o d is o rd e r s a s w ell as o f n o s ta lg ia .
However, he be­
lie v e d t h a t s e a sic k n e ss was caused by attem p ts to m ain tain
an a r b i t r a r y c e n te r o f g ra v ity which was c o n s ta n tly b ein g
d is p la c e d , and t h a t th e d is tu rb e d harmony o f th e e q u il ib r a to r y s e n s a tio n s caused v e r tig o and th e confused s e n s a tio n s
©f eq u ilib riu m *
N o s ta lg ia , on th e o th e r h and, was not con­
s id e re d a p h y s ic a l d is tu rb a n c e o f e q u ilib riu m , but a sec­
ondary e f f e c t o ccasioned by a l o s s o f p s y c h ic a l o rie n ta tio n *
With th e p s y c h ic a l p la n e o f re fe re n c e ren d ered u n c e rta in by
a s tr a n g e , new environm ent, th e in d iv id u a l was forced to
$3
fu se b i s o ld p a tte r n s w ith th e new stra tu m .
The g r e a te r th e
u n f a m i l i a r t t y , th e g r e a te r th e shock and s t r e s s occasioned
by new r e la tio n s h ip s *
Those who did not seek new p la n e s o f
r e fe re n c e , and who y ie ld e d to th e ©hanged environm ent w ith
wonder , tim i d i t y , and f e a r , were th e ones he b e lie v e d were
s u s c e p tib le to n o s t a l g i a .
These were th e ones who e x p e ri­
enced f e e lin g s o f stra n g e n e ss and f e a r when th e f u r n itu r e in
a f a m i l i a r room was changed, o r when a conspicuous t r e e was
f e l l e d , o r when re q u ire d to e a t o r w rite a t a new t a b l e .
These were th e ones in who® K lin e sa id th e eg o , and espe­
c i a l l y th e s o c ia l e g o , sh riv e le d and © ontracted to such an
e x te n t t h a t th e in d iv id u a l became m ach in e-lik e ra th e r th a n
human*
0* S tan ley H a ll (13) s ta te d in 1904 in Volume I I of h is
A dolescence t h a t n o s ta lg ia , when se v e re , was one of th e most
©ciaplex and d i s t r e s s i n g o f d is e a s e s .
He co n tin u ed to ex­
p l a i n n o s ta lg ia on th e b a s is o f a c o n f lic t between an
o ik otropi© i n s t i n c t and an o ik c fu g ie i n s t i n c t , as he had
done in h i s a r t i c l e o f 1897*
15
In h is d is c u s s io n here he
d e s c rib e d i t a s a d is e a s e which destro y ed th e a p p e tite , and
©aused n a u se a , d iz z in e s s , p a l p i t a t i o n s , h a llu c in a tio n s ,
lo c a lis e d p a in s , s e n s a tio n s o f sm othering, n ig h t sw eats, and
so b b in g s.
The s u s c e p tib le in d iv id u a l was d e sc rib e d as one
who d read ed crowds, who fe ared hi© p a re n ts would di© o r th a t
^HslX*© e a r l i e r a r t i c l e (IB) was re p o rte d on page 83
o f th is th e s is .
94
som ething untoward would happen i f he went away, who p re ­
f e r r e d h i s own ways, end who p r e f e r r e d to e n te r ta in r a t h e r
th an he e n te r ta in e d ,
H a ll agreed w ith K lin e , t i d a l , and
P a p illo n t h a t ad o lescen ce was th e age o f n o s ta l g ia , and made
re fe re n c e to i t s p re se n c e among young s o l d i e r s .
In i t s on­
s e t , h e s a id i t m ight swoop down l i k e an o b s e s s io n , b rin g ­
in g m elancholy, and even d eath t o i t s v ic tim .
He c l a s s i f i e d th e c o n d itio n s and f a c to r s which he be­
lie v e d c o n trib u te d t o th e development o f n o s ta lg ia in to two
g ro u p si
Environm ental and In d iv id u a l*
The environm ental
f a c to r s in clu d ed p la c e s such a s boarding sc h o o ls , f a c t o r i e s ,
camps, h o s p i t a l s , and d is ta n t voyages j and ag g rav atin g con­
d i t io n s such as n i g h t f a l l , k a ty d id s , f r o g s , c r ic k e t s , th e
sough o f th e wind, a long sto rm , th u n d er, a l e t t e r , dreams
o f home* a f r ie n d , o r any chance rem inder o f home.
d iv id u a l f a c to r s w erei
The in ­
id le n e s s , which he s a id I n te n s if ie d
and in c re a s e d th e l i a b i l i t y to n o s ta lg ia ; and lo v e o f home,
lo v e ©f home, how ever, was a v ery complex f a c to r In I t s e l f ,
b ein g co n d itio n e d and determ ined by such f a c t o r s as p a r e n ts ,
sce n ery , h o u se, f a m ilia r ways, freedom o f o p in io n and ©ond u c t, r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s , a n im a ls, p le a sa n t memories,
sympathy, room, f u r n i t u r e , g a rd e n s, h i l l s , ro o k s, t r e e s ,
meadows, stre a m s, fra n k n e s s , l e i s u r e , l i b e r t y to a rra n g e ,
e tc .
H a ll b e lie v e d t h a t d u rin g ado lescen ce, when th e c h ild
was s e n s i t i v e t© s u g g e s tio n , It© symptoms co u ld be caused in
n e u r o tic g i r l s by such circu m stan ces as th e l o s s of a p e t ,
95
f e l l lu g o f a f a v o r i t e t r e e , rearrangem ent o f f u r n i t u r e , o r a
change
feod*
The e f f e c t s o f hom esickness o f n e u ro tic
g i r l s were b e lie v e d v ery severe*
l i t e r a l l y aching f o r home.
They were d e sc rib e d as
T h e ir s u ffe rin g checked m enstrua­
tio n * reduced a n a b o lic p ro cesses* and In c re a se d k a ta b o lic
p ro c esses*
tinder th e s e c o n d itio n s H all s a id th a t th e y e a rn -
lug s e a l seemed t o b re ak from th e body , 16 tasking w ith i t a l l
17
sympathy f o r mm and b e a s t.
A b a t t l e o r l i v e l y p e rso n a l
en c o u n te r was b e lie v e d to be th e s u r e s t and most com plete
cu re f o r t h i s c o n d itio n when i t was im p o ssib le to r e tu r n th e
p a tie n t t o h is home*
In 1909 G u th rie (11) r e f e r r e d b r ie f ly t o th e s u b je c t o f
n o s ta lg ia in h i s F u n c tio n a l ffervous D iso rd ers in Childhood*
The pangs o f hom esickness* he said * were c h a ra c te riz e d by a
dead c o ld w eight a t th e epigastrium * th e f e e lin g o f in te n s e
d ep ressio n * nausea a t th e s ig h t o f food* a lump in th e
th ro a t* and t e a r s w ith every th o u g h t o f home and fam ily*
ill
food seemed dry and t a s te le s s * and a tte m p ts to e a t only
caused choking*
Sometimes th e d e je c tio n would become so
in te n s e t h a t i t would d e stro y th e health* and e v e n tu a lly lead
to d eath *
F o r t m a t e l y , he s a id , th e se were b u t p assin g pangs
^ T h l e i s s im ila r t o th e o b se rv a tio n re p o rte d fo r Sagar
(1 9 , 31) on page 9 o f t h i s t h e s i s , namely, t h a t th e so u l no
lo n g e r seemed to r e s id e w ith in th e body*
^ T h i e i s s im ila r to th e statem en t re p o rte d fo r K lin e
(18) on page 86 o f t h i s t h e s i s , namely, th a t many became icon­
o c l a s t i c , f i l l e d w ith a d e s ir e to d e stro y w ithout having mercy
f o r man o r b e a s t.
m
In most c h ild r e n .
O ften c h ild r e n co n v alescin g in h o s p it a ls
would f a l l t© th riv e * and would in s te a d become d u l l , l i s t ­
l e s s , s i l e n t aad f r e t f u l ♦ They would re fu s e to e a t and
would be c o n s ta n tly i n tear®*
T h is c o n d itio n , which G u th rie
b e lie v e d was a for® ©f n o s t a l g i a , m s g e n e r a lly © ailed
"H o sp ita lism * ,
G u th rie b e lie v e d th a t very young c h ild r e n were o fte n
v ic tim s ©f n o s ta lg ia *
He re p o rte d from Be Quincey t h a t 6
y ea r o ld c h ild re n who were to r n away from t h e i r p a re n ts to
l i v e on Eton is la n d fre q u e n tly d ie d o f g rie f*
He a lso r e ­
p o rte d th e ca se o f Theophile G a u tie r , who d e sc rib e d h im se lf
as a g e n t l e , sa d , and s ic k ly c h i l d , w ith a c u rio u s ly d ark
s k ill, and who re p o rte d th a t a t th e age o f th r e e he war, moved
fro® th e so u th ©f F rance to P a ris *
This change made G a u tie r
so hom esick th a t h i s g r i e f n e a rly drove him to suicide*
When he was 8 y e a rs o ld h© was s e n t to th e C ollege hoots l e
Grand, .where he was ag ain se iz e d w ith d e s p a ir and hom esickness*
He could n o t e a t , th e n o is e and c o a rse n e ss ©f h is
fe llo w "p riso n e rs* f i l l e d him w ith d is g u st and h o rro r, and
he f e l t as i f he were dying o f c o ld , boredom, and is o la tio n *
n e v e r th e le s s , h i s school work co n tin u ed to be com pletely
s a t i s f a c t o r y , and he gave prom ise ©f being a b r i l l i a n t p u p il
• i f I liv ed * *
However* i t soon became n e c e ssa ry to r e tu r n
him to h i s home.
Madame J u n s t, acco rding t© G u th rie , re p o rte d t h a t when
h e r nephew was l e s s th a n two y e a rs o ld he was s tr ic k e n w ith
97
\
g r i e f b ecau se o f t h e d e a th o f h i s f a th e r , and although a t 'y
home w ith h i s m other and o th e r r e l a t i v e s , d ie d w ith in a
ig
year* w When Madame Jumet spoke o f t h i s to C o rv is& rt,
H apoleon1s c o u rt p h y s ic ia n , he r e p lie d t h a t c h ild r e n fre-*
quem tly d ie d o f g r i e f * I t i s p ro b a b le , o f c o u rs e , t h a t many
o f th e i l l n e s s e s which a t t h a t tim e were diagnosed as g r i e f
were a c tu a lly in f e c tio u s d ise a se s*
Am in c id e n t from th e l i f e o f Schasm G o th lie b F ic h te , as
d e s c rib e d by U w t * ^ was re p o rte d by G uthrie*
This p ra *
A d ie u s § dreamy* u l t racoons© i ont ioue c h ild was tak en from
h i s humble v i l la g e home to l i v e w ith th e Baron von M itt i s i n
th e s t a t e l y c a s tl e o f Siebeneichen*
However, when th e c h ild
b eh eld th e gloomy g ran d eu r o f th e b a ro n ia l h a l l h is h e a rt
mmh w ith sorrow and so g re a t a d e je c tio n f e l l upon him t h a t
h is h e a lt h was s e r io u s ly endangered.
Thus h i s f i r s t sorrow
and s e v e r e s t t r i a l came in th e form o f what most people
would c a l l good fo rtu n e #
His c o n d itio n co ntinued to grow
worse* u n t i l I t became n ecessary t o move him to a co u n try
parsonage where he s p e e d ily recovered*
Another c a se which was re p o rte d by G u th rie was t h a t o f
a boy who was s e n t to a boarding school*
When he a r riv e d
a t th e sch o o l he was p o l i t e , c u ltu r e d , ed u cated , and used to
■^G uthrie g iv e s th e fo llo w in g re fe re n c e s Madame J u n s t,
Memories o f Napoleon, His Court and Family* ( t r a n s .) B en tley ,
liSiJ pV]iif*
H« lew e s. H isto ry o f Philosophy* 185.3, 4 , 145.
98
e a s e , b u t under t h e c h id in g o f th e o th e r boys he soon l o s t
a l l h i s re fin e m e n t, and spent h i s e n t i r e tim e In th e n u rse ry
o r weeping s i l e n t l y in a corner*
e f f e c t on h i s b r illia n c e *
T h is, how ever, had no
There was also th e ease o f a n in e
y e a r o ld g i r l Vh© com plained o f headaches fo r two weeks, re*
fu sed fo o d , vom ited, and showed an ir r e g u la r r i s e in tem per­
a tu re *
The c h ild was p a le and 111 , and was w asting away,
but when h e r n u rs e , t o whom she was g r e a tly a tta c h e d , agreed
t© rem ain w ith her* she reco v ered immediately*
G uthrie a ls o
© ailed a t t e n t i o n t o in c id e n ts where E nglish c o n v ic ts r e ­
tu rn ed t o fnglamd and c e r ta in imprisonment in o rd e r to r e ­
lie v e t h e i r hom esickness, and where c h ild re n c r ie d to be
re tu rn e d t o th e slums and drunken p a r e n ts .
G u th rie concluded from th e s e oases and in c id e n ts t h a t
th e r e must be a t th e b a s is o f such b eh av io r a homing in ­
s tin c t .
He b e lie v e d t h a t th e homing i n s t i n c t was probably
developed in a l l a n im a ls, and t h a t th e amount of i t s d ev e l­
opment determ ined th e in d iv id u a l d iffe re n c e s in s u s c e p ti­
b i l i t y to n o s ta lg ia *
Whether o r not hom ing-pigeons had nos­
t a l g i a when th ey were confined away from t h e i r home n e s ts
was a q u e s tio n which he r a is e d , b u t l e f t unansw ered.
The en v iro n m en tal f a c to r s which he gave as c o n trib u tin g
t o th e development o f hom esickness in clu d ed moving to a new
home, t o a d i f f e r e n t town o r c o u n try , changing to a new
c u l t u r e , and changing d o m icile o r re sid e n c e even i f fo r th e
b e tte r.
In d iv id u a l f a c to r s in clu d ed th e d e s i r e to r e v i s i t
99
p la c e s o r p e rso n s , th e longing fo r one* a n a tiv e c o u n try , o r
f o r a h o v e l In I t , and th e dread o f being abused o r mis­
tre a te d *
In C onclusion he s ta te d t h a t n o s t a lg i a might o r
m ight n o t in v o lv e a la c k o f c o m fo rt, and t h a t i t s p resen ce
was by no means ev id en ce of an a f f e c tio n a te d is p o s itio n *
Jasper®* (IT ) account o f hom esickness appeared in 1909*
He b r i e f l y review ed t h e h is to r y o f th e s u b je c t and gave a
b ib lio g ra p h y o f 88 t i t l e s *
Of a l l th e e a r ly w r ite r s on nos­
t a l g i a , he l i s t e d d a n g e r!, S c h le g e l, and J e s s e s as th e th r e e
g re a te s t*
He d e c la re d th a t sin c e t h e i r tim e l i t t l e o f v alu e
had appeared on th e su b ject*
The whole h i s t o r y o f n o s ta lg ia
S ince H efer*s tim e was, he s a i d , more a h i s t o r y o f e r r o r th an
one o f v a lid o b s e rv a tio n s , and, he added, much which had
been re p o rte d was r e a l l y w ithout any b a s is in fa ct*
He
p o in te d o u t t h a t in th e o ld er l i t e r a t u r e , ^Heimweh" was used
in th e w id est se n se t o in clu d e f e e lin g s , b o d ily i l l s , and
p sy ch o ses, b u t l a t e r German l i t e r a t u r e g e n e ra lly r e s t r i c t e d
i t t o a more f o r e n s ic sens®.
The German w r i t e r s , he s a id ,
g e n e ra lly tr e a te d i t as a form o f m elan ch o lia, a view which
c a r r ie d o v er in to th e E nglish l i t e r a t u r e as re p re se n te d by
K ello g g , who, tm 1 89?, c l a s s i f i e d n o s ta lg ia as m elancholia
sim pler*
A fte r a b r i e f review o f th e old th e o r ie s , Ja sp e rs re ­
p o rte d a nuaiber o f fo re n s ic c a s e s , a l l g i r l s , in which nos­
t a l g i a was b e lie v e d t o be an e t i o l o g ic a l f a c t o r .
One case
which he re p o rte d was th a t o f & p re-p u b escen t servant g i r l
100
who gave th e c h ild she was o a rin g fo r an overdose o f medi­
c in e , a rg u in g to h e r s e l f th a t she could go home as soon as
th e c h ild died*
However^ th e e h ild re c o v e re d .
n ext d ecid ed to throw th e c h ild in to th e r i v e r .
The g i r l
E arly on
JStmdmy morning she s t o l e th e c h ild fro® i t s c r ib and c a r­
r ie d o u t h e r p la n to drown I t .
She was q u ic k ly apprehended
and se n t t o th e H eid e lb e rg er P s y c h ia tr ic c l i n i c where she
rem ained a s a se rv a n t g ir l*
She was d e sc rib e d as having
moody s p e l l s , d ep ressed f e e lin g s , and a tta c k s o f cry in g and
h y s te ria *
A nother se rv a n t g i r l threw h e r tw o-year old charge on
th e f l o o r many tim es u n t i l I t died*
She s a id she did t h i s
because she wanted to be fre e to r e tu r n home*
Another g i r l ,
who had p re v io u s ly s u ffe re d a l l th e symptoms o f n o s ta lg ia ,
s e t f i r e t o th e house o f h er em ployer.
A ll th e s e g i r l s had
good r e p u ta tio n s and came from good p easan t fa m ilies*
A fte r
th e c rim e , th ey u s u a lly p reten d ed th a t th ey knew n o th in g ,
but n e a r ly always th e y broke down, and, amid a flow o f t e a r s ,
made a f u l l co n fessio n *
These o ase s u s u a lly involved g i r l s
who had n o t y e t begun t o m e n stru a te .
j a s p e r s b e lie v e d t h a t th e m otive fo r s e t t i n g f i r e s when
no o th e r reaso n was known was u s u a lly hom esickness.
Those
who com m itted such crim es because o f hom esickness were n o t
c o n sid e re d feeb le-m in d ed , but m erely c h ild re n whose c h ild is h
m ental development le a d them to t h e i r absurd re a so n in g .
These c h ild r e n always shewed to o much em otional re a c tio n
101
over le a v in g home to be feeble-m inded in d iv id u a ls .
Home­
s ic k n e s s , which was b e lie v e d to have a profound in flu e n c e on
th e a f f e c t i v e s t a t e , would th e r e f o r e cause c rim in a l out*
b u rs ts ,
Whether o r n o t th e se c h ild r e n were in t h e i r r i g h t
Blinds and i n p o s s e s s io n o f t h e i r fre e —w il ls a t th e tim e th ey
committed th e a c ts was a m a tte r o f sp ec u la tio n *
J a s p e rs
p o in te d o u t, however, th a t i t was im possible f o r anyone to
say where th e normal ends and th e abnormal begins*
J a s p e r s b e lie v e d th a t a d ep ressed m ental s t a t e , such as
occurred, w ith f e a r o r hom esickness, would le a d to nervous*
n e s s , c o n g e stio n o f th e b r a in , w eakness, u n r e s t , and f i n a l l y ,
t o momentary p sy c h o sis a t which tim e crim e would be com*
m ltted *
He p o in te d o u t, however, th a t in "Heimweh* c a se s an
a b s o lu te ly c e r t a i n d ia g n o sis was n o t p o ssib le *
Sometimes
th e in v e s tig a tio n would d is c lo s e th a t th e g i r l heard v o ic e s
t e l l i n g h e r to s e t f i r e ; or t h a t ©he would dream o f b u rn in g
th e house o r bed and upon awakening would c a r r y out h er
dream*
th e a c t was always c h a ra c te riz e d by v io le n c e o r de­
s t r u c t i o n , and was u s u a lly p rem ed itated by a g i r l who be­
lie v e d t h a t i t would leav e h er f r e e to r e tu r n home.
Because
©f th e excitem ent aroused by com m itting th e a c t , th e symp­
toms o f hom esickness d isa p p e a r a t th e moment o f th e c rim e .
The mechanisms o f n o s ta lg ia were co n sid ered s im ila r in
every e a s e ; t h e i r co u rse and a c tio n depending upon th e p er­
s o n a l i t y , th e fe e lo n g tone o f th e in d iv id u a l, and th e en­
vironm ent*
As su rro u n d in g s became fa m ilia r th e y grew in to
102
th e p e r s o n a lity
bo
t h a t th e lx rem oval a c tu a lly l e f t th e p e r­
s o n a lity weak and d e f e n s e le s s .
The im p o rtan t f a c to r was th e
c o n tr a s t between th e o ld and th e new* r a th e r th a n th e d i s ­
ta n c e from home*
In fa c t* d is ta n c e seemed to have no r o l e
a t a l l In th e developm ent o f hom esickness * Hew surroundings
th e re fo re * b rought confusion* and a b lo ck in g o f th e fe e lin g s *
and g e n e ra te d s e n s itiv e n e ss* & isag ree ab len ess, moroseness*
u n frie n d lin e s s * and d isc o n te n t*
Ratasel, acco rd in g to
Ja sp e rs* re p o rte d t h a t he f e l t as i f th e r e was a vampire a t
h is s o u l when he was homesick* and th a t he t r i e d to escape
t h i s s u f f e r in g by r e t r e a t i n g in to a world o f dreams and
p h a n ta sie s*
H o stalg ia* J a s p e r s s a id , co u ld appear suddenly o r
g ra d u a lly * p e r io d ic a lly o r ir r e g u la r ly * o v e r tly o r i m p li c i tl y .
f
Every d e p re s s io n was b e lie v e d to have o u te r and in n e r f a c t o r s .
The th r e e sta g e s o f d e p re ssio n which he l i s t e d were;
th e
development o f a d e p re s s io n becau se o f e x te r n a l fa c to rs * th e
su p p re ssio n o f f a c t s as th e d e p re ss io n developed* and th e
p r o je c tio n outward o f th e i n t e r n a l d e p re ssio n as hom esickness*
S tag es two and th ree* he s a id , could be c l a s s i f i e d as
psychoses*
E p ile p to id d e p re ss io n s were o f te n m istaken f o r
n o s ta lg ia *
The d if f e r e n c e between p a th o lo g ic a l homesick de­
p re s s io n s and normal hom esickness was d e sc rib e d a© th e d i f ­
fe re n c e between th e morbid and th e n o t m orbid.
Homesickness,
by re d u c in g th e w ill* began la y in g th e ground fo r th e crime*
An im pulsive* c rim in a l tendency* a reduced w i l l , and a
103
e h i 1d is k mind were d e c la re d to be th e f a c t o r s re sp o n s ib le
f o r th e com pulsive c rim in a l aet>
I f th e id e a o f s e ttin g
f i r e suddenly appeared^ th e c h ild would th in k o f n o th in g
e ls e u n t i l th e a c t was done.
A ccording to Ja s p e rs * German p s y c h ia try i n 1909 e n v is ­
aged hom esickness as a m u ltip le group o f d is tu rb a n c e s r a t h e r
th a n a s in g le d is o rd e r*
Symptoms caused by le a v in g th e
p a r e n ta l home* and th o s e caused by s im ila r circu m stan ces
were found to be enough a lik e f o r one c la s s i f ic a ti o n *
wehpsychosee®*
*Heira*
Homesickness.* J a s p e rs argued* was n e i th e r a
p sy ch o sis* nor a sick n ess* but* l i k e p ris o n psychosis* a
ty p i c a l r e a c tio n superim posed upon in d iv id u a l circu m stan ces
and weaknesses*
In p sy ch o p ath ic o r d eg e n erate in d iv id u a ls*
i t was b e lie v e d t© cau se c rim in a l o u tb u r s ts ; i n in d iv id u a ls
n e i t h e r feeb le-m in d ed n or degenerate* i t caused c h ild is h be­
h a v io r; in o ld p e o p le who were m elancholy i t caused s u ic id e ;
in m oral and sound minded in d iv id u a ls who la c k development
and e x p e rie n c e , and who have a narrow lim i t o f fe e lin g * i t
caused c rim in a l a c ts*
T h e re fo re , i t was co n sid ered abso­
l u t e l y n ec essary to u n d erstan d th e p e rso n a lity * and a l l th e
b iro u m stan ces o f th e crim e in o rd e r to d ecid e whether o r n o t
th e crim e r e s u lte d becau se o f n o s ta lg ia *
o fte n found to be q u ite d if f e r e n t*
S im ila r c a s e s were
th o se who d id not d is ­
charge t h e i r em otions in c rim in a l a c ts were b e lie v e d to be
th e ones who outw ardly s u ffe re d homesickness*
In c o n c lu sio n ,
J a s p e r s s ta te d th a t* e v e ry th in g c o n sid e re d , th ey were s t i l l
104
f a r from a c o n c lu siv e e x p la n a tio n o f hom esickness.
Hams Gross (10) s ta te d t h a t c h ild r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r­
in g p u b e r ty , were th e ones most l i k e l y to d evelop n o s ta lg ia *
The only o th e r s who were c o n sid e re d l i k e l y to develop home­
s ic k n e s s were th e uneducated in lonesome p la c e s , th e weak,
and th e i d i o t i c .
O ften th e c o n tr a s t between mountains and
p la in s was g re a t enough to cause in h a b ita n ts moving from one
to th e o th e r to ex p e rien ce f e e lin g s o f stra n g e n e ss th a t
would alm ost overcome them, b u t in h a b ita n ts o f re g io n s n o t
p a r t i c u l a r l y in d iv id u a lis e d d id n o t so e a s il y n o tic e d i f ­
f e r e n c e s , and could move from one c i ty to a n o th e r w ithout
f e e lin g an unusual d eg ree o f s tra n g e n e s s .
L ikew ise, edu­
c a te d p e o p le could fin d d iv e rs io n from t h e i r unhappy
th o u g h ts because o f t h e i r i n t e r n a t io n a l c u l t u r e .
G ross b e lie v e d t h a t th e v ic tim s o f n o s ta lg ia sought
pow erful sen se s tim u li as a means o f overcoming t h e i r su f­
f e r in g s and o p p re ssiv e f e e lin g s o f d e je c tio n .
Sometimes
th e s e were th e n o i s i e s t and most e x c itin g p le a s u re s p o s s ib le ,
and som etimes th e y would ta k e th e form o f v io le n c e , a rs o n ,
and even m urder.
Where th e re was no apparent m otive f o r
c rim in a l v io le n c e , Gross s a id to look fo r hom esickness, and
i f t h i s proved to be th e m otive t o use i t as a means o f
re a c h in g th e c r im in a l.
He b e lie v e d th a t th e g r e a te r th e de­
g ree o f hom esickness th e l e s s l i k e l y th a t th e crime would be
d e n ie d , because even th e le g a l procedure would serve as a
s tro n g stim ulm s.
The c rim in a l may confess h i s ©rime, b u t
105
argued G ro ss, he can s e v e r c o n fe ss th e m otive because he
a c tu a lly h a s mo knowledge o r in s ig h t in to th e reasons f o r
com m itting th e a c t .
he d o e s n 't know why.
He m erely say s th a t he had to d© i t , but
Gross b e lie v e d th a t th e person who
would g iv e hom esickness a s th e re a so n fo r h is a c t was a
m a lin g e re r.
Whether o r not th e in d iv id u a l was Insane a t th e
tim e o f th e a c t was co n sid ered a m atter f o r a p h y sic ia n to
decide.
Est&ve (?) b ased h i s a r t i c l e on th e e a r l i e r work o f
F i l e t . F i l e t * s monograph, he s a id , m erited c o n s id e ra tio n
n o t J u s t because o f i t s s u b je c t, b u t, d is c a rd in g i t s d i s ­
s e r t a t i o n s on phrenology and ro m an tic p sy c h o -p a th o g en esis,
because o f i t s e t i o l o g i c a l a n a ly s is and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and
i t s th e r a p e u tic p r o p o s itio n s which were s t i l l accep ted .
Eet&ve b e lie v e d t h a t th e attachm ent o f one to h is n a tiv e
home co u ld alm ost be s ta te d as a g e n e ra l b io lo g ic a l law .
t r a n s p la n ta tio n t o a r ic h e r o r more fa v o ra b le so c ie ty was
not a s su ra n c e a g a in s t an a tta c k o f n o s ta lg ia .
Each s o c ie ty
seems t o p o sse ss i t s own s p e c if ic s e c re ts which were i n d i s p e n s ib le to th e in d iv id u a l *s e x is te n c e .
He concluded, as
d id H ip p o c ra te s, t h a t n o s ta lg ia i s th e r e s u l t o f a m&ladapt a t io n , which, no m a tte r what our c o n d itio n o f w ell b e in g ,
i s alw ays cau sin g ms t o compromise in th e u n iv e rs a l s tru g g le
f o r l i f e | and t h a t when s tra n g e surroundings in c re a se t h i s
£ ® F lie tf s monograph, as p re se n te d by Est&ve, i s re p o rte d
on p ages 17-19 o f t h i s t h e s i s .
a m ia d a p ta tio n , n o s t a l g i a , th e se n tim e n ta l r e f l e c t i o n o f t h a t
in c re a s e d mal adapt a t io n , becomes more o r l e s s c o n sc io u s*
The t h e o r i z e r s , such as H o fe r, B ayle, C u llen , E s q u iro l,
and A n d ral, E stW e s a i d , in te r p r e te d i t acco rd in g to i t s
p sy ch ic m a n if e s ta tio n s .
As a r e s u l t o f t h i s conception
v a rio u s tre a tm e n ts were n eglected*
The s e rio u s n e ss o f nos­
t a l g i a was evidenced by i t s p o s s ib le te rm in a tio n in d e a th or
s u ic id e , and by th e freq u ency w ith which i t became com pli­
c a te d w ith d re a d fu l in f e c tio u s d ise a se s*
Hst&we agreed w ith
F i l e t t h a t nervous and m elancholic temperament e were more
p re d isp o se d to n o s t a l g i a .
He a ls o agreed t o P i l e t *s d e s c r ip ­
t io n o f th e p r in c ip a l som atic symptoms*
S s tW e p o in ted o u t th a t th e numerous d ig e s tiv e d i s ­
tu rb a n c e s o f hom esickness l e f t l i t t l e re aso n f o r c r i t i c i z i n g
B ro u ssaie and h i s fo llo w e rs f o r b e lie v in g t h a t I n t e s t i n a l
le s i o n s caused n o s t a l g i a .
Be b e lie v e d t h a t th e r e was some
s tra n g e morbid c o n n e c tio n between th e a f f H o t io n s o f th e
low er p a r t o f th e d ig e s tiv e t r a c t and a n o s ta lg ic d is p o s i­
t i o n , p o in tin g o u t t h a t typhoid fe v e r was alw ays more sev e re
when co m p licated by n o s ta lg ia *
fste w e f e l t t h a t th e o ld w r ite r s on t h i s su b je c t had
o ffe re d n o th in g o f v a lu e from a th e ra p e u tic s ta n d p o in t.
They g e n e ra lly c o n sid e re d psychotherapy th e o n ly tre a tm e n t
a v a i l a b l e , which to Ist& ve, was a m istaken b e l i e f and a
g re a t r i s k .
Be s t a t e d t h a t he had shown in h i s essay
e rom antic ue th e p sy c h o lo g ic a l re aso n why c e r t a i n
s t i m u l i , euoh m a m il i t airy a i r p la y e d under fo re ig n s k i e s ,
would fee tran sfo rm ed in to su g g e stio n s o f lan g u o r and weak­
n e ss fey one who had n o s ta lg ia *
1 s t W e agreed th a t p la c in g
new id e a s and d e s ir e s in to th e mind o f th e s u f f e r e r was good
m ental th e ra p y , b u t fee contended t h a t one should f i r s t make
th e p h y s ic a l and m en tal ground f e r t i l e f o r such e f f o r t s by
g iv in g stim u la n ts*
T h is , he s a id , proved t h a t p h y s io lo g ic a l
r e l i e f was th e b a s ic trea-feaent f o r n o s ta lg ia *
was:
His form ula
fey m odifying th e som atic s t a t e one m o d ifie s th e m ental
s ta te *
According t o him , thyme always r a i s e s th e morale* and
a wholesome in to x ic a tio n always produces composure and c o n fi­
dence i n th e fu tu re * a s w ell as good re a lim e n ta tio n *
I t has
o fte n been s a id , he p o in ted o u t, t h a t a g la s s o f wine makes
th e whole world lo o k ro s y .
A g la s s o f s tro n g e r s p i r i t s , he
b e lie v e d , would do th e same t h in g , only in a more d u ra b le
fash io n *
Those who would remove alco h o l from th e tre a tm e n t
o f n o s t a l g i a w ere, he d e c la re d , e n t i r e l y wrong i n t h e i r
lo g ic *
He p o in ted o u t, however, th a t a lc o h o l must fee used
w ith re a s o n and d isc o n tin u e d i f th e p a tie n t i s bothered w ith
vom iting*
F i l e t proposed th e g e n e ra l th e ra p e u tic s recommended f o r
d is e a s e s o f th e encep h alon, g a s t r o e n t e r i t i s , and h e c tic
f e v e r , b u t E steve suggested l e s s com plicated p rocedures
based on pharm acology, and som atic and p h y s io lo g ic a l in ­
flu e n c e s .
F i r s t , he recommended, a to n ic f o r th e c e n tr a l
nervous system*
G lo b e d * he s a i d , was a rem arkable s t a b i l i z e r ,
108
and would calm e x c e ssiv e i r r i t a b i l i t y , check th e d e p re ssio n ,
d i s s i p a t e th e headache, and r e l i e v e d is tu rb a n c e s of th e
sp la n c h n ic in n e rv a tio n th roughout th e c a rd ia c system .
He
a ls o s a id th a t i t would remove th e nervous weakness, r e s t o r e
th e to n u s o f th e m usculature system , and in c re a s e th e appe­
tite *
A l i t t l e u ro d o n a l was recommended as a means o f stim ­
u la tin g i n t r o - c r a n i a l c i r c u l a t i o n , when n o s ta lg ia had become
i n v e t e r a te and in ju r e d th e c e r e b r a l a r t e r i e s .
For r e l i e f o f
d ig e s tiv e d is o rd e r s he recommended sin u b ^ ra se as th e only
com plete i n t e s t i n a l m edication known.
T h is, he s a id , would
a d ju s t and re g u la te th e d ig e s tiv e p ro c esses and a t th e same
tim e a c t a s a p ro p h a la o tic a g a in s t typhoid*
For t r e a t i n g
h e c tic g a s t r o e n t e r i t i s he recommended th a t i t be used w ith
OQOtherapie fid u lin iQ u e . which in case o f tu b e rc u la r com pli­
c a tio n s would g r e a tly aid th e c io a t r in a t io n o f th e pulmonary
le s io n s *
!st& ve said t h a t he would never h e s i t a t e to r e s o r t to
th e s e p r e c is e a g e n ts o f modern pharmacy when th e p a tie n t
co u ld n o t be re tu rn e d to h is home.
I n 1918 an a r t i c l e by Jean Mackenzie ( 2 0 ) , an American
m issio n ary to Southwest A fric a , appeared in th e AtI a n tio
Monthly C la s s ic s .
F or y ears she had liv e d w ith th e b lack
fo lk o f Cameroon on term® o f sympathy and u n d e rsta n d in g , and
from h er o b s e rv a tio n s th e r e , she concluded t h a t homesick
people alw ays long fo r a v i s i t and axe always anxious to r e ­
ce iv e a l e t t e r from home.
The v ic tim s o f n o s ta lg ia w rite
109
&XX n ig h t b e fo re th e day o f th e © a il, and i f on th a t day
th ey f a i l to re c e iv e a l e t t e r , th e y go hungry to bed*
She
s ta te d t h a t fisherm en were not a f fe c te d by n o s t a lg ia , and
th a t m is s io n a rie s w ere not c h ro n ic s u f f e r e r s beeaused th ey
f is h e d a l o t * The t r a d e r was th e one who was most a ffe c te d *
He grew c a r e le s s i n h i s d re s s and always kept h is gramaphone
by h i s s id e fo r company*
C o n trary to a l l o th e r w r i t e r s , she re p o rte d t h a t th e
f e e lin g s o f n o s ta lg ia ©re re lin q u is h e d a t d usk, and th a t
th en th e mind wanders in to am i n f i n i t e d is ta n c e and s o li tu d e .
The n ig h t skyf she s a i d , does permanent m in is try to th e home­
s ic k , and o f a l l th e b r ig h t m in is te r s th e ©eon was th e most
e f f e c t u a l , g a th e rin g a l l to g e th e r in her s ilv e r y n e t I Let­
t e r s were c a lle d p r i c e l e s s t r e a s u r e s , and th e postman was
re g ard ed w ith th e h ig h e s t re sp e c t*
Postmen who a rriv e d l a t e
were © hided, th o se who a rriv e d e a r ly were p r a is e d , and th o se
who d ie d cm th e t r a i l w hile p r o te c tin g th e m a ils were re v e r­
enced above a l l o th e rs *
When th e postman a r riv e d a l l in ­
d u s try stopped w h ile th e © all was opened and read*
Her a r t i c l e i s i n t e r e a tin g because i t g iv e s th e o b serv a­
tio n s o f one who h as liv e d many y e a rs in a fo re ig n c o u n try ,
and who ha© had th e o p p o rtu n ity o f observing th e h a b its and
a c tio n s o f o th e rs l i v i n g f a r from t h e i r homes and loved ones*
That she should n o tic e a d e c rease in hom esickness a t n ig h t,
th e v ery tim e s© fre q u e n tly re p o rte d a© ca u sin g th e g r e a te s t
a g i t a t i o n and s u f f e r in g , i s indeed. I n te r e s tin g and th o u g h t-
110
p ro v o k in g .
S outhard (BB) re p o rte d & e a se o f n o s ta lg ia appearing
in a p r i v a t e in th e I t a l i a n i n f a n tr y during th e World War.
The s o l d i e r , who b e fo re th e war liv e d on a ©mall farm , was
d e s c rib e d as having a n o s ta lg ic tem per a m e n t . F a t i g u e in
aixtibellura l i f e alw ays caused aches and p a in s in h is l e g e .
From th e day he l e f t f o r s e rv ic e he grew d e p re sse d , h is
sle e p was d is tu r b e d , and he appeared to be g r e a tly a f f e c te d
by th e dampness o f th e tre n c h e s .
One day a box f e l l from an
a ir p la n e and h i t a t h i s f e e t , throw ing him in t o a profound
s ta te o f fe a r.
He was g iv en a s h o rt r e s t , b u t from th a t day
on he was In c o n tin u a l f e a r .
F in a lly p a in s , h y p e rs e n s itiv e -
n e s s , f e v e r , and sw e llin g o f h is le g s cosspelled hi© to b ed .
He had been in th e s e rv ic e about a month when homesick­
n ess overcame him, dropping hi© in to a s t a t e o f deep
p h y s ic a l and m ental d e p re s s io n .
However, i t was not h is own
t r o u b l e s , b u t th o se o f h is fam ily th a t preoccupied h is
th o u g h ts .
He was e a s ily f a tig u e d , M s knees o fte n h u rt so
bad ly t h a t he w ept, and a l l h is dreams were about S a rd in ia ,
h is f a t h e r , and th e w ar.
U sually he dreamed t h a t he had
been wounded in th e l e g s , which Southard in te r p r e te d as an
in d ic a tio n th a t he was c o n s ta n tly being s tim u la te d by th e
aching j o i n t s .
When th e name S a rd in ia was m entioned he
^ S o u th a r d d id n o t e x p la in what he meant by th e term
ttn o s ta lg ic tem peram ent11.
I ll
would c r y and say: »Qh* bow I lo v e Sardinia® * When h ie
regim ent was se n t to th e r e a r he remained on a c tiv e s e r v ic e
fo r a few days d e s p ite h is fe v e r and pains*
P h y s ic a l exam ination showed t h a t th e r e f le x e s were nor­
mal* b u t s l i g h t tre m o rs appeared, in th e le g s a f t e r th e te s ts *
The th y r o id gland was somewhat sw ollen, and th e p a tie n t was
r a th e r v a g o to n ic *
H is p u lse r a t e wag 56, th e © cule-cardia©
r e f le x 56-84, Mannkopf n e g a tiv e , Thomayer and Irb e n marked
(56-88 and 8 8 -6 0 ), von
p r e s e n t.
G raefe marked, and S tellw ay was
Southard made no m ention o f th e tre a tm e n t recom­
mended, n or o f th e f i n a l outcome o f th e c a s e ,
I l b e r g (16) was in flu en ce d by th e arguments o f Hans
Gross (10) and J a s p e r s (17) i© th e e f f e c t th a t hom esickness
was o f t e n th e b a s is f o r c rim in a l behavior*
He re p o rte d th e
c a se o f Bora B*, an unhappy s e rv a n t g i r l who in 1918 burned
th e house o f h er employer*
u n f r ie n d ly , and morose*
Bora was then under 15 y e a rs old,
Her p re v io u s em ployers had allow ed
h er to go home each Sunday, b u t t h i s one re q u ire d Sunday
work*
On h e r l a s t v i s i t home, two weeks b e fo re burning th e
h ouse, she became d e s p e ra te and d e c la re d th a t she would n o t
r e tu r n to work*
n e v e r th e le s s , she was re q u ire d to go back
and from th a t day she became anem ic, n erv o u s, and im pulsive*
The work wag hard and th e head—maid never ta lk e d to her*
^ben she went to h e r room one afte rn o o n to c ry th e id e a to
burn th e house suddenly came to h e r , but she q u ick ly r e ­
p re ss e d i t *
That m ight a f te r she had r e t i r e d she suddenly
118
f e l t com pelled t o g e t up and s e t f i r e to th e house, but
a f t e r th e f i r e was w e ll s t a r te d she threw a bucket o f w ater
on I t and n o t i f i e d th e fa m ily .
E verything seemed to be
happening a s in a dream and th e next morning h e r memory was
very confused*
The fam ily h i s t o r y o f t h i s c h ild showed th a t h er g ran d motherjt an a u n t, and a co usin had a l l com mitted su icid e*
Another co u sin was insane# and th e c h ild * s f a th e r was a v ery
nervous in d iv id u a l.
When Bora was 8 y e a rs o ld she f e l l and
as a r e s u l t was in a coma f o r some tim e .
She o fte n had
h ead ach es, and appeared to have low m e n ta lity .
P sy ch o lo g ical
t e s t s in d ic a te d a c h i l d i s h le v e l o f in te llig e n c e and no in ­
d ic a tio n s o f a major p s y c h o sis.
She was under 15 y e a rs o ld ,
anem ic, p ale# un d erw eig h t, and fo r four y e a rs had been
b o th ered w ith a la r g e th y ro id .
She had a r a p id p u ls e , and
was b o th e re d by ach es and p a in s in h er arms and limbs*
s t r u a t i o n had not y e t s t a r t e d .
Men­
She had been sad and melan­
c h o ly s in c e ch ild h o o d , had o fte n thought o f s u ic id e , and
had alw ays s u ffe re d hom esickness when away from home*
When
she was s e is e d w ith t e r r i b l e headache®, which was o f te n , she
had a s tro n g d e s ir e to go in to th e w ate r.
J u s t b efo re she
s e t f i r e t o th e house she became f a in t and th e n s u ffe re d a
t e r r i b l e headache*
A fte r th e f i r e ehe reco g n ized th e s e rio u s ­
n ess ©f th e a c t which h er e h ild is h w ill had been too weak to
prevent*
The fo u r p o in ts o f s ig n ific a n c e in t h i s case w ere,
acco rd in g t o I lb e r g t
th e v ic tim was a c h ild ; th e ac t was
com m itted a t th e b eg in n in g o f pubescence; th e c h i l d 's h is to r y
in d ic a te d t h a t she was in many ways p e y c h o p a th o lo g ic a l; she
was o f te n i l l and hey body was underdeveloped *
F or o v er a hundred y e a r s , I lb e r g s a id , th e i n s t i n c t to
b urn and s e t f i r e s a t p u b erty had been noted by a l l crim inal-*
p s y c h o lo g is ts .
T h is i n s t i n c t , which was c a ll e d pyrom ania,
was, he b e lie v e d , e s p e c ia lly s tro n g in g i r l s a t p u b e rty .
Thus when th e w i l l was weakened by homesieknees i t was no
match f o r t h i s s tro n g i n s t i n c t .
In D ora H. th e degree o f
hom esickness had become so g r e a t t h a t i t caused a v io le n t
e x p lo siv e a c t which h e r f r e e w il l could n o t c o n tr o l.
I l b e r g r s co n c lu sio n was t h a t a t th e tim e o f th e a c t Dora was
In a s t a t e o f m ental d is tu rb a n c e in which h e r f re e w ill was
lest*
Underdeveloped c h ild re n a t p u b erty were th e ones I lb e r g
b e lie v e d most s u s c e p tib le to n o s t a l g i a .
T his was e s p e c ia lly
tr u e fo r young s e rv a n t g i r l s who found them selves working in
a s tra n g e c i t y .
Wilmanns, ac co rd in g to I l b e r g ,
pp
had p o in te d out th e
p h y sio lo g y and p ath o lo g y o f hom esickness in c a se s where th e
homesick serv a n t had murdered th e c h ild re n e n tru s te d to h e r .
When th e a c t was due t o hom esickness t h i s f a c t was v ery
u n c le a r to th e p a t i e n t , because th e f e e lin g s o f hom esickness
22
I lb e r g g iv e s th e fo llo w in g re fe re n c e : Wiim&nns,
“Heimweh Oder im p u lsiv es I r r e s e in * , M o n atssch rift f h r
£ rim in a lp sy c h o lo g ie und S tra fre c h ts re fo rm , 1907, B&. 3 .
114
disappeared, a t th e moment th e a c t was com m itted.
According
t# I l b e r g , Wilmanns re p o rte d t h a t K raepelin had recognized
th e r o l e o f hom esickness in th e i l l humor o f h y s te r ic s and
e p i l e p t i c s , and as an e t i o l o g ic a l f a c to r in crim e by le a d in g
to th e e x p re ssio n o f some in san e impulse*
I l b e r g re p o rte d a f t e r M» Thumm,^^ who saw in th e home­
s ic k tem per a s p e c if ic p sy ch o g e n esis, th e ca se o f a 14 y e a r
o ld g i r l whose i n f e r i o r c o n s t it u ti o n and p r e d is p o s itio n to
n o s ta lg ia r e s u lte d in h e r s e t t i n g f i r e s tw ice w ith in f i v e
d ay s,
I lb e r g a ls o re p o rte d th e c a se o f a young peasant w ife
who was m ise ra b le b ecause o f her unhappy m arriage*
She was
d e p re sse d , n e g le c te d h e r housework, and was angry w ith h e r
husband a l l th e tim e*
F in a lly she in s is te d on re tu rn in g to
h e r m o th er, where she recovered a f t e r a few months*
I lb e r g b e lie v e d th e endocrine glands play ed an im p o rtan t |
r o le i n e a s e s o f c rim in a l v io le n c e o r s u ic id e .
He p o in te d
j
o u t t h a t Dora H* had an over-developed lym phatic system ,
la r g e t o n s i l s and g la n d s , and p o s s ib ly an a c tiv e thymus*
He
re p o rte d t h a t s im ila r g la n d u la r c o n d itio n s and thymic s t a t e s
were found i n many o f th e s u ic id e s among young s o ld ie rs *
I lb e r g concluded th a t c a se s o f v io le n c e due to homesick­
n ess o f te n occur in re ta rd e d o r undeveloped in d iv id u a ls ,
around th e age o f p u b e rty .
He d id not envisage n o s ta lg ia as
2^ I lb e rg g iv e s th e fo llo w in g re fe re n c e ; M. Thumm,
"F in es B o itra g zu r K a s u is tik und Bewertung d er Heimwehd e lik te % Z e i t s c h r i f t f* d . g* Meurol* u . P s y e h ia tr ie , 1915,
M . 28*
115
va s in g le illn e s s * ,
I n s t e a d , he sought to determ in e w hether
o r mot th e d is o r d e r was p s y c h ic , feeblem indedness, melancho­
l i a * e p ile p s y , com pulsion n e u r o s is , h y s t e r i a , etc-,
Allowing
f m h y s t e r i a , I lb e r g d e sc rib e d p a th o lo g ic a l hom esickness as
a t y p i c a l I l l n e s s r e a c tio n o f a co n st i t u t ion a l l y weak o r
d e g e n e ra te d In d iv id u a l which su rp a sse s 1c deg ree th a t o c c u rle g In th o s e n o t weak o r degenerated*
Bresowsky (1) i n 1922 re p o rte d th e c a se ©£ a nursem aid
who k i l l e d a 4 y e a r o ld c h ild one n ig h t and calm ly ad m itted
th e crim e th e fo llo w in g morning*
Her only m otive was t h a t
she f e l t she could go home I f she k i l le d th e ch ild *
She was
h e a lth y and had no h is to r y o f n erv o u sn ess, h y s t e r i a , o r
m e lan ch o lia.
Seabury {27} in te r p r e te d n o s ta lg ia in term s o f i n s t i n c t s
He s a id ;
" I f th e ♦love o f home in s tin c t* i s th e most dom­
i n a n t , one must l i v e a t home to l i v e a t a l i i
I f you a r e
dom inated by a lo v e f o r home, you cannot ta k e a jo b in China
and n o t d ie of n o s ta lg ia * ?
(p* 159)
an im p o rtan t r o le in n o s ta lg ia ?
He a ls o gave emotion
wEmotion i s th e psychic
energy which b le e d s i n hom esickness and y e a rn s f o r th e to u ch
o f sy m p ath etic hands*
In i t s p a s s io n i t fe e d s madness*
Whenever and w herever th e s p i r i t i s d e lir io u s w ith lo n g in g ,
te n d e r em otion i s In th e th ic k o f th e fray.'* (p . 166)
Seabury t e l l s us n o th in g except t h a t n o s ta lg ia i s in th e
realm o f th e i n s t i n c t s , a realm beyond th e re a c h o f s c ie n c e .
ksybe (21) b e lie v e d th a t hom esickness e w e to old and
young a l i k e ; was meet e a s ily provoked In c h ild r e n and young
p eo p le; and was alw ays occasioned by a s e p a ra tio n fro® p e r­
so n s, an im als o r th in g s*
anim al o r man,
By th in g he meant an y th in g n o t
The rin g in g o f b e l l s , home d i a l e c t , th e
c la p p e r o f th e m i l l , th e la n d s c a p e , and th e way o f l i v i n g a t
home were a l l th in g s which could cause hom esickness-
O ften
young p eo p le going to sch o o l, o r working a s a p p re n tic e s o r
s e rv a n ts away from t h e i r p a r e n ts , b ro th e rs and s i s t e r s , o r
o th e rs , were so h u r t because o f t h e i r absence t h a t t hey
s u ffe re d sev erely *
Although he recognised hom esickness among
a n im a ls, h e b e lie v e d th a t i t p la y e d a sm all r o l e i s t h e i r
liv e s *
Be r e f e r r e d t o th® ease o f a dog t h a t su ffe re d home­
s ic k n e s s when brought to new su rro u n d in g s, and mentioned h is
two h u n tin g dogs one o f which showed symptoms o f homesick­
n ess whenever th e o th e r was away*
The dog rem aining a t hose
a te l i t t l e o r n o th in g , b ut Marbe doesn’t m ention th e be­
h a v io r o f th e dog t h a t was away*
He p o in ted out th a t o f te n
dogs and c a t s , a g a in s t th e w i ll o f t h e i r m a s te rs , r e tu r n to
t h e i r o ld homes.
A fte r a b r i e f re fe re n c e t o th e e a rly h is to r y o f n o s ta l­
g i a , Marbe p re se n te d h is own in te r p r e ta tio n *
He s ta te d th a t
i t was n o t a d is e a s e , b u t a m ental s t a t e c h a ra c te riz e d by
m elan o h o lio -d ep re ssio n and fix e d uncom fortable ideas*
he s a i d , may be found in any norm al conscious l i f e .
Such,
G rie f
over th e d e a th o f a loved one was b eliev ed to be very
s i m i l a r , o r i d e n t i c a l w ith , se v e re n o s ta lg ia .
In f a c t ,
Marbe s t a t e d t h a t hom esickness f o r th e dead was th e so u rce
o f th e b e l i e f in im m o rta lity .
lew r e l a t i o n s , he s a id , can
a c tu a lly be prim ary i n th e o r i g i n o f n o s ta lg ia by b rin g in g
in to oonsciousneos t h e i r c o n tr a s t w ith th e p le a s a n tn e s s ©f
©Id r e la ti o n s *
By such c o n tr a s t th e new appeared u n d e s ir­
a b le and f a r I n f e r i o r t© th e o ld , a© in th e e a se o f th e
woman who s ta te d t h a t th e cocks i n town d id n o t crow a s
b e a u t i f u l l y as th o se a t hex home.
lik e any normal ©r abnor­
mal d e p re s s io n , hom esickness w i l l wary i s i n t e n s i ty i f i t
l a s t s o v er a long p e rio d o f time*
Memory o f home may cause
a sudden in c re a s e i n i t s i n t e n s i t y , where co n scio u sn ess o f
absence from home had been l o s t fox a time*
Thus th e c a l l
o f th e A lpine cow^herdere may, by awakening o ld memories,
cause hom esickness i n th e Swiss*
P ic tu re s o r remembrances
o f l o s t o n e s , o r a v i s i t w ith comrades o r f r ie n d s from home,
w ith th e in te rc h a n g e o f memories, a c ts as a com pensation
w orking a g a in s t home sickness*
F requent v i s i t s fro® th e p e r­
son f o r whom one was homesick a ls o were b e lie v e d to weaken
th e malady*
P ersons o r th in g s must be e x a lte d and beloved
b e fo re t h e i r absence w ill produce n o s ta lg ia .
When one be­
comes f ix a te d on one p erso n ©r th in g and lo s e s i n t e r e s t in
a l l o t h e r s , t h i s p sy c h ic s t a t e must be c o u n te ra c te d by en­
cou rag in g a more a c tiv e p a r t i c i p a t i o n in work, p la y , and
sp o rts*
Som atic s t a t e s , such as l e s s ©f a p p e ti t e , body w eakness,
lo s s o f w e ig h t, lo s s o f s le e p , and p a le n e s s , a ls o appeared
118
w ith o th e r n o n -d e p re a si ve c o n d itio n s .
The re a so n one man
was c o n sid e re d wore s u s c e p tib le th a n an o th er Marbe e x p la in e d
p a r t l y on th e b a s is o f in d iv id u a l experience,, and p a r t l y on
th e b a s i s o f p e r s o n a lity .
N o s ta lg ia was g r e a te r in th e one
who liv e d in th e same p la c e fro® b i r t h , and who knew t h a t
h is f a t h e r and h is g ra n d fa th e r liv e d th e re b e fo re him.
These n a t u r a l l y became r e l a t i v e l y Is o la te d from a l l o th e r in ­
flu e n c e s*
Thus th e Swiss m ountain f o lk , who liv e d fo r gen­
e r a tio n s i n th e m ou n tain s, were e s p e c ia lly s u s c e p tib le to
n o s ta lg ia *
Homesickness was o fte n c a lle d “Schw eizerkrank-
h eit® , th e Swiss d is e a s e , and th e term ^Heimweh® came from
th e Swiss d i a l e c t ©f th e 17th century*
In Germany n o s ta lg ia
was common among r e l a t i v e l y I s o la te d p e a s a n ts , and in fre q u e n t
among c i t y d w e lle rs who from youth were su b je c te d to many
changing in flu e n c e s .
Marbe b e lie v e d th a t I t was im p o ssib le
fo r c h ild r e n o f u n iv e r s ity p ro fe s s o rs and o f p u b lic o f f i c i a l s
and o f f i c e r s , who n e v e r liv e d i n th e same house more th a n
two y e a r s , t o develop a v ery profound degree o f n o s ta lg ia .
The environm ental r e l a t i o n s had more e f f e c t on c h ild re n th an
on t h e i r e ld e r s , b ecau se c h ild r e n had le s s ex p erien ce and a
more l i v e l y and s e n s itiv e em otional l i f e ; hence they were
more s u s c e p tib le t o homesickness*
The d e c re a se In n o s ta lg ia Marbe b e lie v e d due to th e
modern f a c i l i t i e s f o r communication and tr a n s p o r ta tio n .
O e r ta ln ly , he s a id , th e r e was a fix e d c o r r e l a t io n between
changed su rro u n d in g s and hom esickness.
119
In new surroundings
mm u n d er goes a change ©f adjustm ent during which tim e he I s
l i k e l y to s u f f e r from n o s ta lg ia .
Thee© who f in d i t d i f f i c u l t
t o a d ju s t s u f f e r th e m ost, and th e more u n a d ju ste d th ey a re
th e more th e y s u ffe r*
Marbe d id not th in k i t s tra n g e th a t hom esickness would
sometimes cause c rim e .
He e x p la in e d th a t th o s e who can r e ­
lie v e th em selv es o f hom esickness by crime w i l l , o f c o u rs e ,
do i t u n le s s re s tr a in e d *
The se rv a n t g i r l w i l l h u rt o r
murder h e r c h a rg e s , th e school boy w ill burn th e sch o o lh o u se, etc*
The c rim in a l ac t always b rin g s a p o s itiv e ad­
v an tag e even I f o n ly to f r e e o n e 1s vengeance o r envy.
Crime
from e i t h e r "Heimweh# o r "Sehulweh®, might be due to a f a i l ­
u re i n adequate r e s t r a i n t , ©r t o a d e f in i te i l l n e s s .
I t is
p o s s ib le t h a t th e re a r e a l l com binations, such as n o s ta lg ia ,
n o s ta lg ia w ith i l l n e s s , d egrees o f n o s ta lg ia , and degrees of
m ental i l l n e s s , which le a d t o crim e.
However, Marbe p o in te d
out t h a t th e circ u m stan c es were n o t c le a r why a l l th e crim es
due t© hom esickness t h a t were re p o rte d up t© 1925 had been
com m itted by young g i r l s *
Epidem ics ©f n o s ta lg ia Marbe ex p lain ed a s a phenomenon
o f s u g g e s tio n ,
l i k e a l l grave d is o r d e r s , n o s ta lg ia some­
tim es le a d to s u ic id e , b ut a s a r u l e i t s v ic tim s e v e n tu a lly
recovered*
As one grows accustomed to th e new environm ent
th e f e e l in g s o f hom esickness d is a p p e a r; th e d e a re r th e new
su rro u n d in g s become, th e more th e memory o f th e old i s l o s t .
F i n a l l y , th e new home com pletely f i l l s th e p la c e fo rm erly
h eld fey t h e o ld home.
Some p e o p le , Marbe b e lie v e d , were alw ays i s a s t a t e o f
hom esickness in any environm ent where th ey were not e x a c tly
th e m se lv e s, y e t he co n sid ered such a c o n d itio n as feeing n o r­
mal*
W hile n o t denying th e b e n e f i ts o f psy ch o th erap y ,
Marfee was not w ell enough a c q u ain te d w ith i t t o recommend
i t s use*
I t i s s e l f - e v i d e n t , he s a id , t h a t th e b e st c u re i s
t o send th e p a t i e n t home.
Sohwafe (26) d e sc rib e d a few e a se s ©f n o s t a l g i a , b u t
made no sy stem atic stu d y o f th e s u b je c t.
He lim ite d h i s
d is c u s s io n t o c h ild r e n from two to fo u r y e a rs ©f age*
M ature,
he s a i d , was more p e rs o n a l f o r th e country c h i l d , who liv e d
in c lo s e c o n ta c t w ith th e la n d , th e g arden, th e cows, th a n
f o r t h e c i t y c h ild t o whoa th e world remained cold and im­
p e r s o n a l.
He b e lie v e d t h a t th e m other h eld th e c e n tr a l
p la c e i n th e normal child*© stream o f ex p e rie n c e and t h a t
th e c h i l d tended to swing out from t h i s c e n te r to new th in g s .
T his sw inging o u tw ard , which he c a lle d m ^expansive te n d ­
ency * was in c o n f l i c t w ith th e mot h e r -c e n te r in g o f l i f e , and
as a r e s u l t o f th e c o n f l i c t , hom esickness was ex p e rien ced .
P e r s o n a lity d if f e r e n c e s in hom esickness were re c o g n ise d , b u t
sex d i f f e r e n c e s , a t l e a s t a f t e r th e fo u rth y e a r o f l i f e ,
were n o t a d m itte d .
However, h i s statem ent t h a t boys were
more expansive th a n g i r l s im p lie s th a t sex d if f e r e n c e s were
C onsidered fu n d am en tal.
H o s ta lg ia , Schwab s a id , co u ld fee s tu d ie d from e i t h e r o f
121
two p o ta to o f view*
i t s r e a c tio n on th e c h i l d , o r i t s
re sp o n se to tre a tm e n t,
th e form er approach gave in s ig h t
in to th e e a r ly m ental l i f e o f th e c h ild ; th e l a t t e r gave a
h o t t e r u n d ersta n d in g o f tre a tm e n t.
Strong in s u f f ic ie n c y
f e e lin g s and an abnormal a f f e c tiv e c o n d itio n were g iv en as
fo re ru n n e rs o f a n e u r o s is ; th e r e f o r e , he ad v ised th a t home­
s ic k n e s s in p sy ch o p ath ic c h ild r e n always he tr e a te d by a
s p e c ia lis t*
He p o in te d out t h a t n o s ta lg ia can e a s ily mis­
le a d and co n fu se a p h y s ic ia n , and th a t co n tin u ed homesick­
n ess r e t a r d s th e c h i l d *& development*
The E ncyclopedia A m ericana^ d e fin e s n o s ta lg ia as a
f e e lin g o f d e p re ssio n and a n x ie ty due to absence from home
o r c o u n try .
C h a r a c te r is tic symptoms* such as apprehension,
d e s p a ir , lo s s ©f a p p e ti t e , lo s s o f s le e p , and th e g e n e ra l
w astin g away o f th e body are g iv e n , and i t i s p o in ted out
t h a t th e p sy ch ic d is tu rb a n c e s sometimes le a d to m elancholia
ending in mania ©r d e a th .
According t© t h i s so u rc e , n o s ta l­
g i a i s fre q u e n t in c a s e s ©f u n w illin g absence from home, and
o f te n comes to th o s e v o lu n ta r ily a b se n t.
I t s extreme form
i s re c o g n iz e d by army m edical o f f ic e r s as a d i s a b i l i t y some­
tim es w arran tin g fu rlo u g h o r d isc h a rg e in o rd e r t© save th e
p a tie n tfs l i f e .
T h is asp ect o f n o s ta lg ia , th e account s a y s ,
was im p re ssiv e ly I l l u s t r a t e d in th e U nited S ta te s army b o th
i n th e P h ilip p in e s and in Europe.
2^The E ncyclopedia Americana, American C o rp o ra tio n , Hew
T o rt and Chicago, 1938, 20, 457.
122
H e llin g worth (14) re p o rte d two oases o f n o s ta lg ia which
were s e v e re enough t o n e c e s s ita te re tu rn in g th e v ic tim s home
from school*
The h i s t o r y o f each case re v e a le d an e x c e ssiv e
amount ©f p e ttin g by th e m other upon whom th e r e was s t i l l a
c h i l d i s h dependence*
In th e way o f tre a tm e n t, H ollingw orth
recommended t h a t c h ild r e n be g ra d u a lly accustomed to new
p la c e s by sending them away from home on s h o rt v i s i t s .
He KonetsylS) envisaged n o s ta lg ia as th e e x p ressio n o f a
p a th o lo g ic a l r e l a t i o n o f th e c h ild to i t s p a re n ts*
He be­
lie v e d th a t* as in a n e u r o s is , th e c h ild i s n o t a b s o lu te ly
h e a lth y i n th e sym ptom-free p e r io d s ,
C lose exam ination r e ­
v ea ls* h e said* t h a t th e c h ild i s not m en tally w ell b a l­
anced and t h a t i t h a s an am bivalent a t t i t u d e toward i t s
p a re n ts*
He saw i n th e c h ild a s tru g g le betw een p o s itiv e
f e e lin g f o r th e p a r e n ts and th e f e a r l e s t th e unconscious
d e s ir e f o r t h e i r d e a th be re a lis e d *
He a p p lie d t h i s concep­
ti o n t o some o ase s which he observed sad a ls o to Jasp ers*
o b s e rv a tio n s o f crim es a r is in g from hom esickness.
He
p o in te d o u t t h a t J a s p e r s * ca ses were s i l e n t * s u p e r - s e n s itiv e
se rv a n t g i r l s w ith o n ly a c h i l d i s h le v e l ©f p h y s ic a l and
m ental development*
I t was o n ly a f t e r th ey had begged
s e v e ra l tim e s t o be allow ed to go home* a re q u e s t always r e ­
fu sed by th e m other, t h a t th ey came to t h e i r deeds o f d e s p a ir .
Thus he saw im th e s e c l a s s i c a l c a s e s th e p re se n c e o f an
am bivalent i n c l i n a t i o n ; th e lo n g in g fo r home and th e n e g a tiv e
i n c l i n a t i o n caused by th e s t r i c t n e s s and s e v e r ity of th e
mother,
Se Monehy p o in te d out th a t s e rio u s n o s ta lg ia was becom­
ing l e s s fre q u e n t, and gave as an e x p la n a tio n th e p re s e n t
In c re a s e i n t r a f f i c and communications*
A somewhat d i f f e r e n t approach to th e s u b je c t of n o s ta l­
g ia was made by Hum! (35) who p re se n te d a th e o ry o f n o s ta l­
g ic and eg o ie se n tim e n ts in 1935*
He d efin e d n o s ta lg ia a s a
psyeh o -p h y sio lcg ieaX c o n d itio n commonly observed i n hom esickness*
He p o in ted o u t th a t i t s symptoms* i n extreme forms*
a re a c u te and v io le n t* and t h a t i t s onset I s l i k e l y to be
a b ru p t.
Three ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s which he s a id were p a r t i c u ­
l a r l y w orth n o tin g a r e :
th a t i t i s p sy ch o -g en ic; th a t i t i s
not a s s o c ia te d w ith a p a r t i c u l a r c i v i l i z a t i o n o r c u l tu r e ;
t h a t b e h a v io r o f a k in d which we reco g n ize in o u rse lv e s as
n o s ta lg ic i s common in anim als*
Thus he concluded th a t th e
phenomenon o f n o s t a l g i a i s more fundam ental th a n human
n a tu re and more fundam ental th a n any c u ltu r e ,
He p lace d n o s ta lg ic b eh av io r on a c o n t i n u e w ith a
p a th o lo g ic a l c o n d itio n c a lle d n o s ta lg ia a t one extreme* and
a non-pathoX cgical c o n d itio n c a lle d th e n o s ta lg ic se n tim en ts
a t th e o th e r extreme*
The n o s ta lg ic se n tim e n ts can become
a tta c h e d to p lace* p e rs o n s , tim e , and v ic a r io u s e x p e rie n c e .
He d e sig n a te d an o th er group o f pow erful em otional
phenomena as th e ego 1c sen tim en ts * These fu n c tio n a t one
extrem e a s p e rso n a l e la tio n and a fe e lin g o f s t a t u s , and a t
th e o th e r extrem e as h u m ilia tio n , shame, and d e g ra d a tio n o f
134
p e rs o n a l s t a t u s .
The egolc and n o s ta lg ic se n tim e n ts a re be­
lie v e d t© be c o n c u rre n tly p re s e n t in many c o n d itio n s o f h ig h
em otional te n s io n -
The i n t e r p r e ta ti o n o f th e s e two s e n t i ­
ments i s based upon sim ple G e s ta lt tra n s fo rm a tio n s , th e
n o s ta lg ic sen tim en ts bein g a s s o c ia te d w ith th e tran sfo rm a­
tio n s o f th e n o n -e g o ^ g e e ta lt.
He poin ted o u t t h a t i t would
be p rem atu re to d is c u s s th e q u e s tio n o f mechanism a t to o
g re a t a len g th * and concluded t h a t fo r th e moment th re e
p o in ts o n ly need be s tre s s e d !
a group o f pow erful s e n ti ­
ments and em otions, term ed n o s ta lg ic because ©f t h e i r q u a li­
t a t i v e r e l a t i o n t© n o s ta lg ia , may be d is tin g u is h e d ; th e s e
n o s ta lg ic sen tim en ts d e riv e from p rim itiv e and fundam ental
so u rces o f b e h a v io r; th e n o s ta lg ic sen tim en ts a re c h a ra c te r­
i s t i c a l l y n o n -e g o ic , and are se p a ra b le from an o th er group o f
se n tim e n ts and em otions which a r i s e from, c o n s id e ra tio n s o f
eg© s t a t u s -
Me so ught to make an i n t e r p r e ta tio n o f p o l i t i ­
c a l , econom ic, and s o c ia l phenomena from t h i s p o in t o f viewB r i e f l y , th e n o s ta lg ic sen tim en ts are d esc rib ed as con­
t r i b u t i n g to th e s o c ia l o rg a n iz a tio n by a f f e c tin g th e d i s ­
t r i b u t i o n o f th e p o p u la tio n ; by in c re a s in g v o c a tio n a l and
c la s s s t a b i l i t y ; by prom oting c o n se rv atism , p a t r i o t lees, and
n a tio n a lis m ; and by t h e i r c o h e siv e in flu e n c e on th e fa m ily ,
which exceeds even sex*
A sthet ic sentim ents a r e a lso de­
c la r e d to be in a la r g e p a r t n o s ta lg ic *
He s ta te d th a t th e
n o s ta lg ic sen tim en ts a re l e s s w e ll understood th an th e egoic
s e n tim e n ts , alth o u g h th e y a re abundantly re p re s e n te d i n
literature and in art-
H om esickness, acco rd ing t o / ^ on nkkl lin
l n ^ J 4) i s a common and
im p o rtan t a d o le sc e n t re a c tio n -
He s ta t e s t h a t w hile sys­
te m a tic s tu d ie s a r e r a r e and a v a ila b le in t e r p r e ta ti o n s a re
In ad eq u ate* th o se who have w r itte n om th e subj ec t a re p r e t t y
w ell ag reed upon c e r t a i n g e n e ra l f e a tu r e s o f th e hom esickness
u p set*
Most o u ts ta n d in g o f th e s e a re :
th e s tra n g e en v iro n ­
m ent, th e d i f f e r e n t t a t io n from a genuine n erv o u s o r m ental
d ise a se * th e p re se n c e o f marked p h y s ic a l symptoms in g rave
in s ta n c e s , th e ra p id re co v ery upon r e tu r n home, and th e
p o s s i b i l i t y o f se v e re cases te rm in a tin g in s u ic id e o r d e a th
when r e t u r n home i s im p o ssib le.
He makes b r i e f re fe re n c e s to th e in te r p r e ta tio n s giv en
by K lin e , G ross, l a r b e , F dr#, and G* S tan ley H a ll, but p o in ts
o ut t h a t th e y a re a l l inadequate*
Furtherm ore he b e lie v e s
t h a t t h e problem has become more com plicated th an i t was a
few y e a rs ago#
Today, th e a d o le sc e n t le a v e s home because he
wants t o a v a il h im s e lf o f th e o p p o rtu n itie s f o r a h ig h er
e d u c a tio n o r f o r b e t t e r employment, and because s o c ia l p re s ­
su re demands th a t he achieve more than h is home community
can o f f e r *
Thus th e p sy chogenesis o f hom esickness becomes
more c o m p licated , an d , a t th e same tim e , r e l i e f by m erely
r e tu r n in g home becomes im p o ssib le .
Behind a l l t h i s , he s a y s , th e r e may be th e push o f an
I n s t i n c t t o wander, b u t i f such an i n s t i n c t be adm itted one
must s t i l l keep i n mind th a t th e d e s ir e s and b e l i e f s and
126
\
s e lf - e x p e c ta tio n s o f th e In d iv id u a l w ill e n te r in as com­
p l i c a t i n g fa c to rs *
He sees in n o s ta lg ia more th an th e mere
absence ©f c e r t a i n p a tte r n s ©f s t i m u l i .
He sees an abandon­
ment o f th o s e p a t t e r n s o f s tim u li to which o n e ’s p e a c e fu l,
c o m fo rta b le , q u ie s c e n t r e a c t i o n s , c o n tro lle d by th e c r a n i a l
d iv is io n o f th e autonom ic system , have been co n d itio n ed by
a l l th e ex p e rie n c e s o f in fan cy and ch ild h o o d , and an a c tiv a ­
t io n ©f t h e emergency em otions, c o n tro lle d by th e sym pathetic
d iv is io n o f th e autonom ic system , f e a r , d i s t r e s s , and in ­
f e r i o r tty *
F e e lin g u n ap p reciated In th e new s itu a tio n may
aro u se an g er and s t i r fe e lin g s o f i n f e r i o r i t y and th e f e a r
©f p e r s o n a l f a i l u r e ,
th e s i t u a t io n appears h o p eless o r
n e a rly @o# f o r i n i t th e r e i s much to s t i r emergency em otions,
which a r e a s th e n ic and d e p re s s in g , and th e r e i s l i t t l e or
n o th in g o f th a t to which th e c o m fo rta b le , q u ie sc e n t r e a c tio n s
have been c o n d itio n e d .
The n a tu r a l r e a c tio n to a l l t h i s , C onklin sa y s, i s t h a t
©f see k in g a way t© esc ap e.
The co u rse o f a c tio n could be
ex p lain ed under th e psychology ©f d e s ir e , but h ere un h ap p ily
th e norm al im pulse to escap e, i *e
t o go back home, i s
b lo c k e d » To r e tu r n home would be to admit d e f e a t.
Both to
s ta y and to go home a re e q u a lly d is tr e s s in g and d e p re ssin g
p ro sp e c ts*
Both s t i r emergency em otions, a c tiv a tio n s o f th e
sy m p ath etic d iv is io n o f th e autonomic nervous system w ith
t h e i r well-known p h y s io lo g ic a l e f f e c t s .
The way o u t,
C onklin s a y s , must be through w hatever means w ill b rin g
13?
q u iesce n ce i© th e emergency em otional a p p a ra tu s , and f o r a
tim e a t l e a s t a dom ination by th e c r a n ia l d iv is io n o f th e
autonomic nervous system and a l l i t s a l l i e d fu n c tio n s .
Something must he don® to aro u se in th e hom esick youth a r e o cc u p atio n w ith h is work and an a c tiv e i n t e r e s t in h is
p re s e n t s itu a tio n *
Making him an g ry , aro u sin g h is co u rag e,
a p p e alin g t o h i s i d e a l s , and a tte m p tin g to arouse th e am­
b itio n s t h a t m o tiv ated h is f i r s t le a v in g home a re a l l means
o f g e t t i n g him back t o h is work and out o f th e d i s t o r tin g
o f f s e t s o f h is d ep ressed s t a t e .
Sometimes f r ie n d lin e s s and
th e developm ent o f new frie n d s w il l aid th e c o n d itio n in g o f
th e c o m fo rta b le r e a c tio n s to th e new s itu a tio n *
A s h o rt
v i s i t home, o r a v i s i t from someone o r ig in a lly from th e ©Id
home town have o fte n brought about th e d e s ire d r e s u lts *
C onklin co n clu d es th a t i f th e i n t e r p r e ta ti o n in term s
o f c o n d itio n in g o f r e a c tio n s , th e co n ten t o f th e s e l f con­
ce p t and th e m ature o f th e s e lf- re g a r d in g se n tim e n t, and th e
e f f e c t s o f th e v a rio u s s o c ia l p re s s u re s b rought to b ear upon
th e grow ing boy o r g i r l , proves to be a c c e p ta b le and J u s t i ­
f i a b l e , th e n p re v e n tio n should be c le a r ly p o s s ib le .
I t is
p o s s ib le , he s a y s, t h a t through an e a rly t r a i n i n g in in d e ­
pendence and s e l f - r e l i a n c e , th ro u g h fre q u en t changes,
th rough o c c a s io n a l absences from home a t camps, and th ro u g h
a c a r e f u l avoidance o f e x c e ssiv e p e ttin g and co d d lin g , th e
c o n f l i c t s which produce hom esickness w ith a l l i t s d i s t r e s s ­
in g e f f e c t s might be avoided.
128
Meye rin g (33) made an in v e s tig a tio n o f a group of boys,
s e le c te d because o f sch o o l problem s to d eterm in e th e k in d s
o f b e h a v io r problem s emerging in a camping s i t u a t i o n , and to
determ in e whether any r e la tio n s h ip s e x is te d between th e
problem s found and th e age, i n t e l li g e n c e , h e a lth , so cio ­
economic s t a t u s , em o tio n al s t a t u s , and problem tendency
sc o re s ©f th e s e b o y s,
th e study covered an eight-w eek camp­
in g p e rio d in th e summer o f 1935 a t th e U n iv e rsity o f
M ichigan camp f o r b o y s,
th e camp was w ell equipped and ad­
m in is tr a te d by u n i v e r s i t y tr a in e d men*
The b o y s, whose ages
ranged from 9 to 15 y e a rs w ith th e average a t 11 y e a rs ,
3 m onths, were s e le c te d on th e b a s is of t h e i r p h y s ic a l,
econom ic, s o c i a l , and em otional n eed s.
D ata were o b tain ed
w ith th e Sim*a So©i©-Economic Score S ard, th e WoodworthM&thews P e rso n a l D ata S h eet, and Schedules A and B o f th e
Haggerty—GXson-Wickman Behavior B ating S c a le ,
This stu d y ,
i t sh o u ld be p o in te d o u t, was n o t spool f i e a l l y concerned
w ith t h e problem o f n o s ta lg ia *
The f i r s t appearance o f hom esickness o ccu rred when a
boy*s m other v i s i t e d th e ©amp.
As soon as th e boy saw h i s
m other he c r ie d and begged h er to ta k e him home.
The
m other, however, d id not l e t him le a v e th e ©amp.
The in v e s tig a tio n re v ealed th a t hom esickness and in ­
f a n t i l e b eh av io r appeared more fre q u e n tly in th e younger
g ro u p s, w h ile t a r d i n e s s and tem per tantrum s occurred in th e
o ld e r groups*
I n d if f e r e n c e , l y i n g , and u n p o p u la rity were
139
common In both groups.
Homesickness was more p re v a le n t in th e low I* Q* (60-79)
group th a n i n th e h ig h X* Q. (110^-129) group,
In d if f e r e n c e ,
d e fia n c e o f d i s c i p l i n e , u n p o p u la rity w ith o th e r c h ild r e n ,
i n f a n t i l e b e h a v io r, tem per ta n tru m s, tru a n c y , ly in g , s e l f ­
is h n e s s , and sex o ffe n s e s were a ls o more p re v a le n t in th e
low I , Q* group.
We do not know, however, w hether th e s e
o th e r problem s were th e cause o r th e r e s u l t o f hom esickness.
More hom esickness -was found among th o se w ith poor
p h y s ic a l r a tin g s th a n among th o se w ith p h y s ic a l r a tin g s o f
average o r b e t t e r .
I n d if f e r e n c e , u n p o p u la rity , i n f a n t i l e
b e h a v io r, tem per ta n tru m s, tru a n c y , e n u r e s is , s e lf is h n e s s ,
t a r d i n e s s , and o v e r - a o tiv ity were a ls o more p re v a le n t in
t h i s group*
Again we do not know how th e s e v a rio u s problem s
are r e l a t e d to hom esickness o r to each o th e r .
Homesickness was found more o fte n among th o se from homes
s l i g h t l y below th e average as determ ined by th e Sim*a sco re
card f o r socio-econom ic s t a t u s .
The o th e r problem s o c c u rrin g
more fre q u e n tly In t h i s group were b u lly in g , in d if f e r e n c e ,
u n p o p u la rity , i n f a n t i l e b e h a v io r, shyness, tem per ta n tru m s,
e n u r e s is , ly in g , s e l f i s h n e s s , s t e a l i n g , o b s c e n ity , e t c .
A sy ste m a tic stu d y o f n o s t a l g ia was un d ertak en in 1936
by Mrs. C o rn e lia ? . C h risten so n ( 3 ) .
She o b ta in e d h e r d a ta
from th e a u to b io g ra p h ie s o f 547 freshmen E n g lish stu d e n ts a t
In d ia n a U n iv e rs ity .
From t h i s group Mrs. C h risten so n
s e le c te d 50 c le a r c u t c a s e s , SO men and 30 women.
130
Cheeking
f o r th e freq u en cy o f i t s © ceurrence in the group o f 547, she
found t h a t 5*5 p e rc e n t o f th e m ales mid 16*1 p e rc e n t ©f th e
fem ales re p o rte d t h a t th ey had su ffe re d homesickness*
The
av erag e age o f th e non-homesick was 18 y e a rs , IQ *3 months
f o r m ales, and 18 y e a r s , 3*3 month© f o r fe m a le s.
For th e
home s ic k group i t was 18 y e a rs , 4*5 months f o r m ales, and
18 y e a r s , 0*1 months f o r fem ales*
The average age ©f th o s e
i n th e hom esick group i s s l i g h t l y younger th a n fo r th o se i n
th e non-hom esick group*
The in te llig e n c e o f th o se in th e
homesick group and o f th o se in th e non-home s ic k group was
about t h e same.
F o rty p e rc e n t o f th e n o s ta lg ic group came
from towns o f 3,500 p o p u la tio n o r under, 33 p e rc e n t from
towns o f 3 ,5 0 0 to 50,000 p o p u la tio n and 33 p e rc e n t from
c i t i e s o v e r 50,000 p o p u latio n *
Twenty-nine p e rc e n t o f th e
n o n -n o s ta lg ic group came from towns o f 3,500 p o p u la tio n o r
u n d e r, 48 p e rc e n t from towns o f 3,500 to 50,000, and 39
p e rc e n t from c i t i e s o v er 50,000 p o p u la tio n .
An in v e s tig a tio n
o f th e e x te n t o f o rg a n iz a tio n showed th a t i n th e homesick
group 80 p e rc e n t o f th e hoys and 40 p e rc e n t o f th e g i r l s
were o rg a n iz e d , and i n th e non-home sick group 38 p e rc e n t o f
th e hoys and 35 p e r c e n t o f th e g i r l s were organized*
The d a ta show t h a t fo r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group n o s ta lg ia
o ccu rred about th re e tim e s more fre q u e n tly among th e fem ales
th an among th e m ales; th a t i t was more fre q u e n t among th e
younger members ©f th e group; t h a t i t was more freq u en t
among th o s e from sm all towns o r r u r a l a re a s ; th a t i t was
131
more fre q u e n t among th e u n o rg a n ise d ; and f i n a l l y , th a t In ­
t e l l i g e n c e was n o t a fa c to r*
C ritic is m s must w ait u n t i l Mrs,
C h ris te n s o n p u b lis h e s th e d e t a i l s and r e s u l t s o f h er
study*
A r e c e n t r e f e r e n c e to n o s t a lg i a among p rim itiv e p eo p les
was made by Thomas (29) who s t a t e d th a t th e rem oval of an In ­
d iv id u a l from exposure to th e t o t a l environm ental s i t u a t io n ,
in c lu d in g la n d , home, th e o ld f a m ilia r f a c e s , th e o ld oaken
b u c k e t, e t c * , i s accompanied by th e d isco m fo rt c a lle d home­
s ic k n e s s ,
He added, however, t h a t t h i s o c c u rs le s s fre q u e n tly
w here, as among o u r s e lv e s , th e d is c o n tin u ity o f th e exposure
h as been g r e a t owing t o f a c i l i t a t e d tr a n s p o r ta tio n and com­
m u n icatio n , th e d i s s i p a t io n o f prim ary g ro u p s, and th e f r e e
c i r c u l a t i o n o f in d iv id u a ls who, l i k e S tefan s son *s dogs, have
a cq u ired co sm opolitan t a s t e s .
Among p r im itiv e s , on th e o th e r
h an d , a c u te d i s t r e s s fre q u e n tly fo llo w s t h e i r removal from
accustomed scenes*
G usunde^ according to Thomas, t e l l s o f
a g i r l among th e Ona, a t r i b e a t th e so u th ern ex tre m ity o f
South America, who was m arried and tak en to an o th er p la c e to
liv e *
In th e new p la c e she was v ery sad and spent h er tim e
s i t t i n g In h e r h ut w ith h er fa ce toward h er form er home.
Tears f i l l e d h e r eyes and h e r only words w ere, *1 f e e l so
lonesome h e r e .
X w ish I were w ith my p a re n t s . 0 Her husband
^T hom as g iv e s th e fo llo w in g re fe re n c e s
D|e Feuerland Xndianer« 1 , 3 3 4 .
132
M. Gusunde,
was v e ry k in d t o h e r , and th e o th e r women o f th e camp were
sym pathetic*
Only th e b i r t h o f h e r f i r s t c h ild changed h e r
s t a t e o f mind.
Thomas t e l l s u s t h a t th e M aoris o f Hew Zealand have an
unpar a l l e l ed attachm ent to t h e i r la n d .
s ic k n e s s among th e s e p eo p le fo llo w s :
H is account o f home­
An o ld Maori once r e ­
marked!
*1 g re e t my o n ly su rv iv in g p a re n t in th e w o rld , th e
la n d * *
C hanting a lam ent b id d in g fa re w e ll to one1s home and
la n d s j u s t b e fo re d e a th i s not an uncommon custom among
th e s e p e o p le ,
P r is o n e r s , b e fo re being k i l le d o fte n asked to
see t h e i r n a tiv e lan d once more, o r fo r a d rin k from a
stream flo w in g th ro u g h i t o r along i t s border*
Messengers
may be s e n t to th e stream to b rin g th e condemned a d rin k
from i t •
Slave—p x iso n e rs beg t h a t they be sen t a h an d fu l o f
e a r th from home t h a t th e y may weep over i t .
An o ld c h ie f
once asked t h a t a b ran ch from a t r e e in h is n a tiv e land be
brought to him t h a t he might g rie v e over i t , and th o se in
b a t t l e p ray th a t i f th e y d ie i t w ill be on t h e i r own s o i l .
To th e n a tiv e mind th e re a re many in tim a te con n ectio n s
which e x i s t between a p erso n and h i s land*
The t r a n s f e r o f
lan d t© th e w hite s e t t l e r s in e a r ly s e ttle m e n t days was
o f te n accompanied by a f f e c tin g scenes o f fa re w e ll by th e
assem bled people to t h e i r t r i b a l lands*
and lam en ts gave to k en to t h e i r g r i e f .
Bongs, speeches,
The Maoris a s s o c ia te d
som ething w ith every spot o f t h e i r ground; th e r e were p la c e s
where t cirrus men f e l l in b a t t l e ; p la c e s where they were b u rie d
sad p la c e s where t r i b a l members had enj^y^d e a tin g t h e i r
enem ies.
A ll th e s e many attachm ent© helped b u ild a t r a d i i
t i o n which made th e ground d e a re r to them th a n l i f e i t s e l f .
The re aso n f o r hom esickness, according to Thomas, i s
t h a t w ith w ithdraw al from th e scene o f a c t i v i t i e s , th e o ld
a c t i v i t i e s cease and th e h a b itu a te d and u n s o p h is tic a te d p e r son i s te m p o ra rily , a s in th e c a se o f Stefanss© n*s d ogs, un­
a b le t o i n i t i a t e any new e x p e rie n c e s .
I t i s n o t, he s a y s ,
th e home as l o c a l i t y , but th e memory tr a c e s o f th e e x p e ri­
ences a s s o c ia te d w ith th e l o c a l i t y .
Is a a c F ro st (9) re p o rte d a stu d y , "Home-Sickness and
Imm igrant Psychoses* in th e Septem ber, 1938, is s u e o f th e
J o u rn a l o f Mental S c ie n c e * T his study was based upon h is
p r o f e s s io n a l c o n ta c ts w ith 40 p sy c h o tic German and A u strian
dom estic s e rv a n ts l i v in g in London.
The ages o f th e se pa­
t i e n t s ranged from 16 to 46, w ith th e mode f a l l i n g between
26 and 30 y e a rs .
He b e lie v e d t h a t most o f th e d is o rd e rs
which he observed were due to hom esickness.
He envisages
hom esickness as s p rin g in g from a c o n f li c t between fam ily
t i e s and th e herd o r group fe e lin g s *
According to him t h i s
c o n f l i c t fre q u e n tly le a d t© c e r t i f i a b l e m ental d is o r d e r s .
He p o in te d out t h a t r e l a t i v e s , f r ie n d s , and employers o f th e
p a t i e n t s re p e a te d ly em phasised th e im portance o f hom esickness.
I The emig r a n t, he s a i d , fin d s h im se lf in a s tra n g e new w orld,
w ith s tra n g e work c o n d itio n s , s tra n g e custom s, stra n g e id e a s ,
and e x p re s s io n s , and w ith a s tra n g e language.
134
Lacking com-
pam ionship th e d o m estic worker becomes lo n e ly and b e g in s to
In d u lg e i n p h an tasy th in k in g .
The next s te p i s hom esickness, j
F r o s t re p o rte d no arson o r in f a n tic id e among th e 40
^
c a s e s , b u t he s t a te d t h a t th e re was a tendency toward
su ic id e *
Among th e disorder® re p o rte d he li s te d *
r e li g i o u s
d e lu sio n s* m istak es o f id e n tity * d e lu sio n s o f ro y a lty *
s tr ip p in g o f c lo th e s and e x h ib itio n ism s* making o n e s e lf # a t
home#* re b e llio u s n e s s * and a tte m p ts a t s u ic id e *
P a tie n ts
were c l a s s i f i e d acco rd in g to t h e i r d is o rd e rs a s fo llo w s;
(1) sch izo p h ren ia* 1©; (3) paraphrenia* 9; (3) c o n fu sio n s!
s ta te s * 7 ; (4) manic d e p re ssiv e psychoses* 3 ; (5) in v o lu ­
t i o n a l m elancholia* 3 ; (8) tw ilig h t s ta te * 1; (7) r e a c tiv e
d e p r e s s io n , 3 .
The b o d ily r e a c tio n s were c h a ra c te riz e d by
th e v e g e ta tiv e stig m a ta which u s u a lly accompany psychologi­
c a l d is o rd e rs * such a s toxemia* anorexia* so rd es on l i p s ,
fo u l b re a th * e tc .
In h i s d is c u s s io n F ro st review ed th e view s of Braun*
K ra e p e lin , K retschm er, and B le u le r on such c a s e s .
own view F ro e t s t a t e d ;
I
\
As to h is
^
uMy view o f th e c a se s i s th e common-
!
sen se one th a t hom esickness i s a ♦m ilieu1 o r s i tu a t io n r e -
j
a c tio n .
{
D esp ite th e d i v e r s it y o f p e r s o n a lity ty p e s, th e r e
i s a s t r i k i n g u n ifo rm ity o f symptomatology, co u rse and
|
an im m ediate improvement once th e s i tu a tio n i s changed by
1
I
p ro g n o sis— su icid e* m istak es o f i d e n t i ty , r e li g i o u s d e lu s io n s - - |
h o s p ita l care* and a fa v o u ra b le course ending in r e p a t r i a ­
tion**1 (p* 818)
F r o s t s ta te d t h a t one cannot se p a ra te
i3 §
p e r s o n a lity from m ilie u , but be added t h a t he " in c lin e d to
put more w eight upon m ilieu*#
{p* 818)
H is suggestion® f o r p ro p h y la x is and tre a tm e n t a re
based upon th re e o f h i s g e n e ra l c o n c lu sio n s, namely t h a t !
^1) w hether in n a te o r a c q u ire d , th e need f o r com panionship
mast he s a t i s f i e d ; (8 ) c o n f li c t between fa m ily t i e s and herd
o r group f e e lin g s among im m igrants e x c ite s hom esickness;
(3) hom esickness combined w ith lo n e lin e s s and exhaustion
com prise
th e p r i n c i p a l e t i o l o g ic a l f a c to r s producing
psychoses among Immigrant®*
O r^ t^ e a i Summary o f th e L i t e r a t u r e :
When we attem pt to
o rg a n iz e and c l a s s i f y th e symptoms o f n o s ta lg ia which have
been g iv e n by th e w r ite r s on th e su b je c t we fin d th a t th ey
in c lu d e alm ost e v e ry th in g , and t h a t , g e n e ra lly speaking,
th ey f a l l in to two g ro u p s:
th e p s y c h o lo g ic a l symptoms*
th e p h y s io lo g ic a l symptoms and
That such a dichotomy does not
e x i s t in f a c t may be surm ised from th e in e v ita b le o v e rla p ­
ping o f symptoms*
tinder th e p h y s io lo g ic a l group we fin d
d e sc rib e d such symptoms as r e s p ir a to r y d is o r d e r s , sm othering
s e n s a tio n s , i n a b i l i t y to b re a th e , p re ssu re on th e h e a r t ,
high blood p re s s u r e , c ir c u la to r y d is o r d e r s , nose b le e d s ,
c e s s a tio n o f th e m en stru al p e r io d , n ig h t sw e a ts, vague
e r r a t i c p a in s , g la n d u la r d is o r d e r s , s e c re to ry d y sfu n c tio n s ,
d ig e s tiv e d is o r d e r s , vom iting, fo u l b re a th , d ia rrh e a and
c o n s tip a tio n , g a s t r o - e n t e r i t i s , severe h e c tic fe v e r,
136
I
d e liriu m , and c o n v u lsio n s u s u a lly te rm in a tin g in d eath when
I t was im p o ssib le to r e tu r n th e p a tie n t t o h i s home.
The
u su a l r e p o r t was th a t th e a n a b o lic p ro c e sse s a re red u ced ,
whereas th e kataboli© p ro c e sse s a r e in c re a se d to t h e i r maximm*
Wilder th e p sy c h o lo g ic a l group we fin d d esc rib ed such
symptoms as lo s s o f a p p e tit e , a l l food seeming dry and
t a s t e l e s s , n au sea, th e exp erien ce o f a dead ©old weight a t
th e e p ig a s triu m , a f e e lin g o f b e in g * a ll choked up in s id e * ,
a lump in th e t h r o a t , a * funny* empty f e e lin g in th e stom ach,
a su rg in g f e a r t h a t something d re a d fu l i s about to happen to
th e h o m e-fo lk s, insom nia, t e a r s , l i s t l e s s n e s s , and a lo s s
o f a l l i n t e r e s t and am b itio n , an i r r e s i s t a b l e d e s ire to
e i t h e r r e tu r n home o r be alo n e, in c re a sin g sad n e ss, melan­
c h o ly , f a in t i n g s p e l l s , i l l u s i o n s , v is u a l and v e rb a l h a llu ­
c i n a t i o n s , d e lu s io n s , and s tu p o r, r e s u ltin g sometimes in
s u ic id e o r d e a th , sometimes in in s a n ity , and sometimes in
v io le n t o u tb u rs ts o f c rim in a l b eh av io r such as th e commit­
ment ©f a rso n o r th e p e r p e tr a tio n o f fie n d is h m urders.
That
th e symptoms o f many in f e c tio u s d is e a s e s , m ental d is tu rb a n c e s ,
and c rim in a l o u tb u rs ts were errm eously d e sc rib e d as symptoms
o f n o s t a l g i a goes w ithout sa y in g , but when we are reminded
o f th e sm all amount o f knowledge a v a ila b le a t th e time of
th e s e e a r ly w ritin g s we can only admire t h e i r e f f o r ts to
u n d ersta n d and to e x p la in th e s e phenomena.
A lthough i t i s a f a c t t h a t n e a rly every symptom known
to man h a s , a t one tim e o r a n o th e r, been c l a s s i f i e d as a
13?
j
eymptoBS o f n o s ta lg ia , th e l i t e r a t u r e g iv es us no s p e c if ic
symptomatology f o r hom esickness * Perhaps th e r e i s no
s p e c if ic symptomatology fo r th e m alady, but u n t i l a system ­
a tic stu d y i s made o f th e problem who can attem p t to answer
t h i s q u e stio n ?
The q u e stio n as to who i s s u s c e p tib le to n o s ta lg ia has
been answered in v a r io u s ways*
We have a lre a d y seen t h a t a t
one tim e th e Swiss p eo p le were b e lie v e d to be th e most su s­
c e p tib le *
O ther people® who have sinoe been l i s t e d a© be­
in g v ery s u s c e p tib le t o n o s ta lg ia include th e French and th e
Ita lia n s *
The S n g lis h and th e Germans* w h ile not b eing com­
p l e t e l y excluded from th e p eo p les considered s u s c e p tib le to
n o s t a l g i a , u s u a lly have been co n sid ered l e s s s u s c e p tib le than
o th e r peoples*
S e v e ra l w r ite r s have re p o rte d th a t prim i­
tiv e ® , s a v a g e s, th e u n c i v i lis e d , and th e u n c u ltu re d are th e
most s u s c e p tib le to n o s ta lg ia *
le v e r th e le s s most of th e
c a s e s re p o rte d in th e l i t e r a t u r e in v o lv e modern people
r a th e r th a n p r im itiv e s , educated people r a th e r than unedu­
c a te d , c i v i l i s e d r a th e r th an u n c iv ilis e d , and c u ltu re d
r a th e r th a n un cu ltu red *
Perhaps th e b e s t s e le c tio n on th e
b a s is o f ra c e o r n a t i o n a li t y would be to in c lu d e a© suscep­
t i b l e t o n o s ta lg ia a l l ra c e s and n a tio n a litie s *
As f a r as sex i e concerned most w rite r s have agreed
t h a t m ales axe more s u s c e p tib le to n o s ta lg ia th an females*
T his may be ©o# but ag ain th e r e i s no f a c tu a l evidence to
su p p o rt such & claim *
sin ce many o f th e o b se rv a tio n s were
138
made by army d o c to rs who wore t r e a t i n g s o l d i e r s , t h e i r c a se
s tu d ie s n e c e s s a r ily have been lim ite d to men*
F urtherm ore,
most ©f th e r e p o r ts wore made a t a tim e when th e male was
th e one who went f o r t h in to th e world as s o l d i e r , m erchant,
a d v e n tu re r, and even a s s tu d e n t, and n o t th e female*
These
circ u m stan c es e a s il y e x p la in why th e r e were more ea ses o f
n o s t a l g i a re p o rte d among th e m ales th an among th e fem ales*
F u rth erm o re, i t i s w orth n o tin g t h a t when and where fem ales
d id v e n tu re f o r th from t h e i r home© many se v e re cases o f nos­
t a l g i a were re p o rte d among them*
A ll o f th e c a se s in v o lv in g
crim e w hich were d isc u sse d by J a s p e r s ( 1?) were females*
As to age we f in d u n iv e rs a l agreement t h a t th e young
are th e most s u s c e p tib le to n o s ta lg ia *
Nor I s i t stra n g e
th a t ad o lescen ce i s p o in ted out as th e ty p ic a l age fo r home­
sick n ess*
Y oungsters who have n o t y e t reached adolescence
seldom le a v e t h e i r homes in q u e st o f fame, o r fo rtu n e , o r
education*
They a re to o young, as a group, to fu rn is h many
ca se s o f n o s ta lg ia *
N e v e rth e le s s, whenever and wherever
p re -a d o le s c e n t c h ild r e n have l e f t t h e i r homes, whether f o r
v i s i t s o r f o r o th e r re a s o n s , we fin d many e a se s o f n o s ta lg ia
aaong them .
Such c a s e s a re re p o rte d in th e l i t e r a t u r e , even
to in c lu d e tw o-year o ld b a b ie s *^6
I t i s a ls o reaso n ab le to
suppose t h a t th o se who a re o f p o s t-a d o le s c e n t age have
^ S e e e s p e c ia lly G uthrie fs (11) a r t i c l e re p o rte d on
pages 96-100 o f t h i s t h e s i s .
e i t h e r become adjusted, to t h e i r ehanged environm ent or have
become p reo ccu p ied w ith th e e sta b lish m e n t o f t h e i r own homes
end fa m ilie s * and w ill* t h e r e f o r e , fu rn is h o n ly a sm all
number o f th e re p o rte d o ases o f n o s ta lg ia *
n e v e rth e le s s ,
whenever and w herever th e s e o ld e r people have l e f t t h e i r
homes we f in d e a s e s o f n o s ta lg ia o cc u rrin g among them.
a re such e a s e s la c k in g in th e l i t e r a t u r e *^7
Her
in view o f
th e s e f a c t s I t seems q u ite p la u s a b le t h a t more cases o f nos­
t a l g i a o cc u r among ad o lesc en t in d iv id u a ls th a n among younger
o r o ld e r in d iv id u a ls m erely because more o f te n home t i e s a re
broken d u rin g th e ad o lesc en t p e rio d than d u rin g any o th e r
p erio d o f l i f e *
F re q u e n tly i t h as been re p o rte d in th e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t
i n t e l li g e n c e —o r r a t h e r a la c k o f in te llig e n c e — i s an im­
p o r ta n t f a c t o r in d eterm in in g o n e1® s u s c e p ti b i lit y to home­
sick n ess*
In 1893 F ir e ( 8 ) l i s t e d low in te llig e n c e as one
o f th e o u tsta n d in g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th o se who are s u b je c t
to n o s ta lg ia .
F urth erm o re, as l a t e as th e f a l l o f 1938
c a s e s o f hom esickness were re p o rte d among I d i o t s , tw e n ty -fiv e
p e rc e n t o f whoa were s a id to have d ied w ith in fo u r to s ix
week® a f t e r i t s o n s e t
On th e o th e r hand n o s ta lg ia has
^ k m was re p o rte d on pages 89-90 o f t h i s t h e s i s , K line
(18) s t a t e d th a t o ld people were o fte n heard t o remark th a t
th e y c o u ld n ’t g e t away from home, or th a t th e y could s le e p
b e t t e r i n t h e i r own b e d s.
^ T h e s e c a s e s were re p o rte d by Dr. L. F . Harshman,
S u p erin ten d en t S ta te H o s p ita l, F t. Wayne, In d ia n a , in an ad­
d r e s s , " O rie n ta tio n In M ental D e fic ie n c y ", g iv en b e fo re th e
In d ia n a Academy o f Science a t Purdue U n iv e rs ity , Hov. 5, 1938.
140
been re p o rte d among some o f th e g r e a t e s t I n t e l l e c t s th e
world h as known. ^
Her i s hom esickness ab sen t from th e
campuses o f o a r I n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r le a r n in g .
C e rta in ly
th e r e i s no p ro o f t h a t people who h are a low degree o f in ­
t e l l i g e n c e a re more s u s c e p tib le to n o s ta lg ia th a n are th o s e
who h a re a high d eg ree o f in t e l l i g e n c e .
Halve acceptance of
F e rn ’s statem en t to th e c o n tra ry would be rid ic u lo u s *
In
th e f i r s t p la c e th e r e were no sta n d a rd s by which to determ ine
g ra d es o f in t e l li g e n c e when be mad© th e s ta te m e n t, and in
th e second p la c e , i t i s m erely an opinion based upon h i s
su b je c tiw e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c a s u a l o b s e rv a tio n s .
Mrs.
C h ris te n s o n 's d a ta in d ic a te t h a t in te llig e n c e has no r o le in
hom esickness.
a re concerned^
Arguments a re f u t i l e where q u e stio n s o f f a c t
The o n ly way to determ ine what r o l e , i f any,
in t e l li g e n c e p la y s in th e developm ent o f n o s ta lg ia i s t© i n ­
v e s t i g a t e t h i s f a c t o r s y s te m a tic a lly under c o n tro lle d con­
d itio n s .
Many w r ite r s have argued t h a t n o s ta lg ia i s due to a
c e r t a i n ty p e o f tem peram ent,
l l i n e s ta te d t h a t th e s e n s itiv e ,
n e rv o u s, tim id , a f f e c tio n a te temperament i s th e type most
s u s c e p tib le to n o s t a l g i a .
He c h a ra c te riz e d t h i s type
f u r th e r as th e p lo d d in g ty p e , and included in t h i s group
th o se who a re c o n te n t to s ta y in th e same p la c e and who shun
^ l o u i s P a s te u r , fo r example (30, pp. 1 1 -1 3 ). The
account ©f h is a tta c k o f hom esickness i s re p o rte d on pages
16-1? o f t h i s t h e s i s .
141
crow ds.
0 * S tan ley H a ll s ta te d t h a t th e s t a b l e and s ta i d
home lo v e r s are th e type*
Marbe added th a t i t was th o se who
adapt slow ly to new s itu a tio n s *
But again we have no proof*
On th e c o n tra ry th e r e i s evidence th a t many ty p e s o f tem per­
ament a re s u s c e p tib le to n o s ta lg ia *
The am b itio u s c o lle g e
s tu d e n t can h a rd ly b e c l a s s i f i e d as th e p lo d d in g ty p e , nor
cam th e seasoned s o l d i e r always be c l a s s i f i e d as th e n erv o u s,
s e n s i t i v e type who shuns crowds and p r e f e r s to s ta y in th e
same p la c e *
Tat n o s t a l g i a i s n o t unknown among am bitious
c o lle g e s tu d e n ts and seasoned s o ld ie rs *
In th e absence o f
c r u c i a l evidence we a r e p robably n e a re r th e t r u t h i f we
agree w ith Hack ta k e t h a t th e re i s no r u le as to s e r , age*
o r tem perament *
t h a t many anim als s u f f e r hom esickness, o r a t l e a s t
Something very s im ila r t o it* when taken from t h e i r f a m ilia r
su rro u n d in g s i s a m a tte r o f common knowledge*
Many a re th e
s t o r i e s about th e o at* o r th e dog, th a t overcame g re a t
o b s ta c le s in o rd e r t o r e tu r n many m iles to i t s home* and
about th e h o rse t h a t re fu sed to e a t when moved to a s tra n g e
p la c e ,
^ i t s e ^ r M e o u a t o f hom esickness in anim als i s , p e r ie b e s t i s th e l i t e r a t u r e *
He r e p o r te d , I t w i l l be
r e c a l l e d , t h a t hom esickness i s s o t unknown, s o r even uncommon,
among h o r s e s , d o g s, c a t s , and cows.
Here ^indeed, i s an
i n t e r e s t i n g f i e l d f o r study and re se a rc h by th e animal
p s y c h o lo g is t *
There are i s th e l i t e r a t u r e many c o n d itio n s and c i r -
14 2
eranfltaBees which a re re p o rte d as cau sin g o r enhancing home­
sic k n e ss*
home*
F i r s t among th e se i s , o f c o u rse , absence from
Home i s always in te r p r e te d in i t s b ro a d e st sense*
It
may mean th e house in which th e fam ily o f th e homesick in ­
d iv id u a l r e s i d e s , o r th e house in which th e in d iv id u a l was
reared *
I t may mean th e i n t e r i o r o f th e h o u se , i t s g e n e ra l
p la n and arran g em en t, i t s rooms and fu rn ish in g s*
I t may
mean a p a r t i c u l a r room in th e house, or a p a r t i c u l a r p ie c e
o f f u r n i t u r e such as a feed, o r a f a v o r ite chair*.
I t may
mean th e people who l i v e in th e house, th e p a r e n ts , th e
o th e r b r o th e r s and s i s t e r s , and even th e p e te .
I t may mean
th e y ard around th e h ouse, a t r e e , a p a r t i c u l a r view , o r th e
g e n e ra l lo c a tio n *
o r th e town*
country*
I t may mean th e neighborhood o r community,
In many c a s e s , i t may mean th e e n tir e s t a t e or
O ften we have heard th e e x p ressio n :
"Back to
God*s c o u n try *1 w hich, o f e o u rse , always r e f e r s to th e home­
lan d o f th e person making th e s ta te m e n t,
During th e World
War many o f th e s o l d i e r s o f th e American E x peditionary
F orces ex p ressed t h e i r d e s ir e t o r e tu r n to th e **good o ld
H* S , A«*
L ikew ise^Jasny iH^®Ie^lBo^h&ve been on a long
^
/ t r i p o u ts id e t h e i r home s t a t e r e p o r t th a t th e y experience a
/
f e e lin g o f Joy and com fort as soon as th ey c r o s s th e bound­
a ry back in to t h e i r own s t a t e , even when th ey c ro ss th e
\
boundary i n t o a p a r t o f th e s t a t e th a t i s q u it e stran g e to
\ theau
>me may mean th e people o f th e neighborhood, community,
town* s t a t e , ©r co u n t r y .
When in another town one may he
v ery happy to meet a p erso n who i s a t o t a l s tra n g e r i f t h a t
p erso n i s from h ie home town*
L ikew ise, p eo p le who a re o u t
o f t h e s t a t e a re u s u a lly glad to meet o th e r p eo p le from th e
same s t a t e *
The t r a v e l e r in a fo re ig n co u n try i s J u s t as
happy, p erh ap s s o re s o , to meet a fellow -eountrym an who i s
a t o t a l s tr a n g e r , a s th e p erso n I n a stra n g e c i t y i s t© meet
someone from h i s home town*
Home may mean o n e 1® ©lose f r ie n d s , o r on©*r neighbors*
(
\
Or i f one i s f a r enough away, i t may mean th e people o f h i s
s t a t e o r o f h ie c o u n try .
I f we a re to Judge from th e
l i t e r a t u r e , th e co n cep t tfhomeH seems to become more and more
in c lu s iv e in d i r e c t p ro p o rtio n to th e d is ta n c e one i s from
th e p la c e he ©all© nhome*, w hether i t be th e house in which
h is fa m ily r e s id e o r a p la c e to which he has l a t e r become
accustomed*
T his does not mean, however, t h a t th e symptoms
c h a r a c te r is in g n o s t a l g i a become enhanced a© th e d is ta n c e
from home increases*.-/ Some o f th e most sev e re c a se s re~
n b r te d i n th e l i t e r a t u r e concern in d iv id u a ls removed o n ly a
d is ta n c e , i n many in s ta n c e s only a few m ile s , from home
Homemay mean th e way in which th in g s a re done, th e
o h a r a o t e r i s t ic p attern © o f b e h a v io r, th e custom s, th e a t t i ­
tu d e s , th e b e l i e f s , and th e mode o f liv in g *
H appiness, com­
f o r t , J o y , © ©operation, u n d e rsta n d in g , sympathy, and secu­
r i t y a re a few o f th e a d je c tiv e s used a t one tim e o r an o th er
to c h a r a c t e r is e home*
But e a se s o f hom esickness are
re p o rte d among th o s e whose h o m e -life was hard and c r u e l , and
whose homes were c h a ra c te r iz e d by h a rd sh ip s and p o v e rty .
A pparently* i t m a tte rs l i t t l e w hether th e p e rso n i s from th e
p a l a t i a l r e s i d e n t i a l s e c tio n ©r th e slum a r e a s ,
i t th u s
ap p ears t h a t •absence from home8 as a cause o f hom esickness
i s more ©r l e s s m eaningless*
Mot only i s th e term "home*
j
to o g e n e ra l* b u t many people who a r e absent from shome% in
w hatever sense th e term i s used* never become home s ic k *
E d u catio n and c u l t u r e have always been co n sid ered im­
p o r ta n t f a c t o r s in d eterm ining s u s c e p t i b i l it y t© n o s ta lg ia .
Many w r i t e r s have s t a te d t h a t hom esickness i s more common
among p eo p le having a •narrow h o riz o n 8 o r o u tlo o k , and
e s p e c ia lly among th o s e having a meager deg ree o f e d u c a tio n .
The w e ll educated and th e c u lt tire d , i t has been p o in ted o u t,
p o sse ss •d iv e rse * ways ©f e n te r ta in in g them selves when away
from home*
Perhaps t h i s i s t r u e , but again c r u c i a l evidence
i s lack in g *
The l i t e r a t u r e , w h ile g iv in g us many o p in io n s
as t o who i s s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness, a c tu a lly g iv e s us
no c o n c lu siv e answer t o t h i s q u e s tio n .
C o n d itio n s and circu m stan ces surrounding th e in d iv id u a l
a t the. tim e he i s s e iz e d w ith hom esickness have always been
c o n sid e re d im p o rtan t c a u s a tiv e fa c to rs *
H ard sh ip s, d e f e a ts ,
d isco u rag em en ts, bad news, l o n e lin e s s , few s o c ia l c o n ta c ts ,
\v
and la c k o f p o p u la r ity have been l i s t e d as ca u ses o f n o s^ a l g i a alo n g w ith id le n e s s , monotony* and la c k o f i n t e r e s t
\
/
m o c c u p a tio n . S ick n ess, i r r e g u la r m a il, poor t r a n s ­
j
/
p o rt a t io n f a c i l i t i e s * and th e knowledge t h a t one i s u n ab le to
r e tu r n home have been given fre q u e n tly as c o n d itio n s c a u sin g
o r en h an cin g hom esickness*
Hor have th e seasons and c lim a te s
and tim e o f day* fox t h a t m atter* been n e g le c te d in th e d i s ­
c u s s io n s o f c a u s a tiv e and enhancing fa c to rs *
The f a l l and
w in te r seasons* when th e e a rth i s b are mid th e s k ie s a re
gray* when th e dead le a v e s a re f a llin g * and th e sun i s c o ld
and h azy , th ese* and th e ra in y sea so n s, a re th e seasons f o r
hom esickness acco rd in g to th e l i t e r a t u r e *
A stra n g e c lim a te ,
w hether u n u su a lly h o t and d ry , o r u n u su ally c o ld and r a in y ,
has been supposed t o cause o r a t l e a s t to enhance homesick­
ness*
The tim es when fe e lin g s o f hom esickness are u s u a lly
s a id t o s e i s e th e h e a r t and s o u l ©f th e in d iv id u a l are a t
n ig h t ©r J u s t a t dusk*
Week-ends, and e s p e c ia lly Sunday
a f te rn o o n s , are a ls o tim es when th e pangs o f homesickness
a r e s a id t o be th e keenest*
Among o th e r f a c t o r s which a re said to cau se o r to en­
hance hom esickness we fin d l i s t e d such th in g s as th e c h irp
o f c r i c k e t s , th e s in g in g o f k a ty d id s , th e sough o f th e wind,
th e sound o f th e r a i n , th e fragm ent o f a f a m ilia r song, and
th e f l e e t i n g resem blance ©f some p la c e t© ©ne#s home, o r o f
some p erso n t© a member o f ©ne*s fam ily .
That th e se and
c o u n tle s s o th e r f a c t o r s p lay a r o l e in th e e tio lo g y and
co u rse o f n o s ta lg ia goes w ithout q u e s tio n , b u t J u s t what
r o l e th e y do p la y must be determ ined by re s e a rc h and system ­
a t i c in v e s tig a tio n *
146
In a d d itio n t o a l l th e above we fin d t h e s i t u a tio n
f u r t h e r co m p licated by th e in d iv id u a l’ s d e s i r e to accom plish
something* by h i s am b itio n f o r fame or fo rtu n e * or fo r a
c o lle g e e d u c a tio n ; d e s ir e s and am bitions which fo rc e him
away from h i s home*
I f he r e tu r n s home he cannot r e a l i z e
h i s dream s and a m b itio n s j i f he does not r e tu r n home he i s
s tr ic k e n w ith hom esickness*
fh e s e rio u s n e ss o f such a
dilemma i s c e r t a i n l y o f mo sm all im portance.
W hile r e tu r n home i s th e • s p e c i f i c 11 tre a tm e n t fo r homes ic k n ee s, th e tre a tm e n t u s u a lly advised when th e p a tie n t
cannot be re tu rn e d t o h is home in c lu d e s an appeal to h i s
am b itio n s and id e a ls * an in c re a s e in h is a c t i v i t i e s and exer­
c ise * and th e s e t t i n g o f new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s fo r him*
S©**
d i a l a c t i v i t i e s , games* movie®, and a l l k in d s o f e n t e r ta in ­
m ents a re suggested*
F rie n d sh ip s and com panionships should
be encouraged and developed*
A f e e lin g o f su ccess in some­
th in g , accompanied by p r a is e , o f te n h elp s to overcome home­
s ic k n e s s , as does th e a ro u sa l o f th e p a t i e n t ’s anger and h is
d e te rm in a tio n to succeed*
B e s t, p roper n ourishm ent, and
g e n e ra l good h e a lth a re co n sid ered good p re v e n tiv e s*
S tir­
rin g m i l i t a r y music h as always been co n sid ered an e x c e lle n t
to n ic f o r th e homesick s o ld ie r*
Perhaps th e r e lig io u s
b e l i e f s o f th e m issio n a ry h elp to in su re him a g a in s t home­
sick n ess*
Thomas, i t w ill be r e c a l l e d , re p o rte d th e c a s e o f
a g i r l b elo n g in g t o th e Ona, who, when she was m arried and
ta k e n t o an o th er p la c e to l i v e , s u ffe re d se v e re hom esickness
u n t i l th e b i r t h o f h e r f i r s t c h il d changed h e r s t a t e o f mind
and cau sed h e r re c o v e ry .
S evere e a s e s , acco rd ing t o th e l i t e r a t u r e , re q u ire med­
i c a l a s w e ll as p sy c h o lo g ic a l tre a tm e n t.
When I t I s im­
p o s s ib le fox th e p a t i e n t to make a sh o rt v i s i t home, o r fo r
members o f h is fa m ily to v i s i t him , s tim u la n ts and to n ic s
a re recommended*
U steve p o in te d o u t th a t a g la s s o f good
wine u s u a lly makes th e whole w orld look ro sy even to th e
homesick in d iv id u a l, and th a t a g la s s o f s tro n g e r s p i r i t s ,
when used w ith d i s c r e t i o n , does th e same th in g in a more
d u ra b le fa s h io n I
The l i t e r a t u r e i s f u l l o f th e o r ie s attem p tin g to ex~
p la in n o s t a l g i a .
We have a lre a d y seen how E ofer thought i t
was caused by a m ig ra tio n o f th e anim al s p i r i t s dw elling
w ith in th e b r a in , and how Sohenohzer t r i e d t o e x p lain i t in
term s ©f an in c re a s e in atm ospheric p re s s u r e .
O thers ex­
p la in e d i t as th e r e s u l t o f an in c re a s e in th e black b i l e ,
h a s te n s , sym pathetic i r r i t a t i o n s , inflam m ation o f th e b r a in ,
and b r a in expansion a re o th e r e x p la n a tio n s o ffe re d by th e
e a r ly w r i t e r s .
O ften th e ©end i t io n was spoken o f as th e
d ry consum ption o f th e m elancholy mad.
Many argued t h a t
c e r t a i n in d iv id u a ls a r e p re d isp o se d to i t , and th a t i t i s
th e n a tu re o f such In d iv id u a ls t o be hom esick.
P e rs is te n t
e n c e p h a litis e x c i t a t i o n , poor c e r e b r a l c i r c u l a t i o n , and
p re s s u r e on th e h e a r t have been g iv en a s p re d isp o sin g fa c ­
to rs .
I t seems q u i t e c e r ta in t h a t in many in s ta n c e s ty p h o id
148
f e v e r , e n o e p h a l lt l s , m e n in g itis , and o th e r in f e c tio u s d is ­
ea se s were d e sc rib e d a s c a se s o f hom esickness.
I n more re c e n t tim e s e x p la n a tio n s have been in term s o f
i n s t i n c t s , s e n tim e n ts , and p s y c h ic a l d is o rg a n iz a tio n *
K lin e
s t a te d t h a t hom esickness was p ro b ab ly th e r e s u l t o f a lo s s
o f p s y c h ic a l o r i e n t a t i o n and a s h r iv e lin g o f th e ego*
S tan ley M all p o s tu la te d two opposing i n s t i n c t s ;
tr o p ic and th e o lk o fu g ic .
G.
th e o ik o -
G u th rie s ta te d t h a t n o s ta lg ia i s
th e r e s u l t o f a b lo c k in g o f th e homing i n s t i n c t , and t h a t
f a m ilia r su rro u n d in g s grow in to th e p e r s o n a lity o f some in ­
d iv id u a ls so t h a t when they move t o stra n g e surro u n d in g s
n o s ta lg ia r e s u lts *
Ruml spoke o f egoic and n o s ta lg ic s e n t i­
ments w hich, he s a i d , are o p p o site p o le s o f a continuum, and
a re more fundam ental th a n human n a tu re ,
th e b e s t and most lo g ic a l reaso n in g in th e l i t e r a t u r e
as t o th e p ro b ab le n a tu re and cau se of hom esickness i s t h a t
by P ro fe s s o r I* S* Conklin*
! e p o in te d out t h a t in o ases
o f hom esickness th e r e seems to be an abandonment o f c e r t a i n
p a t t e r n s o f s tim u li which a re accompanied by p le a s a n t, agree­
a b le f e e l in g s and which are a s s o c ia te d w ith th e c r a n ia l
d iv is io n o f th e autonom ic nervous system*
The abandonment
o f th e s e p a tte r n s o f s tim u li i s accompanied by f e a r , d i s ­
t r e s s , and f e e lin g s o f i n f e r i o r i t y , a l l o f which are prob ab ly
c o r r e la te d w ith th e sym pathetic d iv is io n o f th e autonomic
system*
Thus th e in d iv id u a l i s p laced upon an emergency
b a s is w ith a s tr o n g , u n c o n tro lla b le d e s ire to r e tu r n home
149
which u s u a lly cannot be s a ti s f i e d *
In th e wake o f t h i s
c o n d itio n come a l l th e symptoms a s s o c ia te d w ith n o s ta l g i a .
I f , a s C onklin p o in te d o u t, t h i s i s th e c o n d itio n u n d erly ­
in g n o s t a l g i a th en tre a tm e n t must be such as t o a c tiv a te th e
c r a n i a l d iv is io n o f th e autonomic nervous system and to
check th e sy m p ath etic d iv isio n *
Thus a c t i v i t y , co u rag e,
d e te rm in a tio n , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and th e a r o u s a l o f anger
say a l l b e e f f e c t i v e i n t r e a ti n g e a se s o f n o s ta lg ia *
Contemporary l i t e r a t u r e c o n ta in s alm ost n o th in g on th©
s u b je c t, and s y ste m a tic s tu d ie s on I t are ra re *
The o n ly
re c e n t sy ste m a tic stu d y o f which th e author i s aware i s t h a t
by !£rs. C h ris te n s o n .
Meyering* s study was s y s te m a tic , b u t i t
was n o t a stu d y o f hom esickness, and such in fo rm atio n as he
d id o b ta in on th e s u b je c t was only i n c id e n ta l.
A ll o th e r d is ­
cussion© have been based upon o b se rv a tio n s o f th e everyday
v a r ie ty o r upon th e r e p o r ts o f th o se who made such o b serv a­
tio n s *
I t i s indeed stra n g e t h a t a re a c tio n which can cause
so much human s u f f e r in g , and which i s so common in b o ard in g
sc h o o ls , d o rm ito rie s , camps, and i n a l l p la c e s where th e r e a re
in d iv id u a ls who a re away from home, should go u n in v e s tig a te d .
We a c tu a ll y know l i t t l e about hom esickness o th e r than i t s
d i s t r e s s i n g m ental and p h y s ic a l symptoms.
From a s c i e n t i f i c
p o in t o f view w© know a b s o lu te ly n o th in g .
Perhaps th e whole
problem can be e x p la in e d on th e b a s is of H o llin g w o rth 1s^O
I*. H o llin g w o rth , Abnormal Psychology. Ronald P re ss
C o.,H . Y ., 1930.
co n cep t o f r e d in te g r a tio n .
Something in th e o th erw ise new
en v iro n m en tal s i t u a t i o n may be so s im ila r to something in
th e o ld home environm ent t h a t i t ten d s to s e t o f f p a tte r n s
o f b e h a v io r which would be a p p ro p ria te in th e old environ­
ment b u t which must be in h ib ite d i n th e new s i t u a t i o n .
Lack­
ing a s p e c if ic d i r e c t i o n th e in h ib ito r y mechanism would th u s
become g e n e r a l, sp rea d in g over th e e n tir e organism and b rin g ­
ing in i t s wake th e lo n g s e r ie s o f m ental and p h y s ic a l symp­
toms c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f n o s ta lg ia .
Any item t h a t happens to
co rrespond to an item in th e home s it u a t io n could th u s se rv e
t o i n i t i a t e an a tta c k o f hom esickness.
On th e o th e r h and, n o s ta lg ia may be th e r e s u l t o f
f r u s t r a t i o n s and in h i b it i o n s a r is in g from an unconscious de­
s i r e to tra n s p o s e some fa m ilia r p a r t o f th e o ld environmen­
t a l s i t u a t i o n in to th e new s i t u a t i o n .
Who knows?
C e rta in ly
s p e c u la tio n i s u s e le s s u n le ss i t s tim u la te s s e rio u s th in k ­
ing which e v e n tu a lly te rm in a te s in re s e a rc h .
I t i s r a th e r p o i n t le s s , in th e l i g h t o f modern method­
ology and s c i e n t i f i c s ta n d a rd s, t o c r i t i c i z e th e e a rly
w r ite r s whose a r t i c l e s have been re p o rted in t h i s rev iew .
They were p io n e e rs se e k in g , a s b e s t they knew how, to under­
sta n d th e problem s o f t h e i r day.
That in f e c tio u s d is e a s e s
and o th e r d is o rd e rs were fre q u e n tly diagnosed as n o s ta lg ia
i s p ro b a b le , but when we c o n s id e r th e in fo rm atio n and medi­
c a l knowledge which was a v a ila b le to aid them in making t h e i r
d ia g n o s is and c o n c lu sio n s we m arvel a t t h e i r in s ig h t r a th e r
th a n c r i t i c i z e t h e i r ignorance,.
I t i s to our co n tem p o raries,
who, knowing th e h an d icap s and m isconceptions under which
th e e a r ly w r ite r s la b o re d , n a iv e ly accept o r r e j e c t a n t i ­
quated e x p la n a tio n s and c o n c lu s io n s , th a t c r it i c i s m must be
d ire c te d *
Lacking f a c t s based on sy stem atic s tu d ie s and
s c i e n t i f i c re s e a rc h , how can we c r i t i c i z e th e co n clu sio n s
o f o th e r s o r draw v a lid c o n c lu sio n s o f our own?
O pinions
and s u b je c tiv e c o n c lu sio n s a r e a s u n r e lia b le and as mis­
le a d in g to d ay as th e y ever were*
Only c a r e f u l , sy stem atic
re s e a rc h and in v e s tig a tio n can b rin g ue r e l i a b l e in fo rm atio n
and f u r t h e r th e p ro g re s s of knowledge,
C e rta in ly n o s ta lg ia
i s a b e h a v io r problem in cry in g need o f such re se a rc h and
I n v e s tig a tio n .
152
Present Investigation
153
Present Investigation
P rocedure
T h is I n v e s tig a tio n i s n e c e s s a r ily o f th e e x p lo ra to ry
^ypet and stay le a d to more q u e s tio n s than answ ers.
If it
/
;
/does no s o r e , however* th a n to s e t th e way f o r f u r th e r r e ; search* t h a t in i t s e l f w ill be a very d e f i n i t e accom plish­
ment*
i
In t h i s in v e s tig a tio n c e r t a i n sy ste m a tic com parisons
a re made between one-hundred c o lle g e stu d e n ts su b ject to
/ n o s ta lg ia and one-hundred c o lle g e stu d e n ts not s u s c e p tib le
to n o s ta lg ia *
For th e purposes o f th e in v e s tig a tio n n o s ta l­
g ia was d e fin e d as a d e f in i t e lo n g in g fo r home of s u f f i c ie n t
:
i n t e n s i t y to re n d e r th e In d iv id u a l unhappy, and o f s u f f ic ie n t
i n t e n s i t y t© be e a s il y recognized as hom esickness by th e in ­
d iv id u a l and by h is Immediate a s s o c ia te s .
(
The term , l,homeM
was in te r p r e te d i n i t s bro ad est se n se , to in c lu d e any form er
f
j
environm ent* c u l t u r a l , s o c ia l, p h y s ic a l, e t c . , which might
make up t h e in d iv id u a l* s concept o f th e term ,
j
The m ajor q u e s tio n s w ith which th e p re s e n t in v e s tig a ­
t i o n i s concerned a re th e fo llo w in g :
( l ) I s th e re a symp-
| tom atology th a t c h a r a c te r iz e s hom esickness?
( 2 ) vhat
p e r s o n a lity ty p es a re most s u s c e p tib le t o hom esickness?
(3) Under what c o n d itio n s i s hom esickness most l ik e l y to
, occur and what a re some o f th e c o n trib u tin g fa c to rs ?
(4)
What t h e o r e t i c a l c o n trib u tio n s can be made to th e u n d ersta n d -
i tog o f hom esickness?
( 5 ) What, o u ts id e r e tu r n in g th e v ic tim
t o h i s home, can he done to p re v e n t o r to r e li e v e homesick­
ness?
The S u b je c ts:
The scheme o f th e p re s e n t in v e s tig a tio n
re q u ire d t h a t com parisons he made between two groups o f sub­
je c ts :
th e homesick group and th e c o n tro l group*
The home­
s ic k group was made up o f 50 m ales and 50 female© who were
hom esick, o r who had been homesick during th e c u rre n t semes­
te r.
The non-home s ic k group was made up o f 50 males and 50
fem ales who, t o th e b e s t o f t h e i r memories, had never been
homesick d u rin g t h e i r e n ti r e liv e s *
The s u b je c ts in th e two
groups w ere p a ire d f o r age, sex , A* C. E* ( American C ouncil
o f E ducation) S c o re s, and y ear in college*
Furtherm ore,
h a l f th e s u b je c ts o f each sex in each group were organized
and h a l f were u n o rg an ized . 31 The su b je c ts were p a ire d f o r
age in o rd e r to r u l e o u t age as a fa c to r in t h i s stu d y .
The
r e p o rt p re v a le n t i n th e l i t e r a t u r e th a t young people tend
more to n o s ta lg ia th a n o ld e r p eo p le seems to imply th a t
"youngness® in i t s e l f i s an e t i o l o g ic a l f a c t o r .
As f a r as
t h i s in v e s tig a tio n i s concerned th e age o f th e in d iv id u a l
cannot he co n sid ered an e t i o l o g i c a l fa c to r because each
s u b je e t i s th e hom esick group was p a ire d fox age w ith a sub-
^ I n t h i s t h e s i s th e term *organized" w i ll be used to
r e f e r to stu d e n ts who belong to a s o c ia l f r a t e r n i t y or so­
r o r i t y , and th e term "unorganized" w ill be used to r e f e r to
s tu d e n ts who do n o t belong to a s o c ia l f r a t e r n i t y or so­
r o r ity *
j e c t i n t h e non—hom esick group»
In no ease d id th e ages o f
p a ire d s u b je c ts v ary more th an e le v e n m onths, so th a t d i s ­
c re p a n c ie s h ere a r e n e g lig ib le *
The average d if f e r e n c e in
ages f o r th e p a ire d g i r l s i s 4*3 months; f o r th e p a ire d boys
i t i s 3*5 months.
F u rth e r re fe re n c e w ill be made t o th e
ages o f th e s u b je c ts when th e r e s u l t s o f t h i s in v e s tig a tio n
a re d is c u s s e d .
P a ir in g f o r sex was co n sid ered n ecessary because o f th e
d i f f e r e n t p h y s io lo g ic a l and p sy c h o lo g ic a l make-up o f th e two
seres*
In o rd e r to h e lp r u le out th e r o le o f th e p h y sio lo g ­
i c a l d if f e r e n c e s homesick g i r l s were p a ire d w ith non-homes ic k g i r l s , and hom esick boys w ith non-homesiek boys.
F u rth erm o re, t h i s method o f p a ir in g served to e lim in a te th e
d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o lo g ic a l and so c io -p sy c h o lo g ic a l backgrounds
o f th e two s e re s which n e c e s s a r ily r e s u l t from our c u l t u r a l
system .
The s u b je c ts were p a ire d f o r A. 0 . I* sc o re s because
th e s e sc o re s g iv e a v ery r e l i a b l e r a tin g f o r in d iv id u a ls
whose in te l li g e n c e i s average o r b e t t e r th a n average.
Since
th e s e t e s t s a re g iv e n to a l l s tu d e n ts , and s in c e th e co n d i­
tion© under which th e y a re given a re const a n t, i t does n o t
seem f a r am iss to i n t e r p r e t th e r a ti n g s made as in d ic a tiv e
o f th e r e l a t i v e s ta n d in g o f th e stu d e n ts in i n t e l l e c t u a l
c a p a c ity .
A s tu d e n t who makes a s i g n if i c a n tl y h ig h er sco re
on th e A* 0 . S* t e s t e th an a n o th e r student may s a fe ly be
assumed t o have a h ig h e r degree o f in te llig e n c e than th e
156
i
second stu d en t*
P a ir in g fo r A. C. F. sc o re s i s , th e r e f o r e ,
com parable t o p a ir in g fo r in te llig e n c e *
F urtherm ore, p a i r i r
f o r A. 0 . S . sc o re s makes f e a s i b l e a v a lid com parison o f th e
c o lle g e s c h o la s tic re c o rd s o f th e two g ro u p s.
The sc h o la s­
t i c com parison i s mad© in term s o f grade p o in ts p er c r e d i t
h o u r, and w ill be d isc u sse d more f u l l y l a t e r in t h i s t h e s i s .
The p a ir in g f o r c o lle g e c la s s e s was, o f c o u rse , to con­
t r o l f o r th e in flu e n c e o f th e c o lle g e environm ent and th e
amount o f c o lle g e tra in in g *
L ikew ise, th e p a ir in g fo r mem­
b e rs h ip o r la c k o f membership In a s o c ia l f r a t e r n i t y on th e
campus was t o c o n tr o l f o r th e d iffe re n c e in environment be­
tween th o s e belo n g in g to and l i v i n g in a s o c ia l f r a t e r n i t y
and th o s e n ot b elo n g in g to a s o c ia l f r a t e r n i t y .
The members o f th e homesick group were s e le c te d f i r s t
and th e n f o r each, homesick s u b je c t a non-home sic k m atch, in
term s o f th e above c r i t e r i a fo r p a ir in g , was sought*
I f no
match could be found fo r a homesick stu d en t th e n , of c o u rse ,
i t was n e c e ssa ry to throw out th e d a ta o b ta in e d from t h a t
s tu d e n t and to seek an o th er homesick stu d e n t who could be
matched p ro p erly *
T his occurred in about one—hundred and
f i f t y o a s e s , but e v e n tu a lly each homesick su b je c t was
p ro p e rly p a ire d w ith a non-home s ic k s u b je c t.
The sub-groups
making mp th e homesick group and th e non-home sic k group a re
in d ic a te d in Table I on th e fo llo w in g page.
The members in
each sub-group o f th e homesick group were p a ire d w ith th e
members i n th e co rresp o n d in g sub—group o f th e non-homesick
group*
T able I
Sub-Group ing o f S ubjects
Homesick Group
35
35
35
35
Ion-Home sic k Group
m ales, organized
m a le s, u norganized
fe m a le s, o rg a n iz ed
fe m a le s, unorganized
35
35
35
35
m ales, organized
m ales, unorganized
fe m a le s, organized
fe m ales, unorganized
I t i s obvious from th e manner in which th e s u b je c ts
were s e le c te d and p a ire d th a t t h i s study w i l l not g iv e any
in fo rm a tio n as to th e p rev alen ce o f n o s ta lg ia among o rg an ized
and unorg an ized c o lle g e s tu d e n ts .
The T est M a te ria ls !
The la r g e number o f s u b je c ts and
th e lim ite d tim e f o r c a rry in g o u t th e in v e s tig a tio n made i t
a d v isa b le t h a t th e com parisons between th e homesick group
and th e non-hom esick group be made on th e b a s is o f pap er and
p e n c il t e s t s .
O ther d a ta were o b ta in e d , o f c o u rse , from
so u rc e s to be p o in te d out l a t e r , but as f a r as th e in d iv id u a l
s resp o n ses were concerned paper and p e n c il t e s t s o f
th e q u e s tio n n a ire v a r ie ty were u se d .
I t was ap p aren t t h a t some sta n d a rd iz e d q u e s tio n n a ire
should be u sed , and c h ie f ly because o f th e v a rio u s ways in
which i t can be sco re d th e B e rn re u te r P e r s o n a lity In v en to ry
was s e le c te d .
o b ta in e d .
From t h i s one q u e s tio n n a ire s ix sc o re s can be
These a r e as fo llo w s;
(1) 3 1 -f, a measure o f
n e u ro tic ten d en cy , th e h ig h e r th e ©core th e g r e a te r th e
tendency tow ard em o tio n al i n s t a b i l i t y ; ( 2 ) B2-8, a measure
o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , th e h ig h e r th e score th e g r e a te r th e
tendency toward s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y ; (3) B 3 -I, a measure o f
in ir o v e r s to n - e x tr o v e r s io n , th e h ig h e r th e sc o re th e g r e a t e r
th e ten d en cy toward in tr o v e r s io n ; (4) B4-D, a measure o f
dom inance-subm ission, th e h ig h e r th e score th e g r e a te r th e
tendency toward d o m ination; (5) F1~G# a m easure o f co n fid en ce
in o n e s e lf , th e h ig h e r th e sc o re th e g r e a te r th e tendency
toward f e e lin g s o f i n f e r i o r i t y and la c k o f s e lf- c o n fid e n c e ;
( 8 ) F2- S , a measure o f s o c i a b i l i t y , th e h ig h e r th e sco re th e
g r e a te r th e tendency toward n o n -s o c ia l b e h a v io r . 32
H e re a fte r
in t h i s in v e s tig a tio n th e se sc o re s w ill be r e f e r r e d to as
th e Bl-N s c o re , th e B3-S s c o re , th e B3-I s c o re , e tc .
The
sc o re s made by th e homesick group fo r each o f th e se s c a le s
were compared w ith th e corresponding sco re s made by th e nonhomes io k group*
In a d d itio n t o th e B e rn re u te r P e rs o n a lity in v en to ry i t
seemed a d v isa b le to u se a t e s t s p e c if ic a l ly designed to "
d eterm in e e x tr a w e r t- in tr o v e r t i n t e r e s t d if f e r e n c e s .
Such a
t e s t was found in Conklin* s E x tr a v e r t- in tr o v e r t I n t e r e s t
Q u e s tio n n a ire , 33
T h is t e s t o f f e r s a ready means of
32S ernreut@ r, R obert C ,, Manual fo r th e P e rs o n a lity In ­
v e n to ry , S tan fo rd U n iv e rsity P r e s s , S tan fo rd U n iv e rs ity , Cal­
ifo rn ia ,
330 o n k lin , E* S , , sThe D eterm ination o f form al E x tra v e rt
I n tr o v e r t I n t e r e s t D iffe re n c e s 11, The P edagogical Seminary and
J o u rn a l o f G enetic Psychology. 1927, 34, Ho. 1 , pp. 28-37.
\
159
d e te rm in in g th e norm al d if f e r e n c e s in i n t e r e s t s which r e v e a l
e x tr a v e r t and i n t r o v e r t te n d e n c ie s ,
th e r e l a t i v e p re fe re n c e
f o r th e one o r th e o th e r kind o f i n t e r e s t s i s expressed in
term s o f a r a t i o which we s h a l l r e f e r to in t h i s in v e s tig a ­
t i o n as t h e E-I r a t i o .
A sm all sc o re in d ic a te s a g r e a te r
lik in g f o r th e e x tra w e rt items* and a la r g e sc o re in d ic a te s
a g r e a t e r lik in g f o r th e i n t r o v e r t item s.
F u rth e r in fo rm a tio n h e a rin g d i r e c t l y upon th e problem
o f hom esickness was o b tain ed by asking s p e c if ic Q uestions de­
sig n ed t o throw some l i g h t upon v a rio u s p h ase s ©f th e re a c ­
t i o n a l biography o f th e in d iv id u a l which m ight have some
b e a rin g upon h is s u s c e p t i b i l i t y o r n o n - s u s c e p tib ility to
hom esickness.
S ince th e re was no sta n d a rd iz e d q u e s tio n n a ire
d esig n ed t o g iv e stJtdwt ln^fo~nsat ion^* i t ^?as inecessary to oon-*
s t r u c t a p p ro p ria te q u e s tio n s and to arran g e them in q u e stio n ­
n a ir e form*
Many ©f th e q u e s tio n s c o n stru c te d a re based
upon p o p u la r o p in io n s r e l a t i v e to hom esickness.
One-hundre
and se v e n ty s p e c if ic q u e stio n s were c o n stru c te d * and arran g e'
in to th r e e groups* o r q u e stio n n a ire s* in o rd e r to o b ta in
g r e a te r convenience and e f f ic ie n c y in p re s e n tin g them to th e
s u b je c ts .
Copies o f th e s e q u e stio n n a ire s* which were d e sig ­
n ated as Q u e s tio n n a ire s Ho. I , Ho. XI* and Ho. I l l * appear in
th e appendices* pages 339 to 351 in c lu s iv e .
At th e end o f Q u e stio n n a ire Ho. I l l space was l e f t f o r
any rem arks o r comments r e l a t i v e t o hom esickness which th e
s u b je c t o ared to make.
Thus i t was hoped to b rin g out any-
160
th in g o f im portance t h a t might n o t have been covered by th e
s p e c if id Q u e stio n s.
I n a d d itio n t o th e above q u e s tio n n a ire s an in fo rm a tio n
s h e e t * c o n s is tin g o f 15 q u e s tio n s , was prepared*
The p u r­
pose o f t h i s in fo rm at io n sh eet was to o b ta in from th e sub­
j e c t in fo rm a tio n t h a t could be checked from o th e r s o u rc e s ,
( e«g» re c o rd s i n th e o f f i c e o f th e R e g i s tr a r ) , and a ls o t o
o b ta in th e names o f o th e r p erso n s who were o r who had been
homesick d u rin g t h e c u rre n t sem ester*
The purpose of th e
l a s t q u e s tio n on t h i s sh eet was t o o b ta in from th e s u b je c t a
d i r e c t answer as t o w hether o r n o t he had been homesick a t
any tim e d u rin g th e se m e ste r.
A copy o f t h i s in fo rm atio n
sh eet ap p e ars in th e ap p en d ices, page 353 *
A c a r e f u l re a d in g o f th e q u e s tio n n a ire s w i l l show t h a t
s e v e ra l o f th e q u e s tio n s are o v e rla p p in g , and t h a t s e v e ra l
are th e same q u e s tio n s b u t s ta te d d if f e r e n tly *
Such d u p lic a ­
t i o n s , which were d e l i b e r a t e , se rv e to in d ic a te how c o n s is t­
en t th e s u b je c t was in answ ering th e q u estio n s*
I f he gave
c o n tr a d ic to r y answ ers to d u p lic a te q u e s tio n s , th e d a ta ob­
ta in e d from him were d isc a rd e d and another s u b je c t was sought*
S e le c tio n o f th e Subjects*
A fter th e q u e s tio n n a ire s
had been c o n s tru c te d and approved, and mimeographed c o p ie s
had been made, th e n ex t problem was how to o b ta in s u b je c ts .
I t was d ecid ed to o b ta in th e hom esick g i r l s f i r s t , and th e n
to f in d m atches f o r th e s e g i r l s .
m x
A fter com pleting th e
in v e s t i g a t io n f o r th e g i r l s , b o th homesick and non-hom eeick,
th e p ro c ed u re was t o be re p e a te d f o r th e boys*
The purpose
o f k eep in g th e sex es se g re g a te d was to p re v en t any o f th e
s u b je c ts , e s p e c ia lly th e boys, from being em barrassed by
answ ering Q u e stio n n a ire s on hom esickness in th e p resen ce o f
th e o p p o s ite sex*
Having d e c id e d , th e r e f o r e , to begin w ith
th e g i r l s , v a rio u s means o f e s ta b lis h in g c o n ta c ts were de­
vised*
The f i r s t p ia u s a b le p lan was t© re q u e st th e Dean o f
Women to w r ite a l e t t e r t o a l l th e housem others and to a
number o f th e la n d la d ie s , e x p la in in g to them th e purpose o f
th e in v e s tig a tio n and re q u e s tin g t h a t they g iv e th e in v e s t i ­
g a to r am appointm ent a t which tim e they could t a l k w ith him
on th e s u b je c t and co u ld suggest th e names o f some o f th e
g i r l s i n t h e i r houses who were hom esick, o r who had been
homesick a t some tim e d u rin g th e sem ester*
The body o f t h i s
l e t t e r ap p ears in th e ap p en d ices, page 353*
Im m ediately a f t e r th e s e l e t t e r s had been m ailed to th e
housem others and la n d la d ie s th e in v e s tig a to r began c a ll i n g
f o r appointm ents*
The p la n was to o b ta in th e 35 homesick
s u b je c ts from th e s o r o r i t i e s f i r s t and th en to o b ta in th e 35
homesick s u b je c ts from th e u norganised g i r l e .
For t h i s
re aso n many o f th e d i f f i c u l t i e s met w ith w hile try in g to ob­
t a i n th e homesick s u b je c ts from th e s o r o r ity group were
e lim in a te d b efo re th e attem pt was made t© o b ta in homesick
s u b je c ts from th e un o rg anised group*
103
At th e f i r s t s o r o r i ty
th e i n v e s t i g a t o r was re c e iv e d v ery c o r d ia lly and a f t e r d i s ­
c u s s in g th e problem f o r an hour o r s o re w ith th e housem other
th e in te rv ie w ended w ith th e housem other g iv in g him th e
names o f p r a c t i c a l l y a l l th e g i r l s in th e h o u se.
S la te d by
t h i s su c c e ss th e in v e s tig a to r went im m ediately to a second
house where ag ain he was very c o r d ia lly r e c e iv e d .
But i t be­
came more and more ap p aren t in th e co u rse o f th e conversa­
t i o n t h a t a c o n sp ira c y had a r is e n w hile th e in v e s tig a to r was
having th e f i r s t in te rv ie w *
S e v e ra l o f th e housem others had
e v id e n tly h eld a h a s ty co n feren ce v ia te le p h o n e and had d@eld ed t h a t th e in v e s tig a tio n was o f an o f f i c i a l n a tu re and
th a t i t s purpose was to d eterm ine whether o r n o t the s o r o r i ty ,
and th e housem other, were p ro v id in g fo r th e happiness and
co ntentm ent of th e g i r l s l iv in g in th e house*
The house­
m others concerned were a p p a re n tly of th e o p in io n t h a t a case
o f hom esickness would in d ic a te a la c k o f happiness and con­
ten tm en t i n th e s o r o r i t y and w ould, th e r e f o r e , c a s t grave
r e f l e c t i o n n ot only upon th e s o r o r i t y b u t upon th e housemother
as w e ll 1 What th e n were th e housem others to do?
The answer
was sim p le , and th e in v e s tig a to r got i t alm ost verbatura from
most o f th e housem others interview ed*
The g i s t o f th e in ­
fo rm atio n o b tain ed from th e s e housem others ra n something
l i k e th is *
“Homesickness?
Oh, y e s , hom esickness } low l e t me s e e .
H eally Mr* McOann, I fm a f ra id I o a n ft be o f much h elp to you.
You see we a re a l l one happy l i t t l e fam ily h e re and such a
163
th in g a s hom esickness i s q u ite unheard o f in t h i s house*
How w a it a moment, I want to make su re* 9
At t h i s p o in t th e housem other would u s u a ll y , though not
always , tu r n t o th e s t a i r s and e& ll to one o f th e g i r l s .
The c o n v e rs a tio n was u s u a lly som ething l i k e t h i s 5 90 1 a ra b e lla
d e a r, oh t C lar& bella ln
Far o f f in th e re c e s s e s o f th1e u p -
s t a i r s would com© th e tin k lin g answ er:
*Yes, Mrs.
9Can you come down f o r a moment, dear?
There i s a Mr.
McCann h e re who would l ik e to ask you some q u e s tio n s .9
81 *11 be r i g h t down, Mrs. C l& ppersnaggel. 9
Then w h ile a w a itin g th e a r r i v a l o f O la r a h e lla , Mrs.
C lapperanaggel would le a n toward th e in v e s tig a to r and in a
very c o n f id e n tia l w hisper say:
8O la ra h e lla i s such a d e a r.
She knows every g i r l in th e h o u se.
l i t t l e problem s to h e r .
They a l l ta k e t h e i r
I f th e r e has ever been a homesick
g i r l i n t h i s house she w ill know about i t . 9
At t h i s p o in t O la ra b e lla u s u a lly e n te re d w ith a p u ssle d
e x p re s s io n resem b lin g th a t o f a primed school boy ready to
say h i s l i t t l e memorised speech on F riday a fte rn o o n .
A fte r
h er in tro d u c tio n th e housemother would proceed to ask th e
q u e s tio n s and O la r a b e lla would g iv e th e answ ers in c l a s s i c a l
e a t e c h i s t i e fashion*
9C la r a b e lla f do you know o f any g i r l s in th e house who
have been hom esick?9
*Homes! ok g i r l s in t h i s house?.* w&y no, indeed t
In
f a c t th e g i r l s t e l l me th a t th e only tim e th e y ever f e e l
homes!ole i s when th e y a re away from h e re .
We do have th e
chummiest and most d e l i g h tf u l group o f g i r l s .
A ll fo r one
and one f o r a l l , *
*Are you s u re , G la r a b e lla , th a t none o f th e g i r l s have
been hom esiek?8
T his q u e stio n from th e housem other serv ed
to im press f u l l y th e in v e s tig a to r as to how f u t i l e i t was to
seek hom esickness w ith in th o se w a lls ,
• y e s , Mrs. C lap p ersn a g g el, I ’m q u ite s u r e .
In f a c t I
know t h a t th e r e h a s n 11 been a c a se ©f hom esickness in t h i s
house s in c e l i t t l e Margots f i r s t n ig h t h e r e .8
8L i t t l e Margot
L e t*8 s e e , when was t h a t , G larab ella?*
8©h, don1! you remember, Mrs* Clap per snaggel?
a t l e a s t two y e a rs ago, perhaps th ree*
That was
L i t t l e Margo a r riv e d
a t n ig h t a f t e r th e o th e r g i r l s had gone to b ed , and she f e l t
a l i t t l e b lu e u n t i l she met th e g i r l s th e n e s t morning*
Then i t was a l l o v er and she was so happy she was h e re .
You
remember?8
8Oh, y e s , I remember now.
I t ’ s been so lo n g ago.
L i t t l e Margo I She was so happy t h a t y ear she was w ith u s . 8
Then tu rn in g t o th e w ide-eyed in v e s tig a to r , th e house­
mother would c o n tin u e t
8R e a lly , Mr, McCann, Xfm so so rry we c a n ’t be o f any
h e lp .
Have you t r i e d a t any o f th e o th e r houses?
C onfiden­
t i a l l y , I h ear t h a t hom esickness i s q u ite p re v a le n t in th e
8K a tta l a t t a * h o u se.
Why don’t you make a v ery c a r e f u l
166
I n v e s tig a tio n o v er t h e r e .
In th e meantime, i f we can h e lp
you i s any way p le a s e l e t us know.
We nGaboas" are always
read y and w illin g to c o o p e ra te .8
th u s th e s i t u a t i o n stood f o r some tim e .
F in a lly th e
i n v e s t i g a t o r , In d e s p e ra tio n , spoke h is s u s p ic io n s to one ©f
th e ©ore u n d e rsta n d in g housem others.
She paused a moment,
th en in a very c o n f id e n tia l v o ic e r e p lie d :
8Yea, I th in k you a re r ig h t*
w ith no s u c c e s s .
I know you a re m eeting
I know th a t some housem others a re co v erin g
up c a s e s o f hom esickness because th ey a re a f r a i d th e se o ase s
would be a r e f l e c t i o n upon them and upon th e s o r o r ity .
If
you w i l l prom ise to say nothing about i t , I w il l admit t h a t
th e re a r e o ases o f hom esickness in t h i s s o r o r i t y .
cannot g iv e you th e names o f th e g ir ls *
But I
P erhaps i f you w il l
l e t me t a l k to th e g i r l s about i t , and e x p la in to the© t h a t
you a r e working on your Ph. B, d e g re e , they w ill not mind
h e lp in g y o u .
But i n any case I must f i r s t t a l k to some o f
th e alum ni o f th e house and see what they a d v is e .
be to o c a r e f u l where p r e s tig e i s in v o lv ed .
One c a n 1!
I t wouldn’t do
f o r o u r house to have o ases o f hom esickness and fo r th e
o th e r houses n o t to have any*
You come back in a few days
a f t e r I ’ve had tim e t o go over t h i s thoroughly w ith th e
g i r l s and w ith th e c o u n c il members,tt
Thus th e s u s p ic io n s o f th e in v e s tig a to r were confirm ed.
There had been a c o n sp ira c y , and i t was going to be d i f f i c u l t
to g e t seme o f th e housem others t o admit t h a t th e re were
o ase s o f hom esickness in t h e i r h o u ses.
A fte r due d e lib e r a ­
t i o n th e in v e s tig a to r decided to throw c a u tio n to th e winds
and to ap p e al d i r e c t l y to th e s tu d e n ts .
I t had been thought
t h a t by approaching s tu d e n ts th ro u g h th e Dean and th e housem others th e s tu d e n ts would be more w illin g to serve as
s u b je c ts th an th e y would i f th e y got th e id e a th a t th ey were
j u s t h e lp in g some g ra d u a te stu d e n t o b ta in d a ta f o r h is
doctor*® d i s s e r t a t io n .
But i t now appeared t h a t by a d i r e c t
appeal to th e s tu d e n ts th e re would be e v e ry th in g to g a in and
n o th in g t o l o s e .
Having decided upon t h i s p ro c ed u re, th e
i n v e s tig a to r im m ediately began sea rch in g f o r homesick g i r l s
by e x p la in in g h i s problem to coeds b e fo re and a f te r c l a s s e s ,
in th e h a l l s , on th e campus, e t c . , and f i n a l l y by means o f
th e telep h o n e*
House p re s id e n ts were very co o p erativ e*
The
in v e s t i g a t o r was in v ite d to e x p la in h is re s e a rc h to groups
o f g i r l s i n th e a fte rn o o n s and ev en in g s.
G ir ls who had
n ev er been homesick knew g i r l s who had been, and b e fo re long
th e i n v e s tig a to r had a le n g th y l i s t of g i r l s , b o th o rg a n ise d
stud u n o rg a n ise d , who were o r who had been homesick d u rin g th e ^
c u r re n t sem ester.
The n ex t s te p wan to c o n ta c t th e g i r l s whose names made
up th e homesick l i s t and to ask them i f th e y would answer
th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s .
d iffic u ltie s .
T h is, however, was n o t w ithout i t s
Some o f th e g i r l s thought th e whole th in g was
a jo k e | two o r th r e e th o u ght th e in v e s tig a to r was j u s t
a n o th e r "w ise guy" tr y in g to g e t acquainted and to ld hi® so
im
in no u n c e r ta in te rm s ; a few sm iled and g ig g le d and made
appointm ents which th e y had no in te n tio n o f k eep in g .
Most
o f them , however, to o k th e re q u e s t s e rio u s ly and a r riv e d
pr©mptly a t th e ap p o in ted p la c e and hour and took th e
*examination*1.
I t was n o t long a f t e r th e f i r s t few had
responded u n t i l th e re q u ire d number o f homesick g i r l s had
answered th e q u e s tio n n a ire s .
The in v e s tig a to r *s t r o u b le s , however, were not y e t o v e r.
I t was n ec essary t h a t each hom esick g i r l be p a ire d w ith
an o th er g i r l o f th e same age, in th e same c o lle g e c l a s s , and
having a s im ila r A. C. £• s c o re , y e t who had never been
hom esick,
Each non-home sic k s u b je c t a lso had to be o rg an ized
o r u n o rgan ized acco rd in g to w hether or not th e homesick g i r l
whom she matched was organized o r unorganized.
The b ig
problem mow was to f in d g i r l s who had never been homesick I
Many g i r l s who s a id th e y had n ev er been homesick adm itted by
t h e i r answers t o th e q u e s tio n n a ire s th a t they had been
homesick b u t didmt t want anyone t o know about i t ,
A few
were r e lu c ta n t to adm it t h a t th e y had never been homesick
because th e y b e lie v e d th a t th e r e was a g e n e ra l opinion th a t
only p e rso n s from v e ry poor and u n a ttr a c tiv e homes were im­
mune to hom esickness,
These g i r l s , o f c o u rs e , could not be
used as m atches f o r homesick g i r l s .
There were many, however,
who met th e c r i t e r i a f o r th e non-home sic k group, and who
were w illin g to answer th e q u e s tio n n a ire s ,
E v e n tu a lly ,
t h e r e f o r e , th e c o l l e c t ion o f d a ta from th e homesick g i r l s
168
and t h e i r non-hom esick matches was completed*
P r o f i t i n g by th e ex p erien ce w ith th e g i r l s , th e in ­
v e s t i g a to r next tu rn e d to th e problem o f c o ll e c ti n g d a ta
from th e b o y s.
A l e t t e r from th e Bean o f Men, s im ila r to
t h a t from th e Bean o f Women, had been ad d ressed to each
f r a t e r n i t y house p r e s i d e n t,34 but th e se l e t t e r s were n ev er
m ailed .
In s te a d , th e in v e s tig a to r c a lle d each house p r e s i ­
d en t and ex p lain ed t h a t he was working on h i s Ph. D. d e g re e ,
th a t h i s re s e a rc h was on th e problem o f hom esickness, t h a t
he wanted a number o f boys who were or who had been homesick
d u rin g th e sem ester to serve as s u b je c ts , t h a t a l l th e o th e r
houses w ere c o o p e ra tin g , and t h a t he would l i k e to have th e
names o f some o f th e boys from t h a t house, to o .
sponse was b e t t e r th a n had been a n tic ip a te d .
The re ­
There were
many e a s e s o f home sic k n e ss in each house, and th e house
p r e s id e n ts were g la d to g iv e th e names o f th e s e in d iv id u a ls .
But now th e problem was to g e t th e homesick boys to admit
t h a t th e y were o r had been hom esick.
F urtherm ore, o f th o s e
who d id admit i t , few were w illin g to answer q u e stio n s about
it .
F i n a l ly , i t was decided t h a t each house would p ic k two
o r th r e e o u tsta n d in g ca se s and send them over to tak e th e
9t e s t s 41*
I n v a r ia b ly , th e boys se n t over were freshm en.
The
s i t u a t i o n was i d e n t i c a l fo r th e unorganized b o y s, w ith one
e x c e p tio n , a s e n io r a c tu a lly ad m itted th a t he had been
34
T here were no housem others in th e f r a t e r n i t i e s *
169
home8l e t a t tim es d u rin g th e sem ester*
The in v e s tig a to r was
d e lig h te d * however, t h a t he oould g e t 49 freshm en and 1
se n io r i n a s tu d e n t body o f s e v e r a l thousand t o admit t h a t
th e y had been s u b je c t to a tta c h e o f hom esickness d u rin g th e
se
m e ste r.
<
The names o f u n o rg an ised homesick boys were ob-
ta in e d by asking s tu d e n ts in th e c la s s room and on th e
campus f o r th e names o f u norg an ised boys whom they thought
were* o r r e c e n tly had been* homesick*
I t was necessary* o f
course* f o r th e boys whose names were th u s o b tain ed to ad­
mit t h a t th ey were ©r had been homesick d u rin g th e c u r re n t
sem ester b e fo re th e y oould be used as s u b je c ts .
The names
o f o th e r homesick boys were o b tain ed u s u a lly from th o se
se rv in g a s s u b je c ts .
O b tain in g th e non-homesick matches fo r th e homesick
boys was l e s s d i f f i c u l t th an I t was fo r th e homesick g i r l s .
But even h e re many o f th e boys who openly s ta te d th a t th e y
had nev er been hom esick adm itted on t h e i r q u e s tio n n a ire
s h e e ts t h a t th ey had fre q u e n tly su ffe re d because of homesick­
n ess *
A fte r th e in v e s tig a to r had o b tain ed th e names o f
p ro s p e c tiv e s u b je c ts , b o th g i r l s and boys* he made d ir e c t
c e n t a c t w ith each o f them and re q u e ste d them t o answer th e
q u e s tio n n a ir e s .
Sometimes t h i s c o n ta c t was made through an
in tr o d u c tio n to th e person* b u t u s u a lly i t was made by means
©f th e telephone*
In th e fa ce to fa ce c o n ta c ts th e conver­
s a tio n conformed t o th e eireum st asees a t th e time*
170
The
te le p h o n e c o n v e rsa tio n was as fo llo w s;
*May I speak to Hr* (o r Miss) ~ —— ?
Mr* - —
t hi s
i s Mr* McCann, g ra d u a te stu d e n t in th e departm ent o f
Psychology*
I am d o in g some re s e a rc h under th e d ir e c tio n of
P ro fe s s o r C onklin, on th e problem of hom esickness.
We a re
wondering i f you w i l l be w illin g t o h elp us in t h i s under­
taking**
U su ally th e r e p ly was th a t th e stu d e n t would be g la d to
h elp i f t h e r e was any way he c o u ld .
The in v e s tig a to r would
th e n c o n tin u e :
*Thank you, Mr* - —
w© knew th a t we co u ld
depend on you*
Tomorrow a t n in e e*clock we a re g iv in g a
q u e s tio n n a ire to a group o f s tu d e n ts in room 50 o f S cience
H all*
T h is group must be made up o f s tu d e n ts who a r e , o r
who have been, hom esick t h i s sem ester*
We a re wondering i f
you co u ld q u a lify t o ta k e th e q u e s tio n n a ire as a member o f
t h i s group*
I t w i l l ta k e about an hour to com plete th e
q u e s tio n n a ir e . *
The r e p l i e s a t t h i s p o in t v a r ie d .
Some s ta te d t h a t
they had nev er been homesick and th e re fo re co u ld not q u a lif y
as members o f th e group*
In t h i s case th ey were asked
w hether o r n o t any o f t h e i r f r ie n d s could q u a lif y , and
u s u a lly th e y were a b le to name s e v e ra l s tu d e n ts whom they
b e lie v e d to be s u b je c t to hom esickness.
I f t h i s was th e
r e p ly , th e stu d e n t was thanked and th o se whose names he had
g iv en were c a lle d .
O th e r stu d e n ts s ta te d th a t th ey were q u a lif ie d f o r th e
m
homesick g ro u p , b u t th a t th e o n ly hour th ey had fr e e was an
hour o th e r th a n th e one m entioned.
In th e s e c a se s an ap­
pointm ent was made f o r th e f r e e h o u r.
Only a very few
s ta te d t h a t th ey were n o t i n te r e s te d in answ ering th e ques­
tio n n a ir e s *
As soon as a homesick: s u b je c t had com pleted th e b a t te r y
o f q u e s tio n n a ir e s , h i s answers were checked and i f they were
c o n s is te n t an e f f o r t was made a t once to lo c a te a non-homesic k m atch f o r him,
t h i s was dose in th e fo llo w in g manner:
The a g e , c l a s s , and A. C. E, sc o re were determ ined fo r th e
homesick s u b je c t, and a n o ta tio n was made as to whether o r
n o t he was o rg a n is e d .
Then an in d iv id u a l o f th e same sex
and c l a s s and who o th erw ise matched th e homesick in d iv id u a l
was s e le c te d from th e l i s t o f th o s e who had A* C, E. sc o re s
w ith in 8 p o in ts o f th e A. 0 . E, sco re made by th e homesick
s u b je c t.
I t i s ap p a ren t from T ables I I and I I I th a t th e r e
i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e in e i t h e r mean o r v a ria n c e be­
tween th e two groups in A, G, E, s c o re s.
In every ca se o rg an ized s tu d e n ts were p a ire d w ith
o rg an ized s tu d e n ts , and unorganized student® were p a ire d
w ith unorganized s tu d e n ts ,
F urtherm ore, only stu d e n ts whose
ages d if f e r e d by l e s s th an e le v e n months were p a ire d .
If
any one o f th e s e c r i t e r i a could n o t be met i t was n e c e ssa ry
to throw o u t th e d a ta fo r th e homesick s u b je c t and to fin d
an o th er homesick s u b je c t who co u ld be matched according to
th e s e c r i t e r i a .
F req u e n tly a f t e r a match had been s e le c te d
173
Table II
D iffe re n c e s in Mean A« 0* E. Scores between th e
Homesick and th e Non-Homesick Groups
Mean S cores
MS
MBS
G ir ls
lo y s
58.44
51.88
59.73
51,88
B i f f , i n ,,,
Mean S cores^' ^ <50
* -1 .3 8
0 .0 0
4 .6
5 .7
D/cCP^
Chances
In 100
0.27
0.00
60.45
50.00
Table XII
V a r i a b i li t y o f A* G. E. Scores f o r th e Homesick
and th e Won-Homesick Groups
■
—*33
-1 .5 3
6 D38
D/dD
Chances in 100
3.35
4.09
0.09
0.37
53.9
53.9
^T h ro u g h o u t t h i s t h e s is th e p lu s sig n ( 4 ) and th e minus
s ig n {-} a re used t o in d ic a te th e p o s itio n o f th e homesick
group w ith re fe re n c e t o th e non-homesick gro u p .
^®The stan d ard d e v ia tio n o f th e d if f e r e n c e between th e
mean s c o re s o f th e two v a r ia b l e s , x and y , was determ ined
acco rd in g to th e fo rm u la: G%-y -)6 \ -+a xy
in which
and
oy a r e th e stan d ard d e v ia tio n s o f th e d i s t r i b u t i o n s x and y ,
and <5+-y i s th e sta n d a rd d e v ia tio n of th e d iffe re n c e between
(See A rthur S . O tis ,
th e means o f th e d i s t r i b u t i o n s x and y
World Book Go.,
In t h i s
a r e .co n sid ered
c r i t i c a l r a t i o s o f 3.00 o r
These w i ll always be in ­
h ere w
a s <st +
S u b sc rip ts 1
and 3 r e f e r to th e two d i s t r i b u t i o n s . (A rkin, H. and C o lto n ,
R. R*t An O u tlin e o f S t a t i s t i c a l Methods, B arnes and N oble,
York* 1938, p .
f o r a hom esick s u b je c t i t would be found t h a t th e match had
been hom esick a t some tim e d u rin g h is l i f e *
I t w ill be r e ­
c a lle d t h a t th e non—homesick mateh had to be a person who
had newer been hom esick, o r a t l e a s t one who could not r e ­
member ewer hawing been homesick*
Whenewer th e match r e ­
p o rte d t h a t he had been homesick a t some tim e o r o th e r i t
was n e c e ssa ry to f in d an other m atch, or i f t h i s could n o t be
done, t o fin d an o th er homesick s u b je c t who could be matched
p ro p erly *
When a match was found he was c o n tac te d by means o f th e
telephone*
When he answered th e phone th e f i r s t p a r t o f th e
o an w ersatio n always follow ed v e rb a tu s th a t f o r th e homesick
su b je c t*
The r e s t o f th e c o n v e rsa tio n was as fo llo w s;
9Thank you, Hr *
you*
,
We knew t h a t we could depend on
As you p ro b ab ly know a lre a d y ,, we have giv en a q u e stio n ­
n a ir e t o a number o f stu d e n ts who have been homesick some­
tim e d u rin g t h i s se m e ste r.
How we want to g iv e th e same
q u e s tio n n a ire to a c o n tr o l group o f stu d e n ts who have n ev er
in t h e i r l i v e s been hom esick.
We are wondering i f you can
q u a lif y as a member o f t h i s c o n tr o l group.
I t i s very im­
p o rta n t t h a t we have stu d e n ts who have never been hom esick.
Can you t r u t h f u l l y say th a t to th e b e st o f your knowledge
you have n ev er been hom esick?0
I f th e s l i g h t e s t doubt o r h e s ita n c y was expressed as to
t h i s l a s t Q uestion th e stu d e n t was thanked f o r h is w illin g ­
n e ss to se rv e b u t was r e je c te d as a s u b je c t.
174
I f th e stu d e n t
was p o s i t i v e th a t he had never been homesick and was w illin g
to s e rv e as a s u b j e c t $ an appointm ent was made w ith him and
he was g iv e n th e q u e s tio n n a ire s *
Method o f P re s e n tin g th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s :
The b a t te r y
o f q u e s tio n n a ire s was given t o sm all groups o f s u b je c ts
ran g in g from two t o t e n in d iv id u a ls .
Each b a t te r y o f ques­
t i o n n a i r e s was c a r e f u l l y numbered b efo re th e s u b je c ts
a r r iv e d , th e n as th e s u b je c ts a r r iv e d t h e i r names were
checked o f f th e appointm ent l i s t by p la c in g o p p o site t h e i r
names th e number o f th e b a tte r y o f q u e s tio n n a ire s handed to
the® .
In t h i s way i t was p o s s ib le to t e l l th e student t h a t
in o rd e r to h elp him to be p e r f e c t ly fran k and honest in
answ ering th e q u e s tio n n a ire s he need not sig n h is name to
them.
I t was p o in te d out th a t we were making a s c i e n t i f i c
I n v e s tig a tio n and t h a t our r e s u l t s depended upon a b so lu te
tr u th f u ln e s s *
Honesty was s tr e s s e d above e v e ry th in g e lse *
th e s u b je c ts were t o l d th a t i f th e y f e l t th e y could n o t
answer th e q u e s tio n s t r u t h f u l l y t o hand in th e blank q u e stio n ­
n a i r e s , and th a t no check could p o s s ib ly be made as to who
answered th e q u e s tio n s and who d id not*
In t h i s way i t was
hoped t h a t th e s u b je c ts would f e e l p e r f e c tly f r e e to answer
th e q u e s tio n n a ire s h o n e s tly and fran k ly *
A fte r th e q u e s tio n ­
n a ir e s had been handed in and th e su b je c ts had d ep a rted th e
names o f th e s u b je c ts were checked fro® th e appointm ent l i s t
and p la c e d upon t h e i r q u e s tio n n a ir e s .
i? 5
This was not a
d e l i b e r a t e b re ak in g o f f a i t h w ith th e sub j e e t s * The i n v e s t i g a t o r was i n no way p e r s o n a lly concerned w ith th e names
o f th e su b je c ts* b u t in o rd e r to p a i r th e s u b je c ts and to
make com parisons betw een th e p a ire d groups i t was n e c e ssa ry
t h a t each group o f d a ta be i d e n t i f i e d by th e name o f th e
p erso n g iv in g th o se p a r t i c u l a r answers*
The names them­
s e lv e s a r e k ep t in co n fid en ce and w ill never be d is c lo s e d .
Due t o th e le n g th o f th e q u e s tio n n a ire s i t was n e c e ssa ry
to a rra n g e f o r tw© appointm ents w ith a i l th e homesick sub­
je c ts ,
m inutes*
I&ch appointm ent l a s te d from t h i r t y to f o r ty - f i v e
Many o f th e non-home s ic k s u b je c ts com pleted a l l
th e q u e s t io n n a ire s in l e s s th a n one hour* b u t th e se s u b je c ts
d id n o t have to w r ite out answ ers to th e q u e stio n s eo n eern ing th e ex p erien ce o f being homesick* sin c e th ey had never
had such an experience*
Method o f S co rin g th e Q u e stio n n a ire s:
The B ern reu ter
P e r s o n a lity In v e n to r ie s were sco re d according to th e s ix
s c o rin g s c a le s d e s c rib e d above*
Conklin*s Sx t r a v e r t - I n t r o -
v e r t I n t e r e s t Q u e stio n n a ire was scored acco rd in g to th e
•2-Q
method d e sc rib e d by Conklin*
The rem aining q u e s tio n n a ire s
were more d i f f i c u l t t o score*
S ince th e s e were not sta n d a rd
q u e s tio n n a ire s b u t m erely l i s t s o f q u e s tio n s , each q u e s tio n
was sco re d s e p a ra te ly *
The method was to determ ine th e
3%©nklim* 1* 8*, op* c i t . p* 50*
176
p e rc e n ta g e o f s u b je c ts in th e hom esick group and th e p e r­
ce n ta g e in th e non—homesick group who gave th e same answer
to each q u estio n *
The d if f e r e n c e between th e s e two p e rc e n t­
ages was th e n determ ined fo r each q u e stio n , and w ith th e use
o f t a b l e s , th e sigma o f th e d if f e r e n c e was d e te r m in e d .^
T his d if f e r e n c e was d iv id e d by th e sigma o f th e d iffe re n c e
t© g iv e th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o .
T his procedure was used t o de­
term in e th e s ig n if ic a n c e o f th e d iffe re n c e between th e p e r­
c e n ta g es o f th e two groups g iv in g th e sm e answer to each
Q uestion in th e in v e s tig a tio n except fo r th o se q u e stio n s
p e r ta in in g t o th e B e rn re u te r P e rs o n a lity In v e n to ry , to
G o nklin’ s E x tr a v e r t- I n tr o v e r t I n t e r e s t Q u estio n n aire and to
th e com parison o f g ra d e p o in ts earned p e r c r e d i t hour.
Grade p o in ts p er c r e d i t hour were determ ined according to
th e G en eral Grade and C red it Key s
A» 3 c re d its ; B m 2
c r e d i t s ; 0 * 1 c r e d i t ; D * 0 c r e d i t ; F « —1 c r e d i t .
4GF©y form ulae and ta b le s a s s i s t in g in t h e i r c a lc u la tio n
see B&gerton, H* A*, and P a tte r s o n , B, G*, BTable o f Stand­
ard I r r o r s and P ro b ab le E rro rs o f P ercentagee fo r Varying
lum bers o f O ases*, J o u r . App» P sy ch o l* 1038, 10, 378-391#
Eesults
Symptomatologyt
The f i r s t o f th e d a ta t o be p re se n te d
w ill be t h a t o b tain ed fro® th e homesick s u b je c ts r e l a t i v e to
t h e i r a tta c k s o f hom esickness.
These d a ta were o b tain ed
from th e answers g iv en to q u e s tio n s 30 to 45, in c lu s iv e * o f
Q u e stio n n a ire Mo* I I I ,
Since th e s e q u e stio n s p e r ta in to
a c tu a l a tta c k s o f hom esickness th e y could n o t be answered
by th e members o f th e non-hom esick group.
I t was hoped t h a t
th e answ ers to th e s e q u e stio n s would throw some li g h t upon
th e n a tu r e and co u rse o f hom esickness, and p erhaps even
p re se n t a d e f i n i t e symptomatology fo r hom esickness.
The f i r s t o f th e s e d a ta p e r t a i n to th e age o f th e sub­
j e c t when he ex p erien ced h is f i r s t a tta c k o f hom esickness,
th e circ u m sta n c e s o f t h i s f i r s t a tta c k , th e c r i t e r i a by
which he knew t h a t he was home s ic k , and th e circu m stan ces
which caused re c o v e ry .
I t must be remembered th a t th e
answers g iv en to th e s e q u e stio n s re p re s e n t only th e in d iv id ­
u a l 1s b e l i e f w ith re fe re n c e to h is age, to th e circ u m stan c es,
to th e symptoms, and to what brought r e l i e f when he f i r s t
ex p erien ced an a tta c k o f hom esickness.
I t i s q u ite p o s s ib le
th a t th e su b jects* b e l i e f s were more o r l e s s in a c c u ra te , but
on th e o th e r hand i t i s a lso p o s s ib le th a t th e y conformed
v ery c lo s e ly t o th e a c tu a l f a c t s .
In any ca se they in d ic a te
t h a t an in d iv id u a l m ight s u f f e r h i s f i r s t a tta c k o f homesick­
n ess when he i s as young as th r e e y e a rs , o r a t any age
IT S
t h e r e a f t e r up to tw en ty y e a rs o f age*
Since S3 y e a rs i s th e
upper age l i m i t o f th e s u b je c ts no statem ent can be made
her® r e l a t i v e t o a tta c k s occur r in g f o r th e f i r s t tim e a t an
o ld e r ag e.
The v a rio u s ages o f th e in d iv id u a l members o f th e home­
s ic k group a t th e tim e o f t h e i r f i r s t a tta c k o f hom esickness
a re g iv e n i n fa b le IV*
These a re th e answers to th e q u e stio n s
#About how o ld were you th e f i r s t tim e you were homesick?''
f a b le I ?
Ages o f th e In d iv id u a l Members o f th e Homesick Group
a t th e tim e o f t h e i r F i r s t A ttack o f Homesickness
Age i n y e a rs
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Wo.
3
4
§
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
18
17
18
19
20
While a t c o lle g e
Den*t know
$
3
5
1
6
4
2
2
5
6
10
2
12
1
3
12
7
24
14
15
2
30
4
170
8
4
4
10
Homesick boys
g iv in g th e
answer
Ho*
73
1
1
1
3
1
4
7
4
3
5
1
3
2
3
3
4
3
8
14
8
4
10
2
6
4
8
16
1
10
2
20
10
5
8
Tw enty-four p e rc e n t o f t h e g i r l s answered th a t th e y
f i r s t ex p erien ced hom esickness when they were 1? y ea rs o ld ,
and 14 p e rc e n t re p o rte d t h a t th e y f i r s t ex p erien ced i t when
th ey w ere 18 y e a rs old*
T h irty p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s
d id n o t ex p e rien ce t h e i r f i r s t a tta c k o f hom esickness u n t i l
th ey went away to co lle g e *
S ix te e n p e rc e n t o f th e boys
s ta te d t h a t th ey d id n o t e x p e rie n c e t h e i r f i r s t a tta c k o f
hom esickness u n t i l th e y were 18 y e a rs o ld , and 20 p e rc e n t o f
them re p o rte d th a t th ey d id not exp erien ce t h e i r f i r s t
a tta c k u n t i l th e y went away to c o lle g e .
I t i s in te re s tin g
to n o te t h a t only one g i r l out o f th e 100 experienced h e r
f i r s t a tta c k o f hom esickness between 13 and 16 y ea rs o f
age*
lik e w is e , o n ly 4. to y s experienced t h e i r f i r s t a tta c k
o f tome s ic k n e ss betw een 13 and 16 y ea rs o f ag e .
t h i s i s a r e s u l t o f circu m stances*
Perhaps
Boys and g i r l s u s u a lly
a tte n d t h e i r f i r s t sco u t camp o r make t h e i r f i r s t v i s i t s
away from home b e fo re th ey a re 13 years o f ag e.
At 13 o r 14
most o f them s t a r t to high s c h o o l, and u n t i l they are ready
t o go to c o lle g e few o f them go away from home fo r lo n g er
p e rio d s o f tim e th a n th ey have been accustomed to being away
from home*
I t m ight b e , t h e r e f o r e , th a t th o s e who are
l i a b l e to become homesick when away from home fo r only a
s h o rt w h ile w ill have been away from home long enough to
ex p e rien ce t h e i r f i r s t a tt- o k o f hom esickness prioT to t h e i r
IS th b irth d a y *
Those who re q u ir e a lo n g er s ta y away from
home b e f o re d ev elo p in g an a tta c k o f hom esickness are not
180
liv e ly * ©m th e o th e r hand, to ex p erien ce t h e i r f i r s t a tta c h
u n t i l th e y a r e o ld enough i© go away from home fo r lo n g e r
p e rio d s o f time*
T h is would n o t be l i k e l y to occur u n t i l
th ey were about 18 y e a rs o ld .
But even th e n th e a tta c k of
hom esickness might occur th e f i r s t n ig h t th e y a re away.
P erhaps th e Im portant f a c to r h e re i s th e knowledge th a t th ey
a re t o be away from home f o r a lo n g tim e; p erh ap s i t i s t h a t
th ey h a re grown fo n d er o f t h e i r homes and haw© learn ed to
a p p r e c ia te them more th an th ey d id when th e y were younger;
p erh ap s b o th o f th e s e p o s s i b i l i t i e s p la y a p a r t .
At any
r a te t h e r e i s n o th in g h ere to support th e b e l i e f th a t th e
younger th e p erso n th e more s u s c e p tib le he i s to homesick­
ness*
I n t h i s I n v e s tig a tio n a l a r g e r p erc e n ta g e ©f th e sub­
j e c t s , b o th boys and g i r l s , re p o rte d th a t th ey experienced
t h e i r f i r s t a tta c k o f hom esickness when th ey were 1? o r 18
y e a rs o f age th an a t some e a r l i e r age.
V arious circu m stan ces were l i s t e d as having been respon­
s i b l e f o r th e f i r s t a tta c k o f hom esickness.
l i s t e d in Table V as answers to th e q u estio n s
These are
11What were
th e eireufflstaiices t h a t caused you to become hom esiektB
S in ce many o f th e s u b je c ts repoxted more than one
circu m stan ce and s in c e th o se re p o rte d show marked o v erla p p in g
th e p e rc e n ta g e o f s u b je c ts g iv in g each answer l i s t e d in th e
T able can n o t be t o t a l e d .
The circu m stan ces l i s t e d by th e
s u b je c ts a s cau sin g t h e i r f i r s t a tta c k s o f hom esickness can
be c l a s s i f i e d in v a rio u s ways, b u t her© th ey have been
181
Table V
C ircum stances L is te d by th e Members o f th e Homesick Group
as th e Causes o f t h e i r F i r s t A ttack o f Homesickness
Answer®
Homesick g ir ls
g iv in g th e
answer
WO*
I* *Being away from home"
e i rcum s t anees *
Away from m other
3
M is itin g r e l a t i v e s
ia
At camp
5
2
M issed parent®
Away from home and fam ily
3
Away from modern
conveniences
1
At b o ard in g sch o o l
1
4
? i s i t i n g f r ie n d s
F i r s t tim e away from home
1
Away a t c o lle g e
8
W hile b ein g boarded out
by p a re n ts
1
T ra v e lin g in Burope
Enew I oouldn*! go home
Away from home on a h o i id i
Away a t school in c i t y
V acatio n in g on a farm
IX. "Lack of* c irc u m sta n c e s:
Lack o f companions
B eing alone
Wo p e ts
Lack o f money
N othing to do
lo g i r l f r ie n d s
I I I . "Temporary r e tu r n of
fa m ilia r* e ire u m st an e es:
V is ite d by p a r e n ts
V is ite d hose
IV. "U npleasant experience*
circ u m sta n c e s:
to o s t r i c t stu d y r u le s
Unple as ant a s s o c i a t es
W orried about s tu d ie s
%
Gomesick boys
g iv in g th e
answer
$>
■
mo.
6
PA
10
4
6
12
12
1
8
24
24
3
16
a
2
8
2
16
1
2
6
12
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
2
2
1
4
3
1
1
3
3
2
1
a
i
i
3
4
3
2
l
i
2
3
l
l
3
3
o
Table Y
(O ontinusd)
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Answers
HO*
S co ld ed , c r i t i c i s e d
Was frig h te n e d
S e lf p ity
l i n i n g w ith s tr a n g e r s
Bisillusiommeivfc
D idn’t l i k e p la c e I was
s ta y in g
Wasn’t r e a l l y s u ite d
R ainy w eather
2
1
1
1
3
Y» Don’t know*
X.
i
1
1
1
3
2
3
4
3
2
2
4
’•Being away from home11 circum ­
8I»aek o f ” cireuisB tances; I I I *
tu r n o f th e fa m ilia r* circ u m stan c es; XY.
e x p e rie n c e ’* c irc u m sta n c e s.
know* g ro u p .
Ho,
2
c l a s s i f i e d as follow s*
s ta n c e s ; XI*
Homesick hoys
g iv in g th e
answer
"Temporary r e ­
*U npleasant
The f i f t h group i s th e 11Don’t
These* i t must he remembered, a r e th e ’•reasons*
l i s t e d by th e s u b je c ts .
We c a n n o t, th e r e f o r e , accept them
u n c ritic a lly .
S in ce no one, re g a rd le s s o f how he f e e l s , i s ever de­
c la re d homesick u n le s s he i s away from home o r from 8th e
f a m i l i a r 8 , i t m ight seem th a t ”being away from home8 circum ­
s ta n c e s cause hom esickness * Such a c o n c lu sio n , however,
cannot b e j u s t i f i e d .
Many p e o p le have been away from home
and th e f a m ilia r w ith o u t becoming hom esick,
8Being away
from how® c irc u m stan c es c h a r a c te r is e every s u b je c t se rv in g
183
In tM e in v e s t i g a t to n , whether homesick: o r non-home s ic k .
Furtherm ore* in d iv id u a ls have shown symptoms c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
©f hom esickness w ith o u t b ein g away from home.
P ersons who
a re g r i e f s tr ic k e n o v er th e absence o r lo s s o f a loved o n e,
o r o v er th e lo s s o f some tr e a s u r e d o b je c t show many symptoms
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f th e n o s ta lg ic p a tt e r n ,
i n one in s ta n c e
th e lo v ed one o r th e tre a s u re d o b je c t i s th e absent focus
o f d e s i r e ; i n th e o th e r in s ta n c e th e "home s itu a tio n * i s th e
ab sen t fo c u s o f d e s i r e .
I t i s o n ly when th e in d iv id u a l i s
away from h is home o r from f a m il ia r surroundings and d e s ir e s
to r e t u r n to th e a b se n t s e tt in g t h a t th e symptoms are c a lle d
hom esickness.
When f a m ilia r surroundings a re removed from
th e in d iv id u a l who rem ains in th e home s e t t i n g but d e s ir e s
th e r e t u r n o f th e a b se n t o b je c ts th e symptoms are c a lle d
som ething o th e r th a n hom esickness*
The “away from home*
circu m stan ce and th e d e s ir e to r e tu r n home a re always p re s ­
e n t whenever th e symptoms a re c a ll e d n o s ta lg ia .
On th e
o th e r hand* th e 11away from home* circum stance fre q u e n tly i s
p re s e n t w ith o u t any evidence o f n o s ta lg ic symptoms, as in
th e e a s e o f our c o n tr o l group*
Our c o n c lu sio n , th e r e f o r e ,
3$ t h a t th e “away from home,, circum stance i s a necessary
s e t t i n g o r background fo r th e d e s ir e to r e tu r n home and i t s
syndrome which we c a l l hom esickness, but th a t i t i s not th e
cause o f hom esickness*
#X*aok ©f* e t r cum sta n c e s a re not th e same as “away from 11
c irc u m s ta n c e s , th e d iff e re n c e b e in g th a t in s te a d o f w anting
184
t o r e t u r n to someone o r to some p la c e , th e in d iv id u a l w ants
someone o r some p la c e t o r e tu r n t o .
He i s n o t b o th ered be­
cause he i s away from a p a r t i c u l a r frie n d o r companion; he
i s b o th e re d because he i s w ithout* ox “la c k in g * , f r ie n d s and
com panions.
He i s n o t bothered because he i s away from a
c e r t a i n p e t ; he i s b o th ered b ecau se he does n o t have a p e t .
S im ila r examples a r e th e sm all boy who c r i e s f o r a pony, th e
y o u n g ster who wants a b ic y c le , and th e maiden who p in e s f o r
someone t o lo v e her*
th e “la c k of* circum stance may be th e
circu m stan ce s e t t i n g o f f a p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n o f b ehavior
c h a r a c te r is e d by symptoms which a re a lso found in n o s ta lg ia ,
b u t su ch a p a tte r n o f b ehavior i s never c a lle d n o s ta lg ia
u n le s s and u n t i l th e in d iv id u a l i s away from h i s home and
h is dom inant d e s ir e t r a n s f e r s to th e absent home s i t u a t io n .
I t would appear th e n t h a t in e i t h e r case th e response
p a t t e r n i e th e same, alth ough in one in s ta n c e th e d e s ir e i s
fo cused upon th e a b se n t home s i t u a t i o n and th e syndrome i e
c a lle d hom esickness, w hile in o th e r in s ta n c e s th e d e s ir e i s
fo cused upon ab sen t object© o th e r than th e home s i tu a t io n
and th e syndrome 1© c a lle d som ething o th e r th a n hom esickness.
The circ u m stan c e which i s h e re c a lle d th e “tem porary
r e tu r n ©f th e f a m ilia r * refer© to sh o rt v i s i t s home, and
a ls o t o v i s i t o r s , l e t t e r s , and p re s e n ts from home.
T his was
l i s t e d a s a c a u s a tiv e f a c to r by only two g i r l s , and ap p ears
t© be q u ite i n s i g n if ic a n t even a s a r a t i o n a l ! gat io n .
F u rth erm o re, th e “tem porary r e t u r n o f th e fa m ilia r* in v o lv e s
and to
e x te n t i n t e n s i f i e s th e d e s ir e s f o r bomo which
m w m i n th e “away from home6 circum stance#
A pparently I t
ie n o t th e v i s i t h o se t h a t m%m o f f th e p a t t e r n o f n o s ta lg ic
b e h a v io r, t a t th e te rm in a tio n o f th e v i s i t , o r perhaps th e
knowledge o f th e “tem p o rarin ess* o f th e v i s i t in th e
p re se n ce o f a s tro n g d e s ir e to rem ain in th e h o w s e ttin g *
*3splee® cat e x p e rie n c e 11 circu m stan ces wore l i s t e d by
some m c a u sin g t h e i r f i r s t a t ta c k o f homesickness* and i t
does ap p ear l i k e l y t h a t such circu m stan ces co u ld m t o f f a
pattern of behavior which would be called homesickness if
i t o c c u rre d in m “away f m
home® s e tt i n g and aroused, a
dee i r e t o r e tu r n t o th e hoae s i t u a t i o n .
^ e t e n t a t i v e l y co n c lu d e , th e r e f o r e , t h a t n o s ta lg ia i e
a syndroms occur r in g in an in d iv id u a l in an “away frois home®
f t t t a t t S B i and t a i m
s ltu a tlm *
a e tre n g d e s ir e to r e tu r n to th e home
% shell next consider the syndrome forrsing
t h i s b e h a v io r p a t t e r n .
In fo rm atio n he t o th e f e e lin g s and s e n s a tio n s
e x p e rien ced by th e homesick in d iv id u a l d a rin g h is f i r s t
a tta c h o f hom esickness we® o b ta in e d from th e answers to th e
Q uestions
#lew do you know you were homesick?*
th e
re sp o n se s t o t h i s q u e s tio n a re g iv en in T able V I.
There i e cons i d e r table o v e rla p p in g o f th e re sp o n se s,
which f m
g ro u p s 2
t h i s I n v e s tig a tio n have been c l a s s i f i e d In to f i v e
X* P h y s io lo g ic a l c r i t e r i a ; XI.
proe*lcsft{ XII*
F e e lin g s o f be*
U n s a tis fie d f e e lin g s and d e s i r e s ; IF*
106
F e e l-
Table ?I
Answers g iv en by th e Homesick S u b jects to th e Q uestion;
11How Ho you know you were Homesick?8
(These d a ta r e f e r to th e f i r s t a tta c k o f Homesickness)
Answers
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Ho.
P h y s io lo g ic a l c r i t e r i a ;
Loss o f a p p e tite
8
Insom nia
4
f a s 111
3
Had hollow f e e l in g in
stomach
Had queer f e e lin g in stomach
Empty fe e lin g in stomach
I remember how I f e l t in s id e
IX* F e e lin g s o f d e p re s s io n and
d e s p a ir s
F e l t blue* unhappy* de­
p ressed * moody
6
I II * U n s a tis f ie d lo n g in g s and
d e s ire s ;
Had in te n s e lo n g in g fox
28
home
d rie d fox home
15
Had longing fo x someone
2
from home
E othing co u ld s a t i s f y me*
c o u ld n ’t enjoy myself*
2
re s tle s s
3
Only thought was o f home
6
Wanted mother
Wanted to see p aren ts*
9
fa m ily
Asked th e fo lk s to send f o r
2
me
1
M issed f a th e r
Counted m inutes u n t i l I
co u ld s t a r t home
f a s a l l r i g h t when I g o t
home
Wanted to see my frie n d s
Longed to see t h e o ld town
Homesick boys
g iv in g th e
answer
$
Ho.
%
12
8
2
4
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
12
8
1©
56
30
12
5
24
10
4
6
12
4
6
3
8
12
6
18
3
16
1
2
1
4
1
2
8
3
a
4
4
3
Table VI
(C ontinued)
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Answers
lo .
KO.
IV. F e e lin g s o f inadequacy
and u n c e r t a i n ty :
F e l t l o s t , lo n e ly
Was lonesome
Wanted to ask ad v ice
Couldn *t stu d y
Was l i s t l e s s , no am bition,
ju s t sat
Com plained, was i r r i t a b l e
Homesick boys
g iv in g th e
answer
1
Z
1
4
a
4
3
V* Vague un d efin ed f e e lin g s ;
D id n 't f e e l l i k e I did a t
home
D id n 't f e e l r i g h t
%
1
1
8
3
1
6
8
1
1
2
2
. D on't know*.
tn g s o f inadequacy and u n c e r ta in ty ; V.
F e e lin g s and sen sa­
tio n s o f a vague u n d efin ed c h a r a c te r ; V I.
D on't know.
It
i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o te th a t s u r p r is in g ly few o f th e s u b je c ts
m entioned lo s s o f a p p e tite o r insom nia as symptoms o f nos­
ta lg ia *
Some i n t e r e s t i n g and p erhaps s ig n if ic a n t re fe re n c e s
were made to s e n s a tio n s coming from th e stom ach, e .g . "a
hollow f e e lin g in my stom ach", "a queer f e e l in g in my stom ach",
Han empty f e e lin g in my stom ach", "I remember how I f e l t in s id e * .
These s e n s a tio n s from th e stomach become very s ig ­
n i f i c a n t from th e sta n d p o in t o f c la s s if y in g hom esickness as
IBS
an em o tio n al re a c tio n * f o r i t i s common knowledge th a t
stomach change® do
oogut
d u rin g em otional b e h a v io r.
The un­
s a t i s f i e d f e e lin g s and d e s i r e s , f e e lin g s o f inadequacy and
d e p re s s io n , and vague* undefined f e e lin g s in d ic a te t h a t nos­
t a l g i a i s probably an em otional d is tu rb a n c e c h a ra c te r is e d by
f e e lin g s o f i n f e r io r it y * f a ilu r e * d is tr e s s * and perhaps f e a r .
The c o n d itio n s l i s t e d by th e s u b je c ts as r e lie v in g t h e i r
f i r s t a t t a c k o f hom esickness a re given in T able V II.
a re th e answers to th e q u e s tio n ;
These
H'?hai r e lie v e d your home­
s ic k n e ss then?**
Table V II
Answer® given by th e Homesick S u b jects to th e Q uestion;
•What r e lie v e d your hom esickness th e n ? 1*
d a ta r e f e r t o th e f i r s t a tta c k o f hom esickness)
Answers
1* R etu rn t o th e f a m ilia r s
V is i t in g a f r ie n d
w ith home
S eein g someone from home
^ -frie n d or r e la tiv e
P a re n ts came f o r me
R eceived l e t t e r
P resen ce o f th e fam ily
Was g iv en p e rm issio n to go
home
Homesick g i r l s
giv in g th e
answer
Homesick boys
g iv in g t he
answer
WO.
$
HO.
€p
19
1
3
38
3
4
15
30
4
8
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
6
3
2
3
3
2
4
1
8
2
16
1
2
Table ¥11
(Gout lotted)
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Answers
II* ^ l i g h t from th e s i t u a t i o n :
E n te rta in m e n t, movie, games
A c tiv ity , work, study
F o rg o t i t
B e stin g p e o p le , ta lk in g to
p eo p le
T alked s e l f o u t o f i t
Went to church
Hew s i g h t s , new ex p e rien ces
T hinking o f o th e r s
S leep
I I I . Improvement in th e s i t u a t io n ;
Hew frie n d s h ip s
Morning
Got a stead y boy frie n d
K indness, f r ie n d s
T alk in g i t o v er w ith
someone
R e a lis a tio n o f how f o o lis h
I was
I t j u s t wore o f f , tim e ,
g ra d u a lly g o t used to I t
IT . Bon1! know:
Hon1t know
N othing
Homesick boys
g iv in g th e
answer
Ho*
t
Ho,
1
4
I
2
2
3
11
6
22
3
1
1
1
6
2
3
2
1
3
1
1
2
2
3
1
1
2
6
2
2
4
2
4
1
3
3
C
1
2
a
1
2
3
6
1
2
2
1
2
4
The answers re p o rte d in T able T il have been c l a s s i f i e d
i n t o th e fo llo w in g g ro u p s:
XI*
I* R eturn to th e f a m ilia r :
F lig h t fro© th e s i t u a t io n ; I I I *
s i t u a t i o n ; XT.
Don1! know.
Improvement in th e
These in d ic a te t h a t r e l i e f was
o b ta in e d o n ly th ro u g h some kind o f change in th e s i t u a t i o n .
E ith e r th e in d iv id u a l l e f t th e s i t u a t i o n , o r circu m stan ces
190
b ro u g h t about a change in th e s i t u a t i o n .
I t a p p e a rs, th e n ,
t h a t th e stim u lu s s i t u a t i o n p la y s an im portant r o le in
i n c i t i n g and in i n h i b i t i n g n o s ta lg ic behavior*
Thus f a r we have not in v e s tig a te d th e r e a c tio n a l b io g ­
raphy o f th e in d iv id u a l except to determ ine som ething about
h is f i r s t a tta c k o f n o s t a lg i a .
I t i s ap p aren t from th e above
t h a t n o s t a l g i a in v o lv e s much more than j u s t b ein g away from
home.
P re s e n tly we s h a l l c o n s id e r more f u l l y th e in d iv id u a l
and h i s re a c tio n a l—b io g rap h y , and e s p e c ia lly th e Q uestion as
to why some in d iv id u a ls s u f f e r n o s ta lg ia when in an **aw&y
from homett circ u m stan c e w hile o th e r s do n o t.
I t was co n sid ered wise to determ ine how long i t had
been s in c e th e s u b je c ts in th e homesick group had been home­
sick*
Thus we co u ld make c e r t a i n th a t a l l o f th e homesick
s u b je c ts had been homesick a t some tim e d u rin g th e se m e ste r,
and a ls o could o b ta in a rough e s tim a te o f th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f
t h e i r re s p o n s e s , s in c e th o se who had not been homesick fo r
s e v e ra l months were p ro b ably l e s s r e li a b l e th a n th o se who
had been homesick w ith in th e p a s t few weeks.
t o q u e s tio n 31s
The answers
8When was th e l a s t tim e you were homesick?*1
a re g iv en In Table V I I I .
th e s e d a ta show t h a t only a very few o f th e homesick
s u b je c ts were hom esick a t th e tim e they answered th e ques­
tio n n a ire ® 0 and t h a t most o f them had not been homesick
w ith in th e p reced in g week*
We must assume, th e r e f o r e , t h a t
th e re sp o n se s a r e l e s s r e l i a b l e th a n they would have been
T able V III
Answers given by th e Hone s ic k Group to th e Q uestion:
*Wh@B was th e l a s t tim e you were homesick?**
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Answers
I.
IX.
XII*
IV.
low
W ithin th e l a s t week
W ithin th e l a s t month
F i r s t p a r t o f th e sem ester
Homesick boys
g iv in g th e
answer
Wo*
*
Wo.
*
3
8
23
16
6
16
46
32
6
7
9
29
10
14
18
58
had a l l th e s u b je c ts a c tu a lly been homesick a t th e tim e th ey
answered th e q u e stio n n a ire s*
However, i t i s n o t p ro b ab le
th a t any v ery s e rio u s in a c c u ra c ie s have r e s u lt e d .
P erhaps
some item® were s l i g h t l y exaggerated w hile o th e rs were
m inim ised o r f o r g o tte n , but th e c o n d itio n i s not r e a lly
s e r io u s .
Had th e s u b je c ts n o t been homesick f o r a y ear o r
more i t would have been unwise to use them.
For t h i s reaso n
one o f th e c r i t e r i a f o r s e le c tin g th e homesick s u b je c ts was
t h a t th ey must have b e e s homesick a t l e a s t once during th e
p re se n t sem ester.
The answers t o th e q u e stio n :
H^hat u s u a lly causes you
to become homesick?® are given in Table IX*
are c l a s s i f i e d a s fo llo w s:
cu m stan ces; I I .
I.
^Unpleasant experience® c i r ­
^Temporary o r sym bolical r e tu r n o f the
fa m ilia r* c irc u m sta n c e s; I I I .
f a m i l i a r ; IV*
These answers
Im aginary r e tu r n to th e
C ontinued o r prolonged absence from th e
192
fable IX
C o n d itio n s l i s t e d by th e Homesick S u b je c ts as
u s u a lly c a u sin g t h e i r a tta c k s o f Homesickness
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Answers
Ho,
I , *U npleasant experience*
01scouragem ent# b lu e s t
p o o r g ra d e s , w orry, f e a r ,
s e l f - p i t y , tr o u b le
2b
Hard work, b ard s tu d ie s ,
i n a b i l i t y to stu d y
3
l o n e l i n e s s , away from
f r ie n d s
8
P h y s ic a l i l l n e s s
5
Being c r i t i c i s e d o r
b o ssed by o th e rs
3
Snobbish p eo p le
1
l i k e home more th a n I
Ho,
*
50
13
24
6
1
B
12
10
S
1
12
2
6
2
1
3
1
1
1
2
2
3
1
1
2
2
1
2
5
2
10
4
%
Act o f le a v in g home
S o litu d e when I need ad v ice
S eeing o th e rs en jo y them­
s e lv e s when I c a n ’t
Hot g e ttin g enough to e a t
l o t used to b ein g away
from home
II* ^Temporary o r sy m b o lical
r e t u r n o f th e fa m ilia r*
e i rcu m sian ces:
A v i s i t home
b e t t e r from home
P eople o r th in g s th a t
remind me o f home
Hews from home
Phone c a l l s
I I I , Im aginary r e tu r n to th e
f a m il i a r :
I n a c t i v i t y , no p la c e to
go, n o th in g to d© but
ta lk in g o r th in k in g about
home, o r th o s e a t home,
easy tim es a t home
193
Homesick boys
g iv in g th e
answer
1
5
2
10
3
1
1
4
2
3
4
8
5
10
4
8
10
20
/
Table I I
(Cent inued)
Answers
Homesick girls
giving the
answer
4
Ho*
Bo*
Musi©
3
IT . Continued o r prolonged
absence from th e fam iliar;
B eing away fro© home fo r
a long tim e
Mies © o th e r s companion­
s h ip
S e p a ra tio n fro© fa m ily ,
m lse seein g parent®
Away fro© my g i r l
I© news fro© home
5
a
1
3
3
1
T* 8U n certain ty * circ u m stan ee&:
S tra n g e , new su rro undings
2
H© one t o o o n fid e in
Dependent upon th o se a t home
4
TX* B onn knows
f a m i l i a r | T*
Homesick boys
giving the
answer
e
4
a
3
8
a
^U ncertainty* circ u m stan c es; Tt*
BonH know*
From Table X! we see t h a t u n p leasan t circu m stan ces were
fre q u e n tly l i s t e d as causes o f n o sta lg ia *
The u n p leasa n t
circum stance® l i s t e d , in c lu d in g such faster® a s d isco u ra g e­
m ent, s o c i a l m aladjustm ent, w orry, e tc * , a re circu m stan ces
c h a ra c te r iz e d by th w a rtin g s and fru s tra tio n ® , and th e r e f o r e
ten d t o aro u se f e a r re sp o n se s, to s t i r emergency em otions,
and t o c r e a te d e fe n siv e mechanisms.
B e h a v io ra lly , such
re sp o n se s would be ex p ressed a® attem p ts to w ithdraw o r to
194
escape fro® th e s i t u a t i o n .
®Temporary o r sym bolical r e tu r n
o f th e f a m i l i a r 11 circ u m stan c es b rin g r e l i e f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n
by re s o lv in g th e f r u s t r a t i o n and acco m p lish in g , a c tu a lly o r
sy m b o lic a lly , th e d e s i r e fo r r e t u r n to th e home s i t u a t i o n .
With th e p a ssin g o f th e s e c irc u m sta n c e s, how ever, th e o ld
f r u s t r a t i o n s re ap p ear in v iv id c o n tr a s t to th e re c e n t
s a t i s f a c t i o n , and th e in d iv id u a l e x p e rien ces hom esickness,
th e same h o ld s t r u e f o r 11im aginary r e tu r n to th e fam iliar®
c irc u m sta n c e s.
C ircum stances c h a ra c te r iz e d by a co n tin u ed
o r p ro lo n g ed absence from th e f a m ilia r might w e ll arouse
emergency em otions in as much as th ey would serv e to in c re a s e
th e a p p a re n t h o p e le ssn e ss of a f r u s t r a t io n s i t u a t i o n .
®Un~
c e rta in ty ® circu m stan ces would c e r ta in ly te n d to arouse
emergency em otions and f e e lin g s o f apprehension.
Thus a l l
th e c o n d itio n s and circu m stan ces l i s t e d by th e homesick
group as u s u a lly c a u sin g hom esickness are f a c to r s th a t tend
to aro u se emergency em otions, f e a r , and d e fe n siv e mechanisms
which p ro b a b ly have as t h e i r n e u ro lo g ic a l b a s is th e a c tiv a ­
t i o n o f th e sy m p ath etic d iv is io n o f th e autonom ic nervous
system .
The answ ers t o th e q u estio n s
“What ag g ra v a te s your
hom esickness most?® a re given in Table X.
The responses
f a l l u n d er th e same c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as do th e answers to th e
p re c e d in g q u e s tio n .
T h e re fo re , we draw th e same c o n c lu sio n s,
nam ely, t h a t th o se circu m stan ces which ten d t o in c i te o r to
enhance emergency em otional b e h a v io r are th e circu m stan ces
1m
Table %
C o n d itio n s l i s t e d by th e Homesick S u b je c ts as
A ggravating t h e i r a tta c k s of Homesickness
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Answers
Wo*
I , "U npleasant e x p e rie n c e ”
c irc u m sta n c e s?
W orry, th in g s n o t going
w e ll, b lu e s
4
F a tig u e , i l l n e s s , p h y sic a l
c o n d itio n
2
Gloomy w eath er, week-ends
1
Anything u n p le a s a n t, low
gy ad ee, d isa p p o in tm e n ts,
s t u d i e s , b ein g b o ssed ,
ig n o red
1?
F a c t canH go home,
e a n #t see p a r e n ts
1
2
l o n e l i n e s s , n o th in g to do
To see o th e rs going home
1
To s e e o th e rs who a re
1
homesick
B eing te a s e d , c a ll e d
”mamma*s boy®, ei#
Being away from g i r l f r ie n d
II*
Homesick boys
giving the
answer
$
Ho#
$
8
1
2
4
3
1
1
2
2
34
6
13
2
4
2
3
6
1
6
12
3
3
1
6
a
7
1
3
14
2
6
3
6
5
4
10
8
2
Temporary o r sy m bolical r e tu r n
o f th e f a m i!ia r *e ireurast anee s ;
b e t t e r s from home, p a p e rs,
c a l l s , p eo p le from home
Sympathy
T ie i t home
f e o p le o r th in g s th a t
resem ble th o se a t home,
rem in d ers
13
4
1
36
8
3
3
6
1
2
1
1
2
2
III* Im aginary r e tu r n t o th e
f a m ilia r s
T alk in g about home, parei
fa m ily , h ea r o th e rs
T alk in g w ith o th e r s ,
b o re se in g
T hinking about home
B e a u tifu l music
196
f a b le X
(C ontinued)
Homesick girls
giving the
answer
Answers
%
Ho.
IT, C ontinued o r p ro longed
Homesick boys
giving the
answer
absence from th e f a m ilia r :
S ta y in g in erne p la c e
l e t t e r s from home
Wo.
$
2
"U n c e rta in ty 8 c irc u m s ta n c e s;
S tra n g e surrounding® ,
s tra n g e p eo p le
1
VI. D o n 't know:
16
which most ag g rav ate hom esickness,
f© a ls o a r e in a p o s itio n
to co n clu d e t h a t th e circu m stan ces which g iv e r i s e to home-*
s ic k n e s s a re a ls o th e ones which most ag g rav ate hom esickness.
th e answers to q u e s tio n s 34 and 35 o f Q u e stio n n aire
Ho. I I p e r ta in to th e symptomatology o f hom esickness and are
th e r e f o r e p re se n te d a t t h i s tim e .
These d a ta are p re se n te d
in ta b u l a r form as th e l a s t two q u e stio n s and answers in
Table LXXX in th e ap p e n d ic es, page 359.
Q u estio n Ho* 24 o f Q u e stio n n a ire Ho. I I i s :
g re e o f hom esickness do you u s u a lly have?8
"What de­
F ifty -tw o p e rc e n t
o f th e g i r l s s ta te d t h a t th ey experienced only mild a tta c k s
o f n o s t a l g i a , 38 p e rc e n t said th e y had sev ere a tta c k s , and
10 p e rc e n t s a id t h a t t h e i r a tta c k s were v ery se v e re .
Seventy—fo u r p e rc e n t o f th e boys sa id th a t th e y experienced
187
I t o n ly In a m ild d e g re e , 18 p e rc e n t ©aid t h a t they had
****** a t t a c k s , 6 p e rc e n t s a id t h a t t h e i r a tta c k s were v ery
s e v e re , and one hoy f a i l e d to answer th e qu estio n *
Q u estio n Mo* 36 o f Q u e stio n n a ire Mo* I I , wHow does an
a tta c h o f hom esickness d evelop?*, was d esig n ed to g iv e in**
form at io n a s t o th e r a p i d i t y o f o n se t o f an a tta c k o f home*sick n ess*
Six p e rc e n t o f th e g i r l s re p o rte d t h a t t h e i r
a tta c k s o f n o s ta lg ia cam© on v ery g ra d u a lly , 48 p e rc e n t s a id
th ey ©am© on g r a d u a lly , and 46 p e rc e n t s a id th e y came on
suddenly*
S ix p e rc e n t o f th e boys re p o rte d t h a t t h e i r
a tta c k s ©am© on v ery g ra d u a lly , 30 p ercen t s t a te d th a t th e y
©am© on g ra d u a lly , 63 p ercen t s ta te d th a t th e y came on sud­
d e n ly , and one boy f a i l e d to answer t h i s q u e s tio n .
t h e answers t o th e q u e s tio n :
11How long does an a tta c k
o f hom esickness u s u a lly la s t? * a re g iv en i n f a b le XI*
T able XI
Average P u ra tto o of an A ttack o f Homesickness.
Data g iv en by th e Homesick S u b je c ts
Answers
U©Bft know
One h o u r o r l e s s
Two hour®
One-fhalf day
One day
Tw© d ay s
Week
U n til I go home
V a rie s , n o t long
One n i g h t
S e v e ra l week©
U n til I © a ll home
U n til I g e t ac q u ain te d
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
H*.
*
3
6
4
3
6
12
4
3
18
9
S
10
20
10
4
a
10
5
2
4
B
1
2
1
Homesick boys
g iv in g th e
answer
Wo.
*
2
1
18
9
4
8
12
6
14
7
18
9
8
4
6
3
5
10
1
2
1
2
I t i s ap p aren t from th e se resp o n ses t h a t th e re i s no
d e f i n i t e p e rio d o f d u ra tio n f o r an a tta c k o f hom esickness.
In some in s ta n c e s i t l a s t s a v ery sh o rt tim e , even l e s s th a n
an h o u r, and in o th e r in s ta n c e s i t l a s t s f o r weeks, o r u n t i l
th e s u f f e r e r r e tu r n s to h is home*
The p e rc e n ta g e s r e p o r tin g
on th e d u ra tio n are ©o d i s t r i b u t e d , as shown in Table XI,
t h a t w© can conclude only th a t d u ra tio n w i l l probably v ary
fro® a few hours t o a week f o r g i r l s and from an hour to
a few day© f o r b o y s.
There i s , th e r e f o r e , th e su g g estio n o f a
sex d if f e r e n c e h e r e , th e g i r l s te n d in g to rem ain homesick a
l i t t l e lo n g e r th an th e boys*
The answ ers t o th e q u e stio n : *B©w do you know when you
a re homesick?* a re l i s t e d in T able X II.
The answers f a l l
in to th e fo llo w in g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s :
U npleasant ph y sio ­
lo g i c a l s e n s a tio n s ; I I *
III.
I.
F e e lin g s o f d e p re ssio n and d e s p a ir ;
U n s a tis fie d lo n g in g s and d e s ir e s ; IV*
F eelin g s o f in ­
adequacy and u n c e r ta in ty ; ¥♦ P resen ce o f in adequate s u rro ­
g a te mechanisms f o r r e tu r n to home and th e f a m ilia r ; VI*
Don*t know*
I t i s ap parent from th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f th e s e
answ ers t h a t only c o n d itio n s and circu m stan ces tending to
aro u se a more o r l e s s h o peless s it u a t io n and th ereb y te n d in g
to s t i r up th e emergency em otional ap p aratu s were lis te d *
We may th e r e f o r e conclude t h a t th e homesick syndrome in ­
c lu d es u& pleasant p h y s io lo g ic a l s e n s a tio n s , f e e lin g s o f d e p re s s io n and d e s p a ir , u n s a tis f ie d longings and d e s ir e s , and
feelin g © o f inadequacy and u n c e r ta in ty .
Table XII
Symptoms by which th e Homesick S u b je c ts
knew they were Homesick
Answers
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Homesick boys
giving the
answer
$>
4
Kg,
6
1
13
3
5
3
1
10
B lu e s, way I f e e l , de­
p ressed * cry* em o tionally
dow nhearted, grouchy, f e e l
i t w ith in me, l i s t l e s e *
c&n*t c o n c e n tra te , d u ll*
36
jumpy, i r r i t a b l e
E v ery th in g goes wrong,
§
h a te school and everyone
M ention o f home makes me
f e e l low
52
20
40
10
2
4
1
3
I* U npleasant p h y s io lo g ic a l
s e n s a tio n s ?
L o st f e e l i n g , stomach
f e e l s funny, hollow in
p i t o f stom ach, f e e l
em pty, th r o a t tig h t* in ­
d e f i n i t e lo n g in g , g rip ­
p in g s e n s a tio n
Loss o f a p p e tite
Can*t sle e p
Wo.
'
4
2
II* F e e lin g s o f d e p re s s io n and
I I I . U n s a tis fie d lo n g in g s and
Want to go home* to see
fam ily* see m o th er, t a lk
Want t o see th e gang* see
someone from home
Want to be a lo n e
Want my g i r l f r ie n d
IF .
33
44
18
36
1
1
2
3
4
1
1
8
3
3
2
4
2
4
F e e lin g s ©f inadequacy and
Lonesome
B e lie v e th a t th e w orst i s
about to happen
Table x il
(C ontinued)
Answers
¥ * P re se n c e o f in ad eq u a te
s u rro g a te mechanisms fo r
r e t u r n t o home and th e
fa m ilia r:
Think and t a l k about home,
w orse i t g e ts
Breast o f home fre q u e n tly
W rite many l e t t e r s
Homesick girls
giving the
answer
<
Ho.
/ac
¥1* Bon*t know*
Bon*t know, ® m *t e x p la in
it
n
i
i
2
2
Homesick boys
giving the
answer
Wo.
10
4
30
1
I
a
The im portance o f th e naway frem home0 s i tu a tio n and
th e d e s i r e t o r e tu r n to th e home s itu a tio n a re in d ic a te d by
th e answ ers t o th e q u e s tio n :
wWhat do you want more th a n
a n y th in g e l s e when you a re hom esick?0 These answers a re
g iv en i n T able X III*
fo llo w s :
I*
These answ ers are c l a s s i f i e d ae
R eturn to th e f a m i l ia r ; II*
F lig h t from th e
s i t u a t i o n , (a ) by w ithdraw al from r e a l i t y 9 (b) by f l i g h t
i n to r e a l i t y | I I I *
know.
Encouragement and a ssu ra n c e s; IV. D on't
Fro® th e s e d a ta i t appears th a t th e c r u c i a l f a c to r s
are th e ttaway from home0 s i t u a t i o n and th e f r u s t r a t e d d e s ir e
t o r e tu r n t o th e home s i t u a t i o n .
Emergency em otional
re sp o n se s a r is e u n d er v a rio u s s tim u la tin g s itu a tio n s b u t I t
I s o n ly when th e y a r i s e w ith in an 0away from home0 s i t u a t i o n
301
/<
//
Table XIII
Answers given by the Homesick; Sub;jects to the Question:
"What do you want more than anything else
when you are Homesick?"
Answers
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Mo,
R etu rn to th e f a m ilia r ?
Go home
Be w ith fa m ily
* Be w ith m other
Be w ith s i s t e r
See someone from home
b e t t e r s from home, c a l l s
Home meals
P e ts
F ia n c e , fia n c e e
Be w ith p a r e n ts
R elax a t home
P ackages from home
V i s i t from th e fo lk s
28
18
8
1
3
3
1
1
1
56
m
18
3
6
8
2
2
3
4
1
2
Homesick boys
g iv in g th e
answer
fo .
i
36
4
S3
8
3
1
6
3
1
6
1
1
1
2
12
3
3
2
I I , F lig h t from th e s itu a tio n s
1 , W ithdrawal from r e a l i t y
Be alone* go f o r walk
fo rg e t i t
fa n a t ion
Wot to stu d y
le a v e c o lle g e
a* f l i g h t in to r e a l i t y
0 ry
Throw th in g s
Something t o do
T e ll people what I th in k
o f them
B ate
Amusements* good tim e
1
1
1
8
1
4
1
2
2
2
8
2
1
4
I I I , S n c o u r agement and a ssu ra n c e s:
T alk w ith fa m ily
Someone to c o n fid e in
Pep t a l k s from f r ie n d s
T alk t o f a th e r
T e ll tro u b le s t o mother
IV , Don’t know:
202
2
2
1
2
2
3
1
4
4
1
1
1
5
2
8
4
8
a
2
2
10
and an th e r e s u l t o f a f r u s t r a t e d d e s ir e to r e tu r n to th e
home s i t u a t i o n t h a t th e y a re e& Iled n o s ta lg ia *
I t i s s ig ­
n i f i c a n t t h a t none o f th e homesick s u b je c ts wanted to f i g h t
back t o attem p t to conquer th e s itu a tio n *
R ath er they a l l
wanted to escape th e s i t u a t io n e n t i r e l y o r to f l e e to some­
one who would g iv e them encourage©ent and a ssu ra n c e s t o meet
th e s itu a tio n *
O bviously th e homesick r e a c tio n i s a f e a r
r e a c tio n in v o lv in g th e emergency emotions and c h a ra c te r iz e d
by f r u s t r a t e d d e s ir e s to r e tu r n t o th e home s i t u a t io n and
by attem p ted f l i g h t from th e p re s e n t s i t u a t i o n .
Furtherm ore#
a f e a r r e a c tio n c h a ra c te r iz e d by attem pted f l i g h t e n t a i l s
many and v a rio u s p h y s io lo g ic a l and p sy c h o lo g ic a l symptoms
which te n d to be enhanced when th e f l i g h t i s f r u s tr a t e d o r
appears t o b e h o p e le s s .
S im ila r t o th e above q u e s tio n i s th e q u estio n s
g iv e s you th e most r e l i e f when you cannot go hornet"
answers to t h i s q u e s tio n are g iv en in Table XIV.
sponses a r e c l a s s i f i e d as fo llo w s t
I.
"What
The
The r e ­
F lig h t from th e
s itu a tio n # (a ) by w ithdraw al from r e a lity # (b) by f l i g h t
in t o r e a l i t y § XI*
Encouragement and a s su ra n c e s; XXI. Con­
t a c t s w ith th e f a m i l i a r ; IV.
V*
Bon*t know*
Submission to th e s i t u a t io n ;
Here ag ain we see th a t escape from th e
"away from hen#* s i t u a t i o n i s an im portant f a c t o r .
The nos­
t a l g i a v ic tim wants to escape from h is p re se n t s i t u a t i o n , o r
a t l e a s t to re c e iv e encouragement and assu ra n ces which w i l l
h e lp him fa c e th e s i t u a t i o n .
Some o f th e s u b je c ts found
303
fable XI?
Answers given by the Homesick Subjects to the question:
gives you the most relief when you cannot go home?*
Homesick
g iv in g th e
answer
s i t u a t io n :
W ithdrawal from r e a l i t y :
In*
fo .
2
3
4
walk
1
Good s le e p
1
J u s t tr y in g t o
it
1
f © ©top th in k in g about home 1
Good drunk
(and
2 . night in to
em otional
7
A c tiv ity , d iv e rs io n
Good cry
4
6
T alk w ith
5
3
B ates
*
See o th e rs who cannot go
who f e e l same way
LS
I I I . C o n tacts w ith f a m i l i a r :
home
home
l e t t e r s from
Home p ap ers
P ic tu r e s o f t h e fo lk s
?w© o ld d o l l s
M ental «H ello 11 to th e fo lk s
from home
304
Ho.
$
9
1
3
4
18
3
6
8
3
4
10
30
8
16
4
a
8
2
2
2
2
14
8
13
10
4
l i s t e n to ra d io
Get down t o f a c t s
A th le tic c o n te s t
XX. Encouragement and a ssu ra n c e s:
5
t o c o n fid e in
Homesick boys
g iv in g th e
answer
2
4
1
1
1
’
4
8
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
10
2
3
1
3
1
1
2
2
1
5
2
10
4
7
8
14
8
1
1
1
1
16
2
2
3
2
2
3
10
4
6
30
3
6
Table XI?
(C ontinued)
Homesick girls
giving the
answer
teewers
IV. Subm ission to th e s i t u a t i o n :
Seems t o wear o f f
Ho*
V. Don’t know:
*
Homesick boys
giving the
answer
Ho.
$
2
4
3
4
r e l i e f i n m a in ta in in g some kind o f co n tac t w ith th e home
s itu a tio n *
Such c o n ta c t p o s s ib ly served, to b rin g encourage-
ment and a ssu ra n c e s w ith which t© fa c e th e “away from home*
s itu a tio n *
Only two s u b je c ts , b o th m ales, s ta te d th a t th ey
gained most r e l i e f by su b m ittin g to th e s i t u a t i o n , but th e y
do n o t t e l l us th e circu m stan ces o f such subm ission.
Q uite
l i k e l y t h e i r subm ission was in th e n a tu re o f fa cin g r e a l i t y
by a c c e p tin g t h i s predicam ent and tu rn in g t h e i r concern to
o th e r immediate p roblem s.
Many and v a rio u s answers were given to th e q u e s tio n :
*When d u rin g an a tta c k , o f hom esickness do you ex perience th e
g r e a t e s t B uffering?”
These answ ers are g iv en in Table XV.
The re sp o n se s a re c l a s s i f i e d as fo llo w s:
I , P a rt o f th e
a t t a c k , (a ) b e g in n in g , (b) d u rin g , (c) n ear th e end; I I . The
p a r t i c u l a r tim e o f th e a tta c k ; I I I , During ^ re tu rn to th e
f a m i l i a r 11 circum stance® , (a) im ag in ary , (b) a c tu a l o r sym­
b o l i c a l ; IV, During u n p leasa n t c irc u m sta n c e s, (a) p h y s ic a l
205
Table XW
Answers given by th e Homesick S u b jects to th e Q uestion:
•When d u rin g an a tta c k o f Homesickness do you
ex p e rien ce th e g r e a t e s t su ffe rin g ? *
Answers
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Ho •
I . P a r t o f th e a tta c k :
At b eg in n in g o f a tta c k
D uring th e a tta c k
h a s t p a r t o f t h e a tta c k
clim ax
20
2
10
1
XI* The p a r t i c u l a r tim e o f
a tta c k :
When alo n e on d a te m ight
In th e evenings* dusk
Week-ends
Meal—tim es
At m ight
D uring th e day
In th e morning ( e a rly )
Sunday evenings
Sunday a fte rn o o n
J u s t b e fo re g o in g to bed
J u s t b e fo re going home
6
2
4
3
1
2
4
1
1
X II, During " r e tu rn to th e
f a m i l i a r 11 circ u m stan c es:
1 , Im aginary:
When I th in k what I would
be doing i f a t home
When a lo n e , q u ie t
When people t a l k about i t
When I th in k about i t f o r
a w hile
When I th in k about my
p a r e n ts
When o th e r p eo p le *e fo lk s
come t o v i s i t on a h o lid a y
When X h e a r my f a v o r ite
p ie c e on th e ra d io
3 . A c tu a l, o r sy m b o lic al:
B efo re f in is h in g read in g
l e t t e r s and p ap e rs
J u s t a f t e r a v i s i t home
306
>
a
2
3
Homesick boys
g iv in g th e
answer
<fi@
L
Wo.
7
1
14
3
6
1
2
4
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
I
2
I
1
X
2
3
2
1
I
2
1
3
2
4
1
1
2
£
2
1
2
1
2
1
3
T&bl© XV
(C ontinued)
Homesick girls
giving the
answer
Answers
Wo*
C uring u n p le a sa n t circum ­
s ta n c e s 5
1* f h y s i e a l j
when t i r e d
When 111
2 . U nder p re s s u r e :
When have to o much to do
1
When* bossed*
1
When X*m tr y in g to study
J u s t b e fo re h ard c la s s
3* F a ilu re s * d isco u rag em en ts;
When tr y in g t o re c o v e r
when I l e t m y self go, and
$
Homesick boys
giving the
answer
lo *
4
3
1
4
1
1
2
2
B
2
2
2
When I 'v e done something
wrong
When I know 1 c a n 't go home 1
When d isco u rag ed
V* We d if f e r e n c e s n o tic e d :
Seems to be no d iff e re n c e
VI* Sot know*
2
B
2
6
S
5
34
(b) un d er p r e s s u r e , fo') f a i l u r e s and discouragem entsj Y.
d if f e r e n c e s n o tic e d ; VI*
Wot know*
Wo
From th e s e d a ta we must
conclude t h a t an a t t a c k o f hom esickness i s n o t c h a ra c te r­
i s t i c a l l y more sev ere a t th e b eginning o f , d u rin g , or n e a r
th e end o f th e a t t a c k .
Hor i s th e r e any evidence t h a t i t i s
always more sever© a t some p a r t i c u l a r tim e o f day o r week.
These d a ta do not su p p o rt th e statem en ts fre q u e n tly o c c u rrin g
20F
In th e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t n o s ta lg ia I s more se v e re a t n ig h t o r
In th e evening * The tim e o f day o r th e d a te , however, may
• t i l l he im p o rtan t in d eterm in in g th e degree o f hom esickness
f o r in d iv id u a l oases*
I t i s p o s s ib le th a t an a tta c k w i l l
in c re a s e in s e v e r ity a t th o se tim e s when th e in d iv id u a l has
been h a b itu a te d t o r e a c t in a c e r t a i n way to some stim u lu s
o b je c t in M s home s i t u a t i o n .
F or in s ta n c e , one who h a b it­
u a lly a t e th e noon-day meal w ith th e members o f h is fa m ily
would b e more l i k e l y to n o tic e h i s absence from home a t th e
noon hour th a n would one who seldom a te th e noon-day meal
a t home,
lik e w is e , h o lid a y s , b ir th d a y s , and s p e c ia l fam ily
a n n iv e r s a r ie s a re l i k e l y to i n c i t e or to enhance hom esickness.
O therw ise th e r e i® no evidence t h a t th e s e v e r ity o f an
a tta c k o f hom esickness w ill ten d to In c re a se a t some p a r tic u ­
l a r tim e , such a s in th e evening o r a t n i g h t.
Two in d iv id u a ls ,
fox in s ta n c e , have in d ic a te d t h a t th ey ex p erien ce t h e i r
s e v e re s t a tta c k s in th e e a rly m orning.
We must conclude,
t h e r e f o r e , th a t th e tim es a t which hom esickness tends t o in ­
c r e a s e i n s e v e r ity w i l l vary from in d iv id u a l to in d iv id u a l
s in c e such tim es a re a fu n c tio n o f th e i n d i v i d u a l ^ re ac­
t i o n a l b io g rap h y .
The answers to th e q u e stio n ;
HWhat do you do when you
a re hom esick t 11 a re g iv e n in T able XVI.
These answers
su p p o rt th e h y p o th e sis th a t hom esickness i s an emergency
em o tio n al r e a c tio n c h a ra c te riz e d by f e a r and r e s u ltin g from
a th w a rte d d e s ir e t o r e tu r n home and i n a b i l i t y to fin d o th e r
aoa
fable X?I
Answers given by the Homesick Subjects to the Question:
®What do you do when you are Homesick?®
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
I* R etu rn t o th e f a m ilia r :
I* A c tu a lly
Go home
3
3 . S ym bolically
6
W rite l e t t e r s home
lo o k fo r l e t t e r s from home,
2
w a it f o r postman
G a ll mother
1
W rite to g i r l f r ie n d
3. Im a g in a tiv e ly
S i t around and th in k ,
and w ish were home
R elax and th in k about horn©
I I . F lig h t
Homesick
g iv in g th e
answer
4
a
2
4
3
2
4
1
8
3
th e
1 . W ithdraw al from r e a l i t y
f r y t o fo rg e t home
f r y to be alo n e
S tay in bed f o r a day
Gay dream .
Draw p ic tu r e s
S leep
S i t around and a c t s ic k
6
4
1
1
1
3
13
S
3
3
3
€
D rink
G© t o bed
Go to movies
Wish to see f r ie n d s
3* F lig h t in to r e a l i t y
Mix w ith p eo p le
Work a© u su al
Seek m ental a c t i v i t y
Seek p h y s ic a l a c t i v i t y
Study
f a l k s e l f o ut o f i t
E at
Have d a te
3
1
209
4
14
4
2
4
4
6
2
3
2
2
1
4
1
1
1
1
5
1
2
8
2
2
3
3
10
2
1
3
13
T a b l m IT I
(Qontinued)
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Answers
Ho.
Ho.
Try t o th in k o f something
e ls e
P la y
h iste m to r a t i o
I II * Seek encouragement an t
a s s u ra n c e s ;
T alk w ith b e s t f r ie n d s
C onfide in someone,
hook f o r sym pathy,
c o n s o la tio n
Try to remember what I
am h e re f o r
Homesick boys
giving the
answer
5
1
1
10
2
2
2
4
8
16
2
4
1
2
3
6
3
I¥ , hose em otional s t a b i l i t y :
Cry
13
1
1
1
Become grouchy
34
3
Stood b e fo re m irro r and
c r ie d and w ished f o r m other
3
1
2
1
3
. Subm ission to th e s it u a t io n :
n o th in g ., j u s t g r i n and
bear i t
D isreg ard i t
8
2
4
¥ 1 . Don’t know:
means o f escape from th e r e s u l t i n g f r u s t r a t i o n .
f i c a t i o n made f o r th e s e answers i s as fo llo w s:
The c l a s s i ­
I.
R eturn
to th e f a m ilia r (a) a c tu a lly , (b) sy m b o lic a lly , (c) im agina­
t i v e l y ; XX.
F lig h t from th e s i t u a t i o n (b u t n o t to home),
310
(a) w ithdraw al fro© r e a l i t y , (b) f l i g h t in t o r e a l i t y ;
111*
Seek eneour ag©meat and a sn u ra n c e s; IV .
t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y ; V.
know*
Loss o f emo­
Submission to th e s i t u a t i o n ; V I. D©n*t
That lo s s o f em otional s t a b i l i t y could be due t o an
emergency em otional r e a c tio n such as th a t d isc u sse d above
needs no su p p o rtin g argum ent,
th e o th e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s
which a r e g iv en h e re have been d isc u sse d a lre a d y .
The answers t o th e q u e stio n ttI f you re c o v e r w ith o u t
going home a re you l i k e l y to have another a tta c k soon?8 a re
given i n Table XVII.
Table XVII
Answers g iv en by th e Homesick S u b jects to th e Q uestion:
8I f you re c o v e r w ith out going home a re you l i k e l y
to have another a tta c k soon?11
Answers
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Ho,
Tes
HO
T
20
23
?
%
40
46
14
Homesick boys
g iv in g th©
answer
Ho.
9
34
7
18
68
14
These answers show th a t about h a l f ©f th e homesick
g i r l s who recovered from hom esickness w ithout going home
s u ffe re d an o th er a tta c k soon a fte rw a rd ,
More th a n h a l f o f
th© m ales who reco v ered w ith o u t going home s ta te d th a t th ey
d id n o t s u f f e r a n o th e r a tta c k soon a fte rw a rd s .
211
The r e lu c -
ta n e e ©£ th e male s u b je c ts t© adm it a tta c k s o f hom esickness
p o s s ib ly reduces somewhat th© s ig n if ic a n c e o f t h e i r answ ers.
The answers t© th e q u e s tio n :
RDoes a s h o rt v i s i t home
always b rin g com plete recovery ?w are given in Table X V III»
Table XVIII
Answers g iv en by th e Homesick S u b jects t o th e Q uestion:
"Does a s h o rt v i s i t home always b rin g com plete re co v ery ?11
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Answers
!©.23
33
5
*
44
46
10
Homesick boys
g iv in g th e
answer
Ho*
33
35
3
46
50
4
These d a ta in d ic a te t h a t th e r e i s o n ly about a 50-50
chance t h a t a s h o rt v i s i t home w il l b rin g com plete re co v ery
from hom esickness*
T his im p lie s th a t th e r e i s about a 50-50
chance t h a t an in d iv id u a l who r e tu r n s home because o f home­
sic k n e s s w i l l ag ain be homesick a t th e co n c lu sio n o f th e
v is it»
These d a ta a re f u r th e r s u b s ta n tia te d by th e answers to
th e q u e s tio n :
*A fte r a sh o rt v i s i t home are you l i k e l y to
become homesick a g a in s©on?% w hich are g iv en in Table XIX.
Although- th e r e i s some f lu c tu a tio n in th e p e rc e n ta g e s th e
g e n e ra l im p lic a tio n s rem ain unchanged*
212
4
Table XXX
Answers given by the Homesick Subjects to the Question:
*After a short visit home axe you likely to become
homesick again soon?11
Answers
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
I©*
Yes
to
7
23
31
S
The answ ers t o th e q u e s tio n :
€/0
46
43
12
Homesick boys
g iv in g t h e
answer
Bo.
*
28
30
3
56
40
4
ffGiv@ th e oireujaetaB oes,
in c lu d in g your age* t h a t caused th e s e v e re s t a tta c k o f home­
s ic k n e ss you ever h a d ,11 axe g iv en in Table IX.
The f i r s t p a r t o f Table XX r e f e r s to th e age o f th e
s u b je c t a t th e tim e o f h is s e v e re s t a tta c k o f hom esickness.
The number o f b o th sex es who gave 17 ex IS y e a rs as th e age
when th e y had t h e i r s e v e re s t a tta c k o f hom esickness i s in *
deed s ig n if ic a n t*
That th e s e v e re s t a tta c k might come a t
any age i s p o s s ib le sine© th e ages given range from 3 y e a rs
up to th e age l i m i t o f th e s u b je c ts * There a re two p o s s ib le
e x p la n a tio n s fox t h e la r g e number o f s u b je c ts o f both sexes
who gave 1? o r 18 y e a rs as t h e i r age when th e y s u ffe re d t h e i r
s e v e r e s t a tta c k o f hom esickness.
The f i r s t e x p la n a tio n i s
t h a t an a tta c k o f hom esickness o cc u rrin g when th e s u b je c t
was 1? o r IS y e a rs o ld would be very re c e n t f o r th e s u b je c t
and t h e r e f o r e very easy f o r him to r e c a l l , whereas an a tta c k
213
Table X X
Answers given by th e Homesick S u b jects to th e Q uestion
*<»iwe th e G ireunistances (in c lu d in g your age)
th a t cau sed th e s e v e re s t a tta c h o f
hose sick n ess you ever h a d . n
Answers
Age i n y e a rs
3
4
S
©
7
8
9
m
It
IB
13
14
IB
16
IF
18
19
BO
31
Sot know
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
So#
$
1
1
3
3
4
3
8
6
1
1
3
2
1
1
18
15
2
2
2
3
3©
SO
4
4'
Homesick
g iv in g th*
answer
HO.
$
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
5
1
3
3
1
1
2
10
2
4
6
3
2
7
17
2
1
14
34
4
3
6
12
24
48
2
4
C ircum stances
sing a t c o lle g e
o iroum st s a m e *
F i r s t b irth d a y away from
Poor grades* f a i l u r e
a f t e r hard work
wore o f f
tim e fro® home
38
73
1
3
2
3
4
6
3
4
10
214
fabl© XX
( C ontinued)
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Answers
Ho.
n
X
3
2
4
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
3
1
3
1
2
1
2
Homesick: boys
answer
Wo*
Was around people X
d id n ft l i k e
Thought o f how f a r away
home seemed
T aking e&re o f s i s t e r who
was i l l
R u les and r e g u la tio n s fo r
s tu d e n ts
hack o f money when f a r
from home
R ain
W atching p a r e n ts d riv e away
a f t e r t h e i r v i s i t w ith me
D isappointm ent when not
pled g ed to a s o ro rity *
th a t I had made
a b lu n d er
Di sco u r agement
Bad lu c k , re c e iv e d "bawl-
S ta y in g w ith v e ry s t r i c t
au n t
V i s i t in g away from home
T ire d o f camp r o u tin e
L e ft w ith r e l a t i v e s o r
f r ie n d s w hile fo lk s
were on a t r i p
M id-term exam inations
H oliday away from home
D isappointm ent when oould
n o t keep p la n s f o r v i s i t home
T ra v e lin g alo n e i n fo re ig n
country
L e f t i n th e c o u n try
C ouldn1! go home f o r
T hanksgiving d in n e r
315
3
1
3
3
3
6
6
1
1
1
3
3
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
T able XX
(C ontinued)
Answers
Temporary o r sy m b o lical
r e tu r n o f th e f a m ilia r
c irc u m stan c es $
R etu rn from a v i s i t tome
Alone on a b e a u ti f u l
evening
S t r e e t l i g h t s on 10th
S tr e e t reminded me o f
h o w town
H earing f a v o r i te se le c ­
t i o n on ra d io
J u a t b e fo re le a v in g f o r
home
S eein g a fa m ily p ic tu r e
a t th e movies
C ontinued absence from th e
fa m ilia rj
$# v i s i t o r s from home
M other was f a r away
Longest tim e away from
home
Wanted mother
He l e t t e r fro® home
Being away
my g i r l
f o r a long tim e
Being away from my fam ily
T alk in g w ith roommate who
had j u s t re tu r n e d from
v i s i t home
«O neeriainty* c irc u m sta n c e s;
V i s i t i s g s tra n g e p eo p le,
s tra n g e r e l a t i v e s
F i r s t summer in ossp
S tra n g e su rro u n d in g s
Hot used t o b e in g de­
p endent upon m yself
W aiting f o r a r i d e home
Week-end w ith o u t something
p lan n ed
Homesick girl®
giving the
answer
We*
4
1
3
1
3
I
1
2
10
3
1
30
4
3
HO*
%
6
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
2
a
i
4
l
2
4
8
2
3
1
1
6
1
1
2
1
Homesick boys
giving the
answer
3
3
2
T able XX
C on tin u ed )
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Answers
Ho *
4*
Homesick boys
giving the
answer
Ho,
<
1
2
1
2
1
3
1
3
F i r s t week a t b o ard in g s
school
2
I n a b i l i t y t o u n d erstan d
c o u n try X was in
newness and ap p a re n t
d i f f i c u l t y o f th e co u rse s
A tten d in g sch o o l in th e
and f r ie n d s
newness o f c o lle g e l i f e
3
VI * bach o f encouragement and
a s s u ra n c e s :
F e a r o f not b e in g pledged
Ho c lo s e frie n d s * wanted
t o see old f r ie n d s
Wanted sry f o lk s t o eon~
s o le me
Wanted m other*s ad v ice
Alone and lo n e acme
Vo o th e r young p eo p le
13
1
1
1
1
Ho p e ts
?XX* Poor p h y s ic a l co n d itio n ?
i n 'a t
&
2
2
3
1
5
1
F a tig u e
V III
4
C o n d itio n s of m ental
s t r e s s and s t r a i n :
Worry about d a te s
Worry about s tu d ie s * f e e l*
in g o f f a i l u r e on ezam3
4
f o r r i e d and nervous
IX. Don*t know:
8
31t
16
a t a® e a r l i e r age would be s o re rem ote and th e r e f o r e l e a s
easy t o r e c a l l *
A second e x p la n a tio n i s t h a t 17 and 18 y e a rs
a re th e age® when most o f th e s e s u b je c ts made t h e i r f i r s t
prolonged break fro® home.
These a re th e ages when th e in ­
d iv id u a l b e g in s t o r e a l i s e th a t he probably w i l l never ag ain
l i v e a t home*
H is h ig h school days are o v er and now he must
tu rn from home to seek h is f u t u r e , whether i t be a t c o lle g e
o r a t work*
in e i t h e r ease th e o ld home t i e s mast be more
o r l e s s perm anently broken*
These are th e age® a t which th e
s u b je c ts se rv in g i n t h i s in v e s tig a tio n s t a r t e d to co lleg e*
I t i s n o t stra n g e th e n th a t 73 p e rc e n t o f th e g i r l s and 48
p e rc e n t o f th e boys re p o rte d t h a t th ey s u ffe re d t h e i r
s e v e r e s t a tta c k o f hom esickness w hile they were a t co lleg e*
F urth erm o re, i t i s not s tra n g e th a t few er boys th a n
g i r l s ex p erien ced t h e i r s e v e re s t a tta c k s o f hom esickness
w h ile a t c o lle g e f o r i t i s q u ite probable t h a t more boys
th a n g i r l s were p e rm itte d to go away from home on camping
t r i p s and v i s i t s lo n g b efo re re a c h in g c o lle g e age.
.
I
On th e
o th e r hand, being away a t c o lle g e was p ro b ab ly th e f i r s t
tim e many ©f th e g i r l s were away from home f o r any a p p re c ia b le
le n g th o f tim e .
Thus more g i r l s th an boys would ex p erien ce
t h e i r s e v e re s t a tta c k s o f hom esickness when about 17 o r 18
y e a rs o f age.
The second p a r t o f Table XX concerns th e a c tu a l c i r ­
cum stances which w ere given by th e homesick s u b je c ts as th e
c irc u m sta n c e s c a u sin g t h e i r s e v e r e s t a tta c k s o f n o sta lg ia *
These a r e c l a s s i f i e d as fo llo w s :
II ♦
I,
Being a t c o lle g e ;
^U npleasant experience*1 c irc u m sta n c e s; I I I .
or sy m b o lical r e tu r n o f th e f a m i l i a r ; I ? .
sence from th e f a m i l i a r ; V*
VI*
Continued ab­
8U n c e rta in ty ” c irc u m sta n c e s;
Lack o f encouragement and a ssu ra n c e s; V II.
p h y s ic a l c o n d itio n } T i l l .
s tr a in } IX .
DonH know.
Temporary
Poor
G o n d itio n s o f m ental s t r e s s and
In ev ery case th e s e a re circum ­
s ta n c e s which u s u a lly arouse emergency em otional b e h a v io r.
The u n p le a s a n t experience® , th e f r u s t r a t e d attem p ts to r e ­
tu r n home o r to escap e th e p re s e n t s i t u a t i o n , th e uncer­
t a i n t y o f p re s e n t su rro u n d in g s, th e absence o f encouragement
and a s s u ra n c e s , th e p resence o f p h y sic a l a ilm e n ts , and th e
dominance o f m ental s t r e s s and s t r a i n are stim u lu s s i tu a tio n s
which a r e e s p e c ia lly p o te n t in s e tt i n g o ff emergency emo­
t i o n a l resp o n se p a tte rn s *
The o u ts ta n d in g symptoms l i s t e d in resp o n se to th e
q u e s tio n :
#What were th e most o u tsta n d in g symptoms?” are
g iv en i n Table XXI*
fo llo w s :
I.
These symptoms are c l a s s i f i e d as
P h y s io lo g ic a l s e n s a tio n s ; I I .
d e p re s s io n and d e s p a ir ; I I I *
s i r e s ; IV*
know*
F eelin g s o f
U n s a tis fie d lo n g in g s and de­
F e e lin g s o f inadequacy and u n c e rta in ty ; V. D on't
The d e ta ile d statem en ts l i s t e d in T able XXI c l e a r l y
in d ic a te t h a t th e most o u tsta n d in g symptoms which were r e ­
p o rte d a re symptoms in d ic a tiv e o f an emergency em otional
resp o n se c h a ra c te r iz e d by f r u s t r a t i o n and fe a r*
F urtherm ore,
i t i s ap p a ren t t h a t n o s ta lg ia i s c h a ra c te riz e d by th e
219
Table XXI
Answers given by th e Homesick S u b je c ts t o th e Q uestion:
*What were th e most o u ts ta n d in g symptoms?"
Answers
I* P h y s io lo g ic a l s e n s a tio n s :
b o ss o f w eight
l o s s o f a p p e t i t e , could
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Ho
Ho*
1
3
5
10
2
1
1
4
2
3
2
2
f a s hungry, b u t co u ld n ’t
be s a t i s f i e d
Had a funny f e e lin g in
1
1
1
2
1
3
Had a p e c u lia r s e n s a tio n
o f th e e n t i r e body
1
2
4
8
C ouldn’t s le e p .
Had lump in my th r o a t
Had an empty f e e lin g
F e lt Tory t i r e d ,
f a tig u e d , l i s t l e s s
F e l t i l l , c o u ld n ’t fin d
th e cause
G eneral in d ig e s tio n
F e l t *funny* i n s id e , bad
1
Homesick boys
g iv in g th e
answer
2
10
3
3
1
6
8
2
8
4
1
1
8
2
2
II* F e e lin g s o f d e p re s s io n and
b l u e , unhappy, moody, sa d ,
dow n-hearted, low , very
s a d , d isc o u ra g e d , s ic k a t
17
h e a r t , moped, no pep
G ro ss, n erv o u s,
i r r i t a b l e , c o u ld n ’t
9
en jo y m yself
1
1
F e l t s o rry f o r
f a s e a s i l y " h u r t* , i» e
1
Did n o t l i k e anybody o r
1
F e l t t e r r i b l y abused, mis­
t r e a t e d , f e l t t h a t I was
2
n o t lik e d
34
18
2
2
2
2
4
8
f a b le X II
(Cent lim ed)
Answers
Homesick girl©
giving the
answer
WO♦
I I I , U n s a tis fie d lo n g in g s and
d e s ir e s s
C o n sta n tly wanted to go
home, lo n g in g t o go boa©,
som ething w it b in dragged
me t o go home t a longing
I co u ld f e e l in my
*oh@0tff
10
C rie d when ta lk e d to
m other on phone
1
C rie d whenever re ceiv ed
3
l e t t e r from horn©
C rying sp a ll* * c r ie d a l l
th e tim e , m ist b e fo re
22
©yes
Went o f f by m y se lf, des i r e t o be a lo n e , no de­
s i r e t o be w ith p eo p le,
lo o k ed s e l f i n room a lo n e ?
Wrote home ask in g th a t I
1
b e sen t fo r
1
S aid I was i l l
4
Wanted mother
C o n sta n tly th o u g h t about
3
home* about fa m ily
Wanted to w rite l e t t e r s
c o n s ta n tly , w ro te long
2
l e t t e r s home
Wanted to re c e iv e l e t t e r s
1
3
C ried a t th o u g h t o f home
I
Day-dreaming
C ried whenever alo n e a t
1
n ig h t
I
Dreamed about b ein g home
fa n te d p a r e n ts , stro n g
1
d e s ir e to see fam ily
Wanted t o b e home in a
1
c o rn e r
N othing s a t i s f i e d o r
1
com forted me
1
Wanted to see fia n c e
331
io
Homesick boys
giving the
answer
Wo*
$
8
16
44
10
30
14
1
3
8
2
4
4
3
6
4
2
4
1
2
1
3
6
13
20
2
6
2
2
8
2
2
2
2
2
2
Table X X I
(Gent lamed)
Homesick girls
g lying the
answer
Answers
Wanted company
Was s e n tim e n ta l about any­
th in g o r anyone from home
Head l e t t e r s o v e r and o v er
Got mad and d id what I
wanted to b u t w ith no
s a tis fa c tio n
Was s e c r e tly em otional
Wanted to see my frie n d s
IV* F e e lin g s o f inadequacy and
u n c e r t a i n ty ;
Hot k in g goes r i g h t f every­
th in g goes wrong
E a s ily frig h te n e d
S u sp ic io u s o f everybody
F e l t soared
L ost s e n s a tio n , n o th in g to
do* n o t know what to do
Wo a m b itio n , la c k e d ty p ic a l
a t t i t u d e toward my s tu d ie s
f e l t i t d id n * t m a tte r what
happened* la c k o f i n t e r e s t
in e v e ry th in g , r e s t l e s s
Was lonesom e, lo n e ly ,
com plete lo n e lin e s s
W orried about m o th er,
wondered what m other was
doing
A bsentm indedness, unable
to c o n c e n tra te , eo uldnft
stu d y
D i s s a t i s f a c ti o n w ith my
sc h o o l work, f e e lin g o f
f a i l u r e in my s tu d ie s
f e r r i e d about fin a n c e s a t
home, w orried about
h e a lth o f th e f o lk s a t
home
V.
*t know;
333
Wo.
i
1
3
1
3
Homesick boys
giving the
answer
Ho.
2
4
I
I
2
2
2
4
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
s
4
1
2
2
4
4
3
3
4
3
6
3
4
4
8
6
13
2
4
2
4
10
30
3
th w a rtin g o f stro n g d e s ir e s to r e tu r n home*
th e p a r t i c u l a r
symptome which o ccu r a re p ro b ab ly determ ined more by th e
id io s y n c r a s ie s o f th e In d iv id u a l th an by an y th in g else#
Whether o r n o t th e s e symptoms a re c a lle d hom esickness de­
pends* o f course* upon w hether o r n o t they o ccu r in an
*away from home9 s e t t i n g and a re th e r e s u l t o f th e th w a rtin g
o f a s tro n g d e s ir e t© r e tu r n to th e home s itu a tio n *
I f th ey
&©# th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s hom esickness; i f n o t, th e i n t e r ­
p r e t a t i o n i s som ething o th e r th a n hom esickness, and in term s
o f th e g e n e ra l s e t t i n g and th e o b je c t o f th e f r u s t r a t e d de­
s ire s *
The l a s t q u e s tio n i n th e group o f q u e s tio n s designed to
g iv e in fo rm a tio n r e l a t i v e to a symptomatology of homesick­
n ess i s th e q u estio n *
*th a t caused you to re c o v e r!"
answ ers a r e given in T able XXII*
as fo llo w s ;
I#
The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n h ere i s
F lig h t from th e s i tu a t io n ( a ) w ithdraw al
from reality* (b) f l i g h t in to r e a l i t y ; II*
and a s s u ra n c e s ; l i t *
fa m ilia r|
XT*
The
Encouragement
Temporary o r sym bolical r e tu r n o f th e
Subm ission to th e s i tu a t io n ; ¥•
D on't know*
The d is c u s s io n o f th e answers in Table XIT a ls o a p p lie s to
th e answ ers in T able XXII*
Any c o n d itio n th a t tends to r e ­
l i e v e th e emergency em otional p a tte r n s o f b e h a v io r te n d s to
r e li e v e hom esickness.
Su@h c o n d itio n s a re th o se th a t ten d
to b rin g a c tu a l o r sy m b olical accomplishment o f th e th w arted
d e s ir e t o r e tu r n home* t h a t te n d t o provide escape from th e
p re s e n t s itu a tio n * and th a t ten d to r e s to r e courage,
33$
fable XXXI
Answers given by the Homes iclt Subjects to the Quest ion 5
11What caused you to recover?0
Homesick g i r l s
g iv in g th e
answer
Answers
I*
F l ig h t from th e s i t u a t io n :
1 . W ithdraw al from r e a l i t y :
Good n ig h t1® s le e p , s le p t
i t o ff
T hinking o f o th e r s who
were away from home
Went to bed
2* F lig h t i n t o r e a l i t y :
F led g ed s o r o r ity
Got a stead y b o y -frie n d
Went out w ith f r ie n d s ,
went o u t and had fun,
%
6
2
4
4
10
1
a
4
2
4
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
4
2
2
k in d o f d iv e r s io n , b a l l
1
game, games, swimming
Got a jo b
S o c ia l a c t i v i t i e s
4
6
12
2
0
1
1
1
1
10
2
2
3
8
la d e new f r i e n d s , new
Went o u t among p eo p le,
mixed w ith people,,
a s s o c ia te d w ith o th e rs
ioney and tr a v e lin g
work th a t
to be done .
A go
Ju st
about
XX
Ho*
Wo,
3
Homesick boys
g iv in g th e
answer
2
i t , thought
e ls e
and a s s u ra n c e s :
P eo p le ta lk e d me o u t o f i t
T alked w ith f r i e n d s , en­
couragem ent from f r ie n d s ,
met o ld f r i e n d s , v i s i te d
v ery c lo s e f r i e n d , advice
from f r ie n d s , ta lk e d i t
o v e r w ith someone, f r ie n d ,
r e l a i iv e , companionship
10
8
2
2
10
Table XXII
(Continued)
Answers
Homesick girls
giving the
answer
¥o *
T alked m yself o u t o f i t #
t r i e d to con v in ce s e l f
o f f u t i l i t y ©f i t , r e a l ­
iz e d how f o o l i s h i t was
4
The way th e o th e r g i r l s
t r e a t e d me
3
Telephoned home, ta lk e d
to a l l th e fa m ily
2
K indness o f th o s e around me 2
I n t e r e s t my la n d la d y took
in me
1
Encouragement f f e e lin g ©f
accom pli shment
III.* Temporary o r sy m b o lical
r e tu r n o f th e f a m ilia r s
M other came to v i s i t me
Went home f o r a v i s i t
18
Went to my m other
T alked w ith my p a r e n ts ,
encouragement from p a re n ts
My fo lk s earns to v i s i t me
M other c a lle d me lo n g d is ta n c e
l e t t e r s from home
l e t t e r s from f r ie n d s
V is ite d by my m other
V is ite d by my p a re n ts
Saw my b ro th e r
Knowledge t h a t I was
g o ing home soon
V is ite d by f r ie n d s
IV* Subm ission to th e s i t u a t io n :
Became accustomed to l i v ­
in g a lo n e , *tlm e% j u s t
s tu c k i t o u t , g ra d u a lly
f o rg o t home
. 3
V* Don’t know
3
yl
Wo *
/S
8
3
4
1
2
11
22
1
2
1
2
4
2
4
8
3
6
4
4
4
3
1
4
36
3
2
1
4
3
3
I
2
4
2
4
1
2
6
3
Homesick boys
giving the
answer
6
o o n fid e n e e , s t a b i l i t y , and c o n t r o l .
Subm ission to th e s i t u a ­
t i o n b r in g s r e l i e f fro® hom esickness only i n so f a r as th e
tim e f a c t o r fu n c tio n s to r e s t o r e s t a b i l i t y and c o n tr o l.
Summary o f Symptomatology.
On th e b a s is o f th e d a ta
th u s f a r p re se n te d we v en tu re to o f f e r th e fo llo w in g g e n e ra l­
ise d symptoms and c o n d itio n s a s a tem porary symptomatology
f o r hom esickness:
1*
Homesickness might occur a t any age b u t i s most
l i k e l y t o occur when th e in d iv id u a l i s o ld enough to go away
to a camp o r on a v i s i t , or l a t e r then he i s o ld enough to
go away to c o lle g e o r to work*
3.
Homesickness might occur g ra d u a lly or suddenly, and
I
might l a s t from a few m inutes to a week, and in some c a se s
i
i t m ight l a s t in d e f in ite ly *
3,
The stim u lu s s i t u a tio n s ap p a ren tly have an im p o rtan t
i
r o le in th e e tio lo g y , d u ra tio n , and te rm in a tio n o f hom esickness
1
4* Being away from home i s an e s s e n ti a l s e ttin g f o r th e
!
o cc u rren c e o f n o s t a l g i a , b u t i s n o t n e c e s s a r ily a cause o f
n o s ta lg ia *
5.
Home sic k n e s s i s c h a ra c te r iz e d by th e f r u s t r a t i o n ©f
a s tr o n g , e m o tio n ally charged d e s i r e to r e tu r n to th e home
s e ttin g *
0*
The n o s ta lg ic syndrome in c lu d e s p h y s io lo g ic a l and
p s y c h o lo g ic a l symptoms which show f r u s t r a t i o n , u n c e r ta in ty ,
fe a r* d e s p a ir , d e p re s s io n , r e t a r d a t i o n , and in h ib itio n *
!
7*
N o s ta lg ia i s re lie v e d by th e a c tu a l o r sym bolical
accompl1 sh&ent ©f th e thw arted d e s ir e to r e tu r n home*
8*
O ther c o n d itio n s which fre q u e n tly r e li e v e n o s ta lg ia
in c lu d e a c tio n , a n g e r, e x c ite m e n t, s o c ia l in te r c o u r s e , and
th e a n a ly s is and u n d ersta n d in g o f one’ s s e l f and o f the
n o s ta lg ic s i t u a t i o n .
9*
N o sta lg ia ap p ears to be an emergency em otional
r e a c tio n p a tte r n i n resp o n se to th e thw arted d e s ir e fo r home
o c c u rrin g In an In d iv id u a l in an naway from home** s i t u a t i o n .
10.
The e s s e n t i a l f e a tu r e s o f n o s ta lg ia th e re fo re
appear to be an *away from home* s i t u a t io n , a stro n g emotion­
a l l y ch arg ed d e s ir e to r e tu r n to th e home s e t t i n g , th e
th w a rtin g o f t h i s d e s i r e , th e f a i l u r e o f escape mechanisms,
f r u s t r a t i o n , and t h e a ro u sa l o f an emergency em otional r e ­
a c tio n p a t t e r n w ith i t s v a rie d and sundry symptoms*
Thus we have d e riv e d a symptomatology f o r hom esickness.
I t I s t r u e th a t i t i s a g e n e ra lis e d symptomatology but th e
g e n e r a lity was d i c t a t e d by th e d a ta and n o t by th e p e rso n a l
i
i d e s ir e o f th e in v e s tig a to r*
In view o f th e d a ta a t hand th e
i
I i n v e s tig a to r v e n tu re s th e sta te m e n t th a t a more s p e c if ie
symptomatology f o r hom esickness cannot be fo rm u lated .
P e r s o n a lity D iffe re n c e s .
Our concern now is to d e te r ­
mine in so f a r as p o s s ib le th o se c o n d itio n s and o i re u s sta n c e s
which a re re s p o n s ib le fo r th e occurrence o f hom esickness in
one in d iv id u a l and n o t In a n o th e r.
F ir s t we s h a ll look f o r
p e r s o n a lity d if f e r e n c e s between th e homesick and th e non—
hom esick.
T his we s h a l l do by comparing th e mean sc o re s
made by th e two g ro u p s on C o n k lin ’s S x tra v e rs io n -In tro v e rs ic m
I n t e r e s t Q u e stio n n a ire and ©n th e B ern re u te r P e rs o n a lity
Inventory*
T his com parison i s made in Table XXXII*
The mean I x tr a v e r t- X n tr o v e r t r a t i o f o r th e homesick
g i r l s $.© only 1*2 p o in ts low er ( i * e » more e x tra v e rte d ) th an
t h a t f o r th e non-hom eslek group*
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f th e
d if f e r e n c e in th e mean sco re i s only 0*21 which in d ic a te s
th a t th e chances o f a tr u e d if f e r e n c e in th e d ir e c tio n
shown a re about 58 ,3 In 100*
Thus th e re i s no s ig n if ic a n t
d if f e r e n c e In d ic a te d on t h i s sc o re fo r th e g ir ls *
For th e
boys th e mean sco re o f th e homesick group i s 6*0 p o in ts
h ig h e r ( i . e . more in tr o v e r te d ) th a n th e mean score f o r th e
c o n tr o l group*
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 1*24 in d ic a te s t h a t
th e r e a re 88*9 chances i n 100 t h a t th e d if f e r e n c e i s a tr u e
d if f e r e n c e i n th e d i r e c ti o n shown*
F urtherm ore, th e
v a r i a b i l i t y o f th e s e sco res f o r th e boys i s s ig n if ic a n tl y
la r g e as 1© in d ic a te d in Table XXIV,
As f a r as th ese d a ta
a re concerned i t ap p ears t h a t th e homesick s u b je c ts have
about th e same e x lra v e r s io n - in tr o v e r s io n i n t e r e s t s as th e
noodho&eBiek su b je c ts*
N e ith e r e x tra v e rs io n i n t e r e s t s nor
in tr o v e r s io n i n t e r e s t s appear to be s ig n if ic a n tl y r e la te d to
hom esickness*
The answers t o th e B e rn re u te r P e rs o n a lity Inventory
have been scored acco rd in g t e a l l s ix o f th e sco rin g
Table XXIII
Comparison o f th e Mean Scores made by th e Homesick Group
w ith th o s e made by th e Hon-Homesick Group on th e C onklin
Ext r av e r e lo n - I n t ro v e rs ion I n t e r e s t Q u e stio n n a ire and
on th e B e rn re u te r P e r s o n a lity In v e n to ry
{ C r i t i c a l r a t i o s co n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t a re in d ic a te d
by an a s t e r i s k . )
P e r s o n a lity
T
r- a i tw-s J | %
♦ m
Compared*1
Mean S cores
HS
MBS
B i f f , in
le a n
S c o re s^ 6 D
D/CD
Chances
in
100
G ir ls
F.X.
82—8
BM
B4-D
FI—G
F3-8
9 9 .0
9 7 .8
- 1 3 . S - 6 3 .0
-1 8 .8 —1 3 .0
-3 7 .0
— 8 .0
36.4
£7.8
33.0
14.G
—31.8 —53 .2
— 1*3
5.47
15.90
11.69
9.68
13.03
18.38
11.43
0.31
3.06*
0.58
3.61*
0.7 6
0.97
1.87
58.3
9 9 .9
73.3
9 9 .9
77.8
83.3
96 .7
4 6 .6 • 5.29
/ 3 7 .5
15.34
-2 7 .8
11.58
^2 2 ,2
9.16
-1 8 .3
11.46
/4 2 .5
17.47
13.05
— 0 *4
1.24
2 .44*
2.40*
3.42*
1.59
2 .43*
0.03
88.9
99.2
9 9 .2
99.2
9 3 ,9
99.2
51.3
■/48.S
~ 6 .8
^3S.O
— 9 .3
^ 1 8 .0
.4
Boys
1 .1 .
B l* l
B2—S
B3-I
B4-D
n -o
F2-S
7 6 .3
—38.0
-1 3 .4
-30 *4
43.9
1 .0
-3 9 .6
6 9 .6
- 7 5 .5
1 4 .4
- 4 2 .6
61.2
-4 1 .5
—39 *3
^ F e r e x p la n a tio n ©f th e term s used i n t h i s Table to des
igm&te p e r s o n a lity t r a i t s , e .g . I . I . , Bl-H, e t c . , see th e
d e s c r ip tio n o f th e T est M a te r ia ls , pages 158-160 in c lu s iv e .
^Th© p lu s ( / ) and minus (*») sig n s ap p earin g b e fo re th e
fig u r e s i n t h i s column in d ic a te th e p o s itio n o f th e homesick
group w ith re fe r e n c e t o th e non-homesiek g ro u p .
^ 37he same fo rm u la used In f a b le XI, page 173, was used
schemes*
The com parisons f o r th e Bl—N ( n e u r o tic tendency)
sc o rin g e r e Q uite s i g n i f i c a n t f o r b o th boys and g i r l s .
P er­
sons s c o rin g high on t h i s n e u r o tic s c a le ten d to be em otion­
a l l y u n s ta b le ! th o s e sco rin g low ten d to be v ery w ell
b alan ced e m o tio n a lly .
The mean sc o re made by th e homesick
g i r l s i s 4 8 .5 p o in ts g r e a te r ( i . e . mere n e u r o tic ) th a n th e
mean s c o re made by th e non-homesiek g ir ls *
The c r i t i c a l
r a t i o o f th e d if f e r e n c e between th e s e mean s c o re s i s 3.03
which in d ic a te s t h a t th e chances a re 99.8 in 100 t h a t th e
d i f f e r ©ace i s a t r u e d iffe re n c e and th a t i t i s in th e
d ir e c ti o n shown.
The homesick boys have a mean score 37*5
p o in ts h ig h e r ( i . e . more n e u ro tic ) th an th e non-home sic k
group , and th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f th e d if f e r e n c e between th e
mean s c o re s i s 2 .4 4 which in d ic a te s th a t th e chances a re
99*2 i n 100 t h a t t h e r e i s a t r u e d iffe re n c e in th e d i r e c tio n
shown.
The evidence h e re i s t h a t th e homesick group te n d s
to b e more n e u r o tic th a n th e c o n tr o l group*
Our i n t e r p r e ta ­
t i o n i s t h a t th e n e u r o tic in d iv id u a l has g r e a te r d i f f i c u l t y
in a d ju s tin g to any s i t u a t i o n , in c lu d in g an ,{away from home*1
s i t u a t i o n , th an a l e s s n e u ro tic in d iv id u a l.
The measurements f o r s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , th e B2-8 s c o re s ,
a re s i g n i f i c a n t o n ly f o r th e b o y s.
According to B e rn re u te r,
p e rso n s sc o rin g h ig h on t h i s s c a le p r e f e r to be a lo n e ,
r a r e l y ask f o r sympathy o r encouragem ent, and tend to ig n o re
th e ad v ic e o f o t h e r s , whereas th o s e sco rin g low d i s l i k e
s o litu d e and o fte n seek advice and encouragement*
From what
we knew about hom esickness we would expect th e homesick
group t o make s i g n i f i c a n t l y low er sc o re s on t h i s measure than
th e non—homesick group*
I t i s s u r p r is in g , th e r e f o r e , to fin d
th a t th e mean sc o re made by th e homesick g i r l s i s only 6*8
p o in ts lo w er th a n th e mean sc o re made by th e non-homes ick
g irls ,
th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s 0 .5 8 which in d ic a te s t h a t th e
chances a r e only 7 3 .2 In 100 t h a t th e r e i s a tr u e d if f e r e n c e
in th e d i r e c t i o n shown.
For th e boys th e d if f e r e n c e i n mean
sc o re s i s more s ig n if ic a n t*
The mean sco re i s 27.8 p o in ts
low er f o r th e tome s ic k group th an fo r th e non-homes lok group,
and th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s 2 .4 0 which in d ic a te s th a t th e
chances a r e 99.8 in 100 t h a t th e r e i s a t r u e d iffe re n c e in
th e d i r e c t lorn shown*
These d a ta in d ic a te th a t th e homesick
boys a r e more la c k in g in s e l f - s u f f ic i e n c y , have a g r e a te r
d i s l i k e f o r s o l i tu d e , and arc more prone to seek advice and
encouragem ent th an th e non-homesiok to y s ,
w© have seen a l ­
ready t h a t seeking ad v ice and encouragem ent, and seeking
com panionship a r e among th e c h ie f f a c to r s l i s t e d by th e
homesick group as g iv in g them r e l i e f from t h e i r homesickness*
The d a ta stow l i t t l e ev id en ce, however, o f such a d iffe re n c e
between th e two g roups o f g i r l s .
Perhaps under our so cio ­
psycho l o g ic a l system g i r l s have l e s s o p p o rtu n ity to become
s e l f —s u f f i c i e n t to t h a t both homesick and non-homesiek g i r l s
ten d t o be a lik e in t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .
The B3-Z sc o rin g scheme f o r th e B e rn re u te r P e rs o n a lity
In v e n to ry was c o n s tru c te d to g iv e a measure o f in tr o v e r s io n -
e x tro v e rs io n *
m i s i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t from C o n k lin 's
f& txaversiO T i-IntrovereiQ n I n t e r e s t Q u e stio n n a ire which p u r­
p o r ts to g iv e e x ir& v e rs io n ^ in tro v e rs io n i n t e r e s t d iffe re n c e s *
The d a ta from C o n k lin 's q u e s tio n n a ire ! as we have seen* g iv e
l i t t l e in d ic a tio n o f a s ig n i f i c a n t d iffe re n c e in th e se in ­
t e r e s ts *
According to th e B e rn ro u te r sc o re s p ersons making
a h ig h s c o re o® t h i s s c a le tend t o be im ag in ativ e and to l i v e
w ith in th em selv es, w hereas th o se making a low score r a r e l y
w orry, seldom s u f f e r em otional u p s e ts , and r a r e ly s u b s t i t u t e
day-dream ing f o r a c tio n .
We would th e r e f o r e expect th e
hom esick group to make a h ig h er mean sc o re on t h i s measure
th a n th e non-homesiok group.
s t a n t i a t e d by th e d a t a .
T h is e x p e c ta tio n i s w ell sub­
The mean score made by th e homesick
g i r l s i s 35 p o in ts above th e mean score made by th e nonbemesiok g i r l s .
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s 3.61 which in d ic a te s
t h a t th e chances a r e 9 9 .9 in 100 t h a t th e r e i s a tr u e d i f ­
fe re n c e 1® th e d i r e c ti o n in d ic a te d .
The mean score made by
th e hom esick boys i s 33*3 p o in ts above th e mean score made
by th e non-home s i ok b o y s.
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s 3.42 which
in d ic a te s t h a t th e chances a re 99*2 chances in 100 th a t th e re
i s a t r u e d if f e r e n c e In th e d ir e c tio n in d ic a te d *
These d a ta
in d ic a te t h a t homesick p eople te n d to be more in tr o v e r te d
th an non-hom esick people*
The B4—B sc o re s a re m easures o f dom inanee-subm ission.
P ersons s c o rin g h ig h on t h i s s c a le tend to dom inate o th e rs
in fa c e —to - f a e e s i t u a t i o n s ; th o s e sco rin g low tend to be
353
subm issive*
from our knowledge o f hom esickness we would,
t h e r e f o r e , be in c lin e d to expect low er sc o re s f o r th e home­
s ic k group th an f o r th e non-home s ic k group*
th e d a ta , how­
ever* ten d to g iv e i n s i g n i f ic a n t support to t h i s e x p e c ta tio n .
The mean sc o re made by th e homesick g i r l s i s 9*3 p o in ts
low er th a n th e mean sco re made by th e non—homesick g ir l s *
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s 0,76 which in d ic a te s th a t th e chances
a re 7 7 ,8 in 100 t h a t th e r e i s a tr u e d if f e r e n c e in th e
d i r e c ti o n in d ic a te d *
For th e boys th e mean sc o re i s 18.3
p o in ts low er f o r th e homesick group than f o r th e non-home sick
group*
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s 1,58 which in d ic a te s th a t th e
chances a re 93.9 in 100 th a t th e r e i s a t r u e d iffe re n c e in
th e d i r e c t i o n in d ic a te d *
The d if f e r e n c e s , although too
sm all t© be c o n sid e re d s i g n if ic a n t * are more ev id en t f o r th e
boys th a n f o r th e g i r l s .
P erhaps t h i s i s a ls o due to th e
d i s t i n c t i o n s made between g i r l s and boys in o u r p re se n t
s o c io -p s y c h o lo g ic a l system where boys are more li k e l y to ac­
q u ire dom inating p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v io r th an a re g i r l s ,
These
d a ta m erely su g g est t h a t homesick boys are not as l i k e l y to
t r y to dom inate o th e r s as are non-homesick boys*
Since
g i r l s a re more ©r l e s s r e s t r i c t e d in b u ild in g up behavior
p a tte r n s o f dominance we cannot expect th e d iffe re n c e be­
tween t h e i r mean s c o re s to be v ery la r g e .
The c r i t i c a l
r a t i o s a re sm all in b o th in s ta n c e s , but th e y do suggest th e
p o s s i b i l i t y o f a tre n d toward more dominant b eh av io r p a tte r n s
in th e non—homesick th a n in th e hom esick.
333
The degree o f seX f-een fid en ee i s in d ic a te d by th e F l-0
score® * P arso n s M ating high sc o re s on t h i s so a le tend t o be
h a n ^ e rln g ly s e lf- c o n s c io u s and to h a w f e e l in g s o f i n f e r i o r ­
ity # w hereas th o se m ating low s c o re s tend t o be wholesomely
s e l f - e o n f id e n t and w e ll a d ju s te d .
We would th e r e f o r e ex p ect
h ig h score® f o r th e homesick group and low sc o re s f o r th e
ncm ^om eslok group..
S ere our e x p e c ta tio n s e r e not supported
by th e d a ta from th e g i r l s .
The mean sco re mad® by th e
homesick g i r l s i s i f p o te ts ahetre th e mas* sc o re mad® by th e
mn»h®M®t®k g i r l s *
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o Is 0 .9 7 which in ­
d ic a te s t h a t th e chances a re o n ly 83.2 in 10O th a t th e r e I s
a t r u e d if f e r e n c e in th e d ir e c tio n in d ic a te d .
1%® d a ta from
th e boys are# h c w r e r* in l i n e w ith our ex p e c ta tio n s*
For
th e hom esick boys th e mean seer® i s 42*3 p o in ts g re a te r th an
f o r t h e non-homeeiok b o y s.
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s 3.43 which
in d ic a te s t h a t th e chances a r e M *3 In 100 t h a t th e re i s a
t r u e d if f e r e n c e in th e d i r e c ti o n in d ic a te d .
These d a t a ,
therefore#- show t h a t homesick boy a tend to be le e s s e lf- c o n ­
f id e n t %hm aos**hemessi«-k boy®.
th e f i n a l m easure in th e B e rn re u ie r P e rs o n a lity In ­
v en to ry in th e F3**t sco rin g scheme to detom -ine s o c i a b i l i t y .
High s c o re s m t h i s s c a le I n d ic a te th a t th e person i s nons o c i a l , s o l i t a r y , and independents low score® in d ic a te t h a t
he i# so c ia b le , and g reg ario u s*
The mean ©core made by th e
hom esick girl.® i s 2 1 .4 point® shew® th e mean sco re made by
th e ncm-bosaeelek g i r l s .
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s 1.S7 which
234
in d i c a t e s t h a t th e chances a re 96*7 in 100 t h a t th e re i s a
tr u e d if f e r e n c e in th e d ir e c tio n in d ic a te d .
For th e boys
th e mean s c o re I s .4 © f a p o in t low er fo r th e homesick group
th a n f o r th e non-home s ie k group*
The c r i t i c a l r a ti o i s 0*03
whioh in d ic a te s th a t th e chances a re only 51*2 in 100 t h a t
th e r e i s a t r u e d if f e r e n c e in th e d ir e c tio n in d ic a te d .
These d a ta do su g g est t h a t th e homesick g i r l s a re l e s s
s o c ia b le th a n th e non—homesiek g i r l s but th e su g g estio n i s
n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ig n if ic a n t*
The two groups of male sub­
j e c t s show no d if f e r e n c e in d eg ree o f s o c i a b i l i t y .
The
fo llo w in g e x p la n a tio n i s v en tu re d fox t h i s sex d if f e r e n c e :
I s a c o lle g e environm ent s tu d e n ts who a re not so c ia b le
q u ic k ly f in d th em selves is o la te d from s o c ia l a c t i v i t i e s and
campus a f f a i r s *
For th e g i r l t h i s means spending a g re a t
d e a l o f tim e a lo n e , w ith l i t t l e o p p o rtu n ity f o r s o c ia l a c tiv ­
itie s *
The a s o c ia l boy, on th e o th e r hand, would not be as
-Confined as th e a s o c ia l g ir l*
The boy can go alone to e n te r­
tain m en ts , m ovies, e t c . w ithout fe e lin g em barrassed o r b ein g
c r i t i c i s e d , whereas th e g i r l p ro b ab ly w ill s ta y in h er room,
become lonesome and moody, and perh ap s develop a case o f
hom esickness*
The v a r i a b i l i t y o f th e s c o re s made on th e Conklin
H x tr& v e rsio n -In tre v e rsio n I n t e r e s t Q u e stio n n aire and on th e
B e m re u te r P e r s o n a lity Inventory i s in d ic a te d in Table XXIV.
T here i s no s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b i l i t y in th e sco res ex­
c e p t f o r th e sc o re s made by th e boys on th e C onklin
335
fable XXIV
V a r i a b i l i t y o f Scores made by th e Hone s ic k and th e
lo n —Bcmeeick Groups on th e Conklin U x tra v e rsio n I n tr o v e r s io n I n t e r e s t Q u e stio n n a ire , and on the
B e m re u te r P e r s o n a lity In v en to ry
( C r i t i c a l r a t i o s c o n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t a re in ­
d ic a te d by an a s t e r i s k ,)
— o f th e
d is trib u tio n
13
IBS
D if f .
i n tf
6D 44
P/CD
Chances
in 100
G ir ls
2.r,
Bl—W
B2-S
B3-I
B4-B
FI—C
F2-S
3 4 ,SO
7S.S0
S3 *78
48,00
53,00
85,50
61,80
2 9 .8 0
84.00
63.78
49.00
66.60
98.00
52.20
— 5 .0 0
- 8 .5 0
-1 1 .0 0
— 1 *00
-1 3 .6 0
—12*50
4 9 .6 0
3.87
11.30
8.37
o« 86
8.51
13.00
8,09
1.29
0.75
1.32
0.14
1.59
0.96
1.18
89.80
77.56
90.56
55.80
93,98
83.02
87.72
3.75
10.85
8.19
6.48
8.11
12.36
8.52
5.00*
0.89
0.40
0.39
0.0 5
0.50
1 ,40
100.00
81.45
65,36
64.65
53,20
69.20
92 *08
Boys
E #I,
Bl-H
B2—S
B3—I
04—0
FI—0
F3-3
34.20
81.50
59.60
47.10
57.15
90.50
54.00
15.45
71.75
56.25
44,55
57.60
84.25
68.00
■/L8..75
4 9 .7 5
4 3 .35
4 2 .2 5
- 0 .4 5
4 6 .3 5
-1 2 .0 0
B x tra v e r s io n -In tro v e rs io n I n t e r e s t Q u e stio n n a ire ,
This ex­
trem e v a r i a b i l i t y o f th e S . - I . sc o re s f o r th e boys was con­
s id e re d in th e d is c u s s io n o f th e E.—I , s c o re s .
AA
The same form ula used in Table I I I , page 173, was usea
h ere.
Summary o f P e r s o n a lity D iffe re n c e s .
Fro® th e s e d a ta we
draw th e fo llo w in g co n clu sio n s?
1*
There i s no r e l i a b l e evidence t h a t th o se who a re
s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness tend t o be more in tr o v e r tiv e in
t h e i r I n t e r e s t s th a n th o se who a re not s u s e e p tib le .
2.
Those who a r e s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness tend to
be more n e u r o tic and more em o tio n ally u n s ta b le than th o s e
who a re n o t s u s c e p tib le .
There i s more evidence fo r t h i s
c o n c lu sio n among th e g i r l s th a n among th e b o y s.
3* Males who a r e s u s c e p tib le to
hom esickness tend to
be l e s s s e l f —sm ffie l e n t , to show a g r e a te r d i s l i k e fo r s o l i ­
tu d e , and to seek a d v ice and encouragement more o fte n th a n
males who are n o t s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness.
There i s
l i t t l e evidence o f th e s e tre n d s among th e g i r l s .
4* Those who a r e s u s c e p tib le to
hom esickness ten d to
he more i n tr o v e r te d , more im a g in a tiv e , and to liv e more
w ith in them selves th a n th o se n o t s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness.
There i s more evidence f o r t h i s co n clu sio n among th e g i r l s
th an among th e b o y s.
5.
Although th e r e i s no s i g n if ic a n t ev id en c e, th e re i s
a su g g e stio n th a t m ales wh© a re s u s c e p tib le t o hom esickness
ten d t o be more su b m issive in f a e e - tc - f a c e c o n ta c ts th an
th o se who a re not s u s c e p tib le .
There i s l i t t l e evidence o f
t h i s tr e n d among th e g i r l s .
8,
Males who a re s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness tend to
have l e s s s e lf- c o n f id e n c e , to be more s e lf-c o n s c io u s , and to
237
have B tro n g er i n f e r i o r i t y f e e lin g s than th e n o n -su scep t ib le
males*
There i s l i t t l e evidence o f th e se tre n d s among th e
girls*
?*
Although th e r e i s no s ig n if ic a n t ev id en ce, th e r e i s
a su g g e s tio n th a t g i r l s who a r e s u s c e p tib le t o hom esickness
tend t o he l e s s s o c ia b le and more s o l i ta r y th a n g i r l s who
are n o t s u s c e p tib le *
There i s no evidence o f t h i s tendency
among th e hoys*
The above d a ta a r e th e e x te n t of th e in fo rm atio n ob­
ta in e d from th e C onklin Ext r ave r s 1o n -In tro v e rs io n I n t e r e s t
Q u e stio n n a ire and th e B e m re u te r P e rs o n a lity In v en to ry .
We
must con clu d e from th e s e data, t h a t th e re a re p e r s o n a lity
d if f e r e n c e s between th o se s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness and
th o se n o t s u s c e p tib le , and th a t th e re are a ls o s ig n if ic a n t
sex d i f f e r e n c e s .
Those p e r s o n a lity t r a i t s in which th e home­
s ic k s u b je c ts have been found to d i f f e r from th e non-homes ic k s u b je c ts a re envisaged h e re a s t r a i t s p e rm ittin g home­
s ic k n e s s r a th e r th a n causing hom esickness.
P ersons having
p e r s o n a lity t r a i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f th e homesick group
m ight, because o f such t r a i t s , develop n o s ta lg ia sooner th a n
in d iv id u a ls having p e r s o n a lity t r a i t s c h a rs e t e r i s t i c o f th e
mm—hom esick group*
The Im p lic a tio n here I s t h a t , knowing
th e p e r s o n a lity t r a i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f in d iv id u a ls sus­
c e p tib le to hom esickness, th e p sy c h o lo g ist can p r e d ic t, w ith
some d e g re e o f a c c u ra c y , th o se in d iv id u a ls who w ill p ro b a b ly
develop n o s ta lg ia under environm ental c o n d itio n s fa v o ra b le
333
to th e developm ent o f n o s ta lg ia ,
There i s no evidence h e r e ,
n or i s i t su g g ested , t h a t th e p e r s o n a lity t r a i t s c h a r a c te r ­
i s t i c o f th e homesick s u b je c ts cau se hom esickness.
The
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n h e re i s th a t p e rso n s having such t r a i t s a re
l e s s r e s i s t i v e t o circ u m stan c es which tend t o arouse th e
n o s ta lg ic p a tte rn *
e t i o l o g i c a l F acto rs*
Data r e l a t i v e to e ti o l o g ic a l
f a c t o r s were o b ta in e d from th e answers to Q u e stio n n a ire s I ,
II* and I I I * and from o th e r so u rc e s which w i l l be in d ic a te d
a s th e d a ta a re p resen ted *
The in fo rm atio n o b tain ed fro®
th e answ ers to Q u e stio n n a ire I I I w ill be p re se n te d f i r s t .
The f i r s t o f th e s e d a ta concern th e age a t which th e sub­
j e c t s f i r s t s t a r t e d t o sch o o l.
Table XXV.
These are p re se n te d in
T able XXV
Answers given by th e Homesick and th e Ion-Home sic k S u b jects
t o th e Q u estio n : *At what age d id you f i r s t s t a r t to
s c h o o l?% w ith th e O rilie& l R a tio s fo r th e D iffe re n c e s
in P ercen tag es f o r each Answer
Age in
3
4
5
6
7
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe ren c es in P ercen tag es45
G irls
Boys
4
4
4
HS I I S D(^) OP P/OD m NHS 0(4) <70 P/OD
OB
04
m
SB
os
02 00 .028 0 .0 0
04 00 .040 0.00
38 403 .091 0.31
58 00 *099 0.00
08 -02 .051 0.39
04
30
70
08
02
24
SO
14
4 ob
-04
4 io
-08
.034
.083
.096
.060
0.5 8
0.4 8
1.04
1.33
45F o r th e method and form ula used to determ ine th e c r i t ­
i c a l r a t i o s fo r th e d iff e re n c e s in p ercen tag es in t h i s and
subsequent ta b le s see pages 176-177 o f t h i s t h e s i s .
I t was thought t h a t perh ap s th o se who s t a r t e d to school
(k in d e rg a rte n ) a t a v e ry e a rly age might have been condi­
tio n e d t o being away from home e a r ly enough to p rev en t home­
sic k n e s s i n l a t e r l i f e *
The d a ta show, how ever, th a t
members o f th e hom esick group s t a r t e d t o sch o o l as e a r ly as
members o f th e c o n tr o l group, and th a t members o f th e con­
t r o l group s ta r te d to school as l a t e as th o se in th e homesick
group*
We must co n c lu d e , t h e r e f o r e , th a t th e age a t which
th e in d iv id u a l s t a r t s to school has nothing to do w ith h is
s u s c e p t i b i l i t y o r non s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hom esickness in l a t e r
y e a rs .
The d a ta in T able XXVI in d ic a te th a t th e age a t which
th e In d iv id u a l s t a r t s t o c o lle g e i s o f no e t i o lo g ic a l s ig ­
n ific a n c e *
Table XXVI
Age a t which th e Homesick and th e Won-Homesick S u b jects
s ta r te d to C ollege
(These d a ta a re from th e R e g i s t r a r *s Records and c o rre ­
spond to th e answers g iv en by th e S u b jects)
Ago In
y e a rs
16
17
18
19
30
31-33
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
Boys
G irls
4j
i
£
h a BBS D($) O D D/CD HS HHS D( i ) 6D D/6P
52
44
03
44 4qb *100 0 .8 0
—
06 «100 0*60
SO ■
04 —03 *034 0.58
02
02
00 .028 0 .0 0
340
03
30
58
06
04
00
os
34
50
13
00
02
00
-0 4
/08
-0 6
^04
—03
.028
.093
.100
.05?
.028
*020
0 *00
0.43
0*80
1 .0 5
1.42
1 .0 0
A ttendance a t a p r iv a te sch o o l a ls o ap p ears to be o f no
e t i o l o g i c a l s ig n if ic a n c e .
T his i s ev id en t fro® th e d a ta in
Table XXVII.
T able XXVII
P e rc e n ta g e o f Homesick and o f Ion-Homesick S u b jects who
s t a t e d t h a t th e y had a tte n d e d P riv a te S chools, w ith
C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r th e D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
G ir ls
HS BHS ${%) CD
16
Boys
D/CD
w 4 m *067 0.89
HSBBS 0{Jt)
16 16
CD
D/CD
00 .074 0.00
A com parison o f th o se th in g s lik e d b e s t about c o lle g e
by th e homesick group w ith th o se th in g s lik e d b e s t by th e
c o n tr o l group i s g iv e n in Table XXVIII*
These d a ta show two
s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e s fo r th e g i r l s and two fo r th e b oys.
S ix ty - f o u r p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s and only 34 p e rc e n t
o f t h e non-homesick g i r l s s ta te d t h a t people and s o c ia l
fu n c tio n s were th e th in g s th ey lik e d b e s t about c o lle g e .
c r i t i c a l r a t i o f o r t h i s d if f e r e n c e i s 3 .1 2 .
The
T his might mean
th a t th o s e who l i k e to be w ith p eo p le and who l i k e s o c ia l
fu n c tio n s have p e r s o n a l it i e s w hich, when p re v en ted from be­
ing w ith people and fro® a tte n d in g s o c ia l f u n c tio n s , w i l l ,
i f i n an Haway fro® home® s e t t i n g , give way to brooding and
th e b lu e s , and to th o u g h ts of th e good tim es a t home, th u s
aro u sin g a stro n g d e s i r e to r e tu r n home.
th e o n s e t o f an a tta c k o f n o s ta lg ia .
Thus we would have
Or t h i s might mean
Table XXVIII
Answers g iv en fey th e Homesick and th e Non-Home sic k S u b je c ts
to th e B eq u est:
" S ta te b r i e f l y what you l i k e b e s t
about c o lle g e l i f e . 8
( C r i t i c a l R a tio s co n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t a r e in d ic a te d
by mi a s t e r i s k )
Answers
C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r D iffe re n c e s i n Percentage®
G ir ls
Boys
HS MS D($) a n
P eo p le, s o c ia l
fu n c tio n s
64
I n te l! * l i f e ,
accom plishm ents 32
R e s p o n s i b i li t i e s ,
independence,
s e lf-re lia n c e
20
A c t i v i t i e s , e x tr a o u rr. a f f a ir s
16
lew experience®
08
04
A thletic®
18
C o lleg e atmos­
p h ere
06
02
D ates
S haring i n common,
f e e lin g o f be­
04
longing
Age o f s tu d e n ts
08
(young)
00
P la c e s t o go
00
Mail
Campus
00
00
"Joeing*
Good tim e s
00
S o ro rity l i f e and 00
fra te rn ity l i f e
00
Freedom
L ectu res (n o t
c la s s room)
00
00
Dorm itory l i f e
R e g u la rity
00
R outine
Going home
B u sin ess l i k e cond.uct
la c k o f se rio u sn e s IS
Ho answer
d/ gd
HS M S D($) 00
0/6D
34 JZG .096 3.12*
32
33 -10 .089 1*11
34 -02 .094 0.21
34
34 410 .090 1.11
22 -02 •082 0.34
20
34 -04 .083 0.48
14 402 .071 0.38
04 /0 4 .047 0.85
04 00 .040 0.00
30 -18 *080 2.35*
10
06
08
08
08 402 ,057 0.35
06 00 .048 0.00
00 408 .038 2.10*
18 —10 .066 1.51
10 —04 *064 0.74
04 —03 .034 0.58
00
02
10 -10 .042 2.38*
00 402 ,020 1.00
00 .040 0.00
10
02 408 .047 1.70
00
00
03 -02 .020 1.00
00 00 000 0 00
03
03
00 .028 0.00
14
14
00 .069 0.00
02
02
00
00
06
03 00
DO 402
02 •—02
02 (—03
OB y*02
04
04
02
02
08
02
02
06
404
—02
—02
—02
—02
-02
—06
.047
#020
.020
•020
.020
.020
.034
0.85
1.00
1*00
1 *00
1.00
1.00
1.76
06 -0 6 .034 1.76
03 -02 .030 1.00
03 -03 .030 1.00
02 -02 *030 1,00
MS
.028
.020
.020
«020
*051
0.00
1 .00
1 . 00
1.00
0.39
t h a t th o s e who a re s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness fin d r e l i e f
from th e u n p le a sa n tn e ss o f b ein g in an 11away fro® home”
s i t u a t i o n by going o u t among p e o p le and a tte n d in g s o c ia l
f u n c ti o n s •
Such n o tio n has been c l a s s i f i e d above as a
f l i g h t in t o r e a l i t y In an attem p t to escape th e *away from
home® s i t u a t i o n and th e thw arted d e s ir e to r e tu r n home.
The second s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e between th e homesick
and non-hom esick g i r l s i s th e d iffe re n c e in th e p ercen tag e
©f th o s e l i s t i n g wf r ie n d s h ip s 11 as th e th in g th e y lik e d b e s t
about c o lle g e *
T h irty p e rc e n t o f th e non-home sick g i r l s and
only 13 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s gave t h i s answ er.
The
c r i t i c a l r a t i o fo r t h i s d if f e r e n c e i s n o t h ig h (S .35) but
when compared w ith th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o s l i s t e d i t appears to
be o f some r e a l s ig n if ic a n c e .
T his might mean th a t th e
non-home s ic k s u b je c ts form more ©lose f rie n d s h ip s than th e
homesick su b je c ts* and from t h i s i t might be in f e r r e d t h a t
homesick in d iv id u a ls have g r e a te r d i f f i c u l t y th an th e nonhomesick In d iv id u a ls have in form ing c lo s e f r ie n d s h ip s .
The
fo rm atio n o f c lo s e f rie n d s h ip s i s more th a n j u s t m eeting
p eo p le and a tte n d in g s o c ia l a f f a i r s *
I t r e q u ir e s a p erso n ­
a l i t y make-up t h a t p le a se s* a t t r a c ts * and i n v i te s c o n fid e n c e s.
In d iv id u a ls s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness m ight fin d th e forma­
tio n o f frie n d s h ip s d i f f i c u l t o r even u n p le a sa n t because o f
s e lf-c o n s c io u s n e s s and em barrassment during th e i n i t i a l
s ta g e s o f form ing th e f r ie n d s h ip .
Then a g a in i t might be
t h a t th o s e s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness are to o concerned
343
about t h e i r f r ie n d s bank home to be in te r e s te d in form ing
new f r ie n d s h ip s among s tr a n g e r s .
F o r th e boys th e two a l g a l f l e a s t item s a r e a t h l e t i c s
and c o lle g e atm osphere*
E ight p e rc e n t of th e homesick boys
and none o f th e non-hom esick boys s ta te d t h a t th ey lik e d
a t h l e t i c s b e t t e r th a n anything e l s e about c o lle g e ,
th e
c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s sm all (S . 10) b u t i t does in d ic a te a tr e n d .
Perhaps a t h l e t i c s h e lp to p re s e n t n o s ta lg ia in th o se who a re
s u s c e p tib le to i t *
In a t h l e t i c s th ey might fin d not only
e x e rc is e and a c t i v i t y b ut a lso p r a is e and su c c e s s , each o f
which i s probably a good a n tid o te f o r n o s ta lg ia .
Ten p e r­
c e n t o f th e non-homesiefe boys l i s t e d " c o lle g e atmosphere"
as th e th in g they l i k e d b e s t about c o lle g e .
This item was
l i s t e d by none o f th e homesick b o y s, but t h i s i s to be ex­
p e c te d .
F or th e homesick boy " c o lle g e atmosphere* means be­
ing away from home when he s tro n g ly d e s ir e s to be a t home.
For th e non-hom esiek boy i t means adventure, fu n , e x p e rie n c e ,
achievem ent , and an o p p o rtu n ity to be on h i s own*
The two
meaning® a re e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t , and although th e c r i t i c a l
r a t i o o f t h i s d if f e r e n c e i s sm all (2.38) I t i s co n sid ered
s ig n ific a n t.
The th in g s d i s l i k e d most about c o lle g e were l i s t e d next
by th e homesick and t h e non-home s ic k g ro u p s.
p re se n te d in Table XXIX*
These a re
There were two item s fo r th e g i r l s
and th r e e f o r th e boys th a t had c r i t i c a l r a t i o s high enough
to he co n sid ered s i g n i f i c a n t .
Here again th e r e i s a sex
344
Table XXIX
Answers g iv en by th e Homesick and th e Ion-Homesick S u b je c ts
t o th e R equest 5 *St a te b r i e f l y what you d i s lik e
most about c o lle g e l i f e . ”
( C r i t i c a l R a tio s co n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t a re in d ic a te d
by an a s t e r is k )
Answer#
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P e rc e n ta g e s
G ir ls
Boys
4
,
4
,
4
,
4
,
Jo
>
-ft
H8 MRS B($) GO p/(TD HS IHS m i ) go D/CD
R o u tin e, hours ,
16
r u le s
hose o f in d e p ,f
la c k o f freedom 08
R equired c o u rse s,
p . 5 d »* M ilita r y 06
A c t i v i t i e s , Rush 08
Snobbish a ttitu d e s *
c la s s d i s t i n c ­
tio n
14
B lind d a te s
OS
Change from High
School
06
I n s u f f ic i e n t r e s t
and s le e p
10
C la s s e s , s t u d i e s ,
14
exams, g rin d
la c k o f n ic e
02
c lo th e s
O dist ami *joeing* OS
08
Away from home
l o t enough good
tim e s
OS
Hours to be in
08
hack o f p e rso n a l
i n t e r e s t in th e
s tu d e n ts
06
Lack ©f a c q u a in t­
an c e s, l o n e l i ­
04
n ess
04
n o th in g
Money w o rrie s ,
OS
co st
P o l i t i c s i n Umiv*
00
life
Poor l i v i n g
00
q u a r te r s
06 /1 0 .062 1.61
OS
06 -04 .039 i .o a
00 ,*06 .034 1.76
14 —08 .060 1.33
00
04
06
04
14 00 .069 0.00
00 /02 .020 1.00
18
04 /1 4 . 0 61 2.29
08 7*02 .057 0.35
00
03 -02 .030 1.00
34 —SO *083 2.40*
24
34
GO ■/os .020 1.00
02 00 .028 0.00
00 /08 .038 S .10*
02
00
02 00 .038 0.0 0
OS —OS •020 1.00
04 /0 2 .044 0.45
08
00 /08 .038 2.10*
OB /0 2 .034 0.58
12 -08 .054 1.48
06
08
02 /0 4 .039 1.02
26 -18 .073 3.46*
00 4oz .020 1.00
06
12 -OS .05? 1.05
02
02
02 /G6 .043 1.39
.034 1 .76
00 .040 0.00
02 7*04 .039 1.02
00 .085 0.00
00 /02 .020 1.00
02 /04 .039 1.03
02 —02 *020 1.00
04 —04 .028 1.42
245
00 .028 0.00
Table XXIX
(C ontinued)
Answers
C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P erc en tag es
G irls
Boys
$
$
$
$
,
HS M S D {$) OP
Some p e o p le ca n ’t
le a r n t o liv eto g e th e r
00
Homesick p eo p le
Moral s ta n d a rd s
Jot
A th le tic s
le v e r can he a*
lone
00
I r r e g u l a r hour©
00
A ttitu d e o f men
tow ard women
00
Food
00
Roommate
00
Snap c o u rse s
R e sta u ra n t
Dates
Being Freshman
Fr a t e m i t ie s
Small town
D istan ce home
Away frcm g i r l f r ie n d
T each ers, sour p ro ­
fe sso rs
^Bigness* o f i t
Ant1 -Sem etic
R egim entat ion
p/ap
HS M S V ( 4 ) <3P
OS *03 ,030 1*00
04 —04 ,038 1.43
03 —03 .030 1*00
P/GD
00
00
00
00
03
03
04
03
03
03
00 7*03 ,030 1 .00
03 00 *038 0.00
00
03
03
04
06
03
02
03
03
03
00
00
00
00
00
00
-03 .030 1 *00
00 ,028 0 •00
■j-OZ .020 1 .00
704 .038 1 •43
7os .064 1 •?6
/0 3 .020 1 .00
70S ,020 1 *00
702 .020 1 .00
04
02
00
00
00
00
03
03
704 .028 1 *42
03 —03 *030 1*00
03 —03 .030 1,00
03 -03 .030 1*00
*03
-03
—04
—03
.030
.030
.038
.030
1.00
1.00
1*43
1.00
703 ,030 1 *00
—02 .020 1 .00
-02 .030 1 .00
d i f f e r e n c e , th e s i g n i f i c a n t item s f o r th e g i r l s n et o v e rla p ­
ping w ith th o se f o r th e hoys*
That p a r t o f c o lle g e l i f e
p e r ta in in g to c l a s s e s , s tu d ie s , exam inations, and th e so oalle& #grlm d% was l i s t e d as th e th in g d is lik e d most by 34
p e rc e n t o f th e non-hom esick g i r l s and by only 14 p e rc e n t o f
th e hom esick g i r l s .
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s 3 .4 0 .
346
P erhaps
t h i s means t h a t th e g i r l s o f th e non-home s ic k group in d u lg e
In a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s and f in d such th in g s as s tu d ie s ,
c la s s e s * and ex am in atio ns i n t e r f e r i n g w ith th e s e more
p le a s a n t a c t i v i t i e s *
The homesick p e o p le , on th e o th e r
hand, m ight have few er such a c t i v i t i e s so t h a t c la s s e s ,
s t u d i e s , and even exam inations a r e t h e i r c h i e f means o f
keeping a c tiv e and o f keeping t h e i r minds o ccu p ied .
The
o th e r item f o r th e g i r l s , which has a c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3*10,
i s th e f a c t o f b ein g away from home.
E ight p e rc e n t o f th e
homesick g i r l s and none o f th e non-homesick g i r l s l i s t e d
t h i s a s th e th in g th e y d is lik e d most about c o lle g e .
I n t h e case o f th e boys, 18 p ercen t o f th e homesick and
only 4 p e rc e n t o f th e nan-hom esick, l i s t e d snobbish a t t i ­
tu d e s and c la s s d i s t i n c ti o n s as th e th in g s th ey d is lik e d most
about c o lle g e .
I t 1.8 easy to sea how snobbish a tt itu d e s and
c la s s d i s t i n c t i o n s would f u r th e r dep ress and discourage th e
hom esick bo y , and th u s stre n g th e n h is d e s ir e s to r e tu r n
home.
I t I s a lso easy to see how la c k o f a p e rso n a l i n t e r e s t
in th e in d iv id u a l s tu d e n t would be more d is tr e s s in g to th e
homesick boy t b m t o th e non-home s ic k , f o r , as we have a l ­
ready s e e n , i t I s th e homesick boy who needs p e rso n a l a tte n ­
t i o n in th e form o f ad v ice and encouragem ent.
This item was
l i s t e d by 8 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick boys, and by none o f the
non-hom esick b oys,
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s 3 ,1 0 ,
F in a lly ,
e ig h t p e rc e n t o f th e homesick boys and 38 p e rc e n t o f th e nonhomesick boys s ta te d th a t th e r e was n o thing t h a t they r e a l l y
34?
d i s lik e d In te n s e ly about c o lle g e *
d if f e r e n c e i s S .46.
The o r i t l e a l r a t i o o f th e
The B p e rc e n t o f th e hom esick boys who
gave t h i s answer p ro b a b ly d id n o t id e n tif y t h e i r being away
fro© home w ith c o lle g e l i f e * and in any c a se f a c to r s o u ts id e
th e c o lle g e s i t u a t i o n were p ro b a b ly re s p o n s ib le fo r t h e i r
hom esickness.
From t h i s we must conclude t h a t an in d iv id u a l
can l i k e e v e ry th in g about c o lle g e , and y et have a s tro n g
enough d e s i r e t o r e tu r n home to make him homesick*
W hether o r n o t a stu d e n t i s working p a r t tim e w h ile go­
in g t o c o lle g e a p p a re n tly does n o t in flu e n c e h i s s u s c e p ti­
b i l i t y t o hom esickness*
th e evidence fo r t h i s statem ent i s
p re se n te d in Table XXX*
Table XXX
P erc en tag e o f Homesick and o f Ion-Homesick S u b jects who
s t a t e d th a t th e y were la r n in g a l l o r p a r t of t h e i r
C ollege Expenses
C r i t i c a l Ratio® f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
G irls
„ Boys
%
4
*
%
B9 wm D(f*) <TD d/<7D HS HHS \)(i} crp
lumber who were
22
working
lumber who l i k e
16
it
lumber who l i k e I t
b e t t e r th a n
04
c o lle g e
20 /OS .083 0.24
33
34 /08 .089
18 -OS .075 0.26
28
18 /10 .083
02 /o s .034 0.58
06
00 /OS .034
th e d if f e r e n c e between th e p ercen tag e o f homesick sub­
j e c t s who were working p a r t tim e and th e non—homesick
s u b je c ts who were w orking p a r t tim e i s i n s i g n if ic a n t fo r
b o th s e r e s ,
The d if f e r e n c e in th e p ercen tag e o f th o se l i k ­
ing th e work# and in th e p e rc e n ta g e of th o se lik in g i t b e t ­
t e r th a n c o lle g e i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t e ith e r*
I t is in te rs s t­
in g , how ever, t o n o te th a t 6 p e rc e n t of th e homesick boys
and none o f th e non-homesick boys s ta te d t h a t th e y lik e d th e
work which th ey were doing b e t t e r th an th e y lik e d c o lle g e .
I t was thought t h a t perhaps th o se who had earned t h e i r
own spending money would be l e s s s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness
because o f t h i s t r a i n i n g and e x p e rie n c e , b u t , as i s shown
In T able XXXI, th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f the d iffe re n c e betw een
th o se who had and th o s e who had n o t earned t h e i r own spendlu g money was 0.43 f o r th e g i r l s and 0*41 f o r th e boys*
Table XXXI
P e rc e n ta g e o f Homesick and o f Mon-Homesick S u b jects who
s ta te d t h a t th ey had a t some tim e earned
t h e i r own Spending Money
C r i t i c a l B&tios fo r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
G irls
Boys
HS IBS
D(£) CTD 0/<5D HS m s D(£) €TD P/&D
33
/0 4 .091 0*43
38
60
64 -0 4 .097 0*41
There 1** t h e r e f o r e , no ev id en ce here t h a t th e e x p e ri­
ence o f earn in g o n e rs own spending money w i ll reduce o r p re ­
v en t s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t© homesickness*
The
in q u iry a s to th e kind o f work lik e d b e st brought
349
o u t two s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e s between th e homesick and th e
non—hom esick g i r l s and between th e homesick and non—homesick
boys.
The sex d if f e r e n c e i s ag a in apparent s in c e th e d i f ­
fe re n c e s a re n o t o v e rla p p in g f o r th e two s e x e s .
These d a ta
are p re s e n te d In T able XXXII.
Table XXXII
Answers given by th e Homesick and th e Ion-Homesick G ir ls
and Boys t o th e Quest Ion s **What kind o f work
do you l i k e b e s t? 11
{ C r i t i c a l R a tio s co n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t a re in d ic a te d
by an a s t e r is k )
Answers
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe ren c es in P erc en tag es
G irls
$
eh
$
$
HS IBS D(^) (TV V/eSD H8 IBS D(£) 6V D /0 Q
Basy work
P r o f e s s io n a l and
sem i-pr ©f e s s io n a l
12
work
26
B u sin ess
04
Housework
P h y s ic a l
16
With p eo p le
With n ic e su r­
roundings
02
P lay i s dance
band, m u sical
02
C areer
02
Modeling
Rock q u a r r ie s
Shopping
02
Outdoor
04
lo n e
04
l o t know
A d m in istra tiv e
00
00
Reading
Farming
With th in g s
F ly in g
18 —06 .071 0.84
32 —06 .091 0.65
08 -04 .047 0.85
00 /1 6 .053 3.07*
00
02 —02 .030 1.0 0
12
42
10 #02 .062 0.32
36 #06 .098 0.61
04
04
04 00 .040 0.00
00 #04 .028 1.42
00
08
08 -08 .038 2.10*
00 #06 .034 1.76
00
02 —02 .020 1.00
00
04
24
08 -08 .038 2.10*
02 #02 .034 0.58
26 -02 .086 0.23
04
00
00
00 #04 .038 1.43
02 —02 .030 1.00
02 -02 .030 1 .0 0
00 #03 .020 1.00
08 -0 6 .043 1.39
00 #02 .020 1.00
00 V02 • 020 1.00
00
30
02
02
#04
—38
-02
-02
.038
.071
.030
.030
1.42
3.66*
1.00
1.00
S ix te e n p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s and none o f th e
Ben-homesick g i r l s s t a te d t h a t th e kind o f work they lik e d
b e s t was th e kind t h a t brought them in to c o n ta c t w ith p e o p le .
The h ig h c r i t i c a l r a t i o , 3 .0 7 , in d ic a te s t h a t th e d if f e r e n c e
h ere i s q u ite s i g n i f i c a n t .
T his r e s u l t a ls o co rresponds to
our e a r l i e r fin d in g t h a t more homesick th a n non-horaesiek
s u b je c ts p re fe rr e d t© be w ith o r around p e o p le .
S econdly,
4 p e rc e n t ©f th e homesick g i r l s and 30 p e rc e n t o f th e nonhom esick g i r l s s ta te d th a t th ey d id not know what kind o f
work th e y l i k e b e s t#
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f th e d if f e r e n c e
i s 3*66 which i s q u ite s i g n i f i c a n t .
This m ight mean t h a t
th e non—homesick g i r l s a re more secu re f in a n c ia lly th a n th e
homesick g i r l s , and th e re fo re have n o t had to c o n sid er th e
kind o f work th ey would p r e f e r .
l i g h t p e rc e n t o f th e non-homesiek boys and none o f th e
homesick boys s t a te d th a t th ey lik e d to p la y In dance bands
©r t© ta k e p a r t In some kind o f m usical a c t i v i t y b e t t e r th a n
any o th e r ty p e o f work*
The c r i t i c a l r ~ tio I s 2 .1 0 .
The
same p e rc e n ta g e o f non-homesick boys and none o f th e home­
s ic k beys s ta te d t h a t th e y lik e d outdoor work b e t t e r th a n
any kind o f work.
I t i s p o s s ib le t h a t p la y in g a m usical in stru m en t r e ­
le a s e s em otional te n s io n s which o th erw ise might serve to
charge a normal d e s ir e to r e tu r n home in such a way as to
cause n o s ta lg ia *
T h is would Im ply th a t in n o s ta lg ia th e
d e s ir e t o r e tu r n home i s em o tio n ally charged and such
a c tu a ll y seems t o b e th e case*
I t i s a ls o p o s s ib le th a t
p la y lu g If* clause bauds develops an 0e s p r i t de co rp s” and
c lo s e f r ie n d s h ip s w hich, w ith th e amount o f tim e spent in
p r& c tic in g and p lay in g * h e lp to p re v e n t hom esickness*
I t i s p o s s ib le t h a t outdoor work g iv e s l e s s fe e lin g o f
s e c u r ity and p r o te c tio n to th o se who a re s u s c e p tib le to
n o s ta lg ia *
T his would imply t h a t th e homesick in d iv id u a l i s
s e n s itiv e t o f e e lin g s o f in s e c u r ity and dependency and th e r e ­
fo re more l i k e l y th a n th e non-homesick in d iv id u a l to d e s ir e
to r e tu r n to th e s e c u r ity and p r o te c tio n ©f h i s home.
The p r e f e r r e d amusements o f th e homesick and th e nonhom esick s u b je c ts a r e l i s t e d in Table XXXIII * I n t e r e s tin g ly
enough, o f th e amusement© l i s t e d th e only one th a t appeared
t o be s i g n i f i c a n t f o r th e g i r l s was “re a d in g ” .
Twenty p e r­
cen t o f th e homesick g irl© and o n ly 4 p e rc e n t o f th e nonhomesick g i r l s s t a t e d th a t re a d in g was t h e i r p re fe rre d
asiusemeni*
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f th e d if f e r e n c e i s 2 .5 0 ,
which i s co n sid ered s i g n i f i c a n t .
This c o rro b o ra te s our
e a r l i e r fin d in g t h a t th e homesick g i r l s ten d t o be more in ­
tr o v e r te d th an th e non-homesiok g i r l s , th e assum ption b e in g
t h a t i n t r o v e r t s a re more l i k e l y to p re fe r re a d in g th an a re
e x tro v e rts .
E ig h teen p e rc e n t o f th e non-homesick boys and none o f
th e hom esick boys s t a t e d th a t th e y had no p r e f e r r e d amuse­
m ent.
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f th e d iffe re n c e i s 3 .3 3 , which
i© q u ite s i g n i f i c a n t .
These d a ta may be in te r p r e te d in two
253
Table X t X t l t
Answers given by th e Homesick and th e Hon-Hosestck
S u b je c ts t o th e Q u estio n : "What amusement
do you p re fe r? *
{ C r i t i c a l R a tio s co n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t a re in d ic a te d
by m a s t e r i s k )
Answers
C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
G ir ls
Boys
£
1*
$
$
HS NHS B($) CTD V/ ctd h $ hHS D (i) ctP p /r p
Being w ith o th e rs i
ta l k i n g
06
M ovies, drama,
54
th e a tre
Dancing
28
Music
08
20
Reading
16
A th le tic s
03
Sewing
D riving
02
Drawing
04
P a rtie s
Docking
02
02
D inners
B rid g e, c a rd s
02
Church
02
D ates
02
A lt
lo n e
00
G olf
S a ilin g
V arious
00
Watching people
00
00
L e c tu re s
Radio
ways:
04 /0 3 .044 0.45
06
10 -04 .054 0.74
62 -0 8
36 -0 8
OB 00
04 4 m
06 410
0o # 2
*008
.093
.054
.084
.063
#030
0.81
0.88
0.00
3.50*
1.61
1*00
56
42
08
06
28
46
38
08
06
18
00 402
00 4o%
00 402
00 **03
03 00
00 # 3
.020
.038
*020
.020
*088
.020
02
03
1.00
1*43
1*00
1*00
0*00
1*00
00 .038 0.00
03
03
00 .038 0.0 0
04
03 ^02 *034 0.58
04
02 ^02 .034 0.58
00
18 -18 .054 3.33*
00
03 —02 *030 1.00
00
00
02 -02 .020 1 .0 0
03 —03 *030 1.00
00 ^03 *030 1.00
02 -02 .020 1.00
04 —04 *038 1*42
03 —03 #080 1*00
03 -02 *020 1*00
4 l0
^14
^02
00
4 l0
.099
.094
.051
.048
.083
1.01
1*48
0.39
0*00
1.30
E ith e r th e non-home sic k boys enjoy a v a r ie ty of amuse­
ments w ith o u t p re fe re n c e f o r any p a r ti c u l a r one, o r th e y tend
t o have no e s p e c ia l i n t e r e s t in any kind o f amusement.
The
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n h ere i s th a t th e non-home s ic k ten d to enjoy
v a rio u s amusements, whereas th e homesick te n d to become
253
a tta c h e d t o one s p e c if ic ty p e o f amusement*
The im p lic a tio n
i s t h a t th e non-horaesiek hoy te n d s to be more v e r s a t i l e th a n
th e hom esick boy*
The r e c r e a ti o n a l p re fe re n c e s o f th e two groups a re g iven
T able XXXI?*
Table XXII?
Answers g iv en by th e Homesick and th e Non-Homesick
S u b je c ts to th e Q uestions 11What r e c r e a tio n
do you p re fe r? *
Answers
G ritic & l R atio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P erc en tag es
G irls
Boys
d/ ctd
HS m s H i ) OD D/CTD
1 *42
1 *61
1 *38
1 *00
00
06
04 -04 *028 1 .42
04 402 .044 0 .45
02
78
08
00 402 •020 1 .00
88 4 io .089 1 .13
10 —03 .057 0 .35
04
00 1*04
CO
CQ
o*
1 *43
0 .85
0 *45
1 *39
0 *58
1 .00
1 .00
00
02
03
08
04
00
00
02
04
00
08
00
02
02
—03
-03
1*03
00
1*04
-02
-03
.030
.034
.030
.04®
.038
.020
*030
1 .00
0 *58
1 *00
0 .00
1 .43
1 .00
1 .00
03
02
DO ,fe32 ♦030 1 .00
00 /0 2 *030 1 • 00
03
02
04
10 -06 .050 1 .20
03
02
04 —03 .034 0 .58
03 00 .028 0 .00
00
04 -04 *028 I ■42
00
03 -02 *030 1 .00
03 -02 .030 1 .00
02
00 ift>2 .020 1 .00
00
HS 9HS m ) GD
H a n d ic ra ft
Hiking
Reading
Sewing
F ly in g
A th le tic s
Drawing
P ic n ic s
Family a f f a i r s
D riving
B ic y c lin g
D ates
Horseback r id in g
Music
Movies
B oating
B ridge
Hunting and
W ritin g
None
B oressing*
t a lk in g
A ll
Shoot ing
Amateur ra d io
b ro a d c a st ing
Decking
—04
/1 0
fID
40s
00
16
24
03
04
06
14
00
*028
*063
*077
*020
46
33
02
03
02
§2 -0 6 *100 0 *60
30 ■^03 *082 0 *24
*030 1 .00
00
00 # 2 *020 1 *00
*030 1 *00
00
03
02
00 *038 0 .00
OS 04 ■fpl
m 04 402
oa 02 JQ8
04 03 4ps
03 00 4G2
03 00
*047
*044
.043
*034
*020
*020
254
00 *028 0 .00
The** a r e bo s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e s In r e c r e a tio n a l
preferen ce® f®* e i t h e r sex*
A pparently r e c r e a tio n a l p r e f ­
erence i s u n re la te d t o s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to homesickness*
F u rth erm o re, a s shown in f a b le XXI?, p r e s e n t o r p a s t
membership In o rg a n is a tio n s o r c lu b s (e x c lu s iv e o f s o c ia l
f r a t e r n i t i e s o r s o r o r i t i e s ) i s a p p a re n tly u n re la te d to
s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o hom esickness i n g ir ls *
That a g r e a te r
p e rc e n ta g e o f hom esick (52 p e rc e n t) boys th a n non-homesick
Table TXXW
O rg a n isa tio n s in w hich th e Homesick and th e Ion-Homesick
S ubject b claim ed P re se n t o r P a st Membership
( C r i t i c a l R a tio s co n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t a re in d ic a te d
by an a s t e r is k )
Answers
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r d iffe re n c e s in P erc en tag es
G irls
Boys
HS WHS D(£) <TD
d/ c>Q
HS MHS D(^) c>D D/ctd
I* O rg a n isa tio n s b elo n g t o a t tim e o f th e in v e s tig a tio n s
(E x c lu siv e o f s o c i a l f r a t e r n i t i e s o r s o r o r i t i e s )
TWCA
52 m # 1 *100 0*40
TOGA
34 2 6 / 6 8 .091 0.87
Clubs and
52 32 / s o *097 2 .0 6 *
72 88 - 1 4 ,080 1 .7 5
s o c ie tie s
34 46 -1 3 *097 1 .2 3
Won©
18 io 4 m .068 1 .1 7
II* O rg a n iz a tio n s
G irl Scout®
Boy S couts
Campfire G ir ls
HMT
Clubs and
s o c ie tie s
4«&
G ir l R eserv es
IM A
YW0A
lo n e
belonged to p r i o r to th e in v e s tig a tio n ?
34 48 —14 .098 1*42
66 64 -/OS .0 9 8 0 .2 0
14 i s 4 m .0 6 7 0 .2 0
m
IB
m
02
12
ee 4 m *094 0 .3 1
o s / o s *064 1 .2 5
00 .0 8 1 0 .0 0
20
OS -06 .0 4 5 1 .3 9
i o 4 m *063 0.32
zm
30
18 /1 2 .0 8 5 1 .4 1
44
03
34 / 1 0 *097 1.03
03 00 *028 0 .0 0
08
04 /0 4 .047 0 .8 5
14
33 -0 8 .077 1 .0 3
(33 p e r c e n t) boys belonged to c lu b s and s o c i e t i e s a t th e
tim e o f th e in v e s tig a tio n i s s ig n if ic a n t*
r a t i o o f th e d if f e r e n c e i s 2 .0 6 .
The c r i t i c a l
T his m ight mean t h a t th e
homesick boys ten d t o seek member sh ip in c lu b s and s o c i e t i e s
a s a means o f com bating t h e i r f e e lin g o f hom esickness.
P e r­
haps an in te n s iv e in v e s tig a tio n o f th e sex d iffe re n c e s in
hom esickness would d is c lo s e t h a t homesick boys ten d to seek
r e l i e f by f le e in g i n t o r e a l i t y and th a t homesick g i r l s te n d
to seek r e l i e f by f le e in g from r e a l i t y .
I t has beam s a id th a t in d iv id u a ls from farm ing com­
m u n itie s te n d t o be more s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness th a n
in d iv id u a ls from o th e r ty p es o f com m unities.
The d a ta in
Table H O T in d ic a te th a t th e r e i s no s ig n if ic a n t r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip betw een th e in d u s try o f th e in d iv id u a l rs home community
and s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hom esickness.
T able % ltYI
Answers given by th e Homesick and th e Ion-Homesick
S u b je c ts to th e Q uestion: &What i s th e
c h ie f in d u s try o f your home community?*
Answers
Farming
M anufacturing
and in d u s tr y
Q u arries* mines
fJothlng
l o t know
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P erc en tag es
G irls
^
, Boys
4
$
£
<TD d/ c?d HS IBS n $ ) (TO D/CTO
HS IMS
36
20 4 m .084 0.71
43
08
03
23
58
03
08
12
*416
4 ob
-06
4 io
.099
.043
.043
.075
256
1*61
1,39
1,39
1.33
36
18 4ob .082 0.97
60
08
04
02
70
02
02
10
-10
/0 6
4oz
-08
.096
.043
.034
.047
1.04
1*39
0 *58
1 .7 0
The d a ta in T able XIXTII show th a t th e r e I s no s i g n i f ­
ic a n t d if f e r e n c e between th e number o f hose s ic k in d iv id u a ls
and th e number o f non-hom esick in d iv id u a ls who l i k e to read
th e ho me-town new spapers, nor do th e r e appear to be any
s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e s in th e re a so n s given f o r re ad in g th e
home-town p ap ers by th e g ir ls *
Table 11X711
The P ercen tag e o f Homesick and o f Won-Homesiek S u b jects
who s ta te d t h a t th e y lik e d to read th e Home-town
newspapers and t h e i r Reasons fo r lik in g
to read them
( C r i t i c a l R atio s co n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t a r e in d ic a te d
by an a s t e r is k )
Answers
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
G irls
Boys
^jb
4
*
HS whs D($) 6 0 O/od HS WHS D(^) (TP d/ gd
Like to re a d
th e p ap er
l o t l i k e to read
th e p ap er
86
72 /1 4 «080 1.75
92
90 402 .057 0.35
14
28 —14 *080 1.75
08
10 -02 .057 0.35
40B .100 0.30
40Z .020 1.00
44
04
28
06
38 ^06 .098 0.61
04 00 .040 0.00
34 -0 6 .092 0.65
23 —16 *068 3.35*
00
02
08
OB -08 .038 3.10*
03 00 *038 0.00
06 ^02 .051 0.39
04
00 404: .028 1*42
About f r ie n d s
53
02
About s p o rts
34
About community
06
lew s in g e n e ra l
Oomics
00
Arrangement o f i t
P e rso n a l i n t e r e s t
F a m ilia r m aterials 3
h ik e going home f o r
few m inutes
50
00
34
00
02
00 .096 0.00
4 m *034 1*78
-0 3 .030 1.00
Twenty-two p e rc e n t o f th e non-home sic k boys and o n ly
6 p e rc e n t o f th e hom esick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2.35)
s ta te d t h a t th e y re a d th e horae-town papers f o r th e #newstt,
and 8 p e rc e n t o f th e non-hom esick boys and none o f th e home­
s ic k ( o r I t l e a l r a t i o o f 2,10} s t a t e d t h a t th e y read them
because th e y lik e d th e arrangem ent*
The im p lic a tio n h e re i s
th a t th e non-home® iok boys te n d t o be more in te r e s te d in im­
p e rso n a l to p ic s th a n a re th e homesick boys*
There i s no in d ic a tio n in th e s e d a ta t h a t camping ex­
p e rie n c e and ex p e rien ce in le a d e rs h ip p rev en t s u s c e p t i b i l i t y
to homesickness*
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o s o f th e d if f e r e n c e s a re
a l l to o sm all to be co n sid ered s i g n i f i c a n t .
These d a ta a re
given in Table X O T III.
Table
1 1 1 7 111
P e rc e n ta g e s o f Homesick and Won-Homesick S u b jects who
s ta te d t h a t they had had le a d e rs h ip
o r damping E xperience
Types o f
E xperience
R eported
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe ren c es in P ercen tag es
^ G irls
^ Boys
(0
p
HS WHS B($) <TD D/cTD
le a d e rs h ip
e x p e rie n c e
A ttendance a t
camp
Some k in d o f
re sp e n s i b i l i t y
Wene
%
HS WHS D(£) 6 0
X>/(fO
66
56 fyO *097 1*03
70
64 ^06 *094 0.63
18
16 /0 3 *075 0.28
12
14 -03 .067 0.29
72
38
70 /0 3 *091 0.21
30 -02 *081 0*21
74
26
64 /1 0 *092 1.08
36 -10 *092 1.08
The d a ta r e l a t i v e to th e ty p e s of high school honors
re c e iv e d show s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e s only f o r honors o f a
s c h o la s tic o r i n t e l l e c t u a l n a tu re *
Table XXXII*
These d a ta are given in
S ix ty p e rc e n t o f th e non-homesick g i r l s and
fable t x i t x
P e rc e n ta g e o f Homesick and. Won-Homesick S u b je c ts who
re p o rte d High School H onors, and th e Types
o f Honors R eported
{ C r i t i c a l R a tio s co n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t a re in d ic a te d
by an a s t e r i s k )
Types o f
Honors
R eported
D ram atic
S c h o la s tic
A th le tic
O f f ic e r , c la s s
o r c lu b
Club member
Wono
C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
O irls
Boys
^
%
!f& ch
HS mss D(^) GD D/GD HS WHS B(^) GO V/6D
38
40
16
22 / I S .001 1*75
SO -2 0 *098 3,04*
26 -1 0 .081 1,23
18
34
52
18 00 .076 0.00
16 /1 8 .085 3.11*
34 /I S .098 1.83
26
64
10
20 /OS .084 0.71
72 **08 .093 0.86
04 /OS .050 1,20
50
36
06
62 -12 .099 1.31
34 /0 3 .096 0.20
18 -13 .064 1*87
40 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o 2*04) re ­
ceiv ed s c h o la s tic h o n o rs, which s ig h t imply e i t h e r th a t th e
non-home s ic k g i r l s were so re i n t e l l i g e n t th a n th e homesick
g i r l s , o r t h a t th e homesick g i r l s were l e s s w ell a d ju ste d
and l e e s I n te r e s te d in t h e i r sch o o l work*
Because o f th e
manner in which th e s u b je c ts were p a ire d we assume t h a t th e
l a t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s more p ro b a b le .
T h irty -fo u r p e rc e n t
o f th e homesiek boys and 16 p e rc e n t of th e non-home eick boys
( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2 .1 1 ) re c e iv e d s c h o la s tic h o n o rs.
T his
might mean th a t th e non-homesick boys devoted more tim e to
s p o r ts and s o c ia l a c t i v i t i e s and l e s s tim e to t h e i r s tu d ie s
th a n d id th e homesick boys*
In any case th e r e appears t o be
a s i g n i f i c a n t sex d if f e r e n c e in v o lv e d .
The non-homesick
g i r l s and th e homesick boys re c e iv e d more s c h o la s tic honors
th an d id th e homesick g i r l s and th e non-hom esick hoys.
P a r t i c i p a t i o n in e x t r a - c u r r ic u la r a c t i v i t i e s in high school
seems t o h e u n re la te d to s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to homesickness*
th e d a ta in T able Xh f a i l to d is c lo s e s ig n if ic a n t
d if f e r e n c e s between th e homesick and th e non-homeaiek groups
as f a r as e x tr a - c u r r ic u la r a c t i v i t y in c o lle g e i s concerned
except f o r th e number ©f boys p a r ti c i p a t i n g in a th le tic s *
That 30 p e rc e n t o f th e non-home s ic k boys and 13 p ercen t o f
th e hom esick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o 3*25) p a r tic ip a te d in
a t h l e t i c s su p p o rts th e above im p lic a tio n th a t non-home s ic k
boys d ev o te more tim e to s p o rts and lean tim e to t h e i r
s tu d ie s th a n do th e homesick b o y s.
Table X t
P e rc e n ta g e of th e Homesick and o f th e Non-Homesick S u b je c ts
who s ta te d t h a t th ey took p a r t in E x tra -C u rric u la r
A c t i v i t i e s , and th e ty p e s of A c tiv itie s l i s t e d
( C r i t i c a l R atio s co n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t a re in d ic a te d by
an a s te r is k )
Answers
Engage in
some ty p e
ywcA
YICA
Clubs
Band
D ram atics
Chorus
P u b lic a tio n s
A th le tic s
S o c ia l
O f f ic e r , c la s s
Debat e
Clubs
Hone
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
Itoys
C ir ls
i
$
%
HS HHS D{$) GD D/OD HS HHS D(ftf) 00 D/OD
83
43
56
04
10
66 / l 6 .086 1.86
30 / l 2 .096 1.25
0.60
1.48
0.35
1.30
0.85
1/20
1*00
0*00
0*00
1*43
/0 6
—08
/OS
—06
/0 4
.100
<054
.057
*050
*047
02
00
04 / o e
00 /OS
03 00
02 00
04 *>04
.030
*028
.028
*028
18
34 -IB *086 1.86
04
08
10
02
03
50
13
08
10
04
*050
360
54
52 4o3 *100 0.20
20
08
08
02
02
08 412 *069 1.73
06 402 *051 0.39
06 00 *048 0.00
00 402 .030 1.00
.020 1*00
00
13
30 -18 .080 2.25*
04
02 402 .034 0.58
30
46
20 410 .086 1.16
48 -02 .100 0.20
The p e rc e n t ages o f homesick and non-home s ic k s tu d e n t s
who had re c e iv e d , o r b e lie v e d t h a t th ey had re c e iv e d , o u t­
s ta n d in g honors d u rin g t h e i r l i f e tim e axe g iv en in f a b le
XU.
f a b le XII
P e rc e n ta g e o f Homesick and Hon—Homesick S u b je c ts who
re p o r te d th a t th e y had re c e iv e d some kind, o f Honor dur­
ing t h e i r l i f e tim e , and th e Type of Honor re p o rte d
( C r i t i c a l R atio s co n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t are in d ic a te d by
an a s t e r is k )
Answers
L ife tim e honors
o f some k in d
mm
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
G irls
Boys
^
tjL
H8 RH8 D{$) <3D p/6D
HS BBSB($) SO D/60
52
48
62 -1 0 .099 1.01
38 /1 0 . 099 1.01
58
42
44 ^14 .099 1.41
56 -14 .099 1.41
S c h o la s tic
24
A th le tic .
06
Music
06
O f f ic e r , c l a s s ,
c lu b
02
A rt
02
Saved child*® l i f e
G ir l S c o u t, Clubs 26
Boy S c o u ts , Clubs
D ram atics
00
P o p u la r ity ,
Beauty c o n te s t
00
L iv e -s to c k honors
40 -1 6 , 091 1 ,?5
08 -02 .051 0,39
06 00 ,048 0.00
28
22
06
16 ^13 .082 1.4 6
16 /0 6 .079 0.75
06 00 .048 0.0 0
02 00 .028 0.00
00 /0 2 .030 1.00
06
06
00
03 -02 .020 1.00
06
04
03 -0 2 .051 0.39
02 ^02 .034 0.58
02
02
32 ^04 .086 0.46
10 -10 .042 2,3a*
06 -06 .034 1.76
00 .048 0.00
00 .028 0.00
The o n ly s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e here o c c u rs where 10
p e rc e n t o f th e non-hom esick g i r l s and none o f th e homesick
g i r l s l i s t o u ts ta n d in g honors i n d ra m a tic s.
The c r i t i c a l
r a t i o i s 2 .3 8 which in d ic a te s t h a t th e non-homeeiek g i r l s
ten d t o do b e t t e r in d ra m a tics th a n th e homesick g i r l s .
261
P erhaps t i t l e I s f u r t h e r evidence t h a t th e non-homesick g i r l s
ten d i # he s e r e e x tra v e rte d th a n th e homesick g i r l s .
That
th e hoys do n o t show a s im ila r d if f e r e n c e i s f u r th e r
evidence o f a sex d if f e r e n c e .
l a t a r e l a t i v e to th e r e l a t i o n between am bitions f o r th e
f u tu r e and s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hom esickness a re p re se n te d in
Table XU I ♦
T able X III
Answer© given by t h e Homesick and th e Hon-Homesick S u b je c ts
t o th e Q u estio n i 8What would you l i k e to be doing te n
y ears from now?®
( C r i t i c a l R a tio s co n sid ered s i g n i f ic a n t a re in d ic a te d by
an a s t e r is k )
Answers
C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
Boys
O lrls
*
%
*
HS WHS D($) OO D/OD HS IMS D (i) (5 0 D/OD
48 /X3 *009 1*31
04
06 *■03 • 044 0 .4 5
33
06
06
0 .9 0
OS —03 «061 0 .3 9
04
38
33
06
OS
0 0
38 -1 0 .093
38 - 0 6 .0 9 8
04 /0 2 .044
10 00 *059
o*
06
03
30
CO
60
O
*
M arried
P ro fe s s io n , ox
semi—p ro fe s s io n
B u sin ess
O sre e r
Employed
Wot know
T ra v e lin g
Snj eying l i f e
Farming
F ly in g
*044 0*48
/0 8 *038 3*10®
06 00 .048 0*00
OS -0 6 *043 1.39
10
13
06
03
03
00
OS
00
03
00
1 .0 7
0 .8 2
0 .4 5
0.00
/0 4 .060 0*88
f0 6 .0 3 4 1*76
00 ,0 3 8 0.00
/OS .020 1.00
03 —03 *020 1.00
The s u b je c ts were asked to in d ic a te what they would
l i k e to be doing te n y e a rs in th e future*
Of th e item s
l i s t e d th e r e was o n ly one t h a t appeared to be s i g n i f i c a n t ,
l i g h t p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s and none o f th e non-homes ic k g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o 3*10) s ta te d t h a t th e y would l i k e
t© be employed (w ith
bo
type o f employment s p e c if ie d ) .
The
im p lic a tio n h e re i s t h a t more homesick g i r l s h a re l e s s
d e f i n i t e p lan e fo r th e fu tu re th a n do non-home sick g i r l s ,
t h i s m ight be evidence t h a t f e e lin g s o f u n c e r ta in ty and la c k
o f a d e f i n i t e g o a l c h a r a c te r iz e th e homesick ty p e o f in ­
d iv id u a l more th a n th e non-home s ic k ty p e .
The re aso n s l i s t e d f o r le a v in g home a re p re se n te d in
Table X U I I .
fable x m i
R easons f o r le a v in g Home which were given by th e
Homesick and th e Hon-Homesiek S u b je c ts
( C r i t i c a l R a tio s co n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t a re in d ic a te d
by an a s t e r i s k )
Reason©
C ollege
P re p a re f o r
l i f e work
Independence
Duty
Work,
e x p e rie n c e
Break home t i e s
M arriage
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
G trle
n i
HS iris m ) <JV 0/6D HS UHS
OD D/OD
60
40 1*30 .0 0 8 3,04*
52
60 -0 8 .099 0 .8 0
34
04
08
38 -1 4 •091 1 .5 3
04 00 .0 4 0 0 .0 0
10 -0 3 .0 5 7 0 .3 5
44
03
03
38 1*16 .0 9 4 1 .7 0
03 00 .0 2 8 0.00
00 ^33 .020 1.0 0
03
08 —06 .0 4 3 1 .3 9
03 00 ,028 0.00
00 1*02 .020 1.00
00
06 -0 8 .034 1.76
03
02
The o n ly re a so n l i s t e d by th e g i r l s which ©hows a s i g n i f ­
ic a n t d if f e r e n c e i mi
"lea v in g home to a tte n d c o lle g e " .
(For
th e boy© th e re were me s i g n if i c a n t d if f e r e n c e s .)
S ix ty p e r­
cen t o f th e homesick g i r l s and 40 p ercen t o f th e
n o n - home sic k
g irl© l i s t e d t h i s reason*
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s 2 .0 4 .
263
It
should be p o in te d o u t t h a t le a v in g home to a tte n d c o lle g e i s
n o t th e same th in g as le a v in g home to b e t t e r p re p a re o n e s e lf
fo r l i f e ,
le a v in g home to a tte n d c o lle g e does not neces­
s a r i l y s ig n if y a d e f i n i t e am bition o r g o al tow ard which th e
in d iv id u a l i s w orking,
The d a ta in Table 1 L III in d ic a te
t h a t th o s e who l e f t home m erely to go to c o lle g e w ithout
having a d e f i n i t e d e s i r e to p re p a re them selves in some
s p e c ia l f i e l d tend to be s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness.
The
im p lic a tio n h ere i s t h a t a d e f i n i t e g o al ©r am bition in l i f e
h e lp s p re v e n t s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to homesickness In g i r l s .
Again th e sex d if f e r e n c e l a e v id e n t,
fh© s u b je c ts were asked to s t a t e t h e i r f i r s t thought
when th e y heard th e word "home".
th a n o n e.
Most o f them s ta te d more
These a re given in T able XLIV.
Of a l l th e item s
l i s t e d th e r e are only two fo r th e g i r l s and two fo r th e boys
t h a t a re s ig n if ic a n t*
E ighteen p e rc e n t o f th e homesick
g i r l s and 4 p ercen t o f th e non-hom esick g i r l s s ta te d th a t
t h e i r f i r s t th ought upon h ea rin g th e word "home9 was a m ental
image o f th e house i t s e l f *
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s 2*39*
Perhaps t h i s means t h a t a m ental image o f th e house se rv e s
th e homesick g i r l s as a sym bolical r e p re s e n ta tio n o f th e
e n tir e home s i t u a t i o n , and i s a s so c ia te d w ith and might con­
t r i b u t e to t h e i r s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hom esickness.
A more s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o of 3.03)
appears where 34 p e rc e n t of th e homesick g i r l s and 4 p e rc e n t
o f th e non-hom e s ic k g i r l s l i s t e d th e home atmosphere and th e
264
Table lit?
Answers g iv en by th e Homesick and Hon-Homeslck S u b je c ts
to th e Q uestion? •What i s t h e f i r s t th in g th e word
*&ome* b rin g s t o your mind?"
{ C r i t i c a l H atio s co n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t are in d ic a te d
by m a s t e r is k )
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P erc en tag es
G irls
Boys
*Unhappy* home
life
le s t
30
10
.06?
.097
.086
.056
.060
.094
.061
*040
.065
*039
0.89
1.23
0.23
1.78
1.33
0*63
2.29*
0*00
0-81
1.02
04
02
06
04
00
OS 00
06
03 00
03 03
03 04
<fm
/OS
#>4
-03
m
/OS
**08
/OS
00
—02
.066
.047
.054
.034
.020
.030
.044
.020
.088
.034
34
10
06
32
3 .03*
1 .70
0 .74
0 ;s8
1 .00
1 .00
0 .45
1 . 0O
0 .00
0 .58
08
06
06
00
06 402 .051 0,►39
02 /0 4 .039 1,►02
06 00 .048 0,.00
02 -0 2 .
1 , ,00
06
04
00
20
02
04
02
04
08
1 .00
U2
00 /02 .020
1,
04
02
02 /OS .034
04 -03 .034
0.
02
02
02
02
04
02
00
00
00
00
00
00
03
03
04
03
03
02
02
00 /OS
00
04 -04 .028 1 *43
04 —04 .038 1 .43
00
00
00
•
00
*/03
4oz
—04
/I S
/o s
.044 0 , .45
.034 0-.58
.038 1 , .43
.060 3,.00*
.020 1,.00
0,
.00
.58
.58
/o s .020 1 .00
/0 2 .020 1
/o s .030 1 .00
/0 2 .030 1 .00
/ o s .034 0 .58
00 .028 0 .00
—04 .038 1 .43
-02 .020 1 .00
—02 .030 1 .00
-03 .020 1 .00
-02 .030 1 .00
o
om
E arly evening a t home
Car
Wothlng
02 —02 .020 1 .00
02 —02 .020 1 .00
12
o
o
10
36 06 .094 0.63
12 -02 *062 0.32
00 /OS .038 2.10*
10 1*02 *063 0*33
10 00 .059 0.00
24 4W .090 1.11
08 i*03 .057 0.35
06 00 .048 0.00
18 /04 .080 0.5 0
02
P lace where 1 am 00
Grandmother
Wo r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
life
I s a s o f home
F e e lin g o f
H ert v i s i t
HS HHS D(£) (3D D/OD
</06
/l3
/OS
/lO
/0 8
—06
/1 4
00
/0 4
B re th e rs
S is te rs
Contentment
p / go
10
34
24
04
06
36
04
04
10
let h e r
P e ts
Food
Bed
Own room
High School
<5D
.
Q
tS O
•heme*
o
F irs t
Thoughts
good time® which th e y have a t home*
T his im p lie s t h a t a n ic e
heme atm osphere and good tim es a t home axe f a c to r s which help
t o d eterm in e s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to homesickness*
I t a ls o im p lie s
t h a t c e r t a i n in d iv id u a ls might f e e l f r e e r and l e s s r e s tr a in e d
a t home and th e r e f o r e have b e t t e r tim es a t home th an when
away from home.
Such in d iv id u a ls would prob ab ly be s e l f -
c o n sc io u s, i n t r o v e r t i v e in d iv id u a ls who could not r e la x and
enjoy th em selv es ex c ep t when in th e p riv ac y o f t h e i r own
homes*
Thus th e homesick g i r l s would tend to develop s tro n g
d e s ir e s t o r e tu r n to th e good tim e s which th e y had a t home
but do n o t have in t h e i r p re se n t Haway from home0 s i t u a t i o n .
The non-home® iek g i r l s , on th e o th e r hand, would be le s s
l i k e l y to develop s tro n g d e s ir e s to r e tu r n home.
l i g h t p ercen t o f th e homesick boys and none o f the,, non­
home s ic k boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3*10) s ta te d th a t t h e i r
f i r s t th o u g h t upon h e a rin g th e word “home* was of “f a t h e r * .
T h is im p lie s th a t th e homesick boys are p ro b ab ly more c lo s e ly
a tta c h e d to t h e i r f a th e r s and th e r e f o r e l e s s independent
p s y c h o lo g ic a lly th a n a re th e non-homesick boys * Twenty
p e rc e n t o f th e hom esick boys and 3 p ercen t o f th e non—
homesick boy® ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3*00) s ta te d th a t t h e i r
f i r s t th o u g h t was o f * th e g i r l frie n d * .
T h is im p lies t h a t a
“g i r l f r i e n d 0 in th e home s i t u a t i o n can fu n c tio n as an emo­
tion al attachm ent to th e home s i t u a t i o n and th ere b y em otion­
a l l y c h a rg e and enhance th e norm al d e s ire to r e tu r n home*
The d a ta in T ab le XIV show t h a t i t makes no d if f e r e n c e
366
Table II,?
Answers given by th e Homesick and by th e Hon-Home s ic k
S u b je c ts to th e Q u estion; *Wh© i s th e dom inant mem­
b e r o f your f a m i l y - f a t h e r , m other, b r o th e r ,
s i s t e r , o r who?0
Dominant
member
o f fa m ily ;
Mother
F a th e r
Both
S is te r
S e lf
Mother and
grandm other
Bone
Uncle
Mother and
b ro th e r
F ath er and
s is te r
Grandmother
C r i t i c a l Ratio© f o r D iffe re n c e s in P erc en tag es
G irls
Boys
4
4
$
HS SHS D($) GO d/ gd
HS KBS !>{$) CTO
/ I S .0 8 9 1*34
BO *18 .0 9 7 1*85
20 -0 4 .0 7 7 0*51
34
33
18
22
03
00 # 2
* 14
03
00
34
52
10
03
24 00
54 —08
08 /Q4
04 -0 3
00
08
00
03 —03 ,030
08 00 .054
08 -0 2 *020
02
00 ^03 .030
03
00 ^02 .020
*085
.1 0 0
.0 5 4
.0 3 4
.0 2 0 1 *DO
06 ■/08 .0 6 0 1*33
00 f 0 2 .0 2 0 1 .0 0
02 —02 *030 1 .0 0
w hether o r n o t th e home i s dom inated by one o r by b o th p a r­
e n ts , o r even i f th e r e i s no dominant member i n th e fa m ily ,
a s f a r as s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hom esickness i s concerned,
Bor does i t make any s i g n if ic a n t d if f e r e n c e whether
one i s many m iles o r only a few m iles from home, or w hether
i t would ta k e weeks o r o n ly a few m inutes f o r one to re ach
home*
The evidence f o r t h i s i s given in T able TLFI*
The s u b je c ts were asked to s t a t e what member, i f
of th e ir
fa m ilie s th ey were most dependent upon*
o b ta in e d a r e p re se n te d in T able X IV II.
i s th e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e .
any,
The d a ta
In only one in s ta n c e
Forty-tw o p ercen t o f th e
fable XhVI
In fo rm a tio n g iv en by th e Homesick and Won-Homesick S u b je c ts
a® to th e number o f m iles to th e S u b je c t’s Home and th e
tim e i t would ta k e th e S u b ject to re a c h h is Home
M iles from
home
0
11
36
61
10I
301
SOI
1001
^ 10
- 35
— 50
— l0 ‘O
—> 300
— 500
— 1000
- 3000
C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P erc en tag es
?3oys
G irls
*b
i*
HS 1HS m ) <5 D D/GD
m m*s D(^) &D d/ gd
03 00 4 p z *030 1.00
04 03 JO S •034 0.58
02 02 00 .038 0 .0 0
06 13 —06 . 087 1.05
04 04 00 .040 0 .0 0
34 36 /Q8 .091 0.S7
38 40 -03 .098 0.2 0
-00 *098 0.81
36
30 44 —14 .096 1.45
14 14 00 .069 0.00
20 08 / I S .069 1.73
06 03 /0 4 .039 1.03
03 03 00 .038 0.00
03 00 /OS .030 1.00
Time to g e t home
0 — 1 hour
1 — 3 h o u rs
3 - 3 ho u rs
3 — 0 h o u rs
6 - 13 h o u rs
1 day
3 days
5 days
18 13 /0 6
36 36 00
16 14 /OS
33 48 -16
04 00 /0 4
OS 00 /OS
.071
.088
.071
.097
.038
.030
0.84
0.00
0.38
1.64
1.42
1.00
03 00 /os .030 1.00
13
26
32
33
02
00
04
30
34
26
38
00
02
00
-08
/OS
-04
/0 4
/o s
-02
/0 4
.073
.086
.086
.091
•030
.020
.038
1 •09
0,*23
0.*46
0,*43
1,•00
1,*00
1.*43
f a b le X iv n
Answers given by th e Homesick and Won-Homesick S u b je c ts
to th e Q uestion* ttWhat member o f your fam ily are
you most dependent upon?*
( C r i t i c a l R a tio s co n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t a re in d ic a te d by
an a s te r is k )
Member o f
C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r D iffe ren c es in P ercen tag es
Boys
G irls
fam ily most
$
dependent upon
$
$
$
HS 588 D(^) go D/GO HS m s n (4 \ cro D/(TD
03 06 —04 .0 3 9 1 .0 3
Both p a r e n ts
08 04 /0 4 .047 0.85
00 02 -0 3 .030 1 .0 0
S tep-m other
F a th e r
30 43 -23 .090 3.44* 60 46 4 \i .098 1 .4 2
36 18 ^08 .083 0.97
Mother
48 43 /OS .100 0.60
06
03 40* .039 1.02
B ro th er
—02 *030 1 .0 0
0.85
00
02
/O4
.047
04
S is te r
08
00 02 -0 3 .0 2 0 1 .0 0
S e lf
03 GO /OS .030 1*00
00 03 -02 *020 1.00
Aunt
03 00 /0 2 .020 1.00
Mother * b ro th e r 03 00 /0 3 .020 1.00
Mother* s i s t e r
08 00 ^)8 .020 1.00
E n tir e fa m ily
04 00 /0 4 .028 1.43
06 16 -1 0 .062 1.61
Rone o f fa m ily
04 08 -0 4 .047 0.85
Grandmother
00 04 -04 .038 1.42
non-homes ie k g i r l s and 30 p are a n t o f th e hom esick g i r l s
( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3 .4 4 ) s ta te d t h a t th e y were more depend­
e n t upon t h e i r f a t h e r s th an upon any o f th e o th e r members o f
t h e i r fa m ilie s *
T h is im p lies t h a t fe e lin g more dependent
upon ©ne*s f a th e r th a n upon o th e r members o f o n e’ s fam ily i s
a f a c t o r which a id s r a th e r th a n h in d e rs immunity to homes i e t a e s s in g i r l s .
The th in g s which, th e s u b je c t a s ta te d t h a t th e y lik e d
b e s t about t h e i r hemes a re l i s t e d in Table XLVIXI*
The id e a
o r f e e l in g ©f b elo n g in g and s h a rin g i s th e most s i g n if i c a n t
item f o r th e g i r l s *
S ixteen p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and
none o f th e non-home s ic k g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o ©f 3.07) gave
t h i s answ er.
The im p lic a tio n I s t h a t homesick g i r l s i d e n t i f y
th em selv es w ith home and fam ily in a way t h a t in d ic a te s
stro n g em otional a tta c h m e n ts.
Such i d e n t i f i c a t i o n would
p ro b ab ly be more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f in tr o v e r s io n than o f
ex t ra v e rs io n .
Twenty p ercen t o f th e homesick and 44 p e rc e n t
o f th e non-homes ie k g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2.66} l i s t e d
home atm osphere and su rro u n d in g s.
This im p lie s th a t g i r l s
who a r e mere concerned w ith t h e i r surroundings than w ith
them selves a re n ot l i k e l y to be s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness.
Such g i r l s would more l i k e l y be e x tr a v e r ts th a n I n t r o v e r t s ,
fen p e r c e n t o f th e homesick and none of th e non—homesick
g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3 .3 8 ) s ta te d t h a t th e y lik e d *every­
thing* about home b e e t.
This h alo e f f e c t im p lie s th a t th e
homesick g i r l s have deep em otional feeling® and sen tim en ts
Table XLVIII
Answers g iv e s by th e Homesick and Hos-Homesick S u b jects
to th e Q uestion? "Vhat do you l i k e b ee t about your home?"
{ C r i t i c a l R a tio s c o n sid e re d s ig n if ic a n t are
in d ic a te d by an a s te r is k )
R atio s f o r
G irls
Answers
OTS H i ) CD
Mother
00
p/CD
Ha r a s r)(i) <
to
d/ sd
02 -02 .020 1 .00
02
04 -03 .034 0 .58
.082 3 .07*
00 m
00 402 .020 1 .00
02 ■/04 .030 1 .02
04
00
00 #04 .028 1 .42
10 -10 .042 3 . 38*
14 4a 4 .073 0 CA
40
14 426
—24 *090 2 *66*
08 -OS .043 1 .39
00 41 o .042 2 .38*
16 #08 .079 1 .01
12
02
00
24
36
10
02
12
10 #02
GO # o s
08 —03
m 4m
03 00
12 —04
04 —03
00 402
00 4 m
00 402
14 **»14
04 —04
06 -06
03 —03
03 —03
04
06 -02 .044 0 ,45
02
03
04
14
13
02
02 00 *028 0 .00
00 #02 .020 I .00
04 00 .040 0 .00
04 4i o *056 1 ,78
04 40B ,054 1 .48
04 -08 .034 0 .58
10
02
04
10 00 .059 0..00
00 402 .020 1,.00
10 —08 .050 1,.20
04
06
04
02
04
04
02
02
03
03
04
03
02
02
02
04
00
00
02
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
.062
.034
.051
.038
.028
.060
*034
.020
.028
.080
.049
*028
.034
.020
.030
270
0 .32
1 .76
0 .39
1 .43
0 .00
0 .66
0 .58
1 .00
1 .42
1 *00.
2 .85*
1 .43
1 .76
1.00
1 .00
u?
CO
o*
B elonging and
sh a rin g
16
S e c u rity
02
Good t imes
06
Companionship,
h e lp , lo v e
18
Atmosphere,
su rro u n d in g s
20
L o catio n
02
Mil o f i t
10
Family
24
Independence,
freedom
12
A c t i v i t ie s
OS
l e s t , q u ie t
OB
Being t h e r e
04
House
02
F rien d s
08
Food
03
F u rn itu re
03
Own room
04
P riv acy
03
P a re n ts
00
P e ts
00
Nothing
DO
S ise o f fam ily
00
Lots o f p eo p le
00
Neighborhood
Beauty
Comfort
F a th e r
G irl
B ro th er and s i s t e r
I t *s home
F a m ilia r ity
R e g u la rity
T ard , su rro u n d in g s
No r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
G olf c o u rse
L uxuries
•ences in P erc en tag es
Boys
3 .05*
-3 4 .083 2 ,92*
-08 .047 1 .70
-02 .030 1 .00
#12 .076 1 .57
402
4m
00
.402
4m
402
402
402
402
*03
4m
402
402
.034
.039
.040
.020
.038
.034
• 020
*020
.020
.020
.038
.020
.030
0,.58
1,.02
0,.00
1,.00
1,.42
0,.58
1,.00
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
1 ,42
1 .00
1 .00
Table r a i n
(C ontinued)
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
G irls
Boys
te m r*
HS NHS D($) cTD D/7D
C le a n lin e s s
Meal tim e s
la rg e n e s s
Simple l i v i n g
Bed
Community
D if f e r e n t from
o th e r p la c e s
T alking to fo lk s
about heme.
HS M S D{$) CD 0/6D
00
00
00
00
00
00
04 -0 4
03 -02
03 -02
03 -03
02 -02
04 -0 4
.028
*030
.020
*030
.020
. 028
1.42
1.00
1.00
1 .0 0
1.00
1.43
GO 03 *-03 .030 1.00
00 03 -02 *030 1 .0 0
T his i s a f u r th e r In d ic a tio n o f in tro v e rs io n in
homesick g i r l s .
F o u rteen p e rc e n t o f th e non-heme sick and
none o f th e hom esick g i r l s s ta te d th a t th e y lik e d t h e i r
p a re n ts b e s t*
P erhaps t h i s i s an in d ic a tio n o f p sy ch o lo g ical
em ancipation and freedom from em otional d is tu rb a n c e s in th e
p a r e n t- c h iI d r e l a t io n ship s *
T here a re th r e e s i g n i f ic a n t item s among th e answers
g iv e s to t h i s q u e s t io n by th e b o y s.
Ten p e rc e n t o f th e non­
home s ic k and none o f th e homesick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f
2*38) s t a t e d t h a t th e y lik e d b e s t th e good tim e s had a t home*
T h irty —s ix p e rc e n t o f th e non-home s ic k and 12 p ercen t o f th e
homesick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2*92) s ta te d th a t th ey
lik e d b e s t th e home atm osphere and su rro u n d in g s.
These d a ta
in d ic a te t h a t th e non-homesiek boys, li k e th e non-home s ic k
g i r l s * were more i n t e r e s t e d in th e a c t i v i t i e s and surroundings
a t home th a n in th em selv es.
T his im plies t h a t th e non-home-
271
s ic k te n d more tow ard e x tra v e rs io n th an in tr o v e r s io n .
One
o th e r s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e f o r th e boys i s where 14 p e r­
cen t o f t h e non-homeeick and 40 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick
s ta te d t h a t they
l i k e b e s t about t h e i r homes th e companion­
s h ip s , help* and
lo v e which th e y fin d th e re * This im p lie s
stro n g em otional attach m en ts to th e home* and fe e lin g s o f
s e c u rity * and o f b e in g a p p re c ia te d when in th e home s itu a ­
tio n *
T h is i s a ls o f u r th e r evidence th a t homesick boys
tend t o be more in tr o v e r te d th a n non-homesick boys.
I s T able XLIX a re th e answers to th e q u e stio n ?
do you m iss most
when you a re away from home?*
ic a n t answ ers fo r th e
*What
The s i g n i f ­
g i r l s were as fo llo w s; S ight p e rc e n t
o f th e homesick and none o f th e non-home s ic k ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o
o f 2 .1 0 ) l i s t e d ^atm osphere and com fort o f home*; 28 p e rc e n t
o f th e homesick and 10 p ercen t o f th e non-home sic k ( c r i t i c a l
r a t i o o f 3*13) l i s t e d ^fam ily*; 16 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick
and 4 p e rc e n t o f th e non-home s ic k ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2.0 3 )
l i s t e d *s is t e r * o r b ro th e r* ; 18 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and
2 p e rc e n t o f th e non—homesick ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2.50)
l i s t e d * ad v ice and someone to c o n fid e i n 8 ; and f in a l ly 18
p e rc e n t o f th e non-hom esiek and none o f th e homesick ( c r i t i ­
c a l r a t i o o f 3.33) l i s t e d *n o th in g * .
These d a ta show th a t g i r l s who miss th e atmosphere and
com forts o f home, th e fam ily in c lu d in g b r o th e r s and s i s t e r s ,
and some one to c o n fid e in and to tu rn to f o r advice ten d to
be s u s c e p tib le to homesickness*
That th e se g i r l s fin d more
Table XLIX
Answers given by th e Homesick and Won-Homesick S u b jects
to th e Q uestions *’f h a t do you miss most when you
a r e away fro© home?®
( C r i t i c a l R a tio s co n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t a re in d ic a te d
by an a s t e r is k )
G irls
Answers
%
*
H8 IfHS
14
P a re n ts
Atmosphere,
com fort
08
Mother
13
Fam ily
26
F rien d s
16
Boy f r ie n d
06
C t r l f r ie n d
Food
13
04
Car
Independence
06
S i s t e r o r b ro th e r 16
R e la x a tio n ,
04
s le e p , r e s t
Advice, someone
to c o n fid e in
16
P e ts
10
06
F u rn itu re
Good tim e s
03
03
Own room
04
P riv acy
OS
S o ft bed
Clean bed
03
E v ery th in g
Home l i f e
00
le is u re
00
n o th in g 5
H elp, c o o p e ra tio n 00
P e rso n a l
b elo n g in g s
Good town to
00
shop in
A fternoon te a
00
00
F ire p la c e
C lose to c i t y
00
00
Faces
F a th e r
Bo r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
D/TD
16 -02 .071 0.28
IBoys
$
H8 NH8 D(£) crp P/fD
10
14 -04 *065 0.61
04
08
33
36
06
04
24
23
23
10
08
10 412 *073 1*66
14 -04 .065 0.61
06 4m .051 0.39
08
02 4m
06 —03 *044 0 .4 5
03
00 402 ,030 1.00
03
06
00
02
00
00
02
00
03
06 —06 .034 1.76
00 402 .020 1.00
04
03 402 .034 0.58
00
02 -03 *030 1.00
00
04 -04 .028 1.42
03
02
00
00
00 432 .020 1.00
00 402 .030 1.00
12 —12 *046 2.60*
02 -02 .030 1.0 0
00
03 -0 2 *030 1.00
03
00 402 .030 1.00
03
02
00 402 .020 1.00
GO 402 .030 1.00
00
08
10
30
03
408
404
416
-0 4
404
.038
,060
.075
.077
.039
3*10*
0.66
2.13*
0.51
1,02
04
02
08
04
408
402
-02
412
.054
.034
,051
.059
1.48
0*58
0.39
3.03*
414
404
406
00
402
404
00
*056
*054
*034
,038
.030
.028
*028
3,50*
0.74
1.76
0.00
1.00
1,43
0.00
00 4^2 .020 1.00
04 -04 .038 1,42
IB -1 8 .054 3,33*
02 -02 .030 1*00
02
03
02
03
03
-02
-02
-03
-02
—03
.020
.020
.030
.020
.020
373
1.00
1.00
1,00
1.00
1.00
—03
/0 4
■/08
/0 4
♦044
*047
.089
.086
0*45
0,85
0.89
0.46
.043 1.39
Table I h l X
(C ontinued)
O r I t l e a l R atio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P e rc e n ta g e s
Answers
Everybody
Money
Grandmother
Clean c lo th e s
Home
03
03
03
00
00
03
00
03
03
Conveniences
h iv in g th e r e
To© p e r son a l
High School
00 ^03
03 00
00 /OB
02 —03
02 -0 2
02 00
02 <*03
00 <jto3
0 0 /0 3
*030
.0 3 8
.0 2 0
*020
.0 2 0
*038
*030
.0 2 0
*020
1*00
0 .0 0
1 .0 0
1 .0 0
1 .0 0
0 .0 0
1 .0 0
1 .0 0
1 .0 0
s e c u r ity and p r e t e s t io n in t h e i r home® th an elsew here im p lie s
a c e r t a i n f e a r and tim id ity in them in t h e i r p re se n t * away
from home* s itu a tio n *
Such g i r l s are more l i k e l y to be in ­
tro v e rt® th an ext re v e rts *
Those who miss n o th in g in th e
home s i t u a t i o n are d e f in i t e l y weaned from t h e i r homes and
have no em o tio n ally charged d e s ir e s to r e tu r n to th e home
s itu a tio n .
The o n ly s i g n i f i c a n t answer given by th e boys was as
fo llo w s i
12 p e rc e n t o f th e non-homesick and none o f th e
homesick s ta te d t h a t th ey m issed nothing in th e home s itu a ­
tio n .
The sease im p lic a tio n t h a t applied, f o r th e g i r l s a p p lie s
here*
As long as th e r e i s n o th in g in th e home s it u a t io n th a t
th e d e s i r e s are fo cused upon th e r e i s le s s p o s s i b i l i t y o f th e
normal d e s i r e to r e tu r n home becoming em o tio n ally ch arg ed .
There i s no ev id en ce from th e d a ta in Table L th a t
s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hom esickness i s r e la te d to whether o r not
274
the heme hag been broken by divorce or death*
Table L
P e rc e n ta g e s o f Rome-sick and o f Ion-Homesick S u b jects
who were from Homes Broken by D ivorce
o r Death
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
G irls
Boys
$
$
$ $
a s HHS D($) CD D/CD
H3 KHS D(f0) CD D/GD
P e rc e n ta g e s from
Broken homes
10 12 -03 *062 0*33 12 IS -04 *069 0.57
P e rc e n ta g e s from
Homes Broken by:
D ivorce
04
Death o f mother 00
Death o f f a th e r 06
Beth p a r e n ts
dead
04 00 . 040
02 -02 . 020
06 00 . 048
0.00
1.00
0.00
02
02
08
03
02 00 . 036
04 -02 .034
10 -02 . 057
00 /OS .020
0*00
0.58
0.35
1.00
T here i s no evidence from th e d a ta in T able LI th a t
s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t© hom esickness i s r e la te d t o th e number o f
c o lle g e hours c a r r i e d , th e number o f co u rse s c a r r i e d , o r th e
number ©f re q u ire d c o u rse s in M ilita r y o r P h y sic a l Education*
Hot i s th e re any evidence from th e d a ta in Table LI I
o f more f a i l u r e s , more incom plete work, more w ithdraw ing
from work s t a r t e d , o r o f more co n d itio n e d work in one group
th a n in th e o th e r .
The d a ta in T able L III in d ic a t e th a t g ra d e p o in ts 46
earned p e r c r e d i t hour are not s i g n i f i c a n t ly r e la te d to home­
s ic k n e s s .
4%©y method o f d eterm in in g grade p o in ts see page 177.
375
Table
11
o f C ollege H ow s, and number o f C ollege Courses
c a r r i e d by th e Homesick: and Won—Homesick S u b je c ts,
and number o f S u b je c ts c a rry in g R equired Courses
In P h y s ic a l E ducation o r M ilita ry T rain in g
(These d a ta were o b tain ed from th e R e g i s t r a r ’s Records)
Humber o f
c o lle g e Hours
c a r r ie d ;
10
13
14
15
16
17
18
lumber o f
c o lle g e co u rse s
c a rrie d ;
4
5
0
7
8
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
G irls
Boys
cf?
$
r
P
HS HHS D (f) <5~D d /gd
HS MH8 B(^) (TP P/CTD
03 -03 .030 1.00
04 02 /Q3 .034 0.58
03 06 -04 .039 1.03
SO 48 /1 2 .099 1.31
33 38 -0 6 .096 0.62
00 04 -0 4 .038 1.43
03 00 -/02 .030 1.00
00
22
32
32
12
02
P erc en t ages e& rryin g re q u ire d co u rse s
in P h y s ic a l Educa­
tio n and M ilita r y ;
88
02
02
34
52
10
04 -02 .034
00 .028
36 -0 2 .096
52 00 .100
06 /0 4 .054
02
0.58
0.00
0 .2 0
0.00
0.74
20 1*02 .083 0 *24
30 4os .093 0.21
12
86
18
04
06 7*06 .057 1.05
76 —10 .090 1.11
18 00 .076 0.00
00 7*04 .028 1.43
82 7*08 .071 0.84
96
86 /1 0 .056 1.78
38 -0 6 .096 0.63
10 4p s .062 0.32
00 i*os .030 1.00
T able LII
P e rc e n ta g e s o f th e Homesick and Ion-Home s ic k S u b jects
F a ilin g to com plete t h e i r Scheduled Work f o r th e
Sem ester covered by t h i s I n v e s tig a tio n
(These d a ta were o b ta in e d from th e R e g is tr a r ’s Records)
Type o f
In eom pletion
f (one o r more)
Incom plete
Withdrawn
E (c o n d itio n a l)
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe ren c es in P ercen tag es
Boys
, G irls
^1?
$
D/GD HS HHS D($) (JO
18
16
10
06
12 t*06
14 JQ2
04 y£06
04 fOB
0.84
0.38
34
13
1.20
10
02
0.45
376
34
08
06
00
4X0
,*04
4m
/OS
.090
. 060
.054
.030
Table L I U
Grade P o in t D iffe re n c e s fox Homesick and Kon-Homesick
C ollege S tu d en ts
(These d a t a were o b tain ed from th e R e g is tra r* s Records)
Mean Grade
Biff.* in
P o in ts p e r
Mean
Chances
C red it Hr*
S cores
(TO 47
D/CD
in 100
HS
HHS
G ir ls
Boys
1*23
0 .93
1 ,2 3
1*05
-0 .0 2
—0 a13
0*14
0,18
0.13
0.72
55.3
76.6
The v a r i a b i l i t y o f th e g ra d e p o in t sc o re s i s given in
Table L IT ,
Table LIT
T a r l a b i l i t y o f Grade P o in t Scores o f Homesick
and Ion-Homesick C ollege S tu d en ts
(These d a ta were o b tain ed from th e R e g is tr a r 's Records)
O irl*
Beys
B i f f , in <5
a D
D/ocft8
0 .0 0
Vto.15
0 .1 0
0.13
0.00
1.13
Chaneee in 100
50.0
86.6
D ata r e l a t i v e t o th e c o lle g e s and sch o o ls in which th e
homesick and non-hom esick s u b je c ts were e n ro lle d i s given in
Table IT ,
The o n ly s ig n if ic a n t d iffe re n c e h ere i s between
th e p e rc e n ta g e o f homesick and non-home sic k g i r l s e n ro lle d
^ T h e same fo rm u la used in Table I I , page 173, was used
i n t h i s T ab le,
48fh e same form ula used in Table I I I , page 173, was used
In t h i s Table*
in th e C o lleg e o f Art© and Selene© .
E ighty p e rc e n t o f th e
heme s ic k g irl© and 62 p e rc e n t o f th e non-home sic k g i r l s
( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3*02) s ta te d th a t they were e n ro lle d in
th e C o lleg e o f A rts and Science*
Perhaps t h i s means t h a t
g i r l s who are e n r o lle d in g e n e ra l e d u c a tio n a l co u rses are
l i k e l y t o la c k a s u f f i c i e n t deg ree o f i n t e r e s t in t h e i r
c o lle g e work to h e lp p rev en t a tta c k s o f n o s ta lg ia *
f a b le X,?
C o lle g e s and Schools in which th e Somesiok and Non-Homesick
S u b jects were E nrolled
(These d a ta were o b tain ed from th e R e g is tr a r 1s Records.
C r i t i c a l R a tio s co n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t a r e in d ic a te d by
an a s t e r is k )
C ollege o r
School en~
r o lle d in?
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe ren c es in P ercen tag es
Bovs
G irls
&
$
$
F
*
HS IBS D(f4 CD D/CD
HS HHS D($) CD o/ao
80
08
12
00
62
16
18
04
Pre-M edioine
Pre-M ursing
P re -D e n ta l
10
00
04 /0 6 .050 1.30
04 -0 4 .028 1.43
Pre-law
/I S
-08
-06
-04
.089
.064
*071
.038
3.02*
1.25
0.84
1.43
A rts and Science
B usiness
E ducation
Music
43
56
03
38 ^04 .098 0.40
56 00 .099 0 .0 0
06 —04 .039 1.03
06
18
03 /O4 .039 1,03
20 -02 .078 0.25
02
00 /02 .020 1,00
The d a ta in f a b le 171 in d ic a te th a t th e r e are no s i g n i f
le a n t age d if f e r e n c e s .
T h is, o f course* i s due to th e f a c t
th e s u b je c ts were p a ire d fo r ag e .
n e v e rth e le s s , th e se d a ta
do show t h a t hom esickness occurs in stu d e n ts re g a rd le s s o f
t h e i r ag e .
D ata r e l a t i v e t o lo s s in w eig h t, gain in w eight, and no
378
Table L7X
Agee o f th e Homesick and Hon-Homesick S u b jects
( These d a ta were o b ta in e d from th e
R e g i s t r a r s Records)
Age in
y e a rs j
17
18
19
30
31
33
O Irle
>
*
HS WEB m ) a o
30
48
16
14
00
03
Boys
&L
D/60
$
HS
34 -04 .083 0,48
46 402 .100 0.30
16 00 .074 0.00
*066 0.61
10
03 -02 .020 1.00
02 00 *038 0.00
18
80
16
04
03
00
14 /0 4
BO 00
33 -06
00 /0 4
02 00
03 -03
change i n weight a re p re se n ted in Table OTII.
.073
.098
,079
.038
.038
*030
0.54
0.0 0
0.75
1.43
0.00
1.00
The only s i g n i f -
le a n t d if f e r e n c e I s between th e p ercen tag e o f homesick and nonhomesick g i r l s who l o s t w eight s in c e th e b eginning o f th e se­
m ester*
Tw enty-four p e rc e n t o f th e non-homes ic k and 5 p e r­
c e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3.40) s ta te d
th a t th e y had l o s t from on© to f i v e pounds in weight s in c e
th e b eg in n in g o f th e sem ester.
Perhaps t h i s meaas th a t th e
non-home s ic k g irl© were engaged i n many more a c t i v i t i e s and
s o c ia l a f f a i r s and th e r e f o r e were under more p h y sic a l exer­
tio n and s t r a i n th a n were th e homesick g i r l s .
There i s no evidence from th e s e d a ta t h a t th o se who are
s u s c e p tib le t o hom esickness m ight be underw eight or over­
w eig h t, n o r i s th e r e any evidence th a t being underw eight, or
o v erw eig h t, might be an e t i o l o g ic a l f a c t o r .
The approxim ate
weight o f each s u b je c t i s g iv en in Table L7XII*
379
fable XVII
o f Some s ic k and Non-Home sick S u b jects who
re p o tte d Xoss i n W eight, Gain in Weight * and No
Change in Weight s in c e th e beginning
o f th e sem ester
( G r i t l e a l R atio s co n sid ered s ig n if ic a n t a re in d ic a te d
by an a s t e r is k )
s in c e b e g in lug o f sem ester
1
6
16
31
46
- 5 pounds
- 10 pounds
- BO pounds
— 35 pounds
— 50 pounds
C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P erc en tag es
G irls (W**74)
Boys (NsrgS)
05
Q/OD
HS HHS D(f>) 6~D D/CfD
2.40*
0.43
12
OS
02
02
02
10
02
00
00
00
/OS
/OS
/OS
/OS
/0 2
.063
.044
.020
.020
.020
0.31
1.36
1.00
1.00
1.00
41 /OS .100 0.50
08 / I I .078 1.41
11 -08 .058 1.37
40
12
08
02
44
16
06
00
—04
-0 4
V02
^02
.100
. 069
.052
.020
0 .4 0
0.57
0 .3 8
1.00
14 /OS .089 0.89
10
18 -08 .070 1*14
34 -19
0 3 /0 2
Weight g ain ed
s in c e b e g in ing o f sem ester
1
6
11
36
10 pounds
15 pounds
40 pounds
I© change in
w eight s in c e
in g o f sem ester
48
19
03
i22
Table XVIII
Approximate
w eight
C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
G irls
Boys
<t> f>
$
$
HS IBS D(£)
HS HHS D($) CD D/CD
02 .0 2 0 1*00
or le s s
034 0*58
pounds
1.25
pounds 16
0.69
pounds 22 28 M
12 06 4os .057 1,.05
pounds 22 32 -10 .089 1 .12
16 12 /0 4 .069 0,.57
pounds 30 32 4 m .088 0 .90
20 24 -04 .083 0..48
pounds 06 04 fOB .044 0 .45
33 36 -04 .086 0,.48
pounds
12 12 00 .065 0,.00
pounds
pounds 00 02 -02 ,*020 1
10 13 -02 .062 0,.32
pounds
08 12 -04 .060 0,.66
o©
«
90 pounds
91 - 100
101 - 110
111 - 120
131 - 130
131 - 140
141 - 150
151 - 160
161 - 170
171 - 180
181 - 300
Hen-Homesick S u b je c t
o f each Homesick
380
T hat p h y sic a l d e f e c ts were o f no e t i o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i ­
cance i n th e homes tele c a se s In t h i s in v e s tig a tio n i s in d i­
c a te d by th e d a ta in Table LXX.
Table MX
P e rc e n ta g e o f Homesick and Won-Homesick S u b jects
re p o r tin g th e p resen ce o f a P h y sic a l D efect
C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
O trls
Boys
ft
ft
IS m B B{$) CP
f> f>
D/M
HS WHSD(f>) CTD D/CP
OB 06 -0 4 ;039 1.03
08 10 -0 2 .057 0.35
F urth erm o re, th e r e i s no evidence th a t th e h eight o f
th e in d iv id u a l, w hether male o r fem ale, i s in any way re ­
la te d to s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hom esickness.
T his i s in d ic a te d
by th e d a ta in Table L I.
Table LI
Approximate H eight o f each Homesick and Won-Home sic k
S u b ject
Approximate
h e ig h t
4*
—' 4*8 9
4»7« - 5*
5 #1* - 5*6*
5»7« * 6*
8 , i* and over
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe ren c es in P erc en tag es
Boys
O irls
<
4
&
f>
HS
od D/CTD
IBS D{f>) <T0 D / a p HS r a s
03
04
74
30
00
02
72
26
JOB
^03
#3
-0 6
.030
.034
.088
*084
1.00
0.58
0.33
0.71
00
06
74
30
02 -03 .020 1.0 0
06 00 .048 0.00
68 /0 6 .091 0.65
24 -04 .083 0.48
Sometimes i t i s s a id th a t in d iv id u a ls who belong to
381
la r g e f a m ilie s a re l i v e l y to be s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness.
The d a ta in Table LXI in d ic a te t h a t th e s iz e o f th e fa m ily ,
w hether la r g e ©r s m a ll, has so r e la tio n s h ip to s u s c e p t i b i l it y
to hom esickness.
Table LXI
S ize o f th e Family o f each Homesick and
fon*H©®esick Subject
S ize o f
Family
{in c lu d in g
s u b je c t!
3
4
5
6
?
8
9
to
11
14
15
C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
]loys
{H rlfi i
*
$
$
m
HHS
D ( * ) CTO
30
28
30
12
10
04
02
04
00
30
32
22
14
08
03
00
00
02
.081
.091
.082
.067
.057
.034
.020
■ fm .038
*02 .030
00
*•*04
*03
*02
/0 2
/02
1*03
$
P/CTD
HS $HS
0.00
0.43
0.24
0.29
0.35
0.58
1.00
1.43
1.00
20
28
36
06
08
04
00
02
04
DO
03
18
38
22
08
06
04
03
00
00
02
00
CFO
D/<SD
.078
.093
.086
.051
.051
.040
*020
.020
/0 4 .028
*03 .020
*/02 .020
0.35
1.07
0.46
0.39
0.39
0.00
1.00
1.00
1.43
1.00
1.00
D<$)
/03
*10
</04
*02
^02
00
-03
f o r i s th e re any evidence from th e d a ta in Table LXI I
th a t having b o th p a r e n ts , having one p a r e n t, having n e i th e r
p a r e n t, o r having a s te p -p a re n t i s in any way r e la te d to
s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o hom esickness.
The d a ta i n T able LXI 11 show no s ig n if ic a n t d iffe re n c e
between th e number o f homesick s u b je c ts and th e number o f
nco-hom esick s u b je c ts who were o n ly c h ild r e n , th e o ld e s t
c h i l d , th e youngest c h i l d , and 8middle* c h ild r e n .
D ata r e l a t i v e t o th e s iz e o f th e h ig h school c la s s
383
Table h i l l
P e rc e n ta g e s o f Homesick and Won-Homesick S u b jecta b a rin g
Both P a re n ts , h a rin g One P a r e n t, h a rin g N eith er
P a r e n t, and h a rin g a S tep -P are n t
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P erc en tag es
Boys
G irls
$
%
$
HS WHS B{$) CTO O/CTD HS HHS D(^) CTD D /C D
Hare b o th
p a r e n ts
F a th e r, no mother
M other, no f a th e r
Hare n e i t h e r
f a th e r o r m other
Hare s t e p - f a t h e r
Hare step -m o th er
92
00
04
92 00 .054 0.00
02 -03 .020 1-00
04 GO .040 0.00
90
02
04
84 /o s .067 0.89
00 /QS .030 1*00
06 —02 .044 0 .45
04
03 /G3 .034 0.58
02
02
00
03 00 .038 0.00
04 —03 .034 0.58
04 —04 .036 1.43
Table M i l l
P o s itio n o f Each Subject w ith R e la tio n to S ib lin g s
P o s itio n
w ith r e l a t i o n
to s i b l in g s
C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
Girl©
Boys
%
$
HS WHS D(^) e ra P/(TD HS
itj
Only c h ild
O ld est c h ild
Touagest c h ild
Middle c h ild
30
33
16
32
18
34
38
30
/0 2
-03
-12
/1 2
.078
.094
.082
♦087
0.25
0.21
1.46
1.37
14
28
36
23
16 -02 *071 0*28
36 -08 .093 0*86
36 00 .096 0*00
12 /lQ .075 1*33
a tte n d e d and s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hom esickness a re p re se n te d in
T able LIT?*
Ten p e rc e n t o f th e non-hotaeslok g i r l s and none
o f th e homesick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o of 2*32) were from
h ig h sch o o l c la s s e s h a rin g m a re ra g e en ro llm en t of about
300 s tu d e n ts*
P erh ap s t h i s s iz e high school c la s s i s sm all
enough f o r every member t© re c e iv e s u f f ic ie n t p erso n a l
283
fable IXIV
S iz e ©f High School C lass a tte n d e d by th e S u b jects
( These d a ta were o b ta in e d from th e R e g is tra r* s
R ecords)
( C r i t i c a l R a tio s co n sid ered s i g n if ic a n t a re i n ­
d ic a te d by an a s te r is k )
Approximate
s iz e
25
50
75
100
150
200
250
500
400
500
TOO
1000
1200
C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
D irls
Boys
mi
10
24
18
m
06
00
08
12
08
08
00
04
02
$
KH3 D($)
08 M
16
06
06
13
10
10
04
OS
10
02
08
04
VtOS
^3
-0 4
*06
—10
-OS
/0 8
/0 6
—04
—02
—04
-02
(7 0
D/cr/)
-os?
.079
.064
.039
.057
#043
.057
.054
*043
.055
.020
.048
.034
0.35
1.01
1.87
1*02
1.05
3.32*
0.35
1.48
1.38
0.72
1.00
0.83
0.58
$
*
18 m s H i ) <s p D/GD
23 04 /is .065 3.76*
14
06
06
12
08
04
06
14
00
03
04
02
20
10
04
10
12
12
04
04
02
00
14
02
-06 .075 0 .8 0
—04 .055 0.73
itos .044 0.45
/os .063 0.31
-04 .060 0.66
-08 .054 1.48
/OS .044 0 .4 5
/XO .056 1.78
-OS .020 1 .0 0
/OS .030 1 .00
—10 .057 1,75
00 .028 0.00
a t t e n t i o n t o h elp h e r develop a t t i t u d e s and h a b its which
p re v en t hom esickness, and la r g e enough to p re v en t th e stu d e n t
te e m in g so a tta c h e d to th e c l a s s as to em o tio n ally charge
th e home s i t u a t i o n .
fw enty—two p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and 4 p ercen t o f th e
non-hom eslek boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2.76) were from high
school c la s s e s hav in g an average enrollm ent o f about 25
stu d e n ts*
Perhaps such a sm all h ig h school c la s s c o n tr ib u te s
to s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hom esickness in boys by p ro v id in g
re c o g n itio n and s t a t u s , and f e e l in g s of belo n g in g which
would be im p o ssib le i n a la r g e r c la s s where th e se boys would
t r e a t e d mere im personally*
I t d ees not ap p ear from th e d a ta giv en in f a b le I*XV
th a t th e r e l a t i v e s ta n d in g o f a stu d e n t in h is high school
c la s s h as any r e la tio n s h ip to s u s c e p t i b i l it y to n o s ta lg ia .
Table LXV
R e la tiv e S tanding o f th e S ubjects i n t h e i r
High School C lasses
{These d a ta were o b tain ed from th e
R e g is tr a r ’ s Records)
S tan d in g in
High School
C la sse s
1 st
2nd
3rd
4 th
C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P erc en tag es
„ G irls
Boys
$
*4 *
HS HHS D($) <?D D/CQ HS HHS D($) <JD O/CTD
q u a r te r
q u a r te r
q u a r te r
q u a r te r
63
39
08
03
69 -0 6
33 /O?
06 00
03 00
*096
.068
.048
.038
0*63
0*79
0*00
0*00
38
34
14
14
30 ^08 •096 0*83
32 /0 2 *096 0*20
14 00 .070 0.00
33 -08 *077 1*03
The c la s s e s o f o ccu p atio n s engaged in by th e f a th e r s and
m others o f th e s u b je c ts are l i s t e d in f a b le LZVI.
The only
s i g n i f i c a n t d iffe re n c e i s between th e p e rc e n ta g e s o f home­
s ic k and non-bomesiok g i r l s whose f a th e rs were s k ille d l a ­
b o rers*
fe n p e rc e n t o f th e non-homesick and none o f th e
homesick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f S .38) s ta te d th a t t h e i r
f a th e r s were s k i l l e d la b o re rs*
I t i s d i f f i c u l t to s t a t e why
th e d a u g h te rs o f s k i l l e d la b o r e r s should ten d to be Immune
t© hom esickness*
Undoubtedly th e r e i s som ething in th e home
s i t u a t i o n th a t would h elp account f o r t h i s .
Perhaps th e s e
f a th e r s encourage t h e i r d au g h ters to a tte n d c o lle g e , and
Table h V f t
G la sse s o f O ccupations engaged in by th e f a th e r s and
M others o f th e S u b jects
( C r i t i c a l R a tio s co n sid ered s ig n i f ic a n t are in ­
d ic a te d by an a ste rls& )
C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P e rc e n ta g e s
G irls
Boys
f> $
$
$>
I . Father's
a s 5 ® D(4) CSD D /G D
a s SHS DK) G O
D/GD
o cc u p atio n :
R e tire d
P ro fe s s io n a l
S e m i-p ro fe ssio n a l
B usiness
P o litic s
R a ilro a d
V. P* A,
S k ille d la b o r e r
U n sk ille d la b o re r
Farmer
C iv il S e rv ic e
03
IS
02
40
06
03
03
00
08
18
04
00
18
08
52
02
00
00
10
04
08
00
93
03
94 —02
02 00
051 0 .39
028 0 .00
04
00
02
03 ■faZ
03 —03
00 /0 2
034 0 .58
020 1 .00
020 1 ♦00
/0 3
-03
-04
-13
/0 4
/OS
/o s
-1 0
/04
/io
/04
.020
. 076
.039
.099
.039
.030
♦030
.043
.047
♦066
.028
1 .00
0 .26
1 ♦OS
1 .31
1 .02
1 .00
1 .00
2 .36*
0 .85
1 .51
1 •43
16
08
50
03
06
12
02
46
10
08
/0 4
/06
/0 4
-08
-03
.069
.043
.100
.047
.051
0,. 58
1 .39
0..40
1,.70
0..39
06
04
04
04
'04
10 —
04 00
06 -0 3
03 /0 2
.054
.040
.044
.034
74
0.►
0..00
0,.45
58
0,►
90
03
03
06
84 /OS .087 0..89
04 —03 .034 0,.58
04 —03 *034 0,.58
06 00 .048 0..00
00
03 -02 .020 1 .00
II* M other f s
o c c u p a tio n :
Housewife
P ro fe s s io n a l
S e a l-p r o fe s s io n a l
B usiness
Farmer
C ollege s tu d e n t
W aitress
encourage fe e lin g s o f su ccess and accomplishment in t h e i r
d au g h ters eh© a re away a t c o lle g e *
Whether o r n o t a person i s a member o f a church has no
s i g n i f i c a n t r e la ti o n s h i p to h is s u s c e p t i b i l it y to homesick­
n e s s , n o r does i t seem to m a tte r what h is denom ination i s i f
he i s a church member*
These d a ta are p re se n te d in Table LXT11.
286
fable IiXVTI
Church Membership o f th e Homesick and
Hon-Horaesick S u b jects
G rit l e a l R a tio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
O irls
Boys
%
$
$
H8 m 3 D(i) CTD d/ od HS m e D ( $ ) crD D/&D
Church member#
Non-members
76
24
Church P re fe re n c e
{ i n o l , non-members)
P r o te s ta n t
76
L u th eran
02
M. f .
30
Oh* C h r is t
00
P re s b y te ria n
18
C h r is tia n
13
E v a n g e lic a l
02
E p isco p al
02
C h r is tia n Scien 02
03
B a p tis t
C o n g reg atio n al 03
U nited B re th .
03
02
H© p re fe re n c e
18
C a th o lic
02
Jew ish
Quaker
04
Rone
64 A s *091 1.31
36 -12 .091 1.31
74
36
70 404 .090 0*44
30 -04 •090 0.44
78
03
36
03
10
04
00
06
06
10
02
00
00
14
00
72
04
40
00
06
12
03
02
02
02
82
04
36
02
12
16
06
02
00
04
-10
00
404
-03
—06
-04
-04
00
4oz
-02
.083
.040
.09?
.020
.057
.069
.039
*038
.020
.034
1.30
0.00
0.41
1.00
1.05
0 .5 ?
1.02
0.00
1.00
0.58
02
10
10
02
06
00
04
08
03
04
402 .020
406 .050
4oz .057
00 .028
4ob .044
1 .0 0
1.20
0.35
0.00
0.4 5
—02
00
-06
—02
4OS
AS
402
-0 4
—04
-0 8
00
4oz
fOZ
/0 4
4§Z
*084
.038
.094
.020
.068
.064
.020
*039
•039
.047
.028
.020
*020
.073
.020
0.23
0.00
0.63
1.00
1 .1 ?
1.48
1.00
1.03
1.02
1.70
0.00
1.00
1.00
0.54
1.00
03 40Z .034 0.58
Xt has o fte n been argued t h a t th o se who a re fro® th e
co u n try o r from sm all towns a re more l i k e l y to be s u s c e p tib le
to hom esickness th a n th o s e from la r g e towns o r c i t i e s .
There
i s no evidence in t h i s in v e s tig a tio n to su p p o rt such an a r­
gument .
These d a ta a re given in Table LXVIII.
Whether o r n ot th e su b je c t was s t i l l l i v i n g in th e same
town in which he was b o m a p p a re n tly made no d iffe re n c e in
h i s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hom esickness.
28?
This i s in d ic a te d by th e
data presented in fable LXIX
Table 1X71IX
S iz e o f th e Home Community o f each Homesick and
Non-Homesick S ubject
(These d a ta were o b tain ed from th e World
A tla s , T o l. X, 1937 )
G irls
$
%
HS HHS B(^) GO
500
1 ,0 0 0
1.500
3 .5 0 0
5,000
10,000
15.000
3 5 .0 0 0
50.000
100,000
10
10
02
10
10
08
06
04
06
18
00
16
00
7*02
7*04
-0 2
7*02
-0 4
-0 6
—03
7*02
00
*059
«062
.039
*057
*062
*047
*034
*034
.051
*076
7*03 *030
7*03 .075
0.00
0.33
1.02
0.35
0.33
0.85
1*76
0*58
0.39
0.00
1.00
0.28
d/ gd
14
14
02
04
14
12
04
10
08
10
10
08
06
06
10
08
08
08
04
12
.065
.063
.039
*044
.065
.060
.047
.057
.044
.062
0.61
0.96
1.03
0.45
0.61
0 .6 6
0.85
0.35
0.45
0.32
10
20 -1 0 .071
7*04
/0 6
-04
—03
7*04
7*04
-04
7*02
7*02
—03
•
300,000
Ower 300,000
10
13
06
08
13
04
00
03
08
18
08
18
0/6 D
Boys
$
p
HS HHS D(^) 60
o
Approximate
e ls e o f th e
Home
Community
Table LUX
P erc en tag e o f th e S u b jects who rep o rted th a t they were
s t i l l l i v i n g in th e same Community in which
they were Born
C r i t i c a l R a tio s fo r D iffe re n c e s in P ercen tag es
G ir ls
Boys
€
€
$
HS HHS D($) 6 0 0 /6 0
HS HHS D($) 6 0 D/GD
58
48 7*10 *100 1.0 0
66
60 /0 6
.096 0.63
The rem ainder o f th e d a ta p re se n te d in t h i s t h e s i s was
o b ta in e d from Q u e stio n n a ire s Ho. I and Ho* I I .
These ques­
t i o n n a i r e s were d isc u s s e d under th e to p ic ^T est M a te ria ls ’*
363
in an e a r l i e r p a r t o f t h i s t h e s i s .
be c o n sid e re d f i r s t *
Q u e stio n n a ire Mo. I w il l
I t c o n ta in s 100 q u e s tio n s , each o f which
can he answered ay e s H, ^no®,
or doubtful® . Only th e answers
which have a c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2 .0 0 o r g r e a te r w ill he d ie —
c u sse d .
These d a ta a re p re se n te d in Table LXX in th e ap­
p e n d ic e s, pages 354-357
in c lu s iv e .
The f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t answer i s to q u e s tio n Mo. 7 2
ffB©
you have r e g u la r h o u rs th a t you spend In recreation?®
Twenty p e rc e n t o f t h e homesick boys and 40 p e rc e n t o f th e
non-hom esick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3.23) answered t h i s
q u e s tio n in th e a f f ir m a tiv e .
T his in d ic a te s th a t spending
r e g u la r h o u rs in r e c r e a tio n i s in d ic a tiv e o f , ©r c o n trib u te s
to immunity to hom esickness in b o y s.
This i s confirmed by
th e n e g a tiv e answers which were giv en by 76 p e rc e n t o f th e
homesick boys and 54 p ercen t o f th e non-homesiek boys ( c r i t i ­
c a l ra ti© ©f 3*39).
The p e rc e n ta g e s o f boys g iv in g th e n e g a tiv e answer to
q u e s tio n f e ^ i t
*8© you p r e f e r t o room by y o u rs e lf ? 8 in ­
d ic a te t h a t a r t l i k i n g to room alo n e i s in d ic a tiv e o f , and
might c o n tr ib u te to hom esickness in boys.
S ev en ty -eig h t
p e rc e n t o f th e hom esick boys and 58 p ercen t ©f th e non-homes ic k boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3.1 7 ) gave t h i s answer*
d o u b tfu l answ ers a r e a ls o s i g n if ic a n t fo r th e boys.
The
Two
p e rc e n t o f th e hom esick boys and 12 p e rc e n t o f th e non-homesic k boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2 .0 0 ) gave t h i s answer*
in d ic a te s t h a t b ein g d o u b tfu l as to whether o r n o t one
T his
p r e f e r s t o room alo n e i s a s s o c ia te d w ith immunity to home­
s ic k n e s s in hoys*
The p e rc e n ta g e s o f g i r l s g iv in g th e a f firm a tiv e answer
to que s t tom Ho.. 15;
#Do you keep a diary?# in d ic a te t h a t
keeping a d ia ry m ight he in d ic a tiv e o f , o r even c o n trib u te
to# s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hom esickness in g i r l s .
F o rty -fo u r
p e rc e n t o f th e hom esick g i r l s and 30 p e rc e n t o f th e non-hosessiefc g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2*66) gave t h i s answer.
T his
i s confirm ed by th e f a c t th a t f i f t y - f o u r p e rc e n t o f th e home­
s ic k g i r l s and 78 p e rc e n t o f th e non-home s ic k g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l
r a t i o e£ 3 .6 0 ) gave t h e n e g a tiv e answ er.
th e p e rc e n ta g e s o f g i r l s g iv in g th e a f firm a tiv e answer
to q u e s tio n l o . 31$
“As a c h ild d id you u s u a lly p r e f e r to
p la y a t y o u r own home?# in d ic a te th a t p r e f e r r in g to p la y a t
one1® own home when a c h ild h e lp s girl© to become s u s c e p tib le
to hom esickness.
S i x t y - s i r p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s
and 46 p e rc e n t o f th e non-homesick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f
2.?D) gave t h i s answer*
The p e rc e n ta g e s o f g i r l s g iv in g th e
n e g a tiv e answer c o n firm t h i s tr e n d .
Tw enty-six p ercen t o f
th e hom esick g i r l s and 46 p e rc e n t of th e non-home sic k g i r l s
{ c r i t i c a l r a t i o ©f 3 .1 5 ) gave n e g a tiv e answ ers.
The p e rc e n ta g e s o f g i r l s g iv in g th e a f firm a tiv e answer
to q u e s tio n He* 24:
“Are you happy a t th e p re se n t time?*
in d ic a te t h a t b ein g happy in an “away from home" s i t u a t io n
i s good assu ran ce o f ismmmity to hom esickness in g i r l s .
Seventy—two p e rc e n t o f th e hom esick g i r l s and n in ety -tw o
290
p e rc e n t o f th e non-hom esick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2*70)
gear© t h i s answ er.
T h is i s confirm ed by th e p ercen tag es o f
g i r l s g iv in g th e n e g a tiv e answer*
S ixteen p e rc e n t o f th e
homesick g irl© and 3 p e rc e n t o f th e non-home s ic k g i r l s
( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3*50) gave t h i s answer*
S ix te en p e rc e n t
o f th e homesick boys and 4 p e rc e n t o f th e non-homesick boys
( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3 .0 3 ) gave th e d o u b tfu l answer to t h i s
q u estio n #
T his in d ic a te s th a t being d o u b tfu l as to one*©
h ap p in ess in an “away from home# s itu a tio n i s in d ic a tiv e o f
and p e rh a p s c o n tr ib u te s to hom esickness in boys#
The p e rc e n ta g e s o f boys g iv in g th e a ffirm a tiv e answer
to q u e s tio n Wo* 37 j
“Would you r a th e r have gone to some
o th e r c o lle g e o r u n iv e r s ity th an t h i s one?# in d ic a te t h a t
d e s ir in g t o go to a c o lle g e o r u n iv e rs ity o th e r than th e one
being a tte n d e d i s In d ic a tiv e o f and probably c o n trib u te s to
hom esickness in boys#
T w enty-eight p ercen t o f th e homesick
boys and 12 p e rc e n t o f th e non-home sick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o
o f %*05) gave t h i s answer*
A lso, th e p e rc e n ta g e s o f g i r l s
g iv in g th e d o u b tfu l answer are s ig n ific a n t*
Ten p e rc e n t o f
th e homesick g irl© and none o f th e non-homestck g i r l s ( c r i t i ­
c a l ra ti© o f 3*38) gave t h i s answ er.
This in d ic a te s th a t
being d o u b tfu l as t o w hether o r n o t one would r a th e r have
gone to some o th e r c o lle g e o r u n iv e r s ity i s in d ic a tiv e o f or
c o n tr ib u te s to hom esickness in g i r l s *
Two p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s and 13 p ercen t o f th e
n o n -h o m esick ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3*00) gave th e d o u b tfu l
answer to Q uestion Ho- 28:
HD© you haw© a d e f i n i t e g o a l o r
am bition t h a t you a re n o t working d i r e c tl y tow ard a t p re s e n t ?a
This i n d ic a te s t h a t b ein g d o u b tfu l a s to w hether o r not one
has a d e f i n i t e am b itio n o r g o al th a t one I s n o t working d i­
r e c t l y tow ard i s I n d ic a tiv e o f o r © ontributiw e to hom esickn ess in g irls *
Seventy p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s and 96 p e rc e n t o f
th e non-home s ic k g i r l s { c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3 ,6 6 ) gave th e
a f f ir m a tiv e answer to q u e stio n Sta« 30?
wDo you H u e c o lle g e
l i f e ? 1* T his i n d ic a te s th a t l i k i n g c o lle g e l i f e i s an a ss u r­
ance a g a in s t hom esickness in g i r l s .
Twenty-two p ercen t o f
th e hom esick g i r l s and none o f th e non-homesick g i r l s ( c r i t i ­
c a l r a t i o o f 3*73) gave th e d o u b tfu l answer to t h i s q u e s tio n .
T his in d i c a t e s t h a t being d o u b tfu l about l i k i n g c o lle g e l i f e
i s i n d i c a t i v e o f o r c o n tr ib u tiv e to hom esickness in g i r l s .
S ix ty p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s and 38 p e rc e n t o f
th e non-horaesick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o of 3 .4 4 ) gave th e
a f firm a tiv e answ er, and 30 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s
and 68 p e rc e n t o f th e non—homesick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f
4 ,0 8 ) gave th e n e g a tiv e answer to q u estio n l o . 31;*
Is
c o lle g e l i f e q u ite d i f f e r e n t th a n you expected i t to b e ? R
T h is i s v ery good evid en ce t h a t fin d in g c o lle g e l i f e q u ite
d i f f e r e n t from what one had expected i s an in d ic a tio n o f and
c o n tr ib u te s to hom esickness in g i r l s .
T h ir ty p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s and 8 p ercen t o f
th e n o n -h o sesick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3 .9 3 ) gave th e
293
a f f ir m a tiv e answer and 70 p e rc e n t o f th e hom esick g i r l s and
90 p e rc e n t o f th e non-homesiek g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3.59)
gave th e n e g a tiv e answer to q u e s tio n I©. 32s
BI s th e r e
som ething you would r a t h e r he doing th an going t o c o lle g e ?«
Seventy p e rc e n t o f th e homesick hoys and 88 p e rc e n t o f th e
non-hom esick hoys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2,25) gave th e n e g a tiv e
answer to t h i s q u e s tio n .
T his in d ic a te s th a t wanting to be
doing som ething o th e r th an a tte n d in g c o lle g e i s a s s o c ia te d
w ith and m ight he a cause o f hom esickness.
F o r ty - s ix p e rc e n t o f th e homesick boys and 66 p e rc e n t
o f th e non-hom esick boys ( c r i t i c a l rati© o f 3 ,0 6 ) gave th e
n e g a tiv e answer to q u e stio n Wo* 36;
“Do you have a budget
f o r spending your money?n T his im p lie s th a t having a budget
f o r spending one*© money i s a s s o c ia te d w ith s u s c e p t i b i l it y
to hom esickness.
The most p ro b a b le e x p la n a tio n i s t h a t boys
w ith f i n a n c ia l r e s t r i c t i o n s and w o rries a re l i k e l y to t r y
b u d g etin g t h e i r funds and th a t th e r e s t r i c t i o n s and w o rrie s
r a th e r th a n th e b u d g etin g c o n tr ib u te to th e s u s c e p t i b i l i t y
to hom esickness.
F if ty - f o u r p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s and 2 p e rc e n t
©f th e non—homesick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 7*12) gave th e
a f firm a tiv e answ er, and 43 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s and
04 p e rc e n t o f th e non-hom esick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a ti o of 6.66)
gave th e n e g a tiv e answer to q u e s tio n Mo. 38 1 *Bo you o f te n
f e e l lonesom e here?*
The a f firm a tiv e answer was given by
52 p e rc e n t o f th e hom esick boys and 8 p e rc e n t o f th e
non-hom esick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 5*43), and th e n e g a tiv e
answer was giv en by 42 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick boys and 88
p e rc e n t o f th e non-hom esick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 5.47)*
These d a ta a re c o n c lu s iv e evidence th a t fre q u e n tly bein g
lonesome i s in d ic a tiv e o f and e o n tr ib u tiv e to hom esickness.
Ten p e rc e n t o f th e homesick boys and 30 p ercen t o f th e
non-hom esick boys ( c r i t i c a l ra ti© o f 2.59) gave th e a ffirm a ­
ti v e an sw er, and 88 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and 68 p e rc e n t
©f th e non-homes ink boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o ©f 2.5 0 ) gave th e
n e g a tiv e answer to q u e s tio n Mo» 41:
y o u r s e lf when you a r e a t home?*
*Are you fre q u e n tly by
These d a ta in d ic a te t h a t
fre q u e n tly being a lo n e when a t home h elp s to prevent suscep­
t i b i l i t y to hom esickness when away from home.
Perhaps being
alone a t home h e lp s t o t r a i n one to be more s e l f - r e l i a n t and
s o l f - s u f f i © len t.
E ig h ty p e rc e n t o f th e hom esick boys and 94 p ercen t o f
th e non-hom esick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2 .1 2 ) gave th e
a f f ir m a tiv e answ er, and 16 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and 4
p e rc e n t o f th e non-hom esick boys { c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2*03)
gave th e n e g a tiv e answer to q u e s tio n Ho. 42;
s a t i s f i e d w ith your room here?*
8Are you w ell
This in d ic a te s th a t b ein g
w ell s a t i s f i e d w ith o n e rs room a t co lle g e g iv e s boys some
assu ran ce a g a in st hom esickness.
Ten p e rc e n t o f th e homesick
g i r l s and none o f th e non-homesick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f
2,38) gave th e d o u b tfu l answer to t h i s q u e s tio n .
This in ­
d ic a te s t h a t being d o u b tfu l as to whether or not one i s
s a t i s f i e d w ith one*® room i s a s s o c ia te d w ith , and might
cause s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t© hom esickness in g i r l s .
F i f t y —e ig h t p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s and 84 p e rc e n t
o f th e non-hom esick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2.98) gave th e
a f f ir m a tiv e answ er, and 40 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and 14
p e rc e n t o f th e Boiwhomesiok g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3.05)
gave n e g a tiv e answers t o q u e stio n No. 46s
"In g e n e ra l, i s
l i f e u s p le a s a n t f o r you here a s i t i s when you a re a t home?8
F if ty p e rc e n t o f th e homesick boys and 83 p e rc e n t o f th e
non-hom esick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3,59) gave the a ffirm a ­
t iv e answ er, and 44 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and 14 p e rc e n t
o f th e non-hom esick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3,52) gave th e
n e g a tiv e answer to t h i s q u e s tio n .
These d a ta axe f a i r l y
c o n c lu siv e evidence t h a t fin d in g c o lle g e l i f e as p le a s a n t
in g e n e ra l as o ne’ s home l i f e i s a
good
assu ran ce a g a in s t
hom esickness,
F i f t y - s i x p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and 34 p e rc e n t o f th e
non-hom esick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2,26) gave th e a ffirm a ­
t i v e answ er, and 44 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and 66 p e rc e n t
o f th e non-hom esick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2,26) gave th e
n e g a tiv e answer t o q u e s tio n Ho. 4 7 ;
9Do you f e e l more re ­
s t r i c t e d h e re th an when you a re home?*
These data in d ic a te
t h a t f e e l in g more r e s t r i c t e d a t c o lle g e th an when a t home i s
l i k e l y t o In d ic a te o r to h elp cau se s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to home—
s ic k n e s s i n g i r l s .
Twenty-two p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and 8 p ercen t o f th e
»©®-h©aesiek g i r l s { c r i t i c a l r a t i o ©f 2.00) gave th e a ffirm a ­
t i v e an sw er, and 72 p e rc e n t ©f th e homesick and 88 p e rc e n t
o f th e BOB-homesick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2.05) gave th e
n e g a tiv e answer to q u e s tio n Ho. 53s
*Do you fin d c o lle g e
l i f e monotonous?1* Tw enty-four p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and
4 p e rc e n t o f th e non-hom esick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3.03)
gave th e a f f ir m a tiv e answ er, and 64 p ercen t o f th e homesick
and S3 p e rc e n t o f th e non-homesick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f
2 .0 6 ) gave th e n e g a tiv e answer t o t h i s question*
These d a ta
in d ic a te t h a t fin d in g c o lle g e l i f e monotonous i s a good in ­
d ic a tio n o f , and p erh ap s a cause o f , hom esickness in c o lle g e
s tu d e n ts .
E ig h ty -s ix p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and a l l o f th e nonhomesick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2,85) gave th e a ffirm a tiv e
answ er, and 8 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and none o f th e nonhomesiek boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2.10) gave th e d o u b tfu l
answer to q u e stio n Ho. 54s
HDo you fin d c o lle g e l i f e i n t e r ­
e s tin g ? 11 These d a ta in d ic a te t h a t fin d in g c o lle g e l i f e in ­
t e r e s t i n g i s a good assu ran ce a g a in s t hom esickness in boys,
and t h a t b ein g d o u b tfu l a® to w hether o r not c o lle g e l i f e i s
i n t e r e s t i n g I s an in d ic a tio n o f and perhaps h e lp s to cause
hom esickness in boys*
Four p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and 36 p e rc e n t of th e nonhomesick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3,33) gave th e d o u b tfu l
answer to q u e stio n Ho. 55s
#33© you fin d c o lle g e l i f e s e r i ­
ous?11 T h is in d ic a te s th a t b ein g d o u b tfu l as to th e
s e rio u s n e s s o f c o lle g e l i f e i s an in d ic a tio n o f and p erh ap s
a c o n tr ib u tin g f a c t o r to hom esickness*
S e v e n ty -six p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and 96 p ercen t o f
th e non-homesick: g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3.03} gave th e a f ­
firm a tiv e answ er, and 18 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and 4 p e r­
c e n t o f th e non-hom esick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2.29) gave
th e n e g a tiv e answer t o q u e stio n Wo* 59:
b e e s good s in c e you came t o college?**
#Has your a p p e tite
T his Im plies t h a t a
good a p p e ti t e in d ic a te s and p erh ap s h elp s c o n tr ib u te to im­
munity t o hom esickness in g i r l s .
E ig h ty -s ix p e rc e n t .o f th e homesick and 98 p ercen t of
th e non-hom esick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3.2 6 ) gave th e
a f f ir m a tiv e answer t o q u e stio n Wo* 61:
s le e p w e ll here?®
*Do you u s u a lly
T h is im p lies t h a t sound s le e p i s a s s o c ia te d
w ith immunity to hom esickness, and might h e lp to p re v en t a t ­
ta c k s o f hom esickness In g ir ls *
F o rty -fo u r p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and 34 p e rc e n t o f
th e non-hom esick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2*17) gave th e
n e g a tiv e answer to q u e stio n Wo* 85:
many s o c ia l a c t i v i t i e s here?®
*Bo you p a r ti c i p a t e in
T h is im p lie s t h a t p a r t i c i p a ­
t i o n in many s o c ia l a c t i v i t i e s in d ic a te s l i t t l e s u s c e p t i b i l it y
to hom esickness, and perhaps h e lp s to p re v en t hom esickness
in g i r l s *
S e v e n ty -six p e rc e n t of th e homesick boys and 56 p e rc e n t
o f th e non-home s ic k boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2.1 7 ) gave th e
a f f ir m a tiv e answer t o q u e stio n Wo. 72$
397
“Boss your home
'
community have much community s p i r i t ? *
T his Im p lies t h a t
th e b e l i e f th a t o n e 's home community has c o n s id e ra b le com-*'
m a l t y s p i r i t i s an in d ic a tio n o f and p erhaps c o n trib u te s to
hom esickness in boys*
S ix ty —e ig h t p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s and 48 p e r­
cen t o f th e non-homesiek g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3*08) gave
th e n e g a tiv e answer t o q u e stio n Wo. 74:
wDo you have a
w ider ra n g e o f acq u ain tan ces h e re th an you have in your home
community?®
This im p lie s th a t la c k o f acq u ain tan ces i s
a s s o c ia te d w ith and probably h e lp s to cause hom esickness in
c o lle g e g ir l s *
F ifty -tw o p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s and 72 p e rc e n t
o f th e non-homesick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2*10) gave th e
n e g a tiv e answer to q u e s tio n Mo. 75:
wBo you fre q u e n tly go
home f o r th e week-end o r fo r s h o r t v isits? ®
This im p lies
t h a t fre q u e n t s h o rt v i s i t s home a re an in d ic a tio n o f, and
might h e lp ca u se, hom esickness In g i r l s .
E ight p e rc e n t o f
th e hom esick g i r l s and none o f th e non-homesick g i r l s ( c r i t i ­
c a l r a t i o o f 3*10) gave th e d o u b tfu l answer to t h i s q u e s tio n .
T his in d ic a te s t h a t b ein g d o u b tfu l as to w hether o r not on©
fre q u e n tly makes s h o r t v i s i t s home i s in d ic a tiv e of and
m ight c o n tr ib u te t o hom esickness in g irls *
F i f t y - s i x p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s and 38 p e rc e n t
o f th e non-hom esick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3 .0 6 ); 74 p e r­
ce n t o f th e homesick boys and 53 p ercen t o f th e non-home s ic k
boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2*34) gave th e a f f ir m a tiv e answ er,
aS8
and 13 p e rc e n t ©f th e homesick: hoys and SO p e rc e n t o f th e
non-hom esick hoys ( e x i t l e a l r a t i o o f a . 35) gave th e n e g a tiv e
answer to Q uestion No. 7 7 s
HDo you li k e your home community
b e t t e r th a n you do t h i s community?*
These d a ta imply th a t
l ik in g th e home community b e t t e r th an th e 11away from home*
community i n d ic a te s , and perhaps c o n tr ib u te s t o , s u s c e p ti­
b i l i t y to hom esickness,
T h ir ty - f o u r p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and 10 p e rc e n t o f
th e non-homesiefc boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3.03) gave th e a f­
firm a tiv e answ er, and 50 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and 76 p e r­
c e n t o f th e non-hom esick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3.79) gave
th e n e g a tiv e answer to q u e stio n Ho, 78:
*Would you l i k e to
spend th e r e s t o f y o u r l i f e li v in g in your home community?*
These d a ta in d ic a te t h a t a d e s ir e to spend th e r e s t o f one*s
l i f e in one*s home community i s a s s o c ia te d w ith , and might
h elp c a u s e , hom esickness in b o y s.
l i n e t y - f o u r p e rc e n t o f th e homesick boys and 73 p e rc e n t
o f th e non-homesiok boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3,05) gave th e
a f f ir m a tiv e answ er, and 4 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick boys and
34 p e rc e n t o f th e non-homesiek boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o of 3.03)
gave th e n e g a tiv e answer to q u e s tio n Ho, 79:
m unicate w ith home fre q u e n tly ? *
*Do you com­
These d a ta imply th a t f r e ­
quent communication w ith home i s an in d ic a tio n o f , and might
be a c a u se o f , hom esickness in b oys.
E ig h ty —two p e rc e n t o f th e homesick boys and 64 p e rc e n t
o f th e non-hom esick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a ti o o f 3 ,0 6 ) gave th e
399
n e g a tiv e answer to q u e stio n No. 84:
"Are th e members ©f
your fa m ily independent o f each other?*
T h is Im plies t h a t
th e f e e l in g t h a t t h e members o f o n e1© fam ily a r e not inde­
pendent ©f each o th e r i s an in d ic a tio n o f , and perhaps a
c o n tr ib u tio n t o , hom esickness in b oys.
S ix ty - f o u r p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s and 43 p e rc e n t
o f th e non—homesick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a ti o o f 3,34) gave th e
a f f ir m a tiv e answ er, and 36 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s
and 48 p e rc e n t o f th e non—homesick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f
3*34} gave th e n e g a tiv e answer to q u estio n No. 92:
*S ince
you were 15, have th e members o f your fam ily u s u a lly h elp ed
you so lv e your problem©?*
These d a ta imply th a t depending
upon members ©f o n e 1© fam ily t o h elp so lv e o n e ’s problem s
a f t e r one i s 15 y e a rs o ld p robably in c re a s e s s u s c e p t i b i l it y
to hom esickness in g i r l s .
T h ir ty - s ix p e rc e n t o f th e homesick boys and 56 p e rc e n t
o f th e non-homes ie k boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3.0 4 ) gave th e
a f f ir m a tiv e answer* and 58 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick boys and
58 p e rc e n t o f th e non-homes ic k boys ( c r i t i c a l rati© o f 2.04)
gave th e n e g a tiv e answer to q u e stio n No. 96:
*D© you fin d
i t e a s ie r to g e t a c q u ain te d w ith g irl© h ere th a n i t i s a t
home?"
These d a ta im ply th a t fin d in g i t more d i f f i c u l t to
g e t ac q u ain te d w ith g i r l s w h ile a t c o lle g e th a n w hile a t
home i n d i c a t e s , and p erhaps h e lp s to cau se, s u s c e p t i b i l i t y
to hom esickness in b o y s.
F o rty-tw o p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and none o f th e non-
homesick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 6*00} gave th e a ffirm a tiv e
an sw er| 50 p e rc e n t o f th e hom esick and a l l o f th e non-home­
s ic k g i r l s {c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 7*04} gave th e n e g a tiv e answer;
and 8 p e rc e n t o f th e home sie k and non© o f th e non-home s ic k
g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3,10) gave th e d o u b tfu l answer to
Q uestion Ho* 99s
®Do you u s u a lly become homesick when you
a r e away from hornet*
Twenty—two p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and
none o f th e non-hom esick hoys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3,72) gave
th e affirm & tiv e an sw er; s i x t y - s ix p e rc e n t o f th e homesick
and a l l o f th e non—hom esick hoys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o of 5,07}
gave th e n e g a tiv e answ er; and 13 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and
none o f th e non-home s ic k hoys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o of 3.60} gave
th e d o u b tfu l answer to t h i s q u e s tio n .
These d a ta are good
evidence t h a t th e s u b je c ts © elected fo r th e homesick group
were s u b je c ts who had a c tu a lly experienced a tta c k s o f home­
sick n ess* and t h a t th o s e s e le c te d f o r th e non-homesick group
were c o n s is te n t in t h e i r sta te m e n ts th a t th e y had never had
an a tta c k o f hom esickness.
These d a ta a ls o in d ic a te t h a t
about h a l f o f th e homesick group u s u a lly become homesick
when away from home, w hile th e o th e r s , a lth o u g h being sub­
j e c t t© hom esickness, do not h a b itu a lly become homesick w hile
away from home*
Q u estio n I©. 100:
"Have you ever been homesick?0 was
answered In th e a f f ir m a tiv e by each o f th e 50 g i r l s in th e
homesick group, and i n th e n e g a tiv e by each o f th e 50 g i r l s
in th e c o n tr o l g ro u p .
A ll th e boys in th e c o n tr o l group
301
answered I n th e n e g a tiv e , h u t o f th e boys i n th e homesick
group 92 p e rc e n t answered in th e a f f ir m a tiv e , 6 p e rc e n t (3
boys) answered i n th e n eg ativ e* and 2 p e rc e n t { i boy) gave
a d o u b tfu l answer,
There i s c o n c lu siv e e v id e n c e , however,
t h a t ev e ry boy i n th e homesick group had been homesick and
t h a t ev ery one in t h i s group had been homesick a t some tim e
d u rin g th e sem ester t h i s in v e s tig a tio n was conducted*
They
a l l a d m itte d in one p la c e o r a n o th e r th a t th e y had been home­
s ic k a t some tim e d u rin g th e se m e ste r, and a l l o f them l i s t e d
th e symptoms by which th ey knew th e y were homesick*
F u rth e r­
more, s e v e r a l f r ie n d s o f each boy c e r t i f i e d t h a t he had been
homeeiok d u rin g th e sem ester, and one boy, who was r e lu c ta n t
to adm it ev er having been hom esick, was re p o rte d by a p ro fe s ­
so r i n th e Psychology Department t o have s u ffe re d se v e re ly
w ith hom esiekness o n ly a few days b e fo re he was asked t o serve
as a s u b je c t.
P erh ap s t h i s q u e s tio n , coming p o in t blank a t
th e end o f th e q u e s tio n n a ire , brought out th e same d e fe n siv e
resp o n se t h a t would appear i f th e s e boys were being te a s e d
about t h e i r hom esickness.
The ego o f th e c o lle g e male i s in ­
deed s e n s i t i v e I F u rth erm ore, i t was co n sid ered wise to keep
th e s e s u b je c ts s in c e emphatic d e n ia l of hom esickness s ig h t
a c tu a lly be evidence o f s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to homesickness*
The f i n a l d a ta o b tain ed in t h i s in v e s tig a tio n are th e
answers to Q u e stio n n a ire Ho* I I .
Only th o se answers which
a re co n sid ered s i g n i f i c a n t w ill be p resented*
This m a te ria l
i s p re s e n te d in T able LXXI in th e appendices, pages 358-359.
302
F o r th e f i r s t q u e s tio n in Q u e stio n n a ire Ho* II?
8Be­
f o re you were 14 y e a r s o ld how o f te n d id you t r a v e l o r v i s i t
away from home?8, th e p e rc e n ta g e s o f boys g iv in g th e answer
*som etim es 8 a re s ig n if ic a n t*
S ix ty -e ig h t p e rc e n t o f th e
homesick boys and 48 p ercen t o f th e non-home s i ok gave t h i s
answ er.
The c r i t i c a l r a ti o i s 2.06*
This in d ic a te s t h a t
t r a v e li n g o r v i s i t i n g away from home only sometimes In s te a d
o f fre q u e n tly * b e fo re reach in g 14 y e a rs o f age* f a il e d t o
p rev en t s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hom esickness In th e boys.
F or th e second q u estion?
8How o fte n were you accompanied
by a r e l a t i v e o r c lo s e f r ie n d ? 8* th e re are s ig n if ic a n t d a ta
from b o th boy® and g i r l s *
T h ir ty - s ix p e rc e n t o f th e homesick
g i r l s and 56 p e rc e n t o f th e non-home sic k g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a ­
t i o o f 2 .0 4 ) gave th e answer 8sometimes8 .
Of th e boys 48
p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and 32 p e rc e n t o f th e non-home s ic k ,
( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f ■2*S3) gave th e answers ^alw ays8 .
The e v i­
dence h e re i s t h a t always being accompanied by a r e l a t i v e o r
c lo s e f r ie n d w hile tr a v e lin g o r v i s i t i n g away from home b e fo re
reach in g 14 y e a rs o f age probably caused* r a th e r th a n p re ­
vented* s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hom esickness in th e boys when th ey
went to c o lle g e .
On th e o th e r hand* being so accompanied
only p a r t o f th e tim e probably helped to red u ce s u s c e p t i b i l it y
to hom esickness In th e g i r l s when they went to c o lle g e .
The s ig n i f i c a n t d a ta from q u e stio n Ho* 3:
8Since you
were 14 and b e fo re coming to c o lle g e how o f te n were you away
from home on v i s i t s o r t r i p s ?11 were o b tain ed from th e b oys.
T h ir ty - s ix p e rc e n t o f th e hom esick and 80 p e rc e n t o f th e nonhomesick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o ©f 3*47) gave th e answer
• o f te n * , and 63 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick and 38 p ercen t o f
th e non-hom esick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3*44) gave th e an­
swer •som etim es*.
These d a ta in d ic a te th a t fre q u en t t r i p s
o r v i s i t s away from home a f t e r 14 y ears o f age and b e fo re go­
ing to c o lle g e p ro b ab ly helped to prevent s u s c e p ti b il it y to
hom esickness i s th e boys when th e y went to co lleg e*
On th e
o th e r hand, i n f re q u e s t t r i p s o r v i s i t s from home a f t e r 14
y e a rs o f age and b e fo re going t o c o lle g e d id not help p re ­
v ent s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t© hom esickness in th e boys when th ey
went t o co lle g e *
The s ig n if ic a n t d a ta from q u e stio n Ho. 5;
*While h e re ,
how o f te n do you in d u lg e in your fa v o r ite amusement?" are as
fo llo w si
34 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s and 58 p ero en t of
th e non-hom esiok g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 8*47) gave th e an­
swer •F re q u e n tly * ; 80 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s and 40
p e rc e n t o f th e nun-homesick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l ra ti© o f 3.0 4 )
gave th e answer •Sometimes*; and 13 p ero en t o f th e homesick
boys and none o f th e non-homesick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f
3*60) gave th e answer •lev er* * These d a ta in d ic a te t h a t
fre q u e n tly in d u lg in g in one’s f a v o r ite amusement w hile away
from home helped p re v e n t hom esickness in th e g i r l s , whereas
in fr e q u e n tly in d u lg in g in one’ s f a v o r ite amusement was
a s s o c ia te d w ith , and might have c o n trib u te d to hom esickness
In th e g i r l s *
These d a ta a ls o in d ic a te t h a t never
604
In d u lg in g i n ©ne#s f a v o r i te amusement w hile siwsy from home
was a s s o c ia te d w ith , and p ro b ab ly helped cause hom esickness
in th e boys*
The next q u e s tio n f o r which th e r e a re s ig n if ic a n t d a ta
i s q u e st lorn Ho* 11s
you?*
"How o fte n h as your f a t h e r understood
The o n ly d a ta o f s ig n ific a n c e h ere a re those o b ta in e d
from th e boys who gave th e answ er 3
•Always*.
T h irty p e r­
o en t ©f th e homesick boys and 50 p ercen t o f th e non-homesick
boys gave t h i s answ er.
The c r i t i c s i r a t i o i s S. 08.
This
in d ic a te s t h a t having a f a th e r who has always understood
on e, o r b e lie v in g t h a t one has such a f a th e r was a f a c to r in
h e lp in g t© p re v en t hom esickness in th e boys.
Q u estio n f o . 18*
#H©w o f te n have you been homesick?”
i s o b v io u sly a q u e s tio n fo r th e homesick g ro u p .
All members
©f th e non-hom eslck group gave th e answer "lev er* to t h i s
q u e s tio n .
The members o f th e homesick g ro u p , however, were
unevenly d iv id ed between two answers}
*Sosletimes,,.
"Frequently* and
T h ir ty - s ix p e rc e n t o f the g i r l s s ta te d t h a t
th ey fre q u e n tly had been homesick and 64 p e rc e n t o f them
s ta te d t h a t th ey had been homesick sometimes, b u t not f r e ­
q u e n tly .
The b o y s, however* ten d ed to m inim ise th e f r e ­
quency o f t h e i r a t t a c k s .
Only 10 p ercen t o f th e boys s ta te d
th a t th ey fre q u e n tly had been hom esick, and 90 p ercen t
s ta te d t h a t th ey had been homesick only som etim es.
From th e
in fo rm a tio n o b tain ed about th e s e boys, and from th e e x p e ri­
ence th e in v e s t ig a t o r had when tr y in g to o b ta in boys f o r th e
homesick group# i t I s th e © pinion o f th e in v e s tig a to r th a t
many o f th e hoys who s a id th e y had been homesick only sometim es were m inim izing th e frequency o f t h e i r a tta c k s o f nos*
i& lg is .
These d a ta a r e a lso f u r t h e r evidence o f a sex d i f ­
fe re n c e w ith in th e homesick group*
F urtherm ore, they a re
evidence t h a t th e members o f th e c o n tro l group had never
been homesick w hereas th e members o f th e homesick group had
ex p erien ced a tta c k s o f n o sta lg ia *
The n ext q u e s tio n f o r which th e re a re s ig n if ic a n t d a ta
i s q u e s tio n $©. 18;
8When a t home do you have a l l your
d a te s w ith th e same p erso n ?11 F ifty -tw o p e ro e n t o f th e home­
s ic k boy® and 24 p e rc e n t o f th e non-homesick boys ( c r i t i c a l
ra ti© o f 3*01) answered “yes* and 44 p e rc e n t o f th e homesick
beys and 72 p e rc e n t ©f th e non-homesick boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o
©f 2*97) answered »$©« to t h i s q u e s tio n .
These d a ta in ­
d ic a te t h a t having a l l o f ©ne*s date® w ith th e same g i r l
fr ie n d when a t home was a s so c ia te d w ith , and might have
helped cause th e a tta c k s ©f hom esickness in th e boys.
The s i g n i f i c a n t d a ta from q u e stio n Wo* 22;
wHow do you
u s u a lly f e e l a f t e r a communication w ith home?** are as f o l ­
low s;
2D p e rc e n t o f th e homesick g i r l s and 2 p ercen t o f th e
non-hom esick g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o of 3.00) s ta te d t h a t th ey
were sad a f t e r such a com m unication, and 18 p e rc e n t o f th e
homesick boys and 38 p e rc e n t o f th e non-homesick boys ( c r i t i ­
c a l r a t i o o f 2.27) s ta te d th a t th e y were i n d i f f e r e n t .
This
i s ev id en ce th a t u s u a lly f e e lin g sad a f te r a communication
306
with, home was an in d ic a tio n o f , and might have c o n trib u te d
t o th e hom esickness i n th e g i r l s ; and th a t f e e lin g i n d i f f e r ­
e n t a f t e r such a communication was an in d ic a tio n o f , and
might have c o n trib u te d to th e la c k o f hom esickness in th e
beys*
To q u e s tio n Jfo* 33 j
HHow do you f e e l a f t e r members o f
yoOT fa m ily h are v i s i t e d you?*, 3 p ercen t o f th e homesick
g i r l s and 14 p e rc e n t o f th e non-home sic k g i r l s ( c r i t i c a l
r a t i o o f 2 .2 6 ) answered *I n d if f e r e n t* , 73 p e rc e n t o f th e
homesick boys and 50 p e rc e n t o f th e non-homesick boys { c r i t i ­
c a l r a t i o o f 3*31) answered *Happy*, 18 p e rc e n t o f th e home­
s ic k boys and none o f th e non-home sic k boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o
o f 3*33} answered *8ad®, and 4 p ero en t o f th e homesick boys
and 34 p e rc e n t o f th e non-home s ic k boys ( c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f
4 .1 8 ) answered « lm dlfforem t11» These d a ta a re convincing
evidence t h a t f e e lin g happy o r sad a f te r a v i s i t by members
o f one *& fam ily was an in d ic a tio n o f s u s c e p t i b i l it y to home­
s ic k n e s s i n th e b o y s.
F urtherm ore, th e se d a ta in d ic a te th a t
f e e lin g i n d i f f e r e n t a f t e r such a v i s i t was an in d ic a tio n o f ,
and p e rh a p s a c o n tr ib u tio n t o , th e immunity to hom esickness
in th e su b je c ts*
o f E tio lo g y .
T his com pletes th e p re s e n ta tio n
o f th e d a ta o b tain ed in t h i s in v e s tig a tio n .
Although th e s e
d a ta have giv en ms much in fo rm atio n concerning n o s ta lg ia ,
th ey do n o t pro v id e ms w ith a d e f i n i t e m d s p e c if ic e tio lo g y .
SOT
ftowhere i n th e s e d a ta i s th e r e evidence o f a s in g le f a c t o r ,
o r o f a s p e c if ic group o f f a c t o r s , in th e absence o f which
hom esickness w ill n o t occur and in th e p re se n ce o f which
hom esickness i s i n e v i t a b le .
On th e c o n tr a r y , th e se d a ta in ­
d ic a te q u ite c o n c lu s iv e ly t h a t th e r e i s no s in g le s p e c if ic
cause o f hom esickness, b u t r a t h e r a v a r ie ty o f f a c to r s which
combine in v a rio u s ways and under v a rio u s circu m stan ces to
produce th e n o s ta lg ic response p a t t e r n .
Many fa c to rs in th e
in d iv id ual* ® p e r s o n a lity make-up, in h is p a s t e x p e rie n c e s,
and i n h i s immediate p re d ie ament a re in v o lv ed .
In g e n e ra l
we can conclude o n ly t h a t any f a c to r o r c o n d itio n which
h e lp s t o enhance and t o em o tio n ally charge th e normal d e s ir e
to r e t u r n home, o r which h e lp s t o f r u s t r a t e th e s a t i s f a c ti o n
o f such a d e s ir e i s an e ti o lo g ic a l f a c t o r .
T h e o r e tic a l C o n sid e ra tio n s
The evidence from th e d a ta o b tain ed in t h i s in v e s tig a ­
ti o n i n d ic a te s q u ite c o n c lu s iv e ly th a t hom esickness i s an
em otional beh av io r p a t t e r n which c e r t a in in d iv id u a ls a c q u ire
and w hich becomes f u n c tio n a l under c e r ta in stim u lu s condi­
tio n s *
C h a r a c te r is tic o f t h i s p a tt e r n i s th e f r u s t r a t i o n o f
a s tr o n g t em o tio n ally charged d e s i r e to r e tu r n to th e home
s itu a tio n *
The c e n tin u a tio n o f th e f r u s t r a t i o n circum stance
te n d s t© in c re a s e th e s tre n g th ©f t h i s d e s ir e and a t th e
same tim e g iv e s th e b ehavior p a t t e r n th e c h a ra c te r o f an
emergency em otional re sp o n se , in c lu d in g th e myriad o f p h y si­
o lo g ic a l and p sy c h o lo g ic a l symptoms.
The p h y s io lo g ic a l c o r-
r e l a t e o f t h i s b e h a v io r p a tte r n i s probably an a c tiv a tio n o f
th e sy m p ath etic d iv is io n of th e autonomic nervous system*
Thus t h e o r e t i c a l l y th e r e i s n o th in g new to add t o th e th e o ry
a lre a d y advanced by Conklin ( 4 ) .
R ather * we fin d th a t th e s e
d a ta te n d to su p p o rt th e th e o ry which Conklin has p re s e n te d .
The g e n e ra l th e o ry o f t h i s In v e s tig a tio n has been to
en v isag e n o s ta lg ia as a b eh av io r p a tte r n r e s u l ti n g from th e
summation o f two unknowns fu n c tio n in g in an 8 away from home8
s e ttin g ,
On© o f th e s e unknowns i s th e in d iv id u a l and h is
b eh av io r equipm ent; th e o th e r i s th e s tim u la tin g c o n d itio n s ,
The e q u a tio n i s as fo llo w s:
F (? / S) « H.
F — D u ratio n o f th e 8away from home8 s e t t i n g .
? — P e r s o n a lity t r a i t s , b eh a v io r equipm ent, and
r e a c tio n a l b io g raphy,
S - S tim u la tin g c irc u m sta n c e s,
B - Degree o f n o s ta lg ic b e h a v io r.
309
Our problem h as been to le a r n as much as p o s s ib le about th e
q u a n t i t i e s composing t h i s e q u a tio n .
T his eq u atio n i s f a r more complex th an i t ap p e ars.
The
s im p le st f a c to r in th e eq u a tio n i s th e £ f a c t o r which m erely
in d ic a te s th e d u ra tio n o f th e **&way from home8 s e ttin g *
re p re s e n ts two c o n d itio n s*
It
th e 8away from home8 s e t t i n g ,
and th e d u ra tio n o f t h i s s e t t i n g in tim e .
The v alu e o f T
w i l l th e r e f o r e he a fu n c tio n o f th e tim e sp en t in th e 8away
from home® s e t t i n g .
The £ f a c to r i s perhaps th e most complex f a c to r con­
cerned*
Wot only does i t re p re s e n t th e p e r s o n a lity and be­
h a v io r equipment o f th e in d iv id u a l, but i t a ls o re p re s e n ts
a l l i n t e r a c ti o n s which make up th e i n d i v id u a l ^ r e a c tio n a l
biography * Thus am in v e s tig a tio n o f t h i s f a c t o r not only
means an in v e s tig a tio n o f th e p e r s o n a lity t r a i t s but a ls o
ait I n v e s tig a tio n o f th e p a st t r a i n i n g and ex p erien ces o f th e
in d iv id u a l,
T his f a c t o r , t h e r e f o r e . Involves b o th p a s t and
p r e s e n t, and here we must seek to tr a c e th e development o f
th e d e s i r e to r e tu r n home and th e em otional charging o f t h i s
d e s ire *
The 8 f a c to r i s complex, b u t le e s complex than th e P
fa c to r.
T his f a c t o r re p re s e n ts o n ly th e immediate p re s e n t
and I s th e r e f o r e tim e le s s *
R epresented h e re a re a l l th e
a t im ulu8-cond.itio n s , o b je c ts ,a n d events a c tin g upon th e in ­
d iv id u a l a t th e p re s e n t moment * Thus w© must seek h ere th o se
c o n d itio n s to which th e in d iv id u a l i s r e a c tin g and e s p e c ia lly
\/
th o se conditions which p re v e n t, o r f r u s t r a t e , th e s a t i s f a c ­
t i o n of th e d e s ir e t o r e tu r n home*
A daptation to th e s i t u a ­
tio n would h e a fu n c tio n o f th e in te r a c tio n o f f a c to r s £
and S*
We h a te seen d u rin g th e c o u rse o f t h i s in v e s tig a tio n
t h a t c e r t a i n b e h a v io r equipment i s p e c u lia r ly adapt to a
n o s ta lg ic response*
For exam ple, th e p re se n ce o f n e u ro tic
t r a i t s , a la c k o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , a tendency toward i n t r o ­
v e r s io n , a la c k o f s e lf- c o n fid e n c e , e t c . , a re kinds o f
equipm ent which a id r a t h e r th an r e s i s t n o s ta lg ic b e h a v io r.
L ik ew ise, u n p le a sa n t c o n d itio n s such as la c k o f companion­
sh ip s and s o c ia l o p p o r tu n itie s , th e presence o f d isa g re e a b le
and monotonous t a s k s , lo n e lin e s s , e ta * , are stim u la tin g con­
d itio n s , which a id r a th e r th an r e s i s t n o s ta lg ia b e h a v io r.
In th e co u rse o f t h i s in v e s tig a tio n many s p e c if ic com­
p a r is o n s have been made between homesick and non-homesick
in d iv id u a ls .
From th e s e com parisons we have seen many spe­
c i f i c k in d s o f p e r s o n a lity equipment and s tim u lu s -e o n d itio n s
which o cc u r in v a rio u s com binations to produce th e n o s ta lg ic
b eh av io r r e a c tio n .
The v a r ie ty o f such com binations i s
a p p a re n tly u n lim ited *
I t i s e v id e n t, th e r e f o r e , th a t th e r e
I s no s e t circu m stan ce nor p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a lity type t h a t
cau ses hom esickness.
Homesickness i s a very complex emer­
gency em otional r e a c tio n and each s p e c ific c a se has i t s own
s p e c if ic etio lo g y *
Thus we fin d hom esickness appearing in
v a rio u s s i t u a t io n s and among v a rio u s types o f p eo p le.
311
O ften
th e s tim u lu s c o n d itio n s may be such as to cause an a tta c k of
hom esickness in an in d iv id u a l whose p e r s o n a lity and b eh av io r
equipm ent ar© r e s i s t i v e to n o s ta lg ia *
Then a g a in we may
fin d n o s t a l g i a o c c u rrin g under s tim u lu s -c o n d itio n s not p a r­
t i c u l a r l y conducive t o n o s ta lg ia , because th e p e r s o n a lity
and b e h a v io r equipment o f th e in d iv id u a l e a s il y f a l l in to
th e n o s ta lg ic p a tte rn *
Severe c a se s r e s u l t when th e p e rso n ­
a l i t y and b eh av io r equipm ent, and th e s tim u lu s-c o n d itio n s
a re b o th p a r t i c u l a r l y conducive t o n o s ta lg ia , and th e *away
from home* s i t u a t i o n endures f o r a long p e rio d of tim e.
S ug g estio n s f o r P re v e n tio n and Treatm ent
A n a t u r a l in q u ir y t h a t now a r is e s i s :
about hom esickness?
What can be done
A pparently much can be done in th e way
o f p re v e n tio n and r e l i e f .
To p re v e n t o r to r e lie v e n o s ta lg ia
when th e in d iv id u a l cannot be re tu rn e d to h is home a l l e f ­
f o r t s must be c o n c e n tra te d upon th e l e f t s id e o f th e n o s t a l­
g ic eq u atio n *
P erhaps th e u se o f sym bolical fig u re s w ill
make th e g e n e ra l assum ptions c le a re r*
F i r s t l e t us con­
s t r u c t a s c a le o f v a lu e s fo r f a c t o r s £ and S;
In d iffe re n c e
m 0 , v e ry low degree o f r e s is ta n c e to n o s ta lg ia « ^1, low
degree o f r e s is ta n c e t o n o s ta lg ia « -/2, medium degree o f
r e s i s t a n c e » ^3 , h ig h degree o f r e s is ta n c e * / 4 , v ery high
degree o f r e s i s t a n c e , p r a c t ic a l l y immune to n o s ta lg ia *
f e r y low degree o f s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to n o s ta lg ia m - 1 , low de­
g ree o f s u s c e p t i b i l i t y - - 2 , medium degree o f s u s c e p t i b i l it y
« - 3 , h ig h degree o f s u s c e p t i b i l i t y » - 4 , dangerously sus­
c e p tib le z
For th e f a c to r £ we s h a ll l e t th e d u ra tio n
v ary from 0 to 10, and s h a ll re p re s e n t th e c o n sta n t ,faway
from home11 v alu e by a - 1 .
How, p erh ap s, we can I l l u s t r a t e
more c l e a r l y th e p r i n c i p le o f th e n o s ta lg ic e q u a tio n .
The
eq u a tio n f o r an in d iv id u a l w ith a —5 £ and in a -5 £ f o r a
le n g th of tim e eq u al t o 10, would be;
- I x 10 (^1> p lu s -5 ) - 100 ( g r e a te s t p o s s ib le de­
gree o f hom esickness)
For an in d iv id u a l w ith a - 5 £ and a —5 J3, but whose
d u ra tio n In an Wsway from home11 s e t ti n g i s 0 , th e eq u a tio n
would bej
**1 x 0 (**§ p lu e -5 ) » 0
For sb in d iv id u a l w ith a ^5 £ and a ^5 £ , th e re would
be no hom esickness r e g a r d le s s o f th e le n g th o f tim e in th e
“away from home8 s i t u a t i o n , and th e eq u atio n would be:
~1 x 10 ( / § p lu s /S} 5? -100 (h ig h immunity t o
hom esickness)
I t i s f u r th e r ap p arent t h a t as th e tim e in th e “away
frum home8 s e t t i n g in c re a s e s th e l e s s l i k e l y i t i s t h a t th e
in d iv id u a l hairing
P and /5 £ w i l l become homesick*
The e f f o r t t o p re v e n t o r to r e lie v e n o s ta lg ia becomes,
t h e r e f o r e , an e f f o r t to lim it th e d u ra tio n o f th e f a c to r F,
to b u ild up th e f a c t o r £ toward a -/53 and to in c re a se th e
f a c to r £ toward a / 5 .
We must ju d g e , o f c o u rs e , where our
e f f o r t s w ill be l i k e l y to have th e most e f f e c t .
I t would,
f o r i n s t a n c e , be unw ise to attem p t to cure an a tta c k o f
hom esickness where th e equation was:
**
*1 x 10 (/3 p lu s -5 )
by c o n c e n tra tin g a l l our effo rt© on th e f a c to r £ , f o r ,
as th e e q u a tio n i n d i c a t e s , th e in d iv id u a l i s r e s i s t i v e to
n o s t a l g i a b u t he i s i n a t e r r i b l y bad s i t u a t io n a l circum ­
stance*
The r e s u l t i s a degree o f hom esickness which would
p ro b ab ly be reduced e a s ie r by attem p tin g to in c re a s e th e
f a c t o r S to a *3 01 p o s s ib ly to a - 2 .
th e n b e :
The eq u a tio n would
*-1 x 10 ( /3 p lu s -3 ) - 0 , o r in th e l a t t e r c a s e :
-1 x 10 ( / 3 p lu s -2 ) « ~1Q*
V ario u s p e r s o n a lity t r a i t s and types o f behavior
314
p a t t e r a s which have 4 v alu es on th e above s c a le , as w e ll as
th o se which have — v a lu e s , have been in d ic a te d in th e co u rse
o f t h i s th e s is *
I t must a ls o be emphasised t h a t th e £
f a c to r and th e £ f a c t o r are a c tu a ll y very complex*
They a re
n ot s i n g l e , s p e c if ic , c le a r —o u t f a c t o r s , b u t in v o lv e an un­
lim ite d number o f c o n d itio n s , c ireu sm ian o es, and r e l a ti o n ­
s h ip s , o n ly th e g r o s s e r o f which can be recognized*
For in ­
s ta n c e , drawing from th e d a ta in t h i s stu d y , we might a s s ig n
a v a lu e o f «*3 f o r th e f a c to r P where th e In d iv id u a l has a
n e u r o tic p e r s o n a lity , i s in c lin e d to be in t r o v e r t i v e , and
p r e f e r s t o l i v e w ith someone r a t h e r th an to l i v e a lo n e ,
th e n i f t h i s in d iv id u a l were in a s itu a tio n where he was re ­
q u ire d to do d i s t a s t e f u l monotonous work, and where he had
to l i v e a lo n e , and had few o p p o rtu n itie s to engage in h is
f a v o r ite amusements we might a s s ig n a value o f -3 to th e
s itu a tio n *
A fter b e in g in th e “away from home” s itu a tio n f o r
a p e rio d o f tim e eq u a l to 10, th e r e s u ltin g eq u atio n would
b e:
■*! x 10 (—3 p lu s -3 ) ** 60*
In o rd e r t o h e lp t h i s In ­
d iv id u a l re co v er I t would be n e c e ssa ry to r a i s e both th e £
and th e S value® by a t l e a s t 3 p o in t s , o r to r a i s e one of
them s e v e r a l p o in ts *
be decreased*
O bviously th e d u ra tio n f a c to r cannot
th e o n ly In flu e n c e we could e x e rt here would
be to p re v e n t f u r t h e r in c re a se in d u ra tio n away fro® home by
sending th e in d iv id u a l home*
I f we cannot send him home
t h i s f a c t o r w ill co n tin u e to in c r e a s e .
The phenomenon o f
a d a p ta tio n would o r co u rse be a fu n c tio n of th e in te r a c tin g
£. and 8 fa c to rs *
S in ce one*s p e r s o n a lity and behavior equip­
ment a r e acq u ired d u rin g th e l i f e t i m e o f th e in d iv id u a l i t
would p ro b a b ly be w ise t o t r y to r a is e th e P v alu e by only a
sm all amount and to attem p t to r a i s e th e JS v alu e by s e v e ra l
p o in ts .
R aisin g th e v a lu e s would mean d eterm in in g th e fa c ­
t o r s h av in g th e n e g a tiv e in flu e n c e and a tte m p tin g to e lim in a te
them e i t h e r by removing them o r by adding f a c to r s having pos­
i t i v e v a lu e s to o f f —s e t them.
In t h i s h y p o th e tic a l case an
attem p t ©ould be made to in c re a s e th e I n d iv id u a l's i n t e r e s t
in h i s work, t o g e t him in te r e s te d in a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s ,
and to h e lp him fin d a rooming house where he could a s s o c ia te
w ith c o n g e n ia l p e o p le .
Thus th e f a c to r s w ith n eg ativ e v a lu e s
would g iv e way to th o s e w ith p o s itiv e v a lu e s and th e degree
o f hi© hom esickness would be reduced toward z e ro .
In th e case o f p re v e n tio n , such can be done during th e
developm ental year© o f th e i n d iv id u a l1© l i f e .
I f th e c h ild
i s allow ed to make v i s i t s away from home, i f he i s re q u ire d
to make h i s own d e c is io n s so th a t he w ill become s e l f - r e ­
l i a n t , i f he i s re q u ire d to le a r n v ario u s a c t i v i t i e s so t h a t
he w ill become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , e tc * , th en by v ir tu e o f t h i s
r e a c tio n s ! b io g rap h y , he w ill probably a c q u ire a r e p e r to ir e
o f b e h a v io r p a tte r n s th a t have stro n g p o s itiv e { n o s ta lg ia
r e s i s t i n g ) v a lu e s .
Thus he w ill be b e t te r equipped to r e ­
s i s t n o s t a l g i a when he fin d s h im se lf in a s it u a t io n having
a n e g a tiv e ( s u s c e p tib le to n o s ta lg ia ) v a lu e .
I t cannot be
ensphasized enough t h a t such t r a i n in g would n o t be a g u aran tee
316
a g a in s t th e c h ild ever being homesiok.
Even i f he d ev elo p s
a v ery r e s i s t i v e f a c t o r £ th e r e i s always th e p o s s i b i l i t y
t h a t he m ight sometime fin d h im s e lf In a s i t u a t io n having
a *41 £ v alu e*
But when In such a s itu a tio n th e degree o f
h i s s u f f e r in g would c e r t a in ly be decreased because o f h is
h ig h p o s i t iv e f a c t o r £ v alu e and i t s r o le in a id in g a d a p ta ­
tio n *
&eneral Summary and Conclusions
Contemporary l i t e r a t u r e , as we have se e n , c o n ta in s su r­
p r i s i n g l y l i t t l e on th e problem o f hom esickness.
Many
w r i t e r s , m ostly m edical men, o f th e l ? t h , 1 8 th , and 19th
c e n tu r ie s d isc u sse d n o s t a l g i a , b u t u n fo rtu n a te ly only a v ery
few ©f th e s e e a rly a r t i c l e s a re a v a ila b le *
Most o f th e
a v a ila b le a r t i c l e s were w ritte n in French o r Oerman, and
re p re s e n t l i t t l e more th an th e every-day o b se rv a tio n s o f th e
w rite r s *
Howheve i n th e l i t e r a t u r e are th e re re fe re n c e s to
c o n t r o l l e d , sy ste m a tic in v e s tig a tio n s o f hom esickness.
As a
r e s u l t th e l i t e r a t u r e o f f e r s n o th in g ©f s c i e n t i f i c v alu e on
th e problem*
At b e s t th e l i t e r a t u r e c o n ta in s l i t t l e more
th a n p o p u la r b e l i e f s concerning n o s ta lg ia , and th ese a re
su p p o rted by l i t t l e more than every-day o b serv atio n s*
I t h as been th e purpose o f t h e p re se n t in v e s tig a tio n to
c a rry o u t a d e t a i l e d , c o n tr o lle d , sy stem atic in v e s tig a tio n
o f th e problem o f hom esickness and to g iv e to th e l i t e r a t u r e
on hom esickness som ething o f s c i e n t i f i c v a lu e .
The method
o f t h i s in v e s tig a tio n has been to compare 100 c o lle g e s tu ­
d e n ts s u s c e p tib le t o hom esickness w ith 100 c o lle g e s tu d e n ts
not s u s c e p tib le t o homesickness*
The s u b je c ts were e q u a lly
d iv id e d as to sex , and as to membership in s o c ia l f r a t e r ­
n i t ie s *
The c o n tr o l group was composed o f s u b je c ts each one
o f whom matched a s u b je c t In th e homesick group fo r s e x , age,
A* 6* 1* s c o re s , y e a r in c o lle g e , and membership in a s o c ia l
fra te rn ity *
Ifo s ta lg ia was d e fin e d as a d e f i n i t e lo n g in g f o r
home ©f s u f f i c i e n t i n t e n s i ty to re n d e r th e in d iv id u a l un­
happy, and a ls o o f s u f f i c i e n t i n t e n s i ty to be e a s ily recog­
n ized a s hom esickness by th e in d iv id u a l and by h is immediate
a s s o c i a te s ,
11Homew was in te r p r e te d to in c lu d e any form er
en vironm ent, o r stim u lu s s i t u a t i o n which m ight make up th e
i n d i v i d u a l 's concept o f th e te rm .
The t e s t m a te r ia ls c o n s is te d s o le ly o f q u e stio n n a ire s*
th e s e in clu d ed th e B ern ro u te r P e rs o n a lity In v e n to ry fo r de­
te rm in in g p o s s ib le p e r s o n a lity d if f e r e n c e s , C onklinfs
S x tx a v e r t- I n tr o v e r t I n t e r e s t Q u e stio n n a ire f o r determ ining
p o s s ib le i n t e r e s t d if f e r e n c e s between th e homesick and th e
non-hom esick s u b je c ts , and th re e s p e c ia lly c o n stru c te d
q u e s tio n n a ire s and an in fo rm atio n sheet fox determ ining
p o s s ib le d if fe re n c e s in th e r e a c tio n a l b io g ra p h ie s o f th e
homesick and th e mon-hemesick s u b je c ts and some of the c i r ­
cum stances c o n d itio n in g t h e i r development*
Due c a re was used in s e le c tin g th e s u b je c ts and in im­
p re s s in g upon them th e n e c e s s ity fo r honesty*
There i s no
reaso n to doubt th e d a ta obtained*
The B e m rc u te r P e rs o n a lity Inventory and C onklin’ s
U r tr a v e r t- I n tr o v e r t I n t e r e s t Q u e stio n n a ire s were scored ac­
co rd in g t o th e s ta n d a rd sco rin g schemes developed fo r th o s e
Q u estio n n aires*
For th e o th e r q u e s tio n n a ire s er ch q u e s tio n
was sco re d s e p a r a te ly .
The r e s u l t s obtained throw much
l i g h t on th e problem o f hom esickness.
319
From th e B e rn re u te r P e r s o n a lity In v e n to ry sco res we
o b ta in e d ev id en ce t h a t ;
1*
th o s e who a r e s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness tend t o
be more n e u r o tic and more em o tio n ally u n s ta b le th an th o se
who a r e n o t s u s c e p tib le *
There i s more evidence fo r t h i s
co n c lu sio n among th e g i r l s th a n among th e boys*
2,
Males who axe s u s c e p tib le
t©hom esickness tend to
be l e s s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t * to show a g r e a te r d i s l i k e
fo r s o li­
tude* and to seek ad v ice and encouragement more o fte n th an
m ales who a re not s u s c e p tib le to homesickness*
l i t t l e evidence o f
S*
There i s
th e s e tre n d s amongth e g i r l s *
Those who a r e s u s c e p tib le
t©hom esickness tend to
b e more in tro v e rte d * more im aginative* and to l i v e more
w ith in th em selv es th a n th o se n o t s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness«
There i s more evid en ce f o r t h i s co n clu sio n among th e g i r l s
th a n among th e b o y s,
4*
Although th e r e i s no s ig n if ic a n t evidence* th e re i s
a s u g g e s tio n t h a t m ales who a re s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness
ten d t o be more subm issive in f a c e - to - f a c e c o n ta c t a th a n
th o se who a re n o t s u s c e p tib le .
There i s l i t t l e evidence o f
t h i s tr e n d among th e g ir ls *
5*
Males who axe s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness tend to
have l e s s s e l f —confidence* to be more se lf-c o n sc io u s* and to
have s tro n g e r i n f e r i o r i t y f e e lin g s than th e n o n -s u s c e p tib le
males*
g irls ,
There i s l i t t l e evidence o f th e se tre n d s among th e
6*
Although th e r e i s no s ig n if ic a n t evidence* th e r e i s
a s u g g e s tio n th a t g i r l s who a re s u s c e p tib le t o hom esickness
ten d t o b e l e s s s o c ia b le and more s o l i ta r y th a n g i r l s who
a re not s u s c e p tib le .
There i s no evidence o f t h i s tendency
among th e b o y s.
From th e s c o re s on C onklin *s E x tr a v e r t- I n tr o v e r t I n t e r ­
e s t Q u e stio n n a ire we found t h a t th e r e i s no r e l i a b l e evidence
t h a t th o s e who a re s u s c e p tib le t o hom esickness tend to be
more I n t r o v e r t tv e In t h e i r I n t e r e s t s th an th o s e who a re n o t
s u s c e p tib le .
From th e answ ers to th e q u e s tio n s in Q u estio n n aire Ho.
I l l which were r e l a t i v e t© a symptomatology o f hom esickness
we drew th e fo llo w in g c o n c lu sio n s;
1.
Homesickness might o ccu r a t any age b u t i s most
l i k e l y t o occur when th e in d iv id u a l i s o ld enough to go away
to a camp or on a v i s i t * o r l a t e r when he i s o ld enough to
go away t o c o lle g e o r to work#
3.
Homesickness might o ccu r g ra d u a lly o r suddenly* and
might l a s t from a few m inutes to a week, and i n some c a s e s
i t m ight l a s t i n d e f i n i t e l y .
Z*
The stim u lu s s it u a t io n s a p p a re n tly have an im p o rtan t
r o l e i n th e e tio lo g y * d u ra tio n , and te rm in a tio n o f homesick­
ness*
4.
Being away from home i s an e s s e n t ia l s e ttin g f o r
th e o cc u rren c e ©f n o s ta lg ia , b u t i s not n e c e s s a r ily a cause
o f n o s ta lg ia ,
$*
Homesickness i s c h a ra c te r iz e d by th e f r u s t r a t i o n ©f
a s tr o n g , em o tio n ally charged d e s ir e to r e tu r n to th e home
s e ttin g •
6.
The n o s ta lg ic syndrome in c lu d e s p h y s io lo g ic a l and
p sy c h o lo g ic a l symptoms which show f r u s t r a t i o n , u n c e r ta in ty ,
f e a r , d e s p a ir , d e p re s s io n , r e t a r d a t i o n , and in h i b iti o n .
?•
H o sta lg ia i s re lie v e d by th e a c tu a l o r sym bolical
accom plishm ent o f th e th w arted d e s ir e to r e tu r n home,
8*
C ther c o n d itio n s which fre q u e n tly r e li e v e n o s ta lg ia
in c lu d e a c tio n , a n g e r, ex c item en t, s o c ia l in te r c o u r s e , and
th e a n a ly s is and u n d ersta n d in g o f o n e 's s e l f and ©f th e
n o s ta lg ic s itu a tio n *
9.
H o sta lg la ap pears to be an emergency em otional
r e a c tio n p a tte r n in resp onse to th e thw arted d e s ir e f o r home
o c c u rrin g in an in d iv id u a l in an "away from home" s i t u a t i o n ,
10*
The e s s e n t i a l f e a tu r e s o f n o s ta lg ia th e re fo re
appear to be an "away fro® home" s i t u a t io n , a stro n g emo­
t i o n a l l y charged d e s i r e to r e tu r n to th e home s e t t i n g , th e
th w a rtin g o f t h i s d e s i r e , th e f a i l u r e o f escap e mechanisms,
f r u s t r a t i o n , and th e a ro u sa l o f an emergency em otional r e ­
a c tio n p a t t e r n w ith i t s v a rie d and sundry symptoms*
The evidence o b ta in e d from th e rem aining q u e s tio n n a ire s
and from o th e r so u rce s in d ic a te s th a t th e r e i s no s p e c if ic
f a c to r o r group o f f a c to r s in th e absence o f which homesick­
n e ss w i l l not o ccu r and in th e presen ce o f which hom esickness
i s In e v ita b le *
Many f a c to r s in th e in d iv id u a l’s p e r s o n a lity
m ake-up, t o h is p a s t e x p e rie n c e s , and In h i s immediate p re ­
dicam ent a re In v o lv e d .
th e evidence in d ic a te s th a t s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to homesick­
n ess te n d s t o occur in g i r l s who say th ey l i k e people and
s o c ia l fu n c tio n s b e t t e r th an an y th in g e ls e about c o lle g e ;
boys who l i k e a t h l e t i c s b e t t e r th a n anything e ls e about c o l­
le g e ; g i r l s who d i s l i k e being away from heme more than any­
th in g ab o u t c o lle g e ; boys who d i s l i k e th e snobbish a t t i t u d e s ,
y
c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s , and th e la c k o f p e rso n a l i n t e r e s t to
student© more th a n an y th ing e l s e about c o lle g e ; g i r l s who
l i k e b e s t th e kind o f work t h a t b rin g s them i n to c o n ta c t w ith
p e o p le ; g i r l s whose p re fe rr e d amusement i s re a d in g ; boys who
belong to c lu b s and s o c ie tie s ( f r a t e r n i t i e s n o t in c lu d e d );
boy® who re c e iv e d s c h o la s tic o r i n t e l l e c t u a l honors in high
sc h o o l; g i r l s who want to be employed (no p a r t i c u l a r ty p e
s p e c if ie d ) te n y e a rs from th e p r e s e n t; g i r l s who leav e home
f o r t h e i r f i r s t tim e i n o rd er t o a tte n d c o lle g e ; g i r l s whose
f i r s t th o u g h t upon h e a rin g th e word "home” i s a m ental image
o f th e h o u se, o f th e home atm osphere and o f th e good tim e s
which th e y have a t home; to y s whose f i r s t thought upon hear­
ing th e word *h©me# i s o f t h e i r f a th e r s o r o f t h e i r g i r l
f r ie n d s back home; g i r l s who have a fe e lin g o f belonging to
and s h a rin g to t h e i r homes; g i r l s who l i k e ev ery th in g about
t h e i r homes; g i r l s who l i k e th e atmosphere and surroundings
b e t t e r th a n anything e ls e about t h e i r homes; boys who l i k e
most about t h e i r homes th e com panionship, th e h e lp , and th e
lo v e which th e y f in d t h e r e ; g i r l s who m iss m ost, when away
from home, th e g e n e ra l atm osphere and com fort o f home, t h e i r
fa m ilie s * t h e i r b r o th e r s , and s is te r ® , th e ad v ice which th e y
re c e iv e when a t home* and someone to c o n fid e in* g i r l s en­
r o l l e d i n th e C o llege o f A rts and Science* boys from high
school c l a s s e s h aving about 35 members*
The evidence in d ic a te s t h a t immunity to homesickness
tand® to owes® in g i r l s who l i k e th e frie n d s h ip s which th ey
form a t o o lle g e b e t t e r th a n an y th in g e ls e about c o lle g e l i f e ;
boy© who l i k e th e o o lle g e atm osphere b e t t e r th a n anything
e ls e abo u t c o lle g e l i f e ; g i r l s who d is l ik e c l a s s e s , s tu d ie s ,
ex a m in atio n s, and th e s o -c a lle d "g rin d 11 o f c o lle g e l i f e more
th a n an y th in g e ls e about c o lle g e ; boys who d i s l i k e n o th in g in
p a r t i c u l a r about c o lle g e l i f e ; g i r l s who do n o t have any
id e a what kind ©f work they would l ik e b e s t ; boys who l i k e t o
p la y i n dance b an d s; boy® who l i k e outdoor work b e t t e r th an
any o th e r kind o f w ork; boys who have no p r e f e r r e d amusement;
boys who re a d th e home-town newspapers c h ie f ly f o r th e news
th e y c o n ta in ©r b ec au se they l i k e th e arrangem ent o f th e
p ap e r; g i r l s who re c e iv e d s c h o la s tic and i n t e l l e c t u a l honors
in h ig h sch o o l; boy® who engage i n a t h l e t i c s ; g i r l s who be­
lie v e th e y have been o u tsta n d in g in d ra m a tic s; g i r l s who
f e e l more dependent upon t h e i r f a th e r s th an upon any o th e r
member o f t h e i r fa m ily ; boys who l i k e b e s t about t h e i r homes
th e g e n e ra l atm osphere and surroundings and th e good time®
th ey have th e r e ; g i r l s and boys who m iss n o th in g in p a r ti c u -
la v ab o u t t h e i r homes when th ey a re away from home; g i r l s
who l i k e b e s t about t h e i r homes t h e g e n e ra l atm osphere and
s u rro u n d in g s , and t h e i r p a r e n ts ; g i r l s who show a s l i g h t
lo s s ©f w e ig h t; g i r l s from high school c la s s e s having about
ZOO members; g i r l s whose f a th e r s a re s k i lle d la b o re rs*
The fo llo w in g w ere found t o have no s i g n if ic a n t r e l a ­
tio n s h ip w ith e i t h e r s u s c e p t i b i l i t y o r n o n - s u s c e p tib ility
t o hom esickness:
age s ta r te d to sch o o l; age s ta r te d to c o l­
le g e , atte n d a n c e a t a p r iv a te sc h o o l; working p a r t tim e
w h ile a tte n d in g c o lle g e ; th e ex p erien ce o f e a rn in g one’s
spending money; th e kind o r ty p e o f r e c r e a tio n p re fe rr e d ;
th e in d u s tr y o f o n e1® home community; camping experience and
ex p e rien ce in le a d e r s h ip ; dom ination o f th e home by e i t h e r
o r b o th p a r e n ts , ox by someone o th e r th an th e p a re n ts , o r by
b©
member o f th e fa m ily ; th e d is ta n c e from home; th e tim e
re q u ire d t o re ach home; broken hemes; th e number of c o lle g e
hours and co u rses c a r r i e d ; re q u ir e d M ilita ry and P h y s ic a l
E d u catio n ; f a i l u r e s in c la s s w ork, f a i l u r e s to complete work,
w ith d raw als from © curses, " c o n d itio n a l1* p a s s in g o f c o u rs e s ,
and th e number o f g ra d e p o in ts earn ed ; age a t tim e o f f i r s t
a tta c k o f hom esickness; g ain in w eig h t, o r no change i n
w eig h t; overw eight o r underw eight; th e h e ig h t o f th e in d i­
v id u a l; th e p resen ce o f p h y s ic a l d e f e c ts ; th e e ls e of th e
fa m ily ; having b o th p a r e n ts , one p a re n t, no p a r e n ts , s te p ­
p a r e n ts ; b ein g th e o n ly c h i l d , th e o ld e s t c h i l d , th e young­
e s t c h i l d , o r a •m iddle" c h il d ; r e l a t i v e sta n d in g in o n e ’ s
h ig h sch o o l c l a s s | th e © ocupation o f th e m other; church
membership anti d en o m in ational p re fe re n c e ; b e in g from a c i t y ,
town, v i l l a g e , o r from th e c o u n try ; having o n efs home s t i l l
rem ain in th e same p la c e or town where one was bora*
The evidence from Q u e stio n n a ire So* I in d ic a te s t h a t
s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hom esickness te n d s to occur in boys who do
n e t have r e g u la r h o u rs f o r r e c r e a tio n ; boys who do not p re ­
f e r t o room alone* g i r l s who keep d i a r i e s ; g i r l s who p r e ­
f e r r e d t o p la y a t t h e i r ©wn homes when th ey were c h ild r e n ;
g i r l s who a re n o t happy; boys who are d o u b tfu l about t h e i r
p re s e n t h a p p in e ss; boys who would r a th e r have gone to some
o th e r u n iv e r s ity o r c o lle g e ; g i r l s who are d o u b tfu l as to
w hether o r not th ey l i k e c o lle g e l i f e ; g i r l s who fin d c o lle g e
l i f e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from what th e y had ex p ected ; g i r l s who
would r a t h e r be doing something e ls e th an a tte n d in g c o lle g e ;
boys and g i r l s who a re fre q u e n tly lonesom e; boys who a re s e l­
dom alo n e when a t home; boys who a re not s a t i s f i e d w ith t h e i r
rooms; g i r l s who a r e d o u b tfu l as to whether o r not th ey a re
s a t i s f i e d w ith t h e i r rooms a t c o lle g e ; g i r l s and boys who do
n ot f in d c o lle g e l i f e as p le a s a n t as t h e i r home l i f e ; g i r l s
who f e e l more r e s t r i c t e d when a t c o lle g e th a n they do when
a t home; g i r l s and boys who f in d c o lle g e l i f e monotonous;
boys who a re d o u b tfu l as to w hether o r not c o lle g e l i f e i s
i n t e r e s t i n g ; g i r l s who have poor a p p e tite s ; g i r l s who do not
p a r t i c i p a t e in many s o c ia l a c t i v i t i e s a t s c h o o l; boys who
b e lie v e t h a t t h e i r heme com m unities have much community
326
s p i r i t | g i r l e who have a sm a lle r number o f ac q u ain ta n ces a t
c o lle g e th a n th ey have in t h e i r home com m unities; g i r l s who
are d o u b tfu l as t o w hether o r n o t they make sh o rt v i s i t s
home; g i r l s and boys who l i k e t h e i r home com munities b e t t e r
th an t h e i r c o lle g e community; boys who would li k e to spend
th e r e s t o f t h e i r l i v e s in t h e i r home com m unities; boys who
fre q u e n tly communicate w ith t h e i r homes; boys who b e lie v e
th a t th e members o f t h e i r fa m ilie s are dependent upon each
o th e r ; g i r l s who* s in c e they were 15 y ea rs o ld , have u s u a lly
depended upon members o f t h e i r fa m ilie s to h e lp them so lv e
t h e i r problem s; boys who fin d i t more d i f f i c u l t to g e t ac­
q u ain ted w ith g i r l s w h ile a t c o lle g e th an when a t home*
The evidence h e re a lso i n d ic a te s t h a t immunity to homesic k n e ss te n d s to o ccu r in boys who spend r e g u la r hours in
r e c r e a t i o n ; boys who a re d o u b tfu l as to w hether o r not th e y
p r e f e r t o room a lo n e ; g i r l s who do not keep d i a r i e s ; g i r l s
who d id n o t p r e f e r t© p lay a t t h e i r own homes when they were
c h ild r e n ; g i r l s who a r e happy in t h e i r p re s e n t "away from
home" environm ent; g i r l s who are d o u b tfu l as to w hether o r
n o t th e y a r e working d i r e c tl y toward a d e f i n i t e g o a l; g i r l s
who l i k e c o lle g e l i f e ; g i r l s who fin d c o lle g e l i f e what th e y
had e x p e c te d ; g i r l s and boys who would r a th e r be going to
c o lle g e th a n doing som ething e l s e ; boys who do not have (p e r­
haps t h i s means "need") a budget f o r spending t h e i r money;
boys and g i r l s who a re seldom lonesome; boys who are f r e ­
q u e n tly alo n e when a t home; boy® who are w ell s a t i s f i e d w ith
327
t h e i r room® a t c o lle g e ; g i r l s and boys who f in d c o lle g e l i f e
as p l e a s a n t, in g e n e ra l^ as t h e i r home l i f e ; g i r l s who do
n o t f e e l more r e s t r i c t e d a t c o lle g e th an a t home; g i r l s and
boys who do not fin d c o lle g e l i f e monotonous * boys who f in d
c o lle g e l i f e I n t e r e s t i n g ; g i r l s who are d o u b tfu l as to th e
s e rio u s n e s s o f c o lle g e l i f e ; g i r l s who have good a p p e tite s ;
g i r l s who u s u a lly s le e p w e ll; g i r l s who do n o t fre q u e n tly
go home f o r th e week-end o r f o r sh o rt v i s i t s ; boys who do not
l i k e t h e i r home communities b e t t e r than t h e i r c o lle g e com­
munity ; boy® who would n o t l i k e to spend th e r e s t o f t h e i r
live® i n t h e i r home community; boys who do n o t communicate
w ith home fre q u e n tly j g i r l s who, sin c e th ey were 15 y e a rs
o ld , have n o t had t h e i r problems solved fo r them by members
o f t h e i r f a m ilie s ; boys who fin d i t e a s ie r to g e t acq u ain ted
w ith g i r l s w hile a t c o lle g e th a n they do w h ile a t home.
He s i g n i f i c a n t r e la tio n s h i p was found between th e
p resen ce o r absence o f th e fo llo w in g and s u s c e p t i b i l it y o r
n o n - s u s c e p tib ility t o hom esickness * having g e n e ra l good
h e a lth ; having p h y s ic a l d e f e c ts ; having r e g u la r hours f o r
meal®, f o r going to b e d , fo r g e t ti n g up, f o r stu d y in g ; p re ­
f e r r i n g t o l i v e by a d a i ly sc h e d u le ; having b e t t e r q u a lity
food a t c o lle g e th a n a t home; e a tin g l e s s a t c o lle g e th an a t
home; p r e f e r r in g to p la y alone as a c h ild ; p r e f e r r in g to
p la y w ith a group o r a gang o f c h ild re n when a c h ild ; be­
lo n g in g to a p a r t i c u l a r " c liq u e * , gang, o r "se t* e i t h e r h ere
o r a t home; p la y in g w ith b ro th e rs o r s i s t e r s more th an w ith
328
o th e r c h ild r e n ; doing most o f o n e 1s p la y in g a t home when a
c h i l d ; d o in g moot o f o n e’ s p la y in g a t th e homes o f o n e’ s
p lay m ates when a c h i l d ; doing most o f one1® p la y in g in th e
s t r e e t s o r l a p u b lic playgrounds when a c h i ld ; b e lie v in g
t h a t o n e 1® child h o o d was h a p p ie r th a n t h a t o f th e average
ch ild * b e in g h a p p ie r th a n th e average p erso n sin c e 14 y e a rs
o ld ; l i k i n g to go t o h ig h sc h o o l; wanting t o go to c o lle g e ;
working d i r e c t l y tow ard a d e f i n i t e g o al or am b itio n ; e a rn in g
p a r t o r a l l o f o n e’ s c o lle g e expenses; having earned o n e’s
own money; borrow ing money to h e lp pay c o lle g e expenses;
h o ld in g any kind o f s c h o la rs h ip t h a t h elp s pay c o lle g e ex­
p e n se s; o f te n f e e lin g lonesome when a t home; fre q u e n tly
b ein g a lo n e a t c o lle g e ; being w e ll s a t i s f i e d w ith one’ s l i v ­
in g q u a r te r s a t home; having a roommate; s ta y in g w ith r e l ­
a tiv e s ©r c lo s e f r i e n d s o f o n e’ s fa m ily ; having more respon ­
s i b i l i t i e s h ere th a n a t home; having people u s u a lly be n ic e
t o o n e; having many ©lose f r ie n d s h ere o r in o n e ’s home
community; having most o f o ne’ s ©lose f r ie n d s come from o n e’ s
home community; fin d in g c o lle g e l i f e d i f f i c u l t ; enjoying
"Boxess* s e s s io n s ; having a good a p p e tite when a t home;
u s u a lly s le e p in g w e ll when a t home; d riv in g a c a r a t c o lle g e
o r a t home; p a r t i c i p a t i n g in many s o c ia l a c t i v i t i e s a t home;
p r e f e r r in g t o read r a th e r th a n to go p la c e s w ith p eo p le; be­
ing a c ti v e in church and r e li g i o u s a f f a i r s a t c o lle g e o r a t
home; h aving o ne’s home always i n th e same community; having
o n e’s p a r e n ts s t i l l l i v e in th e same house in whiGh one was
b o rn ; hairing ©ne*s home community sponsor many p ic n ic s ,
f e s t i v a l s , c a r n iv a ls , e t c . ; having a home community th a t
o f f e r s many o p p o rtu n itie s fo r young people to earn a l i v i n g ;
r e c e iv in g a home-town newspaper re g u la rly * enjoying th e home­
town p a p e rs ; having o n e 's name o fte n appear in th e home-town
p a p e rs ; having th e members o f one*s fam ily l i k e to do th in g s
and go p la c e s to g e th e r as a fa m ily group; having p e ts a t
c o lle g e o r a t home; expecting to l i v e a t home again; w anting
to l i v e at home a g a in ; having o n e 's fam ily fre q u e n tly change
neighborhoods, c i t i e s , o r s t a t e s ; having a f a th e r or m other
who has u s u a lly been a companion to one; fin d in g i t e a s ie r
to g e t acq u ain ted w ith men a t c o lle g e than i t i s a t home;
being away fro® home lo n g er th an ever b e fo re ; being a member
o f th e Y*M*C« A, o r o f th e T.W.C.A*
The evidence fro® Q u e stio n n a ire STo. XI in d ic a te s th a t
s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hom esickness ten d s to occur in boys who,
b e fo re th e y were 14 y e a rs o ld , tra v e le d and v i s i t e d away
from home only
o c c a s io n a lly o r sometimes; boys who were a l ­
ways accompanied by a r e l a t i v e
or clo se frie n d when th ey
went f o r v i s i t s away from home b e fo re they were 14 y ea rs o ld ;
boys who seldom v i s i t e d am^ay from home a f t e r they were 14
y e a rs o ld ; g i r l s who g e t to in d u lg e in t h e i r fa v o r ite amuse­
ment on ly sometimes, and boys who never in d u lg e in t h e i r
f a v o r ite amusement; boys who have steady g i r l frie n d s a t
home w ith whomth ey have a l l t h e i r d a te s ;
f e e l sad a f t e r
g i r l s who u s u a lly
a communication w ith home;
330
boys who f e e l
happy and e s p e c ia lly th o se who f e e l sad a f t e r members o f
t h e i r f a m ilie s v i s i t them*
The evidence h e re f u r th e r in d ic a te s t h a t immunity to
hom esickness ten d s to occur in boys who o fte n have made
t r i p s o r v i s i t s from home sin ce th ey were 14 y e a rs old and
b e fo re th e y came to co lleg e* g i r l s who, w hile away from home,
f re q u e n tly in d u lg e in t h e i r f a v o r ite amusements; boys who
b e lie v e t h a t t h e i r f a th e r s have always understood them;
g i r l s who were not always accompanied by a r e l a t i v e o r c lo se
f r ie n d when v i s i t i n g away from home b efo re th e y were 14 y ea rs
o ld ; boys who do n o t have a stead y g i r l frie n d a t home; boys
who f e e l in d i f f e r e n t a f te r a communication w ith home; g i r l s
and boys who f e e l i n d if f e r e n t a f t e r members o f t h e i r fam ily
v i s i t them .
Ho s i g n if ic a n t r e la tio n s h ip was found between th e p re s ­
ence o r absence o f th e follow ing and s u s c e p t i b i l it y o r non­
s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to hom esickness:
being accompanied by a
r e l a t i v e o r c lo s e f r ie n d w hile on v i s i t s o r t r i p s away from
home a f t e r one was 14 y ears o ld ; frequency o f indu lg in g in
o n e’s f a v o r i te amusement w hile a t home; freouency o f in ­
d u lg in g in one’s f a v o r ite r e c r e a tio n w hile a t co lleg e or
w hile a t home; frequency o f having d a te s w hile at c o lle g e
and w h ile a t home; b ein g understood by o ne’ s m other; f r e ­
quency o f v i s i t s by th e members o f one’s fa m ily , or by
frie n d s from one*s home community; having a roommate from
o n e 1s home community; having a l l o ne’s d a te s w ith th e same
331
p erso n w h ile a t c o lle g e ; abrupt break in g away fro® home,
Her does i t appear to make any d iffe re n c e what kind of grade
s c h o o l, ju n io r h ig h school* o r h ig h school one a tte n d e d ,
w hether c o u n try , v i l l a g e , town, c i t y , c o n s o lid a te d , or board­
in g .
Hor does i t ap p ear to make any d iffe re n c e whether o r
not most o f o n e’s l i f e was spent in a c i t y , town, v i l l a g e ,
o r on a farm .
On th e b a s is o f a l l th e d a ta we can only conclude t h a t
any f a c t o r o r c o n d itio n which h e lp s to enhance or to emo­
t i o n a l l y charge th e normal d e s ir e to re tu r n home, or which
h e lp s to f r u s t r a t e th e accomplishment of such a d e s ir e , i s
an e t i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r .
T h e o r e tie a lly , th e homesick response has fo r i t s p h y si­
o lo g ic a l c o r r e la te th e a c tiv a tio n of the sym pathetic d iv is io n
o f th e autonomic nervous system .
This p a tte r n i s c h a ra c te r­
is e d by th e f r u s t r a t i o n o f a s tro n g , em o tio n ally charged
d e s ir e to r e tu r n home.
The d u ra tio n of th e f r u s t r a t i o n c i r ­
cumstance h elp s to in c re a s e th e s tre n g th o f t h i s d e s ir e , in
th e absence of a c tu a l or sym bolical s a t i s f a c t i o n , and a lso
g iv e s th e p a tte r n th e c h a ra c te r of an emergency em otional
response*
In t h i s in v e s tig a tio n we have envisaged n o s ta lg ia
as an emergency em otional r e a c tio n r e s u ltin g from the summa­
t i o n o f two unknowns o ccu rrin g in an Maway from home*1 situa^tio n .
These unknowns are P , th e in d iv id u a l and h is b eh av io r
equipm ent, and 8, th e immediate stim ulus c o n d itio n s .
Desig­
n a tin g th e 8away from home8 s it u a tio n and i t s d u ra tio n in
332
tim e as IT, and th e degree o f homesickness as JJ we c o n stru c te d
th e hom esickness e q u a tio n :
F (P / S) s
jk
The number o f
p e r s o n a lity t r a i t s and stim u lu s c o n d itio n s which may combine
in an Baway from home*1 circum stance to cause homesickness
a re u n lim ite d , and th e r e s u ltin g degrees o f homesickness are
a ls o p ro b a b ly u n lim ite d .
From th e equation i t i s apparent
th a t whenever th e re i s a change in th e f a c to r P or in th e
f a c to r J3, o r in th e d u ra tio n o f f a c to r F, th e r e w ill be a
co rresp o n d in g change in th e degree o f N.
T h e re fo re , in
o rd e r to p rev en t o r to r e lie v e n o s ta lg ia , when we cannot
l im it th e f a c to r JF,
must attem pt to change th e f a c to r P
and th e f a c to r jS so th a t J[ w ill be reduced toward zero .
From t h i s in v e s tig a tio n we know th a t anything th a t w ill tend
to in c re a s e th e em otional s t a b i l i t y , th e s e l f - s u f f ic i e n c y ,
th e e x tr o v e r tiv e te n d e n c ie s , th e dom inating ..a ttitu d e s , th e
s e lf- c o n fid e n c e , and th e s o c i a b il ity of th e in d iv id u a l, o r
any one o r com bination o f th e s e , w ill tend to reduce suscep­
t i b i l i t y to hom esickness.
C onditioning o f f a c to r P fo r p re ­
v en tio n o f hom esickness must b eg in in ch ild h o o d , th e e a r l i e r
th e b e t t e r .
This f a c to r in v o lv es both p a s t and p re s e n t, and
i s very complex,
A* f o r the f a c to r S s we know th a t an in ­
c re a se in a c t i v i t y , in frie n d s h ip s and acq u ain tan ces, in
r e c r e a ti o n , and in th e g en eral p le a sa n tn e ss of th e s tim u lu ss i t u a t io n w ill ten d to reduce s u s c e p t i b il ity to hom esickness.
The im p lic a tio n h ere i s th a t to prevent or to re lie v e home­
sic k n e ss one must attem pt to a c tiv a te th e c r a n ia l branch of
333
th e autonomic nervous system so t h a t i t , r a t h e r than th e
sy m p ath etic branch , dominates th e behavior o f th e in d i v id u a l.
334
Suggestions for Further Research
The p re s e n t in v e s t i g a t io n has l e f t u n in v e s tig a te d many
problems r e l a t i v e to n o s ta lg ia #
That th e re are many sex
d i f f e r e n c e s i s ev id e n t from th e d a ta of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t io n ,
but we do not know j u s t how s i g n i f i c a n t th e s e sex d if f e r e n c e s
are.
Comparisons should be made between boys and g i r l s who
are s u s c e p tib le to hom esickness, the members of each group
being p a i r e d fo r age, year in c o lle g e , and A. C. E. s c o re s .
We have no in fo rm atio n in t h i s t h e s i s as to how ca ses
o f homesickness a r e handled by th o se who have to deal w ith
them*
An attem pt should be made to le a rn from camp and
school a u t h o r i t i e s , and from any o th e rs who have had e x p e ri­
ence i n handling homesick p eo p le, how they handle such c a s e s .
What p re c a u tio n s do th ey take to prevent homesickness, and
what su cc ess do th ey have?
Such inform ation would be v a lu ­
ab le b o th from a p r a c t i c a l and from a t h e o r e t i c a l p o in t o f
view.
We have not le a rn e d from t h i s in v e s t i g a t io n whether or
not t h e r e i s more homesickness among the unorganized s tu d e n ts
th an among th e o rg an ized stu d e n ts or v ice v e r s a .
f o r t h i s i s obvious.
The reason
In t h i s study e x a c tly th e seme number
(50) o f homesick s u b je c ts were tak en from each group.
Now
an i n v e s t i g a t i o n should be made to determ ine in which group,
i f e i t h e r , th e g r e a t e r percentage of eases o ccu r.
T his i n v e s t i g a t i o n was lim ite d to c o lle g e s tu d e n ts .
335
»e
should a ls o i n v e s t i g a t e th e p resen ce of n o s t a l g i a among
o th e r groups*
I s i t an im portant p riso n problem?
p re s e n t among p a t i e n t s in psychopathic h o s p i t a l s ?
Is i t
Is i t a
s e rio u s problem among those whose work r e q u ir e s them to l i v e
away from home?
What, f o r in s ta n c e , i s th e s ig n if ic a n c e of
n o s t a l g i a among p r e s e n t day s o l d i e r s and s a i l o r s ?
Are t h e r e r a c i a l d if f e r e n c e s in s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o home­
sic k n e ss?
As we have seen, some w r ite r s th in k so, but no
sy s te m a tic study has been made t o determine whether or not
th e re are such d i f f e r e n c e s .
Perhaps an approach could be
made to t h e i n v e s t i g a t io n of r a c i a l d if f e r e n c e s by comparing
white and negro s u b je c t s .
Wo have no c r u c i a l evidence from t h i s in v e s t i g a t io n as
to th e r o l e of age.
This study was confined to c o lleg e
s t u d e n t s , and t h e r e f o r e was r e s t r i c t e d to th e narrow age
range o f from 16 to 33 y e a rs .
There should be an in v e s tig a ­
t i o n to determ ine th e presence of homesickness among c h ild re n ,
and among e ld e r ly p e o p le .
Another type o f i n v e s ti g a t io n th a t would be very i n t e r ­
e s tin g as w ell as i n s t r u c t i v e , would be th e i n v e s t i g a tio n of
n o s t a l g i c behavior in sub-human anim als.
There are many re ­
p o rts in th e l i t e r a t u r e , as w ell as in every-day l i f e , of a
b ehavio r in animals tak en from t h e i r f a m ilia r surroundings
which resem bles n o s t a l g i a in man.
This should be system at­
i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d , bo th in th e f i e l d and in th e l a b o r a to r y .
F i n a l l y , and perhaps most im portant co n sid erin g th e
336
p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f our knowledge of Homesickness, a thorough
and sy ste m a tic i n v e s t i g a t i o n should be made o f a c tu a l cases
o f n o s t a l g i a durin g th e a t t a c k ,
Some of th e s u b je c ts in the
p re s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n re p o rte d t h a t they were homesick at
th e tim e th e y answered th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s , but by f a r the
m a jo rity o f t h e s u b je c ts in th e homesick group re p o rted t h a t
they were no t s u f f e r i n g from homesickness a t th e time of the
i n v e s t i g a t i o n , but t h a t they had r e c e n tly recovered, from an
a tta c k .
An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of th e behavior of in d iv id u a ls
w hile th ey are a c tu a ll y s u ffe rin g an a tta c k o f homesickness
would be in fo rm ativ e indeed, even though i t might be d i f ­
f i c u l t to e n l i s t th e f u l l co o p eratio n of th e unhappy v ic tim s .
33?
Appendices
Questionnaire Ho, I
Date
Name
Se r
C ollege Address
Age______Cl as
____________ Phone________
Member o f what f r a t e r n i t y o r s o r o r i t y , I f org an ized ^
S t r e e t _________ C i t y
Home Address:
B ir t h :
Mont h
Day
S ta te __
Te a r ________P1 ac e__
W ill you p le a s e answer th e follow ing q u e stio n s as
q u ic k ly as you can? I f your answer i s fly e s w, draw a c i r c l e
around th e *yes®. I f your answer i s tfno% draw a c i r c l e
around th e flnofl * I f you a re unable to answer e i t h e r fly e s B
o r *no® t o a q u e s tio n , draw a c i r c l e around th e qu estio n
mark. Work as r a p id l y as you can*
1.
yes
no
? Hare you g e n e ra lly enjoyed g o o d h ea lth ?
s.
yes
no
?
I s your h e a lth good now?
3.
yes
no
?
Do you fre q u e n tly f e e l discouraged or em­
b a r r a s s e d because of p h y sic a l d efects?
4.
y es
no
?
Do you have r e g u l a r hours f o r your meals?
5.
y es
no
?
Do you have r e g u la r hours f o r going to bed
and g e t t i n g up?
6.
yes
no
?
Do you have r e g u la r hours t h a t you spend in
study ?
7.
yes
no
?
Do you have r e g u la r hours t h a t you spend in
r e c r e a tio n ?
8*
yes
no
?
Do you p r e f e r t o room by y o u rs e lf?
9,
yes
no
?
Do you p r e f e r t o l i v e by a d a i l y schedule?
10.
yes
no
11.
yes
no
?
Do you e a t le a s here than you do at home?
12.
yes
no
?
Did you u s u a lly p r e f e r to play alone when
you were a c h ild ?
Do you u s u a lly have b e t t e r q u a l i ty f o o d here
th an a t home?
339
13.
y es
BO
?
Did yon u s u a lly p la y with a group or gang of
c h i l d r e n when you were a c h ild ?
14.
yes
BO
?
Since you were 14 hare you u s u a l l y belonged
to a p a r t i c u l a r *c l i q u e 8 or gang or Bs e t" ?
15.
yes
no
?
Do you keep a d ia ry ?
16.
yes
no
17.
yes
no
?
As a c h ild did you u s u a lly do most o f your
p la y in g a t your own home?
16 * yes
no
?
Do you belong to a p a r t i c u l a r 8cliqu e" or
gang o r Bs e t w here?
19.
yes
no
?
As a c h ild did you u s u a lly do moat of your
p la y in g a t th e homes of your playmates?
20.
y es
no
?
As a c h ild did you u s u a lly do most of your
p la y in g in th e s t r e e t s or in p u b lic p lay ­
grounds?
21.
yes
no
?
As a c h ild did you u s u a lly p r e f e r to p lay at
your own home?
22.
yes
no
? Do you b e lie v e t h a t your childhood was hap­
p i e r th an t h a t o f th e average ch ild ?
33.
yes
no
?
Since you were 14 years o l d , have you been
h a p p ie r than th e average p erso n your age?
24.
yes
no
?
Are you happy a t th e p re se n t time?
25.
yes
no
?
Did you l i k e to go to high school?
26.
yes
no
? B efore you came here did you want to go to
c o lle g e ?
27.
yes
no
?
TouXd you r a t h e r have gone to some o th e r c o l­
le g e o r u n i v e r s i t y than t h i s one?
28.
yes
no
?
Do you have a d e f i n i t e goal or ambition t h a t
you a re working toward or p re p arin g fo r?
29.
yes
no
?
Do you have a d e f i n i t e go al o r ambition t h a t
you a r e not working d i r e c t l y toward at
p re s e n t?
30.
yes
no
?
Do you l i k e c o lle g e l i f e ?
Have you played w ith your b r o th e r s or s i s t e r s
more th an w ith o t h e r c h ild re n ?
340
31.
yes
BO
7
I s c o lle g e l i f e q u ite d i f f e r e n t than you ex­
p e c te d i t to be?
33 ■ yee
BO
7
I s th e r e something you would r a th e r be doing
th a n going to c o lle g e ?
33.
yes
BO
7
Are you earning p a r t or a l l o f your c o lle g e
expenses?
34.
ye®
BO
7 Have you ever earned your own money?
35.
yes
BO
7 Are you borrowing money to h elp pay your
c o lle g e expenses?
36.
yes
no
7 Do you have a budget fo r spending your money?
3?.
yes
BO
7 Do you hold any kind of sc h o la rs h ip t h a t
h e lp s pay your c o lle g e expenses?
38.
yes
BO
7 Do you o fte n f e e l lonesome here?
39.
yes
BO
?
40.
yes
no
7 Are you f re q u e n tly by y o u r s e lf here?
41 .
y es
BO
7
Are you f re q u e n tly by y o u r s e lf when you are
at home?
43.
yes
BO
7
Are you w ell s a t i s f i e d w ith your room here?
43.
yes
no
7
Are you well s a t i s f i e d w ith your l i v i n g
q u a r t e r s a t home?
44.
yee
BO
?
Do you now have a roommate?
45.
yee
no
7
Are you now s ta y in g with r e l a t i v e s or c lo s e
f r i e n d s o f your family?
46.
yes
no
7 In g e n e ra l, i s l i f e as p le a s a n t f o r you here
as i t i s when you are a t home?
47.
yes
no
?
48.
yes
no
7 Do you have more r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s here than
you have when you are home?
49.
yes
no
7
50.
yee
no
7 Do you have many c lo se f r i e n d s hers?
Do you o fte n f e e l lonesome when you are home?
Do you f e e l more r e s t r i c t e d here than when
you a re home?
Are people u s u a lly n ic e to you?
341
51.
yee
no
?
Do you have ©any c lo s e f r i e n d s in your home
community?
53.
yee
no
?
Do most of t h e c lo s e f r ie n d s you have here
come from your home community?
53.
yee
no
?
Do you fin d c o lle g e l i f e monotonous?
54.
yes
no
t
Do you fin d c o lle g e l i f e i n t e r e s t i n g ?
55.
yee
no
?
Do you fin d c o lle g e l i f e s e rio u s ?
56.
yee
no
?
Do you fin d c o lle g e l i f e hard?
57.
yes
no
?
Do you fre q u e n tly tak e p a r t in "Borese"
s e s s io n s ?
5 8.
yee
no
?
Do you enjoy #Boreas* se ss io n s ?
5 9.
y es
no
? Has your a p p e ti t e been good sin c e you came
to co lle g e ?
60.
yes
no
?
Do you have a good a p p e tite when you a re
home ?
61.
yes
no
?
Do you u s u a lly s le e p well h ere?
63 *
yes
no
?
Do you u s u a lly s le e p well when you are home?
63.
yes
no
?
Do you d riv e a c a r here?
64.
yes
no
?
Bo you d riv e a c a r when you are home?
65.
yes
no
r
Do you p a r t i c i p a t e in many s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s
here?
66.
yes
no
?
Do you p a r t i c i p a t e in many s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s
a t home?
67.
yes
no
?
Bo you u s u a lly p r e f e r to read r a th e r than to
go p la c e s w ith people?
68.
yes
no
?
Are you a c tiv e in church and r e lig io u s
a f f a i r s here?
69.
yes
no
?
Are you a c tiv e in church and r e lig io u s
a f f a i r s when you are at home?
70.
yes
no
? Has your home always been in th e same com­
munity?
71.
yes
no
?
Do your p a re n ts s t i l l l i v e i n the same house
in which you were born?
342
731 yes
BO
1 Does your home community have much community
sp irit?
73*
yes
BO
?
Does your home community sponsor many p icnici
f e s t i v a l s * c a r n iv a ls * e t c . ?
74*
yes
no
?
Do you have a wider range o f acquaintances
h ere th a n you have in your home community?
75*
yes
no
T
Do you fre q u e n tly go home fo r the week-end
o r fo r sh o rt v i s i t s ?
76*
yes
no
?
Does your home community o f f e r many oppor—
t u n i t l e s fo r young people to ea rn a liv in g ?
77*
yes
no
? Do you l i k e your home community b e t t e r than
you do t h i s coratmnity?
78.
yes
no
? Would you l i k e to spend th e r e s t of your
l i f e l i v i n g in your home community?
79.
yes
no
?
Do you communicate w ith home fre q u e n tly ?
80.
yes
no
?
Do you re c e iv e a horae-town newspaper here
r e g u la r ly ?
81*
yes
no
?
Do you l i k e to re ad the home-town papers?
83*
yes
no
?
Does your name o f te n appear in the home­
town papers?
83.
yes
no
?
Do th e members o f your fam ily l i k e to do
th in g s and go p la c e s to g e th e r as a fam ily
group ?
84.
yes
no
?
Are th e members o f your fam ily independent
o f each oth er?
85.
yes
no
? Bo you have any p e ts a t home?
86*
yes
no
? Do you have any p e ts here?
87*
yes
no
?
Do you ever expect to l i v e a t home again?
88.
yes
no
?
Do you want to l i v e a t home again?
89.
yes
no
?
During your l i f e t i m e has your fam ily f r e ­
q u e n tly changed neighborhoods?
90.
yes
no
?
During your l i f e t i m e has your family f r e ­
q u e n tly changed c i t i e s ?
343
91*
y es
bo
?
During your l i f e t i m e has your fam ily f r e ­
q u e n tly changed s t a t e s ?
93*
yes
no
?
Since you were 15, have th e members of your
fa m ily u s u a lly helped you so lv e your
problem sI
93.
y es
no
?
Has your f a t h e r u s u a lly been a companion to
you?
94*
yes
no
? Has your mother u s u a lly been a companion to
you?
95.
yes
no
?
96.
y es
no
?
97.
yes
no
?
I s t h i s th e lo n g e s t you have ever been away
from home?
98.
yes
no
?
Are you a member o f th e Y.M.C.A* or Y.W.C.A.?
99.
yes
no
?
Do you u s u a lly become homesick when you are
away from home?
100.
yes
no
?
Have you ever been homesick?
Do you find i t e a s i e r to get acquainted with
men her© than i t i s a t home?
g i r l s here than i t i s a t home?
344
Questionnaire Ho. II
Name
Pa t e
D ir e c tio n s :
________________ ______
I n d ic a te your answer by drawing a c i r c l e around
one o f th e word© at th e l e f t o f each q u e stio n .
Work r a p i d l y .
1.
f r e q u e n t ly , sometimes, never
Before you were 14 y e a rs
old how o f te n did you t r a v e l
or v i s i t away from home?
3.
alw ays, sometimes, never
How o f te n were you accom­
panied by a r e l a t i v e or
clo se f rie n d ?
3*
o f t e n , sometimes, never
Since you were
fo re coming to
o fte n were you
home on v i s i t s
4*
alw ays, sometimes, never
How o fte n were you accom­
panied by a r e l a t i v e or
clo se f r ie n d ?
5.
f r e q u e n t l y , sometimes, never
While h e re , how o fte n do you
indulge in your f a v o r i te
amusement ?
6.
f r e q u e n t ly , sometimes, never
When at home how o fte n do
you indulge in your
fa v o rIte amusement ?
7.
f r e q u e n t l y , sometimes, never
While here how o fte n do you
indulge in your f a v o r i te
re c re a tio n ?
8.
f r e q u e n t l y , sometimes, never
"When at home how o fte n do
you indulge in your
f a v o r i te re c re a tio n ?
9.
f r e q u e n tl y , sometimes, never
While here how o fte n do you
have d ates?
10.
f r e q u e n t l y , sometimes, never
When at home how o fte n do
you h-ve d a te s?
11.
alw ays, sometimes, never
How o fte n has your f a t h e r
understood you?
12.
alw ays, sometimes, never
How o fte n has your mother
understood you?
345
14 and be­
c o lle g e how
away from
or t r i p s ?
13.
f r e q u e n t l y , sometimes, never
How often do members of
your family visit you here?
14.
f r e q u e n t l y , sometimes, never
How o fte n do f rie n d s from
your home community v i s i t
you here?
15.
f r e q u e n t l y , sometimes, never
Row o fte n have you been
homesick?
16.
y e s , no, have none
I s your roommate from your
home community?
17.
y e s , no, have none
While here do you have a l l
your d a te s w ith the same
person?
16.
y e s , no, have none
When at home do you have a l l
your d a te s w ith the same
person?
19.
g r a d u a l ly , a b ru p tly
How did you break away from
home?
20
. G rade:
J u n io r H .:
High School:
co u n try
country
country
v illa g e
v illa g e
v illa g e
town
town
town
c ity
c ity
city
co n so li­
d ated
c o n s o li­
dated
c o n s o li­
dated
b o ard in g
boarding
boarding
Draw a c i r c l e around
th e kind of g rad e,
j u n io r high school,
and high school you
a tte n d e d .
21.
c i t y , town, v i l l a g e , farm
Draw a c i r c l e around
th e p lace where you
have spent most of
your l i f e .
22.
happy, s ad, ind i f f ©rent
How do you u s u a lly
f e e l a f t e r a communi­
c a tio n with home?
23.
happy, sad, i n d i f f e r e n t
How do you f e e l a f t e r
members of your family
have v i s i t e d you?
346
34,
m ild , s e v e re , v ery severe
What degree o f home­
sic k n e s s do you
u s u a l l y have?
35*
very g r a d u a lly , g ra d u a lly , suddenly How does an a t t a c k of
homesickness develop?
347
Q u e stio n n a ir e l o , I l l
Today very l i t t l e i s known about homesickness, ^ i l l
you p l e a s e h elp u s i n our in v e s t i g a t io n o f t h i s problem by
answering th e fo llo w in g q u estio n s? Work as r a p id ly as you
can.
Hame______________________
Date_______________
1.
At what age d id you f i r s t s t a r t to school?_________
3,
At what age d id you s t a r t to college?
3,
What p r i v a t e schools have you attended?
a tte n d e d ea ch ,)
(Give d a te s you
a.
Did you l i k e to a tte n d p r iv a te school?________
b.
Were you homesick o f te n , sometimes, or never?_____
4.
S ta t e b r i e f l y what you l i k e b e s t about c o lle g e l i f e :
5.
S t a t e b r i e f l y what you d i s l i k e most about college l i f e
6,
I f you are earn in g p a r t o r a l l of your co lle g e expenses
i n d i c a t e th e kind of work you are doing________________
a.
About how many hours does t h i s r e q u ir e per week?__
b.
Do you l i k e t h i s work?_____
c.
Do you l i k e i t b e t t e r than your c o lle g e work?_____
7,
How long have you been earning your own spending money?
8.
What kind of work do you l i k e best?,
9*
What amusement do you p r e f e r ? ______
10.
What r e c r e a ti o n do you p r e f e r ? _____
348
11*
L i s t th e o r g a n iz a tio n s you now belong to : (e x clu siv e of
s o c i a l f r a t e r n i t i e s or s o r o r i t i e s ) .
13*
What a d d itio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n s have you belonged to ( e . g .
boy s c o u ts , g i r l s c o u ts, e t c . ) :
13.
What i s th e c h i e f in d u s try of your home community?_____
14.
B r i e f l y , why do (o r don*t) you l i k e to read your home­
town p a p e rs ? ,
IS*
________________________________
L i s t any exp erien ce you have had as a camp coun selo r,
c l a s s o f f i c e r , group c a p ta in , e tc :
16.
L i s t high school honors, a c t i v i t i e s , o f f i c e s , e tc :
17.
L i s t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s for t h i s sem ester:
18.
What honors have you re c e iv e d during y r Ur li f e t i m e :
19.
What would you l i k e to be doing 10 y ears from now?____
30. Why d id you le a v e home?
31. What i s th e f i r s t th in g th e word f,Komeh b rin g s to
your
mind ?
33.
.
L i s t th e members of your fa m ily , in d ic a tin g older and
younger b r o th e r s and s i s t e r s : __________________________
33.
Who i s th e dominant member of your fam ily—f a th e r ,
m other, b r o t h e r , s i s t e r , or who?______________ ... . . . __ _
34, How f a r are you from home in m iles?______
25.
What i s th e s h o r t e s t time i n which you could go from
h ere to your home?
349
26.
Whatmember o f your fa m ily a re you most dependent upon?
37.
fb at do you l i k e b e s t about your h o m e _________________
38.
What do you m iss most when you are away from home?
39.
Has your fam ily ever been broken by;
30.
a.
Divorce
when you were how old?
b«
Death of mother?
when you were how old?
e.
Death o f f a t h e r ?
when you were how o ld ?
About how old were you t h e f i r s t time you were homesick?
a.
What were th e circum stances th a t caused you to be­
come homesick
_______________________
b.
How do you know you were homesick__________________
c.
What r e l i e v e d your homesickness then?______________
31.
When was th e l a s t time you were homesick?
33.
What u s u a lly ca u ses you to become homesick?____________
33.
What agg rav ates your homesickness most?________________
34.
How long does an a tta c k o f homesickness u su a lly l a s t
35.
How do you know when you are homesick?_______________
36.
What do you want more than anything e ls e when you are
homesick?._____________ _ _ ____________ ,_______________
37.
What g iv e s you most r e l i e f when you cannot go home?__
38.
When during an a t t a c k of homesickness do you experience
th e g r e a t e s t s u f f e r in g ?
____________________ _ _ _ _ _
350
39.
What do you do when you a re homesick?—_________________
40.
I f you re co v er w itho ut going home are you l i k e l y to have
a n o th e r a t ta c k soon?
_____________________________ __
41.
Hoes a sh o rt v i s i t home always bring complete recovery?
42.
A fte r a sh o rt v i s i t home are you l i k e l y t o become home­
s ic k again soon?
43.
Give th e circum stances (in c lu d in g your age) th a t
caused the s e v e r e s t attaGfc o f homesickness you ever had:
44.
What were th e most o u tstan d in g symptoms?
45.
What caused you to recover?
46.
The follow ing space i s fo r any remarks o r comments on
homesickness which you c a re to make (^e.R. whyyou th in k
you a re o r are no t s u s c e p tib le to i t , e t c . ) :
351
In fo rm atio n Sheet
1.
Are you a member or pledge of a s o c ia l f r a t e r n i t y or
s o r o r i t y on t h i s campus?
3.
Church preference?^__________ Are you a member?___________
3.
Are you a Freshman, Sophomore, J u n io r, S e n i o r , P.G. ?
4*
Do you have a s t e p - f a t h e r ?
His occupation___________
5*
Do you have a step-m other?
Her occupation___________
6.
Humber of s te p - b r o th e r s
7.
lumber o f s t e p - s i s t e r s _________
8.
T o ta l number of members in your family now, in clud in g
your s e l f
a.
Humber o f o ld e r b r o th e r s (not s te p -b r o th e rs )_______
Humber o f younger b ro th e r s (not s te p - b r o th e r s ) _____
b.
Humber o f o ld e r s i s t e r s (not s t e p - s i s t e r s ) _________
Humber o f younger s i s t e r s (not s t e p - s i s t e r s ) _______
9.
F a t h e r 1s p r o f e s s io n or occupation ( i f deceased, give
what i t was b e fo re t h a t time)
10.
Mother*s o ccu p atio n ( i f deceased, give what i t was b efore
t h a t t irae)
................
.....
11.
When did you m a tr ic u la te a t Indiana U n iversity?_________
13.
How many h o u rs, in clu d in g p h y sic a l education and m i li ­
t a r y , are you c a rry in g t h i s semester?
------------------------ _
13.
What i s your h e ig h t? __________ Weight?--------------------------- --
14.
L i s t o th e r p e rso n s whom you know have been homesick t h i s
sem ester:
15.
Are you now or have you been a t any time homesick t h i s
sem ester?_____________ __
352
L e t t e r from th e Dean o f Women to th e
Housemothers and Landladies
Mr* W, H. McCann, g ra d u a te student in the
Psychology departm ent, has undertaken to make on
t h i s campus a study of n o s t a l g i a (homesickness)
i n o rd e r to d eterm in e, i f p o s s ib le , the circum­
s ta n c e s which most fre q u e n tly lead to i t , and the
p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of th e men and women a ffe c te d
by i t . The study i s being d ire c te d by Dr. Edmund
S. C onklin, p ro fe s s o r of psychology, and we are
v e ry glad to cooperate by helpin g them to get in
to u ch w ith th e stu d e n ts who have been homesick t h i s
y ear.
In the next few days Mr. McCann w i ll probably
c a l l and ask f o r an appointment with you. He hope
t h a t you w i l l be able to see him at your conven­
i e n c e , to t a l k w ith him on t h e subject and to sug­
g e s t th e names o f some o f th e g i r l s in your house.
Mr. McCaim (A .B ., U n iv ersity of M issouri; A.M., Cor­
n e l l U n iv e rsity ) has had t r a i n i n g and experience in
t h i s type o f work. I have had several conferences
w ith him and I b e lie v e t h a t he i s thoroughly com­
p e t e n t to pursue t h i s stu d y . He w ill be very glad
f o r any in fo rm atio n or su g g estio n s which you may be
a b le to give him.
Very s in c e r e ly yours,
Dean o f Women
T able h X X
Answers to Q uestions i n Q u estio n n aire No. I which
a re considered s i g n i f i c a n t
(t* i n d i c a te s th e p o s itio n o f th e homesick group)
C r i t i c a l R atios f o r D iffe ren c es in Percentages
G irls
Boys
Q uestion
7.
$
$
1o
Answer K8WHS D(^)
Do you have r e g u la r hours t h a t you spend in re c re a tio n ?
Yes
Ho
8.
20 t*24 .090 2.66
78 -24 .092 2.60
66
26
40 7*26 .096 2.70
46 -20 .093 2.15
72
16
92 -20 .074 2.70
02 7*14 .056 2.50
16
04 /12 .059 2.03
28
10
Jits ^16 .078 2.05
00 7*10 .042 2.38
Do you have a d e f i n i t e goal or ambition th a t you are
n o t working d i r e c t l y toward a t present?
?
30.
44
54
Would you r a t h e r have gone to some o th e r college or
u n i v e r s i t y th a n t h i s one?
y^s
?
29.
58 /20 .092 2.17
12 -10 .050 2.00
Are you happy a t th e p re se n t time?
Yes
Ho
?
27.
78
02
As a c h ild d id you u s u a lly p r e f e r to p lay a t your own
home?
Yes
Ho
24.
40 -20 .090 2.22
54 /22 .092 2.39
Do you keep a diary?
Yes
10
21.
20
76
Do you p r e f e r to room by y o u rse lf?
Wo
?
15.
fo
HS WHS D(4)
02
12 -10
.050 2.00
Do you l i k e c o l l e g e l i f e ?
Yes
?
70
22
96 -26 .071 3.66
00 7*22 .059 3.72
354
C r i t i c a l R a tio s fox D iffe re n c e s in P ercentages
G ir ls
Boys
Q uestion
31*
Answer
H
o
$
H3
60
30
30
70
08 422 .075 2.93
90 -20 .077 3.59
54
43
02
3 .073 7.12
94 -52 .078 6.66
52
42
08 «/44 .081 5.43
88 —46 .084 5.47
10
88
30 -20 .077 2.59
68 /SO .080 2.50
80
16
10
94 -14 .066 2.12
04 /IS .059 2.03
00 5*10 .042 2.38
I n g e n e ra l, i s l i f e as p le a s a n t for you here aei i t i s
when you are a t home?
Yes
Ho
58
40
84 -26 .087 3.98
14 4?& .085 3.05
50
44
82 -32 .089 3.59
14 /30 .085 3.52
Do you f e e l more r e s t r i c t e d here than when you are home?
Yes
Ho
53.
66 -20 .097 3.06
Are you w ell s a t i s f i e d w ith your room here?
Yes
MO
?
47.
46
Are you fr e q u e n tly by y o u r s e lf when you are at home?
Yes
I©
46.
88 -18 .080 2.25
Do you o fte n f e e l lonesome here?
H
o
42.
70
Do you have a budget f o r spending your money?
Yes
41.
D($)
28 4%Z .093 3.44
68 —38 .093 4.08
Ho
38*
$
sths
I s t h e r e something you would r a th e r be doing than going
t o c o lle g e ?
Yes
Ho
36,
'P
H8 HH8 D($)
I s c o lle g e l i f e Quite d i f f e r e n t than you expected i t
t o be?
Yes
32.
P
56
44
34 /32 .097 2.26
66 -32 .097 2.26
Do you fin d c o lle g e l i f e monotonous ■?
Yes
H
o
22
72
08 /14 .070 2.00
88 -16 .078 3.05
355
24
64
04 /SO .066 3.03
82 -18 .087 2.06
G ritic & l R atio s f o r D iffe re n c e s in P ercentages
G ir ls
Boys
Q uestion
54.
Answer
$
%
$
HS HH8 D(^)
86 100 -14 .049 3.85
08
00 /08 .038 2.10
Do you fin d c o lle g e l i f e se rio u s?
?
59.
76 96 -30 .066 3.03
18 04 ,*14 .061 2.29
86 98 -13 .053 2.26
Do you p a r t i c i p a t e in many s o c ia l a c t i v i t i e s here?
Ho
73.
26 —22 .068 3.23
Do you u s u a lly sle e p w ell here?
Yes
65.
04
Has your a p p e t i t e been good s in c e you came to co lle g e ?
Yes
Ho
61.
44 24 7*20 .092 3.17
Does your home community have much community s p i r i t ?
Yes
74.
68
48 7*20 .097 3.06
52
08
72 -20 .095 2.10
00 7*08 .038 2.10
Do you l i k e your home community b e t t e r than you do t h i s
community?
Yes
H0
78.
56 /20 .092 2.17
Do you fr e q u e n tly go home fo r the week-end or fo r sh o rt
v isits?
Ho
?
77.
76
Do you have a wider range of acquaintances here than
you have in your home community?
No
75.
d($)
Do you fin d c o lle g e l i f e i n t e r e s t i n g ?
?
55.
$
HS HHS
56
36
t*30
.097 2.06
74
12
52 ,*32 .094 2.34
30 -18 .080 2.25
Would you l i k e to spend th e r e s t of your l i f e l i v in g in
your home community?
yggj
Ho
34
50
356
10 7*24 .079
76 -26 .093
<i>.03
2.79
C r i t i c a l R atio s f o r D ifferen ces in Percentages
G ir ls
Boys
Q uestion Answer
79.
$
$
fo
HS HHS T>(%)
Do you communicate w ith home freq u en tly ?
94
04
H©
84.
82
64
26
42 /BB .098 2.24
48 -22 .094 2.34
Do you find i t e a s ie r to g e t acquainted w ith g i r l s here
th a n i t i s a t home?
Yes
Ho
99.
36
58
56 -30 .098 3.04
38 /20 .098 2.04
Do you u s u a lly become homesick when you are away from
home?
Yes
Ho
?
100.
64 ./18 .087 2.06
Since you were 1 5 , have t h e members of your family
u s u a l l y helped you solve your problems?
Yes
lo
96.
72 JBZ .072 3.05
24 -20 .066 3,03
Are th e members o f your fam ily independent of each
o th e r ?
Ho
92.
fi>
HS HHS D(%)
42 00 ^42 .070 6.00
50 100 -50 .071 7.04
08 00 JOB .038 2.10
22
66
12
00 /S2 .059 3.72
100 -34 .067 5.07
00 Jl2 .046 2.60
92
00
Have you ever been homesick?
Yes
Ho
?
100 00
00 100
00
06 100
02 00
00
357
Table h X X l
Answers to Q uestions In Q uestionn aire No. IX which
are considered s i g n i f i c a n t
(4 in d i c a t e s th e p o s itio n o f th e homesick group)
C r i t i c a l Hatioe f o r D ifferences in Percentages
G irls
fit
Q uestion Answer
1*
p
j9
HS NHS D(^)
HS NHS D($)
B efo re you were 14 years o ld how o fte n did you t r a v e l
o r v i s i t away from home?
Sometimes
S.
36
56 -20 .098 2.04
48
22 ^36 .093 2.82
Since you were 14 and b e fo re coming to co lleg e how o ften
were you away from home on v i s i t s or t r i p s ?
36
63
O ften
Sometimes
5.
48 420 .097 2.06
How o f te n were you accompanied by a r e l a t i v e or c lo s e
fr ie n d ?
Sometimes
3.
68
60 -34 .097 2.47
38 /2 4 .098 2,44
While h e re , how o fte n do you indulge in your f a v o r ite
amusement?
F req u en tly
Sometimes
Never
34 58 -24 .09? 2,4?
60 40 420 .098 2.04
12 00 */l2 .046 2.60
11. How o fte n has your fa th e r understood you?
Always
15,
30 50 —20 .096 2.08
How o fte n have you been homesick?
F req u en tly
Sometimes
le v e r
36 00 ^36 .068 5.29
64 00 <f64 .068 9.41
00 100
10 00 ^10 .042 2.38
90 00 -/90 .042 21.42
00 100
18. then at home do you have a l l your d a te s with the same
perso n?
52 34 /28 .093 3.01
Tes
44
72 -28 .094 2.97
NO
358
C r i t i c a l R a tio s f o r D ifferen ces in Percentages
G ir ls
Boys
Q uestion
23.
Answer
18
38 -20 .088 2.27
02 14 -12 .053 2.26
72
18
50 /22 .095 2.31
00 /18 .054 3.33
What degree of homesickness do you u s u a lly have?
(S in c e t h i s q u e stio n a p p lie s only to the homesick group
no comparison can be made with the non-homesick.)
Mild
Severe
¥ e ry severe
25.
20 03 /18 -060 3.00
How do you f e e l a f t e r members of your fam ily have
v i s i t e d you?
Happy
Sad
In d iffe re n t
24.
HS NHS D($)
How do you u s u a l l y f e e l a f t e r a communication with home?
Sad
In d iffe re n t
33.
HB NHS D(fo)
52 00
38 00
10 00
74
18
00
00
How does an a t t a c k of homesickness develop?
(S in ce t h i s q u e s tio n a p p lie s only to th e homesick group
no comparison can be made w ith the non-homesick.)
G radually
Suddenly
48 00
46 00
30
62
00
00
B ib liography
1* Bresowsky, H ., *Uber einen F a l l von Verbrechen aus
Helmweh8 , A llg . Z ts e h r. f , P s y c h i a t . . 1923, 78,
---------333-345.
3.
Calhoun, T, J . , 11N o sta lg ia as a Disease o f F ield Serv­
i c e 11, E e d io a l and S u rg ic a l R e p o rte r. 1864, 11,
131 *
3.
C h ris te n s o n , C* V ., N o s t a l g i a Among Freshmen Univer­
s i t y S tu d e n ts 8, In d ia n a U n iv e rsity , 1936.
U npublished.
4.
C onklin, 3S. S ., P r i n c i p l e s o f Adolescent Psychology.
Henry Holt and Co., N. Y ., 1935.
5.
D elboeuf, M. J . , BA ffectio n s and J e a lo u s ie s of L izz a rd s 8, P opular Science Monthly. 1896, 50, 395399.
6.
De Monchy, S. J , E ., 8Heimwee8, P s y c h ia t. en Heur.
b la d e n . 1932, 36, 500-514.
7.
E std v e, M., wLa n o s ta lg ic des m i l i t a i r e s 8 , Gaz. med.
de P a r . . 1916, 87, 122-123.
8.
F 6 rd , Ch., La p a th o lo g ic des Emotions. F e lix Alcan,
P a r i s , 1893.
9.
F r o s t , Is a a c , 8Home-Sickness and Immigrant Psychoses” ,
J o u r. Mental S cience. 1938, 84, 801-847.
10.
G ro ss, Hans, C rim inal Psychology. L i t t l e , Brown,
Boston, 1911.
11.
G u th rie , L. G ., F unctional Nervous D isorders in C h ild hood. Oxford U n iv e rsity P re s s , London, 1909.
12.
H a ll , G. S ., 8Some Aspects o f the Early Sense of S e l f ” ,
Amer. J . P sy ch o l. . 1897, 9, 351-395.
13.
H a l l , G. S ., Adolescence. Vol. I I , D. Appleton & Co.,
H. Y ., 1904.
14.
Hollingworth, L .,
BHeimwehH, Vj.sch. f . JuKen_d_k. , 1932,
3, 185-187.
15.
Hudson,
H ., The n a t u r a l i s t in La P l a t ? .
& Co., London, 1904.
J.
’ . Dent
16*
I l b e r g , G*, “B ra n d stiftu n g einen Heimwehkranken" ,
Mpnatschr . f . Krim.—P sy ch o l. . 1931, 12, 117-126.
17.
J a s p e r s , K., "Heimweh und Verbrechen^, Archiv. f .
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