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NAME AND A D D RESS
this thesis for use by
the signa tur e of each user
DATE
NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY
HOME RECREATION
A DISSERTATION
SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
Tor tUe degree
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
DEPARTMENT
OF SOCIOLOGY
BY
GORDON HITCHCOCK BARKER
EVANSTON,
ILLINOIS
August, 1940
P ro Q u e s t N u m b e r: 10060871
All rights re s e rv e d
IN F O R M A T IO N TO ALL USERS
T h e q u a lity o f this r e p r o d u c tio n is d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e q u a lity o f t h e c o p y s u b m itte d .
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a n d th e r e a r e m issing p a g e s , t h e s e will b e n o t e d . Also, if m a te r ia l h a d to b e r e m o v e d ,
a n o t e will in d ic a te t h e d e le tio n .
uest
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduct ion
Page
Home Recreation - Definitions, History
and Scope of the Study .....................
4
Chapter II
Recreational Activities and Interests
16
Chapter III
Tjcpes, Volume end Cost of Home
Recreation................
*..... .
33
*
59
Relation of Serai-Public, Private and Commer­
cial Recreation Agencies to Home
Re creat ion ...... ......... .................
76
Training Parents for Horae Recreation .......
96
Effects of Urban Conditions on Home
Recreation ..............
......
108
jChapter VIII
|
Effects of the Depression on Home
Recreation
......
128
jChapter IX
Effects of the Automobile, lotion Pictures
and the Radio on Horae Recreation..........
141
Summary and Conclusions..... .............
157
Horae Recreational Activities of Six Selected
Families of Different Socio-economic
Backgrounds .*. •
.•
167
1940 Edition of Filmsound Library
Reference Film List •••. •
•••.....
173
Letter from Toy Manufacturers of the
U.S.A., Inc.
..........................
174
[Appendix IV
List of Leisure League Hobby B o o k s ........
175
[Appendix V
Home Play and Play Equipment for the
Pre-school Child
......... ..............
Children's Bureau Publication No. 238
176
Chapter I
Chapter IV
I
^Chapter V
i
i
Relation of Public Recreation to
Home Recreation
i
jGh&pter VI
5
i
|Chapter VII
i
|
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|
[Chanter X
i
^Appendix I
IAppendix III
Page
Appendix VI
Appendix VII
Appendix VIII
Appendix IX
Appendix X
Special Bulletin Ho. 89 on worthy
use of leisuretime .........
177
Copy of ”The Kit” - Quarterly Pocket
Ma gazine............
178
A Parent-Teacher Guidebook from J# W#
Faust
.........
179
Booklists of the national Home Library
Foundation...... .. ............... .
180
Outline of Procedure, Purpose, and Programs
of the Home Flay G-rouos Association
183
INTROUCJCT ION
i
Hecreation is big business at present with every indication
{
of its becoming bigger.
It is no longer ignored or disparaged but is an
(accepted social institution.
Attention is focused on most of its phases in
duding its professional aspects, its economic e ffects, its therapeutic effects, and the problem of its control.
Little attention has been paid thus
Ifar, however, to what goes on in the way of leisure-time activities in the
Ihome.
The intangible personal, elements, the unorganized programs and in-
!formal activities of home recreation are difficult, if not impossible to
1
|measure or interpret. A number of surveys of recreation in various communi
|ties have been made, but none of them has given an exhaustive account of
!
Ihome recreation. All of them point out that it is important, for all indi|viduals to participate in it, but none haS
studied all aspects of home or
|family recreation because of the problems mentioned above. The Chicago Hel
)creation Commission made a survey of recreation in the city, the last vol[
i ume of which appeared in 1939.
The survey did not include an analysis of
|home recreation, because the problem presented difficulties, which the Com!mission was not in a position to meet.
It did, however, recognize that
Ithere was a great part of people*s recreation that could not be accounted
I
i
for in its survey. The problem was challenging with the result that this
i
|study has been made under the direction of the Editor of the Survey.
!
Our democratic traditions limit centrally-controlled organi­
zation and administration in all activities of our social pattern.
The
whole problem of formal versus informal control is involved in a study of
home recreation, for individual preferences put a limit to the amount of
formal control.
Is there informal control on the part of the family func-
tion of recreation?
Are public and private agencies for recreation recoghii
ing that individual habits and attitudes can best be formed in the home and
family environment?
How extensive is home recreation?
Such questions natui
arise after surveying the recreational literature and reading the following
statement in the Social Work Year Book, 1939:
Municipal departments of recreation, private recreation agenc
the National Congress of Parents and Teachers, state and cour
home demonstration leaders in women's and 4H Clubs, the New Y
State rural sociologists, and other groups have actively proir
interest in the theory and practical aspects of home play* C
planning authorities, real estate developers, private and gov
ment housing experts now recognize the value of and necessity
providing adequate space for play either within the home stru
or in nearby environment. Municipal recreation departments p
on home play campaigns and back yard competitions, home play
and home play weeks, end home recreation clubs. Children's p
spaces are provided in attic or living room or cellar* The n
room'* is a feature or many modern middle class homes. Numero
rural clubs foster the interests of home recreation*
It is difficult to indicate those leisure-time activities whi
pertain only to home recreation for there probably are few recreations which
not been participated in at home in some form at some time or another.
This
however, will consider as home recreation those activities which are indulge
their own sake in the time remaining after hours for work, sleep, rest, dres
and eating are deducted from the day's twenty-four, in the environment posse
a primary group relationship in which the individual lives.
This definition
tend tooversimplify for ” activities indulged for their own sake’1 is
matter.
an arbi
For example, the same home lei sure-time activity enjoyed by one ind
for the satisfaction derived therefrom, such as painting, might be work for
from which he derived an income.
Therefore, there probably can be no sharp
tinotion in a definition between work and recreation.
Furthermore, the prim
group relationship is not always manifested in home recreational activities
certain activities, such as singing or pursuing some kinds of hobbies are es
tially individuated.
In addition, the intimate relationship of the family g
can not be limited to the home environment only for the family enjoys certai
reations as a group away from home, such as taking trips together.
l / S ocia.1 VYork Year Book, 1S3S, Russell Sage Foundation, p. 364-365.
A rigid
definition, therefore, is difficult to make, but for purposes of this studyj
those leisure activities, which are indulged for the satisfaction derived tl
from in the intimate association found in the individual’s dwelling, are hon
recreations*
The question of greatest importance concerns the extent of he
recreation#
HVhat are people doing for recreation in the home?
and money are being spent on it?
How much tin
What agencies are concerned with home reci
tion and what are they doing about it?
Is recreation in the home affected t
economic crises, such as the business depression, and do automobiles, radio,
and motion pictures change it?
Is there a difference in the amount and kind
of recreation in homes in cities as over against rural homes?
Such question
must be answered before any conclusions as to the merits of the various aspe
of social organization can be justified#
The present research seeks to answer those questions#
people do in their spare-time at home can be answered in two ways#
What
Surveys
recreational interests are helpful in disclosing the answers, but they are i
adequate in that they do not present a well-rounded picture#
Frequently the
reflect the attitudes and policies of those people who are making the survey
They are not ignored in this study, however, but greater emphasis is given t
those facts concerning home recreation which can be documented.
These facts
are secured from reports of trade journals, recreational agencies, census re
ports, personal interviews, organization analyses, and personal corresponden
with various institutions concerned with the problem#
There are definite obi
gations to these co-operating agencies, end the author is grateful to them#
inspiration and impetus derived from the invaluable assistance of Professor
Arthur J# Todd, of Northwestern University, has carried this research throug
a conclusion*
Without his suggestions and counsel, this study could not hav
been made and the author is more than grateful#
HOME BE CREATION
Definitions, History and Scope of the Study
Chapter I
When the traditional pursuits and activities of a group of
people become disrupted, the mass attention of the group is centered on
this imbalance and specialists are called in to deal with the problem#
Leisure pursuits at present are different from what they were as recently
as thirty years ago and there is a great deal more leisure time.
The re­
sult is that the theorists and specialists are concerned and there is much
speculation as to the value of the concept of leisure and what goes on dur­
ing leisure time.
The amount of leisure has undergone a sharp increase due
to various reasons.
The involuntary leisure of unemployment and old age
has increased#
The reduction of fifteen per cent in hours of labor be1/
tween 1890 and 1926 has added to increased leisufre.
One half of the 168
hours in a given week are devoted to maintenance time; eating, sleeping,
personalcareand other
Since the time
necessities of life apart from the working period#
required for these necessities remains more or less con­
stant, the reduction in work time represents a gain in leisure.
The spare
time of workers more than trebled during this period, giving the average
worker about 40 hours of free time per week.
Elsewhere, William Green,
the author of the above analysis states:
A shoemaker in Massachusetts in 1855 worked 72 hours a
week; by 1895 his working hours were 60. By 1928, cutters,
lasters, stitchers, were working 48 hours a week — a gain
of 24 hours* leisure time per week in 73 years# In 1841
a weaver in Massachusetts cotton mills worked an 84 hour
week; by 1870 his time had been shortened to 66 hours, by
1900 to 58, and by 1924 Massachusetts weavers had won the
48 hour week* Their leisure time had been lengthened by
36 hours a week. 2/
2j William Green, "The Workers' Week over Ninety Years,11 New York TimesAugust 9, 1931* Article to the Press.
2/ William Green, "The 5 Day Week Inevitable” (Amer.T'ed.of Labor, 1932) Pam­
phlet.
iSince then the forty-hour week has, in theory at least, been quite gener­
ally accepted*
"Not only has the eight-hour day been accepted quite gen­
erally as a permanent labor policy in industry but the five-day week has
u
been inaugurated in numerous industries during recent years."
From the
I
1
average worker's week of over seventy hours in 1840, thirty hours have
been added to leisure-time, increasing it three times during the last cen­
tury*
j
Mechanical devides for the home, affording the housewife
Iadditional time saved, and the lessening of hours of work for both women
and children have increased the total amount of time which is not neces­
sary to pursue those activities generally assumed vital to existence*
!
jLeisure is this portion of a person's life in which he chooses to do as he
!pleases* These leisure-time pursuits are generally considered recreation
!
j for that individual. The forms of recreation which he might select are so
j
j diversified that countless ways of meeting his need have arisen.
i
|
Many forms of recreation are essentially individual activiI
! ties and are engaged in with few social contacts and not with the help of
: any recreation agency. Nature study, reading, listening to radio music,
!
| creative writing, painting, gardening, and caring for pets are examples
i
■ of these individual forms of recreation.
These are indulged largely
! around the home with the family group probably the only social contact*
j
; Other recreational activities obviously need some form of administration
j
j such as libraries, museums, baseball series, and opera* All these kinds
; of recreation and the effects and purposes and cost are the subject mat­
ters for much research*
Home leisure-time activities or recreation are
i
I
relatively uneaqjlored; it is, therefore, the purpose of this study to ini 1/ See' Monthly Labor Review. November. 1932. "Extent of Five-Day Week
in American Industry in 1932*” pp 999-104*
6
i
vestigate various phases of this subject*
Viewed historically recreation has hut recently been con­
sidered a social institution*
This is understandable* when it is real­
ized that the attitude toward it as something other than time wasted is
comparatively recent*
It is true that recreation as a social institution
produces fewer folkways and mores than other institutions, because only
|recently has it become organized and formalized and been dignified by an
j attitude other than condescension or mild toleration*
There is, however,
jno society that does not devote some time and effort to it* The fact that
i
i
j recreation is closely interwoven with other institutions, like the family
i
|and religion, makes voluminous study and research inevitable. The research
already done reveals no generally accepted theory of the values of re| creation*
Attitudes vary as to the purposes of recreation, the theories
of its origin, and methods of control, but all the research agrees as to
|
! its importance, which is indicated by the amount and attention paid to it*
Changing attitudes toward leisure are expressed in detail
!
!
i
j
j
!
!
I
I
i
by Arthur Uewton Pack, who summarizes them as follows:
So the changing cycle of human attitudes toward leisure
has gone on. The pioneer attitude of condemning leisure
served its day. The conception of: leisure as scarcely
more than a health-builder aided nothing except the wor­
ship of production. Leisure as a stimulus to consumption
has failed us. Even the later view of leisure as mere
vacant time to be filled in as best one can, offers small
allurement to the active mind. Leisure as loafing, or
leisure as a quest for poetic -what-nots are alike unsatisfying. ... but those of us who still have life to live *,
possess a desire .. that may be a deep-rooted instinct ..
to fill our hours with activity that is definite and
creative. We want work or play, not vacant time. 1/
This idea of leisure-time activities being based on a deeprooted instinct suggests the notion of Professor G-roos, vdao conceived play
1/ Arthur Hewton Pack, "The Challenge of Leisure," Macmillan, Hew York,
1934, page si.
7
j as an instinct which, serves the purpose of education for the individuals
i
] later life* Bat play often results from dangerous activity, which has "been
disciplined or learned*
And as Bernard points out,
there is no evidence
of an inheritable mechanism, producing expression in play*
Herbert Spencer
thought of play as a means of releasing accumulated and superfluous energy,
which was not expended in the pursuit of getting a living*
play long after they apparently are physically exhausted*
But children
Others think of
play, or leisure-time activity, or recreation, as a means of storing up
energy, rather than as a means of "letting off steam.”
The Recapitula­
tion theory” later made recreation the re-enactment of the experiences of
the race*
G* Stanley Hall added to Groos* theory by saying that all games
t
j
iare remnants of earlier activities of the race that have come down to us
|in a somewhat modified form. The children repeat the past and prepare for
i
j
j adult life under this theory; but the invention of new games seems to re­
fute this theory*
Yet there are some writers in this field who still hold
to it, for example Timme*s dictum: "Play and recreation are reflections
|accurately of the work of the race*
!
2/
jthe race."
|
They epitomize the past behavior of
Some leaders in recreation hold that there should be no
jdistinction between the work activity and the play activity of an indi!vidual*
Their theory is that work should contain those qualities which
:stimulate the individual*s creative ability. He should derive satisfact|
|ion from work itself and not the time away from work. It is not therefore,
i
2/
ja question of supervising leisure, but industry.
Another expression of
2J L. L. Bernard, ”Instinct,11 Hew York, 1924, page 342*
I2] Arthur K. Timme, "Significance of Play and Eecreation, ” Mental Hygiene.
Vol. 18, 1934, page 53*
'3/ C. K. Brown, "Education in Machine Utopia." Horth American Review. Mav
1934.
8
this attitude toward leisure time is found in a book treating recreation
as a means of education*
A master in the art of living draws no sharp distinction
between his work and his play, his labour and his leisure,
his mind and his body, his education, and his recreation.
He hardly knows which is which* He simply pursues his
vision of excellence through whatever he is doing and leaves
others to determine whether he is working or playing* To
himself, he always seems to be doing both. Enough for him
that he does it well. Xj
I
The theory that at present receives the widest acceptance is
directly opposed to the above and holds that recreation is an organic necesjsity for relaxation, which results from the substitution of one form of ac!
jtivity for another. Recreation under this theory pervades all aspects of
i
ilife, fulfilling the basic wishes* Recreation derives not from the famili
jiar, but from new experience or adventure. It fulfills the wish for secur|
'ity through conflict and mastery, the desire for expression throu^i activity,
i
land recognition through social contacts. This change from the customary to
Ithe unusual and free activity does not mean inactivity, for there are many
i
types of recreation, including physically vigorous, semi—vigarsraus, and com­
pletely inactive.
Other types of recreation are experienced in isolation,
jas expressed in hobbies; in co-operation as expressed in dancing, choral
iwork or orchestras, and in competition as indicated by contests.
There are
passive types, indicated by listening to concerts or visiting museums.
I
These various theories and types of recreation are still con­
troversial, it is true.
There is no universal point of view —
ly accepted philosophy about recreation.
no general­
Some leaders stress individualism,
fsffhile others stress group-participation and co-operation.
Some hold that
jL/ Lawrence P. Jacks, wEducation Through. Recreation,** pp. 1 and 2, Harper'
and Brothers, Hew York and London, 1932.
9
participation fro® the o©ntrlbtttory aspect of an activity is essential to
recreation,
$hcir notions are based on a regard for recreation as being a
diversion, having a re-creation quality, renewing body and mind*
Others,
on the other hand, held that recreation is being increasingly formalized,
and is losing much of its individual quality,
fhey point out that in old­
er countries, folk dances and folk songs ©re common; but in industrialised
countries, activities are growing impersonal, non-social, standardized,
1/
mechanised, and highly organised*
fhis trend is notiee&ble in the United States where folk re­
creation has virtually disappeared, and the moving picture, radio, news­
paper, and the football game make their appearance*
All however, are ©greed
that reereation has come to be regarded as an essential part of life*
'fhis
is based on the fact of increased leisure for all* affording an opportunity
for reereation as a prerogative of all classes*
A number of people have concerned themselves with the whole
question of centrally-cent rolled supervision of recreational pursuits*
Some
feel that when certain individuals find themselves with leisure time, they
are at a loss as to what to d* with it*
fhe result is that these indivi­
duals have unplanned leisure time, which makes them easy victims of misj
j ehlevous activities* Thle is deleterious both to themselves and to society,
|
2/
and as a result, government supervision is necessary*
Others seriously question this intervention*
H. A, Over­
street suggests some fundamentals in achieving ^civilized leisure,” telling
how to spend it creatively and beneficially without the stuffiness and sense
2/
J of accusation and morals ©f "well-spent” leisure* One author tersely
1
! 2J
| 2/
I
; 3/
!
. ■ ■ ■ .
■ .............................................i- n . .
i"
:r
i
[ ...............................
J .................................- i
-
- M ..........................................
ConstantIne Fan^zio, '’Major Social Institutions, * Macmillan, 1939, p. 27f
Win* Butterworth, "Hew Leisure and a Hew Job for Management,” Factory Management and Maintenance, .April 1924.
H. A. Overstreet,*^ Guide to Civilized Loafing,” W*W*Horton, Hew York.
10
criticizes this governmental meddling in an individual's free timey for he
holds that "it is still a question whether the great majority of us really
want our tastes improved, our idleness disrupted with purposeful activity,
u
our ignorance dispelled."
The concern over unplanned leisure is based on the fact that
it matters not so much that people do when they work, as what they engage
Some people hold that
in when they do not work* / unsupervised recreation and leisure time isdan­
gerous, asis expressed by the following statements • "There is going to be
a great struggle for the control of the leisure of the public and civiliza2/
tion itself depends upon education getting the upper hand."
It is of in­
terest to observe -that in the next quotation the author's contention that
the mental state of man is reflected in general world conditions, hence the
need of control of leisure, v&ich so directly affects man's mind*
In this country in this time of the world's history we
would all agree that one chief use of leisure is to re­
store, renew or recreate the general health and well­
being of the body, which work may have lessened or de­
stroyed. Equally it Is a part of leisure to renew or re­
create the health of the mind or soul or, If you prefer,
of the brain, of the neurones, or whatever it is that a
physiologist puts in the place of one's mind or soul.
They also, under the conditions of modern life, may need
restoration and recreation, even more than the body ...
But if a man's soul or mind is ill, that somehow sets a
curse on the whole world. The normal flow of ordinary
life ... becomes a long, incessant line of burdens, irri­
tations, real or fancied, slights, failures, and pains ...
So one chief use for our leisure, the psychologist thinks,
ought to be to recreate health in mind and soul and to
protect it against possible attacks in the future. 3/
Controlled leisure is essential to the nation's prosperity
and the individual's well-being, as indicated by the following:
1/ Anonymous, "Apertif," North American Review. July 1934, ppl-3.
2/ "The New Leisure -— its significance and use," Library Journal, 1933, p.
445.
--------- ------3/ Edward L. Thorndike, "The Ri^at Use of Leisure," Journal of Adult Edu­
cation. 1930, page 42ff.
11
Leisure gives social choices an aspect of immediacy;
hut leisure joined to the working-time of our people
will fix, for the near future at least, the character
of our national culture* 1/
The direction of civilization is determined to a large de­
gree by the extent and uses of leisure* If people engage
in creative and constructive activities during their leis­
ure, civilization is advanced; if they indulge in useless
and destructive activities, the social order deteriorates
and progress is retarded* 2/
This sentiment quite naturally is the impetus for large pub­
lic recreational movements, where there is ample opportunity for supervi­
sion and control.
It results in a lessening of home recreation, where su­
pervision is largely spontaneous and casual.
Recreational pursuits and control of leisure time are of in­
creasing concern to many others as well*
What has been presented, however,
indicates the controversial issues involved, and the differences in points
of view*
It has been necessary to present these differences in order to
Despite
explain the limitations of this work* ffw— n all these varying notions that
recreation should not be divorced from customary and routine activities,
that recreation is the substitution of different activities for routine ac­
tivities, that recreation should be the creative and contributory aspects
of participation, that recreation has outgrown the notion of being re­
creative, and has become mechanized, justifying participation from the idea
of being actively engaged or being a spectator, that recreation must be
supervised and controlled or that recreation must be individualized and
despite
therefore does not lend itself to regimentation — from ail these opposite
viewpoints, certain facts, however, meet with general acceptance.
It is a
1/ Andrew Corry, HLeisure and Culture,B Commonweal. January 12, 1934, p. 291.
§/ M. H. & E* S. Heumeyer, "Leisure and Recreation,n page 12.
fact that Americans have recently "been euqoending about one-seventh of their
annual income or rou^ily $10,000,000,000 on recreation.
there is increased leisure.
u
It is a fact that
It is a fact that there are numerous activi­
ties and interests making strong demands and appeals for this increased
leisure and vast sum of money.
©n integrative force.
It is an accepted fact that recreation is
And it is also a fact that there are many people ’
who
are concerned with the sociological, psychological, end economical effects
of these demands upon the individual, groups, institutions, and culture.
This study will concern itself only with those facts which
|
pertain to home recreation.
Little attention will be given those activities
of home recreation i&iere the participants are engaged in original and creajtive effort. This is an important part of home recreation, but attempts to
i
|get information as to its extent and its effect on the individual resulted
i in subjective considerations which became interpretive and not factual,
jin:-er-methodslogy which was -largely subjective’
. Conclusions based on these
i
1findings would be at least tenuous.
!
|
As already mentioned, the institution of recreation is close-
|ly interwoven with other social institutions, as for example, education, re|ligion, and the family. The latter institution has received more sociologii
|cal attention than any other, for the reason that it is generally recognized
as of utmost and universal importance.
i
■of the primary groups#
I
It is the first and most important
This is the conservative estimate of the Director of the Chicago Be—
creational Survey. Other estimates include the following: over two
billion dollars (“Building America,” Becreation. Vol. 1, No. 7, April
1936); twenty-one billion dollars (Chas. A. Beard, “Whither Mankind*1);
six billion dollars (“The Amusement Industry,“ Becreation. February 1938)
over ten billion dollars (J.3?.3teiner, “Becreation and Leisure-time Ac­
tivities”) Becent Social Trends. pp. 920-940.
13
The primary group is composed, of intimately interacting
personalities* The personal relationship of the partici­
pants and the profound influences emanating from active
participation affect personality in many ways* Most of
our play life takes place in primary faed-to-face groups,
hut in recent years much of our reereation has lost some
of its local and primary aspects and has become formal;
the contacts being of a secondary nature and the entertainment being presented by means of the various devices
of communication* Mass forms of recreation become very
popular and assume a large place in m o d e m life* 1/
i
[
|
j
|
|
|
I
The same authors hold that the most subtle and dynamic inIfluences of the social environment come through the leisure activities*
!
|
1
The home, in many mays, is the most important unit of the
community* It is here that the children are reared and
socialized* The home, likewise, transmits a large portion
of the culture of the race, educates the young, develops
moral and religious attitudes and habits, provides play activities, meets the economic needs, and controls to a degree
the conduct of the children* Much of the leisure time of
both young and old, is spent in the home. Therefore, the
stability of the family, the condition of home life, and
the liveableness of the house are essential to the social
well-being of its members* Homes that are mechanically con­
venient, artistically satisfying, mentally stimulating, morally wholesome, spiritually inspiring, and founded upon
mutual love and respect are conducive to the realisation
of the abundant life* Overcrowded and dilapidated houses,
and homes that do not possess the above essentials, miti­
gate against the enjoyment of leisure activities of the
2/
family; and, in addition, may disorganize domestic life*”
j
j
|
|
|
i
I
A similar attitude toward recreation in the home is express-
!ed by Faust, who says: "Eecreation in the life of the home makes the home
|life colorful, alluring, and happy
it minimizes the necessity for much
.
parental discipline *»* it is a potent force in developing character*"
|
&
Mrs* Deering points the way, In MThe Creative Home," in
'I
!which the future salvation of people i lies in the romance, the leisure—
4/
|time activities of the home*
L* H. Weir says that the best place for play
i
i
11/
£J
|3/
|
14/
M.H.&E.S.Neumeyer, "Leisure and Recreation, page 7*
Ibid*. page 50*
J*W*Faust, "Family Recreation, the Most Fruitful Feature of Home Life,"
School Life, February 1929, pp. 101-3.
Ivah Leering, "The Creative Home," Eichard Smith, New York, 1930.
14
is the home and family environment.
u
Other studies have shown a correla-
I
tion of delinquency and had housing, where home recreational facilities are
at a minimum.
These will he discussed at some length in a later chapter*
Studies of what people actually do in their spare time show
that activities included in the general heading of home recreation predomi­
nate*
What these people want to do varies considerably from what they acSuch studies
tually do* -Thooo/will he enumerated and discussed later*
The importance of home recreation, therefore, is indicated
in the literature even while it discusses the changing functions of the
family*
Education has to a great extent heen removed from the confines of
the family, and the family is not exercising the same extensive religious
influence as formerly.
Because of the fact that totalitarian countries
|recognise the singular opportunity for the regimentation of youth hy means
|of outdoor physical exercise, recreation is quite considerably removed from
|the home in those countries* Our own government has recognized youth probs
|lems, and is acquainting itself with the possibilities of relieving them by
jmeans of supervised recreation, largely outside the home.
Urban civiliza*-
!tion and mechanical devices such as auto, motion picture, and radio have
j
Idisrupted the individual's control over his own spare time, thus compelling
|
jcommunity recognition of the subject. There are nuttercusi indices for rec­
ognizing the fact that the recreational function of the family is being
!
i
iremoved from the home too, although the effect of play and recreation in the
i
|family is admitted to be of primary importuned in the development of personI
]ality.
a
Tet it seems probable that despite lessening home recreation,/large
iblock of time and vast sums of money are being spent on that phase of re1
j
Icreation which goes on in the home environment*
1/ L.H.Weir, "Europe at Play,11 page 97, A.S.Bames & Go*, K.Y*; 1937.
15
The remainder of this study will discuss the volume, types
and cost of home recreation, as well as the conditioning effects of urhanism and the depression on it and those types of commercial recreation
which are modifying the total home recreation, changing it from the faceto-face type of personal relationship to an impersonal and secondary type.
There are many public and private agencies and institutions providing re­
creational opportunities because of the large amounts of money involved
and the diversified forms and universal need of recreation.
These agencies
may serve only their members or as in many cases, they may actually stimu!
|late and assist recreation in the homes of a number of people in the com|munity. The relations of these public and private agencies of recreation
i
I with home recreation will also be discussed.
16
Recreational Activities and Interests
Chapter II
There are two different ways of answering the question as
to what people do with their spare time*
The first method of answering
;this question is to survey the recreational activities of a sample of
people representative of the whole*
The other method of answering is to
get the facts not through what people say they do, hat through statistics
actually indicating the extent to which people participate in activities*
For example, the amount of money actually spent on various recreational
their
phases indicates in a degree the extent of 4*-s usage* Both methods are un­
satisfactory. The first approach falls short of esqpectations, "because
!
[most investigations neglect certain activities which are socially taboo
U
!
|or which conflict with customs or tradition* Steiner
mentions that very
i
|few studies of the use of leisure time present a well-rounded picture and
jthat certain differences make for so many uncontroliable variables that
i
*
|comprehensive studies would be prohibitive because of the expense involved. .
j
|
The second method of attempting to secure factual infoxmsw
|tion from reports, documents, and other sources giving statistical in|formation is also unsatisfactory. Conclusions based on the number of reI
jcreation rooms now being built into apartment houses or the number of
i
Idecks of cards being sold annually are at best only tenuous. The actual
f
\use of these items, and the frequency with which they are used is the im!portant fact, of course,
nevertheless, these figures are significant if
i
|for no other reason than that they mi^at suggest trends*
i
iU
}
Home circulation
J. Steiner, MIncreasing America's Recreational Facilities,u Recreation.
December 1936.
17
of 'books from libraries is highly important, and the question as to whether
the hooks actually are read does not arise*
Although hoth methods have their shortcomings, nevertheless,
hoth are helpful in presenting the complete picture of what people are doing
for recreation in their homes*
This chapter presents the findings of a
number of surveys, which were conducted according to the first method.
These studies involving leisure-time activities of people or surveys of
various towns and programs are difficult to compare because of different
uses of terminology, differences in items included, or other varying factors.
They do fall, however, into age groups, and studies of time budgets*
The
following chapter will present actual figures of sales, etc*, which suggest
the relative importance of the different phases of home recreation*
The
conclusions based on the findings of both methods will recognize the limi­
tations and will take cognizance of them*
I
|
|
The fact that an average child has about 3500 hours per year
I
i
to do as he pleases, concerns a great many people who believe it is import­
ant that wholesome play activities be provided for all boys and girls, with
the thought of developing character and preparing them for useful citizen—
I
j ship. They consequently have made studies of what children do with their
i spare—time and what they would like to do with it, with an eye toward the
j
administration and control of it.
'Federal SechH^fcies* Agency
The Commissioner of Education of the U*S*
devotes the first part of a series of publica­
tions on youth problems to a presentation of various surveys on youth reu
| creation*
Heading was the universally popular recreation activity. In
|urban communities, youth prefer and actually participate in outdoor athlet!1/ K. Glover, "Youth-Leisure for Living," Supt. of Documents, Washington,
i
D.C., 1936*
18
Ics*
They Ilk© to watch others participate in athletic contests and games
too*
In various sections of the country, the general activities indoors
are reading newspapers, magazines and hooks, listening to the radio, anisic,
dramatics, public speaking and card playing, needlework and sewing*
u
In Omaha, Nebraska, one thousand high school students were
surveyed in 1930 as to their spare—time activities and also the activities
of their parents.
2/
On the average, the father spends three hours a day
In recreation, which Includes driving, radio, fishing, gardening, reading,
golf, and watching baseball games.
The average mother manages to keep busy
by devoting her spare-time activities to bridge, reading and the movies, all
sedentary pursuits*
Each child reads an average of two books a week, the
|majority of which are adventure and mystery.
|
Each boy and girl spends an
|average of one and a half hours per day on some hobby* Over half of the
I
I
|families Investigated owned automobiles* Badio programs furnish more enteri
| tainment in the home for the whole family than any other means* The conclu—
I
jsions of this study are that there is a large amount of home recreation
i
I
|even though there is a general lack of equipment for play at home. The par—
i
ients lack hobbies, and only a very few share them with their children*
i
]
Lehman and Witty investigated over 4000 replies to their
j
!questionnaires on the scope of activities and preferences of young people.
i
|Children from 8 to 15 years of age indicated that during the past week most
;of them had looked at the Sunday 11funny11 page. Boys and girls from 16 to
|22 years of age mentioned reading newspapers most frequently.
Baseball,
|Just playing catch, riding in an auto, watching ath&etic sports, going to
i
|movies, chewing gum, card games, listening to the vietrola, listening to
|the radio, looking at the Sunday Hfunny" paper, reading Jokes or funny say1/ Ibid,, cages 5. 12-15.
2/ J.E.Rogers, "The Child and Play," Century, New York and London, p* 52.
19
ings, reading the newspaper, reading short stories, reading hooks, writing
letters were engaged in by more than 25 per cent of the hoys of ages 8j to
22 inclusive* The preferences of the girls were very similar with the ex!
ceptton of playing the piano for fun, going to parties or entertaining com­
pany, listening to stories, gathering flowers, just singing, and looking at
ipictures*
The preferences of these children were quite varied —
800 dif­
ferent activities heing mentioned hy the smaller children alone, hut of most
general interest were the following: hoys from eight to fifteen liked footjball, hasehall with a hardball, basket hall, boxing, marbles, just playing
i
catch, wrestling, roller skating, and horseback riding*
Reading, going to
movies and listening to the radio were listed less frequently*
The hoys 16
years of age and older also liked active recreation, hut driving a car, go|ing to movies, having dates, watching athletic sports, and reading hooks
|were among the first ten preferences, followed hy social dancing and listeniing
to the radio* The girls from 8 to 15 years of age inclusive mentioned
i
I
|among others such activities as roller skating, playing with dolls, riding
!
|in an automobile, reading hooks, going to movies, playing the piano for fun,
jplaying school, jacks, basketball, and playing house as the ten best liked,
and older girls listed social dancing, having t,dates,lf watching athletic
i/
jsports, going to parties and reading short stories.
It is apparent from
this study that younger children of both sexes enjoy active participation
in events held outdoors, and in the neighborhood of their homes, with only
j
(relatively few activities held indoors*
|
|
G* M. Gloss analyzed various studies of spare-time activij
| H , C * L e h m a n and P*A*Witty, BThe Psychology of Play Activities," A* S*
: Barnes and Company, 1927*
20
1/
ties and presented some interesting facts.
From eight studies, he collect­
ed the following data on passive activities in order of participation!
reading newspapers and magazines, movies, hooks, listening to the radio,
motoring, visiting and entertaining, watching sporting events, music
(singing or instrumental) writing letters, clubs, cards, (bridge, etc.),
conversation, picnics, theater (concerts, shows), celebrations, amusement
parks, and phonograph and player piano*
From seventeen studies of actual
participation and from five studies of preferred activities, Gloss listed
twenty, of which the following can be considered as home recreation.
Of
those actually participated in, horseshoes, bowling, skating (roller),
ping pong, rifle shooting, croquet, apparatus (tumbling); of those activi­
ties preferred, skating, bowling, walking, croquet, apparatus, bicycling,
archery and fencing are considered home recreational pursuits.
I
j
He then con­
cludes that people are engaged in passive pursuits at home more frequently
than before, but that they prefer to be outside and active.
They are not
!
doing what they desire to do, but what is possible to do.
He then recom­
mends that public or private agencies alone can supply the need.
Twenty-two thousand fourth to eighth grade children, a cross
that age group of
section oj^ San Francisco youth, last year reported on leisure time. Of
!
j significance to home recreation were the facts that 94 per cent of the homes
I
have radios; 54 per cent of the children listen over an hour a day and 22
per cent between thirty and sixty minutes a day; and that music, especially
dance music and singing received the largest vote from radio listeners,
with mystery plays and amateur hours next in popularity*
sJ
1/ G.M.Gloss, "Spare-Time Activities," Research Quarterly, of the American
Association for Health and Physical Education, May 1938, pp. 138ff.
2/ C. J. O'Connor, "Home Recreational Activity," National Elementary Prin­
cipal. October 1939, page 17.
21
j
Archery, croquet and paddle tennis are the home recreation­
al interests of five socialized sports for hoys and girls in the twelfth
grade, the Los Angeles Department of Playgrounds and Recreation Survey
,
!discovered*
1/
In cultural activities, "both boys and girls show interest in
dramatics, instrumental music, vocal music, handcraft, art, puppetry, story­
telling.
Prom a comparison of wants and activities participated in, the ac­
tivities of boys needing promotion are: puppetry, dramatics, tennis, swim­
ming, handcraft, wrestling, boxing, dancing, tumbling, hockey and archery*
Por girls, those activities needing promotion are:
tennis, dancing, in-
jstrumental music, paddle tennis, art, vocal music, puppetry, swimming, handi
|craft, hockey, dramatics, and archery. At least sevena of those activities
j
jmost desired by the children are phases of home
recreation — a challenge
Ito the parents of these boys and girls*
!
Boys and girls of Junior
and
senior classes
inseveral high,
jschools and students of a Junior college inthe Chicago area were investis
|gated as to their leisure-time activities* The boys of all the schools,
iwhich represented different social and economic levels, liked the following
[activities: movies, automobile riding, swimming, radio, tennis, watching
I
■sports, softball and basketball, while the girls of the schools liked radio,
J
[swimming, social dancing, automobile riding, tennis, movies, conversation,
■
I
[having dates, roller skating, watching sports* The activities participated
!in by the boys are: movies, automobile riding, watching sports, radio,
[swimming, conversation, and reading books*
|
The girls indulge in the follow-
.
[ing pursuits:
movies, reading books, conversation, radio, auto riding, soc2/
ial dancing, swimming, parties, writing letters, and visiting with company.
1/ 0*0. Grant, "Much Ado About Nothing,1' Becreation. October 1937, pp.403-7*
gj H.D.Edgren, HInterests and Participation of Boys and Girls in Out-ofSchool Recreational Activities," Research Quarterly, October 1937, pp.56—
-----------[ 57.
22
;i
\
\
|
jHere again is the significant fact that many of these activities, preferred
i
j
and participated in, are forms of home recreation*
Elsewhere in this study the deleterious effects of autos,
;movies, radio and certain types of reading on hoys and girls, are mention­
ed according to the findings of various studies*
With this in mind, it be-
-comes apparent why officials and leaders are concerned with the discrepancy
that is noticed between what children actually do, and what they want to do*
|Eor those preferences of children, which must be taken care of outside the
jhome, are for the most part uncreative, non-participative and questionable
Jjas to resultant benefits*
1
|
Of many studies made of recreational interests and activi1
•ties of college men and women, two are of interest because of contradictory
Iconclusions#
Of the ten activities desired by or of most interest to
!college students at Northwestern University, at least half can be carried
I
Ion at home: informal contacts, dating, dancing, movies, radio, conversa­
tion, leisure reading, bull sessions, theater, and outdoor sports or hiking*
jThe author concludes that these are not the same as the interests of people
iat large*
Two activities call for physical exertion, one-half of the ac­
tivities take the student away from his residence, and only four call for
|money.
The student apparently wants to be entertained more than to create
i
ihis own entertainment * On the other hand, the author finds that seven of
S
the activities of interest to non-college people involve physical exerjtion, eight are done outside of the home and most of them call for an out!lay of money.
The theater is the ninth item in both lists of interests.
i
J* E* Glazebrook, "Recreational Interests and Activities of Northwest­
ern University Students," 1939, Norths. Uni». Master*s thesis, and Ruth
Toogood, "A Survey of Recreational Interests and Pursuits of College
Women," Research Quarterly. October 1939, page 90ff.
i
The recreational interests and pursuits of college women
i
jwere analyzed with the probable conclusion that the activities participat?
!
|ed in by college women correspond to those activities participated in as
revealed by the National Hecreation Association study of 5000 people.
College women's activities are* dating at movies, picnicking, listening to
the radio, newspaper, funny papers, hiking, eating between meals, novels,
and social dancing.
The highest participation is in inactive and indoor
forms of recreation, while the highest desires are for more active, out­
door sports.
Ipeople.
The recreational interests resemble those listed by the 5000
The author concludes that living conditions whether one is at home
J
\or abroad appear to have very little effect upon the character and extent
i
|of recreation* It is apparent that the recreational needs must be provided
:by institutions*
Here is one author contending that the recreation interests
and activities of college people are the same as those of non^-collegiate
|people, while another author states that they are dissimilar.
This dis-
*agreement probably is a reflection of the shortcomings of this survey method
|of research in the differences in items Included, or the terminology used
|
!or some other variable.
They are important to this study, however, for both
jsurveys reveal the amount of home recreation both participated in and de!sired by college students.
Without doubt the study. The Leisure Hours of 5000 People.
!made by the National Recreation Association in 1934, is the most exact and
|
|comprehensive of all studies. This fact is indicated by its data being in!eluded in most treatments of leisure or recreation since its appearance,
iThe study had three objectives: to ascertain what people are doing in their
ifree time, either occasionally or often, to discover the changes that have
24
f
*
!
I
i
Ioccurred in the use of their free time during the recent past,. and what
they really ■would enjoy doing provided the opportunity were afforded*
The
ten activities listed in order of frequency of participation are: reading
newspapers and magazines, listening to the radio, attending the movies,
visiting or entertaining others, reading hooks (fiction), auto riding for
pleasure, swimming, writing letters, reading hooks (non-fiction), and conversation*
U
Of great importance is the fact that home recreational, activi-
jties have shown a steady increase#
These facts are significant, hut of
even greater significance, according to most people, is what people would
like to do# Of the 34,683 wishes expressed, ahout one-third were for home
I
activities, and two-thirds for outside activities, many off which constitute
family or home recreation*
Playing tennis, swimming, “boating, playing golf,
jcamping, caring for flower garden, playing musical instrument, auto ridi
|ing for pleasure, and attending the legitimate theater are among the outi
!
standing interests* Outside activities predominate, with those of a phy|sically active nature greatly desired, hut social and organized group ac­
tivities apparently not particularly in demand* The increased leisure-time
[activities have
jactivity hews heen centered primarily in and around the home. They involve
)
i
little or no expense, and they are individual and quiet or passive*
want to do what they are not, namely, things requiring expense.
People
Opportuni­
ties for recreation and study, therefore, must he “brought to the neighbor­
hoods where people live and must he made inexpensive.
One other general
Iconclusion is important* Home activities become relatively more important
!
than outside activities for men and women, married or single, as persons he.1
:come older*
j'
11
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.""
■H
I ■I
■
'
■■
■
■
■
»
■
■ I I ■■I >
'■
H
I
! I
■ ■ I ■I
I
—
■ |
|
II
I
I
. || H ■li ■
|,
1/ ”The Leisure Hours of 5000 People,” National Recreation Association,
New York, Pehruary 1934, page 2*
H
I,
25
i
A recreational survey of 908 families from four different
sections in and around Indianapolis, Indiana reveals that too few adults
have hobbies and that more hobbies occur in the better economic classes.
Major activities were golf, fishing, reading, gardening, camping, boxing
electricity, sewing and church work.
Eight hundred forty-one homes or 98
s
per cent had back yards and the majority of these yard/Had little in the
way of play equipment.
I
Five hundred eighty-four homes or 60 per cent were
equipped with victrolas, while 55 uer cent had pianos or pianolas.
hundred ninety-seven homes had radio sets*
Pour
About 60 per cent of the homes
have libraries, and a similar number of families subscribe to magazines.
\ Six hundred twenty-six families had automobiles, which could be used for
! picnics and family gatherings.
Three hundred sixty-five husbands and wives
i
| play instruments, with 70 families reporting family orchestras of three or
| more members.
Three hundred eighteen families reported they had family
play night s.
Three hundred seventy-one husbands and wives reported they
!
I had hobbies, but the number of different hobbies totalled only 35.
j
1/
A questionnaire sent to 3500 workers in Binghamton, Hew York
j in March 1935 revealed a corresponding large amount of time spent in re| creational activities in and around the home.
"Doing nothing at home" took
; an average of 13 hours per week, with care of home and grounds another 10
i
■ hours.
Talking to people occupied almost 9 hours per week and visiting
! friends and relatives another 5 hours. They spent over an hour a day lisi
; tening to dance music on the radio, and another hour and a half reading
I newspapers or pulp story magazines.
Motoring for pleasure took over 6
’ hours per week and religious service just half that time.
iu
I
Almost five
Eugene T. Lies, "The Leisure of a People," Recreation Survey Report.
1929, page 93.
hours per week were spent in moving picture houses*
fortune Quarterly Survey in 1938 indicated percentages
of favorite recreations as follows: listening to the radio - 18.8 per cent;
going to movies — 17*3 per cent; magazines and hooks - 13.8 per cent; hunt­
ing or fishing - 11*0 per cent; watching sports - 10*4 per cent; reading
; newspapers - 7.1 per cent; playing outdoor games — 6.6 per cent; cards, in­
door games - 5*3 per cent; legitimate theater - 3.7 per cent; all others —
3.5; dontt know - 2.5 per cent.
A higher percentage of women prefer the
first three activities, and a higher percentage of men the next four.
Al­
most 50 per cent of the favorite recreations, therefore, are home re-
1
2/
I creations*
i
i
j
In the same year Hew York City adults* 2,445 men and women,
!
2/
j according to a survey reported in Recreation magazine,
favored reading as
j
their best liked activity with radio and going to the movies closely follow-
| ing in preference*
Students between 17 and 25 years of age chose dancing,
j while those between 25 and 35 years of age chose art, interior decorating,
i
Iairplane models and photography as favorite activities.
Sports and ath-
i
J
letic contests were also popular among these students.
Men and women of
| 60 years of age favored concerts above other forms of activity. The men
1
| of this survey showed greater interest in and had more diversified hobbies
| than did the women.
Here again, the majority of preferences belong to
i
home leisure activities.
i
I
i
I
Most of the leisure-time activities of successful people ini
4/
; elude hobbies, essentially a form of home recreation*
One hundred men
| i/
Zl
i 3/
; 4/
'
Julian G-reifer, "Time to Kill,” Recreation. September 1937, page 345.
Fortune. Vol. 17, January 1938, page 88.
"World at Play, ” Recreation. May 1938, page 104.
”Leisure-time of Successful People," Sales Management. June 1, 1937,
pages 1086ff.
27
were selected at random from Who1s Who.and the large number of replies showthe author pointed out.
ed their interest in the research,/ All of them have hobbies with golf, the
favored pastime; fishing is next, painting ties with hunting, gardening and
boating for the next interest.
More than fifty different hobbies were men­
tioned, with six our of every ten involving physical activity.
Unusual hob­
bies mentioned were the study of words, collection of toy orchestras, war
manoeuvers, microscopy, Indian relics.
The author concluded that most fam­
ous men have avocations to which they apply themselves with the same whole­
hearted concentration they give to their regular work.
It is of signifi­
cance to note the number of hobbies that require but a little outlay of
money.
The surveys all seem to indicate that not enough people have hob­
bies, and they want activities including hobbles that require money.
Here,
however, it is noted that successful men have hobbies, which would bear
out the former survey findings.
Hot nearly enough research has been done
to form any kind of conclusions, but it is of merely passing interest to
note that when people have money, their hobbies do not necessarily involve
great expense.
Perhaps initiative, interest and satisfactions must be
stimulated in addition to the mere provision for opportunities for meeting
people*s desires.
One well-known woman issues a plea for needlework in the
home.
u
She believes that many women would enjoy celebrating family events
in needlework.
Even if the work is done crudely, she points out it still
will have individuality and interest.
The author has herself done a ser­
ies of needlework pictures commemorating events in the life of her cele­
brated family.
Another woman, who is a mother, tells of her hobby, which
5 J Mrs. T. Roosevelt, Jr., ”Heedlework as a Hobby,” Recreation. July 1938,
page 249.
28
j!
iconsists of keeping a moving picture record of her liirtle daughter*
She reeom-
jimends the camera as a medium to future happiness when the owner may refer to ear
her scenes and relive the days that are gone. Also, the author points out that t
ji
jgrown child, twenty years later, would enjoy the scenes of his own individual
I[growth. y
ji:
1
\
jfour
Of the 1,195 leisure-time activities in southern California of
hundred persons studied in 1933,
V four were classified as waste of time,
|j474 as pastime, 258 as hobbies, 98 as avocations, and 361 were unclassified.
bn the average of eight and a quarter hours per person per week were given to
ji
^Leisure*
The majority of the persons pursued their avocations with considerable
(regularity, and not a few had been interested in them since early childhood or
(since high school end college days.
Among the activities mentioned of primary
(interest were gardening, nature study, photography, reading, music, card-playing,
jself-improvement, domestic work, collecting stamps, etc., art, writing, work
jjshop and mechanical tinkering, visiting friends, handcraft, and radio.
These coi
jprise over half of the total list of activities, and are a part of home recreati<
Prom the standpoint of getting the most out of life, a great ©mom
bf interest is being devoted to budgets of time.
These sire as important to the
individual members of a family as are budgets of income and the expenditure of
money.
Several studies have been made, showing how certain groups spend their
spare time, affording additional information in determing the facts about home
recreation.
Five of these studies will be mentioned.
l/ S. F. Orureasko, "Train your own Cinema Star,” Parents, June 1P38, p~i
12/ Marion Flad, "Leisure-time Activities," Sociology and-Social Research,
Jan.-Feb*, 1934. pp.265-274. In the article following Miss Flad1s, Dr. Emory
S. Bogardus gives the following definitions* leisure— time remaining sifter
work hours, sleep and rest hours, and dressing and eating hours are deducted;
waste-time--"fooling around," "killing time," indecision and waiting by one
person for another; pastime— short-time diversion, indicates something by
1 which to "pass the time”; hobbies— interests to which a person devotes con­
siderable time over a period of years but irregularly with personal pleasure
the chief result; avocation--spare time activity followed regularly and ser­
iously and having recreational or other useful nature.
29
The Buffalo Becreation Survey in 1939 discovered that 50
I per cent of recreational hours of children generally was spent at home;
j 40
j
per cent of recreational hours of youth was spent at homet while 75 per
cent of the recreational hours of adults was spent at home.
Of the leisure
|time of children which is not spent at home about 75 per cent is spent in
the parks, play grounds, streets or vacant lots.
Of the older children,
or youth, the largest per cent of time away from home is spent at commerj eial entertainments furnished by the movies, dance halls, theatres, and
ipool rooms*
Half of the leisure time of adults not spent at home is spent
I
i /
!at clubs, lodges and similear gatherings*
It will be seen from these figI
[ures that a great amount of time is unaccounted for by all of the three
|groups* It is a challenge to public, private, and home agencies for reI
; creation.
!
The ordinary American city dweller has about four hours of
|
i free time on working days, twice that amount of time on Saturdays, and
Iabout 14 hours on Sundays and vacation days*
The annual free time, in-
j eluding vacations, totals 2,448 hours, of which at least 1,100 fall in the
|
! evenings*
City women and most farmers have more free time than this, but
; it is badly distributed throughout the year* These are some of the findi
2/
ings of another study of time budgets*
The author further discovered
: that much of the spare time is spent in going to movies, listening to radio
i
iprograms, playing bridge and similar popular pursuits*
|
The daily distribution of time of a group of farm home mak-
}
; 1/ Recreation Survey of Buffalo, Buffalo City Planning Association, Inc*
W. Pitkin, "The Consumer, His Nature and His Consuming Habits," 1931,
page 91*
30
ers, other rural home makers and urban home makers reveals that the amount
of leisure—time is the least for the farm home makers and most for the
1/
urban home makers*
Informal social life is least for the farm home mak­
ers and most for other rural home makers*
Urban home makers spend the most
time per day in reading, and the farm home makers the least.
Leisure ac­
tivities other than reading, social life and meetings demand the most of the
leisure—time of the urban home makers, and the least of the farm home mak­
ers*
One conclusion is that farm women are overworked*
One-fourtji of the
leisure-time of these farm women is spent in reading, and another fourth
in talking or visiting, playing cards, and similar informal recreation
with other people*
There is apparently a paucity of diversified recreation­
al interests, with opportunities of developing home leisure activities.
Of forty hours of leisure time of professional, sales and
| factory workers, male and female in a large telephone company, time schedI
I
|ules were studied* Table I gives in percentages the budgeting of leisure
|
1
I time for various activities. The major portion of each individual's leis-
2/
iure time is seen to be spent in home recreation.
Table I
Time Schedule
Professional
Sales
men
men women
women
Playing cards,games
which are sedentary
5. 6$
7.6$ 5.2$
4.6$
Parties, dancing, con­
versation, social gath­
11.4$
5*5$ 13.3$ 13.4$
erings
Radio, movies, talkies,
23.1$
7.2$ 10.4$ 23.3$
theater
32.7$ 35.6$ 31.5$
31.2$
Reading
Factory
men
women
4.5$
2.7$
8.2$
12.7$
18.5$
19.2$
17.Zp
18.3>i
One other study of time-budgets of human behavior will be
1/ H. Eheeland, Bureau of Home Economics, Yearbook of Agricoilture. 1932,
pp. 562—564. ’’Leisure of Home Makers.”
gj E*L*Thomdike, w0uir Time and What we Spend it for,1' Scientific Month! y r
pp. 466 and 467, May 1937.
u
.described.
Various activities of leisure-time and the number of cases
participating in these activities together with the average time in minutes
spent daily pursuing these activities are charted in Table II.
It will he
noted that there Is a large amount of time that is unorganized and rather
listless.
Those activities which would gain whole-hearted social approv­
al, seem to occur in the listings of hut a few individuals, and are for
the most part home recreations.
Table II
-Time Budgets of Human Behavior
Activity
Meals
Walking (preparation)
Talking
Badio
Heading (mags.,Period. )
Active Arts and Crafts
Cards
Co rre spondence
Court ing
Entertaining
Exercise
Gardening
Hobbies
Household (physical)
Idling
Indoor G-ames
Musical Activities
Phoning
Playing
Playing with Children
Heading Hooks
Heading (Unspecified)
He fre shment s
Smoking
Walking (pleasure)
With Family
Women's Indoor
Ho. of cases -particin©,tin#;
Avg.Time (Min. )
daily total srouo
3,455
2,865
1,904
1,172
1,723
42
253
181
89
154
52
93
71
2,494
1,005
44
86
168
313
68
515
314
599
386
848
43
196
2J Sorokin, Burger, 11Time—Budgets of Human Behavior
89.2
45.8
30.8
26.3
29.3
1.7
9.3
2.7
2.0
5.0
0.2
2.2
0.6
76.5
18.2
1.0
1.5
0.9
16.4
0.9
14.4
8.0
4* 6
1.7
22.2
1.4
4.8
p. 191.
32
j.
It is admitted that any generalizations based on a corapari-
I son of these studies, totally different in methodology and even in purpose,
All studies, however, appear to agree on the following
are likely to err* If -they do w p ,— it 4r& -pro^borbly -ia undeye tat eraent, -how; statements.
i ever* In general more time (about forty hours per week) than formerly is
being spent in recreational pursuits.
People are spending most of their
time reading newspapers and magazines and books, listening to the radio,
i conversing, visiting, playing sedentary games at home or working in their
1/
gardens.
They would prefer, however, to be outdoors and active by swim­
ming, playing tennis, or golf, going horseback rrding, or camping, boating,
or riding in an automobile.
These activities, both participated in and
preferred, vary with age, sex, rac6, climatic conditions, social situa­
tions, and economic status.
some of the preferences.
Individual differences doubtless account for
More than half of the activities that people
prefer to do require the assistance of some public or private agency.
Moreover, there is a large part of people*s lives that is completely fruitjless, not even reaping the benefits of quiet meditation in solitude.
This
wasted time plus the unrequited recreational desires of people appear to
jcause a recreational problem which social workers, recreational leaders,
'f
|and educators are trying to solve. One outstanding attempt a,t solution is
I
|the education of parents for home recreation. All agencies for recreation
!
are agreed as to the importance of this method of solution and each is mak­
ing contributions to that end.
1/ Supplementing the findings in this chapter are reports on recreational
activities of six families, from different locations with varied social
| and economic backgrounds. All the families are fairly well-integrated
or highly-integrated.
These families are selected to illustrate that
| there is a similarity in recreational functions in families with these
! different backgrounds and that these actual cases are typical in the ex­
tent of recreation to be found in the hoges. These reports are in
; Appendix I.
33
i
Types, Volume, and Cost of Home Hecreation
Chapter III
\
j
Another way* of determining what people do with their spar©
time is to examine pertinent statistics which indicate the extent to which
!people participate in certain activities.
This method, as indicated in
Chapter II is inadequate for various reasons, among them being the fact
;that certain recreational activities in the home can not be measured in
terms of money.
Visiting friends, informal parties, singing, playing the
piano or other musical instruments, Btinkering” around the home are ex;amples of this type of home recreation.
Chapter II indicates the amount
Iof participation in these types as expressed in surveys of leisure-time
activities.
Presented in this chapter are the latest available figures
of book and magazine circulation and amounts of money spent on home re| creational equipment, with no attempt at indicating the extent to which
books are read or equipment used.
The statistics are significant in them­
selves in that they show the direction of the consumption of home recreajtional equipment and supplies.
j
I
The volume of manufacturing increased 151 per cent from
'11899
I
to 1930, is a conclusion of the Hoover Commission.
^
This suggests
|
that people are consuming more now than they formerly did, for the output
2/
of consumers * goods is in excess of the growth of population.
Much of
I
this increase has gone for recreational goods as indicated in Chapter I.
Quite naturally this amount spent for recreation is not distributed evenly
jthroughout all income groups.
The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics
;!/ wBecent Social Trends,w Vol. II, p. 857.
\2j «The Growth of Manufactures," U.S.Bureau of the Census, Monograph VIII,
|
p. 90.
34
points out that as of 1940 families in the income level of $500 to $600
spent about $30*00 annually on recreation*
As the level of income is
raised, the amount spent on recreation correspondingly increases until
1J
families having an income of $3,000 or more spent upwards of $225 a year.
In the fovernment *s definition of recreation, cameras, radio purchases and
upkeep, purchases of newspapers and other reading matter, sport and play
equipment, and tobacco are included among home recreations.
Just as increased income changes the amount and ratio of
money spent on recreation by families in various income groups, increased
leisure changes the types of recreation ad so*
A study of the relative
proportion of the total leisure spent by different groups on each of their
eight main types of activity, namely eating, visiting, reading, public en­
tertainment, sports, radio, motoring, and club activities, reveals that as
the totalamount of leisure increases the proportion spent on eating, sports,
radio end motoring tends to decrease, while the proportion spent on visit­
ing, reading, clubs, and miscellaneous activities tends to increase.
The
proportion spent on public entertainment tends to remain constant or to
3/
fluctuate irregularly.
i
|
These facts of increased leisure causing changes in types of
j recreational activities and increased income changing the amount of money
I spent on recreation are of significance to the study of home recreation,
j for certain types of home-leisure activities are concentrated in certain
|groups of people.
Any conclusions based on a universal distribution of
Ihome recreational activities must take this fact into consideration.
For
i
|
1
i
---------
--■
1 i
-----
i,
- --
■
- r ----
~
■
i r-r
-------—
- —
t r~ ~
-
r ~
--------- --
1/ "Study of Consumer Purchases 1940" and "Consumer Expenditures in U.S.
i
National Besources Planning Board, Washington, 1939.”
i 2/ Lundberg, Komarovsky, Mclnemy, "The Amount and Uses of Leisure," Col!
urabia University Press, 1934, p. 123.
35
example, in 1936 there were 844,768 items of art materials imported into
the United States, and a duty of $148,865.00 was paid on them.
These materu
ials included supplies for artists, school students, and children.
There
|were manufacturers' sales of artistic materials in 1935 of over three and a
2/
half Million dollars to wholesalers and retailers.
Eventually this large
I
amount of art supplies, both imported and manufactured here in America
reached the individual.
How much of this amount went for recreational pur­
poses and how much went for educational or professional purposes?
If the
'thesis of some who hold that there is no difference between work and play
is accepted, then the total amount will be for recreational purposes, and
where used in public places like schools there will be a carry-over of this
skill to recreation in the home. But these conclusions are tenuous, and
the home recreational activity using art materials can best be
the extent of tfaic .particular phase-of1
-home recreation eaft boot be asoer3/
ascertained
trained/ by the lei sure-time surveys of Chapter II.
Almost sixteen million dollars ($15,733,382) was spent for
duty alone on imported antiques in 1936.
The value of these antiques is
jlargely the fictitious estimate of foreign art dealers, and it is possible
Jthat the consumers have not received the full value of their purchases.
|nevertheless, the amount of money was spent on foreign antiques by Americans
j1/
j
JS/
13/
U.S.Tariff Commission, "Inports into U.S. for Consumption by Countries for
1936,n Vol. IV, Pages 8, 147,148.
U.S.Census of Manufacturers, ''Distribution of Sales," 1935, p. 133.
It is well to note at this point that the chief statistician of a large
manufacturing concern which deals in recreational equipment for public and
j
home use estimates that there is a probable error of not more than one per
cent involving the figures to be cited in this chapter. These figures fere
|
from government documents for the most part, and where wholesale and re|
tail figures are included, the ultimate user is the household consumer.
|
The error of one per cent will include occasional sales to small public
recreational agencies or small industrial concerns.
(Chief Statistician
Eeport to investigator, June 1940. Billiard and Bowling Manufacturer. )
Additional information on request.
!«/ U.S.Tariff Commission, Vol. IV, p. 9, 136-139.
36
;either for their oim individual hobby or for use in their homes.
In addi-
<tion, Americans paid almost six and a half million do liars ($6,452,000) on
u
\domestic statuary and art goods. It is highly probable that the majority
of these purchases are included in leisure-time activities or hobbies in
! the home.
The collection of art objects and antiques is doubtless limited
!to individuals with large incomes.
Andrew Mellon, for example, had a price­
less collection, including masterpieces of art, as had also the late Edith
jBockfeller McCormick.
!
Throughout the country in October 1939, there were 23,000
2/
jbilliard and pocket billiard tables in non-commercial establishments.
These establishments are included in the category of home recreation by a
large manufacturer of billiard equipment.
They include the CCC, the Army,
Eire Departments, YMCA, Fraternal, Schools, Hospitals, Churches, Industry,
and Miscellaneous clubs, and private homes.
It is significant that home
recreation is not limited to private homes*
Any establishment that furnish­
es thiw particular recreation activity, billiards or pocket billiards, to
families or that has but one or two tables is considered to be serving home
j recreation.
Urban limitations of space, in addition to a relatively largd
j
j
investment, undoubtedly limit a wider use of this form of recreation.
Co—
i
operation of public agencies of recreation furnishing this type and the
home is advocated by a billiard manufacturer to take care of these limit ations.
5/
It is estimated that almost two million dollars per year is spent
for replacements and maintenance alone. This would suggest thait billiards
!
| is a favorite type of home recreation with many despite the expenses involv: ed.
This estimate corresponds roughly with that of the Census of Manufact-
1/ U.S.Census of Manufacturers, 1939, p. 187*
i 2/ Billiard and Bowling Manufacturer private report to investigator June
1940.
' 3/ Billiard Manufacturer recommends family participation in games of bilj
liards at public recreation agencies* It is his conviction that many
j
families are availing themselves of this opportunity in constantly in—
|
creasing numbers.
37
■ares for 1935 ($2,057,000).
Playing cards was indicated to be a form of home recreation
,by many in the surveys of leisure-time activities.
The increase in sales
of decks of cards is a significant index to the popularity of this form of
!home recreation.
In 1900 the number of packs sold was 15,551,000.
In
i
1920 the sales had more than doubled — 38,606,000. And in 1931 three times
2]
as many were sold — 49,329,000.
People spent $20,000,000 for playing
3/
cards in 1929,
and in 1937 they spent $38,967,136; in 1938 the sales had
increased still more to $40,525,673.
The cost of production has probably
decreased for inexpensive packs are now available at all w5 and 10^H stores.
‘
*'\
-“
The increased sales, therefore, probably^ly- indicate an increase in number
of playing cards sold.
Using the findings of the Fifteenth Census, nearly
everyone in America, 21 years and over, in 1930, (47,624,110) excluding
people in rural areas, spent $1.00 on playing cards.
In addition to play­
ing cards made in America, 42,311 -packs of cards were imported in 1936, and
£/
an/ import tax of $12,783.00 was paid.
1
I
Postmaster G-eneral Farley asserts that stamp collecting is
|
I /
|the number one United States hobby which interests 10,000,000 people,
I
i
|Collecting things is of general interest, with two million men?and boys
!paying $2,500,000 annually on model airplanes* There are 20,000 model
i
1
|railroad fans and_a similar number of collectors of models of ships.
■j
,
j1/United States Census Distribution of Manufacturers * Sales, p. 89.
I2/ U.S.Bureau of Internal Revenue, Annual Report of the Commission 1900i
1930.
U.S.Census of Manufacturers, 1929.
[4/ U.S.Bureau of Internal Revenue, Bureau of Comparative Statement of Intern!
al Revenue Collections, 1918-1938, p. 15.
!5/ U.S.Tariff, Vol. IV, pp. 9-76.
|6/ Fortune. ffAmerican Culture,H February 1940.
38
The articles collected are of amazing variety from Ed Wynn's collection of
hats, John Ringling's collection of nmstache cops, to Henry Ford's collect­
ion of a whole town, and the Rockefeller's reconstructed Williamsburg*
Hob­
bies will be discussed more in detail later*
People in 1935 spent over ten million dollars ($10,747,000)
i/
on guns, pistols, targets, ammunition, and toy weapons*
These are not
all used for protection, for many people include target practice in their
homes as a recreational activity*
The number of garden seed packets sold increased from
407,359 in 1922 to 622,520 in 1928, and during the fifteen years prior to
1930 thenumber
of garden clubs expanded from 13 units with 600 members, to
94 units with 7,000 members* &
In addition to this, Americans spent in
1929 $200,000,000 on flowers and shrubs*
&
Gardening is Indeed a major
|item in home recreation*
I
The
sale of liquor direct to the household consumer in 1935
j
4/
|was $6,835,000.
Beer and packaged liquors, distilled liquors, vinous
|liquors, malt liquors, and rectified and blended liquors are included in
|this figure*
When the amount of sales to wholesalers and to retailers is
!added to this figure, the total rises to $1,294,984,000 or about three
jtimes the amount of contributions to thirty-four of the largest Protestant
denominations.
1030).
(Based on 1930 figures, Recent Social Trends. Vol. II,
These figures do not include sales to customers who drink liquor
1,/ United States Census of Manufacturers, 1935, p. 141.
2/ Recent Social Trends. Vol. II, p. 982*
H Recreation. "American Expenditures" February 1933, Vol. 36, Ho. 11.
U.S.Census of Maiufacturers* Sales 1935, p. 43, 44; Census of American
Business 1933, Vol. 1 pA-3,
-17-23.
39
at taverns or hotels or night dubs, which buy direct from the manufactur­
er*
The suggested one per cent error, therefore, does not alter the con^»
elusion that consuming liquor is a favorite and expensive form of home re­
creation*
Amateur photography is the most popular of the non-collecting
robably much of this activity is indulged by the family and at home
One hundred million dollars a year is spent for cameras, films,
1/
and other equipment*
In addition to the moving picture films taken by
/
families, there is a new phase of this industry of significance to home re­
creation*
There are a number of concerns with film libraries which are
rented to homes for entertainment.
The Eastman Company is the largest
national organization of this kind, with 36 agencies throughout the country,
2/
renting films to homes*
There are no available national figures on the
extent of these rentals or the amount of money involved, for the develop­
ment is too new*
The Chicago Branch of the Eastman Company has about 2500
rentals a year, and in the region around Chicago that is not the largest
amount of rentals*
rentals —
There are at least two local organizations with larger
the IMCA Motion Picture Service and Bell & Howell Company*
The
latter concern has recognized the trend and is making elaborate plans for
the development of a film library of the latest productions*
there are over sixteen hundred titles in their rental library*
At present
See Appen­
dix II for complete list*
Badio sales declined from the high in 1929 to $500,951,000
2/
in 1930, 40 per cent less*
The amount of money spent continued to de­
ll/
d i n e to $325,532,000 in 1935,
and $133,179,244 in 1937, and $116,976,832
I 1/
j 2/
1 3/
4/
''Amateur Photography, " Fortune. February , 1940*
Personal interview, June, 1940. Appendix II.
U*S*Bureau of Internal Revenue, "Annual Report of Commissioner, 1929, 1930
U.S.Census of Manufacturers1 Sales, 1935, p. 175*
40
in 1938.
u
This decline is not alarming, for the number of radio sets
throughout America has increased with the provable conclusion that the in­
dividual cost per set has decreased and fewer families are without radios
2/
now* In 1930 there were 12,078,345 families possessing radio sets*
The
si
number increased to 16,026,630 in 1932.
By 1938, 26,000,000 of the
1/
30,000, 000 families in the United States had radios.
Approximately six
or seven million new sets are bought annually, which after discarding out­
grown radios, leaves the latest figures at 28,000,000 radio sets, or al­
most one per family.
There are in addition 6,800,000 radio sets in automo­
biles, and 10,200,000 extra sets (those not used regularly). The available
5/
audience is three times the number of radio sets*
In 1933, only 12 states
fell below the half million mark in radio store sales, notably, Arizona*
Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Mississippi, Nevada, New Mexico, South Carolina,
6/
South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, and doming*
These figures plus the fact
Ithat sixty-nine per cent of all the rural families in the country own
:!
U
jradios
suggests the reason for the conclusion on the part of some that
i
'radio is the nation's favorite pastime, and the most outstanding of home re!
8/
Icreations.
I
I
Not content with the radio as a means of furnishing enter|
(tainment in the home, America has taken to buying records for phonographs.
1
i
f
y
*
*
"
'
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
-■ ■ . ■ I l l
-
' ■
—
—
■'
"
■'
■
"
"
'
I'
■
I . -
-
■
„
■—
—
,
..
gy U.S.Internal Hevenue Bureau of Comparative Statements, 1S36-37. Internal
Bevenue Collections, 1918-38.
U.S. 15th Federal Census.
Estimate of Columbia Broadcasting Company based on U.S. Census and subse­
quent sales reports*
W Fo rtune - May 1938, p. 118.
Fortune. February 1940.
16/ U.S. Census of American Business, 1933, Vol. Ill, pp. 3-102, Table 3.
1 7 / Sales Management. Vol. 44, March 15, 1939, p. 38.
18/ Fo rtune. February 1940.
41
1,
j‘
')
!|Beth the instrument and the record sales have mounted until the record sales
! in 1940 are "greater than ever before" (to quote a statistician at Lyon
and Healy, Distributors, in Chicago)* In 1929, #75,000,000 was spent on
y
j; phonographs alone*
Since then, the tendency has been to purchase a comi:
jsbination of radio and phonograph* This new trend does not exclude the pur■f
\
\
||chase of phonographs separately, however, for there were sales of #2,107,000
l
:
in 1935 and #7,087,000 in 1937 of separate phonographs; sales of records
Iamounted to #3,705,000 in 1935 and #7,823,000 in 1937; sales of phonograph
2/
■needles amounted to #269,000 in 1935 and #583,000 in 1937*
In 1936,
!Americans imported 11,270 separate instruments and paid a duty toax of
<#26,527*
In addition, they paid an import tax of #76,367 for foreign-made
records that same year.
The study of recreation in Westchester County, New York
indicates facts about the presence of musical instruments in the home and the
number of members of the family who perform on them*
These facts are probably
typical of what goes on in the way of music in similar homes in similar com­
munities*
Some seventeen hundred school children were interviewed*
They
indicated that 64 per cent of the homes had pianos, 95 per cent had radios,
,'54 per cent had victrolas, and 44 per cent had some other instruments*
four per cent of the students had had private music instruction*
Sixty-
In 75 per
cent of the homes some member played some instrument, and in 62 per cent of
y
the homes, there was group music making*
U.S* Census b"f Manufacturers’ Sales, 19 29•
]2/ 1939 Statistical Abstract of U*S* United States Department of Commerce,
Bureau of Census, p* 827, Table 833*
Z/ U.S. Tariff Report, Yol. IY, pp* 9-38, 39
% / Lundberg, Komarovsky, and Mclnerny, "Leisure", Columbia University Press,
1934, p. 264.
42
The recently organized Chamber Music Society of the Recrea/tion Commission in Westchester County is especially important because of its
encouragement of home music*
"By providing a medium of exchange of informa­
tion as to the existence of interested individuals and groups, by providing
expert advice and a circulating library of music, and in general stimulat­
ing interest in chamber music, the Chamber Music Society should become a
1/
strong influence for the extension and improvement of home music*n
Besides the great amount of music listened to at home over
2/
the radio, 74 per cent of the total leisure-time according to some
and
5/
62 per cent according to others,
this survey of recreation revealed that
there was in addition a large amount of time spent actually playing some
musical instrument*
This fact is further evidenced in the sales of pianos
1/
and organs in 1935*
Sales direct to the household consumer were $387,000
for pianos and $288,000 for organs*
Sales to retailers who ultimately sell
to the individual at home bring the former total to over eight and threequarters million dollars, and the total for organs over one and three!quarters million dollars.
!
j
While it is difficult to conceive of the sewing machine as
|an instrument of home recreataion, nevertheless, some individuals have indi|cated it. in the surveys described in Chapter II, such as the Indianapolis
|and “Youth” Surveys, as a leisure-time activity*
Consequently in passing,
it is well to note that sewing machines sales in 1935 were almost one million and a quarter dollars*
i/
12/
|
3/
5/
Ibid,., p* 268 (See Footnote 5 on p* 8)*
G-.A.Lundbers. "The Content of Radio Programs. ” Social Forces. Sent ember
----- ------1928, pp. saleo.
C* Kirkpatrick "Report of a Research into the Attitudes and Habits of
Badio Listeners," Webb Book Publishing Company. 1933.
4/ U.S.Census of Distribution of Manufacturers* Sales, 1935.
5/ U.S.Census of Business Distribution of Mfg. Sales, 1935, p. 177.
43
A r e c e n t s tu d y (1 9 3 4 )
l!in America*
v
lists the ten fastest growing sports
Those which are predominantly home recreations are listed with
IHR following the name*
(l) Softball HR; (2) badmintohHR; ($) soccer; (4)
Isquash; (5) archery HR; (6) polo; (7) ping pong HR; (8) trap shooting; (9)
horseshoes HR; (10) tennis*
The reason for these being the fastest grow-
^1
ling of all sports is the fact that they are "playing sports" as different
jfrom"attendance games*"
jpong*
Of interest is the noticeable increase in ping
It was started in 1900 and in 1934 it was played by a million persons*
In 1933 over 20,000,000 ping pong bats were sold*
Its popularity is no
doubt explained by reason of the fact that it is practically the only game
irequiring action on the part of the participX^ants and which can be clayed
in urban apartments*
It was further indicated in the article that another
growing sport is horseshoes, whose popularity began thirty-five years ago at
a Tourists’ Club in Long Beach, California*
Today there is a National Horse­
shoe Pitchers Association, and a championship with men’s and women’s singles
and doubles, and a magazine called Barnyard Golf*
Large recreational agencies buy their
sporting goods and
equipment from the manufacturer* Hence, sales to wholesalers and retailers
as well as to the household consumer would indicate the amount of money spent
on sporting and athletic goods as a part of home recreation*
Americans in
2/
19 35 spent almost thirty-two million dollars ($31,963,000) on these items*
This corresponds roughly to other figures —
#33,791,000 from retail stores,
jand #1,524,000 from chain stores and mail order houses*
is doubtless due to items not included in the former list*
The discrepancy
Bicycles are a
part of home recreation and retail stores sold #5,056,000 in that item, and
!l/ J*R* Tunis, "Changing Trends in Sports," Harpers, December 19 34*
z/ U*S.
Census of Business,Ibid*,
p*206
2 / H*S*
Census of Business Retail Distribution,
1935,Yol* I,
pp.
2-17,23.
44
Chain and Mail Order bouses sold $893,000.
A very conservative estimate,
including the one per cent error, would be that aboujr $35,000,000 was spent
in 1935 on sporting and athletic goods, including bicycles, as phases of
home recreation*
In addition, in 1936 Americans paid an import tax of
$78,129 on equipment for exercise, play or sports, which includes baseball
1/
bats, et cetera*
Californians are America's most talkative citizens*
3/
The
average number of telephone calls per person in America in 1939 was 235
8/
(between 200 and 250)*
The top figure is found in California*
ComxttBni-
cating with friends is a favorite form of home recreation with some, the
surveys in Chapter II revealed, and these figures would substantiate the
Suggesting, in addition, that this form is of greater interest in specific locatior
statement,/ The average number of daily telephone conversations for the
same year is 73,802,000*
This figure is broken down still moo:*© into
71,200,000 daily local conversations, and the rest in toll and long distance
|conversations.
The fact that these figures apply for the greater part to
telephone conversations in the home is based on the number of telephones in
the country (16,535,804) which do not Include private trunk lines for large
!
jfirms or industries*
j
!
Closely connected with the telephone in technique and poten-
I
jtial service is television. "Londoners have television in their homes,
!
jpubs, and clubs* France has constructed an Eiffel Tower Transmitter, ex—
i
[pects to telecast to the public within a few months* Germans have telet
jvision-equipped telephone service between Berlin and Leipsi'g can ring up
I
[faces as well as voices* But in the United States where the radio industry
is private and the broadcasters have to play the game with their own chips,
caution has kept television in the laboratory experimental stage*"
1/
g/
£5/
4/
4/
U.S.Tariff 1936, Yol. IV, pp. 9-61, 63.
U*S* Census of Telephone Industry Public Utilities. March 16, 1939, p* 352*
Annual Beport of the American Telephone & Telegraph for 1939, p. 337.
"Television," Time. May 23, 1938, p. 25.
45
Television is not
:yet, it is
a significant part ofhome recreation as
true, hut it has made such
rapid strides inAmerica since the
above statement appeared that a brief survey of what is going on in the
■field is necessary at this point.
dustry $13,000,000 already, with
have taken
west.
The experimental stage has cost the inmuch
place on the east and west
more predicted. The experiments
coasts, and verylittle in the mid­
April 30, 1939 was the official starting date of television in
America, for it was then that programs were telecast from the top of the
jEmpire State Building in Hew York.
iby 25,000 sets in that area*
2/
These programs are now being received
There are thirteen other United States
broadcasting stations telecasting periodically.
These stations are large­
ly experimental, and the telecasts take place in the early morning hours.
The material telecast includes static charts, films, and occasional line
3/
in 1938
programs.
The only areas with real telecast service/were New York, Fhilec4/
in 1940
delphia, and Los Angeles,
while Chicago/has only one studio completely
equipped for television, and there are reputed to be only four television
jsets in the Chicago region.
There are several reasons for the develop-
|ment being delayed in America. The broadcasts from the NBC station atop
j
>
j the Empire State Building can be picked up only within a radius of 40 to
50 miles although the British Broadcasting Company in London has tele<
Ivised 180 miles, with 9,000 receiving sets being operated in the capital
'\
j itself.
1/
!2/
3/
i 4/
§J
This television service in England costs the BBC for three pro-
‘'Television II» Fort line. May 1939, pp. 69-74
NBC Chief Engineer's Personal Beport to Investigator, June 1940.
Time. Ibid., p. 25
"Badio Amateurs Will Attack Home Television Problem," Science News
Letter. April 21, 1938, p. 211f.
|5/ NBC Engineer *,s Beport.
6/ Mews week. May 23* 1938, p. 21.
gram hours a day more than $3,000,000 yearly*
u
It is estimated that be­
fore these telecasts can pay for themselves, there must be 400,000 tele2/
vision sets in homes in the Hew York area alone,
and it will probably
take five to ten years before this number is achieved,
“Television is
the best advertising medium yet discovered, but it is hard to see how it
can be twenty times as effective as radio, for at present it costs twenty
3/
times as much,1* The interest is growing, however, for the Q£T (American
Radio Relay League*s monthly magazine) has a circulation of 43,000 readers.
One—third of them have asked the editors of the magazine in a poll to pub­
lish material covering thoroughly the latest in television theory and practice,
“Television in the home is brought closer to reality by a market5/
able set*“
This set retails at $125*00 and receives only sight, with
the sound attachment $15,00 extra.
Radio has become in twenty years Amer­
ica's most important home recreation, and it is conceivable that televis­
ion, so closely allied to radio, will become equally important from the
progress already made.
Radio programs of tobacco companies continually urge their
audiences to smoke their brand while listening to the seductive “boogie
woogie“ music.
In that respect tobacco can be considered a part of home
recreation, although it is closely allied to all other forms of recreation
for it can be indulged in anywhere.
In 1935 over one billion dollars was
6/
spent on cigars, cigarettes, snuff, smoking and chewing tobacco*
This
figure includes the sales to wholesalers and retailers, and the probable
jlJ
|2/
13/
7/
4/
i5/
\§J
May 1939 Fortune. Ibid.
“1939 Television Year,” Business Week. December 31, 1938, pp. 17-31.
Science Hews Letter. Ibid. ) ™
.
tnr?n Fortune.
-ra'
\These footnotes should be reversed.
May 11939
Ibid.
;
Hews week. May 23, 1938, p. 21.
U.S.Census of Manufacturers' Sales 1935, p. 190, 191, 207.
47
! conclusion is that much of this was consumed at home.
The figures of sales
!direct to the household consumer for the three types (cigars, cigarettes,
j
!
|and tobacco) total over a million and a quarter. This is very definitely
Ihome recreation and is probably a very low estimate of the amount of tobacco
i
used at home as recreation.
In 1939, -Americans paid $113,800,000 for toys, games, and
|playground equipment.
u This
figure includes the purchases by recreational.
;agencies direct from the manufacturer, and is unreliable as an index to the
amount spent on toys, games, and playground equipment for the home. A much
which includes sales direct to household consumers.
2/
more exact figure is $49,348,000 in 193^C
It is pointed out in a survey
that the volume of toy sales was up ten per cent in 1939 over the previous
year.
3/
Adults as well as children have become "game conscious" and no one
seems to know why.
There is a great increase in the amount of games made
primarily for adults.
These statements explain in part the large amount of
5/
money paid for toys and games in 1939 —- $230,000,000.
Two reasons prob­
ably account for the fact that toys are now big business*
"Nuremberg, Ulm,
add Altdorf accounted for 50 per cent of all the toys sold in the United
States until the World War and increased recognition of the educational
possibilities of the play hours brought the change.
American toys are made in the United States.
Today, 95 per cent of
The majority of them express
the general idea that the pley of the child is a duplication in miniature
of the activities of adults."
§J
Juvenile items like "the real thing" were
exhibited to visiting buyers for the Christmas trade at the annual National
1/ U. S* Census of Manufacturing, 1929.
Zj TJ* S. Census of Manufacturers' Sales, 1935, p. 208.
2/ Business Week. November 4, 1939, p. 28.
4/ E. M. Kelly, "Games,11 Sales Management. Dec. 15, 1938, pp. 22-24.
5/ Letter to investigator from Toy Manufacturers of the U.S.A., Inc., June
1940, in Appendix III.
j6j "Toys are Big Business," Christian Science Monitor Weekly Magazine Section,
;
December 9, 1939, p. 8.
48
i
i
jHome Fumishings Exposition in Chicago in July, 1940. There is a greater
i
|sturdiness in construction,and a variety in design is stressed "by the mami-
|
facturers*
There is a doll buggy, for example, with various position ad-
i
iJust men ts and provided with air conditioning as well as protection from the
I
j
is
sun. To provide a new style of exercise, there / the Mwalking chair” in
jsizes
.
for adults as well as for children and babies*
1/
Despite the war and
the talk about it, less than one per cent of the toys offered in 1939 were
concerned with military subjects.
In this respect it is of interest to note
that prior to the invasion of the Lowlands, Queen Wilhelmina forbade the
manufacture of any military toys in Holland.
With the trend toward more
purposeful toys, more and more manufacturers of established business have
been taking up toys as a supplementary activity.
A tombstone company turn­
ed to making stone toy building blocks as a sideline,
pany turns out 100,000 Junior models a year*
out of scraps toy pans and kettles*
tine big oil mop com­
A big aluminum factory stamps
HThis trend has brought an element of
stability to an industry in which merchandising methods smack of the frantic.
Within ten hectic days are compressed 68 per cent of the whole year*s toy
selling* w
In keeping with the trend of large manufacturers making min­
iatures of their products for children, one producer of bowling equipment
was asked by teachers in a Kansas area to suggest something to correct the
destructive activities of small boys*
The manufacturer had his factory
turn out several small bowling sets and sent them to the schools.
The re­
sults were satisfactory in every way, the teachers reported, for the acti£/
vities of the boys were now diverted into constructive channels*
1/ **Christmas Toys Shown in July; Sturdy Articles,” Chicago Daily News.
July 8, 1940.
2j Interview between Chief Statistician for large Bowling Manufacturer and.
Investigator, June 1940.
49
The tremendous increase in American manufactures of toys
is indicated by the trend of imports from foreign countries.
In 1935,
do 11a and other toys numbered 2,336; in 1936, the number increased to 2,701,
with a further increase in 1937 to 3,240. The decline in 1938 to 1,596
i/
suggests the war situation in Europe.
In 1936, Americans paid over a
million dollars in import tariff on foreign toys, and an additional
*
2/
$61,916 on imported dice, dominoes, chessmen, and poker chips.
Toys and games are assuming a purposeful role in home re­
creation.
Their significance is further indicated by the following tables
_ .
derived from a survey of three thousand American families.
2/
Table I indi­
cates the per cent of families possessing various types of toys, while
Table II indicates the extent of play apparatus in the yard.
The seven
classes of these three thousand families are based on their socio-economic
status: (l) professional; (2) semi-professional and managerial; (3) cleri­
cal, skilled trades and retail business; (4) farmers; (5) semi-skilled oc­
cupations, minor clerical, and minor business; (6) slightly skilled trades
and other occupations requiring little training or ability; (7) day labor­
ers.
The author of this research concludes that there is a definite rela­
tion for each class of toys to the socio-economic status from class I to
class Vlli
In regard to play apparatus, there is noted again a definite
relation to socio-economic status.
All the types of play apparatus are
present in larger percentages in the upper group families than in the low­
er.
An exception is to be found only in the case of the swing, which is
more frequently found in the farming group than in any other, due probably
1/ U. S. Census - Department of Commerce - Statistical Abstract, 1939.
2/ U. S. Tariff, 1936, Vol. IV, 9-49, 56, 60.
3/ "The Young Child in the Home, “ White House Conference on Child He«1 tfr
and Protection, D. Appleton-Century Co., New York: 1936, pp. 57,61.
Tables 15 and 18.
50
h S3
c3
o r
•H <D
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cd
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cd
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cd
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cd
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♦Table 15, p. 57 f,The Young Child in the Home."
TABLE
I. - KINDS OP TOYS IN THE HOME
Sh -P
Eh
«
£1
TABLE II* - PLAY APPARATUS IN HOME YARD
u
Socio-Economic
Teeter- Sand
None or informa­
Status
Swing Slide totter
Box Otber tion omitted
I ...........
II.........
III. ..........
IV...........
V ...........
V I . .........
V II.... ......
All...........
%
%
%
12.1
10.0
7.0
8.5
5.0
3.1
2.4
7.1
46 •8 10.1
42.3
6.8
40.4 • 4.5
54.2
3.6
30.8
2.3
28.8
0.0
24.6
0.0
40.1
4.1
%
57.9
60.2
43.5
39.0
31.5
19.4
16.9
39.7
%
%
20.2
18.3
9.4
11.4
8.1
1.1
1.5
10.4
27.6
26.2
39.7
30.8
49.4
58.1
65.7
40.4
2/
TABLE III. - BOOKS IN THE HOME
Number or Books
SocioEconomic None
Status
I
.•...
%
0.4
11 •.. •. 0.7
Ill..... 5.3
IV*.... 6.9
V .... . 10.6
V I .... 24.6
VII.... 26.0
8.6
A ll....
1-25
4.2
11.4
26.9
32.7
41.1
49.2
53.5
30.5
26-50 51-100 101-250 251-500 Over Median
500
%
%
11.2
11.7
18.6
19.3
18.6
10.7
10.5
16.1
_
17.1
22.6
24.1
18.6
17.0
9.1
7.0
18.3
%
23.0
27.0
15.3
15.0 .
8.8
5.9
2.5
14.3
%
25.7
16.4
6.8
6.1
2.2
0.0
0.0
7.7
a/
18.4
10.2
3,0
1.4
1.7
0.5
0.5
4.5
/°
212
120
49
40
24
13
11
42
j
1/ Table 18, p. 61 ”The Young Child in the Home.”
2/ 11Children's Reading” White House Conference on Child Health and Protec­
tion. 1936, IIIG, pp. 15-17.
82
to urban limitations of this particular form of apparatus.
The relation
between the absence of play apparatus and socio-economic status is defin­
ite t when the last column is examined*
Toys in the home and play appara^-
tus in the yard are significant parts of home recreation, therefore.
The importance of toys and games as a part of home
tion is further indicated
by the
1J
recrea­
fact that since 1938, 38 books on how to
make and use toys have been published and 24 books on dolls.
The Cumula­
tive Book Index includes in addition over 300 book titles on games, over
half of which are to be played in the home.
Hundreds of titles appear in
the Index, having to do with recreational activities in or around the home,
such as gardening, home-made games, and home entertaining.
Writing letters has been indicated as being a form of home
recreation.
The surveys in Chapter II Indicate the extent of this phase
better than any commercial index, for the reason that stationers' supplies
include more
than ink and paper,
send all studies do not break thelarge
heading into
minor ones. It is known, however, that in 1935 over two end
2/
a half million dollars was spent on writing ink for the use in homes. In
1936 over a million pounds of writing paper of various kinds were imported
into America, and an import tax was paid of over three hundred thousand dollars.
5/
A rather suggestive figure of $5.00 a year per college student
for stationery was arrived at as a further indication of the extent of let—
±/
ter writing as a form of home recreation.
Reading is the nation's third ranking favorite pastime.
1/ Ibid.
3/ U. S. Census of Manufacturers, 1935, p. 113.
«/ Investigator averaged reports of 25 collegiate acquaintances.
ure is of rough significance only in collegiate circles.
3/ U. S. Tariff, 1936, pp. 4-72; 2-77.
5/ Fortune. "American Culture,11 February 1940.
SJ
This fig­
53
The surveys mentioned in Chapter II further substantiate the fact that
Americans spend a great deal of time and money reading newspapers, magazines
and periodicals, and books#
This constitutes a major phase of home recreation,
for all peoplp, young and old, enjoy reading.
The weekday morning cir­
culation of newspapers is 15,000,000, and the evening circulation is
25,000,000#
y
lated#
Thirty million copies of the Sunday morning papers are circu-
There are 20 magazines with circulations of over a million, and
all magazines, including 150 pulp magazines, have a circulation of 55,000,000#
There are 200,000,000 books printed every year and 404,000,000 circulated by
public libraries annually#
Additional emphasis is given the importance of
reading in home recreation by the following statements:
Recently the
Library Journal brought out that between 1929 and 1933 reading had practically
z/
doubled the previous use of public libraries#
"There are more books inmore
homes than ever before, and an average American family buys ten books a
y
year#"
y
Over #400,000,000 is spent annually on newspapers.
It was in­
dicated further in the study in which that statement occurred that the total
circulation for fourteen children1s magazines was 2,094,578 or one for every
17 boys and girls under fifteen#
In 19 28 one-seventh of the total number
of books published were for children#
Children are being served better now
in regard to their reading desires, for school libraries of three thousand
1/ W#W# Ayers & Son directory, 1940, pT 11#
"Challenge of Leisure," p# 186#
^
"%/ "Children1s Reading," White House Conference on Child Health
1936, III G., pp. 15-177
A/ Recreation, February 1933* Vol# 36, Wo# 11
Protection,
54
1/
;volumes or more have grown, from 947 in 1923 to 1,982 in 1929.
Over half
i
of the American children, in the age range covered in a report previously
referred to, grow up in homes in which there are fewer than fifty hooks,
and three-fourths of them come from homes in which there are fewer than
2/
one hundred hooks.
The deficiency is prohahly mdde up hy library cirp. 51
dilations and magazines. Table III/indicates the number of books in 3000
3/
homes of the various families of 'specified socio-economic classes.
A n book stores, including chain stores and mail order houses, sold over $67,000,000 worth of books in 1935.
1/
In 1936 Americans paid
|over a million and a quarter dollars as import duty on books and pamphlets,
printed, for the most part, in languages other than English.
Newspapers,
periodicals, and fashion magazines took an additional $576,99S2from Americans as import taxes.
These cold statistics tend to lose significance by mere
I
Ienumeration in their relation to home recreation. Considered in another
I
i
(way, their significance is enhanced. Each family in America spends on the
!
(average over $13.00 annually for newspapers alone, and over $2.00 on books
I
land over $2.00 on magazines in addition. The Fifteenth United States Cenj
!
|sus lists 122,775,046 people in America. Each man, woman, and child in
I
jAmerica, therefore, spends over $3.00 a year on newspapers. This figure
Iis in addition to the services of libraries.
i
The “Power of the Press*1
|is more readily understood in the light of these figures.
]
j
§/
!l'/ Re cent SociajT Trends. Vol. II. p p . 788ff.
-■■■■-■
*2f “The Young Child in the Home,*1 White HouseConference.1936.Ill B,pp.55 & 56.
13/ “The Young Child in the Home,11 III B White Hse.Cpnf.on Child Health and
|
Protection, 1936, Table 14, p. 55.
i4/ U.S.Census of Business, 1939, detail Distribution Vol. I, pp. 2-17.
5/ U.S.Tariff, 1936, Vol. IV, pp. 9-67,70,71.
The magasine and periodical statistics are taken from Ullrich Periodical
! Directory, 1938, and N.W.Ayers & Son Directory, 1940. The book infoxma! tion from Federal Emergency Booklet on “Bibliography of Hobbies," 1935.
j
Every activity has "been considered to he a hobhy by someone
!a* some time.
This fact is recognized by reviewing some of the suggestions
for hobbies appearing in various sources, such as "Care and Feeding of
Hobby Horses," by Ernest Elmo Calkins and "Community Recreation" by G-eorge
iD* Butler.
To meet the problem of the worthy use of leisure, the Leisure
League of America has been established.
Its purpose is to suggest things
individuals can do in their leisure time and to aid them to find things
they like best*
Booklets from 25,000 to 27,000 words have been made avail­
able, and in June, 1940 there were thirty—five booklets and new titles
were to appear.
2J
There are nineramonthly magazines, notably Hobbies. Fo-pular
Mechanics, Hotarian. Outdoor Life. He creation. Scholastic. School Arts
Magazine. Industrial Arts and Vocational Education, and Nature. whose comgeneral
bined circulation is 1,384,308, treating/hobby activities and crafts.
The Federal Government published a bibliography on hobbies
in 1935.
one.
It includes 112 hobbies, with the names of books, treating each
The following table lists all hobbies mentioned with the number of
books on each title. Following the number of books are the number of perI
Iiodieals or magazines on each type of hobby, with the circulation figure
|wherever possible.
As has been suggested before, it is sometimes diffi-
j
|cult to differentiate between what is a hobby or recreation for one and
i^diat is a business or profession to others. Undoubtedly many subscribe
I
jto some of these magazines or buy the books suggested for professional
:reasons, but, nevertheless, the fact remains that these figures represent
readers, and reading is one of the major home recreations.
suggested by the following facts in Table IV.
' I T See Appendix IV for titles of Booklets.
Its extent is
56
Besides these hundreds of hooks and magazines on hobbies,
read by over five million people each month, thousands of fiction and non­
fiction titles appear each month also, affording home recreation for at
least as many again.
Newspapers and periodicals of general interest in­
crease the number of monthly readers still further*
of America*s major leisure-time activities*
Beading is indeed one
And of greqfc significance is
the fact that listening to the radio, America*s number one recreational
activities, in addition to reading are home recreations*
Figures of radio
sales, and estimates of radio audiences, periodical and newspaper circu­
lation figures, and figures of book sales, corroborate the findings of the
recreational surveys mentioned in Chapter II, in their disclosure that lis­
tening to the radio and reading were two of the most important recreational
pursuits*
And these are but two of the leisure—time activities participa­
ted in at home* The amounts of money spent on other forms would seem to
i
suggest that the recreational function of the family and home environment
is a need and not simply a waste of time*
From the figures cited in this
j
chapter, it is estimated that Americans spend about four billion dollars on
!the following home recreational activities *
: art, antiques and statuaxy,
j
j billiards, playing cards, model aircraft, guns and target equipment, gardening,
J liquor,
photography, phonographs and records, pianos and organs, radio, sew-
I
[xng, home sports, television, tobacco, toys, correspondence, books and news!
Ipapers* These do not include all home recreational activities but are only those
-
where figures could be given with any amount of reasonable accuracy.
57
TABLE IV. - HOBBY LITERATURE
No . or No# of Periodicals Combined
and Magazines
Circulation
Books
Hobby
Antlcmes
Ar ch.er'Y# •••••••••••••••#
Apt #••••*••**•••*••♦••#•
Astronomy#•••>•••••••••#
Autographs #••••••••«•••#
Basketpy.
Batik#••••••••••••#•#••#
Beadwork# •••••••••••••#•
Bedspreads#•••••••#••#•#
Bee Culture••••••••••###
Bird Houses# #••••«•••••#
Blacksmitb-inp** •••••••••#
Block Printing#••«••••##
Blue Printing#••••«••••#
iBoat Buildine:. ••••■••••#
Bookbinding#••••••••••••
Book Collecting#••••••••
B o tanv *••••••••••«••#•••
Cards, Checkers, Chess# •
1Camr>ine:
Cl ay Modelling#«•••••■•#
ICnl T’s and Medals ••••••••
0 T o clr M sLkiin£?**•••••••*•«
Danciilff. ............ .
TH all Gardens •••••#•••###
Bolls ........... .
Drawing.
"Flncyravl n?*
"Rnbent ain.in.ff• »>»••«•••••
"Rmdno 1d Arv. ••••••••«•••#
'Pelt Wo3?k» ••*«•«••••••••
Ti’AnAiTiP'..... ......... .
TP*!n cpr Pni ntinff
TPi g>Vi On Itnre «•■••••«##••
Ti1!rnrjpr1
*■««••••••
TPl nwAT’ BVlows •>•••••••■•#
rio-m Gnl 1Afitins. * •• m•• •••
acioware China
ttq-rt'h Hni 1 A
TIP"#>*«•«••»
8
3
4
5
3
10
4
3
1
2
4
3
3
3
3
2
3
6
2
6
5
4
4
4
3
5
9
3
3
10
4
3
3
2
4
4
1
1
6
5
3
3
2
5
1
37,112
5,000
3
1
12,150
4
15,643
• *•
1
4
9
16
3
1
•#
2
1
1
*•
3
••
•«
4
••
••
•*
2
2
•*
••
••
1
1
3
2
1
••*
• •*
• ♦•
15,038
9,000
# ••
• *•
• *•
• ••
7,401
• •#
# •«
• ••
5,605
••*
• •*
869,708
• ••
• ••
66,805
7,100
••«
# •*
# •*
• ••
• ••
• ••
58
T A B L E
N o * of*
B o o k s
H o b b y
H
H
H
H
I
I
J
K
K
K
T
L
L
L
L
L
L
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
X V
I
o
o
o
c
k i n s * • • • • *
b b i e s * # * # #
m e M e c h a n i
m e a n d G a r
e B o a t s • • •
n d i a n R e l i c
e w e l r r . • • * #
i t e M a k i n g *
n i t t i n g ! * * • •
n o t s • • • • • • •
, a c e M a k i n g *
a r r m S h a d e s *
a n d s c a n i n s *
a n t e r n M a k i
e a t h e r W o r k
e t t e r i
< *
i n o l e u m B l o
i n g ! - . . . . * *
q 0 * 1 C * a * * # * #
a p S * « • * • # • #
a s k M a k i n g •
a t c h B o x C o
e t a l W o r k * .
I 0 T » 0 S C O T W * a
l n e r a l S a a a a
l n i a t n r e s * *
o d e l M a k i n g
o t h s , B u t t e
• # •
• # #
c s *
d e n
• # •
s * *
* # *
# * *
* • *
. . .
i n g
« • •
• # •
* * *
7
4
# * * •
* • * *
. . • •
* • . •
• • • *
• • • •
* • * •
5
9 •
# # • • • * • • • •
• • • • • * • « • *
# • * # • # * • ■ •
* * . . . * * * * *
* • • * • * • • • •
n g * * • « • • • #
* • • • « • • • • •
* * • * # • • • • •
c k P r i n t ­
* * « • • * • • • •
# a * a # a * « * *
# # * # # • • • • •
• • • • • • • * * «
v e r s * • • a a •
* * • • • # * • « •
a « * a * * * * « *
a * * * * # # * * *
* * * * * * « « * »
* • • • • • • • « ♦
r f * 3 . 1 e s * « • •
O l d P r i n t s * . . . . . . . . . . *
N e e d l e w o r k * * * * # * • • * • * •
PflTlftl’ 1 / V 0 r k - a a a a a a a a a a *
-
N o .
C O N T I N U E D
o r P e r i o d i c a l s
a n d M a g a z i n e s
C o m b i n e d
C i r c u l a t i o n
6
3
2 4
1 1 9 , 2 6 5
1 0 4 , 3 1 0
4 , 3 7 6 , 7 9 6
2
7
3
3
2
4
4
5
3
1
7
7
5
•
•
' 1 0
7
4
2
1 4
5
3
2
8
4
1 3
2
7
8
P I a c it e n C a s t i n g a * a * * • •
Posters*aaaaaa*aaa*«a*
P o tte n v - aa.aa«aaaaaa>a
P o ll 1 t n V a a a a a a a a a a # * * * *
P n n n p t Show s* * * * # • • • • *
2
4
4
4
1 1
• •
2
2
4
• •
• *
• •
4
1
• •
• •
2
6
• •
• •
• *
• •
3
•
*
«
•
*
•
•
•
«
•
•
•
«
•
•
*
•
•
•
•
•
«
1 *hi
7 3 ^ .
*
*
1
7
4
0 • 0
• • •
0 * 0
0 * 0
0 * 9
0 * 9
4 2 0 * 9 3 5
0 * 9
0 * 0
0 * 9
0 * 0
3 1 3 , 7 3 1
•
•
*
•
a•
• •
aa
a•
463,694
a
•
•
«
2
•
*
•
•
2
t
*
• *
t » •
• * *
• • *
4
7
4
Oil i
•
• * •
• * *
• • •
P h ot o
a r t h v * * * a * * * # • • •
P I o t u n e F r a m i n g . • • # # * •
'P v r * r > n c fY *P i T iV Y V «
• * •
♦
*
•
♦
7
0 9 9
0
9
*
4 8 8 , 9 2 3
58a
TABLE IV - CONTINUED
Hobby
Hug Making*. •..........
Sand Modelling*••••«••*
Science, Exp- *.......
Scrap Book. • ••....... .
Sculpturing (soap)*••.•
Severing...... .*..... • ••
Sboemaking *•••••......
Skating*
Sports••••..*...•••*•••
Stage CraPt *.... ••••••
Stamps • . . ............ • •
Stenciling*•••••••••••*
Telescope *........ • • ••
Tennis ........ .
Toys .............. .
CTpbolstery.............
Weaving* ••• •.... ..*•••
Whittling* ............ .
Woodblock Printing*....
Wood Carving*..... •••*
Woodworking*..... . ... •
No • of* No. or Periodicals Combined
Books
and Magazines
Circulation
4
2
2
1
1
6
2
5
4
8
5
4
4
4
13
4
6
1
4
4
17
7
••
♦*
«*
••
••
«•
3
1
4
4
10
•*
••
3
3
2
•#
•*
••
••
1
*•
• ••
• ••
• ••
• ••
• **
4,000
• ••
•* *
85,290
• *•
• **
• ••
• ••
6,592
• ••
• ••
• ••
• ♦•
•••
59
delation of* Public Recreation, to Home Recreation*
Chapter 17
Many correlations have been made of causal association beu
tween recreation and reduced delinquency and crime, increased health and
improved character*
Caution must certainly be exercised in these general­
izations, however, for each local situation contains such a multiplicity
of varied forces and factors that to assert that an isolated factor caus­
es changes tends to oversimplify*
But it is these very forces and factors
which include recreation that make it of such great concern.
As previous­
ly mentioned, there is relation between recreation and other institutions;
and recreation does make a contribution to other major human interests and
forces*
It enriches the lives of individuals and this quite naturally re­
sults in by-products of community benefits.
Society Is therefore concerned
with the arrangements for the constructive use of increased leisure.
Re­
creation or leisure-time activity is somehow connected with the welfare of
the community, and the general experience has been that under these circum­
stances, government intervenes, as well as industry, business, the home,
and social agencies*
Recreation, besides contributing to the health and Joy of the
|individual may also be considered as being an expression of the individual's
|inherent health and Joy.
There does seem to be some connection at any rate,
jand this inproved individual well-being tends to ameliorate community difi
Iferences. Recreation affords an opportunity for everyone to participate
i
jand this common ground affords a democratic solution to differences, which
?
!might arise from varying economic status, race, social position or cultural
I
background in the community. All surveys of recreational interests, which
1/ For 'information concerning juvenile delinquency and recreation, consult a
bibliography of Thirty-Seven Studies of Juvenile Delinquency, compiled by
1
Lee P. Hammer of the Recreation Dept, of the Russell Sage Foundation and
mimeographed by the N a t 1!. Rec. Assn., March 1933, Bulletin No. 2856.
60
will be dealt with at length in a later chapter, seem to indicate a need
for better provisions for recreation*
The individuals when left to them­
selves frequently are unable to provide the types of recreation that they
really desire*
The public is concerned at this point*
The term "public
recreation*1 means those agencies developed and supported by public funds*
These agencies would include parks, playgrounds, public municipal recrea­
tion, libraries, museums, schools, botanical and zoological esdaibits, etc*
In the last twenty-five years there has been a decided tendency to accept
recreation as a public function both in the matter of providing education
for recreation facilities and leadership*
Just as education has become
accepted as a public responsibility, so such functions as public health
measures, state care of defectives, care of dependents, the aged and unem­
ployed, and public recreation are becoming more and more to be considered
necessary functions of the Estate and the national government*
The line separating the right of the individual to provide
his
ownrecreational interests and the duty of society to provide them for
him is very narrow in places and broad in others*
It is narrow when the
conditioning influence of the family environment on the individual is bene­
ficial, and it is broad where there is a recognized need for group partici­
pation or where the envii'onment is Judged inimical to the best interests of
the individual or group*
|
It appears that there are many agencies, private,
~
Ipublic, and those which are concerned only with making a profit, which step
in to provide recreational activities for the individual*
These apply to
all phases of recreation which concern only the individual as well as those
|of community interest*
i
|
When these outside agencies deal with the kinds
of recreation
|the
as the set-
individual enjoys, the home loses much of its significance
61
ting for recreation*
There has "been a great deal of concern over this sep—
aration,, with, the result that there is now a tendency* for the public and
private agencies providing recreation to co-operate more with the home.
This dialectic process of the theoretical need for lifting recreation from
the home, which was the original setting for it, putting it in the hands of
public administrators and latterly working for more co-operation between
outside agencies and the home, seems to express the histozy of recreation
with the present stage the last one —
the synthesis.
This need for more working together of the outside agencies
and the home is expressed in a report on Recreational Facilities and Acti­
vities of the Chicago Park District, made by L. H. Weir of the National Re­
creation Association in July 1938.
He states that the family is a basic
social unit, and that this unity is being interrupted by industry, commer­
cialized recreation, and by education itself.
It behooves recreation man­
agers, neighborhood organizers, and higher officials to view the family as
the best possible training ground for the development of the social vir­
tues, which later make for neighborliness in the social group —
borhood and the city itself.
the neigh­
This is accomplished by a closer relation­
ship between home recreation and public recreation.
The Superintendent of Parks and Recreation in Fresno, Cali­
fornia, and the Recreation Committee of the District of Columbia at Wash­
ington voice similar opinions.
The former feels it is his responsibility
to promote home play, for Hthe family is the nation*s first unit of organ­
ization —
also its safety.
Therefore the type of recreation that knits
Ithis group into a closer unit is not only building a family, but stabiliz1
u
i ing a nation.11
He recommends gardening with suggestions for its plan!
ii/ Raymond Qpigley, **A Recreation Executive Considers Recreation in the Home11
i Recreation. February 1937, page 546.
62
aing and equipment.
He mentions numerous recreational activities to "be
enjoyed by all members of the family such as handicraft, collecting things,
reading, music.
minded.H
He recommends that the community become "home-re creation
The Washington official sees puppetry as a means of integrating
families with the community.
Many authorities believe that a better integrated and uni­
fied social life can be secured only through the better in­
tegration and unification of family life. This means that
the home nrust again become the center for certain phases of
the recreational life of the family. Consideration must
then be given to the development of a community interest
among the members of the family. Recreational activities
rich in cumulative interest and appealing to various age
levels and varying types of ability are ideally adapted to
this purpose. Herein lies one value of puppetry as a family
activity. u
The present chapter will explore the extent of this rela­
tionship between home re creation end public agencies for recreation.
The
following chapter will discuss those phases of commercialized recreation,
which directly affect home recreation.
It will point out the private agen­
cies for recreation, which also are concerned with home recreation.
The
magazines, periodicals, and documents which assist home recreation will
be mentioned*
That the Federal Government is concerned with the importance
of home recreation is evidenced by the reports of the White House Conference
which stressed throughout that the home cannot turn over entirely to the
school or the community that heritage which is the birthright of every in­
dividual.
Ho community institution, especially in the life of the very
young, can take the place of the home as a center for play*
Section VII
of the Children's Charter requires "For every child a dwelling place safe,
sanitary, and wholesome, with reasonable provisions for privacy, free from
1/ Kate 0. Hall, "Why Hot Puppets in the Home"? Recreation^ December 1936.
63
■conditions which tend to thwart his development; and a home environment
harmonious and enriching.”
The home must provide a spirit of play.
Ho
home can have a harmonious environment unless it provides recreation suit­
able for the child*s age and interests.
In 1937 11approximately thirty-five units scattered through­
out twelve departments of the Federal government were engaged in promoting
sixty to seventy separate programs affecting the citizens' use of leisure
time.”
1/
Home recreation is the concern of many of these programs.
The
Department of Agriculture, for example, through its Agriculture and Home
Economics Division and its Extension Service, reaches thousands of homes
with pamphlets, publications, and surveys on Home Eecreation.
The Civilian Conservation Corps' work program in the nation­
al parks and also in state parks and reservations has added to home re­
creation by its construction of camps, cabins, and picnic sites for family
2/
uses.
The Jfoung men in the CCC have in turn been provided with certain
aspects of home recreation through a corps of trained advisers in music,
amateur dramatics, minstrel shows, and an extensive variety of hobbies and
craft projects.
Between 1933 and 1939 the Leisure-time Division of the Works
Progress Administration reached a greater number of people in a wider range
of activities than any other Federal Agency.
directly concerned with home recreation.
Many of these activities are
The units of the VSPA whose func­
tion is to remake and repair toys and games are closely connected with home
i
|l/ Eeport of the Technical Committee on Recreation, Interdepartmental Comj
mittee to Co-ordinate Health and Welfare Activities, 1937*
2J The 9,848 tourist camps listed in the Bureau of the Census of 1933 were
visited two times as frequently in 1935 (Forest Outings by B-ussell Lord,
? U.S.Dept, of Agriculture, Forest Service 1940).
64
recreation,
The extent to which those units which introduce music, natxire,
crafts, arts, and drama activities, are connected with home recreation is
difficult to determine.
But the fact that the instruction which indivi­
duals receive in WPA classes carries over to the leisure time in the home
and affords recreation to the participants is ohvious from the evidence*
This evidence is seen in art and hobby shows sponsored by the WPA, for ex­
ample, where people bring the results of their efforts for exhibition.
Many
of these exhibits are made at home although the WPA classes had been ati/
tended long before*
The Recreational Units of the WPA in many cities are conduct­
ing **tot-lotsu on empty back lots*
When a building is torn down, WPA work­
ers level off the ground and a neighborhood center results for the pre­
school children generally* These are also conducted on empty lots and quite
frequently are enjoyed by the mothers of the children as well.
The tot-
lots are used until the lot is reclaimed by new owners*
The Chicago Recreation Commission in one of
its recommenda­
tions based on its exhaustive Survey, recognizes the necessity of yearround morning use of public play facilities, particularly for the benefit
of smaller children.
It points out the wisdom of extending the morning
use of these facilities in areas where the need seems greatest.
The com­
mission doubtless has in view more extensive home play and is making this
recommendation accordingly*
u
During the week ending February 18, 1939, social recreation in all WPA
Recreational Projects coneamadd nearly 4,800,000 hours* Two-thirds of
the time was spent in indulging in game room activities, such as cards,
games, special events like pet and fashion shows. Arts and crafts took
over a million and a half hours in addition; music over three-quarters
of a million hours and children*s play center over one-quarter of a mil­
lion hours. These are all closely allied to home recreation. (Community
Recreational Programs - a study of WPA Recreational Projects, Federal
Works Agency, February 1940* )
2/ ”Toy Loan Centers,” Recreation. October 1938, page 388.
65
The National Youth. Administration functions in a similar
iray to make for closer relations "between public and home recreation*
They
occasionally have cleared vacant lots for recreation areas, made various
types of recreation equipment, and repaired toys
for distribution to
needy children*
For example: the WPA and HYA are two of the co-operating
v
groups administering a Toy Loan Center in Los Angeles County, California.
This was first established in January 1936 in a garage.
1938 there were forty branches.
By the end of
This organization includes a centralized
office for control and administration and a departmentalized workshoppwhere
used toys are repaired and new ones manufactured*
The purpose is to sup­
ply the needs of boys and girls between the ages of two and sixteen.
Lur­
ing the twelve months of 1937, 20,451, toys, dolls, and games were repair­
ed, and the number of toys on hand in December 1937 was 17,389*
There is
now a training school for new "toyrarians.” Any girl may choose a doll
and take it home with her on probation.
At the end of each two weeks*
period for six weeks, the girl must return withhher doll.
If it has been
properly cared for, the child becomes the legal guardian of the doll and
receives an adoption paper similar to a legal document of adoption.
Dur­
ing 1936 and 1937, 1,871 dolls were adopted.
Other federal agencies also affect indirectly home recre­
ation,
The Bureau of Biological Survey in its efforts to conserve and pro­
tect nature, afford facilities for picnicking and camping.
The Children's
bureau, a division of the United States Department of Labor, publishes lit­
erature on games and recreation programs, as for example the publication
i)f Ho. 238, which is entitled Home Play and Play Eouinment for the Pre­
school Child, containing excellent advice on playing, parties, and direct­
ly "Toy Loan Centers,” Recreation. October 1938, page 388.
66
U
ions for making various play equipment for home use.
The Office of EduUnited State Federal Security Agency
cation, a-bureau nf t.Vio TT-ni-h^ Si-.n-hftq Depa-rffi»ftr>-h flf t.ViA Tni-.ayi‘Qr| pro­
motes recreation in a great variety of forms, and where it encourages
school authorities to emphasize play, art, library and crafts service, it
directly assists home recreation.
It issues pamphlets also, as for ex­
ample, pamphlet No. 51, Some Educational Activities for the Young Child in
the Home, which encourages recreation in the home.
The United States Hous­
ing Authority recognizes the importance of recreation in housing projects
and has established play areas and facilities in their developments.
It is evident that federal agencies are concerned with the
recreation of the people, and that they are making varied and valuable con­
tributions to that aspect in the lives of individuals.
In many instances
there is direct relationship with home recreation either by education or by
provision of play equipment for the home.
With equal reason, it is safe to assert that the state gov­
ernments are giving consideration to the wholae field of recreation, and that
frequently their efforts affect that part which centers around the home and
family life.
State properties such as forests, reservations, or game pre­
serves are the scenes of family gatherings*
In many states there are pro­
visions for trailer camps, which supply recreation as well as physical
needs.
Alarmists have pointed to the great numbers of families which have
pulled up stakes in cities and have now made their homes in cramped quar­
ters behind automobiles in trailers.
Certain states have set aside sec­
tions for these transients, notably Florida, New York, and California.
Of great importance is the euployment of recreation special­
ists by the extension departments of state agricultural colleges.
1] Copy in Appendix V.
In 1938
67
there were such workers in sixteen states, who were working toward a more
enriched recreational life of people in rural districts*
Pifty-three
agricultural colleges have extension "bulletins, which directly touch on
rural recreation*
As examples of this latter type two circulars are
quoted:
*** recreation furnishes a change from the daily occupation
which at £he same time enhances the mental, moral, and spir­
itual tone* *•» the quality of the home life ..* very large­
ly determines the personal habits which make up the character
of the individuals* ••• if parents fail to participate in
the active life of their children, their influence declines
as the years go by, but when parents deliberately cultivate
all interests which young and old can share, mutual affect­
ion, respect, and confidence will grow .*• During 1931 an
average expenditure of between $20*00 and $30*00 was spent
by families of four members as shown by family living costs
• •* let us look at the price tag and Judge carefully the
quality of recreation we buy in 1933* Emphasis on the econ­
omic value of home production applies to recreation as well
as to food* 1/
(this circular has been prepared to meet the requests of
rural parents, who having recognized the need for providing
wholesome play conditions for their children, desire to
equip their yards for constructive play activities*) •••
the importance of play in the life of the growing child is
recognized by all those who have any understanding of how
children grow and develop •*• play is doing a thing be­
cause we have developed an attitude toward that activity
which makes us derive satisfaction in the mere doing it ***
a place to play, materials and tools with which to play,
the time for play, and suitable adult guidance are essential
to the proper conduct of the business of play* 2/
Following this philosophical discussion are eleven pages of
each of the essentials for home play for children*
The bulletins issued by these fifty-three agricultural col­
leges are listed in the Agricultural Index*
In this index appear titles
1/ Extension Circular #5593, University of Nebraska Agriculture College and
U* S. Department of Agriculture Co-operating.
2/ BUD.#414, ^Home Play Yard and Homemade Play Equipment,” Office of State
|
Home Demonstration Leader, College of Agriculture, Berkeley, California.
;
63
j
j
jof 'bulletins and circulars issued by sixty-two University Experimental
’Stations and seventeen State Agricultural Departments.
This totals one
Ihundred thirty-two organizations issuing information on home recreation
Iin its various phases particularly in rural areas.
This information does
j
jnot appear in each issue in all documents, but it is suggestive of the
i
wide concern on this subject* Also indexed are thirty—two American prij
Ivate periodicals, and eighty-eight publishers who issue books on home recreation.
j
There are doubtless more documents and periodicals that deal
with rural home recreation, but these figures represent only the most
frequent issues.
On examination the following represent the types of subjects
indexed in the Agricultural Index, which are treated in the periodicals of
the above-mentioned organizations and publishers: entertaining, afternoon
tea, children*s parties, dinners and dining, games, hallowe*en, luncheons,
picnics, table decoration, home economics, house decoration, handicraft,
needlework, radio broadcasting, home demonstration work and clubs, recrea^tion rooms, athletics, landscape gardening, garden clubs and children*s
|garden clubs, garden gadgets, garden houses, garden ornaments and furni­
ture, garden pools, gardening, window gardening, house plants, miniature
rock and Chinese gardens, back yards, hobbies, collectors and collecting,
architecture,
arohiture^ art, antiques, sports, samplers, glassware, pets, children.
In Minnesota the state-wide recreation program has estab-lished craft units in several rural counties*
it
The members are encouraged
j to furnish the equipment by using old or discarded materials found in their
i
iown homes. This procedure of encouraging home recreation by State pro\
!grams doubtless goes on in other states.
!
69
Extensive as the efforts of federal and state agencies are
in directing the recreational aspects of the life of the people, yet the
recreational programs sponsored by local municipal direction are far more
varied, frequent, and personal*
On extended week-ends or holidays the
pleasure-seeking family benefits from the use of state and federal recrea^tion«
Municipal recreation facilities are nearer the homes of the indivi­
duals, and are able to effect closer relations with the homes*
Parks, re­
creation departments, schools, libraries, and museums have extensive pro­
grams of caring for leisure—time*
There is a close relationship between
these public agencies and home recreation as will be seen from the follow­
ing instances*
”Play together and Stay together in your own Backyard” was
the slogan of the Seattle Council of Pre-school Associations and the Board
of Park Commissioners when it initiated the backyard playground movement in
Seattle, Washington in 1929*
contest.
At that time 368 yards were entered in the
In 1933, 3,502 backyards contested for honors, end April was pro­
claimed as Backyards Playground Month*
Open house was held in various
prize-winning yards for two consecutive days so that Seattle citizens
might inspect them*
This movement has gained favor in other cities as well.
In St* Louis the contest was extended not only to back yards but to the
neighborhood playgrounds (vacant lots), and to apartment house grounds*
In Elmira, Hew York, the contest was limited to the selection of the back­
yard best planned and equipped for recreation*
The Los
Angeles
Playground
and Becreation Department and the local Parent Teachers Association also
i sponsor contests as part of the backyard playground movement. ^
j
|1/ ”Play Together and Stay Together in your own Backyard,” Becreation.
I
October 1934, p* 315.
70
Hobbies round out the life of an individual as well as a re­
creational program*
They fit into that niche where education and recrea­
tion meet and cannot well be classified solely in either category*
A
hobby may be pursued on an individual^ own or in groups or dubs*
The
latter organization offers the stimulus of comparison and competition and
exhibition*
creation.
Hence hobbies are part of home recreation and also public re­
Most park departments and recreational departments and schools
now are offering programs of hobby training*
An individual frequently
receives the impetus for a hobby from the local public recreational agency
and continues to pursue it at his leisure in his home*
relation of public and home recreation*
and crafts*
Here is an obvious
This is also the ease with arts
Instruction takes place in the public agency and then skill
is developed at home*
Mr. Joy Elmer Morgan in the Journal of the National Educa­
tion Association for October 1928 declares that the school can help to
"enrich leisure. ** Of the nine ways of helping, six have specific refer­
ence to home recreation including hobbies*
That this program has $een put
into effect is evidenced from the following quotations:
Many public schools that can afford to do so have already
begun to meet the leisure problem. They have encouraged
manual training, handicrafts, and science of a sort, all
leading directly toward the development of creative mechani­
cal hobbies. They have encouraged music and art, looking
toward the foundations of a truer appreciation, and at the
same time, developing talents of individual expression. 1/
These musical interests and activities carry back (from
schools) into the homes. Mothers brush up their music to
play accompaniments for their children* family quartets and
orchestras are formed, and family songfests are still known.
£/
1/ Arthur N. Pack, "The Challenge of Leisure,” Macmillan 1934, page 214.
2/ "Sports* carry-over* in the Home Becreation Program,” W. A. Kearns,
Recreation. October 1937, page 427
Social Work Year Book, 1939, page 367.
71
In the summer of 1934 the Extension Department of the Mil­
waukee public schools made an experiment in teaching chess to boys and
girls between the ages of 8 and 23, with the result that 900 boys and
girls were instructed#
Here again as in the case of hobbies and arts and
crafts, is a marginal recreational interest*
Instruction by a public
agency prepares the children to practice the game on their own at home*
A special bulletin of the Superintendent of the Los Angeles
School System to all superintendents, directors, supervisors, principals
and teachers makes suggestions for farther methods and procedures for pro­
moting the worthy use of additional leisure time made available by the
reduction in home study hours*
T&is bulletin points out that their main
concern should be with those pursuits which, in absorbing the interest of
students after the school hours, enrich home and family life*
A copy of
this bulletin is in Appendix VI*
That municipal recreation is being encouraged to reach re­
creational interests in the home and family is clearly evident In the
following comments of the Superintendent of Recreation in San Diego, Cali­
fornia:
Eor the past two decades directors of physical education
and recreation have increasingly emphasized the •carry­
over* values in public school and college programs of phy­
sical education*
one hundred families participating
separately in home recreation are of more value than ten
hundred in grandstand seats watching modern gladiators on
the athletic field, *•• an appreciation of the magnitude
and grandeur of much of our scenery dwarfs the petty prob­
lems which may seem insurmountable in many American homes* u
1J Social Work Year Book 1939, page 367.
72
The Director of the Department of Recreation of Akron,
Ohio, comments on the services of his department as it pertains to re­
creation for those confined to their homes*
Our recreation department has seen to it that our homehound shut-ins are not forgotten. ... there is instruc­
tion in airplane modeling, art, music or anything they
■want. There is a Story Lady to tell and read stories.
It reached the homes of 50 hoys and girls who rarely
leave their homes for physical reasons* It also provides
service to elderly people in reading to them, for example.
The results are (l) happier hours for handicapped children
and parents, (2) organization of a parents' group as a co­
operative agency, (3) general improvement in school work as
reported hy visiting teachers, (4) increased attempts and
desires on the part of some of the hoys and girls to over­
come their handicaps. 1/
What can he done in a city to make young people and others
nature-conscious and garden-conscious is illustrated in the accomplishments
of the community environment committee of the Committee on Youth Outside of
Home and School in Louisville, Kentucky.
The Department of Recreation in
Irvington, Hew Jersey, with the co-operation of the Home and School League
and similarorganizations, had a contest to "encourage
residents in
and aid Irvington
beautifying their home grounds."
It involved the dividing of
2/
the town into six districts with a separate division for apartment houses.
The most common of all recreation activities is reading, and
this is the primary function of a public agency, the library*
The extent
of this phase of home recreation is suggested hy the fact that In the city
of Chicago alone the 1939 total home circulation of the Public Library was
31
12,958,307.
The library serves other functions also in offering guidance
in the selection of suitable reading material and literature dealing with
1/ "Shorter Hours for Shut-Ins," Willis H. Edmund, Recreation. October 1937,
page 408 •
j2/ J.E.Rogers, "The Child and Play," Century Company, New York <& London,
1932, p. 74.
3/ Annual Report of the Chicago Public Library, 1939.
73
all forms of hobbies, arts, and crafts, and other recreation activities,
There are even libraries-on-wheels which circulate hooks to outlying sec­
tions and rural homes,
The Chicago Park District has two services mfoich clearly
represent this close relationship of public recreation to home recreation
existing throughout the country* One is the toy-lending libraries in the
U
parks.
There are 18 such centers sponsored by the Park District, About
8600 toys made by the WFA are used and borrowed by 35,000 youngsters each
month.
The most popular toys are the housekeeping units with dolls, beds,
ironing boards, telephones and grocery stores.
doors during the summer months.
located near one of the parks.
These centers move out­
The other service is the model yacht basin,
It is used largely by members of two model
yacht clubs, but is open to anyone owning model boats.
People of all ages
use the basin, sand awards are given*
To take another example, the Montreal (Canada) Parks and
Playgrounds Association had been conducting with indifferent success a
handicraft program for boys.
Budget cuts necessitated a change of program.
The association began to oo—operate more with the homes by urging the
children to bring their tools to the playgrounds to use and to take home
the finished products to interest the parents*
The results were satisfy2/
ing and justified a continuance of the program.
Another Canadian agency
which has definite relations with home recreation is the Council on Child
Family Welfare in Ottawa,
It publishes pamphlets pertaining to re­
creation in the home as well as in public agencies.
One publication issued
! U MToy-Lending Centers Outdoors in Eleven Parks,11 Chicago Daily Hews. July
|
8, 1940.
■ 2/ A report in Eecreation. July 1938.
74
in 1934 is entitled Play and Play Materials for the Pre-School Child,
To conclude this chapter on the relation of public recrea­
tion to home recreation, a quotation from a bulletin of the United States
Department of the Interior entitled, “Youth —
Leisure for Living," indi­
cates the concern of the community for youth and how this concern should
be manifested in recreational programs*
Broadly speaking, the function of recreation is to restore
what other daily activities rob us of or give us no time
for* A plan for a youth recreational program must counter­
act those influences which are most threatening* Having
built up the culture pattern we have, deadening in people
the desire to create and express themselves, we cannot con­
tent ourselves merely by turning over to them free hours
and saying *Here is time for play; go and use it*1 Some
bridge is needed from the regimented to the self-eaqoressive
and creative* That calls for a wise measure of guidance
and constructive planning. A comprehensive plan of commun­
ity recreation provides opportunities for — music, drama,
arts, and crafts, nature activities — home and family re­
creation, — individual recreation.
This statement issued primarily for and about youth applies equally well to
adults as is seen in this and
Recreation for
other sections of this study*
everyone in every community is the goal of
recreational agencies in Aneriea*
It affords a solution to cultural differ­
ences in communities as well as individual differences*
The trend
for those agencies is to seek to do more than ^ust supply a museum filled
with displays*
viduals*
It emphasizes counseling and guiding and directing of indi­
Public agencies in general consider this new trend to be in the
nature of educating for a refinement of an individual1s tastes and inter­
ests.
The result is a relationship with the recreational interests of the
individual in the home.
People demand more and more services from the gov­
ernment and in supplying them, public agencies for recreation effect a
close relationship with home recreation.
It can be inferred from the trend
75
thus far that the time will come when there will he a "balance between the
individual1s opportunity for supplying his ova1 recreation, which is the
general nature of home recreation, and the part of the government to
supply it for him*
There will doubtless be even a closer relationship
between public agencies for recreation and the home, for there are limita­
tions to the complete satisfaction of the recreational needs of the indi­
vidual by one alone*
76
Relations of Semi-Public, Private, and Commercial
Recreation Agencies to Home Recreation
Chapter V
As mentioned in the preceding chapter, multitudes of differ­
ent agencies provide recreation, much of which ties in closely with home
recreation#
Some of these agencies axe concerned solely with recreation,
while with others it is an incidental activity#
These agencies originate
in different manners; some are created and maintained by federal, state, and
local governments#
These were mentioned in the former chapter in their
relations to home recreation.
Other agencies which are supported by private
funds but which afford recreation services to individuals who are not members
are designated semi-public agencies.
Private agencies are organized for the ben­
efit of their own members with no services to non-members#
It is recognized
that this distinction is not completely satisfactory for there axe overlappings,
but for the purposes of this study such a classification is adequate*
Some
organizations were created to provide activity for leisure time on the basis
of profit for the organization.
This catering to the public demand for leisure­
time activities has developed commercial recreation into a huge industry.
of these agencies —
semi-public, private, and commercial —
relationship with recreation in the home*
All
have a definite
Some agencies are designed solely for
supplying home recreation needs, while the relationship with other agencies is
incidental •
There is no discussion on the proposition that leisure time has
increased and doubtless will increase still more*
cepted by everyone.
ihat is a i'act, ac­
But when the question involved has to do with the uses
of leisure-time, endless discussion arises.
New-social tendencies have
arisen out of the recent increase in the uses of leisure, and attitudes
vary as to the policy of control of these uses in view of these tendencies.
77
Approval and condemnation of the uses of leisure-time determine largely
whether there shall "be a public policy of control of these uses or not*
The government has recognized a positive need in view of the ideals of
American Democracy, to control recreation so that all may benefit.
Bat,
it has also recognized that it does not aim to meet, and can never hope
to serve all the recreation needs of all the people*
These particular
interests and needs of any community are too diverse and too extensive
to be the sole province of any agency.
There are certain recreation ser­
vices which can best be supplied by the states or federal government in
the nature of public recreation.
There are other services of recreation
which can be supplied only by private agencies, for our social tendency
recognizes freedom of choice to be inherent in leisure-time activities*
And because of individual enterprise, the commercial field will expand
even more*
All of these are taking into consideration the importance of
home recreation, and are making special provisions to that end.
It is
difficult to draw a sharp distinction between the functions of these
agencies and actual services to home recreation, and it is impossible to
determine exactly what constitutes recreation for one individual in the
light of the experience, personality, and needs of another individual,
for what is recreation for one frequently is work for another.
There are
countless overlappings in function of these agencies, therefore, and this
chapter proposes that there are relationships between semi-public, private,
and commercial recreation and home recreation.
It will furnish examples
where such relationships are in evidence*
j
It is commonly agreed that even though the local government
j
jtakes over many of the recreation functions of the semi-public agencies,
|these agencies will continue to meet definite lei sure-time needs.
They will
78
continue, in all probability, to serve the recreation needs of a limited
group*
Those nation-wide agencies which consider it the function of their
organizations to provide an environment favorable to the sound and 'whole­
some growth of the characters of the boys and girls who are members in­
clude: YMGA (Boys' Work Division), YWCA (Girl Reserves), Boy Scouts, Girl
Scouts, Gamp Fire Girls, Boy Bangers of America, Woodcraft League of Amer­
ica, 4H Clubs, YMHA, YWHA, Knights of Columbus, Big Brother and Big Sister
Federation, Boys Clubs of America, the Junior Red Cross*
The activities
provided by these character-building agencies, which are related to re­
creation which carries over to the home, are nature study, gardening, par­
ties, hand crafts, cooking, homemaking, tinkering, reading, father-and-son,
mother-and-dau^iter relationships i
minded and have specific goals.
U
Many of these activities are high-­
To attain these ends, however, the methods
are in the nature of play and fun as a means of promoting acquaintance*
During the last decade, some of these smfaippublic organiza­
tions like the YMGA have provided for a large number of activities, but
there has been an increasing tendency to specialize entirely in some one
phase of recreation as indicated by the great increase in the number of
specialized clubs.
People are more likely to be interested in some one
phase of recreation like hobbies, ping pong, and music than in general re1/ Consult ’’Leisure Time and Character,” p. 7, and ’’Hew Facts About Old
Friends,” e>* g* Pamphlets prepared by ten Character-Building Agencies
in co-operation with the United Educational. Program, National Sociology
Work Council, Distributed by Community Chests and Councils, Inc., 1934*
YMCA official reports list activities of ties related to home recreation
sponsored by YMCA are hobby activities, counseling service, father and
son banquets, boys' conferences, and general education relating to a con­
structive use of leisure time and family life (’’Leisure and Recreation”
M.H.& E.S. Neumeyer, A. S. Barnes, 1936, p. 333). The Camp Fire Girls
are encouraged to perform duties in homemaking, which include recreation.
Handcraft is promoted in addition and is a home recreation* (Ibid. p.
339).
79
creation*
When these semi—public, national agencies provide such interests,
people attend*
Glubs centering around these interests are organized within
the larger national agency itself*
Some of the national organizations spon­
soring or interested in hobby programs or activities are: Amateur Cinema
League, Boy Rangers of America, Inc., Boys' Clubs of America, Inc., Gamp
Fire Girls, Inc*, Followerafters Guild School (affiliated with Boston Uni­
versity), Girls' Friendly Society, Junior Achievement, Inc., Leisure League
of America, Inc., National Art Hobby Guild, National Becreation Association,
and the Woodcraft League of America, Inc*
There are also a number of local
groups throughout the country designed to foster the hobby habit.
These
local agencies are:
Council of Social Agencies and Museum of Science, Buffalo,
New York.
Rotary Club, Camden, New Jersey.
South Park Commissioners, Chicago, Illinois.
League of New Hampshire Arts and Crafts, Concord, New Hamp­
shire.
Recreation Council for Shut-Ins, East Orange, New Jersey.
Northern High School Library, Flint, Michigan.
Public Schools, Holton, Kansas.
Recreation Commission, Long Beach, California.
Milwaukee Model and Hobby Clubs Council, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Essex County Vocational School, Newark, New Jersey.
Museum, Newark, New Jersey.
Horace Mann School for Boys, New York, N. Y.
New York Public Library, New York, N. Y.
Leaders Council, Petersburg, Virginia*
Playground and Recreation Association of Philadelphia, Phila^delphia, Pennsylvania*
80
Camp iFire G-irls Co-operating with, a Department Store,
Portland, Oregon.
YWGA, Rochester, New York.
Museum of Fine Arts, Syracuse, New York.
Public Library of District of Columbia, Washington, D. C.
Westchester County Recreation Commission, White Plains,
New York.
There are six organizations and groups Those hobby activi-
U
ties have been reported in the press, namely:
Artisans Guild, Dearborn, Michigan.
Minnesota State Medical Association, Minneapolis, Minnesota,
(an exhibit of original art work by the doctors themselves,
traditionally believed to have no time to themselves.)
National Society of Colonial Dames, New York.
Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania.
for (faculty, wives, and friends).
Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
of hobby courses).
(A hobby class
(A program
Westchester County Recreation Commission, White Plains, New
York.
at least
There are/fourteen magazines which devote space to hobby activities or craft
projects:
Randicrafter.
Hobbies.
Industrial Arts and Vocational Education.
Industrial Education Magazine.
Leisure.
I
|
!
|
i
I
I
|
Nature.
Needle craft.
Outdoor Life.
Popular Mechanics Magazine.
! 1/ Bibliography of Hobbies, Federal Emergency Booklet, 1935.
81
Popular Science Monthly.
Becreation.
The Botarian.
Scholastic.
School Arts Magazine.
Settlements and Community Centers supply recreational needs.
The activities of social settlements and community centers include recrea^tional types which carry over to the home such as library facilities, music
participation and appreciation, art and craft work, and dolls.
As a result
they form a relationship between this type of semi-public agency and home
recreation.
The General Federation of Women*s Clubs “believes the home
is essential for the deepest realization of individual and group life.
It
believes that only the home in which the family spends a part of its leis1/
ore happily is worthy of the name.”
To this end the Federation issues an
outline for study groups conposed o f young matrons and mothers and older
club members.
the country.
These groups hold meetings in the local units throughout
The outline has seven parts as follows: (l) Introduction
(importance of leisure in family life)? (2) Leisure Moments Spent Together
kt Home; (3) Guidance of Tendencies Common to all Infants; (4) Guidance of
Young Child Through Flay at Home; (5) Guidance of Older Child in Leisure
Momeixts at Home; (6) Guidance of Youth; (?) Adult Leisure Activities.
The
importance of mealtimes is stressed, and suggestions are made for games to
be played at this time. The evenings indoors and outdoors together can be
1
:enlivened by participating in any of dozens of activities suggested such as
1/ “Study Outline for the Use of Leisure within the Family Group.” Depart­
ment of the American Home, General Federation of Women's Clubs.
82
playing games, folk dancing, singing, story telling, constructing house
furnishings, and playing musical instruments together.
The outline re­
cognizes individual needs at different ages in its further suggestions for
other activities*
It also includes many reading suggestions*
Schools of Home Economics have a relationship with home rel*1
article on Home Economics is the following statement
creation* /the Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences*y6adeg-that-titAe-«4»afcee.
"other problems with which home economics is increasingly and rightly con­
cerning itself are public health, housing, recreation —
and community —
both individual
and the role of aesthetics in homemaking*"
One home econ­
omics school in a mid-western university (Iowa State College) made exten­
sive surveys of home uses of leisure time of wives in urban and rural sec­
tions*
In Elint, Michigan, the Community Music Association holds a
"home night" program of the spring festival, which is presented by several
family groups, and has stimulated "home sings."
The association has a p i a n
to divide the city into five sections in each of which four concerts a
i/
year will be given by musical families who live in the neighborhood.
In
Boston, Massachusetts, the Eellow-crafters Guild is designed to help indi­
vidual, public, and private agencies to promote an interest in the arts and
crafts for recreational purposes.
Here again the instruction provided by
the agency is supplemented by skill developed at home.
In Milwaukee, Wis­
consin, the YMCA sponsors a model and hobby club council iriaere an inter­
change of hobby information develops an interest and skill which is fur­
ther continued in the home.
It publishes a booklet giving information
about the various hobby clubs in the town.
Some of these hobby clubs
(are: aircraft, applied arts, archery, astronomy, boats, casting, chess,
jdramatics, entomology, fish fancying, handicraft, horticulture, marksman-
ITK*
Glover, on. cit., pp. 11-14.
83
ship, photography, railroad, sketching, stamps, toy shop.
The International Labor Office, in its Annual Report for 1930
(pages 455-459) emphasizes a two-fold approach to the problem of leisure*
(1) Preservation of leisure through paid work during leisure hours; improve­
ment of transport facilities, workers* dwellings, and an ordered arrangement
of the working day, and (2) development of facilities for utilization of
leisure, including legislation and social hygiene*
Institutions which have
been set up in recent yeax*s to facilitate workers* leisure are divided inf
to the following four classes: (l) improvement of the economic situation of
the workers to give opportunity to the worker for gardening, poultry-raising,
and-working in his home.
Garden cities and workers* gardens are important.
(2) Promotion of physical development of worker hy forming various organiza­
tions to encourage games and sports among the workers.
of the intellectual life of the worker —
for general and technical educa­
tion, libraries, et cetera, are established.
art instruction.
(3) The development
There is music, craft, and
(4) Development of participation in public life.
Prom the
above, classes 1 and 3 are of particular importance to the development of
the home recreation of workers, and class 2 also has significance in that
workers being taught games, continue to play them at home with their fam­
ilies.
The Chamber of Commerce of the United States maintains a de­
partment or Bureau of Publications and Special Reports of the Construction
and Civic Development Department.
This department serves as a clearing
house of information, with reference to problems connected with home conI struction, which includes problems of recreational facilities, housing,
I
! city development, and related activities. There are several publications
j
i
t
under the titles of Recreation and Housing, many of which have to do with
84
the recreational facilities in homes, as well as special entertainment in
them, such as "List of Annual and Special Celebrations,,r "List of Special
Bays and Special Weeks,11 and "Local Residential Construction.11
The Russell Sag© foundation maintains a Department of Re­
creation whose aims are to assist in the social organization of leisure
time and in bringing about adequate provision for all forms of wholesome
re-creation, both urban and rural, by studying the best methods of promo­
tion, organization, and administration of recreational facilities and then
encouraging their adoption by public and private agencies.
Some of this
info m a t ion has to do with suggestions for play and recreation in the com­
munity and at home such as, "Sources of Information on Play and Recreation,,f
,!Recreation, " wghe Uew Leisure,” tt0o—operative Housing,” ”Music in Institu­
tions,” ”Housing for the Machine Age.”
The National Recreation Association has a number of connect­
ions with home recreation.
It has a full-time field secretary to co-operate
with the United States Department of Agriculture in conducting recreatiorttraining institutes for club leaders, home-demonstration agents, et cetera,
In rural areas mainly.
It sponsors many activities which are particularly a
oart of home recreation, such as music appreciation, "creative rest," games,
i/
|and story-telling.
There is a Co-operative Recreation Service in Delaware, Ohio
which supplies "resources for creative leisure” in the nature of suggest­
ions, lists of activities, and groups of songs.
tricks, et cetera., for home use.
It also sells games, toys,
A pamphlet describing their service is in
jAppendix VII.
J
j1/ "The Government and Rural Life.” Recreation! C.B. Smith, December 1931,
| p. 547.
85
In Cincinnati, Ohio the Public Becreation Commission offers
free instruction in piano, violin, guitar, and other instruments; this un­
doubtedly encourages music as a phase of recreation in the home because of
the time required for practice on these instruments*
tion Commission issues a series of Home Play Games*
The Chicago Beerea^The articles number
eighty, and the games described may be played indoors or out; some re­
quire equipment and others do not*
Perhaps the most influential of all the semi-public agencies
which are concerned in part with recreation in the home is the National
Congress of Parents and Teachers*
The National Chairman makes suggestions
to the heads of the Home Becreation Department of each state PTA*
An in­
dication of the extent of the influence of the FTA is seen in the work of
the Illinois Congress of the FTA*
The state is divided into thirty-one
districts, with a recreation commissioner in each division*
In each local
unit of the poA there is another individual concerned with recreation.
representatives work with the state Home Becreation Department.
All
This sys­
tem enables each local unit to receive the benefit of the complete home re­
creation service* There have been six home play articles written by the
State Chairman*
These articles have reached 175,000 homes throughout Illi­
nois by means of this network.
Bepresentatives of these districts attend
the conventions and relay the information back to the individual members
of each local unit*
on Home Play.
At the annual State Convention there are three meetings
The Illinois Congress issues bulletins monthly on community
recreation with home play an integral part.
It sponsors a Chicago Youth
Week Association which stresses Home and Family Play*
In co-operation with
the Chicago Daily News it sponsored the Back Yard Play Group in 1929, with
articles appearing in the press telling of the development of the movement
86
for encouraging play at home*
for the heads of the districts*
A Home Play Institute is held each year
This information is relayed hack to the
local leaders, who in turn report to the local PTA units*
There are at
least three radio talks each year on Home Play over a National Hookup*
These reach the whole country as is evidenced hy the letters sent in*
In
September and June a packet containing ideas for family and. home recreation
is sent to every local unit throughout the state*
In addition to these
varied activities two other functions of the PTA are important as they per­
tain to Home Recreation*
There is an organization of Rural Farent-Teacher
Associations which issues program outlines of different kinds*
One is on
Home Flay in Rural Areas. containing many excellent suggestions as to types
of activities for the whole family at home in the country*
Copies of this
program outline and two other PTA publications are in Appendix V III •
■
The other activity of the PTA is a questionnaire which was
sent hy the Illinois Congress of the PTA to 1000 local units*
The PTA had
emphasized all of the activities mentioned on the blank, having given ac­
tual instruction through its various channels on some of them.
Although
not good statistical procedure, it does suggest the extent of the influence
of the PTA in its relation to home recreation.
The error is probably
on the side of under-statement, for the local units did not indicate ac­
tual numbers of families involved.
ed,
These were 825 questionnaires return­
Over 500 local units reoorted hack yard play groups, 301 home hobby
groups (v/here the whole family participates), and 69 reported family
photograph clubs.
The PT A had stressed home play nights, and 318 units
reported families having at least one a week.
Eighty-four reported
family orchestras, where each member participated, and 298 where the
j
jfamilies played musical games together or danced.
Six hundred and two
8?
reported that families listen as a group to the radio, following the pro­
gram recommendations of the PTA.
Families read magazines, hooks, or
newspapers together in 519 units, and 76 reported families having regular
story-telling hours.
Playing games together interests families in 501
units, while 206 have families enjoying dramatic production together.
Families in 212 units had group arts and crafts together, while 324,
families shared nature recreation, including the study of stars, trees,
etc.
It is highly probable that many of these activities indulged in by
families as part of their home recreation were directly stimulated by
the PTA.
This detailed analysis of the work of the Illinois Con­
gress in promoting home recreation is a samnle of what goes on in other
states, Virginia, for example.
In addition, many states issue voTumin—
ous reports of home recreational activities sponsored by the local PTA
units.
Georgia and Delaware issue such reports.
Private agencies generally restrict their programs to
their
07m
members.
While some derive their only financial supoort from
their regular members, others might be classified under commercial agencies
in that profit results from the services rendered.
The Shut-In Club of
Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, composed of 22o women is an example of the
former type.
It sends Christinas cards and baskets to the Shut-Ins, and
typewriters are sup:?lied to the blind, affording pleasure and recreation
to those confined in their homes.
each Thusday.
They have a special radio broadcast
Other Shut&In organizations are privately sponsored, with
the various representatives entering the homes and giving instruction in
1/
various activities— puppetry, for example, with gratifying results.
1/ F. C. hindeman 11Re creation Rehabilitates the Shut-Infl, f,The Shut-In
Club of Wilkes—Bar reM, Re creation. 1937, p. 417, and June, 1938, p. 132.
i
The National Home Library Foundation in Washington, D. C.
1
|was established in 1932 and has, among other aims, the desire to promote
j
<
.and inculcate in more people the desire to read good literature and to
j
)make home libraries more easily available to greater numbers of people.
l
;It started with twelve volumes of 100,000 copies at fifteen cents. It has
■proved profitable enough to undertake the publishing of original works by
;contemporary authors, one of which has had a greater sale than the popular
:Gone With the Wind.
It now publishes 39 titles at twenty-five cents (four
;at a little more) and thirteen at fifteen-cents and calls this series the
Jacket Library. This Is an example of the second type of private agency.
|
j A list of titles published by this Foundation is in Appendix IX.
;
The National Association of Book Publishers issued in 1929
a pamphlet on how to select books and take care of them.
This was pub­
lished to stimulate family co-operation as a pat of home recreation.
Many
families find reading together an important area of recreation and leisurejtime activities.
The pamphlet contained suggestions for reading stories
|aloud and for reading certain subjects in which each member could partidjpate.
An example of such a family reading program is a Spanish vacation
j taken by one family.
Each member of the family selected certain Spanish
books, suited to his own capacity and interests, and the family as a whole
discussed episodes from the materials Thich each read.
Together they en1/
Ijoyed a deli^atful vacation in Spain while staying at home.
Examples of private publications sponsoring home recreation
!
|are seen in the following: Home-made Toya and Play Equipment by Agnes
Tilson is published by Farmer's Y/ife, in Minnesota.
nIf Parents Only
1J Similar vacations at home are found in "G-ay Tours to Far-Away Lends,"
Hannah Severus, Recreation.
89
Knew", published hy Parent1s Magazine. contains information as to how the
home can help what the school is doing for the child.
of the subjects,
He creation is one
'^he Child Study Association of America, not strictly a
private agency, also is interested and has recently published Play
Play­
things « by Wolf and Boehm.
"Better Homes in America11 also issues bulletins
on recreation in the home.
It is now affiliated with Purdue University
and conducts research on homes and family relationships.
Becreation in the
home receives considerable attention in their research activities.
The Lions Club of Belton, Texas, conducted a beautifulyards contest in that city in 1930.
The yards were submitted to three
judgings— one in May, one in July, and the third in October.
All these
J judgings were considered separately, and all three grades were considered
i/
in making awards.
The Chicago Bapid Transit Company on a modest scale
sponsors a contest of gardens, which generally means window boxes.
During
the summer months the "L" rides to the "Loop" are made more pleasant by
looking at the "gardens" along the tracks which have been entered in the
contest.
The "L" riders are the judges and thousands of window-box gardens
are entered.
Other services tending to stimulate an interest in home gar­
dens are found in Hew York, Cedar Bapids, Buffalo, and Hastings on the
2/
Hudson.
The value of music in promoting harmony in the home was
pointed out not long ago at a national Becreation Congress.
Many studies
have been made to determine the best methods of instruction and type of
music.
One recent development is that the preference of the individual
j 1J J. E. Eogers, "The Child and Play, " Century Company, H. Y., London, 1932,
p. 74.
i 2/ George L. Butler, "Community Becreation," McGraw-Hill, H. Y., London,
!
1940, pp. 358-360.
90
should largely determine what instrument he will play*
Music dealers ar­
range for the individual to learn to play on instruments owned "by the deal­
ers with regular tuition charges until the choice of the instrument is de­
termined by the individual*
(Then he makes arrangements to pay for the in­
strument of his choice, even though he may have learned to play several be1/
fore this time. The Chicaao Recreation Survey
estimates that there are
at least several thousand music teachers in the Chicago area alone; of
these some have their own studios, although the great majority give lessons
in the homes of individual pupils*
The full extent of music as a phase of
home recreation will be seen in another chapter where the sales of all in­
struments used in the homes suggest the volume*
Municipal recreation departments and private groups some­
times distribute attractive circulars telling how to make back-yard play­
ground equipment and furnish home play-rooms*
These have been distributed
in Glendale, Los Angeles, and Oakland, California; Springfield, Illinois;
Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Scranton and Reading, Pennsylvania;
buffalo, Hew York; Port Worth, Texas; and St* Louis, Missouri.
It is esti2/
mated that the circulars have reached hundreds of thousands of people.
The playground movement in America is well known to have be-
gun with sand boxes for little children under the oversight of teachers or
volanteers*
When more equipment was added, and the model playgrounds be­
gan to appear, trained supervision became necessary; it was soon learned
Glilcago Recreation Survey. Vol. Ill, p. 140.
2/ J. E. Rogers, "The Child and Play,11 Century Company, 1932, p. 72. A simi­
lar service is found in the activity of the Reading Pennsylvania Recrea­
tion Department which issues to all citizens desiring them bulletins con­
taining suggestions for parties and events appropriate to holidays and
special days. There is further information on this phase in "Publicity
for Home Play," Recreation. February 1937, p. 565.
91
vbhat children unattended were not sent from their homes into public parks
or playgrounds*
There are still many mothers who prefer that their fchild-
ren shall play in or near the home; and -while this attitude is commendable#
it is felt that such children often miss many of the values of the play­
ground.
In Baltimore, Maryland, "Home Play Groups" have developed.
This
movement began in Massachusetts with "Home Library Groups," at the sug­
gestion of the Carnegie Library in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania*
1915-16.
This was in
A similar group was begun in Baltimore in 1923 in connection
with the Americanization wo>rk of the Women*s Christian Temperance Union.
This movement esp«anded until in 1936 there were many groups of boys play­
ing in private homes under supervision.
This Home Play G-roups Associa­
tion is now operating in the school districts, with the co-operation of
the mothers in the adult education classes, the PTA, and a church in the
locality.
In a section where children throng the public streets, homes
are selected in which danger of a lack of normal conditions is apparent.
The parents, their children, the Home Play Group Manager, and the Play
Leader f©rm a group which meets with trained leadership under the mother*s
supervision.
political.
The Association is non— commercial, non—sectarian, and non­
It claims as results of its work more harmony among the child­
ren and in the family; adults in the home and neighborhood attain a better
understanding of children*s ways and needs; family unity is enhanced as
indicated by the prevalence of family play nights; children have an oppor­
tunity to correlate their school and home activities and to find satisfac­
tion in normal play; and leadership is developed.
Two letters testifying
to the-benefits derived from this Association as well as literature de­
scribing their purposes and procedures are in Appendix X.
While this As-
92
ksociation is best developed in Baltimore, there are a number of branches
1/
throughout the country*
The Becreation Congress of the national Becreation Associa­
tion sponsored a meeting on Home Play in 1938 at which the following con­
clusions were presented: The will to play is the most important element
in home recreation*
Parents must be helped, not replaced*
more important than equipment.
Planning is
The parents* attitude toward their child­
ren must be that they are play mates, not play things.
Time must be bud­
geted to provide for play*
Genuine interest does not need the stimulation
of prizes or competitions.
Families must be encouraged to relax and enr
joy hours of leisure.
Value of fringing the family out.of the home to re­
creation lies in their taking it back into the home.
And most important
of all, neither the playground nor the home can alone bring success.
2/
must be a united effort.
It
In the light of these conclusions, the national Becreation
Association developed a slogan —
**The family that plays together, stays
together.** This has been adopted by a movement called Home Play Weeks, gen­
erally under the auspices of the public recreation agencies mentioned in
the preceding chapter.
Parents now are realizing the importance of play
in the child's growth and in home life.
They are made to feel the import­
ance of planning for the recreational needs of their children much as they
plan for their physical needs.
The universal urge for recreation, relaxation, and release
from the daily routine has been capitalized by commercial agencies which
have built up a recreation business totaling several billion dollars per
17" This information secured from correspondence with the Executive Secre| tary of Home Play Groups Association, 1938.
3/ <*Home Becreation," Recreation. Hovember 1938, p. 460.
!
93
year*
These agencies are motivated primarily "by jprofits rather than ser­
vice, and are contributing to the change of recreation from the role of
active participation to passive participation or that of being a spectator*
In another chapter figures on the volume and cost of home recrea/tion are con­
sidered, and it is obvious that much of that information could be included
in this section on the relation of commerical recreation to home recreation.
But for purposes of simplicity, commerical recreation may be considered as
more or less lighly organized amusement enterprises engaged in primarily
for profit making.
In terms of numbers of participants, commerical amuse­
ments reach such great numbers of people that they are in a position to ex­
ert a far greater influence that can be estimated.
Numerous studies have
been made showing the deleterious effect of some typical amusements such
as movies, radio programs, and pulp magazines on attitudes and moral stand­
ards*
Not all commerical recreation can be comsidered undesireable, but
because of the huge sums of money invested in it, it is difficult to con­
trol.
Many are concerned with how to direct the public's desire for a—
nrusement into socially desirable channels*
For example, note the effects
on the part of the PTA to educate the parents as to beneficial programs
on the radio.
As to the extent of radio as a phase of home recreation,
Fortune magazine recently found that nearly nine-tenths of all American
homes have radios.
Nearly 85 per cent of urban families own radios, while
78 per cent of small town families and 56 per cent of farm families have
acquired them.
In January 1, 1932, there were 16,026,620 radio sets in
the United States.
By the trend of radio sales, At is estimated that in
1941 there will be 36,000,000 sets in the United States. The surveys made
)
!have shown that three-fourths of all sets are in use at some time each
r
|day.
The average set is in operation two hours and twenty-five minutes
(•daily. There is a d&ily audience of 37,422,869 people, it is estimated.
i
!Fivehundred twenty—five million annually is spent for new radios* The rejlation of this phase of commercial recreation to home recreation is obvious
;when it is realized that millions listen to events, concerts, and opera
over the radio at practically any given moment.
Magazines, hooks, and newspapers constitute a large part of
■^merica^ home recreation.
This is shown from the surveys of people’s
leisure-time activities and from sales and circulation figures*
A detailed
analysis of this phase of home recreation is in Chapter III of this study.
*
The sale of bicycles is an indication of close relation be­
tween this commercialized agency for recreation and the home, for the an­
nual amount spent is $9,634,000*00. Recent Social Trends estimates that
i1^113,800,000* was spent annually for toys, games, and playground equip­
ment prior to 1932 when the study was made.
Americans spend $93,000,000
jannually on phonographs and accessories (74,000,000), pool, Billiards and
bowling ($12,000,000.), and fireworks ($6,771,000.)
To estimate the
amount actually spent on these items as part of home recreation was the task
of a preceding section of this study, Chapter III.
I
17 cents*
The gross revenue per person for postal service in 1846 was
In 1931 the amount was over thirty times as great, viz., $5.29*
This phenomenal increase suggests among other things that the individual is
writing more letters.
Surveys which are discussed in another chapter in^-
dicate that this form of activity constitutes recreation for many people as
a part of their home leisure-time activities.
In 1865 there was delivery
service of mail in 45 cities in the country, vAille in 1931, 3,098 cities
had this service.
In 1931 there were 6,890,687 rural families being served
by rural carrier service.
While the function of the Uhited States Postal
i
i
95
j
j
IService is not for profit, yet the figures cited indicate that throughout
I
|the country vast numbers of people are communicating with friends and ac­
quaintances by means of the mail, and are paying much more for this service
than formerly*
Strictly speaking, this is not a commercial agency as such,
but large sums of money are being spent on friendly recreational, communica^tion*
One other figure will indicate the importance of communication in
the country*
^
This is the fact that in 1931 there were 20,201,576 telephones
in the United States*
places of business*
This does not include the trunk lines for large
All these communication figures are analyzed else­
where in Ghapter III, showing significant facts about this particular phase
i
of home recreation.
i
Prom the examples cited in this chapter and the chapter on
public recreation relations with home recreation, a generalization can now
be made. It is of no significance as far as this study goes whether there
I
|should be public or private administration of home recreation. Such evi1
jdence as has been submitted indicates that the important fact is that there
|is concern on the part of public, private, and dommercial agencies as to
i
i
Iwhat goes on in the home by way of recreation*
Each agency has definite
Jrelations with home recreation, and the prospects are that this relationi
ship will be even closer and more detailed in the future because authorijties have indicated the value of this relationship and have already taken
■I
|steps to that end as herein suggested. Those who see in governmental super­
vision and control of recreation a trend toward totalitarianism will prob—
|ably admit that the increased relations on the part of these public and pri|
|vate agencies with home recreation suggest a lessening of governmental coni
trol, for individuated activities (which are the forms of home recreation re—
ceiving the greatest attention and stimulation) do not lend themselves eas­
ily to regimentation*
96
Training Parents for Home Hecreation
I
Chapter VI
While the home during the past thirty or thirty-five years
'has been undergoing great changes in that many of its functions
re-
sponsibilities have been transferred to outside agencies, there has been
a growing appreciation of the value of, and necessity for, adequate op­
portunities for the home to serve its functions*
Public attention is cen­
tered on the home and family as never before, as indicated by the vast
sociological and psychological literature on the subjects.
Attempts to
reach parents and give them a better understanding of child rearing are
definitely increasing in number, for educators are realizing that this im­
portant job cannot be undertaken by home or school alone, but must be a
Ijoint undertaking.
i
Parents realize that they must keep abreast of the times
|in caring for every need of their children, and many parents are finding
|that they need help in interoreting family experiences, in integrating
I
j
jand synthesizing all knowledge and theories into a guiding and working
J
principle in their family life. This recognition on the part of parents
I
(of what they need has developed a new emphasis in education - parent edui
|cation.
I
|
G. Stanley Hall and Felix Adler were the pioneer leaders
i
Jof parent education as a part of the larger field of child study. Their
t
■efforts did not produce lasting effect, for parent education died out lat­
ter; but it was revived in 1920 under the aegis of the child health and men|
jtal hygiene movements. These have called attention to the importance of
!
|the home and preschool needs of children. The work of juvenile courts, be-
97
havior clinics, and other agendies indicates a need for specialists in
; training and educating parents to their responsibilities in making
children sociallyaacceptable.
The result of all these needs is a, vast
system of programs being promoted to educate parents.
In each of these
programs it is recognized that one of the major functions of the family is
|recreation.
]
Although many arguments have been advanced on the benefits
of public recreation as over against home recreation, yet the tendency
j
|now is to consider recreation as important a function of the family as is
J
jmeeting the child*s physical needs.
All programs agree that what goes on
!
Sin the field of leisure-time activity in the home is of utmost importance,
|end they all include extensive information on this subject.
i
|
There are three national organizations largely composed of
i
|mothers —
Child Study Association of America, American Association of Uni-
!versity Women, and the National Congress of Parents and Teachers. The
i
J
|Child Study Association, with a membership of 10,000 maintains study groups
|in many states and. issues panphlets, books, and a magazine, Child Study.
The headquarters in New York maintain a library for parents, a consulta|
1tion center for parents, and exhibits of children*s books and playthings.
|The Association further seeks to improve family life through education of
■parents by correspondence, lectures, conferences, and radio talks.
The National Congress of Parents and Teachers is composed of
iJ
'
\27,000 local units, with a general membership of 2,000,000 wem-egi.
It
i
iissues a magazine entitled Child Welfare ten times a year. Through radio,
Ibooks, pamphlets, and meetings the importance of recreation in the home is
1/ Report of National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 1939.
98
now emphasized.
Actual suggestions for home play and activities are made
in all of its endeavors.
This was described in the work of the Illinois
PTA mentioned in Chapter V on the Relationship of Private Agencies to Home
Recreation,
The program in parent education of the American Association
of University Women is a part of its program in adult education.
About
2,000 study groups have been organized to instruct mothers in the fvmda^mentals of family relationship, child rearing, and home recreation.
This
organization sponsors state programs for improvement of rural education,
establishment of libraries, exhibition of toys, establishment of nursery
schools, and institution of parent education.
In its state programs the
part that home education plays is apparent.
State-wide programs in parent education function through ex­
tension work as described in Chapter III,
Groups of rural families meet
with recreation and education leaders, and publications on home recreation
are Issued by the states.
Another function of the state programs is the
Imaintenance of child welfare research stations such as the one in Iowa
City under the auspices of the State University of Iowa,
Research studies
of rural and small-town family life are made with the end in view of better
extension work in child care and training for mothers.
Actual instruction
1/
is given in home recreation, and pamphlets are issued on the subject.
Other state universities and land grant colleges have been the centers for
similar parent education programs such as Minnesota and Georgia.
Many state departments of public instruction include bur­
eaus of child study and parent education.
Such a program is organized in
1/ Consult:“Massa.chusetts: 4H Clubs encourage home crafts in a venture in
talent.11 Extension Service Record. June, 1937.
2/ "Marionettes in Parent Education" J. Home Econ. November, 1937.
"Margie Does it Herself,1' American Home. August, 1937, "Homemade Play­
things and Materials to Promote Success in Routing Activities/1 Cornell,
Agr. Extension Bureau. #360, 1936.
4u^rth western
l&ri] v » r g ! W
ui»rary
**
California,and it trains approximately 10,000 parents a year in child
care and proper home environment, including recreational facilities.
In
the spring of 1926, six discussion classes were held in five cities and
towns of California,
There are now over 150 classes.
ginally was 130; now it is over 10,000.
The enrollment ori­
There are separate classes for
men and women as well as groups for mothers and fathers.
The choice of
topics is left largely to the members of the group, and the discussion is
developed largely from their contributions rather than according to a
preconceived content outline prepared "by the teacher or "borrowed from a
book.
The central objective of the parent education program is to facili­
tate the development of wholesome attitudes, appropriate skills, and perti­
nent knowledge in the parents themselves “so that they may be, progressive­
ly, better able to function effectively and joyfully in the kaleidoscopic
U
field of pa-rent-child relationship."
In California, discussion groups
as well as in Minnesota and other parts of the country, parents are con­
cerned about recreation and leisure-time activities.
Everywhere these
subjects arouse the most controversy and show the greatest differences in
j standards.
i
Typical of these discussions are the advantages
and diffi-
Iculties of movies, automobiles, radio and the kinds of parties adoles!
i
!cents enjoy.
Ways are advanced in which the home can help in setting
I
|standards and in meeting the interests of adolescents.
2/
Hew York, Okla-
ihoma, and Texas perform similar services in regard to parent education.
!
1In Hew York State the Adult Education Program includes a schedule of re!
Icreational activities adauted to the family as a group.
"The American
1/ "Parent Education,1' Committee on family and Parent Education IIIA.
White House Conference on Child Health and Protection. Century, Hew
!
York, 1932,* pp. 12*1-123, 235.
2/ Ibid., p. 242.
100
family has played an important part in the nation*s life.
ial changes have tended to weaken family bonds.
Many recent soc­
The specialization of vo­
cations and the recent increase of commercial recreation have been two
potent factors in dividing family interests and activities.
It is very im­
portant that leisure-time activities in which the entire family can participate be made a part of the regular schedules of events."
u
The Parents Council of Philadelphia was organized by a group
of parents, educators, and social service workers to promote parent educa^
tion in Philadelphia.
The main function is to conduct groups within organ­
izations which later carry on parent education as an integral part of their
i
(work.
j
These groups, totaling about a hundred, meet in public schools and
social service agencies mainly, effecting a closer relationship of these
|semi-public agencies and the home.
i|a
Eecreation in the home is discussed as
phase of parent education. W
Many of the campaigns for home play, which were mentioned
before, are concentrating on the education of parents forhhome recreation.
|
IThe Eecreation Committee of the Buffalo City Planning Association has been
!
joffering a free six—weeks* course for parents in home recreation, with
|weekly sessions each Monday night from eight o*clock to nine—thirty*
The
Subjects discussed and the demonstrations presented cover active games,
games for quiet times and rainy days, books, handcraft projects, play'rooms, back-yard playgrounds, understanding the child during his first
twelve years, understanding 'teen-age'boys and girls, helping children en­
joy music,
using public recreation opportunities, and exploring the world
1/ "Emergency Adult Eecreation," IT.Y.State Emergency Adult Education Program
Series I, Bulletin #5, 1936.
2J
Bird's-Eye Yiew of Parent Education," Parents. May, 1931, p. 52.
|of* Hature.
L
;ihg
The Headers* Bureau of the Buffalo Public Library is supoly—
bibliographies on each of the subjects covered in the course.
2/
A similar plan was initiated by the Los Angeles Playground
i
land Recreation Department which devoted a section of its Recreation and
i
1Play Leadership Conference to play and recreation in the home.
Public schools have not initiated extensive work in the field
\of parent education as yet, but there are signs of greater activity In the
future.
This is evidenced in the work of the visiting teacher who makes
contacts between the home and school, and in many cases gives instruction
■i
|to the parents in better ways of child care in the home, including leisurejtime needs.
I
Private schools such as Tower Hill in Wilmington, Delaware,
1
i
jand Horth Shore Country Day School in Winnetka, Illinois, have programs in
i
j
jwhich the parents actively participate. Study groups have been organized
jand conferences between parents and teachers are held. In addition, par—
!
;ents are given opportunities for service within the schools. These injclude planning afternoon recreation for the child, assisting in the library,
jlunch room, dramatic department, and so forth. One such school in Hew York
j
iCity provides an occasional program for parents which gives them an oppor|tunity to enjoy on an adult level the home recreational and creative actii
jvities of the school.
i
A few institutions are preparing teachers to work co-operative
pLy with parents in building adequate school and home life. Recreation in
i
jthe home is emphasized. In Cleveland, 0hi9 , and Kansas City, Missouri, a
1j Consult Buffalo Foundation Forum issued occasionally, and Hew York Adult
Education Records.
102
specialist in parent education is on the staff* of the teacher*s college and
the city public schools.
The National College for Women in Evanston, Illi­
nois, has for years been including courses in parent education for the stuu
dents who are training to be teachers.
Here American home recreation is
emphasized.
Teadhers1 College, Columbia University, trains teachers, su­
pervisors, principals, and superintendents of schools in parent education
in order that they may conduct parent education programs in connection with
|their own schools and as an integral part of their own work.
Important re—
jsearch in recreational activities at home has been conducted under its su­
pervision.
The Merrill Palmer School of Detroit has expanded the old
meaning of home economics education to include a study of the growth and
2/
development of children and the education of parents.
The Home Economics
jDepartments of Cornell University, Iowa State College, the University of
iCincinnati, and the University of Georgia are notable exanroles of this new
!
2/
itrend.
The American Home Economics Association has a specialist in child
|development and parent education programs in home economics departments.
jThe attention given to time budgets, allowing for play at home, and the sug­
gestions for leisure-time activities are conspicuous in the work of these
j
home economics courses.
iy These courses include the following given in the school session 1939! 1940: Family Relationships, Childhood Development, Methods and Materials
1 for Home Education, Parent Education and Family Relations, and Parent
I Education "which is 11to prepare teachers and organize and conduct work
| with parents — to inform the parent of material helpful in educating parI ents. Recreational information is included.*1
'2/ i'A Bird*s Eye View of Parent Education,n Parents. May 1931, p. 54.
j3/ Examples of these courses on development of children and education of
;
parents ares "Child Care & Training," "Family Relations," "Development
I
of the Young Child," "Social Problems of the Family," which are found
at Cornell Univ. and Univ. of Georgia.
;
103
Churches, health organizations, social welfare agencies,
social hygiene organizations, mental hygiene association, newspapers and
-
„
magazines are including programs for parent education.
'
1/
The United States Bureau of Education, the Federal Council of
;Churches of Christ in America, the national Society for the Study of Educa­
tion, and the United Parents Association of New York City, Inc., are other
organizations with similar programs of parent education, giving informa­
tion on home recreation.
The national Education Association sponsored a
movement for the wise use of leisure with emphasis on the home environment
in January, 1930.
The American Association for Adult Education publishes
hhe Journal of Adult Education which began a series of articles and notes
2/
on home recreation and family leisure-time activities in April, 1929“ The
American Federation of Labor publishes "The American Federationist,M which
has carried articles on leisure since 1933, with various phases of home re­
creation mentioned from time to time.
■
iI
Part of this education is to point out the recreational func-
jtion of the family and to give suggestions as to methods of procedure and
j
leisure-time activities.
i
|
The National Council of Parent Education is composed of agenj
trained
;cies which have a program under -t€s*»ed leadership in parent education as a
|major activity.
It was organized in 1925 and maintains standards in pro—
1grams and activities in parent education.
In 1932 the Council published an
i
important bibliography on Family Relationships by Flora M. Thurston.
1/
!
2/
;
At
,fAdult Education” article in "Social Work Year Book, 1939," Russell Sage
Foundation, p. 22.
Typical of these articles are: "Long Beach, Cal.t Adult Education Program,"
October 1937, p. 465: "Parenthood Institute," January 1937, p. 101; "Par­
ent Education Movie," April, 1939, p. 212; "Through Housing to Education,"
April 1939, p. 138.
104
tnat time there were 19 "books, "bulletins, articles, and studies on the re­
creational function of the family.
about 250,000 a month.
The combined circulation was probably
Periodicals devoted to parent education alone are
now classified in Ayer^s Directory of Newspapers and Periodicals.
Their
combined circulation is almost 650,000 a month.
The White House Conference^ on Child Health and Protection
has
called by President Hoover have given fresh impetus to the parent education
movement.
Its report of hundreds of pages cover many aspects of child
welfare, including recreational equipment, play suggestions, family rela­
tionships, and the importance of educating parents to an understanding of
the functions of the family, including recreation and an appreciation of
the important facts and underlying principles of child growth and nurture.
In its discussion of parent education, the conference noted
that, "In the past the approach to the problems of the young child has been
too often from arm-chair theory and too infrequently from concrete studies
of the lives of young children."
away with this problem.
Parent education, it is hoped, will do
Play cannot be led by mere theory, and the par­
ents must be taught how to play with the children.
ference were summarized;
the child is.
The tasks of the con­
"We must force the problem back to the spot where
This primarily means, and should mean, the home.
tion should be to help parents, not replace them.
Our func­
The accessories which
our civilization has brought forth for care, protection, and development
of the child should be accessories to the home and not supplant it."
In the 1940 White House Conference on Children in a Democ­
racy, four topical reports, those on religion, education, leisure time,
and libraries had been grouped as related to cultural aspects of child
life.
The President of the National Federation of Settlements reports
105
that what is outstanding is the fact that leisure puts the free time of
children on a par with their health and their education.
"Paralleling the
importance of housing, health and formal education are the uses of leisure,"
it was noted.
Like normal family life, the voluntary participation in in­
formal education and recreation under good conditions contributes to the
basic emotional needs of "friendship, recognition, adventure, creative ex—
u
pression, and group acceptance."
Outstanding among the conference recommendations on the uses
iof leisure as they pertain to home recreation are: collaboration between orjganizations concerned with the uses of children’s free time and the movie
land radio industries "in order to provide programs which will contribute t©
!
|the sound development of children , and sta,te assistance in developing and
!
lextending local public library service and special federal grants for esi
I
tabllshing rural library service to children and parents."
All of the organizations mentioned before have some kind of
iprinted information they issue to parents.
Journals, periodicals, books,
and pamphlets are constantly being sent to parents, giving helpful sug­
gestions about how to play in the home, how to develop hobbies, and offer
|
jother suggestions for recreational activities. Outstanding in this re­
spect are Parents magazine and Recreation.
Parents has a monthly circu­
lation of a little less than 500,000, and its issues contain articles on a
j
|variety of subjects pertaining to parent education for home recreation
such as: How to combat late parties in commercial dance halls by providing
Ievening entertainments at home (January, 1938); a play schedule for the
Iconvalescent at home (March, 1938); the planning of clothes for play "at
1/ "Children in a Democracy," 1940 White House Conference, Survey. February,
1940.
106
camp or in your own backyard*1 (June, 1938); two regular departments in
the magazine conduct a quiz for children and grownups as a form of enter­
tainment (March, 1938); suggestions for story telling (January, 1938); games
(March, 1938); home play (July, 1938); a regular department gives
summar­
ies of books as an aid to the home reading of the young*
Recreation, with a monthly circulation of almost 5,000 is
probably the most important publication in the field of recreation.
Some
of its articles important in the field of parent education for home re­
creation are;
Importance of hobbies and how to select one (1937, p. 341,
September, 1938, pages 327 and 339); games and suggestions for home re­
creation and parties (September, 1938); how parents can help child build
standards and select play-groups (August, 1938); how the family can use
home resources for recreation (1937, page 91); how to develop the playtogether spirit in the family (November, 1936); how the father can provide
sport activity for his entire family (1937, page 427),
Other periodicals with occasional specific reference to the
education of parents in the family function of recreation are;
Childhood
TOtcation. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,
Journal of Educational Sociology. Jou mal of Social Hygiene, ana. Progreg—
sive Education,
i /
There are 14- monthly magazines giving suggestions for
hobby and handcraft activities^ nine of them have a combined circulation of
about 1,400,000.
These magazines are not included in a listing of publi­
cations issued on one hobby alone.
Of the former type the magazines
1 / Journal of Home Economics. November 1937. p. 628-30.
ft
rt
;t
n
January 1938, p. 6-10,
Annals, November 1935 - "Trends in Parent Education
^
Chil^t™od Education. "Children and their Leisure Hours, May, 1939
Progressive Education. December 1929, "Parents Hold On,
Journal of Social Hygiene. "Education and the Eamily, “ December, 1938.
Journal of Adult Education. "Changing Conception of Adult Education,"
May, 1937.
107
Scholastic or Popular Mechanics mention various hobby activities and how
to develop them.
Of the latter type are Stamp and Cover Collectors. Stamps
and Philatelic Gossip, issued primarily for philatelists, with a combined
circulation of about 157,000 monthly.
Hobby magazines are discussed more
in detail in Chapter III.
Hundreds of organizations are interested in giving parents
a better understanding of child rearing and nurture.
They educate parents
to the significance of recreation in the home as a major function of the
family responsibilities.
Without doubt, every public and private agency
exerts some influence in this direction, either with intent or quite by ac­
cident.
It is impossible to measure the extent of this indirect education,
but the direct efforts which have been enumerated in this chapter indicate
the extent and significance of this movement of educating parents for
home recreation.
108
Chapter VII
Effect of Urban. Conditions on Home Recreation
The spectacular development of modern recreation, with its endless
varieties of forms, has accompanied the rising tide of industry and the
growth of cities during the last forty years.
so recreation expanded.
As urbanization increased,
People formerly were concerned with the problems
of pioneering— *with land settlement and the exploitation of natural re­
sources.
Then the country was largely rural in character and the forms
of recreation were simple and available to all even though many rural
people had little opportunity for social contacts and fellowship, for
cultural activities or reading.
But children played near their homes,
because of the large open areas^ while the fields, forests, and waters
gave adults opportunities for hunting, fishing, and woodland excursions.
At this time the familiar primary group of Professor C. H. Cooley was of
major importance and influence.
Folks knew their neighbors, and there
were many occasions for working and playing together.
It is recognized
that in these family, neighbor, and play groups arise the intimate asso­
ciation, the frank give-and-take, the affections and the loyalties which
make possible all other or secondary forms of orderly social life.
In
these early American groups people gained satisfactions which today must
be sought in recreational activities.
There was no need for special pro­
visions for recreation as there is under urban conditions now.
With the growth of industry, cities began to expand, and the whole
tempo of American life changed.
In 1890 only 40 per cent of the American
people lived in urban territory, while in 1930 the urban residents con­
stituted 56.2 per cent of the total population.
Between 1890 and 1930 the
number of cities over 100,000 grew from 28 to 93, while the population in
109
cities of this class increased nearly 275 per cent.
Daring this period
increasing numbers of people hitherto accustomed to outdoor life were forced
to work in factories and live in crowded urban districts.
Streets became
crowded and unsafe for play, vacant lots were built upon, and the places
formerly used for recreation were used in other ways.
With this complexity
of city life, neighborliness all but disappears and living becomes more im­
personal.
People become largely dependent upon special agencies to provide
opportunities for outdoor recreation.
The importance of the primary group
has not lessened, but man under urban conditions has been denied the in­
timate associations, the affections and loyalties.
He is forced to seek
these in the diversions of public places of amusements.
Changing urban conditions, the actual changes in the homes the speed
modern
of modern-living, the increased leisure especially in urban areas, the in­
crease of unemployment in cities, and the vicarious ways of meeting recre­
ational needs have developed the modern recreation movement, which recog­
nized play as a means to
healthful living and no longer as a form of vicious
idleness.
these urban conditions, many people
In analysing
have established
the fact that city living in city substandard areas affects behavior, in
many cases actually causing this behavior to becoike delinquent.-^
The
federal and local governments have concerned themselves at this point and
planned specifically for better housing accommodations.
Other institutions
and agencies are interested and make suggestions for improved urban living
l^-*1Statistical Abstract of the TJ. S.", U. S.Dept, of Commerce,
Bureau of the Census, p. 6 , Table 7.
2/-*"Study of Environmental Factors in Juvenile Delinquency,11 Crime
Commission of State of H. Y., 1928; "Housing & Health" Vol. VIII,
Presidents Conference on Home Ownership & Home Bldg., 1932.
"Statistics of Room Congestion", E.E.Wood. Journal of Amer. Status.
Assn. Sept., 1938.
110
conditions, such as welfare agencies and churches.
The relations between
urban conditions and delinquency, governmental planning of housing accommo­
dations, other ways of overcoming urban handicaps, and the significance of
home recreation to all these phases are developed in this chapter.
Finally,
the relation of urban conditions to rural home recreation concludes this
discussion.
Juvenile delinquency statistics, as well as those which have to do
with adult crime, point to the slum as a breeding ground.
In the blighted
sections of cities the most degenerate forces of political organizations
are found to exist where conditions are such that the physical, mental, and
moral stamina of a large proportion of the population is endangered.
The
blighted sections are, by virtue of these influences, undercutting every
civic institution and every constructive effort for well-being.
Of necessity
home recreation in the city is closely linked to community planning for re­
creation.
Where overcrowded conditions exist it is quite natural for the
children and even adults to be forced outdoors.
Then their spare time be­
comes a problem of the community.
In Chicago 25 per cent of all juvenile delinquents come from slum
areas having only 10.9 per cent of the juvenile population and occupying
only 6 per cent of the total area of the city, a recent survey found.\J
This region is marked by a lack of play space due to congestion.
Similar
ratios were found in Philadelphia, Cleveland, Birmingham, Richmond, Denver,
and Seattle.
In the Borough of Manhattan in ¥ew York City it is estimated
that less than 50 per cent of the minimum play-space requirements are avail­
able.
Spot maps of home addresses of persons convicted of a felony in 1930
in Manhattan and of the homes of children under sixteen adjudged delinquent
y -Edith Elmer Wood, "Slums & Blighted Areas in the United States".
U.S.GrOV*t Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1936, page 13.
Ill
coincide in their heaviest concentration on the lower East Side and Harlem,
and "both areas are deficient in play space. ^
in one
district 4300 children
have access to no open-air play space at all.
Healy and Bronner state that poor recreations,
that is,a conglomerate
of all sorts of poor amusements, were found in 20 per cent of the cases of
delinquents studied.
Street life in excess appeared as a very had feature
in the life of hoys in 15 per cent and of girls in 2 per cent of the total.
2/
In a survey of the Los Angeles -Department of Playgrounds and Recreation
certain findings in regard to delinquency are of interest:
Eighty-five per
cent of the delinquents in one institution had no constructive play life.
Thirty-four and seven-tenths per cent of the juvenile offences take place
in the street.
The times when most of these offences take place are three
to four o'clock in the afternoon (after school) and six to seven in the
evening (after evening meals).
and Sundays.
Most crimes are committed on Saturdays
The survey noted also that juvenile offenders are heing
turned over to recreational organizations for supervision and guidance,
and that recreational facilities are heing increased in areas with high
delinquency rates.
Wh.ile radio calls are not necessarily indices of de­
linquency, for some of the calls disclosed that hoys got into difficulties
while in search fir recreation and did not mean to violate laws, yet the
calls do reveal that inadequate home or public recreational opportunities
frequently lead to difficulties often resulting in serious delinquencies.
In a study of 124 delinquent children a detailed survey of their
spare-time habits was made.^/
It was concluded that there was a "clear
if2 "The Slum and Crime", N.Y.City Housing Authority, 1934.
-Win. Healy & Augusta Bronner, "Delinquents and Criminals? p. 179.
,D.Thurston, "Delinquency & Spare Time", Survey Committee of
the Cleveland Foundation. Win.Fell Co., Philadelphia, 1912, p. 189.
112
relation "between delinquency and spare-time habits in three-fourths of the
cases described."
Another investigator found that in 1145 cases of juvenile delinquency
there was a complexity of social forces involved, but he concluded that
home and play groups are the most important social units in preventing
juvenile delinquency.-^-/ The same author pointed out elsewhere that juvenile
delinquency results in a large measure from an unwise use of leisure time. 2/
Another author observed that many factors are involved in behavior
tendencies in general, among them the environment of the home with its re­
creational opportunities as well as those of the neighborhood:
". . w e
conclude from the findings of our analysis that the influencing factors in
the difference of preferences in relation to behsvior may be defined in terms
of racial and parental restrictions, inadequate homes, and neighborhood re­
creation poverty, to which behavior reactions are in response to individual
differences." ^
The positive effect of recreation in reducing juvenile delinquency
is established.^/ Recognition of this fact occasions a well-rounded program
for recreation departments, as will be shown later.
In commenting on the life of the child in the city, one sociologist
asserts that crowded living conditions in modern cities do not afford ade­
quate opportunities for adventure and new experience.
Home life is fre­
quently far from satisfactory, and the school does not provide sufficient
5J
freedom and new experience to satisfy the adventurous spirit of youth.w
1/ -T.E.Sullenger, "Social Determinants of Juvenile Delinquency",
University of Missouri, 1929.
3/-T .E.Sullenger, "Determinants of Del. in the Play G-roup".Playground,
Uov. 1930, pp 431-434.
-Dorothy Reed, "Leisure Time of Girls in a *Little Italy1".
^/•-Hotable among these are; R.F .Atkinson, "Delinquency and Leisure",
Russell Sage Foundation, toew York, 1924; J.E.Davis, "Principles and Practice
of Recreational Therapy", A.S.Barnes, -New York, 1936; "The Boys1 Club and
Juvenile Delinquency", Recreation, Feb., 1937
-E.S .Bogardus, "The City Boy and His Problems", 1926, p. 67.
113
In the President *s Conference on Home Building and Home Ownership a
report concluded from a survey of the relation "between delinquency and hous­
ing that delinquency is concentrated in the areas of had housing and is as­
sociated with a complex of conditions of which had housing and the neighbor­
hood are the most important.
The committee recommended that in the devel­
opment of housing plans in cities, towns, and rural districts considerations
he worked out of design, heauty of land layout, and adequate recreational
facilities to meet the needs of young and old from the point of view of play­
grounds, athletic facilities,and indoor leisure-time needs.
It substanti­
ates its conclusions by a comprehensive digest of selected and evaluated
recent materials on crime causation, including such factors as home recrea1/
tional facilities, neighborhood and home environments.
In view of the close relationship between lack of suitable recreation
opportunities at home and in the neighborhood and delinquency, police, court
and probation officials have turned to local recreation departments for aid
in preventing delinquency and in dealing with first offenders.
this co-operation varies.
The form of
Private and public agencies for recreation, ju­
venile protective committees, and probation officers coordinate their activi­
ties.
The facilities for recreation in the home and the general home atmos­
phere are always considered in dealing with the children.
The recommenda­
tions are planned to enrich, supplant or aid the accommodations for home
recreation as the case may require.-^/
Hotable examples of the success of
this service are found in San Francisco and Los Angeles.
^-"Housing and the Community-Home Repair and Remodeling1’, Washington,D.C., 1932.
2y*-G-eorge Butler, 11Community Recreation", McG-raw Hill, H.Y. London, p. 507,
508, 511.
a/-"The Director at Large Plan" San Francisco Rec. Commission, 1936;
"Directors at Large", Recreation. June 1938; "The Los Angeles County
Plan of Co-ordinating Councils", Sociology & Soc. Research, June 1935.
114
Enough has been written to indicate the significance of housing in
the general field of social behavior.
It is probably true that the attempt
to show any statistical association between housing and delinquent behavior,
bad morals, and other forms of social disorganization is questionable, yet
all social workers recognize the significance of bad housing in the lives
of their clients.
health and morals.
Bad housing creates overcrowded conditions, which affect
There is a lack of sunshine in bad housing, lack of
water, sewage accommodations, bathing facilities, not to mention lack of
recreational facilities.
ence on the slum-dwellers.
Living conditions in the slums have a gresG influ­
These conditions are largely responsible for
encouragement or discouragement, for peace and contentment or desperation
on the part of those living there.
In desperation people are reduced to
accept without reasoning any solution that appears to them and frequently
this solution includes criminal activities.
A good settlement house affords
the individual a place to live in, a place to get off the streets away from
the dark, unfriendly surroundings of his home, and an opportunity to re­
lease activities which must have an outlet and which, confined by the dull,
restricted surroundings of the slum often give way to the exciting appeal of
petty crime.
Yet the home is the primary or immediate environment of a person,
The surveys, which have been mentioned, tell of the many hours spent by the
individual at home.
But it is too much to expect that the individual will
remain in a home entirely unsuited to living conditions.
The United States
Department of Commerce in its real property inventory of 1934 taken in 64
cities in the country, excluding the largest cities which are the worst,
surveyed 1,500,000 buildings.
One-sixth of them were overcrowded, 75,000
had no running water, 202,000 had no indoor toilets, and 303,000 had no
bathing facilities.
In the large cities those are hundreds of thousands of
115
windowless rooms.
In Hew York, for example, 500,000 people lived at that
time in apartments with windowless rooms, about 1,300,000 in houses without
heat, 900,000 without hot water, 750,000 had to share toilets, and 65,000
used toilets in yards.
The home cannot be dissociated entirely from housing.
The physical
aspects of the housing environment are seen to affect health, which in
turn manifests itself in personality.
The moral aspects of the environment
lend themselves less readily to cold calculation, but social workers and
probation officers can testify to the association.
If the housing environ­
ment is deficient on all the counts mentioned above, it can hardly be ex­
pected to supply play space.
Inadequate play space is a major characteris­
tic of all overcrowded housing areas.
It has been seen that the home in the modern city can no longer be
the center of life in leisure hours.
it.
Housing conditions militate against
The majority of city families live in multiple dwellings, which means
little room and many neighbors.
This fact is illustrated by census data showing
the excess of families over dwellings for the United States.
The census in­
dicates that the number of families living in multiple dwellings is somewhat
more than the excess of families over dwellings.
That is a very significant
statement, for these intensely overcrowded sections do not afford play space
when there is not room for the meeting of actual physical needs.
In the city are found many people living apart from family life— the
rooming and lodging house population.
These people must of necessity find
their diversions in public places of amusements.
patrons of commercialized recreation.
They are among the chief
Leisure for all these people has
become mainly a restless search for excitement.
The childhood of today pays a great price for our system of living.
116
Play is the business of childhood, yet few urban children have adequate
play space.
The tenement houses of our slums are too dilapidated and
unattractive for enjoyment.
ample recreational space.
lize the streets.
Apartment houses are too small and congested for
The cars, automobiles, buses, and trucks monopo­
These factors of which overcrowding is the most signifi­
cant, drive the children out of the home to meet the need which should be
supplied at home.
It is while children are at play in these unfit places
that dangers lurk.
The home is the natural institution for play, offerig
the best opportunity for expression. The child learns to do things through
his play, and some urban children are deprived of the benefits that accrue
from it because kf a lack of recreational facilities in the home.
There is general recognition of the great need for improved home re­
creational facilities now.
Modern architects, builders, realtors, and the
government are ushering in the day of play for both child and adult in the
home.
There is a growing tendency to include play-space in apartments,
model tenements, and residential developments.
These range from indoor
playrooms to outside play areas with sandpiles, awnings, and other apparatus.
It has been found that hoMes sell faster in the neighborhoods where children
may be safely occupied. — ^ Heal estate developers take this into account in
planning subdivisions.
The National Eecreation Association submitted to
the White House Conference data on 527 subdivisions in 258 cities where
play areas have been set aside in perpetuity for the use of residents.
Most of them would be classed as community recreation, yet many may be
grouped as home recreation sites, particularly the interior block play­
grounds for small children which a number of modern apartment house develj^-George -Butler, "Community Recreation”, McG-raw Hill, 1940, p.21,22;
Hew York Herald,Tribune, Nov. 28,1937, National Appraisers* Forum;
J. E. Rogers, "The Child & Play", Century Co., 1932, p.47
117
opments are providing.
There is a joint "back yard where mothers can watch.
Sunnyside Gardens in. Long Island City, New York, is an example of this sort
of planning.
Another report of the -National Recreation Association is an example
of the concern for planning housing developments.^
"Plans for simp clear­
ance and new housing should include additional opportunity for leisure-time
pursuits . . Places for people to meet casually and comfortably for their
own private affairs and for informal social purposes would seem to he the
responsibility of the home, and the multiple dwellings which now house the
home may well meet these needs . . with the increased free time that can he
spent in the home, the provision of these facilities and amenities becomes
of increased importance."
Housing authorities, public and private, recognize recreation as an
important phase of individual and community life, and agree that provision
must be made for recreation in every housing development.
The National
Recreation Association in 1938 appointed a committee to report on standards
of outdoor recreation areas in housing developments.
The committee pre­
sented recommendations, believing thet if they are put into effect, people
in new housing developments will be assured a reasonable opportunity for a
well-balanced recreational life.
Some of these recommendations follow:
1) In the initial conception of any housing project, public or private,
due consideration should be given to the recreational needs of the people
who are to be housed.
Since housing end recreation areas involve neighbor­
hood and city planning, the housing projects should co-operate with recre­
ation, park, city planning, or other local municipal agencies.
2) In every
iy-Report of the N.Y.Committee on the Use of Leisure Time, Nat. Rec.
Asso., p. 60-61.
118
housing development play lots should be set aside within,
for each group of dwellings.
each block or
Wherever practicable within housing develop­
ments, the space not occupied by buildings should be utilized for the in­
formal recreation of children, young people, and adults.
3) In planning
for recreation in housing developments, the need for indoor recreation
facilities should be considered as well as the need for outdoor recreation
1/
areas.
In 1936 the Housing Division of the PWA in Housing and Delinquency
found a relationship between substandard housing and juvenile delinquency
and pointed out that some adult criminals first become involved in delin­
quent behavior as juveniles.
The influence of housing upon delinquency
is purely in the nature of a contributing environmental factor.
Therefore
the benefits of better housing should assert themselves among young people
rather than among grown-ups,
Undesirable housing is not only characterized
by physical disrepair, inadequate facilities, room congestion, and land over­
crowding, but it is also accompanied by a lack of recreational facilities.
The United States Central Housing Commi££ee suggested in 1937 univer­
sity research in housing as a field of serviceable study.
The Committee
issued a document indicating the incidence of many housing problems, and
the speead of their social and economic implications.
out the need for more scientific analysis of the
It then pointed
problems of slums,
breaking them down into a number of inter-related problems, for example,
land utilization, which includes free space, et cetera, and architectural
designs, which allows for central play areas.
jJLm
"Play Space in New Neighborhoods", National Recreation Association.
New York City, 1939.
119
As a result of much investigation and analysis, the Housing Divi­
sion of the FWA and its successor, the United States Housing Authority,
have established play areas and facilities in their developments and
have emphasized the importance of recreation in all housing projects.
The words of Nathan Straus, Administrator of Housing and Recreation,
1/
indicate the governmental attitude toward the whole problem.
"The
Public Housing Program of the United States Housing Authority should
mean much more than the construction of decent dwellings for families
who now live in the slums.
It must mean better cities and better
citizens— cities with less cUime, less juvenile delinquency, and a
lower death rate; citizens equipped to
lead fuller, healthier, and more
useful lives . . As a setting for the whole life' of the community, a
public housing project must be designed to meet the needs and the am­
bitions and the hopes of all its inhabitants, from the youngest child
to men and women . . . any consideration of the recreational needs of
the individuals in a
housing project must also include a study of
facilities which are available outside its boundaries . . . There is a
need for active play as well as a need for recreation and rest."
The development of large scale public housing projects has present­
ed to housing and recreation authorities alike the problem of furnish­
ing reef eat ion service to the people occupying the new dwellings.
Co­
operation by the recreation department has been primarily of two types:
1 ) providing leadership at indoor facilities within the housing develop­
ment and 2 ) establishing recreation areas in close proximity to the
if- U.S. Housing Authority,Nov. 1939, U.S.Federal Works Agency.
120
housing units.
Sine© recreation areas in public housing projects are
usually open to persons in the surrounding neighborhood, it seems reasonable
to expect that housing authorities will look to local recreation depart­
ments to provide leadership at these areas, as at other properties open
to public use.
1/
According to a description of FWJL Federal Housing Projects,
all 54
thus far built in America allow for recreation in providing recreation or
work rooms, play walks, gardens, and supervision in some of them.
It is
clear that the government recognizes the importance of home recreation and
is making provisions to that end.
It is recommended that buildings should
be constructed on not more than one-fourth of the land in these housing
projects so that the majority of the area can be landscaped or turned into
small parks or playgrounds.
In describing the four housing projects in Chicago, the Chicago Re­
creation Survey indicates the extent of recreational provisions in each.
The recreation problem for these homes is by no means solved simply by
providing space and facilities for recreation.
The Commission recommends
that there must be leadership and supervision of recreation in order to
give it the necessary impetus for use.
w...We recommend that the type of
examination for . . . recreation workers place greater emphasis upon the
scientific attitude, realistically objective and self critical, upon
personal aptitudes as being even more important than training, upon dy­
namic personality, and upon ability in the field practically’to ap$ly
and adapt methods and procedures more effectively to socialize the program
11- M. Straus, T. Wegg, "Housing Co$es of Age", U.Y. Oxford Univ.
Press, 1938.
121
of activities. ..It should inquire . . .
into ability to transfer train­
ing into terms of practical and varied applications to life situations in
the field.11
Apparently the provision of recreational facilities in the home is not
enough in so far as groups of homes are concerned in apartments and housing
projects.
Authorities now feel that there must be leadership and supervision
where groups of people are concerned.
One study points out that problems
arise when large groups of people come together for any purpose.
Problems
of age, race, nationality, cultural level, et cetera, enter in when people
2/
play together, sometimes resulting in destruction of recreational property.
This fact is also observed in the number of unused recreational
facilities in large apartment houses.
There are instances where swimming
pools, recreation rooms, and play areas in apartments have been converted
to other uses, because of the fact that they were either misused or not
used at all.
This actually goes on in private homes too where unused re­
creation rooms in th©
empty.
nificant.
basement have been converted into a laundry or left
But the extent of this lack of use and misuse is probably not sig­
Statistics could not be secured of the extent of reconstruction
of houses to include recreation rooms, but there is one index showing the
significance of this phase.
The number of articles from January, 1929 to
June 1940 listed in the Readers1 Guide to Periodical Literature pertaining
to the conversion of unused sections of the home into recreation rooms or
"rumpus" rooms now totals 152.
In the section on Home Improvement and Re­
modeling the report of Housing and the Community of the Presidents ConlA- G h i o ^ o Recreation Survey, Vol. V, Recommendations, p. 51
«Eecreation and Welfare Reports,'1 Housing Bivision. Federal Emer. Bureau
of Public Works.
122
.ference on Home Building and Home Ownership devotes considerable space
to suggestions for reconditioning the home, including the planning for re­
creation space.
The lack of recreational facilities in homes in urban areas is center­
ing attention on needed reforms in zoning laws throughout the country.
The
apace requirements of a neighborhood zoned for apartments will differ from
those of one restricted to single family dwellings.
Land for children*s
playgrounds, "tot-lots", parkways will be required in areas zoned for
residential developments, but not in areas zoned for manufacturing.
1/
There
is a greater degree of guidance and control through subdivision regulation
and definite programs of public improvements.
All of these plans are cog­
nizant of the basic need for better recreation in the home, and where
large-scale housing prohibits extensive play space in the home itself,
these plans allow for recreation space for the communal use of all the
families.
There are a number of private housing developments, in addition
to the governmental ones previously mentioned.
Some large metropolitan
regions in this country afford an opportunity for these private enterprises,
and some of them include recreational facilities although admitting that
2/
most recreation should be provided by public agencies.
There are a number of other ways of meeting the home recreational
need, which is peculiar to urban localities.
“There is a tendency to
eliminate the alley and make better use of the back yard of the home; to
front the house on the side or back of the lot; and in a few cases to con-
2/
solidate the back yards into a neighborhood play space."
Tj/— Seorge Butler, on. cit. p. 142-146.
2^- filricgLgo Recreation Survey. Vol. 1, p. 13, and "Play Space in Hew
neighborhoods” National Recreation Assn. , 1939 p. 21 & 22.
&/- Chicago Recreation Survey:. Vol. I p. 8
123.
For the people living in congested sections of some cities, recrea­
tion departments, as well as private agencies, are providing opportunities
to garden in blocks of land set aside for this purpose.
Frequently these
gardening areas are located on the outskirts of the city, and transporta­
tion facilities are provided the people from the slum areas.
Various other plans have appeared for meeting the limitations of
urban areas on recreation in the home.
In Hew York City neighborhood day
camps have been established on top of roofs and in open lots or yards.
These take care of the children in the community after school and during
2f
the summer vacation months.
In February, 1938, a bill was introduced in the House of Commons of
£
England for street playgrounds.
This was to affect places of 20,000
inhabitants or more by restricting or prohibiting traffic in streets in
order to have play space for the children.
In Hamburg, Germany, there are
three different sections having play streets.
In .America the Hew York Crime
Prevention Bureau decided to bring recreation to the front, doorsteps of
children in slum areas since adequate play space was not accessible to all
children and adults.
The extent of this movement has been pointed out
elsewhere in this study.
There are modifications of this general trend to
provide play space for children where it is lacking in their homes or
neighborhood.
There is a self-governing project in Hew York called the
Hudson Guild Roller-Skate Hockey League, for example.
The First International Congress on Workers1 Spare Time met at Liege
in 1934, with 300 members from 18 countries, and governments of 14 countries
If-"Neighborhood Day Camping in Hew York City", Re_creation.May 1938,p.79
2f-"Street Playgrounds", Recreation, May 1938, p. 104
3f-Ruth Mullaney, "Play Streets", Joumal of Health & Physical Education.
Sept., 1938, p. 434.
4 "Street Games to Check Crime". Literary Digest, Jan. 26,1935,p. 19
124
.officially represented.
Without attempting to solve the problem of
adequate housing for workers, the groups insist that proper housing and
city planning are essential prerequisites to socially or individually
valuable utilization of leisure.
Excessive urbanization and bad transpor­
tation facilities deprive the worker of much of his nominal free time.
The Songress also found that lack of space in his home throws the worker
upon the streets and into commercialized amusements.
Suggestions were
made to meet this recognized problem.
Magazines are concerned with this problem, as the titles of a few
fepresentative articles indicate.
"Oklahoma Backyard in Action" , 11Living
100$ on a Small City Lot", "A Landscaped Sandpile", "Around the World in
a Backyard", "Open-A ir Meals", "The Maine Woods in your Backyard".
These
articles appear in Parents, Better Homes and Gardens, Becreation. American
Home magazines.
The tenor of these articles appears in "Places to Play"
in Becreation. July, 1938.
The purpose was "to remind you once more of the
importance of play in the home."
play.
Every child is entitled to a place to
In the country providing a play place is easy.
But in cities and
the suburbs the question of importance is how to lay out the average-size
lot so as to provide an outdoor playground in addition to an attractive
setting for the home.
Plans, cuts, and diagrams were reproduced illus­
trating the possibilities in neglected backyards for desirable recreation
space not only for children but adults as well.
It was found that the best
way to have a playground and a garden on the same lot is to put the flower
beds in the front or side yard, leaving the back yard, or most of it,
for family recreation.
numerous other articles have appeared calling attention to the reI creational possibilities in various parts of the urban house.
i
I
i
These can
125
. all be developed with a minimum of expense but much imagination.
All recreation workers throughout the country are closely concerned
with the development of city planning, which has just begun to catch the
imagination of our population.
They are concerned, too, with the develop­
ment of the housing movement by means of which the majority of homes will
be provided with more adequate recreational facilities than has been the
case in the past and thus be enabled to supplement the work done in the
recreation centers.
The city plays an important conditioning role as far as rural areas
are concerned.
This is increasingly important in the field of recreation,
with specific reference to home recreation.
There seems to be a relation­
ship between the birth-rate and other social indices, and the distance
from the city of any measured unit of population such as the people of a
group of counties.
lor example, the fecundity of papulation increases
5/
with the distance from the city.
This greater proportion of children
within the rural portion of society suggests that if other factors were
equal, there should be more recreation in rural homes. Other factors are
not equal, however, for the surveys mentioned in Chapter II show that there
is a decrease of leisure-time in rural and farm areas as over ageinst urban
sectionsl
Brunner and Kolb also found that the farm population makes a
disproportionately large contribution to the youth of the nation and to
3/
the city.
There is a general declining birth-rate with a corresponding
l^Consult "Built-ins for G-rowing-ups " Better Homes & Gardens. Jan.,
1938; "Archery in the Becreation Program”, Recreation. July, 1938;
wHints tp the Treasure Hunt Leader”, Recreation. Bov. 1938;
"Basement Rifle Range", Popular Science. March, 1935.
2^-Brunner & Kolb, " Rural Social Trends", McG-raw Hill, H.Y. & London,
1933, p. 119.
3^- Brunner & Kolb, Ibid., p. 128
older population.
This is resulting in ofewer differences between the city
and the rural populations though
these differences will be greater the
farther from the city one goes.
The general result is that despite varying factors in rural and urban
areas, these terms are becoming more relative.
Features which formerly
characterized them are shading into one another because of mutual and
continual readjustments.
The city recognized its equity in rural youth
and is educating him accordingly.
This education includes his leisure
needs both in and out of the home.
As was pointed out elsewhere, public
and private agencies for recreation are concerning themselves with the
whole problem of what goes on during leisure time and sire educating and
planning for all types of recreation, including home recreation.
Retired
people are moving to villages and rural areas and taking with them a con­
cern for their leisure hours.
2/
disappearing.
Regional differences, therefore, are
Forms of home recreation are becoming more or less uniform in rural
and urban areas.
Undoubtedly the various agencies which have a close re­
lationship with recreation in the home are influencing this trend.
One of
the most noticeable trends in rural social life is the increase in informal
recreation, depending on family life and home recreation.
Brunner and Kolb
in commenting on this trend of informal recreation in rural areas, note
the fact that the use of local agencies for commercial recreation has
declined, and that in general social life in American agricultural villages
was on a distinctly higher and more wholesome plane in 1930 than in 1924.
it- Ibid. p. 111.
127
M. . There were fewer poolrooms . . .
also fewer . . .
Moving picture theaters were
In terms of programs and activities, the change has
been from hedonistic and
lodge groups to those more socialized in
character . . .
recreation and social life have increased . . .
informal
All in all, it seems that social life in American agricultural
villages was on a distinctly higher and more wholesome plane . . . "
2/
From this survey of the effects of urban conditions on leisure­
time activities, with particular reference to the home, it is evident
that leisure is becoming
socialized.
monopoly of any one class.
It is no longer the exclusive
The home of the worker in the slum is as im­
portant to him as is the home of a business executive in the suburbs.
Recreation in both homes is of utmost importance in the personality develop­
ment, in the behavior tendencies, in the stability of the families of the
people dwelling in them.
There is much more democractic approach to the
recreational as well as the physical needs of every member of society.
Housing accomodations are being improved, because it is generally ad­
mitted that the home is the natural place for recreation.
To this end
there are governmental, public, and private agencies making vigorous
attempts to control urban and rural conditions so that recreation can
become an integral part of the home again.
128
Chapter VIII
Effect of the Depression on Home Recreation
Home recreation has teen shown to he modified by urban conditions,
this effect sometimes being permanent and on a large scale.
The con­
siderable change in the recreational role of the family is not entirely
accounted for hy urbanism, however.
Other forces and influences must he
at work to account for the diminishing importance of the family, which
many observers consider increasingly alarming.
The amount of research
done on the family institution proves its contemporary significance.
What changes are going on in the family?
What occasions these changes?
What changes in the various aspects of the family institution are occurring
due to conditions, presumably beyond control?
These are some of the ques­
tions the business depression has been studied in its effect on various
aspects of the family, including recreation in the home.
This chapter dis­
cusses these changes in home recreation due to the depression, 1930 to 1936.
The depression seemed to manifest itself in problems of salary and wage
cuts, unemployment, and reduced budgets.
Quite naturally these necessi­
tated a retrenchment of individual expenditures for recreation in the home.
People were forced to turn to forms of recreation which were inexpensive
or available at no cost.
This curtailment of commercial recreation as it
pertains to the home is the concern of one part of this chapter.
The other
and perhaps the more important concern has to do with the effect of the
depression on attitudes and relationships of family members as it has to
do with their recreation.
The reports of the Census of Manufactures, Census of Business, and
others all indicate drastic slashes in the amounts of money spent on
various forms of home recreation.
The net sales of amusement and sport-
129
ing goods, for example, decreased 44$ in value from 1929 to 1933,
of this particular item is used in recreation in the home.
Much
Families with
decreased income reported in a study made at the University of Minnesota
in 1933 that they had reduced expenditures as follows:
l) purchase of
durable goods, 62$; 2) purchase of clothing, 60$; 3) rent or home upkeep,
40$; 4) education, recreation, and similar expense, 36$; 5) debt payments,
i/
29$; and 6) purchase of food, 22$.
The size of the particular reduction
for recreation suggests that it played a more important role in the lives
of the people investigated than did the homes in which they lived.
Educa­
tion and recreation were almost as important to these people as eating,
and the reduction in their expenses touched those items least.
The amount of money spent on toys, games, and musical instruments—
all phases of home recreation——in 1933 fell off to one—third of the
amount spent in 1927, one study in the social aspects of the depression
2/
found.
The general tendency during the depression apparently was to buy
less of those commodities which are part of home recreation.
did not decline, but showed a marked increase.
photography.
But two items
These were radio and
The candid camera craze was born during the depression, and
is still growing.
It was found further that the number of families own­
ing radios increased by four million between 1930 and 1932, and made a
further gain of six million between 1932 and 1935.
People spent considerably less time and money at commercial places
of amusement during depression years.
Even with reduced prices of admis­
sion, professional games and sports received less public sport.
Baseball
lV—H. S. Vaile, '’Impact of the Depression on Business Activity and Keal
Income in Minnesota", Univ. of Minn., 1933, pp43-48.
2-^-Jesse F. Steiner, "Research Memorandum on Hecreation in the Depression",
SnrH a! Science Research Council. New York, 1937.
130
attendance, for example, fell off 30 to 40 per cent.
Attendance at movies
declined from 117,000,000 in 1930 to 60,000,000 in 1933, and 80,000,000
in 1935.
‘'Daring the depression . . . those forms of mass recreation that
the individual could enjoy at minimum expense were apparently in great de­
mand.
Parks were very popular in spite of lack of funds for proper maun■LmJ
tenance."
^®
SOIQG
passing interest to note that while attendance at /commercial
amusements fell off, the attendance at roof gardens and cabarets held its
own and actuaL ly increased.
It is possible that this latter recreation
offered the better "escape” to some people than they could find in their
homes.
The American Automobile Association estimated that in 1933 at least
$3,000,000,000 were spent on automobile touring vacations.
Twenty-eight
million people, in 8,000,000 cars, travelled an average of 3,276 miles
in 14 days and spent an average of $7.00 per day. During the depression
2/
the bus industry stood its ground well, implying little, if any, reduc­
tions in motoring expenses.
"The amount of money spent by motorists on
vacation tours during 1936 will exceed the 2.6 billion dollars expended
3/
in 1933."
Those statements plus the fact that almost $5,000 000,000 was
4/
spent on pleasure motoring in 1935 makes apparent the fact that the depression did not seriously curtail domestic vacation travel.
sJ
People,
even in the lower income group, kept their cars and gave up nearly everything
else.
While not a phase of home recreation, this automobile touring is a
S. Vaile, "Besearch Memorandum on Social Aspects of Consumption in
the Depression", Soc. Sc. Be s . Council. New York, 1937, p. 42.
—"Economic and Social Values of the Motor Vehicle", National Highwav
Users Conference. Nat11 Press Bldg., Washington, D.C. April, 1937.
3/ -National City Bank of New York, "Economic Conditi ons, U .S . S e cur itxe s,
Governmental Finance", Sept., 1936.
4j£—U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1935.
5/-R. S. Vaile, on. cit.. p. 24.
131
significant part of what the family does as a group for recreation.
Listening to the radio, participating in amateur photography, taking
trips together in the automobile took more money than all other forms
of family and home recreation.
With the increased participation in these
few forms of relatively expensive recreations, there was an accompanying
increase in cheaper recreations like reading for the masses.
Research on
the social aspects of reading during the depression found that the printing
of books, pamphlets, magazines, Sunday and daily hewspapers declined from
v
1929 to 1933 in this order.
The rental of books decreased also during the
depression.
According to public library circulation figures, the same
economic conditions which reduced the sales of printed matter and the rental.
of books also increased the general desire to read.
of about
There was an average
40$ in the reading of public library books from 1929 to 1933.
Other figures indicate a change in library circulation per 100 persons from
2/
450 in 1929 to 550 in 1932, 500 in 1933, and 450 in 1934.
Non-fiction
copies of books and pamphlets produced per 100 persons changed from 190 in
1929 to 120 in 1933.
Books of fiction produced per 100 persons changed
radically from 370 in 1929 to 150 in 1931, and 75 in 1933.
The average
number of telephone conversations per year changed from 230 in 1929, 200
in 1931, to 190 in 1933.
The yearly per capita first class mail changed
noticeably also from 140 in 1929, 120 in 1931, 85 in 1933, to 100 in 1934.
These figures suggest that
communication with one's friends declined dur­
ing the depression because
of the expense involved.
People resorted to
the public libraries to keep informed although the actual production of
books, magazines, and newspapers was slightly curtailed.
i/— D. Waples, "Research Memorandum on Social Aspects of Reading in
the Degression11TSoc.Sc.Res.Council. New York, 1937, p. 189.
P. Ogburn, "Indexes of Social Trends", American Journal of
Sociologyr May 1935, p. 822.
132
The home circulation of books of the Chicago Public Library in­
dicates an interesting trend during the depression years.
home circulation was over. 13,000,000.
In 1930 the
It increased to almost 16,000,000
in a year and then began to decline until it reached in 1935 the lowest
point in 15 years. This figure was a little over 10,000,000, but has
.
.
13,000,000.
been increased gradually until in 1939 it was almos ■£/!#-,-000. The trend
can probably be explained by re-employment in 1933 and 1934 when many
who had used books merely as a refuge, slipped back to former habits
as soon as money could be released for commercial amusements.
"The sudden increase in the leisure of many men and fewer women
between the ages of twenty-five and forty-five, afforded a longsought opportunity to repair their educational deficiencies, especially
along vocational lines, in the hope of increasing their incomes, The
testimony also indicates, as one might suppose, that the urge toward
vocational reading was strongest among the underprivileged, who doubt­
less expected more help from books than they actually found in them;
hence the somewhat abrupt decline in the vocational reading of non­
student groups after 1933." 1J
The general decrease in money spent on home recreation during the
depression does not mean a corresponding decrease in recreational
activities. . Old equipment was made over and substitutes were found.
Another study of the social aspects of the depression found that there
were marked shifts and apparent total increases in recreational acti­
vities throughout this period as well as during recovery from 1933 to
2/
1936.
It is these shifts in recreational activities that are of
interest to this study.
The Los Angeles County Department of Recreational Camps and Play­
grounds operating in the county apart from larger cities reported that
the attendance in the centers provided or sponsored by them increased
five-fold during the first three years of the business depression, which
xj- p. Waples, "Research Memorandum on Social Aspects of Reading
in the Depression", p. 198.
Jesse P. Steiner, Op. Cit.
133
represents largely an increase of adult recreation.
Apparently the use of
leisure was determined not by the desires of people, but by economic limi­
tations throwing an added burden of responsibility upon governmental
agencies in the recreation field.
Local recreation authorities did their
utmost to provide the greatest possible service with the curtailed funds
at their disposal, but the recreation needs of the people would have been
unmet had it not been for the financial resources made available by emergency agencies.
y
These Federal Projects have been discussed in another
chapt er.
That the depression through a general curtailment of income, in­
creased dependence on inexpensive and personal leisure time resources is
a plausible assumption in the light of the findings of some surveys on
the subject.
As suggested above, many turned to public agencies to supply
their recreational needs, which had been taken care of formerly in the
home.
But there was also curtailment in the amount of money available in
these public agencies also, and quite frequently the children suffered.
Studies indicate that the children felt the dissension and strained re­
lations at home due to continued lack of money and to the worry and irri­
tation which their parents were feeling.
Occasionally the children broke
away from parental control as is indicated in the following quotation:
"You may be sure a boy's free time (Resulting from depression unemploy­
ment) is seldom spent at home.
As one boy wrote, 'The only time I spend
at home is on request.1 Another makes the comnent, 'I hate to, but I do
£/
spend some time on street corners*".
Hard times threw leisure in high
Consult cost records and financial reports of Department of Play­
ground and Recreation of Los Angeles and "Los Angeles Trains for
enlarged Leisure", Recreation. Oct. 1933.
24- Helen Hall, "When Leisure Palls", National Conference of Social
Work", 1932, page 311.
relief with the result that there was better planning for children's
recreational needs.
Many agencies, by co-operating with the homes in
this respect, were able to salvage the wasted energies of these youth
£
A contrary effect was seen in the following study, which found
some children staying at home rather than going away from it.
In 40
families or 51$ of all families studied, all forms of paid recreation
were discontinued and the families began to use free recreational
activities.
In 14 families almost all recreation stopped.
This was
especially true of those families where there were a number of adolescent
children.
These children did not want to participate in social activities
where they were forced to wear cheap or worn clothing.
Unpublished case studies suggest that the husband and wife probably
spent more of their recreational hours together, listening to the radio
at home for example.
sf There
others than family members.
was a general withdrawal from contacts with
It sometimes is questionable whether this
being "marooned" at home strengthens or weakens family bonds.
The de­
pression might improve marital relations, but sow seeds for ultimate
weakening, it is probably true, but the fact remains that the depression
for many people increased the possibilities of recreation in the home.
2j
These facts are discussed at length in two other studies.
Both studies
agree that families well—organized before the depression crisis was en­
countered, were invulnerable to any sort of permanent disorganization
based upon shifts in roles or loss of prestige of any of their members
JL^~Esther Smerdloff, "Effect of the Depression on Family Life," Family.
Jan. 1933, page 310 ff.
2^—S. Stouffer & P. Lazarsfeld, "Research Memorandum on the Family in
the Depression", Soc. Sc.Res.Coun. New York, 1937.
-Cavan & Ranck, "The Family and the Depression", Univ. of Chicago
Press 1938, and Robert Cooley Angell, "The Family Encounters the
Depression", Chas. Scribner's Sons, 1936.
135
resulting from decrease of income.
This does not mean that they felt no
reaction to the decrease in income.
It was indicated that such families
were deeply affected "by their position hut that they were able to retain
their structure and tended to increase in unity.
This unity was invari-*
ably manifested in increased home recreation as is seen in the following:
"The Baxters did a good deal together.
They frequently played golf, or
bridge, went driving or attended church or a movie as a group.
Every
Sunday night they held open house and their friends dropped in to pop
1/
corn, play simple games, and otherwise enjoy a sociable evening."
On the other hand, both studies found that disorganized families,
unintegrated and not adaptable before the depression, could not resist
the pressure of decreased income at all but yielded to it in unpredict­
able ways.
The worry was accompanied by greatly increased disintegration
of the family.
Only occasionally was partial reorganization effected.
With this disintegration in family patterns of relationships, hoipe re­
creation disappeared.
The tendency was just to sleep and eat at home
and frequently these too disappeared.
It was found in both studies that the ideals and traditions, the
customs and codes of the family, and the personal attitudes and habits of
its members continue through a crisis.
They determine the vulnerable
points of the family life and also the ways in which the family will re­
act to a crisis.
In general the depression, as a social crisis, has tended
to intensify the trends of family life already in operation.
If recreation
occurred in the home prior to the depression, it received an impetus
because of it.
Each member became imaginative to a greater degree, and
ij— Robert Cooley Angell —
Ci.t. , page 24.
156
participated in various new forms of home recreation stimulated by in­
creased unity in the family.
If there were little or no recreation in
the home before the depression, the tendency was for it to disappear
completely.
Families intermediate in integration and adaptability showed
varying degress of disorganization.
This manifested itself likewise in
various aspects of home recreation.
Habitually many of the old play in­
terests go on, but the old vigor seems to be lost in those families less
well organized.
Spontaneity disappeared in their participation in home
play.
Another study of the normal family life of what are classed as reason­
ably happy and successful people was made with conclusions of interest to
Jj
this study.
It appears that by 1933 only about 6 per cent of the entire
group of families lacked a radio or an automobile.
Pianos were reported
in more than three—fourths of all the homes represented, and other musi­
cal instruments, including phonographs, in about half of them.
These
families were, therefore, exceptionally well supplied with means for
creating entertainment for themselves and their friends.
It was apparent that in 1933 as well as in 1927, these families were
engaging in a wide variety of recreational activities, and since only about
one-fourth of the mothers listed commercial amusement among the most en­
joyable kinds of family recreation, most of the activities depended on the
initiative of the members of the family.
reduced the entertaining at home.
favorite family recreations were
sports.
The depression appears not to have
In both
the
riding in the
above-mentioned years the
car, picnics, andoutdoor
Few families were mainly dependent on commercial amusements.
3F W
-inona L. Morgan, "The Family
Press, 1939, page 49 and ff.
Meets the Depression", Univ. ofMinn.
The
13 7
^majority had not been affected by the depression to the extent that they
had had to give up summer vacations.
In the light of the findings of
Angell and Cavan and Ranck, these families would probably be considered
to be highly-integrated and well-organized.
Prior to the crisis of the
family they appeared highly-adaptable, and participated as a group in
family and home recreation.
The depression apparently intensified the
trend twward integration in these families, giving the individual members
a greater opportunity for companionship and co-operation in regard to home
recreat ion.
The National Recreation Association study of the Leisure Needs of
5000 People found that the participation in home activities during the
depression was 64$ greater than during preceding years, whereas the parti­
cipation in outside activities increased only 5$.
Some individuals indi­
cated how the lack of employment and loss of income had deprived them of
social contacts and opportunities for enjoyable leisure-time activities.
Others indicate how because of or in spite of reduced employment and in­
come, they had found new interests in life and outlets for self-expression.
If a better knowledge of the families before the depression were had, these
findings would no doubt substantiate still further the conclusions of
Angell and Cavan and Ranck.
Two quotations are of interest:
"An instance of home sharing with home, in fact a bit of neighbor­
hood co-operation, it shown in a neighborhood where one family owning a
radio regularly invites the members of 7 or 8 other families to assemble
at 5 o'clock and 'listen in' at a favorite story-hour."
"Frequently it is reported 'I have more time for the things I
enjoy at home' or 'curtailed income has necessitated more home or
public recreations'.
Others say they are staying home more with their
children.
A number of fathers are making things with their children;
there has been particular mention of spending more time with their boys
12 8
In home workshops11.
Another quotation indicates the increased satisfaction derived from
the results of the depression.
"The present economic depression has taught many to skeletonize
their wants and to eliminate for the most part commercial amusements
and expensive enjoyments.
Much to thesurprise of many they have found
greater enjoyment in forms of recreation that cost very little."
Harwell sees people getting out of the feverish existence hy going
hack or "forward" to reliance on their own initiative and abilities.
The
depression has aided this in part and he sees in this trend a good sign.$
Another man writing shortly after the darkest days of the depress­
ion in 1933 says,
"'When I lost my old Job, I had to sell my car. This seemed like
a real hardship at first hut I soon found out how much genuine pleasure
and good exercise I had been missing all the -qhile instead of walking. ..
This simple recreation has also provided me with a hobby— botany....
I read much more now than I used to and there is infinitely greater
purpose in my reading... .<3u-ite in contrast to past habits, I go to the
movies very rarely. One reason is the cost. Another they no longer
satisfy me...EnJoying life, in the true sense of living it more richly,
has become our aim instead of making a living'". ±j
There was general concern felt at the time of the depression that
diversion in the form of increased home recreation was desperately needed
by all.
It was admitted that this need was necessary to a wholesome mode
of living in normal times, but that it became acute in times of depression.
This attitude is seen in the following*
"In this time of unemployment and depression, recreation is an
important brace to the lowered spirit of our communities. .. .We need
a revival of play spirit in the home and in our community and especially
among adults. Let us make the play spirit of our home and our commun­
ity contagious and the effects will be felt throughout the country." 5J
1/-"Lei sure-Time of 5000 People",
.St^dy, pp 28 & 29.
2/-Neumeyer, MH. andE.S. "Leisure and Recreation" , New York, A. S.
Barnes, page 358, 1936.
3y£—Arthur Farwell, "Let Us Play", Scribners. Sept. 1934, pp. 145-150
4/— "Adult Life Enrichment", Recreation. Dec. 1934, page 413.
5/-L1 oyd Burgess Sharp, "The Need for Recreation in Times of Depres­
sion", Recreation. July 1933, p. 193.
139
The author then makes suggestions for recreational activities to
he indulged in hy the family with little or no expense.
Civic Gardens Plans, Subsistence Homesteads, Community Service Plans
and other groups have recognized the value of the War Gardens Movement of
1917—1918 and planned a similar movement during the depression to meet
the exigencies of those latter times.
1/
They felt that the food gardens
offered to restless, harassed minds a desperately needed diversion in
channels sufficiently constructive to forestall any possible psychological
outbreak that might have been inimical to the nation*s immediate task of
winning the war.
They called into service the same principle during the
depression in tha nature of thrift gardens for the unemployed.
Federal
and State governments alike gave support to the community gardens idea,
not so much because of the value of the food in itself, but because
•'they offered opportunity for occupying minds and physical energy, and
acted as a stop-gap to any potential upsetting of the already threatened
economic regine.11
The depression, then, through a general curtailment of income, in­
creased the dependence on inexpensive and personal leisure time resources.
Most commercial forms of home recreation declined because of the need for
cutting down expenses.
Some commercial activities suffered no decline,
but on the contrary expanded, such as photography and the radio.
People
were forced to look to public and private agencies and to their own
homes as a result of this new emphasis placed on recreation during the
depression.
Some families, well-organized before the economic crisis,
were adaptable and rode through the storm actually increasing their home
1^— "The Challenge of Leisure", pages 85-99.
I4u
recreational activities.
Others, not so well—integrated, became less
■unified during the depression, with a consequent disintegration of re­
creational activities in the home.
On the whole, therefore, it can be
concluded that recreation in the home for the most part increased during
4
the depression, which forced people to look to themselves for new satis­
factions, which formerly were supplied by comnercial substitutes.
The
radio was a means of keeping people at home, but whether it actually
unified family relationships is questionable.
The depression has placed
considerably new emphasis on home recreation and leisure-time activities.
With the ending of the depression, this new emphasis has continued and
grown and is working toward a closer relationship between public and
private agencies for recreation and the home.
141
Chapter IX
Effect of* the Automobile, Motion Pictures, and Radio
on Home Recreation
The automobile, motion pictures, and radio unquestionably account for
most of the leisure hours of most people in the country.
There
is an estimated
pleasure motoring bill of $5,000,000,000 a year, and the average passenger car
1/
travels 3,370 miles annually for pleasure and recreation.
The motion picture
attendance every week in 1929 was between 100 and 115 million, and in 1939,
85,000,000 weekly*
In 1935 of 37,677 places of amusements, nearly one—third
were motion picture theaters, and the movies accounted for 72.7j£ of the total
receipts of all amusement places or $486,400,077.00.
"According to a 1938
estimate, there were some 33,000,000 radios in the homes, cars, and meeting
places of the nation, and between 84 and 90 million people listened to the
-
y
radio each day".
This outstanding amount of money and attention paid to
three forms of recreation has occasioned much research on their conditioning
role in people* s lives.
These recreational forms are passive, that is, people in participating
in t hem do not contribute but merely receive.
In Middletown it was found
that the leisure of virtually all women and of most of the men over thirty
is mainly spent sitting down.
-1/
This passive participation has given rise
to alarm on the part of some who feel that Americans are becoming soft and
5/
content to take their recreation vicariously.
They have given an unpleasant
name to this situation— Spectatoritis. and appeal to Individuals and agencies
to correct the situation.
Others are less interested in the physical effects of thes6
1/— U.S. Dept, of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1935 and Automobile Pacts
and Figures, American Manufacturers Assn., 1939.
2/— "Census of Business, 1935". U.S. Dept, of Commerce, 1937
3/— George D. Butler "Community Rec.", McGraw Hill, 1940, p.42
4/— Robert & Hdlen Lynd, "Middletown", 1929, p. 226.
5/— "Spectator!tis", Jay Bryan Nash and C. H. McCloy "How About Some
Muscle" J o U m a l of Healtn & Physical Education. May 1936.
142
forms of recreation and are more concerned with the social effects.
One
sociologist sees the home disintegrating because of the fact that recreation
is no longer a function of the family and depersonalized.
People want
amusement and not recreation, and the automobile and the movies take people
from the home to amuse them while the radio brings amusement but not recreation
3J
back to the home.
Another writer asserts that the movie and motor-bus have made it possible
for husband and wife to find entertainment outside the home, but whether the
radio has had a contrary effect is not yet clear.
He goes on to say that the
major social effect of the radio is the Increase of entertainment at home.
This may end in keeping people nearer to the rest of their families; but it
would be an exaggeration to say that it brought them more closely into touch
with their homes.
Of the genergl effect of these three forms of commercial
recreation he states, "Acquiescence in traditional household customs and in
the old-fashioned home is disappearing; largely because of new i&ays of using
leisure and because children as well as adults are less dependent upon the
other members of their household for their interests ... .
like all social
changes, the change in the attitude toward home and family . . .
Is not
welcomed generally.
But It is not due to any new theory or gospel; it is the
2/
effect of new occupations, of the motor-bus, the movies, and the radio".
The first chapter in this study points out the concern on the part of
experts who feel that m o d e m recreation, particularly as expressed in these
three specific forms— the automobile, the
IF T.-
D. Eliot "Some Present-Day Social Problems of'.the ta^rfeazl Family,"
Proceedings of the 41st Annual Convention of Assn. of Land-Grant
Colleges ^UnTirersitles,. Nov. 15, 1927.
S/— C. D. Bums, "Leisure in the Modern world", Century., 1932, p. 50
143
movies and the radio, tends to emphasize the passive, vicarious, and is
non-creative as it effects home activities.
Consideration of these re­
creations as cultural and social forces is useless, for they possess little
or no value.
They have appealed to the crude side of man's nature and fail
u
to satisfy deeper cultural needs.
Only recently have people recognized the
possibilities of promoting effective individual living patterns or a desirable
national culture pattern, particularly by means of the movies and the radio.
Elsewhere (Chapter v) this study points out that many have found a
relationship between adult crime and vice and certain forms of recreation,
notably the movies and the automobile.
Still further research by the Lynds
adds emphasis to this relationship by revealing the fact that in Middletown
auto riding was displacing the family parlor as a means of recreation,
causing much disagreement between children and their parents.
"Traditional
recreation In the home is being disrupted by the automobile, causing habits
to be disrupted, with attendent delinquency, criminality, and psychiatric
2/
problems resulting."
This displacement of traditional forms of recreation by the automobile
is further evidenced in the situation where high school boys, who apparently
had nothing to do during the summer vacation except to ride around in
dilapidated automobiles, were Invited by a Los Angeles playground director
to take a picnic hike in the mountains.
three appeared.
Fifteen promised to go and only
The rest did not show up because in the words of one boy
"if we could have driven all the way up the mountain in our cars, it would
have been keen, but who wants to hike".
It would appear that all groups
lU
are affected by the increased comforts of life.
lV— -This attitude is found in the following examples; J. B. Nash,
"Leisure for What?", Journal of Health and Physical Education,
May 1935, and E. 0. Lindeman "Recreation Reinterpreted", Journal
of Hygiene & Physical Education, Sept., 1937
2/
H. Lynd, "Middletown", 1929, pages 137, 254, 114
3/——"Much Ado about Nothing", G* 0. CrraJ2"bf Recreation, Oct. 1937
144
The evaluation of the effects of the automobile, movies, and radio
appears to have undergone a complete change since people first became aware
of the fact that these forms of recreation were doing something to people.
As indicated thus far, the attitude has been that these forms have been sub­
versive to the best interests of people.
change in attitude toward them.
Now, however, there has been a
Better family and home life may be facili-
tated^by these forms, for they serve as antidotes against family disorganiza­
tion.
This change in attitude may be due to the fact of decided improvement
in the quality of the movies, radio, and even the automobile.
also to the fact that their use has
b
It may be due
ecome much more nearly universal, with
one out of every foUr people owning a car in America, ( every other person in
California) for example.
These recreational forms have caught their stride
now, and their novelty has disappeared.
They are taken for granted and are
considered indispensable (particularly the radio and automobile).
This fact is suggested by the comments of some of the women in the
Middletown surveys
”The car is the only pleasure we have1*.
food before 1*11 give up the car".
”1*11 go without
A mother of nine children said she would
"rather do without clothes than give up the car”.
The attitude of these
people during the depression indicated their general willingness to sacrifice
almost everything else in order to keep a car.
They ranked an auto higher
than owning their own homes, telephones, electric lighting systems, or
bathtub s•
All forms of all recreation for everybody fits into the
u ~
Chicago Recreation Survey, Vol. 1, p. 5
145
ambitions of American democracy.
These expensive recreations— the automobile,
radio, and the movies are available now to a majority of people and thd result
is that there has been an improvement in their quality, for the significant
reason that those in control see in these forms a means of preserving the
disappearing function of the family-home recreation.
This change in attitude
in regard to the automobile is indicated by the following quotation: "Much of
the criticism of the way the automobile was used in leisure-time activities
may have been justified, but any general condemnation of its part in national
recreation implies that pleasure travel, outdoor life, and many sports would
have largely remained the prerogative of the wealthy few who could afford the
means of transportation."
y
Cutten sees in the automobile a unifying element.
He states that it
came into popular favor at an extremely auspicious time, claiming the
attention of those who formerly went to the saloon.
"It seems as though this
had done more to establish domestic solidarity and family happiness in recent
sJ
years than any other one factor".
A similar attitude toward the benefits of the automobile to family
integration is found in the fact that it stimulates pleasure travel in the
form of short trips, vacation tours, the after-dinner £ides, and the Sunday
. .
picnics.
u
The automobile has created a new situation with reference to play space,
also as a phase of home recreation.
Streets in crowded sections of cities
were formerly used by children for play, but the advent of the automobile
made streets dangerous,
provision of new space for play has had to be made
3 / poster R. D u l l e s , "America Learns to Play" D. Applet on-04ntury Co.
N. Y. London — 1940, p. 318.
2j George B. Cutten, "The Threat of Leisure" Yale Univ. Press, 1926, p. 79
— — "Recent Social Trends" McGraw Hill, N. Y. p. 177.
146
in the form of ”play streets” or "background lots” .
The au-toraobile has
greatly increased the need for more playgrounds and neighborhood parks in
central areas, and new city plans, but it has also brought families together
by facilitating suburban growth, the development of country districts, and
u
distant resorts.
Many feel that this effect of the automobile has greatly increased
family recreation at home.
That it has changed our mode of living, and
actually modified our homes is the attitude in one article that states that
the automobile has remade our civilization, has made practicable modern suburbs,
and even modern sports*
"We distributed ourselves and our homes after we
learned about automobiles . , .
2/
We even changed our eating habits”*
Even though the automobile has tended to disrupt urban life, it has
strangely enough helped the spread of a number of participating games because
at present Sundays and holidays find more roads choked with motors, and
automobiling a bore or worse.
Of late, suburbanites and codntry dwellers
have made every possible effort to stay home on such days, with the result
that a series of lawn games, which can be played by the whole household, have
5/
been adopted and popularized.
Besides the 85,000,000 who go to the movies §very week, there are in
use over 200,000 non-theatrical projectors, which are mostly home sets, accord­
ing to an estimate of the United States Department of Commerce.
It is quite
natural that those concerned with the social effects of inventions and social
changes have viewed with alarm this form of recreation in which so many
millions participate* namely, pubLic motion pictures.
l/J- Consult the monthly issues of "Autanobile Facts and Figures” of
the Automobile Manufacturers* Asso. and the reports of the Amer.
Automobile Association
g D r i v e On” Colliers, June 26, 1937, p. 74
3/— John R. Tunis, “Changing Trends in Sport” , Harpers,. Dec., 1934
147
Two studies deal directly with the effect of the movies on conduct.
They
show that children act out in their play the stories they see in the movies
and that there is considerable imitation in various groups of clothing and
manners of movie actors, of love techniques, and scenes of other activities.
These studies found also that adolescents weave fantasies about the movies
and picture themselves as the hero or heroine*
Thrilling movies often
result in feelings of adventure, bravery, daring deeds, and even the desire
to be tough.
These feelings frequently become overt in the play of children
in the home and in the immediate vicinity of the play—yards.
The two authors found that movies stimulate individuals to crime and
that the usual run of boys and girls are made more tolerant of crime and
criminals by pictures dealing with the subject.
While conduct is rarely
determined by a single factor yet the findings in these books are of
sufficient significance to warrant control of the movies and, for that
matter, control of children too.
This control of the movies is being mani­
fested by various means of legislation, censorship, pressure of organizations
like the Catholic League for Decency, and co-operation with agencies whose
beneficial function is not questioned, such as libraries.
This co»operation with public libraries is largely the result of the
work of the National Association of Motion Picture Producers and Distributors
of America, which was organized in 1921.
It established a public relations
department which has been effective in giving outside organizations a
channel through which to express themselves.
One article is aware of
this strong alliance between books and films and points out that larger
numbers of well-known books, both popular and classical, are filmed each
year and exhibits based on these and upon historical films are rapidly
1/— Herbert Blumer "Movies & Conduct", MacMillan, N . Y. ,1933, and Herbert
■=/ Blumer & Philip U. Hauser, "Moviels, Delinquency, and Cn*e^, MacMillan, N. Y. 1933
148
achieving high popularity iu libraries.
"Morehver, hundreds of librarians
*the country over are testifying to the tremendous demand for books which
have been or are to be filmed; a demand which makes it increasingly difficult
iJ
to keep the shelves adequately stocked with film volumes".
There follows
a description of the material relating to films, which is supplied to
libraries by the association for Book Week# g Typical of the posters is
the one with the caption, "Good Books Cultivate Imagination; Great Movies
Bring their Characters to Life" • These exhibits are planned to attract
attention to the films which together send the film-goers to the library
shelves.
The public library in Cleveland was thd first to effect closer re—
&
lations between books and films.
Sixteen years ago Cleveland’s
first
motion—picture bookmark reading lists were made, their first joint exhibits
set up, and the whole technique of library-film co-operation set in motion.
The library recently found out that such short subjects as "Servants of the
People", "Romance of Radium", "The Man Without a Country", and others were
made—to—order material for librarians who wanted to stimulate interest in
worth-while reading on the part of their borrowers.
The co-dperation be­
tween the film industry and the library in addition means previewing pictures
likely to have book connections; displays routed through the library and
its branches, and in theater lobbies of "still" photographs from accepted
films, together with colorful jackets of related books; and especially the
bookmarks, bearing brief reading lists of fiction, history, and biography
of interest ^r connection wn-th some notable current film.
1/
g/
" B n o k a & Films". The Library Journal, Nov. 1, 1938, p. 841
ghort—Subject Films & Libraries", March 15, 1939, & "Short Route
to the Library", May 1, 1939. Library Journal^.
149
The recent tendency on the part of the movies to offer as added
inducement whole sets of encyclopedias and single volumes also suggests
possibly a desire to interest the reading public in films.
Whatever the
motive, however, the result of the closer alliance between motion pictures
and books is increased home recreation, for a greater number of books is
ij
circulated because of the stimulus of the movies.
The movies have increased family recreation by being presented in
the immediate neighborhood of the homes by agencies interested in stimulat­
ing group participation.
The activities of the Department of 'Public Re­
creation in Sioux City, Iowa, are indicative of this trend.
They include
a simmer movie program, which is presented each week at twelve different
play areas, the sound pictures being carefully selected to appeal to family
SI
groups.
Many thousands of families have attended the movie program at one
playground on a single evening.
The total movie attendance for the 1938
season was 157,185.
"Amusements have always been a unifying force in society; their very
strength lies in the standardization of tasks which they can effect."
This
statement certainly holds true for the commercial amusement of the radid,
which takes more leisure time than any other activity and which is a primary
form of home recreation.
This medium of entertainment fits well into the
American scheme of things, as indicated by a statement of Walter Damrosch
who maintains that radio has democratized art and is educating the entire
nation to a true appreciation of the best in music.
1/— The Library Journal, Nov. 1, 1938, ~p7~841.
Si -George D. Butler, "Community Recreation", McGraw Hill, 1940, p. 405.
3/— Ida Graven, "Amusements, Public", Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences.
4/— New York Times, Dec. 11, 1930
150
It is estimated that three-fourths of -the sets are in use at some
time each day, and that "the favorite -types of programs in order of importance
are music, comedy, drama, sports, religion, education, news and market reports,
special features, women's features, and children's programs. The popularity
I
of these programs is suggested in the following: "Radio is an agency for
recreation and entertainment.
The enjoyment of music is popularized greatly,
rural people have more frequent opportunities for good music, concerts are
enjoyed by many who would otherwise not have the opportunity, old songs are
revived, and the public can attain a greater appreciation of the international
nature of music . . .
Entertainment is provided for invalids, blind, partly
ji
deaf, -the sick, frontiersmen, and others who might otherwise be lonely."
The radio has been proclaimed to be the most popular form of home re&
creation.
It bring its listeners into contact with public interests. "The
public turns to the radio for its dance music, humorous dialogues, bedtime
stories, light opera, and vivid portrayal of baseball and football games,
prize fights, and other contests important in the world of sports.
Its
successful provision of entertainment of this kind has mad& possible the
spectacular growth of radio during the past decade and if the promise of
j
television can be fulfilled, as now seems probable, it will likely become
zJ
even more securely entrenched in public favor".
!
j
A further discussion of television appears in Chapter 11.
!
The study of community recreation previously mentioned points to the
! inportance of radio in home recreation.
"One modern invention which has
contributed greatly to home recreation is the radio, the very popularity of
which reflects the meagemess of other home activities.
2J
j
!
2/
"The radio is being
M. H. & E. S. Neumeyer, "Leisure & Recreation", A.S. Barnes & Co.
Fortune, Feb., 1940, Survey of American Interests.
—lesse Steiner, "Americans at Play", McG-raw Hill, 1933, p. 121
151
used more and more as a means of bringing to parents suggestions for home
y Recreation
games, rainy—day activities, music, and dramat5_cs”•
are malting increasing use of the radio.
departments
Of 43 departments replying to a
request for information sent out by the National Recreation Association in
2/
1937, all but four made some use of the radio*
There are several common
types of broadcasts found successful by recreation departments*
These are
not only a part of home recreation in that people listen to them during leis­
ure time at home, but they also contribute helpful suggestions for actual
recreation activities in the home.
These types include informative talks
on such subjects as hobbies, holidays, or home activities, and talks or
interviews by influential persons on recreation objectives, values, or
local needs*
It was found that educational radio programs have relatively little
appeal and yet the following survey suggests the extent of even these less
attractive programs*
In an analysis of the radio audience of ”The World
is Yours” , which was an Educational Radio Project, it was discovered that
persons of all ages from all walks of life listen to it.
with student® and professional workers.
It was most popular
Of the different groups of people
listening to the program, four was the average to listen over one hour.
majority heard the programs in their homes with their families*
sJ
The
An author
contributing to Recent Social Trends made a study of the e±tent of the iny
fluence of the radio.
There were discovered over 150 social effects of the
radio, of which 21 have some significance in their bearing on home recreation.
These are listed as followss
1/— George Butler, Ibid, p. 13, 582.
g/— Ibid. p. 495.
!
— '’Analysis of a Radio Audience” , School & Society, Oct. 15, 1937
i
p. 494.
: ^ — "Recent Social Trends", Vol. 1, McGraw Hill, 1933, p. 153 ff.
152
Effects of -the Radio on Home Recreation
1. Another as endy for recreation and entertainment
2. The enjoyment of music popularized greatly,
3. Much more frequent opportunity for good music in rural.
areas.
4. The manufacture of better phonograph music records
encouraged.
5. The contralto favored over sopranos through better
transmission.
6. Radio amplification lessens need for loud concert voices.
7. Establishment of the melodramatic playlet with few
characters and contrasted voices.
8 . Rovmval of old songs, at least for a time.
9. Greater appreciation of the international nature of music.
10. Entertainment for invalids, blind, partly deaf,
frontiersmen, etc.
11. With growth of reformative idea, more prison installations.
12. Interest in sports increased, it is generally admitted.
13. Slight stimulation to dancing at small gatherings.
14. Entertainment on trains, ships, and automobiles.
15. Television was stimulated by the radio.
16. Developments in use of the phonograph stimulated by
radio.
17. Growth of suburbs perhaps encouraged a little.
18. Letter-writing to celebrities a widespread practice.
19. Weather broadcasts used in planning family recreation.
20. Home duties and isolation more pleasant.
21. Creative outlet for youth in building sets.
In June 1938 an article appeared with these words, "A private newspaper
with any spot in your home as the press room is available today to anyone
in the United States possessing an ordinary radio receiving set.
The equip­
ment is contained in a small att motive box which will silently print your
•latest edition1 while you sleep, completing it in time for reading at
1/
breakfast.11
The principles of this new "home newspaper” are the same as
for television, but the results are quite different in that there is a
printed record.
There are 13 stations already licensed to transmit these
newspapers which are called Facsimile.
These stations are in Ohio, New Jersey, Illinois, Tennessee, Iowa,
Michigan, Minnesota, and Virginia.
l^-”Home Newspapers by Radio", Scientific American, June 1938, p. 334.
153
A few months later on December 12, 1938, fifteen St. Louis homes
received the first issue of a daily facsimile newspaper of the St. Louis
Post-DispatiSh.
This first broadcast newspaper had 9 pages 8^ inches
long and 4 columns wide.
At that time just officials of the newspaper
and broadcasting station living within a radius of 30 miles received it,
but within a month plans were to make sets for general home use at $260.00.
The paper contains general news, photographs, sports, editorial cartoons,
radio news, financial news, and stock market quotations, but no advertising.
Facsimile newspapers have been born, therefore, and television also.
The extent of the usage of these two new forms of home recreation is not
great as yet, but indications point to increasing participation in the
near future.
In the next ten years television is likely to attain almost
as much popularity as radio, as was previously pointed out, and there seems
no reason why this other form of home recreation closely connected with the
radio will not increase in a similar manner.
By the end of 1937 six books on "trailer life” had appeared, two of
which poked fun at living in automobile trailers, while four purported
to give exoert information about it.
A little later a trailer school
2J
was founded, teaching how to drive a trailer and how to keep house in one.
The course is for two weeks, covering all phases of trailer operation,
including housekeeping.
This school was located outside New York City.
It is to be expected that similar schools will be opened in other parts
of the country if sales of trailers continue to increase.
It is apparent
that these facts, in addition to the parking privileges afforded trailers
1/.-"A Newspaper by Radio” , Newsweek, Dec. 19, 1938, p. 28.
Trailer School" Popular Science, <gan. 1938, p. 48-9.
1 54
in various parts of the country, suggest an increase in this particular
form of home recreation, and institutions have arisen to aid its develop­
ment.
An organization has developed with a similar purpose in regard to
motion pictures.
The Museum of M o d e m Art Film Library has encouraged
and initiated the establishment of film courses in dozens of American
colleges, universities, and museums.
The courses aim to study the history
and technique of the film, and are evolving into permanent divisions in
Fine Arts Departments.
The Assistant Curator of this library decries the
fact that there are hundreds of boohs on motion pictures, but none of
this literature is particularly good.
He states in passing, "As films are
supposed to cater to all psychological needs, so the range of film liter­
ature stretches all the way from the film in business, *How to Use Talking
y
Pictures in Business*, to the film book with tourist appeal” .
Here again is an agency fostering a closer relationship between books
and films, with an attendant increase in home recreation due to the indirect
influence of the movies.
In a section of Youth Education Today articles are listed which are designed to stimulate family activity.
BJ
It is recognized that the automobile
has made family travel an important aspect of American life.
Preparation
for trips on the part of the family, the use of family experiences by
children and youth, the recognition of family activities as an important
unit in our social life, are points in which the home and school can in­
creasingly co-operate.
In regard to movies, one article points out that
”while the problem of ’'family movies* Is a difficult one, yet there are
i 1^-Jay Leyda, Publishers Weekly. Sept. 18, 1937, p. 1090, and July 16,
j
1938, p.162.
2^-Eugene T. Lies, ”Activities of the School Program in Relation to
!
Leisure Education”, Youth Education Today, p. 160.
5
155
many things which can he done in the school to assist the family in solving
its problems of movie attendance.11
School and families can develoo motion
picture appreciation in the children to aid them in their own selection,
which would be satisfactory to all.
Home movies and slides may be secured
from some universities, museums, and public libraries, such as Northwestern
University and the Evanston Public Library, as well as from commercial film
distributors.
The school and home can co-operate in developing an appreciation of
what is good in radio also.
Families worIsdng together can direct their
efforts toward bringing about better radio programs.
The following is a
list of 5 articles for further information on this subject:
"The Use of Radio in Leisure Time” , The Radio Institute of
Audible Arts, N.Y.
"Radio Music for Boys & Girls”, Vol. H ,
Audible Arts, 1935.
The Radio Institute of
"NBC Music Appreciation Hour” : Student’s Notebook Series
A, B, C, D, & Instructor's Manual, N.Y. National
Broadcasting Co., 1936.
"The American School of the Air", Columbia Broadcasting System,
1936-37.
"The Use of Radio in Developing Instructional Programs",
Pennsylvania Department of Public Instruction,
July, 1935.
Private and public agencies, therefore, are co-operating with the
home in effecting closer relationships between home recreation and these
three forms of commercialized recreation— the automobile, the motion pictures,
and the radio.
Opinions vary as to the quality of the effect on the individ­
ual, and also on recreation in the home, and the family stability, but all
agree that there Is some change going on as a result of participation in
j these forms.
Concern has been felt and control is being practiced on movie
156
and radio productions and the use of* the automobile so that the results
will be beneficial to the individual and home recreation.
For the common
man, recreation is being democratized in that the radio, movies, and the
automobile represent recreational opportunities he had never had before.
The general conclusion now is that family life is better integrated and
home recreation is being increased by the auto, movies, and radio.
All the surveys mentioned in Chapter II confirm that the great amount
of time spent by the entire family on machine-made amusements is one of
the most significant facts of contemporary life.
The following quotation
appears to express in part the current general opinion about the effect of
the radio, automobile, and movies on home recreation: ”These new amusements
pull in many directions.
In almost every instance in which the influence
of commercialized entertainment could be held unwholesome, almost as good
a case could be made out to quite the opposite effect.
The movies tended
to disrupt family life, but the radio kept people at home.
Motoring took
away from lawn games and informal backyard sports; it also opened up
y
larger opportunities for more ambitious outdoor activities.”
It would appear, therefore, that some hold these forms of commercialized
recreation to be contributing to a disintegration of home recreation, but
■ that others feel they are a unifying element.
!
The automobile actually in-
i
j creases family gatherings; movies are being shown in homes and public places
for family gatherings, and they have increased library cirulation; and the
| wide use of the radio indicates the increasing role of this medium as a
|
| form of home recreation.
I
j
!
t
i
U -Foster Ft. Dulles, ”America Learns to Play”, D. Appleton-0entury Co.,
N.Y., London, 1940, p. 371.
157
Summary and Conclusions
Chapter X
The discussion in the beginning of this study of the var­
ious theories concerning leisure and recreation was marked by one outstand­
ing fact.
None of the early theorists included in their conceptual schemes
any discussion of recreation as a family function.
Now, however, all so­
ciologists are agreed that recreation in the home is a major part of the
responsibilities of parents in performing family functions*
A sociologist
recognizes that the home provides the first recreational patterns for the
child even though the play groups furni sh import ant connections with the
wider world outside.
u
This modification of earlier theories is understandable in
the light of the increasing concern for the family and home in general.
The emancipation of women, the increasing divorce rate, the attention now
paid to child care and development, and the fact that the nursery school,
the kindergarten, and the primary schools have taken from the home many edu­
cational duties are some reasons for attention being focused on the family
in educational, psychological and sociological research.
Home recreation is not a new thing nor is it centered in
any particular culture or confined to a particular period.
Studies by
Westermarck, Briffault, and other anthropologists concerned with family
research all include discussions of home recreation existing in all pre­
literate societies.
Home recreation may assume various diversified forms
depending on topography, climate, natural resources, or cultural differen—
1J Consult Kimball Young, 11An Introductory Sociology,” also Sutherland and
Woodward, ' ” Introductory ' Sociology.H
158
.ces, but it exists as a major function of the family.
U
Home recreation may
take such an individuated form as is found in painting, playing the piano or
hobby pursuits.
It may also reflect the primary group relationship when it
exists in the immediate environment where the individual lives.
Such home
recreation includes family participation in group orchestras, for example.
The present study points out the various types and forms of home recreation
in American culture as well as the amounts of money and time spent on them.
The whole matter of leisure time has been the subject for con­
cern recently, due to the large increase in the amount of leisure for every­
one.
What goes on during this unoccupied time has stimulated much research.
At present this attention has been centered on the home, for it is here that
a great deal of the activities of leisure time takes place.
There is gen­
eral agreement now that recreation is necessary for relaxation, and it re­
sults from the substitution of one form of activity for another.
Hecreation
in the home, therefore, can be physically vigorous, semi-vigorous, or pas­
sive and it can be experienced in isolation or in contact with others.
average
The/individual now spends over five hours every day in some
forms of leisure activity.
This represents a great increase over previous
amounts, due in part to shorter working days and the mechanical devices
which save time and energy in performing household tasks.
The greatest pro­
portion of this large amount of time is spent listening to the radio, which
is America*s leading recreational activity*
Heading newspapers, magazines,
and books is probably the next most popular recreation.
place in the home.
And they both take
People spend a great amount of time visiting and talking
over the telephone as additional forms of home recreation.
They spend an
1f See M.H. & E.S. Neumeyer, HLeisure and Hecreation,11 H. Y., A.S.Bames
and Company, 1936.
159
■Increasing amount of time playing sedentary games at home and working in
their gardens.
The greatest part of the average five hours of recreation
an individual enjoys every day is spent at home, it is concluded after study­
ing leisure-time surveys.
But people would prefer to he more active and to
spend more time out-doors.
Many of the preferred activities such as gar­
dening, visiting friends, and riding in an automobile can take place in the
home environment or immediate neighborhood or with the family.
Other pre­
ferences are swimming, playing tennis, golf, going horseback riding, camp­
ing, and boating.
Individual differences in addition to sex, age, race,
climatic conditions, and social or economic status are responsible for pre­
ferences.
Americans spend four billion dollars yearly on home recreation.
That is a very conservative estimate, based on the amounts of money known to
be spent on certain forms of home recreation.
Other figures are not avail­
able, such as the amount of money spent on telephone calls as home recrea­
tion, which would undoubtedly add a half billion dollars to the above figure.
Stated differently, Americans spend per capita at least $32.00 a year.
on home recreation.
j
More than one twenty—fifth of the total national in­
come, or almost one-third of the amount for all recreation, is spent on home
recreation.
This in addition to the fact that the average individual spends
most of his daily five hours of leisure on home recreation, explains the
reason for the increasing importance of home recreation to recreation lead­
ers, sociologists, educators, and public officials.
Despite the fact that these large amounts of an individuals
money
time are spent on home recreation, it has been indicated that his
preferences are sometimes along different lines.
actly what they want to do.
Many people are doing ex­
Others, however, (and these bulk largely in the
160
lower economic classes) prefer activities that can he supplied only by some
public or private agency#
Either because of large amounts of money involved
in providing some recreational activities, such as tennis or golf, or be­
cause of the need for groups of people to participate in other recreational
activities such as baseball or basketball games, public agencies are indis­
pensable.
But these agencies recognize that supplying recreation equipment
and space is not enough*
Something else is needed, for there has been a
deadening of creativeness in people, a stifling of self-expression and im­
agination, and a tendency to regiment people into recreation*
These public
and private and semi-public agencies have bridged this gap between simply
allowing for opportunities for recreation, and guiding and planning construct­
ively for the development of self expression and creativeness.
developed cultural activities as the means of meeting this need.
They have
And it is
particularly in this phase of public recreation that the relationship with
homes is fostered.
People receive instruction in painting, crafts, ■play17
ing musical instruments, and developing hobbies.
These activities are then
participated in at home, with close relationship with recreational agencies
resulting,
families are encouraged to participate as groups in various re­
creational activities in communities.
The result is increased home and
family recreation due to the actual stimulation of the public and private
agencies for recreation.
As part of adult education, parents now receive a large share
of attention, particularly in the matter of possibilities for recreation in
the home.
Every need of the child in the home is treated in parent educa­
tion, and with increased knowledge of various family functions, leaders in
1/ It is of interest to note in this regard that the National Recreation As­
sociation Year Book for 1933 lists only 344 cities providing for the ac­
tivity of arts and crafts while in 1937, the number of cities had increas­
ed to 1551, with 290 cities in addition providing hobby activities.
161
this movement are emphasizing home recreation*
Parent education as a de­
finite institution is becoming a part of formalized public education.
But
there are hundreds of organizations, both public and private, exerting great
influence in educating parents for recreation in the family and home.
This
is quite intentional as in the case of some agencies like recreation depart­
ments, but sometimes it results quite as a by-product of other activities
as in the case of some social welfare agencies.
Whatever the motive, how­
ever, all agencies for recreation and general social well-being agree as to
the importance of educating parents for home recreation, and they are making
contributions to that end.
Recreational agencies as well as other public and
private agencies dealing with people are concerned with what goes on in th©
home in line with the democratic tradition.
Recreational activities in par­
ticular are becoming socialized, with no special forms for any specific soc­
ial or economic class.
To accomplish this end, housing accommodations are
studied,and improvements made where needed.
There is a lessening of dis­
tinction between urbau. and rural living, particularly in the matter of home
recreation.
For the most part, people living in slum areas, in "bedroom"
suburbs, in city apartments, and in country districts listen to the same
radio programs, read the same news and books and magazines, play the same
games, and spend time visiting with friends*
It is recognized that urban
conditions place certain limitations on specific forms of recrea,tion, such
as playing in backyards and streets, but housing accommodations are being
improved to meet that problem.
With the concern becoming general, offi­
cials realize that the deleterious effects of urban living on home recrea^tion will become lessened.
"The Family that Plays Together, Stays Together"
will no longer be a slogan for some ioeal or goal, but an actual statement
of fact.
versal.
And to this end, home leisure-time activities are becoming uni­
162
Some sociologists, recognizing that the family is changing,
have attempted to find out why*
When studying the recreational role of the
family, they realized that this function was being taken over by outside
agencies, and they began to speculate as to causes*
Urban living unques­
tionably has modified home recreation, they discovered, and cit$r planners
and public officials have based large-scale improvements on their findings.
The results are gratifying in that individuals suffering from urban limita­
tions can be helped, and the trouble lessened or eliminated for the most
part*
But other forces and influences are continually modifying existing
institutions*
Economic crises must have some qualifying effect, it was felt,
and studies were made as to their conditioning influence on home recreation*
It was found that most commercial forms of home recreation declined during
the recent economic depression because of a general curtailment of expens­
es*
Hot all commercial home recreations declined, however, for photography
and the radio received great development during those years (1930-1936).
The general curtailment of expenses hit public recreational agencies also,
but attendance at these places did not decline but increased.
And of great
significance is the fact that on the whole, recreation in the home increas­
ed during the depression, and people were forced to rely on their own abili­
ties and imagination to weather the storm.
Those families which were well-
integrated during ordinary times were found to become even better organized,
and recreation in their homes actually increased during the stress of the
iepression.
Other families, less well adapted, found adjustment difficult,
with the result that home recreation suffered and all but disappeared.
The
iepression, therefore, is but one of a series of causative factors which
have modified recreation in the home.
Other influences which affect home recreation are the auto­
163
mobile, motion pictures, and the radio*
These forms of commercial, recrea*
tion contribute to family disintegration according to some, and to family
unification according to others*
Actually this situation does not repre­
sent contradiction and chaos, as might be expected, but it represents in
part a difference in types of families studied*
The same cause can produce
totally different results, depending on the subject involved in the situa­
tion*
In other words, recreation in a family in one situation is found to
be enhanced and developed because of living in a city or a curtailment of
income or use of radio, automobile or motion pictures*
The same causes,
urban living and the economic depression, or pertain commercial recreations
would produce an entirely different effect on a family in a different situa­
tion*
There might be a complete disappearance of the recreational role of
this latter family and utter disintegration of the family itself*
Other in­
fluences are always to be considered in attempts to get at causative fac­
tors.
In this respect, the general background of the family is all-importsnt.
If there is a general awareness on the part of the family as to its recreational functions, It is hoped that influences tending to lessen this func­
tion, such as economic crises, commercial recreations, and living in unfav­
orable locations, will prove of little consequence.
To this end parents are
now being educated, and public and private agencies for recreation are now
including in their programs provisions whereby family recreation is enhanced*
It is well known that the rapid growth of industry and the acconpanying_rise and development of cities in the past fifty years changed
the patterns of living for city-dwellers.
They had little time or opportun­
ity for engaging in the leisure activities formerly enjoyed.
Adjustments
had to be made under urban conditions, and public recreation was the natur­
al outcome.
I
A few philanthropic and social-minded individuals campaigned
164
'for provisions for play to be provided in congested sections of the cities.
The leisure time of youth and adults was seen as an opportunity for commer­
cial recreations.
The general result was a lessening of home recreation.
But there has been a noticeable swing back to increased leisure activities
with the family and in the home.
The public agencies themselves are part­
ly responsible* for this, for in supplying recreational opportunities, they
actually stimulate an interest which continues in the home.
These recrea­
tional activities are the individuated ones, to which this study has refer­
red before.
There is a very real problem confronting those interested
in the family and in recreation.
creation.
This is the question of the control of re­
Some people advocate that our social organization demands a for­
malized method of control to be vested in some central and public agency.
Others express the belief that the informal aspects
of social organization
have not received the attention they warrant in explaining the development
of individual habits and attitudes.
To this end they recommend that the in­
dividual be allowed free choice in expressing individual differences, for
the ideology of American democracy limits the extent of centrally—controlled
supervision of nearly every form of activity.
For example, education, which
in earlier societies took place in the home, is now
in the hands of special­
ists fot the most part.
by educators as well as
But it is being recognized
parents that the interaction of parents and children is the background upon
which most of the intellectual and emotional conditioning of the child takes
place.
For this reason the American family will probably always give the
child his basic training in social attitudes and habits.
The result is that
there is decided co-operation between educational institutions and the
.-family.
Parents have a voice in the administration of the institutions
165
.which have so much to do with the development of their children.
The"PTA"
and various pressure groups, such as the American Legion, are examples of
agencies affecting this close relationship.
The situation is very similar in regard to recreation.
There
has been a tendency in the recent past for recreation to be removed from
the home.
But this study has pointed out countless instances in which the
cent rally-controlled aspect of recreation alone is not sufficient to meet
individual and family needs for they now seek to co-operate with the home.
Such leisure—time activities as hobby development or playing some musical
for the most part,
instrument or singing have remained in the homq/and have actually increased
home recreation because of their very individuated nature.
Such forms of
home recreation will, therefore, probably never disappear.
They do not lend
themselves easily to regimentation because of the very fact of their indi­
viduated nature.
Consequently in those instances where public, private and
commercial recreational agencies stimulate and encourage home recreation,
this relationship will probably lose its significance from the standpoint of
control.
Those Mio view with alarm a centralized
policy of control of re­
creation will doubtless find in increased home recreation some answer to
their problem, therefore.
Coupled with this recognition on the part of recreational
agencies of a need for a closer alliance with home recreation is another prob­
lem merely touched upon in this study.
From the sketchy survey of recrea­
tional interests of successful people it was clear that their interests do
not always run along activities requiring a great deal of expense.
All the
surveys mentioned in Chapter II, however, indicated that people desire ac­
tivities generally requiring money.
For the average person, this need can
only be supplied by some public agency, it is felt.
This is undeniably the
166
case, and yet the discrepancy indica/ted by the facts that in general, people
want activities requiring a large output of money and that, when people
have money, their interests are satisfied by activities requiring but very
little expense, suggests problems requiring further study.
This research,
is necessary in order to determine the whole policy of the administration
of recreation, for quite frequently it has been observed that recreational
needs are met as the leaders think they should be met and not necessarily
as the people want them satisfied*
There will probably always be a reflec­
tion in the desires of people of any deficiency in their economic background,
and yet more intensive research of recreational interests of specific econ­
omic backgrounds might disclose interesting facts, such as the need for
stimulating self expression or a creative urge in people and not merely pro­
viding baseball diamonds, or basketball floors.
These latter are neces­
sary of course, but the fact that home recreation is big business now* and
is becoming even more so, implies that of equal necessity is an increase in
the recreational function of the family.
Many people have already seen that
the home as a place for recreation is closely allied to individual satisfac­
tions and are effecting an association of the home with these necessary pub­
lic agencies.
This research recognizes its deficiencies in merely present­
ing problems requiring further study, but it has revealed that the facts
prove that home recreation is not a disappearing function of the family, but
actually is becoming more important due to the increasing amounts of at­
tention, time and money spent on it.
Appendix 1
Home recreational activities of six selected
families of different socio-economic backgrounds.
168
Appendix 1^
Tlie M
Eamily in Western Springs
Mother, father and three children, ages 9, 5 and 3*
plays piano, and little Jo (9) does also.
Every evening there are family
gatherings around the piano; mother plays and all sing.
are all being trained musically.
guests.
Mother
The three children
Home—movies are shown on occasion and to
This and gardening are the hobbies of the father.
Mother’s hob­
bies are gardening, and musical training of herself and the children.
family entertains at home frequently.
Cards and games are played.
are three radios in the family, and an old car.
The
There
This suggests that the
family is more concerned with their home and prefer to stay in and around
it.
The back yard is of great significance to this family.
There is a
barbecue pit which is the center for play activity for the children during
the day.
It is a focal point for the neighborhood on Saturdays and Sundays.
There are barbecue suppers at least once a week, and many guests are invited.
The yard also contains a sand box, swings, and a climbing-trapeze arrange­
ment for the children.
Each member of the family has a favorite radio
program, and on occasion they all assemble to listen together.
is between five and ten thousand dollars a year.
The income
There is one servant,
which affords additional opportunity for the mother to develop her own musi­
cal ability as well as those of her children.
There is a recreation room
in the house on the lower floor, which also serves as a library.
Tb© C
Family in apartment house section in Chicago
The location of their home is in a respectable area of rea­
sonable rents.
The family consists of the two parents, and a boy and a girl
169
I in their twenties*
j family*
There is a large library, which is marked by an absence of new
titles*
j
Reading is the main recreation for all members of this
The rental library satisfied the need*
There are magazines in
I
addition*
Listening to the radio is the second most popular recreation*
There are programs listened to regularly by the assembled family, namely
”Information Please” , Bob Hope’s program, the Sunday Symphony Programs,
Baseball Games, and various comedy programs.
The family plays cards quite
regularly, both as a family and also with friends*
is enjoyed at least once a week.
Yisiting with friends
Each member of the family is proficient
in one phase of the culinary art, and on holidays the family as a group
indulges in his particular art.
At present there is no income; when money
does come in to this family it is always in irregular amounts and at ir­
regular times.
The H
All smoke frequently, and drink occasionally.
Family in a middle-class section of an industrial town
The income is between three and five thousand per year.
The
family consists of parents, one daughter and one son, both in their twen!
| ties* The family has lived in its present house since the children were
!
| bom.
When the children were younger, they had their own playroom, filled
i
] with numerous toys and children’s books.
Now this room has become a study,
ij
I and is still the center for many of the activities of the son and daughter.
!
j
i Reading is the outstanding recreational form in this family and has long
j
been so.
Gardening is important and music is increasingly important.
There
!
! has always been entertaining in this family, and the entertainment now
j
1 takes the form of music, either playing symphonic records, of which there
!
| is a large library, or playing the piano and flute and cello. Meal times
I aire important to this family and long after the meal is over, the discussions
170
various current topics continues.
Conversation is not lost in this
family, for many hours are spent talking with friends and amongst themselves*
The daughter smokes and the whole family drinks moderately.
The D
Fam ily in apartment house near the Gold Coast in Chicago and
close to the lake.
The income is three thousand dollars per year.
Besides
the parents, there is a girl in college, a boy in high school, and another
boy in junior high school.
Reading is the chief occupation.
large library, which is supplemented by rental books.
There is a
There are many
magazines, and the boys read pulp "trash” , to which the mother objects.
Next to reading as the favorite recreation is listening to the radio.
There are programs of general family interest, notably comedy programs,
Sunday Symphony Programs, First Nighter, and popular dance music.
The
daughter is in dramatic school, and the family gets recreational enjoyment
from watching her rehearse.
taining.
The family spends a good deal of time enter­
Rarely are card games played.
Most of the time is spent talking,
smoking, and consuming non-alcoholic drinks.
Of great significance to this
family are the gatherings on Sundays and holidays of all the relatives*
There are four closely related families, including nine children, ages
10 to 22 years.
The entertainment at these gatherings consists of home-
produced plays and skits or floor shows with everyone taking part.
Christ­
mas, the Fourth of July, and Thanksgiving have traditional plays which have
been repeated for a number of years.
but is drunk occasionally outside.
no phonograph.
No alcohol is consumed in the home,
Little tobacco is consumed.
There is
The family relies on the ability of its members to supply
recreation in the home.
There is a very strong family-group feeling.
This
attitude is probably more noticeable in this family than in any of the others.
171
The C— —
Family in a tenement house in the vicinity of Emerson House.
The income is less than one thousand, dollars a year.
The
family consists of parents and five children, with another one expected.
The main form of recreation is listening to the radio.
Foreign Polish
broadcasts, Gang Busters, Court of Human Relations, ChildrenTs Programs,
and popular music are the favorite programs.
The husband cannot read and
the wife reads True Love Stories Magazines.
Their library consists of the
Bible and the comic books, which the children read.
Friends of the family
are invited in about once a week.' The men and boys play pinochle and the
v
women visit. The two girls have one doll and a few clothes for it. The
boys, who are younger, have a few soldiers and water pistols.
The children
spend most of their leisure time playing at Emerson House or at Boys* Clubs.
The children at various times have brought home books, toys, paper cut-outs,
and other things loaned from public agencies.
and hand work as her recreational interest.
The mother does embroidery
She is also very proud of her
four foot square garden.
The Vf— — Family in a rural area, near a town of four hundred
! inhabitants.
Besides the mother and father, there are two boys, aged 14
i
I and 9.
The father owns a gas station, and the income from it is never more
| than nine hundred dollars annually.
Listening to the radio and visiting
| with friends are the favorite forms of recreation.
The father and boys
fish and hunt as often as possible, affording recreation and a source of
' j supply of food for the family.
j twelve grades in it.
The rural school in this community has all
It provides entertainment for the whole community
s on the average of once a week*
There are family functions, such as group
| singing, community games, and family suppers.
The W
family is closely-
172
integrated and enjoys doing things together.
most families in the community.
parents.
This seems to be typical of
There is very little reading done by the
The evenings are usually spent by the mother mending or knitting
and the father "tinkering".
Something always needs attention.
When not
repairing something, the father visits with friends at the gas station*
The boys read considerably, on the other hand.
They are supplied with books
from the school and a number of magazines and comic books from friends.
173
Appendix II
1940 Edition of Filmosound Library Reference
Film list.
Contains 2,000 or more titles in
the rental film library of Bell and Howell Co.
Different methods of renting the films are
described in a supplement.
These leaflets are
in Appendix II of first copy of the disserta­
tion.
F IL M O S O U N D L I B R A R Y
Q u i c k Reference
F i l m Fist
Sound and Silant F ill
A 1 6 m m . s o u n d film to m e e t every
need of h o m e , school, institution,
a n d other non-theatrical showing
1940
EDITION
BELL & HOWELL COMPANY
1801-15 L a r c h m o n t A v e., CH IC A G O
NEW
YORK
HOLLYWOOD
LONDON
F IL M O S O V N D L IB R A R Y
Quieh Reference F i l m Fist
T h e nu m b ers u n d e r th e c ap tio n “ C atalog C o lu m n ” re fe r to o u r b ig illu strated film b ook, in w h ich each o f th ese films is described
in detail; it sells fo r 25c p e r copy, a n d is sen t free an n u ally to re g istered o w ners o f 16 m m . so u n d film p ro je c to rs. W h e n sending
fo r y o u r copy, give m ake an d m o d el of p ro je c to r, a n d w h ere p u rch ased.
F rom th e f o llo w in g list o f m an y h u n d r ed s o f film s, fea tu r es a n d sh o rts, o n a lm o st e v e r y c o n c e iv a b le su b ject, it w ill be
rea lised th a t th e o w n e r sh ip o f or access to a 16m m . ta lk in g p ictu r e rep ro d u cer, su ch as th e F I L M O S O U N D , opens
w id e th e d o o r to a treasu ry o f ed u ca tio n an d e n te r ta in m e n t b e y o n d th e d ream s o f th e r ich est k in g s o f old. Length of
th e film s is g iv e n in reels, a p p roxim ate p la y in g tim e can g en er a lly b e estim a ted b y a llo w in g 10 m in u tes a v era g e per reel.
C a rto o n s are g en er a lly co n sid era b ly sh orter.
O u tr ig h t sale p rices are in d ica ted w h e r e v e r th e film s are a v a ila b le fo r p u rch a se. R e n te r s w h o d esire to buy a film
t h e y h a v e ju st seen , can send in th e ir ord er and r e ce iv e a b ra n d -n e w p rin t at th e p rice in d ica ted , less th e one-time
ren tal th e y h a v e p aid, p ro v id ed th e ord er is en tered w ith in 30 days o f th e ren ta l d ate. W h e n th e sp ace in the sale
co lu m n is le f t b lank , th e film can n o t b e p u rch ased from o u r library. W h e r e an asterisk (* ) ap p ears, p urch ase or longterm lease is su b jec t to sp ecial arran gem en t. A d o u b le d a g g er (J ) fo llo w in g a title in d ic a te s a film released by a
“ m ajor” p ro d u cer on w h ic h p rior ap proval o f each lo ca tio n , o th e r th a n p riv a te h o m e s, m u st g e n e r a lly be obtained
b e fo r e su ch film s can b e ren ted . In a p p ly in g fo r su ch d esig n a ted film s fo r th e first tim e, p lea se sta te th e nature of the
a u d ien ce and sh o w p la c e , th e tim e o f d ay w h e n th e film is to b e u sed , and th e d ista n ce fro m th e n ea rest theatre. All
p rices are su b jec t t o c h a n g e w ith o u t n o tice. N o w a rra n ty is ex p re sse d or im p lied o th e r th a n th a t p rin ts w ill be in
g o o d p h y sic a l co n d itio n w h e n d eliv e re d , and o f so u n d and p ictu re q u a lity co r re sp o n d in g to th e q u a lity and condition
o f th e n e g a tiv e from w h ic h th e p rin t w a s m ade. S u b ject cla ssifica tio n s are clearly cod ed :
D ra . . . .
N ew . . .
A d v ____
Tra ____
N a t ____
Sci
D ra m a tic F eatures
N e w s , T o p ic a ls, O d d itie s
A d v e n tu r e
T ravel
N a tu r e
S cie n c e
T IT L E
Abraham L in co ln.....................
A bram .........................................
Abram and L o t.........................
Accs W ild...................................
Adventure Isle ...........................
Adventures of Bunny Rabbit. .
Adventurous K n ig h ts..............
Affair of Susanf.........................
Africa S q u a w k s........................
Africa Squeaks...........................
A h o y ............................................
Air Conditioned A uto, E tc .f. .
Air Currents & Theory of
Stream lining...........................
Air For G S trin g .......................
A irlin er.......................................
A irm a ilf.....................................
A laddin’s L am p........................
Alaska S w e e p s ta k e s !...................
Alias Mary D o w f.....................
Alias the B adm an......................
Alice in W onderland..................
All Dolled U p .............................
All Sorts of F o lk s.......................
A lluring B a li...............................
Along Came a D u ck ..................
Alpine C ab aret!..........................
Alpine G arden.............................
Alpine Journey in Bavarian
T y ro l.........................................
Ambuscade, The (§3 Clancy of
the M o u n ted )!........................
American Legion, C hicago. . ..
American Legion, Los Angeles
American Legion, New Y ork..
American W av, T h e ..................
America s H igh Spots...............
America s First F rontier...........
America s Last F ro n tier............
Am I a Murderer? (Voice of
Experience #10).......................
Number Class.
Lan
Spo
R el .
Soc
M us
H yg
. . . F oreign L a n g u a g es
. . . S ports
. . .R e lig io n , E th ics
. . . S ocial S cie n c e, F listo ry
. . . M u sic
. . . H y g ie n e , P h y s io lo g y
Base Catalog Sale or
Reels Rental Column Lease
10 $15.00
1.50
1
1
1.50
1
1.50
1.00
1
2.00
1
6
7.50
7
15.00
2
2.50
1
1-25
2
2.00
1
1.50
*
$36.00
36.00
.3003
. 644
. 646
. 612
. 296
.4319
.3010
.2118
.2043
. 263
. 799
.2167
D ra.f
R el.f
R el.f
Com.
T ra .f
N a t.f
Dra.
D ra.f
Com.
Car.
Sco.
N ov.
.3136
.3165
. 494
.2109
. 556
.2185
.2105
.2030
. 334
. 734
. 735
.2008
.3172
.2249
. 301
V oc.f
M us.f
V oc.f
D ra.f
Car.
Car.
Dra.
Dra.
M us.f
T ra .f
T ra .f
T ra .f
Nov.
Mus.
T ra .f
1
1
2
8
1
1
7
7
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1.50
1.50
3.00
16.00
1.50
1.50
15.00
10.00
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.50
1.25
87
113
87
11
131
127
18
40
118
74
75
73
129
118
64
. 814
T r a .f
1
1.50
65
36.00
.2153
.4121
.4100
. 317
. 819
. 403
,3008
. 794
Ser.
N ew .
N ew .
2
1
1
New.
Soc.
T ra .f
T ra .f
T ra .f
1
1
1
1
1
3.00
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.25
47
100
100
100
111
59
56
58
17.50
17.50
17.50
20.00
17.50
30.00
30.00
. 374
Rel.
1
1.50
108
40.00
5
104
105
125
76
85
33
33
125
141
112
101
24.00
240.00
60.00
28.50
72.00
*40.00
30.00
80.00
210.00
24.00
36.00
36.00
30.00
*30.00
27.00
C om
C ar
V oc
S co
N ov
S er
T IT L E
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. . C o m e d ie s
. . C a r to o n s
. . V o c a tio n a l Pursuits
. . B o y S c o u t S tories
. . C h ild r e n ’s N o v e ltie s
. .
Number Class.
Base Catalog Sale ot
Reels Rental Column Lease
Angles of A n g lin g.................... .4258
Animal A n tics........................... .4312
Animal F a ir................................ .4288
Ant Lion, T h e ........................... . 637
A n tw erp ...................................... .3107
A nything for a T h rill................ .4151
A peing H olly w o o d ................... .2044
A phids........................................... . 142
April R om ance.......................... .3301
A rabiantics (Felix the C a t) .. . . 562
Archaic, Unusual In stru m en ts. .3135
Arctic E x p lo ratio n ..................... .3184
Arizona D ay s............................... . 845
Arizona T erro r............................. .2057
Around the C lo c k ....................... . 380
Around the W orld..................
- 559
A r t.................................................. .3199
As the Crow F lies...................... . 682
A stronom eow s.......................... . 576
A utogiro, T h e ........................... ■3137
Autumn L eaves.............
. 480
Avalanche, The (§3 Heroes of
the W e st)!................................ .2129
Ave M aria—A ............................. .4160
Ave M aria—B ............................ .3164
Avenging Fangs (§4 Law of th e
W ild ).......................
443
Spo.
N a t.f
Car.
N a t.f
T ra .f
Dra.
Com.
N a t.f
D ra .f
Car.
M u s.f
T ra .f
Dra.
Dra.
Soc.f
Car.
V oc.f
Com.
Car.
V oc.f
N a t.f
1 $ 1.25
1
1.25
1
1.25
1
1.50
1
1.50
6
10.00
2
2.50
1
2.00
8
15.00
1
1.00
1
1.50
1
1.50
6
12.00
6
6.00
1
1.25
1
1.50
1
1.50
2
3.00
1
1.00
1
1.50
1
1.00
98
85
137
81
66
11
125
81
37
136
114
60
37
40
55
131
87
121
136
88
79
Ser.
Rel.
M u s.f
?
1
1
3.00
1.50
1.50
48
66
113
50.00
*30.00
Ser.
7
3.00
50
*60.00
Babes in th e W o o d ...............
Babies of the W ild ...................
Back P age.......................
Bali— Paradise Is le ...................
Ballads of the Plains # 1 ............
Ballads of the Plains §2 ..........
Ball G am e...................................
Bank A la rm ................................
Barefoot B o y .............
Barking D ogs............ .
Barnyard B unk..............
Barnyard F iv e f.............
.4174
. 477
. 670
.4400
• 3057
.3225
Juv.
N a t.f
Com.
T ra .f
M us.f
M us.f
2
I
2
1
1
1
1
. 359
.3081
.2186
D ra.
N o v .f
Car.
Car.
Car.
3.00
1.00
3.00
1.25
1.50
1.50
1.25
12.00
1.25
1-25
1-25
1.50
*\ \ rite for lease or sale terms. tP rior location approval required oil f rst showing, see introduction. tS u itab le for teaching
purpose s.
I
1
1
1
*$30.00
30.00
30.00
*30.00
*
60.00
*
*
*40.00
*40.00
*240.00
180.00
25.00
*40.00
*60.00
*30.00
*40.00
18.00
129 *60.00
18.00
85
121 *60.00
17.50
73
115 *30.00
115 *30.00
30.00
137
24 *300.00
90 30.00
135 *30.00
134 *30.00
127
T I T T rr
N u m ber
of H a te ............................
245
>all.............................................. 4 U 4
e of th e C en tu ries............... 570
c of th e S trong (§2 L aw of
: W ild ) ..................................... 441
ing Silver K in g s .................... 4198
Whispers, T h e ..................... 4250
Ii Combers f .............................. 2187
istalk J a c k ................................. 465
.tiful Blue D a n u b e .................. 383
tiful N ip ig o n .......................... . 183
itiful T y ro l............................... . 302
;ars in E rm in e........................... 311
;nd th e F r o n t............................ 563
ium, th e B eau tifu l................. .2002
v e d j......................................... .2122
iw th e D e ad lin e.......................4169
:ath O ur F e e t........................... . 614
ly D av is...................................... 126
veen M e n ................................. . 346
f ourself........................................3006
rcling w ith C om plete Safety ,. 487
Cage, T h e f ............................... 2115
Cheese, T h e .............................. .4289
City In te rlu d e ........................ .2029
F ish.............................................. 405
Jewel C ase.............................. ... 607
Is of a F e a th e r....................
• 425
;hday P arty J ............................ .2184
:hplace o f a N a tio n f ............ .2170
:ern, T h e ................................... .3204
ck B eau ty ................................. .3011
ck G iant, T h e ......................... .3122
ck G o ld ..................................... • 345
ck H ills o f S o u th D a k o ta ... . F42
ck Spider, T h e ........................ ■ 513
zing th e T ra il (§1 H eroes of
he W c s t) t................................. .2127
mp M y stery .............................. .2036
iw, Bugle, B lo w ...................... . 430
le Grass K in g s.......................... .4265
te of th e N ig h t........................ . 411
3 W h ite .................................... .4207
mbing of th e P a n a y ............... . 471
mbing U. S. S. P a n a y ............ . 397
)k or B o o k s............................ . F46
am, B oom ................................. .2051
ots of D e stin y .......................... . 855
rdcr R om ance........................... .2016
rn To G a m b le .......................... .4208
crowed W iv es........................... .2021
udoir B u tler.............................. . 668
y of the S tre e ts ........................ .3307
y’s G ang, A .............................. - 755
y’s Pal, A ................................... . 704
ihm in’s D a u g h ter, A ............. . 551
ihms' W altz in A F la t........... .3166
inded M e n ................................. 2032
red Strikes, T he (§10 C lancy
if th e M o u n te d )^ .................... .2160
:men, Key to th e Seven Seas. . 815
de’s R elatio ns, T h e ............... . 544
idge W iv es................................. . 506
ing 'Em Back a L ie f .............. .2197
n g 'Em Back A liv e ............... .3303
:ng ’Em Back H a lf S hot
3086
itain’s K ing and Q ueen V isit
J.S .A ........................................... .4119
aadcasting......................... ..
.2046
Dadway D ance P a ra d e ........... . 358
ack, th e B ad g er....................... -3155
aken D ream s............................... .3012
ancho Bus ter f ........................... 2227
Jther A gainst B ro th er (§2
Clancy o f th e M o u n te d )^ ___ .2152
Dwn G ra v y ................................ . 387
bble B lo w ers............................ . 605
bbles & T ro u b le s.................... .4297
bbling O v er............................... . 414
gs and B o o k s............................ .3087
.4218
llo n ey.....................................
Uy, T h e ...................................... . 437
lly ’s E n d .................................... .4291
/rite for lease or sale terms. t P r io r
Class.
D ra.
S p o .f ,
N a t.J
Base C atalog Sale or
R eels R ental Colum n Lease
6
1
1
$10.00
1.25
1.50
24 $216.00
92
17.50
145
Ser.
Spo.
D ra.
Car.
Car.
T r a .f
Spo.
T ra .f
D ra.
Car.
T ra .f
D ra .f
D ra.
N a t.f
M us.
D ra.
D ra.
S p o .f
D ra .f
Car.
D ra.
N a t.f
Com.
N a t.f
Car.
T ra .f
N a t.f
D ra .f
T r a .f
D ra.
T ra.
Car.
2
1
10
1
1
1
1
1
7
1
1
8
8
1
1
6
8
1
8
1
7
1
2
1
1
1
1
7
1
6
5
1
3.00
1.25
14.00
1.50
1.50
1.25
1.00
1.25
10.00
1.00
1.25
16.00
7.00
1.50
1.25
8.50
12.50
1.00
16.00
1.25
7-00
1.25
3-00
1.00
1.50
1-50
1.50
10.00
1-50
6.00
1.25
1.50
50 *60.00
98 *30.00
24 *400.00
127
131
17.50
64
27-00
60
30.00
64
27-00
11 *280.00
136 *30.00
66
30.00
37
*
24
*
145
116
30.00
40 216.00
*
37
110
17.50
32
137
30.00
28 210.00
145
17.50
12.1
83
18.00
127
53
83 *40.00
32 *280.00
62 *30.00
11 216.00
58
131
Ser.
Com.
M u s.f
Spo.
Com.
Spo.
N e w .f
N e w .f
R e l.f
Com.
D ra.
D ra.
D ra.
D ra.
Com.
D ra.
Soc.
Com.
M u s.f
M u s.f
D ra.
2
2
1
1
2
1
3
1
1
1
6
7
8
7
2
9
1
1
2
1
7
3-00
2.50
1.25
1.25
3-00
1.25
4.50
1.25
1.00
1.25
12.00
7-00
10.00
7.00
3.00
15-00
1-50
1.50
3.00
1.25
10.00
48
125
60.00
116
25-00
96 *30.00
118
65.00
96 *30.00
54 120.00
100
17.50
88
125
30.00
40 *240.00
37 210.00
18 240.00
28 210.00
121
*
18
112
125
30.00
113 *72.00
30.00
113
40 210.00
Ser.
T ra .f
Com.
Com.
Com.
D ra .f
Car.
2
1
2
1
2
7
1
3.00
1.50
3.00
1.50
3.00
16.00
1.25
47
65
121
125
121
11
137
N ew .
Com.
M us.
N a t.f
D ra.
Car.
1
2
1
1
7
1
1.25
2.50
1.25
1.50
8.50
1.50
17.50
99
60.00
125
116
27.00
84 *40.00
18 *280.00
127
Ser.
Com.
T ra.
Car.
Com.
Car.
Car.
Car.
Car.
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
3.00
2.50
1.50
1.25
3.00
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
47
121
145
135
118
137
141
141
137
36.00
*
*30.00
54.00
30.00
60.00
*30.00
26.25
26.25
30.00
location approval required on first shi
T IT L E
Base Catalog Sale or
Reels R ental Column Lease
Num ber
Class.
. 740
. 733
. 304
T ra .f
T ra .f
T r a .f
N a t.f
N ov.
T ra .f
1
1
1
1
1
2
$ 1 .2 5
1 .25
1 .2 5
2 .0 0
1.25
2 .5 0
72
73
56
81
125
67
$ 3 6 .0 0
3 6 .0 0
2 7 .0 0
C actus K ing, T h e ................
Car.
■3075
Cain and A b e l...........
. 641
R e l.f
C airo to th e P y ra m id s............. .2 0 0 1
T ra .f
C all o f M oham m ed ( I n d ia ) ... .3 1 0 8
T ra .f
Cam era T h rills !........................... .2 1 9 3
N ew .
Cam era T h rills in W ildest A frica 4104
T ra .f
C an ad a’s H ig h S p o ts .................. . 404
T ra .f
C anadian C ap ers.......................... - 532
Car.
Canal G y p sies............................. . 128
T ra .f
C andyland ( C o lo r ) f .............
Car.
.2 2 0 5
Canine C apers.........................
Spo.
. 604
Canine Cashier, E tc f ................ .2 1 6 6
N ov.
Canine C h am p io n s..................... ■3130
S p o .f
C annibals O n c e.......................... . 287
T ra .f
C annon B a ll................................ . 539
Com.
Canyon of C alam ity (§ 8 L aw
o f th e W ild ).............................. . 447
Ser.
C apitol Idea (E asy A ces).......... .3 1 7 1
Com.
C aptain C a la m ity ........................ . 839
D ra.
C aptured by th e Indians ( § 6
Heroes of th e W e s t)f ............... .2 1 3 2
Ser.
C arillon M a k e rs......................... . 381
M u s.f
C arrie Jacobs B o n d ................... . 213
M u s.f
C artoonland M y sterie sf........... .2 2 4 4
Voc.
C ast A drift— And H o w ............. . 328
Com.
C astillian M em o irs................... . 282
T ra .f
Castles of K e n t........................... .3 1 9 1
T ra .f
Catfish R om ance........................ ■3090
Car.
C a t’s C an ary ................................ .3 0 8 9
Car.
C aught C h ea tin g ....................... .2 0 2 6
D ra.
C entral E urope (H u n g a ry ). . . .3 2 0 1
T ra .f
C ham pions of th e G rid iro n
■ F 52
Spo.
C handu and the Secret Island. . 801
D ra.
C h an d u ’s False Step (§ 6
C h an d u ’s R e tu rn )................. . 765
Ser.
C h an d u ’s R e tu rn ........................ . 760C Ser.
C hasing A ro u n d ......................... .2041
Com.
C hecking on M o th e r E a r t h f . . .2 1 6 5
Nov.
Cheers of the C ro w d ................. . 362
D ra.
C hildren of G ossip (V oice of
Experience # 7 ) ............................. . 371
Rel.
C h ild ren ’s H our # 2 ..................... .3 2 1 7
N ov.
N ov.
C h ild ren ’s H o u r # 3 ................... .3221
N ov.
C h ild ren ’s H our # 5 .................... .3211
C h ild ren ’s H our # 7 ...................... .3 2 1 2
N ov.
C h ild ren ’s H o u r # 8 ...................... .3181
N ov.
C h ild ren ’s H our # 9 ...................... .3 1 8 2
N ov.
N ov.
C h ild ren 's H our # 1 0 ................... .3 1 8 3
C h in a ............................................. . 528
Car.
C h in a ............................................. . 297
T ra .f
C h in am an ’s Chance.................. .4 3 1 1
Car.
Car.
Chinese J i n k s .............................. .4 2 6 6
Chinese T y p ew riter w ith 5000
N ov.
k e y s f ...................................... .. .2 1 6 8
C h in o o k ’s C h ild re n .................. .4 1 4 2
Spo.
Chosen V ictim , T he (§1
C h an d u ’s R e tu rn )................. . 760
Ser.
C hristian C hurches and
R el.f
C a th e d ra ls............................... .3 1 4 0
C hristm as A round th e W orld. .4 1 1 3
Car.
N ov.
C hristm as T im e in T oyland . . .4 1 2 7
C hurches and C ath ed ra ls......... .3 0 7 0
V o c.f
C ic a d a........................................... .1 0 0 8
N a t.f
C inderella B lues......................... .3 0 8 8
Car.
Circle o f D eath (§ 9 C uster’s
Ser.
L ast S ta n d ).............................. .4 2 2 8
Car.
Circus C ap ers.............................. .4 2 9 2
Mus.
Circus D ay s................................. . 188
Car.
Circus R om ance.......................... .4 2 9 4
Car.
Circus, T h e .................................. . 439
C ity L im its.................................. .3 0 1 3
D ra.
T ra .f
C ity o f D avid, T h e .................... . 289
C ity of Proud M em ories.......... . 496
T ra .f
C ity P la n n in g ............................. .3 1 8 8
V o c.f
Com.
C lancy a t th e B a t...................... . 549
1
1
1
1
1 .2 5
1 -50
1-25
1 .5 0
3 .0 0
1 .2 5
1 .2 5
1 .5 0
1 .5 0
3-00
1 .5 0
1 .5 0
1 .5 0
1 .0 0
3 -0 0
143
103
68
70
54
68
60
131
63
129
85
101
96
78
121
* 3 0 .0 0
3 6 .0 0
3 0 .0 0
* 3 0 .0 0
* 3 0 .0 0
2 4 .0 0
* 6 0 .0 0
3-00
1 .5 0
15-00
50
56
29
* 6 0 .0 0
* 3 6 .0 0
* 3 5 0 .0 0
3-00
1-25
1.25
1 .5 0
1 .2 5
1 .0 0
1 .5 0
1 .2 5
1-25
7 .0 0
1 .0 0
1 .2 5
1 4 .0 0
48
89
116
53
126
77
63
137
137
29
146
93
27
3.00
3 6 .0 0
2 .5 0
1 .5 0
11.00
48
48
125
101
19
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 .5 0
1 .5 0
1 .5 0
1 .5 0
1 .5 0
1 .5 0
1 .5 0
1 .5 0
1 .5 0
1 .2 5
1 .2 5
1 .2 5
108
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
131
69
141
135
1
1
1 .5 0
1 .2 5
101
96
2
3-00
48
1
1
1 .5 0
1 .2 5
1 .2 5
1 .5 0
1 .0 0
1 .25
107
129
129
87
81
137
* 5 0 .0 0
17-50
1 7 .5 0
* 4 0 .0 0
3-00
1 .2 5
1 .2 5
1 .2 5
1 .2 5
8 .5 0
1 .5 0
1.50
1 .5 0
3-00
47
137
116
14S
141
33
106
58
87
121
7 0 .0 0
3 0 .0 0
3 0 .0 0
3 0 .0 0
2 6 .2 5
* 2 8 0 .0 0
2 4 .0 0
30.00
*4 0 .0 0
* 6 0 .0 0
Burmese M o o d s........
Busy Bees o f B a li................
Busy Spots in F lo rid a ............
B utterflies....................
Buzz Saws & D y n a m ite .........
By-W ays o f E g y p t............
see in trodu ction .
. 269
. 747
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
7
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
7
5
7
2
24
2
1
7
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
7
1
1
1
2
tS u ita b le for teach in g purposes.
*
3 6 .0 0
7 2 .0 0
1 7 .5 0
17 .5 0
3 0 .0 0
3 0 .7 5
3 0.00
1 7 .5 0
2 4 .0 0
* 5 0 .0 0
* 3 0 .0 0
*3 0 .0 0
2 1 0 .0 0
* 25-00
6 0 .0 0
*2 8 0 0 0
4 0 .0 0
*3 0 .0 0
* 3 0 .0 0
*30 0 0
* 3 0 .0 0
* 3 0 .0 0
* 3 0 .0 0
* 3 0 .0 0
25.00
2 6 .2 5
3 0 .0 0
3 1 .5 0
* 3 0 .0 0
T IT L E
Number Class.
Clancy of the M o u n te d !...........
Cliff F riend ...................................
C louds...........................................
C low ning......................................
Cobbler C aptain of
Koejpcnick, T h e .......................
Cock-Eyed Animal W orld
(W orld Down U nder)...........
Cocoon to B utterfly...................
Code of the M ounted.................
Cold Shivers.................................
College Capers.............................
College G rapplers......................
College S p irit...............................
C olonial A rchitecture................
Colonial Life (Three Centuries
of Mass. # 2 ) .................................
Colonial N ational H istorical
P a rk ...........................................
Conflict X .......................................
Congo C uriosities.......................
C onocoland..................................
C onstabule........................... ..
C o n tact............................. ............
Contrasts in C h in a .....................
Coo Coo, The M agician...........
Coronation of George V I..........
Coronation of Pope Pius X I I . .
Corpus C h ris ti.............................
C orsair...........................................
C ougar's M istake, T h e ..............
C ounscllor-at-L aw J...................
C ountry Store J ............................
County F a ir.................................
Cover to C over............................
Covered W agon, T h e .................
Cowboy and the B andit...........
Cowboy C abaret.........................
Cowboy M illionaire..................
Cowboys and Indians................
Crashing H ollyw ood.................
Crashing Tim ber (§8 Clancy of
the M o u n ted )!........................
Craters of the M oon..................
C reation........................................
Crimson Jacket, The (§11
Clancy of the M o u n ted )!---Crimson Rom ance......................
Crimson T rail, The (§7 Last of
the M ohicans)........ ................
Croon C razy.................................
Cross-eyed G oony (§3 Law of
the W ild ).................................
Crown of T h o rn s........................
Crushing Rock, The (§10
C handu’s R e tu rn )..................
Crystal C ham pions....................
Cubby’s Stratosphere F light. ..
Cubby’s W orld F lig h t...............
Cuckoo M urder Case.................
Curiosities N ew sreel..................
Curtain Falls, T h e......................
Custer’s Last F ig h t....................
Custer’s Last Ride (§14 Custer's
Last S tand)...............................
Custer’s Last S tand....................
Custer’s Last S tand....................
Cyclone of the Saddle................
C zechoslovakia...........................
Base Catalog Sale or
Reels Rental Column Lease
2151C
3059
1002
561
797
789
Ser.
Mus.
N a t.f
Car.
D ra.f
D ra .f
24
1
1
1
9
7
$36.00
1.25
1.00
1.50
16.00
14.00
626
635
400
596
361
3124
601
3142
T ra .f
N a t.f
D ra.
Com.
Car.
Spo.f
Car.
V oc.f
3
1
6
2
1
1
1
1
4.50
1.50
9-00
3.00
1.25
1.50
1.50
1.50
76
81
29
121
137
92
131
87
108.00
689
Soc.f
1
1.50
109
36.00
Soc.f
D ra .f
866
T ra .f
F2
Tra.
678
Com.
3119C V oc.f
T ra .f
3109
4188
Car.
276
N ew .f
Rel.
4117
218
R el.f
Dra.
3007
N a t.f
575
2110
D ra .f
Car.
2199
3306
Dra.
376
V oc.f
4172
Dra.
Dra.
711
Car.
4293
Dra.
791
Com.
329
598
Com.
4313
2126
3
6
1
7
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
8
1
8
1
8
2
6
6
1
7
1
2
4.50
12.00
1.50
1.00
3-00
6.00
1.50
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.50
12.50
1.50
16.00
1.50
14.00
3-00
12.00
1 0.00
1.25
14.00
1.25
3.00
47
116 $30.00
79
131
119 *360.00
119 *280.00
216.00
*60.00
*30.00
*30.00
*40.00
147 120.00
29
68
36.00
59
121 *60.00
88
90.00
30.00
69
141
26.25
99
17.50
106
17.50
64
27.00
29
85
11
127
19
63.00
88
41 *180.00
41 180.00
30.00
137
29 *350.00
126
17.50
121 *60.00
2158
495
640
Ser.
N a t.f
R el.f
2
1
1
3.00
1.50
1.50
2161
3014
Ser.
Dra.
2
8
3.00
11.00
252
416
Ser.
Car.
2
1
3.00
1.25
49
135
*30.00
442
3009
Ser.
Rel.
2
3.00
8
15.00
50
105
*60.00
180.00
769
198
343
3076
4180
275
4209
719
Ser.
Spo.f
Car.
Car.
Car.
New.
Dra.
Soc.f
2
1
1
1
1
1
7
3
3.00
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
10.00
3.75
48
98
135
135
141
102
12
109
4233
4143
4220C
706
277
Ser.
Dra.
Ser.
Dra.
T ra .f
2
9
32
6
1
3.00
15-00
45.00
1 0.00
1-25
47
56
103
30.00
36.00
47
19 *320.00
*30.00
*30.00
*30.00
28.50
28.00
210.00
90.00
47
70.00
6 300.00
47 1120.00
41 180.00
25.00
65
D ay T o Live, A ............................... 578
D ay W ith th e Q uints, A ..........
389
Daze and K n ig h ts....................... 591
Dead M an's H and, A (§5 Law
of the W ild )............................. 444
Dead wood P ass........................... 4215
D eath D a y .................................... 629
D eath From a D istan ce............. 422
D eath Stampede, The (§7 Law
of the W ild )............................. 446
D eception...................................... 222
Deep River (K y. Jubilee
Singers # 2 )................................ 375
Deluge, T h e ................................. 643
Demons of D isaster (§7 C uster’s
Last S tan d )............................... 4226
Denizens of the Colorado Desert 428
Der F reischutz............................. 3207
390
Desert D angers............................
Desert D em ons............................. 615
Desert P h an to m ........................... 378
Desperate Chance, A (§5 Clancy
o f the M o u n te d )!................... 2155
D estination U n k n o w n !............. 2111
Devil On H orseback................... 838
Devouring Flames (§4 The Lost
S p ecial)!................................... 2142
Dc W oild’s C ham peen............... 2048
Diamond J i m ! ............................. 2235
237
Dixie D a y s...................................
Dizzy D am es................................ 3016
D o a Good D e e d !....................... 2228
D octor S y n ................................... 2076
Dodder, T h e ................................. 210
Dog S how ..................................... 4103
D ogs of S olitu d e......................... 3110
D o ll’s F an tasy ............................. 199
Don Q uix o te................................ 703
D on’t Divorce H im .................... 672
D on’t G et P erso n al!.................. 2117
Double Keyboard P ian o ............ 2006
Dough N u ts................................. 3085
D oughnuts and Society............. 3017
236
D own In D ix ie............................
D own on th e Levee...................... 610
D ow n W ith H usbands................. 384
D rake, The P ira te ......................... 332
Dream F lo w er.............................. 3158
Drums of Jeo p ard y ...................... 2052
Drum T a p s.................................... 4251
Ducks and D rak es....................... 4206
Dude R anger................................
792
Duffer’s Sw ing............................. 4191
D utch T re a t................................. 3118
D utch T re a t.................................... 548
Dynamic New Y o rk ................... 4158
E arth and Its Seasons................
Edge of th e P it, T he (§8
C handu’s R e tu rn ).....................
E lectro statics...............................
E lephant— God or D e v il..........
End of the T rail (§12 Heroes
of the W e st)!..................
End of the T rail, The (§12
Last of the M o h ican s)..........
Enem y’s Stronghold, The
(§10 Last of the M ohicans)..
English C athedral T o w n s.........
Eskim o W alrus H u n t.................
Eternal C ity, T h e ! .....................
E th io p ia........................................
Everybody's Business............... .
Everybody S in g s!..................... .
Evil Eye, The (§4 C handu’s
R e tu rn )......................................
E x-B artender................................
E xotic E g y p t................................
E x travagance................................
Dad and God Turned Me Down
(Voice of Experience # 2 ) . . ..
Daffy D itties................................
Dalecarlia—H eart of Sweden. .
Dance B and............. ....................
Dance of the H ours....................
Dances of the N ations # 1 .............
Danger A head ...............................
Dangerous Trails ......................
Dark H our, T h e ..........................
Day at the Zoo, A .....................
Day in Vienna, A .......................
D ay’s W ork, T h e........................
3015
3167
3209
244
4176
4168
4110
303
736
'W rite for lease or sale term s.
JPrior location approval required on first show ing, see introduction.
366
3063
4149
Rel.
Mus.
T ra .f
Dra.
M us.f
M us.f
Dra.
Tra.
Dra.
N a t.f
T ra .f
T ra .f
1
1
1
7
1
1
6
2
7
1
1
1
1.50
1.25
1.50
11.00
1.50
1.50
6.00
3.00
10.00
1.25
1.25
1.25
107
40.00
116
30.00
63
31.50
*
37
113 *30.00
116 *40.00
24 *216.00
55 *60.00
*
24
86
17-50
64
27.00
77
36.00
Number Class.
T IT L E
Face in the Fog, A .....................
Facing the G a llo w s....................
Base Catalog Sale or
Reels Rental Column Lean
Car.
New.
Car.
1
1
1
$ 1.50
1.50
1.00
Ser.
Dra.
T ra .f
Dra.
2
6
2
7
3-00
9.00
3.00
10.00
Ser.
Spo.f
2
1
3.00
1.50
50
93
*60.00
30.00
M u s.f
R el.f
1
I
1.50
1.50
115
104
30.00
36.00
47
85
113
86
145
41
70.00
30.00
36.00
50.00
2
131
100
136
$30.00
*30.00
50 *60.00
41 150.00
61 *100.00
24 *280.00
Ser.
T ra .f
M us.f
N a t.f
N a t.f
D ra.
1
2
1
6
3.00
125
1-50
2.00
1.50
10.00
Set.
D ra .f
D ra.
2
7
7
3.00
15.00
12.00
Ser.
Com.
D ra .f
Car.
Dra.
Car.
D ra .f
N a t.f
Spo.f
T ra .f
Mus.
D ra .f
Com.
Dra.
M u s.f
Car.
D ra.
Car.
Car.
Com.
D ra .f
N a t.f
D ra.
D ra.
Spo.
D ra.
Spo.
Tra.
Car.
Tra.
2
2
9
1
8
1
8
1
1
1
1
8
2
7
1
7
1
1
2
8
1
7
7
1
7
1
1
1
1
3.00
2.50
16.00
1.25
8.50
1.50
15.00
2.00
1.25
1.50
1.25
12.00
3.00
15.00
1.25
1.25
10.00
1.25
1.50
2.50
12.00
1.50
7.00
11.00
1.25
14.00
1.50
1.50
1-50
1.00
50
121
5
137
38
127
6
147
96
65
129
7
122
33
113
134
12
137
131
122
7
80
24
41
96
30
92
66
131
57
483
N a t.f
1
1.50
79
40.00
767
139
858
Ser.
S ci.f
N a t.f
2
1
I
3.00
2.00
1-50
48
78
85
*
36.00
2138
Ser.
2
3.00
48
257
Ser.
2
3.00
49
255
3180
803
2242
2007
F20
2178
Ser.
T ra .f
Tra.
Tra.
T ra .f
Soc.
Car.
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
3.00
1.50
1.25
1.50
1.25
1.00
1.50
49
63
60
53
68
110
127
763
2049
323
2024
Ser.
Com.
T ra .f
D ra.
7
7
1
7
3.00
1.25
7.00
48
122
68
29
60.00
17.50
210.00
239
859
Dra.
D ra.
6
2
7.00
3-00
24
126
216.00
72.00
1
1
tS u ita b le for teaching; purposes.
2 .5 0
216.00
47
12
37 *350.00
60.00
*30.00
*320.00
*480.00
*
17.50
*30.00
30.00
*
*60.00
30.00
*30.00
*280.00
*30.00
54.00
*
*40.00
210.00
*225.00
*30.00
*350.00
*30.00
*30.00
20.00
*40.00
36.00
30.00
T IT L E
Number Class.
•est E den...................................... 288
■yland F o llie s ............................ 233
irs of the E a s t........................... 3174
en E m pire ( H a i t i ) .............. .3111
lily Q uarrel, A (V oice of
xperiencc # 9 )............................. 373
lily Shoe.......................................3092
gs of D eath V a lle y .................. 655
mer A lfalfa’s Bedtim e Story , 502
m erette......................................... 4270
m et’s F rie n d ............................... 631
m F o o lery .................................... 4267
ming F o o ls !................................2188
:al Race, T he (§8 T he L ost
Ipecial)!.........................................2146
:hcr K now s B e s t!.......................2196
:her's Sacrifice, A (V oice of
ixperience # 5 )............................. 369
ithcrcd F ro lics............................ 229
ocious Pal ................................. 625
idlcsticks...................................... 261
idling F u n ..................................... 3079
jhting C a b a lle ro ........................ 710
;hting C o w a rd ............................ 238
jhting to L iv e ............................. 624
;hting W ith K it C arso n
452C
jh tin ’ T h ru ................................... 2058
lger Prints (§9 C lancy of
the M o u n te d )^ ............................. 2159
re, F ire!..............................
434
res of Vengeance (§3 C u ster’s
Last S ta n d )....................................4222
re T rap ........................................... 364
ring Squad (§12 C u ste r’s L ast
S tand)............................................. 4231
rst Paradise, T h e ........................ 291
shcrmen’s L u c k ........................... 235
sh From H e ll................................ 4153
shing................................................3163
shing in N orw egian Fjords. . .4147
aming A rrow (§10 C u ster’s
Last S ta n d )................................... 4229
aming A rrow s (§2 L ast of
the M o h ican s)............................. 247
aming A rrow s (§7 H eroes of
the W e s t)!.....................................2133
aming F orest, T he (§11 T he
Lost S p e c ia l)!...............................2149
i H i.................................................. 4268
im Flam F ilm s ............................. 592
b atin g F u n ..................................... 4201
y F ro lic ...........................................4269
y Guy, T h e .................................... 3091
iying F ists...................................... 432
iying L e a th e r..................................4197
iy’s Bride, T h e .............................. 418
sotball, 1937................................. 327
x>tball, 1938.................................. 4105
aotball F e v e r!..............
2224
aotball T h rills, 1939................... 4403
are..................................................... 4192
orgottcn Island, T h e .................. 574
or O ld T im e’s S ak e...................... 3064
or the Love of F a n n y ................. 512
orty-N inors......................................4214
orty T h iev es.................................. 608
or ward P a ss................................... 223
ountains, G ardens and S ta tu e s,3141
our D ays W o n d e r!....................... 2116
Ox and R ab b it ( C o lo r ) ! ..............2206
ram ing of th e S hrew , T h e
386
ranee..................................................3144
reaks of th e D e e p ......................... 530
rcsh H a m ............................
4305
reshm an’s F in is h .......................... 520
rcsh W ater F is h in g .......................4126
ricndly B out, A ............................ 742
ricndly F lie s.................................... 3152
tog, T h e .......................................... 152
rom th e B rink o f E tern ity
(Voice o f E xperience # 4 )......... 368
ronticr Justice (§8 Heroes
of th e W e s t)!................................2134
W rite fo r lea se or sale term s.
Base Catalog Sale or
Reels Rental Column Lease
T IT L E
N um ber Class.
T r a .t
Car.
T ra .f
T ra .f
1
1
1
1
$ 1.00
1-25
1.50
1.50
77
137
71
61
$24.00
*30.00
*30.00
*30.00
Rel.
Car.
N a t.f
Car.
Car.
N a t.f
Car.
Car.
1
1
108
138
55
131
148
81
138
127
40.00
*30.00
1
1
1
1
1
1.50
1.25
3.00
1.50
1.25
1.50
1.25
1.50
Ser.
Com.
2
2
3.00
3.00
50
122
R el.
C ar.
D ra.
C ar.
C ar.
D ra.
D ra.
D ra.
Ser.
D ra.
1
1
6
1
1
6
6
6
25
6
1.50
1.25
12.00
1-25
1.25
10.00
9-00
12.00
36.00
6.00
108
138
32
141
135
42
24
32
49
42
Ser.
Car.
2
1
3.00
1-25
47
141
26.25
Ser.
D ra.
2
7
3.00
8.50
47
12
70.00
215-25
G lim pses of French C ountry
L ife..........................................
Ser.
T ra .f
Car.
N at.
S p o .f
T ra .f
2
1
1
3
1
1
3-00
1.00
1.25
4.50
1.50
1-50
47
73
138
30
98
63
70.00
24.00
*30.00
*
*40.00
31.50
G oing H om e (K entucky
Ser.
2
3-00
47
70.00
Ser.
2
3.00
49
Ser.
2
3.00
48
Ser.
C ar.
Car.
Spo.
Car.
C ar.
Car.
Spo.
Car.
S p o .f
S p o .f
Car.
S p o .f
S p o .f
A dv.
M u s.f
Com.
D ra.
Car.
S po.f
V o c.f
D ra.
Car.
Com.
T ra .f
N a t.f
Car.
Com.
Spo.
T ra.
N a t.f
N a t.f
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3.00
1.25
1.00
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.50
1.25
1.50
1.50
1.25
3.00
7.50
30.00
*60.00
150.00
1
1
1
1
1.50
1.50
15-00
3.00
2.50
1.50
1.50
1.25
3.00
1.25
1.25
1.50
2.00
50
138
136
97
148
138
141
92
138
93
93
127
93
92
146
116
122
42
131
93
87
33
129
122
66
83
135
122
98
72
81
83
Rel.
1
1 .5 0
108
40.00
Ser.
2
3.00
48
1
1
1
7
1
1
1
1
1 .5 0
30.00
30.00
G eneral In tro d u ctio n (T hree
40.00
*30.00
28.50
*30.00
180.00
216.00
G h o st Dancers (§4 C uster’s
*
180.00
30.00
*30.00
30.00
*30.00
26.25
*30.00
*30.00
17.50
17.50
G rand C anyon N atio n al P ark.
G ra ss.........
G reat G uy.
Base Catalog Sale or
Reels Rental Column Lease
D ra.
Car.
Car.
Car.
Car.
V o c.f
Car.
6
1
1
1
1
1
1
$12.00
1.25
1.50
1.25
1.25
1.50
1.00
284
476
127
3159
T ra .f
T ra .t
T r a .t
N a t.f
1
1
1
1
1.00
1.25
1.25
1.50
73
67
71
80
24.00
18.00
30.00
*40.00
688
4163
190
205
470
4196
777
S oc.f
S oc.f
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T ra .f
N e w .f
S p o .f
D ra.
1
4
1
2
1
1
6
1.50
6.00
1.25
2.00
1.25
1.50
6.00
109
58
114
56
100
92
25
36.00
125-00
30.00
60.00
17.50
*30.00
4223
708
4302
2123
823
312
3018
620
2217
Ser.
Dra.
T ra .f
D ra.
D ra .f
D ra.
D ra .f
Com.
Com.
2
6
1
7
8
8
9
2
2
3.00
10.00
1.25
274
280
3150
4185
T ra .f
T ra .f
N a t.f
Car.
1
1
1
1
1.25
1.25
1.50
1.25
3056
308
116
3085
834
2200
580
743
3077
2232
131
723
774
464
4173
821
2114
628
M u s.f
T ra .f
Adv.
Lan.
D ra.
Car.
Car.
T ra.
Car.
D ra.
Car.
T ra .f
T ra .f
Car.
Tra.
D ra .f
D ra.
N at.
1
1
1
1
7
1
1
1
1
1.50
1.50
1.25
1.50
14.00
1.50
1.50
1-25
1.25
18.00
1-25
1.25
1.25
1.50
3-00
15-00
15.00
3.00
451
167
182
2245
105
Ser.
N a t.f
Soc.f
T ra .f
Car.
216
581
426
4315
3083
3019
3216
790
3020
836
106
281
M u s.f
Car.
Dra.
Spo.
Car.
Dra.
Car.
D ra .f
D ra .f
D ra.
Car.
T ra .t
L an g f
L angf
T ra .t
T ra .f
T ra .f
D ra.
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D ra.
1
1
1
1
7
7
15-00
15-00
10.00
12.00
3.00
3.00
G reat Sw eepstakes (§12 Law
17-50
*30.00
H andel,
30.00
*40.00
54.00
*40.00
*30.00
30.00
*60.00
17-50
36.00
*40.00
*
[789
H aw aiiH ead in ’ for th e R io G rande
JP rior location approval required on first show ing, see in trodu ction .
42 *$240.00
138 *30.00
127
141
26.25
138 *30.00
145
136 *30.00
854
104
2189
4187
234
597
555
\797
721
2241
4108
398
3021
848
1
1
1
1
1
7
1
1
7
1
7
7
1
1
7
1
1
1
6
7
6
tS u ita b le for teach in g purposes
70.00
47
42 180.00
30.00
67
38
19 *400.00
38 *320.00
17 *360.00
122 *60.00
122
66
66
81
142
31-50
30.00
*40.00
26.25
30.00
115
60
30.75
72
30.00
30.00
119
25 *350.00
127
131
36.00
75
135 *30.00
34
138 *30.00
36.00
74
30.00
55
17.50
131
111 *60.00
19 *420.00
25
85
3-00
2.00
4.00
1-50
1-25
50
79
89
53
138
*60.00
*
*
1.25
1.50
8.50
1.25
1.25
8.00
1.25
14.00
12.00
15-00
1.25
1.00
14.00
16.00
1.25
1.50
1.25
7-50
8.50
12.00
114
131
20
91
134
12
138
13
38
38
138
69
119
119
78
53
78
25
13
42
30.00
*30.00
*280.00
30.00
*30.00
*280.00
*30.00
*350.00
*
*350.00
*30.00
24.00
*280.00
*360.00
36.00
17.50
216.00
*2S0.00
*240.00
T IT L E
Class.
. 298
.3304
.2102
.30^2
.4303
.2195
. 829
Her M ajesty, the Queen B ee.. . 632
Heroes of the W est}................. . 2127C
Hidden Gold (§3 Fighting
w ith K it C arson).................. . 454
H ighlights of Jai A la i............. . 4240
H ighlights of the O ly m p ia d ., . 278
. 511
. 209
. 279
.3116
• ■ 333
. 2238
. .2009
-.3139
■- 725
. . 851
D ra.
D ra.
D r a .f
D ra.
T r a .f
Hold Up, The (#5 Heroes
of the W est)}................
Holland and the D utch . .
. . 667
..3214
..2131
..2003
. . 466
..3113
. . 618
. . 306
. .2247
..3 1 1 2
..2246
. .3202
. 3023
. 354
. 4200
. .3308
. .3024
..4272
H orses.......................................... • 325
Horse Sense and Horse Power. .. F33
Horse-Thief Justice (§6 Law
. . 445
..2019
. . 240
. .4271
..2202
House of M ystery, The (§6
The Lost Special)}.............
.2144
House on the H ill, The (§2
C handu’s R etu rn )............... . 761
How M otion Pictures Move
. . 865
.. 153
. 737
..3078
. - 779
..2103
Human Wolves (§6 Custer’s
..4225
..4164
. . 802
-.4259
Husbands Arc Good For
, . F44
Im itation of Life}.
'W rite for lease or sale terms.
. 535
. 750
. 696
.2239
.4301
• 3179
. F49
. 420
. 286
Base Catalog Sale or
Reels Rental Column Lease
2
3.00
50
Ser.
2
3.00
48
Ser.
2
3.00
49
*
Ser.
Car.
N a t.f
Mus.
T ra .f
2
1
1
1
1
3.00
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
48
132
80
118
65
*40.00
36.00
36.00
Ser.
R el.f
R el.f
R el.f
Tra.
T ra .f
N a t.f
Tra.
T ra .f
T ra .f
N a t.f
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
3
1
1
3
3.00
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
4.50
1.50
4.50
1.50
1.50
3.00
48
105
105
105
54
63
83
77
73
66
84
4175
652
.4178
.4273
227
590
Juv.
R el.f
Car.
Car.
D ra .f
Car.
2
1
1
1
7
1
3.00
1.50
1.25
1.25
129
60.00
36.00
105
142
28.50
30.00
139
17 *280.00
136 *30.00
.2148
. 656
. 582
.3073
196
. 501
. 202
.3080
.3072
2207
Ser.
D ra.
Car.
Car.
Rel.
Car.
M us.f
Car.
Car.
Car.
2
6
1
1
6
1
1
1
1
1
1.25
12.00
1.50
1.25
1-25
1.25
3.00
50
33
132
143
105
132
114
134
143
129
.2162
. 292
. 107
• 515
. 468
.2023
Ser.
T ra .f
Car.
N a t.f
Car.
Dra.
2
1
1
1
1
6
3.00
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.50
6.00
47
72
139
86
132
14
K athleen M avourneen............. .2017
Dra.
6
Keeper of the Bees.................... .3026
Dra.
8
Keeper of the L ions}............... .2223
Car.
1
Kelly of the Secret Service....... . 241
D ra.
*210.00
Kentucky Jubilee Singers........ . 214
M us.f
1
K icking ...........................
Spo.f
1
Kiddie R evue}........................... .2179
Car.
1
Killers, T h e ...............
. 569
N a t.f
1
*60.00
Killers of the Sea...................... . 841
Spo.f
5
108.00
K illing the K ille r.................
N a t.f
1
. 497
36.00
King and the Scullery M aid . .. . 811
N ov.
King Kelly of the U. S. A ........ . 350
Dra.
7
60.00
K ing of the Bugs....................
Car.
.4274
1
*40.00
King of the Range (§10 Law
o f the W ild )...................
Ser.
. 449
?
*280.00
Knife Descends, The (§12
24.00
C handu’s R e tu rn )................. . 771
Ser.
2
K night D u ty ................................. . 669
Com.
2
first show ing, see introduction. fS u itab le fo r teaching purposes.
6.00
12.00
1-50
10.00
1.50
1.50
1.50
12
*
38
7
33 *280.00
30.00
57
122
13 *300.00
81
48
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
8
7
1
3
1
6
1
2
1
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1.25
1.25
1.50
1.25
1.25
1.50
11.50
14.00
1.25
6.00
1.25
12.00
1.50
3.00
1.25
*
49
28.50
91
18.00
91
147
27.00
95
22.50
99
71 *30.00
*
20
34
30.00
65
87 100.00
36.00
75
42 *240.00
40.00
95
95 *60.00
138 *30.00
3-00
1.25
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.25
3.00
1.50
1.50
1.50
8.50
1.25
1.25
D ra.f
Car.
Spo.f
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2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
8
1
1
9
8
1
1
1
12.00
1-25
1.25
1.00
48
30.00
66
132
17-50
66 *30.00
132
90
27.00
122
106 *30.00
53
30.00
71
34 *320.00
134 *30.00
98 *30.00
*
17
*
17
30.00
138
96
17.50
110
Ser.
Dra.
Dra.
Car.
Car.
2
8
7
1
1
3.00
8.00
10.00
1.25
1.50
50
35
13
138
127
Ser.
2
3.00
50
Ser.
2
3.00
48
Voc.
N a t.f
T ra.f
Car.
V oc.f
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1
1
1
1
1
7
1.00
2.00
1.25
1.25
1.50
32.00
*
36.00
*30.00
36.00
15-00
90
86
75
135
88
20
Ser.
N at.
T ra .f
Spo.
1
1
1
3.00
1.50
1.25
1.25
47
83
60
84
70.00
30.00
36.00
*30.00
1.00
14.00
88
35
1.50
3.00
4.50
1.25
20.00
2.50
1.50
•50
7.00
1.00
1.50
145
113
77
60
20
62
65
57
20
76
54
Ser.
Ser.
Spo.
Spo.f
Tra.
Spo.f
N e w .f
T ra.f
Dra,
Dra.
T r a .f
V oc.f
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Dra.
Spo.f
Com.
Car.
Ser.
T ra .f
Car.
T ra.f
Car,
V oc.f
Com.
T ra .f
Rel.
T ra .f
Dra.
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Spo,
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Dra.
4
T ra .f
M us.f
T ra.f
T ra .f
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T ra .f
T ra.f
T ra .f
Dra.
T ra .f
T ra .f
1
1
3
1
10
1
1
1
1
15.00
% Prior location approval required on
In Old New O rleans................... .4309
In Old S an ta F e........................... . 315
Insect C low ns............................... . 630
Inside Baseball............................. . 603
Inside In fo rm a tio n ..................... . 712
Inside Passage.............................. . 778
Inside the R opes......................... .3177
In the B ag..................................... .4306
In the B eginning......................... .1004
In the Good O ld Summer Time . 479
In the M oney............................... -3025
In the P a rk ................................... . 351
In the R o u g h ............................... .4194
Into the Depths (§9 The Lost
Special)}................................... .2147
Invisible Circle, The (§5
C handu’s R e tu rn )................... 764
Invisible Enemy, The (§9
F ig h tin g w ith K it Carson). . . 460
Invisible Terror, The (§9
C handu’s R e tu rn )................... 768
Ireland or B ust............................ . 611
Iris Family, T h e .......................... .3160
Irish F an tasy ................................ . 392
Iron M adonna of N u ren b erg ... . 817
Iron M onster, The (§9 Heroes
of the W est)}........................... .2135
Isaac & R ebekah......................... . 651
Isaac, the B o y ............................. . 648
Ish m ael.......................................... . 649
Islam -Cloudland-Berm uda}.. .. .2240
Island of Perils............................
664
Isle of B ird s.................................. 207
Isle of D esire................................ 636
Isle of Paradise............................
307
Ita ly ................................................ .3143
Itchy S cratchy ............................. . 197
Base Catalog Sale or
Reels Rental Column Lease
Ser.
$12.00
15-00
16.00
8.00
1.25
3.00
12.00
1.50
36.00
Dra.
N a t .f
Slumber Class.
Spo.f
Dra.
T ra .f
Spo.
Car.
N a t.f
N a t.f
Dra.
Car.
Spo.
8
8
8
7
1
2
6
1
24
Com.
T IT L E
1 $ 1.25
8.00
7
1
1.50
1
1.50
10.00
3
4.50
1
1.50
1
1.25
1.00
1
1.00
7
8.50
1
1.25
1
1.50
O
q
O
tN
Number
*60.00
240.00
30.00
Jack and the B eanstalk .............
Jacob and R ac h e l.......................
Jail Birds.......................................
Jail Breakers...............................
Jane E yre.......................................
Ja p a n ic k y ......................................
Jaw s of D eath, The (§10 The
Lost Special)}.........................
Jaw s of Ju stice.............................
Jesse and Jam es............................
Jest of H o n o r.............................
Jesus of N azareth ........................
Jingle B ells...................................
Johannes B rahm s.......................
Jolly F is h ......................................
Jolly Good Felons......................
Jolly L ittle Elves (C o lo r )f. . . .
Journey’s End (§12 Clancv
of th e M o u n ted )} ...................
Jungle B o u n d .............................
Jungle F o o l.................................
Jungle G ian ts.............................
Ju st a C low n.................................
Ju st Like H eaven........................
T r a .f
Dra.
N a t .f
1 1.00
1.00
3.00
12.00
1 .50
1.50
10.00
1.50
3.00
8.00
1.25
57 $30.00
42 *280.00
82
145
32 180.00
60 108.00
92 *30.00
147
30.00
85
79
18.00
35 280.00
134 *30.00
92 *30.00
36.00
36.00
36.00
30.00
27.00
*40.00
75.00
*30.00
180.00
30.00
*30,00
*30.00
24.00
*30.00
17.50
180.00
7 180.00
17 *320.00
127
25
30.00
115
30.00
93
128
145
30 *200.00
86 *30.00
129 100.00
38 280.00
30.00
139
3.00
50
*60.00
3.00
3.00
48
123
*60.00
T IT L E
dies C rave E x c ite m e n t..
B a se
R e e ls R e n t a l
C a t a lo g S a le o r
C o lu m n L e a s e
N um ber
C la ss .
. 798
720
Sco.
T ra .f
2
1
$ 2.00
1.25
.3027
.3028
.2119
. 208
.3114
. 424
.4300
. 203
.4320
.3175
. 813
. 749
.4276
.4296
. 246C
290
D ra.
D ra.
D ra.
T r a .t
T r a .t
T r a .t
T r a .t
T r a .t
T r a .t
T r a .t
T r a .t
T r a .t
Car.
Car.
Ser.
T r a .t
7
7
7
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
26
1
8.50
8.00
15.00
1.50
1.50
1.25
1-25
2.00
1.25
1.50
1.50
2.50
1.25
1.25
36.00
1.00
.4234
266
Ser.
Car.
2
1
3.00
1.25
Ser.
2
Ser.
25
2
S p o .t
M us.
1
1
S p o .t
Soc.
2
D ra.
8
1
T r a .t
1
T r a .t
1
H y g .t
1
N a t.t
1
N e w .t
2
S p o .t
1
N a t.t
3.00
36.00
1.00
1.25
1.00
1.00
16.00
1.50
1.25
1.25
1.50
1.25
1.00
1.25
*
49
50 *750.00
97
116
30.00
96 *30.00
111
*
38
31-50
63
36.00
77
36.00
147
80 *40.00
17.50
99
97
82
36.00
3.00
1.25
1.25
50
110
25.00
113 *30.00
60.00
125
130 *30.00
17-50
131
60.00
125
60.00
125
60.00
125
17 *320.00
142
28.50
139 *30.00
20
17-50
63
42
42 216.00
132
14 *280.00
50
112
70
$72.00
36.00
14 *280.00
25 *280.00
35
61
30.00
71 *30.00
18.00
67
61
60.00
72.00
71
18.00
147
62 *30.00
36.00
65
72
72.00
30.00
139
135
30.00
*
49
68
24.00
ist Stand, T he (§15 C u ster’s
iw of th e L aw less, T he (§7
F ighting w ith K it C arso n ). . 458
. 440C
.1006
.3206
:t ’er Buck.
. 113
. F35
.3300
.4150
. 686
.4238
ife of
.3157
. 299
.1007
. 687
ightning Strikes, T he (§5
.2143
.4213
.3168
.2038
.3173
.4123
.2045
.2037
.2039
. 226
. 260
. 232
.4145
. 395
. 676
. 356
. 583
.3029
.2139C
ost Special, T he (§1 The
.2139
Lost S p e c ia l)t. ................
. 800
ost V alley ..............................
.2012
ost Z ep p elin ..........................
.3004
ottery Bride, T h e ................
. 349
oud Speaker..........................
. 758
o uisiana..................................
ove Is N ever Blind (V oice
. 365
of Experience # 1 )..............
overs’ Paradise & H orse
.2-743
Sense J . .. ..........................
. 830
. 543
. 788
.4321
.2107
.2201
.4254
ure of G o ld , T he (§6 L ast
. 251
. 538
. 231
. 419
Write fo r lea se or sa le term s.
47
142
70.00
28.50
Ser.
Soc.
M u s .t
Com.
Car.
Car.
Com.
Com.
Com.
D ra.
Car.
Car.
D ra.
T r a .t
D ra.
D ra.
Car,
D ra.
Ser.
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
8
1
1
7
1
6
6
1
7
24
Ser.
Sco.
D ra.
D r a .t
D ra.
D ra .t
2
2
8
8
8
6
8.50
12.00
Rel.
1
1.50
107
T ra.
D ra.
Com.
D ra.
D ra.
D ra.
Car.
Car.
1
7
2
7
7
6
1
1
1.50
3-00
12.00
12.00
12.00
1.50
1.25
54
14 *350.00
123 *60.00
7 *210.00
14 295-00
33
128
142
26.25
Ser.
2
3.00
49
Car.
Car.
Car.
1
1
1
1-50
1.25
1.25
132
139
139
2 .5 0
1.25
1.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
12.00
1-25
1.25
13-00
1.25
12.00
10.00
1.50
8.50
36.00
3.00
2.00
8.00
1 2 .5 0
15-00
50
112
72.00
30 140.00
*
38
39 *320.00
7
40.00
*30.00
*30.00
T IT L E
N um ber
M agic M y x ie s.............................. .3193
M agic M u m m y ..................
.3082
M agnificent B rute, T h e f ........... .2108
M agnificent O b sessio n !............. .2233
M ail, T h e ...............
. 818
M ak in g ’Em M o v e..................... .4277
M a n c h u ria ...............
. 215
M an-E ating S h ark s..................... . 526
M a n h a tta n M arin ers.................. .4260
M a n h a tta n Love S o n g ............. .3030
M an h a tta n M y s te ry ...............
4246
M an K iller (§1 L aw of the
W ild ).......................
. 440
M arch of P rogress.................
. 756
M arch of th e M o v ies................. .3002
M arine L ife ................................... 3148
M arsh Birds You Should K now . 810
M arvels of th e M icroscope . . . . • 3145
M a ry la n d ....................................... . 206
M a's Pride and J o y ..................... . 431
M aster D rin k of R o th e n b u rg . . . 816
M atch P la y .................................... ■ 545
M atto G ro sso ......................... ..
. 657
M echanics o f Spring-Board
D iv in g ........................................ . 786
M edicine M a n .............................. .2018
M editerranean M ecca................. . 295
M editerranean S hores................. . 423
M eet th e Professor J ................. .2248
M elody on P arad e....................... . 119
M em o ries....................................... . 121
M em ory Lingers O n, T h e ......... .4255
M en of A ctio n .............................. . 379
M id n ig h t........................................ 108
M id n ig h t M agic (§10 F ig h tin g
W ith K it C a rso n )................... . 461
M ig h ty A to m s............................. .3146
M ig ra tio n ....................................... . 645
M ilad y ’s E scap ad e...................... . 531
M idsum m er in Sw eden.............. .4148
M ilk ................................................ .3186
M ilk m a n ........................................ . 272
M illio n D ollar B aby.................. .3031
M illio n D o llar H a u l................... . 707
M r. A n to n io ................................. .2010
826
M r. Boggs Steps O u t .................
M odern M assachusetts (T hree
Centuries of Mass. # 8 ) .......... . 695
M odern R o m e.............................. .4107
M odern R ussia............................. . 309
M onkey Business......................... . 475
M onkey Business in A frica. . .. . 560
M onkey W retches J ..................... .2183
M oonstone, T h e .......................... .3032
M o th e r’s H o lid a y ....................... . 661
M others of N ip p o n ..................... . 752
M o th er, T h e ................................. .4236
M o sq u ito —Public E n e m y ........ .1003
M o u n tain M u s ic f....................... .2218
M ouse T ra p p e r............................. . 671
M ovie M a d .................................... .4181
M ovies G reatest H ead lin es. . . . . 402
M urder at G len A th o l............... .3052
M urder a t M id n ig h t................... .2053
M urder in th e Red B arn............ 715
M urder W ill O u t (§5 F ig h tin g
W ith K it C a rso n )................... . 456
M usical A irw a y sf....................... .2251
M usical Charms J ......................... .2226
M usical M e a l............................... .3213
M usic H a th C h a rm s................... . 739
M usic H a th C h arm s................... . 385
M usic L esson................................ .4183
M usic of th e N a tio n s................. .3210
M v C h ild re n ................ ................ .2047
M y Friend, th e H a rti................. . 3120
M y G irl S a lly J............................. .2198
M y M an G odfrey J ..................... .2231
M y Pal, th e K in g j..................... .2236
M ysteries of W ate r..................... 4130
M ysterious Island, The (§7
C h an d u ’s R e tu rn )................... . 766
M ystery of C om partm ent C . . . . 862
JP rior location approval required on first sh ow in gg, s e e in t r o d u c t i o n .
C la ss.
B a se
R e e ls R e n ta l
C a ta lo g S a le or
C o lu m n L e a s e
N a t.|
Car.
D ra.
D ra.
S o c.j
Car.
T ra .f
N a t.t
Spo.
D ra.
D ra.
1 $ 1.50
1
1.25
20.00
8
20.00
11
1
1.50
1
1.25
2
3.00
1
1.50
1
1.25
10.00
8
10.00
7
82 *$50.00
134 *30.00
14
21
112
50.00
30.00
139
70
60.00
146 *30.00
97 *30.00
21 *320.00
25 2 2 5 .0 0
50 *90.00
30.00
55
90 300.00
83 *40.00
36.00
84
82 *40.00
60.00
57
65-00
118
36.00
65
92 *60.00
62 *180.00
Ser.
T ra .t
V o c.t
N a t.t
N a t .t
N a t.t
T ra .t
Mus.
T r a .t
Com.
A d v .t
3
1
6
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
5
3-00
1.00
10.00
1.50
1.50
1.50
2.00
3.00
1.50
3.00
10.00
S p o .t
D ra.
T r a .t
T r a .t
Mus.
Mus.
Mus.
Nov.
Dra.
Car.
1
7
1
1
2
1
1
1
6
1
1.50
7.00
1.00
1.25
3.00
1.25
1.25
1.25
8.50
1.25
Ser.
N a t.t
R el-t
M u s.t
T r a .t
V o c.t
Car.
Dra.
D ra.
Dra.
Dra.
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
8
6
8
7
3.00
1-50
1.50
3.00
1.50
1.50
1.25
10.00
10.00
8.00
S o c.t
T r a .t
T r a .t
N at.
Com.
Car.
D ra.
Com.
T ra .f
N ov.
N a t.f
Com.
Com.
Car.
N ew.
D ra.
D ra.
D ra.
1
1
1
1
2
1
7
1
3
1
2
2
1
1
1
7
7
6
1.25
1.25
8.00
7-00
12.00
36.00
109
66
17.50
36.00
64
18.00
85
123 *60.00
128
26 *280.00
126 *30.00
70 108.00
37.50
87
82
123
126
142
28.50
17-50
99
26 280.00
26 210.00
26
Ser.
M us.
Car.
M us.
T ra .f
Com.
Car.
M u s.f
Com.
N a t.f
Com.
D ra.
D ra.
N a t.f
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
10
6
1
3.00
1.50
1.50
1-25
1.25
2.50
1.25
1.50
2.50
1.50
3.00
20.00
12.00
1.50
49
119
128
117
76
123
142
115
125
85
123
22
30
79
2
2
3.00
3-00
48
126
Ser.
D ra.
t S u i t a b l e fo r te a c h in g p u r p o s e s .
15 .0 0
1.50
1.25
1 .5 0
1.00
3.00
1.50
8.00
1 .5 0
3-75
1.50
1.00
3.00
1 .5 0
98
21
67
67
119
117
117
102
15
139
36.00
210.00
24.00
18.00
30.00
30.00
31-50
216.00
*30.00
49
81 *40.00
36.00
105
113 *72.00
31-50
63
89 *40.00
142
28.50
26 *320.00
26 180.00
21 240.00
21 *350.00
30.00
36.00
54.00
26.25
*50.00
60.00
36.00
40.00
72.00
T IT L E
N um ber
Mystery of the Hooded
H orsem en.................................... 850
M ystery Riders (§1 Fighting
W ith K it C arson)..................... 452
N ation Builders.
C lass.
B ase C a ta lo g Sale or
R eels R e n ta l C o lu m n L ease
42 *$240.00
Dra.
6
$12.00
Ser.
3
3-00
.2113
. 490
. 809
. 427
. 833
■3178
. 262
■ 542
. 270
. 322
.4102
.4401
.4115
.4118
4161
D ra .t
T ra .t
Soc.f
T ra .t
Dra.
N a t.t
Car.
Com.
New.
N e w .t
N e w .t
N e w .t
Tra.
Tra.
Dra.
7
1
15.00
1.25
2.50
1.25
12.00
1.50
1.25
3.00
1.25
1.25
1-25
1.25
1.25
1.25
13.00
15
62
30.00
76 *72.00
30.00
59
26 *300.00
83 *40.00
142
28.50
123 *60.00
102
36.00
17.50
99
17-50
99
17-50
99
17.50
57
20.00
57
15
.2157
. 109
• 3153
.3123
.2225
.2075
.2040
. 665
. 642
. 504
.2120
.3061
• 594
. F25
. F48
.4170
.4239
-3117
.4186
.3093
.4298
■3033
Ser.
Car.
N a t.f
A dv.f
Car.
D ra.f
Com.
T ra .f
R el.f
Car.
Dra.
Com.
Car.
Soc.
T ra .f
Dra.
Tra.
T ra.f
Car.
Car.
Car.
Dra.
3.00
1.25
1.50
1.50
47
139 *30.00
84 *40.00
82
30.00
128
8 *480.00
60.00
125
69
72.00
104
36.00
132
36
115 *60.00
136 *30.00
88
57
*
30
147
81.00
63 *30.00
142
26.25
139
30.00
30.00
135
36 *280.00
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
7
49
*
N ight A ttack, The (§7 Clancy
Oily B ird..................
Old C uriosity Shop.
.4278
.2219
. F47
. F50
■ 587
■ 550
• 473
. 482
.3094
.3034
■3197
.3198
• 3215
■3311
.2237
.3035
.2050
. 508
.2164
639
Car.
Com.
T ra .f
T ra .f
Car.
Car.
D ra .t
N a t.t
Car.
Dra.
M us.f
M us.f
M us.f
D ra.f
Dra.
Dra.
Com.
Com.
Nov.
T ra .f
762
■3224
.4241
.4295
3065
120
722
726
3194
4152
724
4261
593
3309
613
393
Ser.
Car.
Mus.
Car.
Mus,
Mus.
T ra .t
Tra t
V oc.f
Dra.
T ra .f
Spo.
Car.
Dra
Tra.
M us.t
1
1
1
1
8
2
2
1
1
7
1
3
1
3
1
1
1
1
7
1
1
1
1
1
’W rite for lease or sale terms.
1.25
3.00
•50
■50
1.00
1.00
15.00
1
1
1
1
1
7
1.50
1-25
10.00
1.50
1.50
1.50
12.00
16.00
8.50
2.50
1
1
1
On the High Seas (§3 C handu's
O uter G ate,
1.50
15.00
2.50
3.00
1.50
1.50
15.00
3-00
1.00
1.00
•50
7-50
4.50
1.50
1.25
1.25
1.25
8.00
1.50
1.50
1.50
3.00
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.50
20.00
1.25
1.25
1.00
10.50
1.50
1.50
28.50
139
123
57
57
136 *30.00
136 *30.00
*
17
58
30.00
139 *30.00
39 *320.00
115 *30.00
115 *30.00
115 *30.00
*
17
36
26 *280.00
123
60.00
126 *30.00
101
61
48
143
116
135
117
117
75
75
88
8
1
74
1
97
1
136
7
26
1
147
1
113
t Prior location approval required on
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1
*30.00
30.00
30.00
30.00
36.00
36.00
*40.00
*
36.00
*30.00
*
36.00
Number C lass.
T IT L E
O xidation & R eduction .......... . . 134
Pack and Saddle........................ ..4204
Painted Faces.............................. ..2011
Pair of Sox, A ............................ . . 666
Pale Face..................................... . .4310
Paleface M agic (§ H L ast of
the M ohicans)....................... . . 256
Pale Face P u p............................. ..4279
P als............................................... ..3071
Pals of th e R a n g e ..................... . . 709
P andora........................................ . . 469
Panickv P u p .......... ................... . . 355
Paradise C anyon........................ ..3051
Paradise Island........................... ..2056
Paradise Isle................................ ..3 3 1 0
Paradise of the C a rib b c a n f.. . ..2174
Par and D ouble P a r.................. . . 114
P aris.............................................. ..2005
Paris, the B eautiful.................. . . 324
P arolcf......................................... . .2106
Passion P la y ............................... . - 195
Pathe News V ariety §2 ........... .■3099
Pathe News V ariety # 8 ........... ..3100
Pathe News V ariety # 9 ........... . .3101
Peacock A lle y ............................ ..2035
Pearls of the C ro w n ................. ..4167
Pcg-Leg P ete.............................. . . 517
Penalties...................................... . . 224
Pencilm ania................................ . . 338
Perils of the Plains (§1 C uster1s
Last S tan d )............................. ..4 2 2 0
Pharoah Land (Easy A ces).. . .■3169
P h o to g rap h y .............................. ..3 1 3 8
Pickaninny Blues...................... .-3095
Pigskin Capers........................... . • 554
Pigskin P rogress....................... ..4256
Pilgrimage T hru P a lestin e ... . ..3115
Pirate S h ip ................................ ..4122
Pius X I—Pope of Peace........... ..4171
Plane D u m b ............................... . • 353
P lant G ro w th ............................ . . 132
Plant L ife.................................... . . 680
Play B all..................................... . . 524
Playful P u p f............................... ..2 1 9 0
Playground of th e M am mals . . - 534
Playtim e a t the Z o o ................. ..3 1 5 6
Pocatello K id ............................. ..2033
Poetry of M otion, T h e ............ ..3161
Points W e st................................ . . 784
Poise............................................. ..3125
P ollitics....................................... . . 565
Pomp and Circum stance.......... . . 732
Pony E xpress............................. ..4184
Plow T h at Broke the P la in s .. ..1001
Polar P a ls................................... ..4308
Pots and Pans............................. ..4275
Presidents of the U. S., T h e. . .■3189
President Speaks, T h e .............. . . 486
P rim itive..................................... . . 623
P rim itive Am erica.................... ..4242
Proudest A m ericans................. - • 337
Prowlers, T h e ............................ . - 519
Puddle P ran k s............................ . . 258
Puppy L o v e..........................
Puzzled P a ls...............................
Quack Q u ack .....................
Quail H unt, T h e f ..............
Queenic of H ollyw ood
Queen of the Indies...........
Queen of the U nderworld .
Q u itter, T h e .......................
■■ 577
..2182
. . 527
. . 294
. . 633
..3 0 3 6
Rabid H u n ters............................... 4304
Racing D eath (§2 The Lost
Special)!:...................................... 2140
Radio G ir l...................................... 503
Radio R ack et.................................. 4281
R adio R ep o rter.............................. 4249
R adio R eview ................................. 187
Raffles ’n ’ R u b b er.......................... 283
first show
sho ing, see introduction.
first
B ase
Catalog Sale or
Reels Rental Column Lease
S ci.f
Spo.
D ra.
Com.
Car.
1 $ 2.00
1
1.25
8
8.00
2
3.00
1
1-25
*
78
96 *$30.00
22 240.00
123 *60.00
142
26.25
Ser.
Car.
Car.
Dra.
Car.
Car.
D ra.
Dra.
D ra.
T ra .f
Spo.
T ra .f
T ra .f
D ra .f
R el.f
N ew .
N ew .
New.
Dra.
D ra.
Car.
2
1
1
6
1
1
6
7
8
1
1
1
1
7
4
1
1
1
6
6
1
1
1
3.00
1-25
1.25
10.00
1.50
1.25
8.50
7.00
14.00
1.50
1.00
1.25
1.25
15.00
8.00
1.50
1.50
1.50
6.00
12.00
1.50
1.50
1.25
49
139
143
42
132
139
43
30
31
54
92
66
66
22
105
102
102
102
29
8
132
94
134
T ra .f
Car.
Rel.
Car.
N a t.f
N a t.f
Car.
Car.
N a t.f
N a t.f
Dra.
S po.f
T ra .f
S po.f
Car.
T ra .f
Car.
Soc.f
Car.
Car.
Soc.f
H ist.f
T ra .f
T ra .f
T ra .f
T ra .f
Car.
Car.
Car.
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
I
1
1
1
1
1
1
3.00
1.50
1-50
1.25
1.50
1.25
1.50
1.50
1.25
1.25
2.00
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
10.00
1.50
1.00
1.50
1.00
1.25
1.25
1.00
1.25
1.25
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.25
1.25
1.50
1.25
1.25
1.25
47
68
90
140
132
94
106
131
106
134
80
80
132
128
146
86
43
91
58
91
136
76
142
111
147
148
109
100
75
58
59
68
142
143
134
Car.
Car.
Com.
T ra .f
N a t.f
D ra.
1
1
2
1
1
7
1.50
1.50
3.00
1.00
1.50
11.00
132
128
123
61
81
22
*60.00
24.00
Car.
1
1.25
148
30.00
Ser.
Car.
Car.
Dra.
Mus.
T ra .f
2
1
1
6
1
1
3.00
1.50
1.25
10.00
1-25
1.00
50
132
140
26
117
73
30.00
225.00
Ser.
Com.
V oc.f
Car.
Car.
tS u itab le for teaching purposes
30.00
*30.00
180.00
17.50
*30.00
240.00
210.00
*
*30.00
30.00
17.50
120.00
*30.00
*30.00
*30.00
180.00
*
30.00
*30.00
140.00
*36.00
*40.00
*30.00
*30.00
*30.00
17.50
30.00
*30.00
*
50.00
*30.00
*40.00
180.00
*40.00
30.00
*30.00
*30.00
36.00
26.25
30.00
30.00
*40.00
25.00
30.00
18.00
*30.00
28.50
28.50
*30.00
280.00
24.00
TITLE
Number Class.
agtime R om eo............................... 259
Car.
ainbow ’s E n d ............................... 700
D ra.
angc L a w .........................................2031
D ra.
eaching for the M oon . ............ 3005
D ra.
eal A m ericans..........................
4243 T ra.
ectilincar C o-ordinates...............4131
S ci.f
ed Blood of C ourage.................. 335
D ra.
ed Lantern, The (§3 The
Lost Special)!:.............................. 2141
Ser.
ed Panthers (§13 Custer's
Last Stand)................................... 4232
Ser.
ed Peril, The (§2 Heroes of
the W est)* .................................... 2128
Ser.
ed Phantom (§8 F ighting
With Kit C arson)...................... 459
Ser.
ed R epublic.................................... 3176
T r a .f
ed Shadows (§5 Last o f the
M ohicans).................................... 250
Ser.
ed Skin’s Honor, The (§9
Last of the M oh ican s)............. 254
Ser.
eel M elodics o f Y esterday.. . . .4257
M us.
enfrew of the Royal M ounted . 843
D ra.
escuc of L ot, T h e ........................ 647
R e l.f
ctribution (§12 The Lost
Ser.
Sp ecial)!.........................................2150
D ra.
.eturn of Casey Jones....................3037
eturn of Chandu........................... 638
D ra.
.eturn of Jacob, T h e .................... 653
R e l.f
evolution, The (Three
Centuries of M ass. # 4 ) ............. 691
S oc.f
.hapsody in B la ck ......................... 3054
M us.
V o c.f
.iches from the E arth
............ 3187
D ra.
.ich R elations..................................4323
Spo.
.ide ’Em C ow b oy........................... 4125
S p o .f
.iders of R iley ................................. 3126
D ra.
.iders of the R ockies.................... 847
T r a .f
.iders Over V ogelsan g................. 702
T r a .f
Liding the S k ies............................. 211
Liding w ith D eath (§4 Last
Ser.
of the M oh icans)....................... 249
Liflc & Tom ahaw k (§3 Last
Ser.
of the M ohican s)....................... 248
Soc.
Light to Work, T h e...................... 820
D ra.
Lio Grande Rom ance.................... 243
Car.
Lip Van W in k le............................. 467
Lise of Arts, Education and In­
dustry, The (Three Centuries
S o c.f
of Mass. # 6 ) ................................. 693
Lise o f Sea Trade, The (Three
S oc.f
Centuries o f Mass. # 5 ) ............. 692
Lise of Steam Power & C ivil War
S oc.f
(Three Centuries o f M ass. #7). 694
D ra .f
.iver of U nrest................................ 3302
S o c.f
iver, T h e..........................................1000
D ra .f
Load Back, T heJ .............................2101
Load to H ealth & H ap p in ess.. .4237
H y g -t
D ra.
Loaring R oads..................................3038
Lobbers R oost (§9 Law o f
Ser.
the W ild )...................................... 448
Car.
.obin H o o d ..................................... 586
S oc.f
Lobinson Crusoe............................. 321
T ra .f
Lock and Ice .................................... 300
Car.
Lccketeers......................................... 339
N a t.f
.omancc in a Pond .........................3149
D ra.
.omancc in the R ain J...................2124
D ra.
.omancc of the L im berlost
3305
C ar.
.omeo & J u lie t............................... 4124
Car.
.omeo M on k ....................................4282
Car.
.omeo R obin....................................4280
Car.
.oom Runners................................. 438
S oc.f
.oosevelt Fam ily Tree, T he. .. .3104
Spo.
.ough and T um ble......................... 3205
Car.
.ough on R ats................................ 352
D ra.
ough Riding R anger.................. 713
Car.
.oyal Good T im e.......................... 360
C ar.
.unaway B lackie............................4283
T ra .f
ural Quebec F olk w ays............... 804
Base C atalog Sale or
R eels R ental Colum n Lease
1
6
7
8
1
1
6
$ 1.25
10.00
10.00
12.50
1.25
1.50
8.50
143
43
43
36
59
89
31
2
3.00
50
2
3.00
47
2
3.00
48
2
1
3.00
1.50
49
64
2
3.00
49
2
1
6
1
3.00
1.25
$28.50
180.00
210.00
*
30.00
50.00
216.00
70.00
*
*30.00
1.50
49
30.00
117
31 *300.00
36.00
105
2
7
7
1
3.00
8.50
14.00
1.50
50
15 *280.00
27 *280.00
36.00
105
1
1
1
7
1
1
6
2
1
1.50
1.25
1.50
10.00
1.25
1.50
12.00
2.00
1.25
36.00
109
30.00
115
89 *40.00
44 255 00
17.50
96
96 *30.00
43 *240.00
60.00
56
31.50
56
2
3.00
49
2
1
7
1
3.00
1.00
8.50
1.50
49
111
26
132
1
1.50
109
36.00
1
1.50
109
36.00
1
7
3
1.50
13.00
1.50
20.00
1.25
7.00
1
7
1
3
1
1
1
7
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
15-00
3.00
1.50
5.00
1.25
1.25
1.50
15-00
15.00
1.50
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1-50
1-25
10.00
1.25
1.25
1.25
20.00
2 5 2 .0 0
17-50
36.00
109
*
7
112
6
36.00
147
36 *280.00
50
132
16
64
134
86
39
18
131
148
140
143
109
92
140
43
143
140
61
*60.00
150.00
27.00
*30.00
*40.00
*
17-50
30.00
30.00
26.25
30.00
*30.00
*30.00
180.00
*30.00
30.00
36.00
T IT L E
S aleslady...................
Sally S ongs...............
Salt of th e E a rth ...................
San Francisco—G olden G ate
C ity ...........................................
San Francisco W o rld ’s Fair
S atu rd ay 's M illio n s f................
Savage G ir l..............
Saw dust and S id e-L ig h ts........
Scarlet L e tte r..............................
School D a y s ................................
Schum ann-H cink and
Sigm und S p a eth .....................
Science of Seeing........................
Scoutm aster, T h e .......................
Sea, T h e ........................................
Sea-G oing B irds.........................
Sea G oing T h rills ......................
Sea K illers....................................
Sea of S trife .................................
Sea S oldier’s S w c e tie f................
Second H ungarian R hapsody.
Secret of Iron M o u n tain (§6
F ig h tin g W ith K it C arson).
See §1 .............................................
See #2 .............................................
Sec #3 .............................................
See #4.............................................
Sec #5 .............................................
See # 6 .............................................
Seeing F in g e rs............................
Self-Condem ned..........................
Seventh W onder of th e W orld
Shadow S trikes, T h e .. . ........
S h an g h ai......................................
Shanghai B om bed.....................
Sherlock, J u n io r ........................
Sherm an Was R ig h t.................
Ship of D ream s..........................
S hopping W ith W ifie...............
Short-Eared O w l, T h e .............
Sbot From th e D ark, A (§4
Heroes of th e W e s t)!.............
S hot in th e D ark, A ...................
S h o w b o a t!..................................
Shriek in the N ig h t, A ...........
Siamese Jo u rn e y ...........................
Silent Doom (§4 F ig h tin g
W ith K it C a rso n )...................
Silent Enem y, T h e ....................
Silvery M o o n ..............................
Sing, Bing, S ing.........................
Sing, C ow boy, S in g ..................
Sing 'E m Back A liv e ...............
Singing B andit, T h e ! ...............
Singing Boxer, T h e ...................
Singing Plum ber, T h e ..............
Singing Saps................................
Singing w ith Singing S a m ... .
Single S in .....................................
Sing w ith th e S treet S in g e r.. .
Sinister Stuff................................
Sink or S w im ..............................
Six G un T r a il.............................
S k i-E sta........................................
Skiing on Y our F eet.................
Skiing w ith H ans Schneider. .
S k im p y .........................................
S ki-W ays......................................
S k y w a y ........................................
Slim F ig u rin g .............................
Slum bering G ia n t.....................
Slum berland E x p ress!..............
Small T ow n B o y .......................
Small T ow n Id o l........................
Sm iling B urm a...........................
S nail's Pace, A ........................
Snow F u n .....................................
Snow scapes..................................
Snow T h rills ...............................
S n o w tim e.....................................
Social E rror, A .............. ............
T ra .f
71 108.00
3.75
3
acred C ow ....................................... 753
36.00
1
1.50
R e l.f
105
acrificc of Isaac, T h e ................. 650
17.50
1
T ra .f
69
1.25
ahara
...........................................4109
ilem W itches 8c Shipbuilding
36.00
1
1.50
109
S oc.f
(Three Centuries or Mass. #3). 690
Write for leasa or sale terms. tPrior location approval required on first sh ow in g, see in trodu ction .
N um ber
Class.
.3312
. 185
1005
D ra.
Mus.
S oc.f
Reels Rental Column L e a se
8
1
2
$ 1 1 .5 0
1.25
1.00
15
117
89
*
$30.00
1.25
1.25
16.00
11.00
1.50
12.00
1.25
56
55
22
31
90
18
143
17-50
17-50
116
88
146
146
146
62
83
112
123
113
.4128
.4101
.2125
. 348
. 571
.4146
. 436
Tra.
T ra.
Car.
1
1
8
7
1
8
1
.3133
. F24
.4253
. 619
. 537
.4116
. 267
. 492
.2204
- 394
M u s.f
Soc.
N ov.
N a t.f
N a t.f
Tra.
N a t.f
Soc.f
Com.
Mus. f
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1.50
1.00
125
1.50
1.50
1.25
2.00
3.00
3.00
1.50
. 457
. 319
- 330
. 331
- 396
.4111
.4112
. F24
. 860
. 293
. 844
.3222
. 314
/ 772
I 773
. 609
. 189
■ 525
.3203
Ser.
N ov.
N ov.
N ov.
N ov.
N ov.
N ov.
Soc.f
D ra.
T ra .f
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
D ra.
6
T ra .f
N e w .f
D ra.
Dra.
Car.
Mus.
Com.
N a t.f
1
1
6
4
1
1
2
1
3-00
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.50
3.00
1.00
15-00
1.50
1.25
12.00
8.00
1.50
1.25
3.00
1.50
*
49
17-50
102
17.50
102
102
17.50
102
17.50
102
17-50
17.50
102
88
72.00
126
6]
24.00
27 *300.00
70 *30.00
100
17.50
8 *240.00
8 *160.00
133
117
123 *60.00
84 *40.00
.2130
3039
.2230
.3040
. 746
Ser.
Dra.
D ra.
Dra.
T ra .f
2
7
11
8
2
3.00
8.50
20.00
8.00
2.50
48
27 280.00
9
27 *320.00
72
72.00
. 455
. 347
-3096
. 410
. 852
. 123
.2250
. 412
■ 413
.4287
. 122
.2027
. 417
.4299
.4202
.4322
. 230
. 429
.4162
.2042
. 717
.3041
.3127
. 751
.2181
. 824
.3105
. 748
. 493
. 388
.4212
. 401
. 110
.3042
Ser.
D ra .f
Car.
Com.
Dra.
Mus.
Mus.
Com.
Com.
Car.
Mus.
Dra.
Mus.
Car.
Spo.
D ra.
S p o .f
S po.f
Spo.
Com.
S po.f
Dra.
S p o .f
T ra .f
Car.
D ra.
Com.
T ra .f
N a t.f
S po.f
Spo.
S po.f
Car.
D ra.
2
6
1
2
6
1
1
2
2
1
1
7
1
1
1
6
1
1
1
2
1
7
1
3
1
6
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
7
3.00
6.00
125
3-00
12.00
1.25
1.50
300
3-00
1-25
1.25
7.00
1-25
1.25
1.25
8.50
1.25
1.25
1-25
2.50
1.00
10.00
1-50
3-75
1.50
D ra.
D ra.
Voc.
D ra.
tS u ita b le for teaching purposes.
15-00
3-00
2.50
1.25
1-25
1.25
1.25
1.25
8 50
49
8
140
119
43
117
119
120
120
140
117
29
117
135
97
43
95
95
95
125
56
36
91
70
128
15
124
72
83
94
94
94
140
36
252.00
*
26.25
*50.00
30.00
*30.00
17-50
50.00
45 00
36-00
*
216.00
*30.00
65.00
*240.00
65.00
65.00
30.00
30.00
210.00
30.00
30.00
*30.00
180.00
2 5 .0 0
27.00
27.00
60.00
30.00
*280.00
*30.00
103.00
*300.00
60.00
72.00
30.00
25 00
%
17.50
*30.00
'280.00
T IT L E
N um ber
C lass.
B ase C a ta lo g S a le o r
R eels R e n ta l C o lu m n L e a se
Sock............................................... ■4404
Soda S quirt................................... ■4219
Softball G a rn e t............................ .2180
Something for N o th in g ............ ■4314
Something to Sing A b o u t........ • 835
Some W ild A ppetites................. ■ 489
Song of C h in a ............................ • 775
Song of the G rin g o .................... - 849
Songs of S pain ........................... . 186
Songs of the H ills..................... . 421
Songs of the R ange................... .3060
Songs of the South Seas............ •3219
Songs of the S u n . ....................... • 3066
Songs of Y esterday................... ■4189
Sons of A dam ............................. • 744
Sons of Steel............................... ■3043
Sound Waves and T heir Sources 159
Soup Song................................... ■ 433
Southern C rossw ays................. ■ 285
Southern M aid, A ............ .
•3044
Southern Seas............................. . 634
Spanish Interlude...................... ■ 305
Special Messengers ................. .3218
Speed in the Gay 90's.............. . 518
Speed L im its.............................. ,4262
Spills and T h rills...................... . 130
Spirit of the Plains, T h e ......... . 718
Spooks............ ............................. . 264
Sport A lm anac........................... 3128
Sport Cavalcade 1937 .............. . 326
Sport Cavalcade 1938.............. .4106
Spotted W ings........................... . 484
Spring A ntics............................. •3223
Springtime in the Scillies....... ■3154
Springtime Serenade (C olor)f. ..2208
Spring T rain in g ......................... . 219
Spv 7 7 .......................................... • 3045
Stages of C hild G row th. . . . . . 192
Stealing a Tombstone (Voice
of Experience # 8 )................. • 372
S teel.............................................
3185
Stephen Foster........................... . 117
Sterling’s R ival R o m eo f......... .2194
Stolen Sw eets.......... .................. .3046
Stone Age E rro r........................ .4284
Stone Age R om ance................. 4285
Storm, The (§4 Clancy of the
M ounted) J ............................. .2154
Stories of the Old Testam ent. 640-653
Stormy Seas................................ .4179
Story of Our F la g ..................... .4132
Strauss, Jo h a n n ......................... . 217
Stream-Line E xpress................ . 342
Streets of M ystery .................... . 115
Strictly V egetarian................... . 488
String C hoir............................... . 161
Student Rom ance...................... .3047
Study in Scarlet, A .................. . 698
Study of Infant Behavior, The . 193
S ultan’s Cat, T h e ...................... ■ 579
Summer O u tin g ......................... . F32
Sum m ertim e............................... - 567
Summer T im e............................. .4286
Sundown Saunders.................... . 399
Sunny Skies................................ .2015
Sunset T ra il................................ .2034
Sutter's G o ld f........................... .2100
Sweepstake A nnie...................... .3048
Sweetheart of Sigma C h i........ . 310
Sw eetheart of the N avv............ . 837
Sw ellhead................................... .2014
Swift Justice.................. .............. . 861
Swing It, S ailor.......................... . 827
Swing's the T h in g ..................... .4235
Swiss on W h ite ........................... . 225
S w i rch es W i tch e s .......................
588
Spo.
Car.
Car.
N at.
Dra.
N a t.t
D ra.f
Dra.
M us.t
Mus.
Mus.
Mus.
Mus.
Mus.
T ra .t
Dra.
Sci-t
Car.
T ra .t
Dra.
T ra .t
Lang.
N a t.t
Com.
Spo.
Spo.
Soc.t
Car.
Spo.t
S po.t
Spo.f
N a t.f
Car.
N a t.f
Car.
Spo.f
Dra.
Soc.f
1 $ 1.25
1
1.25
1
1.50
1
1.25
17.50
1
1.00
12.00
12.00
1
1.25
1
1-25
1
1-25
1
1.50
1
1.25
1
1.25
1
1.25
7
8.50
1
2.00
1
1-25
1
1.00
6.00
1
1.50
3.00
1
1.50
3.00
1
1.25
I
1.25
1
1.50
1
1.25
1
1.50
1
1.25
1
1.25
1
1.50
1
1.25
1
1.50
1
3.00
1
1.50
8
12.00
2
4.00
92
143
128
86
39
86
9
43
117
117
117
117
117
117
75
15
78
143
76
39
76
67
84
124
91
97
109
143
91
91
91
81
140
84
130
93
27
89
Rel.
Voc.f
M us.f
Com.
Dra.
Car.
Car.
1
1
1
108
89
115
124
22
140
140
Take Your P ick ..........................
Tamale V endor...........................
Tam ing the W ild ........................
Tam ing the Wild-Car ..............
Tank Room Terror, The (§7
The Lost Special)...................
.4263
■ 514
. 242
. 573
Spo.
Com.
Dra.
N a t.f
1
2
6
1
1.25
3.00
10.00
1.50
94
120
27
147
Ser.
2
3.00
50
'W r i t e f o r le a se o r s a le te rm s .
t P r io r lo c a tio n a p p ro val r e q u ir e d or
2145
Ser.
R el.f
Car.
Soc.f
M us.t
Dra.
Adv.
N a t.f
M us.f
Dra.
Dra.
Soc.f
Car.
Tra.
Car.
Car.
Dra.
Dra.
Dra.
D ra.f
Dra.
Dra.
Dra.
Dra.
Dra.
Dra.
Mus.
Spo.f
Car.
7
1
1
14
1
1
1
1
1
1
7
7
1
4
1
1
7
8
6
8
8
8
6
7
2
6
2
1
1
1.50
1.50
1.25
3-00
9-00
1.25
1.25
3.00
20.00
1.25
1.50
1.25
12.00
1.25
1.00
2.00
1 1 .0 0
14.00
4.00
1-50
1.00
1.50
1.25
10.00
8.00
8.50
20.00
11.00
10.00
15 00
7.00
3.00
15-00
3.00
1.25
1.00
$17.50
26.25
30.00
*480.00
18.00
*300.00
*240.00
30.00
30.00
30.00
30.00
30.00
30.00
36.00
280.00
26.25
24.00
*
61.50
*40.00
*60.00
*30.00
*30.00
*30.00
28.50
*30.00
17.50
17-50
45-00
*30.00
*40.00
30.00
*320.00
*
40.00
*40.00
30.00
280.00
30.00
30.00
47
103 E a.36.00
144
110
40.00
114
30.00
*
36
71 *30.00
86
18.00
*
114
*
39
28 *210.00
*
89
133
58
133
140
30.00
43 262.00
39 250.00
43 180.00
9
37 *320.00
40 *320.00
40 *300.00
37 210.00
126
72.00
37 *300.00
*
120
94
31.50
136 *30.00
*30.00
*60.00
216.00
first sh o
T IT L E
N um ber
Taxi T roubles.............................. . 516
Tarzan and the Green Goddess. .4156
Techno-Cracked........................... .4252
Teddy Bears a t P la y ................... 806
Television M adness.................... . 780
Temples of Ja p a n ........................ . 738
Temples of M any C reeds.......... . 727
Tennis T opnotchers.................... .4205
Tenth O lym p iad......................... . 101
Terrible T ro u b a d o rf................... .2191
T erritorial Expansion of the
U. S. A ....................................... . 499
T erritorial Possessions of the
U. S. A ...................................... .4217
Terror T ra il.................................. 357
Texas T ornado............................. 363
Tex Rides w ith the Boy Scouts 853
T h a t D aily J o b ............................ 741
T h a t’s M y M e a t.........................
507
Theatre A rts................................. .3102
Theme Song of Y esterday......... 4190
T here’s Always Tom orrow ^. .. .2104
T hird A larm ................................. .2025
This Is A m erica........................... 536
This New Freedom..................... .2028
T horoughbred, T h e .................... .2054
Those We L o v e........................... . 699
Three Centuries of
M assachusetts.......................688-695
Three Kids and a Queen J ......... .2234
Three Lazy Mice (C o lo r)f....... .2209
Throne of the Gods, T h e ......... f 759
I 776
Thundering D eath (§10
Heroes of the W est)f .......... 2136
Thundering Hoofs (§2 Custer's
Last S ta n d ).............................. .4211
Thundering Hoofs (§11
Heroes of the W e st)f............ 2137
Thunder Over M exico............... 654
Tid B its......................................... . 599
Tide of B attle, The (§8 Last
of the M o h ican s).................... 253
Tigers of the D eep...................... 4199
T iger-T iger................................... .3121
T ig h t Rope T rick s...................... 415
Timber P a tro l.............................. .4245
T im in g ........................................... .3129
T oday's F ro n tiers....................... F26
Toll of the Rapids (§1 Clancy
of the M o u n te d )!................... .2151
Tongue T w ister........................... 118
Topnotchers (Easy Aces).......... 3170
Top of the T o w n J...................... .2121
Torch v ........................................... . 533
Torchv Passes the B uck............
529
Torchy Turns the T ric k ............
568
To the O lym pics......................... . 783
T ouchdow n............................
. 498
Town H all F o llie sf.................... .2229
T oy lan d ....................................... . 674
Toyland Premiere (C o lo r )f,. .. 2210
Toy Shop (C o lo r)....................... 316
T o y tim e..............................
. 344
T oytow n T a le ............................ . 228
Tragedy of M t. E v erest............
200
Tragic Anniversary, The
(V oice of Experience # 6 ).. .. . 370
Trailer T h r il ls t............................ .2177
T railing the Sea H orse.............. . 268
T ra ilin ’ T ro u b le.......................... . 856
Trail of the Sword-Fish. ..
521
T rail of the W ild ................
377
T rail to G lory, The (§12
F ig h tin g W ith K it C a rso n ).. . 463
Trapped (§5 Custer's Last
S ta n d )........................................ .4224
Tree & Plant L ife ....................... .3229
T rees............................
. 212
T rekking to T im b u cto o ............ . 673
T rip to the Sky, A ..................... .4159
Troopers T h ree..................
.2013
T ro u b le......................................
. 340
ng, see introduction.
C la ss.
B ase
C a ta lo g Sale or
R ee ls R e n ta l C o lu m n Lease
Com.
Dra.
Car.
Nov.
Com.
T ra .f
R el.f
Spo.f
Spo.f
Car.
2
8
1
1
1.50
Soc.f
2
3.00
Soc.f
D ra.
Dra.
Dra.
T ra .f
Com.
V oc.f
Mus.
D ra.
Dra.
N ew .f
Dra.
Dra.
Dra.
2
3.00
6
6
7
1
1
1
1
8
7
6
7
6
7
10.00
6.00
12.00
1.25
1.50
1.50
1.25
16.00
7-00
9-00
7.00
6.00
14.00
110
72.00
43 216.00
43 146.25
44 *280.00
74
36.00
126 *30.00
90 *30.00
118
30.00
23
15 210.00
100
29 210.00
28 180.00
23
Soc.f
Dra.
Car.
A dv.f
A dv.f
8
9
1
6
4
12.00
16.00
3-00
7.50
5-00
109
23
130
72
72
Ser.
2
3-00
48
Ser.
2
3-00
47
Ser.
D ra .f
Nov.
2
7
1
3.00
14.00
1.50
48
10
146
Ser.
Spo.
N a t.f
Car.
Dra.
Spo.f
Soc.
2
1
1
1
7
1
1
3-00
1.25
1.50
1.25
11.00
1.50
1.00
49
98
85
134
31
91
111
Ser.
Mus.
Com.
Dra.
Com.
Com.
Com.
T ra .f
Spo.f
Car.
Car.
Car.
Nov.
Car.
Car.
A dv.f
2
1
1
8
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
3.00
1.25
1.50
20.00
3.00
3-00
3.00
1.00
1.50
1.50
1.50
3.00
2.00
1.25
1.25
4.50
47
118
91
40
124
124
124
58
94
128
133
130
130
140
140
71
Rel.
Car.
N a t.t
D ra.
N a t.f
Dra.
1
1
1
6
1
6
1.50
1.50
1.25
12.00
1.50
12.00
40.00
108
178
30.00
83
44 *240.00
146
31 216.00
Ser.
2
3.00
49
*
Ser.
N a t.f
Mus.
T ra .f
N a t.f
Dra,
Car.
2
1
1
5
1
8
1
3.00
1.50
1.25
7.50
1.50
8.00
1.25
47
80
118
68
79
15
134
70.00
*40.00
30.00
180.00
45-00
240.00
*30.00
$ 3-00
14.00
1.25
1.00
l
A
2
3.00
1
1.25
1
1.25
1
1.25
1
1.00
tS u itab le for teaching purposes.
124 $*60.00
*
27
144
26.25
130
15.00
124
72.00
70
36.00
76
36.00
92 *30.00
91 *30.00
128
59
72.00
288.00
216.00
144.00
70.00
*30.00
30.00
*30.00
255-00
*30.00
30.00
*36.00
*60.00
*60.00
30.00
25.00
*30.00
*30.00
108.00
T IT L E
rouble in T e x a s....................
uba T o o te r.........................
um bledow n T o w n ...................
u n d ra ...........................................
'uning I n .....................................
‘urkey D in n e rf ..........................
3 ^2 H ours L e a v e ............... ..
'wisted R a ils ..............................
'wo Black C row s in A fric a . .
’wo D o c to rs...............................
’wo G un M a n ............................
’wo H ard W o rk e rs...................
’wo H eads on a P illo w ..........
.’wo H undred F ath o m s D eep.
Two P o u n d e rs.............................
000 B. C .......................................
Typhoon T reasu re......................
N um ber
. . 846
• -4307
• ■3097
. .2203
. - 825
..4 1 6 5
. ■ 679
- ■ F7
-■2059
..3 1 0 6
••3049
■■ 572
. ■3190
. ■ 584
..4 2 4 8
C la ss .
D ra.
Car.
Car.
D ra.
Car.
Car.
D ra.
D ra.
Com .
Sci.
D ra.
Com.
D ra.
B ase
C a ta lo g S a le or
R e e ls R e n t a l C o lu m n L e a se
Car.
D ra.
6
1
1
8
1
1
7
6
2
1
6
1
8
1
1
1
7
$12.00
1.25
1.25
16.00
1.25
1.50
14.00
6.00
3.00
1.00
6.00
1.50
11.00
1.50
1.50
1.50
12.00
44 *$240.00
148
30.00
140 *30.00
*
16
141
*30.00
128
16 *350.00
28 131-25
124 *60.00
148
44 180.00
126
30.00
37 *320.00
146
83 *40.00
133
31 300.00
Car.
S p o .t
D ra.
D ra.
S p o .t
N a t.t
1
1
7
6
1
1
1 00
1-50
12.00
6.00
1.50
1.50
136 *30.00
91
30-00
31 255-00
40 *180.00
92 *30.00
82
36.00
Ser.
Soc.
2
3.00
1.00
49
148
*
15-00
Ser.
Com.
T ra.
T r a .t
2
3.00
3.00
1.25
1.25
48
124
75
58
*60.00
36.00
30.00
M us.
D ra.
M us.
T r a .t
M u s-t
T r a .t
T r a .t
T r a .t
D ra .t
Car.
N ov.
Car.
Car,
T ra.
M u s .t
T ra.
T r a .t
Rel.
1
1
1
1
1 .5 0
1 .5 0
146
70
118
146
114
67
67
64
16
144
90
144
144
118
114
73
58
107
N at.t
N at.t
T IT L E
W hat the Puppy Said.
W hite Chief, The (§2 F ig h tin g
Num ber
Class.
. 600
. 112
• 3195
• 435
. 864
• F39
.4216
. 793
. 730
.2112
. 478
. 481
.2220
2171
Com.
Car.
T ra .f
Car.
Dra.
Tra.
Dra.
Dra.
T ra .f
Dra.
N a t.f
N a t.f
Com.
T ra .f
■ 453
. 863
828
B ase
R e e ls R e n t a l
T
C a t a lo g S a le or
C o lu m n L e a s e
7
1
1
2
1
$ 3.00
1.25
1-50
1-25
5.00
1.50
9-00
14.00
1.25
16.00
1.00
1.00
3-00
1.50
124
141 *$30.00
61 *40.00
144
26.25
33 NOS.00
69
44 150.00
16 *350.00
36.00
74
16
18.00
79
18.00
79
124
54
Ser.
D ra .f
D ra .f
2
2
8
3.00
3.00
15-00
*
49
72.00
70
16 *400.00
.4227
. 546
■ 552
■3192
.3098
4166
Ser.
Car.
Car.
N a t.f
Car.
Dra.
2
1
1
1
1
6
3.00
1-50
1.00
1.50
1.25
12.00
47
133
136
86
142
33
. 246
. F43
621
Ser.
Voc.
D ra .f
4
4
7
3-00
1.00
10.00
49
148
10
. 602
• 3055
.3119a
2020
Com.
Mus.
V oc.f
Dra.
2
1
1
6
3.00
1.25
2.00
8.00
124
118
88
32
30.00
30.00
180.00
V oc.f
A d v .f
1
3
2.00
4.50
88
62
30.00
150.00
V oc.f
1
2.00
88
30.00
S po.f
1
1.25
91
17.50
Ser.
S p o .f
Spo.
Spo.
Spo.
Car.
2
1
1
1
1
1
3-00
1.50
1.00
1.25
1.25
1.00
50
92
57
94
94
136
*60.00
*30.00
30.00
30.00
30.00
*30.00
Rel.
1
1.50
107
40.00
1
1
1
3
3
7
1
W hite T reachery (§8 C uster’s
Jncle T o m ’s C ra b b in ............. . . . 564
Jncrow ned C h a m p io n s......... .. .3131
Jndercovcr M a n ...................... .. .4247
Under M o n tan a S k ie s .. . . . . . ...2 0 2 2
Under P a r ............. ................
...4 1 9 5
Undersea G a rd e n s.................... . . . 857
Unmasked (§11 F ig h tin g
W ith K it C a rs o n )............... . . . 462
United States M arches O n .. . .. 4133
Uplifted K nife, T he (§11
C handu's R e tu r n )............... . . . 770
Upper-Cut O ’B rie n .................. . . . 553
Use Your H e a d ......................... . . . 731
Utah P a rk s................................. . , 795
K
2
1
1
W hys and O therw h y s.
W ild W aters (§1 L ast of the
W indy R iley Goes to
70.00
*30.00
*40.00
*30.00
247.50
W ings O ver Africa
Vagabond M e lo d ie s................ . . . 606
Vagabonds A b ro a d ................. .. .3220
Variety M ela n g e ...................... . . . 336
V eldt............................................ . . . 510
V endetta..................................... . . . 547
Venice and its G lass M asters . . . 474
Venice, th e M agnificent........ . . . 313
Vienna— C ity of W a ltz e s.. . . . . . 210
V iking, T h e .............................. . . . 697
Village B arb er.......................... ...4 1 7 7
Village B la c k sm ith ................. . . . 808
Village S m itty .......................... ...4 1 8 2
Village S p ecialist..................... . . . 273
Village S y m p h o n y .................. . . . 204
Violins and C e l l o s ................. ...3 1 3 4
Virgins of B a li.......................... . . . 659
Visiting O h io C aves............... .. . F51
Voice of E xperience................. 365-374
2
1
1
1
6
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
1
10
1.25
1.50
3.00
1.25
1.25
1.25
10.00
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.50
7-50
.50
1 50 0
842
. 558
3132
. 124
. 728
523
4402
3151
D ra.
M us.
M u s .t
Mus.
T ra .f
N e w .f
N e w .f
N a t.f
6
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
15-00
4230
4157
4120
Ser.
T ra.
T ra.
2
1
1
3-00
1.00
1.25
3068
4203
745
3147
491
320
714
4144
472
220
840
4244
2173
M u s.f
Spo.
T ra .f
N a t.f
S p o .f
S p o .f
D ra.
T ra.
D ra .f
S p o .f
D ra.
Soc.
T ra .f
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
2
7
1
6
1
I
1.50
1.25
1.25
1.50
1.25
1.25
10.00
2.50
14.00
1.50
15.00
1.25
3.00
1-50
1-25
1-25
3.00
1.25
1-50
30.00
18.00
*
18.00
17-50
27.00
*
28.50
30.00
28.50
28.50
27-00
*40.00
175-00
40.00
E ach
31 *300.00
114 *7 2 .0 0
116 *40.00
118
30.00
36.00
69
100
17.50
99
82 *40.00
W arpath (§11 C uster’s L ast
Water Boy (K en tu ck y Jubilee
We’re O n O ur W a y ..
“W r ite f o r le a s e o r s a l e t e r m s .
1 .5 0
47
56
56
.3103
■ 595
W ings Span the E arth
(C o n tact #11)............................ .3074
W inner, T he (S port Cavalcade
of th e Y e a r)............................
326
W inner T ake All (§11 Law
. 450
.4193
. 485
.4210
.4211
• 589
W ith o u t Benefit of Solomon
. 367
W ith W illiam son Beneath
4154
W olf's Fangs, T he (§6 Clancy
.215 6
.3050
. 509
. 540
. 162
. 626
.2221
.3226
. 557
N a t.f
6
12.00
Ser.
D ra.
T ra .f
Car.
M u s.f
T ra .f
Com.
S p o .f
N a t.f
2
7
1
1
3
2
1
1
3-00
8.50
1.50
1.50
2.00
4.50
3-00
1.50
1.50
47
23
146
133
114
76
125
95
146
X M arks th e S p o t...........................2055
.2055
D ra.
7
7.00
28
.3200
. 832
. 716
. 785
. 505
. 318
. 796
.2222
. 782
2192
.4264
. 382
729
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7
1
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1
1
2
2
1
3
1
1
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1.25
1.25
1.50
1.25
2.50
3-00
1.25
4-50
1.25
1.50
1-25
■ 391
M ust
1
1.50
t e a c h in g
p urpose
70.00
20.00
17-50
30-00
115
97 *30.00
36.00
75
82 *40.00
21.00
97
17.50
97
44 180.00
*
69
10 350.00
93 *30.00
31 *300.00
112
30.00
54
Y ellow stone N atio n al P ark ,
Z a m p a ...................
f P r i o r l o c a t i o n a p p r o v a l r e q u i r e d o n f i r s t s h o w in g , s e e i n t r o d u c t io n .
1
32 *247.50
280.00
*
108.00
40.00
*30.00
210.00
142 *30.00
28 *350.00
30.00
59
36.00
59
133
102
17-50
72.00
125
125
56
30.00
53
91 *30.00
112
27.00
74
36.00
114
36.00
C o l u m n references 151-166
cover catalog Supplement 1940-A
T IT L E
N um ber
Air Express } ................................ .2269
America Takes to S kis}............ .2271
America— Yesterday and Today . F35
Ancient Cities of Southern France 4481
Annie L aurie............................... .4557
Artificial Rubber, e tc .} ............. .1010
Backward C ivilization, A ........ .4379
Beetles........................................... . .155
Before the Baby Com es............ . .870
Before the Grand J u r y ............... .4383
Big Cat and L ittle Mousie} ... .2258
Big D itch of Panam a................. .4373
Big R ace}..................................... .2263
Bing M ust S ing ........................... .4370
Bits of B ritta n y ........................... .4479
Black Coin, T h e ...................... 4343-57
Breathless M oments | ................ .2279
B udapest....................................... .4392
Building of B oys......................... .1014
Carnival in Flanders.................. .2081
Cham pionship B asketball. . . . . .4388
Child G row s Up, T h e ............... . .872
Choosing Your V ocation......... . .146
Cities of N orthern A frica......... .4480
C lutching H and, T h e ................ .4141
C lutching H and, T h e...............C-4328
Coast Guard in the A rctic....... .3421
Concert in T y ro l......................... .2080
Coney Island ................................ .4409
Crash, T h e .................................... .4354
Crashing T im ber......................... .4385
Cry in The N ig h t, A ................. .4335
D arling Nellie G ra y .................. .4467
Danger A h ead ............................. .4355
Dangerous M en ........................... .4343
D avy Jones’ L ocker.................... .4476
Desert M an, T h e ......................... .4391
Desperate Chance, A .................. .4337
Diesel, The M odern Power. .. . .1013
Double Trap, T h e ....................... .4332
Duck H u n tf................................. .2265
E lectrochem istry......................... .4377
Evil Eyes....................................... .4336
E volution of the M otion Picture r . .874
Fatal Plunge, T h e ....................... .4345
Federal A gent.............................. .4381
Feed the K itty J .......................... .2260
Finland F ig h ts............................. .4410
First Year, T h e .......................... . .871
Flames of D e a th ......................... .4350
Flam ing Suns............................... .4352
Freshman Y ear}.......................... .2255
From Ocean to O cean................ .4397
Fungus P lan ts.............................. . .149
Fuel Research, E tc ...................... . 1009
Geological W ork of Ice ............ .4317
Glimpses of E rin ......................... .4358
G lory of Spanish M a in } .......... .2273
Golden C alifornia....................... .4394
Gopher T rouble}........................ .2264
G raf Spee Scuttled!..................... .4407
Has Anybody Here Seen Kelly. .4453
Hidden D anger............................ .4339
Hidden P eril................................. .4356
H o lland}....................................... .2275
H ollyw ood Screen T e st} ........... .2257
House of M vstery ....................... .4330
House of Secrets ........................ .4384
How the Organs of the Human
.3422
Body Function...................
Iceland—Land of the V ikings... 4360
Idol of the C row ds}................... .2253
Industrial Testing, E tc................ .1011
Industrious F inland...................... 4395
International C rim e...................... 4326
Invisible Enemy, T h e .................. .4334
Island of M y stery ....................... .4369
Journey T hrough the Isthm us.. .4398
King of the Sierras....................... 4325
King W inter}................................. 2272
C la ss. R ee ls
B ase C a ta lo g S a le o r
R e n ta l C o lu m n L e a se
Car.
Spo.
Soc.
Tra.
Car.
Voc.
Tra.
N at.
Hyg.
Dra.
Car.
Tra.
Car.
Com.
Tra.
Ser.
New.
Tra.
Soc.
Dra.
Spo.
Hyg.
Voc.
Tra.
Dra.
Ser.
Tra.
Dra.
Tra.
Ser.
Dra.
Ser.
Car.
Ser.
Ser.
Car.
Dra.
Ser.
Voc.
Ser.
Car.
Sci.
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Voc.
Ser.
Dra.
Car.
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Voc.
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Tra.
Tra.
Tra.
Car.
New.
Car.
Ser.
Ser.
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1
$1.50
1
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1
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1
8.50
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1
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1
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31
2
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1
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31
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6
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2
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3.00
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1
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2
3.00
2 S.C.1.00
2
3.00
1
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1
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2
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1
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1
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166
166
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17.50
163
161
*
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159
160
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153 262.50
166
156
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157
153 925.00
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31.50
157
162
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156
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165
160
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162
158
31.50
153 225.00
*
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156
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155
156
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153
153 202.50
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164
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Hyg.
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Dra.
Voc.
Tra.
Dra.
Ser.
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Tra.
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Spo.
7.50
3
1
1.50
6
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1 S.C.1.00
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7
2
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166
T IT L E
N um ber
Know Your F o o tb a ll....................4368
Lady Fights Back, T h e } ........... .2254
Life of a H ealthy C h ild ............ .4238
L ittle Miss C o w b oy ................... . .868
London Bridge is Falling D o w n .4466
Lone Hand, T h e .......................... .4342
Lone R id er.................................... .4374
Magical H av a n a.......................... .4399
M ajor Bowes’ A m ateur H o u r.. .4478
Man H u n t} ................................... .2267
M an ila........................................... .4482
M arch o f Freedom }.................... .2256
Men and M achines....................... .F54
M exico—Old and N e w } ........... .2277
M idnight M enace....................... .4349
Monsters of the D eep................. .4346
Movie C razy................................. .4387
My Old Kentucky H om e.......... .4465
M ystery S h ip ............................... .4344
Mystic Menace, T h e .................. .4340
N ew B runsw ick}........................ 2276
N orw ay—Land of the M idnight
Sun.............................................. .4361
O h Susannah.................................. .4468
Old Black J o e .............................. ..4452
Old Pal, W hy D on’t You
Answer M e............................... .4456
Over the Seas to Borneo............. ,4362
Pals of the P rairie....................... .4390
Pals of the W est.......................... .4367
Pasteur, The Benefactor............ .4396
Phantom Car, T h e ........................ .4331
P hantom Treasure, T h e ............. .4357
Pig Projects M ake P ro fits........ ..1016
Planets—A steroids—C o m ets... ., .876
Play B all....................................... .4473
Problem C h ild } ........................... .2261
Racing L u ck ................................. .4382
Rio, the M agnificent................... 4365
Road to H ealth and Happiness. . 4237
R obin H ood, J r ............................ .4477
R ollin’ P lain s............................... .4327
R om antic A rgentina......................4364
Romola ( s ile n tj............................ X877
S co tla n d , T h e B o n n ie ..............................
S ervice A f lo a t ...............................................
S h a d o w ............................................................
S hark’s F a n g .................................................
S h ip o f Peril, T h e ......................................
S ilen t S h a d o w s .............................................
S ile n t S p e c tr e ...............................................
S in g a p o r e ........................................................
Ski R e v e ls .......................................................
S m u g g ler’s L a ir ...........................................
S o u d a n ............................................................
S p ite F lig h t ....................................................
S p o n g e D iv e r s ..............................................
Sports Parade o f 1 9 3 9 ..............................
Star S p a n g led B a n n e r ..............................
Steps o f D o o m ..............................
S tory o f C o a l .................................
S tory o f S t e e l................................................
S tr a to s-F e a r ...................................................
S u n d o w n T r a i l............................................
S un and M o o n .............................
S w a n ee R iv e r .................................
S w im m in g and D iv in g A c e s .................
S y m p h o n y O r c h e s tr a ...............................
S y n th etic R u b b er— C a p tu rin g S ea ls.
T a b le T e n n is .................................
T a k e It E a s y .....................
T h a t C ertain A g e ........................
T ib e t— L and o f I s o la t io n ................
T ra d e M i c e ....................................
T ra in in g a R o p in g H o r s e ......................
T r a m p , T r a m p , T r a m p , the Boys
A re M a r c h in g ..........................
T ro p ic a l C e y lo n ...........................
T u n e In O n B in g . . . .
U n p o p u la r M e c h a n ic ^ .............
V io li n .................................................
V o ice o f T h e S e a ..........
W a n d e rin g J e w , T h e .................
W est o f T h e L a w .........................
W h eels o f D e a t h ..............
W h ere th e O ld S o u th S till L iv e s f. .
W h ere M ilea g e B e g in s ..............
W h o Is th e C lu tch in g H a n d ? . .
W ild H orse R o u n d - U p . . .
W iley W e a s e l f .........................
W illie W h o p p er C a r to o n s ....................
W in ter C o m es to M ich ig a n
W o lv es o f T h e N i g h t .................
W ork o f R iv e r s ..............
Y o u n g D y n a m i t e .......................................
Y o u th H o stelin g in A m e r ic a ................
C la ss. R e e ls
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Car.
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R e n t a l C o lu m n Lease
1 $ 1.25
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2
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30.00
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36.00
17.50
17.50
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36.00
17.50
31.50
17.50
40.00
30.00
324.00
52.50
*
*
202.50
30.00
*
*
225.00
*
5 S O U N D and SIL E N T Rental SERVICES
gularly Available From Bell 8C Howell Library
F IL M O S O U N D LIBRARY
16 m m S o u n d F i l m S e r v i c e
F I L M O S O U N D L IB R A R Y offers our dealer and h is patrons an alm o st in ex h a u stib le sto re­
h o u se o f fact an d fu n , m a k in g o w n e rsh ip o f a F I L M O S O U N D or oth er 1 6 m m . so u n d
p rojector a n e v e r -e n d in g source o f en terta in m en t, e n lig h te n m e n t, and profit. In a d d itio n to
C astle film su bjects w h ich w e reco m m en d and su p p ly , w e offer th ou san d s o f su bjects g le a n e d
fro m m an y sources. A ll o f our 2 ,0 0 0 or m ore titles m ay be ob ta in ed th ro u g h our rental
library, or in m o st cases o n an o u trig h t p urch ase basis.
T h er e are several w ays in w h ich ou r d ealers can p rofit in h a n d lin g our film s. T h ese
p la n s are briefly o u tlin e d b e lo w . M ore co m p lete in fo rm a tio n w ill be sen t at your request. A
d ealer d isco u n t is 2 5 % o n all ex c ep t C astle and a fe w oth er purchasesy o n w h ich 3 3 J 6 %
a p p lies.
*ssgSsf
A.
up-r
-
S p o t B o o k in g s — In d iv id u a l orders fo r sh orts or features m ay be sen t to us w h e n ­
ever you s£ll or rent a sin g le p ro g ra m to your cu stom er fo r a g iv e n date.
B.
Q u a n tity S c h e d u le s—T e n program s o f any le n g th or co m b in a tio n , d efin itely
b o o k e d in ad vance, q u a lify for a 1 0 % d iscou n t fro m ca ta lo g rates, p ro v id ed the ap proxim ate
ren tal cost o f th e 1 0 th p rogram is d ep o sited in advance to insure co m p letio n o f contract.
Such contracts are to b e co m p leted w ith in 12 m o n th s.
Forty p rogram s, sim ila r ly b o o k e d , to be co m p leted w ith in o n e year, an d secured by a d ep o sit ap p ro x im a tely equal to rental costs o f
ast program s, q u a lify fo r a d isco u n t o f 1 5 % .
Special S c h o o l S h o rt S u b jec t C o n tr a c t — W h e n
4 0 or m ore reels o f short so u n d subjects are b o o k ed at o n e tim e,
used d u rin g o n e sc h o o l year, a sp ecial rate o f $1 per reel is o ffered . C olored film s su p p lie d under this p lan , $ 2 per reel. S ilen ts,
►per reel.
“Program o f th e M o n th ” — T h is p la n p ro v id es for p la c in g 1 0 selected 1 6 m m . p rin ts w ith the dealer, to be ex c h a n g ed every
lys. T h is en a b les you to h a v e fre sh film s on h a n d at all tim es fo r over-th e-cou n ter trade and rush orders— and g iv e s you p restig e and
itages o f o p era tin g a film library that con sta n tly features n ew o ffe rin g s. W r ite fo r f u ll details.
H om e F I L M O S O U N D C o n tr a cts — W h e n a cu stom er buys a n ew F I L M O S O U N D projector for h o m e use, w e offer a
il 12-program contract, each b o o k in g c o n sistin g o f a fu ll 1 6 0 0 -ft. reel o f five so u n d shorts, ex p ertly selected , to be fu rn ish ed on
requested at a co m p le te lis t p rice o f $ 5 7 . T h is m akes a n ice " p ack age” fo r the dealer to sell. A t the term in ation o f th is series,
acted for at th e tim e o f F I L M O S O U N D purchase, su ccessive series o f 12 program s m ay b e secured at th e renew al rate o f $ 6 0
eries. A n y cu stom er n o w o w n in g a F I L M O S O U N D fo r h o m e u se m ay ob tain
a 12-program cc ltract at the $ 6 0 rate. A h and y
m utation” tick et co n sists o f 12 p rep a id p o st cards, each m a ile d by th e custom er as h is p rogram s are ordered.
Luxe H o m e F e a tu re C o n tra ct — T h is contract offers the so u n d projector ow n er 10 p rogram s, each c o n sistin g o f any
re in our library ( lis t in g up to $ 2 0 p er day base ren ta l) p lu s sufficient short subjects to co m p lete at least a 10-reel program ,
al total lis t p rice fo r 1 0 de lu x e p rogram s, $ 1 6 0 , p a id in ad v a n ce o n a " p ack age” sale.
tldard H o m e F ea tu re C o n tr a c t — S im ilarly, th e B e ll & H o w e ll Standard
ire service su p p lie s, fo r $ 1 0 0 , ten featu re le n g th p rogram s o n w h ich th e catalog
rental is $ 1 3 , or u nd er, per featu re. Each su ch p rogram in clu d es th e selected feature
additional sh o rts to m ak e a total o f 10 so u n d reels p er program .
16m m . S I L E N T F IL M S E R V IC E
Bell & H ow ell FILM O S ilen t F ilm L ib rary includes h u n d red s of films p ain stak in g ly selected from
In products o f all th e w o rld . S ilen t 16m m . ren tals m ay be h an d led on a basis sim ilar to the
Booking” and " Q u a n tity ” schedules for sound films m en tio n ed above, generally at 7 5 %
of
th e
1 base rates. S ilen t base re n ta l rates av erag e $1 p e r 400-ft. film p er day, p lu s tran sp o rtatio n
“s. W rite fo r fu ll in fo rm atio n .
lell Sc H o w ell n a tio n al ad v ertisin g constantly calls a tten tio n to th e new F IL M O S O U N D and
O silent lib rary acquisitions.
?ILM O SO U N D L ib rary C atalogs are fu rn ish e d w ith o u t cost to registered ow ners o f 16m m . sound
Rent. A vailable to non-o w n ers at 25c p er copy. S u p p lem en ts are issued p eriodically. M ark order
for fu ll d etails re g a rd in g ren ta l o f e ith e r 16m m . so u n d or silen t film subjects u n d er any of
*ove plans.
LL 8C H O W E L L C O M P A N Y
F ilm s D i v is io n
1801
L a r c h m o n t A v e n u e , C h ic a g o , I llin o is
H o lly w o o d
A —4 -4 0 —5000
L ondon
I.ithu in L
174
Appendix III
(Copy of original letter in Appendix III of first copy)
Toy Manufacturers of the U. S. A., Inc.
Two Hundred Fifth Avenue
New York, N. Y.
June 4, 1940
Mr* Cordon H. Barker
751 Simpson Street
Evanston, Illinois
Dear Mr* Barkert
The Toy Wholesalers’ Association has referred to us your letter regarding
volume of business done in toys and games.
Our estimate, based upon the best data available, for the total consumer
purchases of toys and games for 1939 was $230,000,000.
Very truly yours,
(Signed)
ML
James L. Fri
T oy M a n u fa c tu r e r s o f th e
TWO
HUNDRED
U.S.A.,i n c .
FIFTH A V E N U E
N e w Y o r k :,N.Y.
June 4, 1940
Mr. Gordon H. Barker
731 Simpson Street
Evanston, 111.
Dear Mr. Barker:
The Toy Wholesalers1 Association has referred to us your
letter regarding volume of business done in toys and games,
Our estimate, based upon the best data available, for the
total consumer purchases of toys and games for 1939 was
$230,000,000.
rs
James L. Fri
ML
175
Appendix XV
"Here are the Leisure League Hobby Books I
Handsome, authoritative editions
that have shown millions
How to be Happy with a Hobby I
Over thirty Hobbies inside”
Leisure League Hobby Books:
(1940 list)
"Care and Heeding of Hobby Horses” ; "You Can Write” ; ”How to Spend Your
Husband’s Leisure” ; "What to do about your Invention” ; "Tropical Fish";
"Photography for Fun” ; "Quilting"; "Music for Everybody” ; "A Garden in the
Home"; "The Life of the Party"; "How to Sell What you Write"; "How to Design
your own Clothes"; "Stamp Collecting"; "Hiker’s Guide"; "Interior Decora­
ting” ; "Discover the Stars” ; "Book of Unusual Pets"; "How Smart are You?";
"Motor Camping"; "Hunting with the Microscope” ; "The Knitting Book” ;
"Working with Tools"; "How to Sail"; "A Dog’s Life:
from Puppyhood to Old
Age"; "The Cookery Book"; "Skiing for All"; "Creative Handicrafts"; "Chess
in an Hour"; "Reading Character from Handwriting";
"How to Watch a Football
Game” ; "Drawing for Fun"; "How to Make Music on the Harmonica".
Original list in Appendix IV of first copy of dissertation.
I—
I
D R A W IN G
FOR FU N
lere are th e LEISURE LEAGUE
Hobby Books!
landsome, authoritative editions
th a t have shown millions
How To Be Happy With A Hobby!
OVER
THIRTY
HOBBIES
I N S I D E ----------- >
Each an O pportunity for Lifelong
FUN and PROFIT!
YOUR FAVORITE HOBBY, GRAPHICALLY;
A N D A B S O R B I N G L Y DESCRI BED IN
AM ERICA'S FAVORITE LITTLE BOOKS
Leisure League Can H elp You Select
the Right O ne
Be H appy W ith a H obby
O O K at the p eop le around you w h o seem to be g e ttin g the
m ost fu n out o f life . M ore than likely, they h ave learned
h o w to be happy w ith a hobby. For fascinating, life lo n g
hobbies are lik e old friends. Y o u can always turn to them to
relieve the ten sion and boredom o f every-day routine. A n d
they w ill reward you u n fa ilin g ly , w ith 60 fu ll, absorbing
m inutes for every hour you d evote to them .
L
Y o u n eed a hobby. B u t to g et th e m ost fu n out o f it, select
th e o n e that is best suited to your talents. I f you haven't yet
started a hobby, th ese authoritative b ooks w ill show you how.
I f you already h a v e a hobby, th ese books w ill show you how
to im prove your sk ill, increase your k n o w led g e, and multiply
your enjoym ent.
M any p eo p le find greater pleasure by com b ining hobbies.
H ikers take cameras on their trips, am ateur sailors learn to
navigate by the stars, hunters w ant to k n o w about dogs, microscopists lik e to draw their observations, etc. Look through the
Leisure League list carefully. T h is is a non-profit League de­
voted to the so le purpose o f g iv in g you inform ation that will
h elp you to B e H a p p y w ith a H ob by. Select the books you
w ant, n ow , then in d icate your ch oice o n th e coupon in the
back. M ail today to th e Leisure League o f A m erica, Rockefeller
Plaza, N . Y . C.
Hobbies O fte n Yield Fine Incomes
Y es. T h e very hobby that is so m uch fun and excitem ent, can
prove a real source o f incom e for you. C ollectors, writers,
photographers, etc., p eo p le just lik e yourself, started these
pastim es just for fu n , and discovered respected and profitable
careers for them selves.
1. CARE AND FEEDING OF HOBBY HORSES.
E r n e s t E l m o C a l k i n s . 6 4 pages.
A n invaluable gu id e in the selection o f the hobby that best suits your talent, your tim e and your purse. Lists and explains
hundreds o f th e m ost popular and practical pastim es.
2. YOU CAN WRITE.
F. F r a z e r B o n d . 112 pages.
Practical, p rofessional inform ation on h ow to gather m aterial, and w rite salable short stories, n ovels, plays, and articles for
new spapers and m agazines.
4. HOW TO SPEND YOUR HUSBAND'S LEISURE.
D o r is W e b s t e r .
9 6 p ages.
H u ndreds o f am using and sensible ways to analyze and stim ulate a m an ’s interests and aptitudes and assure a happy and
w ell-b lan ced married life.
5. WHAT TO DO ABOUT YOUR INVENTION.
6. TROPICAL FISH.
L u c ille Q u a rry M a n n .
1 10 pages.
A n experienced p atent attorney tells you
E dw ard T h o m a s.
W h at are the patent, trademark and copyright law s that apply to your in v en tio n ?
h ow to market your in ven tion, and protect yourself.
9 6 pages.
H u ndreds o f unusual breeds. C om plete inform ation on h o w to feed, house and breed these pets, and k eep them happy. A
g u id e book for one o f A m erica’s m ost popular hobbies.
7. PHOTOGRAPHY FOR FUN.
W illia m M . S tr o n g .
9 6 pages.
A com p lete and authoritative book on h ow to m ake g o o d p ictu res;— ch o o sin g eq u ipm en t, sn a p p in g candid and action shots,
d evelop in g, etc. 14 fu ll-p age studies illustrate this thorough survey o f photography.
8 .
QUILTING.
E l i z a b e t h K in g .
9 2 pages.
M
G randm other s favorite pastim e that has been brought up to date and has w o n n ew popularity. C ontains patterns, desig^V
stitches, and com p lete instructions for this u sefu l hobby.
9. MUSIC FOR EVERYBODY.
S ig m u n d S p a e t h .
Facts about m usic everyone w ants to know .
w ell-k n ow n T u n e D etective can d o it.
8 4 pages.
D iscussed from a laym an’s stand point and com p letely d eb unked, as only the
V ER
A
MILLION
COPIES
A GARDEN IN THE HOME.
SOLD
H e l e n V a n P el t W il s o n .
TO
DATE
1 1 2 p a g es.
F or th e city d w e lle r w ith th e cou n try c o m p lex . H o w to select b u lb s an d raise p o tted p la n ts.
h o w attractively arranged ga rd en s cheer an d b ea u tify th e h o m e.
T h o u sa n d s h a v e d isco v ered
THE LIFE OF THE PARTY.
M e n a k e r an d F o l s o m . 9 6 p a g e s .
50 o r ig in a l party id eas r a n g in g fro m ice-breakers to house-b reakers. H o w to en tertain s o that e v e n th e h o st has a g o o d tim e.
HOW TO SELL WHAT YOU WRITE,
m y r o n M . S t e a r n s . 9 6 p a g es.
A sea son ed v eteran o f th e w r itin g g a m e t e lls you w h a t ed ito rs are a sk in g for, an d w h e r e you m ay b est m arket your shortstory, n o v e l, article, p la y or scen ario.
, HOW TO DESIGN YOUR OW N CLOTHES.
H a n n a h Sh e l t o n .
A w e ll-k n o w n N e w Y o rk d e sig n er te lls you h o w to sk etch and g e t your id eas fo r d esig n .
practical style id e a s fo r th e d e s ig n in g w o m a n .
, STAMP COLLECTING.
H enry R e n o u f .
8 0 p a g e s.
A practical h a n d b o o k f u ll o f
8 0 p a g e s.
T h e h o b b y o f k in g s an d p o o r m en alik e. V a lu a b le b o th fo r th e b eg in n er and exp ert. H o w to collect, h a n d le and d etect flaw s
in stam ps. Illustrated .
, HIKER'S GUIDE.
B e n So l o m o n .
9 6 p a g es.
O n e o f th e h ea lth iest an d m o st rew a rd in g o f ou td o o r exercises. T h is h e lp fu l b ook con tain s m an y sketch es, and m uch prac­
tical a d v ice that e x p la in s th e d ifferen ce b etw e en h ik in g and w a lk in g .
, INTERIOR DECORATING.
H e l e n M . D ag gett.
9 6 p a g e s.
A tru ly u se fu l h ob b y. L earn h o w to ch o o se colors, d esig n s, arrange furn itu re and m ake an attractive h o m e that you w ill
be p rou d o f. H a n d so m e ly illu strated .
DISCOVER THE STARS.
G a y l o r d J o h n s o n . 1 1 2 p a g e s.
A fa sc in a tin g h o b b y in w h ic h th e am ateur h as as m u ch ch an ce to ach iev e reco g n itio n as th e b est eq u ip p ed p ro fessio n a l. T e lls
you h o w to c h o o se e q u ip m e n t an d re co g n iz e th e vast p anoram a o f stars and p lanets.
. BOOK OF UNUSUAL PETS,
l u c .l l e
Q uarry M a n n .
9 6 p a g e s.
I f you w a n t a p e t th a t’s d ifferen t, h ere is a co m p lete h a n d b o o k o n th e selectio n and raisin g o f over 1 0 0 an im als that have
served as u se fu l p ets.
HO^Af SMART ARE YOU?
F. E. M e n a k e r . 64 p ages.
T est your w its an d th o se o f your frie n d s o n th ese 75 n ew brain-tw isters.
that w ill afford yo u m a n y h ou rs o f fu n . A n sw e rs in 't h e back o f th e book.
. MOTOR CAMPING.
P orter V a r n e y .
A n a m u sin g co llectio n o f p rob lem s and p u z zle s
9 6 p a g e s.
W h e r e to g o , w h a t to tak e an d d o. I f you h a v e en jo y ed m otor trips in th e past,
to ex p lo r e, and cut th e cost o f your trip in h a lf.
. HUNTING WITH THE MICROSCOPE,
G a y lo r d J o h n s o n .
A stran ge and vast n e w w o r ld o f te e m in g lif e aw aits th e am ateur m icroscop ist.
and ch o o se eq u ip m en t, be it a p o ck et le n s or a b i-fo ca l m icroscop e.
THE KNITTING BOOK.
E l iz a b e t h K i n g .
for you
9 6 p ages.
H o w to prepare slid es, g ath er sp ecim en s,
9 6 p a g es.
W h a t every y o u n g w o m a n (so m e m en , to o ) sh o u ld k n o w .
chic k n itted w ard rob es.
WORKING ^AMTH TOOLS*
th is b ook w ill o p en n ew p ath s
H a r r y J. H o b b s .
H ere is a co m p lete selectio n o f patterns and stitch es that m ake
9 6 p a g e s.
T h e co m p lete g u id e b o o k o f h o m e carpentry. W h a t to o ls are required and h o w used.
lo o k in g an d u se fu l fu rn itu re righ t in you r o w n w o rk sh o p . T h is b ook tells you h o w .
Y o u can m ake p len ty o f g o o d -
LEISURE LEAGUE BOOKS ARE REAL BOOKS, NO T BOOKLETS
T h e y are w e ll p rin te d o n g o o d paper, and attractively bound in stron g, flex ib le D u ra tex .
D ia g r a m s and illu stra tio n s are ca refu lly and ex p ertly draw n to m ak e every p o in t clear to
b eg in n e r and e x p er t alik e.
35c
PER COPY
MORE TITLES ON NEXT PACE
------
26 . HOW TO SAIL.
S a m u e l C a r te r .
9 6 p a g e s.
Covers every type o f sailin g craft from th e sim p le cat-boat to th e schooner.
cruising. In cludes diagram s and a glossary o f terms.
H o w to sail, in any w eather, for racing
27 . A DOG'S LIFE: FROM PUPPYHOOD TO OLD AGE.
J o s e p h in e
Z, R i n e .
Lists and describes th e different breeds, and tells h o w to rear, train and breed your can in e friend .
dog-lovers in cities or in th e country.
28 . THE COOKERY BOOK.
l .p .d e G o u y .
1 0 6 pages.
A n invaluable help
1 1 2 p a g e s.
A m aster-chef sh ow s h ow the p rin cip les o f cookery ap ply to the m a k in g o f appetizers, eg g s, sou p s, fish, meats, etc
"m usts” and "m ust n o ts” o f cook in g.
29 . SKIING FOR ALL.
O t t o S c h n ie b s . 9 6 pages.
O n e o f the fastest and fastest-grow ing o f w inter sports. T h is fam ous ski authority sh ow s you h o w the experts
w hat you need in th e w ay o f eq u ipm en t and cloth in g.
30 . CREATIVE HANDICRAFTS.
M a b e l R ea g h H u tc h in s .
9 6 p a g e s.
T ruly creative as w ell as u sefu l hobbies. Covers pottery, w ood-carvin g, b o o k b in d in g , m etal crafts, and many other skiu
arts. M any o f these h obbies have been turned in to h ig h ly profitable sid elines.
31 . CHESS IN AN HOUR.
F r a n k J. M a r s h a l l .
6 4 p a g e s.
T h e form er U . S. chess cham pion, 1 9 0 9 -1 9 3 6 , exp lain s the o p en in g m oves and counter-attacks o f th e fascinating game
has been rightly term ed th e greatest o f all intellectual pastim es.
32 . READING CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING.
D o r o th y Sara.
8 0 p a g es.
H a v e n ’t you o fte n w ondered w hat your h an d w ritin g and that o f your friend s revealed ? Y o u ’ll b e am azed at the accura
o f your jud gm ents after you read this sound and thorough approach to this ancient science.
33 . HOW TO WATCH A FOOTBALL GAME.
M a l S t e v e n s and H a r r y S h o r t e n . 8 0 pages.
A fam ous coach and player reveal the inner w ork in gs o f a fo o tb a ll m achine. A k n o w le d g e o f the science o f this game w
d ou b le its thrill and appeal as a spectacle.
34 . DRAWING FOR FUN.
W a lt e r W illo u g h b y .
6 4 p a g e s.
B e able to express your ideas, describe your experiences, by d raw in g them . P en cil d raw in g is an in exp en sive, yet vand fascin ating sk ill that requires n o special talent o f th e beginner. Illustrated by th e author.
35 . HOW TO MAKE MUSIC ON THE HARMONICA, p.v. P l a n t a .
1 1 2 p a g es.
T h e pocket harm onica has been, and always w ill be, the favorite m usical instrum ent. It’s easy to play, and you
am azed at the effects you can achieve w ith it in sid e o f a fe w w eeks. C om plete, diagram m ed instruction.
START A LIFETIME OF FUN TODAY !
Fill and Mail th e Coupon Below, N O W !
( N e w titles coming— n e w hobbies for you and your family.
Check the coupon below if you wish to keep posted.)
ORDER
HERE
-I:-.'J.- fiiC,
W e s t Alain Street
Please
35c each
3 f o r $1
1
send
24
12
13
Richmond, Va,
14 15 16 17
29
30
31
books
w h o se num bers are circled
5
7
23
6
24
8
25
□
I en close $ ............................
□
Send C. O . D .
9 10
26 27
11
28
b elow .
32
33
3 5 c each or 3 for $1.
I w ill pay postm an, p lu s p ostage.
( N o C. O . D . orders less than $1 a ccep ted .)
N a m e ...................
-............................................................... ................
Street and N u m b er................................................................................. ..........................
City.
........ ........................................................................... ......................
I | K eep m e p osted on n ew hobby b ooks.
( N o ch arge.)
.State-
34
20 21 2;
35
176
Appendix V
Home Play and Play Equipment for the Pre-school Child*
Children’s Bureau Publication No. 238
United States Department of Labor
U. S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, 1937.
This Bulletin is in Appendix Y of first copy of the
dissertation.
and Play Equipment
/ o r th.<2
C H I L D R E N ’S B U R E A U P U B L IC A T I O N N O . 238
U n i t e d States D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o r
U N IT E D STA TES D E PA R T M E N T OF LABOR
F r a n c e s P e r k in s ,
C H IL D R E N ’S BUREAU . .
Secretary
K a t h a r i n e F . L e n r o o t , C h ie f
+
HOME PLAY AND PLAY EQUIPMENT
FO R THE
PRESCHOOL CHILD
Bureau P u b lica tio n N o . 2 3 8
U nited States
Government Printing Office
W ashington : 1937
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.
Price 10 cents
CONTENTS
Page
Play a way of learning .....................................................................................
Playing alo n e..............................................................................................
Playing w ith other child ren .................................
Parties and Christm as...............................................................................
Im itative p lay .............................................................................................
Pretending...................................................................................................
Training the senses...................................................................................
Play equipm ent.................................................................................................
T oys..............................................................................................................
Books and p ic tu re s....................................................................................
O utdoor play equipm ent..........................................................................
Suggestions for further reading.........................................................
in
1
2
3
3
4
4
5
6
6
7
8
20
H o m e Play an d Play E q u i p m e n t
for the Preschool Child 1
PLAY A W A Y OF LEARNING
P lay is the ch ild ’s w ay of learning, of experim enting, of trying him self out,
o f finding out about everything in the w orld around him . It is full of
pleasure for him , for it is full o f new experiences and new com binations of
past ones. P lay is, at the sam e tim e, a serious thing to him and should be
p lanned for seriously by his parents.
E very m other can learn a great deal about play if she w ill w atch her child
and not interfere w ith him . By the tim e he is a year old he bangs his toys
to m ake a noise and piles blocks one on the other. H e fills his pails w ith sand
and em pties them again; he points out figures or colors in his picture books,
trying to repeat the word he heard w hen som eone else pointed them out.
G radually, as the child grows older, he becom es m ore skillful in his m ove­
m ents and can pile his blocks higher and even tries to catch a ball and later
to string large beads. T hings that he could not do a few m onths before are
b ecom in g easy. H e wants toys w ith w hich he can do som ething. H e learns
to w alk, and w ith this new accom plishm ent he starts the pulling and pushing
kinds o f play. H e drags along the floor a toy d og or a box tied to a string,
and shoves a chair across the room . Perhaps you have shown him how to
throw a ball, and he suddenly begins to throw everything he can reach.
T h en , perhaps, he finds a crayon and scribbles w ith it on paper, on the
w alls, on the floor.
A t 2 or 3 years he begins to play w ith other children o f his age. If he has
older brothers and sisters, they m ay try to m ake him share their games,
though at first h e w ill n ot know w hat they are driving at. T o p lay his part,
to w ait his turn, to follow the rules of the gam e, to pay a penalty if he plays
out o f turn are ideas that are as yet over his head. After a w hile he w ill have
grasped them and w ith them some of the fundam ental lessons o f happy
living.
W hen a m other has thus stopped and looked at her ch ild ’s play, she realizes
that p lay is his w ay of learning. T hrough it he becom es skillful in the use of
his m uscles. T h e little child w ho can put the last block on top of his tall
tow er w ith ou t upsetting it m ay w ell dance up and dow n w ith pleasure at his
accom plishm ent. H e has learned som ething quite as im portant for his age
1 The material in the first part of this bulletin is reprinted from The Child From One to Six, Children's Bureau
Publication N o. 30. Washington, 193S.
1
2
Home Play fo r the Preschool Child
as h o w to a d d 2 a n d 2 w ill b e la te r . E n c o u r a g e th is tr a in in g o f se n se s a n d
m u scles. G iv e th e c h ild to y s th a t c a ll u p o n h im to u se n e w c o m b in a t io n s o f
m o v e m e n ts. P la y in g w it h a b e a n b a g o r a g a m e o f r in g -to s s t e a c h e s h im t o
th r o w a c c u r a te ly , str in g in g b e a d s te a c h e s a n o th e r k in d o f s k ill, d r a w in g o n a
b la ck b o a r d a n o th er . T h e b ig m u sc le s o f th e b a c k a n d a b d o m e n a r e m a d e
stro n g b y c lim b in g , s w in g in g , w a lk in g o n a ll fo u rs, a n d t u r n in g s o m e r s a u lts .
D o n o t try to te a c h a little c h ild to u se th e sm a ll m u sc le s first. S tr in g in g
la r g e b ea d s, d r a w in g o n la r g e sh e e ts o f p a p e r , te a r in g a n d c u t t in g o u t la r g e
figu res are m u c h b e tte r fo r th e y o u n g c h ild fr o m 2 to 5 th a n tr y in g t o d o
a n y th in g fin e w ith th e h a n d s lik e se w in g c a r d s a n d w e a v in g .
P erh a p s th e m o st im p o r ta n t le sso n le a r n e d th r o u g h p la y is t h a t o f c o o r d i­
n a tio n , o r th e w o r k in g to g e th e r o f m u sc le s a n d sen se s. W h e n y o u w a t c h a
6 -y ea r -o ld g irl j u m p in g r o p e to t h e so u n d o f h er o w n s in g in g , o r t h a t o f h e r
p la y m a te s, y o u p e r h a p s d o n o t r e a liz e t h a t t h e w o r k in g t o g e t h e r o f e y e , e a r ,
a n d m u scles in p erfe ct r h y th m is t h e r e su lt'o f th e le sso n s le a r n e d t h r o u g h p la y
d u r in g th e p resch o o l y ea rs. C h ild h o o d is t h e r ig h t t im e to le a r n th is t y p e
o f skill; th e c h ild w h o h a s p la y e d w it h v ig o r a n d fr e e d o m a tta in s it w it h o u t
co n sc io u s effort.
A c h ild n e e d s to w a lk a n d to ru n , to c lim b , to sw in g , to r id e , to p u ll, to
p u sh , to d ig , to th r o w . H e n e e d s to h a v e h is in te r e sts a lw a y s w id e n in g .
A lth o u g h q u ie t p la y is im p o r ta n t, e s p e c ia lly fo r th e lit t le c h ild , a t le a s t a
p art o f e v e r y c h ild ’s p la y sh o u ld b e fre e a n d a c tiv e .
It is b est to h a v e t h e r o o m in w h ic h h e p la y s in d o o r s so a r r a n g e d t h a t h e
ca n p la y fre ely a ll o v e r it (o r in a f e n c e d - o ff p o r t io n ) a n d h a n d le a n d
to u c h e v e r y th in g w ith in h is r e a c h . A p la y h o u s e o r a p o r c h t h a t is f e n c e d
a n d screen ed b u t o p e n to th e su n is u sefu l.
P L A Y IN G A L O N E
It is w o rth w h ile for e v e r y m o th e r to te a c h h e r c h ild to e n jo y b e in g a lo n e .
T h e m o th er w h o h u rries to p ic k u p th e b a b y a s s o o n as sh e h e a r s h im
co o in g o r ta lk in g to h im s e lf is m a k in g tr o u b le fo r h erself. A n y c h ild w h o
is u sed to b e in g left a lo n e w ill p la y v e r y h a p p ily b y h im s e lf a n d a m u s e
h im self w ith a tin p a n a n d a sp o o n , c lo th e sp in s, b lo c k s o f w o o d , o r o t h e r
to y s w ith w h ic h h e c a n m a k e or d o s o m e th in g .
B y p la y in g a lo n e w ith o u t a d u lt in te r fe r e n c e o r h e lp th e c h ild le a r n s to
m an e m s o w n cn o ices, Jns o w n d e c isio n s; h e le a r n s to c o n c e n t r a te h is a tte n tio n o n w h a t h e is d o in g ; h e le a r n s s o m e o f h is first le sso n s in in d e p e n d ­
en ce. D o n o t in terfere w ith th e c h ild ’s p la y . I f h e se e m s t o y o u to b e d o in g
so m eth in g a w k w a rd ly , d o n o t try t o d o it fo r h im . L e t h im le a r n b y d o in g
it h im self. E v e n if t h e r e su lt is n o t u p to y o u r sta n d a r d s, it m a y b e v e r y
g o o d for o n e o f h is e x p e r ie n c e .
A little c h ild w ill d o th e sa m e t h in g o v e r a n d o v e r w it h o u t tir in g
He
n eed s m u c h p ra ctic e if h e is g o in g to le a rn t o d o th in g s w e ll. G iv e h im
m p le o p p o r tu n ity to p r a c tic e c lim b in g , b a la n c in g , p u s h in g t a lk in g
sin g in g, s w e m n e
,t.~ „ i:_ _ l °
•
s ’ p u s m n &’ ta lk in g ,
sm g in g, sw eep in g , d u stin g , s h o v e lin g , h a m m e r in g . D o n o t im e r fe r e in
Play a Way of Learning
3
these activities. Let him learn that success com es only through trying and
failing and trying again.
A play pen or a fenced-in part of the yard is a great help to the busy
m other. In the pen the child w ho has n ot yet learned to clim b is safe;
and if it is b uilt w ith a floor, w hich is covered w ith a blanket or quilt (ex­
cept in h ot w eather), he w ill escape the cold and the drafts that m ake play
on the floor uncom fortable. T h e pen should be large enough to allow him
considerable freedom o f m ovem ent, and he should have things to play
w ith so that he w ill not stand hanging to the side o f the pen too long.
PLAYING WITH OTHER CHILDREN
A little child also needs other children to play w ith. Adults or older
children cannot take the place o f com panions of the ch ild ’s ow n age. A
little child needs to p lay and develop w ith other children w ho are in the
sam e stage o f learning as himself, w ho are his equals, as w ell as w ith those
w ho are a little older or a little younger. T h e parents of an only child
especially m ust bear this in m ind. T hrough group play a little child learns
by follow ing the exam p le of others, by having to consider w hat others
w ant, b y finding out that he can set an exam ple w hich others w ill follow.
H e learns m an y valuable lessons in adjusting him self to the dem ands and
ideals o f his group as he w ill later have to adjust him self to the dem ands and
ideals o f his com m unity. Self-reliance, initiative, and leadership develop
through group play.
Parents should know w ho are the com panions of their child; he m ay be
lea rn in g from them to play fair or to cheat. Be careful about letting a
little child play out o f your sight w ith children o f w hom you know nothing.
Listen to their talk as they play, and see that no one teaches your child
“ n ot to tell your m other” or to “ hide it, your father m ight see.” T here are
plenty o f playm ates w ho w ill help you teach your child fair play, honesty,
and courage. It is w ell for children to learn early that certain rules of the
gam e m ust be observed, that no one can always w in or always have his way,
that a good sport can lose w ithou t sulking, and that crying is unpopular.
W hen children are playing together, interfere as little as possible. It is
usually better to let them settle their ow n disputes. D o not encourage
tale-bearing; but if you are asked to settle a disagreem ent, hear both sides
and help the children to m ake their own decision fairly. A t times inter­
ference is necessary; no one should perm it cruelty or dishonesty am ong
children.
PARTIES AND CHRISTMAS
Parties for children under 6 years of age should be very sim ple and occur
very seldom . A bove all they should be small, not more than three or four
children, especially for the child w ho is not accustom ed to playing in a
group. Parties should not interfere w ith the regular nap and m eal times.
U nu su al foods should not be served, nor should any food be served at
unusual times. Foods that w ould usually be served for dinner or supper
4
Home Play fo r the Preschool Child
m a y b e se rv e d in sp e c ia l d ish e s or in a s p e c ia l m a n n e r , s u c h a s f a n c y s h a p e s
for co o k ie s o r ora n g es, o r sa n d w ic h e s in s te a d o f b r e a d . T h e c h ild fo r w o m
th e p a r ty is b e in g g iv e n m a y b e a llo w e d to c h o o se w h ic h o f t h e u s u a l d is h e s
h e w o u ld lik e to h a v e.
S im p le ta b le d e c o r a tio n s m a y a d d a lit t le e x tr a c o lo r . T h e c h ild r e n
sh o u ld n o t b e d ressed u p in fa n c y c lo th e s th a t m a y b e s p o ile d b y p la y . T h e
g e ttin g to g e th e r o f a fe w c h ild r e n for p la y is in its e lf s u ffic ie n tly e x c it in g a n d
u n u su a l to th e a v e r a g e little c h ild to w a r r a n t th e n a m e o f a p a r ty . S im p le
g a m es w ith o u t u n d u e e x c ite m e n t, p la y e d o u td o o r s in a g r o u p , f o llo w e d b y
a sim p le su p p er a t th e u su a l tim e , m a k e th e b e st k in d o f p a r ty fo r lit t le
ch ild re n .
D o n o t o v er d o th e C h ristm a s festiv itie s for c h ild r e n . A tre e h u n g w it h
a p p le s a n d a few sh in in g o r n a m e n ts a n d fe sto o n e d w it h str in g s o f c r a n ­
b erries a n d p o p c o r n a n d c o lo r e d p a p e rs g iv e s j u s t as m u c h p le a s u r e as
o n e e la b o r a te ly tr im m e d . S im p le to y s are o fte n th o s e m o s t lo v e d b y
ch ild re n . It is o fte n th e p a ren ts w h o c a n n o t a ffo r d to sp e n d m u c h m o n e y
a t C h ristm as w h o su c c e e d in m a k in g it th e h a p p ie s t tim e . C h r istm a s c a n
b e m a d e a tru ly h a p p y tim e fo r th e c h ild r e n b y a v o id in g c o n fu s io n , fa tig u e ,
to o m a n y th in g s a t o n c e , to o m u c h e x c ite m e n t, u p s e ttin g o f th e d a ily
r o u tin e , a n d u n u su a l fo o d . O n e m o th e r le sse n e d th e c o n fu s io n b y h a v in g
th e little ch ild r e n g e t th e ir p resen ts a t a d iffe r e n t tim e fr o m th e a d u lts a n d
b y p u ttin g a w a y a ll b u t a few toys after a sh o rt tim e . S h e a lso in s iste d o n
a n o u td o o r p la y tim e a n d a lo n g m id d a y rest fo r a ll. T h e c h ild r e n h a d
th eir d in n e r a lo n e , a n d sh e m a d e it a sim p le m e a l o f t h e th in g s t h e y lik e d ;
sh e k n e w th a t d ig estio n s are u p set v e r y e a s ily b y e x c it e m e n t, a n d sh e g a v e
th e m n o r ic h a n d u n u su a l fo o d at d in n e r a n d n o c a n d y b e t w e e n m e a ls .
D o n o t tak e a little c h ild to p u b lic g a th e r in g s, s u c h a s fa irs o r c ir c u se s,
or in to cr o w d e d stores. T h e se are a lw a y s o v e r e x c itin g a n d o v e r f a tig u in g
a n d offer g r e a t risk o f in fe ctio n . U n le ss y o u su g g e st to th e c h ild t h a t h e
is m issin g so m e th in g b y n o t g o in g to su ch p la ce s, h e w ill f e e l n o d is a p ­
p o in tm e n t. A c h ild sh o u ld n o t b e e x p e c te d to sit th r o u g h m o v ie s o r o t h e r
e n ter ta in m en ts su ita b le o n ly for grow n -u p s.
IM IT A T IV E P L A Y
M u c h o f a c h ild ’s p la y , w h e th er h e is a lo n e or in a g r o u p , is im it a t io n o f
w h a t h e h as seen a n d h ea rd a b o u t h im . H e le a rn s to d o t h e o r d in a r y
th in g s o f life b y p ra ctic in g th e m in h is p la y . A c h ild w ill a c t o u t th e
e v e n ts o f th e h o u se h o ld , g o in g o ver a n d o v er w h a t h e se es a n d h e a r s a n d
h e sees a n d h ears ju st a b o u t e v e r y th in g th a t g o es o n .
*
P R E T E N D IN G
T h e little c h ild en joys h is toys b eca u se o f w h a t h e c a n d o w it h th e m *
as h e g row s o ld er h e en joys th e m a lso b e ca u se o f w h a t h e c a n p r e t e n d
1 y
n n Wi\ ° fWn P' a y in a n eIab orate
o f m a k e -b e lie v e p e r
h a p s w tth d o lls or b oxes, b lock s, flow ers, ston es, o r b its o f w o o d a n d c h L T
Play a Way of Learning
5
A ll these things take on an im portance to him that the grown-up outsider
som etim es finds it hard to see. T h e flowers m ay be people, and the blocks,
boats or engines. In his im agination he m ay turn his playroom into a
w ood full o f w ild anim als or a lake w ith each chair a boat. H e is happy
so lon g as he is allow ed to play in this way, but he m ay be m ade m ost
u nh ap p y b y the m isunderstanding adult w ho destroys his fairy castles.
P la y o f this kind is used m ost often by a child w ho plays alone; less often
children p layin g together w ill build up a m ake-believe world.
It is w ell for the parents to respect and enter into the spirit o f such play.
‘‘L et’s p retend ” is a part o f every life, and the im agination o f the child
should be helped to grow in a healthy direction; however, this m akeb elieve life should not occupy a ch ild ’s w hole tim e. Play w ith real toys
and real children should be a larger part of his life.
D ressing u p to play parts, especially w ith costumes, is usually enjoyed
by children playin g together. T his kind of play cultivates the im agination
and at the sam e tim e encourages a social spirit.
T R A IN IN G T H E S E N S E S
T each the child to enjoy form and color, to draw, however crudely, and
to m ake patterns out o f colored blocks. H elp him to develop the sense
o f touch show n by the child w ho is lettin g sand run through his fingers,
shaping a m ud pie, or tenderly sm oothing a piece o f satin or velvet dropped
from his m oth er’s sew ing box. Even the very young child m ay get great
pleasure out o f beautiful sounds and shapes and colors. M usical interest is
k een ly developed in som e young children, and a piano, a phonograph, or
a radio is a great source o f pleasure and instruction.
R h yth m ic m ovem ents to m usic are a great pleasure to m ost children—
singing, m arching, keeping tim e to m usic w ith hands or feet or bodies.
T h us they learn to appreciate and respond to rhythm , to recognize and
reproduce m usical sounds. Such activities help to develop love o f music as
w ell as skillful use o f the body. Every child w ho plays the singing, dancing
gam es of childhood is getting his ear as w ell as his m uscles trained. Ballbouncing gam es and hopping gam es also are of the rhythm ic type.
126427°— 37---- 2
PLA Y
E Q U IP M E N T
TOYS
T h e r e are tw o k in d s o f toys— th o se th a t th e c h ild c a n d o s o m e t h in g w it h
a n d th ose th a t h e ca n o n ly w a tc h . C h ild r e n e n jo y fo r y e a r s th e ir s a n d
b o x es, b lock s, b a lls, to o ls, w a g o n s, d o lls, d o lls ’ fu r n itu r e , a n d t h e m a n y o t h e r
to y s o u t o f w h ic h th e y c a n m a k e s o m e th in g o r w it h w h ic h t h e y c a n d o s o m e ­
th in g n ew ; b u t th e y so o n tire o f th e to y s th a t t h e y o n ly w a t c h — th e o r d in a r y
m e c h a n ic a l toys. C er ta in m e c h a n ic a l to y s a re o f in te r e s t to a c h ild , s u c h
as a p h o n o g r a p h th a t c a n b e h a n d le d e a s ily b y a c h ild o f 3 a n d a n a u t o m o ­
b ile th a t h e c a n w in d u p a n d steer. M a n y a c h ild ta k e s m o r e p le a s u r e in a
d o z e n c lo th esp in s a n d a fe w p ie c e s o f c lo th to w r a p a r o u n d t h e m t h a n in a n
ela b o r a te r e a d y -m a d e d o ll w h o se c lo th e s w ill n o t c o m e o ff. T h e lit t le c h ild
is in te re sted in m a k in g , in b u ild in g , in d o in g — n o t in lo o k in g o n . E n c o u r a g e
h im in this, for if h e d o es n o t d e v e lo p th is in te r e st e a r ly in life , h e m a y g r o w
in to th e k in d o f p erso n w h o is a lw a y s a lo o k e r -o n a n d n o t a d o e r .
B locks sh o u ld b e p a rt o f th e e q u ip m e n t o f e v e r y p la y r o o m . P la in b lo c k s,
co lo red b lock s, la r g e o n e s a n d sm a ll— a ll b lo ck s a r e w o r t h - w h ile to y s.
T h e y are u sed in m a n y w a y s— to b u ild h o u se s, b a rn s, fe n c e s, o r r o a d s .
T h e y b e c o m e trucks a n d ra ilr o a d tra in s. T h e c o lo r e d o n e s t h a t o ffe r a
c h a n c e to e x p e r im e n t w ith p a tter n s, sh a p es, a n d m a tc h in g o f c o lo r s d e lig h t
c h ild ren . W o o d e n b lock s in th e sh a p e o f a tr a in o f ca rs, w h ic h c a n b e t a k e n
a p a rt or h itc h e d to g e th e r ea sily , a re g o o d . B lo ck s m a y b e m a d e a t h o m e b y
c u ttin g a p iec e o f lu m b e r k n o w n as a tw o -b y -fo u r in to 2 - in c h le n g t h s a n d
sa n d p a p e rin g th e p iec es u n til th e y a re sm o o th . S o as n o t to b e t o o h e a v y ,
la rg e blocks m a y b e m a d e lik e b o x es w ith c o v e r s n a ile d o n . M ill b lo c k s o r
p ieces o f scrap lu m b e r , w h ic h are so ld a t a fe w c e n ts a h u n d r e d a t t h e
lu m b er yard , are e x c e lle n t b lock s fo r sm a ll c h ild r e n . T h e y c o m e in d iff e r ­
en t sizes a n d sh ap es. U n le ss v e r y sm o o th m ill b lo ck s a re c h o s e n , t h e r o u g h
ed g es sh o u ld b e p la n e d or sa n d p a p e r e d .
B alls are a lw a y s satisfa cto ry to y s for y o u n g c h ild r e n . V e r y la r g e b a lls
to b e rolled on th e floor, sm a lle r b a lls to th r o w , r u b b e r b a lls to b o u n c e ,
co lo red balls, b a llo o n s o n a strin g, are a ll g o o d .
L arge sh eets o f p a p e r sh o u ld b e p r o v id e d for d r a w in g . T h e p a p e r m a y
b e u n p rin ted n ew sp a p er (n e w s p r in t), p u r c h a se d a t th e n e w s p a p e r o ffic e ,
or lig h t-co lo red w r a p p in g p a p e r, o r sa m p le s o f w a llp a p e r .
C rayon s; a
b lack board a n d colo red ch a lk ; c la y or m o ist sa n d fo r m o d e lin g - b lu n t
scissors a n d la r g e p ictu res to c u t o u t; b r ig h t-c o lo r e d p ie c e s o f p i p e r in
d ifferen t sh ap es th a t c a n b e u sed for fo ld in g , c u ttin g , o r p a s tin g ; a p e g
b oard w ith large colo red p eg s a n d h o les; la r g e c o lo r e d b e a d s t o s tr in g —
a 1 are toys in w h ic h th e 3- to 5 -y e a r -o ld c h ild w ill ta k e m u c h in te r e s t if
he is a llo w ed to use th e m h im s e lf
6
Play Equipment
7
T oys that can be pulled by a string, such as a horse and w agon, or a
truck, or a train o f cars, are of special interest to the 2- to 4-year-old child
if they are large en ou gh to be loaded w ith blocks or sand and unloaded
again. E lectric trains are not suitable for children under school age. Egg
boxes or other sm all, substantial boxes m ade of w ood and fitted w ith ball­
bearing casters m ake good w agons to haul blocks or toys in or for the small
child to ride in. T h ey can be used outdoors or indoors.
D olls are an im portant part of playroom equipm ent for young children.
D olls m ade o f h eavy rubber are durable and w ashable. T h ey are sold in
m any different sizes. Soft rag dolls or dolls m ade o f cloth and painted so
that they w ill w ash are also good. Soft w oolly anim als and other toy
anim als; housekeeping toys o f all sorts— sm all tables, chairs, dolls’ beds,
bureaus, carriages, dishes, kitchen stoves and pots— gardening and car­
pentry toys that are really useful and durable are needed.
Pieces o f cloth or yarn, em pty spools and boxes, w rapping paper and
bags, colored cord, old clothing to dress up in, and discarded m agazines
are all valuable m aterial for children to play w ith. Such kitchen utensils
as egg beaters and pans that fit into one another are often absorbing toys
to a you ng child. (K itch en utensils that are sharp or in any other w ay
dangerous should not be given to children.) E m pty cans o f different sizes
m ay be m ade into a set of nested cans if the edges of the cans are m ade
sm ooth.
Shelves of the right height for the little child are better than boxes for toys,
for the child can keep the toys in better order on shelves. Toys that are
kept in a box are m ore apt to be broken.
A void toys that are easily broken. T hrough them the child learns careless
and extravagant ways. T oys should encourage constructive, not destruc­
tive, habits.
B O O K S A N D P IC T U R E S
T h e best books for the very little child are picture books m ade of cloth, for
he can h and le them w ithout tearing the pages. Large, gaily colored
pictures are his ch ief delight. Pictures of things that he knows about are of
m ore interest to h im than pictures of things he has never seen. W ashable
w in dow shades cut into pages and sewed together m ake excellent scrap­
books.
C hildren very early enjoy rhym es like the favorite, M other Goose. T he
first stories children like to hear are sim ple ones w ith m uch rhythm and
repetition. “ T his little pig w ent to m arket” , “T he house that Jack built” ,
“ T h ree little k ittens” delight children. Probably they care less for the story
than for the sounds. Interest in the story itself comes later, but the pleasure
in sound and rhythm remains. M ost children enjoy having sim ple stories
read or told to them . T h ey like to hear the same story told over and over
again or to look at the sam e picture again and again. T h e parents m ay
w eary of a story long before the child is satisfied.
8
Home Play fo r the Preschool Child
C h o o se p le a sa n t, h a p p y stories, w h e th e r y o u te ll t h e m o r r e a d t h e m to
th e c h ild r e n . D o n o t g iv e c h ild r e n p ictu r es or b o o k s th a t m a y fill t h e m w i
fears. D o n o t b u y a b o o k m e r e ly b e c a u se it is c h e a p o r h a s a p r e t t y c o v e r .
F in d o u t first w h e th e r it is th e k in d o f b o o k t h a t th e c h ild w ill e n j o y .^
P ictu res, p refe ra b ly c o lo r e d o n es, o f fa m ilia r a n im a ls o r g r o u p s o f c h ild r e n
p la y in g , or p ictu r es illu str a tin g n u r ser y rh y m e s o r sto n e s , m a y b e p la c e d o n
th e w a ll w h e r e th e c h ild r e n c a n see th e m e a sily , n o t to o h ig h .
OUTDOOR PLAY
E Q U IP M E N T
S o m e sim p le h o m e -m a d e p la y a p p a r a tu s is n e e d e d in e v e r y b a c k y a r d
w h e r e lit t le c h ild r e n p la y . A few sm o o th b o a rd s o f d iffe r e n t w id th s, le n g th s ,
a n d th ick n esses, n o t to o h e a v y for a little c h ild to ca rry , c a n b e u s e d fo r
b u ild in g a n d c lim b in g . L a r g e b lo ck s m a d e lik e h o llo w w o o d e n b o x e s a re
u sefu l for p u sh in g a n d clim b in g . W o o d e n p a c k in g b o x e s o f d iffe r e n t siz es,
fro m w h ic h th e e x tr a n a ils h a v e b e e n p u lle d o u t so th a t th e c h ild r e n c a n
sa fely c lim b in to th e b o x es, are m a te r ia l for p la y in g h o u se o r sto re o r fo r
o th e r im a g in a tiv e p la y . B o x es m a d e o f v e n e e r m a y b e u sed , b u t t h e y are
n o t so stro n g as b o x e s m a d e o f so lid w o o d . A p ia n o b o x o r a n y o th e r la r g e
b o x w ith w in d o w s c u t in th e sid es m ak es a g o o d p la y h o u s e . T h e p la y ­
h o u se sh o u ld b e sim p le a n d ea sily ch a n g e d a b o u t. C h ild r e n lik e to m a k e
th e ir o w n p la y h o u ses, a n d a p a ck in g b o x th a t is a h o u se t o d a y m a y b e a
b o a t to m o r ro w .
A w o rk ta b le ca n b e u sed ou td oors as w e ll as in th e p la y r o o m . T h e w o r k
ta b le fo r c h ild r e n 4 to 6 sh o u ld b e eq u ip p e d w ith d u r a b le a n d e ffic ie n t
to o ls, su c h a s a h a m m e r w ith a short h a n d le a n d a b r o a d h e a d ; a s m a ll
v ise; a sh o rt, w id e saw ; a n d sh ort g a lv a n ize d n a ils w ith la r g e , fla t h e a d s
(ro o fin g n a ils ) . T h e r e sh o u ld b e p len ty o f w o o d to w o rk w it h — w o o d th a t
is soft e n o u g h for th e sm a ll c h ild to saw easily a n d to d r iv e n a ils in to .
A b a ck -y a r d p o o l for w a d in g a n d sa ilin g b o a ts is p o p u la r w it h c h ild r e n ,
a n d a la w n sh o w e r is h elp fu l in th e su m m er. I f th e y a rd is la r g e e n o u g h ,
e a c h c h ild sh o u ld h a v e sp ace for a little gard en o f h is o w n a n d to o ls fo r
g a rd en in g .
T o y s th a t en c o u r a g e v ig o r o u s o u td o o r p la y are v a lu a b le . A tr ic y c le a
w a g o n b ig e n o u g h to rid e in , a w h eelb arrow , a n d a sled g iv e o p p o r tu n it y
fo r m u c h a c tiv ity .
N o t a ll b a ck yard s are large e n o u g h for c lim b in g b ars or slid es, b u t su c h
sim p le e q u ip m e n t as san d b ox, seesaw , p a ck in g b o x es, sw in g o r h o r iz o n ta l
b a r c a n b e u sed in sm a ll yard s o r ev e n o n a p o rch . T h e e g g b o x e s fitte d
w ith casters d esc rib ed o n p a g e 7 are g ood p la y th in g s for a p o rch
T h e e q u ip m e n t d esc rib ed in th e fo llo w in g p ag es n eed n o t b e b u ilt a ll a t
o n e tim e . T h e sa n d b o x , th e p la y p lanks, a n d th e p a ck in g b o x e s a re a e o o d
c o m b in a tio n to sta rt w ith , a n d oth er p ieces m a y be a d d e d la ter . Back-yard
p la y e q u ip m e n t sh o u ld b e p la n n ed for th e n eed s o f tb*
f
Y
g r o w o ld er , as w e ll as for th e present. Such e q u io m e n t
“ ***
e q u ip m en t as sw in g s, rin g s, a n d
Play Equipment
9
bars, if attached to fram es that are large enough and w ell constructed, can
be varied according to the interests of children o f different ages.
T h e designs show n are for sturdy, long-tim e outdoor equipm ent. Fragile
eq u ipm en t is dangerous and in the long run expensive. These designs m ay
be adapted, how ever, to the m aterial and space at hand, but lumber or pipe
that is used to m ake frames for swings or bars should not be below the
m inim um thickness or diam eter given in the specifications.
Lum ber th at is w ell seasoned, com paratively straight-grained, and free
from cracks or splits should be selected. A ll lum ber used for playground
apparatus should be surfaced on four sides and the corners planed. If
lum ber is difficult
to obtain, pipe may
b e used for frames,
Pipe is more durable
th a n w o o d an d
req u ires less care,
/
though it is usually
more expensive and
more difficult to set
up. Galvanized iron
pipe, 2 to 3 inches
in diameter, is best for
play apparatus. Pipe
and pipe fittings may
be bought from hard­
ware stores or plum b­
ing firms. If second­
hand lum ber or pipe
is used, it should be
carefully selected and
tested.
FIG. I
S pecial fittings for swings and rings are sold by m anufacturers of play­
ground eq u ipm en t and by dealers in hardware or in barn and hayloft
equipm ent. T h e hooked bolt (fig. 19), galvanized thim ble (fig. 20), and
black en am eled clam p (fig. 21) shown on page 16 cost only a few cents apiece.
A lthou gh chain is m ore d urable than rope, swings m ade of rope are strong
en ou gh for sm all children in the hom e playground. If chain is used, it
should n ot be too heavy. W ith the fittings suggested, w aterproof rope w ill
m ake a safe and durable swing. T h e small additional expense of such
special fittings w ill be justified by the longer life, easier upkeep, and greater
safety o f the apparatus.
O utdoor play apparatus m ust be constructed so that it is firm and secure.
U prights and cross beam s must be set straight and level. Frames for swings
IQ
Home Play J o t the Preschool Child
a n d b a ts n e e d n o t b e b r a c e d if th e y are se t 3 fe e t d e e p in c o n c r e te .
(F o r
m e th o d o f se ttin g u p r ig h ts in c o n c r e te , se e p p . 1 3 - 1 4 .) ^
W o o d e n a p p a r a tu s sh o u ld b e g iv e n a c o a t o f lin s e e d o il a n d p a in t e d w it
w a te r p r o o f p a in t as a p r o te c tio n fr o m th e w e a th e r . A ll p a r ts o f a p p a r a tu s
th a t are to b e p la c e d u n d e r g r o u n d sh o u ld b e tr e a te d w it h a p r e s e r v a tiv e
to a p o in t a t le a st 6 in c h e s a b o v e th e g r o u n d . F r ic tio n p o in t s o n m e t a l
sh o u ld b e g rea sed fre q u en tly . B o lts sh o u ld b e u se d to fa s te n w o o d e n p a r ts
to g e th e r w h e re v er it is p o ssib le; th e y fa ste n t h e p a r ts m o r e s e c u r e ly t h a n
n a ils a n d are less lik e ly to sp lit th e w o o d o r t o w o r k lo o se . W h e r e w o o d e n
p arts a re b o lte d to g e th e r , w a sh ers sh o u ld b e u sed to p r o te c t t h e w o o d , a n d
th e b o lts sh o u ld b e tig h te n e d fr e q u e n tly . B o lt h o le s tr e a te d w it h a p r e ­
se rv a tiv e w ill p r o lo n g th e life o f th e j o in t . P la y g r o u n d a p p a r a tu s s h o u ld b e
in sp e c te d o fte n , as ro p es fra y a n d b o lts lo o se n . S h a r p c o r n e r s o f s w in g
b o a rd s a n d sa n d b o x e s sh o u ld b e c u t o ff, as th e illu str a tio n s o n p a g e s 16
a n d 11 sh o w , a n d r o u g h ed g e s o f b o a rd s sh o u ld b e s m o o th e d t o p r e v e n t
sp lin ters. T h e sw in g sh o u ld b e p la c e d c lo se to a n d p a r a lle l w it h a fe n c e
o r a w a ll; or a fen ce sh o u ld b e b u ilt a r o u n d th e fr a m e to k e e p c h ild r e n
fro m r u n n in g in to th e sw in g w h ile it is in m o tio n (fig. 1, p . 9 ).
I n th e fo llo w in g d esc rip tio n s o f e q u ip m e n t a ll d im e n s io n s s p e c ifie d for
lu m b e r rep r esen t th e “ n o m in a l” d im e n sio n s a c c o r d in g t o w h ic h lu m b e r is
u su a lly d esc rib ed . T h e a c tu a l d im e n sio n s o f t h e su rfa ce d lu m b e r a re
slig h tly sm a ller; for in sta n c e, a 2 -in c h b o a rd is a b o u t 1% in c h e s.
D o u g la s fir a n d so u th er n y e llo w p in e a r e s u ita b le w o o d s for m o s t o f t h e
e q u ip m e n t d esc rib ed . R e d w o o d a n d cyp ress a re m o r e e x p e n s iv e , b u t t h e y
m a y b e su b stitu ted in a n y p ie c e o f e q u ip m e n t fo r w h ic h D o u g la s fir or
so u th ern y e llo w p in e is su ggested .
SA N D B O X
M A T E R IA L N E E D E D
(All lumber surfaced on four sides)
Sides: 2 pieces o f lumber, 2 in. thick, 10 in. w ide, and 6 ft. long.
Ends: 2 pieces o f lum ber, 2 in. thick, 10 in. wide, and 4 ft. long.
Shelves: 2 pieces of lum ber, 2 in. thick, 8 in. w ide, and 4 ft. 4 in. long.
Nails: 1 pound 16-penny common.
San d: 1 w agonload (to fill the box to a depth o f 8 in., approxim ately ^ cu. yd. or 16
cu. ft. o f sand will be required).
C O N S T R U C T IO N
N ail the side boards to the ends. Center the boards for the shelves on th e end boards
and nail them firndy to both end and side boards, so that they are h a lf inside and M f
t a w ill keep the children from digging into the soil u n d e r n e a * and
A ny sound grade o f softwood lumber can be used forpriced woods are southern yellow pine Doutrlas fir
^ th T h t
C Sand b ox* A m ong th e low -
Z Z Z n Z
ho7esgrand'
ntay be nsed if stokes are driv/n i n t o ^
t
h
^
i ^
Play Equipment
11
No. 1 and No. 2 Common grades of lum ber will be satisfactory for a sand box.
Smooth boards should be selected, and the top edges of the boards, inside and outside,
should be sm oothed w ith a plane or a wood rasp and sandpaper.
T he sand box should have a cover to protect the sand from stray cats and dogs. Canvas
weighted at the corners with stones may be used, or wallboard nailed on two strips of
wood m ay be laid over the sand box at night. Another type of cover is a light wooden
frame covered with 1-inch galvanized-wire mesh, which permits the sun and air to reach
the sand. T o keep the sand dry in wet weather, however, a perm anent cover, hinged to
the box, is best. I t m ay be made of waterproof canvas or other fabric stretched and
nailed to a frame, or of wood, or of wallboard and wood. Both wood and wallboard
should be painted w ith w aterproof paint.
A sand box m ay keep a child playing happily in the sunshine if he has such simple
things as spoons, muffin tins, pails, pans, a flour sifter, and a wagon. Unless the sand is
FIG
FIG. 2
moistened occasionally, it will get dusty. Small children need moist sand to mold their
cakes and pies, and older children need it to make mountains and tunnels. Little stools
or boxes, large enough for children to sit on but small enough for them to carry around,
will help to keep children from sitting in the sand when it is too damp. The shelves on
the ends of the sand box give them work tables or seats and help to keep the sand in the
box.
This sand box is large enough for two or three children to play in. It should be placed
where it will get the direct sun at some time during the day but where there is shade also.
The sun helps to keep the sand clean. The shade adds to its comfort as a play spot. A
tree, a shelter of vines or canvas, or a beach umbrella may be used for shade.
PLA Y PL A N K AND SA W HO RSE
M A T E R IA L N E E D E D F O R PLAY PLA NK
(All lum ber surfaced on four sides)
Plank: 1 piece of vertical-grained Douglas fir or southern yellow pine, 2 in. thick, 10 in.
wide, and 12 ft. long. (M aple or birch, 1 # in. thick, in Clear or Select grade, may be
used.)
Cleats: 2 pieces of lum ber, 2 in. thick, 4 in. wide, and 10 in. long.
C O N S T R U C T IO N O F PLA Y PLA NK
Bolt a cleat to the bottom of the plank 6 inches from each end, as figure 4 shows (p. 12).
This is to keep the plank from slipping when it is placed on boxes or on the sawhorse
(figs. 6, 7, and 8, p. 12).
Home Play fo r the Preschool Child
12
I t is especially im p o rta n t th a t a p la n k th a t is to b e used as a slide b e free fro m sp lin ters.
Select a sm ooth, v ertical-g rain ed piece o f lu m b e r a n d give it th e follow ing tre a tm e n t:
A th o ro u g h san d p ap erin g , a c o a t o f linseed oil to p ro te c t it fro m th e w e a t er, a c o a t o
w hite shellac o r v arn ish , a n d a h eav y c o at o f floor w ax. T h e c h ild re n sh o u ld n o t b e
p e rm itte d to slide ag ain st th e g ra in o f th e w ood. A c le a t a t o n ly o n e en d o f th e p la n k
th a t is to be used as a slide w ill h elp to p re v e n t its b ein g p laced in th e w ro n g p o sitio n .
Planks th a t are n o t to be used as slides sh o u ld be sm o o th ed w ith a p la n e o r a w o o d ra sp ,
given a co a t of linseed oil, a n d p a in te d w ith w a te rp ro o f p a in t.
T h e p lay p la n k m a y be p laced across th e saw horse to m ak e a seesaw (fig. 6). I t m a y
b e used also on larg e blocks of w ood o r on th e saw horse as a slide b o a rd (fig- 7) o r o n
tw o boxes as a w alking b o a rd (fig. 8) for th e sm allest c h ild ren to p ra c tic e b ala n c in g .
T h e re should b e p le n ty of w ooden boxes o f d ifferen t sizes to use w ith th e p la y p la n k s,
FIG. 6
FIG. 4
FIG.5
from closed boxes 5 inches by 5 inches by 8 inches to large pack in g boxes.
should be rem oved from th e o pen en d of th e pack in g boxes.
T h e nails
M ATERIAL N EE D ED FOR SAW HORSE
(All lu m b e r surfaced on four sides)
Top a n d tees: 1 piece o f N o . 1 C om m on g rad e D ouglas fir o r so u th ern yellow n in e ?
m . thick, 4 in. w ide, a n d 9 ft. long.
Braces: 1 piece o f lu m b e r, 1 in. thick, 4 in. w ide, a n d 6
y2ft. long.
P 111^ 2
Nails: 1 p o u n d 16-penny com m on nails or carriag e bolts
CO NSTRU CTION O F SAW HORSE
Saw th e long piece of lu m b e r as follows: to p , 24 inches
ni
long. A t a distance of 6 inches from each end of th e to n b ft
CaCh 20 klchGS
o r raw o u t a section % in ch d eep , as in f i g T ^ o
the saw horse. S aw th e sh o rte r piece o f lu m b er in to four pieces to b e
T
yPPm S ° fl
follow s: tw o 24 inches, tw o 15 inches. A ssem ble the pieces and
1T
“
aS
gether as sh ow n in figure 5.
ai^ t^le saw horse to-
Play Equipment
13
SW ING AND CLIM BING BARS
M A T E R IA L N E E D E D F O R F R A M E
(All lum ber surfaced on four sides)
Uprights for swing: 2 pieces of No. 1 Common grade Douglas fir or southern yellow
pine, 4 in. thick, 4 in. wide, and 14 ft. long.
Cross beam for swing: 1 piece of No. 1 Common grade Douglas fir or southern yellow
pine, 4 in. thick, 4 in. wide, and 6 ft. long.
Upright for climbing bars: 1 piece of No. 1 Common grade Douglas fir or southern
yellow pine, 4 in. thick, 4 in. wide, and 10 ft. long.
Braces: 4 pieces of No. 1 Common grade Douglas fir or southern yellow pine, 2 in. thick,
4 in. wide, and 8 ft. long (not required if uprights are set 3 ft. in concrete).
Nails: 1 pound 20-penny common nails and 1 pound 7-in. heavy nails or bolts.
( N o t e . —T he frame may be made of 3-in. pipe of approximately the same lengths
the lum ber.)
as
FIG. II
j
i
FIG.10
C O N S T R U C T IO N O F F R A M E
Unless specially treated lum ber is bought for the uprights, the parts that are to be
placed underground should be treated to a point 6 inches above the ground to prevent
decay or dam age from insects.
Fasten the cross beam to the tops of the uprights for the swing with heavy bolts or nails,
as shown in figure 9. Square the beam and posts with a carpenter’s level or a wide board
that has been cut square. Brace the angles (joints) of the cross beam and uprights se­
curely w ith wood or iron (fig. 11)- Dig three post holes for the uprights 3 feet deep.
C enter the two post holes for the swing uprights 6 feet apart. The post hole for the
other upright, to support the climbing bars, should be 4 feet from the upright for the
swing. M ake square forms for the holes (fig. 12, p. 14). Set the uprights on pieces of
14
Home Play fo r the Preschool Child
wood so that they will be level. R ough, ready-m ade w ooden boxes to fit the holes m ay
be used as forms for the concrete. T h e uprights w ill not need perm anent braces li
they are set 3 feet deep in concrete. T h ey must be braced tem porarily, how ever, u n til
the concrete is set (fig. 12).
.
Exact proportions for a concrete m ixture cannot be specified, as th e proportions e
pend upon the size and nature of the sand and gravel (aggregate) th a t is used. A pro­
portion o f w ater to cem ent that w ould give adequate strength in concrete foundations
gallons of w ater to 1 sack o f Portfor playground equipm ent is 6
screening size of th e gravel is 1
land cem ent. If the m axim um
part of cem ent, 2 parts o f sand,
inch, the proportions m ay be 1
m axim um size of the gravel is 2
and 3 parts o f gravel. If the
part of cem ent, 2 parts o f sand,
inches, the proportions m ay be 1
exact am ount of sand and gravel
and 3 x
/ i parts of gravel. T he
workable m ay be determ ined by
necessary to make the mixture
sand ou t evenly on a w ooden
m ixing trial batches. Spread the
evenly over it. Turn the cem en t
floor and spread the dry cem ent
shovel until they are w ell
and sand thoroughly w ith a
gravel in an even layer on the
m ixed . T h e n spread th e
cem ent-sand m ixture
turning w ith a shovel,
the cem ent, sand, and
oughly and uniformly
crete m ixture into the
and tam p it thoroughly,
w ith the trowel and
run off instead of seep
T he forms m ay be re
Concrete should be pro
kept dam p for several
should not be used until
and continue m ixing and
A dd water, an d m ix u n til
pebbles have been thorcom bined. Pour th e con­
form around th e upright
Sm ooth the top surface
slope it so that w ater w ill
ing in around the upright,
m oved after 24 hours,
tected from the sun and
days, and the equipm ent
the concrete has hardened.
M ATERIAL NEE D ED FOR SW ING
Rope: W aterproof m anila rope, % in. in diam eter and
abont
m g upon height o f child and kind of swing).
Swttig seat: I piece of maple or birch, l t i in thick r ;n , ’j
O ther kinds o f swings shown ^ “re
f, i
n
(len Sth depend-
‘
,
.
24
■“ *
1 pa.r of galvanized steel or alum inum rings 1 in. thick and 8 in • a14).
5
imcK ancl y m . m diam eter (fig.
1 a u tom ob ile tire (fig. 15).
1 pair of rings m ade o f rubber hose or bicycle tires (fig 16)
or
R op e for clim bing. 2 in. in diameter and
Play Equipment
15
CONSTRUCTION OF SWING
T he safest m ethod of constructing the swing is to use special metal fittings (p. 16), such
as a 6-inch hooked bolt (fig. 19) to attach the rope to the cross beam; a galvanized
thimble (fig. 20) through the hook to prevent wear on the rope; and a clamp (fig. 21) to
fasten the rope. If a bolt cannot be bought already hooked, have a blacksmith bend a
heavy, threaded bolt into a J-shaped hook, and put the thimble through the hooked end of
the bolt. Bore a hole through the cross beam. Put the threaded end of the bolt up
through the hole in the cross beam and fasten the n u t with a wrench, using a washer
against the wood. As the bolt is screwed into the cross beam, the hooked end will be
forced into the wood so th at it cannot pull loose (fig. 22). (It is im portant to use the
washer, even though it is not shown in the drawing.)
Pull one end of the rope through the hook so th at the rope rests on the thimble, and
fasten the end of the rope with the black enameled clamp, as in figure 22. A bowline
knot m ay be used (fig. 23), b u t the clamp is a more perm anent means of fastening the
rope to the cross beam.
FIG.13
f i g .is
FIG. IS
T he swing seat should be low enough for the small child to touch the ground with his
whole foot, about 12 inches from the ground. For older children, 20 or 22 inches is the
usual height. For the small child it is better to drill four holes in the swing seat, one in
each corner, and run the rope through the holes (fig. 25). Cut off the comers of the
swing seat. P ut the rope through the holes in the swing seat and fasten by wrapping
the ends tightly to the rope (fig. 25) with marline (a cord that can be bought at a hard­
ware store or a m arine supply house). Galvanized wire is often used to wrap rope, but
the ends must be fastened carefully and inspected often to prevent the child’s getting
scratched. T he kind of clam p th at is used to fasten the rope to the cross beam cannot
be used here, because children m ight get h urt on the metal end.
An effective way of fastening the rope to the hook in the cross beam and to the
swing seat is to splice the rope. Usually the company that sells the rope will do the
splicing. If this m ethod is used, however, the swing cannot be adjusted to different
heights.
T he swing m ay be a standing-log swing (fig. 17), designed to develop the arches of the
feet, or a pair of flying rings for strengthening arm and shoulder muscles. For the small
child, rings m ade of rubber hose or bicycle tires (fig. 16) slipped over the rope and fastened
16
Home Play f o r the Preschool Child
tightly w ill serve very well, but th eo ld er, more active child w ill need metalI rings<(fig. 1 4),
as the hands w ill n ot slip on rubber easily enough for a com fortable ch an ge o f grip
A n autom obile tire swing (fig. 15) is popular and can be used m m a n y ways. A castng
FIG. 2 0
FIG.2 5
G. 2 2
FIG.23
FIG. 24
from w hich the inner tube and valve have been removed is firmly fastened to a single rope
me r ' S sat,sfac!or>’’ lf “ 18 ■”»
through and the fabric is n ot thin
T he clim bing rope is a heavy single rope in which knots are tied, 9 to 14 inches apart
the distance depending upon the size o f the child w ho is to use the rope (fig 18).
Play Equipment
17
M A T E R IA L N E E D E D FO R C L IM B IN G B A R S
Bars: 5 straight-grained maple, hickory, or birch bars, 1% in. in diameter, 4 ft. long.
C O N S T R U C T IO N O F C L IM B IN G B A R S
The bars can be bought, finished, from a lumber company or a planing mill. Bore holes
inches in diam eter, 12 inches apart, in both uprights of the frame (figs. 10 and 26).
Sandpaper the holes enough to perm it the bars to enter. Drive the bars through the holes
with a heavy block of wood and a hamm er. The bars should fit in the holes so tightly
that they cannot slip o u t or turn in the
child’s hands. (See fig. 10, p. 13.)
The climbing bars will be enjoyed by
children under 5. O ne end of the play
plank may be placed on one of the lower
bars and the other end on the ground or
on a box for a walking or bouncing plank.
One end of the plank m ay be placed on a
higher bar to make a slide. T he cleat on
the sliding plank will prevent its slipping.
(See description of play plank, pp. 11-12.)
When the child is older, the wooden bars
may be removed by sawing them off close
to the upright, and a piece of 1-inch pipe
placed through the upright for a horizontal
bar. This bar should be 1 or 2 inches
higher than the child’s extended finger tips
and should be bolted to the uprights. This
may be done by having holes y16 inch in
diameter bored through the pipe 2 inches
FIG. 26
from each end. Bore a l)^-inch hole in
each upright through which to place the
pipe; then at right angles to the first hole in each upright bore another hole j{G inch
in diam eter, exactly intersecting the first hole at the center. Put the bar in place and
bolt it with %-mch carriage bolts and washers through upright and bar (fig. 27, p. 18).
SW IN G , R IN G S , T R A P E Z E , AND BAR
M A T E R IA L N E E D E D F O R F R A M E
Uprights for swing: 2 pieces of No. 1 Common Douglas fir or southern yellow pine,
4 in. thick, 6 in. wide, and 14 ft. long.
Cross beam for swing: 1 piece of No. 1 Common Douglas fir or southern yellow pine,
4 in. thick, 6 in. wide, and 14 ft. long.
Upright for horizontal bar: 1 piece of No. 1 Common Douglas fir or southern
yellow pine, 4 in. thick, 6 in. wide, and 9 ft. long.
Braces: 4 pieces of No. 1 Common Douglas fir or southern yellow pine, 2 in. thick, 4 in.
wide, and 10 ft. long (not required if uprights are set 3 ft. in concrete).
Nails: 1 pound of 20-penny common nails or carriage bolts.
(Note. —T he frame may be made of 3-in. pipe of approximately the same lengths as
the lum ber.)
Home Play fo r the Preschool Child
18
C O N S T R U C T IO N O F F R A M E
See directions for constructing frame o f swing, page 13.
M A T E R I A L N E E D E D F O R S W IN G , R I N G S , A N D T R A P E Z E
Rope: W a te rp ro o f m a n ila ro p e, % in . in d ia m e te r (len g th d e p en d in g u p o n h e ig h t o f
ch ild ; ap p ro x im ately 25 ft. w ill b e needed for sw ing, 15 ft. fo r rings, a n d 15 ft. fo r
tra p e z e ).
Swing seat: 1 piece o f m a p le o r b irc h , 1% in . thick, 8 in . w ide, a n d 24 in . long.
Rings: 2 g alv an ized steel o r a lu m in u m rings, 1 in . th ick , 8 in. in d ia m e te r.
Trapeze: 1 straig h t-g ra in e d m ap le , b irch , o r h ick o ry b a r, 1% in . in d ia m e te r, 24 in.
long.
C O N S T R U C T IO N O F S W IN G , R I N G S , A N D T R A P E Z E
See directions for co n stru ctin g sw ing, p ag e 15.
M A T E R IA L N E E D E D F O R H O R I Z O N T A L B A R
Bar: 1 piece of pipe, 1 in . in d iam ete r, 6 ft. long.
Bolts: 2 carriag e bolts, % in . in diam eter.
C O N S T R U C T IO N O F H O R I Z O N T A L B A R
See directions for a tta c h in g clim bing b ars to u p rig h ts, p ag e 17.
I t is especially im p o rta n t th a t this co m b in atio n of swing, rings, tra p e z e, a n d b a r (fig.
28) b e w ell co n stru cte d . In sp e ct it frequently. T h e co m b in atio n is a good piece of
a p p a ra tu s for a larg e y a rd . I t m ay b e p laced across th e end o f a y a rd w h ere it w ill co v er
a space a b o u t 20 feet long a n d 18 feet w ide. If several c h ild ren o f a b o u t th e sam e age
use th e e q u ip m en t, th re e swings m ay be p referred. T h e a ttac h m en ts m ay b e v a rie d to
suit th e ch ild re n ’s ages a n d interests.
HORIZONTAL LADDER
I n this piece of e q u ip m e n t th e h o rizo n tal la d d e r is su p p o rted by tw o p e rp e n d ic u la r
lad d ers. T h e easiest w ay to co n stru ct it is to b u y a 30-foot la d d e r, e ith e r single o r e x te n ­
sion, a n d c u t it in to th re e sections. Set tw o of th e sections in co n crete (see d irectio n s on
p. 13) for th e p erp e n d ic u la r lad d ers, a n d place th e o th e r section across th e to p fo r th e
Play Equipment
19
horizontal ladder. F o r older children, the horizontal ladder should be firmly bolted to
the uprights a t b oth ends (fig. 29). F or children under 5, the horizontal ladder can be
m ade adjustable. C u t a groove in the frame a t each end of the horizontal ladder,
Fl S. 29
as in figure 30, so that the ladder
will not slip when one end is placed
on a rung of one of the perpendicular
ladders and the other end on the
ground. Younger children will like
to climb on the ladder and swing from
the rungs when it is in this posi­
tion. A play plank for walking or
bouncing m ay be laid on the lower
rungs of th e perpendicular ladders
or placed a t an angle from an
upper rung and used as a slide.
(See description of play plank on
pp. 11-12.)
A 10-foot ladder may be bought
and used as a horizontal ladder, and
the perpendicular ladders may be
constructed according to the follow­
ing specifications:
.>M
M A T E R IA L N E E D E D F O R P E R P E N D IC U L A R L A D D E R S
Uprights: 4 pieces of No. 1 Common Douglas fir or southern yellow pine, 2 in. thick,
4 in. wide, and 9 ft. long.
Braces: 4 pieces of No. 1 Common Douglas fir or southern
yellow pine, 2 in. thick, 4 in. wide, and 10 ft. long (not
required if uprights are set 3 ft. in concrete).
Rungs for uprights: 10 pieces of maple or birch, % in.
thick, 3 in. wide, 20 in. long.
Nails: 1 pound 16-penny common nails.
Bolts: C arriage bolts, % in. in diameter, 5 in. long.
C O N S T R U C T IO N O F P E R P E N D IC U L A R L A D D E R S
Set uprights in concrete (see directions on
pp. 13-14). Bolt the rungs tightly to the
uprights about 10 inches apart.
FIG. 30
SU G G E ST IO N S FOR F U R T H E R R E A D IN G
B u s y C h i l d h o o d ; gu id an ce
th ro u g h p la y a n d activ ity , b y J o s e p h in e C . F o ste r.
D . A p p leto n -C en tu ry C o., N ew Y ork, 1933. 303 p p .
P lay in E d u c a tio n , by Jo s e p h Lee. M a c m illa n C o., N ew Y o rk , 1915. 5 0 0 p p .
S om e E d u c a tio n a l A ctiv itie s for t h e Y o u n g C h ild in t h e H o m e , b y R o w n a
H ansen. U . S. D e p a rtm e n t o f th e In te rio r, O ffice o f E d u c a tio n P a m p h le t N o . 51.
G ov ern m en t P rin tin g Office, W ash in g to n , D . C ., 1934. 23 p p . 5 cents.
PLAY EQUIPMENT
H om e-M ad e T oys a n d P lay E q u ip m e n t, by A gnes T ilso n .
P u b lish e d b y F a r m e r ’s
W ife,'W
St. P aul, M in n ., 1933. 23 p p .
H om e P lay. P laygroun d a n d R e crea tio n A ssociation o f A m e rica (n o w N a tio n a l
R ecreation A ssociation), 315 F o u rth A v en u e, N ew Y o rk , 1928. 48 p p .
H o m e P laygrou n d an d In d oor P la y ro o m . N a tio n a l R e c re a tio n A sso ciatio n , 315
F o u rth A venue, N ew Y ork, 1936. 9 p p . M im e o g ra p h e d .
H o u sin g a n d E q u ip p in g th e W a sh in g to n C h ild R ese a rc h C en te r, by M ary
D ab n ey D avis a n d C hristine H ein ig . U . S. D e p a rtm e n t of th e In te rio r, O ffice o f E d u ­
cation P am p h le t N o. 13. G o v ern m en t P rin tin g O ffice, W ash in g to n , D . C ., 1930*
24 p p . 5 cents.
P er m a n en t P lay M a terials for Y o u n g C h ild ren , b y C h a rlo tte G . G a rriso n .
C harles S crib n er’s Sons, N ew Y ork, 1926. 122 p p .
P lay an d P lay M aterials for th e P resch ool C h ild , b y H a rrie t M itc h e ll. P u b lic a ­
tion N o. 45, C a n a d ia n C ouncil on C h ild a n d F a m ily W elfare, O tta w a , 1934. 62 p p .
P lay a n d P la y th in g s, by A n n a W . M . W o lf a n d E d ith L o n d o n B o eh m . C h ild S tu d y
A ssociation o f A m erica, 221 W est F ifty -sev en th S tre e t, N ew Y o rk , 1930. 11 p p .
Tw o to S ix , by R ose H . A lschuler. W illiam M o rro w & C o ., N ew Y o rk , 1933. 160 p p .
(Includes a section on p lay m aterials.)
GAMES
G a m es a n d G am e L eadersh ip , b y C h arles F . S m ith .
Y ork, 1932.
D odd, M ead & Co
N ew
658 p p .
G a m es for th e P laygrou n d , H o m e, S ch o o l, a n d G y m n a s iu m , b y Jessie H . B a n ­
croft.
M acm illan C o., N ew Y ork, 1909. 463 p p .
U . S. D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r, C h ild re n ’s B u re a u
P u b licatio n No. 231. G o v ern m en t P rin tin g O ffice, W a sh in g to n , D . C ., 1936. 121 pp.
15 cents. (A m a n u a l of gam es.)
H an d b ook for R ecrea tio n L eaders.
Note.
M a n y of th e S tate universities o r a g ric u ltu ra l colleges issue m im e o g ra p h e d or
p rin te d m a te ria l o n th e subject o f p lay a n d p la y e q u ip m e n t. R esid en ts o f a S ta te c a n
cu k T a lUconrgUebIlCatl0nS ^
^
^
^
20
o
t0 their State universitY or agri-
177
Appendix Y1
Special bulletin No* 89 on Tuesday, February 12, 1935
of the Office of the Superintendent of the Los Angeles
City School District to all superintendents, directors,
supervisors, principals, and teachers, on the subject:
Educational activities promoting the worthy use of
leisure time.
This special bulletin is in Appendix YI of first
copy of this dissertation.
L os A n g eles City School District
O ffice of t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t
S pecial B u lle tin N o. 89
T u esd ay , F e b r u a r y 12, 1935
To: A l l S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , D irectors , S upe rv i so r s , P rincipals , a n d T e a c h e r s
F r o m : F r a n k A. B o u e l l e , S u p e r in te n d e y it
S u b je c t: E D U C A T I O N A L A C T I V I T I E S P R O M O T I N G T H E W O R T H Y U S E O F L E I S U R E T I M E
T h is b u lle tin is issu e d to s u g g e s t f u r t h e r m e th o d s an d a c tiv itie s f o r p ro m o tin g th e w o rth y use
of a d d itio n a l le is u re tim e m a d e a v a ila b le b y th e re d u c tio n in hom e s tu d y h o u rs.
S ocial w e lfa r e a n d g o v e rn m e n ta l g ro u p s a r e g iv in g in c re a s e d a tte n tio n to le is u re -tim e a c tiv i­
ties a s one o f th e c o u n tr y ’s m a jo r social p ro b lem s. T h e school is an esp ecially im p o r ta n t fa c to r in
le is u re -tim e e d u c a tio n , b e c a u se of th e in te r e s ts a n d h a b its w h ich it develops in th e a d u lts ot th e
fu tu re , b e c a u se y o u n g p eo p le f o r m th e p rin c ip a l le is u re class, a n d b ecau se th e school is a le a d in g
re c re a tio n a l c e n te r of th e c o m m u n ity .
L E IS U R E
T IM E A C T IV IT IE S F O R Y O U N G P E O P L E
G ENERAL CHARACTER
W h a t y o u n g p eo p le do w ith th e ir le is u re is a m a tte r o f social co n cern . T h e ir fre e -tim e a c tiv i­
tie s sh o u ld th e r e f o r e be g u id e d a n d d ire c te d a lo n g so cially an d in d iv id u a lly u sefu l lines w h ich a r e
an in te g r a l p a r t o f a b a la n c e d life p ro g ra m . T h e a im of th e schools w ill be to e n c o u ra g e tw o ty p e s
of a c tiv itie s th o s e in a n d a r o u n d th e hom e, a n d th o se in th e co m m u n ity a t la rg e . R ece n t stu d ie s
of th e N a tio n a l R e c re a tio n A sso c ia tio n sh o w t h a t th e hom e is th e c e n te r fo r a la rg e a n d in c re a s in g
p e rc e n ta g e o f le is u re -tim e a c tiv itie s . H ence, o u r m a in co n cern sh ould be w ith th o se p u r s u its w hich,
in a b s o rb in g th e in t e r e s t of s tu d e n ts a f te r th e school h o u rs, e n ric h hom e an d fa m ily life.
I t is d ifficult to s p e c ify a s e t p r o g r a m o f le is u re -tim e a c tiv itie s w h ich m a y be sp o n so re d by
all schools. I n d iv id u a l in te r e s ts a n d a b ilitie s , fa m ily life a n d b a c k g ro u n d , co m m u n ity fa c ilitie s an d
o rg a n iz a tio n s , th e e q u ip m e n t o f th e in d iv id u a l sch o o l— all p lay an im p o r ta n t p a r t m d e te rm in in g
th e a c tiv itie s w h ic h sh o u ld be s tre s s e d . A s tr u e le is u re p u r s u its should b alan ce n o n -le isu re p u rs u its
it is e s s e n tia l t h a t th e s e sh o u ld v a r y w ith in d iv id u a l p u p ils ju s t as stu d y p ro g ra m s v a ry . In a b ro a d
sense w o r th y use o f le is u re is a p ro c e ss of p le a s u ra b le a d ju s tm e n t to life s itu a tio n s an d d ep en d s
in a g r e a t m e a s u re on p e rs o n a lity , te m p e ra m e n t, b a c k g ro u n d , an d ed u ca tio n .
S in ce n e w in v e n tio n s a n d so cial tr e n d s e x e r t a s tr o n g influence in d e te rm in in g th e in te re s ts
an d h o b b ie s o f y o u n g p eople, it is m o st im p o r ta n t t h a t th e schools reco g n ize th e se constantly^ c h a n g ­
in g f a c to r s in p la n n in g le is u re -tim e p ro g ra m s . P ro v id e d th e y a re e d u c a tio n a lly w o r th \
le, s
c u r r e n t p o p u la r in te r e s ts a s th e b u ild in g o f m odel a irp la n e s , a m a te u r m o tio n p ic tu re p ro d u c tio n ,
ra d io p r o g ra m s , s ta m p co llectin g , a n d th e like, sh o u ld be en co u ra g ed .
I t is also d e s ira b le t h a t th e schools e n c o u ra g e n o t only th o se a c tiv itie s w h ich a re h ig h ly p e r ­
so n al a n d in d iv id u a l, b u t also th o s e w h ich a r e o f a n o rg a n iz e d g ro u p c h a r a c te r lm oh m g c o o p e ra ­
tio n a n d so cial in te r c h a n g e . P o s sib ly m o re a tte n tio n sh o u ld be g iv en to th e c o o p e ra tiv e g ro u p ty p e
of a c tiv itie s th a n h a s h e r e to f o r e b een g iv e n .
Page two
S p e c ia l B u l l e t in N o . 89
A C T IV IT IE S W IT H IN T H E SC H O O L D E S IG N E D TO P R O M O T E W O R T H Y U S E O F
L E IS U R E T IM E
I t is im possible w ith in th e scope of a sin g le b u lle tin to p re s e n t a co m p reh en siv e lis t of ac tiv i­
ties w hich m ig h t be developed in th e schools to p ro m o te th e p ro fitab le use of le isu re tim e. H ow ­
ever, th e follow in g p ro g ra m , b ased on a so m e w h a t s im ila r one developed by th e N a tio n a l R ecrea­
tio n A ssociation, is offered as a su g g ested p lan to aid in th e d ev elo p m en t of a c tiv itie s by in d i­
vid u al schools.
1. N a tu r e activities an d n a tu r e cra fts
T hese include such a c tiv itie s an d fields as n a tu re lore, In d ia n lore, a stro n o m y , cam ping
an d cam p life, hikes, o u tin g s, n a tu re g u id in g , n a tu re books, co llectin g o b je cts of n a tu re , trip s
to m useum s a n d c e n te rs of n a tu ra l h isto ry , ra is in g an d b re e d in g of p e ts an d d om estic a n i­
m als, g a rd e n in g an d f r u it ra is in g , an d la n d sca p in g . T h ese activ itie s, d e se rv in g of increased
em phasis, m ay be in itia te d an d en co u rag ed th ro u g h th e a r g ic u ltu r a l su b je c ts, co u rses in cam p
cooking, n a tu ra l an d g en era l science, th e ph y sical sciences, o u tin g clubs, S co u t activ ities, th e
n a tu re em p h asis in school assem blies, an d th e like.
2. Social recreation
E d u c a tio n a l d irec tio n should be p ro v id ed in th e fo llo w in g a c tiv itie s : C o rrect social p ra c ­
tices an d co n tacts, e n te rta in in g (p a rtie s , d ances, d in in g ) , in d o o r g am es, a n d p ro g ra m s.
T hese a c tiv itie s can be an d a re b ein g en co u rag ed m a in ly th ro u g h co u rses in th e house­
hold a r ts field, especially Social A rts, an d th r o u g h th e v a rio u s clubs an d social a c tiv itie s w ith ­
in th e school. T hese in te re s ts can be developed m ore th ro u g h th e in fo rm a l social a c tiv itie s of
th e school th a n th ro u g h fo rm a l co urses of stu d y . E sp ecially sh o u ld in fo rm a l g ro u p e n te rta in ­
m e n t be en co u rag ed as a s a tis fy in g fo rm of re c re a tio n .
3. P h ysical activities
O utdoor gam es an d sp o rts.
In th e field of ath le tic s an d o u td o o r g am es an d sp o rts, no specific su g g e stio n s need be
given. T his field h as alw ay s given m a jo r a tte n tio n to re c re a tio n an d le isu re -tim e ac tiv itie s. Sug­
g estio n s an d a c tiv itie s f o r use in o th e r p h ases of th e school p ro g ra m m ig h t be g ain e d from
th e diversified p ro g ra m s an d b u lletin serv ice of th e school p la y g ro u n d s u n d e r th e d irec tio n of
th e physical ed u catio n section.
4. R ec re a tiv e m usic
M usic, p e rh a p s th e m o st u n iv e rsa l an d sig n ific a n t of th e fine a r ts , h a s a m a jo r c o n trib u ­
tio n to m ake in p ro v id in g m eans of c re a tiv e an d a p p re c ia tiv e le isu re -tim e a c tiv itie s. T he fol­
low ing a re su g g ested by th e m usic section as possible p u r s u its g ro w in g o u t of th e p re se n t
m usic ed ucatio n p ro g ra m in th e city schools.
(1) C horal L eisu re A ctiv ities
(a ) F a m ily “sin g s ”
(b ) P la y g ro u n d ch o ru ses
(c) N eig h b o rh o o d ch o ru ses
(d ) C h u rch choirs
(e) P la y g ro u n d an d co m m u n ity o p e re tta s
(2) M usic L ite r a tu r e L e isu re A ctiv ities
(a ) D irected p h o n o g ra p h reco rd liste n in g
(b ) D irected rad io liste n in g
(c) O p era an d co n cert a tte n d a n c e
(d ) R ead in g on su b je c ts p e rta in in g to m u sic ; viz., sto rie s o f th e o p eras, b io g rap h ies
of m u sician s, m u sical ro m an ces, p erio d icals, T h e E tu d e , M usical A m eric a, The
M usical C o u rier
(e) M ak in g rep licas of a n c ie n t an d m edieval in s tru m e n ts
S p e c ia l B u l l e t i n N o . 89
(3 )
Pa g e three
I n s tr u m e n ta l M u sic L e is u re A c tiv itie s
( a ) P r iv a t e s tu d y o f all ty p e s o f b a n d an d o rc h e s tra l in s tr u m e n ts
( b ) F a m ily in s tr u m e n ta l en sem b les
(c ) N e ig h b o rh o o d b a n d s a n d o r c h e s tr a s
(d ) P la y g r o u n d b a n d s a n d o r c h e s tr a s
(e ) I n s tr u m e n ta l o r g a n iz a tio n s fo rm e d by p r iv a te te a c h e rs a n d re c ru ite d fro m school
g ro u p s
( f ) C h u rc h o r c h e s tr a s
(g ) S tu d e n t sm a ll in s tr u m e n ta l en sem b les, violin ensem bles, th e s tr in g q u a r te t, b ra s s
a n d w o o d w in d q u a r te t o r q u in te t, m a rim b a a n d x y lo p h o n e b a n d s
( h ) D ru m a n d b u g le c o rp s
(i) S tu d e n t d a n c e o r c h e s tr a s
(4 ) P ia n o L e is u re A c tiv itie s
(a )
(b )
(c )
(d )
P r iv a t e p ia n o s tu d y
P ia n o d u e ts
T w o -p ia n o p e rfo rm a n c e f o r 2, 4, o r 6 p la y e rs
P ia n o clu b s
(5 ) L e is u re A c tiv itie s g ro w in g o u t of M usic T h e o ry sk ills
(a )
(b )
(c )
(d )
(e )
C o m p o sitio n of tu n e s fo r g am es, p u p p e t show s, p lay s, o rig in a l o p e re tta s , b allets,
p a n to m im e s
A r r a n g in g o r c h e s tr a l sco res fo r o rig in a l o p e re tta s
A r r a n g in g o r c h e s tr a l sco res of p o p u la r m u sic f o r d an ce o rc h e s tra s
P ia n o im p ro v is a tio n
T h e m a k in g o f in s tr u m e n ts ( p r im itiv e d ru m s, P a n ’s p ip es, c ig a r box violin,
x y lo p h o n e , e tc .)
(6 ) L e is u re A c tiv itie s g ro w in g o u t of G e n e ra l M usic I n s tru c tio n
(a)
(b )
(c )
(d )
(e )
H a rm o n ic a b a n d s
M u sic clu b s
C o lle c tin g fo lk so n g s fro m c o m m u n itie s p re d o m in a tin g in fo re ig n -b o rn citize n s
C o llectin g fo lk d an ces
F o lk -M u sic fe s tiv a ls
5. R e c r e a tiv e d r a m a
T h e g e n e r a l o p in io n p re v a ils a m o n g r e c re a tio n a l le a d e rs th a t th e re needs to be c o n s id e r­
ab le e x p a n s io n of th e d r a m a tic e m p h a sis in th e schools an d th a t d ra m a tic a c tiv itie s o u g h t to
be m a d e a m u c h m o re im p o r ta n t ele m e n t in e d u c a tio n f o r leisu re.
A c tiv itie s in th is field d e s e rv in g in c re a s e d a tte n tio n in c lu d e : o n e-act p lay s, vaudeville,
s k its a n d s tu n ts , s c e n e ry b u ild in g , m ak e-u p , s ta g e lig h tin g , c u ttin g novels fo r sc e n a rio s, w r it­
in g f o r b r o a d c a s tin g , a m a te u r th e a tr ic a l a n d m o tio n p ic tu re p ro d u c tio n a c tiv itie s , a n d e v a lu a ­
tio n o f p ro d u c tio n s o f s ta g e a n d screen .
T h e se a c tiv itie s c a n be s p o n so re d th r o u g h th e re g u la r classes in d ra m a , little th e a tr e an d
c in e m a clu b s, u n its a n d c o u rse s in p h o to p la y a p p re c ia tio n , th e g r e a te r use of d ra m a in th e
m o re a c a d e m ic a c tiv itie s o f th e schools, m o tio n p ic tu re p h o to g ra p h y clubs, a n d p la y w ritin g
g ro u p s . T h e m a jo r f u n c tio n o f th e school in th is re s p e c t should be to im p ro v e d ra m a tic ta s te
a n d e n c o u ra g e th e little th e a tr e m o v e m en t.
6. D a n c in g a n d R h y t h m i c s
D a n c in g is su fficien tly o u ts ta n d in g a s a f o rm o f re c re a tio n to be g iv en s e p a ra te c o n s id e ra ­
tio n . S ocial d a n c in g , esp ecially , is one o f th e co m m o n est le isu re p u r s u its of y o u n g people.
Page f o u r
S p e c ia l B u l l e t i n N o . 89
L e isu re a c tiv itie s in th e field of d an c in g an d rh y th m ic s include, b esides social dancing,
folk d an cin g , in te r p r e ta tiv e an d classical d an cin g . A ll fo rm s of d a n c in g a r e b ein g given in­
crea sed a tte n tio n as a w o rth y re c re a tio n a l p u rs u it.
T hese v a rio u s fo rm s of d an cin g a r e p ro v id ed fo r in th e classes in th e p h y sical education
d e p a rtm e n ts, d an cin g clubs, an d th e v a rio u s social an d re c re a tio n a l a c tiv itie s of th e schools.
F u r th e r c o n sid era tio n should also be g iv en to all fo rm s of d an cin g , esp ecially th e in te rp re ­
ta tiv e types.
7. T h e R e p r e s e n ta tiv e A r t s and H a n d ic r a fts
T he p la stic an d g ra p h ic a r ts an d th e h a n d c ra fts , w hile n o t ex ten siv ely p ra c tic e d as rec­
re a tio n a l a ctiv ities, a re d e serv in g of m uch m o re a tte n tio n . A s a c o m p en sa tio n fo r unw hole­
som e influences of th e m achine, th e y offer e ssen tial an d w o rth y d iv e rsio n s, w h ich seem des­
tin e d to in crease. A p a r t fro m th e c re a tiv e p h ases, a r t a p p re c ia tio n is eq ually im p o rta n t as a
le isu re-tim e p u rs u it. O u tsta n d in g a c tiv itie s su g g ested by th e a r t sectio n in clu d e th e follow ing:
R e p r e s e n ta tiv e A r t s — such as p a in tin g , d ra w in g , m odeling, illu s tra tin g , o u td o o r sketch­
ing, etc.
C r a fts — cre a tiv e w o rk w ith wood, clay, p ap er, an d c a r d b o a r d ; w e av in g of ru g s, scarfs,
m ats, clothes, e t c .; raffia an d reed w o r k ; th e a r tis tic use of d isc a rd e d m a te ria ls , su ch as in the
m a k in g of p a tc h w o rk q u ilts, b ra id e d an d hooked ru g s, lin o leu m block p r in tin g an d dyeing,
p a in t an d enam el w ork.
A p p r e c ia tio n — v is itin g a r t g alleries, m u seu m s, au to sh o w s; a rc h ite c tu r a l a n d flow er shows;
th e e n jo y m e n t of fine illu s tra te d books, m a g azin e s, a n d n e w s p a p e r a r t sections, new m u rals in
lib ra rie s an d o th e r public build in g s, new civic sc u lp tu re , etc. T he influence of a r t ap p reciatio n
should be b ro u g h t in to th e a c tiv itie s of th e co n su m er in th e p u rc h a s e of clo th in g , je w elry , fu r ­
n itu re , a r t objects, etc.
All of th ese activ itie s a re en co u rag ed an d su g g ested in th e r e g u la r a r t courses. H owever,
considerable g u id an ce is n ecessary if th e a r ts a r e in c re a sin g ly to becom e le isu re -tim e p u rsu its
in th e hom e an d n eig hborhood. T he schools should p ro v id e m o re o p p o rtu n ity fo r a m a te u r crea­
tiv e a r t w ork. M ore ex ten siv e use m u st be m ad e of th e schools as c e n te rs of c r a f t a c tiv ity and
g u id an ce in th e p la n n in g of hom e an d n eig h b o rh o o d w o rk sh o p s an d c r a f t fa c ilitie s. F u rth e r,
every effo rt should be m ade to p ro v id e a r t ex p erien ces in ev ery p h ase o f school life, an d to en­
able young people to see a rt in th e ir eve ry d a y living.
8. C reative E x p r e s s io n and L ite r a r y A p p r e c ia tio n
T he fields of lite ra tu re , speech, an d c re a tiv e w ritin g , in a b ro a d sense, com e w ith in the
realm o f le isu re p u rs u its . In cluded in th e le isu re-tim e a c tiv itie s h e re w ould be th e w ritin g of
scenarios, ra d io plays, sta g e d ra m a s ; o ral a c tiv itie s such as p an el d iscu ssio n s, debates, open
fo ru m s, e v a lu a tin g ra d io p r o g r a m s ; an d re c re a tio n a l re a d in g .
T hese a c tiv itie s can be an d a re b ein g e n co u ra g ed th ro u g h th e re g u la r E n g lis h classes the
lite r a ry clubs, d eb a tin g an d fo ru m g ro u p s, a n d th e v a rio u s o th e r school a c tiv itie s w h ich pro­
vide an o u tle t fo r c re a tiv e ex p ressio n . E sp e c ia lly im p o r ta n t is th e e m p h a siz in g in E nglish
courses of e xten sive rea ding f o r e n jo y m e n t r a th e r th a n th e in te n siv e a n a ly sis of a few classics.
9. Scientific e x p e rim e n ta tio n a nd hobbies o f a m echa nical n a tu r e
S tro n g an d g ro w in g in te re s t in th is field, esp ecially on th e p a r t o f boys, w a r r a n ts g re a te r
a tte n tio n to all ty p e s of scientific e x p e rim e n ta tio n a n d e le m e n ta ry re s e a rc h . I n te r e s ts a re espe­
cially s tro n g in th e electrical, chem ical, a e ro n a u tic a l, rad io , an d a u to m o tiv e fields.
T he phy sical sciences an d in d u s tria l a r ts offer th e g r e a te s t p o ssib ilities in en co u rag in g ,
cu ltiv a tin g , an d d ire c tin g th e se in te re s ts . In th e in d u s tria l a r ts co u rses boys can be encouraged
S p e c ia l B u l l e t i n N o. 89
P a g e five
a n d d ir e c te d in d e v e lo p in g h o m e w o rk sh o p s , m a k in g o u td o o r s p o rts e q u ip m e n t su ch as to b o g ­
g a n s , sk iis , sled s, sn o w sh o es, s u r f b o a rd s , k a y a k s, m odel y a c h ts, a n d d o in g sim p le re p a ir, a d j u s t­
m e n t, a n d u p k e e p jo b s a r o u n d th e hom e. V a rio u s club in te r e s ts can be developed in th e field
su ch a s w h ittlin g , p h o to g r a p h y , te lesco p e m a k in g , etc.
In th e p h y s ic a l scien c es e n c o u ra g e m e n t a n d d ire c tio n can be g iv e n to th e s e ttin g up of hom e
la b o ra to rie s , to c a r r y in g on o f h o m e e x p e rim e n ts , a n d th e m a k in g of o b je c ts f o r hom e a n d
p e rs o n a l use.
S o m e o f th e a c tiv itie s in th is field w o u ld in c lu d e collection of sp ecim en s, c o n s tru c tio n of
te lesco p es, w e a th e r re c o r d in g a n d fo r e c a s tin g , c o n s tru c tio n o f “p in h o le” c a m e ra s, d ev elo p in g
a n d p r in t in g of film s, c o n s tr u c tio n o f s h o r t w av e w ire le ss te le g ra p h ic sets, ra d io re c e iv in g sets
a n d te s t in g in s tr u m e n ts , b u ild in g sim p le te le p h o n e s y ste m s in th e hom e a n d n e ig h b o rh o o d , in ­
v e n tin g a n d m a k in g in g e n io u s g a d g e ts a n d dev ices f o r use a ro u n d th e hom e.
10. S o c ie ty a n d its p r o b le m s
W h ile n o t s tr ic tly in th e le is u re o r re c re a tio n field, a g ro w in g in te r e s t in social p h e n o m ­
en a, h is to ric a l d e v e lo p m e n ts, a n d so cial p ro b le m s w a r r a n ts th e ir in c lu sio n in th is p ro g ra m of
f re e tim e a c tiv itie s .
T h is field in c lu d e s su c h w id ely d iv e rs e a c tiv itie s a n d s tu d ie s as th e f o llo w in g : re a d in g h is ­
to ric a l n o v els, s tu d y in g a n d o b s e rv in g c o n te m p o ra ry p rim itiv e peoples, s tu d y in g h is to ric a l p e r ­
iods, c u ltu r a l g ro u p s , a n d th e liv es o f h is to ric a l le a d e rs, co llectin g m a te ria ls of h is to ric a l an d
social sig n ific a n c e su ch a s s ta m p s a n d coins, m a k in g sh ip m odels h is to ric a lly c o rre c t in d esig n ,
p a r ti c ip a tin g in c o m m u n ity w e lf a r e a n d im p ro v e m e n t a c tiv itie s , s tu d y in g a n d v is itin g C a lifo r­
n ia m iss io n s a n d o th e r local h is to r ic p laces, fo llo w in g (g e o g ra p h ic a lly ) c u r r e n t e x p lo ra tio n s
a n d o u ts ta n d in g flig h ts, d isc u ssin g , re a d in g a b o u t, a n d s tu d y in g c u r r e n t social a n d econom ic
p ro b le m s. T h ese a r e o n ly a fe w o f th e m a n y a c tiv itie s w h ich y o u n g people can c a r r y on as
a m a te u r s tu d e n ts o f so ciety .
D e v e lo p in g in t e r e s t a n d p a r tic ip a tio n in th e social a n d h u m a n re la tio n s field can be a c ­
c o m p lish e d in th e sch o o ls m a in ly th r o u g h th e social stu d ie s p r o g r a m a n d s tu d e n t se lf-g o v e rn ­
m e n t a c tiv itie s . A n in f o r m a l e n ric h e d te a c h in g of th e social stu d ie s w ill go f a r to w a rd a ro u s in g
so cial a n d p o litic a l in te r e s ts . E v e r y e n c o u ra g e m e n t sh o u ld be g iv en to g ro u p d iscu ssio n s an d
in te r e s t in civic a f f a ir s . T h ese a r e b eco m in g in c re a s in g ly im p o r ta n t am o n g a d u lts a s a w o rth y
le is u re -tim e a c tiv ity . A c tu a l p a r tic ip a tio n in s tu d e n t g o v e rn m e n t in as g r e a t a v a rie ty of w ay s
a s is fe a s ib le in eac h p a r tic u la r school w ill h e lp co n sid e ra b ly . A n e ffo rt to r e la te th e life of
th e school to th e liv in g w o rld a n d th e s u r r o u n d in g c o m m u n ity w ill develop in te r e s ts a n d a t 1 tu d e s w h ic h w ill h a v e a w id e in flu en ce on le is u re p u rs u its .
H O B B IE S
P la c in g th e e m p h a s is p r e d o m in a n tly u p o n th e h o b b y idea, th e L e isu re L eag u e o f A m e ric a h a s
been p u b lis h in g a c o m p re h e n s iv e s e rie s o f little bo o k s on le isu re -tim e in te re s ts . T h ese sell a t n o m ­
inal c o st I n th e in tr o d u c to r y p a m p h le t, “ C a re a n d F e e d in g o f H obby H o rses, h o b b ies o f all k in d s
a re d e s c rib e d m a n y o f w h ic h co uld be e n c o u ra g e d . T h ey a re g ro u p e d u n d e r th e c a te g o rie s
D oing T h in g s , M a k in g T h in g s, A c q u irin g T h in g s, a n d L e a r n in g T hm gs_ E s p e c 'a n y su S «e s t ' ® f °"
th e sch o o ls is th e s e c tio n on A c q u irin g T h in g s. T h e u n iv e rs a l in te r e s t of > o u n g people m co llectin g
can be c a p ita liz e d to g ood a d v a n ta g e b y th e schools. A s e p a ra te b ib lio g ra p y 0 1 eac
j pe
i n c l u d e d in th e “ C a re a n d F e e d in g o f H o b b y H o rs e s .” School lib ra rie s could well affo rd to h a v e
th e se a n d o th e r p a m p h le t s e rie s on h o b b ies a n d a v o c a tio n s on th e ir s h e \ e s .
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S p e c ia l B u l l e t i n N o . 89
M E T H O D S A N D D E V IC E S F O R D E V E L O P IN G S U G G E S T E D L E IS U R E -T IM E A C T IV IT IE S
T he a c tiv itie s su g g ested fo r e n c o u ra g in g a b e tte r use of f r e e tim e can be in s titu te d th ro u g h
th e re g u la r school su b je c ts, th e e x tra -c u rric u la r p ro g ra m , th e hom e room , th e sp ecial “le isu re ” or
re c re a tio n p eriod , an d v a rio u s a d m in is tra tiv e devices. A m o re in fo rm a l, c re a tiv e te a c h in g of all
school su b je c ts w ill help im m easu rab ly . I t is n o t so m uch a m a tte r of w h a t is ta u g h t as th e sp irit
in w hich it is ta u g h t. A n e ffo rt to c u ltiv a te a n d en co u ra g e in d iv id u al in te re s ts an d a b ilities will
go f a r to w a rd developing w o rth y le isu re p u rs u its . Som e d istin c tio n s a re m ad e b etw ee n th o se sub­
je c ts w hich a r e v o catio n al an d th o se w h ich a re av o catio n al, b u t th is is n o t im p o r ta n t fo r leisure
tra in in g . In v a ry in g degrees, m o st su b je c ts of th e c u rric u lu m offer p o ssib ilities in developing lei­
su re in te re s ts . C e rta in su b jects w hich a re p re d o m in a n tly re c re a tio n a l should be g iv en in creased em­
phasis.
In a rts , c ra fts, an d m usic, ac tu a l p a rtic ip a tio n , c re a tio n , a n d acq u isitio n of skill a re much
m ore im p o rta n t th a n th e p assiv e a cq u isitio n of a p p re c ia tio n th ro u g h a te x tb o o k s tu d y of th e sub­
je ct. I t is conceded th a t in te r sch o lastic fo o tb all a n d a th le tic g am es h av e p ro v id ed th e m a jo r leisure
in te re s t of th e school in th e p a st. H ow ever, d ra m a tic s, m usic, s tu d e n t g o v e rn m e n t, a n d social g ath ­
e rin g s m e rit an d a re receiv in g in creased a tte n tio n . T hese a c tiv itie s should be en co u ra g ed through
clubs, assem blies, an d le isu re p erio d s fo r th e g r e a t v alu e th e y h av e in p ro v id in g tr a in in g in recrea­
tio n a l p u rs u its w hich w ill c a rry over in to la te r life.
I t should be recognized th a t th e e x tra -c u rric u la r p ro g ra m p ro b a b ly p ro v id es th e g re a te s t op­
p o rtu n itie s in le isu re tr a in in g , an d hence d eserv es ev ery a d m in is tra tiv e an d te a c h in g encourage­
m ent.
B u t re g a rd le ss of w h e th e r th e y a r e c u rric u la r or e x tra -c u rric u la r, th o se a c tiv itie s should be
en co u rag ed w hich p ro v id e o u tlets fo r v a rie d in te re s ts , c re a tiv e w o rk , self-ex p ressio n , social coopera­
tion, and ae sth e tic ap p re c ia tio n . M ore specific devices fo r in s titu tin g th e se a c tiv itie s include the
ex p lo itatio n of av o catio n s an d hobbies th ro u g h school p a p e rs, p o ste rs, assem b lies, an d bulletins.
E x h ib itio n s an d co n tests re la tiv e to hobbies an d v o lu n ta ry ach iev em en ts o u tsid e of school often
pro v e s tim u la tin g . Schools m ig h t also en co u rag e th e sp o n so rin g of tr i p s a n d ex cu rsio n s by P aren tT eacher A ssociatio n s an d o th e r civic an d ed u ca tio n a l g ro u p s.
The incom plete a c tiv ity h as co n sid erab le p o ssib ilities, an d is a lre a d y used in m a n y schools. The
p ro je c t is s ta rte d in school u n d e r th e te a c h e r’s d irec tio n , an d finished a t hom e a t th e p u p il’s lei­
sure.
I t m u st be recognized th a t low cost an d a v a ila b ility d e te rm in e to a g r e a t e x te n t m o st young
peoples leisu re a c tiv ities, an d th e re fo re ev ery effo rt sh o u ld be m ade to aid s tu d e n ts in obtaining
eq u ip m en t a t little or no cost, an d to en co u rag e in g e n u ity in m a k in g use of m a te ria ls a lre a d y avail­
able o r easily assem bled.
A V O C A T IO N A L G U ID A N C E
In fu r th e r in g a leisu re-tim e p ro g ra m an d c a r r y in g o u t th e a c tiv itie s su g g ested in th is and
o th e r pu b licatio n s, a p ro g ra m of av o catio n al g u id a n ce is e ssen tial. In h elp in g y o u n g people to choose
and develop av o catio n s and hobbies, co n sid era b le d irec tio n , su g g estio n , an d e n c o u ra g e m e n t are
necessaiy . L ittle h as been done alo n g th is line a n d in th e ab sen ce of a n y specific scientific study
only a few su g g estio n s can be given a t th is tim e.
The follow ing a re some of th e item s of in fo rm a tio n w h ich sh ould be s o u g h t in such a guidance
p io g ia m . The le la tiv e am o u n ts of activ e an d p assiv e p a rtic ip a tio n by th e in d iv id u a l s tu d e n t; the
p io p o itio n of hom e to co m m u n ity a c tiv itie s ; le isu re a c tiv itie s actu a lly p u rs u e d a n d th e tim e given
o each , th e a c tiv itie s d esired b u t n o t a v a ila b le ; th o se fa c ilitie s w h ich a re p ro v id ed a n d those
w uch ai e la c k in g ; re c e n t ch an g es in le isu re in te re s ts , etc.
S p e c ia l B u l l e t i n N o . 89
P a g e seven
A n e ffe c tiv e m e th o d f o r fin d in g o u t th is in f o r m a tio n is th e occasio n al use of q u e s tio n n a ire s
lis tin g all ty p e s o f le is u re -tim e p u r s u its . T h e a c c o m p a n y in g fo rm p r e p a re d an d used by th e N a ­
tio n a l R e c re a tio n A ss o c ia tio n is a good e x a m p le o f one m eth o d o f o b ta in in g n eed ed in fo rm a tio n .
(S ee p a g e 8.)
I n “ T h e C a re a n d F e e d in g o f H o b b y H o r s e s ,” th e L e is u re L ea g u e p a m p h le t, a s u g g e s tiv e list
of q u e s tio n s is g iv e n w h ic h sh o u ld p ro v e of f u r t h e r h elp in d isc o v e rin g in d iv id u a l in te re s ts .
A p a r t f r o m q u e s tio n n a ire s , a v o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e can be c a r r ie d fo rw ard - by th e u se of th e
r e g u la r g u id a n c e f a c ilitie s o f th e schools. T h e h o m e room m a y be m o re fu lly u sed fo r th is p u rp o se .
E x te n s iv e u se m a y be m a d e of in d iv id u a l a n d g ro u p d iscu ssio n s, co n feren c es, a n d tr y o u t a c tiv itie s .
T he im p o r ta n t p o in t is t h a t th e ch o ice of a v o c a tio n a l an d le is u re p u r s u its re q u ire s as m u c h g u id ­
ance a n d d ir e c tio n a s th e v o c a tio n a l a n d ac a d e m ic p u rs u its . T h e m a jo r o b je c tiv e sh o uld be to aid
th e in d iv id u a l ch ild in d e v e lo p in g a b a la n c e d p r o g r a m o f le isu re in te r e s ts in c lu d in g in te lle c tu a l, a e s ­
th e tic, p h y s ic a l, a n d h a n d i c r a f t h o b b ies a n d av o c a tio n s.
THE
C O M M U N IT Y
IN
R E L A T IO N
TO L E IS U R E T R A IN IN G IN T H E SC H O O L S
I t m u s t be re c o g n iz e d t h a t m a n y im p o r ta n t o p p o rtu n itie s fo r d ev elo p in g in te r e s t in w o rth w h ile
le isu re a c tiv itie s lie o u ts id e th e sch o o ls— in th e p u b lic lib ra rie s , r e c re a tio n c e n te rs, ch u rch e s, clubs,
P a r e n t- T e a c h e r g ro u p s , etc. I t is in th e in te llig e n t u se of a n d c o o p e ra tio n w ith th e se o u tsid e a g e n ­
cies t h a t th e scho o ls c a n m a k e one o f th e ir g r e a te s t c o n trib u tio n s to le isu re -tim e e d u ca tio n . E v e ry
school s h o u ld m a k e a th o r o u g h s u rv e y of th e o p p o rtu n itie s offered in its n eig h b o rh o o d , a n d e n ­
c o u ra g e e v e ry p u p il to m a k e u se o f th e s e fa c ilitie s . I n f o r m a tio n of th is s o r t can g e n e ra lly be ob­
ta in e d fro m th e d is tr i c t c o o rd in a tin g councils, civ ic o rg a n iz a tio n s an d serv ice clubs, an d th e city
d e p a rtm e n t o f p la y g ro u n d s a n d re c re a tio n . A s p o n ta n e o u s a n d en jo ya b le n e ig h b o rh o o d life sh ould
be th e m a j o r o b je c tiv e in th is p h a se o f th e school’s p r o g ra m .
M e n tio n sh o u ld also b e m a d e of th e w e a lth o f s u g g e s tiv e m a te ria l a n d in fo rm a tio n w h ich can
be o b ta in e d f r o m th e N a tio n a l R e c re a tio n A sso c ia tio n a n d th e L e is u re L e a g u e of A m eric a.
T h e a c c o m p a n y in g b ib lio g ra p h y on le is u re a n d e d u c a tio n h a s been p r e p a r e d by M iss G race
L efler o f th e C ity S chool L ib r a r y . A d d itio n a l copies m a y be o b ta in e d by a d d re s s in g a le tte r to th e
S e c o n d a ry C u rric u lu m S ectio n .
In p r e p a r i n g a n d a d a p tin g a p r o g r a m of le is u re a c tiv itie s to each school, c o n sid e ra b le v alu e
m ay be d e riv e d fro m c o m m itte e stu d y , c o n fe re n c e s of in te r e s te d g ro u p s, an d d iscu ssio n s of v a rio u s
to p ics m e n tio n e d in th is b u lle tin .
Pag e eight
(1)
(2 )
(3)
(4 )
S p e c ia l B u l l e t i n N o . 89
Q U E S T IO N N A IR E F O R A V O C A T IO N A L G U ID A N C E 1
In st r u c t i o n s for F illing O u t B l a n k s
P lea se in d ic a te by a ( y ) th e a c tiv itie s you took p a r t in d u r in g the p a s t y e a r . I f you took p a rt
in th e a c tiv ity once in a tvhile p u t th e check in colum n 1 ; if o fte n , p u t check in colum n 2.
I n addition, if d u rin g - th e p a s t y e a r you to o k p a r t in th e a c tiv ity m o re o r less th a n in th e th ree
o r fo u r y e a rs preced in g - la st y e a r p u t a check in e ith e r colum n 3 o r 4. I f you to o k p a r t in it
ab o u t as o ften as in p rev io u s y ears, do n o t check colum ns 3 a n d 4.
In colum n 5 check a c tiv itie s you w ould en jo y b u t w h ich you now h av e little o r no o p p o rtu n ity
to ta k e p a r t in.
N am e an d check an y a d d itio n a l a c tiv itie s you ta k e p a r t in o r w ould en jo y doing.
L IS T O F A C T IV IT IE S
I. A ctivities In or Around the Home
B ack y ard gam es such as h o rsesh o es, cro q u et,
m in ia tu re golf ...................................................... .........
5.
I h a v e ta k e n p a r t in th e fo llo w in g
d u r in g th e p a s t y e a r .
1.
|
2.
|
3 . |
4.
1 M ore
L e ss
O n ce
O fte n |
th a n
|
th a n
in a
| B e fo r e | B e fo r e
W h ile
I w o u ld en jo y
d o in g th e
th in g s
ch eck ed
1
1
................ I.................
1
C arin g fo r flower g a rd e n ...........................
I
i
C arin g fo r v eg etab le g a rd e n .....................................
C arin g fo r hom e g ro u n d s ___________
S ew ing an d m illin ery ..................... .
.....
W eaving and fa n c y needlew ork
A r t— m odeling, p ain tin g , d raw in g
C a rp e n try , p ain tin g , re p a ir job
L o a fin g .................
P lay in g m usical in s tru m e n t
P la y in g in in s tru m e n ta l g ro u p s ..
F am ily sin g in g ..
H om e sin g s or co n certs w ith frie n d s in v ited
....... ........I...............................
1
L iste n in g to rad io ...
1
i
L iste n in g to pho n o g rap h
1
R eading books— fiction
1
R eading books— non-fiction
R eading m agazines an d n ew sp ap ers
1R e p io d u c e d b y p e r m issio n o f th e N a tio n a l R e c r e a tio n A s s o c ia tio n .
I
[
S p e c ia l B u l l e t i n N o . 8 9
I h a v e ta k e n p a r t in th e fo llo w in g __________ d u r in g th e p a s t y e a r .
L IS T O F A C T IV IT IE S
1.
Once
in a
While
A c tiv itie s in o r A ro u n d t h e H o m e (C o n td .)
2.
R e a d i n g a lo u d .................................................. .........................
....................
................... ..................
......
......... -....................
W ritin g le tte r s
3.
More
than
Before
Often
4.
Less
than
Before
!
C o n v e r s a t i o n . ............... ........................... .................. ............
S e r io u s s t u d y
Pa ge nine
1
!
1
................
P lflv in ? b r i d g e
...... -........ -
:
!i ............................
.....
i
. ...
i
1
................ 1................ ................i...........
. i
W r i t i n g p o e m s , s t o r i e s , e tc .
I would enjoy
doing the
things
checked
.. . . . . . . . '
!
i
__________
J
........... -.................. ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I
I
I
!
...i......
..........
’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . | 1. ................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F n m il v n a r t i e s f b i r t h d a v h o l id a y s . e tc .)
................|
Cand n a r t i e s
D ancing n a r tie s
.....................................
JL1ItlUUI g d llic ptii LA C O - - - - - - - -
-- -
Vibl lillg U1 Lll tCl
!
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ .. ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ......... ....................
i
om vi o - - - - - - -
j
!
!
i
'
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ■. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . .
!
o is r n p coJiGCiin& -■ — - - - - - - - -
i
_____ ___
|
...! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
*
i
1
1
|
!
ii
■_ _ _ _ _ _ _ j ................ ! ..........................
’1
ii . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
i
.
1
1
1
i
1
i
1
i
txlCl COllCv- v Au llo
i
i
i
1
!
i I s y s 3,xid flr3»rn3'Cic s i u n i s —
H o b b ie s — it y o u n a v e one, n a m e i t . . . . . . .
.............
i
i
'
ii
i
i
'
1
1
'
i
1
1
1
................ .......................
Page ten
S p e c ia l B u l l e t i n N o . 89
LIST O F A CT IVITIES
II. A ctiv ities O utside the Hom e:
G ames a n d S p o r ts
P lay in g 1baseball
P la y in g te n n is .
P lay in g p lay g ro u n d b aseball
P la y in g volley ball ................
P lay in g b a sk e tb a ll ...................
P la y in g h an d b all .....................
P lay in g soccer ____________
P lay in g golf __ ___ ________
P lay in g cro q u et .......................
P lay in g ho rsesh o es ................
S w im m in g ....................... _......
A rc h e ry
__ _____ ___ ____ _
Indoor bow ling ________ ___
Pool and b illiard s ___________
G ym nasium classes ________
L ist o th e rs __________
O utin g A c tiv itie s
H ik in g ____________ ____
P icn ick in g .........................
O rganized g ro u p picnics
D ay o u tin g s ................ .....
M otor cam p in g . ................
C am ping
...........................
I hav
1.
Once
in a
While
e taken part in the following
during the past year.
|
2.
|
3.
4.
Less
1
More
than
| Often | than
Before
|
| Before
5.
| I would enjoy
doing the
things
checked
S p e c ia l B u l l e t i n N
1.
A c tiv itie s O u tsid e th e H om e (C ontd .)
B o a tin g
A u to r id in g f o r p le a s u re
N a tu r e s tu d y ................
F is h in g ........... ....................
H u n tin g __________ _____
C o a stin g .............. .......... .
Ice s k a tin g ........................
—
R o ller s k a tin g
L is t o th e rs
M usic A c t i v i t i e s
S in g in g in a c h o ra l g ro u p
C o m m u n ity s in g in g
.....
P la y in g in b a n d , o r c h e s tr a , o r o th e r g ro u p
A tte n d in g c o n c e rts (w ith a d m issio n fe e )
A tte n d in g c o n c e rts ( fre e ) ..............................
A tte n d in g m e e tin g s of m u sic a l o rg a n iz a tio n s
L is t o th e rs
D r a m a tic A c t i v i t i e s
T a k in g p a r t in a m a te u r d r a m a tic s
A tte n d in g m e e tin g s an d p ro d u c tio n s of d r a ­
m a tic g ro u p s ..........................................
P la y re a d in g a n d s tu d y g ro u p s
L is t o th e rs ----
89
Pa g e eleven
I h a v e t a k e n p ar t in the f ol lo w in g
_ _ _ during the past year._ _ _ _
LIST O F A C T I V I T I E S
B ic y clin g _______
o.
----- ------
---------- ------------------------------
Once
in a
While
2.
Often
3.
More
than
Before
4.
Less
th a n
Before
I would enjoy
doing the
things
checked
Page twe lve
S p e c ia l B u l l e t i n N o . 89
5.
I have taken part in the following
during the past year.
2.
|
3.
|
4.
| I would enjoy
1.
More | Less
doing the
Once
than I than 1
things
in a
Often
Before ] Before J
checked
While
LIST OF ACTIVITIES
A ctiv itie s O u tsid e th e H om e (C o n td .)
E d u ca tio n a l A c tiv itie s
R ead in g a t lib ra ry
.
....... -
.........1............................
______
1
A tte n d in g le ctu res, d eb ates, f o r u m s ................ .....
.............i1..............................
T ak in g p a r t in d eb ates, d iscussion g ro u p s, etc. ..
........... 1...............................
1
Attending* even in g school ..
...........................
O th er le c tu re or stu d y courses
........
1
................i..........
T ak in g p a r t in P a re n t-T e a c h e r a c tiv itie s
V isitin g a r t or o th e r m u seu m s ______
L ist o th e rs ______________ ..___ ______
Social A c tiv itie s
A tte n d in g p a rtie s or socials ....................................
A tte n d in g co m m u n ity or club dances ..
A tte n d in g card p a rtie s ............................
C hess or ch eck er clubs .............................................
Lodge m e etin g s and a c tiv itie s ............
T ak in g p a r t in political, ch u rch , or civic ac­
tiv itie s ____________________________
L ist o th e rs ....... .......... ....... ..........................
C om m ercial R ec re a tio n A c tiv itie s
A tte n d in g a m u sem en t p a rk s ____
1
A tte n d in g dance p a rtie s ...........................
1
A tte n d in g th e le g itim a te th e a te r ..
A tte n d in g th e m ovies ......................
H obbies— If you h av e one, n am e it
1
..
|
Pa ge thi rte en
S p e c ia l B u l l e t i n N o . 89
W h a t o rg a n iz a tio n s ( a th le tic , social, civic, lo d g es, c h u rc h ,
jo in e d f o r th e f ir s t tim e d u r in g th e p a s t tw o y e a r s ?
m usic, clubs,
so cieties, etc.) h av e you
N am e a n y o rg a n iz a tio n s you h a v e d ro p p e d o u t o f d u rin g th e p a s t tw o y e a rs .
L is t a n y re c r e a tio n a c tiv itie s you f o rm e rly to o k p a r t in b u t h av e d ro p p ed
L ist s u b je c ts you a r e now s tu d y in g .
L ist a n y a d d itio n a l s u b je c ts you w ould like to s tu d y .
d u rin g th e la s t
tw o y e a r
Page fo u r te e n
S p e c ia l
B u lle t in
N o . 89
LOS A N G E L E S C IT Y SC H O O L L IB R A R Y
L eisure a n d E d u c a t i o n
B o o ks a n d P a m p h le ts
B onser, F. G. L ife needs an ed ucation. 1932. T ea ch ers College, C olum bia U n iv e rsity .
B rew er, J. M. E d u ca tio n as guidance. 1932. M acm illan, p. 382—415. G uidance fo r le isu re and
re c rea tio n .
B ryson, L ym an. S ta te p lan fo r A d u lt E d u c a tio n . 1934. A m eric an A sso ciatio n f o r A d u lt E d u c a ­
tion.
C alifornia. D e p a rtm e n t of E d u catio n . P ro g ra m of ed u catio n al a c tiv itie s fo r em erg en cy cam ps
and s h e lte rs in C alifo rn ia. 1934. T he d e p a rtm e n t, S acram en to .
E n d eris, D. C. D an g ers in th e new le isu re area . (In N atio n al E d u c a tio n A sso ciatio n . D e p a rtm e n t
of su p erin ten d en ce. Official re p o rt, 1933. p. 2 09-13)
F inley, J. H. N ew le isu re challenges th e schools. (In N atio n al E d u c a tio n A sso ciatio n . D e p a rt­
m e n t of su p erin ten d en ce. Official re p o rt, 1934. p. 14-19)
G a rb u tt, I. R. W h a t’s on th e n e x t page in social a d ju s tm e n t of ed u catio n fo r b u s in e s s ? (In W orld
fe d e ra tio n of edu catio n asso ciatio n s. P roceedings, 1933. p. 109-12)
Glover, K a th e rin e , and D ewey, E velyn. C hildren of th e new day. 1934. A p p leto n -C en tu ry , p.
200-50. L eisu re
H am bidge, Gove. Tim e to live; a d v e n tu re s in th e use of leisu re. 1933. M cG raw
H am ilto n , W. J., and G riggs, W. C. R ecreatio n and le isu re-tim e a c tiv itie s fo r th e new A m erica.
(In N atio n al E d u ca tio n A ssociation. D e p a rtm e n t of su p erin ten d en ce. Official re p o rt, 1934.
p. 206-8)
H am m ond, J. L. L. G ro w th of com m on en jo y m en t. 1933. O x fo rd U n iv e rs ity p re ss
Jack s, L. P. E d u ca tio n of th e w hole m an. 1931. H a rp e r
K ilp a trick , W. H., an d o th e rs. E d u ca tio n a l fro n tie r. 1933. C en tu ry
K ilp atrick , W. H., ed. S u m m er v acatio n a c tiv itie s of th e school child. 1933.A p p leto n -C en tu ry .
(W h ite H ouse C onference on Child H e a lth and P ro te c tio n IIIC )
K otinsky, R u th . A d u lt ed u catio n and th e social scene. 1933. A p p leto n -C en tu ry
L eisu re L eague of A m erica. L eisu re leag u e little books. 1934. T h e L eag u e, 30 R ockefeller
P laza, N ew Y o rk
Lies, E. T. N ew leisu re challenges th e schools. 1933.B ib lio g rap h y .
N atio n al R ecre atio n A sso­
ciation, 315 4 th A venue, N ew Y ork
M elvin, A. C. E d u ca tio n fo r a new era.
1933. J o h n D ay
M oyer, J. A., and M uir, J. N. C om p reh en siv e an d p ra c tic a l p ro g ra m of ed u catio n fo r c h ild ren and
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N atio n al Council of P a r e n t E d u catio n . H andbook fo r lead ers of p a re n t ed u ca tio n g ro u p s in em er­
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N atio n al R ecreatio n A ssociation. L eisu re h o u rs of 5,000 people. 1934. T h e A sso ciatio n
N elson, J a n e t (F o w le r). L e isu re -tim e in te re s ts an d a c tiv itie s of b u sin ess g irls. 1934. W om ans
p ress
O v e rs tre e t, H. A. G uide to civilized loafing. 1934. N o rto n
P re s id e n t’s R esearch C om m ittee on R ecen t Social T ren d s. R ecen t social tre n d s . 1933. M cG rawHill, v. 2. p. 912-57. R ecreatio n and leisu re tim e. v. 2. p. 958-1008. T he a r ts in social life
S u m m a ry : N .E .A . R esearch b u lletin 1 2 :2 8 0 -1 N ovem ber, 1934
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tion th ro u g h ed u catio n al re c o n stru c tio n
R ugg, H arold. T he g r e a t tech n o cracy .
1933. J o h n D ay, p. 2 1 0-32.
L eisu re, labor, and a r t
Spend y o u r tim e. 1933. T each ers College, C olum bia
W h iteh o u se, J. H. P ro b lem s of leisu re and th e m ass m ind. (In co n feren ce of e d u ca tio n a l asso cia­
tions. R epo rt, 1934. p. 69-80)
S p e c ia l B u l l e t i n N
o.
89
P ag e fifteen
P e r io d ic a l R e fe r e n c e s
B e n n e tt, C. A.
1934
L e is u re an d th e c r e a tiv e a r ts .
I n d u s tr ia l E d u c a tio n M ag azin e.
36*92-3
M arch
B iddle, W . W . A d u lt e d u c a tio n f o r le is u r e ; a so c ia l-e d u c a tio n a l p lan fo r C leveland. P ro g re s siv e
E d u c a tio n . 1 1 :2 8 9 -9 3 . A p ril, 1934
Bizzell, W . B. L e a r n in g a n d le is u re . School an d S o ciety . 3 9 :6 5 -7 2 . J a n u a r y 20, 1934
B row n, C. K. E d u c a tio n in m a c h in e u to p ia . A m e ric a n R eview . 3 :1 6 7 -7 0 . M ay, 1934
B ro w n , A . B . E d u c a tio n f o r le is u re . H ib b e r t J o u r n a l. 3 1 :4 4 0 -5 0 . A p ril, 1933
B row n, V. K. M u n icip al r e c r e a tio n p ro g ra m s an d e n fo rced le isu re. R ec re a tio n . 2 8 :2 4 5 —6
A u g u s t, 1934
B u tler, N . M. L e is u re , a n in te r p r e ta tio n . R e c re a tio n . 2 7 :4 1 9 -2 2 . D ecem ber, 1933
B u tler, N . M. L e is u re a n d its use. R e c re a tio n 2 8 :3 1 9 -2 0 . A u g u st, 1934
Cam p, M a rjo rie . C am p p ro g ra m p la n n in g an d its re la tio n to c h a n g e s in ed u c a tio n a l th e o ry . J o u r ­
n a l o f H e a lth a n d P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n . 5 :2 3 . J u n e , 1934
C am pbell, E . H ., a n d T y le r, D o ro th y . R e c re a tio n a l p ro g ra m f o r c h ild re n fro m five to fifteen. C hild­
hood E d u c a tio n . 1 1 :2 2 -8 . O cto b er, 1934
C am pbell, H . G. N ew le is u re a n d th e school. R e c re a tio n . 2 7 :4 6 6 -7 . J a n u a r y , 1934
C am ping in e d u c a tio n . S chool R ev iew . 4 2 :4 8 1 -3 S e p te m b e r, 1934
C hubb, P e rc iv a l. F o lk c u ltu r e a n d le isu re . R e c re a tio n . 2 8 :2 7 8 -9 . S e p te m b e r, 1934
Cooper, W . J . P r e p a r a tio n fo r le is u re tim e . J o u r n a l of A d u lt E d u c a tio n . 6 :4 8 3 -5 . O ctober, 1934
D e c la ra tio n o f f a it h ; s ta te m e n t a d o p te d a t a m e e tin g of official d e le g a te s a p p o in ted by fifty -sev e n
n a tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n s h eld a t C hicago, J u ly 4, 1933. School M usic. 33 :3 . S e p te m b e r, 1933;
S am e. C hild h o o d E d u c a tio n . 1 0:4. O cto b er, 1933; E d u c a tio n . 54 :9 8 . O ctober, 1933; M usic
S u p e rv is o rs J o u rn a l. 2 0 :1 2 . O cto b er, 1933; P ro g re s s iv e E d u c a tio n . 10:314. O ctober, 1933
E g in to n , D. P . M o d ern p rin c ip le s o f e d u c a tio n fo r le isu re tim e . R e c re a tio n . 2 8 :2 7 4 —7. S e p te m ­
ber, 1934
F a u v e r, E d g a r. L e is u re tim e a c tiv itie s fo r m en a n d boys. R e c re a tio n . 2 8 :2 2 9 -3 2 . A u g u st, 1934
F ish e r, D. F . B r ig h t p e rilo u s fa c e o f le isu re . J o u rn a l of A d u lt E d u c a tio n . 5 :2 3 7 —43. J u n e , 1933
F iv e-fo o t s h e lf o f le isu re . B ib lio g ra p h y . S ch o la stic. 2 5 :1 8 . O cto b er 27, 1934
H a ra p , H e n ry . P la n n in g th e c u rric u lu m fo r le is u re . J o u rn a l of E d u c a tio n a l Sociology. 7 :308-20
J a n u a r y , 1934
Jones, A n n a M. L e is u re tim e g u id a n c e . J o u r n a l of E d u c a tio n a l Sociology. 8 :1 9 -2 6 . S e p te m b e r,
1934
Jo rd a n , R. V . E d u c a tio n f o r le isu re . R e c re a tio n . 2 8 :2 9 5 -6 . S e p te m b e r, 1934
K eller, F . J . V o c a tio n a l e d u c a tio n fo r le isu re . J o u r n a l o f e d u c a tio n a l Sociology. 7 :4 6 4 -8 . M arch,
1934
K eppel, F . P . M in d y o u r o w n le isu re . J o u r n a l of A d u lt E d u c a tio n . 6 :2 6 9 -7 0 . J u n e , 1934
L e is u re -tim e p a n e l d isc u ssio n o f th e I n s titu te of c h a ra c te r-d e v e lo p in g fo rces, B o sto n. J o u rn a l of
H e a lth a n d P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n . 4 :2 5 —6 J u n e , 1933
Lloyd J . H . L in k in g le a r n in g a n d le is u r e ; novel f e a tu r e s of su m m e r schools— cam p s, to u rs , in s ti­
tu te s , a n d c o u rse s. School L ife. 1 9 :1 8 3 -5 M ay, 1934
L u n d b e rg , G. A. T r a in in g f o r le isu re . B ib lio g ra p h y , T e a c h e rs College R eco rd . 3 4 :5 6 9 -7 9 . A p ril,
1 9 3 3 ; S a m e : R e c re a tio n . 2 7 :2 5 9 -6 4 . S e p te m b e r, 1933
M c P h e rso n , W . B. L e is u re — a c u rs e o r a b le ssin g ? School a n d S o ciety . 4 0 :4 9 2 -3 . O cto b er 13,
1934
M an zer, E . W . I n d u s tr ia l a r t s a n d le isu re . I n d u s tr ia l A r ts an d V o catio n al E d u c a tio n . 2 2 :3 7 4 -7 .
D e cem b er, 1933
M o o rh ead , W . G. T w o c o m m itte e r e p o r ts on le isu re tim e. J o u r n a l of H e a lth an d P h y sic a l E d u ­
c a tio n . 4 :3 4 - 6 . D ecem b er, 1933
Page s ixt een
S p e c ia l
B u lle t in
N o . 89
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J u n e 15, 1934
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1933
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27, 1934
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F e b ru a ry , 1934
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O ctober, 1933
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1933
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1933
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3 5 :3 8 7 -9 5 . F e b ru a ry , 1934
W a rre n , J . E . E v e ry co m m u n ity ’s problem .
J o u r n a l of A d u lt E d u c a tio n . 6 :2 3 8 -9 . A p ril, 1934
W atson, G. B. F am ilies, ed u catio n , an d th e use of le isu re in th e p re s e n t crisis. J o u r n a l o f Home
E conom ics. 2 5 :8 3 1 -9 . D ecem ber, 1933
W heeler, J. L. L e isu re tim e in te re s ts an d th e lib ra ry .
13, 1932
W hite, H. C.
1934
L eisu re.
School an d Society.
3 6 :1 9 3 -2 0 .
A m erican A sso ciatio n o f U n iv e rs ity W om en J o u rn a l.
2 7 :1 9 5 -9
A u g u st
Ju n e
179
Appendix VIII
1*
A 1939 Parent-teacher Guidebook from J. W. Faust,
National Chairman to local state associations of the national Congress
of Parents and Teachers discussing special phases of the recreation
program, including ways by which the home is enriched.
2.
A reprint from the 1939 Parent-Teacher Manual, in­
cluding topics of family and neighborhood recreational activities.
3.
A program outline for rural Parent-Teacher Asso­
ciations discussing Home Play in Rural Areas.
Issued by National
Congress of Parents and Teachers in 1935.
These leaflets are in Appendix VIII of first copy of
this dissertation.
Recreation
• •
•
J. W . F au s t
National Chairman
Q
N this first
P a r e n t -T e a c h e r
it has been sug­
gested that we consider the
subject of our committee as a
whole, this to he followed in later
G u i d e b o o k s by emphasis on spe­
cial phases of the recreation
program.
The “Purpose” of our Recrea­
tion committee, adopted May 5th,
1926, has been since that date our
sailing chart, so let us begin by
re-presenting it.
“Our interpretation of the mean­
ing and purpose for which our
committee exists is:
To secure wholesome play and rec­
reation opportunity for young and
old; to help cities and small com­
munities to establish year round
recreation programs; to make the
spare time of America count for
citizenship.
To encourage the wise use of lei­
sure through the medium of play
and the cultural arts— drama, mu­
sic, literature, painting, sculpture,
G u id e b o o k
*N ow th e N a tio n a l R ecreation A ssociation .
and the plastic arts.
To promote recreation in the
home, in the neighborhood, on the
schoolground, and throughout the
community; and to cooperate with
the Playground and Recreation
Association of America* in these
objectives.
“We hold that the joint duty of the
school and the home is to fit our
children for living full, joyous,
helpful lives of service; to fit them
for work, physical and intellectual,
and of equal importance, to fit
them for leisure.
“We believe that ‘to fit them for
leisure’ is today the more chal­
lenging and difficult task. No time
is more important than leisure in
its effect on the character and well­
being of adults as well as children,
and in its effect on home life,
neighborhood relationships, and
on community life.
‘‘Spiritual worship, art, music,
drama, play— most of our cultural
PARENT-TEACHER G U ID E B O O K
life is achieved in leisure hours.
Their wise use rewards us with
mental stability, health, happiness,
spiritual and character growth.
“We know that much of the evil
against which we are working and
talking today has its genesis in the
misuse of leisure.
“We believe that the beginning of
the solution of many evils we pro­
test against, is found in the home
and in the school; is found and is
begun when parents and teachers
devote as much intelligence, ener­
gy, and resourcefulness to the
wise use of their own leisure and'
that of the child, as they give to
their work.”
The great ultimate objective
that we are all striving for is the
establishment of “year round rec­
reation program s,” of which fam ­
ily, school, and neighborhood is a
part.
Why is it that recreation is of
such vital importance to living?
Its first and main reason for b e­
ing is, as Dr. Arthur T. Morgan
has stated, because “ Play with no
aim, no object, only the joy of do­
ing it, has effects on us that are so
deep-seated that we dare not, we
cannot, leave it out of well-ordered
living.” In other words, a com ­
plete justification of our working
for year round recreation is the
joy to be found therein. However,
let’s consider a few other reasons
why it is essential for all people to
have opportunity throughout the
year . and under good leadership
for recreation such as is found in
a com prehensive recreation pro­
gram.
In the first place, the need for
self-expression through p lay is a
year round need. The im pulse to
play is universal; the craving for
self-expression, a human need.
W ithout the satisfaction of this
need, life cannot be well-balanced.
Health, education, work, religion
— all the great elements m aking
for well-ordered living, are con ­
stant daily factors. Recreation is
equally vital.
It is essential to the life and
growth of the child. It is in stinc­
tive and necessary for children to
play every clay in the year. Play
means growth.
Play enhances
health, sound character growth, a
balanced em otional stability, and
a well-rounded development. Y ear
round recreation guarantees the
child this birthright of health and
happiness.
And again, it is necessary to the
RECREATION
well-being of the adult. Because
of modern working conditions, it
is imperative that the worker find
expressive activities outside of
working hours. Recreation is
needed to offset the strain of daily
life. A share in the community’s
recreational life satisfies craving
for companionship. Play which
re-creates and throws off the fa­
tigue of the day must go hand in
hand with work twelve months of
the year.
The community needs it. Com­
munities do have character. The
community finds its soul in com­
munity pageants and celebrations,
in community music, in all things
which bring its citizens together
on the basis of their mutual inter­
ests. Lack of this means the los­
ing of one of the greatest oppor­
tunities it has for community
solidarity, for heightened morale,
and for the enrichment of commu­
nity living.
A well-rounded recreation pro­
gram is necessary to meet individ­
ual and group needs. The chang­
ing seasons make possible varied
programs, each with its appeal.
Winter sports are rapidly increas­
ing in popularity. Indoor recrea­
tion centers during the late fall
and winter months help inestimably
in meeting the social, recreational,
and cultural needs of the individ­
ual. Spring and fall bring a large
variety of outdoor sports. Summer
makes possible playgrounds, pic­
nics, community gatherings, con­
certs, swimming, camping, and
countless other delights. The weld­
ing of these activities into a unified
whole is imperative to a program
which will be communitywide, ex­
pressive of the interests of all.
It reinforces the school program.
The school does not occupy the
full time of children during the
school year. Their free time in
the late afternoon after school has
closed, and on Saturdays, and dur­
ing vacations, presents a challenge
to the community. Year round
recreation is necessary to realize
on the investment made in school
years in physical education, mu­
sic, arts and crafts, and drama to
the fullest extent. Every school
child has developed through his
school training an interest and
skill in these constructive recrea­
tions. If they are to continue to
be of value through life, to become
the inner resources of adult years,
facilities and leadership must be
PARENT-TEACHER G U ID E B O O K
provided through the community
during the entire year.
It is a municipal asset. Year
round recreation helps to make a
community, whether urban or ru­
ral, a good place in which to live,
making it interesting to its own
citizens and attractive to outsiders.
Modern conditions demand it
and it is a definite part of the re­
sponsibility of a modern com m u­
nity to provide it. With the short­
ening of the number of working
hours and a corresponding in­
crease in the amount of leisure,
with living conditions in our great
cities driving people outside their
homes for their recreation, with
the varied problems in the rural
community, the right use of leisure
time and the provision of places
for play have become a matter of
urgent community concern.
Whether the hours of leisure are
to become assets or liabilities rests,
to a large degree, with the com ­
munity. Private individuals can­
not, except in a few instances, pro­
vide their own playgrounds or
recreation facilities. Furthermore,
only as competent leadership is
made available by the community
can facilities be utilized effectively.
The provision of facilities and
leadership is the concern of all,
and is as much the responsibility
of the com m unity as are health ac­
tivities and sim ilar public fu n c­
tions. It is som ething for which
taxpayers are w illing to pay and
for which m ost states are m aking
provision through law.
Finally, the home is enriched by
it. The effort of parents to build
a fam ily play tradition, to add
som e life and color to the hom e, is
greatly strengthened where the
stimulus and resources of a comm unitywide program exists.
Parent-teacher associations have
for twelve years constituted one of
the great forces in the strengthen­
ing and advancement of the whole
recreation m ovement; they have
provided areas, equipped, beau­
tified, and developed them; they
have provided leadership and have
provided for leadership training
in many phases of recreation in ­
cluding arts, crafts, nature, h ob ­
bies, and m usic; they have fostered
with unusual success, fam ily and
backyard play and fam ily excur­
sions and picnics; they have en ­
couraged the developm ent of h ob ­
bies; and probably one of their
greatest contributions has been the
educational work that has been
RECREATION
done on the vital necessity for a
purposeful, recreational use of
leisure time in family, school,
neighborhood, and community.
We shall carry on, for at no time
in our history have we needed
recreation more with all its attend­
ant by-products in the fields of
health, character development, citi­
zenship, safety, emotional balance,
and just the sheer fun of living.
We have dedicated ourselves to
cooperate with every other Con­
gress committee and with not only
the National Recreation Associa­
tion but also with every national,
state, and local agency, whether
private or governmental, concerned
with this challenging problem of
leisure time and its recreational
use. We have dedicated ourselves
to this job to the end that the time
so used may raise and enrich the
cultural level of living and endow
it with a sparkle and bounce, with
a tang and purpose.
References
See Index to Congress Publications, p. 120.
Children’s Bureau, U. S. Depart­
ment of Labor. Publication No. 231. Washington, D. C.: Govern­
ment Printing Office, 1936. 121p. 15c.
H a n d b o o k f o r R e c r e a t io n L e a d e r s .
Mary J. Breen. National Recreation Association.
315 Fourth Avenue, New York. 1936. 185p. $1.
P a r t n e r s in P l a y .
A M a j o r C o m m u n i t y P r o b l e m . Weaver W. Pangburn.
National Recreation Association, 315 Fourth Avenue, New York.
1936. 36p. 15c.
R e c r e a t io n :
T he
T h e o r y OF P l a y . Bernard S. Mason and E. D. Mitchell. New
York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1934. 547p. $2.80.
R e p r i n t e d f r o m t h e 1 0 3 9 P a r e n t - T e a c h e r G u i d e b o o k p u b l i s h e d hi; t he N o t i o n a l
Co n t j r e s s of P a r e n t s a n d T e a c h e r s , 1 2 0 1 16t h, S t N W W a s h i n g t o n D C
RECREATION
P a re n t-te a c h e r recrea tio n activ ities are concerned
with^ the stim u latio n of in te re s t in y ear-ro u n d com­
m u n ity recrea tio n p ro g ram s, so p lan n ed th a t ad u lts
an d ch ildren m ay have ad eq u ate o p p o rtu n itie s fo r
le isu re tim e activ ities in the fields of play, creativ e
a r t, m usic, d ram a tic s, n a tu re , and reading.
Association activities
1.
C ooperate in p la n n in g
gram .
a com m u n ity recreation
p ro­
a.
C all a con feren ce of p eop le in terested in recreation
b.
C onsider the
p rogram
c.
S tu d y w h at is b ein g done in th e com m u n ity and
p rep a re a m ap sh ow in g local fa c ilitie s an d needs
accep ted
ob jectives
of a recreation
d. D iscu ss g en eral goals fo r th e recreation program
e.
S tu d y e x istin g le g isla tio n p erta in in g to these goals
f.
C hoose a first p ro jec t; e.g., c h ild r e n ’s p la y g ro u n d s
2.
C ooperate w ith related com m ittees an d a g en cies in the
d ev elop m en t of p u b lic op in ion fa v o rin g th e su p p ort of
a b road er recreation program and the w ider use of
recrea tio n a l fa cilities.
3.
C ooperate in stim u la tin g in te re st in stu d y grou p s d ea l­
in g w ith such su b jec ts as—
The va lu e of recreation in com m u n ity life
S ch ool-cen tered com m u n ity recreation
T he p lace of p la y in m a in ta in in g the in te g r ity of
fa m ily life
4.
P la n fo r p la y p eriods at p aren t-teacher m eetings.
Home
Play
in Rural
HOME PLAY
IN RURAL AREAS
A PROGRAM OUTLINE FOR RURAL PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIC
Prepared by
W m . McKinley Robinson
National Chairman, Rural Service
Copyright 1935 by National Congress of Parents and Teachers 1201 16th Street N W Washington D
Suggestions for Use of This Program Outline
♦
The program outline on H om e Play in Rural Areas has been prepared for parentteacher associations in rural communities; i. e., communities o f less than 2,500 popu ation.
The Rural P .T .A . pamphlet, published by the National Congress of Parents and Teachers
should prove helpful in the use o f this outline as well as in the other programs and
activities of the association.
The material given herein should be added to by the personal experiences, observa­
tions, and readings of participating members.
T his is merely a suggestive outline.
A n attempt has been made to make this outline sufficiently complete that further
source material may not be necessary.
publications.
However, references have been made to other
Pertinent articles in the N ational Parent-Teacher magazine and pamphlets
of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers are very valuable.
T h e state and
National chairmen of recreation stand ready to help.
This outline has been prepared with the hope o f encouraging the maximum o f par­
ticipation and responsibility on the part o f any and all members o f the association regard­
less of age, education, or talent.
Some one o f the variety o f subjects and activities
touched upon should enlist the interest o f almost anyone.
The quotations and stories scattered throughout the outline may be used as themes
for talks, or they may be read by members who would otherwise hesitate to appear on
' the program.
Some one quotation sounding the keynote for the evening may be used in
the announcements of the meeting, or copied on the blackboard to be kept before those
present.
The exhibit o f favorite toys or collections and the recreation hour of games suitable
for home play require time and planning which is amply repaid in interest aroused.
Supplementing the fall reception to the teacher or teachers and the school board, the
Christmas program, Founders D ay, the spring picnic, and the occasional outside speaker,
"Home Play” may be used as the sustaining theme for the year.
T h e material herein
could be divided under several topics such as, T he Choice of T oys and Play Equipment,
Outdoor Play Places and Equipment, Hobbies, The Family at Play, etc.
T he first pro­
gram of such a series mighc be "W hy Play?” based upon the various quotations pertaining
to such in the outline, particularly those showing the changing attitude toward play, which
are found in this pamphlet.
Perhaps a recreation or physical education specialist from
a nearby state teachers college, agricultural college, or university or city recreation d e­
partment could be obtained for a talk to start the ball rolling.
recreation would probably be able to suggest available speakers.
T he state chairman of
Finer and happier home life is the ultimate objective o f this program or series of
programs
Interesting and enjoyable discussion o f home play is without avail unless
translated into action.
A Colorado association had as a project for one year the prom o­
tion of a family play night once each week in each home of the district.
In many of
the homes, the happy practice still continues several years after the original discussion
J
H o m e Play
♦
Play is a vital reason fo r the home’s very
•xistence. Ever since homes began, their task
'ias been to safeguard youth against the outer
world during the tim e o f physical and spirit­
ual growth, o f which play is so essential a
part.— J a m e s E. R o g e r s .
W h en the home ceases to be a place
where the child may. play the reason fo r its
existence will disappear.— J o s e p h L ee.
I.
C O M M U N IT Y S IN G IN G
Choose particularly well-known songs such as are sung by the family when
gathered about the home piano. O ne or two folk songs of any national group
within the comm unity m ight well be used.
II.
B U S IN E S S M E E T IN G
N o te : The Rural P .T .A . pamphlet published by the National Congress of Parents
and Teachers, contains helpful suggestions on directing community singing and conduct*
ing a business meeting.
III.
S P E C IA L M U S IC
Furnished by some fam ily group of two or more: vocal, instrum ental, or a
combination o f both. I f possible have a family group in which both parents
and children are represented.
IV .
D IS C U S S IO N
T O P IC S
T o y s a n d E q u ip m e n t
C h o o s in g T o y s — T h e following suggestions may be helpful:
1. Toys should be substantial and sturdy.
2. Consideration should be given hygienic qualities. Toys for younger children
should be washable.
3. Toys should stimulate imagination, invention, and the child’s desire to do
something with them.
H O M E PLAY IN RU RAL AREAS
4
4. G i»
preference
to the toyi which mfty b* used ire m m l «*»■
5. Every child AW d h«*e « » «*• «
» hkb
activity, such as balls and skates.
«.
enjoy phying with
«»
“ «<
ments such as their parents use: brooms, hoes, rakes, etc.
childhood, particularly for boys.
8. Avoid novel, clever, and grotesque toys which are designed primarily to
catch the eye o f the adult purchaser.
H o m e -m a d e T o y s — T h e rag doll, play house, doll carriage m ade o f a
basket with movable handles a n d any available wheels o r o f discarded oatm eal
boxes; the blocks of m any sizes and shapes gathered a n d cut fro m odds a n d
ends of wood, tool chest an d w ork bench, and express w agon, give joy in th e
making as well as in the using. Father and m other m ay be tem pted to m onop­
olize the fun o f m aking toys; b u t children enjoy sharing in such projects to th e
limit o f their abilities. Som etim es the older children enjoy m ak in g fo r th e
younger members of the family toys with which it would be quite beneath their
more grown-up dignity to play.
T o y s T h a t A r e N o t T o y s — T h e pie pan, spoon, egg beater; the broom
handle which serves for horseback riding; or the wheelbarrow which wins th e
chariot race with a dashing flourish are im portant parts o f play life. Such have
many o f the fine points o f the most carefully selected toys. T h ey are sub­
stantial and sturdy, have m any uses, stim ulate the im agination, encourage
physical activity, etc.
O u td o o r E q u ip m e n t— "T h e boy without a playground is fa th e r to the
man without a job.”— Joseph Lee. T h e following, which m ay be provided
easily and inexpensively, will furnish m any hours o f wholesome outdoor play:
swing, trapeze, sand box, horseshoe court, croquet set, an d a barrel hoop
fastened to the side o f a building for basket ball practice. I t is to be hoped
th at if the home yard does not provide such, there will be w ithin easy w alking
distance trees which may be climbed; also a level open space where ball m ay be
played without danger of breaking windows or tram pling flower beds.
G a m es Because of the skill involved, the follow ing gam es are
likely to hold the interest for m any hours: dominoes, checkers, tiddly-w inks,
jackstraws, jackstones, bean bags, ring toss, and the like.
h n , r A t t b° arj T Dn Wmg p k f T S’ writblS messages to m other, playing black-
—
J r .:
us s - . s s x t i t
■* -
DISCUSSION TOPICS
5
L ts ts o f T o y s a n d P la y E q u ip m e n t— Excellent lists o f toys and play
equipm ent r a ? be fo u n d in various magazines. A ttention is called particularly
to: 1 oys an d Play E quipm ent, a leaflet by the N atio n al Congress o f Parents
vv7
|CrS>
R ight T o y for the R ight A ge,” a n article by M rs. C arleton
W . W ashburne in the D ecem ber 1930 issue of the C hild W elfare M agazine.
T o y D i s p l a y Request m embers to bring w ith them toys which have
proved particularly happy choices. Some o f th e older children or young people
could be given the responsibility for their display during the m eeting and return
to their owners. Perhaps someone would be willing to discuss these toys, pointing o u t those features which have probably m ade them stand out in the minds
o f th e children.
I f possible send w ith the request a statem ent o f the fine points o f toys.
O therw ise there are likely to be brought those which are merely expensive, fragile,
pretty, or unusual. Such would defeat the purpose o f the display, for obviously
one could n o t point out their weak points w ithout giving offense to their owners.
G a r d e n in g
A teacher tells frequently in her classes on child training o f the gardening
done by her and a younger brother as children. T h e garden rotated from one
com er o f the fam ily garden plot, to the spot behind the barn where the m anure
pile h a d been, to the sand pile. Every few days a new garden arrangem ent was
planned an d m ost o f th e plants would be transplanted to a new setting. Every
type o f fertilizer about th e farm ; seeds collected throughout d ie neighborhood;
an d every gardening m ethod heard of, including some superstitions, were
tried out.
F ather and m other were interested all the while b u t did not interfere or
advise.
N eedless to say, the flowers and vegetables produced were b u t slight recom­
pense fo r th e long hours o f hot an d hard labor through the several summers.
B ut th e fu n o f m aking plants grow an d watching the grow th o f the whole
plant, including the roots, translated those hours o f
w ork into hours o f happy
play. Incidentally, the raising o f choice flowers is today the hobby an d chief
form o f recreation for th a t teacher.
Pets
D o es and cats, ofttim es the horses and cows, an d sometimes turtles, snakes,
crows, and their kind are p a rt of the child’s fam ily circle
T o the child who
has no little friends near, they are playm ates. T h ro u g h them he m ay learn in
a wholesome an d n atu ral way o f sex and reproduction. T h eir affection, dependability, an d loyalty help to m old his code o f morals, his philosophy o f life.
H O M E PL A Y IN R U R A L A R E A S
6
H a n d c ra fts
Every child should have the tools, m aterials, and encouragem ent needed
when he wishes to "m ake s o m e t h i n g E x c e p t for the chdd ’
^
^
hobby or talent, such need not mean an expensive outlay. T h e follow ing m ig h t
well be provided fo r the child who has reached the age where he m ay h an d le
them:
Pencils, colored crayons, water colors, and plenty of paper.
paper serves very well for many purposes.
W ra p p in g
Blunt scissors, needles, thread, buttons, and odds and ends o f cloth, rib­
bon, and lace.
Either saws, hammers, and nails of the child’s own, or permission to use
Father’s; and such boards or sticks as m ay be found about the place in
addition to those which may be obtained from store boxes and the k indling
pile.
Knife for whittling and carving wood; soap for carving; clay or plasticene
for modeling.
Old sewing machines, farm implements, and the like which have passed
their day of usefulness but still contain the screws and wheels which
fascinate the child.
T he child’s early efforts in the handcrafts are crude indeed. G re ate r skill
depends upon experiment and persistent effort; not upon coaxing, u rg in g , n o r
criticizing, nor upon unsolicited instruction from elders. Praise a n d encourage­
ment are the most effective aids to be given. T h e child’s efforts should be
treated with the respect becoming the im portance which such activities com m and
in his life.
D ram atic Play
D r e s s-U p C h e st A box of old clothes and costumes is a treasure when
the call comes to play Indian, or cowboy, or mother, or statue; w hen th e circus
u charging one perniy admission; when Hallow e’en arrives; or w hen the whole
ramily play charades.
. . P la y S to re — l i mother opens carefully boxes in which she gets salt, spices
T'etc-’t
‘ftr otes*?bottom
s«■“
w
psol rs
tin cans, leaving the labels intact, shipment has already been received o f the
supplies needed for the store box shelf.
the
M u sic
for
m usic appreciation; an d if one be orofirL iir
circle o f th e c h o r u s , o r c h e str a , or b a n d
r!rgr™
*
en ° U§
US
-
**
VaSt *“ 1®* ° f
t0 t h e c h a r m e d
DISCUSSION TOPICS
°'
Beatin, S , time
only
a spoon on a pan, clapping his
uncln8 » ball adds to the child’s enjoym ent in listening to music.
rL L ' l ‘e n m g
M ' i £ c~ 0 ! a leam s ,0 love 'b e best in music by listening
„ ,
m m usic- T lle radio o f today brings the finest music in the world
to any hom e from the cottage to the palace. Special records and second-hand
pnonographs are very inexpensive.
.
Hobbies
" T h e re was a m useum in my g ra n d fa th er’s time in the Roosevelt family.
T h ere was a m useum in m y fa th e r’s tim e. T h ere was a m useum in our tim e in
the Roosevelt fam ily, a n d m y children now have a museum. T hese museums
do a lot o f things. T h e y furnish the children w ith an enormous am ount of
interest and education. T h e child goes out and collects butterflies, or collects
stones, an d finds o u t about them . I t takes him out-of-doors, and he has an
interest in it. A ll th a t is aw fully good for children. T hey get an interest
which keeps them together. A n d as the older generation had m useums and
was interested in n a tu ra l history, why, it is perfectly norm al th a t it should be a
topic o f conversation a n d a bond between the two generations.”— Theodore
Roosevelt, Jr.
T h e han d craft, dram a, and music experiences o f the child referred to
above frequently lead to the hobbies o f a d u lt life.
N a t u r e S t u d y — P ride in th e num ber o f bird songs recognized, the wild
flowers know n, acquaintance with the habitat and habits o f the ant, and the
like, m ake fo r a lifelong source o f joy and satisfaction. O ne m ay know in his
environm ent only the drab an d commonplace, or he m ay train his senses to be
sensitive to the beauty an d interest o f his surroundings.
C o lle c tio n s — T h e collecting o f stones, flints, relics, stamps, coins, etc.,
challenges interest a n d stim ulates the learning o f facts otherwise prosaic.
H i s V e r y O w n — T h e child is quite w ithin his rights in expecting the
other m em bers o f the fam ily to respect his possessions and those parts o f the
house or the y ard designated for his particular use. By all m eans respect
should be accorded those things having to do with his hobbies.
H o b b y E x h i b i t — Provision m ight be m ade a t the parent-teacher associa­
tion m eeting fo r an exhibit o f such hobbies as lend themselves to exhibitions; for
exam ple, airplane models, willow or hickory baskets, soap carving, collections of
m inerals, a m ateu r photography, etc. B oth children and adults could participate
in the exhibit; or some one child or ad u lt having an unusually interesting hobby
m ig h t provide the exhibit and discuss the same. A s with other exhibits, the
h o m e play in rural areas
8
t
verv well be given th e responsibility fo r
older children and young people m ight very wen
g
their collection, arrangement, and return.
C h ild r e n ’s R e a d in g
Reading habits and attitudes ate fotmed for the most part m ^ M h ° o d
and so it is very important that the greatest of cate be shown m the cho.ce of
books.
B o o k lists — A plateprint, C hildten’s Reading, m ay be secured from th e
state office.
Some very attractive and well-chosen collections o f poem s an d other sm all
books for children are now available in the five and ten cent stores. T h e advice
of a teacher or librarian m ight very well be sought in the m aking o f selection
from among the many, both good and bad, which are offered a t these m inim um
prices.
B o o k D isp la y — T h e teacher, or teachers, may be able to arrange a d is­
play o f books from the school library and privately owned books o f th e chil­
dren; books which have been found popular with children a n d which a t th e
same tune measure up to desirable standards.
T h e Y o u n g P e o p le
Congenial and happy social relations between young m en an d w om en are
of the greatest importance. Surely the home is the logical m eeting place fo r
many of their social activities. W here better can they develop social ease, enjoy
wholesome recreation, and maintain their highest social ideals? T h e ir frien d s
should be granted the warmest hospitality of the home, a hospitality n o t
dominated by the elders.
_^_ T h e F a m ily a t P la y - __
maJ T n , L fam i-y tHu P!fyS ttog“ her stays together” has become a slogan in
many communities. Family play institutes dealing with th e variety a n d ty p e of
home play are being held in various centers throughout the country.
i* set aside f o f fam 'f0
on^ night each week or one h o u r each n ig h t
to draw any member* of i L
* engagem ent can be attrac tiv e e n o u g h
aw any member of the group awav at th at tim e. T h e evening m ay be
DISCUSSION TOPICS
9
spent in gam es, m usic, dram a, and handcrafts, story-telling, candy-m aking, corn
popping, o r ju s t visiting a bout the fireside. In the warm er m onths, picnics,
shooting a t a m ark , hikes, swim m ing parties, and the like are enjoyed.
^ o r y - T e l l i n g -Young an d old alike enjoy telling an d listening to stories.
T h e children are p articularly fo n d o f the accounts of incidents in the lives of
th eir elders. Such help the child to identify him self the more clearly w ith his
ow n fam ily, his ow n ancestry. O f course the adults m ust n o t m onopolize the
hour, fo r the children too expect an d enjoy respectful attention while they
ad d th eir bits.
Principles o f Story-T elling a n d L ist o f Stories, price 10c, obtainable
from the N a tio n a l R ecreation Association, 315 Fourth Avenue, N ew Y ork City,
is a h e lp fu l p am phlet fo r th e prospective story-teller.
B ir th d a y s — I n one very happy hom e, each birthday is looked upon as a
fam ily holiday. N o outsider, except as he o r she m arries into the circle, is
included. T h e m eal th a t evening consists o f favorite dishes of the one whose
b irth d a y it is. T h e question o f balanced diet is forgotten fo r th e one m eal.
T h e evening is given over to such recreation as th a t one m em ber chooses. T here
is n o th o u g h t o f presents. T h e m em bers o f th a t fam ily would be as likely to
miss one o f those birthday celebrations as m ost people would be to th in k of
m issing T h an k sg iv in g dinner in the old fam ily home.
P a r e n t- C h ild R e la tio n s — "P are n ts are always grown-ups to their chil­
dren, sym bols o f all th a t is significant an d vital in life, heroes around whom
are b u ilt first ideals.”— Jam es Rogers.
T h eo d o re Roosevelt, Jr., in speaking o f the letters w ritten by his father
to th e children, said, " H e was w riting to his children, not as G o d A lm ighty
fa irin g to a little black beetle, b u t as a frien d and com panion of those children
who are interested in the same things th a t he was interested in, and discussing
their problem s w ith him and his problem s w ith them .
A d d itio n a l Suggested Topics for Discussion
G am es a n d activities for the convalescent child
A ttic treasures
T e a c h in g th e child to care for his toys
Sources o f pap er dolls
,
,
W ay s a n d m eans o f m aking simple outdoor play equipm ent
Bedtim e stories
Rainy day gam es an d activities
R ed letter days fo r th e fam ily
T h e m usic h our
...
Picnic spots fo r the fam ily w ithin hiking distance; within easy d n
distance
g
h o m e p la y in r u r a l a r e a s
10
V.
THE
S O C IA L
HOUR
The Rural P.T.A., a pamphlet
^ ^ “ ‘^ r e S ^ e n T a n d
Parents and Teachers, c o n t a m s suggestions for the serving
the directing of a game period.
Refreshments
Refreshments such as the family might enjoy while seatec'
^ e'
place telling stories would be most appropriate; i. e., apples, nuts, doughnuts,
cider, homemade candy, etc.
G am es
T h e following well-known old games are well ad apted to fam ily g ro u p
play, as well as to the association play hour.
B ir d , B ea st, o r F is h — The player who is " I t ” stands before th e g ro u p .
Pointing his finger at any other player, he says one o f the three words, bird,
beast, or fish, and counts 10 thereafter as quickly as he can. U n le ss th e one
to whom he is pointing is able to name a bird, beast, or fish, depending upon
which was called for, before " I t” counts 10; the form er becomes " I t ,” giving
his seat to the latter. N o player may name twice the same bird, beast, or fish.
R e d H o t P o ta to — Divide the players into groups of 10 or 20. I f th e
space is limited or the desks immovable, divisions m ay be m ade o f tw o row s
each, leaving the aisle between clear. Otherwise arrange the players in a circle.
A large handkerchief or piece of cloth so knotted as to be easily tossed a b o u t is
needed for each group. T he one who is " I t ” stands in the m idst o f th e g ro u p
and tosses the "Red H o t Potato” to some player, who in tu rn throw s th e
handkerchief quickly on to someone else as though its touch burned them . I f
" I t” manages to touch any player while he has the "P o tato ” touching him , th e
latter becomes " It,” giving up his seat to the form er. Care should be ta k e n
not to allow this game to become rowdy.
T r a d e s — Each player selects for himself some trade or profession
O ne
player stands before the group and reads aloud from some book, a school reader
serving very well. W h en the reader comes to a common noun, instead o f p ro ­
nouncing the noun, he ooks at any one of the other players, who m ust instantly
name some tool or article he uses in the trade or profession he has chosen T h e
resulting reading is very funny.
• . f e,m B “g T o « — Divide the players into groups o f 10 or 12 each
wde for each group two bean bags and waste paper basket o r bucket
0f tl,C game 15 “
^
i f
P ro
The
*eP baskets f r l a d istin c J o f
THE SOCIAL HOUR
11
10 fe et. E ach player in tu rn in each group is given two shots. T w o points ate
scored fo r each bean bag throw n into a basket, a n d an extra point is scored if
one p lay e r succeeds in throw ing both bags into the basket. O ne point is scored
if th e b ask et is struck w ithout the bag dropping in. T h e group having the
larg est to ta l score is w inner.
B u z z — T h e leader sta rts the gam e by saying "one,” the person next say­
in g "tw o ,” th e n e x t "th re e ,” etc. W h e n the num ber seven, or a m ultiple o f
seven, o r an y n u m b er such as twenty-seven w ith the seven in it, comes, the
player in stead o f sta tin g his num ber says "B uzz.” Anyone m aking an error
d rops o u t. S peed adds to the fu n o f the game.
Note: In using suggestions for community singing, special music, refresh­
ments, and games, attention should be called to their suitability for "Home Play.”
T H E C H I L D ’S B I R T H R I G H T
"E v ery child should have m u d pies, grasshoppers, water-bugs, tadpoles,
frogs, m u d turtles, elderberries, w ild strawberries, acorns, chestnuts, trees to
clim b, brooks to w ade in, water-lilies, woodchucks, bats, bees, butterflies various
anim als to pet, hay fields, pine cones, rocks to roll, sand, snakes, huckleberries,
a n d h ornets; a n d any child who has been deprived o f these has been deprived of
the best p a rt o f his education
L u th e r B u rb a n k.
i;.
Recreation
pla y fo r the edult is re-creation, the renewal o f life; f l a y 'f a
th e M d
is growth, the gaining o f /i/t.-J o serH H.
to d a y
y e st e r d a y
"A ll in the college shall be kept at the
utmost distance from vice in general, so
in particular from softness, and from
effeminacy in general.
"Children do not play because they are
young; they are young in order that the
may play.”— Groos,
"Give me the direction of the pi
"W e shall therefore insist on their ris­
ing early in the morning—this is of vast­
est importance to both body and mind.
O n the same principle we prohibit play
on the strictest terms.
“T he students shall rise at five oclock
winter and summer.
T heir recreation
shall be gardening, walking, riding, and
bathing without doors; and the carpen­
ter's, tuner’s, joiner’s, or cabinetmaker's
business within doors.
"T h e students shall be indulged with
nothing th at the world calls play; let
this be observed with strictest nicety; for
those who play when they ate young will
play when they are old.”— Excerpt from
the rules o f Cokesbury College in 1788,
life of the youth of this generation ana
I will dictate the world’s path tomor­
row.”— Daniel A . Poling.
“ Every little boy has inside of him an
aching void which demands interesting
and exciting play. And if you don’t fill
it with something that is interesting and
exciting and good for him, he is going to
fill it with something that is interesting
and exciting and isn’t good for him.”—
Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.
"Play is one of the most important
spiritual factors in human experience. To
bottle up the play life of boys and girls
or to pervert it to evil ends is to wrong
them at the center of their characters
with a hurt that nothing can make up
for.”— Harry Emerson Fosdiek.
W H A T O F TOM ORROW
“ T h e leisure o f tom orrow may weaken character by releasing pur­
poseless m en an d women from th e restraining force of work, or it
m ay ennoble character through freedom to pursue the nobler ends
which each individual sets for his own life.”—Joy Elmer Morgan.
" I t will be a far m ore difficult task o f civilization to teach men to
use their leisure rightly th an to instruct them how to lahor
efficiently.”— John H . Finley.
W illiam M cK inley Robinson, N ational Chairman, Rural Service
C opyright 1935, N ational Congrea* of Patent and Teachm
Prices
Single Copies, 5c each; 2-5, 10% discount; 6-15
’
15%. i* sn -vw
/ ’ lo o u > zo%; over 50, 25%
NCPT 1938
Appendix IX
Booklists of the National Home Library Foundation
published since 1932
181
National Heme Library Foundation,
Washington, D. C.
National Home Library Series
25# per copy
1.
Tales by Leo Tolstoy
18.
Income and Economic Progress
H. G. Moulton
2.
The Queen Pedauque
Anatole France
19.
Uncommon Sense— David Cushman
Coyle
Salammbo
Gustave Flaubert
20.
Bedrock— Wm, E . Borah
3.
4.
Robinson Crusoe
Defoe
21.
Complete Poetical Works of
John Keats
5.
Ivanhoe— Walter Scott
22.
The Odyssey of Homer
6.
Hamlet— Wm. Shakespeare
23.
Jefferson, Corporations and
the Constitution— Chas. Beard
7.
The Conduct of Life
Ralph W. Emerson
24.
Tom Sawyer— Mark Twain
8.
Tales by Rudyard Kipling
25.
Wealth against Commonwealth
H. D. Lloyd
9.
The New Spirit
Havelock Ellis
26.
Age Without Fear— David Cushman
Coyle
27.
Waste— David Cushman Coyle
Hans Brinker
Mary Mapes Dodge
28.
War Madness— Stephen and Joan
Raushenbush
Money and Its Power
Winslow and Brougham
29.
Why Pay Taxes— David Cushman
Coyle
13.
Brass Tacks
David Cushman Coyle
30.
14.
Plain Talk
John W. Studebaker
Proportional Representation—
The Key to Democracy— George
H. Hallett, Jr.
31.
A Christinas Carol— Charles
10.
11.
12.
Writings of Thos. Paine
15.
The Long Road
Arthur E. Morgan
16.
Her Son's Wife
Dorothy Canfield Fisher
17.
Brandeis and the M o d e m
State— A. T. Mason
Dickens
182
M a s te r S e r ie s
32.
The Federalist-Hamilton, Madison and Jay, Paper-Bound bO<p
33.
The Federal is t-Hami It on, Madison and Jay, Cloth-Bound 75 £*
34.
The Federalist-Hamilton, Madison and Jay, Gift Edition $1.00
35.
A Christmas Carol - Charles Dickens, Gift Edition 75^
Jacket Library
15^ each
36.
Treasure Island - Stevenson
37.
The Hew Testament
38.
Green Mandions - W* H. Hudson
39.
The Way
40*
The Merchant of Venice - Shakespeare
41.
Emerson's Essays — E. W. Emerson
42.
Pere Goriot - Balzac
43.
Alice in Wonderland — Lewis Carroll
Through the Looking Glass,
The Hunting of the Snark
44.
Under the Greenwood Tree — Thomas Hardy
45.
Cyrano de Bergerac — Host and
46.
Adventures of Sherlock Holmes — A. Conan Doyle
47.
Other People's Money - Brandeis
of All
Flesh - Samuel Butler
183
Appendix X*
1*
Outline of Procedure, Purpose, and Programs
of the Home Play Groups Association*
2.
Copies of t-wo testimonial letters from individuals
mho have derived "benefits from Home Play Groups*
Outline and letters are in Appendix X of first copy of
this dissertation.
HOME PLAY GROUPS
Definition:
A group of children, in a home, at play, under direction of a
Play-leader
Procedure:
In a homo wnoro coxiditj.nns indicate lack of normal play activities,
the mother i^ tcia about Home Play Groups; consent of both parents
to have a group meet in their home, at regular intervals, is obtained.
The children of this come are told about the project, and, with the
advice of their mother and the Play-lcader select friends who shall
enter the home group.
Leader:
Preferably, one trained for work with children, and having had prac­
tice in recreational work.
It is most desirable to secure high grade leadership; a person neither
too youthful nor too mature, of exemplary character, versed in child
psychology, and fond of children of all ages.
Note: The ta?i of this Kome-Play leader is extremely interesting,
but very difficult, requiring much taut, great resourcefulness, and
unfailing patience.
Method of Procedure: Studying her group, the Play-leador determines what will
interest, at first; gradually developing a well-rounded play program,
including finger-plays, games stories, songs, and handwork, all co­
ordinated. (Her training will enable her to do this with the sole
purpose of leading the children into a normal joyous play-life.)
Results:
Observation of Home Play Groups has revealed the following points:
1. The Children play more happily.
2„ Changed attitudes.
a. Parents toward children
b. Children toward parents
c. Children toward each other
d. Residents of community toward children's play
3. Establishment of right relations in the family
4. Establishment of friendships among the children
5. Development of character
Note: The Home Play Group— as suchr— should not be organized (as a club.)
A Home Play Group under this plan should not be male -part of a school system or of
any state, civic or Federal agency.
Home Play Groups should be free from compulsion, propaganda end necessity for
elaborate statistical reports.
Rightly conducted, such groups will be an effective agency toward crime prevention
and community" betterment.
HOME PLAY GROUPS ASSOCIATION
Mrs. William F. Podlich, President
Miss Bertha Kyle, Executive Secretary
518 Chateau Avenue, Baltimore, Md.
Phone— University 3040
HELPING- - LEADERS
In Home-Play-Groups, the older children naturally acquire the habit
of assisting the Play-leader, and are encouraged by her, not only to do so, but to
look forward to helping-leadership in the community. At eight years of age they
begin to understand that this will be expected (not required) of them; at twelve
they may be enrolled as beginners; at fourteen, they may enter the Helping-Leaders*
--instruction class.
Courses of Instruction
1st.
2 nd.
Recreational, ^including theory of Play)
Helath - or, Character-building (ethics for children)
Following these, according to needs or desires of group, or
availability of competent instructiors; other courses, at
intervals, viz:
Children* s songs and dances
Other art courses — hand-work etc.
Dramatics
Proj ect s
An out— door Play—Hour. for all children of the community, precedes the weekly
instruction class, during which the Helping-Leaders assist. This affords practical
demonstration of ability and advancement in the art of leadership.
Notes
1* Family Unity is furthered by this method of community recreational enjoy­
ment; and, in the knowledge that "A family that plays together is a family that
stays together," it may be assumed that a Family Play Night established and reported
upon, might easily be encouraged, under recreational auspices.
2. In a community thus utilizing the resources and ability of its young life,
leadership should normally appear, and should function constructively. A healthful
spirit of rivalry, sportsmanship and comradeship (the natural outcome) will eliminate
or largely prevent misunderstanding, jealousy end quarrelsomeness.
3. Helping-Leaders, as such, should not be organized; but, when the club
instinct develops, a community with a Helping-Leader movement will assist all its
youth to a wholesome fulfillment of desire, recreationally, intellectually and
morally.
4.
Reaction of Helping-Leaders observed in initial experiment*
1. Willingness to participate (those who are less enthusiastic in groups
often *carrying on" in the homes)
2. New ideas and interests gained
3. Friendships established
4. New attitudes toward children attained.
5. It should be borne in mind that trese young people are cooperating with
their elders, in a constructive enterprise; that they are gradually gaining an
insight into the fundamentals promoted by the recreational emphasis, and are to
be commended and encouraged, but not admonished - nor given too much praise.
HOME PLAY GROUPS ASSOCIATION— Mrs. William F. Podlich, President
Miss Bertha Kyle, Executive Secretary
518 Chateau Avenue, Baltimore, Md.
Phone— University 3040
June 8, 1936
Dear Friends,
I am writing this letter (voluntary) to tell how glad I am that
our family had the pleasure of having a Home Play Group in our home
once a week for so long a time.
We all made it a point to be home from school on time— and I from
work (I had a job at fourteen).
The Leader brought, on her weekly visits, magazines, art crayons,
paper, books and games, and played, as well as worked with us.
Once, I remembpr, we cut, we pasted, we arranged a house, trees,
butterflies and a little girl, making up a picture, and behold, we
possessed a lovely poster!
Mother would stop her work and "listen in" to the stories; and she
liked to cut pictures too.
It brought back her childhood days once more.
She says the leader encouraged her to read aloud to us.
Perhaps one of the greatest benefits of having a Home Play Group is
the encouragement received.
The Play-Leader encouraged me to go to night-
school, and I began to mind the obstacles less.
So today, I am happy to
say that I have earned a High School diploma, at twenty.
God's blessing and the world's blessings on your work.
May it go on
forever— this work of making the world happier through its little children,
trained and schooled by supervised play.
"A Grateful One"
THE 1936 GREEN BAG
DAVID M. CORDRAY, JR...Editor ill Chief
JOSEPH X. LIMA....... Business Manager
BALTIMORE CITY COLLEGE
Baltimore, Maryland
.HE ALAMEDA AND THIRTY-THIRD STREET
2687 Eagle Street
Balt imo re, M aryland
June 26, 1936
Dear Miss Kyle,
The achievement for which I have waited has finally come and gone.
I an now
a graduate of Baltimore City College.
As I look back over my Scholastic career, I find many things to be proud of.
When I graduated from Junior High School I did so with highest honors.
awards for service, scholarship, leadership, thrift, and attendance.
I received
Upon graduation
I held the offices of bank president, chief librarian, and editor of the school paper
At City College I became financial advisor of plays, business manager of the
year book, member of four play committees, chief justice of the Student Court, mem­
ber of the Christmas Basket Committee, and held several other offices.
All the qualities I have shown in leadership, service, and scholarship, I
attribute to the v/ork you accomplished with your Home Play Group.
Although it has
been several years ago since I have enjoyed the work of the group, I still remember
some of the things the children were taught to do.
It was with the group that I
became interested in marionettes, puppets, and modeling.
Influenced by the group
I also became interested in reading clean, wholesome books.
the group, I had no tine to run the streets with bad company.
Following the work of
I was taught to serve
well, to obey instructions, and to lead with a stern, yet friendly, hand.
I can truthfully say that the Home Play Group, under your careful, expert
guidance, has done more for me that I can ever repay.
Sincerely yours,
(Signed) Joseph X. Lima
Joseph X. Lime
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books Treating Recreation, including Information on Home Recreation
Robert Cooley Angel 1, "The Family Encounters the Depression,"
Scribner's Sons, 1936.
EU K. Atkinson, "Delinquency and Leisure,"
York, 1934.
Chas.
Russell Sage Foundation, New
Charles A. Beard, "Whither Mankind,11 New York, Longmans Green and Co.,
1928.
Howard M. Bell, "Youth Tell Their Story,” American Council on Education,
1938, Washington, D. C.
L. L. Bernard, "Instinct,"
New York, 1924.
Holt and Company.
Herbert Blumer, "Movies and Conduct,11 Macmillan, New York, 1933.
Herbert Blumer and Philip M. Hauser, "Movies, Delinquency, and Crime,”
Macmillan, New York. 1933.
E. S. Bogardus, "The City Boy and His Problems,” Rotary Club of Los Angeles,
Chamber of Commerce Building, Los Angeles, California, 1926.
M. Breen, "Partners in Play,"
New York, A* S. Barnes, 1936.
E. Brunner and J. H. Kolb, "Rural Social Trends,"
and London, 1933.
McGraw Hill, New York
C. D. Burns, "Leisure in the Modern World,11 Century, New York, 1932.
George D* Butler, "Community Recreation,"
London, 1940.
Mcdraw Hill, New York and
Ruth Cavan and Katherine Ranck, "^he Family and the Depression,”
of Chicago Press, 1938.
University
George D. Cutten, ,"^he Threat of Leisure,"
Yale University Press, 1926.
Maurice R. Davie, "Problems of City Life,"
York, 1932.
John Wiley and Sons Inc., New
J. E. Davis, "Principles and Practice of Recreational Therapy,"
Barnes, New York, 1936.
A. S.
Ivah Deering, "The Creative Home," Richard Smith, New York, 1930.
Foster R. Dulles, "AmericanLearns to Play,"
New York and London, 1940.
D. Apple ton-Century Company,
J. W. Feldman, "The Effects of Playgrounds on Land Value,11 National
Recreation Association, 1929.
"G-ardening-School, Community, Home," National Recreation Association, 1940.
G. C. Grant, "City-wide Contest for Better Back Yards,"
creation Association, 1933.
"Handbooks of Adult Education in the United States,"
for Adult Education, 1934 and 1936.
Helen Hall, "When Leisure Palls,"
National Re­
American Association
National Conference on Social Work, 1932.
William Healy and Augusta Bronner, "Delinquents and Criminals,"
New York, 1926.
L. P. Jacks, "Education through Recreation,"
and London, 1932.
Macmillan,
Harper and Bros., New York
F. P. Keppel and R. L. Duffus, "The Arts in American Life,"
Book Company, Inc., 1933.
McGraw-Hill
C. Kirkpatrick, "Report of a Research into the Attitudes and Habits of
Radio Listeners, " Webb Publishing Company, 1933.
H. C. Lehman and P. A. Witty, "The Psychology of Play Activities,"
Barnes, New York, 1927*
Eugene T. Lies, "The New Leisure Challenges the Schools,"
tion Association, Washington, D. C., 1933.
"Leisure Hours of 5000 People,"
1934.
A. S.
National Educa­
National Recreation Association, New York,
George Lundberg, Mina Komarovsky, Mary Mclnerny, "Leisure: a suburban
study," Columbia University Press, 1934.
Robert and Helen Lynd, "Middletown,"
York, 1929.
Harcourt, Brace and Company, New
E. D. Mitchell and W. P. Bowen, "The Theory of Organized Play,"
A. S. Barnes, 1923.
E. D. Mitchell and B. S. Mason, "The Theory of Play,"
Barnes and Company, 1935.
Winona 1. Morgan, "The Family Meets the Depression,"
sota Press, 1939.
New York,
Eew York, A. S.
University of Minne­
Jay Bryan Nash, "Spectatoritis,"
A. S. Barnes and Company, New York, 1937.
M. H. and E. S. Neumeyer, "Leisure and Recreation,H
and Company, 1936.
New York, A. S. Barnes
Edward V. Norton, "Play Streets and their Use for Recreation Progress,"
A- S. Barnes and Company, 1937.
H. A. Overstreet, "A Guide to Civilized Loafing,11 W. W. Norton, New York,
1934.
Arthur Newton Pack, "The Challenge of Leisure,"
Macmillan, New York, 1934.
Constantine Pununzio, "Major Social Institutions," Macmillan, 1939.
Elizabeth R. Pendry and Hugh Hartshorne, "Organizations for Youth," McGrawHill Book Company, Inc., New York and London, 1932.
W. Pitkin, "The Consumer, His Nature and His Consuming Habits," McGrawHill Book Company, Inc., New York and London, 1932.
Homer P. Rainey, "How Fare American Youth," New York, D. Appleton-Century
Company, 1937.
Clarence E. Rainwater, "The Play Movement in the United States," Univer­
sity of Chicago Press, 1922.
RecentSocial
Trends in the United States, Volumes I end II,McGraw-Hill
Book Company, 1933, New York and London.
Dorothy Reed, "Leisure Time of Girls in a
versity Ph.D. Thesis, 1935.
'Little Italy',"Columbia
Uni­
J. E. Rogers, "The, Child and Play," Century Company, New York and London,
1932.
Burger Sorokin, "^ime Budgets of Human Behavior," Harvard University Press,
1939.
Jesse F. Steiner, "Research Memorandum on Recreation in the Depression,"
Social Science Research Council, New York, 1937.
Jesse F.Steiner, "Americans at Play, " McGraw-Hill Rook Company, New
and London, 1933.
S.Stouffer
York
and P. Lazarsfeld, "Research Memorandum on the Family in the
Depression, Social Science Research Council, New York, 1937.
M. Straus and T. Wegg, "Housing Comes of Age," New York, Oxford University
Press, 1939.
I T. E. Sullenger, "Social Determinants of Juvenile Delinquency,11 University
i
of Missouri, 1929.
"1939— Television Year: Report to Executives? October 29, 1939, p. 29.
"Toy-Lending Centers Outdoors in 11 Parks," Chicago Daily News. July 8,
1940.
Josette Frank, "Children and their Leisure Hours," Childhood Education.
May, 1939.
Christian Science
Robert R. Mullen, "Toys are Big Business,
Monitor Magazine Sect ion.
December 9, 1939.
"Drive On," Colliers. June 26, 1937, p. 74.
Andrew Corry, "Leisure and Culture,” Commonweal. January 12, 1934.
"Mass 4-H Clubs Encourage Home Crafts," Extension Service Record. June, 1937.
"New Leisure and a New Job for Management," Factory Management and Main­
tenance. April, 1934.
E. R* Groves, "Effect of the Degression on Family Life," Family. January,
1933, p. 310 ff.
"Quarterly Survey: XI" Fortune. January, 1938, Vol. 17, p. 88.
"Radio II"
»
May, 1938, Vol. 17, p. 118
"American Culture," "Amateur Photography," Fortune. February, 1940.
"Television II,” Fortune. May, 1939, pp. 69-64.
E. L. Thorndike, "The Right Use of Leisure;" Journal of Adult Education.
January, 1930, p. 42 ff.
E. L. Thorndike, "Philosophy and Social Significance of Adult Education
in a Democracy, Journal of Adult Education, May, 1937, p.
265 ff.
"Statistics of Room Congestion," J ournal of American Statistical As so exac­
tion. September, 1938.
"Leisure-time Activities of Children of New York's Lower West Side,"
Journal of Educational Sociology. April, 1936.
"Changing Trends in Sports," J. R. Tunis, Harpers,, December, 1934.
iff^
Moorhead, "Two Reports on Leisure—time, Journal of Health and^ Phy—
sical Education, December, 1933.
j
Nash, "Leisure for What?" J ournal of Health and Phy sical Educat ion.
May, 1935.
C
H. McCloy, "How about some Muscle," Journal of Health and Physical Edu­
cation, May, 1936.
R. L. Sutherland and J. L. Woodward, "An Introduction to Sociology, J* B*
Lippincott Company, Chicago and New York, 1937.
R* S. Vaile, "Research Memorandum on Social Aspects of Consumption in the
Depression,” Social Science Research Council, New York, 1937.
R. S. Vaile, "Impact of the Depression on Business Activity and Real Income
in Minnesota,” University of Minnesota., 1933.
R. S. Vaile, "Research Memorandum on Social Aspects of Reading in the De­
pression,” Social Science Research Council, New York, 1937.
L. H. Weir, "Europe at Play,” A. S. Barnes, New York, 1937.
"The Home and the Child," White House Conference on Child Health and Pro­
tection, IIIA, Century, New York and London, 1931.
"The Young Child in the Home," White House Conference on Child Health and
Protection IIIB, D. Appleton-Century, New York, 1936.
"Children's Reading,11 White House Conference on Child Health and Protection,
IIIG, Century, New York and London, 1936.
Arthur E. Wood, "Community Problems," Century Company, New York, London,
1928.
Kimball Young, "An Introductory Sociology," American Book Company, 1934.
A* D. Zanzig, "Music in American Life," Oxford University Press, 1932.
Periodicals and Newspapers containing articles treating aspects
of home recreation
"Marge Does
i
i t
Herself," American Home.
A u g u s t,
1937.
I Yftn. P. Ogbum, "Indexes of Social Trends,” American Journal of Sociology.
May, 1935.
E. C. Lindeman, "Youth and Leisure,” Annals of the American Academy of
Political and Social Science. November, 1937, p. 59.
E. C. Calkins, "‘
^ e Lost Art of Play," Atlantic Monthly. Aprii, 1934.
N. W. Ayers and Son, "directory of Newspapers and Periodicals,
1935, 1940.
| Martha P. Haislip, "Built-ins for Growing-Ups," Better Homes and Gardens.
January, 1938.
»1939
Television Year," Business Week. December 31, 1938, pp. 17-31.
Edward C. Lindeman, "Recreation Reinterpreted," Journal of Health and Phy­
sical Education. September, 193?.
Ruth Mullaney, "Play Streets," J ournal of Health and Physical Education.
September, 1938.
J. K. Francis, "Marionettes in Parent Education," Journal of Home Economics.
November, 1937.
Robert G-* Foster, "^amily Life Education and Research," Journal of Home
Economics. January, 1938, pp. 6-10.
"Education and the Family," Journal of Social Hygiene. December, 1938.
"The New Leisure - its Significance and Use," Library Journal. 1933, p. 445.
"Books and Films," Library Journal, November 1, 1938, p. 841.
"Short Route to the Library," Library Journal. May 1, 1939.
"§hort Subject Films and Libraries, Library J ournal. March 15, 1939.
"Street Games to Check Crime," Literary Digest. January 26, 1935.
"Significance of Play and Recreation," Mental Hygiene. Vol. 18, 1934, p. 53.
J. E. Morgan, "The Leisure of Tomorrow,” National Education Association.
January, 1930.
"Radio and American Music," New York Times. December 11, 1930 (Magazine Sec.)
"The Workers' Week Over Ninety Years," New York Times. August 9, 1931.
"National Appraisers Forum," New York Herald Tribune. November 28, 1937.
"Television in the Home,” Newsweek. May 23, 1938, p. 21.
"A Newspaper by Radio," Newsweek. December 19, 1938, p. 28.
C. J. 0 1Qonnor, "Home Recreational Activity, National Elementary Principal.
October, 1939.
"Aperibiff
/ (Anonymous) North American Review. July, 1934.
"Education in Machine Utopia," North American Review, May, 1937.
!
| Esther F. Gureasko, "Train Your Own Cinema Star," Parents. June, 1938, p. 89.
;
)
j "A Bird's-Eye View of Parent Education," Parents. May, 1931.
: "Determinants of Delinquency in the Play Group," Playground, November, 1930.
"Basement Rifle Range," Popular Science. March, 1935*
"Trailer School," Popular Science. January, 1938, pp. 48-49.
"Co-operation in the Use of Recreation Agencies." Public Management.
April, 1936.
Jay Leyda, "Have You Any Books about the Movies"? Publisher *s Weekly.
September 18, 1937, p. 1090.
Jay Leyda, "More About Books on Movies, " Publisher's Weekly. July 16,
1938, p. 162,
"Parents Hold On," Progressive Education. December, 1929.
Recreation.
Since January, 1931, every issue of Recreation has information
on various aspects pertaining to home recreation. The read­
er is advised to refer to the index of each issue for home
recreation information* The National Recreation Associa­
tion has numerous pamphlets, bibliographies and booklets
giving additional information on home recreation.
H. D. Edgren, "Interests and Participation of Boys and Girls in Out-ofSchool Recreational Activities,11 Research Quarterly of the
American Association for Health and Physical Education.
October, 1937.
G. M. Gloss, "Spare-Time Activities," Research Quarterly of the American
Association for Health and Physical Education. May, 1938.
Ruth Toogood, "A Survey of Recreation Interests and Pursuits of College
Women, Research Quarterly of the American Association for
Health and Physical Education. October, 1939.
P. White and P. Salisbury, "Leisure-Time of Successful People," Sales
Management, June 1, 1937, pp. 1086ff.
E. 01, Kelley, "Games," Sales Management. December 15, 1938, pp. 22-24.
"Pietographs," Sales Magagement. March 15, 1939, Vol. 44, p. 38.
"Home Newspapers by Radio," Scientific American. June, 1938, p. 334.
"How We Spend our Time and Vfoafc We Spend it For," Scientific American.
May, 1937.
"Analysis of a Radio Audience,rt School and Society. October 15, 1937, p. 494.
George A* Lundberg, "The Content of Radio Programs, Social Forces. Septem­
ber, 1928, pp. 58—60.
"Radio A mateurs Will Attack Home Television Problems," Science News Letter.
April, 21, 1938, p. 211ff.
Marion Flad, "Leisure-Time Activities," Sociology and Social Hesearch.
February, 1934.
Martin H. Neumeyer, »0?he Los Angeles County Plan of Co-ordinating Councils,
Sociology and Social Research. June, 1935.
"Children in a Democracy," Survey. February, 1940.
Arthur Farwell, "Let us Play," Scribners. September, 1934, pp. 145-150.
J. W. Faust, "Family Recreation, the Most Fruitful Feature of Home Life,"
School Life. February, 1929.
"television,"
time. May 23, 1938, p. 25.'
R* R. Bowker Company, Hew York, Ullrich Periodicals Directory. 1938.
Federal and State Reports and Documents, with information pertinent
to home recreation
Bibliography of Hobbies, Federal Emergency Booklet. 1935.
"the Education and Adjustment of Youth,” Advisory Committee on Education.
U.S.Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1938.
"Community Recreation Programs,” Federal Works Agency. February, 1940.
"How Committees Can Help,” Committee on Youth Problems. Bulletin Ho. 18,
Office of Education, U.S.Department of the Interior, 1936.
Consumers' Expenditures in U.S., National Resources Planning Board.
Washington, D. C., 1939.
"Study of Consumer Purchases 1940," National Resources Planning Board.
Washington, D. C.
Cornell Agricultural Extension Bureau No. 360, 1936.
K. Glover, "Youth— Leisure for Living," Superintendent of Documents,
Bulletin Nos. 8-11, Washington, D. C., 1936.
"Housing and Health,” Vol. VIII, President's Conference on Home Ownership
and Home Building, 1932.
"House Design, Construction and Equipment,11 President's Conference on Home
Ownership and Home Building, 1932.
"Home Making, Home Furnishing and Equipment,” President's Conference on
Home Ownership and Home Building, 1932.
"Housing and the Community, " Home Repair and Remodeling, Washington, D. C.,
1932.
U.S.Housing Authority, November 1939, U.S.Federal Works Agency.
U.S.Housing Authority, "Design on Low-Rent Housing Projects1,' Bulletin
No. 11, U.S.Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.
H. D. No. 414 "Home Play Yard and Home-made Play Equipment," College of
Agriculture, Berkeley, California.
H. Kneeland, "Leisure of Home-makers Studied for Light on Standards of
Living,” Yearbook of Agriculture. Bureau of Home Economics.
1932.
E. C. Lindeman, "Youth and- Leisure,” The Annals of the American Academy of
Political and Social Science. November, 1937. Issued as a
mimeographed bulletin by the Recreation Division of WPA
No. 12623.
Russell Lord, "^orest Outings,” U.S.Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service, 1940.
New York Adult Education Records, 1937, 1938, 1939.
"Study of Environmental Factors in Juvenile Delinquency,” Crime Commission
of the State of New York, 1928.
"The Slum and Crime," New York City Housing Authority, 1934.
New York State Emergency Adult Education Programs, 1936.
Extension Circular No. 5598, University of Nebraska Agricultural College.
National Park Service, "Park and Recreation Programs,” 1937 and 1937 Year­
books. issued in 1936 and 1939, U.S.Government Printing Of­
fice, Washington, D. C.
U.S.Bureau of the Census, Monograph VIII.
S.Bureau of Msaasifacturers, "Distribution of Sales, "1935.
U.S.Census of Manufacturers, "Distribution of Sales,” 1939.
•Census of American Business, 1933, Vol. I*
U.S.Census of Business, Retail Distribution, 1935, Vol. I.
Recreation and Welfare Reports, Housing ^ivision of Public Works, Federal
Emergency Works Program, U.S.Department of Commerce, Bur­
eau of the Census, 1935.
U.S.Fifteenth Federal Census.
1939 Statistical Abstract of U.S.Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census.
U.S.Bureau of Internal Revenue, Annual Report of the Commission, 19001930. The Report of the Commission 1939, also.
U.S.Bureau of Internal Revenue, Bureau of Comparative Statement of In­
ternal Revenue Collections, 1918-1938.
E. Et Wood, "Slums and Blighted Areas in the U.S.," U.S.Government Print­
ing Office, Washington, D. C., 1936.
Technical Committee on Recreation, Interdepartmental Committee to Coor­
dinate Health and Welfare Activities, 1937.
Other Re-ports with information on home recreation
Annual Report of American Telephone and Telegraph, 1939.
American Association of School Administrators, "Youth Education Today,"
Sixteenth Yearbook, Yfashington, D. C., 1938.
Automobile Facts and Figures, American Maufacturers Association, 1939.
Annual Report of Chicago Public Library, 1939.
Buffalo, New York Foundation Forum, 1939.
Chicago Recreation Survey, Five Volumes, 1937.
"A Study of Public Recreation in Cleveland,” Cleveland Foundation. May, 1936.
"Economic and Social Values of the Motor Vehicle, " National Highway Users
Conference, National Press Building, Washington, D.C.,
April, 1937.
"Study Outline for the Use of Leisure," Department of the American Home,
General Federation of Women's Clubs.
E. T. Lies, "The Leisure of a People," Recreation Survey Re-port. 1929.
Report of New York Committee on Use of Leisure Time, National Recrdation
Association, 1939.
National City Bank of New York, "Economic Conditions U.S.Securities
Bovemmental Finance,” September, 1934.
Proceedings of the 41st Annual Convention A ssociation of Land-Grant
Colleges and Universities, November 15, 1927.
"Play Soane in New Neighborhoods," National Recreation Association, New
York, 1939.
"Recreation Survey of Buffalo," Buffalo City Planning Association, Inc.,
1925.
Report of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 1939.
San Francisco Recreation Commission, 1936.
"The Director-at-Large Plan."
Social Work Year Book for 1929, 1933, 1935, 1937, 1939, Russell Sage
Foundation, New York. Articles on Recreation and related
topics.
H. D. Thurston, "Delinquency and Spare Time," The Cleveland Foundation,
William Fell Company, Philadelphia, 1932.
VITA
Name:
Gordon Hitchcock Barker
Place of birth:
Chicago, Illinois
Academic career:
B. S., Northwestern University, 1928*
M. A., Northwestern University, 1938
Positions held:
Teaching at Leelanau for Boys, Glen Arbor,
Michigan, 1930-1935
Head Counselor of Juniors at Leelanau for Boys,
1930-1937
Research Assistant, Department of Sociology, North­
western University, September 1936 - May 1938
Teaching Assistant, Northwestern University, 19381939
Publications:
"Family Factors in the Ecology of Juvenile
Delinquency," Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology,
Jan.-Feb., 1940
'
“
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