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Administration of the police function in Cook County

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The past three decades are a period of dynamic change In the admin*
istration of the police function. Enforoe^aent In the traditional manner
bom of centuries of policing is giving way to a new technique In crime
fighting and law enforcement*
la part* this has been caused by the ex­
pansion in police responsibilities; in part by the disappearance of
police isolation; in part by the rapid urbanisation m d industrialisa­
tion of tide country. Whatever the cause* the fact remains that in many
Instances a radical departure in police functioning within the last three
decades has already occurred. A complete break from traditional methods
of enforcement by all police agencies must be accomplished if policing
Is to keep abreast of the problems and responsibilities thrust upon the
police by a modem era of urbanism and industrialism.
In particular* two important changes are noticeable in police
functioning. All the older police functions are rapidly ceasing to be
mere ^police*1 functions* but are assuming the role of specialties in
their c m right— specialties which require the employment of particular
skills in their performance* As an exas^le* crime hunting for centuries
was principally a task of watching people* chasing people* and beating
the truth out of them. Since 1900* fingerprint equipment* crime detection
laboratories* and radio-equipped squad cars have been rushed into service
to overcome a rapidly mobilising population and a disappearing police
Isolation. Such changes have required the employment of skilled workers*
and leader® schooled in the broader problems of police administration.
The era of nightstick policing appear© definitely past, and no longer
does the old tenet that "brawn make© the best cop" suffice* A new per­
sonnel tradition based upon a conception of intelligence, Is rapidly
Moreover, new function© are being added to the long Hat of police
responsibilities* Already such functions as traffic flow regulation,
accident prevention, and the prevention of juvenile delinquency are as­
suming places of primary importance along with such older functions as
crime detection and beat patrolling* Structurally, police departments
have broadened to make way for the development of new and Important
auxiliary functions, as for example, ccaaannlo&tlens, record analysis*
Ultimately, staff functioning must &me to m e m m an accredited place In
the police hierarchy* Possibly the most significant transition in police
activities is the gradual transference of attention irm the purely re­
pressive phases of crime to preventioiml activities* There appears little
doubt that unless the police centime to play an increasingly Important
role In the heretofore cojEparatively unknown field of crime prevention,
the police cannot expect t© give the security required*
Such new demands on the police have enormoualy affected the prin­
ciples and practices of police adminiatratlon* Increasing perplexities
and difficulties of policing are requiring a new type of leadership, a
more Intelligent and highly trained personnel, better standards of sal­
aries and other conditions of employment, competent headquarters, motor­
ised equipment, ordnance, and Identification equipment. Where personnel
and equipment conditions persist which are suited only for "former times"
policing, It can be accepted m a matter of course that such departments
have act completed the transition from the old to the now enforcement*
If polio© departments function in term© of required needs, then it can
b© affirmed that the break from the past has already become a matter of
While the title of this study is ^Administration of the Police
Function in Oook County,® m m other title might nor© appropriately con­
vey the underlying thesis of the study* For the sole intent b m not been
& description of the process of police administration In the county as
the title indicates* there Is the added purpose of describing the Impact
of changing social and economic conditions on a police structure, the
roots of which H e deep in the past# fbss, the study Is an evaluation,
an evaluation of hoe end in what manner the police function has changed
end Is changing; upon ifest principles and practices the present police
organisation Is adjnsted$ and. in *stet ways changing conditions have in­
fluenced the recrpmlsmtim of the police function* Th&m ©re some of
the aspects of the problem which this study attempts to portray*
Xa recent years, certain areas in the felted States haw cost© to
assume a position of strategic importance in the aconoEl©, political, and
social life of the nation* And In them the maladjustments between tra­
ditional policing, and nodwm requirements appear moat marked* These
na5©tropolitenR areas, of which these are about a hundred, now constitute
the population centers of the nation and contain within their boundaries
more than fifty-four nllliens of people or sbout one-half the population
of the felted State®* As major center® of population, they have become
at the s$mm time focal points of lawlessness and in them has occurred an
emphasis cm law enforcement not usually found in non-jsetropolitan areas*
For these
w m presents a significant b&si® of
study sad am opportunity to weigh the police situation where lawlessness
m & mityffiamtifo play mm of their laosi ©cwspieueus role®*
th e Chicago a im , %hich fsnae th e subject of th e present study,
offers msmell&d opportunity for diagnosis end prognosis of the police
function. At the gateway to the mmm 11m Chicago, second largest city
of the mtloe*
tercwdlag the eiiy (eaioept to the &m%) la an array of
deter dties, tews, and tillages and a deoeHaneooe grouping of county,
townships, and special district agenoim*
ijient® nearly pamlldo the
ffee nusWr of polios depart-
of agencies in number as m l-i as variety*
l&oreover, opportoalty is given to iavestigshe the workings of state, coimty,
sp ecial d is tr ic t polios and in p a rtlo a la r to asoertsis hour
and in i8$3&l iwaisr a largo &®Sber of agoaoies oaopiiwto resource® in
eesbe&tl&g podis# problems of regional rather than local in seeps*
d o n siiert^lo difforei'aoes of opinion® ea&st with regard to the def­
inition of the geographic esfeetxt of the Chicago arm*
.In a number of
studies nods under the amplees of the th&mrolty of Chicago, the Chicago
a t m m e defined as
A H territory lying within a distance of
fifty miles of Stats and M&dtoon Streets in dotv^iom Chicago* C& this
b a sis, tb s sra s
across two s ta te hc^acdaries and
n ine
oomtlea in XHlaois, %m in Wimonste, and three in Indiana* Os the
other ted| the United ttates Burma of the Census disregarded the **psr
idle*1 feaels of datmdmtioa and adopted f,p©puX&ii©» density’* as a basis*
As a remit, territorial seope of the a r m Is considerably less mad, is
i m % includes only Cook County, four townships is Be Page County, four
townships is lake County, Illinois, and three township® is lake County,
Th© present study is based neither cm one nor the other* It is a
fact of sense importance that in terms of law enforcement and policing,
the metropolitan problem appears primarily the concern of Cook County*
Of a metropolitan population of 4,564,755 living within the area design
rmied as “metropolitan1’ by the United States Bureau of the Census,
5,971,755 reside in Cook County, or 91 per cent# Of the police operating
in the area described as aaetropolitaR, 95 per cent are found in Cook
County. 5nd while exact statistical data are not available as to the
quantity of crime, there appears- very little doubt that the crime problem
Is overwhelmingly that of Cook County# For these reasons, it appeared
unnecessary and possibly unwise to expend time and energy in analysing
conditions outside Cook County when such additions would contribute very
little to the metropolitan picture* It has been deemed wiser, therefore,
to direct attention solely to Cook County# While this limitation may
sem to imperil the “metropolian” nature of the study, it is advanced
that a sufficiently compfelienslve evaluation can be obtained as to offset
this disadvantage#
Xn assembling data, two methods have been employed* In the first
instance questionnaire® were sent out to ©ighty-nirae municipal polio©
dapartMit^ thirty special district departments, the county sheriff, and
the state highway polios* The returns from questionnaires formed the
basis for much of the statistical material found in the study. However,
due to the obvious weaknesses in the questionnaire system, particularly
with regard to the functioning ©f the police, it was deemed advisable
(and essential) to make personal trips to every police department. Time
was spent partly in observing the department at workj partly la searching
for and analyzing such reports as were available5 partly in interviews
with citizens.
In some instances a few hours sufficed to obtain a clear
picture of police functioning.
In other departments, several days, and
in on© instance, four weeks were required to interview officials of the
department and to intensively investigate records, equipment, and other
administrative aspects of police functioning* Wherever possible doc­
umentary proof was sought for statements made or conclusions reached.
Without the aid and cooperation of police executives and police
officers as well as officials and employees in other branches of the
public service, this study would not have been possible*
To the many
who contributed of their time and knowledge, my thanks and appreciation.
In particular, I am indebted to Professor Augustus R. Hatton, to Professor
John Thurston of the Department of Political Science, northwestern
University, and to Charles Johnson, Chief Examiner of the Evanston Civil
Service Commission, for their constant advice and unfailing support. To
Professor Be Dong, who has given most generously of his time, thoughts,
and energies, I owe a special debt of gratitude. While many of the
principles expressed in this study haw been suggested or commented upon
by others, full responsibility for facts and findings are those of ths
FOEEIOBB • * .............
. ..
Justice end the Police
The Responsibilities oT the Police
m h sm x m p o lic e e ffe o tx fm e s s
The Early Period (1785-1848)
The Constitution of 1848 and Legislative Action
from 1848 to 1870
The Third Periods From 1870 to the Present
........... . . . « • < • » . •
The Chief as m Individual
The Problem of Leaderahip
fe r s o m s l p o lic ib s m v p r o c u r e s ....................
is o
Factors Affecting Personnel
The Police Service
Organisation and Programs of Formal Merit Agencies
Retirement and Pension Funds
Headquarters and Jails
Record Facilities and Practices
Technical Equipment in Scientific Crime Identifi­
The Varying Patterns of Enforcement
The Evolution In Police Functioning as a Problem
The Problem of Aid and Assistance
Differing Personnel Standards and their Effect
Equipment Difficulties
The Problem of Leadership
Scope and Direction of Relationships
LX9V Of t M M M
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M i t i g
uar of tables * om m m *
Volume of C«w»50RA«stltms Handled by the Central
Complaint Boom, Chicago Police Department, X9S2-S8 . • *
Distribution of Dispatch Calls Classified According
to Eatdio m d
Categories, Chicago FoXico
Department, Central Complaint Boom, 1852-38 • « • * » •
Eumber of Arrest® mad© by Hsdi© Unit® of the Chicago
Folio© Department and by other Unit® of the Department #
Suburban Folic® Separtosnt^ Employing B&di© Facilities
and the Humber of Eadi© Unit® In Operatic®! as of
January 1, 2ML, 19SS, 1939 * * « * » , . * ..........
Hianber and Distribution of Police in Cook County ♦ * « *
Fingerprints and Photographs forwsarded by Suburban
Folio© Departments to the Chicago Bureau of Identifi­
cation, 1998 * » « . * * « * • * » * ............. * #
Humber of Ha&io Broadcasts mad© by the Chicago Police
Department to Suburban. Felice Departments During 1939,
1986 and 1958 * * . * * * * * « * * * • # * . * * * ♦ . «
Fingerprints Forwarded by Stalc&psl Police Departments
in Cook County to the State Bureau of Identification
During 1998 and to the Federal Bureau of Identification
During 1938 » # # # » * • • • # • • * # • • • * • * * « *
MbifXttes of the Cook County Highway Police Department
for 1950, 1934
• * * . * # . . « » » * * • 328
worse* t
K t a m e m a a n m a? a ® polxob
1* j t a M w and the (*dU<38
fUM&m *» *&» “Account ©f the aeswtlmtxm and 'Streets of a
Police Sot on ftjot tgr feta Gnaee the A te or Sow Oaatla,* published la
i m ea&dt
I M , cranqpertng eowrtrtea, fighting b a ttle s, and *«eh lik e
**t»««KK*M*y m S A n m K ii «re the aetlcoa that mfee the greatest
•o la t aswng unohlisit and mm the « 0 y mm m ot e n title * mm to
the appeUtion o f «si& » &*t S» **» pw oorw s the U w , property,
and th e poaoo o f f i i a ® fey aaeewagftag ««* ewwufelen o f « poUoe
adequate to ffeoae m p oeea, bo far —waits the conqueror as the urem m tm mrpwmm th* dooteeylng
« » Wtttb o f them rndmfctuftO* wwto of the old Stogltah refwwtirt boo let
no w
atefeif a W l la the passing of years.
Aoseea the faeada of the imposing m M m i k Court tews In the Son-
oogfe of Manhattan, are these worfs«
true tcMLntsteotioo of Justice
la the finest filler of Good Ckivwisseat.'* Ifeagr Indicate the Isgjortant
role ableh other agamies, la addition to the jmOAoc, occupy In the prosermUan of tte peace. for la the adainistration of justice, iftdch ia
perhaps aoa of the mat isporfcaot functions of gotenssent and possibly
one of the mat aMyles, tbs polios pe»£wn» only the first of w ay tasks
that natal up the otelalstVKtiae preooaa* «itfc the arrest of fclw lawbrealwr, the tmfc of the polios any he said t o end. Ula trial, convic­
tion, end discharge are beyond the obligation of the pcftlee. these are
--------- —
.......... .
^ r ir
T ti^ - r r T i 'j . 'm n m r r r 'i i m n i r .v rr-ii j . ii im u .i-i i^nrruL'.urtiiTn.-ir-.nji.. jn a rjrw tn .ifn in ;.:
hpmeoMorO.fey feather OuUefc la
by SHweto Qraer.
r r ~.i'rt .n r.: r n ~r~~|-.i m .- r r
solely the obligation of the courts and the prosecuting officials * With
sentence, their participation in the administratis process ends and that
of penal and parole officials begins* 1 former state*® attorney of Cook
County, Illinois, estimated the respective responsibilities of the courts,
the police, and the prosecuting attorney of that locality m ton, twenty,
and seventy par cent/
But While the respective jurisdictions of the police, the courts,
and other participants In the adsdnistratiim process are pretty clearly
defined, It is impossible he indicate in more than general hems the
interaction of their several responsibilities In reducing crime* In
light of the fact that the work of all these .agencies has a vital bear­
ing m the totality of crime, m d fammmdk as we accept as a matter of
course that It is the responsibility of the: police to reduce the toll of
crime, It becomes necessary at this point to Indicate briefly how and to
what extent agencies other than the police can vitally influence the
quantity of erlas«
tm the first place, it should not be forgotten that in the field of
criminal justice, the prosecutor wields m m power than possibly any ether
official/ As f m B m m m Glueek said in hi® address at the Attorney Gen­
eral *s Conference on ftrftns, called in 1984, ^fhe poser of the large-city
district attorney to bringing eases before the grand jury, bargaining
with defense counsel about the crime- to which the accused will plead
guilty, exercising the authority of m £ M m m $ & * determining to which
x (1929), p. 267.
% # w a » P. Baker m& Earl H. lie Long, "The Prosecuting Atterneyi The
Process of Proseeutten,'' 20 Journal of Criminal Law aaft Crtolnology. 5-21,
183-201 (Kay-July, 198$).
! types of eases to pay moot attention, reoomending sentcnees to the Judge,
* » . # make* him the leading meter in the stage of Justice."1 Arsed with
|; tremiwknis power and inhibited hr little regulation the district attorney*»
|! Office smotimes beseem® the happy hunting grourjd of the politician and the
|) wfiaBer«w Baymond Koley once said;
**Polit<i©sf embodied in the prosecutor,
the m m r n 1 law for its own objeetiw and in its own
|: Shen tor ««aple, organised rartec la able to control the district attorney's
I office, "small fty» ejriH&nalB pay tiM price while the greater lioodlua is
;: let loose to continne M * psrcjr «*«a aootcfcy, So long as the jttoseoKter'a
' office is organised and staffed along lime that lend to political manipi
I elation, the heart of criminal justies will poo®tbly Mss many a beat*®
ffee pro^ei® i s intensified When the Judicial ©mine is draped around
the ahfimltes of those who
store fMOitfjMa,
(wtare Judgeships
j; m m purclmeed at the pOUtleOl bargain ©euaier, the haaards t© effective
j policing are jer^psmlly a^ra^ated^
d* Idpa? M m m m km remarked;
j: vfim after tim he {the poliawm) is forood to see orlmiiml® step through
hi® hands, or m Uc free f ew the courts because that oriMiml tans® mam
other ©anally criminal person Who controls enough votes to swing m «!*&»
Records too often disclose that the authority of the police is
^fflkwmk* ttfhe Flaoe of a Proper Felloe m& Promontory Work in a
Crime Betetion frogra®!,1* in ftBasaftfliaMi
ferenoe on Orlsm (1934), p* 60*
®I» this mmmmttm m m Mmmtm F# Baker and lari fiU Be long, "The
Prosecuting Attorney end his Office,w gs
Criminal baw sod
Qr&s&m&pjKZ. m&*7W$ adOHBd (tamwgHK*v% SSJj^ » S ,'fcc^outiiig
I Attorney and Befom In OriMnal Justice,*4 Z B Joiarnal of Criminal law and
CrlminolOM^ 6£b*46 (larch, 1836)*
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M s ilf& or Mtertf* to siaMftamt to to© ©otowi© toito « r to ©©ployM
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feather ftttfer toida sagr to &
oontolbutont to too polio®
jMMda&m ta oar igwtaok o f law s. A good away aatJjoriUas am *gm d that
oosa law* instead o f $*»»er»lBg the lib erty mad mpsfi&Um o f an trmoeent
ana, fora mb iogMiMftmd&e eHrfjOd o f deftatm far the fiatlty again** ttw
wwrthieet e ffo r ts o f ortlwfoBnfiwl nwwecutioo st& « m o t« * p olicin g. Of
these law s, tt* safeguards inpaaed upon eeotst®- far the retam o f fu gitives
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mm? $mm$mm Hffe*
: itoaafe* la «N^%fe#tog fe#to®r tos*g to * 3m m to to# ®&Mmm%X$ aafcto to
( preftorost to la *$#rlato% o f j f e M t a l to isntruattog Sta&'a fat# to a
i #rtntai& «0ni% Jssiy mdl a pmMmmMmlL tongor prtmm %mrn* to m rmtilt
! of m
$ m & w i t e m M m ^ tibtaf f e # H # » Mtoto«& a** ifeofttotay
|; « f to# MMaml f e r l trnm
atop® «n Hi*r 1?# Mm0 to mXm to® .atonfeawto
! 'Of j w i aaltoa tor m m & m to to# fetotoal
A m m ptos is a m
la -psottmo. a m i M s m . M f a a a o ^ i*?»
to to
'to# MUJUwfetoli to## to «a ifitofwting iesa^ato#
| in 10a a lMriQb#a M&#$ # toant at
On to# w r to ChtoaaOg to# # 4 w
I w roisM* totor tto .impatoator w i itetlfito to U m OiioacP ^li^®
| i^epsrtwto* fepMK#
^ to#
to X m S i w m mthor*
j ttfta# foltoato* 0® tto $ « ^ tto ti mi a ^itotoa to# mcm to# otO.-prit w e
’i to
at to# tfea mi to#
to# o ^ r t t m m rma&mQ& witliout
to© fanml&tr «f # t o W U Cf# tto St&Xlmv&^ ®mm* teditlcm & m # » t
onto '^msotr Stoto*a
M y # of
M # X 9S I . .
a ofetef attributing zmm® ®i ® m t&mmmsks®® tall of Grim.**"
| Wmitimr jail® M
sateens eta&& be filing ej^tats mtim of steal md
mmitfstm taigta ta esstet in t a rigors of
or t a t a r
s t a M Ijesxm lata&ttaos for t a ete^ of t a nateiM&afliiie prot&aes
' i « & w d in gtaUtaeofe soft inteibilitataat m m ^peetami t a mrnmm to
t a * m m $ of m m m :§ tepta t a fawi&steft of tas $tu%*
tare appears
, little & o * % l i i i W i t3mt ta* a«titateiatttte& #f seta. taMlufctas t e a
tea* an isportmt imartiig on tansies t a tair possible proper!t$r to
oontiisiM in toe onset of erases#
<nt K
<E -U«k
fcniTC ifc-hril**
In Illinois# at fha pmmmfo itee# tbs states of parole appears m
| ess of t a strteteg
in pelta m^mmrnmb*
^teel of t a ©ri&~
t e i m tetateit at t a pmo&m sptea te Sllteote in t a foXleeis&s
too liOMwp sns * * % * wmm mm^m md to t a ptabtaterr W
«fts£§s f&estasssr a esetta of
ago# itotbteg;
taut that*
tase t a m t a I m p m i a i from f m M m tatimtay* nothin
taut t a t eitaff* tart of t a tata^r m m arrested in
tiftteags ore f e t a to to on p t a * *
w a a t a stab tfeis omi*
JtattaMser M i l t a tetate t a
to lite i^rteSBsseib* taking tat t a r «®re
ta&gr* t a ttantao ewetas to Illinois1 taitai eaSHsSrimre
tarn is oomothiag
m little
2m « b r to t» osssrteeta a ta & ta l a r is ta ! t a e r t a tease of
t a % m j<m mm% taaa t a n eetaeta of
3m wmim
frnois taasi#
%m$m M t a too#*
! 4nss% ssM taftaor K «♦ Ptitttawr#
! talar * * * * 'ta o a M t a of is&tawi t a nstata
| attatafi to bo
s to ta ta
\ m
d ta n ts
« * * p ^ l M « a f^otloos
t a
p* m*
o b o i s s o f a t e mmkmm ^ o i n t a
ty « w
in parols aro utaed
taow t a
p M w A d tta
t a
^ o t a te t a mtoote.
g a w n w i
leaving only the eeleotion oaf the seventh w
on the basis of fitness.*1
Aoeerding to facts released by the Cbioago Crime Ccxamission, 4,879 of the
$*0$7 Gt&m&ttm omsaltted to prison ttm Cook Omnty in the years 1930-55,
were released on parole.^ These figures do not, of course, indicate in
tKMnea&v**, that the theory or practice of parol© ha® gone «*y, or that
J&SE SlSte these releasee have oontriimted to the crime mv® and to the
work of the polio©. They do indicate a condition which has not boon f®vorabX© to ®n able ©Moreeiwst of the law# The celebrated ease of MFur®
tamon* is m mmq&M, pm&tbly m extreme
of the evils that ease-
%&®® arises
the turning 1m m upon the public of m individual considered
by the polio© and the Chicago Crto Commission as a dangerous orl®***
toil is ass event .the cmmmtty cannot fail to notice with indigna­
tion and atom* * * * # the first breach tn the defence of the cosh*
manifcy against ®m$mm mm when the deliberate judgment of a Jury
that he ©housM hang for mrde? tnwi set aside by Governor Yates* the
sseseb breach m s when the life sentence imposed by Yates mm counted
by l&n Small to a tern of fifty years* This COTautatioxi was not
what it seemed, ft® real effect m » to pemlt the parole board to
act fee the release of
under parole, which soon occurred. *
. «. * The ability of a m a of Samon1a kind to Move two governors of
the state to the ©&©rcie© of executive clemency, and on© parol©
board to the granting first of M s release on parole and later to
M s complete discharge is a bos t interesting phenomenon.3
Finally sneng those which mm formative factors In the police prob­
lem is public opinion* As Br* Glueck hm ©aids
The time has case to mOX a halt upon the glorification of the
An address before the Itaan1® City Club of Chicago, April 15, 1939,
quoted fro® the OMoaigp ^rlfaan©. April 14, 1959. Eeform of the present
parols system Is now under discussion by the Illinois 3tate legislature.
The Ward^SchnacMienfoerg Bill is m m being considered by the Bouse Cesasdttee on judicial Practice and Uniform hmm* The bill proposed giving
imch greater latitude to Judges in srnitenoiag criminals, compelling Judges
to fix mtoteoa and maximum terms under the limits of the Indetorminatesentm m law.
2mit,«ia Polleaaaw. January, 1956, p. £1.
erietoaX OXmmss. For tee eftseis the eaftgater la depleted aa a hare
tilth good tpatUes of sstad aad apMft* **hil© the ps&ie© offices* la
refeeamtea m a ©e®& ar hMrttae iimtiMhal» #uttea with author**
In the paiNtewae of lit# duty* feat* dtatorfctoo of
the truth M w l M X ta h em art tajnrfag* afttaHU es^eiaUy <aj the
f&astie @taia af tba yesst$@ur gaaareft&m**
I t la o f the utoaafc lag miftmm 0 th a t i f the ausfcftiiayy of Jus*tie© la to be
tifM b im * i t m m b e i W » W
by a o a w n l.lp M N ta * ttc n o f .arise *
$»$*li© attitude i % le J M # the e r e master of the orimlma preoeee*
the reaObe asr the p m e m of rnmnimutixm
Juabim m m % m outgrowth of * « y faebesm itolah fmtiUe the geUm* the
©©arte# the p&imiI ®M parole laetittt&lQtft <m& the pebuM© sated* a reduo*
t&oo la lieieaeetie e w @ l be bret#s& about ee^Oeelm^ by the police*
I t la a
eajpreaiito today th a t peXLelag mart f a i l i f the flush
dragged In by tie ge&jLee m t msm@m bhreu#t heXea ta m by the
aibcarary* m by the omrt** o r by ttoe 4***y* to e se ^ le d pelieteg; by
m m te '%mm%$ e ffa e t 'If th e preeeoibire# jad letel* prebatteo*
mm aisliiteX llp^t# tMhwrem% tie ffle ie u t or
m l pesutX
eesmspt* t e t i l e eltm ttev t w ie te to isbicsh t e Judtel&l $mm®mm @e
e m rt the- tseeaeeaiy
in the heart# of ©rga&eaia md dtasem e «$**
©spate Jmettoa itltbewb fleer of jpllbteal regelaaX* It t» difficult to mm
h m the p&klomim*® where to tie re^ooeiM3X% of prseer^iof, the pcnm
m i
Xa tie t&tSente^ Hie reepoiM lbllitles i m ptireeretng the
pe&e# are a t e p
eg$te$i t i e o o tlre
not fa*eea*gft*lly egaiset
aay m m of the M i y spwlDi ubioh imrtioipat# to last wbMnmkmmiU
M **» Attorney tfrnwal'a ScBflaraaca ca.JMas (JS54) *
pf# 58#
XX* iteo
of to© PoXio©
fw m to© £*m 08$M $ & ±mm$wlwi I t ©NnaM m% %m im £m m & to o t tfa©
psMm otooXtt to oaaaptoi twm ^©Xr rnlmm &£ ito roopoooibiXl tleo o£ m**
twzim fcto ter# tetr
te p X r
mm tm$r9 O M r obligations sr©
in fa to te r* in n o ta e , in
m& s ta tu te s*
X x M m M m o f H u n Im m d rmwpmwibillttm m m u w foXXo©tags*
{1} t e e too ©iiotod^ and ©ssttooX o f tfa© pufclis property of the
(t) t e r n
fcto p m m § © rtor# m $®tar ©n& <tea»Xin©&» o f th©
aagnel OSlfoeOO Ifef1
S&X& ptfi iW POgliXottoO©
&*sd ©a&liriKi of the ftefBHaft aa^t *Mto Ooiaie$X«
^W nl1^ ^ WW
'fflOthM i f t A ilhi Mfl Al
air I
'" " t TO ® tpw-**
^^TW# TwjHp
>*W W **W W W W
%©# PflWOOOt IS8HI rli^li OS- p@3FOCwl© 0130
*ril m fc lftfc a iTI iMMljf a i»
(S) Itoolto m p m i p m p o M m t w m m% e w r / ilm *
pm%m&im. to
m I atiwig^m arriving a t
reXXtojp # tsl^ 6 M in to o nl^gfct Moo*
V*# ««nso
o f o ix is^pw®^!®©®^ ooo ronisfir o©$n©t©si@e «o <sjul
© tosr off&$taXs to to® © to tessitt tiw o o f#
F S9 V
MmxH. A A
(S) t e
-lit Mihi
y a n
Jh v 1^ 9
,f> ifM iflMM U ^A >
notion of ©XX ten d ten to # tootoootlom and doltoto to
too ©tot&otis* toUs©# ©Xte® md palsXlo pteo© o f too city*
and- to mmmm ito&r im m i to i&joorstoao® ©itotooprcin.*
sto so o f ©ity crdiiinri©®*
C®) te o o to to mmouis&
&aXX ortom d irected to silo V too O
mlmdmmt of teXto rotottog to tooXto grosormiiosi* ami
a l l t o w o f too O m te & m r ^
wprfes, ^sal Comio»
&tmmrn o f a tro o to f o r to o p rto o o tio o o f tto s tro o to # oito^o
Piyi^ otohmo3ytei of too ottr*
(X0) i t e r too otoooto o r &mmdm im too te o ^ to to ^ c i n i t r of
m M m
to o t trl^o w m k of to© f ir o
slmiX not b#
(XX} rn®d& p d iio o i^ o b te io w i o o tte o o f ptoXto o ^ fa r© opI
oM niotootom m s^lotod to «nto© sssi Xsnr o^ftooe^ont mk!
odto r^p^rto to' too I t e r and £*£% QoonoiX*
(18} Mm often m m s m m e ? detail m aofftotont faster of police
to mate® & thorough m& oyoteaalto e&sMrmlicm ot tb© City,
m d to r ©fxsrfc «OX *totattaf*# of toto ogdiiiano# to the
prop®** sattei^tls®*
Hio# it to toosatoeoi upon to# polio# to pr©©#r#® the public peace snd to
swtmto U m aoiitibto# of the tositoe# e t e l s *
®pm to# poXte# sect#
to# to&ttol dbM^i&tta© of seosrtotog for oftossd#®# end totagtoE itos& to
txisl,* fts#
of SPiStO;, Of <ii$padXtag MiraijMBfttl, i&$0®^IJL©<a, Of
protecting to® rt#to of p^mm m & of jyopertgr &r# tesic duties* tod to
odditis tO'tOMi oxn
otocr dittos oedb oo presorting ardor
a t eXeettono, gtoing oM totw oo a t fto#% itoservtog
tone mKsh &# h m m m o f
giatoXtog <tao% pool baHa and the X3te,
and diroottog
oltoto and bttoaeo oom^iiti^*
&XI p & lm ootle ha# a t it® $ptCk torn ww$mmmm$m «sa& too p r e ttie r * o f
erto©#^ Mil m m to#
of the polio®*
4a to to# wppoeolm of ortoe, too priacifal Method* Imm hwm
adopted by to# p m m *
ih# tto o t to th e smtooXXtog o f to# etoeet# and
$&gh®#y@, the oooood, the
of sMtoote of deteettoci to ferret
out eriagj* the efffeetiea fmtro&Xing o f etoooto and highwfsy^ to , o f
oour##, o f f i r a t im prntm om to poXXotssg#
**Ho «n*#* ooyo Bruo# W ith ,
m m m m too *^p**aftadto offset# of to# w & f t M d p$i*©X, hut toafc
\itatorlo#XSy too- poXta# to to# o&flld of tbe aUltosy* *2fee first
organic polio* te e # to too worU « • th e M ^dhouosoe total*
ttoltoh o d to Wxmm to 1186 to tto # «Q0d « m i of erisi©# connittiA by
from too aroy*
X atar I t# J u rie d !o tta n w
toXar^ad to to e in g
a ll oftooa ototottod m to# higM y# am , aftor being mowidUmkI to 1TO0,
it h m m m to# t m m m gmi&arm%f& of Wmmm*
to instant to# polio# de*»
to ito ly wreXml tern to# ®siXita»y mm of fetagp* ftemllnitod $iato# to to#
m & y M & tah speaking aatotm t o total* to# poa&ae d#v«l^p#d aa f
is d lito iy o ^ o ftim tio o * M r FatoX i#,
(X901) ,
m m
g-ait Oto^r, J M
a iia t a i u e i i ^
<X9M)? Foadi^r, 'm m m
tmiXmmm to
®vtotoi& m ts t# mv%r sswNifc tons m t adsait
o f t t e «Mgbfete»t
to ot p&m&Utog ft* mmmmry i f ertotoalo or®
to Is® <mgh& to tli® mms&M&lm mt m to® 1® ©n
foot* Ito
pto® toot of poito® r®^pDsx3ilslXitj XtM la tt» mtohit’sg of that tmm of
^ito m r n w & m M m t o y r n m m r n m m m emsm&ip m d m m
fro® too rumpus of otto®* Itoto to tto ^soo&tei to the
^ppe of tottoXltoo Oottoo ttat otooM I®
Ite gmmtil
%®te®r to to m d m m f®ot^%®&tto§ m tto «**»
ttia t (&) i t to $$®mmi®Xl$r tog^oi& to fo r th* mmmm
& oofftotont mm$mt of hm% fmtestaea to
to& to® ® $ % omm!®#* (i) ttot th® 1mm toot pmrnmSmm to ^bg^toaXl^
'laO^Ol^Ul tf
its® QOBQStofE of $$&® fiSOt®tdlSBSl oitoitoo&f {|} &to&
mm im it® tootogfy #$0 to o t patrol s^oim tofttod bmmmm o f & too paw*
@&m% spirit of loafing** tfetolt tomtt&ostoiKl mmg- toot p&t&ol oyot«®»«*
*toi§to odor fro® tto point o f 111#® o f ooM lag oristeiX o ooott orpsaossio
a**o ootxto* But tto mwmmxm- £&il to t$m into oaeoani ftoi ih® boot
^nsunicip&X m i t » A stetelstrattm ,0
K «*» MplctM..Mmteear
nf ^ * 1
* ^ umii gflttMl M u t r
MS {SowKafcw, J«S)* p . 88.
oopnriiM® in
tto to o t pottot ^®t®a
to inaot tto otoftgtos otonotor® o f ito o it f to m
to o f tossmsy 1$
W%Bf w$Mm® o f of'tr otoooto IM I iO i t ^ i | tto
too® «o®~
pto®& &$W ® mmit tsr
T O w fte
iiwraof olsiaat fin o ® f3ssl fo i^lt^XX £1 Wtlf^
Hdonet tm m mi pmimftemm mmM tmm
o f Urn ttms
1$m msdmt o f
mmM not
^'Hmm ®i>pmm littXo ctoolit Um% Urn %mm fmim&®M m im& 8%m&&
Xittlo ot% m m mi d m i m M m M o t o t
m m oriadtof g«ng #mt plies
fto tr o io in s§®otor «oi«* So not oofr.
to stsso tto os^odnsXA tot too no
hlo lif o in tto «tt»apt
to oiorouto*
oooX^olo o f tto toltot® o f ^ p®.1»1
foosid to W | to lto e MMMotoolfoo (1910). pp. 445 f f .
mm be
j! p®to#X
to mi M w to #& Mmt- ttos® otter 2jg®ttortazi& rog&rds. la
|j tfc# w»o®to| ###* o f ®
to® fo o t j*®totita®% h m m ®#u®&* to
j| #•# <to wasii toward #iai>«wrtoto s#t?®»fcto®# &r& e#re®#tte& tm flt& ot# th«t
rto # to #rto®:« to r to th®r® mmk Hmtbt too®, to#
j pairami #£ to# *&te ooto* ®# to# te&% e r a # 'tot tore a roatoatoiag
j to fto sw # *p#n. fcteo#
to oMn&i & # rl» *
Of efator
to to#
ji fo o t to®# to# to®# p M t e to m im&taetmk poltst mi ss«to#t
to$Nyto#i*& mt# to# $»$p#3teio* to### »#&&»$ to ito mm hmmdmm of
j! M l i n totok « M » li md oootoi S m m
;< Wmm mmm otetofe otiXX m-qm&mthm hm%patrol*
to tomadd £* iton® to#
j: mM* *S#mbi tootaNt lm 'to# #®t of team ing s#Wl#i iw fete taflf' ohiXdr#**,
##& tiMfctog $®p##itosa# to totortor
| to# prwao&t## pooolMltoto# mi to# $#titaot$RMMt
| to# rotptniiiM l& ito# of to® p d l# #
®to##t a&torot. owdU**i
|i toXli$«Ma& « # # I 7 #£ p orte by 'tteroaghly «&Mi#tacl
ooopatoi&Lp m g m *
s #to#d gN^rain®#* «o p3u»n» to#% ton® te#n « ® M msfe By o^psrto to «««#
I, W
m- pmty&m&mmmte mi' m&h m&m&m
QmfawdMUm9 f m m polto#
to ®m&& to# iw^aalMlitr #£
fey m&m mMmm m. foot. fm teto* to
; ptXtoim*
®kbmwS* o^j#!#«l rito
to off*®*!**
m &to dottaoo #r# of to#
tormif&i to# i*88&#!fel#*a #£ tte toowwy
. mmtf
* imp#® toot allow for ®o tm%mtmmmm nmdlltgr to
; p#H@# mlto* jgtoo# •■
.1-1(r|1n..^ r—.■_r.ri
*?## to
opooo® to tost |s#Xto# foro##
«S*» Po3.1e« W A 'tm tim m m be teew w ed," I I l^m i.o Mwcwigaw^ 4 m
d e a l),
m aliaoet Instant union of police units said exerts a profound influence
In oloning «p isotiimtion to oaaratt crloe,1 The responsibilities of the
police lie, therefore, along two frontst the continued use of foot patrols
in those scoter® where they are required, the
of radio-equipped,
motorised cri^flghtiag unit® in such number® a® will allow the police to
mmM a the i&eblXity of arftae*^
the m&tormd force, like their prototype the rattle watchmen of
W O years ago, are there to prevent disorder and to catch, If they can,
any persons who break the* law* But If a ck^rtment*® foot and motor
patrols were the world1® best, they could not incur® an effective police
responsibility# Within the last fifty year®, the need for crime detec­
tion ha® grown apace* the departmm& of a century ago did a jwsably
good job of detection by mere reliance upon the photographic memory of
its police and the Infrequent use of the well-known spyglass of Sherlock
Holmes* But the tmm of humanity which now confronts the average police
department today, the continued flux of criminal eSassenfcs from one juris­
diction to mother, accompanied by a growing disapproval of third degree
practices a# a m m m of arriving at guilt, plus the development of the
science of crte detection, hmm obligated department® to oast aside the
Chemin, wfbe Mood and Itanralopmsttt of Police {tawounicMrt&wi
Systems,51 Western City {June, l£35); BhenefieXd, «How the Eadio aid®
Police Work," 80 H»bifinal tonloipal Harlem (May, 19a), pp. 867-871.
B m the Hg^rt on the Municipal Oovemment of the City of Louisville.
a general kfcudy as "toW s l K e M police reS^nsHHSSy#
^1?he great stride® in the development of scientific crime detection
have occurred within the last hundred years* Concerted efforts wore first
Bade In tbe® field of scientific inquiry as to the identification of per­
sons when photo galleries were first employed In I860* The publication of
i o M i m M M m m of erliae fighting sad to adopt the wonders of scientific
j crime detection which are m m available to the polios* T m detective
|| branch of the mrrim Is m m m essential to the preservation of public
©©ourity as the tmifswtod force itself*
Detective offioore of today mm* h& scathing mre than a sleuth*
! Bstlw
tml m d in scientific detection. Who m m
J| the victim of thm artart Where 414 tlwa offone© occur? Hour was th© ©rim©
j ©CMittod? m m whet wm®wm m m It porpotratod? mat war© the moons
|| OB^Uayed In Its tsmm3Lmim? lhab m m m m 'tlao of attack? mm* m m the
I; swattwe? Thmm m m qpesttsii* which scion©®, rather than th» third degree,
.| meat anaww,1 So vast and ocwplax and accurst® ars the tools of science
that ttnsolired crimes Should lade ftwaa the picture, In the acceptance of
; th® responsibility for oriiae detection, It la obvious that fall employ'
j ssent of th® tools of crime 4©tecticn must be utilised* the simple fingeri
: print M t which sow departments ns&y up©** f w %$©i©©bimtt is, of course,
; entirely itisdeqw&t®* Proper detection repair©® not only a wans of 14©»~
i: tlfying the person through fiBgcrprintc, bat of the Materials1* of th©
;j crime* Strides made in the Itieii&lfloailoKi of ftresmt, in th® mmdm^
I1 tion of blood stains, in bleed analysis, and in th© mlcrosocjpio examine
i tion of clotMng, mmfewtimt* coin®, deetsmts, duet, glass, stains and
| marks, fcetprlnts, and in th® detection of powerful drugs, to mention a
i ; Sir Francis Os&teft** study of fingerprints in 1892, that of Sir I* B*
: Henry In 1900, end the studies of Alphonse BertilXcn in anthropometry In
j 1605, founded scientific identification of th® person* Iwestigationa
into the %atefiale® of ©risgo--£ir©-&m identification, blood stain analy’I els, questtoned dooiMM&s, the detection of lie® etc*, date from th© be­
l gimaAag of the present century*
As to third degree practice©, mm Berman 0* Beyl© and Spencer D*
■ Parmtt, ^Approval m d Msapproval of Specific Third D&grm Practices, *
i 26 JmmwX M .
md....Srlmtoalo^y S26-5Q (Bovembor, 1957).
f«w# m & acknowl^esyjrcts that tools mist play m important part*1
?e tfala point, im Imm eoneidered only the ropmmtr® pfamm of
©riia©, namely, the patrolling of streets and highways and the ferreting
sot of ortm© through th* fmpX&gmmb of method# of detection* In th© eense
that such aeti^ltlos load to th# prev^tim of other orime activities,
they may also tea considered as o*toe
th* wtmatafLary of today, *$pm*nfci#Ki* ha» an
e#tlvltl**« However, In
different asaanliig*
fhe transition in th# waning of detection represent® cam of th# moot
striking wsasplo® of th# rapidly tnoreaaitsg responsibilities of th#
polio## PreveE&ten 1# m m generally c©nsid©r©d. to ©sabrae© that phase of
policing which ha# to do with th# ©liialimtion of can#®# and conditionB
which promote crime both m to potential and pant offender#«. Crime pro**
wention is ba0©d npon th© sound assumption that for awry not of ost-Mrlon
and oowlaaion there 1s a oats##* In othar word#, where them 1# smote#*
there y«m # i H find fir## Timm appear® little doubt that if the polio#
do not shift their ae&lvlties Into this new and important field of crime
©aus&ticm, their burden of repressing crime will he all th© greater* The
nhdle speebien of #aforo###rft 1# on® of cause a® well a# effect* Chiefly
th#' polio# hare been dealing with effect*
Mmmg th® iisportant wortee in soisastifle «rlm» detection are th©
following* Bdmend Locard and Cahrlel Pottan©, Traitj[,cb.. “
(1931*56}g &toh©?% Die KrlsdjaalpoXiaei,
(298$) 9 Sydney Smith and dcta OX&ister,
U0S&>§ IftHHkS, __
{196$)I Xoeard,
)}| Harry "Soderman and John I#
tlon (196$)* An ^joeptlcmally adequate bibliography corering th© field
of criminal investigation la b# be found in drear,
Pdlloo Science (19S8), See aim VoXXmar,
Mth edition* ^d* 1£.
t% 1*
m ttvltim imm rm&iv&a mmx%>
m $b© p s r t o f tb o po&ioe*
to p tm m tb w r$m m m mm% firafc
temm utiofe mm &&* m « o f wtafc* $© 00% «$ sot* turn bom ablo le
ooaigft gr®#®r m oi#& $0 mgr $tiig&o ftaoftor o r gam # o f foetarsi l u n M
4jft ^feat ataman* *j# I3$&&lgte W&&* Slfc Omlitw O&fetiLO te *
W W W H fV w
'W W f
tpw *
w tete^w w p p
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^, m
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w P W P a l^
(OPOte^^temap" a tP * * " * * ® 1
aMWfeik^iWfMB^ Ytofr, asml
OBP*^0* p 0 ^ O » T |0 M M ^ g p
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t WW
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w i^ ^ r^ llP O P ^ te P lO
i^ P ta ^
^ v ^ w w f a w ^ ^ m * B n n w
R«^^rfy^ 7t
Of frtftdWTtfifciTtt jhyaara^ii^ia» asrfcgj.lemiGm&hgmritilA foMaaaaa
» W W r W W W w l,* ^ p w
*W «W H P™
awna #»#** t§Mfe dt&tttag^S,. fmt&iSfcO Of dte!3J!l<i3Ml‘
(•p w p w ^
> ^ |Ul* Li-
ertetosattjr te w pwwd m fftolaB tty flnattftA m to J a stity w y efforte
B r t gfcw re asonable pwadte mt mmemm* I t i»
a telWmowii fa ct
tte t tte- worn *iMXmmmSate* fasten? the* can te n tw n i ftw tte muvisKmm
w e t o f otdldtete «a& yewtfa* Use lo w pea»5.bttlty «tew» la of opls&mtla tle ateftegyaU aa. tee»g tfee UvosfUtat oonfteBraftee footers ore sate
rsHjogniaable a m as* Cl) Safwimted or uncongoniiO. parent*. (a) teateaad
te w o»«l reH gioae t«flMM»w» (S> teak o f roewattonai. opportunity.
te u .
Drug ted
Antli-aootaX a t t d -
(?) tew **r. (8) M aanoeUtae. (s) 3o*did aumwitegffl. (30)
tentud dwtegeraowte or eteterteSA U es.1 A ll ttem cotiteltete fc® ftm ste Sag
wggfty a f
t t e ps&ieo t e w
t e
M l vw&im
*3» w te ta mm:£teM o f l& tem tete oa esatesl fw tors o f eri**# tJ:at
w am te w In teteta te ly * t e o f tea iKHSwat aaliton^folf, ft? TftrtM
j Ganal.%
9m mm tiain®*
p&$m mm c & m M i p i tgr hsbit m m m && tarn*
Por ornturi** they law# boon aetat&wi to too reprmato* aspect*
rattar t o m to* pm w t t o m a. cuipmte of ettae«
SantaUy, th««-
tor*, o t K H w M t o i i^an to* toftoettoa *f ertaitato sod to* imwtigaUon
sf os&M* tan toaartad to* tin* of aoat pelto* department* to to* e&ola•ton of m y ttewgjit of
to* desire to oototain toe
m&W mt to* OHtototo^f town another footor*
to to* h u m stood of
tagwrtoaee, to* polio* t a w towmed ton* it to w u a ^ r saftat to tot m i l
owa*®fe done*.
Vwtm toe tar®*r etmfntot,
to* r a d roewsm ilea perhaps In
to* toot ttat onr gx&ta* taptatomfto t a w not tarn M l t w with otto*
« dtottoot function of to* polio* for w y tongtfe of ttoe.
to*» nmfe polio* sptta of "artoe gnntatom" fctay r*f*r a n a U y to tta
Br#pr*MdwH tonsmse* rather t o m effort* <ttr*e«*d at to* i w t a l of to*
tadMOytag osntow of ertotaeZ cmtteot,
to on*, totof of poltoo rmorkwdi
“to* mgr Z pmeonfc otto* to to oateh *wa»*
% •
gtoan to*
ttat erto*
often develop*
o mt e e t
e n v l ronemt ho*
B w w y
eity ta*
Ib toto oonmafcton to* stud? wad* to 1830 by tta tie* tort Burssas of
Staaiotpel. tatotmtton todlaatod * general neglect on toe part of to* pcOiee
to partiotpattoe to estee ptwemtoon aattoitiaa, Oallojstar to id* c h m
Ajfipietowl .tonotafln (3330), peg* IS, tp»te8 toon to* report.
•k temaUmmSxm sent out to 89® w e r t o w ctUea . , . . m 3 r*~
•ponded to fey 88© polio* tapartemts toon* ttat erto* j n m e t o B m e © is
only pertly w d m t o o d , Vtm an aneZyeia of the qomUoimato**, it ***
tatwsatowd ttat «Mto* g mor aUy (to SOO tat of 220 oosea} reoogdeed to*
topwtm** of to* mpievtotoB of potato ptoses end the im**t%a«ltn of
tame and nto^octaed: etadittaw* Smsver, tsspm&sitom gained st*m the
mfmrtiolid m d w n t n t o t o y wamm retotlt* t* the tofsortmo* of such
wait, end personal toewttgaUme to four Stew for* elite*, show ttat w®fa
*ta*o«isita tad toraMtigatton to of to* m e t ommX uskX perftaetery sort.8
tow* nftito it taato be ante to gMtawlixtog to assert ttat paUee departsnots lata earotol tad estomto* program of ertoe f-revenUtai sswrk.
mm mrsdmim to erlm* Sudb focal
to x tta of im§mUm m to ta l* p&mm mi mmmmmtp tm arai^tota tatee
pvwM&Mm mm tatflag $&mm of th® 1d£Um
lM&X«>t pooOl i-oesm* t m m m o f
Iflfyf ,<^ # '
C$Ft®ASS®£&# &HBI. <pgtt$ £{|i£JS*& ffCJ&l ttlft
#£ tsmSSfS&Aty $0&lt
l i i l th© < w i^p|ly aaa.
W W W ™ W W I ta " » W e w jp
of o%ok*M^lai8ts*
tkm$ ©f tmtts flap^fef^ Him
01^ 1
a flB K s P W
lw w * W P W irw W 8 j|
Hsfi^r 3US&iHftfifO
egxl rotter sob*
i?WW@8^fe acid f Hiwl i tlf f }
.* ■ '« * ^^^TS jr
Hi h,
-djfPfflffi fflF& tl©tbi$$g| tSOI1© filtSHI <S^8HI*i^
oriMsmla*. Maa®r itom&s ami t o m & m ttotortos t o t o 4ap& temt«*
fl% and imm to n §m» tot!* m wmp mi mm aid immm9 t o vm&®r t o
m & m m m mi d«$% tfilA top at ntota« tail p t a m ton t o
m m
to to t a M n
t o t o s & a t a t o % t o to t a n t o r f t a i» tiww*
of ptol#
A p cftta t a t o a s t o «& to t& t o pwfttaw toofe tot* ©cmsm® o f ©on*
wilX © to to i ^ M
m i
tMm m m
tto ton
tom ta m m pm®IM®* t o r am .
m m mww&m
ate® t o y » i n f t position ta
toats* flj?»tPta3d la to to © of tom# t o toM am * of mm% of to m
ptaa© t© femi to too c*ft&*»» t o toy « m abXa to ig^wer *toaata to
ptaea intoto to j t o U m i l l t o m « t o M oooM not* XtoftntMy t o
of t o p e k t a « w t l l ,» i# to t o t o t a p&tto© ta m b a
u r n t o t mi t a m
l sp o tto g of t o ®msxsm «f o t t o w
to to l%
im « itaU ‘ Sntao&s na^io of oftoo al'iouM too © tolopm i Just
mi tatotal
m ^ m M md t o $mm
®&®m t o
Sm in tertab le; acewwt of tho oaussO. foetara eg m im te oontaiwsji
is Gbtatwf h **•&&, ^wt«ri^MttJaiiifl»...aag.ta^. (i&ao).
St is txmeoiag increasingly apparent that possibly the mlority of
begin thstr anttesectal careers In childhood. In any ■*»««>, the
laportetes «c tee JroutU pn&fcw is masfe that preventing juwolla deshould be
first step
jwevantleiu -Already
a t e
pcOlc* deporteante eve rsaognislng the importance of helping ywrth end
te e large master of cities ertae prevention bureaus tees been oatabliated tom tbs prise pmrpses of guiding J s w b U s delinquents l33tO GttWP
Internet*, angling testy leisars itae la smoittoM* Mtivitte* designed
ter testr sen eojegwwt and uplift.*1 3a this, tbs btunaaua serve tbs duel
purpose of preventing the initiate tees clashing with tee lew, v d o f i * .
Rusting the deUiKpwrat sfter M * release frws eeersotlonal tastitattoos.
Greater progress sill be sods when the average policeman forget* the fesling te/t he m ed net eony about the teiiBt|B«iRte. i^psjaaest in the rainds
«f a^Btr peUss is ti»e foaltog that they
mm emptoyed te hunt
MijSsr, tee srfataei site « fries er» hi* head.
tar the bank
awettltag tee jtnwile
®we» «ad dtreettag the attention of yoateo away fwx* tee Infiuesscea
vfcteh generate te«a*eanSBe ass tee often ooneidersKi ass beneath their
Another of tee grass pmbtats white eeaSsty is called upon te sseet
today is tee granting e#
aaoistanes te the unterprlviiedged and the unsn»
vw w tn e w iw e s r w M ina m fti 1
Bm a w M m *
S U n A
3y53 MprII* ISM) i tfitor# *$>•
^ s s s j t a t e e ^ * sat f r B t o i U t e ,
[&£ M U d o ] 21 M L n d o
Qmsm&r® Prttgwwi
J a m a
e c w w a ttaonat,
19SS); tatfcntel tentewnso m the itedaatten of a t e . fomart.
SheldMi and Steenor Glrnm, rooLtmroj
L {%& * - , *
“© S w i l i * S 0W *S»CHp*A
teA^yjTj^. J
AJwm^tes (1SS6)?
'f e n . ? 4 - itm . t \ - > n n n s v l t r . m e t *
(tew tort, 1917)} testlenol Cawdaaion on las Observance and aitoreeEsant,
U N O ) ,
pX«Wfld, Been*** eeonosln In sta b ility plays an irapertant role in •‘rrrtttnrr-
toy the polios In w u ally Inevitable. fiere the work of
« » polio* U
along Unas of cooperation with other agenda*.
Oj® nig-
dfloant position of tfoe pAioe depmrtoaat offers an Important opportunity
te evaluate living oondiUona «ad to OMrtalbate their fcoovOmiga to the
vaxima elvio
end governmental erg«al»ati«s»# which ere orpmisecl for pur­
poses of aeeistmee,
tMng the effldeX ageaolse with tfeleh
Should too t» fPftpent oesteatat* altar charity »a& welfare depart&anta,
th* city health
probation t m w , playground and iNKjrsatloa-
d. dteportmt«i# preeeeotins omeiaia, a»a ®j»i«lp<a wsfloyaent bureaus.
%pfflrfcURit,y l» frecjaeaUy offered to cooperate with m b non-omeial orgaatsoUoBa aa ateircbee, clinica, elwba, a M various charitable organiaw-
•a» saany new fields of ertne prevention ddeh s*e opening up to the
police hae .leoesslteted the eagOnyMnt of m a m to police depsrteenta.
Shore are mm&
problem, parfeieularly those j» vbieb children,
girls, sad
mmm, are InveX**!, vtotch a m ho handled beat toy * paUoowaw® merely
%ec*H*e sSto te a woraan. In at least Smt iapoptanto instances «m m police
m e filling an important need, vis*, 11} Supervising «K®*rclal recreation
open to tmaan and ddIdrea.
(2) Xnvesiigatotag ooatsutiity conditions that
aahe Bar deXlntpianey, (8) eentaartlHg girla in need of guidance. (4) to*
wfctgaUag eoaplstata against wanna end chilttowi ees&ag to the attention
of the poUee.
r — “■‘- r yir ‘,“ ‘ T T r r r f m ~ ‘*l —
••'‘~11,' " “ T ^ r T r T f T r t * m n r i i T ,( ri iei*Ma i ] i t i r f r v i iren j i iiirw i>nm riw nn-.irin<i|fii ii «in m n i'wi.iii.ii >ii. i .i.iu i o n :-ie f f m e m a r i n r ; - r — T u a n n i r m n . : : i i : iu it
Finally, tore is th© responsibility of educating th® public*
of th® principle iseasms ifeldi «n ©ntoprietog police fore© can adopt in
reducing t o w h i w of crime,w says Eay^ond B* Fpsdick, "to a systematic
education of th® public v&th regard to criminal methods end practices.
ihsr® or® fnimerous wnys in "diich an educations! program can be carried
«fc* Oa&sp&tgns illustrating the oorasequsnee of leaving door® unlocked,
or of sduXtttiig unitoati^ed p r s w into house® or shops; campaigns
pmpagandistng the need for careful selection of «spl«grees and ssrvsmts
oe a means of prevmting "inside* Job®, often prove of great worth in re­
ducing crime* the effective damsttsatlsn of eaveitamav and forgetfulmss has acre ton proved its worth* In addition, if ttm polio® widen the
horison of education by isttaffl&ng t o public in matter® of safe driving,
of caution® m to driving hssaxds, of instruction to car mintenance, the
toll of accidents, Injuries, and death may well be reduced*
In conclusion, what arc the responsibilities of the polios?
In its
broadest aspect©, their responsibility to tovelinad to cause m well m ef­
the bulwark of effective policing m m t ®li*ay® be supplied by the
uniformed force end the detective branch of t o service*
Patrolling and
ertas detection of high order arc, of course, m^datory.
Without thsm it
it.inconceivable t o t t o peltoe rmpmm iMXity can 'he matotatotd*
however, anet 'be reenforced and topXessmtad wherever possible by devices
of colas premttoa*
t o responsibilities thtmfbre lie along four frontst
(!) Patrolling t o tercets and hi^ray*,
(2) Ferreting out erto through approved scientific orto detection
(5) t o employment of prevmitlonal policing to t o attempt to reduce
t o causal factors of crime,
(4) Muoating t o ettlsen*
t o modem police department «Oiw ‘
to its tor-foXa responsibility will
stress neither one nor another, but all four*
^American Police ganjteas (X9&0), p. 565*
awnm u
umsmxm police m ^ c n v m m Q
Measuring polio© ©ffectiwn®©© appear© m mm of the wtwilight” zom&
of research to efcUfa student© of police administration haw devoted ©cant
attention* ■ While th© diagnosis aad prognosis of those factors or criter­
ia itisMt det&m&ne hmt wall, or be* poorly a police department function©
mm of great 1mpmp*mm$ yat relatively few students of police adminis­
directed attention to them* teacng the pioneers is Donald
0* Stone itos© artiel®, published in I9S0, "Can Police Klfmttvwnsss be
mmwrn&T*** m s one of the first to segregate maswable and ncn<«ieeuna>»
able factor®* five years later* the field of tnwstig&ticn m ® enlarged
fcgr the provocative study of Atffetir Bellman, »A Police Service Bating
i farther cmtrlbwfclm ©we in 19S7 with the publication of th©
artAtfUt "Keasuriag Police Activities,”S by 0, K. Ridley and Hert>ert ft.
Sisson. Hoot recent
in measuring polio© effectiveness are those
of Spencer D* ferrett, th© cue, BA Gritiqn© of the Bellman Folic© Service
Bating Scale,®
the other* #A Seal© to Measure Effisctlmnosa of Police-
L e Public KatutKaaanl. 46S-71 (September, IS30).
g88 journal o£ (frlmiaal taw and OrMnetogr. 74-304 (Bay, 1035).
S18 Public thmMWMmt. 134-39 (Siay, 1937).
*87 fcurpsff. of Orj^dnal hm.t..and flriadnolojsqr. 893-805 (Larch, 1937)*
S28 Journal of Criminal Im.moA Criminology* 7S9-S8 (January, 1330).
purpose ©£ tills chapter Is to explore further the possibilities
<tf «S3>Jytag reliable rsHwuring dovieea to pdiolng, to dotendne shat
yM*««tiefc» m
be utilised sitt* * reasonable degree of assurance, and
that yera-sttcJee ought to be diwsarded.
5he task is set eaey, for the
poMee see dealing *&th «n 1afcsagl&Le, flaotoatiBg, and tOaoefc indefin­
able pn&Utt, the diwansiana of ebicb w a y f**» time to time end from
W l a sm s
-k jft
W ljs e s A
jB W W w W W Ip^y'ly
M a timmoxmp*
Oa&tete «f Ma
m u M m U m tr ^ r ts n t oonatesw tte*
t e of j t e io o ffld ils t e te g hmm t e
t e r i a t e piw ogativ® « f <te*T t e * t e a o lta m * t e p o lice 6& pme*®mte
)m m m m Sat t e te & r M l s t e e .
M Spanner a . te v m tt t e said* • »
t e i£E| as teg as the •ftetti* t e t e of
te o m tc r ex t« t# pans opon t e t t e thsgr think p o l t e mm% stsmdarda ap~
proved la terms of tlse&r t e « a » t t e t e sad tates*
m o eonspe*
tsncgr to te* eitise** to to teqr tho offteao^ of teactfustee control of
Xa agppl^rtng t e | w t e t t e of pw&LXc opinion to pc&iois&g, t e per**
ooot no a w a tte o f t e t t e te ta & te t e
o f t e police to X i#it
Of what t e p*&>3tie tp flf. th e work o f t e pdlle® to he* M e shift® os the public
tei litehltafits of the irtiXa^ of
a t bent, is &n eXniiiwi meat***®.,
tkMwoaeMf a$p*w» efseed**tra$>
activ ities of tb e tr police and. th e comsspent d e fin e In t e U llage tax
«*t»» Jfro* t e e t e p t o t of t e p sH lo , T illage poUeo are exeepUonall:?
te w t e vioo o f pe& te s te i& s tr& tte , t e d ^ s r t e n t ranks
t e r to th e effieiengsr seal®*
"ft Seal© to te e u r a
of P^Xiee-ft^ictioRing,K as
Joartial oiJjrtolfflrt, toff M K tfiltoltoteBZ, 7SS (January, 1S88).
tfcawow, public emanation, aa « yavdwsttok, ins the farther seate*
awes that it eetmot evaluate tfee tjuality of policing aoeexding to eerta&a standards of coapetesoe* Ifce eltisene have the veUtonferaoa kneededge aameoavy to drtnmSne he* eelenfciftoally eeagwtent a B of I in, or
to appraise a depertaent's moord eystacse (dong lions of accepted stand*
er&e, or to dstemdne whether the boat patrol layout eeoooplisha* ®*®«
i m n r n d t i at a&iaiana eeets.
Ttmm iw&taietrjifctwe aspects of
are beyond the view of tiw average citieen.
public opinion iadtoate*
The feet that a poll of
m "A* rating foe the dopertesent is not neese-
•arUy Indicative that the daperteami m ete approved standards of omb*
tem the point of view ot the
public has the fttrtber e e b *
ness that the public w w d d naturally view polios enfaraoHSQi few. u »
siandpelBfe of Soar enfwwaomt*
(fondly, when a wunielpality is eon*
fronted with a ovine wave, public approval of the police detainee.
feStttfe & w<ti$
tmmMSISm nmmf p0»3M3*i
tf a - a a i j l d j t t
nK 4lb*ffe
fwrylw nitorfrt A
to cciwiidtor tSwl ©t&jsi*
iM aafu m iniiiidW w aiaM ^'frvti1*!! -**•
Itap&t* t e ASSttetiktp ® £ t e
msm&t few t e o t e
® p M $ & © p t n t e *1
pfflAa «$sisite ®m tomM» wn
©f pcXiwt t l M t w i i i i
W b H#B' XftSf ^^£0VeOSMSett stSwiww
Js#itXc&®8!^ 1# $Imi sstiW# fbs p M l s
t e tefc
cf f M & t ©
y^f %$ u rdlls&X® jsgsbrss ©£*
Isolating eignlfloant rariatolee of iaeffaetlvwsieae wbSob eso be need
later as the foundation for edbawtitv* stwlyela. httntU's atody1 offers
■*“** Seale te Measure bffeotlvenaee of ?eUeo*>ft«cttemln£un 28
Aimmai of endadnai Ls» fffi*
7SB-S6 (daJKMUty, 1SS8).
«n Interesting contribution by It* fonaalaticn of a <£»ettannaire acoepbelds to effbativw iimwttieation.
the queeUcanatre, ooaprlelBg several
hundred Imjalrlao, le based upon seven stator pedate;
(1} that do the
people think sheet the oheracfcsrfettc® of sea csG^osiag the fcroet
IM tr desHngn with a to eritto e. (S) Their deaHnge with suspected cria>tael**
(4) Their emotaney or
la preventing or supprwseing
srim e. (S) Their etneeee ia mzfymas&m, or degree of toleration, o f
(4) Their firaMhm
teem polities,
(?) Their netheda la dealing
Swum* of ooqpetenm and
while net neoeaewlXy » m m
with the petdie mid with the preee.
ineowpetanee time dtealaead,
news, supply « w ^ w t d n background to further etmdjr.
«# ft aft&lftii
The preface to e
fthXXilii b©»
m#$ibl£U ft
pfal *ff p$MM mofoA&ad*
ioeteiftt r&l&te t* t e
of piaMe ©gtote 1® t e
;p*teitte* ML»
ttet ft ptiS&m $
t e tiawter ftf M
m te M m p t t e
gauged by ftt* m M & ef
tetanM fey t e dftpwrtate to t e mmtmr &t
m M m m m m %fa®
whi«ta «eteoi8
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t e % m rw$Htea* far
m % of m m M d M l m M m m m ® m w M
SD par ©ftnt# ft iSsfwte&t ftbifth ©^ore©ft
*3#*tgrv ftmfc&*i§ mi 80 $sfta? omit* M * ywtteri&ek &©«©# te& ssH ©rete
1JMI** 9* m *
da interesting; o n q r of public opinion aa to the evaneton Police
$ft ftftH
HftjT# MS?-* dte l i M i mi %tm B&t&mtil $&ffe$r
M i M a ai
wafB|p.ln^wrrnPPN|ll'^Ift^wiP'«fct.tji©i®MMr & wwwwwasmwr■- ®
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m m m mm mi t e m m
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tor#* mmp% itm t e testetto point mi t e #
to sutorte.
mmi&sr t et
«a to to s te i # f a togciJL datgr ought to to tearged a g a te i th® poXic®, t e
%tototo# yard~#tto& t e m i#«tetotestd
hmtm* in s®s8®ori8^|i
it siioaJUi
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to "sap s§* w&
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tet t e & M M to tlmd# pateU&sr a w
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jf ij g » n u r i i i P ir th a f ii J i
pmsoMes potato##
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to ®o®t
toss# ito toptetaMt is tejote# to a ‘‘©tea up*11 ite ite# teas#*
testes osteite# m % of t e te# t e isolate is p » e to rote, #©nH«*
d«Bt thst to# atjwtaniaBfc ## tog* tioulito ass
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t e g t e or t e t e a t e
teteat I®' W t e ste^iir st srte to s o « w ^ V
to tto first pite# t e t e r t e t e mi srte «
t e |»^te is
w i ^ ujt ^
ttet t e
polio® a m $®®$mteto t e t e steitea« toto to ©site th© ^sst $%mtp
Immmm t e mmmU tmtomm mi mtm mm imt t e mmt part to ^ te t e
t e l of th© pdlim# m d
mmm&t bmmmm -mmw ®%hm mm&fom to
to t e pstes tettolpte to t e ter m t e w m i pmm&m*
m m m M to t e p m s d te t e p t e to t o t e t e t e t a w t o ^ &£ &mmm
m%? sm toiaato to t e mmm% « t estos* te te im iity d istem to g ©eooo^e
pcm ^tteiS t 'sstpsd s s s to i to te * * ®s&$teto svistog mt of t t o s ty a a te n t
s o f
t h ®
o l d w o r l d
;i. h o u s i n g
i n
md o t h e r
t h ®
n e w *
p h y s i c a l
b r o k e n
hmm$ l e s i o n s
f a ® t o r s *
p r o v i s i o n ®
I n m e n t a l
a t t i t u d e s ,
f o r t o o l e e a l ®
r e c r e a t i o n ,
:! a s
t o l l
a s
o t h e r
i n t a n g i b l e
ij J t e a t o g t h e © r t o s r a t e #
© a n e a l
j| F l a c e
f a c t o r s
I s
m m
d o p a r t e n t
c i v i c l a o r a l e *
/ O X
© c e e d n g l e
i n
w e a lth y su b u r b a n e m r a n lty t o m e p r im
tm%m® m m m g l l g i b X e *
t h e
o f
t h e
f u s s s & l t y o f
© r t o ® n i g h t
b o
t t e t a l *
i n &&m o t h e r m m m & t j o f a p p r o t e a t e l y t h e
ij m m else to t tmmd with important sesmnto* soetoX* and racial problem*
;j m & t h e
o f
Ij w n t o y *
t h e
:j r e c o r d #
W h e t h e r
s p i n ®
w o u l d p o s s i b l y t r i p l e
M « t r o p a l i . t a n t o n e t e P o X i c ®
f t
;j m o t h e r q u e a t i o r u
I v a l u a t t o g a
c o u l d pmmem i t ®
p o l i c e
t h a t
D e p a r t m e n t
r e c o r d
d e p a r t m e n t b y t h e
o f t h ®
t o e
f o r m e r e e es *
a m e n v i a b l e
i n Mm f o r k
a r n i t
o r
o f c r i m e
© r t o ®
C h i c a g o
i n
i s
c o e s a m l t y
i| i s
!j t o g
e t o j e s t
t o
t o o
t o t h e
a d d t t t o ® s &
© r t o ©
t o t a l #
t o w r d
t e s t y
t h a t
e r t o t o t e
t o
a g e n c i e s
o f p u n X s t m o n i #
i c o m e f f e c t m t h e c x t o t o a l s a to d *
;j s y s t e m * t h e r e c a n t o n e m m m A
ii t o w i t o t i c m t e t h e
e t h e r
I f *
d u e t o
t e *
t o #11 t o
e a e a m p t o *
w e a k n e s s e s
t h e
^ o s s ®
asay b e
t o
s i t u a t i o n
a U t o g
t o
c o n t r i b u t e
h a s
t o o l ® -
t h ®
J u d i c i a l
i t s e l f
p r o s e c u t i o n
i s
i pm&F&& mapsst to the ertntaal* <fa to® other hand* torn toodtom® and
.; other malefactor® ®m js&tod right mm toft* there is an taasdtoto exodus
i of undoaimbles to other e«mnitiee wnot so hot*15 to
:| o f ' t h e
b e e t i X u n u
T t o r e c e n t
B e w s s y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s
the language
t o l o w T c ar k h a v e
h a d
: s t e t o r y
c h i e f s
e f f e c t
o f p o l i c e
ij tbm p * o t e # t e t a l
t o Mm f o r k
t o
o t h ^ r
C i t y *
c t b t o #
rniMmX t o
b u t
t o
t h e y h a v e
g i v e n
w h i c h w a n t e d
m M m w o r r i e d
b y
g r e y h a i r s
c c f t o t o a l s h & v ©
p o l i c e
t o
f l e d #
p t o f c H o p u n l e s s
i th ere I s Ito elih to d th a t th e poUc® Charge w in b® m jbstm tiabad to th®
j courts*
Ttemm to
no mattos^ttoal
to determine the todiwtdaaX r o e p e m s i -
billties of the mamwtiX. ©gOBotoss or th© extent to which oaoh should b©
htM Habto far t e © m m t of crlm * For this reason it lo difficult to
se© bow it 1© possible to 'teamir©1* t e effeetivenesjs of policing by
using th© amount of ©rto® os on tote*
tea* to ate another deterrent
©rto© yardstick#
precludes esspXcymont of t e
(km of t e m w ^reXisbto" ways of mmpmin® t e rs*
teotte records of ©©©mil polio© <tepartemts is a comparison of pm
capita (mmm oters) ortes costs to t e sormsX ooamnitlos* M i eon*
, parailw© measuring device r a t e s t e spesttort*
t e wo rsdtuoo t e cost of
©rto© to m dollar t e ©sot figusew? Altowtog t e an toitotod vuto© of t e
state property so Judged by tbs w f , a rossoteXy ©ecur&t© teft total
m m bo tested# M » total* boam m B glvos only a partial pistes of
t e situ a tio n t e te r© mm © te r to sses suffered by © ©owuaity Which
©osar appoaor os t e s t e t
Chief easong toss© Is t e loss imm rackets#
to Oordon $*« hostotte wrotei "ter© is t e a statistician to t e country
who would bo ©hto to t o d t e serried ways to which rookotoortog and oter
criminal tribute to levied upon t e cXitoon#*^ to regards Ostoago* it
bag boo© tetoatod teb th© ©emotey looms reported to tbs polios totalled
Isms© tbip caiswholf tiw prbbabto oris® toll# to© difficulties of arriving
at to© total mm% figure mm ably prostead by te a r s * Htetos and ta ilo r
to teir srtloto* **«M,ttoal lotos m t e Cost of 0rtoo**9
*** Matlonal
Bct W . c m (somtoa** aurat)*
A member of th© Ctoioag© Crto© Coteeslon ©sttostod t e cost of rad^*
shoot 46
tor t e
t e
by t e Chicago Folio© topartent* cm tost and stolm proporty was
ii h a r t U93S), p. Xfi,
S86 tTrfflfflffii fflf <*■■«"*"»* >*» ##8 Ctfmf.»q3.m yr 079 (January-Febnsaiy,
&£ Of’lg!® W0SI0% t&0
flftl ^y flpw
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tfam t*
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ifilMita^ffi.U O t ||£ *^n^4t
t e fe*&$or p M m $ip srteait«
mail? m i w im & fa ir &&i?w*t M &@@g&6&r*
m&M&l&ti fSfltfc® *#frl#y $gf lffij$B&MM fMMgPCNNMb fk *$W%
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«bw imttUtigr mm iM ti w» to S»»lt» Sianwt&gKtlOB &«« »t»t« srsd f«Jas?sa.
(MrfiMOo a m mmUtaikr tt» t t w tea a teiw d A m Am «acSe o f «te peU<»
ehalifim^d* A isotidlt»l,osa *******hm
•u p
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lyttvt la^SMfii^F PNf #*&$-**** A&§*m£&&mmttmsk^
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o f «wOm.^tei t t e mmmtAmrnum o f t t e 4«|Nwte(»fc. O aailflefittoo far
tte «m o f or—ate 3tea te tea aagamat tea t tea aAaat pcftie* u til ateo
©ter dentate© sot a U w to M f
roapcpsibiXitios will
mtm In WXssot&a, Illinois, two jmats ago, t e polio© dspartmnt in a
sis#© wistfe s a m r M a hmtosd p m v
oat a pwit*
i m
on t e charge of peddling with**
Is this im&%mm>0 the- m i t e set&vitgr m s teigte m a
of tMitete o #isl**g tefb reto oawaO b^r pilfering coraoXttod hsr
I t e t e iw ddtes*
per mit#
In fttes& sg a s s te * t e t e f t r t e dropped SOD
tester adte map* to t e sane p m # t e Wmm*wm poUe©
dagmtenb of I t e m * was
^soo traffic* arrests a isate* ten
teo o M g a teo t e a t e t e k te n t^ state** attorn©^ a &ti%m began t e l t
is^lxy into
is t a W i t e y f t e sot offiotet policing
of the l&m®% order* is t e ms m m a rie»»
lug arrest rate see ©aides©© of alert policing! is t e ©ter it indi**
teed a %p© of gtt&teisg t e & steld sot bo t A s t e *
tea© tangent
that tbo ssOber of arrests imlosa
analysis of the fimmi of arrests bitted sot bo seploysd* &© regards t e
•Ohtoag© tea# t e arrte t eo t e ease* t e sot w y *sa©h* teso*
oppoiosldif Offldffte botsoon
sirast mtoo and poOtitiofiCL
©loa© to tbs border'
to sate
of Sswstl^stios a m ppojso
arrests is os stto@g>t to sotls^f the press #*k* the psbw
lie* If st oil# high ©test rote is Omfc Qmmt& mm msm liable to Indi­
te© poor slicing t e n good poMcing*
•MiiOi. iw
Is general tes© dspsrtents
torse of r#w m ^ rt?fef*Nia«iahit»
g j^ ^ W W
»*W *PW
tsasdLssiOBt rank at the too of
" F w p i ^ * — ui*'!.1
—,— w w —- —■
— —i -wf
t e list* are t e dteteestsr which hav© a ter per eapita orrte mto.
t e t e r lapestte fteor tears into t e pictee olios t e arrest
yardstick is applied*
t e steer of m o o t s tee*
xmh&m e d i t e d
oatetemtios of t e persona s m i b d , t e lltte rote*
fey a
A t e t e d te^pa
might be picked up w & booked merely tm m expression of police activity*
Bat another hundred alee and gatabling den proprietors sight be smosg the
Untouchables *w Actually t e m e e t o f a ©ingle erlne loader m p tov©
a ssor© betofteni effect on the ®mmmX ty 'ten the arrest of a hundred
%'&.& indicate again tet oauiicaa mst be otoer«l in
© t e s t in g % d e p e r te n t m m m ^t m t e t e l a , o f I ts m e a t record*
te awecm* or failure of prosecution east tetetely be used as a
factor in t e agu&ysls of police
But s m s or failure
o f preoseuite doc© m t b&m® entirely upon t e quality of police activ­
ity. tonally other
t e ©amftltlttMi tntercte ©ear which te
poltes tee no control and totcfc so ^uiOify t e mack of t e police in
tee respect* It is well teen tet t e ulteete failure of prosecution
nay result not only from a Aetebte preparation of eases by t e police,
but alee fmm im 1 % proseBit&ttoai fey te pro**cator in the court©, or
beeimee of Xteency, or comiptlon in the proaecutor*© office or in te
courts* te quality of te Jury cyeta% tedmicalitee or involved
legal pxmaAarcc# and t e t e trm m m t mem®t of iuneeeab persons may
ate tote m toportet bearing on te csoms of jpreseeutte* te work
of te poiloe is only * part, and peasife&y e swell part, in the larger
m>tk of proecmtioo. Ac a result of teas coaples factors #iieb go to
nato to te ultimate result, Stenald 0* atone hm cold* wte fact tet
60 per cent of pm m m charged In toteto axe prosecuted and only 40
per mot in Denver proves aoibltftg**^ W @ it may be objected tet this
stotesto of Mr* Stee*» to t e «HKK?*i»g# as itotoabed tote* it does
represent t e opinion of % mm t e hm given teg; t e intelligent con­
sideration as to the asaaurewt of ptfi&m
^ G m Pcat.ce Effectiveness be Measured? w 12 Public ton^esent 470
(Stouter, 3$$0)«
In %he preceding pages of th® chapter* ei^saois lm& been na^tlvo*
the jWdeilcks of public opinion, the cnlhroesaeat of statutes, th® asaosmi
of wtao, the arrest rata, aii th® eueoesjs or failure of prosecution
tmm hem emettitorefS* they Indicate a eesditiom la general lair
mm% mMsm then. a jae&mire of polloitsg, for they look th® precision re­
spired to site them useful as a basis for the oasixarison of strictly po-
M m iiaHtitei mad polio® preeetfcares. ®mmm& 4tar the inadequacy of
these factor® have been ee^estai^
they 4e possess eero
significance in a study of m & poktm situation. ebicti cannot be -wholly
factors that are mXuffiM© in a iinal analysis
of a situation*
But there are ether factors mod methods of analysis which are of
mere Ysftae in ecegMTlHg and rating the work of a police dcgiarbseat* 3oae
of thee are of m & m beeaase they can be applied to situation® ifotoh lie
entirely within the *£ttoet&v* control of a police department* Others are
of lees fate® because they iiattolw matters tawr which a polie® departMint
be «harg®4 eith tjmlMiw reapmeibiM%,
In the I W ,
analysis, immmmmfim should only be exiled on those elements for stolch
a depart^mt itelf cam be held respmible*
But such is the importance
of both the fsatere of impossibility ami irresponsibility in contrib­
uting to the «atftnoto adttsaUwasss of the police that both mmt be cm**
eidered in an emlmtion of the pcOiee process#
Wm study o f J&rtter M ttasa* made In 1&$S, i s an
fide of the frontiers of pz&tm tmmmm®*m%?*
He attest® in wone fell
swoop* to measure mJUL the responsible as m i d as the n<HM^®ponsibXe
1bA Folle® SvxviM «*U»B Soale," 86 Jnwnial of Criminal h m w d
^.i^innloirr 74*1X4 (3**y# 198S)#
conditions and activities which contribute to the ultimate effectiveness
of a department.
The basis of his measurement is an assumption that ”a
scale implies measurement, and measurement implies certain established
standards.” For purposes of evaluation the organization, work, and
procedures of a police department are broken up into twenty separate
categories, the importance of each being estimated on a point basis*
£aMa$3Bg< tengg of aoiata
38 points
Selection of Chief
Setention of Chief
Selection of Personnel
Training of Personnel
Personnel, detention, and
Kecords Division
Beat Construction
Patrol Duties
Traffic Division
Detective Division
Vice Division
Grime Prevention Division
Jail Division
Property Division
Pension m d Sick Leave
Departmental Mechanical
Each category is, in turn, divided into Items, two points being allotted
for each Item* -Among a number of items having to do with the selection
of a chief ares (!) Is selection free from political considerations?
(2) Has the chief had previous police experience? (3) Is he honest?
(4) Has he foresight? (5) Has he an excellent physique? (6) Is M s
intelligence of superior grade?
Despite obvious defects in the Bellman system of measurement, his
^XhfejL* p. 75*
contribution should m t be wtorsatlsi&tad, it Is *n effort to isolate
the M y factors stsioh coniriMte to t o tofSmtkvrnm® of a police de*
It mstim to provide for .an objective rating of police ad**
Btoto, it is not so m b a rating of a^copliehiaents
«• of those faetero which are likely to ecmtrtot* to th© ultimate so*
t o M & m m eyateo of rating is
o o ay failure of a iwlto
ftotaeially weak in tot the points setoto and the weights assigned
toiits m eMtooe to stototlate M o Maim far
are stolPto *
In defense*
M l w
points out that, WJ&1
the inMMdnal -ttos listed in the score sheet® are .not of equal weight,
la a grand total of a p o M H i 1,570 points* Im m w 0 actoaX M S § m m m m
la weight will tend to he averaged*
Hwefore, t o final 000ns should
not be appiwMaMy in error heoeuee of iooquelitios
ejariooe pMate#^ toMtfftly tuie is toe*
analysis indie&to' the insecurity of
that pMlee
chief of
in weight
of the
But owns t o aoet cursory
of M e cm&mslens*
It is
often hinge* vtpm tim ealtor of t o
Is t o method of selection m
m to rate
oaly 38 poimte oat of a peeMMe 1,170 an t o Mt a a i male indicates?
To m m l M ie that t o mstod of setoii*i§ a chief of polio© Mi l cchshtrtote about 3 p m ®m% of a d^partoiit*e effectiveness is to run
eetiato to the reo&ltos of pMtetiag*
Suggestions far a rating goal© of the BeXXito type had been made
t o years earlier. See t o *Bepert of the Bound Table ea Mtoc&peX
M M a t o i t o of t o Second Kailtol toferenee 00 th© Science of Fell-
to e ,* *» j f « l ^
3UMWW (M am sr# *£»$)•
a$@e Fermtt, *A CMtto* of the BeXtaam Folieo Service Bating
B8S~90S C&iarto
toil* IttfTT
*»A Polio® Sorvtca Sfcttag Scale,u 86 Journal of Jrbdnal law «
aHi«l*nl«nr. 78 (May, MSS),
Ihs BWUnen th esis assnnse that the b asis of p olice effectiven ess
11*8 1b tits, faotors o f organisation, leadership, personnel, and equlpneut, and th at a department which nasts high standards In those respects
W ill b* corroletleeljr effectiv e tit perfom m ce.' 3» general, th is sssujaptim has value sod so lid ity . - ta t i t fa ils to recognise th at wne doin
aotolM tandtog mx&m®
Mffieultlois in t o matter® ableh Mr, Bolton rato*
&& ad^sate «y«tom
o f polio® rating moat b® m m d pMvmsrilr with ratot® and rem its
©amoi to pfitotod to
©Maly from t o rating of Iboter® teldh
©to a fto t torn, t o
in t o B oltoii Booito tmm toswsdoa® t o
t^rtano®, o f osar®** and tm&t to fu lly e to to r to te any study o f a
polio© a to iste to & to ante* But i t is dxmbtfol i f t o y tomcl tostow®®
to tba Mwu-toitow# to rating which toXXmaa to© attested*
t o © to h®
m m M m m i and
to t o foltoateg
7h®y &r® mato
stotocl stefftM&togv
MIX smpha&to®, sgsuieb eotodtemtton*
should to p I M by and a ta M to sp ^ to ^ a to y to t o objoetto* rating
p&w£&mmm itoXf* tor# an atepate basis fter par*
tommo* rating to pram it t o © toy o f thee® adsalm istotiw factor®
sorras prtoaxCiy to aspteto tto autos® or t o faiiu r# o f t o te a r i~
mto*® pari^Ma«N»* Bat to r® , a® to $©ok
t o tofotm atto a v a il-
ahto to t o to*pto to support atto^to to msasur® r@m&te objociiwaly,
t o ©toy o f g>Mte# ato M s t ot t o to aetosartXy lim ited to m analysis
of t o m
f a c t o ® ahteh a f t o t t o r a t o t e *
B t o ® thto to a atoar o f
t o i M t o a® i t to atog&y tetoM M ® to t o to ssaasura
t o work of m l M e County Bapmtomto, this study must roly upon
o o t o t e r a lt o o f too© in to s a l a te to to to tiw to m ite r a to r to n
upon immmm® o f f^rfo»a®®®* For th is reason subasqus&t paragra$&®
deal la large pari with ih© s&gnificimc© of these &dm5.nistr&tiv© con­
siderations* Following that, attention will fee directed briefly to
tfe© technique© which have bmn suggested by others for meaoring d*»
parto&rtal performance.
The vital relation ta&ween © ©ell^organiJsed department and effect
tin© functioning indicates that an evaluation of a department should begin
with m mm lyd© of ©tawto©#
it least on© reason for the apathy and
indifference of the average oitisen toward encroachment on ouch fund©**
mental right© m those of life and property He© in the nnneoessary coraplexity of the maohinory of government* Iher© this is so the great me©
of voter© ©Minot understand their g e m m l and consequently avoid
Interest in it# 1a policing posalfely user© then any other pmaraen&al
service,! simplicity of organisation plays an alX«djgportant role. Foliolug require© leadership, a wll^KJrdsred -togtotsatito, and the construe^
tion of line© of responsibility that will lead directly from the bottom
of the polio© stmm%mm to the top.3* poliein® retires an adequate vest**
ing of M i authority and roapoailbility in the chief of police and un­
qualified control of the chief fey the chief executive of the municipality.
fh© first task of the investigator is to examine in detail the
authority vested in the chief of police* Ivory chief must be give® a
free hand in the attaining of hi® department, tod this authority mist not
fee fettered or controlled, by outer influences* The autocracy of police
board® in vetoing the activities of m police head 1© frequently a con­
tributing cause of Ineffective policing* The presence of ©rdintooes de­
fining in minute detail matters of police organisation tod procedures is
%a® role of devices of police control is considered in detail in
Chapter If*
a further cN^atrlbutaat to poor policing. Are the lines of authority
%is 1© prtsiesy* _ But for ©very authority, there must also be
lodged respcHfjsiMlity. ^controlled and vicious mffio&mm&t follows
A m a situation is which, no on© can bo plimod down for his actions?. If
the otootorato can not fix the Mams for polio© mxmimim or ewisaion
«m anyone,, trouble Invariably ensues. The resposiaibiUty of the police
for thstr imrfbrmmco is boot jsmnnRri* if m d when the chief is di­
rectly accountable to the chief m m m t t m of the ewsi^r*
ihors a
ch ief w s j U w is granted power of ai^ointwit tod dimsissal over the
chief without let or hindrance from Ahe outside* acceptability is a&>#
ways certain* ftssgi if a chief remains in office despite the existence
of scute otodtttecs* the chief ©xemtAlw is ©lame- res^tosibl©* Tenure
of office coiidiMtoect epos behavior is the meet e£&etiv© method of in­
suring polite reepMSfihility*
$«xb the police structure must ha carefully analysed to debsrsdn*
h m well kdt the structure is and whether the thief is in the position
to have at 411 tSses an ewer#ell control of m.^ tNvpsrtsieiib# Burses©
<^p>iy of feuroans must be Hewn!
to protoos maxims of-
fleisncy* M s la posslMs only to the extent that they m
to center on plear-eiit sod specific §mm%l®m sod in such a w
preclude friction bstsMi H m *
as to
the rismiflcations of pollcii3£ to© such
that the utmost car© mmt b® observed in properly allocating work to
the various bureaus or sections*
Xnvm1Agtot&m» in to thm functions of
the various units? will easily discloc© possible sources of trouble. It
Is important also to dttamiue how well ©ssppsd eacsh of the bureaus or
#MHvis&ena may be* leadership has an l^x^rtanoe within the ranks as
—t t am mt the top, s * beat
against weafc policing: la the
* * of aaM otaste a t strategic position# wittafe tea departemit*
A diafiansea of organista&ton Is * goad «*y to trace the linos ef wtftw *
U r ft—
* » * # . * » ■•» t o * * .
* ft»«U0*«a, mart e U l Ufemfee petet
peaefMs points of m o t i o n is the est*ep ©f the sfepartoo&t.
She tMra approach to an analyeie or polio* m*otl«ni«g U m is m
•ta&afttion of e n t m t l m k a m O M m *
m m » S m&umm Mst m e
m m
®i®wtmm t m
t e e n s t t w M Is rasa*
of paUefag m m «m o depends
m e m m e p r n * m ^ x & n d njr M m m m
o# pcdioc is m m m t m »
*B*»«iI#*b<S h m f&»%a of M m p r o b l e m m m t m t t S m m e fiapartosnt end
tiaras O M a f oesmiploa « strategie position whtafa gIIowb
M * pesaltOy m e m m m sap « » » a » s l * l to eMaia * ^ssprafeanoive pt«M r s ef Use pretolis®, A eeaeiitenahle snster of peeeiAma earn to the di*.
* M t otteoUon of the dopartoant through d t i a m ' otnplatefcs, report*
of p m m
m m m m
the hoot da* "ea Msw* arrests. heat protases
M l e b do sot m i to the d&raet attention or the peitlrm dapwfaewt are
reported indirectly hr pPW»s»tiB*»* Judges* welfare «m«e»t end others.
It i* m i m to a«r the* fa eeet a a m m t t & m the ttepwrtewmt U
e m m
per coat of the offenses oosetftted «ttd m e t of the o t m a a i ^ e safety
®e» aethioia a m open to the chief to M e desire to Obtain an geo..
M l M e * of tens pUUtee eituaalaB, %
Use m e hand a m m m a A A a m at fine*
i atemMa n A m t m t o e m of M e m p t v t m n t , w t m ptihllo e m e U & a ,
etth landers is tee eowaanity m y ear n m
m e « M e r hand, the a Msf tea at M s disposal
urn *?s«ea«U0
sad M o w n t *
faftmmUoa sM«t* a n always be OlseXoaaJ if peeper record ssgmtee® are
eapUywl# In the fin a l an alysis, those ch iefs most a lert to their re­
sponsibilities mfly only i*» m i l part upon conversations and to « —^
5rm ftw degree upon the ■written record. Records hew been aptly
the periscope o f * p clle* dagevfeamtt, Row w ell the periscope is wafeiaag indicates an important consideration in an an alysts. fb the extent
U n t the ch ief i s blind to the. axtgaiiclea confronting h ie department,
to th at extant i s tin effectiven ess o f m e do$wrtaw«t
Hr t t a n reasons attention shosOd be Moaaly directed to an « « —
inatlon o f m e devices whim a ch ief o f police aagOeys in Obtaining an
understanding « f eoawnltjr problem . Record practices hew new bran
developed to a degree M ich p ew it exhaustive portrayal o f praeticsU y
evsiy phase o f policJng* m asts can he used to illu str a te the geographic
#P»ead o f sw ay aajor ptefeleau man maps on the location o f tr a ffic
eoeidants aid fe ta U tiee are an excellen t secret o f inftw aetiee. Beta iled accounts o f the number o f a m s ts , snore
©eeur, and a t M at
tin e s, and fo r Shot offenses m ot always he employed. Qrapha to illu s ­
trate trends are additional aid e. Oeaprahensive reports o f ctxaplatata
against policemen, and the caliber o f work each man is psrfttRing en­
ligh ten the p olice executive. i l l o f those can he InMaded in M at
night ho called the "index o f executive Saundsdge." Ho way baa yet been
devised to accurately n u m
th is index. thathe* i t can he done is
problematic. But In any case' i t is important to fence whether m is index
o f knowl edge I s a pert o f polio© techniques.
the tanOedge index is priaorily conditioned by the quality and
quantity o f records and record equipraant ©raploywi in the departasnt, In
« good may iastancee * department does not haw required equipront
:j because of conditions beyond the controX of the department* Sometimes
|| ibe financial IMtationii of a community preclude acquiring and main!j taining such equipment. At ether tine® ocsmtnity authorities are not
| alive to the necessities mi proper oqpijmHi* For the®® reason® the
|j absence of proper facilltie® for weirding should not necessarily he
: .considered m a black mark against the police# In the event that records
|j mm inadeqmt®, the astute investigator can usually uncover the reason
jj shy* Possibly the chief ha® mad© no attest to obtain proper records*
j Possibly he 1® mrnmm of the InpXiea&tans of effective recording. To
:| the es&enfe that record facilities are conditioned only upon the desire®
; of the chief they can be used a® a tenable indese of effectiveness* Usn:j_ ally other ©onditicn® intervene which seldom Justify any attest to
| evaluate* Slagtfy f n m the objective viewpoint mi finding out what may
be wrong, the quantity m & quality of record® are an important gauge*
1® m m instances* it ha® been found that departments with ex©optionally adequate record facilities are not performing •welX the task®
of keeping the peace* The reason usually lie® in the non-use of the infeimtioa disclosed by the records* Prlmry evidence of use Is the £r@~
j quant mmMtkmfotm of problem and trends in problem©* Where records
m m systematically M l * usually there will b© found a continued shift­
ing of departmental personnel to meet the requirements called for by the
records* If, for ewt^sle, there is m epidemic of hold-up© in m r d 10,
the alert chief of police will have shifted nor© squad ears t© this sec­
tor and win perhaps, hum instituted more frequent foot patrols* A
comparison of changes In the problem m disclosed in Hie record and
change® In the methods of operation offers an important opportunity to .
estttm tm the effectiven ess o f p olice jtoeti<mLng* Xnilaxtbl© organisa­
tion ixi the fee© o f a sh iftin g crime problem does not point to an e ffi­
cien t department.
The ergtoito& lm o f the petrol system o f a d&iwrumnt alw^m furoisfcto to todltotiw * basis for cd esla tin g polio© efftoU vesiess*
th® ftastom o f mmaftkm JmOTrX©dg*s, sword systems and me ase thereof
which are for th e moat port bayetid meatorlng p o ssib ilitie s, Ah© patrol
a&mtm o ffers m opportunity far rather mm i analysis* The recent
study o f th e heat grotto in Oimdmatl indicates? the p o eeih illtles o f
The mmmmmmt o f patrols sta rts with the aatoM tion
that heats should he so tfUtvlhuted m to aiaM tee evtas* % ibschs o f
s ta tis tic a l meiliode eon ©sgplcyed, an a e s u p time &m he assigned to
cash patrol a c tiv ity and for east* w ilt o f area# Cfcsee the proper system
has hessi' nXtoxisd ont on otoer* Hie sv stto as etolowto ©mi he ©Otosred
tod a ratio o f cfftotAweosss determined* Tfe® key to patrolling e ffe c t-
tvmmm i s , o f coarse, tilsfcrftJHrtien in mmsdmm with nsed*^ Bead mm
In sM itim to the
ratio factor, other c«*sldetotdoiie mm also he topioyed tm a fin d rating
o f heat M tivlB* *&*** distribution o f ©atrols mush fttwra
unoo to
equitable distribution o f worWLoad to- esst* pattxiliMs* VtottMtomw, the
dsparteent1.© practises in ©^ploying periodic ©hed&*iips o f patroltoo, of
properly supervising peiiolX iag to tiv ltle e , m& o f requiring frespent
w lttera reports fToa heaHito sea be used as additional im itation s.®
1te«*4o*n «M£ta« A ssociation, fito etoiatl Boat Siq g (1SS8).
^PMmmUjr «cnw iiM t«d by castaf o f Police Mlatm o f Wichita, Kans.
Xb tM . aanoMtLen note Bellman, "A Police Service Satins Scale,"
26 Jmimal o f iM atoal law « x t Ortotanlogy. ? 4 -ll« (Mar, 1935).
Ratot of povemmk tvaemnm- to frequently suggested
» '*»* f r a g m * otwmges tot leadership or
to* M
m a basis of
tot efJtortlo* poliolag I* aoiwraally aes^lo^jed.
Jtleiag i» i#& « prefeMim tow* «wt be leantei tot » «Ssy. ®s» freqpK*
«**"8*9 l» i N f l w M p « M « * r «** H M M M U t t o w of efftotUto loodowhip,
mpid mg&asmmt mf *aeSiarg« of tow s w * ana m » cmm tewfeln.
.••’ftor « w i »
Mam aggweni » Mono rMottotahlp M w *
«•* eStowtowwwoe ■Bejwirtownt# eahjeet to Smmaemfc tosramr
r i i J f l f c W H llli
$k ttu W a
* *itfirri?-vk:
m n k f i r r re otti rtiii itf>'
MojOy £mmi « W standpoint of *e»aarlwg $wk&«e efltectleiwese, it i«
frnmm, if
tot tote fine* plaee Mam to* m mim&yism HMMamUp tmamm tow Xeagto
Of twrvioe mi tote rnmedrnvy at pmxeentoto., She oartw of effbofciwtwoe
tot* rapidity of tomtnar efftsni a o m o t o w t i m
iont wit ooteetoi© atoto the length of service,, towetonee shoo two w e tot
« t e
He may yeeae,
tote etotoeto cm jK&iotosg « w as disastrous
9 « « » to totatotoMawU
totow# tot a t o n * ««*»■*
SmmOam bets*no short t o m e
«a& leag t o m e
W M . t M w any bo snot tot inestosetswi by the per-
Smnmma of tow teMototoM deswrtawmt,
is twy < w t if tow overage
length of M f t t o toi dagwrtiaant *** toi toe y w m , soil tot totptrtesat •*»
toMMy jwewt* it dees ato neeesenray fbHew tow* tow ratias
of ««* atowM
be doable tow* of «®», Moreover short beware tome so* twosNSMwrily indl~
mmm, 9h» BerSwley, California, police «top*rteant tow
bam imam tm pemm m am of tow tow* in tow eesmtoy. Set it ale©
possesses a M # t towtawwr r©«sKl.
Baa » w b u ® s in tow foot tow*
M t d * 1! wOawtMSHNl polieasaan end officer# w e i» ewwtwst
Otossto pMloe departowasta, the otoMttoe of wgr « m
dmmxl by
of coteoidetjee totwoi
m& vtSmMLvwmm p&aa amk mammmtolim footers m
lim Jissiissytf m m ^ m mm
w to m m
M m m & r n to t$m m m mi ton twmwm**
m m m m mi
mi t w m m m Mmm to ito
to 'wmm*
in&leatad is
If ton t m m m m m iMt
t m m m mi % m m
^m m i w i to te .In toa&n&f in * l i w
*c&*«thto$ msr
ttoft a m i
w l to m
tojotbte t r n m w p to
of % m m&ffif Sototo m ottor mmto&am of noreton*
ito*& tir to* mmmm tto to o go3&tto&& p*l$j mm*m& m m too
■In mu? mmo ftmoMMii immndNli %n ssssin onulIuisSfcn to IffiMmM to# vote of
. . t m m w of
fito *
of $»$&te% 00$ ton voto o# ^ m w
of t&e vshsIe nto
Ito otaso mmmmUm to to m Mmfammfik o f m dxlof m& mmfamm mt
yijto fn#oo®
of otelooitoo ton vote
of ^nssinwiP 1,1^0 00% 0# -w^sti-
t o
ofetoti %% w m ^jkmmg too
#ij*y %fffiff %$&$&&$&?#
guff ffeffr
to itemnmoOi &o in
iussot* mm#s§j^n?oinOl o f ts$m
o o p o O 'O O P i P
In »i*itoMai
n i^ * * ^ o o i m n o
. t o
ixteOPtoot* in ®ttof
o f ton p^wnNsmnSL imspslnipoo lo o Oniin^O1*
^ w i ^ S P r O O ^ o o p n ’w wwft#|# ^ o v
^ o # # ® w s n n t{ w
*w w p
■v^no^JO gr
aftwhat .
ataagl *
w w w iiip
w w w p w iiw w w b t p w w p w
^w 1
wmmm teW U » P W » qpmimt ef *m rank and
mg’'tut w w 4 •» am gm&MMt* tm ®’wwt that «Hntea«te> Sa«a la
to teat
«ei» avaAIMttji ««h» indleattMn a# s^^R^wl #JfeBt4t»R«s# mm* b® «p>
(1) Are
f(Watting help la an ult-lmle apprsloalt
Wm mm tm&twi&3& 4mmm& in a mmOmm swamr'i {%) Sem the
M t
%s«e la iM a <a»eotio» the mtmay o f Parrott, *k Seale to ttomam
WtSmU.'mmm o f WOioo fanetteqAag.,* m im m k M
• m b w {amm®* isss)*
f iM
i ntoiMt &
or M #
p m m to to ton
($} Mm% *&»
of tonmnsnia nfcto mtptri to ton mmtf (43 ton
to to rn nolototo it to mimmm to nfeftlitpf nr nltt* rnpasi cm% to put**
{&} i m
pew* ftolsr & m l # nr ton rigM?
(# ) to ton p in m m il
«**$ w ^ M fp lto n if
( f ) ton M at o f t o
p rn ^r tito n a f (t) to n t o i p t w i i
tnntototi sntonto^ (#3 ton srnSimy towto toton ooobus itoton stoB^to'tof'
{10} to ‘ton iw to of ton 4mpmtemm% m tor «$»&* {11} t o 'pmp$& ptwto
#3aSSm9 JwOSr
tim O f 0uM i,:^gk
A : -■ ^ -^
' t t jtoflA ci^nsi!#.
&***&% €
■»#• n n ^lP^W W W sn ^ n w i w y g l *
f 1 *% #5fe l' t
S * * w |r W lw W ir w *
4, —
^®PTteWJ^wWr-»ffAy ^^F*W ®
to i$rnmmmmm% t o w # ton w # of » t o n ® map*
UNIjM w w
4 v n m |^ H S 'i|P 6 iW
smsta m v M £n» m
umAm ig.,
^ f ti * te n ) U P f lK n n n r ® , * r n O T ^ ^ jjf
***&&& My® mh&p&*
) |^ P P |W
r ffrirtV iy ^
to ton s w t o ^ i t o of t o
'^■Pl|)p0rW PWPw4VnnT»»«l<*
nnKitfc4fci4 L in f t,fl^Tftfj/MiWh jfrr
nn .ton% nonton4s of tons® &nsl otomp pnswro^l-
i* j r ® r n # w n i
£m$®m m m to
maw i
tonrvi m m
nnnm nr
StSwl #»lBHPWB8Pilte ^Tw^to!K®w¥ v*m# *IPw
n^P^TW B W tfT
W 1W 1'm ^nw W SP* ^W:-WT
v n ^ T P (rl* * S W ff? “ W '^ ^
* * * iw ® ^ w r® ^ n
Iqr f « M
n ffn p w t
V ™ :W '^ »V *V W W P V Fi
1 Hint lauat^JTrftfl *BEtefc%<l ■
'^ w m w * w ® ^ ^ p
Ifeg MdllLiBaaagt
$&&&, & iin to
W g’
onto tolnti
" “ i n n p jjuim^ w t^* b* w m w
«*W*iae itJtei w wn* ^
tost toST#"*'
iflWl,l^ w '
" ^ ^
ton ntoto^
. “
3» tb» pellae depsrttaB«*fc and Ujr oat-
■ U m Biong • o««lo of t t o m peA»t». no to tlwitr of&o%l«m«»e in al*iteg p e S A m owrtu
Asoo iM«i) «Mnr on oacttww vartetieR la tee oetde
®ate» a««%ta»d M W a s m m & m *
1*® «a2a oaitoo aosteaoa {tee late of
oftetemwoe} I m a t e fcfe* tala* of teat p»1ti,*&t» oteesest la tee
Sbe fcttea®5t la ea wWlt e m t e to geag® a teevteent tr tee aster
Of fK&tes te psnpaeUm to tee popalatie®,
Iteere la, tm foot, not ciuob
ssoit te este « b oteteiiteat* ft no^Uwte to o o t e t e test prtetate eon-
1G4S0P » ,
Aft^ntatettAtaa te atoat« (1SSS), p . U S .
fronting eosMtmltlaa ar« usually dissimilar,
highly residential
©utab&n comantty on# policeman per thcmaand population might adequately
$©rw the need© of t o ewmntty*
©light w t be mtttleiMb*
trntory area,
t o policemen
t o t o t of police effectiveness can ©elders, if
ever* be i n d t o t o by reliance upon this N a t i o n between t o number of
poMce t o t o popitoiion*
In t o ultimate t o toot H e © in t o adequacy
of to: teps&tont in pwsearring t o peace in a particular eoMtmity* t o
Indte of foot»*^trol effeoiiwnes© is a much more dependable yardstick
it udll almy© indicate totter t o n t o of police is sufficient
or not* Meed©* ratter ton numbers# should. b© the tetomining factor*
For like reason# tte cost of a department 1© seldom an accurate
barometer of polio# effetelwnses * Such a measure is based upon the
aceu^ption that the moat ea^pwuiiw department ie always the beet depart­
ment* Bsperieae# baa proved the fallacy of this aeaunptlon*
tepartaeiit© spmgfctoig m
a limited budget give excellent service, at
otter time© a gilt-mlf© tefWtonb
mw b#
Aa a eeHgsNrebtTO yardstick* coat© h m
nations in t o oossmntito
C« Stone has ramrtedi
stgsmHy failing in It© task®
t o farther 'weakness in t o t ©It*
mm% be
generally stallsr*
A© Donald
**to polio# are dealing with a w r y tangible and
w r y fluctuating problem* the dimension# of which vary from time to time
m id f s m
place to p&ae#**^ flw dissimilarity in eemsasRtty problems pro*
vents adoption of the coot yardstick for comparative purpose©*
In awry intone#, t o s w r , a e<»amlty is entitled to know how much
nt e i M~rniiir ) wiiiiH | n'niiifi i 'i<iv rtiii"n.' n r " ■v pm r r '/ n r " i'T f‘-‘ " i ‘', ,i T ‘" M,*-t,',f r 1111 ,ka * M ii* 11' ii“ '''* * * t * j ™ - v * * —»««■■— »<r ■■"■"■......." '~
........................................................................ — .■■■■.«..■ ■ in .,^ .
*Ca» Folic# Iffectiwne&s be iteserttd,*
(teptoter, 19BQ)*
X& Public ihMaagaapnt
.................. »
* m*
It Is t o ©weigh t o t trad. toto f i g m fe®
If osto « #
totetsto upon a t o t tote t o w is «
t o t e # t o t mrnm m m m m m to t o teftetetteMMNi o f t o te g to s a to
te U l t o i i
if t e M t o m l 0f t o tetoteto te tolled
t* t o toffte wit* t o this t o t tetof© M t o # te tote# t o atotot
t#H * t o r t o t o m M p l i t o
high t o
%teteto m M m mi tofftetiwm®#*
t o t o ' a w r to i r t o s t o m&
But toil t o tim &m&m® t o n t o
varims® ites#itw# of # testeteittt ### be tesritei
te " “ " l"-W B
w “
& MOlmMte »«** *6**%^
^HWWW 0 flW^BP7 TWWWW^MteP, 1^>
JH lW i vjP'wWWWVteflHnqP
'■■HRvP ^ W iw M p V
t o tat#* # t o i l i i t i m l i «£ u M i t o # t e w &ttete mtii#
t o t o t into Is totely sIMtet te t o p t o t o ## i f d p w t *
#Ht©te0 ##|tea#jtifiSil #f <a*WT^<rt^|^'l l38®8te6iSy
Mntef # Jktetel swltewi ,
opte ©tempted
p t o
sctti ©tel# f#®* site# re*
fwpo«M* te# t o t o S M t e of tetewttosc ate teteit&fte ito»
#^u$|BSi8iiti: M s sites tetetelcB pos^ssaw*
&# Us# ei### § m te#t$y
% # sttesspts
%# w M i t
# ;
b# tte neater #JT
t o n
nfim t o #
of #qpdf&$$®it te# ted
0$ ^
t e # it e y t e t e i t o f
m u te %# t o m t o r o f p#*w ssto
i t o t o t s u
y w t o t c k *
tew <^@vm?itelte
or to th# psputeMiO# of:s osssrasd^r*:
t o s t o # " to te t o t o
s t a t o
Hvs test## .toSto s p t e t w
ssrtsr # # t o i t e
M s
© t o t o - t o
of t o s f i t o ^ to w s by t o 4eiwtemt site #» tetto&to of test
telpitti is i M i l M to mMmUmtmf pmp&mmmm* M s mmp&irlmm mm
bhte It
§to$ of t o te^tpMut m®&*
f#v a
tetestepto m w t e a t i w
4 tepwote stof otete te dtocto to w *
Ites# totite totte « # $ M t m & m m m
®mt$MM m m t o t o M M t Im to
m w $ ® $ t o to
Uwm te dlm&mmi t o ms®**
t o m i # p t o t m to w t
p r ta f f r itg r f o r t&®
mfo$m%lm & M & mi $olio&
rwpmltilllty end
a&& ts m
i iw
^ i
la p » tim % b w ir * g $ h
i m
Wii$M@8a%» ^r®8£§&&L*
w f f ttf a M o f &
mm lmM,mts^ %h® itmM&m o f mm*
mmmm% imm m% ptfo bmm i M
to M
tm&mfc mp^Xmtim t o ms$mim im *
«ai& paiti* bmim f o r pmftmmmm m U m is pmam%
f$i& «m *
tfcoi arthrAt # $ tfetfM
f w i a m i m a p * lm r S l^ t o
siiifft t# j^;
%jn posN^KOSp
SbO 4-fti^^y^gj^^ ^py^g-4$$
Mm,: €im
In %$1i> i%s3UI Of
thioi10 fosOtoS' t^frffe uro
1% i s UwmSem
to sM&oottsMi o r JOtitairo#
$|pK3$ $M 3SSS AiHUHBd ftttif&l&Oft
4 &&&,&.#»# ssHfeaffla^l.iMrr Htssi
'W w f l W W 1 ^^SIPf O P O ^
^J.TiPiggfr ■wtw-’F ^ *
4 P W H p W W r p(IWWW^^i»w SiPflr
o f ttif t iffiSfflfkL o f &oftULflft
ifeafcl&ttda&a* of Ihflaa
#&.*»*#. o f mo ^eOsaB
tip ^WPOlrWBnW' 7i* W :
W W W W w f f lP
nH uB S SyzB L
^ flriR P W W
W ® B F ^ W » ^ W w i ^'W PJP p ’P J* “ 0
^■ wmwpb*
lo Mjsi aso^i^hEi of tin? ssntisrr of off^siisa
%&mmm&\qr mtmmt l o t i o ^ * ^ r - s i miimmm rnprn?m& t o
itfiNmi to t&o rtktoi
c m l ri^sM od
or oiotet*
p ii« #
of proiw^r istol^ss to
In to m m otom io tlso i » w » of
t mmm Mm $m Um :mMm %m^m^ Wm
o f atmm t m %Mm o f
mmmmmm% M l o t m mmm*® im ^m m t^ $mmkm t i m t wmmmmmt wt'm&M
m&$ m tlM m M
of ite
pM m
t# prltoww
n {3^U^'fe-3T, « *
■ % B * * l»*
t l t e « i d ^ mm
^ s mm W m0 1 am
wHMrn -Urn pm%»
mm$mmlt^%t%$B fo r
t o ow m t ojf m$jm M m to y ^ m t tm M 4 ni t o ooor @£ t o pa&ioe
ftortow fc* t o po&Xm mm mtfw$$8»&
im %m mmm$ in i&iah
to g r 4mtik niH i it* <nan
t o f to *
mmmmmm^ %m m p i i i m i ^ t o t e 4m%m& m km m <^r ®«etooe^?%
t o t o n «ito m i
n t o n
ty t o poto**
i n w l ptoor in $w^mm%til
m m ttm M m mtimmmm*. M m p ts#
m * m rnm mi im t tot*
i f togr mm M w in: $8m m I tap m t o mmm & tatoto
nfiffNNwi tap t o p M m # t o p s M m m m t o M t o In tol* top*
iS toinbto m im i m p tn feip 4$
* f
in mm o f tte ppino
t o t p o in t o f t o n
o f t o
t o t o
JtewsiMMMfe I'Mlsai' &» m jfcsttfe WSS^n@^KSBlb biMSM&OO lUBOf
m m nnfo ^jup^yl sw iw nllir
&t J&OW imt &TSRb&£&
bOOS83N8n 14 00© ta# SW^EfcOfflti.
ion i f t o M t o t o n of os8nn®nnwin%t 4 pon^nmilin
f*|ffi| n
4 o p ir ta m i# t o
Wwt i$» wins^misi of
&ta in m If^llHly
|p 9jg$
^ $ caw**
H m fO^ilOSini,!tk
faa»fe I OffaM^ft
ioiO' S & s f i o
lM & *
i t o in
: t o §&m
CMlft o£ MUU90*
* &
tap t o
io^otoM o© of
Hnifpam cajtaBiWBfttiap
Kuaber of offtmaea Pgr cent cleared
t o w to the police
bar arrest
Other Assaults
Forgery and Counterfeiting
J&toszleraent and fraud
Stolen property
Concealed weapons
Prostitution and vice
Sex offenses except raps and
Offense® against t o family
Narcotic laws
Violations of liquor laws
Drunkenness and disorderly conduct
Driving while intoxicated
traffic violations
Arrests on suspicion
All others
From t o broad view of enforcement rather than t o more limited
view of policing it la advisable to inclement this index with a further
one Which would take Into ccmaideration the relation between the work of
t o pelic© and successful prosecution, A large arrest rate la not in
itself a badge of police efficiency for it is easily possible for a de­
partment to swell its arrest record by t o arrest of innocents. Compar­
isons would disclose this fact and would likewise indicate t o work of
t o judicial branch and the success of prosecution for each type of of­
fense* In the event that judges, juries, and prosecutors appeared reluc­
tant to support the police in certain classes of cases, to comparative
analysis would, at least, indicate the lines of trouble. For these rea­
sons two formulae should be employed*
(1) $h© number of offenses cleared by arrest — the number of of­
fenses reported,
(&) fhe number of convictions — the number arrested.
nMOjpt* wool* i m m the marl® of tntileatiag tfe* aet&vit&w of
« » **ai«» la taking arw w ie, the eHreetton of t M r aotldties, e*nw
IndtenUaa an to tton waidt*? «* « » ! » «***»*»». and lb* ostent to i&icb
tit# Sl^UsSsIt ItiMb in ffi&tawtaK ihffimfrtha
la «k* long m m m m m m
reUnbl* y m < m u k m & vtm an* I m m « * -
to m r n m m m m coopUooUoia te the parantUo rniaticiraJstp batman
tt» aaosait of proper*? « M U m ansi the naouat rwjowrod,
Saefo on op-
p n d n l utanfc «* «£*• fl&umtsg to ua taftmaatiw device of e v & w A X m t
Ottunm .
« d ao
i m m
of m newpsnty approtaol fora I t o not
o o lj r
f o r a lB f e ir ®
of poUeo pmfbmHistee tmt in diatjnasiag *bet» p © » * m * *«
pofcteine oof tta*
n m i d ajmtmu
* 3 m
eattwblle return* rate w o O l y tftootaswl » poor
SoessttaBS «h* tront&B aaab* nttrtMmt to a M e of
SSjp®NSHf wSm A^wEJl^wWPWfl iSHwPw* #1
i w i t# ■**$*?»#* tin
® T l6 m m $ 5 N W 6 lB S fe ttn
T t t j l i j
j ||
«em& tm
in r m i
w .'U fi'jn ,
#p&» in tfe®
w^p ba
m% $ m m
wSfmffiWwflyjr 30@8r w
^ iK M '
jW:Jlfc^SW6 #
ImmkI* m m % fe« m m & #&tti m M ® ® *
' jofcjFUtffb<Wteftffi
ftxtm psfefe®
tat* its# isste^L 33®ssd&ti«^
& As^w@%n@iK%%#
jlM| ^MSItMi ©§ iBiMtltBst tagalaiia tm mffjemebmm mad em
oaondisg iaAntteo of ta»ff»ottwwi»»a*
in Ml
8qMartan*dR wtiteto «oM.btt *b>
tmutive «m»t. ««*» wltlwnifc ooeonoy^ for the msAwr of ofteato repertad or* aoaally tbo moo
Oepsrttsento. Utamtm* M
-63,degwrtasata ’eftd.caa tismcmtmtm aeelvlt? 4» —
to i t o t t o WKHtnt reported Xoat— r wlolen,
wring property, feet
«m uaoally in
tb» m » o»«-
S N » the paint of d a w of imoteetii*® « altwation, tin
ekf ane^
faiw is a sera teiHinjj iadletoassjt of a pcOioa
1 t a app-deala abieb indteoto a 3** 1*— 1 of sp-fat— »o.
ttMKfiii— —
« S P « P M a e
«te» «—
of oartete apoeiaiiwd — rvle—
d M e
«e * »
* —
— neutate w l — fcl*>
o f appa-aleel
y « e s * e l y #
tated 86 per east ef a daportetmi'e t m t t a ,
If srrentu far truffle atolatiosis era <awwptad» an inse— atagiy large
proportion ef —
rnmmmm m «m eStmwi« &t thle m d e m
tifieafclan a»a dmtmUan, um sawim- of arroete la
am* mule
mm. ef etftattaaX Id—
«— ftti— d by the — fe ef the ideotift— hi— terantsh of d m
«i*wm an emmet rale la 1 # % It la slawys i— —
tfgate the a e t M e of identifteohtfia — pteped*
Jure fingerprints properly
m m m»Ammm&mmm&t w& with raped -to orfeaaa r e ^ u m a g
epeeUliate, m m V
tm dapearteoBt m&tmy m m apesWUiste?
i M M f
he lav—
the « « » of the dataetivo tewwh alwsOd he g&wn « fit—
im he—
tee —
taotlve btowae daw* wet t t p m rot a—
«o bonds, m he—
it dune
eat fallow a? a m m «b»I1 ite ewg&»«l«% or imsmm p— tastto ama-ope
«T p a m shape and other feadJtae eatlmm fur the sole ef stolen property
*m net node. Often tba protXas la due to the uaallaomss of the da—
esgh la—
4— ib— aefe to ah—
eiseefc c— t&tttg }—
Smetlara the sweat sate la
the ae—
of gwddi— », v i m in-tee, or to
» and other pUs*« ahicfe oentrttwts to the erta*
All tJnroa^ the matte ef < —
Xeoted pollse
mm teaor how
i the —
I for oorefBUy *e»
to iw*e»tie*t» and how to — pert their in—
Inhabitations of a bank robbery by a eapt&in of detectives
W » sanaed up as fellow*
*fh# bank m ® held up* They took cash* They
escaped in. a ear*" This, fortomtoly, is an ®m$&pki.omX oaa®, bat it
lEdieo&o® a m u m adigr massy oatea® rm&tx% unadlwid* lit w i n g up a de~
paaftami a ailing of report© t o M . alao be aadto, ftmslly tbo reports
cim ba
wiblwb reference to tfca quality of t&v^itg&bion performed*
l forth®? iisplewni to os^totion mm the records of pr^e&uttv© active
iiyv M on*** break damn tea be faulty ©wttene®, or if the prosecutor
has adapted a policy of aaatoc fell m i iewwbig&iien® In a particular
eeiwimlby, the *«mmmn» thereof sbteM b® noted*
Of the speotalined fields, tlmt of ®*itm detection im least subject
to 'Urn application of twwusmenie# As mi hmm already indicated the
arrest rate la a partial indication bat it domn not explore possible
reason® for a low rate*
Further laeasuriisg posalbHitlas H o In the di~
motion of aclmtifloaHy evaluating the »bhods of oriiae through reports
of isw&tig&blen*
this ®m be tea® with a ooasd^orabla degree of acseir*
mey, not sorely with regard to the information contained, but with ref-*
ore®use to it® ^feasibility in courts*
eameXX«mt opportunity to te~
r im a aoale to mmmm® the anooptaMlity of reward© in eoxsrt lias before
one who should wish to pursue this field of inquiry.*
It is la the field of traffic aeeldimi prewtiticm* hoaover, that
meat prograaa has been- » t e in f&eaaurl&g the affooti'mkaaa of polio®
Itoetitelag* The feet ®w* now be accepted that msidmb® do not m m & y
^tn this oomeotion «•« Wilson, ^Standard* for Administration of a
JPoteotiT® Serem** learbook*
odLO&efg of
m m m * aaaMft c i ^ ) 7
^ 4,
ftomt they &m b# es^trollod ttsm gft proper p oll ms prevention
a c tiv itie s has been doescmtratod %im and again hgr the work o f the Evan­
ston MU©# Ee$Mwrteini and th e s ta ff o f the Hoartfcn©stem University
traffic S&toty institute#
cess because tfcsy
parties m
m & Ire at
Such prevention activities have been a suc­
the heart of the prefeXem by detaining i**&t
responsible for the sesoldent ©r contributed to it and fegr
how recurrences ©an fee pievimtoel fey enffero#wtit# education# and
W M ig A A iiw w a
ffee various phases o f the accident prevention work should bo. pointed
out b riefly a© a preface to m ataalysi» o f «*©asuring devices ^hich are
now in use# these or# tm d istin ct phases o f toe %
recess of prevention#
toe f ir s t , m iim etigetia B o f the accident, toe second* toe work o f
carrying on other a c tiv itie s intended to prow it future accidents# fh©
£mm&&%im o f prevention la gettin g e i toe seat o f the cause o f ©very
ateeidesit* tM e restores intensive Inveetigmtion*
Accident prono loca­
tions mm% fee £mm&» She mmm® for fm ^r accident enat be se ia n tifIceXiy ©vaXuatoci# I f drivers mm a t fault* the teak o f the police Is to
^$©@ Fsretor* *Aeeide«i Frewnticm fey Felice I&pastomts,w
yolieeaa»ti. f&U f (danuasy* if30)*
in teresting
prevention ia Billings*,
AeMCtemM <1337).
"Once an accident bm ocscurred it is not ®e easy to find evidence
of guilt cod preedit the evidence in ©curt* A e w a l tie* of the wreck­
age »M3r five toe officer a strong suspicion that cm® of the drivers h m
to&m feeding
or tout be bee disregarded a •atop* sign or sped through a
led light, but an officer*® euspl<&ena mm not
to convict a ssan*
H® enet build hie eeee eage&iUar piling mm bit of evidence upon another*
to do this he mmt team there to look for evidence mzd hm to vfueeticn
people, m 4 fee mist have a mmimqp of to® rules of evidence*** She Acci­
dent Investigator® fraiotog Manual (In ad&ecgTOgsh), lortlusestora Univer­
sity traffic Safety Mstitoto (1M9),
immxm tsta Jtsd&atiOl tv&wiU I f
£a»a»r&# mm Ms# mmm# It la t&»
of Its® poM m t# lip tw$&m pm&m ma&mm&Um Um w&&»
jM K f t
#» 41k * W J W W M W m *
1 *W» tl^WMWRt^ ®««Fw#Tw
iSFl?g$P’ ®$$g#i|!&P ®w®F
‘f flillh itftiW i
pMyla* If* tor
i<~»iI W )M'
y 'l r "
jm A
n f j '- l r t r Y . r f * y?*- h-y*
njililft f l i i n M
fBl®SSI4ssi MSig oM3^dr«$£i #r# gfftfltfr tts# ftfw
ww* ftert load t# %m faM m ®i ttot f«M$ai*Iftr pwb*
li## Hm
I##®!#®# oiif®#®#®##!* It looser##
Jj|$t Itfe llllflB0bWS SttoW^lC^*
iflilijfj^ %dy hmrn s®®#t #iiHB($3r
## %
m *m m tt* 4m ltail gmmmtolm oottoliiM mf &
%& 1mmm m
SnSms#®1 S^sS#1Nt#
tr&ffl# mmMmsmrn rmultittg 4** tojvgy or d##t& &nri #ogKFi#t&en* tor
•Hi ^ ro q s^ lg p ^ p fQ P lE F w ^ B#iM* l U j l J i
' ^ • tWIW^MP1 rsF V T P w ***
p w p f l « w > » ^ IW ^ P ^ ^P P W w S r
fW#,'Wr v W T P
“ W i**W < l^ VW OH1ie
$##£ft# #i#l#t&#iSS§#.
m$mmm&M Um mm&m of ®m®$m%&mm par an^teit tor wp $tos»
##ri#tl» Ihtt tot#!. £i#iter #£ imwMI f#t&!
and merscm-al
m m%$m $mt <Rlia$i& urn iM$m$0 wm
m am*
P$M®€ ^ *Jtttor*
far t0M m lm Wwm of
sm um ii’ i« liM i
nm mtm£i
o f a mm*
In m
&m$mm® mmm®* t #
’ mm m tm Uwti&m
'Utm tm Urn o^ratlm ©f %mmm
1^- mp#smn wtor tte
h ,'^m3#*' or 4r^#«^
r |a itelMBiilw Ml©
* P # # # P C T ir
* ® Jfrp i# p B K # P p (T i(rfl© l# s^ ^^ p iS iT B S fT n T fn W ^p a ii*
mm mm&mt irafflo
. * # 'W r
t# :im$^w ^
## iSISP^is^^g
™p ^ hp
iiM t
t e i«ter of
Hi# $mm$&
*Mmtm$m& o f toMJll&o© pl»« mm rn^mr of injarlas
If# 1m til#
of **% #na« w»r# 100 t«^rleM«
n4n# ais^toato
m iiijiifQirwi iitiirtirtrrtn i-TTiinToti^DiriniiWrirwBiwiiir r o i r f t t f f f r i i i o i n r r i t i a r n m n i t n i l i i r r n w i o i i ^ r ^ —ii " in T iiT ii T iiT 'ir T h ^ ^ T n ^ ^ w ^ r if r N r n T T >^ ^ jffMI‘r ^ - jLlr “J‘l,‘Jr“tT*'Tr-'—
mm tmimtmUm '&%&&%& % f'tosM f«
^ 1■ "‘‘‘" ,
Jgalflfl anainea»laK_t6Kl. ..Mai. PtOteo (laS3>,
"i— ■—p —-^y 1"
4 ototossii% pf®pi*p0d %gr 4* 1* toMAm^
©f ^l©f© of W %
I0# 10S8„
WMmimg tntmvmtloo-
m rvietloa* and
index tor •A® oouM bo 10.
with fiftgr
aooitost® and fatalities would
an on*
l i m w l index o f amp $< Hiae the work of the police
ranking then the depsrt&snt in
to ooagmtng the eorfc of a
Of €$0**
1 10 a
aororal eessaiadLties. In one oosMattp the
oiiis&en m y bo roqptroi to report e m p eeoldesit f e c w w trlrieX* In
m w&mm m $m m mgr m b 1mm to be re*
J m on. toportaat bearing m the Qiilcid-a**
inder im
la that the dletdend la M o equation
is the mssber of eoarletioa®#
'* Ha hmm indicated in. a answer of instances
that the
.* Xi
Jodietsl grist Mt-ij ie subject to Sia*
process of all the oommltloe subject
in the ipalltp of Jnatlee netoO out,
eea^erleoa Is
to the
dlrldeiid bee little might* Bat geXtaa
itmafsgeo in Judicial perecmdL often
la memrlag
of m
reference to ether
wMLm&X® to imgxlmimt the Infer by a
destfml to diecXooo m&mr& to such ^rnrlm &e
% m Indebted to
Hap M a m rth of the- torthwetosm Hrefftc
Xnatitote tor the
o f h ie le e iu m i on tr a ffic lear *m£orc&w®b
at M m itortfowesierR Unirorslty traffic 3«Jbiy Institute during the
Cl) How scientifically and ex&etingly i» guilt for the accident
Cl) An* gftpwloal haeards responsible for accidents scientifically
evaluated and are the proper officials informed as to the
method of reducing the- basard?
(S) la® the doparteent a firtoHr&be knowledge of theproblem and
Is the departedt wganiaed to met the challenge of th© ac­
cident problem?
Boo* Wm te m to ttf t show a deep in te re s t in diagnosing the
causes of braff1© cmgewtien and. Its i^llcatlms m traffic
(S) Xto educational progrws coincide with the problem* or is the
educational program isorely "bapgNWistance?»
Other yardsticks to M m r e accident prevmtim work haw tom proi
j posed* Accident mfcm$ accident injury rates, and accident fatality
| rates per 100*000 ii$ii*Mi«bss, end per 10,000 'vehicle© registered hwm
| m m U m . »*«,
portent « * » „ .
The l a x i t y
| flow of traffic destroys the Jaetiea of mieh a $a©&seram@mb* A police
; department 1® not alone faced with ewe registered within its borders*
I Haay departments in fsmnleAp^Me® located dong the great arterial hl#t*
| way® ptoh&bly cope with a larger swstor of out-of-town ear® than with
| local registrations# Consequently the ^ployment of m Inter which avoids
j the li^plioatlcns of the out-of-town problem camot be a true m m m m of
| a department *» work when the dividend used in the equation Is the- number
] of roistered wotor vehicles or the peculation of a ccammmity.
3* a m
j been used*
n « M o* j^ic® a«tAvity
In evaluating the Juvenile delinqcenoy problem.
| valuable index possibly lies in the proportion of Fart 1 offenses eos^*
l Edtted by $xvmnHm**‘ by taking the total nuator of offense© cossaiited
^Ba"”this © c « S ^ e n d
jj itt««f* m
Simon* ^Measuring Police Actir-
(Bay, isst),
%ot* tto uniform <^asslflcafelon of offenses on pp* 46-49.
in m y given month sod determining the ratio of clearances between Juve­
niles ami adults, o»e ^
d«$#»i»e the total number of Juvonil© offenses
Of that class coieaAtted charing the nonfth# Another index, the ratio of
Juvenile deXir^ueraey per 1,000 ciiildren is ecwttoge ueefWU
Bat those
yard&tioke whan applied as measarasjonte of peXice effaetAvaness are re­
liable only on the een&t&Mi that the police m m held entirely accountable
i m the delinquency problem* 1hlst of course, Is m b so* Causal festers
responsible for
m m bmymd the control of the police m l
with regard to its solutim other m^amtm also participate in re­
ducing delinquency* If delinquency is to he used at all as m Index
I the better plan is to Investigate how m d in wb&b mmtmr the police are
partiolpatiBg in the »ebtl«mt of the problem# A depsrfcasent ought to
knew Its delinquency a m i *
| Juveniles* It should
It i w M investigate ©©plaints against
supervise the retreats of Juveniles,
A department srnst also be m m m of broksm t a s and it should seek to
| establish the identity mi mbmmdmtd children# And the polios should act
I] as an Isqxtirtant coordinator between and among the various public and
I privets agencies engaged in the JuveniXc prehXen* But as yet, the rel|
i abively late adoption of m i m prmmttm as a primary function of the
! polios mod the uncertainty as to the polios role An- the program of pro*
I ventlon must preclude, at least for the time* a definite mmmxrmwat of
. this discussion of the problem of m & m swrafc should be a mmmry
[I or ifdaroduotlon to method used later in evaluating the effectiveness of
j sms hundred polios assortments in Cook County* However, the failure of
j moat of the departments to record essential information necessary to an
makes it impossible to attest m y oesaparatiue rating along
the Hues of scientific inquiry suggested in this chapter* She situation
Is such in mmt of the dsgmrtnsnta that any ovaXuation mat rely in the
final analysts upon a broad view of erpmi nation, of equipment, s d of
personnel standard® whleh are to a considerable extant indicative rather
than m&surable factors* It la far this reason that a masher of the
nOiMioasurahla factors have boon considered In this ngiapter. 2b© linos
of selsntSJA© Inquiry haw hom introduced to indicate that under given
situations oathods can be applied which fdU «*$>#tflftUailr measure po«*
Ms# S m M m & n & in cerb&in speelfl© fields* Bmgfoaais in the following
pages of study will wear as mmy of those ceosideratlons as possible,
hut in the final eatffyeis wet depend upon those ©dudjiistratiw factors
ChMi aara studied and oomMsred rather than measured.
O B w m in
m m m m m m i c i A<mom& m m m oomm
to that Indefatigable apothecary and notary public, Francis Carbonisssiesc, the early settlers of Illinois m m mich* For bis activities were
largely responsible for- %be installation of the original process of ©ofereesmit in what la war Illinois* It m s In X78S that, emsperated by
Its deplorable leak of protection, be set out m horseback to Virginia
to describe to the honorable nenbers of its legislature the travesties
under which the northwest ©cwsanity labored*
Obtaining scant swtisfae*
tion he journeyed to W&^Mngttm and la m stirring address before the
Congress Is^lwed that
XXlixieXa m e shelly' without lair or government} that t o eagle*
tr&tes, fro®. indolent or sinister views, had for sense time been
X&3SL in the elocution of their duties, and sere nos altogether
without authority} that crime© of the greatest enormity might
be admitted with impunity, and a wag murdered In bis om home
and zio one regard ttj that there was neither sheriff nor prison*1
In some weasnre at least, as a remit ©f his effort®, the Morth Vfcai
Ordinance of W
m m promulgated and under Its provisions the territory
received its first great of police protection*
"For the prevention of
exines end injuries the 3am to be adopted op wade shall have fares in
a ll parts of the district, and for tbs execution of process, criminal
and civil, the governor shall make proper divisions thereof****
1778*1050 (1908), p* 43.
edited by Mmtl Joseph ferlle {Collections
Of ih
But it appears that the installation of provisions setting up the
jj machinery of enforcement was not followed by an organization of that
j machinery• J, F. Hamtrarack, major of the military, wrote of the situa| tion in 1739s
nI would beg (for the sake of the people) that his Excel-
i lency would give me certain powers to create magistrates, a Sheriff, and
j other officers • • • • for at the present, there are none,
Other pioj
jj neers took up the cudgel for better protection, the movement culminating
| in the efforts of news-editor, Daniel Pope, whose fiery denunciations in
I the Kaskaskia Intelligencer had a good deal to do with the movement for
j immediate transition to statehood* Wrote Pope in -the issue of April 22,
] 1818s "Grimes of the blackest dye (even murder itself), have defied its^
j feeble powers and laughed in guilty triumph, at their suffering victims*
| Honest labor had had its bread taken out of its mouth, and injuries of all
I kinds have implored relief in vain."
It is not difficult to understand, therefore, that the question of
law enforcement held an important place in the constitutional convention
of 1818 which was responsible for Illinois* first constitution*
these early const!tution-makers provided for protection forms an xnterest; ing chapter in the history of police in Illinois.
(l) There shall be elected in each and every county in the said
state by those who are qualified to vote for members of the general
assembly . . ♦ • one sheriff, and one coroner, whose election shall
be subject to such rules and regulations as shall be prescribed by
law. The said sheriffs and coroners respectively when elected shall
^Boggess, The Settlement of Illinois. 1778-1830 (1908), p. 62.
^The territorial government,
^Buck, Illinois in 1818 (1917), p. 211.
in ofttm %m %mm9 bm
to reaom l m&
cation, md etna* ®mm mfcm and le^tiSAtiotMi «ta
b® trm time to
«U »
prmmrttmd t y &S***1
(2) 4
in eegfe
nmkmr ®$ JomUm® ®t the m o m etsali be appointed
mmmty in mart%m m m m Urn &mtmX «9««e% m& d irect*
thee* tSjae o&jm&Am* p m m * * m i duties dh#U
(3) cteeteiiM m i eibsr teteter ®f$tee*»s
eteA l ho eg^Mritatad in
ees«E$;&y e M U g&m*QtiiM»«*
bo o&oftawi eMstsa torn Xtmkm o f Urn
mtis m m m m the
theft » {1} fte f mne of
.Mm t&seee p « id .e te» i t i*
mne- to rent Xerge&y ata&i the 3Am o f era»tgr Jariediottone* (a) Use *are**
swipttes of
i m i
end &&!*• eoe to ho
in t o g e e m X
($} tmmm o f ® $ fto wm-M t e bimtbmmi
reoaX£el&e«^ (4 )
fo&ioe effMft&e were to be state! not eppctotel^
mm im be th e e f f t a o f
(5) the immd&tim
and o f t o r i f f •
Hhi*# s s w is t e e tw s ta d en&il M4S whet* m m rtm of ta & * ta £ te
mmttmmi® m m $mm& XNNtiuyteg Urn
oifkm m in line with m^rnstmt
*rt# *U* ®#®*
Ea i i iy a a f e ^ u a a # * * . « # ^
i^yt* bee# sa*
ebiio t m StrnU dwafft of t o mmt&bs&lm p r w k M for
t o M m m i & i station of tariff sod m # ! t o e$igta& drift e@ pna**
w i M for ^oie oiaita for efteettaft
with t o p m v U A m
t o t the t a r t f t omsM not t e r n ®we time % « r yeere in e a r to rn o f eix
yearn#** I tto ftMrtnre m etgriolene out * t t o tMifd x«eiix^« See Bad£#
m net ^
r n M l i ® w m to be mppoietetJ emi&IIy by the
a&srta* imsr^ Im w % (iS27) the
to imeide $sr M i *
^r dieteiete* &m Pmm* Up. ..Minyjar..^tm
(Ib e
o f m in d t% m * X2# 0*
a^ ord ,
W } # p« w *
g^lOTla«{ijatetataa o f mtnfflUi (Kfeftt, acisiea and ".Iw ji^il., 3&W).
(1} t o n ««y f#lentw effete* tall to e«Mltte^ public notice
ttereof toil be taodtotoly glean* in fill putXUe plnee* no&r wlmr®
t o ®s^e im# ccMit’
led, and freai* pwm$l% toil be forthwith t a e
After every person guilty tkrntmi# by sheriffs* oorogiere* eonatahtos*
end mil otter pommm ete -toll be by
swaned for t o t jwpeee**
<EJ S e i f v' 8 W i » |
ttesa e c Mta ed or oh®*
m mmm m mi ^miwmr
he toll be toflawed
er toe of tte-tectr ®f «np gs®*#* being feta tod (euppeta to tmm
m m to Ms m her t o i b by t a t a e e * t o t o t y o r any u n to m ) i
toil ferta&tb pemmd to mmmm a Jury of ttow good t o 1»m&1
mm* o f t o iset|$$ta& ta t o t o t o d body t o l l be f a t a lytog or
teiig* to repta ot mwfa Wm m im « M l direct * * # «.to toi&lre
(tea# & star of tte t o d body) ter to- in w|pt
or tot bo or t o owe to Mm or ter tatfSu*
m m m $ $m& by
(1} X% ta&l b# tte duty of ewwy toriff t o kroner » * • • to
nei retwm dll wits* oagmto* proteee* «rd©r% m i degree*
of otoy tamrtp&tm* ttet t o U or may be legally dXwmtmi t o dello*
e t a to ii&% w ltoto t o Ito&be o f him t o * ®
{4} t o teeswl tariff# tot
tall bo
t o peeoo in. ttmir mopmtXm
t o top to earn#* by eisutag.
*11 odftate% oo elm* to be mmlttmt to prises* t o to enter Into
soefitatene* to teep.tte mmm* * * • * to. it tall tae to t o duty
of e l l t a r if f # and m sm m to euppew© #11 r tta * rente* «sfto»#
Uniting#*: end ell erfcaee -end bewfiustee of tte
($) It toll bo tte duty of tte tariff of
all oirtot oeerto* t o eoerte of mmtyt
e»taf» to e V
'in hi#
t o btee m d mmtrnm^ of #toi eessrtof and te ta&l tewe
tte au@to% end w o of tte court teuo# and Jott#^
fte tanging
t a e fro# t o ate®# eietate**
tom offices mm
tatagr ta^sre*
t o totemer ieeta oteortog tte effto
o f mmm? in t o d$moMm o f eeeitalxiteg- t o ©as**# o f deotb appears for
t o fle e t tte#* * 3 ta ta » t t e ftaet& m o f t o eesener &s a toftf*# «£ t o
ptae t e to ntae* dtotoitad* Other dittos to tattta* to toe# of
teeg^te t o gome ere nor topeta upon t o tariff* to Oar
of tte awto* ete tte ceotodtal ©utority owr Jail# and
•W M M M eH p r
oi* m * tec* mo#
arvj^a... oi* Jtsii, 3©c, 5,
S3feid,. (Si. s s n , 300* 7 .
m&b>» a»« aaiit ;3®°*1&*
tb id ,. Oh«
ioix ,
a©o. 6.
Upm ifom w r w s r wm
Urn i$M®& duty
of eaeecut*
im *m W its leg a lly dirooted Is Ste*
taring this m m gwta% ttss preete* sad. authority of the ootiortelte
litete© gtw#
She eleottos of tmm%®frilm wm mm%®
tee end their l « w «r # m « mod* hmr
in all ©eas*
Xmgsat teaor® of
StiT of the slsete* ©fiiooss
ft® * * * * mstsfeil** #*$XX be elated la weft *%mtlm pro**
t e e t te SMMfe emtgrt mei^t that pweisiet in shish tbs cmmtep m&t
is Smbi M^. te titefe tfe«m ah®01 ^
♦ t i these « s t t e tested*
* * * * CeBMMites th a n tuftd th e ir ®i$lm tm the %
®me f fbs*r
AmaitSsM* is* tbs t e w l w w i l mmm® mm. &Xm tihmmsM® la %km mm
of l i w t e t jsnmni
m U m hy &h»
Jmiitel Immtik
mi the &m®m*
Cl) & » $w$m® « # # # of t e w i t eeerlty in their mspeoiiw
o£rseliSjt mad
©f the p«©%. Iss their
itaXX Jointly sai
of tbs pmm i&thla
th eir rm$m®Mm jiigls&iet&tiH* « » * • « d sh a ll haw &X1 pmmr to
eaUsves* or sssase to be eterte* &XX 1mm that mm astet* ©p that
ehsXi hereafter be » $ % for the prsssatlsii «s4 pa«istes»&$ of of-*
tmrnm# m tm tbs $resarwte<m sad sterwrioe of the $*as**£
(ft) I t efcatt # * # # l*s the *itmty o f om&h etraxlt sttesm y^ to
slrosiii «ari to he b©M in oash of the softies boleo^*
lag to .hi* Judioi&l e&rseib*
to e e w w e « t p r o e e e t e all so*
■*tew»# e t e % p m w m $ late&mste m & p m m m % i m B $ otvil mad ori®*
iaal* in
Um pm0m
mwfa joditedl
0# tte itit©|
eosM m di
m m^
ea^)ty wi.thin suel1
to & f« d ndl aotteia bsxs^ght
the Mtitor of psl^io aooomts#
o f the o r a t e s a f» S ^ ic l| to i^osoast# a ll forf®it#d
awl all smite matI aotiws for the r o o o w ^ of dMte# motm^mg
mmmm# flass*
md f« tM tanwu oom tog to tfco p^oplo of
^sio sta te« # * * * Be sl^oll
h is ©pitm©i% i s l t w l
to easy ©!»%*’ «w^tesioao3m!| ow rlt m& to « y ^atlcjo of Um pmm
Oi* U l #
statute^ of tlMmim.
% St
IHg. ■Sso#- JhP@U»
B&M** Attorney.
oitfoin him elTOiit, ttea
m to 0o« upon ww qim&tion of
lo»# r^toting to «ia^ crimtoi or otter ratter# in ofticii t o poopX®
or ooqt 0 ®*$*# to osmo«ismo^#^
Hugo oteor t o Conotite^m of %MM m*& mimmimm* tegSUOotto omctonte,
the- p m m m m of ter onto^e^t tenort* to # oosy teg® m t m % vpm t o
«mn&r offteo of iteriff# « » a t e ^ % eoi«or5 and circuit ottenor#
a® ragjwl# ppmwvim t o $®a£% ccwoswr® -sor©
01& listote M l
ospaXX^ tlMOwiteMi# f&t&i tte t o r lf f * I t a # a® ooifty oa X84S toriffito
m m te i n g c a d d te t ® tt&
®w to % r o f te tte r*
offteto&o tooa^&nat Urn atete oore rapi€l^ aMoting
But «feiil»
tte teoto p^dpMilMXf tte® of ocdteoaMwijt iotorootin^
teal o i r t m o t w @ going on opsM in t o t pio^osite part of t o state
ah&db to ooo t t e cs&tgr of &&o®oo» CMoogo1# qpoat f or to&X gnAte wgio»
ieoMoo m l mteNA tegaa in. m
vkm tte Tom of CMoag© mm i^m porotei
tr v&rto of m act pa»«id isgr tte legislator® Ptowpy 3&# XBH*
ilm% grant
O n t a
pmmm mm 4mtA& of anr grant
$& * 100 %
tt e
te r n t o o t e ®
& i«
of «»tori%y to $«(Ue®*®
p n o i a i* to r i%
a p p o in t
® cjo^ta&l©* 4 wmtl* tear* taster t o prortoiMo of tte wornI item
tfeaator C ^ to r te d % an a c t o f tte t e t e t e w on
H )» tte
t a t of tmetoa mm i i i M i antor&tr to #ecteXte. n$#ii mtmw»li
to %®gssl&tffl tte p&L&m of t o town**** a o o ^ r l^ n of to o lotto* not
Q H B a p iif lfc te rto te W iH iiM M tiw te tM te te te M r tte n tf te te M te te M io ite w H w a w te P !^ ^
w * * >,|J >,|>o |1
^ A w w t Statateg,ja£.miaafo (Stoat, Ssales «*!' KUefctoU, 1867),
aw m .
8**w«» tbft <toaEfc»E*.flfJt^..(&1te. o£ GbUmrn (mm), p, 2S»
yjWXRfcSWWS®* tec®* In t o
Of t o o otxort for jgrte&wr
otter it®
^fSSoF lSc Si^ ^Ip w
unter t o ganoral 00% of IML^ u®& t o ottetete of
t o tototoo to tei^p p o in to-ir Xogiaiotto ^ith t o growing: ter^rste
of tte toteo® r o i m m tte t o t o&s$r o^tont ttefc t o pos^ro g w ^ r
t o 0torol lor m m m % m M M m % to m s M o t o truoto© to porfwwi
proi^rl^ all tte p$3&&& Ootloo oni«b tte groo&ng i^p^ilaticm and tiio i»»
^ros^ing eo^plo^dtlo^ of vtxiogo Xil^ mM- drnfcwMm*** p* 01*
ii&tb Urn gmxma %m tlX m tm fim tho points *t whtoh tte Xoe&X outtert**
f« 9 L i t t e t tt e & r p o o o r o fite M
tepi «Mb im
too toUU
tmmX m m m & U m
c s r t e r t o o o n iO j*
of tte $xwKng tom* a* Proftesor t o m
**3 te mmmmMUmi «f Us® gflWNna po*Hsro f u n d In tte boavd fc*»
itefttoo «to
«& osMltte to too rawter of such p m m m $ tet o teeoter
conception, o**l o
& m m
I n i-
tteo® m
itetaM mo ri#t*
(%} 3 a m
of -Uni
topstetim® to m
m m
« pos&itm *u& dernd
Cl) fO p f M nod r m o m m im m m ote to ootteUob & algto
tootpto m& pmMM.% saMtog m m m 9 h m ^ hmm® m*&
otter ciiaof^orlr imiflM* (4 ) 1 ® *o§*a&o$o tte polio® of tte tom*
tot. iM to Umm pmmm $m? ®$$mr
mm ocmoptoti off m o pm pm
ttejr ta fia i'to to wmmX
off m m
mm it
tte Mod® mi mm of ttet mm* Bom gmato of o&tlw&isgr ('tte tet© of 1831
msd mi 3&S&) l&id &mm t t e pHmdkfto t t e t trteioo© m%kl m$m mtM
m m m is^ids m m tmb
ite r
i& m $m to mmmspl&mn ©«rfe®i» oofftelt© oml® tbloh urn
ton m
®&m am %mm of Urn ot&to*
t a n r i tot «$terlt$r of tte tom m o Hsa&tod to tte
tepoooo gotoo &§mm Ip tte tor itoiff*
h m > ,
p. m *
ftetteen *te gooor®! s^dismo® pem** m
m o tel 4xi -item t e i . t o p t o * o i ^ r o& tosftosi to pu$# c r t e o i ® to
ortor to m msf m t tte ogmiffl® Iteotta® aoolpwg to too* la tfet« &tti~
tote tte eanrto 0 0 jooMfflod tgr too ootoUtantlOQOi mgrntiX im tte a^'Ur-or^
itgr of tte oteto m tte mm tete* » ! mo
of tte ptimte iodivlte
o a io m t t e o tte r *
t e 3 4 , 00 t t e o r o t e o t f ^ t t e t a o p m s o o p t t e i i e t e i 4
te i&oteptosi 4n l i w of
origii^l pomr of m u m m tte
sort of tte 009Mmi%# o® t4vdo ® i# l| to m onto* mt*m% & llm tte teUd*
log up o f o m&tmin lo te l
tb\Mf is p a ir tl» concssv
al otate Jwlscllotto* Oft tte otter texii^ ttesr ©cmoiterost ttet tte
p v ito te aittooft te*i o r l # i i to p v o t e t e fo r 1*1® i^orooo
tom*®, iterator*# tte mterate shift Mto tte
%&$%** tosh im ®$pwmx% $m tte- pem&mfcwm of tte first dtp Ownrtwr for
£hlmg® mm t w t o t e for in tte Xogtete&iw act of tearash 4* 183?, wtel«e
m t e t t e im to W te * t t e d t p
aatog©**8 Jymi® o tte r it e m # tte
©tty ffloimoU w o wfjwtrrt to *toate» #tetoteti, fto&sli, alter, toiffy,
MStmfc t o twpto ©tfdnmm tot rtoXtomi# tom* t o
m te r of p p n
mm*m *i«$* mm*
imrite tte&r toft®* tte pteto*
tor a
(X) To Anoint to e teo a t o pro-**
(i) ®o rtoi&te ite potto#2,
#SteSosti.w of tte ttiwteteng, off teXio® rmpcmdhCii^ ®r© tte prtteteote
tor tte otoito of m high #©st®tefeX% & ite of itoto. toaff of patte©*
*ihmm «ti«3& te t o m * ip tte spa&tffto tootew of $to city * * * * cm
stem %&m o f © fffto -attell t e tor
* * * * to
toll 1mm t o ©Ktetew* &XX tte pmmm t o flattens m m'offftor of
tod itoitep&A% a m i tet&te tte Xlmite of tod city, m tori ffto &r»
alloto te n o i l * to**!** tte Xteite of tteir
te te te tt TO ' o f t t e
.A te g o o ®
te a te i
* * * t e
c « M « t8
s a id
a c m
te to
.to&& tern pmarn t* «wtete fte* m i tte city m t o t o m * cm or m m
teptito t o toil te toX&ftM im tte- m m « W |
tetei tew t o
« » r t o © o f m t o v & t p m t t e p a r t o f tte l o c a l e m t o t r
to«fe w m l dtettotlp mteLttte ©r to©ito fey p u d state t e *
s !** m * ln
M l t e a g tojttos t e s m ® ,
Riding to- otter dltodtop eto&ate, fcitomtotagg MctoUig*, p^lie
t o ® % Mtote, tetei® tola, t om t e t o totem* aitetoto, t o Urn
me* m § ® B s t e g m A t e - t o l n < ? ^ o m t e t t e d i p o f
terah 4, W ? *
of tte jtoUrti oa® tte wmt sNso®rtw w o m m
pvmw&t&w dtelalttei of toy
i& m h s»*
ditto. tte
pmm® aster tte m M
i«X*&tv& stteapfc ter
Tte® tter@ m,B$ in faet, &leg*
to t t e city * p o « m mrt«eS In to# ao^^aon*
tow ®£fle® ®£ « ( M « f
to sapapte tte i « r i pmfaXm of
t^wste® to Cldte^o^tSw am! later atestegnte itedtlgat® tte
pnatag mmmlt&m mt tte munleipOitr to tte imana of tow a a fo r a n o a t.
Striata anti panted to 1B4S m 1 to 1847 totm 1 % » m tte anfejaot*. itor
mm$i&§ to IMS w
t t e $te«&ita& and tro#*### o f to w s its o a s w a te d t y idrte® o f
tte proid^ma of toi®
atelX I m pm * to appoint a tom
and tetonrite M m to
all wite* pmem ® and pro**
tepte abito te$r to t o m l apttet %mmmm for tte idotottcm of tte
tom of tte eavsteaktton# m d to m m m % m at®*f all person® #50
a®®* isdolat® #HM0b laa®^ mid to #®£l##fe a H ft®®** fo^ottete® upd
jam llt!## totofi
im tte u$a of tte
-mi to rtapfes teed and s w i f of said ornated# to
an® sm ttegt
tolnfe frap®**
tola limited iwrtel« Xaaaa® auto to te dtelred*«*«te srt»
to® 'In te l p o lto a
tetog to te r m wlta^ alto t t e gmn&ae th a t
*m v±m* iwaate 'W$S*& te «to*
Itomni to ppewrto tte p#®te aw® litas!*# atrlotly r@gt£»ted* tor
to m to m
nor® ' m
$ tw *
to ® p o a a r t o
® te o ls r @
a te t a te ll to
m wMmmm « # • * and to p o lite for tte atetonmt or n n te li Umrm%
$3m § to rs^ateto tte ajmd aMto h n m m m d atoer anted® m i te rote cr
# i w mltote to® Unite of tte
Not antil IM? dm® %m
w ^ . w ^ a i i i i i t i i ^ r i i a ’M w iw i^ m ^ '.iiw ^ W i^ iiw iriiiiiia lin iiw rti® ! »iW'iii^ i n i i'>jl»>»>ii|~>1<OTtnfr* i' r itnriii rnTiiiTi'tf)--r~Ti"Ti' urnT ijHun r rn n«rm i< t T<Tmin r»mf ii>rtir'n ~iiii!imfiiin-irr-*! irr^i —rm" <nr"rr
**B*teg m to t to tei^fpomto t t e 01^ o f Q :i!e^ f*
r ~"n t
31837, Jawoa, ’foe Cfaaytetga a g .th e Sltor o f CMeage (XG&S), p . 70.
-) ■•‘■ -1’
tearefc 4*
fi£_mto&e. <ZM«t, Seales «od BlackwsU, 15SS7),
^36S4«-> Cb*
teo»* % M #
to o rto d m t o fttftta$mg &4&%& *£n.m z&g
oiitm oi
ta tm m m t o h to to n g o f tbo «ana o f t o ffito«&pctl polio© in Illin ois*
On ftartaory %% 1B4¥* *ta juart
City ®f
§tooh 4* -Vffi*
to t o Act Itaaa^arating t o
t e l mtadorta by t o logislst^ro m& m m opprovta
I t f^tocW , bx&ft&y t o t » t o e ity m r t o l i« «*»$*& with
411 t o posnsir &3sd authority mi 4 ocitotoo***^
X& m m tm lm #$io « to y parte% ®xt*miing to 1848* t o year in
tools. t o 4wm«S 88H s4titoto o f WitmtM hmmm ®££m$&m# im aaoet in to *
oot&ng frm t o point o f v&m o i Im m*£m?mmm% t e th* Jtantatlim
mbmm o i tho law miommmrnt ptmmm m m &sdd* tte s f M i ^ of
ngonoinit ^ipmm
t o in Urn jsorto«*®i sector of t o otsto
o il tat out o f tta gwttMkt # © t t e
mrmm9 to
tatm itatata sa l tta o ffto * o f
oaistto^ toto&i&ta*
Q t o Ommty in 1881 ? MeStaiy
and too OmmtioB $» IBMf Mb* t o ta tae* taatstto in li-Big Ortoir -to
ttamty w o o$p $stto im 3$S&»'
to44IX &etoto* in 2MU
portvit oanoHtaUm 4m t o pomt to
ginan to ^Mongo to lo o to o
fl«m itatag immioip&X pel&oo oo the taepw® of Lsta bitogBa* Bat th is
mm t o t o y istoUstito ptiUot mgm.c^ to bo o r g t o t o prior to M4S* Pur*
tta t recognition o f *t®ta* policing m i t !ma
in o to r sector® of
to otata Im e &r to tta 4»wttBiptioii tot alrtoy t o trwsa t o w ’d Hcmloipal
onforeo^^t ha& bmmm m
teo o #
^Jwm, flat iZuutmm M.MmMi&jsf: CmtQ), p. 120.
of Stata*ptST'
Blue Book.
fcy ? 4 w a r d
»T* f^ucStass* S e e m t a r y
In t o years
2820 t o IMS* t o State awgtrm^fe ©f Illinois
s s s d e a iwnafesir o f vosy taifeetaBBta ta sia sss eaowrfaMmts#
o f those
O m
h s
state tacM«i$* tansy m m m m m in %£mm « r % yours t o the prwisto
j in tao C tatotattari of M3,B psetatttng the a&aoss&ly to sroete a, $tat@ bank
8 # « t o s tto & to of tagfttotam * tax
t o ta g lto ta re did establish
I sudi s otwfco
to tanto vsotao on t o ertait ©f the state*
I t a d n p stataM * * t Is* 2 e m ta $ t o I r s o s i t o t o l t a $®rmm f i m l l y e n g s s d t o ta n k
f o il iat 2081* A issoto b to w>
lisa etata
to rto ed in 1#$$* tat it
<w* «
tee felled*
pmg?m ®£ internal i » ~
g a m t
©grata® o f r m i X ~
J retaOMOSfc only prow l ta be o fhila$r% ta t bgra$ta tta stata to the wrge
j of
Other lotaXMl toswewowt
!i eossftol* flaw ota rewalfc of the otata*« sootare into tot fta&ta of tanking
ond Ixs^osnsl
pri&toed tta oarioio of 2848*
f t a n n e l s l f & t o f it o o t o t iw ir fe ta l o r © a s s^ ta to
Ij wore fjcnt^tared os the sn&y
l! t t a f e o e s i t t o t u t o n a i l
So aeiite m # the
1% w
o f t o
xo& w r
S ta te d eb t
X* ttaroforo*
o s s o n i b t a f t i n t o m i d s t of t r y i n g f i m n c i a l
j distress t o M t o w t £t o t otottato to the t^cnct&ici phase of gmormmm*
i ffee ®m$mt to ta r o f the e« tft§
tatm ni t o u ta to mm mmi then
e£T e o n e n d
a t a r t o r t a t a m n t to fell eentotaro-
'j t o o © & t o p&M*mm o f l o n r e o t f t a e e n e o t *
h* im W t
:j pose o f sen eto eiln g
t e
iota © tor ito m &
t o
]i fifty atoo of rstooad tad taso «t@%n^tad#: t o project m m
!j t o 3 M U
%m> a. totof M i iatoamgfctot accwmt of «ss tis©a m
, Staagfcttotiean&X
ip il;
Hincta« fits tafisletiw tafcrem# i&areaa {
rnmmt® attuaiios* Urn
did a groat &aal to attdlraat 'tte® m m
tea .teatiff* &rtiol@ WSX$
of Him mimsmm&i.
A& regard®
f did aaot re&uoa t o tmwt® of t o of-
fta»# tefe it M d prmM® tot *a# p w
«ffla* moro t o m m
of 1643
%$mXZ bm #Xigl&L& to the ©aid
lit tear yaarau1*^ tertear psrwrtioi^ w © eost&ined
in ^tiolo f* iaot&osi ES# teite affirm *to»ifte « « • • for n&XML aagloet
Of duf^ or idsB*tae^» In offtes toll to* Xiato to fpamita«ii& or itidieta a n t bp * f * w i Jw y* «»d t r i a l fay a p a ttb
and i*p*m
to il
b® w m d tmm offtea**® ItdX® ill t o alaotitw offtotNa iwrtod for by
M m Cfcaitotetrian #f X8XB m m eonbtaoad* tea aaaand oombltubtoa (1848}
&km m M
atr&alii mm aft&aaa and prmrtod M
to N M t o #
ihay tould b@ abiaatact
tesaK to m i m o lb # ® iiim - o f State** A&tosaop*
*tor® ahall ta alaoto in «#£& of t o
ctooits of tela tote*
ty t o cgototeal atoto© M mm£$ mm abto'a aftewaay# t o too, bold
o f f t o ter t o tmm o f tear m
m m& b® praaorltad hy %m***
tefc t o m m i
m m Mm v a d lte l ^ m m
and * * ♦ * naO l partern m li dato®
toa$* ws*igb& tgr t o Ctotltgxbioa of IMS
to t o
o f la o a l gm tm m m m *
B m m v ly m fa*
tXm*® of t o teate bad m m twm the Bmth tor# t o county *«« t o o»ib
of looal § o w r « m ^ f and tear® tosafeip ergai&aabto
^iiliMiss ConaaiteltenaA edited tar tell tern^h toll® (&&Xaatt®K» of
t o i i S ® ¥ € l S m S S i i ro am ?, ’w u s h ) (m t)* p* 00.
JSrt* V* tea*
^ te t* Vt Sao* &S*
I t teoo34 Is# a to ta d t e # tla at t o o fflo a o f a to ta 1®
w not in tea t a naa olteoa# bat im a ma* # d itto of m old of*
rnm rnmmm^ In m m *
and StMteMU^ W } i Ob*
©f t o o o w a ^ 'o la w ili attara«ar# f « « w r o f t o atat« * a
m th o r itim
m m m&Wjsm hatto$ trm, tte s^rttesm
S®m of b w w M p
&ad wtk 6&<mt«md to ucm
m & p®rfctot&®rl,y of ^owpswote dlmefol? re~
oponolbltt to tte poopto* to & r®smXt# tte Gmfeitft&lftK! of 1848 osspreasly
tte Ctesor®!
to fwrto® for a ttnmsMp c^gantis&tion
taster tette ter ©crater Mjgjte tete&**# t w w r a im^oriij of tte wtero
of tte ooo^sr «fc a p m w s l ototetois iteoM m tetemto©#1 % vtotti® of
tiito pwtoloo tt&ter towohtp p w w s l a m m m ^ m d m d in Cook oo&tity*
te& m iteporte^t tearing m tte office of
'immd w®& tte «tero eotettttetenal
4 fiortos* of
yvteteUMt «Uo»oi is- B # f lasi, tet X « U
For Mteto, tte teuton
t e ' of 3MS3L prorites®1 tewte te&iX te ©taon* te tte onmol tem w«te
tog In te©& %ote * + * * teo eoostebloo , » * , art such ocmotabXo® oteXX
te oteoooooro te * « • * entente Mtetete0«** fte
of tte
nose offtU* to txM&®&ml In tte j m v M U n * of tottete IX* teotioo IS, that
m m M & M ® te ©tootel for iteg ?«»*» frssnte In tte ro-orgaalaatioo of
m t e r tOtUmm #&mm
limm mm tatter ltetofttte its tte tension
% m of W m lOsdoli i t e M to outetenMi that ail, toms te^tog aoro thm
% m Wmmamd iteteitanfeji ter ©toot on® corjsteto for oaoh m d ®mxy tte***
»&$?$ isimhitOTtof
l H t. fix* S«f?# €>* te» oteo, i d t e F* te d te l te l IMgitoaon teW,
p* « *
% « t W 7 Xf# X083l# p* ^
H * too*
m ^aofo (YtMfc* wmOm® mmI te te te tt*
f‘a*n®* Bama,»
^kwtetoss teir© origtoalXy #®tabXi«ted m oomty ©fftoorss# m d imm
mlmMX m tte bmtim of prBotoote m% tap for tte otooti«m of ©tot© offloors*
P* SW* 8ortoto
m m $ homrmr, inserted to
tte i C d w » t a r of eeoitabtatf for tef on® t&m
m m m% at fiw. IteLtel.Jtetetei of JOLUteto (tewtf 3oaX®o and BtoekooU^ ! W ) i p.- » *
terter impowlmst tend la tte
of tte polte is erktec&d
M * XS&X* im %h» city of &te@e
in' tte Ommcfttettsg Ant of
'*£&<& g & w to city mthor&tte tte right to appoint «#< » ^ r *oon»tfl&lM*
j«stootom# and mttstem m tte
tmmmiX m&i ttxm tte to ttm$
M xm t*** MimlXy* iter® In tin tet of I%itesai*r £?* 1BSX* allotting to
totntfxip stittet^fcte® tte
% ttmm officiate w »
post of c0«i®®ioi«rn of m^mbsw w i
tteftemi tte
and bridge*
of teg^t&ng tte
sad tegMdr of M#s*asy©
m d %te s^g&X&ttai of ttftf$l&»
t e i «te8@** m m oo^lotoly mem$::$tkmi&
for t t e t t e being by tte p o l i t i c m w 'sf&ob %m&to 0btM mmwal mwr
U s p o l t e darter tte |Mfi X86M&* this oatMftnm la stmt© cson**
'tei will h# dteXMMMMl 'Ixi tte IMXoites .fltept*** Tim period
tetefly «wMTl«si!i# te-'£te*&te»t for- tte prte rwmm tteb to tte rteasfw
Hint of tte pg&te® proons%.
ratteriite* m m ooRfomd upon
'teKsotiip «n& ten rronotei* wfetete to a d^wstette of tte fate ttet ia£»
tteirw woo a tteteteg of poogate la loo&l wmam&tbtmt m & that
tinn o > arising an telafmae wyes* legally aj?tetet®4* offio^rad «umi gw*
emod police*. &%ttm
tteo* it is & parited in nfeieh
did not &$te te ontterftty* natter did tear ten*
tte dewtib&ltoi of liS^te-dte third oocmtl.tatte for SHte®te*Mmsrfe@
a point of sd4|aM ^i# in tte &taio*y o f t t e ototo* 3to a e w i l M l i
d* t e |
{189a}, p* IM#
Into, too* t e wr# f;®wm fofSMtte
to tte city*
•flte n«mtel tell iwfbjm rocih dni&#o «» oteU bo p*te«rited by tte e«a*»
m d l | fo r tte p s i m t e o f tte irtH o poaoo# t t e e®3~tetiem o f
l l m w w f and ftter^ or oterrtei» te shall posts®#® tte ?^*or %£"£l
a&thor&ty of a o o m t e at « w
i p# Ml?*
t e rtebute of this
C ^ rn t, ®mlm m$ B X ac^ili, 10S?)t
extent i t mmtfku * depart*)?© from the past, and a bold endeavor to charter
wtet had boon uneterterod seas# In policing, the Constitution of 1870
played a rel© of almost in^oolable iuportanoe.
the Goml&tuttcn lie s fcb© m m m
im the
In the background to
Hie rejection by th© cetera of the proposed Ooaatitiiticn o f 186S led
to tte int^era& U mnditlsm® uhldh p r a te d the calling o f the convex
t t e in 1870*
A© w© recall, tie aitetion of legislators prior to 1848
had been directed toward state participation la* mmm la m iters#
bidden by the O oeiU ttttto of-184® fr m engaging in banking and other
enterprises, the legislate© after X84B directed' aettviti©© to other
Hold© of eonspoet* Hit© era X84MUB7G m
apecl&X legislation*
of private and
toward the ©ad of tte period tte s^rimt©
leg isla tiv e e v il grew to each proportion© that practically the entire
■tte of the (tauKttsX AsswiiaXy m m devoted to the ©n&etenb of private and
special Xmm? whU©
Of public intereat were, in m a y instances,
ignored or passed without dm cossidsratiosu
situation, observe the Jbllowingt
Illustration of tte
It was t© curb this evil tw% tte Constitutional t e v m t t e of 2870 m&
^tegielatte Beforonc© Bureau,
(me), p« o u
*Xt should bo ©aid here that the need for curbing the power of the
General Assembly with reference to primt© ate special legislation wa@ a m
out of possibly three mmmrn* tetter m m m m e the tetrahility of
Increasing tte salaries of constltutlonsl offices* for escampi©, the &ov~
emor of the state received a salary of only #1,500. t e other reason
was tte necessity for reorganising tte judiciary.
of UB70 is
m l^glnUUm i o t t ^ in% *
only m indtcfcsjont
«n .U ^IU U ii' pgmm* te re~
P ^ * ptol&Mmg, m & tte prooee© &f
&rfci<tl® 3tf# Saetion E£
*» 1»pt«tiU. Sb teulartsraoe, tk» erUoOs Ittrbade fete Oenana Aaa®jMy fco
. pass load «r special laws (1) ragaX&iiag she ai'faira of tte county or
tewaftdpj (8) regulating ttsa pracUeas ia tetacto af Jusaoe} (S) regulate
teg tea Jwrisdictios m l duties of Justices of tee jwsuee, jx&loe aagietnrtee, isad
m & (4) tMeeepmtttag eities, town*, or village*,
or dasaglog or Mxa^tng tte Par!*? of &©y tme,
«r riltete*
o f 1890 for th» ftreb t l m clearly
dle&tajpiiisted tim m m m l &$pm of i»Elc of&Lcm* S m u m M of totiale
¥ ©sapm
**M offlee id m. pefelic imnvIUo® w m t a i by the
lew*49 'Sim mdltbt&Qtt ttom reo®$38l»& t m e&aeeee o f esteem * «»e. of
et&eb ie oiwtel by tte a m e t i M l M
m d fee other bhiafo 1*
orated by et&tat#» tlm dlet&iaebiet} w y ee@&s of ©light isqgmtmm*
I w tees eeati a© to alter tte whole eoa*
pte&m of law t s l m M ' 1 *
ftme offlee© ormted by etetute are wholly
litM a fee oooitMQl o f tftie le g le la fe r e orteriftag ttee*
L ite clay* ttejr are
l pX&ebio ami TO¥abl© **>& o m be edjoeted to met fee
©&d tte trnprnr
j o f t t e itasa# &st t a i wm fed by tte coneMfeMosi o&n aelfesr be d *
i teKgpt w
| w
teamed la eoope by w & etatate# nor filled, ia
fem tte mmm dtreotad by fee
otter » •
they tar® ia fee
genrmfeiona la
; tiM.««aft {ISIS}*
Steeple « E g a
V* Amaea ifcftlim JSB XU, SSE (1S99). See also
! B M d f g TSffif. S o u u m i i i w r
tegiiming, so oholX ttey be
describes their position.
.0NN* boulters whidh imy in tim wear ansy or tecoinpose, such offices
as sheriff, constable, coroner, and stato*a attorney might be dynamited
or plowed around*
In Illinois tte process Is one ©f plowing: around*
stitutions tesigaed Hear tte p e e t still persist in a modem era*
Evaluation of the period beginning
IB7Q sill
proceed along the fol-
lowing lines®
1* Changes made in the Constitutional offices by tbe Constitution
of 1870*
2* ttemXopmnt of tte statutory police offices.
Tte tevelopment of tte Conetitutiotel offices*
Ttes© ere tte changes m&® by tte Constitution of 1870 in the con­
stitutional offiomt
(1) Tte tisfO-year tern of tte Biabe1© attorney was
changed to four years.1 (2) a ® tara of the sheriff continued at four
yeans but with the
prmtm that he
©tell not bs eligible for office for
four years after tte e a p l M U m of tte tom for ifcioh te was elected.
(3) Ccmsts&Xe© stelX te sleeted in- and for such districts a© are provided
ffer by law, but their Jurisdiction© mutt be uniform*
But the Genor&X
M P sboli#! tte office Within tte City ** Chicago and auqr limit
^Arb* H . Sm* Mt H4t the election for- sweaters of tte General As« « * # 1te*e ©tell te elected a State1© Attorney in and for each
county, in lieu of tte State* m Attorneys now provided by law, whose ber^s
of © m e © shall be four years.”
proclaim raerely saya that te shell hold office for four years*
Mis provision m s later amended and was ratified fey tte voters on tewesej ter Z$ 1880, «nd proclaimed Hotter 2£, X8-a’
>* to provide that tte stereligible
! iff was not
IM 1U- 46 O bw ).
XGQ m * S09
tte Jurisdiction of constables in Omsk County outside tte city limits*1
(4) the tmem of mtmm r m m fim& at two year®, the Incuiskervfe being eligi­
ble to succeed
( S )
Constitutional limitations as to Urn
ter of- deputies and assistants of sheriffs and coroners were resaoved, the
emtttutlto laonOy prodding that the ouster shall "te determined by
rule of the Circuit Court * * * * and their compensation * . * • deters
mined by the County teard**®
«Mh regard to the etatutoey offlee of tte mmtvipal police, lapse*
tent changes were made by the legislature soon after the Constitution of
1S70 m m approved* In X8?£ tte l^porbmt "Act to provide for the Incor­
poration of Cities and Tillages11 m m enacted* fhia Is tte basic law
under 'sshioh tte police of mnioipalities in Illinois sure organised* Arti­
cle ?, section Sof tte let grants to M&icip&Xt ties the right to prescribe
tte duties md pmmm of a sup®rinte^l®nt of police, policemen, and m t d h
®m$ m d under tte lo t fete wyer tea tte m m wfeterity m tte sheriff to
p&wmrm pesos mud enforce order*4 Xte let m m designed to include city,
town,,and villas*
It mete®
attempt to assign particular powers to
1Sm Art* n, Stm. S4 mod £1. Se* tXao, Paonltt sit££& ▼. Emsfo*
W l m . £00 (1888)} gMB&artongga of tte BUjmenTtijamL. tom v t Oastm
r. Jaotffion. 1®5 JJUL*
Art* X«'tee# B (Later changed to few years by the amendment of
Stouter 2, ISao).
Art* 1* Sec* 9* for Judicial interpretation of this danse sees
Comtr.ef Cook,r* gmptft* I M XXI. $14 (X®X)|
r* gagtaay,
^ m m T rnmr^Sown*
Ludlow Bogart and John Mabry tettees, 'Hie Modem Cksmomgealth,
X995~1318.(Centennial Kiotoiy of Illinois, Vol. V, €* W* Alvord, editorto-rfdef) (1880) p. S0S.
particular levels of government* Cities, villages, and towns have in gen~
oral the same broad powers*^
The evolution of the urban police function is the natural result of
congested population in urban centers and the multiplicity of human contacts*
These often demand the regulation of the very habits of its mem­
bers vftileh, in turn introduces enforcement of obedience to numerous laws
and regulations as a phase of the police functions* In Cook County evi­
dence of the increasing importance of the municipal police is demonstrable
In the rapidity with which municipal police organisations were founded*
Prior to 1872, there were in addition to the Chicago Police Department,
only five others*3 Prom 1872 to 1880, four other departments were organA
Ised* In the following decade there were nine* In the ten years 18901900, twenty-three more departments appeared*6 Thirteen others arrived
this connection see Grlffeabagen
Associates, Proposals fop
th* BaoKKapiaatio n of Xoc«X ®m»xrsK*>*
n n « d » . Part X, "The State
Outside of Cook County,tt Chap* 1, p« 22* The basis for this statement
lies in the Act of June 19, 1929 (Senate BUI 484) which amended Article
? of the Cities and Villages Act of 1872* The three sections of the
amending aet outline in detail the powers of the municipality* Se© Z*ampr
ofjmnois* 1929, p. 254*
&»*g# Statewide. Coordination
Doctoral Dis­
sertation, Department of Political Science, Northwestern University
(August, 1955), p« 28* See- also Fosdiok, American Police Systems (1920),
Chap. IX$ m m v* The Stoor* 214 HI* 40 (HosJ*
With reference only to Cook Conner. The five mentioned are* Bar­
rington (1865)| Cicero (1867)$ Glencoe, Palatine, and Wiimetka (1869)*
Evanston (1872)$ mirnett© (1872)5 $*mm% (1875); Riverside (1875)?
la Grange (1879).
SRivwr Forest (1880)$ Maywood (1881)$ Melrose Park (1882)$ Western
Springs (1886)$ Arlington Heists (1387)$ lyons, Niles Center, Elver
Grove (1838)$ Matteson (1889).
^Bartlett, Summit (1891)$ Dolton, Franklin Park, la Grange Park, Orland Park, Biverdale, Spring Forest, Tinley Park (1892)$ Brookfield, Des
Plaines, Evergreen Park, Homewood, Lansing (1895)$ South Holland, Wheeling
(1895)$ Morton Grove, Eiverview (1895)$ Hodgins, Kenilworth, Stoger (1896);
Glenview, Niles (1899)*
in the decade 1900-19X0,^ end fourteen in the ten year® from 1910 to
In ell, as of 1050, there were cighty-nin© municipal police de­
partment® idthin 1h© County of Cook. Seven thousand or more police are
oaployed by thee© ©Ighty-eigfct municipalities isfoteh haw the direct re­
sponsibility of guarding the live® and property of nearly four millions
of people* Imm than 100,000 people live outside boundaries of thee©
At the eandusien of the Civil War, Chicago, m so mm? other rapidly
growing diles, faced m acute shortage of outdoor recreational facilities*
Although tli© then popula&im of the city totalled »p® than ISO,COO r©5
creation growls and pasta were almost nw^xistent* T© provide for
larger facilities, tbs Chicago City Council passed an ordinance m October
1, 1884, setting off ttm the lands of the Chicago Cemetery a plot of
gramid appMdmtely sisdr acres in extent, this ordinance became the
foundation of the park district system of Illinois* Two years later, the
General Assembly formally recognised park dewXopments in Chicago when an
aet was passed vfeioh provided for the estdhUctmnt of two parks in Chi­
cago, one taking in ground to be chosen as an addition to the city, the
1B©lliK30d, Phoenix, Posen, Norton (1900)$ Oak Park, Shermerville
(1901)$ Qlmnmd (X9G8); Hillside (1906)$ Burnham, Forest Park, Mountgreenwood, Bcmth tiftlesge Heights (1907)$ Oak Isum® (1909).
^Haaol Orest, Justice, TessvllXe (1911); Burr om (1912)$ Broad­
view, Biiotaey (1918)$ Chicago Ridge, IStawood Park, Palos Park. Sduller
Park, Bbrth (19M)$ Prcmpeet (1917)$ East Basel Orest, Robbins (1918).
®See Copter V for the analysis of municipal police personnel*
\atesfc Federal Census figures (1950) list Cook. County* a population
at 5,982,128.
6KMper,« KngyxiXcna&&ftOf Bnifeea AU1— Jfrilteag (Vol. 2 C) (Article
oa "Chicago''), glwes Chicago's population for 18®) as 109,806, and sor
Other to imvs grounds roleeted both Inside and outside oi* tee U n its and
r;i8 awt
eo*<wea«titog te e eppelatswnt o f c separate eoswtsoiess far each.
provided far sppointMint o f fiv e <soraudssiorore, bond Issues llsdtad to
fijOOtyOQO, issutesun le v ie s net to exceed toB » 000,
toe people o f Chicago, toe mamse w
Sat m roferoroe to
detected, tee e*y o f speculation
and «o*rnptl«n being fate !,1 toe xteosuro was aeela b rea st befbro the
3ttM «ta«9, passed, end again referred to the people in 1867, At
«j*«U l e la c tia s, veteare la tee three tointeipe tewIved 1. e«, South
®d«e®e, %de taHt, end take approved tee se t fep & vote o f 9,fl8B for,
4»MG against* tone m* tee South ftarts itsb r ie i in tee cat®- of Chicago
tended* tm ymmm le te r tee Lincoln tark fite tr ic t. was Incorporated.
After 1889 tee rise of pseit dtetartcte tbroujdmt tee state was rapid.
tsentsMi*® separate perk districts tad been orgwdeed wltela
toleage, twents-awwn ©tears within tee Halts of other
In Qosdt County. toe lndteetlan of tes rising BUgc&nomm of park
dtetelota la teasrvteta In tee swtloulous dea^atlon of territorial jurisdlsticM given to oar!* districts by tee cvany park district sets white ware
of general application to o U pmek district®. ter eswipl®, the original
Aet of 1871 gave to perk autearttlos only eapervlsieis® of peak m m m
pwesM**.® te rottvarlty was given over any streets or roadways leading- to
psnfee, la 1079* bewBw, park oo-aelwlatwra were authorised to taka over
W t e S n ptelle streets ter purposes of oroaUng beolevente and drives
between parks proper,8 to® rot rssulta of mite wide legislation
* » * » « ■ ■ ■ r o w — M M i III —
s a n M
y M
n y n
| ff. f v
..).-I—^ . - 1 t , - r ,T H - ii»T *ii»ii f f l t „ i-iipr.iim r,n ;]-n- ' Ti ii -|| -|■■ T -T |[
" f - - T r j r - ir f m . ||-| i n r i l r I- ■[
-i in
Ttarott tewdwrlln, ffltenaB..aad Xta 3Utatea (1874), pp. 516. 584,
St e m J i L m t e m
P. 537.
p. sis.
vtou©* By 1956, in Chicago, the Chicago Park District?’h^d «pder its
jurisdiction 15© separate parks with total acreage of/5,&$?*?&$ 109*70
mile® ot bmaev&rds and parkway® lying outside of
of dri'wsmy© within the jjark®.
■. .{
■ P m m to police urn® first conferred m park amffimlamrk by ttie .act
of 1871, which said in part that park
s M l have the right
to ^appoint and support a polio® force#*S the act, however, did not grant
powers to police* 1Shim ©mission was provided for in another act
under date of 180? .'which rather mguely granted powers to police, to super-*
inSmkpferasd their assistant© while cm duty.* Set until X89S were park
police granted the authority to wise arrest© in the m m manner a© the
police in eitios*
this rather 0mmmX delegation m m reinforced in
1$3! by an m % which defined park police department© m ocnsermtora of
the peace with the power to arrest any or all violators of any city or­
dinance within- such city m they m m located, or the board of park eraa*
aisetaim, or the criminal laws of th® state*6 In general, one can say
\he ft&esge Fork dstrlst was established by an Act of th® Illinois
lA^is^ture adoptea by referendum of the waters of Chicago April 10, ISM.
Technically the Mstriet m m created on May X, 1954, when the first Board
of CcwwdasicK»gvs appointed by the Honorable Mwwrd J* &e31y, Mayor of
Chicago, took office* 3h» former tswmt§Mfcw© park districts continued to
function, however, pending disposition of litigation rationing the valid­
ity of the Park OcnMOJdstlan Act, and In the interim their aet® were re­
viewed aid eaatUmd by the CMeag® Park District* On October 11, 1954,
the Supreme Ooarb of Illinois uphold the Act and consolidation became an
aasccB^lishsd fact*
80hlo*e*» P«J* Btatrlct, thlM AarotaX toarfe. for the .year ending
Beeesber SI, 191?*
QttflSlfall (18?1)', P* 592*
*l<m «r
TlltBnla (MW>* P* 247.
5Aet of June 24, 1886. Bevjoed Statutes of Illinois (&aith-imrd,
1351) Chap. 10S, See* 266.
®»An act to define the powers of members of police forces established
that park police ommfkm m authority &mp$treble to the minority granted
the police of wmU£p&&l%im*
% t&rtae of the s e m t l legislative acts,
time ere now rooldent I** Cook Qmrntp twenty-eight park police departs
wm%& tiat^i es$&dgr In m m m of ei#t hundred poXlee^m* ®s© position of
pasfc district* dfpsptMst* within the grew* of g m m m i t was ifco* de-
w x m m in the
**t to
* separate municipality with p m m to wnaet «x*d enforce ordlnimcoa, rt&m
end refmlation* far the ipweMW$& and protection of oresertar msSmr Its
jurisdiction,*^ Sg*a% aotaaUy happened was the creation of a park gereem*
** M W B l U M L B n ^ ^
the e a r of
the background to the of another level of noeemaent tn the
metropolitan family* ’
She eoctrt wald to «ai»eteeoe» that though the Oem*
atltutlon of 1870 proiilbite the ^osrporettoo of e&ttee, tewie and vtl%ni»fry ify ^ 1^1 ggp- epeo&aX lefffifflletfoffy it *H,d not present the legislature
from imorporatlng the Bmaitmy l&ekrioi of Chicago by epe&taX act* fhte
oy^^nod the gates to the general Xmas of X8SX which were desi.gned
to provide additional
faoSJUltiee for the
and to f^fw|^etel-y gossm! wmtaip isipfdXee wharowar
« N dssnsd nsMMmwy by tte «te8t«rwt**
of sewage
A# a rwralt of sanitary district
and Bftlwtainod by boards of Paste Coaraisaianaraj sjsprawi April 29, 1931,
1b fores M y 1, 3MEU Karlacd
^ TOirffl (GahUl* W »
Ctep. 206, Ssa. 896.
tbs y a w ending Baoaatap 31, 1987, p. 7,
®ia» m *
448 i m o ) .
Statatoa of nllnBV ‘ (a#itta-Hu*i, 19S1), Step. 5? l/Z*
^Tso cases are apropos. In th* Citar of Chicago v, fba Sanitary Bis871 111, 87,(1916), tbs court haldi “Hie Sanitary
District sbs csrganiwKi mainly to solve the sanitary and sewage provisions
tte &m£-tey
of ^ias$® m i inooiporotod*
i® Bmmtimt of * mtmmmr for Jarlteiottei
tm m m
mmr m&i of c&ok
fWb**9 «n* tettU teftlai provided
d u trlo te --« ittt
po&loo* fte or%ite3. o©i of M W «kt<& 414 m t | M 4 ) for'* pcmr t©
polio** m m
tgr m m t of tte gmtm&X mzmMtym.
l$ M W ,
m m tte rtg*t ® m ppym? to ap**
ttet tte 4i«$rtet
tetot and iioppart & ptillo* for*** tte aoefam of -ifct<&'outy* teiteo m l ©»r*»
pmm® w
«l*t polio*
r ond *ttM& it® figtite of **? m l for a dl*t«io*
of c m . m a telf « U m os*
-^i. n...^..^,
*14* of it® note 4at^ta^ t o l ,
-fr~rr p-.r-mnr/ur.:r, .mi.
«f the City «t SSiteag®, by giving It an outXot for its dmimss m& asm*
am-mad jwwwmttaf the eentea&teticn of tte wutej» «f take MUtto**.*
ted in gilay af mwwftjh»figeaa : 283 III. 856 (190©), the gourt xwMBfcedt
"» • • * to# Samttiay fii»tri©£ *«t maw peesea to furnlatt a mmsm outlet
A w tte. www*a af (he imrper&ted ttede&poUtise in tte distrtett that
it vwwgalMd tte eaAateute of euefc
«sd did net curtail
their F®ww* wsaw®* to tte one asafcter of « eomon enttet £ m tteto smt^s
tad dralme*j that tte Aet m t intended to give tte eorptwwbe aulteritiee
«f tte Sanitary Stirtvtet control of tte ordinary mmrs and uralna within
ite te^iSwiss*1®
*?S©WF in paptteiilisr*
(iffidtiJrtKujPd, MSI),
Oh^p, u, smmm wrnm& m
threw int«m*ttng vateaws tew imm prepared *hi©« dewerlte tte
Iteette® m& mxk of tte Sanitary District o£ iJStiej^o, 9tet of a. Aycfc
MUiate, f l m l ^ t ^ i a w t r l c t of Obteane., Mwtaaa o£_l*a. fflryth ate
gwroXoi«mt waa trabllated te tte tenttor jdatfKfc in M .
oof pobM stel
te io
© it^ 7
i t e oonotrooiiw mm%® o f
4 nor*
wmtmt mmm%# l i l b s o n v i to t te
W6&' i® m
acooamt o f
% tte diotriot#
$wm$ o f tho 41**
teiet is ecfttaiaed in tte boeSdefc, Saaita^.I^atnet. nf ghlefe:o Badr«
>w k ?? Cistriet of {Mo00t> teo
m m Urn
i n Um mntXm
of Oocsk* i t tb* p v m x l t i » th® 54m lt^r i^ioisriot of CJhioago
oontrolo whni
tte MieoAogt ( 1) Hm
^ tro liijn e
b®m gwit®4
C^) tte Sor^
hmm&i ^ri4gooi
p uo p i n o otaUo&wj> i n £ M o & $ o j (?) A
M m m mwm®$ rnwtimmt
Qmm^ ( 4} fible***
(3h£m$» north to&mdh bridtoooi
o t o t l o c i %xx O g t e ^ t j ( 8 )
vim 00 § m m m t Are% iortoi G w e ,
Hoines, QOxmt* nxmvtm mid m m % 4idaj (*) nw oanitwry
M l t o Bo® FXsi-'nes.Eiwr
pcHtm ■prnmm m m m mnferrod upm m d &mrclm<l bp ffom polio© or orgaiv*
im& ®t%tm tail
Use pm^lm m m
hmmmr, to&t the
of too saoitag^" diotviot itet eettog wlthto toe Halts of such dt§r
OP idllogo ©bail tom bo ifltojoeb bo tho dirootloti of it© ablef of polioo,
oMbgrop wtltoge »rat»X or otomr hood thereof*® tho
of togislstors
m s i t e t i w to p s l to the district th* mtosritr to $*©lic© and pmtm%
its m m jwowertgr, with & Ito&tod Jtsriodiflftioo to polios bsgrcsrsd. Uw car***
1, if®, Uw district «slc^d thirty*
linos of it® 'Ptoswir* do. of
four ixoiJtoarMt p w d s m d tour m t d u « for to® j s m o d m of its property.
toem ism to»to*eto
t e r n s *to
to pslies for ti* i»toatta of dittoes m d o$ai$amt**
“Use fn®mt fre a e rm fi&oteiM*" os roads too o h m I m&om® of -too
fWmlOaot of too Board, of itomt ^ s w m Qwmljfstomrs of Ooots Ocmmtr#
for t o o fm® IBM* 'Hm
grow m t a r
p n
dtei#** *ftar fmrtooo yw*o» it
n o w eereta,
aeros motto gmm&* oportosM booted, Mtortoto dr©?® at will tormsgtait
to<& W l u n o
('OoltMtod, 1051), to«p* 48, m&%* ztXt
% m m not until 101? tfent %m
rmoarr % a$apjt pp*
laMto^r biotriiit towastod ito pc&toe doimrtomto to of thot ymr$ a ar*
iai was oppototo&j assisted bgr tor©o serpmito* those mgwspvisod the
toia%^slx p&too3jM0t» too dopartf^mt m o giwta&lar eg&wrged rntol issa
t o m toons wore 166 ja&IHtoe m m jwto*tSiNi poiioo* Otoeo tosm, IsmBr.
toe dopsrtent m
retard wntiX to 1014 tooro worn oeO^ twsmt^&n® .Mi-*
1dm pOStoo* to of 4 m i ? 1, IS®, as wo tsdtoo-tod ®fomm* too district
tm r mtclMo met
laborers m o
ser^sae os "wotc^hor^Sjis
the woods, over blossoming meadows arid into scenic areas to mar their
beauty* Fires added to destruction* Hid life as a consequence suffered.
Wild flowers were picked almost to their extinction. Individual camping
in the most beautiful areas was not only permitted, but encouraged." in
consequence, he goes on to say that "its management needed and underwent
a reconditioning, which started ten years ago itien the Advisory Committee
of the Board drew up an Improvement and development plan."
Hew Plan developments since 1928 describe very clearly the original
intent of legislators in founding forest preserve development when the
first forest preserve act became a law on June 2?, 1913. The law pro­
vides that for the dual purpose of preserving the sylvan countryside
and offering recreational retreat to the eooped-up population of cities,
a forest preserve district may be founded if it contain® within its
boundaries one or more municipalities* In consequence thereof a forest
preserve district was founded in Cook County which, as of 1938, had punchased and now governs about 33,500 acres of wood and glad®.1 Something
of the responsibilities of the forest preserve government can be observed
from the following factsj
(1) About 15,000,000 visitors frequented toe
preserves in 1938. (2) fbm three swimming pools attracted 165,192 swim?mere and bathers.
(5) The five golf courses handled 183,787 players.
(4) There were 6,674 organised picnics.
(5) Forty-five thousand eques­
trians and cyclists rode toe ISO miles of trails.
Although the original act of incorporation permitted toe establish­
ment of a police force, the permit was not utilised until 1927 in which
^The legislative act set maximum holdings at 35,000 acres.
f&m tte fom&t fmmmm Om^mtrnmm p r o i i M m falioaa*1
Wmm of tte l&otr&oi M Q , cmoiot of tte Froisitesit m i
**lte Pooler
of tte
Board « * * * tlio. officer® atehood® of tte w i n y ® teparto^ts of tte
Motefoi* m d oil otter
to om^p«KEoo| tte
of Oho Itetptat*”*
oo^iao& t m ®*te»t Mm>% £or«©n#
imris^ws and drofteMot
ohaliwn# te»in?% and ottevw*
imto tte ogsamtioo® of m o
it w m in 3ML* tte temami Btpoot of tte Oo^oototom for IBSl im te~
*X loAot ottfe o unroot teal of prtS® to tte foot tlmt our $m*»
mmrnX is oo owsniaod ttet dwini: tte m l ttegr vmk m Imbomm, m & m
teahapt m d
a pcNAxm foroe to hmsdM the tbon-
sands of o e m to te ported and protoet vMHtoiro *m& cwr importioo*1^
ten* teoAPM** tte t e t e c p
ftmoitoi® to
mm $p*n®t£to
hm hmm m m m l nor® to o&oeoto ix&fo®
of tho Wmmt tirmarm teoomaoittw
onfototioii tM. for I W oaHod for a polio® d&ipiatori of t a m t a m © &&1
ttoo saanwtete nwiO#nts# oi^htesi po&roteMa* and on® jMiior
fte fpssoral ootterittr to
m ta ^ o M
i b$ t t e
grated t e Foroat iVoromo XUotrlct,
t e r o a t F im w w
o f 1 8 £ ? # tndXoatoa tte
wfo rote* tho lower in teta&iot* to t e teraot i*mmrm District m
mmimimd in
tr^ogteo mttt&&iofcl8& m po&te t m m for tte Foroot
Wvmm^m itetriot of %o& t a o % and Mi&iisg Fcwra and Xfeiiloa of Urn
% ^p?@wu
% fta u ia
f T t^ t
aosMstoo n^^tanioar a*
t2ftw fc4K *4W jklri^fi$l
i t i ' i I I
tteted in. tho raport of teiffteteeeo
t». y
'HM m i iim iH t ;
> . T ; - i A •.•!, » i * ; - « *
Xtm m m
for tte oopiod
^ Pert IX,"
i p# 1^*
ise&sure of polio© power possessed by their police*, Raptor am of the
Ordinance, prmi&m that the police are required to 11arrest, cm view, with
or without groosea, any person fowl 1b the act of violating any law of
the State or m M m m m of the Forest Preserve hisstriet or aiding or ab©b~
tt«g in aueh violation, and ©hall take all ouch persona so arrested bef«W©. th« naaveat wort, end shall take competent jurisdiction in th© dis­
trict**13' .So fbll authority to polio© 1© therefore granted* In general,
th© authority of forest preeerve pblle© is siiallar to that granted san­
itary district police*
& series of bitter ©tamales in the coal fields of southern Illinois
in the ©mmer of 1904 focused direct attention upon ihstrunsntalitles of
the ©tat© in preserving order,
particularly with regard to tbe power
of the governor to p p s M m the peace*
In Illinois, m in other states,
destitutions! provisions require that the military of fkm state shall be
in atrlot eubordismticm to th© c&vH power*
<smMn&d with
the dag&erabl©
IVeuble in Um coal field®
of the I3j» Shop Act in
Jwisdiotlons paronptsd the governor In ISOS to seek opinion from th® At­
torney Oeneral of the State in determining the m & m % of the gawxwr's
authority to police*
Attorney Semr&X Steed held in l$QSt
Si© enforcement of polio® law does not belong to the governor,
m the chief ©aeoutlve officer of th© State, but belongs to th® offleers ©looted for that pmt^om In ©oaftanaitgr with the provision
of tbs Omstltution.
Us® Osnet&tsitlat does, however, contemplate
Polios Ptmarteamfe TOd ftemlatlKg Uae of Preserws. compiled by -Joseph P.
Savage md Oeorg© A* Basts (19&7), Chap* I*
T& this, all three oenetltittion© of Illinois- ©ocribe* Ihe Consti­
tution of 1848 (Art* HIX, 3©o« ZO) readst wfh® military shall be in
strict subordination to th® civil pomr*v Xhe identical language appears
in the Constitution of 1870# See Art* II, Sec* IS* 3m also County of
Christian v* l^rri£'a?u 101 Illinois, 484 (1901)*
that when %he regular adi^tetraiion of the law through the court©
of justice 1© interrupted by violence or civil cessation, the Gov- ©rnor, may, by tee ..military «x& of the gowmaent, €s*fere© the law*
In. consequence, the earn of the State, except in grave emergencies, was
stilled* M % the,matter w m again brought late fsU view m a result of
tee race riots la East St* teals in XBX?* m e Grand dury which investi­
gated the riots made the following' recomcndaticm*
«•* * * # la order to be cm constant guard against such disaster,
there be ©#tehli&Lc*& by lew.a state polio© force or ocsistehutery,
partly mounted, and teat M i police farce be a
body of
1,000 or more trained pe&tceawn m constent duty to bo m m d in gootimm from m m place in tee state to another te enforce all ter*®
In both the 191? and 1$3& sessions, possibilities of establishing a
state polte maw discussed by the State tegisX&turc* On tee one hand,
Iter© were a caoctftwAte m ® & m of IsgiaXater® tee felt that the experi­
ence in other states had justified tee advantage of restraining the
« U i t U as a reserve fteroe to be used in grave ewrgencies bat of creat­
ing an addil&etei agency, more percent, regular and professional in
character, to waist, supervise, or displace local authorities? in tee anite'cement of state laws* In gteersl, res^sentefciv®© ?rm Urn northern
part of the state favored creation of &m® fern of state police* On the
other hand, tee telle of legislators, presenting tee mmlnmL and southern
portions of tee state, were otaost on^aiaiottsly ogsftnot estebUrtaMnte 3
*a»aogt nMQgintoaa M M y^em x.Sm ss^, (1905), PP* 3 ^ ; S«e «l*o
tee brief dlsehsteeii o f ftrnest hudlovr Jtegard end dote Mably Mathers, 3 ^
of Illinois, Vol. V,
C« W* Alvord, cditsnM^wjhtef) ll&£0), pp« 8GMMKU
^Brcest Ludlow Bogard and John Mably Mathew, ffii-p,Modem. .OPBis&fMBftltk.
( O M mhn I*1 History of Illinois, VMU ?, c. w* Alvard, edits*t o S S f ) (ioso ), p* m *
\imitatlon of the, r«ppe®ontetlon of cities In tec Illinois Legisla­
ture is one of the acute pttiblmm facing Illinois today* though Urn
vte MLMt fnm tha ®m£k rtg&oris
afcata ptiUaa m m
onlj %o vi&im.
of ®mmlm tahieh mM ^ostrc^ labor*®
FtgSte te rstelt
tea tp M r of X»ite*Mb:* fSassaa r«*f^iimntetlws
aaaiag Ism tea ap^teltw ^ aaattaia of tea state 414 not as# tea mast
f o r 4 i M i p o X l s # * t e l t e i m s m a s h mm a s v i t e n t 1 b b t e
i w 3 | pop-
isX&tesI north ssstten#
CliaateteteR aipteat tea
oC a atete poMsa* tesp$$piss&—
ah&t in X$X?# tegss® *a 41isto%^rat# in XPXS* and teate 4mm la M W * Bat
jpy^af^^ &$$$- & MUNSLgW SteterF*
SllO hast
for tea teat teagr « M
4a urn to tem
i atete s#msr shiah m s a
aaMgmnlas tetwsw a polte# doparfe»B% Mte»o4 site JMX pomr.ta poltes
md a
iMateJtetery m$ib m temisiasm l»®* teat m o seta-
FoXiil# BtlSPIIttik* this
«raapfaHUNKt w9& fmm m i teas© afe&lgat&m m s pmtm&XWg tea
m m -tap Vbmto&A m&Xm of M$$mm®m la tea state*
gpt to taork im tea mmtmm. of 1&B0 md M X to mmrni tea aob of X9X0*
Mb Warn* MIX IXi (4Bas»i«» of M X ) ffe&Xod In €ta*&tte*# « l 8«&&# B ill
$S m s M
m tea tedMt
1% m m in tea ¥%£%&*Mx& OiMriiX teaatelsr (X9ES) that approval of a
Btete il# m r f*Mm mm mmm&* 2te mtwmmfo that ^ p mmd to bo nost %0 Ommu^rntm of XTO ps?ovSAo that tl^s
tlen after
timmtdM* ommm# m rsw ^»tlsw ^t bas 'tmm Mia slmo
w a . Am rnm&m !* $mkm im
p* XXX# m m * •Hater th&»
Oote teaate (dsfiaio) rooolwi
X0 of
HI mmmtm® md Wf of tha W$ mpmmidM'W®®* In
Cowtt^ te l over «MwtekJt tha
of tte atate asd wokl soour® eosr*
■teal o f both Ite so s o f te a XasiaXflittm I f a w ^pp^rtior^B t m ro s*4»«v
Fif%y«mmmX OwaraX
State of xxximls,
telling mas that used by Senator Kessingers
It [a state highway police] doesnH cost a cent of direct
taxes, and it means tie life of1h@se road© that are being built
# * * * it Is tip to us wise mento see that w© protect the roads
that are down in Illinois, and if at the same time without a di­
rect tax; we can have a state force that can protect the roads and
patrol them, and protect them, having the power of city policemen
and of deputy sheriffs, X thinkit is a wise step.!
Esther the future department was tofunction as a highway unit or as a
department of general policing was pretty much settled by such arguments
as were advanced by Senator loose
the one economic feature about putting the hi^iway police
under the highway department is that they act as highway patrol­
men. Hot only have they general police powers, they report nec­
essary repairs, broken culverts, shoulders that need repairs, and
as agent® or representatives of the highway department in
constantly keeping in condition and reporting the condition of
the roads. * * * * I insist that it is absolutely fitting and
proper that the men vho report conditions on the roads and enforce
the automobile law, til© load-limit law, the tire-width law, should
be under the highway department.^
is a result of arguments such as these, Senate Bill H I m s approved* It
authorised the Director of Public Works and Buildings to appoint, not to
exceed me hundred state road maintenance police, such policemen to en­
force the provision© of the Motor Tehicle law and Article VIII of an Act
to Revise the law in Relation to Beads and Bridges and to have all powers
possessed by policemen and sheriffs*3 Ihe actual position of the depart1
Senate Debates, Fifty-third General Assembly (1923), p* 756*
gIbld.. p* 760.
‘ ,
Jf20 jBwft Hwaaittw frwflpIWj
Assembly, State of Illinois, Issued by H • Paddock and B* B* McCann,
p. 9a. Behind the veil of charges and counter-charges that swept through
both Houses was the sentiment that a state police was necessary if traff lie along arterial highways was at all to be regulated, and in particular
I that some ©antral authority was gravely needed to patrol tb© highways to
prevent hi-^acking, banditry and hold-ups on the highways# But these
! sentiments were submerged by the fear that the bill would never pass if
the intent of the department was to police rather than p.atgpl#
aonfe In the
im m
of enfcawewmt van dteeoribesl as fttUewv by muter W U -
U m k of the XUinols State Highway Polloei
not m
9tim e«Ht»Uvs
"PsrtasartUy It was organised
«e»ncy, b»t as a eab-unn of the highway «aet~
neering department of fee state, aadt dubbed *tth the title, Highway »ain>
3h* eacteot of ewtbarity granted to the state Higjnwy Maintenance Poliee la uncertain.
Itseste* Be Long end Inbau alearly Indlsate this tm-
CSrt&lntgr A# fOXlSSSt
M i language ossm aoffioiantly bread to n i l this police
I m with swell ®*eet«r poser and authority than it Imo e w afc*
touted to omveijse*. $m a natter of foot* heseear* it eareftslAy
aiss&da any strayiii@ off the
«we» for the purpose of m *
ly ^cooperat***®# mitt local *uthoriti*o, although the statute
clearly authorises oasti action*
explanation for this restrict
ties of acri&tdtlssg at least since l@$St say to fOa*kI in as Attar*
Opinion rms&eared to October of that year (HUsoi®*
Attcmor flNnenwA** Opinion* 1S3&* p* £11# Wo* 417$* Aegsot &4*
3UOT* Oscar l# Oarlstwm) la answer to m temiry ocRioamiag the
SSnarSl po3JU8spowers of the hii^sey patroi* A eoeolert'Cfftess
reached la that opinion to the offset that the WL$m®& Folios are
net authorised to ^ndberfc esttwifsay general or special !|<saiaafoiEOO*
tacwat ©aasgss&ipo harlaa oo eowiiset i ^ with their dwtles on the State
Bl^basfl^w^ essosd Whes ro^psotfl^ to assist or oaopaoate with tbs
of ik© l<mllt;y In itfsleli riota
or seriously threat*
In his *Mated* aivtl 0ereiee#,> Walter Wtiliane wotsi
Although scoetlass referred to as the Illinois Otats Police*
Wfofob tsapliea tacitly an os^peiaatioaa edth fall lacs anforefnent
posers # * # * the Illinois officers are bound by m se&asgltag
of polftlwftl
^UB^iadLstiWi restrictions« The sigsnlficant
point is that thsy are fhreod to reodn dln^otly under Hks sapor**
eisliSB of the Bleisioii ef MSj^bsagsie sith their oHbas deterrent
acti^itlffii eoitailsd hw the neeeo8a.t?y af iwieiitiUBE within fixed
shssedhEi they heer emthtwri^r#*
^Pallee *13 m IS” (dkHW, 1996), p. 8,
Sisasa ii* is Lcog imd fSed &* Zxtom, ah m
Fregi•m for
minot*,* 26 dtpifMf of Qtialnal te» and Grfaainolggjr (January, 1956),
p* 746.
*mim*M,zM* Ito*** 1986),
p. 8*
M m m ISS&, *Jwm. imm town no dtum&m in t*» authority of the at»t*
fc&tfmy polio®, Utheugjft apjaroprlatiMw for the department hare t o m m y
toew e— d. the Jteneial e^propriatim for the period M y 1, 3931,to
September SO, 3MS mm
For the blemrdua July 1, X&3£ to
Sepftmter 80, i9#7, ttiaa mmmxt mm U , m j m , W end for th* Menniua
M y 1, 3fff to <ha» SO, 3SS0 tt moo #8,000,000*® iwreeraael has not boon
Saovomed, the raster of peUse rawtelBg at 380, tha enter presented
Sgr the SagMtatmn la S9S8*5
fhe Gemma AmmftOjr «f ZlltBeio eblah met to 1»» rat cmly provided
fw tiw aatahlletwwnt o f a state Highway PeUee, i t alee pnwMtod far
m atter atsenay the M
t M t 1*»*
m of
afciaia were the aaferemeat of tte motor
a«*er the proeleloas of the aet (ahtoh me approead Arne St)
the SawMtaqr of State mm
to "appoint each a w ater
gator* as he nay Goan isaeeB*w*y,B the duties of Urn taweOgat®*® being
to ■‘investigate end report violations o f the provisions of th is act.*
Hajor raguirwwsitB of the set merai
etas of whlelee
(i) iSttferceramt of w»l$»te and dlmem
m pemmHtfd by law*
■4a & 3#tar
(8) ftsfmreewmt of snfcl-efcld mad
?&hs^#vi) wa ©Imll describe the fe@&g&X&tto& cf
«*$MWtffi % ‘
th® nilnci® $t*t# M,#s*sy
bsc m&U&
its® piwstigge of
th® Stub® Pdic® and b m d®0sdtidy tmdud to ®t@®r th® mr§£ of t&» polios
frm 1amfft® :r©pil&&i©8*s m l ini® tbs p m il
©f pricing*
n w f
p* TO*
3*** hww®i» iwfswsd is is th®
of 1907* *ar Act defining
« ® w m i s s i s M i prcvidl'fig fur tb® rsgolatloa of the m
vritMi vwctiMtfls th® W f *&d ©peed
*tnd ^iten
tlrs rsp&Mtoise* trailer and tonage provisions*
Enforcement of
license plat® and license fa© previsions,
fhs act continues*
of speed reg*I
**Hth respec^ to the esjforaasseiit of these
provi«i€Rio, such taiitt&g*tani M l
ihrou^sout to
Stats all of t o power® of estostsfeles and police .tffieers*^
In sonaequsnee of t o m % a force of toss
vhich at t o present t t o eooprisss sixty ®m*
i»9 organised
t o investigators
operate directly m M of to. title Bspartont of t o ^d*©tary of State**
efftas, they conotituto a apodal investigative detail to observe viola*
tle&a of t o Motor Vehicle toft Mmt of X9S8r-their chief duties being to
toostlptte tmmfrnm of title on stolen <mm*® fhta staff of inv©stig&«*
tora iaplessiito t o regular staff of fifty investigators ■toe© duty It to
to enftors* the previsions of tbs motor vehicle act of 1921*^
Still a third stats agency appeared* shea* in 19SS provision was
sade fter the estafeXi#iwrit of a State Bureau of Gri&tnal Identification
end Investigation* - Of the toe* agencies* it appears to he the svost
(Hurd., M2X)*Cfc0p« ML* Secs*-260* e— 269%»
2p>ia.. See* 209a*
this m t of W M 0 **&& Jot wddag an appropriation for the adnfcoi**
trattcn of t o mtUtem Motor Whlelo J»ti~toft lot*1* now forms t o basis
t o one of the largest bureaus in t o stats gewrsneat* tore ar© now
249 €*$Xoy@e® 1n t o depsrtont, .124 in t o title Division* IS in t o
title toovsniing Iftwlato. 19 In the title Mailing Mi&8ic% m d 48 in to
a&cege fills Mvistot Ses ^tos...of..mtnqis*
iqfifc* p« 1»* Cfenpiled by to Be-*
finance, 3*
cloy* Senate Bill 422,
to'''sSS iinanco (as
by the Bepartesiit of Finanee* 3* L*
Hudelsmsn* Director*
■fit.JMAfifflft (Cfcbm, X9ol), Qhap* SB* Secs, G. 12*
i■ is*
mta for tbo mmemt 810 least useful.2, Only one activity
oppwxw to imm bom matoo&iotM fcy legislator** they (tosfred that i t
«wM bo purely end eiagdy a oflUoetlan <ind dlatrUmUon agency of materneglected
la l MXattas to the identmoatien
tint bureau
Mm«sr financial
to a
aaAalaaia,. i» part the Inutility
lank of legislative authority,
i t by
aaRport granted
la part
the Qeasntl iiasessfcly.
for example,
for toe Mennion July 1, 1 3 » to Sssptasfcw* so, 1S 8S the atutmftly appro­
priated waly §41,55S?.», or afeeui 1*0,000.00 per annua* for tin® M m l w
$£$* %BWg
dttly X# IMI i#
Msmtm M s r
31# X W
&®& t m th® pmmm&
to t a w 30, 1BS## tefe ■3S&09*3j3O«0O« At
m m mmml W g « t
ta r m
off tamt #^)fCKK>#00#S'
t» a- e id « f i<r9a»tf#*iwr#
wjwrtr# **•
» tataPtafa** ismt ©t*
« o e > M'uiiiii w e « *iiiiMi>iiaw<iwiiiwi ri i e ) w n m e w
riPiiirissi tn th» _
mm)$ mm
&©ei®p **!&© S%&im
m » of %iw w m % taddr rog&m&Mi
I tn it® p m
w! mm mm
Ion h m hmm
of i w m I i
It tm® bmm
h r taste o f « ttfflo l 0Kit
ta sd © «M & ssiiAsfe t o
WWb# 4
s m u * tap* ab# &m »« boss*
ap ftp *» oan fe«
*%& 0 M % m $ tittt&ln© ptctur®©,
mmmmm®$m$ ^mmip%imm «t tzitmm&tUm of s02 m t M ©he Niw tarn
©r ©ta& ha«*sft«r bo
#f Mtap# or iaprt®®#!w& f«r
m p of th© s^Xiti^7t mt«l| or oriisimX tarn of tlio United
or tte
©ri$te&3l Abmbi of s&©r SWt# as&H
bsbitBOI eriMiiiwsiSn^
AIaos «©*» ImwaKi -^akanlA
for tho
of * pro.psr ^gwtasp
fila or %mmm to ho fltel
oontainitig m outline
of tl^o mt&&4$s of o p m M m
In tho mad$id<m of
oriiao no £ m m
M tela osroeotion ®m ®Xm Bo Img#
£&$** ^
, cksMlttod % the llli»
am 1957-59, page 86. Compiled by the Department of Fi­
nance, S, L* Nudeleman, Director, House Bill No. 893,
f* V
m m ttm r Mm pm lU m if o f the immm m.&'0 t&t®& m folXom W
?'o f
tsm ^ m m *
*Stm t o m m
of Q
r m m l MmU,**
iSm M m «nd toesttiptiofi does not eead it*
into way
hr the State1®
*mmtyr mXmm m
P&Xm* ftl* ptfliqF
Of the fmgnM***1
Sheriff or atief of
h# »«tf&ttllgr adhered to In the edHtaletntiaa
Iwmwbi- fta opootfioellar mtoiNM&tary for cri*&n®x
ami te i not j*t emerged to arsgr oomsi4m^le m ^m i, m m
A'tlliiliiltrtlfc^MW Olijflft 44ffe%lMiAh4atdh&iMMhi&tR4IWML «mU|MH J*.Clfcifi**■*■**■« itifriMHIfc rinlS rflHfPfc
wi* SJErSflBfcfSiM^pStvSySm ®89tt ^3r#JSM8^ 4Stt
Wm®. the
mtlmm tta t p^UMm hoe
iHrterftfrfliy dEjai&iptt iteoi- Mm
flHESStiOiStik hma
ofl@?0men teamed* Menioipei
feiF UtMt* the ita&fcg of
$k$if& dSsti^Sst p^Sso
In tit® esiit&r®$8e
I the
ismdd^Nii MaRitai forest p m fv i psiioo wss nsw ftoeettaa&iig ami m &lm
$aik ry diotfiot :^ ii# f
om r Muni «&l mm !» ■ atafce po*
the eiate hiita^f po&to%
out of Mm
eff&©% « t
M& t&e ^pw tte $mr 'nosy litee&r
Uiet h m ha&pmmA t# the
offtmm of etarlff* mmm t , etote'e
attorn^ ^ ^.onoMMof Isne tlwsr tm m d to fm m tlm 't Or ere y$ar i» &
•Mbo of asweted distetegm ti*? % «x* ttsqgr e ttll esserting m iinportwixt
inf&eaoee is Seek gtoentr deep&te the rtiw of tMso iw ir aooiioioef ^
enesw to to ho t e i
in the
Mm h®#io ooisoe^ttew of tlMNrn offie«* m w®*
tM i^ m t^ U m of Mm Omt&t^htim of iSTO*
P* ?•
%or the
It09000*00 m e ee%
we t i g aU m eni p m m & U m of rsrsa ori»* SNmi State. M.
for the l®~
Ooea!»limcn# p* 4o»
One of the significant facts* about the Constitution of 1870 is the
absence of provisions outlining the powers, functions and duties of the
constitutional offices of sheriff, constable, coroner, and state* s attor­
is this omission which has had an all—importantt bearing on the
future of all these offices*
The courts, In construing the intent of the
const!tution-makers, have taken the view that inasmuch as no limitations
were imposed upon these officers or enumeration of duties prescribed, the
makers had in mind founding offices such as were known at the common law.1
In consequence, the constitutional offices are essentially the same (with
respect to authority and powers) as in earlier days of Bnglish juris­
prudence „ And except for changes rendered necessary or expedient by the
lapse of years, the identity of the offices in all essential respects has
been preserved* Added to this historic sequence Is the further factor
that the constitutional offices in Illinois are recognized as 11eo nomine11
~~as part of the machinery of the state government.^ The position of one
of these offices was thus stated by Professor Be Longt
«# , . * in spite
of the fact that the constitution does not mention the duties of the of­
fice in establishing it, It ha® been held that the creation of the office
of sheriff by the state constitution engrafted on it all it® common law
"Slote, for example, the case of Bahnke v* People« 168 111*, 102 (189?)*
However, the court in the case of 01tv of Ohicaao v# Wright. 69 Ill­
inois, 618 (1878), said in part* °In legal theory, sheriffs, states attor­
neys ar© state officer®, but for practical purposes they bear more nearly
the character of local officers, because they are, for the most part, sub­
ject to local control only.”
Be long, Statewide Coordination of Law Enforcement, Doctoral Dis­
sertation, Department of Political Science, Northwestern University (Aug­
ust, 1988), p. IS*
prnmrn md that the fegUXatam i® powerless to deprive the sheriffs of
m& of those powers**1 fhue the powers of the oohstltiitional offices
are those of the o m
law plug any other powers the legislature c&ght
see fit to tmpme** How the question is, what duties have been imposed?
As to the sheriff four major obligations are loosed by statute:
(1) Be shall haw the custody md car® of the oeurthoefte and jail in his
county.^ (2) Be shall attend upon all courts of record md ©bey lawful
4 , .
orders and direction of the courts. {$} H© shall serve and execute and
return all writs, process, orders, and decrees legally directed and &©Historically, the office of sheriff in Illinois is directly descended
from the I-Joimn sheriff of medieml ingland* Its origin may be traced to
a MUss® when the 3fogltfth lings were seeking to build up a powerful local
to offset the political strength of the barons m d other hered­
itary nobility, the i%igXleh sheriff
became the King’s viceroy in
a H matters relating to shires* From this it naturally followed that the
sheriff w m Invested with emftenetwe power'dt a legislative, judicial, and
administrative nature* Among hi# functions he m s charged with presiding
at the local courts, with m m m A of the uoasa cantatas.r with the appre­
hension and custody of offeMcr#, the collection of taxes, and raising
levies for the Klag** artsy. p3j,noifs Orlm© Surwv (1929), p. 888*
this connection it 1ft interesting to not® that tlm Smprmm Court
of Illinois has ©ap*®gftly hold that at least one of the ancient ianglieh
Statutes is in full ibre© In Illinois* In an action of debt against a
sheriff for an escape, the court held that the English Statute of Edward I,
Oh, II (Best, £},
X2&S was in force in Illinois. See ^luaX^iidi v,
13—689* BodsU w* jjsaaftaE 8—198, at p. £08 as quoted in JMtogiA
Ba^sed Statutes ( Xlllncig-Bar Issecifttioa, 1935), Qu X&S, dec* 28.
But XuTmeft© powers, appear to be mtters of rl#t vested in the
office and coneftrsilng. which the legislature 1a powerless to deprive, the
legislature might, In the opinion of frotmmv Be Umg even have "given
the sheriff power over other local polio© officials and might have made
i t his duty to talas the initS&iiv© In the detection md prevention of
erlm.» StetawM. Coapanaticni of Lam Btaftxrosawnt. Doctoral Blsjwrtation,
Bspartawnt of P olitiaal Sclsne*, te tin e ste m University, (August, 1S33),
p . 15.
SIlllnol3 Hevlaed Statutes (mtnots Bar Association, 1985) Ch. 125,
3ec# Id.
(4) He tokmXX
Xiwost to i
»®&wermU>r <>£ the pmm in uia county,
m I lisalX keep tte earn* gtepgsiwe riote, rc»tli9 affray®, fighting, breaches
of the p««ae©, tod %
mwmfo orto*^ In
-taettr hm ®%m
®$m d$j$>eaa3l 4 m i x
&e sheriff of dook
the eottnitiwa of <*feioh range
torn curating 4fcMMo*e» eerstag « i u # awi pft3Pil% Jedgae to operating
f^ r ^ e 'mm m%pl®pma in the CrimlmX
#i@ death ehelr*
0®w% ImiXditie ®&mm md mm lwirs>4 m& fifty la w®
«hsii* ¥or
ita m M i I m m of the t a t SniMiH£# another one tastod and thirty
®%m s i ^ i mm
WtamH3&9 there ear* the tea© towtrod md
tyw^poisi® m$ys&m& nfee mm the ateff of the gaM ral <&ifim* X® «SX#
ta» « u * m
mpxc&» m
i# w « » .!
tx m the petM of -wkm of this* etudy* ehtef « $ « i e wot neeeeeariXy
be dimeied tissswd the gMQ&iee eefcieltiee of the sheriff racier then the
%pm him* fhmmimm#. m
w f ©they a a tl.o i'tte
abell tarn atfc®n-
U«o to the fK&te© eettelilett of %hm ®tUm$ tate«Nlnl&g to ehefc ©KU&t
tta Oo^e
atarlif to mmpmmmA W etetate m gravide gretaation and
to whet m tm t mi® i s t a «
Boportod F rw d-^ t %wi o f tta Board of Qmurtv Omm&ml&mm of aook
Ommi^ In hi® wmmX mMmrn®*
Amatoer 8f M i
*®m hard
m & M a&attt
haw been patroXaedt^ a ospM of M l w eoiettgrelaftea* m e t weeted- with
| deputy «b»riff*« pmm* # # « * it&s tttspor^aion, with, the entibrsaed p*»
j tr o ta m te e fftt t h a t they a r e p w t a t o m srettser than pereemstora o f the
I p ib lie , has;- goarM i read M
fswm apee&Utg end ro ^ lo s e w to rla ta * 1*
*£M*» Sec* 1?.
» apselal sta tio n containing opsiropriations for
m t 3.03S
A®pBewitJy# la the opinion of the heard, this £ m m at AmHant m m aaply
SWfftSdSBt t® JWdBPtfll htBt i,®50 BilfcSS ©f BttSdhail^ ho the aatijrifty^ Sot Uiil
view 4 0 & not ertncfcte H U h the record of the period, tat the aJawiff’s
etSfoe hemme the target ft* m
M t a
itwreaslngiy heavy bamsge of diesafcte-
the p * e % ptdOio officials end the various sartor cOuba,
aiseeniea* e&tb sheriff p t & A o i m teem© out* ttoet a vigeietM «*«[*>*y » m m
* " -wen^r-
Mtmsmtm &t 3ftB9L fea 4*gffoa*tim &$%& tHvvsixLt finmHh
ig e ^ n w n w < i v r
* ' em
w-"'J ■m
v * W i f m®e|S*IW s|F
w n m
she earn meted 1SMI1 the swaee to fix the ember of deputy jfcerlffa, to
8h$^ s b of
eat ef the ehaeUf*s efflM.
f<ws^t poifeap^lr jpMPBMP oC IflMfr
to taaspfe
chief «tatttl«M ef which the oesapUin-
9 m
«st* dnjeehed ©ere that a a n e w of eowtgr jaetteee ef 'the p m o e , throBgh
fifthly ^gnn
fgggg!% ^a-S,yt^g*
ngf |}|!(|^ |g^,|!
^ j®0*tog^tSlS# BlSdNESSSi®
SiPs^iO f@ST
fiNl% t$W> M .
ffifflff of
OOtWllS^Nl In ®888^ 000&MMI Of 'UN* Cmirty yfffy
8&®%m of
JfciTfeu, e» .
IhiiM Ki
nTaliiitriff iSSatmh
%is$i8t8$ oJn
f tuns w tuo gu^Nwe * w mil
dw «M h
frnei aa^^e*!
^te- m » H l
tftv ilfcJhteM^liel li'ilfi efi rtBijh
wganisatian ef e separate sheriff*© mnstofealaxsr ee the
eSWMer»B B
’w w * W
^ y jff f rr r W i W w w H W
w W W Iw w
mm rn&sm.tefttok «u| mn^it
the Sf800 utfUoeawa In
Ai&tMm fflotopoyoUa® th*ou#i
“ o'*
-m v * W
w W
{1} a » t
t m m t^Lloo
w fln a n w
im Ma# rural diOtlflatO
9mA the o m t t a
n^dlikJBM A f!n Cflfli
mmmSL geoande
(1) the j^Uw meflt.oeet the ootmtgr S880#OGG«8O enemtUy.
*WWWf S#*s*'W M M l|B eyT
M | tmk ^mcsaa &m «rp®is5©4
«$$!& wo OTjasti;f ^ w m o m
M >^ A
ef a foem
at 1M
the eesasti'yelde eonM not atoate xtch aoedi-
tione t e m H h ee i» vlUftge «r t e w e auM he dinprtved of its local of»
fiewn, and that the aeMbbUaAnent ef e flsatwe Star the ptapoee ef poilciog
^ ^ i i < B « i e ui i , i>iii ie i W w e i i * i<e i i a i e i a iH a u e i ww ^ e w i i i!iiMiw w > * ' a w i p a w t < w w w w w e « e j w w w i i ii» M W » iittii»e e i i o M » i>»w e i> i< e e i» * « » w M iiii»i»»iiiiir»iii< ■iy>vw w «i e » i e t e » g iiii»nia w aij w n i i 'i|i w >inM
film of i&o
Chlog^;o ^ o r CM?*
pe&Xm ooolti a©t but load
to totolsaring and ^onatont oi&sh u£»ich sslght
(4) &*at ttoawa mm -atrag; 1^31 teibi as to ahtthwr tb®
load to dtaaaedar*
* M * f f could aelntsia such « ©aneti^aLary.1 ^ftaeO. to sssootdw swasoww
Hbt additim&i
lad to aotloa bgr tb® Circuit Omxrt ahich in Kso&srao**
<te IIS|?4at r®Et«rt©d %hm Omm&m&cmm to appoint -auck a eomt^aluxy,
«sa m o d to ccmgwX tha ©c^dsaiooers to
on action Is*
np®® ^
M do.2 Aw m m
m m & m i m m m 9
as g£. Seaea
of gaaaLe
decided agoijwt the
too oourt bfldd&net
Bsst t b U o cM&atan* in the pm* mqp not hum r*q&lv*&$ or
offterdact pmMniivito for* patroXli^ tfca IdalMgpa of a couast#’ to
wtotalx* p*mm m I pra*®**t «rino# a® to 4^r$iKraCU^r m q u l M d fa tha
dano^r popdtatloti of
it do®@ not M l o w tbat uruiar ofears^ed
aandltlmi t e H a l to m$®m ooodal and eooosed® davaJU^mta
ataob a aaoaaaltgr w y not arises and if it $®m$ it ean haxtity bo
tftiat Ilia polio® ftmofcto of fwtraULiag *m& 4 attach to
of abasriff#*
a r o a s & lt o f
tio o ic Gc**i®&% S h a x l f f *
mm% m m foonMI a® '* npxtls twit of Urn mmw&it*® ®t$Hm
P o lio ©
D e p a r ts
bopan op-
ar&ttasa m MimM &*. 3MZ* Una imm at it® ismpMm consisted ©*Oy of
» #
warn am*1 to the
f i w iraar® l*a«r (19£?) at&ihar tmmt§*-ftve d m m t A m
£raw»,4 end in 198® taHa^flos nave*5 the police de-
pnrbMnt now eaeprtaeei tte eSasriff, on oeeietent etwa*lff, * cbtef of
it s iM
l l M t a n t m i a f t o n a o r ss a sm fc e , o n ® b oiu is^ > d ©sad t o t s
Qom Oaanty, 19EL-C2, p. SO.
•Proooo^Rfi- Hwm1..0E
'tensl. of tio f^aoafi^nga of tlm Bsmtitof €tef^do»ora for
tm» 1®5
An iotanMitixag auernot of tho Sheriff** PoXie# D^psrtsiant i« cos>-
) tidfsod i n th» tsodaot
j o ssd ar tb® d i m e t t o o f d e to t m m m B ishortff* 193?*
%®idal odittoa oontatoi^, Qook
highway dspaty sheriffs, and two custodians of th© highway police station.
Ihuft tb® department rank® as tb® third largest police department in Cook
Ik^tsi^indioatiisg mat tb® Juridical Interpretation Of tb® office as
one having
m m m Xtm power, ha® already borne
tttssstftr has overtaken the office of constable in Oook Comity,1 The
first msJor netback came in 1004 when ft* «lxth i^endment to the Gcaistitui­
tion of 1B70 authorised the abolition of me office 'elthin the limits of
the city of mtmgOm
Sporadically, constables in other parts of the
county haw attempted: to police, but usually their activities haw in­
vited the attention ©£ %ho sheriff or state1® attorney*5 Constables never
occupied a poolMon of any groat la^ortanee own in the early days of the
county and haw steadily declined both in official importance and public
esteem until today their position is essentially on© of abject subservience
to the police magistrate and the Justice of the peace* As agencies of
may emu *§11 but be disregarded#
way# Bruce Smith gives this interesting background to the constable’s ©£lie®* ^Another chamcteriatlc rural police agency Is represented by the
ccmatablea of the tesoships*
early history of this ,office is closely
inierteined a i m idld/tesy and with martial law# The Momma aarshsls, pre­
decessors of the constable, held positions of great dignity and ear® drawn
for the mm% part from baronage# fhe military junctions of the constable
lingered for several centuries and probably helped to sustain the offie®*
9ftmi these finally diseppawnd, the constable was already declining in
official importance mod public esteem* Bedueed at last to an abject sub­
servience to the .Justice of the peace, the liteglish constable ceased to exOrels© any eonsMarabX© influence in the repression of erlste* The rural
constable in the United States has followed a similar course#1* See p# $40.
2fh© a^enctent authorised the abolition by the Seneral Assembly of
the office of Justio® of tb© peace, police magistrate, and constable, with­
in the 01ty of Chicago, should a municipal court b© estabXisl&ed* k muni­
cipal court was established and M m m office® within the city were abol­
ished by m act of 1906# See
Illinois*. 1905, p* IBS*
^Policing by ©o&stsblft* has usually taken foro in traffic regulation#
Usually toe exacting and rigorous in their eaJtoreament of speed laws, they
almost invariably incur the odium of dtisens and ewntually of other po­
lice agencies*
A t a t president of the M m
league wlub in Chicago onoe said*
•to* State*s Attorney to taw awet powerful ofiieor in m r gemmaent
with reopeoi to th* affairs
of the istaple of Oocte County,*1
toe anther*
tty and fMwar of fchie eowUtotioaal o m o e r hm rapidly grown.* In U w
« * » w»w»i of ertotosl law, parttouiMrXy to that port of tow etdfavenent
Which fellows U w apprehension of tins .cereon charged with crtoe, the
******* attorney to toe meet toportant fester, hto toCtomee for outweigh-
to« hath jsdga tod 4«*y. to toe words of ssmita », Knight, "his toftoenee
to neb only utatomt but senetosiws,” toe tow tee ;:i* to bin power as
to do what all the people together m p net do, tor he has otooet ®*elv»•itoly to his see hands the poser to put a oittssen an trial tor hie 11to,
liberty m& his character to the tiiaetarge of his public trust.'* Oontrw*
r r * r n r i r r ^ ilT in r TI)inn*lrn^.wr T nni~nsl TTll -iini t»
IT - i
r w r n - iT i m r n r
ir r r
i n
& tetooi f^Xtofaod by too Botte1BwitowMt
) # p* 4#
'0mm toto Wimi tdotarto 4mm*ipttm of
$i®ItwKi(K* & m M pnmmnMxt^ offtmm to togtond tor
ti®# tonsil to©
H0 to to© top& iwgmftvnto^** of to® orowr* la to* osmrto* H w ©dsiniss**
to a ticm t o mnr i*astto& t o to® ft&taNMpr
« mm&mr o f to® otofta® i#
# f ©osir®% rape*© tins- pB& tttoi& t e n o f % m &®mm»
IMer M %
l i o m w * I® t p f i m i i t ©ffictol. t a
of IHMto
rnator his 4lmottoi nodi to toto
t o
ms to© fia^ootor
©©atamllwtvioB of ©»%roX*. aitli
p r t t e e t i o s i o f t o ® ptmmmttm © f l t o o r £rm ImmI
d »
m t o
© f
t o ® ® £ f M a n e o r
o f
i w e s u t l ^
to® ©rigimX Mmmkom pvommt&m
Mwah oi « te o r i # » X © o ta d # # M t
a tt© « » F ^nn«ra£lf a n i aa tla» popular
tio n ®mw$
a s s ia ta it® m m
%® m p m H n t th® »tat© to
Wirt# IteMi toe^i
©riitoailr vmnpatmtobl* to tte ©©aatarmX i.1© ^
m m m % $ m to Knato«i4ff t e » totoMtf&oitRi to mmt ®£ thm *tat«9 m l pop^
i M i W t u d m *diSKsoomtlmti^sf*
Os# f*
i ¥ © a # < ^ w <Oat»ido ©f
*# m&0i%9 p* 830*
*M o d. healy to hto Cbepter VI, »too Ifossoutor tin SMeage) to
Ihilegy Gaees,* to' the m i M f , » « « » » dp toe poeitim of the
p m m m $ m ’ t o t o M « S 5 T ^ S S r ^ ^ i 3 i % m i t now 0to©4s# tm i® th»
finis©, the state*e attorney 1m to© wtohtieg for the public
hm tm effective my of watching
the public
its interests or of emrting pressure
toon prlmt® Interests seek private gain* Everybody*® business, there-
form is
the state1® attorney* s husim@@*
Ik consequence of which the
Stats1® attorney is the eyes, ears m d voice of toe public*1
swprmm authority in the prosecution of crime* Except whm be 'is sick or
absent or psntoiisdly interestei In toe cause or projecting, no other of­
ficer may invade his legal \ftmet&ens» Generally speaking, ha coaosnees
end prosecutes all actions, both civil m d ertodnaX, in Oook Gmmty In
which the State or c o m fy has m interest* All prosocutic^s an forfeited
bonds and ell proceedings for the recovery of debts and penalties In Idle
county mm instituted by him* Me advises all other county officials on
questions of law relating to m y crime or other matter in which the people
of toe county my be concerned* Be appears in all t m proceedings against
delinquent % m payors* for judgment to ®©XX real estate, arid perform other
and mriou© duties, a H of which are of general public importane©*n p* EOS*
1Legislativo onaotoMmto In Illinois or© illustrative of the broad
functions of toe state1a ©iterayv **$h» duties of e m h state1s attorney
shall be*
First*-®© cm m m m o and prosm m tm all actions, suits, indictments
and prmomxt%om9 civil m d criminal, in m y court of record In hi® county,
to totto the People of the State or county may be concerned*
Sa«OTd*»f© prosecute all forfeited tocetds and recognisances, and all
actions and proosodtogs for toe r©cowry of debts, revenue®, money®, fines,
fine® isanalbtes m d forfeitures accruing to the State or his county, or to
any school distrlet, or r m d district in his c& m tyi also to prosecute all
suits to hie county agatost railroads or transportation companies, which
mssy be prosecuted to the xmm o
ftoe People for the State of Illinois*
fhir&*-fo ©«©*!©© md prosecut© all actions m d proceedings brought
by any county officer to him official capacity*
■ FmirtoJ-*$© defied all actions m d proceedings brought against hi®
county or against any county or Stats officer to his official capacity,
within his coimty*
Fifth— *f© attend to©
of all persona .brought before any
30 % © m htoeae atpmm* t o m to© prosecution 1 ® to hie county*
SixSSis attend before justice® of the p m m m d prosecute eh&rg&a
of felony or wd&dmmmot# for which the offender la required to be recog­
nised to appear before a court of record, when to his power to do so.
8 m m th-*#0 give hi® ©pinion, without fee or reward, to any county
Officer and to justice© of the pease, to his county, upon my question of
law relating to m y criminal or other matter In which toe Feopto of the
County my be concerned#
'Mghto— 1
to assist the attosnsy general nftmromr it m y be necessary,
and to case® of appeal or writ of error from hi® comity to toe Supresao
Court, to which it is the duty of th© Attorney General to attend, he shall,
B u t
hmm'm? m n y a r e t h e
r o a i m o t f e C U t t o a
ham hmn h o o i t o w f e
l o w t u t
i r t o t o 1 !* w & M w a p
t o
t o o w t o o r l o #
t o w i o
t h #
d e n o t e
o f
t h e
o t a t o ' s
a t t o r n e y ,
a u t h o r i t y w h i c h w o u l d
o f
t o o p o l l j *
H i #
* 0 -
s t a b -
# hmmdmy tmismm th# two* to genoral, to© woffc
wtmmi oloowfcy
o f t o # pmrnmim bogfam t o mm t o s t
o f
to o pollm ©nda* B u t
i t
is a
tmt§ tboft U w p e i w of too duality of too tow onftaoeaMit proems,
'M m ciHM iit by #totofo otow s^w in to to# o«mikI& of th# patltoe boooram
$*o*tog ymr* m tm
wore' o to srly smited with
mmmmy mtsd mmXXy mmrm fo r mm m another of toe following reasons*!1
( 1 )
F a i l u r e
o r
s w a j M l
o f
t o o
r o o i & a r S y
o n f o r o o t h e © r t o t o &
%mm- o f t h e
t o g
t o o
o r cmpm&mnm m
t o o # o f * F # a & o l
t y p o #
o f
» * * « # •
e w t l t o t o d
p a r t o f the p o l i o ©
s f t o a #
p o l l o o
o f
a g e n c i e s
t a e t e l o a l t r a i n -
m m m m x y to t o w l t m o U g # *
(ft) f t e g l t g e n i o r
i m m p m i m t w w f e by
to# po&ie# to porfgmtog o$tei»x ifmHtUg^tiano*
Farfedolpatton to pliotog by the ototo1# attorney of Oe©$s Ctouaty too
followed t m 0 m m m $ m m interest, tto #to@r ternt# Xrtewetly, to©
#t*tof$ attorney im oamt!©# on t o a m o i n f ©wusy m m r Urn pe&io© t b m #
n i s h
t o o
t t o o bmtom ttm t r i a l o f o o o l t a p p e a l o r m t t o f e r r o r , f u r ­
A t t o r n e y Q o n o t o l w l t o a b r i o f o t o w t o g ; t o o n o t e # o f t h e o a s o a n d
the question© iamdmdu
itoto-*to jwqf all mawy#
to to o
fey hto to trust, witooot delay,
o f f t o o r w ho fey l o w t o o K t i t o o f t t o t o o ettotodfer t h o t w f *
toktlitofto posrtom m s b M M * «#ft fwrtoer dates, as s^, from ttoe
fee too#, bo ©njoinad on htot fey X$$w#
appear to all pww;4togs fey mltootors of too©#
ap&fmt M toq p flat t w ^ y w r a , fo r j u d f M i i to m i l nmX oototo, Mid seo
toot all mfwwwmrF pr^toimry stops ham $mm legally token to make the
^odjpwat 1 * ® & aafi binftiing. See m i a r t a . B m Iihm L {Material U U I
Aaecjislatlws, 1SSS), Ofe. M , 3eo. 6.
h a
connection *e®
foraseante f o o t o r a l
m & m m XmXmmliy
Bo tojg, statewide Stwrfllm Uoa...of
B t o u a r t o t i o f i ,
1088), p* 114*
. g ©1 « r o ©,
h o rt i s -
hi# control oi
gxtand jHty*. tfts tt^hmnm upon th® ErmMl jmy in de-»
tetB&n&ag whether «r net on tadIsteant should be voted, by tew vary natur®
Of the relation, in wfflelsit to control ths action of teat body in a n
but exoepllonal caaoe. % hl» vdllln^jeus to use his poser to file in-
0 m m U m t plm M m influence e w the grand ;Jury, tee state's attorney
i OBBHOt raeraly chastise polio® officials for vAatmsema or
feat can as Professor So tang M m m&A, “set m& enforce a standard of perj
; ftorwmoe by polio® departments within his Juriswiatiw.."1
Direct interference la tb# polios proosas usually occur* teen tea
I polio® refrain fswa pwvidtag evidence necessary to conviction. Eds las
! been perttoaex^r true with regard to ra«&sta«ntag anti stolen oar tr a ffic .
| Am one ateto'a attorney aaid«
“Our prttaiwy Obligation i» prosecuting
| eases and if tee peilee cwaot or will not give us presentable and eon*
! elusive n U n a , m have to g et I t w s v d w /
During 1S87, for e*»
| ssple, tew racketeering had bacon* a najor oriels in adeago, fifty-four
ij ^ e d a l ism otigatore aw e hired fo r racket tauteUgatissss.8 GrdirMtrlly
ij fifty police frm tee Chicago Polio® Bspartesent are assigned to the Geek
3t*t**a AtMmgr*#
®i%%m **«r laiMslitaU^o pvtpamm*
smM&tng a jpaiHtSMm $mt®B w m m than m Indietesmi*
Iwm %ta&t
£l» om ®msm crooked sep® Into
b®feg IwKMMit* A ,p®&ta famm ttuft1*
graft mill tuns
w w night if tha^ dioaomr Hwt'tb*
bttdtatfKMu* A
o f f ttt Itetitae* t& m a t c h ie f in stig a te ® * fo r
in Omk Oewiafc^ quoted in D© Umg, St&tylffia
Doctoral Dissertation, itoartentof
Folimosl M U m m #
ttmtmm&ty (Au$m% 2$$5}# p#
beot&at jKfolitffrad h$ the fteUor
Asssisist^moraaimso# IWi, p* 4*
tm w t w
o f p o m n m t t X l a the J o o k C o u n t y o m e e ins steadily
increaned. %■ 18S8, the nuwber totalled 12S, of «hidi 70 were assistant
•tote*a attorney*, SS were clerks, 1C stenejgnajjhere, end 14 were lawse*
ttgatera.1, She appropriation Sae m m coWed Sat the fttUoeinEi®
*• Camm^..iiMMateetelw» Olwladgai
62 amtotimt
®* iaea^ Jte«< at«^ aw anfl-.atenoiaraifalc mvlalont
'XI i m r n M % 0 m m *
4P otete#
$ W&toteit Stop’s atteH3^0«
£? dU$ta
Sir a totoX poraatancil o f 1M*
| $7S6,m,3fc.
3toto& ip p rte ^ fe tto fo r i t o depiartsaoRfc m o
She laet of the constitutional offloes to he considered, is that of
Of thim
« foaw sr m&mrnr o f oo©k County m id? wth®
! o a m o r is toted m mvp
| to cases toor® ttmm to
|! tePQMFto'
p*Mie officers* and
itor* to oost atep* to
of tato w$ElfitiX4 doitoa fpo^pontly
! tfteh ©,9®r into too agitof* o f aotlen origl^aXXy aXXotod, to ottor offioura*
; te ffltto # bo wiXX lum to ik n m cmotjUw £taetioru»t Xlto Uimm of a
1 ter&ff*
m A
tton uptto act to too
of a judicial offlo&rj now
t o m O J t a p p o o r m S t & t o 1® tttesiNgr* ml t t o %
p o t o a p B # « • • p b l l a * o f f i w j
**»■ niiMto..fleiaaJte«. Pm am,
*(M,«iaMacL..IM3z m m * m m m t y 88. 1 » . Special edition containing
ifirall mm.
CMte $ewty to® tod
mrp tod 43cm m ® m i M mapy wsy easoollont
onoo* In to® Xaiior anat to toc&teel phF®iol»*smrsocin isstX
] (teosior ttom. WT4rWTi too did sstoh tc firmly o&tobXito tto office In
j ftook t e n t r *
mm m m.
Umn m m druggist* te s & s t,
t o mwmm*® oittos in Urn &toe of m t t o s t® a <iuto-
|w&oiaX offies* ■Xt is th» duty of tbs grosser, in o&se a death has
stildfe is m m to omhmo other i&m smfairal ones# to hold m io»
ipeot' «ao to anMpnpn a owitiUit itootoag# cm t o basis of this beariic
m o o«te o£ t e t o ‘V 1» m M » |
:u«£toti«Q oMtttMMts e&atoy itote®
t o feOMl fme&mm of t o offto#^ His prltople daly is to detamine
f e wa # t o s^tw&ag of a eamistos Jury of t o ma# t o esuss of teth
toro it Is wppsgsed to bo due to to&enee# ofMsmlty# or wstim rmwm« SS
m M m m t’ tm & m fam & o r iiit a l s o t to
® mm o M iim tio n by a p b y sito n
l&I ®680iOraL» the Sprite OcamtT OOS%SHgr hfitiEldlifi®
SfirctWMM^ awt.," Big— AnaaalJiaaarta _Oit,a!^J^to^^.Jii7jS~22,
U. '
t o oood
In t e i m l trm t o taUn ffi»*onow and wsa first
essplefud fanmmm fa® m m tho offlowr of t o orem obe &©pi aaast of t o
fH ooo of tbs § m i « . In eM tngX and, t o ooo t o o f f & t o l s o e o r t e o f ad~
o & o io t o t iw . m t t m m f o r th * &iBg# m d mlm t o
of mmmmo of
t o M sgfSM M l fro st t o sm fo ro em o t o f t o t o #
t o » to u ® et" -wan
t e e m ©Bd p ro o tlo o d t o g t o t e * t o o f I t o o f ew raasr oisposarod#
# orlgteXXy ovrtoMMl'bgr £ r i« g i o f t o asiip jeto o d * mm l o t o ssorfemttsd
by llurklso**
toss duty it boMso to oadl a Jury of t o t o
to mm t i l t a i *p to t o eawio of daotb and to nsm to wrdiot® of
^saslwitoo^ **wpaioi^5? or
*®w*p mmmr, ^ * W } and os scm as im t o w o r is infoxrmi
tot t o ted t o y of mar por&oo is foto, or lytog olton Ids eountgr#
« ^ l t o to tmm m m to hia or M r t e m
’rlotoos, mmmlt?, w w
suite nssn^
r«p^r to t o pXaoo tors tho dosd bodr
t o t«te
#narip -o£ t o m h o t o fortiMtO ouooon o l a y of olx good t o Ito&X oos
of t o fsr«i.psoitod tors t o t o y is foto or
to a^todo- at t o
I te o to r s t o .Mtf 1$ o t osdi t t o as m t o n d to e t# t o upon to»> of
t o boc%r# to i i t o w Into t o
t o m m m of te^^*3 jQjtfWtiSr6
Cmtesio Bar iaoocdotloo^
SI# 3^5# 6#
4n'M map mm t o r s a gjoysoa in
dOotli ty
to tmm mm to h is or hor
m* a ori*§tad torsotor # * * • t o in oasos tore t o
m m m 'oSf fitom is not boos% m d oomHmlng
tlio oirc^^stanoe©
ite^oo r& oi»oii o f a oitoinaX to r a o te ^ o r t e m fSwaa es*itojal zwmBt cr
tod c w
of death is ssmssoortoii^te otorwisa twto by aa autejsy#
-107«i»at& c m m to t o m
(1) By toqneat without autopsy and t&Lhout
o o i r l g n t t t f n t o f m mmrne^B:
q p o o t *
( & 3 &M&&mmft o f a © © r a w 1 ® p ^
gimn totooettots© to
im m o da&th ©ertifto&to witoout to*
( 0) t o ^ u e © # f w o o d o d b y outopssy*
A g o o d mawmt o f t o ik&omr*&
©ffio# 4b Cocfe County l * t t l » Semi 4a tt» n ito a fa .aKtmLJSMmau
ttm ®ft%m in t e l s
0 @ a n ^ # « •
j m i m t f y
d » t n »
«3aoiimtio)M m m
Oletoo# Hader Ckigonor'Staffy to
1 3 8 0 *
by t o ooaatgr ptisy*
t o po«t of &er©ci&r*n r&ymeto
m l a patologstoi
oltls t o rmk of deputy oorener*
to I$3ft ns*te* o o r s n w I M o r M* Koff?aan# t o
n # t o l i t o d
m d b m & m l l Z m & a r m i m w t
meemte Um wm#
« m * * i
® d
© r g i m i a n d a m K i r t ^ f x ^ i t o g
© t o f f
% p t o l -of noot of t o ooittsty office** t o ntoff of to
o f £ i « © t o
t o n
$ w w t a t f U y isgsgss^tet*
t o mmwt wmy§in' t o
o r imk»»9 m&Xm
t o 2 & t e w f b r ® w j p l e # t o
ottor b©fo*o er mitm?to ^wrjr is
to mwAm t o body o f t o doaaaood,
t o if f i w onto&iMcMa* or m m a p^ig&anry ismntoatien by t o «m**
o a e r * t o m ® ' o f t o t S m n o t b o d e f i n i t e l y m s s M r t o l i ^ b y t o e & w s s e r p
Is# a s p in t o d iiK » tt o % o r t o Jtsry * * • # nqy In it© d is s e c tio n * ord er
t o d i r o o t m t o e p s r t o b o t o t o n p e o t o t o y t o o K N N r ta in t o © a ta a e o f
$m$h*» S1S»#
Sbi® in t o tonto prooBtoo in t o t o mroXiiog ^em railway* ntoete a r *
m i
m t o t o l o
a t o t e t o *
proton® to M la to to mmm to nfeidi tonto oppoax* to bo to
w m i l t
o f w i s s m X
a , m l . ’r i s d t a b t o o l s p % m m f d t o o o t a n d i o a l
a t t e n t i o n *
to o good many w @ 0 ( t o totofnotiixx at h«l otearly itidioatoo to#
m mtems r t o n o e e o a a r y
t o t a p e n t j N v y -t o o a l t o d i f t o m m t
m m m o f d e o t o o s o t o b o d e t o t s t e e d *
t o o a t o o e o t o t o t o e e t o n o © o f s ^ d i n t o % m m c m m 4 m i i i o r m o t o e m l t m m s p m tht& m m of i ^ m e c b a r © *
Raptor 11,
CWorsor (to Oools OcMtr),,s
Ofrtaa.OiarwBt. j>. S77,
s3ee BtfltwUI. JteBMEfe. awwiier** <sffi», isis-ieis, p. 14?.
mmga&km i %m
£®m atstlm
flour m m m f i m ptognioinn*, tm tom inin, * nfetlatlaftna tmd
m m taMpaNu^ ft*
f®v Vsm nottsd for %fm mXm&m.t2
«u*rWp^ w
% ntottottotofc*
0 l^iSKr08M(^k*® $ftQ*S4&IK**
1 4&r#otor of pntonloey*
S* J
4# Itepuii
I ©I#!?!**
iri'WVi rt MM lEffMfllLiflfOilHldm %HHW
1 dfaNmlat %«l0s4ogi^*
4 c$*®stoto*
1 m m oftH*s*r«
a totoX p&rwm&X ©f 47*
ft«an# * t t a m
# s « f p l $ m t « 4
togr* t o o
pol&e® stsn^iurn in XXteoto Im» hmmm-
of toi# g o m m i n M l « s p t a & w » not diflloylt to m lavttead*
for pattio i t r t d i m t w loft no
oontlititan |»ntft««lar3jr
district n@*idtod*
to ton
ft* d m e s i
wait** a
of pnrfc
md i®rmt
itadb of ton p n r t h to pcxlitio®! * & t « h&s
b m toe* to ft* »tomd. t w «
n n t t t o M i t o Imm
Um a t m U n n
to p^prnimXm md wfamlm.&lm*
Bprmtg up toiofe ham
roepijwl &g*dtal ramiotp&l oorposr©*'
\itBgpdial Bmxwrfc. Q a r a m r * * O f flea, Quote County* 1£02-13, p. 1S1.
mmt® md Imm %hm txsormmd %hm mmber of
tioo# to itm% I te ir
Immm mud irtBoipii*
tf*® lino of Imsrt $wdstai$e#
m i am siiom l p i j a c t o i team m M
temmm® Uto&r
ofctoiwo* &m£L w&M Imm &rlam
tmm "mm hoofed* to bs&Kig M s « l teg larger
$ M m m fmm mmm txm> baing t e to
Far jjjjSfeagapl^i, lO&lii® th&
of to$ti te» QwM. Oowntgr tmm%
| md %hm(
dotr&ot mm tim nmd for
I for
D istrict
in aetaollty t$sor ***r® m o t M m M t y to ® » M ■®mmn^mm& of defoi
of A
tlm® tmmm tern mmtmd a »ifca»U*ss
j Iit obMi itra psmm m d mMtow&fy «f a d pa&&«&® aam&io® (*M& fciws pcw«iU»
| w m w $ M m of th®
dm&mmt mfim to
ooootslste) to
bofcfc w t s r t &r&l
p M
t&wi mmslt m'piliog op of poileo
ssrsi so^stSses ootttdo#
Wmm %fm p mm Mng Mmmsm&m# i t tm m«twBl that « nw tar «f lam ia
%mpodoiog o f CoofcOaontr*
M Jt mmmeg of %im w m ty*» M®§mg$ mm%r
j S f w d y nftor tha d o d tw*
Storing tim firvtr*
m l|p ®4 a f« M »
o&oood th» rapid, ooM^ohurnt
j; of Vsm malotpd ptM m nMoti to a Ims*
I m%8Msim* ItoM&g *ta*s n&tfe ilia## rialng
mpwm®d®& to* mxm%r
polios oam th® ad
Ina « p » Im i moio grewth o&orolr jpart&io&o that of Urn mm&ri&tiL polleo*
|j Hot wMX &ffe#r its© ««9W nor did tto dotto
l Mg&ng*
tfao t o i l e t tMJd isao
jI! |NS®dM^ pros^ii®} o f ^
im pmM.®tp®&® in po­
rioing pmmr {sml
ttosroo dot® ogpnoiiMu Mneo t2*o w
a ys^t^sd
of the s h e riff's efflee hM eeeunred and almtg with I t art enlarging impori| tanee of fcS»® s ta te 's Attorney's of floe.
~ n o ~
In conclusion, the police agencies in Cook County are as followss
Chicago's giant police department of mam 6,000 men lies at the gateway
of the county* Bet eighty-nlne sister cities and villages also have
their police departments and together employ mm© 700 police* within
Chicago* a single park district operates the nineteenth largest police
department in the Oalted States* while in Chicago*© environs twentyseven lesser park districts provide protection with mm© eighty police,1
The t m ad hoc districts collaborate in policing with a police personnel
of fifty-five* Morning the townships are thirty constables* vestigial
remains of a m m powerful office* td&le operating o u t o f the Sheriff1a
Office is a highway p&ttdl smmprleing 127 police* Frequently members of
the Coroner*® m d State*s Attorney** staff participate In an invoctigative
capacity* Over all are the fifty mmnibarm of the State Highway Police assigned to work within the confines o f Cook County*
Xn all* 124 individ­
ually controlled .polios agencies participate In policing the county md
together etsploy in m m m of 7*000 police*
Personnel of the Chicago Park District Police Department numbers
%he Forest Pmmzrm lEstHot of ®ook County and the Chicago Sasltary District*
m m t m xv
1HK CU1£F m F0Z3C&
The strategic m d iit^orteifc position ^mwxpiM, by chiefs of police
yfa& hm® in their cuatodly the f^esermtlof} of life sad property Is veil
imoan* As the eseecmbive hood of the police deportaKKit* the chief of
police 1» responsible for the su&oiislstraiioa of earse of the most important
Jta him position a® departimmt&l t&anager# ho
east iMwr turn atteat&m to is^ortant aettaatt of internal adr^lstr&iion,
again to ecwwsat&btea witfc hi® ampoxiornA often to a public provoked by
notion of or eetilseicm by the police depertiMHit#
chief bmmm®
the center t m a d which ®wiri forces of ®m&%m ctemctor end of varying
intensity# It Is i^orto-% therefore# to consider at length the cathode
^ployed la selecting chiefs in (took Cfcmnby# the terms of office fonrsd
ta these positions, the attraction® offered to candidates In terns of
salaries# end the t M ^ r w i d of persons occupying the office of eMef,
la c m m with pr^tices e;bPMlMMj several loethods of selection
are esip&oyed in M e dosajty*^ t a r police heads are pop^arly elected*
s h e r i f f # c o r c a e r # s t a t e r s a t t o r n e y , e n d t h e w r s h a l in t h e V i l l a g e o f
V&nnetlcftJ* The gypar&atendBat of the forest preserve district rangers,
{1954) c ontains a b r ie f ssarway o f t h e 3 eth~
ode uaS ia s^«»cti^ chiefs of police (p# 135)« Bm also Fpsdiek*
M I m ( W ) Ohs, ?lf TOf Oodper, J|
(1^88) ah, V.
%trlctly speeki^# coroner m & state*® attorney arc not police
heads# However* the Smq&mib participation of these officials In the
th* aupojdntoadknb of the sanitary Notaries. gourds arid tha chief of the
mfwwm U» ts» e-mi
*11 other oiitofs am *®alated by ctdef
tMosgo Forfe Dlstrtot polio* ora Appointed wl«b
service 1b lliooo ageaetefl.1
ilifti.fvaMHl 10
§mm «t
t M «ms$itan
t a p l ®£ fnistes
Urn pnmtokt&dmmi
tefc *!&• SMM*i0sni m i t e
# * * * & tSU&psi
i t M M M iHp&te «n
t# «$petei la tb»
tbater tta
iwte is M n ^ $ t ^ %»’t e rn^mmd, of t e
%m m b «&m»* $«®
##*** «#» *** *t* ««»• .«* j t e f f i i
«» &P-
sessri MUfc that tb* fmmMmk hm m m m
aesst tea it* «IXIft@8 tagasi*
t e w&m®
t e *&m shall b» hsM %o
iiiiW| m ■mmt&m o f nm ot&m&m &%&%m
m u U M or %^-or119 w w
in ta«jU» «efc#
to %h® ta^ste® m i ttw ^rseideafc of
m»$k v$3&a@a m fm m th& mmm mag- b®
M i a 0feM0 t o
But it i# aot ear*
o f thtm M « t « s l e s g g r * > • * A t a w t * & t o i » & m o s g i
p m
of p&li&isii imtkt %o %$m iMt&m&m ®£ urnm
mil® um
toriff %m iffigrata&r tosto* 1% is Sto m Hicfc tot ts» ratol a«nistMitas of t e
t e a ^ ii#*^
tm t o pa&km diapsrM
mm% «£ tbs &£»&££♦» ® $ A ® % in in t o
of & o M s f t o is ®pp©intei
bar to> toriff* t o m t o * t e orilgr H l « S p a U V nhi4Si
1M wfMlyi#
* sfttsMS. ^ w te r ^hldh « E i for t e
of a
m i M U
Sta* A w H pr^sra dMtrioi md me&Mw& mm Mye%
SiftffMat of OewSc
msd um
iMiot of Oitaigo* Has
mt bim m & m m Fi^k Bistriei f m m
is a Meinsriaw ijrtN M #
0 0
VWy( *g| i F, w
M m U t l a n D Xf^}# au £4,
,^c. 5^5.
H I*
411 C ltlf}* '« t e
of a bot^rd o f village
m w w outterit^ Him m y ®tir®r Ufwafese, even In f
rwoeal of offioam oppobMS by M o «nd tho board. ” p. IS.
^ ii n o l a Botttattd Stetutoa (fHlnole> Bur tem oinUon, l&SS),
3m . £«K).
%Xm Um wording ®f local ordtoanoos is aiffdX&r to oootton 7SS of Um
to# Fwsidont md to* Board of Xmrtooo shall appoint, accord*
tog to I m all th# offtosra and motoora of tiw Police Bspartmtmt,
and shall Sow to® pow» to rcmow from os&d dcpartsaeni, asy mns**
b@r m m m i $ a&iM m to o dtoorotior* of said F r m M m t
Board of
ft la apparent that this language ha# an imiirsly dtffaront eotmototlon
than that
rolattw to appototasrot to cltie# toioh las
offtoors of m y d tg r * « « * shall t o appotofcsd by too mayor • * * * by
and with too adfttoo and m m m % of to o city council***^ t o gonoraX It
can to said that willaio# do not Jta&tow th# in?oo#d$m of appototoant by
to# pruatdoot, by and with to# oegisaot of to# %wmfcma. As we shall
todioato Istor to tola d&aptor mah eosibs&oa and friction haw resulted
£&m tola ppot&m® of appototawit* to© lines of responsibility from
totof to fswtoeait or to tecmtmm m m not m daa? a# they should ho*
too ultimata amtoortty to appoint
to dopond upon to# faro# of
to# p#r®onailtot# tavs&wsd* to t » ca^osuiittoo appototmont roots
itr«Oy to to# hand© of a ©tremg^Xtod p^atooni* to others to a group
of trust#©# to which th# president to mbmrvlmt*
mth regard to appotoh«t to the sight m^or-ooimoll cities, th®
linos of a^ototeaat, m m hmm tcMHostod ahow, are mra ctoarly die**
ttogutohed** toto jamtolcNt of to® Q&mg® M m to tgplm&t
**&m cobs-
\ m a g » «f Stamod Park, Stert.ciaal Ocde (1932), ch. 44, Sh. 70S.
3 m <0«o motion 17,04 of the MtimA <h©^.Q«k..l!»flefc 095?) and 3$,
fla m , k ito t F r a m t (X9S1), Ch. 1, s e e . a ,,atA Badaed Statutes (Illinois Bar Aaeodetiai, 1936), Ch. 24,
Sec. es.(77).
®She»e dtiee m i
8ew®i*, Blue Island, Caliwi City, Chicago,
Clmr®, Dea fOoines, Swostoft, and Fork Hidge*
s&eetoner ©f police »haH bo appointed by the jaayor, by «&d with the corvwant of the oity ©inmeSI*®1 Vfcm toto it toUowe that the Initial reaper^
eibility as bo appointment to veetod to the isayor, bto choice betog eub3©ct to oooftoaitio© lay t h e eit y c m m U . *
Klee immtelpaliitoe to Oook County operate ender a eas&®tosio© form
of I M H H M U 9 for ttoofie, the etototoe preecrib® appototo^t of toe
<M*f to the following wmtmrt
l myer m& fewr mmAjmOmmam & m elected
9m council (cK^plsed ©f wpor « d ©mtoeienm)
designate by imfartty w b e «no ©o^eeioner bo be CtatotaMUmer of Health
m d Safety who ehall hew the title of
of that de^ort@ent«
**^11 ®££imm$ aaetabant# oisd e^ptoyeee of each rsepeofctn© departoeni « .
# * ahaH to* eppototod by the eowleeioiw of each raspeeliw departs
isent**1^ Mowewer, there to thto pem&m toot »to© comc&l ©hall haw the
right, power asai imtoority to aggwtiit « * « » the head® of ©XI principle
sidsoydtosto to the dapertoenta jprowtoesl for*f
' M t i m J M r n m > J m C ^ m ) aeo* m *
B m etatotoeA bmmmr* $bm eoaaeiderahto totitode to local author^
Itotoa in the i»eth©& of edleotloo* f«r #w^to« wfhe city soonetl my*
to lie 4ie©r«rfcto% irm %toe to ttoe, by ordtoaaee, passed. by a note of
tivo^toirde of all
©looted, provide tor the electl©® by tine ieoai
TOtera of U m dty, or by the e^etotnent by to© mayor, with the approve!
of the eitgr coondllf © £ + # * * & c&ty ggaretoal* * * * •* "The city
by like veto* % ©rdto»©@, or retoimtton, to take offoot
at the end of the then ftoeai year, dtotamttoxMi any office a© ©footed
and drw&w the dettoe thereof <m easy other city officer** ll26ss5»StoSr
■*“ *»f lUtonl* (nxinola B*r Association, 1855), Ch. 84, Sec. 65 (77).
"fllinaa* Ms* Bede (1987-S8), 3®. OS-88. She samicipelities sure*
Shtoag© Height*, ISLgto, Foreeb Park, Mainly, md Palo® Park* i^to ha*
been itM&tided to thto »bt*4r of <hds Geoitty becaaee while part of toe
city to leoatod to lane County, part ale© lie© withto Cook Comtgr#
(IHtooto Bar 4s-aoctotion, X08S)
$b# 8
Ibid^e See* $W
-usas aabordlnata departoents
Superintendent ofthe Department of Health
tba £ l w polio® departments are organised
trade* the direction
and Safety, the authority to agpc&at resides In the council rather than
in the superintendent of that dajaerteeat.1
Si* nrunicipalitiee h a w adopted the managerial Sam of gowrawmt.*
%«n» the lines of authority as to appointment of the ohief are clear and
She statutes require that the manager "dhall appoint . .
. . a diraetor of department*, an appointment to he made a i m a baaia
ttmi «f
mm%% md
mfi*$ m m y m U m ttitem toy
mmm&m during his %mm of office, or
iweintotfc, ©hill to© cpgycwd to toll toy to® m&y&r md to council*1,4
tom© mcto h&m cdcpted toy ordinance, t o practice
.M U * too®
to t o wio u a ecwscitie® © t o M y foXXowe sccc»dt*r©i* famgcribod to t o
I t o t o s to t o
For t M »
to^stonti differ mtolclly*
t o y amcfc be m a c U m * sepamtely*
tmw I M t o t o
tot t o tfitcf of t o Chtocg© Fwrtc
UlMrtoi to «m» o f the Umm iM*t* bcMtog o ffice by w irto o f t o c iv il
fh©»© to cm totoeettog tokpftmad to toe feet#
t o ©toll
M U of toll toot ftoelly ®«mt to t o eoctewma® ©wwdtt®e pro**
Pato V M e # howewr, t o ® distinction t o little jtolflc&fcto*
t o msralcdpaXlty h m toe® then fiw hmdmd istobitorsto* In practice
t o ecmoftl appoint© t o «hl»f ©fee 1© hmd o f Me tofwrtamt*"
hcaording to the a mntai^
(1888) p. 883, the swnleipslities are Olencoe, Olemrlew, KenUwrth, Sitntidi, «ils»tte, fcirmetka.
It i® doubtML, hmwmr, itotor U t o t t o should h& ■inaXvded m m g t o
mmgm* gwrnrmmmt municipalities • t o cffim of mmmgrn? i* ^ow vacant
smd there are at prawn* m indXomtions t o t t o office M U b@ filled*
.Itttefell (Illinois Bar Association) Oh* £4,
Sec* 404*
% M aa SCO* 405e
?**f W *i P1*6®0 °r eaplcS'tent other than the ofnSf
««“»l*8t«5er in my paste district . . . . having
J 8 0 , W «• n o w inhabitants residing within ito territorial lis-
*" th® a*nt*r h0WiBanw **•*
But the prevlee was added in
emotion 11 of the b i u
that all -•»— <-ri
# m # M » *** e«ow»l superintendent, the attorneys, the chief of police,
«a* was confidential oleste or eacxetosy shall not he in^i.nitd in the
-Fitttlfied d d l eapflee.® H t n t n , the ecuaaltteo 0truck out tee words
“chief of police” f m
the exemption daaae, returned tee m u
hemes as amended, is white fere tee b i n became a lew.
to the
Twelve years
Inter, tee vslldlt^ of the civil service net and perttoulwly tee ess*
ewptteg section wee teallaasjed on tee ground teat the oMetenmt was not
printed before tee f i n d vote was taken on its final passage
so required
hjr tet. IV, section 18 of the Illinois Constitution. But the Supreme
Sour* la tee sacs of jjflte *. fiateaute.
hold teat telle the esc
sapting provision of tee set was wnwaseUtutioBal the question would
not he now raised "as tee act has
been in So.roe for twelve years with-*
eat contest.*® 'tea tee office of chief i» under tee civil service by
virtue of an unwmetitutlonal set.
t e civU serviee set of 1911 applies, however, e*ay to those paste
within which ears resident mere than 150,000 population,
this automat­
ically smnpt* tee twenty-two other pete districts t e n tee civil ser­
la these districts control of tee paste is vested in a board of
three, popularly elected, tee. are empowered to appoint a chief.4
1 {WX ) , p . 811.
p. SIS.
SS10 1 U . 436 (1984).
°* jQ^nof«
(1911), p. 464.
®1S Act
May 89, JB8S, under which the 3anitary blatrict of
®&e*S«» * a® oreanlaect, provided for tbs popular eleotion of a board of
Bins Mateere, fttr six-year tenna, teras to bo staggered,1
tbs set fur-
tber provide# that the board may proscribe th« duties and fix toe eorapsraaitien of all t f f l o n «v employees.
As a result for sosae years, toe
superintendent of the guards was pointed by toe board.
However, the
mending «wb «W? 1985 required tout all © m e e r s aad eapleiyeea be put
under the civil servioo.
Although certain efflces oore
toe elvil service by paragraph 4.18 of the amending act, toe office of
superintendent w e not inaludsd.8 Since 19BS, therefore, appototeent
to the office of eupsrintwsdant is regulated in accordance with the «ivU
service pmvlatcns Of toe sanitary diatrlet.
Bhtil Januaiy of 1959, toe
superintendent of the forest preserve district, too also holds toe office
of superintendent of rangers, was appointed by to* board of forest pne-
mspm m m & m l m m m of fiftoo
* M m of
Ac of tot with, h » w ,
i«m ptood tmdor t o civil mrvim regulations
of t o fevwt prmmrm d&fttfft&W*
fh© State Btglwa^ MMMtmwmm fO&Xce are
& branch of t o
I&totoa of Stomp* vtsich* In tvm$ 1b & division of U m Baportoot of
Public %rke aiid BodMinga*
$h* Act of 18$$ mder ehlcfc the atete police
«r* ©rgaaiXaed, require® tot the I^prtaaml of Ptsfelie toft* end Buildings,
... wtrr---------------------- ----*2hree 1veeteee elected in 1005 m m footed for & torsi of m® fmrp
three for * t o m of t o m |o«v»| t o m for a tew of flue jrnre. See &e»e
»f and in Bafta-see «y tfrft
aistrtet ot (fclCMMift (1928), p. 6.
^hfTI Ilf pileadw (1985), p» 748.
t o Semi of ttodeetoore of Cook tonty i®
officio -Board of
itoaisoloncrs of the fdreet toeerw BUrtarlot of Cook to»%v Qaatoa*niiO. oloctiosse ore holt, t o of the xw&ere e t ot o from the Gligr of
Chicago, f t o t o o t o root of the cocoas
eloaiere of tote toetr*
m t o office of t o Ciidl Service tomi®-
W tli© 'mxmttm thereof, is mihefrimd to anoint iwibcrs of tine ©tat©
MgSawagr pelt©©#3* g$© apoelfi©
la made to th© appoliita^it of
ih© ©£$&#£« % y m till© eppoim^mmt 1© urnd® by th© director of the jD©*»
partoawat of Public Bark© and Bdldlnge, appointment usually hinge© wpon
footer© ImrpMI M # ©ontrol# Hetho&a a© to appetatani map m m b© sosagsax&aod i» ttm fovm of a toM©*s
tartM* of
county © m e e s
Bsp&os* ippoteboeab Ap$K>ia1ffi©aib Appcditfrisat &ppoiniics&&
oloofc&m by pro©* by m y m
ty board©
by single
ida&t and isdth ooj>* 0$* ©oa*
©out of
Manager 4©v«
Ooo# ©or#
Other ©I3#w
Other cdlti©©
Ad law district*
Stitt* highway pn»
boo© indicated paHd©©©!? that tb© sheriff is a» ©looted of­
ficial* ^WWrtWf fro© tb© point of vim of police adbdalstratlon* the
of tb© polio© 4qp«tftwo«Kt of th© sheriff*s office is an official
appointed by tbo «)i«fuf*
*©*» practice the ©hiofb to all t*» B w g w
tie© are appelated* l m p © f UnMrite ^wots® nador © special charter
dOXlng for the election of a ©ill*©© s a i M «
©oathr®©* of ©osar©** m e appointed ©4ih reforest©© to tbs d*tl
aorvte©* M p n w t | boooser# the present dbiof of the Chicago Parts
District 1© a
^aara of ffl-fofrijf (108$), p* 86S*
%hs offftoa© of sheriff, corcaer* and ©tat©1© attorney taro boon
jiao!©#©* in tht# table* Of ilm m only the sheriff*© ©ffte© may fee coa*
sldered m a "peHo©* agamy* Bat the participation of ©tat©1© &%%&&*
aqy $&d coroner la policing leads to the indaaioa of.these offices la
this consideration of pdieis^#
A» to remoral procedures, the statutes provides
the mayor shall have power to remove any officer appointed
by him, on any formal charge, whenever h© shall be of the opin­
ion that t o interests of the city demand such removal, but he
Shan report the reasons for such removal to the council at a
meeting to be held not less than five days nor more than ten
days after such removalj and if t o mayor shall fail, or refuse
to file with the city clerk a statement of the reasons for such
removal, or if t o council by a two-thirds (2/5) vote of all its
members authorised by law to be elected, by yeas and nays, to
b© entered on its record, disapproves of such removal, such of­
ficer shall thereupon become restored to the office from which
he was removed*^
t o above provision appears to apply only to cities having the
mayo3>-counciX form of government, for certain other statutes provide
for different removal procedures in t o managerial and commission gov­
ernment cities* 4s to the commission government cities, the statutes
provide that the commissioner of health and safety is empowered to re­
move all officers and employees of his department,
t o proviso that
heads of major subordinate departments can only be removed by the council
automatically removes t o power of discharge of the chief of police from
the superintendent.^ Tm provision is included, however, that in any
city or village adopting the provisions of the Fire and Police Commis­
sioners Act of April Z, 1003, the chief of polio© "shall be . . . # dlse
charged only as provided in said Act.B° 1he act requires that charges
be preferred and public hearing granted. Provisions of this act will
Revised Statutes of Illinois (Illinois Bar Association, 1935),
Oh. 24, See. 21* lypical of local ordinances in this regard is that of
Evanston* "All such appointments may, from time to time, be suspended
or removed from office by the mayor for good and sufficient cause • • • .
as provided by law and ordinance,w The Evanston Municipal Code (1927),
Ch. IV, Sec. 16.
^Revised Statutes of lllin.o^a (Illinois Bar Association, 1955),
Oh. 24, Sees. 350, 351*
^Revised Statutes of Ulinoip (Smith-Hurd, 19S5), Ch. 24, Sec* 293,
be eeaiUtonS In detail in Chapter V,^
In the six manager gervemsent municipalities, the manager is usu­
ally aspowersd to discharge at will.* Bat as rsgards the seventy-two
villages having tbs pwaldent-boerd
tat® at gowmasnt
(except as te
the sewn villages ifeiefc ham aeeepted the prwrtsicms of the Sire and
Sdlies Commissioners Act
at IMS)
the statutes a w silent as to removal
Mop do vtUege ordinances contribute natch enU^ttanaent.
Most village ordinanoea merely require that the chief1"mag he rstaoved
tom office
fox* good wad sufficient causes**8
Share are no Inclusions
as te pfetlHWMt of chargee or the granting of hearing*
In other lewis
at gownuumt
in the county, provisions as to r*»
Park District,
moral differ aatMiilfy.
bltfa regard to the Chicago
ordinances are in points
*B*s General dojMartatendast shall report all
• # • . roswwiXa of division heads and
ing tkpBatoumfc t# lh«
mctim hmrfm within th® Operat­
£&«#» 'toy officer or wjg&ope*
ses^y b« * * t i mmmnmI for <msja© by ordor ©f $$s© tkmm&m&mmm or by
the President snbjoei to ratification by tbo Oottniasienors«*
Of t&® ordtn&ac&ii are ^ppliisahl*? to ib® chi*? of police* In other park
^Stan is pwrtAmXim? pp* 151-154.
* * M m w & M m , wm), <$%*
m $ ^c* 404* m e m m m * JMSiclp^lttes how sot accepted the proirltfLong
of the elate lour* llowwr, laosogoro ore usually giwn Isspertaii powrs
of renewl* fs KUaiett* a& prenoat, the office of mnager i® vacant.
thrf t a ^ c , th» Code.
of Kivar Bawat (K»Sl), Ch. I,
Sec* 2*
♦las General Ordinance of .the Chicago Part; filatrtct (18SS), Ch. X,
fiSoc# <L4Ui
5Zbld.. Oh. 1, See. 13.
districts, ordtnances a m sUe»t«
Iterate?©, removal to vested in the
beard of three# tn the sanitary district, the resatsl procedures as
prescribed by the civil service ecttsalgsion of the amttaty district mast
be followed.
mrne procedure# will Us ccoHMsrad la detail la Chapter V.1
U M **na la llkewlae true in regard to the superintendent of the forest
p w » » » w»6®«».
te the state*s attorney, the Cawrtlttttlon of 1370
WH 1 officers shall ho t&m-md from office on i^rosamtlon
and final emvietion for laladeaoaJKar In of£iee«»* the gowrrsor is m»*
jssssrsii to declare the office of Sheriff vacant ushen and if a prisoner
taken tmm the custody of the shaslff or his staff la lynched,S Finally,
os to the chief of th# state highway polios* there are apparently no re­
strictions or Ifj&te&SKMi loosed upon th* Director of Public Works and
Mldings as to his pmmr to m a
the chief, loth as to appointment
and dismissal the statutes are silent m m p t m to his right of appoint*
with, tls ata&itey l^k§rotmd in mind, so sen nos tern attention to
the various procedures adopted by the appointing officials in selecting a
chief of polio®*
Both 1m and mmtm eater into the %m*mm of ®«&eetlorw la the
county sad state m to other parte of the sooatfjr there is apparently
a strongly entrenched desire to appoint local mm for local offlees* la
pp* 154-155.
%rb* VI, 3eo* 30* this provision applies o©Xy to judicial officer©*
(mi»oi« a*r Asro^ion, isas), ch.
m $ Bee* MSI iftmm is aim the provision that sheriffs "shall be liable
to ho arrested and hold to hall or shall be subject to the earn legal
process, and
to all respects bo pmmmke& and proceeded against in
the siwe courts, and in the mmm m m m r m other persons are, any Isa,
usage or castas to the contrary notwithstanding.» Oh* 13, See. 0*
4Xbid.. Ch. 121, See* 886 (X),
a good mssay instances appeiabsent is conditioned upcm local resident re­
quirements, often wpm present or past ©onsootlon with the local polios
department* It is m % the pmpm® ham to ms&gm tfee causes for this
deeply eatrentoed fooling, although It should be pointed out briefly
tout appears to be the reasons in the county and the extent to which this
«mate impedes search ter candidate*
In s e n tertenees there is a ee®iBasaity tooling that toe appetatent
of an outsider is %mx%mwm% to a slur on the eomuutty, is mm appoint*
teg efXletoS, steads *H»*re as good as ‘
the nmh erammity, maybe a lot
better* Anyway our residents make good pcHossim*" tola psstoranee ter
local candidates is frequently abetted by the tooling that local loader*
ship r@<$stre® one mho is tedltor wlte toe qow&mi’
ty and one with tom
sojourn to the e m m l t y has allowed XecsX reside**!© to become wall ae*
qsatoted* as
appointing official rmstrtod*
*se feel It is mch
better to have as chief m m who is thoroughly conversant with our cib*
m a«dE who knew# our nro%l#^s*" to tMrticular there is a well ©stab—
Hated % m M M m that only coasters of toe local polio© ctepartmemt should
be chosen, Setetoas there Is the m U m that the reward of leadership
©heuM §m to the depurtentsl staff, or tout an outsider would ted to
play havoc with dlselpXtos, etc# itmteer may be the basic motive© these
tedltlons of toil aimtotenis m m m deeply entemhed to practice
tliat to aany oases they have too sanotte of law, and appointing officers
are obliged to choose as chiefs of polio© m m who Im m .a^etoed In toe
for a soteteatial length of ttoe*^
1** to this Eensral coatow a m FostiieJc, .teatioan...Mies asataas
(1920), ©». TO.
-025*s to ih® ajjpelntasnt of officials in tbs municipalities, ttw» state
law rsquimno that*
«8« parson shall be sisttted to way office who la not
• sprtllfiad olsetor of the d t y or silXsge and who abaXl not b a m resided
at Xeaat «mt year naact preceding bis oloction or appointment."1
Is this teportent proviso, h e w w r , that *9*> shorn q u a l m caUema ohaXX
not apply te the appointees* or ssXsetion
at city engineers
or health
officials, «r o m e e r s of teas technical training or knowledge Is r«qoired In inocsrporated cities and wXOagsa."8
9 m s the statutes while
tely « i » doe recognition to this traditional spirit of local autonomy
nevertheless open the door te selection free the outside upon certain
m t e J t e i l t e A J H d h d h te H i A l l M t e i t t e #
4 mater of patH©!©* tow©
adopted hy to© mmlMpalitie® with
r©g«rd to tteat special X&Mtattott©* to to tto viXlagoa, appaxraxitly
to© ©f£i©« of totef to m l umaXXy m e toito require© toelmieM trail­
ing. or knowtodgo# With p©©»lMy stw ©to®ptl«» the practtos to fob*
ievrsd of omttotog ap$^totomto to the ■office of oMef to local residents
and uotieHy to past or freest ©gster© of the p&Llm deportments Tmmty*
tore# viitof## have itetomooa tedJL*? to ttat of liver Forest which re*
q M r m that *He pn&mm shall to appototod to toe offloe of B«p®rtototo«mt
of Folic© imtoto lie atoll have hmm a atetor of toe poltoe top&rtocmt
eo&ttou&Ily far a period of at least three yeare prior to M e appoint*
ami to amid eKfftoa**® ©h&to 2#to& fwatoiatimi are not fmmA to forty*
(nxinois Bar hwwi iti w, less),
d*# E4, &0®* W *
* 2 M J s & » W - M w
r f ¥ ” r r F«nf*- i ^ h < * . ^
s*®. 6 *
atao other v&lttgsw, the tradition is sum oiem ly well entnwusfwd that
lintlistlon by erdaasae* is not 4mmS neceesary.1 As a village appoint­
ing * m ew roBMdtwli
tew locally appoints since our ijwerpwafclcn
and. m tern m w tax i t nwsessaay to pat th is nw&mmtx la, w ittne.*
But ite m «n» other vlllogee whieb ham dir-artel this castaa for
m m yaws* Oak Part, "tte world** largest HUaee," appointed its presoat A ief sow twenty ywax* ago t e selected a pdllee om «er flrew a
wawtey temaadty so chief. All tte
sowmwasi mBiiclpaliUee
tew oaplaywl outsider*. aitaotte appetatad * seeker of the s&Xwwdtee
Felice 0»pte*»^t te ite ehief, fte w tte selected wo offloor of tte lake
l& tof ite tf te n f e m
tim <M&£* M t e te g # r d itto s of t e
© tetai tteassoy to ©#mp# ten I m I bte&te®, Mteu$i
te© I© ato -stey® t e
t e 4*Mm$
to tote te-
c ity to t e © otey, b o te
© te to t e i?orX4 to told*
m m m m tegtfc of xssltas tor «Mto© to t e
tern pter to «ri»tote«tt t e tote ytor% tee© mite*
t e ©peotol t e r t e to
tessr tote t e g own*
tor %to popular totetosi of a mrtel. Mwm
to Itof# biter crptoXteR to it toltote, to WIB t e
to %nmm t e
to sssussgpr m m m w m t
m #t e H t e t e ® i m m m t e
mm immim tor t e pis^jom to
mmh mm
te tto g , © te te te fo r t e vU te© -w w ll immo to to w t e n r te te n
t o t e msm&m p t e # t e pmmm%
t e im» m r t e
«© ms«&©r M u m W3$? i » ©tef>© t o w g&wm ute totted* to tto ©©too*
U m to hi© togtem' t e m m m tern t e ©feito* OtXto totomm* t e to
.**»* royadtotg out teutytote $ m m to **r»to* a# s&ito, Isa*
t e t e t e to Mr« to toM w *
t e ©tette 0» © to
t e t o to | M i « «
for tM* i m w t e
a© M s
t e % t M t o t e p*Mm f e t e t o # t e t e t o © m o r t e m
tefe t e tetiiteMi to t e tertor, b©
p o tte d toftotoSU
t t e m t e tor
t e p o m £*wte by t e
site b* soiMtes&i u© «n &p*
I© t© t e M slxwitste
term t e
Mllte---Pat e ^ v - A w M m t . . %
i t e t e t e t t e , pp« fb*® #
©** tby *tua$r to
*#• Bead of the pollee department te generally prorated
tractthe ranks.1
te* adjaoe&t to Ghioago on the north le Evanston, the eounty*s seeend
largest City, d m
at the present ties the eeareh far a chief of police
I* being extended asmaa loeel, county, and state lines. Again, in
!* 0*m«e, m e of the nera iwograeeiw citiea to the western gateway
area, appointment 1* confined to the load daparteent. As the
mentioned with regard to the resent appointment of (Msf .Qakst
teUeeed the
pcO&s?of preaoMtag free the ranks for m m
«tse tune
The re­
m its have been faramiato, and I am sura the comunity would net fewr
m tesajfltow faxm thia faraaMm*"
to to oter # g w t e ©f m m m m m & t itortftoi m
w t e ,
m a m tmqmntafr tey $sra te*
m m t e r n or**
t e a m m i m d m & m to t e
Itofe mate©! topteto w ©Mtof a U m i m m t at t e G&teto
Timm mm m mrnmmm
m to p m m U m
ttom t e sate* t e aipartotetet to t e ©tetey district m m ©p*»
tototod la atotewm» toil* t e MvIX mrviea wito reforme© tey to fit-
mam it tout to t e
mss, t e t e
to tot Jteto pirasarw
mrn^rnmm Mm am th&m m m Itetoteat te! to© tMto to tto state
M g tey peMm mm% to a a te to d twm t e iw to*
U to regard to t e to ito
to tto higtey ftolm to t e dbmitPm toite t e ptoicy w t e #
pmmmfe totof imm p m t t e Wtm t e wmks. fto&3yt with mtwmm* to
Mteft to t e t e w pmk dtotototo, t e sstotoy it mm£l& ftote&t of
& wtBBshma to ©to '****»«*'*- ymHlm tomxtomi at dhisf#
w w w w
jpd nratdPMW raFV*
^*®w“m|9F'aiHWWs njneeme^iwra * s
n » e m » r ra
eoralitione to aatettem vhtatk tow t e totally teoMtod imm tod
«» to$wtoto toftot to mgul&ttog t e previous peXio© m p m i m m to
chief©* tee is t© to
t e ten such restrictione are loosed,
t e rang© to selection to
lifted* tee to the present
tests to police entered office toteut previous poHes exgmrimm*
Others tow gained see© measure to m p m i m m m employees oi private
and quosi^uhXic agencies or as constables* Again
number entered ©£-
floe » eo^ p etet toalkgrraid to police experience.
It Mgr to anticipated in advene© ttot less experience toll ho found
qwMMftfr the otoefs to the waller
irlcts* WU$ is tmstlly t e m m *
©to the lesser park die*
tot© is available m 117 chiefs# Of
tern fi£%*te©» entered tofio© toteat pretow police ©apteenee,
Mtoy^ftor t e ptote experience* Concerning t e fUtetttvss chiefs t e
t e s t e office toteat p r e t o w polios ea$mrtem#.todcgrctes w e os
fallows* teatytoee t o M positions os t te teu m or salewa, fourteen
veto te e «s®t*tes% garage owners, or gee station attendant®. Bine
warn torteisfs or s t e m kmywm* tees w o textile steers* $we w e
posted* fee m m totes t e on® mm & retired train dispfttter.
Of t e steHDWNT t e entered ofliee toto ptoie© experience, ter©
tMMdteMi t e e s polios ©iqmrleRO© m s definitely litote.
It 1©
t e v m m m m for a person fteerly elected as conetele in t e tetelp
to to Ifttor eptolnte m chief* townten of t e tmttp*«mft w e for*
nor ooneMitoft# to t e remaining tear* tees ear© hte*gutes# mill® t e
I t e i m m ft retired detective in m large topartent store* Of thorn
toth general polio© experience, tee© told positions m ©ergss&ts In t e
Ote Ooimty
topartent, one m s © former sergeant to t e State
Hlgbmy tentesnto folios itepaxtesmtm Chief laird at t e sheriff’s offloe served tone years In t e department end was with tto United State
to t e t e o t e t e years# Chito ter to t e c&ieago tek
m a t e s ! ©arte t e t e w a a y a m l» t e teeag® ftote t e t e
to t e t e a to i p p t o t e i ttaa in ©tegs to t e Onrbsg® Oatali. Comte*
ateto m t e % to t e cteaga rates i*part^t, t e a m ! t e i p t e t
in t e a and m
prawte ©Mto tote a u m
to m m t m * 1 £Mto fte*
t e t e ratetly M»i§te a® teto to t e M m m % m Jtertejt m
Mteatmtti in t e Ofeteg© F M t e
to t e tea to t e ophite
Ohtto i t e t e to t e Wtetta Diglatete t e i<mm> ted to t e
te ito a g t e s t e to t e te w a te a f t o t e i p r t e t *
ctsito te a m * of
t e ftmte aam te a t$ si & m m m p a t e t e a and o fficer In tegtering t e .
p te M site
I te y n ’a t e t o IM a a a rtea r r n l to t e r t e n p m
s i t e O te t e t o y ia im r te te *
t e t e n i t e a t o te a m to t e F o rte Fra*
m p tea ste mm Maimtmfa B t e a t e to O te o r m tte , ®tat® o f Into-
am# editor m ilSsaa o f Um onto© Iti^smoy Skdniaaanaa
tmrvmt §&st
amm yaara intth Um INsasyta Fait©® iiajpiaFimssi# t e m m*
Iw M m M m to t e iaptarteoa to t e
p m m m M
to t o * T O par m a t e * t e t e o s y p o M la t e o a w i n t t e t e to
t e ftote :p a m » % fommt teteaa m m paid by t e ateler municipal-
iUm t e t e te a o r $wte toaM M a* Of ninety a t e a t t e te to a o f po»
Itaa ftoty*@aws$ am aagmatiwi ta o a part to te& r mlary in m
eaptety# t e t e g #s a p te a l m t t e fto m tem to wttolltoiaont# la
SlM r a a te to CftdLto Altam la a® ftolonat #ppoii$t©d to tha fame
In I t e l t e a t e s ® t e ISO®, I t e t e t e 10X4* osp teo 10l?t oppctote
twad os' t e tela © t e i t e in May, 1931$ appaliite t e t o In O ctear of
m . tfarfa. ifeffl 1» CMfflacft .awl frolaltar (1953), p. SO.
S ta m m , tlra rmsmt, elamlfto&tlan (Ma/ecb, JMB) includes a «ivi~
'te o r ln tte a n t to v&wm th» 3w$®mt wm&sm am fir s t accountable#
m» iaat.#eraaUMt»ra. Ofa«&. ?c«*st ftrwswrro ilM H * .
t e wmal pm&ttm*
Xa t e twBtywlgfrt camtcftpalltia* In toieh Um
oMat wmtmmIn tim $ml capacity o f p d l m a i and private m toh service
t e Major portion ©f t e teU»y is contributed by t e wtents*
©te aietete emMftKMi©i tea lifly cent© to t e delte© © cwate. In
m a t © a m i t e ©&taff is t e t e
© t e a© ©Met*
4 $£©©i m y ©tef©
t e t e n I30»00 a m t e for his m m
tiLm mtm m
Janitor or ©wtofeer#
In m i vilX©^® t e ten# 1© I w t e t e r of th* *iH©§» © m m t for xfeiat*
to I© t e i #73*09 a rnte#
I t e t e y t e n t e i^mrt te ©togl® i m i to
ftetee ©to © m i t e t e a totoH® •tofwblcgsc* Mtoough this ©mms© of
t e t e m 1©
drying up#
wmm% at ©
t e g series of teta&te
Is tbs ftitostton in t e naosnUy toocapewtea vtHmie of
Boom Pafte.T
te* t e e£def*» rate? to*#rto*A tt flat rate of #1*00 t e ovsry arrast
nail** tewtetag; toto jtrastes an towwttBste t e tto e&icaso b o t e
S M s soldi
"Ho find t e t low s^Uotes itear an is®wrfeo«6 p t e to getting
teas ettefn to hot, wtor.
Ons ottef told ss t e t to tod to mate tern
t m r i i « ter if to «xg»«tod to toep **• Job.
to t e
tUlses test, sw**
Mate* m
to tto
Part of the prooeodo rant
viUsgs atacts, m*s
tomwd s t e to t e otstof." tos salary loosla pl«a te mt~
dttleaa t o t e stotab salaries saust to oonwd torn not toss eondaelvw to
•ftetdto IsstesMp.
able ohisfs.
Ster «»» not likely to sttosot t e attention of
ads pwwttos of teag t e tea* of jwltoo to t e amll**
m prt^tin©
tost© further augeoit© bh© Issmlcqtmcy
'©f | ^ L © $wto©tom In t o w msito «©&
Um timwmX^k tmfeiXtty ©f mall
to ©tappssr! a fUHMta® pMic® wsiwa#
^Chtesao Tribune. M y IS* 193®.
ftsem Qffimm t a h & m
sratattooaitfp tmtamm tb* ®%m sad
oommii^ mm! too »sto*y paid to too obtof of police.
«*»»«** (Mpvtetton U tlB9) m m Its chief #4**00 a year,
twptetoo of a
tolls fleltoet City (pojaOotioB ia#a®e) pay* It# chief $2t7 m a year,
toltoeto, i t o w peculation is about enoHWLf that of Celwat Olty, pays
rn too astowny,
a totofy «f H ^ » 0 ,
to 3»gto, a elty of atxmt ss,000
to Itoteetlon of tbs ranees
WalattoB, too dktof to paid only
to totosy lanoto to teeae of ooWato population toatoiftosttons to
toLlne to nlneto wantelpallttoa
Bgas^g in es^^®QS$fctlsii & m m m «Kmmk%&v&
1,000— 5a£W
v m * m
m o M i o * o o
p&tj£ ftas* n$mr -dm&km*
*Hsi£ imls&l**®
0$ g S M I M l ttSD® 1?$9fl$p0 111 fltt&ttiy ttfW
t$ tig
m |Mflfy Hi® sKsXsBPy |»gt# t#
vmy imm m h i$t &£ $b§qqq
ttsg CtdMDSgso f^iyft fi&gtitefcj, tg
%^gaff4 33p®8& &■ Wtft Ot SO ^WltS p W IKKMP* $31
■M&§» m m pa&i mwgmmmMm $ m dutim gtiw tfem thorn ®£ pc&loi&g*
In tfei* m m m m u m s m i m ? m m m ® t& ®54
# Qm$m* Waei^aimSLJolt m
te ft*wML<:ig3g)» p*
rnmmm «&«*? %m m£m
h m «
other salarios
mm m
Gwte oggntr «&i#*i££* #§f§60 p©r m m m Cblaf of Highly Saputi**
#£ Hi# A f l l f i o££lt0## #%S0© ptr
H,%0§0:par i w i
^ap«rlr*tef>de33t of* th» F e m t
O^pwiiite^dtet #ff th*
#B#S64p&rItm^i Cftl*# of th# Sfcftt# M # M p
jM W a
jd b K S p A M H M a
to to to* langto of aaretea, to w w i attoHa toto i* pmeorlbed,
to ether* to* t o m to todaftoito.
Bat the Qwwtttofeioo of
to* i M f f to Sleeted tor a tow«ywsr
WK> m
t o t that*
•00 pwwea Sating
flaw been fltootod to to* efiEtoe «f ntoaiff • • • • atoU be « U g l t o to
Mtotootlea of a*to office tor fear year* aftor to* «*ptostta of toe
t o m tor totoh to atoll t o w t o w etooted**8 too* regaw&w* of toe
» m o t w U y to m
to* I t o j i w ***% to m a t rnXSoqulto toe ofttm
to to* n m S y eleotsd Sheriff W e , la m a y tamtamae, to* atotouMjr no
pstoea estpertoetoo. to tto etoto* waft vUtogee, bewa of offloe a m «to
neat tomy* toftafttott* altoooefe to nineteen wntotpalittes tern* are «*>
at ana «r too * w >
tor m awt o , to Swsnaton * U officer*
appointed by the aayer wlto tto consent of tto oMancil t o M offtoa for
tto tans ear baa years.® to S t o w forest, tto t m to
"for om ymr ana
until nto snsassser to appelated and ewllfSfld.** to seat orwenltto*,
^totorto* tote tto wwepttoa of ttot of tto ehtof aC tto State t&gbssgr M M o a w IWtoe «•*» obtained t o w a m a t o l weorte of tto w l o n a
crmamsente* . toe ebtoPa eetory to ttob gtoen eat fey an employe® to tto
(Mcage o m m ef toe 8*s<w Kigtetey Btotoiea Bepertowfc of Ptollo toifca
sad feaildinga. .A* rapwda to# Sapsrtoteedmt of tto Sorwfc fimaer**
Rongsm, tos salary listed aSuom to to* aalwy paid Mss to hto capacity
of SoporintotitoBfe Of to* Masst fraewrw Ofcatotet. toto salary to not
pmxated acoonitog to toe w t o a duties he parfome,
— , . j.
msfMmikMM t « * W »
4&»Sftfo. W W a
o u *?, too. is.
^ <*-* Basal (1SS1), Ch. l‘->. too. S.
toteter, teatwe a m toMtoito ■ * m m watt*stt upon auch factors **
ttotes (1) Pernot *aa long
m the aayor
lasts.” (g)
pewit© be appetatod f w the pnestoeisb’s tenu*
Parfet »3uj>-
(#) Stteteeyt "to long
te b* aatteftos the fcsmd** j© ell the paste dtetrtehs, cmaept the at>t»
•tee *W*e iitetrtot, tto- t o m &e indefinite,
to3ds « m ® for one jtoMP*1
la tto latter, tto " Wtf
to tto ftairast t o t a r a eta tonltory M e -
tsftote, tto t o m to eenttogeat epos etvtl eervtoe provisions gewmteg
t o m of office ef tto chief of the State Highway >*■*»*— i n m
t o t o Bepsrteant to toteftoite*
Hwe* abfefb tto t o w w m l neve ttoo fto© yaws are tto eiesspt&on
tetter than tto toto. tongsst t o m
ef e m e e to toto by Ofatof Peterson
of H m s t i a eto to toe owning toe tmn%^flf«h year ee ehtof. dbtof
totoeaa ef toh ton* toe teen to office nineteen years.
tto t o m is Wort,
Sues toe to fie* yearn.
the sigbty-ons years (totoeao
bees tewwtaMfite chiefs ef pdiee, or an
to the
tonally, however,
a*ta*a «xperi«m»
18S4 ate 19*6;
tenant tor each of s.E
wmutp-tnma years teteesB 1881 am wtB Oitesgo toe
tod thtrty-torte chiefs or an etwag# teams ef & £ years.8 toe present
teetesstawr of police teite tto longest raeard to the topertotett eight
topsrtetemtatb tow®* ef tto forest Preserve toapse is now
seralag his tenth years toe Chief ef tto State
SS^magr tetotonanee
flee ye ares
I w s *ȣ
ptNKieai tzmwfcmtfm is as M & m *
^fiMiwwwMt ef tto <Mteiat auto. buttes* (isss), ch. 1 , a*e.
8|gtoto gw rtoM toai. tone IS , 18S5.
A list o f Chicego's ohtofs e f p t o te 1951 to te be found in tto
to w e l Resort o f tto Shtoste toU oe teoartoent (1951), p„ OS.
One to Haroe years
Ihree t© five years
Five to tea
0 w tan years
Ae@re§© length «f service* 4»* years. this a m g o is slightly under
a w i g ® t « w » of chiefs in the cities in the TMtad States of over
1Q#QQ0 population* a© revealed in Hi© report of the Motional OoBsaisslon
m U m C S u r m i and iafbrce&efih aade in ISBi.* Xu that study the aw*
erag© was found to lie 4*88. A© regards Cook County* tenure in the munic­
ipalities of m m 10*000 population is less than tenure In those samletpolities under10*000 population# Average
tenure in the former bracket
H H M 9 inthe latter 4*0* fhie point is of particular significance in
view of tendencies toward specdjft&aatieii and the increasing toiands tor
pe^fuM* eervtee mutomitorid in the larger ammloipal dcpartsasats*
A OQnpeffit# d?araeterl«atl<38a mt chiefs of police in Cook Counter is
difficult because of the mtrmm population ranges emtomtered in the
immiolpaXiiie® and in the varying nature and responsibilities twm& in
In geasrol* It e m he said mat the chief is an ap­
pointed official selected in saost instances by president and beard or by
mycr with the consent of the council# With three exceptions chiefs of
the special district dspsrtensfits are selected by boards or cojai&ssiofts.
In the larger ammtctpeXtbles* in a few ©f tha special district depart-
wmt&$ in Hie sheriff1® office* and in the state td#mgr mkntmmxm
the chief has.rnrmd. i&r sons year® in a subordinate
capacity# As to the mmUtpsX dSfMtSHmbs* the selection area continues
to be confined to local boundaries although the practice of selecting a
m m 9 p# si#
«Me£ Hem tfee outside mm®, the larger departments* 1© saor© or less fol­
lowed# Of XX? chiefs* only fdrty-tSir©© have had prior experience on
entering office# tenure ©1 office is usually indefinite. With regard
to cOHjpens&tion, the inclusion ©£ non-pdliee duties as an aid to salaries
la ^G&sraXXy M
in the Miller samleip&lliiost and «4 hoc depart-
wtffi# Ifetls eeXery levels In muiclpalltlaa tend to increase in ac­
cordance with population* wide eertabicm in salaries in immleip&liiies
©f approximi© «t«e indicate that a definite pragma of compensation is
m l yet being followed* Hi© brief and uncertain tenure of office in the
great »jcritr of dkgMartMKbi indicate dose depimdamse of tenure upon
the vagaries of polities#
For ttim m who look to the ermiicn of a pmtemiwml class of chiefs
of police* m o situation in Oook Cteunty psiwioasly described is not
overly oneouraging. Certain basic MMtoMMM* appear in m e setaatlat
process# frnrnmt m^mds as to r w d l ferns not insured any pronged
tw m m of office* S h e t m m U of salary m d wages m d the tnduaim of
n«aiP#pdico duties to bolster m&mrise tee# not been aussfe as to attract
man of proper purifications and ability in the aajkwity of case®*
Before p m o w & m to •» ^rataticn and critique of those three
phases of Has police process* it is* first of all* necessary to tuns at­
tention to the fundawenfcal
required of a person holding
the office of dtelef* Hsis 1® particuXsrXy Important In evelu&tiiig se­
lection methods, for thee© would materially differ as to positlmm calltag for little or no baeSsgrouod and eaperien©©, and those which called
ffer thorou# training, competent experience, and an ability of high order.
the qualitle© necessary in a chief indicate that training* experi­
ence* mmi ability of high order w e required. Such qualifications can
be gemralXy grouped into two oategoriee— one is tangible* the other
| intangible* Among the tangible Ratifications are those of age, pro! scribed education beokgrmttMi and the like, and among the intangible
| qualifications meh m m m a capacity to manage and to lead, qualities
of fooaseety and integrity* and the like*
Althcmgh it is doubtful if a jaaxiit*uvft age should be fixed for the
poet of chief* It is mmrtlml&m true that the person selected to the
1 office mat be young enough to lock forward to a number of years of ac­
tive service. Whm m appointing officer looks to the rank® for a chief,
it often happens that the officer chosen it past the prime of life and
: ha® lost his capacity for fbroefbl and effective leadership. It Is also
j momma*? that the appointee b© in each health a® to pemit him to give
I individual and undivided attention to police matters* As to education,
: s&dsssm Rallfication® .should be a hi$a school education, preferably a
| college training* Has time 1® rapidly approaching when specialised
I training in the fields of public administration and polio© administration
| ma&t he considered a prerequisite to appointment* The continued speciali
| isatlon in police functioning and the increasing omplexilies of police
i science and administration dresdy require this specialised educational
backgrmmd* Finally, prior police exp&rtem® md administrative experl! m m should always he considered.
SfexAls it is a ®<rapwafcively easy task to set up certain tangible
qualifications such as age, experience, education, and the like, it is
net as easy to dehemlm those is^portant intangible qualifications
which play * conspicuous role in effective policing. Among the most
isRwrfcant of these queliflcations mm honor m d integrity* i t is well
known that i m public offices m s s subject to outer influences as that
of the jsclie® head# tee of tie strongest bulwarks ©gainst a vicious
omtrol of policing Is a dominant sense of honor and integrity in tbs
chief* Again* the chief mist possess that ability to pursue objectives
regardless of opposition* A policy of enforcement based upon the prin­
ciple of short periods of vigorous activity followed by long seasons of
reeuperaMe® dissipates the effectiveness of policing. la this corns*©Meet nest be Included that ifRertsRt «Mli*y to distinguish between flo*
tltious and substantial public opinion* loreow the interplay of com­
petitive fbrcss exerted on the Chief requires that important ability to
s ift the seedfresL the staff m d to sdrtaietsr \xpm tta basis of needs
rather than fictions* Sta underworld seldom pays such tasd to sporadic
or m-tiiued sataMsamt.
mud a b i l i t y
a u l t a s i t y t o s v t a r ^ t o a t o
t i K t a f e O * *
a m IM m n M U
w i t h m i n o r W a t t e r s
n o r
l e a d e r s h i p r e q u i r e s a n
p o l i c i n g t o o t h e r s
d i r e c t e d b y
t t a ® g e t t i n g
b i s *
p r o ® #
t o p a r t i c i p a t e
t t a w o r k
e d a c i t y
i s
t t a e f f e c t i v e n e s s
f o r t h e i r
c h i e f c a n n o t b e c o n c e r n e d
1 & e v e r y d e t a i l
a b i l i t y b © d e l e g a t e
s e e t h a t
c h i e f * *
t h i n g s d o c s *
t a l d i a & t h e m a c o c n m t a b l ©
Um a v e r a g e
o v e r s e l l
a n d t o
t o m m pt r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - a n d t o d e l e g a t e .
i s
t t a
c a r r i e d
t o
o f p o l i c i n g *
a c t u a l w o r k
e a t a l o n g H i m
d o i n g
t h i n g s
t t a d e p a r t m e n t
o h l e f m e t
h a m
mtm m m t o f c t v l t t e e o f
t t o
a M - l i t y
t o
t t o d e p a r t m e n t ,
p3um» t
t o
o r g a n i s e ,
r a t h e r
i n t t a
lung rue suffers*
o f
a n d t o
t t o d e p a r t a s n t ' a b u d g e t
-os&officer, %im chief mmt mpmvln the compilation of financial reports
*n4 plead the cause of the dejMartaent before mneger, sayer, or ether
o fficials. Ho m ot ham the ab ility to am the protases of tbs coaaunlty
to pwspoettwo, to sap «& • lino of attack fitte d to the particular
protolesa of the eoaaaaiity. So m at bo a good lodge of aca and adopt la
•tofMa* b*» »>» iabe 1*0 field of w n to to efalah their capabilities
boot f i t thaa, lit every mm» • chief oast possess the ability to la*
• t i l l ccmfidanoa, to eagendor respect, to mils with iapartiality , and
to properly emanate sod rot* tbs ladtioifnsl capacities and tra its of
those ida wot* for hia* She ab ility to preserve discipline is essential
in &n
in it oool—
®dU&1k«*y organ—
oudb ®s %h® poll®©# Wfamm tlse dbdaif Mu# i&to aol*
olf reoi^iltssssnt' #***1 ptrtH^felon* b© latuM* b© as a3$®flk2JsBlii jwlga ©£ Ben* and
autliorltiy la ©oo$$k1 in n ind^pafslefin'fc eliU
wmwtm aMalaalo%
is® mmt m» gvw*t aim In
bn®& ******
ttoat tb® dopj^pfeffionfc
tib© oaocNOdur® wULl mnl^s
tfim rlyiag aill t&MMt prairewplalt^a is tin* raq u irw an t o f a sound
£nxo«tat@tt of gM&too prc&lo®* mfc pmm&mm* *$*ieb ««» not b® gained
d i m tom igh oasperiontso In tis® prootlco o f policing, but through an ex-
p m m m In m m m m M m capacity «* ttoau^a atudioa of pdliao H t w
ature# Star* in
thmm m m Urn
mm® of honor and
integrity? an *fe£L£ty bo HoXIxm through*! an ability to delegate author­
ity* an ability to dial wild & m m t o nod inf«rior»$ a® ability to
mporvlm apfsfclm than pa^olpaiej an ability to teow and wm&r*tand
j»robl®$s% polio© procedure©# and the drift of p^llo opinio*
In the
final analyaia* Uvaao rwfp&am m m M m intelligence and an administratis
skill of first order* Am ftrdeay feed has indicated, leadership possesses
item mm techniques in addition to those acquired £&m specialised knm&~
edge* , 1M» in amredly true with regard fee it# office of chief#g
fhe point la.fSPefipcn^y made that the else ©f a 4^arteit has an
JWqaircd of a chief* It Is gen­
ii departsaeni increases, the strictly
duties of the police head are supplaatoi to a considerable exa&gtzmt&aUen* Ms Cooper has said:
*2aa the larger departnsmts the chief is jvfMieily a imager and cannot
sfffcrd to he concerned with any hat the asst, serious oases which
effect adjsinistratiire $>e&fcy#w® i e a m # the gmmmX inclination is
possibly to s m ^ s d t t f i the need for adminiotratli^ ability only in
tjf,w m w
%*^ato this need in tbs smaller
to the tmagemeot of men* for sjmpls, an
ability to handle M m Inferiors Is of groat i m r t m c e particularly
they are fa mm&Mm
&®& *&mm a force is limited in strength,
the ability to properly delegate the work la s&sential* Froea the larger
differences in qualifications are those of degree rather than
kind* Thm iws&mmmtaA ohmrmtmrlmtitm such as integrity m d ability to
deal with stgmiere and inferiors ^ply to all cMsfb without much re­
spect to the else of a dcpwtmkt*
Far these reasons a selection policy
is unsound d i d assume® that %ualific*fclom required of a chief wtem~
tire in lesser departments as* narfesdly lee# than in larger departsaents*
# pp. U S - 1?.
*or FI in Fosdfckfii
is an
interesting account of the probXe&@ of leadership and the salifications
irsd of the office#
%foalcioal JPfM^
nitration la ftraa (1958), p. ISO.
-SUSSF br reeeoma emthlama& above, a ny Jft&jor r^^trlcti-caras Hwtf ting an ap ­
pelating a m e e r 9* p u t
O f geitfte good wen*
to residents o r to
mt the
ft* m
ft likely to reduce tee possibilities
The aeariy universal ornate® o f U n i t i n g selection
b o a tee ranks is therefore unsound*
appefttftg officer
la to secure the best men available end
it ft o f little eemeerm whether a t the Urns o f appointment the candidate
Umm im mm ernm m ty
o r {mother*
the *erd* o f Fosdftkt
»& to©
wumm parochialism m m
t h e search for
m*m&,•£ UvkBH&Ap im
not * q w a i t y that owi b o doflnod la t e n u of
lim e ,
talent wherever
e m be
or state Seuadarlea.
Poli«i®» o f reatrlbttog ajjpointaersta to promotions from the ranks
*r» X U w w l s o subject t o important hassrdB.
Possibly in small
teme end.
c i U o s whore the iwsponaibilitiaa o f poXioo adtetoistraUoB a m not heavy,
m m
pmeam m
tbs fsroe mlgjjt b e found
who under
a satisfactory
im this tee ease, far mpially a better m
etrieiftaa w e m
the reetriotien o f
I m
favorable cimsnatancbo
But infrequently
e e m M be ftund i f such re-
im t e g w i to the larger 4p»ertesats#
to p m t b m
from tee ranks ft unsound*
la t h e words of fogdftkt
That such a leader mm b e found ft tee ranks of a police <te»
la im the highest degree ftprObable* The officer who
has walked hie "beat* mi a pateolman, imvofitigated m i m e a s a
detective, ©ml managed t he technical wmUm of s t a t i c house
activities as a lieutenant, ft mot fitted b y this experience to
M s l a t e r tee eos^ftx affairs o f a large p o H « @ dspartaeni* The
chances are rather t h a t he ft unfitted tm tee task*®
I M mm*® m w f t w m with sefteiftg ite teftft frm the ranks points
HwsIcsb...PriMo*Sxetom. (lsao), p. sms.
W * ,
ft the hasords of this pracift©* ,ftmy of the teftfe haw retired after
dftasireme and often Inglorious eaiwarftoees sftply for the reason as
Foadlck h m stated, **Thafc they emsM not measure up ft ihe task# ** with
«®» dr ft© exception© they have beam dull and iaefftotft*, lost Is the
larger obligations of the office*
It smmi ©leer that the jmotfte of requiring jmsstftB jftpo® the
ranks ft justified on2y cm the ground that vMstdtmmt and pimotion
practices ft the <*B$wurtwR8i& hew taken ftft aeammi the fitting of per­
sons for the slbfteft reapemsftHities of chief* ft the m $ m % that
entrance to the dspartamb ft dosed ft the
pgtnaftfta from
the rate ssy he justified* Bat o w n the** to restrict appointment ft
p m m t l m ft ft assume that among the pdLlo© there ft mm mho ft fitted
for the post* ft many ftmftmoes wtwire ftoel las or o&sftg& frown© on out­
side appofthMmts the ^pointing officer ft faced with the noo^ssity
ul appotetfiug w w m i to tJso poo$■ irtwsi Im k M ) $o Ini wURltr £02* tAMi
the properly
qualified p m m m spimss* ft the worde of Coopers
«ft pers&t this ft-
portent mamftipal funotiem to he f l h d u i s M by one who ft weighted down
with tradition sad departmental retsfcftm ft to ignore ft©' major ©sms© of
It ft ft the highest degree ftf&atant teat
reatrfttftos m to m s M m m end pimmt&m ft Cook Qornty be ressowd*
On tee shaft, tee eftctiws method ft not ©oodaetw to effective
leadership, lbs i^tloatlons whfth arise out of eftmtion to office
through popular efto^Loo are mix known, The field of election ft
p. m .
iW f f
1p ^ jw r (3 * s3 ), p . lo s
Mxstteci by geographie qii&XifimUons, by practices and policies of the
political parties, by tbs imt that assay able mtm raftsm to run for oflies* Agate bhop* is the Iteslihood that m m holding office by virtue
of ©loetiem mm% h m to te® t e a tedch mete possible his election*
Mmmever* stectic® involves the haaarcl that an official desiring resleettea stay teflf# his comhsct ft mite a xernmr m to malm as mmy friends
end as fee exuMes as possible* Its© mry asters of poliitog forbids msch
practices* these are wscag tee raaecas pocteting to tee dubious success
of sheriff pdlciag la tee f m m of eafteoemeat# Wherever possible
elective police offloes should be m&umd to m appointive basis*
^slu &&%&&&
&b to '&!&©
a niw&mr of tevtboda are used*
chiefs are a&poteted by tee teief emscutlve, othars by boards or oomie©icsi®, sad m m*
m aw pw *—
* * w e i* T W w r
The p r c M ^ e ccmeoted site tee sppoiateeat of do-
atiwMfcwbiII liaaiiMtt1
! mattl »****%*» ’
fe© ewmf jLeis^L of j^cvsmeaat*
'S b ® ip -
w — *y V #
P m chief a M i t w t o r , wbelfcer governor, nayar, swagger, or others,
naturally deslnea to select department beads without hindrance from any
ether agency ft* he feels that his responsibility' lor ftdninletr&tion
ashes It ispuratiwo that the department beads enjoy hie full confidence
end ore to be responsible to his,
atatfMwa* appointment has the great
admntage that It reduces the prohahiUlgr el outer influences being ex­
erted on the chief,
there, as in Cook Comfy, meet chiefs owe their ap­
pointment to boards end comm1s*&om>, leadership depends pretty much upon
an ability to comply with the many ideas and desires which filter in
from board meajbers, Hash of thorn departments which have a reputation
for fitful mod frequimtly-ehanging policies is usually found suLfci-party
eoatwft vftdto frames oat forceful leadership and easels
m a y rather than on*.
to elaborate selective process to of no a n a , however, unless
remwidbto tenure la assured,
@smty M
Hilda to certainly not the oase la Cook
«* have previously indicated.
to large pert to faulty aetooda
the situation o n be attributed
at diaatoeal.
With the exception
etttos, a fee eftlM viltogaa end tome special districts, tome are no
safeguards as to mnowal.
Her to removal vested to
usually m N N w t to majority rote
at beards or
mm person bet to
toe dtomto*
ot Chief Lioht of Ibraat torit early to July of thla sear, ty «
to bee vote of toe village board, to the latest of a long series of dto1
ladtoatton of situations which arise, note the toUow*
(1) Chief of Polios Bugdato « . . . has been the ember of a
hasted controversy over the village board's proposal to dlsnlas
hto tor 'tslktoe agatoeh the trustees.* Chargee sere brought
against Chief Sugdale by tmm&» Boyne, nmmoer trustee, who,
on Chief togdato'a suspension, pcaaptly had htoself appelated
acting chief of poliee,*
(2) Holding the fort, or poliee station of nils Park, was hsld»
ever Chief KUltow Blgglna, «ooatod* toes office by the new mayor,
bat still very much to oomiand of the feme of six coppers, to
m e also supported by deputies toes the sheriff's office, to toe
first council, nesting of the new regime tost night toyor Kurpfey
announced the appointment of Whitley B« Kltehsll as chief, tola
waa taken with H i grace by toe six aldermen. four of the® needy
elected, toon toe sheriff rallied to Biggin's support end asst
deputise to forestall effort of Mitchell to annex the chief's of­
ficial star and snivel chair,®
"Hfcs usual aetood of firing toe chief l« to abolish the office of
toief. toe Oatoaaa tolbana. duly 18, 1S88.
^Palica 18»lBn{April, 1388), p. 17,
to the foot that the etdaf to accoysnrtable neither
nor to tm beaml but to tha ixitexplay of force*
to tfe© ofau*
betowm sad awong the gemming officials, Many chiefs boceoe birds of
passage bu«*s*ed about by erg**? pdftioal braes*.
«3*sr too* toe diastasel poser, as the appointive poem,
should be meted in the chief executive.
l e m i® the abate*, of course,
the* to tolbtfcsjsed poser of eppelntnant end dlesteaal of the polio® head
J» « » psrmn aight molly make for a videos peilitdeal control over toe
polioa offiee*
tot* auto fears of arbitrary regulation should be largely
unfounded Iff proper safeguards of ranoval ere fellewed.
BUsaisaal should
be allseed only after chargee have been preferred and a public hearing
granted at toe option of toe chief of police.
of removal, Professor Hatton
With regard to this method
Z eo mare that in certain cities tilde has resulted in r*»
aovala for purely poUtioal reasons, but ay obeervattan has led
w$ to believe that in most of our cities share to* mayor may re*
neve toe oMef of police, bat only upon statesect of oharges,
public sswttaant is gradually becoming strong enough to foree a
anyer too might viahto remove a chief of police for purely politieal masons, to leave M s in office.1
la brief, certain of appointment and cSlamiaoal appear requisite
to effective leadership.
cause it is a good
m mm
to indefinite tern of offiee is desirable be­
of exploiting official incompetence.
tarat «tr© ’
tariceo&aBasfy «rt«t w&w M W ® &©lJFi^n1aaL. Ifcs© l/Otte a ’
la & sari «f ir«Bt®d
bm m r e &#~
lofam&mm bbm » si*©rfc t^pm# figoit«a®s aaft reapemftift* cxemiti?* inter-*
bwt ©rawfcla nr tmjmt polio© X^ad^rohip. ife*
(3S10)# p* MT#
£or thatf„.Olfeg..teMwawsilfe
m m M-md&ml maLrt ordinarily prohibit m &r~
Mtreyy m^&XsMm of the office of chief* *stm $Um ©-£ organisation
$ m a abate poltc« §tmm
I ^sr Beoera*
mad Stone for the
listewitiorua. AfNMMetim of tifefel* of Pe&lee in 3ISS iMioatee the moot
teWWb bought oo the eutajeebt
JOmaeb tha eatXr* mntmSL m m Urn im tm U placed in the
hands of * aiagle , p r » tfteisjMriNNl in the; act m a c*Badasiomrf
also in ag$ctotad by the severnor for no fiaed tew m& is vmm«*
<Ma tar M % tab dOgr Cif the e«aw^e«i^r «m» toaondo) after him boon pro^msd e^elwt M m end a hearing granted,
%■ tMe memi the oXbtssat# wepometMliiy reamim® ispcm the geo*
erecr, Oho «e eM*»£ smm t i m of the abate* ta tinder mandate by
the abate eoaatltixfetett to praefta pwbeetl* to life aisd pwparty
nittalii the abate end oho aheoM not be sftaeod im the ImpcMMiM*
poeitiom of fcaMag the po&iee fbree oadtr the control of m> of*
fleer mot wape^lble to hbaJL
4t one time or another m m X j ell #f the more important Mtiea of
the United State® turn bed the control of their police placed im the
hands of etete^^imted official®* ^oog thea© oitlea in (%teii$o* the
city embroiled ibe m e police df$earitamt ontil X86X when a abate act
m m p m m & piwidXmg t e a bmm A of .throe wn&aeiaKMm to be appointed
by the geinmer a&th the eematab of the aenaie for term® of two, f « f
end *1k yeara* tMtr emeetaer* to be footed by the cliimm of the
city#* £a Fea&efe hoe amid* "tala eet wee pro^ted eoXely by perMean
politic®* tae Iba^KliMWi m M t k i the abate
talla the
©ity o f Chicago ini® in the ta ta a o f th e Staakefiwfce.*® Im IM * however,
the ftaecfwbl# party reenmod ite control of the IsgisX&ims which amended
^Fmt^sasaor, "tae OrffiMfsatdoyi of a State Felioe*® t6
Killftfffl nffMff!flW 7 » * « (Janus^Fefcaruary, 1936).
« «jf
( W ) , p. XS1.
IAmmeIss* ftflfo*SynteBai (1980), p. 91.
the act of 1861 fey r « M ^ | the team of coxsaissiQrasrs from mix to three
yewe «mI providing for their el«®ttoE^t^largo fey the voters of Chicago.
J&ifc la 1865* *&<»* eontrol of the lefleXatee pasaed again to the Bepubliema, ■the m b
mm farther e i M to provide that M b ara of the board
fee eheem fey the electors of 0o$s Oomty rather then fey the city, the
m m m mppmwm# h*im the deooemtic party bad lose dmam of controlM ag th e coaaty*
y&m lm®k p el $ m immtomfc trader beard c o n tro l u n til 1372 nhan with
th e p m m m o f th e c i t i e s sa d tilla g e s Aet sp e c ia l MwieMtlee c o n tro l
o f sag & elp & iilee e m a e d ^
iltf e th e passage o f th e a c t o f X872 th e
-Cbltiago C ity OomdUL p m m d m m M m m m m m m U m c o n tro l o f th e p o lic e
l a c ity
$h* «pe»tio» o f s ta te m lo c a l c o n tro l eee n o t
s e ttle d * h o ov er* tm M l SAW 16am l a th e m m o f ffiieridaay. v* Oaivig** th e
"court Mfed t h a t th e c o m e ll had n o t esesedsd i t s a u th o rity in tak in g
mmgr psM oe ecBtan& from th e s ta te boevd**
Since X675 a nuafcer o f a t -
tajpt® have been sssde la th e X o g id a te e to re ta m co n tro l to th e sta te*
Governor tmmmst l a 189? cmManI Ifer a aeaim re to in co rp o rate s ta te con­
tr o l % m m a m % e im te d to m m th e p o lic e fo rc e o f CMcago taken e n tire ly
m b of fdiilee***^ Again la $M$ Senator Stack eteploned state etmbroM
% bill is modeled after the present Iteaachasette Im* tm.
^*1 m that state* Jou me not hear^ as
ooft * hear a» poaiee scandals
that because m m m Matoeaker in a awl is protected fey
.A&LMlArMfc W dLh
^ a O ff
I* 'O iV JB'
H’f l J»i
1 A. J C i K k i U
j u «L*
pp. 76-77.
Ss m * m
% r*se»t XMtflkM B ogart and John Mabry Mathe«e# fh s Mo^rpi Q m m m ~
(Ifee Centennial States? of IMImela* C« w* Mlmrd, editor-injg*** ?&*
?* ®®2*
a3h»o the
Beoofflfeer 4*
.MW7* For polio© dewlepaamt In Chicago prior to 1887* see the volume
Linn anei'J, 'S*
m s M m m m ©r a political boa® a policaran refrains fitom arreabtn& hia and a police captain hesitates to &afor©© the law* let
of Chicago oat of politico
if no expect to b i m mi ©ffiotoat $asrae*3.
ham got to take the ptMm- departed
Again la IMf farther effort® tosmrd, atate control m i laada, this tim
the h%l% being braked by the CWoego I m end Order league. An aggravated
fiee, grafting, and liquor situation p r a t e d ration by M « league**
Since XBX7 sporadic ebbm&tm Imm h&m rad® to M a g about et&be control
%tmm lustra usually died in ®mmlt%m* -hma
captain of police said*
mimm the O&ril !*% m* ra bora just one jwp ahead of e « e M L by the
jtfh-f■-a*- jUiMtukdlll.iiAjt■»Hniil.itflfc 'i-
6* » ■j*•fc-dfc^fSbu 4b *fcA» Jfc■‘
•j—M'rwmjhtfa ■irtlMi'
m.iT* *4*,!»,4^
viiara^O',e 03^0x^0^00' aera® AA
w l 4Mia&raw
tnao aoeoiuw
omtrat tcy
abate erar $-<***»**! iwrfti.'i,
is to be rasmpded a® isoral^ a beanorarr Intax**
wmttm# wrrasited by a m a l
rand&tiosis* end entered intern with a niew
of ultirately redrawing to a m i l condition of local mtanray* la ©rah
instance iaim morae bora b o m «de to M a t Xrasal polic® under super*
flaUn end omflMI of the abate, M a t * elm, ira&&tag# Xi«per conditions,
rad general laairamra bora bran the r m m m *
It in
mt o »
sNtgpeee bora to ecmwiKt o e U b s I ^
tb® raoiooe
arguments adraoood for or agutasb abate ombrel of the local polio®, but
rather to point to certain mrtMto of embroiling the po&ira bead in the
that local
pMtim &&*** ftnm appear® m
doubt that *****
l m y :lb, ItXb, as quoted in the Mpffiam
O m ten n ia l H isto r y o f I l l i n o i s , c* w* A lrard ,
w s.
w t aaotart of litontam has b««n written on this subject of
controls d c M yoara ago Frafessor Ooodnow adranmd the theaia timt m
uncontrolled loo®! adi^aiatratioii of general ratter® lead® to a great
l$sic of oiMnietratira unlfbmity and h&raeny wlmo tmifomity ami
j cootrol rests np&n m established legal a M historical basis, namely
that the local police m s m t m a function of the state and are charged
(1905), ]>* 252* Tot Froaident l^kstra nas pointed outi ,fMay w® ©aspect
stats supervision to Increase the competency of ©a&stim oitv personnel
*«*«>, WOK,),
p* 90* From the viewpoint of results aocoEsplished proponents of state
ecastrol point to the success of state control over the Boston Felice,
Opponent# in turn point to the disheartening experience of Hesr Tork and
particularly of Chicago, The letter1** experience in particular indicates
hour 'base state^oiatrollod policing can become, lot© the followingt Fq«h*
Jk^seimm,Fdice ,3yatsmg (1920), pp. &@*88j Ihltten, “Fublic Main-*
istration in Massachusetts,* "in OoluyaM^ University Studies in History,
ToX* fill, $©* 4j Lancaster, “State Supervision
s i local "MsdMol^&tlv© 'Standards,11 IS Southwestern Social Science Qaatw
terlv ©SI (U&tdh, 10$©)| M&omilXin, “Oities can Govern Themselves,w IS
U ® (May, » ) | Griffith,
IlSSSJTwuWr^itloek, Fatfty Tears of It ( I M O Y s ^
! Thesis (X$2@), thsivermty of flsbr&ska Mbrary#
h w ?o*dick, Aaapaaa PaXiee Systesm (X980), p. 120. fiuJffiC v.
! Streator ISO 111* 2 ^ (1800)* r m i m m t latter* thus describes localstate backgrounds as follows? «# * * * the police are everywhere the
!i agents-of the state In regard to matters' vital to the general welfare*
j , * * * Among the officers who psrfosm police functions sheriffs and
i constable# ar® pmmm fly regarded as having something more than local
;| character* the -explanation is to be found in the fact that, in the
j simple and uniform society for which these offices wore created, local
g m m w i with large p m m to- make regulations to fit needs w e urn**
necessary and, consequently, the law enforced by sheriffs and conetables
;i was almost entirely general law# On the other hand, circumstances sw~
;j rounding the establiitoeiit of urban polio# have served to obscure the
| fact that they are, in large measure, merely a imiXtipXioation of the
i; sheriff w & tmmtsbl© of the rural district* Historically the polio©
j haws com® in with the special provisions of government created t© meet
j the conditions ptmMmt to urban life* It i© m m that they are exs**
‘j posted to snfero© the ordinance© enacted by the local council to meet
■ local requirements. This, together with the fact that under our system
I] of administration sheriffs and constables are continued in the cities
; alongside their more numerous co-labOEWs, has given color to the idea
that the polio© are purely a local body* This distinction Is a ficii; fcious cm* Except that the sheriff and constable have retained their
historic position as officers of the courts in civil matters and that the
’I police enforce local ordinance®, ife© functions of the two bodiesare al~
j most identical*1* “Coa&rol of the Folic©,* in Cincinnati Conference for
i; good city Qovmrmmk (X90S), p. 160.
agent® a©t of the Eatmiolp^uLitgr
la m
tfc w jr a m
n m
hlr©» the% but. of the atat^ ehose
a m o u te .3,
®»»* «$$•*** lltUo tteubt that la «a « m la which b a w l e m bowm a n
acunioipalitiea, eoontlm and aiatea a m sere geographic 31am ineofa* ao
latsrooaras betnma tfc*» Is a o m m
ing is of g m a t i q s f U B M *
that similarity la peUes function­
Fartl«ila*ay is this so in a notmpolitae
m m itom poltoe f&eiame a w a e to one lurlcdictdem are o m m to all*
H»e hoot pkm Iw i of Im&mmmm is a 4M4M peH ^ of oaforoeDmt#
i&e p&ioe of Oak Wmfc w
i&goieueXr elasp 4mm m i&ee# hot If via®
m ^ W m » Hi adjacent Beruya «t* allowed to m
rm$m% to a Xar$e ea&*
%m % m$wpmm®& Im Oak itaafe fails* H%s nohHl% of ® & m %& to a m m
sMtemM* eateet p i m d by 4lflh9oao^i Ha Xo©al otiforowent* It la
fey thts rvwMWSii that oeffteiffr davteee of atete oootyol.ever looal fMfrltffl#
ore s M # i i
llil# eeafcrel
am be mmrtsfcaiaaetlgr
the police
Hi aoy eeee the oppolBtffirot of the ehief in
should rw»*la la the chief aaamtlve of that
B o m f it ia
a&viea&Xe that tfe* g m m m # chouM e^earaia© the power of rtssovtng chiefs
of Mlidi whenever such
are not en£orciii& state laws* this ©ewer
*fam*'tA WnAt
tmFKP ^malivia l&MifcSftrillWBlSfciBr tO
W1^ SXHDOlstt ft SnCC^SSOX**
^ ^ M ^ K '^ p w ip w p HW W |jP
^ J fflffW w W P T T
&h© *l&BimS
wrested abate* Xeeel asrfcoMgr la tasared* but at the sees tias pro**
vision is m de to- provide ext outlet threap which the abate* os a final
am oOHpol d>odioo©o to ito * H X la the latoxooto of the otato at
larip# Urn mempmamt authodfitgr o f tte ^cmmm to rossove laoel
n t m > jii:in i]iiS [in ,in n n ririr i i - r d ' n " l T ,H T L~ . T ~““ —
21 M o
pkm mm advocated hr
ISO 111^ ES8- (1890}*
Fflofeanor lettoa aoarly thirty
ego* Qtiotiagt #Xt x w i to m that the eOlatioii of the qpiosticm is,
to leave to the cities to appolat tiieir police ooersdsaicaiejr® or police
I chiefs t o
or mmtemmmm in the enforcement of state lavs
adgbt emsbitute a powerful wMp which fair localities wouM disregard.*'
As I^otoaor Hatton baa said* *tbs deep interest of the state at largo
in an tiCnest and efficient local police need not point unerringly to the
n e c e ss ity o f com plete c e n tra l c o n tro l* "2
In Urn final amalysia it t* possible to secure a capable and well-
| ^ualifled chief of poUco only if the levels of compensation &r® suf— .
fleiessb ly a ttra c tiv e *
Cte o f th e a o a t i ^ r t a n t and d if f i c u lt pf*9htos
facing Qmk Oeuniy la the financial imapaoity of most of the levels of
j g**smMB& to su pp ort
dsparbsamb#*. Mdlm in sosse In stan ces
| the meager ®$toy a a w M chief® nay be attributed to a emmmttg1a lack
| of
o f th e iii^ crtan ca o f tb s o f f ic e , in most eases low aal~
1 aid#® and the imposition of
duties Is the result of an inabil—
i t y to pay* fb o qpslity o f le a d e rsh ip found in w a y c « m a n iti# s and
chiefs# X would, heswiver, and X think this Is ftindaa^italt place it in
the poser of the gowmor to r m m m chiefs of poliooj not to appoint
m m mm in their place* but to i w e w tbsn whenever they are failing
to enforce 3 m that have boon passed by tbs state legislature, m d for
no ether season# That seems to wm to be funtesental* for w& are culti~
mting in this county a sidsapreatl disregard t o law because laws made
!i i n o n e place are enforced by official# elected in another place* and
!i officials elected lay people wfee are opponents of particular linos of
|| state policy*®
Ij m m A
<a»ft).» p*' m % *
%retoser Be Mm&* after a searching inquiry into the problems and
practices of gubernatorial staoml ewes to the occlusion that despite
the flexibility and prougftnm of this type of removal* it must be re~
g&rded only as an emergency weapon* "Active supervision to iaprenre «£**
ficlency rather than honesty Mist be acoo^lished by ethos* more direct,
positive M H H H U "
li Xdssertatlw,. I^partos^ of rolitical icitw, Xkoi&xaes&ern University
ij ( M g e s i , I M S ) , p . M S . *
^"Oc^rol of the Police*® in GfcueQimtiA
(1909), p* %m*
to, JfogAjate
pdlio© dapartsiHmtc own be attribute! m ssueh to the salary problem as to
luny ether totes?*
police i m
t&titX t o t o e eemee t o m compensator to ohiefo of
act be below #%500 per am»mf it Is difficult to see
*&&$ leadership
mm be
It is net tee tot* to say tot t o Mvsmseaent of police toeton*
leg &**
itoto «tota t o adoption of progressive principles
.d u u v a
tfkiNto Sfc JB; eMfcML
i f lf k *
-*a. ^0%
— *-
S >m
in the
—— •—. •••------
-M —-
seieeixiui, ssatossx, jsm* sesassaeetiem of eoiexs of pdiee#
as regards
ssleetlon, to-' pessait
tleyie of resldemee ##*1
»ato to tetsn is to Ignor© s laejor ea&as of toffeetiimmess*
x&s$&immntm for the afUoe of diisf ere ree^iito end
definite $*«&lftsatoM m m to bo *stoaj.tod t o edvaocwont of Isto
If tetaical
#ip#bip to a higher plena « U 1 It* * natter of foot.
But batter selection
processes sill acoegg&ieh little unleae elese attention is paid to the
trying problem of tenure.
Essential to effbotls* leadership are the im­
position of progneesiee jsrineiples of ranees!*
Wri&e tenure should not
bo insured through each dostees as «istll eerrtee* ransfaX should bo e«r>
dittaned br th« preference of chargee and the granting of hearing,
ly, e»sg>e*as*tion ooapwralAo to the importance of the office should be
3b pewit *«*& conditions to eelet in Cook County oitfo regard
to the polls* emswtlte 1» to ignore the tapertant
plays in the enfweesmt of the leer*
mOa ehiah leadership
tauupm ?
p m m m m mu m i m m® m m m m m
f w w m m l m A %im
ttewf tawlw
rwmmrnmt m & v m M m m until bta final mmpmmttm of tbe
*etUm £*m bta mrvim
vmX&m%tm0 mjssdrnml or rotir«®soitfc#
I M it bmmmm tmmmtngXr
is its
ttafc ef­
fort# aft-poUft#* iaprowisient *dXX prow futile unloss personnel is so*
pAaoe in ths p e M m p m p m *
m m m U * tag stateds m
Mm. tbs Oltlssm* Folios
taenia©® cMMNfemfeagr mrn clear that the jaanage-
aunt of piUsi personnel e d tbs i M M M m
of a polios force m m
ens «mi tbs m m thing. ^
A personnel sptw, based upon tl» principle of j&srlt on an indef­
inite tom conditioned upon good behavior and mbiefeatery msrvtm, is
tbs fmmdation of effeoitw pricing,
It is, tborofore, important at the
outset to eensldsr these lisdtations which taw h&apsred tbs Installation
of merit mymfemm in tbs various lewis of gownmeixb in the county.
3ta installation of ft civil service for the State Highway Mainte­
nance Folios Is asprasslar enjoined by statute*
Btta oiaplo^mont of such
maintenance police stall bo »d® by tta director of Public Works m d
Mldlngs without reference to civil serrlco.^ Although vigorous at(im), pp. 4?«4B*
JSStaftHftmi (xmneis Bar Association, 19SS), Git. m 3
teu « M O K
tsnpts hare bean nade is erery legislative assembly sines 1902 to bring
the Stats' Higheay MalntanaMw H U M under the eivil service, these «t»
taspts team always been blasted by tradition, inertia, and the force or
pSlittaal pressure.
fusKty-slgtib ysara ago, the state legislature turned
its attention to oanditlona of ssvtriee is the gsvemnsHt of Geek County
and provided fbsr ths ©atabliateie&t of tho otti! sarviae for tho county.1
But tbs set did ant apply to tbs elective s m s e s of sheriff, coroner,
m state's attorney, «r to tho eCfisere m eapleyeee of these officials.
3a otm acqaanee, in at t e s t four Important offices, formal writ praotioos era not t e n d and the personnel is subjested to the tutelage of
pXS^ tlpQil, tihffflU ffifffiflftOii
A flHMrfog of li^gliSstylw ottfltttMmxfeo
tH £M&10& pSSWIISEIBfflSl && tllOJp llH#
Itemfe jsmmr*1
®' Turn
pM@mAi0Dm t©
®u©‘faa Ci#iisSt
froat sine %© tism)
p o litie s.
XB9S haw© gipestaly r^isod
tmmi boo®
of morlt* systems In tim
Mm first* **» &ob to Hip&ai© tho Olvil
oMtiUNi to ostob&iah m©liril *tir9lee egradoaion
la 3tfM
IBagl OQtilmrfrlHiMf OH#
a M y»tartnHMB
a# Im
mlfl@liS.Ws o&d ssmeiBlelw ofV
fiooa)* to srub;j«ct apftiAoxigito to offlooo mo# pmttilmm to eoHpoit,ti*»
m to
W m w m r* tMo oof #14 m t wmg&m all c&ttca to pmtiM for oiviA ©mr**
©ieo* 1M» w k optloooA mttfe ©ach of M m eiUoo.
^iiee^ iiivvuveaavesoveaiiViaeeMiaeuiaevvewwwtsoWieewsasOeaweMWHaaeaeaEaMapewwuwaevewiet^^
Ci^3X*)9 P* 3i43*#
®It to mom aocmsmt© to ©«^ that tirn
tesm siot hrnm re<ta<sod
tiooo y%0 inoreoating oo^XssKtty o f potioo iwMric ha# t&®mmm& Mm pmhlm*
Iogialatiofi Dim
smolitimrr Mmm&i ^itch aad by Ttildi
m m of t^e slifftoulti##
bo tram# out#
Sla^a or XUlnoio ( W ) lPj>e 8S-s8?#
-152lb©' m m m d m % $ comsstily Ismm urn tlm Urn and police bear# met of
W ,
mppllm m M m title indicate© only to fir© m d pelloo d©parfcs*©nts*
S t o m W i tte act %» mam Xlis&ied In it© ©cop© Inasmxch m Mm applica­
tion of Mm met im wm%&lot## to cities ©Hhit* « popalotioo
MLm ©f f#Q6CMK)@#000«^ fte act $rteUg*e that "Such board of fir© and
polio© ©omssdseiooer© © M l appoint all officers and Mstera of Hi© fir©
and police departments of mush
f m m to m m m and suspend, with
certain Xttftte&tats later discussed, m m eXm eonfemd m the board#
Ho provisions m m incXudeei in the m& $ hmmrn$ grating to ouch board©
M m authority of cXasstfic&ttots m d Mm- Ills© m was ecmfexrod. m civil
mrvlm emMjmXmma fey Hi© act of IIS* fir© wad polio© boards me
primarily recrettasist and disetpXinary bodies* A© In the ©as© of th©
m % of IMS, the mat of XB0& did not m$$&m cities to establish boards
and poUcs® ooteUsioners#
*7te ©lector© of any city of the population
herein described May adopt the proiisicns of this met,” roads the act*g
It should be noted tee© Mist © ateLcdpalitgr may accept the provisions
of sitter as* or tte otter of the two sets# fte act of IMS may b© ©ot**»
altered as Hs# gsstmral d i d service act, tte m % of 1903 as cm© hav­
ing special m i m m m to polio© and fir© tepsrtents of imutieipaXitlea*
fm mmx&mnta, am in X9Mff the other in 1BB3, ham enlarged the
original mope of the act of 190S# In 1927, incorporated towns witMn
M m m m pepuX^%tm br&eteb m m permitted to ©dept the provisions of
Ibid* (1903), pm 97# the title of the mot is *■#» Act to provide
for the *f$*iiK*aMt!fc of * board of fir© and police ©oamdteteera 1n all
cities of this Stmt© having a population of not loss than 7,000 nor mve
than 200,000 and prescribing the powers and duties of such board#”
2Ibtd.. Sea. 4.
(ISOS), j>* 300, Seo. 30.
W l * in X©$$, Tillages idttxia t o same population range (7,GOO-
SNfff.OOO) imp® alee included*^ M
tie® law read* at present, a board of
Hr* and polio® eotosstemi mey b® organtoci in a*y oily, t&m or vil­
lage within the tor® population brackets*
Bmmta Itobatto*, h m m m * hmm greatly hmpmm& a more universal
sototoo* of the aot* t o stab* tor do®* not Mqoif* maMeips&tito to
©stubXto sto board* a* im fern already indicated* 1b® apticna is Hsroly
•StttarMMl m mmU&pt&XUm to estotisb too*
tn ®o®t mmmtttrn polite
ioal fmmm mm oonatot&y alert to ttern need of resisting m p m m in t o
dtootto of merit praobtos, portimto-ly in regard to the pelie©*^ in
this t o saving set of MW t o gtwtly «QNNSit«d osqMttlM, for the
m t respires tot at toot SO par « t of t o legal rota* oast at th*
tot, preceding,. general city ototien m a t petition before th© proposal
may b* stoitod at th© iwt general etty ©tottou®
It is- not strange,
therefore, that there are toortot pips in the adoption of formal merit
practice® nithin mnioipalitios in -to eosmty* Of tMead^one sKznlotpal-*
itie* hming a p«f>utoto of olor 7,(XX) only to!?* too adopted t o
provlataEUi of th® fir* and polio© board sot of ISOS ©r t o clviX senioe
act of 169$• fo this number m et be added the stxiy^mlm* m&cdpelitte*
(vm), p* S8S| ibid, (29S&), p» £27*
%©otnt troabloa in C^lwst City Indicate t o resistance encountered
in a good mmy w m b b SM m * .After a t o year straggle to adopt t o fir*
and polio© board m % mlmpttm m m U m i l y approved at the poll© in 19$?*
pvmmMMsm ***# finally brought agatot t o mayor to coiapel t o
agipeMMitt of a board* See= t
1988), p. Bj
also t o issue of MagHfto <3S$9J7¥rior^
JSUl^^iS (1919), p# $70«
%*©** m Chisago* OMeai© Heights, Otoro, Elgin, Ewasto, ha
Grange, JOj m m x I Park, Forest Parle, isaym*, Oak Park, Elver Forest, fcilaette*
under & population of 7,000 which m m preclude fwm adopting formal
merit ayetema* to*
of t o ninety m m d p i l police do-
partenta a m unprovided t o f u m a merit systems. t o situation 1*
one -*Mob re<plree the adoption of eitor one or t o otto of t o act*
at least im ell n»mleipaXitlefl tore t o 5,000 population ranged
t o pe&im of to- Chicago fork Metrleb, t o Sanitoy District of
CMoago t o t o Forest
Wrmmnm S ta to a t of Cook C otoy, e l l to s t ©fiXee
by vtrto of c&vlX twito*
Civil service w
eag© Park Msfcrlefc t o J M f t t o e
t o
etoblished to t o Chi-
district m u e e M O i t o t * *
An a c t
of %mx respires tot -ell o m o o e t o ptoses of «^Xop«to in t o san­
itary district "toll be totofled t o filled in t o «*mer hereinafter
prtoto tor***3 t o forest pmmmm^ rmg&m m m placed under civil
service la
t o state togtototor* t o to* no provision for t o
dviX service in otto epHsdal district**. As regsrto park district*,
t o emnpte, t o % m permits civil service toy if' t o park district
*abt&tos 150,OCX) Itobibtos*^ tt-da aatotoladly' etoods* to® eon*
sider&tion the toaty^to otor park districts in t o county*
\ecse Bill Ho.* 174 m m before the Ceoraittee <m Civil Service to
t o Illinois Assembly retire* all cities, teen*, m& villages between
5,000 m d 200,000 populatim %m adopt the fine end police eOB&siaeiensr
civil service cot v&tbto itstrlgr days* At the present -toting the out­
look is not encouraging* Tkm® far t o bill has t o received very favor­
able cmeiteatic^*
zm&ntA9 MmauAJOaMim C l a s s ) , c h . i d s , s * < » , s s w w , s a x .
I M 4 -. Cn, 42, See* 340 (1).
*Ibtd.. Ch. 105, 3«o* 981. It should be said hare that the Cl'rtl
SetocsOmsdssim m Cook County also controls merit practices in t o
forest f m m m m District* It should be noted, however, tot t o legis­
lature to Iflll immltltA t o forest Freserve Msfcrtoi to tosblish t o
civil service*
g 3 M a , . Ch. 105, See. 881.
iirA lir W m NW
U Pw w
▼ **1^88*^ “
From the foregoing discussion, it is apparent that in the county, by
and large, save for the uncertain safeguards in the twelve cities and vil­
lages and in the three special districts with formal merit systems, police
personnel is subject to the usual practices of spoils politics*
has stated with regard to a similar situation in Texas:
As Cooper
"This indictment
applies with full force to the police service, for there is a general be­
lief that no particular qualifications are necessary for the exercise of
the duties of an officer and that, consequently, no harm can result from
frequent overturns of the police personnel.
The effects of an insecure
personnel subject to the vicissitudes of changing political control is
self-evident* Political control throttles enforcement* Ho long-term
plans with regard to traffic planning, crime prevention or crime repres­
sion can be attempted.
Personnel is subjected to the tutelage of those
forces in control. As a general rule, merit practices have not proceeded
beyond the stage of civil service reform. Most encouraging, however, is
the trend toward a more wide acceptance of the principles of the merit
system and the installation of agencies capable of affecting competent
personnel controls.
A final factor as regards personnel should be considered before at­
tention is directed to standards of police service. There are dangers
that, even in those communities which have provided formal merit systems,
the police may not be as fully protected as it may appear. Some years
ago (1905) the Supreme Court of Illinois in the case of Peter Moon v.
The Mavor et al held that "The office of police patrolman or policeman,
to have a legal existence, must be created by ordinance, and It cannot
^Municipal Police Administration in Texas (1958), p. 155.
-ise1mi oraotod by ag*point*a©rit ©f m liMnatoiit fcgr t&© ®*pm aud confiresatiaB
by tho «o»acli# nor fcy Its© m i op$&©pJrtu&ti©« of ooney to pay tho aattote* or
of tb» inetiitonb**^ fit* £&X Harm of this to*
Olttlon « m brought to light in. *©«®sit ncmiha fcy the tflat&omwm that a
mflrifrwy of yMa^|^r
111 tfe# Q O S %
13©t CiPBBtOd the
OfffOQ $£
iaUMI ^ Jg a f l B t
Shore are * ember of important points of interest teioh enter into
• diaouselan of police M n l » .
Among these u t tee also of the polios
mstI tee distribution of
polio* strength, tee composition of
tea various fareas, (rae^sMsttos standards, and tenure.
the relationship
between personnel and tee <yiailty of polios servie* porftrewed indicate*
the -vital. inportanee of these factors.
Becwnee of tbo foot that polislag in Cook Oetmty la prorated among
a large amber of independently organised and controlled polios depart*
aatte, it is important at tbo eateet to assadae in dose detail tee witing strength of the various dwpartawwte.
Important bearing on parfwaanoe,
a i m of a department bee an
The smaller tee departeerst, usually
the leas tee dsportBont is able to perfom apeeiaiiaed services and
functions M v i n d of wdW*«»day enfOreaaeBt and the more frequently
tee dapartoant want depend upon other agencies
*$M H I . 4 1 ( 1 B 0 S ) .
About too years see ia Decatur, Illinois, tee fire and police hoard
set w adopted by the city. At tee tins of adoption the entire polioe
depertamnt was fired and a new fares selected on a civil aereiee boats.
f l j fflffltifiW8MSI Justified m tl*o gpma&l ttofc th© ©ffim of p©licess&& had
wwm? boon crmted* W m m m of this mttmteim m mm&m of ®xmidpaXlti©s
In -ISm oooatgr (taseltKtag $ayw5*ad# Forost tefe ®ra4 ElwroSto} possod or-
dlaanees providing for the office of peHeaaan. Sea thrift nViITTTTS1T.
m i (Bevenber, ISS3), pp. 8, 12} alee tee JeouarjMfebreary issue (19SS),
H t h on© or two sacceptiona hereto noted# the state constitution and
state lass are silent as to the naa&er of polios that governing waits
most eopperfc* Fall p o m * ham tmm conforrod on zamlclpalltlso In the
doterislimilon of Shat police *toOJgth Is required, m s waeridiag act of
1$®8# is particular, p w n M m that mslcsdpalltlos m
"regulate the
police of the oitr «* vll&a«t and pass and cmforco ell nseessary polios
ordinances,"1 W m m m r# saialolpaitlas ess «^oisi«4 to "pi^eoribe the
duties end po«i*s of a superintendent of police, poUeeman# and watch*
asa*"^ mth regard to the msfcm of deputy sheriffs* the Owwtltotloa
requires that this
Ini detes^toeKl t^r rule of the Circuit
Ce*rt# to he entered of remd* sad their oo^snseticxu shall bo deterallied hr m e County »mrtU** Poser* conferred on the various special
district authorities are aiMlur to those granted to the Ssmibsay &&*»>
trlct enthoritiea who may "gsreseribe the duties sad fl& the eoi^ensatloo
of slil offices *»yp^ OB^plo^sss•
ms t
of state hfijjhttffiy
poK.iot*Is regulated dlrsctl^' br the
^ Oe$wlSblss:ere the
polios officers the iws&er of wfetoh Is determined on a population
basis,6 is of t o a m r 1# l$$i# the distribution of pc&iee among the
fyi m e cerotF ass as foils*®*
nf rntwaf ( m n , p, m .
fim©# sr*
taflff fff
to tfa a^tarr Mgtrict of Chicago (1922),
P« Sip
^Fsr eiwyitple# bjr ths act of %&%$, tho Bopertmnt of Public Work® and
Buildings m m authorised to appoint %ot to m m m d 100 person® as stats
highw& matoienanoe polios# as tfcay era from time to time respired*1’
iOEjaOUtitete a®88>» **• 888*
6Conatitutlan of 1870, Art. 71, Sm b . 21, 84.
m . . &
Qoak Couatar
toep ^
O itr e f Chicago
OS other tBmdoliM^ritfoe
the CShioa^©. Fa*% D istrict
31 other p e d istr ic ts
SOodtefy Id etrio t
m e fooent rresespee iaystrtct
ii4 jg-t^Bwifcy ife^partaeoot o f the SSteerlff*e
o ffic e
m e t
jif e d b h h d ib ttB k
lllm « iM f c A .A J L
^m e
W ^m M M
A m h
State Highway iialatam e* p olice
e!mie ia the »|)|5s^dxl5®8it® so^>@f nito &|3$»©ar to be ®i©j?ei8iog;
the arnmorlii©® of their office*
fnl^eoll ggStiftiM&r lH iippP9iP^nin# *jlw g&SiOllir 09^10$ ISmS! bH#
ttwwPt.^iiWBgtflwMi ©# im*!4iPMs Fmn&ilimm eemm the
_. Ik^ULlt^ Of
state poMo© 1 % of ensure**
l^gi offlee«
important et*a*wt«rlitlo of
the ghee* dlfitarlbTitimi Inddeotes that 3? per cent of ife® polio*
operating In the county «f» «niel|«X pe&loo# 1 1 per cent are special
distriet vMSUbBM^ end the a w d M a g * per coot ***o tt* eenefcafclea* aher-
iff1a 0*|miles m l state hdghway naimt©nar<ra pea&oo* mss sidle the
state panne and the Inpeetmt emm%tt&i&m$iX effim m of sheriff and
constable sd#t ^ p i r as the prtaa agem&es of ©nifcremmt* in tema
of the isse&sr of polio© In m e ecmn%r they are a nsgli$lbl* element*
Use p^mseidaewt otreegit* of the leaaiotpal polio© m& the pc&ie*
of m e apeelal disiriet departments loads to a ©lose investigation as
to the lattetdo& strength of those w t e s depsrtmite* lb* following
tehle which ie a listing of Miioipal police poE^aasnel
isMmftm m e dietritoaiici* of police*
?ShljB 4
ip y .w
fter 100.060
0 .7 m
I t la oppam nt, tbm w Sm m , ttmtb tbo bulk o f aunieipal po&ies (S,?65)
openitoa w ttiita «tw iS sd ta o f Ohleago, o a t tb o t ttw oi#il5jp«nin* otfcor
48|SM^6BWi4B 8®pl4Sgr OCOO 000 |SOltO0* 10MB&
t® tbtfr
tltofrtb^&O&o OS the m
Si6@M6HPI^toS t0
pflSUtoOs 888$ ap » y y *»7— «y *y 78 pof ooat fBfl® flfl^loyod in t£ut 17 auft&ot*
jpaXttio® tev&og m
of m sr 10*000# 2k* #io ¥8 mmioip&Xite®
of tear 20*000 jjtipulst&<xt# tero « m «ae% 274 $&Xtot or m o w o g o
SlPBB^Hl Of12#fff tt$$B5 ttefiH® pOl&O®# ft*® ppQfolMPfr ||$f
fttresFMth in ^»wte CiOoiitsr* thG^£o&&m to otdiaHHOLsf t&to QGcioom of th® i?
SSmiC&p&Xltjiea Of < W JP^yyP# M l OPTO 00$ MB% OtT OOtOW* l£m$ &fi®
^ k 4 ^ o jo H
A & J l >OkJik
.M a u iiU iM
fU M L^J»
d S A jk iH i
W & ’-kJAk
***&&.&** tMSS^OWOd ili thtt IfflflOSSP EOO0lO&i0Si &X&&&0 OTO Of IXt&lO $MlO8?tfiS0CP*
j ^ w PW H H W oP
^tPM»4WBWWIyoW<|y T ^ t i P
^ w w ^ t HF
Oo tls® otemisr* In tteo
" f ill*#W"W#Wsr
p m p o im
"W pi^W y
•fft* s r y i o i r
^ i* n « i— _ . -. w
©fte* & ®tgs#o otfioer late
ter tte brus&t of p & M m m mmmftmmi W ter teg® teortexx$itf & te»
iiMttitiitfWMatMfcganrwtonlIni14<fe«» $1811$® €0
iP^ T f f r P P ftp ^ P ^ v f fiP P v P tl^ lP p A P r w ^ R jy
Ip d A ffairs*
w T ?F P y
***** liM^^JUllMiX* A reSOOOS^LllW
7W w k^w *w ™
tteo t e p i «itb tt» <&*tgr of
fb» fo o t t t a t
s«^eijp(& litea t e o «lopartomt®
«te& o m p o t e r sIk poilteM o to m ig fo rte it rosooa
t&o o^U yar
tewtaoto teo such a «tt£fte&t ti^o Ib M a t i n g t&© moMXtty of
In Hi® panit districts a similar situation also odsts. Of the 391
pte police, 791 are «®plpy*xi la the Chicago Park Bisitet. ^me the
tmtelxig 80 park are scattered tens 41 other districts* or an
average of few policemen per park district*
te» aphasia «te $ e m t e r a t e miter of teller departaiiente ere*
tee m if^ortant problem of reserve strength# teng tel te U e r depart­
ments, a$$stetel*2$r 43 per <*mb of persetel la engaged in traffic activ­
ities, tel of tills pevesteoe teat te*4hlte era assplcsred m saoterieed
petrols# M
the traffic asm seldom ha relied upon en»
aapt In these eemeanitiee idiioh equip thetr traffic emits aitli radio#
&«fai«H3 to %bni' factor of iicp^cea^Mihfrti
i® the further prOhlee that a
chief mti prorate his force to give temt^fbor tern ssrtes# In the
of wi» ift<s^wMH>7 fjflfi Air Midtef* ooasibllities of retaijtinse ad*
e»iiiitei rmssrse® at the station heece ere not
0ms empale
eUl indicate te mammm that aaurfe he used setetes tel the eonae-
*mmmm tech aims* * sates of might fcoldNapi in m i miioipallty
compelled tel chief to ate#* l w of his floe man to the night shift#
tel fifth mm mm assigned to traffic daring the d^r* tetng his teams*
fte te static®* tel caretaker at tea telase
«»» placed in charge
of tea station# tt a ties tec the f m *ss not available the ornately
bank mm held ®p* the piasters escaplog before the local police sere in
a position to puneas* teesarenoes such as this point to the reasons for
the steady rise of srertemt $s*&i©% bank goate tel other private tel
^ai^publle a§*te*s* In sens m t e t e i the 2te I eitisenry lock sore
to tern agencies tea to teft* esgoltey constituted polies for prtee*
fbo situ ation faslng thm m m tt& r d&p&ptemsfta pin® the growing need
for in te r -c ity poOLlolug wore important emmm basking s ^ p s t s for ad­
d ition s to. ab«*i£fo* personnel .watt the personnel o f the sta te highway
maintenance p o lice. At tha $r«*»eat tio e , howovwr, the county *»• reeefaed
a point o f
In tt« gpfowfch in ohfafe prisaisy depends®!*!# must
bo pieced upon a congregation o f taunldpal Oepartssento, which in wm?
instances mm m% eofttaM lftatatp nod upon growing; oemnty «sd state
egenoie# whins®* mm not m y et o f su fficien t else to offOr the special--
An. in ether M i l of primte
public eerwiee, eosgMwmttea in
t# o footer of greet Isspertene# in dotemlnlng, the qualify
af personnel
the general offsotiwoow of tho police unit*
Tfojfr^pb ere gooortlJj^ below {fp®lWin Ih i eositty are usu­
a lly these in ufoi-ob
^4^. to ion
fmwo mm long*
'$d^t2wsMi& Ooufet^ oosapooostiofi coo^mmbXo to the iwportonoe of the police
offlow la
essential attribute
ultimate polio© effectiveness*
In a i t i # of pelioo aOssdniatmtion cor^iderable caution isusi bo
oeploywl in noteig ocwgpwmtic® alone
o saea&e of eoopning a gim®
depariBsent with others# - ®&mv%X factors interimo# For 000 thing the
amount of solely paid la eoadltionad in no mm&£ degree by the fimmeisl
resources of the individual p » » ^ units* Ferfcieularay in the county,
*140 tw kM oo in population in the various ooooraltioo necessarily
laaJc© for considerable ddffbroaooo in salaries. I&wmmr tb# dissimilar­
ity in functions performed may «@ mt for 41itm m m m . tkmm to w y
little in ocwtsatmbetween tbs dattoo of a sanitary district guard end
these poliimon etiaebed to the riot squad of a largo city. Again, tho
fact th at tm gammmuxtm my pay identical salaries, say at 40*600 a
year, toes not indicate th at pay oeedtttena asm identical. Ztiam
a t m m m & t g r
a jwtttOtam my be required to aerie a twalwe-iioiir sh ift on «
smm day * mete basis, in mother «tfy m eightr-hour sh ift on a &i*
a wSte basis, to r th is reason, I t la tnpspicsil not only to emeidan
owpenaatlon p«14 but to neigh ewapenwUsw by the faster of wrk bouse.
W H »
5 preo«*t» a snswasy of average mlartoe of certain r m h m d
flto pceitlone to the ninety m m i x & p s X police dspmtamto.1
jwutofttoa mugs* I n m bean emtoyto to efa©lt^
dtoatad to too table toe
adjusted aatoay paid,
actual aafcusy paSd,
to h * m to.
<am the ammge
toe latter to atoply a wstoUTO fl«w»
designed to reduce salary totals to a a m a m basis.
toe sm&er of sort­
ing ho« m far the y e w toe tosa w e d aa a toato of amputation. •t o m
toto can to ascertained toe per tour wage earned, %
wjlUplytag thto
by forty-eight (the forty-eight tour a malt is a fair and Just eo*&
toto) toe adjusted «ee&y and yearly eelmy oan
to asaartataad.
bills pawed by the m i a o l s legislature to 1SS7 toll t o w m
layartant toartog on toe atony situation retottse to A r m e n and paUcea » . too tott pawas*ibto tontom mgee Iter n m n to all eittoa, toms,
and tallages twtaag a population tern 10,000 to 1S0,0Q0 Itotoitotos, toe
ottor toll prescribing tastam salaries tor jtattoawn of wateipalitfe*
tototo toe earn toputotlon mage, toe MmJlUMtem (1SS7), pp. toto
<*• *4ttto m e t o m to toe natter of
h r n n r . pending
totemtoeUcQ ef the eanetitatioMility of toe statutes by the Ifcgsrwe
Qmrt of nitaeia. to 1888, to toe Important decision of fmato v. attr
^fiiStrtBirraWitil * ® *11* S44 { U H ) , tie court upSaaM the ocStAtufcicastMtr at toe tstsOmmm g ® law for ftomeo. tfette no decision toe b w »
handed t o m with refamnae to toe tatotow wage tow fur p d U m e m u toubbl a m toe tojwaaa tourt tall uphold this lor. too law ealla f » toe
fteiltotaw salary m a g m t to wntolpelitle® hstang a poputo«Lar« of 10,000
or m m Into lot* t o m *8,00©, tatamsi salary SaS0,0G p m neeth* to masieinOittoe towtog a pepletian t o m 2S,OOf) to ISO.OOCi, atotoim aalary
H7S^>0 per atoto* apt d d poliee m e not itoluded, toe toes of aiiaflte (1997), p* 844.
nr— n- c-™»
sco » M % a o o
OWMP 100,000
User t#8sl* iiiteetei
« 1 ,988
£ »
i,6M .
$ m
i,i8 S
i >
§M$mm of its®
ppeteeB im. tb® ee&iitgf# SSw i pMtelnMi ©©anttt&t® tis® fsasje®* iwticss. of
tlw* pdil®* parratefc* It ia of particmMr £at«ireftt to te«rwa vM&nttor*®
Ss tfe®3fcf
th®®® 3PM3^^ ffrOB
<d©Wfi t® ||2*j|4i&0*
4^ ,
SSk^l^SflOSISOS£ te^W@^©3!*j| HSP® tb®
b§f *M Ofl^OTH #& 4tt|$tlVt®cl
|n fj®$#glt$®® H#
In th® §&*eii
|n H m %&*$$$&
m p&tmlmm in t e H M M M
to * $$Jt&sn*tei^ m ^ i n g
mete* u ttii vm& l& tti* M m *££# 3fo m i ^POTstti**© tln» ®ff i® *dtt**
w& t e r to Mm ^mmrsX stfmmm
out oi^panemtlM* let p H |
«f & tetpwt&tfKfc h w & wmk stetdte*
In ® t e r In’wte af p R m w s n t wiattos^ w e sO^o to be temsi* itete
ttfbl® it
tteter tt* fsftl mm
psM to tho
1 W
V V aW eH P
fat &hMI m *m «** **#
ta&«lte& ®&tteifc
in QfejHWIftt Ste®!#' fcfo® xMaaaMWXKtfctcja aaftaaaferafflaafoBflwat of
'W 'W l f f
Rji^wFSwWilffl^eW flFi
*1W1 w w i t x *
j^ im i io o m * w
'ip "
t e frnm rooster m & M * m or m g m t r m % o m & Qr%mtfmii®m$ %mm mm**
tefit%ste M m Wtm*
fgfla&a 0
Wfaw at Pertain FttUae touiUatm lay
Stnt® IB-iybnew
SaBltesy MxtMUrt.
* ■ * 1 lTWWW'W
08SM88 **»* »k«*SP***
0«J®F ftBriS MxtartOt*
i&tfe ibo mtmpMm. o f
m m
mm pmte dtottftoto* osa&*
t e r a i M l e t o t e I ® mmI p $ t e t i a & t o t o u O t
g*a3gyytf.^ *«8$«&r Ty» |ge30a8P®&
in Ot$3®P
%B sa^soo*
i t «U& b# w t o i
•See of tte Usatenan&a ho&te tba taapsm«y mode e£ senior
®|lt§ ill®
SMWN&tir® t®#!? tftMtffr %fo& p&CttfiJ©
if Og£ flOBSSglt fSWfr
teSteT toOB&O Of &b®
f*Mm Wmpm%mm% *$te§£ tmk m% t§» top of the
list* toote
pg?ti80to3&+ tor to Hie pt^MM%im im&fcmU totor OOjftft* in tto pplft*
gpsmp® outer $j-0O& s H i l ^ illowep^to too®®** m $ m & emd
m&lmtm g*tn& to t t * t o g ooMUag to r® «Moh
owaofctee oasto! ip e rti to
a fmaonplKNr teP te r • mmm t e r wmk*
o f mspmm&t&m m& msmkog to r ® im
tfm t
tototete1a 0m&*
%$ta JAM**
0tow® 3 W | in p m M m & m * tepwtot eto^o® to®
itoitoSte £® Mtoito* tette t o or® of too t o t o pe&tc®
& ter
®si$r tun t o * off
■per w itb pptar to 3$S§« t o r m $k t m m t o o hmm p o ta to to o ijte to r®
m ter# wttfr «
ter off per note# 3& m M M m
tetew gb So $ t o t o o t o fto r#
M o tto rtto #
* ftftoa ter**ito4«i
washed twelve hours a t e r with on© t e r o f f » month* A t present t o r s
t o o t o o reduced to ei^ h t Kith provision for every eighth tep off* Oak
to lt t o to u te d wtefc hours to fto g to m a meek with a n f t o tay vaca­
tion per pear* test so on* Chicago t o Emmtxm rmk at the top in the
favorable hours, leave granted, t o In t o salary elteto*
t e t o t o r
t e n u r e .
A s
w e
t o a t e p i a t o
l a m
t o m t o t o
i n d i c a t e d i n a
o v e r s h o u l d n o t h e
u s e d a s
s t t o a t o
r r e w l e o s
i s a
c h a p t e r ,
gmm o f p e H t e
i w a s o t o O y
w h i l e
a s s u r e d
r v p i d
e f t o t t v s n e s s ,
t u r n -
I t i s
w o *
4m itoter true t o t tepatosnte in which tenure is short personnel are
totem toe to operate with wgr great degree of ©fnoieney*3* te quote
fto a recently dtmatsto officer*
*te tot, after htoni served for
t o years, 1 say have mastered all t o Ints&eaotes of the offloe t o
toll then be qualified • * * « to toe room t o a successor as isuio^painted with the teties of the office as 1 was *ftw i appointed.*M
t o r e
t o
a p p e a r s m
l e n g t h o f
u s u a l l y t o
i n
e u r a t e r e c t o s
s t a n c e s
t m m o
w a y
o f
r e l i a b l e
I n
h e s i t a n t
r e c o r d s
t o e
i n
a b s e n c e o f p u b l i c r e p o r t s
t o l o n g
p o l i o s d e p a r t m e n t
S h i f t
i n t h e
k e p t
t o m
t e r t o r
t o g a t o r
t o
t o
h a m
d e g r e e
i n t e r m t t e n *
o n e mmt d e p e n d
p r o t o
n a r r o w s
o f d u b i o u s
t o
c o n d i t i o n s
H e l d
o f
o f
m a i n t a i n a©-*
I n m o s t
u p o n
i n rna^r w m m s i U m a r e
© t o t e m ®
o f p o l i t i c a l a t t a c k ,
i l y
b a l a n c e
l o ®
o f t h e i t aa n i c ip a l c m s n e i A o r
%Up*m pp. 42—43.
o f
e t o e r
p o H t l e a X
t o
l i m s t l g & t i e n *
f o r t h e c h i e f o r
t o
o r a l
t o n e *
t e r n I n o f !%m o l t o r
a s
a c c u r a c y
a c c u r a t e d a t a
a u t h o r i t i e s t o
t o o a e i a g
ham i n d l o a t o d p r o t o u s l y ,
c o n d u c i v e
w i t h t o
A t t o p b e
a r e m i
t e r i x i f t e t o d w i #
A s w e
e s e t o a i M n g
g m i m n m e A . *
f a i l u r e *
a r e
o f
p o w e r o r
b o a r d r e s u l t s
i n
c h a n g e
h i s wm+
n o t
t o
a n d © r d l map**
i n t h e
t h e d t t o a s & L
o r
e o r ^ l e a e t e rn o *
%im of «t
, i f m% t o m M m feme*
of oppotntosai end dtoteto although a ®ood oner disERto*
eleettwtm tod to
without mtooooo to toot&on
to t o t o poXim ptooo, mmftod to
tooor w w i t o
foreo of t o cite
00 t o i m l diasAtoi of tout matolf t o
1 9m
tools t o t o t o * m h o l t o t o m m
*#tm& t o f f m
eon# in
* m r ir
with t o to to S to aaw aiM i t to
H m
t o o -to $m% m gtmoe t o thorn i s
t o tor
I t o t o site
ootto m t o
stooge t o i is
to s
if t o
tone* t o ps»»
itot If
In the
i m o i r to#* % ^ M m m m in 000 of t o
tote *1*8 #11 or fom*
itoio ootoo% 11
to p p m o i as la th e lo o t oomo yea#**
m m t o #C v to o i« o « f
in wo tried to f e w too# t o t o
M t i l M
*mmm? X, 3 9 8 8
l$r m to to of ©or
Wtf&mthorn tam m
immm of ti&gmty
$M mtiBrnftmd %
m otot&iorsr rooiriationo m to
tia» $ma? pme limitation
m tbm «H«riff
W m MaoifX** \pmmm®8&+ mm&Sto m to p m m m A
tmmw* is %tm
msmMt*m M0msfr MUso Hogmrtmmzfo for tbm
tm $m m parted m m *m p te t to mm M M ig Mm&mm *»$©* SM m m
'4l«etl8Bfg®6 fT@& #1© fW$© 00 OH
of $$ ffOT JM*} or
Ao toatcotw l i& am
«aw^>tod of tlw
at «b» a£fiel«2s of ti»
« m o e , '86 of tho UaO 88818800'on tte foooo «o of ttamwjr i, 3888# 8 m m
Wtmmroorogi is ^ M [-
00 to tts©
Bsmom fres
IfffTfiTi ©iHPTi©© flMP IMff© thrift fyfj^vt
oh tis©
Soiisr© of ©tot® M ^N—
in <$$$0 oosistrj# ini^'iwyton# of toESjHw to to te© <2^»
f0O®t tlMI J&lMMti&flMft
©loOtiOEl %M
©is looTt oosootoos ifflwR soro lot
$$&jffl$ tholr
HH fiMOO 00* ISOM o£MlOi W «**• #00114 SiiM It* MSitfS lOOg fOSSSF© 40
u t^ k ^ M L
j M H k t f c —*■
S W * » .ia iiltty if li* H
a fa .&cu
iMRmily m m m t & in m m * M m m
*ftii iifi-fffti'-^t
in'll M* IW itlhrB i8fM-*Hl_
3 & & fe jS
®W A f e i t .i t t t
l&otr&ot* t$m $<mmt f m m m m $Js$rtot
mm I tit* B o n ita ^ i i s t r t o t * t m m m i s U m % m m m p m k tiUtriQt® hiagso
psr&morlJ^r ho t e l o io o s ta m i m m *
M«t«iois for M
1^ % m & m o f tfc© M
ilatn moo
t w ip
tmmm mm
i piot%
I t a i m io M M f m t i r c i t i w o f p ^ io o pmmmmtl in ^
o o m H i aomXuwtos® m & b® $mmm+
mm pmmmm$k p o t e o
tmm&X mm&% |m m M m m mm m m ^©t
iwyftwr of
m m * * * *#. m
w n * .*#**♦ m
1^4 * * * * * «
i$@$ * * * * * *
U M ******
ippHrtont t m m m b m m
Im m m to %tm tmhm&m of
to h&$m mm imjm&tw of
t§f yfftHhftf.
yt ^ooro
w m * # * ♦ * *m
m m *•«••• m
3MS * * * * * * 3®
m m «***«•$£
1061 * * * * * * ,gS
m i
poltc© depertaenia -within the civil service*
Tim distribution of police
p m r n m s H indicates a melmd
of police strength among
ttso various agencies m l a dependem© in e good
aepertwsrts *d.ob oxwwMble t» perfo*M the m n
Instances on minor
Important epeoialleed
Qaaptmeafcton and eaactitiion* of *ark b m
asuch nsmt
SM.»» ewtotaad eith the rapid tnasumur in
tee net town
omOm/lm to
tm in-
mb ? dpparbswrta,
attracting to the emrviee recsrulte of high
type. Stan th* A w n data# it tngr he oetwiuded that the majority of
govtMaenta sossaMms Is the
4ose tbs gutetor of
used to lisscows mass stales* So rs**
tours# Avid to
gtofytatr ssctarities
ftmrtMwttm wtf Fmrrr* a£ ftwa. aerit Ag«ncun
In those ^pvortcsen'tal s§|©iictes vhldfc twos fonmal jaerlt eysfee©®# the
responsltdlitdes for persm^l management ere vested in civil service
cosslssioss or boards of firs m l polios ocraiasicmera# In other gov-
ovmmtsSL untie# promtimm m
to personnel activities mre usually 01-*
rooted fey councils or boards# although In the saamgor govaiWB&ent sas*iet~
2® the agendas
not having formal aertt systems# regulation of jsoliee psssaimta scm*
iim m resides tn Use myer or preetdsafii# osoietlses In the hoard or coun­
mmtfcsm In m
tossr oewtti©© of the hmm I or ossmdl teraa as the
•‘polios hoard.11 64140% towear* is regulation eo^dtted to the chief*
On occasion tie most submit the tmse of prospective recruit®, and to some
extant to is given diseipXimry authority.
But es * rals portlsm inter*
t o e s x in most of the eoomigAtae reduce easmutli^ control to a point
at ahloh » chief* s authority cannot to eosssttorsd as »«issciid.v©#M
to tom now to a e m l t o f t t o of the fom al s e rit agencies* noting
ISmt th e statu to ry pawiolims as to organisation# pernors* and functions.
fh© act of 1B6S pmvidtog' tor tto civil service to cities requires
that the Jft&yortoall agmoini t ome ncrscma ©ho ftHaii to tmmsp as the
civil service
cmmi»akm§ mm pmmm to to appointed for three years*
secmd for t o years* tot tto third t m m m year* ftaamftor a ll « r
pctotomto1©ere fined at tore© years*
§a©h eostooidoiitfOTi css else to
rsssMNwi by the seynisf csn cHarges of tnesK^petoiieo#. sogloot of duty cr sd^*
feasance# but ffitfb ycf|!|fyya^jBugyysi -be rspsrtiMi in ■'Wittog to tbs city 1
cssBCii saimus test eey© a fte r isnsmsi* ' xss a ct aise reqsi&res th a t toe
A J h tS
0L v*kA o*
laife © aSkJB tM ito
A » « ^ t ry
i^ M i* i« u 8 u iH lW b 'V
S t
S D h j*
JM m * U l k
cssstoer ctess
JkilbJlikAawmSL t a u f t j t i .
c m
$.£ ifflfflb #toer ftoMSi&csie as
end. Ifflw
^ » « n w » * j | ffc ^ c f w r f f most f e v w w v i t o * # ^
H th
re g a rd to
ompmmttolm t o b e p a i d
the c iv il sarvieg ***%»»«<*art*»«>»» ami th e ir c m n lsn i. the «BM«^ act
p r c d t o t
o f t t o eCKSBdsdCii s h e l l
too ether
a m b e r s
too eeHMtae&ae
mmwfimm* *mMm c d y t o to©
fixed b y the
e m a i l
to#** p« 8®»
timhp* a*®.
stall receive
em s t o s r
c o m i s s i o s ^ s
o f such ctM&ee*"*
toil** *• m <
city of
of nmtaaifl (1695), p* 85,
ever 100*060
$§*060 sod too
respires that
to© chief © i M l n e y
m *m»
armual salary
to to
SiMXm regulations me® imma&X toy the act of 1903 with regard to
item and polt©© Imvde, the eat ©all© for a M i
of three member** ap­
pointed by tto ssmyor* by and with the ommmk of the council for torse
of three years, tetsse to be ©taggemi on the urn® toa®i# «a terse of
© M X mrtlm eonMAeelMM*^ loth aeba retire that not
than two
mstikmm eey belong to the m m pelitloal party. Hi© act of 1905 farther
provide® that *ttm
mlaOX be paid a reasonable eoeeaneatiflii for
M e servi©©©, to toe fteed % . the city ©me!!.
Hi© city wasaoll .©hall
alee fl» the o^Msspeneation to be paid to the members of ©old hoard, bat
mtil the eity emmeiX ©bell male© provi^sion therofer, the seashore of the
©eld board ©hell servo without
m k m mmtmmiftm deal apeolflc^aiy with ®$MX m m l m eeoMUaioee
In the special dletriote* A# to the eenltary diobrleb, the statute® r©«*
quir© that the gowmlnu authorities of the district *stalX appoint a
superintendent of ««$&©9W0tg&# for m tore of *£& year© » * * * ®sd two
of »sh gomtdng authority,. ®mh for a term of two
irwfeo©# or
year© * * * * ©he sh a ll be 'ktxmm m the c iv il mrvlm h o a r d . M o r e o v e r ,
the ttmip©rlirfeoa,teit of empleymmi ehell be paid a ©alary of not snore than
#4,000 per a m
end ©bell 4&m&® hi# ©satire sad a&olusiw attention to
the dtat&e© por&a&istag to its© offie© of superintendent and not to engage in
any other enptoyme&t*** In the Chisago f&rk District the statutes require
that there shall bo appointed a ©oparlntendonb of empl<^aent far a tarn
{1905}, p* 9?
2Ibld». p. 100
(Illinois Bar Aosociatlon, 1955), Ch. 42
at six Tears.
3b* eaaerlitteixleat la conjunction with teo seabers of the
(SmAmfim appelated far « tea y a w
Ottm&mtloa, Stall constitute ttm a t m sand m board.1
Paste O U H M
2» brief, these «mi the geasral «t*t»Uw*y jaweisioBe gowm*lag the
ORBaolwttisn of a t m
m o v So o
eaerilMtlaAe sad boards.
It, i & U ho noted
mperlAt«adafttn of ea^Uaaant are r a i a M la the is®
ofclef eosamner mat he es^Ooped
speeds! I t M i M i i onl that a M M S v
for the a t y of Ctdeaga** la eit&eo hovH« adopted the a t m sands* set
of 1 W , a «felaf eaawdner m a t be
mat&agaAalthough tbs oat dose not
itislsbw SIS iMstoss ihM> 1b© ®@ip5h0^6^ ski
jP&LlMiisae ))me&a« Tfe-t#
Is Ufceetee boas with rapad to the eeereteqr to floe sad polios beads.
iHr^Sss flfoMM ill wml%
sitBe^pSdUasi iff
S# jirortibwi 1^$* bjf elttttiflt
3am w l w
$$3S ‘
I^Jfllfrlfi?M m
db# fjK® mrnagm &&> amilam omuvQm & a * a a / & a s « 3 wtsldh
W W ^r
JM 4 * »
S|r^llB IPiW W r^B "l^
teo^^m p
w i |i “
« # # tee. M U
*8h» Osett SoaBtgr e t m Semde#
'WlreMfc ■§*>
^cr®sS Pwisirw itMKbHUNfe#
^ w iW P p
OemtaeAm ablate bee
**&&&* &&mt
T rW r^ W ^
Its «mt full-
llSi Ms©
g m t o | M$tf*»
%i@ M
©C sts Aril «nr^gs
im m* ®£ Sts 2M%m%
&&%im mm
mo& a
Hfts a i M * w s t *W8b w
% te^S nn»s S© tomr %m mmh About
m# wsMm iHpsstemSa i«©t^ of!tiMW|Mh«sb sf «• 'stotr of ^mUmm mA
Wm 1mm m %rnmUm M m m l m i %® mi *m**
h ad
pmrMtim eaasdaer
f o r 000 © ;yeara# tunned to the
await o f & M 3#4im oxagitattr* Selection o f the present exeedner *<*a
esde only upon ©acfeesssive search by the eassdselon ehieh explained about
a hundred applicants, l«anvtai*« ew& aar 1# a w paid a salary o f $3f400
per m
md i s mmtO£ e ein d l «em at* Bsanetcm*# cgoest for a s o n
e ffe c tiv e
wpmamtm one o f the highlights in se r tt
js a n a g * s n * » it
prastleee in the oowxty*
m» t m t m m
se e d fo r a lia is o n
is a p lo y e e a *
jp g lOo M e m
d u e
o ffic e b a tm a n
C M sego
m ps&Xm o
o f th e
th e d f H
f f le e r i s d e le g a te d
b een g is m
p w e o G tie e li, h e l e
th e
© e e s iis e io n e n d t h e
to a s s is t in
o s jp lo y e e e b e f o r e t h e e s s a s d s s le n *
a a to r b eteeex i
fu n c tio n ,
rntwMmmMmtem m%
h rtn @ ~
a c o c r d im
p e r f o r m i n g a m o o t v a l& a & L ©
Z n * f e e o f t h e i s o n f e i p s s X i t i a a { B i? iK s s t© n # i n c l u d e d ) s o e m p lo y e e
t& a
s s i$ a e &
th e ta s k o f fb m is td n g th e
c i v i l s e r v ic e a m a te u r w ith s u c h iz if o s m t im
a s t o t h e d e p s o r te m b e ts ic h
h e
o f th e a ta jsr d e p e r tn e o te
n eed *
e m p lo y e
O h m
I t I s su g g e ste d
s p e c ia l lia is o n
d u tie s i s M
p te y so s*
t h a t t h e la r g e r s a in lo ip a lit ie e m ig h t « e U
o ffic e r fo r th e
so d p o lio s d e p e r to m ts
b o i ( 1 ) d o b in g a s c o u n c ilo r f o r p o lio s a n d f i r s
(ft) A s s is t in g th e d e l l s e r r io ©
en d a s ^ n e r s In
asssitiil&tig perscoastel d a t e #
Hie polios Jurisdiction of pwmmmmk o®smim Is regulated partly
by state las axil partly by local ordinance* in 1088 the civil service
sot of 130$ see i m M
to exempt a l l polioe offleers oboes the grade of
obtain free the elmriU&o& service*2, M l other polio© ofHoe© and poettlofis m m wsrwatly e h j w t to the dl&sslflsd service* in this oseneo"*V m r «nf mMimli (19$$}# j»* ZSSfa
interesting question
only to cities*
ean b« raised*
exempting act
It weald appear, therefore, that chiefs of police In
tomi# and Tillages awe- included el thin the civil eervioe.
9oah le net
the ease - at leaet la praetioa. So ease has ae yet been brought before
m interpretation of the escsspting
m leportaat teflwneg la m-shaplag
the court* Her purposes of assuring
Suoh a o n e eight h e w
PwWfcW® 8MsnM^Pm®Bw*
r rf c ^ tir n ^ iW g i fri
A CWj&ete pereoonol record system eonetttutes the basis of • per­
A n
the polios S a m le euifieieatly Inge as to
jBMM&Hde no intimate tewwtedg* on the pert of the chief of the qualifi­
cations oaf reword of each pclicanon, records era indispensable.
la the amller dapastaaota records sen be used with advantage.
ularljr wtuwe tasraowr la the office of chief ie frequent, records are
indispensable if any' Xsng-tiiae view of individual pellee perfomnee is
to be acquired.
Xn ratting the present Investigation, m o b difficulty era encountered
crih, pmsmosiX lusobXftdii® df t-ii® pdlSet® os* yg|y
ol* %htt
Hs® pe&&0®*
©•;$*Hb# ^bSS3E* Z3ddTlt$^IM9$!6ti3^r
which m m b* ©btataod * acwpmtmaivft analysis. of pcrsearmele
«iwAX ntvlii co^rainaioiis %$8m
^Sawaswwifc *lte®is$g
with tlwm** For
aid to Personnel Btoagoai^iitj0 in Fortieth
*Sh»- albuatiosi In Olcoro la an tmzml®* fb® preaent chairman of the
civil service b*«wt rawtoii wFor tho loot two yecr® X*v» been trying
to got m m
m the polioo 4^mmsm%* l&iutXXr fomsr cosrdsaions have not leapt any neoonde or they Have taken H*®s& with thm on re**
tiring* Wt don*t M m imeh about Hi® departsmtib at preeent hut im hope
to- have ® « e record® is another year or two*11
v m m k m data m m a period of more than four or five years are seldom
Kwsept in a few instance* it has h e m lapmwiM* to obtain in-
fontatton on such retina nattewaa age, date of entrance into the aax»
•rtm, dieeijainaiy nawurea iavekad, and tfca like.
In a n y « w
«fly naan* ef ebtainlag inftorwation m e to interview individually asm*
bee* of tin department*
Bowevwr, adequate data ie to b* found in the
M a s of civil eorvioe eengdesiens in Otioago, th« Chioago Park fiistriet,
ttw Sanitary and ftenwt Pieaane KLetricte and in Bnowten,
Records of
tea Chicago P«*k Ulatariei eaaataadm are exceptionally adequate and
rftwsOd * 6 U n m
aa a swdal far recording practices.
Xt oat not be
evet-enphaeised tint caw of the important lags in pamraMMl. pnwtleee
In tiw renty in tlw paucity of information poaaoaood by n a t civil ear*.
Tm relative slsapllelHr of the pc&loo
ptai the rabidly
immmfam ^poel«Xl»eU<«i o f police duties wftUt* ar® usually anibjeet to
ra th e r cXoor an aly sle
© valuation h&m lad to & pmmww«& a j^ lic a tic n
of olasatfi«»*l®& plans ** possibly mam m ifam 1n any other govern
matKteX oorwloo*
fho following positions a M places of ea^lcpmt la
the 'C%
l PQfgp Police 3h|s6tiPt®i@8Eit
rocge of offices ©&■*■
counterad to the c c m % » ^
*Xe th is com ec tim mm C&wper,
M m iwsB), m* im~m* m m c m !
MSHe BersoraieSl iM lo io tretlo an
For e
©f office®
md places o f eaployBciifc in th e c la s s ifie d se rv ic e , ahowi&g eoispcrtaafciQfi
ft*«S «tw afljteBtnth ^anpal Beaort* .CteU. SagvtoaCanmfaeicatu f
itteiiiir Tof
I ^ >&
<*BM>*WM » (19$Sj.
^ J
Sw W m U hSasSS-
Pst^tiilBteaii aeeigned ®s apor—
Ifeftephooo operator
Police 4?Xtti%
taaiaaSanmr of pottca
w h.jd®
—- — -*------ ■-
XfSmwtmWmP ®X p8wW6WB#Mw
Pmncsh and Btaehine ©per**
Xjsspfidor of paevKMvimX
Pivialcn of Moving Pieturea
w D tiM P *
flw ^ g W IH l
a A M trv #
Genor of wiring pictures
Operator of moving pteture
^w va^^feA W ^eijM iM e
Bjifc; trill lOi ififirr fOrii in mrtt m*!
of detootii
Boputy ©Mc f ©f detect­
K *
*mWffmNHWw^^S ^w9tA
AgyigHpafjWti iden^ iif1
ti©& xnsj?act©r
A iW
ffl -Tiniir Jrw m *1i fTl “ifcv WTiTMB
Photograph and idantt***
float!©** inspector
Aaeiet* pl^togy^phar and
itoilfie&tloft injector
dcntor sM®6N8*fi^i$mr
rs^MPU^I eyUMPVKaMI' maoSOIia.©
BXeofiricd wet^n!©
| 4^ rftWStllftlat
irt, M V.w y% j | *M> iflkg
-M kW feft
■"* w |j ri*|%n l i i r i t t d tk
®|M| assistant
jjeg catcher
Ur^yfi M u w .m a ju ^
— ramSpi
paPv tech*
Polygrapls operator
BOCUK^lit **feg«1****¥»
ftomitiv© secretary
0* XaaiiwddiwtionJaatatas
Capt&to, lieutenants*
aorgeattta «md patrolmen
m assigned by order of
the om* of poltc©
Radio anginaer
Cbiof M r r U w aiaofcrierlan
Klocfcrlcsl ww h m i o #
Electrical **oh«tnie* aaalgned
radio operatora
Chief police eparator
CM**# of uniformed M
St^porviaor of polioe division
Ohdof of tm fflo boroan
M ull u 4 Oik
In all the g o w m m t a l amende* having fomal merit system, the
dassiflcatlctn of positions ha# boon worked out rather exactly* How­
ever* one lisporisnb lag m m m in oorxyiiig out the classification plans*
M * good many instances positions oarxy duties which do sot correspond
t© positions in the classiilcation list* ffels am be attributed primar­
ily to the difficulties of adjusting the work of a M U
polios depart-
lato the MOlallaod classes. United p i m d requires that the
Individual offloor perform a variety of tasks, lie may he a radio oper­
ator today* a detaotlv© Morrow* a patrolman the following day. flam
la* tbsvefom* a general tendency in the amUt? departments to reduce
olasslficatism to Its simplest terms because of the Inssoapai&s diffi­
culty of assigning say m e officer to a specific duty as sailed for by
the classification.'*' In a good aa^ Instances such positions will he
found as ^director of traffic, ** or ^director of eomsmmicatlons* * ate*
%on examination* however* these positions will not bo found In the
classified Hat*
IngiMbonts are usually ranked as patrolmen* ser­
geant* or some other stedard position, t e p t with regard to three
large municipal departments rod the three special district deparMnt©
with AmnmbI civil service* wry little effort la made to see that peracme holding Hie mm classification post perform apprecElm&teXy the
sum type of work* le. on# m m M n m stated# 1
the time arrive#
whs® the si#© of m © p r t a i t will piwlt the delegation of certain
specific tasks- to certain individuals^ almmiflmUm In moat of the
^thi# le net always the ease* however* For ©sample* la the Chicago
Polio# Department* m i of Hi# largest divisions of the department Is the
Statistical Bivleion. the classification calls for only six punch iaa~
Chin# operators* Besewr* t M are nearly a 'hundred persons employed
in th© bureau i h a m definite prescribed duties* All those persons are
msssfcers of the miforsacd faro#* most of them having a patrolman* s ranking*
cannot be employed with any great degree of success.
It is rapidly being realised that something beside the application
0t a stated salary to a position to required. If length of service end
individual ©metoncy to to be rewarded in terms of Mary* it le toportent that « M U m and maxtom rate® of pay be attached to each podttcn* Of couree, t o g M b dlfftot&iiee ariee if this i® done. Length
of service should not bo need m the coto g a n *
to Ooopor has ctatecU
* * * * * thle places a premium on en'i ability to etay to too service
inatead of pccvfcttag an incentive to perfom to eudh a tmmmv m to at­
tract too attentton of mapertor officer®**2, toe too factor® of j»rfen*»
anee and toiuxv absssdd. bo toe ooyvEtoeiwttcfiMhfr
to Cook deaaiy I m o to ®c®i»ttoe® used to specifying salary incre-
msit*9 but as yet toe footer of service to not generally recognised*
M w
general praotSces to toe ©eunty* to
I M I | patrotoen begin, at a celery of $100 for the first month*
toto salary to ratoed to fl&i for the nest e l m month®* thereafter
toe stony to ftoed at #1$$ a aimto* to Evanetm, salaries for patrol­
men Hppto at USD a month* Clradc&l increases are made until toe mmrtmmrt
eatory of USD to rwtoed* to
Chicago Foltoe top^rtoent, fint year
salary to at the rate af #X?$*$S per sacmth, for the second year* $I88*S8#
toexeaftor IS0&J9*
after H7$«
to Otosre, first year salary to USQ a Bsonto, there­
to the Ohicago Park Metrtot monthly salary for the first
t o H ? S # $ S S $ for the second year H s a * l $ $ for the third year and
thereafter |8Q0«*&* to the e w M t t o ® without furssaal merit systems,
> « f eA«q PoTtW> in Urn. (1S88), p. 167.
-170however, salary aitodutos are ©site found which prescribe mxhmm and
wkniMmi rates* An offtoer begtos at a stated salary and continue® at
that salary until eppolMd to a higher post, to essamtoers have todieatsd, this situation undoubtedly tends to mirdwtm porfoanaan^ and
places a fHfwmium <m M i n g eMUmtions*
XT* M m L M t
Xt is undoubtedly a fact that on® of the moot toorhmt stage© to
the personnel process is the mmnlimmt of personnel. At this point
the quality and too oeUber of the pdte© force le totormtosd and to a
iconsiderable extent toe eaoeees m failure of a deparHaent*s performance
hinges upon the oMtosss with, which the unfit isd the toocsapetent are
sailed. out and thee# of integrity and eapsMllty are allowed to enter#
M r s police dspsrtoents are found to be derelict in their duty* an ac­
cusing finger a m usually to pointed, at the iwgrtdtoegii process*
Certain legislative jroirtoions outline general recsridtssent qualifi­
cations. to the civil eervtee act of 18SS relative to cities there le
this provision#
All applicants for offieea or ptoses * * * * shall be subject
to examtoation, which atoll be public, esnpetitiwe and free to all
citiamm of the tolled States, with specific XtoltailoRS as to
rosltewa* age# toeXtfe* habits, and laera! ctoraeter. W i examina­
tion© shall be jNrwottoia to M i r charsetor, m & M i l relate to
those matters which vdll fairly test the retotlee eapad% of the
person exsstoed to discharge the duties of tto positic*n to tfileh
they amk appointent, m d atoll Include tests of physics! qp&Xiftoetlsna and guMPUfe, and t o «^nttpjrtoto manual skill* Ho
question to any m m & m t & m M I X relax© to polities! or religious
opinions or aJftllettoto.#1
this provision was mmdmI to 103$ to Include the provision that appointaeata M I X be subject to nltoitati<m® specified to the rules of the
h*nm of mtacrifl (1898), pp. 86-87.
civil sorviee board m to residence, ago, sex, health, habit©, moral
qudificatioxs to
pmttsm the duties of the office
wltleii qualifications stdX be prescribed in advance of such sxs^Uoetlcii*2,
to the abow provision# ere the previsions of the fire
md police
board act of ISO# as amended in X$ss#
Ml e p M H i * * * * m M l be tobjeeb to examination,
vfetafe shall be pukO&e, aegpMfcim, and free to all pomam
prnmmmm tto sight of mttmm to such olty, village or toO M M t o t tom, subject to reasonable Umitettone as to resMtoto, age, toilth, twMto, and moral etw&ctor* Such ©s»toatime
to etMfttaa to th«l* character and shall relate
to those u t t o s M o b will fairly tost the relative capacity
■of the psnone «
to discharge the d a t e of tfee position
to which ttogr ®®*#k to to cgspMtod m i M i l include toots of
jptoelcsl qpiOificatiOfic and health*
mustoaMve of etototoey pmtiaimm with stoteene* to special districts
is too act of X$$i applying to the Chicago Park Bictoiet*
most to citi«eii» of the state of Illinois
and stoll to
to emdnetioxit ’M o b M U to public,
oomp©tittw, wi& free to all persons too m y to laefhlly ap­
pointed thereto, m1th Ximitis&icms specified in the rules of
toe beard as to residence, age, ease, health, morals, character,
and qhalifio&tione to ■perform the duties of the office or
place to to filled# * « » * Such ewaiimtione shall to practi­
cal in their character, m l shall relate to those matter®
which will fairly tost the r e d capacity of the person® casaisined to discharge the duties of the position to which they
seek to to appelated,
ineXeds tosto of physical qealIfloatlms icsd health, and when apgarcprlato, of manual skill.5
It mmt to Tmmmbmmd that the stove provisions are seetimn of various
which ajjply edy to those agencies which adopt the prevlsiats
of cue
the ettor of these acts*
Slisgr tom# no reference to ttoao gov-
*£««» «t XlliBBlg (1935), p, 746.
%bM. (mm), p. at?.
hbld. (MSI), p. 884. For p*wleiona as to tb. Sanitary Diatrict
of Chicago, sec 3M&* (1935)•
©ri&betibs ©hid* have not adopted faemsX merit service*
mm to a largo M
vision s o f
imunuoh a® pro—
t determined by too Individual
f lif it agency or aamd&aicm {within too giemerrnl lim its defined by statute)
or by lo ca l ordinance i t i® xieeoooary to tom attention to lo ca l p o *
In w e t of to* wntoipallties, on* ynur of local reeidcnee la re_
qofcrato &
eenmeitiee to* enplojrajwt of out-of-tom residents to
oagreaeSy enjoined, to others certain exception* are penaitted,
Use pro-
vtoitoa of toe Chicago Ctvtl Service eowiieeim ora typical*
So pwraen ahall to etaitted to exmtoatim for M y position
to toe classified service eho too set t o w an actual resident of
too city Of ctdamm tor at least w e year next preceding date of
enmtoetiwf provided, however, that to exestoatione for o m e r a
m pieces requiring technical, professional or eeiwtifle kwwdedge and experience ear aamnO, tollle of a high order, this rale
nay to eeited by toe eomtoeton by w order entered to it* ate-
M w in a £©*? l i M m item © pmtttm m m such M i it could mt be
f t 3 M apprcpriaicly by local appltemto, position© e m filled from the
rate® at to© local
$h© mqi^iwente at the Federal Qmmim*-
icatlcns Iftvlstai m to tb© Xicm&etog ©f radio q v i v t m has had m iu»
P « t e t iiiflu©iKto la tereaSstrtg Immk traditions at appaintoeat* t e
outside sppoiaimmis Imv© M u m d«t toey torn u M U y teest md» tar to©
©Ifto© of m M ® bm&mfe&tm*
W t o regard to its© special districts, county and state agencies,
toe usual rule is tost applicant© msst b# residents at tb© ©tats* If©
special reqwlivtote® as te msMsnes in to® ammiy a m required in
fitter the special districts ©r as to tbs deputies in toe county highway
J^ n ^ ^ ‘^^rnvriiirrfnn-rrnmirwri"iiM ~nrriiiiivri~jrr^,,itnri.u."ii ireintfiini-.iroiitmTintiiiii|iiiiiiiiiuLii.4t-..uiH
__ ______________ L .j^ ^ uuiuJU M uM ij^ iiii.aiB u-uuu'iim irri r if nr r n n m r - n m r
ffMil Service Cooafaaion Sltar of Shl-
m m (w»)« *»• 80*
Her is r&sddimm tar m y specific period included* T m
for applicants to position# in to© ©aultoy district Is typ­
*Ml applicant© £ m otilmm mr plm®& « » . « ©bail b@ d L U m i
«f tsm State of XUlaoie**2,
mimmm. mg©» sm May® pm scrlbed in the- fem e! m erit system,
agencies, mldwi in those tolto do not l a m .£©rra&X mrit syetsma. fyp*.
iool of the eg© mstri«rtiM fomd to the- temel merit eeMmlti m ere
the fe&Xosstog* In Obie&go, to# applicant must be between the ago# of
M s SSto Mrtodsyv^ to© mm re­
£1 end £8 i w i i n w I have
strictions ere M e i i p n ^ br the moer© civil m rvlm emtesioeu
Oak fmk the age XiMtetisw s m froa St to 33 yearn*5 In Evanston,
the applicant m e t to mb 1mm than £1 ym&a wad m% more than 50 years
In to© Ohieag© F«t District ranges are
at the tie# of
fro® £4 b© SO yews*
In bte Sanitary District and the Forest Preserve
District applic^trts ere not- adMited toe ere leas tom tl years -of
age*5 I© age XiMiatlona ere pmscritod a*-to the Sheriff*n Highway
Folic# or toe Btefc© Highway IIelatensese Police. Her with toe exception
of Ifftoneik© are &g# restriction# loosed in toe nuMMpeHtles without
V ®
of toe Oivil. .Service Board, to© Sanitary District of CM-
o'«jCtetra I
erence to M
( 1881 ) , p#
with ref**
% i m t o o ©f March 3, 1836 of toe Chicago C&vtX torvie# Oonmieeion,
raiding Section 8 of Hoi© 111 of th© Hule® and Eegulations.
m l l«|dill»i of the Board of Fir© and Polio© Cc^rsnisaloners
of to© Tillage of O«lc Berk* Art* If, Bm* &*
%si3^oune©wnt of teiotoatim for Police Patrol&en,
mmfamblm at
t e t e i, IM7.
V * of tb*. OIvU.Sw-tIob Board. Switaoy m*trt«b of Chicago
(2887), p. 8.
A© smOystg of entrance ages ©f T O p i M t e in twnty-flvo
iminiiiesi indicates* :t a n r l that the m%tmee age Is a t m too high,
and that moroitaMaat standards 0m
&UXk I m in important partiei&srs*
M dcm ii indicates that la a xmfcer o f d«p&rfc*s©Tit» & good assy recruit#
enter the poltm m m i m after failure i*t other msateres^ ibialysie
indicates* i&afc the rnmmm m t m m m m ® far T O patrotosc 1# thirtythree yeamt
fuble &
Average J^e
tWW» l.fijOO
J f
" J m w jB W W w w ^
itotborittoa ere H* gene^L e g n m e it that m entrance age o f twenty-cm©
to t««n ty#lgh i ream le jprntmMm mm th at m mimmm age o f oear
*3fc Is #me accurate to say that age rm trictto na are mmmUmn proelded hot ere se& te followed* 3& Be*m% for
reerait® ere eeploys! eh© hem paaeed the age of Serty*- $e the issgrer said* ♦•lo1*©
supposed to tales thee ©oder tt&rtgr* Bet I f wo mm get a good t o a t
fiftjjf* to take hie*18
Ibis is noiieeabl© pftoorUar la the ©mmitte* witisout formal
sserii eyetmm* Appointing officiate isi thaw® ©amountties are w m & m m
in their ©o»©tuei©m* that the depression has had such to do with raising
the entrance age* Bi# press of the ^ r a s c i m has ceased hundreds to
seek ^Xoyssnt la th# publte sertica* One p^tawtoao intenrioeed w *
*l*e» been la- bweteeerto this tows for thirty yearn* Then
everything went* X m a t to the s&tforaan and asked him to get m© a Job
with the village* B««t day h# said he had got as appointed a policesmm*
I didn't toow anything shoot policing hot I tools the Job#*1 B its patrol-
ism was fifty-three years of age at Urn time of ap^ointomt*
tfetarty le too high.1
She entrance age of thirty-throe, however, is « w
pa&eingty law for the
eosMtdwiog the fhot that the major «dop»
b * m «f civil service has eeoewvad within the last ton yew** aid the
£ m t that * considerable number of deporUasnta recruit without reference
to wis%,%
Hajwloail <piaXmeatiocs ere always included in the rules end regula­
tions of merit agencies. 2b moot inottmees eertain conditions «e to
height, might* nmd sheet expansion suet he met* with the added require­
ment that the applicant euocenefully pea* physical exaedaetioae given by
eagoteot raedloel ewaatners*®
fit Chicago, the applicant nwst be not
less then 6* 9" (la bare feet) and aaet poeeeae e weight and maasorement
oeeorcttog. to
itwen'O~w MMQ j
of m t g & l w $mi w m m m m *
IlOto O SaJmSmS
H eJsehau
a 1-. A filf ltttiiiii
ttauJMkMS' .JHi&tO, J b
.K V
T f IrT tlH
the s p p X i c m t
n h U O ll
Of ©* 110% wP0Gg? 0R1O& w# 14011 pWJfJCiCTlClMa,
O f t o i l & t o B o c a ^ t o H o a r s i j ,n
tm&m* sm ho
rm.'tji-mm Km )««
oawto&te!* t#r too vtllo§*i ^ w isim md hao b@m certified V
o f too#®
pmvtiMmm is too
av+vukAwk»a&*l «tsBSMMfat«i*» ft# ‘
fefemt r»**r44*M*
Q B B p y g y m y ijp iffw
-ftfijn A, g* A t gj.
In B m m t m
W rS w
lM «glr
•Jgpmrr# t*r wir
o m t ytoq^sim to ho to m®& hos&th* aii&otfJO&UsdL. m i pfc^stoall^ abl©
to fotoPwm the m U m si-him siUm or ongtfotoww** ffisii.■Oato^..IlllMMi
qf K iw g o r a st (M S I), Ou 3% toe* 11*
totototoK to ton stosto® o f too iSdoogo ®toH Service
«*# m isHcmt
tootetotoi (Wtmh % toto)* wm^Xtmm^s m to
5 fo ot
S «
t at
6 e
6 41
6 «
• «
6 tt
$ «
M t a M (oIoIwm) Mtfto
W mmKi
iSt illatmaftflliViiPtor
Ito pCTOiO
1SS n
160 m
16S o
xn **
Ito couoto
10S it
IPU0 t
US 41
fS0 «
£SS 41
WIMmm sUwmisrems
V M /S a
of good muscular development, and show careful attention to personal
cleanliness* Applicant© shoeing tendency to obesity, poor physique,
muscular “
weakness or other physical condition which impairs fitness to
he out of doors under adverse conditions will be rejected* ^
In Oak
Park, •Bvery applicant shall submit to physical tests consisting of tests
of M e strength, his ability to run and jump. * * * * No person
appointed policeman • * • * who Is less than S* 1GH or who weighs less
than 1SS pomwSs*11
In the Chicago Fork District, requirements are as
follow#s minirman height 5* 8*, chest expansion not less than three inches,
chest measurements between M»l/Z and 59-1/2, satisfactory passing of a
confute Cynical examination by toe examinAiig physician.5
Important stress is always laid upon toe physical examination* Ex©mining officials indicate that about one-half of all recruits are weeded
out in the physical examination. In five recent examinations for the
office of patrc&man, of 452 applicants, only 227 qualified physically.
Indicative of toe severity of the physical exasainaticms is toe fact that
of some 20,000 aspirants too applied to take toe Chicago Felice examina­
tion of April 8, 1957, less than 10,000 successfully passed the examina­
tion* In a n examinations given by formal merit agencies, applicants
wmt hsm toe certification of a competent physician* To a less degree,
examiners are relying upon height and weight qualifications, to a much
greater degree upon physical fitness as disclosed by medical examination*4
Announcement of Examination for Felice Patrolmen (for examination
of November 5, 1957}*
.Board of Fire and Felice Goromissioners
of tbs Villas of Qak Pa^* Art* 3T7, Secs* 1, 2*
^Personally communicated*
\ot© physical requirements prescribed by toe Chicago Civil Service
Commission. Hearing, heart and lungs, mid brain and nervous system must
In the aaa-owpit system ageucieo, requir«ssnta as to physical fltnoes m m almost universally' onSmA.
la the State Highway u»i
l w w w r , the requirement la that th« applicant shall
Sows the physical and aental qualifications of privates 1a the United
• H tM ta a ii
Stfucatianal standards ore seldom prescribed.
* seventeen ea»
owtnatioiia g iw u for psftiee candidates during the past four years, In
OBJjr e»* iastaow m * istatnua edueattoasl «M U fieati«H cspnteaad in
the prsliadlump aamuneoBMKte of eswBlneUrata. The one u n c t i o n found
* » paragraph ate «f 'Auwunoemnt of Bxaalmtian
tw M i n e
glow* Bowwbor 8, 1987 by the Bvwreton CtvU Servian GerasisaiGm
Btoeation and ejqwrienoet Graduation from high school, or
ether education or experience accepted by the cosniesion as
equivalent to high school education.
Sue to the absence of general educational roquireiMMita, it is not
that a
raito, aixg that to®
iwmImp of «tfl3ia£tit ipnauto&to®
tmks mm h&wrU,? Xmtim with toom
found. in tht
ham not com-
plwtod a hi#* otoobl training* Because of insdoqutat® poroonnol racoido
bo j»tom3U If tboro to any Matosy of a aoviooa injury or illness tsi«
oppiloont miot too# oooploto recovery i**s& no appreciable offooto m
pi*yal<ml oapsoity or ftootimu Da® of lag®* mwm$ bmads and foot moot
bo £MX and aaapyrtja* toy |%wical cMaf^toriotioo toot ial#ifc Interfere
with good aattw* oorfioo or oftoot asapMsrsno®,
or flat foot
tool! rojoot* Hernia, piles, wrlcoao vein# or a saxfeed tendency to their
ftwwrtien, any Infectious or aontagisas disease or pranouneed evidence o>n
any port of the body of any disease, OX mm h m h for rejection. The
•one applies to goiter, evidence of having or having hod syphilis or the
presence of any w n w e s l disease, flrot presence of angor or rsnesed
presence of albuaen or oasts in the urine, or any indication of ths undue
use of liquor, tebacoo or drags, the applicant oust h a w evidence of a
recant successful vaccination aid his teeth oust bo natural and in good
repair or A s * evidence of proper dental mfc. in interesting article
on thlo osseaination appears in 3E* xntoslfi Foiloaiasn (Kay-June, 1957),
f$»« 1 M 0 *
1Revised atstutos of HUnotn (Illinois Bar Aaaooiotian, 1955)
it has not boon passible to obtain a
8«iiw«V 860 moaieipal polloemen w w
e<»9>lete background o$ policemen.
Interviewed representing
tlm eoaawnitl«a * (Meets* not iadwJed. This number reprewmts about
66 per m b * of the auoieipal police strength of suburban depsartmnte*
Sdwatienal backgrounds a« evidenced by tlio interview mere as fallows*
T«hl* a
adacftUpnal Mrtmirswrntg_of 8S0 Paferaa— n ^ gggtoHEhrew
rnmtiaa*Uti<m trr Population f l m a
IOilOOQ-" ®wr
iM er 1*000- 5*000- SSrlwlfiP'
*b iffm
& «■m
% to three years
An M #
H i# school $m&*
Cos or M as yiiaarai
'4*b*i f8
■rntmSSl ...1
to ta l
ttsere linos of preast&en load frota the ranks, the failure to prescribe
©srtjs&n #0asat^#?4sX ##*|p2r##i#nts feip ®nt]ip#n©# into $fe# polio# sejpvtcs
sagr haw# m tsggm&mt hew&ag m Ute pvdtibm of d#?#l#pi»g superior offiosra* A#
witdi tho##
i ffiiyiy #a3X"$^\ind#d seta©#X
tional feackgmsnd d© not saak© tli# moat ©ffootiw administrators* fhs
e«»Tpre£i©nslT^#»s of polios functioning r s p i m ©casssthing ©ore %hm
b£&w% s^pXsiBOijlsd ts? psAAs# sspss^loi^oo*
% m m r ^ on# of Us# K©st &hle polios sMalstrsior# 1st th® county
is th* senior lieutenant is charg© of th# polio# training school of th#
Chisago Psa& M#tr&©% I®*©* prior to entrance into ti* poXico dopartoaot
m a patrolman* had bad no hi# school education*
In mam instances the handicap? created by the lank of educational
JtwquAromqmia, have been w m m m m by the Inclusion of educational testa
This derelee was adapted in the Chicago Park District
dm to a peculiar situation which confronted appointing officials in
208S* As we haw previoueiy minted out, under the f^scXAd&tion sot of
1954, t
parte districts in Chicago m m needed to fora the Ohfe*
cage Peek SMwfefft** m m not of eemeclAdaldoii had the provision that a U
parsons holding office wider the classified eorvios in m y of the former
park district* wotamttoallgr became mmhmr® of the classified service of
the dfcicttge Park metric* without uastaatiaB#* As a result 580 pdUoenan were carried ear fkcae ffcmr districts# In these* rearuiiraent pro­
cedures differed widely* One district had mi outstanding civil service*
In others d m service evidenced the fjsprint of
control# as a
result* the diioego Park X&atrlci force w m mmmfastt of m hybrid organs
iaaiion insofar as pre-entry requlreMnt© were ootmerned« It was com­
prised of those Who had w t the mm% asseting mqvdxmmt& end those
whose quantisations were no a sn than casual#
Orders issued in 185$ to add 140 now wm&mm to the force offered
m caecmXXent c^ertunity to raise personnel standards* A H appetntaamite
since September sf 306S have been mdm txm the eligible list of the
Ssptssiber* 1955, rnmdmMmm
With regard to the cdticctional qualifica­
tions of those ^Msdnted trm that list, a men&m? of the perscamel staff
"Beaplta the a^itraaey educational standards prescribed* we
wmm able to weed out these of the m m ©eager background through cm*
^Suprap. so.
gB«rta— *m VTT ^
Oh* 106, S«Q. SS4.
(IlH u ets Bar Aaaeoiatdan, 1SSS),
educational tent.
Veey Daw of those oho hod not passed beyond the eighth
mm raasrtm t .lion.
grwto peaeed
the great m^orlty era high saboo! grad-
ratra end n e t « fra h e w hud ooUega training.*
Qteil aetrvlra eraednran depend gviaarUy on written teats to dster■ t w fitraee.1
Irate ran g e m n l l y jweotiral In t M r eftrawster and w a -
rolnte ts eratafn
pramterae, to the peegephy of the m l a »
I3&I&& «f w a l i n t t m
ite atraotara, ate.*
g&ran In nraletf
p i & l t t w d I n t l w f o l X w w & f i f g i g n E n S s B S l n B i g i i w w i I ns ti l i m p t s i w w w o f H i w I w y f i ip
1# M X wfegr i m mm% to bo a $Wl&€iWKWW mtl WIi^p you bwXtww© youjR'**
Ijt^l,f tW bn %U@3UUBtoS to b# &
q$ ti$w
of 6
4fS® Ip 0B' B/1&+
&• MuXtlgftar
mm® mm*m w
« » M *
wOHff wiww *n n f^jpxHisro vsiw*1iiw wiMmw w*w w&m* iiw%t mmwy
OOt tO tWO
^BW I n k j f t
•*§*- f t i im
r a ^ u ir a ii
H w ^frt irt i f a m
4 a f4 l n w ^ f c iM t
MW*i t
I® 1
dRm nM hA)
i^ fn a ttM g ra
t o t o loeat© thm*
$« low m o p towtow w.*w thmn In.
k* m ®
jiiM Btafht
W MfflMHWMwWVpT ** WW# M m m m iv*
jfBiillilli g dMiiftfflitfMWhrtlHfr arflW fifffi
1 ll<l
* l « r i r a m Jhiitte 4 4 b
w t e t e m t o g ®m% t o wto eat wrotong
§* t o w ttow
S» Waratrafefenwrara raitrarawfc Drajltteirarattt Wuaat. pytl tJawaffte^b. W|tW»
’U P'raWWt^ww^^^
?• (a) Xr rami rara raa the Board of Mtra rad ftOlra Oora&ralraran
wwti^Xlwitet In
(fc) to w IM | v t o m t o w o f t o
m m t o MUU» actotow w *'
«r» of #IE**
i »
t o w
t o
t e t o t e w
t o t
t s t o w r o w
IntwUlg«ftOtf tot* m m t o t e u t o . t o
t o i w
i n w w
t o t o w w
t e t e s w t o
u n t o
t o
vm t o w u #
* 1 %
wto Iitewtow www
g t o w
t o
t o
o n O .
tw ttaiw
pmmmd th®
% w r wn wowwto of t o w t o t o of %srU $f X0S^ fiwew l^r to
m m m
t e t o o a w t o t o www IM-JSMmkll F M ® p M A(
X9*g0* typws af ^iwMimw wsto In t o wwtontoon wf® thersI n g i w a w *
-1 8 9 -
waw mmd in %
he fined detersatofciori o f rating* Her mm grades an t o
physios! extoaafclon used in t o fin a l seerin&* F ^ s ito te sts mm
owt* devtae* for those t o t t o
s t t e t e s aw to health* weight* fitn ess,eto *
sa tisfy <w rtto
B&spibe t o general d ie-
oatlofnotion with t o tsefete M d typo o f w ritten ew asstetion, t o X&t~
t o earees a s t o xntom o f
reert& tam t in t o county*
ter* Is X itto te b t t o t t o quality of reetota Is rapidly t o
proving* The abiysetions offoroii in tom* of security 000 of general
to o lo tto «ro mm s t e t o t t o number of applicant® applying for pog i v e s e w a e g lis s w s a
la r g e r
o f o o lo o tio n #
th e
1030 otodoottat given by tbs dfe&eago Civil Mrvioo cwtswiaslcn* It woo
reported that abestb 21*090 candidates applied to ' the pooitlono*^ In
t o resent m m & m ttm given in Oak Fork* to re were nearly 0 hundred
«p|dloonto» and i n t o t o n o t o cHMtaatiftik given in 1937 t o o t the
same* Pinal. ai&aesa in the reeyuiteffiffib nr&aes& ****** eswesdarss as to
oppolnto^t m & watois of evtoating Staton® of reeroiia daring t o
pitvbfttiwRsfflyy period-# ftmr of i^ptotont after the eligible list has
ton preyed Is w t o U p vested In t o chief m m tstlwe or wanager* In
0000 instances the chief of polios im m m m Xted and apgtoifcmiifcs are
too % t o eaKrcsuiive In eo^umtion with t o el&ef* t o person highest
m t o eligible list rwoeiwee the position* Civil service 00Missions
do not matowit three or warn mem® for the wseanoy, t o !m to be to© by
t o chief escaoutlve*
**»» « « — ia PBlinanm (Jtarch, 3»S6), p. 27.
^tore o w e @ 9 a p p l i c a n t s f o r t h e Bvm&trn mxw&mtlm$ o f v f e t e h
motor 6t w e r e adadtto t o e w t o t e i o n #
Of t h e s e toy Id paste*
Frtoiionaxy period* are usually tend only in t o agencies having
iteal ms& t systems* t o usual probationary period is six sonto* sltou$* in several instances to period t o been extended to one ye&r.
to judge ten to lads of m&m&timv? intesatte as to probationers,
t o pte&ti©niufy period Is not iato m seriously as it should be* In
west instances merit agencies receive very little iMommkim about t o
probationer* totally* at t o end of t o probation period* t o candidate
Is mtoatloflOly sainted to the permanent list* U li#t of t o need
£mt utilisation of this ingwrtet period in to vm m lU m t process* it
is essential tot certain safeguards be esplopsA* *hr one thing* it is
advisable tot t o ranking officer of the probationer tee required to subwit monthly reports to t o merit agency smsaarising to jntotiooer1®
aptitudes t o
It is also necessary tot pem m m t appoint­
ment should not be sends until t o stot agency has received a eertiflcatoo ten the chief of polios tot to probationer has measured
t o roqulresssmts t o obligations of his ©fflee* t o ness effective t o
restrictions tuaposed ton prteMonera in this regard* to less likeli­
hood is there tot the unfit will succeed to permanent Mployssesit*
f* fralni^
It is
mm pretty well rcoognito
tot effective polto training
is essential* For the recruit about to begin his life's work in the
teasteous profession of polioing.* sound instruction in t o important
tenches of t o police service before entering service Is of t o utmost
importance, Ibis i t to t o best interest of the eoMunity and t© t o
policeman** for those already in t o service* post-entry training is
tte death' of pc^U^aen^aiTth® hands”
of erlsdnal® have been a powerful force in directing attention to train-
ateeys adtrLs&bl© If the police
m 'to retain their grasp of important
ta&aaiwstale end if they m m t» tap abreast of the times* M one prom­
inent teatemtm stated*
*Xb is m % too ssuch to aspect mmxy policeman
to attend some police school for at least two houra in every week*”
S^oraal pro—entry training is to he found in only t w o police d e p a r t —
smwifce, eXttoi^i piece ere new taler way to fawtds such training in sev­
eral other depueftaW1* ta-een&es training has boon e*iablia&ed for
m m ymm i n t h e G h t a s e F e l l o e I t a v t m i i t * *
l a g
e r e
c o n t a i n e d
i n
t h e r e v i s e d
{ M a n g e
t a v t t a m s
f b r ® t a
t r ot s * *
S o d s *
peiloe etM&X establish end s&int&in a
* • • # &1X
shall be ordered to the
In saesi of the emeHer
internet in training began in
the- late tmantles when the Illinois Banfeere* Association ergsodeed tra&alog program for bank p&ani crgantaatlons* 3m fartg*tihrM ecRjBnmitles
local bank ward or^mlaaiioti® field siaooting watches every other month*
ooimmitiee ordered the local police to participate* Today*
taiewer* interest in braining Irns proctalsd beyond tfcie point* lost
j®anioipaX offieisX® bmm- vedesd snob an opinion as this* "Our council
realises that paying for training is Wm cheap©®t insurance we cess bar*
the five man we sent m a y to get is**
the better sendee tkofr bam
m the
ie* chiefs advise that formal pre-serefoe
* investigation uam&XXy shows that such
is of little or no @sssapMi« One chief described his pro­
gram as. foJXowet *fhe first day the m m gom around the depsrtiss&t* Oar
traffic m s telle M m something sheet traffic* Then he goes to the
fingerprint n o <ssd be telle bin rae m&m* Then after he has spent a
day simad the di^artaani be cooes to m and X giro him an h®urfs talk
on tar to be a good pdltamai*^ lin a se&ond easesjasitr the chief de­
scribed the btaktiia program in these words* “Bach recruit Joins m s of
the radio snoods* On the second day h© is named over to one of the
beet ptfMtat* Go the third day he Is instructed to go to the library
and leak up the lew* then at the end of the third day on© or two of sy
ssaa tabs him in hand* gim him mam pointer®.*
%or a brief account of training in the CMcago Police Itep&rtant*
* » the raport of M s * c m * * M i ?«,!«• OosB&ttae, Chicago Polioo Prokleaa (1931), pp. 80-66.
■ M M M S
school o f in s tru c tio n is. mmbam convenient fo r th e ir p ra c tic a l
in stru c tio n * m & s h a ll %bsma be in s tru c te d in elem entary erissi a a l law* © tty ordinances p e rta in in g to th e p o lic e d e p a rto in i,
ru le s $ m re g u la tio n s o f th e dtepar&asnt, sa n ita tio n * f i r s t a id
to th e in ju re d and such o th e r m a tte rs a s th e oosasiaeioaer o f
p o lic e sasy d tre e t* Such course o f in s tru c tio n s h a ll n o t be lo se
thm thirty
duration* except in case of emergency* and in
each o u t th e f u l l p erio d o f in s tru c tio n s h a ll be eon^aeted a f te r
th e emergency bee sensed* * * * * i s p robationary patroiimazi s h a ll
become a re g u la r p a tro lsw i w alees be s h e ll bows passed a s a tis fa c ­
to ry t e s t a t th e school o f in s tr u c tio n ^
d u ra tio n o f th e poll©© course i s te n seeks*
About o n e-h alf o f th e
s ix working days o f each seek i s devoted to the su b je c ts o f law and p ro oedurSji c ity or d inance s and dsp& rteem tel r a le s and. rs g d a tic iis *
iiaato ly on©—th ir d o f th e ttwm I s devoted to cloee—
o rd er d r i l l w l to
ternESt i^acfcice.
fam ortant aosdksads I s la id moon th e la tte r *
bettcostry o f f is s r i s
Each o re—
to ircflfee tssn^N*ix)e t r i p s to th e te a p o t
rang* ®»d i s re c p ire d to o b ta in a jsrofioiem sy o f a t le a s t s ix ty p er o m t
o f tb s to ta l wmfom o f p o in ts p o ssib le* ^
Since August o f 19SS whan th e
C ity o f OhieSjge book OiW th e S oiaantific O rtee U eteotlon laboratory* i***
stanaeMcei ****** included
^ ra a e
w spw w
•wnwj^ i p
a r e e * f lr * a * w iF
doteetion gtmn 67 H » five
tsrainina in tb s isBaaartaBt f ie ld s o f e r is e
s p
w w w w w * w * * * s jji
w * *
mmStmm of
« » # w
tfco tawwrtojy ataff.
w —
As a gen*
« m wfU, Inotruetero w o fiwa tiw ranks of the department, although
la sartala ppoolBlt l w sotdi as criminal tar wsi oowfc proootaw out-
aiders mss esaployed*
<^toi6i.Jiaa6 ( W »
**»♦ **£>•
(J«wwy*FW«»*y, 1980), p. 16.
th o eoiWUwicRor o f p o lic e w rote in th e to n u al Report o f th e Ctei.o w a Polloo P s e w t a a ^ (*986)« "Stnoe Its inowtion as a dopwtaontri.
unit* classes of instruction 1mm beam conducted ibr various wilts ©£
the department in order that btw personnel of the entire doparteont may
beam® better acquainted with the functions of the labcaratory and thus
sates possible use of the i^uipsuent and advice <m the preparation and is
the schedule of cases*® j»* 9*
the Cook County Highmy Polio# Iteparbseni in the only other depart*mm%- tiw xtem
&»*m& p n i»m e*U m tmining*
U s d M * lMMNir«
tk m tr n t of the trs&ning is
Training h m m early In \ ® m when t m A p 4 1 v » recent
appointees t t k m i a two mttim* training at the tfft Infsatacy Arsm?y in
M m x p motimiM m e «n the xtm of su^-taaohine gtsas and r©~
w & vw m with specific instamoUon in narksnsijship*1 Brief classes ware
ha&d in mCh <Kfe$Mri» a© fsm artateMd law of the state and the duties of
a police offices* in, lacking arrests*
If prosent plane misrlallse content pre-^3.try trying will he
organised under the sssptee® of the abate Ml#sway Msdnteyiance Polio© Beparisient. Flans call for the ssbahlieh&snt of a training school on the
Fair Grounds in Springfi^d. to he tinder the direct supervision of the
chief of the State lltghw&y police, a on® to two ®a$nbh*» course Is piasmsd,
to he mgatred of all state highway police recruits and available to all
ssstslolpal poUces^cn1at nominal oharjijo £
Hth the eaKHtpbioK&s noted shows* the training of police in Cook
County has been confined elneefe entirely to pesb**enbry training. But in
this connection a great deal has already been dens* In a washer of in­
stances tswdntwg is # i » by the d^parteent lovelw&d* In several in*
stances private agencies have conducted start oemse** mttaab dcmbt*
the outstanding postwentry cows© Is that giwen by the Chicago Park Sistrict Ik^artsaenb under the able direction of Edrntensisb taenard. It Is
the only school which operates on a nine saanths* training schedule. Each
seshcr of the department is required to attend closes for two hours
*»» nmwtoJBiM—
1939), p. SI
2lbld. (JwsMMT^r^afway, 1859), p. 22.
te e a anait Ja addition to iwgnlar weekly aaaignswnta at the 1’aa* lijs~
trtefc Cheating OtQiijr.1 Inefcruohion folloes along the fancwiag line**
(1) Htatojr and
Pwepem <MTthe (Mange fwte Dtaferici. (8) OrgenlBation
&ithe (Mongo Pwft m«toi«fc P»Hce Oapertneat. (8) te& graata. (4)
S*e «f VapKrtmal ^pipaewt, (6) Oewt te e s . (§} dviea, (?) te r.
(8) other law tetetewfe
(9) Itafclee of a Police Officer at
too w a n * of the aria*.
(30) Public ScOadtea*
Out) tawl Inflows*6tm,
PmemmSL S
(») IteetlgatloB.
a M and Self Oatese.*
Of the
training giran peak pelics&en, a rater of tbs Parte District Civil Ser­
vice CoeulaaSeB r ant ed*
t n t U a g the
am aatorgo
**4 O b * that the regular and e^atoaat&o
hag t e e ae «m£> to davsiap a n efficient
dBp8lHtKM9$t ©0 uwy s i h w ftator**1'
mi n H swsg&sffs mi bta Oilssge
i# ate©
iOfflfa&m fattena jajsgi d&ttfitt* SB®- tath SSB^Lti^L ££Wi
W jT S W te '
J^ e ^ p H W IW iW raft
^ ^ W te te W F w S te te
fli# f w s w Cbta
W®W• '“ >'■
^9 3 * 4 r a R ^ F ^terawW vfteM V W
issst visi.% tta
ymx%& be atasfc m taM i« f 28& rmsS#
drfbjfcAt&ia ymSOlTflSdPS
mm m &rip* A « m
a ’V w w t o e 'n t r t e
w »
immt bliwis
sta sd w ii^ * ©Sstaly
& *SQ atnd>gtl.ifcl., bullet idslsfc tfe® te^Vteyof ISO «mt mi a posses SO® is iwpimd* fta
stats alow fiss m% will
fir© la imwly eeoorsta
mm m&$m st
t l w tea M s
wmm&» m%
1.$^ sacst of his
wai»>u>» q#
—'— “ * t e t e ra,
ta^pis «rs
mmi f t o
wm®1sttss stats t t e
mgm t o # in tw»lw©
pr^arsd J^r svsay sfflcsr.
^ the
t w M i
i# U m Mat ram $m*mw$ ®pmc%
st«m m d im m
m l a priest m sm $ tat cur » #*»
ts t e taw ts ataot sstar sslusl ^
cotaftates Itay try
wtxefc**1 m m mm&% mm mm a ^ t a l ta i M tost#11 sngle©
ti<sw9 »M wx$m mmMMmm t$%U& mm dta^pd t&m p&nsd. to pmMU &m
Foil ce ltlS>4ll#
*to this
Mg S
DP* 6-?, 30.
not# tta
Cbi^sfS F««^ Biststet
tasti i ta b *
by Hsu;*
— I B S Separate
mi instruction stall hm established far
captains, Itaatmm^sarieimts, pbr€tow%* license officers,
officers, mtorea^menj mm$&& m n g foot traffic
mm* lediwap keepers, chauffeurs, surgeows, s M m sen, oper*
©tors, tata&taoMi, Mtmne, md those assigned to. the vehicle
end *aartn© seetians, ©iso. for stab grata© and separate usaits
as may herein be provided for# In addition to tbs. general
courses of instruction, special course of Instruction pertain­
ing to the special tables performed staH be required for ©tab
gxvfeta and special wit* Courees of i^etruotlow stall wot ta
less ttaa forfey-e&ihi h m m tar&iim per m m m and stall ta di­
vided Into periods of m t less then m m hour eaeh*l
In addition, «ti«5r captain., lieutenant, sergeant, sod pstndmu * • * ,
stall be required to fire tta prescribed revolver course mmmX3^§ each
to practice
per eecth for at least siac a*oistta*#®‘
Until IBM, no training proeeteos sere employed in the Illinois
State Bi^tna^’
FOUoe Bepsrtiswit# Ib that year pesb^eaisey
tradoing b$gw#t eith the
mploy©d to
of a m e pops Instructor eta ess
jp^ aotadule a ©ontdnuous bri&wtiig designed to per—
*» a # the isoiwefiaoal# In 3BS$?* femiiniiag arid reablxie in
mtmtm intrtaweed wMto th e appointatat o f tapbal** H* H* Bentlsy
IXMn cta
M t & e t a t
appointed t a i n
master eta Instructor is the m m of flstams# Mta district (there are
13) tae its 0001%
of ten roctas
esestaly m d
by Its ooimmteig officer*
ere r ^ a i r e d
a i t a t a M
the outdoor range at district tataqcertars#® Xaapoctions
Mo* M>*
*3Md,. So©. 823.,
Swtatag In firearm is piwitad at ell district headquarters, and
seaeHy consists of# (1) Instnxetion in mem sad clearing, sighting and
arming, positions, target e^psose, m d rapid sad quick firs* (2) Toclmlcel tats of the tatted Btstes Oxdlnimcm Corps eta of leading didlian
saanufacturer® of band esapana rclaiiw to care, cleaning, functioning,
sights, etc# ($} ladivitaal tratali^i as taught at the infantry and Gavstagr tatadl of the tabbed Metes Array in natters of position, trigger
eqpeeee, rapid and quick fir®*
are held
the year* At frequent Intervals c&oh district is
inspected by higher officers frtm headqpflrtmm*^ Xi mill b® observed
that training in grtam&sr United t© mtterrs of discipline and the is**
prewwe&t of ©rdta»n©© skiXXo# As yet there is no state police ached,
I s m I n d ic a te d p re v io u sly *
In other dipartetsais poafMsitry training has proceeded Stagy* B©c©s~
mxy o^sipisnt is liftancXaXly laapoeetble in saost coamunlties, while the
cost of ©aplw^yieg mcp&c* instruction ha© jsmi&ndcd training in most of
4fe« speciaXiXea* In tfois e o w f e l ® tot dsewtraXls&ilm of poUeo f w tioniag in the cmmfc? ha# $Xayad on Umor%mt roX©* 3b' the words of on©
appctoting afflMrt
W$©^whe«stv© training is financially Impossible
ux&sas the per capita s st of instruction is
reduced to reasonable fig*
Our m e is typt«i*X of the situation In the county* m# seldom
Maw* nW@ tbfSX t&SCO© OP fOUP p S tro ta S S S t & Maaaww^ m i^ lty ©v©3y O ther
’W. ■Jm
os oouju* not
ilM M k S
Jki -H 4WU
whlhM*B:iK M M .S ili*B n
f f l Mfc lift f^liJiM B IIH 'M lltl M i l l i a i
S ' Mi ji.M
sfforci to sofntsdn temining,nsoo^ssrtoss for soicw,
nor wttttti us sfftodl to wsst for the sarvieeij of sosoiaXlste for this msft*
«3S0pios ®ms$2-
ffilBh irirriin«nff iVnr i»
©or o f ccK M uaities *
j b S
'--■ - •• -■, ji IB -m
nanoiCMi^ps poso*ontw^ trswomg is Aii^^roBxn g inant®**
g |i« laBiflfttfti iIiiW B B m S rtl m *n rt,
ram ,Hi B'bSb n iPiBittrtV m ihM m r
•£ «M . S
-C w^mIi ‘■nfciftif>~Mti t Brfc i*1h W%tti
r u i# i s i^p t& cn x srx y tr u e o f tn o s a aepsPw ^n& s ^ ceav
^RnKk.w j M
^.>. Wh *^iAlt S
ni *BiT ilnlil
idbjtfUlfcKa M B
b8 JlkMMMIMit
W u M Ml
tsln medMos of whieh how sttend^i schools of polloo instruction such
so the ^orl^m»torn Uniwroitj traffic Safs% Xnstitet© and the national
Felioo Mmfam In ia«ftiiisgtoi# % Cm Osiof Mte* of
Ktgtn Police Do*
psrtamt has reomtlif iimti^itod a owrse of iiateisiw instruction for
Ids dsportront based i^pon the insferuetim hs reoeiwd at the Aoade^r. In
Oak Park, Cloero^ Bee W&a&mm mi lliir Forest p m & m m of traffic in*
*For a brief dsscriptim ©f Gaining in
the depsrfcsaaniso® the XXI*
p m (Mard^*4pr'll# 1957), p* 20, See also
^ O T ) , pp* 10*17*
struction are being carried out under the direction of police officers
who have received training at the Traffic Safety Institute*
It is apparent however, that training is progressing "at a snail*s
pace,1* in most communities. Two factors chiefly account for this. On
the one hand an awareness of the importance of training has not yet de­
veloped to a point which permits a policeman to secure leave of absence
(with pay). In most instances while police executives and governing of­
ficials ar® prone to encourage training they have not yet encouraged
training to the extent of offering financial assistance while away from
the department. For this reason, except with regard to the older men
who have had opportunity to save up enough to tide over the period of
training, most policeman must confine their schooling to short courses
of instruction given within striking distance of their departments.
More important, Is the fact that there are not many opportunities
of acquiring police training* In a good many instances, doors to insti­
tutions of higher learning ar© closed due to the inadequate educational
background possessed by average policemen. Moreover, inflexible local
residence rules and the absence of a public demand for the adoption of
a professional attitude by the police has served to militate against
collegiate instruction in the police science for those about to enter
the police profession. Again rigid lines of promotion tend to load the
lower ranks of the police hierarchy with superior recruits unable to se­
cure promotions to the higher ranks to Which their training entitles
them. Within the state and county, opportunities to study at police
schools are negligible. The state as yet offers no opportunity for
instruction, nor does the county. The Chicago Police Department Training
School confines it# activities almost entirely to wm&vrB of the depart­
ment* This la also tree of the Chicago Park District Department* Thus
except Jtar limited possibilities of study in the Universities, la the
f r a m e Safety tarfeittte at Evanston and the Academy at Washington,
training la confined atasb entirely to the facilities offered by the
taddwidaal department, or to mwk opportunities as ere offered by private
It i» Indeed disheartening to realise that in a county such
m Cock in which the epgMvtteLttei fbr training are logics that the poseiMlitiea of training are teaigaificaiit*
%&psifi©ant in the
of 'training programs la- the partici­
pation of private agencies* One of the first of such project* was the
Sheri training course given at Sptiagfleld, IHinoia in 1956 under the
joint anapicaa of the Illinois Iteicipel league m d the Illinois Felice
ikssociatim* The meeting m m attended by a meter of police officers
£foe Cook County* t a g the participating instructor® md the subject®
of their
were the foUowing*
£* M* Briggs, Stete-wid© Ctaperaticm in Police Work by ftadlc*
Earl H* Be long, Organising the State gainst Crime
A* B* Bermls, The k m of Arrests*
Albert li« Ball, Training, in Service*
A* J* tern, CriMnal law, Offenses agata&t Society*
31* 7* Beater, Bow to handle Federal Offenses*
0* K* Hopkins, k m m m t m U m m of M e m fkmmm m& itamitifisi.
John imdoeco, Pardee and Pardons.
tamards Muter, Seleattfte Ortas Itaeetietu
w, W* MuetObergsr, MicsX JteLetme In Pclte© M e *
E* w* MtlHMMr, the Folic© Power and the ItaieipaXlty.
M t m Wmrnr* Folic® Beeord Systems*
Stories M* Ween, Bullet end Wirmms XtaUfleatioa*
5ee .^w,jggy^aay^£
pf * a-s *
This meeting gave a great deal of ictpetes to private training in
the ^tropc&iten area of Cbieaee* M i s very little has bwm done in
Cook County, a mater of i^artmitos have h&m offered In neighboring
counties* tang the most peegreeelv* of these attempts a s the course
of instruction ha&i beteesri fievmfeer 24 and itesster 19 of 1987 at
Shsateii Illinois, under the auspices of the Ba Fag© County Police Asso­
ciation* ftedmmb lectureis and specialists were invited, all asspsnses
being defrayed by the aeecotabtaa* Among the topics Included ware •Ma©
fWtae&ngt (1) Itaieid© and 3©ac Orta© Xnwestigabian* (Z) Moratory
Usthods in M i c e Science* (8}
Cm Investigation. (4) Handling
of Federal OffMerft* (5) Traffic I M t e u u (6) ftetegr&phi© Aids in
Polios Work. (7) handling Arrests, Search, and PmliBinary Inveetigatlcm.
(@) Fire«3E5ss Identification* (9) The k m of Arrests and legal Evidence,
Ac interesting aeommb of this msotim is to bo found in fflftjaUflfijg
Pi^iipsman (Bsesster, 1957), p* 9*
71- MsttowaBfe-M i s s i o n WmpB
An set of the Illinois lagIsXafcur© in 1877 may be tamed the begin•* pension o p t a la the county.1 The act did not provide
far annuities or pmm&ma t a r euixrmnmieMm, but merely for benefit® to
p d i m r n and d t w e n pemsaaesatay disabled in the p m & s m m m of duty
and far pvymmta to widows end children under sixteen years of age. tm
y m m later* however, a seoes** act m m passed setting up a "police pen•ton® ftod im cities of 89,009 inhabitants or over, the fund to be administered by an ea-officio t e b styled the M i
of Fdice Fund Ooxe-
adsaioners.^ This eat gave the poUoe .pension fund designated portions
Of specific mmnscs and provided that n d aeObar of the police force
should pay into the fend one per sent of hie salary* The lair also pro­
vided for a pension of can-half salary to be paid poUe&aen fifty years
o f age or over vdth twenty peers of service to their credit*
in 1909, rctdresaffirt systwa providing psnslm system far police em-
p&oy&m in all smlcdpallttee having a population of from 5,000 to 50,000
were eftmted.^ fh 1981, further legislation provided that
pansies systems in a H citlea cweeeding 800,060 pcpuXatiaa should be reg­
ulated tn an
1 s t
a p a n s ie s la w m a s te d f a r p e a k d is t r ic t p o lic e -
mm*® T h e a c t p r o v i d e d f a r t h e e d d d l s t a s t o f p e n s i o n s y s t e m ® i n t h e
(in?), p. 62.
£rhi*i. (las?), p. 122.
*Xa L d .
(1908), p. 122.
(1921)* P* 254.
Slhld. (]M), p. 445.
H a w s lsx«Mt
pam tiiatrleto in Cfeioago.
totar (in 1021) atwste of the
- WW t o e ***** * * » «a*te*a Into a stogie pension fond. toe tomae a«t
speewtod aaeontlng to & flttpalrtiii
Ktan by A t e h ton aaooat of
pa&AwarnerbitswUy n m i by toe act, ftmver, to toe later
set, mgrneum mom baaed upm m Mtoeatod ( m m m m by which oiwutftoe earn je** oto of totowbteiw free salaries cAtptAimam end of eon*
toUttthioto by toe peate tftotototo* Sob orttt lfi85 m m
Ooto Sesgrfgr era-
pvtm*&m. Sy tols set all edeil eervtee eaptoy*
see w e e toefestad mA mstoto rnm^mx sendee saptoyeew too had eetiatUA ontoto vcKjoLsmento m to eagOxysiSRiu1 familar to S« , an «»>
pfeyse* gtowi pension
ptoyeaw* enmity and benefit, toad was p m t o d for toe saadtary district
Hy m
net of the togtototove to W . J
pmolm toads w e
tolijraU wnleipalibiea of eewr 5,000 population, toe totoeeo Ito*
sfajnltosy Mete*®*, end toe Forest Preserve tosfcrtoi. The
peMae of tneieipa&toiee under toe epeoifled pcpsXetoon rsnso, the pelioa
of leaser paste dtotadoto*
toe etoto M^n»ay
wtiatemwm pcilioe axe
pmtmk«^Leam &g m m m^mmSL
MX pmmm pmmim fm^rn mm o f nm
i 1/4 jwr « m & of
for p s w t a jmm^ mnmb #
M lt n f i i U M
paid os^sfooo
*&3fc east* 4otetioof fcfoo
m rtafttatM $
por omfe o f *»«&
o f mX&ry
ivmit pm me.
®Sa th is eaasMrtton awe toe paephleh
lif t (IBS?) issued by the -took Osuhty ReernitofAy
p. 470.
to the fund*
the police in the Chicago Park District and the Forest
Preserve District contribute in the same manner.2 In municipalities,
5 1/2 per cent of salaries of the police are paid into funds, the munici­
pality contributing 8 1/2 per cent of the salary paid, However, House
Bill #285 in the 1959 General Assembly provided that hereafter the City
of Chicago should pay 2 5/7 times as much as the police contribute. Be*
ductions from police salaries m m increased from 5 1/2 per cent to 4 per
It is not our purpose her© to eashaustiirely discuss retirement pro*
oedures. These are detailed in the various acts and vary considerably
in the county*4 In general it can be said that a policeman is eligible
to retire on pension at the end of twenty years of service or when he
shall have reached the age of fifty* Compulsory retirement for police*
^Hote for example, the booklet* The Sanitary District Sasplovees*
Annuity apd Benefit ffund issued by the smxtary District iet&ement
Board (1959}, p« 9.
^ota the booklet, heading Froyisions of the Act Regulating the
fioaaty Enpipires»a tomitarand Benefit Fond M .Qeak
Kith Aceomanorlm Table* (1927), p. W.
This biH became & law on May 7, 19S9 when fiororaor Homer allowed
it to become a Ian without his signature, The Chicago tribune* May 7,
4Se© the following booklets? (1) lhaUSaalt.^,..^t^
Annuity and Benefit Fundf issued by the Sanitary District Retirement
Board (1959lt (23 Bxnlanatorv Statement of Main Provision of Apt Relating
Military District Employees.^.Jpsmlty Mid BenefltJ^ ^ of i^iea^o^ isdth
Accompanying Tables* also issued by the Retirement Board (no publication
s Annuity and Benefit Fund* Seventeenth Annual Re­
port of tfae M t i ^ ^ t Board, City of Chicago fl9S8)s (4) Leading Provision of the Aet Begulatim the County
J t o & tar and Benefit
im§ M ,$mM
issued by the
Cook County Retirement Board (1927); (5) Seventeenth Annual Report of the
Retirement Board issued by the Retimment Board of the Park Pollcemen s
Annuity and Benefit Fund (1956)*
w m la required of Chicago polio©, the ago of invttom*xt being fixed at
»i!«iy~bhree*. Wtm twenty years of ssrrlee have boon rendered, the aiaount
of o<xpma&ite Is fixed at OB©*&fl&f the anmal salary last earned by the
Certain &axtem and sinter compensations are prescribed, hw*
For service under taswad-y years, tbs w m n t of © Is d«*
tensinad In m m v & m m with the credit scale® provided for in the several
sets. Xn general, the ainount is debetened by the contributions of the
eaplcye# to the fend*
P e n s i o n f u n d s o f t h e $Mmm F a r k D i s t r i c t ® , t h e C h i s a g o F e l i c e
Departffiteiiit, the tedtary Mstrlct, and those of Cook County are .all
established os as
basis ami w #
ly solvent* For
s a m p l e , i n v e s t M n t s o f the F a tk Dist r i c t fiend aggregate IS,000,800*
t e a s e of incogs m m pa^rnmt i n 1958 aggregated #5X9,0 0 G * T h e flmu**
elal states of the ted m
by the audit m m in exccXlent condi­
But such a situation is not to be tend in most of the MiniclpallMas having pension: teds, to Judge from a report of the State Sterwaee
Department.^ Tim following table indicate actuarial deficit® in a mm»
hey of teds In Cook (testy smnicipaXitiess
rTrf'utwnflM H n s jM 'iin n .- in iir D if n T T i jitn r r r 'jr r - ir r o iiM W iifin f fiiH e s n i i e.iiiHii flu ii.r tr f i i r i i r r c f t : i i r .‘r * n r T r r ‘■ n r n r rr Vi
‘‘■ " f i ------- ‘~ r
Polioeews** Anmlty said Baneflt Fuad,
aarfc ..of..MMt.Bafttewwafc-lBMafl {XSS8)# p. 21.
gXlUfloi8 Foatowssa (Hay-Jun®, 1938), p. 6. Figuraa a m giwa for
1018* ""
are those of the State Insurance Beparteni#
-203fable 10
Actuarial SpiDWMar of ..gartata Pension Fanflg
Blue Island
Chicago Heights
' Oieero
0e© Plaines
Klntwood Park
Worn®t Park
Melrose Park
Oak Park
Park Ridge
River Forest
Gross Assets
$ 58,190
Actuarial Deficit
Thus according to figures cbsapiled by the State Insurance Department only
tm fbad© are solvmt--those of Blue Island and Bee Plaines.
Several factors account for this situation. Two, in particular, are
primarily responsible* In most instances funds are not organized on an
actuarial basis. Computations are usually based upon round-fLgure esti­
mates which may faH far short of requirements* The other reason is
that pension funds in a number of Instances are diverted to corporate
purposes* If funds are needed for municipal expenditures, municipal of­
ficials arrange with the pension board for a transfer of funds* Three
years ago an incoming pension board in Berwyn found such a situation and
sued the city for 050,000 for funds that had been so diverted* The
state's attorney of Cook County recently pointed out that his office is
the recipient of an increasing number of complaints and that in sots©
instances M s office was forced to threaten action if conditions sere
act remedied# It is indeed imperative that all pension funds be accrued
m m actuarial basis and that the diversion of funds be specifically en­
la the foregoing page® of this chapter we have briefly covered the
salient features of personnel policies and procedures in the county* Cer­
tain important factors were found which impeded a more complete adoption
of formal merit practices# Option clauses In legislative provisions
with regard to swmicipalltiee have hampered a wider adoption of merit
practices, while population limitations have precluded such practices in
municipalities of under 7,000 population# Absence of merit practices in
the sheriff1s departments and the State Highway Maintenance Police De­
partment bee seriously crippled both these departments# Such la their
imparlance that the vagaries of politics should not be allowed to dic­
tate police personnel practices#
The inseparability of personnel from the quality of police service
rendered indicates the vital roles played by such factors as the size of
a department, the distribution of police strength, the composition of the
various forces, compensation standards, tenure, and other police ser­
vices* We noted that police strength Is preponderately municipal, 87
per cent of the police operating in the county being municipal police#
We noted also that there is a marked decentralization of police strength
and that the seventy-two municipalities having a population of under
I 10,000 population had an average police strength of less than three po­
licemen# A trying situation has arisen in which the burden of enforce­
ment falls upon a considerable number of small departments which have
not the capacity to render a complete police service to their communities.
are $n& oeiaw ageegrted atm l*
$fo# poXlee of
ciepttrteseft&s ana tms&ly aedetpeiil# £obp»
iiiie M 3a te rm a$ a& n u ip itei tn«i«d #eta*r baw l «$£& a ffor^eiglsfc
W to M m ^Nf *•••% to* ww^wS m t o r m m & 3 & faUio feoto* fl*®GO a
$mp* lm m » « f a&d&e && toes* iNpneiaa &®wte|g I'oraaft saarlt *§reta®0
iadiawtMMi a mw&tt&m
§$9P 49dP
lo «£&*&*» eryte«@m^# &» to* is*!****
b$ti&t&- t#6&
SBrlt sg?*ti$s0£
%m%mm* ftm ftaVNyMr «l«iit«a tarn of to* eharifl* sod toe ab**
m m
jpg iiye^NitMfe'fiW1
tore*?* fior*etost!*
§g*ee &*$$$ p®msi&$te8L Ifeetoee redaslagg; toe effeetoivaeeiNi
e£ toteae e£ftee*»
y^wMm^ %* to*
j3TOT1*ffHf |SI1@PBSS8I *C
&$&&£ 1Ml iffilJffWOd Hoet ftijd&eldlBe pWBQISIBSt
t&gf fff^lff
§§*$* fffiM
to*** l& to*
IWInMs ®
imae i^aaiwaS a eeee aide *$£pas** e£ record ppi*©**
^ { M f a H p H B P ^ ^ A I p iiJ a in k a ^ v R 'a P w i^ ^ K a
Iwaft Sfcftfe
• iw i B v t P
* H W r® e
IffSfSKWSS^&’feii- gtatftfrifeiMiw^^
a f f K w w i r e * J i y i y a ^ a p t W^ w-
* tr * © fc *
& SSaptjBtiBRF
tiat *&**%/&J*amt frmfahtsm fyrfaft
e rT e ^ a w w a w e p u ®
tw w m bw w fw p-
lpwsyw ^ w *
J* t© atealjfflflwa>
aaw w ^^aayr
■ w w w w 'w w j i w w
«p« w * ^p p w v n v i w w i f
$ a m m & 33r eooar «MMa « » fta rt. too ywin* S lw onftsr, Ihwomwo stawfc
Iw g-Hlwtf tlm a # p tm s ttta a to M # sr Kssrico. Ko WBrtawa «srt alniawa
ni^oo m m p e m M t& ta mdka sto w th at o f pataroljawu
£« a » ww»aitewat of pta&mmn looaX mPUtae* rosjottooswrtw Mast
tWaflQy *» faiUoaoet. Ago roifsxUot^ts fo r wanmwi in tbo ftasal awrlt
«sseB»«!$l* la «egw^^lisa^salls' laMi^ is$3^6S* Wi®tF
^ H ^ ^ n lu a t^ M IR Q IN la 1
IW fp ^
iibM m of
H aT W 'W lp n ra !W a »
«RFW ^w^*wv>r#^*m viF
a^ u p fc^
li^tetio isa la ^
^ is p ^ w w iw v v * * y
^ w a » * wf f ,a y y
lam M
■• • ■■
imtkmmm i®
<*ab tftm
moq0mmmtem s m i
smote itamtikmsrlt
m & mmmmm
m $ Usooo
to tfeo req&iwimifcc of pe&icing,
n^Lto ]pms^riM oxsi <93£^mtt<ms &#& p o ^
«ttr pwaoMoal In btatr iimfcsr.
ocos» M
ttso h m H o @ $ ewo*
w tli®
iy^lrltai/m of
w tw
^ w w * * ^ w*w
*w w ^
W i r W W f * '^ *
pntiM %m w$m mmffiMm
fetitftfl fn p*****8”***«te.».fjW suo. 40m|
'( F W B l W M w H
It to ooooiatM*
“ I iM b
^ n^prV A P M W Iv
wom^w^ jw imiiw
k « ( P T|FPoW|WTiPiBP*OPP,i B C T # r* ff
tommmp* that %mtem wm bo
ooOo of tb» il?06K6Moto ooifiioii bar the osb of wi&tt&n iwioFbB otsb&lfebcKi tar
fOOlstf^ OfflONKOO tO HOFSS 4^608^00#
1& tbo fSoSUI of
lisotistootj tj^i^fff^ to
ooo ^^NWifOBtibSUB# 1$i saoot
e$t$ to ofw^fliftoil to the b®oo s^uiit^oEitio^*
lOO Of pO^SoSj2g*
tbO ObSOSHfflB Of pf’CI^NSir tyollits^
tn^o lOOtiOtolodl O^T olOO #.<§0fl^llil *jfcjf bOOtibO&£8£| pOOt^UsOO 000fcw
I^PI^I^ |o tbO
tO ffiNOlS lO CHP^f OOO
^h@P0 &0 A
$n n$$ twoaofcgf but no jjpob Use ocsstoot of swt^btioiisaw
|,y^| jjft
Finally, la tbo £U&& of penatcmo «rat rwU*ww»fc»,
{ M 0 N » ha» b a m «**•«
Uammff itapito ttao atdo aaooptaaaa of p m *
a i m p r m H a m ^ • olte»$t<» estate la i M > ttea bmoflto of pouaioas
«n» levgeSty nriUfflad. tv tt»
aHmmm of w r t n H M l
hafeita of d & w t i n g fowSs fop oovpwats ptvpoaM.
praoUoee wad lisa
H M & p m a t m ftwsto
ora MMntotecwt la m o b a aaanar test it la aw fetftil if ouch foods
offor any ganwlwHl aaowitr to ttw poiUoo.
C H A P m IX
f m a mmfcmr of years the struggle to reduce political control over
a polio® Apartami and to raise the sfeiusdards of personnel service has
Assured the ia^ertam# of polio© w^lpmm* in the pursuit of polio©
Slmt the beginning of the present century, hommr§ the vital
rol© of o^dpawt has been M w a tas to polio©
public of­
ficial®, and th© cltietmry* Baldly ©standing mkinlclpol area®, the *»ark©d
development of mtmmttm transportation, the inter-city nature of ©rime,
have eolspclled at reliance upon automotive equipment, records, and ocientiftcaiim of equipment In the repression, premnfeion, and detection of
oris©* fo © constdcr&bl© extent, the organ!0afelon of a department and
the taeties it adapts are conditioned by the type of equipment available
to the departMEit. Such organ!station and tactics are m important, con­
tributing fore© to the ultimate suoeess or failure of polio© fimcticming.3-
i^ndquartere and precinct stations, ©bother in large or small de­
partments, assuw a primary position in the emimeratioxi of police equip■
innirn unrtufa
Ihe tm% is frequently forgotten that proper equipment has an allimportant bearing m the moral© of the depsurtoent, Equipment represents
the tool of the policeman* like the artisan, he is isholXy at a lose un­
less the tool© of hi©- trade are awtlabXts. An example of the Influence
of equipment m isoral© Is this* In cm© of the larger Apartments the
purchasing agent advised against the purchase of new squad oars, holding
that reeonditioned ©era w m M effectively serve tis© purpose* It 00 hap­
pened, howswr, that all the ©are mere built previous to 1833 &jkS had
long sins© passed service age* Of the situation, mm of the officer©
stated: wfhis radio gadget (pointing to the radio receiver In the squad
oar) means very little* Hot on© of our oars ©an be run over forty—five
ment. Buildings must be so arranged that prisoners may be booked, finger­
printed, and questioned ‘
without bringing them into contact with citizens
who may be in the station on other business.
It is important, also, that
adequate housing facilities be provided in order that ample room can be
set aside for records, identification, and motor equipment* It is ele­
mentary that quarters must be such as to add to the prestige of the de­
Unsightly headquarters or quarters located in run-down build­
ings simply complicate the task of policing* A Apartment is gauged to
a considerable extent in terms of appearance and this holds true as to
headquarters and as to the personal appearance of members of the force.
Headquarters must be properly marked and such directories must be fur­
nished that the citizen can easily locate particular divisions of the de­
partment* Proper marking is particularly important in this day and age
when there is a notable intercourse between communities.^
Although the importance of the geographic position of headquarters
and precinct stations has declined with the motorization of police units,
it is nevertheless true that in the construction of quarters, close at­
tention must be paid to the location of police problems and to the prob­
able direction of community growth. There are several instances in which
precinct stations are misplaced due to the failure of authorities to con­
sult with eiiy planning official®. Particularly as to those sectors in
which systematic beat patroHingis still required, quarters must be ©smiles an hour with safety. Our men realize that there is very little
chance of overtaking fleeing criminals. The result Is that most of the
radio squad members have developed a *we don* t care attitude* which has
greatly impeded the proper functioning of the radio units.*1
^In this connection note the report of Greening, "Report of the
Committee on Scientific Standards in Police Service,1* Yearbook, Inter­
national Association of Chiefs of Police (1956-57) (1957), ppT 69-70.
tablished with m eye to giving waxtewm service to patrols and to mini­
mise the contact distance between patrols and headquarters.
Remarkable impr<nrenerrts in headquarters and station facilities in the
county within the last six years is on© of the important developments in
police functioning, fisits to some hundred headquarters in the county in
1935 were profoundly discouraging* Several examples will indicate the
then generally prevailing situation. In Berwyn, one of the larger cities
in the county, the police department was housed in a rickety, dilapidated
old building which had once been a saloon. The citizen in seeking the de­
partment was forced to climb up a dimly lighted stairway to the second
floor* The Ask room m s once a clothes closet.
To see the chief of po­
lice, one had to walk down a narrow hallway cluttered up with filing cab­
inets and what not* There were no facilities for housing equipment. In
Homewood, headquarters of the Sheriff* s Highway Department, was a dishev­
eled fire trap which had been built by deputies on land loaned to the de­
partment by the Illinois Central Railroad. A freight car donated by the
railroad served as the centra! room of headquarters.
Bat to a considerable extent, such conditions, as Ascribed above,
have been removed* F.W.A* and W.F.A. funds have been generously used in
the construction of housing facilities, particularly In the municipali­
ties. In the sheriff1© department, two headquarters have recently been
completed at a cost of about $70,000.^* While the two stations - one lo­
cated in the north section of the county, the other in the south section,
are not sufficiently large to accommodate for future expansion, they ade*^For a brief account of these stations, see the Annual Message of
Clayton P* Smith, President, Board of Commissioners, Cook County (1938),
p* 145.
qu&tcly e&rm preemit purposes* In Chicago, renasdeXing of did district
stations and the owmbrmbim of a number of m m stations is going on
apace* Many of %hm stations m m so ancient as to bo past the condosmation stage and, though positive tlrm%mp&3 had mmped om&mm&Xm of
building oswissions and tbs absolute ban of firs inspsotora. Buildings
were mainly «*£ wood construoticm and the materials in m m of them had
stood 'the test of eighty yews?*
At present, seven modem fire-proof
stations have bean oonstruoted at a -cost of about #450,000, forty-five
per east of Gonstruotim costa being mypXt&fr tftroagfc a Federal Public
Works gmswt*
Xh Msae with building trends in ether parts of tbs county
are the recently eenstraebsd imxmlcipiiX buildings In Cicero and Berwyn.
Olcero*s peXioe Aptrtent has «Xre&% mcated tbs old fire-trap police
station and has aewud Into excellent. quarter® provided In the new m m Ie~
ipal bulldingB. B m p 1® Aportmnt esspeo&a to mow into its new quar­
ters tm tbs ssttoioiphl teiMIng about the first of August. Xn all, twenty(duly-Jmgnst, 1937, pp. 4-6), is this Aoorlptloni
»Mg®y of :lhe"®5tHotrfcBti<ms were so moimt m to be past the Goods*nation stage, but they were still in use ©mry minute of the A y throughout the year* They m m a danger not only to the prisoners, but to the
p©ll«*an kijmmlt* Tmtttm
by sow miracle of past adminis­
tration, they escaped alike both me om&mmmttm of the building ooasieslow and the absolute h m of firs inspectors. They were mainly of wood
eewtruebion, sod the Mstsrlsls usod in m m had stood, la sm m instances,
the test of eighty years t In sots of the more recent - constructed- about
the time of the Columbian ®gpmiU.m - a facade or pestuesi even siAmlto
presented to an obserw a vieta of brick and stow eonstruotion. But
i n s i d e t h e y w e r e s t i l l H r e - t r a p s , a n d I f a f i r e h a d s t a r t e d t h e * g u y s I s
the basement* would haw stood no ehst&oe, and $ ? ® r h e p $ nailer would many
officers«H Eseeepb in these districts in. which new police ha&dquerterc
1mm hmm obstructed, the situation today Is about the easts as It was in
1050 as Ascribed by the Citterns1 Police Cemadttoe* For m analytical
evaluation of the character and conditions of district stations see *}Th©
Cifciaene* Police 0Msitt©e,w (Mea/qa.. Polio© pR&ftmm (1931), pp. 222-27.
%h© resmiBing fifty-fiw per cent m s contributed by the city from
unexpended portions of bead funds. ao^wauXated from various city improve­
ments previously oompleted*
'tew n m polio© headquartos h&m been constructed or restedeled in the
past fiw yews*
_ Btmftlm?
are ®lm tmmd 1m t o special districts and
sta te h ig to y p olice dep&rtont* t o Forest Preserve D istrict recently
eonetruoted m hsa&ieart«rs ImUMm
Gfcteage Fark
m^dmW,y mrmn m a police
IftUferl** atteetlw
t^ d ^ s ^ te re
tmm p w t e In t o MnSMeteftMon®' BuiMlng* Of the three district
stations in t o toeag* Fork mstrict# t o tane eswllmt liead^arfeers*
Use le s t fsrk S ta tic has bmn recognised as a saodel For police boosing
For son® ywvtt* t o South- Paris: Station is si®q®st»* Accept slth regard
to tbs X&imfoi Fask Static, little addition to headquarter o^uipawt
is ssssssssy* thile tore ha® been very little building prsg?m* In the
lesser park districts* %mmkmr of t o d is tric ts teas* ssado arrangements
For their police to w e warty asetelpal pe&lee station©* Is to the State
E l^esy MsAntmmm Fo&iee* isp ertsst pregres# has been »ad** IfetH
1M%% there top® no police iwd^psrtes^ s&toegh t o n a t e s of t o
first sorgeatit on tot W@$mm Street w r t o the purpose* Unofficial
head*$eai•ter® smi ftaggmy** Iteteapipt iiorihttest of Obteage* Sere* m
t o sergeant indicated* »X omsM also ee&taefc a $ m of isy nsn sitfcin m
bow m so*** I m W i
this conditio® tm& ton ell^mted isttfe the recent
eenstwefclcm of m ettswtsto efeet&ratoase in t o m ^ r m m of Oak Park*
At p m ® m %
of t o mtoty mm%Q&paX police stetlcsas are
located in city* village* or toss halls* the recateng dspaftowiis are
housed In serrate fcetldixtpu EhAX* it is difficult 'to dateonslae the adof a police Mildlng s&thimt a detailed study of the particular
weds for floor space in relation to the police problem of that cosftamlty,
•owe indication of conditions m & obtained from conversations with chiefs
of police* Opinions m m divided.. In departments having mm headquarter**
ehtefs wore maniison® ttusfe the m m quarters allowed for ttomtesl profloloaoy m d tot epaolug m & ootlogr were ma®&® for police purposes* la
part* M »
be attributed to t o fm% tot ample funds m m available
for etmstoofcioa t o tot t o t e * of design* ete., were subject to ap­
proval by federal officials. tore appears a marked etol&srlty in t o
design of t o w new police tottete* At t o entrance there la usually a
ftyer* at
t o of which, Is plato t o sergeants desk* with its radio,
telethons and otor wmtooatlo® equlpaenA* A door lead* to t o squad
row where the pstotasn watt to go an duty* MJacont to this row is
t o garage and raeeitog r o w tore- t o patrol wagon or m&mL car » y
unload prisoners* Stas&lgr t o or more private offices are to tm found*
for the chief* and for eter officials* A cell rmm is usually placed
at t o side of the garage with m additional cell adjoining for obstrep­
erous p&lmtmm*
Provision is usually «de for a private row where
prisoners o m foe questioned by the polio© or interviewed bjr thet* consol
without inttoesmeft from otors*
Eeetoe t o Mortification eqwipneet
are usually t o t o In a oep;%rate m m *
However* when attention Is turned to those departments tooh are
still housed la old headquarters, a diffexwKit picture is ustoly pre­
sented* . A precursory view of t o situation itiMmimm that in mmt in-
&%mm® tto® are inadequate both as to sis© and m to arraag€®wmt* tong
t o larger departoat® which are gadfly la need of hotter headquarters
Is that of Bvanstesu
the dspartoat has long since outgrow Its head-
quarters and the dspsrtswwfi is greatly haapered for lack of spa©©. In
general, the chief criticisms of chiefs of police are that there is not
owagh space for the m®$ L&lnt roo% that the appooraneo of headquarters
it not sonAmlas to e&teriftws policing, mid that there are few facilities
ter apeoialieod Mrvtatt such as record keeping, the performing of idea***
tUiMtlen tasks mid the like*
Sh*eh ham been done in r m m % yesr® in developing plans of organisa­
tion for M g u t k v i i
It it generally m m p ted that the central eoe*-
plaint desk should he stmfcsgteftly located with respect to other ser­
vice® so that therw oan he mmmuKAMMm M a m a the various service® and
th® emapl«tot desk with a minted of tis® and mqwditi^*
It has bean
teund that it is not advisable t* place the chief* s office in a too eon*
spitmeus position so that caller® asgr not be pens&tted to take up too
much trine* Segregation of policing functions is also necessary# Separate
quarter® uhsmM be piloted far records, ter the housing of equtpsent, and
tbs Uke*
In this m m m t t m , It la of interest to observe floor plan
entXines suggested by the Public 4«Lnistmti^ Service of the Internation­
al Association of QhAef© of Folios* the entire department is built around
the coxaplalnt desk and the re^srds and' identification division*1
It is obvious, of ooarsa, that is^crtant handicap© lie in the direc­
tion of eeay&ete headquarter facilities in the county* The establishment
of policing m a deosntamXisod basis has forced upon the individual comi saanity the task of providing it® 0 m quarters* Often this places a fi­
ll naneua burden on the ©osmmnlty vftxieh it is not often able to support*
il In part, this difficulty has been overcome by the eGoscaid&tlon of all
1The «Plsn. of Organisation,* i® described in
August, 10S7), pp* 7**®#
3UfeAK U * 1^
M&iclpal enterprises in m m building* Most buildings, however, were not
designed with m eye to M m m growth* The result has been - particularly
m regard® wenieipal building® constructed m m year© ago - that diaper•ion of facilities usually occurs* Fart of the police department will be
housed in the h m m m % another mmttm m the first floor, record facil­
ities m the second floor, etc* This doe® not add to a departaent* a ef­
The Incarceration of prisoner® has «&mys presented a difficult
problem in the county* SEhils few jnp&mtera regain In the local jail® ter
.mere then a foe day®, a considerable mteer is kept overnight while in­
vestigation® are being made*1 In smeexst years te® considerable mmber of
destitutes has teased jail facilities to the utmost* A® in %tm m m of
bnlMtng eignigsMait, the decentralisation of polio© functioning has also
left Its iKprint on tJm Jail sitm&ton*
It 1 ® the opinion of m w % Chiefs of police teat jail facilities
(with tee exception of the county jail) ere meager end are inato^uate
for the demands eads upon tees* It 1® apparent teat mmy of tee smaller
Jail® are so poorly constructed teat ©scape Is open to those taaates tale#
lug ttem off te wwaich ancient tai irm jail windows* dalle were pri­
marily discredited by chief® on. te® major counts test west of the jail®
m m not properly heated, or ventilated and teat In most instances the
departeent m m not in a position to retain fuH-ttsas turnkeys# Bta&na"hteie ie not the m m # h m m m 9 with regard to tee county jail*
%cmia©rteing Information obtained froe chiefs of police, it is ap­
parent teat about on© hundred person® took %ente leave from the various
jail® in tee county during XSS8 * Possibly this figure is too high, but
it indicates a condition.*
t& m also Indicates that about one-third of the jails am in non-fir©
proof buildings and subject to the bastards of fir©*1
The opacity of mil® in a mmbor of polio© fteparteoBt© appears ad­
equate* in others entirely Itiadsqmt©* All but thirteen of the municipal
dspartesmte hove jail facilities vftddh rang© from <ro cell to thlrtp41w»*
District #31 (fbo Itawsll strest District) of the Chicago Polio© Depart­
ment h m tee- 3jw&m& nuber of cells of any of the aadalpal police agen­
Of Mas park polio© d^partnattts, only tea Cfefawgo Fork Btateiei is
smApjsod*^ m m % m m m park districts usually use the nearest isanlotpaX
jail* The Sanitary Mefcrteb Polio© and the Forest Preserve Police do
likewise* Until recently evw-ntglib pick-ups by sheriff1© deputies m &
by the state highway police were also placed in near-by municipal jails*
low, however* with, tbs w » jail ftosCLltlss offered in the newly constructed
and. In the state highway police depaa^taaant, major
oases mm 1ntemsd by tee police in teelr respective jails* The number
of sells and tee Moiras and mw&atm capacity of jail facilities is as
hb& tele mmm®%tm Mis dhioago Fellos Bopartesnt la mas of the
worst violators* W l e mocXXcni jail facilities a m provided in tea
main headquarter® at 11 th and State Streets in CMe&go, the condition in
a good many of tee district stations is ds$&mfcl*« At least half tb®
stations a m
Celia are usmlly located in Mi© hm mr n% Acre
ventilation and su&itery conditions' are m % tee beat* For a brief deecripticm of jail facilities is* Ohieago n m the ^Citlsfcens* PoXAc© CtoMtte ©**1
(1B81)» PP* MHMJ7* Tbs situation as
described generally’holds' teu©”''today*
% t is seldom* howswr* teat the Park Mstriot Police incarcerate
priconers in tee Park District jails* H m * is a doss cooperation be­
tween the paste polio© m d those of tes Chicago Folio© Jiepartemt* Usu­
ally A m an m r m t is mads* te© sssvsst district station of the Chicago
MUtes Department is notified and the prisos^r is picked up by a Chicago
patrol car*
%h@se figures m y not be strictly accurate* lit the A c m e © of any
reports on jail facilities and cell capacity, tea investigator is forced
t© roly upon oral suwaries of Chiefs and other officers*
Tw m
Mste* of
Ufe&ar 20*000 population
Omr im,<m
Special mstrieia
$horiff*s Office
1Q9Q Q M 0 9OOQ
Itimb^r of cells
Mintu&eft J&S&aaaa
M n t e p ..Eaa&iaua
Stats Hiigmaay
Malmt^mweo folic#
*©f the fbrty™«& district stations of thm Chicago Police Depart« l all tat four arc equipped with Jails* tbm maSbm of mlXa
mrtm £&m two in District #51, to 89 in District #2 2 .
#Mtlwrs sap© now fo u r J a i l s in th e S S a m r ltf* * tto p m ts m sfo * The
Ooawtgr J a i l l a l o c a t e In Chicago. Saoh o f th e th ree d i s t r i c t
stations sloe hats Jail facilities*
Omsrding f^rlsomsrs osa&sos considerable trouble. In sjost of the d©~
portents the slso of tbs fore® does not pmnalt the delegation of poiv
m mmX on a fulX^timio basis for tonftay duties* In » t instances the
desk sergeant is placed in charge of the Jail* In swBaaota of activity
m mutiny asks the Janitor or ©tJ# person around te police building to
tenkcy® mo employed in only
forty^two Jails, ami of ttago, thirtr*oi#t m o in Urn Jails of the Chi­
cago Folios Ikspartant*
In ©onolcdlng tb&s brief discussion of Hi® Jail situation in Cook
County, attention should be directed to the county Jail. For many years
tbs cemty i*n>
of social wmkmt$ policeman
md gomv&mnt
official* tbs first county Jail m s belli in 185© and Inadequately served
its purpose until 1874 tihm a m m Jail m s constructed* Even with addl-
tlons vMdi mar© md© to it in 1805, it continued, to be known a© the
%Xa@k &©&©« of the county* It presented a crowed, dark, mouldy appear©nee end because of leek of facilities the*1
© m m little opportunity to
segregate criminals of different degrees of eacpcrienc© ©ad vioiousnesa.
Ha© herding of ynuthftol offenders with older and m m hardened criminals
m m a habitual practice.3* Conditions mush m this led to the agitation
roesaeneittU for the ©enstareetton. of a new and larger Jail in 1927* Ground
m m broken in Fetawy of 1987 and completion of the Jail took place in
larch of 1989, at a coat of about. 17,500,000*
The plan of the new Jail, its equipage and the mvuigemsat of cells
represent Sjaportssst departures fTm traditional plans of contraction*
There m m four cell buildings, ©acts, four stories high* All cell blocks
m s so coi^struoted as to permit the guard to walk around the entire floor,
inspect each Individual cell without the necessity of opening any of the
cell dews.
Facilities & m ample* The Jail will aocommodate 1600 pris­
oners without crowding* Ordinarily there are about 700 to 800 prisoners
descriptive mmmn% of Jail conditions in the early 10801a is
the Board of Ommtmmiomm of Cook County* In the words of the survey*
*Tc these conditions, omrnm to all, or m m l y all, Jails, the Jail of
Cook County has added a condition of overcrowding so serious as to in**
ieasify all the evil© of the
jail and add new and more menacing
ernes* This is not a new situation for our jail to be it*. It is, indeed,
chronic. The older part of the present jail, ©rooted in 1874 with in­
dividual cells for 156 persons, had by 1890 become m otmgmtml with
four end often five persons to a cell, that public ©pinion forced ths
erection of the addition n m k m m m the "Jhnr Jail,11 in 1894-95* The
180 cell® added to the capacity of ttm jail were all filled from the
overflow of the old Jail m d the vicious ^doubling-up*1 process began at
mw&* It Is now fashionable to measure the normal capacity of the jail
by multiplying Urn m$$mr of colls by tw©$ but this i© absurd.11 p. 20.
mto tiXm tbs psspfctet prepared by John tmm, mMmoL&. jS3aak Qmntes:
Jail (1050). An interesting account of the jail is -to be found in the
booklet, Souvepir of the..,Fumie. Isuipeeti^ ^
Qourt Build-
tog and 0<*>fc County J a i l (19M ).
incarcerated* Cmmmjpmtti&j tor© is mpXe roc® to allow proper segrega­
tion of prisoners, %n<$imtlm&b±y
ia county jail facilities
taw done mxch to relieve the problem of inoaroorating prisoners in the
**. lagMB&JPMU^
In another ehapter m indicated the vital role of records and record
of polio®
pointed oot that in & determination of t o effectiveness
attention mm% always he directed to the record
the department*
m the psriseeps o f the department,
perform a smlfeM serwie© and m m Intimately related to t o entire po-
H m fsmNNBa* & modem police record extern should he designed to pro*
ride for the
Control t o ifiweaiigatiesa of e r t o s t o other emplaints with
follo#--up protoaree 'to prevent investigations being dropped
without adacpate review*
Oiv© ade$g*t* i M m m M m concerning persons apprehended, t o
.getos* with reports on eadh atop In t o psmeoatloxi until fi­
nal disposition in eoort*
Show the m m m % of crime, t o proportion of offense® cleared
b y mmm%§ t o m i l e o f r e c o v e r e d o r s t o l e n p r o p e r t y , t o
etolir measure® of police aotivitto t o results*
Iteonotmte the %%m of day, weds tot season in which offenses
w e eetotol, t o
pmporU.m of various typs* of
offaaeeo, t o object® against which, cetotfced, t o top# egfflB*
andi p l o y e d , t o
t o p m U m l m ? location in ehish o r t o s are
teMng place for His purpose of detersdning whether the polio®
i m m is effectively distributed to t o various divisions t o
the patrol beats, Is s&eqttsts in mm&MT®9 or is esqploying t o
proper strategy in t o mppremtmi of ©r&w*
5* Foiat ost to- eorte of ssecgr officer, 'to principle events to*
eidenb to M s sends* in t o dagmtonfe t o otor persorjriel
6* Indicate fingerprints, photographs, .htosrltlns, itons operand!.
pp* 39—41.
t o other scientific mstods of IMtifyLng criminals and miss­
ing persons*
7* ftait^h a ctosaplto recto of t o criminaX histoy of persona
charged with tons, for coo % t o courts, probation, parole,
and other agencies of ju&tie© .
disclose facts as to lost, stolon, found and pawned property
essential to t o reeonmy t o retom of loot t o stolen prop­
erty to its owner*
Betow&n© property t o m £ra* prisoners, evidence, found t o
recovered, property#
M* M m lo m t o tote of traffic eceldsftte t o use in prosecution
t o t o t o dintoatto of causes of accidents*
Indicate cost information and upkeep of police equipment for
p m p m m mi disposing t o t o r srneh equipment is giving proper
mrv&m at reasonable cost**
Ifeu® record® m m m all-importot auad-liwy function t o t o & nutor of
If the departoni Is to furnish a ©o&plets pictoe of police
aotivitto t o problems to t o public, a record system is indispensable#
l&tottt records t o police bead and his aubcsrdimts officers cannot ea^
©reisa intelligent
control over police activities*
In t o
detejmimtian of problem® and method® of sdutlon and in the allocating
^thl* eleven point purpose of records is tot described In t o Pub­
lic Ministration tovto,
(12M), ppm 7S-70*
It is apparent at this point that t o t o m *record®w has been
ployed in its broatet sense* Under 'hrooord®** are such inclusions as t o
correspondence, officer*® reports, fingerprint
and other scientific ©rim® detection and repression data, data a® to crime
prevention, records as to traffic problems, « i mdh ©tor information as
isey cos?© to the department*® attention* In general, records may be di­
vided Into two categories* fhe first category comprise® records which
arc of a routine- torasto end have no material Ministr&biv© signifi­
cance* Thus a patrols®*** s report of a street light that is out may be
filed md forgotten after t o situation has famm remedied* However, ©tor
records are far-reaching in their effects beoaose upon t o a hinges admin­
istrative action* Information as to the number, location, and time of
known offenses, the residence and characteristic of offenders, ©t©*, f o m
the basis for the distribution of personnel mtd equipment#
-220of persaanel and equipment i s lin e with needs, reaarda are an important
For t$mm reasons, thsrsfors, complete record facil­
detomtotog factor.
ities mm
Jurog the aa$ar oMLnijrimt&m problem wmma@& with record® to
tliat of dlsf^reion. It I® w m mil accepted tfe&t the performance of
resord i mm Msm is essentially a staff function mad require© a'gsnml
imtrallmttos* of m®mx I fwiXltto®.
mmrn recording is diriilsd mong
M i r I m r a and ottwir diytoton® of to® department to® utlltoattoa of
record facilities is greatly tosM&red# M i to particularly tarn® in the
Xargsr dapartosata, i^jortant m
among ®mlX®r dspagtoents* It 1®’
tocrefore nsoatsary mt Wm m t m t to todto&t© the extent to which record
dtogwsretoa in tbs polio® departments of tbs county has occurred.
figorou® dspartointaii^tioti is to® rule in the county rather than
tba «am&ttoa»
fhto situation h m led to a marked separation of record
% ® r t b » t o g w t s n s ® o f r e c o r d s i n s p l i c e f u n c t i o n i n g s o ®
l o w i n g !
0t o n o , ^ P r a c t i c a l . W m o f F o l i c © B s e o r d ® % ® t e e ® , w M
a r e r
t o ® f o l ­
J o u r n a l o f
{a^'tes^r^etobor, X$85), pp. 668-^Bj miRecords to Msstototariiig Folio® Activities/ 1 City Me^-
f e a r h o o k ^ J
< X $ i 3 ) f p p *
X S & - 6Q 5 t o l a r ,
“F e l i c e
B s p a r t m e n t
I d sn i i * *
(WB7), pp* XXM.% Smith* ^Police iooord keeping and Reporting,"
S3S■SiasgiBg IjMtftacwite. 1981 (ItSI), pp* 14S-6§j Bledsoe, *fb® tolfom
Crtoa Beport# of the FBI - 4 lardstiek for the Polios torenti®*,*
^fore^aaant :
M 3il||p Tol*. Til {to®«*fc 1, I9S8), pp. X4«$$i Morrill,
towto,* Proo^^lim*
totore&itori&X Association of Chief# of Folios, MpapriLftf ffa&to®. Coords
( B i l ) l I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c M i s & n i c t o a t i o n ,
,t h s . F i t t s t e ^ f e
& m m i gt P o U m ( 1 8 5 7 ) 5 W J j w j ,
a tsltoaMjp % ® t ® % *
" C o a t r e U i n g
F o i i e e
I n 7« s U g a f c l o n
t h r o u g h
{$mm9 X i w * w*
®fb«re is a profiling attitude that record# arc only necessary to
tbs larger dspartosnts# fhto attitude has- bo adatoistretiw justifica­
tion. itagardlssa of the sis® ofthe department, it is essential to laatotato #cm© ktod of record of the
cosatog to the attention of the
department, of tbs action taken by the 'dsjpattiaaat, together witha wide
variety of fact® oomcming departmental duties a n d function#.
facilities* In all toe larger departoento to® stolen and recovered autoM M l e timpmtmmt usually pmpmm® and maintains record® a® to ante thefts
and reeeveriee* fteeord* as to ertoo identification are aoparetoly matototoed by to* detooMre bureau, or bureau of idsmtifioation* Secures a®
to traffic are handled #3ocluely-«ly by the traffic division, and so on.
feto rigid d^part*ento3dMto«n to® effectively precluded to® centralismMen of record facilities and practices and ha® greatly redaocd the pos­
sibilities of dwtoleptog. recording m a staff function*^
Mtogenion toward the centralisation of record facilities Is tltostratcd in the difftavXMe* which confronted the Oitisere1 Polio© OossMtto©
in its effort® to reorganise toe C M cage Police Depart^nt in I&S0-8I*
She demdttoe w m unable to overcome tradition# of dcparteentelisation
and finally
to a general continuation of separation in order
avoid fMtoar delay to recrgimimtlon* to the item®ittoe repertedt
**« * «
O H m record® ayeto* tore proposed can never attain its greatest effectIrenes© so long m it to operated fey a line agency each a® the detective
bureau#**^ to the sheriff1a office, record adsidnietratim to® been comgCUeated by toe fm% that ©act* of toe three district station© mXntoXm
lie own reoOTia^rstom,
itore to no central record bureau a® yet, although
plane are underfoot for such enrganlvatton* to the Chicago Fork District,
arrangement© *c**tto*e tore an. important influence in dis~
'paretog record faoiHttos# Physical Isytmt mm-H&m® preclude® the estobll#tocnt of a separate record® division, and codeia toe separation
of police tonetioMng. Itore building arrangements are such that the
stolen auto torem or the datoe&ire burse* are far revered £vm the reccede division, or from sdsdjMstrettori hoadquartore, Mmpmmim of record
facilities feUawe a® a matter of course*
£CitiB«*M' folio* Qonwittie*, A.itoa..ef.MiW...»mpte Procstes
for tfie Chicago Police laiBSjMBfe (Proat So. 6. Rggiged 'liroSt. 1930),
P* $.
at present, the dlsptiraieji of record facHlttoa has precluded an over-all
* t of records*
Bit© situation to rapidly being remedied, however, for
at the present tiia© paper plaits hare been prepared by #iloh all record
facilities v d l be oentrMired and placed under to# direction and superx
vtoton of a staff agency. to moat of too smaller deparhamte, dtoperatom i® notiretoto, aXthangdi to* offacto of dieperelm are not as acute
-im the larger
ftteettom m to the control of record facilities differ gmtoriaHy
in ©oueofBMmoo of record dioporelcm* to Oiocre, Oak Fork, and met of
too larger departwito, recording m d 'too mmk of tomtlflmtton are usu:ally groined together under too iwedtoto mx&a*vt*A*m of the chief of
to toe majority of eaaltor departed*©, toe work of record­
ing rod too Mtotoreuco of record® to charged to tot desk sergeant, ofethough there are a number of iwia©£» to which local justlco© of too
peace or police msls'toatos hare .awmed recording rcspomelMXittos. with
toe m t m p U m of ’the CMcago f«*% Metric** record® ere practically nonm I « M to toe special district departomto*
to the sheriff1e office
tot «oat**& of s*mr*ft to dietoed.. Certain record© are maintained at
toe sheriff1® beaftpariem under toe direction of a clerks otoere are
retetoto«4 at each of toe
tome .district station®, tonoiton© of records
tog being charged to the desk rer$©antou A stalsua of recording to per­
formed t o
toe Omk Osmfof breach
o f
d t o t e H i g h w a y ftritotamam Police
l^partoent# Btotriot station© are primarily collection agencies* Most
of to* work of a record im&ure is performed at headqmrtors at Sparing^toecrdtog to the pleci, W m fiiXI-tte# m n M U be ea$&oyed for toils
field* A s m M di’^d.siou of record
t o Chicago .FeXiee Bepartont*
is still evident in
Beoh of t o fort^om dietriet stations
is gfrm c^smldsra3b&& latitude in the org&rAmtlon «nd control of 2«o»
«wrdb» for its particular sector* t o depeatosntel m ® m t m y also p^rfteie
l&pcrtot recording toctic»*
t o traffic divieto end
Eeeords as to tofflo are smlntoimd tar
toer t o dtroot eogmvlftlcKi of the obtain
Of tot
ik«te toft reeeaede are wiatainsd in the auto theft
U®mmp$ most reeor&e are m m Bs&intoned by the Bureau of Casta-
to! Inismmttm m & Statistics *fe&«fc It wv$m? the fittpsF&sioK end con­
trol of the deteotii?©
this t o mm, eitto Its personnel of 194
it the largest record® division in to -
the general tsmteiogr In, the ®mmty to aXXoo&t© reeerditig m the ba~
sit of certain Xiao gmrntiomhm bad m ii^jorteit effect in confusing
the lines of a*esg^sibiXit$r « l
grmtly is^eded the proper Itaacston*’
log of reeocti*'* units* In nest tastuis©#® ®tgr#gatloa of recording m g
line basis create# msituation in ubiefc the wfk of the record® unit tends
to be aonopollseti br t o line diirision under ehioh the records unit is
placed* Korewnsrf m$fapractice® tod to aultiply the mmbm of record
testmmmm the number of specialised eervleee rendered bythe departont
In view of the m m z m of iweoardiag. practises* it is hsportot
that t o reeeede division stmXd be leeato near t o police e»oaiiue,
aisd m m hwm indicated previously* should be orgenised a® a staff func­
In t o ctttmtgr* little eonsidemtto
m& b®m
given to t o t o t t o t
in rim of the strategic position of the records division, it night «eH
top held pggpenalta* Sm_M mstovr ot
$sm& (liwtsT1p c^ r sti0B 900 ooopur,
.‘&m.,..M .Mr—.
dltim. to tii® norma! duties of recording and record maintenance, a rec­
ord# djopertont could bo held responsible for such function® as t o man#$®»sto of property record® and stores, t o issuance of licenses, t o
preparation of payroll®, identification and other laboratory work, eonwuaication facilities, and possibly police training# Such arrangements
are patotosrly totable in t o s t o t e d^wtemts itore t o work of
recording ate® precludes t o appointent of fiOtelae personnel, t o
oentraHsatte of t o s s function® h m t o merit tot it relieve® Itm
agencies of functions took, partake of staff toetten** site® for a
.greater ®|WM*toltote in pm^wmmm# t o aeliows t o ptilim head t o
subordinate officials of t o routine involved in supervising t o activ­
ities of a number of agencies, loreowr, centralising record facilities
sites for a wmm mwpm XX view of t o police situation*
4 second administrative pr©hl« tooh seriously topers m effective'
utilisation of records is the eiaploygsent of persons who are tgr habit,
topersmnt m d training, not toted to record work# In meet instance®,
to#® ito have the reapotobiiliies of reotoing in t o county are trans­
ferred fwm the uniformed fare* and in general are not qualified to perfom recording tasks In a scientifically credible mamer#^ t o competent
recording, usseobXfiag and preparation of reporting data require® the
service® of %hmm who have executive ability, atoniotsmtlve initiative,
A recording officer %m charge of m m of the record® bureaus mads
1hl® ststomsnti *Our moat important problem is drilling our m n in t o
sagra m & imam of record preoiNiures* tore is not a single man in isy
organisation who h m had m y background for to® work. Ihelr mafk is
usually inaoesurmte* A p m m m wll-ttonod in recording procedures could
do twice the work in twice m m efficient a manner ton any man m haw#
I .haee suggested time and again that © w reports are not toonViftc&Xly
prepared and that we are not able to make the full n m of report# which
oeo® to out attention**
a foundation knowledge of mt'Sim t o record pveeedmMs In addition to a
knowledge of the field of srtenal Justice and polio® adtotstotlen*
towwrel jMratetiess employed in tofbtng isetors of the uniffeasto force
farther complicate® the situation*^ In acme instances those persons are
m m m longer able to give
shifted, to' because of age, or
•ftetiw service in etor IXtos of policing#^ It is alee a fact tot
in a natoer of deiwtsa^t®, t o aseigmtenb of officers* to t m m d duties
is dictated by political considerations and ^mmn®X preferences without
regard to t o capabilities of t o person for recording duties* It is
mil town tot m m g the mmimd pm&timm m the daiwirfesamt*® staff is
t o t o f recording*
fcffk is
hows of work are
t o
t o t o are Bcm-dmgerous, t o
t o iispasse which Is apparent in recording
practices in tor- emasbjr eats be attributed possibly m m®k to this lack
of swof^Ltooa of reporting technique# and to pel,ides of asslfpssto m
■to my otor facto*
^Xn Xl^it of t o difficulties of securing a s&ffltosii nutor of
poHcmmat.this practice t o t o be toOteto* tore arc f m dopartoste
tot are able to $pmm m ± t m m d m$$mm e£ t o daimrtamt t o t o task*
It Is also to e tot t o mmlmm of clerical help could be obtained at
a considerable sttory reduction.
% Xto«gh chiefs m t o ly mntloaaed t o t end* preferences were given
fo r t o s s beyond sebiva a e r to e , such a, p ractise is not widespread to
Judge from to personnel engaged in wcto&ng jmosttows* Most of tom
w » a&UHtolsd policemen aha might well be engaged in m m rigorous
police functions*
% n to largest rosevdmbureau in to county, member® of tbs staff
filter in about ton e*clock in the m tong* haw a long noon hour for
lux&fc, t o arc usually finished with their tasks tout toco o*took in
the &o«rirsoo&* 80 attractive arc mdi positions that a xn&fter of offi­
cers of ssrgoaat1# vtodsg aro «igsg®d ^ simp!® f&Uwg totes* A stober
of chiefs haw indtoftsd tlmt a groat deal of priMwnurs Is brought to bear
to toft t o f&vwad to recording positions*
A third adolntairatlve problem aam® m a reeuXt of the dcc«^ir&li~
eetlon tf peHoisig mmng & large number of aganei#®* f'er thi« proratten
bee haw! the coiwiipcmding effect of m i i l A ^ the eoietolialaHrat of re-*
©wHfig wit* of eeffielftat olee m to proofed* for the propm? record!ts$
of polio® data* F m m a
for aocwiiag practise* oesionstrates
the pmm&ii®$ -M.tmM,m in ih© county*
f «
m m r n i m Aasjxmw
m x a m m Xajtxssl
B riber of Eecord fr®Sit& MWm®£% fiea ilo n Qffiim
Msmn&im M m m m . %^te... WaAtm
Mnitja B^tadl Total
m ® t m go m
Opr 30Q#0GO
Sheriff*® ©moo.
Special D letrlots
S tate Mighmy
mmwMxtg i s ta ttle d i s the Bureau, of
®In Shle&ge
M I m L
t e f « s e t i o n
ha» ro fm siee only to the M etropolitan Am® M etsriot Station*
Ttato* 280 person® ere engaged in recording e&tlvltieo and are distributed
11 ?
departments* If the Ciiicage Polio© Beparteimi is eo»Ia«ied* a
clear picture a m 'be obtained of pereesmel distribution in the county*
In Mae other IM $®parfc»nt® there mmbut 81 persons* o r le s s Mim m®
person per departemt*
TMm sm& appear sufficient in light of the ©iso
of the wrloue departonts* Mower* Um situation indicates that few of
the d^srteente maintain a pemmnel of sufficient else to proride the
required reeorde* do the table issd&eetee recording appear® a® ttm pstaery
A t m m m o f th e I d e n tific a tio n and M tfaffie unite* aXthough in a a m at th e
le a s e r dep& rtam ts th e o ffic e d e ta il p w v t m m re c e d in g p raetleee*
e r a l p ra c tic e s -in th e eeontgr new© to H a l t th e uaelhlneaa o f reco rds to
tit* work at M m d iw isteie *
This beer® o u t th e e x c lu s io n th a t record-*
1&£ i* seldom lo o ta i upon as .a s ta ff iteettott«
Zfc* ifi^cwtaaisoe of proper filing taittti** efcoeM newer be undez^
Beoords ore ©sOy »da awidlsbX© to the extent that proper
filing and ladknrfnc mrv&m® m m installed.* T m m ore ®mwt%1 r m s w
«4r p m p m t m m m & P * K *& la twmitua.*
2t» Img&oeeexa* character
of police records retiree that they be properly protected against fire*
mvmmvg Tmm^m m m of little nee usOeise their content eon be made
awdlafcOe easily end jpenqptay, Again* the m t m m of peUe© records r&*
spire® that they be eeoored from poeeiMlitiea of rifling*1 But despite
ikes© considerations* the majority of 4&pmrtmm&& handled record® la a
manner which fa ils to mmt filin g veKietreneate* Sixty*©*!© of Mi© depart*
mm%B m ae* pmmrnm steel filing wguigsnMcrU* Its these
ords are filed in a rmrietj of w e *
0®e chief lined one wall of hie
office with pegs* one peg for each type of report* Another filed all
reports in tmee ** one h m for each week1© needs*
A nastser of chiefs
iseraXy place records in awaiXabls desks* In m m ismtMmm* records ere
kept in the chief* s home **for better keeping* or in the offices of local
Justice© of the peace*
3-fhis tmgr mmn. m point of siinor importance in m police station*
i w w f , ikmm tmm h«n a number of instoooa in w&ich data m- to traf­
fic accident© hm® been rifled trm ite files. % a result an important
law mi% m® celled*
%fe© lack of filing epeee h a s forbad a nanhe? of chiefa to place
record* in the basement of the station* In one deportment* when records
m m trought out t m m storage thay were found to be so badly mildewed as
to be of little eerrioe*
-£ £ 8 -
However, in line with the general trend© in the
of po­
lio® housing* the trend is toward a bettor equipage of recording facu­
lties* Thlrty-so*mi departments hmm tmt&MoA filing facilities daring
the. loot M m p r s , and in ©mo- iustam*
m m filing systems
has# been l&stallsd* for M ^ l t | in iXgtn, the deganptMat* prior to
2884* possessed too® woadm eases which had no esrooa-ind^cing facili­
ties* 2a the JhUoatag fmt$ about « thousand dollars m m wooded in
laatttUiag eighteen, stool MX®® « d in supplying the depsirtesnb with the
latest filing fML21t&*»*
itaMtitait file© are also to be found in the
Chisago folio® Ito&arteMmt,* w l la the Ct&cage Fork District* filing
facilities* m m w m m %iy brought up to ditto la the sheriff*® office*
A fifth record® photic# itsidi 1® open to serious erltidam 1® that
of recording data la long hand* iiw la a® lari® a dopartBorit a® the
$aleage felloe iPeparteeat a emsidorahl# snount of recording ia done in
this maimer* la essaller departeentt this Is usually the role* teng-tasd
recording ha® the dual dbjoeUoa that record® are m l sufficiently leg­
ible and that the Ink of recording take® up too mieh time* In part*
this situation is due to the leek of office and technical w&ip&mt*
ess of the larger departments only m ® typewriter is amilahlo to the
dapartmmt* Im
t y w w i t e e o
atf® owned toy the chief
or seme «®tar of the dessoHbMst* There is also a prevailing absence of
automatie sorting « i tabulating eq^ipemt* &uoh ©qulpssent Is indispens­
able 1a tee larger departments, essential seen in the smaller departments*
shmld be said* however* that important improvromt® are needed,
both in the Traffic and the stolen Ante Divisions* In these division®,
reeerd facilities have stood the test of many years m d are not suited
for m d m m filing practises*
-2 2 9 -
Finally, the practice of sapXoying bound ledger© and folio® is gen­
erally prevalent* la a number of the larger deparfemente arrest© are c«x>*
eeeaidtely recorded as arrests are swgMivtedU This is also the p m ®tioe
with regard to aeeltaft wagMrte* burglary roport®, disposition books,
receipt book© and eem©3alnb and report lodgers* As a result any engmar-
tm ttm i © f d a t a for oAnftoiotrtttiw purpose® i s d i f f i c u l t a n d u s u a l l y t e »
wwu&ftte* last year in tensyn vten M m chief wished to ascertain M m
location of certain polios problem®, the tetter part of time days was
occupied in labcsriously mmsriidog tte date which had ham promiscuously
insulted in tee lodger® without reference to proper index wttede.
reason for the scarcity of co^>r#tet*aiv^ reports is uadotetedly dm to
basis wsefenesaes inherent in primary rooos-disig practises**■
A were extended adoption of efeateardlsad regulation© m to tee usage
and disposition of reword* would undoubtedly iaaprove record jmetiees*
tetsept in a few instances euob regulations ®r® not ployed in the coanty*
Only te® departeente haw pmpmmd wmrnl® of importing regulations in
white are outlined 'Mm psepeee* of eate tmwrr&$ directions m to the infoxmiion required m d otter Isaportent date* In this commotion the Chi­
cago Fork ftUrtrlet Folios Wopmtimnt stands oat a® an important exception*
In 2880 an Intensive ©tedy of tte police situation in ite park district
m m made by Meate&sni teimsrd, Meed of tte Chicago Bark District Train% i Is difficult in tte extras** according to a mister of chiefs of
poll<50, to overcome ©uetosaary method® of recording* tn a master of in­
stance® imletpal official® hmm m t m
tte need fear tte change frosi
ledger to- e&rd ©yatesse* In other instance® tte police teed he® not faw e d snob transfer®. One chief, tee has- an excellent mmtd said teles
*1 think teat we mm going too far In tel® ©cteniific record- staff * I
dotiH need mmy record® to know teat is (going on* Give iae a couple of
good lodger® and 1*12 t e n yon whet tte situation is*»
tog Steed* A msntel of ragutottom we© prepared outlining the functions
end us®. of amii record form* A course in imond toeteieitoi* 1© mm Inatoted in the training school curriculum*^ In its weaewy of the Chicago
M U e * Depertamnt 'mete- in 29S0-I&, the Oitlaen©1 MULe* Gmm&Xtom pm~
parte tern mamas!© of m & m m m v & B pmrndmmn for 4sp&rtm&t®A g&ldmoe*
ftart m m m 1 tebte March SO, 2BS0* m s ©canted by the ewmto-
sioner tee by eternal Orter Bof 174, dirootte that it g® Into offset on
April SO, 2980*
to* m m a & t ® note a® 'tee teoio of instruction in a m
at the m m m ® attmmd In tom training eetaaX*^
It 4* m imt generally m m ^ i m d tomb the m m filing of date *e~©enlistee m y little* l o m t e mm% eeuatltete a haste for action,
otherwise, they will he swningloes*
temg tee itelee© pointing to a
eesitetant *mbi of records are methods of tetelto® eo®$»latnt© end the
fcHow-up aothote ew^toyte*
Sine© the large naajetety of offenses known to the polio© a m to tom
•attention of the polios though pevmn* <mt©4te the police tepartamb, it
ie of first iwpmrtomm that eoap&elute- he properly handled* if the de­
partment ie to obtain £2ite~tate teoetodge of police pmft&en*, a om®m*
tent record of al^l ©emptotob® ©osatog to tom- attention of the police mmt
he mtatogate* Only to tele m y ie it possible for a Oepartoent to ob­
tain tm ete^pate toowtodga of the tooMe&b® of the m i m tote*
. ^4he report ie to teJMMgrqpb but ie not yet available for general
*to tele ooimeotion see the c&ttoe&s1 Polio© tentt&ttee, giic&&o
Police Frtetoofea (2911), pp* E0S-22S. to recent yeare the state hae toi m p u t e oertoto formalized reoovteng practice©, particularly to the
field of traffic npdetiene. A H polio© teportnenfes are now required
to eete data on traffic accident© ate fatalities to Springfield* Reporfctog meet oeKtftora to eertato eteterdtote procedure© outlined by the state#
In the county, many titapmrfmmtB - in fact a majority of them - a n
toe prone to discount this li^ortant phase of recording* flier© Is a pre­
vailing attitude that It Is oeee&aary only to record the mom serious
offmmm ** a practice which Ignores tto principle that major infractions
develop from atom* violations.*' In a good msmy instances a department
is not m*m®% of the p wmmm confronting it because the department is
m m m m of the itaor violation® eoonlttod within its Jurisdiction,
Baperilng procedure® mm fterther weakened by las follow-up practice,
Every department should have its t&llwmm officer whom responsibilities
m m the checking and filing of all complaints to insure their handling
in m e&pedtbiou© mmmm*
there is a profiling policy of closing com-
plaints before the report of tin® investigating officer ha® been received,
thus In limMtolft instances, m e dspartomt Is not m a m rfcmi&mr a complaint has toon investigated o r not* Unless report® ar© verified the
department is not in a position to obtain an m m *»®IX view of the crime
situation* It m y to stated m a principle of police action mat every
Vor exttap&»# few of the departw®ts mmr bother to record or In­
vestigate thefts of Meyeles, Am &&*£ of PbXic® Fatmtmm of Munetka
has points oats "And if yon could trace down the history of m m of
our «MM»t callous criminals, yon would probably find that they started
erto© career® stealing a bicycle* Ttoy found bicycle© so easy to steal,
so readily disposed of, that stealing l e w s a Mbit* Ccsrieeptuais of
the ability of the police sand court® to curb their thieving proclivities,
they turned to onto thefts**1 tto chief has advocated that an ordinance
to passed requiring bicycle dealers to keep records of all bicycles sold,
stored, or repaired, and to submit smttfty report* to the police for in­
spection. ill owners of bicycles would to required to register their
bicycle® with the pOloe* receiving a card which would serve in place of
a certificate of title. Upon selling or trading th© bicycle, the owner
would to required to e w m t e » transfer on tto card. This card would to
fweosttted to the police when m e new owner registered it. Shile the sys­
tem would not to ftol-proof, it would mato the disposal of bicycles ©or©
difficult* toe tto article, «Bicycle Theft® are a lessee to Tonth,*
(Bec«^®ra » » o , p* &>•
MqpSjdikt mast to investigated and that tto coaspXsint raust not be marked
"dosed® until tto investigating officer Is satisfied that aXX possible
1m&® ham been InvtodgftttKi.
to tocwiiMttst leg to polio® functioning to the county is tto rel­
atively Minor toportsnee abtooto# to follow-up procedures. Investigation
of record oomptotots MXdom discloses notations of follow-up officers.
It to a fast of more then passing slgdficanee that a cmnsi&erabl# nusutor- of toll®® toad# speared not to hrnm grasped tto significant connec­
tion between the actual tovestigatlon by tto fdUowNup officer and the
incorporation of tto report of mi# officer to tto records of tto depart­
ment* It m y be
as a general principle of addnistratlve pro-
cedar# to tto county that ceMapletot report# d© not oonvgy a picture of
ito police situation due Cat least to part) to tto absence of systematic
follow-up practices*
A mmlmr of reasons w y account for tto wmtmm of follow-up officer#
in tto county* Clashes mtxteh.
occur between tto investigating police­
men and tto MfSmmsp officer 1# on©* fto duties of tto follow-up offi­
cer place a premia csn toot and titplmmoy m d fail unlee# certain line#
of responsibility w e followed.
Oontrol mm> investigation# is normally
tto duty of tto oiM«idiBg officer of tto primary division involved, al­
though in tto smaller «M^arto#nt this e o nML should to vested in tto
chief. If tto fell©swap officer is to to glwn a m m m ® of i^gainiby
from control by #vd>«dfldalsJ1 it is impxrtont that to to directly re­
sponsible to tto chief or to on® of the prifsary division toads, to
follow^ip practice# str© m m mpl&ymd in tto county ttoar® is wry little
assurance that positive action 1# taken cm cmssapl«&nt#f or that complaints
<*p«n antll
* timi, mMM&mmWm
hem made before
final eloa-
(ttfltelf requires nnmant before attention
*» town** to fite t$p» and kind of reoords mintatned ty poUoe depertmmte
In tea «MKty,
1 M » tea be do with ten eantralisstlo® of oantOatate.
mm reported to a (mate* of sSlsrtsriet afeabioa* t e n
In m WmMUmtit t t n m a y mmptetete will newsr mate a central ooa$>l*iRt
w w n te&db * w w y dapertmnt steald poaams* In tten eawmetioo tea m te a m ooapcudnte
engn M U U w tepnrteoBt la tea greatest delator for tea reman teat w a »
tral&witlte of jmliotag la
mat nmdced
in teat department,
m m tm to all tea forty-osa dlntriot
fterefere,, tea inda*
tA.'tmma of ten ©oeolstnt hinges njpan ten dispatch with wfeloh tee twrieue
dietaries* report Initial cosspXaisite to tea central eoapiatei ram at tead~
the petels*, a m e a aary serion* tea la steadily declining,
hoatnmr, ted no longer p m w i t i tea dlfXIa&teta it did prior to the ro»
%m 3L04S3U' fb»
of %im
tfeu»* t&# «&oWU»t otoMaa t e tartter #$siofce&
i w i
^W&m %-km
mt Urn &s$mimafa
m % M » of Elate, «a®ts?olllag fo&tao te»
HOmHJp %#&#%**
tm im
, p « a f .,.1 ^ 1 ^ ^ * 3$ jjt ($$$&}» pp* 1&&*
%0T « I M i
®f tNMMI
o«o t##
?o&ioo s » -
w* *»■«*
i%orl««!50 of 4&o*rlo&
ojp^seor# to feo r&pldly &o#3to"
tog# Us* tmhsMte&ioo of mu*rkm& p&tml® for toot
to taratft tta» i m o m I Mo# twtoMtt tte ottton# iodl tho toot ptimfasm
» I tfe*
otoMoo to MfcdUA# Ini 1#
m i ha*
}mm to
fh# rtoo of .fmsi&o*
o lttsm tho imwrtmm
..( S M it,-,.
ill tho ocrotgr centraliaiition has already occurred«. la asst Instances
©omplainb© are reported directly to the desk sergeant or to the detect-*
i m secretary* la rapidly growing depiarfcsmite, homtmr, there 1# a tend­
decentralize ec^&iiti facilities and It is in those department©
that closest attention must he directed*
Is a rule the police departemt ssest dart to the ©rims and police
eoaditioa&s in its oiMmtty is the depsrtraimb which hacks its activities
by * system of oonprehmtuAm words*
It i© also a foot of ©ore than
passing ©igrstU t m m that a ©lose parallel exists betnem the kind© of
records utilised m d the direction of
activities of a depart--
sanfc* Sk^me^mm^m m t i m in ©©etdcaxt prevention usually ml&tsin coupetent file© m ©seidOnt© asid fatalities, SepaaHft&nbs which are known for
tlseiy vigorous pursuit of cwiaiiialB usually possess usable ;aoduc ooeraadl
files, ©ad m m * la analysis of the type of rsoord used by departoKEit©
in the ©ousity 1© therefore of value not alone as a description of record­
ing techniques hut m ©a evalmatiou of the direction of police enforce**
Imosag m m hundred departfMsnts it is not strange that a considerable
diversity of opinion ©xlgfee atth regard to the types of records- that
should be «©&&©£»©&# thaae ©wry la terms of the individual inclinations
ef the police head* In, m m instance© maardtag practices will be cen­
tered in tlie traffic prtf&eau la ©they instance© traffic will be ignored,
.©ad that of crlitoal Identification ©tressed* Most extensive records
©f Imadqnariera# ^mrntmMmm with district captain© point t© the fact
that w a la regard to local eoapXoint© as to backyard squabbles and
like witter© tlie district station 1© called, in 95 per cent of the Uapoateat infractions, the ©Ifcisoa call© police headquarters*
In the larger cities, although this is not always the
©«ss*^ Becords systeass in the aseXXer deprartgnents are particularly de­
linquent in regard to personnel records, offence reports and aaodua ooeritfSI, fUes*
Tim following table indicate® the types of records isaln-
talned lay samicApril polio® departont® according to certain population
fti&S IS
fiw s s o f r o u e s hkkh& b
s i m xoxp m , fg u o b m p m i m m
10,000 io*cw-s)>m4GLBo-ioOscm 100*000
Burglary Report®
©eg Pound
Auto 1X e m m
Identification 41
Suspicion OmSe
Bsdl Forfeiture®
"tight© Out® Record®
Auto Theft a Becoveries 16
Vlolattm lotiflcation
Inventory of Recovered
Truffle Violations
into leloases
description of wanted
Arrest Report®
Cell Occupant©
t o^pLSinw
if#lift l
.Plek-up© of sick m l
Court Records
Vacant Bern** Report*
Strife* Gmm.
Property Damage
.Auto Accident
Personnel Record®
..X ..
0 _____ JL_
atom® Report*... ...—
#Xndtoat®^ the msa$>er of 4®jMtrtno&t& in each population classification.
*o$ the smaller saamloipelitlee, Mimetha la the Important ©xcepti<m*
Slere, the police department maintains m excellent record system which
ranks as m e of the best in the county.
%p© of Report
2n concluding this discussion of record practice® of police depart*
acute in the county It is necessary to team attention to a final (and one
of fch® most Important) phases of the record ppoossst mm'X&i the prepare^
tian of mmmgtf reports. In t&is connection It must be beam© in wind
that summary reports of a police daparteaeRt enet a e m too major purposes*
Wiaayily, suimaarle* should be. the guides through, sfclefe and fey shieh the
pcXXc® hood and M s w&xmnmt® officers charter the polio© course* But
they asst also m m m m a ise&im ttomgfe shloh the eLtUcovy may fee- a*^stoted Mth ifa* «ork and the problems of the polio® dmpwrbmnU
m t w m of polio® ftacMe«sl$*g respires the preparation of dally, monthly
mad mmxtik .reports m d such other special reports as occasion may ear*
Belly reports ere Important feeeaum they $iw to the polio® memo?*
tire a m a t s picture of editions*
J»ng the fasts shieh should fee
included in the daily report® are those rotating to the number
fenses reported to the potass and the isomber barged fey the police, m
analysis of traffic cases,, a pm&mmtiL report shoeing the effect!**
strength of the department and the reaamne for the absence of various
mcsshers, and an
of persons charged fey the police accordlag to
the uniform oXasei,fio.atlon of offenses* Sudden shifts or changes in the
pc&io© problem should fee tosorporatod in the report.*
Of equal value, perhaps more so, is the monthly report. A good
monthly report should contain end* data a® the Mstribubion of police
personnel, the water of offenses reported, the nua&er of arrests made
end the disposition hereof, the value
covered, auto thefts m d
property lost, stolen and ro~
m analysis of traffic accidents
and the reasons for the same, and such is&sceXXanaous services rendered
m» I ms A
ft is ispmtest M
the ssrieas
iteas s b m U fee so ssmmged that m m u t t U e a <J«t* m r * peeled of a*v-
»•*** •«* *» «*i2*8wi» »»'«*» «f mspsmtiw 4 k m is ft nOtttia*
■***•* ®f 4»*0itet*st4ta« to to* peMeo u w n t t w tbs shifts and changes
.tecMfc fesm eewawwi S» ttse jMftfcse jmMUm.
M a s «MMWfe few M i M i
As the ooegsfttm cm a m f o m
«, . . . ti».mi*Uly report is es siipftfima*.
t# poMo* sM Mts t n S i o s as
Him m m N O t
cgterftftg Jtamelel. etnteserrt is
to a 2er$e tatestelsl. oorfsoawtfciSR."1
ft* toatadm of * eoepsteaaMm powlgr report is efts emeoUsJu
ft* aid.*? ’
isgtertwas of the mhwO. report Mss is its {irmmkaMcm of
tte teste ebest « * $>olie« tepwfeMtifc, to tbe msemsity at ftrge mad to
gewmtog offteiels. ft is ate sites immt&mrmi tsftet the offiss of pa~
Mss is • psMiie twste mmt tfeet s tepsrtawte is ®fcli®ed to matey to
others m m t m m m is te&sfe It las. o a s r M eat tm obligations estreated
to ftk
ft* 'OSS Of d aily,
semVaXy and yseety roporba is IntSies&eft
in tho* foMstesn tsfeiss
m m 24
m » i > or W M t x a
or w a ,
SSmbOiM. iag
S j S B l ( £ B n g ! o E |^
w w 'W1otw W
' N’w
. m m &m
IlftffibMttlhlfi rtB-A-oys.
m b x m h u x wemm
— ..JfiarAa:
jJt 4 k 4 t iJit i Ii1*
H^gar 30*$03 p^mXMAm
' **
O w MtfOOO
%NSial S&rtvlofcft
JtaiUir*# occsw
^Ceaslttee on fiMJfe** vriss Remote, fttemotionaX Association of
Cfeiete Of PoliOO, Baitem Qvtzm
{»»), p. Ml.
It is apparent* therefore* that there are important lags In the prepara­
tion of these reports* Daily report* are infrequently prepared; less
then ©ne-*third of the departments prepare saontbly reports3 about three
out of five departeanta prepare yearly reported this situation indi­
cates that records ere .not meed to the extent they should foe for adminietrafelve purposes*
fh® inedmpacy of the reputing pvaetiees are farther revealed by
tti® VMfaa* of dagNttrtaunt* reporting offenses known to the polios* febl®
IS $ m ® the number of dfpor&monts filing tmiform ortee reports vith the
Federal Bureau of Investigation for l§S8s
M i a i m i f i i i FiDxm ®
g b x h q s mmmis b i p o w u b c o k
G8G0F5 (X03B}&
Population O-roup
Itebcr of
ISiwUw 10,000
Over 300*050
Special D istricts'
Sheriff* * Bepartrwt
State m#nsay Maintenance
#As reported fey
Utanber 1©porting
For cent
bopotM pe
8 1
1 7 * $
3X 7
various polio© executives.
Tbs form and content of eonuSl reports further reveals shortcomings
In reporting practices, The Chisago Police Department** Annual Report
is a twenty to tamtgMfXvs page report made up almost entirely of tables,
%ritten reports only ere included* there is a prevailing practice
in the waller departments for the chief to orally report the work of the
defMr&ont m d the pdice situation to governing officials*
There is little or no illustrative matter. The best annual report, in
terms of information contained and readability is that of Evanston* This
is a mimeographed report, usually about eighteen pages in length, com­
prised in part of tabular material, in part of diagrams, graphs and other
illustrative reporting devices. Winnetka1s annual report patterned upon
the form advocated fey the International Association of Chiefs of Police
Offers a concise but comprehensive account of the department. With these
exceptions, annual reports have very little to offer* The Annual Report
of the Cicero Department is an 8 x 8 card* In Berwyn, activities of the
department are summarised in a brief three page typewritten report. Of
the seventy-three annual reports, sixty-eight were brief unillu3trated
reports of under three pages in length.
Table 16 is a summarisation of
the content found in the annual reports of twenty-nine representative
From the foregoing discussion it is evident that recording has not
yet been admitted as a full-fledged member of police administration. Ex­
cept in the field of fingerprinting (discussed below) little attention
has been directed toward the broader fields of recording.
Until the rec­
ord phase of police management is given a more secure position, the de­
velopment of police administration cannot but be retarded.
Ill* Technical Equipment in Scientific Grime Identification
The remarkable advances in scientific crime detection in recent years
has resulted in the need for technical equipment unknown to the police de­
partment of a half a century ago. Modem criminal investigation requires
such tools a® microscopes, precision scales, equipment for chemical analy­
sis, the polygraph, and other devices of similar character which are
<& n
n $ *TtX
I I T C *00 aioos
3**»<I W
't t J t i B
» a »
U p ’S
O0«»TO $M(g
jayrtBJ! rawry-nt
m x
**T0 9®ant«0
* v 0 w i u*n2arc«¥
H •°k
64t® <#
% ■*# * * * # » !» < #
H M M f IA(0
*00 agoeo
^ r a
*% 8 * T O
* ® o j s **3
" W m rk
« n « ® a
•W M H
s&isyf m m i i
3t« * &
ft ft
titafttqo t^i
&W0 $«wa?»0
“ ww
- ^C&
X ft
S 6 I$ S 1 ® F |
4 * $ a w ($
y » T > W fW pa
«®WW *M*a
IS us
ft ft ft ft
ft ft ft
ft ft ft
ft ft
M ft ft
ft ft ft
ft ft
J | U - ,
.<**H f4d «4
ss ftl«0**u> ««» O v
10 4*
W> ft]
m h nw
a* cvi
I "
4* 40
H 14
*00 1000s
* m *ra
* m ioo0
« H
M fM
n m M HUM H H MN
M1 H
u u H H MH
Oil[ m HKHKM
n mH n n n
n n H H U K N H X HH
14 n mn h u n
H Hm n n n MH
HM m
M M m nnn
14 If x
vsaaoa *00 *003
O t t O O O
Aamffim ns *tti
a w ® * ® *oo jjooo
3ps*& *P0
ef«0TO w h
X**K> % @ « T O
«$i|$'g&H «s^tanrp?
* * * »
timing to tm considered regular equipment la m uj:>-to~dat© police departwit*
In particular, scientific orto* Identification requires a personnel
thoraMMsr trained in Hi# m i m m of original Identification*
OvwlMMrt progress in 'Crtoo identlfloation in the county lias in the
dlreetiott of fingerprinting* l©I3^quipp#d identification section® are
fmsasd in all t o larger d^artmmte# t o in wet of t o smaller depart­
ments identification acpl|«nt Is in use i&lch satisfies the requirements
64* n&gwrpriitt iitmtifloatl^. In Hit® carnation it should be said,
however, that relatively few departonts breach out into each other active
the talcing of latent prints at the seen© of the crime* Attaints
to step beyond the initial field of fingerprinting the person have usually
ended in failure rather than success*3* Photographic equipment is found
in twelve defwtrhueiits representing shout one-tenth of the departtaeats. In
1989 the village trustees of Oak Park appropriated §S0G*GQ tar a lie deteeter for t o police department.* nth this exception, t o scientific
squlpswmi of police departments (Hi© Chicago Police J>spartont excepted)
is confined almrt entirely to fingerprinting apparatus* la most in­
stances, t o essentials of a scientific crime detection laboratory are
Efforts toward a m m general edition of eoientifie crime detection
equipment have been IMsperad by t o difficulties of impressing appropriate
one hsftfc robbery* t o local police energetically set about to
disclose rnsp latent prints that might have been left by the robbers on
t o teller*a cage* Bank officials had, meanwhile called the Chicago
Felloe Department* An ©Xpert from t o identification bureau arrived an
the scene but was unable to do anything* As the investigator remarked:
«ffee local police had. effectively destroyed all fingerprint evidence
with their bungling pertemmwu*
mmw&mm v&m t o
m ad t o w t o aquipmto* £« Bruce sfeith
As reported A# hum fwg$B£hs& l*$ d isp o sin g t o diffiouX iiea ©ncKsuntered
In t o a t o t o
a p l p M a t t o t o C h i m p fwtow ^p&rtoat*
*# * * •
petofcw p M S s n t o w ten ©uppity tot p M t w offtwtow m m imlUi&g
m unable m mm? ** m rnirnm m m irn ^irn m m Itoratoy**1 B&mmm§
m %m iM rnm m m ** m m tow w » M i sto ty an #ppropnwUwg official
I to w tow a iw w i lo tto to n t o wx&wff of police re~
qpwwttng a pawyagfe* «fc iR a to B to ««d eawMUi p t o ^ ^ s i c
1 ree&to tot m t dtefMtowt den t o tow tot*
w quipsto^ t o M X m ^ ito e d t» t o cM eft ♦ t o Mqgr tto w
do t o M i l l r m p * * to m m tow t o n a l m
vdll » eto w t o m m l WttMt* and do ;^u tow a matt*
- w a m t o tm m t o i®dl t o w t o to uww such t o t o 1
X -to d t o
t o t i t vou&ct t o wtofe t o t o r fo r t o a ^ w t o s n t to
mtf w p m t o ewstr or toiw toftoww# is toned t ow t o
w to £ fw wwtowt toesmse w© t o i l pratofeto ewe to ® not Ju stify
to mp**)**
b m n n it 1$ tooato were easy m efctotn
m $ m t M4 tom ©tor 4ap^rtoMw«
Mitfto opimi«8 Ism I m m m m rnm € in a wsstor of
cm t o awm*giAto& tot & g to tontificmtion t o r n is realised
mm&mr a m m m tm totowt with *
wtor of persons mrnel
$m w t m ® fields ®t erlm 4&%mkim m d to mm i w l « with proper
to iw o f
to a w #
^ M
to tovis o&iy «me m v h to eam ,
t o M m m of lintiftot&m of t o CMirnge M l t o Deportment* fhi« is
to d U M
m m m in t o wtoto# Issuing Imm
in W0$Mt o jm r
^ t o t o by' StoMen ddMefe* *1to Fine wf toeper M ic a wad Ih m en J» w m m h « m ' "
mm o*m*
SXt wramt bo
Isowwr, t o t oonetoit tone** In p o tto lead-
Mftftli smd in pMonaeX ham tod w M otw rto# olfoct in reducing t o
dwfWtowMt of w ieB tifio wstew ito M fiw o tto * t o mtt$mm of
p i t o t Im t o ocmty M
M i m to C M m m
.to iiutoM tiM in i«teM0nwttoi*- &$$m? mm
rwtowwd to t o i r depsrtew^
of fteMflwatto
®f sfe&ty, t o
m bs lo t $w ty an tocwliig wdaiiiiwtwr*
fifigtrplnt identification m» first dmsan&traUsd in this country at the
Scotland X&vd m & M t at thm St.* Louie SffoposiUon.
BniiX ISIS, foowsmsr, the mmk of the bureau m e concerned almost
entirely with the identification of ro-cidiviatss, little work being dona
la* other H m M m of mtmMtl® vtim Idmtiftcution# When scientific inmotivation m m required, work m e usually performed by the Scientific
Grime Detection i#aboratorj in Chicago* Goat of investigation, however,
precluded any aide ■ea^Xc^nt of the laboratory1® staff.1 Major work of
the Chicago Bortm of Identification is indicated in fable 17, which la
| a oos^aratiw analysis of persona taken into- custody by the Chicago Po­
lice Department, the msiber of persons registered at the Bureau of Ident­
ification m d the orimimX records established by the bureau*
During the past twenty years the department has taken Into custody
I over three million persons* Of this number 878,64® persons, or about
&9 per sent m m referred to the Bureau of Identification for check-up,
|| and of these, orisinal records -mm established m 404,S64 persons, or
about 40 per cent of those referred to the bureau#
Has purchase by the City of Chicago of the Scientific Crime Detoe|
il U«i baboratory in dbly of MSS m«fe the end of one, and the beginning
I of another epoch in scientific crime identification in Chicago* At an
approxisiate coot of $ES,®00 the city took over a private laboratory on
| which had been spent between #400,000 and #800,000* thereafter the
lM w
w . . . ,
m l. n h ^ i . i W . W W . . .
. w w w w iw » w l* . w
i. i ■ - ■ ih. l .ii k .h w w w w .w . w m ^ < i . i n ■■ < « » » ■ ' »» »
% o r emqpto, in 1980, records of the laboratory shewed that it
|| handled only siari^-sowen oases for the Chicago Folios Department* Of
: this number about fifty were ballistic investigations*
2Bata trcm M m m X.JaaMEfcs of the Chicago MLie* Department for the
j years gtvmu
w xsspmxnchnm, ms-sa
feta l fmrmsm
ta’kon into
«mst©dr hj the
Chleeg* Folio®
id s 9em
t l ,43?
.0 7 , 10 ?
le s i
feta l tesher
m ,6M
210 , <m
m $zm
^m m
Qhle&g© Police
.Identification Boreas
Original Flecorde
16, m
had at its sanria® 4 wll^quipped laboratory
deaigned to glw broad iriwst&gation mar¥lm in ail M m major field* of
eriia* IdeutmMtlen.
of the SaUmtifle Qvim
A ncufeer of the
Detection JUbcmtesy Staff m m
eitj* ffced
©smaeoted aitti the laboratory for aaroe ya-'srs** was appointed head ©f the
amOy created bmeii
The staff m m mmprlm® tlare® identification in~
apeeiora and photogrspl^ra, a specialist in the field of dateotiw ohm*
iatry, another in detective aaefangifte, a third *peei»Xi»t in handwriting
-249and questioned doeusftants, ami a fourth in 11© detection.3*
the ©BtsibXiabsaent of a well-equipped laboratory staffed with a man*bar of specialist® in the identification field has already been of indisputable &®nrlm to polling in the city* aims©
the inception of the
XsSseretory m a dapartwntal wit, classes of Instruction have been con­
ducted for mrtoua unite of the dap&rfcsamb in order that the entire p&r*~
®mml o f
the deparfcmmt *m U tosm * eeoseiated with the function* and
work of the l&Zmmtmy* At the dose of 193i the laboratory had already
conducted «n«imtiaaat in lidmby^oight cases*
xv* t e i t e a a
In a study of polio® eeewaxdOKtiene, the telephone is the prinaxy
reliance* Bespit® recent developments In the field of electric communications the telephone %mm&m Mm mmt useful source of contact between
the dtisen m d the polio®' dspartsumt* tn the words of Cooper, ®ev®ry
telephona installation- is a potential fire alarm station**2 For similar
reasons the efficient Iwm&XXm of inching m d outgoing calls mmt occupy
lafttrtant plase in any police oonamniMiion system* In this ©ooneeiton,
two factors are fj^Mxrtsntt first, m m ample telephone facilities available
to the departecatf Ssomtl, does the dsp&rta&nt make full us® of telephone
facilities lay employing ecfflspebent p®mwmm\ md by requiring a hi# level
of servlc® from them? Attention is direo&ed first to the ad#<pscy of
telephone facilities in the polio® daymstimts In Cook County*
©f telephone installations in Mm various police departrsents
ift M m county leads to the conclusion that the importance of those
tranches of the police servis* tm usually underestimated* futile the
cleaceafc of coat seaetlaes eaters into the picture, as a rule finance
anttomplti** «re not willing to install such services as a department may
require* I i » w ,
adetgnftts telephone service is act found the
m m m lies ffcsqpamUy i» the esieideetieixsi set-up of the department
which prevents a m m wide utilisation of tele#ca© facilities* It is
la toe mmdlm dcpeirtsamfcs with Malted personnel that the telephone
pm&Xm. is mat acute* Here again difficulties are d m not m much to
a disregard of the
of the telephone hut to the imt that a
dstmr&Mlt m m m t asiataia reserve personnel for telephone purposes.
As ussjy he anticipated, the greater development in telephone facili­
ties Is found in the COodtaage Felice Department* ions p m W M m of octcsunication between eit&segfc end police departsmt mm most acute* to provide
effective contact, a c&ntral
switchboard has b&en installed where
ell eltisens* eoapXelnts ar® received.* there is also a second switchhoard, the ”%&**& 4747* switchboard, which is located in the City Hall
sheet m ® arils from central police headquarters* An eaeehsage switchheard connects the two* All £City**ese district stations ere ocmseeted
to polios hsadquartem by private *&re« Urns a sseplelnt telephoned to
say one of the district stations can he forwarded without interruption
to central heae^uarfeers for handling. As a result there is a competent
centralis&tlen of telephone facilities which U t a for an effective
contact between the dt d n m and the police department and between the
various units of the peiiice dapmtimmit*
OmMmXXmUm o f te l#j$mm fa c ilitie s hm greatly expedited the
mark o f the (tmpwrtmnt* A ch ief disj^toher, who i® in charge o f the eea-
I«m8 co^A alnt rw a «& pcOXee ^sidiaiartore,! supervise© the reception ©f
coEspCUinte mt4 defMetmse the method o f oo^ajnlc&tim to he used in H e*
Im m m them to Mm vm&mm pm m «MM»# A street tale% m asted on a
eM eee m e dkapaMwr m determine to which pe&im d istr ic t
m glvwi mjgfcer ie located, At the end of eaeh s h ift, the santral em »
p laint room xwfjort ie foreteded to the oriM ndl record e*etto& free which
fflgdnit eubeoquont reports lead the moord o f inve©tig&fci<m ere emteelXetU
Qmied&mttm o f teletyp e eod re^lo fa c ilitie s (leta r dieoesseil) with Mb*
t$$e moedmose
of electric oosm^ioe^
U.m imiMMLm *
X& M m ssajori.'ty of m e leader d©partw-&’ts in the county, on sdeqnfet**
.integration of
fmtltM** in MSsm&m to he foossd* In the cts4*
©ago Peefc Sletrlot a eesstmX eeltetdmeyd in the M i n effXeee of the pmk
dletrlot orawtdee fur the mmcHk
jeriLmte wire#
of c«XXe* tthile there ere iso
the time dietrieb statics with the central
M^luarMra, preeent M X f M M t l e a fulfill neede* Seek of the die*
tikMmm fem ib» one in4t#hoerd which invite eoab&cb with the de*
portent sdihmb daisy* I t o tadepeaiMKt Mtchboard facilities ere
eefdoyei In only mlmm% other dep»twnte# tMe Inusdieap appear® not to
M m greatly mterded Mtagtaaft m m d m *
with the m m m
the street in met o M M p d X t l e a ledtete that the oitiem ® m eonhaet
Mm dmpmrnmmifo with little m m delay# JMMXafcimo appear to he mob
in th® sheriff*© ©fiiee* H o t use m gg&mte wires eonaeetlag
the m n l
diairieb etntdom end m n #e e between the* ie explicated fcy
a M X M X service* Cltisens hove frequently complained, too, about the
delays in reaching district actions, Sisco the adoption of a statewide
radio hookup is the State Mgbssy M i c e B^psaptrant, mmtmt between the
vsri-eue district stations ts being augranbed by as extensive inter-district
telephone service which in m e seer fate® will porait an unfettered em­
ployment of telephone facilities.
It ts In the rastller dspsrtrasta, as re have indicated prariousXy,
that the. greatest prehXsai of telephone corfmimlcation exist®. Xs about
rae-balf of %he municipal end ©peoiaX dep&rtswmts independent telephone
facilities era set available to the pollm - vMeh is another m y of say­
ing that these department® do set have mzmmmb police headquarter®* In
isO instance®, calls mast be relayed to the depeaptesst throe# the tel­
ephone «ccdi®sge Is the mmlelp&X building or by way of the dhief*s horn*
IMer such conditions pmmpt attention to matter® requiring police actios
is difficult,Impossible. As a general rale teleplum service
i® limited to certain hours of the day, usually between the hours of nine
In tbs morning until five in the afternoon.
Another factor counts heavily In retarding the proper utilisation of
telephone ©omunte&tion in the smaller departments, lack of peraemel
usually prohibits the «^>loyment of
hour 'telephone service*
€m occasion all mMfesra of the force may be cut cm duty* In most instance®
the masher of pell©© dee® not perait the estabXiShwenfc of a day and night
operator*® shift, thus, even in many of the department® which have pri­
vate telephone facilities, there Is no assurance that the citizen can con­
tact the degmtmsnt. Hot Infreipently there are no police operators on
duty during the day* t® overcome this handicap m m chiefs have devised
method* of content* In «mm Instance the police beacon m m
feews&ed up to M m village telephone exchange* In the event that the de­
partment did net answer, Mm operater was Instructed to flash the beacon*
3n * number of villages the village telephone operator 1* instructed to
sound the fire e&mm in emergency ease*# In moh mtmmr the patrolling
Mpertemt i® advised of emergencies* The fact that M y partial tel­
ephone service i* available during the day and that daring the night
M l
police aid i» im m m m b m resulted in m increasing reliance upon
tee sheriff*« department, upon adjacent large smnieipal teparteenfcs,and
upon the state highway police*
To a cimeideretle extent the reaction of the dtiaanry toward the
police tepsrteaab 1* dmtmmlmd by the manner in which the police depart­
ment handles its telephone calls* One of the oritldsme which should be
leMled against ts&ny apartments l* that veay little consideration ap­
pears to have been given to the assignment of proper persons for telephono duty, too often persons are at the telephone desk who are etude
of speech and unwilling or unabXo to offer courteous service to the pub­
lic* This omission may
m m of minor i^ortanee# On the contrary the
mre of the pell®© te not mad* the more easy by a p M i o dissatisfaction
which. may be created by Ino^crtee telephone service* the nature of
police #i*ncilex&ng requires not only ©oorteay, Oat tact and diplomacy*
the problem of telephone cwmdcatlcns is greatly aggravated in
many mmmntttm by the language jM & U m u
time is a large foreign 01-
easnt in the county end in a master of cKNSttxaltl** police operator® are
unable to cope with tlm language situation* In one department the dis­
patch operator pointed out that about cnMialf the c<a^>lainant® spoke a
tongue or broken English which require© msm translation*
Bxporiesicea in the Chicago Police Department in recent years Indi­
cate a situation in M m county which is mom prevalent than It should
It had boon the custom for m m years to appoint operators on a
patronage teats* M y m m m operator# were mpXojod to handle incoming
calls* These operators m m usually appointed w i t h o u t reference to their
prior knowledge of police eewnttiiiMleas and with little or no reference
to tksir ability to analyse Incoming m m m gee. Frequently incoming mes­
sages requiring immediate assistance were reported as routine calls, and
routine calls which could here teen handled fey district stations wore
handled as “urgent.** The siteatiou finally developed to a point at which
the post of telephone opmmtm had to te placed under civil service* In
the majority of police departecnte, due to the fact that the post of tel­
ephone operator is a prised one, the** persons who happen to te **Xnw with
the administration are assigned often without regard te teeir ability or
qualifications for the post* la a lin&tod tell of public opinion in
twenty-five cmsMties, discatiafactian with police methods of handling
telephone calls ranked first m m m ssuss® of dissatisfaction.3. To sumaaarlse the telephcm^ co^mmication problem?
The number of telephone in­
stallations in police departments appears adequate. In the majority of
| departeents— in 10$ te te emct— effeotlvmess of telephone facilities
^Questionnaires were sent te fire hundred elttsens* 'Ihtl© this
sampling should not he considered m reprerentetire, the. results obtained
give some indication of public reaction* In this connection it is inter­
esting to note that reaction closely paralleled reaction m determined
through conversations with Mm mm on t e © street in the various coasamities* About a thousand responses were obtained. Summarised, reaction
indicated that 48jl persons listed diasatisfaction with police telephone
©OKusunicatiofie m their
one” cc^laint. tetax^ed one person?
«Wten I called up te inquire te find out about say dog, the operator bawled
mo out for losing tee dog# I finally got the aidm m m te check up#*
ran greatly limited because
The moot serious prafctan appear®
service could not be main­
to be the lack of tact end
m m bm p m Mm pert of the. polleo te M U Id s telte*
HslXe the tetephene serves as m teMtebl© contact between Mm pub­
lic md Mm police depertemsi*, it te of Mttte value me a means of Xinkteg the M l c m a n on M m beat with hoedMMwrs*
This led te the early
16?0» a to M m invention of the can bra which m m originally designed a»
of giving te tee beat patentee® a direct opportunity te ooernnl*
rate with hradquartore* later, however, various visual and audible sig­
nal devisee t e v attested te rail borne® te provide teadquarters with a
means of attracting the attention of patmteon m the brat* Mghte,
horns, belle, m & siren® were eats&oysd for reran purpose®, and not in-
£m<$xe^tXy a eot^te&ilra of one or mere of those m m lootailed m rate
M l bra* UBw» properly spared, can braes with recall signals attached
served as am tepratemt m s
of unifying teperfeassiteX activities# Bat
tee general onreHteility of sate deviera orapXsd with the stestitetlen
of moter for test pateols pin® the advent of radio greatly contributed
te te© decline of the tel1 bra* B&cept as a m&m® of teeteing up on brat
pastels, call ferae® have lost much of their Importance.
Bespits wratereera In the call bra system of co^mnic&tion, mrnlct**
peliUea-*fm^ionlarly the larger m^ciralitiea-«^iTO invented heavily
in rail bra equipment* Hajor ea&ployscnt of cell bra equipment occurred
te C&sleage, teere, m of I960, fra' example, tee nmber of teetellafcions
totalled 1,44$. SfBipmM&t te Chicago was primarily designed fra
purposes retear teen ^recall1* since the majority of installation® were
not equipped with recall devices* The system had never proved entirely
satisfactory isitii the reeult that tqt&sMMnft w
aXXowad te deteriorate*
Mist* the a t a i ©f tmdi©* ts* utility of the e&XX-bog eygrtim bmasm fur­
ther iaipained until *& Ms© p r a m t tin© Chicago* s e&U-box system 1© a
®«co^a^ link in the eenKulflattflfti sqratau
Shore h m been a
irnUCLmt&m of eall-bax ©emlp^soit in
Mflgr of Ms© suburban »^ipaUt4©#*
Beeorda appear to iadie&te that the
mSmJ^r of inataUatl^a m
nnte subsequent to 1920* Until 1951 adop­
tion off celX-boK equipment
rapid but he* stowsd up considerably ainee
Mmt year* Sfct utility- «Kf Mi® various rnXV^m catena varies ©onaider«feXr *n* to the %po of im^uXSMtm adapted and. the spacing of mXl
hesses* ^lataXXatlona in t mXm rep#mm%®Mm ocssmnltteg indicate the
various call and recall devices adopted and ®m spacing enptaped*3*
t*SW& IS
cm* &m ssouux mxcass xh xmsurs muhxcxfaxiti.^
CMmga Height®
forest Bark
La Grange
Oak Park
kiv^sr .H^ososi
a « S i » n e r h ■ fr'i'in
Ifuiaiber of
Bate of
Bistanoe Apart
ORO^haXf sdX@
bsXXji h&TEt& OffiNfr illo
m recall
m i
~r. 4 M & — .
one Bile
one—half nile
flve-slx blocks
<mo-fourth to one-half
firs bloekit?
undsr tkr^o-^uartors
of a sdle
one-half mile
four blocks
six blocks
one-half Bile
reported by the HXimls BoXX ^lephene Cm,pmy
the Oamm.U.
fhes* t w o ®tmpmi%m in&t&XXcsd the a&jority o f o&XX hmma in the
In a ©cnsiderable umber of oommltios the establislwieni of beat
patrol® baa not- been mmmwey*
However, w t mem® have bam required
to recall sweaters of the dapartsiont at work outside the polio® statlon#
In such cwwsitles which boast of a defNtttamt of possibly too to five
m m $ otter ©sail end recall devices ter® been ©Buoyed, Xo a number of
eoe m d Me a sirens bmm bam placed m the roof of m m prominent build­
ing* Otte departossnte have installed beacons* But such device® have
proved of inoonee^utiel value, They can serve only m reeall devices#
Moreover, their us© to limited.
Cltiwens object to a too frequent bound­
ing of the ©iron while the beacon in of little eervtee save after dark­
the general unreliability of call and recall boxes and the doubtful
service rendered by the substitution of beacons end ©Irons indicates that
such devices c m not constitute a very issporfcmt part of Mss ocas^inioatlon system in Mm county* WMi W m rapid teobn^Logloal advances being
»auis in, radio, these wetteeseee way ©ease to affect polio© functioning*
Wmm w m those dopartnenta which hsw radio ©quipped squad m m In servie® have, te a eanetteabla extent^ ceased te rely upon call and recall
devices p ^ v i o M y mentimed* But there- are many departments not equipped
with radio which sel still depend upon, such devices* Later in the chap­
ter we shell observe the- extent of radio adoption in the county and simll
draw certain conclusions m to the esnpatmgr of oMomleation systems*
Bopld departwntaliaation of police deportments since the turn of the
century has brought m m problem© In eommtoe&ien*
In the policing of
.large wanioipaX m a m a d of county and state areas, a number of district
pollee stations were usually necessary if Mi© police load was to be prop­
erly distributed* Whmm decentralisation has occurred there la a marked
tendency for each district station to become a miniature polio® depart­
ment# In m
instance© district stations have com© to enjoy an almost
©©apXofce independence from, hm&QMat&m* control. In addition, the prob­
lem ®f police Jteobtoning m o co^licsted by the rapid demlopRmtt of
reads which brougbb about- a notobl® mobility of arias# As a result de­
partments m m om£rmrn& with m Increasing Stem of lnt€irdepartimmtal
m m i w p m & m m which require some wofeaniosa mans of distribution if
all districts m m to bo advised* teb difficulties' encountered in Bos­
ton, Mmambmat%o> in reducing departedtall«5atiosn and in speeding up
the transmission of messages, proe^ted the Boston Police Bepartment to es­
tablish the teletypewriter# As the name suggest#, the device 1# a eoa&lnation telegraph and typewriter* A message can be typed at an Initiating
station and automtloaXly recorded at ear nuster of outlets desired# In
this m m m ? a single m^eage swat out from headquarters is automatieally
recorded by every teletype- mmfcmr in each of the district stations,
1hue a m distribution is accomplished with a minimum loos of time and
At present teletype facilities In the cemty have been confined almsit entirely to
use not to Intsrdspartnental use# Such
facilities m m first i&ispXoycd by the Chicago Belie® Department step® the
policing of the city e d d i e d the distribution of the police load among
district stations, An emeeXXesib teletype circuit is now In use, ’
Use de­
partment now has at Its disposal a slxty-lln® circuit, JOX Hues have
been a i ^ m a d with F-*-* private lines thereby giving the teletype a di­
rect line to each district, this installation permits the use of the
$*&*% lines both for telephone conversation and for teletype messages at
one and the same time without hampering either service.
At a m tim a limited, teletype service m e extended between Evanston
end Manettoa m M m a m t e d and the Chicago Milo© Department on the
other hot this eomeetlon never appeared satisfactory and m s finally dis­
continued* fMs is the only instate of InterdoparfcEiental teletype in­
stallation in the cmvty* However, M m m appears m m m m growing seed
for as m p m m t m of teletype facilities is the ecunty* m s problem we
shall discuss is the concluding chapter*
miheat question the advent of radio has proved the mmt revolution­
ary dismlspnsattt is polio® sanmilroUMi is resent times# Origtnally
adapted for ^otar-viey** seenasdeatien hetwees headquarters and motor patrols,
radio served as an all-ii^>ortmt medium of contact wlsieh, to a major extest, <mt~£3Cid©d all other ooMmleatisn devices* Hth the resent improve;1
sent of radio reception and the development of two-way radio facilities,
talk-hack t m & M M m mm m m Available by which conversation© tmy bo hold
It appears only a matter of
ttsm until Mm beat patrolman will 41m he equipped*3* The Introduction
Of radio marks m end to the isolation of the beat patrolman and bids
fair to revolutionise police organisation and police tactics* the twoway radio, la particular, has increased the potential ability of motor
patrols, has made possible the release of officers £rm reserve duties
and, because of its cost of installation m d operation, is available to
small as well as large department®.
The Chicago Police Departwit was the first department in the county
*7n this mmomMm. see Forward, "Police Pocket Wireless,w 9 London
Follca Journal (1930), pp* SSMHSf Hutchinson, "Brighton Police Pocket
^ 1 0 * ^ ^01^00 qhroHiclelml.Oonst^>iiimrv mrl$L m. 3M (Wtmm&wr IS,
X9$7)j A I m b municipal lesooiatim, Mmioioal Pollco„_Badio ..&«&«»
Eeporb Ho* m (1954)#
to be equipped
radio* Several
account for It® adaption In
the success of radio eaperlsMtabion In Oetrolt m m undoubtedly
a formative factor*4 Primarily, however, radio m s welcomed because of
the prevalence of a serious crime law and the acute shortage of sum* Al­
though the tmsaber of polio® had been doubled ©too© X900, the pcpoX&bten
of the city had been trebled*^ $m addition, the effectiveness of the &e~
parta«mt had been greatly reduced (a© far a* available polio® for patrol
duties «as conoomod) fey the continued demand for aselgnjjsents to clerical,
detail, and bureau work* for ©scample in 1927, of a fore® of 5,4EE p&trolnan, only 2,008 m
available for patrol duty.^ this number taksn in
eonjunction with the number of islles of city streets, indicated the ser­
iousness of the boat .patrol problems 8,825 mile® of city streets, a
i$h® first message m m flashed on April 0, 1928*
%adlo m m not established without difficulty* the department had
urged radio adoption sine© IMS* iln&XXy in 1020, Statics ec®, outlet
for the Gfeieago tribune, volimteered to broadcast police messages. Appar­
ently lag in adoption occurred on the n w d counts that the service did
nob justify the oost, that InpsidtotleBS In broadcasting and recaption
e&utloned delay, imd finally that the beat patrol system m e ©till satis­
fying the needs of the dsfMuiMttb*
m m 8,814 officers and w m m the force in X9QGj 6,098 in
Population increased from 1,-698,875 to about £*££$*000 in 1028*
^JTor ODsassple, distribution mm m ibllcmt
fetal number of patrolmen
Less* Permanent &a«dgnment$
(clerical, chauffeurs, etc*)
tmmm details for special
squads (vice, galling, tmf
fie, etc*) « « * • * « * • »
Less* sick leave, vacations,
ate* * « • * * « » * * * »
Available for patrol duty
.M S
patrolling strength of about 700 m m per shift, average length of the pa­
trol heat about five
AmAapMttt of radio ■facilities in the Chicago Felice Departu^nt n a
rapid. IMe la evidenced in the tmt mat at present about cmc-fourth of
the dopartsient,s jmmemtil Is engaged in radio, teletype* and -telephone
ooraaanioations end in the mwsing of the radio gftpad ears* Of seme 1,470
person® engaged in various oowmieatiou activity, mrnnisy«mm m ® alloyed
in the central co^laint room, which is the nerve center of the police
ooraaaic&fclon system* About % M opemtmw m ® to bo found in the various
district stations and there are tamt$*a&xMi engineering and radio repair
men# Tbs remainder (about 1,346) are tbs uniformed patrolmen and &Uin»
clotheamen assigned to the 109 squad c w *
Ordinarily about eno^haXf of th* n^xmd oars ar© reserved for patrol­
ling purposes, and are usually assigned m a district basis. A £<m of the
districts have as many as aiae oars, most of tbs forty-one districts two
oars* Allocations are not f&nsd, however, but are varied according to
need**' Police conditions, rather thian political senagdcafttltins, ere ellewed to gwara as t© distribution.* & considerabls) iran&er of *3>ad oars
^illleago &g nity streets m of January 1, 19E8. 3a« Fiffap-tfoird &n»
j5m«a.SeK<a!gt of. too.Bmwetemt of m ate »orto. S*.jg.a£..Q&£agg (*»)»
p* sauu
*For ©ssaisiple, « dsnasry 1, 1999, one district had four ears, there
districts ©&©h of which had three cars* Hints districts
had tm care, each* there m e m M x Mstrlots with only on® car aaelu fso
district® were unprovided. 3 m *&tofrmam% of Hadio Bspipped Cars and Mstriet JaMd#m«b***
®tha»e is, of eeexee, a groat deal of pressure escorted by ward of­
ficials to seeur© m m .adequate radio facilities* It is apparent that
radio facilities are still inadequate* the city has a geographic area of
about $1£ square Mies with less than a hundred squad ears available feu*
patrolling purples.
m m m m I for purposes other than patrolling* Sixty<~flr® cars are assigned
to th® H&rious bur®*®* and details* bw©i»ty***ftw are at th© peraonal s©rflo* of wrtou® polio© ©lid govoiwiimt officials* sight ar© th© reserves
ho used in ea*©s of mmrgmxey or ©a ms&siitut®© for disabled
?b® Xargo geographic «r** to bo «*y*r*df wM&& to problem© of orsr**
WBing static and
tfifttaatl** in bh®
*stiihUgh®®nt «r feroado^rting faoiXibi©**. in a mm&tp thro© tratXot®
txm sfe&sfe mmm$m. ms& bo &a*h*d sinsalt^etmoly or
indlriduell^-. ® m taaomdltier is located in tb* north **etlan of th*
eiby# another in th* ffgwth motor* th* third. In th* msi sector*
three transmitter® mm linked by prlmto ©ir© to th* **ii& broadcasting
station at poXio©
i$i©r© all amouftesiBmts ar© inad©* this
broadcasting arrange**^ parasite x**tel*ite& of IMtridual broadcasting
capacity t* S00 mite and at th* saw %im allosm for a eomplot©- e#*m&*
of th* city a M it* mriron®#
Imtnlmmm® of hrosdoas&lng *qu£pao*t sod tbs sorvlcing of radio
®<^ip*a®nt in th* *<p®d m m mm sudor th*- direction of * Chief Engineer*
ladsr his direction *r* th* sixteen temsaditer
m m smd
t*ns*de**tiag operator® **d also a unit of thirteen **rvl£* m m and r®~
p&imm* fh* Hosts of <M*£ l^gineor M m r i l has bam m Iwportmt cos*tributim to radio
M unintemipted ssrrioe m®r a period
\ssipWBt© to tori***- details indicates th* broad us© of radio
faeilitl*®* fhlrtooft oar® «&® assigned to tbs hstMretis® Division* thir­
teen to th* 3toXm Auto BoctXonj tmVm to th® Accident Pretention Bu]p*«tt| d * to th* Csrtsi©
ter®* to Scotia Xsrdj thro® to th®
Hosdoid® Buremi thro® to th® lorsla
W r m to th* Narcotic
Buremi two to th© Boeing B#teiXt ©to*
©£ year© tsUm adequate ©ervioing ©f reoeivers hm aUcwed an imimpaired
mm mi r®dl© trndXlU m ?*
of the radio w dt e will tasdototedly to expedited wtoa two-sray
tiurtoXXation® are placed to aorvlcB.
©tsXXsd to fifteen ©are cm January X* V$m*
service equipment urns is% tto and of the year it is
expeotod that most, if not ©Xl# of to® ears wtlX be so ©quipped*2
i&ttongh tto Otttuaft* M t o Ocwdtt^ proposed th© organisation of
a signal division alto mpmnrimtm mmr MUgfem© and radio, as one of the
five major division oototood into records .and property* such an organise
tim has not y&% b&m ©ooi^ltehodL® fto i s w # division is todepejndent
%pooial repair a n ®mkm the streets* If radio equipment to on©
of to® ©cpaad oars falters* m repair mm is rushed to th© disabled oar and
another radio unit is installed. Bepair© of equipment are alm^s made to
to© servXo© stop Xoe&ted m toe ®awy FXer. Eadio eervic© oars ®r© also
available to repair ignition or eleetrie light troubles that niay ocear*
During XSBT-$Sf servioo oars m d © 0,2X6 service and inspeotion ©alls and
4,®i& nm-radio eerfioe ©alls onto at repairing ignition «<$©!£©©&&, spark
pings* ete*
%@e toe
-^r^CTf ^w#*«ry
B*8®, for an aeoousxt of two-way
installations. Far m toteresttog aeeouat of to© relative merits of cm©~
m y and twe^i^ Instollattoas, note toe artioto of
nTm^my or
frfiflla© »lfraa«
to long as polio© oo«®ii cation was confined primarily to th© tel­
ephone, qtostio&s m to the location of comsmmic&tXons n w not vital is­
sues* Bat to© rapid growth of polio© eowmtoation systems and tb© adop­
tion by m departoent of &&mm 1 dmimm of msmmimtlm have mmtlnmd to
force toe formation of ©antral ©cmsxle&tom ©nit®. M s is essential is
to© larger departoento*
even in to© smLXsr depertoents* lh©
effective administration of ©cmmisfetlani facilities requires that a H
totoptate, teletype* radio, « d other signal devises should to combined.
W m m the ®tm mi a department permits, a separate signal dtvtadaa should
to ©rganX&M* Wbem to© How of ©€i«mi©ati©n® does not warrant each or­
ganisation, those facilities might well to combined with that of reoords
In m y m m * it is is^ortent that ^mmmimtimm to
■recognised m m important auxiliary service to to gives d m secognition
in tto administrative «©8©nU«t&Qiu
of oowaal«ati<ma * llssponsibllity for ecssnamieattone la divided*
phone facilities are directed by a chief dispatcher, radio facilities are
ocmtrolled by the chief engineer* distribution of squad oars and personnel
asBlgmsonisi are directed through the secretary1® office* But despite
these organisational WMimss«s* there Is a fairly smooth functioning of
©ojgamanieation facilities* this can be attributed primarily to the cen­
tral housing of radio* teletype* and telephone facilities**’ Effective
coordination between CMmmleation and record units permits an unquali­
fied use of record facilities*
At this point It may be of Interest to point out the volusse of rm&~
m$&s handled by the ecaiapl&int room staff m d the work performed by the
radio squads* 0<masuriicatlsms handled are indicated In. the following ta­
vouime of oommxomoKs n u m u sD by - m o m m i o o m ja x t n c m ,
mutjm m u m
i A
i i
. . n
_*___ ___ ^JUBtsSaL
w m
. ................... ............................................. ........... ............................
*A brief deecripUon of the physical layout of the central complaint
m m will serve to illustrate proeedaiM In handling calls. Yhe room is
e large one* ®om sixty feet in length, thirty in width# At on© md of
the room is located the central switchboard tmm which the supervisor
routes a H telephone calls to the operators. A number of telephone booths
mm lined up m two sides of the room* Her© are seated the women opera­
tors who make a written report of all ccseg&alttts* relay emergency calls to
tbs radio announcer, or turn over routine complaints for the police opera­
tor®* Yhese mm seated at a long table in the center of the room* At the
rear of the complaint room m m located the radio broadcasting booths and
In an adjoining room, the teletype machines #
^Prepared frm mnl&tet-BmsiVto* of
the Central
fwpfo*n*r Hoorn.* these reports are Issued monthly by the Bureau of Sta­
tistic©, Chicago Belie© Beparbsserat.
Police administrators and students of government have Hatched with
deep interest the extent to which radio is being adopted in police func­
tioning. It is therefore of interest to analyze calls dispatched from
the central complaint room and to note the number of calls sent out via
radio and those dispatched by telephone and teletype* In general* calls
may be classified as “radio*1 and “non-radio*11 The following table Is a
distribution of radio and non-radio calls for the seven years period
1952—38 inclusive*'*'
Number of calls dispatched Number of calls dispatched Per cent of
via radio
via telephone and teletype radio calls
Thus, about one-half of calls dispatched from the central complaint room
are radioed to the squad oars. Since 1932 there has occurred an in­
creasing reliance upon radio facilities as the column on percentages dem­
Increase in the number of calls dispatched to radio squad cars lines
up -with a progressive increase in the number of arrests made by squad car
operators. While the number of arrests made by radio units does not in­
dicate the role of radio units or their relative importance in the police
‘S ’rom Yearly Reports of Calls Handled Through the Central Complaint
organisation, it 1® of Interest, nevertheless, to observe trends in the
arrest mte of rmHo unite end to oc^paroiho msteer of enreete mad® by
tfe« with the arrests m m by other divisions of the police department*
table 81 is an analysis of arrest d a t a * ' * ’
T&BIM ® l
m a m or a e m ® hub it mbio tmns or rm
Chicago m u m v&mmstT km m m m m m
m m m>mmm
Arroe^ by ladX©
too#to % Other,
fete! lusher
of Arrests
For cent of
Hedio m
im pm $
m ^m
from this It follows that the m h o r of arrests by radio units has shown
e general i m m m m during the eeww»*y«Mir period and that whereas In 19S8
radio unite accounted far only 10 per cent of the west®, in 1918 they
accounted for 20 per cent*
thus, the radio function spgMMm as a mjer faction of the Chicago
About fifteen hnndred persons ere engaged in seas©
foam of radio activity* Of the quarter of a is&XXAon or wsm calls that are
dlsgwtebed amually by the cosplalnt room staff, approximately one-half
are now cm broadcast to squad care* During X9S8 about one-fifth of the
arrests m m bar the ds$NWFt»s*ii wore »d® by the radio di-vision*
^See Annual Eeoorta of the Chicago Police Departeent for the number
of perems~'ametea on m,m or warrant* t e w w m m e d , notified, or
cited for minor traffic viol&tiosis mm not included* Informtion as to
tee number of arrests by radio unit® im supplied by the itsfeiia of Statis­
We turn now to an analysis of radio facilities among suburban de­
partments •
Cost of establishing broadcasting stations coupled with the diffi­
culty of obtaining frequencies were powerful factor© in retarding the
development of radio facilities among suburban police departments in the
county* Despite these handicaps, utilization of radio facilities spread
rapidly - a movement which m s due to a considerable extent to a policy
of assistance adopted by the Chicago Police Department* In the event
that a suburban department equipped its squad car© with receiver®, the
Chicago Police Department agreed to broadcast message© without charge*
Until 1956 the great majority of suburban departments utilized the Chi­
cago broadcast*
Such an arrangement worked out well but in time proved to be a con­
siderable load on Chicago broadcasting* The arrangement also proved not
only cumbersome but costly, for each message had to be telephoned in to
the Chicago central complaint room. As a result, men improvements in
radio broadcasting and reception made possible the installation of in­
dependent broadcasting stations for a© little as #5,000, a number of
suburban department© set up their own broadcasting units.'** At present,
forty-eight of the eighty-nine suburban department© ©re equipped with
radio. Of this number, fourteen have established their own broadcast
units.^ Thirty-four departments still depend upon the Chicago broadcast*
^Gne way broadcasts can be erected for about $5,000. However, a
broadcasting unit having a ten mile reception radius with talk-back fa­
cilities can now be Installed for about #5,000. Added efficiency of
broadcasting and reception equipment coupled with cost reductions have
favored independent installations* The trend in the county is definitely
away from the utilisation of the Chicago broadcast*
^The development of radio installation represent® an interesting
trend in suburban development and is an indication that the smaller cost-
The development of radio facilities and the number of radio equipped
oars employed is indicated in the following table?
t m m zz
UANUART 1, 1951, 1955, 1959
Arlington Heights
Blue Island
Calumet City
Calumet Pa*k
Dee Plaines
Elmwood Park
Evergreen Park
Forest Park
Franklin Park
la Grange
la Grange Park
Squad cars In service oft
iSBSmrri\t .tffilk
JMtuary l, 1955
teuary 1^ 1959
[Table continued on following page]
Enmities are overcoming mador obstacles which have hampered suburban po­
licing* The success of the Itftnnetka broadcasting unit which was the first
suburban broadcasting unit to be constructed, has spurred on installations
in other suburban eossmunitles. For an interesting account of the Wirmetka
experiment see Halbert's article, "Model Radio for Model Community,M Po­
lice **15-15” (November-Decembsr, 1958), pp* 8, 10* Brief accounts of in­
stallations in other suburbs during the first quarter of 1939 are to be
found in Police "13—13" (March—April, 1938), pp* 30-31*
-269TABLE ZZ - Continued
Melrose Park
Morton Grove
Mount Prospect
Biles Center
Horth Riverside
Oak Lawn
Oak Park
Park Ridge
River Forest
Biver Grove
Schiller Park
Western Springs
Squad cars In service as of:
Januarv 1. i m
January 1. 19^5 January
1. 1959
With regard to the number of municipalities establishing radio units,
it will to© noted that 25 municipalities had installed radio equipment in
©quad oars prior to January 1, 1951* By January 1, 1935, 45 municipali­
ties had installed equipment and 48 toy January 1, 1939* Figures also
disclose that 61 oars had been equipped with receivers as of January 1,
1931$ 118 as of January 1, 1935, and 142 as of January 1, 1939. Major
development of radio facilities occurred, therefore, between 1951 and
1935 although there hm been a gradual expansion of radio facilities af­
ter 1955.
This, briefly, is a description of hour and to the extent to which
suburban departments have acquired radio facilities.
The task has not
to&m m m a p «m
tteam m m still wm &
white lack this ix»-
pmmrn^ mmsmlmltm facility* fhai » partial ©oluticm to the prcblaa
1m w w « ^ . despite tee tend&eaps created by deeeateaifced eziforescent
watt fen considered swa eatetendteg mmm&l&AfamKfo* But it illustrates
HO®1® than ever the masted effort, ten dui^Xeatdosi of activity ^nd tea in lew td en i ©steblitei&ent o f aaagjy poUee X&eiXitiea sihan fewer establish*
ssseste ss&ihb s e ll norm m hotter purpose, U la other field s of policing
©ntl'wity &
os^te^osssssit poli^ weald Inevitably fellow mem
it n»t for Federal raguXattois gamming radio naannnlmJitain* Again,
tea inportent problem of wteteonislng radio faeilliies in accordance
**» ^oteopcaitan pw&Zkm still mmaiaa ua^btled* Eadle m U v t U m
m m & M uncoordinated m & & mm* oblate atlHsotim of the advantages
offered tar radio w a its ten t&ss© teen ms&r&l&m&tm of such fa c ilitie s
As m@y bo aatleiimted, other police agencies la addition to the
municipal depsrtomte, hm* also ©atahXlshod radio units* Wo. turn now
to a timmstptlm of other inoteOlati^, first mite regard to special
'diotrtete* tesn to ten ©«»%* mt& state d^^irteonte*
Of ten spatial dteteiote, tea. teUnaa Park 8t»t*iot Police Baparte
naot lo tea only one ssplaylng SMdio^a^uipped s<$aad oars* Although m nalntag equipt«mfc w
installed In 1983, it m a n not until 19SS that the
park district evicted constructs of its can 100 mntt ultra high fm-
q m u g r t w n s a L t t n r *
Prior t o X 0 8 S a n a n a s e s to s * p « a m m wore broadcast
by ten Chicago MLloa &*p&?taaa&. fha park district now has fifty-aight
radio aI
of the <
11, 1939*
v£d2$*diigu8i, 1938}, pp* ~13-14 for an account
metstet tasMwaer nyotenu See also tee M c a ^ Mbaae.
©«rs of the Oeek 0cmia% Sheriff1a M^teagr Beparlsent ware
flret equipped in Itss «te% hy w^ofiasatlim of the ecmisty board* fourtens were p&aeed la ©@ri&©©» th®
now has sixteen cars
& U isessapsss are hresatast feytwi Oitlea@> Poll©© teparls^t,
mmrnt^ within mm ms& i m m m U m the dsparteni « m ho operating its
m o byeteeash&rti aali*
OeMraete were let la April of 1959 for the gm*
M m t i o a of a t o m M J i tm®r to he erected ever the Mortem Crow
Station* la ^ppropriatton ©f
#7*000 tem hmn provided to
©quip ©ere ©fawtiag oat of the Morten ® m m Station with
pears Illinois awe X e M a g &* ea ©ffielent stets*tede eosa-
iM&eaiion system wtolM would ©ell the state poUoe late eerrlee la emer­
gencies. lot m W L 1&8S6 warn attempts mte® to m e % the situation# To­
day* with the n o t
of the #300*000 polio© ytei© cteim* the
state highway polio® will ho pfMtdM with a ®tete*ted© ratio net work
««parlag f&wr&bly with the host of the ©mmtey*
Sana' tesnte.tter®
how bmm ere©ted* else of S00 mtt* mm of $S0 emit* Messages ©an be
floated m &ix frm%mm£m teieh msy he tuned in ty relaps controlled,
fete the ©per&ters* dmkm*
3te trans^tters tew s m & © of &S0 ail®®*
OoatMX. ste&ien of the astewrk In located in Springfield* otter station®
being Inatel st Ba Qxioia* fetoMk* Sterling* Pontiac* Bffinitea* ate
lorwoad Parle near Ohteege* Bewiwt's tew tea® installed in 19® squad
oar® and sosaa SSO saoMwpcle®^ The Morwcwad Station la Cook County begs®
, 195S), p, 9,
T^fflr aceotmte o£ tfta State polios radio nystea see the following!
(Aleewoi}. (howsafcwr, 1S88),
Mtureh 83, 1838j ,
auary-fehrmanr* 1
8. In the a^ioaF.o Tribune*
if Mteh 14* X8SS* 1® a awsp lHwfemtimg the position of the various po­
lio© tetecpiarter® ate the location of squad ear© for blockade purposes.
f m earlier aeeouats of tte m t o M see
<K*y» 183?)* p. 8
and the fl^inefei Pcliawum
183?}, p. 86.
operation® in April of 1957, and as w© shall indicate in the final chap­
ter serve© ae a valuable coordinator in synchronising radio facilities
in the county.
Communication system® constitute a strong link in the police organ­
isation in the county# The use of the two-way radio in the large a® well
as many small department© and the relatively low cost of installation
lends weight to the prediction that such equipment will eventually be
provided in the majority of police departments# A more general radio
adoption will have an important effect in raising the individual effect­
iveness of each department, thereby overcoming many of the weaknesses
which are now apparent in county enforcement. Minor departments will be
enabled to provide a police service hitherto impossible. To these minor
departments will be given new avenues of &eeomplishtaent which will great­
ly expedite the work of enfcuroement in the county#
Recent movements toward motorization and the need for combatting
criminals employing heavily armed cars have compelled the extensive ord­
nance equipment which will enable the police to meet the criminal on
equal terms#
Side arms and the night stick served a valuable purpose so
long as the police were primarily concerned with foot patrolling. To a
considerable extent they no longer serve as securities to th© police. In
place of the side a m and the night stick, reserve equipment consisting
of, shotguns, machine guns, and other accouterments are required
at headquarters, teiX© each squad car must serve as a miniature arsenal.
The ever present possibility of m encounter make® it imperative that a
department’s personnel be supplied write emergency equipment#
-S£7£With regard to elde arms, the usual policy requires that the police
officer purchase hi® m m equipment# Where salary levels are high, this
policy 1® not objectionable* in the county, however, iseager salary range®
in many departments place an unduly heavy burden on the policeman. A sore
trying problem, however, 1® the problem of ammmition# Only seven depart­
ment® make appropriation® for side ana immunities, The fact that the of­
ficer ffiaist purchase hi® m m ammunition suggest® a reason why so little
target practice is followed#
In only terse department® - the Chicago
Police Beparteent, tee Chicago Park District Department* and the State
Highway police Department, Is target practice obligatory# Every officer
is required t© fir© an established number of rounds each ye&r#^
Marked improvements are in evidence with regard to ordnance in head­
quarters although most departments have not obtained adequate equipment
without considerable effort# In the smaller department® equipment Is
seldom purchased by tbs municipalities or special districts# local unit®
of the Illinois Bankers Association &&v& supplied most of the equipment*
3ixty-three municipal departments rely almost entirely on the formidable
arsenals controlled by the local b&nic-guard association# Equipment usu­
ally consist® of three rifle®, throe shotgun® ate occasionally a sub­
machine gun*
In the event that ordnance 1® not available through hank-
guard organisations, equipa»ent Is usually obtained through dances, picnics,
^Practice® in the Chicago Park District Police Department should
serve m a model for the county* Every officer must visit tee target
range at least four times a year to shoot a total of 1E0 routes from
standardised, closely checked revolvers for a .58 special bullet which
the w m us© on duty* Weapon® are checked quarter-yearly* The depart­
ment purchases ammunition in £0,000 lots, paid for by the Chicago Park
District# Be® of the shooting gallery is evidenced in the fact teat in
the past three years about 000,000 rounds of ammunition have teen fired*
and other social affair© given by the police department.1
In the larger departments, excellent equipment is usually found.
Major advance© have been made In the l&rt two year© in the equipment of
motor unite. Recently the following equipment was made standard on ja*n
the Detective Bureau squad oar© of the Chicago Police Departments 57 53a.
tear gas gunj .45 caliber sub-machine guns 12 gauge five-shot riot gun;
four lever type tear gas bombs; three long rang# projectiles for tear
gas guns, clips of twenty for the sub-machine* Extensive Improvements
in equipment in most of the larger departments is also in evidence. In
lime with these trends are improvement© in ordnance in the sheriff’s
Office. Until 1935 the department relied on a few rifle© ate on© or two
shotguns. Machine gun equipment was made standard for all squad cars on
January 1* 1955.
Decentralisation, lack of finance©, varying attitudes with regard to
tee kite and desirability of equipment, have not dealt kindly with police
department equipage# This, an all-important tool in police functioning,
has not yet ©©cured the position which it© importance warrants. A® ob­
served in tee preceding page® of tel© chapter, police department* are
forced* in frequent instances, to operate without adequate tools of er**
Sometimes an equipment ivcakn©©© lies in crumped headquarters,
or in the lack of record facilities, or in the comwioations or the
^Two examples Indicate situations that sometimes arise in the lesser
eoEammibies* In one village* official® had made a partial payment on a
sub-machine gun. An incoming administration refused to complete payments.
Thereupon, tec department approached the team merchants. Contributions
plus proceeds from a dunce mad© up the deficit* In a second village, an
armored ear had been purchased by dance funds. The ear was damaged while
officer® were pursuing a fleeing bandit* teen the chief attempted to
trad© In the damaged car for a new one, village officials threatened to
discharge the chief if title to the new car m s not vested in the village.
m & m m branch of the police service. itet ssasy of tee departaenta ere
| fortified vith ««iuts#>®nt
in all th**« r*spe#ts.
*M»»g 13* prtmtay w&tpweb uwaknsas Is that of headquarter*. There
! la m dearth la th* Bomber of bMdqwsrters. Esther the profusion of heed! «n«rt«p« le such as to sate dimaslt the teek of eotabllehlRg strategically
leeated qpertera, each eufficiest for police purposes. About 90 per cent
«T the police departments do nrot base Independent <ju*rters but are housed
I la otter public teildtingc* deeM tittrangsce&fcg tusmally place e premium on
| ©pace ate tm frequent inetanee® hm® eempeHed smch © dispersal of factl| ttlee ee to gravely handicap polios functioning# telle P.W.A. end w.P.A.
! fete©' have teen of invaluable ©14 in remedying & bad situation, tee spread
| of tend* tee not reacted ite problem* the appearanee of headquarters bee
! proved am importemt retarding feature to proper functioning end has dene
| suite t© condition am
attitude found in many eesasnnlties.
The incarceration of priconars, m
one of tee important problems
j in imfereeeent, le me longer am issue of any greet ecasft$B(caec+ In recent
| years excellent Jail facilities have been provided for tee county sheriff,
| telle ell tee larger polio® departments m m have sufficient coll room ©#
j be pemtet incaiwratic® of prisoners for those departments which d© not
i have tee proper facilities.
Records, teite represent one of the tee major auxiliary functions of
I policing, remain & major problem in police functioning* Although a staff
function, recording practices as?© notable for dispersion* The desire t©
j group recording m tee tests of Ha® functions hm greatly impeded the
: eetehXlstesnt of central record bureaus with tee result that most police
| executives here difficulty in obtaining any ©ver-all view of departmental
j| activities* Dispersion is eeag&leated by the almost universal use of
J ea^leying person# for recording tee are not fitted for such duties either
j by training or imHimbton* In fewitent imateneee, the asjeigrasent of
| p*nwnn«l fc# recording i# dictated by polltioal coBwidwatieaja. M i s
j Indew., iwra-haeartlousi factor* »*Ach are not overlooked by tfaoao who
| tern "jNOa.*" M l w m of swards is further pwmmtad because of the
| disfcribtttioa of veeords aaong « large master of departswnte. Lack of
I assa-powar In swat police agencies does mot penalt aoeignaent of a eoa|
patent nusfcur ef persons for record duties, is a mis, traffic and
idehtifieatlon appear as the prtenxy m m m m *
Moreover, peer filing
fssiMtte# fhrfeter reduce isywt«fetie use. Lodging of information on
in&Xlwr©ote, -in
the H t e have not helped*
| sibly tee |9?i» wedkmse in rwssrding practices is the feet teat records
f are net wm& t m ptewtoi*
fhmaem 1© n prevailing ettited© that records
a re sim ply e device o f reco rd in g ttsform tiom *
T te f a s t , to e , te a t re*
cording practices of dap&rteente differ rosmrtebly tea ^rexhjned the pea*
elMXlty of directing any oeneerted attack on any mm problem by ©
number of agencies# Detemimlng nejcnr problems in tee scanty is largely
a matter of goe«0 work# tentex? ns^wte white are esseaticX to a proper
of police
m m for the m m b part non-exiatont*
' This, as ante a# ©ssy.ctter ttetete footer, baa forced polio® executives
: te .steer tee polio® ship by tee estate of public opinion and of te® press*
tee field of scientific crime tdeteiftetetesk, efforts to obtain
ij adequate equipment tew teen hampered by lack of funds, the majority of
| dspartesmte cannot obtain such ® w an m m required fear tit© outlay of
costly Identification equipment* Ror can they afford to employ experts
i! ^
the various fields of criminal identification„ As a result, the major-
j tty of. departmnbs confined activities to
identification and
| m e t rely upon ohmae to solve oriasee and otter problem which cannot be
| stitatd throng pereonel Modification#
On the assumption that a good
j erte* identification roquiroo adequate tool® of crime detection in tee
[ tend# of esxpert operator#, there 1# only one such bureau in the county:
| btet of tee Chicago Police &*jpertM&t«.
In the .field of eo»unX©&tion0f Important change# in
| and equipwnt mm% m m m - m later- bo made.
of competent
jl telephono operator® hm seldom been followed*
The telephone, which should
! represent mm of the aaost cordial m d as®X#fei»g police device# between the
1 public and the polio® department, to in frequent instance# pemiicd to
|j become a chief point of friction*
In the majority of small departments,
1 adequate us# of telephone 1# reduced: dm to the i^oasibility of taatoj
| t&tning twenty-four hour service#
The majority of departmmt# work on an
jj eight tear teal#*
During the imtitolng sixteen hour#, the citizen in
m a t rely
the sheriff, state, or other agencies.
Cfereateet *£*#&#•# in tte field of oaMEnioati<m# have been ® t e in
: the direction of radio testdilations*
At present fcrfcy-etght of the
| eighty-nine sutexteii police tepartente are equipped with radio.
of the degwrtaMmts have tteir
mquipmmt, thin dtf-
1 fim&iy has been remedied, at least In pert, by utilizing th# Chicago
j broadcast*
Within the
Imfo three
years, the Chicago Park District Be-
partsaent, the tariff'1® office, and the state highway poXlc# have ©stab(I 11,shed their mm broadcast. Present radio feoilltlee, teen properly an­
jj ployed, m& sufficient to give a broad radio coverage over the entire
Bespit# jurisdictional decentralisation, the majority of departments
have required ordnance* The majority of small departmerets have been sup­
plied by bank guard associations and other private or sesd-publlc agen­
cies* The larger departments all have arsens&s ©sssprised of shotguns,
machine guns, and the like* Chief difficulties in the ordnance field
11# In W m purchase of namnition* This is usually the responsibility
of tec polios officer m the polio® dtpsrteonfc* for this reason, there
Siias net ©©marred a rang© md shooting gallery practice essential to
effective u m of #*6mmn»«
nm m o m i M m & sm xm m u m pbobuk
this stop t o been toe ndtfe a to-Kfold objactiw.
to describe
police todnlsto&isft ami t o police problem 1» Cook County is t o first*
fo portray a situation ehioh is tooobtedly @ m & to most, If not all,
metropolitan areas, is t o m&oM*
Xn t o long r m 9 it is hoped tot t o
lotto sill prose of the most writes* For 1& analysing a jsetropolitan
problem, m m isf in fact, eto&ating a problem vhieh is of ms|or signify
leasee in the United States* tore are at present nearly a tetmdbred
metropolitan areas in the Ignited States and elthin them reside In excess
of 54,000,000 of people - about ©nsHbalf t o population of the country.1
Thus, m analytical study of one metropolitan urea may serve to disclose
a police sltotiom nhieh assy affect a considerable part of the population
of this country*
The public attitude, t o form of gyrorment, finance, the attitudes
t o practices of police officer® t o
~ all play roles of stra­
tegic importance In estabXishing t o effectiimmm of police functioning,
m s is ptoicmtoly toe m regards mtropallto areas, t o here polic­
ing tots its grestest test, toe t o difficulties of establishing a
hi# ©tder of totosasito t o prtohly greatest* It is t o intent of
this chapter to point out th« wtjor difficulties which block attoinacnt
h n this oonnoetlon, w»
S« Bureau o£ the, FifteoHth Conau*
JjgMiittlwg mgtrtbtB. ggP^tion gyUJtoBL.
ttV m XSbXUA
^Metropolitan Dietrlcts.w in Recent 5ocial tren«abslS t o m t M
States (l&SO).
of a high level of policing and to suggest such measures as may improve
the police prooMi,
years ago Thersten ^01% made the statement that the police,
Xifce ether agencies of public service, mirror the opinion© and attitudes
Of the group which institutes a**&maintain® it . The statement is of
particular significance because It describes shat may he considered to bo
a tmi&mmtxiX faster creating mm? of the difficulties in metropolitan
o tfm n m ti For it should bo emphasised at t ho outset that Cock County
is a mosaic of many H ill# wrIda v&sieb the tempering influence of soelal
and eonMerolal intercourse has m% yet leavened* Chicago, itse lf, though
a city in Its oen right, la yet a conglomeration of seimnty-five or sore
so aggregate of ssany local cosammltles, each differentiated
tv m the others by its characteristic functions la the total economy and
cultural complex of city life* Oook County is simply a larger geographic
edition of Ghtesge** cosmopolitanism* For the ©ounty la not only a
social, Inst a political mofs&io as s e ll and barbers sitMn its borders
nearly a hundred separate cities, towns, sod villages ~ not to mention a
host of other political dlvisiom® and suMlviaions*1'
of the
se a l B e t a g ,
^ cto r a 3
D is -
{Chapter 11 i n p a r t i c u l a r ) * HeEmais, ^Metrcpclitan Matriste,” in
fm9J ^ ! aA
Cor t M
Bcorsanisation of
County M e t r o p o l i t a n
fcan t e a s #
R esp ite th e preadittity o f th e v ario u s p o lio s aspartaam ta in th e
e e w ty and th e f e e t th a t th e y *** a l l engaged in i « e n e i ta s k , strife s
d lM fta lla s itt* *
between and asaohg thorn
dmeh d i f f e r
enees are observable in the ideology as nelX a* the pattern ©f eaferse-*
meet which e re s ia p ly a in f le c tio n o f th e w a y eeenande, s o c ia l, and
p o litic a l fere** vfaMi have been a t work fo r n e n than a century.
The eonpXea&by o f th e pe&iee p a tte rn i s due in la rg e ise&s&re to
change* in. th e iM X esephy, p ra c tic e , end need* o f policing*
o r ig in a lly co n ferred on s h e r if f , ©©notable, © eraser,
a re evidence th a t th e
Broad powers
s ta te 1® a tto rn e y
m U m m had in mind th e c re a tio n o f a
pow erful, «ll«gnirpese# county enforcem ent u n ro e tric to d to s p e c ific lo c a l
boundaries w ith in th e ©oonfcy
m to any s p e c ific p o lic e function* le g is la ­
tiv e a c tio n fro a tim e to tim e has reaffirm ed th is in te n t*
Bat w ith th e
m e* o r tn e fsm icip ftiiv y cene a cniyuLeng© AkMk.
to ajut^^jurpoew joounvy—
i a
i -—
i i
Although the acnicipal polio* eleeely reeesfeled sheriff and
constable in the early ©tag#, a frank i i p m l m
lag m e
*©on apparent *
in m e principle of polio-*
the rise of the samicipsl polieo represent* an
Important mverst©** from the principle of
lag restricted t o local bocadaries,
o f theme t o w h o m the local police
m m tyedde
m& Km
policing to polio*
deel^sed to reflect the ideals
Within meant year* th e demand for specific type* of public serv ice
led to the c re a tio n o f mmp tmmttemX u n its , m condition p a rtic u la rly
o p erativ e in th e o rg a n isa tio n o f p a rk ,
d i s t r i c t , and fo re s t
preserve districts* Almost tsscediately th e f a c t io n a l p rin c ip le of cos-M l was applied to police action, the orgsnisfiation and work of the
specie! d istrict p o lic e mflmtlng in la rg e measure Urn parposs* for which
j special dietrtcts w e
This trend 1* of particular isg>©rioacc
became* 1% mark* an important defwerbiir* from all-purpose policing t© the
j practice of treating pc&iec action
a eeriea of function* each of which
| require* a apeetaliaed typo of police control* Eeeentiy to the principle
j Of eeantgr, imwtioip&l, and fbismttaaal police control was added a fourth
plaalple, that of ooforcwKosnt by the etatee - a tranaittoi* which brought
lute being m e etate highway police, the state bureau of identification
fkm, withlB ®o©k County, at least four m i©?
£mm&$ each distinctly diifeambta&ed from the
and ether eta&e agenei***
pattern* of pdiciBg are
The presence of seme huswlmd or mere police agencies la the county,
end in particular the type of sgcoey found, it evident, that these pat­
test have been w&gcrsMly adopted*
located la a position of strategic
ftqperfceMMi la the c w & y , la the ©hte&ge Police Bs^artemt with ite »t*
bhecaand ©r e n m
la the eiavtrtaaa
m& village* police their magnetite
slater cities, tomac,
I® Chicago, a single
park district operates the nineteenth largest police <fti$&rt«te©b in. the
©otm&ry, u&ile In 0bie&g©*e ccvlfwe Cxa^ty-nine ether special district*
collaborate la the ecformsceat of the lair* Beanlmg the
vectigial remain* of a ©nee powerful ccuetalmlary*
are the
Participating to an
Inoreaciag ©setent are the patrol® of the sheriff*® office and of the
State of IHinoia.
ffeCKgoentfy* msbae* «f the coroner1® office and that
of the abate* a attorney participate in
in&aa&igal&ve enpeoity.
Inference* la the .police pattern hsm been farther aqpha#issed by
population steveomnbs in the c««mty, Since the turn of the century, the
population of Chicago hat treKled, five time© a# many people live im the
environs m in 1900
Such increases al© m would account for a staggered
deirelopasent of policing rather than a gradual change in police techniques.
More important is the nature ©f that increase * the hulk of the newcomer*
emsm fro® foreign lands bringing with them their am fixed traditions of
living and of law and lawlessness,^ in equally rapid Industrialisation
hurled aside the traditional mxmmr of living and thrust upon the county
within a few decades the major problems in law enforcement which only
congestion, uncertain standards of living, smoke, and filth can bring,
An unfettered incorporation of new municipalities has tended to aggravate
^Population increases were as follows:
Balance of Cook County
Jm. Bmtofe,!m
^ffee heterogeneity of population in the county Is am of its out­
standing characteristics, In 1905, for example, newspaper* were appear**
ing in Chicago In tan different languages* Church services were con­
ducted In twenty tongues. In that year Ghicag© ranked as the second
largest Bohemian city in the world, the third largest Swedish city. It
ranked fourth as a lerweglan city, fifth as a German city, and fifth as
an Italian city* A million of its 1,600,000 inhabitants spoke a foreign
tongue* Chicago had its little Italy, its Chinatown, its little Euesia*
It was distinctly a little world of many races, many nationalities. The
picture in 1930 was not materially different. Of a population of 5,576,438,
only 943,501 ware of native psawtage, while 1,352,373 war® of foreign
mixed parentage and 842,057 war® foreign bom whites. Colored population
totalled 255,903. In the environs the situation is similar. Of a popula­
tion of 988,517 in 1930, 411,854 were of native parentage, 540,895 war© of
foreign and mixed parentage, and 184,545 were foreign bom whites. Colored
population totalled 59,163. In many instances municipalities can be
identified by the pgetadjuumi of a certain nationality* Melrose Park,
for exas$>le, is typically m Italian eomunityj 3tickney, a Polish cos*snuiity. For an interesting description of heterogeneity in 1000 see:
Buck, ttA Sketch ©f the linguistic Condition of Chicago,w Decennial ...Fubllestions of the Gniveraity^f CMca&o. Vol. VI (1904), pp. 97-114. Also
deeter, Trends of.
of-.Sfr&gfeKft (1927).
the dissimilarities in the social and economic pattern.
Tats Is par­
ticularly -lame as regards policing, for, in t$m& Instances, there has
occurred An almost •weeted right** philosophy to insure police practices
fevered by the individual ce^oniiy*
Hiesisdlerltlee 1st.the character of the ninety eomHsnitlee point to
a major reason for the dissimilarities in police functioning. Some com­
munities are residential retreats of comfortable hemes.
Such are Winnetka,
River Forest, and fitaeite* Others are factory centers pure and simple,
as for example, Hdross Fork, Stickney, and Burnham* Some coKssontiles
possess the resources necessary to sustain a police department capable
of meeting any emergency# In others an scute financial situation pro­
hibits all but the most me&ger policing* Stmse oomaumltles are “dry,**
others are as equally *hset.**a In so®® oemnnitle* there is a vigorous
insistence that the law be upheld* In others, the eitisenry looks with
apparent satisfaction upon the aaXfeesacee and the misfeasance of its
police department.
*Xf the right legal formula is followed, there nmd only be 1G0 inhabitants living within two square .Miles of unincorporated area to con­
stitute « village. Cities may be formed frmi unincorporated territory
or organised trim, villages and to***## See Berrios, Farratt, and lep&wky,
goy.rnaas.nt of
i t J W M a (195S), p. K6. K®ssoriB
for the growth are not difficult to understand* Much of the growth has
been due to the natural increase in population and urbanisation. hew
settlements hmm sprang up which have required special municipal corpora­
tions to asset their eoUectiv© wnasKts* Political expediency, the lines of
least resistance, and sectional prejudices have created others.Small
units haw arisen because their localities have been hostile t© being
absorbed by larger eowanlties* Others haw come into being due to finan­
cial liMtatiens and rmq^immnts*
toward Street which forms the boundary separating Chicago from
imuston is a striking example of conflicting ideologies* Evanston Is a
«dry® community, Chicago "wet#*
Chicago's side of Howard Streetis a gay
white way with Its lurid liquorsigns and. its crowded sidewalks. Evan­
ston's side is, by ecmparlsos, comparatively deserted.
-285To the south of Chicago, a municipality recently elected to office
m chief lieutenant of AX Capone a® its mayor* Its police department will
not be deeply interested in overeotfting the principles of justice person­
ified by the Capone regime and may
certain practices that proved
a boomerang for neighboring; departments* A few miles away, another com­
munity is governed by an enlightened manager government and a police
department which compares favorably 'with the best in the country. In
another community, the mayor and the chief of police are now In jail
for speed trap extortion — a practice which had been countenanced by the
ommmtty for some years* la another section of the county, a immteipality prides itself as a pioneer la traffic accident prevention* Its police
department has received international acclaim for work in the field of
traffic control# Such Instances as these simply indicate that patterns
of enforeesiegit are not alike, and that the practices of police depart­
ments differ considerably*
Mim &mh a situation as previously described is considered in light
of the present day police problem, reasons for many of the prevailing
difficulties In enforcement become apparent#
In former times, the wall©
of cities formed barriers which repelled the onslaught of lawlessness
trm other* Similarly city mils tended to restrict crime
within the confines of each oas»oanlty* There w&® not the pronounced ebb
and flow of problems between and among eemniities which ere a character­
istic of snfovooassot today* For now, barriers are mere geographic areas
insofar as intercourse between and among QcsaBnnlties is concerned. Crim­
inals of m m jurisdiction operate within the confines of another* Proper­
ty is stolon in one community, nearly always disposed of In another.
I taatgd eH nina g tTy t&m apprahsneion to *mk melusion In x&r» «b*l;| torgd mmm* Ikgftrbast non^iadim l problatas auch a® tr a ffic ara as*
ftmt p olice iwe&at&m i« a thing o f tta past
J m m
It ig in
m%vopt&X%m memmi&are police isolation
I ig laaat found th at tta prgvaiXing oonesptioa of »lmrriorw *mfcrceB©«t
:! la
w neeh
ItePigr enforcer^t ig demoralising in the first t a r t a n s * because it
I poraits the organia&tim o f l&wXossneaia in sheltered areas and fellows for
m alm sb unrestricted spread ©f that lamleseneaB in to other em um tties*
ffes history #£ lastasm ga- in Oeek Oemfey 1» emimtitiXky s. history of
grins ssbiyUU&y*
| y&ge
In If^S, for eaasspde# ©tan Mayor Dosea? bsgpm
rioo lords sovod in dresss to suburban gross
I sta rs they sere beyond reach o f tta Chicago pelioe#
In 19tt7» staa a new
| regias took over the c ity h a ll in Ohieage they o il flecked back* Later,
taring the prohibition are* ferrlo and ottar brer barons book over ooo*
1 tr o l o f certain o f the atantan areas *»s& used these as tomm of operaj
tbs county* With the repeal of prohibition* to© crime
bosroog si.sply %re^effcrre$ activities to other fields m particularly auto
1 thefts end gUfeXing operation*. ^im before, eerta is ccuswnltioe
i havens fire* ebteh operation* w »
envied «n.
As Be bees bee saidi
•Orlaiael gene* •»* vtcleme elesente o f «U kind* hover on the edge of *
' pretested eunicipelity sorely ewaiting an opportunity to prey upon it end
i return te their rooete Just beyond the reeoh of lie poiiea force."
...... .......... .
Hendesee, "Organised Crise In Chicago,1' Pert 112 of 'the nunoie
J grtaw Survey (1926), p. 9X8.
88tateeid e Coordine^im^g,,
”'of"'J'eLiilaaL Science,
it, Doctoral Dissertation,
mlsersity (X9&&}. pp* 82
circumstance® as these coasp©! the establishment of rigorous self-sufficient
pplloe departments having the man~p<ro©r and equipment necessary to stave
off crime from other luriedicblens# Unprotected area® are at the mercy of
these and other elements idiich use secluded areas as a base of operation
from which to commit depredations on those sectors which cannot defend
From the larger viewpoint* the all—Important problem appears to be
the difficulty of correlating the enforcement efforts of all police agen­
cies* A leadership vested In the hands of more than a hundred persons
would normally account for differences* One chief* deeply Interested in
the traffic phase of policing* would normally direct chief attention to
this phase of police functioning* Another schooled In the detective
branch* would concentrate primary attention upon the repression of crime
and the apprehension of criminals* Again* frequent turnover of police
executives exerts a deleterious influence m the police program because
it leads to a shifting police administration* In frequent instance© the
distinction between policy forming and administrative functions is not
recognised# Partisan force® do not' content themselves with formulating
policy* On the contrary* politics seep® into the administrative process*
Inasmuch m the credo of those running for office is H o do things dif­
ferently than the predecessor*11 revolution® in administration a® well as
policy often occur* As a result of multiple leadership and th© shifts and
changes occurring within each police agency* th© direction of metropolitan
enforcement is kaleidoscopic rather than concerted*
To the extent that police isolation disappears, to that extent
similarity ln police functioning becomes essential.^ Until recent years
It made little difference whether enforcement policies of one department
paralleled the policies of other departments* Since the turn of the
century conditions have ©©tilled the establishment of policies similar
in scope and content* the inspect of mobilised oris® and lawlessness has
compelled coordination of crime repression techniques* A H departments
must keep account® of crime and criminals and* moreover, must establish
line® of relationships with other departments* Again* such mobility has
forced the necessity of reaching into the sheltered sectors* and of fol­
lowing through with a concerts police drive in all jurisdictions in the
county* In the field of traffic regulation and accident prevention, little
can be done until the broad scope of the problem is duly recognised*
£1* XMLMastex&m, in Follo#,,.Imtl^M:, ag,
In a recent study of police administration in Texas* this conclusion
was advanced;
wHore than ever* the police are impelled to re-examine
their position in aaanlcipal life and to part ways with the customary pat­
tern ©f police thinking* The methods epitomised in the nightstick may
leave something to be desired in dealing with the old-fashioned burglars
they are wholly deficient in respect of many newer powers and offender®.
Particularly in a metropolitan area* this conclusion is of deep signif­
icance. The impact of changing conditions of enforcement has forced on
an almost entire revision of police aaodus onggandi* The marked development
*Tn former times the walls of cities served to isolate the police
problems within a city from the outside. To a considerable extent, a
police agency dealt only with matters arising within the city walls.
Today* of course* the isolation secured by mils has disappeared and
police department® are forced to cope with problem® which flow in fro®
the outside*
8Coeper, Polio. Adadnmratlon in Texas (1858), p. 508.
-269©f transportation, the inter-city nature of ©rime, the maze of humanity
which confronts the average police department* the transitions fro® &
rural to a ©tty existence have compelled a reliance upon new devices
m k m m n to the policeman of a few decades ago* Such changes have caused
ret only a realignment of police functioning* but a new attitude of
pellee thinking* In a word* policing has become & profession, a profes­
sion which involves ret ©re but a number of specialties each of which,
in turn* may even be deemed a profession in its own right.
The outward and upward expansion of police functions is evidenced
In a number of ways* In former tires the police dealt almost i&iolly with
persons charged with traditional offerees. As a matter of fact, for
many centuries the police have been crime hunters by habit as well as
tradition* For this reason the work of the police has been concentrated
upon the detection and apprehension of criminals and upon the Investiga­
tion of ©rimes - activities which absorbed the tire of most police depart­
ments to the exclusion of all else* But these traditional attitudes have
been forced to give ground and* to an increasing extent* the police are
required to turn attention to new fields which are essentially noncriminal in teres of the older conception of polio© activities. Among
the new field© Is that of traffic which n m occupies a place of primary
importance in polio© action* Traffic enforcement, in turn, has led to
the development of other and equally important fields such as accident
prevention and traffic engineering* The Introduction of these specialties
ha* realtered the traditional outlook* In many instances, the policeman
©ease* to be a policeman but on the contrary must assume the role of
teacher and engineer as well* The acceptance of the newer responsibilities
- 290-
ha®* ©f course* compelled the introduction of techniques which were
wtally foreign to police practices of a few decades ago.
The same enlargement of the police function is also observable in
the older primary functions.
In fcrrer tires* the identification of a
criminal and acjtesesledgrerit of guilt mmr* insured through a reliance
upon the photographic wmary of the policeman and the ability of a de­
partment to "beat the truth* out of the suspect. Thus, the collective
ability of a departrent to wr®remh®rw and it® ability in employing the
brutality of the third degree tactics ferred all Important weapons.
Both have faded as detection device® of first Importance. The science
of fingerprinting and photographic identification have now heoorae per­
manently entrenched in pbXtc# methodology* The evolution of other methods
of detection such as ballistics* renlage, forensic medicine md the like*
ha® continued the trend toward specialisation* Judicial acceptance of
many Identification techniques continues to urge on the quest for a
greater adoption of scientific tools,*** An age of specialisation In po­
lios functioning ha® succeeded "nightstick1*1policing*
change in the judicial attitude with regard to scientific crime
identification is a powerful indication, of the growing importance of
science in the field of policing. Fingerprint evidence* is? new widely
accepted by the courts* let in the famous Jennings* case {decided in 1911)
fingerprint evidence was not admitted to testimony. See geepjf v, Japjdnge £8£ 111* S8& (1811) * In the field of ballistic®, acceptance of
expert testimony materially changed within seven year®. In 192$ in the
Berkasan case* the Supreme Court of Illinois stated; "The statement that
on© may know that a certain bullet fired out of a 82-esltber revolver
when there are hundreds and perhaps thousands of other® rifled In the
same way* in the mm® manner* and of precisely the ssre character is pre­
posterous#" See Peoplft v* Bsrtoan $07 111, 49$ (192$). Sewn years later
in the Fioita care (F^al#. v* glpltjff $$$ 111, 76) (19$0), the court
stated that "while the science of ballistics is well recognised* testi­
mony should be admitted with great care." A year later, in the Fisher
esse ^Peoole v* Fisher $40 111* 216) (19$1)* the court held that "in a
Farther ex&eirgenanfe ©f tb© police function la evidenced is the a s -
j »3**$bto*i of duties whlofe msr* £mmrly tom responsibilities of private
car ether public agencies* Faytiss&srly is this true of the juvenile
| problem, v&ieh until recently m » considered the responsibility of w d ~
jj fare agencies md not that of the p o l i c e #
This trend Is of particular
slgnmoanee becense it has veered the attention of the police from the
ew&lsstes of c r i e s t # the censes o f crime* The implication© are far
jj reaebimg fbr they inply that the police responsibilities begin with the
| prevention of crime, net with the repressive phases of crime which was
: taewly the case#
T h e © jip s m & io r a o f - t h e p o l i c e f c a c t t m
and it s
g r o w in g c o m p le x tty h a s
not helped the a t a d i t n situation. 6n the contrary* it h m disposed*
| m & aggravated, weaknesses v&ieh ssdtoMnrftly «m&* not have seriously lm~
ij paired the functioning of the police process. Beacons for this lie in
th» m m demands lotSgwl on the shooxaars of the police
An expanding
j jjoiiee function ro^otr*. peliee de|MU*fcntBnte of msoh «ds» ao to awmit the
: legation of pcOloo for specialised tasks-
ft® smaller the department,
j the lose the likelihood that it eon perform the newer specialties.
| Specialisation vefttiree, in tot®, pmf<amme« by persons «h» ere aheve
I tbs level of police ability imnmrly required and, in particular* a type
of training hitherto mssocssary in am ora of "nightstick" p o l i c i n g *
j Scientific crime detection* traffic accident Investigation* and ether
j services are m % m m that asm he learned through rule-of-ttamb training*
j the specialties also require « m m type of equipments laboratories for
•rH a w w h o w w N .^ w tw r^ .r~ ^ w irfrw * ^ ~ ~ c ,i*Vrrrtrrr—
>'1 ,,*n *1''"1
- ^r- —“| h i
i '■ v t ir ^ 'ii’iir ta in in t m .T a .ii i n " t t u r ^ r - w v n r rn T T ~ r r ‘* j ,i.i-jM tt:iterT ajf i^iirrttM etirf jV »ii i t i w ri r T tm '^ r u M h rriT tt^ m w tm T m M -n
prosecution far wartar . * * ♦ a ballistic escort nay express Isis opinion
that a certain ballot from the body of the deceased was fired from a
certain gtrn.* Admittance of scientific evidence by courts has done and
i wiH probably do more to promote a police science than possibly any other
single factor*
in «ri*» 6*t«eti«m( radio equipped squad ears for the potveUlag
wit*, tatal aywtas far it* itafft V taM M y be iwsluded mans tbe ln>
ta M p sfc X * M w e m t t t a *
te ft I lM
U f, th e w
t p e U e e fwwfclon i # 0 j w
Mm> type of leader * awb swo-ely a ateiaf of police, b«t a police exaeotta,
Seeantrs&iratta tat tha Sn*ffirtos& di««taffilMNp the* It teals to xw~
t a e the jjeasiMlfties of eaofc and «rrow depastaeet of tang eelf-eaffieta*.
That this 1® t a M b t a X y the ease lit Cook County htu? been dest-
©retrain. in a previous otaptar*
ef p $ M m taMMgth
A E M ’® *iy© view of tta distribution
ditalore mmh a
as ihtst
t i n 2$
o m
a ®
m m m m tm m p m m
® i t r © f m»mm
I # t a t a r s m i c i p u i i t i c s
o o e m
fflm f m m f c f m m m m M d r i c t
i i
S^iste itifl^war n^Arnammmtim pdica
C i lr 'P w iM P 'S ®
e # v c $
21 ©ttar ftak tataitaB
Sheriff's ffiffta
*WWWIIPwRWPWWM—pw »W p((fV ^
W |fi© 4 K W itan i9
I t 2# w m l that tta
in €tak taw ty «r* «Utar large ta*
tartamts «r sta ll tafmtamftft* Tata, tar mm^U, tom m mtoipafll
pe&ic© tapcxtastas i M
ite tatam* ®f tigmtat policing*
Th©y employ m total «£ 8ta police* 0f this
%ifiptar f*
82f C7S par cent) are
employed in the 17 municipalities having a population of over 10,000.
In the 7% municipalities under 10,000 population, there are hat 176
police or m average strength of less thsua three police. In the majority
©f municipal departments, therefore, specialisation is difficult, if not
Fro® the standpoint of the protection offered, the distribution of
police strength presents another dilemma. In most of the municipal de­
partments, fro® 250 to 40 per cent ©f the personnel are employed in
In emergencies the traffic police can seldom be relied upon
except in those cowaailties v&deh equip their traffic units with radio.
Added t© the factor of ncwa-availafcility is the further problem that a
chief must prorate his force to give twenty-four hour service. In the
department of half a dos&en men ©r under, possibilities of retaining
adequate reserves at the station are not encouraging. On© incident de­
scribes & situation which harasses most chiefs of police: A series of
night hold-ups compelled the chief to assign four of his five men to the
night shift. The fifth m & assigned to traffic during the day. In hie
absentee the caretaker was placed in charge of the station. At a time
when the force was not available the community bank was held up, the
gangsters escaping before the chief could marshal his force in pursuit*
Ordinarily, the county agencies should serve as an important back­
stop to municipal departments. In the present instance, while the
various county agencies have greatly assisted in giving aid, they have
not been able to give the assistance required. Constables work as in­
dividuals, almost entirely independent of sheriff action. As protectors
of the peace, they are of little service. A greatly undermrmed sheriff* s
—294unit does not fill in the gap* At present the sheriff*s unit comprises
a fores of 12© men, about equally distributed to three districts, or a
reserve of about 40 deputies for each one# However, about two-thirds of
these are delegated t© traffic enforcement and are of little service In
emergencies* This allows for a unit ©f not more than ten deputies for
all-purpose policing# But these must be distributed into three shifts,
which ordinarily leaves only three or four m m available to give protec­
tion to about one-third of Cook County. The difficulties of giving ef­
fective aid to other agencies was one of several reasons which led to the
organisation of the state highway police, flth the recent construction of
a state highway police headquarters in Cook County and the delegation of
about fifty troopers to this sector, the state has been able to offer
seme assistance*
It Is the means adopted in bolstering up the police defense which
indicates as much as anything else the inadequacy of a decentralized
police organisation in any densely populated county* The minor municipal
department is allowed to linger on, gaps in the police defense being
plugged up by a sheriff policing. In the event that important handicaps
in sheriff policing prohibit the granting of a service of importance, the
office is left "a® ms" and another level of government is invoked to aid
and assist. The process adopted is therefore om of "piling up,” the
intent being that if enough police agencies are hurled into the breach,
the onrush of police problems will be thrust back. Eventually the mul­
tiplication of police units may accomplish the purpose, but only at un­
necessary cost and at the sacrifice of concerted action which only some
type of collective organisation can bring. Properly organized and
distributed the 8,6X7 police m m employed in the county should form a
formidable defense. Bet much of their effectiveness is reduced by proration Into isolated and individual camps* As we shall see later, this
effectiveness hinges to a considerable degree upon the techniques of co­
ordination adopted in overcoming the lag*
IV. I M f e r s o n i i e l
.and Ita&EJ&fafife
It Is now evident that the police process in the county has beam
gravely impeded due to varying standards of personnel service and to the
difficulties which each of the mmy governing agencies has In establishing
a high level of service* The overflow of police problems frcm one sector
of the county to another has cocipeXXed the ^mmmtlon of certain personnel
standards to parallel the police problem* ficlous partisan control in
one community weakens police strength in that are* and at the same time
reflects upon others as well* Meager training facilities, low salary
levels, Insecure tenure of office, absence of securities @s to vacations,
sick leave and retirement all have a debilitating effect on the enforce­
ment process*
It may be advanced as a general principle of county en­
forcement that the diffieulities of establishing proper standards of
personnel lie at the root of the metropolitan problem*
Two fundamental factors account for the situation* On the one hand,
each of the goronsaua&s establishes its t w standards of service. On the
ether, it is frequently a physical ijtapeseibiXlty for the various governrents to individually: provide the necessary service®. While certain merit
practices have been established by state law as regards the municipal
police, the acts are permissive rather than mndatery.
In most commun­
ities political forces are constantly on the alert to the need of re­
straining any move in the direction of merit practices, particularly in
regard to the police. It is not strange, therefore, that important gap®
in the adoption of formal merit practice® persist. Of twenty-one munici­
palities having a population of over 7,000 only twelve have adopted the
prevision® of the fire and police board act of 1905 or the civil service
act of 1896. Xnaaeuch as the state acts do not apply to municipalities
under the 7,000 population range, sixty-one municipalities are precluded
trm adopting formal merit systems. Thus seventy-eight of the ninety
municipalities are unprovided with formal merit systems, As regards
special districts, the throe largest - the Chicago Park District, the
Sanitary District of Chicago, and the Cook County Forest Preserve Dis­
trict - have formal merit systems. But all the lesser park districts,
of i&tleh there are twenty^two, do not. Formal merit systems are non­
existent among the upper level®. The state highway police are specif­
ically exempted from the application of merit practices. While most
county office® operate under the civil service, the sheriff* s office is
the prise exception. Thus, in the police field there are huge gaps through
which the currents of partisan control can flow.
As a result most police department© in the county continue to be
the center of political attack, and ordinarily a shift In the balance of
power or a change in the ©empleadLon of the governing body results in the
dismissal or demotion of & part if not the entire force. The tenure of
office of sheriff*® deputies fellows election returns, quadrennial or
biennial elections in municipalities and special district© indicate the
principle reason for the cycle of dismissal® and appointments. Tenure
of state highway police is conditioned, at least in part, by the con­
tinued success of certain party powers at Springfield#
As in other fields of private and public service, compensation in
police work is a factor of great importance in determining the qualifi­
cations of personnel and the general effectiveness of the police unit*
Here, the decentralisation of the police structure has left an indelible
imprint* The tax load for police purposes has been thoroughly dis­
tributed, so much s© that only a modicum of financial support flows to
the support of any on© department* As a result police compensation is
not high* As a matter of fact it varies from a low of $721 per year to
a high of $2,520. In the municipal level the majority of suburban police­
men receive under $1,500 per year* In the majority of instances higher
salary ranges are a financial impossibility* Compensation, conditions of
work, rapid turnover have not attracted recruits of high type to the
police service.
It may be concluded that the majority of governments
operating in the county need to improve wag® scales and to institute
greater securities toward a reduction of turnover.
From the viewpoint of personnel administration, division of police
resources has greatly impaired the development of proper personnel prac­
tices* Even in those Jurisdictions which have formal merit systems, it
is seldom possible to launch a full-time personnel program. Civil service
commissions and fire and police boards usually operate on a part-time basis
since the amount of work does net Justify a full-time schedule.
In only
on© instance has due consideration been given to the need for a liaison
office between the commission and the employees. Complete personnel
records are seldom encountered* Despite the importance of classifying
police positions in light of the rapid specialisation of police function­
ing, it is usually Impossible to grad© and rank individual positions due
:j to th* foot that mxmk pdtewmm m * % of fMMSosoity perform ooxtlfeld
i| t&tlolft «r* of mri«m* ***£«*» m mm m d a o f obo&odt " i H I the t$m
Ij ■
jl mvtma wh*a the »t** of m dtaqportaoot wi2J* p m d t %hm
oorlolxi ifiooiflo took* to ewrioia individual*, cXaotPlficaticsft t o aoot
departwenta cannot b* apptnyeri with way great <J»sr*e of
<te* «f ttta m
* lapertant atagaa in ttt pwrammftl process i* the
wmnAtom* tf paraow mci* tt tbla point Mat quality m*s tha caliber of
tmm mem deterelnad. To at coneidcrable extent.■ the amtmm
or foliar* of o doporlWKi1o pMtfmrmmm to*®* oswso the
1 tha police
| i&loh bfe® im fit oof th* ii*oo»p®$or& or* coUod m% *&& *&©** of iabogriiy
v wHf
l i t y o r ® ^i[*|iwiiiiw|di t o ofXtM oy* J&xti y o b b h l # o b o r * o f tho p o r o o i m ^ L
i rooffooft *|^*(MKr* so- oski of tfeo ooob
roofO®*®* ro^ ii-tnriiTiwirtio
s. . flNFWjt M$ I* 3n#JL»|i
W f *iP®0BtJr(wfc *»
i i
yBiMiiHr JCfcfyw
Ai’Hn 3n^y^%
- *
t*r*a**i $m mm aofrawiifc or®*®* fh* mwrwm mrnmm*
*g» 1* iNMilMO ofeemt iMrby-throe p a $ «
A* * rol® (except In hOLf *
auitialpaliiie* and fwar w i t a l districts), pbyeical e*»»inatiena
play little part*
In neat inetaneee pfeyeieel xwqgireaante a m wetted*
: heavily M a w with tbww aim have sot cesspleted a high ached etaswtim,
Inrefttigfttion diacloae© that pocslbly
ononMlf to twe-third* of tb*
O*ferofoi**i do tto ooooby ho** ®ot
* MMb
tr®i«ing# mmm
mm %$m» of p m m M m %mm& tmm. tk* imSe** th* f*|.3wo to i>ro*oribo
ro^uiroaonts for ootoMoo lato tfe* poUco oorvieo soy
I h i m oxi ia^ortoot Ooorioo m mm
jbs a n»2*f tlm* mb# look o fairly
«oporior ©ffioor*.
oOoeotlmml bockgroeod
dc not make the moot effective administrators* The comprehensiveness
of police functioning in m era of specialisation requires something
wore than brawn supplemented by police experience*
Decentralisation continues to lay a heavy hand on the training
process in the county* The development of training programs is pri­
marily the prerogative of the larger police departments* Only to the
extent that the per capita cost of instruction, is reduced, to reasonable
figures is it possible for a department to institute a training program
of any
. In this connection, two factors must be taken
into consideration* The speciaXimtton of police functioning has placed
a premium on expert instruction* Police experience n© longer Is the
sole prerequisite to Instruction. As a result, the cost of training has
leaped skyward* And, Inasmuch as many of the specialised fields require
training equipment of high order, only those departments which can sup­
port proper training quarters and employ proper instructor© are able to
In consequence, pre-service as well as in-service training has
progressed at a "snail1® pace*" Form! pre-service training is found in
only three departments, the Chicago Police Department, the Cook County
Highway Department, and the Chicago Park District Police Department.
With these exceptions, training is confined almost entirely t© In-service
training* But in this instance, also, training prevail® primarily in a
few of the larger departments. Meager facilities allow Instruction in
only the barest fundamentals* This has forced the police of the county
to seek Instruction elsewhere*
If a policy of extending financial as­
sistance to those training elsewhere wars followed, the situation might
500b® Improved, but as yet, while training is encouraged, encouragement has
not yet extended to the granting of financial assistance* The fact that
such training schools as are established in the county restrict instruc­
tion to members of their own department militates against use of these
facilities* These many factors are the reasons for the impasse in train­
ing* Few departments are in the position to offer training* Facilities
for training elsewhere are meager* Dntil the time arrives when a pool­
ing of training resources is accomplished it is difficult to see how the
problem can be solved* Fear the recruit about to enter the profession of
policing, sound Instruction in the important tranche® of policing is an
essential* In this direction lies one of the weak links In the enforce­
ment chain*
Finally among those standards of personnel which play an Important
role In enforcement Is that of retirement and pension* Compulsory retireiaent and previsions for pension are found In about one-fourth of the
departments* Pension provisions are particularly derelict* In a recent
survey of the solvency of pension funds, only two funds in the county
were found solvent* Actuarial deficients in some instances ran as high
as $560,CTO* Proper securities will sot be forthcoming until practices of
diverting pension funds for corporate purpose® are halted*
k& previously indicated, proper equipment ranks among the inescapable
necessities of present day enforcement. For & nmnber of years the strug­
gle to reduce political control over a police department and to raise the
standards of personnel service has obscured the importance of police equip­
ment is the pursuit of police duties* Since the beginning of the present
century, however, the vital role of equipment has been driven home to
police executive®, public officials, and the oitieenry. Headquarters,
automotive equipment, Identification equipment, radio and other eo®immication facilities and records are essential to the repression, pre­
vention, and detection of crime. To a considerable extent, the organisa­
tion of a department, the tactics it adopts, and the ability of depart­
ments to coordinate their resources are the contributing factors to the
ultimate success or failure of police fimetioning.
The duplication of police headquarters is a characteristic feature
of policing in the county* Every department, large and ss&all hm its
headquarters* Immediately to the west of Chicago, there are thirty-eight
headquarters within a four mile radius* Again resources have had an allimportant bearing m the type of quarters* Municipalities faced with
financial handicaps m m forced to provide seme kind of headquarters*
Sometimes the department is given Its & m building* Mostly the depart­
ment is assigned ©pace in the municipal building* In many instances
such headquarters are ®ake-s!M.ft affairs, and ©eldest satisfy policing
requirements in terms of prcsentsbillty, necessary housing facilities for
equipment, and quarters for members of the department* Had it not been
for the generous utilisation of F*W.A. and. W.F.A* money, the situation
would have been deplorably worse * But it ©eeias aach a useless under­
taking to attempt the construction and maintenance of more than a hundred
headquarters when one-fourth the number would suffice* Telephone facili­
ties and motor squads have greatly expanded the horizon of headquarters*
service, and no longer is it necessary to make ^walking distance* the
yardstick by which headquarters are placed* The profusion of headquarters
illustrate® a® ouch as anything else the prevailing practice of employ­
ing old-time technique© in solving modem problem®, Proper pooling of
resource® in the county would allow for the strategic placement of headquarters and the establishment of equipment necessary to modem day
With regard to eommunieations mqps&pmmt, two controlling factor®
govern, As in other matters requiring heavy financial outlay, installa­
tion appear® the prerogative of the larger governing units or the more
wealthy unit®, But proper utilisation of equipment hinges also upon the
nature of police organization. The success of communication® presuppose®
a department of sufficient sim as to permit the reserve of police at
headquarters. One or the other of these factor® has greatly impeded a
more general utilisation of ecwonmleatlons equipment*
Study of telephone installation® In the various police department®
lead® to the conclusion that the importance of this branch of the police
service 1® usually underestimated. In some instances the cost factor is
accountable. Primarily, however, difficulties are due to the fact that
most of the departments cannot maintain reserve personnel for telephone
services. One of the reasons the oitisen continue® to lock to county
and state agencies is due to the fact that in emergencies, the citizen
is not able to contact the local department. la about one-half of the
municipal and special district departments, independent telephone facili­
ties are not available, which 1® another way of saying that these depart­
ments do not posses© permanent police headquarters,
A® a rule telephone
service is limited to certain hours of the day, usually between the hour®
of nine in the morning until five in the afternoon.
In most Instance®
** « * w
of ftftlw d a m not jwndt tt* M M U d m A
torn, m m
la to* I p M i
ef toy and nigto
toleii h u m prlmto totoptoaa
ftMttttAm* thav* ta da m m m n m to#* torn
a m emtoa* tha to-
Xffaatlm a m of totoptom faomtto# la fmttor togwtod i>y iha
■ M W
to tolto totoptona aalto i n totoOtad. JAtoto eonisitoyation uppaar#
to t o m torn s * m a to to* WMAgmato of p m p u t 5a n e w far totofton* totjr.
fa* eftoa p m m
m U l U «
a w at, to* totoptona totk toe *r* wrato of spaato and
to uttm m w t o a a * a a m t o a t o to* ptolte. I t o p p e r t o m t o t o p t o m
djttifl »©& iMaSbEI til i&Nttlt&Dl MS0
ttm $«3Lt&#*
e£ rarefelfm ifefrfc*m&niHkA urn,tftiiwi
*f th#
SISBdkS t$fc fffNI1fen# Ififty
^hm* mnt!© posslbl* D m
®f v f i t m m t i m m m m m m 4M&*» M *
ifprns*# m
flfyt ©g& |m
D$ D t® IStlSHlKBI
$& ItS'
muf |y^|f|yfritw^piss*
t m m m
tim pHte^r M
it® **«t n£ ia**
©g i»y^,l ©g 1ftygg ^lepftgptim
« M© & % m p M m
jtaftlaf-l'&fey ©£ ©film*
i^d(«a Snp#d6tiSl S
^yg| iismwis®
f m
M l D m <^iy
D m * & & & $ Q m * #£ tin $K&i«* * $ M & im its®
it i® &tt~
t© tlm
a mmkm
in D m
-304In January of 1931, twenty-three suburban departments were hooked to the
Chicago broadcast* forty-three by January of 19S&, and forty-eight as of
January 1* 1939» The organisation of radio effectiveness represents the
greatest single attempt to overcome the obstacle of deoentralisation by
the coordination of effort* Bewever*. improvements in small broadcasting
unite coupled with a decrease in the cost of installation has prompted
the establishment of a considerable M r
of independent broadcast units*
But there are still many gaps in the utilisation of radio* a situation
which time alone can apparently remedy*
The sheer necessity of each m d every one of the many police depart­
ments providing its own broadcasting unit and manning Its own stations*
indicates in another way the fruits of decentralisation* There has
already occurred a repetition of broadcasting stations which the police
situation does not warrant*
In recent months the State of Illinois has
nearly completed radio coverage of the state with the erection of six
stations* In the county the attitude seems to be that some hundred or
more stations are necessary* It is the opinion of radio engineers that
two or three stations could serve the entire county* the saving in manpower* alone* would be considerable* Every broadcast unit mat reserve
at least four persons for radio service - one for each of the shift© plus & reserve* tare than a hundred police are now out of regular police
service for this reason* A consolidation of radio service would permit
the release of at least two-thirds of this number*^
^But opinion is in m sense crystallised with regard to the advis­
ability of centralising radio facilities in the county* It is undoubtedly
true that the invention of the two-way radio has given powerful impetus
to the move to further decentralise radio techniques* There 1© a feeling
-SOSPresent gaps in the utilization of radio by the municipal police
was a major reason for radio installation by county and state agencies*
Already these have greatly aided in overcoming communication weaknesses
in the lower level*
However* as in other police activities* gradual im­
provement has been acccss^lished by the piling up of individual units*
not by a coordination of resources#
It appears evident that radio com­
munication already constitutes one of the strongest links in the organiza­
tion of police effectiveness In the county*
at a
But it i® being accomplished
greater expense* and increases the possibilities of friction
between and w m g the departments#
Among the equipment problems which confront the county is that re­
quired for scientific crime detection purposes*
If solution of the crime
detection problem rested upon the competent use of fingerprinting arid
photography* crime identification would not constitute an internal prob­
lem of any great consequence*
The simplicity of the fingerprint process
coupled with the negligible cost of fingerprint equipment allows for
extensive use of this identification device*
But the science of crime
detection ha® progressed far beyond this primary stage#
investigation requires such tools
Modem criminal
microscopes* precision scales* equip­
ment for chemical analysis* the polygraph* to mention only a few of the
new devices*
In particular* their use require© a personnel thoroughly
trained in the various science® of detection*
On the assumption that a
good bureau of crime identification 1® realized when it 1® staffed with a
sufficient number of persons versed in various fields of crime detection
upon the part of many that it is definitely advisable that each department
should have its own radio broadcast unit* Talk—back facilities have
created a new ^personalized" relation between police headquarters and the
local squad patrolmen*
aad provided with proper tools of detection, th© county my bo said to
only © m
ouch bureau <* the Bureau of Identifieation
Folio© Department. The inescapable
anti in employing exports hm
bureau In
problem of
blocked the
polios dspartmnts*
Thus, in
the Chicago
establishment of
police service stalemate has occurred and prospects
for any
of the establishment of some central
bureau or series of bureaus which could
serve the police departments of
the county*
Finally* among the major problems in internal administration in the
county 1® the problem of leadership*
For those who look to the creation
of a professional class of police executives in the county, the situation
is not overly encouraging.
In the majority of instances the selection
area continues to be confined to the locality* and in m ny instances pro*
motion from the ranks i© required*
On the whole not a great deal of
is attached t© previous experience.
Of ©em 117 chiefa* fifty-
three entered office without previous experience, sixty-four had som
The majority of those having experience gained it almost
entirely In th© department in which they became chief.
Procedures as to
sgjpolntflMust and dismissal which are primary to successful policing, have
been given scant attention*
Seldom can a clear line of authority be
traced fro® the chief t© some executive official*
In a f w instances
chiefs are popularly elected, seventy-two chiefs cm® appointment to a
president and board, and twenty-nine to boards
eight are appointed by the mayor with consent of the council, and only
*iac by Individual®, Safeguards as to removal are seldm encountered ex­
cept In the cities and in a few of the special districts* The average
; chief ie MMthlxkg of a bird of passage, buffeted about by every pofii**
leal breeee* Longevity of office 1® conditioned to m Important degree
i by Steering a course of police aotton which will mtikm m masy friends and
l a® few enemies m possible. Board control over police policies and pro­
cedures ie a
feature. Oossbrd appear® to shift and change
In accordance with th® force® of the personalities! involved on a board or
dependence of tenure upon the vagaries o f
council* The brief and uncertain tenure of office in the majority
partment® indicate® a doe©
Conditions of service, particularly
police executive®, are net such
Salaries range a n the
they refer to the salaries of
to attract
of administrative abil­
from #25.00 a month to #1,000 a month.
Of the ninety municipal chief® of police, forty-seven are expected to earn
part of their salary in some other capacity.
Th® inclusion of non-police
duties to bolster salaries ha® proved a boomerang in
mtmy instance®
ha® precluded an attention to the police function which 1® required,
the final analysis, it is Impossible to secure capable and well-qualified
chief® of polio® if the levels of compensation are not attractive.
instances the meager salary of the chief may be attributed to a
community*® lack of understanding of the importance of the office, in most
instances low salaries and the imposition ©f non-police duties are the
result of an inability to pay.
The quality of leadership found in many
department® can be attributed as much to the salary problem
other factor.
a& to any
Until It i® possible to raise compensation of the chief of
-308police to $2,500 or above, it is difficult to see how able leadership can
be expected*
It seems clear that the advancement of police functioning in the
county emits the adoption of progressive principles in the selection,
removal, and oeapenaation of chiefs of police*
Is regard® selection, to
permit eoMitlons of residence and promotion from the ranks to govern, is
to ignore a major cause of police effectiveness.
If technical require­
ments for the office of chief are recognised and definite qualifications
come to be established, the advancement of leaders t© a higher plane will
be a matter of fact*
tut better selection processes will accomplish little
unless ©lose attention is paid to the trying problem of tenure.
to effective leadership is the Imposition of progressive principles of
Finally, compensation ©separable to the importance of the office
should be awarded*
pate trouble*
to continue low compensation standards is to antici­
Permitting such conditions to exist with regard to the
police executive is to ignore the important role which leadership play®
In the enforcement of the law*
The dispersion ©f police effectiveness among sons hundred or more
police agencies and among four or more levels of government, plus the
disappearance of police isolation in the county has placed a premium on
self-sufficiency and
the establishment of increasingly intimate re­
lations with other departments#
In the event that departments are not
self-sufficient the coordination of resources and in particular the
becosae factors of prime
m~m*mvKLU...m.-r-ht.- I
•:T IH
*-It is a fact, of course, that ©©ordination of resources is necessary
even as between self-aaffloieat departments. However, so fur o.s tbe county
t© th is i s tli© neeecaity Of deweXopiag new techniques in combatting
m im m obility end o f ©etablisM og charnel® of distribution for crime
and ether poXic* Information* I t %» ieperiant, therefore, to examine
to r end in ©tot wmmm (%} Ortndnal and other polio© intorm ttoa Is d ietrib u te^ (Z) AM end aoelst&nc© mm supplied to the le s s self-su ffieiem t
With regard to the dl«tritotl«n
the outset that
s u it
to extent*
m mspto,
said at
end ©vwtoafctog lines of riOetloniKhlp Is diffi-
toneme© of tto many twiahl©* which are presemt*
practises, for
t e e eoeporativ©
the swntong© of fingerprint* may to measured as
tot in nest instances retotiotofcips are oonteted without
reference to piwlously developed plans and stooge as the polio© probXssi
Thus, only
approximation of the soap© and the direction of
relationships is possible*
© genera! picture of the
situation w U X ©omvegr in important particulars the sufficiency of the
line© of relations.
Self-SUifloieBcy and geographic location appear as Important factors
indicating the direction sad ©enteut of ©rim© distribution material.
twelve larger smaicipal poll©© departments, sheriff, coroner, stats1*
attorney, stats highway $*&!«©, ©tat© torsaa of idesrfcme&ticm, and the
Federal Bureau of Identification appear as esntsrs of ©rim© distrlfcatiorw
to th© stonton areas, the 'larger municipal t e t o d s tend to become
miniature distributing ©enters for their ismsdiate environs*
KLgin, on
the western periphery of the county, serves as a liaison tor a Brasher of
is ©cn©er»«&, the primary difficulty appears In the g i v i n g of aid and
assists©©© to the minor departments and to the unprotected rural areas.
-310I topaartoamfcs i m %to Fox t e a r Valley*
fwtik mrves
laaiedietoty *•*$ of Chicago, Oak
in a simU ay capacity and Chicago Haights enjoys the sans
I rstetemsbty to the southwest of the eeonty*
Those cities or villages
extent for data
prtnarlty as depositories for fingerprint iafoimtioa and to soma
stolon automobiles and other property*
Seldom, hew*
ever, do thee* various "rings** of influence extend more than a few miles*
Benaaal of identification files of the larger department indicates meager
| Istorsmfcton nito repeat to neighboring depeitents*
the absence of
reeords or reports destroys the possibility of subjecting the intensity
| of those reXati<5®tship« i# wMfflwmmfom* About all that ean be said is
j that seefo tying#** exist ' «®d5Judging from extent totormatien, play a role
j « —
fe m increasing extent retotionships are developing dong arterial
I lines* All the major' hlghsays leading from Cfeteage to sulnarbars Cook
| County are olnstered vdth snnlolpalities*^ teh trunk lines furnish the
| motive tor ©stabliaihing Uses of relationships - r^tUmhip® which are
j; In ©art!onlay eeldense in toe field of poliee eewwateaddem*. Tbs t o e d
of radio gave eppartelty to bleefc off M#iwsp», a situation toito led to
j toe adoption of h o rizo n ta l ftoatlontolps on an m tm iA basis* Most
j progressiva of these relationships is %m be foamd etong to® forth Shex**
| Here dispatch and exchange of m m along t e r l t e load represents * stg-
jj mifieani o^atrltotte to relational activities*
ij t o e
Wisconsin bonder*
jj w h i c h n i n e
there seems little doubt that
exaaple, toloh leads
t o w
Chicago toward
Sllth e most s ig n ific a n t source o f d is trib u tio n i s th e Chicago P o lice D epartm m t*
There a re Im portant reasons shy th is departm ent should a asam a
prim ary p o sitio n a s lia is o n f o r th e s i s t e r c itie s *
Chicago, a s th e pop­
u la tio n c e n te r o f th e county, forms a n a tu ra l s e l l fo r crim e.
o f i t s underw orld r e f le c t over th e e n tire county*
The shadows
Crime cosaaihted e ls e —
where In th e county i s o fte n a ttrib u te d to Chicago** crim in al elem ents,1
C onversely, a co n sid erab le p o rtio n o f goods sto le n l a suburban area s fin d s
a m arket in C h ic a g o /
The clo se r e la tio n between Chicago and i t s suburbs,
th e re fo re , cce^pelled th e establish m ent o f d ir e c t lin e s o f communication
between them*
I t s m m c le a r , however, th a t th e s p e c ia lisa tio n o f p o lice
se rv ic e s o ffe re d by Chicago was a ls o a pow erful fa c to r shaping th e lin e s
hftwr* I s much evidence to su b sta n tia te th is conclusion* Study of
fe d e ra l reco rd s and th o se o f th e county s h e rif f and th e state*® a tto rn e y
in d ic a te th e e x te n t and scops o f depredation® committed by Chicago gangs
in th e suburban areas* The advent o f p ro h ib itio n in 1918 was follow ed
by a v ic io u s c o n tro l over v ic e , gambling, ami liq u o r which was succeeded
by a v ic e - llk e . g rip o f Chicago in te r e s ts in a number o f suburbs* T ria l
o f Ralph Capone d isc lo se d th a t revenues o f th e Chicago syndicates were
flow ing in from more th an a dosen suburbs* P eru sal o f th e 889 cases o f
ra id s made by th e Chicago o ffic e o f th e F ederal Department of Ju stic e
between January and Ju ly o f 1951 in d ic a te s beyond question th a t more than
700 o f th e ra id s im p licated Chicago hoodlums* During 1950, when th e
a c tiv i tie s o f "Roche1® R aiders” were most in evidence, o f £,151 suspects
a rre s te d by th is u n it, £16 road houses ware found to be o p erating branches
o f sm s one o f th e Chicago syndicate®* A fter th e re p e a l o f p ro h ib itio n ,
Chicago sy n d icates se ise d c o n tro l o f a number o f la b o r unions in Chicago,
and g rad u ally extended c o n tro l over suburban unions, p a rtic u la rly in th e
team sters union and th e clean ing and dyeing trades* la te r when th e syn­
d ic a te s tu rn ed a tte n tio n to th e lu c ra tiv e auto th e f t ra c k e t, i t was found
th a t & m Chicago sy n d icate had "p lan ted ” £81 dealer® and d is trib u te rs in
th e suburbs*
% he a r r e s t o f Harold Shlensky, In March o f 1954, d isclo sed th e
ex ten siv en ess o f th e "fence” racket* D e ta ils o f th e rack et are a lso to
be found in th e f i l e s o f th e F ederal M arshal’s o ffic e and that o f the
Chicago o ffic e o f th e F ed eral Bureau o f Id e n tific a tio n # A prominent
suburban c h ie f o f p o lic e made th e statem ent th a t Mhow enforcement toes
In Chicago, m goes enforcem ent in th e suburbs*"
-312o f re la tio n s h ip s * The c ity was ab le to o ffe r id e n tific a tio n , ra d io , and
o th e r serv ice* to suburban departm ent* which o th e r m u n ic ip a litie s could
n o t d u p licate*
Thus, crim e u n ity and th e sp e c ia liz a tio n of p o lice se rv ­
ic e* were th e prim ary factor® forming lin e s o f co n tact between th e metrop­
o lis and i t s s i s t e r c itie s *
Line* ©f re la tio n sh ip * a re c h ie fly in evidence in th re e p o lic e
fu n ctio n s! autom obile th e f ts , crim e id e n tif ic a tio n , and ra d io c o n tro l.
P revious to 1953, re la tio n sh ip * in th e f ie ld ©f auto th e f ts ranked a s
th e most iiB portant o f th e th r e e .
U n til th a t y e a r, I llin o is had no s ta te
autom obile t i t l e and r e g is tr a tio n law .
Lack o f proper id e n tific a tio n
f a c i l i t i e s f o r sto le n ear* m * In la rg e p a rt resp o n sib le f o r a wave o f
au to th e f ts o f t i t a n t l o proportion®*'*' Record* of th e S tolen Auto Bureau
o f th e Chicago P o lice Department in d ic a te th a t between 1929 and 1933, an
average o f 2 ,OCX) © om snlc& tlous were receiv ed y ea rly by th e bureau from
suburban departm ents w ith reg ard to auto th eft* .®
At th e heigh t of the
au to th e f t wave ( in 1933) an ex ten siv e exchange o f sto le n car inform ation
had been d ev ised .
Weekly and monthly b u lle tin * were issued by the S tolen
"Sa 1918, fo r ©XSSGpl©, 2 ,IBS automobile* were sto len in Chicago.
La 1933, th e number a id c n to ta lle d 33,282 (A m ual le p o rts . Chicago
P o lice D epartm ent, f o r th e y ears g iv en ). P rio r to 1933, payment of a
s ta te lic e n s e fe e m m th e only requirem ent to in d ic a te ownership. Ho
check was made- as to t i t l e w ith th e r e s u lt th a t car* could be sto le n
and re so ld w ith l i t t l e tro u b le and no risk * The r e g is tra tio n law sum­
m arily h a lte d auto th e f ts . At p rese n t auto th e ft* do not c o n s titu te th e
problem i t d id previous to 1933. Theft© sin ce 1933 in Chicago were as
fo llow s:
1934 . . . . . . . . . . 12,945
1935 . . . . . . . . . . 6,440
1938 . . . . . . . . . . 4,0001
1937 . . . . . . . . . . 5,315
1958 . . . . . . . . . . 5,655
^Inform ation ta b u la te d from th e telephone led g er o f th e Chicago
P o lic e Department and c a rd f i l e s m aintained by th e Auto T heft Bureau.
A u t o
B u r e a u
r e c e i v e d
m a r k s
t h e
w h i c h w e r e
b u l l e t i n s
h i g h
d a l l y *
p o i n t
M e v e r t h e l e s s ,
t h e r e
d i s t r i b u t i o n
©jt a u t o
B e s p i t s
p h o t o g r a p h s *
t h e
d i s t r i b u t e d t o
t e e n t y H x i e w e e k l y . *
w o r e
m a n y l o o p h o l e s
t h e f t
h a s
t h i s
i n t e r c o s f f i m n l c & t i c a i * in t h e
i n
i n f o r m a b i m
i m p o r t a n c e
t h e r e
t w e n t y - s e v e n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .
n o t
o f
e x c h a n g e
o c c u r r e d a n
c o o p e r a t i v e
j m i n t e t p a l
I n
t h e
s e r v i c e
w a s
n o t
f o r t h c o m i n g
s e r v i c e
i m p o r t a n t
a n d
s e r v i c e
l e v e l .
c o m p l e t e
of f i n g e r p r i n t s
c e n t e r i n g
S i x
o f
ficAfioK m m x m i®m
MLrewe Park
Park Ridge
w oeie><ew *tiW o^»w w «w<e<i1w » l* v iW ^ w i^ ^ i ||«>|w||l|wi»wwp»»ii<|ii«« iii»ii>ti»^’t» i i i*inTii»M>w»iTWiw^»'i iNr r «r«rii^ iifW-tti
i.ww. ,m w m — i i i n ift iTnmiwe tiirfn iM iM fin irrin * i ' * n T ^ T ,ir*Tr ‘ f~‘ 'T i r t ~ti
~ —>-. -
^Bep&risiania rece iv in g d a ily b u lle tin s were* Blue Island* Moires©
Park* Harvey* E lv er f o r e s t, W innetka, and Evanston. Departments re c e iv ­
in g m onthly b u lle tin s sere* C icero, Brookfield* be Grange, Broadview,
Park R idge, EiverrsiGe, Lyons, Norton Grove, Elusood Park, W estchester,
H ills id e , La Orange Park, S c h ille r P ark, M elrose Park, Maywood, E ast
H a se lc re st, Chicago Heights* Berwyn, Wiimeika, W ilm ette, Glencoe, and
^The follow ing case I s recorded in th e file® of the Chicago Bete c tiv e Bureau* Mr. **%* purchased a c a r in Maywood. S h o rtly a f te r , th e
c a r was s to le n in a nearby town where he happened to fee visiting, The
lo s s was re p o rte d t o th e lo c a l c h ie f of p o lic e who, i t la t e r tra n s p ire d ,
xio e f f o r t to re p o rt th e lo s s to o th e r p o lic e agencies* S everal
weeks l a t e r , th e c a r was found abandoned in Chicago. The Chicago P o lice
were a b le to id e n tify only th e motor number, o th e r evidences o f ownership
having been d estro y ed . Cojaraunication w ith th e fa c to ry followed* I t ad V ised th e e a r had been purchased a t Msywood. The Chicago P o lice th en
communicated w ith th e s a le s agency a t Maywood which, in tu rn , advised th e
p o lic e o f th e r ig h tf u l owner.
data in the county. It would appear that the Chicago Bureau of Identifi­
cation would seem a logical point of contact. Records of the Bureau in­
dicate, however, that fingerprint data is regularly received only from
eight municipal departments#’**
On the whole, while some us© of the Chicago Bureau of Identification
was made by suburban departments, use did not line up with needs# For
example, in 1835, of some 42,188 persons checked in at the Bureau by
various agencies, only 490 persons were checked in by suburban police departments. As one chief remarked* "We take only our most important
cases for check-up,w It may be advanced that in the important field of
personal identification, lines of relationships are meager, and that to a
considerable extent, the mobility of criminals is not matched by the co­
ordination of criminal information*®
Vrcasa the files of the Bureau of Identification, Chicago Police
Department# The year 1954 is selected rather than a later year, because
it indicates a prevailing situation previous to the establishment of the
State Bureau of Identification*
^Ledger of Persons Checked In and Identified, Chicago Bureau of
Identification, for the year 1955# Persons checked in by various police
departments and officials were as followss
Number checked in
By Chicago Police
Suburban Police
State1s Attorney
United States Government
Cook Comity Sheriff
Chicago Park District
State Police
Despite these limitations, it appears evident from a perusal of the
files of the Chicago Detective Bureau that the bureau has acted in an
important capacity in many particulars, and that the more alert suburban
departments make use of the bureau®s facilities* An interesting case at
point followed from a telephone call made by the Waukegan Police Depart­
ment on February 16, 1951, The Waukegan department advised of a £40,000
Tb* introduction of the police radio has boon of Indisputable aid
in reducing jurisdiction^ Imh&klm and in th is field of polio© function1ms H an of reX&tionehipa
am prdt&k&y moot prrnmamd* As indented In
a previews chapter, radio was fir st u tilised by th« Chicago Police Depart^
«■* *<** ««■* years I t served a# tte ch ief point o f contact between
and mmm mmlvtptiX p olice dcpartssamata#3* Bmever, whUs the Chicago
MUao KagcHrtNttt a tm ^copies a fdrlactpU position in radio bread*
©sating, it s position appears c*i the decline* S&any of the tsonlcipal
cowmicate dirootiy with the
newly ©atabiishM
state p eiies laeoadcooting stations* Many mts&dpaX dcpartmnrita have
established fchalr &m broadest units* frm Table Z$3 h&mmr, i t i»
evident that Important relationships arc s t ill in evidence between Chicago
and. it s siste r cities*2
jewel theft* Bulletins m
issued by the bureau to a ©oasid&xs&X®
n ia i& e r o f a g e n c ie s *
I n c o n s e q u e n c e , t h e sheriff & t K l k h o r n , W i s c o n s i n ,
w r o t e f o r f u r t h e r p a r t i c u l a r s a n d a d v i s e d t h a t t h e mm band of t h i e v e s
h a d h o ld u p t h e W s lta r a r th d h efc* l e i i e n a l B a n k * l a t e r p o lic e a u t h o r it ie s
a t f r o y * Bern t e x t * a d v i s e d t h a t p m t i M d y t h e c a m e b a n d w e e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
t h e f t e X d t a p © f t h e d t t i c c n y e n a t i o n a l B o n k a t P t < |a & , N e w Y o r k * 0 & F e b r u a r y
l B f t h e ftmmbm P o l i c e a c h e d f o r f l n ^ r p r l a s t ® a n d p h o t o s #
On & m e 1 4 ,
t h e C le v e la n d , O h io P o l ic e s e n t f a r t h e r i n f e m o t io n © n t h e w e n , a l l o f
w h i c h mm t u r n e d e v e r t o t h e Cmk C o u n t y s t a t e * c A t t o r n e y #
S h o r tly a f t e r
a r a id m a road hence a t o&otr©* f e a r mmtmmm
m o m pick ed up on su sp ic io n , taken to th e Chicago Bureau o f Id im tiftc s tio n
f o r cheek up and were found to be th e w asted erlsd n als* See th e f i l e s on
E an d sll and Isw ie , Chicago Bureau o f Id e n tific a tio n * In another in sta n c e ,
M rn tm . M ite # p i« to d up a rev o lv er which « is lay in g d o n g B eeeovelt Bead,
The c h ie f w rote to th e Chicago Bureau o f Id e n tific a tio n m fo U o m t "ffcta
gun nay h im been need in cone Job and th e y have duagsed it* * * * 10 a re
giv in g t h i s inform ation a s i t my be th a t i t sd ^b t he connected w ith son*
©rime o r a n t e . * l a t e r , f i c ^ r p r i n tc on th e rev o lv er were a m ans o f
id e n tify in g a h e t « wanted f o r murder* See QcwmBda^isa s ledger* Chioago
D etectiv e Bnreau wader d a te o f A p ril 1 , 1M U
PP* 259, 267-269.
%atoSX#t#d from imthly sranwucy sheets, ^Analysts of Suburban Calls by
Town end t t M S t h , * Bureau of Criminal Statistics, Chicago Felloe Bepartaent*
Ntaaber of calls broadcast ini
Bedford Park
Bine Island
Calumet City
Bes Plaines
BLsssood Park
Evergreen Park
fo rest Park
Franklin Park
H illsid e
La Orange
La Orange Park
Melrose Park
Morton Oreve
M iles Center
Horth M verslde
fktlr Tjmaii
Oak Park
Park Eidge
Elver Forest
Elver drove
S ch iller Park
T essvllle
Western Springs
JL .
_ JU L
of the e h cm table w i n indieeie o aiisjation which
ft* ohoreoteriatto of metropolitan rel4&io&*hip&* the continued establish-
neob o f now r e lo tio ^ h ip a , th e d eo lio e o f e ld e r M ^ la o fth lp o *
fbr e*a»$a*t ever 7,000
mmm$m m m
®9k Wmk Inp&rtmonts* In 1$SB, 01%
In 1935,
brootieoei to the £v&motoe an«*
enm rnmmm
radio co^unlcaU cm s tortem * IMoogo
mm**1 On the con-
m & mteb eetanrtMMi deportment*
fllmfct*, $orbo» ©rove are rapidly i n e r a m i & i to nos&er*
Hme* m
regards tsoi&aeotia relationships w m * g immietpal police
dtapeHMfte* three relational
about m 4mm r t mm
mm in ©rideneo* In the m&v&tm,
laOranee tomm
*U fc| hmmm$ ploy m
ro le in com ity oooM tnotiim *
developing lin e s o f
th e re to a le e a tre n d tow ard
m m . a r to r ta l beet#*
M b tim e for*
w ith th e peeeibX© m m p t i m . o f the lo r th Shore egeaai*#* n o t ®aseh hoe been
mcmpXt^h&d* Techniques o f coox^im tioB e re meet apparent between th e
Chicago INSliee B ep® rb»nt and tb e e e o f s ta to r citie® *
ft la dlffiewtt to eeemat for tide lag in coordination*
m e wmmm I t m in the tm% bhefc rotetioiMM^o b&m m% pamgmmmd beyond
othge in the
mtimfom ^ o r t e m t e * Otm ohief# when
tftsy he
not ©atohange poiloo
»X d©»*t ftOHnr the gay (ehlef)#*
twmmmr in
with a
emijgbheriisg degmrt8i*»i#
It eeeee eleor that frequent
the efflee of chief deee tent to disrupt the ©hespele of ocaoUntil reo^tlr# ibi# ettmtton
gimm little attention*
^fbi# decline le not to he est&riMfeed to tmiriendly relation# be­
tween <M«*e0 end lte sister oitleo mr to t m foot that effective ear**
le© « n »ot given* the ooet of ftMteXH»g broadcasttag. e^olpmnt he#
decreased fey more thee half In the loot three years* M axoelient hreademoting vrdt can bo eet«d)llebed for leoe then |5#000*
pleoed radio
n r m ^ m x ^ t m Oltbln the rm$& of oei^r m m ^ p a d & t $ m idilob heretofore
m m foroed to rely opoo the OWUHt«e tajoadeast.
ImkoIt faclliti## Mss
1te traMl toward
vigorous efforts were made by the Illinois Folio© As­
sociation to organise a polios association designed ic unite police
sgenciee and police personnel In northern Cook County
sm& lake
As & insult of this undertaking, a second division is now in formation
to include weafcero
County end a pert of Du Page County.1
It is
still too early to evaluate the influence of these associations*
fore, sporadic attempts have been made to unite the police of the county
in some kind of friendly union, but these have proved of little value.®
However, such ncvmsients, transitory as they may be, m y yet have some
effect in overcoming the tradltlcmal localism vbieb has been a significant
ch aracteristic of county enforcement for mmj years#
Of the upper police levels, the county agencies serve least a©
centers of information*
Although the sheriff occupies the position of
efeief law enforcement agency of the county (which should give him a
position of primacy In distribution) such Is not the ease.
and iBO&qp OEJ-erandi files of inconsequential value are found, and, as a
rale, the- tendency of aamlcipal and special district department® is to
*See the I^lnols PeHoswmp (Mareh^April, 1980), p. 10*
^Osse of the most impressive of these organisations m s formed in
1932. According to the plan, coordination of the police of forty suburbs
to function m a metropolitan force directed from the state*© attorney’s
office mas to form the nucleus of county enforcement* This plan con­
templated not only the eoohaiige of information, but ©Iso the sending of
men from one % m n to another to deal with emergencies* A third purpose
m s to coordinate drives against such minor violations as the use of
autCBEObile® with faulty brakes, and the like* the organisation started
off well, but soon faded* fm year® later the organisation broke up.
One Chief of police who had been a leader in the movement when asked why
the organisation failed said? **10 Just all don’t think alike# Further­
more, a good ciauay cojimmitie® kicked about it# Moreover, a doarni chief®
lost their Job®, which meant me had to start all over In soiling the
Idea# dbet a *no go,* that’s all** Mote the article in the Chiec&o
Tribune* May 1?, 1992 as to the formation of the organisation*
«w®oaaai©at# eith er with municipal agencies ©r sta te and federal agencies.
toMfe th e nmm situ ation i® true ©f the preaaseator and coroner#
Im recent years, Important lin e s o f eesaaxntofttloa fc&ve developed
between the lo ca l p olice ©ad sta te end federal o ffic ia ls .
la 1932, the
sta te Inaugurated the p olicy o f eeeawhliag aid distributing data with
regard to stolen m M M 2 h end, at present, a report is seat oat each
week to e l l c itie s in I llin o is hewing a population of over three hundred
and to the sh eriff a in each o f the 102 counties of the state*
mental report© are utbmwps&m& and are seat to
AH depart*
throughout the
abate*1 Sa l$$&, the Idvislon o f Highways se t tap a sp ecial organisation
to daal with tr a ffic control and safety*
I t la now namdtetesy cm the part
o f e l l p olice agencies to report tr a ffic accidents, in ju ries, and. fataH ties*
fh la organisation Which now has a pmrmsmtiL of thirty*f©ur not
only a m
as a ©enter o f distribution hat has stepped down into the
lo ca l p olice field©*2 Again, in 3M $, the State Bureau of Original
Id en tification ami. Investigation was organised*^ AH p olice departments
in the sta te are required to forward copies of fingerprints to the state
I f p assib le, a esmpsra&lvw analysis of fingerprint d istiib n tlen to
the federal and sta te hureeas would he valuable m m indication o f trends*
*»•* mnaoiii BXmJ^ote (iSSf-XSSS), p. m .
*3* th is mmmbim. note the Interosti^c a rtic le
States la Highway Safety flask,” in the
1997), pm IS# Seven a c tiv itie s are new included in the isork of the
D ivision o f Highways* (1) Adopting manuals o f uniform tr a ffic control
devices* (2) Correlating information ms to enter vehicles* accidents,
in ju ries, and deaths* <S> Surveying to determine i f municipal statutory
speed lim its should be revised* (4 / Studying of hazardous locations on
sta te highways* ($) B eflectarisixig symbols cm curves, turns, etc* (6)
Beeogmlstng garages tor repair mark* (7) Educating the public#
pp* 02-04*
difficulties In securing data has precluded such a ccxparisca*
indication of flow may be obtained* taoaetar* fr&a ti.© £aliasing
flKCUUURUCm KRttSMtt &I kmiCIPil POUO& l&mX3tiKS8
ik 000s o o iifi ®o wa» sta te bqkmu of WBmrxuaim
m m m xm$ mu
Biwer Forest
i f t - W i i i fa*r» r r a r t
Oak Bark
Chicago Heights
Bos Plaines
Calumet City
Park Eidge
&& wraiige rare
Elnmood Park
Finest Park
Blue Island
3Mjm o Park
tm i
s m
m w m m mmwismim
m&xm i®m
.......... .......... .........
*¥rm. data listed -in The Illinois Policeman*
F ^ ralE u reas
Statistics with regard
to the afeat® bureau appearis*the
1SwiS (1957)? r>* £7; with
regard, to the Federal Bureau In the ^anuary-Pebruary issue (19S&;, p. 15*
At the present tiase, the Bureau ef Statistics of the Department of Public
Welfare of the State of Illinois is in process of reorganisation* No data
will be available for sew months* Umt of the amnicip&l departments
were nnfliK**» to giro exact information as to distribution*
Thus, It appears that in certain fields of police activity re­
lationships are extending steadily outward,
To an increasing extent,
atate and federal agencies are occupying a central position in the lines
of relationships.
This, as such as anything else, indicates the widen­
ing horison of polios activities Mid the necessity of correlating the
problems of individual police departments.
If anything, lines of coin*
BKunication within the county appear stalemate.
Steadily, lines are being
directed store and more to the state and federal cacitol.
In reviewing problems of aid and assistance (which is the second of
toe problems in relationships}, it is apparent that Jurisdictional bound­
ary lines play an lsportant role.
and municipal police is an example.
The situation with respect to the park
In an early ease Involving the right
of the City of Chicago to carry on governmental functions within city
areas within park Jurisdictions, the Supreme Court of Illinois has said
in substance that the power of park boards over park areas is plenary,
toil* that of toe city is wholly excluded.
»iund this exclusion," re­
marked the court, "so far as it relates to any power on the part of the
city to govern, manage, control, or Interfere within park areas is as
toolly complete as it would have been if they had wholly been withdrawn
from the territorial limits of the city."*
Considered in terms of policing, toe implications of this decision
are far-reaching.
For although the police of a municipality supposedly
have authority to polios within the municipal boundaries, this right has
no effect with regard to boulevards, parks, and such streets as connect
Vest Chicago Park Commissioners v. City of Chicago. 152 111. 392
I t Is conceivable th at the problem would foe minor If this ju ris­
d iction al d ivision of p olios resources was based upon the principle of
d ifferen tiated p olice functions, th is is not wholly the ease.
the major function o f the park police Is la the fie ld of tr a ffic , yet
th eir resp o n sib ilities could be largely in the usual p olice field s*
o f the boulevards in Chicago are business thoroughfares which require
assured p olice protection*
In the patrolling of parks, particularly after
n ig h tfa ll, the park p olice are faced with problem© peculiar to th is s it ­
As a resu lt the resp o n sib ilities of the Municipal and park police
are not dissim ilar md might be gravely Impeded i f excellent cooperation
did not e x ist between them*
Happily, the mmioipsl-p&rk boimdary lin e problem does not constitute
a problem of major Importance in the county* Within Chicago, which pre­
sents the most d iffic u lt problem of adjustment, Intimate relationships
between the Park £1s tr ic t P olice and those of the city have erased ju ris­
d iction al problems* Suspect© picked up by the park police are turned
ever to the Chicago P olice and are ja iled in Chicago*© jail® . The finger­
printing o f suspects is performed fey the Chicago Bureau o f Identifica­
The park d istr ic t forward© complete reporting data cm the d is­
tribution of crime and other problems occurring within park ju risd iction .
This enables the Chicago p olice to obtain an overfall view of the c ity
problem* Not infrequently radio units o f both departments participate
in running down escaping crimi na ls ,g During 195® the Chicago Police
For analysis of the respective authorities of the municipal and
park p o lice, see supra* PP* 79-81.
%ot# the Chicago Tribum* November £9, 1959* Frequently park d is­
tr ic t squads on patrol find inebriate®, the sick and those in d istress.
In many cases, the nearest d istr ic t station of the Chicago Police Depart­
ment is called* Patrol cars or sp ecial ambulance service is promptly
- - ■■■"
r i-rm n r
n --i ■
i •„ v
i „ . a » M ...<1- ( i H » - . r , r T T T r - i . i i i in ,
radio broadcast 7,73S messages to Park Police squad care. Though rob­
bery might occur on a thoroughfare within park ju risd iction , in frequent
instance® the Chicago P olice assume charge o f the Investigation.
In the
suburban area®, cooperation between municipal, and park police i® usually
cordial., in many of the lesser park areas, rankers of the municipal de­
partment are employed to p olice park areas* M s practice has served to
reduce the im plications ©f divided jurisdiction® .31
The clo se lin e s of relationships encountered between the special
d istr ic t p o lice and those of m unicipalities are not usually found as
regards coordination between sm m ieipalitics. in th is direction the d if­
fic u ltie s o f coordination are most pressing. To illu str a te f In August
o f 1950, a railroad yardoaster was robbed in mm o f the railroad yards
which lie s along the border between Chicago and StUkmy*
squad m m reached the scene of the robbery only to find that the rob­
bery had occurred within Stickney territory. Because of this fact, the
Chicago squad® lo s t Jurisdiction over the case and were required to turn
over tbs case to the Stiokney P olice,^
i t so happened that duo to d if­
fic u ltie s o f ccM iinloating with that department, the Stickney department
was unable to send investigators to the scene u n til several hours after
‘W ile relations between the sanitary d istr ic t or the forest preserve
d istr ic t p olice and other p olice agencies are not as close as relations
between park and municipal p o lice, practices o f aid and assistance are
usually ecssBparafel© to need®. In the event that serious offences are cos*s&tted within the sanitary d istr ic t or forest preserve domain, the case
is turned over to the sh e r iff. On the whole, however, relations have not
been over-cordial* In a number o f instances, the Chicago Bureau of
Id en tification ha© been u tilise d for Id en tification purposes. Those ar­
rested by sanitary d istr ic t or forest preserve authorities are turned
over to the nearest Municipal p olice department,
^The Telephone hedger* Chicago Police Department, under date of
August 12, 1950. Quoted in mvrim, Parratt, ana Lepawsky, TheJSSSmm&nt M the...
of Chicago (1955), p. 89.
the robbery* fhl* la g , between the reporting o f crime and the investiga­
tio n th ereof, le a m m si characteristic of io&erdspsrtsmm&al a ctiv ities*
Ordinarily one might assume that the contiguous d tstrle t lam might
i s net the ease* to r one p olice depart®«t t© send o fficers 1st© another
ju risd iction is an open in vitation to toMMM* m iens officer# o f the
v isitin g department pins* ttmmm&vm under the m i d o f the proper ch ief
a te recorded in which the a e ilv itts* o f e
municipal depayiamnt reach beyond the le o e l heimdarlee* Bie foeXtug of
lo c a l mtmmy i s s t i l l %m strongly entrenched m to permit encroachment
fte o the outside*
I t i« , o f eeerse, possible that the fa /lo r mm may
help to oeermsM the rig id ity of been&ary lin e s , although in the case at
point only the question o f ©hot .pursuit* w
*TMs s e t, *im lo t to define polio# d istricts* and the powers and
the m&m o f % p olice h erein ,* I&llJ3%laJ^
I llin o is
8*r Aesedetie® (10315) {©is* 24, e e o e T ^ ^ J / P W ^ *
©fhst the- territory which le enrifemeed within the lim its
o f ©djotnlag c it ie s , v illa g e s, end ineerporated towns, within
soy mwm$6p la. th is sta te ©fc&XX be * p olice d istrict*
©It sh a ll be X eifbl for th# p olios of any c ity , villa g e
or ti^erper&ted tome in suefe d istr ic t to go in to my part o f
such d istr ic t to m$^mm r io ts , preserve the peace sad pre­
te s t the liv e s and property o f eitlM m , and for each purposes
i t atnOl be the doty of the isayor o f any c ity , the prei&deet
and board o f tru stees o f m y v illa g e or Incorporated bmm in
each d istr ic t, and. the ch iefs of police therein, to nm the
p olios fences under th eir control anyi&ere in mmh d istrict* ”
*Tm Berwyn p olice eftttsstm m patrol doty la Berwyn In the seralng
o f Sepieaeber 5 , 1555, received a radio c a ll that a poltee o fficer had
boon k ille d t» the Xim o f duty in lowhsrd, not far from Berwyn# Berwyn
o ffic ers were Instructed to sratch for a sn a il, dark sedan carrying three
persons# Shortly thereafter, the o fficers mm each a sedan turn in ahead
Of them# the o fficers gave chase, end continued the chase westward
through Oak Fork and into Maytsoodu there the Berwyn car collided with a
bakery truck whUo s t i l l in pursuit o f the ©scaping car. The track over­
turned end s mm was k illed who was sban&Smg mmr the scene of the crash*
Administrator# o f the wan'e esta te sued the City of Berwyn and the two
Bma, while ju risd iction al boundaries say be mere geographic lin es
insofar as the m obility *£ crime is concerned, they are mighty s a ils
which repel any marked m obility of the police arm. Municipal enforce­
ment which represents the foundation of enforcement is individualised
and each department .must be se lf-su ffic ie n t in it s e lf ,3. It is for th is
reason that county* state* and federal agencies have come to play so
conspicuous a role in the enforcement process. For they represent the
primary means o f overcoming the handicaps apparent in lo ca l enforcement.
Much of the d iffic u lty o f lo ca l enforcement would bo removed i f the
county agencies o f sh e r iff, coroner, and sta te’s attorney served the
purposes for which they were created. For nearly a thousand years in
th is country and abroad, the sh eriff has boon considered not m a primus
cares, but m the ch ief p olice o fficer of the county, His powers
In th is country are those of th e common law supplemented by statutory and
Judicial elaboration. I t appears to be h is duty under the constitution
and statu tes in I llin o is to take a ll reasonable measures necessary to
enforce the law* A failu re in sh eriff policing cannot be attributed to
any Inadequacy in the powers and duties of the o ffic e . officers* 1 jury found both officers guilty and assessed damages
of |10,OCX) against each of them* On appeal, the First District Appellate
Court in ths m m of I M a i A j g
r. 2£jy&£_20SESIE
held that the officers and the corporation of Berwyn were not liable under
the provisions of the contiguous district law* kn Interesting art lei© on
m s mm appeared in the Illinois
{Jsimary-February, 1959),
p* 14#
3*A chief of polio© who had served at his post for nearly twenty
years sat bayk in his chair and saidiMteu know* as X see it the police
departeaaxxts her© in the county are like the old stone walls that I
b®r back i&si. Mm* we wanted to build a wall we just picked up a butmh
of boulders and lined them up, «3* didn’t use spy concrete and it didn’t
Hrach of a shove to do some damage to the wall. Our departments are
llks those stones and boulders, Be* re all piled together her© but there
Isn’t any cement to bind us all together. What we need is more cementmore cooperation and assistance.11
ln examining the participation of the sh eriff in the police process
in the county, i t becomes apparent that the sh eriff does offer some aid
and assistan ce to the lesser municipal departments and in the policing of
rural areas*
Perusal of f ile s in the s h e r iffs o ffic e gives an indica­
tio n o f th e quantity and direction o f th is assistance* (1) The ch ief at
Northbrook requests assistance in arresting a erased person*
(2) The
Westchester P olice required help in apprehending escaping bank robbers*
(5) The Lansing p olice reported a fig h t in progress and wanted help*
and content of sh e r iff’s aid and assistance are indicated in the
follow ing table*5*
a c tiv i tie s m m z cook m m t t m m m x p o lic e » a e tm e e t
wm w m $ 19E4#
Robberies and Holdups
Bank Robberies
m ecellaneo^Fu^M ons.
Injured persons handled
Prisoners handled for others
Insane cases handled
Missing persons found
Auto accidents handled
Railroad accidents handled
Aeroplane accidents handled
Suicides bandied
*At the present w riting, i t has been impossible to
secure data o f la ter date than 1935* In the la st effo rt
to secure data, the renark ms made that the annual reports
were "down in the vault" and not available. This Is
another illu stra tio n o f the effect o f changing administra­
tion s on recording and public relation s practices*
^Data tabulated from card f ile s la the sh eriff’s office*
In terms o f the rnme^pmmr that la available in the sh e r iff's o ffice for
purposes o f aid md assistan ce, valuable aid is given* But as previously
pointed out, personnel available for th is purpose is very d efin itely
lim ited .1
O ffering o f specialiaed services Indicated above represents only
one phase o f the sheriff* s obligations and possibly the minor one* From
the broader outlook, the obligation o f the sh eriff is the preservation
of the pease—an obligation which is not fu lfille d merely by granting aid
and assista n ce, The nature o f such major problems m gambling, v ice,
racketeering, and others requires, in addition to aid and assistan ce, a
vigorous enforcement by the sh eriff I f the smaller ommmiXXm and the
rural areas are to be secured from the conquest o f organised crime. In
th is direction sh e r iff policing has proved of inconsequential value In
the enforcement process,*2.
Two fa cto rs, in particular, account for this failure, One is parti­
san control over the o ffic e , the other the peculiar position of the o ffice
In the frame o f enforcement. I t is w ell known that the sh eriff's o ffice
is the prised p o litic a l plum in the gmm o f county p o litic s. Tenure of
o ffic e o f the sh eriff is ©herb, that o f the deputies ia fixed by p o litic a l
Subjection o f both to the demands of partisan p o litie s
makes the o ffic e exceptionally responsive to the demands of those who
control the electio n process. Experiences in the prohibition ©r&, in
% ete in particular* Be Long, Statewide Coordination of Law Enforce­
ment, Doctoral D issertation, Department of P o litica l Science, Korthwestern U niversity (!&$$), Che. X, XIj Landesco, "Organised Crime in
Chicago,tt Part III o f the
Crime Survey (192©)} G riffenhsgan
and A ssociates, frooosals for the Reorganisation of Local Government in
Part XX, Ch» IF#
i W
( 1
/ ,
p articular, point to the th rottlin g hold that the syndicates exerted on
the o ttlM ,
o f the prosecutor and the federal police in the
my be considered as a ta c it ac&nceded^ent that the o ffice of
sh eriff was unable or unw illing to cope with the situ ation . Recent
a c tiv itie s o f the Attorney General o f I llin o is in combatting the slo t
machine racket in the county i s einply another illu str a tio n ,1 in the
important fie ld s o f policing such as the control of vice* gambling, and
m te ta , the sheriff*® o ffic e ploys a role of Inconspicuous importance*
fhe situ ation has been complicated due to the fa ct that sh eriffs
c^portunities to s h ift the blame for oondltions^^portuni-
t ie s which have not been neglected*
In 1®m9 tor example, when the $vm»
n ils protective association charged that mm 170 road house®; vice, and
gambling dsns ears operating in the county; Sheriff Traeger Is said to
have blandly remarked that since at le a st 10S of th ese places wore Xo*
sated within the corporate limit® of towns* or village® ; such conditions
ew e th e r e in beyond h ie Jurisdiction *z I t appears evident that sh eriffs
in recent tin®® Iwm looked upon themselves as merely protectors of the
rural areas* not of the county*
In particular * the county process has been complicated tme&u&e sov*
oral agencies are engaged in lew enforcement. A few year® ago a heated
controversy arose between the sh eriff and sta te1© attorney of cook County
ever the enforc^aent o f vice conditions* A comAttm of citigen® were
^ A ctivities of the Attorney General against slo t machine rackets
began in January of IftSO and were directed throughout the sta te . When
the racket had not been cleared up in Cook County by June* seventy-five
sta te highway police*, acting under the orders o f the Attorney General,
made a series of raids in the county. See the Chicago Trihimfe ®f Jan­
uary Z7f X£$9# also of June S, 1&S9*
gChloat:o Horald and JLacaalnsr . October 25, 1529.
advised by the sheriff that this was the Job of the state’s attorney.
Whereupon the latter wrote the sheriff*
with the duties of the state’s attorney.
"You are apparently not familiar
It is my duty to prosecute
criminals after they have been apprehended by the police; and if this
office were to engage in a program of enforcement, it would take about a
thousand men to do the work#**1 The fact that the Cook County State’s
Attorney has stepped down into the field of policing has undoubtedly led
to a further "easing up" by the sheriff.
It should be said also, that effective solution of problems is
gravely impeded in certain directions by the participation of a number
of agencies. An example of this is a murder which occurred in Barrington
a few years ago. On discovery of the body, the local police, sheriff,
coroner, and state police were notified* When the coroner arrived on the
scene, the body had been removed by th© local police. A state trooper
had gathered up evidence, while a prosecutor's assistant had secured
witness testimony.
Such a situation points to the unwarranted duplica­
tion of activity which frequently leads to friction and makes enforce­
ment of the law more difficult* As enforcement offices are now con­
stituted, th© police, the sheriff, th© coroner, and the prosecuting
attorney share Joint responsibilities for the enforcement of the criminal
law and anything which impairs a close harmony between them disrupts the
enforcement process.
^Quoted from a letter in the file on "vice;' State’s Attorney’s
office of Cook County.
2fhis brief discussion of the relations between various police
agencies is in no sense designed as a full description of a situation.
The pages of this study must necessarily be limited to police adminis­
tration* Such is the broad scope of the relations between the police
In aussmary, what are the lin e s o f relationships and to what extent
do they su ffice to meet the rsqnlrementa o f policing?
In the distribu­
tion of crime nmm, a variety o f relationships e x is t. 'Within th® county
there la no central depository for information, information being dis­
tributed according to rings o f Influence, in part along arterial lin e s,
and in part through the use o f the dbieego P olice Department, Extensive
lin e s o f relationship© are developing between p olice department© in the
county and the sta te m w ell as the federal eapitol*
without question a
nmh needed impvm^mgtt in th® p olice proses® is the establishment of
&mm central bureaus o f information to vfeieh th® sending of certain crime
data would be coapalsory and which would serve as the crime news center
for the county# The fa ct that Cook County is the population center of the
sta te md that here mmm ®&ssh o f the crime in th® sta te , leads to the
conclusion that the State of I llin o is might w ell locate it s information
bureaus in Chicago rather than at Springfield as Is now the case. I t
seems clear that u n til the county Is provided with m m central bureau
for the depositing and distribution of criminal Information, i t w ill be
im possible to properly record the crime situation and to plan enforcesKmt
in terms of need®*
In reviewing the problem of aid and assistance, the conclusion is
Inescapable that a serious situation exist®.
Boundary lines gravely
ia$>air the «sy&©yMKB& of police beyond th® jurisdictions with5n which
they police*
Even in matters of hot pursuit, lacsi police hesitate to
and the prosecutive offloes alone, that Professor Do long has devoted a
number of chapter© to this m m phase of the police process in his study*
Statewide Coordination of law Enforcement, Doctoral Dissertation, Depeitwmt of pSSSSeil Science, Sfortbwesbern University (1955)* See in par­
ticular Chapter 111, "Th© Police and the Prosecutor*R It i© our purpose
here to smrely indicate $mm of the reasons which may account for a
loos© law enforcement in Cook County*
go beyond the lo ea l borders* Soldo© is i t possible for me municipal
department to a ssist anefcber* For th is reason the assistance which
county end sta te agam ies o m render is of paramount iBiportane©. Al­
though the leg a l position o f the sh eriff suggests an offering of serv­
ic e to meet lo ca l weaknesses, such Is not the ®&®©* The sh eriff1« Gspaytaami has not the man-power su fficien t for the purpose* Moreover,
the p o litic a l set-up of th# department precludes any great help in a ttacking fiuch crime problems as gambling, v ic e , rackets, etc*
attention o f th e o ffic e is devoted to the tr a ffic problem, and to th®
rural areas rather than to the county* the duplication of responsibil­
it ie s between sh e r iff, coroner, and sta te’s attorney has reduced the
p o ssib ilitie s of effectiv e aid and has considerably weakened the police
This le a d©y sad ago in which the average eitia ea looks with to creasing concern to sta te and federal capiheXs for th® preservation of
ISJTe* lib erty;
the pursuit o f happiness* This, as esueh as any other
sin g le factor, indicates that lo ca l p olice deparbwnts are not giving
th# security required* For th is reason* mm of th© tmjor tasks that
confronts th# dtiaeew y is to ascertain vfeat is wrong with Xmmt enforcem m t and to apply such remedies a# may be neewMwry to supply the neeesOt'^i ;f f•■■’ " i'.->7
easy erMToreement* (fha preceding pages have been, in part., an evaluation
of weaknesses to local enforcement to Cook Ceuciy*) At t m m now, is th#
important problem of datermtolng how end in what warmer 'local police
functioning can be so topreved a© to form a prlrary, not si secondary line
o f defense agatoot lawlessness*
In recent tim es, attention has been centered on the sta te as the
most lo g ic a l means o f overcoming the lag in lo ca l enforcement. In some
instances a complete and dominant control of lo ca l policing has been
Others have believed that a more practical solution lie s in
the establishm ent o f sta te p olice agencies which could take- over those
duties that lo c a l p olice departments could not properly handle. S t ill
others believe that b est resu lts can be accomplished merely by the es­
tablishment o f sta te rules and regulations to which a ll loca l enforce­
ment agencies must conform. An examination of th© respective merits of
the three plans is a f ir s t essen tia l in an evaluation of "ways out."
Resort to absolute control by the sta te has already been tried in
Cook County. Chicago* s ejqserlene© with sta te control during the C ivil
War period gave no hop* that th is method of raising lo ca l enforcement
standards is by any means the b est. Elsewhere in the United States where
sta te control has been tried , i t has usually been found wanting. State
governments have never shown any particular monopoly on virtue and, on
toe whole, the quality ©f lo ca l protection offered by the state has
seldom raised lo ca l enforcement to any material degree.1 Control by the
sta te does not necessarily insure the elim ination of p o litic s, In effi­
ciency, or corruption in toe administration of the police function.2
The present personnel situ ation In th© I llin o is State Highway Police
Department does not insure any great confidence in state administration
o f the p olice function. Besort to a sta te control of lo ca l policing has
^In th is connection see Fosdlck, American Police Systems (1920),
and to particular, Be Long, Statewide Coordination of Law Enforcement.
Doctoral D issertation, Department of P o litic a l Science, Northwestern
U niversity (1955), pp. 272-551 *
2D© Long, <g£. £ it ., p. 5*4.
the further hasard that i t mm contrary to cherished tradition s of
lo ca l autonomy. Of a ll toe lo ca l function®, that of the p olios probably
Men c lo se st to the heart o f to# dblsen*1 For i t is through toe lo ca l
p olice that deprivations o f lif e end lib erty are most lik e ly to occur*
AM in th is d irection , he clin gs most tmrnticnmlj to lo ca l control*
any case, to propose that the sta te take over control of the police
function In Cook County is to propose a procedure which is unwise and
certain ly wemmmted*
On toe otoer bend, there are powerful arguments in favor of the
sta te establishing sM maintaining it s own polio© age&ey which would
operate without regard to ssMsOishM lo ca l &g®T&im.2 Such a course
has the merit to st I t leave® municipal «nfore«Bsont more or le ss untouched
and super-lmposes over lo ca l agencies an enforcement possessing a ll the
advantage o f cactraH eatlcn, concerted pcU cy, and an aggressiveness
In "one f e ll sweep,11 therefore, such a
sta te program has toe dual mri t that i t provides an over-all protection
to those eeim unliies which cannot support an effectiv e p o lice, and at
the same time does assay wito the "barrier" problem which has so thoroughly
crippled lo ca l enforcement in toe county#
%« th is connection, note the excellent discussion o f De Long In
emphasising toe importance of toe lo ca l p olice in toe frame of enforce­
ment# Statewide Coordination of toy Enforcement. Doctoral D issertation,
BegMwetmeM o f '^Sticfil'S S S S S S S i ^ (1SS5), pp. 555540.
%here seems no doubt, however, that state control h m mmy ad­
vantages over a decentralised p olicin g. Single-head leadership makes
possib le a uniform p olicy. The centering of personnel functions in a
sin g le o ffic e makes possible an over-all recruitment and training im~
p ossib le wxd»T a decentralised system* The equipment and facilities of
toe departments can be moved toerever need for them arises. Friction and
jealousy caused by the participation o f many agencies would be greatly
reduced# Complete coverage o f the en tire sta te would be possible. This
would mean coverage to r the unprotected area. F in ally, such a system
overcomes the obstacle of finance which is largely responsible for the
poverty o f lo ca l policing*
y ^ # despite these adwanhag©** It Is q^tlcnahle if a reliance
police t© tl*© beat Xon§*rua policy* Experience is this ©tat©
and i» ©there a© ©©XX demonstrates that ©tat© police agencies i n w r W y
teed te ®©»©£s©Xt«© the attention of tli© © m a w and that grataOX^ th©
©Ibiaea mtfoimm i© look m m to ©tat© agencies and l&s© t© local agex*~
©tee for p&oieeblon* Cfoat of ©sash a situation one reeali appear© inevita­
ble* eventual amortisation ©f local ©nforoeaeni, tosl police m&$ and
pntoMy mil* loo© their primary position a* ©isforeemenfc ageneie© and
©13X Intlaa© b© left la the mnvlifeiX* position of sasre amiliorla© to
the ttato polio®* fbe© itUiEOt open abate pdlieiag « U1 aecoiapliah th©
iraadlatc ©ad of better proteotim. Bat it © UX be at th© sacrifice of
lo c a l tostltati«9* m 9a te a s ha© ©bated*
tra! ivm th© ©tat© a©pithl ia 4mm&
v e l o p m i o f th © © ta t© p o l i o ©
*X£ ab so lu te © e stn a con­
nlti»ast« deeirabi©* th© d©~
1© a s e f t d M t t * s© *® » o f a t t a i n i n g
th a t
^active***' la th© long ran, ibar© 1© sot much to choose hat©©©© m
isarediai© ©tat© control ©ad X©a@«©m ^Bortiaatloa*
this 1© s*©b to say that th##© 1© a© piece for th© ©tat© police* on
th© contrary there le* She ©pm reaches of th© rural areas him pro*
©ented a |i©ta of first aagnitad© since th© iatrodisctioa of th© paved
read and th© aatoaobilc. Except in t m instances, sheriff* and ecn-
©table* have fa ile d #
Besorb to th© ©tat© f o r protection appear© a« th©'
moat logical m m m o f pmmrring the peace# Bat with regard to ©Than
areas, and in partiodar to e»tr©pollt©a areas, it m m m clear that If
a t
a l l p o s s i b l e
l o c a l l y r a t h e r t h a n
i n
t h e
t h e l o c a l p o l i c e
p r o c e s s
s h o u l d
o c c u r
. s ta t e c a p i t a l *
■oyceaBeitt» Doctoral Dissertation,
m te m iE d .v e rs ity {1955}# p* 54i
tborwfosiw, insofar m th© Chicago area is concerned, it appears in*
| mspm&m% ©ithsr t© roly xtpm sta ts control ©f lo ea l polio© isnibs, or to
: a ri&s&am
p olios agomy as ssliiiio a s of th©
| mm i s naaassswy#1 *Wjr t s th© oa&snt that a swforaa&lon in lags^ $&*»
I lining ©Mur© w ill tits aXtiaats d«#ir*bX© ha aoooi^Xlstet*
4 ftal£ doson or aware suggestion© hair© bass gaad© m to ©sans of ra-
organising loeal enfi»e<Q«Mttb« Sqm appear iamraot&eabXft. others £em the
* . .
! pxm Im a
. , «
sfevtsa# that
«nw of ib© smrasaomh mbropolxtm.
dilfiettXits© axis®* oat of th© dissibs&Xariby
&i police
j is & principle reason wijy thor© t a w baas few ooHsoti'Vs drives
i sad other $&w&ta©*
on ertwe
la matters of s^pipssst# provisions of s^loyufesni*
lumla iMptis so #a*» atiaas?4» that ©smaortod orssrssus or s
nri4nal orosrsias
| m m impossible* It, tbsrafore, appears that tbs in itia l step is a proI grow of tgqpmmMat uaight wall be as a w d t a t a of ways and
; mmmm
dlssiailisritlss sad to raise a n Im&X m&mmsmsfo to a level
high as to aos$a$&tsli tbs tads- polios ftsabaiaeatals*
l ef t ale®*, it.
mwm elear
reds* tbs X m l ©£ ilis&r
mm p M m
iomioipelitiss will probably not
taawtaaits to tbs nsesssaary height*
l&perionees is CMfe Stanly and elsewhere bear oat tbla contention*
ij will ©en&txsn© is be good dopartsamhs sad bad ones*
Befta&swnts with, sac*
;| ©silent poarsssmsX standards will be find and those Slaving th© rovers©*
dapaaHtanfee will be
to got along with Utils or
I ©there will syabolls© ©quipssont mss at its host*
m aqutymmti
For those reasons some
fm m of restraint sad ©engmleton will ho necessary.
The restraining hand of the state appears the most logical means of
ironing out differences and compelling uniform standards in personnel,
equipment, and the lik e .
Improvement through regulation by the state has
the merit that primary resp on sib ilities for enforcement s t i l l are resident
in the lo ca l enforcement units and under the puarvlew of the local c it­
The direction of enforcement, on the other hand, w ill be the
obligation of the sta te .
Practically, th is method is possibly best, for
such a program of regulation and supervision can be accomplished through
action of the legislatu re and without reference to any constitutional
A program of state regulation involves two, possibly three essen­
t ia ls .
The in it ia l step is the preparation and enactment of a police
code, the requirements of which must be met by each and every local po­
lic e agency. Hot an easy task in I llin o is , due to the up-state and downstate problem, but i t is practicable to devise such a code due to the
basic sim ilarities in police functioning throughout the state. Formula­
tion of a code should, of course, be followed by the in stallation of
investigative and supervisory machinery necessary to see that state code
regulations were being met* In the event that local police service failed
to meet requirements, temporary assumption of control by the state might
be expedient. But in a ll probability, such a program cannot be launched
unless some system o f grants—
in —
aid is also established. D ifficu lties
in financing police agencies have been a major cause for low -level en­
forcement, and simply to order many municipalities to raise the lev el is
to in vite the impossible.
In th is connection, English experimentations
In grant»-in-aid might bo searched and analyzed with profit.**"
Back of training fa c ilitie s has proved the enigrm of many depart­
ments* In th is direction, a lso , the state can play a conspicuous role*
The establishment of a state police training school represents the fir s t
The second 1® the passage of leg isla tion making a course in train­
ing (preferably one or two years) ccmpolaory for a ll recruits. The need
for in-service training i s such that certain short course instruction
should be required for a ll police o ffic ia ls .
Much can be done by the state in the direction of research,report­
ing, and investlg&tIon * The establishment of a state bureau designed
for the following purposes would greatly a ssist: (1) Conducting research
in police administration*
tio n and reports*
(2) Supplying lo ca l authorities with informa­
(5) Providing a laboratory service in such specialized
polio© fie ld s as crime investigation * These should be ♦‘request1* services
available on the request of lo ca l authorities*
In particular, local us©
of expert technical assistance would greatly raise the lev el of scien tific
Reform® in loradon policing by Sir Robert Peel in the early th irties
o f the la s t century brought to rural England mmj of the problems con­
fronting the county today* Reforms led to a lafoolesaie exodus of criminals
into the countryside* Small and insecure local departments were unable
to cope with the situation* This fact coupled with a vicious p o litica l
control of the local p h licein the majority of larger c itie s raised a
fundamental issue o f assumption of police control by the state or regula­
tion by the state* Regulation was the alternative adopted* How standards
of Inspection are established by the Home Secretary. A ll lo cal depart­
ments are inspected at le a st once a year and upon report of the inspectors
that the police department meets approved standards, the Exchequer is ad­
vised to pay the municipality a stipend amounting to one-half the cost of
operating the police department* This practice of grants-in-aid accounts
in large measure for the uniform enforcement found throughout England and
Scotland* This system has the important advantage that i t focuses public
attention on lo ca l enforcement* 1hen financial aid is not forthcoming
from, parliament, the lo cal authorities are in the unenviable position of
having to defend why the department was not M
up to standard.* Threat of
public dlcproval has done much to fore© the exceptional standards of police
service found in the English and Scottish departments*
©rime id en tifica tio n . The leading position in enforcement and lawless­
ness occupied by Cook County Indicates %lm advisability of establishing
the bureau or &branch of i t in the county.
Turning now to the question of remedying the lo ca l situation without
refo rm * to state assistance, we found a number of p o ssib ilitie s, mm
fdfeotieahle, other* Isspr&clioabXe.
I t mmm d e a r that at the heart of metropolitan d iffic u ltie s i s the
decentralization of police estrorcenjent * Already more than a hundred sep­
arately controlled agencies participate and the number w ill undoubtedly
increase*3, As indicated previously, the majority of municipal departments
are minor, the department of more than twenty-five men being the exception.
For th is reason the prime d iffic u ltie s arise in the fact that (!) policing
i s toe complicated; (2) specialization of police functions is stalemated*
T© overcome the lag in these two directions, mm ©f two courses appears
most practicablet (1) Rely upon mom vigorous ©©operative enterprises*
(2) Direct attention to mesas o f reducing the number of police agencies
and eonec&ldffting th eir resources*
I f experiences o f the past 1end any weight to predicting the future,
rellam e upon aw e vigorous line® of relationships w ill not accomplish
number of economic and social factors appear to account for the
rapid building up of the environs. In part the trend is due to an In­
creasingly acute tax situation in Chicago which is forcing business enter­
prises and heme owners to seek loser tax areas* In part the movement has
been expedited 'by improved r a il fa c ilitie s and, in pirtioular, by improved
trucking and motor fa c ilitie s which have permitted the establishment of
commercial enterprise® away from the zones of assumption and distribu­
tio n . Technological advances in electric power distribution have also
played a part* Again, the fact that the larger c itie s have lo st their
monopoly on social and pleasure fa c ilit ie s has undoubtedly played a part.
The minor hamlet and v illa g e offers most of the conveniences and pleasures
to be obtained in the larger c ity without many of the handicaps and at a
considerably reduced cost*
the ultimate desirable*
At beet, I t is a way of making an old machine
function lik e a nm one* The present machine is too did (not in the
sens® o f years but in adjustment to modern-day problems) to sake possible
major changes. $hile greater coordination and cooperation w ill undoubted­
ly greatly a s s is t, they cannot do the impossible* Clreater coordination
and cooperation are advocated but not m a remedy for the lo ca l problem*
Thus, the lo ca l improvement program w ill undoubtedly require some­
thing in the may of gowru^ental reform, i f police reform is to be aceosnplished* But how? This i s the roajor problem*
Absolution ©f siste r c itie s by the City of Chicago is one possibil­
But the hope i s remote that annexation w ill accomplish
in governing areas thereby eentr&ilslng-
the police function.
a lly Chicago tern grown through the annexation of
But in recent years the movement has d efin itely slowed and prospects of
major ajmexstions—at le a st in the near future—appear remote* Forces of
tradition, vested in terests of o ffic e holders, desire© of ccaMiunitles to
retain th eir lo ca l imbonoj^r, lo ca l pride—a ll play a conspicuous role in
blocking an extended annexation program* Inertia in the annexation process
w ill continue u n til such time a® Chicago cleans house and creates a gov*
©raimg structure looked upon with tmmr by suburban ocxamimitiesu^ A deeper
^Referendum has been the predominate method of enlarging Ohicafe©, »
area. Bines 1630, 170 of the 210 square miles added to it® territory has
been b y th is method* I t i s interesting to observe, however, that most of
th is growth took place previous to 1889* Since that year, the total area
of the c ity has grown by 49*08 square mile®* See Merrlam, F&rratt, and
lepawsky, XMJjkS&mm&r j f t k l f e f t J f t d E ( 1$^) ,
p* IBS*
%n 1919 during a wave of ‘♦consolidation” enthusiasm, the Oak Parker
wrote: *»The whole scheme i s a cunningly devised plan to hoodwink the un­
thinking and indifferent ©ibises*® of the suburb® into endorsing the plan
sens© of community in terest way, in t i m , overcome the present an tiChicago feelin g which Is generally prevalent in the county. But even
in the ©vent that greater annexation should occur, the frontiers of the
county are probably too far distant from the present c ity to wake phys­
ic a lly possible the establishment ©f a greater Chicago* For these re&»
sons, envisioning a metropolitan c ity as the solution of the county prob­
lem does not appear as a practicable solution*
A second method of alleviating the multiple c ity problem in the
county has greater p o ssib ilitie s than annexation of sister c itie s by
Chicago. In the event that major consolidation (later discussed) be­
comes impossible, recourse must be made to th is second method. Present
leg isla tio n with regard to Incorporation is ©xeeedlngly generous and has
greatly contributed to the profusion of m unicipalities found in the
county* leg isla tio n prohibiting incorporation of unincorporated terri­
tory lying within three miles of m incorporated territory would slow up
the alarming trend toward the establishment of new m unicipalities« Pre­
vention o f new incorporations, aided by a normal annexation by suburban
m unicipalities o f other suburban m unicipalities, would in time make for
for a larger Chicago under the hi# sounding name of unification of local
government for public efficiency * * * . W© should give up our local governmmi, right of ssdf-dctemlnatlon in local affairs, “
this privilege of
attending to our local business, as we want it attended to. We should make
the sacrifice for the benefit of Chicago. Certainly, the benefits would
all be for Chicago and not for Oak Park" (Beptewfeer 20, 1919). Such a
sentiment ^pressed nearly twenty years ©£©, find© vigorous expression
today. Recently the president of one of the north shore ce&mmities said:
*Ctar ©itimers ©sen* here seeking a residence spot. In the ©vent of con­
solidation, we would face the hazard of being industrialized. Our zoning
1mm ©all. foar light industries only. Consolidation woulc sean a n in­
crease in the taxes, which are now ample to meet our need®. Combination
of this mbvxh is to my mind, not even a remote possibility** Another
president nasaarkeds "What Chicago1© dirty p o litic© out here? Ho, thank
yon* I am very sure that our residents would be ovomiivI t ingly against
consolidation or annexationJ1
- 541-
larger and mom aelf-aitfftoleni municipalities and fewer of the le sssu fficien t ©nos. &ueh a situation would have a corresponding reaction
m peliolaag* Tiwnaty-fivo
thirty larger police departments would net
*sk© tm the prcfclw that m€m«tylssaer paXiea dapert^nte would.
Of the various metheoe of clearing up the polio* situation la the
ooaaty, en terin g lo ca l mtifommmt to the county rather than to the
has been suggested o» the heat long-run solution. In th is di­
rection severs1 eenrsos are possible* (1) A g reyer rellm ** upon the
lareMBt established ©sooty poll©© aganels* o f t a r i f f , coroner, eonstable* sod sta te1® attorney* <t) R ehabilitee^ o f a mstrepolitsn police
d is tr ic t, jurlsdletlon to ho ee-tesvteous with the county.
Of th e two, the .first Is le a st gm fassble despite the fe et that con­
stitu tio n a lly the pmmmt ©aunty o ffices offer splendid anchorage to which
a vigorous lav mforceoeot sigh t fee fix ed . The sheriff* in particular,
eccvples a position o f m thorlt^tlve
Ms posers are firw ly
ta b le d la the eonstlbiihioB* m& since the ruling In the ease of jfoftnkfr v*
Peoole. the prero^B.tlvo o f the sh eriff i s such that the legislature cannot
deprive the of U se o f |h s mmm law powers#1 In t « m of poser, the
S h eriff, therefore* ranks as the dWLef polio© o fficer of the county. Two
factors* twwwver, fSMOgr m ilitate against «®gtesi*l»g sh eriff policing;
the o ffic e ,la a ls e iiw f ynatiase control with a ll it s acco^sniaenta w ill
coastlnne to daMn^tlae. the eceies*
sh eriff *
m v m m ,
Moreover, in w lsw in g authority among
m& state* a attorney la not
prsdastiws of concerted ea-
foreenamt on the part o f a ll three* Habits of election* friction between
the county office© prevent a reliance upon th© county to overcome the
lag In lo ca l policing#
For those reasons, i f the county is to he made the basis upon which
a rigorous enforcement i s to be lodged, seme other plan must be adopted.
two plans have already boon suggested, th© on© advanced by Professor
Be long, the other by the I llin o is Commission on Taxation and Expendi­
Under the Do long plan, there would be organised a county police
agency headed by a single executive appointed by the county board or by
the ch ief executive of the county* The c iv il service now in force as to
most o f the county o ffices would be applied to th is new agency. This
would reduce partisan pressure which has gravely m ilitated against ef­
fectiv e sh eriff poncing*
Once organised, methods of bringing present
e©*mty office© tinder the sway ©f the metropolitan police department could
be adopted. Stash are Be long1® suggestions for the accomplishment of
th is purposes
The county force might be given fu ll power to investigate
crime regardless of the a c tiv itie s of the coroner and con­
current with h is Inquiry*
(E) The coroner might fee deprived of the power to appoint
deputies and the ch ief of the county force might be des­
ignated by statute as ex -o fficio chief deputy coroner*
(%) The coroner*s Jury sight be modified fey statute to con­
s is t of perhaps one member of the prosecuting sta ff, one
member of the police force proper, and on© member from a
state law enforcement agency*
Be iidtg, Statewide Coordination o f law In fo r c e m n t* Doctoral Dis­
sertation, Department of P o litica l Science, northwestern University (195S),
p p . 555-$6?j Report and %^mmn8&%±m& o f the Illin o is Commission on
(1958). ^>* 86-99*
(4) M tli regard to the state*# attorney, sine# most of the duties
are regulated by statu te, the legislatu re could probably
transfer duties in the eriainiO. f 1434 to so©# ether agency,
leaving only &eoMHrlKt&&X duties to be administered by the
sta te1s attorney*
In which event the legislatu re could mXl provide that the
function of criminal prosecution should b© administered by
a iwbordinaie division o f the newly established county police*
(4) Mm to the sh e r iff, the organisation o f a vigorous county unit
wooM in time cause the sheriff*# duties to atrophy regard­
le s s o f th eir leg a l existence*
Fro# th i# i t is obtimm that the Be tmg plm i s essen tially eonearned with the reorganisation of law tmferce@or*t and tbs establishment
of a county police with such standing and authority as to present a
powerful secondary defense against lawlessness* tlm principle Intent
1# to reduce the co n flicts between sh eriff, coroner, a d prosecutor and
to estEblli^. a mfetropditai agency which would eventually succeed sh eriff
policing* I t w ill be noted, hseever, that the basic local police struc­
ture i s le f t cntcochsd*
In c h a r in g th is plan with that advanced by the I llin o is Coaaaissicn
on Tmm&lm mmI &pcnditures, several tape*tent differences are notable*
Hfcjor proposal# o f the plan mm m follows:
(1) That a l^tropolitim Felloe idainistratlon be established
with jurisdiction throughout the entire county* This organlaa&ien was not to be an addition to any existing agency
but a new organisation "equipped with a police force, orgmdmd with exacting care and eadwaistive thcras^xnsss a#
to form, pemmmdI, sta ff agencies, and operating fa c ili­
tie s to bacon# a ci-tse-fightlBg machine of superlative o ffeettvenecs*"
{&) That a governing board be established for the purpose of
lawiiM os-mi for the support of the Folios Adolntstvwbian
and o f selecting the chief o f police* The Board, of Cook
County Cmmlmimmm ehaXX act eac-omcio m vomkmtmer*
©f tbs letrcpoliiyan Police D istrict.
That a l l of the tome and agencies of the Metropolitan
Police he under the command of a director, selected upon
the heels o f hie ascertained qualifications who would
serve during good behavior and be appointed and removed
by a tlnree-cpjarfcere vote of the governing body of the
Metropolitan Felice District* The method of appointment
should provide* among other things, that the appointee be
chosen from a l i s t of those whose qualifications for the
position have been considered adequate fey a board of nom­
inations made up of three citizen s of h i$ i repute named
respectively, fear example, fey the County Board, the County
Judge, and the Governor of the State*
That the Metropolitan Police D istrict fee eiapewered to take
over a l l police duties and police work warn assigned to tiie
police departments and forces of the various units of gov­
ernment in the metropolitan area provided, however, that
the eitisen s of any c ity , or v illa g e, m y fey two-thirds vote
authorize tb s est&bllshiaent of a supplementary police force
idioae ch ief would fee required to respect the authority of
the director o f the metropolitan police* In th is event,
however, the municipality would not be relieved of it s shore
o f th e cost of supporting the d istrict department*
That the county highway patrol fee discontinued and the
sh eriff’s duties fee conferred, fey adequate leg isla tio n , to
those of a county officer*
That the sta te delegate to the Metropolitan Police Admin­
istra tio n the highway patrol and other polio© work now being
done fey I t within the lim its of the lletrcpolitan. D istrict
and compen&ote the d istr ic t board for the approximate cost
o f service rendered by th® state within the county—such
amount to fee determined upon a population or assessed value
That the o ffice of townships constable be relieved of a ll
police duties con flicting with those of the metropolitan
That the act estcfeliehing the metropolitan d istr ic t provide
it s governing board with the power necessary for the accom­
plishment of the purposes tor which i t is established and
authorise i t to adopt such form of organization and methods
of operation as w ill from time to time fee found most ex­
pedient in th® development of crime detection and prevention*
That the personnel of the metropolitan force fee recruited
through a procedure that w ill insure the choice of the best
fitte d applicants from among those who can be induced to
compete, fitn ess to fee determined by as appraisal of qual­
ifica tio n s based m practice l i s t s of intelligence and
thoroughgoing inquiries into past records and a ll available
evidence of character*
From which i t w ill fee observed that the {hsaaission’s plan is essen tially
a plan of advising the -polle© problem, whereas th© Be hemg plan, is pri­
marily ooaoonasd with the revision of low onforcesient. From the view—
pvteit ®f police adtaii4.©tratiosi, Be long’s plan fa lls short for the reason
that i t does not account for the need of eventually including the local
polle© in the county wgaatmbton# This in the long rm9 w ill prove an
essen tia l.
In th# two plans mm the necessary elements requisite, to a competent
reorganisation of police fmmttoslng in the county. Such a reorganisation
w ill aecossplleh the purposes end objectives of effective enforcement i f *
I &*ts«piillta& police departont is established, headed by
a oomeieeloner or ch ief of polio© d irectly responsible to
the county board, or preferably to the chief executive of
the county*
Bines of authority are permitted to lead d irectly from the
chief of police to the ch ief executive*
I f proper prevision® for recruitment, promotion, md retireSHBKgi are inaugurated»
I f proper training f a c ilitie s arc established as an acecmpartl-
mmt to the organisation of the m tropolitan d istrict force*
I f the state delegates to the matrcpdltOE) department, the
resp on sib ilities of the state highway police,
I f the mkmpolttm police department is given f u ll authority
to investigate arias® mgm*dXmB of the a c tiv itie s of the
coroner, and Gmmvrmt with h is inquiry.
I f the power to appoint coroner’s deputies i s lodged in th©
authorities responsible for the appointment of the metropol­
itan p o lice.
I f the criminal a c tiv itie s of the sta ts1* attorney ar© trans­
ferred to the oetrcpolitan polios*
I f th® functions of special d istrict polio© agencies are
transferred to , and md© a part o f, metropolitan policing.
metropolitan plan permits the metropolitan police de­
partment to take over duties performed by the municipal
police wdth the proviso that citisen s of any sofB&smiiy aisy
by pillar vote ©loot to establish a supplementary police
force lisee# chief would be required to respect the author­
ity of tfc# chief of the metrcpolitan police*
Intent of the above program i s to establish a vigorous and s e lf -
su fficien t police u n it, tmMmderesi by traditional municipal, townships,
and sp ecial d istr ic t boundaries, which w ill fee accomplished through
unifying the police m m ®mes of the county* Only In this imy will i t
be possible to combat m tropolitan problems in a concerted and effective
In conclusion, I t i s evident that roads to iisprovcisont are many*
Some- are designed to adjust specific police Ills, others have as their
objective a complete and thorough revision of present police modus
operandl* In my plm of adjttstaaaxt, it cannot be forgotten that the
more major the change the greater the opposition and the less probability
o f success is reforming.
In my mm
the transition fro® m
system to a completely mm structure cannot be accomplished overnight,
the ground work for change mmt bo carefully laid m d the basis of plan­
ning as carefully formulated before mows are made to place It in opera­
Of the ways eat, that of establishing & jietropolitan police agency
appears the meet desirable from the
endpoint of effective police admin­
istration and for the good of the coras&liy.
In the event that accomplish­
ment of such a plan appears impossible then reliance upon an effective
state polio© mit, appears the logical ©Iterrmiive*
Major strides forward
in police functioning «®n undoubtedly be a©c«plished through state reg­
ulation, supervision, and aid.
no fir
a neglected field of endeavor,
should become the guide to the ^ministration of policing functioning*
Much that has been said in th is study has not been couiplis>entary
to administrative practices in the county* Studies of other metropol­
itan counties would undoubtedly reveal lik e deficiencies*
But i t
should be said in closing, that great strides forward have been made
In p olice functioning in the county, the policeman, the public o ffic ia l,
and the c liie sn are more and more revising th eir conceptions of enforce­
ment. Gradually, the police function Is emerging in it s real characters
devoid of the spectacular, a science in i t s own righ t. This cannot but
re-emphasise that Intelligence is the bulwark of policing, that bream Is
not the best promise to effectiv e enforcement*
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London, 1936*
u London, 192S.
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Aahton-Wolf, Harry.
The T hrill o f E vil. Boston, 1936.
Beanjon, Cornelia M.
8rawnfcage, 1912.
B illin g s, Curtis. Accident Frewntion Bureaus in Municipal Police
Evanston, I llin o is , 1937.
Bogart, Ernest Ludlow, and Mathews, John Mabry,
I llin o is . C. W. Alvord, editor-in -chief.
I llin o is , 1920.
Boggess, Arthur Clinton,
Chisago, 190©.
Brasol, Boris.
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The Bfosa&ta.. o f Grime.
Oxford, 1927.
Brown, Henry. ahe Hlstory of I llin o is , from it s F irst msQQv©ry_aa&
Settleasent to the
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-3 4 8 -
Cooper, ft. Weldon. Municipal Police Administration in Texas.
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Dodd, Walter F ., end Dodd, Sue Hutchinson.. Government in I llin o is .
Chicago, 1925.
Dugdale, Richard Louie. A Study In Crime. Pauperism. Disease, and
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Falrlle, John A. HfeyatateuJL.Ad.inigtrat.lon. Hew York, 1901.
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______ • jMfTO»w> Police Systems. Sew York, ISIS.
Fold, Leonhard F. Police Administration.
Row York, 1910.
Gallagher, Hubert R# Crim Prevention m a Municipal Function.
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;1 I M r l « v W @ « I^aart^arst*
'I Bs^te£i«X4 Falla*
City Folio®
Jtopaffiy, X©50~X9$8*
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Cook countyShsriy s Highway Polio* BspartewBt, Annual Reports,
«w w w r*8
o m
m ,
C o ck G m m ty , £ U in » t « .
fikUtm M»te« DopartMift. *—
Stall. C m —
^ wt e , 19BQ-1988.
gn— <fc-
®taw«r WU«* ©aswfaasnfc. a— »i »««*«■ 1950-19S8.
mm mmm i*mm
m m »— r^ . mo-uese.
Elglo NUm @apartwa»ft* m m rn*****. m KMiSS.
^Baapwfatm ttsLli®#
Wmv&mm &wek P tiltm
Wwsmt fmpk
Aamial .te o r t^ , MXMJM*
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ftmtoM m I*mk M i t t
km im l M'meb** &&$IMfc$8S+
M f N i^ .
XlXin»i« St*t» Slctanjr Fsllea 'SaparlMfit.
X N titsto «t PS&lie WS»iniatpatl«5
fe«roBl Raaorta. 19S0-1958*
Of Polio*.,. 18OT.
Xanaalag Poll®* Dajjwfcswiat,
P«ai«e a^srtacBt.
t m m X .Mm asgfco.
X»»WtS 8 8 .
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«f Orta®. testa?!. *®s&ington,
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Aw SRk OUy fe lin e B®»swto»®*.
W«v Ttopk, ISiT.
Oak terk m t e ®
T t o p m m t s b ,
t m rn£m te lle # Ttopmrnm*
IM ift8W&
ftsami* 01% of
iBBsallgBggfe, Chicago, 1958.
—SSIBoard of the F«fc FoXiomni'o Aanuity aod Boisofit Fund.
' J a a ^ Jto a rfc. o f t M Eitlr«@ent Board* X938,
ftiwr IfiWlI Folio© B©pariiaei¥t* foaaaaX Report^ 3L93OO0S8*
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Of Book Coaaty.
ftfir«»» 1088. Chicago. 1938.
£Mosgo^ 1956*
s* {BsSmgo, X9B8*
Polio© £teg»aart®*&&*
, Stay 7, MSS.
, yobruary SS8, 1959.
, 0ot«ther
85, 1989
i$. Boo. 4, 1897; Bay 17, 198£j July 1®, 1982| Basr. 14,
mots! %*. 81, 19S8J Jan. 1, 19S9j 3m. 87, 1®3®» Mar. 86,
1989* Apr. 14, 198®; May 7, 1989; Boy 17, 1089; Juno 6, 1959;
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. . ..
» BXearly* Reports of Calls Handled Through the Central
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—3 6 5 -
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