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The development of rhetorical theory in America, 1635-1850

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. * * * * .
. . * . . * .
* * * * * *
I. f m 33OmiH^0E OF O S HBRTfEXf OF SOTS, 2UM&*
CXassioal Influence to 1750* * . * * • * * .
Th© Influence of Feter Bern* . * . . * * * •
tossius am4 his FolXosror#* * * * * * • • • •
Miscellaneous logics Available In the
felonies * * * . . * * * * * • * • • • * * *
Hbete3?ie In the Colleges » • • # • « « • * *
Influence of English Hhetorleal Theory • * *
the Transition * • • • * * * • # * « * « • *
Classical Rhetorics furlBg the Period* * * ♦
Jbwpovted Rhetorics in the Classical
Tradition. • » . * • « # . » * « • * • * * •
•English Rhetorics of Style.......... * * »
Works on Elocution . . * * * * * « * * * • •
Other Works* * * * * . . * • * * * • * . * .
English Rhetorical Theory, 1750-1785 * * * *
Rhetoric in the Colleges . * . * • * • « * *
Surjinary* * « * * • * * * » • * « • * • * * •
m A m m m mmmwn* *
the i m o m e op Americas rhetoric, v t m *
1350 . . . . . . . ......... . . . . . . . .
iA •
* * * .
. • * . * *
* . *
Domination ef the English Rhetorics. • . * •
Orenth of American Rhetoric. . . . . . . . .
American Rhetoric in 1850* . . . . . . . . .
Rhetoric in the Colleges* 1785-1350. * , . .
* *
i$t *m
THE BUK3OTI0H MOVEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Classical Background . . . . . . . . . .
Beginnings of Elocution in England . . . . .
English Criticism of Oratory end Education .
Rise of English Elocution. . . . . . . . . .
Background of the Elocution Movement in
America. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
English Influences on American Elocution * *
American Writers on Elocution. . . . . . . .
The Readers* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Criticisms of Elocution and the
Elocutionists, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
....... . . . . . . . . . . .
THESES RHETORICAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1804. .
JOSEPH M’KEAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
* twmomcfion
Purpose of th© Study
It Is the purpose of this study to Investigate and
report the development^ of rhetorical theory In America
from the beginnings of American education In the colonies
to the United States of 1850*
The study is a history and
analysis of the rhetorical theory of this period in terms
of the prevailing rhetorical conceptions and the trend® In
rhetorical doctrine#
As such, It deals with a heglected
segment In the history of an educational discipline which
begins as far back as ancient Greece#
The term ”rhetoric” is here used in the classical
sense to include invention, arrangement, style, delivery,
and memory# ■>Rhetorical theory, in other words, is the theory
of oral and written composition as presented in such works
as Aristotle*s Rhetoric, Cicero1s Do Oratore, Quintilian*s
Xnstitutio Pretoria, In George Campbell*® Philosophy of
Rhetoric, Hugh Blair *a Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles
Lettrea, Richard lately*s Elements of Rhetoric# This is to
mention only a few of the older and generally known treatises
contributing to rhetorical theory as the term is used In
this study*
Innumerable writers throughout the history of
education have formulated and reformulated, added to and
subtracted from this doctrine#
What was the status and
development of this doctrine In the America of 16S&-18S0?
This is the question to which this study seeks an answer#
ivRhetoric in its inception was concerned primarily
with oral composition, with oratory and public address, and
this emphasis has persisted through most of its history#
Hence, anyone interested In the early history of the phi*
losophy, method and pedagogy of public speaking must of
necessity follow the vicissitudes of rhetorical theory*
While this study is not limited to the oral aspects of
rhetoric, the motivation for the investigation has arisen
from an interest in the theory and pedagogy of public speech*
Indeed, the period in rhetorical history here studied Is one
of peculiar significance in the development of public apeak*
ing as an academic discipline in American educati on*
relates American rhetorical doctrine, through English and
French Influences, to the rhetorical tradition of antiquity,
and provides as well a necessary basis for Interpreting much
of contemporary speech education*
Chapter XV in this study treats the rise and develop*
ment of elocution in America#
Since elocution stems directly
from the prommtiatio or ’’delivery” of ancient rhetoric, It
is in fact a rhetorical development and properly within the
scope of this study#
Certainly no picture of early American
rhetorical theory would be complete, nor could it even be
draim, without a consideration of elocution*
0,Method and Materials
The method employed In this study can best be ex­
plained by describing the types of materials consulted*
These are outlined as followss
(1) Works on Ehetoric*— The first and most direct
sourced of information on early American rhetoric are the
books on rhetoric available in the period under Investigation#
These works have been found and studied in the libraries of
Northwestern University, Harvard University, Yale University,
Columbia University, Cornell University, the university of
Michigan, the University of Chicago, and In th© Newberry
library in Chicago, and th© lew York City Public Library#
College Catalogues and Course of Study#— These
materials were found and studied mainly in the collection of
the Office of Education, Department of the Interior, Washington,
D* C*, and in th© Harvard Wnlvarsity Library#
Records of Book Importations# Library Catalogues
and Charging Records, and Reports of university Officials*—
These sources have been of service mainly in determining th©
availability and use of works on rhetoric*
The reports of
university officials, ©# g*, th© Harvard Overseers, also
provide insight into th© requirements and practices of th©
Theses Rh©tori©ae»— The rhetorical theses sub-
aiitted by students in the early American colleges have been
examined4 ^hese dicta drawn from the various studies of th©
students* and defended at the public oommenc©ment exercises*
were used to provide additional evidence on th© kind of
rhetoric practiced In th© colleges*
Interpretations of th© Period*«*-«»Available studies
dealing with the colleges during the period, and with the
general history of the period, have been consulted*
Other Studies
lh@ rhetorical theory in early America has been
investigated in some of its aspects by two studies which
should be noted here*
The first of these is that of Charles
A* Fritz f The Content of the Teaching of Speech in th©
American College before 1850# with Special Reference to Its
Influence on Current Theories
This study opens with
lengthy analyses of four of th© great classical works on
rhetoric* and th© last half of th© study deals with influences
**on current theories1*; sandwiched between these sections is
a hurried survey of the period of interest In the present
In 1936 Porter $• Perrin reexamined th© teaching of
^(Bhpublished Ph* B* dissertation* school of
Education* Hew York University, 1928)•
Historic In American colleges before 1750#
This excellent
investigation has been helpfully suggestive as to method
and procedure in this study*
Sine© Dr* Perrin focuses his
attention on the teaching of rhetoric, it has been th© purpose
of the present study to supplement his investigation on the
period before 1750 and to carry th© Investigation forward
to 1850#
Flan of Study
This study is presented in four chapters: (1 ) "The
Dominance of the Bhetorie of Style,w covering th© period
from 1635-17301
"fh© Orowth of the Classical Tradition,11
covering the period from 1730-1785| (3)
"Th© Development
of American Hhetorlc, 1786-1850"; and (4)
"Th© Elocution
Movement," wherein this movement is surveyed throughout th©
period of the study in relation to th© findings reported in
the first three chapters*
Porter 0* Perrin, "The Teaching of Hhetorlc in
American College© Before 1750" (^published Ph* D* disser­
tation, Department of English, University of Chicago,
T m m m m m i M op thi m m o n m of
style ,
Altbough several students have given some attention
to the beginnings of American rhetorical theory and speech
training* no systematic and accurate survey from the point
of view of this study is available*
In fact* the literature
gives evidence of many serious ml sappreh ©nsions.
On the one
hand It is reported that "until th© middle of th© eighteenth
century*»**th© study of Aristotle, Cicero, Longinus, and
Quintilian was required of every student,"2* and on the other,
that in speech training there was "surely no more than an
extracurricular interest*"
Not only are these statements
inconsistent, but it happens, if we Interpret their meaning
correctly, that both are erroneous#
Likewise, the popular
conception which is held today of the early rhetorical train­
ing is either that it was almost purely classical, or that
it was no aystemtio training at all*
It will be the purpose of this chapter to present
the factual data which are available on th© rhetorical works
pm Zm
^Donald Hayworth, "The Development of the Training
of Public Speakers in America" Quarterly Journal of smeoh.
XIT (19E8), 490.
used# and the academic discipline in rhetoric# as a basis
for setting out and Interpreting the rhetorical theory and
speech training of this period*
Classical Influence to 1730 \.
fhe Bhfetoric of Aristotle— In spite of the increasing
popularity and influence of Aristotle both in Engl and and on
th® continent during the years in which the colonies were
settled# there is slight evidence of the use of his great
rhetorical work In America* *'ln the library which became th®
nucleus of the first university library# that of John Harvard#
there m s no copy of the Khetorle*^ In the first library in
which it seems that the Bhetoric might have been present#
that of the ”K©w®r©nd and learned Mr* Samuel Lee#” th© list­
ing ”Aristot*fl may refer to th© Rhetoric* Sine© there is a
separate listing of wAristotilis Bthiea” on© might also con­
jecture that ”Aristot#M referred to the collected works of
Again# It might very well mean th© Analytics or
politics*# both better known than the Rhetoric at this time*
vVifhen th© 172$ catalogue of th# library of Harvard College
was prepared# th© college had a 1588 edition of Hlccoboni *s
i»«n .
.n** ^ ,i.i
.. . . .
. . m .-.
m **
n .i.m m n w w * ,** ».- ■■■-
'«■*'*■*— ■*>— n
^WA Catalogue of John Harvard's Library”# with the
works identified by A* C* Potter# is reprinted in th©
Publications of the Colonial society of Massachusetts* XXX#
Library of the Late Reverend, and Learned Mr*
muel L w JltSbllon* I’
fe9&>» 'w» 0* Ford states 'feSat this Is
e^TlrsW^catalogue of books to be published in America (The
Boston Book Market* 1878-1700 {Boston# 1917} # P* S>* Georg©
Siery" 'tl'i’
tief'leSlsays that'1'te© contents show ”what an
educated man had in his library at that time” (Early Boston
Booksellers (Boston# 190Q) * p* 153)*
Latin translation of Aristotl© *s Bhetorlc* as wall as a
complete edition of too groat philosopher1© works*3* There
Is general reference to him in the speech cf a student at
William and Mary delivered in 1699* but althou$i Aristotlo
is mentioned along with Plato as ”The Prince of Philosophers*1*
<v■ it is Cicero who is singled out as ttth© Master of Bethorick#112
In 1V20 the professor of moral philosophy at William and
Mary was William Dawson of Queens College* Oxford* and he
was to teach ^rhetoric logic and ethics**1 and not to be con­
fined to the f*logic and physics of Aristotle* which had
reigned so long alone in the schools*8® This evidence* how­
ever* certainly does not Justify any very confident con­
More specific evidtmce of the use of Aristotle is
not to be found*
The attitude of the colonists toward
Aristotle is probably expressed fairly accurately by Cotton
Mather* when he writes in jslagnalla t
They that peruse the theses of th© batchelors
of later years published* will find that though the
B&me&n discipline be in this college preferred unto the
Aristotelian* yet they do not so confine themselves unto
^Catalogue hlborum Bibliothecae CollegiJ Barvardfni
Quod eat
fora "InillCCIBoston* 1723),
pooches of .Studente of William and Mary delivered
May 1* 1699*8 William and Mary Quarterly* October* 1930*
p* 324? flBy tE®'r"S©Ip'
”©jf' % m r n l Converse with th©
most Bxeelent men of all ages* with th© Sublime Philosopher
Plato* with th© Prince of Philosophers Aristotle* with the
most Christian philosopher Seneca* with Tully the Master of
Bethorick* & unexhausted Fountain© of Eloquence♦•
®X*yon 0* Tyler* The College of william and Mary In
Virginia tBlobmond* Virginia* 190V)* p* 28*
that neither, aa to deprive themselves of that libera
phlloaonhls * which th© good spirits of th© age have
embraced, ever sine© the great Lord Bacon sh.ow,d feia
th© way to "’the advancement of learning1’... • at least,
X am sure, they do not show such a veneration for
Aristotle as la ©mpressed^d at Queens CoXledg© in
Since other evidence of influence ©f or concern
with Aristotle *s Khetorle is lacking, and since there is
definite evidence of emphasis on non-Aristotelian doctrines,
as will he seen by a later examination of th® books studied
and theses defended by students at Harvard and at Yale, the
presumption must be that the work of Aristotle had relatively
little direct Influence on the earliest rhetorical theory of
the colonies• Xhia is probably to be ©xpeeted, however,
sine© Aristotle*© Bhetorjc had not yet attained the powerful
influence in English theory which a succeeding half century
m s to give it.
Perhaps even more significant is th© fact
that the colonists were mmn of the later reformation, which
had become a reaction against th© revival of pagan works as
well as against Catholicism*^
Cicero and the De Oratore.— Although th© orations of
Cicero were widely available from th© very first in the
colonies, and although some of his works were required studies
according to the college laws, there was no requirement of -
^Cotton Mather, Magnalia Christ! Americana {Hartford,
1853, XI, 21.
“ “
%arvin f. Herrick, ftI!h© Early History of Aristotle*s
Hhetorle in England,” Philological Quarterly, V, 242-257.
^Perrin, op. oit»> pp. ©9-74, goes into this point
in some detail.
any or his rhetorical works# and they are not to b© found In
many of the private libraries*
Cicero*s Opera was Included
la the library of John Harvard* and also in the 1723 catalogue
of the Harvard library# but the only privately owned copy of
the jpe Orator© found in the preparation of this study was
that of Increase lather.^ Further support for th© belief
that it was not widely known is found in the pleased surprise
with which Samuel Johnson encountered Cicero1s ”d© Hhetoriea1*
in 1721* and the speed with which he added the remainder of
Cicero*s rhetorical works to his reading list.
By 1743# as
w© shall see# Cicero*© influence was comparatively great* but
for th© earliest period his Influence* Ilk© that of Aristotle*
is slight*
Were there more available material on the earliest
days in the southern colonies this conclusion mi£$it need
modification# for th® speech from William and. Mary quoted
earlier# calling Cicero th© flMaster of Hethorick* M would
seem to indicat© considerable influence* but more specific
evidence has not been found*
►Almost no trace of direct use or influ
ence of Quintilian before 1750 has been found*
Cotton Mather
alludes to th® great Homan teacher in Directions* and Isaiah
Thomas includes a copy of the Xnstltutio Oratorla inscribed
^Julius H* Tuttle* wTh© libraries of the Mathers*”
American Antiquarian Society* Hew Series# XX# 288*
%amuel Johnson# His Career and writings* Edited by
Herbert and Carol Schneider^TWew'yorE#”1929T):
7~I* Appendix*
to th# library of Cotton Mather which ho pro**
seated to- the toerloan teti<$garian Society#^ ‘rhere aoemo *
hftMwre* to h a w born m
eopy of Quintilian in tea l-lomrard
library bofor# 1730* and tm copy tea boon found in any of
the private Mb»rtos emmtecKl*
t o Tala library had re*
aatosd o copy in 1?14# but tear# to certainly no other con*
oluolon justified than teat teo diroot teflwono* of ^iitotlll&n
m * oJaMt nogligi'bl©#
g the first
oontury of i^orlcan eolonlootlon tea educational doctrine
and ®®m® of th# writings of w®t*m B w r anjoyod tromndoua
favor In tea colonies*
On# writer refer# to tea **lsu)aag>&rablo
F* Boms#*1 and a&vtooo M i oollogiot© nephew to *»aka us#
of tea grand. Mr# Swai to droawar# Miotoriefu# togtok#w '
Cotton Mateor w it # # te a t to Howard# *teo Hojssan dtoelpllsia
bo##*« profaw a d unto tea totototaliasu*
Bassoon %vorks on
tooswsor -and Malootla wor# included to Jbhn Howard f« bo<£M*t#
% & # W # d# la Earn## later known by tea tofctoiaod
foteu# Bifflua {toto*13TO}* Dm? of th# m m t helpful Mographtos
to that W Froale F# Oral***
Mafomatton of the Mateonte
w5 ^ i ’>
iifVftririM1 itJ»u: t iif<rtnii|?Bi |Ti|n iiiirn-rfih'ifirt n f r h i m ^ irtirir ^ P i'' 'frnirn " \ f m i "**■
" i “• -1 1 * ' *l* *J,>aMJV * ^ iT r T
%arry Millar and T# H# Johnson*. ^n# Puritans {How
York# 1038), W * 709*710, quoting a latter of Loonara Hoar
written to M s fro-tenan nephew* Joatoh Flynfe# Borah 27, 1661#
and were also In the library or Samuel Lee mentioned earlier*
fhe Harvard library bad in 1723 bis Scholia in 5 prlmas
liberties Arte© in a 1396 edition,
thirteen copies of flRami
Loglea*1 were imported into Boston in 1683*^
fhese two works presented Hamusfs beliefs on rhetoric
in as complete a form as they are to b© found, for Ramus wrote no formal rhetoric a© a separate treatise*
However, if we
are to understand the rhetorical works which were most popular
during the early years of th© American colonies, it is necessary
that we understand the Bamean concepts on which they drew,
%he place and kind of rhetoric favored by Ramus,-Certain concepts are clear in the writings of Ramus, even
though he left no formal rhetoric*
His feeling was that rheto-
rlc was the least important member of th© trivlum, sine© it
is concerned only with ornamenting the ideas given by logic,
and already expressed correctly with the aid of grammar*
investigation, and ©von arrangement, are handed over to logic,
because they pertain to mental processes,
Even the figure©
of thought, according to Bams, are to be included in the
processes of dialectical investigation*
Much of what was
formerly rhetorical doctrine in the classical conception is
imported into logic or dialectic.
Especially is this true
of invention and arrangement*^ Accordingly, rhetoric is left
%ord, op* clt»» p* 131*
%*h© absorption by dialectic of the divisions of
invention and arrangement was typical at this time and earlier*
0* 3* Baldwin, Medieval Rhetoric and Poetic (Hew York, 1928),
presents a survey"’showing this trend in earlier centuries $ see
only th® parte concerned specifically with style and delivery*
Further, Rmis*s antagonism to, and adverse criticism or
Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintilian, tended to put his follow­
ers further from the classical tradition than Ramus himself
m s willing to go#
fhe result of their writings, as we will
see In the following pages, was an increased emphasis on
those figures of speech which are not connected with logic*
fhus, those rhetorical devices used most for amplifying and
developing were left out, and rhetoric became to the Hamlets
truly only the art of using *&ainti® words and comely
deliveries w
Much credit must go to Ramus for his stimulating
Influence on the thought and life of his time, but we can
hardly praise his contribution to rhetorical theory, for, as
we will find, the period of Bamean rhetoric In America was a
period of rhetorical decadence, stressing only trope and
figure, and far from the more active elements which the ancients
had considered the very heart of rhetorical doctrine*^ &
pages 150-182* Dialectic or logic in the time of Ramus was
to a considerable extent a ^rhetorical logic1*j even thou^i
It retained the typical syllogistic doctrine, it contained
much of the material and point in view of the classical
^Foster Watson, ghe Sn&l1ah Grammar Schools to 1660
(Cambridge, 1908}, p* 449 , EiS tEe^FollewIng comnent tamale©
on Ramus? mThe essential merit of Kamus, however, from the
modern point of view, is that he forms th® transition stag©
from th© restriction of composition to classical subjects,
to the widening of Rhetoric to inelud© composition on all
kinds of subjects, a movement which led to th© Inclusion of
Illustrations from th© vernacular*R
char% of Rameau rhetoric appears on th© following page.
Ramean Rhetorics
; Talaoaa.*****Miat might be termed th© ^official11 ~
Ram©an rhetoric * in that Ramus gave it that distinction in
the preface to the work* ia th© text of the great friend
and colleague of Ramus* Omer Talon* or as he ia more usually
known* Audosa&rus TaXaeus#
It seems reasonably certain that -
his Rhetorics was on© of the works used for th© teaching of
rhetoric at early Harvard* and it can b© shown that th© book
had some circulation in th® colonies#
J’ohn Harvard*s bequest
contained a copy* and another was in the library of Increase
A copy which la bound together with Ramus*s
Dialectics and Greek Grammar to make one volume is Inscribed
by Dudley Bradstreet and the date 1694.4
This Is the strong-
®st available evidence for use at Harvard* In that Bradstreet
was graduated In 1698#
It Is also very probable that It is
th© work meant In th® letter of Mr# Hoar when he refers to
th© use of th© *grand Mr# Rams**## in Hhetorique#*
all clues are slight* the work certainly was on© of the first influencing American rhetorical thought#
Richardson*® Logician1a Schoolmaster# which contained much
©f Talaeus *s rhetoric* is know to have been in the colonies
^Audomari Talaei* Rhetorics# ®# P# Kami regli professoris praelectionibus ob¥erva¥a (AntwerpV 1582) #
%arvar& College Records (MSS#)* I* 261#
^Tuttle* op# cit## p* 289#
4Arthur 0 # Horton* "Harvard Text Books and Reference
Books Of th© 17th Century," Publications of th© Colonial
Society of Massachusetts* XXVIII# 424#_________
The following chart will indicate the general scheme
of Ramus*s rhetoric»
Body, head, eyes
Arms, hands, fingers
Graves, op» elt*, p* 158*
as early aa 1685
In spit© of Raima1a statement In the preface that
the Rhetorics contains all of importance that Aristotle,
Isocrates, Cicero, and Quintilian have written on composition,
Tal&eus presents a most abbreviated form of the classical
Ramus*© definition, "Rhetorics cat ars bene
dleendi*’ is followed, as Is his ‘concept that rhetoric should
treat only of style and delivery#*7 Since Talaeus also
agrees with th© Kamean tenet that all of the figure© of
thought which might possibly be connected with the probative
element© of composition should be dealt with only by logic,
there is left to rhetoric only some twenty-five tropes and
These are treated, along with some mention of
verse and pros© rhythms, in about sixty pages, and th© few
remaining pages offer generalised comment on voice and gesture*
While these outlines are reasonably complete and
there are direct references to classical authors, th© Bornean
concept of the place and duty of rhetoric makes th© author
throw particular emphasis on th© ornamental figures of rheto­
ric to the practical exclusion of all else*
Examining th©
book now, we are likely to think it of very little use, but
*C* F* and R* Robinson, "Three Barly Massachusetts
libraries," Publications of the Colonial Society of
%udomari Talaei, op, eft** p* 3 *
^Ibld*, p* 5-6*
in th© ©yea of many contemporary schoolmasters this very
brevity and m m « t d 3 8 of outlook apparently was an ad­
Even #ohn Brinsley, who devoted some time to the
kind of amplification he ©alls winvention, ° recommends it
for school use#1
Eepresenting the rhetorical theories of
the popular Kamus, th© work had long and influential use#
r' William Bu^ard*— Bespit© th© us© and influence of
the work of T&laeus, th© Kamean rhetoric seems to have been
most popularly presented to the colonists through the text of miliam Bug&rd*
Th© work was a digest of Talaeus,
which in turn was representative of Ramus , and although thus
a third-hand Hamas, it was highly recommended,5* and extremely
popular in the colonies#
there is no certain evidence of th© us© of Bug&rd
before 1700 in any of the schools of th© colonies, but so
many copies had been imported earlier, that there is a
strong presumption that it was a school text as early as 1690*4 ^
^laidus liiterarius, or thy Orgaamar School©, edited
with intrS&e¥ion
Csmp&gnae (Xdverpool* 1917), pp* 203-204#
^William Dugard {1606—1662)# He was given his B* A*
by Sussex College, Cambridge, in 1626, his M* A. in 1630*
famous as a teacher, he was master of Stafford School in
1630, Colchester school from 1637 to 1643, and was chosen
head-master of Merchant Taylors school in 1644* Hhetorices
Elements, which was first Issued in 1650, passed ’S S S u ^ ~ ~
seven editions by 1673*
^Charles Boole, A Jew Discovery of the Old Art of
eaching school©, edit•d'TSy'
"1 *J’h'T7"’CS^agnac (Liverpool,
^Horton, on* eit*« p* 366#
Fifteen copies were Imported by Robert Boulter In Boston
In 1682, and the following year ten more copies were lm-»
ported by other booksellers#1
The book Is known to have
been a grammar school text In 1712,
and it was listed in
th© Harvard course of study in 1726#® It was in use at
Harvard in 1743,^ and there is some reason to believe that
it still had some use as late as 1764*® A Yale thesis of
1753 defines rhetoric in the exact language of Dugard, as
do Harvard theses of 1708 and 1720.6
All of these facts would seem to indicate that
Dugard1s work was a standard grammar school text during the
early eighteenth century, and that it had fairly extensive
use in the colleges as well#
Perhaps th© very fact that it
was so popular in the schools may be some explanation of
its scarcity in private libraries, sine© textbooks seem to
*^Ford, op# elt», pp# 126-150*
2K# F* Seybolt, public Schools of Colonial Boston
(Cambridge, 1956), p* 71*
ftmin ^dswgrth*© Book Belating to College
■tutorsT Fiynt and W©1stead#
Holyok© Diaries* 1709-1856* with an Introduction
and AxknotiStS^s b y $ © ^
1911), p# 55* Pro® the diary of Edward Holyoke, September 5,
1745* ”This day our class began Dugan*s Rhetoric#*1 Th©
word MDugann is undoubtedly a misprint for Dugard*
®R# F* Seybolt, “Student Libraries at Harvard,
1763-64*w Publications of the Colonial society of Massachusetts.
XXVI.11, 4m z — TOTTSBblTl"^
claimed by students after the fire of 1764, and so, whether
used at Harvard or not, had been thought useful enough by
some student to merit his bringing it to college with him*
Perrin, op. cit.. p. SO.
hft?® been valued as little for permanent possession then aa
Bhetorlces Element© was first issued in 1650* when Dugard was headmaster of Merchant faylors school#
follows in all respects the Bornean principles* treating th©
figures of speech in some thirty pages* and then demoting
four to delivery**
Dugard follows* he easplains in his
preface* Butlerfs rhetoric*
which he maintains is a great
improvement over falaeus* tmt the improvement seems only in
*S*h® text of Dugard is in catechetical form* and*
as the title advertises* is so arranged that if th© questions
are omitted th© answers will give a complete foundation In
rhetoric for beginners#
A notation from the opening will
give some picture of th© method and scope of the book*
1 * gsuid ,®st Hhetorica?
Rhetorics ©at are ornate <Scendi * ~~“
Quot sunt partes Hh©torIces?
Partes Rhetoric©©
duae sunt I
Following th® definitions there is a list of th©
^William Dugard* Bhetoriees glamenta Quaestionibua
©t Besponsionibus expjioata" IWil;i¥rYr 1ceai^ r% KondiniV' l705 >
%he only copy of Butler found to hav® been in th©
colonies during this period is that listed in th© Harvard
library catalogue of 1723* Mo other evidence of the use or
Influence of Butler has been found* Accordingly* the
doctrine of Butler is not presented her©* His doctrine is
consistently Bemoan* and hi© only contribution is his sug­
gestion ©f the study of English literature* See Watson* op#
oft,a* p* 442* for a discussion of this#
%ugard* op* pit** p* 1 *
R&me&n figures of speech, each Illustrated from Latin
Brief as this treatment of style is* it is
detailed in contrast with the very brief and perfunctory
treatment of delivery which follows#
mis discussion
gives only a few suggestions concerning th© proper ”voice”
for the various parts of an oration* and some general ad~
vice on the movement of the whole body and Its parts#
It can be seen that the book1® only contribution
is concise definitions of the standard Bemoan tropes and
figures# with a minimum of illustrative material#
its contribution to the development of rhetorical theory
must be adjudged slight* it was compact and doubtless useful
to both grammar school and college students*
At any rate,
it represents the rhetorical doctrine taught th© colonists
before 1730 in its most popular form#,
j Vosslus and his Followers
Voasfus *s Rhetoric al Bootrine »<»«*Although the Ham©an ~
concept of, rhetoric was the more powerful in the early
colonies# it had some competition from the great Butch
philosopher* Voss#
and his followers• Vossius
rhetorical work was not widely circulated among the colo-
%©rhard lohann Vossius (1577-1849)* Educated at
the university of Leyden# he was Hector of the high school
at Bort* 1600-1814, and then director of the Ideological
College# Leyden* Appointed professor of Rhetoric and
Chronology, and later Greek, at the University of Leyden#
In 1622* Made Lh*B* at Oxford in 1629* Was professor of
History at the Amsterdam Athenaeum# from 1632 until his
death* His rhetorical writings went through many editions*
the only early records of it which have been found in
the preparation of this study are In th© library of Samuel
X»©@ in 1693*
in the Harvard library in 1724* although there
Is no evidence of its use at Harvard* and in the Yale library
catalogue in 1743* where it is starred as being especially
useful for upper classmen*^ Its period of greatest use ap~ .
pears to come somewhat later than that of the Kamean rhetorics*
Th© copy now in the Harvard library was bought with Hollis
funds during this later period*S
The significant difference between the doctrine
presented by Vossius and that of Hamas is in th© fact that
to Vossius rhetoric was an art much more closely allied to
classical concepts* and a much fuller art than Hams was will­
ing to concede#
Vossius treats mostly of trope and figure*^
but there is a fairly adequate treatment of invention* dispo­
sition* and pronunciation as well*
The work is a storehouse
of classical quotations* illustrating ©very side of th© art
of rhetoric*
Vossins1s views arc
*The library of* *** Samuel Lee* op* eit*
Catalogue of th© _Library of Yale-College in
ffew-Keyen^( l © y h o n d ^
%his information is on the fly-leaf of a copy
in tiie Harvard library*
%er* Jo* Vosail, Blementa Hhetorica oratoriis
ejusdem Partitlonjbus accomo^a,
& * ,'1Inffre usum "scholarum
Kdlta (Xiondinij 1759 j*
most popularly presented, although with changes and omissions,
In th© works of Thomas Farnaby*^ Th© Index was listed Tor sal© by Hobart Chisholm in Boston in 1680*^
“Farnaby Keth"
was in th© library of Samuel Bee In 1693*^ .Phrases oratorio©
©t poetiaaa by F&m&by was listed in the Thomas Weld ©state
at Boadmry, Massachusetts, in 1702* A copy of th© Index
in the Boston Public library is endorsed, *Joseph Bewell his
book©, 1705*"
Bewail was graduated by Harvard in 1707*
Samuel Johnson included It in his reading after college, for
he lists "Farnaby*s Bhetoriok with English examples11 in M s
reading for 1721*
The book was coupled with Dugard in th© ^
Harvard course of study for 1726, th© tutors reporting that
they used ^Bugard*© or Famaby»e Hh©torick*,,
It was listed
■^Thomas F&rnaby (15?5?~1647)• Matriculated at
Oxford, 1690, but soon left to study with Jesuits in Spain*
Yielded to th© lure of adventure, and voyaged with Drake and
Hawkins# Before 1029 Farnaby*s fame as a schoolmaster and
classical scholar was known to all the scholars of Europe,
and from 1630' to 1642 he was In repeated correspondence with
0# j* Vossius* He edited many classical works, and his own
.writings were numerous* The Index Bhe.torlcus was Hirst
issued in 1625, went through many editions, and was revised
to the Index Hhetorleua et. Oratoribus In 1646* Th® notes
which foilldw~'are from fix© liOnddn ©d'ition of 1654*
^Ford, op.......elt«,, p* 85*
^The library of**** Samuel lee, on* cit*
F* Robinson and R* Robinson, op* cit* p* 133*
Johnson, Career and writings* I, Appendix* Th©
edition "with English examples" to which Johnson refers has
not been found in th© preparation of this study*
^Wadsworth, op* cit*# p* 28*
in the Yale catalogue or 1743, and about th© same time
Samuel Johnson wot© of Farnaby as wa valuable author*
prop©* to b© read by students** along with Smith, Quintilian*
Longinus, and others*1
It was another of the books claimed
by students after th© Harvard fire of 1764*
All of these
facts seem to indicate that Farnaby, as Dugard, was one of
th© more popular of the rhetoricians affecting early
American rhetorical thought#
fhe book throughout is more advanced, or at least
more complete, than that of Dugard*
Farnaby *a writings re­
flect his association with Vbssiua, and they are probably
affected also by the Jesuit teaching in th© classical tra­
dition which he had experienced*
Although he is influenced
by the Rameau doctrines, heseems to attempt to incorporate c
them into his own thinking,rather than to adopt them un­
changed • His definition of
rhetoric isnot rtars ornate
diccndi,11 but wf&eultaa de unaquaqu© re dicendi bene, as ad
persuadendum accomodate*
fhe organisation of the work follows the same bent
toward th© classical tradition*
In a schematic form, re­
lying largely on bracketed tables, Farnaby treats of in­
vention, disposition, ©locution, and pronunciation, thus
at least mentioning all of th© orthodox points of classical
&Johnson, Career and ifrltin&e, I, 317#
®$©ybolt, op* olt*, p• 434#
^Farnaby, Index rhetoritms et oratoribus, p# 2 *
rhetoric except meinorla# But when one considers that h© *treats invention in ten pages, and disposition in nine it
can be seen that the discussions are relatively brief eom«*
pared with the emphasis given to these same matters In
classical rhetoric#
The treatment of elocution or style is f
snore detailed, the qualities of language being treated* as
well as the movement of sentences* periods, and rhythms,
and, all of the Ham,©an tropes and figures*
Th© second part of the work is a handbook of compo­
sition with brief advice and specimen phrases and forms to
use In th© various parts of a theme#
Also are included
heads for a commonplace book in which quotations may be
filed for us© In writing and speaking —
four solid pages
of topics aranning from ffAbstinentia, Abusus ** to f*Vultus *
There is frequent reference to classical sources,
and on the whole the book seems vastly superior to Dugard*s
It balances the fields of rhetoric well enough
that it would seem to offer, in the hands of a capable tutor
or scholar, a chance for a rhetoric filled with some of its
^Among th© sources cited by Farnaby are Aristotle,
Hermogenea, Dionysius, Longinus, Aphthoniua, Cicero,
Quintilian, Capella, Trap©suntius, Hamas, L# Vives, Alsted,
Onussinus, Vosslue, and others# Foster wataon calls
Farn&by **on© of the greatest of th© schoolmaster editors of
the classics*1* and this contact with the classical authors
Is obvious, (on* olt*, p* 360)* The Index is called by
Malr in his introduction to Thomas tiIsons na small but
03&e©edingly well^comstrueted book*n (Arte of Hiietorique
COxford, 1909], p* XXX)*
©Xd-bim© vitality#
Its use In the colonies would seem to
indicate however that It was applied much as was Dugard•^
Certainly, there Is little evidence to show that the sketchy treatment© of invention and arrangement influenced practice
in any substantial way#
perhaps the most that can be said
is that it served as a reminder of the full tradition of
rhetoric during a time when the R&mean concept was the more
Miscellaneous Works Available .in the Colonies
vCollection* of formulae#«*-In addition to the sections
which Farnaby devoted to collections of commonplaces and to
formulae for the writing of themes or orations, at least one
other such book was available to the first colonists# fhis
was the Formulae Oratorja© of John Clarke#
The name of
Hathanial Mather {B&rv&rd, I6S&) is written in a 1664 edition
^Eh© phrasing In the Harvard records was 5fHugard *s
or Farnaby*s Rhetoric11 (Italics mine), Wadsworth, op# cit#,
p# 28.
^Donald Lemon Clark, Rhetoric and Poetry in the
Renaissance (Mew York, 1 9 2 2 ) & th© point that
Farnaby1'Ogives a fairly proportional treatment of inventio*
diapoaitio# elocutio, and actio# Memoria he omitsT^followii
'as JeIaewS5re-i uhe ©oun5" leadeFsEEpT’of Vossius.”
^John Clarke, formulae Pretoria© in usum acholarum
eonoonnitae, m m cum mull;X<P0ra
11onibua #
_the date of the 4th edition
as iSSFI^^Walson:'^StggSjftaT th© date of 1627 (op# cit», p*
464)# The edition used for these notes is the London
edition of 1689# Clark (1687-1734) was a schoolmaster and
classical scholar# Be was graduated from Cambridge in
1706*07 and received his M* A# in 1710* Among his works
are several translations of the classical authors*
m m in th© Harvard library.
Another copy in the library, a
1659 edition, has *John Higgins on, 1712” inscribed in it*
IJiggfnson was graduated in 1717*
Twelve copies were sent
to Boston by Robert Coulter in 1602*^
William Adams took a
copy of Clarke to Tale with him. whan returning for hi a second
Other evidences of its use are available#^ All
facts would seem to indicate that it was used extensively
in the grammar schools, and that there was probably some
carry over Into use in the colonial colleges*
Hot so com-*
plot© In th© rhetorical matter as the Index, the book has
even more detailed instructions for composing themes, letters,
and other grttamar school exercises, along with specimens of
the various exercises, and heads for a commonplace book#
^Heferenc© books in rhetoric#*-By reference books is
here meant books available in certain libraries, but almost
surely not used as text books*
Several such reference books -
in rhetoric were listed in the Harvard library catalogue of
There is no evidence, however, to lead one to believe p-
that these works exerted any great influence*
On© might
reasonably expect that such books would be sent to th© colo­
nies by benefactors abroad without much effect on either
side of the ocean*
3-Ford, op* cit* * $>* 98#
®”M©moir of Reverend william Adams,” Massachusetts
Historical Society dQlleotfone * 4th Series, l7 & l
®3ee especially Horton, op* cit*, p. 400*
On© large work which would seem to have been im­
practical for use as a text may have had some influence on
early Harvard students* This work is Be Elocmontla by
Uleolaus Causalnus.
Although it waa not Hated In the
first library catalogue* Indirect evidence would Indicate
that Be BloQuentia was in us® at Harvard before 1650 * Perrin
reports that Jonathan Mitchell1a .notes in Rhetoric for 1647
Included suggested theses for th© commencement program;
three of these theses are attributed by Mitchell to "Causs**”
and most of the notes are also from that author#
Be.Eloquentla is a tremendous volume of more than a f-'1
thousand pages#
It is divided into three parts;
Idea of and Aids to Eloquence;
On th© Parts of Eloquence;
Invention, Disposition# Elocution# Figures# Emotions#
Th© threefold nature of Eloquence;
Ipidietlc# Civil# Sacred*
Besides a treatment of eloquence in general there
ar® compendium schemes of quotation and Illustration#
of laudation and interpretations are taken from the old Creek
and Roman authors*
Those in civil eloquence include quo*
tatlons from Herodotus# Livy* and other similar writers#
Those from sacred eloquence give an opportunity to quote
the early fathers#
*j#e Eloqnentia sacra et humane libri xvl (London#
1651)* mere is"seS'llr^ © s ¥ ^ ^
publication# but it seems to have been as early as 1650#
%errin# op* cit** Appendix B#
The book is much too large to be a school manual,
but it seems to have provided much of the earliest study
material in rhetoric at Harvard#
Teachers abroad, such as
Home, Boole, and Farnaby, all found it attractive because
of th© extraordinary wealth of Illustration which it con­
Other reference works available include Augustinefs
Opera in a Baris edition of 1037, Caesarli1 Hhetorlca in a
Colon edition of 1534, Tesmarif Bxercitationum Khetorlcum
in an Amstelod edition of 1657, and Trapesuntlus* Khetorlcum
in a london edition of 1047, but no evidence of their
influence or of their us® by the early colonists has been
^ Hhetorlca of the Scriptures#— The particular form
of the rhetoric of trope and figure which Perrin has termed
the wrhetorics of the scriptures” was quite popular among
th© deeply reverent colonists*
All of these works were with­
in th© Earn©an tradition, and all were substantially alike ••
illustrating the elaborated list of th© figures of academic
rhetoric with quotations from th© Bible*
The first of these works known to be in the colonies
^Watson, on# cit*# p# 446#
^Catalogue#*** Barvardial* 1723*
is Henry p©&cham9s Garden of Eloqueuee.
It was among the
books Included in John Harvard’s bequest, and since it was
among the earliest of th© English rhetorics to be Illustrated
largely from th© scriptures, it was assured a welcome In
clerical Hew England# sj
Xn apit© of the ornate title, th© detail and
division of figure, and. Feaeiiam’s own effort to bedeck hi©
writing with nflowers” and Bcolours,” the work haa more to
offer than the Samean rhetorics#
Rhetoric’s place in
persuasion is seen, since It must serve to combine wisdom
and eloquence,* and Feacham1© figures of sentence or affection
as well as many of the figures of amplification, contain
much that lie® close to the doctrine in classical Invention#
The organisation in each case is to define the figure, give
examples of it, and then to discuss its use and to suggest
cautions against faulty usage*
On© might theorise as to th© importance of this
treatment on succeeding writers, but th© greatest contribution
mad© by Feacham is probably his us© of the scriptures for
Certainly this manner of Illustration gave
rhetoric more prestige with th© colonists than any other
*^Flrst printed, London, 1577. A much enlarged and
revised edition was published In 1595* potter, in his
Catalogue of lohn Harvardfg Library, op* cit., Indicates the
edition of 1577 as the' on© included in the Harvard bequest*
%iem*y Fe&cbam, The Garden of Eloquence (London,
1593), epistl© dedicatorJe^ ! ’
%bid*, ppm 110-199.
treatment might have given it#
Probably the most popular of the rhetorics of the
scriptures was that of Xokn Smith#I Ten copies were imported
by a Boston bookseller In 1685, and there are frequent
references to the work in early colonial writings.
As late
as the middle of the 18th century it was highly recommended
Samuel Johnson,^ and It was in the
Boylston Professor of Rhetoric
libraryof the second
and Oratory atHarvard at the
time of his death*^
The book offers little that is unusual other than
the number of figures treated — upward of one hundred and
Much i*ellance is placed on F&raaby for terms and
examples, but many Illustrations are taken from the scriptures#
Ho effort is mad® to consider any other field of rhetoric
than elocutio, or style*
Th© author*® introduction serves to characterise
the work very adequately?
Hhetorique, or th© Art of eloquentand delight­
ful speaking} derived from (rheo} loquor,to speak, and
(■Vic^^^as) artificial!ter, artificially* Bhetoriqu®
Is a faculty by which we understand what will serve our
turn concerning anj subject to win belief in the hear or s
hereby likewise the end of discourse is set forward,
to wit, the affecting of the heart with the sense of
th© matter in mind*
%*h© Myaterle of Rhetor!qae Unveil *d (London, 1665) *
%ord, op# olt*j p* 126*
Johnson, Career and writings, I, 317*
gata.i©gue of the Select Library of the late Rev
It hath two parte, vig*
Garnishing of speech, called Elocution*
2* Garnishing of the manner of utterance,
©ailed irontmglatlon (which this treatise is not
princ ipa33Fa£Se3Ta^) *
Elocution, or the garnishing of speech, is
the first and principal part of Khetoriqu©, whereby
the speech Itself is beautified and made fines And
this Is either
fee fine manner of words called a Tropes
tee fine shape ©r frame of speech, called a
Other rhetorics of this type might be mentioned,^
but these two are representative, and Smith *s seems to have ■
been th© only scriptural rhetoric attaining wide dissemination*
Carrying forward the doctrine of trope and figure, the works
were also Important factors in the transfer of rhetoric to
the vernacular, for unlike th© other texts we have mentioned,
these works were in English*
tec rhetoric of declamation ^ The doctrine of
declamatio was -also carried into th© colonies during this
earliest period*
The 1723 Harvard library catalogue lists
the Orator of Alexander Silvayn, and the Declamationes of
These are collections of declamations, which th©
authors feel, as did th© 19th century elocutionists, if
1Smlfch, oft, cit,. p, 1,
^Bartholemew westhemer *s froporvm* Scben&torum* &e
aacrorum liber (Basle, 1561), is lasted in tlie Harvard
catalogue or 1723, as is Hobert Boyle fs Considerations on
the Style of the Holy Scfinturea (London, 1668)*
practiced enough toy students will make them effective speakers •
The preface of sllvayn*3 work illustrates the point of view
taken toy tooth works , and th© rhetorical doctrine they pre­
He offers to his readers
••«certain© Bhethorieall Declamations, the use
whereof in ©uery member of our Commonweal©, is
as necessary, a® the abuse of wilfull ignorance
is odiua. In these thou stalest learne Khethorick®
to inforce a good cause, and art to impugn© an
ill* In these thou maleat toehold the fruits and
flowers of Eloquence, which as fully saleth in
his oratorA Ben© constitute© ciui'tatiss1
'eat quasi
>i:|ggiSBTO ao they' profit good 'reader'*"
and accept them with as good a mind as I present
them with a vertuous intent *3This is the extent of the rhetorical advice given,
and th© hundred declamations include most of the standard
situations, ranging from the story of the two girls ravished
toy th© same man on th© same night, to the interesting situ-*
ation of th© Jew, nwho would for his debt have a pound of
the flesh of a Christian*11
Speech science*— One of the earliest inquiries Into th© scientific nature of speech was also in th© colonies,
John Vlinthrop receiving from th© Koyai Society of London in -
3»*ghe Oratory Handling a hundred seuerall Discourses*
in forme o5P*I)ec^
Som©“oF'"the'' Argument s'toeing
Satm©'from Titu® Llulh's &' o^er a^
, th© rest
at the' ’
Author'*'®" owne inu¥nS'onV''rpar'F"o?' Wlchare of
jjatFor'Happened" In ‘
"our""Hlgo,' Englished toy 'L7 ‘
p« (l7ondon,
3Lfe§6')*rJ'For a discusiTon^of the authorship see J* Fred
McGrew (WA Bibliography of th© works on speech Composition
in England during th© 16th and 17th Centuries,1* quarterly
Journal of Speech, XV [1929} , pp* 387-388)*
1670 & copy of William Holders* Elements of Speech#**’ The
hook was a forerunner of many of the later works In pho- netles, for It makes a strong attempt to popularize a pho*
netic alphabet, suggesting that the us© of a universal
sound alphabet would Simplify all teaching, and that such
an alphabet is absolutely necessary in training the deaf to
Th© material is interesting, and undoubtedly sig­
nificant for the historian in voice science, but the single
copy found in th© preparation of this study would not seem
to indicate important influence in the colonies*
ffihetorle in the Colleges
Further information on the development of rhetorical
theory in America is to be found in an examination of the
college requirements In rhetoric*
From the earliest be- -
ginnings of education in the colonies, there seems to have
been a place provided for rhetorical theory and practice*
The first laws of Harvard dollege made provision for rhe- torical study and practice*
Friday was devoted to rhetorical-
studies, and it was further provided that "every schollar***#
declaim© once a men©th**1 Of not© also is the item in th©
^William Holders, The Elements of Speech g an essay
Of inquiry into the iiatwaj^PTOlucB^on of letters, \vjth~~an
^tM&^ix^eonoerniiigj: persons Peaf and Dumb ‘
(jjSndon* 1669')'♦
TO©" oooJc' was aent m K p
ibV liffls of th© society for
certain items which he had sent to London ("Correspondence
of th© Founders of th© Royal Society with Gov* winthrop of
Connecticut*" Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings*
1st series, XVl7~WTT~
% e w England*© First Fruits (1643), reprinted in
Massachusetts Historical Society Collections* 1st aerlos*
I, 246*
"The Schollars shall never use the modi ©r Tongue
except that In publish Exercises of Oratory* or such like
they bee called to make them in English*n Thus there was
provided regular rhetorical study* in Latin* and provision
was mad® Tor practice in declamation* also in Latin* while —
any speaking in English was considered exceptional*
reason for the type of rhetoric studied* the rhetoric de­
voted to trop® and figure above all else* may thus b© seen*
It must have been no small task to teach the colonists
correct and polished Latin* one of the prime objectives of
the colleges for many years*
It was for this purpose that -
the rhetoric of trope and figure had much to offer in its
relation to th© study of "grammar** th© ancient languages*
and literature*
The cultured class was trying to perpetuate
Latin as Its peculiar tongue* sine© it was still a necessary
tool for reaching the stock of past learning* and the mark
of an educated man*
Bhetoric is seen subservient to this -
purpose all during this fSLrat period In -American rhetorical
Similar rules and requirements were published In the
college lews of Harvard in 1655*8 and as lat© as 1726 th©
laws of Xale had the sam© requirement* that "no scholar
shall use ye engllsh tongue in ye Colledg© with his fellow
scholars unless he be Called to publick exercise proper to
harvard College Records* III* 20*
%*he hawea of the Colledg© published publiquely
before th© Students ofHarvard Coiledge* Mfcy 4* 1655*
be atbented in y© English tongue* ^
”Bh©torlcke, Oratory,
and Divinity** were required all through the courses of the
colleges founded before 1730, but the rhetoric was always
a rhetorie of Latin*
Late in th© period there is some evidence of a grow­
ing student interest in ©peaking.
At Harvard in 1719 the
Spy Club was organized for student speaking practice*
requirement that all speaking among the scholars should be
carried on in Latin was almost impossible to enforce*
Students were increasingly reluctant to take part in the
scheduled declamation® in Latin, while they voluntarily
formed a club to gain speaking practice in English*
stag© was being set for & rhetoric less concerned with
ornamentation, and more \?ith persuasion*
Rhetorical Theses
l*urther evidence of the kind of rhetoric favored
in the colonies is to be found by an examination of the
rhetorical theses defended by the graduates of the colleges
in public commencement exercises*
nHhetorica est ars ornate dicendi1* is th© standard
definition for rhetoric all through the period under dig-
^Eeprlnted in Dexter, op* cit*, I, 347*
% * Em Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard
(Cambridge, 1936), p* 86*
^Complaints on the part of the trustees grow more
and more frequent, and there ar© frequent fines levied for
failure to participate*
euasion*1 Ther© are slight variations, but all or the
definitions made of rhetoric suggest strongly that the
rhetoric taught was preoccupied with style to the practical
exclusion of all else, although a few theses, ©speciallyafter 1720, foreshadow a change that comes with contact with
works In the classical tradition.
These are noted further
in Chapter XX*
Before 1720 there are only nine theses which are in |
conflict with Kamean doctrines*
The Harvard thesis of 1717, j
which states that affairs of the forum ar© the object of
rhetoric, is one of the first to see th© object of rhetoric
as persuasive and practical speech rather than elegant
language* Such topics become more and more frequent as th© j
shift away from Hameanlsm becomes more distinct.
Only on©
earlier thesis, "The function of rhetoric is to apply th©
offerings of reason to th© imagination,11 presents a radi­
cally different point of view from that of Baums*
The most
popular early rhetorical text® were devoted to trop© and
figure, and the rhetorical theses lead us to the same con­
Bhetoric to th© colonists before 1730 is predomi- -
nately th© art of ornamenting speech, and its parts are
*4*his is the exact wording of Harvard theses of
1708, 1720, and a Xal© thesis of 1733, and it is echoed
in dozens of others*
%arvard, 1878* This is, of course, Francis
Bacon*® definition of rhetoric*
elocutlo and pronu3atlat3.©»^,
Influence of Bn&lish Hhotorlcal Theory
An examination of critical studies of English “
rhetoricians or of English rhetorical theory during this
same period will reveal many of the same Influences and
emphases that we have found in American rhetorical theory
and. practice*
During the same period In England the great
stress Seems to have been on style and delivery* Just as
in America; the emphasis in the study of style was in
England also the study of th® us© of tropes and figures*
fher® was no very extensive use of the classical works* al­
though there was the same growing interest in writings which
were to lead to the revival of the classics during succeed­
ing periods*
It seems fair to say that trends In colonial
rhetoric wer© essentially similar to those In England during
th© same period*
On© difference might b© noted*
Many writers on the
development of English rhetorical theory stress the eontribution mad© by Cox and Wilson#
$h© outstanding fact in
regard to the Influence of these writers to the colonists
^fhe first thesis to contain an explicit statement
of more than two parts to rhetoric does not come until 1748#
Bee the first Harvard thesis of 1748* All of the theses
available are reprinted in Appendix A* and for a more de­
tailed study of those prior to 1750 see Perrin* op* cit#,
pp# 42*67* and Ibid#, Chapter 4*
' *
%,©onard Cox* Art© or draft© of Bhetoryke* 'Phis
work was the first EngKsE^SieYorlo^and^ws^published In 1524#
&Qp, cit* First date of publication was 1553*
would seem to bo that they made no contribution*
No record
has been found in any library, public or private, which
would indicate that either of these works was even in th©
colonies before 1730*1
^Discussions of Bnglish rhetoric and rhetorical
theory isdxieh would seem to Indicate this similarity includes
W* 0* Crane, Wit and Ehetorlc in the Renaissance (New York,
1937), pp#
'John'"Ho^MnsV'"'directions for
gpeech and Style, edited by Hoyt H. Hudson~{Princeton, 1936),
IntroductionJ Watson, op* oft,, pp* 86*98, 440*467*
of the Period
There As almost no Indication of direct Influ-
once by classical rhetoricians on early American rhetorical
Irate in the,period under discussion there are signs
of growing Interest,In the classical doctrines* but these
do not become important until after 1730, and so are more
properly treated in th© chapter to follow*
{2) the strongest influence operating on early
American rhetorical theory is contained in the educational
beliefs of Peter Bamus, and ©impressed to the colonists most
popularly and directly through th© works of Talaeus and
Indirectly It Is fostered by th© other rhetorics
of trope and figure, which* although not always Bamean,
carried forward the doctrine of rhetoric as th© art of oma-*
menting speech*
Its parts ar© two* elocutlo and pronuntlatio
with the strong influence on trope and figure*
Of secondary Influence is the doctrine of
Vossius, presented most popularly to th© colonists by Thomas
The popularity of Farnaby*s work* however, did
not Indicate an adoption of all of its principles.
Inclusion of invention and disposition as parts of rhetoric
is not followed in any rhetorical thesis defended by a
colonial student before 1730, and his book was in at least
on© college used interchangeably with th© Ham©an Dugard*
Several books, such as Trapezuntlusfs
Bhetoricum, referred to in this study as reference works,
were In the colonies, hut no evidence has been found to
indicate that they
able influence*
widely used on exerted any consider­
Some collections of declamations, common-
place books, and formula© were also available*
Rhetoric was an established subject in the
first colonial colleges, wh©r© it© greatest use may well
have been to give training in th© use of Latin*
In any
event, It was th© rhetoric of style and delivery studied
In Latin and, except on rare occasions, practiced in Latin*
Rhetorical theses defended by students in the
colleges show an almost complete adoption of th© Bamean con­
cept as to the place and kind of rhetoric most suitable*
trends and enchases in colonial rhetoric were
essentially the same as those in England during th© same
9fnwMpUrA-42!iJE4 JL'JU
m o m m of cte classical tkadimom, i750-XY85
Sio transition
Some years before the general Interest in rhetoric
took anything resembling a classical turn* there ims evi­
dence of interest in a fallen and more complete rhetoric
than that offered by Ramus and his followers#
We have
noted some indications of the growth of this wider con­
ception In th© previous chapter#
Early in the eighteenth —
century there are several signs of us© of a very different
and, for the time, unusual book, th© Port Royal Art of
fi /
1 has in­
Speaking#1 A copy now in the Harvard libraryv
scribed In it, wB&ward Wigglesworth, 1716# * WIgglesworth
was graduated by Harvard in 1712*
In 1720 a copy of th©
Port Royal rhetoric was in th© library of th© Hew England
Samuel Johnson read it In 1722 and wished for a
better edition some twenty years later*^ Gotten Mather
recommended it for study in 1726*
Johnson commended it foal
^•Messieurs Du Port Royal, fb© Art of Speaking
In French by. Messieurs. Du forFlC6yaI7 In pursuance
" SSOjp IfoondS
^Elisabeth G* Cook, Literary Influences in Colonial
{Hew Tork, 1 9 1 2 ) p* 2l*
and Writings » I, 111*
, p. 55*
student® In 1748#
and he recommended it to Franklin for
use in his "English Seliool" in Philadelphia•g
Although the Port Boyal work was dismissed by one
student of American rhetorleal training as a "pious but
singularly persuasive work#11 the Art of apeaklnp has large
importance, not only because it presages a shift in emphasis
that m s to revolutionise American rhetoric, but because of
Its solid worth as a rhetorical document*
©he Art of jgfeeaking is In reality two books bound into one — * an "Art of Speaking* and an "Art of Persuasion# *
$h® first section or book treats of rudimentary voice science
and style, and the second# in method and in material, is
influenced by the classical tradition, especially Cicero#
©he "Art of Speaking" opens with a discussion of the
formation of the organs of speech# and there is some con*
jecture as to the origin and development of speech*
on grammar and vocabulary follow#
By far th® largest
portion is a consideration of trope and figure#
Bo language
is versatile enough as constructed# say the authors# and
nine tropes are discussed as principal*
©here Is further
discussion of th® trope® as required by the passions#
and Writings* II# 317*
%lbert Henry $mith# ©he Writings of Benjamin
franklin (Sew ©ork* 1905) # XIX# footnote to p. 29#
^Porter Perrin, op* cit*, p# 86* In fairness to
Mr* Perrin it should be pointed out that he spends some
time in a later chapter examining similarities between many
Harvard the®®® of th® year® 1720*1745 and dicta In the Port
Koyal work# but he does not analyse th© rhetorical
doctrine in the Art of
to this time the discussion has been much the
same a® that in other rhetorics of style#
In part four of
this first volume cornea the most significant material yet
To possess a good style, the orator must have
true eloquence* and for this true eloquence the speaker must
•♦••capacity to discover abundantly all that can
be said on a subject;**#*vivacity, that strikes
immediately into tilings* and rummages them to the
bottom# •• •exactness of judgment , and that will
serve to regulate both the other qualities #1
Although not mixoh advice is given here as to how
these qualities are to b© developed* the turn is clearly in —
th© direction of a rhetoric which believes that eloquence
arises from sometiling to say as well as from the form in.
which It is said*
The remainder of the book treats of style, dividing
th© kinds of style into lofty, plain, and middle, andstress­
ing the need for wise adaptation to th© audience andto th©
The reader is never allowed to forget, moreover,
that although one#s style should be ornamental, this is
never th© end of style*
lather* th© best stylo is always *o
subservient to the end of the speech*
It is the second volume of th© Fort Eoyal work, th©
Iport Boyal, ,pp» cit*, "Th© Art of Speaking," p# 213#
S%bid*, pp# 218-266# It Is interesting to not©
that In this section of the Fort Boyal work there is some
discussion of the style of the historian and of the poet
in distinct treatments* Thes© discussions become very de­
tailed In later works on the belles-lettres #
"Art of Persuasion** that la most interesting to us however*
for it foreshadows the rapid turn to the classical tradition
which Is to follow#
The Art of persuasion consists of five parts*
The first i®7~ invenSon’
'of Proper Means$ the second
Is, Msposition of those means: the third is.
Elocution t
the fourth, Memoryi the fifth*Fro*
This division of the parts of rhetoric is far from
the Kamean doctrines, and to the students nurtured on .Dugard
or even Farn&by, the rest of the work offers a clear point*
ing of the way
back to the concept of rhetoric as an active
art, concerned
with th© moving and influencingof men*
is a fairly detailed treatment of Invention*
with a consideration of the topics which is taken especially
from Cicero*
The orator Is thought of in th© Ciceronian
manner too, fori
•**«11 is of importance that an Auditory has an
©steam for the person who speaks#*** Wherefore
in an Orator these four Qualities ar© ©specially
requisite*"Probity* Prudence, Civility, and
After some later discussion of methods by which the audience
can be made to yield their mind® to the orator, the same
point is mad© anew#
**fh© qualities that we have show*& to
be necessary in an Orator, ought not to b© counterfeit**^*
^jbld*, *Th© Art of persuasion,” p* 268*
pp. 268-281.
, pp. 283-284.
4»ld., p. 295.
fhua 1® ethfes Joined be logical argument as one of the available means of persuasion*
ffo© third chapter on invention adds pathos to the —
treatment* for It deals with the means by which the emotions
may be touched in order to secure response#
Its stress Is
constantly that It is not enough to produce good arguments*
not enough to deliver them with, clearness
the successful
orator must he able to secure and hold attention*^*
bhder arrangement, the part's of the speech are listed as the Bacordium* Proposition, Narration, Proofs, Refutation*
and the Epilogue, and the treatment is in the Homan tradition
Style is dismissed with only a reference to the
earlier work bound -in the same volume, the wArt of
Speaking*** Memory la dismissed with the statements
the world knows it is a gift of Mature* not to be Improved
by anything but exercise*”
Only two pages of discussion are given to delivery,
although there la sharp stress on the importance which It
must have to the orator*
Pronunciation Is of such advantage to
Orator, that it deserves to be treated on at
large| for there is a Ihetorick in the eye, the
motion and air of the Body, that persuades as
much as Arguments**** Every passion has Its
peculiar gesture, Its peculiar mien©, which if
good or bad, makes a good or bad™ Orator»• ••and
the pain® that we take to pronounce things
well, will neither be vain nor unprofitable*
biSMi* PI>« 302-304.
%Sia»» p. 323.
But In Books 02? Writing It vd.ll bo more vain* Rules
for Pronunciation cannot bo well taught# but by
Experience and Practice*!
Thus In these two t/orks which make up the Port
Royal Rhetoric there is elementary voice science# grammar#
and vocabulary building# plus a specialised treatment of
the art of moving men’s minds# of discovering ”ln a given
case* the available means of persuasion#” Here was a new
concept of rhetoric for the colonial scholar# and we find
it a keystone in the bridge between the abbreviated rhetoric
of the early period and the full classical approach which
was soon to become dominant*
The Classical Rhetorics during the Period
Ariatot^e***Xn spite of the increased influence of —
the Aristotelian doctrines# there is almost as little evidence
of the direct use of Aristotle in this period as in the
period 5ust preceding it*
This is not unusual# however# in
that the newer works filled the place that the Rhetoric might
otherwise have been expected to hold*
Aristotle’s ftpera was offered for sale by a Hew York
book seller in 1755*^ The manuscript charging record of the
hbi&t, pp. 325-324.
%errin# op* eit** pp* 113*114# gives some indication
of the impact of the*Jport Royal work on Harvard students*
% Oatalogue of Books in History* Divinity, Law*
Arts and'g o j e h o o * ' "severiLl"pigirts of Polite Literature 1
Harvard library shows that the
was drawn twice in H762#
Of course, this m y h a w been for an ©deamination of any of
the Aristotelian writings contained then©in*
one© I® found to the Bhstorie in 1782 however*
specific reform
The Brown
library catalogue of that year, a manuscript thought to bo
in President Manningfs handwriting* records uAriatoties de
Arte Hhetoriea*** Additions to this catalogue* penned in
1704* include r*Aristotle upon Rhetoric*”
Ho further evidence of use of Aristotle during the
period has been found*
dince almost all of the college
libraries of a slightly later period contained the work,
however, it is to be assumed that the Rhetoric was at least —
easily available in the colonies some time after 1750*
Oioero**»~Ferhaps because of the tntex*est in Cicero as an orator#1 perhaps because of the increased emphasis on
' * v ■...
batin rather than on Creek
A&tever the cause, Cicero*® -
Be Orator© became one of the most popular works on speech in
the colonies*
The Yale library catalogue of 1743 starred
the work as especially useful for upperclassmen, and there
were **6 dupl*” copies*
The Orator was listed on almost every
charging list of the Harvard library from 1702 on through
A manuscript catalogue of books in the Harvard library
In 1765 includes Guthrie *s translation of the PeOratore*
*Th© college laws of all of the colonial colleges
required the study of Cicero1® orations, and other writings
of his were frequently listed in the laws*
This translation was first published in London In 1742*
Guthrie translation was also listed in the 1767 catalogue of
the Philadelphia Library Company*
Student claims were filed
for this translation after the fire of 1763 at Harvard*
was listed in the Brown course of study given by Bolomon
Browne in 1772*
Two copies of the Be Orator© were in the
library of Col* iftu Byrd in Virginia# when a catalogue of
that library was prepared about 1777*^
President stiles1
Diary lists it in the Yale course of study in 17S1*4
It is
included in the Brown manuscript catalogue of 1782 cited
earlier# but its us© there may have been as material for the
study of Detin# for its listing in the Brown laws of 1783
is among the works such a© Caesar fs Commentaries rather than
with the works on Rhetoric * A similar listing with Latin
works studied is given at Harvard in 1787*
It would b©
futile to attest to establish a direct rhetorical influence
from these two listings# but they do indicate the popularity
of the Ciceronian work*
Directly and indirectly# the rhe~
•LSeyb©lt, op. clt., p. 454.
2W* 0* Bronson* fhe History of Brown University*
^The Writings of tfCol* Wm* Byrd of Whatever in
Veneer Bassett tlfi^lfork*
lCOlj* Appendix A*
^Letters and Hauers of&gra Btiles* edited by
Isabel 8* CalSer HSw Saven*"l§^)V"""p*148*
^Bronson* op* clt.» p. 105.
^Records of Overaaega (MSS.), ill, 350-551.
topical doctrine of Cleero exerted ever Increasing influence
on colonial thought*
^lntllian»--There seems to have been fairly wide*
spread use of Quintilian also*
library in 1743*
Two copies wore in the Yale ^
*Select parts11 were studied at the Universi­
ty of Pennsylvania in 1756*^ It is listed frequently on the
Harvard charging records from 1768 to 1770, and a translation
by Guthrie was listed in a select catalogue of volumes in
frequent use which was published by Harvard in 1773*
Selected parts were also studied at Washington College in
Maryland in 1785*^
Mention might also be made of the use of John Constable*® Reflections on Accuracy of S t y l e which was an
attempt to present in Bngli&h the doctrines of Quintilian*
*£his book was in the Harvard library by 1765, and was also
In the delected Catalogue of 1773*
fhus It can be seen that there was increased use of
the classical rhetorical works during the late eighteenth
*+ M* Montgomery, A History of the diversity of
“ >om. its f oundS^foh^'S5 ^ F nS ^ ^ MrrfMi^£S©tohia*
'* PP ♦
' " ni'r
.... ... Catalogue of Harvard, College {Boston,
1773.)* It XiTlHtiiisang
note" "&ST weli^'that when various
libraries were "sequestered5* during the revolution,
Quintilian was included to at least two (Harvard College
Papera L»S8«1 *
to the
am Parker, An Account of Washington College
, 1784),p. 4l.
edition eMmined was a hondon edition of 1781#
&$ W0 shall find In following pages, this was
accompanied by a great interest in those rhetorical works
wltten In England which followed the classical tradition*
Imported feeboric® in the Classical Tradition
411 of fee rhetorics In use In the colonies at this time, were imported and the*greet majority of these were
English In origin*
$he first work displaying a strong classic
cel Influence we h a w already surveyed* fee French Art of —
or fort Royal Rhetoric*
bland*«**fee of the first English rhetorics "
attempting fee full classical doetrine to find circulation
in fee colonies was feat of CTohn Brightland* Tho first
record found of it in fee colonies was in fee catalogue of
the Library Company of Philadelphia which was published In 1721*
the felon Library Company (Philadelphia) catalogue
also listed fee work in 1765*
Ho other evidence of us® has
been found*
Since fee book attempt® to cover many fields* as can
%*h® cosrparltlve popularity of Cicero and Quintilian*
as contrasted to Aristotle* may have been due to several
factors* One is fee later recovery tote of fee Rhetoric and
its consequent lag in all countries In familiarx'Sy’^and
Influence* *feen, too* Aristotle is more philosophical than
either Cicero or Quintilian* Most important of all, for
Cicero at least, was hi® tremendous popularity as an orator,
and fee prestige gained through the study of his orations*
0raMniSir of fee English Tongsue* with fee Arts of
e¥g71 ' ^
S a no'teslop
thisdls cussion were taken from fee 9th edition, London,
be seen from its title* th© treatment of rhetoric la necess&rily brief*
In spite of itz brevity* however# it is re­
markably complete#
Th© preface gives a clear idea of the
kind of rhetoric favored by Brightland i
The General Hhefcorica of the Schools in
England meddle only 9135TTiHS~Tropes and Figures
orWorda and .Sentences* but neglect th© Culti­
vation of a young Invention#*** By her© using
Youth early to a Methodical Invention* Exorcise
and Time will give a Beadiness and Facility In
seeing what all Subjects will afford of Use to
persuasion* which a Mind unused to that way of
thinking* will not easily find out*'**
The discussion of Invention is, although a bare out**
line* almost Identical In organisation and content with th©
Aristotelian discussion* and th© definition of rhetoric is
also Aristotelian? 11Bh©tori© is the Faculty of discovering
what ©very Subject affords of use to Persuasion*** Ar­
rangement and Elocution are also discussed briefly* but
although Pronunciation is listed as one of the divisions of
rhetoric, it Is not treated*
The book does not contribute much to rhetorical
theory# but it does indicate th© growth of Interest in a
rhetoric of persuasion in America*
Other works presenting a
more complete treatment of the classical theories were soon
to follow*
Eoliin»— Another of the early works which contained -
3»lbld* * p* X*
^Sbia., p.
discussion of rhetori© was that of Charles Kollin#1
first evidence of its use In the colonies is its listing in th® 1721 catalogue of the
of Philadelphia#
Library Company
It was road in 1735 by Samuel Johnson#
In 1755 it was
offered for sal© fey $&rrat Noel in Now York*® and by William
Bradford in Philadelphia»
Bradford also listed the work in
his catalogues for 1760 and 1760# although this may indicate
failure to sell the copy offered in 1755 rather than new
On the other hand# popularity of the work over the
whole colonies might indicate new copies#
Th® work seemed to have some currency in the colleges
as well as in private libraries*
A copy now In the Harvard
library was acquired by them In 1768*
fhe book was listed
by Joseph Bussell (Brown# 1772) as on® of those studied by
him in 1771#
It seems to have been one of the works con**
suited by th© members of the Harvard Speaking Club during
1The Method of Teaching and Studying the Belles
Iiettress or*' an^^radn^Ton ^o’
'lSnSuages#'' Poetry, "SEetoric*
« 5 f 5 i # r m f e a T m o 0 y 1g . T E n S f S T S G i 7 f
f S S ' -------
edition# B^ihbSgh# jW 59)'* Book'the Third# Volume II con­
tains the matter on rhetoric* Bollings work also provides
almost two-thirds of the matter contained in the anonymous
,gtot-oriei or the Principles of Oratory Delineated (London#
gareer and Writings * Appendix*
A Catalogue of Books*«»*3oXd by garrat Noel* Book­
seller in"mloc^Btr®e!tl*r'y©W TOricV'opr»rcltZ
^Books just imported from London# and to be sold by
ffia# B r a d l b r d # s h o p * adjoining the London Coffee-House
Th© Pennsylvania*
SSsSorTcSSL Bociety lists the catalogue with works printed In
®H* B* Van Hoessen# The Brown University Library
(Providence# 1938)# pp* 00*61#
th© decade*** from 1770 to 1780*
Kollin*a work was listed
In th© catalogue ©f the library of Colonel William Byrd
prepared about 1777# and
Imported for sale by Henry
Knox in Boston In 1773*
Thus the book was widely circulated
and easily available In public or private libraries*
Bollln# although drawing freely from classical _
sources# does not present a balanced rhetorical work*
own first precept tells his readers that# *The best way to
learn Bhetoric would be to Imbibe it at the fountain head# X
mean# from Aristotle# Blonyslus Ealicanarsaus# Longinus*
Cicero# and Quintilian**" but Hollin#s emphasis is quite
different from their*s*
He uses his classical sources* es­
pecially Quintilian# to conclude that the reading of authors
Is th© beat way to learn rhetoric*
Accordingly# some three
hundred pages are devoted to the reading and explaining of
the literary works of contemporary writers*
Pew orators or
orations are included*
The plan Kollin uses encourages a thoughtful imi­
tation of the best materials found in the authors studied#
and a reliance on learning by pure absorption from good models*
Ho rhetorical advice of a specific sort is given* ^
^Albert 0oodhu©* nTh© Heading of Harvard Students*
1770-1781# as shown by the Records of the Speaking Club#n
Essex Institute* Historical Collections* 1937* p* 124*
%ollin, op» cit., II,
^Xbid», p* 2*
F®nelon*-»™A French work which was primarily critical—
in Its nature and influenced strongly by Longinus as well as
by Aristotle* Cicero* and (Quintilian was that of Francois
It was road by Samuel Johnson in 1741* and was in ^
each of the Society libraries in Philadelphia by 1765#
work was also listed In the Harvard Selected Catalogue in
American editions of the work were published in Boston
in 1810*
The writer held the same high concept of the place
of rhetoric that was held by Aristotle and Longinus#
comments as ”1 should be more pleased with a discourse which
has more body in it* and less spirit*” are frequent in the
work# It is urged that persuasion should not be approached
until one has studied the nature of man +** truth| and that
one must add to this the study of laws and customs — - all of
the solid parts of philosophy and politics*
To make a complete orator then* we must
find 'a philosopher who knows both how to demon­
strate any truth? and at the same time* to give
his accurate reasoning all the natural beauty
and vehemence of an agreeable* moving discourse****
the orator not only convince© your judgment* but
commands your passions#®
Lawson*— Another English work found in the colonies
IlHalegates Conee.rning Bioquene© * translated by
William Bbevei^
% bia«* p . 8 .
>t p» 64*
was that of John Lawson#^
The first record we have of Its
presence in the colonies Is the listing in unknown hand-*
writing on the Tale library catalogue of 1755#
The Harvard
library charging list shows its withdrawal from that libraryon two occasions in 1767*
The lectures are Hated in the
Selected Catalogue published in 1773 by Harvard College* and
are included In the Brown library catalogue in 1782*
■The lectures were planned for divinity classes* and
were probably delivered at Dublin before their publication*
Drawing freely from classical sources* Lawson seems to have ~~
absorbed his broad objectives for tiie work from Aristotle*
although most of the examples and details are taken from
Cicero and Quintilian* Two chapters® are devoted to an
analysis of the classical works* and students are advised to
read th© originals#®
After some consideration of the history and growth
of eloquence* there are two chapters devoted to reasoning*
two more on the emotions* where all of the advice that is
given on delivery is presented* and th© rest of th© book treats
of ©locution or style*
The final chapters deal largely
^liectures Concerning Oratory (Dublin* 1760)* There
seems to o © ’aSKT (^Sosti'bn as
thedate of th© first
edition* W* F* S&ndford asserts that it la 1752 (English
Theories of .Fuhlle Address* 1530-1828 [Columbus, iWSSj ).rrr
171pWlaHEkVl¥ersl?9gavTEiiIIsh~mietoz'icBl Theory,
1700-1800rf (unpublished Fh* D* dissertation, Daparteont of
Speech, Cornell University, 1928])* Th© earliest edition
found in this study was a 1758 edition*
^Lawson, op* cit** Chapters 3, 4*
®lbld»9 P* $4#
with th© eloquence of the pulpit*
Considered generally, th© work present a a useful
discussion of the classical principles of rhetoric*
the hook did not have wide circulation in the colonies* it
has an interest for us because of two unusual sections*
One —
of these attempts to show that there can bo no separate appeal
to- the mind end to the heart* anticipating some modern
psychological dicta*1 The other especially interesting *-*
section anticipates by many scores of years the doctrine of
conversational quality made prominent by Professor <idnans#53
Iceland*— Also available to the colonists was ihomas 5
Deland1a Dissertation on th© Principles of Human Eloquence#
Ihe book was listed in the Selected Catalogue of Harvard College in 1773* and was charged from the library more often
than any other strictly rhetorical work during th© decade
from 1760 to 1770*
Deland writes in large part a defense of eloquence* *3
Ibid*, pp. 153*154*
fh© Maimer in which both
Moral!sts'mSTRhetoricians have treated of the Operations of
the Mind* hath given Occasion to a great Mistake concerning
them* iSxamine closely into the Opinions generally contained
about them* you will find that they are looked upon as
several independent Principles* distinct Beings* grafted as
it were into the Mind* and acting by their own Force**•• A
very little Application to this Study would teach them, that
it is the whole Soul which acts in every Case* that judges*
imagines* remembers? that all Mode of Apprehension**•♦many
of which wo distinguish by th© names of several Faculties,
are only actions of the Understanding. **.11
%bia»» pp. 413-430.
®(London, 1764).
combined with detailed diseussions of stylo#
Th® book, -
which was written primarily for clerical students, does
not contribute much else to rhetorical theory*
citations from Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Quintilian, and
Longinus indicate an acquaintanceship with the best in classi­
cal rhetoric, but Loland’s emphasis is on style, and he Is
much concerned with literary criticism*
One sentence from
Chapter XV of the Pisaertution gives a clue as to the tenor
of the works
Perfect eloquence is, and must be, the
expression of truth* If you' would persuade and
influence, iho language must be that of nature;
and Whatever persuades and influences Is th©
of Hature and nothing els© #3.
Only once does he seem to conceive of eloquence as
th© art of persuasion In its complete sens®, as nto prompt
and rouse us to action, the final scope and object of eloqueue©*w
For the rest, it is a book In th© classical manner,—-
although fundamentally concerned with criticism and with style#
Holme©*— A peculiar little book which attempted
nothing more than a digest of earlier writings was also
circulated in the colonies*® The preface of the book tells
1.Ibid*a p # 24#
%blq.. p* 48.
^Chn Holmes, The, Art of Rhetoric Made Easy {3rd
ed»$ &ondq$, 1766)# ^3^":
?lrS't '©3i^lon^oF" worSc tos 1755,
and other editions were published in 1760, 1806, and 1849*
This last was a Philadelphia edition, and was recommended
by the Professor of Bhetorlc and Oratory at th© University
of femsylvania* The first American edition seems to have
been brought out by Hugh Gaines In Hew iork, 1798*
US that her© are the precepts of Isocrates, Aristotle,
Cicero, Quintilian* Longinus, Vossius, H&mus, Fstm&by, and
all of the good modems!
Ih© scheme is to divest th©
ancients of their "copious parts1* and thus to make the rheto­
ric more suitable to boys, meanwhile including some two
hundred and fifty of the best tropes, and more examples
taken from the classics and the scriptures than t?you111
find in all the rhetoricians put together**
Holmes does just about what he sets out to do, and
gives his readers v«hat amounts to an annotated source book of classical rhetorical theory#
Quintilian is th© primary
source used, although almost every rhetorician of any not©
from Aristotle to Farn&by gets some mention*
fhe simplicity
of the presentation and th© frequent exercises which should
have made teaching from th© book a relatively simple task
probably contributed to the long popularity of the work in
England and America#
It was offered for sale in America as
early as 1769,2 and seems to have been used as a text at Yale
for some ten years or more after that date*
l*h© American
edition prepared by professor Gettya in 1849 would seem to
Indicate continued us© until the end of th© period covered
in this study*
•hnjia,, Pref&e®.
2By William Bradford, Philadelphia, and In 1773
by Henry Knox in Boston#
%© e ©specially Montgomery, op* clt** p# 251$ and
John G* Schwab, fh© Yale. College Omrrlculum, 1701-1901
(Hew York, 1901), p* 6*
Vvleatly»~-A1 thourfi only one reference has been
found which would Indicate that Joseph Priestlyfs Lectures
on Oratory and Criticism^1wore studied during the colonial
period, th© work should probably be mentioned in this study•
The work was ordered from England by Brown University In
Brlestly pareaente
thirty-five lectures a complete
rhetorical doctrine except for his omission of delivery*
Five lectures are given to Kecollectlon or invention* five
to Method or disposition* and the remaining twenty-five treat
of style.
He acknowledges freely his debt to Ward, Karnes,
and Hartley for ideas and organisation, and draws on both
hoeke and Hums*
It seems likely that Harding’s evaluation
of the influence of the Lecturea is a fair estimate for
America at least —
It is "unlikely they attracted much at-
tention or gained any wide adoption#"
Monboddo*— Brown University in 178® also ordered Lord
Horiboddo1s Origin.and Progroas of ten^uage * which includes
a treatment of rhetoric In the sixth volume*
The book con­
tributes nothing more than an effort on the part of Monbo&do
to present Aristotle's doctrines,4
^•(Oablln, 1731), 35ip first edition was printed in
London, 1777, and the Lectures were given from 1781 to 1767#
glome of Books ordered from England for the
Library, off Hhgde Island Qoilege (M3®, in Brown University
%ardlng, op* cit», p* 179*
^For a more complete discussion of Monboddo fs
attachment to Aristotelian beliefs see Harding* o p # cit#,
p# 846*
Wg£d»— M l © appearing earlier than some of the
above# lard is reserved for last mention because of his
great influence in this period*3. Galled tee "most complete
statement of classical rhetoric written in the English
Ward*s System is considered representative of
tee classical point of view# and exerted important influence
on English rhetorical theory for many years after its publi­
It was equally important in America *S
it is probable that lard1® $ystem was brought to
tee colonies a very short time after it appeared in England#
for "Ward1a Oratory" has been added by an unknown penman to
tee 175b catalogue of the Tale College library.
also listed in tee Harvard catalogue of 1765*
Ward Is
Only two
years later# in 1767# Ward was a part of th© Tale course of
Four years later it was an Integral part of th©
studies at Brown*
The laws of Brown in 1705 mentioned its
^yohn Ward# A System of Oratory (London, 1759)«
gSandford, or>» cit., p. 110,
®Cliarl©s A* Fritss, op. cit,, makes two statements In
regard to Ward which should' be corrected. Hoting that the work
"is not available# but th© original manuscript is in the
British museum" (p. 61), he earlier states that "all except
one of the early texts are available# and that one as not of
great importance," apparently referring to ward. To this
author1s certain knowledge Ward1® Lectures are in the Harvard
Library# Providence (K.I.) Public Hbrary7 and Western Reserve
Gbivarsity libraries# to mention only a few# and the para­
graphs which follow this not© will indicate th© influence and
wide popularity of Ward in pre-Revolutionary America# an influ­
ence which la almost as complete in its time as the later
domination by thately# Campbell and Blair*
^Schwab# op* cit** p* 6* "In tee study of English
the us© of lohn Ward'^a System of Oratory in 1767 indicates
that th© students were trained in the us© of their mother
tongue as a part of their training in argumentation."
^Bronson, op. cit., pp. 102-103.
use# and the importance which th© faculty placed on Its
study is shown by a letter of Fr@si&®nt Manning to a prospective student In 1785#
fwo extra copies v/ere given
Harvard in 1771# and th© book is included in the selected
Catalogue of Harvard In 1773# which would seem to Indicate
its frequent use there as well#
A copy is known to have been
in the collection of the library Company in Philadelphia in
*Bm& Ward commanded th® college field before 1780# “
and was In some general circulation as well*
Only the forth­
coming works of Campbell and Blair were to destroy its influ­
ence •
Ward’s system Is truly a tremendous synthesis of —
Greek and Eom&n rhetorical theory# and one of th© largest
works devoted to rhetoric ever written*
Fifty-four lectures
which take up more than eight hundred pages mak© up the two
large volumes*
411 of the parts of ancient rhetoric are
treated# with a relative emphasis not too far from that of
Aristotle# Cicero# and Quintilian# save that delivery is given
more detailed treatment#
Since the work was significant in
the development of American rhetoric# and since it has been
Infrequently examined by students of the period# we shall
ppm 103-104* t4lf Mr* Wood means to enter
the Bophiinore Glass next Fall 1 advise him to read with great
Attention Cicero and the Greek T©stats and make himself
Master of the Grammar of each Language; also to study with
great Attention Lowth’s English Grammar# and Stirling*s#
or burner*a Khetoric# as preparatory to card’s Oratory*n
2q3ae Charter* Laws* and Catalog of Books of the
felbrary C^S'anyofT"fMSa^eip£la''iFhiitadeiphla*"1775) *
treat its doctrines in some detail*
After an introduction in Latin, the first lecture
treats of the rise and progress of oratory#
The second
lecture. On the Mature of Oratory, presents many of the
general dicta which Ward is to follow#
^Oratory is the art-^
of speaking well on any subject, in order to persuade#w
Quintilian and Cicero are quoted in support of this &efi«*
nition*1 The business of oratory is to teach one to speak
well} that is, justly, methodically, floridly, and copiously#
"Th© subject of oratory 1b everything**1 "The principal
end and design of oratory is to persuade*"4
fee third lecture is on The Division of Oratory,
and Ward eliminates Memory from the usual five, although it
3ms been treated briefly in th© second lecture*
His justi**
fieation of th© inclusion of invention and disposition
gives a clear picture of the shift which has taken place in
English rhetorical thought since th© days of Dugard and Smiths
Indeed some have excluded both invention
and disposition from the art of oratory, supposing
they more properly belong to logic? but I think,
without any just reason* For as was shown in my
last discourse, two art© may be conversant about
th® Same subject, without interfering, provided
they have not the same end, and their manner of
treating it be likewise different* Thus both
logic and rhetoric teach us to reason from the
same principles* ***Bui besides these, rhetoric
» cit *» X, 19*
2Ibid., I, 21.
3Xbld,, I, SB,
I, 27.
directs us to other considerations, more peculiarly
adapted to conciliate the mind, and affect the
passions, with which the other art has no concernment*
For logic contents itself with such principles of
reasoning, which arising from th© nature of things,
and their relations to each other, may suffice to
discover truth from falsehood, and satisfy thinking
and considerate persons* $or does it propose any
thing more than assent, upon a just view of things
fairly represented to the mind* But rhetoric not
only directs to those arguments, which are proper
to convince the mind; but also considers the various
passions and interests of mankind, with the bias
they receive from temper, education, converse, or
other circumstances of life? and teaches how to
fetch such reasons from each of those, as are of the
greatest force in persuasion* It is plain therefore
that rhetoric not only supplies us with more heads
of invention than logic, but that they very much
difTir~TroSreach other in th® use and design of them?
the on® imploying them only as principles of
knowledge, but th© other chiefly as motives to
Mor Is their manner of treating them less
different, which respects disposition** The logician
so places the several propositions or a syllogism
in a certain prescribed method, that the relation
between terms may be evident, and th© conclusion
appear to be fairly dram from th® premises ****But
the orator is not thus tied down to mod© and figure?
or to perfect syllogisms, which he seldom uses:
but reasons in the manner he thinks most convenient?
begins with either of the premises, and sometimes
with the conclusion itself**.#Besides, he considers
the frame and structure of his whole discourse, and
as his view Is not everywhere the same, he divides
it into certain parts, and so disposes each of them,
as may best answer his intention* From all which it
appears, that Disposition., considered as a part of
oratory, Is wl3ely3ifFerent from that, which is
taught by logic*3Ward is no less direct in his feeling that Style —
can never be the end of serious rhetoric*
Elocution or Style he says?
Xm c U , Z, 31-33.
Speaking of
All acknowledge It belongs to this art*
tho many seem to mistake th© true nature and extent
of It* For nothing Is more common* than to suppose
that only to b© oratory* which Is delivered in a
florid and pompous stile* Whereas Elocution compre­
hends all characters of stile* and sHewsHEow each
of them is to be applied; and directs as well to a
choice of words* and propriety of expression* as
to the ornaments of tropes and figures* Indeed as
the florid and sublime characters more ©specially
relate to the orator1s province* who has the great­
est occasion for them; th© name of Eloquence has
been more peculiarly appropriated to those characters*
But to suppose from hence* that th© art of oratory
la wholly confined to those* or that the orator acts
out of his sphere* A o n he does not
us® them* is
equally to mistake in both cases*1
Ihroughout Ward. Is careful to stress the position
he takes as to th© relative importance of each of th© di­
visions* and he attempts to keep a balance between thorn that
is much th© same as that of Cicero and Quintilian*
$h© next fifteen lectures treat of Invention and
Disposition, and to review their content would simply be to
review th® classical rules in their entirety*
Chder invention*
the commonplaces* the use of external topics, the doctrine of
status* and th® special topics for demonstrative* deliberative,
and. Judicial oratory are discussed*
ethical proof* and another to path©tic.
lecture is
given to
Lectures ondis­
position treat of th® parts of the speech, $&rd listing th©
introduction, narration* proposition* confirmation, confu­
tation* and conclusion.
Some time is spent on a consideration
2, 34.
Ibid* * see especially Lecture XX, in whieh Ward
introduceaSSY reader to th© subject of btyl©*
of the proper topics to use in each, division#
Ward follows
the precedent set by Quintilian &nd others in combining his *
discussion of Invention and Arrangement in this manner
throughout the work*
lecture a XX to XLVI are devoted to style.
general qualities of style are first discussed! and as might
be suspected from the earlier quotation, purity and perspi­
cuity are considered as most fundamental to elegance.
are some ten lectures on tropes and figures*
A lecture is
devoted to tho low style, another to the middle style, and
two to the Sublime*
Longinus* Is followed very closely In
these lectures on the sublime*
After short discussion of
wit and humor, there are four lectures dealing with tho style
and content of History*
After a summary chapter on th© style of the orator,
five lectures are devoted to delivery.
Voice and gesture
are treated in some detail, and the general tenor of the en­
tire treatment Is contained In the passages
*What fits well
upon one, will appear very awkward in another*
therefore, should first endeavor to know himself, and manage
accordingly*ftI A short discussion of imitation concludes
the lectures*
Thus Ward has presented to his readers a car©f\il and
systematic digest of classical rhetoric#
Unduly repetitious,
and probably longer than necessary, th© System nevertheless
S-Ibld., II, 576.
presents to toes?lea. in balanced form an active rhetoric
whose .medium was oratory, and whose end was moving the minds
of men*
By 1770 the way was prepared for the great English. -
works to follow* ^
Rhetorics of Style
Th.® Importation and use of the English rhetorics in
the classical manner, did not mean that the colonists were
no longer interested In the rhetorics of style*
Indeed, as
more and more interest began to bo taken in the belles*
lettrlstic side of rhetoric, rhetorics of style in English
became almost as popular and as prevalent as their Latin
Blackwell*~~On© of the earliest of these to appear —
In America was 'that of Anthony Blackwell,^ She first record
of use in America which has been found is the Inclusion of
the ¥*ork In the catalogue of readings of Samuel Johnson for —
fh© sum© catalogue notes that it was re-read by him
in 1740 and again In 1766*
Ihe work was listed in the Yale
College library catalogue of 1745, and in 1755 was offered
for sal© in Hew York by Oarrat Hoel, book sell©!*#
Ihe whole work Is devoted to tropes and, figures as
the sub-title would seem to indicates
An Essay on the Nature
^Introduction to tho Classics (London, 1718}•
notes ape from tiie 6th edition, 1746-7
"Career and Writings* Appendix.
.IljLbhQS© Stoxhatlc&l and Beautiful Fibres which give strength
and Ornament to Writing* 9?h©re Is not much, that la notv in the hook* although It la worth noting that tho discussion
of figures ±3 drawn from classical rather than from modem
Of special interest however are the appreciation
Blackwell had of the eloquence of his own language
In a
time when there was still no agreement as to the value of
studying English* and also the stress placed in the work on
the oral aspects of rhetoric*2 Although Blackwell confines
the province of rhetoric to style* he advises t f*L©t your
Discourse always be founded on Nature and Sense* supported
with strong Reason and Proof j and then add th© ornaments and
Heightening of Figurea♦».»#Figures must not be over-adorned*
nor affectedly labour*dn lest the orator
betray and oppose
himselfn as a rt3?rifXer and Eypocryt *”
>—-Further evidence that the vogue of th© -,
rhetoric of style was not destroyed by tho Increase in th©
•use of English* Is contributed by th© popularity of the
Hhetoric taken from r
JZhe preooptor* by Hobort Dodsloy. " Next
to k&rd*e lectures on Oratory* Dodsloy*s treatment seems to
^Blackwell, op, pit., pp. 155-136.
Ibid.** see ©specially pp.# 59-62#
aibld., pp. 186-188.
4(I.ondon, 1748). Many later editions of The Preceptor
were published* $h© work was in two volumes* end treated
of almost all learning* Of tho twelve parts* on© was de­
voted to rhetoric and poetry* and another to reading* speak­
ing* and writing letters#
have been th© most popular In the colonies during this period#
Again tho reading list of Samuel Johnson provides tho first
record of the work’s us© in America#
Preceptor in 1749#
Johnson read The
In 1756 it was recommended at the
University of Pennsylv&nis, along with Longinus, Quintili&n,
and the orations of Cicero and Demosthenes#
jhe preceptor
was offered for sale by lilliam Bradford in Philadelphia in
1753# by Henry Knox in Boston in 1773, and was listed in th©
catalogue of both the Philadelphia library Company, and th©
Associated Library Company of Philadelphia in 1770#
last record of ua© is at Harvard College, whore in 1786, the
College Records recorded th© action of th© Board of over*
seers, **7©t©&, that the Rhetoric contained in the Preceptor
be printed and introduced into th© University as a reciting
Accordingly, an American edition was published, 11for
th© us© of th© tftliverslty in Cambridge*” Although there is
no record of its having been dropped from th© course of
study, the adoption of Blair in 1788 would seem to indicate
that th© Influence of Dodsley at Harvard was short-lived#
Dodsley presents virtually an encyclopedia, con­
sidering rhetoric as only one of twelve fields, and as a
, Appendix*
Montgomery, op# cit*, p# 527*
, 111, 261#
mp&rats field from speaking*^
Tims his treatment Is
necessarily brief# ©-nd is not only briefs but lifted almost
verbatim from other authors!'
The first editions contained
no advice on speaking# although they gave selections for
Later this lack was remedied by reprinting Mason fs
ffisagy. on Elocution^ with few changes from its original text*
The material included on rhetoric in all editions is simply
lifted from Blackwell with only the most minor of changes*
Thus all the Preceptor contributes is the presentation of
these works by Mason and Blackwell to a wider audience than
they might otherwise have known*
Stirlln^+^Another evidence of the continuance of —
the rhetoric of trope and figure in English Is the peculiar
^Ther© are twelve parts to The Preceptor*via* t
1* On Heading,Spe-aklng","" anTHifrlt'ing Letters
2m On Arithmetic# Geometry, and Architecture
5* On Geography and Astronomy
4* On Chronology and History
5* On Ehetorlc and Poetry
6* On Drawing
7* On Logic
8* On Natural History
9* On Ethics or Morality
10* On■Trad® and Commerce
11* On Laws and Government
IB*. On Human Life and Manners
^M&aon*® work will b© treated in detail in a later
chapter on th© growth of the Elocution ..movement In America*
Suffice it to say hex*© that it conceives of Elocution as
delivery# and that the book stresses the "natural1* manner
of delivery in much tlx© manner of CyxlntIlian*
Bodsley himself makes the statement that all of
M s matexlal is covered more competently by Blackwell*
ffifae Pr©ceptQxy» %9 3B3*
little -gfotafcem of Khetoric by ,Tobn Stirling*^
Offered for ^
sal© as early as 1755 In Philadelphla,^ Pros5.dent Manning,s
latter to a prospective Brown student referred to earlier,
shows that it had some currency in grammar schools*
Although, the hook is only some twenty-five or thirty
pages In length, it contains a catalogue or ninety seven
tropes and flgur@s: in their Greek and Latin names along with
English translations, each simply defined and exemplified#
These make up the .first part*
The second part is called Arc
Rhetoric a and is no more nor less than a Latin rendering of
the first1
The author1'® method and procedure can be seen in
Ills treatment of one of the more common figures ;
Hyperbole soars high, or creeps too low* 6
Exceeds the truth, things wonderful to show*
6# He runs swifter than the wind, i*e* very swiftly#
Terms Englished
6# Excess#
Thus the work presented material compactly arranged
"(Hew Yox’ic, 1845)* The first edition was probably
in 1735, there were eight by 1772, and other London editions
were published in 1786, 1806, 1817, etc* A Mew York edition
was published in 1824#
®By William Bradford#
^Bronson, op* clt», p#. 103* The other work referred
to in Manningfs letter, ’Daniel Turner, Abstract of English
Grammar and Hhetoric (London, 1739) is also an elementary
mnuSTIofirope sncTlfigur©, but does not seem to have been as
available in America at this, time* Wanning*s reference to
It is th© only on© found in the preparation of this study#
for memorisation, and Its very simplicity probably contributed
to its popularity* /
^ ribbon#— Another work making the usual attempt to "
systematise the tropes and figure© is that of Thomas Gibbon#
The only record of the use of his Hhetoxic in America is the —
order placed in England for it by Brown University in 1785*^
Gibbon feels that the work improve© on both Blackwell and
Ward, since examples- have been selected largely from the
scriptures, and since ^Tropes and figures are the beauty,"”
the nerves, the life, and soul of Oratory*n
The organisation
and treatment offer nothing new however, and the contri­
bution made by the work must be considered slight*
"/Works' on Elocution
During this period from 1730 to 1785 the first works —
devoted solely to the delivery of materials began to appear,
both in England and in America*
One of the first, that of
John Meson,^ gave to this new art of delivery as a separate
discipline, the name of nhlocution,H and within a very few
years the term came to mean, popularly, delivery rather than
Other works followed in a very shoi*t time, and soon
*Ejhe,torieg or* a view.- of its .principal Tropes and
figures (SSSSSTx^S^K
~ ~
■Qatalogue of Books**»»of Rhode Island College,
^Gibbon, op* cit»* Preface*
%BS&y on Elocution (London, 1748)*
were printed in 1751 ’
and 1781.
Later editions
tshe classical division of proxmnt1atio became almost a
separate .field for study and practice, now known as
Elocution#1* <£he works on elocution became so numerous in
America that it has been thought wise In this study to devote
a separate chapter to the development and. proath of that art*
At this time, then, we will simply observe the presence of
certain of these works In the colonies, and discuss them
more fully in the later chapter*
Hire© of these works k&£ circulation in the colo­
nies before 1780*
Hie earliest, both from the point of view
of composition and of Importation into America, Is the Art
of Speaking in Public*
This work, whose authorship is tm-
known, was read by Samuel Johnson In 1755*
By 1755 Mason *s
Bs&ay was offered for sale in Hew York,® and In 1762 It is
known to have been in the Harvard library#*^ Hiree years —
later the famous gestures on Bl.ocution by Ihomas Sheridan
were In the Harvard library catalogue*^
Hiese works were
the vanguard of a tremendous army of works that were soon to
follow# ^
Other ‘
A number of other works of interest to the rhetoric
London, 1727) •
^Career and writings, Appendix#
®By aarrat Hoel, op* cit*
^Charging hist (MS.), 1762*
^Manuscript Catalogue in Harvard Archives #
cal scholar were available in the colonies at this time,
and are included in this section either because they re­
ceived little notice or because they are scarcely rhetorical
in the sense in which the term is used in this study*
work in Latin retained some circulation in this period,
although instruction had changed to the vernacular*
It was
Rhetor©a Select!j a collection of excerpted rhetorical writings
from Demetrius Phalerus, Tiberius Rhetor, and others#'*1
There is no specifi© evidence that the work m s even used
as a rhetorical text*
The reference® found to it simply
indicate that it was in the Yale library in 1743, and the
work .was listed in the Harvard Selected Catalogue of 1773#
Listed in the catalogue of the Philadelphia Library
Company for 1757, and recommended as supplementary reading
at the University of Pennsylvania In 1756 is the work
titled The Arts of hoglck and Khetoriek* by Dominique
Bouhours, more critic than rhetorician,4 writes
a work which expresses that emphasis*
Disavowing the Port
Royal work as too devoted to showing ffhow to conceive simple
Ideas,Bouhours sets out to discuss the thoughts to use in
Edited by Thomas $ale, (Oxonii, 1676)*
^Montgomery, op* cit*, p* 527*
translated by y* Qldjaixon (London, 1728)#
^OXdmixon stresses in his dedication that Bouhours
Is **the most penetrating of the French critics#w Bouhours,
op* cit*, Dedication, p# ix#
8ibiat, p*
Ho considers their justness* their sublimity,
their intelligibility, and relates all of his consideration
to the phrasing of th© thought rather than to the discovery
of the thought,. Thua th© work is a manual of style, more
philosophical than most of th© others of th© period, and
influenced more directly by &©nglims.
One work on vole# science was brought to the colonies
during this period, that of John Berries.1 An early
correction manual and drill book, it is more complete than
Holder *# work mentioned earlier, but seems to have attracted
little attention, either in England or America.
Writers of
th© time were more concerned with composition or delivery
than with vocal theory.
Two other works should be mentioned.
During this
period th© first American rhetoric of which we have record
was being produced through the lectures of President
Witherspoon of Princeton.
This work, later published with
Witherspoon1# ool3.eeted writings, and separately under th©
title of lectures on Jhral Philosophy and Eloquence, was
largely influenced by th© classical authors, although there
are significant differences.
It will be discussed more
completely in the chapter on American rhetoric.
Suffice it
to note here, that it seems to have had no Immediate influx
ence save at Princeton, where th© lectures were delivered*
$h© second work is the extremely popular work on —
^The Elements of Speech C&ondon, 1773 }#
taste and c®»g>®sitton by Henry Home, X»ord K&mes* The
Elements of Criticism**** #ust a year after publication the
three volume® comprising the work were shipped to Harvard
College* and copies were soon to he found all through th©
The work was used as a text at Brown as early as —
1771*^ and it was still in use there in 1855*^
It is difficult to
determine whether or
not the work
should he treated in this study* for it is more nearly a —
philosophical treatment of taste and criticism than a system**
atle rhetoric*
There is no direct rhetorical instruction
of any kind* and th® whole application of th© Blements to
persuasion is remote*
One is inclined to agree with Goldsmith1s
evaluation of the work which is quoted by Boswell in his
Life of Johnson*
wIt is easier to writ® that book than
to read it*®
Th© book is an effort to investigate, systematically*
th© metaphysical principles of th© fine arts* and discarding
all of th® accepted rules for literary composition which
have been derived from authority* Home attempts to arrive
^fh© first edition was printed in London* 1762*
Seven editions wer© published before 1790* and the book was
used in England and America through most of the nineteenth
century* Th® first American edition was published in 1796*
^Harvard College Papers* 1650*1763 (MSB*)* I* 206*
% a n Hoesen* op* pit** pp* 60*6!*
^dataloque of Brown University* 1855*
^Quoted by S» Austin AlXfbone, A Critical Dictionary
of Ifrigllsh Literature and British and American-Authors
Inductively at new rules "based on httman nature*
The primary
Influence of the Elements seems to have been in the realm
■iHdjjiimrnuiM iw iMn
of criticism and such references as
find to it in th©
works of later rhetoricians are likely to be in connection
with drama or poetry*1 It must be stated* however* that the
work probably did! give impetus to literary endeavor and
study In America*
Bullish Rhetorical Theory* 175Q~1785
W© have already noted the influence of English
rhetorics of the period in th© colonies*
It may be well to
consider briefly the major trends In English rhetorical theory
daring the same span of years*
Harding*® survey of English rhetoric has this summary
of the period*
It may be ..sald that the first fifty years
of the eighteenth century were marked by a study
of classical works (which continued throughout the
century} and by th© criticism of British oratory?
that classical doctrines* as Interpreted by Lawson*
lard* Campbell* Priestly* Blair* and lhately, held
an toportant place from 1760 to 1828; and finally,
that "th# elocutionary movement originated and
developed during the period from ca* 1760* finding
Its characteristic ©position in the works of
Sheridan* Burgh* Walker, and Austin*^
Thus all of th© works listed by Harding as ©specially
significant are found to be in America and also of interest
^Blsir refers to Karnes* for example* in connection
with his disapproval of English Comedy* Hugh Blair* Leetoreg
on Eh-etorlc and Belles Lettres (Philadelphia, 1858),
p* 5^3*
Warding, op, olt.. pp. 137-158.
In addition, many minor works appeared In imgland
which do not seem to have had any use in America#
Some of
these which were examined during this study include James
Fordyee#s ffiheodorua
which is a rhetoric designed for the
preacher and based on classical sources; Henry Felton*s
Dissertation on Heading the Classics#8 a rhetoric of style,
as the title implies; Edward Manwaringfs Institutes of
Xjgagoing,^ containing a section on rhetoric which digests
Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintilian; lilliam Cocking Art of
Delivering Written language,4 an elocution test; and two
anonymous works dealing with style and delivery, Hhetorjc;
or the Principles off Oratory Delineated, and Bhetorlc* Made
Familiar and lasy*
There seems to be no evidence to indicate,
however, that any of the works not already discussed in this
chapter were even in the colonies until demanded by research
of a later day*
It may be concluded that the main trends in English
and American rhetoric were essentially the same in this period*
$h© principal difference, as might be expected, is In the
priority of these developments in England*
It was England
that was influencing America*
&fheodorus $ .A Dialogue Concerning; the Art of
% Dissertation on Heading the Classics and Forming
a Just Style (Mth^ed*',
3(&ondon, 1787)•
^{hondon, 1778)*
£(&ondon, 1736)*
^(London, 1748)#
iRhetoric ia the Colleges
Bom# consideration of the training offered during
the period in representative colleges will give added detail
to this picture of the development of American rhetoric*
have alreadr noted the us© of new and more complete texts in
During this period rhetoric became more vital and
more complete#
As might be expected there is a corresponding
sharpening of the college retirements in rhetoric as well*
and greater student interest in th© rhetorical exercises#
Harvar d # a r e now able to find more specific
requirements concerning rhetorical study and practice at
Th© Records of th© Harvard Overseers note with —
increasing frequency concern about the performances of the
On April 24, 1750, it was voted that there should
be a regular public exhibition of oratory on each visiting
During the following year# the requirement of regular
declamation was re«*»tresaed# and a fin© of three shillings
was levied for all violations*^ Even this did not seem to
solve th© problem of the.students1 speech, for on May 4#
1762, the committee of visitation, having heard th© students*
performance, decided that they needed more practice ”to
form them to a graceful elocution #w
Three years later they
^Records of overseers (MSS*), II, 58#
gIbid., II, 74,
aibld,, II, 123.
were well enough pleased to
to to
praise to the students
Tor their proficiency in ^literature and elocution*
fh© Interest of overseers and students continued*
and on Stay 6* X76-6* It was voted ”That on Friday and.
Saturday Mornings each class shall be Instructed by a distlnot l*utor In Elocution* Composition in English* Rhetoric*
and th© other parts of th© Belles lettres#*1
The next significant action m s taken on October 1*
1777* when the Committee on Exhibitions filed the following
report t
Th® Committee of the Overseers having had'
some Agreeable Specimens in the Chapel of the
genius of the Students* and their proficiency in
Elocution and literature — For the encouragement
of ■the young Cent1©men * o gave these specimens*
desire the Reverend President to signify in such
way as he shall think proper the Committees
approbation Of these laudable attempts and their
particular acceptance of these Performances#
And their hopes that they and. the other students
will continue to improve in those literary
accomplishments which will render them ornaments
to th© College and Blessings to their Country -fr­
aud that they will particularly cultivate the art
of speaking which will greatly add to the repu­
tation this seat of learning hath already
Hiring these same years the Speaking Club was
organised to nImprove in the Art of Speaking*” and its
hfeld., II, 203.
II, 258. Bote that the change from Latin
to English presaged in an earlier period is now almost
complete* Students now are not forbade the use of English,
rather they get a special tutor in ItJ
^Manuscript in the Harvard Archives*
discussions became Increasingly political and realistic*
9£he laws of the club show th© concept of rhetoric as an
active* communicative art* for they forbade speaking in
Latin without the express consent of the club president#’*'
Yale*— -A similar increase in emphasis was taking^
place at Yale* and changes occurred rapidly enough that a
Yale graduate of 1714 would write in 1779, nOratory was but
little known* studied* or famed, to what it is now***
English Reclamation was introduced at Yale by
president Clap in 1751#
Its introduction aroused enough
current interest that Benjamin Franklin sent a letter to a
trustee on December 24, 1751, stating,
1 am glad that you have introduced English
declamation into your College* It will be of
great service to th© youth, especially If car© be
taken to form their pronunciation on the best
models*#.#*It is a matter that hath been too much
Some idea as to the nature and value of these decla­
mations can b© seen by the following comment on the manner
in which they were being conducted in 1768?
*fwic© a week five or six deliver a
1doodhue, op* pit*, p# 108* Earlier reference was
to the Spy Club; see p* 50, Ch. 1*
Quoted by F# B* Dexter, Biographical sketches of
the Graduates of. Yale College wltli' lnnaTa "Thow Tork,P 1&&5),
®F* B* Dexter, & Selection from Miscellaneous
Historical Papers (Haw Haven, 1918T,™T'’18'4#~ ‘
%etter of Benjamin Pranklin to tlie Reverend Jared
Eliot, quoted by Dexter, Biographical sketches. II, 275-276.
Declamation memoirtor from the oratorical Hoatram;
the President makoa some observations upon th©
manner of Delivery & sometimes upon the Subject;
and sometimes gives some small Laurel to him who
bast acts the Fart of an Orator# These decla­
mations are beforehand supervised by their Tutor,
who corrects the Orthography and inmctuation#*
#*»«•*Bh©torio and Oratory probably held a —
more prominent place at early Pennsylvania than at any other
colonial college with the possible exception of Brown*
Frovest Smith wrote in th© Pennsylvania Oasett© in 1757,-_.„
wever since th# first Foundation of th© College and Academy
in this city, th© Improvement of the Youth in Oratory and
Correct Bo©©king, has always been considered an essential
Branch of their Education*w As early as 1753 Pennsylvania -had a Professor of English and Oratory, on© Reverend JKbeneser
JCinneraXey,^ and in 1768 he was given two assistants to
relieve hi© heavy schedule of teaching the Mart of public
speaking*Even after Kinnersley had resigned there was no
fading of interest on th© part of th© trustees, for their
minutes on February 2, 1773, record that.
fh@ -College suffers greatly since Mr*
Kinnersley loft lt> for want of a person to
teach public speaking, so that th© present
classes have not those opportunities of learn
w a Clap, Th© Annals or History of Yale College
(Hew Hav
College, p# 82#
^Cffaote" *“
~ ■
* *’
University of«
j*iiM ‘ijj|iiUUi'Mi' I'l* i|pr i
r~n» ^ m n r f ii n -
- -*
aIt>ld., p. S3.
^TbXclf , Pm 249m
to declaim and spealr which have been of so
m toh use to their predecessors, and have con­
tributed greatly to raise th® credit of the
Further evidence of the interest at the Philadelphia
school 1® seen from this account in the American Magazine
for October, 1758i
lh© Professor of English and Oratory stands
by to oorreeblKatewr may be amiss, either In
their Speech or Posture,..«This attention to public
spcaking/ l&ieh is begun her®, is continued to the
end, and especially in the philosophy schools,
where the youth frequently deliver exercises of
their own composition at commeneeiments, exami­
nations, and other public occasions•$
6oiumbla (XCin&a)»— Similar interest is shown by the announcement of the opening of Kings College which appeared
in th® lew lork Gazette, or Weekly Post Boy for June 5, 1754*
Xt la burtiier 'the Design of this College,
to Instruct and perfect th© Tonth In th© learned
languages, and to the Arts of reasoning exactly,
of writing correctly, and apeaKSSgeXoquentXy»*..
frinc©ton*— i!he presidency of John -Witherspoon from
1768 to 1794 would seem to indicate similar interest there,
since his later published lectures on eloquence show great
concern with correct and effective speaking*
Brown*--Interest here, which culminated in the establishment of the second chair of Rhetoric to be endowed
In America, Is shown by the college laws.
1Xbld«, jp« 251.
2Quot®d, Ibid., Appendix S.
The laws of 1774
made special provisions for declamation and for oratory*
and those of 1783 stressed that ?}the two upper classes
shall make use of their own compositions#*'1
One of the earliest speaking clubs* the pronouncing —
Society* was formed at Brown in 1771 for nmutual improve**
ment in th© art of speaking*11 and at least on© early graduate
became an instructor in rhetoric and Oratory at th©
University of Pennsylvania#®
Bhetorieal theses
From the theses which were defended at comiencement
exercises during the period* come additional evidence as to
th© development of a rhetoric of persuasion rather than of
As early as 17£0 there was evidence of a turn away...
from “
the rhetoric of trope and figure* as shown by such a
thesis as "Rhetoric is th© art of discovering and putting
forth all things having to do with persuasion#n
With Increasing frequency definitions in the theses
began to not© delivery and persuasion as well as elegance*
23a© first thesis to contain an explicit statement
of more than two parts or divisions of rhetoric was presented
by a Harvard student in 1748, listing the parts as invention*
^•Bronson, op. olt... pp. 104-105.
2Ibld., p. ISO.
®Sot© the Yale these© of 1725,, 1725, pup the Harvard
theses Of 1717, 1720, 1732, 1736, 1738, 1743, 1744, 1749,
disposition* stylo* and delivery*
During each of the next
three years! at least one thesis treated of invention* and
one of disposition*
A Tale thesis of 1758 presents the
doctrine of four fields to rhetorics
"To find, arguments,
to arrange the things found* to adorn the things arranged*
to deliver and apeak the things adorned; these things com*
prise the whole art of the orator*w Similar, though more
cogent, was the Pennsylvania thesis of 1761?
method* style, and delivery are the parts of Rhetoric*”
And the Brown thesis repeated almost continuously from 1770
to 1790 stated that, “Rhetoric is the art of making clear*
v/itb evidence and persuasive fore© through words and
gestures of the body*n
From th© theses also come evidences of greater -interest in criticism, in delivery* in th© belles lettrea*
lot© some representative dietsu
v?lh© grand style leads to
stupor, not (Tale, 1750}*
“KLocutlon is the
beautifully measured use in speaking of the countenance,
th© voice, and gesture*”
(Tale* 1781)*
“Rhetoric differs
from oratory as theory differs from practice*.55 (Harvard,
"In th© poetic art, images rightly exceed the truth;
but In oratory, propriety and truth ar© required*” (Harvard,
"©at© critical art consists not mox*e in noting
faults than excellancles *n
(Brown, 1771).
consists more in ideas than In diction*”
"True sublimity
(Brown, 1775)#
"The English orators excel present day speakers of all other
nationalities In eloquence, force of reasoning, clarity of
thought, and elegance of style."
(Tale, 1751J.1
Thus, by th© end of the period, the rhetorical
theses woro raising mono advanced problems in stylistic
criticism, propounding questions In delivery to an In­
creasing extant; and what is most important, they give
evidence that rhetoric Is conceived In terms of persuasion*
complete transcript of the available theses is
given in Appendix A, In conjunction with which Is placed a
chart showing the growth of topics concerned with dolivory,
Invention, and arrangement, and with critical or literary
Th© shift in rhetorical emphasis which was to
characterise the period from 1730-1785 in American rhetorical
theory was presaged by th© popularity of the Fort Royal
Rhetoric at the opening of th© period*
This work introduced
colonial rhetoric to the doctrine of persuasive speaking
and writing*
The period saw a steady growth In th© direct
influence of the works of Aristotle* Quintilian* and Cicero*
The rhetorical writings of Cicero were in wide demand* and
the orations of the great Roman were among the most studied
literary documents of the entire period*
English rhetorics in th© classical tradition
were the most popular works during most of the period*
although a few French works received some attention.
rhetorical study was based on works founded securely upon
classical doctrines*
The interest in trope and figure so prominent
in earlier American rhetoric (1035-1750) persists* but is
reinterpreted and enlarged in terms of a rhetoric of per­
suasion and more adequate classical treatments of style*
Frequent references are found to matters of tast© and literary
criticism* thus allying rhetoric to belles-lettres as well
as to persuasion*
(5) The ©locution movement* ?£hich was to reach
tremendous proportions late in the nineteenth century* began
to assort itself through the works of Mason and Sheridan in
this period*
Minor works of various types were also in the
Bhetorics whose purpose seemed to be to encourage
the study of l&fcin or Greek* critical works* and at least
on© study of elementary vole© science* are included In this
Sbwtorleal theory in America followed th©
same general pattern as that of England, although a few
decades behind th© English trend*
$h© period saw the growth of interest In
rhetoric as an active art In the colleges.
It was seen by
most students and teachers as the theoretical supplement to
Instruction and speaking was In English, and th©
objective was persuasion*
(9) Ehetorloal these® defended in the colleges
tend to corroborate th© evidence drawn from th© texts and
college requirements*
Domination of the English Rhetorics
Early circulation of the w o r k s With the action of
th© Yale adminlstration in 1785, stipulating that Blairfs
feeeturee on Rhetoric^ was to b© used as a textbook in
there was begun a domination of American rhetoric
by a few great English rhetorics which was not to end for
many decades#
Three years later similar action was taken
by the Harvard Overseers#^ and from this time until Civil
War years Blair was a fixture in American colleges*
Philosophy of Rhetoric^ was soon th© great rival of Blair#
%ugh Blair# lectures on Rhetoric and Belies Bettr©©*
The first edition wasTTO®■andwrT|;ffeP
iSrst 'SmerIcS"©ditTon
was published in Philadelphia in 1784# First imported into
America In 1783, American and English editions followed In
rapid succession# Th© notes used in this study are from an
edition prepared as a special Bhiversity Edition by Abraham
Mills {Philadelphia# 1858}%
Schwab, op# clt», p. 0#
^**70ted, that an abridgement of Dr# Blair1s
Eectures on Hhetorio be introduced by Prof* Pearson into his
department# and that the students# from time to time# furnish
themselves with th© volume•11 Harvard College Records,
September 8# 1788#
^George Campbell# Philosophy of Rhetoric
(Edinburgh# 1776)# Notes for this study are from a New
York edition of 1841#
and almost Immediately after the publication of Thately’a
Blemenfca of Rhetoric1 In 1828, this work superseded or
supplemented tbe other two rhetorical treatises*
In the
meantime another English work of different emphasis* Jamieson1s Grammar of Bhetorie and Polite Literature*S was also achieving
wide circulation*
Blair* Campbell* stiately, and to &
lesser extent, Sarnieson *«* these were the rhetorical names
which- almost every student in the nineteenth century colleges
knew, and these were the men to dominate American rhetor!** —
eal theory through 1880*
Blai.r**>^Bialr seems to have been the first to appear
on the American scene, having been ordered from England by
Brown University in 1703*^ The following year saw the
publication of the first American edition in Philadelphia*
m have already noted Its adoption as a text at Yale in 1785,
and at Harvard in 1788*
fide public circulation is indicated -
as well, not only by the publication of many American
editions, but by presence of the work In almost all book**
seller1s catalogues published after 1^90*^
^Richard lately, Elements of Hhetoric (Dublin,
notes for this stuSy 'aHT"from SHioibon edition of
^Alexander Jamieson, A Grammar of Rhetorical and
Polite literature Comprehending" Principles"
'ityie' '(HevFHaven,
first'"'edition appeared in
England in 1316#
^CataloffUQ of Books* **»of Rhode Island College,
4a 11 of the catalogues between 1790 and 1820 which
are available in th© libraries of the Pennsylvania
The popularity of th© work in the colleges has
already boon partially indicated*
A more complete survey
is given in that unique Retrospect of the 18th Century
which was written by Samel Miller in 1803*3' singling out
Blair for special praise in th© section of th© work devoted
to Literature* Miller indirectly pays him higher tribute,
when, later in the work, he sumns.rt2©s the cows© of study
of all of the American colleges of the time*
Bach summary
which mentions the specific course of study taught includes
mention of Blair*s lectures*
Thus in 1806 Blair was th©'-
most popular rhetorical work in the colleges*
The colleges —
which specifically list Blair in their course of study Include
Harvard, Williams, Yale, William and Mary, Transylvania,
and Columbia*S By 1821 college catalogues had begun to be
printed, and to have listings of courses and of texts as
well as listings of students*
These further indicate the
Historical Society, the Massachusetts Historical Society,
Harvard College, and the Boston and Hew York Public libra­
ries have been examined, In each case, if the catalogue
was at all extensive, Blair was found listed for sale* A
partial list of the printings of Blair would includes
1*789, 1796, 1797, 1798, 1802, 1803, 1804, 1805, 1807, 1809,
1812, 1814, 1816, 1817, 1818, 1880, 1821, 1822, 1823, 1824,
1826, 1828, 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, etc* All of the above
printings are listed in the present Harvard library shelf
^Biosuel Miller, A Brief Retrospect of the 18th
Century (8 vols#; Hew Yorfc, 1863)*
%bid*, II, 276*
wide us® of Blair for rhetorical teaching*1
*Bx© dates during wfcieh Blair was listed for us© in
some of these colleges will indicate the scope of his
1824-1831, 1835-1850
1822-1827, 1840-1844
%il of th© college catalogues printed before 1850
which have been collected by Harvard College and th© Library
of th© Bureau of Education have been examined* these include
catalogues from Alabama* Allegany* Amherst, Andover,
Bowdoin, Brown, Centre, Charleston, Colby, Colgate, Columbia,
Dartmouth, Delaware, Denison, Georgia, George Washington,
Gettysburg, Hamilton, Harden*Sidney, Harvard, Hobart,
Illinois, Indiana, Kenyon, Marietta, Miami, Mi&dlebury,
Michigan, Mount Holyoke, Iforth Carolina, Oberlin, Pennsylvania,
Princeton, Rutgers, Shuntleff, Trinity, Union, Vermont,
Virginia, Wesleyan, Western Reserve, Williams, and. Tale
tfien the last date given is 1860 it is not
necessarily Indicated that the use of Blair was discontinued
at that time* At Williams and Tale, fox* example, Blair was
still In us© in I860*
^Although the first catalogue of Hamilton to record
the us® of Blair was that of 1854, the Laws of Hamilton
ColloiSC (Utica, 1813), show that Blair was studied by the
Seniors and Pe Orator© by th© Freshmen at that time*
A® a matter or fact* the only schools for which
courses of study arc given before 1880 which do not include
Blair* are Andover* Colgate* Denison* George Washington*
Marietta* 0berii»* and Rutgers,
It seems safe to assume
that Blair exerted constant and strong influence on rhe­
torical teaching in America from the date of the acquisition
of the lectures by Brow until long after the close of the
period under consideration in this study#
W m contributions which Blair made to the develop­
ment of rhetorical theory have been studied by many rhetori­
cal scholars* and summaries of Blair*3 rhetorical theory
have been made so often* that any effort to follow the same
procedure in this work would seem to be needlessly repe­
fwo treatments of Blair might be noted as especially
helpful for the student of 18th century English rhetoric*
d m toy w. p* Sandford,
will be
and the other toy H. P. Harding*5 It
of some value* however* to note Blair*® peculiar
contributions to later developmentsIn American rhetorical
theory and practice*
We observed earlier that theses In rhetoric began
*Nph® chart which is given In Appendix D will
further show the constant influence of Blair in American
collages* American editions of the lectures were printed
with regularity all during the perioa fiefore 1850* and for
%eme decades afterward* although at less frequent intervals*
®Qo* cit* * pp* 117-120*
^0g» git** 0h# 8* It mightalso be noted that
copies of Blair are available in almost every university
library of any sisse*
to b© more and more concerned with criticism and literary
taste during the period 1730*1785*
During the remaining
years in which theses were published by the colleges (until
about 1820), this tendency continued with increased strength*
Blair*© work must hay© given some impetus to this study, for
h© treats not only of public speaking, but also of the
writing of history, philosophy, poetry, and comedy*
lectures of Blair begin, in fact, with a discussion of taste,
genius, sublimity, all subjects leading to an increased
critical interest*
*fuat as Blair has entitled his lectures
w0u Khetorlo and Belles Bettr©®,** so does he give aid to an
Increasingly bellea-lettristic trend in much of American
rhetorical study*
Further contribution, although probably in a negative
sense, la mad® by Blair*a treatment of delivery#
Bis failure -
to offer any practical advice on delivery left the field open
to the elocutionist *» offer of the easy ws(§|) to elocutionary
Blair gaW© to th© American college® a doctrine resting on firm classical foundations, emphasising style to the
comparative exclusion of invention and arrangement, and pro*
Seated interestingly if not brilliantly*
But his doctrine
was probably of more aid to belle®*1©ttrea than to rhetoric#
dampbeil***Although Campbell »g Philosophy of
Bh&torl© was written some year® before Blair fs work was
published, it attained it® circulation in America later than
Blair# and never did have Blair1s wide popularity#
It was
ordered by Brown 1n the same year in which Blair was first
©rdered# 1*785, but early references to Oampbell are scattered#
Pour copies are listed in an early Harvard library catalogue*l
She Brown library catalogue in 1*795 lists Campbell among the
works on rhetoric« Hie first public offer of the book
found is that of the Boston Book Store in 1798#^ it is
significant that although some twenty-five or thirty books
on speech or rhetoric are listed by the Boston book sellers
as hawing been published In the United States; before 1804*
* first
"— -American
Campbell *s philosophy is mot among them#S ' fhe
edition found in the preparation of this study was a
Philadelphia edition of ISIS#
The work was evidently enjoying
some circulation at Harvard In 1819, for in August of that
year it was reported missing from the library#
within the
m©3Efe few years the work was widely listed in college courses of study# as the appended list indicates*
%lblioth», Harvard XX# She date of the composition
of this caiaScgSe '33?''r
$S5T Marvard library which is in the
Harvard Archives is mot definitely established# although 1790
is suggested#
^ataloroe of Bookafor Sale gr Circulation by w# P#
Blake at
%atalo^e of all thg Bo^s printed in the United
'in Boaton# ‘
'January#1804 >• '1 .
Hie speech works Included in this catalogue are listed in
Appendix B#
^Heportsito Overseers (MSB# in Harvard Archives)# I#
August 13# M&9 *..
Georg© Washington
IB28-1833, 1840*1850
la Interesting t© note that In almost ©very case
Campbell did not supplant Blair, but rather supplemented
the earlier work*
The only three schools in which Campbell
was used alone for any length of time were George Washington,
CSberlln, and Pennsylvania*
In many eases Blair, Campbell,
and Wfcately w r e ail Included in the same course of study.
It m y also bo significant that In most eases when Blair and
Campbell were used together, Campbell was used in the upper-©lass# and seems to have been considered more advanced*
Blair was commonly studied In the soplioaore year, and Campbell
in the Staler and. Senior*
The study of Campbell urns made
One of the requisites of the Master1® degree at Brown in
Campbell*S work, like that of Blair, is readily
available In modern libraries, and has been frequently reviewed
^Bronson, op* cit», p# 291.
toy students ©f rhetorical theory*
Again the studies toy
Sandford and Harding are ©specially helpful* Harding In
particular, considers not only the well known Philosophy of
jSaetprf©, tout also th© loss widely circulated, Lectures on
A© Harding points out, a study of tooth
of th© works is Important to th© student who would understand
Campbell*s place in rhetorical history*
£b® contributions which Campbell made to rhetoric
are admirably stated toy Hardings
In Book X of
©hieb may toe said to
Inyentlo w© find th©
Witir %o rhetorical
the Philosophy of Khetorio
real contributions of th©
theory* $hey ares
1* Th® Idea that a speech may hay© other'
objects than to persuade* fhat Is, it may en­
lighten th© understanding, please the imagination,
more the passions, or influence th© will* Xhis
conception of speeches appealing to man*a separate
faculties appears for th© first time In the history
of rhetorical theory*
2m the theory that belief or conviction
Is a successive-step process toy which the speaker
creates a desire, appeals to the hearers ’judgment
with reasons, Mien to their passions, and finally
to their will Inducing action is not unlike present
day teaching****
3* The recognition of logic or th© art of
reasoning as the tool of rhetoric rather than as the
foundation upon which an art of rhetoric is built****
^Sandford notes that no copy of the Lectures on
Systematic fheologr and Pulpit Eloquence was located in
iKeeoura© ofhi fiT™study* A London
edition of 1007 Is in the Harvard library, and notes for
this study have been taken from that work* American editions
were published In Boston and In Philadelphia in 1810*
4* 15a© conception of rhetoric as ft useful art
closely connected with the understanding and the will*,.1
Campbell la Influenced strongly by contemporary
philosophy, and especially by Lock© and Him©* Hi® attempt
te relate this contemporary thought with classical rhetorical
doctrine is m e of his stoat significant contributions to
rhetorical development, and offers to rhetoric its soundest
opportunity for change and improvement* His leadership here
has been followed by many modern writers#
Lectures on Eloquence* Berman*® Hhetorle, and Day*®
Hhetorlc^ in particular# show the influence of Campbell*®
concept of rhetoric# These works will be discussed later in
this study#
Campbell had much more, to offer a® original contri­
bution to the field of rhetoric than did Blair, and thus it
seems somewhat peculiar that Blair enjoyed so much more vogue
in the tJfclted states than did Campbell# Several factor®
help to explain this#. In the first place, Blair is easier — ■
and clearer reading than is Campbell* Second, his inclusion
%ardlng, OP# eit#* pp.# 158-159*
se > M ^ p* ***•
^Ebenezer Porter, 'Lecture® on Eloquence and Style
(Andover, 1836}# Specific^"acJaS^^ia^ent'is ma&e to Campbell
for the discussion of the ends of eloquence In Lecture Two•
^S* P* Hewman, A Practical System of Hhetorlo
(Portland, 1827) * The preface s S
of rhetoric are in agreement with Cambell’s concepts#
H* Day, Elements of Rhetoric (4th ed*j Hew
York, 1859), Chapter W #
#f muoh or the beXXes*Xettristic la hie Lectures was not
only a contribution to fee growth or feat study In America*
but affected greatly fee popularity of hie writings#
acceptance of fee new field gave it increased popularity,
and this popularity, in fern, aided Blair’s own circulation
and influence# third, Blair *s tremendous popularity as a
preacher undoubtedly aided fee sale of his works* His sermons
were imported by Americans long before fee Lectures were even
feately»*~Almost immediately after its publication in 1828, Kicliard feahely% Elements of Bhetorle found popu*
larity In fee felted States# Some students hare gone so far
as be assert feat fe&tely*® work replaced Campbell and Blair
all ewer America,^ but although fee work was popular, it
^implemented fee other two rather than replaced them* fee
first American edition of feately was published in Cambridge
in 1832, and within fee next few years, college catalogues
show wide use of fee work#
fee following are fee known college adoptions®
ifypleal is fee comment of Donald Hayworth, ’’fee
Training of Public Speakers in America,” Quarterly Journal of
Stoeeeh, XIV (1928), 495* wBofe of these ©lair and Campbell!
were deshined to be superseded by Whately*s Khetoric#"
Ceorg© Washington
Mou*it Holyoke
1833-1834* 1842-1846
In almost every case either Blair or Campbell was ^
used in conjunction with lately and in many instances both
of the other works supplemented ihately*
ihobeXy has been oven mors thoroughly studied than
either Blair or Campbell* In addition to detailed comments
on his theory in Saadford#X a special study
has been made the subject of a doctoral
dissertation*2 $he work is also readily available in modern
college libraries*
ihile SliafeoXy** strong emphasis on logical proof
undoubtedly exerted great influence on American rhetoric*
this and other contributions have been too frequently pointed
out be need repeating at this time*
itiately gave special —
©agjhaais to invention* and in this emphasis presented a
faithful and able Interpretation of Aristotle* Another
3*San&ford# op* eit«» pp* 121-126*
%/* M* Parrish* "Hichard fhately,s Elements of
Khetorle* Parte X and XX t A Critical Edition11 (Unpublished
2>h*B* dissertation* Department of Speech* Cornell
diversity* 1929)*
contribution of lately should bo stressed* For almost
eighty years there had been developing in America and In
England a movement ebibh has become known as the "Elocution*
movement# Its exponents felt that delivery had been too long
neglected in rhetoric* and devoted works exclusively or
primarily to "elocution*a or delivery*
"Systems" were
developed and presented with all the pomp and ceremony that
an elocution teacher could give them* Although Blair and
Campbell had supported the so-called "natural" system* they
had taken no strong stand against the mechanical emphasis that seemed to be gaining ground*
lately presented a strong -
protest against this popular movement* not because he thought
delivery unimportant* but because he felt that methods In
vogue were 'more likely to do harm than good* To put It In
his own words#
Probably not a single Instance could be found
of any one who has attained*' by the study of any system
of Instruction that has hitherto appeared* a really
good Bsliveryi but there are many*
probably nearly
as many as have fully tried the experiment* «** A o
have by this means been totally spoiled;
who have
fallen irrecoverably Into an affected style of
anputtoas* worse* in all respects* than their original
moSeor Belivery**
His indictment is constantly that the sort of train­
ing projected by the elocutionists tends to make a speaker
unnatural* non^cowsmleatlve* Ineffective* and he offers
Instead his own concept of the natural method of delivery#
^h&bely# Elements of Rhetoric * pp# 589-390. These
notes are from a Boston and" Oaoibridg0 lwedition of 1856*
It seems difficult to reconcile the continued growth,
and popularity of th© elocution movement with th© popularity
of this work so strongly opposed to It, but It is Interesting
to note that Ifmtely’s influence here was not particularly
strong* for example, the catalogues of Colby, Mlddlebury,
Mount Holyoke, south Carolina, and Yale note that lately is
studied, ^excepting Fart XV*” thus fcately*© indictment of
elocutionary teaching may hare been more historically sig­
nificant than extemporaneously influential*
•Ihe only serious English competitor to
the domination of Blair, Campbell, and Hhately was furnished
by Alexander Jamieson* His
of Bhetorlyal and Polite
first published in 1818, had its first American
edition printed in Bow Huron in 1820, and soon achieved same
circulation# Fwenty-four American editions had appeared by
1844. $te» list of colleges using Jamieson follows:
More elementary than any of the other works, and —
devoted almost entirely to style, Jamieson was most fre­
quently studied in the freshman year, and then supplemented
with one or more of the other works* Since Jamieson’s
doctrine has been largely neglected by students of Kngliah
s»d American rhetoric# a brief outline of the work may he
of service*
Book One treats of language ana of style as the
foundations of all eloquence* Books
and ’Three are de­
voted to the structure of Language, to principles of general
grammar, and to the nature and structure of sentences* Book
four deals with figures* and classifies and discusses their
use* fhe fifth hook deals with the problem of the cultivation
of a critical taste*: and with the pleasures. ■to be derived
therefrom* ill of the emphasis up to this point has been on
written composition, and only in Book Six, on the general
characteristics of style*, do we find much recognition of
rhetoric as an art connected with both oral and written dis­
course* fhe whole of this sixth book is built largely on
Blair and .tones# but only one chapter of it* deals especially
with oral communication# fhe divisions of speeches are
listed as the Introduction* division# narration, Explication
{**the argumentative or reasoning part of a discourso1*)# and
brief treatment of the building of a speech
which follows Is classical throughout* fhe emphasis in Book
Six is placed on invention* as can be seen by the opening
11th respect to arguments# three things are
re<suisite* first the invention of them; secondly*
Jamieson, op*»* Book Six, Chapter 5.
V m >.. P* 279.
th© preper disposition and arrangement of them* and,
thirdly, tit© expressing of thorn In such. a stylo and
naaner, as to give tham their full force* The first
of those, Iny^otion^ is, without doubt, the most
material, ana the ground-work of the rest**
Itoy references are made to Quintilian, and the
treatment, although brief, seems sound# pathos, or emotional
proof, Is considered in considerable detail#
last book
of the frssayfe deals with poetry#
Jamieson*© Rhetoric was thus primarily a work on
prose exposition, derated to the development of a critical
taste and an accurate and pleasing prose style# Persuasion
was of only minor importance*
*Ehus during the years in which American rhetoric was
to develop, the control was clearly held by great English
works# ,Blair -made M s great contribution in popularising th®
critical and belles-lettrletlc phase of rhetorical training,
Campbell carried the classical doctrines of persuasion into
contact with contemporary psychological theories and knowledge,
and ffh&iely presented the /Aristotelian doctrine of Invention
as th© cor© of rhetoric# Jamieson brought the modern counter­
part of the older rhetorics of style *■** a rhetoric of compo**
1S*Ma.# P. STO*
^Another English work, David Irving1© Elements of
English Composition (PhiXadeIphia, 1803), should also be
SiSioned, for although there is no record of use that has
been found, at least two American editions were published*
It is devoted entirely to style In written composition, and
there is neither recognition nor treatment of any phase of
persuasion or of speech#
eifcion seoking accuracy and beauty, with little concept ot
03r Interest In persuasion*
>gory»^*0eor^e Gregory fe letters on Literature*
fficsyQSltlon were also published in America** Ho
evidence has been found which would indicate that the book
was need la any of the collegea# but publication of th©
.American edition seem® to offer evidence of some circulation
and popularity*
Although the fectters stress style* five are devoted
to Invention and to the kinds of oratory* The tone of the
work, is classical* and readers are urged to study Cicero,
Aristotle* Quintilian and Ward*9 -iA sentence in one of the
early letters explains the author fs whole point of viewt
dive at all times more attention to your
thoughts than to your words*.**.*the elegant part of
speaking or writing is at least a distinct study,
and therefore ought not to be neglected; though it
will be found of little value without a sound
knowledge of things-#*
published in America in 1816*
The work lack® significance
^(Philadelphia* 1809)*
M t» P* * « *
S£ M s . >
s* 127*
4(Poughkeepsie ).
In that it la a pr&otle&l digest
Blair and of Hurray1a
It defines English composition as consisting
two distinct brandies t One is a grammar which *teaches
the correct dependencies of words11! the other Is a practi­
cal onion of logic and rhetoric* which teaches order andelegance in the conception and arrangement of ideas
Despite this domination of the American rhetorical ---—
scene by these ..English rhetorics* there began to develop
early in the period under consideration an indigenous rhetoric*
influenced by* but distinct from conte»5>orary English
American writings to deal with ^
rhetoric were several works designed to present a large store
of jolscellaneows practical material to the young clerk or
business man*
fby young Secretary *8 guide was In its sixth -
edition by 1W7* and one of the most popular of these works*
teefge Fisher1® fhc American Instructor* or Young Man's Beat had a ninth edition published in Philadelphia in
>» Its treatment of rhetoric Is typical of th© works ©f
this kind*
Rhetoric 11is the Art of speaking in th© most ele­
gant and persuasive manner; or as my herd Bacon defines it*
the Art of applying and addressing the Dictates of Reason to
th© Fancy, and of reeojamending them there so as to attract
th# mil and Desires*”
It 1# intersating to note that th©
U r at use of Elocution In the sens© of delivery which ha#
been found1la in this work., when the parts of logic are given
a# Invention, fedgmoub, Memory, and "the Art of Elocution
or Delivering#”
Witherspoon*««*»%here was no real development of a
rhetorical doctrine in America prior to that crpoimded in
the lecture# given by President Witherspoon of Princeton
during the year# between 1768 and 1704*
Although fatherspoon
was educated in Scotland, the lectures present a rhetoric
which is sufficiently different from its Scottish contempo*
rani©# to be classified as American, and It was in fact
developed at Princeton#
fhe lectures were never planned for publication, and
they were first published with Witherspoon*# collected
writings after his death, and later printed as a separate
they open with a discussion of the place held by
nature and by art in the development of an orator*
1® strong in the belief that the orator is made and not bom*
%i#k©r, on* eit** p* 502*
% M a . » ?• 3G0*
%h© note# for this discussion ©re taken from a
special edition printed for schools and academies* Jfohn
Witherspoon, Decturti on
(Woodward *a 3rd ed* 5 fhiladelphia, 1810)»
'’Some degree of natural capacity la evidently necessary to
the Instruction or study of this art, in order to produce
any effect**#.*
In this sense a man must be b o m to lt*n^
In all other ways, however* training is held to be the answer*
Bud© enthusiasm Is not enough to produce great oratory* but
at the same time* the worst of all orators Is the trained
Incompetent *
Witherspoon concludes that in th© ^middle
regions, of genius’’ are to be found those persons reaping the
greatest gain from the study of rhetoric*
Am attitude toward oratorical training, which reveals
at once the practice of the time and the practical ends
sought at Princeton* is taken by Witherspoon in the second
the best form of training Is held to be a combi** -
nation of wise Study and Imitation of great models, united
with study and exercise in translating:, narrating, imitating,
describing, arguing, and finally in persuading*
Hther spoon*
1 believe it would be a great i&provememt
of the laudable practice in this college of daily
orations, if they were chosen with more Judgment,
and better suited to the performer© s Almost all
the pieces we have delivered to use are of the
last or bisect kind, warm passionate declamation*
It Is no wonder that some should perform these 111,
niio have never tried the plainer manner of simple
h M S k * p» 148*
%bld*» pp* 1SCK10B,
%bid», PP *. 160^161*
Forth©** advice ©a the training of th© orator In­
ductee sfcrosa on the need for seouring a «ound garaitBaatlcal
background, and the supplementing of ails by the acquisition
Of a correct style wliieh avoids "blemishes, fallen into by
accident, maintained by Habit*" Constant stress is on
•* • 1’
practical IsiowXeclg© and purpose*
**Clear conceptions ***«>•<*
expressions, and reality Is a great assistant; to
iMSrtiogi* #*+ [a consciousness 0 ^
&i© reality of everything
SMTP** te deliver a speaker from* *• *everything Xu language
e* carriage that Is
fhen tJba plan of1th© entire series of lectures is
laid out 1
%m To treat of language in general, its
qualities and poser# *»** eloquent speech
and its
history «&& practice as an art#
fo consider oratory as divided into its
three great kinds, the sublime — slispX©
and mixed, *•
their characters **-* their distinctions
and. their use#*
To consider oratory a & divided into its
constituent parte# Indention, disposition, style,
unoiation, and gesture#
4* fb consider- it a# its. object la different,
liiformation* demonstration, persuasion, entertainment©
6# To consider it as its subject 1# different*
fee pulpit, the bar, th# senate or any deliberative
6* To consider th© structure and part® of a
particular discourse, their order, connexion,
proportion, -and ends*
PP» 17S-174*
%■ BecapitulatIon, and an Inquiry into the
principle# of baste, ©r of beauty and gracefulness#
as applicable not only to oratory, but to all the
other {Gommonly called) the fine arts** —
aom© items are worth noting in Htherspoon1® lectures*
$he whole point of view is based solidly on classical sources*
As the author puts it# ‘'Aristotle ha® laid open the princi­
ples of persuasion as a logician and philosopher, and Cicero
has done It in a still more masterly manner as a philosopher,
scholar, orator and statesman**®
fhe lectures devoted directly to stylo (¥~XI) stress
naturalness and directness of diction, and references are
frequent to Longinus, Bollih, Earnsa, and other contemporary
i&rd*s classification of stylos is opposed, and
Bltherspoon prefer® to label them the sublime, simple and
dome of the most individual treatment of material
come® in iitherspoon10 discussion of invention*
Hot© M s
opening sentences preparatory to the discussion of materials j
Invention* this is nothing else but
finding cut the sentiments by which a speaker
©r writer would e;ml&ta what he has to propose,
and the argument® by which he would enforce it*
This subJsot is treated of w r y largely in most
of the book® of oratory, in which X think they
Judge very wrong* In by far the greatest number
of ease®, there Is no necessity 0? teaching it,
j p# 1V5* W m lectures are given to th© first
item in tHe list above, six to the second, two to the third,
one each to the fourth# fifth, and sixth, and the final
lecture to the swB&sary*
, p* 191*
*«n& where It Is necessary, % believe it exceeds
the power of m
to teach it with effect, The
very first time* indeed, that a young person
begins to compose, the thing la so new to him
that it is apt to appear dark and difficult*
and in a maimer impossible* But as soon as he
becomes a little accustomed to it* he finds
much more difficulty in selecting what Is proper,
than in inventing something that seem© to be
tolerable****X will therefore not spend much
time on invention, leaving it to the spontaneous
production of capacity and experience#*
This view of invention had often been expressed be*
fore-, notably by Campbelli even Quintilian prefaces his long
discussion of jnventlo with some extenuating comments*
Although Witherspoon thinks lightly of invention, he treats
of the classical doctrine liberally in later material on the
ends of speech, and tm the types of speeches*
The discussion of arrangement is a plea for order,
so that a speech may have clarity, force, beauty, and
The discussion of style is brief, since the first
lectures have already dealt with it*
Pronunciation and
gesture' are treated with an attitude which gives no indi­
cation of the growing elocution movement*,
atartlingly modem
In his approach, Witherspoon offers the following rules*
Study great sincerity! try to forget every
purpose but the very end of speaking, information
and persuasion*
&esrn distinct articulation*
Keep to the tone of key of dialogue, or
common conversation, as much as possible* In common
PP* 2553—234*
^Ibld* * pp* 255-245*
discourse where there la no affectation* men
apeak properly*
Be accustomed to decency of manners
in th© heat company*
Adjust your delivery to your subject*
and to your own capacity#*
It la strange indeed that students of rhetorical
theory have not referred more often to Witherspoon, for in
still another field he presents a doctrine which appears in
many later works*
He emphasizes sharply the point of view _
which holds that speeches need to be pointed directly at
distinct aim or ends*
fhe ends a speaker or writer may be said
to aim at are* information, demonstration, per"*
suasion, and entertainment, I need scarce tell
you that these are not wholly distinct, but that
they are frequently intermixed, and that more
than one of them may be in view at the same time#
Persuasion may also be used in a sense that in­
cludes them all#
fhe treatment of these ends is also unusual#
Information requires fullness, precision, and order*
Demonstration is the end in scientific writing or speaking,
and It requires perspicuity, order, and strength*
Used in
the Impartial search after truth, it demands no ^passionate
declamation on the one hand, or sallies of wit and humor on
the other*w Persuasion Is when we would bring th© reader
or hearer to a determinate choice, and here all of the devices
p. 350.
sIbld.. p. 252.
Of oratory are In order#
igntertalnment is the last end,
and, Witherspoon holds that Don Quixote provides the perfect
A last section deals with oratory of the pulpit, bar,
and assembly, and there is some final discussion of taste*
Witherspoon presents a significant work In American
rhetorical theory*
For some reason the work had a rather
restricted circulation*
Ho reference has been found which
would indicate that the lectures had any contemporary Influ­
ence, and they have been studied by few modern scholars#
Adams*— The second American rhetoric to appear was —
a collection of the lectures given at Harvard College by John
Quincy Adams, first holder of the Boylston Professorship of
Rhetoric and oratory at that institution*^ Thus, like the
first American rhetoric it was a collection of lectures
rather than a formal textbook, and, also like the first, it
seems to have exerted little direct Influence*3 This is not
1|bldt, pp. 860-268.
John Quincy Adams, lectures on Rhetoric and Oratory
(Cambridge, 1810}*
typical modem guess as to th© Influence of
Adams is that of Van Wyck Brooks, The Flowering of Hew
and (Hev* ©d*, Hew Tork, 1937 )7 p. W , rHis lectures ***•
vered at Harvard College in 1806, revealed his powers of
organised reflection* #**Harvard was prepared to hear the
doctrine*•*#that, while liberty was the parent of eloquence,
eloquence was the stay of liberty*#**Adams##**w&s certainly
the most competent Instructor the college could have found*
His lectures served as a text book for the rising generation
of public speakers*H Carl Russell Fish has It that uXn 1806
entirely surprising however* for other works* notably Blair
and Campbell, had presented more original treatment® of
classical rhetorical doctrine#
^he background of the Adams1 lectures is important*
for the very material to be covered in the lectures was
organised by the Harvard Overseers rather than by Adams*
Nicholas BoyIston, a wealthy Boston merchant, bequeathed to
Harvard college the sum of fifteen hundred pound®, for the
foundation of % Professorship of Rhetoric and Oratory*
In 1804, when the Corporation felt that the sum had reached
an amount justifying the establishment of the chair, they
called it the Boylston Professorship for Khetoric and Oratory
in Harvard College, and framed elaborate rules for its
duties and its materials*
fheae rules provide the background
John Quincy Adams became professor of rhetoric and oratory
at Harvard, and in 1810 he published his lectures, which had
wide effect in introducing this popular subject into college
teaching** (She Rise of Common Han Q*ew York, 1637], p. 206}*
fhe facts would seem to establish a somewhat
different conclusion* Wm have already seen that Rhetoric
was well established in the curricula of the colleges long
before John Quincy Adams was born* Two years before the
Boylston professorship became active, a similar ehalr had
been endowed at Brown, and there had been since 1753 a
Professor of English and Oratory at Pennsylvania* In addition
to these fact®, it is worthy of note that only one edition
was ever published of Adams* hectares, and that no reccrd has
been found indicating that they were included in the course
of study even at Harvard, not to mention any other insti­
tution* The work has become known popularly as the first
great American rhetoric, but more positive evidence of use
and influence eon be found for almost any other American
rhetorical work published before 1850 than for Adams1 Lectures*
s«Jalncy, or?, ott.. II, 290-291.
£o* ****** ssatiam*
shall see* explain much of
their orgaM action and oonbenfc* sxeerpts from the ^Eulea*
/Status* and Statutes ©f the BoyIston Professor of Bhetoric
and Oratory in lansift College" follow#
It shall to the principal duty of the said
professor t© instruct the students of th© seweral
class©© la the nature, excellence, and acquisition
of th© important art of Rhetoric**##or In the theory
and practice of writing and speaking well.#*
It was further provided that in private lectures
there,should he at least two lectures a week to Freshmen#
In one of which he shall instruct them from
.some rhetorical treatise In &abln or dreek* as
dieero IN# Orator©* Aristotle*© Rhetoric* longlnus
on th© Sublime* or sms other celebrated treatise
on oratory#+ #*an& In th© other* he shall by precept
and ©xascpX©* instruct and exercise them, in the
arts of reading and speaking with propriety*^
3?o the sophomores he was also to .give two lectures*
one from*
well approved rhetorical text hook
In mngXlah# marked portions of which they shall
recite to M m memoriter# and In th© second h© shall
instruct them In speaking and' composition alter­
nately# that is# one© in a fortnight he shall
Improve their speaking by remarks on dialogues#
speeches, deelamatlons# etc* * delivered by them
in M s presence# and once in a fortnight* «**h© shall
inspect and correct their written translations of
elegant passages of last,in and &r©ek assigned by M m
for that- purpose# and In th© latter part of the
year* ©peelmens- of their own compositions a© their
progress In letters may permit*©
Records of Overseers* IV* May 1* 1304+
P* 402.
to© Itotimeblon©
. t
th© teaching of Jtolors and
Senior© i© lea© apaelfic* hut ©trees©© a combination of
composition and lecture#
the Overseers to their to*
©tarnations torn, to th© tutlio lectures# toeir instructions
prorid© an adMxtoX© summary of Adam© * hook#
to the public lectures* hold at least one© a week,
the Boylston professor is to#
*#**glv© a brief account of th© rise and
progress of oratory among to# ancient©#*#*© Mo*
graphical sketch of some of their most'celebrated
orators****1 # shall ©jsplato its nature, object*
.and- several kinds5 ©how Its connexion with all th#
powers of the Mad* natural and acquired, and toon
dlvi&e^it into^it#' constituent parts* invention#
^^luriag"^ ^C^'l^shall m ^ e^i©1'©!^^© most
useful, subdivisions# and discuss toe- most i
portent particles* coimaonly observed and discussed
by eatoemt writer© on Bhetoric and Oratory*#**^
toes© divisions are then taken up to. more detail by
to© Overseers# Invention. Is to be developed so that the
***#toall treat of internal and external
topics, tod ©tat© of a controversy, th© different
arguments* proper to demonstrative# deliberative#
and judicial discourses| of -toe character and
address of a finished orator* and of toe., n m and
excitation of th# paselans* 8
In disposition*
*«**h© ©hall treat of toe properties and
uses of each of the parts of a regular discourse*
such as* Introduction, Narration* Proposition*
OonfIrmatIon, Confutation* and Conclusion* adding
HfeMU* P. 404,
suitable i>«b«u & s on digression, transition,
*“ * < ■ * * » - « — 1
In toe lecture® on Elocution*
«***he shall first treat generally and
largely1of Elegance# Composition# and Dignity,
and of their respective requisites* and then
particularly of the several species of style*
as toe low* middle, sublime * etc**#* and likewise
mf toe various- style of epistles, dialogues#
history* poetry* and orations*®
Finally* in the lectures on Pronunciation, the
###* Shall urge toe I w n s © importance of a good
delivery* and treat particularly of toe management
of to# voice* and of gestnrej interspersing due
cautions against what is anskward or affected; with
directions for to© attainment of proper action# and
incessantly pressing to# superior excellence of a
natural manner*^
It is further recommended that toe ancients will
provide to# finest source Material for all of too above*
flhct* toe lectures turn to sacred eloquence*
****toe professor will not only aceoim&odate to# principles and precept® of toe ancient
■#iet©rlc**-**but' also proscribe toe special ad­
ditional rules* ***requlsite to form an accomplished
pulpit o r a t o r * * * m a y examine and compare toe
properties of ancient and modern languages#•**
delineate toe characteristic features of toe
most celebrated Creek# Homan, and English
Historitoe* Orators* Foots* and Mvin#s**#*but
above all* let Mm. inspire his pupils with a
lively perception and relish of the inimitable
simpllcitf* beauty# and sublimity of toe sacred
P. 406.
gIb ia « .
p. 404.
gIbia., p. 406.
pp. 406-407.
On July 86# XS03, John Quincy Adams was unanimously
elected to the post, and whan his lectures ware published
la 1810 It was to bo soon that ho had followed instructions#
fhe lectures present, almost without change or addition,
the- classical doctrine and organisation ashed for. by the
Bewmsuw^-flfoa next American rhetoric to appear was —
Witten m
a text, and Its ■©aphasia is such that it presents
am American eo^lememt to Jamieson., rather than to lately,
Cambell, or Blair*- the author was Samel
$teman, pro- -
feasor of rhetoric in Bowdoin College from 1822 to 1830*^
& e work had immediate popularity at several American, colleges*
Bowdoin used the work from the beginning, and It continued
there, through 1850*
Amherst used the work from 1828 to 1046,
Sewman replacing Jamieson there in 1828* lewrn also replaced
Jamieson at lesleysn in 1847*
Other colleges using the work
^Horace 0* Bahskopf, ^John <$iincy Adams* theory and
Practice of public Speaking^ (Unpublished PE# 'HU- dissertation,
Department of Speech, Inivarsity of Iowa, 1056), p* 12, notes
that *Bwl©s of the Boylaton professorship repaired him. to
maintain a classical point of view In his teaching,• but
bases his. statement on Adam*© own statements rather than on
an examination ©f the rules of the office* Several as*
sumptions made by Hahakopf might have been Interpreted more
adequately had the manuscript of these rules been examined#
m e Bsbakopf, pp* 13, 14, 10, 10, 36, 37, .and especially the
conclusions drawn on pp * 32*40,
% * f # Bowman, A Practical System of Rhetoric
(Portland, Maine, 1007^
fr<^'an Andover
edition of 1033* Sue work passed through more than 60
of time Include th© followings
'^fc. l*ML*h.41Mb<4hk
Mount Holyoke
Th© work If aptly ©hars&terised by. lbs sub-title*
of,..0tylof.,,3^fo3E*rod from fcmnles of —
to which la
Burly in the work Berncm presents what he
feels are the advantages to he attained by the study of rheto­
fbey ares
of rhetoric| fg)
Some &e<gmlnt&no© with the philosophy
cultivation of- th# taste* and in
connexion, the eatereife of th© imagination5 (3) Skill in
the nee of language! (4} S&&11 in literary criticism! and
The formation of a good style***"
The whole structure of the work holds to this ob- ^© of correct and graceful writing.*
fhe, first chapter
treats of wThought as the foundation of good writing**
it Heimnn ©plains that rhetoric is connected with other
fields of instruction* going to grammar to find the rules
for correctness In the use of language* and to logic to find
the various modes of conducting an argument*
Hewmanfs work he bells
Hence, in
% n some parts, eompanat1v ely
%P#wman, op* cit., introduction, III*
little is s&l&*.***Other part## which are thought to belong
laore appropriately to 2&tetorie# ere more fully treated#**
Those parte which lawman feels belong to rhetoric
are indicated by the other chapter headings
literary Taste# in Verbal Criticism, On Style#
On Taste, On
Here is a
rhetoric of style# stressing wit-ten eomsunication to the oxelnbion of oral# and eoneormed not at all with persuasion in
an mttwo sense#
written in a time in which there was
developing a distinct art of oral commnnication, "elocution#*
this equally distinct art of belles' lettree was also gaining
special attention# and lawman*® r&teterie m ® the first work
of an American author to indicate that interest*
dhsnniia^#^4lthouA <Bumning*s he-oiure® on Hhetoric ^
g were published for the first, time in 1056, he
held the Boy!aton chair at .Harvard from -1010 to 1851#® and
thus the lecture® portray to some extent the rhetorical
doctrine taught at Harvard during those years*
Any evidence as to th® general influence of Channing
®r * T* OhajtminE
(Boston# 1056)*
•**, * #
W 1 * i I iw ip iw iw u iin iw I ' l j p . .*
%oseph Mo&ean was Boylaton Professor from 1809 to
IBl1?# but so far a® is known he left no written rhetorical
dootrln© and no notes on M s public lectures have been found
in this study* The catalogue of his library which la in­
cluded in Appendix f would, seem to indicate that he had a
broad -knowledge of his field# combining classical interest
with contemporary writings*
Am«riean wtaterleal theory before X8©0 is most vague#
S a w am inaugural oration upon assuming the Boylston chair
in 1819 which ie reprinted in the hectares# and m y have had
some circulation earlier#
it is in the tradition of the
rules of the office however, and treats almost entirely of
the rise and fall ©# ©Xo<|u©nc©* it is of interest to note
that ©banning feels that there is relatively little place
for great oratory in a democracy, and especially in sedate
and settled America, tat this is criticism of oratory rather
than rhetorical theory#
Is a matter of fact, most evidence available seems —
to indicate that Oh&nning m s more Interested in belles
lettres than in rhetoric, more interested in literature than
in oratory#
Per example, a student m o graduated from Harvard
in X8S3, Samuel Osgood, later writes*
X remember with especial pleasure oar
evenings with 'Chaucer and Spencer at frofessor
m# -f* banning*© study####*© of us does not
bless him every day that we write an Mn§. iah
sentence for his pure taste ata admirahl© elm*
plicityt I remember also a little coterie who
met. to declaim choice pieces-of prase and vers©
with the professor of elocution, our e&e
ttaslastle friend, Hr# Berber**##^'
fan Wyok Brooks makes this evaluation of Oh*mning*s
Jn fact, the whole Mew England Renaissance*
pp «
% # B« Morison, fhree Centuries of Harvard# p# 361#
mats b© spring so largely from Charming1s pupils*
Emerson* Holies* Dana* Motely* Partaan* to name
only S' few*
the. question might have boon
asked* Did ©hanning cause ibt
Changing with bis bland* superior look*
©old m » moon beam on a frozen brook*
HiiXe the polo student* shivering in his shoes*
Sees from his theme the turgid rhetoric ooze*
that the rhetoric oofed from his pupil*e
themes* under his bland eye* »<* that is to say*
the fturgid* rhetoric* *«* was one- of the secrets
Of his influence| for turgid rhetoric was the bans
of letters in the days of the Boston orators* the
orators idiom every boy adored**-**
One of his pupils (fhoream) kept M s
college themes* and
list of some of the subjects
that Chaiming set might go m far m any other fact
to. explain why his pupils were to go so far#***
Keeping a private Journal* *. ♦She Duties and Dangers
of 0onformlty* ***fhe Superior and the .Comoon Man#
fhese were the- subjects that ©hanntng discussed
and urged.- M s 'little classes,t© discuss* these and
the topics of his brilliant h m turem»*♦*.He showed
how the world in general to3JSS SSSsI the writers
who bear the xanmigtakabl© stamp* the pungency and
native sincerity* of their own time and place*!
. f t
later he add* another comment on ©banning*© criticism
of oratory* VA student #10 imitated Everett*s style was sure
to b# corrected by Edward ©banning* who hated a purple patch
as be hated the devil#
ill would seem to indicate that ©banning had con~ —
sl&erable influence* more literary than oratorical »
torieal primarily in the sense of style* Although influenced
to some degree by the laws of the office* ©banning *s ©mpba-
iBrooks* m * clt** pp# 43*44*
%bld«» p. SU»S*
fie Is far from bl|ab of Adams, and ho takes many liberties
witt the laws tbm4 Adams followed so rigidly*
After the pitting oration already referred to*
suggests %hat be wishes to free rhetoric from its
sad plight which find© it ^distinguished for fallacies or
tawdriness or at best for a. charm of manner*11 to start In.
this he forms his own definition of the field*
when reduced to a system- In boohs# is a body of rules derived
from experience and observation, extending to all communication by language* and designed to make it efficient*®
this is amplified in discussion to show that rhetoric properly
should include all forms of composition from oratory to
painting and sculpture*
fhe- duties of rhetoric are t©
analyse and explain the style or method of persuasive address,
to instruct a man in finding and arranging the arguments,
to give instruction in speaking, and to teach the principles
of exposition or good style*
A .chapter on delivery follows, stressing the natural
the fourth chapter treats of demonstrative oratory,
the- fifth of deliberative, and the sixth and seventh of
In each of these the treatment is broadly classic
e&l, with only occasional contributions by ©banning himself*
la on© of these h© again stresses his belief that the days
t o m t a g # on* clt*« p* 61*
%bia». pp. 3B*»S3*
Sffelit.. pp. 35-40.
Of great oratory are dead*
toliberative oratory He holds
should. He restrained, for the Ignorant Athenian mob la gone,
and Oomgreas Is harder to inflame*^
Another chapter treats of the different approach
needed by the advocate and the debater, or the difference
between legal argument and political debate*
then three
chapters are devoted to eloquence of the pulpit*
All of this
advice Is- general, but based on classical doctrine, and
worded clearly and interestingly,
fhe rest of the work Is
probably closer to Qhsnntogto real Interest*
Opening with
a discussion of literary tribunals, he goes on to suggest
methods by which the student may get literary criticism,
particularly advising the aspiring author to listen to the
critical remarks of his friends*
Remaining chapters treat
0$ a writer’s preparation,, his habits of reading, his habits
of w i t tog, his need for effective style, and suggestions
for achieving enduring literary fame*
’.^-Another rhetorical document was produced by
the requirements of Andover Academy** fhere Ebenesser Porter -held the Bartlett professorship of Sacred Rhetoric from 1813
to 1831, and during those years delivered a series of lectures
which were collected and published after his death*
P* 76*
%bene«er Porter, lectures on Eloquence and Style*
Revised by Rev# hyman laatthews (indoveri^
* '
was to achieve great fame and influence with M s writings
on S&ocutlon or delivery, hut this work, which cowers the
whole field of rhetoric, la little known, and no direct ~
evidence of any Influence outside of the academy has been
According to the. statutes of the academy, the lectures
were required to cover the topentanee of oratory, the to*
vention and disposition of topics, the several parts of a
regular discourse# elegance and dignity of style, proper
saanagement of the voice and correct gesture, the importance
Of a natural manner, the adaptation of the principles and
.rules of ancient rhetoric to the modern species of oration
know as the sermon# and. other matter* relating most strictly
to preaching#
Even these requirements# although clearly classical
to their conception# were weighted more heavily with delivery
than were the rhetorics of the ancients#
It is interesting
to observe how this specialist in the field of delivery
makes, ills lecture# almost strictly lecture# on delivery and
style#. Sen lecture# are given to eloquence, and eight of
these treat of delivery*
fee seven additional lectures
which complete the work are on style*
She first two lectures deal primarily with the
history of eloquence, and It Is a fairly corslet© and accurate
^Xbid# * p* 9* fhe laws of the office are quoted
by the editor '
in the Introduction to the work.
Aristotle, Quintilian, and Cicero are mentioned
as the greatest writers on the art of eloquence, and Campbell
receives the highest praise among the modems*
lectur© provides a transition to the
T\ie third
of ©locution as
synonymous with eloquence, and the remaining eevexx present
porter*a beliefs on delivery*3’
Warn lectures on style form the second great division
of the book*
He opens them by eliminating invention from
his work;
Invention would claim the first place in
the plan of these Lectures, as sketched in the
statutes of the Seminaryi but 1 shall omit the
consideration of this for the present* In passing
however, it xoay be proper to remark that sterility
©f genius, wherever it exists, is not to be cured
by rhetoric * •Mosfc men find much ©ore difficulty
in selecting what is proper, than inventing some­
thing that seems to be tolerable*»**X have known
some ministers whose principal defect was mere
■barrenness of invention* fhis Is exceedingly
rarei because far the greatest number of bad
speakers have enough to say, such as it is, and
generally the more absurd and incoherent, the
greater the abundance* $
Xhus porter seems to take the saw position that was
taken earlier by Idtberspeon as to the meaning and Importance
of invention in rhetoric, and. he has nothing further to say
about it later in the lectures*
fh© remaining lectures stress the value of a thorough
Ifees© beliefs are consistent with Porter fs separate
writings on delivery, and are more suitably discussed in the
following chapter dealing with the elocution movement in
%orter, op* eit»* p* 106*
knowledge of English, of grammatical purity, and of perspi­
cuity, strength, beauty, and sublimity in stylo*
and longimis are the most frequently quoted classical
authors, and Blair and Carapb&ll are relied on for many
fcltoft*ly in the nineteenth century there was
also published In .Emeries another rhetoric which neither
claimed nor' provided anything new in rhetorical theory* ihe
work is almost unknown, and might well he left so, for it
is only a weak digest of Blair and others.#3*
work treats
only of style, and especially of specific figures*
ftoe»~~fhs minister of a Boston church, Henry mure* ^
published a hook on extemporaneous preaching in 1824*
is a practical little hook, caring w r y little about the
philosophical background of rhetoric, but concerned with the
state of preaching in America*
Ware feels that preaching
will be improved if ministers can only come to realise that
they, are able to speak extemporaneously#
It is a practical -
tfHow to do it” sort of book, with sound advice for the preacher
who would learn to exbeiaperl&e rather than read from
^Samuel hitch* A Oqnclse freatis on Betoric (Jeffrey,
Hew Hampshire, 1813)« B
s t H © of inSviduality^is in
the work| rhetoric, wherever used, is spelled "retorlc**
%I©nry Ware, Estemporaneous preaching <Boston, 1824).
Uh© work ©pens with a discussion of the great ©dwantage to b© gained from extemporaneous preaching “ better
audience response*
Ware is careful to point out that this
is not achieved by poor preparation, but by speaking ex;
t©mp©ram©<msly from a carefully prepared and studied outline#
the- rest of the work presents and explains his rules for ex­
temporaneous preaching#
these are 5 (1) Concentrate on
extemporaneous preaching if you would gain facility in itj
(6J practice frequentlyj (5) begin by extemporising only a
section of the sermon, and then advance to all of it; (4)
begin with expository subjectsj (5) outline carefully and
minutely5 (6) keep the ultimate end of the sermon always in
vlewf (7) speak slowly for clarity and confidence! (8) donft
try to memorise wgemsw to insert, extemporise all of the
sermon! (9) have a genutoe interest In your subjects, for no
preacher can fail If he "feels his subject thoroughly and
speaks without fear#®*
jhst how much, influence the work m y have had is
Only one copy of it was discovered in the
course of this, study, and no references to the work, eontemporary or modern, have been found#
(jetty#— toother work which might be thought to be am
American rhetoric was published in Philadelphia in 1831,
1Xbidi, pp. 63-9®.
Petty *a lament
Of Rhetoric*
It Is, however, although, no
ucktowledgmeat la bade by Dotty, sii^ly an edition of
Holmes* Rhetoric. which wo reviewed In th© second chapter of
this 'work*, fh© wO.rk enjoyed come popularity through 1850#
an edition appearing In Philadelphia In that year*
B0y&»"«~By 1846 a work on Rhetorical and hlterary —
had achieved enough popularity to be in Its fifth
edition*^, Written by the principal of Black Elver Institute#
It elalined that it presented to its readers the best of
Blair# ih&toly, cemphfdLl, and Watts,^ but it was that best
only In so far us those gentlemen treated of style.
It Is —
Interesting to note Boy&fs reasons for treating only of stylet
*»;**.tbut schools are directed too ex**
©lusively to the securing of correct habits in
■Speaking and reading the language? and that
altogether too limited an amount of time and
Share of attention are employed in teaching
th© art of correctly, writing the language#,,*
Is .It hot desirable that the young should be
trained, under competent instructors, to think
and to Wit© out their thoughts as readily as
to speak their thoughts?* •♦She habit of writing
m«& with accuracy would greatly aid us, also,
.In the
of the JSrgllsh language, and
compOslSg In''It, Should form as regular a part
of the daily exercises of every school as that
of reading the language *,**Bo we not need,
^lolm A, Dotty, Repent p of Rhetoric (Philadelphia#
% * R# Boyd, gloments of Rhetorical and Literary
. {8th ©&*, K "tork7
8S>Mi.» Preface, tv.
then* this Radical {Siaagef^
part On© treats of spelling, punctuation# and other
grammar* ip&rt $w© deals with th© flgu*©** Hat*
lug and Jlllustratiug lacm© seventy*
Fart Thro© la of th©
different kinds of composition, and oratory la on© of
eighteen diaeussed*
Other part© treat of original compo*
alt&Cii, history of language, American, and British literature,
and supplementary topics*
These supplementary topics Include
chapters .on th© .method© of treating th© various parts of a
discourse: which are roughly classical in their description*
The material on the introduction, and the ^address to the
passions1' is t m m Blair and Whately, and all materials having
to do with thought are from Watts ** &©&!©»
Farker**^B©nresentiTO the interest longed for toy
Boyd, Parker1©
only did* written communication*
Parkerfs definition of his
.field isi
Composition is the art of forming ideas
and stressing them in language* Its most obvious
divisions, with respect to th© nature of Its
subjects, are the narrative, th© Descriptive, th©
# preface, £smk1 *
College catalogues of the
period show mat ^atts *s work on Bogle was the standard
logical work all through the period under discussion*
,was almost its only compel
etitor, and was
Mt as a supplement to watts
to Composition (Boston,
the Argumentative.1
ffie volume begins with grammar* and. than moves to
pootry* narration* latter writings themea, orations and
sermons in -tern# Help is acknowledged from ‘
Newman* Blair*
Ih&taly* Jamieson and many others*
The work* while clear
■and single* makes no original contribution*
its popularity
is attested by the publication of a twentieth edition in 1867*
to this point we hare seen that American rhetoric ^
m s strongly under the control of Bngiiah rhetoric* ©specially
Blair* Campbell* and Ihately*
hare noticed the works
Of the early American writers* Iltherspoon* Adams* Charming*
Newman* Porter* tare* and others*
Witherspoon* a lectures
were not planned for publication and were late in appearing;
Adams was restricted by the. requirements of hie appointment
and exerted •little influence! Ch&nnlngt's chief contribution
m s in literary criticism! and most of the others confined
bhemelrea to special phases of the subject with littl© or
no original ecmtrlhution*
Ihree American works of some uniqueness and origi­
nality appear at the close of the period cowered by this
study* w* §#.
Shadd1© commentary on and, translation of
Francis Yeremin*© m%rnmmoo a yirtUjS* Henry I* £ay*a rhe-
torle&l m l tinge, end $f* B# Bop# *a Princeton textbook on
ShCtpric* IOffering in mny respects, theso works agree in
assorting the functional significance of rhetoric in terms
of moving and influencing th# behavior of those to whom it
is directed*
^a#dd*^Btrlotly speaking, Shedd wrote no rhetoric,
but his free translation of Br* Francis
heremln1s Eloquence
jk Virtue, ms. probably almost as much shedd as Theremin,
and his us# of th# work at -Vermont gave it a start toward
popularity that carried it through several editions*
Shedd ^
presents th# work in an attempt to provide a philosophical
background for American rhetoric* Bis introduction to the
volume gives an idea of the place he ejects it to fill*
Ihetorl© has become extremely super­
ficial in its character and influence, so that
.the t M Rhetorical** has become the synonym
of shallow and showy* Mssevered from hogle,
Or the necessary laws of thought, it has be­
come dissevered from the seat of life, and has
degenerated into a mere collection of .rules
respecting the structure of sentences and the
garnish of expression*
Any treatise, therefore, of which the
tendency is to restore the connection between
'thought and its expression, cannot but be
beneficial in its influence upon both the
theory and practice of Eloquence*®
The essential contribution of this work is its -
^Francis Theremin, Hoauenee a Virtue? or Outlines
of^a systematic Bhetorle* tFans* by M 1I3^ 0• T *" Shedd
%hsr#mia, on^ett** intro*, pp. viii-ix*
conception of Historic aa a ^virtue" and its attempt to
provide an ethical critique for public address#
The author
recognizes that eloquence has an affinity with philosophy
and with poetry* hut finds its distinguishing characteristic
in its "striving after an outward end#1* Thus he concludes
that the fundamental question 1st
Is the law according^
to which the True and the Beautiful may be used for the
attainment of outward ends?** Says he#
Eloquence is a species of activity which v
sdLways aims at an outward change* either in the '
sentiments and conduct of individual men* or in
the social and family relations# or in the civil
and ecclesiastical* Bow* to this species of
practical activity— the sum total of which eonsti*
lutes social Xif©--Eloquence also belongs; and it
is so .implicated in the circumstances existing at
the particular time, that even in thought it can­
not be separated from them* *•»nothing in it [the
speechj is an isolated piece of art; nothing can
be torn out from the web of circumstances in
which it was spoken; only in connection with these
does it constitute a unity, which again was nothing
but an act# a point in the political career of the
orator* +•♦Since all the activity of man In his
various relations is* or should be* under the
guidance of th© moral law* the practice of elo­
quence* if eloquence is to reality an activity
of this sort* can be subjected to no other then
Ethical laws* moquenc© seeks to produce a change
to lfie sentiments and conduct of other men* The
inquiry after its fundamental principles* therefore#
become© changed quite naturally into this: fh&t
fire the tows according, to which a free being y
only from
H© hastens to add# however#
Butt in saying that Eloquence i© a Virtue#
bibld.. pp. 64-69.
It is lay no means meant that a certain degree
uf moral excellence is &nou0i in order to be
eloquent* and all that is usually derived from
art, learning, end science* can be dispensed
with* it is only meant that the arrangement
Cud definition of that which Eloquence derives
to itself from these different departments*
belongs peculiarly to ethical laws*-1
Having laid down these questions, Theremin then
States what he believes to be the highest law of eloquences
*®b#i particular Idea which the orator wishes to realize is
carried bach to the necessary Ideas of the hearer*w He holds
that there Is wsomething altogether universal and necessary
which all men *willf, something which they must •dll* from
their very moral nature"; this "something11 he reduces to
three basic Ideas, pufry* Virtue, and Bannlneas* In relation
to the circumstances under which action occurs every man
sills the Perfect; this, is the Idea of Duty.#
In relation to
the character of the person who acts, every man wills to be
inclined and able to realise the Perfect at all times and
everywhere; this is the idea of Virtue*
In relation to the
necessary Inward and outward consequences of the action, every
man wills that each and every one of his actions have results
that render the realisation of the Perfect easier for him
In the future; this Is the Ideal of .Happiness*
From the basic Ideas, Theremin derives three sub­
ordinate ideas or categories by which the orator may connect
or associate the points in his speech with these Innate moral
p * to .
first Jef these Is Truth, the necessity of showing
that the orator*# |lde& Is in fact Duty* Virtue,or S&ppinessj
the Second la Possibility, the necessity of showing that the
orator1a Idea la j|racticable; and the third Is Actuality,
wherein the Idea In question is shown actually to exist or
to have happened*
On the basis of these conceptions ho works out a
system of invention and arrangement not unlike the tradition*
al treatments, and conclude# with consideration® of the
character of the speaker as a factor in persuasion and an
analysis of the mean® of exciting th© affections*
Of special Interest in Yeremin is M s consistent
emphasis on rhetoric as eloquence adapted to persuade, and
his effort to work out a system which conceives of the rhe*
torical act as being ultimately reducible to ethical principles*
In the larger aspect# of his formulation he follows
Quintilian, who likewise define© rhetoric as a virtue*
conception of basic Ideas and categories, however, appears
to be peculiarly his own, and, even If somewhat adventitious
and ingenious. It doubtless exercised a wholesome Influence*
Certainly it drive# h o w the point that the speaker strives
^Se© Quintilian, Book II, Chapters 16*17, and Book
©fter ax| outward end and that b© will b© persuasive in th© V
degree t^h&t he m t m the true and the beautiful to achieve
$*ls endjr- in conformity with specific ethical standards.
.There la no evidence to show* however* that this rather unique
yhet.orlcl&l analysis had any direct influence on later rhe­
torical treatments*
Itey»*-At about th© same time that Shedd was preparing
his translation of Theremin* at western Heserve College in
Hudson* Ohio* Henry Bay was formulating a doctrine of in- ^
vention whjb h h© felt m m destined to supplant the logical
views of the ancient rhetoricians# In his various works#1
this doctrine was set forth#
Bay*s own conception of his contributions to rhetoric
are included in the preface to th© Bhetoric %
first# Invention is treated as a distinct
and primary department of the art of Rhetoric*
Tmm' most English treatises this department has
been generally excluded; and rhetoric has been
generally regarded as confined almost exclusively
to .style* If w© leave out of view some ©Idea*
and nearly forgotten works that were modeled on
the pattern of the Grecian and Reman rhetoricians*
Br* Kbat#lyf'c work furnish©$*p©rhap&* th© only
exception to this general remark. .The work of
JDr* ilhately# however*- ©mtbrsees but a small portion
what properly belongs to rhetorical invention***.52
^The two works devoted primarily to rhetoric were
Elements of the Art ef Ehetoric (Hudson# Ohio# 1850)# and
the' sxmSli’
ar'''jrt of ^S'Course'"(Hew fork* 1887)* Bay’s
^Rhetorical Praxis added little to the ideas in these two
r .
of Rhetoric* p* ill*
After some discussion of the harm don© to rhetoric
toy the emphasis placed on style, Bay returns to his criti­
cism of t&atelytjft treatment of inventions
the author flatters himself that the view
presented of the province of Khetdrio, while It
will appear in Its own light to tod philosophically
correct, avoids the confusion and difficulties,
not to say the contradictions, that have been
experienced in other systems*»* •Covering the entire
field of pure discourse as address to another
mind, it is redeemed from the shackles and em­
barrassments of that view which confines it to
mere argumentative eosoposltlon, or the art of
producing Belief* Utis view of Blietoric, In which.
Bf* ffhately is followed toy the writer of th®
article In th© Bneyelopedla Brittanies, consistently
carried out, excludes all Explanatory Discourse
as well as all Persuasion* fhe allusion to the
on®, and the fuller consideration of the other,
in Br* ?ihat©Xy*s Hhetorlc, are Justified toy the
author on grounds that are not tenable for a
moment* Argumentative discourse, th© art of pro­
ducing belief, can not, without violence to th©
well established Import of language, Include that
discourse, th© primary and controlling Interest
of ijshleh is to inform or Instruct, or that, the
wend of which 1® to persuade* instruction and con­
viction are as widely separated as perception arid
belief 5 and It must appear on a very slight
Investigation of the subject that wgenerally
speaking the same rules will11 not **to© servicoatol©
for attaining each'of these otolects*
He illustrates this new approach*
Buppos©, tor Illustration, that 11the French
Bevolutlon of 1848** be given out as the thorn© for
a composition* Ho Intimation toeing given in aregard to the object In th© discussion of th© them®,
the mind of the pupil Is left without an aim, and
it cannot work,***But let him under stand that it
Is as necessary to settle definitely the object
as the subject of his ©ompcsltionj to determine
that he Is to write a narrative ©f the events of
that K©volnti©h£ or a description of its exciting
1Xbtd«, p. v.
$,e©n©e| or mrgp© Its necessity or its righteousness
0^ it® ®3s$r«MHi&*e®j or ©Jt&ihlt it as a political
movement fitted to awaken emotions of admiration
or of toar *m4 horror | or as a motive to others to
seek to gain their liberties or to guard against
involutions^ iouthreaks# ©no or another of these
objects, and but one, and he is at once prepared to
proceed rationally in his work* Be knows what
.matter he needs to collect and in what form* Ho
knows when to begin, how to proceed, and where t®
end* fhe procedure is now all plain, simple, and
satisfactory* Be can see now at wh&t points his
effort is successful and at what It is deficient*
Be ©an receive criticism and profit by it*1
Accordingly# after introductory chapters defining
the field of rhetoric. Say turns to a study of its first
general division# Invention* Bare he develops this new
doctrine which he feels is the great contribution of his work* /
Bt© possible immediate objects of all "
proper discourso are but four in number, vis*t
uxoxmtxoh, and
ob *
She process by which a new conception is
produced* is by B^.lanatjon; that by which a new
judgment is produbeS# Ts by ffqavl^fcicyi A change
in the seusiblllties is effected by the process
of l^xcltatloix; and in the will* by that of
f wrSua^^^*»»■
$he unity of discourse is mox*e narrowly
determined by the glnSeness,'of""the object which
is pursued in the H e V S o p S
In order to achieve unity* there must
indeed be a single them© or subject of discourse*
Singleness of subject will not* however* of itself
secure .unity*. It is further necessary that there
b# one leading object proposed to be effected*
and that this object be steadily pursued throughout
the discourse****
Bx© work of invention can novex* proceed
With eaa© ©a? success unless unity is strictly
observed -#-■ un]less the single subject and the
single object of the discourse be clearly appre*bended* and that object be steadily and
tMeviatingly pursued*
So principle of Invention la more funda­
mental or practically important m a n this#
d m Is the very life of invention#* the object of speaking be distinctly
perceived and that object be strictly one* the
inventive faculty has no foothold at all* or*
at least * no sure standings and all of its oper­
ations must be unsteady and feeble# fh@ first
work in producing discourse Is to obtain a clear
view of the single subject shieh is to be dis­
cussed* and then of the one object which is to
be obtained by the discussion**
'She treatment of Invention is then divided into four
great sections* Explanation* Confirmation* Excitation* and
Explanation* men the object of discourse is
to ^Inform or instruct****to lead to a new conception or
notion*11® deals with an intellectual process* and thus all
employment of other feelings is only for the purpose of fixing
and holding attention*
Its particular' processes are included
under narration* description* analysis* exemplification* and
comparison or contract#*' fhese are described and treated
in detail*
Confirmation* when the object of a discourse is to
convince * or ^to lead to a new belief or judgment *” is the
next main division*
Here the treatment is similar to the
3-lbj&»* pp* 42-44* See also* Day* Art of Discourse*
pp* 41-50* 2 w additional discussion of this#
%bld»* PP# 51-85#
cleseieal discussion of Invention, end Quintilian and
lately provide many of the classifications and much of
the illustrative material*
Sub-toplca treat of the nature
of proof and the Muds of proof, of the topics, of the
arrangement of arguments, of presumption and the burden of
proof, of refutation, and of the special types of intro**
auctions and conclusions suitable to the argumentative
In Bmeitation the Object of discourse Is said to be
"to move the feelings, either by awakening some new affection,
or by strengthening or allaying on© already existing*”
the two -great departments are said to be pathetic explanation,
and the employment of sympathy*
fathetie explanation Is
similar in form to ordinary explanation and has the same
part#, but, "as the ultimate aim in excitation is not to
enlighten or inform the understanding, but to do this only
for tix© sak® of exciting the feelings*«® seme teflnlte
Changes in manner are found from ordinary explanation#
include the selection of such material as Is most inclined
to excite the feelings, the taking of particular rather than
general views toward the subject, the highlighting of ma­
terials taken, and_ "obscure delineations" which leave some-
PP. f * * M »
Slbld. j p.*.
thing to the imagination of the hearers *
Xu Persuasion, the object of discourse 1® to move
the will*
persuasive discourse is, in this clearly
end definitely distinguished from the species
already considered. Explanatory discourse re*
'specta as its end a new conception; Confirmatory
a new conviction* Pathetic, a new feeling*
Persuasive, a new action or purpose *3*
Persuasive Recourse is at times directed to different
ends# hay-"points out#
The mind addressed may be already
decided In purpose* hut may need confirmation; or it may he
decided in the opposite direction from that decision wished
toy the speaker; or it may be without any choice• Thus the
specific objects of th# speech may to© varied, and the dis­
course must toe modified according to these varied specifle
by the
The final work of persuasion is held to to# effected
m we Arnmn of ooram to b# chosen, and
m u mm w f f i A m m m m m i m n fitted to incit© to th# d#t©rmi*
nation proposed*®
persuasive excitation, explanation, and
confirmtion are all adjusted to the end in view, that of
moving the will to action*
The basis of all persuasion is
an appeal to the motives of men; motives toeing defined as
r*whatever occasion® or induces free action in man**
are grouped into those found in th© intellect, mere con*
hbxa*. p. 181#
%bld,# p. IS®,
p. 168#
Mptions or eowrtftfclonBj tboa® found In the susceptibilities
#f th© mind5 and those which arise from voluntary states#
fhe first of these Includes the general views of truth, duty#
and the like#
$h© second class includes the senses, the
affections, and the emotions proper#
fh© third class in­
clude© the permanent generic states of th© will, e* g*, th©
miser1® lust for wealth, the dictator1© grasp for power#*;__
flBb© secend great division of Day1© rhetorical system X|
treats of style#
He hold© that it has certain absolute
qualities or properties, and among these he groups oral
properties, suggestive properties, and grammatical properties#
Subjective qualities or properties include significance and
Objective properties include clearness, energy,
end elegance#
Day claim© little originality for his treat­
ment of style, .and ©hows little.
Stooughout he stresses his
earlier contribution, however — teach style as it makes —
©^lunation, conviction, excitation, or persuasion more
effective, and style will be given more effective pedagogy*
■fe Day, then, the essence of effective rhetoric 1©
purposive rhetoric — rhetoric directed at a specific end,
and ©electing it© materials and manner© to establish that
end most efficiently#
persuasion in its broadest sens© may
©till be the ultimate end of all rhetorical works, but that
Ijbld., pp. 1S8-160.
gybi<i». pp. 166-288,
broadest end of ^response* Is shorn to be open to achievement
by maky ways* by baplanatiom, by argument, by appeal to the
passions| or by appeal to those Impelling motives which guide
most men In their dally behavior*
gfope***Although M* B# Hope did not publish his —
^l.j&C,etcn textbook in IBbe.tori^ until 1809, he had been pro­
fessor of rhetoric at Princeton since 1040, so that his influ­
ence properly belongs in the period under discussion* ‘Ehs
book is representative of the new spirit in American rhetoric
as veil, for it is written expressly to replace fthately in
the course of study of Princeton* Hope has felt that lately
was weak on the belles-lettristlc side of rhetoric, and not
as clear or forceful as he Should be in his discussion of
the validity of arguments*
In addition Hope notes that
$habelyf-a treatment of elocution is wnot only inferior in
its method and handling, but positively and mischievously
erroneous in its theoretic principles, and consequently in
its practical precepts*1*
Ih&tsiy is a frequent source however, especially in
the parts
the work dealing with conviction and persuasion#
Theremin and Day are also frequently referred to# Hope is
generous with his praise of both of these works* Hofending
Day he statest
tt thy etndemfc *?©ul& lay M s account to
t^**#4*mrk* to It# complete laud eadmustive
^ <*«■ and especially on thesubject
en*<»ylt would prove a M&hlx educating
SX%BOOS on tte whoie subject
4 however:, it has proved so" pMlosophio ,
and technical, and complex, that It has heon
found difficult to Indue# that complete mastery of
It on which it#
chiefly depends* Instead
therefore, of introducIng ■it as a WXT* we prefer
to m m it only in. the earlier part of the study
which treats of SIRX®, and then remoxmmd it, in
cmmmtltm with the work of W O T K H , for the
careful private. dtuffiy of the class, together with
this heoh# a#'
’a"preparation for the recitations of
the Class rooau*
fhc opening chapter of the work aims to provide
definitions and distinctions*
Conviction is an effect on
the understanding^ persuasion an effect on the will*
ric is the art of enabling men to produce at will conviction
and persuasion*
Since style arid elocution are concerned
in the production of the ultimate and highest product of
rhetoric, eloquence, a study of them belongs in rhetoric*
Hope then proposes to divide his discussion into four parts,
Conviction, persuasion, Style, and Elocution* ' It is con* —
eidered no proper part of rhetoric to provide or find truth5
rather it is the function of rhetoric to find proofs, and to
arrange and express these with a view to produce conviction
or persuasion**
^aa&a** PP* v-*vl*
%bld«» P« 1«
3ZbldtJ p. 3.
-Ibid.» p. 4*
She first Simla division of th© work discusses
conviction Is.ion# six chapters, Bach of the material Is
credited to Ih&tely and to Blair*
Hope treats of the defi­
nition of the proposition to he discussed, of th© place of
■iastruotion. in conviction, and of the classifications and
kinds of arguments to he used*
Some effort Is mad© to
analyse th© selection of material in reference to the preju­
dices or beliefs of the audience* and there Is discussion
of the burden of proof, refutation, and the best arrangement
of arguments#
korsuasion is given four chapters*
Some influence
of fheremln can be seen in. the .insistence upon a high
■stoical standard in persuading, toich must ever seek the
good*1 In order to persuade, the passions mast be aroused,
and much of to# test of the material on persuasion is devoted
to an analysis of the passions of mankind*
Again, toately
Is freq&embly referred to, as are fheremin and Aristotle*
In the third part, ^Constructive Bhetorici Discourse,*
Hop© feels that he includes most of M s original contribution
to rhetoric:* An opening chapter on the culture of eloquence
stresses the contribution eloquence has to make to a de­
what use is eloquence,® he ask®, 11in Italy,
where no man dare advocate any other opinions that those
of to© dominating authorities.
*Sbld.. p* ©7*
In Austria also, eloquence
&• met allowed to exert its power, own in behalf of the
Smlylm free America ©an eloquence exert its
rightful place* ark in the coming battlefield of the social#
political and moral issue* the Western world# *fche arbiter
Of its mighty issue® will be Mercury* not Mars***^
'teen there 1® detailed consideration of various
methods teleh the aspiring speaker might use in preparation*
writing of material will .insure tn11 study* fullness and
eompletsness in. preparation# accuracy and elegance in thought
and- expression* but it is often impractical, and it loses
the stimulus telte the audience should giv©*^ Siting and —
memorising is to be preferred to writing and reading#
extempore method.mill be an improvement on either of the pro- ceding two however* for it gives freedom and naturalness*
allow for audience stimulus* and provides for freedom and
Spontaneity of action*^ For the impromptu method# Hope has
m#; liking whatever* since it lays the m y open for sloth*,
Although tec examination' of arguments and of the
passions has been thorough earlier in the text# Hope now
terns to teat he feels is a new concept of invention*
ha® for its object, rather to supply the intermediate thoughts#
i.» P* 1
glbid.» pp. 118-11®.
pp. 119-184.
hbld,*. PP. 186*187.
whether in argument or persuasion, which go to form, the
special parts of the discourse* by which the them© is set
into relation with its object*
Hence* these intermediate
thoughts are to be studied in their relationship to the
parts of a discourse*
'Briefly* these discussions are as follows*
Introduction serves to establish the place of the orator with
the audience#
Its forms are explanatory* paradoxical#
historical# conciliatory*
Sincere* .slag*1#* and clear*
It should be natural* appropriate*
Brief Instructions are given
on how to. attain these Cuds# and the orator Is warned
against tameness * remoteness* and tediousnes s*
sition should be brief end clear#
The propo­
The division should be
natural in order* exhaustive# yet simple and brief*
narration should embody three characteristics# clearness*
brevity, and credibility*
The arguments may most fruitfully
be. drawn from three paths* the facts* why are they so# and
what results flow from these facts*
most essential in the argument*
Clearness and force are
The -peroration may be eon-
firmatory# conciliatory* or excite to passion*®
It Is difficult to see much originality in Hope’s
treatment of these divisions# although the discussion is
thorough and well written#
hbid, , P. IS#.
ft ia true that no such, dis-
eusaion m s included by Hhately* but such material la to be
found in. many ether places*
ft# ■dtseuesion of
Is brief* stressing
essential properties of effectiveness as clearness* fores*
and beauty*
fourth part of the work deals with
Since discourse is not complete until it has been delivered*
a dissuasion
of delivery must be included in a rhetoric*
Rush Is Called the soundest of the elocutionists, and Hope
means .to.adapt his more complete writings to the needs of
3*h© treatment of action is. taken from Austin*0
Qhlronomlaj which we will discuss in th© following chapter*
WL» position in these matters is temperate and his final
advice is echoed in many modern texts «*- enter into the
emotion of what you wish to say* and then be natural* earnest*
and as graceful as possible#®
us in Eft©toric*~~In the expanding -
curriculum of the American colleges* rhetoric maintained a
ee&mendimg position*
%toxsh was
American works on
to* ftls work
chapter* Suffice
**AXX of the classes have weekly exercises
the author of one of th© first great
Elocution* ft# Philosophy of the Human
will be discussed* in "detail"" in the 'next
it to say here that in Hope *s opinion* Dr.
Bush has "neither an
m m
a second* in this nor any
other modern country#Tr 'ibid.*» P*
^aaa** »* ^
in speaking end composition**
the college eataieguee#
is a typical requirement in
Equally pervasive is the listing
of one or more texts in rhetoric in the required course list­
We have already seen the popularity of certain works*
and it remains only to note that provision for rhetorical
training seems to have been made in ©very college catalogue
shieh has been found#
As early as 1785 there was a professor of ®Oratory
and English literature® at the university of Pennsylvania*
The first endowed chair ©f rhetoric was founded at Harvard
college in 1771 by the bequest of Nicholas Boylston* and* as
we have 'seen, in 1800 Uohn Quincy Adams was Installed as the
first .professor*
The first professorial chair to be endowed at Brown
was In "Oratory end Belles Lettree,*
the funds for which
were provided by Nicholas Brown in 1804 • Soon after other
larger schools provided for separate professorships in rheto­
Rhetoric and Oratory#— Burins the early years follow- ing the Revolution the tendency was to group rhetoric and
oratory as one study*
ric .and oratory*
The early endowed chairs were in rheto­
Speaking clubs such as th© American
X&ssherst Collage Catalogue* 1823*
®C£uincy, op* sit** IX* 290*
^Reuben Aldrich Guild* Early History of Brown
1807), p# 102*
University (providence,
Institute at I s m ^
formed, and devoted r<ruch of their
attention to political subjeets, a® well as to recitations
from Pope, Shakespeare# and Addison*^* Public lectures by
the holder© of the 'professorships In rhetoric were on rheto­
ric and oratory*
Rhetoric seemed to mean to early nineteenth —
century America the rhetoric of the classical period,
largely oral, and allied with persuasion#
A typical state­
ment is from the- State Cassette of South Carolina in 1790# —
describing the exhibitions of the College of Charleston:
* (fhe exhibitions] display the proficiency of the youth in
fee useful, ornamental, and sublime art of eloquence, so
essentially important in a Republic*11
The same emphasis on active oratory is to be seen in ;
fee subjects used for disputes and orations at Tale in 1801
fetch a student diary has preserved for us*
They include
the following i nOught foreigners to be admitted to Public
*0nght the slaves of the United States to be
Immediately Kmsnclpate&¥n #0ughfe the president of tho United
States to turn out officers on account of their political
*lt is interesting to note the course taken by this *
club, since it Is representative of the shifting emphasis in
such, organisations* .'jNmndad as the Clintonian Club in 1774
for fee purpose of practicing public speaking, it became fee
American Institute in 180$ wife a gradually increasing
emphasis on critical papers in contrast to political speaking,
and was finally absorbed by fee famous Hasty pudding Club*
®Quoted by *F* B* Ea&terby, A History of fee College
of Charleston (Charleston, S* c*, 1§5SF,’"'p”* 31♦
Principles?** "Are novels beneficial? " 1
As a modern critic tolls us, it was Man ago when
the art of fee pulpit, the art of the forum, the art of the
Judge and the lawyer* *#*was the only literary art that per­
formed a vital function#**^
With the conviction that oratory
was offered its best chance of life in a democracy, and at
fee same time offered security to democracy, the rhetoric of
fee mew nation was at first strongly allied with oratory*
Rhetoric.and Composition*— In spite of this primary concern with oratory, there was developing a lively critical
• interest in America*
One can only conjecture as to its
Borne responsibility is probably due to the older
rhetorics of style and feeir modern counterparts*
The desire
of the new nation to produce its own culture was partially
responsible for fee renewed emphasis on "tast©** and criticism*
BOW, objectives of universal education brought a decline in
illiteracy and. reimpreased many thinkers with fee fact that
there war® other forms of ©ommmication than oral, and feat
a rhetorical document might be complete whom composed and
printed.,- even though it were never delivered*
Then, too,
fee growing furore over Elocution, and fee patent artl-
quoted by Franklin B# Dexter, "Student life at
y&le College under the First President Dwight (1795-181?),*
A m e r i c a n q u a r t e r n Society Proceedings* new series,
% s n Vtsrok Brooks*
op. c lt* . p*
ficiallty of some of lb® methods, may have caused many
writer® to sham this field#'*
Whatever the cause, before ~
I$00 the grouping was not. so frequently "Rhetoric end
O r a t o r y a s "Rhetoric and Belles Dettres," of "Rhetoric and
Composition,* with delivery now relegated to the tremendously
popular "Elocution#"
Again, an examination of a few of the college
catalogue® will indicate the time and manner ©f the change*
At Harvard in 1606 the ©ours© of instruction in rhetoric
included De Orator© for sophomores, Blair*® hectares on
Rhetoric for Juniors, and lectures from the professor of
rhetoric: and oratory for Seniors*
2 Declamation and &ispu*
tatlon m i required of all students#
By 1830 Blair*&
lectures are given in the sophomore year, and English Compo­
sition is an added requirement for sophomores*
Themes and
forensic® fdisputations^ ana lectures on rhetoric and oratory
to juniors, and seniors continue with themes and forensic©*®*
^Day, Art of Rhetoric, pp.# 8-7, justifies his ex­
clusion of delivery1
groimds* (1) Elocution is not
essential to rhetoric since inhere are other ways of eommanleating thought than by the voice# {2} The arts of rheto­
ric proper, and of Elocution are so distinct than excellence
In on© may be combined With grave deficiency In the other*
(3) Methods of training in these different arts are so un­
like that convenience t© both instructor and student require
they to© separated*
All information for this section has been taken
tpom the college catalogues of the schools mentioned* In
each case the date given Is the date on which the catalogue
was published*
®*It is of Interest to note that the texts in rhe toadvertised in the catalogue at this time as class books
1034, wkttu fvfe&tely replaces Blair for sophomores, the
lectures given by the Boylston professor are no longer on
rhetoric and oratory, but on rhetoric and criticism*
lectures are given on rhetoric by Professor Charming, and
on elocution by Dr* Barber*
By 1804 the rhetoric heading
for the lectures has disappeared, and the Boylaton professor
lectures on "English Language and Literature#"
The professor at Mi&dlebury College in 1040 who
beaches' rhetoric
is the "professor of Rhetoric and English
At Berth
Carolina It was professor of "rhetoric
and logic11 in 1806, hut of "rhetoric and belles lettres" la
fhe Pennsylvania Professorship of Oratory and English
Literature became a chair of "Rhetoric and English Literature"
in 1034, and "Belle# Lettres and English Literature" in 1805*
At Transylvania, whore in 1100 the laws provided all
students would "devote at least on© half day to speaking and
composition," In 1847, although the composition remains the
speaking requirement has gone*
At Tale Ohauncoy Goodrich was
professor of Rhetoric and Oratory in 1817, but when he Is
made Professor of the Pastoral Charge in 1839 his replacement,
William A# L a m ed , is listed as professor of Rhetoric and
English Literature*
There is now also a separate Instructor
a m the following* Barber Elocutionist M 67/, Grammar of
>QCUtlon # 9%f, and Treatise on Gesture ® 00/j Biair1/
<0 $1*50* y©$r y4am'ir'laler'W e ””featured book la
Rhefcorij % 75/, which "has already been adopted
Harvard# Andover, Dartaaouth.
tn Elocution*
Sm m evidence of the change we have been discussing —
Can be seen In the somewhat plaintive introduction to one of
the Elocution texts published In 1845$
fh© time will «m # when the power t© —
criticise a speech shall be considered as
essential to^tSeTscholar as Is now the ability
to criticise a written, eoTOoaition,
Elocution and ^EeM3F^ESlX*¥5w^udle& as
constituting, sister departments# even In a
common English Education*
Ifoe.torlcal fce.gaa«**»%h» practice of publishing theses
which students were prepared to defend on commencement day
continued for some years after the turn of the century, and
these theses again give us some notion as to the hind and
place of rhetoric taught* ' to ever increasing number of the
theses dealt with delivery or elocution/ and these we will
treat In the following chapter on the elocution movement#
discussing here only those dealing with the other divisions
©f rhetoric*
Early in the period there is strong emphasis on
oratory# as indicated by theses such as the following:
^Eloquence always flower© and rules among a free people**1
(Yale# 1708} *
^motoric contemplates not only the argument
of the speech# but also the speaker and the audience* R
3-fgerritt paid.well, A Manual, of Elocution (Philadelphia*
1845), preface* su
%aie theses were last published in 1797* Brown
theses in 1817* and Harvard did not suspend their publication
until 1819#
(Sjervard# XTt&J*
Host of the theses dealing with speech
label it oratory and not rhetoric# as CTThat orator Is best
*ft*p teaches* moves* cleanses# and persuades the minds of his
Tale* 1795 5* ***£&© art of the Orator lies hidden
If any finds it* it perishes**
{Harvard# 1010)*
Orator mast know how to speak* as well as how to think*”
{Harvard, 1812)*
©n the other hand# those dealing with rhetoric by
name are apt to he more critical in their nature# and less
concerned with persuasion in the oral sense*
**$he ©motion
of anger is expressed by' thirty English words*” (Yale#
1791) * Perception of natural beauty arises from th©
association of ideas*”
(Yale* 1797)*
"Hhetori© is the art
of perceiving suitable arguments In any case which arises#
and ofocomixiaicatlng them with elegance and energy*”
{Harvaa*&# 1786)•
nfbe harsher studies# such as logic and
mathematics* are concerned almost entirely with those things
which make one wise* but do not please; and with such things
rhetoric has little t© do*”
(Harvard* 1806)*
*Hheboric is
much concerned**.**with eloquence# poesy* and every sort of
belles-lettres** -{Harvard.* 1006)*
type of writing*”
(Brown* 1796)*
wPoetry is the first
wMaleetic instructs and
disposes; Bhetoric ornaments and polishes*” {Brown* 1004)*
$g&hy cite the essential difference between rhetoric and
oratory «*♦ rhetoric is theory# oratory practice*
411 in all* however* the significant fact to be " ~
gained from an examination of the theses following 1785 is
the tremendously ineneaaed esphaais on delivery on the one
hand, and the large; number of toxica dealing with poetry,
taste, and beauty on the other*
?tien the rhetorical theses
mentioning elocution (see Chapter XV) are considered in
relation to those here presented, we find further corrobo­
ration of the tendency to deal with the oral aspects of
composition m
elocution, and to confine rhetoric largely to
written composition and criticism*
Had these theses con- 1
tinned to the end of .the period wider consideration it is
probably cafe to postulate that they would have reflected
likewise the influence of *3h©dd> Day, and Hope*
teete&le from 1705 to i860 was
dominated tor the groat English rhetorics of Blair, Campbell,
And te&tely#
teas# work# In the classical tradition wore
the most popular and Influential ie&ts in the American
tea first works on rhetoric by American authors
ware the lecture© of #ohn iltherapoon at Brine©ton and lohn
i£$uib&y &<Jto» at Barnard*
Both show familiarity with the
host 'rhetorical tradition and are strongly Influenced by the
English writers of the period,
teelr circulation, however,
was lUslted*
(0) American rhetoric at the opening of the period
was closely allied with oratory, but gradually moires more
and more into the realm of composition and criticism **~
beiles-lottres» Blair, y&mleson, Gregory, BIppIngham, and
IrVing contributed to this in English works, and Hewman,
Charming, Beyd, and Barker in American tezts*
By 1850 Henry
ISay was willing to concede that delivery had no place In the
art of rhetoric#
As- rhetoric became more and more engrossed
with .written composition, delivery claimed for* Itself a
separate and distinct field, elocution*
teis field Is
discussed in Chapter XV«
At the close of the period three great American
works presaged the rhetorical development to com© in
succeeding decades*
She&dfs translation of Yeremin
attempted to give a high moral tone to rhetoric*
W 1tings stressed new concepts in invention and persuasion#
and new conceptions of the ends and divisions of compo­
Hope added to these doctrines a more teachable
style■and organisation*
3*be ported was characterised by continued
emphasis on rhetorical studies In the American schools and
fhis is shown in courses of study and rhetorical
theses# both of which reflect the developments seen in the
rhetorical works of the period*
On® of W m w » t prominent and to. meay reapstto
«mastog deveto|)«a»b« to warty tausriesa rhetoric to the
elonutleaa movement*
totteatod# m m
to* s*1 I»m on elocution, aa already
concerned with delivery, vole® ana bodily
notion to toelv sppltoabiea to speaking and reading*
torlcal Instruction toon too togtoatog had give® attention
to delivery or orataiabtotto* and too works on elocution,
first English and toon Aa**l#«% aton from those sources*
t o t o i ^ i however* there to nothing to too great classical
rhetoric# to presage too factitious elaborations which appear
to many of toes© volumes*
Aristotle, perhaps mm a reaction to contemporary
sepfetotoy# gives to delivery only toe briefest of comment.
A very short aiseussien of votes end actios to Included*
Cicero enlarges on toe subject* and to addition to eee&sionai
« M e t « to varfeas portions of M s writings, devotee the
% * n e <5toper,
1888)# m * 3LS8-*188.
(Bew York#
eonolufltog ehaptere tm Book XIX of tee Be Oratore to a eon*
slderatloa of voice and ateton*
Quintilian la Book XI,
'teapfcws- xxx# give# to delivery * detailed end pswMJdnent
treatment, stressing the value of delivery in persuasion,
end indicating «©**» of -tea «»aa«# By teleh an effeatlv* manner
©f presentation way bo developed,
In each of tesse eloaaieal
rhetorics tee eagdiaels la clearly toward * natural manner in
-vpamoiti* do 42aiiatl.ilon pat# it, *te#S is ftosessiag i« too
main esnsidsretion i» delivery, different methods wUX. oftwo
Balt different speakers,• go ©rat©** ahouldtefcerapfc to ape
loot he “lose tea authority
$S&$ '
M f!
Xn t w o respect# the closest parallel to the elo*
4Stit '$&$#.
So tee sbBcrption with
■foilowing «NtntiXi«»#
iitsto@%ssBtli #®si1iswX#0
in the dassdent rhetori©
Beprlvsd of any real functional aig»
Bifieeace# rhetoric reverted fc© a new *sophistic*, a rhetoric
of display KhZ&h fawwS it# shlef outlet in tee declamation#
of tee schools,
telle the frswewaik of elaasie&l rhetoric
So most of tee treetiae# on rhetoric, tee emphasis
woe placed ©a delivery and style* tee effete was in tee
direction of m virtuosity of expression) as BaldeSn puts it,
teere was on# *Xdeul of orator and audience alike* behold a
fcrissislafced by H*
WUheat sttewpbin® her* to trace the vicissitudes
Of mletsorie daring the eaeeeediRg centuries* saffian it to
••T that tnvsntitft: and dtaposltia went again returned to
rhetorical instruction with the recovery of the better elassi*
eel sources in the fifteenth and first decad® of the sixteenth
S*»bs«y* Betwttbstajsding theee recoveries however# the
earliest rfcebsrie to xeeih ssgUinA as# mainly that of stylo
ana delivery* As we h m moon, the full impact of Aristotls’s^ ^aetorlo was ret felt la iteglaad mill the middle of the
this ele.seled tradition wee
beginning to exert ite influence* however, first evidences
of « specialised attention t« delivery appear* this special­
ised treatment* H a m m as Elocution# emerges as a separate
discipline in many writers#, and constitutes e peculiar
development In rhetorical theory ©f greet in
attCMpting to interpret early Sumrloan nhetorle and speech
Although there Is no certain widen®® as to the
reason for the first interest token in delivery as & special*
iced art in England* if H u m
ttlson is to be believed# it
because ther® was definite need of snsh interest* Almost
% * S«
» Baldwin,
CWwm*W<«i^ aMierw
nseenVUiHawpil* (Bow
IN* 3W#
helf at eeatury before toe first work devoted eraslaalvely to
delivery eppsarag h* has tola to say to regard to the speakers
he M s heardi
. Sera# toes?® fee# that either nfttaraMjr* or
throng tolly Sum* oaste eulll veyeee# and saoh
looks of vtteranneo# and suofe tall testae* that
tt »*#h defoeeto all their dotages. m m pipes
m t hi«
oo ewiti#
default of M m
wlndo pipe# that yo «w*M think® he eMttled****
m ether 8 p»»feoa* «• tio#) he had flumes la
.Mo »o«to# &n other speaker in M u torote# «s
to Ale eswsae stake foot* to other
Oftttloo M o werdee* *.»
m m takes ©at M o
English Ho:rta*taifee* wito x say# and th«u lad*
to other speekee so finely# as though ho ware
brought vp to a ladies Qhea&or. ...sow grants
like a Hegge* SCBso eoeklea like a Hexme# or «
Xeeke Oe*e«**.Se»e suppos toeir warden wp# as a
peer* man doth M o Peerage*# •,to»r® are a
thousand m m It fettlte# among men, both too their
apeeeb. O M also for their testa*# toe wMeh
if In tfcein young yeefes they bee net remedied#
they M i l hardly bee forgot when they ease to
W m t ever toe tone#* th
toes?® appeared Kotoert
tobtoaon** ^^.M.,Jaita^Ptotto)i«g toieh m m probably toe
first tools written to snglito. devoted. sostoetyely to toe
atody of delivery. A few years icto there la jmblisbed
an « n b wore mmirn%S.m& so*Is* devoted solely to to# matto
phase of dsMtosy*
toe book <mnrt-e« toe felltang title t
rrf—TT rrv‘Tiit ~
*to®Baa Mtsen# lasts of Hhafcorlerete, JSdltod by ©•
8* astir t m feed* 190B)# yp* s®*s®l*
®to» work is weportad by ffisrdtog# op olt«. p. 8 ?#
Although he das* not todieate having seen too worn# end
totfess to it to toe most general of language* ao copy of
toe work has been loeobed to toe process of this study# nor
h*s other reference been found to it*
W k m wmte $m -&
study of t&o- gosttn1^ or th#
&#»&# m & ftoiosro# ta & o liitte g t& * typo# o f gsatwap#* tod 0i#«*
ousting and illustrating ISM# in detail*
ftfftr ooparot#
Boro t&#n a hmdrod
or# listed# ranging from
*topplieo tfooto# 1 #'® ttootggRt ^Applaud# o##fc«# ? **«* $# clap
the Mlaod li&n&s on#
omot&or#** to *lM&tpl*gi&# or it*#
M«&o#t# <of te# Fingor®*11^ All dt#ou#»lonsi ar# $#«$i«tof
all oepteuatf illustrated to Hint t&# p*o#p##ttu* orator
nigpt easily ' p m m % & m m m h goatnro*
oortaio mnt&omm* #* g«#
* $ ® g m not Beam*# p fldte* «nbt .#**##&% fo ro # ***^ or# given#
Out *M itw ith tt« « lin g f -on# is&|p&t osspoet tuoh p ra ttle # to prodM#
a **th»r mechanic&X, if 4bo«?# M&rorgr*
Of isor# ta k o p M t to us* tto o # i t la£l< »*t*o a ootfe*
fcowporarp' o o n tro rw tf 5w w d e liv e ry te Bngtaixd** end tin e #
* j# |lt» iW I» * iW M ll* * * * iiS » i t t > i# M tt** * l * w* i W irtiH i * i io n * fr# S * H # il« * S * >* W . * i * * »# M IM l* » ie . # i M ^ M i* »W
H H W M iiil i i i i m w iM i... I-
"*>(JiO»toa# 18441* 8 m p m t m m «ouS dedication has
signed "lo BuXvwsr** Shis title p«g» v m d s differently fro®
itaet »«eeid«d by Harding, oro* ctt*. p. 64* bat It is tsksn
m W^f
of' th # #ork in fch# lo rw rd
%*&«•** SBi-Sa&t* » * 11-187.
H b U a * P* 134*^
4®»» editor** p m t m * Justifies th® pmt>ll©afci©» at
the #4181 ©n set tit# gfoiuuS* that e quarrel aver standards at
delivery b#tw»a» the *&av@rand msd Ingenious Mr* Henley* and
* Mr. ftooa wakes some standard necessary end useful*
it m m m a d la Amertea as early a* 1765,* 4* the anonymous
*** 9t Sncsklaa to te&li® 8 siiiefc a|
generation later,
tel® 4® a treatment of delivery for afeicte the anther feel a
tiowi 4® e reel ***ed, end the vork ia highly moowended by
the *61tor to gmmaor acfeoctlto, aoedemiee, end universities*8
Xt is ©erteinly sue of the earliest oorks in sngll®h to p m *
IHmt A detailed ferentesenit of all of the phase® of delivery,
'end to lie designed for elese room nee,
te® work begin® «&tt* e |u#tlfieetlon for tbe study
of notion, using Cleero*® “eloquence of the tody* e® the first
excrase, and felloes vita* seems of other citations,
Aristotle g»v* little eo&eiaeration to delivery, as did Cicero,
end sine* ^atotili«m*a tmatsiwmt i« meet useful only to the
young lawyer, it Is argued that ttola m m fills a definite
Hatere cannot shay® the orator, and thus It la necessary
"to assist nature toy erfc," Tni® la true not only la logics,
la morel philosophy, la gawewar, or la style, tout also la
le the dlaouaaion which follows the student is told
to form good habits early, and to imitate only the good ob­
served In other speaker®,
tee voice la to toe trained toy
"%y Samuel yohnsao, garner and entlaas, Appendix.
®3»®ORd edition (bondon, 17SW),
8M & ® » P* «Wt*e
*ltolA., pp* ®*®7,
PHfiehieo to 4 $a«t variety of pitch and fore®. fh«r® is
general dlacueolon of the kind of voice to use to represent
tfe® various passions, the kind of voice to nee in the differ*
*»t ports of a discourse, end fee kind of voice beet suited
to the flgarea of rhetoric,*
Qesturc Is treated with a little store specific detail*
After sons discussion of its value, and of the virtue of
naturalness, the following rales are given*
B*« little gesture at th® opening of a speech*
BcsH clap year hands, host your breast, etc*
Qie the wight hand only for gesture*
Stoa*t strike your breast, hat place your hand
SSavo all gesture free left to right*
Hevoa* lift the hands Mgis-r then the eyes*
®0 »*t gestur® oil of the time*
Bo»*t wtaie in feature, and especially do not
wdteic anything lewd or indecent **
concluding chapter attesptit to sot up o way of
staking all of the preceding advice practical. Back orator
.,**u»d®r»feend these precepts of action, try
then on his o n person, practice them before s
nasior end in private©, end endeavor to got a good
habit and the knack of speaking by care and
oontinual ©acerciae*8
®h» work never torn to have hod wide circulation
in America, but it it indicative of the early English treat*
sent of delivery, and proper©* the way for fee more detailed
hooka on delivery «bi«h ere to felloe*
^ S ietjfr'iliomMlfiJ
, Chapter is,
& orit&ool —
mte$m$$mm in togiiind in togot^ to ooofcwo and orato&r*
wm & m m m m o f too $ # *** o f tsto ©poton w«& in em in *
totooingi$r tos^iroti# neo&otar it woo mftar mturto toot noc*
nttnniion ototod to p o M to to* Manor of' toot apooefc*
M M to iM i t i l nn^o^going o p m m m
o f toonot* «to i t b m m m -
on opon ijfoootdon no to i n ^ t feofcoootion otonM continue in
totin #r to toftoA Into to*
tofow Mtom&t* in
ton otorto non* irtotoat# mm& ton l n w ^
following*® no*
gatoto to ton t t m t toototng of tonlg #n4 m m t m f #$&& ©tonon#
gov# tint to ooitioiw of ton ope«lriB§ tofelto of too non#
ttoonnwtito otooggOMo#
MglMMNto ttotoliiig on too oontinont
Otooovod too m o # oot&f* ototorjr of too foocMto ©lorgpsom*
wot thmf
9 &*t?
m m
oni MM t o m *
w&to it* goootoo o m o o m in winning
to* toetovlo of x*tta and dm*£e» dtonotea
ot to# tin*# m ® totag MplnoMt W
to# i&*tonl« of togliofc#
oU Io A o&to posm M toft# -oneuft Motelng a m m p m m m f m m an In *
#to##teglf oolfcioal % w totonw##
floMloiim o# AtoWUto c^atorr o w n
mlmmt m
a© toot glvon I®* fflBon in to oox&lor &«$p# Mdioon lias it
gotoiog ooaML to M r * todiotoon# toon to#
g##to?#o of moot' of- on* tofMto ogH*ok#*o-* Ton
*## #om of to#m m m i $ m tool# ton&a into tools*
poo&oto to fto no toto toogr non ttonot tons©* tod
otoono ioo&teg # ito gtoot ottontion on a pl*&#
of pqpor toot too tototng woitton m it# fan any
### laonj o onoto tootortotoit towing to# tot in
M e bands, moulding It into several different
•oaks, eacawtning sonettees tfee lining of it,
wad m m m t t m m the batten# during the ^-hol© of
M s harangue. A deaf m s vould think be ©as
cheapening a beaver; ©to#® perhaps he m s ,
talking of the fate of the British nation#1
SMft te seereely
severe in his totter to a
M il observe < m clergyman with their
beads held down fares® the beginning to the end
within «a inch of the ©ushton to read vfeafc is
hardly legible# which, beside the untoward manner*
binders Vhmm tram laefclng tee bast advantage of
their voice* others again, bav© a trick of
popping up and down every mmrnnt H e m their paper
to the audience, like an idle school boy m »
repetition day*®
Ctostorflald*# letters to his Sea #feow te# etaphsaio ■"
be places a® effective delivery la oratory* In 1748 h® de­
vote# an entire letter to a detailed eritlciaa of bis son*#
bad emnei&tlon and delivery* end to awteed® by which fee raay
be led to a acre effective and persuasive delivery. Si#
language l# moat definite as fee advises frequent reading with
erlblele® thlefe retpilrsa Ms* bo observe the proper stops#
•aphasia* and rate.®
All of these ooiasssasto would seer to Intlicata that "
ooonraobaeo# end gracefulness in delivery wore cowing to be
significant criteria in oratory# Classical rhetorical training
1" 1111™
Joseph Addison, ghe ^eototor* So* W *
%oaatb&» Swift* mxk.a» edited fey m o m m a Sheridan
(London. 1808), 5RU»
%ord Cbestorfield* bettors to feia Sen, edited by
©# ®» Cory {London, 1918), p* i©8 *
*** providing sound study of invention and arrangement, but
At# look of detail <m dativevy, and the corresponding leek of
emphasis In training in delivery, sere opening the door for
the elocutionists» Serbainiy this persistent ariticlam of
the delivery of English orators was a strong faetor giving
rise to the elocution noveaient,
Although strong in their eritieiea of English oratory,
Addison, drift, end Chesterfield had offered little plan for
Vbonae Sheridan was to do this with vehemence. ~
%eedng. M s first discussion in erltlng on this subject, an
8 gheriden makes the point that
the liberal arts never flourished, or arrived at perfection
In any eeuatry there the study and practice of oratory « u
Be t w d o this even to the point of asserting
that "It is asoeh more probable that oratory raised and sup*
ported the liberal arte. Item that the liberal arte raised
%&dl#sn does note that we suet bear with bad delivery
of speeches "till they ee&se at oxford and Cambridge to grow
In the study of alogaease*n tested by Shone* Sheridan,
title iff' as follows t
•®d n v p w M o r a t o r y * ® h a towns of the whole essay Is a
flea fsn the teaoMng of too English language In preference
to toe elasist&al tengaes*
Warn to later sots up M s o*n
plan of education* its basic ©tojeefclee is to develop effeatlv©
speakers to English*
3*ys to# "She solo «®d proposed st —
present is to make pood Latin <s«l Greek scholar*f whereas
to* t r w ends of sdneatlan in *11 Christian eeantplee, *Nt$*t
'to to to- moke pood s M | and good citizens.*
Ottar writer* take bp toe refrain*
James Smafamm.
««tloos M s plea for tits teaching of English and- eloquence on
the basie assumption that the Greeks achieved their emtosBse
in part from their attention to their m
tongue* for "it
Is manifest* that they had no language to aequire bat their
sen* nor any books to peruse bat shat wore written in it*"
neither of tbs great English sMvsrsitie* salts M m * for
Cstoridgse specialise# In speculative knowledge* and Oxford la
classical eosweetlen wlto no foundation to reasoning, so
there are “dry, uaaffeetlng eosapoaitlona to the one, super­
ficial tests and puerile elegance to toe ©therj ungracious
ttr attested speesh to both stoee toe art of speaking agreeably
Is so far fro® being taught that it is scarcely talked or
^IMd*. p* 398*
%hemas Sherlaaa, A Flan of Education (London, 1709),
P* 48*
toshaaaMa* M e m M ...m l Jtomft.J t M M t t J W M l
ffSffffSlen (London, 1770) * p, l<5*
muimt, Mtyto® an# Rietoaod s n ^ m W ^ p m e a t
•Indian points of «l«w«
3tmltaiM»©u»ly with the appe&raneo of tha»o ©nltl•tnaa of fijdtiah oratory tmO. fcoaetoing*
maks m
©location bogan to oppaaw*
m a m
gvoat English
aaeh of thoa®
oanvta# dlvaot «f indlvoat inflwanas on the growth and on$asia<*
•la of tfc* elocution raovommt In Jtaiajpic®.,* th«y arc novlowsd
lat«Jf 3a thia ohaptar* fha following chronological list
td.ll auffiee tear® to tbow tha saguanee of tha appoaranco of
ImwlS# WIjt^SSI
Jfr/fc it
eii'worth r t r t T si' iota eh
# £je&® e q p a «i>>MLaejaew>li
(Vfcls la tat M w w l i l l
not of tfcoir publication}•
* dohn Rio®* In intnoanotlon t
I'M® » Jfeahna Steele, ,
I T O * aiilao Coekin*
17EQ. • John walltar, Ob
1TO9 * m m i m Bayly» j
IMtat of thae® works want throa^i several editions,
and « M l a s and salka*”, fox* axanpla, produced rn&rsy other
ljffiiSk# v»* 108-&MU
{Solbura, 1 W ) «
to thmm tMstmd iffem** fi&mao m m also
eitfWlmfco# to immlmfe ©**& will bo ©tudlod In mlmbiogimhlp
to Am©rictm #loi*&blom* A lMri«? a$xi?ir#y of W m BatfUUb period
is 0 & m %f B&natowS^ although tftm i m® sevmml mXmmtonn*
W m m m k $m$m%mt mt 1M M 1 ft Hbm «mg&mt* imglm* of s n i ^ %
l&ffQff* Sm*»#teg M & t & m m
isofks &lmt#d
but iso mffm&b t# mM& to |i# t e ^ too stfcororomt to its
b§M& orartttiMi* too pmmn.t ibm% to p^tearily lnttiosM
to too## m & M m mo toof mfltot S m m tom; «ta#fco?&6*& to#orsr
mm# fMMrtfc&fcN
la ®agXa»&» fcto laenutd
Intvrwt to atoiy to tog&ito, rskS to* toaraatoA proatoanea
glton apoaktog to Sally XAf** pro<tos«l mow® and s»x*« toto*<e«i
to tow « speeofr was jHtoto&tod as toll to to tow to ••totvaat
a ttp&mii*
Jttwtorto todtooom® eloaaly aUlad wlt'o. oratory,
ami tmm alatoiy aoaaelved ot as am aativa art,
Khatorle and
wimwfejr worm mmipAifimtmwy iismsmi#*
.j*L toal.aA^-jfraJ
mnaTin'i to' M a jhi n
m. ilowMom m
Bmf1#M# mm#
mmh man ©lao bo ^
mm mmmg thm moot
pcipuXm* bacto .to t%m mllmg* m M
ISto&fard* op, alt,, pp. 127-138.
%a*dtog* to, alt,
®S*a Chaptor IX, pp. 75-BO.
mt Brow
from 1786 through 1809** MUmtea of the rfra»bsea of the ttoi»
varsity of fenneyivaaia tSmm that in 1988 they fait that the
loaa of «n elocution teacher t u « esrieas M m to the prestige
«f the institution*
The Harvard overseers not* with rsg»ft
larlby their pleasure or displeasure with the ejthlbStione,
i&pm $U&|$L0tl*
bba theses were not
continued throughout fcha period m t e consideration, they
ale® shew the emphasis given delivery in the collages during
the years before their disc<mfel«»*»ea. Bach yaar’s Hating
#f theses included many dealing a i m delivery, until this
becomes « m at the largest groups*
Saif of t » theses at
Vale in 1188 were an dsldkwerf* A fourth or none of the theses
wane oonoemed with delivery at foie in 17S4, ITS®, 1787*
1780* 1788* 1768, 1766, 1767, 1778, 1788, 1708, 1789, 1790,
1781, wad in 1767, steen Stay war# discontinued* At Brown
college library mtSMfMmhls of 1788 list 10 with­
drawals of lafteM, « of Sheridan, and 4 of Bur^i in a little
loss than a year, Blair was the only other speech work to ap­
proach. this mnatMH?* In one of the society Hbraries at Brawn,
m e Pfatlcndian Society,' there mere four copies of Sheridan’s
%tatgSMn»ry, on,..flit*, p* SSI, gastss from the
minutes of IMtrnary SsJrlfTi',
« w •xas^le, from BSBorts to Overseers, X, October
9ft, 181®, "On attending tho jjnbliok essereisea of the students,
they were highly gratified sitfe the*«•.correct elocution.*
*to almost every college catalogue until 1880, and
in seme on through to 1900* in addition to the usual require­
ment of "disputation* sod declamation" mere Is comment on
the atrees placed on the value of *m good elocution.*
soft of toelSe toe®** were concerned wito delivery to
17»S# fit's ®«fc e# eight to 1790, end four oat of seven to
Xn atoost every yesr toey Mod* op toon one fourth to
m » half of too total wtotor of toes** w t U too ©lose of
thoto jHSblieafeton to 1917. to iemiptf too trend Is not quit*
w strong, eltoooga there m
only fifteen years between 17C0
and 18X9 «&«r <mm «r aero tooooa on delivery evo not Included
to too H o t of toooe to to defended*
8 okh»
of toeae theses also illustrate too sort of
and toe piss* given to delivery to too
tool* doctrine of rhetoric*
fh® first Srom toesio of 1770,
1778, 1174* I'm, I W 8 , and 1180 is tost "Rhetoric to toe
art of adttog clear with evMswee and persuasive force through
words and gestures of toe tody**1 A Sato toeoto of 1771 has
it tost *too face to often acre eloquent toon words* " and
another Of»*toln§ toe theses Shetertca* for 1781 states i *S1©»
cuti.on to W *&- 1
I uto te sp
g 0$ tt3
ocnmtenanee, too voice, ana gesture*
.tot -■“*----“» :^*r-
rAatoto^ «
IS* Afa
eii aii-n - A
•**— —*•
j- m <a ..^
Stone store apecifl® rales see soaotiwss included to
too tosses* A tola toeats of 17S8 tells u»*
"In oratorical
gesture, too loft QScnofO ®«SSh* net to to need alone* cssept
to dentalring**
Brown *s list* to 1798* includesi
Cissy* topp*®*# to our language* Ctototor an ascent is added
to a consonant* too preceding vowel is toontj and also that*
to toe unaccented syllables, no vowel Bsc a long sound.*
"Admiration lifts toe ratod and toe seise; seen so contempt
contracts «nd diminishes them," says at Harvard thesis of
«bo growing emphasis oa delivery above all else la
indicated by smother Harvard thesis# 1788, *fbe first quality
and# *s it were* the basis requirement for an orator Is *
well-modulated voice*» Americans were critical of the
English oratory of the period as mull* for ewnaple there
Is the Harvard febos&s of 1808*
In Snglaad# sacred ete<p*n«* flower*
but feebly# fitsm.$ trusting too snob In
matter* they have almost entirely neglected
manner. Among the Frsiiah# t o w m , Bossuet#
Sourdaleao# Ssb H b end jssssillon have inenl*
AsbOd the sacred truth net only because of
^ *ljp r
u r w W
' t r •o r
o f jlf i* 1
> w s s is t
tfooir fervid «uad sincere delivery**
Clearly# American speakers* as these of England, wave Awakening more sad were sharply to the neoesslty for study
of the delivery of materials# as well as of their preparation
and composition*®
!fhis night jest be national pride# end gratitude to
the yreaeh* for only a for years earlier# la 1961# when
SngXand was comparatively w*il*bei®vod# a Sale thesis holds
twin fast# jg&|pyyp& #Mw & $
jJ L iftin A
.W W - o d ^ - d k M i i l i k
nmbbMnnlfai JAS -dttqttih'jwb
jflttm BbMlM l
_Md: Atd Hh^^tLdMCaifeb
or &xz
jhn. Jtk
g# %
Abhor antlonsljLties in eloquence* foroe of reasoning* olsrlty
of thought# and elegance of style."
% study of the theses defended t» American colleges
in snore detail night prove w e t fruitful* Although there
booms no plane for more detailed dissuasion In this volume,
it is Interesting to not* suchtheses as thefollowing* tshleh
may indicate that a study of the these# would provide a
wealth of material for the student of this period in many
fal** 1906 — "Indian tongues and dialects* lacking
belles-lettres and any art of speaking* nevertheless lend to
Speech the beauty of accuracy and terseness.*
Pennsylvania# 1961 »» "Ke seems to do greater wrong
who eorrupts snathor with speeAh* than he who eorrupta
bribes| for one she is lipervloue to bribery may be
corrupted by s speech."
From the beginning, tee development of interest in
delivery in toerica closely parallels tt&t in Great Britain#
Be Have already sew that one of the earliest works devoted
to delivery* the tot of .#oesking. in fteiic* was read by
Samuel Johnson in 1W&#
later works were also t© be accepted
in tosrlce almost as quickly a® in England*
It teouM be observed that in the development of—
eieentionary theory t w school® of thought were evident from
tee very beginning:#
tee group of authors feel® that the _
soundest training in elocution is that teieh is to be gained
from nature herself#
Their writings on elocution are do* ^
signed primarily to free the orator from inhibition® and
misconceptions, and thus to enable him to achieve a natural
m accord with this design* they offer broad
precepts and stress tee need of understanding and appreciating
tee matter to be read or spoken#
This attitude toward el©* —
cution was termed variously wnaturaltt> Hmtur allstic*, or
tee wnaiur© school#**
toother group of writers* telle paying lip-service to tee ideal, of tee natural orator# feel that true natural­
ness is to b© attained through a study of didactic principles
©n which nature herself 1* built*
*Th©y find order In nature and
attest to reduee this to Inflexible rule* Accordingly, they
offer this same order and arbitrary rule to the study of elo­
cution, framing elaborate systems built with careful attention
to mlrrut#. specifications for ©very sort of material and situ­
Shis point of view has been termed "mechanical", or
**mechaniat1cn *
Haaon*-^fhe first Important figure in English elo- ^
cutionary theory
^ohn Mason, who first published his Essay
in 5PM®# fhe work m s offered for sal© in Sew
early as 17©%® and was in the Harvard library In
X7f.B»S It'ms included among the first Hat of books ordered
. . .
^|l»©nd©n# 17411)* dther editions were published in
1 7 4 % 1731* and 1761* Sb American edition has been found#
It is of .interest to note that Mason seems to have been the
first, m i t e r to Justify the use of the term "elocution11 in
the sens© of delivery# He adds this footnote to the first
page of the. works *X us© the tern elocution her© in its common
or vulgar sense, to signify utterance, Delivery, or pronunci­
ation, In which sens© w© frequently us© it in the English
language, and which its .Satin etymology vary well justifies!
thoagh i know some good writers apply to it a different idea,
In eonformity to the sens© In which the Latin orators used
the term-' Hocutlo# But it is no uncommon thing for derivitiv©
words in Sne 'fSSguag© to be taken in a different sense from
that, in which the words they are derived from are taken
% y tarratt Hoel, bookseller, op# clt*
% a r v a r d ,libra», ofc&r&ings aabalo&ue (IS#)* fwo
of 1765, and the
work was also listed in the Selected Catalo&ue of 1773#
by Brown diversity In' 1733*^
Mason*® theory of delivery is derived largely from
^tintillan, to whom frequent reference Is made, and Is the
first elocution In the so-called "nature" school*
Ho believes
that good pronunciation may be acquired by rule, by imitation,
and by practice, but M s great canon for delivery la to
■follow nature ,and to avoid affectation*
the work is a practi­
cal manual for training the beginning speaker*
In addition to the use of Mason noted earlier, he
seems to have been one of the chief victims of "borrowing"
daring the whole period#
Do&aley uses Stouten'*s ffasasr in most
editions of the frpeeptor* and thus all of the circulation
of that work was also circulation of Mason*
Ihe anonymous
published In feondon in X7§3 is nothing more nor less than a
paraphrase Of Mason without any actaowledgment whatsoever*
larding credits the work, to lohn Wesley, while noting simi­
larities between the, and Mason *s Essay on Elocution*
One might note more accurately that there are some differences
between the two works, but many more points of similarity
than of difference*
S^fcridan*— fc fbomas Sheridan mere than to any other _
^Manuscript record of books ordered by Brown Uni­
versity from. England in the Brown University archives#
%ardteg, m * olfc«* p* 263*
on© man belong© much of the responsibility for the early
popularity of the elocution movement*
Sheridan is best
remembered by most people for his many other interests , yet
between 1757 and 1780 he was easily the best known nonacademic teacher of speaking, and the author of some fifteen
books and essays on the reading, speaking, and teaching of
When h© first delivered the famous lectures on elo­
cution some three hundred gentlemen attended, and in all the
lectures were given three times to seventeen hundred sub­
scribers who paid a guinea each for the privilege*
was a student of Sheridan’s and considered himself an apt
pupil when Johnson ©aid to him, ®Sir, your pronunciation is
not offensive**1^
Sheridan*s works were circulated widely in America*
The Harvard library catalogue of 1785 lists Sheridan f?on
Elocution11 and f,on British Education*" The Harvard charging
catalogue shows that Sheridan1s Lecture© were charged three
times during 1767, more frequently than any other rhetorical
The Lectures were also in the 1775 catalogue of the
Philadelphia Library Coroany*
Ihen Brown sent its first order
of books to England in 178$ four of Sheridanfa works were
Included, the wOratorical Lectures,"^ the Lectures on Heading*
the Plan of Education,^ and the essay on British Education*
^Boswell’s Life of Samuel Johnson, II, 159*
^Undoubtedly the Lectures on Elocution (London, 1765)*
®This may be the Lectures on Elocution or the Lectures
on Heading (Dublin, 1775)*
% Plan of Education (London, 1769)*
$h© Xycoturea on Elocution were Included in the Brovaa. course
0^ study in 1783* and still listed for freshmen as late as
The same work was used in classes at the University
of South Carolina in 1806*
American editions of Sheridan,a
works are as follows: A Bhetorleal Craammr of the English
language (Philadelphia, 1783)$^ heoturea on Elocution
(Providence, 1706 )j leg sons In Elocution arranged by #* F*
Henshaw from Sheridan (Baltimore, 1834)*
Sheridan defines elocution as nthe just and graceful —
management of the voice, countenance, and gesture in speak­
Bis treatment of these factors is characterised by
a relatively moderate and seemingly practical approach*
refuses to set down a complicated system of rules, but sets
the standards and manner of good conversation as most suited
to platform speaking*
hater editions stress this natural
manner and make strong attacks on the so-called ^mechanical
Xn his various works, Sheridan, in addition to his
repeated emphasis of the importance of speech, divides his
teaching of delivery into discussion of Articulation,
^Bronson, op* clt *, pp* 103, 187*
% * h* Oreen, A History of the University of south
Carolina (Columbia, S*"¥*7 iM©) /p* 182.
“ “
%his is probably the second speech work to be
published in America, and it was brought out under the super­
vision of Archibald Gamble, Professor of English and Oratory
in the university of Pennsylvania.
^Lectures on Elocution, p* 19*
Pronunciation, Accent, Bisphasls, Pauses or stops, Pitch end
Management :of’-'ths‘-'fclcs.K: Tones, and gestures#
In each or
these a just variety, together with a combination of force
and grace is desired#
Specific rules are not given, for he'
holds that they are useless if they are too exact*
Even so,
he moves much further toward mechanical rules than does
Observing that action la of great value In speaking,
he offers general descriptions that were to become rules for
later- writers,
for example, "Mirth opens the mouth towards
the ear, crisps the nose, h&lf*ahuta the eyes, and sometimes
fills them with tears*11 Again, "A correct speaker does not
make a movement of limb or feature for which he has not a
reason** **He does mot start hack, unless he wants to express
horror or aversion****fhe way Is opened for the more
detailed rules to he constructed by later writer®*
J rL ^ .
Bur&h*~~!he first of the mechanical works was that of
that edition was in the Harvard library in 1767,® and the
1Discussions and summaries of Sheridan9® theories are
to he found in Harding, m * clt** and Sanford, on* cit**
Up* 128«»1S2* Sheridan *s'various works are also readily
available in ,American libraries*
%hetprloai grammar* p# 168*
^Ibid** p* 190# fhls sentence is repeated in literally
dosens ofiater elocution texts, many at which were extremely
mechanical In their approach and point of view*
^C&Ondon* 1761).
®The copy now in the Harvard Ijibrary is so narked
on the title page#
interest In the work was great enough that an American
Motion was published in 1775^ -- the first speech work to
he published in America*
8jlte. jjfffc of Speaking;# in the manner of its construction
at least* is a more representative work than Sheridan*3#
Vtiere Sheridan devotes his entire volume to a consideration
of the theory of elocution, Burgh presents a relatively short wEsa«yw on elocution which is followed by a much larger section
containing lessons and materials for practice#
this plan is _
followed by most of the later writers on elocution#
following excerpt from the title page of the book explains
the plan of organisations
1# Alt ISS&Yi in which are given Buies for
expressing properly the principal Passions and
Humours* which .occur in Heading* or public Speak­
ing! and
11* llSSOBdi :taken form the Ancients "and
Hedems (with Additions and Alterations where
thought useful) exhibiting a Variety of Matter
for practicej the emphatica! word® printed in
Italic®! with Motes of Direction referring to the
EssayI to which are added* A fable of Lessons |
and an Index of the various Passions and Humours
in the Essay and Lesson#
The essay comprises only forty-six of three hundred
seventy**two. pages* but It is an amusingly detailed catalogue
^Published by Bobert Altken, in Philadelphia# Other
American editions include Mewtmryperb* 1780* Philadelphia#
1786 and 1800* Boston* 1786 and 1795* Banbury* 1795, and
Baltimore* 1804# the work was not listed in any college
course of study# but It seems to have had a wide popular re­
ception from the very beginning* &oodhue lists It among the
work®' read by the members of the Harvard speaking club
between 1770 and 1781 (on# eit** p* 108} #
Of the various meanings and passions felch gesture and voice
are capable of portraying*
Almost three hundred ^passions
or humoura11 are mentioned in reference to the selections in
Fart xx# and about a third of these are described in the
- essay*
For exa^le, in hesaon 3CL7XI1 one line of the se­
lection offered for reading practice is annotated marginally
as a line requiring the emotion of joy*
fee reader is thus
referred back to the essay where Joy is described as follows?
jTov* when sudden and violent, expresses
itself by clanging: of hands* and exultation or
leaping# fee eyes are -opened wide; perhaps
filled with tears! often, raised to heaven#
especially byoevout persons* fee cotmtenance
is smiling, not composedly, but with features
ap^ravated* fee voice rise®, from time to
ISa, W v e r y
Much of the material on action is quoted directly
from .Sheridan% .Rhetorical. .Qramm&r* althoixgh no acknowledg­
ment is- made*, fee ^lessons11 are made up of selections from
writers such as Fop©, Milton, and Bryden and each selection
Is interpreted in suggested above*
Elaborate as
was Burgh1a attempt to indicate precisely the attitudes of
speaking and acting on the printed page, much more detailed
attempts ware scon to- follow*
Rice*— Burgh *$ book was followed by John Rice#s An
Introduction to the Art of Beading with .Energy and Propriety*2
%foCe fee increaa© in detail and instruction over
Sheridan, fees© description of Jby has been quoted on an
earlier page*
^{lendon, 1766)*
* work in the natural echo©!*
TJhlik© th© earlier books on
©locution, however, it deals only with vole©*
He also set®
reading off as a field distinct from all others, and feels
that th© effective reader need be neither writer, actor, or
Heading consists of **conveying to the Hearer th®
1**3Li>. Morning, of the g l t w ."1
Heading a language, what
Parthsr, "gnaphaalg is to the
is to th© writings it*w
discussion of the various division® of
correct reading follows*
influenced largely by Sheridan, and
in substantial agreement with him on the doctrine that the
sense of a passage should dictate the manner of its reading*
Stress or Bstphasis should b© laid on any particular iord
in any Sentence, without a due Hegard to the general Meaning
Of th© SfeoXe, w d of th© Just Pronunciation of every Word in
that Sentence
The only real disagreement between Hie®
and Sheridan is on how certain lines should have been spoken;
their theories are practically identical*'
Bice*® work was given to th© Harvard library In 1027,
but there are no further evidences of use in America*
of tXlliaan Enfield^ 1® also
p# 00ft*
^liOndon, 1774)* the first American edition was
published in Boston* 170b, and other American editions appeared
in 1708, 1709, 1803, 1800, 1008, 1814, and 1817* Th© work
la rg e ly n a tu ra l in lt » approach, and thus somewhat under the
In flu e n c e ® f Sheridan*
l*lk© Burgh^s A rt o f Sneaking I t Is
made up of a short essay on speaking, and many selections
£Or p ra c tic e *
Best organised of the works on elocution since
Mason, E n fie ld sets down eight rules by which his principles
may he sad© clear,
"Follow nature is certainly the funda~
mental law of oratory* without a regard to toleh, all other
rules will only produce affected declamation, not Just e lo ­
c u tio n , ® is an early precept#
*Ih© general principles are
given s in ce , "the a c q u is itio n o f the a r t o f speaking, lik e
a l l o th er p ra c tic a l a r ts , may be fa c ilita te d by ru le s# *
to e ru le s fo llo w *
h a t y e w a rtic u la tio n be d is tin c t and d e lib e ra te #
l e t your pronunciation be bold and fo rc ib le *
Acquire a compass and v a rie ty in toe height o f
your voice#
17# Froammee your words w ith p ro p rie ty and elegance#
7# Pronounce every word consisting o f -more than one
s y lla b le w ith it s proper accent*
V I# la every sentence,, d is tin g u is h toe more s ig n ific a n t
words by a n a tu ra l, fo rc ib le , and v a rie d emphasis*
V II.# Acquire a Just v a rie ty o f pause ted cadence#
V lil* Accompany toe emotion® and passions which your word®,
eagres® by correspondent tomes, looks, and
toe stress 1® always communication, and toe fin a l
was also toe source of much of the explanatory material,
along with Burgh, of Moah Webster1® Grammatical Institute
af die Bnfaiahl^ifm&ge. fart III (30&lf«; ifiSl^tKe^lrat
©ibeutlon and'coiieo'tlon of places to be compiled by an
American. fflaese notes are from the Enfield's Boston edition
of 1796*
%tofl©ld, op.*j p. le.
% S i t » »*■##$#*
a&vic# given
indicates the
author^ point of
view 5
Avail yourself, them, of your skill in the
tot of Speaking, 1m t always employ your powers of
elocution with caution and modesty; remembering^
that though it. be desirable to be admired as an
eminent orator, it la of much more importance to
be respected, as a wise statesman, an able lawyer,
or a useful preacher**
She book seams to have had so w college circulation
as well as popular sale, for It was ordered by Brown in 1783,
and a special edition published by William loodward in
Ibiiatolphla in 1799 prints a list of subscribers which in­
cludes, '*%iliiam Utomsen, professor of Languages, Dickinson
College, Carlisle, 8 copies, and if Dickinson students,*
gtaeis^— toe portion, of the mechanistic approach to
elocution m s presented in its most, extreme form in yoslrna
Steele*# Prosodic Eatiomll.®.#
toe of the most remarkable
books on prosify ever written, it presents a most unusual
effort to systematic# the speech of an orator as though it
might become m
set as a musical composition*
solely with reading, it seek# to bring -out the fact that there
■are many Variation# of the voice possible, and that these
variations may form pattern##
lb# author assert# t
Had #om# of the celebrated speeches from
Shakespeare been noted and accented as they spoke
%frid», p* wvli*
2<tendon, 1776). Ho early evidence of the work in
America has been found, but its Indirect influence was
great, and it m y well have been In private libraries soon
after Its publication#.
thorn* •we should bo able now to judge, whether the
oratory of our stage Is improved or debased* If
the method here ess&yoti. can be brought into
familiar use, the types of modem ©locution may be
transmitted to posterity as accurately as w© have
received the musical compositions of Corelli *3.
The following illustrates a line from Hamlet marked
as Stool© would have its
v o*
i 9'
That Is The Question
Or Hot To Bo?
The complete key to Steele ?s signs follows
a semi-brief - 2 minims ^ 4 crotchets = 8 quavers
a semi-brief * 2 minim - 4 crotchet - 8 quaver
r r r~r
» lengthens a note
acute accent
O. g.» ^ =r ^
grave accent ^
emphasis of cadence
heavy = £
force or quality of sound-loud %
lights /.
uniform loudness
3-Stoele, op» clt*» p* 14*
2Ibid*, p* 40#
lightest * . ,
louder re soft 9
swelling or increasing in loudness / v a a A
decreasing loudness
circumflex V J
softer 99
HegarHess of St©ole *s real worth «*- and even the
most syaep&t&eblo of critics describe his system as utterly
wild^ «m*. he does appear to provide the ©locution teacher
with the answer to many of M s perplexing problems*
If we
are to believe the author* here ore rules with uniformity
and universality in their application, and a method of
recording with mechanistic perfection*
This possibility of
making *derrick live as long as Shakespeare,"
intrigued a
multitude of imitators and critics from $&Xk©r, Bayly, and
Thelwali in Bnglish, to Bush and his followers in America*
The mystic signs recorded above are to "linger long" in
American ©locution*
0ocki^»^^ieridanfa essential precepts are further
summarised by Ceektn*® fee stress of M s entire work Is
toward a conversational* natural manner, as is the theory of
Cockln feels that he has one original contribution
to make, however, and takes strong exception to Sheridan*s
effort to make reading appear as nearly as possible speaking*
Cockln sets up different standards for reading and speaking*
in reading, the "chief business being to repeat what he reads
with accuracy, one discovers only a faint imitation of those
Seookin, qp« axis.
p. ©I*
lish Metrists in
V'Ip* W
&lgn# of the ©motions, -$hich we suppose agitated him, from
toom tli©' word# were first borrowed#
Thus the reader is
truly seeking only to camaiunieate#
m are directed by nature and propriety,
the manner of our delivery in reading ought to be
inferior in warmth mad energy to what we would use,
were the language before us the spontaneous effusions
of our own hearts In the circumstances of those out
of whose mouths it is supposed to proceed# &
Welker»-*Xn the many works of Xoha Walker the
"mechanics” school of elocution receives its most detailed
and influential treatment up to this time#® He develops rules to fit every conceivable sort of sentence structure,
every inflection, pause and gesture, and seems to feel that
careful study of these, together with faithful practice,
will produce the perfect orator.
In the first of these works, ?ghe Elements of Elocution,
this predellction for rules is clearly show.*
After th©
pp# 2-3#
P# 7#
®$h® following works were written by Walker:
of Hjpoutlom* 1781 (notes taken, from the Boston
edition or lpt>i7 giata
1783s Hhetorical Oraima&r, 1786 (notes for this
are from the first American edition, Boston, 1814);
Of Speaking: Delineated, or, Elocution fsu&ht like
cademic Speaker# IQOltnotes from the
Set'American "eSSioir, HewTfork,'1808); and The Teacher^
dstant, 1787 (notec'from the Boston edition of ISIO)#
3Con a digest of l&iker#s rules was published in
Boston in 1828 under toe title of The Art of Reading, Bach
of these passed through many editions,*both in England
and America# Walker*# various works were used at Dartmouth,
1822-1827; Vermont, 1828-1841; and Williams, 1824-1860#
usual discussion of the value of the field of elocution and
the work to to presented# the section on Khetorical punctu­
ation takoc some seventy pages to present and explain sixteen
rules for pauses*
More than a hundred pages are given over
to ■a myriad of. rules on inflections# and toon some thirty
more rules are added for the use of inflection in the pro­
nunciation of sentences*
Th© rules given for modulation of
the voice are repeated so often in later works# and become
such a standard for tearlean elocution# that they may well
he repeated herei
(%) At the end of each sentence the voice
should be dropped to a lower key# so as to commence the next
sentence in the same lew key* (2) Words on which the voles
is to to lowered should be begun with a monotone* (3) fee
ranges of the voice may to improved by practice* (4) fee high
tones may to practiced in selections respiring their use*
(5) fee middle tones are tost practiced by declaiming very
passionate seeches in a low tone.# while keeping the voice on
a middle pitch* (6) Eelief from speaking in a high pitch
may to achieved by bringing the voice to a lower tone* and
(V). feis may be accomplished by adopting some passion which
requires a lower key***Host of the discussion of gesture is concerned with
what not to do*
fee left hand must not be used* the hand
is not to to raised shove toe shoulders* all gestures are to
move from, left to right* arms akimbo is taboo* gestures must
%alker# Elements of Elocution* pp. 286-301.
not cross to® mid-line of to© body; toe rhythm and timing
of gesture i® to he aa described la reference to the toole
problem of pootaro and delivery t
to© first plate represents the attitude
In which a boy should always place himself when
Im begins to speak. He should rest the tool© of
M s body on one log# the right$ the other just
touching the ground at the distance at which it
would naturally fall If lifted up to show that
the body does not hear upon It* The knees should
he straight and braced; and the body# though
perfectly straight# not perpendicular* hut
Inclining, as far to the right as a firm position
on the right log; M i l permit# toe right arm. must
then be held out with the palm open* the fingers
straight and close* the thumb almost as distant
from them as it Mil go; and the flat of the hand
neither horizontal nor vertical* 'but exactly
between both*
When top pupil has pronounced one sentence
in toe position, time described# toe hand as If
lifeless* must drop down to the side toe very
moment toe last accented word is pronounced; and
toe body* without altering toe place of the feet*
poise itself on toe left leg* toils to® left hand
raises Itself into exactly toe same position as
toe right was before* and continues in tola position
until toe end of toe next sentence* when It drops
down on toe side as if dee&j and toe body* poising
Itself m the right leg as before* eontlnuea with
toe vlght arm emtendedl and so on* from right to
left* .and from left to right* alternately* till
toe speech is ended*.###
Jf toe pupil*s knees are not well formed*
#r incline" inwards* he must be taught to keep his
legs at as great a distance as possible* and to
incline his body so much to that side* on which
toe a m Is extended# as to oblige him to rest to©
opposite leg ispurn toe toe; and this will* In a
.great measure# hide toe defect of his make*!
to© work concludes with an analysis of toe passions
&iblCU# p* 805* *taebing material from toe Academic
gpeakor* pp.10^11#
W h i ch is based d m Burgh# and which Is copied from Burgh
only minor changes in phrasing*
fhe Rhetorical Grammar which Walker feels is his
greatest worXt* and in which he Introduces his concept of the
circumflex* or wave of the voice, was published in 1785#
Mere* talker feels*
his-real claim to fame* for with the
discovery of the circumflex one can acquire wmore permanent
w&l®h to found a system of rhetorical punctuation*
9bm work sets out to
a complete rhetoric* and
opens with these lines i
ftat pert of Rhetoric which relates- to
composition has h m n m elaborately treated both
by the ancients and modems, that 2 .shall in
acme measure invert the common order* and at
first chiefly confine myself to that branch of
it which relates to pronunciation and delivery#8
fallowing the discussion# ishieh is very similar to the dements off.Elocution, he presents the figures
of rhetoric and gives roles on how to pronounce them*
is followed by a discussion of composition and style which
Is nothing more nor less than a aeries of excerpts from Blair#
and a discussion of invention which is excerpted from
Priestly and Ward*
So does talker construct his •perfect
work* on which he lays his claim to fame!
fh# Melody of gpoaklsiM delineated is little more than
a pirating of Steele*s Prosodia* Parks set up for the
^Walker# Rhetorical grammar^ p* xv<
%bld«, p. 3.7,
according ©f soun&s are. very similar i© Steele*s, and
lalk©r»s much vaunted ''discovery , tlx© eircumflex, m e
already In steel©*
fh© Academic Speaker ©onlines talker1s basic rules
with many selections for practice*
$h® rules are divided
into, three sections, one dealing with the elementa of gesture*
smother with the acting of plays at schools, and a third
presenting mmm ©f the rules given by Snfield* although no
acknowledgment is made*
Ih© rules dealing with gesture we have already quoted
in seme detail*
$h© m concerned with the acting of plays
are Just as detailed* until on® fears that the actors must
have been rendered almost as rigid as the gentlemen portrayed
illustrative plates*
%he feaeher*® assistant is devoted to composition*
developing the plan that students may he best taught to write
by giving them a synopsis of a theme and letting them expand
Again nonchalant about his sources, Walker seems not
to suspect that such an arrangement has ever been In use be*
fore* and he offers it as a srdieeovery**1
WUlker fs various works illustrate the new elocution#
departing rapidly from the natural standards which Sheridan
and his followers had attempted to set up, the tendency toward
mechanical rules is in full swing*
Sheridan attempted to
gain care and practice from the speaker with his advices
*A correct speaker does not make a movement of limb or
feature tov uM.eli he has not a reason, "j1 now Walker uses
the mm m sentence to preface the most complex description
Of emotional portrayal*® Walker ha&aet a standard that was
to become a fashion! minute analyses of gesture, vocal
<pdlties, and facial egression* together with a multitude
Of rules purporting to come from nature, and systems of
station which were thought to record for posterity every
fU&VCr of the voice,
this was the new elocution!
ffiaoi^^fhese lessens on Elocution* extremely popular
In iteerlcat
were copies of earlier writings*
fhe section
on gesture was. abstracted from walker, as w s the section on
the acting of plays at schools#
was from Burgh*
The treatment of the emotions
general rules on voice, which Walker had
borrowed from Sheridan, were In turn taken by Scott from
To these h© added ttchoice Selections.fl
dees not produce any very significant rhetorical document*
Bayly *a observations are diluted paraphrases of Sheridan, and
add nothing to his work*
I^»||.»i H
!t , »ninl!
» .-i i
'— .i.m
i,.—i n . II I—In
n mwi».i—
»in «.mi—
%herldam, Hhetorlcal Qrammer, p* 100*
%alk#r, moments of Elocution* p* 307*
% ba first American edition was published at Hartford
in 1795, a fourth appeared in 1790, a fifteenth by 1806, and
Others came out yearly until 1820*
*(j^mdon, 1788!*
Auatin*— 1*he last or th© English works v/hleh exerted
a large influence in America is that of Gilbert Austin*-*' !Efce
■book Is most frequently thought of as a manual of action
alone# but although these seetions were most quoted and most
Influential# the work presents a complete elocutionary
As a matter of fact# it is much more thorough on
the justification of the study of delivery than any of the
Other works# presenting an Imposing list of testimonies#
.ancient and modern# as to the value of delivery*2
fhe discussion ©f gesture appears to be as compre­
hensive as the most ardent elocutionist might desire*
of the chapter headings will serve to indicate the elabo­
ration with sfelOh the entire treatment is characterised*
chapter treats of the position of the.feet and lower limbsj
another of the positions# motions and elevations of the arms;
another of the positions# motions and elevations of the hands*
smother of the head# eyes# shoulders * another of the stroke
and time of gesture! there is one chapter on the preparation#
transition# and aceompantoent of gesture! one on the frequency#
moderation# and intermission ofgestures and a final set of
Chapters on the significance of gesture*
More than a hundred plates are given at the close of
^Chironomia* or a treatise ,on Rhetorical Delivery
(london# 1806T#
2fhese include Isocrates# Demosthenes# Cicero#
Quintilian# Dionysius# Pllmy# Aristotle# Victor# Rollin,
Maury# Burke# Alcuin# Isidore of Seville# and many others*
the work to illustrate the various gestures*
These greatly
intrigued later ©loctitAoniats, and were reprinted in part In
many other works*
More important, however* to many of the
elocutionist® , was Austin*s development of a method of marking
gesture with the same accuracy and completeness $teele had
given to the markings of sounds#
this system provided a symbol
in the f o m of a letter to be written down for each position
of the hands* arms* head* eyes* and feet#
Symbols were also
provided for placing of the different parte of the body and
for egressions of the countenance* as well a® for the force
and rapidity of the voice in delivery#
orator can-bo-diagrammed*
Thus the complete
This whole system is illustrated
with a poem* *®he- Miser and Plautus #**
Uhilo At is unlikely that Austin*® work had wide popu­
lar use in America* its indirect Influence was tremendous#
The system of notation developed was used by most of the later
writers on elocution* in England and America, and even the
single illustration cited above was re-printed in dozens of
from 18©# through I860 Chironomia remained the defini­
tive work on gesture*
■’American Writers on Klocution
During these years in whioh Bhgllsh elocution was __
developing into the strongly mechanistic doctrine presented
^Austin* op# clt#* pp# 568-370*
by Walker, Steele, and Austin, American writers on elocution
were also active*
Although an American rhetoric was slow to
develop, there was active interest in elocutionary writing
by Americans from the first years of the now nation*
previously noted the first work concerned '
with speech which was written by an American and printed in
America wasthe t of Woah tebster,.1 Full of patriotic fervor,
he .determined, to set up a special American language, and so
presented three volumes making up A grammatical Institute of
the Bullish &angu&ffis, of idilch the third volume was a col­
lection of readings for declamation*
fee rules for reading and speaking were taken largely from Burgh* and comprise only some ten pages of the two
hundred included in the volume#
His only plea for this study
in preference to the Art of Bpesking» fee Precentor* or Scottfs
lessons# is that it is an American work*
fee selections
Carry a good bit of nationalistic fervor too, several dealing
with the. history of Worth America, and three of Warrants
speeches and one of hivlngston* s are given prominent positions*
fee work was i»ediately popular, five editions being printed
by 1789* and a tenth Boston edition appearing in 1798*
were hundreds of later printings*
lsoab Abater, J m._ AggrloanSelection at Loaaone fa
and Speakings Being?: the 5r& part of a Grammatical
hanguag©''{HartFor^,^ l7^fe)*r
Ibid*. p« 3,
this pagination la for an Exeter
yan&.+~~1792 saw the- publication of Joseph Bans*s
Wow .fonericag. selections In Reading and:Speaking:*
collection of selectioms with an introductory essay on readlag and. speaking*
Oener&l directions for reading and speaking
are extracted from Blair, with much stress on the importance
of a natural manner*
Following the selections there is added
the Elements of Gesture from Walker, with plates and de­
scriptions as in Scott*s
^n&ham*— One of the most popular of th© early
readers was the Columbian Orator* by Caleb Bingham* ' some
twenty pages of advice on reading and ©peaking are given*
Bingham says that they are extracted from various authors,
but Ward provides all of th© definitions end much of th©
The rest of the book is selections, of all typos*
One merits quoting, for who has not beard it at some Christmas
program In the tiny home-town church*
Tou*d scare© aspect one of my age,
To ©peak In public on the stage*
And if X chance to fall below
Bemoethanes or Cicero,****
T&tl oaks from little acorns grow**
^(Boston, 1798)« A third edition was published in
1799* but the work does not seem to have had wide popularity*
^(Boston, 1797)*
&h©r© were eighteen Boston editions
by 1016; th© fifth froy edition appeared in 1S11; other
editions were frequent* %h# American Preceptor, another
compilation by Bingham, was first printed in Boston, 1801,
and there were hundreds of later printings*
1797 was th©
-Another work which was published first in
*» Assistant* by Alexander Thomas*
1# also a collection of selections, but the author1s advice
on reading scorns be ho M s cunt
$h© host and almost only guide to the
attainment of a perfect elocution is to follow
nature# We crowd upon the mind the observance
oT to infinite number of rules, must often
defeat the purpose intended, and render the
scholar incompetent to apply them*
A complete understanding of the subject
of which the scholar is declaiming, is the first
desideratum of oratory# He then enters into th©
spirit of the writer, and is able to give it its
toe emphasis and cadence* General rules may be
of some service, but the attainment of a handsome
delivery. Is the consequence of practice and
attention, and on© day's instruction under th©
car© of an able Preceptor, is of more service
than a folio volume on the subject.*
provides much of the introductory
although no
essay to. B* St&ndiford's Art of
acteowled^&ent is made to Mm#
fhe selections in th© work
are th© usual Jumble of aphorisms, poetry, and essays, with
m liberal sprinkling of speeches*
Orator,— This anonymous work printed in Boston
fa 1804 was one of the larger of th© collections of readings,
combining fifty-five pages of dieta on reading with almost
^Worcester, Massachusetts, 1797),
%bi&* , Introduetory Eemark.
^(Boston, 1800)* Other editions appeared in 1802,
1808, 1804, 1808, and th© twelfth edition was printed in 1817*
three hundred pages of ©©lections.
%he rules are taken from
a large number of sources including Knoxfa Mints to Fublie
i ffoe Art of Speaking in futile« and Blair*a Lectures.
fhey are loosely organised into general rules for speaking,
rules for the reading of the separate figures, and rules on
natural in their approach for the most part, they
seek to create flexibility and variety in delivery.
appeared the same year, and provided
a practical duplication so far as the advice on reading is
Murray»*■~3?he first edition of these famous readers
which' was located Is a Boston edition of 1805, the 7th
the introductory rules are chiefly from Blair.
Since the work was at once one of the most popular readers,
and representative of most of the readers,, an analysis has
been made of its selections.
Chapter One presents selected sentences, almost all
of them aphoristic.
Chapter® Two, Three, Four and Five deal in turn with
narrative, m&aetio. Argumentative, and descriptive pieces.
Blair *s aentions provide nineteen of these, five are from
Coldsmith, five from Addison, three each from Johnson and
^(Boston, 2804).
Bindley Murray, Bullish Header.
Bum®, two from Cicero and Harris, and Melmoth, Aikin, Seed,
Home, and Gregory each provide one*
Chapter Sta deals with Pathetic materials, fiive from
Blair, and ©in# from (Goldsmith and T<mng*
Chapter Severn contains thro© dialogues, two from
FaneIon and on® from littleton*
Chapter Bight present® public speeches, on© from
each of the following#
Cicero, Act®, Blair, Mallust, Mansfield*
Chapter Hin© is headed wpromi®cu0tis Selections*
and ha® ten from Blair, four from Addison, two from MeXmoth,
and one each from Goldsmith and Home*
Chapter Ten, the final chapter, present® dozens of
bit® of poetry from source® ranging from Anonymous to
i was a similar book
(leoiidge*-~3$ie pious Instructordesigned especially for n m in Friend fs schools.
Only three
page® are given to advice on reading and speaking, and this
advice is s$a$le, natural, and direct in its approach*
AM©n*-«»»»fhe Speaker, by Abner Alden, first printed in
Boston in 1810, present# the rules given in Burgh*® Art of
gpeaking, and the usual number and variety of selections*
About the only distinctive item in th® work is the acknowledge
ment to Burgh for the rules*
^Daniel Ooolidge, fflhe Fiona Instructor (Walpole,
W» H*, 1806)*
Cooke#*-In two works Increase Cooke presents one
of th© more complete digests of English writings on ©locution*
general introductory coaments are from Chapman* s Oratori
later coaments on the backgrounds of elocution are from
Bheridsm and Burgh; rules for voice are digested from Steele
and Walker, and th© discussion of action Is largely lifted
word for w r & t m m Walker*
Enfield and Inox are other sources*
In all some seventy pages are demoted to rules for reading,
with selections making up the rest of the work*
American ,te.eaker**-dn anonymous work In the natural
school was published In 1311, but seems to have attained
little circulation*
It does present ably the reaction of
those opposed to rules for speaking?
We hare been frequently amused, and sometimes
disgusted# in looking through rules for Public
peaking, accompanied with diagrams of attitudes;
So that ell the impressions are determined by a
scale I and a plumb lino fixes exactly where the
hand and feefare to be advanced# to express every
passion# ♦♦.When the great truth is attended to ~~
that to exprea you must feel ** little more la
necessary# fttthbui'Kiis, the electricity of speech
la newer emitted or received# 1hen an orator shows
evidently the ardor of seal and th© strong con*
vietIon of important truth# he is rarely charged
with awkwardness *** nr© do not deny that such a
speaker may be ungraceful# but his audience Is too
powerfully borne along in the torrent created by
the orator# to attend much to the attitudes of
the nm+®
itoeriosn Orator (lew Haven, 1811), and Introduction
to the Burkean m£Ei* (lew Haven, 1813).
American Speaker (Philadelphia# 1811).
Sgaid.., pp. iv-v.
The work contains the usual collection of selections,
tout adds this Individual touch in their selection
all are
speeches, and there are many reputed to he from Indian chiefs*
Christlan Orator*
eause earlier works breathe
"unhallowed feelings? a spirit of pride and revenge, of
ambition and war," a "gentleman of Massachusettsw In 1818
constructed the Christian Orator,
digesting talker #s rules
on elocution in the first forty pages, the work adds to them
a large number of Bible Society speeches for practice#
Welles***»Qne of the most ccablet© treatments of rheto- rle# although the greatest stress la on delivery, to to® found
in the elocution works, is that contained In The Oyaftorls,
Here the author makes a strong effort to combine a
brief digest of rhetorical theory with many selections for
More in the classical tradition than any of the - .
elocutionary writings since Mason, the work constantly refers
to delivery as "pronunciation,** and deals briefly with style,
the parts of a discourse, and invention for the pulpit orator,
as well as with delivery*
The section on delivery is almost half of th© advice ^
given, and stresses the value of a natural maimer, using an
approach consistent with the doctrine of Quintilian#
^Christian Orator (Charlestown* 1818)*
%XlJah, The Orator *a Guide (Philad©Iphia,
Russell **»~Xn 1895 there me' published th© first elo~ ""
cutionary work by a man 'twho was to hold a prominent position
In the field for th© next thirty years, illllam Russell*^
Before reviewing the doetrine presented In Bussell fs various
works, let us gain some picture of the influence and position
Of the author*
Me seams to have held, at various time®, the
position of Instructor In Elocution at the Abbott Female
School, at Phillips Academy, at the 'theological Institute in
Bast Windsor, Connecticut* and at Andover*
He also taught
classes at Harvard, and at the Hattn and High Schools in
Strongly Influenced by Walker and Austin in his early
writing* he later adopted th© doctrines of lush* and his
writings attained their greatest influence after 1840*
1841 to 1845 M i works were
used at Dartmouth College* from
1840 to 4880 at Mld&lebury,
and from 1848 to 1850they were
texts at-Marietta*
they also seem to have had some general
Sfoer* is little that is new or unusual in Russell*s
elocutionary theory*
Me is a definite convert to the
mechanistic theory of delivery* and in hi® works provides
% grammar of Composition (Mew Haven* 1825)* Other
work® by Susse4T' ihc4u^e ~'l£p,m©5^g of gesture (Boston* 1850)|
lessons in Funnelatien (listen*"
'4S8o)i'l^trcT® eg in Elocution
u&gtc&Y' 4iS~yrfrffieMcaii Elocutionist'(Boston/ i§W)T
Fulnit Elocution(jyadoVer* lB461>.i^drl;hophony (6th edition*
Boston, 1849}? and several others written in conjunction
with Same® Murdoch in later years*
%*or excsf>le* Orthouhony had passed through twenty
editions in 1862* and s©venty-*two editions in 1890*
definite rules for tlx© delivery of materials.
The following
o^cerpta from his treatment of action will indicate his
approach to that division of delivery t
The body should rest so fully on on© foot*
that the other could he raised for a moment with­
out loss of balance ; the toes turned outward; the
feet neither more nor less distant than a space
equal to the broadest part of th© foot; and th©
relative position of the feet such that If two
lines were drawn on the floor, under the middle
Of the sole of each foot, from the toes to the
heel, the lines would intersect each other under
the middle of the heel of that foot ^hleh Is
placed behind the other*!
The head should he neither hung bashfully
down, nor carried haughtily erects it should turn
easily, but not rapidly from side to side; the
©yes being directed generally to those of the
persona *&*© are addressed, but not fastening
particularly on individuals *.•*m e n a selection
shall require it the eyes should be directed
away from those of the audience and fixed upon
vacancy* Mil inappropriate and ungraceful play
or working of the features should be carefully
Seme fifty-six plates are added illustrating correct
host of these are from Austin, although Bussell
has added a few illustrating bad delivery#
Bussell*a treatment of voice is first influenced by
bulker, end then, after 1827, by Bush.
In each case, rules
ere given, and the basic assumption remains the same — good
voice for delivery, as effective action, is based on a
^Budiments of feature* pp# 0-7*
%Xbid#, p* 83. For a contemporary student criticism
of Busself *s methods and system see the section of this
chapter devoted to the criticism of elocution, pOd.. Z
scientific body of rules ^naturally” applied*
Bussell stressed another doctrine that is to become
increasingly popular among the elocutionists; the doctrine
which holds that practice in Orthoepy will aid in gaining
physical health*3.
Anna Barbauld*b
Bpeakea** published
in Boston in 1024* is typical of. th® works which were to
appear deleted especially to the female speaker*
that th® ”young female* who hesitates to recite should not
feel so hesitant# she hopes that they may not prow "too
modest to read or recite# by her father*« fireside# amidst
a circle of his friends# a passage of twenty lines from Milton
or Oowper* * W&® rest of the advice given is most general#
and the selections# naturally# are the purest to be found#
Vide all of the advisory content of John Golder*s American
fcaeher*® lesson of Instruction# published in Philadelphia
in 1827*
Ba® author presents the book only to add selections
to these *judicious** works*
Porter*••*The last of the great American elocutionists —
to follow the theories of Walker# was Kbeneaser Porter*
His —
3*3®® especially the introduction to Qrthophony*
and pages 9*13' of1Pulpit Elocution*
SAnna B&rbauld#
P* V*
Female Sneaker (Boston* 1824}*
presentation of the Walker theories was also the most complete
to he produced in America, and among the most popular*
Simplifies and makes more practical the involved rules set
forth by Walker, although the system is still mechanical to
a high degree*
Sorter scorns to have been one of the most popular writers on elocution to college teachers, and the use of his
works in th© colleges was wide-spread*
fh® following list
of college adoptions gives some indication of their popularity*
Mount Holyoke
A listing of Porter*s rules for vocal Inflection may
be of interest because it probably gives the clearest possible
treatment of the mechanical theories on inflections of the
^porter *$ first work was presented in 1827, and
others followed in rapid succession* The following is a
list of Porter1a writings on delivery s Analysis of Vocal
tofleetions (An&ovor, 1827)% Analysis of raSsTprlnciplea of
H^xeferlca^^liveCT (Andover/''W87)V
on Bloauenc'g'imd^yleCAndover *
1836)* 3ti©_p i t e f e o r f c E I l ^ a S s r than a
hundred editions In"ISii''years,’and editions were still being
published after I860* Porter was himself a professor of
elocution at Andover Theological seminary from 1813 to 1830,
and president of the seminary from 1831 until his death in
X# feen th# disjunctive or connects words or
clauses* it has the rising inflection before* and the
falling after it.
IX. fee direct question has the rising inflection*
and the answer the falling#
XXX. feen negation Is opposed to affirmation*
th© former has th# rising and the latter the falling
XV* fee pause of suspension* denoting that th©
sens© is unfinished* requires th© rising inflection.
fee rising slide is used t© portray tender
VX# fee rising slide is commonly used at th© last
pans© but one In a sentence.
YXX. fee indirect question has th© falling
Inflection# end its answer th© same*
VX.XX* fee language of authority and of surprise la
commonly uttered with th© falling Inflection.
XX. Kffiphatio succession of particulars requires
th© falling slide.
Emphatic repetition requires th© falling slide#
fee final pasts© requires the falling slide.
XXX. fee circumflex occurs chiefly where th©
language is hypothetical#*
Porter*© treatment of action is clearly influenced
by Austin, and differs from feironomla in no important detail.
Some of Porter*© most Interesting observations on
are contained in his lecturea on Eloquence and
^Anaiysia of Vocal Inflections, pp. 1020. men on©
applies almost as many rules to each
variety of sentence structure* th© extreme complexity of the
mechanic®! system can be at least partially appreciated*
*2foes© hatr© already be on referred to, and wore given in re­
sponse to the rules of his office.
As we have already noted,
they treated primarily of delivery, and In these more formal
lectures he presents many points of view not found in his
textbooka. He recognises the need for seeming "naturalness” '
on the part of the successful preacher, but he is not willing
to sacrifice his belief in rules, so he suggests three basic
First, technical rules cannot make any man
Second, they may afford, however, great assistance
in the cultivation of those endowments of eloquence where
they exist*
third, n*Bb» utility of precepts depends upom
(1) their being applied with Judgment; and (2) th© famili­
arity of habit*
Shus, since the rules are truly derived
from, nature, if one practices them faithfully enough ^your
tones, attitudes, and gesture will be so completely your own
as to cast no reflection at the time of speaking*”
Of interest also is his advice on ^preservation of ~
the vocal organs#” 13*© assumption seems to bo that there is
danger that from too much speaking th© poor preacher may be
brought to nwhisper with broken lungs*” fo avoid thiss
Cl) % m p your general health good; (2) Spare the vocal organs .
front all improper efforts, that is, don't speak in too high
a key, keep out of a noisy church, don't speak in crowded
rooms* don't speak when ill of the vocal organs, avoid late
preparation of speeches* avoid the us© of liquors immedi**
afcely before and after speaking, and **keep your sp©eeh*h©ated
lungs* out of the open air until they have a chance to cool*'1
one book whleh had a greater Influence
on American elocutionary theory than any other was probably
that written by hr* Barnes Bush of Philadelphia*S As American
elocution grew more and more concerned with the problem of
voice* Each*® work beeara© the definitive treatment of that
subject* even as Austin's remained standard as a source book
in gesture or action* later writers occasionally disagreed
with Dr* Bush on minor details of his system* but no important
writer after lit? until, recent years failed to mention it*
and few there were who did not pay it tribute*
ftp* lush* in the introduction of the work* decries
the fact, that although the description of the voice should
certainly be among the duties of the physiologist* not one
of them has found the time to take up this task* which has
hitherto .grown from the *fancles of rhetoricians* and th©
dull authority of graaparians#
llbid*.# PP* M * S 0 2 »
%ames Bush* fhe.Philosonhy of the Human
{Philadelphia* 1S27 }♦ A" second'1'edition" appeared
a fourth In 1203 was published simultaneously in
and Sew Yorkj another was published in 1867* and
late as 187t*
another as
%bld»» p* xiit* Pagination is from the Philadelphia
edition of 1233*
A survey is then presented of the past treatment of
the problem of voice, from Dionysius of Halicarnassus to
Steele and Walker* f© each of them he is highly critical,
when not damning with faint praise • of some ©f them h© says $
Hr* Steel© seems to have possessed nicety of
ears a knowledge of the science and practice of musics
and an. originality of mind, created by observation and
reflections powers sufficient to have investigated
successfully the nature- of speech.
Had he pursued truth by observation instead
Cf controversy, hadhe not cuff©red the harmless respect
Of a verbal decorum towards the opinions of others,
to exert a secret weight of authority; had he not
looked, back.fc© the- ancients,, and tbs dark confusion
Of1 their commentators, but kept his undeviating ear
on nature, she would at last have led h i m up to light*
Hr* gheridan is well known by his accurate and
systematic investigation of the art of .readings and
thou^x he improved both the detail and method of his
subject, in th# departments of pronunciation, emphasis,
and pause, he mad# no analysis of intonation, A
regretted ©mission!***#
Hr* walker*»* *exhibits in more than one place
of his works, that the varieties of intonation were
studiously ems&aed by him; indeed, he reiterates his
Claims to originality on this subject* ***but ha has
scarcely gone beyond the analysis on. which the ancient
doctrine of inflection was founded*#*.
Hr# Walker does triumphantly claim the discovery
Of the inverted circumflex accent****yet, if it is
correctly inferred from the dates of publication, and
from Hr* mlker*» rather derisive allusion to Hr*
Steel© *s essay, that the latter author preceded him, he
might haV# found, in Hr* Steele1# gravo^acute accent,
proof of the real existence of his newly found function
of th# wel##**##.Hr* Walker#**#is even less definite
.than. Hr* Steel#**
In the first chapter ©f the work, Rush refers all
3-Xbid*, ppm
th© varieties of sound in th© human voice to the following
general heads? Quality, Force, Time, Abruptness, and Fitch#
The book then goes into an analysis of these factors in
detail, and makes application of this analysis to the reading
of sentences and phrases of different types, and in varying
g&nc© the work is readily available, it is not our
purpose in a survey such as this to analyse the Philosophy
in minute detail, but rather to note its contributions to elo­
cutionary theory, and its effect on later works#
Some in­
dication of both of these factors is to be gained by an examinatlon of an essay read by Professor Trueblood of the Univarsity of Michigan on June 27, 1892*
After some discussion
of Hush as a man, Trueblood summarises his great contributions
to ©locution under these five general divisions:
He is the first writer who laid any
particular stress on the glottal stroke necessary
in th© production of most vocal sounds*
{2) Bush first made an analysis of the
vocal value of the elements ©f articulation*
(S) Ha demonstrated to a certainty that
the voice' acts by concretes (slides) on every
syllable that is not sung, and that the discrete
or step vac not applied alone to song* .**but was
a part of speech, -and that the two acts'conjoined
make up the melody of speech*
Xbld,, p. SI.
%Jbo*B»« 0* Truetolood, *Fhe Kush System [An essay
read before the Convention of Nubile Headers 4’
and Teachers
of ^Locution, June 27, 1802J, (Hew fork, 1092)#
Be first presented on analysis of the
intervals of speech*
(0) ill the principal terms used by the leading
writers sine© Ihxah****bav© been chosen from the
nomenclature of the Bush Philosophy**
Trueblood goes on to defend Dr* Bush against the
accusation that his system is too technical> too mechanical*
gioeutiGn# he tells us# must he made *an exact science*”
Kvery selection should be marked# m that we may "preserve
all expressive utterances for study and reflection***®
Although one must concede that Hush did pioneer in
M s nomenclature# and that he carried all of the analyses
advanced by earlier elocutionists to their ultimate# it seems
remarkable now that Bush received and held this volume of
It must be remembered# however# that the elocutionists
were seeking methods of making their field scientifically
accurate and exact $ thus # to then# Bush offered a systems*
tlzation for'voice comparable to that already advanced by
Austin in the field of action*
At any rate# the Rush system —
became the American system of ©locution with few exceptions*
|)wyer*^Anoth©r little book influenced by both Walker
and Bush is that of 1* H* Dwyer*25, The work had nothing
Original to offer# although it possessed enough popularity
HP* 2-S.
p. 5.
flgaaay on Elocution (Utica# 1829)•
to go through six editions by 1345*
Barber•«*«*One of the first and moat popular teachers
t© adopt the Hush principles was Jonathan Barber, who taught
elocution for a time in both Harvard and Tale colleges#^ Be
became known as ©me of the foremost exponents of lush1©
philosophy and in hie works attempted to reduce the system
into a teachable manual#
Barber*s works had .some college
Circulation* and were used at Alabama, from 1032 to 1033, and
at Harvard during the years of his lectureship at that
Barber’s first work, fhe Elocutionist* is simply a
collection of readings*
Xt. is in the second work# A Grammar
of Bloontlan,^ that he develops his interpretation of th© Hush system*
.After a flowery letter addressed to Br* Hush,
in which he gives Hush credit for the basic philosophy of
the work, Barber develops his study as tTXt is taught in
Harvard College* **
fiie first chapter deals with articulation, and then
^fh© Harvard catalogues from 1031 to 1835 list him
as a lecturer on elocution, and the title page of th©
Blooutionist, published in Hew Haven in 1829, credits the
StSor as being T?Teacher of Bloeution in Yale College*n
%?ru©blood, for example, in his essay on The Bush
System, pp* 4»5, quotes references to Hr. Barber as having
'to © same significance a© those directly referring to Hush#
S(h ©w Haven, 1830)*
a table of vowel and consonant elements Is sot up*
A chapter
Is given to each of the elements of voice presented by Kush*
Quality, Force# fime* Abruptness# and Pitch*
Six chapters
treat of th© *slide” of voice# two of radical pitch* three
of melody# two of quantity, on© of tremor of voice# four of
fore#* and the remaining chapters deal with the various kinds
of voice# and application of the vocal elements in expressing
W m extent to which the elocutionists became pre­
occupied with voice under the influence of Kush is shown by
Barber*# scale for th# criticism of a public speaker, which
1 quote without deletion*
Is his vole# full# strong* and agreeable?
2* 1# his enunciation exact and audible* without
affected preciseness % and are his syllables pronounced
according to sound usage?
Is his simple melody free from monotony?
4* X# he without what is usually called a tone*
consisting in a recurrent melody?
5* Is there th# monotony of a high note* or
circumflex, in his speaking on emphatic words* or In
the general current of his discourse?
6* Are his emphases so varied by time, percussion#
and a properly alternated rise and fall in pitch# as
to prevent monotony from a perceptible recurrence of
the same kinds ?
7* Do his emphases of pitch# consist of a
direct rise and fall, and not of the pulling unequal
Does he employ radical stress with effect?
9* Is hi# speech marked by an agreeable use
of quantity free from drawl# or any mixture of song?
XG* Are hie consonant elements free from Improper
XX* Has h© full command over th© downward slide©
of the voice* and over the downward radical pitch* for
expressing the positive emotions?**#*
Does he avoid the monotony of th© vanishing
>• Boes he employ the cadence in th© proper
14* Does he mark his parentheses* paragraphs*
and changes of subject by transitions of pitch* time*
force* and quality?
%f>* Are the vocal powers so deployed* as t©
delineate the sense in a vivid manner?
of pathos?
Is the semitone at his command* for purposes
17* Gan he employ th© tremor with effect* to
heighten the language of sorrow and exultation?^
Barber’s other two works are & Practical freatlae on
published at Cambridge in 1831* and an introduction
to the, Grammar of Elocution* published .in Boston in 1834#
Eh© second of these Is designed for younger pupils than the
Grammar* and the work on gesture is fully explained by th©
continuation of the comments on the title page
extracted from Austin’s Chironomia; adapted to th© use of
students* and arranged according to th© method of instruction
in Harvard Bhlversity*”
little known but interesting work* in
that it Indirectly accuses an earlier work of plagiarism*
^•Grammar of Elocution* pp# 177-178.
£• that of Samuel Hillard*
His preface insists that the
worts was written in 1881# and then he notes "peculiar co­
incidences" hetween his work and Porter1a Analysis of the
. ghe two works are some*
what alike# hut Porter seems to hare gained# and kept# the
greater popularity.
fhe work has little original contribution to make#
. hat Is unusual in one ether respect.
St is the only worts
found in the preparation of this shady to refer to Mans's
On action, or gestioulotion, M a m s is freely quoted# and he is also frequently
referred to in the section devoted to e«mg>©*ition*
digest of Bush's
& desighed for class use# was published in Hew
Haven ahoat 1SS0.®
It is concerned with voice only, and
while primarily based on Bash# owes something to talker as
%bld» Hate especially pp. 118*184, and 170-196.
The iaclueion in fee same work of principles of delivery
anA of original ooBposltion is also unusual, and uncopled,
for this period*
Hew fork Public library does not attempt to
assign its authorship to anyone# hut the copy in the Harvard
library is ascribed to Ghauneey A. Goodrich, professor of
rhetoric end oratory at Tele from 1817 to 1839# and a
letter from Hlea Konrad of the fale library suggests that
the book was used as a text at Isle, fhe title page gives
neither authornor date of publication.
H© ©vldene© ©f further editions has been found* and
It la not probable that the work had much circulation*
Maeleod*--Donald Macleod la author of a moat un­
original tent on ©locution,'** but deserves
00 m©
prominence In
thta study for a later short work which presents one of the
moat thoughtful discussions of the real place and purpose
of elocution presented by any writer of the period#
Although the teat la a typically mechanistic approach
to voice and action* and extremely artificial in its whole
tone*® when the author, discusses his field before the institute
he takes a very different point of view*
He notes at the
opening that in many places elocution is very badly taught*
foe many students are steeped In ^incorrect* pompous, and
noisy declamation* ***imltatl|ag humanity badly* ***trying to
giro utterance be the written spells ©£; genius, before they
hare- bestowed any pains***©a the intellectual part of el©*
{Washington City, 1830)*
of a Mseourse on Elocution {Cincinnati*
* T$£& 1# ■a •
before the
Western Mborsry Xnamtmte, and College of frofessional
teachers* at their fifth annual meeting*
% © r ,ema»le* It contains as one of the selections
a Debate on the 'Character of Julius Caesar* Introducing which
Macleod tells us* *1 have followed the example of the author
of"this debate* In recording the names of the young gentlemen
for whom It was e w p a s M * ” (Italics mine*)
* p* 5*
ritleietog both toes© who produo© groat artifieto
alfty, and those toe oppose any form of training, he then
W W *
& standard of elocutionary success, and a system of
elocution to attain this standard# Briefly, thea© are as
For good elocution, four things arc required of thus
elocutionist * (1) Me ought to possess powers of roles and
capable of
©very mood, and modification
#f thou^t, and ©motion, clearly, forcibly, and agreeably?
(2) He m a t folly Understand and thoroughly feel th® thoughts,
sentiments, and emotions, to which it is his business to give
($) He m m b
with them at th# moment of utterance; and (4) He w m t have
taste to guard against impropriety and extravagance to the
use of his
powers of egression#
fhe course of training recomaended is designed to
m e t these standards*
It also involves four steps*
!£ratotog to voice end gesture to make them 'habitual by frequent
end regular practice; (2) tihei#* of subjests for exercises
Which will interest th® minds and encourage the exertions of
the students; {3) toe&aree and illustrations on the part of
th# professor so composed and arranged as to furnish proper
materials for exercise® to extemporaneous speaking; and (4)
Progress to the exercises from practice of the elements of
vole® and gesture, to toe delivery of interesting passages
Ijbid* i p« 12*
from to© speeches of others, and finally to the expression
Of too student*© mm thoughts*^
g&rougboufc the «tii«» la on this concept of ©locution
as preparation for purposive speaking.
0estures# too ©!©■*
eutlonist should remember# *&r© th# mere.elements of ©locution#
and not to he confused with elocution Itself#n toenewer
declaiming to© student should hays M s mind fixed on only
on©' thing! mm% th© moment of utterance, closely and exclusively
on toe subject matter*"
stellar point of view is presented by
a* M. 8##®%** 1® i* a *©*tog te&oher of slooutlon who seems
to have published his works in an effort to attract more
^ and# in truth, they are not a had recommendation*
Els tool# treatment is natural in its approach, and is
characterised by M s definition of eloquence t *#o salt
action to toe word, and toe word to toe action is eloquence
under all cl»umstmncea * By how m e h we depart from this
precept# by ©» much oar ©locution Is defective.*6
%bld«* pp* 13*M*
% b M « , p. 16*
^Praetlcal ElocuMeh (4to edition# Albany# 1846)*
% h # pamphlet# Slocution, for example, Is filled
with testimonials as b p t s S©1SS of toe training with jar*
Sweet# including toe from to# "ladies* drawing room of toe
steamboat gharolate ©a rout©' to Albany”1
Weston»*~Wesfconta KuOiments of Elocution. published
In Boston to 1841, to another 'digest or Bush1® theories, with
the addition of Bussell*® plates Illustrating gesture.
would deserve the briefest of comment, save for its indication
of the attitude of an elocution teacher to hi© own profession*
In the introductory paragraphs of the work there is this
*toe importance of the subject under consideration,
'renders an apology unnecessary for the appearance of
■this work, elocution has now become a science* clothed
In all the dignity and amenable to the mESSmjag laws
of an inductive philosophy*.*,* .toe only question that can
arise is, as to toe manner of instruction*!
#uto is toe respect given toe elocutionist1© biblc ™
3foveil**»»*0ff interest for similar reasons are toe
works of #* $s* toveil*
toe author, also to toe Hush-Austin
tradition to M i writing, recommends n01as®, or Concert Speaking**
for training*
Sere to; hi© explanations
fhe piece to be spoken should be well committed
to. memory by every pupil* toe instructor then, standing
to front of toe ©lass, ©peaks toe first sentence, giving
.toe appropriate gesticulation* toe pupils immediately
follow him, copying his. tones, look, and action, as
..nearly As possible**«.toese performance© are animated,
poetical, and beautiful* Baring taught my pupils on
this plan for ntor#* than fourteen years, l oan assert it
to be an excellent onej it produces great results with
!g* H« Weston, i&fcdiraenta of Elocution (Boston, 1041),
P« 0*
little labor#^
3&rltfoam»«>«»fee very popular writings ©f Samuel
Kirkham were also In the Bush tradition, although much
•— Andrew Comstock#s point of view was
greatly Influenced by Hush and Austin, and hi® Practical
Elocution^ presents their doctrines in relatively complete
In addition to popular sale, and it ran through many
editions, the work was used at Kenyon College from 1845 to
1848, and at north Carolina during 1848*49#
Comstock him­
self was an assistant In elocution at Haverford in 1856-57*
Comstockfs Interest In speech was not confined to
©locution, he developed his own phonetic alphabet, which h©
used in fee phonetic,Speaker#^ and in another elocution text
he pays special attention to stammering and articulatory
Bronson*— One of the most peculiar of all the elocution
%fh© Young Speaker, p* 500# Incidentally, the
author tells" us" &©"'once exhibited a class In this manner#
fee class was composed of seventy ^little fellows from six
to twelve#®
%ssay on Biooution (Baltimore, 1855)#
went through!" sSventy-fwo''1editions #
fee work
$(2nd edition, Philadelphia, 1837) #
4Jftolladelphla, 1847).
SA System of Slocution, v/ith apeelal Reference to
ftaature. to fcii® treatment of StaaBterin«, and Defective
E t l c o i lt i on " fpaialil^KLar iS4s >.------------------
book®# In that It tries to accomplish all that is stated in
Its cumbersome title# is that of Charles ?• Bronson*
title Isa
Elocution; or Mental end Vocal Philosophy:
Involving the nrinolples of sneaklnk anil reading;
ina desimed for t h e ^ f e l o ^ n T ' a M ^ i m a l l o n
of Doth body
i&n^"agcor^'me'^tA W the nature*
nees » 'and'
p.^nsl;ra¥eSr by'bWo or
three h u n t e d ,rr'^^e&bbia^mt^ee'lESS^and
'~a r A 'reai^^sT^'f^eTthousand
elegant enCTWin^s*^
Following no system entirely# hut borrowing liberally
from all of them# Mr* Bronson# A.M*# M*F>*, jumps easily from
Demosthenes to Hush or from Quintilian to Austin# and pauses
en route to discuss the etl<|aett© of climbing a staircase or
of riding with a lady!
If one can derive from the work the
author's own beliefs# they seem to be these ~~ Avoid rules
if they interfere with nature*
The one great rule is:
all speaking and reading, be in earnest# 2
Another elocution to have some university
use as well as popular sale# is that of Merritt Caldwell.
The author tells us that it is built on Bush and Austin# but
is needed because of their expense and unavailability# and
it excels either of them In that it combines both under one
*(5th edition# Louisville# &y«# 1845}* Sales had
already exceeded 43#000 copies* according to Mr* Bronson*
%bld». pp. 151-152.
5a Practical Manual of Elocution {Philadelphia,
^testimonials to the work indicate its use at Bowdoin
to 1845* Alabama used the work from 1847 to 1850, Amherst
1858 to 1848, HeKcadre© from 1848 to 1850, Emory and
Henry during the same years, and Dickinson*
taught tor a time, used the work from 1846 through I860*
Sagy*1 toy S. Claggstt, la
Just a amplification of the theories of Austin and Bush# with
toe usual group of selections making vsp toe major portion
of the work#
■Jgj£***~©ne of toe most thorough and most practical
digests of Rushfs IhlXeaophy of toe Human Voice« m s prepared
by Story Imp® toes# Art of. Shetorlc and Art of Maoonrae we
hare already emmtoed#
Say*a reasons for writing separate works on rhetoric
.and on elocution present an interesting contemporary point
of view of the tools problem of the separation of these two
Elocution* or toe vocal expression of thought* —
: ,1s mot a necessary part of rhetoric# Elocution# or
vocal delivery has* indeed* generally been esteemed a
constituent part Of to# art of rhetoric* Diverse
■considerations # however* justify to© propriety of
separating tom*®
„ i.M
. KI..W
* !■II •
» .■■.
. .M»
l(H«v Xork, 1S4BJ.
gArt of sa.oeutlog. {H«» Z&ven, 1844) . Bven a competitor
of Bay*a*theaato^ or fractical Speaking* makes the state*
ment in his own work* t a S if w t ' Is'not available to you#
read the ^neat and elegant treatise of H» H* Bay of western
Reserve College* which Is an independent work on the same
general plan#w Bay*# Elocution was used at Amherst from
1848 to 1858*
%ay* fh# Art of Bhetoric. pp# 6-7#
H© then lists as those differences the fact that thought
m y be coiBQSHmle&ted to ether ways than by the voice* that
rhetoric m y thus be a couplet© art without elocution* that
proficiency to invention m y not mean proficiency to delivery*
and that the modes of training are so different that it Is
wise to separate the two arts*
^rto*wSrasme Worth m s instructor to elocution
totoXe College from 1380 to 1850* and his Practical Speaking
lis taught to ¥aXe, College^ is one of the more unusual boohs
of the period* Xb was also used at Mount lolyok© and at worth
Carolina to
Worth carries the separation of rhetoric and elo­
cution* which has beam developing* as we have seen* from
within both fields* to Its ultimate conclusion* to the intro­
duction to his wort: he makes his basic stand clear * wEXo~ action Is properly a branch of physiology* and. no more
connected with Mbetorle* with which It la so commonly as­
sociated* than with music* painting* and sculpture* with which
also it hits some considerable connection*
toe elocutionists of the earliest toerioan period
were meh concealed over the grievous fault of ^reading with
a tone-*0
Morth reverses their stand completely* Me feels
that there is a special ton# for speaking which we can
X(Sew Haven, 1846).
, p. 9.
develop* but which
d# not use# save in times of groat
stress* in normal life* #bl# ton© comes from *to© peculiar
open state of to© fauces# to© more tense eonfcraction of tho
vocal muscles * and the more sudden and complete emission of
breath* “ Only to to# speakers too have mastered this
tone can com© to© true joy of speaking#
#•#»:&# soon as they practically understand bow to
command too voice, toot distinguishes speaking from
talking or reading* they feel a eonsoiousness of
toying acquired a''new faculty* and are ever after
eonfldent of toelr abilityto us© it# it is indeed
a kind of muscular action#toleh like that of
si^bmging or skating# is perhaps attained after a
l^g continuance of repeated efforts# but when in
fact mastered* is often gained suddenly and at
lister in to# body of to# work* toe “speaking11 vole®
again receives major consideration*
“Shouting at some one
as though they were at a great distance** %s.gLven as to©
only sure way
to break into this voice for toe firsttime#
Worth*® general point of view Is somewhat like that
of Hush and hey# but there are certain peculiarities*
i a m e t opposed to lobster*® standards of pronunciation*
aim## Webster tells us that “rural** and “fitful** or
“chronical1* and “chronlcl©** are pronounced as though the
final syllables were the same* while Worth insists that this
must not be donef every unaccented sound must also have its
Own correct and distinct pronunciation*^
*P&Au> P* 13.
% W l t f P» **•
P* tl.
8# praiae® acquisition of the Meditative voice*9 la which
the speaker has a
tful or soliloquizing tons -- sound­
ing more as if th© speaker had mo audience before him*
Of interest at the end of the work is a discussion
#f■the method of training used at Tale college by Dr* North*
fhe general plan provides that during the sophomore and junior
year® each student receives private instruction for one week
of each term*
He practices In the chapel once a day for
five days* and then declaims before his class on the afternoon
Of the fifth*
On each of the practice days he receives a
distinct leason on some one essential point of delivery*
higher style of delivery is cultivated in. each college term#
and much term has its own peculiar series of lessons*
Sophomores during the first term are taught business
specking* stressing natural and extemporaneous earnestness*
fh© first two lessons are designed to make delivery natural#
forcible, and. distinct# the third and fourth stress ex­
pression* and the fifth puts the whole Into harmony*■ in the
second t e w they cultivate interesting speaking* or the ©lo*
W O M * of full enthusiasm*
lessons are m
a Musical* voice*
a •deep tone* voice* and an appealing style*
During the
third t e w the objective is commanding speaking*
juniors are taught acceptable delivery for popular
oratory during the first tew*
^SiMr# P* S®8*
lessons are on the expanded
voice, bold emotion, and abandonment,
Xn the second term
they leam elevated delivery, with leeeons on power, splendor,
sentiment, triumphant appeal, and calm power*
In the final
tern they stress matured delivery, with lessons and selections
calling for fullest expansion, refinement, striding passages,
and fees^ersnoe*
Such is the instruction in Y&l© college#
yanienhoff»**0serfte VandenhoYY, a ’•professor of elo~
cutlon in the city of low York,5* wrote two works® which were
printed, in several editions, and were probably used in some
of the colleges late in the period under consideration*
is modeled after the principles of lush and Austin,
jsa^athjin^^pxe practical Elocutionist by B* B*
Baglathlln, printed in Boston In £049, is another work based
on Hush, with nothing to contribute other than an unusually
ecmf>Heated system of marking selections#
only other work which seems to have
had any university use before 18BQ,
is that of Henry
!&# PP* 402*400#
(Hew York, 1845), and
0®he catalogue Of the Hhiverslty of Berth Carolina
lists Vandenhoff *s locution during the year 1047*40# A Hew
York edition of the A ^ 1of Slqcution new in the Harvard
library has the name^leorge'W e ^ a n d •‘Harvard College*1
written in it in the same handwriting*
4jt was used St the diversity of georgia and at
Wesleyan during 1049*00* It should be noted that many of
these works seem to have had popular, rather than school
sale# Although elocutionary training was required in most
H im deirllle
%0 fee the most ©empla& developed fey any of the followers of
Walker and of Kush#®
S l a g o f
the four reactions against the extreme
mechanism of Rush and M s followers Is offered fey y. 0 * Hows*
professor of' elocution at Columbia from 1044 to 1867#
# published in Hew York in 1849#
presents only a brief essay preceding the selections, feat
the entire stress of this essay is summed up in his final
comment * **$0 rules cam make an accomplished orator or speaker,##
the chief' aid is the process of intellectual analysis, fey
which we are enabled thoroughly to understand, discriminate,
and to feel, the delicacies and spirit of language*11® Many
years later a system of elocution was to fee developed from
this point of view#
this "think the thought" school, as it
has sometimes been termed# was finally to replace the
mechanistic elocutionary doctrines of Walker# Austin, and Kush.
of the colleges# the general interest in elocution was wide­
spread# and many works were unquestionably written to- supply
that demand#
Oratory (Hew York, 1849)
%csaet *s soliloquy takes some four pages to *rh@torically parse#11 iach sentence is identified as to type,
punctuated rhetorically# the slides t© fee used are drawn in,
the emphatic words are indicated# the action is keyed, and
then the sentence Is ready for delivery* Mandevilla was
professor of ethics# rhetoric, and elocution at Hamilton
college from 1841 to 1849#
# p* xxxlil*
preceding page® have attempted to examine the
elocutionary theory presented by
of the available
American work® on elocution which were printed before I860*
&&m& have undoubtedly been omitted, although all of the
works which ere mow to be found in the great American libraries
have been examined, but one group of works has been do*
liber&tely reduced in slue* teat group is the ^Readers**
tees# volumes , teieb contained mo elocutionary theory other —
them a brief general paragraph on the value of elocution,
speared in tremendous number all through the period, but are
generally in accord with the doctrine presented in the works
fwo sailings will indicate their scope, and their
general content* la 3MUfr» tee following works seem to have —
been tee popular readers i Caleb Bingham*# Columbian Orator*
the American Sneaker; Scott## lessons in Elocution; stamdiford*#
irt of Beading* Iftohardsom^s American leaderl Murray's laiaish
Reader; and Webster^ American lessons* Bach of these has
been mentioned earlier,
Suffice It to say of their contents,
in addition to earlier remarks^ teat they are collections of w"
e###y#* poems, dialogues, and speeches, with an occasional
scene from a play inserted for variety*
American selections
are stressed in almost all of teem*
By 1840 tee list is greatly, augmented*
She Boston
jjggggggl %be Mount Vernon Reader; the Tillage Reader; Sander*a
Maas®:? SSS.
new titlea*
these are some of the
following Hat la the complete prose
material contained In one of these.#
American Orator*'*
and la a fair IMloatloat of the content of most of the
JisHgloua freedom
It Speedr*
Sjpeech In, I&AbXAn** ^ ^
«**•«*■ iPhlllips
Speech at Newcastle * * *,♦..*.***.«**.«, Hiomaa Knott
Speech by tiSgAsXator* «**■«»**w *•«** * * lacofo Henry
An C^ation.** * » * -* * * * **«•«**-<** * *Ehomas fewer
Address - 4* «* 4*W #* 44 #» «*W»-*4,«* .**4 4 4 Governor Clinton
fhe Duties of An American Gitlsen <* ** <* wayland
Monument Address* * * ** ** * M ster
Address In Congress *, ** ** *■ ~ ~ «* ~ ** * Webster
Address .In Congress
Address In Congress
~ * Webster
-fb# MMpftt *£ .Suffrage *- ,*<**>**.• * *■ Josiah Quincy
fh@ Blessings of Mbarty* ****— * ** ** * sverott
ee ee 'to se* es es1es cmes1^*e se *•0 eA » ?lneka«y
Evils of lntexap.eran.oe » - • - - - - - - Ohaa. Sprague
f© Hr. taya*#
- Pbllllpa
** * *
** ** w*
o it l s e n C a rn o t
Memoir® i%eeehes, letters# etc*) * * * infsyette
Memoirs (
# J * .,* * John Adams
Memoirs f
) ** * * Jefferson
Ufa* fhomton
% * Clark#
Intelligence Offlee..
American Orator (Gardiner
Criticisms of Elocution and the Elocutionists
On® might be led to conclude* from the tremendous
volume of works published on elocution and from toe testi­
monials printed In soma of the volumes* that there was no
opposition to the growth of toe doctrines seen earlier in
this chapter#
Such m s far from toe case*
From almost toe '
earliest years there was antagonism* both to the general
training In elocution* and to some of to© systems — and
Instructors —
in use#
An examination of some of toes© will
show to© period in truer perspective*
toe first of these which has been discovered in this
study is one of the most unusual*1 to© notes for this docu­
ment are supposed to have been found in a hotel room recently
deserted by a "certain wandering orator" too was visiting In
Hew fork from England at the time*
We are told that ho was
a follower of toe atheist Godwin and an eneourager to athe­
ism* an addict to the us© of laudanum* and a corrupter of
youth in that respect* and a general wastrel and scoundrel*
•^Frament of a Journal (Hew York* 1809). tols work
is in the Marm:^
aSS to© title pages are penciled
to suggest that Washington Irving may have been to© author*
One can only conjecture as to toe possible reason for the
writing and publishing of the journal* It may have been
designed as a serious attack on the "elocutionists1** although
it seems almost too fantastic to be effective* In an age in
which oratory was seriously suspected of damaging to© health*
however# such an attack might have been given some credence*
More probably* it was directed at satirising the wandering
professor of ©locution* In any ©vent* after a short Intro­
duction* the publication presents the diary# or journal* of
this "wandering orator*"
introductory comments*
Selections from the Journal show the kind of oratory
favored, by this depraved beings
Two celebrated orators cam© to visit me* *«.The
people had always thought his (one of the orators)
style m s too bold and ixopassionedi but since X had
introduced a new taste, they began to think him tame
and spiritless* *«*h© endeavored to copy my manner
as much as possible} but had found great difficulty
In performing all the gestures} — - that h© had
practiced during a whole afternoon before a mirror
•huge and high1 some of the most impressive of my
attitudes, ****but when evening came he found his limbs
bo stiff he could not use them at all* «— Ahl old
gentleman, thought 1, you little know what difficulty
X meet with in learning to gesticulate properly and
with ease* Nothing but my youth* and the powerful
aid of laudanum could ever enable me to overcome the
bodily fatigue of preparing a new lecture or
After much further portrayal of the diarist as a
scoundrel in all respects, the Journal presents this knave1a
"discourse on eloquence" given before some young gentlemen
of Kew York.
The following are "gems" from this discourse :
Eloquence m y be defined to be the faculty of
amalgamating, combining, and arranging the ideas,
thoughts, and language of different authors, and
delivering the result with suitable gesticulation..
fflm power of gesticulation collects, fixes,
and embodies the sublimest flights of genius
most labored researches of learning, the deepest
investigations of science ~ the beauties of diction,
and the elegancies of style* Xt infuses a soul into
the inert mass of words*•« *3
*Uh©n the rascal develops a new theme*
*ltoia.. p. SI.
^.X1>jlfl.m p. 3X.
Sltoid.. p. 32.
After all,
our liiabs are all that are truly our ovan, and some day even
those may be made Interchangeable for best use*
The old
Idea that men*s Ideas should be enedlted to them is gone;
Ideas now belong to whomever m y choose to use them, and no
acknowledgment is necessary*
Moot of you gentlemen are engaged In the
profession of the law** #*xt would be an Idle waste
of time to labor at producing thoughts of your own —
forming fine sentences
rounding off periods, or
racking your imagination for metaphors# Consult
your books* fake from your libraries, those
Intellectual warehouses* the bright thoughts and
elegant language, whicli the drudges in learning
and literature have collected and stored up for
your use* ttis writing and collecting of material
is not difficult* **#fhe great difficulty is to add
appropriate gestures in delivering your compositions*
Mere the whole "art'' of oratory lies* This is properly
speaking* rhetoric* Thoughts are evanescent; words
are vapour; language mere sound; but Gesticulation
is a sort of substantial spirit which'lnterests the
heart* and grapples the mind of the spectator* and
carries him along with you* ***Cultivate* therefore,
gentlemen* the sublime science of gesticulation*
Practice it day ahd night* It wilX"do 'wonSers''for
you *»- gain you more fame and applause than the
tongue of Chatham* or the lips of Hamilton* ••#2*
One might assume that not everyone in America favored
this new ^Art5* of ©locution 1
Another somewhat plaintive regret is voiced by one
of the famous elocutionists himself* William Russell*^ He
criticizes the educational system for slighting elocution*
and then adds these lines in a footnote i
Mien the author commenced his instructions
in Harvard diversity and the Latin and High Schools
^Ibld* * pp* 36-3©*
% n Pulolt Elocution*
of Boston* In the year 1825, all of the requisite
facilities for his purpose were readily extended
to him* by the proper authorities, and continued
for several year®* But* of late* when* in repeated
instances, students, who* in their early life* had
been under the author’s Instruction, have b o w
desirous of continuing to receive it* — they have
been discouraged of1protdliited> fr'Css iXoinjg so; artd.,
even vtion meters have formed themselves into
classes* and solicited the aid of being allowed to
receive their instruction in one of the University
halls, the use of a room has been refused*###!
411 comments and reactions were not derogatory* as
Can be seen by Wendell Phillipses comment on Ills own elo*
eutlonary training' at Harvard#
W m ask me to tell you something of my
acquaintance with ®w* Barber* the elocutionist*
1 had the good fortune to be his pupil at Harvard
dollege, in a class which folly appreciated the
value of his lessons and. system#•♦#Based on Rush,
the Doctor’s system was at once philosophically
sound and eminently practical* 1 m sure he taught
me all 1 was ever taught* except by a schoolmaster
whom 1 lost at ten years old* Whatever X have
acquired in the art of improving and managing my
voice* I owe to Br* Barber1® system, suggestions*
and lessens*®
One of the m a t interesting criticisms of an elo­
cutionary ®ayeb«m n Is that given by a student at Andover in
1857*^ William Russell was the instructor to ■whom he refers#
Joseph gook* the- retiring president of Philomathean society,
in his final speech to the eooiet&r was defending' this
thesis > ^Earnest sincerity and directness are the sources
Ixbid# , footnote to page 38#
%©tter from Wendell Phillips, March 23, 1878,
quoted by Thomas Trueblood, op* ojt», pp* 4-5*
Syoaeph Cook, The Truth feller (Andover, 1857)#
#f toe useful and eloquent to speech* not Elocution, nor
rhetoric* nor gwat models, nor eolation*11 Besides dotending
strongly toe thesis* the speak®* finds opportunity to score
hi® teacher, He examines Hussellfs Pulult Elocution* toich
calls arbitrary rules erroneous * and inter presenta many of
then he turns to the teacheri
Some of you have been to hie classes* and I
too came to him to learn toe way to effective and
useful speech* we rejected nothing* without earnest
and w e n hopeful oxamtoatlon* go* after having read
and practiced for ourselves from his ^vocal culture*®
.and heard f m m hie own lips toe names Itaken from JDr#
Suahfa analysis toereen this tools aystom of vocal
culture is Imeed as a positive science) and examples
of toe- various tones .of. toe voice* **** after having
distinguished the difference between toe names, at
least of ^radical*®
#****stress***v m learned
meant “both* ohlicpte to front®****we heard
him so tmtehertog material that many scholars at that
time declared that they would not* if they could, he
like their teacher to delivery*!
dock next examines toe classes of this teacher*
points out that although toe text read that there should he
technical uniformity of manner,* the students were
trained as % military company or the fashionables of a
dancing school#
He criticises Aristotle* »ately* and Bay
to turn as victims of toe seme delusion* holding each of
them to believe that Hthere is no such thing as a natural
Orator in toe true sense of toe word*®
Cook town proposes to draw his orator* or truth*
% l » M n P. 13.
Wlo?# from no rhetorleal rules#
"fhe all sufficient source
Of eloquent and useful smooch# sought so long and aou^rfc else*
^boro' In Tain# Is earnest sincerity and, directness#
In concluding this discussion# it should b© noted
that the strongest and most closely reasoned protest against
the mechanistic school of elocution was that presented by
Richard fhately in fart XV of the Elements of Rhetoric# We
haw already noted this protest in reviewing the Elements*
Bis position Is summed up in the following citation#
mShe practical rule then to he adopted# in
conformity with the principles here maintained# is#
not only to pay no studied attention- to the Voice*
but studiously to ,^tbgsmw the thoughts from it#
and to dwell as inlentlfaa poacibl© on-the sense$
trusting to nature to suggest spontaneously the
proper esg>hases and tones**:
**2!he observance of even
the host ©eneeiveble precepts# would# by destroying
the natural appearance# he fatal to their object*&
Several other orations on eloquence or speaking are
also available# Best of these are little more than flowery
effusions on the power of oratory# and the place of oratory
in a democracy*® and although they possess a certain interest#
pp* 868, 589*
% to tely * cm* t lt p *
^Included in this group,# and not reviewed here are
the fa llo w in g such o ra tio n s * W illiam Best# B is a e rta tio n on
CbharlesbOh# 3* 0«* 1800}$
a* OrlSse* fe e Character
(Charleston# s# 0*# XSWTi
Elements and Paties of
! & & ) ; C * Cushing*
*F* Debater* Katnre
(Middletown# 1835); William Hooper#
ddregg (Hillsborough* H* 0** 1835); R* H*
'faisT An Address' (Waahington* Fa#* 1854); 3* 0* Brown* Studies
of an Orator W e w Torlt# 1841); etc*
ston* 1823)
m B x m m m y of their content would add little to the picture
of American elocution*
{&} Early In the sixteenth century there began to
develop a spool*1 irthreat in delivery, -and in 1748 Macon
gave to this field the n m m of "elocution*” This interest
m & augmented by the shift of instruction in the schools and
eollegea from I*&tSm to English, and by strong criticism of
poor delivery In English oratory*
{2} Jkm the elocution movement gathered momentum in
England# two schools of thought found themselves In sharp
conflict; one, holding that the best delivery 1ma to be gained
from "nature,* the other, that a mechanical system was the
best way to acquire a "natural" delivery#
was led by fcertd&n; the second by walker*
The first group
Special mechanical
treatments of voice and gesture which were to y eceiv© wide
acclaim were written respectively by Steele and Austin#
fee same factors which had given rise to the
elocution movement in England were in operation in America#
Similar criticism of oratory, combined with a strong feeling
that' in a democracy every man should be an orator, gave strong
impetus., to study of delivery*
Early American elocution was strongly under the
influence of English writers, and the mechanistic school m s
Soon, the more dominant*.
American writers on ©locution were active by
1800, and while most of them digested earlier English, writings,
$tme& Hush, in 1827, presented a work on voice which soon
became definitive#
Although the ©locution movement m s widely
popular# many Americans were strongly opposed to Its
mechanistic approach#
The specific conclusions from this study have been
outlined in connection with each of the chapters presented*
they appear on page* $4* 56# 61, 62, 161# 152, 252, 255*
tee general conclusions given here undertake to collate
these specific findings*
They are organised to summarize
the findings of this study (1) with respect to the types of
rhetorical doctrine prevailing in America from 1635-1850,
and (2) with respect to the significant trends in rhetorical
theory during the period*
Types of Khetorle&I Pootrine - (1)
The rhetoric of trope and figure in the Eamesn
tradition, and to a lesser extent under the influence of
Voasius, was tee first to appear in the colonies*
The princi­
pal works to 1730 were those by Tal&eua, Bug&rd, Farnaby,
and Smith*
While tee great classical works on rhetoric,
Aristotle** W m boric* Cicero*® Be Oratore, and Quintilian*®
yaytltutlO Oratorio, may have been available from the beginning
certainly after 1700, with the possible exception of
Cicero, there is slight evidence of their use*
(.5) The first significant is$>aet of the classical
rhetoric is that exerted through the English and French works
imported Into the colonies following 1716*
The moat important
Of these were the Fort Royal Rhetoric , ward, Blair, Campbell,
and Wh&tely*
(4} Contemporary with the appearance of the full
classical program* comprehending Invention, arrangement,
style, and delivery, came a number of works devoted largely
to style and belles-lettres * Building on the rhetorics of
trope and figure, and under the influence of the classical
works on style, they presented a greatly enlarged and enriched
doctrine of style*
The principal works in this category
Include RollIn, Pension, Iceland, Priestly, and Blackwell*
Blair must be included in this list as well as in the former*
The first American rhetorics began to appear at
the close of the eighteenth century and at first mirrored
contemporary English rhetoric*
In this respect, we have
authors such as Witherspoon and Adams, presenting the full
classical program, and others such as Bowman and Charming
largely preoccupied with matters of style and criticism*
(6} In the last decade of the period under investi­
gation the American authors, Bay and Hope, present more
significant American rhetorics which realise to a much greater
degree the communicative function of rhetoric#
translation of Thereminfs work was a force in the same di(7) From the importation of the first work on elo­
cution in 1755, throughout the period under investigation,
there was available an ever increasing member or books
devoted bo delivery or welocution*• The principal English
authors were Mason, Sheridan, Walker, and Austin#
American anthers Include Webster, Sorter, Bussell, Hush,
Barber, and Bay*
"trends in Bhetorical Theory
(1) The first trend In American rhetorical theory
is that from the Humean rhetorics of style to an enlarged
doctrine comprehending all the divisions of classical rhetoric*
This shift of emphasis is clearly evident in the first few
decades of the eighteenth century*
(2) Almost contemporary with this first shift In
emphasis, but somewhat later. Is another trend In the dlof enlarged works on style and criticism, which
throughout the period*
(3) The separation of delivery from rhetoric begins
in the middle of the eighteenth century, and becomes in***
evident throughout the period, representing the
{4} As a complement to the separation of delivery
from rhetoric Is a trend In the direction of a rhetoric de«
(5) At the same time there remains a strong tendency
to continue to treat of rhetoric as an art of communication
Involving both written composition and oral presentation.
A secondary trend noticeable throughout the elo­
cution movement is that represented In the persistent
controversy between the natural and mechanical schools.
Definitions$ etc*
Style and Delivery
Criticism of Oratory
Criticism of Belles-Lettres
Definitions, etc*
Style and Delivery
Criticism of Oratory
Criticism of Belles-Lettres
. §
a 8 5
2 2
1 1
9 3
23 22
3 4 8
0 1 0
1 0
2 1 1
0 4 2
0 1 0
1 2 2
17 23 22
NO pq
N f
3 4 9
4 17 8
1 6 6
0 0 0
1 2 4
2 2 4
2 2 1
0 2 0
4 8 3
17 43 35
2 I
1 6
1 3
0 0
0 0
1 1
0 0
0 1
1 2
6 14
IS & 1
1 2 1
3 12 3
4 4 3
3 3 0
4 0 2
1 0 0
3 2 2
0 0 0
3 1 0
22 24 11
3 5
9 14
4 7
0 0
0 2
0 4
0 2
0 0
3 3
19 37
PN NO 0\
v N
N S r
3 2 5 5
4 9 9 8
3 I 5 9
0 0 0 0
2 0 0 1
0 1 0 0
3 2 1 0
0 0 3 2
3 4 4 6
18 19 27 31
Definitions* etc*
Style and Delivery
Criticism of Oratory
Criticism of Belles-Lettres
1 0
3 0
0 G
0 0
1 0
1 0
1 0
3 1 0
29 11 0
v &o
IN fc
4 1 4 1
5 4 3 1
7 2 0 8
0 2 0 0
2 © 0 0
0 0 c 0
I 2 0 O
0 0 0 1
0 3 2 2
19 14 9 13
S? V
Definitions* etc*
Style and Delivery
Criticism of Oratory
Criticism of Belles-Lettres
Definitions* etc*
Style and Delivery
Criticism of Oratory
Criticism of Belles-Lettres
4 7
9 4
5 5
0 0
6 0
0 1
0 0
3 2
5 0
O 19
i t
7 9
4; 9
8 7
0 0
5 10
1 1
1 2
0 1
5 3
29 42
N 52
2 7 10
10 3 10
1 e 8
0 0 0
10 2 11
0 0 4
0 2 1
3 1 2
2 6 5
28 27 51
s? I
5 2
3 5
a 1
0 0
2 2
0 0
1 0
4 3
2 2
25 Xo
$ i
3 1
7 7
4 4
0 0
0 0
0 o
1 1
1 5
7 1
23 19
j v /\
Definitions, etc*
4 1
7 3
10 3
Style and Delivery
0 0
0 0
1 1
Criticism of Oratory
0 0
Criticism of Belles-Lettres
4 4
1 3
27 15
1750*1785, 1785-1819.
Definitions, etc.
Style wad Delivery
Criticism of Oratory
Criticism of BellesLettres
fo 1750
lOiotorieal works contained In a Qatsqosme of all t&e
l&Ant#d,,.&R. tfoe Bnlted States# wife the Pr3.eea and Places
1 rfel8S5i^r
sson ror
Blair *a &egtttrea on Ehatorio and tlxo
i# i©iiiiE7wS^v7^
by Caleb Blngfram*
Boston* 75^*
r&ea&&siLjr and Speaking, Boston#
M i U %
E&fcto* and t e i
collected from
m m
>datxonA bcmn& together.
a# ig>*;#uu*
by &ord % & % m m
Hiln*s 1
Bow York# fl*0Q.
ffiMstflastown# 75^#
Morr&y *s
* Bow York# #1*00*
Ayfe flf
f t
y w *
Boston# #4*00*
to tfcw.atoflllsfo, Header* low York# 75$zf*
.In, S3LQ0»tipn» SW4 ^i
L, **ey, 87^,
by D. staniford, 37^»
.on of 3^ogeons in Beading and Speaking by
by Caleb
» 31W.
Alden *a Raader, Sl&f.
orator *a Aaalatant toy A.* fflaosaas, 54^.
B* Adams ts traderstanding Header. or Knowledge Before Oratory,
Khetorieal works listed In toe Catalogue of toe select Library
of toe late Hev» Joseph M * g © a n » i t o v l a t o n P r o f e s s o r
3iM toyig_& h& ‘' W a to r# " iS T to © I R v ^ s l i y ' a t ' Caiiibrid&e,
SS©»# 1818* :
telcos given are understood to be tooso paid for toe works
at toe auction* They are penciled on the margins of toe
oopy ©f to© catalog in toe Boston Nubile library)#
Adam©# John Quincy*
on oratory<
AM©h* Abner*
#30 Andrews# John* dements, of Bhetorie and Belles
Mttrea, EhS.aaeiphia» ieis.
£*S6 Aristotle*
toetorloa. Oxford# 1789*
4*00 Aristotle# _
Lotoriea, Trans* by D* M* Crimmin,
Bipont# 1701 (0 vol.)*
17*80 Aristotle#
*00 Art. of
Blair# Bssgh* lectures* etc* London# 1783 (2 vol.)
(bought by J# 'Bans'"«* is penciled in)
Lefctres and Losd-c
* London* 1714*
*40 Brightland*
Campbell, Gte>o. „
(8 VolTJ
Campbell, Oeo*
Boston# 1810.
of Ehetorlc. Edinburgh#
On Pulpit Eloquence
Oratora* Oxford# 1723*
f9 a new translation# London, 1800*
>s# Amsterdam* 1784*
Clark©* Johannes# Formula© oratoriaa*
*70 Constable# Reflections ©n Style, London, 1731*
Crevier# M*
Khetorfguo Francois©, Paris* 1767*
M*Xean Catalog eontlmied*
*26 Dana, y* Leasons In Beading and Speaking;* Boston, 1794*
Bionyaii, Halieara#
Histories ©t Bhetoriea*
3*00 Bloments of Criticism* Boston, 1798*
fcfleld, Select Pieeeaffor Reading and Speaking,
Phlladelpbi'a, '
1rin"~ •t'
—r 1
" 1-1 -1
*30 Pension, Dialogues ConcernlnR Eloquence , Boston, 1810*
*30 Helps to Kloentlon and Eloquence * London, 1770*
1*30 Bermogene®, are Oratorla, Halae, 1723*
*53 Holmes, John*
*40 Irving, 0*
Elements of Oratory, London, 1739*
Elements of English Composition,
F M X a d e l p h l a 1803* '
3*00 Knox, Essays, Moral and. Literary, London, 1793*
{3 to 1*1 *
•TO Lake, Joto*
principles of EloquQn.ce, London, 1795*
1*00 Lawson, Lectures on Oratory* Dublin, 1760*
2.23 liOn&Xms,
*1 d© Sublimate; cum
— ..... Zach* ■,
— mtmma*
London, 1752*
1*50 Longinus, do Sublimate* trana* by to* Smith., London,
Polwhile, B*
In&Ilah Orator, London, 1738.
Preceptor, London, 1783*
Priestly, Lectures on Oratory, London, 1777*
Priseianus, do Bloquentia. Yenetiis, 1500#
*50 Pulpit Orator, Boston, 1804*
6*00 Quintlllanus — Parisiis, Hobt# Stephens, 1542*
Quint ill anus ,
trans# by w* Guthrie with notes,
London, 1805*
Lipsia©, 1798*
M♦Kean Catalog continued.
f$ *<*
Ehefcories Select!% Demetrius, Tiberius & Graec lat.
Oxonli 1676.
Hollin^^ntroductlon to the Bell©a hefctres, London,
Scott, Lesson® on Elocution, Hartford, 1806.
Sheridan, Dictionary, London, 1797*
*26 Sheridan, Letters on. Hlogratlon, London, 1796.
Smith,Mysterie of Bhotoriq u o TTnveil *d, London, 1706.
Tracts onElocution*
Grammar and
2*50 Voasius, Gerhard, ffioiimignt. Khetoricum; aive oratorium
Instlt*, Lugdln5",miri645•’ '
*50 Vossiua, Gerhard, Khetorioua Contractu®. Amst. 1655.
.10 Vossins, Gerhard, Bhetoricus Oontraofcae.
Walker, Elementa of Elocution, London, 1806*
Walker, Rhetorical Grammar, London, 1807.
Ward, ffystera of Oratory, London, 1759.
Witherspoon, lectures on Philosophy and Eloquence.
Philadelphia, islo .
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2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
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Adama, John Rainey*
eaateridge, a*BS«
A<Mlaon, Joseph,
on ghptorlc ana Orptpyy,
Ho. 907,
* Boston*
Aldon, Abner.
fhiladelphiat 1811#
,..ln Public* tod edition* London, 1787*
Austin* #ilts#rt*
M.roneml**£ or a Treatise on Hhetorieal
torb&uld, tons* The
* Jonathan*
Boston* 1824*
# Cambridge*
tow town* 1829*
of Moeutlon* tow town* 1830*
* Boston* 1834*
end Oratory*
Bayly* Anselm*
on Oratory*
Bingham* Calebs
Charlestor* S* 0**
Orator* Boston* 1797.
* Boston* 1801.
to the, Classics. 6th
Stoi#* Hugh*
on Ihotorie and Belleg Lettres*
.eg©* and"'School 'ediFlon. pETladelphla,
VoX# IX.
life ®t m mxe
Edited by a. B. Hill#
,®0t^b©w»t Bomlnique* ffre Arts of Lo&iek suad Rhetor!ok*
teMalated by
Beyd> *3T* E*
gf I^efcorlo&land literary Criticism*
itb. «SSS3BS*
®F»Sr M e , i&4$*
Beyle* Robert* Considerations
the Style of1 th e Holy
BrlghtX&nd* yoto. ..Ate
Bri&aXey* JMtau IwMhui. Mtera^mti.* or. the w
Edited w i W ^ $ ^ K o ^ 5 n a M ^ ^ H o S r a ^ 3 e a r
by l* $# teN$*0Ma* MywjMwsit 1917#
teena#*** Charles
fnybiyt&g. ^biTSSSSxSISad^
yoe& l
two ro r I R i
el-e&ant enrtrayjngau
a&fcooi Education
Bueh&nan, Xames.
iMuiw# Ifw#
Chlronomja* ,.or the Art,.of.Somali, jffiietorlque
/ ootbMia&nz
are matte
IW,lir|1 lll«IIIH*lt I# 1M »II WlH f«
.* XiO-Bdonj> 17^3X>*
Borgb* yraes*
Byrd# m m m #
or omrostrajms s
of !t0ol» jffg# Byrd of v,eatover Ir­
eneor Bassett* How
C&X&welX* Merritt* A, Fractieal Manual of Elocution*
'l^iadoXpbla^ 'i ^ f e * ' ....
Cambell# George*
Xgotmres pn Systematic ^
IKnSoBV' 1 S W *
of Rhetoric*
“ ’
oo Ioot
and Pulpit
’“ '■.......
Edinburgh* 1776*
Canssinus, Kicolaus. pe Elocuentla sacra et huraana libri xvi*
London, 1651*
Channing, R. T.
Lectures on
Rhetoric and Orator, Boston, 1856.
Lord* Letters to his Son* Edited by
London, 1012*
Christian Orator*
Charlestown, 1816*
Cicero, tf* ^* X&alome a on ihe Orator* translated into
English byW* SuWrle*,
nrriS©oon<i American edition*
Bew York, 1847.
Olaggett, R.
Elocution Made Easy. Hew York, 1845*
Clap, ^omas.
The Annals or History of Yale College. Hew
Haven, 1766.
Clark* 3*
Xho American Orator*
Cardiner Intelligence
Clarke, John. Formilao Oratorlae In ugum Scholarum concennitae,
tins cum .muitloL
*London* 1659.
Cockin, Viliam.
Art of Delivering Written Language.
London, x7*fS#
Comstock, Andrew# A System of Elocution, with special
Reference t " € ^ ,tmri^''ty'tEi^'treatoent of Stammering,
and Defective 'fe^lcma^ioiu "flilladelp^aV 1845*
* fraoblo&l Elocution# 2nd edition*
Philadelphia, 1857*
* Hie phonetic Speaker* Philadelphia, 1847*
Constable, John.
Reflections on Accuracy of Style* London, 1781*
Cooke, Increase*
American Orator* Hew Haven, 1811*
* Introduction to the American Orator*
Coolldge, Bani©l*
Cooper, Lane*
Mew Haven, 1812*
Tim Pious Instructor* Walpole, M* B*, 1806*
Hie Rhetoric of Aristotle. Hew York, 1952.
Cox, Leonard* Arte or Graft© of Rhotoryke. Edited by F. X*
Carpenter. Chicago, 1898.
Bana, Joseph* Hew American Selections in Reading and Speaking*
Boston, 1792*
Bay, Henry M*
Art of Discourse* Hew York, 1867*
Itajr# Eomrr fi* Art off.
8ew Hawn, 1844*
Art.,Off m isboric* Hudson, Ohio, 1850*
fraids* Cincinnati, 1860*
Bodsley, Hebert*
Freoeotor* London, 1748*
-'Sagerd# MiXXaja# ghetoriegg Blomenta gimeationlbua et
l.egponalonibtta eacnileata* S & l t l o L o n d l n l *
Bst Fort Eoyal, letsiewa
b w w SKSSS
ogue suggests Bernard Lasny as the author
off the work).*
r# J* E
r .on.lleeuftlen*
Enfield, milXarn*
ihe teeeker*
Htiea# 1828*
London, 1774*
Hew Haven, n*&*
et 8 ratorllme# London, 1654,
Farnaby* fhomse.
Felton# Eeury*
¥* I
# JL.(VVf
FeneXon, Francois#
by William Stevenson*
Fisher, Oeorge*
♦ Translated
Instructor or Young Man1a
rfeiiadeipjbLla, 1748*
the Art
Fordjre*# Jagm
# Boston* 1804*
Off A. Jeurma1* Hew York, 1808*
Betty# John A*
Flamentg off Rhetoric*
ffhiladeXphia, 1851*
Bibbon, Thomas* liaetories or* g view off its princioal drones
and.Figures*London, 1767*
Bolder# John* Americanffeacher *a Leaaon off Instruction*
Bregory, Beorge* Letfcerg on Literature* Taste, and Composition*
rj r"1
- m—
Berries, John*
London, 1773#
Beiders, miliam*
Inquiry Into
off gnees&t an essay off
^prQ^,otion^ off letters^ with
persons Deaff and Dumb
London, '1661#
Seines, John* fng
.l^ndon# ITiio*
Off B&etorlo Hade Baay* 3rd edition*
*1860# With an Introduction and
Francis Bow* Salem, Massachusetta,
Brne* Henry (Karnes, Lord) #
Londm, X76B* •. v
off Briticism*
S#ele, 0 w & loo* AJggy.Mgsewerjr off the Old firt.^
■ Schools* liiBM'1W 'W*"T*
* Frinoeton*
• H* B*
So *$e$u &, Jota* S&rections for Speech, and Style# Edited
with an
'by Hoyt'1'H• Hudson*
Frinesbon, 1938*
Howe, <3f# 3*
Mow York# 1849#
Srwiag, David*
Jamieson, Alexander
Johnson, Samuel*
and Carol
Elrkham, Samuel*
Knox, Thomas * Hints to ..Public
off Hhetorical anil Folate
m off Lan&uasge and
Edited by Herbert
WiuSes. Hew York, 1929*
* Baltimore, 1833*
* London, 1797*
* Boston, 1804*
jtoMcrn# John* Lggfrurea
Oratory* 3rd edition#
Leland# Thomas# Dissertation on the Principles off Homan
Eloquence# '''L^don* l7&i*
Litch. .Samuel* A Concise .treatise on Ketorie* Jeffrey,
Mew m m m l r & w
E« Rhetorical Dialogues* Sew Haven, 1839*
* Sow Haven, 1333*
■* 6th edition*
Bfceleed* ©onaXd*
Orator^ Text Booh*
B* B*
Hew Haven, 1368*
Washington City, 1830*
Wtm Practical. moentlonlafe*
Boater, 1840*
fcn&evtlle, Henry* Repent a of Beadin# and Oratory. Sew
Iterh, 1849*
J&mwarlng, Edward.
HfMNm* fbfan*
*- London, 1787<
Second edition* London* 1748*
sesey m
Bather* Cotton* Mamalla Christ! Americana* Vol. 1,1*
# . $ m m : 1*
l&atrray, Bindley.
8 * P* A Practical
tSaine, ifefe7*
Horth, Brasmxs.
Sew Faven,
Passer, R# *jr*
7th edition* Boston, 1803*
of ..Rhetoric* Portland,
tl.Speafein^ fla taugfrt to Yf.3.e College
tp. Baglieh .CoTOOSitlon* Boston, 1844*
p&rJcer* William* An Account of Washington College in the
• of a s s f s a r •■^aaii^8ariTOi:','a
harden of Bloonence. London, 1393*
Peachaxn, Henry,
Porter, gbene&er*
^t .,.mof-ri.
, ,ri, t
inflections» Andover, 1887*
Leotures .mx
ana styxe# Revised by Rev*
. Andover, 1833*
priestly, Joseph*
Leotnres on Oratory
and Criticism*
Bnblin, %*?mZ
Quintilian* MstijmtlO. Pretoria* Translated by H* B. Batler*
Sol* M l london, 19S3*
$eleeti* Bdited by Thomas 0&le*
Oxonll, 16*76♦
Mm$m Familiar and Fasy* London, 1748.
©torler ey the Principles off Oratory Delineated* London, 1736*
Hies, £ohn*
roduct1 on to
Rippinghaia, #atau
of^Heading with
ffer Baalish
i* Foughkeepsie,
Rollin* .Charles * tee Method of
0&, On introduction to
Bash, Barnes*
.Bns&ell, Wlllsm*
|>M.loe-ophy,off the Human 7o 1o q » Philadelphia,
Hew Haven, 1825#
Kloouttonlst» Boston, 1844*
in moimtion*
Boston, 1841.
Boston, 1S36#
Qrthophony. 6th edition*
Boston, 1849,
Andover, 1846*
off Qeetuya* Boston, 1880*
Shephard, Richard*
Sheridan, teomas*
in Klochtion* 1779 *
gassy on Bdnoation*
Holbnrn, 1782.
A BLseonrae Bein& Introductory to his
" t*«aoa»
London, 1769*
* A Rhetoricai qrCTmar of the English Language*
j* British gdue&ticmt Or, the Source off the Dig~
"orders of Croat Britain* Beinp; an Essay towards
royfnjgT tmfc the'immor&iil^V XmoranoeV and -'false
a y b < & ^ E l o K " ' w T a r e t h e natural
and neeessary Consec^ences of"too pyos^t'~ defective
"Iyg%oy'Of ¥&¥atioh* "iiW'Tan Atfeerapt to show that "
a Bevivai of tfe Art of ^eafeigS/ and tdie 'study off
w m g i:*ontr^pte,::in_,a g^QSLt
to the Ctaro cf those Evils* L o n d o n , 1756*
on Elocution* London, 31763.
Boblin, 1776.
Silrayn, Alexander# .fh& Orator 8 Handling a hundred geverall
,to ^omo "oF rH o o l :» 0 W ’t o
mj^nt-0 'o o i n j j T ’Itiuina~and'other
^ i e n ' C T®n%<>¥' WcT' AutKor^s oune r~
''lo^ ^ro1of11mtt feoiro Sanpened in
Albert mmmr*
**&*-. rax* ir©w
1tings of Beniamin Franklin*
SBHtft* jtfm#
St&ndiford, B#
London* 1666,
* Boston# 1600*
Steel©, Joshua.
# London, 1776*
8t&l©$* Isvi* Letters and Papers of Bsre Stilea* Edited
lif loa&eOi* "13^^
Btirllns# 7*ata« &
®weet, $* B*
• How York, 1845*
ytoontlon# Tffciea* 1668*
u . 4th edition#
Albany, 1646#
irks# Bdited by Ihoraas Sheridan*
SwiYb# Jonathan#
fdlltoi# Audomari# j^otorloa* e* F* Bami ro^li nrofeasorlo
n^aoleotloniTOS |obaorrata* MtwS?p7 l6©2#r
OieawBBla, Franolo* gaogaenoe .*, Virtaex op.fisBUMML;of #
- - Bfoetoric*Wanslabed by fe* 0# !?* She&d,
Hhm&a# Alexander#
burner* itaAeL*
Orator *a Assistant# Worcester, Haas#, 1767,
An^^otraot^f B^qieli &r*rrotr and
VandenhofT* George* Art or Elocution* Hew York, 1847#
# Plain ..jyotowi of Elocution* Hew York, 1645.
Yoasii* Gerhard Johann* Elementa Rhetorics oratorlia ejfusdem
P&rtltionlfou® .aecom^ataT'''jnquo
Bglil'Ai^iao':and"WeaFYrlaigi!l' '^^ndatna Bdita. Londini*
Walker, John*
Elements of Elocution. Boston, 1761*
jt Hints ter Improvement In the Art of Heading* 1783#
* Melody ox
lineated, or* Elocution
**: Hhetorloal Grammar* 1785#
*3 Assistant* 1787*
Of Oratory* London, 1768*
■# Boston, 1824*
Ware, Henry*
te.i^erieen Selection ..of , .. .
Webster, Bosh*
■ ghd .teeejHSSi^the""p?d part"q?'~A^r
iW tq x
Welles, Elijah*
the Oraftor*s Guide# Philadelphia, 1822*
Westhenaer, Bartholomew*
•* Basle, IBir;
Weston, ,8* H*
jtodlmenta of Elocution* Boston, 1841#
•Whately, BAehard#
Whyte, tameX#
Elements of Rhetoric* Dublin, 1828.
Modem Education*
Willard, Samel*«#-
n te J *.
... Jt_
Dublin, 1775*
Bhetoric, or the Principles_of Blocution
, xoow*
•*' •;i~ " ~
' •-•.•.'-mlz • _ J ~ -................<■
* Edited by 8* H. Hair*
Wilson, fhem&s*
Oxford, 1
Witherspoon, John*
- ■~i# Woodward *& 3rd,' editIon*
*®. Guide*• 7th edition*
Philadelphia., 1810.
and tetibllahed Material®
Blbllothj Harvard* 'IX* MS* in Harvard Archive s•
Pe*Ab®# Chari©®* ttX!ie Content of the Reaching of Speech In
the ibuerlcan College® before 1S50* * Unpublished.
Ph*l>* dissertation# School of Education, Hew York
yllhiveraltY, 1920*
Harding*, p* F* "English Hhotorieal theory* 1750-1800**
Unpublished $*h*B* dissertation* Department of speech#
dbmell University, 1928*
;e. papers* Vols* I, XX*
Vol®. J-V.
US* in Harvard Archives*
US* In Harvard Archives *
Harvard library Qharglng Oet&Ioanea# 1762-1787*
"IKrimM" toeSiYes*
Ms* in
Parrish# W:
* M* i?,ltieh&rd f&iately*® Elements of Bhetoric,
Hart® 1 and Jit A Critical Edition*** Unpublished
fh«J>* dissertation, Department of Speech, Cornell
thtveneifcy# 1929*
-Perrin, porter 9* *3&e teaching of Khotoric In American
College® Before 1750** Hapnblished Fh*D« dissertation#
Department of English# University of Chicago# 1908*
Eshskoph# Horace 0* nlohn G$ulney Adamfe fheory and Practice
of Public Speaking.*11 Unpublished HwD* dissertation#
department of speech# University of Iowa* 193-5*
.Meeords of Overseers*
MS* record® in
Vols* XX# XXX# XV*
Wi>i» i ..... .....
MWaHB W ,:.
, . n. „
Of Oo.mmittee on .Bafclhltipna* Oct* I* 1777* MB* in
Wadsworth# Benjamin*
MS* Hecords
Book Holatlnp; to College Affairs* MS,
Published, Speech©®^. Pamphlet®# 2fe».# etc*
Brown# S. O*
Cook, Joseph*
Oushing# 0*
Studies of an Orator* Hew York# 1841*
jhe 1?ruth Heller* Andover, 1857.
Oration at Amherst* Boston# 1823*
Ifatrara and Uses of Eloquence* Middletom, 1836#
Oratlos^ on tha Comparative Blementa and
.,# 9E9&# .Character of th.e Accomplished Orator*
& i w n * . L8 *T C U *"3 p d * «
Soggm** lilliam.
♦ v *jP
,,Ll,' " ,rr
T"*i,‘,,r,L,;nj'“T^ ,n''r,,ri* :
Froffaaaot Hooper1a Address befoye the
„&an»fl |f.,.M Colladge published gab.Mf^elybefoye the
Cantefeidg** 1656•'
College, trtlca, 1815,
B» 9*
Jgn and.
IISmiSgtOB,Fa*' t s s i ; “
M&alaod* Carnal#* Mbatgna#. of a
®inal2m&ti* SSSSh
©Late Beverend and 3^ayn#d. Jfcr# Samuel l>0a»
m. ©ar moiss.airen ffrrn flgyatJtefttato to_ the Qplla&l&ta
; w
€ iw
; r
. Philadelphia,
m of Books
to tha Aaaoeiatad
Of BayyaaNl,
», Boston, i m #
to bo Sold
M S S jl
l of Books of the I#lb:
H i l T a i ’i p K i ’a . l ' W E r
©3?$©a?#<$ from
V r K m
bo sold
of BookaBeXon&lngf to tlio
Ban* at *»«
of Rho&e^Xslaadt
"at ;tt*p
ffiataXpffina of all, the Books printed In t^O, Wltod States with
Tffi©jlooicaoilora' %n"'S s ton*n'" f
to.or ta& Seleefe Mbygry of t&e.lot© Bov# Joseph
&&$•" Bostori," i? ^........ . ..
secondary sotoces
AS&i&ctiO, M* AnatXn* A Qritieal Dictionary of English
'&ggy'ISoiKSn'Ml|3Eri~r ,
'1,,Vol» X*
fclpk&ft* 1891♦.
iaMista# 0* i*
iMMUIMBa »*■
and pootto, Bow York,
Btoto i^versltv, 1764**1914<
©rooks,.?«tn wjrelr*
edition, W m
Of $te?r England, revised
Clark, U©mX& fcerton._ lh©toric and Poetry in the -Renaiaaanoe#
Hew 1£0rk, X9&B*
Cook, Bklaakatk. 0* Mterery
[+ W W S " ' 1
Crane, w* 0,# Mt. and
in Colonial
In.fch© Renalssanco*
Ww 1*
3&i#c©llareoua Historical
B&Sterby, F* B* A History of the Colley© of Charleston*
*1i* 15** 1S9KT"
At- X-V/‘AjiVtff# /A'/?.
Fish, Carl Husso11* fhe His© of Cotmnon Mon* Bow fork, 1937•
Markets 1678~170Q» Boston, 1917,
Ford, W* e* 1
Craves, Frank P*
Peter r
and the Educational Reformation
ji^ntnryV Row ^orkj i£l
Croon, B* I*# A History of the University of South Carolina♦
ColniiibXa, B*'C* , i0x^V
Guild, lieuben *1drich.
,£arlg History of Brown University*
Littlefield^ George ;&#
Karly Boston Booksellers*
«^d ^©tason, f, E*
Montgomery, $* H*
fh© tur itaae* lew York.
& Hl&tory of the University of Pennsylvania
& m kt* t®wmmonmsrsr r rwr: Im m Tsm . t^oqt
Morison, ? « « ! Eliot*
aambridge, XtM*
Qiftoad, f*^ 8* na|^^li MbtaMats in the 18th and 1fth oenturlea*
Qwiaay, Josiab.
notary of Harvard» B vole*
Boston, 1860*
Sa&dford, 1* P* nanliok fkooylo® of PubUe ad&roae* 1 5 %QXSE6» OoiSSBBS®^xtEtf;
' ' ''' Ijnir,rr: "'. 1
Baliwab, John C* fhe Valo .OalXaga Qurrionlttm. 17Ql~XfGl*
low fork,
SoyboXi, E* #*
!© tofoools of Galaalal Boston*
Trueblood, Thomam Cm Eha Bnehfyyfcem* m essay road before
the Convention i^TSolloKoSIbra and fsaehera of
llaemtiom, dbaae 8 ?, 1892. low York, 10$£«
tvUv. £yon 3.
fha Oollaga of alUtam &ad mxs la. Tlffilnia.
ai«ta»ona, Virginia, 1907.
Van Hoesean, a. 3. file Browt Pntvarslty I-ihrayy. ProTidenoa,
Batson, 7eat«r*
2ha awllsft qyawaar
Caaibrictge, 1900.
Wood, 3<«o*go. :aayly History of the Oaivarsity of ganngylTaBia.
M&gaalna artieles
f»Oorresoondenoa of the founder© of the Hoyal society with
sov. tiathrop of Goaaootiout *** Massachusetts Historical
soaiety Prooaedlturs {1st aorioeTT
Reactor, f • B# "Student BIX* at Yale College Cinder the H?st
“* >*id< ‘ ' ‘ ‘ ‘ --------- “
Coodime # albert* "ffc# Beading of Harvard rtudants, 17701781 # as shown by the leeor&s of the speaking Club,"
milmttem*. Lttixx
Hayworth, Jteueld* "fhe Beveleyiftexit. of the training of
Fublte Speakers in ^merioa." QuarterIs Journal of
iMES&f Xiv (19081, 489-001#
Hewriok, Herein $• *$he Burly History of ^rlstotle fs
Bhetorie in
** PhlloloRieal Quarterly* V
(1980), 848-80?*
**•««* a
sa *
Hebrew,, W* Fred* *a Bibliography of the work® on Speooh
Compoaitioii In luglaad during the 18th and 17th
S2?*??iw *" ^ r t o r l r .!teMa^9f...fTP99.9|h# anr (1989),
"Usmeir of Hereroad filliasi Maas*" Mhssaehnsetts Histories!
aooletr Oelloetiosui (4th &s* t g 8 T 7 T T » W
“lew iagland,0 first Hamits** Beprluted in the M&mmimmttn
Histor teal seelotr Qolleetleao (1st •sriSSTV I iWiS ji1.
Horton, &rihur 0* "Harvard fort looks sad Referenda Books
of the 17th Century,* ftehllos&ioae of the ooi<
-^g^ghuoetlf Ifr5^
"a Oatalogae of John Barrard,s library,"
ColgBial_[ggolgty of ,^a®saehmaet.ti;
fetter, .4* c«
Robinson, 0* F* & 1* "throe Barly iteaaaahuatts libraries,"
tmblieations of the Colonial "ooiety of Massaehusstts
Reybolt, B* .F*
"Student •Libraries at Harvard, 1763-84,"
"Spteohe* of students of William sad Mary delivered Hay 1,
1 8 9 # William and Harr Quarterly (^eooad arias}.
(l e s o r r t i f - s s f r *
tuttle. Julius B.
"the libraries of the Mathers," ^merieaa
(lew series), IX (1910), SM-4S6,
2 60
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