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The religion of a Sudanese culture as influenced by Islam; A study in non-European acculturation

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Theses
U n p u b l i s h e d t h e s e s s u b m i t t e d f o r t h e M a s t e r ' s and
D o c t o r ' s d e g r e e s and d e p o s i t e d in the N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y
L i b r a r y a r e o p e n f o r i n s p e c t i o n , b u t a r e t o be u s e d o n l y w i t h
due r e g a r d to t h e r i g h t s of t h e a u t h o r s .
Bibliographical
r e f e r e n c e s may b e n o t e d , b u t p a s s a g e s ma y b e c o p i e d o n l y w i t h
t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e a u t h o r s , an d p r o p e r c r e d i t mu s t be
g i v e n i n s u b s e q u e n t w r i t t e n o r p u b l i s h e d work.
Extensive
c op yi ng o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h e t h e s i s in whole or in p a r t
r e q u i r e s a l s o t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e De a n o f t h e G r a d u a t e S c h o o l
of N orthwestern U n iv e r s ity .
T h i s t h e s i s by
h a s b e e n u s e d b?/ t h e f o l
a t t e s t t h e i r acceptance of
its
A L i b r a r y which b o r r o w s
patrons is expected to secure
NAME AND ADDRESS
yy.-.A
i n g p e r s o n s , whoi
th e above r g s t r i o o i u u ^ .
ss
t h i s t h e s i s f o r u s e by
the s i g n a t u r e of each u s e r .
DATE
NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY
THE RELIGION OF A SUDANESE CULTURE AS INFLUENCED BY ISLAM
A STUDY IN NON-EUROPEAN ACCULTURATION
A DISSERTATION
SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
f o r t h e d e g re e
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY
BY
JOSEPH H. GREENBERG
EVANSTON, ILLINOIS
JULY 2 0 , 194-0
ProQuest Number: 10101466
All rights reserv ed
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PREFACE
The p r e s e n t s tu d y i s b a s e d on d a t a o b ta in e d d u r in g a f i e l d t r i p
t o t h e H ausa o f W est A f r i c a , c a r r i e d o u t a s a F i e l d F e llo w o f t h e S o c ia l
S c ie n c e R e s e a rc h C o u n c il ( 193S—-39)iuicl©r t h e a u s p ic e s o f N o rth w e s te rn U ni—
v e rs ity .
T h is v i s i t u n d e r ta k e n b y t h e w r i t e r t o a Mohammedanized N egro
f o l k i s , fro m t h e v ie w p o in t o f o r d in a r y a n t h r o p o l o g ic a l p r a c t i c e , p e rh a p s
so m e th in g o f a p arad o x *
T hese f o l k a r e n o t , t e c h n i c a l l y s p e a k in g , p r im i­
t i v e , s in c e a num ber o f them r e a d an d w r i t e A ra b ic and th e A ra b ic s c r i p t
h a s lo n g b e e n a d a p te d t o th e n a t i v e lan g u ag e*
T hose i n t e r e s t e d i n a
s c ie n c e o f c u l t u r e , h o w ev er, c a n n o t a f f o r d t o n e g l e c t t h e b ody o f p ro b ­
lem s p r e s e n te d b y t h e g r e a t b lo c o f n o n -E u ro p ean l i t e r a t e c u l tu r e s *
At
t h e same tim e i t i s t o b e f e a r e d t h a t th o s e who have s p e c i a l i z e d i n th e
m in u tia e o f t h e s e c u l t u r e s have n o t b een to o w e l l aw are o f some o f t h e
w id e r i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e i r d a t a ; n o r have th e y , on th e w h o le , a s s e s s e d
t h e Negro c u l t u r e s o f W est A f r ic a a t t h e i r t r u e im p o rta n c e f o r t h e d e v e lo p ­
m ent o f t h e c i v i l i z a t i o n s i n w h ich th e y a r e i n t e r e s t e d .
I t i s , th e re fo re ,
a s a n in te n d e d c o n t r i b u t i o n t o th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th e s e p e o p le s from
t h e c u l t u r a l dynam ic v ie w p o in t t h a t t h i s s tu d y i s t o b e e v a l u a te d .
My p ro fo u n d g r a t i t u d e i s due t o S i r B e rn a rd B o u r d illo n an d o f ­
f i c i a l s o f t h e N ig e r ia n governm ent f o r t h e i r u n f a i l i n g c o o p e r a tio n an d
h e lp fu ln e s s.
I am a l s o in d e b te d t o M r. M acdonald, th e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r
a t Kano d u r in g a l a r g e p a r t o f my s t a y , t o Mr. B alw in o f t h e E d u c a tio n
D eprtm en t and t o M r. E l l i o t o f t h e S u rv e y D e p a rtm e n t, and t o M ajo r Hanns
V is c h e r an d M iss B r a c k e tt o f t h e A f r ic a n I n s t i t u t e o f L anguages an d C u ltu r e s
a n d t o M r. W asson, t h e A m erican C o n su l a t L a g o s , f o r c o u r t e s i e s e x te n d e d .
To t h e E m ir o f Kano and t o t h e Chirom a an d t h e S a r k in Dawaki
M a i t u t a , h e a d s o f t h e d i s t r i c t s i n w h ich I c a r r i e d on my f i e l d w o rk ,
s p e c i a l th a n k s a r e d u e .
My d e b t o f g r a t i t u d e e x te n d s t o many n a t i v e s
who a c t e d a s in f o r m a n ts , o r i n o t h e r c a p a c i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y t o Bage among
t h e M aguzawa, an d t o Audu f o r th e t a c t an d th e d i l i g e n c e he d is p la y e d
i n s e c u r in g in f o r m a n ts f o r me d u r in g my l a s t s t a y i n Kano C i t y .
I owe
m o st t o members o f t h e A n th ro p o lo g y D ep artm en t o f N o rth w e s te rn U n i v e r s i t y ,
p a r t i c u l a r l y t o i t s c h a irm a n , M e lv i lle tJ* H e r s k o v its , u n d e r w hose g u id a n c e
my f i e l d w ork was c a r r i e d o u t and t h e t h e s i s was w r i t t e n .
A cknow ledgm ents
a r e a l s o due t o M r. W illia m R . Bascom f o r h i s p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n my work
an d f o r in f o r m a tio n c o n c e rn in g Yoruba c u l t u r e w hich he f r e e l y p u t a t my
d is p o s a l.
L ik e w is e , my o b l i g a t i o n s t o F ra n c e s H e r s k o v its f o r h e r a s s i s t a n c e
i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r my t r i p t o A f r ic a and f o r h e r en co u rag em en t d u r in g t h e
w r i t i n g o f th e t h e s i s a r e v e r y g r e a t .
J o se p h G reen b erg
E v a n s to n , I l l i n o i s
T a b le o f C o n te n ts
P reface
I.
II*
III*
IV .
In tro d u c tio n
11
The Pagan Hausa
A.
The Maguzawa
27
B*
The C u l t u r a l C o n te x t o f Maguzawa R e lig io n
29
Maguzawa R e l ig io n
A.
The B e l i e f i n A lla h a s a Supreme B ein g
4-9
B.
The *f s k o k i* T h e ir N a tu re and Pow ers
49
C.
T a b le o f th e S p i r i t s and T h e ir C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
55
D.
Some Im p o r ta n t 11 s k o k r
67
E.
The C u lt o f th e 'Is k o k i-
F.
VI •
1
The H i s t o r i c a l C o n ta c ts o f Kano w ith Mohammedan C u ltu r e
1.
2.
3*
4.
5.
V.
i
F a m ily R i t e s
The P u b lic C u lt
I n d i v i d u a l A sp e c ts
P o s s e s s io n ( Bcrrf)
The ‘I s k d k f and M ed icin e
An A n a ly s is o f t h e fI s k 6'ki' C u lt
72
76
78
81
89
91
The R o le o f t h e Malams i n S u r v iv a ls o f t h e rI e k 6 k f
C u lt Among t h e Moslem H ausa
105
C o n c lu sio n s
113
A ppendix A:
B ib lio g r a p h y
The System Employed f o r T r a n s c r ib in g H ausa
115
116
1.
I
INTRODUCTION
The s u b j e c t o f t h e p r e s e n t s tu d y i s t h e e f f e c t o f I s la m on th e
r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s o f a Negro p e o p le .
The gro u p w h ich was
s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h c o n s i s t s o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f Kano i n N o rth e rn
N ig e r ia w ith i t s s u r r o u n d in g r u r a l d i s t r i c t s .
T hese f o l k c o n s t i t u t e an
im p o r ta n t s e c t i o n o f t h e H a u s a -sp e a k in g p e o p le s o f th e C e n tr a l Sudan i n
A fric a .
The r e g io n ch o sen seemed t o o f f e r c e r t a i n a d v a n ta g e s f o r a s tu d y
o f th e k in d c o n te m p la te d .
T h ere was a l a r g e m easu re o f c o n t r o l o f c o n d i­
t i o n s o f c o n ta c t i n t h e form o f a u t h e n t i c h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s .
I s la m ic
i n f l u e n c e s had b e e n a t work f o r a s u f f i c i e n t p e r io d f o r t h e i r e f f e c t s t o
b e ju d g e d ; y e t i n t h e r u r a l d i s t r i c t s t h e r e rem a in ed a p o p u la tio n w h ich
w as s t i l l p ag an and r e p r e s e n t e d t o a c o n s id e r a b le d e g re e t h e c u l t u r e o f
t h e Hausa o f t h i s r e g io n p r i o r t o Moslem c o n t a c t .
I n c o n fo rm ity w ith
t h i s s i t u a t i o n , f i e l d s t u d i e s w ere made b o th i n Kano C i t y , w here Moslem
i n f l u e n c e had b e e n m ost i n t e n s e , and among t h e r u r a l p a g a n s .
Of th e
e le v e n m onths d e v o te d t o f i e l d r e s e a r c h , f i v e and one—h a l f m onths w ere
s p e n t i n Kano C i t y , f o u r m onths i n t h e d i s t r i c t o f Gwarzo among t h e p ag ­
a n s o f Jig a w a and n e ig h b o rin g v i l l a g e s , and one and one—h a l f m onths among
a m ixed Moslem an d p ag an p o p u la tio n a t 'D an Zabuwa i n t h e d i s t r i c t o f
B ic h i.
The p ro b le m o f t h e e f f e c t o f Mohammedanism on t h e n a t i v e c u l­
t u r e o f Kano was o b v io u s ly t o b e ap p ro a c h e d i n te rm s o f t h e a c c u l t u r a t i v e
p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d .1
The im p o rta n c e o f u n d e r ta k in g r e s e a r c h i n t h i s r e g io n
w i t h a view t o t h e p ro b lem s o f c u l t u r e - c o n t a c t h a s b e e n i n d i c a t e d b y
H e r s k o v its w hen, among th e s u b j e c t s o u t l i n e d a s im p o r ta n t f o r r e s e a r c h i n
t h e f i e l d , he c i t e s s t u d i e s o f " t h a t p a r t o f A f r ic a t h a t r e p r e s e n t s t h e
s o u th e rn m o st e x t e n s i o n o f Mohammedan i n f l u e n c e , 1’^ m e n tio n in g s p e c i f i c a l l y
i n t h i s c o n n e c tio n " th e c i t i e s o f N o rth e rn N ig e r ia — K ano, Z a r i a , an d t h e
l i k e . n3
The m e th o d o lo g ic a l a d v a n ta g e s o f su c h r e s e a r c h i n te rm s o f th e
g r e a t e r o b j e c t i v i t y o b ta in a b le when com pared t o th e s t u d i e s o f A m erican
and E u rop ean n a t i v e c o n ta c t w h ich h a v e , up t o t h e p r e s e n t , a lm o s t ex­
c l u s i v e l y d o m in ated t h e f i e l d seem ed c l e a r ; f o r n e i t h e r o f t h e c u l t u r e s
p a r t y t o t h e c o n t a c t i s o u r own.
Even m ore im p o r t a n t l y , t h e r e s u l t s o f
su c h r e s e a r c h m ig h t s e r v e a s a check upon t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c lu s io n s d e r iv e d
from t h e e x c l u s i v e s tu d y o f t h e c o n ta c t o f o u r own c i v i l i z a t i o n on n a t i v e
c u l t u r e s th r o u g h o u t t h e w o rld .
I n a n a ly z in g th e d a t a on Mohammedan-Negro c o n t a c t i n t h e r e g i o n ,
a n i n i t i a l p ro b lem e n c o u n te re d a r o s e from t h e f a c t t h a t th e d e f i n i t i o n ad­
v an ce d b y t h e sub-C om m ittee o f th e S o c i a l S c ie n c e R e s e a rc h C o u n c il a s a
w o rk in g b a s i s f o r r e s e a r c h i n c u l t u r e c o n ta c t d id n o t c o v e r t h e p r e s e n t
s itu a tio n .
To a p p r e c i a t e t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s p ro b le m , th e d e f i n i t i o n ad­
van ced b y t h e su b-C om m ittee may f i r s t b e c i t e d .
A c c u lt u r a ti o n com prehends th o s e phenomena w h ich r e s u l t when
g ro u p s o f i n d i v i d u a l s h a v in g d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s come i n t o
c o n tin u o u s f i r s t - h a n d c o n t a c t , w ith s u b se q u e n t ch an g es i n
1 . The te rm ,1a c c u l t u r a t i o n ,, i s u s e d h e re i n t h e s e n s e a s s ig n e d t o i t
by t h e sub-C om m ittee on A c c u lt u r a ti o n o f th e S o c i a l S c ie n c e R e s e a rc h C o u n c il,
R e d f i e l d , L i n to n , an d H e r s k o v its (193& ). T h is d e f i n i t i o n w i l l b e q u o te d
and commented upon l a t e r .
2 . H e r s k o v its (193S a )» P* 1 2 0 .
3 . I b id . , p . 121.
th e o r i g i n a l c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s o f e i t h e r o r b o th g ro u p s .1
The p h r a s e , " c o n tin u o u s f i r s t - h a n d c o n t a c t , " i s t h e c r u x o f t h e m a t t e r .
In
t h e p r e s e n t s tu d y a s w i l l b e s e e n , t h e c o n t a c ts b etw een n a t i v e N egro i n ­
h a b i t a n t s o f Kano an d Mohammedan f o l k w ere b r i e f an d i n t e r m i t t e n t , t h e a c —
c u l t u r a t i n g e le m e n t b e in g i n e f f e c t t h e books i n w h ich Mohammedan d o c t r i n e s
a r e c o n ta in e d .
Thus am alg am atio n o f Mohammedan an d n a t i v e b e l i e f d id n o t
ta k e p la c e i n t h e m ain th r o u g h t h e i n t e n s i v e c o n ta c t b etw een p e o p l e s , b u t
came a b o u t b y a p r o c e s s i n w h ich th e n a t i v e le a r n e d c l a s s a d a p te d w hat t h e y
fo u n d i n t h e w r i t t e n an d p r i n t e d s o u rc e s a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l t o t h e n a t i v e
s i t u a t i o n an d i n t h e p r o c e s s r e t a i n e d much o f p ag an b e l i e f , f i t t i n g th e s e
b e l i e f s i n t o a Moslem fram ew o rk .
I n o t h e r w o rd s, we have w hat i s i n e s s e n c e
a n a c c u l t u r a t i v e s i t u a t i o n n o t ta k e n i n t o a c c o u n t b y o u r d e f i n i t i o n .
The
p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e l i t e r a r y tr a n s m is s i o n o f c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s i n t h e a b se n c e
o f d i r e c t p e r s o n a l i n t e r c o u r s e b etw een th e members o f t h e two c u l t u r e s i n
c o n t a c t i n d i c a t e s th e n e c e s s i t y f o r am ending t h e d e f i n i t i o n t o c o v e r su c h
c a s e s a s t h e p r e s e n t , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e , a s w i l l b e shown l a t e r i n t h i s d i s ­
c u s s io n , i t seems p r o b a b le t h a t s i m i l a r p r o c e s s e s have ta k e n p la c e i n many
o t h e r i n s t a n c e s th a n i n t h e f o r m a tio n o f Moslem H ausa c u l t u r e a l o n e .
The o b j e c t i o n j u s t r a i s e d t o th e d e f i n i t i o n o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n ad­
van ced b y t h e sub-C om m ittee o f t h e S o c i a l S c ie n c e R e s e a rc h C o u n c il, i n t h e
c a s e o f t h e H ausa, i s o n ly v a l i d i n so f a r a s i t c o n c e rn s t h e m anner i n
w h ich t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f Mohammedan and n a t i v e Negro e le m e n ts have p ro d u c e d
t h e p r e s e n t c u l t u r e o f t h e M oslem s.
The p r e s e n c e o f Mohammedan e le m e n ts
1.
R e d f i e ld , L in to n , and H e r s k o v its ( 1 9 3 $ ). T h at o t h e r u s e s o f t h e
w ord " a c c u l t u r a t i o n " s t i l l f l o u r i s h i s e v id e n c e d b y th e d e f i n i t i o n o f f e r e d
b y Ogburn and N im koff ( 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 383» n o te 2 , i n t h e i r r e c e n t s o c io lo g y
t e x t . T h is d e f i n i t i o n r e a d s , " A c c u ltu r a tio n i s th e p r o c e s s w h ereb y i n d i ­
v i d u a l s r e a r e d i n one c u l t u r e an d t r a n s f e r r e d t o a n o th e r ta k e on t h e b e­
h a v io r p a t t e r n s o f t h e seco n d s o c i e t y . "
in c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e p ag an c u l t u r e d u r in g lo n g c e n t u r i e s o f c o n t a c t was
n o te d e a r l y i n t h i s f i e l d r e s e a r c h , and s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s i s o f th e s e d a t a
i n t h e l i g h t o f th e m a t e r i a l s c i t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e em p h asize th e e x te n ­
s i v e n a t u r e o f t h e b o rro w in g s .
H owever, th e p r o c e s s b y w h ich Moslem and
pag an e le m e n ts w ere am algam ated t o fo rm p ag an H ausa c u l t u r e in v o lv e d con­
ti n u o u s f i r s t - h a n d c o n t a c t w ith a Mohammedanized f o l k — t h e Moslem Hausa—
and i s t h e r e f o r e c o v e re d b y t h e d e f i n i t i o n .
However, i t m ust b e r e c o g ­
n iz e d t h a t two d i s t i n c t p r o c e s s e s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n a r e p ro c e e d in g s im u l­
ta n e o u s l y among th e Hausa an d t h a t i n b o th o f them t h e c o n t r i b u t i n g e l e ­
m e n ts a r e t h e a b o r i g i n a l p ag an c u l t u r e an d Mohammedan c u l t u r e .
I n th e one
i n s t a n c e t h e c o n t a c t i s d i r e c t l y b etw een p e o p l e s , w h ile i n t h e o t h e r th e
embodiment o f c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s i n l i t e r a r y fo rm an d th e a c t i v i t i e s o f a
s p e c i a l i z e d l i t e r a t e c l a s s h a s b een th e d e te r m in in g f a c t o r .
B e fo re le a v in g t h e s u b je c t o f th e r o l e w h ich th e l i t e r a r y t r a n s ­
m is s io n o f c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s may p la y i n a c c u l t u r a t i v e s i t u a t i o n s , i t m ig h t
be w e ll t o s e t f o r t h th e r e a s o n s f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e o b j e c t i o n r a i s e d
t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n ad v an ced b y th e sub-C om m ittee o f th e
S o c i a l S c ie n c e R e s e a rc h C o u n c il h as w id e r i m p lic a tio n s th a n f o r j u s t t h i s
s tu d y .
The r i s e an d s p r e a d o f th e g r e a t r e l i g i o n s o f th e E a s t— Buddhism ,
C h r i s t i a n i t y an d I s la m — a p p e a r t o b e exam ples o f th e m anner i n w h ich th e
a d a p t a ti o n o f t h e o r e t i c a l l y im m utable d i c t a t e s o f s a c r e d w r i t i n g s t o v a ry ­
i n g l o c a l c o n d i tio n s ta k e s p la c e th ro u g h t h e a g en c y o f a le a r n e d c l a s s
i n co m m u n ities w here l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y was a s p e c i a l i z e d o c c u p a tio n .
The
s u c c e s s io n o f p r im a r y s a c r e d w r i t i n g s , co m m en taries and s u p e r-c o m m e n ta rie s ,
w h ich we i n v a r i a b l y f i n d accom panying t h e g e o g r a p h ic a l s p r e a d o f t h e g r e a t
r e l i g i o n s , i s t h e e x p r e s s io n i n l i t e r a r y form o f a d e v e lo p in g accom m odation
on t h e p a r t o f t h e r e c e i v i n g g ro u p t o t h e new i d e a s , and o f t h e s e id e a s
i n t u r n t o t h e a n te c e d e n t t r a d i t i o n s o f t h i s g ro u p .
I n th e c a s e o f
I s la m i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o n o te t h a t t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t s
w h ich a r i s e d u r in g t h i s p r o c e s s r e c e iv e s o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h e con­
c e p t o f 1lim a 0 . " c o n c e n s u s ," w h ich h a s b e e n e l e v a te d t o one o f t h e f o u r
b a s i c s o u r c e s o f I s la m ic ju r i s p r u d e n c e .
The p r i n c i p l e o f 1i.im ac may be
summed up i n t h e w o rd s, "W hatever th e com munity o f I s la m h as a g r e e d upon
a t a n y tim e i s o f God. "2
!I.im ac i s a r e c o g n i t i o n i n p r a c t i c e o f th e r e a l i t y
o f t h e a c c u l t u r a t i v e p r o c e s s , s in c e b y means o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e , t h e s o lu ­
t i o n a r r i v e d a t b y a com munity o f c o n f l i c t s a r i s i n g from c o n ta c t a r e e f ­
f e c t e d ev en i n t h o s e c a s e s w here t h e Word o f God h as had to g iv e way b e f o r e
t h e u s a g e o f t h e com munity an d c o u ld n o t b e sa v e d by t h e m ost a c c o m p lish e d
c a s u is try .
Laramens, f o r i n s t a n c e , n o te s t h a t t i,im ac gave th e stam p o f ap­
p r o v a l t o " th e c u l t o f th e P r o p h e t, t h e f e s t i v a l s o r d a in e d i n h i s h o n o r,
su c h a s t h a t o f t h e m aw lid . " b i r t h . " b e l i e f i n h i s m i r a c l e s , a b e l i e f con­
t r a d i c t e d b y t h e Q o ra n , t h e e x i s t e n c e an d i n t e r c e s s i o n o f s a i n t s . . .
in n o v a tio n s . . .
o p p o sed i n p r i n c i p l e t o t h e s p i r i t o f Q o ra n ic
m o n o th e is m ." 3
One o f t h e m ost s t r i k i n g phenomena accom panying t h i s a c c u l t u r a t i v e
a s p e c t i n t h e s p r e a d o f t h e g r e a t r e l i g i o n s h as b een t h e a c c r e t i o n o f o r i ­
g i n a l l y in d e p e n d e n t e le m e n ts i n t o t h e r e l i g i o u s com plex, a s a r e s u l t o f
w h ic h , i n t h e c a s e o f I s la m , we can sp eak o f Mohammedan c i v i l i z a t i o n a s a
co m p lete c u l t u r e e m b ra cin g p r a c t i c a l l y a l l a s p e c t s o f human a c t i v i t y .
1 . The o t h e r t h r e e a r e t h e C o ran , b a d l t h " o r a l t r a d i t i o n s , " s u p p o s e d ly
stem m ing from t h e P r o p h e t, and q i y a s . " a n a lo g y ," w h ich i s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n
o f e s t a b l i s h e d p r i n c i p l e s t o new s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s t o be n o te d t h a t i n
I s la m , w here r e l i g i o n i s h e ld t o g o v ern a l l a s p e c t s o f human b e h a v i o r ,
f i q h . " ju r i s p r u d e n c e ," c la im s d iv in e s a n c ti o n .
2 . M acDonald ( 1 9 0 3 ) , p . 1 0 5 .
3 . Lammens (1 9 2 9 )* P* 95*
W ith in t h i s com plex t h e r e l a t i v e d a te s a t w h ich v a r io u s e le m e n ts w ere i n ­
c o r p o r a t e d , o r t h e i r s t a t u s a s C o r a n ic , b a s e d on t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e P ro p h e t
o r m e re ly a r i s i n g fro m c u sto m a ry u s a g e , i s a m a tte r o f i n d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e
n a t i v e o f W est A f r ic a t o whom i t i s p r e s e n te d .
The Hausa makes t h i s ex­
p l i c i t i n h i s d i s t i n c t i o n b etw ee n m u s u lu n c r, ’’t h e Moslem w a y ,” an d m aguzanci*, " th e p ag an w a y ."
I n th e fo rm e r he in c lu d e s Mohammedan e le m e n ts o f
su c h d iv e r s e p ro v e n ie n c e an d d a t e o f i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o Mohammedan c u l t u r e
a s t h e p ilg r im a g e t o Mecca (w h ich i s C o r a n ic ) , t h e f i v e d a i l y p r a y e r s
(w h ich a r e b a s e d on t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e P r o p h e t) , t h e d r in k i n g o f a n i n ­
f u s i o n o f t h e in k w ashed o f f a s l a t e on w h ich C o ra n ic v e r s e s have b een
w r i t t e n ( a p ro c e d u re w hich d e v e lo p e d a t a r a t h e r e a r l y d a te and was b a s e d
on t h e s i m i l a r tr e a tm e n t o f s a c r e d t e x t s i n th e M e d ite rra n e a n a r e a b y ad­
h e r e n t s o f p r e v io u s r e l i g i o n s ) , an d t h e w e a rin g o f t h e tu r b a n an d gown
( a p r a c t i c e n o t p r e s c r i b e d b y t h e Mohammedan r e l i g i o n , b u t h a b i t u a l i n
N o rth A f r ic a an d p r o b a b ly o f f a i r l y r e c e n t d a t e ) .
I n s p i t e o f th e l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t i n Mohammedan c u l t u r e ,
th e u n ity o f t h i s c u ltu r e , e s p e c ia lly t h a t o f i t s b a s ic r e lig io u s p ra c ­
t i c e s e x p re s s e d i n w r i t t e n fo rm , i s so g r e a t t h a t a lth o u g h I s la m was p r e ­
s e n te d t o t h e H ausa th r o u g h s u c h d iv e r s e m edia a s t h e N egroes o f M a li and
S o n g h a i, t h e w h ite T o u areg s o f t h e S a h a ra and A rab t r a d e r s fro m v a r io u s
r e g io n s o f N o rth A f r ic a an d t h e N ear E a s t , i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e t o sp eak
o f t h e e f f e c t o f I s la m on th e Hausa p e o p le a s a s i n g l e c o h e re n t p r o c e s s .
H owever, w h ile h o ld in g f a s t t o t h i s p o i n t o f v ie w , i t i s n o n e th e le s s
f r u i t f u l t o se e k t o d i s t i n g u i s h th e r o l e s o f d i f f e r e n t v a r i a n t s o f Moslem
c u l t u r e i n t h e p r o g r e s s iv e M oham m edanization o f t h e H ausa.
H ence, i n th e
f o llo w in g a c c o u n t o f t h e m anner i n w hich I s la m was in tr o d u c e d an d p ro p a ­
g a te d i n Hausa c o u n tr y fro m N o rth A f r i c a , t h e p a r t s w h ich th e s i g n i f i c a n t l y
7
d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l r e g io n s o f N o rth A f r ic a have p la y e d i n t h e p r o c e s s w i l l
b e i n d i c a t e d , an d t h e i r r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e e v a l u a te d .
I n t h i s c o n n e c tio n
i t i s n o t in te n d e d t o s e t up an y c u l t u r e a r e a s f o r N o rth A f r i c a , b u t , s t a r t ­
i n g a s a m a t t e r o f c o n v e n ie n c e fro m t h e g e o g r a p h ic a l d i v i s i o n s o f t h e A rab
w r i t e r s , t h e m ain f o c a l a r e a s o f N o rth A f r ic a n c u l t u r e w i l l be c h a r a c t e r ­
i z e d an d t h e e x i s t e n c e an d s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e c e n t e r s w i l l be k e p t i n
m ind a s t h e h i s t o r i c a l d a ta c o n c e rn in g th e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t a c ts o f N o rth
A f r i c a w ith t h e Sudan a r e re v ie w e d .
The b u lk o f t h e p r e s e n t w ork i s d e v o te d t o a c o n s id e r a tio n o f
p a g a n H ausa r e l i g i o n a s an exam ple o f pagan*4£ohammedan a c c u l t u r a t i o n .
In
a n a ly z in g t h i s p r o c e s s th e an sw er t o su c h q u e s ti o n s a s t h e f o llo w in g w i l l
be s o u g h t:
What f a c t o r s w ere o p e r a t iv e i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e f e a t u r e s
o f Mohammedan c u l t u r e w h ich w ere b orrow ed?
I n w hat m anner have th e s e f e a ­
t u r e s b e e n in c o r p o r a te d i n t h e p ag an c u l tu r e ?
Have th e s e borrow ed e le m e n ts
b e e n k e p t d i s t i n c t fro m t h e o r i g i n a l o n e s , o r have t h e y b een m erged w ith
n a t i v e c o n c e p tio n s t o t h e p o i n t w here t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c f e a ­
t u r e s a s N egro o r Mohammedan becom es im p o s s ib le ?
T h is ty p e o f m e rg in g o f
co m p arab le c o n c e p ts from two c u l t u r e s i n c o n ta c t h as b een n o te d b y R e d f i e ld ,
f o r i n s t a n c e , i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e c u l t u r e o f T e p o z tla n i n M exico w h e re ,
b e s id e s e le m e n ts w h ich a r e u n e q u iv o c a lly E u ro p ean o r S p a n is h , he d i s t i n g u i s h e s
ne le m e n ts w h ich have d e v e lo p e d i n M exico fro m th e im p in g in g o f S p a n is h f e a ­
t u r e s upon a homologous I n d ia n p a t t e r n . ”^
T h at t h i s i s a n im p o r ta n t p ro b ­
lem i s e v id e n c e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s same w r i t e r a t te m p tin g a s i m i l a r
r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r e o f Y u cate can s i n t o S p a n is h an d I n d ia n co m p o n en ts,
fo u n d t h a t many e le m e n ts d id n o t le n d th e m s e lv e s t o t h i s p r o c e s s o f s o r t i n g
1.
R e d f ie ld ( 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 4-9*
8
a t a l l , so a s f a r a s t h e q u e s t i o n w h e th e r t h e y a r e I n d i a n o r S p a n is h i s
c o n c e rn e d , "We c a n p r o b a b ly s a y t h a t th e y a r e b o th , b u t t h a t i s a l l we can
say*"l
T h is same d i f f i c u l t y was e n c o u n te re d b y P a rs o n s i n h e r a n a l y s i s o f
t h e s i t u a t i o n a t M i t l a , and sh e q u o te s w ith a p p r o v a l th e s ta te m e n t o f Red­
f i e l d c o n c e rn in g t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y i n many c a s e s o f d e c id in g w h e th e r a
g iv e n e le m e n t o f c u l t u r e i s I n d ia n o r S p a n is h .^
I f phenomena o f t h i s
ty p e a r e e n c o u n te re d w here c i v i l i z a t i o n s o f su c h d i v e r s e h i s t o r i c b ack ­
g ro u n d s a s t h e S p a n is h an d I n d ia n a r e i n c o n t a c t , may we n o t e x p e c t s i m i l a r
r e s u l t s on a n ev en w id e r s c a l e w h e re , a s i n t h e c a s e o f A f r ic a n N egro and
Mohammedan c i v i l i z a t i o n , two c u l t u r e s g e o g r a p h i c a ll y c o n tig u o u s an d h a v in g
many b a s i c e le m e n ts i n common have come i n t o c o n ta c t?
A s i g n i f i c a n t exam ple o f t h i s p r o c e s s o f m e rg in g o f s i m i l a r con­
c e p t io n s when Mohammedan an d N egro c u l t u r e s a r e i n i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t i s t h e
i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f th e a b o r i g i n a l Hausa s p i r i t s , t h e t iskok£*« w ith t h e Moham­
medan J i n n , a s u b j e c t t o b e t r e a t e d a t l e n g t h i n l a t e r p a g e s .
T h is phenome­
non i s n o t l i m i t e d t o t h e H au sa, f o r a s i m i l a r p r o c e s s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n h as
ta k e n p la c e in d e p e n d e n tly i n a t l e a s t two o t h e r r e g io n s w here Mohammedan
an d N egro c u l t u r e s a r e i n c o n t a c t . 3
An e n t i r e s e r i e s o f co m p arab le r e s u l t s
o f c o n t a c t have b een n o te d among New W orld N e g ro e s, w here i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s
o f s p i r i t s w o rsh ip p e d i n W est A f r ic a w ith C a th o lic s a i n t s have ta k e n p la c e
in d e p e n d e n tly i n s e v e r a l
r e g i o n s . 4-
P e rh a p s i n th e s e i n s t a n c e s a n e x p la n a ­
t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t ad v an ced above i n t h e c a s e o f t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f
1 . R e d f i e ld (1 9 3 4 )* P*
2 . P a rs o n s ( 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 479*
3 . S ee p . 99 b elo w .
4 . T hese have b e e n r e p o r t e d from B r a z i l , Ramox (1934)* C uba, O r tiz
(n o d a t e ); an d H a i t i , H e r s k o v its (1937)*
9
A f r ic a n s p i r i t s w ith Mohammedan J i n n may be c o n s id e r e d — n am ely , t h e e x i s t ­
e n c e o f c e r t a i n b a s i c s i m i l a r i t i e s u n d e r ly in g t h e c u l t u r e s o f th e two a r e a s ,
w h ich i n t h i s New W orld i n s t a n c e w ould be th o s e o f W este rn E urope an d Negro
A fr ic a *
I t may b e t h a t t h e c u l t u r e s o f t h e O ld W orld a s a w hole have a
fu n d a m e n ta l u n i t y a s a g a i n s t th o s e o f t h e New W orld so t h a t when two c u l­
t u r e s w ith O ld W orld a f f i l i a t i o n s come i n t o c o n t a c t , t h e m e rg in g o f s i m i l a r
f e a t u r e s may b e e x p e c te d t o o c c u r .
T h is e x p la n a tio n i s ad v an ced m e re ly a s
a n h y p o th e s is t o b e t e s t e d , f o r t h e d a ta p r e s e n te d b y R e d f ie ld an d P a rs o n s
show t h a t su c h p r o c e s s e s do o c c u r , th o u g h p e rh a p s on a s m a lle r s c a l e , when
S p a n is h c u l t u r e o f O ld W orld a f f i l i a t i o n comes i n t o i n t e n s i v e c o n t a c t w ith
t h e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s o f t h e New W orld.
A n o th e r q u e s t i o n w h ich a r i s e s fro m o u r c o n s id e r a tio n o f p ag an
H ausa r e l i g i o n c o n c e rn s th e a p p e a ra n c e u n d e r c o n t a c t o f e n t i r e l y new e l e ­
m e n ts w h ich a r e n o t p r e s e n t i n e i t h e r o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i n g c u l t u r e s .
I t is
t h i s p o i n t w h ich M alin o w sk i e v i d e n t l y h as i n m ind when he t a l k s o f t h e new
c u l t u r e w hich em erges from t h e f u s i o n o f t h e two o l d e r o n es a s a t e r t i u m
q u i d , a s y n t h e s i s w h ich c a n n o t b e a d e q u a te ly d e s c r ib e d a s a sim p le m ix tu re
o f eLements from t h e p r e - e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l store. ^
L in to n e x p r e s s e s t h e
same p o i n t o f view when he rem a rk s t h a t ,
. . . t h e en d p r o d u c ts o f c u l t u r e f u s i o n re se m b le a c h e m ic a l
r a t h e r th a n a m e c h a n ic a l m ix tu r e . The r e s tQ .tih g c u l t u r e w i l l
n o t be a sim p le a g g r e g a tio n o f e le m e n ts a l l o f w h ich can be
t r a c e d t o one o r t h e o t h e r o f th e p a r e n t c u l t u r e s , b u t a new
t h i n g many o f w hose p a t t e r n s can n o t be d i r e c t l y r e f e r r e d t o
e ith e r.^
A f i n a l q u e s tio n h a s t o do w ith t h e e x te n t t o w h ich t h e in c o r ­
p o r a t i o n o f Mohammedan t r a i t s i n t o t h e p ag an Hausa c u l t u r e c o n s t i t u t e s a
1.
2.
M alin o w sk i (193&)> P* x x v i.
L in to n ( 1 9 4 0 ) , p p . 5 1 2-513-
10
s t e p to w a rd t h e a c c e p ta n c e o f I s la m .
I s i t p e r m i s s i b le t o c o n s id e r t h e
M oham m edanization o f t h e H ausa p e o p le a s a c o n tin u o u s p r o c e s s i n w h ich
a c t u a l c o n v e r s io n o f I s la m o c c u p ie s a h a lf- w a y s t a g e , whose b e g in n in g h as
b e e n t h e b o rro w in g o f Mohammedan e le m e n ts i n p ag an H ausa c u l t u r e , and
w hose f u t u r e f o r e s e e s an ev en g r e a t e r a c c e p ta n c e o f Moslem c u l t u r e ?
If
su c h a v iew i s a d m is s i b le , we a r e c o n f r o n te d w ith a s i t u a t i o n co m p arab le
t o t h a t i n M exico and S o u th A f r ic a w here " a s e r i e s o f g ro u p s can be
ra n g e d i n a c c o rd a n c e w ith t h e i r d e g re e o f re s p o n s e t o t h e f o r e i g n body
o f t r a d i t i o n w ith w h ich t h e y have b een i n c o n t a c t , "1 s in c e a l l th e s e
" s t a g e s ’1 a r e o b s e r v a b le i n t h e a r e a s t u d i e d .
I n t h e p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n o u r c o n s id e r a tio n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f
Mohammedanism upon t h e c u l t u r e o f th e Moslem Hausa i s l i m i t e d t o an h i s ­
t o r i c a l d e m o n s tr a tio n o f t h e m anner i n w h ich t h e n a t i v e s o f Kano w ere
b ro u g h t i n t o c o n t a c t w ith I s la m w ith a minimum o f c o n tin u o u s f i r s t - h a n d
c o n t a c t w ith Mohammedan p e o p le s , t o a g e n e r a l c o n s id e r a tio n o f th e r o l e
o f t h e n a t i v e l e a r n e d c l a s s i n t h e f o r m a tio n o f Moslem Hausa c u l t u r e a s
i t e x i s t s to d a y , an d t o t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e d i f f u s i o n o f Mohammedan b e­
l i e f s t o t h e p e o p le a t l a r g e .
I n d e v e lo p in g th e s e t o p i c s t h e f a c t o r s
o p e r a t i v e i n t h e r e t e n t i o n o r r e j e c t i o n o f p ag an r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s among
t h e Moslem Hausa a r e t h e m a jo r p o i n t s o f a t t a c k .
How n a t i v e Hausa e l e ­
m en ts o f b e l i e f and t h e Mohammedan d o c t r i n e s w h ich t h e l e a r n e d fo u n d i n
t h e Moslem s a c r e d w r i t i n g s have b een s y n th e s iz e d i n t o a w o rld -v ie w w h ich
a p p e a rs t o d i f f e r i n many r e s p e c t s from th o s e a r r i v e d a t i n o t h e r Moslem
c o u n t r i e s , th o u g h a n im p o r ta n t p ro b le m , w i l l n o t b e d is c u s s e d h e r e .
1.
H e r s k o v its (1938 a ) , p . 1 2 1 .
11
II.
THE HISTORICAL CONTACTS OF KANO WITH MOHAMMEDAN CULTURE
The A rab - w r ite r s g e n e r a l l y d iv id e N o rth A f r ic a i n t o tw o p a r t s ,
t h e M agh rib o r W est and E g y p t.
The c o n ce n su s o f A rab g e o g r a p h ic a l a u t h o r i ­
t i e s p la c e s t h e d i v i d i n g l i n e e i t h e r a t t h e b o u n d ary o f E gypt o r somewhat
t o t h e w e s t , t h u s in c l u d i n g B ark a (C y re n a ic a ) i n t h e E g y p tia n area.-*-
The
M a g h re b in e , o r w e s te r n a r e a , w h ich f a r ex c e e d s E gypt i n e x t e n t i s g e n e r a l­
l y d iv i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s , I f r i k i y a on t h e e a s t , i n c l u d i n g T r i p o l i an d
T u n is , t h e m id d le M aghrib (M ag h rib a l w u sta ) c o m p ris in g A lg e r ia an d t h e
f a r t h e s t M ag h rib (M aghrib a l ra q s a ) , o r M orocco.
At t h e tim e when S p a in
was u n d e r Mohammedan d o m in a tio n i t was o f t e n re c k o n e d a s a p a r t o f t h e
M aghrib t o w h ich i t w as c l o s e l y a f f i l i a t e d c u l t u r a l l y .
The M aghrib i s n o t a n a r t i f i c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e g e o g r a p h e rs .
I t h a s a c u l t u r a l u n i t y b a s e d upon p a t t e r n s d i s t i n c t i v e from th o s e o f th e
r e s t o f t h e Moslem w o rld .
The f o c u s o f t h e a r e a i s i n M orocco w here th e
c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e M aghrib e x h i b i t t h e i r m ost p ro ­
n o u n ced d e v elo p m en t.
The e n t i r e M aghrebine r e g io n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d e t h ­
n i c a l l y b y a B e rb e r s u b s tr a tu m .
T h is i s o v e r l a i d b y a n A rab p o p u la tio n
w h ich becom es s u c c e s s i v e l y l e s s im p o r ta n t a s one moves away from i t s
e a s te rn li m it s .
M orocco, i n t h e ex trem e w e s t, i s i n d i s p u t a b l y a B e rb e r
c o u n t r y , t h e B e rb e r la n g u a g e b e in g s t i l l spoken b y a. l a r g e s e c t i o n o f th e
p o p u la tio n .
1.
The A ra b ic d i a l e c t s o f w e s te r n N o rth A f r ic a a r e d i s t i n c t i v e ,
T h is i s done b y I b n K h ald u n .
12
b e in g m arked b y a n e x t r a o r d i n a r y d ev elo p m en t o f i n i t i a l co n so n a n t c l u s ­
t e r s , a l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e w h ich i s r e m in is c e n t o f B e rb e r an d p e rh a p s
due t o i t s influence.*** I n t h e " o f f i c i a l 1* m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f I s la m ic b e l i e f
an d p r a c t i c e t h e e n t i r e w e s te r n a r e a e x h i b i t s h ig h l y i n d i v i d u a l f e a t u r e s
w h ich go b ack t o t h e e a r l y f o r m a tiv e c e n t u r i e s o f Mohammedanism.
One p a r ­
t i c u l a r l y m arked exam ple i s t h e s c r i p t , w ith i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a n g u la r
fo rm s t h a t seem t o b e a dev elo p m en t o f th e e a r l y K u fic m onum ental s t y l e .
I n t h e r e s t o f t h e Moslem w o r ld , th e s c r i p t s have d e v e lo p e d from t h e
ro u n d e d , o r N ask h i fo rm .
I n t h e u se o f t h e d i a c r i t i c s t o d i s t i n g u i s h
s i m i l a r l y w r i t t e n c o n s o n a n ts , we f i n d f and £ d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a s
r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n c o n t r a s t t o th e e a s t e r n
c_9 and
c3*
\S> and
The a l p h a b e t i ­
c a l a rra n g e m e n t, b o th t h e o r d in a r y one an d t h e *a b a .ja d a , i n w h ich th e
l e t t e r s a r e a s s ig n e d n u m e ric a l v a l u e s , d i f f e r s from t h a t o f t h e o t h e r
Mohammedan l a n d s .
I n a l l t h e s e f e a t u r e s , t h e s c r i p t o f th e M ag h rib ex­
h i b i t s an a rc h a ic f la v o r .
Forms w h ich w ent o u t o f u s e f a r t h e r e a s t a lm o s t
a th o u s a n d y e a r s ago s t i l l f l o u r i s h .
A n o th e r d i s t i n c t i o n b etw een t h e " o f f i c i a l " I s la m o f th e M aghrib
an d o t h e r Mohammedan r e g io n s i s t o be fo u n d i n th e e x c lu s iv e p red o m in an ce
o f t h e M a l i k i t e s c h o o l o f la w .
The M a li k ite i s one o f th e f o u r o rth o d o x
" r i t e s " (m adhhab) w h ich d e v e lo p e d d u r in g t h e n i n t h c e n tu r y .
M a lik ib n A nas, was a n a t i v e o f M edina*
I t s fo u n d e r,
Through t h e z e a lo u s a c t i v i t i e s
1 . The A ra b ic d i a l e c t s o f t h e M aghrib g iv e o t h e r e v id e n c e s o f a se p a ­
r a t e and h ig h l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d ev elo p m en t. We may m e n tio n h e re t h e ex­
t e n s i o n o f t h e n p r e f i x o f t h e f i r s t p e r s o n p l u r a l im p e r f e c t t o t h e s in g u ­
l a r a s a u n iq u e f e a t u r e o f
t h e d i a l e c t s o f t h i s r e g io n .
2 . By " o f f i c i a l " I s la m i s m eant th o s e a s p e c t s o f b e l i e f w h ich a r e em­
b o d ie d i n t h e c a n o n ic a l w orks o f I s la m ic th e o lo g y and la w .
13
o f h i s s t u d e n t s , h i s d o c t r i n e s w ere soon d i f f u s e d f a r and w id e , e s p e c i a l l y
to w a rd t h e w e s t.
I n o t h e r r e g io n s o f t h e Mohammedan w o r ld , w here t h e
M a l i k i t e r i t e had r e c e iv e d a n e a r l y d i f f u s i o n , i t was r e p la c e d b y l a t e r
s c h o o ls .
I n t h e M a g h rib , h o w ev er, a n d , i t s h o u ld b e a d d e d , i n p a r t s o f
U pper E g y p t, t h e M a l i k i t e r i t e h as m a in ta in e d i t s d o m in an t p o s i t i o n up t o
th e p r e s e n t.
M ost o f t h e p o p u la r b e l i e f s t h a t a r e r e p o r t e d from th e M aghrib
ca n b e m atch ed fro m o t h e r Mohammedan a r e a s .
H owever, th e c o n c e p t o f
b a r a k a , a n im p e rs o n a l f o r c e o f t h e mana v a r i e t y , w h ile i t e x i s t s e v e ry ­
w here among Mohammedans t o some d e g r e e , h as u n d e rg o n e , e s p e c i a l l y i n
M orocco, a d ev elo p m en t so u n iq u e an d e l a b o r a t e a s t o c o n s t i t u t e a d i s ­
ti n c ti v e c u ltu r a l fe a tu re o f th e r e lig io n .1
The te rm b a r a k a . t h e l i t e r a l
m eaning o f w h ich i n A ra b ic i s '‘b l e s s i n g , ” i s u s e d t o d e n o te a m y s te r io u s
f o r c e , t h e s o u r c e o f w h ich i s God.
I t i s p o s s e s s e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r de­
g r e e b y h o ly men bub may a l s o r e s i d e i n a n im a ls , p l a n t s , an d in a n im a te
o b je c ts .
The i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e ca r . a c o n d i t i o n a l c u r s e whose f u l f i l l ­
m en t dep en d s upon t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e " s a i n t " upon whom i t h as b een p la c e d
t o c a r r y o u t a r e q u e s t , i s a l s o p e c u l i a r to th e f o c a l a r e a o f M o ro cco .^
I n t h e M aghrebine a r e a , charm s a r e g e n e r a l l y sewn i n r e c t a n g u l a r p ie c e s
o f l e a t h e r an d w orn aro u n d t h e n e c k .
F i n a l l y , m e n tio n may b e made o f th e
d i s t i n c t i v e ty p e o f d e c o r a t i o n , commonly known a s M o o rish .
T h is s t y l e
1* S elig m an ( 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 1-41, c a l l s t h i s d evelopm ent "o v erw h elm in g ."
F o r an e x te n d e d d i s c u s s io n o f b a r a k a , W esterm arck ( 1 9 2 6 ) , 1 , 3 5 -3 6 1 , may
be c o n s u lt e d .
2.
F o r t h e f a r , s e e W esterm arck ( 1 9 2 6 ) , 1 , 2 2 .
H
b a s e d on t h e u s e o f t h e s i x —p o in t e d s t a r , d e r iv e s a c c o r d in g t o W esterm arck
fro m t h e u s e o f t h e hand a s a p r o p h y la c tic a g a i n s t t h e e v i l eye.-*E g y p t c o n s t i t u t e s t h e o t h e r m ain c u l t u r a l f o c u s i n N o rth A f r i c a .
To c h a r a c t e r i z e i t s m ain f e a t u r e s b r i e f l y , t h e e t h n i c s u b s tr a tu m i s C o p tic ,
t h e s c r i p t i s o f t h e s ta n d a r d e a s t e r n Mohammedan v a r i e t y and th e ; do& inant
le g a l sch o o l i s th e S h a f i 'i t e .
I n E g y p tia n p o p u la r b e l i e f , t h e f e a t u r e t h a t s t r i k e s t h e o b s e r v e r
i s t h e l a r g e r o l e p la y e d b y s p i r i t p o s s e s s io n .
T h is ta k e s tw o fo rm s ,
p o s s e s s io n b y d ead s a i n t s ( s e h ) , w h ich i s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l fo rm , an d t h e
z a r c u l t im p o rte d fro m A b y s s in ia w ith i n t h e l a s t c e n tu r y and a h a l f .
The
b e l i e f i n t h e q a r i n . o r s o u l d o u b le , p o s s i b l y a s u r v i v a l o f t h e E g y p tia n
k a , i s a l s o p e c u l i a r t o E g y p t^ The u s e o f s e m i- p re c io u s s to n e s an d f i g ­
u r e s o f f i s h e s an d a n im a ls , r e m in is c e n t o f t h e a n c i e n t E g y p tia n u s h a b t i
f i g u r e s a s charm s i s a n o th e r E g y p tia n t r a i t . 3
T h ree d o m in an t t r a d e r o u t e s l e a d so u th w ard a c r o s s t h e S a h a ra t o
t h e Sudan fro m t h e N o rth A f r ic a n a r e a s j u s t d e f in e d .
The Sudan c o u ld be
r e a c h e d from t h e ex trem e w e s t b y a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t c r o s s in g o f t h e Sa­
h a r a , fro m S i j i l m a s s a i n s o u th e r n M orocco t o t h e r e g io n o f t h e c e n t r a l
N ig e r .
From t h e e a s t e r n M aghrib a d i r e c t r o u te r u n s , c o n ta in in g some
lo n g , a rd u o u s s t a g e s .
S t a r t i n g fro m T r i p o l i , t h i s r o u te r e a c h e s Hausa
c o u n try i n t h e c e n t r a l Sudan b y way o f M urzuk, G h a t, and A g ad es.
F in a lly ,
E g y p t com m unicates w ith t h e E a s t e r n Sudan th ro u g h t h e N ile V a lle y .
T h ese av en u es o f com m unication have n o t b een o f e q u a l im p o rta n c e
1* W esterm arck* s P agan S u r v iv a l s i n Mohammedan C i v i l i z a t i o n (L ondon,
1 9 3 3 ), i s d e v o te d t o t h i s t h e s i s .
2 . T h is i s t h e e x p la n a tio n ad v an ced b y S elig m an i n h i s e s s a y , " A n c ie n t
E g y p tia n B e l i e f s i n M odern E g y p t"; i n E s s a y s and S tu d ie s P r e s e n te d t o
W illia m R idgew ay, Cam bridge (1913)> PP- 4-4-8-4-513.
S ee f o r exam ple t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n H ild b u rg h (1915)> P* 1 8 0 .
15
f o r t h e d i f f u s i o n o f Mohammedan p r a c t i c e s i n t h e S u d an .
As w i l l b e abun­
d a n t l y i l l u s t r a t e d , t h e h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s show t h a t I s la m f i r s t re a c h e d
t h e Sudan b y t h e ex tre m e w e s te r n r o u t e .
I t i s u n d e r s ta n d a b le , t h e r e f o r e ,
t h a t t h e w e s te r n S u d an ese r e g i o n , w hich c o n s t i t u t e s i t s s o u th e r n te r m in u s ,
was t h e a r e a i n w h ic h a s e c o n d a ry c u l t u r e c e n t e r was e s t a b l i s h e d fro m w h ich
I s la m ic d o c t r i n e s , ta k i n g t h e s p e c i f i c and h ig h ly c h a r a c t e r i s t i c M aghre­
b in e fo rm s r e c e iv e d fro m M orocco, s p re a d f a r t h e r e a s tw a rd t o t h e Hausa
c o u n t r i e s an d ev en b ey o n d .
The d i r e c t r o u t e fro m T r i p o l i t o t h e Hausa i t a t e s seems n o t t o
h av e b e e n g r e a t l y u s e d i n e a r l y ti m e s .
L a t e r , h ow ever, when u n s e t t l e d
p o l i t i c a l c o n d i tio n s i n t h e w e s te r n Sudan l e d t o a d e c l in e i n t h e im p o rt­
a n c e o f t h e r o u te w h ich c o n n e c te d i t w ith M orocco, t h i s c e n t r a l r o u te
came i n t o p ro m in en ce a n d , a s a r e s u l t , t h e Hausa S t a t e s a b o u t 1600 A. D.
e n t e r e d a p e r io d o f co m m ercial p r o s p e r i t y .
C u l t u r a l l y , th o u g h , c o n t a c t
w ith t h e T r i p o l i t a n r e g io n m e re ly r e i n f o r c e d th o s e e a r l i e r M aghrebine
in f l u e n c e s w h ich h ad come i n more t y p i c a l form from M orocco.
E g y p t, b y c o n t r a s t w ith t h e w e s te r n p a r t o f N o rth A f r i c a , was
a n e g l i g i b l e i n f l u e n c e i n t h e c e n t r a l Sudan i n e a r l i e r tim e s .
T h is i s
a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y a c c o u n te d f o r b y t h e g e o g r a p h ic a l b a r r i e r s im posed b y
t h e u p p e r r e a c h e s o f th e N i l e .
At an y r a t e , i t i s a s t r i k i n g f a c t t h a t
I s la m i n i t s E g y p tia n fo rm d id n o t p e n e t r a t e W adai, a la n d w e s t o f th e
u p p e r N ile and f a r t o t h e e a s t o f Lake C had, u n t i l t h e s e v e n te e n th cen ­
tu r y *
C om m unication b etw ee n t h e Hausa S t a t e s and E g y p t, u n t i l v e r y r e ­
c e n t t i m e s , seem s n o t to have b e e n b y t h i s ro a d b u t t o have been i n c i ­
d e n t a l t o t h e p ilg r im a g e t o M ecca.
The f a v o r i t e p i l g r i m 1s r o u te from
Hausa c o u n tr y f o llo w e d t h e ro a d t o T r i p o l i a s f a r a s Murzuk i n s o u th e r n
16
L ib y a .
A t t h i s p o i n t i t b ra n c h e d t o A u g ila an d t h e o a s i s o f Siw a i n
w e s te r n E g y p t, w hence i t c o n tin u e d b y way o f C a iro t o i t s d e s t i n a t i o n .
Why was t h e ex tre m e w e s te r n r o u te so im p o r ta n t i n e a r l y tim e s ?
Why, f o r e x a m p le , was t h i s t h e av en u e f o llo w e d b y a l l o f th e A rab t r a v e l e r s
o f t h e M id d le Ages who v i s i t e d t h e Sudan?
F o r one t h i n g , i t was th e
s h o r t e s t w ay, b e c a u s e a t t h i s p o i n t t h e n o rth w a rd bend o f t h e c e n t r a l
N ig e r m a t e r i a l l y re d u c e d t h e d i s t a n c e from N o rth A f r ic a t o t h e S udan.
A g a in , t h e p r e s e n c e o f a l l u v i a l g o ld i n t h e u p p e r S e n e g a l and N ig e r r e ­
g io n s an d o f s a l t m in es i n t h e W este rn S a h a ra ( s a l t i s a com m odity u t t e r l y
l a c k i n g i n t h e Sudan) gave t h e b a s i s f o r a l u c r a t i v e t r a d e , th o u g h o t h e r
goods f o r w h ich t h e r e was dem and, n o ta b ly s la v e s fro m t h e Sudan an d t h e
m a n u fa c tu re d a r t i c l e s o f m e d ie v a l E urope from th e n o r t h , li k e w is e en­
c o u ra g e d c o n t a c t .
fo c a l p o in t.
Of t h i s t r a d e , th e c e n t r a l N ig e r r e g io n was th e n a t u r a l
The d e c i s i v e f a c t o r , h o w ev er, i n t h e h ig h dev elo p m en t a t ­
t a i n e d b y t h i s commerce seems t o have b een th e e x i s t e n c e o f N egro em p ires
i n t h e S u d a n , l a r g e an d w e ll - o r d e r e d p o l i t i c a l o r g a n iz a ti o n s w h ich p ro ­
v id e d t h e p e a c e an d s e c u r i t y u n d e r w h ich t r a d e c o u ld f l o u r i s h .
H e re , a s ev ery w h ere i n th e h i s t o r y o f I s la m , th e avenue o f
t r a d e w as t h e av en u e o f t h e p r o p a g a tio n o f r e l i g i o n .
At t h e tim e t h a t we
g e t o u r f i r s t r e a l g lim p s e o f c o n d itio n s i n t h e w e s te r n S u d an , t h e p o l i t i ­
c a l s c e n e i s d o m in ated b y t h e em p ire o f G hana. 1
A t t h i s ti m e , th e i n i t i a l
1.
O ur f i r s t t r u s t w o r t h y in f o r m a tio n a b o u t th e w e s te r n Sudan comes from
E l B e k r i who, a lth o u g h he d id n o t v i s i t t h e Sudan h im s e lf , seems t o have
o b ta in e d h i s a c c o u n t fro m th o s e who d i d . A c e n tu r y b e f o r e E l B e k r i, I b n
H au k al v i s i t e d t h e s e r e g i o n s . H is a t t i t u d e i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f o llo w in g
w o rd s: " I have n o t d e s c r ib e d t h e c o u n tr y o f th e A f r ic a n b la c k s and t h e
o t h e r p e o p le s o f th e t o r r i d zo n e; b e c a u se n a t u r a l l y lo v in g w isdom , i n ­
g e n u i t y , r e l i g i o n , j u s t i c e , an d r e g u l a r g o v ern m en t, how c o u ld I n o t i c e
su c h p e o p le a s t h e s e , o r m a g n ify them b y i n s e r t i n g a n a c c o u n t o f t h e i r
c o u n t r i e s ? ” (Q u o ted i n B o v i l l ( 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 34*)
17
p e r i o d o f I s l a m i c p e n e t r a t i o n , m arked b y t h e s p o r a d ic c o n v e r s io n o f r u l e r s
an d t h e e l i t e who w ere t h e i r f o ll o w i n g , th r o u g h t h e in f l u e n c e o f Moslem
t r a d e r s was d ra w in g t o i t s c l o s e .
F o r w ith i n a few y e a r s a f t e r E l B e k ri
w ro te h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f G hana, t h e A lm o rav id l e a d e r , Abu Bakr> , i n 1 0 62,
was t o i n i t i a t e , b y p r e d o m in a n tly w a r lik e m eans, a p e r io d o f i n t e n s e p r o s e l y t i z a t i o n i n t h e S u d an .
E l B e k ri d e s c r ib e s t h e c i t y o f Ghana i t s e l f a s c o n s i s t i n g o f two
p a r t s , one Moslem an d one p a g a n , an d a lth o u g h i t s k in g was a p a g a n , th e
im p o r ta n t p o s i t i o n s o f v i z i e r an d t r e a s u r e r w ere h e ld b y Moslems.^-
In
o t h e r c e n t e r s , I s la m had l i k e w is e g a in e d a f o o th o ld w h ich i n E l B e k ri* s day
was o f r e c e n t o r i g i n .
The m anner o f c o n v e rs io n r e c o r d e d a s h a v in g o c c u r­
r e d a t M al3 .il a t t h i s tim e may b e c i t e d a s t y p i c a l o f t h e m anner i n w hich
I s la m s p r e a d i n t h e Sudan. ^
H e re , a f t e r a p e r io d o f p ro lo n g e d d ro u g h t t h e
k in g , on t h e a d v ic e o f a Moslem who was h i s g u e s t, c o n s e n te d t o p r a y i n th e
Mohammedan f a s h i o n .
M oslem .
R a in f e l l so o n a f te r w a r d s an d t h e K ing became a d evout
A c c o rd in g t o E l B e k r i:
I I dem eura s in c e re m e n t a t t a c h e A l 'i s l a m i s m e , a i n s i que s a
p o s t e r i t e e t s e s in t im e s ; m ais l a m asse du p e u p le e s t en co re
p lo n g e e d an s l f i d o l a t r i e . D ep u is l o r s , i l s o n t donne- b.
l e u r s o u v e r a in s l e t i t r e d * E l M o slem an i.3
E l B e k r i li k e w is e s t a t e s t h a t t h e c i t y o f Kougha (G a o ), on t h e lo w e r N ig e r,
was M oslem , w h ile t h e s u r r o u n d in g r u r a l d i s t r i c t s w ere p a g a n .4
1.
E l B e k r i, p . 3 2 8 .
2 . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f M a l l i l w ith M a li, th e c a p i t a l o f th e Mandingo
em p ire w h ich l a t e r r o s e t o p ro m in e n c e , i s d o u b tf u l .
3.
E l B e k r i , p . 334*
A. Gao became t h e c a p i t a l o f t h e S o n g h ai em p ire w h ich was th e dom inant
pow er i n t h e S udan i n th e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y .
18
T h is r e p r e s e n t e d th e m o st e a s t e r l y e x te n s io n o f Mohammedan i n f l u e n c e i n th e
S udan; t h e H ausa s t a t e s , a t t h i s p e r i o d , b e in g e v i d e n t l y pag an an d a l l b u t
unknown t o th e o u t s i d e w o r ld .
The r i s e o f th e A lm oravid pow er b ro u g h t a b o u t
t h e d o w n fa ll o f G hana, w h ich was c a p tu r e d b y 1A bubakr i n 1 0 7 6 ,
A fte r t h i s
d e f e a t Ghana c o n tin u e d t o d e c l in e u n t i l i t was f i n a l l y d e s tr o y e d b y th e
r i s i n g pow er o f M a li i n 1240•
The M andingo kingdom o f M a li w h ich s u c c e e d e d Ghana a s t h e g r e a t
pow er o f t h i s r e g i o n , d id n o t r e a c h i t s f u l l h e ig h t u n t i l th e f o u r t e e n t h
c e n tu ry .
The p ilg r im a g e t o Mecca made b y th e c e l e b r a te d Mansa M usa, i t s
s o v e r e ig n , i n 1 3 2 4 , was r e c o r d e d b y th e A rab h i s t o r i a n s o f th e d a y .
In
1353* d u r in g t h e r e i g n o f M ansa M usa*s s u c c e s s o r , Mansa S o le im a n , t h e
g r e a t t r a v e l e r I b n B a t t u t a v i s i t e d t h e Sudan*
I b n B a t t u t a n o te d w ith ap­
p r o v a l t h e e n th u s ia s m w h ich t h e p e o p le o f M a li d is p la y e d f o r I s la m a s
e v id e n c e d b y t h e g r e a t crow ds w h ich c o n g re g a te d a t F r id a y p r a y e r s , b y t h e
num bers o f p e o p le who knew t h e C oran b y h e a r t , and b y th e l i b r a r i e s o f t h e
m ost r e c e n t w orks i n A ra b ic l i t e r a t u r e t o be fo u n d i n th e homes o f many o f
t h e c h i e f men*^D u rin g t h i s p e r io d t h e M andingo w ere a c t i v e l y p r e a c h in g I s la m t o
th o s e N egroes who w ere s t i l l pagan*
As p a r t o f t h i s a c t i v i t y , an e v e n t
u n n o tic e d b y t h e A rab o r S u d an ese h i s t o r i a n s b u t o f g r e a t im p o rta n c e f o r
t h e Hausa a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , f o r K ano, to o k p la c e *
I n th e r e i g n o f Y a ji
a t Kano (1349—1385)> t o q u o te th e w ords o f t h e Kano C h r o n ic le ,2 " th e
Wangarawa came fro m M ele b r i n g i n g t h e Mohammedan religion* "3
T h ere w ere
1.
I b n B a t t u t a , 5* 3&3*
2*
The Kano C rh o n ic le i s a n a t i v e h i s t o r y o f Kano w r i t t e n i n A r a b ic ,
3.
P a lm e r (1 9 0 8 ), p . 7 6 *
19
a b o u t f o r t y men i n t h e p a r ty *
They b u i l t a mosque a t Kano and Y a ji ap ­
p o in t e d one o f t h e i r number a s M uezzin an d a n o th e r a s Liman t o l e a d th e
p r a y e rs *
He a l s o a p p o in te d a n A l c a l i ( ju d g e ) t o ju d g e c a s e s a c c o r d in g t o
Mahommedan, p re s u m a b ly M a li k ite law*
D u rin g t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n tu r y G ao, t h e S o n g hai
c e n t e r on t h e lo w e r N ig e r , g a in e d i t s in d e p e n d e n c e fro m th e M andingo E m p ire,
w h ich was th e n i n i t s d e c l i n e , an d i n t h e s u c c e e d in g c e n tu r y i t became th e
dom inant pow er i n t h e N ig e r r e g i o n .
U nder t h e fam ous A sk ia e l H a jj th e
S o n g h ai Tknpire r e a c h e d i t s z e n i t h , and Tim buktu a t t a i n e d i t s g r e a t e s t
g l o r y a s an i n t e l l e c t u a l c e n te r*
I t was a t t h i s tim e t h a t th e H ausa S t a t e s f i r s t came i n t o con­
te m p o ra ry n o tic e *
Leo A f r ic a n u s , t h e c e l e b r a t e d t r a v e l e r , v i s i t e d n o t
o n ly G ao, b u t t h e H ausa S t a t e s o f G o b ir, K a ts in a and K ano.
He s t a t e s t h a t
t h e y had b een c o n q u ere d b y A sk ia e l H a jj and w ere now t r i b u t a r y t o Songhai.-**
F u r t h e r e v id e n c e o f c lo s e i n t e r c o u r s e b etw ee n t h e S o n g h ai Em pire an d t h e
H ausa c i t i e s i s t o be fo u n d i n t h e T a r ik h e s S u d an .^
A t t h i s tim e i t was
th e f a s i o n f o r S o n g h ai n o ta b le s t o r e t u r n from, t h e i r p ilg r im a g e t o Mecca b y
way o f Kano and K a ts in a .
of th is .
The T a r ik h e s Sudan m e n tio n s s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s
A M oroccan, M akhlouf ben A li ben S a l i h e l B i l b a l i , v i s i t e d Kano
and K a ts in a te a c h in g t h e r e , an d r e tu r n e d t o M orocco w here he d ie d i n 1533*^
E l T e z a k h ti, a S u d an ese s c h o l a r , m et th e fam ous r e f o r m e r , E l M a g b ili, a t
T ak ed d a, s t u d i e d a t Mecca w ith E l N u w a iri, and on h i s r e t u r n to t h e Sudan
s e t t l e d i n K a ts in a , w here he was a p p o in te d A l c a l i b y th e k in g and w here
he d ie d i n 1529*
1.
A li F o le n , an a d v i s e r o f A sk ia e l H a jj , w ept t o Kano
Leo A f r ic a n u s , 3, 8 3 0 .
2.
The T a r ik h e s Sudan was w r i t t e n i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f th e s e v e n te e n th
c e n t u r y b y Es S ac d i , a n a t i v e o f T im buktu.
3.
T a r ik h e s S u d an , p . 64 ..
20
i n t e n d i n g t o p ro c e e d t o M ed in a, b u t d ie d i n Kano i n 1528*
B e fo re d i s c u s s i n g t h e m anner i n w h ich th e s e e v e n ts a r e r e f l e c t e d
i n t h e n a t i v e s o u r c e s f o r t h e h i s t o r y o f K ano, t h e m ain e v e n ts i n Kano
s i n c e t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e d e l e g a ti o n fro m M a li i n t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n tu r y
may be sum m arized*
I t w i l l b e r e c a l l e d t h a t Y a ji , who was k in g o f Kano
a t t h e tim e o f t h e i r v i s i t , was c o n v e r te d t o I s la m .
H is s o n , K a n a j e j i 's
s u c c e s s o r , Umaru, i s d e s c r ib e d a s a Malam ( le a r n e d m an ), e a r n e s t i n
p r a y e r , who re n o u n c e d h is o f f i c e a s a w o r ld ly v a n i t y .
ce e d e d him , Yakubu (1452—1463) was a l s o a Moslem*
The k in g who su c ­
A c c o rd in g t o t h e
C h ro n ic le r
I n Y akubu 1s tim e t h e F u la n i came t o H au salan d fro m M ele
b r i n g i n g books on D i v i n i t y and E ty m o lo g y . F o rm e rly o u r
d o c to r s had i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e K oran o n ly t h e books o f
Law an d t h e t r a d i t i o n s . ^
T h is F u la n i in v a s i o n m arks a seco n d t u r n i n g - p o i n t i n t h e c o n ta c t o f th e
H ausa w ith Mohammedanism.
F o r w h ile t h e Wangarawa o f M a li came i n s m a ll
num bers and w ere n e v e r r e i n f o r c e d , t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e F u la n i was b u t t h e
s p e a r - h e a d o f a g r e a t e t h n i c movement w h ich c o n tin u e d i n i n c r e a s i n g
s t r e n g t h u n t i l , i n t h e b e g in n in g o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , th e s e p e o p le
e v e n t u a l l y g a in e d p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l o f t h e c o u n tr y .^
The F u la n i w ere a
p o w e rfu l f a c t o r i n t h e M oham m edanization o f t h e Hausa b e c a u se t h e y had
b e e n th o r o u g h ly i n d o c t r i n a t e d w ith Mohammedan b e l i e f s d u rin g t h e i r s t a y
i n M a li.
I n t h e r e i g n o f t h i s same Yakubu we have o u r f i r s t m e n tio n o f
A rab m e rc h a n ts i n Kano:
I n t h e f o llo w in g y e a r m e rc h a n ts fro m Gwanja b eg an coming
t o K a t s i n a . 3 B e r i b e r i came i n l a r g e n um bers, an d a c o lo n y
1.
P a lm e r ( 1 9 0 8 ) , p . 7 6 .
2.
A c c o rd in g t o t h e 1920 c e n s u s , th e F u l a n i , 1 ,1 1 2 ,0 0 4 i n num ber, made
up 3 2 .3 $ o f t h e p o p u la tio n o f Kano p r o v in c e . Meek ( 1 9 2 5 ) , 2 , 1 8 1 .
3.
T h is r e f e r s t o th e t r a d e i n k o la n u ts w ith th e G old C o a s t.
s o u th e r n te rm in u s o f t h i s r o u te was St.' G w anja.
The
21
o f A rab s a r r i v e d .
some i n K a ts in a .
Some o f t h e A rabs s e t t l e d i n Kano and
T h is b r i n g s u s t o t h e p e r io d o f t h e v i s i t s o f S o n g h ai n o ta b le s t o
Kano an d K a ts in a , an d t h e r e p u te d c o n q u e s t o f t h e Hausa s t a t e s b y A sk ia
e l H a jj w h ic h , i t w i l l be rem em bered, o c c u r r e d a b o u t 1515*
C u r io u s ly ,
none o f t h e men d e s c r ib e d i n t h e T a rik h e s Sudan a s h a v in g v i s i t e d Kano
d u r in g th e p e r io d o f S o n g h ai a sc e n d a n c y a r e m e n tio n e d i n t h e Kano C h r o n ic le ,
w h ile t h e c o n q u e s t o f Kano b y S o n g h ai i s li k e w is e p a s s e d o v e r i n s i l e n c e ,
a s i l e n c e u s u a l l y e x p la in e d n o t b y an y p a t r i o t i c d e s i r e t o c o n c e a l t h e
d e f e a t o f K ano, b u t s im p ly b e c a u se o f a la c k o f i n t e r e s t i n e v e n ts o t h e r
th a n t h o s e in v o l v in g t h e l o c a l c o n c e rn s o f t h e Hausa s t a t e s . ^
The A b d er-
rahm an who i s d e s c r ib e d i n t h e Kano C rh o n ic le a s le a d in g a group o f
S h a r i f s ( r e p u te d d e s c e n d a n ts o f Mohammed) i n t h e r e i g n o f Mohammed Rumfa
(14.63—1499) i s , h ow ever, u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w ith Muhammad A b dulkarim e l
M a g h ili, th e fam ous r e fo rm e r, who i s s a i d t o have v i s i t e d Kano en r o u te
t o Gao a f t e r i n s t i t u t i n g a m a ss a c re o f t h e Jew s a t th e o a s i s o f T u at i n
N o rth A f r i c a . 3
The r e i g n o f Rumfa i s remembered i n o r a l t r a d i t i o n a t Kano a s
a tim e o f I s la m ic r e v i v a l .
1.
P alm er ( 1 9 0 8 ) , p . 7 6 .
2.
Shaw ( 1 9 0 5 ) , p . 2 5 5 .
Rumfa was a c o n tem p o rary o f Ib ra h im M aji a t
3 . T h is v i s i t o f E l M a g h ili t o Kano i s vouched f o r b y Ib n Meryam a s
i n d i c a t e d i n D e la f o s s e ( 1 9 1 2 ) , 1 , 2 1 9 , n o t e , and b y Ahmed B aba, i n th e
T a k m ila t ed D ib a j ( t r a n s l a t e d b y C herbonneau i n t h e J o u r n a l A s i a t i q u e .
1 8 5 2 ). I n t h e o b v io u s ly f o l k - l o r i s t i c a c c o u n t o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f
I s la m i n t o Kano fro m B ornu i n th e tim e o f t h e seco n d c a l i p h Omar ( r u l e d ,
6 2 4 - 6 3 4 ) , o f w h ich a lm o s t i d e n t i c a l v e r s io n s a r e t o b e fo u n d i n L i p p e r t
an d M is c h lic h ( 1 9 0 3 ) , P* 2 2 5 , an d i n R a t t r a y (1 9 1 3 ), 1 , 3 , a p ro m in e n t
r o l e i s a s s ig n e d t o E l M a g h ili.
22
K a ts in a (1494—1 5 2 0 ), w h ich w itn e s s e d a s i m i l a r i n c r e a s e i n M uslim i n f l u e n c e
a t th is tim e .l
A t t h e end o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n tu r y an e v e n t o c c u r r e d w hich
p ro v e d t o h o ld p ro fo u n d s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e e n t i r e S u d an .
A f te r a d i s ­
p u te w ith S o n g h ai o v e r t h e o w n ersh ip o f t h e s a l t m in es o f T a g h a z a , i n th e
S a h a r a , M ulay Ahmed e l M an su r, t h e S u lta n o f M orocco, la u n c h e d an expe­
d it io n a c ro s s th e d e s e r t.
I t was a s m a ll f o r c e , an d i t s u f f e r e d h e a v i ly
fro m h a r d s h ip s on t h e w ay.
However, b e in g e q u ip p ed w ith g u n s , w hich w ere
up t o t h a t tim e unknown i n t h e S u d an , i t e a s i l y d e f e a te d th e S o n g h ai arm y.
The r e s u l t o f t h i s c o n q u e s t was n o t , a s m ig h t have b een e x p e c te d , a n i n ­
t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f th e Sudan w ith N o rth A f r i c a , f o r th e
S u lta n c o u ld n o t r e t a i n c o n t r o l o v e r a r e g io n so rem o te from M orocco an d
a f t e r some y e a r s t h e l o c a l p a s h a s who w ere h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s d e c la r e d
th e m s e lv e s in d e p e n d e n t.
The M oroccans f a i l e d t o h o ld c o n t r o l o v e r m ost o f
t h e v a s t r e g io n w h ich had b e e n u n d e r S o n g h ai c o n t r o l .
In fa c t, th e ir
d o m in a tio n was so o n l i m i t e d t o t h e c i t y o f T im buktu i t s e l f , w here t h e
t r o o p s a c h ie v e d n o th in g m ore th a n t o t e r r o r i z e t h e p o p u la tio n an d a c t a s
a p r a e t o r i a n g u a rd , e l e v a t i n g an d d e p o s in g p a s h a s w ith b e w ild e r in g r a p i d i t y .
T hese e v e n ts m ark a tu r n i n g p o in t i n th e h i s t o r y o f
th e Sudan.
F o r w h ereas up t o t h e tim e o f t h e M oroccan c o n q u e s t th e Hausa had o n ly
b e e n i n c o n ta c t w ith N o rth A f r i c a th r o u g h t h e s t a t e s o f t h e m id d le N ig e r ,
from t h e n o n , - b e c a u se o f th e c h a o tic c o n d itio n s i n th e N ig e r r e g io n , t r a d e
moved e a s t an d t h e Hausa S t a t e s e n te r e d a p e r io d o f g r e a t p r o s p e r i t y and
co m m ercial d e v e lo p m e n ts.
A rab t r a d e r s f i r s t came i n num bers t o G o b ir,
1.
The r e i g n o f Ib ra h im a t K a ts in a i s t r e a t e d i n th e K a ts in a C h r o n ic le ,
P a lm e r (1 9 2 8 ) , 3» 81• I t w as t h i s k in g who a p p o in te d E l T e z a k h ti a s
A l c a l i ( s e e p . 19 a b o v e ) .
23
i n n o r th w e s te r n H ausa c o u n tr y , and th e n t o Kano and K a ts in a , w here th e y
d e v e lo p e d t h e d i r e c t tr a n s - S a h a r a n r o u te from Kano th r o u g h A g ad es, G h a t,
a n d M urzuk t o T r i p o li*
T h is change was a l s o im p o rta n t i n i n f l u e n c i n g th e c u l t u r a l de­
v elo p m en t o f t h e Hausa*
The f i r s t p e r io d o f c o n ta c t w ith t h e w e s t had
g iv e n I s la m a s p r a c t i c e d b y t h e Hausa a d e f i n i t e M aghrebine stam p i n
fu n d a m e n ta ls .
The s c r i p t s t i l l i n u se i n Hausa c o u n tr y i s th e one de­
v e lo p e d i n T im buktu a s a v a r i e t y o f t h a t c u r r e n t i n F e z , i n t h e M aghrib.'*'
The M a l i k i t e s c h o o l o f la w i s t h e o n ly one known t o th e H au sa.2
When,
ho w ev er, a f t e r t h e d o w n f a ll o f t h e S onghai E m p ire, t h e d i r e c t r o u te t o
T r i p o l i became im p o r ta n t , in f l u e n c e s from q u a r t e r s o t h e r th a n th e w e s te rn
M aghrib b eg an t o b e m a n if e s t.
an d C a iro s e t t l e d i n K ano.
M erch an ts from Ghadames, T r i p o l i , Murzuk
A r e g u l a r t r a d e i n E g y p tia n goods d e v e lo p e d ,
and p e rfu m e s, in c e n s e , th e more e x p e n s iv e i n k s , m i r r o r s , and M aria T h e re sa
d o l l a r s u s e d i n s i l v e r w ork w ere b ro u g h t r e g u l a r l y .
Tow ards t h e end o f t h e e i g h te e n t h c e n tu r y a wave o f I s la m ic r e ­
v iv a lis m a p p e a r e d .
The r i s e o f t h e p u r i t a n i c a l W ahabi movement i n A ra b ia
i t s e l f was fo llo w e d b y a g r e a t e x p a n sio n o f t h e Moslem o r d e r s i n N o rth
A f r i c a , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e T i j a n i y a and Q a d ir iy a , and t h i s dev elo p m en t fo u n d
a n echo i n t h e S u d an .
The F u l a n i , who w ere num erous i n a l l t h e Hausa
S t a t e s , d e c l a r e d a h o ly w a r, .jih a d , on t h e g ro u n d t h a t t h e o ld r u l e r s o f
t h e H ausa S t a t e s , a lth o u g h t h e y p r o f e s s e d t o be Mohammedans, s t i l l c o n tin u e d
t h e i r p ag an c u sto m s.
U nder th e l e a d e r s h ip o f 'Usman 'd a n F o d io , a G o b ir
1 . H oudas, 'E s s a i s u r l ' 4 c r i t u r e M ag h reb in e; a r t i c l e A ra b ia i n th e En­
c y c lo p e d ia o f I s la m , 1 , 3 8 8 .
2.
F o r t h e M a li k ite s c h o o l o f la w , se e p . 12 a b o v e .
2U
F u l a n i p r e a c h e r , t h e y co n q u ere d a l l t h e im p o r ta n t Hausa s t a t e s and fo u n d ed
a n em p ire w ith S o k o to a s i t s c a p i t a l an d 'Usman 'd a n F o d io a s t h e S a r k in
M usulm i*^
Kano was co n q u ere d a lo n g w ith t h e o t h e r H ausa s t a t e s , an d th e
o l d Kutumbawa d y n a s ty was r e p la c e d b y F u la n i o f th e S u lli 'b a w a clan *
I t i s u s u a l l y s a i d t h a t Mohammedanism made g r e a t p r o g r e s s u n d e r
th e F u la n i r u l e r s .
C e r t a i n l y h eav y p o l l - t a x e s w ere l e v i e d upon t h e p ag an s
an d t h e r e was a c e r t a i n am ount o f f o r c i b l e c o n v e rs io n ; y e t th e F u la n i
r u l e r s can h a r d ly have b e e n a s a c t i v e i n t h e s p re a d o f t h e f a i t h a s i s u s u ­
a l l y assum ed*
I n a w ork p u b lis h e d i n 188 5 , a n a t i v e i s q u o te d a s s a y in g :
From i t s b e g in n in g up t i l l now Kano h as b een a l a r g e c i t y .
T h e re a r e no p ag an s s e e n i n i t , b u t o n ly M ussulmen; b u t
i n t h e c o u n tr y , i n s m a ll tow ns and n o t f a r from i t , many
p a g a n s a r e m et w i t h .^
T h is m eans t h a t a f t e r s e v e n ty y e a r s o f t h e F u la n i r u l e , l a r g e
num bers o f
p a g a n s w ere s t i l l t o b e fo u n d i n t h e r u r a l d i s t r i c t s c lo s e t o
th e c i ty .
C o n v e rsio n t o I s la m h a s , h ow ever, p r o g r e s s e d a t a n a c c e l e r a t e d
p a c e s in c e t h e E n g l is h to o k c o n t r o l i n 1907*
The g r e a t e r e a s e and s e c u r i t y
o f com m unication t h a t r e s u l t e d from t h e s u p p r e s s io n o f n a t i v e w a r f a r e h as
u n d o u b te d ly b een a n im p o r ta n t f a c t o r i n t h e s p re a d o f Mohammedanism i n t h e
ru ra l d is tric ts .
At t h e p r e s e n t tim e t h e p ag an s a r e b u t a s m a ll rem nant
t h a t i s r a p i d l y d is a p p e a r in g .
I n f a c t , i t w ould n o t b e a t a l l s u r p r i s i n g
i f w i t h i n a n o th e r two o r t h r e e g e n e r a tio n s o f a b s o r p tio n t h e p r o c e s s w hich
b eg an h u n d red s o f y e a r s ago a t l a s t re a c h e d i t s c o n c lu s io n w ith t h e con­
v e r s i o n t o I s la m o f a l l t h e p e o p le o f Kano and t h e s u r ro u n d in g c o u n try .
The above a c c o u n t, drawn fro m h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s , can be
1.
S a r k in M usulm i, " k in g o f t h e M oslem s," i s t h e Hausa e q u iv a le n t o f
t h e A rab 'a m ir u 'lm u 'm in in a . "Commander o f th e F a i t h f u l . "
2.
Schon (1 8 8 5 )* P» 1 8 2 .
25
s u p p le m e n te d a t s e v e ra l, p o i n t s b y d i r e c t o b s e r v a ti o n , n o t d i f f i c u l t t o
m ake, o f t h e m anner i n w h ich M oham m edanization p ro c e e d s a t Kano to d a y .
For
i n s t a n c e , t h e im p r e s s io n draw n from t h e h i s t o r i c a l d a ta t h a t f i r s t - h a n d
c o n t a c t w ith A rabs was o f r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll s i g n i f i c a n c e i n b r in g i n g a b o u t
t h e s p r e a d o f Islam , among t h e Hausa a s com pared w ith t h e i n f l u e n c e o f
Mohammedanized N egro g ro u p s i s s tr e n g th e n e d when one a c t u a l l y s e e s th e
v e r y m in o r r o l e p la y e d a t t h e p r e s e n t tim e b y A rab t r a d e r s a s com pared t o
t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t p a r t p la y e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s b y t h e F u la n i l e a r n e d men,
o r M alam s.
The im p o rta n c e o t th e s e f a c t s a s c l a r i f y i n g t h e m echanism s o f
t h i s ty p e o f d i f f u s i o n a r e c o n s id e r a b le an d w i l l b e c o n s id e r e d i n l a t e r
p a g e s j h e r e i t i s s u f f i c i e n t m e re ly t o p o in t o u t t h e i r e x i s t e n c e .
F i r s t - h a n d o b s e r v a ti o n s i m i l a r l y c o n firm s th e h i s t o r i c a l d a t a a t
o u r d i s p o s a l a s r e g a r d s t h e o r d e r i n w h ich d i f f e r e n t g ro u p s i n t h e p o p u la ­
t i o n a c c e p te d I s la m .
From th e h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t g iv e n h e r e , i t w ould seem
t h a t a t K ano, a s e ls e w h e re i n t h e S u d an , Mohammedan d o c t r i n e s s p r e a d from
t h e r u l e r s an d t h e e l i t e t o t h e lo w e r c l a s s e s and from th e u rb a n c e n t e r s
w h ere members o f t h e u p p e r c l a s s a r e c o n c e n tr a te d t o th e c o u n tr y s id e .
If
t h i s w ere t r u e , we s h o u ld e x p e c t t h a t an im p o r ta n t m o tiv e f o r c o n v e rs io n
w ould b e t h e p r e s t i g e w h ich Mohammedanism c o n f e r s on th o s e who p r o f e s s i t
and t h e s e n s e su c h c o n v e rs io n w ould g iv e o f b e in g i n harmony w ith th e r u l ­
i n g g ro u p s an d t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e c i t y .
And t h i s , i n f a c t , we do f i n d .
C o n v e rsio n a s o b s e rv e d to d a y i s se e n t o f o llo w a p e r io d o f c lo s e c o n ta c t
w ith Mohammedans, d u r in g w h ich th e pag an f e e l s n o t so much t h a t h i s b e l i e f s
a r e e rro n e o u s a s t h a t he i s b e in g lo o k e d down upon a s an ig n o r a n t r u s t i c .
A f t e r he i s c o n v e r te d , t h e p ag an g e n e r a l l y t r i e s t o disow n h is p a s t , b e in g
asham ed o f h i s fo rm e r " b a c k w a rd n e s s .”
The s e n s i t i v i t y d is p la y e d on th e
s u b j e c t o f h i s fo rm e r p ag an b e l i e f s f i n d s p a r t i c u l a r l y a c u te e x p r e s s io n i n
26
w h at a p p e a r s t o b e a n e x t r a o r d i n a r y number o f Malams among t h e f i r s t few
g e n e ra tio n o f c o n v e rts .
T h is i s e v i d e n t l y a form o f o v e r-c o m p e n s a tio n .
27
III*
A.
THE PAGAN HAUSA
The Maguzawa
I n t h e p r e c e d in g c h a p te r m e n tio n was made o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f
n a t i v e r u l i n g f a m i l i e s w h ich e x e r c is e d s o v e r e ig n ty i n t h e Hausa s t a t e s a t
t h e b e g in n in g o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n tu r y b e f o r e th e F u la n i c o n q u e s t.
The
p r e - F u l a n i r u l e r s o f a l l th e s e s t a t e s c la im e d a common o r i g i n w hich i s em­
b o d ie d i n a le g e n d w e ll known every w h ere i n Hausa t e rr i t o r y . !
A cco rd in g
t o t h i s a c c o u n t ’Abu Y azid ( h i s name i n Hausa i s o f t e n g iv e n th e form
’B a y a jid a " ) came from Baghdad and a f t e r a s o jo u r n i n B o m u , w ent t o D au ra,
a c o u n tr y d i r e c t l y t o t h e n o r t h o f K ano.
As a rew ard f o r h i s v a l o r i n
k i l l i n g a sn ak e i n a w e ll w h ich was p r e v e n tin g th e p e o p le from d raw in g
w a te r , he was g iv e n t h e q u een o f D aura i n m a r r ia g e .
t h e r e p u te d p r o g e n i t o r o f s i x
H is s o n , Bawo, i s
so n s who co n q u ered t h e s i x Hausa s t a t e s
w h ich t o g e t h e r w ith D aura a r e g e n e r a l l y known a s th e "H ausa s e v e n ."
T h ese sev en s t a t e s a r e , a c c o r d in g t o one v e r s i o n , D au ra, G o b ir, K a ts in a ,
K ano, Z a r i a , Rano an d B ira m .^
The name o f t h e son o f Bawo who co n q u ered
1 . V e rs io n s o f t h i s s t o r y may be fo u n d i n P alm er ( 1 9 2 8 ), 3* 123;
Schon ( 1 8 8 5 ) , p . 9 6 ; B a r th (185 7 )* 2 , 81; and Meek ( 1 9 2 5 ), 1 , 7A» Baghdad
i s n o t t o b e ta k e n s e r i o u s l y a s t h e p la c e o f o r i g i n o f th e s e p e o p le . Meek
( 1 9 2 5 ) , 1 , 7A* n o te s t h a t , " A ll t h e I s la m iz e d t r i b e s o f th e Sudan s e e k t o
e s t a b l i s h a t r a d i t i o n a l c o n n e c tio n w ith Mecca—o r , i f t h e i r h i s t o r y does
n o t t a k e them b ack t o t h e tim e o f t h e p ro p h e t—w ith B aghdad, th e s e a t i n
l a t e r tim e s o f t h e A b b asid C a l ip h a t e ."
Exam ples o f t h i s te n d e n c y c o u ld be
m u l t i p l i e d . L o c a l t r a d i t i o n s i n Kano make t h e Kutumbawa o r i g i n a t e a t G h a t,
n o r t h o f th e S a h a r a .
2.
Meek (1 9 2 5 )* 1* 7 6 .
28
Kano i s g iv e n a s B agabda.
T h is same Bagabda f i g u r e s i n th e Kano C h ro n ic le
a s t h e f i r s t k in g o f Kano and i s d e s c r ib e d i n a m a rg in a l n o te a s th e son
o f Bawo and t h e g ra n d so n o f B ayajida.^*
The d e s c e n d a n ts o f B agabda, who
c o n s t i t u t e d t h e r u l i n g d y n a s ty i n Kano up t o th e tim e o f th e F u la n i con­
q u e s t , a r e known a s Kutumbawa.
Members o f t h i s group a r e s t i l l to be
fo u n d i n Kano an d t h e i r a c c o u n t a g r e e s w ith t h a t g iv e n i n th e Kano C h r o n ic le .
A lth o u g h , a s we have s e e n , th e f i r s t c o n v e rs io n o f a Kutumbawa k in g t o
I s la m to o k p la c e a b o u t 1350 A. D. and th e m a jo r it y o f h is s u c c e s s o r s a r e de­
s c r i b e d a s M oslem s.
O ra l t r a d i t i o n i n Kano and t h e e v id e n c e g iv e n b y th e
Kutumbawa th e m s e lv e s show t h a t w h ile th e y p ra y e d i n th e Moslem f a s h io n and
p e rfo rm e d t h e o t h e r c a n o n ic a l d u t i e s t h e y s t i l l r e t a i n e d pag an r e l i g i o u s
p r a c t i c e s t o a m arked d e g r e e .2
T h is can b e ta k e n i n c i d e n t a l l y a s f u r t h e r
p r o o f o f how g r a d u a l was t h e s p re a d o f Mohammedanism a t Kano.
When we i n v e s t i g a t e t h e H a u sa -sp e a k in g p ag an s o f Kano c o u n try ,
we f i n d t h a t th e y li k e w is e d e s c r ib e th e m s e lv e s a s Kutumbawa and c l o s e r ex­
a m in a tio n r e v e a l s t h a t t h e Kutumbawa g ro u p w h ich f o r m e r ly r u le d i n Kano
and t h e s e r u r a l Kutumbawa a r e b ra n c h e s o f th e same p e o p le .
T h e ir t r i b a l
m arks a r e t h e s a m e , 3 and th e d o m e stic r e l i g i o u s r i t e s p r a c t i c e d b y th e s e
tw o g ro u p s o f p e o p le r e v e a l a s u b s t a n t i a l i d e n t i t y .
However, t h e Kutumbawa
o f Kano C i t y , w h ile r e t a i n i n g th e s e r i t e s , a t th e same tim e p r a y i n t h e Mos­
lem f a s h i o n .
A n o th er p o in t on w h ich t h e y d i f f e r from t h e i r r u r a l b r e th r e n
1.
P a lm e r ( 1 9 0 8 ) , 1 , 76.
2.
The n a t u r e o f t h e s e p r a c t i c e s w i l l be d is c u s s e d on p . 7 7 b elo w .
3.
F o r an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e s e t r i b a l m arks s e e Trem earne (1 9 1 3 ),
p . 533.
29
i s i n t h e a b s e n c e o f p a t r i l i n e a l s i b s o f t h e ty p e fo u n d among t h e l a t t e r .
T h is a b s e n c e o f c l a n o r g a n i z a t i o n i s p e rh a p s due t o th e in f l u e n c e o f I s la m .
I n t h e r u r a l d i s t r i c t s a n o th e r g ro u p o f p a g a n s i s fo u n d .
T h ese
p e o p le c a l l th e m s e lv e s K atsin aw a an d t h e i r t r i b a l m arks a r e d i s t i n c t from
t h o s e o f t h e Kutumbawa.
T hese K a ts in a w a , who i n h a b i t th e e a s t e r n p a r t o f
K a ts in a E m ira te an d e x te n d i n t o K ano, do n o t d i f f e r a t a l l c u l t u r a l l y
from t h e Kutumbawa.-*-
The p r e s e n t d e s c r i p t i o n o f p ag an Hausa c u l t u r e i s
b a s e d on e th n o g ra p h ic w ork done among th e r u r a l Kutumbawa and K a ts in a w a .
T h is p o p u la tio n w i l l b e r e f e r r e d t o c o l l e c t i v e l y a s th e Maguzawa, a te rm
u s e d b y t h e H ausa t o d e s ig n a te a l l H a u sa -sp e a k in g p a g a n s .^
B.
The C u l t u r a l C o n te x t o f Maguzawa R e lig io n 3
The v i l l a g e o f J ig a w a c o n s i s t s o f s c a t t e r e d compounds, m ost o f
w h ich a r e i n h a b i t e d b y Maguzawa.
Among them , how ever, a r e a few compounds
head ed b y F u la n i who a r e t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f th e F u la n i c h i e f c a l l e d
th e S a r k in G a r i, "headman o f t h e c i t y , " i n whose hands i s t h e l o c a l ad­
m i n i s t r a t i o n o f th e v i l l a g e o f Jig a w a and who l i v e s i n G warzo, a w a lle d
tow n o f s e v e r a l th o u s a n d i n h a b i t a n t s a few m ile s aw ay.
T hese F u la n i compound
1 . T h is f a c t was a s c e r t a i n e d i n t h e c o u rs e o f an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th e
m ix ed Kutumbawa, K a tsin aw a p o p u la tio n s tu d ie d a t Lakwaya.
2 . Maguzawa ( s i n g u l a r , Bam aguje) i s p r o b a b ly d e r iv e d from t h e A ra b ic
m a ju s i, " a M ag ian , Z o r o a s t r i a n ." D o u tte (1 9 0 9 ), p . 2 4 8 , n o te s t h a t i t i s
a p p l i e d i n th e l a t e r A ra b ic l i t e r a t u r e t o a l l k in d s o f h e r e t i c s and unbe­
l i e v e r s ; f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e Normans o f S i c i l y and t h e f o llo w e r s o f th e
p r o p h e t S a l i h o f th e B ergw ata i n M orocco.
I t w i l l be o b s e rv e d t h a t th e w ords ,rMaguzawa" and "Kutumbawa" a r e
n o t a t a l l c o te rm in o u s . The te rm "Maguzawa" e x c lu d e s th e Kano C ity
Kutumbawa who a r e M oslem, w h ile th e K atsin aw a pagans a r e n o t Kutumbawa.
3 . T h is s k e tc h o f Maguzawa c u l t u r e i s l i m i t e d i n s c o p e , i t s p u rp o se
b e in g o n ly t o f u r n i s h th e in f o r m a tio n n eed ed t o p la c e i n i t s p r o p e r c u l­
t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e th e d i s c u s s io n o f Maguzawa r e l i g i o n w hich f o llo w s .
30
h e a d s o f Jig a w a tr a n s m it t h e o r d e r s from t h e F u la n i headman t o t h e l o c a l
M aguzawa, and k eep t h e S a r k in G a ri in fo rm e d c o n c e rn in g l o c a l h a p p e n in g s.
To t h e w e s t o f Jig a w a i s th e v i l l a g e o f Lakwaya whose c e n t e r i s i t s m a rk e t,
n e a r w h ic h c l u s t e r compounds o f Moslem Hausa and num erous s c a t t e r e d Magu—
zawa h a b i t a t i o n s *
B etw een Lakwaya an d Jig a w a i s a s m a ll h a m le t, Jam
B u r j i , i n h a b i t e d e x c l u s i v e l y b y H ausa Moslems*
The tow n o f G warzo, t h e c e n t e r o f th e d i s t r i c t , l i e s t o t h e
s o u th o f J ig a w a .
The d w e llin g s o f t h i s tow n a r e made o f mud b r i c k — s i n g l e -
s t o r i e d , honey—combed s t r u c t u r e s l i k e th o s e o f Kano C it y t h a t c o n t r a s t w ith
t h e c i r c u l a r g r a s s - r o o f e d h u ts w ith g u in e a c o rn s t a l k f o u n d a tio n s t o be
e n c o u n te re d o u t s i d e i t s w a l l s .
The i n h a b i t a n t s o f G w arzo, b o th Hausa and
F u l a n i , a r e e n t i r e l y M oslem , and i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e Moslems o f t h e r u r a l
h a m le ts t h e r e a r e a num ber o f Mohammedan le a r n e d men who have s t u d i e d a t
some tim e o r o t h e r w ith im p o r ta n t Malams i n Kano C it y .
About t e n m ile s t o
t h e n o r t h o f J ig a w a l i e s S hanono, a n o th e r tow n in h a b i t e d by M oslem s.
T h ere
a r e im p o r ta n t m a rk e ts a t Lakw aya, Gwarzo, and Shanono, t h e f i r s t two o f
w h ic h a r e f r e q u e n te d by t h e Maguzawa o f Jig a w a , and h e re Moslem and pagan
f r e e l y in te rm in g le .
T hese Maguzawa a r e p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l i n la n g u a g e and m a t e r i a l
c u l t u r e w ith t h e Moslem p o p u la tio n s t h a t s u rro u n d th e m .
I t i s o n ly i n c e r­
t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n iz a ti o n and r e l i g i o n t h a t th e y r e v e a l
s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s when com pared t o t h e Moslem H ausa; y e t b e c a u se i t
w i l l be d e s i r a b l e t o p la c e th o s e a s p e c ts o f t h e i r c u l t u r e t o be d e s c r ib e d
h e re i n t h e i r t o t a l s e t t i n g , an o u t l i n e o f t h e w hole c o n f ig u r a tio n w i l l be
g iv e n .
Maguzawa compounds a r e r e c t a n g u l a r e n c l o s u r e s , u s u a l l y e n te r e d
b y a c o r r i d o r f a c i n g e a s t o r s o u th , and m arked o f f b y a f e n c e o f g u in e a
31
c o m s ta lk s *
The f o llo w in g w i l l g iv e some id e a o f th e fo rm o f th e s e com­
pounds r
HQ
The l e t t e r s i n t h e d ia g ra m have t h e f o llo w in g r e f e r e n c e :
A
B
£
E
G
H
1^
«J
K
L
M
N
- Hut o f t h e h ead o f t h e compound*
— G ra n a ry f o r gAndu' com *
and D - H u ts o f th e w iv es o f compound h e a d .
and F — G r a n a r ie s o f t h e w iv es o f t h e compound head*
- Hut o f w ife o f y o u n g er b r o t h e r o f compound head*
- G ra n a ry o f y o u n g er b r o t h e r o f compound h e a d .
— G ra n a ry o f w if e o f y o u n g e r b r o t h e r o f compound h ead .
- Hut o f so n o f compound h e a d .
— Hut o f w ife o f so n o f compound h e a d .
— G ra n a ry o f son o f compound h e a d .
— G ra n a ry o f w ife o f son o f compound h ead .
— The .ii‘g o » a s a c r e d t r e e w here r e l i g i o u s r i t e s a r e h e ld .
W ith in th e compound a r e a number o f h u ts and g r a n a r i e s whose
a rra n g e m e n t i s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e m em bership and o r g a n iz a ti o n o f th e group
who i n h a b i t i t .
R e sid e n c e b e in g n o rm a lly p a t r i l o c a l , th e c o re o f th e
32
compound c o n s i s t s o f a num ber o f m ales r e l a t e d i n th e p a t e r n a l lin e .-L
The h e a d o f t h i s g ro u p i s t h e maygjdA:. " m a s te r o f th e h o u s e ," an d he i s
t h e u n d is p u te d r u l e r o f t h e compound.
The h u t o f t h e m&.ygidii’ i s alw ay s
a t t h e e n t r a n c e , w h ile d i r e c t l y o p p o s ite a r e t h e h u ts o f h i s w iv e s .
Among t h e p e o p le o f a compound e a c h a d u l t m ale w ith h i s w if e o r w iv e s and
c h i l d r e n fo rm a s u b -g ro u p , an d w ith in th e s e s u b -g ro u p s e a c h w ife h as a
d w e llin g c o n s i s t i n g o f tw o h u t s , an i n n e r one f o r s le e p i n g and an o u te r
one f o r c o o k in g d u r in g t h e r a i n y se a so n an d f o r i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s .
A man may o r may n o t have a d w e llin g o f h i s own.
To p o s s e s s one i s usu­
a l l y a n i n d i c a t i o n t h a t he i s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n l i f e ; t h a t i s , t h a t
he p o s s e s s e s m a r r ie d so n s w ith c h i l d r e n , th o u g h i n some compounds e v e ry
a d u l t m ale h a s h i s own h u t .
The d w e llin g s o f men a r e u s u a l l y s i n g l e
h u t s , b u t som etim es s im p le wooden s h e l t e r s , bumf&. a r e c o n s tr u c t e d i n f r o n t
o f th e s e h u ts t o e n t e r t a i n m ale v i s i t o r s .
U n le s s a man h as a d w e llin g o f h i s own, he g o es t o
hut to
s l e e p , re m a in in g two n i g h t s i n t u r n w ith eac h w ife i f
th a n one*
h is w i f e 's
he h as more
C h ild r e n s le e p w ith t h e i r m o th er u n t i l th e y a r e o ld enough t o
have " s e n s e ," w&y6 \ — t h a t i s , u n t i l th e y a r e ab o u t f i v e y e a r s o ld .
A f te r
t h i s , i f t h e i r f a t h e r h as more th a n one w i f e , t h e y s le e p i n th e h u t o f a
w if e who i s n o t w ith t h e i r f a t h e r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r n i g h t .
I f th is is not
p o s s i b l e , t h e y s le e p w ith t h e i r g ran d m o th er o r an o ld woman i n th e com­
p o u n d , and f a i l i n g t h a t , w ith an o ld woman i n a n e ig h b o rin g compound.
When a
b o y i s c irc u m c is e d , u s u a l l y a t a b o u t t h e age o f e i g h t , h is f a t h e r
b u ild s
him a h u t , and when he m a r r ie s t h i s s t r u c t u r e becomes p a r t o f h is
1 . S in c e t h e r e i s no n a t i v e word t o d e s ig n a te t h i s g ro u p , t h e some­
w hat clum sy p h r a s e " p a t r i l i n e a l group" w i l l be u s e d .
33
w i f e 's d w e llin g *
I n p r e - E n g l is h tim e s t h i s p i c t u r e was somewhat c o m p lic a te d b y
t h e p ro b le m o f a s s i m i l a t i n g s la v e s i n t o t h e p a t t e r n o f f a m ily o r g a n iz a ­
t i o n j u s t d e s c rib e d .
T hese s la v e s f e l l i n t o two m ain c a t e g o r i e s — young
g i r l s o f m a r r ia g e a b le ag e an d c h i l d r e n .
O c c a s io n a lly o l d e r men w ere
b o u g h t, b u t men i n t h e i r p rim e w ere r a r e l y p u rc h a s e d b e c a u se th e y w ere
d i f f i c u l t t o manage an d o f t e n r a n away.
The young g i r l s o f m a rr ia g e a b le
a g e w ere b o u g h t a s c o n c u b in e s b y t h e m a s te r o f t h e h o u s e , e i t h e r f o r him­
s e lf
o r f o r one o f t h e o l d e r a d u l t m ales o f t h e compound.
Such g i r l s
w ere
t r e a t e d a s t h e e q u i v a le n t o f a w ife i n a l l d o m e stic m a t t e r s , and a s
soon a s one o f them b o re a c h i l d sh e a u t o m a ti c a l ly became fre e .^ A c h i l d p u rc h a s e d a s a s la v e was a s s ig n e d by th e compound—head
t o one o f h i s own w iv es o r t o a w ife o f an a d u l t m ale o f t h e compound.
Such a c h i l d was t r e a t e d a s t h e son o r d a u g h te r o f th e woman t o whom he
was g iv en *
As a s ig n o f t h e i r i n f e r i o r s t a t u s , how ever, th e s e c h i ld r e n
w ere alw ay s c a l l e d k * a n e \ "y o u n g er b r o t h e r , " o r k* &nw£r. "y o u n g er s i s t e r , "
b y t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n o f t h e i r "m other" r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r a c t u a l r e l a ­
tiv e age.
A s la v e boy on gro w in g up was p ro v id e d b y th e compound head
w ith t h e money n e c e s s a r y t o o b ta in a w if e , who i n su c h c a s e s was alm o st
i n v a r i a b l y h e r s e l f a s la v e g i r l .
He was u s u a l l y g iv e n th e o p p o r tu n ity
t o e m a n c ip a te h im s e lf b y t h e paym ent o f a s p e c i f i e d sum, a p ro m ise t o
th ie
e f f e c t b e in g g iv e n b y h i s ow ner i n t h e p re s e n c e o f w itn e s s e s .
th o u g h t h i s o f f e r had no l e g a l
w ays a d h e re d t o .
A l­
s ta n d i n g , i n p r a c t i c e i t s t e r n s w ere a l ­
The f r e e d man was c o n s id e r e d a member o f h i s fo rm e r
m a s t e r 's s i b and was a c c e p te d a s a f u l l member o f th e com munity.
1.
I n t h i s , a s i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s , t h e tr e a tm e n t o f s la v e s among p ag ans
an d M oslems was t h e sam e. The f r e e i n g o f a co n cu b in e when she h as b o rn e
a c h i l d t o h e r m a s te r i s p r e s c r ib e d b y Mohammedan la w .
3U
S e v e r a l o f t h e p r e s e n t compound h ead s i n Jig aw a w ere f o r m e r ly s l a v e s .
The tr e a tm e n t o f a s la v e g i r l d i f f e r e d b e c a u se o f h e r g r e a t e r
econom ic v a lu e t o h e r m a s t e r , who r e c e iv e d t h e b r i d e p r i c e p a id b y h e r
h u sband an d owned h e r o f f s p r i n g .
S la v e g i r l s w ere n e v e r e m a n c ip a te d and
c o n tin u e d t o w ork i n t h e i r ow ner’ s f i e l d s , ev en w h ile l i v i n g i n t h e i r
h u sb a n d ’ s com pounds.
The h u sb an d s o f su ch g i r l s r e c e iv e d o n ly s e x u a l
r i g h t s i n t h e i r w iv es when th e y p a id th e b r id e p r i c e f o r th em , t h e i r ec­
onomic s e r v i c e s s t i l l b e in g r e t a i n e d b y t h e i r m a s te r .
I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e f o r e g o in g d is c u s s io n t h e c o re o f t h e com­
pound i s th u s s e e n t o c o n s i s t o f a group o f m ales r e l a t e d i n th e p a t e r n a l
lin e .
S u c c e s s io n t o t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h i s p a t r i l i n e a l group and w ith i t
t o t h e h e a d s h ip o f t h e compound i s c o l l a t e r a l , d e s c e n d in g from th e o ld e r
b r o t h e r t o t h e y o u n g e r b r o t h e r , and when one g e n e r a tio n h a s p a s s e d away,
t o t h e o l d e s t s u r v iv in g son o f t h e o l d e s t b r o t h e r , and so o n .
T h is p r i n ­
c i p l e i s q u i t e a u to m a tic i n i t s o p e r a t io n , an d d is p u te s o v e r s u c c e s s io n
t o t h e h e a d s h ip o f th e compound a r e s a i d t o be unknown.
The m em bership o f a compound i n t h e d i s t r i c t o f Jig aw a v a r i e s
from 7 t o 9 6 , a v e r a g in g a p p r o x im a te ly 19*
The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s ex trem e
v a r i a t i o n i n s i z e a r e t o be so u g h t i n th e e l a s t i c i t y , b o th i n th e o r y and
i n p r a c t i c e , c o n c e rn in g t h e m ale k in who may and do i n h a b i t a s i n g l e com­
po u n d .
I n c o n s id e r in g t h i s m a t t e r , i t i s c o n v e n ie n t t o d i s t i n g u i s h a c t u a l
b r o t h e r s , h a v in g t h e same f a t h e r , from th o s e who a r e r e a l l y p a r a l l e l cou­
s i n s , t h e so n s o f two b r o t h e r s . ^
B r o th e rs a r e e x p e c te d t o l i v e to g e t h e r
i n t h e same compound, i t b e in g c o n s id e r e d
d i s g r a c e f u l i f th e y s e p a r a t e ,
th o u g h t h i s
and has r e s u l t e d i n compounds
has o c c u rre d i n s e v e ra l cases
1 . T h is d i s t i n c t i o n , w h ich c o rre s p o n d s e x a c t l y t o o u r own b etw een a
b r o t h e r an d a c o u s in , f i n d s no e x p r e s s io n i n n a t iv e te rm in o lo g y . F o r
t h e n a t i v e sy stem d e s ig n a t in g k i n , s e e p . 39 belo w .
35
f o r s i n g l e f a m i l i e s w ith m em bership r a n g in g fro m 7 t o 10 o r 1 2 ,
As f o r
c o u s in s , w h ile i t i s c o n s id e r e d p r a is e w o r th y f o r them t o rem a in i n th e
same compound, th e y a r e n o t blam ed i f th e y ch o o se t o l i v e a p a r t*
A few
l a r g e compounds w ere fo u n d i n w h ich r e l a t i v e s r e l a t e d a s r e m o te ly a s th e
f i f t h o r s i x t h g e n e r a tio n i n t h e p a t e r n a l l i n e c o n tin u e t o l i v e t o g e t h e r
h a rm o n io u s ly .
Such h o u se h o ld s w ere s in g le d o u t f o r p r a i s e a s m odels o f
good s e n s e and m u tu a l accom m odation.
The c h i e f means o f s u b s i s te n c e i s fa r m in g , t h e s t a p l e cro p
b e in g g u in e a c o r n , w ith s u b s i d i a r y th o u g h im p o r ta n t p l a n t i n g s o f m i l l e t ,
m a iz e , c a s s a v a , sw eet p o t a t o e s , r i c e , to m a to e s , p e p p e r s , and p e a n u ts .
The c h i e f n o n -fo o d c ro p s a r e t h e c o tto n and in d ig o u s e d i n n a t i v e weav­
in g and d y e in g .
Tobacco i s o f o n ly m in o r im p o rta n c e .
A l l fa rm la n d i s i n h e r i t e d i n t h e m ale l i n e and can o n ly be
owned b y m en, th o u g h , a s w i l l be s e e n l a t e r , women a r e a s s ig n e d te m p o ra ry
sh ares f o r c u ltiv a tio n .
The a n c e s t r a l l a n d , known a s gSndu°. i s u s u a l l y
h e ld c o l l e c t i v e l y b y a num ber o f b r o t h e r s , b e in g c o n s id e r e d a s a t r u s t
p la c e d i n th e c a r e o f th e o l d e s t b r o t h e r , who may n o t a l i e n a t e o r s e l l any
o f i t w ith o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f h i s f e l l o w s .
I f a t an y tim e a y o u n g er b r o t h e r
w a n ts h i s p a r t o f t h e g&ndu" la n d , i t m u st be g iv e n him s in c e e a c h b r o t h e r
h as t h e r i g h t t o a n e q u a l s h a r e .
O r d i n a r i l y , how ever, a y o u n g er b r o t h e r
d o es n o t a s k f o r h i s s h a r e , b u t t o g e t h e r w ith h is w ife and c h i ld r e n w orks
on t h e gandu" la n d o f h i s f a m ily f o r f i v e days a week d u r in g th e a g r i c u l t u ­
r a l season,
fro m m orning u n t i l sundown.
D u rin g th e e v e n in g s o f th e s e
f i v e d a y s an d on th e o th e r two d ay s o f th e w eek, he i s f r e e to l a b o r on
h i s p r i v a t e p l o t , c a l l e d a g&v£wn£. w h ich i s te m p o r a r il y s e p a r a te d from th e
gandu' and a s s ig n e d him by th e g&ndfr h ead .
The w iv es o f t h e gSndfr head and h i s m a rr ie d so n s a l s o r e c e iv e
36
g&yAwnirs f o r t h e i r p r i v a t e c u l t i v a t i o n *
A s t i l l s m a lle r p l o t , th e
g iy a n g & y in . s e p a r a t e d fro m t h e g&yAwnir. may b e a s s ig n e d b y t h e w ife o f a
g&ndu* h ead t o h e r so n upon c irc u m c is io n *
The p ro c e e d s from i t a r e u s e d t o
b u y s m a ll p r e s e n t s f o r a g i r l he may b e c o u r ti n g an d t o g iv e a p r e s e n t t o
t h e drummers when th e y b e a t o u t a rhythm i n h e r p r a is e *
A g&ying&yin may
a l s o be g iv e n b y t h e y o u n g er b r o t h e r o f a g&ndu' h ead from h is gh.y&ma&t o
e a c h o f h i s w ives*
W ith t h e money d e r iv e d from th e s a l e o f t h e c ro p s
r a i s e d on su c h l a n d , a woman i s e x p e c te d t o c l o th e h e r s e l f and h e r c h i l d r e n .
The c o rn o b ta in e d from t h e g&ndu' i s s t o r e d s e p a r a t e l y i n a l a r g e
g r a n a r y n e x t t o t h e h u t o f t h e g in d u ° head*
T h is c o rn may n o t be to u c h e d
u n t i l t h e f o llo w in g r a i n y s e a s o n , when i t m ust f e e d th o s e who have w orked
on t h e gondii* d u r in g t h e p r e v io u s y ear*
N o rm ally t h e r e i s a s u r p lu s o f
gcLndu' c o m , an d t h i s i s s o ld ; from t h e p ro c e e d s t h e g&ndu.' head p r o v id e s
a g r i c u l t u r a l im p lem en ts f o r th o s e who work on t h e g&nchfi;
He m u st a l s o p ro ­
v id e h i s y o u n g er b r o t h e r s an d h i s so n s w ith th e money th e y n eed t o o b ta in
t h e i r w iv e s .
On th e o t h e r h a n d , th o s e who have g&vdwn&s a r e r e q u ir e d to
t a k e t u r n s i n f e e d in g t h e g&ndu* head d u r in g t h e lo n g d ry se a s o n o f e i g h t
o r n in e m o n th s.
The a s p e c t o f t h i s a rra n g e m e n t m ost p ro m in en t i n th e
m inds o f t h e Maguzawa th e m s e lv e s , h ow ever, i s th e o b l i g a t i o n o f t e n p la c e d
on a w ife t o p r o v id e f o r h e r h usband d u r in g m ost o f th e y e a r .
T h is i s why
t h e n a t i v e s o f t e n re m a rk , 11o u r women f e e d u s . 11
When a y o u n g er b r o th e r * s so n s grow up and have c h i ld r e n o f t h e i r
own, i t i s n o t e x p e d ie n t t o k eep t h e glindfr u n d iv id e d , s in c e t h e y o u n g er
b r o th e r * s s o n w i l l o n ly have a g&vctngliyin from h i s f a t h e r ’ s gS.yA.wni' and
t h i s m an’ s w if e w i l l be w ith o u t a n y la n d o f h e r own.
I t i s , th e re fo re ,
c u sto m a ry f o r t h e y o u n g er b r o t h e r a t t h i s tim e t o a sk f o r h is s h a r e o f
t h e g&ndfi*.
He th e n becomes a g&ndfl h e a d , a s s ig n in g g iy iw n d s t o h is w ives
37
an d m a r r ie d s o n s , w h ile h i s d a u g h t e r s - i n —law r e c e iv e g&yAngliyctn.
F o r m o st a g r i c u l t u r a l work a man and h i s w ife can s u p p ly a d e q u a te
l a b o r —power*
F o r more s tr e n u o u s o p e r a tio n s su c h a s t h e t a s k o f re d u c in g
t h e g u in e a c o rn s t a l k s g ro w in g from ea c h h o le t o th e number s u i t e d to
t h e i r b e s t g ro w th , o r f o r h a r v e s t i n g , r e s o r t i s had t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f
9
o r c o - o p e r a t iv e fa rm la b o r*
I n t h i s way a t a s k t h a t c o u ld n o t be
c o m p le te d b y a n i n d i v i d u a l i n p r o p e r se a so n i s f i n i s h e d i n one o r two d a y s .
The g&yy&* i s p r e s id e d o v e r b y a d i g n i t a r y known a s th e S a r k in H u 'd a ,
"headm an o f t h e f u r r o w ," who, when n o t i f i e d b y a gctndu° head t h a t he w ish e s
a g&yy&* in fo rm s e v e r y compound head i n t h e v i c i n i t y t o p ro v id e t h e n e c e s ­
s a r y men.
The g e n e r a l a i r o f j o l l i t y which, r e ig n s on su ch o c c a s io n s and
t h e p r o s p e c t o f a good m eal p r e p a r e d b y t h e women o f th e g&ndu' h e a d 's com­
pound when t h e d a y 's w ork i s o v e r i s a d e q u a te a p p e a l t o in s u r e enough man­
pow er f o r t h e t a s k i n hand*
An i n v a r i a b l e f e a t u r e o f t h e g&yy&~ i s t h e
p r e s e n c e o f drum m ers, summoned and p a id f o r b y t h e g£ndu* h e a d , who s p u r
on t h e w o rk e rs t o g r e a t e r e f f o r t s b y b e a t i n g o u t th e rhythm s o f t r a d i t i o n a l
v e r s e i n p r a i s e o f th e members o f e a c h p a r t i c i p a t i n g compound.
Compared t o f a rm in g , o t h e r econom ic a c t i v i t i e s p la y a m inor
r o l e i n th e l i f e o f t h e Maguzawa.
O nly th e s m a lle r d o m e stic a n im a ls a r e
r a i s e d , c a t t l e - k e e p i n g b e in g i n th e h an d s o f F u l a n i .
T hese s m a ll a n im a ls
a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y owned b y th e women, and a woman r e c e iv e s a g o a t
o r a few c h ic k e n s fro m h e r husband upon m a r r ia g e .
The women s e l l g o a t 's
m ilk and t h e eg g s l a i d b y t h e i r fo w l a t th e m a rk e t, u s in g th e p r o c e e d s ,
t o g e t h e r w ith t h e money o b ta in e d from t h e s a l e o f g r a in from th e p r i v a t e
p l o t s o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s , t o c l o th e th e m s e lv e s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n .
T h is
38
in d e p e n d e n t econom ic a c t i v i t y o f t h e Maguzawa women i s i n s t r i k i n g con­
t r a s t t o t h e c o n d i tio n o f t h e Moslem H ausa women who do no fa rm work a n d , i n
t h e c i t y a t l e a s t , a r e k e p t i n s e c lu s i o n when i t i s e c o n o m ic a lly p o s s i b l e f o r
t h e i r h u sb an d s t o d is p e n s e w ith t h e i r s e r v i c e s o u ts id e th e household*
The
Moslem H ausa i n s t i t u t i o n o f c 1A r i « th e s e c lu s i o n o f women, o f c o u r s e , i s i n
i m i t a t i o n o f t h e harem cu sto m s o f th e A rab w o rld .
V a rio u s i n d u s t r i a l p r e o c c u p a tio n s occupy th e tim e o f some d u r in g
th e d r y s e a s o n , when a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y i s a t a minimum*
Among th e s e a r e
ir o n - w o r k in g , w e a v in g , d y e in g , t h e m aking o f p o t s , h a s k e tr y and th e manu­
f a c t u r e o f tw in e .
E x ce p t i n t h e c a s e o f ir o n - w o r k e r s , th e p r o d u c ts o f th e s e
men a r e p r i m a r i l y f o r s a l e a t l o c a l m a r k e ts , w here th e y a r e o f t e n b o u g h t b y
t r a d e r s who c a r r y t h e g o o d s m a n u fa c tu re d i n th e r u r a l d i s t r i c t s t o Kano
C ity *
I r o n - w o r k in g , h ow ever, b e in g l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d to th e p r o d u c tio n
o f a g r i c u l t u r a l im p le m e n ts, th e s e a r e made on t h e o r d e r o f th e i n h a b i t a n t s
o f n e ig h b o rin g compounds*
I r o n o r e was f o r m e r ly m ined on e x p e d itio n s i n
w h ich l a r g e num bers o f ir o n - w o r k e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d .
JLt p r e s e n t , a l l i r o n i s
o f E u ro p ean o r i g i n , an d t h e p ig s an d s c r a p a r e p u rc h a s e s a t th e l o c a l mar­
k e ts.
The o n ly i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y o f th e women i s th e s p in n in g o f th e
c o t t o n w hich t h e y grow on t h e i r p r i v a t e p l o t s .
I f some man i n t h e f a m ily
c an w eav e, i t w i l l b e s o ld d i r e c t l y t o him , o th e rw is e i t i s d is p o s e d o f a t
t h e m arket*
A lth o u g h Maguzawa a r e f o r t h e m ost p a r t e c o n o m ic a lly s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t ,
many s m a ll o b j e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y h o u se h o ld u t e n s i l s and th e M aria T h e re sa
d o l l a r s w orn b y t h e g i r l s a s o rn am en ts m ust be p u rch ased *
The em p h asis on th e p a t e r n a l l i n e , so m arked i n a l l a s p e c t s o f
Maguzawa s o c i a l l i f e , r e c e i v e s no s p e c i a l r e c o g n i tio n i n th e k in s h ip
39
te r m in o lo g y .
T hose who a r e r e l a t e d on t h e f a th e r * s s i d e a r e s a i d t o be
n£ WcLndfr*d&y€.« 11o f one t r o u s e r , " w h ile th o s e r e l a t e d th ro u g h th e m o th er a r e
n£
" o f one woman’ s c l o t h , " o r n a n 6nb''fliycL, " o f one m i lk ,"
T h ere i s a te rm ddngi* w hich r e f e r s c o l l e c t i v e l y t o a l l o n e ’ s k in d r e d , b o th
on t h e f a t h e r 1 s and m o t h e r 's s i d e .
The w ords 'd&n 'dwcfr. " so n o f a m o th e r,"
a r e a p p l ie d f i g u r a t i v e l y i n an even w id e r s e n s e , b e in g a p p r o p r i a t e , f o r
ex am p le, t o e x p r e s s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een two i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e same
c ity .
The n a t i v e s even s a y t h a t an E n g lish m an i s th e ' d£n 'uw£a o f a
F renchm an, b e c a u se th e y a r e b o th w h ite an d come from T u ray , " w h ite man’ s
c o u n tr y , ’’
The sy ste m d e s ig n a t in g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s i d e n t i c a l w ith t h a t fo und
among t h e Moslem H ausa.
The number o f te rm s i s s m a ll and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n
w id e , t h e e s s e n t i a l c a t e g o r i e s em ployed b e i n g , f i r s t , t h e s e x o f t h e p e rs o n
a d d r e s s e d , a n d , s e c o n d , t h e g e n e r a tio n , w h ile w ith i n th e s p e a k e r 's own
g e n e r a tio n t h e sy stem d i s t i n g u i s h e s age r e l a t i v e t o th e s p e a k e r .
The fo llo w ­
in g i s a l i s t o f t h e te rm s i n u s e w ith E n g lis h e q u i v a le n t s :
’ubd*- f a t h e r , f a t h e r ’ s b r o t h e r , m o th e r 's b r o t h e r , m o th e r 's
s i s t e r ' s h u sb an d , g r e a t - g r a n d f a t h e r , f a t h e r - i n - l a w
'uw& - m o th e r, m o th e r 's s i s t e r , f a t h e r 's s i s t e r , f a t h e r 's
b r o t h e r 's w i f e , g r e a t- g r a n d m o th e r , m o th e r - in - la w
k&k£ - ( w ith m a s c u lin e g ra m m a tic a l i n f l e c t i o n s ) p a t e r n a l o r
m a te r n a l g r a n d f a t h e r , g r a n d f a th e r * s b r o t h e r , g r e a t u n c le , g r e a t - g r e a t - g r a n d f a t h e r
- ( w ith f e m in in e g ra m m a tic a l i n f l e c t i o n s ) p a t e r n a l o r
m a te r n a l g ra n d m o th e r, g ra n d m o th e r's s i s t e r , g r e a t - a u n t ,
g r e a t - g r e a t- g r a n d m o th e r
wa- - o l d e r b r o t h e r , o l d e r m ale c o u s in (w h e th e r p a r a l l e l o r
c r o s s - c o u s i n ) , o l d e r s i s t e r ' s h u sb an d , w i f e 's o r h us­
b a n d 's o ld e r b r o t h e r
k ' £ne*- y o u n g er b r o t h e r , y o u n g er m ale c o u s in (w h e th e r p a r a l l e l
o r c r o s s - c o u s i n ) , y o u n g er s i s t e r ' s h u sb an d , w i f e 's o r
h u s b a n d 's y o u n g er b r o t h e r
AO
J2&* — older* s i s t e r , o l d e r fem a le c o u s in (w h e th e r p a r a l l e l
o r c r o s s - c o u s i n ) , o l d e r b ro th e r* s w if e , w ife o r hus­
b a n d ^ o ld e r s i s t e r
k* &nw&* — y o u n g e r s i s t e r , y o u n g er fem a le c o u s in (w h e th e r p a r a l ­
l e l o r c r o s s - c o u s i n ) , y ounger b r o t h e r ’ s w if e , w if e o r
h u sb an d * s y o u n g er s i s t e r
1dd*- s o n , b r o th e r * s o r s i s t e r ' s
s o n , c o u s in ’ s s o n , s o n - in -
la w , g r e a t- g r a n d s o n
y ' £ ‘ -» d a u g h te r , b r o t h e r 's o r s i s t e r ' s d a u g h te r , c o u s in ’ s
d a u g h te r , d a u g h t e r - in - la w , g r e a t- g r a n d d a u g h te r
jik & - ( w ith m a s c u lin e g ra m m a tic a l i n f l e c t i o n s ) g ra n d s o n ,
g r e a t - g r e a t- g r a n d s o n
.iik ci-
- ( w ith fe m in in e g ra m m a tic a l e n d in g s ) g r a n d d a u g h te r ,
g r e a t - g r e a t- g r a n d d a u g h te r
m i.il - h u sb an d
mace - w ife
I n c o n n e c tio n w ith t h i s sy stem th e f o llo w in g p o in t s a r e t o be
n o te d :
t h e te rm s *frba an d k£k£* a l t e r n a t e i n a s c e n d in g g e n e r a t i o n s , *fcb£
b e in g u s e d i n t h e f i r s t , t h i r d , f i f t h , e t c , a s c e n d in g g e n e r a tio n s , and k&k£
in th e second, f o u r th , s ix th , e tc .
The same i s t r u e o f
’ dct*
and .iikSr, w hich
r e f e r i n th e d e s c e n d in g g e n e r a tio n s t o odd and ev en num bered g e n e r a tio n s r e ­
s p e c tiv e ly .
The same h o ld s t r u e o f th e c o rre s p o n d in g fe m in in e te rm s .
I t w i l l have b e e n n o ti c e d t h a t no d i s t i n c t i o n i s made i n t h i s s y s ­
tem b etw ee n c o n s a n g u in a l an d a f f i n a l r e l a t i v e s .
T h ere a r e , how ever, two
te r m s , s u r u k l and surukuw£", m a s c u lin e and fe m in in e r e s p e c t i v e l y , r e f e r r i n g
t o t h o s e a f f i n a l r e l a t i o n s b etw een whom a r e c i p r o c a l a t t i t u d e o f r e s p e c t
o b ta in s .
I n a c t u a l a d d r e s s th e s e a r e th e o n ly te rm s t h a t may be em ployed
b etw ee n p e r s o n s s ta n d in g i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , b u t i n r e f e r e n c e o r d in a r y
k i n s h i p te rm s may b e s u b s t i t u t e d f o r them .
T h e ir p rim a ry u se i s betw een a
man o r woman and h i s s p o u s e ’ s f a t h e r o r m o th e r.
The j u n i o r r e l a t i v e shows
h i s r e s p e c t b y s u c h a c t s a s d ro p p in g on h i s k n ees t o g r e e t th e s e n io r r e l a t i v e
u
when he p a s s e s an d b y o c c a s i o n a l l y b r in g i n g s m a ll g i f t s *
A somewhat s m a lle r
d e g re e o f r e s p e c t i s shown w here t h e su ru k ciy , ( p l u r a l o f s u r u k l and surukuw ^)
a r e o f t h e same g e n e ra tio n *
A man shows r e s p e c t f o r h i s y o u n g er b r o t h e r 's
w ife b y r e f r a i n i n g fro m e n t e r i n g h e r h u t an d b y a v o id in g i n h e r p r e s e n c e
t o p i c s o f c o n v e r s a tio n t h a t m ig h t b e r e g a r d e d a s i n d e c e n t.
A s im ila r r e la ­
t i o n s h i p o b ta in s b etw een a man and h i s w ife * s o l d e r b r o t h e r and o l d e r s i s t e r
and a woman an d h e r o l d e r b ro th e r* s w ife*
On t h e o t h e r h an d , a jo k in g r e l a t i o n s h i p , e x p re s s e d b y th e te rm
w&sS", " p l a y , ” e x i s t s b etw een th o s e who w ould be p o t e n t i a l m a tes i f th e j u n i o r
l e v i r a t e o r s o ro ra te e x is te d .
F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e i s " p la y ” b etw een a man
and h i s o l d e r b ro th e r* s w i f e , and a woman and h e r o l d e r s i s t e r * s h u sb an d .
I n t h e c a m a ra d e rie o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t h o s e in v o lv e d c a l l e a c h o t h e r
"h usband" an d " w if e , 41 b u t s e x u a l p la y n e v e r p ro c e e d s a s f a r a s a c t u a l i n t e r ­
c o u rse .
I t m u st b e p o in te d o u t , how ever, t h a t no j u n i o r l e v i r a t e and s o r o r a t e
e x i s t s a t t h e p r e s e n t ti m e , th o u g h some o f t h e o l d e r men s a y t h a t i t was
f o r m e r ly c u sto m a ry t o r e p l a c e a husband o r w ife who had d ie d b y a y o u n g er
b r o t h e r o r s i s t e r from th e same h o u se h o ld .
G re a t r e s p e c t e x i s t s betw een p a r e n t s and t h e i r f i r s t - b o r n , o r
t h e i r f i r s t two c h i l d r e n , w h e th e r m ale o r fe m a le .
T h is r e s p e c t i s shown p r i ­
m a r i l y b y t h e p a r e n t f o r t h e c h i l d , an d t a k e s th e form o f n o t e n g ag in g i n
c o n v e r s a tio n w ith t h e c h i l d i n t h e p re s e n c e o f s t r a n g e r s , o r ev en p ronounc­
i n g t h e " t r u e " name o f t h e c h i l d g iv e n a t b i r t h ;
T h is name i s , in d e e d ,
h e ld so ta b o o i n t h i s n o n te x t t h a t i f th e name o f t h e c h i l d i s d e r iv e d from
a common w ord i n th e la n g u a g e , h i s p a r e n t s m ust r e f r a i n from u s in g i t and
i n s t e a d em ploy a synonym f o r i t .
A man whose son*s name was *Dan Jum a,
"son o f F r i d a y ," w ould s p e a k o f F r id a y a s r&n gw&Rzb*, " th e d ay o f Gwarzo";
t h a t i s , th e c h i e f m a rk e t d a y o f Gwarzo.
I t i s a l s o t o be n o te d t h a t
a
A2
somewhat s i m i l a r r u l e o f " h id in g t h e name” e x i s t s b etw een a man o r woman
an d h i s o r h e r f i r s t spouse*
W h ile t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een p a r e n t s and c h i ld r e n i s one o f
r e s p e c t an d r e s e r v e , t h a t b etw een g r a n d p a r e n ts an d g r a n d c h ild r e n i s m arked
b y m u tu a l p l a y an d an u n i n h i b i t e d p u b li c d i s p l a y o f a f f e c t io n *
A g ran d ­
f a t h e r i s a lw ay s m aking to y s o f v a r io u s k in d s f o r h i s g r a n d c h ild re n *
The
g r a n d c h ild s t e a l s s m a ll o b j e c t s from t h e o ld m a n 's h u t an d th e b y s ta n d e r s
la u g h a t h i s i n e f f e c t u a l e f f o r t s t o o v e r ta k e th e y o u n g ste r*
A s im ila r re ­
l a t i o n s h i p a l s o o b ta in s b etw een p a r e n t s and t h e l a s t c h i l d b o rn t o an y
w i f e , th e ' &wt£.
The 1hwt& i s p r o v e r b i a l l y a s p o ile d y o u n g s te r , who may
a p p r o p r i a t e a n y th in g he w an ts from h i s p a r e n t s o r from h i s o l d e r s i b l i n g s .
H is p a r e n t s c a l l him .ilkA'* " g ra n d s o n ," and t h i s p r a c t i c e i n d i c a t e s t h e
s i m i l a r i t y o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e m inds o f th e Maguzawa t o t h a t be­
tw een g r a n d c h i ld and h i s g ra n d p a re n ts *
A jo k in g r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o e x i s t s
b etw ee n c r o s s - c o u s i n s b etw een whom, i f th e y a r e o f o p p o s i t e ; s e x , m a rria g e i s
c o n s id e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e .
A t th e tim e o f t h e two Mohammedan f e s t i v a l s , o f
Ramadan an d Z u l h a j j i , a y o u n g er c r o s s - c o u s i n c u s to m a r ily a s k s t h e o l d e r
one f o r k u 1d in s&r&, " s a r a m oney," i n fo rm e r tim e s n in e c o w r ie s , a t p r e ­
s e n t a n a n i n i , t h e t e n t h o f an E n g lis h p en n y .
T h is c r o s s - c o u s i n r e l a t i o n ­
s h i p , b a s e d on su p p o se d d e s c e n t fro m a b r o t h e r and s i s t e r , h as much w id e r
r a m i f i c a t i o n s , s in c e i t i s a l s o r e g a r d e d a s e x i s t i n g betw een c e r t a i n
Maguzawa s i b s , an d e v e n b etw een n a t i o n a l and o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s i n t h e
re g io n *
A man o f K a ts in a th u s h as t h e r i g h t t o a s k f o r k u 'd i n s a r a from
a n a t i v e o f K ano, w h ile a n ir o n - w o r k e r i s t h e jo k in g r e l a t i v e o f a T o u are g ,
o r a Malam o f a h u n te r .
The w id e s t s o c i a l g ro u p in g b a s e d on k in s h ip i s th e p a t r i l i n e a l
s ib .
Though s i b s a r e n o t c l o s e l y l o c a l i z e d , t h e r e i s a te n d e n c y f o r one
A3
s i b t o b e t h e d o m in an t g ro u p i n a g iv e n l o c a l i t y .
S in c e t h e r e a r e many
s i b s , t h e m em bership i n a n y o f them i s q u i t e s m a ll, b e in g som etim es n o t
m ore th a n t h r e e o r f o u r compounds w ith a t o t a l p o p u la tio n o f a b o u t 1 0 0
in d iv id u a ls .
The s i b p e rfo rm s no p o l i t i c a l f u n c ti o n ; t h e r e a r e no s i b m eet­
in g s o r s i b o f f i c e r s .
tio n ,
The s i b a l s o la c k s an y d i s c e r n i b l e r e l i g i o u s fu n c ­
The f a c t t h a t i n t h e m ain th e members o f a s i b w o rsh ip t h e same d e i­
t i e s i s b e c a u se r i t e s a r e i n h e r i t e d i n t h e same p a t r i l i n e a l l i n e a s t h e
h e a d s h ip o f e a c h compound, so t h a t s in c e a l l th e members o f t h e same s i b have
p re su m a b ly t h e same d e s c e n t , th e y a l s o w o rsh ip th e same s p i r i t s *
Members o f a s i b have i n common t h e nam e, a v e r s e o f p r a i s e r e ­
c i t e d a t t h e m a rria g e cerem ony o f one o f i t s fem a le m em bers, an o b l i g a t i o n
n o t t o m a rry w ith i n i t , and a num ber o f ta b o o s a g a i n s t b u rn in g c e r t a i n k in d s
o f wood an d k i l l i n g o r e a t i n g t h e f l e s h o f c e r t a i n a n im a ls .
The id e a o f
k i n s h i p b etw een t h e f o r b id d e n a n im a l and t h e members o f th e c la n i s n o t
h e ld ; r a t h e r i t i s s im p ly b e l i e v e d t h a t i f t h e ta b o o i s b ro k e n , a s e r i e s o f
s w e llin g s w i l l b re a k o u t o v e r th e e n t i r e b o dy.
When a c h i l d i s b o r n , a name i s g e n e r a l l y g iv e n i t b y someone
p r e s e n t , u s u a l l y t h e f a th e r * s y o u n g er b r o t h e r , term ed t h e k 1cirAmin 1ubA’,
’’s m a ll f a t h e r , 11 who r e p la c e s t h e f a t h e r i n t h i s c a p a c it y b e c a u se o f th e
"sham e ,*1 kunvS.". e x i s t i n g b etw een p a r e n t and c h i l d .
The name g iv e n a t t h i s
tim e i s th e c h ild * s " t r u e 11 name and i s th e one w h ich w i l l be 11h id d e n 11 b y
h is p a re n ts .
The name g iv e n may r e f e r t o t h e day o f th e week on w hich th e
c h i l d was b o r n , o r th e tim e o f d ay h i s b i r t h o c c u r r e d .
T h u s, a g i r l
c a l l e d K a r o f i , 11dye p i t ,*1 was so named b e c a u se h e r m o th er was overcom e w ith
l a b o r p a in s a t t h i s p l a c e .
A boy who fo llo w s a number o f s i s t e r s i s c a l l e d
T anko, and a g i r l b o rn a f t e r a number o f b o y s , D elu o r K ande.
A c h ild ,
a l l o f whose s i b l i n g s have d ie d b e f o r e i t , i s c a l l e d * A je fa s , " l e t i t be
u
th ro w n aw a y ,” o r ’A j u j i , "o n t h e dung h e a p ," t o d i v e r t God’ s a t t e n t i o n from
it*
The f i r s t o f tw in s t o be d e l i v e r e d i s c a l l e d H asan , i f m a le , H asana, i f
f e m a le , and th e seco n d H u sa y n i, i f m a le , and H usayna, i f fem ale*
T hese
nam es f o r tw in s a r e Mohammedan b o rro w in g s , b e in g d e r iv e d from th e names o f
t h e tw o so n s o f !A l i , th e f o u r t h c a l i p h , an d a t once th e c o u s in and s o n - in la w o f t h e P r o p h e t.
On t h e s e v e n th d ay a f t e r b i r t h , a b a r b e r i s c a l l e d t o sh av e th e
c h ild * s h e a d .
A g o a t o r sh e e p o f th e same s e x a s a new -born c h i l d i s k i l l e d
on t h i s d a y , an d t h e m eat d i s t r i b u t e d t o th o s e p r e s e n t and t o t h e n e ig h b o r s .
D u rin g t h e f i r s t few y e a r s o f i t s l i f e a c h i l d i s l i k e l y t o r e ­
c e iv e a seco n d nam e, known a s t h e s u n in kltk& nni. "name g iv e n b y g r a n d p a r e n ts , 11
w h ich i s u s u a l l y d e r iv e d fro m some p h y s ic a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f th e i n f a n t o r
some t r a i t o f i t s b e h a v io r .
Exam ples o f su ch names a r e Dugunzuma, g iv e n t o
a b a b y w ith a lo n g h e a d , and H an a* ay k i, " p r e v e n t w o rk ," g iv e n t o a c h i l d who
p e r s i s t e d i n c r y in g w henever h i s p a r e n t s w ent o f f t o th e fa rm .
The sunAn
kAk&nni’ i s v e r y o f t e n t h e name by w h ich a p e rs o n i s g e n e r a l l y known; s in c e
i t i s n o t c o n s id e r e d a p e r s o n ’ s t r u e nam e, i t can be u se d b y t h e p a r e n t s o f
a f ir s t- b o r n c h ild .
A b o y i s a llo w e d t o p la y a t w i l l u n t i l he i s sev en t o n in e y e a r s
o f a g e , when he i s c irc u m c is e d .
At t h i s ti m e , a s h as b een i n d i c a t e d , he
r e c e i v e s a h u t an d f i e l d o f h is own.
The o p e r a t io n , w h ich m arks h is e n t r y
i n t o th e com m unity a s a f u n c ti o n in g member, i s o f c o n s id e r a b le im p o rta n c e
s in c e i t i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r m a rria g e o r an y s e x u a l a c t i v i t y , and an un­
c irc u m c is e d b o y who d a re d c o u r t a g i r l w ould b e la u g h e d a t .
The o p e r a tio n
i t s e l f i s c a r r i e d o u t b y a Mohammedan b a r b e r , and i t s d e t a i l s a r e e x a c t l y
t h e same f o r Moslems and f o r p a g a n s .
No cerem ony m arks t h e a tta in m e n t o f p u b e r ty b y a young woman; th e
45
o c c u r r e n c e o f h e r f i r s t m e n s tr u a tio n m arks h e r a s no lo n g e r a yccrinyct. " g i r l , ”
b u t a budurw&j, " m a id e n ."
A p e r io d o f f r e e d a l l i a n c e fo llo w s f o r h e r , ended
b y m a rr ia g e ufrhich f o r g i r l s o c c u rs a b o u t t h e ag e o f e i g h t e e n , f o r th e boys
a t a b o u t tw e n ty —o n e .
D u rin g th e e a r l i e r p e r io d no o b je c tio n s a r e r a i s e d b y
t h e p a r e n t s when s w e e th e a r ts s le e p t o g e t h e r .
P re g n a n c y i s s a i d t o r e s u l t
o n ly r a r e l y ; when i t d o e s , t h e b o y i s s u b je c t e d t o p r e s s u r e b y h is own pa­
r e n t s t o m a rry t h e g i r l .
I t i s s a i d t h a t t h i s p r e s s u r e i s i n v a r i a b l y su c­
c e s s f u l , s in c e a l l f a m i l i e s a r e o f p r a c t i c a l l y e q u a l s ta n d in g i n t h e communi­
t y , an d none w an ts t o s t i r up r e s e n tm e n t.
The p re s e n c e o f an i l l e g i t i m a t e
c h i l d i s no b a r r i e r t o m a r r i a g e , th o u g h i t l e s s e n s th e amount o f t h e b r i d e
p r i c e r e c e iv e d b y t h e g i r l ' s p a r e n t s .
I n t h e c h o ic e o f a m ate t h e i n i t i a t i v e i s u s u a l l y ta k e n b y t h e
young man who f i r s t " s p e a k s " t o th e g i r l .
I f sh e a g r e e s to h i s p r o p o s a l, he
in fo rm s h i s f a t h e r 1 s y o u n g er b r o t h e r , who th e n p a s s e s on t h i s word t o h is
f a t h e r , t h i s b e in g demanded b y t h e canons o f e t i q u e t t e o p e r a t iv e u n d e r th e
r e l a t i o n s h i p o f r e s p e c t e x i s t i n g betw een p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n .
T h e r e a f te r
a l l n e g o t i a t i o n s a r e c a r r i e d on b y members o f t h e tw o f a m i l i e s t o d e te rm in e
th e b r i d e p r i c e , an d when t h i s h as b een f i x e d , a d ay i s s e t b y t h e b r i d e 's
r e l a t i v e s f o r t h e m a r r ia g e .
A t t h e p r e s e n t tim e t h e m a rria g e cerem ony i s p erfo rm e d on a F r id a y
b y a Mohammedan Malam, b u t i t i s p re c e d e d b y a week o f o b s e rv a n c e s w hich
a r e p u r e ly p ag an i n c h a r a c t e r .
The c h i e f e v e n t o f t h i s p e r io d i s th e rem o v al
o f t h e b r id e t o h e r m o th e r 's s i s t e r ' s h o u s e , w here she s ta y s f o r s e v e r a l
d a y s , henna b e in g a p p l ie d t o h e r hands and f e e t .
The b rid eg ro o m i s s i m i l a r l y
t r e a t e d i n h i s f a t h e r 's y o u n g er b r o t h e r 's h o u se.
On F r id a y m o rn in g , th e
b r i d e 's " f r i e n d , " a g i r l c h o sen b y h e r t o p l a y t h i s p a r t i n t h e cerem ony, i s
c o n d u c te d , head c o v e re d , on a m are from t h e b r i d e 's h o u se to t h e g ro o m 's
bfr
h o u se w here sh e i s met b y t h e g ro o m 's " f r i e n d , " th e r e a l b r id e h a v in g s e ­
c r e t l y come t o t h e groom 1s h o u se i n t h e m ean tim e.
T h is p ro c e d u re i s be­
l i e v e d t o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r h e r t o a v o id t h e h a rm fu l e f f e c t s o f th e
e n v io u s g la n c e s c a s t a t h e r d u r in g t h i s happy p e r io d o f h e r l i f e .
A man i s n o t r e g a r d e d a s a f u l l member o f t h e com munity u n t i l he h as
m a rr ie d so n s w ith c h i l d r e n .
A Maguzawa m a n 's s u c c e s s i n l i f e i s m easu red
b y t h e number o f d e p e n d e n ts t h a t he h as i n h i s h o u se h o ld who a r e c a p a b le o f
fa rm w o rk .
To r e t a i n a y o u n g er b r o t h e r u n d e r o n e 's c o n t r o l r e q u i r e s t a c t ,
and ev en w here t h e r e i s no d i s p u te t h e y o u n g er man may le a v e and form a n o th e r
compound*
S o n s , h ow ever, alw ay s rem ain w ith t h e i r f a t h e r , i n c r e a s i n g h is
p r e s t i g e an d h i s econom ic r e s o u r c e s .
T h is i s why t h e Maguzawa p la c e su ch
g r e a t em p h asis on h a v in g many c h i ld r e n and s o s t r o n g l y p r e f e r so n s t o
d a u g h t e r s , s i n c e th e so n s m a t e r i a l l y i n c r e a s e t h e amount o f g u in e a c o m
r a i s e d b y t h e members o f t h e compound an d c o n t r o l l e d b y i t s h e a d .
And t h i s
i s im p o rta n t s in c e t h e m ost c o n c r e te e x p r e s s io n o f s u c c e s s i s th e a b i l i t y t o
p ro d u c e an d c o n t r o l l a r g e am ounts o f t h i s c e r e a l .
F o r giy& \ " g u in e a c o m
b e e r , " i s made from i t d u rin g t h e d r y se a s o n when r e c i p r o c a l i n v i t a t i o n s
t o d r in k i n g b o u ts a r e exchanged among t h e a d u l t m a les o f t h e com munity, and
a man who h as t h e l a r g e s t amount o f g u in e a c o m w i l l be i n a p o s i t i o n t o ex ­
te n d t h e g r e a t e s t num ber o f i n v i t a t i o n s *
No in d e p e n d e n t p o l i t i c a l l i f e s u r v iv e s among th e Maguzawa, who
have b een u n d e r F u la n i d o m in a tio n f o r o v e r a c e n tu r y .
The p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e s
h e ld b y some compound h e a d s , a s w i l l b e s e e n , have l i t t l e i n t h e way o f
s p e c if ic fu n c tio n s .
Where t h e s e f u n c ti o n s do e x i s t , t h e i r e x e r c is e i s a l ­
ways s u b j e c t t o th e a p p r o v a l o f a F u la n i headman.
The p o l i t i c a l u n i t among
t h e Maguzawa i s th e v i l l a g e , gAri*. a s d e f in e d b y t h e F u la n i f i e f sy ste m .
47
U nder t h i s a rra n g e m e n t e a c h v i l l a g e — w h ich may b e a w a lle d tow n, a g ro u p o f
compounds e r e c t e d c lo s e t o eac h o t h e r , o r a s e r i e s o f s c a t t e r e d compounds
w ith an a r b i t r a r y b o u n d ary —was p la c e d i n ch a rg e o f a l o c a l F u la n i headm an,
t h s S a r k in G a r i, "headman o f t h e v i l l a g e , " who was r e s p o n s ib le f o r l o c a l
a d m in is tra tio n .
B e fo re t h e tim e o f B r i t i s h c o n t r o l , a s a t th e p r e s e n t , th e
v i l l a g e was t h e fu n d a m e n ta l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t .
F o rm e rly , how ever, each
v i l l a g e i n Kano c o u n try was a t ta c h e d t o one o f t h e im p o r ta n t hakim ay,
" m i n i s t e r s , " who l i v e d i n Kano C it y and a tte n d e d upon th e k in g .
a p p o in te d a g e n t s ,
The hlfl&mf
t o c o l l e c t t h e ta x e s i n th e v i l l a g e s u n d e r h is
c o n t r o l , one o f th e s e b e in g named f o r e a c h v i l l a g e u n d e r th e m i n i s t e r 's
c o n tro l.
The .1&k£d&* a l s o f u n c tio n e d a s l i a i s o n men betw een th e m i n i s t e r i n
Kano C ity an d t h e l o c a l F u la n i S a r k in G a r i.
E ach v i l l a g e p re d o m in a n tly in h a b i t e d b y Maguzawa to d a y h as a s i n g l e
S a r k in Noma, "headman o f f a r m in g ," c h o sen b y t h e compound heads w ith th e ap­
p r o v a l o f th e l o c a l F u la n i headm an.
The S a r k in Noma's p o s i t i o n i s an hono­
r a r y o n e , c a r r y i n g no pow er o f an y im p o rta n c e .
Thus th o u g h he may b e c a l l e d
b y h i s townsmen t o s e t t l e a d is p u te o v e r i n h e r i t a n c e , th e f i n a l d e c is io n i s
i n th e hands o f th e F u la n i headm an.
The o n ly emolument r e c e iv e d by him i s
t h e t r a d i t i o n a l g i f t o f one th o u sa n d c o w rie s ( t h i s i s r e p r e s e n te d a t p r e s e n t
by a s ix p e n c e ) , a m a t, a ju g o f g iv k . " g u in e a co rn b e e r ," and th e t h i g h o f a
g o a t , g iv e n b y a b rid e g ro o m a t th e tim e o f h i s w edding.
The S a r k in Noma i s
a pr-Smiis i n t e r p a r e s , t h e t i t l e s o f S a r k in 'ARna, "headman o f th e pagans^'
and S a r k in Dawa, "headman o f th e b u s h ," b e in g o f e q u a l d i g n i t y .
The t i t l e
S a r k in 'A m a i s a t th e p r e s e n t tim e s a id t o be aw arded n a san gly&% " f o r
d r in k i n g b e e r ," and I s a c c o rd e d t h e man who i s i n th e p o s i t i o n to g iv e th e
g r e a t e s t number o f d r in k in g b o u ts .
The o f f i c e o f S a rk in Dawa, "headman o f
t h e b u s h ," i s r a r e l y f i l l e d to d a y , s in c e l i t t l e bu sh rem a in s and h unting],
e x c e p t f o r t h e k i l l i n g o f g a fx v k . " b u s h - r a t s ," h as c e a se d t o b e a n y th in g
u8
e x c e p t a n a v o c a tio n .
I n fo rm e r ti m e s , how ever, th e S a r k in Dawa l e d t h e
communal h u n t w h ich to o k p la c e i n t h e d r y s e a s o n , an d r e c e iv e d a s h i s
s h a r e a l l a n im a ls o v e r whose k i l l i n g t h e r e was a d i s p u t e .
E ach o f t h e t h r e e men h o ld in g th e s e t i t l e s , how ever, h as h is
" a s s i s t a n t s , " t h e p re m ie r p o s i t i o n o f th e S a r k in Noma, "headman o f fa r m in g ,"
b e in g shown b y t h e f a c t t h a t h i s a id e s a r e t h e m ost num erous.
The t i t l e s i n
u s e a r e th e same a s th o s e o f an y S a r k i , "headm an," i n Kano c o u n tr y , in c lu d ­
i n g t h e Em ir o r S a r k in K ano, h im s e lf .
The o f f i c i a l s o f th e E m ir, th e h&klm&y,
" m i n i s t e r s , " b e a r t i t l e s o f d iv e r s e h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n .
Some, a s S a rk in
Y a k * i, "headman o f w a r ," o r M adaw aki, " l e a d e r o f c a v a lr y ," a r e o f n a t i v e
H ausa d e r i v a t i o n ; o t h e r s , s u c h a s W a z ir i, a r e A ra b ic ; w h ile th e common
t i t l e s Chirom a and G aladim a come from K a n u r i, th e la n g u a g e o f B om u t o th e
e a s t.
At J ig a w a many o f t h e s e t i t l e s a r e i n u s e , b u t w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f
t h e S a r k in HuTd a , "headman o f t h e f u r r o w ," whose c o n n e c tio n w ith t h e g£yy£',
a fo rm o f c o - o p e r a t iv e farm l a b o r , h as a l r e a d y b e e n d e s c r ib e d , none o f t h e s e
p o s i t i o n s in v o lv e e x e c u tiv e f u n c ti o n s i n th e m anner o f th e o f f i c e s h e ld b y
t h e I h d r 's s t a f f .
49
IV .
A.
MAGUZAWA RELIGION
The B e l i e f i n A lla h a s a Supreme B eing
As m ig h t b e e x p e c te d from th e lo n g p e r io d d u r in g w h ich , a s we
have s e e n , t h e b u s h Maguzawa have b een i n c o n ta c t w ith th e Mohammedanized
l i f e o f t h e c i t i e s , many I s la m ic e le m e n ts have become th o r o u g h ly in c o r p o r ­
a t e d i n t o Maguzawa c u l t u r e .
One o f th e s e e le m e n ts i s th e b e l i e f i n A lla h
a s a suprem e b e in g .
The Maguzawa f r e e l y ad m it t h a t A lla h i s t h e u l t i m a t e c o n t r o l
o f th e u n i v e r s e .
Y et He d o e s n o t occu p y th e c e n t r a l r o l e i n t h e i r b e l i e f s
and p r a c t i c e s t h a t i s so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e Moslem H ausa.
Among th e
Maguzawa t h e r e a r e no r i t e s c o n n e c te d w ith t h e b e l i e f i n A lla h , and a l l
s u p e r n a t u r a l r e s p o n s e t o w o r s h ip , w h e th e r good o r b a d , i s a t t r i b u t e d t o
s p i r i t s c a l l e d *iskofci: ( s i n g u l a r , ?isk£r) .
The *is k o k i' o n ly p e rfo rm t h e i r
w ork w ith t h e p e r m is s io n o f A lla h , b u t t h e Maguzawa i n t h e i r t r a f f i c w ith
t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l c o n s id e r i t s u f f i c i e n t t o d e a l w ith th e *isko'ki*. and
ig n o r e A lla h a s b e in g rem o te an d u n i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e a f f a i r s o f men.
I t m u st b e u n d e r s to o d t h a t t h i s co n ce p t o f A lla h a s th e Supreme
B ein g i s o n ly e l i c i t e d b y d i r e c t q u e s ti o n in g .
O r d i n a r i l y th e Maguzawa pay
no a t t e n t i o n t o A lla h , and H is name i s o n ly h e a rd i n th e o a th s an d common
e x p r e s s io n s i n v o l v in g God*s name w h ich th e s e f o l k s h a re w ith t h e i r Moslem
n e ig h b o r s , b u t w h ic h , u n li k e th em , th e y u s e l e s s f r e q u e n t l y .
B.
The 1f s k o k i , T h e ir N a tu re and Powers
The s p i r i t s w h ich p l a y su ch an im p o r ta n t r o l e i n Maguzawa
50
r e l i g i o u s l i f e a r e g e n e r a l l y h e ld t o be i n f i n i t e i n num ber, th o u g h c e r t a i n
o f them a r e known b y name an d have d e f i n i t e p e r s o n a l i t i e s and pow ers a s ­
c r i b e d t o th e m .
revolves.-**
I t i s aro u n d t h e s e t h a t t h e r e l i g i o u s l i f e o f t h e Maguzawa
To d e s ig n a te th e s e s p i r i t s , we s h a l l u s e t h e te im *isk a k i* "
th ro u g h o u t t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , b e c a u se o f a l l th e n a t i v e Hausa te rm s f o r
" s p i r i t ” i t i s t h e m ost g e n e r a l i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , and th u s can be r e g a r d ­
ed a s r e f e r r i n g t o a l l t h e a s p e c t s o f t h e i r c u l t .
I t i s , a t th e same tim e ,
t h e w ord m o st o f t e n u s e d b y th e Hausa th e m s e lv e s .^
B ari*. ( p l u r a l , b o ru rru k c r; , w hich i s t h e te rm m ost f r e q u e n t l y en­
c o u n te r e d i n t h e e th n o g ra p h ic l i t e r a t u r e b e a r in g on t h e H ausa, r e f e r s p r i ­
m a r i ly t o t h e p o s s e s s io n b y t h e *i s k o k i o f t h e i r w o r s h ip p e r s , th o u g h i t
can a l s o b e u s e d i n t h e same s e n s e a s 1i s k a *. 3
T h ere a r e a l s o w ords w hich
i n t h e i r p r im a r y m eaning d e s ig n a te a s i n g l e gro u p o f th e *i s k a k r . b u t have
b e e n e x te n d e d i n t h e i r u sa g e t o in c lu d e a l l o f them .
Among th e s e a r e d&do*
( f e m in in e , dbdanniy& ; p l u r a l , dbd& nnl). r e a l l y th e name o f a p a r t i c u l a r w a te r
s p i r i t , an d m&ieka:. a te rm a p p l ie d m ost a p p r o p r i a t e l y t o th e f o r e s t s p i r i t s .
Som etim es t h e 1i s k d k i a r e c a l l e d y 1An gdb&s, " c h i l d r e n o f t h e e a s t , " o r
yV&n Jangd rfe. " c h i l d r e n o f J a n g a r e ."
T h is l a t t e r i s an a l l u s i o n t o J a n g a r e ,
a c i t y i n v i s i b l e t o men i n t h e e a s t w hich th e y a r e sup p o sed t o i n h a b i t .
The te rm s th u s f a r co n sid ere d , a r e a l l o f n a t i v e Hausa o r i g i n .
1 . A cco rd in g t o one in fo rm a n t t h e r e a r e 3*013 s p i r i t s "and one m o re ."
W ith t h i s we may com pare t h e Yoruba t r a d i t i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e 201 o r 401
o r i s h a s , " s p i r i t s " ; c f . F arro w (1 9 2 6 ), p . 23*
2.
11 sk<5k f i s th e p l u r a l o f th e word 1is k £ ‘, th e p rim a ry m eaning o f
w h ich i s " w in d ." H e r s k o v its (1938 b )* 2 , 1 3 0 , n o te s th e u s e o f t h e word
D .jj, " a i r . ” a s a g e n e r a l w ord f o r s p i r i t i n Dahomey.
3 . T h is r e s t r i c t e d a p p l i c a t i o n o f th e word b b r l h as a l s o been n o te d
by K ru s iu s (1915)* P* 2 92.
In
51
a d d i t i o n , h o w ev er, a number o f w ords d e r iv e d from A ra b ic a r e u s e d a s syno­
nyms o f *iskeL' an d th esfe r e f l e c t t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Hausa 1i skater
w i t h t h e Mohammedan J i n n , an im p o r ta n t p o i n t , th e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f w hich w i l l
become a p p a r e n t a s t h i s d i s c u s s io n p r o c e e d s .
1A lj£n& ; p l u r a l ,
T hese a r e 1Al.iAn ( f e m in in e ,
. s £ y *dan and 1I b l i s ( f e m in in e , 1ib lis iv A * : p l u r a l ,
* ib lis £ y )
I n t h e f o llo w in g p a g e s , f o r p u rp o s e s o f p r e lim in a r y o r i e n t a t i o n ,
some g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e 1i s k o k r and so m eth in g o f t h e i r o r g a n i­
z a t i o n a s i t i s c o n c e iv e d by th e Maguzawa w i l l be en u m erated .
A ta b le l i s t ­
i n g t h e s p i r i t s known t o t h e Maguzawa and a more d e t a i l e d d is c u s s io n o f
s e v e r a l o f t h e more im p o r ta n t o n es w i l l th e n b e g iv e n , a f t e r w hich t h e i r
c u l t w i l l b e d e s c r ib e d .
F i n a l l y , a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e v a r io u s f a c t o r s o p e ra ­
t i v e i n t h e d ev elo p m en t o f t h i s c u l t w i l l b e a tte m p te d .
The *i s k o k i a r e t o be found e v e ry w h e re , i n t h e s k y , th e f o r e s t ,
t h e h i l l s , i n b o d ie s o f w a te r and i n t h e c i t i e s o f men.
Those whose names
a r e known, an d who have a d e f i n i t e c u l t , g e n e r a l l y have a f a v o r i t e k in d o f
t r e e o r some o t h e r s p e c i f i c l o c a l e w here t h e y l i k e t o s t a y .
Here s a c r i f i c e s
c o n s i s t i n g o f s h e e p , g o a t s , o r fo w l a r e o f f e r e d t o th em , eac h s p i r i t h a v in g
i t s a p p r o p r i a t e a n im a l.
The p u rp o se o f t h e s a c r i f i c i a l a c t i s t o f u r n i s h a
s p i r i t w ith th e b lo o d w h ich i s i t s c h i e f s u s te n a n c e .
O fte n a m odel o f th e
o b j e c t c o n n e c te d w ith t h e s p i r i t ’ s a c t i v i t i e s i s p la c e d a t th e s a c r e d t r e e —
1* ’A l.j£n i s d e r iv e d from t h e A ra b ic j i n n , " J i n n , 11 w ith th e d e f i n i t e a r t i ­
c l e 1&1 p r e f i x e d . The w ord A lle d .ie n u u s e d b y F ro b e n iu s t o d e s ig n a te th e s p i r i t s
w o rsh ip p e d b y t h e Hausa i s e v i d e n t l y t h e p l u r a l 'A ljk h u ’S c f . F ro b e n iu s (1 9 1 3 ),
p , 56 I . S&y1dan i s th e A ra b ic s a i t a n . " S a ta n ."
’I b l i s i s from th e A ra b ic ’ i b l i s .
■ I b l i s , t h e D e v il ," w hich i s p r o b a b ly a d e r i v a t i v e o f th e G reek
$<
■a^ v \
(d ia b o lo s )•
52
a bow and a rro w f o r a h u n tin g s p i r i t , a th u n d e r s to n e (neolithic c e l t ) f o r t h e
th u n d e r d e i t y , o r a n a n v i l f o r t h e s p i r i t o f i r o n —w o rk in g — an d o v e r t h i s
o b j e c t t h e b lo o d o f t h e s a c r i f i c e i s a llo w e d t o flo w .
I n th e s e c a s e s , th e
fu n d a m e n ta l W est A f r ic a n p a t t e r n o f w o rsh ip in v o lv in g o b j e c t s s a c r e d t o th e
s p i r i t , o f t e n spoken o f a f e t i c h i s m , i s in v o lv e d .
I t i s n o t th e o b je c t i t ­
s e l f , h o w ev er, a s th e n a iv e o b s e r v e r m ig h t c o n c lu d e , w hich i s r e c e i v i n g th e
s a c r i f i c e , b u t t h e s p i r i t a s s o c i a t e d w ith i t .
Som etim es t h e s p i r i t s r e v e a l th e m s e lv e s t o t h e i r w o rs h ip p e rs th ro u g h
t h e medium o f human b e in g s whom th e y have c h o s e n .
The p e o p le th u s s in g le d o u t
b y t h e s p i r i t s a r e summoned b y t h e a p p r o p r ia te drum rhythm s t o p o s s e s s them .
The costum e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s p i r i t who h as b een c a l l e d i s donned b y
t h e d e v o te e , an d t h e s p e c t a t o r s can th e n c o n v e rs e d i r e c t l y w ith th e 1IskA*
who sp e a k s th r o u g h th e m outh o f t h e one p o s s e s s e d .
M ost o f th e tim e , how ever, th e Ti s k o k f a r e b e lie v e d t o l i v e i n
th e i r c i ty o f Ja n g a re .
T h is c i t y i s g e n e r a l l y s a i d t o be i n t h e E a s t .
How­
e v e r , one in f o r m a n t p la c e d i t i n th e v i c i n i t y o f Argungu i n w e s te r n Hausa
c o u n tr y , w h ile i t i s commonly i d e n t i f i e d w ith a tow n i n t h e s o u th o f Kano p ro ­
v in c e c a l l e d Baw’ d a .
N ear t h e tow n g a te o f Bawf da t h e r e i s a fam ous baobab
t r e e and a w e ll a t th e b o tto m o f w hich t h e *i s k o k r a r e s a i d t o d w e ll.
In
th e c i t y o f J a n g a r e , th e t i s k 6 k£« a r e b e lie v e d t o have a k in g c a l l e d S a rk in
* A lja n , " k in g o f t h e J i n n . "
of s ta te .
He h as a W a z ir i, " v i z i e r , " and o t h e r o f f i c e r s
T h ere i s a S a r k in K 'o f a , " k in g o f th e g a t e ," t o i n s p e c t th o s e
who go i n an d o u t , and a g ro u p o f w a r r io r J in n whose b u s in e s s i t i s t o de­
fe n d th e c i t y .
The s p i r i t s a r e u s u a l l y c l a s s i f i e d a s w h ite o r g o o d , and b la c k o r
e v il.
I n th e m a in , th e b la c k s p i r i t s a r e h e ld t o be pagan and l i v e i n th e
53
b u s h , w h ile t h e w h ite s p i r i t s a r e c o n s id e r e d a s Moslem and l i v e i n th e c i t y .
A t t i m e s , h o w ev er, o t h e r c r i t e r i a a r e b ro u g h t i n t o p la y a s when M assa k * !,
”t h e w e a v e r ,” i s d e c la r e d t o b e a w h ite s p i r i t b e c a u se he w eaves w h ite
c l o t h ; o r B afa w z in i, ”th e T o u a r e g ,” i s c a l l e d w h ite b e c a u se th e T o u areg
a r e a l i g h t —s k in n e d p e o p le .
I t i s a l s o s a i d t h a t a s p i r i t may be w h ite l o r
t h e man who w o rs h ip s him , w h ile he i s b la c k f o r ev ery o n e e l s e .
C la s s ific a ­
t i o n , h o w ev er, i s n o t a m a jo r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and t h e r e c o n s e q u e n tly i s some
d o u b t r e g a r d in g t h e c a te g o r y t o w hich many o f th e s p i r i t s sh o u ld b e a s s ig n e d . 1
I t i s m a in ta in e d t h a t o n ly t h e b la c k s p i r i t s c a u se i l l n e s s w h ile t h e w h ite
a r e h a r m le s s , b u t c l o s e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n soon d i s c l o s e s t h a t an y s p i r i t s can
b e m a le v o le n t a s w e ll a s good.
I n g e n e r a l , how ever, t h e m ost m a lig n a n t
d i s e a s e s a r e h e ld t o be c a u se d b y b la c k s p i r i t s .
I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t th e Hausa c o n c e p t o f th e 1is k d k f has numer­
o u s c o rre s p o n d e n c e s among o t h e r W est A f r ic a n p e o p le s , t o g e t h e r w ith f u r t h e r
re s e m b la n c e s t o b e s e e n when th e d e t a i l s o f th e c u l t p r a c t i c e s a r e g iv e n .
In d e e d , i n t h e c a s e o f th e b cfri p e rfo rm a n c e s , th e c o rre s p o n d e n c e s have so
w id e a d i s t r i b u t i o n t h a t th e y a r e fo u n d a s f a r removed a s E gypt and E a s t
A fric a .
O u ts ta n d in g i n s t a n c e s o f t h i s w i l l b e p o in te d o u t i n th e c o u rs e
o f t h e d is c u s s io n i n t h e p a g e s im m e d ia te ly f o llo w in g , b u t a g e n e r a l e v a lu ­
a t i o n o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e s e re s e m b la n c e s , a s w e ll a s th e r o l e o f
b orrow ed e le m e n ts , p a r t i c u l a r l y M oslem, i n i n f l u e n c in g th e developm ent o f
1.
The d i v i s i o n o f s p i r i t s i n t o w h ite and Moslem on th e one h an d , and
b la c k and p ag an on t h e o t h e r , i s o f Mohammedan o r i g i n . The p r e s e n t con­
f u s i o n i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s p i r i t s i s th u s l a r g e l y due t o t h e
f a c t t h a t th e s e c a t e g o r i e s have b een su p erim p o sed on a n a t iv e d i v i s i o n o f
t h e s p i r i t s i n t o th o s e o f tow n and b u s h .
Maguzawa r e l i g i o n w i l l b e r e s e r v e d f o r c o m p a ra tiv e tr e a tm e n t i n th e f i n a l
s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r *1
1* We may f o r co n v e n ie n c e l i s t h e re th o s e s p i r i t s w o rsh ip p ed i n o th e r
W est A f r ic a n c u l t u r e s w hich a r e c o n s id e re d i n t h i s d is c u s s io n a s e q u iv a ­
l e n t s o f t h e H ausa !i s k o k i , t o g e t h e r w ith th e m ain s o u rc e s from w hich i n ­
fo rm a tio n c o n c e rn in g them h as b een drawn* A s i m i l a r l i s t , i n w hich th e
H ausa 1is k o 'k i do n o t f i g u r e , i s t o be fo u n d i n W estermann (1 9 2 8 ), p . 191*
A ngas, j i g w e l , Temple (1919)$ A s h a n ti, abosom* R a t tr a y (1923* 1927)
B am bara, n y e n a , T a u x ie r (1 9 2 7 ); Dahomey, vodij* H e rs k o v its (1938 b ) ;
J u k u n , .io * Meek ( l 9 3 l ) | M o ssi, k i n k i r s i * T a u x ie r (1 9 1 7 ); Y oruba, o r i s h a .
F arro w (1924.) an d Bascom (1939)*
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His s a c r if i c ia l animal is always kept by members of this c la n
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2* This s p irit and those following (27—13) cause no sickness and are not the objects of s a c r i f i c e .
It is b eliev ed , however, that if they are not given the chance to possess somebody, the species of anim al
they represent cannot be successfully hunted.
60
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Caused By
S a c r if i c e
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w hich i s common i n Hausa t h i n k i n g . ^
s p irit,
F o r opposed t o 'Uw aRgari i s a n o th e r
'UwaRdawa, "m o th er o f t h e b u s h ," v a r i o u s l y d e s c r ib e d a s h e r y o u nger
s i s t e r o r h e r d a u g h te r - in - la w .
'I n n a i s t h e m o th er o f a l l th e s p i r i t s .
As a F u la n i m aid ( t h e
F u la n i a r e p re d o m in a n tly a p a s t o r a l p e o p l e ) , she owns c a t t l e and s u b s i s t s
on m i lk , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e b lo o d o f t h e s a c r i f i c e .
a m odel h u t f o r 'I n n a i n s i d e o f t h e i r compound.
Some Maguzawa keep
I n t h i s h u t l i v e n o t o n ly
'I n n a b u t a number o f s p i r i t s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o h e r .
When sh e r e t u r n s a t
sundown from te n d in g h e r c a t t l e , sh e r e s t s h e r s e l f on t h e s m a ll s to n e
TSeat w hich i s alw ay s e r e c te d n e a r h e r h u t .
She th e n e n t e r s h e r h u t
w here a c a la b a s h o f m ilk a w a its h e r ; w henever th e c a la b a s h I s se e n t o be
em pty, i t i s known t h a t 'I n n a h as f i n i s h e d th e m ilk and more m ust b e p u t
in i t .
A w o rs h ip p e r o f 'I n n a f i r s t c a u s e s a few d ro p s o f m ilk t o f a l l on
t h e g rou n d a s an o f f e r i n g t o h e r b e f o r e he b e g in s m ilk in g h is cow.
1.
'I n n a means "m o th er" i n F u l a n i .
2 . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n Hausa we have th e a d j e c t i v e n£ g & rr. " p e r t a i n i n g
t o t h e c i t y , good" and n& dfiwir, " p e r t a i n i n g to th e b u s h , b a d ." The same
te rm in o lo g y i s em ployed t o d i s t i n g u i s h d o m e stic from w ild a n im a ls . The
com p arab le c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s p i r i t s i n t o b u sh and town d w e lle r s h as
a l r e a d y b e e n n o te d .
68
A l l t h i s o b v io u s ly r e l a t e s t o 'I n n a a s a F u la n i m a id .
In her
o t h e r a s p e c t , a s m o th er o f t h e fa rm , sh e i s th e p r i n c i p a l g i v e r o f good
c ro p s.
She g u a rd s t h e p r o p e r ty o f h r w o r s h ip p e r s , p u r s u in g t h i e v e s and
c a u s in g t h e i r b e l l i e s t o s w e ll w ith f a t a l r e s u l t s .
The f e a r o f 'I n n a ,
in d e e d , i s s a i d t o b e t h e c h i e f re a s o n why th e Muguzawa do n o t s t e a l .
An o a th sw orn on t h e name o f 'I n n a i s one o f th e s t r o n g e s t a Maguzawa can
ta k e s in c e su c h a v ic tim o f h e r w ra th a s th e b r e a k e r o f h e r o a th w ould be
i s b u r i e d i n t h e b u sh an d d e p r iv e d o f t h e o r d in a r y b u r i a l r i t e s .
To c a l l 'I n n a so t h a t sh e may p o s s e s s a " c h i l d o f th e b 6 ri° "-^t h e drum " s a y s ,"
ke° v ' £R m&L&m
klrno* nonor
th o u d a u g h te r o f a Malam,
b r in g m ilk !
D u rin g p o s s e s s io n b y 'I n n a a p e rs o n t w i r l s t h e c h u rn in g s t i c k u s e d i n mak­
in g b u t t e r w h ile f i r s t d r in k i n g m ilk from a c a la b a s h and th e n s p i t t i n g i t
o u t.
G a.jim ari (No. 8 i n t h e p r e c e d in g t a b l e ) , a m ale 'ls k & . i s th e
o l d e s t so n o f 'I n n a .
He i s t h e Hausa r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a common West
A f r ic a n c o n c e p tio n , th e rain b o w s e r p e n t .^
He may be o b se rv e d a t t h e b o t­
tom o f w e ll s o r i n a n t h e a p s , w here he ta k e s th e form o f a sn a k e .
He c a u se s
t h e r a i n t o s to p b y a s c e n d in g i n t o t h e h eav en s t o d r in k up t h e r a i n w a te r;
hence h i s name M asaruw a, " d r i n k e r o f w a te r ."
r i s i n g as a re d l i g h t .
At su ch tim e s he may be seen
When th e r a i n i s o v e r , he s t r e t c h e s h im s e lf o u t
1 . TSais i s a te rm u s e d t o d e s ig n a te a member o f th e p o s s e s s io n c u l t .
S ee ?p. 81 'belo w ..
2 . W ith G a jim a ri we may compare Aido Hwedo, th e Dahomean rain b o w s e r ­
p e n t , H e r s k o v its (1938 b ) , 2 , 2J+7', and th e Yoruba O^umare, F arro w ( 1 9 2 ,0 ,
p . 5 0 . The l a t t e r a p p e a rs t o be th e same word a s G a jim a r i.
69
i n t h e s k y a s t h e ra in b o w o f w h ic h he i s th e re d p a r t w h ile h is c o n s o r t
R a, t h e th u n d e r d e i t y , i s t h e b l u e , 1
G a jim a ri i s i d e n t i f i e d w ith th e
bud&% a ty p e o f sn ak e b e l i e v e d t o have two h e a d s , w hich many Maguzawa s i b s
c la im a s t h e i r ’'t o t e m .1* To s e e a budcf sn ak e g l i d i n g p a s t th e house i s a
s ig n t h a t one o f t h e women i n s i d e w i l l have a c h i l d o r t h a t one o f th e
men w i l l a c q u i r e a w if e .
Ga j i m a r i *s f a v o r i t e t r e e i s th e ta m a r in d , b u t he a l s o d w e lls
on t h e kdnyd% "eb o n y t r e e .* '
S a c r i f i c e s a r e u s u a l l y made t o him a t t h e
b a s e o f one o f t h e s e t r e e s o r on an a n t h e a p , f o r he i s c o n s id e re d t o be
e x tre m e ly e v i l and i t i s n o t d e s i r e d t o have him i n th e compound.
A p e r­
so n a b o u t t o b e p o s s e s s e d by him h as h i s head c o v ere d w ith a b la c k c l o t h ,
b e c a u s e G a jim a r i i s a b la c k s p i r i t , w h ile th e drum c a l l s ,
*ddn *lnn& t&nn&k ’ i* h£n£ t&f£y&
so n o f ’I n n a , h o b b lin g p r e v e n ts w a lk in g .
The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s i s t h a t t h e g a i t o f one g iv e n stom ach t r o u b l e
by G a jim a ri i s li k e n e d t o t h a t o f a h o rs e whose h in d f e e t a r e h o b b le d .
T h is m o tio n i s i m i t a t e d b y t h e p e rs o n p o s s e s s e d b y G a jim a r i.
K ure (Wo. 14) » "m ale h y e n a ," i s a n o th e r so n o f ’I n n a .
He i s
t h e f a v o r i t e 1lsk& o f t h e Maguzawa, and t h e y c o n s id e r him p e c u l i a r l y t h e i r
own.
I n drumming t o him t h e y s a y ,
k& rjj, b o 'rin m&gdz£wA*
K u re , b o r i o f th e Maguzawa*
1.
T h is i s t h e Kano v e r s i o n . T rem earne (1914) * P» 3 4 0 , whose d a ta w ere
c o l l e c t e d a t T u n is among N o rth A f r ic a n Hausa coming from d iv e r s e r e g io n s ,
s t a t e s t h a t G a jim a ri i s an h e rm a p h ro d ite , h is m ale com ponent b e in g r e d and
h i s fe m a le com ponent b lu e .
70
When p o s s e s s e d b y h im , d e v o te e s b a r e t h e i r t e e t h and s n a r l .
T h e re i s s a i d t o b e an i l l n e s s c a u se d b y K ure i n w hich t h e v ic tim p e rfo rm s
t h i s same hyena—li k e b e h a v i o r .
ho w ev er, i s h e a d a c h e .
The s ic k n e s s m ost o f te n a t t r i b u t e d t o K u re,
K ure and Duna, th e s o n 1 o f G a jim a r i, lik e w is e
s e i z e a n d " e a t " human s o u l s . ^
The song su n g b y t h e w o rs h ip p e r o f Kure
goes:
k u r£ n b&kin r ^ 'f r
k|. sA* ruwA*
k |. cl kurwa*
t&wna’’ gAr&zln g& rd zin
h&fd iy li dl, s£wr£n kw&i&
hyena a t t h e edge o f t h e r i v e r ,
d r in k w a te r ; e a t a s o u l;
chew i t (m aking t h e n o is e ) g & razin gkr&zln;
sw allow i t w h ile t h e r e i s s t i l l some l i f e l e f t i n i t .
K u re 1 s f a v o r i t e h a u n t i s t h e d& si t r e e .
M ost Maguzawa have one o f th e s e
t r e e s i n t h e i r compounds a t w hich s a c r i f i c e s t o K ure and o th e r s p i r i t s a r e
m ade.
Such a s a c r e d trefe i s c a l l e d a .iig o °. 11p o l e , ” and J ig o i s an a l t e r n a ­
t i v e name o f K u re .^
A t t h e b a s e o f th e .iigo° i s an im plem ent a s s o c i a t e d w ith
K u re , a s m a ll wooden ke'Tet " th ro w in g s t i c k , " s p a t t e r e d w ith t h e b lo o d o f
s a c rific e s .
On t h e bough o f th e dlCsif t r e e alw ay s h an g s a s m a ll go u rd
c o n t a in in g giy&% " g u in e a c o rn b e e r , " s i n c e K u re, l i k e a l l t r u e Maguzawa,
lik e s b e e r.
K ure i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w ith b o x in g , th e n a t i o n a l s p o r t o f th e Magu­
zaw a.
A t b o 'r i p e rfo rm a n c e s w here many " c h il d r e n o f t h e b o r i " c o n g r e g a te ,
1.
The c o n n e c tio n o f th e s e s p i r i t s w ith w i t c h c r a f t , w hich i s d e f in e d
among t h e H ausa, a s i n many o t h e r p a r t s o f A f r ic a , a s th e " e a tin g " o f s o u l s ,
i s d is c u s s e d on p . 8 0 belo w .
2.
K ru s iu s ( 1 9 1 5 ) , p . 299* fo u n d o t h e r t r e e s b e s id e th e dSsi" i n u se a s
.if g o s , among them t h e cer1d iv a ’ and k a 1d£ny£r. I n th e d i s t r i c t s w here th e
p r e s e n t work was done o n ly t h e d£s£ was fo u n d a s a .iigfe; i t was d e f i n i t e l y
a s s o c i a t e d w ith K ure.
71
h e b o x es w ith t h e s p i r i t Jam m arke, h i s jo k in g r e l a t i o n ( c r o s s —c o u s in ) and
t h e tw o exchange i n s u l t s *
B e fo re g o in g i n t o a b o x in g m a tc h , a s a c r i f i c e
i s made t o Kure*
'D an G aladim a (Mo. 58) i s th e son o f Malam 'A l h a j i and S araw n iy a.
He
i s a l s o c a l l e d t h e son o f h i s f a th e r * s c o n c u b in e , B ag w ariy a, " th e
Gwari woman,*' i n d e r i s i o n . 1
Hence th e v e r s e ,
*uw&kci, dli c *agee *ub^kk mdfllinii
y o u r m o th er h as t r i b a l m ark s; y o u r
f a t h e r i s a malam*
*Dan G aladim a i s a handsome young man, p o p u la r w ith women, a s p e n d t h r i f t ,
and a g a m b le r.
The b la c k c i r c l e a ro u n d t h e eye o f th e sh eep s a c r i f i c e d t o
him r e p r e s e n t s t h e k o h l w ith w h ich a young dandy p a i n t s h i s e y e l i d s .
A
w o rs h ip p e r o f *Dan G aladim a alw ay s c a r r i e s c i v e t , w hich i s th e s p i r i t ' s
" p e rfu m e ," and c o w rie s t i e d i n a h a n d k e r c h ie f , t o b e u s e d i n g am b lin g .
When p o s s e s s e d b y 'Dan G alad im a, th e d e v o te e c o v e rs h i s head
w ith a s£ k * l' cloth. ^
As t h e s p i r i t a r r i v e s , a gown o f s £ k 'l c l o t h and a
w h ite tu r b a n a r e b r o u g h t, a f a n i s p u t i n h i s hands and k o la n u ts a r e
g iv e n him .
Then t h e h a n d k e r c h ie f w ith t h e co w rie s i n s i d e makes i t s ap­
p e a ra n c e and he b e g in s t o th ro w t h e c o w r ie s , s im u la tin g g am b lin g .
T hose
p o s s e s s e d b y 'D an G aladim a g iv e e v e r y th in g th e y own, b u t God re w a rd s them
so t h a t i n a few d ay s a l l r e t u r n s , and w ith i n t e r e s t .
I t i s u s u a l l y s a i d t h a t 'D an G aladim a d o es n o t c a u se an y s i c k ­
n e s s , th o u g h som etim es w a n d e r lu s t i s a s c r ib e d t o him .
fic e n t s p i r i t .
He i s th u s a bene­
H is a d v ic e i s o f t e n s o u g h t, and w henever he r e v e a l s him­
s e l f th r o u g h a medium he i s c o n s u lte d on a l l m anner o f q u e s tio n s *
1 . The H ausa word 'd i.\ h e re t r a n s l a t e d as " s o n ," i s a p p lie d b y women
t o t h e c h i l d r e n o f r i v a l w iv e s .
2 . S a k 'l ' c l o t h i s made by w eaving b la c k and b lu e s tr a n d s i n t o a
c l o s e c h e c k e r p a t t e r n . G arm ents made o f t h i s c l o t h a r e o f te n worn b y
r i c h young men*
72
Exam ples c i t e d in c lu d e d t h e c a s e o f a man who w an ted t o know w h e th e r he
s h o u ld m a rry a c e r t a i n woman, and o f a woman who a sk e d why h e r d a u g h te r
was i l l *
The man was t o l d t o m a rry a t o n c e , w h ile th e woman was in fo rm e d
t h a t t h e h o u se sh e was l i v i n g i n had no l£lb£Rk& . " b le s s e d n e s s ^1 and t h a t
sh e s h o u ld move somewhere e ls e *
’Dan G aladim a i s d e s c r ib e d a s h av in g t h r e e w iv es who a r e a l ­
ways sq u a b b lin g *
B ecause he i s so r e c k l e s s he n e v e r h as money t o r e p a i r
t h e h u ts o f h i s com pounds, and a v e r s e sung u n d e r p o s s e s s io n b y him a l ­
lu d e s t o t h i s :
Mamnt&n* 1d£n s i r k i ,
rum& k&* d 1d £ k ! 1 °
Mohammed, son o f a k in g ( i . e . , im p o rta n t m an);
dam pness s t r i k e down th e hut*
A man who w ish e s t o s e p a r a t e a g i r l whom he lo v e s from a r i v a l
buys a " s a d d le " cock ( a r e d cock w ith a b la c k and w h ite s a d d le -s h a p e d de­
s ig n on i t s b a c k ) f o r ’Dan G aladim a and a r e d - b r e a s te d c h ic k e n f o r C ig o ro ,
h i s s e n i o r w if e .
The g i r l w i l l im m e d ia te ly d e s e r t th e r i v a l an d come to
h im , w hereupon he s a c r i f i c e s t h e a n im a ls he h as b o u g h t t o th e s e s p i r i t s
a s a th a n k -o ff e rin g .
A woman may u se th e same m ethod when tr o u b l e d b y a
r iv a l*
E*
The C u lt o f th e ’^ sk 6 k i,
1.
F a m ily R it e s
A lth o u g h anyone can ap p ro a c h t h e s p i r i t s , th e m ost im p o rta n t r i t e s
t o th em a r e f a m ily a f f a i r s a t w hich th e head o f th e compound, a c t i n g a s a
p r i e s t , o f f e r s s a c r i f i c e s f o r a l l members o f h i s compound r e l a t e d to him
in th e p a te r n a l l i n e .
S in c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n th e c u l t i s i n h e r i t e d on th e
73
f a th e r * s s i d e , s t r a n g e r s an d r e l a t i v e s on t h e m other* s s id e whose r e l i g i o u s
i n h e r i t a n c e d i f f e r s fro m t h a t o f t h e compound head p e rfo rm t h e i r r i t e s
in d e p e n d e n tly *
The p r i n c i p a l r i t u a l p e rfo rm e d f o r th e group by i t s head
c o m p rise s a s e r i e s o f s a c r i f i c e s t o s p i r i t s whose c u l t he has i n h e r i t e d
from h i s p r e d e c e s s o r .
Among th e s e s p i r i t s t h r e e g ro u p s may b e d is tin g u is h e d *
F i r s t come t h e s p i r i t s who a r e common t o a l l th e Maguzawa— Kure
•
m
and h i s w ife 'UwaRdawa, an d *Dan G aladim a and h i s w ife C ig o ro .
The o n ly
e x c e p tio n t o t h e w o rsh ip o f th e s e s p i r i t s b y Maguzawa g ro u p s i s fo u n d i n
th e c a s e o f c e r t a i n ir o n - w o r k e r s , who s a c r i f i c e t o M a k 'e r a , " a n v i l " ; the>y s a y
t h i s i s o n ly b e c a u se t h e 1i s k o k r have an a n t i p a t h y to i r o n .
The seco n d
c a te g o r y c o n s i s t s o f s p i r i t s whose w o rsh ip i s common t o a w hole s i b and
a r e r e g a r d e d b y t h e s i b members a s " to te m s ," k an g id £ *
Exam ples t h a t may
be c i t e d a r e t h e s a c r i f i c e s t o G a jim a ri an d w ife R a, p erfo rm e d i n e v e ry
h o u s e h o ld o f t h e Jig a w a c l a n , th o s e t o Bamusayi made b y a l l th e Yadamawa,
and t h e w o rsh ip o f Y*aR D o rin a b y t h e T urbaw a.
F in a lly , th e re a re s p i r i t s
who have b e e n a c q u ir e d p e r s o n a l l y b y t h e head o f t h e p a t r i l i n e a l group*
T h is a c q u i s i t i o n o f te n o c c u rs i n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e a ssu m p tio n o f a new
o c c u p a tio n .
A man who becom es a drummer l e a r n s a t th e same tim e th e
s a c r i f i c e s t o S a r k in M aka*da; a h u n te r m ust know how t o s e r v e G a je re ; and
th e i r o n —w o rk er t h e r e q u ire m e n ts o f M ak*era.
On o c c a s io n a s p i r i t i s a c ­
q u ir e d a t a b o r f p e rfo rm a n c e w here th e d e i t y , s p e a k in g th ro u g h h i s medium,
e x p r e s s e s a d e s i r e t o l i v e i n a man*s compound.
T h is happens f r e q u e n t l y
t o men whose w iv e s p r a c t i c e b frrx . s in c e t h e s p i r i t s o f t e n m a n if e s t t h e i r
d e s i r e t o b e a d o p te d by t h e h u sb an d s o f t h e i r fem a le d ev o tees*
A ll o f
t h e s e s p i r i t s , i t m ust be s t a t e d , w h e th e r i n h e r i t e d o r a c q u ir e d , a r e
handed down t o a m a n 's d e s c e n d a n ts .
The c h i e f o c c a s io n s on w hich t h e fa m ily s a c r i f i c e s a r e c a r r i e d
Ik
o u t a r e a t t h e commencement o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l seaso n — th e s o - c a l l e d
b a z d r £ , t h e h o t s e a s o n b e f o r e t h e f i r s t r a i n s , and a t h a r v e s t- t im e .
T h is
w ould seem t o p o i n t t h e i r p r i n c i p a l o r i e n t a t i o n to w ard th e a tta in m e n t o f
a g r ic u ltu r a l p ro s p e rity .
The n a t i v e s , how ever, couch su ch e x p la n a tio n s a s
t h e y o f f e r i n v e r y g e n e r a l te r m s , g iv in g su ch re a s o n s a s " t h a t e v e r y th in g
s h o u ld be w e l l , " o r " t h a t we may p r o s p e r ."
The p r im a r y s a c r i f i c e t o each s p i r i t i s a sh eep o r g o a t , b u t a
c h ic k e n may b e s u b s t i t u t e d i f a man f i n d s th e l a r g e r o f f e r i n g to o b u rd en ­
some.
The f o llo w in g i s a s c h e d u le o f th e b £ z£ rd s a c r i f i c e s made b y a mem­
b e r o f t h e Jig a w a s i b :
Name o f S p i r i t
Day and Time
K ure
T h u rsd ay n ig h t
E n tra n c e t o com­- Red h e -g o a t
pound
1UwaRdawa
T h u rsd ay n ig h t
E n tra n c e t o
compound
Red c h ic k e n w ith t a i l
and f e a t h e r s s e t a t an
a n g le
G a jim a ri
T h u rsd a y n ig h t
E n tra n c e t o
compound
B la ck sh eep w ith w h ite
navel
Ra
T h u rsd a y n ig h t
E n tra n c e t o
compound
B lack c h ic k e n w ith
w h ite f e e t
G oje
T h u rsd ay n ig h t
Anywhere i n
compound
Red and w h ite g o a t
'Dan G aladim a
F r id a y m o rn in g
P re p a re d open
p la c e i n compound 2
Sheep w ith b la c k c i r c l e
aro u n d one eye
C ig o ro
F r id a y
P re p a re d open
p la c e i n com­
pound.
R e d -b re a s te d c h ic k e n
P la c e
A nim al S a c r i f i c e d
1.
S in c e f o r t h e Maguzawa t h e day b e g in s i n Mohammedan f a s h io n a t sundown,
T h u rsd a y n ig h t i s th e f i r s t p a r t o f F r id a y . The p r i n c i p l e in v o lv e d i s t h a t th e
b la c k s p i r i t s r e c e iv e t h e i r s a c r i f i c e s a t ,n i g h t , and th e w h ite s p i r i t s d u rin g
t h e d a y . The d ay u s u a l l y s e l e c t e d i s F r id a y , a s m t h i s c a s e , o r Sunday. F r id a y
and Sunday a r e th e im p o r ta n t days o f th e Mohammedan w eek.
2
T h is c l e a r e d p la c e r e p r e s e n t s t h e p r a y e r r e c t a n g l e , m arked o u t b y a Mos­
lem b e f o r e p r a y in g . A ll t h e s a c r i f i c e s t o "Mohammedan" s p i r i t s a r e made a t
t h i s p la c e .
75
I n m aking th e s a c r i f i c e , t h e a n im a l i s k i l l e d w ith an i r o n k n i f e ,
t h e t h r o a t o f t h e a n im a l b e in g s l i t so t h a t t h e j u g u l a r v e in i s s e v e re d .
When t h e b lo o d s p u r t s f o r t h th e o p e r a t o r a d d r e s s e s t h e s p i r i t to whom th e
o f f e r i n g i s b e in g made w ith th e w o rd s, ’’S o -a n d -s o , h e re i s b lo o d .
iti”
D rin k
The b lo o d flo w s i n t o one o f two p r e v io u s l y p re p a re d h o le s , each ab o u t
one f o o t i n d ia m e te r .
The one w h ich r e c e i v e s th e b lo o d i s im m e d ia te ly
co v e re d w ith a s to n e " so t h a t th e dogs won’ t g e t a t i t , " a h ap p en in g w hich
w ould a n g e r th e s p i r i t s .
The o t h e r h o le r e c e iv e s th e e n t r a i l s .
I f th e
s a c r i f i c e i s a c h ic k e n , a f e a t h e r i s i n s e r t e d i n t h e ground " a s a w itn e s s ”
f o r " a l l b lo o d lo o k s th e sam e,”
The c a r c a s s i s r o a s te d o r b o i l e d , a c c o rd ­
in g t o t h e s p i r i t t h a t i s th e r e c i p i e n t o f t h e o f f e r i n g . ^
I t i s th e n
e a te n b y members o f th e h o u se h o ld ; some o f i t , how ever, i s r e s e r v e d f o r
d i s t r i b u t i o n a s a s&d&k& .2
M en tio n s h o u ld be made a t t h i s p o in t o f a r i t e c a r r i e d o u t b y
t h e h ead o f t h e p a t r i l i n e a l group i n c o n ju n c tio n w ith th e s a c r i f i c e s j u s t
d e s c r ib e d .
The r i t e c o n s i s t s o f t h e p r e p a r a t io n s o f giimbcL*. " m i l l e t f l o u r
and w a t e r , ” hung up
o v e r n ig h t i n a c a la b a s h . I n th e m orning i t i s ta k e n
down, *milk ad d ed t o
sbme o f i t , and t h i s p o r ti o n i s drunk b y th e members
o f th e h o u se h o ld and d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e n e ig h b o rs a s sddAkA.
The rem ain­
in g p a r t , w ith o u t m ilk , i s s c a t t e r e d on th e f l o o r o f a l l th e h u t s , i n th e
c o m s to r e h o u s e s an d on t h e .ii'gfr o f d£s£‘ wood s a c r e d t o Kure and th e
m odel h u t s a c r e d t o
’I n n a , i f t h e r e i s one i n th e compound.
No e x p la n a ­
t i o n c o u ld b e g iv e n o f t h i s r i t e , one o f th e r a r e r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s o f
1 , No p a r t i c u l a r p r i n c i p l e c o u ld he d is c o v e re d t o e x p la in t h i s d i s ­
tin c tio n ,
2 , Si.di.kh; from t h e A ra b ic s a d a q a , " a lm s ,” i n Hausa u sag e r e f e r s to
an y f r e e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f goods w ith p io u s i n t e n t i o n .
76
t h e Maguzawa a p p a r e n t l y u n c o n n e c te d w ith t h e c u l t o f th e 'i s k o k i .
I t is
p o s s i b l e t h a t i t was o r i g i n a l l y an o f f e r i n g t o an a u to c h th o n o u s e a r t h
d e i t y , f o r among t h e M ossi a p o r t i o n o f s i m i l a r p r e p a r a t io n c a l l e d zomkom.
d e s c r ib e d a s " b o u i l l i e trfe s l i q u i d e d e f a r i n e de m i l , 1* i s s p i l l e d upon
th e g ro u n d f o r t h e e a r t h d e i t y , Tenga^ an d t h e r e s t i s consumed.
The o n ly o t h e r o c c a s io n on w h ich t h e head o f t h e p a t r i l i n e a l
group f u n c t i o n s a s r e l i g i o u s head i s a t a m a rr ia g e .
The f r i e n d s o f th e
groom sen d t h e a n im a ls r e q u ir e d f o r th e n e c e s s a r y s a c r i f i c e s , and th e
r i t e i s p e rfo rm e d b y t h e f a m ily o f th e b r id e d u r in g th e week o f th e mar­
r i a g e , w hen, on t h e a p p r o p r ia te d a y s , th e s e an im a ls a r e o f f e r e d t o t h e
s p i r i t s b y t h e h ead o f t h e b r id e * s p a t r i l i n e a l g ro u p .
The o t h e r c r i s e s
o f l i f e — b i r t h , c irc u m c is io n and d e a th — a r e n o t o r d i n a r i l y m arked b y o f­
f e r i n g s t o th e s p i r i t s .
At t h e b i r t h o f a l e p e r 's c h i l d , an an im a l i s
k i l l e d f o r th e s p i r i t who c a u s e s l e p r o s y , G o je , so t h a t th e c h i l d may n o t
c o n tra c t th e d is e a s e .
T h is s a c r i f i c e , how ever, i s g iv e n by th e c h i l d 's
f a t h e r , who i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e head o f th e p a t r i l i n e a l g ro u p .
2.
The P u b lic C u lt
The p u b li c c u l t c a r r i e d on i n Kano r e p r e s e n t s an e l a b o r a ti o n o f
t h e d o m e stic c u l t , a s w i l l b e a p p a re n t from t h e fu n d a m e n ta l s i m i l a r i t y r e ­
v e a le d i n d e s c r i p t i o n s o f th em .
No p u b lic r i t e s f o r th e community a s a
w hole a r e p e rfo rm e d b y th e Maguzawa who form th e s u b je c t o f th e p r e s e n t
s tu d y , th o u g h e v id e n c e o f some o b s e r v e r s seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t th e r e g io n
a b o u t Gwarzo w here t h i s s tu d y was made i s e x c e p tio n a l i n i t s la c k o f any
1.
T a u x ie r (1 9 1 7 )* P» 338*
77
c e re m o n ie s o f t h i s k in d .
K ru s iu s s t a t e s t h a t th e S a r k in 'ARna, " k in g
o f t h e p a g a n s ," c a r r i e d o u t a "communal s a c r i f i c e " (G em eindeopfer) b u t
g iv e s no d e t a i l s . 1
I n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e p o r t r e l a t i n g t o th e Maguzawa
o f K a z a u re , a s m a ll E m ira te t o th e n o r t h o f K ano, M acB ride d e s c r ib e s th e
S a r k in Noma, " k in g o f f a r m in g ," a s p e rfo rm in g s a c r i f i c e s f o r th e e n t i r e
v illa g e .^
The Kutumbawa k in g s o f Kano seem t o have p erfo rm e d p u b lic c e re ­
m onies w hose p u rp o s e was t h e w e lf a r e o f th e e n t i r e c o u n try , cerem o n ies
w hich w ere s u p p re s s e d b y t h e F u la n i when th e y to o k pow er.
B ecause alm o st
a c e n tu r y an d a h a l f h as e la p s e d s in c e th e s e r i t e s w ere l a s t p e rfo rm e d ,
how ever, an d p e rh a p s a l s o b e c a u se o f t h e i r s e n s a t i o n a l n a t u r e , in v o lv in g
human s a c r i f i c e , a s t h e y d i d , i t was n o t p o s s i b le t o g e t a d e s c r i p t i o n o f
them i n a n y p r e c i s e te r m s .
The e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f th e s e r i t e s w ere s a c r i ­
f i c e s t o a number o f ’isk o k i- a t t h r e e s a c r e d p la c e s i n Kano C it y .
The
f i r s t o f th e s e was a t K’o f a r Ruwa, " g a te o f w a te r ," n e a r th e a n c i e n t p a l­
a c e i n w h ich a l l t h e Kutumbawa k in g s p r e v io u s t o Mohammed Rumfa ( I 463 —
1499) r e s i d e d .
The seco n d p la c e was t h e w e ll o f M ayburgami, s a c r e d t o
G a jim a ri an d ’Dan M usa.
L a s t l y , t h e r e was a g ro v e known a s Kurrain Bak’i n
Ruwa, " th e g ro v e o f b la c k w a te r ," c o n ta in in g a s a c r e d t r e e c a l l e d C 'a b i b i .
T h is g ro v e was n e a r J a k a r a , a s tre a m w hich ru n s th r o u g h Kano C ity .
These
s a c r i f i c e s w ere made on t h e a v e ra g e o f e v e r y two o r t h r e e y e a r s ; th e y d id
1 . K r u s iu s ( 1 9 1 $ ) , p . 2 9 7 . The e x a c t l o c a le o f K r u s iu s ’ work i s no­
w here s t a t e d , b u t i n t e r n a l e v id e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t was somewhere i n
n o r th e r n Z a r i a p r o v in c e , an d t h e r e f o r e c o n s id e r a b ly t o th e s o u th o f th e
l o c a l i t y i n w h ich t h e p r e s e n t work was c a r r i e d on.
2 . T h is in f o r m a tio n was o b ta in e d fro m an u n p u b lis h e d document made
a v a i l a b l e b y t h e k in d n e s s o f t h e D i s t r i c t O f f ic e r a t Kano.
78
n o t o c c u r a t an y f i x e d t i m e , b u t w henever th e k in g , on th e a d v ic e o f h is
c o u n s e l l o r s , deemed i t n e c e s s a ry *
The o c c a s io n was u s u a l l y some untow ard
e v e n t , a s f o r i n s t a n c e a p ro lo n g e d d ro u g h t o r la c k o f s u c c e s s i n w arfare*
When a cerem ony o f t h i s k in d had been d e c id e d up o n ,
c h i e f men w ere summoned fro m t h e i r v i l l a g e s .
a l l th e
I n t h e i r p re s e n c e th e k in g
s a c r i f i c e d t h e a n im a ls a p p r o p r ia te t o th e c h i e f 'is k o k i- * K u re, 'Dan
G alad im a, G a jim a ri and 'D an M usa.
T hese a n im a ls w ere o f f e r e d i n t h e same
m anner a s t h a t d e s c r ib e d above i n c o n n e c tio n w ith t h e d o m e stic c u l t , th e
h ig h p o i n t o f t h e cerem ony com ing when t h e b la c k b e a s t s f o r J a n g a re
( S a r k in 'A l j a n , " k in g o f th e J i n n " ) , in c lu d in g a b la c k b u l l , w ere k i l l e d .
A cco rd in g t o one in f o r m a n t, i t was deemed n e c e s s a r y t o g iv e J a n g a re a
human s a c r i f i c e once i n e v e r y t e n o r f i f t e e n y e a r s .
The v ic tim so s e le c te d
was " b la c k " — t h a t i s , v e r y h e a v i ly p ig m en ted — and had t o be a y o u th o f f r e e
s ta tu s .
He was k id n a p p e d from t h e m a rk e t- p la c e by th e k i n g 's men.
T h is ,
t h e m ost v a lu a b le s a c r i f i c e o f a l l , c o u ld o n ly be o f f e r e d b y th e k in g ,
w h ile among t h e s p i r i t s o n ly t h e " k in g o f th e J in n " was p r i v i l e g e d t o r e ­
c e iv e it.-*2.
I n d i v i d u a l A sp e cts
I t h as a l r e a d y b e e n s t a t e d t h a t anyone may ap p ro ac h t h e s p i r i t s
s e p a r a t e l y f o r p e r s o n a l e n d s , and i n s ta n c e s o f t h i s have been e n c o u n te re d
i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n g iv e n o f i n d i v i d u a l ' Isk&v
The s a c r i f i c e s made by
b o x e rs t o K ure an d Jaramarke b e f o r e a c o n t e s t , and th e o f f e r in g s t o f o r e s t
s p i r i t s made b y h u n te r s b e f o r e s e t t i n g o u t on t h e i r q u e s t may be c i t e d a s
t y p i c a l e x am p les.
A n o th er l a r g e c l a s s o f i n d i v i d u a l o f f e r i n g s , w hich w i l l
1.
T h is same phenom enon, w h ich h as im p o rta n t econom ic im p l i c a t i o n s , i s
t o be o b s e rv e d i n Dahomey, w here human s a c r i f i c e was a r o y a l p r e r o g a t iv e ,
H e rs k o v its (1938 b ) , 2 , 55*
79
b e d is c u s s e d l a t e r , c o m p ris e s s a c r i f i c e s made b y a b o k a . "a pagan m e d icin e
m an ,1' t o c o n c i l i a t e a s p i r i t who i s th e cau se o f a p a t i e n t 's i l l n e s s .
A ll
t h e s e , i t may b e n o te d , a r e exam ples o f l e g i t i m a t e a c t i v i t y , c a r r i e d on
o p e n ly w ith t h e f u l l know ledge o f th e community f o r s o c i a l l y ap p ro v ed ends*
I n c o n t r a s t , a more s i n i s t e r a s p e c t o f i n d i v i d u a l d e a lin g s w ith
th e s p i r i t s was h i n t e d a t i n th e c a s e o f su ch a s a c r i f i c e a s t h a t t o 'Dan
V”
G aladim a an d C ig o ro made b y a je a lo u s l o v e r . 1
T h is i s b u t one in s ta n c e o f
th e s y s te m a tic c u l t i v a t i o n o f s i n g l e s p i r i t s b y i n d i v i d u a l s , u s u a l l y f o r
a n t i —s o c i a l p u r p o s e s , su c h p r a c t i c e s b e in g known t o t h e Maguzawa a s
" k e e p in g a dodo* ( i . e . , e v i l s p i r i t ) i n th e h o u s e ."
I t in v o lv e s s a c r i f i c e s
t o b u sh s p i r i t s i n s i d e t h e compound i n s t e a d o f a t t h e a p p r o p r ia te p la c e s
i n t h e b u s h , t o i n s u r e t h e c o n tin u o u s p re s e n c e o f th e s p i r i t i n th e com­
pound.
A p p a r e n tly i t i s t o a v o id im p u ta tio n s o f t h i s k in d o f co n d u ct
t h a t th o s e n o t b e n t on e v i l who s a c r i f i c e to th e b u sh s p i r i t s a r e c a r e f u l
t o do so o u t s i d e t h e i r compounds.
I f one a s k s a man why, f o r i n s t a n c e , he
s a c r i f i c e s t o G a jim a ri a t a ta m a rin d t r e e , and n o t i n h is compound, th e
u s u a l r e p l y i s " s o p e o p le w i l l n o t s a y t h a t I k eep a dbdo i n th e h o u s e ."
A s p i r i t may a l s o be b ro u g h t i n t o th e s e r v ic e o f a p e rs o n by alw ays h av in g
o n hand an a n im a l s a c r e d to t h i s s p i r i t .
The s p i r i t h o v e rs a b o u t, d rin k ­
in g t h e b lo o d o f th e a n im a l u n t i l i t w eakens and d i e s ; i t m ust th e n be
r e p la c e d b y a n o t h e r .
T h is m eth o d , how ever, does n o t le n d i t s e l f t o s e c r e c y ,
and th u s u s u a l l y s e r v e s more l e g i t i m a t e e n d s , su ch a s s e r v in g n o ti c e on
t h i e v e s , o r on t h o s e who w ould work e v i l m agic a g a i n s t th e owner o f th e
a n im a l, t h a t he i s a d e q u a te ly p r o t e c t e d .
When s e c r e t s a c r i^ ^ p e s have b ro u g h t th e s p i r i t i n t o a man 1s
isielk?T/ice, h is enemy w i l l s u f f e r th e s p e c i f i c d is e a s e t h i s s p i r i t b r i n g s .
1.
See p . 72 ab o v e.
80
At t h e tim e s a c r i f i c e s a r e m ade, th e s p i r i t i s u s u a l l y a sk e d t o harm th e
v i c t i m , who i s m e n tio n e d b y name*
S om etim es, how ever, th e s p i r i t w i l l
s p o n ta n e o u s ly b r i n g harm t o th o s e who a r e u n f r ie n d l y t o h is d e v o te e , o r
who have i n j u r e d him .
The m ost d re a d e d a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e
a r e t h o s e w here R a, t h e th u n d e r d e i t y , o r th e " w itc h s p i r i t s , " who s t e a l
s o u l s , a r e in v o lv e d *
The w o rs h ip p e r o f Ra k i l l s a c h ic k e n f o r h e r , th e
b lo o d b e in g a llo w e d t o r u n o v e r a " th u n d e r s to n e ."
He i s s a i d t o sm ear
h i s own body w ith t h e b lo o d , b u t no e x p la n a tio n c o u ld be e l i c i t e d t o ex­
p l a i n why t h i s was d o n e.
S u p p lic a tio n s a r e th e n o f f e r e d t o Ra t h a t she
s t r i k e i n enemy o r h i s compound w ith l i g h t n i n g .
By o f f e r i n g s t o Duna,
K *.aK *ari, o r one o f th e o t h e r " w itc h s p i r i t s , " one can b e a s s u r e d t h a t he
w i l l s e i z e an d e a t th e w a n d e rin g " s o u l ," kurwa-. o f an enemy w h ile i t s owner
i s a s l e e p , th u s c a u s in g h i s d e a th .
C ases o f t h i s k in d , i n w hich t h e , ls k lf " e a t s " th e s o u l, m ust be
c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d fro m th o s e i n w hich human w itc h e s , m ale o r fe m a le ,
c a p tu r e and " e a t" th e s o u l o f a v ic tim .
T h is k in d o f w i t c h c r a f t i s be­
l i e v e d t o be i n h e r i t e d i n t h e fem a le l i n e , th ro u g h th e m o t h e r s m ilk .
If
a man m a r r ie s su ch a w i t c h , h e r husband* s f a m ily g iv e h e r a s h i l l i n g on
t h e day sh e b e a r s a c h i l d s a y in g , "We have bo u g h t y o u r m ilk ."
The c h i ld
i s th e n g iv e n t o a co—w ife o r h i r e d n u r s e to s u c k le so t h a t t h e r e w i l l be
no chance o f i t s becom ing one o f th e s e c r e a t u r e s .
The w itc h h a rb o rs no
m a lic e a g a i n s t h e r v i c t i m , b u t s im p ly h as a c r a v in g w hich m ust be s a t i s ­
f i e d a t l e a s t once e v e r y y e a r .
The s o u l o f th e w itc h g e n e r a lly h u n ts f o r
v ic tim s i n c o n ju n c tio n w ith one o f th e 1jskcT who c a tc h e s s o u ls , and th e
p r e y i s s u b s e q u e n tly d iv id e d b etw een them .
The v ic tim o f w i t c h c r a f t upon aw akening f e e l s a g e n e r a l d e b i l i t y
an d b e g in s t o v o m it b lo o d .
A d o c to r (b okd) i s im m e d ia te ly summoned and
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a s c e r t a i n s w h ich fisk&* h as s e iz e d th e s o u l , u s u a l l y b y a p r o c e s s o f d i v i ­
n a tio n .
He t h e n p r e s c r i b e s t h e p r o p e r m ed icin e*
One o f th e s e c u r e s , f o r
I n s t a n c e , an i n f u s i o n o f 1dduwlc, m&rke* and kAnyA" w h ich i s o rd e re d when
Duna l a s s t o l e n t h e v i c t i m 's s o u l , r e p r e s e n t s a k in d o f s y m p a th e tic m agic
b e c a u se Duna i s b e l ie v e d t o d w e ll a t th e *Aduwtr o r kdnyA* tr e e *
An a n im al
i s th e n s a c r i f i c e d t o D una, b y s ta n d e r s a s w e ll a s t h e v ic tim p a r ta k in g o f
i t s f le s h *
I f th e one who h a s '’e a te n " a s o u l i s a human b e in g and th e
v ic tim knows h i s nam e, he i s s e iz e d and f o r c e d t o w alk o v e r th e v ic tim
t h r e e ti m e s .
By t h i s p r o c e s s , th e s o u l o f th e s ic k p e rs o n comes o u t from
u n d e r t h e gown o f t h e w itc h and goes b ack t o i t s owner who th e n r e c o v e r s .
k*
P o s s e s s io n ( B o r i)
I n d i s c u s s in g th e p o s s e s s io n c u l t known a s b o 'ri'* we m ust d i s ­
t i n g u i s h th o s e s im p le i n d i v i d u a l p e rfo rm a n c e s among th e Maguzawa, c a r r i e d
on f o r s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e s , from th e p e rfo rm a n c e s o f th e B o ri s o c i e t i e s
whose aim i s p r i n c i p a l l y t o g iv e am usem ent, and w h ich r e q u i r e s th e u se o f
e l a b o r a t e co stu m es and o t h e r p a r a p h e r n a lia , and a r e c a r r i e d on i n th e p re ­
se n c e o f a l a r g e number o f p e rfo rm e rs and s p e c t a t o r s .
B oth i n th e sim p le
c u l t o f t h e v i l l a g e s and i n i t s more e l a b o r a t e m a n if e s ta t io n s met w ith i n
th e c i t i e s , t h e u n d e r ly in g p r i n c i p l e s o f p o s s e s s io n and i n i t i a t i o n a r e
t h e same*
A m ale member o f t h e c u l t i s known a s a "so n o f b o r i " and a
82
fe m a le member a s " d a u g h te r o f th e bo’r l V ' I th o u g h women p re d o m in a te t o a
m arked d e g re e i n t h e m em bership o f th e c u l t . 2
The r e l a t i o n o f th e s p i r i t
t o t h e one p o s s e s s e d i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e m etap h o r o f a h o rs e and r i d e r .
The p o s s e s s e d one i s , a c c o r d in g t o s e x , th e " h o r s e 11 o r "m are 11 o f th e
s p ir it.^
The b e g in n in g o f p o s s e s s io n i s a p r o c e s s o f th e s p i r i t "m ounting"
(h£w) h i s d i s c i p l e , t h e end o f i t " d ism o u n tin g " ( s |w k £ ) .
The f a c t t h a t th e
s p i r i t h as d e p a r te d i s m arked b y th e d e v o te e rs s n e e z in g o r c o u g h in g .^
1* The u s e o f " c h il d " i n H ausa i s i d i o m a t ic , m eaning no more th a n "con­
n e c te d w ith " ; e . g . , w a te r c a r r i e r s a r e c a l l e d y !£n ruwA. " c h il d r e n o f th e
w a te r ." The u s e o f k in s h ip te rm s to e x p re s s th e r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een th e
god and t h e one he p o s s e s s e s i s common i n West A f r ic a . Among th e Y oruba,
th e c h i l d r e n o f a p a r t i c u l a r o r i s h a a r e c a l l e d " c h il d r e n o f th e o r i s ha"
th o u g h t h i s d o es n o t n e c e s s a r i l y im p ly p o s s e s s io n (Bascom (1 9 3 9 ), P* 3 9 ).
Among B r a z i l i a n N e g ro e s, r e p r e s e n t i n g an amalgam o f v a r io u s West A fric a n
c u l t s , t h e te rm s f i l h o de s a n t o . "so n o f th e s p i r i t , " and f i l h a de s a n t o .
" d a u g h te r o f t h e s p i r i t , " a r e i n u s e f o r members o f th e p o s s e s s io n c u l t
(Ramos ( 1 9 3 4 ) , P* AS). A n o th er k in s h ip te rm i s i n u se i n Dahomey w here
th e d e v o te e i s known a s v o d i^ si« " w ife o f t h e s p i r i t , " (H e r s k o v its (1938 b ) ,
2 , 16a) • T h is re s e m b le s th e te rm in o lo g y em ployed i n t h e E g y p tia n z a r
c u l t , w here t h e woman p o s s e s s e d i s known a s th e " b r id e o f th e z a r ~(Kahle
( 1 9 1 2 ) , p . 1 3 ) . We a r e o b v io u s ly d e a lin g w ith a d e e p - s e a te d and w id e ly
d i s t r i b u t e d p a t t e r n o f te r m in o l o g ic a l u s a g e .
2 . O n ly women p a r t i c i p a t e i n th e Ju k u n Yaku C u lt (Meek (1 9 3 1 ), P* 278)
and i n t h e E g y p tia n z a r (K ah le (1 9 1 2 ), p . 1 3 ) . H e rs k o v its (1938 b ) , 2 ,
1 77, n o te d th e pred o m in an ce o f women in : t h e p o s s e s s io n c u l t o f Dahomey.
3 . T h is e x p r e s s io n i s v e r y w id e s p re a d . I n th e E g y p tia n z_ap c u l t i t
i s s a i d o f t h e z a r . " s p i r i t , " " . . . . d e r Z ar s i t z t a u f i h r w ie e in R e i te r
a u f sein em R e i t t i e r " (W in k le r ( 1 9 3 5 ), P* 1 6 ) . I n E gypt a man p o s s e s s e d by
a dead s a i n t i s s a i d t o be h i s "cam el" ( i b i d . , p . 6 7 ) . Among New W orld
N egroes th e e x p r e s s io n i s common. I n B r a z i l th e p o s s e s s e d p e rs o n i s th e
c a v a lh o de s a n t o . " h o r s e o f th e s p i r i t " (Ramos (1 9 3 4 ), P« 1 7 0 ), and i n
H a i t i h i s ch * w al. o r " h o rs e " (H e r s k o v its (1 9 3 7 ), P* 1 4 6 ).
4« D o u tte m e n tio n s a s e c r e t s o c i e t y o f N egroes i n N o rth A f r ic a c a l l e d
G henaoua, a l a r g e number o f whose members a r e p resu m ab ly H ausa. He ob—^
s e rv e d i n a p e rfo rm a n c e a t M arrak esh t h a t th e y sn eeze a t th e end o f t h e i r
p o s s e s s io n and t h i s i s a s ig n t h a t th e s p i r i t has d e p a r te d .
83
A p e r s o n becomes a member o f "the b frri c u l t i n two p r i n c i p a l w ays.
One m ethod i s b y i n h e r i t a n c e , w here th e s p i r i t s t h a t w ere "on th e head" o f
t h e p a r e n t come t o one c h i l d . T o f a c i l i t a t e t h i s t r a n s f e r , a f i g u r e o f
th e f o llo w in g sh ap e sewn i n r e d l e a t h e r i s w orn a b o u t th e n eck b y th e
c h ild o f an i n i t i a t e .
I t i s s a i d t o b e t h e t h r o w in g - s ti e k o f N akada.
When th e p a r e n t d i e s ,
Nakada shows t h e s t i c k t o a l l t h e s p i r i t s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c h i l d i s a
t r u e " c h i l d o f t h e bo‘r f ,tl and can p r a c t i c e b& rr w ith o u t i n i t i a t i o n .
T h is
d e v ic e i s n o t alw ay s em ployed; in d e e d , i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s i n w hich
bori* was i n h e r i t e d , i t was fo u n d t h a t an i n i t i a t i o n cerem ony had been
p e rfo rm e d .2
The o t h e r way i n w h ich a p e r s o n j o i n s th e bori* c u l t i s a s a
r e s u l t o f an i l l n e s s c au sed b y th e s p i r i t s .
A f te r a l l k in d s o f rem e d ies
have b een t r i e d , i t i s c u sto m ary t o c o n s u lt th e " c h il d r e n o f th e b&ri*."
•
i
A " c h i l d o f t h e bfrri*" u n d e r p o s s e s s io n t e l l s th e s ic k p e rs o n t h a t h is
o n ly hope o f r e c o v e r y i s i n i t i a t i o n i n t o th e bcrrr c u l t , s in c e one p a r t i ­
c u l a r s p i r i t h a s ca u se d th e i l l n e s s t o i n d i c a t e h is d e s i r e f o r th e v ic tim
a s h i s "m o u n t."
The p r e s c r ib e d i n i t i a t i o n r i t e i s th e n c a r r i e d o u t a s
soon a s p o s s i b l e , b e c a u s e , a s th e n a t i v e s p h ra s e d i t i n th e c a s e o f one
" d a u g h te r o f t h e b b r i , " " sh e h as th e s p i r i t s on h e r head b u t sh e d o e s n 't
know t h e i r w o rk ."
The cerem ony o f i n i t i a t i o n i s known a s g ir k a * " b o i l i n g ."
The
1 . The same p h r a s e o lo g y i s em ployed i n Dahomey, w here " th e h e i r m ust
be in d u c te d i n t o t h e c u l t group to l e a r n th e r i t u a l b e f o r e vodi^ w i l l come
i n t o h i s h ead "' ( H e r s k o v its (193® b ) , 2 , 1 7 8 ).
2 . I n Arewa c o u n try ( f a r t o th e w est o f K an o ), H a r r is (1 9 3 0 , p . 333,
r e p o r t s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a cerem ony c a l l e d Kwokwoba h e ld sev en days a f t e r
t h e d e a th o f a " c h i l d o f th e bo’r i " t o a s c e r t a i n w hich one o f th e c h i ld r e n
o f t h e d e c e a se d th e s p i r i t s w i l l p o s s e s s .
64
p e r s o n t o be i n i t i a t e d
c u l t and can t e a c h
goes t o some one
who i s a l r e a d y a member o f th e
him how t o be p o s s e s s e d b y th e s p i r i t t r o u b l i n g him .
T h is p e r s o n i s known a c c o r d in g t o s e x a s th e »ftban girka*. " f a t h e r o f t h e
b o i l i n g , " o r 1uwaR g i r k a \ "m o th er o f t h e b o i l i n g . "
The i n i t i a t e i s ta u g h t
t o b e p o s s e s s e d n o t o n ly b y th e one who h as cau sed h i s s i c k n e s s , b u t b y a
w hole r e p e r t o r y o f s p i r i t s , who w i l l t h e r e a f t e r p o s s e s s him when summoned.
The girkA* u s u a l l y l a s t s f o u r t e e n days d u r in g w h ich th e n eo p h y te
i s s e c lu d e d ,T o n ly i s s u i n g f o r t h i n th e m o rn in g t o c o l l e c t th e wood and
le a v e s r e q u ir e d f o r th e m e d ic in e s he i s g iv e n .
An in f u s i o n o f many d i f f e r ­
e n t k in d s o f wood, s t a t e d b y one in fo rm a n t t o number a s many a s 3 6 3 , i s
d ru n k ; a n o th e r p ro c e d u re i s t o pow der wood from th e k 1iry^i* and r&pkaw t r e e s ,
p la c e them on a womanf s g r in d i n g s t o n e , and g iv e them t o th e i n i t i a t e t o
e a t w h ile he k e e p s
h i s hands b e h in d h i s
back.
c in e s i s t o i n s u r e
th e n e o p h y te a g a i n s t
harm from t h e v i o l e n t le a p s c h a r­
a c t e r i s t i c o f th e b o r i dance.
The o b je c t o f th e s e m edi­
They a r e a d m in is te r e d d u r in g t h e f i r s t t h r e e
days o f t h e r i t u a l , w h ile t h e i n i t i a t e i s i n s e c lu s i o n w ith th e " f a t h e r "
o r "m o th e r o f t h e b o i l i n g . "
D u rin g t h i s p e r io d he i s a l s o ta u g h t t h e
so n g s sun g u n d e r p o s s e s s io n , and t h e drum rhythm s b y w hich th e s p i r i t s a r e
c a l l e d o r rh y th m s p la y e d on t h e g&r£y£. a s t r i n g e d in s tr u m e n t u se d m a in ly
a t t h e s e b o ri' r i t e s .
On t h e f o u r t h d ay th e g£r£yd p la y e r s and a l l t h e
" c h i l d r e n o f th e . b o r i " i n th e n e ig h b o rh o o d come and f o r e le v e n days g iv e
p e rfo rm a n c e s m o rn in g and e v e n in g , d u rin g w hich t h e i n i t i a t e i s p o s s e s s e d
a lo n g w ith t h e o t h e r " c h i l d r e n o f t h e b f r r i. 11 T h e r e a f te r th e new " c h i l d o f
t h e b o T i" can in d u c e p o s s e s s io n w henever he so d e s i r e s by a r r a n g in g a
1.
Compare th e s ta te m e n t o f Meek ( 1 9 3 1 ), p . 2 7 9 , i n r e g a r d t o th e
Yaku p o s s e s s io n c u l t among th e Ju k u n , t h a t b e fo re becom ing a member t h e r e
i s a p e r io d o f f o u r te e n days d u r in g w hich m e d icin e i s drunk and s e x u a l
a b s ti n e n c e i s r e q u i r e d .
85
p e rfo rm a n c e a t w h ich t h e s p i r i t s a r e summoned b y t h e p la y in g o f th e ap p ro ­
p r i a t e rhythm s*
a s a c a p r ic e *
H owever, on o c c a s io n , a s p i r i t w i l l come t o him u n b id d e n ,
Then t h e b y s ta n d e r s t r y t o co ax i t away so t h a t th e ex p ense
o f a s a c r i f i c e may b e sp a re d *
As p a r t o f t h e i n i t i a t i o n , th e 11c h i l d o f th e
b o r i 11 h a s b e e n t a u g h t t h e m e d ic in e s a p p r o p r ia te t o th e d is e a s e s ca u se d by
th e s p ir it s *
Now he w i l l b e c o n s u lte d b y p e o p le who s u f f e r from th e s e a i l ­
m e n ts , an d u n d e r p o s s e s s io n w i l l h im s e lf r e v e a l th e p r o p e r m e d icin e s*
The f o llo w in g i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a b o r i p erfo rm a n ce w itn e s s e d
a t Jigaw a*
The c irc u m s ta n c e s le a d in g up t o t h e p erfo rm a n ce w ere th e se *
A " d a u g h te r o f t h e b o r i 4* c a l l e d Ku* ba had a s o n , M a k 'e r i, w hose w if e ,
T in a y , had l e f t him .
The s p i r i t 'D an M usa, a n g e re d a t t h i s i n s u l t t o h is
" m o u n t,” a f f l i c t e d T in ay * s l i t t l e d a u g h te r w ith stom ach t r o u b l e .
T in a y ,
t h e r e f o r e , came t o K u 'b a an d was t o l d t o buy th e s p e c k le d cock r e q u ir e d
by th i s s p i r i t as a s a c r if ic e .
She n e g le c te d t h i s a d v ic e , w hereupon h e r
d a u g h te r became m ore s e r i o u s l y i l l w ith c 1oC1a ;* c a u s e d b y TI n n a , th e
m o th er o f 'D an M usa.
I n g iv in g t h i s a c c o u n t, i t was em phasized t h a t K u'ba
h e r s e l f had n o t so u g h t t o i n f l i c t an y harm on th e g i r l , b u t t h a t th e b frrf
who w ere !,on h e r h ead " to o k t h i s means o f av en g in g th e I n s u l t o f f e r e d t o
t h e i r "m ount. M T h e re u p o n , Ku!b a r s d a u g h te r - in - la w came t o h e r a g a in ,
and was t o l d t h a t a bfrrfr p e rfo rm a n c e was n e c e s s a r y , and t h a t she m ust have
a w h ite sh eep f o r 'I n n a , a b la c k cock f o r G a jim a ri, a sp e c k le d cock f o r
Duna and a r e d an d w h ite cock f o r K 'a k 'a r i .
T hese a n im a ls w ere a l l sup­
p l i e d by Tinay* s h u sb an d M a k 'e r i a s he was a n x io u s f o r h is w ife to r e t u r n
t o him a n d f o r h i s c h i l d t o r e c o v e r .
The p e rfo rm a n c e was h e ld a t K u 'b a 's compound on T h u rsd ay n i g h t ,
1* C 'ffc 'fr m ean s, l i t e r a l l y , " m ilk in g " and i s t h e r e f o r e a d is e a s e ap­
p r o p r i a t e t o 'I n n a , a F u la n i m ilk m a id . I t seems t o b e a k in d o f p a r a ly ­
s is *
86
J a n u a r y 1 9 , 1939*
S in c e t h e s a c r i f i c i a l a n im a ls had t o b e k i l l e d on th e
d ay s w h ich w ere u s u a l i n Ku’b a 1s h o u s e h o ld , o n ly t h e w h ite sh eep d e s tin e d
f o r ’I n n a was k i l l e d on t h i s n i g h t , th e o t h e r b e in g r e s e r v e d f o r s a c r i f i c e
l a t e r i n t h e w eek.
The n e a r e s t gArcCvd* p l a y e r l i v e d a b o u t te n m ile s away,
so Ku’b a ’ s h u sb a n d ’ s s i s t e r ' s h u sb an d , S a r k in Hu’ d a , a "so n o f t h e b c f r f ."
a s s i s t e d , " c a l l i n g " t h e bbrl* by c la p p in g h i s h a n d s, i n th e a b se n c e o f a
ghr&yci; o r drum .
S a r k in Hu* d a c a r r i e d on m ost o f th e c o n v e r s a tio n w ith
Ku’b a when sh e was p o s s e s s e d , a n d t r a n s m i t t e d t o T in a y , th e d a u g h t e r - in la w , w h at sh e was o r d e r e d t o do d u rin g t h e p e rfo rm a n c e .
Ku’b a s a t on a m at f a c i n g th e e a s t , th e d i r e c t i o n o f J a n g a re
w here t h e s p i r i t s d w e ll.
p r e f e r r e d b y ’I n n a .
s p i r i t sh e w ould d i e .
H er h ead was c o v ere d by a b la c k c l o t h , th e k in d
T h is c o v e rin g was e s s e n t i a l , f o r s h o u ld sh e s e e th e
O p p o site h e r w ere S a r k in Hu’ d a , h e r d a u g h t e r - in -
la w , T in a y , an d h e r s o n , Mak’ e r i .
Ku’b a ’ s h u sb an d , B age, w ent a b o u t un­
o b t r u s i v e l y m aking t h e n e c e s s a r y p r e p a r a t i o n s , w h ile on th e o p p o s ite s id e
o f t h e f i r e w ere th e s p e c t a t o r s .
S a r k in Hu’ da beg an by c la p p in g h i s hands t o t h e rhythm w hich
summons t h e s p i r i t ’I n n a , ke° y *
Malam, b r i n g m i l k ."
m&lSm kotwa ndnb*. " th o u d a u g h te r o f a
I n a few moments Ku’b a c o u ld be se e n s h a k in g u n d e r
th e c l o t h w ith e v e r in c r e a s in g v io l e n c e .
She s u d d e n ly th re w o f f th e
c o v e r an d b eg an t o mumble i n c o h e r e n t l y , c o n tin u in g h e r s h a k in g m ovements.
H er h u sb an d , B ag e, th e n b ro u g h t t h e c h u rn in g s t i c k w hich was upon th e
r o o f o f t h e m odel h u t s a c r e d t o ’I n n a , an d Ku’ ba began t o t w i r l i t be­
tw een h e r f i n g e r s , i m i t a t i n g th e m aking o f b u t t e r .
A c a la b a s h was p la c e d
i n h e r hand c o n ta in in g m ilk w h ich she p ro c e e d e d t o g a r g le and s p i t o u t.
When sh e was somewhat q u i e t , S a r k in Hu* da began to co n v e rse w ith h e r ,
a s s u r in g h e r t h a t T in a y r e g r e t t e d h e r b e h a v io r and p ro m isin g t h a t she
87
w ould now s t a y w ith h e r husband*
As a p r o o f o f h e r s i n c e r i t y , he p o in te d
o u t t h a t t h i s tim e t h e s a c r i f i c i a l a n im a ls had b een b ro u g h t*
The p o s­
s e s s e d woman r e p e a te d a g a in an d a g a in t h e w ord aSkSrSm blrS, " th e y e a r
b e f o r e l a s t * 11 T h is was i n t e r p r e t e d a s r e f e r r i n g to T in a y 's n e g l e c t t o
f u r n i s h t h e s a c r i f i c i a l a n im a l when h e r young d a u g h te r f i r s t became s i c k ,
w h ich had b een t h e seco n d y e a r p r e c e d in g .
K u 'b a th e n s a i d , l a f i l A f i *
s e v e r a l t i m e s , r e p e a t i n g t h i s p e c u l i a r a b b r e v i a ti o n o f th e common w ord,
l&f£y&*, " h e a l t h , " w ith t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e h e re t h a t 'I n n a i s now s a t i s f i e d ,
and e v e r y th in g w i l l be a l l r i g h t .
K u 'b a th e n became s i l e n t and a f t e r a
s h o r t i n t e r v a l sn e e z e d v i o l e n t l y .
T h is was t h e s ig n t h a t 'I n n a had de­
p a rte d .
Though t h e ap p easem en t o f 'I n n a was th e e s s e n t i a l p u rp o se o f th e
p e rfo rm a n c e , i t was a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o summon 'I n n a ’ s c h i ld r e n and g ran d ­
c h i ld r e n to b e s u r e t h a t th e y to o w ere s a t i s f i e d ; m o reo v e r, i f th e y w ere
n o t c a l l e d , t h e y w ould r e s e n t n o t h a v in g b een g iv e n t h i s o p p o r tu n ity t o
" r i d e t h e i r m ount*"
T h e r e f o r e , S a r k in H u 'd a , a few moments l a t e r , began
t o summon 'D an G alad im a.
When he cam e, K u 'b a s a t q u i e t l y , i m i t a t i n g a
man r e a d i n g , f o r 'D an G aladim a i s a Malam.
At t h i s p o i n t , one s p e c t a t o r ,1
who had b een p i o u s l y m u t te r i n g , 'A'ffzfi. b i l l i h i m£n&—s
' dAhi. —RRA.ifmi *
" I ta k e r e f u g e i n A lla h from t h e a c c u r s e d S a ta n ," a r o s e and dropped a k o la
n u t i n t h e l a p o f K u 'b a .
'D an G alad im a, a s we have s e d n , i s a s p i r i t whose
a d v ic e i s a s k e d on a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f q u e s t i o n s , an d t h i s man, whose w ife
had b e e n e x p e c te d t o a r r i v e fro m Kano C ity t h a t d a y , b u t had n o t come, to o k
th e o p p o r tu n i ty t o i n q u i r e w h e th e r sh e w ould make h e r a p p e a ra n c e .
1*
T h is was my i n t e r p r e t e r .
K u'ba
88
a s s u r e d him t h a t sh e w o u ld , w hereupon he th a n k e d h e r .
I t was n o ti c e a b l e
d u r in g t h i s c o n v e r s a tio n t h a t t h e i n t e r p r e t e r u s e d t h e m a sc u lin e pronoun
o f a d d r e s s ; f o r i t was n o t Ku! ba t o whom he was s p e a k in g , b u t th e m ale
s p irit,
'D an G alad im a.
The n e x t 1iskA* who made h i s a p p e a ra n c e was Zugu, " th e w e a v e r."
U nder h i s in f l u e n c e K u 'b a r a n back and f o r t h betw een a h u t and a n e ig h b o r­
in g t r e e k n o c k in g h e r head v i o l e n t l y a g a i n s t e a c h , i n i m i t a t i o n o f th e
s t r e t c h i n g o f t h e th r e a d s p r e li m i n a r y t o w eav in g .
w ith h e r t o r e s t r a i n h e r s e l f .
S a r k in Hu* da p le a d e d
She f i n a l l y s u b s id e d , and th e s p i r i t , a f t e r
g iv in g a s s u r a n c e s s i m i l a r t o th o s e g iv e n by 'I n n a , d e p a r te d .
fo llo w e d b y 'D an M usa.
Zugu was
H is a r r i v a l was m arked b y K u 'b a r o l l i n g upon h e r
stom ach i n i m i t a t i o n o f a s n a k e .
No c o n v e r s a tio n was c a r r i e d on w ith 'Dan
Musa n o r w ith 'D an M u sa 's s o n , K 'a k 'a r i , who "came" a f t e r h i s f a t h e r de­
p a rte d .
Kfa k 'a r i * s m o tio n s w ere s i m i l a r t o th o s e o f 'D an M usa, s in c e he
i s a ls o a snak e.
The d e p a r tu r e o f K 'a k 'a r i m arked th e end o f th e cerem ony.
D u rin g t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e r i t e , Ba&e, h av in g k i l l e d th e
w h ite sh eep s a c r e d t o 'I n n a i n th e m anner p r e v io u s ly d e s c r ib e d was b u s i l y
engaged i n b u tc h e r in g t h e m e a t.
A f te r th e l a s t s p i r i t had d e p a r te d , th e
m eat was cooked i n a p o t an d a l l th o s e p r e s e n t p a rto o k o f th e f l e s h .
A lth o u g h in f o r m a n ts s a y t h a t s p e c i f i c rem e d ies a r e p r e s c r ib e d u n d e r p os­
s e s s i o n , t h i s d id n o t o c c u r i n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e .
I t was s t a t e d , how ever,
t h a t on t h e n e x t d a y K u 'b a gave m e d ic in e s f o r th e g r a n d c h ild t o h e r
daught e r - in - la w .
" C h ild r e n o f t h e b frrr" a r e a t tim e s s u b je c t t o in v o l u n ta r y un­
in d u c e d p o s s e s s io n b y t h e s p i r i t s .
T h is seems e s p e c i a l l y l i k e l y t o o c c u r
d u r in g th e e x c ite m e n t o f a f e s t i v e o c c a s io n .
was w itn e s s e d a t a m a rria g e cerem ony.
One exam ple o f su ch a s e iz u r e
A " d a u g h te r o f th e b o rx " u n r e la te d
89
t o t h e c h i e f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e cerem ony was s u d d e n ly p o s s e s s e d b y Kure*
She san k t o t h e g ro u n d g r o a n in g and was s u p p o r te d b y h e r s i s t e r *
The by­
s t a n d e r s so o n s u c c e e d e d i n c o a x in g K ure t o d e p a r t b y r e p e t i t i o n o f th e
fo rm u la s&nnd d& r&cj_e, " s a l u t a t i o n s a t y o u r p a r t i n g . "
The i n c i d e n t was
i n t e r p r e t e d a s m eaning t h a t K ure w ish ed t h e co u p le a happy m a rr ie d l i f e *
The * Isk o k f and M ed icin e
T h a t t h e c o n n e c tio n o f th e 1isk o k i- w ith d is e a s e i s v e ry c lo s e
h as b e e n made a p p a r e n t a t many p o i n t s i n t h e p re c e d in g p a g e s .
The Magu—
zaw a, in d e e d , s a y t h a t a l l d is e a s e i s c au sed b y th e 1I skdki*. and one way
o f e x p r e s s in g t h e f a c t t h a t someone h as f a l l e n i l l , i s to rem a rk , y£m
ffr*d& gid& n " I b l i s . "He h a s f a l l e n i n t o t h e house o f t h e s p i r i t s . "
It
i s g e n e r a l l y a d m itte d , h ow ever, t h a t v e n e r e a l d is e a s e s a r e n o t cau sed b y
t h e s p ir its ,- ^ - b u t o th e rw is e so in t im a te i s th e a s s o c i a t i o n o f th e s p i r i t s
w ith o t h e r i l l n e s s e s t h a t ev en t h i s e x c e p tio n was spoken i n te rm s o f th e
/
p r e v a l e n t p a t t e r n —-m&ffg f Isk& ssA ' c 6 » "women a r e i t s J|_isk|r.lf
-
B ut i f t h e s p i r i t s cau se d i s e a s e , t h e y a r e a l s o th e so u rc e o f
i t s c u r e .^
The Maguzawa s a y t h a t a l l rem e d ies have been r e v e a le d t o men
b y t h e s p i r i t s , an d t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n i s m ost c l e a r l y il lu m in a te d by con­
s i d e r i n g b f r r i p o s s e s s io n .
The i l l n e s s w hich makes a d ev o tee o r i g i n a l l y
e n t e r th e c u l t i s c a u se d b y a s p i r i t .
I t i s c u re d by an i n i t i a t i o n w hich
a llo w s t h e s p i r i t t o p o s s e s s t h e s i c k p e rs o n a t w i l l , w hereupon t h e " c h il d
o f t h e b b r f " can p r e s c r i b e f o r a l l who s u f f e r from th e same d i s e a s e .
T h at
1 . No r e a s o n was p ro d u ced f o r t h i s e x c e p tio n , w hich seemed o b v io u s t o
t h e n a t i v e s . A s u g g e s tio n t h a t th e Hausa r£sko'ki d id n o t cau se th e s e d i ­
s e a s e s , b u t t h a t , t h e y w ere in tr o d u c e d b y th e w h ite s , e l i c i t e d no r e s p o n s e .
2 . T h is a g r e e s c l o s e l y w ith t h e id e a e x p re s s e d i n Dahomey t h a t th e gods
have s e n t b o th d is e a s e an d i t s c u re i n t o th e w o rld (H e r s k o v its (1938 b ) , 2 ,
256.
90
t h e s p i r i t g iv e s th e remedy i s c l e a r from t h e f a c t t h a t o r d i n a r i l y he him­
s e l f r e v e a l s i t t o t h e s u f f e r e r , s p e a k in g th ro u g h th e m outh o f h is "m o u n t.1’
F u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s im p o rta n t i n th e
t h e o r y o f n a t i v e m e d ic in e l i e s i n th e f a c t t h a t a f a v o r i t e m ethod o f th e
bdk&, o r p ag an "m e d ic in e m an," c o n s i s t s i n s a c r i f i c i n g t o th e s p i r i t who
cau ses h is p a t i e n t 's i l l n e s s .
I n t h i s , he i s t o be d is ti n g u is h e d from
th e o r d in a r y m ^y m 5g|ni, " p o s s e s s o r o f m e d ic in e ," who i s a l s o fo u n d among th e
M oslems an d whose re m e d ie s a r e e x c l u s i v e ly v e g e t a l and h e r b a l .
The a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e s p i r i t s w ith m e d ic in e i s s t i l l f u r t h e r r e ­
v e a le d i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f u t i l i z i n g thew ood o f th e t r e e i n w hich a g iv e n
s p i r i t d w e lls a s a rem edy f o r t h e s ic k n e s s he b r in g s o n .
M ed icin es o f
t h i s t y p e , b a s e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f s y m p a th e tic m a g ic , a r e p r e s c r ib e d
b o th by t h e " c h i l d r e n o f b o r i " an d b y bdk&s.
One exam ple h as a lr e a d y been
c i t e d — t h a t o f a v ic tim o f w i t c h c r a f t whose s o u l i s s e iz e d b y D u n a.. As
w i l l be rem em bered, he i s g iv e n an i n f u s io n o f 'aduwA*. mArke and kdnyd* wood,
t h e f i r s t an d l a s t o f w hich a r e made from wood o f th e t r e e s a t w hich s a c r i ­
f i c e s a r e o f te n made t o Duna.
same p r i n c i p l e .
O th e r m e d ic in e s can be seen t o fo llo w t h i s
To c u re a sto m ach -ach e c au sed b y G a jim a r i, an in f u s io n o f
kanyd and c'& niyi* woods i s d ru n k .
G a jim a ri d w e lls i n b o th th e s e t r e e s ,
p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e c ' cftnlya*. " ta m a r in d ," w hich i s h i s e s p e c i a l f a v o r i t e and
a p la c e w here s a c r i f i c e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y made t o him .
S im ila rly , as a
rem edy f o r t h e c o n s t i p a t i o n in d u c e d b y G a ji m a r i's b r o t h e r , an in f u s io n o f
k&nyi wood i s d ru n k w ith kAnwa% " p o ta s h ," th e k in y d b e in g s a c re d t o 'Dan
Musa.
A rem edy f o r p a r a l y s i s , cau sed b y t h e s p i r i t 'UwaRdawa who
d w e lls on t h e b u s h pawpaw, i s t o p u lv e r iz e pawpaw wood and th e r o o t o f m&rg&
and ru b th e po w d er, m ixed w ith cow b u t t e r , on th e arm s and le g s o f th e
91
su ffe re r.
I n a m e d ic in e f o r h e a d a c h e , p r e s c r ib e d b y a b 6 kd*, th e wood o f
t h e dfesi t r e e , s a c r e d t o K u re, t h e s p i r i t who p ro d u c e s t h i s d i s o r d e r , i s
u tiliz e d .
I f th e c u re i s s u c c e s s f u l , a r e d cock m ust be s a c r i f i c e d to Kure
a t t h e .li'go* o f dlcsi* wood.
of th is p rin c ip le .
A n o th er h ead ach e m e d ic in e r e v e a ls an e x te n s io n
The v ic tim i n h a l e s th e smoke o f b u rn in g m£rke° wood.
The m&rke* i s s a c r e d t o Jam m arke, a s p i r i t who i s t h e c r o s s - c o u s in and jo k ­
i n g r e l a t i o n o f K u re.
The c o n n e c tio n betw een t h e k in d s o f wood u se d and
t h e s p i r i t who i s t h e s o u rc e o f th e s ic k n e s s may li k e w is e be i n d i r e c t ,
a s i s s e e n i n a rem edy f o r s w e lli n g o f th e stom ach ( kum burfn c l k i ~), a
s ic k n e s s s e n t b y ’I n n a .
An i n f u s i o n o f ka&anva'. k a n v a . and ma*da'ci' woods
i s m ade, th e s e b e in g t r e e s t h a t grow i n th e F u la n i c a t t l e camps.
S in c e
’In n a i s h e r s e l f c o n c e iv e d a s a F u la n i woman, t h i s i s an a p p r o p r ia te and
a d e q u a te m e d ic in e .
F.
C om p arativ e A n a ly s is o f th e 'I s k o k i C u lt
We m u st now a tte m p t t o a s s e s s th e r o l e o f W est A fric a n and Mo­
hammedan f a c t o r s i n th e dev elo p m en t o f th e ’i s k o k i c u l t , and c o n s id e r
t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e m anner i n w h ich th e s e two s o u rc e s have c o n tr ib u ­
t e d t o t h e g ro w th o f Maguzawa b e l i e f f o r some o f th e t h e o r e t i c a l p ro b ­
lem s i n w h ich we a r e i n t e r e s t e d .
The p o in t o f a t t a c k w i l l be th e q u es­
t i o n r a i s e d c o n c e rn in g t h e r e s u l t s o f c o a le s c e n c e o f f e a t u r e s from two
c u l t u r e s i n c o n t a c t w here t h i s o c c u rs so th o ro u g h ly t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n
o f t h e p ro v e n ie n c e o f s p e c i f i c ite m s becomes im p o s s ib le .
As a p r e li m i­
n a r y , ho w ev er, i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o d e m o n s tra te , on th e one h an d , th e
r e a l i t y o f t h e W est A f r ic a n a f f i l i a t i o n s o f Maguzawa r e l i g i o n , a n d , on
t h e o t h e r , t o show t h a t i n c e r t a i n a s p e c t s , w here c o rre sp o n d e n c e s t o
A f r ic a n N egro custom a r e l a c k i n g , Mohammedan in f lu e n c e m ust be assumed
92
t o have b een dom inant i n t h e fo rm a tio n o f Maguzawa p r a c t i c e i n i t s p r e ­
s e n t fo rm .
F o llo w in g t h i s , th e e x t e n t t o w hich s y n c r e t i z a t i o n o f e l e ­
m en ts fro m A f r ic a n an d Mohammedan s o u rc e s has ta k e n p la c e w i l l be con­
s i d e r e d b y r e f e r e n c e t o s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s o f th e c u l t i n w hich t h e w o rk in g
o f b o th A f r ic a n an d Mohammedan i n f l u e n c e s can be i n f e r r e d .
F in a lly , in
t h e l i g h t o f th e s e d a t a , th e q u e s tio n o f t h e a p p e a ra n c e o f new c u l t u r a l
f e a t u r e s , n o t p r e s e n t i n e i t h e r o f t h e c o n t r i b u ti n g c u l t u r e s w i l l be d e a l t
w ith .
E x c e p t i n th e c a s e o f t h e p o s s e s s io n c u l t w here im m ediate re s e m ­
b la n c e s have a l r e a d y b een p o in te d o u t
t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s betw een Maguzawa
b e l i e f and o t h e r W est A f r ic a n c u l t s a r e o f a v e r y g e n e r a l n a t u r e , c o n s i s t ­
in g f o r t h e m o st p a r t o f e l a b o r a t i o n by th e Maguzawa o f f e a t u r e s u n im p o rt­
a n t in o th e r p la c e s .
N o n e th e le s s th e e x is te n c e o f a w id e ly s p re a d West
A f r ic a n p a t t e r n fo llo w e d b y Maguzawa b e l i e f i s f u r t h e r b e s t d e m o n stra te d
b y a c o n s id e r a tio n o f th o s e c a s e s i n w hich s p e c i f i c Hausa s p i r i t s may b e
i d e n t i f i e d a s t h e a n a lo g u e s o f s p i r i t s fo u n d among o th e r p e o p le s i n t h i s
a r e a .^
An o u ts ta n d in g c a s e i s t h a t o f G a jim a r i, th e rainbow s e r p e n t.
T h is s p i r i t , i t w i l l be rem em bered, d w e lls i n w e lls o r a n t h e a p s , and ta k e s
t h e form o f a bud£’ sn ak e who r i s e s t o d rin k th e w a te r o f th e sk y , a p p e a rin g
a s a r e d l i g h t when a s c e n d in g .
T h e r e a f te r , when he s t r e t c h e s h im s e lf o u t
i n t h e s k y , he becom es th e rain b o w .
1.
The Yoruba d e i t y , 0$um are, whom F arrow
See p p . 82 -8 4 ab o v e.
2 . C om parisons a r e o n ly p o s s i b le w ith t r i b e s l i v i n g i n th o s e s e c ti o n s o f
W est A f r ic a w here l a r g e num bers o f s p i r i t s have been named i n th e l i t e r a t u r e .
Such r e p o r t s a r e a v a i l a b l e from th e Y oruba, th e Ewe- and F o n -sp e a k in g g ro u p s ,
t h e A s h a n ti, and t h e Ju k u n -sp e a k in g g ro u p , and p e rh a p s o th e r t r i b e s l i v i n g
on t h e B enue. O th e rw is e , th e e x is te n c e o f even a f a i r number o f named s p i r i t s ,
a t l e a s t a s r e p o r t e d , i s v e ry s p o r a d ic . C au tio n i s th u s to b e e x e r c is e d , f o r
" p o ly th e is m s '1 may e x i s t more w id e ly th a n o u r a v a i l a b l e d a ta i n d i c a t e . L a b o u re t
( 1 9 3 1 ) p p . 4 1 0 - 4 1 3 , f o r i n s t a n c e , r e p o r t s th e e x is te n c e o f p a n th e o n s o f
named s p i r i t s among th e D ia n , B i r i f o r and L o b i w hich had gone u n n o tic e d b y
p re v io u s o b s e r v e r s .
93
i d e n t i f i e s w ith t h e ra in b o w , i s s i m i l a r l y r e g a r d e d . 1
He i s a g r e a t sn a k e ,
d w e llin g w ith i n t h e e a r t h , who comes up a t tim e s t o d r in k w a te r from th e
sk y .
We may a l s o com pare t h e Dahoraean rain b o w s e r p e n t Aido Hwedo2 w ith
G a jim a r i.
W ith o u t e n t e r i n g h e r e i n t o th e s u b t l e t i e s o f th e Dahomean con­
c e p t i o n , we can s im p ly s t a t e t h a t he t a k e s th e form o f a snake on e a r t h and
a ra in b o w i n t h e s k y .
Among th e Jukun t h e c o n ce p t o f th e rain b o w s e r p e n t
i s fo u n d , b u t he i s n o t r e g a rd e d a s a d e i t y ( j o ) .
On t h i s s u b j e c t Meek
s a y s , "The rain b o w i s known a s akuwo and i s a p o r t e n t o f heavy sh o w ers.
I t i s b e l ie v e d t o b e a s e r p e n t , t h e g r e a t e s t s e r p e n t i n t h e w o rld , and t o
r e s i d e i n t h e g ro u n d ; an d when i t comes f o r t h i t d r iv e s th e w a te r up t o
t h e s k i e s , w hence i t d e sc e n d s l a t e r i n th e form o f rain."3
As we have s e e n , th e rainbow s e r p e n t G a jim a ri an d t h e th u n d e r
d e i t y Ra a r e h u sb an d and w ife among th e Maguzawa; th e y a r e in d e e d b u t two
f a c e t s o f t h e same d iv in e f o r c e , m aking a j o i n t a p p ea ran ce i n t h e rain b o w .
R a, a s a fe m a le th u n d e r d e i t y , i s i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y a l o c a l Kano d ev elo p ­
m e n t, s in c e sh e h as n e v e r b een r e p o r te d i n th e l i t e r a t u r e a s o c c u r r in g
e ls e w h e r e .
T rem eam e d e s c r ib e d G a jim a ri a s an h e rm a p h ro d ite , I n c o rp o ra ­
t i n g t h e rain b o w and th u n d e r a s p e c ts i n one d e i t y .^
The c o n c e p t o f a th u n d e r d e i t y , s i m i l a r t o Ra among th e H ausa,
i s w id e ly d i s t r i b u t e d i n W est A f r ic a .
A c o n s ta n t f e a t u r e o f th e c u l t I s
t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p o lis h e d n e o l i t h i c c e l t s , th e s o - c a l l e d " th u n d e r
s t o n e s ," w ith th u n d e r - b o l t s h u r le d b y t h e d e i t y ; a p a r t o f t h i s complex
1.
(1926), p. 66 .
2.
Herskovits (193& b ) , 2 , 249 •
3.
( 1 9 3 1 ), P . 200•
4.
(1 9 1 4 ), p . 340.
94
in c lu d e s t h e b e l i e f t h a t a f t e r a house h as b een s tr u c k by l i g h t n i n g 1, a
w o rs h ip p e r o r p r i e s t o f t h i s d i v i n i t y w i l l d is c o v e r one o f th e s e " th u n d e r
s t o n e s ” a t t h e sp o t*
F o r ex am p le, i n A s h a n ti, th e " th u n d e r s to n e s ” a r e
th e a x e s o r h o es o f 'Nyame, th e Sky—God. "They th i n k t h a t , a s th e y come
fro m 1Nyame, t h e y a r e endowed w ith some pow er o f t h a t g r e a t s p i r i t , and
t h i s i s t h e e x p la n a tio n o f t h e i r u s e i n c o n n e c tio n w ith abosom and t h e i r
su p p o se d p o te n c y a s m e d ic in e ."1
S i m i l a r l y , i n Dahomey, th e " th u n d e r
s to n e " i s b e l ie v e d t o be d e p o s ite d a t an y p la c e w here l i g h t n i n g s t r i k e s ,
b e in g t h e ax e o f t h e th u n d e r god X e v io s o .^
Among th e Y oruba, a l s o , when
t h e p r i e s t s o f S hango, th e th u n d e r d e i t y , f i n d th e " th u n d e r s to n e " w here
l i g h t n i n g h a s s t r u c k a h o u s e , th e y th e n p ro c e e d to c o n f is c a te t h e v i c t i m 's
p r o p e r ty , a s r i g h t f u l l y b e lo n g in g to th e g o d .3
Ken j o , r e s e m b lin g S hango, who,
t r i b e , c o n tro ls th e r a in .
The Jukun have a d i v i n i t y ,
among someo f th e l o c a l
T h e re fo re
g ro u p s i n
th is
anyone f in d i n g a n e o l i t h i c im plem ent
m ust hand i t t o t h e p r i e s t o f Ken jo f o r d e p o s it i n th e s h r i n e , su ch im p le­
m ents b e in g r e g a r d e d a s t h u n d e r b o l t s .^
A gro u p o f Hausa f f s k d k i who e x h i b i t some p o in ts o f resem b lan ce
t o s p i r i t s i n o t h e r West A f r ic a n c u l t u r e s , a r e th e Y 'a n Dawa, " c h il d r e n
o f th e f o r e s t . ”
T hese a r e d w arf o r lam e h u n tin g s p i r i t s , t h e c h ie f o f
whom i s G a je re o r S a r k in B aka, " k in g o f th e bow."
T h e ir c o u n te r p a r ts
a p p e a r a s a c l a s s o f s p i r i t s somewhat d i s t i n c t from o th e r s u p e r n a tu r a l
b e in g s i n Dahomey w here th e y a r e known a s th e azizf^ . th e o r d in a r y
s p i r i t s , v o d j|, and th e a z i z a b e in g known c o l l e c t i v e l y a s
1.
R a t t r a y ( 1 9 2 3 ), PP* 322-323*
2.
H e r s k o v it s (1938 b ) , 2 , 163*
3.
F arro w (1 9 2 6 ), p . 50*
4.
Meek (1 9 3 1 ), P* 266.
5.
H e r s k o v i.ts (1 9 3 8 b)> 2r 1 92.
y eh w e.5
The
95
The a z i z ^ a r e s m a ll an d h a i r y b e in g s who l i v e i n th e f o r e s t and te a c h
m e d ic in e t o t h e h u n te r who i s n o t a f r a i d o f t hem .^
S p ieth * s d e s c r ip t io n
o f th e s e c r e a t u r e s a s t h e y a r e e n v is a g e d b y th e Ho—Ewe rem inds one o f
t h e la m e n e ss o f many o f th e Y*an Dawa, "D er A ziza i s t e in Wesen d as w eder
Hande n o ch F iisse h a t ." ^
Among th e Bambara th e s i t u a t i o n w ith r e g a r d to
t h e s e c r e a t u r e s i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n Dahomey, f o r th e Bambara k o k o lo .
,!g e n ie s n a i n s , " a r e s e p a r a t e fro m th e o r d in a r y n y e n a . " s p i r i t s " o f th e
Bam bara; w h ile among t h e M o ss i, a c c o rd in g to th e same a u th o r , t h e f o r e s t
s p i r i t s a r e unknown, 11ou p lu s ex actm en t i l s s o n t confondus p a r c e u z - c i
a v ec l e s M auvais E s p r i t s . "
He ad d s t h a t , "Les d e t a i l s , ou t o u t au m oins
c e r t a i n s d e t a i l s que l e s Bambaras d o n n en t s u r l e s g e n ie s n a in s s o n t donnl
p a r l e s M ossi e t l e s F o u ls e s s u r l e s k i n k i r s i ." ^
Among th e Y<Pruba th e r e
i s a f i g u r e c a l l e d A ro n i who i s s a i d to be a " f o r e s t e l f . "
f a c e s him b o l d l y w i l l b e i n i t i a t e d i n t o m e d ic in a l l o r e . 4t u r e o b ta in s w ith r e g a r d t o th e A sh a n ti m m oatia.
A p e rs o n who
A s im ila r fe a ­
A cco rd in g t o R a t t r a y ,
"To s e r v e a n a p p r e n t ic e s h i p w ith them seems in d e e d to be c o n s id e re d a
p r e li m i n a r y q u a l i f i c a t i o n t o th e p r o f e s s io n o f Sumankwafo o r m e d icin e
m an ."5
The c o n n e c tio n o f th e Hausa f o r e s t s p i r i t s w ith m e d ic in e , how ever,
i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y m arked.
A n o th e r o f th e H ausa 1ib k d k f who a p p e a rs t o have some an alo g u es
i n o t h e r W est A f r ic a n r e l i g i o n s i s th e o bscene s p i r i t , N akada, who in d u c e s
a k in d o f c o n tin u o u s i n s a n i t y i n w hich th e v ic tim e a t s f e c e s and whose
1.
H e r s k o v its (1938 b ) , 2 , 2 6 2 .
2.
( 1 9 1 1 ) , P- 1 3 7 .
3.
T a u x ie r ( 1 9 1 7 ) , p . 378.
F arro w ( 1 9 2 6 ) , p . 65
5.
(1 9 2 7 ), p . 26.
96
m o tio n s , a s t h e y can be o b s e rv e d when he p o s s e s s e s someone, in c lu d e th e
w ig g lin g o f th e b u tto c k s and a s im u la tio n o f i n t e r c o u r s e u s in g th e b ra n c h
o f a tr e e as a p h a llu s .
W ith Nakada we may compare th e d iv in e t r i c k s t e r
L egba i n Dahomey, known a s Eshu o r E le g b a ra among th e n e ig h b o rin g Y oruba,
who li k e w is e c a u s e s a d e v o te e p o s s e s s e d b y him to i m i t a t e s e x u a l i n t e r ­
c o u r s e , u s in g a wooden p h a l l u s . ^
c o n c e p tio n .
Aku—
Maga among th e Jukun i s a r e l a t e d
He i s known a s ak u agbwe .jo s h u , t h a t i s , ’‘th e d e i t y o f th e
b u tto c k d a n c e ,” t h e b u tto c k s b e in g f r e e l y moved i n th e d an ces w hich a c ­
company h i s p u b li c a p p e a r a n c e s .^
I n d i s c u s s i n g th e W est A f r ic a n a f f i l i a t i o n s o f th e ’I s k o k f
e u l t , t h e q u e s ti o n n a t u r a l l y a r i s e s c o n c e rn in g t h e c o n n e c tio n betw een
s p i r i t w o rsh ip an d w hat i s u s u a l l y known a s a n c e s to r w o rsh ip .
I n W est
A f r ic a g e n e r a l l y t h e r e I s a c lo s e c o n n e c tio n betw een th e s e tw o , and i t
w ould seem t h a t i n many c a s e s s p i r i t w o rsh ip h as grown o u t o f t h e a n c e s­
t r a l c u lt.
W esterm ann, f o r i n s t a n c e , n o te s a g r a d u a l t r a n s i t i o n from s o u l
c o n c e p ts t o p e r s o n a l p r o t e c t i v e d i v i n i t i e s , t o d e i t i e s . 3
A f u r t h e r ex­
am ple from th e Y oruba may be c i t e d w here th e o r is h a s o r g r e a t gods a r e
h e ld t o be im p o r ta n t a n c e s t o r s who founded t h e s ib s o f th e p r e s e n t d ay . 4
I n th e l i g h t o f th e w ide d i s t r i b u t i o n and im p o rtan ce o f th e an­
c e s t r a l c u l t i n a l l Negro A f r i c a , we may r e a s o n a b ly i n f e r i t s fo rm er
e x i s t e n c e among th e H ausa, ev en th o u g h th e in f lu e n c e o f Is la m has cau sed
1.
H e r s k o v its (1 9 3 8 b ) , 2 , 1 2 6 .
2.
Meek ( 1 9 3 1 ) , P- 2 7 3 .
3.
W esterm ann ( 1 9 2 8 ) , P* 1 8 9 .
4.
Bascom ( 1 9 3 9 ) , P* 3 6 .
97
o n ly a b a r e t r a c e o f i t t o be d i s c e r n i b l e to d a y .
The f o llo w in g i s an ex­
am ple o f w hat may b e a rem n an t o f t h i s c u l t among th e Maguzawa a t th e p re ­
s e n t ti m e .
A t c e re m o n ie s w h ich u s u a l l y ta k e p la c e f o r t y days a f t e r th e
d e a th o f an im p o r ta n t man, a number o f g o a ts and one sh eep a r e k i l l e d
over h is g ra v e .
The g o a ts a r e s u p p lie d b y s u r v iv o r s o f th e dead man r e ­
l a t e d t o him p a t r i l i n e a l l y , and t h e sh eep i s c o n tr ib u te d by th e r e l a t i v e
d e s ti n e d t o s u c c e e d him a s head o f th e compound.
T h is s a c r i f i c e i s now
g e n e r a l l y c o n s tr u e d s im p ly a s a sAdAkc£» a ’’p io u s o f f e r i n g , ” n o r i s a n y th in g
s a i d o r done a t t h e g ra v e t h a t w ould s u g g e s t o th e rw is e ; th e m eat o f th e
s la u g h t e r e d a n im a ls i s d i s t r i b u t e d t o th e n e ig h b o rs and th e p o o r .
When an
e x c e p t i o n a l l y l a r g e o f f e r i n g h as b een g iv e n , how ever, p e o p le can be h eard
t o s a y o f t h e d ead man, yf§ &
&.iin i 6 dji gltske*. "he d ran k a g r e a t d e a l o f
b lo o d .”
One o l d e r in f o r m a n t, a t l e a s t , d id n o t h e s i t a t e t o i n t e r p r e t th e
s a c r i f i c e a s an o f f e r i n g t o th e dead man 1s s o u l, kurw a\ w hich d ran k th e
b lo o d i n t h e m anner o f a s p i r i t .
I n d is c u s s in g Maguzawa f u n e r a l cu sto m s, K ru siu s m e re ly m en tio n s
t h e o f f e r i n g o f a p p r o p r ia te s a c r i f i c i a l an im a ls to th e c h i e f ,£sk6 k£\ and
sa y s t h a t a p r a y e r i s a d d re s s e d t o them i n w hich th e y a r e t o l d t o a c c e p t
a s£d&kgf from t h e d e c e a s e d .
I n an y e v e n t , th e r e i s no q u e s tio n o f any
s u b se q u e n t s a c r i f i c e s t o t h e s o u l o f th e dead man a f t e r th e i n i t i a l one
or its
c o n t in u a ti o n b y h i s d e s c e n d a n ts i n su ch a way a s to c o n s t i t u t e a
tr u e c u lt o f th e a n c e s to rs .
A p o s s i b l e re se m b la n c e w hich th e co n cep t o f th e s o u l, term ed
kurwA’, shows t o t h e 1i s k o k f i s i n d i c a t e d b y th e f a c t t h a t th e kurwa* o f a
d ead man may d r in k th e b lo o d o f a d o m e stic an im al i n th e same m anner a s
an 1iskA*.
T h is p o s s i b i l i t y i s en hanced b y th e f a c t t h a t t h i s resem b­
la n c e i s re c o g n iz e d b y t h e Maguzawa, and o c c u rs i n o th e r s i t u a t i o n s .
98
Such a c o n n e c tio n b etw een th e s o u ls o f th e dead and th e s p i r i t s who a r e
r e c i p i e n t s o f p u b l i c w o rs h ip i s i m p l i c i t i n th e in tim a te r e l a t i o n s h i p
betw een th e a n c e s t r a l c u l t and th e w o rsh ip o f s p i r i t s t h a t c h a r a c te r i z e s
W est A f r ic a n b e l i e f .
The form w h ich t h i s ta k e s among th e Hausa i s i n d i ­
c a te d b y t h e s ta te m e n t made by one in f o r m a n t, duk knlrwa* mcrrx' c e ’. "e v e ry
soul is a b o 'r i i . e . . s p irit* '
The w id e r co n cep t o f a c a te g o r y o f s p i r i t s
e m b ra cin g b o th t h e s o u ls o f l i v i n g b e in g s and th e ’ is k o k f th u s te n d s to
b r i n g H ausa b e l i e f c l o s e r t o t h e c o n c e p ts p r e v a le n t i n th e a r e a th a n has
b een r e a l i z e d b y e a r l i e r s t u d e n t s .
T h a t th e s o u l re s e m b le s th e ’i s k d k i i s a l s o to be i n f e r r e d from
th e Hausa t h e o r y o f w itc h c r a f t*
H ere, i t w i l l be rem em bered, th e s o u ls
o f w itc h e s , i n c o n ju n c tio n w ith th e " w itc h s p i r i t s , " h u n t th e s o u l o f a
v ic tim w h ich t h e y d ev o u r i n common.
A n o th er Maguzawa b e l i e f w hich r e ­
i n f o r c e s o u r a s s u m p tio n o f a c lo s e c o n n e c tio n betw een th e human s o u l and
t h e 1isk<5ki i s t h e f o llo w in g :
I f a man d ie s w h ile he i s s t i l l i n h is
prim e' an d d e s i r e s t o c o n tin u e l i v i n g among men, h is d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith
h i s l o t i s e x p re s s e d b y h i s kurwa: g o in g b e r s e r k , k i l l i n g r e l a t i v e s on
b o th h i s f a t h e r ’ s and m o th e r ’ s s i d e .
i d e n t i f i e d w ith th e ’ is k tr K’ a k ' a r i .
T h is av en g in g s o u l i s c l o s e l y
W hile th e two a r e h e ld t o be d i s t i n c t ,
th e y a r e r e g a r d e d a s b e in g v e r y c l o s e l y c o n n e c te d , K’a k 'a r i b e in g con­
c e iv e d a s t h e com panion an d h e lp e r o f th e s o u l.
When such a s o u l th u s
v e n ts i t s a n g e r , r e c o u r s e i s had t o th e " c h il d r e n o f th e b cfrr,
one o f them i s p o s s e s s e d b y t h e s p i r i t K’ a k 'a r i .
p le a d w ith him s a y in g ,
k jf kurwar k i ’ daw d&ngAnaf
Thou s o u l , show p a t i e n c e .
u n til
When he "comes" th e y
T h a t t h e d ev elo p m en t o f th e Maguzawa 1isk d k x c u l t ca n n o t be
a c c o u n te d f o r e n t i r e l y i n te rm s o f in d ig e n o u s A fric a n in f l u e n c e s i s ,
how ever, c l e a r i f o n ly b e c a u se o f th e p re s e n c e o f th e A rab ic w ord, " J i n n ,"
f r e e l y u s e d b y t h e Maguzawa a s a synonym f o r *isk lc *^-
T here a r e , more­
o v e r , c e r t a i n p h a s e s o f t h e *is k o k l c u l t whose d e r iv a tio n can o n ly be
u n d e rs to o d b y r e f e r e n c e t o t h e b o rro w in g o f f e a t u r e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f
th e Mohammedan b e l i e f i n J i n n .
A s i g n i f i c a n t exam ple i s th e d i v i s i o n
made b y t h e Maguzawa o f th e *i s k d k i i n t o Mohammedan o r w h ite , and p ag an ,
o r b la c k .
I t i s a Moslem dogma t h a t some of th e J in n a r e Moslem and
o th e r s r e p r e s e n t v a r io u s ty p e s o f i n f i d e l s and p a g a n s .
T h is co n cep t i s
b a s e d on t h e C oran i t s e l f , w hich s t a t e s t h a t some J in n a r e d e s tin e d f o r
p
h e ll,
te d . 3
,
w h ile o t h e r s , who l i s t e n e d t o Mohammed's p r e a c h in g , w ere co n v er­
T hese "Moslem" J i n n a r e d e s c r ib e d i n th e f o llo w in g te rm s:
The good J i n n a c q u i t th e m s e lv e s o f th e im p e r a tiv e d u ti e s
o f r e l i g i o n ; n am ely , p r a y e r , a lm s - g iv in g , f a s t i n g d u rin g
t h e m onth o f Ramadan and p ilg rim a g e to Mekkeh and Mount
'A r a f a t ; b u t i n t h e p erfo rm an ce o f th e s e d u ti e s th e y a r e
g e n e r a l l y i n v i s i b l e to human b e i n g s .4I n c o n s id e r in g some o f t h e a s p e c ts o f th e 'is k a - c u l t i n w hich
b o th Negro an d Mohammedan in f l u e n c e s have b een o p e r a t i v e , we may b e g in
w ith t h e th e o r y o f c a u s a tio n o f d is e a s e b y th e 'is k d k x .
A llu s io n has
a l r e a d y b een made t o t h e Dahomean d o c t r i n e t h a t th e s p i r i t s , vodi^ s e n t
1 . T h is same phenomenon o f th e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f A fric a n s p i r i t s w ith
th e Mohammedan J in n has o c c u r r e d a t l e a s t a t two o th e r p o in ts w id e ly sep­
a r a t e d fro m t h e Hausa u n d e r c o n ta c t w ith Is la m — on th e u p p er Niger^
( T a u x ie r ( 1 9 2 7 ) , p . 8 ) , and i n E a s t A f r ic a among th e S w a h ili-s p e a k in g peo­
p l e s w here th e A ra b ic S h a ita n ( b la c k J in n ) a r e i d e n t i f i e d w ith th e n a t iv e
mzimu ( K u r its c h o n e r ( 1 9 3 6 ) , p* 209)*
2.
C o ran , 7> v* 177*
3*
C o ran , 7 2 , v . 1-3*
4.
Lane ( 1 8 5 9 ) , 1 , A7*
100
d i s e a s e i n t o t h e w o r l d . T h e m anner i n w h ich a vodi^ p u n is h e s someone
who h a s i n c u r r e d h i s w ra th i s b y a f f l i c t i n g him w ith a d i s e a s e .
How­
e v e r , t h e num ber o f c a s e s w here s p e c i f i c d e i t i e s cau se s p e c i f i c d i s e a s e s ,
a s i s t h e c a s e among th e H ausa, i s s m a ll.
The c o n n e c tio n o f a g iv e n
s p i r i t w ith a p a r t i c u l a r d is e a s e a p p e a rs s i m i l a r l y li m i t e d among th e
Y oruba.
S h ak p an n a, th e an a lo g u e o f S a g b a ta i n Dahomey, h e re a l s o
c a u s e s s m a llp o x , b u t t h i s a p p e a rs t o be t h e o n ly c a s e .^
Among th e Ju k u n ,
t h e s p i r i t s c a u s e ep id em ic d i s e a s e , d e a th s from s u n s tr o k e , e p i l e p t i c
f i t s an d f e v e r s , and a c e r t a i n amount o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s e x e r c is e d by
t h e s p i r i t s who b r i n g on v a r io u s i l l n e s s e s .
O phthalm ia i s cau sed by Ayo,
rh eu m a tism an d a r t h r i t i s b y Agbadu, and abdom inal tr o u b l e s b y A kura.3
The c o n c e p t t h a t s p e c i f i c s p i r i t s c a u s in g d e f i n i t e d is e a s e s i s th u s seen
t o b e w id e ly s p r e a d i n non-Moharamedan c u l t u r e s o f West A f r ic a .
We may
n e x t g la n c e a t Mohammedan c o n c e p tio n s o f th e cau se o f i l l n e s s .
A ccord­
i n g t o D o u tte , ,!chez l e s m usulm ans, p r in c ip a le m e n t chez nos in d ig e n e s
de l fA friq u e du N ord. . . .
l e s m a la d ie s s o n t e s s e n tia le m e n t des d j i n n ,
s u r t o u t l e s m a la d ie s e p id e m iq u e s .n4-
A f u l l e r s ta te m e n t i s t h a t o f Wes-
te rm a rc k s
The m ost u s u a l way i n w h ich .inuh make t h e i r p re s e n c e
f e l t i s b y c a u s in g d is tu r b a n c e s o f th e h e a l t h , e s p e c i a l ­
l y sudden o n es l i k e c o n v u ls io n s , e p i l e p t i c and p a r a l y t i c
f i t s , rh e u m a tic and n e u r a l g ic p a i n s , and f i t s o f m adness,
o r e p id e m ic s l i k e c h o le r a and m easles* • • . 2
1.
See p .
ab o v e.
2.
F arro w (1 9 2 6 ), p . 56.
3.
Meek ( 1 9 3 1 ) , P* 310.
D o u tte (1 9 0 9 ), P* 221.
5.
W esterm arck (1 9 2 6 ), 1 , 2 7 1 . "J n u n " i s th e c o l l o q u i a l M oroccan
p r o n o u n c ia tio n o f th e A ra b ic word f o r J i n n .
101
The J i n n a r e h e ld t o b e p a r t i c u l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w ith v a r io u s ty p e s o f i n ­
s a n i t y , th e o r d in a r y A ra b ic e x p r e s s io n f o r in s a n e being* raajn u n , " p o s s e s s e d
b y J i n n **1 Mohammedan c o n c e p tio n s o f th e r o l e o f J in n i n c a u s in g i n s a n i t y
li k e w is e f i n d e x p r e s s io n among t h e pagan H ausa, where i n s a n i t y i s p ro ­
m in e n t among t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s b ro u g h t on by th e 1iskoki*. and t h i s i s a
b e l i e f n o t fo u n d g e n e r a l l y among non—
Mohammedan Negro A f r ic a n s .
T h ere i s a l s o a Moslem c o u n te r p a r t f o r th e id e a t h a t m e d icin e
d e r iv e s fro m t h e s p i r i t s , w h ich i s e x p l i c i t i n Maguzawa b e l i e f .
I t is
commonly h e ld by Moslems t h a t Solomon u se d h is povrer to compel th e J in n
t o g iv e him ta lis m a n s and o t h e r m e d ic in e s .
I f th e s p i r i t s cau se i l l n e s s
i t i s o n ly l o g i c a l t h a t a t l e a s t one ty p e o f cu re sh o u ld c o n s is t o f s a c r i ­
f i c e s t o p r o p i t i a t e them .
V ery commonly i n W est A f r ic a su ch an im a ls a s
fo w ls o r g o a ts a r e th e o f f e r i n g s .
L ik e w is e , i n N o rth A f r ic a , th e same
k in d o f o f f e r i n g s a r e made t o m arab o u ts and t o th e J in n f o r r e c o v e ry from
i l l n e s s , a b la c k b u l l o r b la c k h e -g o a t b e in g p r e f e r r e d i n s a c r i f i c e s to
more im p o r ta n t m a ra b o u ts , w h ile a b la c k c h ic k e n o r b la c k cock i s o f f e r e d
t o t h e l e s s e r m a ra b o u ts and t o th e J i n n . ^
I t h as b e e n shown t h a t th e e s s e n t i a l p u rp o se o f Hausa s a c r i f i c e s
i s t o p r o v id e t h e s p i r i t s w ith t h e b lo o d w h ich i s t h e i r s u s te n a n c e .
T here
a r e s p o r a d ic e v id e n c e s i n W est A f r ic a o f th e im p o rta n c e o f b lo o d i n th e
s a c r i f i c e s , b u t i t i s a lm o st n e v e r s t a t e d e x p l i c i t l y t h a t th e s p i r i t
d r in k s th e b lo o d .
F o r i n s t a n c e , th o u g h we a r e t o l d t h a t a fo w l o f f e r e d
t o th e Y oruban d e i t y , Ogun, i s consumed b y th o s e who o f f e r i t , we a r e a l s o
1.
D o u tte (1 9 0 9 ), p . 4-37* M arabout i s a te rm c u r r e n t i n w e s te rn
N o rth A f r ic a e q u iv a le n t t o w a l l , " s a i n t " j t h a t i s , a man p o s s e s s in g
b a ra k a t o an e x t r a o r d in a r y d e g re e .
102
in fo rm e d t h a t t h e b lo o d m ust f i r s t be p o u red out.^*
11i n e a c h c a s e t h e b lo o d i s
b r a s s p an * "^
I n A sh a n ti s a c r i f i c e s ,
a llo w e d to f a l l upon th e c o n te n ts i n th e
The b lo o d o f a s a c r i f i c i a l g o a t g iv e n i n Dahomey, i s p o u red
o v e r t h e s t r u c t u r e s a c r e d t o t h e vod\^*3
A more e x p l i c i t s ta te m e n t i s
g iv e n b e a r in g on t h i s p o in t a s co n c e rn s th e Ju k u n .
The p r i e s t o f Ken jo
o f f e r s h i s d e i t y a l i b a t i o n o f new b e e r and th e b lo o d o f a g o a t and
ch ick en *
B e fo re th e man who p r o v id e s th e s a c r i f i c i a l a n im a ls d e l i v e r s
them t o t h e p r i e s t , he e n t e r s t h e s a c r e d e n c lo s u re and a d d re s s e s a p r a y e r
t o t h e a n c e s t o r s c a l l i n g on them t o r e c e iv e w ith f a v o r th e b lo o d o f th e
a n im a ls , an d t o b e s a t i s f i e d w ith t h a t , and n o t demand human b l o o d . 4
I n Moslem c o u n t r i e s J in n a r e b e l ie v e d t o h o v er ab o u t w h erev er t h e r e i s
b lo o d * 5
When s a c r i f i c e s a r e made t o S i d i Yacqub e t T a f r i s i , n e a r
Tlem cen i n N o rth A f r i c a , th e b lo o d o f c h ic k e n s s a c r i f i c e d to him i s
s p u r te d on th e g ro u n d and th e J in n come e v e ry n ig h t to d rin k o f i t *6
A n o th er a s p e c t o f th e 'i s k o k i c u l t i n w hich th e r e s u l t o f b o th
Negro an d Mohammedan in f l u e n c e s a r e t o be se e n co n ce rn s t h e l o c a l i z a t i o n
o f t h e 'i s k d k i i n d e f i n i t e k in d s o f t r e e s .
c o n n e c te d w ith t h e s p i r i t s .
I n g e n e r a l, la r g e t r e e s a r e
F o r ex am p le, w id e -s p re a d a t t e n t i o n i s p a id t o
t h e s i l k c o t to n t r e e i n W est A f r ic a . 7
1.
F arro w ( 1 9 2 6 ) , p . 9 7 .
2.
R a t t r a y ( 1 9 2 3 ) , P» 149«
3*
H e r s k o v its (193# b ) , 2 , 184-.
A*
Meek ( 1 9 3 1 ) , P» 267.
5*
W esterm arck ( 1 9 2 6 ), 1 , 273*
6.
D o u tt 6 (1 9 0 9 ), P« 474*
Among th e Y oruba, a s a c r i f i c e i s
7* F arro w ( 1 9 2 6 ) , p . 1 3 , s t a t e s t h a t th e s i l k c o tto n i s h ig h ly v e n e r­
a t e d th r o u g h o u t W est A fric a *
103
o f f e r e d e v e r y m onth a t t h e I r o k o , " A fric a n o a k ," w h ile th e Ayan t r e e i s
s a c r e d t o th e th u n d e r d e i t j r , S hango, and from i t th e Shango—axe i s alw ays
m ad e.^
Among Mohammedan p e o p le s t r e e s a r e m en tio n ed
th e p la c e s f r e q u e n te d b y t h e J in n * ^
p ro m in e n tly among
Here a g a in , we have a s i t u a t i o n
w here H ausa c o n c e p ts and b e h a v io r a r e t o be re g a rd e d a s r e p r e s e n t in g an
amalgam o f Mohammedan and Negro e le m e n ts
How f a r th e r e s u l t s o f th e a c c u l t u r a t i v e p r o c e s s a r e seen t o
be so m eth in g m ore th a n a mere sim p le m e c h a n ic a l co m b in atio n o f elem en ts
from c o n t r i b u t i n g c u l t u r e s , can be i l l u s t r a t e d m ost s t r i k i n g l y from th e
Hausa d a ta b y a c o n s id e r a tio n o f th e "Mohammedan" 'i s k o k i .
The c h i e f
o f t h e s e , Malam 'A l h a j i , i s c o n c e iv e d o f a s a le a r n e d o ld man, a p i l ­
g rim .
W h ite , t h e c o l o r o f t h e g arm en ts o f th e p ilg r im t o Mecca i n th e
s t a t e o f s a n c t i t y known a s 1ih ra m . i s made t h e k ey n o te o f h is p e r s o n a l i t y ,
h i s g a rm e n ts a l l b e in g w h ite , w h ile h is s a c r i f i c e c o n s i s t s o f a w h ite
sh eep .
I n k e e p in g w ith h i s c h a r a c te r a s a Moslem, s a c r i f i c e s a r e o f f e r e d
t o him a t a c l e a r e d r e c t a n g u l a r sp ace w hich r e p r e s e n ts t h e p la c e f o r
p r a y in g .
O b v io u s ly th e e x i s t e n c e o f su ch a c h a r a c te r among th e 1isk o 'k l
a s Malam 'A l h a j i i s im p o s s ib le w ith o u t an in t im a te a c q u a in ta n c e w ith
Moslem ways and p r a c t i c e s ; hence th e ap p e a ra n c e o f Malam 'A l h a j i and th e
o t h e r Moslem s p i r i t s a r e phenomena w hich can o n ly ta k e p la c e u n d er co n d i­
tio n s o f c o n ta c t.
However, Malam 'A l h a j i i s n o t , a s one m ight assume a t
1.
F arro w ( 1 9 2 6 ) , p . 1 6 .
2.
W esterm arck (1 9 2 6 ), 1 , 2 6 1 .
3 . The rem a rk s o f M a rty ( 1 9 2 0 -2 1 ), 2 , 309, on t h i s s u b je c t a r e
w o rth q u o tin g . T a lk in g o f t h e d a s i r i t r e e s , s a c re d to th e n y en a,
" s p i r i t s , " w h ich a r e fo u n d i n e v e ry Bambara v i l l a g e , he s a y s , "av ec
l e s g e n e r a tio n s q u i v ie n d r o n t , c e t t e cro y an ce s'am alg am era avec 1 *I s la m ,
e t l e d a s i r i d e v ie n d r a sim p lem en t l e s e jo u r de d j i n n ."
104
^■■rst b l u s h , 3- s p i r i t w hose c u l t has b een borrow ed from Mohammedan so u r­
ces.^-
I t i s s a f e t o s a y t h a t i n a l l th e shadowy w o rld o f th e J in n th e r e
i s no f i g u r e w ith t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Malam ’A lh a ji*
I n o th e r w ords,
we have h e r e , u n d e r t h e s tim u lu s o f Moslem c o n t a c t, th e c r e a tio n o f new
s p i r i t s , a n i n v e n t i o n , in d e e d , i n th e f i e l d o f r e l i g i o n .
The a p p e a r­
an ce o f new c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s u n d e r c o n d itio n s o f c o n ta c t i s th u s c l e a r l y
d e m o n s tra te d .
1.
B r i e f m e n tio n sh o u ld b e made a t t h i s p o i n t , t h a t th e Mohammedan
J i n n , w h ile th e y a r e named, have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y o n ly vague p e r s o n a l i ­
t i e s . We f i n d lo n g l i s t s o f J in n who a r e to b e in v o k e d , whose nam es_are
fo rm ed b y p e rm u ta tio n s o f th e i n i t i a l c o n so n a n ts and by th e e n d in g s i s u ,
u s u , r e p r e s e n t i n g th e G reek o s , and a ’i l from th e Hebrew
) . T h is
p o i n t c o u ld b e a b u n d a n tly i l l u s t r a t e d b y d a ta from th e Hausa M oslems,
b u t h e r e we s h a l l m e re ly q u o te w hat D o u tte (1 9 0 9 ), p . 1 1 9 , has t o sa y
on th e s u b j e c t , " l e nom e s t s o u v e n t, A p eu p r e s , ce q u ’i l y a de p lu s
c l a i r dans l e u r p e r s o n n a l i t e q u i r e s t e t r e s c o n fu s e ."
105
V.
THE MALM AND THE 'ISKOKI CULT AMONG MOSLEM HAUSA
I n t h e c h a p te r d e v o te d t o a d is c u s s io n o f th e c o n ta c ts o f Kano
w ith Mohammedan c u l t u r e , t h e r e l a t i v e s l i g h t n e s s o f d i r e c t in t e r c o u r s e
w ith o t h e r Mohammedan p e o p le s i n th e s p re a d o f Is la m among th e Hausa peo­
p le h as b een p o in t e d o u t .
H ere we s h a l l seek t o document t h i s p o in t by
show ing how Mohammedan d o c t r i n e s a r e even to d a y d if f u s e d among th e Hausa
th r o u g h t h e a g e n c y o f a c l a s s o f n a t iv e le a r n e d men, r a t h e r th a n by f i r s t ­
hand c o n t a c t ; and how, accom panying th e la c k o f d i r e c t in t e n s i v e c o n ta c ts
w ith o t h e r Moslem f o lic , a c o n s id e r a b le number o f in d e p e n d e n t i n t e r p r e t a ­
t i o n s o f t h e l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s i n w hich Mohammedan d o c t r i n e s a r e embodied
have r e s u l t e d .
As we t u r n , t h e r e f o r e , from o u r c o n s id e r a tio n o f pagan r e l i g i o n
t o t h a t o f t h e M oslem s, t h e e x is te n c e o f new f a c t o r s w hich i n th e f i n a l
a n a l y s i s d epend upon t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f w r i t i n g im m e d ia te ly comes to
m ind.
One o f t h e m ost s t r i k i n g o f th e s e f a c t o r s h as t o do w ith th e
g r e a t l y d i f f e r i n g d e g re e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s by
v a r io u s g ro u p s o f th e Moslem p o p u la tio n a s compared w ith th e p ag an s.
Among t h e M aguzawa, t h e o n ly f a c t o r s p ro d u c in g d if f e r e n c e s i n t h e d eg ree
o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e l i g i o u s l i f e a r e th o s e o f age and se x ; t h i s a r i s ­
in g from t h e t r a d i t i o n t h a t t h e o ld e r men, who i n g e n e r a l a r e compound
h e a d s , p e rfo rm t h e im p o r ta n t d o m e stic r i t e s .
However, co m p en satio n s f o r
n o t p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n su c h r i t u a l s a r e am p le, t h e r e b e in g many in d i v i d u a l
o u t l e t s f o r r e l i g i o u s e x p r e s s io n w hich a r e open to th e women and young
men*
The f o r m e r , in d e e d , a r e m ost p ro m in en t i n c a r r y in g on th e a s p e c t
106
o f i n d i v i d u a l r e l i g i o u s l i f e w h ich i s f a r t h e s t d ev elo p ed among th e Magu­
zaw a, nam ely t h e p o s s e s s io n c u l t .
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , among th e Moslem p o p u la tio n , a s i g n i f i c a n t
gap e x i s t s b etw een men an d women and betw een le a r n e d and u n le arn ed *
The
g r e a t m ass o f t h e r u r a l p o p u la tio n , and m ost o f th e women, even i n th e
c i t i e s , hav e o n ly t h e minimum know ledge r e q u ir e d t o be a Moslem a t a l l —
t h a t i s , t h e a b i l i t y t o r e c i t e th e p r a y e r s i n A rab ic (w ith o u t n e c e s s a r i l y
know ing t h e i r m e a n in g ), and a know ledge o f th e e le m e n ta ry r e l i g i o u s du­
tie s *
I n Kano C it y t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e boys r e c e iv e some fo rm a l i n s t r u c ­
t i o n , u s u a l l y b etw ee n t h e a g e s o f f i v e t o e i g h t . 1
T h is e n a b le s them t o
r e a d th e C o ran , b u t w ith o u t u n d e r s ta n d in g i t s m ean in g , and g iv e s them a
somewhat f u l l e r know ledge o f t h e re q u ire m e n ts o f t h e i r r e l i g i o n .
G r e a te r
p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e l i g i o u s l i f e i s r e s e r v e d f o r th o s e who d ev o te t h e i r
tim e t o le a r n e d p u r s u i t s , whom th e Hausa c a l l Malams (m£i£m£\ p l u r a l ,
mal£may ) . 2
The e x is t e n c e o f su ch a c l a s s o f le a r n e d s p e c i a l i s t s accom­
p a n ie s t h e s p r e a d o f I s la m everyw here*
T hus, a c l a s s an alo g o u s t o th e
H ausa Malams a p p e a r s , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n th e 'A l f a o f th e Tim buktu r e g io n ,
c o n c e rn in g whom Houdas s a y s , ” 'E l —Fa ou 'A l f a e s t un t i t r e an alo g u e A
c e l u i de s i ou s i d i ehez l e s A ra b e s.
I I se donne h. t o u t e p e rso n a e a y a n t
une c e r t a i n e i n s t r u c t i o n ou q u e lq u e renom de p i e t e . "3
The l e i s u r e r e q u i r e d f o r th e p u r s u i t o f th e s e l i t e r a r y i n t e r e s t s
r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n amount o f freedom from m anual l a b o r , and t h i s , i n th e
c a s e o f t h e more im p o r ta n t M alam s, i s p ro v id e d b y subsum ing th e r e l a t i o n s h i p
1* A cc o rd in g t o a Hausa t e x t r e c o rd e d by M is c h lic h (1 9 0 8 ), p . 2 0 , a t
H ausa c e n t e r s o t h e r th a n K ano, o n ly a m in o r ity o f th e boys r e c e iv e an y
fo rm a l e d u c a tio n .
2 . “MjSI
3*
i s d e r iv e d from th e A rab ic muf a l l i m , " t e a c h e r . ”
T e d z k ir e t en N i s i a n * t r a n s l a t i o n , p . 2 0 , f o o tn o te 2 .
107
o f p u p i l "fco t e a c h e r u n d e r t h e Hausa p a t t e r n o f a p p r e n tic e s h ip w hich ob­
t a i n s i n c a s e s w here a t r a d e i s a c q u ir e d and n o t i n h e r i t e d . !
I t i s n e c e s­
s a r y i n t h i s c a s e f o r t h e p u p i l t o s t a y f o r y e a r s w ith h i s m a s te r i n o r d e r
t o a c q u ir e t h e know ledge n e c e s s a r y t o b e a Malam h im s e lf .
The ' &lm£.ilRi‘.
l i k e a n y o t h e r a p p r e n t i c e , l i v e s a t h is t u t o r ' s house and a s s i s t s him w ith
t h e w ork on h i s fa rm .
When a Malam h as many p u p i l s , he i s , o f c o u r s e ,
© n tir e l y f r e e d fro m t h i s k in d o f work and can d ev o te h im s e lf e x c lu s iv e ly
t o s tu d y an d t e a c h i n g .
As com pared t o o th e r s who have a p p r e n t ic e s , th e Malam commands
an a d d i t i o n a l s o u rc e o f s u p p o r t.
The g iv in g o f alm s a s a r e l i g i o u s d u ty
i s one o f th e fu n d a m e n ta ls o f I s la m .
I t f i n d s i n s t i t u t i o n a l e x p r e s s io n
i n t h e ZeLkA'. a r e l i g i o u s t a x , w h ich th o u g h c o l l e c t e d b y th e same ad m in is­
t r a t i v e m a c h in e ry a s t h e o th e r t a x e s , was supposed t o be u se d o n ly f o r
c h a r i t a b l e purposes.2
I n K ano, w here t h i s t a x to o k th e form o f a t i t h e
upon t h e s t a p l e c ro p s o f g u in e a c o rn and m i l l e t , th e Malams r e c e iv e d a
la r g e sh a re o f th e p ro c e e d s.
a p r i v a t e zakA*.
I n a d d i t i o n t o th e p u b lic z&kA*. t h e r e i s
A r i c h man i s e x p e c te d t o c o n tr ib u te o n e - te n th o f h is
incom e f o r p io u s p u r p o s e s , and one o f t h e ways i n w hich t h i s o b li g a ti o n
i s met i s b y g i f t s t o Malams*
The g iv in g o f o c c a s io n a l a lm s, sad£k&.
i s a l s o c o n s id e r e d a p a r t o f t h e g e n e r a l r e l i g i o u s d u ty o f a lm s - g iv in g ,
and f u l l a d v a n ta g e i s ta k e n o f t h i s when th e p u p il s o f a Malam beg f o r
th e b e n e fit o f t h e i r te a c h e r.
Some o f t h e m ore im p o r ta n t Malams r e a c h f i n a n c i a l in d ep en d en ce
th ro u g h t h e p o s i t i o n th e y h o ld i n t h e p o l i t i c a l h ie r a r c h y .
A ll th e im­
p o r t a n t b&kimAy, '’m i n i s t e r s , ” have Malams a tta c h e d t o them who l i v e on
1 . I t s h o u ld b e rem a rk ed , how ever, t h a t a f a t h e r who w ish es t o t r a n s ­
m it h i s o c c u p a tio n t o a so n som etim es a p p r e n tic e s him to a c o lle a g u e .
2* The p a s t te n s e i s u s e d a d v i s e d l y . Under th e E n g lis h a d m in is tr a ­
t i o n t h e d i s t i n c t i o n h as b een o b l i t e r a t e d . However, th e p r i v a t e z&k.4*
i s s t i l l c o n tin u e d .
108
t h e i r b o u n ty .
M o reo v er, some p o s i t i o n s i n t h e h ie r a r c h y can o n ly be
f i l l e d b y M alam s.
The o f f i c e s o f Limam, " p r a y e r l e a d e r ," and 'A l k a l i ,
" ju d g e ," w ere o f n e c e s s i t y h e ld b y su c h men, who w ere m i n is te r s i n t h e i r
own r i g h t an d i n fo rm e r tim e s w ere s u p p o rte d by ta x e s im posed on v i l l a g e s
under t h e i r c o n tro l.
I t was a l s o s a i d t h a t th e im p o rta n t p o s i t i o n o f
W a z ir i, " v i z i e r , " was o n ly h e ld b y a Malam.
I t w i l l b e e v id e n t from th e f o r e g o in g t h a t t h e r e a r e la r g e v a r i ­
a t i o n s i n t h e d e g re e o f im p o rta n c e and f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s o f d i f f e r e n t M alams,
w ith w hich t h e v a r y in g d e g re e s o f l e a r n i n g , r a n g in g from a mere know ledge
o f t h e C oran an d a few m e d ic in e s , to w hat may be c o n s id e r a b le knowledge o f
A ra b ic gram m ar, la w , a s t r o l o g y , and m e d ic in e s a r e ro u g h ly c o r r e l a t e d .
T here a r e no r i g i d l i n e s o f d e ra a rk a tio n betw een Malams, b u t i n g e n e r a l
one d i s t i n g u i s h e s th o s e who know o n ly th e C oran from th o s e who know " b o o k s,"
l i t t l i t t & f £ y » i n a d d i t i o n ; t h a t i s , a l l A rab ic works o u ts id e th e C oran.
A l e s s e r Malam, k '& rim in mdlAmi, " s m a ll M alam," s t u d i e s w ith an im p o rta n t
Malam, bAbbdn maiAml. ('b ig M alam ."
A Malam a tta c h e d t o th e Em ir o r an
im p o r ta n t d i s t r i c t head i s a malAmin f a d A, "Malam o f th e p a l a c e ," and
h i s p u r s u i t o f w o r ld ly pow er i s som etim es c o n t r a s t e d w ith th e r e tir e m e n t
o f t h e m&l&mln k i r g i . "Malam o f th e cow hide.
J u s t a s im p o r ta n t a s th e s e v a r i a t i o n s i n d e g re e o f le a r n in g
and w e a lth a r e o th e r s w h ich l a r g e l y depend on th e p a r t i c u l a r background
and p e r s o n a l d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e Malam.
am .q
Those whose t r a i n i n g was w ith
h a v in g a p u r i t a n i c a l b e n t , o r was o b ta in e d u n d e r th e in f lu e n c e
o f t h e r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s a r e l i k e l y t o ta k e a much s t r i c t e r a t t i t u d e to w ard s
1 . T h is d i s t i n c t i o n i s n o te d i n a t e x t re c o rd e d b y M isch lx ch (1 9 0 8 ),
p . 25.
109
cu sto m s w h ich t h e y c o n s id e r p ag an th a n o th e r s who s h ru g t h e i r s h o u ld e rs
an d t o l e r a n t l y s a y t h a t t h e r e i s alw ay s bound t o be a c e r t a i n amount o f
" i g n o r a n c e ,” .i& h ilc l.
A c tu a l ly , i t w ould seem a s th o u g h a c e r t a i n amount
o f t h i s i s p u r p o s e ly p e r m i tt e d , f o r th e c o n t r a s t betw een th e s t r i c t b e­
h a v i o r o f a Malam and t h e l a x b e h a v io r and g r e a t e r ig n o ra n c e o f th e r e s t
o f t h e p o p u la c e u n d e r s c o r e s a mark c£ c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n w hich t h e Malams
w ould b e g r e a t l y l o a t h t o g iv e u p .
One Malam, f o r i n s t a n c e , w as p ro u d
o f t h e f a c t t h a t , i n p r a y in g , he d id n o t f a c e due e a s t , a s m ost p e o p le
d i d , b u t n o r t h e a s t w hich i s t h e t r u e d i r e c t i o n o f Mecca from Kano.
He
e x p la in e d t h a t o n ly a Malam c o u ld b e e x p e c te d to know t h i s and c a r r y i t
o u t i n p r a c t ic e *
How Mohammedan te a c h in g s s p r e a d from th e Malams t o t h e p eo p le
i n g e n e r a l can b e r e a l i z e d i f we c o n s id e r f o r a moment th e f u n c tio n s o f
t h e Malam i n Hausa s o c i e t y .
H is a c t i v i t i e s a r e a t once th o s e o f a
f a m ily p h y s ic ia n and f a m ily s p i r i t u a l a d v i s e r .
When a c h i ld i s b o ra ,
he names i t sev en d ay s a f t e r b i r t h , and g iv e s i t a m ed icin e c o n s is ti n g
o f a p ie c e o f l e a t h e r c o n ta in in g C o ran ic v e r s e s t o be hung aro u n d i t s
neck.
When t h e c h i l d i s o ld enough t o "have s e n s e ," wfryfr, he w i l l be
s e n t t o t h e Malam t o l e a r n t o r e a d t h e Coran and b e i n s t r u c t e d i n th e
r e l i g i o u s d u t i e s in cu m b en t on a Moslem.
When th e tim e f o r m a rria g e a r ­
r i v e s i t w i l l b e t h e Malam who p e rfo rm s th e ceremony and who w i l l g iv e
h i s p r o te g e m e d ic in e s t o t i d e o v e r t h e d angerous p e r io d o f t Angw£ncl*>
" s t a t e o f b e in g a groom ."
fu n e ra l.
F i n a l l y , when d e a th come?, he p r e s id e s a t th e
At a l l s ta g e s o f l i f e th e Malam i s c a l l e d on to a d m in is te r medi­
c in e s i f a member o f t h e h o u se h o ld i s i l l .
T h is i s n o t th e e n t i r e s to r y
o f h i s d u t i e s , h o w ev er, f o r t h e c o n s c ie n tio u s Moslem c o n s u lts h is Malam
110
w henev er he h a s d o u b ts a s t o w h e th e r some p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n i s i n con­
f o r m i ty w ith t h e Moslem r e l i g i o u s la w , w h ile th e Malam h im s e lf may volun­
t e e r a n o p in io n s h o u ld he deem t h i s a h e lp i n r o o tin g o u t p r a c t i c e s t h a t
seem t o him t o b e p a g a n .
I n th e s e d e a l in g s betw een th e Malams and th e
r e s t o f t h e p o p u la tio n > g r e a t d if f e r e n c e s a r e to b e seen on b o th s id e s —
d i f f e r e n c e s , a s t h e n a t i v e s p h ra s e i t , o f i n d i v i d u a l tem peram ent, nh £ li '. 11
Some p e o p le a r e s c ru p u lo u s i n s e e k in g a d v ic e and fo llo w i t j o th e r s a r e
c a r e le s s *
Some M alam s, on t h e o t h e r h an d , a r e z e a lo u s i n stam p in g o u t
p ag an c u sto m s, w h ile o th e r s a r e i n d i f f e r e n t .
T a k in g i n t o c o n s id e r a tio n , th e n , th e im p o rta n c e and in f lu e n c e
o f t h e M alam s, t h e i r o p in io n s a s t o w hat i s r e p r e h e n s ib le and t h e r e f o r e
t o be s u p p r e s s e d w i l l , i n th e lo n g r u n , be an im p o rta n t f a c t o r i n d i r e c ­
t i n g w hat and how much o f a b o r i g i n a l pagan custom and b e l i e f s h a l l s u r ­
v iv e .
H ence, i t i s e s s e n t i a l i n an y c o n s id e r a tio n o f th e a c c u l t u r a t i v e
f a c t o r s o p e r a t in g i n sh a p in g t h e f a t e o f th e risk<5ki c u l t a f t e r th e
c o n v e rs io n o f i t s a d h e r e n ts t o s e e i n w hat te rm s t h e Mohammedan Malam
c o n c e iv e s o f Maguzawa r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t y .
The k e y t o th e Hausa Malam* s a t t i t u d e h e re l i e s i n th e i d e n t i ­
f i c a t i o n he draw s betw een th e n a t i v e Hausa *i s k d k r w ith b la c k , o r pagan
J in n *
We have s e e n t h a t i t i s a Mohammedan dogma t h a t th e r e a r e b o th
Moslem and non—Moslem J i n n . l
Some o f th e s e l a t t e r a r e C h r i s t i a n , Je w is h ,
o r Z o r o a s t r i a n , w h ile s t i l l o th e r s p r a c t i c e v a r io u s k in d s o f pag an ism .
The H ausa Malams c o n c e iv e o f each c o u n try a s h av in g J in n w hich resem b le
i t s human in h a b i t a n t s *
I t was s a i d , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t th e r e a r e Gwari
J i n n i n G wari c o u n tr y , and t h a t when some o f th e Gwari became c o n v e rte d ,
some o f t h e J i n n em braced I s la m a t th e same tim e .
1.
See p . 99 a b o v e.
The c a s ti n g o f s p e l l s
Ill
b y m eans o f i n c a n t a t i o n s c a l l e d sftrk& L let a p r a c t i c e s a id to have o r i g i ­
n a t e d w ith t h e F u la n i an d s t i l l r e s t r i c t e d alm o st e x c lu s iv e ly to them ,
was r e v e a le d b y " w h ite " F u la n i J i n n , th e J in n b e in g "w h ite" b ecau se th e
F u la n i a r e a lm o s t e n t i r e l y Mohammedan.
I t was o n ly n a t u r a l f o r th e
Malams t o c o n c lu d e , t h e n , t h a t th e 1is k o 'k f w ere J in n o f th e Maguzawa, th e
b la c k J i n n n a t i v e t o Hausa c o u n try .
As a c o n se q u e n c e , th e c u l t o f th e 1is k d k i was i d e n t i f i e d i n
t h e m inds o f t h e Malams w ith b la c k m agic (A rab ic s i h r ) 2 known a s s i h l R l
o r c 1£ f l t o t h e H ausa, f o r b la c k m agic i n Mohammedan c o u n tr ie s c h i e f l y
in v o lv e s d raw in g b la c k J i n n i n t o one*s s e r v ic e .
Hence, th o u g h a l l p h a se s
o f t h e r i t e s o f th e 1is k d k f a r e condemned b y th e Malama a s b e in g c *A*fl\
no d o u b t i s th ro w n on th e a c t u a l e x is te n c e o f th e *is k d k f n o r i s th e
r e a l i t y o f th e e f f e c t s th e y p ro d u ced d o u b te d .
Pagan r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s ,
l i k e b la c k m a g ic , a r e n o t h e ld u n e f f ic a e io u s j th e y a r e sim p ly c o n tr a r y
t o r e l i g i o n and hence r e p r e h e n s i b l e . -
The m ain ten an ce o f t h i s v ie w p o in t
b y t h e Malams n a t u r a l l y in c r e a s e s th e d i f f i c u l t y o f s u p p re s s in g pagan r e ­
l i g i o u s c u sto m s.
I n th e c a s e o f pagan d o m e stic r i t e s , th e f a c t t h a t th e
v e ry g e n e r a l b e n e f i t s eixpected from them c o u ld be o b ta in e d by th e Moslem
s u b s t i t u t e o f p r a y e r h as en co u ra g ed t h e i r d is a p p e a r a n c e .
how ever, h as b een more p e r s i s t e n t .
The bcfri c u l t ,
Though condemned b y th e Malams and
r e g a r d e d a sk a n c e by th e m ore r e s p e c t a b l e , i t c o n tin u e s to f l o u r i s h .
P e o p le w i l l n o t e a s i l y g iv e up a n o p p o r tu n ity t o r e c o v e r from an i l l n e s s .
I f t h e Malam 1s o r mA-ymAganr* s m e d ic in e f a i l s , o u t o f s h e e r n e c e s s i t y one
1.
F o r t h e r e a l i t y o f J in n and o f b la c k magic ( s i h r ) a s a Mohammedan
dogma, s e e D o u tte (1 9 0 9 )? P* 335*
2* The q u e s tio n i s one o f th e la w f u ln e s s o r u n la w fu ln e ss o f th e au s­
p i c e s u n d e r w h ich t h e a c t i s c a r r i e d o u t , n o t i t s h arm fu l o r b e n e f i c i a l
e f f e c t s o c i a l l y . One may s e r i o u s l y harm a p e r s o n a l enemy by u s in g th e co r­
r e c t m e th o d s, w h ile th e c u r in g o f a s ic k p e rso n by th e b q ri' r i t e s i s ■un­
la w f u l.
112
t u r n s t o t h e " c h i l d r e n o f t h e b c fri" ; i f i n i t i a t i o n i n t o th e c u l t i s th e
p r i c e o f re c o v e ry * t h e s i c k p e rs o n c an n o t w e ll r e f u s e .
Even th o s e among
t h e Malams who condemn th e bo*ri' c u l t m ost v ig o r o u s ly would n o t th in k o f
q u e s ti o n in g t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e c u re s e f f e c t e d .
One Malam* f o r in s ta n c e *
when q u e s tio n e d on h i s a t t i t u d e to w ard s b g ri* s t a t e d v eh em en tly t h a t bfrrjwas a l i e .
When a s k e d t o e l a b o r a te on t h i s s ta te m e n t* however* he s a i d ,
"The p e r s o n r e c o v e r s , b u t God does n o t l i k e i t t h a t w ay."
I n c o n c lu s io n i t may be i n d i c a te d t h a t i n r e v e a lin g a mechanism
b y w h ic h b e l i e f i n t h e e x is te n c e o f pagan s u p e r n a tu r a l b e in g s may s u rv iv e
a f t e r th e a d o p tio n o f a m o n o th e is tic r e lig io n * th e d a ta seem to p o in t a
p ro b lem o f c o n s id e r a b le im p o rta n c e n o t o n ly f o r th e stu d y o f a c c u l t u r a ­
tio n * b u t i n th e dynamic a s p e c ts o f th e g e n e r a l f i e l d o f co m p arativ e
re lig io n .
A s t a t e o f a f f a i r s l i k e t h a t found among th e Hausa seems to
have e x i s t e d , f o r exam ple, among th e e a r l y C h r is ti a n s who n e v e r doubted
t h e e x i s t e n c e o f th e pagan gods th e y condemned* c o n s id e r in g them to be
dem ons.
A c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f th e m anner i n w hich t h i s has ta k e n p la c e
i n t h e s e and s i m i l a r i n s ta n c e s m ig h t be e x p e c te d t o le a d t o c o n c lu sio n s
o f w ide s ig n if ic a n c e *
113
V I.
CONCLUSIONS
The c o n c lu s io n s "to w hich th e d a ta c o n s id e re d i n t h i s work le a d
a r e a s f o llo w s :
1.
I s la m f i r s t re a c h e d K ano, i n a s p e c i f i c a l l y M aghrebine fo rm ,
th r o u g h a s e c o n d a ry d i f f u s i o n from th e Mohammedan N egroes o f th e c e n t r a l
N ig e r r e g io n .
I n th e su b se q u e n t M ohamm edanization o f th e p e o p le , a c t u a l
c o n t a c t s w ith Moslem f o l k p la y e d a m in o r r o l e a s compared t o t h a t o f a
n a t i v e c l a s s o f l e a r n e d , known a s M alams.
These c o n s t i t u t e d i n e f f e c t
t h e a c c u l t u r a t i n g e le m e n t, p a s s in g on w hat th e y fo u n d i n th e l i t e r a r y
s o u r c e s a t t h e i r d is p o s a l t o th e p o p u la tio n a t l a r g e .
2.
The d e f i n i t i o n o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n o f f e r e d by th e sub-C om m ittee o f
t h e S o c i a l S c ie n c e R e se a rc h C o u n c il a s a b a s is f o r work i n t h i s f i e l d ,
h a s seem ed t o r e q u i r e w id en in g so a s to ta k e i n t o s p e c i f i c a c c o u n t th e
s itu a tio n o u tlin e d h e re .
The p r e s e n t r e s u l t s s u g g e s t, f u r th e r m o r e , t h a t
i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s o f t h e c o n ta c t o f l i t e r a t e non-E uropean c u l t u r e s w ith
p r e - l i t e r a t e c u l t u r e s , th e r o l e o f th e l i t e r a r y tr a n s m is s io n o f c u l t u r a l
e le m e n ts b e s u b je c t e d t o c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s .
3.
I n o u r c o n s id e r a tio n o f pagan Hausa r e l i g i o n , th e f isk o 'k f were
fo u n d t o b e m erged w ith th e Mohammedan J in n i n a manner an alo g o u s to
t h a t i n w h ic h , among th e New W orld N eg ro es, th e s p i r i t s w orshipped i n
W est A f r ic a a r e i d e n t i f i e d w ith C a th o lic s a i n t s .
T h is s u g g e s ts t h a t
th e e le m e n ts o f c u l t u r e i n th e O ld W orld, in c lu d in g i n t h i s co n cep t
N egro A f r i c a , t h e Mohammedan w o rld and E uropean c i v i l i z a t i o n a r e b a s i c a l l y
ru
s i m i l a r , p r o v id in g a f o u n d a tio n f o r t h e c o a le s c e n c e o f l i k e elem en ts when
tw o c u l t u r e s i n t h i s a r e a a r e i n c o n t a c t.
U* I t i s p ro p o se d t h a t more in t e n s i v e s tu d ie s o f th e c o n ta c ts o f
Islam , w ith Negro p e o p le s i n o t h e r a r e a s be ta k e n .
We know i n some c a s e s
i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h a t b etw een th e Hausa 'i s k o k f and th e
Mohammedan J in n have ta k e n p l a c e , b u t th e d a t e a t o u r d is p o s a l co n c e rn in g
t h e m anner i n w h ich t h i s has o c c u rre d i s m eager.
A more e x te n s iv e know­
le d g e o f w hat h a s happened i n th e s e in s ta n c e s would p ro v id e a f ir m e r b a s is
f o r c o n c lu s io n a s t o th e e f f e c t s o f Mohammedan-Negro c o n ta c ts .
5.
Our a n a l y s i s o f pagan Hausa r e l i g i o n lik e w is e showed t h a t new
c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s , n o t p r e s e n t i n e i t h e r o f th e p r e s e n t c u l t u r e s , a p p ea r
u n d e r c o n d itio n s o f i n t e n s i v e c o n t a c t.
6.
The Mohammedan le a r n e d men, th ro u g h th e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f th e
s p i r i t s w o rsh ip p e d b y t h e pagan Hausa w ith th e u n b e lie v in g , o r pagan J in n
p o s t u l a t e d b y Moslem r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e , e n t e r t a i n a b e l i e f i n th e a c t u a l
e x i s t e n c e an d pow ers o f th e s e s p i r i t s , and th u s c r e a te a c o n d itio n w hich
p e r m its c o n s id e r a b le s u r v i v a l s o f th e 1is k o k l c u l t among th e mass o f Mos­
lem H ausa.
T h is phenomenon p o in t s t o t h e problem o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g i n o th e r
a r e a s t h e m echanism s b y w h ich b e l i e f i n pagan d e i t i e s has s u rv iv e d th e
a d o p tio n o f a m o n o th e is tic r e l i g i o n b y t h e i r w o rs h ip p e rs .
115
A ppendix A
N o tes on t h e System Employed f o r T r a n s c r ib in g Hausa
The s y ste m o f r e n d e r in g Hausa employed i n th e p r e s e n t work
r e s t s on a n a n a l y s i s made i n t h e f i e l d .
noted*
The f o llo w in g p o in ts a r e to be
The t h r e e phonemes o f to n e a r e i n d i c a te d by p la c in g above th e
vow el sym bol an a c c u te a c c e n t f o r th e h ig h to n e , a g rav e a c c e n t f o r th e
low to n e and a c irc u m f le x a c c e n t f o r th e compound to n e r e s u l t i n g from th e
c o n t r a c t i o n o f a h ig h to n e and a f o llo w in g low o n e.
A d o t i s p la c e d a f t e r
a lo n g v o w el, w h ile s h o r t vow els a r e l e f t unm arked,
kw, k*w, gw. k y .
k ?y an d
a r e a l l u n i t phonem es, th e f i r s t th r e e b e in g l a b i a l i z e d and
t h e l a s t t h r e e p a l a t a l i z e d so u n d s.
c 1 and *y e je c tiv e s .-* -
J_d and Md r e p r e s e n t im p lo s iv e s and k 1.
c a p p ro x im a te s th e German z i n " z e h n .”
r is a
f la p p e d so u n d , and R a r o l l e d o n e.
1 . T hese so u n d s a r e d e s c r ib e d i n D. W estermann and I . C. Ward,
P r a c t i c a l P h o n e tic s f o r S tu d e n ts o f A fric a n Languages (London, 1933)>
p p . 9.2-9#•
116
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