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Frames of reference as a factor influencing learning and retention

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Northwestern
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Manu scr ipt Theses
U n p u b l i s h e d theses submitted for the Master* s and
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NAME AND ADDRESS
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DATE
NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY
FRAMES OF REFERENCE AS A FACTOR INFLUENCING LEARNING AND RETENTION
A DISSERTATION
SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
Tor the degree
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
BY
ALLEN L. EDWARDS
EVANSTON, ILLINOIS
JUNE 1940
P ro Q u e s t N u m b e r: 10101357
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE EXPERIMENTAL LITERATURE...................................
Page
1
THE GENERAL THEORETICAL S E T T I N G ...............................
7
THE FRAME OF R E F E R E N C E .......................................
12
CONDITIONS OF THE INVESTIGATION...............................
18
The problem
...................... ..................
18
The passage
.......................................
18
The best
* ....................
The rating scale
. . . . ...........
. . . . . .
19
. . • • • • • • •
21
Collection of* the d a t a ...............................
22
The experimental groups
22
...........................
Analysis of v a r i a n c e ..........
24
The factorial design
26
....................
RESULTS AND D I S C U S S I O N .......................................
Correct responses....................
28
Analysis 2
31
Analysis 3
32
Analysis
4 . . . . . . .
Distortion responses
. . . . . .
.................................
34
36
Analysis 5
36
Analysis 6
39
Analysis 7
40
Analysis
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
BIBLIOGRAPHY
28
* .. ..........
Analysis 1
28
8 ................................... *
. . . ...............................
.................................................
42
44
50
V I T A ..........................................................
53
A P P E N D I X ...............................................
54
FRAME OF REFERENCE AS A FACTOR INFLUENCING LEARNING AND RETENTION
THE EXPERIMENTAL LITERATURE
At the beginning of the present century Sigmund Freud advanced
his well-known doctrine that forgetting is not always a passive process,
but that in many cases experiences and events which are not in harmony
with the ego's ideals, wishes, and values are obliterated from con­
sciousness •
His theory was the basis for many psychological studies of
forgetting and retention, for it was immediately assumed by many in­
vestigators that all pleasant experiences must, by definition, be in
harmony with the ego's desires, while all unpleasant experiences must
be in confliot with them*
Therefore, they argued, by obtaining ratings
of pleasantness and unpleasantness for various experiences and by study­
ing the relative retention of them, Freud's theory could be made amena­
ble to scientific test*
The vast majority of studies purporting to test the theory have
been conducted in a laboratory setting*^
The usual method employed was
to have subjects first rate a list of stimulus words as to their affec­
tive tone*
From this list three groups of words were selected for
further investigation: namely, unpleasant, pleasant, and indifferent
or neutral*
Subjects were then instructed to learn the various lists.
After learning had been accomplished memory for the words was tested by
^For comprehensive surveys of studies bearing on this problem,
see Meltzer (28), Gilbert (19), and Cason (7). A more general discus­
sion of affectivity can be found in Hunt (24) and Beebe-Center (3)*
1
2
on© of "th© standard methods*
Comparisons were then made between the
relative number or percent of pleasant, unpleasant and indifferent
words recalled*^
Many writers have been quick to suggest, however, that the
laboratory studies have probably introduced an artificiality into the
experimental situation*
As a consequence they do not provide as valid
a test of the Freudian theory as might be possible in a more natural
setting*
Studies concerned with the retention of experiences from
every-day life have perhaps more closely approximated this condition
and therefore we must turn to them for a more adequate evaluation of the
Freudian theory*
But here-— as in the laboratory studies— -certain dis­
crepancies in the published results soon became evident*
Along with
these differences in findings there have arisen differences in opinion
regarding the validity of the Freudian theory—
always with respect to
the retention of pleasant and unpleasant experiences*
Our task is thus
twofold; first, we must examine the various experiments on the retention
of affective experiences; and second, we must examine the various theo­
retical points of view regarding the retention of affective experiences*
A study has been reported by Sharp (32) in which the retention
of pleasant and unpleasant material was investigated*
Sharp defined
pleasant material as that which was acceptable to the subject and un­
pleasant as that which was unacceptable.
For subjects she used patients
at the Rush Medical College Psychiatric Clinic*
The distinctive feature
of Sharp’s study is that the material which she had her subjects learn
^Since the problem under consideration is only indirectly related
to the laboratory studies and since they have already been reviewed by
Meltzer (28) and Gilbert (19), no further mention will be made of them*
3
was taken from their clinical case records*
It was thus possible to
test for the retention of material which was definitely known to be ac­
ceptable or unacceptable to her subjects*
Her final data show that the
acceptable material was remembered better than the unacceptable*
Jersild (25) has reported a study in which he had his subjects
record in a 7 minute period all of the pleasant experiences they could
recall which had happened during a 3 week period prior to the time of
experimentation*
He then had them record all of their unpleasant ex­
periences during this same 3 week period*
At this initial recall period
the number of pleasant experiences reported greatly outnumbered the un­
pleasant*
Twenty-one days later the subjects were again requested to
recall their experiences of the earlier 3 week period*
Retention of the
originally reported experiences was reliably greater for the pleasant
than for the unpleasant*
A still different approach to the problem of the retention of
affective experiences was used by Stagner (36)*
He had his subjects
report only the most pleasant and the most unpleasant experience which
had happened to them during the 15 days prior to the time of experi­
mentation*
The subjects were then asked to record all of their associa­
tions (e*g*, sounds, colors, etc*) with these experiences*
Three weeks
later the subjects were given a typewritten description of the experi­
ence which they had reported at the first recall but with the associa­
tions omitted*
When the subjects were asked to reproduce as many of the
original associations as possible, the percentage of items associated
with the pleasant experiences was reliably larger than with the unpleas­
ant experiences*
4
Meltzer (30), in another study of* the retention of* pleasant and.
unpleasant experiences from every—day life, asked college students to
describe all of* their experiences during the Christmas vacation period
on the day following Christmas vacation*
The students were then asked
to rate their experiences as pleasant or unpleasant*
Of the experiences
reported, more of them were rated as pleasant than unpleasant*
Six
weeks later the subjects were again asked to recall their experiences of
the Christmas vacation period*
Meltzer*s data showed that a greater
average percent of unpleasant rather than pleasant experiences were
forgotten from the first to second recall*
Meltzer*s study was repeated by Waters and Leeper (38) with a
slight alteration of procedure*
They also had their subjects rate ex­
periences which had happened during Christmas vacation period on an af­
fective scale*
They found-— as Meltzer had—
that more of the experi­
ences reported were rated pleasant than unpleasant*
After the final
recall they also had their subjects estimate the number of times which
they had thought about or mentioned these experiences since the time of
their occurrence*
They thus had a crude measure of the relative amount
of review accorded the pleasant and unpleasant experiences.
Waters and
Leeper report that for their subjects, pleasant experiences were not
remembered from the first to the second recall period any better than
unpleasant experiences*
This of course is contrary to the findings of
Meltzer (30) and others (25, 26, 32, 36).
However, Waters and Leeper
report that both pleasant and unpleasant experiences of an extreme degree
are remembered better and reviewed more often than indifferent experi­
ences or those which are only slightly pleasant or unpleasant.
They
5
suggest that the intensity of affective tone, rather than qualitative
difference, is the important factor in memory*
In a study reported by Menzies (31)* subjects were asked to
write a
description of some of their experiencesof the previous day and
to rate
them for affective tone*
cribe the same experiences*
One week later they were
asked todes­
The instructions were repeated again 29
days after the initial recall*
Menzies* data also indicate that the re­
tention of experiences from every-day life is not related to any quali­
tative difference in affective tone, but rather to the intensity of
feeling tone involved*
Koch (26) reports an experiment conducted somewhat differently
from those just mentioned*
She had her subjects rate the affective tone
of their grades on 10 objective examinations*
Five weeks after the last
objective test was given, the subjects were asked to recall all of the
examination grades which they had received*
The results showed that
those grades which were ranked as pleasant tended to be recalled better
than any of the others*
But Koch also found that intensity of affective
tone was a factor in retention*
Both the very pleasant and the very un­
pleasant grades were recalled better than those which were rated as
neutral or only slightly pleasant or unpleasant*
The findings of the various studies reported may perhaps be
summarized by the following three conclusions*
First, at the initial
recall period a predominant number of pleasant experiences are reported*
Second, at subsequent recall periods both extremely pleasant and un­
pleasant experiences tend to be remembered better than those which are
neutral*
And third, with only two exceptions, the investigators report
6
that of the two extremes (pleasant and unpleasant), the pleasant experi­
ences tend to be remembered better than the unpleasant*
We must now
consider the theories of retention of affective experiences, for facts
as such have very little meaning—
at least in science-— apart from the
theoretical setting in which they were derived*
Since the basic theory
underlying the experiments reported is that of Sigmund Freud, a con­
sideration of his point of view will serve to orient us with respect to
the various alternative theories which have been advanced by later in­
vestigators*
7
THE GENERAL THEORETICAL SETTING
Th© Freudian "theory of retention may be stated in terms of re­
pression*
Repression is the exclusion of material or experiences from
consciousness and emphasizes an nactivett process of forgetting rather
than a ”passiveM process correlated with time*
Significance is attached
to the role played by an organism's desires, beliefs, attitudes, etc*,
in determining what is forgotten and what is remembered*
The function
of repression is to prevent the development of disturbing emotions by
protecting the individual from any memories which might arouse them*
Thus experiences which are not in harmony with the desires, wishes, be­
liefs, etc*, of an individual would tend to be suppressed*^On the one hand, the case for the active suppression of un­
pleasant and the retention of pleasant experiences in terms of Freud's
theory has been given by Sharp (32)*
An unpleasant experience is de­
fined as one which is unacceptable to the individual and therefore one
which he would like to forget*
In contrast to this, a pleasant experi­
ence is acceptable to the individual and therefore is less likely to be
forgotten*
On the other hand, Jersild (25) does not believe that the active
suppression of unpleasant experiences is the reason they are forgotten,
but that the reason is because of a rehearsal differential*
Unpleasant
events will tend to be forgotten because there is less rehearsal of them
^See Healy, Bronner, and Bowers (23) for a discussion of the
concept of repression in psychoanalytical theory*
8
than of pleasant events, i*e#, we tend to tell others about the pleasant
things which have happened to us, whereas we seldom mention the unpleas­
ant things*
However, the study by Waters and Leeper (38) which employed
ratings of the relative amount of review given to pleasant and unpleasant
experiences throws some doubt upon Jersild1s unsupported explanation in
terms of differences in frequency of rehearsal#
Jersild also advances a second factor to account for the for­
getting of unpleasant experiences#
He believes that they will tend to
be forgotten because with the passage of time they lose their emotional
tone#
When an individual encounters an unpleasant situation, certain
steps are taken to modify the situation#
"The activity pattern of which
the unpleasantness was originally a part frequently terminates in alle­
viation or relief#”
As a result "memories of many unpleasant events
will be modified in terms of activities undertaken to relieve the un­
pleasantness#"
Stagner (36) has elaborated Jersild*s theory and re­
stated it in terms of "retroactive inhibition*"
Stagner reports that an
examination of the unpleasant experiences reported by his subjects showed
that most of them involved the setting up of some kind of tension (e#g#,
receiving a notice from the Dean), while the pleasant experiences in­
volved a release of tension (e*g*, finding a sum of money which had been
misplaced)#
According to Stagner, the unpleasant experiences repre­
sented situations which were not complete, in which the response was not
adequate, and about which the individual had to do something#
Under
these conditions it was necessary to try other modes of response.
In
contrast to this, the pleasant experiences represented situations which
were complete, in which the response was adequate, and about which the
9
individual did not need to do anything*
Considered in this fashion, unpleasant experiences always evoke
inadequate responses which in turn are followed by different responses*
Unpleasant experiences are thus subject to the influence of retroactive
inhibit!on*^
Pleasant experiences are not influenced by retroactive
inhibition because responses to these experiences tend to remain the
same or equivalent*
A serious objection to this theory is found in the
results of a study reported by Zeigarnik (41)*
In brief, her experi­
mental technique involved having children work at certain interesting
tasks*
They were allowed to finish some of the tasks but were inter­
rupted before they had finished with others*
were thus completed and some were not*
Some of the activities
According to Stagner*s theory,
the interrupted tasks should represent situations which are not complete,
which involve tension, and in which the response is not adequate.
They
should therefore be followed by retroactive inhibition and hence for­
gotten*
However, when the subjects were asked to recall the tasks upon
which they had been working, memory was consistently found to be better
for the interrupted tasks than for the completed*
If the objection
should be raised that retroaction could not have followed the interrupted
tasks— -because of some factor or other-— Stagner is still faced with
the problem of explaining why the completed tasks were not remembered
"hflTe do not deny that tension results in a quantitative increase
in activity. But retroaction is a qualitative as well as a quantitative
phenomenon* Within limits of course, the amount of inhibition is re­
lated to the degree of similarity of the subsequent activity to the
original* Complete similarity would simply be rehearsal. Unpleasant
experiences may thus involve tension which increases the amount of ac­
tivity, but that does not mean that retroaction necessarily enters the
picture*
10
better than the Interrupted*
This result is just the opposite of what
his theory would predict*
Menzies (31) has advanced the theory that the retention of af­
fective experiences is correlated with the intensity of feeling tone
rather than the quality*
Waters and Leeper (38) in an independent in­
vestigation reach the same conclusion*
It is difficult to accept the
intensity theory, as stated by Menzies and Waters and Leeper, in view of
taro facts*
Their statement that pleasant experiences are not remembered
any better than unpleasant experiences is contrary to the findings of
most investigators who do report a retention differential*
Another
objection to the theory is found in the study reported by Stagner (36)
in which the subjects recorded only the most pleasant and the most tanpleasant experience*
This would suggest that the intensities of the
pleasant and unpleasant experiences were comparable*
Any differences
which might exist would tend to be balanced out for a large number of
subjects*
Stagner*s results would seem to show that even where intensity
is held constant, a retention differential is found*
The various theories which have been discussed may be classified
under two general headings; those which accept a differential in reten­
tion of pleasant and unpleasant experiences and those which do not*
The
findings of Meltzer (30), Sharp (32), Jersild (25), Koch (26), and
Stagner (36) support a retention differential, while those of Menzies
^We do not mean that intensity is not & factor in retention* We
are here objecting to the intensity theory of these investigators.
While the theory may adequately account for the findings of their
studies, it fails to explain certain facts (e.g., clinicians have re­
ported many cases where intense affective experiences have— for all
practical purposes— -been forgotten).
11
(Si) and Waters and Leeper (38) do not*
The latter investigators,
denying any difference in the retention of pleasant and unpleasant ex­
periences, avoid facing the problem of "why pleasant experiences should
tend to be forgotten more readily than pleasant*
However, Meltzer,
Sharp, Jersild, and the others, having found a difference in retention
of pleasant and unpleasant experiences, are faced with the task of ex­
plaining their results*
Thus they have variously proposed; (a) that
unpleasant experiences are actively suppressed while pleasant ones are
not? (b) that unpleasant experiences are subject to the influence of
retroactive inhibition while pleasant ones are not; (c) that unpleasant
experiences are rehearsed less frequently than pleasant ones*
already raised various objections to (b) and (c) above.
We have
We now propose
to advance a more general criticism, which is perhaps applicable to any
interpretation of the Freudian theory purely in terms of pleasantness
and unpleasantness*
12
THE FRAME OF REFERENCE
The soundness of any position regarding the Freudian theory in
terns of pleasantness and unpleasantness depends of course upon the
assumptions which it makes concerning the relationship between pleasant­
ness and unpleasantness and the ego’s desires, attitudes, beliefs, etc*
Freud (18) while granting that unpleasant experiences which conflict
with the ego’s desires will tend to be forgotten, also remarks that:
nforgetting in general • * . is quite a different problem, in which the
defence against painful associations plays a certain part, but is far
from explaining everything*11
The point as we see it is that any experience which conflicts
with the ego’s desires will tend to be forgotten*
An experience is
excluded from consciousness not because it was unpleasant but rather
because it involved conflict*
Conflict may be followed or accompanied
by unpleasantness, but it is not unpleasantness as such which is the
determiner of forgetting but conflict*
The question of pleasantness or
unpleasantness of the experience is another matter and one of secondary
importance*
flict*
The important point is to determine the presence of con­
In other words, it does not necessarily follow that all unpleas­
ant experiences are in conflict with the ego, or that all pleasant ex­
periences are in harmony with it*
Sherif (33) has introduced the concept of frame of reference^
Frame of reference appears to be a broad concept related to many
problems*
Cf* Sherif (33), Allport (l), Cantril (6 ), Edwards (10, 11),
and Hayes (22)*
13
"to designate the resultant "interiorization" of social norms, values,
attitudes, beliefs, desires, etc*, in the individual "as a consequence
of his contact with the social world around him*11 Frames of reference,
once established in the individual, "enter as important factors to
determine or modify his reactions to the situations that he will face
later*"
Ihe concept of frame of reference appears to have a much more
specific relationship to the Freudian theory of memory than the concepts
of pleasantness and unpleasantness*
We propose to restate the Freudian
theory in terms of the conflict or harmony of experiences with respect
to the frame of reference of the individual involved*
Our hypothesis is that experiences which are in harmony with
the frame of reference will tend to be learned and remembered better
than those which are in conflict with it*
It should not be concluded,
however, that experiences which are in harmony with the frame must be,
by definition, pleasant in nature and that those which are in conflict
must be unpleasant*
In the first place, many experiences though pleas­
ant or unpleasant do not necessarily harmonize or conflict with the
frame of reference in any appreciable degree (e.g., a cigarette burn,
finding a sum of money which has been misplaced, bumping against a door,
etc*)*
In the second place, a pleasant experience may actually conflict
with the frame of reference if the latter is involved at all*
This is
illustrated by the fact that certain sexual behavior which conflicts
with the frames of reference of members of our culture is often for­
gotten, while in various other cultures where the conflict is not present
it is not*
Theoretically, either pleasant or unpleasant experiences may
be related to the frame of referenoe in at least four ways3 (a) they may
14
harmonize with the frame; (b) they may conflict with the frame; (c) they
may not involve the frame at all* (d) if the frame is not emotionally
charged, they may be neutral of indifferent*
The conflicting results of some of the investigations of the
retention of pleasant and unpleasant experiences may be due in part to
the failure of the investigator to take into account the frames of
reference of his subjects*
and unpleasantness*
He instead has used ratings of pleasantness
Some of the unpleasant experiences reported prob­
ably did involve a conflict, while perhaps others did not*
According
to our hypothesis, the ones which were in conflict would tend to be the
ones which were forgotten*
ences*
And the same is true of the pleasant experi­
Some of them were readily assimilated into a frame of reference
and others may not have involved the frame at all*
Those which were
assimilated would tend to be remembered and those which were not would
tend to be forgotten*
Thus in any study of the retention of pleasant
and unpleasant experiences, if the investigator has failed to take into
account the frames of reference involved, it is impossible to clearly
evaluate his results in terms of the Freudian theory as we have inter­
preted it*
The hypothesis which we have advanced is that things which are
in harmony with an existing frame of reference will tend to be learned
and remembered better than things which conflict with the frame of
reference*
Thus if individual X is a strong believer in the labor move­
ment, he will tend to learn, to remember, and to emphasize, those as­
pects of the labor movement which are in harmony with his frame of
reference*
He will remember the "good” things about labor unions, and
15
h© will tend to forget the "bad*"
H© will when discussing labor unions
emphasize th© progross and social desirability of them, and he will
neglect to recall th© distasteful things which are sometimes associated
with labor unions*
Similarly if individual Y is a staunch Republican,
he will have difficulty in recalling any of the "good*1 points of the New
Deal, but he will experience little trouble in recalling the taxes levied
on his business, the Supreme Court Bill, unemployment, etc.
In either
case, the things which are learned and recalled tend to harmonize with
the frame of reference of the particular individual*
A study by Watson and Hartmann (39) indicates an approach to the
problem of retention as related to the frame of reference as we have
just stated it*
These investigators compared the recall of atheistic
and theistic material for subjects with strong atheistic and theistic
attitudes*
They found that material which supported a subject's attitude
was recalled much more effectively than material which was opposed to
his attitude*
Their results, however, while consistent were not sta­
tistically reliable*
There are several other sources which indirectly bear on the
problem*
Lund's (27) study of beliefs illustrates the fact thatXif one
wishes a group to remember certain ideas presented to them, one should
first convince the group that the ideas are in accord with those which
they already have*
Biddle (4), on the basis of his study of wishful
thinking, concludes that it is possible to have "false" conclusions
accepted simply because they seem to fit in with existing preconceptions*
Hartmann (21), after a study of the influence of propaganda for immedi­
ate and remote political goals, concludes that:
There seems to be no
16
escape from the conclusion that political propaganda is influential only
to the extent that it is an expression of the present desires, senti­
ments, prejudices, interests, limitations and properties of those to
whom it is addressed*w /
But "besides giving an advantage in learning and retention of
material which is consistent with it, we hypothesize that the frame of
reference is also a factor in the recasting of material which is not
readily assimilated so that the material will fit in more readily with
the frame*
point*
Bartlett*s (2) classical study of memory illustrates the
He found that the frames of reference of his subjects definitely
influenced their reproductions of simple stories*
Unfamiliar parts of
the story were eliminated or recast into incidents which were more
familiar*
Edwards and English (12, 13, 14, 15), in a series of studies
of verbatim and summary retention, have also produced evidence that
learned material undergoes active change with time*
Their data indicate
that during the interval between an immediate and delayed test of reten­
tion, organization or consolidation of the learned material takes place*
One result is that on the delayed test, reminiscence is often present
in a greater degree than forgetting*
It is to be emphasized that the chances are slight that the
frame of reference will be altered rather than the conflicting material*
Breslaw (5) made a comprehensive case study of radical and conservative
attitudes In 94 subjects*
He found that where particularly strong
attitudes were present, they persisted in the face of arguments and facts
which were in opposition to them*
This resistance to change upon the
part of the frame of reference is also illustrated by a study reported
17
by Chen (8).
He gave attitude tests to his subjects 2 weeks before
propaganda material calculated to cause a shift in their attitudes was
presented*
Another attitude test was administered immediately after the
presentation of the propaganda material*
another attitude test was given*
Five and one-half months later
He found a significant shift in atti­
tudes between tests 1 and 2 and between 2 and 3 but not between 1 and 3*
In other words, after the five and one-half month period, the attitudes
were not significantly different than they were at the start of the ex­
periment*
In the discussion which we have just concluded we have argued
that the frame of reference is an important factor related to learning
and retention*
It is held that material which harmonizes with an exist­
ing frame of reference will tend to be learned and remembered better
than material which conflicts with the frame*
It is also argued that
material which is in opposition to the frame of reference will tend to
be recast so that it may be more readily assimilated*
It is further
held that the chances for the existing frame of reference to be altered
rather than the material which is opposed to it are slight*
We shall
now describe an experiment that was designed to yield an empirical test
of the arguments advanced*
18
CONDITIONS OF THE INVESTIGATION
The problem*
In this experiment we shall attempt to test two
hypotheses concerning the frame of* reference and the role it plays in
memory*
These hypotheses have been discussed at some length in the
preceding section and we shall consequently merely restate them at this
time*
1*
Hypothesis
Things which harmonise with an existing frame of
reference will tend to be learned and remembered
better than things which conflict with an exist­
ing frame of reference*
2*
Hypothesis
Things which conflict with an existing frame of
reference will tend to be distorted in such a^
fashion that the conflict is minimized or dis­
appears *
It is assumed for the purposes of this investigation that an individual's
expression of sin attitude on a particular subject is an indication of the
nature of his frame of reference with respect to that subject*
The passage*^
For the design of this experiment it was neces­
sary to construct a verbal passage which contained statements that would
conflict with the frames of reference of the individuals being studied*
At the same time it was necessary that the passage contain statements
that would harmonize with the frame of reference*
Thus the passage
should neither be entirely favorable to the topic it discussed nor
entirely unfavorable*
Instead an attempt was made to include both
^A copy of the passage is contained in the appendix*
19
favorable and unfavorable statements*
With this feature in view a
passage concerning the New Deal and communism was composed*
The passage
was approximately 1920 words long and required about 10 minutes to read
aloud*
The test*'*' Fifty true-false items based on the passage were
constructed*
All of the items referred to some point made in the passage
concerning the New Deal*
It was necessary, for reasons which will be­
come obvious in the discussion which follows, to determine in advance
how individuals who were strongly in favor of the New Deal would answer
the questions*
For this purpose 6 members of the faculty at Northwestern
University were asked to answer the questions as a person strongly in
favor of the New Deal would answer them*
No one of the 6 judges answering the questions was aware of the
answers given by any other judge*
After all 6 had answered the ques­
tions, the number marking each item true or false was found*
There was
complete accord on 44 of the items and on 2 others only 1 judge dis­
agreed with the other 5*
were discarded*
The 4 items which showed marked disagreement
There were thus 46 items on which the judges agreed
that if marked in one way they would present a point of view consistent
with the attitude of an individual favorable to the New Deal, whereas if
marked in the opposite way they would be opposed to the attitude of an
individual favorable to the New Deal •
The passage upon which the items were based was now revised so
that 23 or half of the items would be answered in the passage in the same
way that the judges had answered them, and so that the other 23 would
^A copy of the test is contained in the appendix*
20
be answered contrary to the judges’ answers*
Consequently the test
items were based on a passage which answered half of them in a manner
favorable to the New Deal and half in a manner unfavorable.
is in reality two tests, each consisting of 23 items.
The test
For convenience,
one of them may be called the Pro New Deal and the other the Anti New
Deal test*
The original true-false form of the items on the test was not
retained*
Instead each item was made into a multiple choice question
with 3 alternative answers*
One of the answers was the original true-
false statement and according to the passage was the right answer*
A
second answer was the contrary of the first and according to the passage
the wrong answer*
A third answer offered an opportunity to rationalize
one* s answer to the question if the right answer was opposed to one *s
attitude, but according to the passage it would also be a wrong answer*
Responding with the second answer in case the right answer was opposed
to one’s attitude would be a simple case of forgetting or rejection, but
responding with the third answer would indicate that attitude was in­
fluential in recasting or distorting the statement to make it more com­
patible.
The following examples will illustrate the differences between
the answers.
Examples
Anti New Deal Items
12* The New Deal (1) is not anti-communist today;
(2) is anti-communist today; (3) refuses to
persecute any group because of its political
creed.
R
W
W Dist*
(l)
(2)
(3)
21
21* Many of the key positions of the New Deal (l)
are under Civil Service which does not ques­
tion one's political beliefs and therefore
communists may be in governmental office as
well as anyone else; (2) are controlled di­
rectly or indirectly by the communists; (3)
are not controlled directly or indirectly by
the communists*
(2)
(3)
(l)
34* The leaders of the New Deal (l) have failed
to publicly denounce the communists; (2 ) have
publicly denounced the communists; (3) have
been as severe critics of communism as they
have of fascism or any other dictatorship
government*
(l)
(2)
(3)
R
W
1* Many prominent industrialists (1) respect
and admire the New Deal’s economic policies;
(2) are opposed to the New Deal’s economic
policies because of its obvious lack of
knowledge of true economic conditions; (3)
do not respect or admire the New Deal’s
economic policies*
(l)
(3)
(2)
5* The New Deal (l) is willing to confess that
it has made mistakes; (2 ) has made so many
mistakes that it will take years to put the
country on a sound basis again; (3) is un­
willing to confess it has made any mistakes*
(l)
(3)
(2)
(l)
(2)
(3)
Pro New Deal Items
36* The New Deal (l) offered many opportunities
to promising and intelligent young men; (2)
offered few opportunities to promising and
intelligent young men; (3) offered many op­
portunities to college radicals who were
discontented with the present system of
government*
The rating scale*^
W Dist*
A 7 point rating scale was constructed to
obtain ratings from the subjects of apparent attitude toward the New Deal
^The complete rating scale is contained in the appendix*
22
of each of the following: (a) content of the passage; (b) the speaker
who read the passage*
Ratings on the same scale were also obtained for
the attitudes toward the New Deal of: (a) the individuals previous to
hearing the passage; (b) the individuals after hearing the passage; (c)
the individuals1s mother; (d) the individuals father*
Collection of the data*
In chronological order the various steps
involved in collecting the data were:
1* The subjects were read the following instructions:
As you know 1940 is an election year and the radio promises to
be a very important medium for presenting political issues to the
.American voters* Psychologists are particularly interested in the
role that radio plays in elections, yet there are many questions
which we must be able to answer if we are to understand the part
that it plays* One of these is the amount which the average
listener remembers when he hears a radio speech, and that is the
question which we are going to ask you to help us to answer today.
I am going to read a 10 minute political speech to you and after
I have finished I am going to give you a test to find out how much
of the speech you remember* Now please do not take any notes while
I am reading the speech* Just try and listen attentively in much
the same manner that you would ordinarily listen to a radio speech
in which you were interested* Are you ready? Then I shall begin*
2*
The speech was then read*
5*
The rating scale was filled out by the subjects*
4*
As soon as the subjects had finished with the rating scale
they were given the test*
5*
X
Twenty-one days later and without prior warning the subjects
were again tested for retention and a new rating of their attitudes
toward the New Deal was obtained*
The experimental groups*
On the basis of ratings of initial
It was again stressed by the experimenter at this time, that all
questions were to be answered solely on the basi s of the material con­
tained in the speech*
23
attitude toward the New Deal (attitude previous to the speech) three
experimental groups with 48 subjects in each group were selected for
further investigation.
Table 1 describes each of the groups in terms of
their mean ratings on the scales mentioned earlier.
The significant
differences between these groups for the purposes of this study is their
attitude toward the New Deal*
One group is definitely favorable to the
New Deal, one group is neutral, and one group is definitely opposed to
the New Deal*
The groups were so selected that there was no overlapping
of their ratings of attitude toward the New Deal-
Indeed, as Table 1
will show, the groups are fairly well separated on most of the other
factors which they rated.
Standard deviations of the mean ratings for
each group are not presented because they would be relatively meaning­
less applied to distributions of ratings which fall on 1 or 2 points of
the scale only.
It is interesting to note that\the speech resulted in little or
no change in the subjects* attitudes toward the New Deal.
The favorable
group is still favorable, the neutral group is still neutral, and the
opposed group is still opposed to the New Deal*/ In fact, there is very
(
little apparent change in attitude even after a period of 3 weeks*
That
the frame of reference is influential in the subjects* interpretations
of the attitude expressed by the speaker and by the content of the speech
is evidenced by their mean ratings of these factors.^ The favorable
group thought that both the speaker and the speech were favorable to the
New Deal, while the group opposed to the New Deal thought that they were
both unfavorable.
This occurs despite the fact that all of the subjects
heard the speech and the speaker at the same time and under the same
conditions*
24
TABLE 1
Mean Ratings* of Attitude toward the New Deal of Each of the Experimental
Groups on Seven Factors
(N in each group*48)
Experimental Groups
Favorable Neutral Unfavorable
racvors navea
1•
2*
3*
4*
5*
6.
7*
Own attitude previous to speech
Own attitude immediately after speech
Own attitude 3 weeks after speech
Attitude represented by speech
Attitude represented by speaker
Estimate of mother’s attitude
Estimate of father* s attitude
*1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Equals
Equals
Equals
Equals
Equals
Equals
Equals
Analysis of variance*
1*79
1*79
2*42
3*53
3.11
2*87
2*82
4*08
4*23
4*08
3*92
3*63
4*17
4*30
6*35
6.08
6.06
5*48
4*25
5.91
6.36
Very Favorable
Favorable
Slightly Favorable
Neutral
Slightly Unfavorable
Unfavorable
Very Unfavorable
The experiment was so designed that it
would permit application of Fisher’s (16, 17) analysis of variance.’*'
Analysis of variance is fundamentally a test of significance, but with
this additional advantage*
It enables one to divide the total variation
of a body of data into several parts traceable to specific sources*
Y/here it is impossible to place important factors under direct experi­
mental control, but where we still wish to observe their influence we
may resort to statistical control*
Likewise, if we desire to study two
or more factors in the same experiment, analysis of variance enables us
So far as the writer is aware, Crutchfield (9) has been the only
individual to apply analysis of variance to a problem distinctly psy­
chological in nature*
25
to do so efficiently, this being especially true if the factors are
varied in more than two ways*
In contrast to this, the older statis­
tical methods are well adapted to handle problems where only one factor
is varied in two ways*
Another advantage of analysis of variance is that it offers the
investigator an opportunity to discover the significance of the inter­
action between his different variables*
As Woodworth (40) remarks:
"With careful planning two or three independent variables can sometimes
be handled in a single experiment with economy of effort and with some
chance of discovering the interaction of the two or more factors*"
Thus if we only wish to know whether a group favorable to the New Deal
learns and retains more of the Pro New Deal items than Anti New Deal
items, a simple Difference/S*E*diff* formula is applicable*
But if we
wish to vary attitude toward the New Deal in three ways and compare
differences in learning and retention on the Pro New Deal and Anti New
Deal tests for the three groups at the same time in order to find out
whether the interaction of attitude and learning or retention is sig­
nificant, analysis of variance permits us to do so*
With respect to
learning, for example, a significant interaction variance would show
that the effect of a certain attitude is not always the same but depends
upon the type of learning material to which it is applied*
The measure­
ment and test of significance of interaction were planned in the design
of this experiment in order to give a valid test of the hypotheses ad­
vanced*
The steps in the computation of analysis of variance are described
in detail by Fisher (16, 17) and Snedecor (34, 35)*
We may briefly sum­
26
marize them following the outline given by Snedecor*
(l) The total sum
of squares of deviations from the general mean is computed*
known as the total variance*
This is
(2) The total variance is then broken down
into specific parts, each of which is traceable to one of the experi­
mental factors*
(3) The error variance (variance which cannot be ac­
counted for by the experimental factors) is then figured by subtracting
the sum of the variances of the different experimental factors from the
total variance*
Error variance evaluates those sources of variation
which are outside the controls of the experiment (in our case such
things as motivation, fatigue, individual differences, etc.,) and which
are properly assigned to experimental error*
(4) The different sums of
squares are now divided by their appropriate degrees of freedom to give
the mean square or variance for each factor*
cance of each of the factors is provided by _F.
(5) A test for signifi­
F is the ratio of the
mean square of the factor under consideration to the mean square of
error*
A table of significant values (Ps*01 and *05) of F_ for appro­
priate degrees of freedom is given by Snedecor (3b)*
The factorial design*
The design of the present experiment
involved 4 important factors: (a) initial attitude; (b) type of test;
(c) distortion; (d) time*
Only 2 of the factors, however, (each varying
in a specific number of ways) shall be considered at any one time*
Attitude is varied in 3 ways by dividing the subjects into 3 experimental
groups: (a) Favorable; (b) Neutral; (c) Unfavorable.
The test is varied
in 2 ways by dividing it into its component parts and obtaining a sepa­
rate score for each part: (a) Pro New Deal Test; (b) Anti New Deal Test*
Distortion is also varied in 2 ways by obtaining a separate score for
27
distortion on the Pro New Deal and Anti New Deal tests: (a) Pro Dis­
tortion; (b) Anti Distortion*
Time is varied in 2 ways by giving the
test once immediately after the passage has been read to the subjects
and once 21 days after the reading: (a) Immediate; (b) Delayed*
By
varying these factors systematically in the experiment, 8 analyses of
the data are possible*
Each of these will be discussed in turn*
28
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Correct
Responses
Analysis 1
The first analysis is for the purpose of determining whether
attitude is an important factor in learning as evidenced by responses on
the test immediately following the reading of the passage.
More spe­
cifically we are interested in knowing whether a greater frequency of
correct responses on the Pro New Deal test will be associated with a
favorable attitude toward the New Deal, and whether a greater frequency
of correct responses on the Anti New Deal test will be associated with
an unfavorable attitude*
TABLE 2
The Sum of Correct Pro and Anti Responses on the Immediate Test for Each
of the Experimental Groups
Attitude
Immediate Test
Correct Pro Responses
Correet Anti Responses
Total
Total
Favorable
Neutral
Unfavorable
755
477
616
565
523
625
1894
1667
1252
1181
1148
3561
Table 2 shows the sum of correct responses on the Pro New Deal
and Anti New Deal tests for each of the experimental groups.^*
It is
^It is interesting to note that the group favorable to the New
Deal makes a larger number of total correct responses than do the other
groups* If we assume that the New Deal represents a more "radical**
political position, then this fact is consistent with the positive
correlations that numerous investigators have reported between ability
and "radicalism."
29
apparent from the table that attitude is a factor in the determination
of correct responses on the two tests*
By applying analysis of variance
to the data in the table, we may test for the significance of this
factor*
The results of this analysis are presented in Table 3*
TABLE 3
Analysis of Variance of Correct Pro and Anti Responses on the Immediate
Test
Source of Variation
Error
Test
Attitude
Interaction
Total*
Degrees of
freedom
Sum of
squares
Mean
square
282
1
2
2
287
3510*90
178*92
37*31
761*59
4488*72
12.45
178*92
18*66
380*80
15*65
F-Value
1% Point
14.37*
1*50
30* 59*
6*73
4*68
4.68
*Note that the addition theorem applies to the degrees of free­
dom and sum of squares* This provides an accurate check on some of the
calculations involved in analysis of variance*
The F values which are starred in Table 3 may be regarded as
significant in so far as the probability is less than 1 in a 100 that
these values would occur by chance*
The striking feature of the analy­
sis is the highly significant interaction variance*
This may be inter­
preted as meaning that the attitudes which were associated with each of
the 3 groups produced correct responses on one of the tests which were
out of accord with their correct responses on the other*
of attitude is not the same on the two tests*
Thus the effect
Individuals with favora­
ble attitudes toward the New Deal tend to make more correct responses
on the Pro New Deal test than on the Anti New Deal test, while individuals
with unfavorable attitudes tend to make just the reverse*
30
This fact of course supports the hypothesis which was advanced
earlier*
Material which harmonizes— which is readily assimilated— with
respect to an existing frame of reference is learned significantly
better than material which conflicts with— -which is opposed to---an
existing frame of reference*
That this is not an artifact of the
material as such is
evidenced by the fact that the very same material
which is learned by
one group isnot learned by another, while the
material which is not learned by the first group is learned by the second*
Yet all of the groups heard the same materi al at the same time and under
the same conditions*
The significant test variance merely indicates that the Pro
New Deal test is relatively easier than the Anti New Deal test*
This
fact does not, however, invalidate the conclusions which we have just
made concerning the
influence of attitude on learning.
This is another
case where analysis
of variance proves to be a superior
technique when
compared to the more conventional statistical methods*
The differential
difficulty of the two tests has been taken into account by the applica­
tion of analysis of variance to the problem*^
This would not have been
the case if our treatment had consisted of critical ratio techniques*
2
^For a critical discussion of differential difficulty involved
in another study of learning and retention, see Edwards and English
(13, 14)*
Indeed the only solution to the problem would have been to
equate the two tests* The obvious difficulty of doing this experimen­
tally, is the fact that one’s score on either test is determined to a
large extent by one's attitude* It would thus be necessary to equate
the two tests on the basis of responses of a group which the experi­
menter definitely knew to be neutral in their attitude toward the New
Deal*
31
Analysis 2
The purpose of our second analysis is to determine -whether atti­
tude still exerts a dominant influence on correct responses after a
lapse of time*
Table 4 shows the sum of correct responses for each
group on each test at the time of the second testing, i*e*, after an
interval of 21 days*
TABLE 4
The Sum of Correct Pro and Anti Responses cm the Delayed Test for Each
of the Experimental Groups
Attitude
Delayed Test
Correct Pro Responses
Correct Anti Responses
Total
Total
Favorable
Neutral
Unfavorable
695
370
552
455
457
565
1704
1390
1065
1007
1022
3094
The same trend is present at the time of the delayed testing
that was found at the time of the immediate test*
Attitude is still a
definite influence as is indicated by the definite decrease in the
number of correct responses on the Pro New Deal test from the favorable
to the unfavorable group, and by the definite increase on the Anti NewDeal test*
A certain amount of forgetting between the first and second
tests is evidenced by the general decrease in the sums of correct re­
sponses on the delayed test (Table 4) when compared to the immediate
test (Table 2)*
We shall discuss the subject of forgetting more fully
in a later analysis, however, and so for the present let us direct our
32
attention to the analysis of the responses on the delayed test as it is
presented in Table 5*
The significant j? values in the table are starred*
We find that
the significant factors present at the time of the delayed testing are
the same as those present at the time of the immediate test*
The con­
clusion made concerning the influence of attitude on the immediate re­
sponses thus hold for the delayed responses as well*
It would appear
TABLE 5
Analysis of Variance of Correct Pro and Anti Responses on the Delayed Test
Source of Variation
Error
Test
Attitude
Interaction
Total
Degrees of
freedom
Sum of
squares
Mean
s quare
282
1
2
2
287
4870*33
342*35
18*89
977*42
6208*99
17.27
342*35
9*45
488*71
21*53
F-Value
19*82*
*55
28.30*
\% Point
6.73
4*68
4*68
that attitude is not only a determiner of immediate learning but is an
active influence over a period of time*
Analysis 3
The present analysis is primarily concerned with the effect of
time on the retention of correct responses to the items appearing on the
Pro New Deal test*
Table 6 gives the sum of correct responses for each
group on the immediate and delayed test*
The sums presented in Table 6 indicate that there is a general
decrease in the number of correct responses from the first to the second
test for each group*
The difference between the number of correct re-
33
TABLE 6
The Sum of Qorrect Pro Responses on the Immediate and Delayed Test for
Each of the Experimental Groups
Pro Test
Favorable
Attitude
Neutral
Unfavorable
755
695
616
552
523
457
1894
1704
1450
1168
980
3598
Correct Immediate Responses
Correct Delayed Responses
Total
Total
sponses on the immediate and delayed tests for each of the groups may
be expressed in terms of the percent forgotten*
The figures for the
favorable, neutral, and unfavorable groups are 8, 10, and 13 percent,
respectively*
They indicate that there is a slight tendency for the
relative amount of forgetting to increase on the Pro New Deal test as
attitude toward the New Deal becomes more unfavorable*
It is also
evident that the number of correct responses on both the immediate and
delayed test decrease as attitude toward the New Deal becomes more un­
favorable*
The analysis of variance which is presented in Table 7 in­
forms us as to the significance of these trends*
TABLE 7
Analysis of Variance of Correct Pro Responses on the Immediate and Delayed
Test
Source of Variation
Error
Time
Atti tude
Interaction
Total
Degrees of
freedom
Sum of
squares
Mean
square
282
1
2
2
287
3640*58
125*35
1165*87
*19
4931.99
12*91
125*35
582.94
*10
17*18
F-Value
9.71*
45.15*
*01
1% Poii
6*73
4.68
4*68
34
The starred values of F^ in Table 7 are highly significant-
The
lapse of time between the first and second test is a significant factor
and informs us that the amount of forgetting between the 2 tests is
reliable*
The significant attitude variance indicates that the sums of
the immediate plus the delayed responses differ reliably from group to
group*
The fact that the interaction variance is not significant is to
be interpreted as meaning that the tendency for the relative amount for­
gotten to increase as attitude toward the New Deal becomes more unfavor­
able is thus not large enough to meet the requirements of statistical
significance*
Analysi s 4
This analysis is a duplication of the previous analysis with the
exception that here we are concerned with the retention of correct re­
sponses on the Anti New Deal test and time*
The sums of the correct re­
sponses for each group on the immediate and delayed Anti New Deal test
are presented in Table 8*
We may again compare the relative number of
TABLE 8
The Sum of Correct Anti Responses on the Immediate and Delayed Test for
Each of the Experimental Groups
Attitude
Anti Test
Correct Immediate Responses
Correct Dblayed Responses
Total
Total
Favorable
Neutral
Unfavorable
477
370
565
455
625
565
1667
1390
847
1020
1190
3057
35
correct responses forgotten between the time of* the immediate and delayed
tests*
The percent forgotten for the favorable, neutral, and unfavorable
groups is 22, 19, and 10 percent, respectively*
There is thus a slight
tendency for the relative amount forgotten to decrease as attitude toward
the New Deal becomes more unfavorable.
This trend is just the opposite
of that found for the Pro New Deal test (Table 7).
The analysis of variance of the responses is given in Table 9*
The significant F_ values are starred and we find that the important
variables in this analysis are the same as those for the previous analy­
sis*
Time exerts the same influence on the Anti New Deal responses as it
does on the Pro New Deal responses, i.e., significant forgetting also
takes place between the immediate and delayed test.
The significant at­
titude variance indicates that the total sum of correct responses on the
immediate plus the delayed test is greater for the group which is unfavor­
able to the New Deal than for the others*
The lack of any significant
TABLE 9
Analysis of Variance of Correct Anti Responses on the Immediate and Delayed
Test
Source of Variation
Error
Time
Attitude
Interaction
Total
Degrees of
freedom
Sum of
squares
Mean
square
282
1
2
2
287
4740.65
266.42
612.77
16.38
5636.22
16.81
266.42
306.40
8.19
19.64
F-Value
1% Point
15*85*
18.23*
.49
6.73
4.68
4.68
36
interaction variance simply informs us that the tendency for the rela­
tive amount forgotten to be related to attitude is not reliable*
Distortion Responses
Analysis 6
This and the next three analyses are concerned with an investi­
gation of the second hypothesis, namely, that material which conflicts
with an existing frame of reference will tend to be distorted or recast
in such a manner as to eliminate or minimize the conflict*
In the pres­
ent experiment we would expect individuals with favorable attitudes to­
ward the New Deal to distort or rationalize their answers to items on
the Anti New Deal test as the correct answers to these items were de­
signed to present a point of view definitely opposed to the New Deal*
At the same time we would expect individuals with unfavorable attitudes
toward the New Deal to distort or rationalize their answers to items on
the Pro New Deal test as the correct answers to these items were designed
to present a point of view definitely favorable to the New Deal*
In
either case the distortion would be the result of conflict or opposition
between the individuals’ frames of reference and the correct answer*
The conflict which is aroused by the incompatibility of the
correct answer and the frame of reference may be resolved by rejecting
the correct (right) answer and responding with its contrary (wrong)*
However, in view of the fact that our subjects were given explicit in­
structions to answer the questions only on the basis of the points con­
tained in the speech and to ignore all other factors, a conscious re­
jection of the correct answer is probably not feasible*
Faced with these
alternatives, both of which may be equally unattractive, it is likely
37
that the subject will turn to the distortion answer and respond with it.
The distortion answer allows him to rationalize his rejection of an
answer which is incompatible with his frame of reference end at the
same time preserves to a degree his intellectual honesty.*
In Table 10 the sum of distorted responses on the Pro and Anti
Hew Deal tests at the time of immediate testing are presented for each
of the three experimental groups*
From the data given in the table it
is evident that a favorable attitude toward the New Deal results in a
TABLE 10
The Sum of Distorted Pro and Anti Responses on the Immediate Test for Each
of the Experimental Groups
Attitude
Immediate Tes t
Distorted Pro Responses
Distorted Anti Responses
Total
Total
Favorable
Neutral
Unfavorable
220
454
342
362
429
330
991
1146
674
704
759
2137
greater number of distortion responses on the Anti New Deal test than on
the Pro New Deal test*
Likewise an unfavorable attitude toward the New
Deal is associated with a greater number of distortion responses on the
Pro New Deal test than on the Anti New Deal test*
It is interesting to
note that there is very little difference in the distortion responses of
"^It is not implied that the subject verbalizes the conflict or
that he is directly aware of the fact that he is rationalizing.
It is
a well known fact in psychology that much of our behavior is determined
by motivation of which we are not aware or which we refuse to recognize*
38
"the neutral group on the two tests, a fact which is consistent with our
hypothesis*
In order to test the significance of the various trends noted in
Table 10, we must again turn to the analysis of the data-
The analysis
with the significant values of 1? starred is presented in Table 11-
The
significant test variance indicates that there is greater distortion on
TABLE 11
Analysis of Variance of Distorted Pro and Anti Responses on the Immediate
Test
Source of Variation
Error
Test
Attitude
Interaction
Total
Degreee of
freedom
Sum of
squares
Mean
square
282
1
2
2
287
2540-81
83-42
38-71
593-22
3256-16
9-01
83-42
19-36
296-61
11-35
the Anti New Deal test than on the Pro New Deal test-
F-Value
l;
% Point
9-26*
2.15
32.92*
6-73
4-68
4.68
This raises the
question of whether the difference is attributable to some unknown
difference between the groups-
The fact that the attitude variance is
not significant assures us that it is not, i*e*, the total number of
distortion responses on the Pro and Anti tests for each group does not
differ significantly from group to group.
A more probable explanation
which applies here is that the difference is due to the differential
difficulty of the two tests which was discussed In Analysis 1The factor In which we are most interested
hypothesis
in view of our
is the interaction between distortion and attitude-
That
39
this variance is significant may be interpreted as establishing the
hypothesis that the frequency of distortion responses is directly
associated with attitude*
The more favorable the attitude toward the
New Deal, the less the number of distortions on the Pro New Deal test
and the greater the number of distortions on the Anti New Deal test.
Likewise the more unfavorable the attitude toward the New Deal, the
greater the number of distortions on the Pro New Deal test and the fewer
on the Anti New Deal test*
The significant interaction variance thus
supports our statement that material which is opposed to the frame of
reference will tend to be recast or distorted in order to minimize or
eliminate the opposition*
Analysis 6
This analysis is for the purpose of determining whether the
facts established by the previous analysis are still present after an
interval of 21 days*
The question to be answered is whether time will
influence the relationship between attitude and distortion*
The sums of
distortion responses on the Pro and Anti tests at the time of the de­
layed testing are given in Table 12*
The data presented in the table
TABLE 12
The Sum of Distorted Pro and Anti Responses on the Delayed Test for Each
of the Experimental Groups
Attitude
Delayed Test
Distorted Pro Responses
Distorted Anti Responses
Total
Total
Favorable
Neutral
Unfavorable
278
518
427
473
509
401
1214
1392
796
900
910
2606
40
indicate that the same general trend is present at the time of the de­
layed test as we found on the immediate test*
For the tests of signifi­
cance we turn to the analysis of variance presented in Table 13*
TABLE 13
Analysis of Variance of Distorted Pro and Anti Responses on the Delayed
Test
Source of Variation
Error
Test
Attitude
Interaction
Total
Degrees of
freedom
Sum of
squares
Mean
square
282
1
2
2
287
4103*75
110.01
83*08
633*48
4930*32
14*55
110.01
41*54
316.74
17.18
F-Value
\% Point
7.56*
2.85
21.77*
6*73
4*68
4*68
The significant variables are the same as those found in the
analysis of distorted responses on the immediate test*
There is still
a significant difference in the number of distortion responses on the
Pro and Anti tests with no significant difference in the total amount
of distortion (sum of distortion responses on Pro and Anti tests) made
by each group.
The interaction variance is significant and may be
interpreted as meaning that even after 3 weeks the group with the favor­
able attitude still makes fewer distortion responses on the Pro New Deal
test than the unfavorable group, while the reverse is true for the Anti
New Deal test*
Analysi s 7
In this analysis we are interested in finding out what influence
time has on the distortion responses on the Pro New Deal test*
Table 14
gives the sums of distortion responses on the immediate and delayed Pro
41
New Deal
test •
As we would expect, the data show that there is a
greater frequency of distortion on the delayed test than on the immedi­
ate*
There is also a definite tendency for the number of distortion
TABLE 14
The Sum of Distorted Pro Responses on the Immediate and Delayed Test for
Each of the Experimental Groups
^
™ .
Pro Test
-.
-Favorable
Distorted Immediate Responses
Distorted Delayed Responses
Total
Attitude
Neutral
.
...
Total
Unfavorable
220
278
342
427
429
509
991
1214
498
769
938
2205
responses to increase as attitude toward the New Deal becomes more un­
favorable*
For tests of significance of these trends we turn to the
analysis of variance presented in Table 15*
TABLE 15
Analysis of Variance of Distorted Pro Responses on the Immediate and Delayed
Test
Source of Variation
Error
Time
Attitude
Interaction
Total
Degrees of
freedom
Sum of
squares
Mean
square
282
1
2
2
287
3113.60
172.67
1026.40
4.30
4316.97
11.04
172.67
513.20
2.15
15.04
F-Value
15.64*
46.49*
.02
1% point
6.73
4.68
4.68
42
The starred values of* _P in Table 15 are significant*
The signif­
icant time variance indicates that there is greater distortion on the de­
layed test than on the immediate*
This in turn means that with time the
frequency of distortion responses increases reliably*
The highly signif­
icant attitude variance informs us that the total number of distortion
responses ( immediate plus delayed) on the Pro New Deal test for the
group with the favorable attitude toward the New Deal is reliably less
than that for the other groups.
The insignificant interaction variance
indicates that the increase in distortion responses from first to second
test does not differ reliably from group to group*
Analysis 8
We are here investigating the influence of time on the distor­
tion responses on the Anti New Deal test*
The sums of the distorted
responses on the immediate and delayed Anti New Deal test are presented
in Table 16*
Examination of the table reveals that the trend of the
total number of responses is just the opposite of that found for the
Pro New Deal test (Table 14)*
Here we find that the greatest frequency
TABLE 16
The Sum of Distorted Anti Responses on the Immediate and Delayed Test for
Bach of the Experimental Groups
Anti Test
Distorted Immediate Responses
Distorted Delayed Responses
Total
Favorable
Atti tude
Neutral
Unfavorable
Total
454
518
362
473
330
401
1146
1392
972
835
731
2538
43
of distortion responses occurs for the group with the favorable attitude
toward the New Deal, while the group with the unfavorable attitude shows
the least number*
The analysis of variance of the distorted Anti New Deal responses
on the immediate and delayed tests is given in Table 17*
The values of
]? which are starred surpass the 1 percent point and may be regarded as
significant*
The two important factors in the present analysis are the
TABLE 17
Analysis of Variance of Distorted Anti Responses on the Immediate and
Delayed Test
Source of Variation
Error
Time
Attitude
Interaction
Total
Degrees of
freedom
Sum of
squares
Mean
square
282
1
2
2
287
3550*96
210*12
304.39
13.40
4078*87
12*59
210*12
152.20
6*70
14*21
F-Value
12*69*
12*09*
*53
1% Point
6*73
4*68
4*68
same as those found in the analysis of distorted responses on the Pro
New Deal test*
The significance of the time variance shows that the
frequency of distortion responses increases reliably from the first to
second test, while the significance of the attitude variance reveals
that the group favorable to the New Deal tends to make reliably more
total distortion responses on the Anti New Deal test than the other
groups*
The insignificant interaction variance indicates that the
relative increase in distortion responses from the first to the second
test does not differ from group to group.
44
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
A statement of* the Freudian theory of* forgetting purely in terms
of pleasantness end unpleasantness served as an impetus for many experi­
mental studies*
While in many cases the results of these studies appear
to be contradictory, three general conclusions seem to emerge from the
mass of accumulated data* (a) at an initial recall period a predominant
number of pleasant experiences are reported; (b) at subsequent recall
periods both extremely pleasant and unpleasant experiences tend to be
remembered better than experiences which are neutral or indifferent;
(c) of the two extremes (pleasant and unpleasant) pleasant experiences
tend to be remembered better than unpleasant*
Several theories have been advanced to account for these facts
including the following: (a) that unpleasant experiences tend to be
actively suppressed while pleasant ones do not; (b) that unpleasant ex­
periences tend to be influenced by retroactive inhibition while pleasant
ones do not; (c) that unpleasant experiences tend to be rehearsed less
frequently than pleasant ones*
Various objections to (b) and (c) are
raised by the results of different investigators, while crucial experi­
mental tests of (a) are lacking*^
The emphasis placed upon pleasantness and unpleasantness in
relation to the Freudian theory, however, has resulted in the neglect of
a fundamental phenomenon, that of conflict or lack of conflict between
^Sharp’s (32) study is perhaps the exception*
45
an experience and the frame of
it*
Furthermore, by
reference ofthe individual experiencing
restating the
Freudiantheory in terms of conflict
between a frame of reference and a specific experience, any commitment
concerning the pleasantness or unpleasantness of the experience is un­
necessary*
In fact, a description of an experience in terms of its af­
fective tone does not necessarily state the relationship between the
experience and the frame of reference*
Theoretically, either pleasant
or unpleasant experiences may be related to the frame of reference in at
least four ways* (a) they may conflict with the frame; (b) they may
harmonise with the frame; (c) they may not involve the frame of refer­
ence at all; (d) they may not be neutral or indifferent in the absence
of emotionally conditioned parts of the frame*
These possible relation­
ships perhaps account for many of the seemingly contradictory results
of investigation of feeling tone and memory*
The concern of the present investigation was the relationship
between the frame of
reference and
learningand retention.
Two tenta­
tive hypotheses were
advanced: (a)
Things which harmonize with an exist­
ing frame of reference will tend to be learned and remembered better than
things which conflict with an existing frame of reference; (b) Things
which conflict with an existing frame of reference will tend to be dis­
torted in such a fashion that the conflict is minimized or disappears*
Because of the relative stability of the frame, the chances for it to be
altered rather than the experience which conflicts with it are slight*
The validity of the arguments and hypotheses advanced was sub­
jected to empirical test by means of an experimental design which per­
mitted application of Fisher's (16, 17) analysis of variance*
Individ­
uals with favorable, neutral, and unfavorable frames of reference
with
46
respect "to the New Deal— — heard a 10 minute speech concerning the New
Deal*
Half of the material in the speech was designed to present a
point of view favorable to the New Deal and half a point of view which
was decidedly unfavorable*
The individuals were not aware of the true
purpose of the experiment but were under.the impression that only their
ability to remember (independent of any consideration of attitude) was
being studied*
Immediately after hearing the speech, the subjects were tested
for 1 earning of the material presented*
The recognition test used to
measure learning consisted of an equal number of items on the favorable
and unfavorable parts of the speech*
One half of the test thus measured
learning of material which individuals with favorable attitudes toward
the New Deal would consider favorable (as harmonizing with their own
attitudes), and individuals with unfavorable attitudes would consider
unfavorable (as conflicting with their own attitudes)*
The other half
measured learning of material which individuals with favorable attitudes
toward the New Deal would consider unfavorable (as conflicting with their
own attitudes), and individuals with unfavorable attitudes would consider
favorable (as harmonizing with their own attitudes)*
We thus have meas­
ures of learning of (a) conflicting and (b) harmonizing material for
both (a) individuals with favorable attitudes toward the New Dead and (b)
individuals with unfavorable attitudes*
The advantage of this technique is obvious*
The same material
is heard by all of the subjects under the same conditions and at the
same time, the only variable being that of attitude.
According to our
hypothesis, the material favorable to the New Deal should be readily
47
assimilated in the frame of reference of individuals with favorable at­
titudes toward the New Deal, while for those individuals with unfavorable
attitudes the very same material should involve a conflict*
Likewise,
the material unfavorable to the New Deal should involve a conflict for
those individuals with favorable attitudes toward the New Deal and
should be readily assimilated in the frame of reference of those in­
dividuals with unfavorable attitudes*
An additional feature of the recognition test is that it affords
an opportunity to distort conflicting material contained in the speech
so as to minimize or eliminate conflict*
Accordingly, if our logic is
valid, individuals with unfavorable attitudes toward the New Deal should
tend to distort more of the statements on the half of the test favorable
to the New Deal than on the half which is unfavorable, while individuals
with favorable attitudes toward the New Deal should do just the reverse*
In order to determine the influence of time on the relationship
between the frame of reference and retention, the test was given without
prior warning to the same subjects 21 days after the first testing.
The results of the data from the rating scales and from the
application of analysis of variance to the subjects1 responses on the
recognition test permit the following conclusions*
1* The frame of reference was a determining factor in the sub­
jects* judgments of (a) the manner in which the speaker presented a
speech on a controversial subject and (b) the point of view expressed
by the content of his speech*
2* The frame of reference was relatively stable over the period
of the experiment (21 days) despite the fact that during this period
48
many important events which might have reorganized the frame took place*^
3* Mate id al which harmonized with the frame of reference was
learned significantly bettor than material which conflicted with the
frame*
There was also a tendency present for the amount learned to be
directly related to the degree of harmony*
4* Significant forgetting of both conflicting and harmonizing
material occurred between the immediate and delayed test (21 days)*
5* Material which harmonized with the frame of reference, how­
ever, was remembered significantly better 21 days after the learning
than material which conflicted with the frame*
6 * Distortion of material which conflicted with the frame of
reference was significantly greater than distortion of material which
hamohized with the frame immediately after learning*
7* A significant increase in the distortion of both conflicting
and harmonizing material occurred between the immediate and delayed
test (21 days)*
8 * Distortion of material which conflicted with the frame of
reference, however, was significantly greater than distortion of material
which harmonized with the frame of reference 21 days after learning*
These facts were consistently true for our subjects*
They are
interpreted as supporting our statement of the Freudian theory of for­
getting in terms of a conflict involving a frame of reference*
More
specifically the data appear to substantiate the following hypotheses:
1* Things which harmonize with an existing frame of reference
^The subjects first heard the passage on February 14, 1940 and
ipere tested immediately after the reading* The second testing was on
March 6*
49
will tend to be learned and remembered better than things which conflict
with an existing frame of reference*
2* Things which conflict with an existing frame of reference
will tend to be distorted in such a fashion that the conflict is
minimized or disappears*
Tfilhile we have devoted most of our discussion to theoretical
considerations, a few words at this point concerning the practical
implications of our findings are in order*
In general they show
as
do many other psychological studies-— how little we can depend upon
objectivity and accuracy in perception, recall, thinking, etc.
Our
behavior, it would seem, is determined to a large extent by the desires,
beliefs, values, etc., making up our frame of reference.
It cannot be
denied that the propagandist has recognized this fact and made much use
of it*
Perhaps as educators also begin to recognize its importance--
and there is some evidence that they are-— the proper antidote can be
discovered*
50
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1*
Allport, G* W* The psychologist’s frame of reference*
Bull*, 1940, 37, 1-28*
Psychol*
— ----
2*
Bartlett, P* C*
psychology*
3*
Beebe-Center, J* C* The psychology of pleasantness and unpleasant­
ness* New Yorks Van Nostrand, 1932*
4*
Biddle, W* W*
The relationship between knowledge and a measure of
autistic thinking on certain international problems* J* soc*
Psychol*, 1931, 2, 493-496*
5*
Breslaw, B* J* The development of a ecoio—economic attitude*
Psychol*, N. Y., 1938, 32, No* 226*
6*
Cantril, H* The prediction of social events*
Psychol*, 1938, 33, 364-389*
7*
Cason, H* The learning and retention of pleasant and unpleasant
activities* Arch* Psychol *, N* Y * , 1932, 21, No* 134*
8*
Chen, W* K* C* Retention of the effect of oral propaganda*
soc* Psychol», 1936, 7, 479-483*
9*
Crutchfield, R* S. The determiners of energy expenditure in stringpulling by the rat* J * Psychol *, 1939, 7, 163-178*
Remembering; a study in experimental and social
Cambridge, England* University Press, 1932*
J* abnorm*
Arch*
soc*
J*
10*
Edwards, A* L* Four dimensions of political stereotypes,
abnorm* soc* Psychol * (In press)*
jj.
11*
Edwards, A* L* Studies in stereotypes* I* The directionality and
uniformity of responses to stereotypes* J* soc* Psychol *
(In press)*
12*
Edwards, A* L* , & English, H* B* The effect of the immediate test
on verbatim and summary retention* Amer* _J* Psychol«, 1939,
52, 372-375*
13.
Edwards, A* L*, & English, H* B* Reminiscence in relation to dif­
ferential difficulty* J* exp* Psychol *, 1939, 25, 100-108*
14*
English, H* B*, & Edwards, A* L* Reminiscence, substance learning,
and initial difficulty
a methodological study* Psychol * Rev.,
1939, 46, 253-263*
15*
English, H* B*, & Edwards, A* L- Studies in substance learning and
retention* XI* The effect of maturity level on verbatim and
summary retention*
gen* Psychol *, 1939, 21, 271-276*
51
/
16.
Fisher, R. A. Statistical methods for research workers*
Edinburgh; Oliver & Boyd, 1938.
17*
Fisher, R. A.
18*
Freud, S. A general introduction to psycho-analysis.
Garden City, 1938*
19*
Gilbert, G. M* The new status of experimental studies on the rela­
tionship of feeling to memory. Psychol* Bull., 1938, 35, 26-35.
20
Goulden, 0. H*
1939.
*
The design of experiments*
(7th ed.)
Edinburgh & Boyd, 1935.
Methods of statistical analysis.
New York;
New York; Wiley,
21 •
Hartmann, G. W. Immediate and remote goals as political motives.
— * abnorm. soc. Psychol*, 1938, 33, 86-99.
22*
Hayes, S* P. The predictive ability of voters*
1936, 7, 183-190*
23*
Healy, W * , Bronner, A* F., & Bowers, A. M* The structure and meaning
of psychoanalysis. New York; Knopf, 1930*
24*
Hunt, W. A* A critical review of current approaches to affactivity*
Psychol* Bull., 1939, 36, 807-828.
25*
Jersild, A.
J. exp*
26*
Koch, H. L*
*L* £en*
27.
Lund, F* H.The psychology of belief*
1925, 20, 63-81,* 174-196.
28.
Meltzer, H* The present status of experimental studies on the
relationship of feeling to memory. Psychol. Rev., 1930, 37,
124-139*
29*
Meltzer, H. The forgetting of pleasant and unpleasant activities
in relation to intelligence and achievement. jJ. soc. Psychol*,
1931, 2, 216-229.
30.
Meltzer, H* Sex difference in forgetting pleasant and unpleasant
experiences. J* abnorm* soc» Psychol*, 1931, 25, 450-464*
31*
Menzies, R* The comparative memory values of pleasant, unpleasant
and indifferent experiences. J* exp. Psychol*, 1935, 18,
267-279*
J. soc* Psychol*,
Memory for the pleasant ascomparedwith the
Psychol., 1931, 14, 284-288*
unpleasant.
The influence of some affective factors upon recall*
Fsychol*, 1930, 4, 171-190*
J* abnorm* soc*Psychol*,
52
32.
Sharp, A. A. An experimental test of Freud's doctrine of the rela­
tion of hedonic tone to memory revival. J. exp. Psychol*,
1938, 22, 395-418.
”
33.
Sherif, M.
1936.
34.
Snedecor, G* W.
variance and
Calculation and interpretation of analysis of
covariance* Ames, Iowa: Collegiate Press, 1934.
35.
Snedecor, G. W.
agriculture
Statistical methods applied to experiments in
and biology. Ames, Iowa: Collegiate Press, 1938.
36.
Stagner, R* The redintegration of pleasant and unpleasant activities.
Amer* J. Psychol., 1931, 43, 463-468.
37.
Thompson, R. H. An experimental study of memory as influenced by
feeling tone. J_. exp. Psychol., 1930, 13, 462-468.
38.
Waters, R* H., & Leeper, R.
The relation of affective tone to the
retention of experiences of daily life* J. exp. Psychol*,
1936, 19, 203-215.
39.
Watson, W. S., & Hartmann, G. W. Rigidity of a basic attitudinal
frame. J* abnorm. soc* Psychol *, 1939, 34, 314-336.
40.
Woodworth, R. S.* Experimental psychology*
41.
Zeigarnik, B. Uber das Behaiten von erledigten und unerledigten
Handlungen. Psychol. Forsh., 1927, 9, 1-85.
The psychology of social norms.
i
New York: Harpers,
New York: Holt, 1938.
53
VITA
Name:
Allen L* Edwards
Bom;
Houston, Texas
Date of birth:
High School:
April 15, 1912
Central High School, Grand Rapids, Michigan
B. A* Degree:
Central YMCA College, Chicago, Illinois
M* A* Degree:
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
Publications:
Edwards, A* L*, & English, H* B* Reminiscence in
relation to differential difficulty* J* exp* Psychol*,
1939, 25, 100-108*
Edwards, A* L * , & English, H. B* The effect of the
immediate test on verbatim and summary retention*
Amer* ^J* Psychol•, 1939, 52, 372-375*
English, H* B*, & Edwards, A. L* Reminiscence, substance
learning, and initial difficulty— A methodological
study* Psychol* Rev*, 1939, 46, 253-263*
English, H* B*, & Edwards, A* L* Studies in substance
learning and retention: XII* The effect of maturity
level on verbatim and summary retention* jJ* gen*
Psychol*, 1939, 21, 271-276*
Edwards, A* L* Studies of stereotypes: I* The direction­
ality and uniformity of responses to stereotypes*
J* soc* Psychol», (In press)*
Edwards, A* L* Four dimensions in political stereotypes*
J. abnorm* soc* Psychol *, (In press)*
Associations:
""
Midwestern Psychological Association
American Psychological Association
Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues
Sigma Xi
54
APPENDIX
The Speech
Some "time ego when "the New Deal first started, two communistically
inclined delegates to the National Democratic convention tried to speak
against the existing policies of the Democratic party from the convention
floor.
Whereupon the chairman of the convention called upon two of his
henchmen to seise the communists and take them out into a courtyard and
beat them up.
Through such strongarm tactics the communist influence within
the Democratic party was orushed for the time being.
Evidently the New
Deal was not in favor of free speech for the communists in those days.
What has caused the turnabout face in the New Deal's policies today?
To understand the situation we must go back and examine certain perti­
nent facts in the short history of the New Deal.
Back in 1932 the New Deal fought with every means at its command,
the communists who were trying to push their program off on the NewDeal.
The New Deal severely denounced the Soviet government and the
communists in America at that time.
Apparently today the New Deal is
not anti-communist as it once was, for we find the New Deal stating that
it is willing to work with anyone who is willing to work with it in the
interests of democracy and Americanism—
the crux of the matter.
communists included.
That is
The New Deal believes that the rights granted
in the Constitution should be guaranteed to all minority groups
vided the minority groups agree with New Deal policies.
pro­
Does this not
account for the sympathetic attitude of the New Deal toward the communists?
55
In my opinion, "the reason the New Deal does not engage in red-baiting is
neb because they consider the practice to be undemocratic, but because
as long as the communists are worlcing with them there is no reason to
complain*
Various members of the New Deal have undoubtedly read Earl Marx's
Das Kapital, the supreme communist bible*
Could they help but be in­
fluenced by this subversive communistic theory?
sentence from a speech by a prominent New Dealers
of the economic conditions of Europe*
Let me read but one
"Communism grew out
The conditions in America are
quite similar and if our basic system of government is not altered,
Americans may expect a rapid growth of communism*** You may judge the
issue for yourself*
In my opinion, such a statement from a high govern­
ment official indicates that the viewpoint of the New Deal is dangerous
to American interests*
It indicates that the New Deal is against the
capitalistic system of government*
A system of government which we
Americans have tried and tested and which has pulled us through every
crisis we have faced so far*
The only conditions dangerous to our form
of government are conditions that have been created by the New Deal
theorists!
I do not mean to imply that all supporters of the New Deal are
communists.
The New Deal has many influential friends among the promi­
nent industrialists who respect and admire the economic policies of the
New Deal*
Some of the advocates of the New Deal point out that business
and industry are organized in such a way that they can easily place
pressure upon Congress to pass legislation favorable to the interests of
56
economic royalists*
That the New Deal, on the other hand, is simply
interested in seeing the working masses organized so that they also shall
be strong enough to place equal pressure upon Congress in order to bring
about much needed labor legislation*
I believe this to be a very good
policy, for equal opportunities to lobby and to play pressure politics
are the very essence of democracy*
I do not believe that the New Deal favors an eventual communist
state in America*
Nather they seem to incline toward some other form of
governmental control of industry and business*
It is this theorizing and
speculative aspect of the New Deal which worries the American public and
American business men*
The New Deal should spend more time in being
practical and leave the theorizing to college professors, philosophers,
and preachers*
Government is a business just as any other business is,
and it must be made to work efficiently*
We must face the problems which
confront the country rather than side-track them*
The New Deal should
cast aside those radical members within it who are possessed with ideas
foreign to Americanism, and begin to think of the present instead of
planning for the future*
The New Deal is willing to grant that it has made many mistakes.
One of their greatest ones, they insist, was to believe too long that
business men were endowed with an innate sense of fairness and honesty
which would cause them to work voluntarily with the working masses for
the solution of some of our economic ills*
belief was wrong.
The New Deal claims that this
That while some industrial leaders have always had the
best interests of their employees at heart, it became necessary to pass
laws and place other restrictions on business in order to curb unfair
57
practices of other industrial magnates.
The New Deal places the failure
of many of their plans at the door of big business, which they claimed
failed to cooperate with New Deal agencies.
The New Deal, on the other
hand, does not fail to take into consideration the many good points to
found in our industrial system and in our prominent industrialists.
I do not wish to give the wrong impression-
It is true of course
that the New Dealers are largely a radical group, but they are not com­
munists in the true sense of the word.
The actual communists within the
New Deal are only a small fraction of the total membership of the New
Deal.
The communists, however, have actively supported many New Deal
policies at the request of fellow travellers and members of the New Deal
who are sympathetic with the aims of the Soviet government.
The com­
munists at the same time were sympathetic with various aims of the New
Deal.
Consequently, the New Deal allowed the communists a relatively
free hand within the ranks.
Some of the not quite so leftish members of
the New Deal even believed that once the communists had interested them­
selves in New Deal policies, they would drop their membership and beliefs
in the Communist party.
A considerable number of communists did leave
the party and shed their beliefs in communism and began thinking about
how they might serve the New Deal which was full of opportunities for
up—and—coming intelligent young men.
The general American public's knowledge of the New Deal's connections with the communists was based mainly on the fact that every once
in a while Earl Browder, the Secretary of the Communist party, would
send out press releases boasting of how much the communists were doing
to keep the New Deal going.
Browder's statements were largely intended
58
"to impress the heads of the communist government in Moscow*
Incidentally,
in this respect Browder did much to help the spread of fascism*
For
some of our fascistically inclined demagogues, according to the New Deal,
were only too happy to be among the first to point out the growth of com­
munism in America in general and in the New Deal in particular*
While
the New Deal has often been used as a tool by the communists, it is only
fair to point out that the influence of the communists on New Deal poli­
cies has been greatly over estimated*
But this does not mean that any
intelligent person who believes in democracy should not object to the
role of the communists—
Deal*
even though it is a minor one— within the New
Many of the key positions of the New Deal are controlled direct­
ly or indirectly by communists and communist sympathizers*
For example,
the National Labor Relations Board is at the present time under the
domination of communists and CIO members, who are well known for their
sympathetic attitude toward communism*
To point out another case where
the cosmunists have been active within the New Deal is to mention so­
cialized medicine*
It was the communists who interested various New Deal
agencies in the problem and who gained New Deal support in an indirect
fashion for socialized medicine*
There are many other cases to which I
might point to illustrate my contention, but only one more will have to
suffiee*
Most of the sit-down strikes which were in direct violation of
all principles of American tradition were the inspiration of the com­
munists.
Never before in the history of our country have we witnessed
such an utter disregard for all rights of private property.
And while
the New Deal did not foster or support the sit-downs, the final responsi­
North
University
Library
59
bility for the sit-downs must be placed at the door of New Deal policies
of supporting labor and cracking down unfairly on business.
If it had
so desired the New Deal could easily have prevented the many repetitions
of these outrages.
By this, I do not mean that the National Guard
should have been called out, but that it would have been possible to
eliminate this conflict between capital and labor by some democratic
means such as immediate arbitration.
If in the interests of democracy
the New Deal eould not oust or forbid communists membership in New Deal
activities and agencies, then they should at least be held responsible
for the activities and outrages committed by the communists within the
New Deal.
Many people who feel as I do about certain aspects of the New
Deal disagree with me on one important point regarding the New Deal,
namely the New
Deal's plan to increase the number of Justices on the
Supreme Court.
My friends
point out that this is another indication of
the dictatorial tendencies of the New Deal, and that the entire scheme
was unconstitutional and contrary to American tradition.
with them here
I must disagree
for no less an authority than Leon Green, the Dean of
Northwestern* s great Law School, wrote an article in which he proved that
the Supreme Court Bill was legal and constitutional*
In all fairness, I must mention in conclusion certain facts which
I have neglected somewhat up to this point.
It has been argued that if
the New Deal is not really sympathetic toward the communists, then they
should denounce them publicly.
While it is true that leaders of the New-
Deal have never acknowledged the support given them by the communists
in the 1&36 elections
-and it is probable that this support at the polls
60
enabled many New Deal candidates to be elected who otherwise might not
have been
the New Deal has not as yet publicly and plainly signified
that it is against communism and all that communism implies*
However*
there is evidence to believe that the New Deal will do just that in the
near future, for the policies of the New Deal and the communists are now
widely separated*
In the light of this analysis, the best way to avoid fascistie
passion in connection with the communists within the New Deal is to bear
in mind what the New Deal basically is*
I think that there is no doubt
but that fundamentally the New Deal is an expression and manifestation
of the American laboring classes’ urge—
which is not yet clearly under­
stood in their own minds-— for democracy and equality against absolutism
and dictatorship, in the shop and factory, and for more democracy, more
liberty, less absolutism generally in the life of the American people*
The New Deal is a mass movement of the American people toward democracy*
I say this in all fairness and with due respect to certain reforms which
the New Deal has achieved while it has been in office, because I for one
have taken the liberty to criticize those aspects of the New Deal which
I find disagreeable*
Number
Rating Scale
course will not depend in any way upon the score you make
f v
information asked for will be held strictly in confidence. Your
name will not be revealed to anyone under any circumstances.
ou can cooperate in making this research problem as objective as possible by
answering all of the question^ and by filling out all of the information asked for.
flease do chis as accurately as you can. Your help will be greatly appreciated by
those who are in charge of the research.
Directions; Directly below you will find seven statements. These statements
m y be considered to represent a scale ranging from very favorable to very unfavor­
able. ^ach statement is preceded by a number. Answer the questions below by placing
the number of one of these statements in the appropriate blank after each question.
List of Statements
1.
2.
3.
4.
5*
6.
7.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5*
6.
Very Favorable
Favorable
Slightly Favorable
Neutral
Slightly Unfavorable
Unfav orable
Very Unfavorable
That attitude toward the New Deal did the content of the speech seem to
express?
'What attitude did the speaker seem to express toward the New Deal considered independently of the content of the speech?
Yhat do you consider your own attitude toward the New Deal to be previous to hearing this speech?
Y/hat do you consider your own attitude toward the New Deal to be after
hearing this speech?
'.hat do you consider your mother*s attitude toward the New Deal to be?
TThat do you consider your father *s attitude toward the New Deal to be?
( )
( )
(
)
( )
( )
( )
Did hearing this speech arouse any tension or emotional feelings in you? Y/ere
you disturbed in any way? Did the content of the speech “bother11 you? Describe
your reactions briefly.
This portion of the questionnaire will be removed from the rest of it and a num­
ber will be substituted for your name. There will be no means of identifying you
except by this number. As you will probably want to know the results of this study
when it is completed, please make a record of the number at the top of this page so
that you. will be able to recognize your paper.
N ame (Please print last name first) ____
________________________
Age
Retention Test
■^£®c^ ons 21 Place the correct answer in the brackets in front of the question.
Ans.^3T. —_ jjuestians according to the speech which you iust heard read. Answer all
of the questions. Do not skip or cniit any.-------------------------- -----------(
)1*
( )2.
( )3*
(
)4.
( )5.
(
)6*
(
)7*
(
)8«
( )9.
( )10.
( )ll*
(
)12.
(
)13.
(
)14.
Many prominent industrialists 1. respect and admire the New Deal*s econ­
omic policies 2. are opposed to the New Deal because of its obvious lack
of knowledge of true economic problems 3* do not respect or admire the
New DealTs economic policies*
The New Deal 1. has always allowed and believed in free speech for all
groups — regardless of their political creed — in accordance with the
Constitution although certain actions of individual members of the New Deal
may seem to contradict this belief 2. seems to believe in free speech for
those groups supporting New Deal policies
3* believes in free speech for
groups who are even opposed to New Deal policies.
The New Deal 1. is against the capitalistic system of government 2. is
against the injustices created by a capitalistic system of government
3* is in favor of the capitalistic system of government.
In its early stages of development the New Deal 1. denounced the Soviet
government 2. did not denounce the Soviet government 3. imported many of
its ideas from the Soviet government.
The New Deal 1. is willing to confess it has made mistakes 2* has made
so many mistakes that it will take years to put the country on a sound basis
again 3. is unwilling to confess that it has made any mistakes.
The New Deal 1. has been relatively uninfluenced by communist theory
2. has accepted only those features of communism which will make America
more democratic 3. has been influenced by communist theory*
The New Deal believes that in the interests of democracy 1. that labor
should be given an advantage over capital in placing their demands before
Congress 2* that all groups should have equal opportunity to let Congress
know what they want 3. that only certain groups should have the opportun­
ity of making their wants known to Congress.
That industrialists would voluntarily cooperate with the government in
solving the economic questions confronting the country 1. xvas believed by
the New Deal,but in actual practise the New Deal did not give industrial­
ists a chance to
cooperate 2. was believed for a long time by the New Deal
3. was never believed by the New Deal.
T.fany advocates of the New Deal are 1* true American patriots in the best
sense of the word 2. radical persons with ideas foreign to true American­
ism 3. not radical persons with ideas foreign to true Americanism.
That many industrial leaders have always had the best interests of their
employees at heart 1. is granted by the New Deal 2. is granted by the New
Deal, but in actual practise is not considered by the New Deal 3. has
never been granted by the New Deal.
The New Deal 1. through its theories has made many important contributions
to American democracy 2. is too involved in idle speculation and not enough
with being practical 3. has never been too involved in idle speculation,
but has always emphasized practicalities.
The New Deal 1. is not anti-communist today 2. is anti-communist today
3. refuses to persecute any group because of its political creed.
The plans of the New Deal 1. would be more successful if the New Deal
stopped trying to blame big business for the condition the country Is in and
paid more attention to running the government efficiently 2. would be more
successful if only big business would cooperate more fully with the New Deal
3. would never be successful regardless of how much big business cooperated
with the New Deal.
The New Deal believes in 1. squarely facing the problems which confront the
country 2. in sidetracking the problems which confront the country 3. facing
problems which require immediate solution — in the process it probably
igrnoes for the time being those which are less urgent.
t
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
)16. The Hew Beal 1. Is sympathetic ‘toward ■the communists 2• Is syrrpathotic
only vdth^the communists* concern over economic injustice 3* is not
sympathetic toward the communists*
)16.
can no
he expected to he responsible for the activities
of the communists than for the activities of the Republicans 2. should
he held responsible for the activities of the communists 3* should not be
held responsible for the activities of the communists*
)17. The National Labor Relations Board —— a New Deal created agency
1* is
under the comination of communists and CIO members who sympathize with the
communists 2* is an impartial board trying to solve labor difficulties in
an unbiased manner 3* is not under the domination of communists, or CIO
members sympathetic with communists.
)18. The New Deal is 1* for less liberty and democracy in the life of the Amer­
ican people 2. for more liberty and democracy in the life of the American
people 3. trying to limit the freedom of the American people by placing
restrictions on the press and business. ■
)19. The communist vote supporting the Hew Deal 1. enabled many Hew Deal candi­
dates to be elected who otherwise would not have been 2. did not contribute
materially to the election of Hew Deal candidates 3, simply piled up a
larger majority of votes for the Hew Deal candidates who ivould have been
elected regardless of communist support.
)20. The Hew Deal 1. recognizes that industrialists have their good points
2. neglects to consider any of the good points of industrialists 3. seems
to neglect the good points of industrialists and over-emphasize those of
labor to an extreme degree*
)21. Lany of the key positions of the Hew Deal 1. are under Civil Service which
does not question one's political beliefs and therefore communists may be in
governmental office as well as anyone else 2. are controlled directly or
indirectly by the communists 3. are not controlled directly or indirectly
by the communists*
)23. The Hew Deal 1* has placed the same restrictions on the activities of the
communists within the ranks of the How Deal that it has on anyone else
2. has allowed the communists a relatively free hand within the ranks of the
Hew Deal 3. has not allowed the communists a relatively free hand within
the ranks of the Hew Deal*
)23. The policies of the Hew Deal and the communists 1* are now widely separated
2* are only apparently separated at the present time because of the general
disfavor with which the American public now views communism 3* are not now
widely separated.
)24. The influence of the communists within the Hew Deal 1, has not been widely
stressed by the communists themselves 2. has been greatly under-emphasized
by the Hew Dealers in their attempts to regain favor with the American pub­
lic 3. has been stressed largely by the communists themselves in their de­
sire to impress the Russian government with their activities in America,
and not by members of the Hew Deal.
)25. The Hew Deal 1* while not acknowledging any support from the communists
openly, have been secretly glad to get it 2. has never acknowledged any sup­
port from the communists 3. has acknowledged support from the communists.
)26. The Dean of Northwestern's Law School v/rote an article in which 1. he proved
that the New Deal's plan to increase the number of Justices on the Supreme
Court was both legal and constitutional 2. he pointed out that if the num­
ber of Justices on the Supreme Court xvas increased, it would be in direct
violation of American traditions 3. failed to prove that the Supreme court
plan was constitutional*
)27» In the interests of democracy, the Hew Deal 1. could have ousted or forbidden
the communists membership in Hew Deal agencies 2. could not very well oust
or forbid the communists membership in New Deal agencies 3. should have done
everything in its power to limit the activities of communists in New Deal
agencies*
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
)
•
® Hew Deal 1* fostered and indirectly supported the illegal sit-down
s rikes 2. did not foster or support the sit-down strikes 3. while it did
fT°ster °r ^n<^ recbly support the sit-downs, it should have called out
the National Guard to prevent their occurence.
)29« The New Deal 1, seems to believe that those with fascist tendencies have
been the first to point out the growth of communism within the Hew Deal
2, seems to believe that anyone who criticizes the New Deal is necessarily
a fascist 3. does not seem to believe that those with fascist tendencies
have been the first to point out the growth of communism with the New Deal*
)30. It was sincerely believed by the New Deal that once the communists had in­
terested themselves in the New Deal 1* it would be easier to secretly
place certain communist theories with which the New Deal was in agreement
into action 2. they would drop their beliefs in communism 3. they would
continue to hold their beliefs in communism*
)31* In the interests of democracy and Americanism, the New Deal 1. is willing
to workwith anyone who is willing to work with it 2. is not willing to
work with everyone 3. is willing to work with only those who believe in
some form of state socialism.
)32. The New Deal believes that the rights granted in the Constitution 1. should
be guaranteed to all minority groups in the interests of democracy 2* should
be guaranteed only to minority groups only if the minority group in question
is actively supporting the New Deal 3* should be guaranteed only to certain
minority groups.
)33. The New Deal believes that conditions in America are comparable to those in
Europe
1. and that certain minor alterations without any basic change in
our government are necessary to combat the growth of communism 2. and that
communism may find roots here if we do not change our basic system of govern­
ment 3. but that communism will not find roots here if we do not change
our basic system of government.
)34. The leaders of the New Deal 1. have failed to publicly denounce the commun­
ists 2. have publicly denounced the communists 3. have been as severe
critics of communism as they have of fascism or any other dictatorship gov­
ernment •
)35. The Hew Deal 1. should be held responsible for the numerous sit-down strikes
because if it had so desired it could have prevented their repetition 2. had
no means of placing restrictions on the activities of workers who were exer­
cising their constitutional rights 3. should not be held responsible for
the numerous sit-down strikes*
)36. The New Deal 1# offered many opportunities to promising and intelligent
young men 2. offered few opportunities to promising and intelligence young
men 3. offered many opportunities to college radicals who were discontented
with the present system of government.
)37, No intelligent person who believes in democracy 1. could object to the minor
role played by the communists in the New Deal 2* could fail to object to tho
role, however, minor, played by the communists In the New Deal 3. can evade
the fact that the communists were willing to work with the New Deal v/hile the
Republicans were not.
)38. The influence of the communists on New Deal policies 1. has not been greatly
over-rated 2. has been greatly under-emphasized by New Dealers who are try­
ing to hide the facts 3. has been greatly over-rated*
)39. The communists 1* have gained the support of the New Deal for socialized
medicine 2. had nothing to do with humanitarian ideals of the New Deal with
respect to socialized medicine 3* failed to gain the support of the Heir Deal
for socialized medicine.
)40. The New Deal 1* favors an eventual communist state in America 2. does not
favor an eventual communist state in America 3. while it may not favor an
eventual communist state in America, is moving in the direction of communism.
)41. The New Deal has been unwilling to engage In red-baiting 1. because they be­
lieve the practise to be undemocratic 2. because the communists are working
with the New Deal and there is no reason for the New Deal to complain 3. not
because the comnunists are working with the New Deal.
(
)4 2 *
(
)43.
(
)44*
(
)45«
(
)46.
The communists within the New Deal 1* are only a small percent of the
total membership of the New Deal 2. are a large percent of the total
membership of the New Deal 5. are a strong and powerful minority within
the New Deal*
The New Deal 1. is largely a radical group 2, is not a radical group
3* cannot be considered radical but might better be labeled as a pro­
gressive-liberal group*
The Hew Deal may be considered 1* as a step in the direction of some sort
of socialized form of government 2* as a mass movement of the American
people toward democracy 3* under no circumstances as a mass movement of
the American people toward democracy.
The New Deal 1. has been used as a tool by the communists 2. has never
been used as a tool by the communists 3. has never played into the hands
of the communists nor any other group whose interests are foreign to
Amricar tradition.
The communist support of certain New Deal plans 1. came about through
requests from the more radical New Deal members 2. came about through
orders from IIoscow to the communist party in America and hence the New
Deal cannot be blamed for the fact 3. did not come about through requests
from New Deal members*
Number
The Ability to Remember ei Radio Speech
CAR FULLY: Three weeks ago a speoch concerning the New Deal was read in
this class. Immediately after hearing the speech you were asked to take a test in
order that we could find out how much of the speech you had remembered. The re­
sults of this study are now available and they will be discuissod toward the end of
the hour. Your scores showing how many facts contained in the speech you remem­
bered correctly are now posted in the Psychology Laboratory. Your name was care­
fully concealed and your score is posted according to the red number which was in
the upper left hand corner of the test. 'Re wish to express our appreciation for
your sincere co-operation in making this study possible.
There is, however, one additional question concerning the radio which we
would like to be able to answer. We now know how much an individual remembers
immediately after hearing a speech, but we would also like to know how long he is
able to remember itc
In order to answer this questionwe are asking you to co­
operate with us once
more, rill you please follow all of the directions just as
carefully as you can?
■ate
\l.
2.
sjc
*
*
What do you consider your attitude toward the New Deal to be at the present
time? (1) Very favorable; (2) Favorable; (3) Slightly Fbvorable; (4)Neutral
(5) Slightly unfavorable;
(6) Unfavorable; (7) Very unfavorable.
Describe briefly
anything that may have caused you to change your attitude
toward the New Deal during the last three weeks.
This portion of the questionnaire will be removed an the number at the top
of the page substituted for your name. Your answers and name will be kep con­
fidential and the results of this study will be posted only by the number in the
left hand corner. As you will probably want to know how many questions you
answered correctly, please make a record of this number.
Name (Please P r i n t ) ________________________________ ________________________
DIRECTIONS: On the pages that follow is another retention test based on the
speech which was read in class. After you have finished reading this page, turn
to these questions and answer them as best as you can. ALL OF THE QUESTIONS ON
THE TEST ATc TO BE ANSWERED ON TUP BASIS OF IAT TIIE SPENCE SAID.
IF YOT DO NOT
KNOT; THE CORRECT ANSV'R, GUESS. DO NOT SNIP ON ON.IT ANY QUESTIONS. TURN THE
PAGE AND BEGUN.
Retention Test
Directions: Place the correct answer in the brackets in front of the question*
Answer the questions according to the speech which you justheard read.
Answer all
j;)1® questions* Do not skip* or omit any*'
— —
"
(
(
)2,
(
)3.
(
)4*
(
)5«
(
)6.
(
)7*
(
)8*
(
)9.
(
)10.
(
)ll*
(
)12.
(
)13.
(
)14.
iiany prominent industrialists 1* respect and admire the New Deal*s econ­
omic policies 2* are opposed to the New Deal because of its obvious lack
of knowledge of true economic problems 3* do not respect or admire the
New Deal*s economic policies*
The New Deal 1* has always allowed and believed in free speech for all
groups — regardless of their political creed — in accordance with the
Constitution although certain actions of individual members of the New Deal
may seem to contradict this belief 2. seems to believe In free speech for
those groups supporting New Deal policies 3. believes in free speech for
groups who are even opposed to New Deal policies*
The New Deal 1* is against the capitalistic system of government 2. is
against the injustices created by a capitalistic system of government
3* is in favor of the capitalistic system of government.
In its early stages of development the New Deal 1. denounced the Soviet
government 2* did not denounce the Soviet government
3. imported many of
its ideas from the Soviet government^
The New Deal 1. is willing to confess it has made mistakes 2. has made
so many mistakes that It will take years to put the country on a sound basis
again 3* is unwilling to confess that it has made any irk stakes,.
The New Deal 1* has been relatively uninfluenced by coiamurist theory
2. has accepted only those features of communism whkch will make America
more democratic 3. has been influenced by communist
The New Deal believes that in the Interests of democracy 1. that labor
should be given an advantage over capital in placing their demands before
Congress 2. that all groups should have equal opportunity to let Congress
know what they want 3. that only certain groups should have the opportun­
ity of making their wants known to Congress.
That industrialists would voluntarily cooperate with the government in
solving the economic questions confronting the country 1. xras believed by
the New Deal,but in actual practise the New Deal did not give industrial­
ists a chance to cooperate 2. was believed for a long time by the New Deal
3. was never believed by the New Deal.
flany advocates of the New Deal are 1. true American patriots In the best
sense of the word 2* radical persons with ideas foreign to true American­
ism 3. not radical persons with ideas foreign to true Americanism.
That many industrial leaders have always had the best Interests of their
employees at heart 1. is granted by the New Deal 2. is granted by the New
Deal, but in actual practise is not considered by the New Deal 3. has
never been granted by the New Deal.
The New Deal 1. through its theories lias made many important contributions
to American democracy 2. is too involved in idle speculation and not enough
with being practical 3. has never been too involved in idle speculation,
but has always emphasized practicalities.
The New Deal 1. is not anti-communist today 2. is anti-communist today
3. refuses to persecute any group because of its political creed.
The plans of the New Deal 1. would be more successful If the New Deal
stopped trying to blame big business for the condition the country is in and
paid more attention to running the government efficiently 2, would be more
successful If only big business ivould cooperate more fully with the New Deal
3. would never be successful regardless of how much big business cooperated
with the New Deal.
The New Deal believes in 1. squarely facing the problems which confront the
country 2. in sidetracking the problems which confront the country 3. facing
problems which require immediate solution — in the process it probably
iurnoes for the time being those which are less urgent.
t
(
(
(
(
(
)15. The New Deal 1, is sympathetic 'toward the communists 2* is sympathetic
only with the communists* concern over economic injustice 3* is not
sympathetic toward the communists*
)16. ihe Hew Deal 1. can no more be expected to be responsible for the activities
of the communists than for the activities of the Republicans 2* should
be held responsible for the activities of the communists 3* should not b©
held responsible for the activities of the communists*
)17* The National Labor Relations Eoard -- a New Deal created agency -- 1* is
under the comination of communists and CIO members who sympathize with the
communists 2, is an impartial board trying to solve labor difficulties in
an unbiased manner 3* is not under the domination of communists, or CIO
members sympathetic with communists*
)18. The Hew Deal is 1, for less liberty and democracy in the life of the Amer­
ican people 2* for more liberty and democracy in the life of the American
people 3* trying to limit the freedom of the American people by placing
restrictions on the press and business*
)19* The communist vote supporting the New Deal 1* enabled many New Deal candi­
dates to be elected who otherwise would not have been 2, did not contribute
materially to the election of New Deal candidates 3* simply piled up a
larger majority of votes for the New Deal candidates who would have been
elected regardless of communist support.
) 20* The New Deal 1* recognizes that industrialists have their good points
2. neglects to consider any of the good points of industrialists 3. seems
to neglect the good points of industrialists and over-emphasize those of
labor to an extreme degree*
21 I'jany of the key positions of the New Deal 1* are under Civil Service which
does not question one’s political beliefs and therefore communists may be in
governmental office as well as anyone else 2* are controlled directly or
indirectly by the communists 3* are not controlled directly or indirectly
by the communists*
)22 . The New Deal 1* has placed the same restrictions on the activities of the
communists within the ranks of the Now Deal that it has on anyone else
2. has allowed the communists a relatively free hand within the ranks of the
New Deal 3. has not allowed the communists a relatively free hand within
the ranks of the New Deal.
)23. The policies of the New Deal and the communists 1* are noxv widely separated
2. are only apparently separated at the present time because of the general
disfavor with which the American public now views communism 3. are not now
widely separated*
)24. The influence of the communists within the New Deal 1, has not been widely
stressed by the communists themselves 2. has been greatly under-emphasized
by the New Dealers in their attempts to regain favor with the American pub­
lic 3. has been stressed largely by the communists themselves in their de­
sire to impress the Russian government with their activities in America,
and not by members of the New Deal.
)26. The New Deal 1* -while not acknowledging any support from the communists
openly, have been secretly glad to get it 2* has never ackno\vledged any sup­
port from the communists 3. has acknowledged support from the communists*
)26* The Dean of Northwestern*s Law School wrote an article in which 1. he proved
that the New Deal’s plan to increase the number of Justices on the Supreme
Court was both legal and constitutional 2. he pointed out that if the num­
ber of Justices on .the Supreme Court was increased, it would be In direct
violation of American traditions 3. failed to prove that the Supreme court
plan was constitutional.
)27. In the Interests of democracy, the New Deal 1* could have ousted or forbidden
the communists membership in Nexv Deal agencies 2. could not very well oust
or forbid the communists membership in New Deal agencies 3. should have done
everything in its power to limit the activities of communists in New Deal
agencies *
( ) .
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
)28. The IJew Deal 1. fostered and indirectly supported the illegal sit-down
strikes 2# did not foster or support the sit-down strikes 3# while it did
not foster or indirectly support the sit-downs, it should have called out
the National Guard to prevent their occurence#
)29. ihe hew Deal 1# seems to believe that those with fascist tendencies have
been the first to point out the growth of communism within the New Deal
2. seems to believe that anyone who criticizes the New Deal is necessarily
a fascist 3# does not seem to believe that those with fascist tendencies
have been the first to point out the growth of communism with the New Deal#
>30# It was sincerely believed by the New Deal that once the communists had in­
terested themselves in the New Deal 1* it would be easier to secretly
place certain communist theories with which the New Deal was in agreement
into action 2# they would drop their beliefs in communism 3. they would
continue to hold their beliefs in communism#
>31. In the Interests of democracy and Americanism, the New Deal 1# is willing
to work with anyone who is willing to work with it 2. is not willing to
work with everyone 3# is willing to work with only those who believe in
some form of state socialism#
)32# The New Deal believes that the rights granted in the Constitution 1# should
be guaranteed to all minority groups in the interests of democracy 2# should
be guaranteed only to minority groups only if the minority group in question
is actively supporting the New Deal 3* should be guaranteed only to certain
minority groups#
)53. The ITew Deal believes that conditions in America are comparable to those in
Europe 1# and that certain minor alterations without any basic change in
our government are necessary to combat the growth of communism 2* and that
communism may find roots here if we do not change our basic system of govern­
ment 3. but that communism will not find roots here if we do not change
our basic system of government#
>34# The leaders of the New Deal 1# have failed to publicly denounce the commun­
ists 2, have publicly denounced the communists 3# have been as severe
critics of communism as they have of fascism or any other dictatorship gov­
ernment #
)35# The New Deal 1# should be held responsible for the numerous sit-dovm strikes
because if it had so desired it could have prevented their repetition 2. had
no means of placing restrictions on the activities of workers who were exer­
cising their constitutional rights 3. should not be held responsible for
the numerous sit-down strikes#
)36# The New Deal 1# offered many opportunities to promising and intelligent
young men 2. offered few opportunities to promising and Intelligence young
men 3# offered many opportunities to college radicals who were discontented
with the present system of government#
>37. No intelligent person who believes In democracy 1, could object to the minor
role played by the communists in the New Deal 2. could fail to object to the
role, however, minor, played by the communists in the New Deal 3. can evade
the fact that the communists were willing to work with the New Deal while the
Republicans were not#
)38# The influence of the communists on New Deal policies 1. has not been greatly
over-rated 2# has been greatly under-emphasized by New Dealers who are try­
ing to hide the facts 3# has been greatly over-rated#
)39# The communists 1# have gained the support of the New Deal for socialized
medicine 2# had nothing to do with humanitarian ideals of the New Deal with
respect to socialized medicine 3# failed to gain the support of the Hew Deal
for socialized medicine#
)40# The New Deal 1# favors an eventual communist state in .America 2. does not
favor an eventual communist state in America 3. while it may not favor an
eventual communist state in America, is moving in the direction of communism#
>41. The New Deal has been unwilling to engage in red-baiting 1# because they be15 eve the practise to be undemocratic 2* because the communists are working
with the New Deal and there is no reason for the New Deal to complain 3* not
because the communists are working with the New Deal.
(
)42w
(
)43#
(
)44.
(
)45.
(
)46#
The communists within the New Deal 1. are only a small percent of the
total membership of the New Deal
2# are a large percent of the total
membership of the Hew Deal 5. are a strong and powerful minority within
the New Deal#
The Hew Deal 1* is largely a radical group 2* is not a radical group
3# cannot be considered radical but might better be labeled as a pro­
gressive-liberal group#
The Ilew Deal may be considered 1# as a step in the direction of some sort
of socialized form of government 2* as a mass movement of the American
people toward democracy 3#
underno
circumstances as a mass movement of
the American people toward democracy#
The Hew Deal 1# has been used as a tool by the communists 2. has never
been used as a tool by the communists 3. has never played into the hands
of the communists nor any other group whose interests are foreign to
A ltv r icar trad it ion *
The communist support of certain Hew Deal plans 1. came about through
requests from the more radical New Deal members 2* came about through
orders from Hoscow to the communist party in America and hence the New
Deal cannot be blamed for the fact 3. did not come about through requests
from New Deal members#
Number
Rating Sealo
T°u^ Srade in this course will not depend in any way upon the score you make
on -is es # All information asked for will be held strictly in confidence# Your
name will not be revealed to anyone under any circumstances*
ou can cooperate in making this research problem as objective as possible by
answering all of the question^ and by filling out all of the information asked for*
^ ease o his as accurately as you can# Your help will be greatly appreciated by
those who are in charge of the research#
Directions: Directly below you will find seven statements# These statements
may be considered to represent a scale ranging from very favorable to very unfavor­
able# ^ach statement is preceded by a number# Ansiirer the questions below by placing
the number of one of these statements in the appropriate blank after each question.
List of Statements
1#
2*
3#
4#
5,
6*
7m
Very Favorable
Favorable
Slightly Favorable
ITeu.tral
Slightly Unfavorable
Unfavorable
Very Unfavorable
1. IThat attitude toward the New Deal did the content of the speech seem to
express?
2* 1/Vhat attitude did the speaker seem to express toward the New Deal considered independently of the content of the speech?
3* That do you consider your own attitude toward the New Deal to be previous to hearing this speech?
4. Ylhat do you consider your own attitude toward the New Deal to be after
hearing this speech?
—
5. '..hat do you consider your mother*s attitude toward the New Deal to be?
6. That do you consider your father*s attitude toward the New Deal to be?
( )
( )
(
)
( )
( )
( )
Did hearing this speech arouse any tension or emotional feelings in you? Yiere
you disturbed in any way? Did the content of the speech "bother” you? Describe
your reactions briefly#
This portion of the questionnaire will be removed from the rest of it and a num­
ber will be substituted for your name. There will be no means of identifying you
except bv this number# As you will probably want toknow theresults
ofthis study
when it is completed, please make a record of the numberat the topof thispage so
that you will be able to recognize your paper.
N ame (Please print last name first) ___________________________
Sex
Age
_ _
Retention Test
Directions: Place the correct answer in the brackets in front of the question#
A^.y(er 'k*16 questions according to the sjpeech which you justheard read. Answer
all
.°.^>
questions# Do not sk£p* or omit any#
——
....
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Many prominent industrialists 1* respect and admire the New Dealfs econ­
omic policies 2* are opposed to the New Deal because of its obvious lack
of knowledge of true economic problems 3. do not respect or admire the
New Deal*s economic policies*
)2« The New Deal 1. has always allowed and believed in free speech for all
groups — regardless of their political creed —— in accordance with the
Constitution although certain actions of individual members of the New Deal
may seem to contradict this belief 2# seems to believe in free speech for
those groups supporting New Deal policies 3# believes in free speech for
groups who are even opposed to New Deal policies#
)3# The New Deal 1. is against the capitalistic system of government 2. is
against the injustices created by a capitalistic system of government
3. is in favor of the capitalistic system of government#
)4# In its early stages of development the New Deal 1* denounced the Soviet
government 2. did not denounce the Soviet government
3* imported many of
its ideas from the Soviet government#
)5* The New Deal 1# is willing to confess it has made mistakes 2. has made
so many mistakes that it will take years to put the country on a sound basis
again 3* is unwilling to confess that it has made any mistakes.
)6* The New Deal 1. has been relatively uninfluenced by communist theory
2# has accepted only those features of communism which will make America
more democratic 3. has been influenced by communist theory*
)7# The New Deal believes that in the interests of democracy 1, that labor
should be given an advantage over capital in placing their demands before
Congress 2. that all groups should have equal opportunity to let Congress
know what they want 3. that only certain groups should have the opportun­
ity of making their wants known to Congress.
)8* That industrialists would voluntarily cooperate with the government in
solving the economic questions confronting the country 1. was believed by
the New Deal, but in actual practise the New Deal did not give industrial­
ists a chance to
cooperate 2* was believed for a long time by the New Deal
3. was never believed by the New Deal.
)9. Many advocates of the New Deal are 1. true American patriots in the best
sense of the word 2* radical persons with ideas foreign to true American­
ism 3* not radical persons with ideas foreign to true Americanism#
)10# That many industrial leaders have always had the best interests of their
employees at heart 1# is granted by the New Deal 2# Is granted by the New
Deal, but in actual practise is not considered by the New Deal 3. has
never been granted by the New Deal#
)ll# The New Deal 1* through Its theories has made many important contributions
to American democracy 2. is too involved in idle speculation and not enough
with being practical 3# has never been too involved in idle speculation,
but has always emphasized practicalities#
)12. The New Deal 1# is not anti-communist today 2. is anti-communist today
3# refuses to persecute any group because of its political creed#
)13. The plans of the New Deal 1# would be more successful if the New Deal
stopped trying to blame big business for the condition the country is in and
paid more attention to running the government efficiently 2. would be more
successful if only big business would cooperate more fully with the New Deal
3# would never be successful regardless of how much big business cooperated
with the New Deal.
)1A# The New Deal believes in 1. squarely facing the problems which confront the
country 2. in sidetracking the problems which confront the country 3. facinf
problems which require immediate solution — in the process it probably
irrnoes for the time being those which are less urgent*
)l#
X
(
(
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(
)l5, The New Deal 1. is sympathetic toward the communists 2* is sympathetic
only with the communists * concern over economic injustice 3# is not
sympathetic toward the communists*
)16. ihe New Deal 1# can no more be expected to be responsible for the activities
of the communists than for the activities of the Republicans 2. should •
be held responsible for the activities of the communists 3* should not bo
held responsible for the activities of the communists.
)17, The National Labor Relations Board -- a New Deal created agency —
1, is
under the comination of communists and CIO members who sympathize with the
communists 2, is an impartial board trying to solve labor difficulties in
an unoiased manner 3, is not under the domination of communists, or CIO
members sympathetic with communists*
)1Q. The New Deal is 1, for less liberty and democracy in the life of the Amer­
ican people 2, for more liberty and democracy in the life of the American
people 3* trying to limit the freedom of the American people by placing
restrictions on the press and business.
)19. The communist vote supporting the New Deal 1, enabled many New Deal candi­
dates to be elected who otherwise would not have been 2, did not contribute
materially to the election of New Deal candidates 3, simply piled up a
larger majority of votes for the New Deal candidates who would have been
elected regardless of communist support.
)20. The New Deal 1, recognizes that industrialists have their good points
2, neglects to consider any of the good points of industrialists 3, seems
to neglect the good points of industrialists and over-emphasize those of
labor to an extreme degree,
)21. iiany of the key positions of the New Deal 1* are under Civil Service which
does not question one's political beliefs and therefore communists may be in
governmental office as well as anyone else 2, are controlled directly or
indirectly by the communists 3, are not controlled directly or indirectly
by the communists.
22 The New Deal 1, has placed the same restrictions on the activities of the
communists within the ranks of the Now Deal that it has on anyone else
2, has allowed the communists a relatively free hand within the ranks of the
New Deal 3, has not allowed the communists a relatively free hand within
the ranks of the New Deal,
widely separated
)2S. The policies of the New Deal and the communists 1, are now ’
2, are only apparently separated at the present time because of the general
disfavor with which the American public now views communism 3, are not now
widely separated.
)24. The Influence of the communists within the New Deal 1, has not been widely
stressed by the communists themselves 2, has been greatly under-emphasized
by the New Dealers in their attempts to regain favor with the American pub­
lic 3, has been stressed largely bv the communists themselves in their de­
sire to impress the Russian government with their activities in America,
and not by members of the New Deal,
)26. The New Deal 1, while not acknowledging any support from the communists
openly, have been secretly glad to get it 2, has never acknowledged any sup­
port from the communists 3. has acknowledged support from the communists.
)26. The Dean of Northwestern's law School wrote an article in which 1, he proved
that the New Deal's plan to increase the number of Justices on the Supreme
Court was both legal and constitutional 2, he pointed out that if the num­
ber of Justices on ,the Supreme Court was increased, it would be in direct
violation of American traditions 3, failed to prove that the Supreme court
plan was constitutional.
)27. In the interests of democracy, the New Deal 1, could have ousted or forbidden
the communists membership in New Deal agencies 2, could not very well oust
or forbid the communists membership in New Deal agencies 3, should have done
everything in its power to limit the activities of communists in New Deal
agencies,
( ) .
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
)28. The Hew Deal 1, fostered and indirectly supported the illegal sit-down
strikes 2, did not foster or support the sit-down strikes 3, while it did
not foster or indirectly support the sit-downs, it should have called out
the National Guard to prevent their occurence.
)29, The Hew Deal 1, seems to believe that those with fascist tendencies have
been the first to point out the growth of communism within the New Deal
2, seems to believe that anyone who criticizes the New Deal is necessarily
a fascist 3# does not seem to believe that those with fascist tendencies
have been the first to point out the growth of communism with the New Deal,
)30. It was sincerely believed by the New Deal that once the communists had in­
terested themselves in the New Deal 1, it would be easier to secretly
place certain communist theories with which the New Deal was in agreement
into action 2, they would drop their beliefs in communism 3, they would
continue to hold their beliefs in communism.
)31, In the interests of democracy and Americanism, the New Deal 1, is willing
to work with anyone who is willing to work with it 2, is not willing to
work with everyone 3, is willing to work with only those who believe in
some form of state socialism.
)32. The New Deal believes that the rights granted in the Constitution 1, should
be guaranteed to all minority groups in the interests of democracy 2, should
be guaranteed only to minority groups only if the minority group in question
is actively supporting the New Deal 3, should be guaranteed only to certain
minority groups.
)33. The New Deal believes that conditions in America are comparable to those in
Europe 1, and that certain minor alterations without any basic change in
our government are necessary to combat the growth of communism 2. and that
communism may find roots here if we do not change our basic system of govern­
ment 3, but that communism will not find roots here if we do not change
our basic system of government.
The
leaders of the New Deal 1, have failed to publicly denounce the commun­
)34.
ists 2, have publicly denounced the communists 3, have been as severe
critics of communism as they have of fascism or any other dictatorship gov­
ernment.
)35, The New Deal 1, should be held responsible for the numerous sit-down strikes
because if It had so desired it could have prevented their repetition 2, had
no means of placing restrictions on the activities of workers who were exer­
cising their constitutional rights 3, should not be held responsible for
the numerous sit-down strikes.
)36, The New Deal 1, offered many opportunities to promising and Intelligent
young men 2. offered few opportunities to promising and intelligence young
men 3, offered many opportunities to college radicals who were discontented
with the present system of government.
1, could object to the minor
) 3 7 . No intelligent person who believes In democracy
role played by the communists In the New Deal 2, could fail to object to the
role, however, minor, played by the communists in the New Deal 3, can evade
the fact that the communists were willing to work with the New Deal -while the
Republicans were not.
)38, The influence of the communists on New Deal policies 1. has not been greatly
over-rated 2, has been greatly under-emphasized by New Dealers who are try­
ing to hide the facts 3. has been greatly over-rated.
The
communists 1, have gained the support of the New Deal for socialized
)39,
medicine 2. had nothing to do with humanitarian ideals of the New Deal with
respect to socialized medicine 3. failed to gain the support of the New Deal
for socialized medicine.
)40, The New Deal 1# favors an eventual communist state in America 2. does not
favor an eventual communist state in America 3, -while it may not favor an
eventual communist state in America, is moving in the direction of communism.
The New Deal has been unwilling to engage in red-baiting 1. because they be­
)41,
lieve the practise to be undemocratic 2, because the communists are working
with the New Deal and there Is no reason for the New Deal to complain 3, not
because the communists are working with the New Deal,
)42*
)43.
)44*
)45*
)46.
The communists within the New Deal 1* are only a small percent of the
total membership of the New Deal 2, are a large percent of the total
membership of the New Deal 5, are a strong and powerful minority within
the New Deal*
The New Deal 1* is largely a radical group 2. is not a radical group
3, cannot be considered radical but might better be labeled as a pro­
gressive-liberal group*
The New Deal may be considered 1* as a step in the direction of some sort
of socialized form of government 2, as a mass movement of the American
people toward democracy 3* under no circumstances as a mass movement of
the American people toward democracy*
The New Deal 1, has been used as a tool by the communists 2, has never
been used as a tool by the communists 3, has never played into the hands
of the communists nor any other group whose interests are foreign to
Am •r ican tra d it ion.
The communist support of certain New Deal plans 1. came about through
requests from the more radical New Deal members 2, came about through
orders from l.Ioscow to the communist part}/ in America and hence the New
Deal cannot be blamed for the fact 3, did not come about through requests
from New Deal members*
Number
■
'
■
)
The Abi 1ity to Remember
Radio Speech
— -AP CAi.i. FULLY * Three weeks ago a speech concerning the New Deal was read in
t .is class. Immediately after hearing the speech you were asked to take a test in
order that we could find out how much of the speech you had remembered. The re­
sults of this study are now available and they will be discussed toward the end of
the hour. Your scores showing how many facts contained in the speech you remem­
bered correctly are now posted in the Psychology Laboratory. Your name was care­
fully concealed and your score is posted according to the red number which was in
the upper left hand corner of the test, he wish to express our appreciation for
your sincere co-operation in making this study possible.
There is, however, one additional question concerning the radio xvhich we
would like to be able to answer* lie now know how much an individual remembers
immediately after hearing a speech, but we would also like to know how long he is
able to remember itc In order to answer this question we are asking you to co­
operate with us once more, hill you please follow all of the directions just as
carefully as you can?
*
VL.
2.
*
*
*
Y/hat do you consider your attitude toward the New Deal to be at the present
time? (l) Very favorable; (2) Favorable; (3) Slightly Favorable; (4)Neutral
(5) Slightly unfavorable;
(6) Unfavorable; (7) Very unfavorable.
Describe briefly anything that may have caused you to change your attitude
toward the New Deal during the last three weeks.
This portion of the questionnaire will be removed an the number at the top
of the page substituted for your name* Your answers and name will be kep con­
fidential and the results of this study will be posted only by the number in the
left hand corner* As you will probably want to know how many questions you
answered correctly, please make a record of this number.
Name (Please Pr int)
________ ______________________________________________ __
DIRECTIONS : On the pages that follow is another retention test based on the
speech which was read in class. After you have finished reading this page, turn
to these questions and answer them as best as you can. ALL OF THE QUESTIONS ON
THE TEST AP~ TO BE ANSY.ERED ON THE BASIS OF :TAT. TEE SPEECH SAID. IF YOl DO NOT
KNOT* THE CORRECT AESEAE, GUESS. DO EOT SNIP OR 01.IIT ANY QUESTIONS. TURN THE
PAGE AND BEGUN.
Retention Test
Directions: Place the correct answer in the brackets in front of the question*
Answer the questions according to the speech which you just heard read.Answer all
~khe questions* Do not skip or omi t~~any *
— ———— — —
(
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)l* Ilany prominent industrialists 1. respect and admire the New Deal*s econ­
omic policies 2* are opposed to the New Deal because of its obvious lack
of knowledge of true economic problems 3. do not respect or admire the
hew Deal *s economic policies*
)2. The New Deal 1. has always allowed and believed in free speech for all
groups —- regardless of their political creed —
in accordance with the
Constitution although certain actions of individual members of the New Deal
may seem to contradict this belief 2* seems to believe in free speech for
those groups supporting New Deal policies 3. believes in free speech for
groups who are even opposed to New Deal policies.
)3. The New Deal 1. is against the capitalistic system of government 2. is
against the injustices created by a capitalistic system of government
3. is in favor of the capitalistic system of government,
)4. In its early stages of development the New Deal 1. denounced the Soviet
government 2. did not denounce the Soviet government 3* imported many of
its ideas from the Soviet government.
)5, The New Deal 1. is willing to confess it has made mistakes 2. has made
so many mistakes that it will take years to put the country on a sound basis
again 3. is unwilling to confess that it has made any mistakes„
)6. The New Deal 1. has been relatively uninfluenced by communist theory
2. has accepted only those features of communism which will make America
more democratic 3. has been influenced by communist theory.
)7, The New Deal believes that in the interests of democracy 1. that labor
should be given an advantage over capital in placing their demands before
Congress 2. that all groups should have equal opportunity to let Congress
know what they want 3. that onl^r certain groups should have the opportun­
ity of making their wants known to Congress.
)8. That industrialists would voluntarily cooperate with the government in
solving the economic questions confronting the country 1. was believed by
the New Deal, but In actual practise the New Deal did not give industrial­
ists a chance to cooperate 2. was believed for a long time by the New Deal
3. was never believed by the New Deal,
)9* Hany advocates of the New Deal are 1, true American patriots in the best
sense of the word 2. radical persons with ideas foreign to true American­
ism 3. not radical persons with ideas foreign to true Americanism.
)10* That many industrial leaders have always had the best interests of their
employees at heart 1. Is granted by the ITew Deal 2. is granted by the New
Deal, but in actual practise is not considered by the New Deal 3. has
never been granted by the New Deal.
)ll* The New Deal 1. through its theories has made many important contributions
to American democracy 2. is too involved in idle speculation and not enough
with being practical 3. has never been too Involved In idle speculation,
but has always emphasized practicalities.
)12. The New Deal 1. is not anti-communist today 2. is anti-communist today
3. refuses to persecute any group because of its political creed.
)13. The plans of the New Deal 1. would be more successful if the New Deal
stopped trying to blame big business for the condition the country is in and
paid more attention to running the government efficiently 2. would be more
successful if only big business would cooperate more fully with the New Deal
3. xvould never be successful regardless of how much big business cooperated
ivith the New Deal.
)14. The New Deal believes In 1. squarely facing the problems which confront the
country 2. in sidetracking the problems which confront the country 3. facing
problems ivhich require immediate solution — in the process it probably
iP-rnoes for the time being those which are less urgent.
t
(
(
(
)15. The New Deal 1. is sympathetic toward the communists 2* is sympathetic
only with the communists1 concern over economic injustice 3* is not
sympathetic toward the communists#
)16. The New Deal 1* can no more he expected to be responsible for the activities
of the communists than for the activities of the Republicans 2# should '
be held responsible for the activities of the communists 3# should not bo
held responsible for the activities of the communists*
)17. The National Labor Relations Board -- a New Deal created agency —
1# is
under the comination of communists and CIO members who sympathize with the
communists 2* is an impartial board trying to solve labor difficulties in
an unbiased manner 3# is not under the domination of communists, or CIO
members sympathetic with communists#
)IB. The ITew Deal is 1# for less liberty and democracy in the life of the Amer­
ican people 2* for more liberty and democracy in the life of the American
people 3* trying to limit the freedom of the American people by placing
restrictions on the press and business*
The
communist vote supporting the New Deal 1* enabled many New Deal candi­
19
dates to be elected who otherwise would not have been 2* did not contribute
materially to the election of New Deal candidates 3* simply piled up a
larger majority of votes for the New Deal candidates who would have been
elected regardless of communist support*
)20. The New Deal 1* recognizes that industrialists have their good points
2. neglects to consider any of the good points of industrialists 3# seems
to neglect the good points of industrialists and over-emphasize those of
labor to an extreme degree#
)2X. liany of the key positions of the New Deal 1# are under Civil Service which
does not question one's political beliefs and therefore communists may be in
governmental office as well as anyone else 2# are controlled directly or
indirectly by the communists 3* are not controlled directly or indirectly
by the communists*
)22. The New Deal 1# has placed the same restrictions on the activities of the
communists within the ranks of the Now Deal that it has on anyone else
2* has allowed the communists a relatively free hand within the ranks of the
New Deal 3* has not allowed the communists a relatively free hand within
the ranks of the New Deal*
)23. The policies of the New Deal and the communists 1* are now widely separated
2* are only apparently separated at the present time because of the general
disfavor with which the American public now views communism 3* are not now
widely separated#
)24. The influence of the communists within the New Deal 1* has not been widely
stressed by the communists themselves 2* has been greatly under-emphasized
by the New Dealers in their attempts to regain favor with the American pub­
lic 3* has been stressed largely by the communists themselves in their de­
sire to impress the Russian government with their activities in America,
and not by members of the New Deal#
)25. The New Deal 1# while not acknowledging any support from the communists
openly, have been secretly glad to get it 2# has never acknowledged any sup­
port from the communists 3# has acknowledged support from the communists*
)26. The Dean of Northwestern1s Law School wrote an article in which 1- he proved
that the New Deal's plan to increase the number of Justices on the Supreme
Court was both legal and constitutional 2* he pointed out that if the num­
ber of Justices on .the Supreme Court was increased, it would be in direct
violation of American traditions 3* failed to prove that the Supreme court
plan was constitutional*
)27* In the interests of democracy, the New Deal 1* could have ousted or forbidden
the communists membership in New Deal agencies 2. could not very well oust
or forbid the communists membership In New Deal agencies 3. should have done
everything in its power to limit the activities of communists in New Deal
agencies•
() .
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
)28* The Hew Deal 1* fostered and indirectly supported the illegal sit-down
strikes 2* did not foster or support the sit-down strikes 3* while it did
not foster or indirectly support the sit-downs, it should have called out
the National Guard to prevent their occurence*
( )29* The Hew Deal 1* seems to believe that those with fascist tendencies have
been the first to point out the growth of communism \yithin the Hew Deal
2* seems to believe that anyone who criticizes the New Deal is necessarily
a fascist 3* does not seem to believe that those with fascist tendencies
have been the first to point out the growth of communism with the New Deal*
( )30. It was sincerely believed by the New Deal that once the communists had in­
terested themselves in the New Deal 1* it would be easier to secretly
place certain communist theories with which the Hew Deal was in agreement
Into action 2* they would drop their beliefs in communism 3. they would
continue to hold their beliefs in communism.
( )31, In the interests of democracy and Americanism, the New Deal 1. is willing
to work with anyone who is willing to work with it 2* is not willing to
work with everyone 3. is willing to work with only those who believe in
some form of state socialism.
( )S2. The New Deal believes that the rights granted in the Constitution 1* should
be guaranteed to all minority groups in the interests of democracy 2* should
be guaranteed only to minority groups only if the minority group in question
is actively supporting the New Deal 3* should be guaranteed only to certain
minority groups.
( )33. The New Deal believes that conditions in America are comparable to those in
Europe 1. and that certain minor alterations without any basic change in
our government are necessary to combat the growth of communism 2. and that
communism rnay find roots here if we do not change our basic system of govern­
ment 3* but that communism will not find roots here if we do not change
our basic system of government*
( )3«. The leaders of the New Deal 1. have failed to publicly denounce the commun­
ists 2* have publicly denounced the communists 3. have been as severe
critics of communism as they have of fascism or any other dictatorship gov­
ernment*
( )35* The New Deal 1* should be held responsible for the numerous sit-down strikes
because If it had so desired it could have prevented their repetition 2* had
no means of placing restrictions on the activities of workers who were exer­
cising their constitutional rights 3* should not be held responsible for
the numerous sit-down strikes*
( )36* The Hew Deal 1. offered many opportunities to promising and intelligent
young men 2. offered few opportunities to promising and Intelligence young
men 5. offered many opportunities to college radicals who were discontented
with the present system of government*
( )37* No intelligent person who believes in democracy 1* could object to the minor
role played by the communists in the Hew Deal 2. could fail to object to the
role, however, minor, played by the communists in the Hew Deal 3. can evade
the fact that the communists were willing to work with the New Deal -while the
Republicans were not.
( )38* The Influence of the communists on Hew Deal policies 1. has not been greatly
over-rated 2. has been greatly under-emphasized by New Dealers who are try­
ing to hide the facts 3. has been greatly over-rated.
The
communists 1* have gained the support of the New Deal for socialized
( )39.
medicine 2. had nothing to do with humanitarian ideals of the New Deal with
respect to socialized medicine 3. failed to gain the support of the New Deal
for socialized medi.cine#
( )40. The New Deal 1* favors an eventual communist state in America 2, does not
favor an eventual communist state in America 3. while it may not favor an
eventual communist state in America, is moving in the direction of communism.
The
New Deal has been unwilling to engage in red-baiting 1* because they be­
( )41.
lieve the practise to be undemocratic 2. because the communists are working
with the New Deal and there is no reason for the New Deal to complain 3. not
because the communists are working with the New Deal.
’(
)42.
(
)43.
(
)44.
(
)45*
(
)46.
The communists within the New Deal 1. are only a small percent of the
total membership of the New Deal 2. are a large percent of the total
membership of the Hew Deal 5. are a strong and powerful minority within
the Her/ Deal.
The Hew Deal 1. is largely a radical group 2, is not a radical group
3. cannot be considered radical but might better be labeled as a pro­
gressive-liberal group.
The Hew Deal may be considered 1. as a step in the direction of some sort
of socialized form of government 2. as a mass movement of the American
people toward democracy 3* under no circumstances as a mass movement of
the American people toward democracy.
The New Deal 1. has been used as a tool by the communists 2. has never
been used as a tool by the communists 3. has never played Into the hands
of the communists nor any other group whose Interests are foreign to
A m 'r ican traditIon.
The communist support of certain Hew Deal plans 1. came about through
requests from the more radical New Deal members 2. came about through
orders from I.Ioscow to the communist party in America and hence the Nexv
Deal cannot be blamed for the fact 3, did not come about through requests
from New Deal members*
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