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A study of delinquent girls in a Pasadena junior high school

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A STUDY OF DELINQUENT GIRLS IN A
PASADENA JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
A T h e s is
P r e s e n t e d to
the F a c u l t y o f th e S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n
The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th ern C a l i f o r n i a
In P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t
o f th e R equirem ents f o r th e D egree
M aster o f S c i e n c e i n E d u c a tio n
by
D orothy B a te s
June 1940
UMI Number: EP53775
All rights reserved
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Dissertation PuWfeting
UMI EP53775
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c=^
£ gL H'o ft
&
T h i s thesis, w r i tt e n u n de r the di rec tio n of the
C h a ir m a n o f the c and id ate ’s G u i d a n c e C o m m i t ­
tee a n d a p p r o v e d by al l m e m b e r s of the C o m ­
m itt ee , has been p r e s e n t e d to a n d a c c e p t e d by
the F a c u l t y of the S c h o o l of E d u c a t i o n in pa r ti a l
f u lf i ll m e n t of the r eq uir em en ts f o r the d e g r e e of
M a s t e r of Sc ie n ce in E d u ca ti on .
D a t e . J ^ . 3 .x ..l^ ? ......................
Guidance Com m ittee
Louis P. Thorpe
Chairman
C. C. Crawford
D. Welty Lefever
j'A'-
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
'
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERMS USED
The problem
. .. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
S ta te m e n t o f t h e problem .................................................
2
Im portance o f th e s t u d y ........................................... .....
2
.......................................
4
.....................................................
4
D e f i n i t i o n s o f terms u s e d .
J u v e n i l e d e lin q u e n c y
S ix -F o u r -F o u r P l a n .................................................
4
A d j u s t m e n t ....................................................................
6
L i m i t a t i o n s o f th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n
Scope o f the s tu d y
.............................
7
.......................................
7
W eaknesses o f th e s t u d y .......................................
O r g a n iz a t io n o f the rem aind er o f th e t h e s i s
II.
I
8
. .
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE............................................
9
11
L i t e r a t u r e on th e c a u s e s o f d e lin q u e n c y . . . .
L i t e r a t u r e on r e m e d ia l m e a s u r e s .........................
11
13
F u r th e r s t u d i e s o f the c a u s e s and c o n t r o l o f
d e l i n q u e n c y ............................ . . . . I .........................
L i m i t a t i o n s o f p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s .........................
III.
16
20
SOURCES OF DATA AND METHODS OF PROCEDURE . . . .
G ir ls f o r g a n iza tio n s
22
..........................................................
P o l i c e and p r o b a t io n o f f i c e r e c o r d s ...............
S c h o o l r e c o r d s .............................................................. .
31
31
36
iii
CHAPTER
IV.
V.
PAGE
Method o f p r o c e d u r e .......................................................
39
TWENTY CASE HISTORIES........................................................
46
CONDITIONS' ASSOCIATED WITH CHILD DELINQUENCY . . .
S o c ia l c o n d itio n s
A s so c ia te s
106
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
106
...................................................................
106
Fam ily r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n th e h o m e ................
107
Economic c o n d i t i o n s ...............................
108
C o n d itio n o f th e h o m e ..................................
P h y s i c a l s t a t u s .......................................................
R e lig io u s a f f i l i a t i o n s
C o n c lu s io n
VI.
108
. i
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
......................................
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.................................
113
113
116
119
S u m m a r y .........................................................
119
C o n c lu s io n s
120
. . . . .
..........................................................
Recommendations
BIBLIOGRAPHY
......................................
APPENDIX............................................................................
125
128
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
PAGE
Su rvey o f th e W elfa re Department o f th e P asadena
S c h o o l System- o f C h ild D e lin q u e n c y from 1 9 3 0 1939
IX.
24
Age D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T h irty-T w o D e lin q u e n t G i r l s
i n P asadena f o r th e Year 1939.....................................
III.
Age D i s t r i b u t i o n o f th e Twenty D e lin q u e n t G i r l s
C o n sid e re d i n t h i s S t u d y ..................................
IT .
25
26
Grade D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T h irty-T w o D e lin q u e n t G i r l s
i n P asad en a f o r th e Year 1939.....................................
27
V: ~ G r a d e ' D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Twenty D e lin q u e n t G i r l s
C o n sid e re d i n t h i s S t u d y ..................................
VI.
28
O ff e n s e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T h irty-T w o D e lin q u e n t G i r l s
i n P asadena f o r th e Year 1939 . . . . . . . .
V II.
29
N ature o f O f f e n s e s Committed by the Twenty D e lin q u e n t
G i r l s C o n sid e re d i n t h i s S t u d y ....................
V III.
Race D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T h irty-T w o D e lin q u e n t G i r l s
i n P asadena f o r the Year 1939
IX.
................................
.......................................
33
P e r c e n t a g e s o f R a c ia l D i s t r i b u t i o n a t M cK inley
J u n io r High S c h o o l f o r t h e Y ears 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
X I.
32
R a c i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e Twenty D e lin q u e n t G i r l s
C on sid ered i n t h i s Stu dy
X.
30
.
34
.
35
O r g a n is a t io n o f the Twenty D e lin q u e n t G i r l s
C o n sid ered i n t h i s S t u d y .................................. ....
' TABLE
X II.
PAGE
P r e v io u s P o l i c e or P r o b a tio n O f f i c e Records o f
th e Twenty D e lin q u e n t G i r l s C o n sid e re d i n t h i s
Study
X III.
.
.......................................................................................
37
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f th e I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t ie n t s o f t h e
Twenty D e lin q u e n t G i r l s C o n sid e re d i n t h i s
S t u d y ........................ . . . . . . . .................................
XIV.
P h y s i c a l c o n d it o n o f the Twenty D e l in q u e n t G i r l s
C o n sid ered i n
XV.
t h i s S tu d y . . .........................................
. . .
110
Employment S i t u a t i o n i n the Homes o f t h e Twenty
D e lin q u e n t G i r l s C o n sid ered i n t h i s Study
XVII.
109
Economic C o n d it io n o f Homes o f th e Twenty De­
l i n q u e n t G i r l s C o n sid ered i n t h i s S tu d y
XVI.
38
. .
Ill
A c t u a l Reason f o r D e lin q u e n c y i n th e C ases o f the
Twenty D e lin q u e n t G i r l s C o n sid ered i n t h i s
S t u d y ................................. .
X V III.
. . . . .
. .
. . . . . .
R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n o f t h e Twenty D e lin q u e n t
G i r l s C o n sid e re d i n t h i s S t u d y .....................................
XIX.
. .
115
C lassroom A t t i t u d e o f th e Twenty D e lin q u e n t G i r l s
C o n sid ered i n
XXI.
114
E m otion al A t t i t u d e o r C h aracter o f th e Twenty
D e lin q u e n t G i r l s C o n sid ered i n t h i s Stu d y
XX.
112
t h i s S t u d y ...............................................
117
T e a c h e r s 1 O pinion o f th e Reason f o r D e lin q u e n c y o f
th e Twenty D e lin q u e n t G i r l s C o n sid e re d i n t h i s
Stu dy
..................................
. . . . . . . . . . . .
118
LIST OF FIGURES
PAGE
Sample o f C a l i f o r n i a T est o f P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e
. . .
41
P e r so n a lity P r o f ile
o f Case Number I . . . . . . . .
.
P e r so n a lity P r o f ile
o f Case Number I I
. . . . . . . .
54
P e r so n a lity P r o file
o f Case Number I I I . . . . . . . . . .
57
P e r so n a lity P r o f ile
o f Case Number I Y ...................................
60
P e r so n a lity P r o f ile
o f Case Number Y ........................................
62
P e r so n a lity P r o f ile
o f Case Number VI
65
P e r so n a lity P r o f ile
o f Case Number 7 1 1 ...................................
68
P e r so n a lity P r o f ile
of
Case Number V I I I ..............................
70
P e r so n a lity P r o file
o f Case Number I X ...................................
75
P e r so n a lity P r o file
o f Case Number X ........................................
76
. . . . . . . .
P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e o f Case Number X I ............................
.
50
79
P e r so n a lity P r o f ile
o f Case Number H I ........................
82
P e r so n a lity P r o file
of
85
P e r so n a lity P r o file
o f Case Number XIY . . . . . . . .
P e r so n a lity P r o f ile
o f Case Number XY
P e r so n a lity P r o file
o f Gase Number XVI . . . . . . . .
95
P e r so n a lity P r o f ile
o f . Case Number XVTI
. . . . . . .
96
P e r so n a lity P r o file
o f Case Number XVIII . . . . . . .
99
P e r so n a lity P r o f ile
o f Case Number XIX
P e r so n a lity P r o f ile
o f Case Number XX
Case Number X I I I .............................
. . . . . . .
88
.
..............................
. . . . . . . .
91
101
105
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
R ecen t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e v e a l t h a t P a sa d en a , C a l i f o r n ia ,
h a s made no a d eq u a te p r o v i s i o n f o r i t s
d e lin q u e n t g i r l s .
As
c o n d i t i o n s a r e a t p r e s e n t , s in c e th e J u v e n ile H a ll a t Los
A n g e le s h a s no accom m odations f o r g i r l s o u t s id e Los A n g e le s
p r o p e r , P asadena g i r l s m ust e i t h e r be com m itted to a refo rm
s c h o o l o r be r e tu r n e d t o th e s c h o o l t h a t th e y fo r m e r ly a t t e n d e d .
In a r e c e n t e d i t i o n o f a P asadena new spaper (Jan u ary
1 9 4 0 ) , E a r l H o lto n , c o u n ty p r o b a tio n o f f i c e r ,
s t a t e s t h a t th e
in c r e a s e i n the.nu m ber o f d e lin q u e n t b oys and g i r l s i n Los
A n g e le s County i s c a u s in g g r a v e c o n c er n among j u v e n i l e w e lfa r e
o ffic ia ls .
D u rin g th e y e a r 1 9 3 9 , two th ou san d one hundred and
tw e n ty s e v e n b o y s and g i r l s i n th e County w ere com m itted b y
th e j u v e n i l e c o u r t t o th e p r o b a tio n o f f i c e r .
T h is was n e a r ly
e i g h t tim e s g r e a t e r th an th e t o t a l o f c h ild r e n r e c o r d e d on
ju v e n ile co u rt r o l l s in 1937.
A l l th e r efo rm s c h o o ls a r e overcrow d ed and tw e n ty e ig h t
c h ild r e n have b een p la c e d i n th e c o u n ty p oor farm , o r d i n a r i l y
a p la c e f o r th e a g e d .
In P asadena e s p e c i a l l y t h e r e h as b een a s t e a d y in c r e a s e
i n d e lin q u e n c y and a c o r r e sp o n d in g la c k o f accom m odations f o r
2
th e d e lin q u e n t c h i l d .
I t i s hoped i n t h i s s tu d y t o throw some l i g h t upon th e
m eans o f p r e v e n t in g d e lin q u e n c y and i f p o s s i b l e t o d eterm in e
th e tr e a tm e n t m ost e f f e c t i v e f o r t h e g i r l who h a s a lr e a d y
become d e lin q u e n t , th u s e n a b lin g t e a c h e r s t o r e c o g n iz e p r e d e lin q u e n c y t r a i t s and h a b i t s b e f o r e th e y have become to o
s tr o n g ly e s ta b lis h e d .
I.
s tu d y
THE PROBLEM
S ta te m en t o f th e p r o b le m . I t was t h e p u rp o se o f
th is
(1 ) t o d eterm in e the c a u s e s o f g i r l s ’ d e lin q u e n c y
at
M cK inley J u n io r H igh S c h o o l,
(2 ) to d is c o v e r th ro u g h an
e x a m in a tio n o f t h e i r s o c i a l , m e n ta l, and p h y s i c a l en viron m en t
why t h e s e g i r l s were m a la d ju s te d , and (3 ) t o recommend r e m e d ia l
m ea su res f o r th e s o l u t i o n o f t h e i r p r o b le m s.
Im p ortan ce o f th e s t u d y .
Former g e n e r a t io n s w ere sp a red
th e c o m p le x it ie s o f modern l i f e .
The home, th e c h u rch ,
and th e
s c h o o l were t h e a g e n c ie s o f s o c i a l l i f e and sh aped th e d e s ­
t i n i e s o f th e y o u th o f t h a t tim e .
I n c o n t r a s t , modern l i f e
o f f e r s su ch v a r ie d and s c a t t e r e d
i n t e r e s t s t o th e a d o le s c e n t t h a t b e f o r e he i s m ature enough t o
form i n t e l l i g e n t ju d g m en ts, h e i s fa c e d w ith s i t u a t i o n s to o
com p lex f o r h i s l i m i t e d e x p e r ie n c e .
U n fo r t u n a te ly , h i s name
3
i s o f t e n m arred b y th e stig m a o f d e lin q u e n t when he may be
f o r th e m ost p a r t m e r e ly im m ature.
Richmond s t a t e s :
" M a tu rity b r in g s s t a b i l i t y and e x ­
p e r ie n c e d e v e lo p s judgm ent— a d o le s c e n c e i n i t s e l f may be th e
c a u se o f d e lin q u e n c y .”1
M arie Skodak, i n h e r a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " G ir ls on P a r o le ”
f u r t h e r s t r e s s e s th e id e a o f im m a tu rity when sh e s a y s :
"With­
i n t e n y e a r s a f t e r commitment th r e e f o u r t h s o f th e g i r l s on
p a r o le f i n a l l y became a d j u s t e d ; y e t tw e n ty f o u r p e r c e n t were
im m e d ia te ly a b le t o make a s a t i s f a c t o r y a d j u s t m e n t .”2
I t i s im p o r ta n t t h a t th e t e a c h e r d is c r im in a t e b etw een
im m a tu rity and h a b i t u a l d e lin q u e n c y , d e ter m in e why th e s tu d e n t
i s d e lin q u e n t , what dep artm en t or i n s t i t u t i o n i s in v o lv e d , and
o f f e r some s u g g e s t io n s a s to r e m e d ia l m e a s u r e s .
In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , th e r e m e d ia l m easu res
sh o u ld n o t o n ly in c lu d e s u g g e s t io n s f o r a d j u s t i n g th e s tu d e n t
t o th e en viron m en t b u t sh o u ld a l s o l a y b e fo r e th e p u b lic a
p la n w hereby g i r l s who a r e m a la d ju s te d may r e c e i v e p rop er
p s y c h i a t r i c tr e a tm e n t under t r a in e d p s y c h i a t r i s t s .
At p r e s e n t
d e lin q u e n t g i r l s m ust e i t h e r be s h u t t l e d from one s c h o o l to
1 W. Y. Richmond. The A d o le s c e n t G ir l (New York: The
M acm illan Company, 1 9 2 5 ) , p . 131.
2 M arie Skodak, " G ir ls on P a r o le ” The J o u r n a l o f
J u v e n ile R e s e a r c h . XXII ( J u ly t o O cto b er , 193§T
4
a n o th e r i n th e v a in hope t h a t a d i f f e r e n t en viron m en t w i l l
change th e " s p o ts on th e le o p a r d " or th e y must be r e tu r n e d to
th e s c h o o l i n w hich th e y com m itted t h e i r m isdem eanor, t h e r e ,
t o r e p e a t th e o f f e n s e and p o s s i b l y t o in f l u e n c e o t h e r s .
The c a s e s o f d e lin q u e n c y s t u d ie d h e r e a r e n o t a lw a y s
ex trem e c a s e s .
T h is f a c t s h o u ld n o t d e t r a c t from th e im p o rta n ce
o f th e s tu d y s i n c e i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o d e a l w ith c o u r t c a s e s
a lo n e .
The problem s t a t e s t h a t we a r e s e e k in g to d is c o v e r th e
c a u s e s o f d e lin q u e n c y and s u g g e s t r e m e d ia l m e a su r e s, and t h i s
may be o f t e n a c c o m p lish e d b y s tu d y in g g i r l s m a la d ju s te d t o
t h e i r en viron m en t b e f o r e th e y have become c o u r t c a s e s .
II.
DEFINITIONS OF TBM8 USED
J u v e n ile d e lin q u e n c y .
K a th e r in e L e n r o o t’ s d e f i n i t i o n
o f j u v e n i l e d e lin q u e n c y i s a s f o l l o w s :
J u v e n ile d e lin q u e n c y may be d e fin e d a s v i o l a t i o n s o f
law by p e r s o n s o f j u v e n i l e c o u r t a g e , or a s co n d u ct on th e
p a r t o f su ch p e r so n s so s e r i o u s l y a n t i - s o c i a l a s t o i n t e r ­
f e r e w ith th e r i g h t s o f o th e r s or menace th e w e lf a r e o f
th e d e lin q u e n t h im s e lf or t h a t o f th e com m u nity.3
The S ix -F o u r -F o u r p l a n .
I t was i n th e y e a r 1928 t h a t
P a sa d en a f i r s t in a u g u r a te d th e S ix -F o u r -F o u r p la n .
There had
3 K a th e r in e L e n r o o t, " C h ild r e n f s B u r e a u ,” (u n p u b lish e d
r e p o r t f o r th e N a t io n a l Com m ission on Law O bservance and En­
fo rc em e n t , O c to b e r , 1 9 2 9 ), p .
5
b een a f e e l i n g f o r some tim e t h a t a d i f f e r e n t form o f s c h o o l
o r g a n iz a t io n was n e c e s s a r y .
There was la c k o f u n i t y i n th e
e d u c a t io n a l e x p e r ie n c e o f a p u p il from k in d e r g a r te n t o c o l l e g e .
There w ere trem endous e d u c a t io n a l gap s t o b e h u r d le d , from
th e e ig h t h grad e i n t o th e n in t h grad e and from the t w e l f t h
g ra d e i n t o c o l l e g e .
I t was to e lim in a t e t h e s e o b v io u s w e a k n e sse s t h a t th e
S ix -F o u r -F o u r p la n was a d o p te d .
The r e p o r t made by W illia m M.
P r o c to r i n 1935 r e v e a le d many i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s . 4
They may be l i s t e d :
lum ,
( l ) g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y o f c u r r ic u ­
(2 ) u n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e w hole e d u c a t io n a l e x p e r ie n c e from
k in d e r g a r t e n t o j u n io r c o l l e g e ,
(3 ) g r e a t e r h o ld in g power o f
e d u c a tio n ( n in t y p er c e n t o f a l l b o y s and g i r l s o f ju n io r
c o l l e g e age i n P asad en a a r e in s c h o o l ) ,
and m a t e r i a l s ,
(4 ) economy o f tim e
(5 ) im provem ent o f t e a c h in g ,
(6 ) e n r ic h e d c u r ­
r ic u lu m (new v o c a t i o n a l o u t l e t s ) , and (7 ) th e r e l i e v i n g o f
c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s o f lo w er d i v i s i o n work.
The b a s i c c o n c e p t o f th e S ix -F o u r -F o u r p la n i s a r e c o g ­
n i t i o n o f th e f a c t t h a t th e t h i r t e e n t h and f o u r t e e n t h y e a r s
a r e r e a l l y se c o n d a r y i n c h a r a c te r and a p a r t o f a w e ll-r o u n d e d
4 W illia m M. P r o c t o r , "The S ix -F o u r -F o u r P la n o f S c h o o l
O r g a n iz a tio n i n P a sa d e n a , C a l i f o r n i a , 11 ( r e p o r t to th e Board o f
E d u c a tio n , P a tr o n s and S t a f f , P a sa d en a , 1 9 3 3 ),
sy ste m o f se c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n .
The number o f d e lin q u e n t c h ild r e n h as b een d e c r e a se d
by th e a d o p tio n o f th e S ix -F o u r -F o u r p la n .
The R o o s e v e lt
S c h o o l, w h ich fo r m e r ly h o u sed th e abnorm al c h i l d , was e lim in a t e d
and th e s e g r e g a t e d c h ild r e n w ere grouped w ith th e norm al c h ild r e n
and advan ced r e g u l a r l y w ith them i n an en d ea v o r to make them
s o c i a l l y , i f n o t m e n t a lly , e q u a l.
T h is p o l i c y h as b een ad o p ted
i n P asad en a and may s u b s e q u e n tly be a f a c t o r i n e i t h e r i n ­
c r e a s in g o r d e c r e a s in g d e lin q u e n c y .
One o f th e im p o r ta n t r e s u l t s o f th e S ix -F o u r -F o u r p la n
i s th e i n c r e a s e i n the number o f p u p i l s a t t e n d in g s c h o o l beyond
th e co m p u lsory a g e .
A d ju stm e n t.
A d ju stm en t has b een d e fin e d a s th e s u c c e s s ­
f u l a d a p ta tio n o f an i n d i v i d u a l to h i s en rivon m en t and t o th e
needs o f h is n a tu r e .
We n o te t h a t a t i g e r i n th e j u n g le k i l l s
and e a t s , w h ich i s h i s norm al a d ju stm e n t, b u t when c a p tu r e d
and p la c e d i n a c a g e , he i s m a la d ju s te d .
No a c c u r a te means
h ave b een d e v e lo p e d f o r m ea su r in g th e t i g e r ’ s a d ju stm e n t to
th e m e n a g e r ie .
O c c a s io n a lly , he c la w s some p e r so n b u t i t
c a n n o t be d e ter m in e d w h eth er th e b e a s t i s b o r e d , e x u b e r a n t, or
m e r e ly sh ow in g an i n d i c a t i o n o f m a la d ju stm e n t.
He a d j u s t s t o
h i s c a g e , w h ich i s c a l l e d a d ju stm e n t o f c o n fo r m ity .
f a v o r t h i s ty p e o f a d ju s tm e n t.
D ic t a t o r s
A d ju stm en t o f an i n d i v i d u a l to h i s en viron m en t m ust o f t e n
mean c r e a t i o n o f new er and b e t t e r e n v ir o n m e n ts.
I t a ls o in ­
v o l v e s th e c o n s c io u s a tte m p t on th e p a r t o f s o c i e t y to a d ap t
th e i n d iv i d u a l t o c i t i z e n s h i p i n an e v e r b r o a d e n in g e n v iro n m en t.
T h is problem o f a d ju stm e n t i n v o l v e s g e t t i n g a lo n g w ith
p e o p le .
Human p roblem s su ch a s t h i s can be su b m itte d t o la b o r a ­
t o r y m ethods o n ly up t o a c e r t a i n p o i n t .
en ou gh .
There m u st be room f o r th e u n iq u e n e s s o f th e i n d i v i d u a l .
G ross h as sum m arized t h i s :
la r g e .
C on form ity i s n o t
" S o c ie t y i s th e i n d i v i d u a l w r i t
The a d j u s te d s o c i e t y i s com posed o f a d j u s t e d
III.
i n d i v i d u a l s . "5
LIMITATIONS OF THE INVESTIGATION
Scope o f th e s t u d y .
F or th e p u rp o se o f t h i s s tu d y , th e
r e c o r d s o f tw e n ty d e lin q u e n t g i r l s from M cK inley J u n io r H igh
S c h o o l o f P a sa d en a , C a l i f o r n i a , were i n v e s t i g a t e d .
The s c h o o l
h a s an en ro lm en t o f a p p r o x im a te ly s i x hundred f i f t y g i r l s .
S e v e n ty p e r c e n t a r e W hite g i r l s ; e ig h t e e n p e r c e n t , M exican ;
se v e n p er c e n t J a p a n e se ; and f i v e p e r c e n t , N e g r o .
Owing t o
th e l o c a t i o n o f th e s c h o o l and th e grow in g p o p u la t io n o f
P a sa d e n a ,
th e s c h o o l i s g r a d u a lly a b s o r b in g more f o r e i g n
® A lf r e d G r o ss, "The Manners and M orals o f A d ju stm e n t,"
N a t i o n a l Committee f o r M en ta l H y g ie n e , M ental H ygiene ( J u l y ,
193 9 ), p. 448.
e le m e n t so t h a t ea ch y e a r th e d e lin q u e n c y i s m aking in r o a d s on
a s c h o o l whose s o c i a l s t a n d in g was fo r m e r ly c o n s id e r e d h ig h .
B e in g co n cern ed ab o u t t h i s a p p a re n t d e c li n e i n academ ic
and s o c i a l s t a n d in g , a u t h o r i t i e s have ta k e n s t e p s t o e x c lu d e
th e m ost fr e q u e n t o f f e n d e r s , o n ly t o f i n d th a t t h e r e i s no
i n s t i t u t i o n i n P asadena t h a t c a r e s f o r t h i s ty p e o f g i r l .
W eaknesses o f th e s t u d y .
Any i n v e s t i g a t i o n w h ich
a tte m p ts t o s u r v e y th e d e lin q u e n c y s i t u a t i o n i s f o r c e d to c o n ­
c lu d e t h a t many o f th e f a c t o r s in v o lv e d a r e s u b t l e and d e f y
m easurem ent and t h a t th e s u r v e y can o n ly be an i n d i c a t i o n o f
th e a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n .
I t i s s t a t e d i n th e N a t io n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n Re­
search B u lle t in ,
"N ation w id e s t a t i s t i c s a s t o j u v e n i l e d e ­
lin q u e n c y a r e in c o m p le t e , in a c c u r a t e , and la c k in g i n u n if o r m it y .
P e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s a r e u n p r e d ic t a b le and a r e u n c e r t a in
b a r o m ete rs o f s tu d e n t r e a c t i o n s .
T h r e fo r e , t r a i t r a t i n g s a r e
s u b j e c t t o many e n v ir o n m e n ta l i n f l u e n c e s .
E d u ca to rs a r e c o n s t a n t l y im p rovin g th e P e r s o n a l i t y
t e s t s w h ich a r e g iv e n s t u d e n t s i n o r d e r to b e t t e r d ia g n o s e th e
s t u d e n t s ’ d i f f i c u l t i e s and t o g u id e them to b e t t e r a d ju s tm e n t.
6 N a t io n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t i o n R esea rch B u l l e t i n ,
1 0 :1 4 3 , Septem ber, 1 9 3 2 .
9
When a d m in is te r in g th e t e s t t o a group o f s t u d e n t s th e r e are
many f a c t o r s th e te a c h e r ca n n o t c o n t r o l .
Unknown to th e
te a c h e r ,
the p u p i l may be un der m e n ta l, p h y s i c a l , or e m o tio n a l
str e ss.
The te a c h e r h e r s e l f may i n a d v e r t e n t ly c a u se n e r v o u s ­
n e s s on th e p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t .
The p u p i l may n o t comprehend
t h e q u e s t io n o r may n o t have th e a b i l i t y t o r ea d i t .
These
and many more f a c t o r s c a u se th e a n sw ers o f p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s
t o be i n some m easure u n r e l i a b l e i n s p i t e o f th e g r e a t e s t c a r e
on the p a r t o f th e te a c h e r to make th e t e s t s c i e n t i f i c .
S tu d e n ts i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s problem m ust a w a it t h e
f u l l e r d evelop m en t o f th e program o f u n ifo r m s t a t i s t i c s now
sp o n so re d by th e C h ild r e n ’ s B u reau .
The sa m p lin g i n t h i s s tu d y o f n e c e s s i t y i s s m a ll, a s i s
th e c a se i n an y a tte m p t t o d e a l w ith a t t i t u d e s o r p e r s o n a l i t y
t r a i t s a s th e r e a r e many f a c t o r s t h a t th e i n v e s t i g a t o r ca n n o t
s c ie n tific a lly te s t.
IV .
ORGANIZATION OF THE REMAINDER OF TEE THESIS
C hapter I I s e r v e s a s an in t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n .
I t in ­
c lu d e s a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f r e l a t e d s t u d i e s and l i t e r a t u r e
c o n c e r n in g th e c a u s e s o f d e lin q u e n c y .
The v a r io u s s o u r c e s o f in fo r m a tio n w ith accom panying
t a b l e s and maps a re c o n ta in e d i n C hapter I I I .
A ls o i n t h i s
10
c h a p te r may be fou n d th e m ethod o f p ro ced u re and t h e o r g a n i­
z a t i o n s w h ich were made u s e o f th ro u g h o u t t h i s s tu d y .
Case s t u d i e s o f tw e n ty d e lin q u e n t g i r l s a r e em bodied
i n C hapter I ? .
The d ata o f e a ch c a s e a r e p r e s e n t e d un der s i x
h e a d in g s o r d i v i s i o n s , g i v i n g th e d e t a i l s c o n c e r n in g th e s t u ­
d e n t s ; su ch a s , th e a c t s ,
th e a g e , th e y e a r i n s c h o o l , th e
p h y s i c a l and m e n ta l c o n d i t i o n .
C hapter V in c lu d e s a l l th e f a c t o r s t h a t a r e i n f l u e n c i n g
a g e n t s i n th e en viron m en t o f th e c h i l d .
The summary o f in fo r m a tio n t h a t h a s b een drawn from th e
d a ta i s c o n ta in e d i n C h apter V I.
T h is i s th e c o n c lu d in g ch a p ­
t e r and c o n t a in s th e r e m e d ia l m easu res w h ic h , i f o f any v a lu e ,
sh o u ld te n d t o m in im ize d e lin q u e n c y i n th e M cK inley J u n io r
H igh S c h o o l.
CHAPTER I I
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
T h is r e v ie w i s n e c e s s a r i l y c o n fin e d to th e m ost r e c e n t
hook s and p e r i o d i c a l s r e l a t i n g to d e lin q u e n c y .
The in fo r m a tio n
d e r iv e d from a l l th e s o u r c e s o f m a t e r i a l on t h i s s u b j e c t w ould
have b een to o e x h a u s t iv e t o be in c lu d e d in an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f
t h is n a tu re .
L it e r a t u r e on th e c a u s e s o f d e lin q u e n c y .
Jameson-1' b e ­
l i e v e d t h a t th e r e g u l a t i o n m ethod o f o b t a in in g d a ta from d e ­
lin q u e n t g i r l s , th r o u g h th e s t u d y in g o f r e c o r d s r e l a t i n g t o
t h e i r d e lin q u e n c y , was u n r e l i a b l e s i n c e th e g i r l s in t e r r o g a t e d
w ould n a t u r a l l y s u p p r e ss ite m s o f im p o r ta n c e .
S h e, t h e r e f o r e , l i v e d w ith th e g i r l s i n an i n s t i t u t i o n
f o r th e c o r r e c t i o n o f d e lin q u e n c y .
G r a d u a lly sh e was a c c e p te d
a s a member o f t h e group and g a in e d t h e i r c o n f id e n c e .
When
sh e f e l t t h e g i r l s were r e a d y t o c o o p e r a te sh e e x p la in e d h e r
p r e s e n c e and a sk ed f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t io n .
Jameson h a s co m p iled th e f o l l o w i n g d a ta from th e tw e n ty n in e a u to b io g r a p h ie s w r it t e n by th e g i r l s and a s e v e n te e n page
**■ A u gusta Jam eson, " P s y c h o lo g ic a l F a c to r s C o n tr ib u tin g
t o th e D e lin q u e n c y o f G i r l s ," J o u r n a l o f J u v e n ile R e se a r c h ,
(J a n u a ry , 1 9 3 8 ), 2 5 .
12
q u e s t io n n a ir e composed o f what th e g i r l s th e m s e lv e s c o n s id e r e d
th e le a d in g q u e s t io n s .
I t a g r e e s i n th e m ain w ith th e in fo r m a tio n o f le a d e r s
i n t h i s f i e l d a s t o th e m ost im p o r ta n t f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to
d e lin q u e n c y .
T h ese f a c t o r s w ere t a b u la t e d a s f o l l o w s :
se x s tim u la tio n .
(1 ) E a r ly
(2 ) A b sence o f t r a i n i n g i n t h e home t o e s ­
t a b l i s h s o c i a l l y app roved h a b i t s and a t t i t u d e s .
(3 ) F a ilu r e
o f th e f a m ily and home t o p r o v id e norm al s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r
n eed s.
(4 ) E x is t e n c e in th e community o f a group o f young
p e o p le p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s e x a c t i v i t y .
The g i r l a d o p ts th e
p a t t e r n o f s e x d e lin q u e n c y in th e g r o u p .
Q u o tie n t.
(5 ) Low I n t e l l i g e n c e
The m edian i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t ie n t o f t h e group was
e ig h t y - o n e .
(6 ) Broken hom es.
T h is was n o t c o n s id e r e d a
d i r e c t c a u se b u t a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r .
There was g e n e r a l
la c k o f c l o s e and s a t i s f a c t o r y e m o tio n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n th e
f a m i ly .
(7 ) Low e c o n o m ic a l l e v e l o f th e f a m ily .
c u r r ic u lu m u n f i t t e d to th e n e e d s o f th e s t u d e n t .
(8 ) A s c h o o l
Jameson
p la c e d m o st r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on th e home and en viron m en t b u t
many e d u c a to r s in c lu d e th e s c h o o l a s a m ajor c o n t r ib u t in g
c a u se o f d e lin q u e n c y .
The f a c t t h a t s c h o o l program s a r e n o t
" g ea red to th e m a tu r a tio n l e v e l ” o f t h e p u p i l , i s r e c o g n iz e d
by many a u t h o r i t i e s a s a v e r y em p h atic r e a so n f o r d e lin q u e n c y .
13
I t i s s t a t e d b y P r e s c o t t i n r e l a t i o n t o th e s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m ,
" I f th e gamut o f a f f e c t i v e e x p e r ie n c e i s
t o be ru n , th e c u r ­
r ic u lu m m ust o f f e r more s u c c e s s to d u l l c h ild r e n and more
c h a lle n g e t o th e b r ig h t o n e s ." 2
(9 ) M o tio n p i c t u r e s and r a d io
program s, m ass p r o d u c tio n o f p e r i o d i c a l s and th e g r e g a r io u s
life
o f f e r e d b y th e a u to m o b ile to th e y o u th o f to d a y , c o n t r ib u t e
th e e x c ite m e n t y o u th c r a v e s .
A gain to q u ote P r e s c o t t :
Many p e o p le w i l l t o l e r a t e a n y th in g r a th e r th a n boredom
w ith i t s a b s e n c e o f f e e l i n g .
I f no o th e r way t o e m o tio n
i s op en , th e y c o n tin u e t o g e t i n t o t r o u b le or t h e y a d o p t a
v i c e . ’Broken hom es, f a t a l m i s s t e p s , ’ s p e c t a c u la r f a i l u r e s
and th e ’v i c e s ’ o f c o m fo r ta b le c i v i l i z e d l i f e a r e th e c o n ­
c l u s i o n o f e v e n t s which b egan a s no more th an th e s e a r c h
f o r m ild e x c it e m e n t .
(1 0 ) The c o s t o f m a in ta in in g c o r r e c t i o n a l tr e a tm e n t f o r th e
m a la d ju s te d i n t e r f e r e s w ith th e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f t h e p ro p er
fa c ilitie s .
E d u c a to r s a r e i n a s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n to e n l ig h t e n the
p u b lic i n r e g a r d t o th e p r o c e d u r e s n e c e s s a r y to a d j u s t th e d e ­
lin q u e n t to h i s e n v iro n m en t.
L it e r a t u r e on r e m e d ia l m e a s u r e s .
R e se a rc h co n d u cte d by
th e W hite House C on feren ce com m ittee d i s c l o s e d :
(1) t h a t u n l e s s
b e h a v io r p rob lem s a re met i n c h ild h o o d , th e y p e r s i s t i n t o a d u l t ­
2 D. A. P r e s c o t t , "Emotion and th e E d u c a tiv e P r o c e s s ,"
A m erican C o u n c il on E d u c a tio n (W ash in gton, D. C .: U n ite d S t a t e s
Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 8 ), p . 3 .
3 I b id .
'
hood and c a u se c h a o t i c s o c i e t y ,
14
(2) t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s
n eed ed i n r e g a r d t o th e c a u s e s o f d e lin q u e n c y ,
(3) t h a t th e
u n u s u a l l y d i f f i c u l t c a s e s s h o u ld he s e g r e g a t e d and p la c e d i n
s p e c ia l sc h o o ls.
There sh o u ld he no stigm a a t t a c h e d to the
s p e c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which p l a c e s a s t u d e n t i n a r e m e d ia l
grou p .
tiv e .
I t s h o u ld he r e g a r d e d a s t h e r a p e u t i c r a t h e r than p u n i ­
(4) That th e a d d i t i o n a l c o s t i s j u s t i f i e d i f p r e v e n t i o n
o f a d u l t d e l in q u e n c y i s f a c i l i t a t e d ,
(5) t h a t S t a t e and F e d e r a l
a i d sh o u ld h e l p the l o c a l com m unities i f h e a r th e c o s t ,
(6)
t h a t t h e r e s h o u ld he c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n b etw een t h e s c h o o l ,
p a r e n t s , and a l l th e a g e n c i e s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o th e w e l f a r e o f
th e c h ild ,
(7 ) t h a t m ild c a s e s c o u ld he d e t e c t e d by th e c l a s s ­
room t e a c h e r i f th e t e a c h e r had more p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g ,
(8 ) t h a t p a r e n t a l and p r e s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n a r e im p o r ta n t,
(9)
t h a t a n a p p r a i s a l o f c o n d i t i o n s l e a d i n g to d e lin q u e n c y s h o u ld
he made by c a r e f u l s c i e n t i f i c a l l y d e ter m in e d m eth od s,
(P jth a t
g u id a n c e p lacem en t and f o l l o w up sh o u ld he e s t a b l i s h e d . ^
The n e c e s s a r y r e s e a r c h on a l l p h a s e s o f b e h a v io r problem s
i s a t a s k to o g r e a t f o r e v e n our l a r g e p u b l i c s c h o o l s and must
he u n d e r ta k e n by p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s or the F e d e r a l Government.
F en ton makes many p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a m e n ta l
h y g ie n e program.
4
He s t r e s s e s the n e c e s s i t y o f com p eten*tt c h i l d
White House C o n fer en ce on C h ild H e a lt h and P r o t e c t i o n
(Hew York: The Century Company, 1 9 3 1 ) .
g u id a n c e c l i n i c s t u d y fo r s e r i o u s e a s e s of m a la d ju s tm e n t.
F en ton d e c l a r e s many a d ju s tm e n t s must be made i n th e home and
commitment o f c h i l d r e n t o c o r r e c t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s can th u s be
a v o i d e d .^
He recommends a h o s p i t a l s c h o o l f o r m a la d j u s te d c h i l d r e n
w ith a co m p eten t s t a f f t h a t would s t u d y t h e c h i l d i n t h e same
manner a d o c t o r would s tu d y the S3?mptoms o f a s i c k p a t i e n t .
He a g r e e s w i t h o t h e r e d u c a t o r s t h a t each s c h o o l can have
i t s own c h i l d g u id a n c e group.
F en to n i s e n t h u s i a s t i c o v e r what i n C a l i f o r n i a i s c a l l e d
t h e C o - o r d in a t in g C o u n c il, an i n f o r m a l town m e e tin g which i s
t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e by means o f w hich the wholesome co n ­
c e r n w it h c h i l d w e l f a r e o f th e o r d in a r y w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d c i t i z e n
may be e x p r e s s e d i n s o c i a l p r a c t i c e f o r the grow th and d e v e lo p ­
ment o f y o u th .
The N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n l i s t s
th e f o l l o w i n g
a s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l m easu res m ost l i k e l y t o d i s s i p a t e d e lin q u e n c y
(1 ) E d u c a to r s sh o u ld h e lp en cou rage a d u l t e d u c a t io n ;
(2) edu­
c a t o r s sh o u ld p o o l t h e i r f o r c e s w ith w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s to p r e v e n t
c rim e;
(3) e d u c a t o r s can h e lp make s t a t i s t i c s o f j u v e n i l e d e ­
l i n q u e n t s more a c c u r a t e by s u p p ly in g a c c u r a t e data t o th e
j u v e n i l e c o u r t s and p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s ;
(4) e d u c a t o r s can h e l p
5 S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a . Departm ent o f I n s t i t u t i o n s , Bureau
o f J u v e n i l e Research^ r,An A n a l y s i s o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R e so u rc es
f o r t h e M en ta l H ygiene o f C h ild r e n and Y o u t h ,” Norman F en to n ,
d ir ec to r .
16
laymen i n t e r p r e t s t a t i s t i c s
p u b l i c o p i n io n ;
o f crim e;
(5) e d u c a t o r s must mold
(6 ) e d u c a t o r s can en cou rage e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f
g u id a n c e c l i n i c s where e x p e r t s may h e lp th e c h i l d ;
(7) edu­
c a t o r s must h e lp th e p u b l i c to s u b s t i t u t e so m e th in g more
s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t i v e f o r th e " g o s p e l o f g r e e d . " 6
F u r th e r s t u d i e s o f t h e c a u s e s and c o n t r o l o f d e l i n q u e n c y ,
Coleman7 made a s t u d y o f one hundred t w e n t y - f i v e d i s c i p l i n a r y
p u p i l s i n th e Hammond H igh S c h o o l, Hammond, I n d ia n a .
He-
examined a l l p u p i l s who were d e t a i n e d a f t e r s c h o o l f o r d i s ­
c i p l i n a r y o f f e n s e s a t l e a s t f o u r tim e s i n each o f th e two c o n ­
s e c u tiv e sem esters s tu d ie d .
He compared them w it h an e q u a l
number o f non -problem p u p i l s o f th e same s e x and g r a d e .
Coleman found t h a t a lt h o u g h t h e two g r o u p s were o f abou t
equal in te llig e n c e ,
p u p ils.
r e t a r d a t i o n was t w ic e as g r e a t among problem
He a l s o a s c e r t a i n e d t h a t two t h i r d s o f th e problem
p u p i l s were e i t h e r m e n t a l c a s e s or o u t o f sym pathy w it h th e
s c h o o l or a n t a g o n i s t i c toward i t .
T h is exp erim en t s u b s t a n t i a t e s th e t h e o r y t h a t i t i s
b e t t e r p o l i c y t o advance th e r e t a r d e d p u p i l s w i t h the norm al
p u p ils.
T h is i s t h e p o l i c y i n the Pasadena S c h o o l S ystem .
A
N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n R e se a rc h B u l l e t i n , Volume X, No. 4 ,
S eptem ber, 1 9 3 2 .
7 C. T. Coleman, "The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f D i s c i p l i n a r y
Erohem P u p i l s i n High S c h o o l ," S c h o o l R eview , 3 8 : 4 3 4 - 4 4 2 , June,
1930.
17
B u rt
o
examined one hundred t w e n t y - t h r e e boys and
s e v e n t y - f o u r g i r l s who came b e f o r e th e London County C o u n c il
i n 1914 and who were under o b s e r v a t i o n f o r from t h r e e to t e n
years.
The o f f e n d e r s were from e i g h t e e n t o s e v e n y e a r s o f
age f o r g i r l s
f o r g i r l s and e i g h t e e n t o f i v e f o r b o y s .
h a l f were b e tw e en th e a g e s o f t w e lv e and f i f t e e n y e a r s .
Over
These
were compared t o f o u r hundred n o n - d e l in q u e n t c h i l d r e n o f same
a g e , s o c i a l c l a s s , and l i v i n g i n t h e same e n v iro n m en t.
From h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , B urt c o n c lu d e s t h a t each c h i l d
is
th e p r o d u ct o f a p p r o x im a te ly e i g h t or n in e s u b v e r s iv e c i r ­
c u m s ta n c e s .
c ip lin e ,
He l i s t s
them as f o l l o w s :
(2 ) s p e c i f i c i n s t i n c t s ,
sta b ility ,
(5) a f a m i l y h i s ­
(6 ) i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s a b i l i t i e s
l a c k o f an y u p l i f t i n g p u r s u i t s
tu r e and c in e m a ) ,
(d u lln e s s),
(p r e c o c ity o f
(9) a f a m i l y h i s t o r y o f i n t e l l e c t u a l w e a k n e s s e s ,
(12) p oor e n v ir o n m e n t,
(7)
( d e t r i m e n t a l i n t e r e s t i n a d v en ­
(8) d e v e lo p m e n ta l c o n d i t i o n s
fa m ily h is t o r y o f in s a n it y ,
nesses,
(5 ) g e n e r a l e m o tio n a l i n ­
(4 ) morbid e m o t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s ,
t o r y o f c r im e ,
you th ),
(1 ) d e f e c t i v e d i s ­
(1 0)
(1 1) d e f e c t i v e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,
(1 3 ) f a m i l y h i s t o r y o f p h y s i c a l weak­
(1 4 ) p o v e r t y , and (1 5 ) p h y s i c a l w eakness i n c h i l d .
Burt b e l i e v e s t h a t we must f i g h t n o t symptoms but c a u s e s .
He recommends a program t h a t i n c l u d e s h o u s i n g , m e d ic a l t r e a t ­
m ent, e d u c a t i o n , f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n ,
® C y r i l B u r t, The Young D e lin q u e n t
and Company, 1 9 2 5 ) , p p . 5 1 7 -5 8 1 .
c a u t i o u s a d o p tio n
(New York: D. A p p le to n
18
o f e u g e n ic m easures and i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o a l l t h e p roblem s o f
c h i ld h o o d .
H ealy and B ronn er9 made a stu d y o f 4 ,0 0 0 r e p e a t e d
ju v e n ile o ffen d ers.
The i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l e d a v a r i e t y o f
i n f l u e n c e s a t work.
D e lin q u e n c y was due t o bad companions i n
s i x t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f th e f o u r thousand c a s e s s t u d i e d ;
a d o le sc e n t i n s t a b i l i t y in e ig h te e n per cent o f th e se c a se s;
e a r l y s e x e x p e r i e n c e s i n t w e lv e and a h a l f p e r c e n t o f the
c a s e s ; m e n ta l c o n f l i c t s i n s i x and a h a l f p e r c e n t o f th e
f o u r thousand e a s e s ; ex trem e s o c i a l s u g g e s t i b i l i t y in fo u r
p e r c e n t o f the c a s e s ; l o v e o f a d v e n tu re i n two and a h a l f p er
c e n t ; one p e r c e n t , m o tio n p i c t u r e s ; n in e p e r c e n t , d i s s a t i s ­
f a c t i o n a t s c h o o l ; poor r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s
c e n t o f the c a s e s ; s t r e e t l i f e
i n tw e n ty p er
i n f i f t e e n per c e n t ; h a b i t o f
d e lin q u e n c y i n s i x p e r c e n t; sudden im p u lse i n s e v e n p e r c e n t
o f th e c a s e s s t u d i e d .
H e a l 3^ and Bronner c o n te n d t h a t th e r e i s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n
th a t c r i m in a li s t i c ten d e n c ies are in h e r it e d .
Shaw^0 s t u d i e d d e lin q u e n c y from th e p o i n t o f vie?,? o f i t s
r e l a t i o n to the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n .
S i x t y thousand s c h o o l t r u a n t s ,
9 W illia m H ea ly and A ugusta F . B ronn er, D e lin q u e n t s and
C r im in a ls — T h e ir Making and Unmaking (New York*. The M acm illa n
Company; 1928J, PP. 1 7 9 - 1 8 2 .
C l i f f o r d Shaw, D e lin q u e n c y A reas
o f C hicago P r e s s , 1 9 2 9 ) .
(C h icago: . U n i v e r s i t y
19
j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s and a d u l t o f f e n d e r s were o b s e r v e d .
He found t h a t t h e r e a r e marked v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e r a t e
o f s c h o o l t r u a n c y i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s i n C h ic a g o .
He p o i n t s out
t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f d e lin q u e n c y i s i n t e r p r e t e d inmany ways.
C e r t a i n t y p e s o f d e lin q u e n c y , t o l e r a t e d i n some a r e a s , would
be condemned i n o t h e r s .
Shaw f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t th e r e i s an e x tr e m e ly h ig h
c o r r e l a t i o n b etw e en j u v e n i l e c o u r t r e c o r d s and p o l i c e r e c o r d s .
T h is i s t r u e i n s p i t e o f th e f a c t t h a t i n low d e lin q u e n c y a r e a s
p a r e n t s a r e o f t e n a b le t o "buy o f f " th e a u t h o r i t i e s , and i n
h i g h d e lin q u e n c y a r e a s p a r e n t s may u s e p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e t o
c o e r c e a u t h o r i t i e s to u s e l e n i e n c y .
I t i s o b se r v e d a l s o by Shaw t h a t t h e r e a r e more p o l i c e
i n some a r e a s than i n o t h e r s and a s a r e s u l t crim e i s b e t t e r
c o n tro lled in c e r ta in d i s t r i c t s
than i n o t h e r s .
I n g e n e r a l , Shaw found th e n e a r e r to th e c e n t e r o f th e
c ity ,
t h e h ig h e r th e r a t e o f d e lin q u e n c y and c r im e .
D e lin q u e n c y
p a t t e r n s a r e t r a n s m i t t e d s o c i a l l y j u s t a s o t h e r c u l t u r a l and
s o c i a l p a ttern s are tr a n sm itte d .
In tim e t h e s e d e lin q u e n t
p a t t e r n s become dominant and s h a p e . t h e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v io r
o f persons l i v i n g in th e a r e a .
Slaw son,^-! a f t e r making many e x p e r im e n ts on d e l i n q u e n t s ,
^ John S la w so n , The D e lin q u e n t Boy
Gorham P r e s s , 1 9 S 6 ).
(B o sto n : The
20
s t a t e s t h a t abnorm al m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s a r e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d
w i t h d e lin q u e n c y .
He c la im s t h a t t h e r e i s a p rep o n d era n ce o f i n f e r i o r
p a t e r n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s among d e l i n q u e n t b o y s .
He f u r t h e r
c la im s t h a t t h e s i z e o f the f a m i l y o f t h e d e l in q u e n t i s
s l i g h t l y i n e x c e s s o f th e s i z e o f th e f a m i l y o f th e n o n - d e ­
lin q u e n t.
The f i n d i n g s o f S law son r e v e a l t h a t i n v e r b a l a b s t r a c t
i n t e l l i g e n c e d e l in q u e n t b o y s are i n f e r i o r t o n o n - d e lin q u e n t
c h ild r e n .
I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , S law son em p h a siz e s t h a t d e ­
l i n q u e n t s may have b een form ed i n s c h o o l as a r e s u l t o f an
a tte m p t t o im part b o o k is h kn ow led ge t o i n t e l l i g e n c e s u n s u i t e d
fo r th e task .
P h y sic a lly ,
in w eig h t,
th e d e l in q u e n t i s on a par w it h
the n o n - d e l i n q u e n t , b u t i n h e i g h t i s * s h o r t e r .
In c l o s i n g , Shaw s t a t e s t h a t th e s o c i a l s t a t u s e x e r t s
a p o w e r f u l e f f e c t upon i n t e l l i g e n c e .
L im ita tio n s o f p r e v io u s s t u d i e s .
Human b e h a v io r i s su ch
t h a t an i n v e s t i g a t o r who a t t e m p t s t o t e s t p e r s o n a l i t y , must e x ­
p e c t some u n r e l i a b i l i t y and a lo w e r c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n
th a n i s found i n t e s t i n g a b i l i t y .
The f o l l o w i n g a r e the m ajor l i m i t a t i o n s found i n t h e s e
in v e s t ig a t io n s in r e l a t io n to p e r s o n a lity t e s t s ;
d i f f e r e n c e s d e c r e a s e th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f a t e s t ;
( l) in d iv id u a l
(2 ) l a c k o f
21
r e a d in g a b i l i t y may change th e m eaning o f th e t e s t ;
m e n t a l i t y h i n d e r s com p rehension;
(5) low
(4) e n v ir o n m e n ta l i n f l u e n c e s
change th e whole c o m p le x io n o f th e s t u d y ;
tu r b a n c e s change i t ,
.
(5 ) p h y s i c a l d i s ­
such a s poor e y e s i g h t or n e r v o u s n e s s ;
(6 ) e m o tio n a l d i s t u r b a n c e s .
A n other f a c t o r i n v o l v e d i s th e l o c a t i o n o f th e i n v e s t i ­
g a tio n .
What i s
c a l l e d d e lin q u e n c y i n one l o c a l i t y i s a c c e p t e d
s o c i a l c o n d u ct i n a n o t h e r p a r t o f the U n it e d S t a t e s .
c o n d itio n p r e v a ils in s c h o o ls.
The same
Some t e a c h e r s a c c e p t condu ct
th a t o th er tea ch ers c o n sid er u n d e sir a b le .
have d i f f e r e n t s ta n d a r d s o f c o n d u c t.
judged a c c o r d in g t o h i s e n l ig h t e n m e n t .
D iffe r e n t races
The Uegro s h o u ld be
CHAPTER I I I
SOURCES OF DATA AND METHODS OF PROCEDURE
I.
SOURCES OF DATA
The d a ta c o n ta in e d in t h i s s tu d y w ere s e c u r e d from
v a r io u s s o u r c e s .
The f o l l o w i n g a g e n c ie s were c o n s u lte d :
t h e D eputy S u p e r in te n d e n t o f S c h o o ls in P a sa d en a ,
(1 )
(2) th e
P r i n c ip a l o f M cK inley J u n io r H igh S c h o o l,
(3) th e A s s i s t a n t
P r i n c ip a l o f M cK inley J u n io r H igh S c h o o ,
(4) th e G i r l s ’ Coun­
s e l o r a t M cK inley J u n io r H igh S c h o o l,
(5) th e G uidance D ep a rt­
ment o f th e P asad en a Board o f E d u c a tio n ,
(6) t h e C h ild W elfa re
Departm ent o f t h e P asadena Board o f E d u c a tio n ,
(7) t e a c h e r s o f
.th e g i r l s c o n s id e r e d in t h i s s t u d y , p a r t i c u l a r l y th e Homeroom
te a c h e r .,
(8) t h e p a r e n t s , and (9) t h e g i r l s t h e m s e lv e s .
Due t o t h e c o - o p e r a t io n o f t h e s e v a r io u s a g e n c ie s d u r in g
t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 , many f a c t o r s w ere
r e v e a le d t h a t d i s c l o s e d r e a s o n s f o r t h e g r e a t e r d e lin q u e n c y a t
M cK inley J u n io r H igh S c h o o l and s u g g e s t e d how i t m ig h t be
r em ed ied .
I t was th e o p in io n o f t h o s e in t e r v ie w e d b e fo r e t h i s i n ­
v e s t i g a t i o n was u n d erta k en t h a t i t sh o u ld have as i t s aim th e
b e tte r m e n t o f M cK inley J u n io r H igh S c h o o l, t h e d is c o v e r y o f th e
f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w ith th e g r a d u a l in c r e a s e o f d e lin q u e n c y
among g i r l s a t M cK inley J u n io r H igh S c h o o l, and t h e means by
25
w h ich i t c o u ld be m in im iz e d .
The C h ild W elfa re D epartm ent o f t h e P asadena S c h o o l
S ystem su b m itte d t h e d a ta c o n ta in e d in th e s u r v e y o f C h ild
D e lin q u e n c y in P asadena from 1 9 5 0 -1 9 3 9 , a s i s shown in T a b le I .
In t e n y e a r s th e r e was an i n c r e a s e o f 1274 c a s e s o f d e lin q u e n c y .
S im u lt a n e o u s ly , th e en ro lm en t i n th e s c h o o ls sh ow ed.an in c r e a s e
o f 4436.
T ab le I I show s t h e age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i r t y - t w o d e­
lin q u e n t g i r l s f o r th e y e a r 1 9 3 9 .
These g i r l s a l l have c o u r t
r e c o r d s and a r e , o f c o u r s e , more extrem e c a s e s th a n m ost o f
t h o s e s t u d ie d a t M cK inley S c h o o l.
I t i s , h ow ever, i n t e r e s t i n g
t o com pare T a b le I I w ith T a b le I I I and n o te t h a t th e a v e r a g e
age o f th e M cK inley g i r l s i s one y e a r under t h a t o f t h e t h i r t y two who h ave c o u r t r e c o r d s .
I t may b e s u g g e s te d from t h i s com­
p a r is o n t h a t th e g i r l s b e g in t o be d e lin q u e n t b etw een t h e a g e s
o f f o u r t e e n and f i f t e e n and u n l e s s p r e v e n te d , c o n t in u e u n t i l
t h e y become p o s s i b l e c o u r t c a s e s w it h in th e n e x t few y e a r s .
Comparing in l i k e manner T ab le IV w ith T ab le V, i t
is
n o te d t h a t - t h e r e i s t h e same g ra d e d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r t h e t h i r t y two c o u r t c a s e s a s f o r t h e tw e n ty g i r l s
s t u d ie d a t M cK in ley.
Our e d u c a t io n a l p r o c e d u r e s in t h e n in t h and t e n t h g r a d e s sh o u ld
in c o r p o r a t e m a t e r ia l t h a t f i t s
th e n e e d s o f t h e g i r l s a t t h i s
t im e .
T a b le s VT and V II show t h a t th e c o u r t c a s e s and t h e
M cK inley c a s e s r e v e a l t h e same p a t t e r n in t h e manner o f o f f e n s e s ,
TABLE I
SURVEY OF WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF PASADENA SCHOOL SYSTEM
OF CHILD DELINQUENCY FROM
1930 - 1939
Findings
1930
1932
.
.
IP 34
...
.....JLS&5... - . . . l a
s s ...
___19.3.7. —
Minors on street
279
235
172
134
161
214
127
334
303
269
Court oases
363
409
365
338
250
130
116
149
197
201
Delinquent
234
298
306
229
216
248
236
324
404
514
Placed in insti­
tutions
163
185
159
112
119
89
64
99
120
116
Placed in special
attention class
77
115
138
119
103
41
0
0
0
0
Warning notices
served
70
36
31
21
23
30
37
28
45
41
Police calls
211
223
215
182
231
253
240
238
314
427
Truants
314
283
258
271
296
302
268
331
375
346
Working permits
756
742
719
548
418
304
456
550
390
446
Home visits
1,541
1 ,9 9 8
2,263
2,399
2,838
3,311
3,219
3 ,267
3 ,7 9 6
3,347
School visits
3,270
3,441
3,001
2,923
3,002
2,950
2,720
3,058
3,141
2,843
11,021
20,S54
11,459
22,209
11,496
22,945
10,312
23,631
10,845
23^631
10,465
22,843
10,007
22,880
11,652
23,717
12,485
25,472
12,295
25,290
Total oases
Total enrolment
25
-TABLE IX
AGE DISSBIBUSIOH OF SHIRSY-SWO DE1IHQUMS GIB1S Ilf
PASADMA FOB SHE YEAR 1939
Age
Humber o f g i r l s
Sen y e a r s o f age
1
T h ir t e e n y e a r s o f age
1
F o u r te e n y e a r s o f age
7
F i f t e e n y e a r s o f age
7
S ix t e e n y e a r s o f age
8
S e v e n te e n y e a r s o f age
7
E ig h te e n y e a r s o f age
1
T o ta l
sic
32
HOSE: S h i s t a b l e i s d e t a i l e d in fo r m a tio n from r e p o r t
o f P a sad en a S c h o o l S ystem C h ild W elfa re D ep artm en t.
*She median age f o r t h e t h ir t y - t w o d e lin q u e n t g i r l s in
P a sa d en a f a l l s b etw een f i f t e e n and s i x t e e n .
26
TABLE I I I
AGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE TWENTY DELINQUENT GIRLS
CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY
Age
Number o f g i r l s
T w elve y e a r s o f age
3
T h ir t e e n y e a r s o f age
3
f o u r t e e n y e a r s o f age
F i f t e e n y e a r s o f ag e
4 ^
*
6
S i x t e e n y e a r s o f age
3
S e v e n te e n y e a r s o f age
1
T o ta l
20
ROTE: T h is t a b l e shows t h a t t h e m a jo r it y o f th e
o f f e n s e s w ere com m itted by c h i ld r e n r a n g in g in a g e from
t w e lv e t o s i x t e e n .
*The m edian age f o r j u v e n ile d e lin q u e n c y f a l l s b etw een
f o u r t e e n and f i f t e e n .
27
' TABLE IV
GRADE DISTRIBUTION OF THIRTY-TWO DELINQUENT GIRLS IB
PASADENA FOE THE YEAR 1939
Grade
Humber o f g i r l s
F i f t h grad e
1
S e v e n th g ra d e
2
E ig h th g ra d e
8
N in th g r a d e
T e n th grad e
5 *
4
E le v e n th grad e
3
T w e lf th grad e
8
T h ir t e e n t h grad e
1
NOTE: T h is t a b l e i s d e t a i l e d in fo r m a tio n from r e p o r t
o f P a sa d en a S c h o o l S ystem C h ild W elfa re Departm ent*
*The m edian f o r t h e grad e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e t h i r t y two d e lin q u e n t g i r l s i n P asad en a f a l l s b etw een t h e n in t h and
te n th g rad es.
28
'TABUS V
SHADE DISTRIBUTION OE THE TWENTY DELINQUENT GIRLS
CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY
Grade
Number o f g i r l s
S e v e n th g ra d e
4
E ig h th g r a d e
2
N in th grad e
4 *
T e n th grad e
10
T o ta l
20
NOTE: The m edian f o r grad e d i s t r i b u t i o n f a l l s b etw een
t h e n in t h and t e n t h g r a d e s . T h is w ould le a d on e t o b e l i e v e
t h a t t h e p r e v e n tiv e work f o r d e lin q u e n t g i r l s sh o u ld b e g in a t
o r b e f o r e th e s e v e n t h g r a d e . Much c r i t i c i s m i s e x p r e s s e d by
le a d in g p s y c h o l o g i s t s b e c a u s e p r e v e n t iv e work i s n o t begun
u n t i l th e crim e h a s b een com m itted .
29
! TABLE VI
OFFENSE DISTRIBUTION OP THIRTY-TWO DELINQUENT GIRLS IN
PASADENA FOR THE YEAR 1939
O ffe n s e
Grand t h e f t
M orals and s e x
Number o f g i r l s
1
26
T ruant
1
I n c o r r ig ib le
4
T o ta l
32
NOTE: T h is t a b l e i s d e t a i l e d in f o r m a tio n from r e p o r t
o f P asad en a S o h o o l S ystem O h ild W elfare D ep artm en t.
30
TABLE V II
NATURE OS' 0EEENS1S COMMITTED BY THE TWENTY DELINQUENT
GIRLS CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY
N a tu re o f
o ffe n se s
Number o f g i r l s
S te a lin g
4
Sex o ffe n s e s
9
Tantrum s
2
Mayhem
1
R e l i g i o u s f a n a t ic is m
2
O f f e n s e s c a u se d by lo w m e n t a lit y
2
T o ta l
SO
31
th e m a jo r ity b e in g m o ra ls and s e x o f f e n s e s .
The r a c e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e t h i r t y - t w o d e lin q u e n t
c o u r t c a s e s in P asad en a f o r t h e y e a r 1 9 3 9 , a c c o r d in g t o
T ab le V I I I , shows th e W hite Race a s t h e m ost fr e q u e n t o f f e n d e r .
T a b le IX p o in t s o u t t h a t t h i s h o ld s t r u e a t M cK inley J u n io r
H igh S c h o o l.
T h is t a b l e shows t h a t t h i r t e e n o f th e tw e n ty
o f f e n d e r s a r e W h ite.
In s tu d y in g T ab le X, w hich show s t h e p e r ­
c e n ta g e o f W hite, M exican , N eg ro , and J a p a n e se t h a t a r e a t t e n d ­
in g M cK inley S c h o o l, i t w i l l b e n o te d t h a t a p p r o x im a te ly f o u r
f i f t h s o f th e c h ild r e n are W h ite .
T h is d e te r m in e s th e f a c t
t h a t t h e p e r c e n ta g e o f W hite d e lin q u e n t s i s n o t h ig h i n p r o ­
p o r t io n t o th e e n r o lm e n t, b u t in f a c t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e h ig h e r
d e lin q u e n c y p e r c e n ta g e f a l l s among t h e N egro and M exican R a c e s.
G ir ls * o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
I t was foun d t h a t g i r l s who are
m ost o f t e n d e lin q u e n t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w it h o th e r d e lin q u e n t g i r l s
and t h a t g i r l s , a s i s th e c a s e w ith b o y s , t r a v e l in g a n g s .
A cco rd in g t o th e d a ta , g i r l s seld om p erform o f f e n s e s by them­
s e lv e s .
T ab le XI w ould i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e g i r l s h ave to o l i t t l e
c o n t a c t w ith w orth y o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
P o l i c e and p r o b a tio n o f f i c e r e c o r d s .
There w as a de­
c id e d d i s i n c l i n a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e p o l i c e t o g i v e i n f o r ­
m a tio n c o n c e r n in g o f f e n d e r s .
p o lic e r e c o r d s.
Very few o f t h e s e g i r l s had
Three s e r i o u s c a s e s w ere c i t e d b u t s in c e th e y
l e f t M cK inley J u n io r H igh S c h o o l p r io r t o th e a c t u a l d e lin q u e n c y ,
5£
>TABLE V III
RAGE DISTRIBUTION OR THIRTY-TWO DELINQUENT GIRDS IN
PASADENA ROE THE YEAR 1939
Race
W hite r a c e
Number o f g i r l s
28
M exican r a c e
3
J a p a n ese r a c e
1
T o ta l
32
NOTE: T h is t a b l e i s d e t a i l e d in fo r m a tio n from r e p o r t
o f t h e P a sa d en a S c h o o l S ystem O h ild W elfare D ep artm en t.
T a b le s 2 , 4 , 6 and 8 show s t a t i s t i c a l in fo r m a tio n
r e g a r d in g t h e t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e 1 1 ,0 9 5 g i r l s e n r o l l e d i n
P a sa d en a d u rin g t h e y e a r 1 9 3 9 .
33
TABLE IX
RACIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE TWEETY -DELINQUENT GIRLS
CONSIDERED IE THIS STUDY
Raoe
W hite
Number o f g i r l s
13
M exican
2
Negro
5
T o ta l
20
34
TABLE X
PERCENTAGES Of RACIAL DISTBIBUTIQN AT MCKINLEY
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL PQB THE YEAHS 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9
B aee
1938
1939
W hite
8 0 .6
79
N egro
4 .1
5
M exican
9 .9
11
J a p a n ese
5 .4
5
35
. TABLE XI
ORGANIZATION MEMBERSHIP OF THE TWENT* DELINQUENT GIRLS
CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY
C lubs
Number o f g i r l s
Camp F ir e
1
Churoh Club (G o sp e l T a b e r n a c le )
1
S e t t le m e n t House Club
2
C h oir o f Y outh
1
G ir l Guards ( S a l v a t i o n Army)
1
L .T .L . (C o lo r e d Club)
1
None
13
T o ta l
20
NOTE: T h is t a b l e shows t h a t more th a n o n e - h a l f t h e
g i r l s i n t h i s group have no olu b a f f i l i a t i o n .
56
th e y were n o t c o n s id e r e d i n t h i s s tu d y ,
t h i s ty p e o f r e c o r d .
T ab le X II i n d i c a t e s
S in c e t h i s c h a r t was made, t h r e e more o f
t h e g i r l s s t u d ie d have b een added t o th e p o l i c e r e c o r d s .
In th e w in t e r s c h o o l m onths o f 1 9 3 8 , s t e a l i n g was
p r e v a le n t a t M cK inley J u n io r H igh S c h o o l.
I t was f i n a l l y
d e ter m in e d t h a t c e r t a i n g i r l s w ere h ir e d by a man l i v i n g in a
n ea rb y town who a c te d a s t h e i r f e n c e .
The rem oval o f th e le a d e r
o f t h e gang from th e s c h o o l b rok e up t h i s a c t i v i t y .
The C h ild W elfa re D epartm ent recommended t h a t i f any
c o n t a c t w ere t o be made w ith th e P o l i c e D epartm ent, i t sh o u ld be
made th ro u g h th e Board o f E d u c a tio n , a s t h e r e c o r d s a r e co n ­
f i d e n t i a l and c lo s e d to i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
P a r e n ts a r e a s s u r e d o f
th e c o n f i d e n t i a l c h a r a c te r o f th e r e c o r d s o f t h e i r c h ild r e n
and i t i s th e w r i t e r ' s o p in io n t h a t t h i s c o n fid e n c e sh o u ld be
r e sp e c te d .
School r e c o r d s.
Much in fo r m a tio n was o b ta in e d from t h e
s c h o o l r e c o r d s r e g a r d in g a g e , s c h o l a s t i c r e c o r d , r a t in g in
m e n ta l t e s t s ,
deportm en t in s c h o o l , h e a l t h , home c o n d i t i o n s ,
o c c u p a tio n o f f a t h e r , number in th e f a m i ly , th e i n t e r e s t s o f
th e s t u d e n t , s t u d e n t ' s r e c o r d p r e v io u s t o com ing t o M cK inley
J u n io r H igh S c h o o l and h e r a m b itio n s on l e a v in g M cK inley J u n io r
H igh S c h o o P r
T ab le X I II g i v e s th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f th e in ­
t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s o f t h e tw e n ty d e lin q u e n t . g i r l s c o n s id e r e d
in t h i s s t u d y .
T hese v a lu a b le d a ta c o n c e r n in g th e p u p il w ere
37
• TABLE X II
PREVIOUS POLICE OR PROBATION OFFICE RECORDS OF THE
TWENTY DELINQUENT GIRLS CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY
Type o f
reo o r d
Number o f g i r l s
No p o l i c e or p r o b a tio n r eo o r d
8
R ecord in p r o b a tio n o f f i c e
9
R ecord in p o l i c e c o u r t
3
T o ta l
20
38
' I1ABLE X I I I
DISTRIBUTION OF THE INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS Of THE
TWENTY DELINQUENT GIRLS CONSIDERED
IN THIS STUDY
I n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t ie n t s
Below 70 ( f e e b l e m inded)
Number o f g i r l s
1
7 0 -8 0
8 0 -9 0
( b ord er l i n e )
3
(d u ll)
7
9 0 -1 1 0
( n o rm a l)
8
1 1 0 -1 8 0
( s u p e r io r )
1
1 2 0 -1 4 0
( v e r y s u p e r io r )
0
T o ta l
20
NOTE: A stu d y o f t h i s t a b l e seem s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t
t h e d e g r e e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e h as a s l i g h t c o r r e l a t i o n t o th e
m a tte r o f d e lin q u e n c y s i n c e t h e m edian i s a t " d u l l . ”
59
w ere o b ta in e d from th e s c h o o l r e c o r d s .
II.
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
The names o f f i f t y - t h r e e g i r l s w ere o b ta in e d from t h e
sch o o l r e c o r d s.
T hese g i r l s , d u rin g t h e i r l i f e
a t M cK inley
J u n io r H igh S c h o o l, w ere n o n - c o n fo r m is ts t o t h e a c c e p te d s o c i a l
life
o f th e s c h o o l .
T h is l i s t was th e n in s p e c t e d by t h e G i r l s ’
C o u n selo r and th e G i r l s ’ V ic e P r i n c i p a l , t h e A tte n d a n c e O ffic e r ,
two s c h o o l s e c r e t a r i e s , and fo u r t e e n t e a c h e r s .
s u b t r a c te d names from th e l i s t .
They added o r
The f i n a l l i s t was red u ced t o
tw e n ty g i r l s , who w ere th o u g h t by th e m a j o r it y to be th e b e s t
s u b j e c t s f o r th e stu d y o f d e lin q u e n c y .
T h is l i s t o f tw e n ty g i r l s was p r e s e n te d to t h e p s y c h o lo ­
g i s t o f th e G uidance D epartm ent o f th e Board o f E d u c a tio n in
P a sa d e n a .
W hile n e c e s s a r i l y r e t i c e n t abou t th e r e c o r d s , sh e
ga v e much v a lu a b le m a t e r ia l on th e t e s t i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l s .
The D ir e c t o r o f G uidance gave much h e l p f u l a d v ic e .
The
A tten d a n ce S u p e r v is o r ’ s A s s i s t a n t o f th e C h ild W elfa re D ep art­
ment o f t h e Board o f E d u c a tio n in P asadena p r o v id e d in fo r m a tio n
w h ic h , w h ile n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y r e v e a l i n g , was h e l p f u l in l o c a t i n g
th e d e lin q u e n t a r e a s i n P a sa d e n a .
The p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , and
th e p u p i l s th e m s e lv e s g a v e th e rem ain d er o f th e m a t e r ia l
g a th e r e d .
The c o n c lu s io n s w ere b a sed on th e c o n se n s u s o f t h i s
m a te r ia l.
Case h i s t o r y d a t a .
The d a ta f o r t h e c a s e h i s t o r i e s o f
40
th e tw e n ty d e lin q u e n t g i r l s c o n s id e r e d in t h i s stu d y was
g a th e r e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g m anner.
The C a l i f o r n ia T e s t o f P e r s o n a li t y was g iv e n .
The m ajor
p u rp o se o f t h i s t e s t i s t o r e v e a l th e e x t e n t to w h ic h t h e p u p il
i s a d j u s t in g to t h e problem w hich c o n f r o n ts h e r .
I t m ea su res
f a c t o r s t h a t a r e d i f f i c u l t t o d ia g n o s e in g e n e r a l ly u se d a c h ie v e ­
m ent t e s t s .
T h is t e s t i s d e s ig n e d t o m easure t h e e x t e n t t o
w h ich t h e s tu d e n t i s d e v e lo p in g a n orm al, happy, and s o c i a l l y
e f f e c t iv e p e r s o n a lity .
The t e s t c o n s i s t s o f tw o s e c t i o n s .
th e s t u d e n t ’ s s e l f a d ju s tm e n t.
S e c t io n I d e a ls w ith
I s t h e s tu d e n t s e l f - r e l i a n t ?
?/hat i s h e r e s t im a t e o f h e r own p e r s o n a l w orth ?
h e r freed om i s i n t e r f e r e d w ith ?
D oes sh e f e e l
Does sh e b e lo n g t o t h e group?
I s sh e f r e e from n e r v o u s symptoms?
T hese a re some o f t h e
q u e s t io n s sh e m ust a sk h e r s e l f t o a s c e r t a i n th e s t a t u s o f h er
a d ju stm e n t.
S e c t i o n I I d e a ls more w it h t h e a d ju stm e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t
t o h e r e n v iro n m en t.
I t s p u rp ose i s t o show how a p u p il ftin c -
t i o n s a s a s o c i a l b e in g .
Does a s tu d e n t h ave a kn ow led ge o f
th e s o c i a l sta n d a r d s and d o es sh e u s e t h i s know ledge?
D oes sh e
e n jo y th e s o c i e t y o f o t h e r s a t home, in s c h o o l, and in th e
community a t la r g e ?
The sam ple cop y o f th e C a l i f o r n ia T e st o f P e r s o n a l i t y
g i v e s a p r o f i l e o f one o f th e g i r l s t e s t e d f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a ­
tio n .
I t shows t h a t M. G-. d o es n o t f e e l h e r s e l f a p a r t o f th e
41
CALIFORNIA TEST OF PERSONALITY
J
Name
M
> /
................ ........................... ..............................Grade —/±.
Teacher................ i............................................
Possible Pupil’s
Score Score
CO M P O N E N T S
1. Self A djustm ent
A. Self-reliance
r. . .Z. . .7/
A g e ' . . L a s t Birthday. Cf/,s.
School.
. . .
Percentile
Rank
. 72
. . . .
A
1?
7
1
.
12
7
C. Sense of Personal Freedom
.
12
n
D. Feeling of Belonging_.
.
12
E. Withdrawing Tendencies
.
1 2 / ^
.
12
PERCENTILE
20
s r
h £ ~
B. Sense of Personal Worth
/ .S e x : Boy-Girl
Date
(C hart pupil’s percentile rank here)/
30
40
50
60
70 "
80
90
99
\
i
J U
f
T \
j/ .
(freedom from)
F. Nervous Symptoms
.
.
//
,
(Freedom from)
72
2. Social A djustm ent
A. Social Standards
. .
17
C. Anti-social Tendencies
1?
(Freedom from)
D. Family Relations
. .
12
E. School Relations
.
.
12
F. Community Relations .
12
TOTAL ADJUSTMENT .
sg
12
B. Social Skills . . . .
144
P~\
7 *
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
99
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
99
i-
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42
g ro u p , t h a t sh e u n d e r sta n d s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r s o c i a l sta n d a r d s
h u t d o e s n o t s u b o r d in a te h e r s e l f i n f a v o r o f t h e i n t e r e s t s o f
her fr ie n d s .
M. G. d o es n o t f e e l a d ju s te d t o t h e s c h o o l , i s unhappy
abou t h e r s c h o o l w ork, and f e e l s t h a t th e t e a c h e r s and s t u ­
d e n ts d i s l i k e h e r .
As a w h o le t h e p r o f i l e s u g g e s t s a f e e l i n g o f i n s e c u r i t y
t h a t may le a d t o s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s .
B e fo r e g iv in g th e P e r s o n a li t y T e s t , th e i n v e s t i g a t o r
made an e f f o r t t o m eet th e g i r l s who w ere t o b e t e s t e d , d u rin g
t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n p e r io d .
In g rou p s o f two or t h r e e ,
th e y w ere q u e s tio n e d in f o r m a lly u n t i l a common b a s i s o f u n d er­
s ta n d in g was e s t a b l i s h e d .
The f a c t t h a t t h e s e t e s t s w ere g iv e n in s m a ll g r o u p s
and c o r r e c t e d by th e s t u d e n ts th e m s e lv e s gave t h e g i r l s an
o p p o r tu n ity to d is c o v e r t h e i r w e a k n e sse s and t h e i r s tr o n g
p o in ts .
The E n g lis h t e a c h e r s g a v e t h e i r c l a s s e s a u to b io g r a p h ie s
to w r ite .
E x c e r p ts from t h e s e l i f e
s t o r i e s w ere added t o th e
c a s e h i s t o r i e s when i t was c o n s id e r e d t h a t th e m a t e r ia l was
im p o r ta n t or r e v e a l i n g .
The g i r l s seem ed t o b e i n t e r e s t e d in t h e i r f i n d i n g s and
f r e e l y v i s i t e d th e o f f i c e t o t a l k o v e r th e r e s u l t s o f t h e P e r ­
s o n a lity T e st.
D uring t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s , the g i r l s answ ered
w ith o u t r e se n tm e n t such q u e s t io n s a s th e f o l lo w in g :
43
1 . What i n t e r e s t s do you have o u t s id e o f s c h o o l?
2 . What i s y o u r a m b itio n ?
3 . Do you h ave tim e f o r many m o v ies?
4 . Do you a tte n d m o v ies fr e q u e n t ly ?
5 . Do you h ave much sp e n d in g money?
6 . Do you have money f o r lu n ch ?
7 . Does money f o r lu n c h come o u t o f y o u r a llo w a n c e ?
8 . Have you p la n n ed you r c a r e e r ?
9 . What do you do im m ed ia te ly f o l lo w in g s c h o o l h ou rs?
The n e x t s t e p was t o v i s i t th e hom es, c o n s u l t w ith th e
p a r e n t s , and t o a c q u ir e
a s much in fo r m a tio n a s p o s s i b l e c o n ­
c e r n in g t h e i r c h i l d r e n .
The w r it e r v i s i t e d th e homes w ith
some
f e e l i n g o f t r e p i d a t i o n , b u t a s h a s been s t a t e d b e f o r e , found
t h e home v i s i t th e m ost p o w e r fu l means o f a c h ie v in g th e end
s o u g h t.
The v a lu e o f t h e home v i s i t in m a in ta in in g a common
b a s i s o f i n t e r e s t i n th e c h i l d c a n n o t be em p h asized en ou gh .
The g i r l s
w ere ch eck ed from tim e t o tim e a s t o t h e i r b e­
h a v io r and a bond o f sym pathy was m a in ta in e d when p o s s i b l e .
As
was s u g g e s te d by
t h e P r i n c i p a l o f M cK inley J u n io r H igh S c h o o l,
th e in v e s t ig a t o r
h a s a tte m p te d t o c o l l e c t ite m s o f i n t e r e s t
and
im p o rtan ce w hich sh o u ld be o f b e n e f i t t o M cK inley t e a c h e r s a s
w e l l a s to th e p u p i l s .
The. C h ild W elfa re D epartm ent in P asad en a fu r n is h e d
v a lu a b le in fo r m a tio n a s t o t h e g e o g r a p h ic a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
d e lin q u e n c y in t h a t c i t y .
In 1 9 3 2 , D ah l1 in a su r v e y foun d t h a t th e g r e a t e s t con­
c e n t r a t i o n o f d e lin q u e n c y in P asadena a t - t h a t tim e was w i t h i n
a f i v e m ile r a d iu s o f t h e c i v i c c e n t e r .
He s u g g e s te d a more
co m p reh en siv e r e c r e a t i o n a l program a s a rem edy.
At p r e s e n t
th e c e n t e r s o f d e lin q u e n c y a r e n o t l o c a t e d i n t h i s a r e a .
M exican d e lin q u e n c y i s in t h e S o u th e a s t p a r t o f t h e c i t y ;
c o lo r e d s e c t i o n , in th e N o r t h e a s t .
th e
Up t o t h i s y e a r t h e r e h a s
heen a s c a t t e r i n g o f W hite d e lin q u e n t s th ro u g h o u t th e c i t y , hu t
r e c e n t l y th e new a r e a h a s b e e n l o c a t e d a t A lle n S t r e e t and
C o lo ra d o B o u le v a r d , i n t h e E a s te r n s e c t i o n .
In t h e y e a r 1 9 3 9 -
1940 su r v e y c a r r ie d on by th e W elfa re D ep artm en t, t h i s i s v e r y
c l e a r l y shown by m aps.
I t a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t th e M exican
d e lin q u e n c y a r e a s a r e b e in g d e c r e a s e d v e r y d e f i n i t e l y by t h e
work o f th e S e t tle m e n t House l o c a t e d a t F a ir Oaks and Glenarm
S tr e e ts,
and t h a t th e G a r f ie ld S c h o o l h a s a l s o b e e n a f a c t o r .
The su r v e y o f 1939 a l s o in d ic a t e d t h a t M exican d e lin q u e n c y in
P asadena had d e c r e a s e d two p er c e n t ; c o lo r e d d e lin q u e n c y ,
t h r e e p er c e n t ; and W hite d e lin q u e n c y , w ith an in c r e a s e o f
one p e r c e n t .
Maps I and I I show th e s h i f t o f d e lin q u e n c y a r e a s
in P asad en a f o r th e y e a r s 1938 and 1 9 3 9 .
The W elfa re D epartm ent in t e n d s t o c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r
1 V. D. D a h l, " G eo g ra p h ica l C o n c e n tr a tio n o f D e lin q u e n c y
in Los A n g e le s C o u n ty ,” (u n p u b lish e d M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i­
v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 2 ) ,
p . 57.
45
e f f o r t s in 1940 on th e C o lo red s e c t i o n i n t h e S o u th w est p a r t
o f tow n.
M cK inley J u n io r H igh S c h o o l i s s i t u a t e d in t h e c e n t e r
o f t h e s e a r e a s and draws i t s p u p ils from a l l t h r e e l o c a l i t i e s .
I t w ould seem t h a t M c K in le y 's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . a r e in c r e a s e d
t h r e e - f o l d s in c e i t m ust s a t i s f y th e n e e d s o f a l l t h r e e s e c t i o n s
or c o n t r ib u t e t o f u r t h e r d e lin q u e n c y in P a sa d e n a .
CHAPTER IT
TWENTY CASE HISTORIES
The tw e n ty g i r l s e h o se n f o r t h i s s tu d y were o f t h r e e
r a c e s — th e W hite, th e N e g ro , and th e M exican .
T h ese s t u d e n t s
were c h o se n b e c a u se th e y d id n o t conform t o th e s ta n d a r d s
M cK inley J u n io r H igh th o u g h t n e c e s s a r y f o r good c i t i z e n s h i p .
I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t u n l e s s ch eck ed t h e s e g i r l s m ig h t p r o v e an
a c t u a l menace to t h e i r com p an ion s.
The f a m i l i e s r e p r e s e n te d w ere f o r th e m ost p a r t p oor
b u t w ere n o t s u f f e r i n g from a c t u a l w a n t.
D e lin q u en cy was m ost
p r e v a le n t i n homes where b o th p a r e n ts w orked.
The c h i ld r e n
w ere l e f t t o t h e i r own d e v ic e s and had no s u p e r v i s i o n from
s c h o o l c l o s i n g tim e a t th r e e o ’ c lo c k i n th e a fte r n o o n u n t i l th e
p a r e n ts a r r iv e d home from w ork.
The homes were d is o r g a n iz e d
and th e p a r e n ts seem ed to o t i r e d t o c a r e .
M ost o f th e s e g i r l s w ere m e n t a lly d u l l and were h a v in g
d i f f i c u l t y i n r e a d in g .
E m o tio n a lly , t h e y were e x c i t a b l e ,
i r r e s p o n s i b l e , q u a rr e lso m e, and d i s o b e d i e n t .
w ith norm al g i r l s ,
In com p ariso n
th e y were c a r e l e s s , u n t id y , unhappy, d e ­
c e i t f u l , and i n a t t e n t i v e .
P h y s i c a l l y , th e g i r l s ten d e d t o be u n d e rn o u r ish ed and
n erv o u s.
E le v e n o f th e tw e n ty were n a i l - b i t e r s , a c o n d it io n
47
w h ich i n d i c a t e s n e r v o u s n e s s .
The group was a s m a ll sa m p lin g b u t a r e p r e s e n t a t iv e one
o f th e ty p e o f d e lin q u e n c y p r e v a le n t a t M cK in ley J u n io r H igh
S c h o o l.
The f o l lo w in g m a t e r ia l was u s e d i n g a t h e r in g d ata fo r
th e ea se h is t o r ie s :
C a l i f o r n ia T e st o f P e r s o n a l i t y .
In th e f o l lo w in g c a se
h i s t o r i e s , a graph sh ow in g th e p r o f i l e o b ta in e d from t h i s T e s t ,
f o l l o w s th e comments on e a ch c a s e .
Some o f th e im p o r ta n t f a c t s b ro u g h t o u t hy th e P e r s o n ­
a l i t y T e sts are a s fo llo w s :
(1 ) N in e o f th e tw e n ty g i r l s
t e s t e d th o u g h t t h e y w ould be h a p p ie r i f
n o t so s t r i c t ?
t h e i r t e a c h e r s were
(2 ) T h ir te e n o f th e tw e n ty th o u g h t t h a t some o f
th e t e a c h e r s were u n f a i r t o some o f t h e s t u d e n t s .
(3 ) E le v e n
o f th e tw e n ty b i t t h e i r f i n g e r n a i l s .
Answ ers 1 and 2 seem s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u se th e y p la c e upon
th e t e a c h e r a sh a re o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e tr u a n c y .
Answer 3 seem s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r i t r e v e a ls t h e n e r v o u s n e s s o f
o v e r h a l f th e s t u d e n t s su r v e y e d h e r e .
O ther in s t r u m e n t s .
In a d d i t io n to r e c o r d e d r e s u l t s o f
M en ta l T e s ts w h ich w ere o b ta in e d from th e s c h o o l o f f i c e , m a t e r ia l
and q u e s t io n s from th e f o l lo w in g t e s t s were em ployed:
O u t lin e s f o r P e r s o n a l I n t e r v ie w s - The G uidance D ep a rt­
48
m ent o f P asad en a S c h o o ls .
The V o c a tio n a l I n t e r e s t S c h e d u le - I». L. T h u r sto n e .
P e r s o n a l i t y and I n t e r e s t I n v e n to r y
G ertrude H ild r e t h .
A S y s te m a tic Q u e s tio n n a ir e f o r th e Stu dy o f P e r s o n a l i t y F lo y d A l l p o r t .
The A d ju stm en t I n v e n to r y - Hugh B e l l .
T h ese t e s t s were n o t u s e d i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y h u t q u e s t io n s
w ere c o m p ile d from them a l l
w h ich seem ed a p p lic a b le
to t h i s
p a r t i c u l a r group o f s t u d e n t s .
The t e s t s u se d by M cK inley J u n io r H i$ i S c h o o l to d e t e r ­
m ine th e m e n ta l r a t in g of t h e s t u d e n t s w ere:
The S an gren Woody R ead in g T e s t
The S ta n fo r d P r o g r e s s iv e A ch ievem en t T e s t B
The Terman B T e st o f
M e n ta l A b i l i t y
The Kuhlman A nderson M en ta l A b i l i t y T e s t
The e x p la n a t io n o f th e a b b r e v ia t io n s u sed i n th e c a s e
h i s t o r i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o th e above t e s t s a r e :
C.A.
C h r o n o lo g ic a l Age
E.Q,.
E d u c a tio n a l Q u o tien t
E .A .
E d u c a tio n a l Age
I.Q ,.
I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o tie n t
G .P.
Grade P la cem en t
49
CASH HOMBER I
I n t r o d u c t io n . M. N ., a c o lo r e d g i r l , l i v e s w ith h e r
g r a n d p a r e n ts i n a n e a t b u t p oor home. She i s tw e lv e y e a r s o ld
and i n t h e e ig h t h g r a d e . P h y s i c a l l y , sh e p r e s e n t s a good
a p p ea ra n ce o f medium h e ig h t and w e ig h t . M. H. i s n e a t , c le a n ,
and g e n e r a l ly w e l l- d r e s s e d .
She h as no m annerism s th a t d i s ­
t i n g u i s h h e r from o t h e r s t u d e n t s .
She lo o k s and a c t s l i k e a
norm al g i r l .
W ith an I .Q . o f 8 9 , sh e i s n o t e x p e c te d to do
good work i n s c h o o l .
She i s n o t th e s t u d io u s t y p e . M* N. e n ­
j o y s le a d e r s h ip b u t seld o m h a s an o p p o r tu n ity to p r a c t i c e i t ,
f o r sh e i s n o t p o p u la r and h a s n o t th e m e n t a l it y to assum e
le a d e r s h ip . Her g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y i s i n s p o r t s ,
b u t e v en h e r e h e r i n t e r e s t span i s s h o r t .
She i s m e n t a lly la z y
and i n d i f f e r e n t .
One o f h er m ost n o t i c e a b le c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s
d e c e i t f u l n e s s , and a l l o f h e r t e a c h e r s c o n s id e r h e r u n t r u s t ­
w o rth y .
P roblem i n t h i s e a s e . M. N. i s a d d ic t e d to s t e a l i n g .
When sh e was i n th e s e v e n th g r a d e , many a r t i c l e s su ch a s
sw ea te rs, p en s,
p e n c i l s , l i p s t i c k s , and money were found i n h er
l o c k e r . When th e r in g le a d e r o f t h i s group was s e n t to J u v e n ile
H a l l , M. N. p rom ised n e v e r to s t e a l a g a in . So f a r a s i s known,
sh e h as k e p t h er p r o m ise , b u t o c c a s i o n a l l y t h in g s a r e m is s in g ,
and she i s s u s p e c t e d .
Home v i s i t . The home was v ex y n e a t .
I t was i n a house
a t th e r e a r o f a n o th e r home. The g r a n d fa th e r had a s tr o k e a
y e a r a g o . The grandm other en d ea v o red t o r a i s e th e tw o c h ild r e n
and c a re f o r th e g r a n d fa th e r . They seem ed a s u p e r io r ty p e o f
c o lo r e d p e o p le .
They b o th e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t h a t M. N. do
w e ll in s c h o o l.
They w ish ed t h a t th e s c h o o l s would g iv e more
a r it h m e t ic t o th e p u p i l s .
They a l s o e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e f o r M. N.
t o have a p ia n o a s t h e y f e l t sh e had t a l e n t .
M en tal c o n d i t i o n . P r o g r e s s iv e A ch ievem en t’ T e s t B:
D ate 3 /3 7 ; C .A ., 1 0 -7 ; E .A ., 1 0 -6 ; E .Q ., 9 9; S c o r e 195; G .P. 5 .
Sangren Woody R eading T e s t: , D ate 1 1 /3 7 ; C .A ., 1 1 -4 ; S core 78;
G .P . 7 . 6 .
Texman Group T e s t o f M en tal A b i l i t y B: Date 1 1 ;3 7 ;
C .A ., 1 1 -4 ; M .A ., 1 0 -1 ; I .Q ,., 8 9 ; Score 3 1 .
P h y s ic a l c o n d itio n .
Form A:
Her p h y s i c a l c o n d it io n i s e x c e l l e n t .
P e r s o n a l ! t y . C a lif o r n ia T e st o f P e r s o n a l i t y - E lem en ta ry ,
T o t a l A d ju stm en t, 1 0 6 ; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 4 5 ; Date 1 / 8 / 4 0 .
M. N. seem s t o be n o r m a lly a d ju s te d i n r e l a t i o n to h e r -
iradss:s
|» H M * a u p * g I g W
i P M
l M
l w
v a M
m
i l l l l l l l ■■■■■■■!
iy^^iiS^gi^g^iifiiau^tsiaagMKagwggaa!
N o. 6201, U n iv ersity B ookstore, Los A ngeles
51
s e l f b u t n o t to h e r su r r o u n d in g s . S o c i a l l y , sh e i s n o t on a
p a r w ith h e r f r i e n d s .
She a l s o d e p a r ts from th e norm i n s c h o o l
and home r e l a t i o n s . M. N ., i n common w ith o th e r c o lo r e d s t u ­
d e n t s , r e s e n t s th e r a c e d i s t i n c t i o n . A lth ou gh t h i s f e e l i n g i s
n o t so sh arp a t M cK inley a s a t many o th e r s c h o o l s , n e v e r t h e l e s s ,
i t i s p r e v a le n t .
The p r o f i l e p r e s e n t s M. N. a s u n s t a b le e m o t io n a lly and
ig n o r a n t o f s o c i a l s ta n d a r d s . Her a t t i t u d e in s c h o o l r e f l e c t s
h e r m a la d ju stm e n t. She w ith d raw s i n t o h e r s e l f and a p p e a r s d e ­
f i a n t a t tim e s ; th e n a g a in sh e g i v e s th e im p r e s s io n o f b e in g
e x tr e m e ly d o c i l e .
D ia g n o s t ic summary. M. N .* s r e p u t a t io n , w h ich was
a t t a i n e d w h ile sh e was i n th e s e v e n th g r a d e , h as s i n c e su rrou n d ed
h e r w ith s u s p ic i o n .
T reatm ent and C o n c lu s io n . M. E . sh o u ld n e v e r be a s s o ­
c i a t e d i n c l a s s e s w ith g i r l s o f s u s p ic i o u s c h a r a c t e r , f o r sh e
i s weak and e a s i l y i n f l u e n c e d . The i n v e s t i g a t o r h a s b een
t r y i n g t o l o c a t e an in e x p e n s iv e p ia n o f o r M. H. i n o r d e r t h a t
sh e may have an o p p o r tu n ity t o d e v e lo p any n a t u r a l m u s ic a l
t a l e n t sh e may h a v e .
R ecom m endations. I t i s i n d ic a t e d t h a t i t would be b e s t
f o r M. H. t o be t r a n s f e r r e d to a s p e c i a l s c h o o l . She h as p ro v ed
h e r s e l f u n a b le , e v en w it h h e l p , to r e s i s t t h e Im p u lse to s t e a l .
R ecen t d e v e lo p m e n ts. S in c e t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was
s t a r t e d , M. N. h a s been ta k e n to J u v e n ile C ou rt. I n company
w it h a n o th e r g i r l , she was c a u g h t s t e a l i n g i n a t e n - c e n t s t o r e .
J u s t p r e v io u s t o t h i s , sh e was in v o lv e d i n a rape c a s e .
Her g r a n d fa th e r
an im p o r ta n t f a c t o r o f
h as j u s t d ie d . H is d e c e a se h a s rem oved
g u id a n ce from th e home.
The s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s a t M cK in ley a r e now e n d e a v o r in g
t o have h er removed from th e s c h o o l a s t h e y f e e l h er p r e s e n c e
i s d e t r im e n t a l t o o th e r s t u d e n t s .
CASE HUMBER I I
I n t r o d u c t io n . B. F . i s a c o lo r e d g i r l and l i v e s w ith
h e r f a t h e r , m o th er, b r o th e r , and s i s t e r .
She i s a v e r y la r g e
g i r l , tw e lv e y e a r s o f a g e and i s i n th e s e v e n th g r a d e . She i s
52
She i s slo w and awkward i n h e r m ovements and v e r y c o n s c io u s o f
her s i z e .
B. F . sp e a k s i n a v e ry lo w v o ic e and ev en when a d ­
d r e s s e d p l e a s a n t l y lo o k s r e s e n t f u l .
Her ap p earan ce i s n o t p r e p o s s e s s i n g . She h a s la r g e
t h ic k l i p s , u n t id y , k in k y h a ir and i s v e r y t a l l .
H er manner
i s a g g r e s s iv e and sh e m u tte r s i n d i s t i n c t l y when annoyed and
la u g h s lo u d ly when p l e a s e d . B . F . h as th e lo w e s t I .Q . o f th e
group s t u d i e d . She ta k e s no a c t i v e p a r t in c l a s s e s , m e r e ly
s i t t i n g im p a s s iv e ly w h ile th e c l a s s r e c i t e s .
I f c o r r e c t e d , sh e
becom es b e l l i g e r e n t and m o ro se. A lth o u g h sh e l i k e s s p o r t s and
i s a w i l l i n g p a r t i c i p a n t , sh e i s slo w to a c q u ir e th e n e c e s s a r y
c o - o r d i n a t io n . She d i s l i k e s th e r e q u ir e m e n t o f d r e s s in g f o r
gymnasium work and r a t h e r th a n e x e r t h e r s e l f in t h i s r e s p e c t ,
o f t e n makes e x c u s e s f o r n o t a t t e n d in g th e c l a s s .
B. F . p r e s e n t s a fo r m id a b le a p p e a r a n c e . She lo o k s l i k e
th e sa v a g e s sh e d e sc en d e d from and s e t t l e s h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n
a p r i m it i v e m anner. She i s to o s t u p id t o be c l e v e r a t s t e a l i n g
and i s e a s i l y d e t e c t e d when d o in g w rong.
P rob lem i n t h i s c a s e . B . F . i s i n th e s e v e n th g r a d e ,
tw e lv e y e a r s o ld and la r g e f o r h e r a g e . She i s r e ta r d e d men­
t a l l y , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e a d in g . Her t e a c h e r s r e p o r t t h a t sh e i s
u n t id y , i r r e s p o n s i b l e and l a z y , i r r e g u la r i n a t te n d a n c e , a b s e n t
much o f th e tim e , m orose and a n t a g o n i s t i c . Her E n g lis h te a c h e r
r e p o r t e d t h a t i t w ould b e im p o s s ib le f o r h e r t o w r it e an a u t o ­
b io g r a p h y b e c a u se o f h er d e f i c i e n c y i n w r i t i n g and r e a d in g .
Home v i s i t . The home i s p oor b u t n o t u n t id y . The s i s t e r
was th e o n ly member o f t h e f a m ily p r e s e n t a t th e tim e o f th e
v is it.
She s t a t e d t h a t B. F . i s l a z y and m orose a t home.
M en tal c o n d i t i o n . The s c h o o l r e c o r d s t a t e s t h a t B. F .
sh o u ld be i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s . P r o g r e s s iv e A ch ievem en t T e st
(E le m e n ta r y ): D ate 3 /5 7 ; C .A ., 10; E .A ., 8 2 ; E .Q ., 8 2 ; S co re 2 .8 ;
S ta n fo r d A ch ievem en t T e s t: D ate 1 2 /5 8 ; C .A ., 1 2 - 9 ; E .A ., 93;
E .Q ., 73; S co re 4 0 8 ; G. P . 3 . 5 .
Terman Group T e s t o f M en ta l
A b i l i t y B: D ate 1 2 /3 8 ; C .A ., 1 2 - 9 ; M .A ., 9 - 7 ; I . Q . , 75; S core 2 5 .
P h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . P h y s i c a l e x a m in a tio n in 1938 showed
B . F . t o be t w e n t y -th r e e p e r c e n t o v e r w e ig h t; o t h e r w is e , sh e i s
i n good p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n .
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a lif o r n ia T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y - E lem en ta ry ,
Form A: T o ta l A d ju stm en t, 77; P e r c e n t i l e Bank, 15; D ate 1 / 8 / 4 0 .
The p r o f i l e shows t h a t B. F. i s l o c a t e d a t f i f t e e n p e r -
55
c e n t ile in s e lf-a d ju s tm e n t.
T h is means t h a t B. F. s u r p a s s e s
a b o u t o n e - s e v e n t h o f th e c l a s s and i s s u r p a s s e d by s i x - s e v e n t h s .
Her s o c i a l a d ju stm e n t a t tw e n ty p e r c e n t i l e i s a l s o v e r y
lo w , w h ich makes h er t o t a l a d ju stm e n t o n ly f i f t e e n .
The r a t i n g i n t h i s t e s t s u p p o r ts t h e o p in io n s o f t h e
t e a c h e r s in r e g a r d to h er p e r s o n a l i t y , w it h t h e e x c e p t io n t h a t
sh e r a t e s h ig h e r i n s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s th an th e y w ould be w i l l i n g
t o adm it b e c a u se o f th e f a c t th a t i n c l a s s sh e s i t s in s u l l e n
s i l e n c e m ost o f th e tim e .
D ia g n o s t ic summary. B, F . b e c a u se o f low m e n t a l it y i s
d e f i n i t e l y h a n d ic a p p ed . P h y s i c a l l y , sh e i s w e l l d e v e lo p e d .
She r e s i s t s th e a d v ic e o f h e r f a m ily a t home and o f h e r t e a c h e r s
a t s c h o o l.
She la u g h s lo u d ly and c h i l d i s h l y o v e r e v e n t s t h a t
happen i n s c h o o l , r e s e n t s an y s o r t o f d i s c i p l i n e , and i s u n r e s ­
p o n s iv e t o h e l p .
T reatm en t and c o n c lu s i o n . B. F . was w i l l i n g to t r y th e
t e s t i n g and h a s b een i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e r e s u l t s .
She h a s t a lk e d
w ith th e te a c h e r r e g a r d in g h e r p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t .
She s e e s more
r e s p o n s iv e i n c l a s s and a lt h o u g h v e r y s lo w m e n t a lly , sh e i s
p h y s i c a l l y co m p eten t t o en gage i n s p o r t s i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y
m anner. H aving on ce m a ste r e d t h e te c h n iq u e o f a s p o r t , sh e
seem s happy i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t .
She shows some r e s p o n s e
t o k in d n e s s a lth o u g h s e e m in g ly r e l u c t a n t .
S in c e t h i s c a se h i s t o r y was w r i t t e n , B . F . was c a u g h t
s t e a l i n g in a t e n - c e n t s t o r e w ith M. N . , who i s a l s o m en tio n ed
i n t h i s s u r v e y , and was s e n t t o J u v e n ile C ou rt. B. F . i s now
b aek a t s c h o o l on p a r o l e .
B ecom m en datlon s. S in c e B . F . i s h a p p ie r in p h y s i c a l
e d u c a t io n a c t i v i t i e s th a n i n h e r acad em ic work, o p p o r t u n i t i e s
t o show h er a b i l i t y in s p o r t s sh o u ld be g iv e n h e r . She i s i n
a r e m e d ia l r e a d in g c l a s s and i s r e c e i v i n g s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n .
I t i s hoped t h a t sh e w i l l b e n e f i t enough by t h i s t o e n a b le h er
to r ea d and u n d e r sta n d sim p le s t a t e m e n t s .
She h a s b een a b s e n t and ta r d y s o much t h a t sh e h a s b e e n
r e q u ir e d t o h e lp th e j a n i t r e s s w ith sim p le t a s k s , su ch a s d u s t ­
i n g , t o make up th e tim e l o s t a t s c h o o l .
She d oes t h e s e m ec h a n i­
c a l t a s k s i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y manner w hich w ould i n d i c a t e th e
p o s s i b i l i t y , un der t h e p ro p er s u p e r v i s i o n , o f h e r b e in g a b le to
f i l l some p o s i t i o n i n w hich h ig h m e n t a l it y i s n o t a r e q u i r e ­
m en t.
;t <2.
B m fM E M eB SE
No. 6201, U n iv ersity B ookstore, L os A ngeles
55
CASE NUMBER I I I
I n t r o d u c t io n . G. G. i s o f s l i g h t b u i ld w it h a " f a t i g u e ”
p o s t u r e . She i s n o t u n a t t r a c t i v e b u t seem s s u p e r f i c i a l .
She
h a s b lo n d h a i r , b lu e e y e s and a sh y u n o b tr u s iv e m anner. She
d r e s s e s n e a t l y and a p p r o p r ia t e ly b u t u s e s to o much m ake-up.
She h a s a v e r a g e m e n ta l a b i l i t y and r a t e s h ig h i n h e r p e r s o n ­
a lity te s t.
She a p p ea r s t o b e h a p p ily a d ju s te d in h e r s c h o o l
r e la tio n s .
G. G. was r e t i c e n t a b o u t d i s c u s s i n g h e r e x c e s s i v e "boy
i n t e r e s t . ” H owever, t h i s m a la d ju stm en t may be o n ly tem p orary.
She seld om shows any em otion i n c l a s s and i s e v e n tem p ered .
P rob lem i n t h i s c a s e . G. G. h a s an abnorm al b oy I n t e r e s t ,
w ith a h i s t o r y o f h a v in g s p e n t th e n ig h t o u t w ith a b o y . She i s
r a t h e r s e c r e t i v e and d o e s n o t c o n f id e i n p e o p le .
She i s n o t a
prob lem w ith th e t e a c h e r s , b e in g d o c i l e and e a s i l y h a n d le d i f
n o t a n t a g o n iz e d . She i s q u i e t , t im id , and p a s s i v e and i s n o t a
le a d e r .
Home v i s i t . The home was n e a t and t h e r e seem ed t o be a
f e e l i n g o f com p anion ship b e tw e e n th e m other and d a u g h te r . The
m o th er com p lain ed o f th e seem in g c l a s s d is c r im in a t io n among
h e r s c h o o lm a te s .
M en tal c o n d i t i o n . P r o g r e s s iv e A ch ievem en t T e s t ( E le ­
m ents ry~A A T ^ D a te S T S F ; C .A ., 1 1 -7 ; I . A ., 1 2 - 9 ; E .Q ., 11 0 ;
S c o r e 2 83; G .P . 7 - 1 . Terman Group T e st o f M en tal A b i l i t y A:
D ate 3 /5 7 ; C .A ., 1 2 - 7 ; M .A ., 1 2 -2 ; I . Q . , 97; S co re 5 8 . Kuhlman
A nderson T e s t o f M en tal A b i l i t y :
D ate 3 /3 9 ; C .A ., 1 4 - 7 ; M .A .,
1 5 -1 1 ; I . Q . , 1 0 9 .
P h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . Her t o n s i l s were removed i n 1 9 5 2 .
Her h e a l t h was much im proved from t h i s tim e and i n 1957 h er
p h y s i c a l e x a m in a tio n showed h e r t o be o n ly s i x p e r c e n t u n d e r ­
w e ig h t .
Form A:
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a lif o r n ia T e st o f P e r s o n a l i t y - E lem en ta ry ,
T o t a l A d ju stm e n t, 1 38; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 9 5; D ate 1 / 8 / 4 0 .
G. G. ranked th e h i g h e s t o f th e group o f tw e n ty g i r l s i n
th e P e r s o n a l i t y T e s t . T here was v e r y l i t t l e d e p a r tu r e from th e
p e r c e n t i l e i n s e l f - a d j u s t m e n t , w h ich was lo c a t e d a t n i n e t y - f i v e .
T h is p r o f i l e w ould s u b s t a n t i a t e th e t e a c h e r s 1 o p in io n
t h a t G. G. i s b ecom in g a d j u s t e d i n m ost o f h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
56
I f sh e w ere n o t so s e x u a l l y m a la d ju s te d , sh e w ou ld , w ith o u t
d o u b t, be a go o d s t u d e n t .
D ia g n o s t ic summary. A lth ou gh c l a s s e d a s d e lin q u e n t , t h i s
r e p o r t s i g n i f i e d t h a t G. G. i s becom ing a d j u s t e d . E a r ly p r e v e n ­
t i v e tr e a tm e n t was g iv e n a t t h e tim e n eed ed and w it h sy m p a th e tic
h a n d lin g h e r a d ju stm e n t w i l l in a l l p r o b a b i l i t y c o n t in u e .
T reatm en t and c o n c l u s i o n . G. G ., a s was s t a t e d in t h e
prob lem , f e l t r e s e n t f u l o f t h e c l a s s d is c r im in a t io n sh e th o u g h t
was a c co r d e d h e r by g i r l s who were more f o r t u n a t e e c o n o m ic a lly
th a n s h e . She s t a t e d w ith much r e se n tm e n t i n one sta te m e n t t h a t
th e c a p ta in o f h e r b a s k e t b a ll team n e v e r c h o s e h e r t o p la y b e ­
c a u se o f t h i s c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e .
I f t r u e , t h i s was u n fo r tu n a te
f o r G. G. n eed ed p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e and s h e e n jo y e d s p o r t s . As
a r e s u l t o f t h i s c o m p la in t, in h e r p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n c l a s s a
d i s c u s s i o n o f sp o rtsm a n sh ip was in tr o d u c e d and c o u r te s y on and
o f f th e c o u r t was e m p h a sized .
R ecom m endations. I t i s im p o r ta n t t o f o l l o w up t h i s c a s e
by k e e p in g in to u c h w ith G. G .’ s work in s c h o o l and by v i s i t i n g
h e r home more o f t e n t o e n l i s t t h e a id o f h e r m o th er. A fr e q u e n t
i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f th e v a r io u s c lu b s a t M cK inley
J u n io r H igh S c h o o l and t a l k s w ith th e members ab ou t th e s o c i a l
b e h a v io r o f j u n io r h ig h p u p i l s m ig h t e n l i s t th e h e lp o f t h e s e
g i r l s in c r e a t i n g a more d e m o cr a tic a t t i t u d e .
The f o llo w in g e x c e r p t r e v e a l s t h a t G. G. l o s t i n t e r e s t
in s c h o o l ab ou t th e tim e sh e was i n th e s e v e n th and e ig h t h
g r a d e s w h ich c o in c i d e s w ith t h e tim e sh e began t o b e e x tr e m e ly
i n t e r e s t e d i n b o y s:
My g r e a t-g r a n d m o th e r on my m o th e r ’ s s id e i s s t i l l l i v i n g .
She t o l d me t h a t my a n c e s t o r s on my m o th e r ’ s s id e o f t h e
f a m ily w ere I n d ia n s . T h ere were no I n d ia n c h i e f s b u t th e y
w ere j u s t members o f some t r i b e .
I d on t know th e name o f
i t th o u g h . My a n c e s t o r s on my f a t h e r ’ s s id e a r e E n g lis h
p e o p le . They came o v e r from E ngland some tim e in 1 8 0 0 .
When I was j u s t p a s t f o u r we p u lle d up s t a k e s and w en t
t o Idaho F a l l s , Idaho where we l i v e d f o r a y e a r . I had my
f i f t h b ir th d a y t h e r e . We cambe back t o P asadena i n January
and I s t a r t e d t o s c h o o l in F eb ru a ry . I l i k e d my s c h o o l v e r y
much a l l th r o u g h e le m e n ta r y b u t when I g o t t o j u n io r h ig h I
k in d o f l o s t i n t e r e s t .
I am now in th e n in t h g r a d e .
Someday I w ould l i k e t o have a g r e a t b i g h o r se ranch in
T exas . . .
. M other t e l l s me t h a t I g e t my id e a s from th e
I n d ia n s on h e r s i d e o f th e f a m ily , and every b o d y t e a s e s me
m
No. 6201, U n iv ersity B ookstore, Los A ngeles
ab o u t my ra n ch and h o r s e s , b u t som eday I w i l l g e t th e m .l
CASS HUMBER 17
I n t r o d u c t io n . M. G. i s o f a v e r a g e h e i g h t , w ith brown
h a i r , b lu e e y e s , and c o n t i n u a l l y h a s an unhappy e x p r e s s io n o n
h e r f a c e . She w a lk s aw kw ardly, h as p o o r p o s t u r e , and chew s gum
m ost o f th e t im e . She i s o f a v e r a g e i n t e l l i g e n c e b u t d o e s n o t
work t o th e b e s t o f h e r a b i l i t y .
She i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n h e r
s c h o o l work and seem s much more m ature than o th e r g i r l s o f h e r
a g e . She g i v e s t h e a p p ea ra n ce o f b e in g "hard and to u g h ." She
i s e m o t io n a lly u n s t a b le and i f c r i t i c i z e d l o s e s a l l s e l f c o n t r o l
and g i v e s one t h e im p r e s s io n t h a t sh e m ig h t be d a n g e r o u s. When
t h e s e f i t s o f u n c o n t r o lle d tem per were f i r s t n o t i c e d , th e t e a c h ­
e r s were warned n o t t o a n ta g o n iz e h er u n t i l more was known c o n ­
c e r n in g h e r b ack grou n d .
M . G . l i v e s w ith h e r m o th er, s t e p - f a t h e r , and one b r o t h e r .
Her f a t h e r and m other w ere d iv o r c e d s e v e r a l y e a r s ago and th e
m other r e m a r r ie d . Her m other i s a n u r se and i s away from home
m ost o f t h e tim e . The c h ild r e n a r e s u b j e c t e d t o much f r i c t i o n
a t home.
Problem in t h i s c a s e . M. G. la c k s e m o tio n a l b a la n c e .
She i s ab n o rm a lly i n t e r e s t e d i n b o y s and c o n t i n u a l l y s e e k s t h e i r
company. She i s o f t e n s e e n le a v i n g th e s c h o o l ground s in a c a r
w ith a group o f b o y s . She i s n o t p o p u la r w ith g i r l s .
Home v i s i t . The home i s a r e a r u p s t a i r s a p a rtm en t. The
b r o th e r was t h e o n ly one a t home a t th e tim e o f th e v i s i t . He
ap p eared v e r y t i r e d and seem ed t o be t h e same e x c i t a b l e ty p e o f .
p e r so n t h a t M. G. i s .
M en tal c o n d i t i o n . Terman Group T e s t o f M en tal A b i l i t y B:
D ate 4 /3 6 ; 0 . A . , 1 1 -8 ; M .A ., 1 1 -4 ; I . Q . , 97; S co re 4 7 . S an gren
Woody R eading T e s t: D ate 5 /3 6 ; C .A ., 1 1 - 9 ; S c o r e 79; G .P ., 7 . 7 .
Kuhlman A nderson T e s t o f M en tal A b i l i t y :
D a te 1 2 /3 8 ; C .A .,
1 5 -3 ; M .A ., 1 5 -7 ; I.Q ,., 1 0 2 .
P h y s ic a l c o n d i t i o n . P h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n shows M. G. t o
be e ig h t p er c e n t u n d e r w e ig h t. She i s v e r y t e n s e and n e r v o u s
T h is a u to b io g r a p h y was a r e v e l a t i o n f o r i t i s in d e ­
c id e d c o n t r a s t to th e im p r e s s io n G. G. g i v e s h e r t e a c h e r s on
c a s u a l o b s e r v a t io n .
T h is may p o s s i b l y e x p la in h e r abnorm al s e x
in te r e s t.
S in c e sh e c a n n o t r e a l i z e th e a m b itio n o f h er dream s,
t h i s undue i n t e r e s t i n b o y s may b e a tem p orary c o m p e n sa tio n .
59
a t a l l t im e s .
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a li t y - E lem en ta­
r y , Form A: T o ta l A d ju stm en t, 115; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 60; D ate
1 /8 /4 0 .
The P e r s o n a li t y T e s t show s t h a t M. G. d e p a r ts from
norm al in t h e manner o f n o t h a v in g an ad eq u ate f e e l i n g o f b e ­
lo n g in g or o f b e in g a c c e p te d s o c i a l l y .
The p r o f i l e a l s o shows
t h a t sh e h a s d i f f i c u l t y a t s c h o o l . She ranks h ig h i n know­
le d g e o f s o c i a l sta n d a r d s b u t lo w i n s o c i a l b e h a v io r .
W h ile t h e t e s t show s t h a t M. G. i s a b ou t a v e r a g e in
t o t a l a d ju stm e n t, i t s u g g e s t s d e c id e d f e e l i n g s o f i n s e c u r i t y .
I f n o t a d e q u a te ly m et, th e y m igh t e a s i l y le a d t o more s e r i o u s
d iffic u ltie s .
D e s p ite h e r know ledge o f s o c i a l s ta n d a r d s , sh e
i s b elo w a v e r a g e in s o c i a l s k i l l s and b e h a v io r .
D ia g n o s t ic summary. M. G. i s one o f t h e m ost d i f f i c u l t
g i r l s to h a n d le . She h as su ch a r e s e n t f u l a t t i t u d e t h a t i t i s
hard t o r e a s o n w it h h e r ; h ow ever, sh e i s im p rovin g a s h e r
h e a l t h im p r o v e s. She a p p ea r s l e s s n erv o u s and more wholesom e
m e n t a lly and p h y s i c a l l y .
T reatm ent and c o n c l u s i o n . M. G. n e e d s h e a lt h y o u td o o r
c o n t a c t w it h g i r l s o f h e r a g e . Her s c h o o l work s h o u ld be
a n a ly z e d and a d a p ted t o h e r m a t u r it y . Her m a la d ju stm en t seem s
t o be m ost pronounced in s c h o o l and c e r t a i n l y h e r a t t i t u d e
w ould c o r r o b o r a te t h i s s ta t e m e n t.
There i s no g i r l in s c h o o l
a p p a r e n tly more d i s s a t i s f i e d th a n M. G. She i s unhappy, w a lk s
w ith h e r head down, and s c o w ls and frow n s even when a d d r e ss e d
p le a s a n tly .
R ecom m endations. M. G. in c h r o n o lo g ic a l age i s no o ld e r
th a n t h e o th e r g i r l s in h e r c l a s s , b u t m e n ta lly and p h y s i c a l l y ,
th e c u r r ic u lu m a t M cK inley J u n io r H igh f o r g i r l s h er age i s
in a d e q u a te f o r h e r . She n e e d s p r a c t i c a l c o u r s e s t h a t w ou ld
p rep a re h e r f o r home l i f e , f o r sh e w i l l u n d o u b te d ly m arry a t
h er f i r s t o p p o r tu n ity .
I f sh e had t h e r i g h t g u id a n c e , she m igh t c h o o s e h e r
f r i e n d s more w i s e l y . Her d i s i n t e r e s t in h e r c o u r s e s i s shown
by h e r fr e q u e n t a b s e n c e s .
In t h e n in t h grad e a lo n e sh e was
ab sen t f if t y - n in e d ays.
I t i s u n d e cid ed by t h e exam in er a s t o
what w ould b e s t f i t M. G. t o b e a h a p p ie r p e r s o n a l i t y . A l l th e
s c h o o ls h ave p a s se d h e r on i n th e hope t h a t som eone w ou ld l o ­
c a te h er d i f f i c u l t y .
The recom m endation s h o u ld come from a
p s y c h i a t r i s t r a th e r th a n a c la s s r o o m t e a c h e r . T h is c a s e s h o u ld
be s t u d ie d o v er a lo n g e r p e r io d o f t im e .
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CASE NUMBER V
I n t r o d u c t io n . M. H. i s a t t r a c t i v e w ith t h e e x c e p t io n
o f b e in g o b lig e d t o w ear t h i c k g l a s s e s . Her w e ig h t and h e ig h t
a r e a v e r a g e . She h a s brown h a i r and e y e s and h e r e x p r e s s io n
and manner are p l e a s a n t . M. H. i s m e n ta lly norm al b u t d o e s n o t
appear t o b e d o in g h e r b e s t w ork in s c h o o l . Her t e a c h e r s con ­
s i d e r h e r a v e r y d i f f i c u l t c a s e a s s h e s e e m in g ly i s i n t e r e s t e d
o n ly in boys and b la n d ly a v o id s any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a t home o r
a t s c h o o l.
Problem in t h i s c a s e . M. H. i s to o boy c r a z y . She i s
i n d i f f e r e n t t o h e r s c h o o l w ork. R e c e n t ly , i n Decem ber, 1 9 3 9 ,
sh e was tr u a n t and v i s i t e d a n o th e r P asadena s c h o o l . L a te r in
th e day sh e r e g r e t t e d h e r a c t and r e tu r n e d t o M cK inley J u n io r
H igh S c h o o l w here sh e h id in th e lo c k e r room s. M. H. knew t h a t
i f sh e app eared a t home a t to o e a r l y an h o u r, sh e w o u ld b e
q u e s tio n e d by h e r f a m i ly . B ecau se o f h e r numerous e s c a p a d e s ,
sh e h a s d e v e lo p e d a d e c e i t f u l a t t i t u d e and p r e v a r i c a t e s r e a d i l y .
E very t e a c h e r g i v e s th e same o p in io n o f h e r c h a r a c t e r .
M en tal c o n d i t i o n . P r o g r e s s iv e A chievem en t T e s t A:
D ate 3 /3 6 ; C .A ., 1 1 -9 ; E .A ., 1 1 -1 1 ; I . Q . , .101; S c o r e S 5 3 . T erman Group T e s t o f M en tal A b i l i t y B: D ate 4 /3 6 ; C .A ., 1 1 -1 1 ;
M .A ., 1 3 -6 ; I . Q . , 113; S c o r e 8 0 . Kuhlman A nderson T e s t o f
G en era l I n t e l l i g e n c e :
D ate 1 2 /3 8 ; C .A ., 1 4 -5 ; M .A ., 1 5 -4 ;
I .Q ,., 1 0 6 .
P h y s ic a l c o n d i t i o n . M. H. h a s poor e y e s i g h t and w ears
v e r y h ea v y g l a s s e s . She h a s b e e n ta k in g r e m e d ia l g y m n a s tic s
f o r p oor p o s tu r e and f e e t .
She i s u n d e r w e ig h t.
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a l i f o r n ia T e s t o f P e r s o n a li t y - E lem enta­
r y , Form A: T o t a l A d ju stm en t, 121; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 65; D ate
1 /8 /4 0 .
T h is p r o f i l e shows d e c id e d d e p a r tu r e from t h e p e r c e n t i l e
norm i n r e g a r d t o p e r s o n a l freed om and f a m ily r e l a t i o n s .
It
i s very in d ic a t iv e o f t h e g i r l .
The o p in io n e x p r e s s e d by t h e
t e a c h e r s e x a c t l y c o i n c i d e s w ith th e p r o f i l e . Her n e r v o u sn e s s
i s d u e, u n d o u b te d ly , t o h e r p oor e y e s i g h t .
In t a l k i n g o v e r
t h i s c h a r t , sh e a g r e e d t h a t i t f i t t e d h e r c a s e in e v e r y r e s p e c t .
She r e s e n t s p a r e n t a l i n t e r f e r e n c e and w is h e s g r e a t e r freed o m .
Her f a m ily h ave s p o i l e d h e r t o su ch an e x t e n t t h a t now sh e
c a n n o t be c o n t r o l l e d .
In s c h o o l sh e i s a l s o m a la d ju s te d , b u t much o f h e r un -
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65
h a p p in e s s i s due t o h e r home l i f e w hich i s r e f l e c t e d in h e r
work a t s c h o o l . To e sc a p e d o m in a tio n a t home, sh e p r e v a r i c a t e s
and t h e r e f o r e t r i e s th e same m ethods a t s c h o o l .
D ia g n o s t ic summary. M. H. h a s no a p p a re n t p r id e in
a c h ie v e m e n t, i s i r r e s p o n s i b l e and t r i e s t o l i e h e r way o u t o f
d iffic u ltie s .
She s e e k s t h e s o c i e t y o f b oys a t a l l tim e s and
t r i e s in e v e r y way t o a t t r a c t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n . Her g i r l
a s s o c i a t e s a re o f t h e same i r r e s p o n s i b l e t y p e .
T reatm en t and c o n c l u s i o n . M. H. i s c a p a b le o f making
a f a v o r a b le im p r e s s io n on f i r s t m e e tin g . She can b e p le a s a n t
and a g r e e a b le , c o n c e a lin g h e r d e c e i t f u l n a t u r e .
She h a s been r e q u ir e d to h e lp th e j a n i t r e s s a f t e r
s c h o o l in ord er t o make up tim e l o s t by tr u a n c y . I f sh e i s
c a l l e d t o a c co u n t f o r b e in g l a t e t o an a p p o in tm en t, sh e n e a t l y
l i e s , s a y in g t h a t sh e was on tim e b u t w ork in g i n a n o th e r p a r t
o f t h e b u i l d i n g . She i s s o accu stom ed t o e s c a p in g by means o f
l i e s t h a t sh e can h a r d ly d i s t i n g u i s h b etw een t r u t h and p r e v a r i­
c a tio n .
R ecom m endations. Firm and p a t i e n t h a n d lin g i s i n ­
dicated"^ Home v i s i t s sh o u ld be made, a d u lt e d u c a tio n recom­
mended f o r p a r e n t s , and a b e t t e r p a r e n t - t e a c h e r - p u p il r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip d e v e lo p e d .
E very f a ls e h o o d s h o u ld be f o llo w e d up w ith a sy m p a th e tic
u n d e r sta n d in g w hich w ould c o n v in c e M. H. t h a t a fir m sta n d was
b e in g ta k e n on th e s u b j e c t .
CASE NDMBER 71
I n t r o d u c t io n . W. H. i s t a l l and s le n d e r and p r e s e n t s
an a t t r a c t i v e a p p e a r a n c e . She h a s brown h a i r , b lu e e y e s , and
a good c o m p lex io n and happy f a c e .
She h a s a p o o r command o f E n g lis h and i s a c o n s t a n t
u s e r o f th e d o u b le n e g a t i v e . A lth ou gh she h a s d i f f i c u l t y w ith
h e r s t u d i e s , sh e seem s t o e n jo y h e r work a t s c h o o l . The d o c to r
s t r o n g ly recommends g l a s s e s b u t t h e m other s a y s " F aith " w i l l
h e a l h e r e y e s . W . H. f e e l s t h a t s h e m ust conform t o a l l s o r t s
o f r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s w h ich r e s t r i c t h er m e n t a lly , p h y s i c a l l y ,
and s o c i a l l y .
W. H. i s th e y o u n g e s t o f s e v e n c h i ld r e n and l i v e s w it h
h e r f a t h e r and m o th er. The home i s p o o r ly f u r n is h e d , sm a ll
64
and i s s i t u a t e d back o f a l i t t l e
C a l i f o r n ia c u r i o s .
sh op in w hich t h e y s e l l
Problem i n t h i s c a s e . W. H. came t o P asadena from
N orth D akota ab ou t two y e a r s a g o . Her f a m ily i s ig n o r a n t and
came under t h e in f l u e n c e o f r e l i g i o u s f a n a t i c s . W. H. h a s
good s o c i a l a d ju stm e n t and i s v e r y l o y a l t o s c h o o l and t e a c h ­
e r s . She h a s poor e y e s i g h t and h a s t o b e in r e m e d ia l c l a s s e s
in r e a d in g .
Home v i s i t . A v i s i t t o th e home r e v e a le d t h r e e g i r l s
in a dark room e m b r o id e r in g . T hese a r e t h e th r e e g i r l s who
h ave t r o u b le w ith t h e i r e y e s . The m other was v e r y f r i e n d l y .
She d e p lo r e d th e f a c t t h a t W. H. r e a d s so s l o w l y . She t o l d
th e s c h o o l n u r s e t h a t sh e c o n s id e r e d g l a s s e s fo r W. H. un­
n ecessary.
M en tal c o n d i t i o n . T i e g ’s T e s t (E lem en ta ry ) o f M en tal
A b ility :
D ate 4 /3 5 ; C .A ., 1 2 - 5 ; M .A ., 1 1 - 1 ; I . Q . , 89; S c o r e 3 0 .
Kuhlman A nderson J u n io r H igh T e s t o f G en era l I n t e l l i g e n c e :
D ate 1 2 /3 8 ; C .A ., 1 5 -4 ; M .A ., 1 3 -1 0 ; I . Q . , 9 0 .
P h y s i c a l . c o n d i t i o n . Her p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i s go o d
w ith th e e x c e p t io n o f h e r p o o r e y e s i g h t .
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a l i f o r n ia T e s t o f P e r s o n a li t y - E lem en ta ­
r y , Eorm A: T o ta l A d ju stm en t, 1B5; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 70; D ate
1 /8 /4 0 .
T h is p r o f i l e r e v e a ls t h a t sh e d e p a r ts from a d e s i r a b l e
p a t t e r n o f a d ju stm e n t a t th e p o in t s o f p e r s o n a l w o rth and
f a m ily and community r e l a t i o n s .
W. H. i s sh y and t im id . She e n jo y s com ing to t h e o f f i c e
to t a l k w ith t h e i n s t r u c t o r , b u t i t i s d i f f i c u l t fo r h e r t o
ta lk e a s ily .
She e n te r e d t h e s c h o o l a f t e r i t had been in
s e s s i o n f o r some w e e k s. A c q u a in ta n c e s had a lr e a d y b een form ed .
W. H ., p erh a p s b e c a u se o f h e r t i m i d i t y and h e r f e e l i n g o f in ­
s e c u r i t y , p ic k e d up f r i e n d s w here sh e c o u ld , w ith th e r e s u l t
t h a t sh e g o t o f f t o a p oor s t a r t .
D ia g n o s t ic summary. W. H ., a p a r t from h e r r e l i g i o u s
s c r u p l e s , i s s o c i a l l y w e l l a d j u s t e d . On com ing to t h e s c h o o l ,
sh e a s s o c i a t e d w ith i n f e r i o r com panions b u t now i s making
b e tte r co n ta cts.
The f a c t t h a t sh e d e p a r ts so f a r from h e r
norm al p e r c e n t i l e i n th e m a tte r o f fa m ily r e l a t i o n s may p o in t
t o th e f a c t t h a t sh e i s n o t e n t i r e l y i n a c c o r d w ith a l l o f
h er m o th e r ’ s b e l i e f s .
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T reatm en t and c o n c l u s i o n . W henever p o s s i b l e , W. H.
s h o u ld h ave e g o - s a t i s f y i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h is , in p a r t ,
h a s a lr e a d y b een b rou gh t a b ou t a s sh e h a s b een made an a s s i s t a n t
le a d e r by h e r f r i e n d s . T h is i s a b e t t e r ap p oin tm en t th a n a
t e a c h e r c o u ld g iv e h e r .
R ecom m endations. E d u c a tio n may g r a d u a lly c o n v in c e
W. H. t h a t sh e m ust h ave some r e m e d ia l h e lp f o r h e r e y e s . Con­
t in u e d v i s i t s t o th e home may h e lp t o c o n v in c e th e m oth er o f
t h is need.
CASE NUMBER V II
I n t r o d u c t io n . W. L . i s v e r y s m a ll and s l i g h t .
She i s
c o lo r e d and h a s an in n o c e n t w i s t f u l e x p r e s s io n t h a t seem s in ­
co n g ru ou s w ith h e r a b i l i t y t o s t e a l .
She i s tw e lv e y e a r s o l d ,
in t h e s e v e n th g r a d e , and seem s e v e n you n ger b e c a u se o f h e r
tin y s ta tu r e .
She i s a pawn in th e hands o f t h e o th e r c o lo r e d g i r l s
and m e r e ly d o e s a s t h e y w is h .
T hese c o lo r e d g i r l s in d u ced h e r
t o s t e a l t h i n g s f o r them by c r a w lin g un d er t h e d r e s s in g room
d o o r s and th e n p i l f e r i n g th e p u r s e s fo u n d t h e r e .
W. L . i s m e n t a lly d u l l and t h e t e a c h e r s s t a t e t h a t sh e
i s u n a b le t o a c c o m p lish much in s c h o o l .
She l i v e s in a p oor home w ith h e r m oth er, f a t h e r , two
b r o t h e r s , and one s i s t e r .
The f a t h e r w ork s in t h e c i t y S t r e e t
D ep a rtm en t.
P roblem in t h i s c a s e . W. L . i s a f r a i l c o lo r e d c h i l d
who s t e a l s .
She h a s th e n e g r o a c q u i s i t i v e p r o p e n s i t i e s and
d o es n o t seem t o a p p r e c ia t e t h e v a lu e o f and th e r i g h t s o f
p r o p e r ty .
Home v i s i t . W. L . and h e r m other were a t home when t h e
v i s i t o r a r r iv e d . The m other was t h e s lo w , l a z y , g o o d -n a tu r e d
t y p e . She d id n o t t h in k t h a t W. L. w ould s t e a l .
She w ish e d
th e t e a c h e r w ou ld g iv e W. L . more r e a d in g . At t h i s p o in t th e
ir o n was fou n d t o h ave burned a h o le i n t h e b oard , so t h e
v i s i t was te r m in a te d a b r u p t ly .
M en tal c o n d i t i o n . S tan d ard A chievem en t T e st: D ate
I S /3 8 ; C .A ., 1 1 -1 1 ; E .A ., 8 - 3 ; I . Q . , 69; S c o r e 2 77; G .P ., 2 - 9 .
67
P h y s ic a l c o n d i t i o n . W. L . i s much u n d e r w e ig h t,
p a le s p o t s o v e r h e r f a c e and n e c k , and s c a l y e r u p t io n s
l e g s w h ich th e d o c to r d ia g n o s e s a s an a l l e r g y . She i s
f r a i l and seem s t i r e d . At p r e s e n t sh e i s in t h e l i g h t
c i s e g ro u p .
h as
on h e r
very
exer­
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a l i f o r n ia T e s t o f P e r s o n a li t y - E lem en ta­
r y , Form A: T o ta l A d ju stm en t, 94; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 30; D ate
1 /8 /4 0 .
The f o u r d e p a r tu r e s from t h e norm a r e in S e n se o f P er­
s o n a l W orth, N ervou s Symptoms, S o c i a l S ta n d a r d s , and Community
R e la tio n s .
W. L . f s p r o f i l e i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e g i r l .
She i s
h ig h ly n e r v o u s , h a s p r a c t i c a l l y no t r a i n i n g in s o c i a l s ta n d a r d s ,
and la c k s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e .
I t a p p ea rs t h a t i t w ould n o t b e
p o s s i b l e f o r h er t o a d j u s t t o th e community s in c e sh e answ ered
in t h e a f f i r m a t i v e th e q u e s t io n , " Is i t a l l r i g h t t o do what
you p l e a s e i f th e p o l i c e a re n o t around?” The answ er t o t h i s
q u e s t io n i s t u p i c a l o f W. L . f s a t t i t u d e . H ow ever, sh e i s to o
tim id and u s u a l l y s t e a l s a t an o ld e r c o lo r e d g i r l Ts b id d in g .
D ia g n o s t ic summary. W. L. seem s to o young and u n d e v elo p ed
and t o o lo w m e n ta lly t o comprehend t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f some o f
th e t e s t .
The E n g lis h t e a c h e r d o es n o t t h in k h e r i n t e l l i g e n t
enough to w r it e a s a t i s f a c t o r y a u to b io g r a p h y .
T reatm ent and c o n c l u s i o n . W. L . h a s th e f a i l i n g o f
many c o lo r e d p e o p le — s t e a l i n g . B e t t e r en viron m en t may make
some im p r e s sio n on h e r in t h i s r e g a r d a s sh e i s o n ly tw e lv e
y e a r s o l d . H owever, more d r a s t i c m easu res may b e n e c e s s a r y
t o im p ress on h e r th e m a tte r o f " p ro p erty r i g h t s . ”
R ecom m endations. F i r s t , i t seem s a d v is a b le t o a ttem p t
t o im prove W. L . ’ s h e a lth * P o s s i b l y i t would b e b e n e f i c i a l
t o h e r t o j o i n th e group o f u n d e r p r iv ile g e d g i r l s who a re
g iv e n b r e a k f a s t a t th e s c h o o l .
T h is m eal in c lu d e s h o t c e r e a l
and w h eat germ .
S in c e W. L . i s o f lo w m e n t a l it y , sh e seem s u n a b le t o
r e a s o n ab ou t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a c i t i z e n .
The g i r l who
ta u g h t h e r to s t e a l was s e n t t o J u v e n ile H a ll l a s t y e a r . T here-,
f o r e , a t p r e s e n t , sh e i s n o t tem pted t o ann ex s t o l e n p r o p e r ty .
The g i r l in t h i s c a s e i s young and w ith th e r i g h t g u id a n c e and
im proved h e a l t h , sh e w ou ld ap p ear to h ave a c h a n c e o f b ecom in g
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CASE NUMBER V III
I n t r o d u c t io n . M. L . i s l i k e "Topsy” a s d e s c r ib e d in
U n cle Tom's C a b in . She h a s a d i a b o l i c a l g r in on h er b la c k
f a c e and k in k y b r a id s o f h a i r . She i s s h o r t b u t s u p p le , and
sh e and h e r b r o th e r a r e o f t e n se e n e n t e r t a i n i n g g ro u p s o f s t u ­
d e n ts in th e s c h o o l yard w ith wj i t t e r b u g d a n c in g .” She s t e a l s
a s u n c o n c e r n e d ly a s sh e d a n ce s and w ith th e same i r r e s p o n s i b l e
z e st.
She l i v e s w it h h e r m other and tw o b r o t h e r s . The fa m ily
fo r m e r ly l i v e d w ith th e f a t h e r in Los A n g e le s i n a l o c a l i t y
w h ich was v e r y d e t r im e n ta l t o them a l l .
The m other s e p a r a te d
from t h e f a t h e r and b ro u g h t th e c h ild r e n t o P a sa d e n a . She i s
now o u t o f work and on r e l i e f .
The c h i ld r e n have a p o l i c e
record fo r s t e a lin g .
P roblem in t h i s c a s e . M. L. h as a r e c o r d o f s t e a l i n g .
L a st w in te r sh e was in v o lv e d w it h o t h e r c o lo r e d c h ild r e n i n
it h i e v e r y from th e g i r l s * l o c k e r s .
Home v i s i t . The v i s i t was made s h o r t l y a f t e r C h r istm a s.
The home was p oor b u t i t was su n n y and t h e f a m ily was g a th e r e d
ab o u t a C h ristm as t r e e , w h ic h , th e m other g a i l y e x p la in e d , had
f a l l e n o f f a tr u c k w ith s e v e r a l o th e r t r e e s .
S in c e P r o v id e n c e
had p r o v id e d su ch an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n ity , th e w h ole f a m ily
h a s te n e d t o make u s e o f i t .
They d e c o r a te d t h e one t r e e and
g a v e t h e o t h e r s t o th e n e ig h b o r s .
M en tal c o n d i t i o n . S c h o o l r e c o r d s a re in c o m p le te . The
Terman T e st r e c e n t l y g iv e n p l a c e s h e r I . Q. a t ab o u t 8 5 . When
sh e was a sk ed t o w r i t e h e r a u to b io g r a p h y , th e E n g lis h t e a c h e r
s t a t e d t h a t sh e was u n a b le t o w r it e c o h e r e n t l y .
P h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . M. L . * s h e a l t h i s good b u t from
a l l a c c o u n ts sh e d o es n o t h ave enough t o e a t .
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a li t y - E le ­
m en ta ry , Form A: T o ta l A d ju stm en t, 86; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 25;
D ate 1 / 8 / 4 0 .
M. L. d e p a r ts from norm al a t th e p o in t where many o f t h e
g i r l s a t M cK inley app ear t o ; t h a t i s , in Lack o f Freedom and
S c h o o l R e l a t i o n s . M. L . i s o n ly f o u r t e e n y e a r s o ld and p r e ­
v e n t i v e m ea su res may have b een ta k e n e a r ly enough t o b e o f
b e n e fit to h er.
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M. L . i s n o t d i f f i c u l t .
She h a s t h e c o lo r e d p e o p l e s 1
happy f a c u l t y o f lo o k in g on th e b r ig h t s i d e . She ask ed t h e
s c h o o l t o p r o v id e h e r w ith t e n n i s sh o e s f o r gymnasium work and
th e n b l i t h e l y ap p eared th e n e x t day w ith a new p o r ta b le r a d io ,
w h ich she s a id sh e o b ta in e d from s e l l i n g m a g a z in e s . M. L . and
h e r b r o th e r b ea m in g ly p la c e d th e r a d io in t h e m id d le o f t h e
s c h o o l y a rd and p r o c ee d e d t o g i v e t h e e n t i r e s c h o o l group a
f a i r e x h i b i t i o n o f j i t t e r b u g d a n c in g .
She r a t e s lo w
r e s p o n s ib ility .
She
S ta n d a r d s . M. L . i s
w ish ed more freed om ,
in S c h o o l R e l a t i o n s b e c a u s e o f h e r la c k o f
l a c k s know ledge o f S o c i a l S k i l l s and S o c i a l
a la w u n to h e r s e l f and i f a t a n y tim e sh e
sh e w ould f i n d some way t o o b t a in i t .
D ia g n o s t ic summary. M. L. *s f a m ily a r e n o t a m b itio u s
and in a g o o d -n a tu r e d way a r e c o n t e n t t o g e t a lo n g a s b e s t
th e y c a n . They sim p ly s t e a l what th e y c a n n o t g e t any o th e r
way and have no s c r u p l e s ab o u t i t .
T reatm ent and c o n c lu s i o n . S in c e t h i s stu d y h a s been i n
p r o g r e s s , M. L. h a s b e e n i n t e r e s t s d in a l l i t s a s p e c t s . A l­
thou gh to o young t o r e a l i z e i t s f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e , sh e i s
p le a s e d w it h t h e i n t e r e s t ta k e n i n h e r and i s w i l l i n g to c o ­
o p e r a te .
Her p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g w ould j u s t i f y an e x a m in a tio n i n t o
h e r m a tu r ity l e v e l w ith a v ie w t o ch a n g in g h e r program .
R ecom m endations. M. L . was rem oved from Los A n g e le s
w here h e r b r o th e r had b een p la c e d in J u v e n ile H a l l . The move
t o P asadena o u t o f t h e c o lo r e d s e c t i o n o f Los A n g e le s was a
good change and d e m o n s tr a te s t h a t a change and b e t t e r e n v ir o n ­
ment o f t e n g i v e a s tu d e n t a more even ch an ce to s u c c e e d .
CASE NUMBER IX
I n t r o d u c t io n . P h y s i c a l l y , M. M. i s w e l l b u i l t and t a l l .
She h a s a b o ld e x p r e s s io n and m anner. She i s b r o w n -h a ir e d ,
w ith b lu e e y e s and w ears h e r l i p s t i c k a p p lie d v e r y h e a v i l y .
She d r e s s e s a p p r o p r ia t e ly and i s n e a t .
She i s c o n s t a n t ly s e e k in g t h e company o f b oys and i s n o t
p a r t i c u l a r in h er c h o ic e o f f r i e n d s . M e n ta lly sh e i s norm al
b u t c o n s id e r s i t a w a s te o f tim e to u s e any m en ta l e n e r g y on
h er s t u d i e s .
Her home i s n e a t b u t crow d ed .
The m other s t a y s a t home
72
and th e f a t h e r i s a la u n d r y man.
F lo r id a two y e a r s a g o .
The f a m ily came h e r e from
Problem in t h i s c a s e . M. M. i s ab n orm ally i n t e r e s t e d
in b o y s , e s p e c i a l l y M e x ic a n s. She h a s been r e p o r te d by a
t e a c h e r a s o p e n ly m a n if e s t in g s e x t e n d e n c ie s w ith b o y s on t h e
s c h o o l p la y g ro u n d a t n oon .
Home v i s i t . The m other and th e p r o s p e c t iv e d a u g h te r in - la w w ere a t home. The m other d id n o t seem a t a l l c o n c e r n e d
or w o r r ie d ab ou t M. M. *s a s s o c i a t i o n w ith t h e M exican b o y s ,
com m enting on th e f a c t t h a t M. M. j u s t w alked to s c h o o l w it h
them b u t was n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n them s e r i o u s l y .
M en tal c o n d i t i o n . Kuhlman Anderson T e s t o f G en era l
I n te llig e n c e :
D ate 1 1 /3 8 ; C . A . , 1 5 -0 ; M . A . , 1 4 -1 0 ; I . Q . , 99;
S c o r e 5 5 . Terman Group T e s t o f M en tal A b i l i t y B: D ate 1 1 /3 8 ;
C . A . , 1 5 -0 ; M . A . , 1 1 -1 0 ; I . Q . , 79; S c o r e 5 3 .
P h y s ic a l c o n d i t i o n . M. M. i s s e v e n t e e n p e r c e n t o v e r ­
w e ig h t . She n e e d s g l a s s e s . Her t e e t h and e y e s a r e b e in g c a re d
f o r th ro u g h th e s c h o o l c l i n i c .
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a l i f o r n ia T e s t o f P e r s o n a li t y - E le ­
m en ta ry , Form A: T o t a l A d ju stm en t, 128; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 75;
D ate 1 / 8 / 4 0 .
M. M ., a c c o r d in g t o t h i s t e s t , i s v e r y n e r v o u s . T h is
i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y e v id e n t from o b s e r v a t io n . She d e p a r ts
from t h e norm i n F am ily R e la t io n s and Sc& ool R e l a t i o n s . T h is
f a c t i s s u b s t a n t ia t e d by c o n v e r s a t io n s I have had w ith h e r .
She s t a t e s t h a t sh e sp en d s e v e r y w eekend w ith an Armenian g i r l
who t a k e s h e r t o th e m o v ie s . M. M. d o e s n o t have any sp e n d in g
m oney. Her g r a d e s i n s c h o o l a re p oor and sh e i s an i n d i f f e r e n t
s t u d e n t . Her i n t e r e s t i n b o y s f i l l s a l l h e r t i m e .
D ia g n o s t ic summary. As in d ic a t e d in th e P e r s o n a l i t y
T e s t , M. M. d o e s n o t have enough i n t e r e s t s o u t s id e h e r a s s o c i ­
a t i o n w ith b o y s . I t i s e v id e n t t h a t sh e d o es n o t r e c e i v e any
h e l p f u l g u id a n c e a t home and sh e i s i n d i f f e r e n t and u n resp o n ­
s i v e t o any a tte m p ts on th e p a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r s t o h e lp h e r .
T reatm ent and c o n c l u s i o n . The exam in er had a lo n g c o n ­
v e r s a t i o n w ith th e Armenian g i r l whom M. M. has c h o s e n f o r a
f r i e n d . T h is f r i e n d was fo r m e r ly a M cK inley s t u d e n t . She
s a y s t h a t she h a s become v e r y fo n d o f M. M. and h a s h e lp e d h e r
t o c h o o s e b e t t e r a s s o c i a t e s o f h e r own r a c e . T h is f r i e n d s t a t e s
t h a t sh e g o e s everyw h ere w ith M. M. and s e e s t h a t s h e com es home-
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N o. 6201, U n iv ersity B ookstore, L os A ngeles
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e a r l y . The i n v e s t i g a t o r h a s had th e Armenian g i r l in h e r
c l a s s e s and knows h e r t o b e v e r y r e l i a b l e and g e n e r o u s . I t
w ould seem a t th e p r e s e n t tim e t h a t sh e i s in a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n
th a n a te a c h e r t o g i v e a s s i s t a n c e t o M. M.
The fa m ily o f t h e Armenian g i r l h a s a l s o e v in c e d an
i n t e r e s t i n M. M ., p r o v id in g h e r w ith a t t r a c t i v e c l o t h e s and
g i v in g b o th g i r l s sm a ll amounts o f sp e n d in g money fo r amuse­
m ents .
R ecom m endations. A lth o u g h M. M. seem s t o b e making h er
own a d ju stm e n t, sh e c o u ld a l s o p r o f i t b y j o i n i n g a Y. W. C. A.
or some o th e r c lu b . Her home s i t u a t i o n m igh t be rem ed ied th ro u g h
a more S ym p ath etic a t t i t u d e o f th e m oth er, who, a t th e tim e o f
th e home v i s i t , t a lk e d o n ly o f t h e b r i l l i a n c e o f t h e d a u g h ter
who had d ie d .
Her s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n m igh t be a d ju s te d by a th orou gh
i n v e s t i g a t i o n in t o h e r i n t e r e s t s , h e r m a t u r ity l e v e l , and h er
la c k o f g i r l f r i e n d s .
CASE NUMBER X
I n t r o d u c t io n . 0 . M. i s s le n d e r and t a l l w ith b lu e e y e s
and brown h a i r . She i s g e n e r a l l y p le a s a n t and a g r e e a b le . She
i s w e l l d r e s s e d bu t chew s gum c o n s t a n t ly .
She sp e a k s in a low
v o i c e , and a lth o u g h boy c r a z y , i s n o t o b v io u s ab ou t i t .
She i s
q u it e s u b t l e abou t h e r c o n q u e s t s .
She w orks hard in s c h o o l and seem s more r e f i n e d than many
o f th e o th e r g i r l s i n t h i s g r o u p . She i s a g o o d a c t r e s s b u t
som etim es f o r g e t s t o assum e h e r d i s g u i s e .
0.
M. l i v e s w ith h e r g r a n d p a re n ts a s h e r f a t h e r and
m other a re s e p a r a te d .
I t i s a norm al home,, a lth o u g h s m a ll, and
t h e g r a n d p a r e n ts seem i n t e r e s t e d i n 0 . M.
Problem in t h i s c a s e . 0 . M. h a s good s o c i a l a d ju stm e n t
b u t i s ab n orm ally fon d o f b o y s . B eca u se o f w a tc h fu l c a r e a t
home and a e e r t a i n amount o f s u p e r i s i o n , sh e h a s more chance
o f b e in g a d j u s t e d . She d o e s n o t seem to r e s e n t a u t h o r it y in
t h e g r a n d p a r e n ts , a lth o u g h sh e spoke o f t h e d i c t a t o r i a l manner
o f th e g r a n d f a th e r . The main problem in t h i s c a s e seem s t o b e
t h e en v iron m en t in w hich sh e l i v e s .
As i s th e u s u a l c a s e , de­
l in q u e n t s group th e m s e lv e s in l i t t l e c l u s t e r s . A l l t h e tw e n ty
g i r l s under o b s e r v a t io n , e x c e p t in g t h r e e , may be fo u n d in one
75
o f t h r e e g r o u p s— t h e c o lo r e d , th e p oor w h it e , and th e M exican .
0 . M ., i f a s s o c i a t e d w it h o th e r ty p e s r a th e r than t h i s p o o r
w h ite g ro u p , w ould u n d o u b te d ly be b e t t e r a d j u s t e d .
Home v i s i t . The grandm other and 0 . M. were p r e s e n t .
They t a lk e d o f a c e r t a i n t e a c h e r who d id n o t seem t o u n d er­
sta n d t h e p u p i l s .
S in c e many sp oke o f t h i s same t e a c h e r , i t
seem s r e a s o n a b le t o b e l i e v e t h e r e may b e some la c k o f sy m p a th y .
M en tal c o n d i t i o n . P r o g r e s s iv e A ch ievem en t T e s t:
D ate
6 /3 5 ; C . A . , 1 1 -0 ; S . A . , 1 0 -7 ; S . Q . , 96; S c o r e 1 9 3 . Terman Group
T e st o f M en tal A b i l i t y : D ate 4 /3 6 ; C . A . , 1 1 -1 1 ; M . A . , 1 1 -5 ;
1 . $ . , 96; S c o r e 4 8 . Kuhlman A nderson T e s t o f G en era l I n t e l l i ­
g e n c e: D ate 1 2 /3 8 ; O . A. , 1 4 -6 ; M. A. , 1 4 -8 ; I . f t . , 1 0 1 .
P h y s ic a l c o n d i t i o n .
H e a lth i s g o o d .
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a l i f o r n ia T e s t o f P e r s o n a li t y - E le ­
m en ta ry , Form A: T o ta l A d ju stm en t, 95; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 3 0 ;
D ate 1 / 8 / 4 0 .
The t e s t r e v e a l s what o b s e r v a t io n w ou ld le a d one t o e x ­
p e c t.
0 . M. w ith d ra w s i n t o h e r s e l f in o r d e r t o c o n c e a l h e r
r e a l f e e l i n g s . She a l s o c o n t r o ls h e r n e r v o u s t e n d e n c ie s , f o r
sh e d o es n o t app ear n e r v o u s . She i s m a la d ju s te d a t s c h o o l,
fo r h er te a c h e r s rep o rt her t o
be a n i n d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t , l a c k ­
in g e n th u sia sm , and c a p a b le o f d o in g b e t t e r .
D ia g n o s t ic summary.
0 . M. i s u n d u ly i n t e r e s t e d in th e
o p p o s it e s e x . She u s e s t o o much make-up and h er f r ie n d s and
a s s o c i a t e s a r e o f th e same s u p e r f i c i a l t y p e .
The g i r l s w ith th e h ig h e s t I . Q,. *s, i t seem s, are th e
m ost d i f f i c u l t t o t e s t b e c a u se t h e y a r e t h e m ost c l e v e r a t c o n ­
c e a l i n g what t h e y do n o t want known. 0 . M. i s a p p a r e n tly i n ­
d i f f e r e n t b u t a lo n g e r s tu d y w ould p r o b a b ly r e v e a l t h a t sh e i s
s e n s i t i v e and a m b itio u s f o r b e t t e r s o c i a l s t a n d in g . Her f r i e n d s
who l i v e i n t h e same n eig h b o rh o o d in t im a t e d t h i s .
I f sh e d id
n o t h ave th e background o f a b ro k en , and i f h e r f r i e n d s were
o f a b e t t e r t y p e , sh e w ould u n d o u b te d ly become more a d j u s t e d .
I t a p p e a r s t h a t h e r en viron m en t i s o v erp o w er in g and t h a t sh e
h a s g iv e n up th e s t r u g g l e .
0 . M . f s c a s e d e s e r v e s more c o n s id e r a ­
tio n .
R ecom m end ation s. 0 . M. p la n s t o a t t e n d P asadena J u n io r
C o lle g e n e x t y e a r . She w i l l f i n d g r e a t e r freed om h e r e and in
some c a s e s t h i s i s a s o l u t i o n f o r g i r l s who have m atured f a s t e r
e m o t io n a lly th a n m e n t a lly . A new e n v iro n m en t, such a s t h i s ,
sh o u ld be an a i d .
A ch a n g e in h e r home l i f e would a l s o be o f
b e n e f i t , b u t i t seem s e c o n o m ic a lly im p o s s ib le and t h e f r i c t i o n
c o n t in u e s .
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CASE NUMBER XI
I n t r o d u c t io n , M. A. M. i s s h o r t , s t r o n g ly b u i l t , w it h
brown ©yes and h a i r , deep d im p le s and a m erry e x p r e s s i o n . Her
c h e e k s a r e round and r o s y and sh e p la y s and w ork s z e s t f u l l y .
She o f t e n a p p ea rs d i s i n t e r e s t e d b e c a u se sh e ca n n o t h e a r w e l l .
She h a s b een s u s p e c te d o f s t e a l i n g b u t i t h a s n e v e r b een
d e f i n i t e l y p ro v ed t h a t t h i s was th e c a s e . She s e e k s t h e com­
pany o f b o y s . Her o th e r boy f r i e n d s a r e n o t h er e q u a l and h e r
m other s t a t e s t h a t t h i s i s due t o t h e n eig h b o rh o o d in w h ich
th e y l i v e .
M cK inley J u n io r H igh S c h o o l h a s a c l a s s f o r h e a r in g
c o n s e r v a t io n s t u d e n t s , and M. A. M. i s a member o f t h i s c l a s s .
M ost o f h e r work i s ta k e n w ith a s p e c i a l te a c h e r a lth o u g h she
h a s an o p p o r tu n ity t o m ix w it h la r g e g ro u p s o f g i r l s in h e r
gymnasium w ork.
She l i v e s w ith h e r f a t h e r , s te p -m o th e r , b r o t h e r , and
s is te r .
The f a m ily r e s e n t s any c r i t i c i s m o f th e d a u g h t e r s
c o n d u c t.
P roblem in t h i s c a s e . In th e s e v e n th and e ig h t h
g r a d e s , M. A. M. was s u s p e c te d o f s t e a l i n g and p r e v a r i c a t i n g .
In t h e n in t h and t e n t h g r a d e s , h e r i n t e r e s t tu r n e d to b o y s .
She i s a c o n s t a n t f r i e n d o f a boy who h a s a v e r y p o o r r e p u ta ­
tio n .
Home v i s i t . T h is was t h e o n ly home v i s i t e d in w h ich
any r e se n tm e n t tow ard th e v i s i t o r was shown. The m oth er,
o ld e r s i s t e r , and M. A. M. w ere p r e s e n t . When app roached a s
t o th e d a u g h te r ’ s c h o ic e o f f r i e n d s , th e m other came t o h er
d e f e n s e . Her o ld e r s i s t e r was a l s o b e l l i g e r e n t .
M en tal c o n d i t i o n . P r o g r e s s iv e A ch ievem en t T e st:
D ate
2 /3 5 ; C . A . , 11; E. A . , 11; E . Q . , 1 00; S c o r e , 215; G . P . , 5 . 5 .
Terman Group T e s t o f M en tal A b i l i t y A: D ate 1 1 /3 5 ; C . A . , 1 1 10; M . A . , 12; I. Q, . , 101; S c o r e , 5 5 . Kuhlman A nderson T e st o f
G en era l I n t e l l i g e n c e :
D ate 2 /3 8 ; O. A. , 14; M . A . , 1 5 -1 ; I.Q, . ,
108.
P h y s ic a l c o n d i t i o n . No tr e a tm e n t w i l l h e lp h e r h e a r in g .
A s id e from t h i s d e f e c t , sh e i s in good h e a l t h .
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a l i f o r n ia T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y - Elem en­
t a r y , Form A: T o ta l A d ju stm en t, 128; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 75;
D ate 1 / 8 / 4 0 .
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M. A. M. Ts h a n d ica p may e x p l a in h e r d e f l e c t i o n from t h e
norm. She seem s t o h ave an i n f e r i o r i t y com p lex, a f e e l i n g o f
" n ot b e l o n g i n g ," a n d i s somewhat n e r v o u s and m a la d ju s te d in
s c h o o l.
A lth o u g h M. A. M. ra n k s h ig h e r in t h e P e r s o n a l i t y T e s t
th a n m ost o f th e o t h e r s i n t h i s grou p , f o r h e r p a r t i c u l a r norm
she ra n k s lo w e r in "S en se o f P e r s o n a l Y /orth," in " S en se o f
P e r s o n a l Freedom ," and " F e e lin g o f B e lo n g in g ." A l l o f t h e s e
m a la d ju stm e n ts c o u ld be a s s o c i a t e d w ith h er p h y s i c a l h a n d ic a p ,
d e a fn e ss.
From t a l k s w ith th e f a m ily and t e a c h e r s , i t a p p ea rs
t h a t c o n tr a r y t o th e P e r s o n a l i t y T e s t , M. A. M. i s m a la d ju s te d
a t home r a t h e r th an a t s c h o o l .
The m other a d m itte d , when
q u e s tio n e d r e g a r d in g th e c h a r a c te r o f t h e M. A. M. had c h o se n
f o r a - f r i e n d , "What can I do l i v i n g a s I do on t h i s s t r e e t ? "
T h is i s t h e same p a r t o f town t h a t 0 . M. l i v e s in and l i k e 0 . M .,
M. A. M . ’ s m other i s a m b itio u s t o b e t t e r th e f a m ily c o n d i t i o n s ,
b u t i s f i n a n c i a l l y u n a b le .
D ia g n o s t ic summary. M. A. M ., b e c a u se o f h er d e a f n e s s ,
i s s e g r e g a t e d . T h is p r e v e n ts h e r a s s o c i a t i n g w it h many b o y s
and g i r l s .
She d o e s f a i r work in h e r s p e c i a l c l a s s e s b u t i s
u n tr u s tw o r th y . She h a s a happy d i s p o s i t i o n and i s e n t h u s i a s t i c
in h e r s p o r t s , As f a r a s i s known, sh e no lo n g e r s t e a l s , b u t
she s t i l l h a s an unwholesom e i n t e r e s t in b o y s .
T reatm ent and c o n c l u s i o n . A t e a c h e r w ould do w e l l t o
en co u ra g e M. A. M.*s i n t e r e s t i n s p o r t s .
I t g i v e s a w holesom e
o p p o r tu n ity t o m in g le w ith many g i r l s .
In s p o r t s sh e i s n o t
n o t i c e a b l y h an d icap p ed by d e a f n e s s , and can be on a p a r w ith
o th e r g i r l s .
O ther i n t e r e s t s , su ch a s h ik in g and swim ming,
w ould be b e n e f i c i a l .
R ecom m endations, The t e a c h e r in M. A. M. f s H ea r in g
C o n se r v a tio n c l a s s en d eavors, d u rin g t h e tim e sh e h a s t h e
h a n d ica p p ed g i r l s w ith h e r , t o f i t them f o r work in w h ic h
d e a f n e s s w i l l n o t be a h a n d ic a p . She h a s been e x t r a o r d i n a r il y
s u c c e s s f u l w ith t h e s e g i r l s and boys and h e r recom m endation i s
m ost v a l u a b l e .
G ir l s from h e r c l a s s e s have b een s u c c e s s f u l in a r t w ork,
d a n c in g , se w in g , a t h l e t i c s , and la n d sc a p e g a r d e n in g . Many have
made happy homes f o r d e a f b o y s .
In t h i s c a s e , t h e t e a c h e r a d v is e s t h a t M. A. M. f i t h e r ­
s e l f t o be a l i p r e a d in g t e a c h e r . M. A. M. i s o n ly p a r t i a l l y
d e a f and so can b e t t e r h e lp e n t i r e l y d e a f g i r l s .
She h a s a lr e a d y
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shown an a p t it u d e f o r t h i s s o r t o f . o c c u p a tio n .
T hus, i t seem s w it h l e i s u r e tim e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p o r t s
w ith norm al p e o p le , h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s w ould be l e s s e n e d and sh e
w ould have o t h e r th an s e x i n t e r e s t s .
CASE NUMBER X II
I n t r o d u c t io n . P h y s i c a l l y , M. B. M. i s l a r g e , w e l l b u i l t and o f th e a t h l e t i c t y p e . She i s b o y is h i n h e r b e h a v io r
and assum es many m a sc u lin e m ann erism s. Her h a ir i s c u t s h o r t
and t h i s i n c r e a s e s h e r b o y is h a p p e a r a n c e .
She i s p le a s a n t and t a k e s c r i t i c i s m w e l l .
She s t r i v e s
t o do th e th in g sh e w an ts t o , b u t when f ir m ly d e a l t w it h , w i l l
g i v e in g r a c i o u s l y .
T h is i s th e o p in io n o f some o f h e r t e a c h e r s
a lth o u g h t h e V ic e P r i n c ip a l r e p o r t s t h a t sh e h a s a v i o l e n t
tem p er. M. B. M. i s a b s e n t s o much o f t h e tim e t h a t i t i s
d i f f i c u l t f o r h e r t o do th e work sh e i s c a p a b le o f d o in g .
M. B. M. l i v e s w ith h e r f a t h e r in a bungalow c o u r t . He
i s a sa le sm a n . The m other and f a t h e r are s e p a r a t e d .
There
a re t h r e e c h i ld r e n , b u t M. B. M. i s th e o n ly on e l i v i n g w ith
th e f a t h e r .
P roblem in t h i s c a s e . M. B. M. i s v e r y h ard t o know,
f o r a lth o u g h sh e i s a p p a r e n tly v e r y a c q u ie s c e n t , sh e i s v e r y
stu b b o r n . She ev a d e s a n y th in g sh e d i s l i k e s t o d o . She r e ­
c e n t l y was in J u v e n ile C ourt f o r d e lin q u e n c y .
Home v i s i t . M. B. M. was a t home w ith a c o u s i n . She
was i l l a t e a s e , b u t t a lk e d r e a d i l y a b o u t s c h o o l .
The home
was g o o d , th e u s u a l bungalow c o u r t t y p e . M. B. M. s a id sh e
h a te d th e s c h o o l, th e t e a c h e r s , t h e p u p i l s , • i n f a c t e v e r y th in g
a t M cK in ley. She i s l a r g e f o r h e r age and h a s tomboy te n d e n ­
c i e s and s a y s t h a t sh e d i s l i k e s a n y th in g t h a t s u g g e s t s g r a c e
and p o i s e .
M ental c o n d i t i o n . Kuhlman A nderson T e s t o f G en era l
I n te llig e n c e :
D ate 3 /3 9 ; C . A . , 1 4 -6 ; M . A . , 1 4 -6 ; I . Q , . , 1 0 0 .
P h y s ic a l c o n d i t i o n . M. B. M. h a s a h i s t o r y o f B r i g h t Ts
D i s e a s e . Som etim es sh e c o m p la in s o f h ead ach e a f t e r h e r gym­
nasium c l a s s e s .
T h is may be due t o h e r d i s l i k e f o r d a n c in g ,
a s th e y a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y in e v id e n c e on th e days d a n c in g c l a s s e s
are h e ld .
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Form A:
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a l i f o r n ia T e s t o f P e r s o n a li t y - E le m e n ta r y ,
T o ta l A d ju stm en t, 10 1 ; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 4 0 , D ate 1 / 8 / 4 0 .
T h is t e s t r e v e a l s w hat one would e x p e c t — t h a t M. B. M.
h a s no " F e e lin g o f B e lo n g in g ." Her d i s l i k e o f M cK inley S c h o o l
i s made e v id e n t in th e P e r s o n a li t y T e s t .
She i s n e r v o u s , b u t
h id e s i t under a rough e x t e r i o r . She i s a n t i - s o c i a l and un­
happy a t home and a t s c h o o l . She d w e lls c o n s t a n t ly o n . a s c h o o l
w h ich sh e fo r m e r ly a tte n d e d and l i k e d .
D ia g n o s t ic summary. M. B . M. i s c o n t i n u a l l y s t a y in g
ou t o f s c h o o l.
In h e r th r e e a n d . a h a l f y e a r s o f J u n io r H igh
S c h o o l, sh e h a s been a b s e n t 112 d a y s .
The tr u a n t o f f i c e r h a s
had t o go t o t h e home t o send h er back t o s c h o o l . She d o es n o t
c a r e f o r m o v ie s and p r e f e r s t o go r o l l e r s k a t i n g . She i s n o t a
member o f any c lu b e x c e p t t h e G i r l s ’ A t h l e t i c A s s o c ia t i o n in
s c h o o l . She i s n o t g iv e n any sp en d in g money b u t o c c a s i o n a ll y
e a r n s some by c a r in g f o r th e n e ig h b o r ’ s c h i ld r e n .
T reatm ent and c o n c lu s i o n . Many v i s i t s w ith M. B. M.
le a d th e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o b e l i e v e t h a t M. B. M. i s so m alad­
j u s t e d a t s c h o o l t h a t sh e n e e d s s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n g iv e n t o h er
program . She e n jo y s any form o f s p o r t and i s happy when
o c c u p ie d t h a t w ay. She h a s v e r y fe w g i r l f r i e n d s . Her c i r c l e
o f f r i e n d s sh o u ld be e n la r g e d th ro u g h o u t s id e c lu b s and i n ­
te r e sts.
S in c e sh e d o es n o t c a r e f o r the u s u a l a c t i v i t i e s in
w hich th e a v e r a g e g i r l f i n d s p le a s u r e , sh e may n o t f i n d h e r s e l f
u n t i l sh e becom es i n t e r e s t e d in t h e o p p o s it e s e x .
S ta te m e n ts from h e r a u to b io g r a p h y a r e e n l i g h t e n i n g . 2
My f i r s t im p r e s s io n s on s c h o o l, I c a n ’t remember. I
know I l i k e d grammar s c h o o l q u it e a b i t .
I have u s u a l l y
a lw a y s had many good f r i e n d s , u n t i l I came h e r e a t t h i s
s c h o o l.
I d o n ’t l i k e th e k id s and t h e y d o n ’t l i k e me. At
• M a rsh a ll I know I was l i k e d p r e t t y w e l l . M o stly b e c a u se
o f my a b i l i t y in s p o r t s .
My s t u d i e s h ave a lw a y s b een p r e t t y hard f o r m e. I t ’ s
e i t h e r t h a t I h ave o th e r t h i n g s on my m ind, m eaning t r o u b le s
a t home, o r e l s e I j u s t c a n ’t do th e w ork. I f I l i k e th e
t e a c h e r i t u s u a l l y makes, q u it e a d i f f e r e n c e in my w ork. I f
t h e t e a c h e r s t r e a t me n ic e th e n I do a n y th in g to p l e a s e th em .
I f n o t , th e n I j u s t c a n ’ t sta n d t o be b o s se d around by them .
2 E x c e r p ts from "My A u tob iograp h y" by M. B. M ., Jan u ary 1 8 ,
1940.
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When th e y g e t d is g u s t e d w ith me and baw l me o u t, th e n I
g e t mad and e i t h e r argu e back a t them o r s t a r t ig n o r in g
them . . . . But a s i t g o e s , my m other h a s o f t e n t o l d me
t h a t I ta k e l i f e to o s e r i o u s . Y e s , I g u e s s maybe I d o .
But I h ave g o t my moments when I can b e j u s t a s happy and
f u l l o f l i f e a s any o f them . Now ta k e th e s k a t in g r in k f o r
i n s t a n c e . When I am a t th e r in k I f o r g e t a l o t o f t h i n g s .
I'm happy and I e n jo y m y s e lf a s much a s I p o s s i b l y c a n .
I h ave a p a ir o f sh o e s k a t e s t h a t I b ou gh t w it h my own
m oney. A lm ost tw e n ty d o l l a r s , b u t i t was w orth i t .
I go
t h e r e a s much a s I c a n .
I t r y t o k eep away from home a s
■much a s p o s s i b l e . At home e v e r y o n e f i g h t s and a r g u e s and
we n e v e r g e t a lo n g . . . .
I ’d r a t h e r s k a te th a n a n y th in g ,
ev en e a t o r s l e e p .
And my p la n s f o r th e f u t u r e .
I have none a s y e t .
I
w anted t o be a gym t e a c h e r , b u t my F rench i s bad , s o , I
t h in k I ’l l ta k e up p r o f e s s i o n a l r a c in g on s k a t e s .
I ’l l
e n te r some derby r a c e s and do my b e s t .
R ecom m end ation s. There a r e tw o t e a c h e r s a t M cK inley
who have a d e c id e d in f lu e n e e o v e r M. B . M ., and sh e h a s g r e a t
r e s p e c t f o r t h e i r a d v ic e .
I t i s p r o b a b le t h a t w ith t h e i r
en co u ragem en t, sh e w ould en d eavor t o be more c o - o p e r a t i v e .
She i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d in s k a t in g and h a s a sk e d
th e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o come t o th e r o l l e r - s k a t i n g r in k t o s e e
her sk a te .
M. B. M. a s p i r e s t o b e a p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n i n s t r u c t o r
and i f h e r f a m ily r e l a t i o n s w ere h a p p ie r , sh e m igh t be a b le
t o r e a l i z e t h i s a m b itio n .
R ecen t d e v e lo p m e n ts . M. B . El. h a s r e c e n t l y had h e r
p a r o le e x te n d e d . The 7 i c e P r i n c ip a l r e p o r t s t h a t when Ef. B . M.
was t o l d t h i s , sh e became v e r y angry and l o s t c o n t r o l o f h e r ­
s e l f . Her m oth er i s now l i v i n g w ith a man t o T/diom sh e i s n o t
m a r r ie d . II. B. M. w is h e s t o l i v e w ith h e r , b u t t h e p a r o le
o f f i c e r o b j e c t s , a s sh e f e e l s th a t i t i s t h e wrong atm osp h ere
f o r h e r t o be i n .
CASE NUMBER X I II
I n t r o d u c t io n . C. M. i s v e r y t a l l , r o u n d -sh o u ld e r e d ,
and awkward. She i s a b n o rm a lly s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and t im id . She
w ea rs h e r l i g h t brown h a i r in lo n g b r a id s wound a b ou t h er h e a d ,
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w h ich w ith a l o v e l y c o m p le x io n and a s m ilin g e x p r e s s io n , g i v e s
h e r an a lm o st m a d o n n a -lik e a p p ea r a n c e .
She seem s happy h u t a f r a i d to show i t .
C. M. i s v e r y
in d u s t r io u s and o b e d ie n t . Her r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g , w h ich h a s
b een f o r c e d upon h e r , h a s made h e r s o d i f f e r e n t from o th e r
norm al g i r l s t h a t sh e now f e e l s i n f e r i o r .
I t i s o n ly r e c e n t l y
t h a t h e r m other h a s a llo w e d h e r t o wear s o c k s . H it h e r t o , sh e
wore lo n g b la c k s t o c k i n g s w ith drab d r e s s e s .
C. M. i s f o u r t e e n y e a r s o ld and l i v e s w ith h e r f a t h e r
and m other in a p o o r , u n tid y home. The m other i s a r e l i g i o u s
f a n a t i c , o f N azarene f a i t h .
The f a t h e r i s o u t o f w ork. The
f a m ily m ig r a te d h e r e from M is s o u r i where th e d ro u g h t had d e­
p l e t e d what l i t t l e th e y h a d .
Problem in t h i s c a s e . On a r r i v a l in P a sa d en a , C. M.
was foun d t o have t u b e r c u l o s i s .
She was g iv e n p ro p er c a re fo r
a y e a r , w it h th e h e lp o f P asad en a c h a r i t i e s , and i s now con­
s id e r e d r e c o v e r e d . She i s in th e s p e c i a l group f o r H ea rin g
C o n se r v a tio n p u p ils and t h e r e f o r e in sm a ll c l a s s e s .
The m other
r e f u s e d t o com ply w ith th e r e q u ir e m e n ts f o r th e gymnasium u n i­
form a s sh e s t a t e d t h a t no m o d est g i r l w ould d r e s s i n s h o r t s .
T h is s e g r e g a t e d C. M. a l l th e more a s i t made h e r ap p ear
" d if f e r e n t " when sh e was alreadjr c o n s c io u s o f h e r p e c u l i a r
a p p e a r a n c e . C. M. was a n x io u s t o b e l o y a l to h e r m o th e r 's
f a i t h , b u t a l s o a n x io u s t o p l e a s e h e r t e a c h e r s . She would cry
when app roached on th e s u b j e c t o f d r e s s and th e C o u n se lo r ad­
v i s e d t h a t f o r th e p r e s e n t , r e f e r e n c e t o th e m a tte r be d ropp ed .
Home v i s i t . The home v i s i t was v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y s in c e
i t e x p la in e d many o f C. M .'s e c c e n t r i c i t i e s .
The home seem ed
t o be an o ld barn or g a r a g e . The two g i r l s w ere a t home w ith
t h e i r m other and seem ed happy t o have someone v i s i t them .
The
m other s t i l l i n s i s t e d t h a t sh e f e l t i t w ould be im m odest f o r
th e g i r l s t o d r e s s in s h o r t s f o r gymnasium w ork.
M en tal c o n d i t i o n .
Terman Group T e s t o f M en tal A b i l i t y :
D ate 1 2 /3 8 ; C .A ., 1 3 -1 ; M .A ., 1 3 -6 ; I . Q . , 103; S c o r e , 8 2 .
P h y s ic a l c o n d i t i o n . C. M. h a s a h i s t o r y o f t u b e r c u l o s i s .
She h a s k y p h o s is , im p a ire d h e a r in g , i s la r g e f o r h e r a g e and
o v e r w e ig h t e ig h t p e r c e n t .
Form A:
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a l i f o r n ia T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y - E lem en ta ry
T o ta l A d ju stm en t, 1 0 8 ; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 45; D ate 1 / 8 / 4 0 .
C. M. d e p a r ts from norm al a t p o in t s t h a t a r e m ost
a c t e r i s t i c o f h e r b e h a v io r . She r e g i s t e r s low; i n "Sense
char­
of
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ase fc.o
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P e r s o n a l W orth," " F e e lin g o f B e lo n g in g ," and "N ervous Symptoms."
She i s v e r y t im id , sh y , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s . She f i n d s i t hard t o
ta k e p a r t in a c t i v i t i e s a t s c h o o l a s h e r m oth er r e q u ir e s su ch
r i g i d a d h eren ce t o th e N azaren e f a i t h .
She i s a lm o st to o
a n x io u s t o p l e a s e . As t o h e r s o c i a l a d ju stm e n t, sh e i s f a r b e ­
low p a r in s o c i a l s k i l l s .
She h a s n e v e r b e e n t o a m o v ie, e x ­
c e p t a t s c h o o l.
D ia g n o s t ic summary. C. M. f s m a la d ju stm en t i s c a u se d b y
h e r home t r a i n i n g , d e a f n e s s , and t i m i d i t y .
I t i s in c r e a s e d by
la c k o f s o c i a l s k i l l s and t h e f a c t t h a t sh e i s awkward, la r g e
f o r h e r a g e , and o ld f o r h e r grad e ( 7 - B ) .
An u n fo r tu n a te e x p e r ie n c e w ith a form er m ale t e a c h e r ,
w ho.w as more i n t e r e s t e d in h e r p e r s o n a l charm th an in h e r
m u s ic a l e d u c a t io n , in c r e a s e d h e r sh y n e s s and made h e r d i s ­
t r u s t f u l o f p e o p le .
T reatm en t and o o n c l u s io n . M cK inley J u n io r H igh S c h o o l
h a s ta k e n g r e a t i n t e r e s t in C. M. She i s r e sp o n d in g t o kin d
t r e a t m e n t. The P . T. A. f u r n is h e s h e r lu n c h e s , th e gymnasium
t e a c h e r i s g i v in g s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o h e r p o s t u r e , t h e H ear­
in g C o n s e r v a tio n c l a s s p r o v id e s s p e c i a l academ ic t r a i n i n g , and
p ia n o l e s s o n s a r e b e in g p r o v id e d . She i s w orking w eekends to
earn a l i t t l e m oney. The P . T. A. h a s r e c e n t l y b ou gh t h e r an
e n t i r e new s c h o o l o u t f i t .
She now seem s b u sy and happy b u t
s t i l l h a s much t o overco m e.
R ecom m endations. C. M. i s v e r y c o - o p e r a t i v e and th e r e
i s r e a so n t o b e l i e v e t h a t in tim e she w i l l becom e an a d ju s te d
p e r s o n a l i t y . The i n v e s t i g a t o r b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s v e r y e s s e n t i a l
f o r th e p r e s e n t r e m e d ia l p r o c e d u r e s t o be c o n t in u e d .
CASS NUMBER XIV
I n t r o d u c t io n . A. M. h a s th e f l a s h i n g p e r s o n a l i t y o f
many o f th e M exican p e o p le . She i s sm a ll w ith b r ig h t b la c k
e y e s and t h ic k b la c k h a i r . She i s somewhat u n tid y in ap p ear­
a n c e . A. M. i n h e r i t s a v i o l e n t tem per and u s e s i t .
S h e, l i k e
th e r e s t o f h e r p e o p le , l o v e s t o dance and e x c e l s i n i t .
She
i s n o t a good s t u d e n t , b u t i s
c l e v e r in a r t and s p o r t s .
A. M.
i s now in t h e n in t h g r a d e . .
Her f a t h e r , who i s F ren ch , i s an i t i n e r a n t .
The home
was c le a n b u t v e r y p o o r . The m other s t a y s a t homeb u t th e o ld e r
b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s l i v e e ls e w h e r e .
87
P roblem i n t h i s c a s e . A. M. i s o f lo w m e n t a l i t y . She
h a s a v i o l e n t tem per and s e t t l e s h er d i f f i c u l t i e s - i n p r im it iv e
f a s h io n .
In December 1 9 3 9 , sh e b i t a n o th e r M exican g i r l
s e v e r e l y on th e c h e e k . At th e Emergency H o s p it a l b o th g i r l s
were booked f o r mayhem by t h e p o l i c e . A. M. h as d i f f i c u l t y
i n r e a d in g and o t h e r s t u d i e s .
Home v i s i t . The m other and A. M.
tr u e M exican c o u r t e s y , th e y r e c e iv e d t h e
d is r e g a r d e d any r e f e r e n c e t o th e q u a r r e l
The m other s t a t e d t h a t A. M. e n jo y e d h e r
w ere a t home. W ith
v i s i t o r b u t s m i l in g l y
A. M. had had a t s c h o o l*
s c h o o l v e r y much.
M en tal c o n d i t i o n . Terman Group T e s t o f M en tal A b i l i t y B:
D ate 5 /3 6 ; C .A ., 1 4 -3 ; M .A ., 1 0 -2 ; I . Q . , 71; S c o r e , 3 2 . San gren
Woody R eading T e s t :
D ate 5 /3 7 ; C .A ., 1 5 -4 ; S c o r e , 38; G. P . , 4 . 2 .
Kuhlman A nderson T e s t o f G en eral I n t e l l i g e n c e :
D ate 1 2 /3 8 ; C .A .,
1 6 -9 ; M .A ., 1 5 -6 ; 1 .% ., 9 3 .
P h y s ic a l c o n d i t i o n .
w e ig h t *
Eorm A:
A. M. i s t w e lv e p er c e n t u n d er­
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a l i f o r n ia T e st o f P e r s o n a lit y -E le m e n ta r y
T o t a l A d ju stm en t, 1 11; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 50; D ate 1 / 4 0 .
A. M. seem s f r u s t r a t e d in t h a t sh e i s r e s t r a i n e d by h e r
m o th er. She c o m p la in s t h a t h e r m other i s v e r y s t r i c t and d o es
n o t seem t o remember t h a t sh e i s s i x t e e n y e a r s o l d . A lth ou gh
she i s i n c l i n e d to be a n t i - s o c i a l , A. M. i s c o - o p e r a t iv e w ith
h e r t e a c h e r s and seem s a d j u s t e d , b u t she i s o f lo w m e n t a lit y
and u n a b le t o do much o f th e w ork.
D ia g n o s t ic summary. A. M. n e e d s s p e c i a l h e lp i n r e a d in g .
She i s p oor in a l l s u b j e c t s e x c e p t a r t and p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n !
She i s c o - o p e r a t i v e u n l e s s c r o s s e d and th e n she d i s p l a y s a
v i o l e n t tem p er.
R e c e n t ly , A. M. f e l l ; t h e s c h o o l n u rse and t h e d o c to r
a g r ee d t h a t sh e was e n d e a v o r in g to a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n . She
lo n g s f o r a t t e n t i o n and to o k t h i s m ethod o f s e c u r in g i t .
T reatm ent and c o n c lu s i o n . A. M. h a s been p la c e d i n a
r e m e d ia l r e a d in g c l a s s . She i s h a v in g m ilk s u p p lie d h e r b y
t h e s c h o o l . She i s i n t e r e s t e d in t h e S p a n ish D ancing c l a s s e s
sh e a t t e n d s a t t h e S e t tle m e n t H ou se. T h is i n t e r e s t sh o u ld b e
en co u ra g ed a s h e r h o p es a re t o e v e n t u a l ly become a member o f
th e Padua H i l l s Dance Group.
R ecom m end ation s. She sh o u ld be en cou raged t o ta k e a r t
work and t o become a member o f th e G ir ls * A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n .
xs
ge
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A v i s i t t o th e m other i s s u g g e s te d t o d e ter m in e w h eth er
o r n o t A. M. ean be a llo w ed a l i t t l e more l i b e r t y a t home.
Her f e e l i n g o f r e s t r a i n t i s c o r r o b o r a te d by th e P e r s o n a l i t y
P r o file .
GASS NUMBER XV ‘
I n t r o d u c t io n . M. S . i s u n d e rw eig h t and u n d e r n o u r ish e d .
She h a s b lu e e y e s and dark h a i r and i s sm a ll and p a t h e t i c
lo o k in g . She i s n o t w e l l and show s i t . - M. S . d r e s s e s s h a b b ily
and h a s a c o l o r l e s s p e r s o n a l i t y . She s a y s l i t t l e and seem s t o
have v e r y few f r i e n d s , a lth o u g h sh e o b v io u s ly s e e k s t h e s o c i e t y
o f b o y s.
She i s a poor s tu d e n t and a p p ea rs to o l i s t l e s s and weak
t o e x e r t h e r s e l f t o im prove c o n d i t i o n s . M. S . i s f i f t e e n y e a r s
o ld and i n t h e t e n t h g ra d e a t M cK inley J u n io r H igh S c h o o l.
Problem in t h i s c a s e . M. S . , l i k e the.m em b ers o f th e
l i t t l e group w ith whom sh e a s s o c i a t e s , a l l o f whom a r e m en tio n ed
i n t h i s p a p er , i s boy c r a z y . T h ese g i r l s a l l l i v e n e a r each
o th e r and b e c a u se o f t h e i r la c k o f s e c u r i t y , have banded them ­
s e l v e s t o g e t h e r in a s o r t o f c lu b . S e v e r a l o f t h e i r rem arks
show t h a t th e y r e s e n t th e g i r l s who a r e p o p u la r a t M cK inley,
t h o s e who h o ld th e s t u d e n t o f f i c e s , and t h o s e who a r e a c t i v e
in th e s o c i a l l i f e o f th e s c h o o l . B e in g o s t r a c i z e d from t h e s e
g r o u p s, th e y o b t a in w h a tev er fu n t h e y c a n , j o i n any group o f
b o y s and lo u d ly p r o c la im t h e i r r i g h t t o a p la c e in t h e su n .
They a r e on t h e "wrong s i d e o f t h e t r a c k s ," w h ich t h e y r e s e n t ,
and in t h e i r e f f o r t s to "belong" a r e i n danger o f w r ec k in g
t h e i r f u t u r e h a p p in e s s .
Home v i s i t . M. S . , h e r m oth er, and two l i t t l e b r o th e r s
w ere p r e s e n t .
In m ost c a s e s i t was d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a in an
i n t e r v ie w w it h th e p a r e n ts a lo n e a s t h e homes were so s m a ll.
M en tal c o n d i t i o n . Terrnan Group T e s t o f M en tal A b i l i t y A:
D ate 3 /3 6 ; C .A ., 1 1 -1 1 ; M .A ., 1 0 -3 ; I.Q ,., 8 6; S c o r e , 3 3 .
San gren Woody R eading T e s t:
D ate 5 /3 7 ; C .A ., 1 3 -1 ; S c o r e , 7 7 .
Kuhlman A nderson T e st o f G en eral I n t e l l i g e n c e :
D ate 1 1 /3 8 ;
C .A ., 1 4 -8 ; M .A ., 13-5;- I .Q ,., 9 1 .
P h y s ic a l c o n d i t i o n . M. S . h a s c o n s t a n t c o ld s and f o u r
y e a r s ago was p la c e d in R e s t C la s s in p h y s i c a l e d u c a t io n .
In
1 9 3 8 , sh e was s t i l l in th e R e s t C la s s and under o b s e r v a tio n
a t t h e C h est c l i n i c , w here th e c h ild r e n h ave f r e e tr e a tm e n t.
90
She i s e le v e n p e r c e n t u n d e rw eig h t; h er t e e t h a re b a d ly d e -.
ea y ed ; sh e cou gh s c o n s t a n t ly ; and sh e h a s a n a s a l i n f e c t i o n .
At t h e tim e o f th e home v i s i t i n December 1 9 3 9 , t h e m other
a sk ed i f M. S . c o u ld h ave l i g h t e x e r c i s e s i n c e sh e had g a in e d
w e ig h t . T h is was recommended by th e d o c t o r .
Form A:
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a l i f o r n ia T e st o f P e r s o n a l i t y - E lem en ta ry
T o ta l A d ju stm en t, 91; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 3 0 ; D ate 1 / 8 / 4 0 .
L ik e th e m oabers o f th e l i t t l e group t o whichM. S . b e ­
l o n g s , sh e i s in s e c u r e and w ith d ra w s from a l l e x c e p t h e r few
f r i e n d s . As h e r h e a lt h i s p o o r , sh e show s th e n e r v o u s symptoms
t h a t a re a s s o c i a t e d w ith f r a i l h e a l t h .
In a d d i t io n , sh e d e­
p a r t s from th e norm al i n f a m ily r e l a t i o n s and s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s .
She i s f a r t h e r from t h e norm in fa m ily r e l a t i o n s .
D ia g n o s t ic summary. N ot u n t i l t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was
made was i t r e v e a le d t h a t th e members o f t h i s tro u b le so m e
group l i v e c l o s e t o e a ch o th e r and have banded t o g e t h e r to
work o u t t h e i r p roblem s w ith gang p s y c h o lo g y . They a r e a l l
unhappy a t home and in s c h o o l . M. S . h a s b een o u t o f s c h o o l
s i x t y - f o u r days in fo u r y e a r s .
In h e r c a s e , some a b s e n c e s
may be j u s t i f i e d b e c a u se o f p oor h e a l t h .
T reatm ent and c o n c lu s i o n . The o p p o r tu n ity sh o u ld be
g iv e n f o r t h e s e g i r l s t o j o i n more f u l l y in th e l i f e o f th e
s c h o o l and to e n jo y more wholesom e p u r s u it s d u r in g t h e i r
l e i s u r e tim e .
In t h e c a s e o f M. S . , b e c a u se o f h er f r a i l
h e a l t h , sh e sh o u ld a l s o be g iv e n c o n s t a n t m e d ic a l c a r e .
R e ce n t d e v e lo p m e n ts . A T r i-Y Club a t th e s c h o o l h as
r e c e n t l y b een form ed.
I t i s open t o any’ g i r l who w is h e s to
b e lo n g and m eet th e r e q u ir e m e n ts . The s ta n d a r d s a r e h ig h and
i t i s th o u g h t by th e s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t some o f th e g i r l s ,
su ch a s M. 8 . , can be a p p e a le d t o th ro u g h t h i s c lu b .
R ecom m end ation s. M. S . sh o u ld be en cou raged to j o i n
a Y. W. C. A. Club su ch a s th e T r i-Y C lu b . She sh o u ld have
an o p p o r tu n ity t o r e s t more a t SG hool.
I t m ig h t be a d v is a b le
t o h a v e h e r come to s c h o o l a t n in e o ^ l o c k in th e m orning in ­
s t e a d o f a t e i g h t o fc l o c k .
The m other h a s a g r ee d t o h e lp h e r g e t more o u td o o r
e x e r c is e .
♦
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92
CASE 13UMBER XVI
I n t r o d u c t io n . M. P . i s an u n a t t r a c t i v e c o lo r e d g i r l .
She i s o f medium h e ig h t and w e ig h t and h a s a c h e e r fu l d i s p o s i t i o n .
She i s o f lo w m e n t a lit y w ith a poor background and i s u n tid y
and s l o v e n l y in a p p e a r a n c e .
M. P . i s f i f t e e n y e a r s o ld and in th e n in t h g r a d e .
The
home i s a l a r g e fram e h o u se w ith p r a c t i c a l l y . n o f u r n it u r e in
it.
Her f a t h e r , a W. P . A. w ork er, d r i v e s a garb age t r u c k .
Problem in t h i s c a s e . M. P . s t e a l s . When in th e e ig h t h
g r a d e , sh e was one o f a group o f g i r l s who was ta u g h t to s t e a l
by a l e a d e r .
T h is le a d e r was d is m is s e d from s c h o o l . M. P . i s
now much im proved and e v en s i n c e t h i s survejr was s t a r t e d , h a s
ta k e n more i n t e r e s t in h e r work a t s c h o o l ..
Home v i s i t .
The home was in h a b it e d by numerous f u r t i v e
fig u r e s .
The o ld e r s i s t e r and many l i t t l e n i e c e s and nephews
p la y e d a b o u t, and from d i f f e r e n t rooms v a r io u s n o i s e s i s s u e d .
The f a t h e r and m other w ere n o t a t home or d id n o t c a r e to r e ­
c e iv e c a l l e r s .
The home gave one th e im p r e s s io n th a t ”sh ad y”
t h in g s w ere g o in g on , b u t t h i s i s an im p r e s s io n , n o t an e s ­
ta b lis h e d f a c t .
M ental c o n d i t i o n . Terman Group T e s t o f M ental A b i l i t y A:
D ate 3 /3 7 ; G .A ., 1 2 -4 ; M .A ., 9 -5 ; I.Q ,., 76; S c o r e , 2 3 . S an gren
Woody R ead in g T e st:
D ate 4 /3 7 ; C .A ., 1 2 - 4 ; S c o r e , 54; G .P .,
5 . 5 . S tan d ard A chievem en t T e s t 7: D ate 6 /3 7 ; G .A ., 1 2 -6 ;
E .A ., 1 0 -7 ; E .Q ,., 85; S c o r e , 59; G .P ., 4 . 6 .
P h y s ic a l c o n d i t i o n . M. P . i s f i v e p e r c e n t u n d e r w e ig h t.
She had g l a s s e s b u t h a s l o s t them .
Form A:
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a l i f o r n ia T e st o f P e r s o n a li t y - E lem en ta ry
T o ta l A d ju stm en t, 121; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 65; D ate 1 / 8 / 4 0 .
M. P . was d i s i n t e g r a t e d o n ly a t t h e p o in t where h e r p e r ­
s o n a l freedom was i n h i b i t e d . She l a t e r d e c la r e d , when lo o k in g
a t t h i s t e s t w it h th e t e a c h e r , t h a t she had f o r g o t t e n t o answ er
some o f th e q u e s t io n s .
T h is P e r s o n a li t y T e s t was th e o n ly one
o f t h e tw e n ty c o n s id e r e d in t h i s stu d y w h ich th e exam in er f e l t
d id n o t p o r tr a y th e r i g h t p r o f i l e f o r t h e p u p i l . M. P . h a s a
low I . Q,. and i t i s a q u e s t io n a s t o w h eth er sh e u n d e r sto o d
t h e m eaning o f th e t e s t .
Her h ig h r a t i n g in " S o c ia l S ta n d a r d s”
i s p u z z l in g .
D ia g n o s t ic summary♦
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t o th e k in d o f home M. P . l i v e s i n .
I t h as b een s a id t h a t i t
may be a r en d e zv o u s o f n e g r o e s who s t e a l , b u t t h i s h a s n o t been
p r o v e d . C e r t a in ly , M. P . h a s no home in f l u e n c e t o keep h er
from b e in g a t h i e f .
T reatm ent and c o n c lu s i o n . M. P . h a s been a s s ig n e d t o
r e m e d ia l r e a d in g . She no lo n g e r seem s s u l l e n . She h a s b e e n
v e r y i n t e r e s t e d in t h i s su r v e y and h e r im proved b e h a v io r may be
due in some p a r t t o th e f e e l i n g t h a t some i n t e r e s t i s b e in g
ta k e n i n h e r .
She s t a t e s t h a t sh e b e lo n g s t o ”L. T. L . , n a c o lo r e d
c lu b , b u t sh e d o es n o t know w hat th e
i n i t i a l s stand: f o r .
There
a re v e r y few c o lo r e d o r g a n iz a t io n s t h a t young p e o p le can j o i n
in P a sa d e n a . The o n ly c o lo r e d s o c i a l w orker i s a woman who,
w ith two s t u d e n t s , t r i e s t o .c o v e r th e c o lo r e d d i s t r i c t . Re­
c e n t l y , e f f o r t s have been made to in c r e a s e t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r 's
s t a f f by two more s t u d e n t s .
In 1 9 3 8 , th e r e w ere no c o lo r e d g i r l s d e lin q u e n t , b u t
1940 w i l l show a number, th e W e lfa r e O f f ic e r s t a t e s . •
R ecom m endations. M. P . n e e d s more o r g a n iz e d p la y a s an
o u t l e t f o r h e r e n e r g y . The Y. W. C. A. h as a c l a s s f o r c o lo r e d
g i r l s and t h e r e are o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d c o lo r e d s t u d e n t s a t
B r o o k sid e P ark .
A p r a c t i c a l c o u r s e f i t t e d to th e n e e d s o f t h e c o lo r e d
s t u d e n t s o f lo w m e n t a lit y and few t a l e n t s w ould be b e n e f i c i a l .
S ew in g , c o o k in g , r e m e d ia l r e a d in g and m usic a r e v a l u a b le , and
t h e r e sh o u ld be a c o u r se t h a t w ould t e a c h t h e n e c e s s i t y o f
r e s p e c t i n g th e p r o p e r ty r i g h t s o f o t h e r s .
CASE NUMBER XVII
I n t r o d u c t io n . P . R. i s a sm a ll w isp o f a g i r l and d o es
n o t ap p ear t o be f i f t e e n y e a r s o l d . She i s now in th e t e n t h
g r a d e . Her h a ir i s brown and h e r e y e s a re b l u e . She p r e sen ts*
a c le a n a p p e a r a n c e . She s e e k s th e com p anion ship o f b o y s w hich
she. s t a t e s sh e d o e s in o r d e r t o e n liv e n h er d u l l r o u t in e o f
liv in g .
H er I . q . i s b elo w norm al and h e r manner i s d i s p i r i t e d .
The la c k o f p h y s i c a l v i t a l i t y p o s s i b l y a c c o u n ts f o r h e r l i s t ­
l e s s e x p r e s s io n and unwholesom e a t t i t u d e o f mind and b od y.
The home i s u n t id y , crowded and s m a ll, and the m other
95
i s away a l l day w ork in g a s a la u n d r e s s .
em ployed .
The f a t h e r i s un­
Problem in t h i s c a s e . P . R. i s a n o th e r v ic t im o f ftboy
c r a z e . n She i s a c l o s e f r i e n d and n e ig h b o r to some o f t h e
o th e r g i r l s c o n s id e r e d i n t h i s s tu d y , who have s i m i la r id e a s
and t e n d e n c i e s .
Home v i s i t .. The home was a r e n te d a p a r tm en t, s m a ll,
and a s h a s b een s a id b e f o r e , u n t id y . A s i s t e r and a s m a ll baby
w ere th e o n ly o n es a t home. The o ld e r s i s t e r seemed i n t e r e s t e d
in P . R. She c o n v e r se d f o r some tim e w ith th e i n v e s t i g a t o r .
The baby and a l l th e a t te n d a n t baby p a r a p h e n a lia w ere p i l e d in
c o n f u s io n ab ou t t h e room. I t was e le v e n o ’c lo c k , y e t b rea k ­
f a s t had n o t b een e a t e n .
The g i r l s w ere s l o w l y and d i s p i r i t e d l y
p r e p a r in g t h e m e a l. The fa m ily m ig r a te d h e r e from A rk a n sa s.
M en tal c o n d i t i o n . Terman G-roup T e s t o f M en tal A b i l i t y B:
D ate 9 /3 8 ; C .A ., 1 2 -6 ; M .A ., 1 0 -7 ; I . q . , 85; S c o r e , 3 7 . K uhlman A nderson T e st o f G en era l I n t e l l i g e n c e :
D ate 1 1 /3 9 ; G .A .,
1 4 -9 ; M .A ., 1 3 -3 ; I .Q . 9 0 .
P h y s ic a l c o n d i t i o n . W hile in t h e s e v e n th g r a d e , P . R.
was p la c e d in a R e st C la s s in p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n b e c a u s e o f a
c a r d ia c d is t u r b a n c e . She was se v en p er c e n t u n d erw eig h t and
h er t o n s i l s , a d e n o id s , and t e e t h were in bad c o n d i t i o n .
In
th e e ig h t h and n in t h g r a d e s sh e was p la c e d in th e l i g h t e x e r ­
c i s e grou p . She l o s t more w e ig h t and when in th e t e n t h g r a d e ,
sh e was p la c e d back in t h e R e s t C la s s . Her g e n e r a l ap p earan ce
i s now much im proved .
Form A:
55.
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a l i f o r n ia T e st o f P e r s o n a li t y - E lem e n ta r y ,
Date 1 / 5 / 4 0 ; T o ta l A d ju stm en t, 113; P e r c e n t i l e Rank,
P . R. f e e l s t h a t sh e i s n o t s e c u r e in h e r r e l a t i o n s w ith
f r i e n d s . Her c o n v e r s a t io n w ith t h e e x a m in er s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h i s
f e e l i n g o f i n s e c u r i t y . She rem arked t h a t sh e th o u g h t c e r t a i n
o f th e w e a l t h i e r g i r l s c o n s id e r e d th e y w ere t o o good f o r t h e
group she b e lo n g e d t o .
She d e p a r ts from th e norm in h e r s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l w orth
and h e r te n d e n c y t o w ith d ra w . S o c i a l l y , sh e is m a la d ju s te d a t
s c h o o l and in h e r own e n v iro n m en t.
P . R. s t a t e s t h a t sh e seldom h a s an o p p o r tu n ity t o v i s i t
i n t e r e s t i n g p l a c e s a b ou t P a sa d e n a . T h is same s ta te m e n t was
made by many o f th e g i r l s s t u d ie d in t h i s g r o u p . F in a n c i a l l y ,
i t i s im p o s s ib le f o r them .
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D ia g n o s t ic summary. P . R. s e e k s t h e com p an ion sh ip o f
b o y s , and i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r w it h whom sh e a s s o c i a t e s a s lo n g a s
sh e h a s a ch an ce t o go som ewhere.
P . R. i s n o t s tr o n g and h e r h e a lt h i s a h an d icap t o h e r
ch a n c e s f o r b e t t e r a d ju s tm e n t. She Is u n d e rn o u r ish ed and,
a p p a r e n tly , f a t i g u e d . D uring a p e r io d o f t h r e e y e a r s sh e was
a b s e n t f i f t y fo u r d a y s .
She h a s dropped one c l a s s , c o m p la in in g t h a t t h e t e a c h e r
d id n o t e x p l a in h e r work s u f f i c i e n t l y .
T reatm ent and c o n c lu s i o n . P . R . sh o u ld h ave fe w e r
d u t i e s a t home. T h is would make i t p o s s i b l e f o r h e r t o .g o on
h i k e s and have an o p p o r tu n ity t o m eet th e r i g h t a s s o c i a t e s .
I t h a s b een s u g g e s te d by e d u c a to r s t h a t a fund be a v a i l ­
a b le a t s c h o o l t h a t s t u d e n t s m ig h t draw on o c c a s i o n a l l y f o r
s o c ia l a f f a ir s .
T h is may seem i d e a l i s t i c , b u t t h i s c a s e i s one
where su ch a fu n d w ould p rove a b e n e f i t .
R ecom m endations. P . R. m ust be b u i l t up p h y s i c a l l y and
m ilk m ig h t be s u p p lie d f o r h e r a t s c h o o l . She sh o u ld be p la c e d
in a more c o n g e n ia l atm osp here in c l a s s .
O lubs sh o u ld b e recom ­
mended, w h ich w ould ta k e h e r o u t s id e t h e home under th e c o r r e c t
s u p e r v is io n .
CASE HUMBER X V III
I n t r o d u c t io n .. C. 8 . i s a M exican g i r l , f i f t e e n y e a r s
o ld and in t h e e ig h t h g r a d e . She i s f a t , u n a t t r a c t i v e , and o f
th e p lo d d in g peon t y p e . She i s d u l l and h ea v y a p p e a r in g and
i t i s v e r y e v id e n t t h a t h e r m e n t a lit y i s e x c e e d in g ly lo w . She
s t u p i d l y an sw ers q u e s t io n s w ith an i n d i s t i n c t murmur and o f t e n
d o e s n o t u n d e rsta n d what i s b e in g s a i d . ' She h a s no d e s i r e t o
be c le a n . She i s exam ined p e r i o d i c a l l y f o r p e d i c u l o s i s . She
som etim es s m ile s v a c a n t ly b u t f o r t h e m ost p a r t i s u n r e s p o n s iv e .
She i s one o f s i x c h ild r e n and l i v e s w it h h e r m other i n
a p oor and u n tid y home.
P roblem in t h i s c a s e . C. S . i s a moron and h a s t o b e
w atched c o n s t a n t ly t o s e e t h a t sh e ta k e s sh ow ers and h a s h er
h a ir c le a n . She i s burdened f u r t h e r w it h e p i l e p t i c f i t s and
a sp e e c h im p ed im en t.
Home v i s i t .
0 . S . , h e r s i s t e r , m o th er, and grandm other
98
w ere a t home. The s i s t e r , who a t t e n d s th e 'sa m e s c h o o l , t r a n s ­
l a t e d f o r th e m other and grandm other a s t h e y sp e a k o n ly S p a n is h .
The i n v e s t i g a t o r had b e e n t o l d t h a t th e m oth er was u n c o -o p e r a t i v e , b u t t h i s d id n o t seem to be th e c a s e .
B oth m other and
grandm other a g r ee d t h a t th e y w ere w i l l i n g t o h a v e 't h e g i r l s
ta k e sh ow ers a t s c h o o l and t h a t th e g i r l s w ere v e r y happy a t
M cK inley S c h o o l. C. S . c o u ld t r a n s l a t e p a r t o f th e tim e b u t
th e s i s t e r h e lp e d .
M ental c o n d i t i o n . P r o g r e s s iv e A chievem ent T e st B:
D ate 3 /3 7 ; C .A ., 1 3 -8 ; E .A ., 8 5; E.Q*., 62; S core 89; G .P ., 3 . 2 .
S an gren Woody R eading T e s t:
D ate 1 1 /3 7 ; G .A ., 1 4 -4 ; S c o r e , 16;
G .P ., 2 . 3 .
Sangren Woody R ead in g T e st:
D ate 6 /3 8 ; C .A ., 1 3 -1 0 ;
S c o r e , 1 9; G .P ., 2 . 5 . A s s ig n e d t o R em edial R ead in g e a s e s in
1 /3 8 .
P h y s ic a l c o n d i t i o n . C. S . i s o v e r w e ig h t. She h a s a
trem o r ab ou t hands and arm s, h a s a sp e e c h d e f e c t , and i s n o t
c l e a n . N eeds c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n .
Form A:
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a l i f o r n i a T e st o f P e r s o n a l i t y - E lem e n ta r y ,
T o ta l A d ju stm en t, 7 7 ; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 1 5 ; D ate 1 / 5 / 4 0 .
As w ould be e x p e c te d from h e r h i s t o r y , G. S . i s v e r y
in s e c u r e and she r a t e s v e r y lo w in th e " F e e lin g o f B e lo n g in g ."
She i s a lm o st e n t i r e l y o s t r a c i z e d when i t comes t o h e r s o c i a l
s ta n d a r d s . She th o u g h t i t was c o r r e c t to ta k e t h i n g s one n e e d s
i f you have no m oney, t h a t i t i s u n n e c e ss a r y to th a n k p e o p le
who h a v e h e lp e d y o u , and t h a t i t i s a l l r i g h t t o c h e a t in a
game i f th e um pire i s n o t l o o k i n g . She r a t e s e q u a l l y low in
s c h o o l and community r e l a t i o n s .
(G. S . may n o t have b e e n a b le
t o u n d e rsta n d th e t e s t q u e s t i o n s .)
D ia g n o s t ic summary. C. S . h as su ch a lo w I . Q,. th a t i t
i s d i f f i c u l t t o d ia g n o se h e r c a s e . She i s a lw a y s a p p a r e n tly
w i l l i n g t o c o - o p e r a t e and s a y s sh e w i l l do a t h i n g b u t i s n o t
a lw a y s a b le t o g r a sp what i t i s th a t i s w anted o f h e r .
T reatm ent and c o n c lu s i o n . I f C. S . ca n be ta u g h t to
r ea d t h e s i m p l e s t t h i n g s , keep h e r s e l f and h e r su r r o u n d in g s
c le a n , and do a few m e c h a n ic a l t h in g s w it h h e r h a n d s, sh e can
s t i l l be a u s e f u l c i t i z e n .
She sh o u ld n o t b e a r c h ild r e n and
sh o u ld be m e d ic a lly c a r e d f o r and s t e r i l i z e d i f n e c e s s a r y .
C. S . g o e s t o th e S e t t le m e n t H ouse f o r t h e M exican c h ild r e n
and seem s to e n jo y i t .
She w as u n a b le t o w r i t e h e r a u to ­
b io g r a p h y .
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CASE HUMBER XIX
. I n t r o d u c t io n . E . S . i s o f medium h e ig h t and b u i l d , w it h
dark h a iy b lu e e y e s and a p e r t m anner. Her v o i c e i s lo u d , y e t
c h e e r f u l and o f t e n p r e s e n t s t h e ap p ea ra n ce o f b e in g " f r e s h ."
M e n ta lly , sh e i s a l e r t and r e sp o n d s c h e e r f u l l y t o s u g g e s t io n s .
She i s u n a b a sh ed ly fo n d o f b o y s and p r o c la im s i t t o t h e w o r ld .
She l i v e s w it h
h e r fo u r b r o th e r s and
f i f t e e n y e a r s o ld and
in t h i s t r a i l e r . Her
h e r f a t h e r and m other in a tr a ile r ; and
two s i s t e r s l i v e e ls e w h e r e . 1 . S . i s
h a s t r a v e l e d a l l o v er th e U n ite d S t a t e s
f a t h e r i s a s t e e p l e j a c k and a p a i n t e r .
Problem in t h i s c a s e . E . S . , when sh e e n te r e d M cK inley
J u n io r H igh S c h o o l, was one o f th e l o u d e s t m annered g i r l s in
th e s c h o o l. She was r e s e n t f u l and b e l l i g e r e n t and h a s s in c e
t o l d th e i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t she th o u g h t sh e had to be lo u d and
a g g r e s s iv e in o r d e r t o g e t a c q u a in te d q u ic k ly . W ith ou t d o u b t,
d u r in g h e r l i f e in t h e t r a i l e r , sh e had become accu stom ed t o
m e e tin g p e o p le in t h i s way. S in c e t h i s p a p er was s t a r t e d , E. S .
h a s changed so much t h a t no%y sh e s c a r c e l y comes un der t h e t i t l e
" d e lin q u e n t ."
Home v i s i t . The a d d r e s s E. S . g a v e a t th e s c h o o l was
n o t t h e t r a i l e r bu t t h e number o f th e home o f a r e l a t i v e .
The home o f th e r e l a t i v e was v i s i t e d , b u t a v i s i t t o t h e t r a i l ­
e r d id n o t m a t e r i a l i z e a s i t was a lo n g tim e b e f o r e 1 . S . even
r e v e a le d t h a t sh e l i v e d i n a t r a i l e r .
M en tal c o n d i t i o n . P r o g r e s s iv e A chievem en t T e s t A:
D ate 3 /3 6 ; C .A ., 1 1 -8 ; E .A ., 1 2 -5 ; E .Q ,., 106; G .P ., 6 . 8 .
T erman Group T e s t o f M en tal A b i l i t y B: D ate 9 /3 7 ; C .A ., 1 3 -2 ;
M .A ., 1 3 -3 ; I . q . , 101; S c o r e 7 4 .
P h y s ic a l c o n d i t i o n . In 1 9 3 7 , E . S . was f o u r t e e n p e r
c e n t underweight"! In 1 9 3 9 , sh e was e ig h t p e r c e n t u n d e r w e ig h t.
Her t e e t h and t h r o a t n eed a t t e n t i o n .
Form A:
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a l i f o r n i a T e st o f P e r s o n a l i t y - E lem e n ta r y ,
T o ta l A d ju stm en t, 127; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 75; D ate 1 / 5 / 4 0 .
In c o n v e r s a t io n w ith 1 . S . c o n c e r n in g h e r P e r s o n a lit y
T e s t , sh e a d m itte d t h a t sh e h a s a lo w s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l w orth
and t h a t s h e c o v e r s t h i s up by a b r a g g in g , lo u d , b l u s t e r i n g
m anner. She was much s u r p r is e d to s e e th e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t s
so p l a i n l y r e v e a le d h e r r e a l l y in s e c u r e f e e l i n g . S o c i a l l y , she
seem s v e r y w e l l a d j u s t e d .
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D ia g n o s t ic summary. S . S . i s n a t u r a l l y h a p p y -g o -lu c k y .
Her l i f e in a t r a i l e r h a s n o t im proved h e r , a lth o u g h i t . h a s
u n d o u b te d ly g iv e n h e r a good g e o g r a p h ic a l e d u c a t io n . She i s
t o o i n t e r e s t e d i n b o y s and to o q u ic k t o p ic k up an a c q u a in ta n c e
w ith an yon e. She d e s i r e s p o p u la r it y and w i l l go to any le n g t h
t o a c q u ir e i t and, t h e r e f o r e , i s n o t p o p u la r .
T reatm ent and c o n c l u s i o n . E . S . d e s i r e s , above a l l
t h i n g s , a s t a t i o n a r y home. She i s t i r e d o f l i v i n g in a t r a i l e r ,
and lo n g s t o l i v e a s o t h e r g i r l s a t s c h o o l d o . I t seem s as i f
home l i f e w ould be th e b e s t t h in g f o r E . S . now. With th e im­
provem ent a lr e a d y shown and w ith th e p ro p er com p an ion s, sh e
w ould be a d e s i r a b l e c i t i z e n .
A w holesom e o u td o o r c lu b would
be a d v i s a b l e .
R ecom m endations. E. S . h as been w orking in th e s c h o o l
o f f i c e and i s becom ing q u ie t and e f f i c i e n t .
She shows p o s s i b i l ­
i t i e s o f b e in g a good ste n o g r a p h e r and h a s good o r g a n iz in g a b ility .
A s t a t i o n a r y home, w it h th e a d v a n ta g e o f b e in g in one
p la c e lo n g enough to a c q u ir e some s o c i a l s ta n d a r d s and th e
r i g h t ty p e o f f r i e n d s , w ould u n d o u b te d ly p la c e E. S . a s a s t u ­
d e n t o f good s t a n d in g .
CASE NUMBER XX
I n t r o d u c t io n . M. B ., in a p p ea r a n c e , i s t a l l and a t t r a c ­
tiv e .
She d r e s s e s w e l l and on f i r s t a c q u a in ta n c e one i s n o t
c o n s c io u s o f h e r n e r v io u s m annerism s and t h e p e c u l ia r e x p r e s s io n
o f h e r e y e s . H er h a ir and e y e s a re brown, and a lth o u g h she u s e s
much m ake-up, sh e h a s le a r n e d t o a p p ly i t b e c o m in g ly . She i s .
a lw a y s a tte m p tin g t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o h e r s e l f .
She i s o f a v e r a g e m e n t a lit y b u t i s u n r e l i a b l e and un­
s t a b l e . At one tim e sh e seem s t o ap p ea r norm al and th en a t
a n o th e r tim e a p p e a r s t o be v e r y d i s t r a u g h t . M. B. i s - i n th e
t e n t h grad e and she i s f o u r t e e n y e a r s o l d .
The m other and f a t h e r a r e s e p a r a te d , and th e m other i s
on County R e l i e f .
Problem i n t h i s c a s e . M. B. i s v e r y u n s t a b le , v e r y n e r ­
v o u s , d e s ir o u s o f a t t e n t i o n and e a s i l y in f lu e n c e d by o th e r b o y s
and g i r l s . Her m anners a r e a f f e c t e d and sh e makes n e r v o u s g e s ­
t u r e s , w ith f a c i a l and e y e t w i t c h i n g s .
T here h a s been some
103
im provem ent s in c e t h e tim e sh e was i n th e s e v e n th g r a d e . A l l
h e r t e a c h e r s h ave b een c a r e f u l n o t t o i n t e n s i f y h e r n e r v o u s n e s s
by sp e a k in g s h a r p ly t o h e r , a lth o u g h sh e demands more a t t e n t i o n
th a n t e a c h e r s w ith l a r g e c l a s s e s are a b le t o g iv e p u p i l s .
Home v i s i t . At th e tim e when th e home v i s i t was made,
M. B. was s tu d y in g S o c i a l S c i e n c e , w h ile w a it in g f o r h er m other
t o come home. S in c e th e m oth er was a f r e q u e n t v i s i t o r a t th e
s c h o o l, t h e v i s i t o r was a c q u a in te d w ith h e r .
The m other was
known t o be e r r a t i c and u n s t a b le and a s much o f a problem f o r
th e t e a c h e r s a s th e d a u g h te r . She w orks fo r th e W. P . A. and
t r i e s t o g e t work a s a t y p i s t .
She h a s se p a r a te d from h er
husband who o f t e n abused h e r .
M ental c o n d i t i o n . The S c h o o l P s y c h o lo g is t s t a t e s t h a t
M. B. i s . a p r o b a b le p r o g r e s s iv e d em en tia p r a e c o x t y p e .
P r o g r e s s iv e A ch ievem en t T e st B; D ate 2 /3 7 ; C .A ., 1 1 -3 ;
E .A ., 1 1 - 4 ; E.Q ,., 101; S c o r e , 2 27; G .P ., 5 . 8 . S ta n fo r d A c h ie v e ­
ment T e s t: D ate 1 2 /3 7 ; C .A ., 1 2 -1 ; I .A . , 1 1 -8 ; E .Q ,., 97; S co re
721; G .P ., 5 . 8 . J u n io r H igh Terman Group T e st o f M en tal A b i l i t y
B: D ate 2 /3 8 ; C .A ., 1 2 - 3 ; M .A ., 1 1 -8 ; I.Q ,., 95; S c o r e 5 1 .
P h y s ic a l c o n d i t i o n . H er g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i s
fa ir .
She shews f a t i g u e on s l i g h t e x e r t i o n and i s u n d e r w e ig h t.
H er m e n str u a l p e r io d s a r e a b n o rm a lly lo n g , and a t t h e s e tim e s
h e r e x c i t a b i l i t y i s g r e a t l y in c r e a s e d .
Form A;
P e r s o n a l i t y . C a l i f o r n ia T e s t o f P e r s o n a lit y - E lem en ta ry ,
T o ta l A d ju stm en t, 8 4 ; P e r c e n t i l e Rank, 20; D ate 1 / 8 / 4 0 .
The p r o f i l e shows t h a t M. B. i s l o c a t e d a t 15 p e r c e n t i l e
in s e l f - a d j u s t m e n t .
T h is m eans t h a t t h i s g i r l s u r p a s s e s a b o u t
one s e v e n th o f th e c l a s s and i s s u r p a s s e d by s i x s e v e n t h s o f
th e s t u d e n t s .
Her s o c i a l a d ju stm en t p e r c e n t i l e i s t w e n t y - f i v e w h ich
i s a l s o lo w . M. B. h as a te n d e n c y to v/ith draw in t o h e r s e l f .
She r a t e s h i g h e s t in s o c i a l sta n d a r d s and e v i d e n t l y i s happy
w ith h e r m o th er. Her s c h o o l p r e s e n te d some d i f f i c u l t i e s t o h e r
b u t a t p r e s e n t sh e i s g o in g a lo n g w e l l in h e r w ork.
In t a l k i n g , sh e a p p ea rs more n e r v o u s th a n th e t e s t w ou ld
i n d i c a t e , b u t t h i s may be due t o t h e ' f a c t t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t
f o r h er t o e x p r e s s h e r s e l f o r a l l y .
D ia g n o s t ic summary. When M. B. was i n th e e ig h t h g r a d e ,
she was so e r r a t i c t h a t h e r m oth er w r o te to th e t e a c h e r s a s k in g
f o r t h e i r c o - o p e r a t io n in t r y i n g t o c a lm M. B. T h is was a t th e
104
tim e h e r m e n str u a l p e r io d s w ere b e g in n in g and she was s o e x ­
c i t a b l e t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t t o c a r r y on a c l a s s o f w hich she
was a member.
T reatm en t and c o n c lu s i o n . A fte r in fo r m a tio n was g iv e n
to t e a c h e r s and t h e i r i n t e r e s t and sym pathy w ere e n l i s t e d ,
M. B. im proved and became more n orm al. She showed more
s t a b i l i t y a s she m atu red . She s t i l l a tte m p ts t o a t t r a c t a t t e n ­
t i o n w h en ever p o s s i b l e and c o n t in u e s t o be I r r e s p o n s i b l e .
It
seem s a p p a ren t t h a t t h i s g i r l i s s t i l l on t h e b o r d e r l i n e , as
f a r a s s t a b i l i t y i s c o n c e r n e d , a lth o u g h a t p r e s e n t sh e seem s
h a p p ie r . She i s h e lp in g h e r m oth er e a rn a f r u g a l l i v i n g by
s e l l i n g name l a b e l s .
R ecom m endations. M. B. sh o u ld h a v e c o n s t a n t s u p e r v is io n
and a ch an ce t o p a r t i c i p a t e in w holesom e a c t i v i t i e s .
She sh o u ld
have com panions who a r e q u ie t and f r i e n d l y . Her h e a l t h sh o u ld
come f i r s t , w ith se c o n d a r y em p h asis on h e r s t u d i e s . She n e e d s
t o be ta u g h t t h a t p o p u la r it y i s n o t g a in e d by b e in g to o c o n ­
s p ic u o u s . S in c e sh e r e sp o n d s q u ic k ly to- k in d n e s s , she sh o u ld
be t r e a t e d s y m p a t h e t ic a lly .
m
mm
a^laistiiaent
tee
jEiedom:
SB
No. 6201, U n iv ersity B ookstore, Los A ngeles
CHAPTER Y
CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH CHILD DELINQUENCY
The c h a n c e s o f f e r e d d e lin q u e n t g i r l s f o r overcom in g
t h e i r h a n d ic a p s a r e p r a c t i c a l l y n i l u n l e s s th e g i r l s can b e
rem oved from th e c o n d it io n s t h a t en co u ra g ed t h e d e lin q u e n c y .
Even a norm al g i r l w ith th e h a n d ic a p o f unwholesom e
a s s o c i a t e s , a v i c i o u s home, and no a d u lt s u p e r v is io n w ould
v e r y l i k e l y succumb t o h e r e n v iro n m en t.
A g i r l th e n who i s
d e lin q u e n t under l i k e c ir c u m s ta n c e s h a s few er c h a n c e s f o r s u r ­
v iv a l.
In a d d it io n t o h e r o th e r h a n d ic a p s , th e s c h o o l g i v e s
no p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g t h a t w i l l l i f t h e r above h er e n v ir o n m e n t.
T h is seem s to c r e a t e an i d e a l c o n d it io n f o r n u r tu r in g d e­
lin q u e n c y in g i r l s and b o y s .
I . ’ SOCIAL CONDITIONS
I n t r o d u c t io n .
D e lin q u e n ts f u r n i s h a f e r t i l e
v i c e and s e x u a l n o n -c o n fo r m ity .
f ie ld fo r
B e ca u se th e y are b a s i c a l l y
w eak, th e y have few er i n h i b i t i o n s th a n i s th e c a s e w it h th e i n ­
t e l l i g e n t in d iv id u a l.
As p o t e n t i a l m o th ers o f p o t e n t i a l d e­
l i n q u e n t s , t h e y o f f e r an im p o rta n t s o u r c e o f f u r t h e r d e ­
lin q u e n c y .
A s s o c ia te s .
s h ip s .
S tu d e n ts a re o f t e n v i c t i m s o f t h e i r f r i e n d ­
S t e a l i n g i s seld o m th e a c t o f one p e r so n a lo n e , b u t
in v o l v e s a g a n g .
One g i r l , when q u e s t io n e d , fr a n k ly s a id t h a t
107
sh e was in f lu e n c e d 'by a n o th e r g i r l .
F u r th e r i n q u i r i e s gave r i s e
t o th e f a c t t h a t a r in g had b een form ed w h ich o p e r a te d i n a
v e r y p r o f e s s i o n a l m anner.
The N egro c h ild r e n a r e th e w o r st o f f e n d e r s in c a s e s o f
s te a lin g .
They seem to c o n s id e r any u n p r o te c te d a r t i c l e t h e i r
p r o p e r ty ,
fifhen d is c o v e r e d and q u e s tio n e d , th e c o lo r e d g i r l s
c o n f e s s e d t o r a id s on t h e t e n c e n t s t o r e s , and in t h e i r p u r s e s
w ere foun d m is c e lla n e o u s c o l l e c t i o n s o f cheap p e r fu m es, f o u n t a in
p e n s , s t o l e n m oney, and w a t c h e s .
In e a s e s o f s e x i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , th e g i r l s were found t o
have been in form ed by f r i e n d s and th e n i n i t i a t e d
in t o p r a c t i c e s
w hich le a d t o d e lin q u e n c y .
F am ily r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n th e home.
T ab le Y shows t h a t
t h e j u n io r h ig h s c h o o l a g e , b etw een t h e n in t h and t e n t h g r a d e ,
i s th e c r i t i c a l p e r io d a t M cK inley J u n io r H igh S c h o o l.
Comments by th e t e a c h e r s who h ave t r i e d t o h e lp t h e s e
g i r l s w ould s tr e n g th e n th e t h e o r y t h a t th e g i r l s may be c a r r ie d
a lo n g in s c h o o l t o a c e r t a i n a g e and g r a d e , b u t t h a t g r a d u a lly
t h e c o u n te r in f l u e n c e o f a poor home, s o p h i s t i c a t e d m o v ie s , and
a p o o r c h o ic e o f f r i e n d s w i l l d e s t r o y a n y th in g t h e t e a c h e r may
hope t o a c c o m p lish tow ard h e lp in g th e s tu d e n t t o a more d e c e n t
way o f l i v i n g .
A home w h ich co n d o n es a c h i l d fs f a i l i n g s can o n ly hope
t o rea p t r o u b le f o r i t s e l f .
In one c a s e t h e f a t h e r en co u ra g ed
108
th e c h i l d t o s t e a l and sh a red in t h e p lu n d e r .
II.
ECONOMIC CONDITIONS
C o n d itio n o f th e hom e.
P o v e r ty i n t h e home i s a c o n ­
d i t i o n t h a t can in i t s e l f le a d t o d e lin q u e n c y .
Lack o f fo o d ,
c l o t h i n g and h e a t , added t o th e f a c t t h a t th e c h i l d i s a lr e a d y
p r e d is p o s e d to d e lin q u e n c y , w i l l f u r n is h an e x c u se f o r s t e a l ­
in g and o th e r n o n - s o c i a l h a b i t s .
The home i s broken in many c a s e s and th e m oth er i s
e i t h e r on r e l i e f o r d o in g u n s k i l l e d w ork.
B r e c k e n r id g e and A b b o tt1 foun d t h a t 6 8 .8 per c e n t o f
t h e i r J u v e n ile C ourt g i r l s came from f a m i l i e s t h a t w ere v e r y
poor.
F e r n a ld , H ayes and D anley^ o b se r v e d t h a t 4 1 .4 p er c e n t
o f a group o f a d u lt o f f e n d e r s had. homes in c h ild h o o d t h a t came
in t h i s c l a s s o f n o n - s e l f - s u p p o r t .
I n v e s t i g a t o r s a g r e e t h a t d e lin q u e n c y and econom ic i n ­
s u f f i c i e n c y go hand in han d.
T a b le s XIV, XV, XVI, and XVII
s u b s ta n tia te th e s e f a c t s .
1 S . P . B r ee k e n r id g e and E . A b b o tt, The D e lin q u e n t
C h ild and th e Home (N ew York: C h a r it ie s P u b lic a t io n C om m ittee,
x g is j
~
--------------------------------------------------------------
109
TABLE XIV
PHYSICAL CONDITION OF THE TWENTY DELINQUENT GIRLS
CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY
C o n d itio n
Number o f g i r l s
Normal
5
P oor ey e s i g h t
1
M a ln u tr itio n
7
P oor h e a r in g
£
N ervou s i n s t a b i l i t y
5
O verw eigh t
£
T o ta l
£0
NOTE: T h is t a b l e d e f i n i t e l y shows t h a t t h e r e i s a
o l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw een b e h a v io r and h e a lth *
110
TABLE XV
ECONOMIC COHDITIOH 0 ? HOMES OF 3?HE TWENTY DEDIHQUEHT
GIEXiB GGHSIDERED IE THIS STUDY
C o n d itio n o f homes
Humber o f g i r l s
Boor
12
F a ir
$
Good
3
E x c e l le n t
0
T o ta l
20
I ll
T ABLE XVI
EMPLOYMENT SITUATION IN THE HOMES OF THE TWENTY
DELINQUENT GIRLS CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY
Employment
sta tu s
Number o f g i r l s ' homes
F a th e r on r e l i e f
1
F a th e r on W*P#A.
2
F a th e r su p p o r ts f a m ily
8
F a th e r works i n t e r m i t t e n t l y .
1
M other on r e l i e f
3
B r o th e r su p p o r ts f a m ily
1
S te p f a t h e r su p p o r ts fa m ily
1
M other su p p o r ts f a m ily
1
Grandmother su p p o r ts f a m ily
2
T o ta l
20
112
<table
z v ii
ACS DAL REASON FOE DELINQUENCY IE SHE CASES OF THE TWENTY
DELINQUENT ©IBIS CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY
H eason
Dumber o f g i r l s
D e s ir e f o r c e r t a i n a r t i c l e s
4
Lack: o f t r a i n i n g i n borne
9
Dow m e n t a lit y
2
P oor s e l e c t i o n o f f r i e n d s
5
T o ta l
20
115
III.
PHYSICAL STATUS
D e lin q u e n c y i n g i r l s l e a d s t o t h e s p r e a d o f v e n e r e a l
d ise a se .
T ab le V II showed t h a t a l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f t h e g i r l s
were d e l i n q u e n t f o r s e x r e a s o n s .
P r o m is c u it y o f s e x r e l a t i o n s
c a n n o t b u t a i d and a b e t a v i c i o u s d i s e a s e which i s un derm in in g
t h e m o r a le o f young p e o p l e .
The s c h o o l n u r s e made a v a i l a b l e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n ­
c e r n i n g t h e p h y s i c a l s t a t u s o f th e t w e n t y g i r l s s t u d i e d .
T a b le XIV shows t h a t s e v e n o f t h e tw e n ty g i r l s a r e u n d e r w e ig h t.
C o n sid e r e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h T a b le XV, w hich show s t w e l v e o f
t h e homes t o be " p o o r ,” t h e c o n c l u s i o n may be drawn t h a t t h e
p o v e r t y o f t h e homes, c o u p le d w i t h t h e l a c k o f f o o d , was one cf
t h e fun dam ental d e p r i v a t i o n s t h a t l e d to d e l in q u e n c y .
IV.
RELIGIOUS AFFILIATIONS
P asadena i s a c o n s e r v a t i v e r e s i d e n t i a l c i t y n o t g i v e n t o
ex trem es.
There i s , h ow ever, a g e n e r o u s s p r i n k l i n g o f r e l i g i o u s
f a n a t i c s whose d o c t r i n e s a r e e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b i n g t o an a l ­
rea d y m a la d ju s t e d g i r l .
A d o l e s c e n t s a r e m ost s u s c e p t i b l e t o
r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and s a n i t a r i u m s f o r m e n ta l c a s e s have many
p a t i e n t s whose m a la d ju s tm e n ts o r i g i n a t e d i n u n n a tu r a l r e l i g i o u s
b e lie fs.
T ab le X V III shows t h e r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s o f t h e
tw e n ty g i r l s s t u d i e d i n t h i s s u r v e y .
T ab le XIX e x p l a i n s i t s e l f .
The d e l in q u e n t g i r l i s f r e -
1X4
FABLE XVIII
RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION OF 0?HE* TWENTY DELINQUENT GIB1S
CONSIDERED IN ll HIS STUDY
Church
Number o f g i r l s
M e th o d ist E p is c o p a l
4
M e t r o p o l it a n B a p t i s t
4
C en tral C h r istia n
1
G o sp el T a b e r n a c le
1
A f r ic a n M e th o d is t E p i s c o p a l
1
Nazarene
2
C a th o lic
5
B a p tist
1
,S a l v a t i o n Army
1
20
'T o ta l
NOTE:
T h is i n f o r m a t io n was o b t a i n e d from t h e g i r l s .
115
0JABLE XIX
EMOTIONAL ATTITUDE OR CHARACTER Of THE TWENTY DELINQUENT
GIRLS CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY
E m o tio n a l a t t i t u d e
or c h a r a c t e r
Number o f g i r l s
M orose, d e p r e s s e d
1
D e fia n t
2
O v e r -e m o tio n a l
1
Tim id
2
P a ssiv e
1
V i o l e n t tem per
1
S ly
3
Lazy
1
S e x (h o y c r a z y )
8
T otal
20
NOTE: The o v e r - s e x e d g i r l s a r e a lm o s t h a l f t h e
group w h ic h s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h e f a c t s p r e s e n t e d "by p s y c h o l o g i s t s .
T h is d a ta was s e c u r e d from t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e g i r l s .
116
q u e n t ly e m o t i o n a l l y u n s t a b l e and t h i s t a b l e s u p p o r t s t h i s f a c t .
T a b le s XX and XXI a r e more or l e s s based- on t h e o p i n i o n s
o f t e a c h e r s and a r e u n r e l i a b l e b u t i n d i c a t e the g e n e r a l f e e l i n g
o f t h e t e a c h e r tow ard t h e s e g i r l s .
C o n clu sio n .
I t m ay.be c o n c lu d e d from t h i s s u r v e y t h a t
no agen cy can work i r r e s p e c t i v e o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s t o e l i m i n a t e
d e l in q u e n c y .
Home, s c h o o l , and community can hope t o remedy
c o n d i t i o n s o n ly th ro u gh c o - o p e r a t i v e m e a s u r e s .
Poor p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , bad a s s o c i a t e s , lo w m e n t a l i t y ,
and an im p o v e r ish e d home i n an u n a t t r a c t i v e l o c a l i t y — one o r
a l l o f t h e s e f a c t o r s may f u r n i s h a background f o r d e l in q u e n c y .
I t cannot be s t r e s s e d to o e m p h a tic a lly th a t p r e v en tiv e
m easu res s h o u ld be t a k e n when w e a k n e s s e s f i r s t a p p e a r and t h a t
p r o p h y l a c t i c m ea su r es and a i d sh o u ld b e im m e d ia te ly a p p l i e d .
117
‘ TABLE XX
CLASSROOM ATTITUDE OF TEE TWENTY DELINQUENT GIRLS
CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY
Type o f p u p i l
Number o f g i r l s
D is in t e r e s t e d stu dent
2
Good s t u d e n t
1
P oor s t u d e n t
2
T roub lesom e s t u d e n t
4
Problem s t u d e n t s
6
S lo w and d u l l s t u d e n t
2
S t u d e n t u n a b le t o a p p ly s e l f
1
S tu d e n t a n t a g o n i s t i c t o s c h o o l
2
T otal
20
NOTE: D ata was s e c u r e d from t h e o p i n io n s o f t h e
g ir ls* tea ch ers.
118
TABLE XXI
TEACHEBS* OPIEIOE (M THE BEASOH FOB DELIEQUMCY OF THE
TWEHTY LlLmHEHT GIBLS CONSIDERED IE THIS STUDY
Comment o f
tea ch er
Humber o f g i r l s
Lazy
1
Low m e n t a l i t y
3
D ish o n est
4
B o y -c r a z y
8
B e lig io u s fa n a tic is m
1
D em en tia p r a e c o x
1
D e fia n t
1
M a ln u tr itio n
1
T otal
20
NOTE: A lth o u g h t e a c h e r s * o p i n i o n s a r e o f t e n b i a s e d ,
t h i s t a b l e seem s t o a g ree w i t h T a b le X I I I .
CHAPTER VI
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
I n t h i s c h a p t e r a b r i e f summary w i l l be g i v e n w hich w i l l
i n c l u d e a r e v ie w o f th e p r o c e d u r e and th e c o n c l u s i o n s w hich th e
r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y seem t o j u s t i f y .
I.
SUMMARY
Twenty d e l in q u e n t g i r l s were s t u d i e d a t M cK inley Ju n io r
H igh S c h o o l i n P a sa d e n a .
The i n v e s t i g a t i o n was th o u g h t w orthy
o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c e i n t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s t h e r e had b een a
s t e a d y i n c r e a s e i n d e l in q u e n c y a t t h i s s c h o o l .
The o b j e c t o f
t h e s t u d y was to d e te r m in e th e c a u s e s o f d e lin q u e n c y and t o
s u g g e s t r e m e d ia l m e a s u r e s .
I t was s u g g e s t e d by th e p r i n c i p a l
o f th e s c h o o l, t h a t th e home v i s i t s would o f f e r an o p p o r t u n i t y
t o e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e r bond o f sympathy b etw een th e s c h o o l and
t h e home.
T h is th e i n v e s t i g a t o r h a s endeavored t o do w h il e
c o l l e c t i n g d ata f o r t h i s s t u d y .
in v e s tig a tio n , p aren ts,
In o r d e r t o make a thorough
tea ch ers, p r in c ip a l, v ic e -p r in c ip a l,
c o u n s e l o r s , o f f i c e s e c r e t a r i e s , a t t e n d a n c e o f f i c i a l s and th e
C h ild W elfare Department were c o n s u l t e d .
o f P e r s o n a l i t y was g i v e n .
a u t o b io g r a p h y .
The C a l i f o r n i a T e s t
Each g i r l was a sk ed t o w r i t e h er
In t h r e e c a s e s , th e i n f e r i o r m e n t a l i t y o f th e
120
g i r l made t h i s i m p o s s i b l e .
II.
CONCLUSIONS
The f o l l o w i n g a r e th e f a c t s r e v e a l e d and th e r e m e d ia l
m ea su res s u g g e s t e d i n th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th e tw en ty d e l i n ­
quent g i r l s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s stu d y :
1 . P h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n a p p ea r s t o have an i n d i r e c t r e ­
l a t i o n s h i p t o d e l in q u e n c y .
S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f th e d e ­
l i n q u e n t s were p h y s i c a l l y below norm al.
A l l th e g i r l s a r e
c a r e f u l l y s u p e r v i s e d by th e s c h o o l d o c t o r and n u r se and check ed
p e r io d ic a lly .
N e v e r th e le ss ,
th e added p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t o f
someone d e s i g n a t e d from th e h e a l t h departm ent o f th e s c h o o l
m igh t do much toward im p ro v in g t h e i r p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n .
2 . The l a r g e s t number o f o f f e n d e r s were b etw een th e a g e s
o f f o u r t e e n and f i f t e e n .
were o f th e above a g e s .
One h a l f o f th e number i n v e s t i g a t e d
They were a l s o , w it h one e x c e p t i o n ,
i n . t h e n i n t h and t e n t h g r a d e s .
s e v e n t h and e i g h t h g r a d e s .
The o t h e r h a l f were i n th e
P r e v e n t i v e m easu res which w i l l d e ­
t e r crim e b e f o r e i t h a s a l r e a d y molded th e mind o f y o u th seem
e sse n tia l.
I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t th e e le m e n t a r y grade l e v e l i s
th e tim e t o f e r r e t ou t th e w e a k n e sse s and a p p ly th e n e c e s s a r y
p r o p h y la ctic s.
3 . One h a l f th e group o f tw e n ty d e l i n q u e n t g i r l s were
121
a b n o rm a lly i n t e r e s t e d i n b o y s .
P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n wholesome o u t ­
door a c t i v i t i e s would broaden th e c o n t a c t s o f t h e s e g i r l s and
e n l i s t t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r th an s e x a c t i v i t i e s .
Here a g a i n ,
th e p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t o f an a d v i s e r would h e lp d i s c o v e r th e
w is e st course.
4 . More th an one h a l f t h e number i n v e s t i g a t e d had no
c lu b a f f i l i a t i o n i n or out o f s c h o o l .
I t i s e v id e n t th a t th e se
g i r l s have v e r y narrow l i v e s w i t h l i t t l e
them o u t s i d e th e d a i l y r o u t i n e .
or n o t h in g t o i n t e r e s t
A Y . W. C. A. Club or h i k i n g
c l u b , or one t h a t would ta k e them o u t o f t h e i r l i t t l e
group,
s h o u ld be b e n e f i c i a l .
5 . Over one h a l f o f th e g i r l s s t u d i e d were p o o r .
P overty
seemed t o go hand i n hand w i t h d e lin q u e n c y and ap p eared t o be
an i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e s e g i r l s .
Some o f th e
c a s e s were r e f e r r e d t o th e P a r e n t - T e a c h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n o f th e
school fo r fin a n c ia l a s s is ta n c e .
6 . The M cK inley J u n io r H igh S c h o o l group s t u d i e d f e l l
i n t o t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f , d e l in q u e n c y o f g i r l s r e c o r d e d by
t h e C h ild W elfare Departm ent o f P a sa d e n a .
7 . The i n t e l l i g e n c e o f th e d e l in q u e n t s c o u ld be c l a s s i ­
f i e d a s Md u l l . n
e ig h t y , t o n i n e t y .
The a v e r a g e I .
ft. o f t h i s group ran ged from
In s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t th e I .
ft. o f a
p u p i l i s co n c er n e d l e s s im p o r ta n t th an f o r m e r ly i n d e t e r m in in g
h is r a tin g ,
fic a tio n .
i t i s s t i l l r e g a r d e d a s a h e l p f u l means o f c l a s s i ­
122
8 . The f a c t seems t o have b een e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the l a c k
o f t r a i n i n g i n th e home i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a lm o s t h a l f th e d e ­
lin q u e n c y o f th e tw e n ty g i r l s s t u d i e d . .
th e d e lin q u e n c y r i s k .
A broken home i n c r e a s e s
N e g l e c t f u l , o v e r i n d u l g e n t , or immoral
p a r e n t s c o n t r i b u t e t o p o v e r t y and c r im e .
The v a lu e o f th e
"Home V i s i t " c a n n o t be o v e r e s t i m a t e d and i s b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y
r ec o g n ize d .
The C h ild W elfare Department i n P asadena has
s t a t i s t i c a l e v id e n c e t o p rove t h a t th e a r e a o f crim e i n th e
M exican q u a r te r was a lm o s t e n t i r e l y o b l i t e r a t e d b e c a u se o f th e
i n t e r e s t d i s p l a y e d by th e p r i n c i p a l i n t h a t d i s t r i c t .
v i s i t e d th e homes c o n t i n u a l l y .
He
The p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l s o
would s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s p o i n t o f v ie w .
9 . The P e r s o n a l i t y T e s t s gave an i n t e r e s t i n g l i g h t on
th e s t u d y .
a t home.
Seven o f th e g i r l s f e l t i n h i b i t e d by l a c k o f freedom
S even were u n a d j u s t e d a t home and t w e lv e were unad­
j u s t e d a t .s c h o o l .
The s t u d e n t s e v in c e d much i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r
v a r io u s " p r o f i l e s " and th e C a l i f o r n i a P e r s o n a l i t y T e s t s f u r ­
n i s h e d a 'common b a s i s o f u n d e r s t a n d in g whereby th e i n v e s t i g a t o r
and p u p i l c o u ld s t u d y t h e i r t r a i t s t o g e t h e r .
10.
There were s e v e n broken homes.
I n f o u r o f th e c a s e s
t h i s appeared t o be a d e te r m in in g f a c t o r i n d e lin q u e n c y w h ile
i n th e r em a in in g t h r e e th e e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n i n d i c a t e d b e t t e r
a d ju stm e n t i n s p i t e o f the broken home.
R ecen t i n v e s t i g a t o r s
have proved t h a t th e {tbroken home" i s n o t so im p o r ta n t a f a c t o r
i n d e lin q u e n c y a s had b ee n th ou gh t f o r m e r l y .
T h is p a r t i c u l a r
123 ,
i n v e s t i g a t i o n bore ou t t h i s o p i n i o n .
1 1 . The e le m e n t common t o a l l c a s e s was u n h a p p in e s s , in-*
d i e a t i n g th e n eed o f p e r s o n a l g u id a n c e r a t h e r than group
g u id a n ce.
The r e a c t i o n o f t h e g i r l s t o th e i n t e r e s t ta k e n i n
them and t h e i r problem s was p r o o f o f t h e i r n e e d .
1 2 . Truancy and d e lin q u e n c y were found t o have c l o s e r e ­
la tio n sh ip .
The s c h o o l r e c o r d s r e v e a l e d f o r one o f th e g i r l s
a s many a s one hundred f o r t y - f i v e days a b s e n c e from s c h o o l
d u r in g h e r f o u r y e a r s a t M cK inley J u n io r H igh .
o f th e symptoms o f d e l in q u e n c y .
Truancy i s one
E d u c a to r s a r e s e r i o u s l y e n ­
ga ged i n a t t e m p t in g t o a s c e r t a i n th e c a u s e s o f t r u a n c y .
They
have found t h a t r e t a r d a t i o n i n r e a d i n g , w h ich , o f c o u r s e , c a u s e s
r e t a r d a t i o n i n o t h e r s t u d i e s , i s one o f th e c a u s e s o f t r u a n c y .
The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s i s one
c
o f th e c o n t r i b u t i n g c a u s e s s i n c e s e v e n o f th e tw e n ty a r e i n a
r e m e d ia l r e a d in g c l a s s .
tr u a n c y a r e
O ther f a c t o r s t h a t ten d to i n c r e a s e
(1) th e c u r r ic u lu m t h a t d o e s n o t answer th e f e l t
needs' o f th e p u p i l ,
(2) th e l a c k o f i n t e r e s t o f th e t e a c h e r
i n backward s t u d e n t s ,
(5) to o l a r g e c l a s s e s ,
(4) d i s c o u r a g i n g
o u t l o o k f o r th e p u p i l who, n o t h a v in g m a ste re d th e work i n a
lo w e r g r a d e , i s p a s s e d on t o th e n e x t w it h o u t th e s t i m u l u s o f
h a v in g a c c o m p lis h e d s a t i s f a c t o r y work.
1 3 . Environm ent and d e lin q u e n c y were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d .
The tw e n ty g i r l s v i s i t e d were d i s t r i b u t e d i n t h r e e s e c t i o n s o f
th e c i t y — th e M exican q u a r t e r ,
th e Negro s e c t i o n , and th e
124
p o o r e r White d i s t r i c t .
s p i r i t was p re d o m in a n t.
I n eaeh o f t h e s e s e c t i o n s ,
th e gang
The M exican s were l e s s r e s e n t f u l o f
c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s than t h e N e g r o e s .
The N e g r o e s r e s e n t e d th e
W h ite s, and the W hites r e s e n t e d the N e g r o e s .
The p o o r e r W hites
a l s o r e s e n t e d th e w e a l t h i e r White g i r l s and t h e i r p r e s t i g e a t *
the s c h o o l.
E v id e n c e to d a te i n d i c a t e s t h a t d e l i n q u e n t s ar e
produ ced by f o r c e o f c ir c u m s t a n c e s from t h e community a t l a r g e .
C r im in a ls i n m ost c a s e s are n o t born b u t a r e molded by e n v i r o n ­
m en t.
Any e f f e c t i v e program f o r d e lin q u e n c y p r e v e n t i o n th e n
n e c e s s i t a t e s th e c o - o r d i n a t i n g o f a l l community r e s o u r c e s .
Thus,
t h e c i t y r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r s can do much t o r e c r e a t e th e you th
o f tod ay.
1 4 . J u s t how much d e lin q u e n c y i n g i r l s i s due t o d e s i r e
for a t h r ill,
i t i s d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n .
The d e lin q u e n c y
may be o c c a s i o n e d by an i n n a t e c u r i o s i t y or a d e s i r e t o e s c a p e
th e r e a l i t i e s o f l i f e .
O b s e r v a tio n o f th e g i r l s ,
a stu d y o f
t h e i r a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s , and c o n v e r s a t i o n w it h them threw no l i g h t
on t h i s s u b j e c t .
1 5 . I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th e i n f l u e n c e o f m o v ie s i n t h e s e
c a s e s proved t h a t th e g i r l s were not a t t e n d i n g th e cinema e x ­
c e ssiv e ly .
Twelve went to t h e m o v ies once a week, two a t t e n d e d
t w ic e a week, two went once i n two weeks, one went once a month,
and th r e e d id n o t go a t a l l .
With t h o s e who a t t e n d e d ,
th e
r o m a n tic movie was t h e m ost p o p u la r .
1 6 . The amount o f s p e n d in g money th e g i r l s had d id n o t
125
seem t o be a f a c t o r i n d e t e r m in in g t h e i r d e lin q u e n c y .
The
amount o f sp e n d in g money t h e s e g i r l s had v a r ie d w i t h t h e e c o ­
nomic s i t u a t i o n i n the home.
week; two r e c e i v e d f i f t y
One r e c e i v e d s e v e n t y c e n t s a
c e n t s a week; one had f i f t e e n c e n t s ;
and s i x t e e n had no a l l o w a n c e .
Some e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t
t h e y p r e f e r r e d no a llo w a n c e s i n c e t h e y c o u ld g e t more money by
a s k in g f o r i t when th e y needed i t .
They remarked t h a t i f
th e y
had an a l lo w a n c e , th e y were e x p e c t e d t o buy lu n c h e s and c l o t h e s
w it h i t .
On th e o t h e r hand, some l i k e d th e i d e a o f an a llo w a n c e
and s a i d t h a t t h e y w ere a b le t o s t i n t on lu n c h e s and have more
f o r s p e n d in g .
Becom m endations.
Baker a s s e r t s :
I t i s no e x a g g e r a t i o n t o s a y t h a t e v e r y ty p e o f p h y s i c a l
or s e n s o r y d e f e c t , m ild or s e v e r e , has i n i t t h e germs o f
b e h a v io r m a la d ju s tm e n ts a s w e l l ; i t i s o n ly when a l l o t h e r
f a c t o r s are f a v o r a b l e t h a t no su ch symptoms o c c u r . 1
Tifhat f u r t h e r s t e p s can be made?
Ryan^ s u g g e s t s what he
c a l l s b e t t e r e m o t io n a l " c l i m a t e ” o r more wholesome c la s s r o o m
s i t u a t i o n s w hich m eet th e n e e d s o f t h e p u p i l s and a new ty p e
o f s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t em p h asizes optimum grow th .
One o f th e m ost h o p e f u l s i g n s o f th e day i s th e p o o l i n g
.o f th e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f the p s y c h o l o g i s t , p s y c h i a t r i s t ,
teach er,
^ H. J . Baker and V. Traphagen, The D ia g n o s is and T r e a t ment o f B e h a v io r -P r o b le m C h ild r e n (Hew York: The M acm illan Company,
19 3 5 ), p. 118.
^ W. Carson Ryan. M en tal H e a lt h Through E d u c a tio n (The
Commonwealth Fund, 1 9 3 9 ) , p . 2 8 4 .
126
p h y s i c i a n .a n d home.
"Somehow an e d u c a t i o n a l p a t t e r n can be t a i l o r e d t o com­
f o r t a b l y and e f f e c t i v e l y f i t t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d , no m a tter
where he may be on th e c u r v e o f d i s t r i b u t i o n . " 3
Pasadena a p p a r e n t l y h a s need o f a s c h o o l c u r ricu lu m
t h a t w i l l p r o v id e p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g i n th e j u n i o r h ig h s c h p o l
com parable to the tr a d e c o u r s e s o f f e r e d a t P asadena J u n io r
C o lleg e.
I f e d u c a t o r s w i s h t o f o r e s t a l l d e lin q u e n c y , i t would
seem th a t su ch p r a c t i c a l c o u r s e s sh o u ld be in c o r p o r a t e d i n th e
J u n io r High S c h o o l and t h e r e b y a tte m p t t o a r o u s e and h o ld th e
i n t e r e s t o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r f o r m a t iv e y e a r s .
There i s a l s o a. need i n Pasadena f o r an i n s t i t u t i o n
c o r r e s p o n d in g to th e Los A n g e le s J u v e n i l e H a l l .
There i s no
a d e q u a te p r o v i s i o n made a t p r e s e n t and P asadena i s depend en t
on Los A n g e le s f o r the tem porary c a r e o f i t s d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d r e n .
T h is s i t u a t i o n r e n d e r s th e c o u r s e o f th e law slo w and c a u s e s
awkward h a n d lin g o f c a s e s by p r o b a t io n o f f i c e r s and s c h o o l
o ffic ia ls.
In c o n c lu sio n ,
th e f i n d i n g s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l
d e f i n i t e l y t h a t p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i s n e c e s s a r y t o remedy d e ­
l i n q u e n t c h i l d r e n ; t h a t r e m e d ia l h e lp i n l e a r n i n g t o rea d i s
an im p o r ta n t means o f o p e n in g new f i e l d s o f i n t e r e s t f o r su b -
3 Dr. F r e d e r ic k L. P a t r y , A R eport on th e F i r s t I n t e r ­
n a t i o n a l C ongress o f Ch i l d P s y c h i a t r y ( P a r i s : 193^5
187
normal s t u d e n t s ; and t h a t the community, t h e s c h o o l , and the
home must work c o - o p e r a t i v e l y to s u p p ly wholesome a c t i v i t y t h a t
w i l l r e d i r e c t th e s u r p lu s e n e r g y o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t g i r l .
T hese recom m endations a r e i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e r e p o r t o f
th e New E d u c a tio n F e l lo w s h ip New Z ealan d C o n feren ce:
The e v id e n c e t o d a t e seems t o ’ i n d i c a t e t h a t th e c o n ­
c l u s i o n t h a t c r i m in a ls a r e born cannot be m a in t a in e d .
C r im in a ls a r e s e l e c t e d by f o r c e o f c ir c u m s ta n c e s (and here
t h e econom ic f a c t o r , comes i n t o p l a y ) from th e community a t
la r g e .
Every crim e r e p r e s e n t s a f a i l u r e b y s o c i e t y to c o n t r o l
th e i n d i v i d u a l a s w e l l a s a f a i l u r e on the p a r t o f th e
i n d i v i d u a l t o r esp o n d t o w h a tever s o c i a l c o n t r o l e x i s t s
and i t i s much b e t t e r to lo o k f o r th e c a u s e s o f d e lin q u e n c y
o u t s i d e i n d i v i d u a l s than i n t h e i r in b o rn n a t u r e , f o r th e
b e h a v io r o f p e o p l e i s l a r g e l y th e r e s u l t o f f o r c e s w h ich
have im pinged upon them from e a r l i e s t c h ild h o o d .
I f th is
p o i n t o f v iew i s sound t h e r e i s s t i l l hope f o r e d u c a t i o n .
I f on th e o th e r hand, th e g o o d n e s s o r b a d n e ss o f p e o p l e
were p r e d e s t i n e d a t b i r t h , t h e r e would be l i t t l e j u s t i f i c a ­
t i o n f o r any op tim ism r e g a r d i n g i t s p o t e n c y . 4
4 "Modern Trends i n E d u c a tio n ," 1 9 3 8 , P r o c e e d in g s o f th e
New Z ealan d New E d u c a tio n F e l lo w s h ip C on fer en ce ( W e llin g t o n , N. Z . :
Whitcombe and Tombs, L t d . ) , p . 1 1 5 .
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II.-
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
A c k e rso n , L . , n0n E v a l u a t i n g th e R e l a t i v e Im portance o r S e r i o u s ­
n e s s o f V arious B e h a v io r Problem s i n C h ild r e n ," Journa1 o f
J u v e n i l e R e s e a r c h . 2 0 : 1 1 4 - 1 2 3 , J u ly , 1 9 3 6 .
A d le r , Herman M ., "The Work o f I n s t i t u t i o n s i n P r e v e n t in g De­
lin q u e n c y ,” Journal o f J u v e n ile R esearch. 1 5 :1 8 -2 7 ,
January, 1 9 3 1 .
Beam, Kenneth S . , " D e lin q u e n c y P r e v e n t io n Through C o o r d in a tio n ,"
J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l S o c i o l o g y . 1 0 : 9 - 3 4 , Septem ber, 1 9 3 6 .
B ea n e, James C ., "A Su rvey o f Three Hundred D e lin q u e n t G i r l s , "
Journal o f J u v e n ile R esearch . 1 5 :1 9 8 -2 0 8 , J u ly , 1931.
Cam pbell, M. W., "Broken Home," Jou rn al o f E d u c a t i o n a l S o c i o l o g y .
5 : 2 7 4 - 2 8 1 , January, 1 9 3 2 .
C a s s e lb e r r y , W illia m S . , " A n a ly s is and P r e d i c t i o n o f D e lin q u e n c y ,"
J o u r n a l o f J u v e n i l e R e s e a r c h . 1 6 : 1 - 3 1 , Janu ary, 1 9 3 2 .
C o lc o r d , J . , "Broken Home," S o c i a l F o r c e s , 1 0 : 5 2 5 - 5 3 3 , May, 1 9 3 2 .
Coleman, C. F . , "The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f D i s c i p l i n a r y P roblem P u p i l s
i n H igh S c h o o l," S c h o o l Re vie?*, 3 8 : 4 3 4 - 4 4 2 , June, 1 9 3 0 .
131
E l i o t , T. D . , "The B ereaved F a m ily ," A n n a ls o f Am erican Academy
o f P o l i t i c a l S c ie n c e , 1 6 0 :1 8 4 -1 9 0 , 1938.
F e n to n , Norman, " C o o r d in a tin g C o u n c il i n C h ild W e l f a r e , ”
Journa1 o f J u v e n i l e R e s e a r c h , 8 1 : 8 6 - 4 3 , January, 1 9 37.
________ , "Reading I n t e r e s t s o f D e lin q u e n t B o y s," J o u r n a l o f
J u v e n i l e R e s e a r c h , 1 5 : 8 8 - 3 2 , Jan u ary, 1931.
F u r f e y , P. H . , "Some P roblem s o f t h e S c h o o l C h ild : The Problem
o f D e l i n q u e n c y , ” C a t h o li c E d u c a tio n a l R e v iew , 2 7 : 4 2 6 - 4 3 6 ,
Septem ber, 1 9 2 9 .
G i l p i n , F l o r e n c e , "The Runaway C h i l d , " Am erican A nnals o f
Academy o f P o l i t i c a l S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 3 : 4 7 - 4 8 , 1 9 3 0 .
H a n s l, Eva, "Why C h ild r e n Run Away," P a r e n t s M a g a zin e . 1 1 : 1 8 - 1 9 ,
J u ly , 1936.
H e a ly , W illia m and Augusta F. B ron n er, "How Does the S c h o o l
Produce o r P r e v e n t D elin q u en cy? " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t io n a l
S o c io lo g y . 6 :4 5 0 -4 7 0 , A p r il, 1933.
H i l l , George I . , " V o c a t io n a l E x p e r ie n c e and I n t e r e s t s o f De­
l i n q u e n t B o y s," J o u r n a l o f J u v e n i l e R e s e a r c h . 1 9 : 2 7 - 3 2 , Janu­
ary, 1934.
Jameson, A u g u sta , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l F a c t o r s C o n t r ib u t in g t o t h e
D e lin q u e n c y o f G i r l s , " J o u r n a l o f J u v e n i l e R e s e a r c h , p . 2 5 ,
Janu ary, 1 938 .
Lowry, W illia m J . , "Does S c h o o l D i s c i p l i n e C o n tr ib u te to De­
lin q u e n c y ? " P h i D e l t a Kappan,- 9 : 5 - 1 2 , Septem ber, 1 9 3 6 .
Lumpkin, " P a r e n ta l C o n d itio n s o f W is c o n s in G i r l D e l in q u e n t s ,"
American Journa1 o f S o c i o l o g y , 3 8 : 2 3 2 - 2 3 9 , Septem ber, 19 32.
M a ile r , J . B . , "Broken Homes and J u v e n i l e D e lin q u e n c y ," S o c i a l
F o r c e s , 1 0 : 5 3 1 - 5 3 3 , May, 1 932 .
________ , " V i t a l I n d i c e s and T h e ir R e l a t i o n to P s y c h o lo g y and
S o c i a l F a c t o r s ," Human B i o l o g y , 5 : 9 4 - 1 2 1 , F eb ru ary, 1935.
Mead, "Broken H om es," N a t i o n , 1 2 8 : 2 5 3 - 2 5 5 , 1 9 2 9 .
P a t c h e t t , W. C ., "Summary o f J u v e n i l e D e lin q u e n c y ," C a l i f o r n i a
Journa1 o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n , 1 1 : 4 7 4 , December, 1 9 3 6 .
P i n t n e r , R. M ., "The Measurement o f P u p i l A d ju stm e n t," Jou rn a1
o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 2 8 : 3 3 4 - 5 4 6 , January, 1935.
,
132
R o s a n o f f, A. J . , "A Theory o f P e r s o n a l i t y , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l
B u l l e t i n , 1 7 : 2 8 1 - 2 9 9 , Septem ber, 1 9 2 0 .
Shaw and McKay, "Broken Homes," S o c i a l F o r c e s , 1 0 : 5 1 4 - 5 2 4 ,
1932.
Skodak, M a rie, " G ir ls on P a r o l e , " The J o u r n a l o f J u v e n i l e
R e s e a r c h , 22: J u l y t o O cto b er, 1 9 3 8 .
Sulverm an, "The B e h a y io r o f C h ild r e n from Broken Homes,"
American J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 5 : 1 1 - 1 8 , 193 5 .
Symonds, P e r c i v a l M. and C. E. J a c k so n , "An A djustm ent S u rv e y ,"
J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 2 1 : 3 2 1 - 3 3 0 , May, 1 9 30.
? f e l l i n , J . 1 . W a l la c e , " F e e b le -m in d e d n e ss and D e lin q u e n c y ,"
M en ta l H y g ie n e , 1 : 5 8 5 - 5 9 0 , O cto b er, 1917.
?/ashburne, John, "The I m p u ls io n s o f A d o le s c e n t s as R e v e a le d by
W r itte n W ish es," J o u r n a l of J u v e n i l e R e s e a r c h , 1 6 : 1 9 3 - 2 1 2 ,
J u l y , 1 932.
Y ep sen , L. N ., "Score Card o f P e r s o n a l B e h a v io r ," J o u r n a l o f
A p p lie d P s y c h o l o g y , 1 2 : 1 4 0 - 1 4 7 , F eb ru ary, 1 9 2 8 .
III.
REPORTS AND BULLETINS
G r o ss, A l f r e d , "The Manners and M orals o f A d ju stm e n t," Report
o f th e Committee f o r t h e Study o f S ex V a r i a n t s , N a t i o n a l
Committee f o r M en tal H y g ie n e , New York, J u l y , 1 9 39.
L e n r o o t, K a t h e r in e , " C h ild r e n ’ s B u reau," U n p u b lish e d r e p o r t
f o r th e N a t i o n a l Committee on Law O bservance and E n f o r c e ­
m ent, ? /a sh in g to n , D. 0 . , O cto b er , 1929.
"Modern Trends i n E d u c a tio n ," P r o c e e d in g s o f th e New Z ealand
New E d u c a tio n F e l l o w s h i p C o n f e r e n c e . W e llin g t o n , N. Z . :
Whitcomb-and Tombs, L t d . , 1 9 3 8 .
Moreno, "Who S h a l l S u r v iv e Nervous and M ental D is e a s e ? " Nervous
and Menta1 D i s e a s e P u b l i c a t i o n Company. Monograph S e r i e s
No. 58, W ashington, D. C ., .1934.
P a t r y , F r e d e r i c k L . , Resume o f R ep orts and D i s c u s s i o n s R e l a t i v e
t o the S e c t i o n on "S c h o o l P s y c h i a t r y " o f t h e F i r s t I n t e r ­
n a t i o n a l C ongress o f C h ild P s y c h i a t r y , J o u r n a l o f J u v e n i l e
R e se a r c h , 2 2 : 1 8 3 - 1 9 6 , J u l y , 19 38.
135
P r e s c o t t , D. A . , Emotion and th e E d u c a t i v e . P r o c e s s . Report
o f the Am erican C o u n c il on E d u c a tio n , W ashington, D. C .,
1938.
P r o c t o r , Y /illia m , "The S ix -F o u r -F o u r P la n o f S c h o o l O r g a n iz a t io n
i n P a sa d e n a , C a l i f o r n i a , " R eport t o t h e Board o f R e g e n t s ,
P a t r o n s and S t a f f . 1 9 3 2 .
R o g e r s, C. R . , "M easuring P e r s o n a l i t y A d ju stm en t i n C h i l d r e n , 11
T ea ch er s C o l l e g e Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , Ho. 4 5 8 . Hew York:
Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 193 1 .
Ryan, W. C arson, "Mental H e a lt h Through E d u c a t i o n ,” The Common­
w e a lth Fund. Hew York: 1 9 3 8 .
Seu d d er, Eenyon J . , " L ife Anew." Annual R eport o f the Los
A n g e le s County P r o b a t io n Department f o r t h e Year Ending
December 3 1 . 1 9 5 5 . Works P r o g r e s s A d m in i s t r a t i o n P r o j e c t
6315, Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 7 .
67 pp.
Symonds, P e r c i v a l and o t h e r s , "Measurements of P e r s o n a l i t y Ad­
j u s t m e n t s ," Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n . B o u ld e r , C olorado:
U n i v e r s i t y o f C o lo r a d o , 1 9 3 5 ..
________ , " P e r s o n a l i t y A djustm ent of th e S c h o o l C h ild ," F i f t e e n t h
Yearbook o f th e n a t i o n a l E lem en tary S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l . De­
partm en t o f E lem e n ta r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s , R a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n
A s so c ia tio n .
Y /ashington, D. C .: U. S . Government P u b l i c a ­
t io n , 1936.
Thom, D. A ., G u id in g th e A d o l e s c e n t . W ashington, D. C .: U. S.
Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 93 3.
U n ite d S t a t e s Department o f Labor, C h i l d r e n ’ s Bureau, F a c t s
About D e lin q u e n c y . W ashington, D. C . : U n it e d S t a t e s G overn­
ment P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 2 .
________ , J u v e n i l e Court S t a t i s t i c s . 193 0 . W ashington, D. C ,:
U n ite d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1952.
Fan W aters, M iriam, "Report on Problem s R ep o rted t o th e F e d e r a l
S ystem o f J u s t i c e by th e C h ild O ffe n d e r ," George Wickers ham
R eport o f t h e C h ild O ffe n d e r i n th e F e d e r a l System o f Justl. c e .
W ashington, D. C .: U n ite d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ,
1931.
Wiekman, 1 . K . , C h i l d r e n ’ s B e h a v io r and T each er A t t i t u d e s , Hew
York: The Commonwealth Fund, 1 9 28.
247 pp.
154
Z aehry, C a r o lin e B . , "E m otional F ee d s and S o c i a l D e v e lo p m e n t,”
F i f t e e n t h Y earb ook , N a t i o n a l E lem e n ta r y P r i n c i p a l . D e p a r t­
ment o f E lem en ta ry S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s , N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n
A s so c ia tio n .
W ashington, D. C .: U n it e d S t a t e s Government
P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 36.
IT .
DISSERTATIONS AND THESES
D a h l, Y. D . , ”G e o g r a p h ic a l C o n c e n t r a t io n o f D e lin q u e n c y i n
Los A n g e le s C o u n ty .” U n p u b lish e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 2 .
91 pp.
K aplan, A l b e r t J . , ”A Study of th e B e h a v io r Problem P u p i l i n a
S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l . ” A d i s s e r t a t i o n a t Temple U n i v e r s i t y ,
P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y l v a n ia , 1 9 3 3 .
P e r r y , Glenn Edwin, ” J u v e n i l e D e lin q u e n c y in t h e J u n io r and
S e n io r H igh S c h o o l s o f Los A n g e l e s :
I t s P r e v a l e n c e , Mani­
f e s t a t i o n s and C a u s e s .” U n p u b lish e d M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , The
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th ern C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 7 .
Walker, Jean , " F a c t o r s i n D e lin q u e n c y o f D e f e c t i v e G i r l s . ”
U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s i n P s y c h o lo g y ,
A p r il 5, 1925.
155 pp.
APPENDIX
156
Map
of the City of
PASADENA
including
STREET INDEX
and
W H A T TO SEE IN
PA SA D EN A
ISSUED BY
THE
P A S A D E N A CHAMBER
OF COMMERCE
AND C IV IC A S S O C IA T IO N
50 NORTH GARFIELD AVENUE
D e lin q u e n c y Areas i n Pasadena i n 1938
Y e llo w Red
B lu e
Mexican Race
Negro
White
Large Red Dot - - G a r f ie ld S c h o o l
Large P u p r le Dot — M cKinley J r .
Green Dot — S e ttle m e n t H ouse.
(El .
H ig t
STREET INDEX—Continued
J -1 4 N S
B o n it a A v. ........................
B o n it a D r ............................... F -16E W
B o s to n A v ., A lta d e n a
G-6EW
B o s to n C t..........................— G -12EW
B o s to n S t.................................. G -6EW
B o u ld e r R d., A lta d e n a
H -5 N S
B o w r in g D r., A lta d e n a
J -4 N S
B o y ls to n S t............................ F-10E W
B r a d fo r d S t ............................ B -14E W
B r a e B u rn R d ........................H -5E W
B r a n d o n S t...........................M -12EW
B r e n t A v ................................. D -17N S
B r e n t n a l S t....................... A A -1 5 N S
B r e s e e A v ..................................H -9 N S
B r ig d e n B lv d ............................J -9 E W
B r ig d e n R d ............................... I-9E W
B r o a d w a y ................................D -1 4 N S
B r o c a d e r o P I ........................ C-15EW
B r o o k s A v . ................................C-10*
B r y a n t S t ......................
A A -8E W
B u c k e y e S t. .........................E -10E W
B u e n a L om a C t..................... E -5E W
B u e n a V is ta S t................... E -17E W
B u e n a V is ta S t ..................C -16EW
B u r le ig h D r.............................A A -15*
B u r to n C t...............................E -13E W
B u sh n e ll A v ........................... E -19N S
B u sh w ic k D r...........................A B -10
c
A ltad en a....E -5E W
C a la v e r a s S t.,
C a lifo r n ia A v .......................... A -17*
C a lifo r n ia S t ..........................C -14EW
C a lifo r n ia T er
.....B -12, 13N S
C a m b r id g e R d., F lin t
A B -5*
C a m d e n S t .............................. C -12EW
C a m d e n A v .............................E -1 9 N S
C am den Parkw ay
E -1 9 N S
C a m e r o n R d., S an M arin o
( N . fr . O rlan do R d .)....H -1 5 N S
C a m in o S ilv o so ................
B-12*
C a n a d a A v ., A lta d e n a
B -6 N S
C a n e d o P I................................. A B -10*
C a n o n B lv d ............................... F - lN S
C a n o n D r .................................F -15E W
C a n te r b u r y R d.. S. M ar...J-14N S
C a n y o n C rest R d ...................... B-2*
C a p in e r o D r ........................ A A -1 4 N S
C a r la r is R d., S an M ar
F-17*
C a r ls o n D r ............................... A B -11*
C a r m e l R d., L a C an ad a..A B -2N S
C a r m e lo A v ........................... K -10N S
C a r lto n A v .............................C-10EW
C a r r o ll D r ............................... H -5E W
C a sa G ran d e S t...................I.J -9 E W
C a s it a s A v ................................. B -3 N S
C a s ta n o S t ...............................L -11N S
C a t a lin a A v .................
G -13N S
C a th e r in e R d., A lta d en a ....F -5 N S
C ed a r S t ....................................C -8EW
C e n tr a l A v .............................M -11N S
C h a m b er la in S t..................A B -8E W
C h a m p la in A v ...................... C -10N S
C h a n d le r P L , S an M ar
H -1 5 N S
C h a n n in g W a y ...................... B -7 N S
C h a p m a n A v ........................... C -9N S
C h a p m a n R d .........................N -1 2 N S
C h a r le s S t ............................ A A -9 E W
C h a r te r Oak S t ................... B -17E W
C h a r lto n R d., S an M ar...H -17N S
C h a u c e r A v ., S an M ar
J-15*
C h a u ta u q u a D r........................... E-8*
C h a te a u R d ........................A A -12E W
C h e ls e a R d., S an M ar
G-18*
C h e lt e n W a y .......................E -1 8 N S
C h e r r y D r. .........................A B -1 4 N S
C h e s t e r A v ...............................G -13N S
C h e s t e r A v ., S an M ar
J -1 4 N S
C h e s t n u t A v ........................... A A -17*
C h e s t n u t S t ............................D -11E W
C h e v io td a le D r.
A A -14E W
C h e v y C hase D r., F lin t...A D -6 N S
C h u la V is ta A v ....................A -9 N S
C h u la V is ta
P I............... A A -9E W
C ir c le D r., S an M arin o
G-16*
C h u r c h S t ............................ A A -15E W
C la r e m o n t S t .......................... E -8E W
C la r k P I....................................... D -17*
C la y S t ......................................C -12EW
C lin t o n A v ............................. C -10EW
C lu b R d ................................. A A -1 3 N S
C lu b D r ................................ A A -1 3 N S
"d a
A A .1 1 N R
E l M olin o A v ..........................1F-9NS
E l M olin o P L , S. M ar
G-18*
E lm w ood D r...................... A B -13E W
E l N id o A v ...........................M -13N S
E lo ise A v ................................ K -12N S
E l P o rto lo , N . from
E l C irculo ................A or B-12*
E l S eren o A v ...........................C -7N S
E m erson S t........................... G-10EW
E m erson W ay .......................E -3 N S
E n cin o D r.................................... G-16*
E sta d o S t ............................... M - llE W
E sth e r S t....................
D -10E W
E u clid A v ................................E -1 7 N S
E u rek a S t............................... D -11E W
E u sto n R d., S a n M ar
H -16E W
E v a n sto n P I
................D -13E W
E v ely n S t..................................G -9EW
E v er g reen D r ......................A B -1 4 N S
E v er ts S t .................................. B -8E W
E w in g A v ., A lta d en a
E -3 N S
F
F airfield C ircle ......................... F-15*
F a ir la w n W ay ................A A -1 0 N S
F a ir m o n t A v ......................... C -14N S
F a ir v ie w L an e, A lta .................H -4*
F a ir v ie w , S ier ra M ad re....P -8E W
F a ir v ie w S t .............................C -16N S
F a ir O aks A v .......................... D -9 N S
F a ir O aks D r ..........................D -7E W
F a y P I.......................................... E -8 N S
F e lic e D r................................... F -2E W
F ern D r ........................................ A -12*
F ig u e ro a P I..............................B -5 N S
F ig u e ro a D r., A ltad en a....B -5E W
F illm o r e S t ........................... E -14E W
F in c h ley PL , F lin t
A B -7 N S
F ish er A v .............................A A -1 9 N S
F isk e A v ......................................F -7 N S
F leu r R d., S an M arin o
F-17*
F letch er A v ............................E -1 9 N S
F lin tr id g e A v ., F lin t
A D -4*
F lo ra l P k . T er...................... B -16N S
F lo r ista n A v ...................... A D -1 4 N S
F lo w e r S t ..................................E -7E W
F o o th ill B lvd ., A ltad en a..C -3E W
F o o th ill B lv d ...........................G -4EW
F o o th ill B lvd . .......................K -7N S
F o o th ill S t
................... C-16EW
Ford P I...................................E -11E W
F o r est A v .................................. B -8 N S
F o r est A v ................................B -17N S
F t. A n g e lu s P I...................... AC-17*
F r a n c es A v ............................... A -5 N S
F r a n c isca S t. ...................... I-12E W
F r em o n t A v ........................... C -19N S
F r em o n t D r .................
B -10N S
F rem o n t L a n e .................... C -16N S
F u lto n A v. .........................0 -1 2 N S
136
WHAT TO SEE IN PASADENA
This map folder by no means tells the story of the
many attractions which await you at Pasadena. It has
been designed simply as an appetizer of what you may
expect.
R e s id e n t ia l
D
ist r ic t s :
Particularly notable among
the residential districts and suburbs are Orange Grove
Avenue ( B - ll to C -10 to K -1 0 ), Oak Knoll (F to G
and 16 to 1 8 ), Altadena (C to K, 1 to 6 ), and San
Marino (J, 14 to 15).
C o l o r a d o S t r e e t B r id g e :
A beautiful structure over
which Pasadena is approached from the west (B -12).
Civic C e n t e r : Garfield Avenue, Union and Holly
Streets, and Euclid Avenue. $1,250,000 C ity Hall. Fine
view of the city from the beautiful tower (E -1 2 ).
Public Library
(E -ll).
Civic Auditorium
(E -1 2 ).
Pasadena Chamber of Commerce (E -1 2 ).
St r e e t
of
the
C h r is t m a s T r e e s :
Santa Rosa A ve­
nue, lined on both sides for more than a mile with
graceful Himalayan cedars or deodars (E -6 ).
B r o o k s id e P a r k , R
o se
Bow l
and
M u n ic ip a l G o l f
Pasadena’s largest park, containing open-air
C o u r se:
plunges, picnic grounds and playgrounds (B -1 0 ).
G
G ab rielle D r .............................F -2E W
G ainsb orou gh B lv d ............ L -15E W
San M arin o
G albreth R d ............................. J-8E W
G an esh a A v ., A ltad en a....G -5N S
G ates P I.....................................B -18N S
Garfias D r ................................ J-8E W
G arfield A v .............................E -IO N S
G arrison D r........................ A B -1 7 N S
G arvanza ........................... A B -17E W
G en evieve A v.
A C -14N S
G eorgian R d., F lin t ............. AC-3*
G ertru d e C t........................... C-13EW
G ille tte C resen to ..................B -19*
G ladys S t................................. J-12E W
G len arm S t............................ C -15EW
G len A v ...................................... D -3 N S
Glen A v ........................................C -7N S
Glen e a g le s D r ............................ A D -5*
G lendon W a y .......................B -18N S
G len H o lly D r................... A A -1 4 N S
G len O aks D r ..................... A B -1 4 N S
G len O aks B lv d .............. A A -10E W
G len S u m m er R d.............. A A -1 3 N S
Glen V ie w T er., A lt a ............. J-5*
G ood w ill P I................................ G-16*
G revelia D r........................... B -17E W
G lorieta S t............................... C -9EW
G oodyear S t ............................. I-6E W
Gordon T e r ............................. C -13N S
G race D r .................................. C -16N S
C a r m e l it a
G ardens
Sc h o o l
D
of
e s ig n :
and
C a l if o r n ia
G raduate
A lovely park w ith many rare
trees and shrubs (B -1 2 ).
Pa sa d e n a
C o m m u n it y
Pla y h o u se :
39
South
El
Molino Avenue (F -1 2 ).
Pasadena Chamber of Commerce invites you to call at
its office where you may obtain folders on places of
interest in Pasadena as well as folders descriptive and
illustrative of the city to be sent to eastern friends.
D e lin q u e n c y Areas i n P asadena i n 1938
Y e llo w - - M exican Race
- Negro
Red
B lu e
- White
Large Red Dot - - G a r f ie ld S c h o o l ( E l
Large P u p r le Dot — M cKinley J r . Higl
Green Dot - - S e t t le m e n t House.
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•ap u y
ub
no
x a o jx s
saxouaQ ^
S N S X -0
A i a s - a ........................................XS b c u b z
Z
M 3 t I - a Y .........................j a axJUiasojA
A A 38X -N .......................... P H a a i q s q j o x
A V 3 9 X - a v ...............................P Ai a q a o *
AA 3X X -0..........................................XS ° I ° A
A A a i’ V V .................................XS u i n q o x
A V 3 6 - a ............................................XS a P A
A.
A V 3 9 - 3 ................................XS S u iu io Aaa
S N 6 ’ d — ...............................AV XH^HAV
S N 6 - 3 ” ................................- i a su A q jo ^ A
S N 6 - 3 .............................. AV aaxsoojoA A
S N H ’ d ........................P Ai a p j B M p o o ^
* 9 X -H ........... W 'S ‘ P H qoojsp o o A A
A V 3 8 -I..................................P H u ^IPO o m
a S p iJX U iia
* f-O V
a u u a q 3 PIP00A A
A A 39X -3 ...........................P H p u tq p o o A V
* x x - a v .............................P H a jfip p o o A A
A A a i'D .............................P H A jnqpo o A A
* 8 I - H ............a u m 'S ‘ P H doaqxuiA A
S N Z X 'O .............................
AAu o x suja a
S N t-X -H .............................. AV uoXsuiAV
A A a z x -i..................................x s tiiq s u iA \.
..........
SNOX-O
.............. AY buoujav
( • p a s u u q i y -3S JO - a X)
UBS ‘ p a
Jo sp u jA V
Axas-V..................................... I d
* 8 X -H
a o s p u jA A
a o s p u jA A
S N S " V " 'EU 3 P BH V “ Ay
* 8 X -a
UBS “ AV uosqA A
S N H 'O ...................................AV u o s h a x
S N X X -a ...................................I d P ^ IIIA S l
♦ 9X -H ....... J b h u b s “ P H ^ n q ii A V
A v a s x - o ......................................a a o u isjA A
• o x - a v .............................- t a P P tfsa a iA V
A 1 3 8 - 3 V ................................. XS sqojA A
A A 3 i - a ................................j a a jjjtq a iA A
A V 36-T ‘H ......................P H P P lP X iq A A
A V 3 6 -H .............................P H P P lP X iq A A
A v a x x - r ................................... Av axiqAA
A A 3ZX -3..................... J a J o xsuiuixsbaa
S N 9 X -I
W ‘S “ P H U3ABH XSOAA
* 6 - 3 ......................................XS a x u a q s a jw
S N 6 - V V ............................. w u a XsaAY
S H 6 - H .....................................AV ^ I S 3 M
* 9 X -d .............................. AV qx-iOAvjuoAx.
• 9 - O V .................................P H A a iq u w M .
* 8 - V V ............................ AV u o jS u in a A V
♦ iX ’ O V ................................ XS p u B p B A A
S N 9 I-I
« K u b S ‘- p a A [J3 a ba a
M 3 8 X - 0 ..............................a a A ^ b ab aa
A v a s - a ............................ XS u o jS u iq s B A A
S N iX -H " 'a B W U1JS “ P H qaiA ^B A V
* 6 X‘ V V ..............................AV qoiM JBAA
* 2 - 3 ...................BXIY ‘a u B q oqadB A A
S N i ’d ..............................AV qxaoM jBAA
S N S X -O .................................. a a X nujB A i
M 3 X X -3 ..................................XS X nu p A A
AA3ZX-W .................................. XS XnuiBAX
Avasx-a...........................xs
shpaa
S X 8 I - 3 .....................................AV opiBjW
* 8 - 0 ...........................................XO aau3BA A
AA3XXT................................... x s aau3BA A
( ‘A y b j s j a B p u t a u i o j j -3 )
M 3 6 -V V
...................
‘XSqsBqBAV
( • A y B0(BUIS
ox u a n v ’K u i o j j ’a v )
A A 3 9 T ................................. P H s b u jx s ia
b js ja
S N 9 - V ...................j a A B u n S B a bxs ; a
S N I I - X ................................... ‘AV b j s j a
S H t- a
B u a p B ji y ‘q a j a q o s s i A
* 9 1 -0
-i b m u b s “ P H b i u i 3. u a
S N Z X 'H .............................. AV b i u i 3 j ; a
A v a i x - a ........................................ x s b i o i a
( B p a u iB [y u i o j j -jsj)
S N X X 'W ..............................1 3 P-ib a b u j a
AV38X-I ‘qB O UBS “ a a p a u A a u jA
S N X X -T - ..........................A y opaujA
AX.aOX-3.........................................XS b j j j a
S N 6 - I ...................................a a b i j o x d j a
S N IX ‘ 0 ............................... AV u o u j o a
M 3 9 - a ................................XS X u o u w a A
S N 6 " X .................................A y a u S a a A
A A H Z lT ......................................... XSSP J 3 A
A \.a ^ - a
B u a p u x iv “ x s B Jn x u aA
S N 6 X -a ...............................‘AV o u A b a x
A v a s - O ........................XS ■“ O JA ^OIIBA
M a s x - O .....................................XS * 0 IIB A
S N 8 - H ................................ A y B io u a iB A
SNi-aV.............
oust
‘*<1 B S O jq u io ijB A
A
S N i - i ..........................................^ x i s j a A i u n
A V 3 2 X -0 ............................................. u o i u q
n
X
* t x - a v .................j a u a lO 3 J 0 UIB0 AS
A \ 3 8 X - 0 ............................ AV 3-iouiB aA g
S N Z X 'N ..............................AV o jo u ib o AS
( • jq
u o x 3 u ;x u n n
j o - s I ‘u p B U B a o u i o a j -3 )
M 3 8 X -0
-i b w u b s “ P H x a s s n g
S N Z -a ...................P H s a p i a x o s u n s
* Z - 0 .............. B u a p u x i v “ j q x a s u n g
S N 6 - 0 ................................. AV Xasung
S N S X -W .........................- t a o d o i s A u u n s
S N S X - a .....................AV adojs^uuns
A V 3 6 X -0 V ........... AV ^ l A X X Iuiuing
S N 6 -a .............................AV Xiuiuins
( • A y O U tJB pf
UBS ox - p a
u io ij
“ P H PJOJXBJXS
M a s x - f .....« W ‘S
S N i x - a ................................a v p a o jx B J x s
M as-a
P Ai a
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................-ta XSJnqauoxs
S N H - 0 ................................AV u q o f ‘XS
uaqnaxs
M a z x - O .............................. XS
AV39X-a........................... I d
3 u i[ja x s
S N 8 - E ...................................I d
3 u i(ja x s
A i a s x - o ........................................ x s a xBx s
M a i . - a .....................................x s u o x u b x s
S N i X - a .................................... I d SXBBXS
A X 3 6 X -0.................................. XS s o n a d g
S N 9 - a " B u a p B X ( v “ 1 3 S u i p in B d g
A X .39-H ..........B u a p B J i y “ j a x q x n o g
A V 3 6 X -V V ..............................AV q x n o g
A V a 9 - H '" B u a p B x i y “ J a B u io u o g
S N 8 - V ...................................... P H b x i p s
S N O X -I................................. AV
B O jB utg
S N H - H .................... AV b x s ia B u a a ig
♦ 8 X -V V ...................... P H ^ a i A B j j a j s
S N O X -N '“ AV b i h a o - t p u j t B j j a j s
*9X -H ‘f ............... P Ai a o upB W B j j a j s
S N 8 I - d ................... AV o u p B Jtt B j j a j s
M a z x - H ...................XS s p u B J O B j j a j s
AV 3ZX -I ....................... I d B X i u o a B j a a i s
SN X 'X 'I....................AV B X iu o a B j j a t g
M 3 8 X - V V .......................... ‘Xb a v X -ioqs
M 3 8 X - H ‘^ b h u b s “ XS p o o M J a q g
S N 9 X -H
W S “ PH q so p u a u a q s
A V a ^ -V
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M 3 9 X - H ......................J O o J B a d s a q B q s
S N t X - a V ................................- l a B io n b a g
M .a 8 X -H................................... XS B a a u a g
* o x - a .............................................x s o a 9 s
S N I '- a - " B u a p u x i v ‘a u B q s d d i a o s
(•A y xunoui
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S N X X -a ........................................ I d XX°°S
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* 9 -d
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A ia Z X - H ............................XO ® d b x u b s
A x a o x - d .................XS B j B q j B a BXUBg
* 9 -a
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S N 9 X -H ......................AV B x j u y b x u b S
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AX.38X-H.................... J Q s o o j b h UBg
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(a u iB x u o ja n a a
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S N ?X -0
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(• j q q a i a i q B o u j o j j - s )
S N 8 x - i ‘q B o - s “ - i a s u i i u a u t ^ x
* X -O V ................................... XS ^ i q u i o a x
A V 3 9 -0 .................................XS X u o u ia a x
M 3 X - 0 V ..........................P H d i q s u M o x
S N X X -a .............................I d p u a s u n o x
M 3 L - 9 ................................... XS B q a d o x
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A V 3 9 - a .................................... I d
s w a
B u a p u x i v “ AV BI° X
S N Z X -W ...................................AV ^ I X U
S N 6 T ..............b x i v B j a a j x
“ A y u ta n q x
S N Z - 0 .B u a p B x jy
A \ . 3 6 - a ............................... - i a u o s d u i o q x
A i a iX - O V .............................J a 3 0 B JJ3 X
S N Z X -0 ................................- t a B O B w ax
A v a x ~ a ..... B uapuxiv “ AV 03B J«X
S N S - I ..........B u a p u x i v “ j q o tq o u B x
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(•p H B t u iS jt A
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* 8 X*H
JB M 'S “ P H s u B q i y -x s
* 8 X-V.............................. AV s u B q i y - jg
M 3 9 - 3 .............................. o ju au iB JO B S
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S N 8 -d ..................................... A b a a U B x n a
( u i t B 3 JO
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Buapuxiv
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“aa
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A i a f r - a ......................................x s a o ^ o a
A V 36X -H
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S N 6 - f ................................. J a ^ n q x o a
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A V 3SX-I .................... XS bih a asoa
A V 38X-I ‘iai-iq B O UBS “ P H s a s o a
S N i ' V ..............................AV x u o u i a s o a
S N ^ X - 0 ........................P Ai a p B a u i a s o a
S N 6 - V ............................... - i a 1 ^ 0 3 a s o a
S N t - a .............BuapBJiy “ Ay a so a
S N 6 - H .............................. Av
asoa
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-IBM -S “ P H p u q B s o a
................AV Xl3Aa s o o a
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S N f X - V ........................... P H p o o M q a o a
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( • A y j a a n u q o j o ’s
I
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A \a 9 X -f
J B p i -u b s “ A y s a i q o a
M 3 8 * a ............................. - i a u o s u i q o a
A \ . 3 8 - a .................................... XS s x j a q o a
♦ 8 X -H ....... -IBM ‘UBS “ p a a q o u B o a
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(a jp u m
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S N 9 X - d .............................. Abax. a 3 p ; a
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B so d aa
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S N Z X - 0 ................................ AV ■'Xaiam^
M 3 6 - I .......................... P H i t j n q s u a a n o
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S N Z X -V ................ a u u q
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♦O X -3................................. - ia x x a a d s o j d
S N O X -3 ................................1>S X a a d s o jd
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S N 6 - 3 ............................. P AI 3 x a a d s o j d
S N i X - 3 ............................... AV x a a d s o j d
S N 8 ‘ d ........................................ XO a u i i j d
A A 3 8 -3 .................................. XS X X oasaJd
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A A 3 tX - a ............................... XS XUBSBaid
A i a 9 I - d ...................... u a xsunqaujd
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B u a p u x i v “ XS a u j d
A A 3 6 X -0........................................ XS a u ; d
A v a i 'X - a ......................................... x s 0 0 1 3
S N 8 T .......................................- i a - ta d d a d
A A 3 8 - a ..................................... XS - ta d d a d
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M 3 i - a ..........................................XS u u a d
A x a x x - a ......................................x s 1 ^ 3 3
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S N 9 -3 ....................... ^ b ^ a IiauJBd
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( • j a a p j i o u i o j j -s)
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AAaSX-d.................... Id M3j a uiiBd
S N 8 - d ........................................u a x
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AAaX'-H
Buapuxiv “ Ay uitBd
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SN 6- r ..................... a v b jo q B{Bd
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( u jn g aB jg u i o j j ' m )
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(• p a
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S N 9 X -f
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A A 3 6 X -0 V ............................ XS
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S N 9 -0 ............... B u a p u x i v “ XS 0A!IO
S N 8-I
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SN 6 X-d................................. AV ®AHO
♦ f O .............. BuapBJiy “ Ay baiio
* i l - d ............................. PH II!W PIO
AAazX-a................................ Id xxoaio
AA39X-3........................................ XS o i q o
AAa^X'd.......................... Id pooAiqBo
A A 3 i* I' " 'B u a p B x iy “ A y p o o ia q B O
SNS-O V
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(• p a B j q u i B q i y j o -3 )
AA3iX-I... ubpi u b s “ -ia q^iaiqB o
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SN8X-3...........................AV puBjqBO
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AA38X-H................................XS aiB pquo
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(" J a u o x S u i x u u h j o - u j )
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S N 9 -0 ............................. Id qaiMJOtf
AA3^-H
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AA a 8 X-I ‘qB 0 UBS “ -ia PUBJXSOM
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A A as-a................................. av qx-ioN
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*8X-VV.........................PH aiBpsqxiM
S N 8 X -H ................... A B M q jB d b x i u j k
SNXX-a................................. Id apuiH
AA azx-a................................. xs bu im
AA39-D........................AV q-lOA M3N
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S N i‘0 ............................ AV X-iodM3M
AAai-X-aV .................................. XS B io a m
S N 8"0
...........................AV o jjB A B jq
A A 3 9 -0 ............................... XS B x a q t J B m
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B u a p u x iv “ p a u o q x ta B m
S N X X -d .............................. ‘Xb a a a i d u m
A A a x x -a .......................................XS a p e m
AA aOX -d ' PBW B jjaig ‘BXjuBzuBm
* 6 ' 0 ..................................AV b x i u b z u b w
N
AA 36‘ 0 ............................... a u B g a ix JA jq
A A a x x -a ............................... a a u a P u n w
AA 3XX -3........................... XS A j j a q i u p j
* t-H
P H II° X u o s h a a x u n o m
B u a p u x i v “xs a o u s m
* X I - V V .................. Abaa paojuBm
" " B u a p B X iv ‘a u B g u a p i u m
*8-0............ aa aAioq xxuunn oom
jq
SN9-0
BuapBxiy
AAaiX-O
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SNiX-a............ Ay
paB[[?W
Av
*X-0....... BuapBxiy “ja oiuam;
» 9 -r
Bx i v “ a u B q o u i o o p u a m
A A 3 9 -0
b x iv “ XS o u i o o p u a m
S N 8 X - V V ............................. Ay asojiam
a 3 p ;jx u ;id
* 8 " 3 V ...................... AV a A O ji ^ o p B a m
A A 3 9 -I
b x iv “ P H q o o jq M o p u a m
' ” B U a p B x iy “ i d u o x h a a o w
S N f-a
B u a p B x iy “ XS a IIB N 3W
A A 3 Z I -3 .................................. XS u i p B m
A A a x x - a .................................. x s ojBXBm
AA 3XX -0....................................... XS ‘Aaum
S N 8 - D ........................... A y b x s ja a s m
S N z-av
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S N X X 'H ................................ A y o p x J B m
A A 3 H - 0 ;............................I d u iB q q jB m
AAaZ-0
(q S ia p n a jo qxJOu x)
♦ 9 I - V V ........................... P H BU UBUBm
A A aO I’ d 'a a p B m B j j a i g ‘B s o d j j s m
A A 3 ^ - a " ‘ B u a p B x iy “ xg B S o d ijB m
S N Z X -H ................................ A y u o i jB m
A A 3 S -0 " B u a p u x i v “ XS B s o d iJ B m
A A 3 H 3 ................................ XS P i o s i j u m
A A 3Z -0 " " B u a p u x iy “ XS p p S i j B m
A A 39 X -3 .............. a u u g B x w a n S jB m
AA 38X-W ...........................a a ja a B S jB m
S N 9 X - 0 ..............................A y o S u a j B m
A A 3LX -3............................XS B jiouS B m ;
S N t - x - a ............................. a v B i p u S B m
S N 9 X -N .....................................XS a j p u m
sn sx
- - M exican Race
- Negro
- White
- 3 .................................. a v
u o s ip u m :
A A 3 i- V V .................................... XS B ipB m
A A 39X -3 .............................a a a u i p p B m
A A 3 i- 3 ...........................XS p i B u o a a u m
H
A A 38X -0...............................XS u o p u A q
A A 3 8 I - 0 ....................................... XS B j n g
S N 9 - 3 ...................................AV ^ p u n g
S N Z X 'N ......................................AV s u x o a
S N 8 X - a V ....................... XS s a i q o a s o q
A A a t’ O V
X u i[d “ A y s a j q o a s o g
S N 8 X - 3 .......................AV s a i q o a s o q
A A 3 8 -3 ............. BXIV “ a a s a i o i d s o a
S N i X - 3 'aB W ‘S “ AV saaoid s o a
S N Z X -V ...........................a a s o x iy s o q
A A 3 8 X 'I " 0 U ! J B m UBg “ P H u i B j o q
A A 39X -3 ................................. a a B x 'tu io q
AAaX’I ' H ..........................P H Ap J B q u io q
A A 3 6 -H ....................... XS b x s ia B u io q
A A 3 Z -0
b x iv “ a a Bx i y B u i o q
S N 8 X - a V ............................... AV B x a p a
sn x x t
............................................ a v
n |0 'i
A A a x x -a ...................................XS x s n o o g
A A 39X -N ............................. a a A a p q o o a
A A 38X -3...................XS u a A B ji a q o o q
AA 3XX -3..................... AV sqB O aAi-q
A A aO X -d' aapum B j j a i g ‘q u o a A ig
A A 3 8 -V V
Ae aa b x s ia B p u i g
* i - a v ....................... p h b x s ia B p u n
S N 8 - V V .................... AV b x s i a B p u ; a
* 8 x - a v ........................AV B s o a B p u i g
S N X X T ........................AV B s o a B p u i a
S N X X -0 ....................................A y u i o o u i g
A A a i : v v .......................................x s B p n
A A 3 i '0 .................... AV u o x 3 u i x a a
S N 9 " 0 .......... B u a p B X iv “ A y s i M a g
A A 3 H V ....... B u a p u x iv “ AV q 3 i q a a
A A 3 Z I-H ............................. XS u o u B q a g
A A 3 i T .......... B u a p u x i v “ A y u o x A B g
S N i ' V V .............................I d b x s ja B q
♦ XX-V........................... P H u p a j a A B g
A A a^X -O ............................... AV BX iauB g
A A 3 Z * a .......... B u a p B X iv “ J a l a j n B q
A A 3 8 X -3 V .................. a a £ B g { a an B g
A A 3 6 X -a ...................................XS l a a u B g
A A 3 8 -V V ................................ XS l a a u B q
A A a x x -a ........................ XS B j j a i x B d
Bg
S N H ‘ W .........................a a B sajd
A A 3 9 -H
b x iv “ a a B u B [o g B g
AA 3ZX -V..................... P H SBuqBd sBg
A A 3 0 X -H ..........................XS S B u n g s u g
S N 6 X "d..............................I d B p u e g B q
A A a Z - a V " ‘UB 0 B-q ‘- j Q a x a o d B g
S N 8 - a .....................a Q B o s a j o x u j d B g
A A 3 9 -I..........B u a p u x i y “ P H 2E d
S N f 'X 'I .......................... a u B g J o p u B q
A A 3 iX -0 V ............................ a a X u o u iB q
* z x - 3 v ............................a a BP B J im B g
* 8 X*d
a B p i 'S ‘A y u p u j i m b ^
A A 3 6 -3 ................................I d B s a m B q
A A 3 0 X T ................................. a a xaaquiBd
A A a i'X -V ..........................P H B u iO d
Bd
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S N t'X 'V V ......................P H A 3 JA a q Bd
♦ 9 -3 V
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S N S X - d ....................................... AV a q u a
A A 3 H - V V ........................P H B x ju n S B d
* 9X -V ......................................P H B u n 3 B d
* iX -O V ........................ a a axxa l l ° d Bd
A A 3 8 -d ................................... XS B j a p s d
* 9 ’ V ................................ a a b x s b jo B d
* g -y y
p a o S n p j a A u p B u u o Bd
T
S N 8 X -V V ..............................AV a q o a
S N 6 - 0 ............................... AV p o o A v q jia
S N Z X 'W .............................AV B o p u u i a
A A 3ZX -I.............................. XS a u o x s A a a
S N 9 X -H ................................. I d u a A v a a
* 9 X -d ....................................... a a u a A v a a
S N Z X - 3 V .........................a a A q x a o M .u a a
A A 3H V
B u a p B x iy “ XS X u a a
D e lin q u e n c y Areas i n P asadena i n 1938
Y e llo w
Red
B lu e
AAa8X-ria;aqBo ubs “aa IlBpuaa
* 9 -0
B u a p u x iy “ XO 3 3 o [ [ a a
* H - 3 V ..................................a a q B 3 M B a
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A A ana
* Z - 9 ............................ A y b a j u q
A A H ^ -a
P H ^ a j A u iB x u n o m
AA3XX*r............I d ^ a j A u jB x u n o p i
A A 38X -N .......... AV ^ a j A u iB X u n o jq
* 8 X‘ V
AV A iajA u iB x u n o m
S N 6 - 3 ................................ I d u iB x u n o m
A A 3 6 - a ............................... XS u iB X u n o m
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S N iX 'O ...................................AV p u n o m .
S N 6 '0 ......................................Ay
u o x jo jq
S N S - a .................................... A y u o x j o m
S N 8 - 1 .................................... p a itB is jo m
A A 3Z X -3................... A y a p i s S u t u j o j q
A A 3 9 -H ................................. I d BpB JO jq
S N X X 'V V ....................... a a ; a n b s a j o o m
S N i X - 3 ............................. AV a s o jx u o m
S N iX -d
J BW 'S “ I d s a iq o j x u o m
A A 30X -H ...................XS bxs ; a B x u o m
* 6 x - a v ..............................p a ‘X a joxuom
'-iB m UBS
iX a ja x u o w
A A 3 6 - d ....................... P Ai a o x p a x u o m
A A 3 9 - 3 ..................................XS b u b x u o j \[
a s o jx u o j q
A A 3Z X -0.............................. XS qiA B q o m
A A 3 iX - a ........................... 'XS u o i s s i m
A A 3X I-W ............................. A y u o i s s i h
S N X X -V ......................a a x b x s ja B j im
A A 3Z X -3..................... I d a x u o jtf B j im
SN 9*r
B u a p B x iy “ J a n j o u ; m
M .3 8 I - N .................................... XS u o x iiw
AA3SX-W .................... Abaa x u a a j m w
S N Z - 3 .........................
BuapBxiy
“ p a uoX ubo
S N X X -3 .................................. A y p j B m m
A A 3 L I -3 ........................................p a IHW
( b iu j3 j ; a
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S N I X 'O " " o u j j b w UBS ‘a u B d m m
A A 3 H - 3 ....................................... XS s a n m
u B iim
S N 6 X - 3 .......................................
A A 3 9 -r
B u a p B X iv “ j a qoiA vpim
S N S -r
BXIV “ a a U B iq x o ip im
• S X 'O ............................. a a B p u i m q a j m
S N S X 'O ............................. A y U B 3 iq o ;m
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S N H - 0 ..........................P AI 3 U 8 3 ;q a ';m
*9X’0 ............................................ p a B sa m
A A 3 iX - 0 V ................................ Av B sa m
A A aO X -d................................a a x x a a a a w
S N Z X -d .................................. A y u o p a m
S N S I 'I ................................AV q x jp ia a m
S N iX 'O ..............................AV U B ip ija m
A A 3 9 X -0 V .......................... XS U B ip ija m
S N X X -a ............................ XS s a p a a a a m
*9X‘D
(p aX X ;u io )-[d a jix u B a ja m
A A 3ZX -0...............................XO B i j o j u a m
S N 8 X - 0 ................................ AV a o j u a j q
S N 8 '0 .................................. Ay a u o j u a m
AA3XX-0...................... I d u o x 3 u i u u a j i
S N i - 3 ........................ Ab a a q x a u u a a
S N i - 3 .......................... AV q x a o M if u a x
Large Red Dot - - G a r f ie ld S c h o o l ( E l . )
Large P u p r le Dot — M cK inley J r . H ig h .
Green Dot — S e t t le m e n t House.
S N H - 3 V .............................a a a a f l iu n p
S N 9 - 3 .................................. AV B X iuB nf
S N 6 X -V ................................ AV s A j jj a p
AA38-J*............................... a a u o s j a j p f
A A 3 6 -a ................................. XS uosqoBf
* ^ X '3 V ........................... a G BpUBJBOBf
r
S N 6 - 1 ........................................AV u i m j i
S N 8-X I...........................................XS b m o i
* 9 " Q V ..................................a a s s a u j a A u j
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* 6 1 - 3 .................................. Id B usipui
* 6 I - y .......................................A y B U B ip u i
A A 3 9 -0 .......................................XS o q B P I
I
A \ : j 9 t - 0 .............................XS X n nqiutiH
A A 3 iX -d ' a a u a p jB O u o x a u p u n H
A A 3 8 I -0 ......................J a uox 3 u ; x u u h
A A 3 9 -H
B uapuxiy “ XO I i n j I
A A 3 8 -3 .....................................XO u o sp n jj
S N 8 X - d .................................. AV u o s p n H
A A 3 i- 0 .....................................XS P J b m o h
(pOOMqBO UIOJJ XSBa)
A A 3 Z -0 V "UBO B d “xs u B u ia s n o H
A A 3 iX -0 .....................................XS a d O H
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................................................ A V
o p o
‘J d a j u o f t L
C U T o f PASADENA,
showing ALTADENA, S 0. PASADENA and SAN
We A re Pleased to Serve You!
The service that the Pasadena Cham­
ber of Commerce renders to you is
made possible by the financial support
of certain business and professional
people interested in your welfare.
You can show your appreciation by
Chamber of Commerce.
MARINO
'hi ii»'
POINTS OF INTEREST IN AND
AROUND PASADENA
h>it
City H
a l l __________
Hall
______
(E-12)
(E-12)
Civic Auditorium ...............................
Colorado Street Bridge ................._ ..................
(B-12)
Brookside Park ....
(B-10)
Main Public Library .......................... ................... (E -ll)
Rose Bowl __ ____ ____ ____ ______________ (A- 9)
Municipal Golf Course
___ ________ __ __ __ (A(A- 9)
9)
Busch Sunken Gardens ___________
(R-15)
Huntington Library and A rt Gallery......................(1-15)
Pasadena Community Playhouse .......
(F-12)
Huntington Bridge of California Scenes,
H untington Hotel ...........
(F-16)
Street of Christmas Trees
................................. (E- 6)
San Gabriel Mission ....................
(J-19)
California Institute of Technology
.....
(G-14)
Tournament Park ....................................................... (G-14)
Chamber of Commerce ...................
(E-12)
Post Office ....
(D-12)
111
hi /
s/'in\'N|
E ntrance to Busch Gardens.
E ntrance to H untington A rt Gallery and
Museum.
Intersection of F air Oaks and Colorado.
Intersection of Sierra M adre Avenue and
Colorado.
E ntrance to H untington Bridge of Paintings.
Public Schools.
Elevations.
Points of Interest.
gooora'
WASHINGTON
difE:
700EAST ORANGE GROVE
tBROOKJIDE
FOOTHILL
COLORADO’
0PASla
____a 1
gUALLI
^cXuS.INSTO
fJ
D CALIFORNIA''
[iDfls
ALIFOWMIA
CALIFORNIA
—_ ■
‘
HUNTINGTON LIBRARY
6 ARTGALLERY !
Uopyrujht 1^7
vj M a r i/ H a li. A t w o o d
cJssued by
Pa s a d e n a
C h a m b e r of C o m m e r c e
•_U
A
W
TM
O
°!jE_l
\L'_ _ •; : '
1
AND
Civic
A s s o c ia t io n
,
/A
137
JY C ap
of the City of
PASADENA
including
STREET INDEX
and
W H A T TO SEE IN
P ASADENA
ISSUED BY
THE
P A S A D E N A CHAMBER
OF COMMERCE
AND C IV IC A S S O C IA T IO N
50 NORTH GARFIELD AVENUE
S h i f t o fD E lin q u en cy A reas Due t o C iv ic A id s
Large Red Dot — G a r fie ld S c h o o l ( e l )
Y e llo w — M exican Race
— N egro
Large P u r p le Dot — M cK inley J r . High
Red
— White
Large Green Dot — S e ttle m e n t H ouse.
B lue
STREET INDEX—Continued
B o n ita A v . .......................... J -1 4 N S
B o n ita D r ............................... F -16E W
B o s to n A v ., A lta d e n a
G-6EW
B o s to n C t............................... G -12EW
B o s to n S t ..................................G -6EW
B o u ld e r R d., A lta d e n a
H -5 N S
B o w r in g D r., A lta d e n a
J -4 N S
B o y ls to n S t............................ F -10E W
B r a d fo r d S t............................ B-14E W
B r a e B u rn R d ....................... H -5E W
B r a n d o n S t ...........................M -12E W
B r e n t A v ................................. D -1 7 N S
B r e n t n a l S t ....................... A A -1 5 N S
B r e s e e A v ..................................H -9 N S
B r ig d e n B lv d ............................J-9 E W
B r ig d e n R d ............................... I-9E W
B roadw ay
..........................D -1 4 N S
B r o c a d e r o P I........................ C -15EW
B r o o k s A v ....................................C-10*
B r y a n t S t ............................. A A -8E W
B u c k e y e S t ............................ E -10E W
B u e n a L o m a C t..................... E -5E W
B u e n a V is ta S t ................... E -17E W
B u e n a V is ta S t ..................C -16EW
B u r le ig h D r .............................A A -15*
B u r to n C t...............................E -13E W
B u s h n e ll A v ........................... E -1 9 N S
B u s h w ic k D r ...........................A B -10*
c
C a la v e r a s S t., A ltad en a....E -5E W
C a lif o r n ia A v .......................... A -17*
C a lif o r n ia S t..........................C -14EW
C a lif o r n ia T e r .............. B -12, 13N S
C a m b r id g e R d., F lin t
A B -5*
C a m d e n S t .............................. C -12EW
C a m d e n A v .............................E -1 9 N S
C am den P arkw ay
E -1 9 N S
C a m ero n R d., S an M arin o
( N . fr . O rlan do R d .)....H -1 5 N S
C a m in o S ilv o so .......................B-12*
C a n a d a A v ., A lta d e n a
B -6 N S
C a n e d o P I................................. A B -10*
C a n o n B lv d ............................... F -1 N S
C a n o n D r ................................ F -15E W
C a n te r b u r y R d., S. M a r...J-14N S
C a n y o n C rest R d ...................... B-2*
C a p in e r o D r........................A A -1 4 N S
C a r la r is R d., S an M ar
F-17*
C a r ls o n D r ...............................A B -11*
C a r m e l R d ., L a C an ad a..A B -2N S
C a rm elo A v ........................... K -10N S
C a r lto n A v .............................C -10E W
C a r r o ll D r ............................... H -5E W
C a sa G rande S t ...................I.J -9 E W
C a s ita s A v ................................. B -3 N S
C a sta n o S t ...............................L -1 1 N S
C a ta lin a A v ............................ G -13N S
C a th e r in e R d., A lta d en a ....F -5 N S
C ed a r S t ....................................C -8E W
C e n tr a l A v .............................M -11N S
C h a m b er la in S t..................A B -8E W
C h a m p la in A v ...................... C -10N S
C h a n d ler PL , S an M ar
H -1 5 N S
C h a n n in g W ay .......................B -7 N S
C h a p m a n A v ........................... C -9N S
C h a p m a n R d .........................N -1 2 N S
C h a r les S t .............................A A -9 E W
C h a r te r O ak S t ................... B -17E W
C h a r lto n R d., S an M ar...H -17N S
C h a u c e r A v ., S an M ar
J-15*
C h a u ta u q u a D r........................... E -8*
C h a te a u R d ........................A A -12E W
C h e ls e a R d ., S an M ar
G-18*
C h e lt e n W a y ........
E -1 8 N S
C h e r r y D r .............................A B -1 4 N S
C h e s t e r A v ...............................G -13N S
C h e s t e r A v ., S an M ar.
J -1 4 N S
C h e s t n u t A v ........................... A A -17*
C h e s t n u t S t ............................ D -11E W
C h e v io td a le D r .................A A -14E W
C h e v y C h a se D r., F lin t...A D -6 N S
C h u la V is ta A v ......................A -9 N S
C h u la V is ta P I...................A A -9E W
C ir c le D r., S an M arin o
G-16*
C h u r c h S t ............................ A A -1 5 E W
C la r e m o n t S t.......................... E -8E W
C la r k P I.......................................D -17*
C la y S t ..................................... C -12E W
C lin t o n A v ............................. C -10EW
C lu b R d ................................. A A -1 3 N S
C lu b D r ................................ A A -1 3 N S
C lu b R id g e R d ..................A A -1 1 N S
E l M olin o A v .......................... F -9 N S
E l M olin o PL , S. M ar..........G-18*
E lm w ood D r ......................A B -13E W
E l N id o A v ........................... M -13N S
E lo ise A v ...............
K -12N S
E l P o rto lo , N . from
E l C irculo ................A or B-12*
E l S eren o A v ...........................C -7N S
E m erson S t........................... G-10EW
E m erson W a y .......................E -3 N S
E n cin o D r .................................... G-16*
E sta d o S t ............................... M -11EW
E sth e r S t. ........................... D -10E W
E u clid A v ................................E -1 7 N S
E u rek a S t...............................D -11E W
E u sto n R d ., S an M ar
H -16E W
E v a n sto n P I
............... D -13E W
E v ely n S t..................................G-9EW
E v er g reen D r......................A B -1 4 N S
E v er ts S t .................................. B -8E W
E w in g A v ., A lta d en a
E -3 N S
F
F airfield C ircle .........................F-15*
F a ir la w n W ay ................A A -1 0 N S
F a irm o n t A v ......................... C -14N S
F a ir v ie w L an e, A lta ................ H -4*
F a ir v ie w , S ierra M ad re....P -8E W
F a ir v ie w S t .............................C -16N S
F a ir O aks A v .......................... D -9 N S
F a ir O aks D r ..........................D -7E W
F a y P I.......................................... E -8 N S
F e lic e D r ....................................F -2E W
F ern D r ........................................ A -12*
F ig u e ro a P I..............................B -6 N S
F ig u e ro a D r., A lta d en a ....B -5 E W
F illm o r e S t ........................... E -14E W
F in c h ley P l., F lin t ............ A B -7 N S
F ish e r A v .............................A A -1 9 N S
F isk e A v ......................................F -7 N S
F leu r R d., S an M arin o
F-17*
F letch er A v ............................E -1 9 N S
F lin tr id g e A v ., F lin t
A D -4*
F lo ra l P k . T er ...................... B -1 6 N S
‘F lo r ista n A v ...................... A D -1 4 N S
F lo w er S t................................. E -7E W
F o o th ill B lv d ., A ltad en a..C -3E W
F o o th ill B lv d ...........................G -4EW
F o o th ill B lv d ........................... K -7 N S
F o o th ill S t ............................. C -16EW
F ord P I...................................E -11E W
F o r e st A v .................................. B -8 N S
F o r est A v ................................B -1 7 N S
F t. A n g e lu s P I...................... A C-17*
F r a n c es A v ............................... A -5 N S
F r a n c isc a S t ...........................I-12E W
F r em o n t A v ........................... C -19N S
F r em o n t D r .............................B -1 0 N S
F rem o n t L an e .................... C -16N S
F u lto n A v .............................. 0 -1 2 N S
137
WHAT TO SEE IN PASADENA
This map folder by no means tells the story of the
many attractions which await you at Pasadena. It has
been designed simply as an appetizer of what you may
expect.
R e s id e n t ia l
D
ist r ic t s:
Particularly notable among
the residential districts and suburbs are Orange Grove
Avenue ( B - ll to C -10 to K -1 0 ), Oak Knoll (F to G
and 16 to 1 8 ), Altadena (C to K, 1 to 6 ), and San
Marino (J, 14 to 15).
C o l o r a d o S t r e e t B r id g e :
A beautiful structure over
which Pasadena is approached from the west (B -12).
C iv ic
Center:
Garfield Avenue, Union and Holly
Streets, and Euclid Avenue. $1,250,000 C ity Hall. Fine
view of the city from the beautiful tower (E -1 2 ).
Public Library
(E -ll).
Civic Auditorium
(E -1 2 ).
Pasadena Chamber of Commerce (E -1 2 ).
St r e e t
of
the
C h r is t m a s T r e e s :
Santa Rosa A ve­
nue, lined on both sides for more than a mile with
graceful Himalayan cedars or deodars (E -6 ).
B r o o k s id e P a r k , R o s e B o w l
and
M u n ic ip a l G o l f
Pasadena’s largest park, containing open-air
C o u r se:
plunges, picnic grounds and playgrounds (B -10).
G
G ab rielle D r .............................F -2E W
G ainsb orou gh B lv d ............ L -15E W
S an M arin o
G albreth R d ............................. J-8 E W
G an esh a A v ., A ltad en a....G -5N S
G ates P I.....................................B -18N S
Garfias D r................................ J -8 E W
G arfield A v ....................
E-IO N S
G arrison D r .........................A B -1 7 N S
G arvan za ........................... A B -17E W
G en evieve A v. ..................A C -14N S
G eorgian R d ., F lin t ............. AC -3*
G ertrude C t........................... C -13EW
G ille tte C resen to ..................B -19*
G ladys S t................................. J-12E W
G len arm S t ............................ C-15EW
G len A v ...................................... D -3 N S
G len A v ........................................C -7N S
G len eagles D r............................ A D -5*
G lendon W a y .......................B -18N S
G len H o lly D r ................... A A -1 4 N S
G len O aks D r ..................... A B -1 4 N S
Glen O aks B lv d .............. A A -10E W
G len S um m er R d .............. A A -1 3 N S
Glen V iew T er., A lt a ............. J-5*
G ood w ill P I................................ G-16*
G revelia D r........................... B -17E W
G lorieta S t ............................... C -9EW
G oodyear S t ............................. I-6E W
Gordon T e r............................. C -13N S
G race D r .................................. C -16N S
n.r-.-ce
.
... .0 -1 5 * .
C a r m e l it a
G ardens
Sc h o o l
D
of
e s i g n :*
and
C a l if o r n ia
G raduate
A lovely park w ith many rare
trees and shrubs (B -1 2 ).
P a sa d en a
C o m m u n ity
P la y h o u s e :
39
South
El
Molino Avenue (F -1 2 ).
Pasadena Chamber of Commerce invites you to call at
its office where you may obtain folders on places of
interest in Pasadena as well as folders descriptive and
illustrative o f the city to be sent to eastern friends.
S h i f t o fD E lin q u en cy A reas Due t o C iv ic A id s
Large Red Dot — G a r fie ld S c h o o l ( e l
Y e llo w — M exican Race
Large P u rp le Dot — M cK inley J r . H ig
- - N egro
Red
Large Green Dot — S e t t le m e n t H ouse.
B lue
- - White
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S N 6 - H ............................... A y a u 3 a a A
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M .3 9 - 0 .............................. XS XU0UX3JX
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M 3 9 - 3 ................................. I d u a jo o x '
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B u a p s x iy “ J3X q x n o s
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S H H ' O .......... PAI 3
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“ AV a s o g
S N 6- T ' ................................. A y
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A X 38-0................................ XS sx aaq o g
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a
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....... auBg
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x aa d so ag
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S N 9-I
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(• a a a p a j o u io a j
S N 9 X - H " '° u iJ B W u b s
“ Id q a s g
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A i a ^ - H ............... B u a p B X i v
“A y
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( u a n g aB ag lu o a j q q )
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(•p H
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A A 3A X -0V ............................A y q o o i j n o
A A 3 ^ I - I '“ JB W u b s
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AAa^-aV"'a3P!JXuji3 “PHapjao
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A A 30X -O ................ AV BA oaj) a a u B a o
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S N A - V V ................................AV
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S N 8 -I
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( P H B a q u iB q iy j o
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♦ f-I-3
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axuang *6x-vv............... av iirhbo
SNZX-V
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A X3^X-a..................................... XS O0I d
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.
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.
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S N 9 X -H
JB W ‘S “ AV a A o aS qB Q
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(•a a
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*6x-o............................ ’.................. XS
MBO
S N Z X - f .........................................A y qB O
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A v a s x - a ............................. j a pooAvao>i
S N 9 - 0 ...................................I d q o iM a o N
A A 3 ^ -H
B u a p B x iy “ a a x qXJOK
AA a8X -I ‘qB0 UBS “ J a puBaxsoM
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A A 3 8 - 3 ................................. A y qxaoN
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S N 8 X -H ......... X B M qaB g
b x iu i ^ j
S N X X -a ........................................ I d 3 PU }N
A A 3Z X -3...................................... XS b u i k
A A 3 9 -0 .............................A y q a o * M a ^
* 6 ‘ W ..................................AV q JO A A iaN
S N i ' O ..................................Av X J0dM 3M
A A af-X -O V .................................. XS B io a j q
SNZX-W................. qXJON
SN 8*0
.......................AV
oaaBA B ^i
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A A 3 6 -0
...................... a u B g a ix a ^ w
A ia x x -a .......................^ a
ip p u n w
A A aX X -a......................... ‘XS ^ J J a q i n w
* f-a
P H I P X u o s iia v x u n o w
XS
A X 39-0............................
B xaqoasw
* 8 -3
B uapB xiy “ p g uoqxBaBjv
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AA3 XX- 3 ..........................................XS a [d B W
A A .a O I - d - p B W B a a a j s ‘b x i u b z u b j ^
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B u a p B X iv
J O u b j^
♦
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Aa^-a
“XS
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-VV
*2-0............Ay aABjnuoa p xBuxniyow S NX
9 - 0 "' BuapB xiy ‘a u B g u a p p j ^
M . a i x - a ..............................x s
A A 3^*a
P H M 3I A u iB x u n o jq
SNI’X-a............................... AV b i j o u S b w
AA3XX-J*
I d JAOIA u iB x u n o jq
S N 9 X -N ....................................XS B JPB W
AA 38X*N
Ay Avai^v u iB x u n o jq
SNSX-a..................................AV u o s ip B j q
*8X *V
A y A \aiA u iB x u n o jq
A v a i - v v .................................x s B ip B jq
S N 6 - 3 ...................................I d uiB xunopff
A
X39X-a...............................Ja a u i p p s p i
A A 36_a ................................. XS u iB x u n o j\[
A\aA-a.................
x s p iB u o a o B j q
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S N i I - 0 ...............................A y p u n o w
bh o u sbh i
S N 6 - 0 ................................. A y u o x a o w
S N S - O .................................A y u o x a o j\i
S N 9 - I .................................. P H to q s a o w
AA3ZX-H..................A y a p is A u iu a o w
A A 3 9 -H ............................... I d B p B a o jq
S N X X 'V V ...................... J O a n b s a a o o w
SNAX‘ 3 ...........................A y a s o a x u o jq
S N iX -3
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A A 3 iX - 0 '“ JB W u b s “ P H ^ a a a x u o w
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A A 3 iX - a .............................XS u o j s s i w
AA3XX*W............................A y u o p s i w
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A A 3 Z I -3 ........................I d a x u o jn B a rj^
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BuapBxiy “ JO naoun\[
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A A 3 A I-3 ....................................... P H IHW
( B m iS a iA
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AV .39X -0V .......................... XS U B ip ia a w
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A V 3ZX -0...............................XO B ja o x u a jq
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1
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S h i f t o fD E lin q u en cy A reas Due t o C iv ic Ai ds
Y e llo w — M exican Race
Large
Red Dot — G a r fie ld S c h o o l ( e l )
Red
- - N egro
Large P u rp le Dot — M cK inley J r . High
Blue
- - White
Large Green Dot — S e t t le m e n t H ouse.
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M 3 H -V V
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AA3 8 - V V ........................... XS p j n n g
A x a x x - a ........................... XS B a a a ij , B g
S N ^ X -W ............................ J a B s a a d
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S N 8 - 0 .....................a g B o s a a o x u i g B g
AV3 9 - I .......... B u a p B x iy “ p g Z B g B g
S N t ’X -I........................... a u B g a o p u B g
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♦
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M 3X X -0.....................
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M a 8 X -I
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..........
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( bxsja B puig tuoaj xsBg)
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sa p U u y
(/tBMqSjH
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M 3 S I - 3 ................................. XS Xuuag
M 3 H - 3 .............................. JO axiuBao
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M38-0
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S N 8 X -a ................................. Av puB ag
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M 3 9 - H V ........................... i d i n q a s p a
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M 3 0 X -3 .............................XS u iB q jaB g
a
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S N 8- I ..............................A y u o jm u x o a
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................. jio
M a i-x -o ............................... x s a t n a
snsx-3................. Av
a
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M 3 8 X -I
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S N 6 X-VV........................Av u B u q o g
S N 6 X-VV............................. AV s ! I l° 0
7 W a p u jtU C U T of PASADENA,Ww
We A re Pleased to Serve You!
stowing ALTADENA, S0. PASADENAand SAN MARINO
ber of Commerce renders to you is
made possible by the financial support
of certain business and professional
POINTS OF INTEREST IN AND
AROUND PASADENA
California Institute of Technology..
Tournam ent P ark ............................. .
Chamber of Commerce ....................
Post O ffice ..................................... .
/.2E
l4
/ JHEU9YiT.
SYMBOLS
SlQsQ
FOOTHILL
E ntrance to Busch Gardens.
E ntrance to H untington A rt Gallery and
Museum.
Intersection of F air Oaks and Colorado.
Intersection of Sierra Madre Avenue and
Colorado.
E ntrance to H untington Bridge of Paintings,
d) Public Schools.
®
A,
Elevations.
@
Points of Interest.
UfiOOKSIDE
FOOTHILL
□jpuopo
CALIFORNIA
H
6
ARIAtALLtRY*^ !
fl§ g = r
n? □ Q ^ a r i
/7/^DQQflnm
W p y h f^ y i
/^ z M a r ^ H all A t w o o d
I'lRG
lN
lA
ncpRp'^y,
ensued bij
mission
Pa s a d e n a
C h a m b e r of C o m m e r c e
I
AND
Ik . C i v i c A s s o c i a t i o n
,
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