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The contribution of certain religious bodies to world peace

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THE CONTRIBUTION OF CERTAIN RELIGIOUS BODIES
TO WORLD PEACE
A T h e s is
P r e se n te d to
th e F a c u lty o f th e S c h o o l o f R e lig io n
The U n iv e r s it y o f S ou th ern C a lif o r n ia
In P a r t i a l F u lf illm e n t
o f th e R eq uirem en ts f o r th e D egree
M aster o f T h eo lo g y
by
D onald N . P r o s s e r
F ebruary 1940
UMI Number: EP65109
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
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a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation Rubl stong
UMI EP65109
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
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unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC.
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This thesis, w ri tt en by
.................DPEALD...JL...PR.QSS.ER.............................
under the direction of h . . ± s F a c u i t y C o m m it te e ,
a n d a p p r o v e d b y a l l its m e m b e r s , has be en
pr ese nte d to an d a c c e p te d by the F a c u lt y of the
Schoo l of R e l i g i o n in pa rt ia l fu lfillment of the
requirements f o r the de gr e e of
M ASTER O F THEOLOGY
A s s i s t a n t t o tjye
D a te-.T .. ebruar y
.19.40.
F aculty C om m ittee
Chairman
D ean
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED . . . .
The p r o b le m .................................................................................
1
S ta tem en t o f th e p r o b l e m ...........................................
1
Im portance o f th e s t u d y ................................................
2
D e f i n i t i o n s o f term s u s e d ................................................
3
W a r ...............................................................................................
3
P e a c e ..........................................................................................
4
R e lig io u s b o d ie s
4
O th ers
........................................................
......................................................................................
Method and o u t li n e o f stu d y
II.
1
5
......................................
HISTORY OF RELIGIOUS ATTITUDESTOWARDSPEACE
.
5
.
7
J u d e o - C h r is t ia n it y p e r io d ................................................
7
Time o f C o n s ta n tin e
M ed iev a l p e r i o d
R eform ation • . •
.
22
,. .
29
...............................................
E a r ly American Church a t t i t u d e s .
35
........................
44
E a r ly t w e n t ie t h c e n tu r y Church a t t i t u d e s ,
1 9 0 0 -1 9 1 8 .................................................................................
III.
LET.
67
ATTITUDE OF CONTEMPORARY RELIGIOUSBODIES. . . .
85
O f f i c i a l Church s t a t e m e n t s .............................. ........ .
85
D en o m in a tio n a l a c t i v i t i e s ................................................
104
O th ers
120
• • •
.......................................................................
C O N C L U S I O N S ..................................................
BIBLIOGRAPHY...............................................................................................
'
143
THIS IS WAR
War
I abhor
And y e t how sw eet
The sound a lo n g th e m arching s t r e e t
Of drum and f i f e ; and I f o r g e t
Wet e y e s o f w id o w s, and f o r g e t
B roken o ld m o th ers, and th e w h ole
Dark b u tc h e r y w ith o u t a s o u l W ithout a s o u l - sa v e t h i s b r ig h t d rin k
Of heady m u sic , sw ee t a s d ea th ;
And even my p e a c e -a b id in g f e e t
Go m arching w ith th e m arching s t r e e t ,
f o r yon der g o e s th e f i f e ,
And what ca re I fo r human l i f e !
The t e a r s f i l l my a s t o n is h e d e y e s
And my f u l l h e a r t i s l i k e t o b rea k ,
And y e t ft i s a l l embannered l i e s
A dream t h o s e l i t t l e drummers make.
0 , i t i s w ic k e d n e ss t o c lo t h e
Yon h id e o u s g r in n in g th in g t h a t s t a l k s
Hidden in m u sic , l i k e a queen
That in a garden o f g lo r y w a lk s ,
T i l l good men lo v e t h e t h in g th e y l o a t h e .
A r t, thou h a st many ip fa m ie s ,
But n o t an infam y l i k e t h i s 0 , snap th e f i f e and s t i l l t h e drum,
And show th e m on ster a s she i s !
—R ichard Le G a llie n n e
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM M B DEFINITIONS OF TERMS u s e d
For c e n t u r ie s w a rfa re b etw een n a t io n s h a s b een r e ­
p o r te d and rea d h i s t o r i c a l l y m ere ly a s a m a tte r o f cou rse*
G r a d u a lly , th e s o c i a l c o n s c io u s n e s s o f t h e n a t io n s o f th e
w orld h a s b een s t i r r e d and an im ated t o th e p o in t o f co n cern
o v er th e more o r l e s s r e g u l a r i t y w ith w h ich t h e i n s t i t u t i o n
o f war h a s made i t s e l f a p p a ren t and f e l t in v a r io u s s e c t i o n s
o f ou r w o r ld .
Only r e c e n t l y , h ow ever, s in c e th e ad ven t o f
th e t w e n t ie th c e n tu r y , can i t be s a id th a t w a rfa re h a s b een
reg a rd ed a s a p rob lem to be met and s o lv e d e f f e c t u a l l y i f
th e s a lv a t io n and p e r p e t u a tio n o f in d i v id u a ls and n a t io n s
and c u lt u r e s i s t o be c o n s id e r e d .
I t i s t o be s t a t e d th a t
a l l m inds a re n o t i n harmony a s r e g a r d s th e e lim in a t io n o f
t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n from th e m id st o f th e w o r ld ’ s p o p u la t io n s .
O r g a n iz a tio n s f o r and a g a in s t th e p e r p e t u a tio n o f i t h ave
been o r g a n iz e d and are now m a in ta in e d .
The l im it e d o b s e r ­
v a t i o n s o u t lin e d in t h i s paper a re th o s e co n n ected w ith th e
o r g a n iz e d Church o f A m erica and some r e l a t e d s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s
g rou p s a s th e y b ea r upon th e q u e s tio n o f t h e i r c o n t r ib u t io n
t o w o rld p e a c e .
I.
S ta tem en t o f th e p rob lem .
THE PROBLEM
I t i s th e p u rp ose o f t h i s
a
s tu d y t o s u r r e y and r e p o r t th e o f f i c i a l s ta te m e n ts and a c ­
t i v i t i e s o f t h e le a d in g o r g a n iz e d P r o t e s t a n t , J e w ish , and
C a th o lic r e l i g i o u s b o d ie s i n N orth America t h a t b ear upon
th e p rob lem o f p r e s e r v in g p e a c e f o r t h e c i t i z e n s o f th e w o r ld ,
(1 ) What h a s b een th e h i s t o r y o f th e r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e
tow ard p eace?
(a) What i s th e a t t i t u d e to d a y a s e x p r e s s e d
b y sta te m e n t and exam ple o f th e p r e s e n t o r g a n iz e d Church?
(3 ) What i s th e tr e n d o f con tem porary work on th e p a r t o f
o r g a n iz e d r e l i g i o n toward th e e lim in a t io n o f war from and
th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f p e a c e in th e w orld?
Im portan ce o f th e s t u d y *
I t i s common know ledge t h a t
th e Church t e a c h e s , a s an in h e r e n t elem en t in i t s p h ilo s o p h y ,
i n d i v id u a l and s o c i a l p e a c e f u l means o f l i v i n g *
A ll recou rse
t o f o r c e and v i o l e n c e a s a method o f s e t t l i n g d is p u t e s e i t h e r
on th e p a r t o f an in d iv id u a l o r g rou p s o f i n d i v i d u a l s , i s
s t r i c t l y c o n tr a r y t o th e t e a c h in g s o f J e s u s C h r is t .
R e p u te d ly ,
t h e Church s ta n d s f o r t h i s b u t t h e f a c t i s t h a t i t e x i s t s in
a w orld where p r a c t ic e i s n o t a lw a y s c o n s i s t e n t w ith t h e o r y .
The Church i s n o t a lo n e i n t h i s r e s p e c t , h o w ev er, b u t a s a
c r e a t u r e o f i t s own en v iro n m en t, i t a u t o m a t ic a lly s l i p s i n t o
th is c la s s if ic a t io n .
Much c r i t i c i s m h a s b een d ir e c t e d t o
o r g a n iz e d r e l i g i o n r e c e n t ly s in c e a b arren s k e p t ic is m h a s
e n g u lfe d t h e m inds and h e a r t s and o u tlo o k o f m u lt it u d e s o f
p e o p le .
There have b een and a r e tim e s when th e Church h a s
s t r u g g le d a g a in s t se e m in g ly im p a ssa b le odds and to d a y w ith
3
a m a te r ia lis m , d e v a s t a t in g in i t s cu n n in g v i c i o u s n e s s , d e­
c a y in g th e m inds o f h o n e s t b u t b e w ild e r e d p e o p le , i s no
e x c e p t io n .
War i s a s o c i a l p rob lem o f n a t io n s and a s such
h a s demanded a r o l l c a l l among th e i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i­
z a t io n s o f men in o rd er t o f in d o u t where t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e
l i e s and what p la n s th e y h ave t o e lim in a t e th e p r a c t ic e o f
war from th e w o r ld .
T h e o r ie s , p o l i c i e s , and w id e ly p r o ­
nounced c o n v ic t io n s a r e to d a y b e in g t r i e d s e v e r e l y b o th on
th e p a r t o f th e in d iv id u a l and s o c i e t y a s a w h o le .
W ill
th e Church b e a b le to w ith s ta n d t h i s wave o f w h o le s a le
d e n ia l w ith o u t b e in g f a l s e to th e Man who g a v e h i s l i f e
in th e i n t e r e s t o f th e day o f u n i v e r s a l p e a c e and under­
sta n d in g ?
II.
War.
DEFINITIONS 0F TERMS USED
There i s a fun dam en tal d if f e r e n c e betw een war
and d is p u t e s b etw een i n d i v i d u a l s . 4 I n d iv id u a ls q u a r r e l in
h o t b lo o d ; war p r e p a r a tio n s a r e c o o l l y and s c i e n t i f i c a l l y
p rep a red in a d v a n c e, and s o l d i e r s a r e c a r e f u l l y t r a in e d so
t h a t th e y may overcom e t h e i r n a tu r a l f e e l i n g s and h o ld
th e m se lv e s rea d y t o k i l l and be k i l l e d a t a command.
I n d iv id u a ls f i g h t t h e ir own q u a r r e ls ; s o l d i e r s le a r n
t o f i g h t o v er d is p u t e s th a t a re n o t t h e i r own— som etim es fo r
th e sak e o f f i n a n c i a l and econom ic i n t e r e s t s , n a t io n a l
h o n o r, o r f o r m i l i t a r y a d v a n ta g e .
4:
The term "war*** t h e r e f o r e , i s u sed h e r e in th e fo llo w -'
in g s e n s e , nam ely;
any c o n f l i c t b etw een n a t io n s , c o n t in e n t s ,
c o u n t r i e s , or g o v ern m en ts, i n w hich v io le n c e i s u se d f o r th e
s e tt le m e n t o f a q u a r r e l, d is p u t e , m isu n d e r sta n d in g or g r i e v ­
a n ce where men, co m m u n ities, and o r g a n iz a t io n s a r e d r a f te d
in t o a n t a g o n is t ic i n t e r e s t s and t r y to s o lv e t h e i r d i f f e r ­
e n c e s by v i o l e n c e , b lo o d sh e d and a l l manner and u s e o f
s c i e n t i f i c m ethods o f a n n i h i l a t i n g in d iv id u a l and c o r p o r a te
life .
P eace.
The p e o p le s o f th e w o rld want p e a c e .
w ants o r l i k e s to d i e , l e t a lo n e be k i l l e d .
Nobody
N e g a t iv e ly
s p e a k in g , th e m eaning o f p ea ce in t h i s stu d y d o es n o t im p ly
p a s s iv e n e g a t io n .
I f war i s to b e e lim in a t e d from th e w o rld ,
i t m ust b e su p p la n te d by so m eth in g w hich h a s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s
fo r grow th and d ev elo p m en t.
P e a c e , t h e r e f o r e , i s u se d in
t h i s s tu d y t o mean n o t m e r e ly th e a b se n c e o f war but a new
way o f n a t io n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l i f e *
I t in v o lv e s th e
o r g a n iz a t io n o f th e w o rld on th e b a s i s o f c o o p e r a tio n .
It
means th e u t t e r d e s t r u c t io n o f those; f a c t o r s w hich c o n c e iv e
and n u r tu r e th e v ir u s o f h a t e , s u s p ic io n and p r e j u d ic e w hich
d iv id e n a t io n s .
I t c a l l s f o r th e r e n u n c ia t io n o f v io le n c e
and co m p u lsio n and th e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f law and g o o d w ill.
R e lig io u s b o d ie s .
T h is term in c lu d e s a l l o r g a n iz e d
grou p s o r b o d ie s w hose avowed and r e c o g n iz e d p u rp o se i s t o
5
p rea ch and te a c h r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t s w ith th e a b j e c t lire o f
c a u s in g p e o p le to b e l i e v e in God and a c c e p t and p r a c t i c e
h i s p r i n c i p l e s in t h e i r l i v i n g and r e l a t i o n s w ith t h e i r
f e llo w human b e in g s .
In c lu d e d in t h i s c a t e g o r y i s th e
Church, u se d i n t h e g e n e r ic s e n s e , and s p e l l e d w ith a c a p i t a l
"C*”
J e w is h , P r o t e s t a n t , and C a th o lic r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s an
th e war and p e a c e q u e s t io n a r e c o n s id e r e d .
S ev en teen d e­
n o m in a tio n s o f t h e P r o t e s t a n t f a i t h w i l l be c o n s id e r e d ,
b e s id e s th e C a th o lic and J ew ish f a i t h s .
e th ers.
T h is term i s u sed t o in c lu d e se v e n f o r c e s ,
in a d d it io n to th e Church p r o p e r , t h a t a r e c l o s e l y r e la t e d
t o o r in te r t w in e d in th e Church and who a r e among many o t h e r s ,
in e s t im a b ly e s p o u s in g and a d v a n cin g th e p e a c e c a u s e .
These
" o th e r s ” c o n s t i t u t e fo u r o r g a n iz e d b o d ie s o u ts ta n d in g in
th e p e a c e f i e l d , who e x e r t a p o w e r fu l i n f l u e n c e , and t h r e e
"in flu e n c e s " in s p ir e d by in d i v id u a ls w hose z e a l and deep
c o n v ic t io n ca u se d them t o b la z e th e t r a i l f o r m u ltitu d in o u s
fo llo w e r s .
III.
METHOD AND OUTLINE OF STUDY
In t h i s stu d y t h e a tte m p t i s made to d is c o v e r t h e
p e a c e a t t i t u d e s and p e a c e e f f o r t s o f v a r io u s r e l i g i o u s
grou p s and movements a s t h e y w ere in h i s t o r y and a s t h e y a r e
now.
T h is w i l l b e a tte m p te d th rou gh r e a d in g and r e p o r tin g
t h e h i s t o r y o f th e P eace Movement and how th e Church, in
i t s grow th , e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l d evelop m en t
o f t h e p e a c e i d e a l , a s w e l l a s a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f th e
c u r r e n t s ta te m e n ts and Church pronoun cem ents on war and
p e a c e from t h e o f f i c i a l v o i c e s o f c e r t a in o f th e C hurches
and d e n o m in a tio n s,
A c o n s id e r a t io n w i l l h e g iv e n t o se v e n
no th e r" f a c t o r s , fo u r o f w hich a r e o u t in f r o n t i n t h e
P eace Movement a s o r g a n iz a t io n s , and a c t i v e l y c o o p e r a tiv e
and r e l a t e d t o th e Church* w h ile t h r e e a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f
w hat crow ning s u c c e s s e s i n d i v id u a ls can c o n t r ib u t e to a
c a u se by power and s t r e n g t h o f r e s o l u t e ex a m p le.
CHAPTER I I
HISTORY OF RELIGIOUS ATTITUDES TOWARDS PEACE
I.
JUDEQ-CHRISTIAUITY PERIOD
The q u e s t io n i s o f t e n a s k e d ,nD oes th e Old Testam ent
s a n c t io n war?*
There i s no doubt t h a t some o f th e w r i t e r s o f th e
O ld T estam ent b e lie v e d t h a t God s a n c t io n e d r ig h t e o u s w a rs.
The Old T esta m en t, h o w ev er, d o es n o t u n ifo r m ly s a n c t io n w ar.
T h is p a r t o f th e B i b l e , th e w ords o f J e s u s and th e o th e r
p a r t s o f t h e Hew T esta m en t, to g e t h e r w it h th e mute te s tim o n y
o f Church h i s t o r y and t h e r e l i g i o u s l i t e r a t u r e o f o th e r
f a i t h s , combine t o p ro v e to a l l t h a t th e i d e a l o f a w orld
a t p e a c e h a s b e e n dreamed o f fo r a g e s .
Hot o n ly J e s u s , but
th e J ew ish p r o p h e ts and th e p s a lm is t s who p rec ed ed him ,
sh a red in th e e n u n c ia tio n and p e r p e t u a tio n o f t h i s h o p e .
I s r a e l was a s m a ll n a t io n .
Her s e t t i n g was midway betw een
th e E a st and W est d i r e c t l y upon th e tr a d e r o u t e s i n th o s e
d ir e c tio n s .
A gain and a g a in , she was g a th e r e d up i n th e
b a s k e t s o f o t h e r , l a r g e r , n a t io n s a s A s s y r ia , P e r s ia ,
G r eece, u n t i l f i n a l l y Rome conquered h er and made h er a
s u b j e c t n a t io n .
The Hebrews to d a y a r e s c a t t e r e d to t h e f o u r c o m e r s
o f th e w o r ld .
In th e d a y s o f I s r a e l ’ s p ow er, h ow ever, th e
p s a lm is t s and p r o p h e ts v i e d w ith one an o th er in k e e p in g t h i s
h op e o f p e a c e a l i v e in t h e ‘h e a r t s and m inds o f h e r p e o p le .
T h is f a c t may he w it n e s s e d in t h e Old T estam en t, f o r w it h in
i t s c h a p te r s can be found p o w e r fu l p r o t e s t s a g a in s t w ar in
t h e p ro m u lg a tio n o f p e a c e , and numerous p r o p h e c ie s o f a
w s r l e s s w o r ld .
The g u i l t o f A s s y r ia and i t s d o w n fa ll a r e th e o c c a ­
s io n o f Ifahum* s p o w e r fu l p r o p h e c y .
Kent says:"**
Over th e c r u e l , r a p a c io u s em pire t h i s p ro p h et o f
o b sc u r e Judah c h a n ts a p o w e r fu l doom-song* In t h e
c o l l a p s e o f t h e g r e a t em p ire h e saw n o t o n ly a v i n d i ­
c a t io n o f Jehovah* s J u s t r u le r sh ip o f t h e w o rld b u t
a l s o th e condem nation o f t h e b r u t a l p o l i c y w hich f o r
two c e n t u r ie s had in v o lv e d so u th w e ste r n A s ia in a lm o st
c o n tin u o u s w ar.
. . .
He d e c la r e s t h a t t h e w ars waged
. by A s s y r ia upon t h e p e t t y n a t io n s o f so u th w e ste r n A sia
w ere sim p ly o r g a n iz e d murder in s p ir e d by t h e d e s i r e
t o rob and t o g r a t i f y t h e i r b e s t i a l a p p e t i t e s . &
Where i s t h e den o f t h e l i o n s ,
The l a i r o f t h e young l i o n s ,
Where th e l i o n was w ont t o w ithd raw ,
The w h elp s a l s o w ith n on e t o s t a r t l e them?
The l i o n t o r e in p i e c e s enough f o r h i s w h e lp s,
And s t r a n g le d f o r h i s m a te s,
He f i l l e d h i s c a v e s w it h p r e y
And h i s l a i r s w ith p lu n d e r .3
Through a l l o f h i s i n v e c t i v e s a g a in s t A s s y r ia t h e r e
I s a r e c u r r in g n o t e o f d i v i n e d is a p p r o v a l and condem nation
o f w ar.
C h a r le s F o s t e r K en t, The S o c i a l T ea ch in g s o f t h e
P r o p h e ts and J e s u s (New York: C h a r le s S c r ib n e r * s S o n s, 1 9 2 8 ) ,
364 p p .
2 I b id . . p . 79.
3 L o c. c i t .
9
B eh old I am a g a in s t t h e e , i s th e o r a c le o f
Jehovah o f h o s t s ,
And I w i l l b arn th y d w e llin g s in smoke;
The sword s h a l l d evou r th y young l i o n s ;
Y ea, I w i l l o u t o f f th y p r e y from th y w ra th ,
The v o i c e o f t h y m e sse n g e r s s h a l l be h eard no
m ore♦4
Nahum was a w orthy fo rer u n n er o f th e modern p e a c e
5
movement.
In an a g e when war ra g ed a lm o st u n c e a s in g ly , he
p r o t e s t e d a g a in s t i t p a s s i o n a t e l y .
L i s t e n t o him:
Woe t o t h e b lo o d y c i t y ,
F u l l o f l i e s and p lu n d e r 1*
There a re c o r p s e s w ith o u t number I
They stu m b le ov er th e b o d ie s * 6
One o f t h e m ost w e l l known and v e r y v i v i d m a n if e s ta ­
t i o n s o f th e p ea ce i d e a l n u rtu red in th e m inds o f th e e a r ly
J ew ish w r i t e r s i s fou n d in th e f o llo w in g p a s s a g e :
And h e w i l l Judge b etw een n a t io n s , and w i l l d e c id e
c o n c e r n in g many p e o p le s ; and th e y s h a l l b e a t t h e i r
sw ord s i n t o p lo w s h a r e s , and t h e i r s p e a r s in t o p r u n in g h o o k s ; n a t io n s h a l l n o t l i f t up sword a g a in s t n a t io n ,
n e it h e r s h a l l th e y le a r n war any more*?
In t h e t h i r t y - f o u r t h P salm , s a i d by seme s c h o la r s t o
be th e work o f k in g David * we f in d th e G rod-fearing man b id !
den t o "d ep art from e v i l and do g o o d ," and to " se e k p e a c e
8
and p u rsu e it * "
^
B ib le (A m erican R e v is e d T e n s io n ) , Book o f
Nahum, C hapter I I , T e r s e I S .
5 K en t, o p . c i t * , p . 80*
6 The B i b l e , Nahum, 3 : 1 .
? Ib id *, Book o f I s a ia h , £ : 4 .
8 Ibid., Book of Psalms, 34:14.
10
A gain in th e Book o f I s a i a h , th e p r o p h e t I s a ia h
v o i c e s h i s c o n v ic t io n s t o th e p e o p le :
Then J u s t i c e s h a l l d w e ll in th e w ild e r n e s s ; and
r ig h t e o u s n e s s s h a l l a b id e in th e f r u i t f u l f i e l d .
And th e work o f r ig h t e o u s n e s s s h a l l be p e a c e ; and
t h e e f f e c t o f r ig h t e o u s n e s s , q u ie t n e s s and c o n fid e n c e
f o r e v e r .9
E z e k ie l n o t e s in h i s s a y in g s :
And th e y t h a t d w e ll in th e c i t i e s o f I s r a e l s h a l l
go f o r t h and s h a l l make f i r e s o f t h e weapons and burn
them, b o th h a n d s ta v e s , and th e s p e a r s , and t h e y s h a l l
make f i r e s o f them s e v e n y e a r s . 1*)
A g a in , th e p ro p h et Z eeh a ria h em p h a sizes p e a c e in
no u n c e r t a in term s.
And I w i l l c u t o f f th e c h a r io t from Ephraim , and
th e h o r s e from J er u sa lem ; and th e b a t t l e bow s h a l l
be c u t o f f ; and h e s h a l l sp eak p ea ce u n to th e
n a t io n s : and h i s d om in ion s h a l l b e from s e a t o s e a ,
and from th e r i v e r to t h e en d s of th e e a r t h . 11
The w r it e r o f th e e i g h t y - f i f t h P salm d e c l a r e s , nl
w i l l h ea r what God th e Lord w i l l sp ea k ; f o r he w i l l sp eak
1£
p e a c e u n to h i s p e o p le , and t o h i s s a i n t s . ”
The one hundred tw e n ty -se c o n d Psalm s t r e s s e s th e d u ty
o f t h e b e l i e v e r t o p ra y f o r th e p ea ce o f I s r a e l :
;■
Pray f o r th e p ea ce o f J eru sa lem ; th e y s h a l l p r o s p er t h a t l o v e t h e e . P eace be w it h in th y w a l l s , and
9 I b i d . , Book o f I s a i a h , 3 S :1 6 -1 8 .
^
I b i d . , Book o f E z e k ie l , 5 9 : 9 .
11 I b i d . , Book o f Z e e h a r ia h , 9 : 1 0 .
^
Ibid., Book of Psalms, 85:5.
IX
p r o s p e r it y w it h in th y p a la c e s . For my b r e th r e n and
companion* s s a k e . I w i l l now s a y , P eace he w ith
t h e e , 13
There i s an elem en t o f s h e e r n a t io n a lis m in t h e s e
e x h o r t a t io n s o f th e p s a l m i s t s , to b e s u r e ; hut now we tu rn
t o th e w ords o f o th e r J ew ish p r o p h e ts , w hich c l e a r l y i n d i ­
c a t e a w id er v i s i o n and a b road er h o p e .
M icah, th e M o r a sh ite , g i v e s u s h i s p ic t u r e o f a w orld
a t p e a c e , a c h ie v e d b y t h e a c c e p ta n c e o f a u n iv e r s a l f a i t h in
God, a p ic t u r e w hich b id s f a i r t o sta n d th e t e s t o f tim e
in t h e s e f o llo w in g p r o p h e tic and p i e r c i n g l i n e s :
But in th e l a s t d a y s i t s h a l l come t o p a s s , th a t
th e m ountain o f th e Lord s h a l l h e e s t a b l i s h e d i n the
to p o f th e m o u n ta in s, and i t s h a l l be e x a lt e d above
th e h i l l s ; and p e o p le s h a l l f lo w i n t o i t . And many
n a t io n s s h a l l come, and s a y , Gome, l e t u s go up to
th e m oun tain o f th e L ord, and t o t h e h o u se o f th e
God o f Jacob ; and he w i l l te a c h u s o f h i s ways and
we w i l l w alk in h i s p a th s ; f o r th e law s h a l l go
f o r t h o f Z io n , and th e word o f t h e Lord from J e r u ­
sa le m . And h e , God, s h a l l ju d ge among many p e o p le ,
and reb u k e s tr o n g n a t io n s a f a r o f f ; and th e y s h a l l
b e a t t h e i r sw ord s i n t o p low sh ares;, and t h e i r s p e a r s
in t o p r u n in g -h o o k s, n a t io n s h a l l n o t l i f t up sword
a g a in s t n a t io n , n e it h e r s h a l l th e y le a r n war any
m o r e .14
I s a i a h , th e J e r u sa le m s ta te s m a n , r e p e a t s t h i s same
v i s i o n o f M icah i n h i s own w ord s,
He th e n g o e s on to
a m p lify and b e a u t i f y h i s i d e a l and to s p e c i f y th e way in
w hich t h i s s t a t e o f w o rld p e a c e s h a l l b e a t t a in e d .
13
I b i d . , Book o f P sa lm s, 1 1 2 : 6 - 8 .
14
Ibid,, Book of Micah, 4:1-3.
He th u s
f o r e t e l l s th e coming o f th e P r in c e o f J e s u s and p r e d i c t s t h e
m ethods and r e s u l t s o f h i s r e ig n :
And the S p i r i t o f Jehovah s h a l l r e s t upon him , th e
s p i r i t o f wisdom and u n d e r s ta n d in g , t h e s p i r i t o f
c o u n s e l and m ig h t, th e s p i r i t o f know ledge and o f th e
f e a r o f Jehovah; and s h a l l make him o f q u ic k u n d er­
s ta n d in g in th e f e a r o f Jehovah; and he s h a l l n o t
jud ge a f t e r th e s i g h t o f h i s e y e s , n e it h e r d e c id e
a f t e r t h e h e a r in g o f h i s e a r s ; h u t w ith r ig h t e o u s n e s s
s h a l l h e ju d g e t h e p o o r , and d e c id e w ith e q u it y f o r
th e meek o f t h e e a r th - . * . And r ig h t e o u s n e s s s h a l l
h e th e g i r d l e o f h i s w a is t and f a i t h f u l n e s s th e
g ir d le o f h is lo in s .
The w o lf a l s o s h a l l d w e ll w ith
t h e lam b, and th e le o p a r d s h a l l l i e down w it h th e
k id ; and th e c a l f and t h e young l i o n and th e f a t l i n g
t o g e t h e r ; and a l i t t l e c h i l d s h a l l le a d them . And
t h e cow and th e h ea r s h a l l f e e d ; t h e i r young o n es
s h a l l l i e down t o g e t h e r ; and th e l i o n s h a l l e a t stra w
l i k e t h e o x . And t h e s u c k lin g c h i l d s h a l l p la y on
t h e h o le o f th e a s p , and th e weaned c h i l d s h a l l p u t
h i s hand on t h e a d d e r 's d en . They s h a l l n o t h u r t nor
d e s t r o y in a l l my h o ly m oun tain; f o r th e e a r th s h a l l
h e f u l l o f t h e k now ledge o f J eh o v a h , a s th e w a te r s
c o v e r th e s e a . 15
I t i s n o t s u r p r is in g t h a t t h e r e w ere n o t more p r o p h e ts
o f p e a c e among th e Jews o f a n c ie n t P a l e s t i n e when th e y w ere
p e r s e c u te d so r u t h l e s s l y and had su ch an up and down h is t o r y *
They were c o n s t a n t ly surrounded by w a r lik e p e o p le s , and p ro­
ced ed to ou td o them, i f a n y th in g , in fu r y and c r u e l t y , in
o rd er t o se c u r e t h e i r v e r y e x i s t e n c e .
The a d v ic e o f I s a ia h
t o H ezek ia h n o t t o bend th e k n ee t o S e n n a c h e r ib , but t o d e­
pend upon Jehovah t o p r o t e c t J e r u sa le m , s u g g e s t s d e f i n i t e
le a n in g s tow ard p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e .
15
Ibid,, Book of Isaiah, 11:8-9.
13
A bout two c e n t u r ie s a f t e r I s a i a h Ts c o u n s e l o f non­
v i o l e n t r e s i s t a n c e , th e y o u th fu l p r o p h e t Jerem iah found him­
s e l f s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d b e c a u se he a d v is e d h i s p e o p le n o t
to* p u t f a i t h in th e power o f t h e i r t r o o p s o f t h e i r Temple
t o p r o t e c t them from t h e g r e a t sw eep o f H ebuchadnezzer* s
B a b y lo n ia n arm y.
i ft
O nly a n o n - v io le n t su b m iss io n t o t h e
i n e v i t a b l e c h a s t e n in g , t h a t was th e w i l l o f J eh o v a h , c o u ld
a v e r t an overw helm ing d i s a s t e r .
The D euteronom ic Code t h a t em erged from th e Old T es­
tam ent l i f e o f th e H ebrew s, rem a in s a monument in c i v i l i z a ­
t i o n and c o n t a in s a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e s tu d y o f p e a c e in
th e w o r ld .
W h ile th e C h r is t ia n i d e a l o f p e a c e and th e con ­
d u c t o f men r e g a r d in g war w ere y e t t o b e in d ic a t e d by C h r is t
o f G a l i l e e , th e D euteronom ic Code c o n t r ib u t e s t o th e p e a c e
id e a l o f th e w o r ld .
(She a u th o r e x p r e s s e s h i s v ie w s on t h e
su b je c t a s fo llo w s :
A n t iq u it y prod uced n o o th e r cod e o f la w s w hich in
i t s c o m p le te n e s s and l o f t y s o c i a l id e a lis m com pares
w ith t h a t found in t h e book o f D euteronom y. I t s
u n d e r ly in g p r i n c i p l e s c o n t r ib u t e t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f
a lm o st e v e r y p rob lem o f human s o c i e t y . Most o f t h o s e
p r i n c i p l e s a r e o f f a r w id e r a p p l i c a t i o n th a n th e sp e ­
c i f i c c a s e s w ith w hich th e y d e a l . They rem ain to d a y
t h e h i s t o r i c fo u n d a tio n s o f t h a t w h ich i s f i n e s t in
o u r modern s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . Many o f th e sta n d a r d s
t h a t t h e y s e t up s t i l l a w a it c o m p lete a c c e p ta n c e . Ho
one can c la im t h a t t h e y p r e s e n t a p e r f e c t s o c i a l sy ste m .
T h eir t e a c h in g r e g a r d in g war and p e a c e (B t.2Q ) s t r i k e s
a much lo w e r l e v e l th an do th e s ta n d a r d s m a in ta in e d by
Ibid.. Book of Jeremiah, Chapters 8 7 , 28.
14
Amos (Am. 1 J and Nahum (F ail. 2 , 3) . Hie b i t t e r n e s s
b e g o tte n by c r u e l p e r s e c u t io n bad h ard en ed th e
o th e r w is e te n d e r h e a r t s of th e D eu teron om ic law ­
g i v e r s , so t h a t , in t h e o r y , a t l e a s t , th e y c o u ld
co u n ten a n ce th e w h o le s a le s la u g h t e r o f t h o s e whom
th e y re g a rd ed a s t r a i t o r s t o t h e i r r a c e and r e l i g i o n .
Humanity had t o w a it lo n g c e n t u r ie s b e f o r e th e g r e a t
T each er o f N aza reth u t t e r e d th e r e v o lu t io n a r y com­
mand: "Love y o u r en em ie s.* * ^
The id e a and h op e o f a war l e s s w o rld was n o t th e n un­
known and u n sp ok en o f d u rin g th e e x i s t e n c e o f th e J ew ish
n a t io n .
What amounted to a s p i r i t u a l r e v o lu t io n from th e
M osaic Code and v ie w p o in t o f war and s o c i e t y o f Jeh ovah , was
a c c o m p lish e d n o t b y t h e p r ie s t h o o d , but by a body o f u n cou th
men, t h e p r o p h e t s .
T h ese men, i n v i n c i b l e in t h e i r c o n v ic ­
t i o n s and s t a lw a r t in t h e i r f e a r l e s s p ron ou n cem en ts, w ere
c o n v in c e d t h a t t h e s a l v a t i o n o f th e J ew ish n a t io n la y in
u n d iv id e d l o y a l t y to J eh o v a h , no lo n g e r a l o c a l d e i t y , but
a champion o f r ig h t e o u s n e s s .
A fte r c e n t u r ie s o f war and p r o lo n g e d s u p p r e s s io n ,
m is e r y , and c o n f u s io n in P a l e s t i n e , t h e r e came a n u nm istak ­
a b le p a c i f i s t v o i c e and m essa g e in th e p e r s o n o f J e s u s
C h r is t .
The m a g n ific e n c e and power o f h i s m essa g e and i t s
im p act on th e w o rld i s rem arkab le b e c a u se h i s t e a c h in g s and
exam ple d u rin g h i s b r i e f c a r e e r s e r v e d t o s u s t a in h i s f o l ­
lo w e r s f o r n e a r ly one hundred f i f t y y e a r s in f a i r l y c a r ­
s i s t e n t r e s i s t a n c e to a l l m i l i t a r y com prom ise w ith Rome.
17
K e n t, o p . c i t . , p p . 1 0 3 - 1 0 4 .
15
T here i s abundant e v id e n c e in th e u t t e r a n c e s and co n d u ct o f
J e s u s to show h i s u t t e r d e n ia l o f t h e way o f v i o l e n c e and
h i s g e n u in e and u n sw erv in g b e l i e f in th e power and e f f i c a c y
o f p e a c e in human r e l a t i o n s .
Sherwood Eddy and K irby Page r a i s e th e q u e s tio n :
d id J e s u s e v e r f a c e a war s it u a t io n ?
They r e p ly :
T e s . Pompey u sh e r e d in Roman Rule w ith a t e r r i f i c
m a ssa cr e in w hich 1 2 ,0 0 0 Jews p e r is h e d and p r i e s t s
w ere s l a i n a t t h e a l t a r . S h o r t ly a f t e r A ulus
Gab i n i u s , t h e p r o c o n s u l, cr u sh e d a r e v o lt in Judea
and in 54 B .C ., h i s s u c c e s s o r , C r a ssu s, p lu n d ered
th e Tem ple. T hree y e a r s l a t e r , T a rich ea e w as cap ­
tu r e d and 3 0 ,0 0 0 Jews w ere s o ld in t o s la v e r y . Roman
d o m in a tio n c o n tin u e d u n t i l th e year 70 A .B ., when
J e r u sa le m was d e s tr o y e d "amid c ir c u m sta n c e s o f un­
p a r a l l e l e d h o r r o r . *1°
I t i s e a s i l y p e r c e iv e d , a s h i s t o r y r e p o r t s , t h a t
l i v i n g was in t e n s e and s t r a i n e d .
P e o p le were in a s t a t e
o f in s t a b ility s o c ia lly , p o lit ic a lly , s p ir itu a lly .
Ex­
p l o i t a t i o n b y Romans and Jew s a l i k e was p r a c t ic e d .
E c c le ­
s i a s t i c s were n o t u ntouched by th e abominable? p r a c t i c e so
t h a t th e m u lt it u d e s were n o t a b le t o r i s e above a s u b s i s t ­
en ce l e v e l n or e x p r e s s th e m se lv e s a s t h e i r h e a r t s and m inds
d ic ta te d .
The m is e r y o f th e p o o r was i n t e n s i f i e d b y t h e i r emo­
t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e t o th e Roman r u l e .
With n u m b e rle ss d a i l y
18
About War?
K irby Page and Sherwood Eddy, What S h a l l We Do
(New York: Eddy and P a g e, n . d . ) , p . 6 7 .
16
rem in d ers o f t h e i r 'bondage,, i t was e a s y f o r them t o a t t r i b ­
u t e t h e i r s u f f e r i n g to th e f o r e ig n y o k e .
And so t h e i r cup
o f b i t t e r n e s s was c o n tin u o u s ly o v e r f lo w in g .
In many c a s e s
th e s t r a i n was so a w fu l th a t m en ta l derangem ent m ust have
e n a c te d a t r a g i c t o l l .
I t was in such an environm ent th a t
Jesuss b eg a n , c o n tin u e d , and ended b i s w o r k .19
The Hew Testam ent h a s much t o s a y co n ce rn in g p e a c e .
C h ie f co n cern f o r th e moment l i e s in th e w ord s and a t t i ­
tu d e s o f J e s u s a s th e y r e l a t e to war and p e a c e .
1.
J e su s f o r b id s th e r e s i s t i n g o f e v i l by e v i l
(Mat thew 5 :3 8 -4 2 ) .
2.
He e x t o l s a l l th e a n tiw a r v i r t u e s , nam ely:
m eek n ess, m e r c if u ln e s s , and peacem aking (M atthew 5 : 2 - 1 2 ) .
3.
He demands th a t men s h a l l lo v e t h e i r en em ies
(Luke 6 : 2 7 - 2 8 ) .
4.
He c a l l s fo r a r b it r a t io n , and c o n c i l i a t i o n in th e
s e t t l i n g o f d is p u t e s b etw een in d iv id u a ls (M atthew 5 : 2 3 - 3 6 ) .
5.
In t h r e e d i f f e r e n t r e f e r e n c e s h e a d v o c a te s n on -
r e s i s t a n c e o f e v i l (M atthew 5 :2 9 ; Luke 6 :2 9 ; Matthew 5 : 2 3 26) *
6.
He b id s C h r is t ia n s t o f o r g iv e t h e i r en em ies
(Matthew 1 8 : 2 1 - 2 3 ) .
19
I b i d . , p. 68.
17
7.
He r e c i t e s o n e 1s d u ty tow ard o f fe n d e r s (Matthew
1 8 :1 0 -2 2 ).
8•
The s t o r y o f th e P r o d ig a l S on .
e s t and co m p a ssio n in and f o r h i s s o n .
it f a t h e r *s i n t e r ­
God i s l i k e w i s e i n ­
t e r e s t e d and f o r g iv in g when n a t io n s war a g a in s t each o th e r
(Luke 1 5 ; 1 1 - 3 2 ) •
And i f t h e s e were n o t en o u g h , a se a r c h a l i t t l e
fu r ­
th e r in t o th e New T estam ent w i l l r e v e a l th e mute te s tim o n y
o f o th e r m inds gone on b e fo r e u s .
F i r s t i s found t h e a p o s t le
P a u l, one o f th e g r e a t e s t o f a l l e a r ly C h r is t ia n s , s a y in g
in h i s Mars H i l l c e le b r a t e d sp e e c h :
That he made o f o n e e v e r y n a t io n o f men t o d w e ll
on a l l th e f a c e o f th e e a r t h , h a v in g d eterm in ed
t h e i r a p p o in te d s e a s o n s , and th e bounds o f t h e i r
h a b it a t io n ; th a t th e y sh o u ld seek God, i f h a p ly
th e y m ight f in d him , though h e i s n o t fa r from
ea ch one o f u s . 20
S e a r c h in g d e e p e r , i t i s n o te d in th e l i n e s o f th e
Book o f F i r s t C o r in t h ia n s ,
21
t h a t th e S p i r i t o f God p erm ea tes
mankind th e w o rld o v er r e g a r d le s s o f c lim a t e , r a c e , n a t io n ­
a l i t y , o r p r e j u d ic e .
T hus, t h e lo v e o f p e a c e i s p red om in ate
and fu n d am en tal w it h in th e b r e a s t o f mankind e t e r n a l l y .
The s e a r c h i s a d d i t i o n a l l y rew arded in a p a ssa g e o f
th e G o sp el a c c o r d in g t o S t . J o h n .
22
20 The B i b l e . Book o f A c t s , 1 7 : 2 6 -2 8 .
21
I b i d . , F i r s t L e t t e r to th e C o r in th ia n s , 1 2 : 4 - 1 3 .
22 Ibid., Book of St. John, 13:34-35.
18
A new commandment I g iv e u n to y o u , th a t y e lo v e
one a n o th e r ; even a s I h ave lo v e d y o u , t h a t ye
a l s o l o v e one a n o th er . By t h i s s h a l l a l l men know
t h a t y e a r e my d i s c i p l e s , i f ye lo v e one a n o th e r .
23
L ik e w ise in th e E p i s t l e t o th e G a la t ia n s :
There can be n e it h e r Greek n o r Jew , th e r e can
be n e it h e r bond n o r f r e e , t h e r e can be no male or
fe m a le : f o r ye a r e a l l one man in C h r is t J e s u s .
And th e n in th e com m unication t o th e E p h esia n s:
24
So th e n ye a r e no more s t r a n g e r s and s o j o u r n e r s ,
b u t ye a r e f e l l o w - c i t i z e n s w ith th e s a i n t s , and o f
th e h o u se h o ld o f God, b e in g b u i l t upon th e founda­
t i o n o f th e a p o s t l e s and p r o p h e ts , C h r ist J e su s
h im s e lf b e in g th e c o m e r sto n e ; in whom each s e v e r a l
b u i l d i n g s , f i t l y fram ed t o g e t h e r , grow eth in t o a
h o ly tem p le i n th e Lord; in whom y e a l s o a re b u ild e d
t o g e t h e r f o r a h a b it a t io n o f God in th e S p i r i t .
I f a c t io n and example o f J e s u s a r e demanded -rather
th an h i s w ords and s ta te m e n ts c o n c e r n in g t h i s s u b j e c t , r e f ­
e r e n c e to o th e r New T estam ent p a s s a g e s r e v e a l s u n m ista k a b ly
h i s le a d e r s h ip by exam ple:
1.
He d o es n o t r e s i s t h i s en em ies (Matthew £ 6 : 4 7 - 5 6 } .
3.
He f o r g i v e s h i s en em ies and l o v e s them (Luke £ 3 : 3 4 ) .
3.
He re b u k es P e te r f o r u s in g th e sword (Matthew
4.
He a c c e p t s th e C ro ss b y c h o ic e (Matthew 1 6 : £ l - £ 3 ) .
5.
He b rea k s down r a c i a l and n a t io n a l p r e j u d ic e s by
£ 6 :5 £ ) .
h i s exam ple (M atthew 1 5 :3 1 -£ 8 ; Luke 7 : 1 - 1 0 ) .
prz
I b i d . , E p i s t l e o f S t . P a u l to th e G a la t io h s , 3 : 8 8 .
24
19-33.
I b i d . » E p i s t l e o f S t . P a u l to th e E p h e s ia n s , 3:
19
But i t lia s b een a p t l y and t r u l y s a id th a t any t ilin g
can be p roved by S c r ip t u r e .
As a m a tte r o f f a c t , argum ents
in su p p o rt o f th e t b e s i s t b a t th e B ib le con d on es and t e a c h e s
w ar, have b een shown by r e p e a te d and c o n s i s t e n t r e f e r e n c e s
to B i b l i c a l p a s s a g e s .
But th e r e a d e r must n o t
a llo w him­
s e l f to b e c o n fin e d e q u iv o c a lly to th e w ord s o f S c r ip t u r e
t o th e e x c lu s io n o f th e s p i r i t and in f e r r e d m e a n in g s.
It
sh o u ld be borne in mind t h a t much o f th e B ib le and many o f
t h e s t o r i e s o f J e s u s w ere t o l d and r e co r d e d in a l l e g o r i c a l
and m e ta p h o r ic a l s t y l e *
Thus i f i t I s a g r e e d t o In c lu d e th e s p i r i t o f Jesus*
t e a c h in g s and t h e Hew Testam ent* s a d v ic e s i n c o n ju n c tio n
w ith th e l i t e r a l r e a d in g , th e e v id e n c e i s p r e p o n d e r a n tly
i n fa v o r o f th e c o n t e n t io n t h a t J e s u s and th e Hew T estam ent
a d v o c a te p a c if is m a t e v e r y tu r n .
I t i s im p o s s ib le t o h a r­
m onize th e w ords and m eaning o f J e s u s w ith th e p r a c t i c e
o f w ar.
W hile n o o c c a s io n i s re co r d e d a s h a v in g p r e s e n te d
i t s e l f t o J e s u s f o r any c o n s id e r e d pronouncem ent on th e
g e n e r a l q u e s tio n o f how h i s te a c h in g a p p lie d to war and
s e r v i c e in th e a rm ies o f th e th e n e x i s t i n g s t a t e s , y e t two
u t t e r a n c e s o f h i s a r e p r e s e r v e d b e a r in g on th e d i s c i p l e * s
d u ty in p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s .
T h is i s re co r d e d by C adoux.2 ^
^ 0 • J . Cadoux, The E a r ly C h r is t ia n A t t it u d e t o
War (London: H ea d ley B r o th e r s , 1 9 1 9 ) , p p . 6 2 9 -3 0 .
so
'The f i r s t o c c u r s in th e a p o c a ly p t ic d is c o u r s e and b id s
th e d i s c i p l e s a t t h e tim e o f th e d e v a s t a t io n o f Judea and th e
d e f ile m e n t o f th e Tem ple, t o f l e e t o th e m o u n ta in s (Matthew
2 4 :1 5 -2 2 )•
W hile t h i s i s in a h ig h l y p r o b le m a tic a l c o n t e x t ,
and i f J e s u s a n t ic ip a t e d a G e n t ile a t t a c k on Judea and
J e r u sa le m and hade h i s f o llo w e r s f l e e in s t e a d o f r e s i s t i n g
i t , t h e f a c t i s n o t w ith o u t s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r u s .
The seco n d i s t h e s a y in g a d d r e sse d t o P e t e r in th e
Garden o f G ethsem ane, when i n d e fe n s e o f h i s M a ster, h e drew
h i s sw ord and a t ta c k e d th e H igh P r i e s t 1s s e r v a n t .
Jesu s
s a i d t o him , ”P ut h ack th y sword i n t o i t s p la c e ; f o r a l l
who t a k e th e sword s h a l l p e r is h by th e sw ord” (M atthew 2d;
h i) *
Even though t h i s m ig h t fee in t e r p r e t e d t o a p p ly o n ly
t o t h e s i t u a t i o n in p o i n t , y e t i t h a s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f u n i T e r s a l con d uct in th e b ack grou nd .
For on e more d e f i n i t e p o i n t , — J e s u s w ould have n o th ­
in g t o do w ith b lo o d sh e d and v i o l e n c e .
When th e crowds t h a t
w ere on t h e i r way t o th e P a sso v e r g a th e r e d around him in
th e s o l i t u d e on th e E a ste r n sh o re o f t h e l a k e , th e y w anted
t o make him k in g and march to J er u sa lem ; h e e lu d e d them
by s e n d in g h i s d i s c i p l e s o u t in a b o a t w h ile h e w en t in t o
th e m ou n tain s t o pray#
One f a c t sta n d s o u t c l e a r l y :
J e su s never fo r a
f
moment en cou raged th e u s e o f t h e sword i n h i s own d e fe n s e
o r in th e fu r th e r a n c e o f h i s cau se#
The m ost s t r i k i n g
ai
i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s i s th e e p is o d e in th e Garden w here one
o f h i s d i s c i p l e s s tr u c k o f f th e ea r o f a f e l l o w human b e in g
(M atthew 2 6 : 5 1 ) .
Throughout h i s m in is t r y and e s p e c i a l l y
d u rin g th e l a s t week a t J e r u s a le m , h e c o n s t a n t ly e x e m p li­
f i e d h i s p r i n c i p l e o f n o n -r e sen tm en t a n d , a s h e p e r s o n a lly
was co n c e r n e d , o f a b s o lu t e n o n - r e s i s t a n c e .
J e s u s d e c la r e d b y word and by exam ple t h a t lo v e i s
f a r more p o te n t than th e sw ord .
He ta u g h t th e power o f
a c t i v e n o n - r e s i s t a n c e , o f a l o v e w hich i s n o t m e r e ly p a s s i v e ,
but by a c t s o f s e r v i c e w in s t h e g r a t it u d e and d e v o t io n o f
26
th e w o u ld -b e a g g r e s s o r .
In c o n s id e r in g th e g e n e r a l m eaning o f C h r is t , th e
f o llo w in g p o i n t s a re s u r e ly in d is p u t a b le :
(1 ) He reg a rd ed
God a s a lw a y s and everyw here th e F a th er w h ose d e a lin g s w ith
H is c r e a t u r e s a r e m o tiv a te d o n ly by lo v e ; t o a s s e r t t h a t God
u s e s a l t e r n a t i v e m ethods— lo v e and j u s t i c e — and t h a t l o v e i s
n o t a lw a y s a p p li c a b le , i s t o deny e i t h e r t h a t God i s what
J e s u s ta u g h t o r th a t He i s in any r e a l s e n s e God.
(2 ) In
c o n se q u e n c e , men a r e p e r s o n s , n o t pawns o r s l a v e s , and t h e i r
freedom t o r e j e c t must n e v e r be overb o rn e by f o r c e w hether
o f v i o l e n c e o r o f b r ib e r y o r o f th e s u p e r n a t u r a l.
At H is
te m p ta tio n (M atthew 4 : 1 - 1 1 ; Luke 4 :1 -1 3 ) J e s u s r e p u d ia te d
t h e s e t h r e e ways o f c o e r c in g men.
26
K en t, o p . c i t .» p . 2 6 6 .
The method o f H is w hole
zz
m ini s t r y i s c o n s i s t e n t w ith t h i s r e p u d ia t io n .
He r e j e c t e d
th e n a t i o n a l i s t i c p o l i c y o f th e z e a l o t s , th e ch ea p en in g ardm a t e r i a l i z i n g o f H is own dem ands, t h e u s e o f p s y c h ic o r
m ir a c u lo u s pow ers t o e n f o r c e a s s e n t .
(3 ) In p r e s e n t in g H is
c a l l t o H is p e o p le He r e f u s e d t o adm it e i t h e r by r e s i s t a n c e
or b y f l i g h t t h a t th e l a s t word l a y w ith armed f o r c e :
in *
d eed , b y a c c e p t in g th e G ross He c h a lle n g e d t h i s cousaon
a ssu m p tio n and d isa p p r o v e d i t .
N o n - r e s is t a n c e , seem in g a t
f i r s t t o f a i l , a c t u a l l y and s i g n a l l y triu m p h ed .
H is c r u c i ­
f i x i o n tra n sfo r m e d H is d i s c i p l e s and changed th e c o u r s e o f
h is to r y .
The C r o s s , th e sym bol o f n o n - r e s i s t a n c e , h a s b e e n ,
h o w ev er, in a p p r o p r ia t e ly , th e Church’ s s a c r e d emblem e v e r
s in c e .
II,
TIME OF CONSTANTINE
I t h a s now b een shown t h a t J e s u s a d o p ted f o r h im s e lf
and e n j o in e d h i s f o l l o w e r s , p r i n c i p l e s o f con d u ct w hich
r u le d o u t a l l r e s o r t s t o v i o l e n c e and p l a i n l y im p lie d t h e
i l l e g i t i m a c y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n w ar.
He r e fu s e d d e f i n i t e l y
t o fou n d t h e Kingdom o f God upon f o r c e .
The e a r ly C h r is t ia n s , a f t e r t h e d e a th o f J e s u s , to o k
him a t h i s w ord.
They p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c ia t e d t h e i r r e l i g i o u s
b e l i e f w ith p e a c e .
27
York:
A ldous H u x ley , An E n c y c lo p e d ia o f P a c if is m (New
Harper and B r o th e r s , 1937 ) , p p . 1 5 -1 6 .
23
C h r is t ia n s in th e v e r y e a r ly days r e f u s e d to p a r t i c i ­
p a te in w ar, and endured martyrdom r a th e r th a n h ea r arms
a g a in s t t h e i r fe lla w m a n .
The e a r l y Church condemned war f o r
more th a n two c e n t u r i e s •
T hese e a r ly C h r is t ia n s r e p u d ia te d
war f o r th e b lo o d sh e d th a t i t c a u se d ; t h e y to o k to them­
s e l v e s th e D id T estam ent p rop h ecy w h ich t o l d o f th e t r a n s ­
fo r m a tio n o f im p lem en ts o f w a rfa re i n t o a r t i c l e s o f a g r i­
c u l t u r a l u s e ; and th e y d e c la r e d t h a t i t was t h e i r p o l i c y
and in t e n t i o n t o r e tu r n good f o r e v i l and m a n ife s t in t h e i r
co n d u ct th e p r i n c i p l e s o f b ro th erh o o d and a lt r u is m in t h e i r
r e l a t i o n s w ith f e l l o w c r e a tu r e s *
The te s tim o n y o f t h e e a r l y Church F a th e r s makes i t
c l e a r t h a t t o them war was i n c o n s i s t e n t w ith C h r i s t i a n i t y .
J u s t i n M artyr, in th e se co n d c e n tu r y , a s s e r t e d th a t
Wwe who on ce w ere s l a y e r s o f o n e a n o th er do n o t now f i g h t
a g a in s t our e n e m ie s .**
I r e n a e u s , B ish op o f L yons a t about th e same tim e ,
s t a t e d th a t t h e f o l l o w e r s o f J e s u s had g iv e n up th e u s e o f
w eapons and no lo n g e r knew how to f i g h t .
nI am a C h r is t ia n
and t h e r e f o r e I ca n n o t fight**; w ords l i k e t h e s e w ere p a r 29
a l l e l e d many t im e s , a s th e r e c o r d s p r o v e .
28 Bewere A lle n , The F ig h t f o r P eace (Few York:
B ou b led ay, Boran and Company,' 1 9 3 0 }, p . 5 7 0 .
29
Ibid.. p. 571.
T e r t u l l i a n , th e r ig o r o u s C h r is t ia n le a d e r , was s a y ­
in g a t t h e end o f t h i s c e n tu r y (a b o u t 100 A .B .) , " S h a ll i t
be deemed la w f u l t o make a p r o f e s s i o n o f t h e sw ord, when th e
Lord p r o c la im s t h a t he who t a k e s th e sword s h a l l p e r is h by
th e sword?"
"For what w ars sh o u ld we n o t b e f i t , " he c h a lle n g e s ,
"we who so w i l l i n g l y y i e l d o u r s e lv e s t o t h e sw ord , i f in
ou r r e l i g i o n i t w ere n o t co u n ted b e t t e r t o b e s l a i n th e n t o
s la y ? " 30
T e r t u l l i a n answ ered a q u e s tio n w ith a q u e s tio n :
You in q u ir e w h eth er a b e l i e v e r may e n t e r th e m i l i ­
t a r y s e r v i c e and w h eth er s o l d i e r s a r e t o b e a d m itte d
in t o th e Church? How w i l l a G h r is tia n man war w it h ­
o u t a sw ord, w hich th e Lord h a s ta k en away? In d is ~
arm ing P e t e r h e u n b e lt e d e v e r y s o l d i e r . 3^
L a ct& n tiu s w r o te , i n th e tim e o f t h e p e r s e c u t io n o f
D io c l e t ia n :
"To en gage in war can n ot b e la w f u l f o r t h e
r ig h t e o u s man, w hose w a r fa r e i s t h a t o f r ig h t e o u s n e s s i t s e l f . " 32
E u se b iu s g i v e s num erous in s t a n c e s w hich p r o v e th a t
t h i s was th e p o s i t i o n ta k e n b y th e e a r ly Church and t h a t
many o f th e e a r l y C h r is t ia n s s a c r i f i c e d t h e i r f o r t u n e s and
t h e i r l i v e s in l o y a l t y t o i t .
30
In N um idia, a s l a t e a s 295
A lle n , l o c . c l t .
F lo r e n c e B o e c k e l, Between War and P ea c e (Hew York:
The M acm illan Company, 1 9 2 8 ) , p . 7 3 .
32
L o c. c l t .
25
A .D ., th e r e c r u i t i n g o f f i c e r b rought b e f o r e th e P r o c o n su l
a young naan named M a x im ilia n .
As he w as ab ou t t o b e m eas­
u r e d , h e s a i d , nI can n ot en gage in m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e ; I am
a C h r istia n .* *
He p e r s i s t e d , s a y in g , ftrI am a G h r is tia n ; I
can n ot f i g h t . ** When t h e y found i t im p o s s ib le t o p ersu a d e
him , h e w as put t o d e a t h •
53
fOien M a r c e llu s , a c e n tu r io n in th e le g io n c a l l e d
T rahan s, becam e a C h r is t ia n , h e d e c la r e d t h a t h e c o u ld
s e r v e no lo n g e r .
He was thrown in t o p r is o n , but he s t i l l
p e r s i s t e d s a y in g , rrI t i s n o t la w f u l f o r a C h r is t ia n to b ea r
arms f o r any e a r t h l y c o n s id e r a tio n .* *
34
I t can th u s b e s e e n t h a t in t h e f i r s t two c e n t u r i e s ,
i n d i v id u a l C h r is t ia n s to o k t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t th e y c o u ld n o t
a s C h r is t ia n s p a r t i c i p a t e In w ar.
Even a s l a t e a s 295 A .D .,
c a s e s o f men b e in g m artyred f o r t h e i r r e f u s a l t o b e a r arms
are recorded.
I t i s a f a c t th a t d u r in g t h i s p e r io d im m e d ia te ly f o l ­
lo w in g th e d ea th o f C h r is t , p e r s e c u t io n o f t h o s e avow ing
C h r i s t i a n i t y was ram pant.
As each Roman emperor su c c eed ed
h i s p r e d e c e s s o r , p e r s e c u t io n o f C h r is t ia n s was i n s t i g a t e d
w ith s e e m in g ly in c r e a s e d i n t e n s i t y .
I d o l w o r sh ip , su p e r ­
s t i t i o u s b e l i e f s w ere so u g h t to be i n f l i c t e d upon C h r is t ia n s
33
34
I b i d . , p . 74
L o c. c i t .
26
in ord er t o do away w ith t h e i r b e l i e f and w o rsh ip o f C h r is t
and h i s t e a c h in g s and su p p la n t them w ith p a g a n ism .
Added
to t h i s was i : th e f a c t th a t t h e i d e a l o f p a c if is m among
C h r is t ia n s was b e g in n in g to wane and cr a ck under th e s t r a i n .
I t was b ecom ing in c r e a s in g ly d i f f i c u l t to o b s e r v e th a t t h i s
i d e a l w as b e in g ad h ered t o 100 p er c e n t •
In one ca se i t i s
r e p o r te d t h a t C h r is t ia n le a d e r s were a c t u a l l y a g g r ie v e d b e ­
c a u se th e Romans som etim es d is m is s e d C h r is t ia n s from th e
army on a cc o u n t o f t h e i r r e l i g i o u s t h e o lo g y .
35
T h e r e fo r e , a s we ap proach th e e v e n t o f C o n s ta n tin e f s
a c c e p ta n c e o f . C h r i s t i a n i t y a s th e s t a t e r e l i g i o n , to t h e
d e s t r u c t io n and e v e n t u a l e x te r m in a tio n o f p a g a n ism , we f in d
t h a t th e c o a r s e o f t h e s e a r c h f o r th e a t t i t u d e s o f p ea ce and
war makes an abrupt ch a n g e.
I t i s d e p lo r e d by some t h a t th e
Church compromised her p o s i t i o n b etw een w ar, p e a c e , and
C h r i s t i a n i t y b y h e r a l l i a n c e w ith C o n s ta n tin e .
I t i s s t i l l th e c o n t e n t io n o f o t h e r s t h a t th e Church
w ent in t o th e b u s i n e s s o f war#
A ld ous H u x ley g o e s on t o sa y :
36
When. C o n s ta n tin e became supreme in 313 A .D ., the
Church was so g r a t e f u l t o him f o r d e l i v e r i n g h e r from
p r o lo n g e d and c r u s h in g p e r s e c u t io n and f o r g r a c io u s ly
and g e n e r o u s ly p a t r o n iz in g h e r , t h a t i t w ould have b een
e x c e e d in g ly d i f f i c u l t — ev en I f h er mind had b een c l e a r l y
55
36
A lle n , ojd* c i t . , p . 571#
.Huxley, op. cit., pp. 13-19.
27
and -unanimously made up— f o r h er t o ad h ere to a
s t r i c t l y p a c i f i s t i c a t t i t u d e . As C h r is t ia n f e e l i n g
was f a r from b e in g unanim ous, su ch an a d h eren ce was
o u t o f th e q u e s t io n . There i s no n eed t o doubt
t h e s i n c e r i t y o f C o n s ta n tin e * s c o n v e r s io n : b u t h i s
a l l i a n c e to t h e Church n e c e s s a r i l y com m itted h er t o
a w i l l i n g n e s s t o a llo w l a y - C h r is t ia n s t o f i ^ i t under
him and h i s s u c c e s s o r s . T h is tu rn o v er in c o n v ic t io n
d id h o t in d e ed come a l l a t o n c e . D uring th e f o u r th
c e n tu r y , in d i v id u a l C h r is t ia n s r e fu s e d s e r v i c e , i n ­
d iv id u a l w r it e r s e x p r e s s e d a p p r o v a l o f su ch r e f u s a l ,
and--m ore s i g n i f i c a n t s t i l l — c e r t a in c o d e s o f Church
p ro ced u re in th e E a s t s t i l l m a in ta in e d th e o l d
p a c i f i s t r i g o u r . B u t, b r o a d ly sp e a k in g , the c a s e
had gone by d e f a u l t . H e n c e fo r th , fo r many c e n t u r i e s ,
though from tim e t o tim e t h e Church e x e r t e d h e r s e l f
in th e ca u se o f p e a c e , th e o n ly s u r v iv in g t r a c e o f
t h e O r ig e n is t p o s i t i o n was th e r i g i d r e f u s a l t o a l l
th e c l e r g y to shed b lo o d in w a r. The r e f u s a l o f a
laym an to s e r v e a s a s o l d i e r became a mark o f h e r e s y :
i t was one o f th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e C a th a r i o f
A lb ig e n s e ^ , who were so m e r c i l e s s l y p e r s e c u te d in th e
t h ir t e e n t h c e n t u r y .
W alter W. Tan K ir k , S e c r e t a r y o f th e F e d e r a l C o u n c il
o f C h u rch es, p o in t s o u t:
The ru sh o f c l e r i c s f o r th e m i l i t a r y band wagon
g o t under way in dead e a r n e s t when in 524 A .B .,
C h r i s t i a n i t y became th e s t a t e r e l i g i o n o f pagan
Rome. The id e a o f th e " m i l i t i a C h r ls t i," in te n d e d
in th e b e g in n in g o f th e C h r is t ia n era t o co n v ey th e
th o u g h t o f r e s i s t a n c e t o war , now became th e id e o lo g y
o f a p r i e s t l y a c c e p ta n c e o f th e war sy ste m . S o l d i e r s
o f p e a c e became s o l d i e r s o f w ar. O c c a s io n a l p r o t e s t s
w ere r e g i s t e r e d by th e more f a r s e e in g c l e r g y a g a in s t
t h e a b j e c t su r r e n d e r o f th e Church to t h e m i l i t a r y .
O r ig en , condem ning th e s p e c t a c le o f C h r is t in m i l i ­
t a r y u n ifo rm , d e c la r e d t h a t " th e D e it y must be wor­
sh ip p e d w ith c le a n h a n d s." B a s i l the G r e a t, in 574
A .D ., d e c la r e d t h a t "though th e s o l d i e r sh o u ld n o t
d e s p a ir o f s a l v a t i o n , i t were b e t t e r t h a t th o se who
had b een o b lig e d t o k i l l s h o u ld a b s t a in from com­
m union f o r t h r e e y e a r s , fo r th e y w ere u n c le a n o f
37
W alter W. Tan K irk , R e li g io n R enounces War (New
York: W i l l e t t , C lark and Company, 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 3 .
28
h a n d ."
. • • The Church had gone in t o th e war
b u s i n e s s , and th e C o u n c il a t A r le s (3 1 4 A .B .)
p la c e d th e stamp o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a p p r o v a l upon
t h i s p r i e s t l y b e t r a y a l o f th e God o f r ig h t e o u s n e s s
by d e c la r in g t h a t " th ey who throw away t h e i r w eapons
in tim e o f p e a c e s h a l l be excom m unicate."
From s t i l l a n o th e r h i s t o r i a n th e same s t r a i n o f r e —
. d
*. 38
m orse i s n o 4te
But c n ly w ith th e a c c e p ta n c e o f C h r i s t i a n i t y a s a
s t a t e r e l i g i o n in 312 A .B ., and th e g r a d u a l em ergence
o f t h e r e l i g i o n named f o r J e s u s a s an o r g a n iz a t io n
p o s s e s s i n g w e a lth and power and a f i e r c e a m b itio n to
conquer t e r r i t o r i e s and c o n v e r ts i n one o p e r a t io n —
o n ly th e n w as th e b r ig h t id e a l o f J e s u s c o m p le te ly
subm erged b e n e a th th e e c l i p s e o f th e Dark Ages*
39
Dean Milman s a y s :
"And s o f o r the- f i r s t tim e th e
meek and p e a c e f u l J e s u s became th e God o f b a t t l e , and the
c r o s s , th e h o ly s ig n o f C h r is t ia n re d em p tio n , a banner o f
b lo o d y s t r i f e * "
K irby Page and Sherwood Eddy g iv e u s an in d i c a t io n
o f th e co m p lete and s t r i k i n g r e v e r s a l o f t e a c h in g s o f th e
40
Church a f t e r t h e a d v en t o f C o n s ta n tin e .
When th e Emperor C o n s ta n tin e a d o p ted C h r i s t i a n i t y
a s th e S t a t e r e l i g i o n , Church le a d e r s changed t h e i r
t e a c h in g . They began t o lo o k t o th e S t a t e f o r su p ­
p o r t and so o n became r e c o n c ile d t o war and to th e
s o l d i e r * s c a l l i n g . As P r o f e s s o r Harnack s a y s , "The
Church had lo n g e d t o w in th e Emperor, and now f lu n g
h e r s e l f in t o i t s arm s." The Church C o u n c il a t A r le s
(3 1 4 A .D .) a c t u a l l y v o te d th a t " th ey who throw away
t h e i r w eapons in tim e o f p ea ce s h a l l b e excom m unicate."
A lle n , op . c i t . , p . 571.
3$ H. H. M ilman, H is to r y o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , p . 2 8 7 , a s
q uoted i n Cadoux, o p . c i t . . p . 2 5 8 .
40
Page and Eddy, o p . c i t . , p . 4 5 .
A th a n a s iu s (350 A. D. ) ta u g h t th a t "murder i s n o t p e r ­
m it t e d , but t o k i l l o n e ' s a d v e r s a r y in war i s b o th
la w f u l and p r a is e w o r t h y ." Ambrose (3 7 5 A .D .) d e­
c la r e d t h a t t h e " c o u r a g e ,w hich e i t h e r p r o t e c t s th e
hom eland a g a i n s t . b a r b a r ia n s , i n w ar, o r d e fe n d s th e
weak a t home, o r s a v e s one* s com rades from b r ig a n d s ,
i s f u l l o f r i g h t e o u s n e s s ."
III.
MEDIEVAL PERIOD
The p e r io d o f t h e M iddle o r Dark: A ges r e p r e s e n t s t h e
e x p r e s s io n and e x i s t e n c e o f d i v e r s i f i e d th in k in g and c o n d u c t.
To th o s e who read h i s t o r y i t seem s a s though th e c r o s s c u r ­
r e n t s o f th o u g h ts and co n d u ct w ould become th e perm anent
mode o f manTs s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n .
But f o r t u n a t e ly th e Reform a­
t i o n and th e R e n a issa n c e p e r io d s made t h e i r ap pearan ce and
ord er and s o l i d i f i e d t h in k in g g r a d u a lly began to d is p la c e
th e c lo u d e d and fo g g e d p h ilo s o p h y o f th e M idd le A g e s.
The a t t i t u d e s o f men on p ea ce and war d u rin g t h i s
p e r io d w ere c h a r a c t e r is e d b y t h e i r extrem e d iv e r g e n c e from
th e preachm ent o f C h r is t and t h e b e l i e f s and con d u ct o f the
e a r l y c e n tu r y C h r is t ia n s .
Where C h r is t p o in t e d th e way to
p e a c e in h i s e v e r y e x p r e s s io n and m a n if e s t a t io n , r e l i g i o u s
le a d e r s and th e Church now condoned war and h u r le d th e c u r se
o f God a g a in s t men who d id n ot en gage in w a r fa r e .
Where
e a r l y C h r is t ia n s w i l l i n g l y d ie d f o r t h e i r c o n v ic t io n s o f
p a c if is m and n o n - r e s i s t a n c e , men now r e v i l e d t h e i r c o u n tr y ­
men i f th e y d id n ot seem e a g e r t o f i g h t th e " i n f i d e l . "
The a t t i t u d e o f th e M ed iev a l Church toward war was
30
c l a s s i c a l l y e x p r e s s e d b y A u g u s tin e , Thomas A q u in a s, and
F r a n c is de V i c t o r i a .
They p o in t e d o u t , each in h i s own w ay,
th e h o r r o r s o f w a rfa re p lu s a l l th e a tte n d a n t m oral c r im e s
but sto p p e d s h o r t in an a c t u a l c a t e g o r i c a l d e n u n c ia tio n o f
41
a l l w ar. A cco rd in g t o A, C. F . B e a le s :
In c e r t a i n c o n d itio n s: war i s "just**; though th e
c o n d it io n s p r e s c r ib e d a re s t r i c t enough t o condemn
e v e r y war t h a t h a s e v e r b een f o u g h t . When th e r e h a s
b een an i n j u s t i c e com m itted on o n e s id e o n ly , amount­
in g to m oral and n o t m e r e ly m a t e r ia l g u i l t ; and when
t h i s i n j u s t i c e i s known f o r c e r t a in ; and when a l l
p e a c e f u l m ethods o f s e t t le m e n t have b een t r i e d in
v a in , th e a g g r ie v e d n a t io n m igh t w ith j u s t i c e , sa y s
A u g u stin e , r e s o r t to arm s. But in so d o in g th a t
n a t io n must in te n d to f u r th e r good and r e l i e v e e v i l
by w ar, must b e c e r t a in o f v i c t o r y b efo r e h a n d , must
con d u ct th e war " r ig h tly " and w ith o u t e x c e s s e s o f
any k in d , m ust make th e punishm ent o f th e enemy
s t r i c t l y p r o p o r tio n a te t o th e o f f e n s e , and must
s c r u p u lo u s ly a v o id a l l u n n e c e s s a r y u p h ea v a l among
n e u t r a l s . F a i l i n g any one o f t h e s e c o n d it io n s ,
th e war w ould be u n j u s t .
In h i s The C it y o f God, A u g u stin e s e t f o r t h a new
c o n c e p tio n o f th e Church a s "The D iv in e S o c ie t y ."
Even
thou gh t h i s g r e a t work was sou gh t t o b e made th e handbook
o f th e sta te sm e n b y C h a r le s th e G r e a t, th e sy ste m o f fe u d ­
a lis m was in tr o d u c e d i n t o Europe w ith th e r e s u l t i n g e n g u lf ment o f p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , eco n o m ic, e d u c a t io n a l, and r e ­
lig io u s fo r c e s.
In t h e s e f e u d a l d a y s, s o l d i e r s a c t u a l l y
b o re arms f o r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s u p e r io r s .
Pope B o n ifa c e V III
d e c la r e d b y P a p a l d e c r e e th a t "For th e sake o f h i s e t e r n a l
^ A. C. F . B e a le s , The H is t o r y o f P ea ce (Hew York:
The D ia l P r e s s , 1 9 3 1 ), p . 1 8 .
1
51
s a l v a t i o n I t i s a c t u a l l y n e c e s s a r y fo r e v e r y s i n g l e human
b e in g to b e s u b j e c t to t h e Roman P o n t i f f . "
D uring t h i s
p e r io d o f human h i s t o r y , a d is c e r n in g r e a d e r c o u ld d i s t i n ­
g u is h b etw een Church and s t a t e .
P r a c t i c a l l y , h ow ever, th e
two w ere in te r m in g le d a t a l l v i t a l p o in t s :
le g a l, p o lit ic a l,
p h i l o s o p h i c a l , and c u l t u r a l .
But th e M iddle A ges do n o t p a s s w ith o u t a p r o t e s t in g
v o i c e making i t s e l f h ea rd a g a in s t th e en sla v e m e n t o f th e
p e a c e f u l p h ilo s o p h y o f t h e P r in c e o f P eace to t h e th e o r y o f
H o ly w a r fa r e .
The C hurch, in a f e e b l e b u t none t h e l e s s g en u in e
a tte m p t, so u g h t t o r e s t r a i n th e custom o f p e t t y war betw een
feu d a l lo r d s .
I t d e c la r e d what was known a s th e "Truce o f
God," w hich p r o h ib it e d f i g h t i n g from W ednesday n ig h t t o
Monday m orning, and w h ich r e q u ir e d th a t su ch n e c e s s a r y p u r­
s u i t s a s th o s e o f a g r i c u l t u r e be p r o t e c t e d a g a in s t th e d e ' s t r u c t i o n o f w ar.
The r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s o f th e M iddle A g e s, su ch a s th e
F r a n c is c a n s and D o m in ica n s, l i k e w i s e r e fu s e d t o ta k e p a r t in
w ar.
The th e o r y o f th e " J u st War" was th e c a u se o f a p ro­
t e s t o f c e r t a i n M ed iev a l s e c t s , some o f w hich e x i s t to d a y .
When th e Roman s t a t e became th e p r o t e c t o r o f th e Church,
t h e Church ten d ed to becom e th e d e fe n d e r o f th e p o l i c i e s o f
th e s t a t e .
When th e w a rs o f Rome became d e f e n s iv e w ars o f a
32
C h r is t ia n s t a t e a g a in s t "barbarian S a x o n s, th e Church r a l l i e d
w ith s c a r c e l y a d i s s e n t i n g v o i c e , t o i t s su p p o r t, and th e
Church le a d e r s began to go b ack to t h e t e a c h in g s a t th e Old
T estam ent f o r t h e i r J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n in w a r.
I t was th e em ergence o f t h i s b e l i e f i n and p r a c t i c e
o f th e MJ u s t War” th a t ca u se d and provoked tr u e p a c i f i s t
d o c tr in e s .
The M ed iev a l s e c t s w hich broke a w a y -.-A lb ig e n se s,
Y a u d o is, L o lla r d s , P a u l ic i a n s , M an ich ean s, W a ld en ses, and
M e n n o n ite s, to o k t h e ir sta n d f ir m ly on th e s a n c t i t y o f human
life ,
s to o d u n com p rom isin gly a g a in s t a l l w ar, and to o k th e
w h ole w orld fo r t h e i r c o u n tr y .
They were p a c i f i s t s and c o s ­
m o p o lita n s .
I t was d u rin g th e C rusades p e r io d , w hich sp rea d o v er
t h r e e c e n t u r i e s , th a t th e f i r s t p la n o f a d e f i n i t e p e a c e was
p ro p o sed f o r th e a b o l i t i o n o f w ar.
I t w as e n u n c ia te d by
G erohus o f R eg en sb erg , p r o v id in g t h a t th e Pope sh o u ld f o r b id
a l l w ar, t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s b etw een P r in c e s sh o u ld b e r e f e r r e d
t o Rome f o r d e c i s i o n , and t h a t an y p a r t y who r e j e c t e d th e
42
P o p ef s judgment sh o u ld be d ep o sed and excom m unicated.
By t h e end o f th e f i f t e e n t h c e n tu r y t h e r e e x i s t e d a
number o f t h e o r i e s , p ron ou n cem en ts, p la n s r e g a r d in g th e f u t u r e
o f th e w o r ld , w ar, p e a c e , and ev e n w orld o r g a n iz a t io n .
e v e r , t h e Church s t i l l c o n tin u e d t o condone w ar.
42
Ibid., p. 22.
How­
There was
33
s t i l l t e n s io n and en m ity e x i s t i n g ‘betw een Pape and s o v e r e i g n s •
Even though, th e p la n su b m itte d by G erohus o f R egen sb erg was
n o t c a r r ie d in t o e f f e c t , i t was rem arkable b e c a u se i t assum ed
a c o m p le te ly u n it e d C hristen dom .
I t had i n i t t o o , o f c o u r s e ,
th e c o n t in u a t io n o f t h e e x i s t i n g fe u d b etw een King and Pope
a s i t g a v e g r e a t p o l i t i c a l power t o t h e Church.
To o f f s e t t h i s p la n f o r th e a r b i t r a t i o n o f d is p u t e s
b e f o r e th e P op e, th e cham pions o f im p e r ia lis m came f o r t h
w ith t h r e e t r e a t i s e s .
The f i r s t was w r it t e n b y P ie r r e D u b ois
o f Normandy, an a d v is e r o f P h i l l i p l e B e l o f F r a n c e .
D ubois
h e ld t h a t p e a c e w as th e summum bonum among G h r is tia n n a t io n s ,
and t h a t t h e r e f o r e a C o u n c il o f th e n a t io n s sh o u ld b e e s t a b ­
l i s h e d , m in is t e r in g to t h e n e e d s o f th e f e d e r a t e d member
s t a t e s in t h e i r d e a l i n g s w ith one a n o th e r , and d e c id in g
q u a r r e ls among them b y a r b i t r a t i o n .
He added two q u a l i f i c a ­
t i o n s , h ow ever, w hich p r e c lu d e d th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p u t t in g
h i s p la n in t o e f f e c t .
T h ese w ere:
(1 ) t h a t F ran ce ( h i s own
c o u n tr y ) was to become dom inant i n Europe; (2 ) t h a t th e
C o u n c il o f N a tio n s sh o u ld make i t s f i r s t and p reem in en t d u ty
t h e s u b ju g a tio n o f th e Turk.
I t m ust b e s a id in s p i t e o f th e
f a i l u r e o f th e p r o p o s a l t h a t t h i s w as th e f i r s t tim e a f e d ­
e r a t i o n o f C h r is t ia n S o v e r e ig n S t a t e s had been a d v o c a t e d .^
The seco n d i m p e r i a l i s t scheme came from M a r s ig lio o f
43
Ibid *, p. 23.
34
Padua and John o f Jandum i n th e w r i t i n g o f th e D e fe n so r
P a c is .
T h ese men in t e r p r e t e d p e a c e a s s t a b i l i t y r a th e r th a n
44
th e a b s t e n t io n from war* As one a u th o r s t a t e s i t :
A c c o r d in g ly i t s p r o v is io n s f o r f u t u r e harmony among
n a t io n s made to o l i t t l e a llo w a n c e f o r t h e h a rd en in g o f
n a t i o n a l s e n tim e n ts i n th e f u t u r e . The s t a t u s quo
' ’c o u ld in p r a c t i c e b e m o d ifie d h a r d ly o t h e r w is e than
b y c a t a s t r o p h ic a c t i o n . M arsA gile* s p rim e c o n t r ib u ­
t i o n t o l a t e r th o u g h t, a p a r t from h i s c l a r i f i c a t i o n
o f v a r io u s t h e o r i e s o f A u g u stin e and A q u in a s, was h i s
d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t iv e p r i n c i p l e in g o v er n ­
m en t, w hich h e v ig o r o u s ly advanced a s b e in g m o r a lly
j u s t , l o g i c a l l y i n e v i t a b l e , and p r a c t i c a l l y u s e f u l in
r e c o n c i l i n g "the m ass o f c i t i z e n s ” t o a governm ent
d is p e n s e d i n t h e i r own name b y t h e i r own e l e c t e d
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s .
The im p e r ia l is t s *
t h i r d a ttem p t t o j u s t i f y t h e i r p o s i ­
t i o n c o n s t it u t e d th e l i t e r a r y e f f o r t o f B ante when h e r e le a s e d
h i s Be M onarchia i n 1559 b u t w hich h e w r o te in 1 5 1 0 -1 4 *
D a n te * s p o in t o f v ie w was a r e f u t a t i o n o f th e p a p a l B u ll
Dram Sanctum , w h erein Pope B o n ifa c e T i l l u p h eld th e p a p a l
c la im t o tem p o ra l p ow er.
The q u e s tio n o f S t a t e v e r s u s Church
was s t i l l in t e n s e and B an te argu ed t h a t th e map i r e was su ­
preme b e c a u se i t had e x i s t e d b e f o r e th e C hurch, in d e p e n d e n tly
o f th e Church, and was d i v i n e l y sa n c tio n e d *
In e f f e c t B ante
s a id t h a t t h e r e sh o u ld b e o n e Law and one P r in c e w hose p r in ­
c i p l e s and co n d u ct sh o u ld s e c u r e th a t s t a t e o f p e a c e and calm
i n w hich a lo n e th e human r a c e c o u ld l i v e a f u l l e s t l i f e .
44
B e a le s , l o o * c i t *
35
IV .
REFORMATION
Out o f th e Bark A ges and in t o th e b e g in n in g o f th e
modern e r a w it h th e a d v en t o f th e R eform ation and i t s r e ­
s u l t i n g con s e q u e n c e s , came t h e d is c o v e r y t h a t was t o l i f t
mankind o u t o f t h e m orass o f th e M idd le A ges in t o e n lig h t e n ­
ment and ad vancem en t.
in k .
T h is d is c o v e r y was th e u s e o f p r i n t e r f s
The p r i n t i n g p r e s s sp ee d e d up com m unication and th e
a c c e p ta n c e o f i d e a s , d e v e lo p e d th e t h in k in g and p o l i c i e s o f
n a t i o n s , p o p u la r iz e d th e d o c t r in e s o f th e Church, and sp read
s c ie n c e and c u lt u r e to a l l p a r t s o f th e w orld *
The humble
o c c u p a tio n o f t h o s e who s t a in e d t h e i r hands w it h th e b la c k e s t
o f a l l known s u b s t a n c e s - - p r in t e r * s in k — p la y e d a magnanimous
p a r t in t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e w o rld d u r in g t h e f i f t e e n t h ce n ­
tu r y and t h e r e a f t e r *
f f it h t h e com ing o f th e P r o t e s t a n t R efo rm a tio n , h o w ev er,
man came to d is c o v e r , r e l i s h , and prom ote h i s own in d iv id u ­
a lity .
A new t a b l e o f v a lu e s b egan t o d is p la c e th e o l d .
M a s s - l i f e , m a ssr-cu ltu r e, and m a s s - r e l ig io n w ere s e r i o u s l y
q u e s tio n e d .
The n a t i o n a l i s t i c i d e a l s t i l l d om inated a g r e a t
d e a l o f l i f e , but th e r i g h t s of: t h e in d i v i d u a l t o th in k and
a c t more f r e e l y f o r h im s e lf w ere s t r e s s e d by Z w in g li in
Z u r ic h , by L u th er in Germany, b y C a lv in in G eneva, and b y
John Knox in S c o t la n d .
P r o t e s t a n t is m was born b e c a u se i t
was n e c e s s a r y t h a t i t b e b o rn .
I t came a s a h e a lt h y r e a c ­
t i o n t o c o m p lete S t a t e , Church, and in d iv id u a l d o m in a tio n
36
by c o u n c ils o f men.
As th e R efo rm a tio n grew , a new Church and a new S t a t e
em erged.
one.
There was no lo n g e r any f o r e i g n c o n t r o l o f e i t h e r
R e li g io u s w a r fa r e , a s w e l l a s armed c l a s h e s o f o th e r
k in d s , h o w ev er, had n o t been o b l i t e r a t e d a t t h e o p e n in g o f
th e s i x t e e n t h c e n tu r y .
The R e n a issa n c e and R efo rm a tio n
p ro v ed d is r u p t iv e f o r c e s .
L u th e r ’ s b rea k w it h t h e Roman
C a t h o lic c o n t r o l o f a l l r e l i g i o u s a f f a i r s , ca u sed th e P r o t­
e s t a n t movement t o c r e a t e S t a t e C hurches and prom ote s e c t a ­
r ia n is m .
" F in a lly ," a c c o r d in g t o S tu r z o , " th e P ea ce o f
W estp h a lia marked th e end o f w ars o f r e l i g i o n b u t s e t th e
s t a g e f o r w ars o f commerce and co n q u est* J u s t i f i e d by con s i d e r a t i o n s o f ’v i t a l i n t e r e s t s ’ ."
A f t e r 1 5 0 0 , th e a t t i t u d e s o f men on war and p ea ce
underwent s t r i k i n g ch an ges a s c o n d it io n s o f a f f a i r s w ere
ev e r in a s t a t e o f f l u x .
The n a t i o n - s t a t e s th r o v e and d e­
v e lo p e d in an atm osp h ere o f w ar.
Men’ s id e a s o f p ea ce no
lo n g e r em in ated from th e dream o f u n iv e r s a l u n i t y , b u t w ere
th o u g h t o f in term s o f th e in d iv id u a l n a t io n a l s t a t e .
The
p o l i t i c a l c o n c e p tio n o f th e s t a t e e x ta n t w as t h a t th e S t a t e
was an end in i t s e l f , and th e Church’ s i d e a l o f c o sm o p o lita n
u n i t y was l o s t f o r e v e r .
45
L u ig i S tu r z o , The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Community, n . 3 1 .
a s q u o ted in B e a le s , o £ . c i t T .~ o'. 3 6 .
!
37
This- new s t a t e co n ce p t had i t s a p o l o g i s t s in
M a c h ia v e lli, B o d in , Hobbes,, and S p in o z a , w h ile th e p r i n c i ­
p le o f p a c if is m , w hich rem ained d o g g e d ly in th e m inds o f
som e, had i t s spokesm en in th e p e r s o n s o f th e g r e a t Human­
i s t s o f th e R e n a issa n c e and c e r t a in r e l i g i o n s s e c t s .
L u th e r , when th e R efo rm a tio n came* a t f i r s t was
s t r o n g ly i n c l i n e d t o a s t r i c t o b e d ie n c e to th e Sermon on th e
Mount; b u t he e n t i r e l y gave t h i s up a f t e r 1 5 2 5 , and ta u g h t
t h a t C h r is t ia n s must accommodate th e m s e lv e s to th e n e e d s o f
an im p e r fe c t w o rld so f a r a s t o f i g h t w as r e q u ir e d .4"®
L u th e r , in h i s e u lo g y o f w a r, s a y s :
For a s o l d i e r s h a l l b ear w ith him such c o n v ic t io n
o f c o n s c ie n c e t h a t h e i f o b lig e d t o d o , and must d o ,
t h i s w ork, t h a t h e may be su re h e s e r v e s God, and
can sa y : " I t i s n o t I th a t s m it e s , t h r u s t s and k i l l s ,
b u t God and my p r in c e , w hose s e r v a n t s a r e my hand
and l i f e . "
. . .
So l e t e v e r y man be und aun ted ,
a d m ittin g no th o u g h t o th e r than h i s f i s t i s God1s
f i s t , h i s sp e a r God’ s s p e a r , and l e t him c r y a lo u d
w ith h e a r t and v o i c e , "For God and K a is e r ." ^ 7
But th e H u m an ists o f t h i s c e n tu r y p ro cla im e d the i n ­
c o n s is t e n c y o f war w ith C h r i s t i a n i t y in no u n c e r ta in te r m s.
More’ s U to p ia f u r n is h e s o c c a s io n a l h o m ilie s on th e v a n it y o f
war and t h e m oral b a s e n e s s o f c o n q u e s t.
S e b a s tia n Franck
ta u g h t th e same le s s o n in h i s K r ie g b u c h lin d e s F r i d e s .
46
47
H u x le y , o p . c i t . , p . 19.
Van K ir k , op.. c i t . . p . 4 .
38
R a b e lia s and M ontaigne n o i s i l y s c o f f e d a t w a r fa r e a s an un­
i n t e l l i g e n t e x tr a v a g a n c e .
But Erasm us, in h i s Laus S t u l t i t a e
( 1 5 1 0 ) , e l a b o r a t e ly condemned t h e w h ole co n ce p t o f v i o l e n c e .
War was w h o le s a le h o m ic id e , a l b e i t th e Church condoned i t .
I t was c o m p le te ly d e v o id o f b e n e f i t s ; and i t was m o r a lly un­
ju s tifia b le .
Even th e Turk sh o u ld be c o n v e r te d by p e r s u a s io n
and n o t by v i o l e n c e ; f o r f o r c e co u ld p le a d no c e r t a i n t y o f
s u c c e s s . 48
Erasmus d e v e lo p e d no p la n s f o r a p e r p e t u a l p ea ce ;
b u t h i s P r a is e o f F o l l y and h i s C om plaint o f P eace w ere b oth
c a l l e d f o r t h by t h e i n e f f e c t u a l d ip lo m a tic in stru m e n t c a l le d
t h e " U n iv e r s a l P eace" o f 1 5 1 8 , w hich was s ig n e d by th r e e
c o u n t r ie s and l a s t e d o n ly fo u r y e a r s .
Erasmus p e r s i s t e n t l y worked f o r p e a c e .
In one o f h i s
e s s a y s a g a in s t w ar, t h e C om plaint o f P e a c e , he w r o te :
Every page o f th e C h r is tia n S c r ip t u r e s sp ea k s o f
l i t t l e e l s e b u t p e a c e and con cord ; and y e t th e w hole
l i f e o f th e g r e a t e r p o r t io n o f C h r is t ia n s i s em ployed
in n o th in g so much a s t h e co n cern o f w ar. . . . I t
w ere b e s t t o la y a s id e th e name o f C h r is t ia n a t o n c e ,
or e l s e t o g iv e p r o o f o f t h e t e a c h in g o f C h r ist by
i t s o n ly c r i t e r i o n , b r o t h e r ly l o v e . . . . "Dare y o u ,”
he c h a lle n g e s t h e p r i e s t s , " d e s c r ib e C h r ist a s a
R e c o n c ile r , a P r in c e o f P e a c e , and y e t p a l l i a t e or
commend war w ith t h e same ton gu e? That in t r u th i s
n o th in g l e s s th a n to sound th e trum pet f o r C h r is t
and S a ta n a t th e same tim e . Do you presum e, rev eren d
s i r , in you r hood and s u r p l i c e , t o s t im u la t e th e
s im p le , i n o f f e n s i v e p e o p le t o w ar, when th e y come to
church e x p e c t in g t o h e a r from you r motith th e G ospel
o f p eace? . . . "49
48 B e a le s , o g . c i t . t p . 2 7 .
49 B o e c k e l, o £ . c i t . , p . 7 5 .
39
But in th e f a c e o f th e w r it in g s o f Erasmus and th e
i d e a l s o f o th e r H um anists* i t was d u r in g th e s e v e n te e n th
ce n tu r y (1 6 1 8 ) t h a t the T h ir ty Y ears War b eg a n .
T h is was
a c o n f l i c t o f C a th o lic v e r s u s P r o t e s t a n t w ith th e form er
le d by th e House o f Haps b urg, th e H o ly Homan Emperor o f
A u s t r ia , h e lp e d by th e K ing o f S p a in and s e v e r a l C a t h o lic
sta te s.
The P r o t e s t a n t s id e was l e d b y King G u stavus
A dolphus o f Sweden and th e German P r o t e s t a n t s t a t e s .
C a th o lic F ran ce under C a r d in a l R ic h e l ie u h e lp e d th e P r o t ­
e sta n ts.
, The T h ir ty Y ears War ended in 1 6 4 8 , w ith no d e c i s i o n
in f a v o r o f e i t h e r p a r t y , w h ile i t d e s tr o y e d th r e e q u a r te r s
o f th e e n t i r e German p o p u la t io n .
50
D e s p it e th e h o lo c a u s t , th e C h r is t ia n s p i r i t was n o t
d ea d .
T h is was p roved by t h e e x i s t e n c e o f more th a n one
group o f men who, in s p i t e o f th e triu m p h ant c u l t o f M ars,
p in n ed t h e i r f a i t h to t h e i r M a ste r’ s p la in w o rd s, and r e fu s e d ,
under an y p r o v o c a tio n t o ta k e th e sword w hose u se He had
fo r b id d e n .
T h is p a c if is m d e v e lo p e d w ith th e r e l i g i o u s s e c t s
w hich renou n ced v i o l e n c e .
W hile th e o r g a n iz e d C hu rches,
C a th o lio and P r o t e s t a n t , foun d i t v i t a l l y n e c e s s a r y to a llo w
and ev en u s e war a s a means o f s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n ( a s th e
T h ir ty Y ears War and o th e r c o n f l i c t s sh ow ), th e v a r io u s
^ Hoffman. W icker s o n , Can We L im it War? (New York:
F r e d e r ic k A. S t o k e s , 1934) , p . 8 3 .
40
.A n ab ap tist s e c t s u n com p rom isin gly condemned r e s o r t to f o r c e
in an y c ir c u m s ta n c e s .
The h i s t o r y o f . .th e A n a b a p tis ts h a s a c l o s e b e a r in g on
th e d ev elo p m en t o f p a c if is m .
Many o f t h e i r le a d e r s w ere
d e f i n i t e l y h o s t i l e to th e Church’ s a u t h o r it a r ia n is m , and
h e ld u n s w e r v in g ly to l i b e r t y o f c o n s c ie n c e .
The n o n - v io le n t
method o f the A n a b a p tis ts found a read y ea r f o llo w in g th e
f a i l u r e o f th e P e a s a n t s ’ R e v o lt by arm s, and t h i s p r i n c i p l e
was c a r r ie d forw ard by Menno Simons o f H o lla n d and S o z z in i
in S w itz e r la n d ,
Sim ons ren ou n ced C a th o lic is m in 1536 and
became h a te d by C a t h o lic and P r o t e s t a n t a l i k e fo r h i s p a c i ­
f i s t a g i t a t i o n , h i s d o c t r in e o f s e p a r a t io n o f Church and
51
S t a t e , and o t h e r b e l i e f s .
T hese A n a b a p tis ts r e c o g n iz e d r e s i s t a n c e to o p p r e s s io n
a s p u r e ly s u b j e c t i v e - - a m a tte r o f c o n s c ie n c e a lo n e .
T h eir
c a r d in a l r u le was t h a t o f o b e d ie n c e and outw ard s u b m is s io n .
How f a r th e y and t h e i r b r e th r e n obeyed i t can b e se en in th e
lo n g l i s t
o f m artyrs-—M en n o n ites, S im o n ia n s, S o c in ia n s ,
M oravian s, B r o w n is ts — handed down from th e s ix t e e n t h e e n t u r y . 52
The p a c i f i s t p r a c t ic e w as, h o w ev er, m a in ta in e d b y th e
A n a b a p tis t grou p s a l l o v er E u rop e, and d efen d e d b o th b y them
51
B e a l e s , ojs♦ c i t . , p . 2 9 .
52 I b i d . . p . 3 0 .
41
ana by F a u s tu s S o c in u s .
I t s p o s i t i v e s e r v i c e t o human
p r o g r e s s was t o t a l l y o v erlo o k ed *
I t was f e l t
to b e s o c i a l l y
so d a n g ero u s t h a t i t g r e a t l y e m b itte r e d th e p e r s e c u t io n to
w hich A n a b a p tis ts and S o c in ia n s w ere s u b j e c te d b y b o th
C a t h o lic s and P r o t e s t a n t s *
O ther r e l i g i o u s s e c t s who c o n t r ib u t e d t o th e h i s t o r y
o f p e a c e b y t h e i r p r e c e p t and exam ple are r e c o r d e d f o r
p o s te r ity *
One movement o f p a c if is m w it h in t h e C hurches i s
t h a t o f th e C o lle g ia n t s w hich a r o s e among th e D utch
in 1 6 1 9 . The C o lle g ia n t s a g i t a t e d f o r a c r e e d l e s s
form o f w o r s h ip . S p in o z a , Mien e x p e l le d from th e
sy n a g o g u e, sp e n t f i v e y e a r s among f r i e n d s who w ere
members o f t h i s g ro u p , and reg a rd ed them h i g h l y .
The n o b i l i t y o f t h e i r l i v e s seem s t o h ave d e e p ly
im p r essed a l l who knew them, d e s p it e t h e i r d e f i n i t e
sta n d a g a in s t o a t h - t a k in g and a l l w a r*53
In H o lla n d , o n ly on e y e a r a f t e r th e b i r t h o f th e
o r g a n iz e d p ea ce m ovem ent, a p a c i f i s t community c a l l e d
th e C h r is t ia n B roth erh ood was .form ed, and was o b lig e d
t o s u f f e r im prisonm ent and g e n e r a l p e r s e c u t i o n s . ^
One o f th e m ost s t r i k i n g h e r e s i e s o f a l l was th e
movement o f th e L o lla r d s , in s p ir e d by th e E n g lis h
le a d e r , John W y c i if f e . Here was one who w ould n ot
a llo w to go u n c h a lle n g e d th e manner in w hich th e
Church k ep t on p i l i n g up p r o p e r ty w h ile em p h a sizin g
I t s c r e e d s and c e r e m o n ie s , and y e t one who r e c o g n iz e d
th e power o f th e p a c i f i s t r e v o l t . W y c iif f e was t h e
t r a n s l a t o r o f th e E n g lis h B i b le , a b r i l l i a n t e x p o s it o r ,
a man o f r e s o u r c e and p le a s in g c h a r a c t e r , y e t one
w hose sy m p a th ie s were f r a n k ly w ith th e l o w l y . He
p r o t e s t e d b o ld ly th e way in w hich th e p r ie s t h o o d threw
t h e i r b a c k in g to w a r r io r s and ev e n to o k arms th e m s e lv e s .
53
A lle n , o p * c i t . , p . 5 7 6 .
54 I b i d . , p . 5 7 7 .
42
" C h r is t,* he i n s i s t e d , " tau gh t n o t h i s a p o s t l e s to
f i g h t w ith th e sword o f ir o n , h ut w it h th e sword o f
God*s w ord, w hich s ta n d e th i n m eek n ess o f h e a r t and
in p ru d en ce o f manf s to n g u e ," H is f o llo w e r s w ere
p e r s e c u t e d and many m a rty red , l i k e S i r John O ld c a s t l e , " th e good Lord Cobham" o f th e p r o l e t a r i a t ,
who w as a cc u sed in la r g e m easure b e c a u s e he denounced
war a s t h e p lu n d e r in g o f th e p o o r f o r th e b e n e f i t
o f th e m o u a rch s.5 5
Most o f th e s e c t s e x p ir e d .
T h e ir a n t i - m i l i t a r i s t
t r a d i t i o n was c o n tin u e d , h o w ev er, b y th e S o c i e t y o f F r ie n d s ,
o r Q uakers, who c o n s i s t e n t l y , and in th e f a c e o f much p e r s e ­
c u t io n , h e ld f a s t to C h r i s t ' s commandment, " R e s is t n o t e v i l . "
A lle n r e p o r t s :
From th e tim e o f i t s fo u n d in g by George Fox in th e
m id d le o f th e s e v e n te e n th c e n t u r y , the S o c i e t y o f
F r ie n d s became adm ired o r h a te d fo r i t s co m b in a tio n
o f b r a v e , u n f lin c h in g , n o n - v io le n t a t t a c k and i t s
d e v o tio n t o h u m a n ita ria n c a u s e s . Not m erely in
g e n e r o u s c h a r i t y , fo r w h ich t h e y h a v e e v e r b een n o te d ,
d id th e Q uakers e x c e l . They c o n t r ib u t e d to th e g r e a t
c a u s e o f r e l i g i o u s l i b e r t y th rou gh th e v i c t o r i e s
bought w ith b lo o d - - b lo o d o f t h e i r own, n o t t h a t o f
o t h e r s . They fo u g h t th rou gh to a new r e s p e c t f o r
woman a s a t h in k in g p er son $ th e y l i v e d and s t r u g g le d
fo r d em ocracy.
. . . They advanced in t e r n a t i o n a l
p ea ce by t h e i r own am bassadors o f good w ill., t h e ir
work f o r a r b i t r a t i o n and o th e r m oderate m ea su re s,
and e s p e c i a l l y b y t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l u n w illin g n e s s
t o s a n c t io n w ar. And w ith i t a l l , d e s p it e th e in e v ­
i t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s , th e y drew men t o them; th e y made
i t p o s s i b l e on more than one o c c a s io n f o r a f i g h t i n g
squad t o p u l l th e t r i g g e r s o f r i f l e s aimed a t t h e i r
u nquaking b r e a s t s ; th e y w ere fla m in g and s e r e n e ,
c o n c i l i a t o r y and in d o m it a b le .5 6
55
I b id ., p . 573.
56
Ibid.,. p. 580.
It was in 1660 that George Fox and eleven other
Quakers is s u e d t h e i r fam ous D e c la r a t io n *a g a in s t a l l s e d i ­
t i o n , p l o t t e r s , and f i g h t e r s in th e w o r ld ; fo r rem oving th e
ground o f j e a lo u s y and s u s p ic io n from m a g is t r a t e s and p e o p le
c o n c e r n in g w ars and f i g h t i n g s .
They f u r t h e r d e c la r e d :
We u t t e r l y deny a l l outward w ars and s t r i f e and
f i g h t i n g s w ith outward w eapons, fo r any en d , o r
under any p r e t e n c e w h a tev er; t h i s i s o u r te s tim o n y
to t h e w hole w o r ld . The S p i r i t o f C h r is t hy w hich
we a re g u id e d i s n o t ch a n g ea b le so a s on ce t o com­
mand u s from a t h in g a s e v i l and a g a in t o move u n to
i t ; and we c e r t a i n l y know, and t e s t i f y t o th e w o r ld ,
t h a t th e S p i r i t o f C h r is t , w hich le a d s u s in t o a l l
t r u t h , w i l l n e v e r move u s to f i g h t and war a g a in s t
any man w ith outw ard w eap ons, n e it h e r f o r th e
Kingdom o f C h r is t , n o r f o r th e Kingdoms o f t h i s
w o r ld .5 8
B e a le s e x p la in s t h a t :
T h eir p o s i t i o n w as tr iu m p h a n tly s e t f o r t h in 1676
i n t h e A p ology o f R ob ert B a r c la y . A l l t h e i r te a c h in g
f o llo w e d c o n c l u s i v e ly from th e fu n d am en tal b e l i e f
t h a t ea ch manf s l i f e was g u id e d by an "Inner l i g h t "
w hich tr a n sc e n d e d ev en th e B i b l e , i n v i r t u e o f w hich
t h e r e co u ld b e no r i g h t t o c o n s t r a in men; w h e r e fo r e ,
n o n - r e s is t a n c e and p a c if is m w ere a x io m a tic . T h is b e­
l i e f , f o r t i f i e d by th e Sermon on th e Mount and by th e
p r e c e p t s o f t h e e a r ly G h r is tia n F a th e r s , c a t e g o r i c a l l y
r u le d o u t war a s a s p e c i e s o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p so
c o m p le te ly — ev en t o th e e x t e n t o f d is c o u n te n a n c in g th e
r i g h t o f s e l f - d e f e n s e — tha t no T o le r a t io n A c ts c o u ld
r e l i e v e F r ie n d s from s u f f e r in g f o r t h e i r f a i t h a s
l a t e a s 1 9 1 4 .5 9
57
M. E. H i r s t , Quakers in P eace and War, C hapter Y,
a s q u o ted i n B e a le s , op . c i t . , p . 3 1 .
58
R ep ort o f Comm ission I , The Fundam ental B a s is
(The P ea ce T estim on y o f th e S o c i e t y o f F r ie n d s , London,
n .d .), p. 1.
B e a le s , o p . c i t . , p . 3 1 .
44
R ig h t o r w rong, a l l th e g r e a t Chur eh t e a c h e r s , i n ­
c lu d in g L u th er and C a lv in , saw war a s a p o l i c e m easure
a g a in s t in d i v id u a ls or c o r p o r a te e v i l d o e r s , and a s th e de­
f e n s e o f a p e a c e - l o v in g S t a t e a g a in s t b l o o d t h i r s t y n e ig h b o r s*
The Church F a th e r s d is t in g u is h e d c a r e f u l l y b etw een j u s t and
u n j u s t w ars*
Pope Leo I (461} d e c la r e d t h a t " m ilit a r y s e r v ­
i c e may b e b la m e le s s ," and argued th a t C h r is t ia n s co u ld su p ­
p o r t " j u s t wars*"
T h is h a s been th e o f f i c i a l te a c h in g o f
th e C hurches s i n c e 4 6 1 , b o th Roman C a th o lic and P r o t e s t a n t .
Only h ave th e Q uakers, M e n n o n ite s, Dunkards i n s i s t e d w ith o u t
h e s i t a t i o n , b o th i n w r it in g and c o n d u c t, t h a t a l l war and
a l l u se o f f o r c e a r e d i s l o y a l t y t o J e s u s C h r ist*
V.
EARLY AMERICAN CHURCH ATTITUDES
The e ig h t e e n t h c e n tu r y u sh e r e d in th e a g e o f r e a so n .
A l l o p p o s it io n to war w h eth er w r it t e n o r spoken was b a sed
upon c l e a r th in k in g and l o g i c a l r e a s o n in g .
I t was an a ge
w h e re in n a t io n a l t h e o r i e s o f p ea ce to o k th e p la c e o f e t h i ­
c a l t h e o r i e s o f war w hich c h a r a c t e r iz e d th e s ix t e e n t h and
s e v e n te e n th c e n t u r i e s .
A d d iso n , S w i f t , P a s c a l, La B r u y e r e ,
and M o n tesq u ieu a l l condemned war*
The French En eye lo p e -
d i s t e s , le d by D id e r o t , v is i o n e d th e in te r d e p e n d e n c e o f
th e e n t i r e w orld*
S e v e r a l t h e o r ie s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e a c e w ere enun­
c i a t e d d u r in g t h e e ig h t e e n t h c e n tu r y .
In d e e d , th e id e a o f
45
i n t e r n a t i o n a l under s t a n d in g and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s
to o k a f f a i r e o u t o f th e re a lm o f d y n a s t ic p r in c e s and
assirn ed th e p r o p o r tio n o f w h o le n a t i o n s .
Men w ere exp an din g
t h e i r c o n c e p t io n s o f p e a c e and th e method o f th e s e t t le m e n t
o f d i f f e r e n c e s b etw een n a t i o n s .
I n 1 7 5 8 , Em erieh V a t t e l w ro te th e Law o f N a t io n s ,
w h erein he ad vanced th e p r o p o s a l o f a S o c i e t y o f N a tio n s
w hich w ould u se a r b i t r a t i o n a s a means o f d e c id in g e v e r y
d is p u t e w hich d o e s n o t co n cern t h e s a f e t y o f th e n a tio n *
and f o r c e w ould b e p e r m is s ib le o n ly i n ex trem e c a s e s .
S u c c e s s iv e t h e o r i e s f o r th e p e a c e o f Europe can b e
tra c e d .
The Abbe d e S a in t - P i e r r e * s Church s e t f o r t h h i s
P r o j e c t f o r S e t t l i n g P e r p e tu a l P ea ce in Europe in 1 7 1 3 , in
w hich he showed t h e n eed fo r an I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r ib u n a l.
Judgment o f a^ P la n fa r,. P e r p e tu a l P ea ce came In 1761
from th e mind o f R o u ssea u .
H is fo r e m o st c o n t r ib u t io n l a y
in th e e x t e n s io n o f a p la n o f a "Code o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law"
t o b e u sed by a C o n g r ess o f R e p r e s e n t a t iv e s .
T h is id e a h e
r e c e iv e d from t h e Abbe de S a i n t - P i e r r e ' s .
The t h ir d c o n c e p tio n o f a w orld u n it e d b y common t i e s
was s e t f o r t h by Jerem y Bentham.
In t h r e e y e a r s he w ro te
h i s Fragment o f a n E s sa y on I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law (1 7 8 6 -8 9 ) and
s u g g e s te d t h e id e a o f a U n ite d S t a t e s o f E u ro p e.
To a v e r t
war f o r th e f u t u r e h e d e v is e d a p la n w hich co m p rised fo u r
fu n d a m en ta ls:
(1 ) t h e r e d u c t io n o f arm am ents; (2 ) the
46
e s ta b lis h m e n t o f a "Permanent Court o f J u d ic a tu r e " w ith
pow ers o f a r b i t r a t i o n backed b y s a n c t io n s o f f o r c e s ;
(3 ) th e
c o d i f i c a t i o n o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law; and (4 ) th e em a n cip a tio n
A rt
o f a l l c o lo n ie s *
In 1795 t h e l a s t o f th e e i g h t e e n t h c e n tu r y p h i l o s o ­
p h e r s , Immanuel K ant, p ro d u ced h i s P e r p e tu a l P e a c e .
pounded two m ain id e a s :
He p ro ­
(1 ) an e x a m in a tio n o f c e r t a in r e -
form s t o b e u n d er ta k en w h ile war s t i l l e x i s t e d , in o rd er t o
c r e a t e a p u b lic o p in io n f a v o r a b le to th e a b o l i t i o n o f war;
and {£ ) a body o f s u g g e s t io n s f o r th e f i n a l o r g a n iz a t io n o f
p e r p e t u a l p ea ce*
Kant p u t th e w h o le p rob lem o f p e a c e and
war on a h ig h p la n e and rem oved i t from th e lo w er l e v e l s o f
p o l i t i c s w here i t had l a i n f o r a lo n g tim e .
He ap proach ed
i t a s a q u e s t io n o f e t h i c s and s o c i a l c o n s c ie n c e .
The f i r s t p e a c e s o c i e t i e s w ere form ed in th e n in e ­
t e e n t h c e n tu r y .
T h e ir in c e p t io n w as ca u se d l a r g e l y b e c a u se
th e c o u n t r ie s o f Europe i n s i s t e d on e n g a g in g i n w a rfa re and
many o f them f o r a p r o t r a c t e d le n g t h o f t im e .
The H o ly
A l l i a n c e was c a u s e f o r c o n c e r n among p e a c e - l o v in g grou p s and
i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h a t w a r - to m c o n t in e n t .
Had th e t e x t o f th e
A llia n c e b een a d h ered t o , th e c o u r s e o f h i s t o r y and e v e n t s
m igh t h a v e b e e n a l t e r e d .
A l l th e m onarehs b u t two r e s o lv e d :
"To ta k e f o r t h e i r s o l e g u id e th e p r e c e p t s o f J u s t i c e ,
60
Ibid., p. 35*
47
C h r is t ia n C h a r ity , ana P ea ce . . .
a s b e in g th e o n ly means
o f c o n s o li d a t in g human r e l a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s and remedy*
61
in g t h e i r imper f e e t i o n s . ”
H is t o r y p o in t s o u t th a t ev e n
thou gh w e l l in t e n t io n e d , th e A llia n c e was an a s s o c i a t i o n o f
a u t o c r a t ic s o v e r e ig n s who f o r g o t t h e i r m a g n if ic e n t d e c l a r e ftP
t l o n o f C h r is t ia n sta n d a r d s in a moment o f c r i s i s .
The N a p o le o n ic Wars fu r th e r s h a t t e r e d th e p e a c e o f
Europe and w ere o f su ch le n g t h y d u r a tio n t h a t men and move­
m en ts began t o o r g a n iz e i n th e i n t e r e s t o f p e a c e a s a d e f ­
i n i t e and p e r s i s t e n t e f f o r t t o b a n is h th e p r a c t i c e o f armed
c o n f l i c t a s a means o f s e t t l i n g d i s p u t e s .
The C a t h o lic C hurch, a s one o f t h o s e th r o w in g i t s
w e ig h t a g a in s t th e m a c h in a tio n s o f M ars, was d e f i n i t e l y n o t
in a c tiv e .
In J u ly , 1 8 7 0 , th e c r a f t o f B ism arck and t h e
b lu n d e r in g o f t h e Emperor N a p o leo n I I I o f F ra n ce
(1 8 5 8 -1 8 7 0 ) p rovok ed th e Franco-German War. A t
t h i s c r i t i c a l moment f o r t h e p e a c e o f t h e c o n t i ­
n e n t Pope P lu s IX ( 1 8 4 6 -1 8 7 8 ) , a lr e a d y s e r i o u s l y
en d angered In h i s own kingdom and a m id st t h e c l o s ­
in g s e s s i o n s o f th e Y a tic a n C o u n c il, p r o f f e r e d
h i s m e d ia tio n b etw een th e w a rr in g n a t io n s in id e n ­
t i c a l n o t e s w h ich h e d is p a tc h e d t o t h e i r r u l e r s
on J u ly 8 8 , t h r e e d a y s a f t e r th e French d e c la r a ­
t i o n o f w a r .S3
61
I b id ., p . 41.
62 h o c . c i t .
63
The H is t o r y C om m ittee, th e C a t h o lic A s s o c ia t io n
f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l P e a c e , The C a th o lic Church and P ea ce
E f f o r t s (New York: The P a u l i s t P r e s s , 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 5 0 .
48
The P r o t e s t a n t C h u rch es, h o w ev er, w ere r e l a t i v e l y
s ile n t*
As B e a le s p o i n t s o u t:
I t was an h i s t o r i c moment. From th e one s o u r c e
above a l l o t h e r s and from w hich t h e a d v o c a te s o f
P ea c e o f a l l camps had clam oured f o r s a n c t i f i c a t i o n - ^
from th e C hu rches—no g e s t u r e had com e, or c o u ld be
r e a s o n a b ly e x p e c te d . The N a t io n a l C hurches w ere
c o r r e c t E r a s t ia n s ; th e y o b ey ed th e b e h e s t s o f t h e i r
G overnm ents. The D is s e n t in g C hurches in E ngland and
A m erica, a r t i c u l a t e f i r s t d u r in g th e Crimean War,
c o u ld b e h eard a g a in now, thou gh dim ly* At l a s t
Rome h e r s e l f , tr a n s c e n d in g c l a s s and f r o n t i e r , a
u n i t y s t a n d in g fo u r -s q u a r e a c r o s s e a r t h l y d i s t i n c ­
t i o n s o f n a t io n and e v e n r a c e , resum ed f o r a moment
h e r m e d ie v a l f m e t io n o f a r b i t e r , b u t t o no p u r­
p o s e . P r u s s ia r e p l i e d t h a t sh e was f i g h t i n g f o r
" th e h onor and in d ep en d en ce o f h er c o u n t r y ," and
w ould l a y down h e r arms o n ly i f th e Pope c o u ld a s s u r e
h e r o f " p a c i f i c d i s p o s i t i o n s and g u a r a n te e s" from
F r a n c e .6 4
In co n seq u en ce o f t h e N a p o le o n ic Wars Europe was
m i l i t a r i z e d to a la r g e e x t e n t d u r in g t h i s c e n tu r y .
U n iv e r s a l
m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e was g e n e r a l l y in tr o d u c e d in c o n t in e n t a l
E u rop e.
The M ennonite C hurch, on th e w h o le , s t o o d tr u e t o
i t s tr a d itio n .
John Hors eh r e c o r d s :
W ith n o t a b le e x c e p t io n t h e r e was d u r in g t h i s ce n ­
t u r y among European M en n o n ites a g r a d u a l r e c e s s i o n
from t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l a t t i t u d e on th e p o in t In q u es­
t i o n a s w e l l a s on o th e r p o i n t s o f p r i n c i p l e and
p r a c t i c e . Where th e p r i n c i p l e o f n o n - r e s is t a n c e
had b een p e r m itte d t o l a p s e , t h e way was p rep a red
f o r t h e a c c e p ta n c e o f m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . Many, how­
e v e r , w hose c o n s c ie n c e d id n o t p erm it them t o r e n d er
such s e r v i c e , em ig r a te d t o A m erica.
. . . W h ile
d u r in g the- n in e t e e n t h c e n tu r y t h e r e w as o b v io u s ly an
a lm o st g e n e r a l d e c l i n e o f t h e p a r t o f European
64
Beales, op. cit *. p. 133.
49
M en n o n ites on th e p o in t in q u e s t io n , t h e r e i s con ­
c l u s i v e e v id e n c e t h a t d u r in g th e f i r s t h a l f o f t h a t
ce n tu ry jso m e o f th e European M e n n o n ite s, b e s id e s
t h o s e o f R u s sia and o t h e r s who e m ig r a te d t o A m erica,
c o n tin u e d t o m a in ta in t h e p r i n c i p l e o f n o n r e s i s t a n c e . 65
At t h i s p o in t t h i s s tu d y p r im a r ily c o n c e r n s i t s e l f
w ith e a r l y A m erican Church a t t i t u d e s tow ard p e a c e and a g a in s t
w ar.
H it h e r t o , a t t e n t i o n h a s n e c e s s a r i l y b een d ir e c t e d t o
Europe b e c a u se a l l men and m ovem ents em erged from th e Old
W orld.
A lth ou gh r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s w ere a r t i c u l a t e on
some s o c i a l phenom ena, o r g a n iz e d Church com m itm ents w ere n o t
t h e g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t io n .
I t i s a f a c t , th o u g h , t h a t i n d i ­
v id u a l v o i c e s w ere r a i s e d and i n some c a s e s c o n c e r te d p ro ­
t e s t s w ere h ea rd r e p r e s e n t in g o r g a n iz e d Church b o d ie s ; b u t
t h e s e l a t t e r w ere o f t t i m e s weak and i n a r t i c u l a t e .
The con ­
dem nation o f war by s p e c i f i c in d i v id u a ls f r e q u e n t ly o v e r ­
shadowed t h o s e o f a c o n c e r te d o r i g i n , and t h e s e many tim e s
sp ran g from a r e l i g i o u s c o n v ic t io n and b ack grou nd .
The o r g a n iz e d Church movement in A m erica d u rin g t h e
s e v e n te e n th c e n tu r y was n o t a s v a r ie d a s t o d a y .
A l l o f th e
d e n o m in a tio n s in e x i s t e n c e to d a y w ere n o t r e p r e s e n te d by th e
e m ig r a tio n t o A m erica i n i t s p e r io d o f e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t .
The
e ig h t e e n t h c e n tu r y saw a more d e f i n i t e l i n e o f d i s t i n c t i o n
65
John K orsch* The P r i n c i p l e o f M o n r e s ista n c e a s
H eld b z th e M enn on ite Church t S c o t t d a le : M enn on ite P u b lis h ­
in g H ou se, 1 9 2 7 ) , p p . 4 2 - 4 3 .
50
an d d em a rca tio n among c o l o n i a l s e t t l e r s .
In C o lo n ia l A m erica th e v o i c e s of* B a p t is t l e a d e r s
and t h o s e a d h e r in g to th e Quaker f a i t h a r e h e a r d condem ning
th e French and In d ia n Wars and e x t o l l i n g th e p r i n c i p l e s and
p r a c t i c e s o f n o n - r e s is t a n c e b y word and d e e d .
The th e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f war d id n o t go u n c h a l­
le n g e d in C o lo n ia l l i f e .
D urin g th e P equot In d ia n War o f
1 6 3 6 , th e b r u t a l i t i e s w ere a t r o c io u s *
Roger W illia m s , a t
l e a s t , p r o t e s t e d when h e had t o forw ard t o B o s to n th e h and s
from s l a i n P e q u o ts .
The Quaker a t t i t u d e r e p r e s e n te d t h e v ie w p o in t o f th e
67
m a j o r it y o f C o lo n ia l America*
D uring th e French and In d ia n War, f r i e n d s w ere
f o r c e d to en d u re s e v e r e s u f f e r i n g b e c a u se o f t h e i r
a d h e ren ce to a n tiw a r c o n v i c t i o n s . Many Q uakers w ere
bound in c h a in s f o r t h e i r r e f u s a l t o f i g h t . W ashing­
t o n , s o r e l y t r o u b le d b y t h e i r o b s t i n a t e r e f u s a l to
sh o u ld e r m u sk e ts, i n f l i c t e d h a r sh p e n a l t i e s on r e ­
c a lc itr a n ts .
Q uakers w ere by no means exempt from
p e r s e c u t io n f o r t h e i r t e s t im o n y a g a in s t war ev en
a f t e r th e A ct o f T o le r a t io n in 1689 e x te n d e d a
m easure o f l e g a l r e c o g n it io n t o th e r i g h t s o f con ­
s c i e n c e . $8
In th e f o u r t e e n t h c e n tu r y t h e r e d e v e lo p e d a c o n s c io u s
e f f o r t t o e x te n d th e t e a c h in g s o f C h r is t from th e d e a l i n g s
o f man w ith man t o a l l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
I t s b e g in n in g
^ M erle C u r t i, P e a c e o r War (Hew York: If. W. H orton
and Company, 1936) , p . 1 6 .
67 I b i d . , p . 1 9 .
Loo. o i t .
51
cam be t r a c e d in th e a c t i v i t i e s o f th e Bohemian B r eth r en
and l a t e r among th e A n a b a p tis t s e c t s , M e n n o n ite s, and
D un k ers.
But i t rem ained f o r th e Quakers to b r in g t h e
e f f o r t t o a p p ly C h r is t ia n t e a c h in g s to s t a t e p r a c t i c e s t o
f u l l e x p r e s s io n in W illia m P e n n 's "H oly E xperim ent" in
p e a c e f u l governm ent in P e n n s y lv a n ia *
The Quaker demand
was t h a t C h r is t ia n s l i v e , and t h a t C h r is t ia n s t a t e s co n d u c t
t h e i r a f f a i r s i n harmony w ith C h r i s t ' s t e a c h in g s *
I f th is
w ere d on e, th e o c c a s io n f o r w ar, th e y h e l d , w ould be done
away w it h .
In "Quakerism and P o l i t i c s , " I s a a c S h a r p ie s s a s s e r t s
t h a t th e Q uakers sto p p e d a t war b e c a u s e th e y b e l i e v e d t h a t :
. • * th e h a t r e d , th e k i l l i n g , th e s t e a l i n g and a l l
th e I m m o r a litie s w hich c l u s t e r around war w ere wrong
i n t h e m s e lv e s , and c o u ld n o t be J u s t i f i e d by th e
r e s u l t s g a in e d , o r th e su p p o sed in a d eq u a cy o f r i g h t
means t o m eet th e s i t u a t i o n . 6$
The A m erican R e v o lu t io n , which by some h a s b een d a 70
s c r ib e d a s a C i v i l War t o o ,
p rod u ced c r o s s c u r r e n ts o f
e m o tio n , s e n t im e n t s , and a t t i t u d e s from C hurches and i n d i ­
v id u a l le a d e r s o f th o u g h t in s o c i e t y .
R eco rd s show th a t
w ith few e x c e p t i o n s , t h e C hurches condoned th e s t r u g g le and
ev en s e n t many s o l d i e r s from t h e i r c o n g r e g a t io n s .
Occa­
s i o n a l l y , a p r o t e s t was r a i s e d , b u t t h i s r e p r e s e n te d the
aq
70
B o e c k e l, o p . e i t . , p . 3 0 2 .
Ourti, op. cit.» p. 22.
52
o p p o s it io n o f an in d i v id u a l r a t h e r th a n o f an o r g a n iz e d
body o f r e l i g i o u s a d h e r e n ts .
P erh a p s i t i s n o t t o be w ondered a t t h a t l i t t l e
op­
p o s i t i o n was v o ic e d , inasm uch a s a l l l i n e s o f com m unication
w ere f lo o d e d w ith p rop agand a.
Thomas P a in e , w r i t i n g a s a
p r o p a g a n d is t f o r t h e War in h i s C r i s i s , s t a t e d th a t th e
m other c o u n tr y (E ngland) had b e tr a y e d t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f
p e a c e , and t h a t i t w ould be w e l l t o f i g h t f o r l i b e r t y in
o r d e r t h a t p e r p e t u a l freed om from war m ig h t t h e r e a f t e r be
71
e n jo y e d .
On t h e o th e r hand, r e p o r t s o f a d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c te r
come t o l i g h t .
Abrams r e c o r d s :
The a l l i a n c e o f t h e m i n i s t e r s w ith t h e le a d e r s o f
t h e a g i t a t i o n a g a in s t England was on e r e a so n f o r i t s
su ccess.
. . . W ith a v o c a b u la r y e n r ic h e d by th e
B i b le th e y made r e s i s t a n c e and a t l a s t in d ep en d en ce
and war a h o ly c a u s e .73
O f .t h e C o n g r e g a tio n a l Church i t i s s a id :
"No Church
i n t h e Am erican C o lo n ie s had s o la r g e an i n f l u e n c e i n b r in g r
in g on th e war f o r In d ep en d en ce a s had t h e C o n g r e g a t io n a l.w7^
71
I b id . , p . 21.
7^ Ray H. Abrams. P r e a c h e r s P r e s e n t Arms (New York:
Round T a b le P r e s s , 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 4 .
A lic e M. B a ld w in , The New England C le r g y . and th e
A m erican R e v o lu t io n . C h a p ters V I, V I I , V I I I , a s q u o ted in
Abrams, l o c . p i t . , p . 4 .
74 W. W. S w e e t, The S to r y o f th e R e li g io n s in A m erica,
a s q u o ted by Abrams, l o o , o i t . , p . 4 .
53
The P r e s b y t e r ia n s , i t I s c la im e d , fu r n is h e d a c o n 75
s id e r a b l e p e r c e n ta g e o f th e le a d e r s o f th e R e v o lu t io n .
The o t h e r g r o u p s, t o o , were e n t h u s i a s t i c f o r th e
R e v o lu tio n :
th e B a p t i s t s , th e German R eform ed, th e L u th e ra n s.
G eorge W ash in gton c o n g r a tu la te d th e B a p t i s t s f o r th e unanim ­
i t y w ith w hich th e y had p roved th e m s e lv e s th e " fir m f r ie n d
o f c i v i l l i b e r t y , ” and prom oted ”our g l o r i o u s R e v o lu t io n .
The C a t h o lic Church l e n t i t s su p p o rt as A rchb ish op
C a rr o l p ro u d ly sp o k e:
”T h eir [ C a t h o lic ] b lo o d flo w e d a s
f r e e l y , i n p r o p o r tio n t o t h e i r num bers, to cem ent t h e f a b r i c
77
o f in d ep en d en ce a s t h a t o f any o f t h e i r f e l l o w c i t i z e n s . ” "
The M e n n o n ite s, f o r t h e m ost p a r t , d id n o t ta k e s i d e s ,
but w ere l o y a l t o t h e s p i r i t o f in d e p e n d e n c e , w h ile th e
M oravia n s, a n o n - r e s i s t a n t s e c t , s u f f e r e d m o st, b u t a l s o
78
to o k th e s i d e o f th e C o l o n i s t s .
As th e s t r u g g le dragged o n , some o f t h e p a t r i o t i c
l e a d e r s v e n tu r e d t o e x p r e s s t h e i r s e n t im e n ts a k in t o p e a c e .
75
B.
IP. Humphrey, N a tio n a lis m and R e li g io n , p p . 8 2 1 0 4 , a s q u o ted in Abrams, l o c . c i t . . p . 4 .
76
J a r e d S p a r k s, e d i t o r , The W r itin g s o f G eorge
W ash in g to n , V o l. X I I , p p . 1 5 4 -5 5 , a s q u oted i n Abrams, l o c .
c i t . , p. 4.
77
J . G. S h ea , L i f e and T im es. o f A rch b ish op C a r r o l,
a s q u o ted in Abrams, l o c . c i t . , p . 4 .
78
S w e e t, o p . c i t . , p p . 2 7 2 - 7 3 , a s q u o ted in Abrams
lo c . c i t . , p. 4.
54
In d e e d , one ev e n l e n t h i s su p p o rt t o end t h e c o n f l i c t w ith
th e r e s u l t th a t he s u f f e r e d in t e n s e opprobrium *
The Rev­
eren d John S y re o f C o n n e c tic u t saw h i s h o u se mobbed a s a
r e s u l t a t h i s c o n v ic t io n t h a t t h e w eapons o f C h r is t w ere
79
s p i r i t u a l , n o t c a r n a l.
I t i s a sa d commentary on th e h i s t o r y o f th e Church
when th e r e c o r d s p o in t o u t t h a t m i n i s t e r s o f th e G o sp el
r e l e n t l e s s l y and s e e m in g ly w ith o u t th o u g h t, condoned and
a id e d , th e r e b y p e r p e t u a t in g , t h e r e v o l t a g a in s t England*
As i t i s p o in te d o u t by one a u t h o r it y :
Many o f th e c l e r g y o f Hew E ngland s e r v e d a s "re­
c r u i t i n g a g e n t s , c h a p la in s , and f i g h t e r s *
. * .
The sharp ton gu ed John C le v e la n d o f I p s w ic h i s s a id
t o h ave p rea ch ed h i s w h ole p a r is h i n t o th e army and
th e n have gone h im s e lf .8 0
The M e th o d is ts and A n g lic a n s w ere in a p e c u l i a r p o s i ­
t i o n Inasmuch a s th e y w ere c l o s e l y bound t o E ngland through
t r a d i t i o n and o v e r la p p in g m i n i s t r i e s .
At th e c l o s e o f th e
R e v o lu tio n a r y War b o th th e A n g lic a n and M e th o d ist C hurches
w ere in a d e p lo r a b le c o n d it io n .
John W esley c l a s s e d John
H ancock a s a r e b e l and u rg ed th e C o lo n is t s to l a y down t h e i r
arm s, n o t in t h e i n t e r e s t o f p e a c e , but a s a g e s t u r e o f
sym pathy i n th e c a u se o f E n g la n d , th e m oth er country.®^*
^
C u r t i, o p . c i t * , p . 2 S .
B a ld w in , o p . c i t . , C h a p ters V I, V I I , V I I I , a s
q u o ted i n Abrams, l o c * c i t . , p . 4 .
John W esley , W orks, V o l. V I, p p . 3 0 0 -3 B 1 , a s
q u oted in Abrams, o p . c i t . , p . 5*
R e a c tio n t o th e War o f 1813 betw een E n glan d and
A m erica was more p ro n o m o e d in term s o f p e a c e e x p r e s s io n s *
A lth o u g h th e C hurches w ere n o t a s a r t i c u l a t e and p red om inan t
a s m ig h t he hoped* y e t during; t h e tu r b u le n t y e a r s o f and im­
m e d ia t e ly a f t e r t h i s c o n f l i c t *
th e in c e p t io n and r i s e o f
p eace s o c ie t ie s i s d e fin ite *
In Few England* w here o p p o s it io n t o th e War o f 1813
(Mr. M adison1s war) w as w id e s p r e a d , l e a d e r s o f th e Church
condemned i t a s immoral and u t t e r l y u n n e c e s s a r y .
A serm on
o f th e R everend Brown Em erson i l l u s t r a t e s t h e F e d e r a l i s t
c l e r g y 1s d e n u n c ia t io n o f w a r.
rfNo c o u n tr y ou ght e v e r t o
wage war u n t i l e v e r y o th e r m eans f o r o b t a in in g J u s t i c e and
83
p r e s e r v in g p e a c e had b een e x h a u s te d * ,f
The o p p o s it io n t o t h e War o f 1813 e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f
i n a n ti- w a r o r g a n iz a t io n s a s th e W a s h in g to n B e n e v o le n t
S o c i e t y ” and th e ”Fr le n d s o f P e a c e .”
P re d o m in a n tly , t h i s
o p p o s it io n was b a sed upon p o l i t i c a l and econom ic c o n s id e r a ­
t i o n s , s o t h a t th e two main r e s u l t s a r e econom ic and p o l i t ­
i c a l in c h a r a c t e r .
They a r e : (1 ) th e A nglo-A m erican A gree­
ment o f 18:1? l i m i t i n g arm am ents, and (3 ) th e in c e p t io n and
83
r is e o f peace s o c i e t i e s .
T h is ex tra -C h u rc h p ea ce movement was im p o r ta n t, f o r
83
C u r t l, o p . c i t . « p . 3 1 .
8 5 I b i A - » PP- 3 2 - 3 5 .
56
i t s e r v e d t o c r y s t a l l i z e th e t h in k in g o f t h e Church upon
th e q u e s t io n o f war in r e l a t i o n to s o c i e t y .
I t f o r c e d th e
i s s u e o f th e c o m p a t a b ilit y o f n a t io n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l
armed en m ity to th e t e a c h in g s o f th e N azarene which t h e
Church h e ld to and p r e a c h e d .
I t a l s o p e r m it te d t h e l a y
p er so n to en g a g e i n p e a c e a c t i v i t i e s w h ose sy m p a th ies may
o r may n o t b e in harmony w it h t h e C h u rch es’ p r a c t i c e .
At
any r a t e , th e y e a r 1815 i s memorable in th e r e c o r d s o f man’ s
a tte m p t to s t o p w a r fa r e and command p e a c e f u l means o f s e t ­
t l i n g d is p u t e s b etw een n a t io n s and g o v er n m en ts.
C u r ti show s
c le a r ly th a t:
P o l i t i c a l and econom ic c o n s id e r a t i o n s were n ot th e
c h i e f i n s p i r a t i o n s o f th e men who fou n d ed the f i r s t
p e a c e s o c i e t i e s in 1 8 1 5 . For a lm o st SO y e a r s a num­
b e r o f clerg y m en such a s H enry War, Sam uel F is h , John
Ogden, W illia m E . C hanning, r e p r e s e n t in g d i f f e r e n t
d e n o m in a tio n s , had b een p u b lis h in g serm ons o r t r a c t s
d en o u n cin g war on C h r is t ia n g ro u n d s. In 1808 a w e l l t o -d o New York m erch an t, D avid L . D odge, p r in t e d
The M e d ia to r ’ s Kingdom N ot o f T h is W orld , w hich was
f o llo w e d th e n e x t y e a r by a n o th e r a n ti- w a r t r a c t ,
Remarks on th e Pam phlet E n t i t l e d : The Duty o f a
C h r i s t i a n . The Quakers, renew ed t h e i r e n e r g y ancT
p r in t e d and c i r c u l a t e d such a n ti- w a r t r a c t s a s M o tt’ s
The L a w fu ln e s s o f War' and W e lls ’ E s s a y on War. In
1 8 1 4 , 5 ,0 0 0 c o p ie s o f B e n e z e t’ s t r a c t on war w ere
p u b lis h e d by t h e P h ila d e lp h ia .F r ie n d s . And Tim othy
W a ttro u s, a v ig o r o u s member o f t h e R o g e r e n e s, a n o n r e s i s t a n t s e c t in C o n n e c tic u t, s a t i r i z e d war and
c o g e n t ly arg u ed f o r p e a c e i n h i s B a t t l e A x e . 84
The R everend Noah W o rch esta r, a l i b e r a l C o n g r e g a tio n a l i s t , and W illia m E l l e r y C hanning, a n o t a b le U n ita r ia n
84
Ibid., p. 35
5?
c l e r i c , o r g a n iz e d th e M a s s a c h u s e tts P ea ce S o c i e t y i n 1 8 1 5 .35
P a t r io t is m , t h a t m a g ic word w ith a m yriad o f m ea n in g s,
s e r v e d th e c a u s e s o f th e C i v i l War w e l l among th e C h u rch es.
By t h i s tim e , d e n o m in a tio n a l ism was pronounced and ea c h
v o ic e d i t s o p in io n r e l a t i v e t o t h i s fo u r -y e a r c o n f l i c t on
A m erican s o i l .
A g a in , th e r e a d in g d e p ic t s th e C hurches
t a k in g th e s ta n d in su p p o r t o f w ar.
O nly th e P r o t e s t a n t
E p is c o p a l and Old S c h o o l P r e s b y t e r ia n C hurches r a i s e d t h e i r
o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e p a s s a g e o f p a t r i o t i c r e s o l u t i o n s , and
86
t h e s e p r o t e s t s r e p r e s e n te d a m in o r it y i n ea c h C hurch.
The S o c i e t y o f F r ie n d s o r Quakers s t u r d i l y ad h ered to
t h e i r b e l i e f in p e a c e p r i n c i p l e s .
S e v e n te e n th ou san d o u t o f
2 0 ,0 0 0 m em bership in. th e F r ie n d s Church r e f u s e d t o p a r t i c 1 p a te in t h e C i v i l War.
R7
D urin g t h e A m erican C i v i l War no c o n s id e r a t io n was
g iv e n t o t h o s e who o b j e c t e d t o war on r e l i g i o u s g r o u n d s.
H u x ley s a y s :
A f t e r b e in g c r u e l l y t o r t u r e d , S e th L o f l i n , a Quaker,
w as o f f e r e d a g u n . I n s p i t e o f t h r e a t s and a b u s e , he
r e fu s e d t o ta k e i t ; whereupon h e was c o u r t - m a r t ia l le d
and condemned to b e s h o t o u t o f hand. In th e p r e s e n c e
o f th e f i r i n g squad l o f l i n , who was a b s o l u t e l y ca lm ,
a sk ed tim e f o r p ra y er s a y ih g , " F a th e r, f o r g i v e them ,
f o r t h e y know n o t what th e y d o ." The s o l d i e r s w ere so
85 I b i d . , p . 3 8 .
O g
S w e e t, o p . c i t . , p . 4 4 9 , a s q u o ted i n Abrams,
lo c . c i t . , p. 5.
Curti, op. cit., p. 61.
58
much im p r essed t h a t t h e y lo w e r e d t h e i r guns and
b r a c in g t h e p e n a lt y f o r d is o b e d ie n c e , r e fu s e d t o
s h o o t on su ch a man,8 $
The r e c o r d s a r e f u l l o f p e r s e c u t io n s o f c o n s c ie n t i o u s
o b j e c t o r s d u r in g t h e C i v i l War and some o f them h a r s h and
in s id io u s .
As one h i s t o r i a n r e c o u n t s :
^Kenry S w i f t , o f
S o u th Bedham, M a s s a c h u s e tts , w as h a r a s s e d , 'b ucked down,*
89
and made t o w it n e s s an ex e cu tio n .* *
The l o t o f-S o u th e r n F r ie n d s was w o r s e .
known to be a n t i s l a v e r y in s e n tim e n t.
A l l w ere
Many s u f f e r e d g r e a t
a n g u is h and d ie d a s a r e s u l t o f b r u t a l t r e a t m e n t .9^
F i n a l l y , d e s p i t e c o n s id e r a b le o b j e c t i o n , r e l i g i o u s
o b j e c t o r s w ere c l a s s e d a s n on com b atan ts and d r a f te d t o n o n com batant work when th e y w ere c o n s c r ip t e d .
I f one w ere a
p e r s o n o f w e a lt h , he c o u ld p a y $300 i n l i e u o f s e r v i c e .
The M e th o d is ts su p p o rted t h e c o n f l i c t w h o lly and
c o m p le te ly a s th e f o llo w in g l e t t e r w r i t t e n b y Abraham
L in c o ln a t t e s t s :
H ob ly s u s t a in e d a s t h e Government h a s b een by a l l
t h e C h u rch es, I w ould u t t e r n o t h in g which m ight in
th e l e a s t ap pear in v id io u s a g a in s t a n y . Y et w ith o u t
t h i s , i t may f a i r l y b e s a id t h a t t h e M e th o d ist E p is ­
c o p a l C hurch, n o t l e s s d e v o te d th an t h e r e s t , i s by
i t s g r e a t e r numbers t h e m ost im p o r ta n t o f a l l .
It
i s n o f a u l t in o t h e r s t h a t th e M e th o d ist E p is c o p a l
Rfi
"
Huxley, op. cit., p. 65.
Curti, op. cit.> p. 63.
90 Loc. c i t .
Church s e n t m ore s o l d i e r s In th e f i e l d , more n u r s e s
to th e h o s p i t a l s , and m ore p r a y e r s t o h ea v en th a n
t h e y . God b l e s s t h e M e th o d ist C h u rch es’. And b l e s s e d
be God, who in t h i s t r i a l g iv e t h u s th e c h u r c h e s . 91
In t h e C o n fe d e r a c y , m ost o f t h e C hurches su p p o rted
th e S o u th .
The P r e s b y t e r ia n s , i n s e s s i o n in 186a, w ere
c o n v in c e d th a t **this s t r u g g l e i s n o t a lo n e f o r c i v i l r i g h t s ,
and p r o p e r ty and home, b u t l o r r e l i g i o n , f o r t h e Church,
f o r th e G o sp e l.
T h is v ie w p o in t i s s im ila r t o t h a t h e ld b y t h e
A m erican P ea ce S o c i e t y .
T h is body d e s c r ib e d e a r l i e r in
t h i s s t u d y , m et in t h e Park S t r e e t Church, B o s to n , on May
BY, 1 8 6 1 .
The m essa g e from i t s p r e s id e n t d e c la r e d :
T h is war w as a w ar t o end m ar. When s l a v e r y i s
gon e from t h e w h o le w o r ld , t h e w h o le w o rld w i l l th e n
be f r e e d , n o t o n ly from a s o u r c e o f w ar, b u t from th e
m ost c r u e l and h o r r id form s o f w ar. For s l a v e r y i s
war a s w e l l a s th e s o u r c e o f w a r . 93
I t may b e remembered t h a t Thomas P a in e o n ce s a i d t h a t
th e R e v o lu ti© n a r y War w as fo u g h t in o r d e r t o en d w a r, and
J u s t i f i e d th e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l men on t h a t g ro u n d .
H ere
a g a in , s e n tim e n t i s d e v e lo p e d b y t h e u s e o f t h e same thou ght
91
J . G. N ic o la y and John Hay, Abraham L in c o ln , A
H i s t o r y , Y o l. ¥ 1 , p . 3B 4, a s q u o ted i n Abrams, o p . c i t . . p .
6•
M cPherson, e d i t o r , The P o l i t i c a l H is t o r y o f th e
U n ite d S t a t e s o f A m erica d u r in g th e G reat R e b e l l i o n , Appen­
d ix , nThe Church and th e R e b e ll io n , n p p . 4 6 1 ^ 5 5 4 , a s q u oted
in Abrams, o p . c i t . , p . 6 .
93
Curti, op. cit., p. 54.
w ith p r a c t i c a l l y t h e i d e n t i c a l w ords b e in g em p loyed .
From a Hew York clergym an o f th e A l l S o u ls Church
and reputed c l o s e a d v is e r t o Abraham L in c o ln , t h e r e i s
h e a r d , f o r a n o th e r tim e , th e id e a t h a t th e C i v i l War i s a
c o n t e s t t o s a v e th e w o rld from d e s t r u c t i o n and a n n i h i l a t i o n .
On Jan u ary 4* 1 8 6 1 , h e s a id :
f*The H orth w i l l go t o w ar, i f
n e c e s s a r y , t o s a v e o r d e r and c i v i l i s a t i o n . * *
94
The S o u th e rn B a p t is t C o n v en tio n i n 1 8 6 1 , su p p o rted
t h e C o n fed era cy b y d e c la r in g t h a t e v e r y p r i n c i p l e o f r e l i g i o n
95
and p a t r i o t i s m c a l l e d upon them to r e s i s t in v a s io n .
The e f f o r t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s , clerg y m en and o t h e r s o f
a p ro -w a r n a t u r e , amounted to no s m a ll amount and o n ly h e lp e d
t o f a n th e f la m e s o f d is c o r d and a n ta g o n ism .
R. L. S ta n to n , p r o f e s s o r i n th e T h e o lo g ic a l S em in ary
o f t h e P r e s b y t e r ia n Church, D a n v i l l e , K entucky, g u a r a n te e d
th a t:
Cod i s in th e c o n t e s t . H is s t r o n g r i g h t aim w i l l
g i v e them (th e n o r th e r n tr o o p s) v i c t o r y . God w orks
th ro u g h a l l p o l i c i e s o f men, a l l e v e n t s , and r e a c h e s
H is en d s i n f a l l i b l y and g l o r i o u s l y . T h ose who r e f u s e
t o su p p o rt t h e war a r e a b h orred b o th in e a r t h and
h e a v e n .9 &
A P r e s b y t e r ia n m in is t e r o f B r o o k ly n , R everend Henry
94
Rudd and C a r le to n , F i r s t Day Serm ons, p p . 1 3 9 -5 2 ,
a s q u o ted in Abrams, o p . c i t . , p . 7 .
QCy
M cPherson, o p . c i t . , p . 5 1 4 , a s q u o ted i n Abrams,
op. c i t . , p . 7 .
R. L . S ta n to n , The Church and th e . R e b e ll io n , p p .
5 5 9 , 5 6 1 , 5 6 9 , a s q u oted i n Abrams, op . c i t . , p . 7 .
61
J . Tan Dyke., b e l i e v e d t h a t s l a v e r y w as p e r m itte d b y D iv in e
Law a s a v i t a l and n e c e s s a r y p r o c e s s in i t s t r a n s i t i o n from
h e a th e n ism t o C h r i s t i a n i t y .
He p ro cla im ed from h i s p u l p i t
t h a t th e A b o l i t i o n i s t who t e a c h e s t h a t s l a v e r y i s s i n , th e r e b y
"blasphem es th e name o f God and H is d o c t r in e ."
97 Dyke was s e v e r a l tim e s t h r e a te n e d by m obs.
D o cto r Tan
B ish op Mathew Sim pson o f t h e M e th o d ist E p is c o p a l
Church, a c l o s e f r i e n d o f L in c o ln , to u r e d th e F o r th d u rin g
th e War d e l i v e r i n g a p a t r i o t i c l e c t u r e e n t i t l e d , "Our Coun98
t r y ."
T h is propaganda p roved h ig h l y e f f e c t i v e in h e lp in g
t o b i f u r c a t e t h e d e s t i n i e s o f t h e N orth and S o u th .
A fte r th e C i v i l War some s t r i k i n g and r a d i c a l ch a n g es
to o k p la c e w h ich a l t e r e d th e co m p lex io n o f .th e p e a c e f r o n t .
B ecau se th e A m erican P ea ce S o c i e t y , fou n d ed in 1 8 1 5 , was so
com prom ising in i t s con d u ct and r e a c t i o n t o t h e War, th e
b e l l i g e r e n t group b o lt e d from th e ra n k s o f th e o r g a n iz a t io n
and form ed th e U n iv e r s a l P ea ce U nion i n 1 8 6 6 .
By 1878 t h i s
new body c a r r y in g th e p e a c e b an n ers c la im e d f i f t e e n b ra n ch es
and 1 0 ,0 0 0 a d h e r e n t s . ^
Q7
*
Rudd and C a r le to n , o p . c i t . , p . 5 6 1 , a s q u o ted
i n Abrams, o p . c i t . , p , 7•
98
If. W. S w e et, The M e th o d ist E p is c o p a l Church in
th e C i v i l War, p p . 1 5 4 - 5 9 , a s q u o ted in Abrams , o p . c i t . ,
p. 7.
99
Curti, op. cit., p. 77.
62
A se co n d avowed p e a c e group was t h a t c a l l e d The
P e n n s y lv a n ia S o c i e t y .
T h is w as a C h r is t ia n body p r im a r ily
and a l s o had i t s in c e p t io n in 1 8 6 6 .
In 1877 th e P e a c e A s s o c ia t i o n o f F r ie n d s was o rg a n ­
iz e d .
The a p p a ren t n e e d f e l t
f o r p e a c e e f f o r t s d u r in g t h i s
p e r io d i s m u te ly a t t e s t e d b y t h e f a c t th a t t h i s A s s o c ia t io n
p r in t e d and d i s t r i b u t e d o n e and o n e - h a l f m i l l i o n p a g e s o f
lite r a tu r e .
C e r t a in ly , i f t h i s can b e any in d i c a t io n o f th e
s t a t e o f mind o f th e p e o p le o f th e p o s t - C i v i l War p e r io d ,
th e demand f o r p e a c e t o s a t i s f y th e m inds o f men m ust have
b een i n s a t i a b l e .
K ansas and Montana r e c e iv e d t h e im m ig r a tio n o f R u s s ia n German M eim on ites and H u t t e r i t e s in 1 8 7 7 .
T h ese s t a t e s , a s
w e l l a s t h e U n ite d S t a t e s u nd er G en era l G ra n t, e x c u s e d mem­
b e r s o f t h e s e s e c t s from co m p u lso ry m i l i t a r y se rv ice.* * * ^
W ith th e coming o f t h e S p a n ish -A m erlea n War in 1 8 9 8 ,
t h e r e was a marked d i f f e r e n c e o f o p in io n in r e l i g i o u s c i r c l e s
o v e r th e c o n f l i c t .
U n lik e t h e p a s t , th e Church was n o t , f o r
th e m ost p a r t , f r e n z i l y d e c l a r in g and b l e s s i n g th e o p p o rtu ­
n i t y f o r k i l l i n g f e l l o w human b e i n g s .
Wow, t h e r e can be
h ea rd more d i s s e n t i n g o p in io n s e x p r e s s e d , more d is a p p r o b a t io n
on th e p a r t o f l e a d e r s and o f f i c i a l Church b o d ie s .
For th e
f i r s t tim e i n h i s t o r y th e r e can be f e l t th e h o t b l a s t o f
100
Ibid., p. 82.
63
c o n c e r te d and d ir e c t e d p r e s s u r e b e in g e x e r t e d b y th e C hurches
and l a y o r g a n iz a t io n s i n th e i n t e r e s t o f a b a tin g and d im in ­
is h in g th e t h e o r y and p r a c t ic e o f w a r fa r e among men.
The
in c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e Church’ s p o s i t i o n w it h r e g a r d to w ar,
a s shown by p a s t e x p e r ie n c e s and r e c o r d s , now b egan t o im­
p r e s s i t s e l f upon th e Church’ s c o r p o r a te c o n s c ie n c e and
cau se i t
to a c t con s t r u c t i v e l y i n r e s p o n s e t o i t s im p u ls e s .
Thus, s l i g h t b u t i n s i d i o u s ru m b lin g s r e n o u n c in g war began to
be h ea rd from t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o u n c i l s r e p r e s e n t in g th e
C h u rch es.
D uring th e p e r io d from 1860 t o 1 8 9 0 , th e s e n tim e n t in
v o g u e was th e p r e p a r a tio n f o r w ar.
The r i s e and b e l i e f o f
governm en ts in th e th e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f n a t io n a lis m was
t a k in g r o o t .
The P u l i t z e r and H e a r st n ew sp a p ers com peted a t
w h it e - h o t p i t c h in f i l l i n g t h e com m unication ch a n n e ls w ith
p rop agan d a, f a l s e new s and nj in g o i s m ,” a l l to the d e tr im e n t
o f sane and l o g i c a l t h in k in g and r e a s o n .
Yet in s p i t e o f a l l
t h e f o r e g o in g , le a d e r s h ip in th e p e a c e s o c i e t i e s was e n la r g in g
and s t r e n g t h e n in g i t s e l f in w id er and more f o r t u i t o u s p ro p o r­
tio n s ,
The C hurch, on t h e o t h e r h and , a s a s o l i d b l o c , was
n o t a d v a n cin g w ith such r a p i d i t y .
In d e e d , w h ile t h e r e seem ed
t o h ave b een more o f a d i v i s i o n o f o p in io n among th e C hurches
o v er th e war w it h S p a in , y e t la r g e num bers o f t h e le a d e r s in
p u l p i t s j o in e d in p r o c la im in g th e o ld s lo g a n s ,
C u r ti s a y s :
The Church, t o o , was a p o t e n t i a l r a t h e r th an an
a c t u a l a l l y . Aware o f th e p a c i f i s t im p lic a t io n s in
64
C h r i s t rs te a c h in g * p eacem ak ers found i t h a rd to b e
t o l e r a n t o f th e p a r t i a l p h ilo s o p h y o f what a p p ea red
t o be h e ld by th e g r e a t m a j o r it y o f th e c le r g y *
In
1866 and a g a in in 1869 r e p r e s e n t a t iv e a s s e m b lie s o f
th e m i n i s t e r s o f M a s s a c h u s e tts r e fu s e d th e r e q u e s t
o f th e A m erican P ea ce S o c i e t y f o r a p ra y er a g a in s t
w ar; on t h e l a t t e r o c c a s io n t h e p r e s id i n g o f f i c e r
w it h nsc a n d a lo u s i n d i g n i t y ” v in d ic a t e d t h e h on or and
u s e f u l n e s s o f an a p p e a l to th e sword* F r a n c is A.
W alker r e p o r te d in 1869 t h a t n o t on e o f a hundred
p r e a c h e r s o f v a r io u s d en o m in a tio n s whom h e had r e ­
c e n t l y h ea rd had d e v o te d so much a s a s e n t e n c e t o
th e C h r is t ia n id e a o f p ea ce o r made a s i n g l e a p p e a l
f o r n a t i o n a l good w i l l toward th e c o u n tr y w ith w hich
our r e l a t i o n s w ere so s o r e l y s t r a in e d ; on th e o t h e r
hand, h e had l i s t e n e d t o any number o f p a s s i o n a t e
h a ra n g u es a g a in s t E n g la n d . A y ea r l a t e r th e
C h r is t ia n A d v o c a te , a M e th o d ist o rg a n , d e c la r e d
t h a t war was o f t e n a r e g e n e r a to r o f man in h i s m oral
and c i v i l l i f e and an in str u m e n t o f j u s t i c e and
freed o m . 101
C o n tin u in g in l i k e m anner, W illia m H. D a v is , p a s t o r
o f t h e Church o f t h e Redeemer in Ger man tow n, p rea ch ed th a t
th e h i s t o r y o f S p ain was one f,i n w hich t h e C o u n c ils o f th e
D e v il had o b t a in e d .”
He c o n t in u e s :
More r ig h t e o u s i s t h i s war th an t h e war f o r in d e ­
p en d en ce and t h e C i v i l War . ♦ . b e ca u se in t h i s war
we a r e f i g h t i n g f o r t h e freed o m o f t h o s e who a r e
bound t o u s b y no o t h e r t i e s th a n th o s e o f common
h u m a n ity , God b l e s s ou r s o l d i e r s t God b l e s s ou r
sailors1^02
E r n e st Howard C rosby r e l a t e s h i s e x p e r ie n c e , w hich
e x p r e s s e s th e a t t i t u d e o f P r o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r s and l e a d e r s :
I f you a d d r e s s a m is c e lla n e o u s a u d ie n c e a t th e
Cooper I n s t i t u t e in New Y o rk --a n a u d ie n c e o f some
f i f t e e n h u n d red , com posed n e i t h e r o f b la c k g u a r d s
n o r g e n tle m e n —-and t e l l them a s I h ave t h a t war i s
101 H i d , * p . 1 1 0 .
102 <i»he P r e s b y t e r ia n , N o. 2 7 , 6 8 : 8 - 1 0 , June 2 9 , 1 8 9 8 ,
a s q u oted in Abrams, p p . c i t . , p . 8*
65
a r e l i c o f b a rb a rism w hich h a s no b u s in e s s t o show
i t s e l f a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e t w e n t ie t h ce n tu ry ,
t h e y w i l l c h e e r you to th e e c h o , and s c a r c e ly a man
w i l l b e foun d t o make a p r o t e s t .
I h ave a l s o sp oken
t o a u d ie n c e s o f w e ll- e d u c a t e d C h r is t ia n s and I h ave
fou n d them c o l d . Only once w ere my h e a r e r s unanim ous
a g a in s t me w ith o u t e x c e p t i o n , and t h a t w as when I was
i n v i t e d t o a d d r e ss a m e e tin g o f P r o t e s t a n t s . 10 3 ,
H ow ever, i t would be m is le a d in g and u n t r u t h f u l t o
im p ly t h a t t h e s e in s t a n c e s r e f l e c t e d th e p a r t i c u l a r p o s i ­
t i o n o f th e Church and a l l o f i t s le a d e r s *
R a th er i t may more
a c c u r a t e ly be s a id t h a t th e a t t i t u d e o f c o n d e s c e n s io n to. th e
war s p i r i t was s t i l l th e g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e .
I t sh o u ld be
la b o r e d th a t some p r e a c h e r s w ere a d v o c a te s o f p eace*
Some p r e a c h e r s w ere a d v o c a te s o f p e a c e . Henry Ward
B e e c h e r , B ish o p W hipple, o f t h e E p is c o p a l C hurch;
B ish o p Matthew Sim pson, o f th e M e th o d ist Church to o k
h i s s ta n d in 1884 f o r a r b i t r a t i o n a s a humane and
C h r is t ia n s u b s t i t u t e f o r war; Edward E v e r e t t H ale
came o u t in 1874 f o r a perm anent a r b i t r a t i o n t r i b u ­
n a l ; W ashington G ladden, and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t
J o s la b S tr o n g , p u t t h e i r h e a r t s i n t o t h e c a u s e .1 0 4
From su ch s t a lw a r t le a d e r s h ip i t i s n o t to be won­
d e r e d a t t h a t t h e C hurches b eg a n t o throw t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e
w e ig h t a g a in s t t h e , b y now, lo n g e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n o f
w ar, b y o f f i c i a l p ro n o u n cem en ts.
Thus i t i s th a t t h e con­
d em nation o f war a s a means o f t h e s e tt le m e n t o f d is p u t e s
became c r y s t a l l i z e d a s an a t t i t u d e in t h r e e s e p a r a te Church
c o u n c ils .
105
104
A lle n , o p . p i t . , p . 3 9 .
Curti, op. cit., p. Ill
66
I n 1884 th e G e n e ra l C o n v en tio n o f t h e E p is c o p a l
Church, revam ped some o f th e r e s p o n s e s in th e p ra y er
h o o k . I n 1881 t h e g e n e r a l c o n fe r e n c e o f th e M e th o d ist
Church a d o p te d a r e s o l u t i o n s u p p o r tin g th e p r i n c i p l e
o f a r b i t r a t i o n a s a s u b s t i t u t e f o r w ar. In 188? th e
P r e s b y t e r ia n G en era l A ssem b ly s e t up a co m m ittee t o
ta k e su c h a c t i o n a s m ight seem d e s i r a b l e f o r p ea ce
a f t e r d e c l a r in g th e m s e lv e s f o r i t .1 0 5
A noth er g e s t u r e , magnanimous i n i t s e x t e n t and i n f l u ­
e n c e , w as th e work o f B everen d W. -A. C am pbell o f Richmond,
V i r g i n i a , who in 18 9 8 w as l a r g e l y in s t r u m e n t a l i n o b t a in in g
from a l l d e n o m in a tio n s , m em orials to t h e r u l e r s o f t h e w o rld
i n f a v o r o f in t e r n a t i o n a l a r b i t r a t i o n .
T h is was co m p leted
i n 1 8 9 8 , when i t was e s tim a t e d t h a t t h e f i n i s h e d document
c o n ta in e d 1 6 8 s ig n a t u r e s on b e h a lf o f 119 e c c l e s i a s t i c a l
b o d ie s , w hose mem bership numbered o v e r t w e n t y - f i v e m i l l i o n s . 106
An i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e tr e n d o f t h in k in g among i n d i v i d ­
u a l m i n i s t e r s can b e s e e n in th e r e p o r t t h a t in 1895 th e
A m erican P ea ce S o c i e t y e s tim a t e d th a t 5 ,0 0 0 p r e a c h e r s r e ­
sponded to t h e r e q u e s t t o p rea ch an a n tiw a r serm on on "Peace
S u n d ay." 107
P r o t e s t a n t s w ere n o t a lo n e in t h e i r in c r e a s e d w id e ­
sp rea d sy m p a th ie s tow ard t h e ca u se o f p e a c e .
In 189 4 Pope
Leo X I I I e x p r e s s e d t h e v ie w p o in t o f th e C a t h o lic f a i t h in
h i s E n c y c lic a l P r a e c la r a .
105 C u r t i, l o c . c i t .
106 I b i d . , p . 1 1 2 .
10? L o c . c i t .
He s a y s :
67
We b e h o ld th e c o n d it io n o f E u ro p e. For many y e a r s
p a s t , p e a c e h a s b een r a th e r a n , ap pearan ce th an a r e a l ­
ity .
P o s s e s s e d w ith m u tu a l s u s p ic io n s a lm o st a l l
n a t io n s a r e T y in g w ith one a n o th e r in e q u ip p in g them­
s e l v e s w it h m i l i t a r y arm am ents.
. . . T h is armed
p e a c e w hich now p r e v a i l s ca n n o t l a s t much lo n g e r .
Can t h i s be t h e norm al c o n d it io n o f human s o c i e t y ?
Y e t, we ca n n o t e s c a p e from t h i s s i t u a t i o n and o b ta in
tr u e p e a c e e x c e p t by th e a i d o f J e s u s C h r i s t . 108
T h is pronouncem ent w as ta k e n up b y th e C a t h o lic
C hurches in A m erica and r e e m p h a siz e d .
The p o p u la r i t y and sp rea d o f th e in c r e a s in g a n t i ­
war s e n tim e n t d id n o t l i m i t i t s e l f t o t h e P r o t e s t a n t
and C a t h o lic f a i t h s o n l y . Some o f th e s o - c a l l e d
" f r e e th o u g h t” o r u n o rth o d o x r e l i g i o u s grou p s em­
b r a c e d th e p e a c e i d e a l a s f e r v e n t l y a s a n y . They,
t o o , e n u n c ia te d p e a c e com m itm ents. The T h e o s o p h ie s !
S o c i e t y , fou n d ed in Hew York i n 1875 by Madame H elen a
B la v a ts k y , p la y e d up t h e m y s t i c a l im p lic a t io n s o f the.
id e a o f human f r a t e r n i t y .
The S p i r i t u a l i s t s in
B a ltim o r e , O h io, ad o p ted th e c r e e d o f the; U n iv e r s a l
P e a c e U n ion . The T o ls t o y Club and th e S a lv a t io n Army
J o in e d in th e p ron oun cem ents f o r p e a c e .109
V I.
EARLY TWEMTIETH GEHTURY CHURCH ATTITUDES, 1 9 0 0 -1 9 1 8
There h a s n e v e r b een a tim e i n th e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f
C h r i s t i a n i t y when t h e r e h a s n o t b een a t l e a s t some s m a ll group
o p p o sin g war and a s s e r t i n g t h e p a c if is m o f t h e C h r is t ia n f a i t h .
But n o t u n t i l th e y e a r s im m e d ia te ly b e f o r e the; World War
(1 9 1 4 -1 9 1 8 ) w ere Church gro u p s o r g a n iz e d t o d e v o te a l l o r
p a r t o f t h e i r e f f o r t to t h e p ro m o tio n o f w o rld p e a c e .
108
F r e d e r ic k J . L ib b y , e d i t o r - i n - c h i e f , P ea ce A c tio n
(Hews B u l l e t i n o f th e n a t i o n a l C o u n c il f o r P r e v e n tio n o f W ar),
H o. 3 , 1 : 6 , J u l y , 1 9 3 4 .
Curti, op. cit., p. 1X2.
68
Of tine d eca d e b e f o r e th e World War, John Dewey s a y s
t h i s a b o u t t h e phenom enal and a lm o st u n b e lie v a b le r a p i d i t y
o f grow th w hich th e p e a c e movement e n jo y e d .
I doubt i f an y propaganda h a s e v e r b een c a r r ie d
on w it h g r e a t e r p e r s i s t e n c e o r w it h g r e a t e r s u c c e s s —
so f a r a s a f f e c t i n g f e e l i n g s w as co n ce rn ed — th a n t h a t
f o r p e a c e d u r in g th e d eca d e p r io r t o 1 9 1 4 . The t im e s
w ere so r i p e t h a t th e movement h a r d ly had t o be
p u sh e d . HQ
The v a r io u s p e a c e o r g a n is a t io n s t h a t w ere w id esp re a d
from 1900 t o 1914 a l l d en ounced war u n a b a te d ly and u n r e s e r v e d ly .
Of t h e t h ir t y - a d d
111
in t h e f i e l d a t th a t tim e ,
a l l w ere w o rk in g tow ard t h e end o f u n i v e r s a l p e a c e .
Few o f
t h e s e o r g a n iz a t io n s o f f i c i a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d th e C hurch.
But
i t i s t r u e t h a t many w ere c l o s e l y a l l i e d to th e Church s i n c e
th e le a d e r s h ip o f many came from th e Church r a n k s.
Many had
t h e i r in c e p t io n drawn d i r e c t l y from r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n .
The o l d e s t among th e f i e l d was th e A m erican P ea ce S o c i e t y ,
r e f e r r e d t o h e r e t o f o r e , w it h i t s a n c e s t r y t r a c e a b le t o 1 8 1 5 .
The World P ea ce F o u n d a tio n was p ro m in en t a s was th e C a rn eg ie
Endowment f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l P eace w h ich l e n t i t s e f f o r t s in
b e h a lf o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n c i l i a t i o n .
In 1 9 0 8
th e
in A m erica w as
set
F e d e r a l C o u n c il o f t h e C hurches o f C h r is t
f o r t h w it h an avowed p u r p o se t o
fu r th e r
110 The New R e p u b lic , N o. 1 4 1 , 1 1 : 2 9 7 , J u ly 1 4 , 1 9 1 7 ,
a s q u o ted in Abrams, o p . c i t .» p . 8 .
I ll
Abrams, op. cit♦» p. 8.
69
th e c a u se o f p e a c e .
I t s e t I t s c o r n e r s to n e upon th e m essa g e
o f J e s u s o f ”p e a c e on e a r t h . ”
As e n u n c ia te d by C h ie f J u s t i c e
B rew er t h e th o u g h t w as:
L et u s c a t c h th e s w e e t e c h o e s o f Bethlehem * a s o n g .
, . . As a g a in s t th e war s p i r i t * I in v o k e th e s p i r i t
o f t h e M a ste r . As a g a in s t th e c a l l f o r b a t t l e s h i p s
I in v o k e th e a c t i o n o f a U n ite d Church, and I am s u r e
t h a t a F e d e r a tio n o f a l l th e C hurches w i l l so o n make
i t p l a i n t h a t a s f o r t h i s n a t io n th e r e must h e n o
lo n g e r war n o r a g e t t i n g r e a d y f o r w a r.1 1 2
As e a r l y a s 1 9 1 1 , an in te r d e n o m in a t io n a l p e a c e com­
m i t t e e was o r g a n iz e d b y th e F e d e r a l C o u n c il o f C hurches o f
C h r is t in A m erica, w hich r e p r e s e n t s t w e n t y - e ig h t P r o t e s t a n t
C h r is t ia n d e n o m in a tio n s .
The p e a c e co m m ittee, w h ich i s now
known a s th e Com m ission on I n t e r n a t i o n a l J u s t i c e and Good­
w i l l o f t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c il, i s ”com m itted t o u n r e m itt in g
a c t i v i t y u n t i l a p e a c e sy ste m t a k e s t h e p l a c e o f c o m p e t it iv e
113
armaments and r e c u r r in g w a r. **
I n 1914 th e Church P ea ce U nion was c r e a t e d by th e mul­
t i m i l l i o n a i r e i n d u s t r i a l i s t Andrew C a rn eg ie w ith an endowment
o f # 3 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .
Mr. C a r n e g ie , a s t u r d y S cotsm an , s a id :
"I
h ave b een f e e l i n g more and more t h a t i t i s t o t h e C hurches
114
we m ust lo o k f o r t h e b r in g in g o f p e a c e .”
113
0 . S . M a c fa r la n d , The C hurches o f C h r is t in
A m erica and I n t e r n a t i o n a l P ea c e (p a m p h le t), a s q u o ted in
Abrams, o p . c i t . , p . 9 .
Boe c k e l , o p . c i t . , p . S I .
F r e d e r ic k L ynch, P e r s o n a l R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f Andrew
C a r n e g ie , p . 1 5 6 , a s q u o ted i n Abrams, op . c i t , . p . 8 1 .
70
The a t t i t u d e o f th e C hurches b e f o r e 19 1 1 h a s b een
115
c h a r a c t e r iz e d a s lukew arm ,
b u t from th e n up to th e v e r y
d ay o f t h e s e n d in g o f t h e u ltim a tu m t o S e r b ia , J u ly 2 3 , 1 9 1 4 ,
th e C hurches snapped i n t o a c t i o n , and a s a b lo c ren ou n ced war
and u p h eld a r b i t r a t i o n in pronouncem ent a f t e r pronouncem ent*
F r e d e r ic k L ynch, S e c r e ta r y , o f th e Church P ea ce U n ion ,
th u s a p p r a is e d t h e f o r c e o f th e m ass movement o f th e C hurches:
L a st y e a r (1 9 1 1 ) e v e r y P r o t e s t a n t Church in th e
U n ite d S t a t e s had so m eth in g t o s a y i n fa v o r o f a r b i­
tr a tio n t r e a t ie s .
The F e d e r a l C o u n c il c r e a t e d a com­
m is s io n on P ea ce and A r b it r a t io n , and c o n n e c te d w it h
a l l i t s th o u sa n d s o f C h u rch es, had l i t e r a l l y th o u sa n d s
o f serm ons p rea c h e d and r e s o l u t i o n s p a s s e d . The P r o t e s t a n t C hurches o f t h i s n a t io n h a v e p u t th e m s e lv e s
on r e c o r d a s f a v o r in g th e u n lim it e d a r b i t r a t i o n o f
i n t e r n e t i o n a l d i s p u t e s . U-6
The moment lo o k e d v e r y p r o p i t i o u s .
I t ap peared a s
thou gh a l l th e p e a c e movements w ere f i n a l l y g o in g t o d r iv e
th e i n s t i t u t i o n o f war o u t o f c i r c u l a t i o n .
But t h e c a t a s ­
tr o p h e o f 1 9 1 4 c l o s e d a b o u t th e w o r ld .
The h i s t o r y o f p a c if is m and in t e r n a t i o n a li s m d u r in g
th e c e n tu r y ended by t h e World War r e s o l v e s i t s e l f i n t o
t h r e e p h a s e s . F i r s t , t h e p h a se down t o 1 8 5 7 , th e p e ­
r io d o f th e f i r s t and p r im a r ily r e l i g i o u s movem ent, th e
p e r io d o f e x p o s i t i o n . S e c o n d ly , th e p h a se from 1 8 6 7 1 8 8 9 , t h e y e a r s o f th e seco n d and d o m in a n tly econom ic
m ovem ent, i n w hich g o v ern m en ta l a c t i o n was se c u r e d in
th e o n e d i r e c t i o n o f a r b i t r a t i o n , and t h e P ea ce Move­
m ent was o r g a n iz e d th ro u g h o u t th e w h o le w o rld ; and
115
Abrams, o p . c i t . , p . 1 0 .
R ep ort o f t h e 1 8 th Annual Lake Mohonk C o n feren ce
in I n t e r n e t i o n a l A r b i t r a t i o n , 1 9 1&, p . 1 9 7 , a s q u o ted in
op* c i t . , p . 10.
71
t h i r d l y , th e q u a r te r - c e n t u r y from. 1889 t a 1 9 1 4 , in
w h ich th e th e o r y o f P ea c e was m ore and more e x p lo r e d
b y G overnm ents, w it h th e P ea c e Movement c o n c e n tr a te d
o n c e more on e x p o s i t i o n and p o p u la r p ro p a g a n d a .1 1 7
The World War c a u se d men a g a in t o a c t a s u n c i v i l i z e d ,
b a r b a r ic i n d i v i d u a l s .
H eads w ere l o s t — b o th l i t e r a l l y and
f i g u r a t i v e l y , em o tio n s w ere u n c o n t r o ll a b le , and f o r th e
m a j o r it y , e v e r y v e s t i g e o f a p e a c e - lo v in g a t t i t u d e crum pled
b e f o r e t h e s e a r in g , d e v a s t a t i n g f i r e o f p rop agand a.
The c o n f l i c t w as a d e f i n i t e sh ock t o th e p r o g r e s s
and i d e a l s o f a l l o r g a n iz e d p e a c e g r o u p s.
A ll o f th e r e so ­
l u t i o n s , t h e i n d i v id u a l and c o r p o r a te a t t i t u d e s o f men and
g r o u p s, w ere t r e a t e d t o p r e s s u r e s th a t t h e y had n e v e r b e f o r e
e x p e r ie n c e d .
The European P ea c e Movement su d d e n ly found
i t s e l f im p o te n t.
I t had t o f i g h t f o r i t s v e r y l i f e , a s i t
was im m e d ia te ly lo o k e d upon w ith s u s p ic io n and co n tem p t.
I t s ra n k s w ere th in n e d by d e s e r t i o n s and b y d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t s
o c c u r r in g w it h in .
I t w as l i t e r a l l y ”sh o t t o p i e c e s ” a lth o u g h
i t s ”h e a r t ” c o n tin u e d to b e a t f e e b l y .
The A m erican P ea c e S o c i e t y l e n t i t s e l f t o t h e d isse m ­
i n a t i o n o f p e a c e propaganda a f t e r th e b e g in n in g o f th e War.
In 1914 i t f o r m a lly denounced th e c o n f l i c t . 1^
But a f t e r
th e U n ite d S t a t e s e n te r e d th e s t r u g g l e , th e S o c i e t y r e v e r s e d
C u r ti, o p . a i t . » p . B75.
118 I b i d . , p . 2 9 0 .
72
i t s p o s i t i o n and s u b s t i t u t e d war propaganda f o r p e a c e p rop a­
ganda.
As a r e s u l t th e B r i t i s h P ea ce S o c i e t y p a r te d com­
p any w ith th e A m erican and f i n a l l y t h e l a t t e r o r g a n iz a t io n
s p l i t w it h in i t s e l f .
C o n s e q u e n tly ,, t h e p a c i f i s t a c t i v i t y i n
1 1Q
A m erica d w in d led t o n o t h in g . ^
M eanw h ile, what o f t h e o r g a n iz e d C hurch*s a d h e ren ce
to t h e C h r is t ia n e t h i c o f p ea ce?
The **call to th e colors**
was an sw ered by r e l i g i o u s a d h e r e n ts a s f o l l o w s :
The C hurches h e ld p a t r i o t i c s e r v i c e s im m e d ia te ly
f o llo w in g s e v e r a n c e o f d ip lo m a t ic r e l a t i o n s b etw een
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s and Germany in o r d e r t o p a s s r e s o ­
l u t i o n s p r o m is in g t o su p p o rt P r e s id e n t W ilso n t o th e
lim it.
. . . The J ew s, C a t h o l i c s , P r o t e s t a n t s , and
v a r io u s I r i s h , German, L u th eran and Mormon s o c i e t i e s
v i e d w it h e a c h o th e r i n t h e i r f lo w e r y r e s o l u t i o n s
o f su pp ort.d SO
The r e c t o r o f S t . P a u l's E p is c o p a l Church announced:
,rThe Church w i l l b e l o y a l , n o t o n ly by word from th e p u l p i t ,
b u t in th e s e n d in g f o r t h o f h er s o n s a s in p a s t d a y s, a
s a c r i f i c e upon t h e a l t a r o f th e n a t i o n , i f o c c a s io n d e ­
m ands. **l a l
P . A. Simple in o f P h i l l i p s C ongregat io n a l Church
p r e a c h e d th a t ,T. . . I t i s an h our in w hich t o u r g e on
y o u th i t s d u t y .f*^aa
119
I b id ., p. 391.
120 Abrams, o p . c i t *, p . 5 1 .
D e s e r e t E v en in g Wews, A p r il 3 , 1 9 1 7 , a s q u o ted in
Abrams, o p . c i t . , p . 5 3 .
Log.
cit.
73
E. J . Magor, of* I l i f f M e th o d ist E p is c o p a l Chur oh , was
a ss u r e d th a t a c a l l t o arms m ig h t h e th e command o f C h r is t .
The B a p t i s t s w ere t o l d by C. B. A lle n t h a t ’’'th ey w ere
f i g h t i n g th e enemy o f th e w o rld . . * and no d ou b t Cod h a s
124
c a l l e d u s to th e th r o n e f o r su ch an h o u r a s t h i s . "
"The M i l i t a n t M other" was a serm on t o p i c w h e re in a
C h r is t ia n p a s t o r , C h e s te r A* S n y d er, rem inded th e m oth ers
o f h i s c o n g r e g a tio n t h a t "one g r e a t s a c r i f i c e was t o s u r ­
ren d er s o n s t o f i g h t f o r h um anity u nd er th e S t a r s and
S tr ip e s ." ^ 2**
The e i g h t y - s e v e n t h Annual C o n feren ce o f L a tte r -D a y
S a i n t s avowed "There i s no more l o y a l p e o p le t o th e g o v er n ­
ment o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s th a n th e Church o f J e s u s C h r is t
o f th e L a tte r -D a y S a in t s ." '1'26
I l l u s t r a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t in g th e su b m iss io n o f Church
and le a d e r s t o t h e c u r r e n t war propaganda o f th e day a r e
w it h o u t num ber.
H ow ever, a s a c lim a x t o o u r c r i t i c a l a n a ly ­
s i s , th e w ords o f R everend Randolph K* McKim em p h a size th e
c u r r e n t th o u g h t o f th e day among th e m a jo r ity o f churchm en.
Pfr&eret E ven in g H ew s. A p r il 2 , 1 9 1 7 , a s q u o ted in
Abrams, l o c . c i t . , p . 5 2 .
124 I b i d . , A p r il 1 6 , 1 9 1 7 , p . 52*
125 I b i d . , May 1 4 , 1 9 1 ? , p . 5 2 .
126 I b i d . . A p r il 9 , 1 9 1 7 , p . 5 2 .
74
The nH o ly WartT theme i s n o t new in t h e a n n a ls o f h is t o r y *
He p r o c la im e d from h i s p u l p i t :
I t i s God who h a s summoned u s t o t h i s war* I t i s
H is war we a r e f i g h t i n g .
. . .
T h is c o n f l i c t i s
in d e e d a c r u s a d e . The g r e a t e s t in h is t o r y - ? -t h e
h o lie s t.
I t i s i n th e p r o fo u n d e s t and t r u e s t s e n se
a H o ly War.
. . . Y e s , i t i s C h r is t , th e K ing o f
R ig h te o u s n e s s , who c a l l s u s t o g r a p p le in d e a d ly
s t r i f e w it h t h i s u n h o ly and b lasphem ous pow er—
Germ any.IS?
The a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t e d in t h e f o r e g o in g i l l u s t r a ­
t i o n s do n o t r e p r e s e n t th e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e o f f i c i a l Church
b o d ie s .
T ru e, t h e o p in io n s e n u n c ia te d from th e p u l p i t w ere
a c o n t r ib u t in g f a c t o r in th e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f p u b lic o p in ­
io n , b u t I t w as t h e a c t i o n of th e F e d e r a l C o u n c il o f th e
C hurches o f C h r is t in Am erica t h a t p u t f o r t h th e sta n d w hich
th e o f f i c i a l o r g a n iz e d r e l i g i o u s g ro u p s took'.
D u rin g th e f o u r y e a r s o f th e c r i s i s , t h e r e seem to
h ave b e e n no d e f i n i t e com m itm ents made b y t h e t r a d i t i o n a l
C hurch.
But a t t h e tim e t h e U n ite d S t a t e s e n te r e d th e War
th e F e d e r a l C o u n c il sp ok e f o r th e t h ir t y - o d d P r o t e s t a n t
d e n o m in a tio n s .
W ith t h e d e c l a r a t io n o f war th e F e d e r a l
C o u n c il, a t on e o f i t s a n n u a l s e s s i o n s i n W a sh in gton , p a s s e d
r e s o l u t i o n s a s s u r in g th e c o u n tr y t h a t th e C hurches o f th e
n a t io n were h e a r t and s o u l in th e c o n f l i c t and w ere g a t h e r in g
128
t h e i r f o r c e s t o g e t h e r a t th e s t a r t ♦
127 R. H. McKim, For God and C o u n try , p p . 1 1 6 - 1 7 , a s
fou n d in Abrams, o p . c i t .» p . 5 5 .
G. S . M a cfa rla n d , P r o g r e s s o f Church F e d e r a t io n ,
p . 5 6 , a s r e a d in Abrams, o p . c i t . , p . 1 4 5 .
75
We ab hor w ar, t h e members d e c la r e d , but s i n c e ,
in s p i t e o f e v e r y e f f o r t , war h a s come, we:.are
g r a t e f u l t h a t t h e e n d s t o w h ich we a re com m itted
a re su ch a s w.e can approve* What now i s t h e m is­
s i o n o f th e Church in t h i s hour o f c r i s i s ? th e y
a sh ed ; and a n sw ered , i t i s t o b r in g a l l t h a t i s
done o r p la n n ed i n th e n a t i o n ’ s name t o t h e t e s t
o f th e mind o f C h r i s t . 129
The s t a te m e n t , " to th e t e s t o f th e mind o f C h r ist"
seem ed t o be am biguous o r a t l e a s t went e n t i r e l y u n c h a l­
le n g e d by th e d e l e g a t e s p r e s e n t .
For i n su b seq u e n t d a y s
and m on th s, n o th in g was done t o t e s t th e a c t s o f th e n a t io n
t o th e mind o f C h r is t .
G eorge C r e e l, and h i s Committee on
N a t io n a l P ropaganda, f u n c t io n e d th ro u g h t h e F e d e r a l Coun­
c i l ’ s o f f i c e s a s w e l l a s th ro u g h th e p u l p i t s o f th e n a t io n .
In ord er t o " save th e w o rld f o r dem ocracy and dem ocracy f o r
th e w o r ld ,"
th e W orld War s lo g a n , th e C hurches p o in t e d th e
f i n g e r o f sc o r n a t t h o s e who, f o r c o n s c ie n t i o u s r e a s o n s ,
co u ld n o t p ersu a d e t h e m s e lv e s t o take; up a gun and d e s t r o y
th e l i f e
o f a f e l l o w human b e in g in E u ro p e.
T h is was h a r d ly
c o n s id e r in g th e "mind o f C h r ist" r e l a t i v e to r e l i g i o u s con ­
d u c t, f o r g e t t i n g f o r th e moment th e co n d u ct o f th e n a t io n .
Among t h e P r o t e s t a n t g ro u p s y e t c l a s s e d as. " i r r e c o n c ila b le s " d u rin g th e W orld War, w ere th e r e l i g i o u s s e c t s
o f F r ie n d s , M e n n o n ite s, Dunkards, and R u s s e l l i t e s , an ob­
sc u r e s e c t w h ich r o s e to prom inence during; t h i s fo u r -y e a r
1S9
C.
S . M a c fa r la n d , The C hurches o f C h r is t in Tim
o f War, p . 1 3 1 , a s q u oted i n Abrams, o p . c i t . , p . 1 4 5 .
76'
p e r io d .
H is t o r y r e l a t e s t h a t t h e s e s e c t s a re t r a d i t i o n a l l y
and fu n d a m e n ta lly op p osed to w ar, and although, th e r e c o u ld
be fou n d s o l d i e r s in t h e army p r o f e s s i n g a d h eren ce to t h e s e
s e c t s , y e t th e s e c t s , a s o r g a n iz e d Church b o d ie s , p r o c la im e d
a g a in s t th e War and s t o o d b ack o f and su p p o rted a l l p e r s o n s
in t h e i r m em bership who o b je c t e d to m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e on r e ­
l i g i o u s g r o u n d s.
The U n ite d S t a t e s Government a llo w e d c o n ­
s c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t o r s o f men b e lo n g in g to th e S o c i e t y o f
F r ie n d s , M e n n o n ite s, Church o f th e B r e th r e n (Dunkards) and
a few o t h e r s h a v in g a l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d r e c o r d a g a in s t w ar,
130
t o ta k e some form o f non com batant s e r v i c e .
0 f th e Quakers t h e f i g u r e s o f one s e c t i o n o f t h i s
group show:
. . . 787 men o f d r a f t a g e , 370 o f whom had e i t h e r
b een d r a f t e d o r v o lu n t e e r e d , 324 o f t h e s e a c c e p te d
com batant s e r v i c e , 41 h ad a c c e p te d n on -com b atan t
s e r v i c e and 5 r e f u s e d any s e r v i c e under m i l i t a r y
d i r e c t i o n . 131
I t i s i r o n i c a l and p u z z lin g t o n o te t h a t ev en a s a
r e s u l t o f e n g a g in g i n th e c o n f l i c t , n on e o f th e men who
s h o u ld e r e d arms w ere ”r e a d o u t o f m e e t in g ,” w hich was sup-^
i
p o se d t o have b een done a c c o r d in g t o good Quaker custom .
13G
Abrams, p p . c i t . , p . 1 8 6 .
L e ig h H unt, Q uakers i n A c t i o n , p . 1 6 , a s q u oted
from Abrams, o p . c i t * , p* 1 8 7 .
132 T
Xj O C t
CX u »
7?
The M ennonite s e c t f u r n is h e d th e l a r g e s t number o f
c o n s c ie n t i o u s o b j e c t o r s o f th e War.
The s e c t a s a w h o le
was p e r s e c u t e d by t a r and f e a t h e r in g and b y h a v in g some o f
i t s church b u i l d i n g s p a in t e d y e l lo w .
Yet i t w as s t a t e d by
C om m ission V II o f th e A l l F r ie n d s C o n fer en ce t h a t " th ey
[ t h e M e n n o n ite s] h e ld more u n ifo r m ly t o t h e p e a c e te s tim o n y
133
and s u f f e r e d more f o r i t th a n d id th e S o c i e t y o f F rie n d s* "
The Church of: th e B reth ren (Dunkard) d e p lo r e d th e War
in i t s o f f i c i a l pronouncem ent and a s a group rem ained s t e a d s
f a s t t o t h e a n c ie n t te s t im o n y a g a in s t t h e u s e o f c a r n a l
w eap on s.
H ow ever, some a d h e r e n ts o f t h e s e c t w ent t o w ar,
and some
m i n i s t e r s a d v is e d t h e i r c o n g r e g a t io n s t o buy L ib e r t y
B on d s.
I t a p p e a r s t h a t c o m p le te u n a n im ity o f a c t io n i s a l ­
m ost a fig m e n t o f t h e im a g in a tio n e v e n among t h e o l d e s t and
m ost avowed p e a c e g r o u p s .
The s e c t o f R u s s e l l i t e s o r th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l B ib le
S tu d e n ts* A s s o c ia t i o n com p rised th e t h ir d l a r g e s t number o f
t h e c o n s c ie n t i o u s o b j e c t o r s in t h e U n ite d S t a t e s .
I t s p o s i­
t i o n can b e r e a d i l y s e e n in an e x c e r p t ta k e n from one o f i t s
p u b l i c a t i o n s w hich b ro u g h t upon i t th e a r r e s t o f e i g h t o f
i t s l e a d e r s on th e c h a r g e o f th e v i o l a t i o n o f th e E sp io n a g e
A ct o f June 1 5 , 1 9 1 7 .
The p a s s a g e i s :
Mowhere in th e Mew T estam ent i s . p a t r i o t i s m (a n a r­
ro w ly minded h a tr e d o f o th e r p e o p le s ) e n co u ra g e d .
153
M. B . H i r s t , The Quakers in P ea ce and War, p . 5 1 9 ,
a s q u oted in Abrams, p p . c i t . , p . 1 8 8 .
Everywhere- and a lw a y s murder in i t s e v e r y form i s
fo r b id d e n . And y e t , u nd er th e g u is e o f p a t r io t i s m
c i v i l governm en ts o f t h e e a r t h demand o f p e a c e - l o v in g
men th e s a c r i f i c e o f th e m s e lv e s and t h e i r lo v e d o n e s
and th e b u tc h e r y o f t h e i r f e l l o w s , and h a i l i t a s a
d u ty demanded by t h e la w s o f h e a v e n .134
T here w e r e , in a d d it io n , s e v e r a l s m a lle r g r o u p s , s e c t s
and c u l t s t h a t o b je c t e d to war on r e l i g i o u s g r o u n d s.
them w ere th e M olokan s, A d v e n t is t s , e t c e t e r a .
Among
But w i t h a l ,
t h e i r in f l u e n c e i n th e f i e l d o f th e m ass o f A m erican p u b lic
o p in io n w as n e g l i g i b l e .
But i t m ust n o t be th ou gh t t h a t th e a c t and d e te r m i­
n a t io n t o o b j e c t c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y t o th e War w as w ith o u t i t s
c o n se q u e n c e s and p e n a l t i e s .
Even though t h e r e w ere o n l y
4 ,0 0 0 c o n s c ie n t i o u s o b j e c t o r s i n a l l , and th e m ass o f
A m ericans unaw are o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , a b u se , t o r t u r e , and
d e a th w ere i n f l i c t e d upon them a s th e p r i c e f o r t h e i r con ­
v i c t i o n t h a t w a rfa re was inhuman.
T h eir e y e s w ere gouged
o u t , th e y w ere m a n a cled , s t r ip p e d and p lu n g ed and h e ld under
c o ld sh o w ers r e p e a t e d l y , prodded w it h b a y o n e ts , t h r u s t head
fo r e m o s t i n f i l t h y l a t r i n e s , put in s o l i t a r y c o n fin e m e n t,
among o th e r a t r o c i t i e s .
I l l u s t r a t i o n s c o u ld b e p rod u ced in
s t e a d y r e p e t i t i o n b u t o n ly on e w i l l s u f f i c e f o r t h i s s t u d y .
The f o llo w in g d e s c r i p t i o n o f m a ltr ea tm e n t to oh p la c e a t
L eavenw orth F e d e r a l P e n i t e n t i a r y .
134
New York T im es, June BE, 1 9 1 8 ; B u l l e t i n o f th e
D epartm ent o f J u s t i c e , N o. 1 1 9 , a s q u oted i n Abrams, o p . c i t .
p. 183.
79
They d ragged me l i k e an. a n im a l w ith a rope around
my n e c k . They ska Ted my h ea d . Tkey cu t my e a r s .
They t o r e my s k i r t t o p i e c e s and. w anted t o p u t me in
a u n ifo r m .
I d id n o t count kow many tim e s tk e y b e a t
me. They p u l l e d th e h a ir s o f f my b ead l i k e f e a t h e r s .
X was m o t io n le s s .
I o n ly p rayed to God t o ta k e me
from t h i s w o rld o f h o r r o r s . 135
The J e w ish le a d e r s d id t k e i r p a r t in su p p o r tin g tk e
fo u r y e a r s ’ b a t t l e .
D octor Abraham C ranbach, p r o f e s s o r o f
S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Hebrew U nion C o lle g e , s t a t e s :
. . . our w e l l s u s t a in e d b o a s t t h a t tk e Jew s c o n t r ib ­
u te d to th e war more than t k e i r cpiota o f f i g h t e r s
and e v e n o f m i l i t a r y m edal w in n e r s .
. . .
We J ew s,
in s u p p o r tin g th e World War, o n ly h e lp e d p re p a r e t k e
way f o r a new h o r r o r w h ich h a s e n g u lfe d u s . 136
B e n e d ic t XV, th e " P o n t if f o f P e a c e ," l o s t i n h i s
e f f o r t s t o b r in g a b o u t an a r m is t ic e i n 1 9 1 4 .
A gain in 1 9 1 7 ,
t h i s h onored r e p r e s e n t a t iv e o f th e C a t h o lic Church, a d d r e sse d
a n o te to th e b e l l i g e r e n t s , in w hich he o u t li n e d d e f i n i t e
p r o p o s a ls f o r p e a c e .
L ik e w is e t h i s g e s t u r e was l o s t t o o ,
upon th e n a t io n s so o c c u p ie d w ith w ar.
Pope B e n e d ic t XV l i v e d th ro u g h th e g r e a t o r d e a l o f th e
W orld War and d ie d i n 1 9 3 2 .
Of h i s d ea th i t was s a id :
Ho wonder I t a l y lo w ered i t s f l a g s t o h a l f m ast
when h i s d e a th was announced; t h a t th e R e ic h s ta g d id
p u b lic homage t o h i s memory; t h a t i t s P r e s id e n t , th e
S o c i a l i s t H err L oeb e, s a id o f him "He u se d a l l th e
135
Norman Thomas, The C o n s c ie n t io u s O b je c to r in
A m erica (New York: B. W. R u eb seh , I n c o r p o r a te d , 1 9 3 6 ), p p .
1 5 6 -6 0 •
*1
Abraham C ronbach, The ^ u e s t f o r P e a c e ( C in c in n a t i.
O hio: The S in a i P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 ] , p . 3 5 .
80
m o ra l power o f h i s o f f i c e t o a l l e v i a t e human s u f f e r - . „
l u g , t o b a n is h h a tr e d , and t o r e c o n c i l e th e n a t i o n s .
A lthou gh t h e l e a d e r s o f th e C a th o lic Church h o p ed ,
p r a y e d , end sp ok e f o r p e a c e , th e C a t h o lic s o l d i e r s in th e
a rm ie s o f th e w o r ld were s u f f i c i e n t i n numbers- t o c a l l f o r
th e s e r v i c e s o f C a t h o lic c h a p la in s .
B e n e d ic t XV i n A u g u st,
1 9 1 7 , sp oke o u t p l a i n l y in condem ning war and c a l l e d h i s
c l e r g y and p e o p le to an a c t lire s e r v i c e o f p e a c e .
As le a d e r o f
th e C a t h o lic f o r c e s o f th e w o r ld , h e s u g g e s te d terms- o f p ea ce
c o n f e r e n c e s and o f f e r e d th e s e r v i c e s o f th e p a p a l d ip lo m a t ic
co r p s in th e i n t e r e s t o f p e a c e .
The p r a c t i c e o f th e C a th o lic
Church i s t o i n d i c a t e C a t h o lic p o l i c i e s th rou gh p a p a l e n c y c ­
l i c a l s and a llo w th e l o c a l m i l i e u t o d eterm in e th e a c t i o n o f
th e l o c a l c h u r c h e s and B is h o p s .
War .
T h is was done in th e World
Yet why was t h e r e su ch an o v erw h elm in g g e n e r a l a c c e p t ­
a n ce o f and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e War?
Raven c la im s th a t
"th e w ords o f th e Pope w ere b u r ie d ” and c o n s e q u e n tly w ere
T38
n o t a llo w e d t o ill u m in e t h e p o p u la c e .
Some o f t h e v e r y d e f i n i t e r e p u d ia t io n s o f t h e World
War came from in d i v i d u a l m i n i s t e r s o f th e G o s p e l.
True
en ou gh , 95 p e r ‘c e n t , o r p e r h a p s, 98 p er c e n t w ere d ragged
nrzrj
Barry-W ood, " B e n e d ic t TV: P o n t i f f o f P e a c e ,"
p . 1 8 5 ; r e p r in t e d i n th e D u b lin R eview , V o l. 1 7 0 , A p r i l ,
May, J u n e , 1 9 2 2 ; a s q u o ted in th e pam phlet b y W illia m T*
Roemer and John T* E l l i s , o p . c i t . , p . 5 6 .
138 C h a r le s E . R aven, War and th e C h r is t ia n (New
Y ork : The Ma c m illa n Company, 19 38T,—p . 1 8 3 .
81
under tk e s u r f a c e o f sa n e l o g i c a l r e a s o n in g by t k e i n s i d i o u s
undertow o f propaganda and tk e o f t k eard c r y o f a " J u s t o r
H o ly war.**
But t h e r e a r e i n s t a n c e s on r e c o r d o f h e r o i c and
n o t a b le e x c e p t io n by s m a ll grou p s o r an i n d i v id u a l who u l t i ­
m a te ly came t o b e d e s p is e d b y k i a f e l l o w m i n i s t e r s , sc o r n e d
b y p u b lic o p in io n , and announced a s an o b j e c t f o r s u s p ic io n
and s u r v e i l l a n c e b y t h e I n t e l l i g e n c e D epartm ent o f tk e
go v ern m en t.
U ia t t h e s e r e c a l c i t r a n t s becam e o b j e c t s o f d eep con ­
ce rn i s shown b y t k e f o llo w in g i l l u s t r a t i o n s .
I t m ust b e
remembered t h a t t h e p o p u la r it y o f A m e r ic a 's e n tr a n c e i n t o
t k e War w as p r a c t i c a l l y unanim ous among th e o r g a n iz e d r e l i ­
g io u s b o d ie s ,
f h e r e f o r e , t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l men in p u l p i t s o f
an y d en o m in a tio n w hose m inds w ere n o t sw ept away from tk e
p r i n c i p l e s o f J e s u s in t h i s c r i s i s , made th e m s e lv e s con­
s p ic u o u s and l i a b l e f o r a n y th in g b y t k e i r b o ld con d em nation
o f t k e War and t k e i r r e f u s a l t o su p p o r t i t .
On A p r il 9 , 1 9 1 8 ,
t k e A m erican U n it a r ia n A s s o c ia t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d tk e g e n e r a l
r e a c t io n o f t h e c l e r g y ( o f t h a t d en o m in a tio n ) and so u g h t t o
in t i m id a t e U n ita r ia n c l e r g y n o n c o n fo r m is ts b y t h r e a t e n in g
a s s e r t i o n s o f d i r e c o n s e q u e n c e s; i t v o te d :
• . . t h a t any s o c i e t y [ a l o c a l U n it a r ia n Church] w h ich
em p lo y s a m in i s t e r who i s n o t a w i l l i n g , e a r n e s t and
o u tsp o k e n su p p o r te r o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s i n tk e v i g ­
o r o u s and r e s o l u t e p r o s e c u t io n o f t h e war ca n n o t b e
c o n s id e r e d e l i g i b l e f o r a i d from th e A s s o c i a t i o n . 139
U n ity , N o. 1 0 , 8 1 : 1 6 0 , May 9 ,v l 9 1 8 .
The M e th o d ist E p isc o p a c y e x e r t e d i t s a u t h o r it y and
power i n c h a r g in g i t s m i n i s t e r s w ith p rop er co n d u ct— or
e ls e t
B ish o p Theodore S . H enderson o f D e t r o i t , sp e a k in g
b e f o r e th e M e th o d ist E p is c o p a l C o n fer en ce in s e s s i o n , i s
r e p o r te d a s h a v in g s a id :
I f t h e r e i s a n y p r e a c h e r i n t h e M e th o d ist E p is ­
c o p a l Church who d o e s n t t s e e h i s way c l e a r t o e s p o u se
th e c a u se o f th e A l l i e s , i f we e e n rt r e g e n e r a te him ,
we w i l l e l im i n a t e him , and th e n tu r n him o v e r to th e
D epartm ent o f J u s t i c e *140
A p a c i f i s t M e th o d ist clerg y m a n , on th e o t h e r h and ,
d e c la r e d h i s p a c if is m and r e c e iv e d th e f o l l o w i n g t r e a t m e n t.
I d o n 't want t o l o s e my s o u l . I f I h a v e to c h o o se
b etw een my c o u n tr y and my Cod, I h a v e made up my mind
t o c h o o se God. I am an A m erican, but I am a C h r is t ia n
fir s t.
H is f e llo w - c le r g y m e a s h o u te d , nS i t down! ” nShame
on y o u ,n and c r i e s o f " T r a ito r !* w ere h ea rd from e v e r y
p a r t o f t h e r o o m . 3-^1
The f a l l o w i n g c h a r t s d e p ic t t h e p a c if is m e x t a n t among
th e c l e r g y .
T h is s ta n d a g a in s t w ar b y t h e s e men d o e s n o t
r e p r e s e n t t h e o r g a n iz e d Church a t t i t u d e , b u t t h e p e r s o n a l
r e f u s a l o f in d i v i d u a l p a s t o r s t o con d on e, u p h o ld , p r e a c h ,
o r i n any way a id i n t h e e x t e n s io n o f th e c o n f l i c t .
The f o l l o w i n g c h a r t s d e p ic t t h e p a c i f i s m e x t a n t among
140
D e t r o i t T im es, March 1 9 , 1 9 1 8 , a s q u oted in
Abrams, o p . c i t . , p . 1 9 4 .
141
U n i t y , H o. 1 3 , 7 9 :1 9 5 , May 2 4 , 1 9 1 7 , a s q uoted
in Abrams, o p . c i t . , p . 1 9 4 .
t h e c l e r g y .'
T h is s ta n d a g a in s t w ar b y t h e s e men d o e s n o t
r e p r e s e n t t h e o r g a n is e d Church a t t i t u d e , b u t th e p e r s o n a l
r e f u s a l o f i n d i v id u a l p a s t o r s t o con d on e, u p h o ld , p r e a c h ,
o r i n any way a id in th e e x t e n s io n o f t h e c o n f l i c t .
D i s t r i b u t i o n b y S t a t e s o f P a c i f i s t M in is t e r s
1 9 1 7 -1 8
1 4-?
Hew Y ork.............................................................................
15
................................................
11
M a s s a c h u s e t t s ......................................................... . .
10
C a lifo r n ia .
I l l i n o i s ..............................................................
9
Hew J e r s e y ........................................................................
5
M a i n e ..................................................................................
5
O h io
3
. .
T e n n a n t ................................................
3
P e n n s y lv a n ia ...................................................................
£
W a sh in g to n ...............................................
E
C o n n e c t i c u t ....................................................................
1
M arylan d ............................
1
M ich ig a n .
.
.
...........................................
1
M i n n e s o t a ..............................................................
1
H eb ra sk a ...........................................
1
Hew H am pshire
148
................................................
Abrams, op. cit., p. 195.
1
84
JL
Utah
70
T o ta l
D i s t r i b u t i o n by D en o m in a tio n s o f
143
P a c i f i s t M in is t e r s > 1 9 1 7 -1 8
T o ta l p a c i f i s t
c le r g y
D en om in ation
U n it a r ia n s .
............................
G o n g r e g a t io r a lis t s . . . . . . . . . . .
16
13
U n i r e r s a l i s t s ...............................................
8
B a p t i s t s .................. . b ..............................................
8
E p is c o p a lia n s
.....................................................
7
P r e s b y t e r i a n s ..........................................................
7
M e t h o d is t s ....................................................................
4
R eform ed.....................................................
3
R ebrew s . . . .
3
. .. . . . . . . . . .
lio n -d e n o m in a tio n a l.
.................................
T o ta l
1
70
I t i s t h u s a p p a r e n t t h a t p r o t e s t a t i o n s a g a in s t war a s
I r r e c o n c i l a b l e w ith t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f J e s u s a r e c o n t in u in g t o
be: m a n if e s t e d .
The p o st-W o r ld War p e r io d b r in g s f o r t h th e
i s s u e in b o ld e r and more i n t e n s e p r o p o r t io n s .
The C hurches
w ere awakened b y t h e c o n s t a n t i n s i s t e n c e o f t h e i r c o r p o r a te
c o n s c ie n c e s and b y f o r c e and p r e s s u r e o f p u b lic o p in io n .
143
Ibid.» p. 196.
CHAPTER I I I
THE ATTITUDE OF CONTEMPORARY RELIGIOUS BODIES
I.
OFFICIAL CHURCH STATEMENTS
The f a c t s o f 1 9 1 4 -1 8 p o in t to one eon e l u s i o n o u t o f
many, n am ely:
t h a t t h e C h u rch es, in c lu d in g h i s h o p s , m in is ­
t e r s , and f o l l o w e r s , w ere s u s c e p t i b l e t o war p s y c h o lo g y , t o
mob v i o l e n c e , c r o w d -th in k in g , and t o t h e w h o le s a le s la u g h t e r
o f human b e in g s a s th e u s u a l c o u r s e o f e v e n ts *
S in c e then', now t h a t o p p o r tu n ity f o r so b e r Judgment
and r e f l e c t i o n i s a t h an d , i t may be s a id w ith some d eg re e o f
c o n f id e n c e , t h a t an i n t e n s i f i e d a b h o rren ce o f war and an i n ­
c r e a s e d y e a r n in g f o r p ea ce on th e p a r t o f l a y and c l e r g y a r e
two d i r e c t , p o s i t i v e , c o n s t r u c t iv e r e s u l t s o f th e w o r s t war
in h is t o r y *
The w h o le s a le s a c r i f i c e o f men, th e h ig h l y o r g a n iz e d ,
s y s t e m a t iz e d te c h n iq u e o f k i l l i n g p e r s o n s w ith a l l o f i t s
a t te n d a n t r e v o l t i n g , n a u s e a t in g c r u e l t i e s and h o r r o r s , s e r v e d
t o sh o ck mankind i n t o r e f l e c t i o n and so b e r c o n s id e r a t i o n .
The c o n se q u e n t r e l e a s e o f f a c t s and f i g u r e s , d e s c r ip ­
t i o n s , commitments:, e t c . r e l a t i v e to th e War h a s fa n n ed th e
f i r e o f p a c if is m t o su ch an in t e n s e d e g r e e a s n e v e r b e f o r e
e x p e r ie n c e d .
There i s a lr e a d y g o in g on i n th e mind o f
s o c i e t y , C hurch, s c h o o l , and S t a t e , a fu n d am en tal change in
th e a t t i t u d e toward w ar.
86
1316 r e c o r d o f th e C hurches a lo n e in A m erica in th e
p e a c e movement d u r in g th e y e a r s s in c e th e A r m is tic e o f 1918
on t h e p a r t o f a l l w it h in h e r le a d e r s h ip and m em bership, i s
one o f r e p e n t a n c e , o f in c r e a s in g b o ld n e s s i n r e s o l u t e o p p o s i­
t i o n t o f u r t h e r war by sta te m e n t and d eed , and o f a g r e a t e r
e d u c a t io n a l program in th e i n t e r e s t o f p e a c e .
The Church
r e c o g n iz e s p erh a p s t h a t w ars ca n n o t b e sto p p e d by s a y in g ,
* i w ill not f ig h t ,*
But i t d o e s s e n s e th e im p o rta n ce o f com­
p l e t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n d e r s ta n d in g and th e n eed f o r im p r e ss in g
govern m en ts o f th e w o r ld t h a t w ars can be e lim in a t e d b y th a t
r o u te *
The Church h a s made i t s p o s i t i o n w id e sp r e a d and em­
p h a t i c b y s e v e r e and unam biguous pronouncem ents a g a in s t war
and in su p p o rt o f c o m p le te , l a s t i n g p e a c e and a r b i t r a t i o n .
Up and down A m erica t h i s h a s h ap p en ed .
She h a s c o o p e r a te d
w ith f e d e r a t e d
l a y and Church g rou p s o r g a n iz e d i n th e i n t e r ­
e s t o f p eace.
She h a s prom oted cam paigns t o w in p e o p le t o
t h e v ie w p o in t o f t h e n eed o f w o rld u n d e r s ta n d in g to th e p o in t
w here a r b i t r a t i o n and c o n c i l i a t i o n w i l l b e s u b s t i t u t e d f o r
t h e war m ethod in th e s e t t le m e n t o f d i f f e r e n c e s .
The r e c o r d
o f th e in c r e a s in g , i n t e r e s t and predom inance o f th e p e a c e move­
m en t, and o f t h i s p ro b lem i n th e m ind o f th e C hurch, i s
e a s i l y seen a s
t h e p e a c e i d e a l grow s th ro u g h
e x t e n t and in t e n t *
I t m ust be borne i n mind
th e y e a r s in
t h a t t h e p ea ce
movement in A m erica s p l i t and v i r t u a l l y d ie d c o m p le t e ly from
8?
1914 t o e a r l y 1 9 1 7 , when I t a g a in s t a r t e d t o come t o l i f e #
I t was r e v iv e d when A m erica h e came in v o lv e d i n th e World War
and h a s g a in e d i n c r e d i b l e momentum s in c e *
In 19 1 4 t h e Church P eace U n ion w as o r g a n iz e d to u n i t e
th e P r o t e s t a n t , C a t h o l i c , J e w is h , and Greek O rthodox C hurches
in w ork f o r p ea ce*
I t form ed th e World A llia n c e f o r In ter*-
n a t i o n a l F r ie n d s h ip th rou gh t h e C hurches to c a r r y o u t i t s
program .
I n 1919 i t was r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e f i r s t in t e r n a ­
t i o n a l c o n fe r e n c e o f th e C hurches to b e h e ld 'a f t e r th e World
War, and i n t e r n a t i o n a l g o o d w ill c o n g r e s s e s a r e b e in g h e ld
now a n n u a lly *
fh e W orld A llia n c e t a k e s t h e p o s i t i o n th a t
"war s h o u ld no lo n g e r b e u se d f o r t h e s e t t le m e n t o f c o n t r o ­
v e r s i e s b etw een n a tio n s " and " th a t th e tim e h a s come to
make a com bined and f r o n t a l a t t a c k f o r t h e o v erth ro w o f th e
i n s t i t u t i o n o f w ar by o u tla w in g i t and making war a crim e
1
under t h e law o f n a t io n s ."
In 1920 t h e Quaker f e l l o w s h i p , w h ich h a s a v o id e d th e
e c c l e s i a s t i c a l ty p e o f C h r i s t i a n i t y and p ro v ed i n t h e l a s t
war t h a t a s an o r g a n iz e d r e l i g i o u s b od y i t d id n o t l o s e i t s
a n tiw a r i d e a l s , p r in t e d a g a in i t s p o s i t i o n on war in o r d e r
t o p erm it w id e sp r e a d d i s t r i b u t i o n .
We a r e p r o fo u n d ly c o n v in c e d , th e S o c i e t y o f F r ie n d s
d e c la r e d a f t e r t h e w ar, in a m a n if e s t o , t o th e C h r is ­
t i a n C hurches in a l l la n d s , t h a t p e a c e can o n ly b e
F lo r e n c e B o e c k e l, B etw een War and .P eace * p . 8 4 .
88:
a t t a i n e d b y r e f u s i n g to ta k e any p a r t in w ar, f o r th e
s im p le and w h o lly s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n t h a t war b y i t s
w h o le n a tu r e i s i n o p p o s it io n t o th e m essage and
s p i r i t o f th e l i f e and d e a th o f J e s u s C h r is t ,
. . *
The id e a o f p e a c e w h ich comes from th e d e p th s o f
C h r i s t i a n i t y demands th e m ost d eterm in ed r e p u d ia t io n
o f w a r, u n a m b ig u o u sly and w it h o u t com prom ise . .
From. 1921 t o 1 9 2 4 th e c h a s te n e d post-W ar mood burned
s t r o n g ly *
The R everend Sam uel McCrea C a v e r t, G en era l S e c r e ­
t a r y o f t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c il o f t h e C hurches o f C h r is t in
A m erica, r e p o r te d u n e q u iv o c a lly t o th e A d m in is tr a tio n Com­
m i t t e e o f t h a t body t h a t :
There i s o n ly one w ay o u t . The c h u r c h e s o f e v e r y
n a t io n m ust t e a c h t h e i r p e o p le t h a t war i s a c r im e ,
th e u t t e r d e n i a l o f e v e r y t h in g f o r w hich th e c h u r c h e s
s t a n d . They m ust d e c la r e t h a t murder i s murder even
when o rd er ed b y th e s t a t e , and t h a t th e m oral la w i s
a s b in d in g on n a t io n s a s on i n d i v i d u a l s , t h a t i n th e
r e l a t i o n s o f n a t io n s a s o f in d iv id u a ls re a so n and
J u s t i c e , d eterm in ed by an im p a r t ia l t r i b u n a l , m ust
s u p p la n t t h e r e s o r t t o n aked f o r c e , th a t t o th e d e­
v elo p m en t o f a g e n c ie s o f in t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a tio n
m ust be g iv e n th e e n e r g y t h a t n a t io n s h a v e h i t h e r t o
g iv e n t o p r e p a r a tio n f o r w a r*3
The World A l l i a n c e o f th e Church P eace U nion s t a t e d
in 192 3 :
The ch u rch es o f t h e w o r ld sh o u ld so le m n ly d e c la r e
t h a t war a s a m ethod o f s e t t l i n g d is p u t e s i s a n t i C h r is t ia n , and t h e r e f o r e e v e r y e f f o r t t o o u tla w war and
p r o v id e J u d i c i a l s u b s t i t u t i o n w i l l r e c e i v e t h e i r h e a r t y
su p p o r te d
^ F r ie n d s ’ P ea ce C om m ittee, F r ie n d s and War ( l e a f l e t ) ,
P h i la d e lp h i a , 1 9 2 0 .
s D evere A l l e n , The F ig h t f o r P e a c e , p . 4 8 .
4
Loo. cit.
89
G eorge O d e ll, l a th e C h r is t ia n S c ie n c e M onitor i a
19 8 4 o b s e r v e s :
A su r v e y o f th e d e e l a r a t i o a s oa p e a c e th a t a r e
b e in g i s s u e d by r e l i g i o u s b o d ie s show s c o n c l u s i v e l y
t h a t t h e r e i s a g ro w in g c o n v ic t io n among churchmen
t h a t war i s im moral .5
An im p o rta n t J o in t m essa g e t o t h e C hurches w as is s u e d
i a 19£5 b y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t w e n t y - e ig h t d e n o m in a tio n s
m e e tin g in a N a t io n a l S tu d y C o n feren ce o f t h e C hurches oa
World P e a c e , h e ld u n d er th e a u s p ic e s o f th e F e d e r a l C o u n c il
o f th e C hurches o f C h r is t in Am erica*
T h is m essa g e s e t f o r t h
t h e " I d e a ls and A t t it u d e s o f t h e C h r is t ia n Church in R egard
t o War" a s f o l l o w s :
The t e a c h in g s and s p i r i t o f J e s u s c l e a r l y show t h a t
t h e e f f e c t i v e f o r c e f o r th e sa fe g u a r d in g o f human
r i g h t s , t h e h a rm o n izin g o f d i f f e r e n c e s and th e o v e r ­
com ing o f e v i l i s th e s p i r i t o f g o o d w i ll.
The C hurch, th e body o f C h r is t a l l - i n c l u s i v e tra n scen d in g : r a c e and n a t io n a l d i v i s i o n , sh o u ld
h e n c e f o r t h o p p o se w ar, a s a m ethod o f s e t t l i n g d i s p u t e s
b etw een n a t io n s and g ro u p s a s c o n t r a r y to th e s p i r i t
and p r i n c i p l e s o f J e s u s C h r is t , and s h o u ld d e c la r e
t h a t i t w i l l *not a s a Church s a n c t io n w a r.
The Church sh o u ld n o t o n ly la b o r f o r t h e com ing o f
th e Kingdom o f God i n t h e h e a r t s o f m en, but s h o u ld
g i v e i t s e l f t o c o n s t r u c t iv e p o l i c i e s and m ea su res f o r
w o rld J u s t i c e and p e a c e . I t s h o u ld f e a r l e s s l y d e­
c l a r e i t s d i s t i n c t i v e m essa g e o f g o o d w i ll. I t sh o u ld
p r o c la im t h i s m essa g e r e g a r d le s s o f f l u c t u a t i n g o p in ­
io n and p o l i t i c a l e x i g e n c i e s .
The Church s h o u ld t e a c h p a t r i o t i c su p p o rt o f th e
S t a t e , b u t sh o u ld n e v e r become th e a g e n t o f th e
5 I h i d . , p. 51.
90
Government in any a c t i v i t y a l i e n to t h e s p i r i t o f
C h r is t . The Church sh o u ld lo o k to t h e r e s p o n s ib le
s ta te s m e n o f a C h r is t ia n c o u n tr y to co n d u c t th e
p u b lic b u s i n e s s . a lo n g t h o s e l i n e s o f j u s t i c e and
r e a s o n w hich w i l l n o t l e a d to w ar.
The Church sh o u ld r e c o g n iz e th e r ig h t and th e
d u ty o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l t o f o llo w t h e g u id a n c e o f
h i s own c o n s c ie n c e a s t o w h eth er o r n o t he s h a l l
p a r t i c i p a t e i n w ar.6
I n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i o n f o r p ea ce came t o t h e w orld* s
a t t e n t i o n from 1 9 2 9 - 5 1 .
The w ave o f p a c if is m was tr a n s c e n d ­
in g n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r ie s .
was la u n c h e d i n 1 9 2 9 .
The " C h rist and P eace" cam paign
The Lambeth C o n fer en ce in 1930 de­
c la r e d t h a t "war a s a m ethod o f s e t t l i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s ­
p u t e s i s in c o m p a tib le w ith t h e t e a c h in g and exam p le o f ou r
Lord J e s u s C h r is t ."
A noth er a n n u a l c o n fe r e n c e o f th e World
A llia n c e o f th e Church P eace U nion was h e ld a t Cambridge
in 1 9 3 1 .7
I n 1930 th e N a tio n a l S tu d y C o n fer en ce o f th e C hu rches,
a rr a n g e d by a C om m ittee an th e C hurches and World P ea c e which
r e p r e s e n t e d t h i r t y - s e v e n Church b o d ie s , c a l l e d upon th e
Government to r e s p e c t "the p r i n c i p l e o f f r e e c o n s c ie n c e w ith
r e g a r d t o w a r," and a f fir m e d "the d u ty o f t h e Church t o sup­
p o r t w ith m o ra l a p p r o v a l, in d i v id u a ls who h o ld c o n s c ie n t io u s
c o n v ic t io n s a g a in s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m i l i t a r y t r a in in g or
I b id . , p . 8 1 .
7
C h a r le s E . H aven, War and t h e C h r i s t i a n , p . 2 1 .
91
m i l i t a r y s e r v ic e * *
8
The N o r th e r n B a p t is t Convent Io n and th e
U n i v e r s a l i s t Church h a v e a d o p ted s i m i l a r p ro n o u n cem en ts•
Some s ta te m e n ts r e ca r d e d b y th e World disarm am ent
M ovement, w it h h e a d q u a r te r s in M elb ou rn e, A u s t r a l i a ,
in d i­
c a t e th e tr e n d o f th o u g h t and a t t i t u d e o f n a t io n a l and i n Q
t e r n a t i o n a l l y known l e a d e r s .*
A rthu r P onsonby, M .P .;
"The Church a c t u a l l y h a s i t
i n i t s power t o s to p w ar."
A rthur S h ep h erd , M .P ., from a sp e e c h in th e House
o f Commons:
I t w ould b e f a r e a s i e r t o a d o p t th e C h r is t ia n
m ethod to d a y th a n i t h a s e v e r b e e n . War is* n o t p r a c ­
tic a l.
The w h o le argum ent from ev ery w h ere i n i t s
f a v o r i s an a b s o lu t e fr a u d . War i s n o t p r a c t i c a l
b e c a u s e i t i s fo u n d ed on h a tr e d and i t d e s t r o y s l i f e .
The C h r is t ia n way i s t h e o n ly p r a c t i c a l way b e c a u se
i t i s fou n d ed upon l o v e w hich g i v e s l i f e .
D o cto r Josep h H. H e r t z , C h ie f R abbi o f th e U n ite d
Hebrew C o n g r e g a tio n s o f th e B r i t i s h U m pire, s a id in 1 9 5 0 :
I n t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l la n g u a g e o f my f a i t h — th e
Hebrew la n g u a g e — th e v e r y word f o r p e a c e " sh alom ,"
i s a m ig h ty a rra ig n m en t o f w a r . Shalom means f i r s t l y ,
h e a lt h ; s e c o n d ly , w e lf a r e ; and t h i r d l y , t r a n q u i l i t y .
A w o rld i n w h ich war i s an e v e r - p r e s e n t p o s s i b i l i t y
i s n o t a h e a lt h y w o r ld ; i t ca n n o t s e c u r e th e w e lf a r e
o f i t s in h a b it a n t s and knows no tr u e p r o s p e r i t y .
D avid L lo y d G eo rg e, a t th e World C h r is t ia n E ndeavor
8
9
B o e c k e l. o p . c i t » , p* 1 5 3 ..
L i t e r a t u r e o f The World Disarmament Movement,
Temple C o u rt, M elbourne, A u s t r a l i a , 1 9 3 0 .
9£
C o n fe r e n c e i n 1 9 3 6 , s t a r t l e d t h e d e l e g a t e s by b l a s t i n g :
”T do n o t a g r e e w it h t l i e p e o p le who s a y i t
i s n o n e o f tlie
b u s i n e s s o f th e C h r is t ia n C hurches to i n t e r f e r e .
I w ish
t o God th e y h ad i n t e r f e r e d in 1 9 1 4 .*
Qn May 2 , 1 9 3 5 , a t R iv e r s id e Church, Hew Y ork, o v er
two hundred C h r is t ia n and J ew ish m i n i s t e r s u n it e d in r e p e a t ­
in g t h e i r C ovenant o f P e a c e .
In l o y a l t y t o God I b e l i e v e t h a t th e way o f C h r is t
ca n n o t b e r e c o n c i l e d w ith the: w ay o f w a r . In l o y a l t y
t o my C oun try I su p p o rt i t s a d o p tio n o f t h e K e llo g g B rian d P a c t w h ich r e n o u n c e s w ar. In th e s p i r i t o f
t r u e p a t r i o t i s m and w it h d eep p e r s o n a l c o n v ic t io n , I Q
t h e r e f o r e ren o u n ce war and w i l l n o t su p p o r t a n o t h e r .1^
T lh ile p e a c e s e n tim e n t was th u s ta lc in g h o ld o f th e
t h in k in g and d e te r m in a tio n o f man and g r o u p s th e w o r ld o v e r ,
t h e o r g a n iz e d Church w as a l s o v o i c i n g i t s r e n u n c ia t io n o f war
i n c l e a r - c u t , in d i s p u t a b le la n g u a g e .
In th e d ecad e from
19£9 t o 1 9 3 9 , many Church b o d ie s avowed t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e to
th e p e a c e f u l s e t t le m e n t o f d is p u t e s and r e p u d ia te d w a r fa r e
a s in c o m p a tib le w it h t h e C h r is t ia n t e a c h in g s and a l s o a s a
m ethod to b e r e s o r t e d t o by a c i v i l i z e d w o r ld .
Among th e
P r o t e s t a n t Church b o d i e s , th e f o llo w in g e x p r e s s io n s r e p r e ­
s e n t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s o f war and p e a c e .
The M e th o d is t Church:
We s ta n d f o r t h e r e p u d ia t io n o f w a r.
. . .
We
b e l i e v e th a t w ar i s u t t e r l y d e s t r u c t i v e and i s o u r
10
P ea ce A c t io n , May, 1935*
93
g r e a t e s t c o l l e c t i v e s o c i a l s i n and a d e n i a l o f th e
i d e a l s o f C h r i s t . We sta n d upon t h i s grou n d, t h a t
t h e M e th o d ist Church a s an i n s t i t u t i o n can n ot e n d o r s e war n o r su p p o r t o r p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t . 1 *1-
. . . we s u g g e s t th a t war i s a d e n ia l o f f a i t h i n
Cod . . . we t e s t i f y to t h e c o n t r a d ic t io n b etw een
t h e p r a c t i c e o f war and t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f t h e
C h r is t ia n f a i t h . . . we p r o t e s t a g a in s t co m p u lso ry
m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g in t h e s c h o o ls and u p h o ld th e
r i g h t o f P r e s b y t e r ia n s t u d e n t s t o o b j e c t on co n ­
s c i e n t i o u s groirnds . . .^*2
U n ita r ia n :
As a body o f ch u r c h e s we n eed t o g i v e a more c e n ­
t r a l p o s i t i o n in ou r d e n o m in a tio n a l e n d e a v o r s t o
p r e a c h in g p e a c e from th e p u l p i t s . M eanw hile l e t u s
s e e t o i t t h a t our n a t io n i s n o t p lu n g ed i n t o "the
m ost n e f a r io u s and f u t i l e o f human f o l l i e s — war .**3.3
L u th eran :
T here i s t o b e n o te d t h e b r o a d e n in g o f t h e s o c i a l
v is io n .
. . .
We w is h t o s t r e n g t h e n o u r o p p o s i t io n
t o war and p o s s i b l e w ays t o p r e v e n t war . . .I d
C o n g r e g a tio n a l and C h r is t ia n :
We b e l i e v e in t h e a b o l i t i o n o f m i l i t a r y armaments
b y a l l n a t io n s e x c e p t f o r a n i n t e r n a l p o l i c e f o r c e .
„ . . That t h e Church o f C h r is t a s an i n s t i t u t i o n
11
H a ro ld P . S lo a n , e d i t o r , The C h r is t ia n A d v o c a te ,
H o. E l, 1 1 4 : 2 , May 2 5 , 1939 (Pronouncem ent o f th e U n it in g
C o n fe r e n c e ,.K a n s a s C it y , Apr11-M ay, 19 3 9 > .
M in u tes o f th e G e n e r a l A ssem b ly o f t h e P r e s b y t e r ia n
Church i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s o f A m erica, P a r t I , J o u r n a l and
S u p p lem en t, One Hundred F i f t i e t h G en era l A ssem b ly , P h i l a d e l ­
p h ia , 1 9 3 8 , p . 1 6 5 .
C h a r le s H. W endte, The U n ita r ia n C hurches and
I n t e r n a t i o n a l P ea ce (B o sto n : G eorge H. K i l l s Company, 1 9 3 8 ) ,
p. 9.
3-4 R alph H. Long, e d i t o r , The L u theran World Almanac
and K a c y c lo p e d ia , 1 9 3 4 -1 9 3 7 (New Yorh: The N a t io n a l L u th eran
C o u n c i l) , p . 7 6 .
94
s h o u ld n o t h e u s e d a s a n in str u m e n t o r a n a g en cy in
t h e su p p o r t o f w ar. 15
The A n g lic a n Communion a t t h e Lambeth C o n fer en ce in
1950:
We a f f i r m t h a t war a s a m ethod o f s e t t l i n g i n t e r ­
n a t i o n a l d i s p u t e s i s in c o m p a tib le w ith t h e t e a c h in g
and exam ple o f o u r Lord J e s u s C h r is t .3-6
The P r o t e s t a n t E p is c o p a l s t a t e d a t t h e i r G en era l
C o n v en tio n :
. . • War* a s a m ethod o f s e t t l i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s ­
p u t e s , i s in c o m p a tib le w it h t h e t e a c h in g and exam ple
o f o u r Lord J e s u s C h r is t . We b e l i e v e t h a t th e C h r is ­
t i a n c o n s c ie n c e i s now c a l l e d t o condemn war a s an
o u tr a g e on t h e fa th e r h o o d o f God and th e b ro th erh o o d
o f a l l m a n k in d .3-?
The N o rth ern B a p t i s t s :
We -no- lo n g e r can b e l i e v e t h a t w ar a s a p r e s e n t and
f u t u r e m ethod o f s e t t l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i s j u s t i f i a b l e
from a n y human o r C h r is t ia n s t a n d p o in t . 18
The I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n v en tio n o f th e D i s c i p l e s o f
C h r is t s t a t e d :
We b e l i e v e th a t war i s p a g a n , f u t i l e , and d e s t r u c ­
t i v e o f t h e s p i r i t u a l v a lu e s f o r w h ich th e ch u rch es
o f C h r is t s ta n d .
. . . ?fe t h e r e f o r e d i s s o c i a t e o u r­
s e l v e s from war and th e war sy s te m , and h e r e b y s e r v e
E x e c u t iv e C om m ittee, The Y earbook o f th e C ongre­
g a t i o n a l and C h r is t ia n C h u rch es, New Y ork, 1 9 5 7 , p* 7 .
, K irb y P a g e , I f War I s S in (New York: The F e llo w s h ip
o f R e c o n c i l i a t i o n , 1935T , p» 3*
P r o t e s t a n t E p is c o p a l C hurch, G e n e r a l C o n v e n tio n ,
1*951, a s q u o ted i n P a g e, M ist We Go To War? (New York: F a rr a r
and R in e h a r t, 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 1 8 4 .
C o n v e n tio n , 1 9 5 3 , a s q u o ted in W a lter W. Yan K ir k ,
R e li g io n R en oun ces War, p . 1 2 .
%
95
n o t i c e t o whom i t may c o n ce rn t h a t we n e v e r a g a in e x ­
p e c t t o b l e s s o r s a n c t io n w a r . ^
The U n i v e r s a l i s t s o f C a lif o r n ia :
That th e U n i v e r s a l i s t p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e F a th erh o od
o f God and th e B ro th erh o o d o f Man ca n n o t b e .r e c o n c ile d
w ith th e d e l i b e r a t e ta lc in g o f l i f e in w ar.
. . .
We
u r g e o u r p e o p le t o a d o p t th e h i s t o r i c a l .p o s i t i o n o f
t h e F r ie n d s , and ta k e t h e a t t i t u d e o f c o n s c i e n t i o n s
o b j e c t io n t o a l l war.&Q
Reform ed Church in A m erica:
F ar is contrary to t h e spirit and teachings o f
J e s u s Christ.S I
Reform ed Church i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s :
We r e p u d ia te t h e t h e o r y , and a l l i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s ,
t h a t God f a v o r s r e s o r t t o w ar, and we a f f ir m t h a t t h e .
C h r is t ia n * s God i s f o r e v e r a g a in s t th e war s p i r i t and
th e war sy s te m . God d o e s n o t p erm it war . . . 22
S ev en th Day B a p tist::
War i s u n c h r i s t i a n . Up t o th e p r e s e n t time, we h ave
w o rsh ip p ed m i l i t a r y f o r c e . The tim e i s h e r e when we
must d e c id e w h eth er t h e c r o s s o r sword s h a l l b e our
sym b o l. C h r is t and Mars can n ot p r e v a i l t o g e t h e r . 23
Church o f th e U n ite d B r e th r e n i n C h r is t :
We b e l i e v e th a t war i s c o n tr a r y t o t h e s p i r i t o f
C h r is t and t h e g o s p e l o f l o v e and b r o th e r h o o d w hich
19
I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n v en tio n o f D i s c i p l e s o f C h r is t ,
1 9 3 4 , a s q u o ted in P a g e, Must We Go t o F ar? p . 184*
on
The U n i v e r s a l i s t C o n v en tio n o f C a l i f o r n i a , l o c .
c it.
2**- G en era l S yn od , 1 9 3 0 , a s q u o ted in Tan K ir k , o p .
c i t ., p. 11.
22 G en era l S yn od , 1 9 3 2 , l o c . c i t .
23 G en era l C o n fe r e n c e , 1 9 3 2 , l o c . c i t .
96
we p r o f e s s .
. . . The Church sh o u ld n ev er a llo w h e r ­
s e l f t o h e u s e d t o p r e p a r e f o r war o r make w ar, b u t
r a t h e r t o prom ote p e a c e .
. . . .
I t i s our c o n v i c t i o n
t h a t i t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t f o r u s a s . f o l l o w e r s o f C h r is t
t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n o r s a n c t io n war a s a means o f s e t ­
t l i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s p u t e s or c o n t r o v e r s i e s . 2 4
The Church o f t h e B r e th r e n :
The f o l l o w e r s o f C h r is t ca n n o t ta k e p a r t in de­
s t r o y in g the l i v e s o f men whom God h a s c r e a t e d in
h i s im age and l i k e n e s s . We f u r t h e r b e l i e v e t h a t o u r
a l l e g i a n c e to t h e w i l l o f God tr a n s c e n d s a l l commands,
o r d e r s o r m andates in c id e n t to t h e w i l l o f man where
th e v o ic e o f c o n s c ie n c e and f a i t h h ave b een made su b ­
j e c t to t h e demands o f m en .2§
The R e li g io u s S o c i e t y o f F r ie n d s :
The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f n a t io n to n a t io n , o f r a c e t o
r a c e , o f c l a s s to c l a s s must be b a se d on th e d iv in e
la w o f l o v e , i f p e a c e and p r o g r e s s a r e to b e 7a c h ie v e d .
We b e l i e v e in t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s a s a way o f l i f e to
be l i v e d h e r e and now. War i s a c o l o s s a l v i o l a t i o n o f
t h i s way o f l i f e .
I f we a r e t r u e t o ou r f a i t h we can
have no p a rt in i t . 2 6
The E v a n g e l ic a l Synod o f N orth A m erica;
We w i l l n o t a s a C h r is t ia n Church e v e r a g a in b l e s s
o r s a n c t io n w a r. We mean t o commit our Church to th e
fu n d am en tal p r o p o s it io n t h a t t o su p p o rt war i s t o
den y t h e g o s p e l we p r o f e s s to b e l i e v e . 2*?
The F e d e r a l C o u n c il o f C hurches o f C h r is t in A m erica,
r e p r e s e n t in g and sp e a k in g f o r th e t w e n t y - f iv e communions
a d h e r in g to th e C o u n c il s t a t e d in 1 9 3 2 , a t i t s cpxadrennial
^
G en era l C o n fe r e n c e , 1 9 3 3 , i b i d , p . 1 3 .
A nnual C o n fe r e n c e , 1 9 3 2 , i b i d . . p . 39*
26 P h ila d e lp h ia Y e a r ly M eetin g o f F r ie n d s , M arch, 1 9 3 5 ,
ib id . , p. 40.
^
E v a n g e lic a l Synod o f N o rth A m erica , 1 9 3 4 , l o c . c i t .
m e e tin g :
. . . th e a g e n c ie s o f o u r c h u r c h e s sh o u ld n e v e r a g a in
b e u s e d i n p r e p a r a t io n fd r w ar, but sh o u ld be u se d in.
th e p ro m o tio n o f p e a c e .
. . . The Church o f C h r is t
a s an i n s t i t u t i o n , sh o u ld n o t become an in str u m e n t
f o r th e f o s t e r i n g o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s u s p ic io n and
h a t r e d . I t sh o u ld n o t s a n c t io n n o r b l e s s w a r. To
su p p o r t war i s t o d en y th e g o s p e l we p r o f e s s to
b e l i e v e . 28
Thus th e ch u rch es h ave spoken t h e i r m ind.
be no doubt a s t o t h e i r a t t i t u d e .
There can
There i s n o p o s s i b i l i t y
o f t h e i r s u p p o r tin g a n o th e r war u n l e s s t h e y f o r g e t w hat th e y
h ave s a i d .
They have r e c o r d e d t h e i r p ron ou n cem en ts and h ave
p u b lis h e d them f o r t h e e d i f i c a t i o n o f a l l .
B e fo r e g o in g on t o a n e x a m in a tio n o f t h e p e a c e p ro ­
gram s o f th e C h u rch es, th e w r i t e r w is h e s t o g i v e sp a c e to a
c o n s id e r a t i o n o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n fe r e n c e w h ich r e p r e s e n t e d
th e g r e a t e s t a tte m p t o f t h e world^ s g overn m en ts to come to
an i n t e r n a t i o n a l armaments agreem ent and work o u t p la n s f o r
m u tu al harmony and u n d er s t a n d in g .
I t r e p r e s e n t e d th e h ig h e s t
e x p r e s s io n o f th e p e a c e i d e a l y e t o b se r v e d by th e w o r ld .
It
marked th e c u lm in a tio n o f a l l th e p e a c e e f f o r t s gone on b e f o r e
it.
The W orld Disarmament C o n fer en ce o f 1932 came a s th e
r e s u l t o f tw e lv e y e a r s o f p r e p a r a t io n by o n e o rg a n o r a n o th e r
o f t h e L eague o f N a t io n s , d a t in g from November 1 9 2 0 , when th e
28
Tan Kirk, op. clt., p. 42.
98
F i r s t A ssem b ly o f th e League had made t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i s ­
c o v e r y t h a t t h e p ro b lem o f disarm am ent w as a p o l i t i c a l and
n o t a t e c h n i c a l o n e , and had is s u e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r i t t o
b e s t u d ie d a c c o r d in g ly . ^ 9
At th e same t im e , t h e r e had b een c o r r e s p o n d in g a t ­
te m p ts , w it h c o n s id e r a b ly g r e a t e r s u c c e s s , t o s e c u r e th e
l i m i t a t i o n and r e d u c t io n o f n a v a l arm am ents.
The C o n fer­
e n c e s o f W ash in gton (1 9 2 1 -2 2 ) and o f London (1 9 3 0 ) had p r o ­
duced a g reem en ts w h ich w en t f a r to c u r t a i l arm am ents.
On F eb ru a ry 2 , 1 9 3 2 , i n a b u ild in g e r e c t e d e s p e c i a l l y
t o s e a t th e d e l e g a t e s , th e W orld Disarm am ent C o n fer en ce met
a t G eneva, S w it z e r la n d .
The m e e tin g r e p r e s e n t e d th e h ig h e s t
id e a li s m f o r p e a c e t h a t had y e t m a n if e s te d i t s e l f b e f o r e th e
w o r ld .
The a d m o n itio n s and e f f e c t s o f p u b lic o p in io n w ere
s t r o n g l y f e l t by th e d e l e g a t e s p r e s e n t .
Some e x p r e s s io n s o f
p u b lic o p in io n w ere b ro u g h t t o and e x p r e s s e d b e f o r e t h e
a s s e m b ly .
One a u t h o r i t y s t a t e s :
S en tim en t f o r p e a c e ( i n 1932} had so d e v e lo p e d
t h a t s k e p t i c s w ere co n fo u n d ed , th e c r i t i c s ig n o r e d ,
and f o r th e f i r s t tim e in t h e h i s t o r y o f m ankind,
th e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f c i v i l i z e d n a t io n s a ssem b led
t o c o n s id e r th e m a tte r o f a g e n e r a l t r e a t y f o r th e
r e d u c t io n o f arm am ents. 30
**9 John w . W h e e le r -B e n n e tt, The P ip e Dream o f P eace
(Hew York: W illia m Morrow and Company, 1 9 3 5 ) , p • 1 .
30 John E ugene H a r le y , Docum entary T extb ook on
I n t e m a 1 1o n a l R e la t io n s (L os A n g e le s , C a lif o r n ia :
S u t te n h o u s e , 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 6 2 3 .
99
The f i r s t s e s s i o n was op en ed b y A rthur H end erson o f
G reat B r i t a i n , t h e p r e s id e n t o f th e C o n fe r e n c e .
Two hundred
t h ir t y - t w o d e l e g a t e s r e p r e s e n t e d f i f t y - n i n e n a t i o n s .
In h i s
a d d r e s s o p en in g t h e C o n fer en ce P r e s id e n t H enderson s a i d among
o t h e r t h in g s :
. . . A ssem b led h e r e a r e th e c h o se n spokesm en o f s e v e n ­
te e n hundred m i l l i o n p e o p le . . . t h i s i s th e m ost im­
p o r t a n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l g a t h e r in g s i n c e t h e te r m in a tio n
o f t h e W orld War in 1 9 1 8 ,
What i s our ta s k ?
(a ) To a r r i v e a t a c o l l e c t i v e
agreem en t on an e f f e c t i v e programme o f p r a c t i c a l p r o ­
p o s a l s s p e e d i l y t o s e c u r e a s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t io n
and l i m i t a t i o n o f a l l n a t i o n a l ‘arm am ents; (b ) t o d e ­
te r m in e t h a t n o armaments may b e m a in ta in e d o u t s i d e
th e sc o p e o f t h a t t r e a t y by w h ich a l l n a t io n s r e p ­
r e s e n t e d h e r e a r e to make t h e a ch ie v em en t o f u n iv e r ­
s a l disarm am ent t h e i r common aim ; ( c ) t o in s u r e
c o n t i n u i t y o f a d v a n ce to w a rd s o u r ■ultim ate g o a l ,
w it h o u t d e t r a c t in g in any way from th e f u l l e s t
m easu re o f s u c c e s s o f ou r im m ed iate e f f o r t , by p la n ­
n in g th e h o ld in g o f s i m i l a r c o n f e r e n c e s a t r e a s o n a b ly
s h o r t i n t e r v a l s o f tim e .
The m aking o f su c h an in t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t y i n
r e a l i t y i n v o l v e s t h e w h o le i s s u e o f p e a c e and w ar.
. . * The w o r ld w a n ts d isa rm a m en t.
. . . Are we
r e a d y t o j o i n t o g e t h e r to s e i z e t h e o p p o r tu n ity —
w h i le i t i s y e t o u r s — t o le a d th e p e o p le s a n o th e r
s t a g e to w a rd s t h e h ig h t a b l e - l a n d o f p e a c e and
co o p e r a t io n ? 3 1
S a tu r d a y , F eb ru ary 6 , 1 9 3 2 , t h e program c a l l e d f o r an
e x t r a o r d in a r y s e s s i o n i n o r d e r t o a llo w many p e o p le sp ea k who
w ere n o t d e l e g a t e s o f th e C o n fer en ce b u t who c a r r ie d t h e e x ­
p r e s s i o n s o f p u b lic o p in io n from t h e i r ch o sen c o u n t r ie s and
31
Ibid., pp. 624-26.
100
c o n s titu e n ts .
Among t h e s e was M. M i l l e r , S e c r e t a r y o f th e
Disarm am ent C om m itfee o f th e C h r is t ia n I n t e r n a t i o n a l O rgan i­
z a t i o n s , who e x p r e s s e d th e r e l i g i o u s se n tim e n t o f th e o rg a n ­
iz e d r e l i g i o u s g ro u p s o f th e w orld *
32
t a n t rem arks f o llo w :
Some o f h i s m ost im por-
The Disarmament Com m ittee o f th e C h r is t ia n I n t e r ­
n a t i o n a l O r g a n iz a tio n s i s g la d to h a re t h i s oppor­
t u n i t y o f f o r m a lly p r e s e n t in g t o t h e C o n feren ce f o r
t h e R e d u c tio n and L im it a t io n o f Armaments a number o f
p e t i t i o n s and r e s o l u t i o n s w hich i t b e l i e v e s r e p r e s e n t
th e m oral and r e l i g i o u s c o n v ic t io n s o f i t s c o n s t i t u ­
e n t b o d ie s .
T h is group numbers in i t s m em bership th e U n iv e r s a l
C h r is t ia n C o u n c il f o r L i f e and Work, t h e World A l l i a n c e
f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l F r ie n d s h ip th ro u g h th e C h u rch es, th e
W orld’ s A l l i a n c e o f Young Men’ s C h r is t ia n A s s o c i a t i o n s ,
th e W orld’ s Young Women’ s C h r is t ia n A s s o c i a t i o n s , th e
World S tu d e n t C h r is t ia n F e d e r a t io n , th e F riem d ’ s I n t e r ­
n a t i o n a l S e r v i c e , and th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e llo w s h ip o f
R e c o n c ilia tio n .
. . .
We do in a b road w ay, r e p r e s e n t
th e i d e a l s , s e n t im e n t s , and common programme on b e h a lf o f
i n t e r n a t i o n a l p ea ce a n d 'f e llo w s h ip o f m ost o f th e C hurches
o f th e P r o t e s t a n t W orld, a la r g e p r o p o r tio n o f th e E a s te r n
O rthodox C hurch, t h e o ld C a th o lic C hurch, and h u n d red s
o f o r g a n iz a t io n s c o n n e c te d w ith th e l i f e o f t h e s e
Churches i n e v e r y c o n t in e n t . •
The d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s o f th e World War and o f th e
c o n tin u e d a n d , in d e e d in c r e a s e d menace o f armed c o n f l i c t
b etw een n a t io n s upon th e v e r y s t r u c t u r e o f our c i v i l i z a ­
t i o n h a v e c o m p e lle d t h e s e b o d ie s to a d d r e s s th e m s e lv e s
d i r e c t l y t o t h o s e trem endous p ro b lem s w hich h ave b rou ght
you h e r e .
T h is had b een done in t h r e e ways*: (1 ) our
o r g a n iz a t io n s have p rep a red f o r t h i s C o n feren ce by
p r a y e r and h a v e surrounded i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s w ith th e
same s p i r i t ; (2 } th e y h a v e s o u g h t, i n a l l c o n t in e n t s and
in alm o st e v e r y c o u n tr y , to s t im u la t e t h o s e e d u c a t io n a l
p r o c e s s e s w h ich w i l l , on t h e one h an d , b u ild up an e f ­
f e c t i v e p u b lic o p in io n in th e v a r io u s n a t io n s in th e
32
(IX .
Verbatim . R ecord s o f P le n a r y M e e t in g s , I , p p . 1 9 0 -9 3
D isarm am ent, 1 9 3 2 , IX , 60T^
101
su p p o r t o f tlie g r e a t p e a c e I d e a l to w h ich you a r e com­
m it t e d , and* on t h e o th e r hand, w i l l prod uce in th e
r i s i n g g e n e r a t io n s th o s e q u a l i t i e s o f c o u r a g e , co o p era ­
t i o n , and u n d e r s ta n d in g w hich a lo n e can f i n a l l y h a n ish
th e sp e c t r e e o f war; ( 3 ) we h a re en d ea v o red t o c o n fr o n t
th e p e o p le s and govern m en ts o f th e w orld w it h c l e a r and
u n e q u iv o c a l s t a te m e n t s o f C h r is t ia n p r i n c i p l e i n r e l a ­
t i o n t o t h e b a s ic i s s u e s u n d e r ly in g th e h e a v y r e s p o n s i­
b i l i t i e s o f t h i s C o n feren ce*
We have e x p r e s s io n s o f o p in io n from in n u m erab le i n ­
d iv id u a l c o n g r e g a t io n s ; and s e c o n d ly j from g r e a t i n t e r ­
n a t i o n a l Church b o d ie s such a s th e F e d e r a l C o u n c il o f
th e C hurches o f C h r is t i n A m erica, th e F rench P r o t e s t ­
a n t Church F e d e r a tio n , th e German Church F e d e r a t io n ,
th e Lambeth C o n fe r e n c e , th e N a tio n a l F r e e Church C o u n c il
o f E n g la n d , th e S w is s E v a n g e lic a l Church C o u n c il, th e
Butch Branch o f th e W orld A l l i a n c e , and th e C hurches o f
W ales and M onm outhshire . A l l o f t h e s e h ave e x p r e s s e d in
v a r y in g te r m s , th e same c o n f id e n t hope th a t i t may be
p o s s i b l e t o b r in g ab ou t im m e d ia te ly , a sp e e d y and e f ­
f e c t i v e r e d u c t io n in w o r ld arm am ents, such a s i s em­
b o d ie d i n th e f o llo w in g r e s o l u t i o n a d o p ted b y th e U n iv e r ­
s a l C h r is t ia n C o u n c il f o r L i f e and Work, w h ich i s i n ­
c lu d e d in th e p e t i t i o n we h ave th e honor t o l a y b e f o r e
you:
f;. . . I t b e g s th e C o n feren ce t o b r in g about an
e f f e c t i v e r e d u c t io n o f armaments on la n d , on s e a
and in th e a i r , i n a cc o rd a n c e w ith th e l e t t e r and
s p i r i t o f th e C ovenant o f th e League o f N a t io n s .
As r e c e n t l y a s S ep tem b er, 1 9 3 1 , th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l
C o u n c il o f th e World A llia n c e f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l F r ie n d ­
s h ip th ro u g h th e C h u rch es, a sse m b le d a t C am bridge,
E n g la n d , a s s e r t e d t h a t :
War, c o n s id e r e d a s an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r th e s e t t l e ­
ment o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s p u t e s , i s in c o m p a tib le w ith
th e m ind and method o f C h r is t and t h e r e f o r e i s i n ­
c o m p a tib le w ith t h e m ind and m ethod o f H is Church.
The I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c il d e c l a r e s t h a t i t i s th e
d u ty o f a l l C hurches to b r in g t h e i r u tm o st i n f l u e n c e
to b ea r upon th e World Disarmament C o n feren ce so t h a t
th e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f th e n a t io n s t h e r e may know
t h a t t h e r e l i g i o u s and m oral f o r c e s o f th e w o rld
demand su ch an i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreem ent a s w i l l b r in g
ab out (1 ) a s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t io n o f armaments in
102
e v e r y form ; (2 ) th e f i x i n g o f a s c a l e f o r th e
armed f o r c e s o f th e n a t io n s which, s h a l l he
e q u it a b le . . *; (3 } s e c u r i t y f o r a l l n a t io n s
a g a in s t a g g r e s s i o n * . . * *The C hurches to d a y
can co u n ten a n ce no o t h e r m ethods o f s e t t l i n g i n ­
t e r n a t i o n a l d is p u t e s o th e r th a n c o n c i l i a t i o n ,
a r b itr a tio n , or j u d ic ia l d e c is io n .
S i m i l a r l y , a t i t s r e c e n t t w e n t ie t h W orld’ s C o n feren ce
h e ld a t C le v e la n d , O h io, th e W orld’ s A l l i a n c e o f Young
M en's C h r is t ia n A s s o c i a t i o n s , r e p r e s e n t in g a m em bership
o f more th a n on e and o n e - h a l f m i l l i o n men and b o y s ,
u n a n im o u sly e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f in t h e f o llo w in g term s:
. . . The C o n fer en ce c a l l s upon th e N a tio n a l
A l l i a n c e s to b r in g f u l l w e ig h t t o b ea r upon th e
fo r th c o m in g Disarmam ent C o n feren ce to s e c u r e an
a c t u a l and c o n s id e r a b le r e d u c t io n and l i m i t a t i o n
o f armaments * . .
At t h e same tim e th e C o n feren ce a f f ir m s t h a t i t
i s a C h r is t ia n d u ty to s t r i v e w ith hope tow ard s
th e g o a l o f t o t a l disarm am ent and t h e e lim in a t io n
o f t h e c a u s e s o f f e a r and f r i c t i o n *
F i n a l l y , th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n fer en ce o f t h e S o c i e t y
o f F r ie n d s , h e ld i n P a r is l a s t N ovem ber, a ffir m e d t h a t :
. * * For th e u lt i m a t e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s p rob lem o f
disarm am ent we lo o k t o t h e grow th o f th e s p i r i t and
p r a c t i c e o f c o o p e r a tio n and t h e d evelop m en t o f i n t e r ­
n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , b e l i e v i n g t h a t in t h i s p r o c e s s ,
arm am ents w i l l becom e o b s o l e t e and co m p le te disarms**
ment an i n e v i t a b l e r e a l i t y *
. . * We, t h e r e f o r e ,
lo o k to t h e fo r th c o m in g C o n fer en ce to d is r e g a r d t h e
p r e s s u r e o f armament i n t e r e s t s and t o s e c u r e d r a s t i c
c u r t a ilm e n t o f armed p r e p a r a t io n .
The f o r e g o in g summary o f p u b lic pronouncem ents o f
C h r is t ia n b o d ie s , r e p r e s e n t in g v a r io u s d e n o m in a tio n s ,
c o n f e s s i o n s , n a t io n s and r a c e s , i n d i c a t e s c l e a r l y t h a t
C h r is t ia n s a l l o v er th e w o r ld , a r e k e e n ly aware o f t h e
momentous, s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s C o n feren ce* There i s
h a r d ly a n a t io n r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e w h ich h a s n o t con­
t r ib u t e d t o t h e ch o ru s o f C h r is t ia n v o i c e s w h ich u r g e
and demand an e q u it a b le and u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p ta b le
s o l u t i o n o f t h e p rob lem o f arm am ents. C le r g y and l a i t y
o f th e C h r is t ia n C h u rch es, a s w e l l a s le a d e r s o f i n t e r ­
n a t i o n a l C h r is t ia n m ovem ents, h a v e e x p r e s s e d th e m s e lv e s
105
i n u n m ista k a b le la n g u a g e a s a d v o c a te s o f a t r u l y
p e a c e f u l w o rld b a se d on j u s t i c e and la w r a t h e r
than on power and v i o l e n c e .
. . .
We a r e w o rk in g
f o r a w orld o r d e r i n w h ich t h e u s e o f armaments w i l l
b e b o th u n n e c e s s a r y and: u n j u s t i f i a b l e . And we a l l
b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s C o n feren ce can and m ust make an
im p o r ta n t a d v a n ce tow ard s t h a t g o a l .
. . .
As we t r y t o s e e th e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n
r e a l i s t i c a l l y , we f in d t h a t th e C o n fer en ce m eets in
an a tm o sp h ere o f w id e sp r e a d u n c e r t a in t y and p e ss im is m .
T h is p e s sim is m i s u n f o r t u n a t e ly e a s i l y to b e e x p la in e d
a s a r e s u l t o f t h e t e n s i o n b etw een n a t i o n s and c l a s s e s
and now more e s p e c i a l l y o f t h a t b re a c h o f t h e p e a c e
w hich w e ig h s s o h e a v i l y upon a l l our h e a r t s . We w o u ld ,
h o w ev er, u r g e t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y b r in g s a m essa g e o f
hope . . .
The C a t h o lic Church was r e p r e s e n t e d b y Madame
S te e n b e r g h e -E n g e r in g h , P r e s id e n t o f th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l U nion
o f C a t h o lic Women's L e a g u e s.
d e l e g a t e s and s a id :
She l i k e w i s e sp o k e b e f o r e t h e
33
I t i s t h e tw o f o ld c a p a c it y o f members o f t h e g r e a t
human f a m ily and o f C a t h o lic s t h a t th e t w e n t y - f iv e
m i l l i o n C a t h o lic women, r e p r e s e n t e d b y f i f t y - f o u r
women's le a g u e s b e lo n g in g to t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l U nion
o f C a t h o lic Women1s L e a g u e s, t o g e t h e r w it h th e C a th o lic
men and women from v a r io u s c o u n t r ie s who h a v e a sk ed
th e League to r e p r e s e n t them h e r e , a r e r e s o lv e d t o c o l ­
la b o r a t e a c t i v e l y in th e ca u se o f p e a c e .
The v a r io u s r e s o l u t i o n s s ig n e d by t h e o r g a n is a t io n s
in v a r io u s c o u n t r ie s w h ich we h a v e t h e honor t o l a y
b e f o r e t h i s a u g u st a sse m b ly a r e e v id e n c e o f th e d e­
te r m in a tio n o f t h e women and o t h e r C a t h o lic s whom we
r e p r e s e n t h e r e t o p u r su e t h e m is s io n o f p e a c e in a
s p i r i t o f c h a r i t y , t h e o n ly b a s i s on w h ich p e a c e can
be f ir m ly fo u n d ed , t o b r in g a b o u t th e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f
t h e s p i r i t u a l f o r c e o f arm s, in o b e d ie n c e to t h e i n ­
j u n c t io n s t o b e found in t h e P o n t i f i c a l 1 docum ents
d e a lin g w ith t h i s s u b j e c t .
35
Yerbatim H ecords, op. c i t . , p. 190.
104
That I s why, b e l i e v i n g t h a t th e s im u lta n e o u s and
g e n e r a l r e d u c t io n o f armaments i s in d is p e n s a b le i f
p e a c e i s t o b e a c h ie v e d , we a d ju r e th e d e l e g a t e s to
th e p r e s e n t C o n feren ce t o r e a l i z e t h e ir r e s p o n s i­
b i l i t i e s and n o t t o s e p a r a t e w ith o u t h a v in g a g r e e d
to an a p p r e c ia b le r e d u c t io n o f armaments*
M. M uller* s n o t e o f p e s s im is m and d e s p a ir , i n t h e
c o u r s e o f h i s s t r o n g p r e s e n t a t io n o f u n d e n ia b le i d e a l i s m , i s
r e -e c h o e d i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f a c r i t i c a l o b s e r v e r o f th e h i s 34
t o r i c C o n fe r e n c e . S a y s t h i s com m entator:
The s t o r y o f t h e Disarmament C o n feren ce i s a
t r a g i c o n e , n o t o n ly because" o f i t s r e c o r d o f op por­
t u n i t i e s m is s e d and g e n u in e ly w e ll-m e a n t i n t e n t i o n s
m isu n d e r sto o d , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e i t r e p r e s e n t s th e
se co n d g r e a t d is ill u s io n m e n t w h ich we o f t h e p r e s^
e n t g e n e r a t io n h a v e s u f f e r e d in t h e l a s t f i f t e e n
y e a r s . Our f i r s t h ig h hopes- t h a t a new and b e t t e r
w o r ld -o r d e r w ould b e e v o lv e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e
G reat War w ere s h a t t e r e d a s t h e c o u r s e o f th e P ea ce
C o n fer en ce made i t c l e a r t h a t n o th in g had r e a l l y
ch a n g ed , and t h a t th e o ld Adam o f b i t t e r n e s s was
t o o s t r o n g f o r th e young s p i r i t o f under s t a n d in g .35
II.
DENOMINATIONAL ACTIVITIES
I t can b e s a id t h a t t h e c o r p o r a te mind o f t h e C hurches
o f A m erica h a s b e e n e x p r e s s e d b y l e a d e r s and laym en in com­
p l e t e l y r e p u d ia t in g war a s u n c h r is t ia n and p le d g in g t h a t th e
C hurch, a s an a g e n c y , w i l l n o t su p p o r t war a g a in .
Do t h e C hu rches mean b u s i n e s s i n t h e i r o p p o s i t io n to
34
35
W h e e le r ~ B e n n e tt, o p . p i t . , p r e f a c e , p . x i i i .
Loc. c i t .
105
war?
One w ould c o n c lu d e t h a t th e y d id from t h e amount o f
e d u c a t io n a l a c t i v i t y and o t h e r means u se d t o sp re a d th e p e a c e
i d e a l and t o p o p u la r iz e t h e i r new a t t i t u d e .
W h ile a l l denom­
i n a t i o n s do n o t en g a g e i n program s and cam paigns f o r p e a c e
h u t r a t h e r su p p o rt t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c il in i t s e x p r e s s io n
and e d u c a t io n a l program , y e t t h o s e who a r e l a r g e r and t o t h e
f o r e f r o n t i n e v a n g e l i z a t i o n and i n t e r e s t in s o c i a l q u e s t i o n s ,
c a r r y on i n t e n s i v e , e x t e n s i v e and i n s i s t e n t work in th e i n ­
t e r e s t o f t h e a c c e p ta n c e o f th e p e a c e i d e a l i n t h e m inds o f
an e v e r g r o w in g m ass o f i n d i v i d u a l s b o th w i t h i n and w ith o u t
t h e C hurch.
An e x a m in a tio n o f t h e M e th o d ist Church* s p ea ce p r o ­
gram, p r o v id e s m ute e v id e n c e o f i t s s i n c e r i t y o f b e l i e f and
s o l i d n e s s o f c o n v i c t i o n i n i t s new a t t i t u d e tow ard p e a c e .
So t h a t t h e e f f o r t s o f a l l t h e l o c a l M e th o d ist
C hurches m ig h t b e c o o r d in a te d and t o g iv e h e lp and le n d m oral
su p p o rt to a l l p e a c e a c t i v i t i e s o f th e l o c a l ch u rch , a Com­
m is s io n on World P e a c e was e s t a b l i s h e d in 1932 c o n s i s t i n g
o f te n p e r so n s.
The program o f th e M e th o d ist Church a s r e p ­
r e s e n t e d by t h i s Com m ission i s a s f o l l o w s :
I.
A v ig o r o u s program o f e d u c a tio n t o c o n s i s t o f :
A.
M a t e r ia ls to m eet th e n e e d s o f l o c a l ch u rch es
1 . I n e x p e n s iv e l e a f l e t s f o r u s e in p u l p i t ,
a d u lt c l a s s e s , y o u th grou p s
2* L o ca l church o r g a n iz a t io n ; r e l a t e d to
Community P ea c e C o u n c ils and t o N a t io n a l
P eace O r g a n iz a tio n s
3 . F e llo w s h ip o f p e r s o n s who h a v e ta k en t h e i r
s ta n d a g a in s t war
106
4 . I n t e r p r e t i v e s e r v i c e through, b u l l e t i n s
and th e r e l i g i o u s p r e s s
II.
III.
IV .
Y.
B.
A f i e l d program o f se m in a rs and c o n f e r e n c e s
f o r l e a d e r s o f e v a n g e lis m f o r p e a c e ( m in is ­
t e r s and o t h e r s ) .
C.
L i t e r a t u r e on war and p e a c e f o r laym en and
m in i s t r y
S u p p ort o f C o n s c ie n t io u s O b je c to r s
A.
I n s i s t e n c e upon freed om o f c o n s c ie n c e and
t h e r i g h t s o f c o n s c ie n t i o u s o b j e c t o r s to
m ilit a r y s e r v ic e
B.
P e t i t i o n i n g t h e U n ite d S t a t e s Government to
g r a n t ex e m p tio n o f M e th o d ists from m i l i t a r y
s e r v i c e a s f o r S o c i e t y o f F r ie n d s and o t h e r s
Sup port o f Y outh
A.
S u p p o r ts p e a c e program s o f t h e N a t io n a l
C o u n c il o f M e th o d ist Y outh; Fpworth L e a g u e s,
and W esley F o u n d a tio n s
B.
A p p roval and su p p o r t o f d e m o n s tr a tio n s
a g a in s t war
C.
S u p p o rt o f p ea ce w o rk ers in v a r io u s s t a t e s
a tte m p tin g t o g a in p e a c e en d s th rou gh
p o l i t i c a l a c tio n
S u p p o rt o f o r g a n iz a t io n s o f f e l l o w s h i p s i n t h e
l o c a l c h u rch es who h ave ta k en d e f i n i t e sta n d f o r
p eace
C arry on l e g i s l a t i v e , p o l i t i c a l program and lo b b y
f o r p e a c e .36
The Q uakers, o r S o c i e t y t o F r ie n d s , w ith a p a c i f i s t
h i s t o r y a s lo n g a s t h e r e l i g i o u s s e c t h a s b een i n e x i s t e n c e ,
36
C h a r le s F . B o s s , J r . , e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y , The
G e n e r a l C o n feren ce Com m ission on World P e a c e o f t h e M e th o d ist
F p is c o p a l C hurch, 1 9 3 6 .
( L e a f le tT ]
107
c o n s t a n t ly and i n s i s t e n t l y , u nd er g i r d s i t s pronouncem ent and
a t t i t u d e s o f p e a c e w ith a y e a r ly p e a c e program .
The m ost
n o te d f a c t o r in th e Quaker p e a c e propaganda i s t h e a c t i v i t y
and e a r n e s t n e s s o f t h e "P eace C a ra v a n er s."
Under th e a u s p ic e s o f t h e Am erican F r ie n d s S e r v ic e
C om m ittee, p ea ce c a r a v a n tea m s a r e s e n t a l l o v e r th e U n ite d
S ta te s.
T h is p r a c t i c e h a s been in e x i s t e n c e s in c e 1927 and
h a s f u n c t io n e d e v e r s i n c e .
A "caravan* i s com posed o f tw o
h oys o r two g i r l s who a r e s t u d e n t s o f a c o l l e g e o r u n iv e r ­
s i t y who d e v o te th e summers to m e e tin g g ro u p s and i n d i v i d u a l s
in an en d eavor t o t h in k th ro u g h w ith them some o f the: p ro b ­
lem s in v o lv e d i n c r e a t i n g a t t i t u d e s and e s t a b l i s h i n g p e a c e ­
f u l p r o c e s s e s w h ich w i l l e lim in a t e w a r.
C ara v a n ers a r e q u a l i f i e d t o sp eak b e f o r e C hurches,
C iv ic C lu b s, G ran ges, Camps, D a ily V a c a tio n B ib le S c h o o ls ,
Young P e o p le rs M e e tin g s and o t h e r g r o u p s .
P erhaps t h e m ost
v a lu a b le c o n t r ib u t io n i s made th ro u g h a s s i s t i n g m i n i s t e r s ,
t e a c h e r s , l i b r a r i a n s and d i s c u s s i o n group le a d e r s in p la n n in g
m e e t in g s , working: up e x h i b i t s , and o u t l i n i n g program s w ith
an i n t e r n a t i o n a l th em e.
The a d d i t i o n a l work o f t h i s r e l i g i o u s group l i e s in
w id e sp r e a d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e d e s ig n e d to be read
e a s i l y , q u ic k ly , and a r r a n g e d i n a v e r y c o n v e n ie n t s i z e so
108
t h a t i t may b e s lip p e d in t o a p o c k e t , handbag, e tc #
37
The work o f th is : s e c t i s n o t glam orou s n o r fla m b o y a n t
in an y s e n s e , w h ich i s i n k e e p in g w ith \ t a p h ilo s o p h y , b u t i t
i s i n s i s t e n t and none th e l e s s g e n u in e in i t s com p osu re.
The s p i r i t u a l grow th o f th e c a r a v a n e r s p lu s t h e s t im u lu s
w hich th e y c r e a t e f o r f i n e r t h in k in g and more r e s o l u t e p u r­
p o s e on th e p a r t o f t h o s e th e y m e e t, c o n s t i t u t e the w e a lth
and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i t s program f o r p ea ce*
Of th e U n it a r ia n c h u r c h e s , w h ich a r e c l a s s e d w it h t h e
s o - c a l l e d " fr e e " or " l i b e r a l " g r o u p s, no d e f i n i t e program o f
m ethod o r te c h n iq u e i s in d ic a t e d i n t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e #
The
D epartm ent o f S o c i a l R e la t io n s o f th e A m erican U n ita r ia n
A s s o c ia t i o n in n o way " b in d s" th e l o c a l ch u rch es o r t h e i r
e x i s t a n t o r n o n e x is t e n t s o c i a l p ro g ra m s.
R e la t iv e to war
and p e a c e th e D epartm ent o f S o c i a l R e la t io n s s u g g e s t s i d e a l s
and sta n d a r d s t o be s o u g h t and ad hered to b y th e l o c a l
c h u r c h e s and i n d i c a t e s r a t h e r g e n e r a l , l a r g e - a r e a , a l l i n c l u s i v e t e c h n iq u e s to h e u s e d .
I t i s e n t ir e ly l e f t to
th e judgm ent o f th e l o c a l church a s to th e e x t e n t o f s e r v i c e
and a c t i v i t y i t e x e r t s o r s p r e a d s .
The s u g g e s t io n s o f f e r e d
b y t h e . c e n t r a l body a s s t e p s tow ard e l im i n a t in g war and
s o l i c i t i n g peace are:
P ea ce C a r a v a n e r s, B u l l e t i n No. 9 5 , A m erican
F rien d s* S e r v ic e C om m ittee, P h ila d e lp h ia , n*d#
109
1*
E v ery p o s s i b l e a id s h o u ld be g iv e n t o i n t e r ­
n a t io n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
2.
S u p p ort a l l m ea su res l o r im m ediate u n iv e r s a l
r e d u c t io n o f armament.
3.
Oppose a l l i n c r e a s e o f armaments i n th e U n ite d
S ta te s.
4.
H elp to e s t a b l i s h n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f arms manu­
f a c t u r e and s t r i c t i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l o f arms
tr a ffic .
5.
S t r i v e to a b o l i s h com p u lsory m i l i t a r y t r a in in g
in s c h o o ls and c o l l e g e s .
6.
Work f o r abandonment o f econom ic im p e r ia lis m .
7*
S t r i v e f o r l e g i s l a t i o n g r a n t in g ex em p tio n to con ­
s c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t o r s from c a r r y in g arms in tim e
o f p e a c e o r war . 38
T hese la u d a b le p ron oun cem ents and o b j e c t i v e s a r e to
be re a ch ed by:
1.
The p r e a c h in g and t e a c h in g o f th e m i n i s t e r .
2*
R e l i g i o u s e d u c a t io n p r im a r ily th rou gh ch u rch
s c h o o ls .
3.
D e v e lo p in g a s o c i a l co n cern th r o u g h p e o p le 9s
o r g a n iz a tio n s .
a.
b.
c.
The A llia n c e
Young P e o p le ' s R e l i g i o u s U nion
Laymen1s le a g u e .3 9
In t o t o , th e program o f t h i s Church i s t o b e r e a c h e d
b y e d u c a t io n a l m ethods* th e d e t a i l s and e x t e n t o f w h ich a r e
38 Program o f S o c i a l A c t io n , Am erican U n it a r ia n
A s s o c i a t i o n , B o s to n , 1 9 3 4 .
( L e a f l e t .)
39 R obert C. D e x te r , The S o c i a l O b lig a t io n o f L ib e r a l
R e li g io n (B o s to n : A m erican U n it a r ia n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 5 ),
pam phlet N o. 3 3 5 , p . 7 3 .
110
in th e hands o f t h e l o c a l le a d e r s h ip *
To h e s u r e , th e c e n ­
t r a l D epartm ent o f S o c i a l R e la t io n s a s s i s t s w ith s u g g e s t i o n s ,
l i t e r a t u r e , and m oral and s p i r i t u a l s u p p o r t.
The d e n o m in a tio n a l group o f " D is c ip le s " or th e
" C h r is tia n C hurch," i n a d d it io n to th e many a c t i v i t i e s f o r
p e a c e c a r r ie d on b y and from i t s D epartm ent o f S o c i a l Edu­
c a t i o n and S o c i a l A c t io n , s o u g h t, i n 1934 a t i t s I n t e r ­
n a t i o n a l C o n v en tio n h e ld in D es M o in e s, Iow a, t o e n l i s t b y
p o s i t i v e com m itm ent, e v e r y p e r s o n p ersu a d ed t h a t p e a c e w as
t h e w ay o f C h r is t r a t h e r th a n w a r.
The C ovenant o f th e
D i s c i p l e s * P ea ce F e llo w s h ip f o l l o w s :
We b e l i e v e t h a t war i s p a g a n , f u t i l e and d e s t r u c ­
t i v e o f th e s p i r i t u a l v a lu e s f o r w hich t h e Church
o f C h r is t s t a n d s . We a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s a
v i o l a t i o n o f th e s o le m n ly p le d g e d word g iv e n by th e
U n ite d S t a t e s and o t h e r n a t i o n s in th e P a c t o f P a r i s ,
w h ich b in d s th e h ig h c o n t r a c t in g p a r t i e s t o ren o u n ce
w ar and n e v e r a g a in t o s e e k th e s o l u t i o n o f i n t e r ­
n a t i o n a l d is p u t e b y any e x c e p t p a c i f i c m eans. As
D i s c i p l e s o f C h r is t we t h e r e f o r e d i s a s s o c i a t e o u r­
s e l v e s from war and th e war s y s te m , and h ere b y s e r v e
n o t i c e t o whom i t may c o n c e r n t h a t we n e v e r a g a in
e x p e c t to b l e s s o r s a n c t io n a n o th e r w ar, . . •
And in o r d e r t o s u s t a in ea ch o t h e r in c a r r y in g o u t
th e se p u rp o ses.
"WE DO SOLEMNLY co v en a n t t o g e t h e r to u s e o u r p ow ers
t o th e u t t e r m o s t , to prom ote p ea ce and t o o p p o se
war now and a lw a y s ."
We p r o p o se t o c a r r y o u t t h i s co v e n a n t f o r th e a b o l i ­
t i o n o f war by f o s t e r i n g good w i l l among n a t i o n s , r a c e s ,
and c l a s s e s , by o p p o sin g m i l i t a r y p r e p a r a t io n s ;
By s t r i v i n g t o b u ild a s o c i a l o r d e r w h ich w i l l r e ­
move th e c a u se s o f war;
Ill
By r e s i s t i n g t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f in d i v i d u a l groups
f o r p r o f i t o r n a t i o n a l a g g ra n d izem en t;
By s u p p o r tin g su ch m ethods o f d e a lin g w ith o f f e n d e r s
a g a in s t s o c i e t y a s w i l l tr a n sfo r m th e w r o n g -d o e r , r a t h e r
than i n f l i c t r e t r i b u t i v e p u n ish m en t.
By s t r i v i n g to m a n if e s t r e s p e c t f o r p e r s o n a l i t y in
a l l r e l a t i o n s o f l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y in t h e home, in edu­
c a t i o n , and in a s s o c i a t i o n w ith t h o s e o f o t h e r c l a s s e s ,
n a t i o n a l i t i e s and r a c e s .
By a v o id in g b i t t e r n e s s and c o n t e n t io n and m a in ta in ­
in g th e s p i r i t o f s e l f - g i v i n g l o v e , in th e s t r u g g le to
a c h ie v e t h e s e p u r p o s e s .
And by s e e k in g t o p r o v id e f e l l o w s h i p and su p p o r t
f o r th o s e who f o r c o n s c ie n c e sa k e may be c o m p e lle d
to s u ffe r fo r th e se p r in c ip le s .
Among th e c h u rch es who h a v e b een e s p e c i a l l y a c t i v e
and d e f i n i t e i n t h e i r ''p eace a c t i o n , ” i . e . ,
a s p e c if ic p ro­
gram o f c r y s t a l l i z i n g p e a c e a t t i t u d e s in p e o p l e ' s m in d s, a r e
th e C o n g r e g a tio n a l and C h r is t ia n C h u rch es, com bined a s th e y
a r e u nd er a G en era l C o u n c il.
P erhaps n o t s i n c e th e w id e ­
sp rea d p o p u la r i z a t io n o f th e p e a c e m ovem ent, h a s any one
s i n g l e t a c t i c b een so r e v e a li n g and f r u i t f u l a s t h e P ea ce
P l e b i s c i t e t h a t t h e s e C hu rches sp o n so red and c o n d u c te d .
When th e G en era l C o u n c il o f C o n g r e g a tio n a l and
C h r is t ia n C hurches m et a t O b e r lin , O h io , in J u n e , 1 9 3 4 , i t
was v o te d to t a k e a P eace P l e b i s c i t e o f a l l who w ould i n d i ­
c a t e t h e i r c o n v ic t io n s by m arking a b a l l o t *
40
T h is was
The C ovenant o f th e D i s c i p l e s * P ea ce F e llo w s h ip ,
I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n v e n tio n , D es M oin es, Io w a , O ctober SO, 19 3 4 .
( P e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e .)
112
sp o n so r e d “by th e D epartm ent o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e la t io n s f o r
S o c i a l A c t io n .
The a c t u a l -votin g was t o be done in a l l
C o n g r e g a tio n a l and C h r is t ia n C hurches o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s
from November 3 to 1 0 , 1 9 3 5 .
I t s p u rp o se w as t o d eterm in e
th e mind o f th e p e o p le o f th e d en o m in a tio n s on th e i s s u e o f
war and p e a c e .
The "Department." f e l t
th a t enough r e s o l u ­
t i o n s had b een p a s s e d and t h a t t h i s avenue w as a c o n c r e t e
m ethod o f i ll u m in a t i n g th e problem and i t s im p o rta n ce b e f o r e
a l a r g e group o f A m erican c i t i z e n s .
I n round num bers, SO0*000 b a l l o t s w ere c a s t .
41
P e o p le
from a l l w a lk s o f l i f e p a r t i c i p a t e d and no on e b elo w th e age
o f f i f t e e n , w as p e r m itte d to v o t e .
S e c t io n "A" o f th e b a l l o t
p e r t a in e d to p e r s o n a l su p p o rt o f w ar, w h ile S e c t io n "B" gave
th e v o t e r o p p o r tu n ity to s t a t e w hat p o l i c i e s he w as r e a d y t o
su p p o r t in th e i n t e r e s t o f w o rld p e a c e .
The q u e s t io n s and
r e s u l t s a re a s fo llo w s :
S e c t io n A
1 . I b e l i e v e a s a C h r is t ia n I sh o u ld b ea r arms in or
o t h e r w is e su p p o rt an y war w h ich th e U n ite d S t a t e s
governm ent may d e c l a r e .
1 0 ,3 0 1 or 6 p er c e n t
2 . I b e l i e v e a s a C h r is t ia n I sh o u ld b e a r arms in or
o t h e r w is e su p p o r t an y war d e c la r e d b y th e U n ite d
S t a t e s governm ent a g a in s t an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y
r e c o g n iz e d a g g r e s s o r .
5 ,7 5 1 or 4 p er c e n t
41
"A m ericat s F i r s t P ea ce P l e b i s c i t e , " S o c i a l A c t io n ,
N o, IE , 1 : 1 0 , December 2 6 , 1 9 3 5 .
113
3* I b e l i e v e a s a C h r is t ia n I sh o u ld h ea r arms in or
o t h e r w is e su p p o r t o n ly a war d e c la r e d by th e
U n ite d S t a t e s governm ent a f t e r m aking u tm o st u s e
o f e v e r y a g en cy f o r p ea ce*
6 9 ,8 8 8 or 42 p er c e n t
4 . I b e l i e v e a s a C h r is t ia n I sh o u ld b ea r arms in or
o th e r w is e su p p o rt o n ly a war i n w h ich U n ite d S t a t e s
t e r r i t o r y h a s been, in vaded*
5 5 ,0 8 7 or 3 3 p er c e n t
5* I b e l i e v e a s a C h r is t ia n I sh o u ld b e a r arms in , or
o t h e r w is e su p p o rt no war w biph '.the U n ite d S t a t e s
governm ent may d e c la r e *
2 4 ,6 6 7 or 15 p er c e n t
S e c t io n B
1 . I w i l l work f o r p ea ce by a d v o c a t in g f o r o u r co u n tr y
m em bership in th e League o f N a tio n s* •
Y es: 7 0 ,4 1 1
No:
8 9 ,6 6 1
2 * I w i l l work f o r p ea ce by a .d v o c a tin g f o r ou r co u n tr y
c o n s u l t a t i o n w it h o th e r n a t i o n s i n su p p o r t o f th a
K e llo g g P a c t and o t h e r p e a c e a g r e e m e n ts.
Y es: 1 3 4 ,2 2 1
No:
1 8 ,8 5 1
3 . I w i l l work f o r p ea ce b y a d v o c a tin g f o r o u r c o u n tr y
n a t i o n a l i s o l a t i o n through s t r i c t n e u t r a l i t y
le g is la tio n .
Y es: 8 3 ,6 8 2 .
No:
5 4 ,7 8 6
4 . I w i l l work f o r p ea ce b y a d v o c a t in g f o r o u r c o u n tr y
more e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w o rld r e s o u r c e s and
m a r k e ts.
Y es: 1 2 1 ,5 8 1
No:
2 2 ,9 5 6
5* I w i l l work f o r p ea ce b y a d v o c a tin g f o r o u r c o u n tr y
a l a r g e r arm y, n a v y , and a i r f o r c e .
Y es: 6 4 ,4 3 2
No: 8 5 ,5 8 5
6 . I w i l l w ork f o r p e a c e b y a d v o c a t in g f o r o u r c o u n tr y
th e a b o l i t i o n o f co m p u lso ry m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g .
Y es: 9 9 ,3 5 0
• No: 5 4 ,8 8 4
7 . I w i l l work f o r p e a c e b y a d v o c a t in g f o r o u r c o u n tr y
governm ent c o n t r o l o f th e m u n itio n s in d u s t r y .
Y es: 1 4 4 ,0 3 0
No:
1 6 ,8 4 7 4 ^
42
Ibid., pp. 12-22.
114
There e a r b e no doubt t h a t t h i s a c t i v i t y l e d t o some
c l e a r t h in k in g and c l a r i f i e d some i s s u e s in th e m inds o f
p e o p le *
I t s r e s u l t s show t h a t C h r is t ia n s a r e n o t unanim ous
n o r n ea r-u n a n im o u s i n t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to m a n if e s t th e
C h r is t ia n p h ilo s o p h y o f p ea ce a t a l l t im e s .
T h eir v o t e d o e s
n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y a r e r e a d y o r w i l l i n g to o u tla w war
c o m p le t e ly and th o r o u g h ly b y s u b m it tin g t h e C h r is t ia n s ta n d ­
a rd o f p e a c e f o r th e b a r b a r ia n sta n d a r d o f f o r c e and v i o l e n c e .
But t h i s a c t i o n was o f enorm ous s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .
T h is d e n o m in a tio n r e v e a le d b y a c t i o n i t s avowed b e l i e f in th e
m eaning and i n t e n t o f i t s pronouncem ent a g a i n s t w ar.
u la t e d o t h e r gro u p s to i d e n t i c a l c o n d u c t.
I t s t im ­
One r e q u e s t f o r i n ­
fo r m a tio n and b a l l o t s w ere s e n t by t h e N o rth ern B a p t is t Commis­
s io n on C h r is t ia n S o c i a l A c t io n and a n o th e r b y a r e l i g i o u s
c o u n c il I n c lu d in g C a t h o l i c s , J ew s, B u d d h is ts , and P r o t e s t a n t s .
The P r o t e s t a n t Church h a s n o t c o n s t i t u t e d th e w h ole
p e a c e movement among t h e c h u r c h e s n o r h a s i t d om inated th e
scen e o f a c t i v i t i e s *
The C a t h o lic Church a s w e l l a s th e
J ew ish b r e th r e n h ave v o ic e d th e m s e iv e s a s p e a c e a d h e r e n t s .
D uring th e World Ifar t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f e l t by th e
C a t h o lic Church f o r w o rld p e a c e w as s e v e r a l t im e s g iv e n e x ­
p r e s s i o n in m e ssa g e s from t h e P o p e, an d in h i s r e p e a te d e f ­
f o r t t o b r in g about c e s s a t i o n o f h o s t i l i t i e s .
43
One o f t h e
S o c i a l A c t io n , N o. 9 , 1 :2 7 ,, November 1 , 1 9 3 5 .
4 .S
n o t a b le p ron oun cem ents w as t h i s o f P iu s XI i n h i s F i r s t
E n c y c lic a l:
The Church i s t h e te a c h e r and exam ple o f w o rld good ­
w i l l , f o r she. i s a b le t o i n c u l c a t e and d e v e lo p in mank in d th e t r u e s p i r i t o f b r o t h e r ly l o v e . The P ea ce o f
C h r is t i n th e Kingdom, o f C h r is t . W ith m ight and main
we s h a l l e v e r s t r i v e t o b r in g a b o u t t h i s p e a c e .
. . .
We a s k t h a t a l l a s s i s t and c o o p e r a te w it h u s i n th is :
Our m i s s i o n . 44
The s u b j e c t o f p e a c e w as a c o n s ta n t them e o f P iu s X I.
A g a in i n h i s C h ristm a s a l l o c u t i o n to th e C o lle g e o f C a r d in a ls
on December £ 4 , 193Q, th e P o n t i f f e n j o in e d a l l t o work f o r
p eace.
He s a id :
The g lo r y and t h e d u ty o f t h i s a p o s t o l a t e o f p e a c e
b e lo n g p r i n c i p a l l y t o Hs and t o a l l c a l l e d to b e m in­
i s t e r s o f t h e Cod o f p e a c e . But h e r e i s a v a s t and
g l o r i o u s f i e l d f o r a l l th e C a t h o lic l a i t y , t o o , whom
on and a sk t o sh a r e in th e h i e r A gain i n h i s a p o s t o l i c l e t t e r , Nova Inxpendet, o f
O cto b er £ , 1 9 3 1 , t h e P o n t i f f a t ta c k e d v i g o r o u s l y th e p e r i l to
p e a c e in arm am ents, and e x h o r te d t h e b is h o p s o f th e C a th o lic
w o rld t o u s e a l l p o s s i b l e means to e d u c a te in th e way o f r e a ­
s o n , la w , and p e a c e , and to p o in t th e way to t h e i r p e o p le s t o
46
a p e a c e f u l e s c a p e from t h e p r e s e n t w o rld c r i s i s .
To f u r t h e r t h e ob j e c t s and p u r p o s e s o f w o r ld p e a c e , in
B o e c k e l, o p . c i t • , p p. 8 5 - 8 6 .
Roe me r and E l l i s , The C a t h o lic Church and P eace
Efforts, p. 57
116
a c c o r d w ith t h e t e a c h in g s o f t h i s f a i t h ,
th e r e grew o u t o f
th e E u c h a r i s t i c C o n g ress i n C h ica g o , J u n e , 1 9 2 6 , th e form a­
t i o n o f th e C a t h o lic A s s o c ia t i o n f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l P eace*
T h is took: p la c e i n A p r i l , 1 9 2 7 .
T h is i s an a s s o c i a t i o n o f C a t h o lic s i n t e r e s t e d in
peace.
I t came i n t o e x i s t e n c e t o h e lp mold im erica m p u b lic
o p in io n , e s p e c i a l l y C a t h o l i c s .
I t s e e k s t h e m em bership o f
a l l C a t h o lic s d e s i r i n g p e a c e .
The o b j e c t s and p u r p o se s o f th e o r g a n iz a t io n a r e :
1.
To s t u d y , d is s e m in a t e and a p p ly th e p r i n c i p l e s o f
n a t u r a l law and C h r is t ia n c h a r it y to i n t e r n a t i o n a l
p ro b lem s o f th e day;
2.
To c o n s id e r th e m oral and l e g a l a s p e c t s o f any a c t i o n
w hich may b e p ro p o sed o r a d v o c a te d in t h e i n t e r ­
n a tio n a l sp h ere;
3.
To exam in e and c o n s id e r i s s u e s w hich b e a r upon
i n t e r n a t i o n a l good w i l l ;
4.
To en co u ra g e th e fo r m a tio n o f c o n f e r e n c e s , l e c t u r e s ,
and s tu d y c i r c l e s ;
5.
To i s s u e r e p o r t s on q u e s t io n s o f i n t e r n e t i o n a l im­
p o r ta n c e ;
6.
To f u r t h e r , i n c o o p e r a tio n w it h s im ila r C a t h o lic
o r g a n iz a t io n s i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , in a c c o r d w ith
th e t e a c h in g s o f th e Church, th e o b j e c t and p u r­
p o s e s o f w o rld p e a c e and h a p p in e s s ;
7.
The u lt i m a t e p u rp o se i s t o p ro m o te, i n c o n fo r m ity
w ith th e m ind o f t h e Church, ""the P ea c e o f C h r is t
in' th e Kingdom o f C h r i s t . ”4 ?
The A s s o c ia t i o n v i t a l i z e s i t s s e t b o d y o f aim s and
47
The C a t h o lic A s s o c i a t i o n f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l P e a c e ,
W ash in g to n , D.~C .
(L e a fle t. ]
1X7
p u r p o s e s th ro u g h two c h a n n e ls .
They a r e :
m eth od s; and ( 2 ) s o c i a l i z a t i o n m ethods*
(1 ) co m m ittee
"Com m ittee m ethods"
*
p e r t a i n s t o p a m p h lets and m im eographed m a t e r ia l s e t up f o r
p u b lic r e a d in g f o r c o s t o f p r i n t i n g o n l y .
1.
T h is in v o lv e s :
B r in g in g t o g e t h e r i n c o m m ittee s p e r s o n s a c q u a in te d
w ith a p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t io n ;
2.
T hese c o m m itte e s p rep a re r e p o r t s ;
3.
The r e p o r t s a r e d is c u s s e d in t h e m e e tin g s o f th e
o r g a n iz a t io n ;
4.
In th e l i g h t o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n th e y a r e o f t e n
r e v is e d ;
5.
They a r e p r e s e n te d to t h e e x e c u t i v e co m m ittee ,
w h ich makes them p u b lic *
B e s id e s i s s u i n g r e p o r t s on q u e s t i o n s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l
im p o r ta n c e , th e A s s o c i a t i o n e n g a g e s in w hat h a s b een c a l l e d ,
" s o c i a l i z a t i o n m eth o d s." ^ 8
1.
The A s s o c i a t i o n s e e k s t h e m em bership o f C a t h o lic s
i n t e r e s t e d in p e a c e ;
2.
I t i s s u e s m o n th ly th e I n te r n a tI o n a 1 R e la t io n s News
L e t t e r f o r a i d i n c o l l e g e s and s t u d y c lu b s ;
3.
I t f u r n is h e s m a t e r ia l o n i n t e r n a t i o n a l q u e s t io n s ;
4.
I t p r e p a r e s and d i s t r i b u t e s b i b l i o g r a p h i e s and stu d y
c lu b o u t l i n e s on s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s ;
5.
I t p ro m o tes stu d y c lu b s and d e b a tin g s o c i e t i e s in
c o lle g e s ;
48
The w r it e r * s own term .
118
6.
C o o p e r a te s w ith. C a t h o lic p e a c e groups ab road and
w ith some o f t h e p ea ce groups o f t h i s c o u n tr y ;
7.
I n t e r n a t i o n a l c lu b s and p e a c e e s s a y c o n t e s t s in .
h ig h s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s . ^
The C a t h o lic Church, f o l l o w s a. p r a c t i c a l and c o n s e r v a ­
t i v e m ethod i n i t s w ork, b u t t h e r e can b e no so u b t t h a t i t
i s e f f i c i e n t , th o r o u g h , and h i g h l y re g a rd ed b y th e p u b l i c ,
and t h e r e a d e r s o f i t s l i t e r a t u r e p a r t i c u l a r l y .
I t p roceed s
w ith due c a r e th e c o m p lic a te d s u b j e c t s w ith w h ich i t d e a ls *
But b y i t s own s t a t e m e n t , t h i s Church l i m i t s i t s e l f
e x c l u s i v e l y t o a d h e r e n ts o f i t s f a i t h .
W hile m o n -O a th o lie s
o f t e n r e a d and h a v e t h e i r o p in io n s e f f e c t e d by th e A s s o c ia ­
t i o n s l i t e r a t u r e , y e t th e Church i s n o t e v a n g e l i c a l and a s
e n e r g e t i c a s o th e r g ro u p s to imbue th e p ea ce i d e a l in t o th e
t h in k in g an d co n d u ct o f A m erica a t l a r g e .
The- h i s t o r y o f
th e C a t h o lic Church and i t s t e n a n t s m ust b e b orn e In mind
when one a n a ly z e s o r e v a l u a t e s i t s program .
The J e w is h Church h a s p la c e d i t s e l f on r e c o r d a s
o p p o sin g war on r e l i g i o u s and m o ra l g ro u n d s. . I n 1 9 3 8 , a t
i t s f o r t y - e i g h t h an nu al c o n v e n t io n , t h e C e n tr a l C o n fe r e n c e o f
A m erica R abb is d e liv e r e d t h i s o f f i c i a l pronouncem ent:
A l l m oral f o r c e s sh o u ld b e mob 11 i z e d - a g a in s t th e
r e s o r t to m i l i t a r y f o r c e i n t h e s e t t le m e n t on i n t e r ­
n a t i o n a l c o n t r o v e r s y . E v ery m i l i t a r y a t t a c k sh o u ld
be d en o u n ced .
. . . I n d i v id u a ls sh o u ld b e e n c o u r ­
a g ed to e x p r e s s t h e i r con d em n ation o f m i l i t a r y
49
The C a th o lic l e a f l e t , l o c . c i t .
119
a tta c k s *
.Anything l e s s th a n t h i s w ould he f a i t h ­
l e s s t o th e J e w is h c o n c e p t s o f J u s t i c e , m ercy , and
p e a c e .5 0
The p la n o f t h e J e w ish Church to p u t th e' c o n t e n t and
m eaning o f t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n i n t o o p e r a t io n i s r a t h e r a l o o s e
one.
There is. no c e n t r a l h ody d i r e c t i n g or c o o r d in a t in g
p e a c e work b e c a u se a lm o st any ty p e o f J e w ish o r g a n iz a t io n
can h av e i t s co m m ittee or com m ission on p e a c e .
The C e n tr a l
C o n feren ce o f A m erican R a b b is, th e n a t i o n a l C o u n c il o f J e w ish
Women, th e U nion o f Am erican Hebrew C o n g r e g a tio n s , t h e
n a t i o n a l F e d e r a tio n o f Temple S is t e r h o o d s , and th e U n ite d
Synagogue o f A m erica , a r e o n ly some o f th e J e w ish o r g a n iz a ­
t i o n s p o s s e s s i n g p e a c e c o m m itte e s.
S p e c i f i c m ea su res w h ich
Jew s u n d er ta k e in t h e i n t e r e s t o f p e a c e a r e :
1.
Program s d e v is e d in w hich com p eten t s p e a k e r s w i l l
expound th e v a r io u s a s p e c t s o f p e a c e ;
3.
D e b a te s , sym posium s, and s tu d y c i r c l e s a r e o rg a n ­
iz e d w it h r e s o l u t i o n s p r e s e n te d fo r a d o p tio n grow­
in g o u t o f t h e s e m e e tin g s ;
3.
P e a c e com m u n ica tio n s forw arded t o C o n g r e ss and t o
o f f i c i a l s o f t h e g o v ern m en t;
4*
A r t i c l e s on p e a c e p u b lis h e d from tim e to tim e ;
5.
A p e a c e a lc o v e m a in ta in e d in th e l i b r a r y o f th e
s c h o o l , c lu b , sy n a g o g u e , te m p le , o r community
h ou se;
6•
P ea ce e x h i b i t s d is p la y e d from tim e to t im e ;
50
I s a a c E . M arcuson, e d i t o r , C e n tr a l C o n feren ce o f
A m erican R a b b is, 49 th A nnual Convent i on ( P h i la d e Ip h i a :
J e w ish P u b lic a t i o n S o c i e t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 135*
120
7•
The g a t h e r in g o f s ig n a t u r e s on p e a c e p e t i t i o n s ;
8*
A c t iv e c o o p e r a tio n w ith s o c i e t i e s or o r g a n iz a t io n s
w hose program s a r e f a r more r e a c h in g th an l o c a l
p e a c e e f f o r t s . 51
B eca u se o f th e t u r b u le n t h i s t o r y o f t h e Jews* f u l l o f
p e r s e c u t io n and r e se n tm e n t by th e w orld a t la r g e *
the p e a c e
i d e a l i s c l o s e to t h e h e a r t s o f t h e s e d e sc e n d a n ts from th e
la n d o f Ur in C h a ld e e s .
As a n a t u r a l c o n se q u e n c e , t h e i r
m inds a re sh arp and a l e r t to th e r a m if ic a t io n s o f an in a d e ­
q u a te , im mature p e a c e c o n s c io u s n e s s b y t h e p e o p le o f a n a tio n *
The s o c i a l c o n s c io u s n e s s o f th e Jew s h a s b een sh a rp en ed by
c e n t u r i e s o f d e p r iv a t io n o f t h e i r r a c e and th e y are* t h e r e ­
fo r e * p a s s io n a t e in t h e i r d e s i r e t o g e t th e t o t a l p o p u la tio n
to p r e s e r v e p ea ce * o u tla w w a rfa re * and form and s ta n d f o r
t h e i r p e a c e a t t i t u d e s and c o n v i c t i o n s .
III.
OTHERS
The c h u r c h e s h ave b een e lo q u e n t in t h e i r d e n u n c ia tio n
o f war*
They have s a id in e f f e c t t h a t w ar d e n ie s th e g o s p e l
o f J e s u s ; t h a t th e w ar sy ste m m ust b e d e s tr o y e d ; t h a t th e
i n s t i t u t i o n s o f r e l i g i o n sh o u ld b e u s e d in th e p rom otion o f
peace •
But more th a n p e a c e p ron oun cem ents w i l l b e r e q u ir e d
Abraham C ronbach, The Q u est f o r P e a c e , p . 169
b e f o r e war i s s u p p la n te d by p e a c e .
be d e v e lo p e d .
The w i l l t o p ea ce m ust
Men must come t o s e e t h a t h a t r e d e n g e n d e r s
h a tr e d w h erea s t h e s p i r i t o f l o v e , " tu r n e th away w r a t h ."
The p o p u la t io n o f t h e w o r ld must come t o s e e t h a t n a t io n a l
and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y a r e th e b y -p r o d u c ts o f a C h r is ­
t i a n w o rld o r d e r .
P ea ce p o l i c i e s h a v e to h e augm ented w it h
p e a c e e d u c a tio n le a d in g to p e a c e a c t i o n .
The p e a c e m ovem ent, i n a l l e v e n t s , e x h i b i t s e n d le s s
r a m ific a tio n s .
T here a re i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s o v er th r e e
hundred o r g a n iz a t io n s w ork in g in one way or a n o th e r f o r p ea ce
A lis t
o f A m erican p ea ce s o c i e t i e s p u b lis h e d In 1932 c o n t a in s
KO
no fe w e r th an 310 c i t a t i o n s .
I t i s t h e p u r p o se , a t t h i s p o i n t , to r e v ie w s e v e n o f
th e fo r e m o st g rou p s o f th e e n t i r e p e a c e movement o f more than
310 o r g a n iz a t io n s , some o f w hich a r e " e x t r a - r e l i g i o u s , " or
w h ich a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , in t e r t w in e d , o r who c o o p e r a te w ith
th e c h u r c h e s so i n t i m a t e l y , t h a t t h e y m ig h t a p p ea r t o be an
o f f i c i a l branch o f th e Church when a c t u a l l y th e y a r e n o t .
The o t h e r gro u p s a r e in c lu d e d b eca u se th e y c o n t r ib u t e con­
s i s t e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y to th e p e a c e f r o n t , and w hose
l e a d e r s a r e m i n i s t e r s and o t h e r s r e l a t e d to th e C hurch•
f ie ld is f u ll of th e se.
The
One p ea ce o r g a n iz a t io n w h ich
52
C om m ission on th e C o o r d in a tio n o f E f f o r t s f o r P eace
R ep ort o f th e C om m ission on th e C o o r d in a tio n o f E f f o r t s f o r
P ea c e ( O b e r lin , O hio: O b e r lin C o lle g e , 1 9 3 2 } , p p . 3 - 2 2 .
IBB
f u n c t io n s c l o s e to th e c h u r c h e s , and g r e a t l y su p p lem en ts th e
" p eace a c t io n " o f t h e ch u r c h e s I s th e F e d e r a l C o u n c il o f th e
C hurches o f C h r is t i n A m erica .
T h is o r g a n iz a t io n w as form ed i n 1908 t o prom ote "the
s p i r i t o f f e l l o w s h i p , s e r v i c e , and c o o p e r a tio n " among t h e
P r o t e s t a n t C h r is t ia n c h u r c h e s .
I n 1 9 1 1 , t h e r e was form ed
t h e D epartm ent o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l J u s t i c e and G o o d w ill t o d e­
v o t e a l l o f i t s tim e and e n e r g y t o th e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f th e
p e a c e m ovem ent.
T h is d i v i s i o n o f th e F e d e r a l C o u n c il o f
C hurches c o n s t a n t l y e n d e a v o r s t o make th e P r o t e s t a n t c h u r c h e s ,
i n th e t w e n t y - f i v e d e n o m in a tio n s o f w h ich i t
i s com posed,
c o n s c io u s o f th e n eed f o r a more th o ro u g h s tu d y o f th e C h r is ­
t i a n b a s is f o r w o rld p e a c e , s p e c i f i c p ea ce p o l i c i e s , and
p r o j e c t s f o r p eace a c t io n .
I t m a in ta in s a c l e a r i n g h ou se f o r th e c h u r c h e s o f
A m erica f o r in fo r m a tio n on i n t e r n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s and su g ­
g e s t i o n s on p e a c e a c t i v i t i e s .
I t p ro m o tes th e a n n u a l o b s e r ­
v a n ce o f " A r m is tic e S un day," on o r n e a r November 1 1 , and
"World Good W ill Sunday," on o r n e a r May 1 8 .
I t o p era tes a
s p e a k e r s b u reau f o r th e b e n e f i t o f c i t y , s t a t e , and n a t io n a l
o r g a n iz a tio n s .
I t p r o v id e s a r t i c l e s on w o rld p e a c e f o r th e
r e l i g i o u s p r e s s and c i r c u l a t e s u n to ld am ounts o f i t s own l i t —
e r a tu r e .
53
I t k e e p s th e p e a c e movement a l i v e and a l e r t by
Summary from P ea c e A c t io n , J u ly , 1934*
123
s t im u la t in g th e c h u r c h e s to f a r t h e r and h ig h e r a c h ie v e m e n ts .
I t s e t s a s id e co m m issio n s t o s tu d y a l l a s p e c t s o f th e p e a c e
su b je c t.
In e a r l y 1 9 3 4 , th e E x e c u tiv e Com m ittee o f th e
F e d e r a l C o u n c il a u th o r iz e d th e la u n c h in g o f a P eace Crusade
o f th e C h u rch es.
I n l a t e 19 3 4 , i t sp o n so r e d a N a tio n a l Con­
f e r e n c e o f th e C hu rches and World P e a c e .
i n v i t e d and e x p e c te d t o sen d t h e i r
C hurches w ere u r g e d ,
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s to s i t a t
t h i s m ass d i s c u s s i o n .
In i t s b i e n n i a l r e p o r t th e F e d e r a l C o u n c il h a s gone
on r e c o r d :
We h o ld t h a t t h e Church, th e body o f C h r is t a l l
i n c l u s i v e — t r a n s c e n d in g r a c e and n a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s —
sh o u ld h e n c e f o r t h condemn and renou n ce r e c o u r s e towar f o r th e s o l u t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t r o v e r s i e s .
. . .
We h o ld t h a t t h e C hurches sh o u ld b e a m ig h ty
dynam ic in a b o l i s h i n g w ar,
. . .5 4
The World A l l i a n c e f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l F r ie n d s h ip Through
t h e C hurches a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f to th e p u r p o se o f e n l i s t i n g i n ­
d iv id u a l s and ch u rch l e a d e r s in a l l p a r t s o f the w o rld and
o f a l l f a i t h s in a p r a c t i c a l e f f o r t t o d e v e lo p a r b i t r a l , con ­
c i l i a t o r y , and j u d i c i a l m ethod s o f s e t t l i n g r a c i a l and i n ­
t e r n a t i o n a l m is u n d e r s t a n d in g s .^
54
F e d e r a l C o u n c il o f C hurches o f C h r is t i n A m erica,
B i e n n ia l Rep o r t (New York: F e d e r a l C o u n c il o f C hurches o f
C h r is t in A m erica, 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 9 3 .
55
E lt o n A tw a te r , O rgan ized E f f o r t s in t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s Toward P ea ce (W a sh in g to n , D. C .; D ig e s t P r e s s , 1 9 3 6 ) ,
p . 36.
124
A lthough, t h i s o r g a n iz a t io n d o e s not. spend a l l o f i t s
tim e in avowed "peace" p u r s u i t s , y e t i t
it
i s a n o n -p e a c e g ro u p .
ca n n o t be s a id t h a t
I t e m p h a siz e s w orld f r ie n d s h ip b u t
m eanw hile s t r i k e s f o r p ea ce a s i t c a l l s f o r th e f o llo w in g
among i t s o th e r p o l i c i e s :
1.
Em bargoes on war m a t e r ia ls to b e l l i g e r e n t n a t i o n s ;
2.
O p p o s itio n t o in c r e a s in g army and n a v a l a p p r o p r ia ­
tio n s ;
3.
E lim in a t io n o f co m p u lso ry m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g fro m
p u b lic s c h o o ls and c o l l e g e s .
I t s a c t i v i t i e s em brace:
1.
An Annual Good W i l l C o n g r ess h e ld d u r in g th e w eek
o f A r m is t ic e f o r p u rp o se o f a p p r a is in g w orld con ­
d i t i o n s and p la n n in g f u t u r e a c t i v i t i e s ;
2.
A p u b l i c a t i o n News L e t t e r on i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s ;
3.
An I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u l p it Exchange betw een t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s and Canada.
The A llia n c e was subm erged w it h th e e n t i r e p e a c e move­
m en t, d u r in g th e W orld War, b u t i t s a c t i v e e f f o r t s began w ith
th e c l o s e o f th e War.
I t h a s b r a n c h e s i n th ir ty ? -th r e e f o r e ig n
c o u n tr ie s .
The Church P eace U n ion i s v e r y s im ila r t o t h e A ll i a n c e
r e f e r r e d t o in th e f o r e g o in g .
The "Union" i s o n e o f t w e n ty -
n in e n a t i o n a l o r g a n iz a t io n s form ed p r im a r ily fo r the. p ro m o tio n
o f p e a c e , w h ile th e " A llia n c e " i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l In s c o p e .
56
Atwater, l o c . c i t .
125
The P ea ce U nion came i n t o e x i s t e n c e i n 1914 l a r g e l y
under th e i n f l u e n c e and p e r s i s t e n c e o f J . A lle n B ak er, a
B r i t i s h g en tlem a n o f Quaker, s t o c k .
The p u rp o se o f th e Church P eace U nion i s th e same a s
t h a t o f th e W orld A l l i a n c e .
I t i s th e p ro m o tio n o f i n t e r ­
n a t i o n a l f r i e n d s h i p and p e a c e , th e a v o id a n c e o f w ar, and th e
m o b il iz a t io n i n t o a c o n s c io u s f o r c e f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l good ­
w ill- a l l men and women who sh are in th e g r e a t hope o f a
w orld in w h ich war w i l l h ave b een a b o l i s h e d , w h a tev er may be
t h e i r r e l i g i o u s f a i t h s , p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s or d i v e r s i f i e d
v ie w s a s t o in s tr u m e n ts o r fo rm s f o r th e a tta in m e n t o f th e
u n iv e r s a l b ro th e rh o o d o f p e a c e .
The a t t i t u d e o f t h i s body i s shown i n i t s d e c l a r a t io n
in fa v o r o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l disarm am ent:
We must r e c o g n iz e t h a t disarm am ent w i l l come a b o u t
s lo w ly and g r a d u a lly . Mr. B ald w in was r i g h t when h e
s a id " B efo re disarm am ent i s p o s s i b l e , I b e l i e v e we
m ust f i r s t a g r e e on l i m i t a t i o n o f a rm a m en ts.” I t i s
n o t o u r t a s k to d e a l w ith th e te c h n iq u e o f th e q u e s­
tio n .
. . . Our a p p e a l i s t o th e p e o p le . . . d i s ­
armament can come o n ly th ro u g h i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g r e e ­
m ent . . . w e m ust su p p o rt e v e r y e f f o r t f o r r e d u c ­
t i o n and l i m i t a t i o n and keep b e f o r e th e p e o p le . . .
th e g r e a t i d e a l o f a w o r ld d ep en d in g f o r s e c u r i t y
upon r e a s o n . . . c o n c i l i a t i o n , a r b i t r a t i o n , and
j u d i c i a l m e a n s.58
Two v e r y i n d i c a t i v e p i e c e s o f a c t i v i t y o f t h e U nion
57
C om m ission on t h e C o o r d in a tio n o f E f f o r t s f o r
P eace, o p . a i t . , p p. 2 7 -2 8 .
58
Ibid., p. 37
126
cam© t o l i g h t i n 1 9 2 8 and 19 3 4 r e s p e c t i v e l y .
I n 1928 a t
G eneva, under th e s p o n s o r s h ip o f th e Church P eace U n io n , 191
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a l l th e r e l i g i o n s o f th e w o r ld met f o r a
P eace C o n g ress Mto c o n s id e r how t h e f o r c e s o f r e l i g i o n i n a n
n a t io n s can h e b rou gh t to a c t c o n c e r t e d ly a g a in s t w a r .n
The
o b je c ts , o f t h i s m eetin g w ere t o d e c la r e th e h i g h e s t t e a c h in g
o f ea ch r e l i g i o n on. p e a c e and war* t o d e v is e means b y w hich
men o f a l l r e l i g i o n s c o u ld c l e a r a pathw ay to p e a c e , and t o
s e e k o p p o r t u n i t ie s fo r c o n c e r t e d a c t i o n a g a in s t om inous
n a tio n a l p o l i c i e s .
The t h i r t y - f i v e r e l i g i o u s o r g a n iz a t io n s making up th e
Church P eace U nion in c lu d in g P r o t e s t a n t , Homan C a t h o lic , and
J e w ish h a v e s a id in t h e i r m a n if e s to :
We h o ld t h a t , s i n c e econ om ic f a c t o r s a r e p rim ary
c a u s e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s u s p ic io n and h o s t i l i t y and
f r e q u e n t ly le a d to w ar, th e C hurches sh o u ld en gage in
th e m ost s e r io u s s tu d y o f su ch v i t a l problem s a s f o r ­
e ig n in v e s t m e n t s , war d e b t s , raw m a t e r i a l s , t a r i f f s ,
armed in t e r v e n t i o n f o r th e p r o t e c t i o n o f p r o p e r t y ,
and th e w hole q u e s tio n o f th e econ om ic and p o l i t i c a l
c o n t r o l o f f o r e ig n p eop les.& Q
The seco n d e v id e n c e o f th e work o f t h e U nion i s e x ­
p r e s s e d i n . i t s m e e tin g and M a n ife s to A g a in s t War w h ich w as
r e l e a s e d A r m is t ic e B a y , 1 9 3 4 .
T h is u n e q u iv o c a l, f o r t h r i g h t
d e c l a r a t io n w as’ s ig n e d b y more th an two hundred o u ts t a n d in g
KQ
A. C. F . B e a le s , The H is t o r y o f P e a c e , p . 3 2 5 .
60 I b l l . . p . 3 2 6 ,
127
c i t i z e n s o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s , in c lu d in g s i x t y b is h o p s and
f o r t y - f i v e c o lle g e p r e s id e n ts .
They s a id :
The tim e h a s come when o r g a n iz e d r e l i g i o n must
p r o c la im t h a t n e v e r a g a in s h a l l war be waged u nd er
th e s a n c t io n o f th e C hurch.
. . . FFith th e r u in s
o f th e l a s t war p i l e d h ig h a t i t s f e e t t h e Church
sh o u ld s o le m n ly d e c la r e h e r s e l f th e im p la c a b le
enemy o f w ar. .. . . We h a v e had in o u r g e n e r a ­
t i o n an a p p a ll in g r e v e l a t i o n o f th e t r u e n a tu r e o f
w ar. War i s no.t what i t w a s. When s c i e n c e added
the' a i r p l a n e , t h e subm arine and p o is o n g a s and
b a c t e r i o l o g i c a l germs i t l a i d a s id e th e l a s t v e s t i g e
o f d e c e n c y . War h a s a lw a y s b e e n b lo o d y and b r u t a l .
I t i s now an a t r o c i t y .
. . . War i s a s f u t i l e a s
i t i s b a r b a r o u s.
. . . There i s no v i c t o r . A l l
a re d e f e a t e d .
. . . Modern w ar i s s u i c i d e . The
sword i s so sharp t h a t a n a t io n can c u t n o t o n ly th e
t h r o a t s o f i t s n e ig h b o r s b u t i t s own t h r o a t a l s o .
C i v i l i z a t i o n i t s e l f i s i n ^ eo p a rd y .^ 1
The f o u r t h o r g a n iz a t io n w ith a d i s t i n c t i v e r e l i g i o u s
f l a v o r , y e t o f f i c i a l l y o u t s i d e o f th e C hurch, i s th e F e llo w ­
s h ip o f R e c o n c i l i a t i o n .
I t s i n t e r e s t and a c t i v i t y f o r p e a c e
i s u n d e n ia b le .
The F e llo w s h ip b egan in E ngland so o n a f t e r th e o u t ­
b rea k o f t h e W orld War a s a movement o f C h r is t ia n p r o t e s t
a g a i n s t war and o f f a i t h i n a b e t t e r way th a n v i o l e n c e f o r
th e s o lu t io n o f a l l c o n f l i c t .
o f r e lig io u s p a c if is t s .
I t i s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y
P e o p le i n i t s m em bership come from
many c o u n t r ie s and r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t c h u r c h e s , com m unions,
and f a i t h s .
I t w elcom es i n t o a f f i l i a t i o n a l l who may be w ith
or w ith o u t ch u rch , d e n o m in a tio n , b e l i e f , o r s e c t .
61
K irb y P a g e , Must We Go t o War?
p . 185.
1E8
T h eir a n ta g o n ism t o war i s b e s t s e e n i n th e ftp u r p o se ff
e a c h member a d h e r e s t o :
They r e f u s e t o p a r t i c i p a t e in any w a r, or t o s a n c ­
t i o n m i l i t a r y p r e p a r a t io n s ; t h e y work to a b o l i s h war
and t o f o s t e r good w i l l among n a t i o n s , r a c e s and
c la s s e s ;
They s t r i v e t o b u il d a s o c i a l o r d e r w hich w i l l
s u f f e r no in d i v i d u a l o r group t o b e e x p l o i t e d fo r
th e p r o f i t o r p le a s u r e o f a n o th e r , and w hich w i l l
a s s u r e t o a l l t h e m eans f o r r e a l i z i n g th e b e s t p o s s i ­
b ilit ie s of life ;
They a d v o c a te su ch ways' o f d e a lin g w ith o f f e n d e r s
a g a i n s t s o c i e t y a s s h a l l tr a n sfo r m th e w rongdoer
r a t h e r than i n f l i c t r e t r i b u t i v e p u n ish m en t;
They en d ea v o r t o show r e v e r e n c e f o r p e r s o n a l i t y —
in th e hom e, in th e e d u c a t io n o f c h ild r e n , in a s s o ­
c i a t i o n w ith t h o s e o f o th e r c l a s s e s , n a t i o n a l i t i e s
and r a c e s ;
They s e e k t o a v o id b i t t e r n e s s and c o n t e n t io n , and
t o m a in ta in th e s p i r i t o f s e l f - g i v i n g l o v e w h ile en ­
ga g ed in th e s t r u g g l e t o a c h ie v e t h e s e p u r p o s e s .
I t i s in te n d e d t h a t members s h a l l work o u t t h e s e p u r­
p o s e s in t h e i r own w a y s.
There i s no u n ifo r m program o f
s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t io n t o w h ich a l l a r e co m m itted .
H ow ever, t h e F e llo w s h ip d o e s ca r ry on d e f i n i t e fu n cr
t i ons and a c t i v i t i e s .
Th ey a r e :
1.
M a in ten a n ce o f two o f f i c e s — n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l .
£.
R e g io n a l and n a t i o n a l c o n fe r e n c e h e ld to d e te r m in e
p o l i c i e s and p ro g ra m s.
3.
P u b lic a t i o n o f a m on th ly j o u r n a l.
F e ll o w s h ip . L e a f l e t o f th e F e llo w s h ip o f R e c o n c il­
i a t i o n , Hew T ork , n . d .
129
4.
P u b lic a t i o n o f s i x p a m p h lets a n n u a lly d e a lin g w ith
i n t e r n a t i o n a l econom ic and r a c i a l p r o b le m s.^ *
There a r e now a b o u t 8 ,0 0 0 members o f t h is , o r g a n iz a ­
t i o n i n A m erica.
One o f t h e upperm ost th o u g h ts o f the group
i s th e s t r e n g t h e n in g o f l o c a l g ro u p s o f th e F e llo w s h ip .
The
g a in in g o f w id e sp r e a d a l l e g i a n c e th rou gh th e " F e llo w s h ip ” o f
r a d i c a l r e l i g i o u s g ro u p s i s o f l e s s im p o r ta n ce to th e F e llo w ­
s h ip th an t h e more im p o r ta n t s t e p o f b in d in g t h e m s e lv e s ( th e
r a d ic a ls )
t o g e t h e r i n f e l l o w s h i p , p r a y e r , and s o c i a l a c t i o n .
T h is o r g a n iz a t io n may b e s m a ll, b u t i t i s s i n i s t e r and power­
f u l in i t s g rim d e te r m in a tio n to w a rd , and c o n s c io u s n e s s o f ,
th e p ea ce q u e s tio n .
I t h a s a p t l y b een c a l l e d , ”a p o w e r fu l
and r e s o l u t e f e l l o w s h i p . ”
The f i f t h
p e a c e o r g a n iz a t io n " w ith o u t” th e Church b u t
y e t w e l l known and d i s t i n c t l y a c t i v e , i s t h e N a tio n a l C o u n c il
f o r th e P r e v e n tio n o f War.
W hile i t h a s r e l i g i o u s l y in s p ir e d
le a d e r s th ro u g h o u t i t s o r g a n iz a t io n , in c lu d in g F r e d e r ic k J .
L ib b y , i t s e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y , who i s h im s e lf a Quaker, i t
n o t e s s e n t i a l l y a r e l i g i o u s p ea ce o r g a n iz a t io n .
is
T h is , h o w ev er,
i s n o t meant to d e t r a c t from i t s c h a r a c te r or e f f e c t i v e n e s s .
T h ecC o u n eil was o r g a n iz e d in O c to b e r , 1 9 2 1 , a s a c l e a r ­
in g h o u se o f th e n s e v e n te e n o r g a n iz a t io n s .
i t se r v e s th ir ty -o n e .
At t h i s w r it in g
I t s p u r p o se i n 1921 was to prom ote th e
s u c c e s s o f th e W ash in gton C o n fer en ce f o r L im it a t io n o f
^
F ellow sh ip , l o c . c i t .
130
Arm aments.
The g u id in g p r i n c i p l e s to d a y o f t h i s c o o p e r a t iv e
o r g a n iz a t io n t o p rom ote p e a c e and p r e v e n t war a r e :
g r e s s i v e w o rld o r g a n iz a t io n ;
( 1 ) p ro­
( 2 ) w o r ld -w id e r e d u c t io n o f
armaments by i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g re em en t; and (3 ) w o r ld -w id e
e d u c a tio n f o r p e a c e .
S u c c i n c t l y , th e C o u n c il's m ethod s o f
m aking i t s program f u n c t io n i s :
1.
2.
3.
4.
"A void d u p l i c a t i o n .
Cooperate!**
"Step by s t e p I "
" E d u ca te, e d u c a te !"
"Say i t w ith v o t e s ! ” ®41
The work o f
t h e C o u n c il i s sp rea d o u t o v er th e n a t io n
th rou gh & s t a f f o f e ig h t e e n r e g i o n a l s e c r e t a r i e s .
Each h a s
an o f f i c e o u t o f w hich h e c a r r i e s on a c t i v i t i e s such a s sp ea k ­
i n g , w r i t i n g , e f f e c t i n g th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e , and
s e r v in g and c o o p e r a tin g w ith l o c a l p e a c e e n d e a v o r s w h erev er
p o s s ib le .
The l o c a l o f f i c e o f t e n s e r v e s a s a c l e a r i n g h o u s e ,
th u s s e r v in g t h e l o c a l n eed and th e n a t io n a l o f f i c e by e x ­
p e d i t i n g i t s w ork.
The C o u n c il i s com m itted to a s y s t e m a t ic , v i t a l "p eace
a c t io n " program in
i t s d e s ig n s t o make p ea ce a r e a l i t y
a t t i t u d e and co n d u ct o f A m erica n s.
in th e
By "peace a c t i o n , " th e
C o u n c il m eans " a c tio n f o r p e a c e by p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g y . "
It
J o in s i t s w a r -p r e v e n tio n f a c t s w it h w a r -p r e v e n tio n a c t i o n by
m eans o f n o n p a r t is a n p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g y .
P e a c e .s e n t im e n t and
What I s th e n a t i o n a l C o u n c il fo r P r e v e n tio n o f War?
W ash in g to n , D. G ., 1 9 3 5 , p . 4 .
( L e a f l e t .)
131
ev e n p ea ce e d u c a t io n i s n o t enough.
P ea ce se n tim e n t and ed u ­
c a t io n m ust be fo c u s e d on th e g o v ern m en t.
The c i t i z e n m ust
le a r n t o " sa y i t w it h v o t e s ."
In o r d e r t o " say i t w ith v o t e s " t h e C o u n c il sp o n s o r s
P eace A c tio n C om m ittees (PAC) in any com m unity.
T h is PAC
t h in k s in term s o f p o l i t i c a l u n i t s and i t o r g a n iz e s i t s a re a
in t o p r e c i n c t s and c o n g r e s s io n a l d i s t r i c t s .
d i s t r i c t s in t u r n c o o p e r a te w it h s t a t e PAC*s.
n o t stu d y g r o u p s .
C o n g r e s s io n a l
The PACf s a r e
T h is s t e p i s u s u a l l y c a r e d f o r by o t h e r
b o d ie s in th e com m unity.
The PAC d o e s n o t d u p lic a t e t h e work
o f th e women* s c lu b s o r c h u r c h e s , i t r a t h e r su p p lem en ts them
and c o o r d in a t e s t h e i r e f f o r t s .
e x ten t.
I t c o o p e r a te s to th e f u l l e s t
FAC's work on o n ly one i s s u e a t a tim e and g iv e a l l
t h e i r a t t e n t i o n and s t r e n g t h to th e a cco m p lish m en t o f ea ch
s t e p n e a r e r t h e i r avowed g o a l o f p e a c e . ^
The w r i t e r s e e s two v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s r e l a t i v e t o
th e C o u n c il:
(1 ) i t s c e n t r a l o f f i c e i s s it u a t e d d i r e c t l y op­
p o s i t e th e S t a t e and War Departm ent b u il d i n g s in our n a t io n a l
c a p i t o l ; and ( 2 ) i t b e l i e v e s in and w orks tow ard p o l i t i c a l
a c t io n a s a p r a c t i c a l , f e a s i b l e , and p o s s i b l y th e o n ly means
o f a s s u r in g th e a d v en t o f p ea ce and th e o u tla w r y o f w a r.
I t h a s b een in th e p e a c e m ovem ent, a t t h i s w r i t i n g ,
65 £bid., p. 11.
132
f o r e ig h t e e n y e a r s .
I t h a s grown w it h t h e m ovem ent.
Its
le a d e r s a r e e x p e r ie n c e d , m a tu red , and r e s o lv e d in t h e i r t a s k .
P ea ce i s a p a s s io n w it h them and d e f i n i t e u s a b le c o n t r ib u ­
t i o n s t o th e f i e l d h ave b een com ing from them th ro u g h t h e
y ea rs.
The l a s t exam ple o f e x tr a -C h u r c h , y e t i n a way c l o s e
t o r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s in a c t i v i t y f o r p e a c e , i s a group o f
f o u r i l l u s t r a t i o n s : w h i c h th e w r i t e r h a s ch o sen to c a l l ,
"s tr a w s in th e w in d ."
T hree o f t h e s e i l l u s t r a t i o n s
show t h a t
no o r g a n iz a t io n a s su ch i s in v o lv e d , but c o n s t i t u t e m easu res
o f th e d ep th o f t h e p e a c e se n tim e n t on th e p a r t o f th e in d iv id
u a l p e r s o n s in v o lv e d .
They a r e in c lu d e d h e r e b e c a u se o f t h e
trem endous w e ig h t and su p p o rt t h e y c o n t r ib u t e d t o th e p e a c e
movement by th e power t h e i r ex a m p les e x e r t e d in sh a p in g th e
o p in io n s and a t t i t u d e s o f t h o s e w hose a t t e n t i o n w as a t t r a c t e d
t o them .
The f o u r t h i s a movement w h ich grew out o f th e i n ­
d iv id u a l c o n s c io u s n e s s and d ep th o f c o n v ic t io n o f a m in is t e r
o f C h r is t in G reat B r i t a i n .
But an o r g a n iz a t io n d id n o t
em erge u n t i l th e q u e s t io n o f w hat t o do w ith th e r e s p o n s e
in v o k ed b y h i s a p p e a l, becam e th e i s s u e o f th e m ovem ent.
K irb y P a g e , a u th o r and l e c t u r e r , a s e d i t o r o f th e
p e r i o d i c a l , W orld Tomorrow, in 1934 s e n t a q u e s t io n n a ir e on
p e a c e and war t o 1 0 0 ,4 9 0 P r o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r s .
number, 2 0 ,8 7 0 clerg y m en r e p l i e d .
Of t h a t
The r e s u l t s a r e " stra w s
in th e w in d ," and may be summarized in p e r c e n ta g e s a s f o llo w s :
133
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Y es
No
48
29
Do you fa v o r m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g i n our p u b lic
h ig h s c h o o ls and c i v i l i a n c o l l e g e s or
u n iv e r s itie s ? - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12
82
Do you f a v o r th e im m ediate e n tr a n c e o f th e
U n ite d S t a t e s i n t o th e League o f N a tio n s ?
Do you fa v o r s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t io n in arma­
m en ts ev e n i f th e U n ite d S t a t e s i s com­
p e l l e d t o ta k e th e i n i t i a t i v e and make a
p r o p o r t io n a t e ly g r e a t e r r e d u c t io n th a n
o t h e r n a t io n s a r e y e t w i l l i n g t o do?
77 16
Do you b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p o l i c y o f armed
i n t e r v e n t i o n i n o t h e r la n d s by our Govern­
ment t o p r o t e c t th e l i v e s and p r o p e r ty o f
Am erican c i t i z e n s sh o u ld b e abandoned and
p r o t e c t i v e e f f o r t s c o n fin e d t o p a c i f i c
m eans? - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
75 13
Do you b e l i e v e t h a t th e c h u r c h e s o f Am erica
sh o u ld now go on r e c o r d a s r e f u s in g to
s a n c t io n o r su p p o rt any f u t u r e war? - - -
67
22
Are you p e r s o n a lly p rep a red t o s t a t e t h a t
i t i s you r p r e s e n t p u rp o se n ot t o s a n c t io n
any f u t u r e war o r p a r t i c i p a t e a s an armed
com batant? - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
62 25
C ould you c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y s e r v e a s an,
o f f i c i a l army c h a p la in on a c t i v e d u ty in
w artim e? - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 38
Do you re g a rd t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b etw een
" d e fe n s iv e " -and " a g g r e s s iv e " war a s
s u f f i c i e n t l y v a l i d to j u s t i f y you r sa n c ­
t i o n i n g o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a f u t u r e
war o f " d efen se " ? - - - - - - - - - - - -
36
42
The w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t t h e s t i m u l a t i o n and th e r e s u l t s
o f t h i s q u e s t io n n a ir e in a f f e c t i n g t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h o s e who
66 p e r s o n a l c o r r e sp o n d e n c e .
Tomorrow, May 1 0 , 1 9 3 4 .
A lso found in World
134
read i t ,
are v ery g r e a t.
" I f war b r e a k s ou t tom orrow --w hat w i l l you d o ? 1*
W ith t h i s q u e s tio n in m ind, J e w ish and C h r is t ia n
m i n i s t e r s came t o g e t h e r in th e R iv e r s id e C hurch, New Y ork,
May 2 , 1935 t o ren o u n ce w ar and e n u n c ia te th e "Covenant o f
P e a c e ."
T h is s e r v i c e v o ic e d a p r o t e s t a g a in s t war and th e
s p i r i t o f w a r.
S o le m n ly , y e t w ith a l l s i n c e r i t y and d e t e r ­
m in a t io n , 225 m i n i s t e r s s ig n e d th e f o llo w in g "Covenant o f
P e a c e ."
In l o y a l t y t o God I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e way o f tr u e
r e l i g i o n ca n n o t be r e c o n c il e d w ith t h e way o f w ar.
In l o y a l t y t o my C ountry I su p p o rt i t s a d o p tio n o f
t h e K e llo g g B rian d P a c t w h ich r e n o u n c e s w a r. In th e
s p i r i t o f t r u e p a t r io t i s m and w ith d eep p e r s o n a l con ­
v i c t i o n , I t h e r e f o r e ren o u n ce war and n e v e r w i l l I
su p p o rt a n o t h e r .6 7
A gain a t t e n t i o n i s c a l l e d to th e f a c t t h a t t h i s
e x p r e s s io n o f th e u n p a r a l l e l ro a d s o f war and p ea ce d id n ot
em in a te from an o r g a n iz e d s o u r c e , b u t came from a f e e l i n g
o f m oral co m p u lsio n and deep c o n v ic t io n on t h e p a r t o f one
o r two who o f f e r e d t h e i n v i t a t i o n t o f e l l o w m i n i s t e r s t o
p a r tic ip a te .
A g a in , th e in f l u e n c e o f t h i s a c t i o n upon th e
m inds o f p e o p le , i s c e r t a i n t o be f e l t .
I t d o e s , i f n o th in g
m ore, th row l i g h t upon th e p r e v a i lin g tr e n d o f th o u g h t o f
i n d i v i d u a l men.
I t I s a " stra w in th e w in d ."
F i n a l l y , a t t e n t i o n I s d ir e c t e d t o t h e in f lu e n c e f o r
67 P e r s o n a l c o r r e sp o n d e n c e , 1 9 3 7 .
135
and su p p o rt o f p e a c e e x e r t e d b y two men a t p r a c t i c a l l y th e
same tim e b u t who w ere w id e ly s e p a r a te d b y a la r g e o c e a n .
The V ery R everend D r. H. R. L. Sheppard o f G reat
B r i t a i n ( b e t t e r known a s D ick S h e p p a r d ), d e c id e d s o b e r ly
and c a lm ly in h i s own mind t h a t h e ren ou n ced war and n e v e r
a g a in , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , would he su p p o rt o r s a n c t io n
a n o th e r .
Soon a f t e r t h a t d e c i s i o n , he i n v i t e d , th rou gh th e
n e w sp a p e r s, O ctob er 1 6 , 1 9 3 4 , any p e r s o n who f e l t a s he d id
t o sen d him a p o s t card s t a t i n g t h a t he w ould n e v e r a g a in
ta k e p a r t in a n o th e r w a r. ^ 8
The r e s p o n s e was im m e d ia te .
In a l e t t e r t o th e e d i t o r
o f t h e M a n ch ester G u a rd ia n , January 3 , 1 9 3 5 , Canon Sheppard
s t a t e d t h a t t e n s o f th o u sa n d s had s e n t in t h e i r s ig n a t u r e s to
t h i s d e c l a r a t i o n , b u t he added t h e r e w ere many who w ere u n a b le
t o r e c o n c i l e i t t o th e demands o f p a t r i o t i s m .
In r e p ly t o them D r. Sheppard s a id :
. . . in a l l s i n c e r i t y , my o r i g i n a l a p p e a l was made
q u it e sim p ly on th e C h r is t ia n p r e m ise t h a t i f an e v i l
i s t o b e ren ou n ced i t m ust be ren ou n ced r e g a r d le s s o f
con seq u en ces.^ 9
Of th e a c c o u n ts c i t e d h e r e , r e f l e c t i n g r e s p o n s e s o f
i n d i v i d u a l s o r in d e p e n d e n t, sm a ll g rou p s w ith th e r e s u l t i n g
68 Henry W. S t e e d , V ital P ea ce (New York: The M acm illan
Company, 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 2 6 .
69
Loe. eit.
136
s t im u la t in g e f f e c t upon c o u n t le s s c i t i z e n s in c r y s t a l l i z i n g
t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and co n d u ct on th e p ea ce o r war q u e s t io n ,
t h i s i s th e o n ly one w hich r e s o lv e d i t s e l f i n t o an o r g a n i­
z a tio n .
Canon Sheppard soon saw t h a t he c o u ld no lo n g e r
c o n s id e r h is d e c i s i o n a s a p r iv a t e v e n t u r e .
By r e a s o n o f i t s
n u m e r ic a l and m oral s t r e n g t h i t h a s become a n a t i o n a l m ove­
ment in th e B r i t i s h D om in ion .
R everend Sheppard i n v i t e d
some le a d in g men and women to j o i n him a s s p o n s o r s , and i t ,
t h e r e f o r e , became la u n c h e d a s th e P ea ce P le d g e U n io n .
To
d a te more th a n 1 6 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s have e n r o l le d in c lu d in g :
James H udson, A ld o u s H u x le y , G-eorge L au sb u ry, Lord A rthur
P onsonby, Canon C h a r le s R aven, B ertra n d R u s s e l l , B e v e r le y
N ic h o ls , and J . M id d leto n Murry among o t h e r s .
The calm b u t
d eterm in ed a r r i v a l a t one p r e s s in g th o u g h t by an in d iv id u a l
w ith i t s r e s u l t i n g a c t i o n , u l t i m a t e l y in f lu e n c e d th o u sa n d s
o f p e o p le and u n d o u b te d ly c le a r e d t h e i r t h in k in g and a id e d
them in d e te r m in in g t h e i r a t t i t u d e on war and p e a c e .
A lm ost a t t h e same moment and w it h e q u a l e f f e c t upon
1 3 ,0 0 0 m i n i s t e r s o f t h e G o sp e l, Dr. H arry E. F o s d ic k * s sermon
on "The Unknown S o l d i e r *1 r e p r e s e n te d th e e f f o r t s o f a s i n g l e
mind t o r e g i s t e r f o r p e a c e .
In a f i e r y serm on r in g in g w it h p a s s io n and i n t e n s i t y
th ro u g h th e a i s l e s o f h i s w e a lth y ch u rch in New York C it y ,
D r. F o sd ic k p r o c la im e d his lo v e f o r p e a c e and r e j e c t i o n o f
war f o r e v e r .
In h i s w ords h e s t a t e d :
137
. . . 0 my c o u n tr y , s t a y out o f war! C o o p era te w ith
t h e n a t io n s in e v e r y moment t h a t h a s any hope, f o r
p e a c e ; h u t s e t your f a c e s t e a d f a s t l y and f o r e v e r
a g a in s t b e in g drawn in t o a n o th e r w ar. W ithdraw from
e v e r y a l l i a n c e t h a t m a in ta in s or en c o u r a g e s i t . . . .
I ren ou n ce war f o r i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s , f o r th e l i e s i t
l i v e s and p r o p a g a te s , f o r th e u n d y in g h a tr e d s i t
a r o u s e s , f o r th e d i c t a t o r s h i p s i t p u ts in t h e p la c e
o f d em ocracy, f o r th e s t a r v a t i o n t h a t s t a l k s a f t e r i t .
I ren o u n ce war and n e v e r a g a in , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y ,
w i l l I s a n c t io n o r su p p o rt a n o t h e r .70
The e f f e c t o f t h i s u t t e r a n c e i s a lle g e d t o h ave
in s p ir e d 1 3 ,0 0 0 m i n i s t e r s t o form and e x p r e s s t h e i r a t t i t u d e
tow ard war and p e a c e and C h r i s t i a n i t y .
The c o m p lete e x t e n t
o f th e power o f t h i s d e c i s i o n w i l l p r o b a b ly n e v e r be known.
I t s s i g n i f i c a n c e r a d ia t e s and v i t a l i z e s t h o s e i t
to u c h e s.
D r s. Sheppard and F o s d ic k , a s i n d i v i d u a l s and n o t a s g r o u p s,
h ave se r v e d t h e c a u se o f p e a c e v i c t o r i o u s l y .
70
H arry Emerson F o s d ic k , serm on, To t h e Unknown
S o l d i e r , p rea ch ed a t R iv e r s id e C hurch, New York C it y ,
November 1 2 , 1 9 3 3 . P e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e .
CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSIONS
I t i s th e w r i t e r ’ s b e l i e f , a s a r e s u l t o f t h e f a c t s
r e v e a le d in t h i s s t u d y , t h a t th e ch u r c h e s h ave c o n t r ib u t e d
t o w o rld p ea ce in a g e n e r a l way b u t h ave f a i l e d t o r e g i s t e r
a d e c i s i v e o r p r a c t i c a l b low t o o u tla w w a r.
I t m ust b e co n c lu d e d t h a t th e y h ave g l i b l y g iv e n l i p s e r v i c e t o th e c a u se o f p e a c e and h a v e b e e n c o m p le t e ly sw ept
away, a lo n g w ith o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s , by i n s i d i o u s propaganda
i n tim e s o f c r i s i s .
The o r g a n iz e d r e l i g i o u s b o d ie s , a s a b l o c , h ave f a i l e d ,
on e v e r y o c c a s io n s i n c e t h e tim e o f C o n s ta n tin e , t o ad here to
t h e p e a c e t e a c h in g s o f J e s u s when war h a s b e e n d e c la r e d .
A gain and a g a in th e y f o r g e t t h e i r avowed p ea ce com m itm ents,
and p la n s w h ieh th e y e n u n c ia te i n p e r io d s o f p e a c e .
T h is
stu d y f u r t h e r r e v e a l s t h a t the p e a c e movement i n th e U n ite d
S t a t e s d e s e r t e d t h e E uropean p ea ce movement when war str u c k
t h a t C o n tin e n t in 1 9 1 4 .
The r e c o r d o f th e Church i s n o t f l a t t e r i n g when th e
f a c t s a re m a r sh a lle d r e g a r d in g i t s p r a c t i c a l program and p a s t
co n d u ct to w a rd s a b o lis h in g w ar.
done a n o th e r when th e t e s t s came.
I t h a s s a id one t h in g and
Only in two i n s t a n c e s in
h i s t o r y a r e t h e r e r e c o r d s o f C h r is t ia n r e l i g i o u s g ro u p s a c ­
c e p t in g d e a th r a t h e r th a n b e a r in g arm s.
139
S in c e t h e a r m is t ic e o f 1 9 1 8 , h ow ever, t h e c h u rch es
h ave s e e m in g ly b een in s p ir e d t o c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e p e a c e s e n t i ­
ment and a c t i v i t y .
The w r i t e r h a s th e f e e l i n g t h a t th e
c o l l e c t i v e c o n s c ie n c e o f t h e r e l i g i o u s f o r c e s i s ashamed o f
i t s co n d u ct d u r in g t h e World ¥?ar and i t
i s more th a n e v e r
r e s o lv e d to r e - a p p r a is e i t s p o s i t i o n and a f f ir m anew i t s
r e n u n c ia t io n o f war a s b e in g in c o m p a tib le w ith r e l i g i o u s
p r in c ip le s .
C e r ta in c o n t r ib u t io n s b y o r g a n iz e d r e l i g i o n can b e
en u m era ted .
The f o llo w in g summary i s i n d i c a t i v e o f th e
program o f th e Church fe e peace d u r in g p e a c e t im e s .
I t m ust
be b orn e in mind t h a t t h e Church i s a propaganda a g en cy and
a s su ch m a n if e s t s l i t t l e
p r o h ib i t in g w a r f a r e .
1.
o r no c o n c r e t e e v id e n c e o f a c t u a l l y
I t h a s:
A lo n g and s p o r a d ic h i s t o r y o f r e p e a te d a t t a c k s on
th e q u e s t io n o f th e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f war and r e l i g i o n .
2.
G iven d e f i n i t e ex a m p les o f i t s s t r i c t r e f u s a l t o
b ea r arms o r t o en gage in c o n f l i c t d u r in g i t s e a r l i e s t h i s t o r y
w ith a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h i s co n d u c t d u r in g and s in c e th e M id d le
A ges by c e r t a i n s e c t s .
3.
E x e r c is e d a d e f i n i t e program f o r p e a c e e d u c a tio n
d u r in g p e a c e t im e s .
4.
H elp ed to fo r m u la te and c r y s t a l l i z e p u b lic o p in io n
f o r p ea ce p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t h e World War.
5.
I n t e n s i f i e d e d u c a t io n a l a c t i v i t i e s in c lu d in g some
140
d e f i n i t e p r o p o s a ls f o r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y f o r
peace.
6.
V o ic e d more s e v e r e and d e f i n i t e co n d em n a tio n s o f
war s in c e th e t r e a t y o f V e r s a i l l e s a s e v id e n c e d i n t h e p ro ­
nouncem ents o f o f f i c i a l Church b o d ie s , o t h e r g r o u p s, and
n a t i o n a l l y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y known l e a d e r s .
7.
More c o m p le t e ly s o l i d i f i e d
movement s in c e 1918 th a n e v e r b e f o r e .
and u n i f i e d th e p ea ce
T h is in c lu d e s t h e
more e f f i c i e n t c o o r d in a t io n o f p ea ce e d u c a t io n and a c t i v i t y .
8.
E s t a b lis h e d and o r g a n iz e d l a r g e r , more p o w e r fu l
and more e f f e c t i v e in t e r n a t i o n a l p ea ce gro u p s com bining
r e l i g i o u s and s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s o r g a n iz a t io n s .
9.
D e f i n i t e l y shown t h a t C h r is t ia n s a r e n o t unanim ous
in t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o a p p ly C h r is t ia n p r i n c i p l e s t o th e
war q u e s t io n .
The C h r is t ia n mind i s n o t r e a d y t o o u tla w war
c o m p le t e ly .
In s p i t e o f t h e h o p e s o f th e w o rld t h a t th e hour would
n o t come when th e r e s o l u t i o n s o f t h e Church w ould r e q u ir e
v e r i f i c a t i o n , t h e German army h a s marched in t o P olan d a t t h i s
w r itin g .
T h is h a s s u b s e q u e n t ly en gaged E n glan d and F ran ce in
w a r fa r e a g a in s t Germany.
T here a re g ra v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t
a n o th e r s o - c a l l e d W orld War may be i n i t i a t e d *
How h as th e
p e a c e movement in Europe w it h s t o o d th e sh o ck o f t h i s new
c r is is ?
How h ave t h e c h u rch es r e t a l i a t e d t o th e r e c o u r s e o f
t h e i r g overn m en ts t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l w a r fa r e ?
How w i l l th e
141
c h u rch es o f jh n erica sta n d i f A m erica becom es in v o lv e d ?
The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e l i f e o f th e Church
g r a v e ly d ep en d s upon i t s c o u r s e o f a c t io n now o v e r th e war
q u e s tio n .
In v ie w o f i t s r e p e a te d and i n s i s t e n t m a n ifo ld
s t a te m e n t s o f d e n u n c ia t io n o f w a r f a r e , th e y can n ot nor d a re
n o t deny t h e r e s p e c t and t r u s t h e ld by mankind now.
I t m ust
d e f i n i t e l y p ro v e w o rth y o f th e le a d e r s h ip i t h a s in d i c a t e d .
I t m ust m a n if e s t i t s a l l e g i a n c e and u n sh a k a b le a d h eren ce t o
t h e d o c t r in e s and s p i r i t o f t h e Hew T estam en t in c a r r y in g o u t
a p o s i t i v e , p ra g m a tic r e n u n c ia t io n o f w a r.
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