A STUDY OF SELECTED CHILD CARING AGENCIES IN LOS ANGELES AND VICINITY A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Social Work University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree Master of Social Work fey Kuan Li May 1940 UMI Number: EP66155 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Dissertation RuDiismng UMI EP66155 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProOuest' ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346 rru . . Kuan Li 1 nests o f ........................................ T h i s t h es i s, w r i t t e n u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e candidate’s F a c u l ty C om m ittee and approved b y a l l its m e m b e r s , has been p r e s e n t e d to a n d accepted by the F a c u l t y o f the G r a d u a t e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l W o r k in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK QjbJLd^s.. I .. D a te F a c u lty C o m m itte e A .. V J D ean TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. . INTRODUCTION . . . . PAGE ................... 1 Purpose of Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ Scope of Study . Method of Study II. 1 2 • 2 THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTITUTIONAL CARE AID PLACING OUT OF DEPENDENT CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES . 3 Indenture 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... Institutional C a r e .......... 5 Almshouses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Private institutions 6 Public institutions • 7 Prohibition of almshouse care . . . . . . . . . 8 Foster home care • • . . « • « . • • • • • • » * 9 State children’s home societies . . . . . . . . . Catholic child placing service Placing out from institutions Mother’s pension system 10 10 . « .......... 11 ........................ 11 Recent Trends in Child Care • • . . • • • • • • 12 The White House Conference of 1909 . . . * . .12 The White House Conference of 1 9 1 9 ..... 13 The White House Conference of 1930 14 Statisticsin child care 16 ii . CHAPTER III. PAGE PRINCIPLES OF INSTITUTIONAL CARE . . . . .......... Incorporation and compliance with State- law Governing board . . . • • • « . . . 18 18 . . . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . . . 19 S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ................................ 19 Qualification 19 Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions • . . . . . . ............ 19 Personnel responsibilities Intake policy and procedure . . . . 21 • • • • • * • • • • 22 I n v e s t i g a t i o n .......... 22 Selection of foster home c a r e ............... 23 Financial arrangement ................. 24 Physical examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Reception 25 . ....................... Care in the institution ......... Physical plant « • • • • • • • • • * • . . . . . Location Acreage Buildings 25 26 26 .. . . . . . . . . . . • • • • • Education ............. . . . . . . .......... General education Vocational education 27 27 29 .......... 29 ............ 30 Cultural education Recreation . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 ......... .. 33 iii CHAPTER PAGE T i m e ................... 33 S p a c e ............ 33 ............ 34 Equipment and supplies Staff leadership • • • • • • • • • • • . . . . 3 5 IV, Play a c t i v i t i e s ................... 36 Emotional a d j u s t m e n t ................... 36 Rehabilitation and after care 40 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS . . . . . . . . . ............... Location • • • • • • . • • • 42 ........... • • • • 4 2 Physical p l a n t ................. Style of building Dormitories 42 ........................... 43 . . . . . . ...................... 43 Dining r o o m ............................... . . 4 4 Auditorium and gymnasium . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Hospital and isolation rooms . . . . . . . . . 45 Administrative control . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5 Staff and p e r s o n n e l .......... .45 Population and c o s t ............ . . . . . . . . 4 6 Finance . . . . . . . 47 Educational program . ♦ 48 Recreational p r o g r a m ............... . . . . . . 49 Age of the c h i l d r e n ............................. 49 Food and clothing . Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... 49 50 iv CHAPTER PAGE General impression ............. V. APPLICABILITY TO CHINA . . . . . . . . 50 ............... . 52 A Brief review of child welfare.work in China since 1957 ............................ Living condition 52 54 Comparison of Chinese institutional life with the Americans’ . « • • • • . . • • • • • • • • 58 BIBLIOGRAPHY .c.c................................ . . . . . 61 .............................. 65 APPENDIX CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Purpose of study. Child welfare work in America has developed greatly within the last fifty years. It has achieved a tremendous success along this line - from material care to emotional adjustment, from giving care outside of the home to the aid of dependent children at home, from relief of dependency to the prevention of dependency and delinquency. It is America that has the best standards of child welfare irork today• A child welfare program is an urgent need in China today especially since the outbreak of the undeclared war of 1937. The number of dependent children has increased considerably and there is no way to compute the total so long as the war is being continued. The most urgent need of this vast number of war orphans is security - a place to live, to learn, and to be well protected from dangers. At present it is impossible for China to adopt the boarding home system as no home is sure of its security. To meet the needs of the present situation in China it is better to maintain the institution system with its program of care and control as developed in the United States of America. The purpose of this study is to compare the different types of institutional care for dependent children. It is hoped that when the investigator goes back to China she will be able to judge which type of institutional care will best fit different Chinese situations. Of course it is impossible to adopt one system entirely,, but with all these varieties in mind she may be able to produce an adapted system that will meet the needs of the present China, and some day when the war is over the system can be changed again to fit the post-war conditions. Scope of study» The agencies studied here were care fully selected and include institutions classified as sectarian or non-sectarian, and as serving normal children or crippled children. The area of this study is limited to Los Angeles and the vicinity. 1. 2. S. 4. 5. The following agencies were selected: Childrenfs Baptist Home of Southern California. Inglewood. Boys* and Girls1 Aid Society. Altadena. Vista Del Mar - Jewish Orphans’ Home Society, Palms • Los Angeles Orphan Asylum. Los Angeles. Orthopaedic Hospital. Los Angeles. This study covers the establishment of the institution, the physical plant, the administrative control, the staff and personnel, the intake policy, the educational program, the recreational program, the religious activities, and the medical and psychiatric services. Method of study. The method of this study is by visiting the selected agencies. Each institution has been visited at least twice to see the physical plant, the children’s life and the general atmosphere of the institution. Information was secured from the superintendents, or the case workers through personal interviews, from the mimeographed policies and programs of the institutions and from their annual or special reports# An outline of questions was made for the guidance of each interview# The investigator feels indebted to the executive of each institution for his or her kind cooperation in furnishing information and materials for this study# The generosity and hospitality on the part of the institutions* executives was a source of encouragement for this study. CHAPTER II THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTITUTIONAL CARE AND PLACING OUT OF DEPENDENT CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES I. INDENTURE The child-eare system of America began in the seventeenth century and followed the Elizabethan Poor Lai¥ of England* The colonists used the indenture system, according to which the parents apprenticed a child old enough to worE, to a master craftsman, to live in his house, and to be taught his craft or trade. The master was to give the apprentice food, clothing, shelter, and training in a remunerative craft or trade plus some extra payment in the form of clothes or money at the expiration of the term of indenture. The first child placed out by the public authority in Massachusetts was Benjamin Eaton. He was indentured in 1636 by the governor and assistant of Plymouth Colony to a widow who could hold him for fourteen years, but who was required to give him two y e a r s 1 education In school and could not turn him over to any other without the governor fs consent."^ The purpose of this indenture was to make some person or family definitely responsible for the support and care of dependent children. 1 To fix responsibility for giving industrial Henry Thurston, The Dependent Child, p. 13. training to girls and boys old enough to work was a social procedure already commonly employed everywhere. II. Almshouses. INSTITUTIONAL CARE The first step in public child care was institutional care for children in almshouses. This system was recommended by Mr. Yates who noticed that when poor children were farmed out they did not receive proper care. Since these children could not obtain proper education, moral training, and discipline from their parents, they should be gathered into the almshouses and given such instruction and moral training before being indentured. He thought that in the almshouse, children could be educated and set on the road to a life that would free them from permanent ignorance, pauperism and vice. The almshouse system was proved inadequate later on in the 19th century, because children were mingled with adults, insane, feeble-minded, and handicapped. Mr. Hoyt, first secretary of the Board of Charities of New York State in 1868 visited all the county almshouses and Mr. William Pryor betchworth of Buffalo also made a study of them. Both of these reports made vivid pictures of the mixed almshouses. Slowly there came about in some states segregation of children with special handicaps - the blind, the deaf, and the feeble-minded. Following the reports of Mr. Hoyt and Mr. 6 Letchworth in 1866, Ohio passed a law authorizing the establish ment* of county children’s homes. Massachusetts in 1872 separated destitute children from adults in the state almshouses; Michigan in 1874 opened a State Public School "to which all destitute children in the state who were public charges were to be removed and from which these children were to be placed out in families as soon as possible." New York in 1875 passed a law requiring the removal of all children over three years of age, not defective in body or mind, from poor houses and their placement in families, orphan asylums, or other appropriate institutions. Wisconsin in 1878 passed a law requiring removal of children, Pennsylvania in 1883 passed a law prohibiting retention of children between 2 and 16 unless feeble-minded. Private Institutions. The first institution for dependent and neglected children in the United States was established in 1729 in connection with the Ursuline Convent in New Orleans, in order to shelter children orphaned through the Indian Massacres. In 1740 Rev. George Whitefield founded the Bethesda Orphan House at Savannah, Georgia, as a school for needy boys.1 After the eighteenth century private institutions grew up rapidly and large numbers of children were transferred from almshouses to orphanages, in response to public sentiment against the evils of the almshouses.' 1 U. S. Children’s Bureau Publication No. 170, p. 1. 7 Public Institutions. The first public orphanage was established in 1790 in the city of Charleston, for the purpose of supporting and educating poor orphans, and those of poor, distressed and disabled parents, who were unable to support and maintain them. The first orphan asylum in New York City was organized by a number of women for the purpose of protecting, relieving, and instructing orphan children in the city. It was incorp orated in 1807 as the New York Orphan Asylum Society. These •women became annual subscribers, paying not less than $1.50 per annum.^ This Society had worked out a program of intake and care which showed the progress of child-care in the early nineteenth century: No children were to be received until examined by a respectable physician and pronounced free from infection or incurable diseases. Relatives or friends of orphans, on placing them in the asylum were to renounce all claim to them in future years. The orphan was to be educated, fed, and clothed at .the expenses of the society, and at the asylum* They were to have religious instruction, moral example, and habits of industry inculcated on their minds. Indenture:- as soon as the age and acquirements of orphans should, in the opinion of the Board of Directors, render them capable of earning their living, they were to be bound out to some reputable persons or families for such object and in such manner as the Board should approve.^ ^ Grace Abbott, Child and State, p. 29-31. ^ Henry Thurston, 0£. Cit., p. 46. The New York Orphan Asylum began to receive State subsidy in the year XS11 when "An Act for the Benefit of the Orphan Asylum S o c i e t y w a s passed* This granted the annual sum of $500, payable by the Treasurer, to the trustees of the Orphan Asylum Society in the City of New York*^ Massachusetts, after the Primary School Act of 1866, opened a State Primary School at Monson. The school had an average attendance of 370 pupils in classes which were under the instruction of a principal and six assistant teachers* The Michigan State Public School, ivhich was a temporary home for dependent and neglected children, was opened in 1874* The school was established on the family plan with about 30 children in each cottage and a Christian woman as the cottage mother. They all ate in a common dining hall* each day were devoted to school work proper. Five hours The children had regular assignments for their tasks, among which were helping to dress the younger ones, sweeping, cleaning, bedmaking, work in dining room and kitchen. Girls helped in knitting and sewing and boys helped in the farm and garden. Children also were indentured by the school to homes in the 2 different counties. Prohibition of Almshouse care in 1879* nAn Act Forbidding the Detention of Poor Children in AlmshousestT was 1 2 Grace Abbott, Child and State. p. 33. Ibid., p. 51. 9 included in the Massachusetts Acts and Resolves of 18179. The principle was that children over four years old should be placed in some respectable families in the state, or in some asylum therein to be supported by the city, provided that those children who had no legal settlement, or with physical or mental defects, or whose mother was an inmate of the almshouse must remain in the almshouse.'*’ In spite of this movement toward removing children from almshouses there were still 1,992 children under 16 in all the almshouses of the United States on January 1, 1925, and the total number admitted during the year was 4,715. Almshouse care of children still exists in some states, although the number of children so cared for is comparatively small. Foster home care. The pioneer of the organized child placing movement was Charles Boring Brace who in 1853 organized the New York Children's Aid Society and began to send dependent children to county homes in different states. In the early years of the society children were placed in Hew York, Hew Jersey, Pennsylvania and Ohio, then in Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota. Then organization of similar societies followed throughout the country. The system of placing out in the early societies was inadequate; children were received with insufficient investiga tion. Children of unmarried mothers were received with little hesitation. Societies placed children in homes of which they ^ Ibid.. p. 42. 10 had very limited knowledge. They depended upon volunteer visitors whose work was irresponsible. The records were meager and inadequate. State children's home societies. Thirty years later special impetus was given to this movement by the Children*s Home Society, the forerunner of thirty-five Home-Finding Societies. The Children’s Home Society of Illinois was organized in 1883 by the Rev. M.V.B. Van Arsdale in Chicago to assist deserving children in obtaining an education. The next year this society became a national organization and the name was changed to National Children’s Home Society. Following in the foot-steps of Illinois, similar societies were organized ill other states, and by 1926 there were 36 accredited State Children’s Home Societies in the United States. Catholic child placing service. In 1898 the St. Vincent de Paul Society of New York established a placing-out agency known as the Catholic Home Bureau for Dependent Children. This organization became a central child placing agency for 18 Catholic institutions for children in the state of New York. The Catholic Children’s Aid Society was organized in New Jersey in 1903 by the late Kev. Father Francis Foy, and has become an active and efficient child placing agency. The Catholic Humane Bureau of San Francisco was founded in 1907 by the union of the Catholic Settlement Society. Well organized Catholic child-placing organizations now exist in a 11 number of the large cities, many of them under the auspices of the St. Vincent de Paul Society and others as departments of the diocesan Catholic Charities Bureau. Placing-out from institutions. Nearly all institutions for dependent children eventually place out a large proportion of their children in family homes. Some institutions of this class are simply boarding places, where parents or public agencies send those dependent children for temporary care. The institution does not assume their legal guardianship and they are ultimately returned to their parents, to the court, or to the public agency from whence they came. Mother ’s pension system* As the White House Conference of 1909 emphasized the point that a child should not be removed from his mother because of poverty, Illinois started the Mother’s Pension Law in 1911 to maintain the child in his own home by means of public Ibnds • By 1955 there were 46 states vd.th the r* District of Columbia, Alaska, and Hawaii adopting the system of Mother’s Pension. The Social Security Act of 1935 made a special grant to appropriate the mother’s pension from the federal government known as Aid to the Dependent Children. As a result of the realization that the home is the best place for child development at the first White House Conference of 1909, the number of children under institutional care was found to have dropped in census figures of 1933 and the number 12 of children in foster homes to have increased * As to how far the number of foster home placements have been curtailed since aid to dependent children in their own homes has been avail able, we will wait for the census of 1940 to tell us# III. RECENT TRENDS IN CHILD CARE The White House Conference of 1909. The White House Conference of 1909 had about 200 delegates, representing every phase of child welfare work, who spent two days in discussing the needs of dependent children. They unanimously agreed that dependent and neglected children should not be removed from their own homes on account of poverty and that home life should be preserved in every possible way. Home life is the highest and finest product of civil ization ..........Except in unusual circumstances the home should not be broken up for reason of poverty, but only for considerations of inefficiency or immorality... As to the children who for sufficient reasons must be removed from their own homes, or who have no homes, it is desirable that, if normal in mind and body and not requiring special train ing, they should be cared for in families wherever practic able. The carefully selected foster home is for the normal child, the best substitute for the natural home. Such homes should be seledted by a most careful process of investigation, carried on by skilled agents through personal investigation and with due regard to the religious faith of the child•^ The above statement indicates that if the child should be removed from home the foster home is the next best place for the child to be provided that it has the same cultural and ^ Proceedings of the Conference on the Care of Dependent Children (Senate Documents No. 721) Jan. 25-26, 1909, p. 8-14. religious background. Briefly summarized, the conclusions of that conference relative to child care were as follows: 1. Home care: Children of worthy parents or deserving mothers should as a rule, be kept with their parents at home • 2 . Home finding: Homeless and neglected children, if normal, should be cared for in families, when practicable, 5. Incorporation: Agencies caring for dependent children should be incorporated, on approval of a suitable State board * 4. State Inspection: The State should inspect the work of all agencies which care for dependent children, 5, Facts and records: Complete histories of dependent children and their parents, based upon personal investigation and supervision should be recorded for guidance of childcaring agencies, 6, Physical care: Every needy child should receive the best medical and surgical attention and be instructed in health hygiene. 7. Cooperation: Local child-caring agencies should cooperate and establish ,joint bureaus of information.^ The White House Conference of 1 919. In 1919 the Federal C h i l d r e n ^ Bureau called a conference of representatives of child welfare work throughout the Halted States. In this conference they realized the difficulty of finding adequate boarding home to substitute the child *s natural home so they came back to the institutional care for dependent children for temporary placement as it was stated: tfUhless and until such homes are found the use of institution is necessary.” Recogniz ing a legitimate field for some institutional care of dependent ^ B. S . Children*s Bureau Publication. Ho. 62, p. 15. 24 children, it was declared that; .....these institutions should be conducted on the cottage plan, in order that routine and impersonal care may not suppress unduiy individuality and initiative.^ As to the institutional care for dependent children they made out the following principles: 1. Thorough investigation before receiving a child. 2. Cooperation with other agencies that are or should be interested. . 3 Maintenance of the child fs community contacts and his relationships with his own family* 4. Continual effort toward the re-establishment in the childfs ora family home or placement in foster home under healthful conditions. The stay of children in institutions for dependents should be as brief as possible. The condition of all children in such institutions should be carefully studied at frequent intervals, in order to determine whether they should be restored to their own homes, placed in foster homes, or transferred to institutions better suited to their needs. While they do remain in institutions, their condition should approximate as nearly as possible that of normal family life as to health, recreation, schooling, and spiritual, aesthetic, civic and vocational training. The White House Conference of 1930. The White House Conference of 1930 noticed that large numbers of children still suffered in their own homes or were separated from their homes, because of poverty. It found that almshouses for the care of children were still used in certain localities. Suggestions made this time for prevention of the conditions which deprive ^ 0* S . Children>s Bureau Publication. Ho. 70, p. 341 2 Ibid.. Mo. 62, 1919, p. 11-12. children of parental care were the following: First, it laid stress on adequate income as a fundamental necessity for preservation of home life. Second, it emphasized the need for Mother’s Aid to supplement the family’s income to maintain a home to meet the various needs of a growing child. The present trend in the care of dependent children is to try to preserve the child’s normal home life; if in some circumstances it is found that the child must be taken from the home the child should be placed in a foster home or institution depending upon his individual needs, but contact with his own home should be maintained. The condition of the foster home should be as near to his own home as possible. The period of placement should be as brief as the situation allows. The care for dependent children in foster homes or institutions now goes beyond the satisfaction of physical needs. The emotional adjustment to the new environment, the treatment of behavior problems and the rehabilitation of the child’s family are the important phases for the workers in charge to consider. They focus their attention on the development of the child as a whole, physically, mentally, socially, spiritually, and intellectually, on the development of his personality, so that he may become a well integrated citizen. The use of case work and the psychiatric approach have improved institutional as well as foster home care tremendously. Case work in 16 institutions is showing further and more wholesome develop ment. The desire to apply it at the intake stage of insti tutional life is now found in all parts of the country. Institutions now in some instances have hundreds of children in carefully selected foster boarding or free homes and have a larger number of trained and experienced employees in their extra mural service than in their intramural organization. functions have changed more rapidly than corporate names. The Organ izations whose names suggest that they are institutions are in some instances providing all their service through foster family care. These broadening functions make it impossible to classify the whole group of organizations any longer as either institutions or child placing agencies. Statistics in child care. According to the census of December 31, 1933 that there were 242,929 children in foster homes as against 213,75? on February 1, 1923. The number receiving institutional care have remained almost static, 140,312 on February 1st, 1923 and 140,352 on December 1, 1933. The increase of foster home care was from 34.4$ to 42.2$ while institutional care fell from 65.6$ to 57.8$ in the decade. This substantial development of foster family care, occuring while institutions have shown no increase in population, is due to large increases in boarding home care. On December 31, 1933 there were 66,350 children cared for in foster board ing homes, 31,538 in foster free homes and 4,689 in work and 17 wage homes.^ 1 Social Work Year Book. (1937) "Child Welfare", p. 66. CHAPTER III PRINCIPLES OF INSTITUTIONAL CARE I. Incorporation and compliance with State Law: Private child caring institution should be in corporated on approval of the State board having supervisory authority, such as a state board of control, board of charities, or department of public welfare* Cl. Governing Board: A private institution is conducted by a governing board, the Board of Directors, which is organized by the representatives of the community. The board is usually sub divided into committees such as an executive committee, a case committee, and a buildings and grounds committee. The board is responsible for the finances and the general policies and programs of the institution* It is important for board members to familiarize themselves with the general policies of the institution and its place in the community »s child welfare program. They should also assist in the-interpretation of the institution to the public. As an aid to both the community and institution the board should encourage a close relation ship with councils of social agencies, community chests and other coordinating groups. These responsibilities ofp trustees are the most important functions of a board. The frequency of board meetings varies considerably, but they are generally held once a month to hear the reports of Standards of Foster Care for Children In Institutions (Child Welfare League of America, February 1937), p. 10. s Ibid.. p. 11-12 19 the executive committee and other committees and to discuss their problems. III. Staff: 1. Superintendent — The head of the staff is the superintendent or the executive, who is appointed by the board. There is no limited term for the executive; he holds his office as long as he performs his duties satisfactorily. Qualification: The executive must have a sufficient background of the general field of social work and an under standing of the fundamental philosophy and objectives of social case work. He must be familiar with principles and problems of business administration, applied to a private social agency; formulation of policies, including legal re strictions, constitutions, by laws, powers and functions of board of trustees, responsiveness to public opinion and staff participation; finance including budgets and budget control, financing by the individual agency, and by joint effort; managerial accounting; and the technique of publicity work.1 The executive must be an all-round person with administrative ability, skill in case supervision, proficiency in public speaking and writing, and clarity in the analysis and interpretation of reports and statistics. Functions: The functions of the executive vary accord ing to the size of the institution. A large institution would have a superintendent, an assistant superintendent and a case 1" Margaretta A. Williamson, The Social Worker in Child and Protection, p. 229. 20 work supervisor• Smaller institutions have only a superintend ent and a case worker; there are also one-man institutions where the executive and the social worker are the same person. The superintendent acts between the board and the institution. To the board he may submit recommendations, monthly reports and annual reports to bring before it problems of administration and policy. The duties of the superintendent in the institution are classified as follows: 1. Formulation of policy with respect to admission, home finding, placement, supervision, discharge, respective jurisdiction of two or more agencies working with the same child. 2. Organization of the staff and facilities of the society into departments. 3. Organization of the society's territory into districts• 4. Differentiation of staff duties and responsibilities, and analysis of staff positions to clarify their content; preparation of handbook or manual. 5. Organization of Office routine. 6. Formulation of systems for recording, filing data, and for reporting.^ Besides his duties within the institution the superintend ent must try to cultivate friendly relationships with the parents of the children under the care of the institution and also with the teachers of the public schools. To the community he is the representative of the institution; to the school he is the representative of the parents. He should have a general know ledge of medical problems so that he may be able to work out an S Ibid.. p. 21. adequate heaXth program with the physicians and to super vise the resident nurse in carrying out the recommended treatments. He should also be well informed in regard to the purchase of food, clothes, and shoes so that the purchases may be made wisely and economically. Personnel Responsibilities: The matter of staff relationships forces itself upon the executive's attention. It is his duty to evolve standards of requirements for staff workers, and to engage and dismiss the staff, often in counsel with assistants or supervisors, and sometimes subject to the approval of the board of directors or a personnel committee.-®Usually a personal interview is required of the applicant in addition to references from interested individuals or private and public employment agencies. The sectarian agencies usually give preference to applicants from their own denomination. In some places there is a probation period before the new member is actually enrolled on the staff. As a rule the institutions like to employ their staff as long as possible, but in case dismissal or removal is necessary they give advance notice two months ahead. The executive conducts the staff meetings, the personal interviews, and the case conferences, but in institutions having a supervisor, the latter would be responsible for the case conferences. The executive and the supervisor are likely to collaborate in evaluating the work of the staff members. ^ Ibid., p. 216 They 22 are leaders looking toward the growth and development of the staff. IV. Intake Policy and Procedure: The fundamental policy of a child caring institution is the prevention of family breakdown and the conservation of wholesome family life for children. The childrenfs charter, drafted by the White House Conference of 1930, established the principle that the home is the primary agency for the nurture and development of children. For every child a home and that love and security which a home provides; and for that child who must receive foster care, the nearest substitute for his own home • Investigation: Before anything is done for any child, the social worker of the institution makes a thorough investi gation of the case. The investigation should cover the family history and the present situation, including the following factors: I. Causes of family breakdown and possibilities of family rehabilitation, S. Personality and capacities of other members of the family and their attitudes toward the child, 3. Conditions surrounding the child from birth to the date of application, 4. Possibility of care of the child in his own home or in the home of relatives either with or without aid from public or private agencies or moth e r fs aid from publio funds, 5. Possibility of financial aid by relatives if the child is accepted for care.i 1 standards Foster Care for Children in Institutions;. 23 If the condition of the home makes it necessary to remove the children from the home, the next thing is to consider what type of foster care should be given to the child. Bach child should be given special consideration, for no two children should be treated in the same manner without a very careful study of the circumstances. Selection of Foster Home Care: 1. Boarding Home: The child is put in a home selected by the agency and the expenses are usually paid by the agency, but sometimes by the parents or relatives. Types of children who go to boarding homes: a. All infants pending decision as to probable physical and mental condition and development. b. All infants with physical defects and those whose histories indicate mental abnormalities. c. Physically and mentally defective children whose conditions are not so acute as to demand hospital or institutional treatment. d. Children of temporarily broken families whose rehabilitation is probable in reasonable time. e. Older children whose conduct indicates mental or moral difficulties, _but not so acute as to demand institutional care.i 2. Free Home: The child is put into a home as a member of the family receiving free home care including room, board and clothing and the necessary comforts of life. 3. Wage Home: Older boys and girls work in foster U. S. Children*s Bureau Publication, Ho. 136, pp. 214-215. 24 homes for wages and pay their room ana board out of their wages. 4. Adoption Home: This kind of home is almost the same as free home except that a legal relationship has been established between the foster parents and the child. 5. Institutional Cares It is up to the social worker to determine, on the basis of investigation and personal judgment, which type of home is most suitable for a particular child. There should be held a case conference attended by the case worker, the house mother, the physician, and the psychol ogist. The discussion takes into account as to whether the child is ready to be placed out and the type of foster home needed for him. Financial Arrangement s As to the responsibility for the cost of boarding care, the case worker or the superintendent makes a decision according to the financial condition of the family, or of the relatives responsible for the child. Whether it is a pay case or a partial pay or an entirely free case all depends on the individual situation. The case worker should have the arrangement made before the child is admitted. Physical Examination: Every child should go through a careful physical examination including the X-ray of the chest, the Wassermann test, laboratory tests, and vaginal smear of the girls. for examination. The children should go to approved clinics A mental test should also be given by the 25 psychologist before the child is received; this will help the institution to classify the child properly in his school enrollment. Children presenting difficult problems of personality or behavior should be given psychiatric study. Reception: study cottage. Some institutions put a new child in a The child is assigned his own cottage immediately after admission. The policy differs in each institution. Placing the child in a study cottage upon admission has in many instances proved of value not only as an opportunity for obtaining factual information as to the childts developmental status, but as a chance to discuss with the child various aspects of institutional life. During this period the child will have an opportunity to express his likes and dislikes as to different home groupings, and cottage mothers and children will be able to present their ideas as_„to where they would like to have him fit into the program.-1 Care in the Institution: Physical care — As soon as the child is admitted the health program should be carried out according to the physician's direction; corrective work such as dental defects, minor operations, etc., should be attended to soon after admission. Periodic examinations and immuniz ation against small pox, typhoid, and diptheria are also included in the health program. All children should have sufficient sleep with plenty of air. The younger the child, the more hours of sleep are needed. Children under six must have twelve hours of sleep. Orlo L. Crissy, The Child in the Institution, (pamphlet of Child Welfare League of America, April 2, 1957) p. 9. 26 Food — A modern institution has a dietician to prepare the menu which gives a balanced'diet with sufficient vitamins for the growing children. least a pint of milk per day. Each child should take at Some institutions give the children cod liver oil in addition to milk. The menu should be changed very frequently to avoid monotony. Meals should be appetizing, well cooked, of a good variety, and served in the quiet, friendly, happy atmosphere of a small group. Rather than another institutional routine, meal times should be anticipated as pleasant occasions. Children can participate not only in the preparation, but even in planning of menus and buying of foodstuffs under supervision. Why should not such practical aspects of institutional life-become a part of the children's training and education?^ Clothes — With the recent trends of individuation, children in institutions now are not wearing uniforms any more. They make their own choice of the color, patterns and the style of their clothing. The clothing of the child in the institution should equal in quality, style and comfort that of the average child with whom he associates in the community. With proper planning, children can assist in purchasing, designing, making and caring for clothes. Thus feelings of ownership and responsibility can be developed.*2 V. Physical Plant: location: Institutions with large grounds and buildings should be located in a small city or in the suburbs of a large 1 Ibid.. p. 7 2 Ibid., p. 7 27 city. It is better to be away from the noisy city and yet the location should not be far from schools and hospitals. portation facilities must be adequate. Trans The matters of drainage, sewage disposal and fire protection should be carefully considered. Acreage: The acreage of institutions varies individually, but every institution should have enough space for playground, for farm, for vegetable gardening, besides the ground for the buildings• Buildings: A central administration building contains the offices of the superintendent, the secretary and the clerks. Some of the institutions have the administration building connected with the dining room, the kitchen and a part of the staff residence. The administrative building ought not to be too far from the children's cottages so as not to lose the feeling of intimacy between the children and the executive staff. It is preferable to have the building built in ordinary residence style rather than in the style of official buildings. The residence of the superintendent, the case worker and other staff members should be comfortable and attractive and provide a reasonable amount of privacy. A bedroom and a bathroom constitute the minimum housing for each member of the resident staff. Cottages — The institutions have two kinds of buildings for the children, large dormitories and the cottages. The 88 dormitory system generally separates the boys and the girls. Each dormitory accommodates twenty or more boys or girls. beds are arranged in straight rows and are neatly made. The The house mother or the matron lives in the dormitory with them* having a separate room of her own. The children do not have their own rooms* but each one has a locker in the dressing room. They have a common sitting room and a common bath room. The cottage is a newly developed means of giving the children a home life, a kind of home training for the future adults. A cottage mother sometimes with her husband, lives in the cottage as the head of the family. varies. The size of the family Usually a cottage mother has under her care twelve children with boys and girls varying in ages. If more than twelve children are accommodated or if there is a preponderance of young children in the cottage, an assistant cottage mother or cook will be required. It is preferable to have at least one-third of the children accommodated in single bedrooms. No dormitory should accommodate more than three or four children, large dormitories have no place in a modern institutional plant. The cottages should be built equipped as much like a home as possible. Each cottage should have its own kitchen, where the cottage mother and older children prepare their own food, and their own dining room to provide a homelike environ ment. There should be a homelike living room which will alloir children to enjoy games, a radio and other amusements. p. 80. ^ Standards of Foster Care for Children in Institutions„ ' 29 Boys and girls live in separate rooms and each one has his own dresser and closet in the room. The arrangement of the furniture and the decoration of the room are up to the children themselves* This responsibility helps to develop their sense of beauty and their individuality. The auditorium and gymnasium — Large institutions movies* The auditorium -used is quite often for several purposes VM have auditoriums with stages for children's plays and weekly the chairs are folded and removed when the room is used for indoor sports and dances. In small institutions, public gatherings are held in the dining hall* Farms — Large institutions have farms of their own to supply milk, fruit, and vegetables for their own use* The work shop provides facilities for woodwork and mechanic work for boys in the repair of furniture as well as in vocational training. Laundry — All institutions have their own laundry and the size is proportional to their population. Usually, there are two rooms, one for washing and the other for ironing* This central laundry takes care of all the laundry of the whole institution, but in each cottage there is a small laundry place where the girls can wash small pieces of clothes. VI* Education: General education: Education in the children's institu tions is just as important as the physical care* All institutions provide, either within or outside the institution, for education through the eight elementary grades. Some institu tions have nursery school or kindergarten courses. Seventy- five per cent of the institution children are attending high schools outside. For those children who show exceptional capacity for higher studies, the institutions, through scholar ships or other means, provide opportunity for a college education fitting them for a profession. At the present time very few institutions have schools of their own except the Catholic institutions, but even Father Cooper agrees that sending children to public schools is a better policy. To judge from the present study, the policy of sending the children out for some or all of their schooling would appear to be gaining decidedly in favor among our institutions. The children are taken out of their isolation, lose something of the feeling of fdifferentn e s s 1 and by rubbing shoulders with other children in the world on the same level are less apt to be afflicted with a sense of inferiority.-1 A special individualized program should be provided for the children who are notably retarded, so that each child may be allowed to progress at his own speed. Some institutions are operating under the ungraded class plan for the retarded children. Vocational education: Vocation education plays a very important role in the educational program for institutional ^ John M. Cooper, Children*s Institutions. (Philadelphia The Dolphin Press, 1931/, p. 428-429. 51 children. It aids each child to choose the right kind of training for his occupation when he leaves the institution. The most important need for institutional children is independence. Their dream of the future is to have a lovely home of their own. Vocational education is an important means of achieving that end. Vocational education includes three major phases: vocational advisement or counseling, vocational training, and placement and follow-up. The program includes helping the child to choose his life work, giving him the specialized training to equip him for the task, and helping him to find actual employment in the vocation for which he has been equipped. Prevocational education gives the children a chance to try out his or her interest and ability so that he .could choose wisely the vocation for which he is best fitted. The courses they give for prevocational training are manual work for boys and domestic science for girls. Studies in vocational education include commercial courses, skilled trades, farming and agricultural pursuits, forestry and animal husbandry, manufacturing and mechanical, transportation, professional and clerical service, extraction of minerals, domestic and personal services. Cultural education: Cultural education includes aesthetic training and training in the art of social living. 'v • The chief objectives of aesthetic training are to prepare the 32 child to have an appreciation of art and music, to develop a wholesome living, and to help the individual form an adequate philosophy of life* For, without the aesthetic part of living, life has little meaning. The program of cultural education includes music, drama, art and handicrafts, and nature study. Music education consists of listening to good music such as piano, victrola and radio; learning to play instruments either through individual lessons or in orchestra; and singing in groups. Dramatization gives the children a chance for selfexpression and emotional outlet. ability and imagination. It develops their creative All children in an institution should participate in dramatics; the experience is especially good for the shy ones. Arts and handicrafts like drawing, coloring and modeling are a part of the school program as well as leisure-time recreational activities• Nature study includes visits and excursions and actual participation in gardening, flower setting in the house, and the collection of specimens from the woods and fields. The teaching of etiquette is also a part of cultural education integrated with the children*s daily life. The children will leave the institution after a few years and must adjust themselves to the world; so table manners, proper 53 etiquette at parties and at different occasions, and correct behavior in dealing with the opposite sex at parties and dances should be taught in the institution* VII* Recreation: Recreation plays an important part in the institutional program; for wholesome play is a wholesome force in the build ing of character* ”It helps the child to grow and develop in mind and character* It is a physical and psychical need of the child 1 which must be met for his all round development.” In planning a leisure and recreational program for institutional children, four essential elements should be considered, namely, time, space, equipment, and leadership. T ime: An average child has about 3,500 hours of free time in a given year. Therefore, it is important that wholesome play activities are provided for all boys and girls with the thought of developing character and preparing them for useful citizenship.^ Children in institutions have two to five hours a day for play activities. Some institutions divide this free time into two parts, with one period in the morning and the other in the afternoon when there is plenty of sunshine* Space: Every institution has a large outdoor playground 1 Ibid.. p. 327. M. H. and E. S. Newmeyer, Leisure and Recreation* p* 57. 54 and some have a play pavilion or gymnasium. The outdoor play ground is the most important part of the plant in an institu tion for children's development and character building. The size of the ground should be in proportion to the number of children. The types of games and sports, the organization of teams, and such problems as separation of sex and age should be considered with care. Sunshine is an important element for good health, yet every playground should have some shade along the sides so that children may rest on the benches in the shade. There are three kinds of indoor space for recreation: namely, playrooms, cluhraoms and gymnasiums. The playroom is used on rainy days. Usually it is a large room with enough space to accommodate the number of children in each house and equipped with toys and games. The club room is a small room set aside for the purpose of meetings of special groups within the building; no special equipment is necessary. The gymnasium was mentioned before under the category of auditorium and gymnasium. Equipment and supplies: The outdoor playground is marked off into courts, diamonds and fields for games and sports. Sand box, swings, slides, and seesaws are among the equipment needed for small children. The other supplies for children are classified according 35 to age group and sex. For older children halls, hats, gloves and shoes for sports use are provided; for the younger ones skates, marhles, tops, ropes, jacks and so forth should he supplied. The girls are given dolls and a work basket with cloth, thread and needle for them to make clothes for their dolls. Boys like to play with blocks and mechanical toys. Pieces of hoard and lumber with a variety of tools also meet their needs. Staff leadership: The importance of leadership in the recreational program has been recognized just recently. Formerly the duty of a recreational director was just to keep order in the group without the exercise of much initiative, but now there are specially trained recreational directors to do the job. The directors are classified as physical director, play director and coach. The primary principles for play leadership in the child caring home are: 1. So lead as both to preserve and to promote initiative on the part of the children themselves. S. So lead that play activities and attitudes learned under the leadership will carry over into the undirected leisure time of the children. 3. Build on the spontaneous activities of the children.^ The advantages of having a staff leader are as follows: Handbook for the Use of Board of Directors. Superintend ents « and Staffs of Institutions for Dependent Children.(u. S . Children *s Bureau Publication), p. 96-97. • • 56 It carries on the beneficent tradition of parental leadership• It helps the staff to know the children better and so to guide them* It permits closer correla tion between the moral lessons taught theoretically in classroom or chapel, and the actual practice of these lessons in life situations. It brings the members of the staff closer to the child and helps deepen sympathy, confidence and love. Play activities; The play activities may be considered under two groups: active recreation and passive recreation. Active recreation includes sports, games, and dances. The passive recreational activities are story telling, listening to radio and other musical programs, attending movies, theaters, and exhibits. Most of the institutions today have * weekly movies. Children are encouraged to put on plays for entertainment. The collection of stamps, pictures and natural objects are all good hobbies for children to develop. VIII. Emotional Adjustment: Emotional adjustment for institutional children is a most difficult problem. In the first place, each child was born and brought up in a different home with a particular cultural background. The institution is supposed to be a melting pot of these different cultures, but there must be a period of culture conflicts before they all are assimilated. Moreover, the population is constantly changing so there is also a mixing of old and new culture patterns. Another difficulty arises out of the fact that almost all the children 1 John M. Cooper, o c i t .. p. 564. 37 receiving foster or institutional cares come from broken homes* The child loses his parental love and his own'home when he comes to the institution for care and protection* In the institution he is one of a group, and not the only child or a favorite child. His fundamental desires for love, security, recognition and thrill could not be satisfied in the old ways. This change sometimes affects the childfs emotional life very deeply. The child may develop bed-wetting, thumb-sucking, temper tantrums, stealing, or other kind of misbehavior after he is removed from home. The deeper modern science has been able to probe the sources of the influences that shape the personalities of men and women, the clearer has. it become that among the forces com ng from the environment that fashion the adult life, those born of childhood experiences are supremely significant.-^ We are all the products of our childhood experience. We need to flee very frankly the fact that each of us in our childhood had conflicts in our relationships to our parents— conflicts growing out of rejection, in Security, over protection, jealousy and soron. We must also face the fact that in our total life experience there is nothing we forget.2 The social worker should be very careful in the selection of the right kind of foster home for each child. She should bear in mind that the placement of a child in an institution or a foster home means a great deal to the child’s future life. The placement of children should not -be done on ^ E, Groves and Plyllis Blanchard, Readings in Mental Hygiene.(New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1937), p. 150. 2 Ibid.. p. 152. 58 an emergency basis. To reduce the possibility of emotional maladjustment, it is often better to allow the parent and the child to participate in the planning. The parents and the child are then given opportunity to visit the home before placement is actually made so that they may feel that they have had a share in the choice of the home. Frequent changing of foster home is an indication of poor case workj it is likely to build up an attitude of resistance on the part of the child toward foster homes. This attitude may effect the child»s behavior and cause emotional instability, It is very hard to say what are the best methods of preventing or remedying emotional maladjustment of children away from home, An important thing which cottage mothers and foster mothers should understand is that an individual has fundamental needs and drives— the need for love, the need for adults, the need for encouragement and praise, or any small sign of affection, etc. These touches of love may change the child completely. "Security is a basic need for all of us. The urge to be wanted and love and to belong is the fundamental." Of course we cannot expect all the cottage mothers and foster mothers to understand child psychology and the problems of human behavior, but the social worker could give them certain books to read to increase their knowledge and enrich their experience. The following books may be suggested to 39 foster mothers; 1. Foster, Sybil: Mental Meeds in Children*s Institutions . Child/Welfare League of America,.1937. 2. Isaacs, Susan: Vanguard Press, 1938. The Nursery Y e a r s , New York, The 3. Isaacs, Susan: Social Development in Young Children. New York. Harcourt,,Brace and .Company, 1937. 4. Manual for Cottage Mothers in Institutions» Welfare League of America, 1932. 5. Payne, M. A.: Oliver Untwisted. Co. London, 1929. Fifth edition 1937. Child Edward Arnold & There is no hard and fast rule for the emotional adjust ment of children. Perhaps the most important requisite is that the foster parents should be able to understand individual differences and to appreciate differences in cultural back grounds, the needs for love and attention, and the reasons for feeling of insecurity, the inferiority complex, and other forms of maladjustment. As Dr. Aichhorn stated in his Wayward Y o u t h . Specific educational methods are far less important than an attitude which brings the child into contact with reality. We must give the pupils experience which fit them for life outside and not for the artificial life of an institution. The more the life of the institution con forms to an actual social community, the more certain is the social rehabilitation of the child. There is a great danger in an institution that the individuality of the child does notdevelop along lines best suited to his needs, but that rules are laid down in accordance with administra tive requirements which reduce the child to mere inmate with a number,^ 1 Aichhorn, Wayward Y o u t h » !,The Training School", August, 1936, (New York: The Viking Press), p. 150. 40 In other words, foster care is not an end but a means to achieve the goal of rehabilitation. It is an educational institution to help the child to grow and to build the well balanced personality of a future citizen. IX. Rehabilitation and after care: Rehabilitation is the final goal of the foster care of children. Children cared for in institutions or foster homes are just temporarily removed from their own homes. During this period of an institution or boarding home, the relationship between parents and children is kept close enough to make later reunion easy. Sometimes this short separation may intensify their affection and the child loves the parent evermore, but a long period of separation may estrange the feelings on both sides. Estrangement may arise out of the fact that the children receive a more refined cultural training in an institution and begin to realize the inadequacy of their parental education. On the other hand, the parents, after the children are well cared for in the institution, tend to become irresponsible toward their children. The stay of children in institutions for dependents should be as brief as possible.....During the child’s stay in the institution, an effort should be made to rehabilitate the family.^ The responsibility of the institution is to maintain the parent and child relationship and try to re-educate and ^ S« Children’s Bureau Publication. Noi 170, p. 102. 42 rehabilitate the parents while the child is in the institution or in foster home; for the institution is oniy a temporary substitute for the childfs own home. The social responsibility of the institution does not end with the return of the child to the community: The institution should be responsible for fitting into community life each child whom it discharges by: (a) Returning the child to his own home if suitable; (b) finding a suitable home if his own is not the proper place; (c) finding work to which he is adapted; fd} providing for further education if desirable; (e) making church connection; (f) finding wholesome recreation.x After care may be provided by (a) one or more trained workers on the institution staff or (b) through cooperation with another agency equipped to give such eare.s Each institution has at least one worker to do the follow-up work to help the family in the task of rehabilitation ana to continue parent education and the necessary case work. All the children under the care of the institution and foster homes have the same privileges of follow-up care. of follow-up care depends on individual cases. The length As soon as the child can adjust well in his home, in the foster home, or in his work, the case can be closed for the time being, although it may be reopened whenever the need arises. 1 Ibid.. p. 105. S Ibid.. p. 106. CHAPTER IV SUMMARY OF FINDIMGS Location. In comparing the institutions which are selected for this study we find that two are in the city of Los Angeles and that three of them are near the city. farthest one is in Altadena — Society. The the B o y s 1 and Girls’ Aid The second is the Children’s Baptist Home at Inglewood, and Vista Del Mar located in Palms is the third, Los Angeles Orphanage and the Orthopaedic Hospital are the two institutions in Los Angeles proper. Physical Plant. The size of the campus varies as follows: Size Time of purchase Orthopaedic Hospital 3 acres 1921 B o y s ’ and Girls* Aid Society 8 ,T 1926 Children’s Baptist Home 10 ” 1934 Vista Del Mar (Jewish Home) 21 ” 1924 Los Angeles Orphanage 25 n 1890 The size of the property has some relation to the location, and the time of purchase. In general land in the city costs much more than that in the outskirts. The Orthopaedic Hospital has only three acres, but the Los Angeles Orphanage has the largest campus on this list because it was 43 purchased in X890. Style of buildings. The styles of the buildings could be roughly classified into three categories: the institutional building, the semi-cottage, and the cottage# Los Angeles Orphanage, which was established 50 years ago, still maintains in its old buildings, a regular school building with three stories above the basement# The Orthopaedic Hospital, which is a medical institution for a special class of handicapped children, has to use large buildings with elevator facilities and an underground tunnel to connect the two build ings for transportation. The semi-cottage system is used by the B o y s ’ and Girls’ Aid Society and the Children’s Baptist Home, both of them having bungalows of similar Spanish architecture. Vista Del Mar, the Jewish Home for Children, adopted the modern cottage system, having five cottages of different styles, each built on a street corner like an ordinary residential area in the city. Dormitories. The dormitory capacity varies from 10 to 20 in a room while the cottage rooms accommodate three children each. There are 10 nursery children of Los Angeles Orphanage in each bedroom while 20 children of school ages are in each bedroom in the same institution. Boys and Girls Aid Society’s dormitory has two wings on each building and each wing accommodates 12 children of the same sex and the same age group. The senior girls of the same Home live on the 44 second floor of the Administration building two or three in a room with separate studies and sitting rooms. The Children *s Baptist Home had only 28 children when the study was made and they had closed one building at that time. The girls live in the Administration building with three in a room and the boys all live in one dormitory. In Vista Del Mar each cottage has twenty children of both boys and girls. The bedrooms are divided according to sex and age, three boys or three girls of the same age group living in one room. The Orthopaedic Hospital being different in nature,has to arrange rooms not only according to the difference in sex and age but also according to the surgical condition of the children both before and after operation to avoid annoying others. Dining room. Boys* and Girls* Aid Society, Children’s Baptist Home, and Dos Angeles Orphanage all have the common dining hall system except that the nursery children of Los Angeles Orphanage have a small dining room of their own near the bedroom. Children of Vista Del Mar eat at their own cottage with their house mother and also help in cooking and washing dishes. The Orthopaedic Hospital, which is mainly for surgical operation of crippled children, has to bring food to the bed side of each child. Auditorium and Gymnasium. All except one of the five institutions have large auditoriums and three of them have an indoor gymnasium in the auditorium. The Orthopaedic Hospital has a gymnasium, and four swinning-poois besides the auditorium* Children1s Baptist Home which is more like an ordinary home, does not have an auditorium. They use the dining hall for assembly• Hospital and Isolatlon-rooms. equipment but this varies in quantity. All have some medical The Orthopaedic Hospital of course in itself is a hospital. Vista Del Mar and B o y s ’ and Girls’ Society each has a quite large hospital of its own. Children’s Baptist Home, in spite of its small population, has a very well equipped infirmary, which is as large as that of the Catholic Orphanage which houses 140 girls. Administrative controls They all have Boards of Directors who are elected from the community to be responsible for the institution’s policy as well as its budget. The size of the Board is different in each organization. Staff and personnel. institution also differs. The number on the staff of each The children’s Baptist Home has a superintendent who is also the case worker of the institution. He does all the intake and discharge case work as well as personnel appointment and the general management of the institution. The Boys ’ and Girls ’ Aid Society is headed by the Superintendent and his wife, a case worker. The case worker does all the intake and discharge case ?*ork and recording, besides helping her husband in the general management of the Home. Los Angeles Orphanage is a Catholic institution headed 46 by the Sister Superior, having a full time case worker to handle the intake and discharge cases. Vista Del Mar, the Jewish Childrenis service, has hoarding homes outside of their institution, so they must have a large staff. They have one Executive Director and one assistant to be responsible for the administration, and they have five case workers and one case supervisor. The Orthopaedic Hospital is a regular hospital having a medical social service department with five trained social workers in this department, the rest of the hospital staff being too numerous to list. Population and cost. The number of children in each institution and the perocapita cost of each per day at the time this study was made is listed as follows: Name of the Institut ion Number Per Capita Cost Children’s Baptist Home 28 $1.29 Orthopaedic Hospital 84 3.50 120 .95 B o y s ’ and Girls’ Aid Society Vista Del Mar Children’s Service bos Angeles OriDhanage 125 140 1.26 1.21 The above table shows that the agency with the smallest number has the highest per capita cost of operation with the exception of the Orthopaedic Hospital, figures for which include special surgical, medical, and educational expenses, thus increasing the cost. Los Angeles Orphanage has the largest population, but the per capita cost is not the lowest, because 47 it maintains its own school* Vista Del Mar operates at an average cost of §38*00 per month including $4.00 per capita per month mortgage fees. The actual cost is $34.00 per month which is about $1.13 per day per capita cost. This proves that the cottage system does not cost more than the average institutional plant. The B o y s ’ and Girls’ Aid Society which has no mortgage now to pay and has no school of its own, has the lowest per capita cost of all the five institutions. Finance. Four of these five institutions are supported by the Community Chest of Los Angeles and by other chests. B o y s ’ and Girls’ Aid Society had an income of $42,000 last year, $7,740.12 of which came from Los Angeles'Community Chest about $9,000 from the Pasadena Community Chest; $1,000 from the South Pasadena Community Chest; $16,000 from the parents for board; and the balance came from memberships, private donations, and interest from the bank. Los Angeles Orphanage’s sources of income are first from the Los Angeles Community Chest, second from the tax, third from the county and fourth from the parents. The sum received from the Los Angeles Community Chest last year was $31,652.10 and the other receipts were not mentioned. Vista Del M a r ’s financial resources Jewry, the Los Angeles Community Chest and are the LosAngeles the public depart ments which altogether contribute about $100,000.00 a year for operating costs. The amount received from Community Chest last year was $67,721.80. the LosAngeles 48 The Orthopaedic Hospital is financed by the Los Angeles Community Chest, contributions from friends throughout the world, and by payments from the patients. Since this is a medical institution the yearly expenditure is beyond comparison with the institutions for general care. Income from the Los Angeles Community Chest alone was $146,252.49 last year. Children's Baptist Home is not a Community Chest agency. It has endowment fund. The interests ana dividend^ from the endowment fund are around $10,000 a year. $5,000 may be added to the income as gifts and contributions from the Baptist Churches and payment from the parents make up part of the income. The average expenditure of this institution approximates $20,000 a year. Educational Program. Three of the five institutions send their children to the public schools in the neighborhood, thus mingling with children outside of their own group. Two of the five have nursery schools of their own, and one has a regular elementary school for girls up to the eighth grade. The Orthopaedic Hospital has special arrangements made with the Board of Education to provide teachers from both Elementary and High School Departments to come to the hosptial and tutor the children in the wards so that they may participate in a regular school program. Vocational education is emphasized in all of these institutions, especially in the Orthopaedic Hospital, which has to adjust the child to his physical condition. 49 Recreational Program* The recreational program varies according to the size and the nature of each institution. All of them have an athletic field and equipment, both indoor and outdoor games, radio in every sitting room with magazines and newspapers. Dramatics, dancing, and entertainments at Christmas and other holidays are universal activities in these institutions, but the Orthopaedic Hospital has the most beautiful and thera peutic dramatic activities of all. In order to overcome the feeling of being handicapped the recreational program is strong ly stressed in the Orthopaedic Hospital. Three of five institutions have a weekly movie for the children. The agencies having to keep the children in doors most of the time have more organized recreational activities than those sending the children to public schools. Camping, hiking, fishing, and going to the beaches are very common recreations among all the institutions including the hospital. Age of the children. The age of the children in the institutions of general care varies from 3 to 16 that is from nursery school age to high school graduate. The Orthopaedic Hospital has a broader age limit, from the new-born to 20 years. Food and clothing. All these institutions have dieticians to plan the menu so the food of each institution is well balanced and has adequate nutrients. In addition to their ordinary diet they give milk and cod liver oil to every child* The clothes are all quite colorful and of good material. Mo uniforms are worn except at the Catholic Orphanage, where they 50 are required in classes# Religion# Three sectarian institutions are the Catholic, the Baptist and the Jewish, those non-sectarian ones are the Orthopaedic Hospital and the Boys* and Girls* Society, but all of them have some connections with the church. For instance, the Crippled Children's Guild was started by the Sunday School of the First Congregational Church which was the nucleus of the Hospital as it is today. The children of the Boys* and Girls* Aid Society all go to the church at Montana and Lincoln streets for Sunday School# General Impression# From this study it is noticed that the smaller number of children the Institutions have the better the family spirit they create. If large institutions could adopt the cottage system by dividing the children into small groups having their own kitchen and dining room, that would be more intimate and less like an institution. matter to be considered. Of course the buildings are another That of the Los Angeles Orphanage is fifty years old and is not suitable for the modern cottage plan, yet to rebuild a new institution is not easy since it involves funds and planning. Boys and girls of the same institution should be intermingled like brothers and sisters in a family of different ages. Exclusiveness of one sex is out of date now. As far as equipment, food, and clothing are concerned, they are all adequately provided and even better quantities than in ordinary homes. What the executive and the social workers are now trying to do is to keep the relationship between the families as close as possible and prepare the families for rehabilitation. They are also trying to make as much contact with the outside world as they can for the children to prepare themselves to live and work in a normal life. CHAPTER V APPLICABILITY TO CHINA Brief review of child welfare work in China since 1957. Cina has been invaded by the Japanese since July 7, 1937. The coastal cities have fallen into Japanese hands one by one, driving a large mass of refugees to the interior. There are thousands and thousands of children lost from their parents and homes. Temporary child caring agencies have been estab lished in every city to meet the emergency, but more permanent institutions are established in the interior. The National Child Welfare Association of China was established several years ago by Dr. H. H. Kung, with head quarters now located at 147 Edward VII Avenue, Shanghai. It is now backed by the united support of practically every lead ing religious and civil relief organization in Shanghai. It was estimated in November, 1938, that 20,000 children in Shanghai were war waifs wandering about the streets. The organization in Shanghai launched a campaign on November 7, 1938, giving these children homes where they could stay and be fed and clothed. Madame Chiang Kai-Shek, the first lady of China, is very enthusiastic about child welfare work. The following quotation is from her speech appealing to the public asking 55 Tor aid for China1s Homeless Children: There are many tens of thousands of children, bereft of parents and homes. There are more with parents who are too poor to feed and clothe them. These all must be cared for. They will soon be m e n and women. Theymust be housed, fed, clothed and educated. They cannot be allowed to drift, to become beggars and potential criminals to burden the streets and highways with their famished bodies. . . . The Association for War Refugee Children is now making a drive for funds. It will cost $60.00 per year to house, feed, clothe and educate, in a simple way, one child. We ask every one of you to subscribe for sev eral children so that they can be properly maintained. Our immediate object is to care for 20,000 children; and later to support as many as our funds will allow. We shall distribute the children to different centers in the rear, house them in safety under responsible supervision; see thau they are neither neglected nor ill-used; give them vocational training to fit them to take care of them selves, and suited to their strength and ability to qualify them, and when the time comes, to undertake the burdens of life themselves.1 A Child Welfare Bureau was organized in Hankow in March, 1938, and plans were made to organize homes in every district possible where homeless children might be gathered together. The permanent homes will be opened In centers in the interior provinces such as Szechuan, Kueichow, Yunnan and Kwangsi. The first permanent orphanage is already established in Chungking. It accommodates 500 children. The newly organ ized Child Welfare Bureau is sending workers to the war zone from time to time with the express purpose of collecting homeless children. These children were moved to Chungking In two sections— the first of 300, and the second of 200. These children are under the care of the C h i l d r e n ’s Service Corps'1 organized by the New Life Movement Association. The children ^ "Madame Chiang Asks Aid for China’s Homeless Children," China Weekly Review, 84:215, April 23, 1928. 54 are temporarily quartered at Wan Shou Kung (Longevity Palace) which was an old temple. They came from Shangtung, Honan, and Anhui, the northern provinces in the eastern part of China. Their ages vary from 6 to 16 and the majority group is between 11 and 12. There are more boys than girls among these 500. In Hankow there are about 1,000 children, and a number of infants who could not come over to Chungking are under the care of the "Children*s Service Corps” over there. There are still 5,000 more children gathered from the war districts along the Lung Hai Line, but owing to the interruption of the railway, they are being held there. Chungking, where the first branch of the Child Welfare Bureau is locared, is assigned to take care of half of this number* The second branch is in Humming, Yunnan, and the third branch in Kwueiyang. unfortunate children. They accommodate about 20,000 2 Living conditions. The Longevity Palace, once only a temple of medieval type, is now converted into child welfare administrative offices, dormitories and classrooms. Y&ien 200 children arrived, they were each given one suit of cotton clothing, one mat and one piece of bedding. The cost of cloth ing according to the estimate made by Shanghai, The National p C. Y. W. Meng, “Chungking, Mother to China*s Orphans,” China Weekly Review, 85:170, July, 1938. 55 Child Welfare Association, is as follows: $2.50 1.50 1.00 0.30 1 for for for for one one one one padded coat pair of padded trousers waist coat pair of shoes ,,0.10 for one pair of stockings^ The prices in the interior are a little higher than in Shanghai because of lack of transportation facilities, but this will give an idea how simple the life of an !,worphann is in the child caring agency now in China. These children were divided into brigades of 20 each. All the children have to go through an examination and be classified into different classes according to their age and knowledge. Babies from 1 to 3 years of age will be classified in the Minfant section11; from 3 to 6, in kindergarten grade;, and from 6 to 10 and up, in the primary school grades. Those large enough will be organized as boy scouts and girl guides, those strong enough will be given military and war time train ing. At the present time, there are 42 teachers, mostly women. They are all members of the llService corps of the Teachers of primary and middle schools from the War districts of Kiangsu and Chekiang,11 organized by the Ministry of Education. were sent to Szechuan to assist in the undertaking. They There are, in addition, about 22 other matrons who have all undergone 3 HChild Welfare Launches Campaign to Care for Shanghai’s War Waifs,” China Weekly Review, 86:354, November 12, 1938. previous special training. They are enthusiastic and patriotic social workers and receive no salary except the scanty liveli hood allowance11 allotted by the Ministry of Education.^ There is a war orphan colony in the eastern part of China on Mokanshan (mountain) near Hangchow, Chekiang, This colony has 400 refugee children and it is known as the East Chekiang branch of the War Time Children’s Relief Association, one of the three national organizations caring for China1s thousands of war orphans. This was organized by Madame Huang Shao Hsiung, wife of the chairman of the Chekiang provincial government. The colony is looked after by a doctor, three nurses, twelve girl teachers and scores of women specially selected to take charge of the little inmates. are divided into three groups: The children (1) Kindergarten, 2 to 6 years; (2) Primary school, 6 to 15; and (5) Special class in training or education. The children rise at dawn. Responding to the bugle call, the boys line up on the spacious campus and with stern solemnity honor their national colors and sing their national anthem. Thus begins a day of lessons, games, story telling and outing in the course of which the principles of cleanliness, orderliness, honor and honesty are taught. Among other things taught at the colony, self-government is practiced by the children. They settle their own disputes and enforce 57 disciplinary measures themselves with teachers as their super visors* Many of them come from rich families. Here luxuries, once known to many of the children, are not had, but every effort is exerted to make them miss nothing. They study, play and laugh as they did before the invaders destroyed their home s. There is another system of child welfare known as the proxy system. individuals. This system is one of child-caring through private In Hochuan, a small city near Chungking, there is a couple, Dr. and Mrs. Cho?/ Chiang Chinn, Dr. Chow being the superintendent of the Fifth Military Hospital there. They are now attending 100 little ones who are suffering from all sorts of infectious ailments, age* contracted on their long pilgrim An American woman missionary, known as Miss Mary, lives in Jungsien near Chungking, and is taking care of 50 little waifs placed by the Child Welfare Association upon her own request. The association finances this kind of boarding with $5 per head per month. This is similar to the boarding home or semi-free home system in the United States. Another type of case is apprenticeship for older boys who are graduates of primary schools, who are sent out to learn 5 ”War Orphan Colony in Eastern Chekiang,” China Weekly Review, 88:341, May 31, 1938. 58 some.kind of trade. Thirty boys were sent to the China Radio Supplies Company as apprentices. Chungking has numerous pledges for -che support of "Worphans" like Mr. Li Ken Fu, the former mayor of Chungking, usho offered to support twenty children at $100 per month for an indefinite period. A well-known local banker, Mr. Kang Hsing Chih, will play foster father to 40 of the children. Comparison of Chinese institutional life with that of America. From the glimpses of Child Welfare work in China we realize that there is plenty of work to be done today along this line. The field is so great and the needs for money and personnel are so urgent that it is impossible to set up an adequate standard of child welfare in China at the present time. It is impossible to compare the institutional life for children in America with that in China, the difference in equipment, in the dormitory, the food, recreational activities being so great. the clothing and the The per capita cost of children in institutions of the United States is around $1.16 per day and the cost of Chinese children under institu tional care is $60 per year, that is, about 17 cents a day. In teiras of American currency, $1 equals 15 Chinese dollars now, so 17 cents in Chinese money is less than 2 cents a day* 6 ttMovement to Aid Homeless Children Growing," China ?feekly Review, 86:197, October, 1938. 59 As far as the physical plant is concerned, China has to use old temples and schools to accommodate large numbers of children at the present time. homes should be built right away. W hen the war is over, new By that time, children1s homes should be built on the cottage plan. The boarding home system should be followed more widely throughout the country. Case work in home finding, locating parent^ as well as in finding adopting parents should be done after the war. Im provement of diet is essential in Chinese child-caring institu tions, since the per capita cost is so low that milk and cod liver oil are beyond their budget. It has been proved by the pediatrician that soy bean milk plus calcium has value equal to that of cow’s milk. China has an abundant soy bean pro duction so the institutions should be encouraged to feed children soy bean milk in addition to their daily food. At the present time most of the institutions have schools of their own, but when the war is over this system must be revised. If the cottage system is carried out after wards the children will naturally go to public schools, for there will be no space for classrooms in their own cottages. Vocational training and guidance should be given along with school curricula, but apprenticeship is not a good plan, for children will then lose their home life entirely. Recreational activities should be emphasized in China. Chinese children as a whole are not as active and free In 60 expression as children in the United States, the reason being that Chinese children do not have as much variety in recreation as American children. Those who can read spend most of their time in reading, and their life is not well balanced with work, play and rest. Lack of recreational program and adult leader ship are the chief concerns. Group work leaders are just as much needed in China as case workers, because those children who lost their homes in the war need more time for play to keep up their morale. Psychiatric approach has not yet reached these large numbers of children in China, and probably the material needs are more urgent than emotional adjustment. Child guidance clinics would be needed when child welfare in China has been put into shape. The adoptability of the American system of child care to China depends on time, money, and personnel. No one system could be shifted to China entirely, nor immediately. It would be brought out gradually to meet the needs of the different situations. As time passes this study would be of some value in reference to standards of child-care in institutions in the United States. The well-planned and experienced systems of institutional and foster home care in America will be the guide book for China in the days to come. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Abbot, Grace, The Child and the State. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press, 1938. Aichorn, August, Wayward Youth. 1930. New York; The Viking Press, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Standards of Foster Care for Children in Institutions. 1937. Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Manual for Cottage Mothers in Institutions. 1932, Clark, Elizabeth Munro, MA Re-Examination of Child-Welfare Functions in Family and Foster-care Agencies,11 National Conference of Social Work. 1935. Cooper, John Montgomery, Children1s Institutions. Press: Philadelphia, 1931. Crissy, Orlo L., The Child in the Institution. League of America, Inc., 1937. The Dolphin Child Welfare Corean, M. S. and B. C. Reynolds, The Selection of Foster Homes for Children. New York: The New York School of Social Work, Columbia University, 1919. poster, Sybil, Mental Health Needs in Children1s Institutions. Child Welfare League of America, Inc., 1937. Proves, E. R. and Phyllis Blanchard, Readings in Mental Hygiene. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1937. ^ealy W. and A. Bronner, New Light on Delinquency. Yale University Press, 1936. , Reconstructing Behavior in Youth. A. Knopf, 1931. New Haven: New York: Alfred [saacs, Susan, The Nursery Years. New York: The Vanguard Press, 1938. ______ , Social Development of Young Children. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1937. 62 Lurie, Harry L . , f,Re-Examination of Child-Welfare Functions In Family and Foster-Care Agencies,” National Conference of Social Work Proceedings, 1955. “ Mangold, George B., Problems of Child Welfare. Macmillan Company, 1936. New York: The Mulry, T. M . , ,!Neglect and Dependent Children,** Conference of Charities and Corrections, 1899. Proceedings of the Conference on ttie Care of Dependent Children Senate Document No. 721, 1909. Reader, Rudolph Rex, How Two Hundred Children Live and Learn. New York: Lloyd Adams Noble, 191*7. 4th edition. Social Service as Administered by Public and Private Agencies Sen Member ship in Los Angeles Community Welfare Federation. Los Angeles: The Council of Social Agencies of Los Angeles, 1935. Social Work Year Book, 1937. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Solenberger, Edwin D., !lThe Functions in a Community Child Welfare Program of Private Child Caring Institutions and Agencies,11 National Conference of Social Work Pro ceedings , 1932, pp. 111-21. Theis and Goodrich, The Child in the Foster Home. New York School of Social Work, 1921. New York: Thurston, Henry W . , The Dependent Child. New York: School of Social Work, Columbia University Press, 1930. U. S. Children1s Bureau Publication No. 60, Standards of Child Welfare. U. S. Children*s Bureau Publication No. 62, Minimum Standards of Child Welfare. (Second White House Conference.) U. S. Children’s Bureau Publication No. 136, Foster Home Care for Dependent Children. Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1924. U. S. Children’s Bureau Publication No. 170, Handbook for the Use of Boards of Directors, Superintendents, and Staffs of Institutions for Dependent Children. 63 U. S. Children*s Bureau Publication No. 216, The A.B.C. of Foster Family Care for Children. Washingtons Government Printing Office, 1933. U. 3. Children’s Bureau Publication No. 228, Part I. tional Treatment of Delinquent Boys. Institu- White House Conference on Child Health and Protection, Dependent and Neglected Children. New York: D. Appleton Company. 1933. Williamson, Margaretta, The Social Worker in Child Care and Protection. New York and London: Harper and Brothers, 1931. Young, Mary A . , “Re-Examination of Child Care Functions in Family Agencies,** National Conference of Social Work Proceedings, 1935, 1935, ppl 18*7-99. Young, Mrs. Pauline, (Vislick), Scientific Social Survey and Research. New York: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1939. B. PERIODICALS “Child Welfare Launches Campaign to Care for Shanghai’s War Waifs,n China Weekly Review, 86;354, November 12, 1938. “Madame Chiang Asks Aid for China’s Homeless Children,11 China Weekly Review, 84:215, April 23, 1938. Meng, C.Y.W., “Chungking, Mother to China’s Orphans,** China Weekly Review, 85:170, July 2, 1938. “Movement to Aid Homeless Children Growing,** China Weekly Review, 86:197, October 8, 1938. "War Orphan Colony in Eastern Chekiang,“ China Weekly Review, 88:341, May 31, 1938. C. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Bice, Martha Adele, “A Study of the Effects of Replacements in Foster Homes and Institutions on Dependent Children in Los Angeles County," (unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937). 64 Jewish Orphan1s Home a_c Vista Del Mar, Palms, California, Superintendents Report, Submitted at the annual meeting, February 2, 1930. History of Jewish Orphan1s Home— Pamphlet, Reciprocal Attitudes of Parents and Adolescent Children where these children are Being Cared for Away from Home,** Joseph Bonapart. Reprinted from Hospital Social Service, 23:177, 1931. Boys* and Girls* Aid Society: A Home for Children-’■Pamphlet Plant Report of Admissions Committee Year of 1939 Weekly Schedules for Nursery Program Junior Girls and Senior Girls Life at the Orthopaedic Hospital— Pamphlet Handbook--Volunteer Service Corps. Los Angeles, California: Orthopaedic Hospital, 2424 South Flower Street, 1935. The Therapeutic Theatre— Pamphlet by C. L. Lowman, published by the Orthopaedic Hospital. APPENDIX CHILDRENfS BAPTIST HOME OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA V Location,. The Children* s Baptist Home of Southern California is located at 7715 Victoria Avenue, Inglewood, California* It was incorporated in June, 1951, and opened in August, 1934. Physical Plant. The Home owns ten acres of land Including gardens and athletic fields. Spanish in style, with tile roofs. The buildings are The Administration build ing contains the superintendent *s office, the secretary’s office, the dining hall, the kitchen, the senior girls* living quarters and “Che secretary’s living quarters. The junior girls now occupy quarters here which formerly housed the nursery children. On November 15, the newly-built Boys* Building was closed and all the boys were moved to the Junior Girls* Build ing. The nursery children were returned to their homes and the junior girls were moved to the nursery quarters in the Administration. Two or three senior girls share one room containing single beds and dressers. These rooms are decorated much as Is a girlfe room in a normal household. The rooms in the closed boys* building are much less homelike than these rooms and those of the junior girls. 66 These former b oys’ quarters were more like a dormitory, with halls and shining floors, the beds arranged in rows, and the matron’s room immediately inside the dormitory, with a wicket on her door from which she could observe her charges. Now -Hie boys have been moved to the former junior girls’ quarters near the Administration building, which are more home like. The living quarters of the staff are separate, the superintendent having an apartment with his family in a sep arate building, located between the present b o y s ’ building and the Administration building. Other members of the staff live close to their place of work in quarters which contain a bedroom and bathroom. All these living quarters are comfort ably furnished. The infirmary. present boys* quarters. There is an Infirmary near the It is well equipped, with medical apparatus and wheel chairs. There are two bedrooms for boys, two bedrooms for girls, and a treatment room for all. There is no school building or gymnasium in the Home. A small shop at the basement is used for repairing equipment, and caring for tools. Athletic field and gardening. There is a tennis court, baseball field, football field, and sand-pit, and a chicken house and rabbit house, in which the children can 67 raise their pets. The garden is well planted, with flowers and trees which add to the beauty of the scenery. 3. The Administrative Control. Board of Directors. There are thirty-one members on the Board of Directors, all Baptist in denomination. The executive committee is composed of the president of the board, the vice-president, secretary, treasurer and five members at large. The Board meeting is held once every three months and the Executive Committee meets once a month. The Board hires the superintendent and the superintendent hires the rest of the staff. Staff and personnel. Superintendent. The superintendent must be a college graduate, with some case work and group work experience, and executive ability. members of the staff. all the cases. He hires, and fires, if necessary, all He is also the case worker, and handles Sometimes he secures a part-time case worker to help him on case work when the case load is too heavy. superintendent supervises office details. He has full finan cial control, acts on the budget committee, and also serves on the finance and investment committee. The superintendent supervises the work of the staff members and also guides the staff in reading along child guidance lines. The He handles all the special disciplinary problems, and also supervises the medical problems. 68 He interprets the work of the Home to the community, making speeches at churches, association meetings, conversations, and Baptist gatherings, and works with state, county or court workers on special case problems* Secretary* One secretary serves as office secre tary and the secretary of the superintendent. Her duties include handling the switch-board, taking dictation, typing letters, bookkeeping, taking minutes at Board meetings, and preparing all the reports and forms, under direction of the superinten dent* Since they have no school, there is no teacher or voca tional director in the Home, but the superintendent maintains a close contact with the school teachers with whom the children are studying. Housemothers* The boys* housemother and the junior girls* housemother are assisted in their work by the senior girls. Each housemother directs the activities in her par ticular cottage, doing mending, and performing other tasks which generally fall to a mother. The boy s 1 supervisor directs all athletic activities on the grounds for boys and girls, and plans outings for them with the approval of the superintendent. Physician. The pediatrician who heads the medical staff has five or six specialists under him— a surgeon, an earnose-throat specialist, an eye specialist, and a urologist. 69 A Baptist dentist of Inglewood takes care of the dental work of the children in the Home, A resident registered nurse is in the infirmary. Librarian. One of the senior boys acts as a librarian. Other employees. the flowers, A gardener cares for the lawns, trees, and the chickens. He lives outside, but receives noon meals in the Home. A janitor cleans the buildings and takes care of all the equipment. He also receives noon meals and lives outside. One person cooks all the meals of this large family. She receives all meals in the Home, but lives outside. A laundress does all the laundry with the assistance of the senior girls. 3* Personnel Appointment and Removals. in personnel appointment is given to Baptists. Preference Each new member is given a two months1 probation period, before receiving regular appointment. A complete record of each employee is kept in the office. As to removal two weeks* notice is given, or two weeks1 pay in lieu of notice. It is understood that the employee shall also give two weeks* notice before leaving, or at least one week if it is urgent. The higher the position the more time must be spent in finding a substitute; there fore the superintendent is expected to give three or four months * not ice. 69 A Baptist dentist of Inglewood takes care of the dental work of the children in the Home* A resident registered nurse is in the infirmary* ■ librarian* One of the senior hoys acts as a librarian* other employees* A gardener cares for the lawns, the flowers, trees, and the chickens* Be lives outside, but receives noon meals In the Home* A janitor cleans the buildings and takes car© of all the equipment* He also receives noon meals and lives outside* One person cooks all the meals of this large family* She receives all meals in the Home, but lives outside* A laundress does all the laundry with the assistance of the senior girls* 3. Personnel Appointment and Removals* in personnel appointment is given to Baptists* Preference Bach new member Is given a two months1 probation period, before receiving regular appointment* A complete record of each employee Is kept in the office* As to removal two weeks1 notice is given, or two weeks1 pay in lieu of notice* It is understood that the employe© shall also give two weeks* notice before leaving, or at least one week If it is urgent* The higher the position the more time must be spent In finding a substitute; there fore the superintendent Is expected to give three or four months* notice. 70 Day off. All the employees living on the grounds leave at 4 p.m. on one day, and return by midnight the follow ing night, once a week. They are off duty for a shorter period one day a week, from 9 a.m. to 8:30 p.m. Staff meeting. The superintendent calls a meeting once a week for the members of the staff only. The meeting usually takes about thirty minutes, which are given to announce ments, discussion of children’s problems, institutional policy, programs, and other matters. Intake Provision and Policy. Preference is given to children who have been attending a Baptist Sunday School for one year or more. also given preference. Children of Baptist church members are The Home does not care for children over sixteen years of age. If one parent marries again, it is expected that the child will go back to his parents. Institution records. Regular case records are kept for each child by the superintendent. The rate of payment varies according to the individual financial condition. Some of the cases are paid for by their Interested relatives or friends. Capacity. Formerly the capacity was fifty-five. In October, 1939, there were 35 children, Including the nur sery children. There has been some change in capacity since November 15, 1939. At that time, the capacity was limited to 50 children and no pre-school children were taken in the Home, because of shortage of funds. changes from time to time. The number of children On February 1, 1940, there were 28 children, including 4 high school boys, five high school girls, and 16 grammar school children, 8 of each sex. They hope to build up their finances in order to take care of a group of 55 children, and to reopen the former boys* building Daily routine. All children rise at 6 a.m. and breakfast at 7 a.m. with a five minutes* devotional period at the table after breakfast. Some children have duties to perform in the Home before starting off to school at 8;30 a.m the other leaving at 9 a.m. They all carry their lunches to school. Senior boys work with the gardener from 4 to 4:45 every afternoon. Two senior girls help in the laundry, and the other senior girls help in the kitchen. Certain girls help in preparing the meals, others work in the kitchen after the meals. Supper is served at 5 p.m. Junior boys, and girls retire at 7:30 p.m., except on Friday and Saturday nights, when the retirement hour is 8 p.m. Intermediate children retire at 8:30 p.m. during week days, and 9 p.m. on Friday and Saturday nights. Seniors retire at 9 a.m. on week days, and 9:30 p.m. on Fridays and Saturdays. Allowance. The institution gives allowances to the children for spending money--for the seniors ten cents a week per capita, and for the juniors five cents each week. 72 Physical and medical care. Once every year, Dr* Moody, the pediatrician, brings his nurse and gives a physical examination to every child, to check up on their health* He makes certain recommendations for the nurse and the staff members to carry out. Dr. Moody is also vice-president of the California Children1s Hospital and Clinic in Los Angeles. He gives free services to the Home. The infirmary of the Home takes care of only the light cases, while serious cases are referred to the California Hospital. Dr. Moody is also a psychologist. trist in the home. There is no psychia Whenever any child needs psychiatric ex amination the child is taken to a professional psychiatrist. According to the superintendent, there has been no serious abnormal behavior problem among the children so far. 5. Educational and Vocational Program. educational program in the home* public school. There is no All the children go to a Vocationally, they try to train older boys and girls through personal conferences. to take bookkeeping, shorthand, They advise every girl and typewriting. The boys are advised to take manual arts and mechanics. The Home sup plies them with the various high school needs. If a child is especially intelligent or ambitious, he may have a chance to go to college, this being determined on an individual basis. Physical education and athletics. The Home pro- vides physical educational equipment, but has no special direc tors. The boys are affiliated with the Y.M.C.A. Pioneer Clubs, and through that type of club they receive physical education. The girls have their own athletic activities with direct guidance from their schools. 6. Recreational Activities. Each dormitory has its own radio in the sitting room, There is also a radio and table tennis set in the dining room. They do not have organized club work in the Home, but do have concerts in the school. Mrs. Taylor, the girls. senior girls f matron, gives lessons to some of They go to see the worthwhile movies in a group. Religious instruction. As a part of the religious instruction, the children are encouraged to go to Church and to Sunday School. Once a week they have chapel service in the home, in which the children participate. vice is held in the dining room. The chapel ser Every morning they have . five minutes1 devotion, and every night they have individual devotion before going to bed. Finance. They have an endowment fund, the interest and dividends from this endowment amounting to from $8,000 to $10,000 a year. Gifts and contributions from Baptist Churches and individuals are around $5,000 a year. The county pays $22.50 a month for some cases. average cost per capita is $1.29 a day. The There are two entirely 74 free eases. Interested individuals give childrens1 clothes and the institutions policy is not to buy new clothes for the children. The average expenditure of the Home is around $20,000 a year. BOYS’ AND GIRLS’ AID SOCIETY Location,. The Boys’ and Girls’ Aid Society is a private home for children, located at 700 Mountain View Road, Altadena, California. It was founded and Incorporated on March 12, 1888* Physical Plant. The present campus consists of eight acres of land, seven buildings of class uA t* construction, of Spanish type, wii^h concrete walls and tile roofs, built around a rectangular patio of green turf. The Administration building has three offices— the superintendent1s office, the social worker’s office, secretary’s office. and the The superintendent’s living quarters are located in the Administration building. The senior girls* living quarters are on the second floor of the Administration building. There are eight bedrooms, with twenty-two beds and ten dressing rooms, containing dressers, desks, chairs, and medical c abinets. room of their own. The senior girls have a very large living All the rooms are very attractively fur nished. The living quarters of the staff are all located In close proximity to their various duties, so that each employee may best serve the needs of those under his care. Each depart mental employee has a tub-bath, toilet, and wash-bowl, with hot and cold water. The rooms are all heated In season, 76 comfortable, and well ventilated, with single beds, chairs, tables, and carpets on the floors. The central dining room is located in the Administration building, with 19 tables seating eight, and is used for all the children and the staff. The room is a cheerful place, attrac tive in appearance, with table cloths and napkins of differ ent colors, table and with flowers arranged in the center of each . The kitchen is located in the south wing of the Admin istration building. It is equipped with an electric dish sterilizer, a large gas stove and an electric frigidaire, along with other modern facilities, and has an extremely high ceiling with good light and ventilation. Cottages. The senior b oys1, Junior boy s 1, and Junior girls’ cottages are similar. In each cottage, there are two dormitories with 12 single beds in each, so that each cottage will accommodate 24 children. arranged in good order. of bedspread. The beds are made neatly and Each dormitory has a different color Bedding is changed weekly, or more often when necessary. Nursery boys and girls have two separate dormitories. The capacity of each is also 12. Since the age of the nursery children is between two to six, they use wooden cribs and junior beds. The wash basins, toilets and bath-tubs are all proportionately smaller in size, and lower in .height. 77 The senior boys and girls, and the junior boys and girls, have study rooms in their living quarters, with small libraries. Auditorium and the gynmasium. The auditorium is an in door gymnasium, located in the west end of the Administration building. It has a basketball court, badminton court, volley ball court, which are used by all the children for recreation. The stage of the auditorium is also used for regular weekly talking pictures, for entertainments, and for Christmas programs. Hospital and isolation rooms. at the south end of the green turf. The hospital is located It has 16 beds which are sufficient to meet the needs of the society. They have two isolation rooms, one operation room, and one clinic room. A small kitchen is adjacent to a dining room for patients in the hospital. A nurse* s quarters, with a private bath, are also in the hospital building. Laundry room. The laundry building and the boiler room are connected and they are located at the south end of the campus; this building and equipment being adequate for the needs of the whole campus. Cost of establishment. The cost of establishment, erection, and equipment of the buildings and grounds, was about half a million dollars. 78 Administrative control. The B oys1 and Girls1 Aid Society is managed and controlled by two boards, namely, the Board of Trustees and the Board of Managers. The Board of Ti*ustees is organized by a group of prominent men of adjacent cities. This board has the financial responsibility, and con trol of the policy of the institution. The Board of Managers consists of a group of women leaders who are interested in children1s work. They supervise the institution, and also make connections with the public. Staff and personnel. The superintendent and the social worker are Mr. and Mrs. Carlson, who are full-time residents in the Boys* and Girls* Aid Society. They are the executives of the institution, and are responsible for the life, the program, and the activities of the institution. Mr. Carlson*s duty is that of a general administrator, while Mrs. Carlson is interested in the management. Mrs. Carlson prepares the menu and does all sorts of assistant work in the institution, in addition to filling her chief duty as a case worker. She conducts all intake interviews, and discharges and keeps a record for each case. There is one secretary to the superintendent and the board, who is assisted by a half-time stenographer. There are ten supervisors and eight matrons on the campus to look after the children’s life in the dormitories, 79 and their group activities. They have one part-time physician who comes every Saturday morning, and is also subject to emergency calls. A full-time nurse is employed and lives in the hospital. They have no dentist of their own, but use the school and community dental clinics. They have two cooks, one dining room matron, a laundry man and his assistant. There is no chaplain, since this is a non-sectarian organization. There is a part-time librarian, who is a junior college girl and works for her room and board. One janitor, who is also the gardener, looks after the lawn and the plants, and the senior boys help him. ' Personnel appointments and removals. The superinten dent has the authority to make appointments and removals. Appointments are made through personal interview, and from references, and are also based on the county health certifi cate. It is the policy that staff members have a long tenure, when such a relationship is mutually satisfactory. In case of removal, either side is expected to give two weeks* notice, the employee being given two weeks* pay in case of an emergency. Finance. The finances of the Boys* and Girls* Aid Society are received from several sources: The Los Angeles Community Chest, Pasadena Community Chest, South Pasadena 80 Community Chest, and San Marino Community Chest furnish onethird of the entire budget* A part of the income is received from the County Child Welfare Department, and also from the State Aid to the Dependent Child. Another one-third of the income comes from the parents for board according to different rates. A relatively small amount comes from the memberships. Memberships of various kinds, represented by various amounts are as follows: 1* Annual membership $2 to $5 2. Subscribing membership 5. Contributing membership $25 4. Supporting membership $100 5. Life membership $150 Life Patron $250 6 . fio The Community Chests charge the Membership Committee with the responsibility of raising the sum of $2,000 per year. The Boys' and Girls' Aid Society is closely allied with the Junior League of Pasadena. The Junior League raised $21,000 which was used to reduce the mortgage on the buildings. At the present time, there is no mortgage on the property. The annual expenditure is around $42,000, the per capita cost being $.95 per day. Intake policy. The general objective of the Society is stated in the second article of the by-laws, Mto care for, maintain and educate orphans, half-orphans, needy and abandoned 81 children on a strictly non-sectarian basis.*' The intake de pends on (1) residence in the state, attempting to limit intake to the areas which contribute to their budget; (2) full pay, in cases of outside areas, with exceptions. The capacity of this institution is 120, but the number of children in attendance is constantly changing. The turnover is about 55 a year. Those children eligible for admittance are classified as follows; (1) Destitute orphans (5) Insane parent (2) Father dead (6) Father deserted (3) Mother dead (7) Mother deserted (4) Broken homes (8) Divorced No child in this institution receives completely free service. Each parent is expected to contribute whatever he or she can, in an amount not exceeding $30 per month. About one- sixth of the total population was referred from the state or county relief agencies, the state or county paying $15 for each of their cases. Each child must have a physical examination before admission. In Los Angeles, the child goes to the Children’s Hospital for a placement examination, including a Wassermann test, throat culture and chest examination, and a general physical examination. In Pasadena, the child goes to Chest Clinic for chest examination, and to the City Hall for general 82 examination and laboratory findings. The social worker makes the intake interviews and re ceives the child, when he or she is admitted. friend of a new child. She is the main There is no isolation period. The child is admitted to the cottage as soon as the intake pro cedure is over. The child is assigned some light work at the beginning, and they rotate the work afterwards. The purpose of this work is to make the child happy, and give him the feel ing that he is just as useful as he would be at home. Daily routine. All children attend to the public school except the nursery children. The senior boys and girls rise at 5s45 a.m. on week days, and at 6:30 a.m. on Saturdays and Sundays. The junior boys and girls rise at 6;00 a.m. on week days and 6:30 a.m. on Saturdays and Sundays. children rise at the same time as the Juniors. The nursery The seniors retire at 8 p.m., juniors at 7:30 p.m. and the nursery children at 7 p.m. Both juniors and seniors go to school and carry their lunches with them. The nursery children have their lunches in the Home, with a two hour rest period after lunch. Parents visit, or take the children out, on Sundays. All children have morning and evening prayers at meals in the dining room. They attend the neighborhood church at Montana and Lincoln Streets for Sunday School. A non-sectarian attitude is maintained, as is provided in the by-laws of the 83 Society* The Merit System. The merit system is used for evalu ating the children’s conduct, both in school and at home. Each child is required to win a certain number of "suns" in order to get a full citizenship in the Home. With this full citi zenship, the child could receive recreational and economic privileges. This "sun" system also has weight in determining the duties to be performed about the grounds and the buildings. The children’s store is supported by the "sun" system, not by cash. Articles are given according to the number of "suns" earned. Ho form of punishment is used other than the depriva tion that the individual brings on himself by becoming a non citizen. Recreational activities. ture shows in the auditorium. There are weekly moving pic They have Halloween and St. Valentine’s Day parties, and Christmas celebrations. There are also organized dramatics, ballroom dancing, ballet dancing, cartoon groups, and Girls’ Scout groups, all under the sponsor ship of the Junior League Volunteer program. The house fathers are experienced group leaders, and help the children in various activities. There are two large athletic fields, and the other for juniors. one for seniors There is a large common playground 84 which comprises four acres, for all the children. For a period of three months, a summer camp is main tained at the beach, during which time it is possible for each child to be there for six weeks. This outing is made possible each year by the generous gifts of members. Emotional development. Most of these children come from broken homes. A discordant atmosphere in early years, economic insecurity, lack of parental care, migratory existence, are some of the factors which create emotional instability.1 A psychologist makes frequent visits to the Home to discover the causes of maladjustments in which these conditions have their roots. He also examines each child before he is admitted to the Home. They have no psychiatrist in the Home, and they would probably work with the Child Guidance Clinic if an abnormal behavior problem should arise, although there has been no peculiar problem among the children up to the present time. ^ Boys1 and Girls1 Aid Society Booklet, under the category of emotional development (no page number). VISTA DEL MAR CHILDREN1S SERVICE Location* The Vista Del Mar Children’s Service is a Jewish Children’s Home, located at 10219 Exposition Boulevard, Palms, California* The name !,Vista Del Mar'1 was the old name of the site before it was purchased. The Home was formerly called "Jewish Orphans' Home" but the Board of Directors be lieved these socially handicapped children should not be further burdened by having to refer to their place of residence as "Jewish Orphans’ Home," with its connotation of dependency, so the name of Vista Del Mar was retained after the Home was built. History. The Jewish Orphans’ Home of Southern California was incorporated on October 3, 1908. The objects of the society, as stated in the articles, were: First, to found and maintain a home for orphaned and half-orphaned Jewish children; second, the temporary maintenance of destitute and abandoned Jewish children, subject to the rules and regulations of this society, so far as the facilities will permit.1 The first home was dedicated on January 2, 1909, at 536 Mission Road, and five children were moved to temporary quarters at 2033 East Fourth Street. By the donation of Mr. Harris Newmark, in memory of his departed wife, Sara Newmark, ten **■ Policy of Program of Vista Del Mar Children’s Service, p. 3. 86 acres of land were bought in Huntington Park, and a new Home was dedicated on November 28, 1912. During the period from 1920 to 1926, there followed many significant changes. After the sale of the Huntington Park property, the Home was removed to temporary quarters in Los Angeles, followed by the establishment of this foster home department, then the purchase of, and the removal to the new site at Vista Del Mar. his duties as superintendent. In 1921 Mr. Armand Wyle began He recommended the inauguration of a foster-home program, so that the children who did not adjust in the large institution might be given an opportunity to live in small family groups. Mr. Ififyle resigned in June, 1923, and Mr. Joseph Bonapart was engaged as his successor, and Is still the superintendent. The new site at Vista Del Mar was bought in 1924 and the building project was completed and the children moved into the new Home on March 26, 1925. Physical, plant. of land. Vista Del Mar consists of 21 acres The money derived from the Huntington Park property was employed to purchase the present site. The buildings cost #390,000, of which #190,000 was raised from campaigns and #200,000 from a mortgage. The buildings, grounds and equip ment, together, cost about #600,000. Cottages. The cottages at Vista Del Mar are built on either side of the extension of Exposition Boulevard, a public 87 street, similar to that of the neighborhood in the city. Five cottages are built in different styles of two story houses, but no two houses are alike. Each house consists of eighteen rooms, including living room, library, dining room, kitchen, pantry and sleeping rooms. Two senior children are placed in a room, and three small children are given a room, Ten boys and ten girls live in a house, but the boys and girls apart ments are separated by the stairway. differently by the cottage mother, Each cottage is furnished and each room is decorated by the children with their own individuality. It is like a normal home with children of different ages, ranging in ages from 6 to 18. The Jacoby Health Cottage, built In memory of Mrs. Hannah Jacoby, was planned to provide health care for girls who had suffered some respiratory impairment, or whose general physical condition demanded a special health regime. The health cottage accommodates twenty-five children ranging in ages from 6 to 14 years. The health cottage Is situated apart from the other five cottages, and the children are under special care and health regime. Hospital. The hospital has fifteen beds for isolation of sick children during their period of illness from their own cottages. They have their own x-ray clinic, eye clinic, dental clinic, etc. A graduate nurse is maintained in the hospital. The hospital is very well equipped, and provides a dispensary 88 for daily clinic service for children who need minor treatment. Auditorium and gymnasium. is a new building, The auditorium and gymnasium which was donated by Mr. and Mrs. Weinberger, costing about $25,000. This building is essential to the train ing program on cultural and physical development. The building allows for indoor basketball, volley ball and other athletic facilities. The children produce their plays on the stage. To provide for adequate seating, the chairs are folded on a wagon under the stage, and these chairs can be pulled out easily when the seats are needed. In the auditorium is a memorial room, where all the tablets of donations are placed. The institution does not have a bronze tablet of the donors* names on each building. They have no shops, nor farm buildings, b ut some children raise chickens as their own private project. The administration. The administration building is a separate building, not too far away from the cottages. contains a large sitting room and meeting room. It The office of the superintendent, secretary, and stenographers, is com bined in one large room, outfitted like a regulation office building# The Board of Directors consists of thirty members, with sixteen subcommittees under it. The Executive Committee is made up of the Chairman of each committee--the President 89 of the Board of Directors appoints these committees. The fol lowing is a list of the more important Committees: 1* 2. 3* 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Service and Intake Finance and Budget Health Legal Aid Personnel Practice Nominating Special Events Scholarship and Employment Publicity Staff: One Executive Director One Assistant One Girls1 Recreation Director Six Housemothers One Assistant Housemother One Nurse One Dietitian One Clothing Matron Two Gardeners One Janitor One Health Cottage Cook Two Laundry Workers Five Social Workers One Case Supervisor One Office Manager Two Clerks One Part-time Physician One Part-time Dentist One Part-time Psychologist The Executive Director, Social Workers, Office Staff, Physician, and Psychologist, divide their time between the work with children in the institution and with those in foster homes, Intake policy. The Vista Del Mar Childrens Service was organized for the purpose of providing substitute home care for children who must be placed away from their own homes. 90 The usual procedure in the process of acceptance for care is as follows: 1* An application is made by a parent or a surviving relative* 2. A study is made by one of the professional social workers on the staff, using the special techniques and re sources at her command. 3. Conferences are held with other agencies which know the family, or which may have special facilities for serving them. 4. A study is made of the problems of the child and his family, by the whole professional staff. 5. Findings and recommendations are presented to the intake and service committee, composed of members of the Board of Directors for final action. The plan of placement should be carefully considered as to its effect on a particular child. Should he be placed in a selected foster home, in the institution at Vista Del Mar, or in some other specialized agency which could best serve the particular needs of the child? In some instances a child Is kept in his own home through the use of a house keeper, even though the child’s mother has been removed from the home. They have five case workers and a case supervisor to care for the entire case load. 91 Population. There are about 300 children receiving care at Vista Del Mar— 125 are in the institution, and about 40 are in their own homes under supervision. ing homes. Around 130 are in board The turnover is about 25 cases a year. Foster homes. Foster homes, into which children of the Vista Del Mar Children’s Service may be placed, are selected through a carefully devised program. In the State of California, all foster homes serving children under sixteen years of age must obtain a lecense. The selection of foster homes should meet the requirements established by the State with respect to: neighborhood, size and condition of the home, sleeping and sanitary accomodations, family income, health of foster family, and the moral, educational and cultural equipment of the members of the foster family. There are four types of foster homes generally used in child placing: the adoptive home, the free home, the work home, and the boarding home. Only abandoned children and those who are without family connections are eligible for adoption. far, they have had very few cases for adoption. So There are very rare cases in free homes or work homes, the majority of their children being in boarding homes. The Vista Del Mar Children’s Service looks upon-afoster home as a substitute for a child’s natural home. Unless a home has been licensed by the Health Department, 92 unless it can meet all of the sanitary- and health requirements which the Jewish Orphans* Home demands, including a separate bed for each child, unless the family income is adequate with out the revenue received from the Orphans1 Home, a home will not he accepted for boarding purposes. The Jewish Orphans* Home pays $25.00 per month per child for, the care of its wards in foster homes. The institution cost per capita is $38.00 per month, including the interest on the mortgage, which is about $4.00 per month per child. The per capita cost for the children in foster homes is $36.00 per month, in average. Finances. Los Angeles* Jews have provided a large measure of help in contributing funds for the building of Vista Del Mar* and the Los Angeles Community Chest and depart ments have been the chief sources of support in connection with the operating costs. Special contributions must make up the deficit. Education. All of the children attend public schools, and use the community resources, the school playgrounds, such as, the public libraries, the local and downtown theatres, the Hollywood Bowl, the museums, and the public beaches. For those children who are capable, and those who show the interest and ability to go to college, the Children’s Service will find 93 persons who are interested in them sufficiently to support them for the first two years. Religious training is given the children both formally and informally* They attend the Vista Del Mar Synagogue on Friday evening and Saturday mornings, as well as on the Jewish holidays* There are classes in Hebrew and in Jewish history and religion, which are held on Sunday mornings in Sunday School* Seder services are conducted in each of the children's cottages during the Passover Festival. A Succah is built on the grounds during the festival of Succoth* are confirmed at Shovouth* Boys and girls In the Cottages, grace is said before meals daily, and Kiddush on Friday evenings. Of equal importance Is the emphasis placed upon everyday living in consonance with the Spirit of Judaism.**' Recreation. They have a boys* director and a girls’ director for recreation and sports. football and tennis. They have basketball, Excursions to the beach for summer outings and picnics, and to the museum and planetarium are made with the Big Brothers and Bi& Sisters* Each Saturday afternoon they go to the moving-pictures. There are two auxiliary bodies who give Volunteer ser vices along various lines of recreation. They are composed of 1 Policies and Program of Vista Del Mar Children’s Service, p. 4. 94 the Vista Del Mar Associates and the Vista Del Mar Junior. Associates. These ladies arrange for volunteer teachers to teach the children knitting, handcrafts, music, and dancing. The children, themselves, have organized dramatic clubs; they write their plays and put them on under a volunteer-dramatic teacher’s direction. They have bi-weekly dances, and enter tainment for the holidays. The children give birthday parties to invite the children from other cottages or from the neighbor hood. This involves planning, receiving guests, exchanging gifts, and making formal acknowledgments* The social graces are cultivated through practical experience, in order to pre pare the children for customary social functions of adult life. After care service. After children have returned to their own homes, there often arises the problem of intellectual and emotional readjustment between the children and their parents. It is found that the follow-up service will iron out the con flicts, and prevent misunderstandings, through the intervention and interpretation of the social worker. For those children who become self-supporting, and are not living with their relatives, the after-care service takes the form of parental guidance during the difficult late-adoles cent years. The length of after-care services varies with the individual case. Some need a few months, and some need two 95 or three years services. Many of the graduates return to visit the Home to see their cottage mothers or foster parents, and offer personal and material service, as they become better established in the community. ORTHOPAEDIC HOSPITAL Location. The Orthopaedic Hospital is located at 2400- 2424 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, California. The site covers over three acres. Purpose. The Orthopaedic Hospital is the only institution In Southern California dedicated exclusively to the correction and education of crippled children. Any child, not over 20 years of age, who is eligible to philanthropic aid and requires orthopaedic care, is welcome without prejudice because of race, creed or social standing. History. In 1910, Dr. Charles Le Roy Lowman was in charge of the clinic for orthopaedic cases at the University of Southern California. He felt the great need for organized effort to provide both physical rehabilitation, and an education for the many physically handicapped boys and girls throughout Southern California, who were then almost without aid. Lowman began to speak on this need. Dr. In 1911, the first group that responded to his appeal was a Sunday School class in the First Congregational Church. The same group of people became interested in crippled children to the extent of providing braces for little patients. In 1913, this group of Sunday School children under the leadership of Miss Mary C. Cunningham and other enthusiastic ladies, organized themselves Into the 97 Crippled Children’s Guild. In 1917, with the efforts of the members of the Guilds, the first clinic was opened at 1022 South Figueroa Street. By 1918, the Los Angeles Orthopaedic Foundation was organ ized by seventeen businessmen. The Orthopaedic Hospital is a separate corporation, but has the same persons serving on the Board of Directors, or Trustees, as that of the Los Angeles Orthopaedic Foundation. In 1921, the corner stone of the main hospital building was laid. In 1923, the Administration Building and Nurses’ Home were completed and occupied. Physical Plant. The buildings are regulation three- story hospital plants, with basement and porches on each floor. The Memorial Building is at 2424 South Flower Street, where the Orthopaedic Foundation is located. On the ground floor are the auditorium, which is also the memorial room, the Orthopaedic Clinic of the Out-Patient Department, Social Service Department, and the Physiotherapy Department and the gymnasium and swimming pools. tains the business offices, the Medical The second floor con the Dental Clinic, Baking and Massage Division of the Physiotherapy Department, and the Occupational Therapy Department. The third floor has the Record-room, Medical Library, Neurological Clinic, Medical Clinic, X-ray Department, Phytograph Division, Crippled Children’s Guild office, the Alumni Club office, the B oys’ 98 Club Room, the Girls* Club Room and the sewing room. The building on 2400 South Flower houses the In-Patient Department. The wards, private rooms, and operation rooms are all in this building. There are three or four children in each room, boys and girls having separate rooms. Patients of the same age are grouped with others who are in the same stage of treatment, that is, the newly operated are placed in one room, and the old cases in another room, so that they have a sympa thetic sharing of experiences. The rooms are quite colorful, not all in white, like ordinary hospitals. Children also wear their own colorful clothes. Population. According to the figures given in the printed folder of 1S40, f,Facts Concerning the Orthopaedic Hospital,” 169 children were admitted to, and discharged from, the hospi tal each month, and about 1,300 children came to the Out-Patient Department every month. Types of Physical handicaps. Fifteen per cent receive treatment to overcome residual effects of infantile paralysis; 20 per cent to recover from specific bone and joint diseases, such as, osteomyelitis, tuberculosis, arthritis, etc.; 20 per cent are scoliosis or posture cases; 10 per cent have congenital and acquired deformities; 5 per cent suffer from accidental burns and abrasions threatening normal function of bone and muscle; and 30 per cent are fracture cases. 99 Cost of hospitalization. The full cost of living and treatment in the hospital is #24*50 per week. Only 12 per cent pay the full coszs of their care; 22 per cent pay a portion; and 66 per cent pay nothing. Age of patients. The age limit is very broad, born up to twenty years of age. from newly A patient admitted before the twentieth birthday can s tay as long as treatment is needed. Twenty-five per cent of these children are under 5 years of age; 50 per cent are between the ages of 5 and 14; the remain ing 25 per cent are between 14 and 20. Social Service Department. The Social Service Department has a staff of five members, who are all well-trained medical social workers. Mrs. Seaman is the head of the social service at the clinics and makes the first contact with all the cases. When operation and treatment are needed, the social worker consults with the doctor first, and then makes arrangements with the family. All the financial arrangements are made through social service. Department of Educational Activities. The Department of Educational Activities is headed by Dr. Lowman, and the Associate Director, Dr. Robert L. Carroll. The staff members are Miss Weir, the Co-ordinator, Mr. Davidson, the Counsellor and Surveyor, and Miss Dodson, the Recorder and Counsellor. 100 Educational program. The Board or Education provides teachers in hoth elementary and high school departments , who carry on the regular school programs with hospitalized children, as well as a trained occupational therapy instructor, who con ducts classes in handicrafts, especially designed to aid muscle rehabilitation. Since the children have to receive treatment at the same time, each child is allowed to take only two courses. As soon as they can return home and go to school, the hospital will provide daily ambulance transportation to and from schools for the children. Vocational training is very essential to those unfortu nate children. The vocations vary from shoe-maker to physician. Vocational guidance is based upon the physical condition of the child, the records from doctors, physiotherapists, psychiatrists, and the patient*s own interest in any type of trade. Recreational program. In order to cheer up these handi capped children and overcome their feelings of inferiority, the recreational program of the Orthopaedic Hospital has been wonderfully worked out. Children in the hospital all have equal privileges in participating in the activities in order to develop their creative ability, as well as to give them an emotional outlet. The Therapeutic Theatre has been of particular value in the Hospital’s departmental educational activities. The drama work has improved the doctors* and Hospital*s influence in patients* lives; has supplied a normalizing out-let for pent up reelings; has developed loyalty to comrades and Institution through emphasis on the inherent traditions of the theater, . * . Through the motor expres sion supplied by dramatics, they obtain a mental dis charge and catharsis, which results in a constant physical and mental improvement.1 The drama covers every type of play, but the plays with less action are best fitted. Sometimes they have to write out their own plays with limited actions, and with certain char acters whose personality would meet the emotional needs of a certain group of children. from their records. complex, They usually find the individuals For those children who have an inferiority they provide a part which is just opposite to himself, so that it helps him to overcome his inhibition. They have very beautiful costumes of various kinds, and the costumes are listed in a card catalogue which provides a very good system. Besides the dramatics they have an Alumni Homecoming Banquet, which is all planned and prepared by the alumni themselves. The visitor was invited to their banquet on April 28, 1940. It was a magnificent party. wore their best formals and looked so happy. The girls all Some of them were walking on crutches, or were in wheel chairs, but all of them had a good time. They gave a very good musical program consisting of instrumental and vocal music. The exhibitions upstairs displayed their handiwork and finger paintings. The Christmas party is given by the Hospital, and the party for Out-Patient children is given by the Crippled Children* Guild. The boys have Boys* Scout Troop, Boys* Club, orchestra, ^ C. L. Lowman, nThe Therapeutic Theatre,” pamphlet published by the Orthopaedic Hospital. 102 minstrel shows and stage dances. The girls have Girls1 Club, chorus singing, music, and sewing work. For both boys and girls there is a stamp club, movies, dances, dramatics, finger paint ings, outings, such as, fishing, hiking, and tobogganing. « a whole, As the children in this hospital do not miss any of the activities that ordinary children have. The Crippled Children1s Guild,, The Crippled Children1s Guild was organized in 1913 to give volunteer service to crip pled children. It was its initial effort which established the clinic, which later developed into the present organization directed by the Los Angeles Orthopaedic Foundation. The Guild now is in charge of the Social Educational Program. The Guild is divided into five departments, namely: 1. Orthopaedic Hospital Volunteer Service Corps— Clin ical service. Motor service for transportation of patients, and general errands. 2. Department of Educational Activities. 3. Social Activities— Hostesses familiar with the loca tion and function of the Hospital and of the various buildings greet new patients. 4. Auxiliaries— sewing auxiliaries and gauze auxiliaries. 5. The Wardrobe--clothing for distribution through the Social Service Department— making and mending garments for distribution to Out-Patient Department. Alumni Association. All boys and girls over fifteen years of age who have been patients of the Institution, and who met the necessary requirements, are eligible to membership 105 in the Alumni Association, which was organized by Dr. Lowman to provide opportunities for additional socializing and educa tional growth. The alumni members are very active in volunteer services. The Orthopaedic Hospital is dedicated to three distinct serivces for the physically handicapped boy and girls physical reconstruction and re-education; tation; and (3) social adjustment* (1) (2) mental rehabili LOS ANGELES ORPHANAGE Location* The Los Angeles Orphanage is located at 917 South Boyle Avenue, Los Angeles, Establishment. California. The Los Angeles Orphanage was estab lished in 1890 by the Catholic Church, and is an institution for girls. lows: The approximate cost of establishment was as fol (1) Buildings, $265,350; (2) Land, $75,000; (3) Equip ment, $61,200. Acreage. The size of the campus is about 25 acres. Physical plant. This is a very large institutional type of building. It has three stories above the basement. The main floor consists of the Administrative offices, the Chapel, the Assembly Hall and the classrooms. kitchen are in the basement. The dining hall and The dining hall is very attrac tively arranged with round tables seating six. do not eat In the same dining room. The sisters The dormitory Is on the second floor and each dormitory has twenty beds which are all neatly made. On top of each bed, there is a lovely doll. The sister in charge of the dormitory sleeps alone in a cabin at the corner of the same room, with her door closed. There are two nursery bedrooms with ten small beds in each. An older girl sleeps with the nursery girls, rather than a sister. Her bed is at the corner of the room, surrounded 105 by a large curtain. The dining room of the nursery children is next to their bedrooms, so that the children may take naps immediately after lunch. The living quarters of the staff were not shown to the visitor, and she was told that the lay staff members live out side the institution. The playground is quite large with every kind of play equipment. There is a doll house in the playground and the children take turns playing in the house. They also ride on bicycles in the playground. Administrative control. The Board of Directors is com posed of the people of the community, is the Sister Superior. and the Superintendent The staff membership is composed of one superintendent, one secretary to the superintendent, one sister acting as the principal of the school, five school teachers and one nursery teacher, one social worker, three clerical workers, one chaplain, one physician, one dentist, and one nurse. Population. The capacity of this institution is 172, and the present population is 136. Intake policy. This institution takes the children from indigent families, most of them being Catholics, but not all of them orphans, even though it is called an orphanage. Children 106 are referred to the institution by the County Bureau of Indigent Relief (B.I.R.) or other agencies. Every child must go through a physical examination before admittance. This includes a Wassermann test, vaginal smear, and throat culture. No x-ray is required. The per capita cost is $1.21 per day. The children who are referred by the county are paid for by the B.I.R., at the rate of $20.50 per month each. Those who come from other counties pay $25 to $30 per month. There are only a few free cases, some of them are paid for in part by the parents or the referring agencies. They do not give allowances to the children, but the parents provide spending money for their children. The visiting hours are on Saturday afternoons from one o 1clock and Sundays from 9 a.m. During these periods the parents may visit their children, or take them home to spend the week end, if they wish. Education. This institution has its own school, from nursery up to the eighth grade. Vi/hen the children finish the eighth grade they are referred to other institutions, or go back to their homes. eighth grade. Very few children can stay through the All children must wear uniforms in class. The uniform is made by the institution, the cost being $5.00 a year, which the parents are expected to pay, if they can afford It. Music lessons are given to girls who wish them, at a 107 cost of 50 cents for one lesson. There is no free instruction in music. Sources of income. The chief source of income is the Los Angeles Community Chest; the second source is from taxes; the third source is from the county; and the fourth is from the parents. According to the figures given by the Community Chest’s report, $>31,652. 10 was given to this institution for 1959-40. Recreation. For recreation there is radio, story read ing, music, dramatics, and weekly movies, in addition to the outdoor activities. Last Christmas, a gentleman gave them a motion picture projection machine, so they have had a weekly movie since then. They get free films from M.G.M. Company and the pictures are well selected, having an educational value to the children, such as, ■‘Boys’ Town'1 and Shirley Temple’s pic ture s ♦ The W.P.A. Federal Music Project once gave a musical program for the children. to give them entertainment. Occasionally a magician has come As a whole, the children receive entertainment rather than participating themselves in the recre ational program. The institution has a bus which takes the children to the beach. During the summer, they try to arrange an oppor tunity for each child to be placed in a foster home, or to go 108 to a camp. Medlcal care. They have no hospital., but there is one informary with a nurse. A part-time physician comes to the institution once a week and stays for half a day each time. A dentist is also coming, once a week, to give half-day service. Correctional works are given through community health agencies.