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A study of selected child caring agencies in Los Angeles and vicinity

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A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the Graduate School of Social Work
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirement for the Degree
Master of Social Work
Kuan Li
May 1940
UMI Number: EP66155
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Dissertation RuDiismng
UMI EP66155
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789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346
rru . .
Kuan Li
1 nests o f ........................................
T h i s t h es i s, w r i t t e n u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e
candidate’s F a c u l ty
C om m ittee
and approved
b y a l l its m e m b e r s , has been p r e s e n t e d to a n d
accepted by the F a c u l t y o f the G r a d u a t e S c h o o l
o f S o c i a l W o r k in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e ­
q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f
D a te
F a c u lty C o m m itte e
D ean
Purpose of Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scope of Study .
Method of Study
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Institutional C a r e ..........
Almshouses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private institutions
Public institutions
Prohibition of almshouse care
. . . . . . . . .
Foster home care • • . . « • « . • • • • • • » *
State children’s home societies
. . . . . . . . .
Catholic child placing service
Placing out from institutions
Mother’s pension system
. «
........................ 11
Recent Trends in Child Care
• • . . • • • • • •
The White
1909 . . . * . .12
The White
1 9 1 9 .....
The White
Statisticsin child care
ii .
. . . ..........
Incorporation and compliance with State- law
Governing board . . . • • • « .
. .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ................................
Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .
Personnel responsibilities
Intake policy and procedure
. . . .
• • • • • * • • • •
I n v e s t i g a t i o n ..........
Selection of foster home c a r e ...............
Financial arrangement
Physical examination . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Care in the institution
Physical plant « • • • • • • • • • * • . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
• • • • •
. . . . . .
General education
Vocational education
Cultural education
Recreation . . . . . . . . . . . .
T i m e ...................
S p a c e ............
............ 34
Equipment and supplies
Staff leadership • • • • • • • • • • • . . . . 3 5
Play a c t i v i t i e s ...................
Emotional a d j u s t m e n t ...................
Rehabilitation and after care
. . . . . . . . .
Location • • • • • • . • • •
• • • • 4 2
Physical p l a n t .................
Style of building
........................... 43
. . . . . .
...................... 43
Dining r o o m ............................... . . 4 4
Auditorium and gymnasium . . . . . . . . . . .
Hospital and isolation rooms . . . . . . . . .
Administrative control . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5
Staff and p e r s o n n e l ..........
Population and c o s t ............ . . . . . . . . 4 6
Finance . . . . . . .
Educational program . ♦
Recreational p r o g r a m ...............
. . . . . .
Age of the c h i l d r e n ............................. 49
Food and clothing .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General impression .............
. . . . . . . .
............... .
A Brief review of child in China
since 1957 ............................
Living condition
Comparison of Chinese institutional life with
the Americans’ . « • • • • . . • • • • • • • •
BIBLIOGRAPHY .c.c................................ . . . . .
Purpose of study.
Child welfare work in America has
developed greatly within the last fifty years.
It has
achieved a tremendous success along this line - from material
care to emotional adjustment, from giving care outside of the
home to the aid of dependent children at home, from relief of
dependency to the prevention of dependency and delinquency.
It is America that has the best standards of child welfare irork
A child welfare program is an urgent need in China today
especially since the outbreak of the undeclared war of 1937.
The number of dependent children has increased considerably
and there is no way to compute the total so long as the war is
being continued.
The most urgent need of this vast number of
war orphans is security - a place to live, to learn, and to be
well protected from dangers.
At present it is impossible for
China to adopt the boarding home system as no home is sure of
its security.
To meet the needs of the present situation in
China it is better to maintain the institution system with
its program of care and control as developed in the United
States of America.
The purpose of this study is to compare the different
types of institutional care for dependent children.
It is
hoped that when the investigator goes back to China she will
be able to judge which type of institutional care will best
fit different Chinese situations.
Of course it is impossible
to adopt one system entirely,, but with all these varieties
in mind she may be able to produce an adapted system that will
meet the needs of the present China, and some day when the war
is over the system can be changed again to fit the post-war
Scope of study»
The agencies studied here were care­
fully selected and include institutions classified as sectarian
or non-sectarian, and as serving normal children or crippled
The area of this study is limited to Los Angeles and
the vicinity.
The following agencies were selected:
Childrenfs Baptist Home of Southern California.
Boys* and Girls1 Aid Society. Altadena.
Vista Del Mar - Jewish Orphans’ Home Society,
Palms •
Los Angeles Orphan Asylum.
Los Angeles.
Orthopaedic Hospital.
Los Angeles.
This study covers the establishment of the institution, the
physical plant, the administrative control, the staff and
personnel, the intake policy, the educational program, the
recreational program, the religious activities, and the medical
and psychiatric services.
Method of study.
The method of this study is by
visiting the selected agencies.
Each institution has been
visited at least twice to see the physical plant, the children’s
life and the general atmosphere of the institution.
was secured from the superintendents, or the case workers through
personal interviews, from the mimeographed policies and programs
of the institutions and from their annual or special reports#
An outline of questions was made for the guidance of each
The investigator feels indebted to the executive of
each institution for his or her kind cooperation in furnishing
information and materials for this study#
The generosity and
hospitality on the part of the institutions* executives was a
source of encouragement for this study.
The child-eare system of America began in the seventeenth
century and followed the Elizabethan Poor Lai¥ of England*
colonists used the indenture system, according to which the
parents apprenticed a child old enough to worE, to a master
craftsman, to live in his house, and to be taught his craft or
The master was to give the apprentice food, clothing,
shelter, and training in a remunerative craft or trade plus some
extra payment in the form of clothes or money at the expiration
of the term of indenture.
The first child placed out by the
public authority in Massachusetts was Benjamin Eaton.
He was
indentured in 1636 by the governor and assistant of Plymouth
Colony to a widow who could hold him for fourteen years, but
who was required to give him two y e a r s 1 education In school and
could not turn him over to any other without the governor fs
The purpose of this indenture was to make some person
or family definitely responsible for the support and care of
dependent children.
To fix responsibility for giving industrial
Henry Thurston, The Dependent Child, p. 13.
training to girls and boys old enough to work was a social
procedure already commonly employed everywhere.
The first step in public child care was
institutional care for children in almshouses.
This system
was recommended by Mr. Yates who noticed that when poor
children were farmed out they did not receive proper care.
Since these children could not obtain proper education, moral
training, and discipline from their parents, they should be
gathered into the almshouses and given such instruction and
moral training before being indentured.
He thought that in
the almshouse, children could be educated and set on the road
to a life that would free them from permanent ignorance,
pauperism and vice.
The almshouse system was proved inadequate later on in
the 19th century, because children were mingled with adults,
insane, feeble-minded, and handicapped.
Mr. Hoyt, first
secretary of the Board of Charities of New York State in 1868
visited all the county almshouses and Mr. William Pryor
betchworth of Buffalo also made a study of them.
Both of these
reports made vivid pictures of the mixed almshouses.
Slowly there came about in some states segregation of
children with special handicaps - the blind, the deaf, and the
Following the reports of Mr. Hoyt and Mr.
Letchworth in 1866, Ohio passed a law authorizing the establish­
ment* of county children’s homes.
Massachusetts in 1872 separated
destitute children from adults in the state almshouses; Michigan
in 1874 opened a State Public School "to which all destitute
children in the state who were public charges were to be removed
and from which these children were to be placed out in families
as soon as possible."
New York in 1875 passed a law requiring
the removal of all children over three years of age, not
defective in body or mind, from poor houses and their placement
in families, orphan asylums, or other appropriate institutions.
Wisconsin in 1878 passed a law requiring removal of children,
Pennsylvania in 1883 passed a law prohibiting retention of
children between 2 and 16 unless feeble-minded.
Private Institutions.
The first institution for
dependent and neglected children in the United States was
established in 1729 in connection with the Ursuline Convent in
New Orleans, in order to shelter children orphaned through the
Indian Massacres.
In 1740 Rev. George Whitefield founded the
Bethesda Orphan House at Savannah, Georgia, as a school for
needy boys.1
After the eighteenth century private institutions grew
up rapidly and large numbers of children were transferred from
almshouses to orphanages, in response to public sentiment
against the evils of the almshouses.'
U. S. Children’s Bureau Publication No. 170, p. 1.
Public Institutions.
The first public orphanage was
established in 1790 in the city of Charleston, for the purpose
of supporting and educating poor orphans, and those of poor,
distressed and disabled parents, who were unable to support
and maintain them.
The first orphan asylum in New York City was organized
by a number of women for the purpose of protecting, relieving,
and instructing orphan children in the city.
It was incorp­
orated in 1807 as the New York Orphan Asylum Society.
•women became annual subscribers, paying not less than $1.50
per annum.^
This Society had worked out a program of intake and
care which showed the progress of child-care in the early
nineteenth century:
No children were to be received until examined by a
respectable physician and pronounced free from infection
or incurable diseases. Relatives or friends of orphans,
on placing them in the asylum were to renounce all claim
to them in future years.
The orphan was to be educated, fed, and clothed at .the
expenses of the society, and at the asylum* They were to
have religious instruction, moral example, and habits of
industry inculcated on their minds.
Indenture:- as soon
as the age and acquirements of orphans should, in the
opinion of the Board of Directors, render them capable of
earning their living, they were to be bound out to some
reputable persons or families for such object and in such
manner as the Board should approve.^
^ Grace Abbott, Child and State, p. 29-31.
^ Henry Thurston, 0£. Cit., p. 46.
The New York Orphan Asylum began to receive State
subsidy in the year XS11 when "An Act for the Benefit of the
Orphan Asylum S o c i e t y w a s passed*
This granted the annual
sum of $500, payable by the Treasurer, to the trustees of the
Orphan Asylum Society in the City of New York*^
Massachusetts, after the Primary School Act of 1866,
opened a State Primary School at Monson.
The school had an
average attendance of 370 pupils in classes which were under
the instruction of a principal and six assistant teachers*
The Michigan State Public School, ivhich was a temporary
home for dependent and neglected children, was opened in 1874*
The school was established on the family plan with about 30
children in each cottage and a Christian woman as the cottage
They all ate in a common dining hall*
each day were devoted to school work proper.
Five hours
The children
had regular assignments for their tasks, among which were
helping to dress the younger ones, sweeping, cleaning, bedmaking, work in dining room and kitchen.
Girls helped in
knitting and sewing and boys helped in the farm and garden.
Children also were indentured by the school to homes in the
different counties.
Prohibition of Almshouse care in 1879*
nAn Act
Forbidding the Detention of Poor Children in AlmshousestT was
Grace Abbott, Child and State. p. 33.
Ibid., p. 51.
included in the Massachusetts Acts and Resolves of 18179.
principle was that children over four years old should be placed
in some respectable families in the state, or in some asylum
therein to be supported by the city, provided that those
children who had no legal settlement, or with physical or
mental defects, or whose mother was an inmate of the almshouse
must remain in the almshouse.'*’
In spite of this movement toward removing children from
almshouses there were still 1,992 children under 16 in all the
almshouses of the United States on January 1, 1925, and the
total number admitted during the year was 4,715.
care of children still exists in some states, although the
number of children so cared for is comparatively small.
Foster home care.
The pioneer of the organized child
placing movement was Charles Boring Brace who in 1853 organized
the New York Children's Aid Society and began to send dependent
children to county homes in different states.
In the early
years of the society children were placed in Hew York, Hew
Jersey, Pennsylvania and Ohio, then in Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin
and Minnesota.
Then organization of similar societies followed
throughout the country.
The system of placing out in the early societies was
inadequate; children were received with insufficient investiga­
Children of unmarried mothers were received with little
Societies placed children in homes of which they
^ Ibid.. p. 42.
had very limited knowledge.
They depended upon volunteer
visitors whose work was irresponsible.
The records were meager
and inadequate.
State children's home societies.
Thirty years later
special impetus was given to this movement by the Children*s
Home Society, the forerunner of thirty-five Home-Finding
The Children’s Home Society of Illinois was
organized in 1883 by the Rev. M.V.B. Van Arsdale in Chicago
to assist deserving children in obtaining an education.
next year this society became a national organization and the
name was changed to National Children’s Home Society.
in the foot-steps of Illinois, similar societies were organized
ill other states, and by 1926 there were 36 accredited State
Children’s Home Societies in the United States.
Catholic child placing service.
In 1898 the St. Vincent
de Paul Society of New York established a placing-out agency
known as the Catholic Home Bureau for Dependent Children.
organization became a central child placing agency for 18
Catholic institutions for children in the state of New York.
The Catholic Children’s Aid Society was organized in
New Jersey in 1903 by the late Kev. Father Francis Foy, and
has become an active and efficient child placing agency.
The Catholic Humane Bureau of San Francisco was founded
in 1907 by the union of the Catholic Settlement Society.
organized Catholic child-placing organizations now exist in a
number of the large cities, many of them under the auspices of
the St. Vincent de Paul Society and others as departments of
the diocesan Catholic Charities Bureau.
Placing-out from institutions.
Nearly all institutions
for dependent children eventually place out a large proportion
of their children in family homes.
Some institutions of this
class are simply boarding places, where parents or public
agencies send those dependent children for temporary care.
institution does not assume their legal guardianship and they
are ultimately returned to their parents, to the court, or to
the public agency from whence they came.
Mother ’s pension system*
As the White House Conference
of 1909 emphasized the point that a child should not be removed
from his mother because of poverty, Illinois started the Mother’s
Pension Law in 1911 to maintain the child in his own home by
means of public Ibnds •
By 1955 there were 46 states the
District of Columbia, Alaska, and Hawaii adopting the system of
Mother’s Pension.
The Social Security Act of 1935 made a special grant to
appropriate the mother’s pension from the federal government
known as Aid to the Dependent Children.
As a result of the realization that the home is the best
place for child development at the first White House Conference
of 1909, the number of children under institutional care was
found to have dropped in census figures of 1933 and the number
of children in foster homes to have increased *
As to how far
the number of foster home placements have been curtailed since
aid to dependent children in their own homes has been avail­
able, we will wait for the census of 1940 to tell us#
The White House Conference of 1909.
The White House
Conference of 1909 had about 200 delegates, representing every
phase of child welfare work, who spent two days in discussing
the needs of dependent children.
They unanimously agreed
that dependent and neglected children should not be removed
from their own homes on account of poverty and that home life
should be preserved in every possible way.
Home life is the highest and finest product of civil­
ization ..........Except in unusual circumstances the home
should not be broken up for reason of poverty, but only
for considerations of inefficiency or immorality... As to
the children who for sufficient reasons must be removed from
their own homes, or who have no homes, it is desirable that,
if normal in mind and body and not requiring special train­
ing, they should be cared for in families wherever practic­
able. The carefully selected foster home is for the normal
child, the best substitute for the natural home.
homes should be seledted by a most careful process of
investigation, carried on by skilled agents through personal
investigation and with due regard to the religious faith of
the child•^
The above statement indicates that if the child should
be removed from home the foster home is the next best place for
the child to be provided that it has the same cultural and
^ Proceedings of the Conference on the Care of Dependent
Children (Senate Documents No. 721) Jan. 25-26, 1909, p. 8-14.
religious background.
Briefly summarized, the conclusions of
that conference relative to child care were as follows:
1. Home care:
Children of worthy parents or deserving
mothers should as a rule, be kept with their parents at
home •
2 . Home finding: Homeless and neglected children, if
normal, should be cared for in families, when practicable,
Incorporation: Agencies caring for dependent children
should be incorporated, on approval of a suitable State
board *
4. State Inspection: The State should inspect the work
of all agencies which care for dependent children,
5, Facts and records:
Complete histories of dependent
children and their parents, based upon personal investigation
and supervision should be recorded for guidance of childcaring agencies,
6, Physical care: Every needy child should receive
the best medical and surgical attention and be instructed
in health hygiene.
7. Cooperation:
Local child-caring agencies should
cooperate and establish ,joint bureaus of information.^
The White House Conference of 1 919.
In 1919 the
Federal C h i l d r e n ^ Bureau called a conference of representatives
of child welfare work throughout the Halted States.
In this
conference they realized the difficulty of finding adequate
boarding home to substitute the child *s natural home so they
came back to the institutional care for dependent children for
temporary placement as it was stated: tfUhless and until such
homes are found the use of institution is necessary.”
ing a legitimate field for some institutional care of dependent
^ B. S . Children*s Bureau Publication. Ho. 62, p. 15.
children, it was declared that;
.....these institutions should be conducted on the
cottage plan, in order that routine and impersonal care
may not suppress unduiy individuality and initiative.^
As to the institutional care for dependent children they
made out the following principles:
Thorough investigation before receiving a child.
2. Cooperation with other agencies that are or should
be interested.
Maintenance of the child fs community contacts and
his relationships with his own family*
4. Continual effort toward the re-establishment in
the childfs ora family home or placement in foster home
under healthful conditions.
The stay of children in institutions for dependents
should be as brief as possible.
The condition of all
children in such institutions should be carefully studied
at frequent intervals, in order to determine whether they
should be restored to their own homes, placed in foster
homes, or transferred to institutions better suited to
their needs. While they do remain in institutions, their
condition should approximate as nearly as possible that of
normal family life as to health, recreation, schooling,
and spiritual, aesthetic, civic and vocational training.
The White House Conference of 1930.
The White House
Conference of 1930 noticed that large numbers of children still
suffered in their own homes or were separated from their homes,
because of poverty.
It found that almshouses for the care of
children were still used in certain localities.
made this time for prevention of the conditions which deprive
^ 0* S . Children>s Bureau Publication. Ho. 70, p. 341
2 Ibid.. Mo. 62, 1919, p. 11-12.
children of parental care were the following:
First, it laid
stress on adequate income as a fundamental necessity for
preservation of home life.
Second, it emphasized the need for
Mother’s Aid to supplement the family’s income to maintain a
home to meet the various needs of a growing child.
The present trend in the care of dependent children is
to try to preserve the child’s normal home life; if in some
circumstances it is found that the child must be taken from
the home the child should be placed in a foster home or
institution depending upon his individual needs, but contact
with his own home should be maintained.
The condition of the
foster home should be as near to his own home as possible.
The period of placement should be as brief as the situation
The care for dependent children in foster homes or
institutions now goes beyond the satisfaction of physical needs.
The emotional adjustment to the new environment, the treatment
of behavior problems and the rehabilitation of the child’s
family are the important phases for the workers in charge to
They focus their attention on the development of the
child as a whole, physically, mentally, socially, spiritually,
and intellectually, on the development of his personality, so
that he may become a well integrated citizen.
The use of case
work and the psychiatric approach have improved institutional
as well as foster home care tremendously.
Case work in
institutions is showing further and more wholesome develop­
The desire to apply it at the intake stage of insti­
tutional life is now found in all parts of the country.
Institutions now in some instances have hundreds of children
in carefully selected foster boarding or free homes and have
a larger number of trained and experienced employees in their
extra mural service than in their intramural organization.
functions have changed more rapidly than corporate names.
izations whose names suggest that they are institutions are in
some instances providing all their service through foster
family care.
These broadening functions make it impossible to
classify the whole group of organizations any longer as either
institutions or child placing agencies.
Statistics in child care.
According to the census of
December 31, 1933 that there were 242,929 children in foster
homes as against 213,75? on February 1, 1923.
The number
receiving institutional care have remained almost static,
140,312 on February 1st, 1923 and 140,352 on December 1, 1933.
The increase of foster home care was from 34.4$ to 42.2$ while
institutional care fell from 65.6$ to 57.8$ in the decade.
This substantial development of foster family care, occuring
while institutions have shown no increase in population, is
due to large increases in boarding home care.
On December
31, 1933 there were 66,350 children cared for in foster board­
ing homes, 31,538 in foster free homes and 4,689 in work and
wage homes.^
1 Social Work Year Book.
(1937) "Child Welfare", p. 66.
Incorporation and compliance with State Law:
Private child caring institution should be in­
corporated on approval of the State board having
supervisory authority, such as a state board of
control, board of charities, or department of public
Governing Board:
A private institution is conducted by a governing
board, the Board of Directors, which is organized by the
representatives of the community.
The board is usually sub­
divided into committees such as an executive committee, a case
committee, and a buildings and grounds committee.
The board
is responsible for the finances and the general policies and
programs of the institution*
It is important for board members to familiarize
themselves with the general policies of the institution
and its place in the community »s child welfare program.
They should also assist in the-interpretation of the
institution to the public. As an aid to both the community
and institution the board should encourage a close relation­
ship with councils of social agencies, community chests and
other coordinating groups. These responsibilities ofp
trustees are the most important functions of a board.
The frequency of board meetings varies considerably,
but they are generally held once a month to hear the reports of
Standards of Foster Care for Children In Institutions
(Child Welfare League of America, February 1937), p. 10.
s Ibid.. p. 11-12
the executive committee and other committees and to discuss
their problems.
Superintendent —
The head of the staff is the
superintendent or the executive, who is appointed by the board.
There is no limited term for the executive; he holds his office
as long as he performs his duties satisfactorily.
The executive must have a sufficient
background of the general field of social work and an under­
standing of the fundamental philosophy and objectives of
social case work.
He must be familiar with principles and problems of
business administration, applied to a private social
agency; formulation of policies, including legal re­
strictions, constitutions, by laws, powers and functions
of board of trustees, responsiveness to public opinion
and staff participation; finance including budgets and
budget control, financing by the individual agency, and
by joint effort; managerial accounting; and the technique
of publicity work.1
The executive must be an all-round person with
administrative ability, skill in case supervision, proficiency
in public speaking and writing, and clarity in the analysis
and interpretation of reports and statistics.
The functions of the executive vary accord­
ing to the size of the institution.
A large institution would
have a superintendent, an assistant superintendent and a case
Margaretta A. Williamson, The Social Worker in Child
and Protection, p. 229.
work supervisor•
Smaller institutions have only a superintend­
ent and a case worker; there are also one-man institutions
where the executive and the social worker are the same person.
The superintendent acts between the board and the
To the board he may submit recommendations,
monthly reports and annual reports to bring before it problems
of administration and policy.
The duties of the superintendent
in the institution are classified as follows:
1. Formulation of policy with respect to admission,
home finding, placement, supervision, discharge, respective
jurisdiction of two or more agencies working with the same
2. Organization of the staff and facilities of the
society into departments.
3. Organization of the society's territory into
4. Differentiation of staff duties and responsibilities,
and analysis of staff positions to clarify their content;
preparation of handbook or manual.
Organization of Office routine.
6. Formulation of systems for recording, filing data,
and for reporting.^
Besides his duties within the institution the superintend­
ent must try to cultivate friendly relationships with the parents
of the children under the care of the institution and also with
the teachers of the public schools.
To the community he is the
representative of the institution; to the school he is the
representative of the parents.
He should have a general know­
ledge of medical problems so that he may be able to work out an
S Ibid.. p. 21.
adequate heaXth program with the physicians and to super­
vise the resident nurse in carrying out the recommended
He should also be well informed in regard to
the purchase of food, clothes, and shoes so that the purchases
may be made wisely and economically.
Personnel Responsibilities:
The matter of staff relationships forces itself upon
the executive's attention.
It is his duty to evolve
standards of requirements for staff workers, and to engage
and dismiss the staff, often in counsel with assistants
or supervisors, and sometimes subject to the approval of
the board of directors or a personnel committee.-®Usually a personal interview is required of the
applicant in addition to references from interested individuals
or private and public employment agencies.
The sectarian
agencies usually give preference to applicants from their own
In some places there is a probation period
before the new member is actually enrolled on the staff.
a rule the institutions like to employ their staff as long as
possible, but in case dismissal or removal is necessary they
give advance notice two months ahead.
The executive conducts the staff meetings, the personal
interviews, and the case conferences, but in institutions having
a supervisor, the latter would be responsible for the case
The executive and the supervisor are likely to
collaborate in evaluating the work of the staff members.
^ Ibid., p. 216
are leaders looking toward the growth and development of the
Intake Policy and Procedure:
The fundamental policy of a child caring institution
is the prevention of family breakdown and the conservation of
wholesome family life for children.
The childrenfs charter, drafted by the White House
Conference of 1930, established the principle that the home
is the primary agency for the nurture and development of
For every child a home and that love and security
which a home provides; and for that child who must
receive foster care, the nearest substitute for his own
home •
Before anything is done for any child,
the social worker of the institution makes a thorough investi­
gation of the case.
The investigation should cover the family
history and the present situation, including the following
Causes of family breakdown and possibilities of
family rehabilitation,
Personality and capacities of other members of
the family and their attitudes toward the child,
3. Conditions surrounding the child from birth to
the date of application,
Possibility of care of the child in his own
home or in the home of relatives either with or without
aid from public or private agencies or moth e r fs aid
from publio funds,
5. Possibility of financial aid by relatives if the
child is accepted for care.i
1 standards
Foster Care for Children in Institutions;.
If the condition of the home makes it necessary to
remove the children from the home, the next thing is to
consider what type of foster care should be given to the
Bach child should be given special consideration, for
no two children should be treated in the same manner without
a very careful study of the circumstances.
Selection of Foster Home Care:
Boarding Home:
The child is put in a home selected
by the agency and the expenses are usually paid by the agency,
but sometimes by the parents or relatives.
Types of children who go to boarding homes:
a. All infants pending decision as to probable
physical and mental condition and development.
b. All infants with physical defects and those
whose histories indicate mental abnormalities.
c. Physically and mentally defective children whose
conditions are not so acute as to demand hospital or
institutional treatment.
d. Children of temporarily broken families whose
rehabilitation is probable in reasonable time.
e. Older children whose conduct indicates mental or
moral difficulties, _but not so acute as to demand
institutional care.i
Free Home:
The child is put into a home as a
member of the family receiving free home care including room,
board and clothing and the necessary comforts of life.
Wage Home:
Older boys and girls work in foster
U. S. Children*s Bureau Publication, Ho. 136,
pp. 214-215.
homes for wages and pay their room ana board out of their
Adoption Home:
This kind of home is almost the
same as free home except that a legal relationship has been
established between the foster parents and the child.
Institutional Cares
It is up to the social
worker to determine, on the basis of investigation and personal
judgment, which type of home is most suitable for a particular
There should be held a case conference attended by the
case worker, the house mother, the physician, and the psychol­
The discussion takes into account as to whether the
child is ready to be placed out and the type of foster home
needed for him.
Financial Arrangement s
As to the responsibility for
the cost of boarding care, the case worker or the superintendent
makes a decision according to the financial condition of the
family, or of the relatives responsible for the child.
it is a pay case or a partial pay or an entirely free case all
depends on the individual situation.
The case worker should
have the arrangement made before the child is admitted.
Physical Examination:
Every child should go through
a careful physical examination including the X-ray of the
chest, the Wassermann test, laboratory tests, and vaginal
smear of the girls.
for examination.
The children should go to approved clinics
A mental test should also be given by the
psychologist before the child is received; this will help
the institution to classify the child properly in his school
Children presenting difficult problems of
personality or behavior should be given psychiatric study.
study cottage.
Some institutions put a new child in a
The child is assigned his own cottage
immediately after admission.
The policy differs in each
Placing the child in a study cottage upon admission
has in many instances proved of value not only as an
opportunity for obtaining factual information as to the
childts developmental status, but as a chance to discuss
with the child various aspects of institutional life.
During this period the child will have an opportunity to
express his likes and dislikes as to different home
groupings, and cottage mothers and children will be able
to present their ideas as_„to where they would like to have
him fit into the program.-1
Care in the Institution:
Physical care —
As soon as
the child is admitted the health program should be carried out
according to the physician's direction; corrective work such
as dental defects, minor operations, etc., should be attended
to soon after admission.
Periodic examinations and immuniz­
ation against small pox, typhoid, and diptheria are also included
in the health program.
All children should have sufficient sleep with plenty
of air.
The younger the child, the more hours of sleep are
Children under six must have twelve hours of sleep.
Orlo L. Crissy, The Child in the Institution,
(pamphlet of Child Welfare League of America, April 2, 1957)
p. 9.
Food —
A modern institution has a dietician to
prepare the menu which gives a balanced'diet with sufficient
vitamins for the growing children.
least a pint of milk per day.
Each child should take at
Some institutions give the
children cod liver oil in addition to milk.
The menu should
be changed very frequently to avoid monotony.
Meals should be appetizing, well cooked, of a good
variety, and served in the quiet, friendly, happy
atmosphere of a small group. Rather than another
institutional routine, meal times should be anticipated
as pleasant occasions.
Children can participate not
only in the preparation, but even in planning of menus
and buying of foodstuffs under supervision. Why should
not such practical aspects of institutional life-become
a part of the children's training and education?^
Clothes —
With the recent trends of individuation,
children in institutions now are not wearing uniforms any
They make their own choice of the color, patterns and
the style of their clothing.
The clothing of the child in the institution should
equal in quality, style and comfort that of the average
child with whom he associates in the community. With
proper planning, children can assist in purchasing,
designing, making and caring for clothes. Thus feelings
of ownership and responsibility can be developed.*2
Physical Plant:
Institutions with large grounds and buildings
should be located in a small city or in the suburbs of a large
1 Ibid.. p. 7
2 Ibid., p. 7
It is better to be away from the noisy city and yet the
location should not be far from schools and hospitals.
portation facilities must be adequate.
The matters of drainage,
sewage disposal and fire protection should be carefully
The acreage of institutions varies individually,
but every institution should have enough space for playground,
for farm, for vegetable gardening, besides the ground for the
Buildings: A central administration building contains
the offices of the superintendent, the secretary and the clerks.
Some of the institutions have the administration building
connected with the dining room, the kitchen and a part of the
staff residence.
The administrative building ought not to be
too far from the children's cottages so as not to lose the
feeling of intimacy between the children and the executive
It is preferable to have the building built in ordinary
residence style rather than in the style of official buildings.
The residence of the superintendent, the case worker and other
staff members should be comfortable and attractive and provide
a reasonable amount of privacy.
A bedroom and a bathroom
constitute the minimum housing for each member of the resident
Cottages —
The institutions have two kinds of buildings
for the children, large dormitories and the cottages.
dormitory system generally separates the boys and the girls.
Each dormitory accommodates twenty or more boys or girls.
beds are arranged in straight rows and are neatly made.
house mother or the matron lives in the dormitory with them*
having a separate room of her own.
The children do not have
their own rooms* but each one has a locker in the dressing room.
They have a common sitting room and a common bath room.
The cottage is a newly developed means of giving the
children a home life, a kind of home training for the future
A cottage mother sometimes with her husband, lives in
the cottage as the head of the family.
The size of the family
Usually a cottage mother has under her care twelve
children with boys and girls varying in ages.
If more than twelve children are accommodated or if
there is a preponderance of young children in the cottage,
an assistant cottage mother or cook will be required.
is preferable to have at least one-third of the children
accommodated in single bedrooms.
No dormitory should
accommodate more than three or four children, large
dormitories have no place in a modern institutional plant.
The cottages should be built equipped as much like a
home as possible.
Each cottage should have its own kitchen,
where the cottage mother and older children prepare their own
food, and their own dining room to provide a homelike environ­
There should be a homelike living room which will alloir
children to enjoy games, a radio and other amusements.
p. 80.
^ Standards of Foster Care for Children in Institutions„
Boys and girls live in separate rooms and each one has
his own dresser and closet in the room.
The arrangement of
the furniture and the decoration of the room are up to the
children themselves*
This responsibility helps to develop
their sense of beauty and their individuality.
The auditorium and gymnasium —
Large institutions
The auditorium -used is quite often for several purposes
have auditoriums with stages for children's plays and weekly
the chairs are folded and removed when the room is used for
indoor sports and dances.
In small institutions, public
gatherings are held in the dining hall*
Farms —
Large institutions have farms of their own to
supply milk, fruit, and vegetables for their own use*
The work shop provides facilities for woodwork and
mechanic work for boys in the repair of furniture as well as
in vocational training.
Laundry —
All institutions have their own laundry and
the size is proportional to their population.
Usually, there
are two rooms, one for washing and the other for ironing*
central laundry takes care of all the laundry of the whole
institution, but in each cottage there is a small laundry
place where the girls can wash small pieces of clothes.
General education:
Education in the children's institu­
tions is just as important as the physical care*
All institutions
provide, either within or outside the institution, for
education through the eight elementary grades.
Some institu­
tions have nursery school or kindergarten courses.
five per cent of the institution children are attending high
schools outside.
For those children who show exceptional
capacity for higher studies, the institutions, through scholar­
ships or other means, provide opportunity for a college
education fitting them for a profession.
At the present time very few institutions have schools
of their own except the Catholic institutions, but even Father
Cooper agrees that sending children to public schools is a
better policy.
To judge from the present study, the policy of sending
the children out for some or all of their schooling would
appear to be gaining decidedly in favor among our
The children are taken out of their
isolation, lose something of the feeling of fdifferentn e s s 1 and by rubbing shoulders with other children in
the world on the same level are less apt to be afflicted
with a sense of inferiority.-1
A special individualized program should be provided for
the children who are notably retarded, so that each child may
be allowed to progress at his own speed.
Some institutions
are operating under the ungraded class plan for the retarded
Vocational education:
Vocation education plays a very
important role in the educational program for institutional
^ John M. Cooper, Children*s Institutions. (Philadelphia
The Dolphin Press, 1931/, p. 428-429.
It aids each child to choose the right kind of
training for his occupation when he leaves the institution.
The most important need for institutional children is
Their dream of the future is to have a lovely
home of their own.
Vocational education is an important means
of achieving that end.
Vocational education includes three major phases:
vocational advisement or counseling, vocational training, and
placement and follow-up.
The program includes helping the
child to choose his life work, giving him the specialized
training to equip him for the task, and helping him to find
actual employment in the vocation for which he has been equipped.
Prevocational education gives the children a chance to
try out his or her interest and ability so that he .could choose
wisely the vocation for which he is best fitted.
The courses
they give for prevocational training are manual work for boys
and domestic science for girls.
Studies in vocational education include commercial
courses, skilled trades, farming and agricultural pursuits,
forestry and animal husbandry, manufacturing and mechanical,
transportation, professional and clerical service, extraction
of minerals, domestic and personal services.
Cultural education:
Cultural education includes
aesthetic training and training in the art of social living.
'v •
The chief objectives of aesthetic training are to prepare the
child to have an appreciation of art and music, to develop
a wholesome living, and to help the individual form an
adequate philosophy of life*
For, without the aesthetic
part of living, life has little meaning.
The program of cultural education includes music,
drama, art and handicrafts, and nature study.
Music education consists of listening to good music
such as piano, victrola and radio; learning to play instruments
either through individual lessons or in orchestra; and singing
in groups.
Dramatization gives the children a chance for selfexpression and emotional outlet.
ability and imagination.
It develops their creative
All children in an institution should
participate in dramatics; the experience is especially good for
the shy ones.
Arts and handicrafts like drawing, coloring and modeling
are a part of the school program as well as leisure-time
recreational activities•
Nature study includes visits and excursions and actual
participation in gardening, flower setting in the house, and
the collection of specimens from the woods and fields.
The teaching of etiquette is also a part of cultural
education integrated with the children*s daily life.
children will leave the institution after a few years and must
adjust themselves to the world; so table manners, proper
etiquette at parties and at different occasions, and correct
behavior in dealing with the opposite sex at parties and
dances should be taught in the institution*
Recreation plays an important part in the institutional
program; for wholesome play is a wholesome force in the build­
ing of character*
”It helps the child to grow and develop in mind and
It is a physical and psychical need of the child
which must be met for his all round development.”
In planning a leisure and recreational program for
institutional children, four essential elements should be
considered, namely, time, space, equipment, and leadership.
T ime:
An average child has about 3,500 hours of free time in
a given year. Therefore, it is important that wholesome
play activities are provided for all boys and girls with
the thought of developing character and preparing them for
useful citizenship.^
Children in institutions have two to five hours a day
for play activities.
Some institutions divide this free time
into two parts, with one period in the morning and the other
in the afternoon when there is plenty of sunshine*
Every institution has a large outdoor playground
1 Ibid.. p. 327.
M. H. and E. S. Newmeyer, Leisure and Recreation* p* 57.
and some have a play pavilion or gymnasium.
The outdoor play­
ground is the most important part of the plant in an institu­
tion for children's development and character building.
size of the ground should be in proportion to the number of
The types of games and sports, the organization of
teams, and such problems as separation of sex and age should
be considered with care.
Sunshine is an important element
for good health, yet every playground should have some shade
along the sides so that children may rest on the benches in
the shade.
There are three kinds of indoor space for recreation:
namely, playrooms, cluhraoms and gymnasiums.
The playroom is used on rainy days.
Usually it is a
large room with enough space to accommodate the number of
children in each house and equipped with toys and games.
The club room is a small room set aside for the purpose
of meetings of special groups within the building; no special
equipment is necessary.
The gymnasium was mentioned before under the category
of auditorium and gymnasium.
Equipment and supplies:
The outdoor playground is
marked off into courts, diamonds and fields for games and
Sand box, swings, slides, and seesaws are among the
equipment needed for small children.
The other supplies for children are classified according
to age group and sex.
For older children halls, hats, gloves
and shoes for sports use are provided; for the younger ones
skates, marhles, tops, ropes, jacks and so forth should he
The girls are given dolls and a work basket with
cloth, thread and needle for them to make clothes for their
dolls. Boys like to play with blocks and mechanical toys.
Pieces of hoard and lumber with a variety of tools also meet
their needs.
Staff leadership:
The importance of leadership in the
recreational program has been recognized just recently.
Formerly the duty of a recreational director was just to
keep order in the group without the exercise of much initiative,
but now there are specially trained recreational directors to
do the job.
The directors are classified as physical director,
play director and coach.
The primary principles for play leadership in the
child caring home are:
So lead as both to preserve and to promote initiative
on the part of the children themselves.
S. So lead that play activities and attitudes learned
under the leadership will carry over into the undirected
leisure time of the children.
Build on the spontaneous activities of the children.^
The advantages of having a staff leader are as follows:
Handbook for the Use of Board of Directors. Superintend­
ents « and Staffs of Institutions for Dependent Children.(u. S .
Children *s Bureau Publication), p. 96-97.
• •
It carries on the beneficent tradition of parental
leadership• It helps the staff to know the children
better and so to guide them*
It permits closer correla­
tion between the moral lessons taught theoretically in
classroom or chapel, and the actual practice of these
lessons in life situations.
It brings the members of
the staff closer to the child and helps deepen sympathy,
confidence and love.
Play activities;
The play activities may be considered
under two groups: active recreation and passive recreation.
Active recreation includes sports, games, and dances.
passive recreational activities are story telling, listening
to radio and other musical programs, attending movies,
theaters, and exhibits.
Most of the institutions today have
weekly movies.
Children are encouraged to put on plays for
The collection of stamps, pictures and natural
objects are all good hobbies for children to develop.
Emotional Adjustment:
Emotional adjustment for institutional children is a
most difficult problem.
In the first place, each child was
born and brought up in a different home with a particular
cultural background.
The institution is supposed to be a
melting pot of these different cultures, but there must be a
period of culture conflicts before they all are assimilated.
Moreover, the population is constantly changing so there is
also a mixing of old and new culture patterns.
difficulty arises out of the fact that almost all the children
1 John M. Cooper, o
c i t .. p. 564.
receiving foster or institutional cares come from broken
The child loses his parental love and his own'home
when he comes to the institution for care and protection*
the institution he is one of a group, and not the only child
or a favorite child.
His fundamental desires for love,
security, recognition and thrill could not be satisfied in
the old ways.
This change sometimes affects the childfs
emotional life very deeply.
The child may develop bed-wetting,
thumb-sucking, temper tantrums, stealing, or other kind of
misbehavior after he is removed from home.
The deeper modern science has been able to probe the
sources of the influences that shape the personalities
of men and women, the clearer has. it become that among
the forces com ng from the environment that fashion the
adult life, those born of childhood experiences are
supremely significant.-^
We are all the products of our childhood experience.
We need to flee very frankly the fact that each of us in
our childhood had conflicts in our relationships to our
parents— conflicts growing out of rejection, in Security,
over protection, jealousy and soron. We must also face
the fact that in our total life experience there is
nothing we forget.2
The social worker should be very careful in the
selection of the right kind of foster home for each child. She
should bear in mind that the placement of a child in an
institution or a foster home means a great deal to the child’s
future life.
The placement of children should not -be done on
^ E,
Groves and Plyllis Blanchard, Readings in Mental
Hygiene.(New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1937), p. 150.
2 Ibid.. p. 152.
an emergency basis.
To reduce the possibility of emotional
maladjustment, it is often better to allow the parent and the
child to participate in the planning.
The parents and the
child are then given opportunity to visit the home before
placement is actually made so that they may feel that they have
had a share in the choice of the home.
Frequent changing of foster home is an indication of
poor case workj it is likely to build up an attitude of
resistance on the part of the child toward foster homes.
attitude may effect the child»s behavior and cause emotional
It is very hard to say what are the best methods of
preventing or remedying emotional maladjustment of children
away from home,
An important thing which cottage mothers and
foster mothers should understand is that an individual has
fundamental needs and drives— the need for love, the need
for adults, the need for encouragement and praise, or any
small sign of affection, etc.
These touches of love may
change the child completely.
"Security is a basic need for all of us.
The urge to
be wanted and love and to belong is the fundamental."
Of course we cannot expect all the cottage mothers and
foster mothers to understand child psychology and the problems
of human behavior, but the social worker could give them
certain books to read to increase their knowledge and enrich
their experience.
The following books may be suggested to
foster mothers;
1. Foster, Sybil: Mental Meeds in Children*s
Institutions . Child/Welfare League of America,.1937.
2. Isaacs, Susan:
Vanguard Press, 1938.
The Nursery Y e a r s ,
New York, The
3. Isaacs, Susan:
Social Development in Young Children.
New York.
Harcourt,,Brace and .Company, 1937.
4. Manual for Cottage Mothers in Institutions»
Welfare League of America, 1932.
5. Payne, M. A.: Oliver Untwisted.
Co. London, 1929. Fifth edition 1937.
Edward Arnold &
There is no hard and fast rule for the emotional adjust­
ment of children.
Perhaps the most important requisite is that
the foster parents should be able to understand individual
differences and to appreciate differences in cultural back­
grounds, the needs for love and attention, and the reasons
for feeling of insecurity, the inferiority complex, and other
forms of maladjustment.
As Dr. Aichhorn stated in his
Wayward Y o u t h .
Specific educational methods are far less important
than an attitude which brings the child into contact with
reality. We must give the pupils experience which fit
them for life outside and not for the artificial life of
an institution.
The more the life of the institution con­
forms to an actual social community, the more certain is
the social rehabilitation of the child.
There is a great
danger in an institution that the individuality of the
child does notdevelop along lines best suited to his needs,
but that rules are laid down in accordance with administra­
tive requirements which reduce the child to mere inmate
with a number,^
Aichhorn, Wayward Y o u t h » !,The Training School",
August, 1936, (New York: The Viking Press), p. 150.
In other words, foster care is not an end but a means
to achieve the goal of rehabilitation.
It is an educational
institution to help the child to grow and to build the well
balanced personality of a future citizen.
Rehabilitation and after care:
Rehabilitation is the final goal of the foster care
of children.
Children cared for in institutions or foster
homes are just temporarily removed from their own homes.
During this period of an institution or boarding home, the
relationship between parents and children is kept close
enough to make later reunion easy.
Sometimes this short
separation may intensify their affection and the child loves
the parent evermore, but a long period of separation may
estrange the feelings on both sides.
Estrangement may arise
out of the fact that the children receive a more refined
cultural training in an institution and begin to realize the
inadequacy of their parental education.
On the other hand,
the parents, after the children are well cared for in the
institution, tend to become irresponsible toward their children.
The stay of children in institutions for dependents
should be as brief as possible.....During the child’s stay
in the institution, an effort should be made to rehabilitate
the family.^
The responsibility of the institution is to maintain the
parent and child relationship and try to re-educate and
S« Children’s Bureau Publication. Noi 170, p. 102.
rehabilitate the parents while the child is in the institution
or in foster home; for the institution is oniy a temporary
substitute for the childfs own home.
The social responsibility of the institution does not
end with the return of the child to the community:
The institution should be responsible for fitting
into community life each child whom it discharges by:
(a) Returning the child to his own home if suitable;
(b) finding a suitable home if his own is not the
proper place; (c) finding work to which he is adapted;
fd} providing for further education if desirable;
(e) making
church connection; (f) finding wholesome
After care may be provided by (a) one or more trained
workers on the institution staff or (b) through cooperation
with another agency equipped to give such eare.s
Each institution has at least one worker to do the
follow-up work to help the family in the task of rehabilitation
ana to continue parent education and the necessary case work.
All the children under the care of the institution and foster
homes have the same privileges of follow-up care.
of follow-up care depends on individual cases.
The length
As soon as the
child can adjust well in his home, in the foster home, or in
his work, the case can be closed for the time being, although
it may be reopened whenever the need arises.
1 Ibid.. p. 105.
S Ibid.. p. 106.
In comparing the institutions which are
selected for this study we find that two are in the city of
Los Angeles and that three of them are near the city.
farthest one is in Altadena —
the B o y s 1 and Girls’ Aid
The second is the Children’s Baptist Home at
Inglewood, and Vista Del Mar located in Palms is the third,
Los Angeles Orphanage and the Orthopaedic Hospital are the two
institutions in Los Angeles proper.
Physical Plant.
The size of the campus varies as
Time of purchase
Orthopaedic Hospital
3 acres
B o y s ’ and Girls* Aid Society
Children’s Baptist Home
Vista Del Mar (Jewish Home)
Los Angeles Orphanage
The size of the property has some relation to the
location, and the time of purchase.
In general land in the
city costs much more than that in the outskirts.
Orthopaedic Hospital has only three acres, but the Los Angeles
Orphanage has the largest campus on this list because it was
purchased in X890.
Style of buildings.
The styles of the buildings
could be roughly classified into three categories: the
institutional building, the semi-cottage, and the cottage#
Los Angeles Orphanage, which was established 50 years ago,
still maintains in its old buildings, a regular school
building with three stories above the basement#
The Orthopaedic
Hospital, which is a medical institution for a special class of
handicapped children, has to use large buildings with elevator
facilities and an underground tunnel to connect the two build­
ings for transportation.
The semi-cottage system is used by
the B o y s ’ and Girls’ Aid Society and the Children’s Baptist
Home, both of them having bungalows of similar Spanish
Vista Del Mar, the Jewish Home for Children,
adopted the modern cottage system, having five cottages of
different styles, each built on a street corner like an
ordinary residential area in the city.
The dormitory capacity varies from 10
to 20 in a room while the cottage rooms accommodate three
children each.
There are 10 nursery children of Los Angeles
Orphanage in each bedroom while 20 children of school ages
are in each bedroom in the same institution.
Boys and Girls
Aid Society’s dormitory has two wings on each building and
each wing accommodates 12 children of the same sex and the
same age group.
The senior girls of the same Home live on the
second floor of the Administration building two or three in a
room with separate studies and sitting rooms.
The Children *s
Baptist Home had only 28 children when the study was made and
they had closed one building at that time.
The girls live
in the Administration building with three in a room and the
boys all live in one dormitory.
In Vista Del Mar each cottage
has twenty children of both boys and girls.
The bedrooms are
divided according to sex and age, three boys or three girls
of the same age group living in one room.
The Orthopaedic
Hospital being different in nature,has to arrange rooms not
only according to the difference in sex and age but also
according to the surgical condition of the children both before
and after operation to avoid annoying others.
Dining room.
Boys* and Girls* Aid Society, Children’s
Baptist Home, and Dos Angeles Orphanage all have the common
dining hall system except that the nursery children of Los
Angeles Orphanage have a small dining room of their own near
the bedroom.
Children of Vista Del Mar eat at their own cottage
with their house mother and also help in cooking and washing
The Orthopaedic Hospital, which is mainly for surgical
operation of crippled children, has to bring food to the bed­
side of each child.
Auditorium and Gymnasium.
All except one of the five
institutions have large auditoriums and three of them have an
indoor gymnasium in the auditorium.
The Orthopaedic Hospital
has a gymnasium, and four swinning-poois besides the auditorium*
Children1s Baptist Home which is more like an ordinary home,
does not have an auditorium.
They use the dining hall for
Hospital and Isolatlon-rooms.
equipment but this varies in quantity.
All have some medical
The Orthopaedic
Hospital of course in itself is a hospital.
Vista Del Mar
and B o y s ’ and Girls’ Society each has a quite large hospital
of its own.
Children’s Baptist Home, in spite of its small
population, has a very well equipped infirmary, which is as
large as that of the Catholic Orphanage which houses 140 girls.
Administrative controls
They all have Boards of
Directors who are elected from the community to be responsible
for the institution’s policy as well as its budget.
The size
of the Board is different in each organization.
Staff and personnel.
institution also differs.
The number on the staff of each
The children’s Baptist Home has a
superintendent who is also the case worker of the institution.
He does all the intake and discharge case work as well as
personnel appointment and the general management of the
The Boys ’ and Girls ’ Aid Society is headed by
the Superintendent and his wife, a case worker.
The case
worker does all the intake and discharge case ?*ork and recording,
besides helping her husband in the general management of the
Los Angeles Orphanage is a Catholic institution headed
by the Sister Superior, having a full time case worker to
handle the intake and discharge cases.
Vista Del Mar, the
Jewish Childrenis service, has hoarding homes outside of
their institution, so they must have a large staff.
have one Executive Director and one assistant to be responsible
for the administration, and they have five case workers and
one case supervisor.
The Orthopaedic Hospital is a regular
hospital having a medical social service department with five
trained social workers in this department, the rest of the
hospital staff being too numerous to list.
Population and cost.
The number of children in each
institution and the perocapita cost of each per day at the
time this study was made is listed as follows:
Name of the Institut ion
Per Capita Cost
Children’s Baptist Home
Orthopaedic Hospital
B o y s ’ and Girls’ Aid Society
Vista Del Mar Children’s Service
bos Angeles OriDhanage
The above table shows that the agency with the smallest
number has the highest per capita cost of operation with the
exception of the Orthopaedic Hospital, figures for which include
special surgical, medical, and educational expenses, thus
increasing the cost.
Los Angeles Orphanage has the largest
population, but the per capita cost is not the lowest, because
it maintains its own school*
Vista Del Mar operates at an
average cost of §38*00 per month including $4.00 per capita
per month mortgage fees.
The actual cost is $34.00 per month
which is about $1.13 per day per capita cost.
This proves
that the cottage system does not cost more than the average
institutional plant.
The B o y s ’ and Girls’ Aid Society which
has no mortgage now to pay and has no school of its own, has
the lowest per capita cost of all the five institutions.
Four of these five institutions are supported
by the Community Chest of Los Angeles and by other chests.
B o y s ’ and Girls’ Aid Society had an income of $42,000 last
year, $7,740.12 of which came from Los Angeles'Community Chest
about $9,000 from the Pasadena Community Chest; $1,000 from
the South Pasadena Community Chest; $16,000 from the parents
for board; and the balance came from memberships, private
donations, and interest from the bank.
Los Angeles Orphanage’s sources of income are first
from the Los Angeles Community Chest, second from the tax,
third from the county and fourth from the parents.
The sum
received from the Los Angeles Community Chest last year was
$31,652.10 and the other receipts were not mentioned.
Vista Del M a r ’s financial resources
Jewry, the Los Angeles Community Chest and
are the
the public depart­
ments which altogether contribute about $100,000.00 a year
for operating costs.
The amount received from
Community Chest last year was $67,721.80.
The Orthopaedic Hospital is financed by the Los Angeles
Community Chest, contributions from friends throughout the
world, and by payments from the patients.
Since this is a
medical institution the yearly expenditure is beyond comparison
with the institutions for general care.
Income from the Los
Angeles Community Chest alone was $146,252.49 last year.
Children's Baptist Home is not a Community Chest agency.
It has endowment fund.
The interests ana dividend^ from the
endowment fund are around $10,000 a year.
$5,000 may be added
to the income as gifts and contributions from the Baptist
Churches and payment from the parents make up part of the
The average expenditure of this institution approximates
$20,000 a year.
Educational Program.
Three of the five institutions
send their children to the public schools in the neighborhood,
thus mingling with children outside of their own group.
of the five have nursery schools of their own, and one has a
regular elementary school for girls up to the eighth grade.
The Orthopaedic Hospital has special arrangements made with
the Board of Education to provide teachers from both Elementary
and High School Departments to come to the hosptial and tutor
the children in the wards so that they may participate in a
regular school program.
Vocational education is emphasized
in all of these institutions, especially in the Orthopaedic
Hospital, which has to adjust the child to his physical condition.
Recreational Program*
The recreational program varies
according to the size and the nature of each institution.
of them have an athletic field and equipment, both indoor and
outdoor games, radio in every sitting room with magazines and
Dramatics, dancing, and entertainments at Christmas
and other holidays are universal activities in these institutions,
but the Orthopaedic Hospital has the most beautiful and thera­
peutic dramatic activities of all.
In order to overcome the
feeling of being handicapped the recreational program is strong­
ly stressed in the Orthopaedic Hospital.
Three of five
institutions have a weekly movie for the children.
The agencies
having to keep the children in doors most of the time have more
organized recreational activities than those sending the
children to public schools.
Camping, hiking, fishing, and
going to the beaches are very common recreations among all the
institutions including the hospital.
Age of the children.
The age of the children in the
institutions of general care varies from 3 to 16
that is
from nursery school age to high school graduate.
The Orthopaedic
Hospital has a broader age limit, from the new-born to 20 years.
Food and clothing.
All these institutions have
dieticians to plan the menu so the food of each institution is
well balanced and has adequate nutrients.
In addition to their
ordinary diet they give milk and cod liver oil to every child*
The clothes are all quite colorful and of good material.
uniforms are worn except at the Catholic Orphanage, where they
are required in classes#
Three sectarian institutions are the Catholic,
the Baptist and the Jewish, those non-sectarian ones are the
Orthopaedic Hospital and the Boys* and Girls* Society, but all
of them have some connections with the church.
For instance,
the Crippled Children's Guild was started by the Sunday School
of the First Congregational Church which was the nucleus of the
Hospital as it is today.
The children of the Boys* and Girls*
Aid Society all go to the church at Montana and Lincoln streets
for Sunday School#
General Impression#
From this study it is noticed that the
smaller number of children the Institutions have the better the
family spirit they create.
If large institutions could adopt the
cottage system by dividing the children into small groups having
their own kitchen and dining room, that would be more intimate and
less like an institution.
matter to be considered.
Of course the buildings are another
That of the Los Angeles Orphanage is
fifty years old and is not suitable for the modern cottage plan,
yet to rebuild a new institution is not easy since it involves
funds and planning.
Boys and girls of the same institution should
be intermingled like brothers and sisters in a family of different
Exclusiveness of one sex is out of date now.
As far as
equipment, food, and clothing are concerned, they are all adequately
provided and even better quantities than in ordinary homes.
the executive and the social workers are now trying to do is to
keep the relationship between the families as close as possible
and prepare the families for rehabilitation.
They are also trying
to make as much contact with the outside world as they can for
the children to prepare themselves to live and work in a normal
Brief review of child welfare work in China since 1957.
Cina has been invaded by the Japanese since July 7, 1937.
coastal cities have fallen into Japanese hands one by one,
driving a large mass of refugees to the interior.
There are
thousands and thousands of children lost from their parents
and homes.
Temporary child caring agencies have been estab­
lished in every city to meet the emergency, but more permanent
institutions are established in the interior.
The National Child Welfare Association of China was
established several years ago by Dr. H. H. Kung, with head­
quarters now located at 147 Edward VII Avenue, Shanghai.
is now backed by the united support of practically every lead­
ing religious and civil relief organization in Shanghai.
was estimated in November, 1938, that 20,000 children in
Shanghai were war waifs wandering about the streets.
organization in Shanghai launched a campaign on November 7,
1938, giving these children homes where they could stay and
be fed and clothed.
Madame Chiang Kai-Shek, the first lady of China, is
very enthusiastic about child welfare work.
The following
quotation is from her speech appealing to the public asking
Tor aid for China1s Homeless Children:
There are many tens of thousands of children, bereft of
parents and homes.
There are more with parents who are
too poor to feed and clothe them.
These all must be
cared for.
They will soon be m e n and women.
be housed, fed, clothed and educated.
They cannot be
allowed to drift, to become beggars and potential criminals
to burden the streets and highways with their famished
bodies. . . . The Association for War Refugee Children
is now making a drive for funds.
It will cost $60.00 per
year to house, feed, clothe and educate, in a simple way,
one child.
We ask every one of you to subscribe for sev­
eral children so that they can be properly maintained.
Our immediate object is to care for 20,000 children; and
later to support as many as our funds will allow.
shall distribute the children to different centers in the
rear, house them in safety under responsible supervision;
see thau they are neither neglected nor ill-used; give
them vocational training to fit them to take care of them­
selves, and suited to their strength and ability to
qualify them, and when the time comes, to undertake the
burdens of life themselves.1
A Child Welfare Bureau was organized in Hankow in
March, 1938, and plans were made to organize homes in every
district possible where homeless children might be gathered
The permanent homes will be opened In centers in
the interior provinces such as Szechuan, Kueichow, Yunnan and
The first permanent orphanage is already established
in Chungking.
It accommodates 500 children.
The newly organ­
ized Child Welfare Bureau is sending workers to the war zone
from time to time with the express purpose of collecting
homeless children.
These children were moved to Chungking In
two sections— the first of 300, and the second of 200.
children are under the care of the C h i l d r e n ’s Service Corps'1
organized by the New Life Movement Association.
The children
^ "Madame Chiang Asks Aid for China’s Homeless Children,"
China Weekly Review, 84:215, April 23, 1928.
are temporarily quartered at Wan Shou Kung (Longevity Palace)
which was an old temple.
They came from Shangtung, Honan,
and Anhui, the northern provinces in the eastern part of China.
Their ages vary from 6 to 16 and the majority group is between
11 and 12.
There are more boys than girls among these 500.
In Hankow there are about 1,000 children, and a number of
infants who could not come over to Chungking are under the
care of the "Children*s Service Corps” over there.
There are
still 5,000 more children gathered from the war districts
along the Lung Hai Line, but owing to the interruption of the
railway, they are being held there.
Chungking, where the first branch of the Child Welfare
Bureau is locared, is assigned to take care of half of this
The second branch is in Humming, Yunnan, and the
third branch in Kwueiyang.
unfortunate children.
They accommodate about 20,000
Living conditions.
The Longevity Palace, once only a
temple of medieval type, is now converted into child welfare
administrative offices, dormitories and classrooms.
Y&ien 200
children arrived, they were each given one suit of cotton
clothing, one mat and one piece of bedding.
The cost of cloth­
ing according to the estimate made by Shanghai, The National
C. Y. W. Meng, “Chungking, Mother to China*s Orphans,”
China Weekly Review, 85:170, July, 1938.
Child Welfare Association, is as follows:
padded coat
pair of padded trousers
waist coat
pair of shoes
,,0.10 for one pair
of stockings^
The prices in the interior are a little higher than in Shanghai
because of lack of transportation facilities, but this will
an idea how simple the life of an !,worphann is in the
child caring agency now
in China.
These children were divided into brigades of 20 each.
All the children have to go through an examination and be
classified into different classes according to their age and
Babies from 1 to 3 years of age will be classified
in the Minfant section11; from 3 to 6, in kindergarten grade;,
and from 6 to 10 and up, in the primary school grades.
large enough will be organized as boy scouts and girl guides,
those strong enough will be given military and war time train­
At the present time, there are 42 teachers, mostly women.
They are all members of the llService corps of the Teachers of
primary and middle schools from the War districts of Kiangsu
and Chekiang,11 organized by the Ministry of Education.
were sent to Szechuan to assist in the undertaking.
are, in addition, about 22 other matrons who have all undergone
HChild Welfare Launches Campaign to Care for Shanghai’s
War Waifs,” China Weekly Review, 86:354, November 12, 1938.
previous special training.
They are enthusiastic and patriotic
social workers and receive no salary except the scanty liveli­
hood allowance11 allotted by the Ministry of Education.^
There is a war orphan colony in the eastern part of
China on Mokanshan (mountain) near Hangchow, Chekiang,
colony has 400 refugee children and it is known as the East
Chekiang branch of the War Time Children’s Relief Association,
one of the three national organizations caring for China1s
thousands of war orphans.
This was organized by Madame Huang
Shao Hsiung, wife of the chairman of the Chekiang provincial
The colony is looked after by a doctor, three
nurses, twelve girl teachers and scores of women specially
selected to take charge of the little inmates.
are divided into three groups:
The children
(1) Kindergarten, 2 to 6 years;
(2) Primary school, 6 to 15; and (5) Special class in training
or education.
The children rise at dawn.
Responding to the
bugle call, the boys line up on the spacious campus and with
stern solemnity honor their national colors and sing their
national anthem.
Thus begins a day of lessons, games, story
telling and outing in the course of which the principles of
cleanliness, orderliness, honor and honesty are taught.
other things taught at the colony, self-government is practiced
by the children. They settle their own disputes and enforce
disciplinary measures themselves with teachers as their super­
Many of them come from rich families.
Here luxuries,
once known to many of the children, are not had, but every
effort is exerted to make them miss nothing.
They study, play
and laugh as they did before the invaders destroyed their
home s.
There is another system of child welfare known as the
proxy system.
This system is one of child-caring through private
In Hochuan, a small city near Chungking, there
is a couple, Dr. and Mrs. Cho?/ Chiang Chinn, Dr. Chow being
the superintendent of the Fifth Military Hospital there.
are now attending 100 little ones who are suffering from all
sorts of infectious ailments,
contracted on their long pilgrim­
An American woman missionary, known as Miss Mary, lives
in Jungsien near Chungking,
and is taking care of 50 little
waifs placed by the Child Welfare Association upon her own
The association finances this kind of boarding with
$5 per head per month.
This is similar to the boarding home
or semi-free home system in the United States.
Another type of case is apprenticeship for older boys
who are graduates of primary schools, who are sent out to learn
5 ”War Orphan Colony in Eastern Chekiang,” China Weekly
Review, 88:341, May 31, 1938.
some.kind of trade.
Thirty boys were sent to the China Radio
Supplies Company as apprentices.
Chungking has numerous pledges
for -che support of "Worphans" like Mr. Li Ken Fu, the former
mayor of Chungking, usho offered to support twenty children at
$100 per month for an indefinite period.
A well-known local
banker, Mr. Kang Hsing Chih, will play foster father to 40 of
the children.
Comparison of Chinese institutional life with that of
From the glimpses of Child Welfare work in China
we realize that there is plenty of work to be done today along
this line.
The field is so great and the needs for money and
personnel are so urgent that it is impossible to set up an
adequate standard of child welfare in China at the present
It is impossible to compare the institutional life for
children in America with that in China, the difference in
equipment, in the dormitory, the food,
recreational activities being so great.
the clothing and the
The per capita cost
of children in institutions of the United States is around
$1.16 per day and the cost of Chinese children under institu­
tional care is $60 per year, that is, about 17 cents a day.
In teiras of American currency, $1 equals 15 Chinese dollars
now, so 17 cents in Chinese money is less than 2 cents a day*
6 ttMovement to Aid Homeless Children Growing," China
?feekly Review, 86:197, October, 1938.
As far as the physical plant is concerned, China has
to use old temples and schools to accommodate large numbers
of children at the present time.
homes should be built right away.
W hen the war is over, new
By that time, children1s
homes should be built on the cottage plan.
The boarding home
system should be followed more widely throughout the country.
Case work in home finding, locating parent^ as well as in
finding adopting parents should be done after the war.
provement of diet is essential in Chinese child-caring institu­
tions, since the per capita cost is so low that milk and cod
liver oil are beyond their budget.
It has been proved by the
pediatrician that soy bean milk plus calcium has value equal
to that of cow’s milk.
China has an abundant soy bean pro­
duction so the institutions should be encouraged to feed
children soy bean milk in addition to their daily food.
At the present time most of the institutions have
schools of their own, but when the war is over this system
must be revised.
If the cottage system is carried out after­
wards the children will naturally go to public schools, for
there will be no space for classrooms in their own cottages.
Vocational training and guidance should be given along with
school curricula,
but apprenticeship is not a good plan, for
children will then lose their home life entirely.
Recreational activities should be emphasized in China.
Chinese children as a whole are not as active and free In
expression as children in the United States, the reason being
that Chinese children do not have as much variety in recreation
as American children.
Those who can read spend most of their
time in reading, and their life is not well balanced with work,
play and rest.
Lack of recreational program and adult leader­
ship are the chief concerns.
Group work leaders are just as
much needed in China as case workers, because those children
who lost their homes in the war need more time for play to keep
up their morale.
Psychiatric approach has not yet reached these large
numbers of children in China, and probably the material needs
are more urgent than emotional adjustment.
Child guidance
clinics would be needed when child welfare in China has been
put into shape.
The adoptability of the American system of child care
to China depends on time, money, and personnel.
No one system
could be shifted to China entirely, nor immediately.
It would
be brought out gradually to meet the needs of the different
As time passes this study would be of some value
in reference to standards of child-care in institutions in
the United States.
The well-planned and experienced systems
of institutional and foster home care in America will be the
guide book for China in the days to come.
Abbot, Grace, The Child and the State. Chicago, Illinois:
The University of Chicago Press, 1938.
Aichorn, August, Wayward Youth.
New York; The Viking Press,
Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Standards of Foster
Care for Children in Institutions. 1937.
Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Manual for Cottage
Mothers in Institutions. 1932,
Clark, Elizabeth Munro, MA Re-Examination of Child-Welfare
Functions in Family and Foster-care Agencies,11 National
Conference of Social Work. 1935.
Cooper, John Montgomery, Children1s Institutions.
Press: Philadelphia, 1931.
Crissy, Orlo L., The Child in the Institution.
League of America, Inc., 1937.
The Dolphin
Child Welfare
Corean, M. S. and B. C. Reynolds, The Selection of Foster
Homes for Children. New York: The New York School of
Social Work, Columbia University, 1919.
poster, Sybil, Mental Health Needs in Children1s Institutions.
Child Welfare League of America, Inc., 1937.
Proves, E. R. and Phyllis Blanchard, Readings in Mental Hygiene.
New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1937.
^ealy W. and A. Bronner, New Light on Delinquency.
Yale University Press, 1936.
, Reconstructing Behavior in Youth.
A. Knopf, 1931.
New Haven:
New York: Alfred
[saacs, Susan, The Nursery Years. New York: The Vanguard
Press, 1938.
______ , Social Development of Young Children. New York:
Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1937.
Lurie, Harry L . , f,Re-Examination of Child-Welfare Functions
In Family and Foster-Care Agencies,” National Conference
of Social Work Proceedings, 1955.
Mangold, George B., Problems of Child Welfare.
Macmillan Company, 1936.
New York: The
Mulry, T. M . , ,!Neglect and Dependent Children,** Conference
of Charities and Corrections, 1899.
Proceedings of the Conference on ttie Care of Dependent Children
Senate Document No. 721, 1909.
Reader, Rudolph Rex, How Two Hundred Children Live and Learn.
New York: Lloyd Adams Noble, 191*7. 4th edition.
Social Service as Administered by Public and Private Agencies
Sen Member ship in Los Angeles Community Welfare Federation.
Los Angeles: The Council of Social Agencies of Los Angeles,
Social Work Year Book, 1937.
New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Solenberger, Edwin D., !lThe Functions in a Community Child
Welfare Program of Private Child Caring Institutions
and Agencies,11 National Conference of Social Work Pro­
ceedings , 1932, pp. 111-21.
Theis and Goodrich, The Child in the Foster Home.
New York School of Social Work, 1921.
New York:
Thurston, Henry W . , The Dependent Child. New York: School of
Social Work, Columbia University Press, 1930.
U. S. Children1s Bureau Publication No. 60, Standards of Child
U. S. Children*s Bureau Publication No. 62, Minimum Standards
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Foster Home Care
for Dependent Children. Washington: U. S. Government
Printing Office, 1924.
U. S. Children’s Bureau Publication No. 170, Handbook for the
Use of Boards of Directors, Superintendents, and Staffs
of Institutions for Dependent Children.
U. S. Children*s Bureau Publication No. 216, The A.B.C. of
Foster Family Care for Children. Washingtons Government
Printing Office, 1933.
U. 3. Children’s Bureau Publication No. 228, Part I.
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White House Conference on Child Health and Protection, Dependent
and Neglected Children.
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Protection. New York and London: Harper and Brothers,
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“Madame Chiang Asks Aid for China’s Homeless Children,11 China
Weekly Review, 84:215, April 23, 1938.
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The Children* s Baptist Home of Southern
California is located at 7715 Victoria Avenue, Inglewood,
It was incorporated in June, 1951, and opened in
August, 1934.
Physical Plant.
The Home owns ten acres of land
Including gardens and athletic fields.
Spanish in style, with tile roofs.
The buildings are
The Administration build­
ing contains the superintendent *s office, the secretary’s
the dining hall, the kitchen, the senior girls* living
quarters and “Che secretary’s living quarters.
The junior girls
now occupy quarters here which formerly housed the nursery
On November 15, the newly-built Boys* Building was
closed and all the boys were moved to the Junior Girls* Build­
The nursery children were returned to their homes and
the junior girls were moved to the nursery quarters in the
Two or three senior girls share one room containing
single beds and dressers.
These rooms are decorated much as
Is a girlfe room in a normal household.
The rooms in the closed boys* building are much less
homelike than these rooms and those of the junior girls.
These former b oys’ quarters were more like a dormitory,
with halls and shining floors, the beds arranged in rows, and
the matron’s room immediately inside the dormitory, with a
wicket on her door from which she could observe her charges.
Now -Hie boys have been moved to the former junior girls’
quarters near the Administration building, which are more home­
The living quarters of the staff are separate, the
superintendent having an apartment with his family in a sep­
arate building, located between the present b o y s ’ building
and the Administration building.
Other members of the staff
live close to their place of work in quarters which contain a
bedroom and bathroom.
All these living quarters are comfort­
ably furnished.
The infirmary.
present boys* quarters.
There is an Infirmary near the
It is well equipped, with medical
apparatus and wheel chairs.
There are two bedrooms for boys,
two bedrooms for girls, and a treatment room for all.
There is no school building or gymnasium in the
A small shop at the basement is used for repairing
equipment, and caring for tools.
Athletic field and gardening.
There is a tennis
court, baseball field, football field, and sand-pit, and a
chicken house and rabbit house, in which the children can
raise their pets.
The garden is well planted, with flowers
and trees which add to the beauty of the scenery.
The Administrative Control.
Board of Directors.
There are thirty-one members on
the Board of Directors, all Baptist in denomination.
executive committee is composed of the president of the board,
the vice-president, secretary, treasurer and five members at
The Board meeting is held once every three months and
the Executive Committee meets once a month.
The Board hires
the superintendent and the superintendent hires the rest of
the staff.
Staff and personnel.
The superintendent must be a
college graduate, with some case work and group work experience,
and executive ability.
members of the staff.
all the cases.
He hires, and fires, if necessary, all
He is also the case worker, and handles
Sometimes he secures a part-time case worker
to help him on case work when the case load is too heavy.
superintendent supervises office details.
He has full finan­
cial control, acts on the budget committee, and also serves
on the finance and investment committee.
The superintendent supervises the work of the staff
members and also guides the staff in reading along child
guidance lines.
He handles all the special disciplinary
problems, and also supervises the medical problems.
He interprets the work of the Home to the community,
making speeches at churches, association meetings, conversations,
and Baptist gatherings, and works with state, county or court
workers on special case problems*
One secretary serves as office secre­
tary and the secretary of the superintendent.
Her duties include
handling the switch-board, taking dictation, typing letters,
bookkeeping, taking minutes at Board meetings, and preparing
all the reports and forms, under direction of the superinten­
Since they have no school,
there is no teacher or voca­
tional director in the Home, but the superintendent maintains
a close contact with the school teachers with whom the children
are studying.
The boys* housemother and the junior
girls* housemother are assisted in their work by the senior
Each housemother directs the activities in her par­
ticular cottage, doing mending, and performing other tasks
which generally fall to a mother.
The boy s 1 supervisor directs all athletic activities
on the grounds for boys and girls, and plans outings for them
with the approval of the superintendent.
The pediatrician who heads the medical
staff has five or six specialists under him— a surgeon, an earnose-throat specialist, an eye specialist, and a urologist.
A Baptist dentist of Inglewood takes care of the dental
work of the children in the Home,
A resident registered nurse is in the infirmary.
One of the senior boys acts as a
Other employees.
the flowers,
A gardener cares for the lawns,
trees, and the chickens.
He lives outside, but
receives noon meals in the Home.
A janitor cleans the buildings and takes care of all
the equipment.
He also receives noon meals and lives outside.
One person cooks all the meals of this large family.
She receives all meals in the Home, but lives outside.
A laundress does all the laundry with the assistance
of the senior girls.
Personnel Appointment and Removals.
in personnel appointment is given to Baptists.
Each new member
is given a two months1 probation period, before receiving
regular appointment.
A complete record of each employee is
kept in the office.
As to removal two weeks* notice is given, or two
weeks1 pay in lieu of notice.
It is understood that the
employee shall also give two weeks* notice before leaving,
or at least one week if it is urgent.
The higher the position
the more time must be spent in finding a substitute; there­
fore the superintendent is expected to give three or four
months * not ice.
A Baptist dentist of Inglewood takes care of the dental
work of the children in the Home*
A resident registered nurse is in the infirmary* ■
One of the senior hoys acts as a
other employees*
A gardener cares for the lawns,
the flowers, trees, and the chickens*
Be lives outside, but
receives noon meals In the Home*
A janitor cleans the buildings and takes car© of all
the equipment*
He also receives noon meals and lives outside*
One person cooks all the meals of this large family*
She receives all meals in the Home, but lives outside*
A laundress does all the laundry with the assistance
of the senior girls*
Personnel Appointment and Removals*
in personnel appointment is given to Baptists*
Bach new member
Is given a two months1 probation period, before receiving
regular appointment*
A complete record of each employee Is
kept in the office*
As to removal two weeks1 notice is given, or two
weeks1 pay in lieu of notice*
It is understood that the
employe© shall also give two weeks* notice before leaving,
or at least one week If it is urgent*
The higher the position
the more time must be spent In finding a substitute; there­
fore the superintendent Is expected to give three or four
months* notice.
Day off.
All the employees living on the grounds
leave at 4 p.m. on one day, and return by midnight the follow­
ing night, once a week.
They are off duty for a shorter period
one day a week, from 9 a.m. to 8:30 p.m.
Staff meeting.
The superintendent calls a meeting
once a week for the members of the staff only.
The meeting
usually takes about thirty minutes, which are given to announce­
ments, discussion of children’s problems, institutional policy,
programs, and other matters.
Intake Provision and Policy.
Preference is given
to children who have been attending a Baptist Sunday School
for one year or more.
also given preference.
Children of Baptist church members are
The Home does not care for children
over sixteen years of age.
If one parent marries again, it
is expected that the child will go back to his parents.
Institution records.
Regular case records are kept
for each child by the superintendent.
The rate of payment
varies according to the individual financial condition.
of the cases are paid for by their Interested relatives or
Formerly the capacity was fifty-five.
In October, 1939, there were 35 children, Including the nur­
sery children.
There has been some change in capacity since
November 15, 1939.
At that time, the capacity was limited
to 50 children and no pre-school children were taken in the
Home, because of shortage of funds.
changes from time to time.
The number of children
On February 1, 1940, there were
28 children, including 4 high school boys, five high school
and 16 grammar school children, 8 of each sex.
hope to build up their finances in order to take care of a
group of 55 children, and to reopen the former boys* building
Daily routine.
All children rise at 6 a.m. and
breakfast at 7 a.m. with a five minutes* devotional period
at the table after breakfast.
Some children have duties to
perform in the Home before starting off to school at 8;30 a.m
the other leaving at 9 a.m.
They all carry their lunches to
Senior boys work with the gardener from 4 to 4:45
every afternoon.
Two senior girls help in the laundry, and
the other senior girls help in the kitchen.
Certain girls
help in preparing the meals, others work in the kitchen after
the meals.
Supper is served at 5 p.m.
Junior boys, and girls
retire at 7:30 p.m., except on Friday and Saturday nights,
when the retirement hour is 8 p.m.
Intermediate children
retire at 8:30 p.m. during week days, and 9 p.m. on Friday
and Saturday nights.
Seniors retire at 9 a.m. on week days,
and 9:30 p.m. on Fridays and Saturdays.
The institution gives allowances to
the children for spending money--for the seniors ten cents a
week per capita, and for the juniors five cents each week.
Physical and medical care.
Once every year, Dr*
Moody, the pediatrician, brings his nurse and gives a physical
examination to every child, to check up on their health*
makes certain recommendations for the nurse and the staff
members to carry out.
Dr. Moody is also vice-president of
the California Children1s Hospital and Clinic in Los Angeles.
He gives free services to the Home.
The infirmary of the Home
takes care of only the light cases, while serious cases are
referred to the California Hospital.
Dr. Moody is also a psychologist.
trist in the home.
There is no psychia­
Whenever any child needs psychiatric ex­
amination the child is taken to a professional psychiatrist.
According to the superintendent, there has been no serious
abnormal behavior problem among the children so far.
Educational and Vocational Program.
educational program in the home*
public school.
There is no
All the children go to a
Vocationally, they try to train older boys
and girls through personal conferences.
to take bookkeeping, shorthand,
They advise every girl
and typewriting.
The boys
are advised to take manual arts and mechanics.
The Home sup­
plies them with the various high school needs.
If a child
is especially intelligent or ambitious, he may have a chance
to go to college, this being determined on an individual basis.
education and athletics.
The Home pro-
vides physical educational equipment, but has no special direc­
The boys are affiliated with the Y.M.C.A.
Clubs, and through that type of club they receive physical
The girls have their own athletic activities with
direct guidance from their schools.
Recreational Activities.
Each dormitory has its
own radio in the sitting room,
There is also a radio and table
tennis set in the dining room.
They do not have organized
club work in the Home, but do have concerts in the school.
Mrs. Taylor,
the girls.
senior girls f matron, gives lessons to some of
They go to see the worthwhile movies in a group.
Religious instruction.
As a part of the religious
instruction, the children are encouraged to go to Church and
to Sunday School.
Once a week they have chapel service in
the home, in which the children participate.
vice is held in the dining room.
The chapel ser­
Every morning they have .
five minutes1 devotion, and every night they have individual
devotion before going to bed.
They have an endowment fund, the interest
and dividends from this endowment amounting to from $8,000 to
$10,000 a year.
Gifts and contributions from Baptist Churches
and individuals are around $5,000 a year.
The county pays $22.50 a month for some cases.
average cost per capita is $1.29 a day.
There are two entirely
free eases.
Interested individuals give childrens1 clothes
and the institutions policy is not to buy new clothes for
the children.
The average expenditure of the Home is around $20,000
a year.
The Boys’ and Girls’ Aid Society is a private
home for children, located at 700 Mountain View Road, Altadena,
It was founded and Incorporated on March 12, 1888*
Physical Plant.
The present campus consists of eight
acres of land, seven buildings of class uA t* construction, of
Spanish type, wii^h concrete walls and tile roofs, built around
a rectangular patio of green turf.
The Administration building has three offices— the
superintendent1s office, the social worker’s office,
secretary’s office.
and the
The superintendent’s living quarters are
located in the Administration building.
The senior girls*
living quarters are on the second floor of the Administration
There are eight bedrooms, with twenty-two beds and
ten dressing rooms, containing dressers, desks, chairs, and
medical c abinets.
room of their own.
The senior girls have a very large living
All the rooms are very attractively fur­
The living quarters of the staff are all located In
close proximity to their various duties, so that each employee
may best serve the needs of those under his care.
Each depart­
mental employee has a tub-bath, toilet, and wash-bowl, with
hot and cold water.
The rooms are all heated In season,
comfortable, and well ventilated, with single beds, chairs,
tables, and carpets on the floors.
The central dining room is located in the Administration
building, with 19 tables seating eight, and is used for all the
children and the staff.
The room is a cheerful place, attrac­
tive in appearance, with table cloths and napkins of differ­
ent colors,
and with flowers arranged in the center of each
The kitchen is located in the south wing of the Admin­
istration building.
It is equipped with an electric dish
sterilizer, a large gas stove and an electric frigidaire,
along with other modern facilities,
and has an extremely high
ceiling with good light and ventilation.
The senior b oys1, Junior boy s 1, and Junior
girls’ cottages are similar.
In each cottage, there are two
dormitories with 12 single beds in each, so that each cottage
will accommodate 24 children.
arranged in good order.
of bedspread.
The beds are made neatly and
Each dormitory has a different color
Bedding is changed weekly, or more often when
Nursery boys and girls have two separate dormitories.
The capacity of each is also 12.
Since the age of the nursery
children is between two to six, they use wooden cribs and
junior beds.
The wash basins, toilets and bath-tubs are all
proportionately smaller in size, and lower in .height.
The senior boys and girls, and the junior boys and
girls, have study rooms in their living quarters, with small
Auditorium and the gynmasium.
The auditorium is an in­
door gymnasium, located in the west end of the Administration
It has a basketball court, badminton court, volley
ball court, which are used by all the children for recreation.
The stage of the auditorium is also used for regular weekly
talking pictures,
for entertainments, and for Christmas programs.
Hospital and isolation rooms.
at the south end of the green turf.
The hospital is located
It has 16 beds which are
sufficient to meet the needs of the society.
They have two
isolation rooms, one operation room, and one clinic room.
small kitchen is adjacent to a dining room for patients in
the hospital.
A nurse* s quarters, with a private bath, are
also in the hospital building.
Laundry room.
The laundry building and the boiler
room are connected and they are located at the south end of
the campus; this building and equipment being adequate for
the needs of the whole campus.
Cost of establishment. The cost of establishment,
erection, and equipment of the buildings and grounds, was about
half a million dollars.
Administrative control.
The B oys1 and Girls1 Aid
Society is managed and controlled by two boards, namely, the
Board of Trustees and the Board of Managers.
The Board of
Ti*ustees is organized by a group of prominent men of adjacent
This board has the financial responsibility,
and con­
trol of the policy of the institution.
The Board of Managers consists of a group of women
leaders who are interested in children1s work.
They supervise
the institution, and also make connections with the public.
Staff and personnel.
The superintendent and the social
worker are Mr. and Mrs. Carlson, who are full-time residents
in the Boys* and Girls* Aid Society.
They are the executives
of the institution, and are responsible for the life, the
program, and the activities of the institution.
Mr. Carlson*s
duty is that of a general administrator, while Mrs. Carlson
is interested in the management.
Mrs. Carlson prepares the
menu and does all sorts of assistant work in the institution,
in addition to filling her chief duty as a case worker.
conducts all intake interviews, and discharges and keeps a
record for each case.
There is one secretary to the superintendent and the
board, who is assisted by a half-time stenographer.
There are ten supervisors and eight matrons on the
campus to look after the children’s life in the dormitories,
and their group activities.
They have one part-time physician who comes every
Saturday morning, and is also subject to emergency calls. A
full-time nurse is employed and lives in the hospital.
have no dentist of their own, but use the school and community
dental clinics.
They have two cooks, one dining room matron, a laundry
man and his assistant.
There is no chaplain, since this is a
non-sectarian organization.
There is a part-time librarian,
who is a junior college girl and works for her room and board.
One janitor, who is also the gardener, looks after the
lawn and the plants, and the senior boys help him.
' Personnel appointments and removals.
The superinten­
dent has the authority to make appointments and removals.
Appointments are made through personal interview, and from
references, and are also based on the county health certifi­
It is the policy that staff members have a long tenure,
when such a relationship is mutually satisfactory.
In case of removal, either side is expected to give
two weeks* notice, the employee being given two weeks* pay
in case of an emergency.
The finances of the Boys* and Girls* Aid
Society are received from several sources:
The Los Angeles
Community Chest, Pasadena Community Chest, South Pasadena
Community Chest, and San Marino Community Chest furnish onethird of the entire budget*
A part of the income is received
from the County Child Welfare Department, and also from the
State Aid to the Dependent Child.
Another one-third of the
income comes from the parents for board according to different
A relatively small amount comes from the memberships.
Memberships of various kinds, represented by various amounts
are as follows:
Annual membership $2 to $5
Subscribing membership
Contributing membership $25
Supporting membership
Life membership
Life Patron
The Community Chests charge the Membership Committee with the
responsibility of raising the sum of $2,000 per year.
The Boys' and Girls' Aid Society is closely allied
with the Junior League of Pasadena.
The Junior League raised
$21,000 which was used to reduce the mortgage on the buildings.
At the present time, there is no mortgage on the property.
annual expenditure is around $42,000, the per capita cost being
$.95 per day.
Intake policy.
The general objective of the Society
is stated in the second article of the by-laws, Mto care for,
maintain and educate orphans, half-orphans, needy and abandoned
children on a strictly non-sectarian basis.*'
The intake de­
pends on (1) residence in the state, attempting to limit intake
to the areas which contribute to their budget;
(2) full pay,
in cases of outside areas, with exceptions.
The capacity of this institution is 120, but the number
of children in attendance is constantly changing.
The turnover
is about 55 a year.
Those children eligible for admittance are classified
as follows;
(1) Destitute orphans
(5) Insane
(2) Father dead
(6) Father
(3) Mother dead
(7) Mother
(4) Broken homes
(8) Divorced
No child in this institution receives completely free
Each parent is expected to contribute whatever he or
she can, in an amount not exceeding $30 per month.
About one-
sixth of the total population was referred from the state or
county relief agencies,
the state or county paying $15 for
each of their cases.
Each child must have a physical examination before
In Los Angeles,
the child goes to the Children’s
Hospital for a placement examination, including a Wassermann
test, throat culture and chest examination, and a general
physical examination.
In Pasadena, the child goes to Chest
Clinic for chest examination, and to the City Hall for general
examination and laboratory findings.
The social worker makes the intake interviews and re­
ceives the child, when he or she is admitted.
friend of a new child.
She is the main
There is no isolation period.
child is admitted to the cottage as soon as the intake pro­
cedure is over.
The child is assigned some light work at the
beginning, and they rotate the work afterwards.
The purpose
of this work is to make the child happy, and give him the feel­
ing that he is just as useful as he would be at home.
Daily routine.
All children attend to the public school
except the nursery children.
The senior boys and girls rise
at 5s45 a.m. on week days, and at 6:30 a.m. on Saturdays and
The junior boys and girls rise at 6;00 a.m. on week
days and 6:30 a.m. on Saturdays and Sundays.
children rise at the same time as the Juniors.
The nursery
The seniors
retire at 8 p.m., juniors at 7:30 p.m. and the nursery children
at 7 p.m.
Both juniors and seniors go to school and carry their
lunches with them.
The nursery children have their lunches
in the Home, with a two hour rest period after lunch.
Parents visit, or take the children out, on Sundays.
All children have morning and evening prayers at meals
in the dining room.
They attend the neighborhood church at
Montana and Lincoln Streets for Sunday School.
A non-sectarian
attitude is maintained, as is provided in the by-laws of the
The Merit System.
The merit system is used for evalu­
ating the children’s conduct, both in school and at home.
child is required to win a certain number of "suns" in order
to get a full citizenship in the Home.
With this full citi­
zenship, the child could receive recreational and economic
privileges. This "sun" system also has weight in determining
the duties to be performed about the grounds and the buildings.
The children’s store is supported by the "sun" system,
not by cash.
Articles are given according to the number of
"suns" earned.
Ho form of punishment is used other than the depriva­
tion that the individual brings on himself by becoming a non­
Recreational activities.
ture shows in the auditorium.
There are weekly moving pic­
They have Halloween and St.
Valentine’s Day parties, and Christmas celebrations.
are also organized dramatics, ballroom dancing, ballet dancing,
cartoon groups, and Girls’ Scout groups, all under the sponsor­
of the Junior League Volunteer program.
The house fathers are experienced group leaders, and
help the children in various activities.
There are two large athletic fields,
and the
other for juniors.
one for seniors
There is a large common playground
which comprises four acres, for all the children.
For a period of three months,
a summer camp is main­
tained at the beach, during which time it is possible for
each child to be there for six weeks.
This outing is made
possible each year by the generous gifts of members.
Emotional development.
Most of these children come
from broken homes.
A discordant atmosphere in early years, economic insecurity,
lack of parental care, migratory existence, are some of
the factors which create emotional instability.1
A psychologist makes frequent visits to the Home to discover
the causes of maladjustments in which these conditions have
their roots.
He also examines each child before he is admitted
to the Home.
They have no psychiatrist in the Home, and they would
probably work with the Child Guidance Clinic if an abnormal
behavior problem should arise, although there has been no
peculiar problem among the children up to the present time.
^ Boys1 and Girls1 Aid Society Booklet, under the
category of emotional development (no page number).
The Vista Del Mar Children’s Service is a
Jewish Children’s Home, located at 10219 Exposition Boulevard,
Palms, California*
The name !,Vista Del Mar'1 was the old name
of the site before it was purchased.
The Home was formerly
called "Jewish Orphans' Home" but the Board of Directors be­
lieved these socially handicapped children should not be further
burdened by having to refer to their place of residence as
"Jewish Orphans’ Home," with its connotation of dependency,
so the name of Vista Del Mar was retained after the Home was
The Jewish Orphans’ Home of Southern California
was incorporated on October 3, 1908.
The objects of the society,
as stated in the articles, were:
First, to found and maintain a home for orphaned and
half-orphaned Jewish children; second, the temporary
maintenance of destitute and abandoned Jewish children,
subject to the rules and regulations of this society,
so far as the facilities will permit.1
The first home was dedicated on January 2, 1909, at 536
Mission Road, and five children were moved to temporary quarters
at 2033 East Fourth Street.
By the donation of Mr. Harris
Newmark, in memory of his departed wife, Sara Newmark, ten
**■ Policy of Program of Vista Del Mar Children’s Service,
p. 3.
acres of land were bought in Huntington Park, and a new Home
was dedicated on November 28, 1912.
During the period from 1920 to 1926, there followed
many significant changes.
After the sale of the Huntington
Park property, the Home was removed to temporary quarters in
Los Angeles, followed by the establishment of this foster­
home department,
then the purchase of, and the removal to
the new site at Vista Del Mar.
his duties as superintendent.
In 1921 Mr. Armand Wyle began
He recommended the inauguration
of a foster-home program, so that the children who did not
adjust in the large institution might be given an opportunity
to live in small family groups.
Mr. Ififyle resigned in June, 1923,
and Mr. Joseph Bonapart was engaged as his successor, and Is
still the superintendent.
The new site at Vista Del Mar was
bought in 1924 and the building project was completed and the
children moved into the new Home on March 26, 1925.
Physical, plant.
of land.
Vista Del Mar consists of 21 acres
The money derived from the Huntington Park property
was employed to purchase the present site.
The buildings cost
#390,000, of which #190,000 was raised from campaigns and
#200,000 from a mortgage.
The buildings, grounds and equip­
ment, together, cost about #600,000.
The cottages at Vista Del Mar are built on
either side of the extension of Exposition Boulevard, a public
street, similar to that of the neighborhood in the city.
cottages are built in different styles of two story houses, but
no two houses are alike.
Each house consists of eighteen
rooms, including living room, library, dining room, kitchen,
pantry and sleeping rooms.
Two senior children are placed in
a room, and three small children are given a room,
Ten boys
and ten girls live in a house, but the boys and girls apart­
ments are separated by the stairway.
differently by the cottage mother,
Each cottage is furnished
and each room is decorated
by the children with their own individuality.
It is like a
normal home with children of different ages, ranging in ages
from 6 to 18.
The Jacoby Health Cottage, built In memory of Mrs. Hannah
Jacoby, was planned to provide health care for girls who had
suffered some respiratory impairment, or whose general physical
condition demanded a special health regime.
The health cottage
accommodates twenty-five children ranging in ages from 6 to
14 years.
The health cottage Is situated apart from the other
five cottages,
and the children are under special care and
health regime.
The hospital has fifteen beds for isolation
of sick children during their period of illness from their own
They have their own x-ray clinic, eye clinic, dental
clinic, etc.
A graduate nurse is maintained in the hospital.
The hospital is very well equipped, and provides a dispensary
for daily clinic service for children who need minor treatment.
Auditorium and gymnasium.
is a new building,
The auditorium and gymnasium
which was donated by Mr. and Mrs. Weinberger,
costing about $25,000.
This building is essential to the train­
ing program on cultural and physical development.
The building
allows for indoor basketball, volley ball and other athletic
The children produce their plays on the stage.
To provide for adequate seating, the chairs are folded on a
wagon under the stage, and these chairs can be pulled out
easily when the seats are needed.
In the auditorium is a
memorial room, where all the tablets of donations are placed.
The institution does not have a bronze tablet of the donors*
names on each building.
They have no shops, nor farm buildings, b ut some children
raise chickens as their own private project.
The administration.
The administration building is
a separate building, not too far away from the cottages.
contains a large sitting room and meeting room.
The office
of the superintendent, secretary, and stenographers, is com­
bined in one large room, outfitted like a regulation office
The Board of Directors
consists of thirty members,
with sixteen subcommittees under it.
The Executive Committee
is made up of the Chairman of each committee--the President
of the Board of Directors appoints these committees.
The fol­
lowing is a list of the more important Committees:
Service and Intake
Finance and Budget
Legal Aid
Personnel Practice
Special Events
Scholarship and Employment
One Executive Director
One Assistant
One Girls1 Recreation Director
Six Housemothers
One Assistant Housemother
One Nurse
One Dietitian
One Clothing Matron
Two Gardeners
One Janitor
One Health Cottage Cook
Two Laundry Workers
Five Social Workers
One Case Supervisor
One Office Manager
Two Clerks
One Part-time Physician
One Part-time Dentist
One Part-time Psychologist
The Executive Director, Social Workers, Office Staff,
Physician, and Psychologist, divide their time between the
work with children in the institution and with those in foster
Intake policy.
The Vista Del Mar Childrens Service
was organized for the purpose of providing substitute home
care for children who must be placed away from their own homes.
The usual procedure in the process of acceptance for care is
as follows:
An application is made by a parent or a surviving
A study is made by one of the professional social
workers on the staff, using the special techniques and re­
sources at her command.
Conferences are held with other agencies which
know the family, or which may have special facilities for
serving them.
A study is made of the problems of the child and
his family, by the whole professional staff.
Findings and recommendations are presented to the
intake and service committee, composed of members of the
Board of Directors for final action.
The plan of placement should be carefully considered
as to its effect on a particular child.
Should he be placed
in a selected foster home, in the institution at Vista Del
Mar, or in some other specialized agency which could best
serve the particular needs of the child?
In some instances
a child Is kept in his own home through the use of a house­
keeper, even though the child’s mother has been removed from
the home.
They have five case workers and a case supervisor
to care for the entire case load.
There are about 300 children receiving care
at Vista Del Mar— 125 are in the institution, and about 40 are
in their own homes under supervision.
ing homes.
Around 130 are in board­
The turnover is about 25 cases a year.
Foster homes.
Foster homes, into which children of
the Vista Del Mar Children’s Service may be placed, are selected
through a carefully devised program.
In the State of California,
all foster homes serving children under sixteen years of age
must obtain a lecense.
The selection of foster homes should
meet the requirements established by the State with respect to:
neighborhood, size and condition of the home, sleeping and
sanitary accomodations, family income, health of foster family,
and the moral, educational and cultural equipment of the members
of the foster family.
There are four types of foster homes generally used in
child placing:
the adoptive home, the free home, the work home,
and the boarding home.
Only abandoned children and those who
are without family connections are eligible for adoption.
far, they have had very few cases for adoption.
There are
very rare cases in free homes or work homes, the majority of
their children being in boarding homes.
The Vista Del Mar
Children’s Service looks upon-afoster home as a substitute for
a child’s natural home.
Unless a home has been licensed by the Health Department,
unless it can meet all of the sanitary- and health requirements
which the Jewish Orphans* Home demands, including a separate
bed for each child, unless the family income is adequate with­
out the revenue received from the Orphans1 Home, a home will
not he accepted for boarding purposes.
The Jewish Orphans*
Home pays $25.00 per month per child for, the care of its wards
in foster homes.
The institution cost per capita is $38.00 per month,
including the interest on the mortgage, which is about $4.00
per month per child.
The per capita cost for the children in foster homes
is $36.00 per month, in average.
Los Angeles* Jews have provided a large
measure of help in contributing funds for the building of
Vista Del Mar* and the Los Angeles Community Chest and depart­
ments have been the chief sources of support in connection
with the operating costs.
Special contributions must make
up the deficit.
All of the children attend public schools,
and use the community resources,
the school playgrounds,
such as, the public libraries,
the local and downtown theatres, the
Hollywood Bowl, the museums, and the public beaches.
those children who are capable, and those who show the interest
and ability to go to college,
the Children’s Service will find
persons who are interested in them sufficiently to support
them for the first two years.
Religious training is given the children both formally
and informally*
They attend the Vista Del Mar Synagogue on
Friday evening and Saturday mornings, as well as on the Jewish
There are classes in Hebrew and in Jewish history
and religion, which are held on Sunday mornings in Sunday
Seder services are conducted in each of the children's
cottages during the Passover Festival.
A Succah is built on
the grounds during the festival of Succoth*
are confirmed at Shovouth*
Boys and girls
In the Cottages, grace is said
before meals daily, and Kiddush on Friday evenings.
Of equal
importance Is the emphasis placed upon everyday living in
consonance with the Spirit of Judaism.**'
They have a boys* director and a girls’
director for recreation and sports.
football and tennis.
They have basketball,
Excursions to the beach for summer outings
and picnics, and to the museum and planetarium are made with
the Big Brothers and Bi& Sisters*
Each Saturday afternoon
they go to the moving-pictures.
There are two auxiliary bodies who give Volunteer ser­
vices along various lines of recreation.
They are composed of
1 Policies and Program of Vista Del Mar Children’s
Service, p. 4.
the Vista Del Mar Associates and the Vista Del Mar Junior.
These ladies arrange for volunteer teachers to
teach the children knitting, handcrafts, music, and dancing.
The children,
themselves, have organized dramatic clubs;
they write their plays and put them on under a volunteer-dramatic
teacher’s direction.
They have bi-weekly dances, and enter­
tainment for the holidays.
The children give birthday parties
to invite the children from other cottages or from the neighbor­
This involves planning, receiving guests, exchanging
gifts, and making formal acknowledgments*
The social graces
are cultivated through practical experience, in order to pre­
pare the children for customary social functions of adult life.
After care service.
After children have returned to
their own homes, there often arises the problem of intellectual
and emotional readjustment between the children and their parents.
It is found that the follow-up service will iron out the con­
flicts, and prevent misunderstandings,
through the intervention
and interpretation of the social worker.
For those children who become self-supporting, and are
not living with their relatives,
the after-care service takes
the form of parental guidance during the difficult late-adoles­
cent years.
The length of after-care services varies with the
individual case.
Some need a few months, and some need two
or three years services.
Many of the graduates return to visit the Home to see
their cottage mothers or foster parents, and offer personal
and material service, as they become better established in
the community.
The Orthopaedic Hospital is located at 2400-
2424 South Flower Street, Los Angeles,
The site
covers over three acres.
The Orthopaedic Hospital is the only institution
In Southern California dedicated exclusively to the correction
and education of crippled children.
Any child, not over 20
years of age, who is eligible to philanthropic aid and requires
orthopaedic care, is welcome without prejudice because of race,
creed or social standing.
In 1910, Dr. Charles Le Roy Lowman was in charge
of the clinic for orthopaedic cases at the University of Southern
He felt the great need for organized effort to
provide both physical rehabilitation, and an education for
the many physically handicapped boys and girls throughout
Southern California, who were then almost without aid.
Lowman began to speak on this need.
In 1911, the first group
that responded to his appeal was a Sunday School class in the
First Congregational Church.
The same group of people became
interested in crippled children to the extent of providing
braces for little patients.
In 1913,
this group of Sunday
School children under the leadership of Miss Mary C. Cunningham
and other enthusiastic ladies, organized themselves Into the
Crippled Children’s Guild.
In 1917, with the efforts of the members of the Guilds,
the first clinic was opened at 1022 South Figueroa Street.
By 1918, the Los Angeles Orthopaedic Foundation was organ­
ized by seventeen businessmen.
The Orthopaedic Hospital is a
separate corporation, but has the same persons serving on the
Board of Directors, or Trustees, as that of the Los Angeles
Orthopaedic Foundation.
In 1921, the corner stone of the main hospital building
was laid.
In 1923, the Administration Building and Nurses’
Home were completed and occupied.
Physical Plant.
The buildings are regulation three-
story hospital plants, with basement and porches on each floor.
The Memorial Building is at 2424 South Flower Street, where
the Orthopaedic Foundation is located.
On the ground floor
are the auditorium, which is also the memorial room, the
Orthopaedic Clinic of the Out-Patient Department,
Social Service Department,
and the Physiotherapy Department
and the gymnasium and swimming pools.
tains the business offices,
the Medical
The second floor con­
the Dental Clinic, Baking and
Massage Division of the Physiotherapy Department, and the
Occupational Therapy Department.
The third floor has the
Record-room, Medical Library, Neurological Clinic, Medical
Clinic, X-ray Department, Phytograph Division, Crippled
Children’s Guild office,
the Alumni Club office, the B oys’
Club Room, the Girls* Club Room and the sewing room.
The building on 2400 South Flower houses the In-Patient
The wards, private rooms, and operation rooms are
all in this building.
There are three or four children in each
room, boys and girls having separate rooms.
Patients of the
same age are grouped with others who are in the same stage of
treatment, that is, the newly operated are placed in one room,
and the old cases in another room, so that they have a sympa­
thetic sharing of experiences.
The rooms are quite colorful,
not all in white, like ordinary hospitals.
Children also wear
their own colorful clothes.
According to the figures given in the printed
folder of 1S40, f,Facts Concerning the Orthopaedic Hospital,”
169 children were admitted to, and discharged from, the hospi­
tal each month, and about 1,300 children came to the Out-Patient
Department every month.
Types of Physical handicaps.
Fifteen per cent receive
treatment to overcome residual effects of infantile paralysis;
20 per cent to recover from specific bone and joint diseases,
such as, osteomyelitis, tuberculosis, arthritis, etc.; 20 per
cent are scoliosis or posture cases; 10 per cent have congenital
and acquired deformities; 5 per cent suffer from accidental
burns and abrasions threatening normal function of bone and
muscle; and 30 per cent are fracture cases.
Cost of hospitalization.
The full cost of living and
treatment in the hospital is #24*50 per week.
Only 12 per
cent pay the full coszs of their care; 22 per cent pay a
portion; and 66 per cent pay nothing.
Age of patients.
The age limit is very broad,
born up to twenty years of age.
from newly
A patient admitted before the
twentieth birthday can s tay as long as treatment is needed.
Twenty-five per cent of these children are under 5 years of
age; 50 per cent are between the ages of 5 and 14; the remain­
ing 25 per cent are between 14 and 20.
Social Service Department.
The Social Service Department
has a staff of five members, who are all well-trained medical
social workers.
Mrs. Seaman is the head of the social service
at the clinics and makes the first contact with all the cases.
When operation and treatment are needed, the social worker
consults with the doctor first, and then makes arrangements
with the family.
All the financial arrangements are made
through social service.
Department of Educational Activities.
The Department
of Educational Activities is headed by Dr. Lowman, and the
Associate Director, Dr. Robert L. Carroll.
The staff members
are Miss Weir, the Co-ordinator, Mr. Davidson,
the Counsellor
and Surveyor, and Miss Dodson, the Recorder and Counsellor.
Educational program.
The Board or Education provides
teachers in hoth elementary and high school departments , who
carry on the regular school programs with hospitalized children,
as well as a trained occupational therapy instructor, who con­
ducts classes in handicrafts, especially designed to aid muscle
Since the children have to receive treatment
at the same time, each child is allowed to take only two courses.
As soon as they can return home and go to school, the hospital
will provide daily ambulance transportation to and from schools
for the children.
Vocational training is very essential to those unfortu­
nate children.
The vocations vary from shoe-maker to physician.
Vocational guidance is based upon the physical condition of the
child, the records from doctors, physiotherapists, psychiatrists,
and the patient*s own interest in any type of trade.
Recreational program.
In order to cheer up these handi­
capped children and overcome their feelings of inferiority, the
recreational program of the Orthopaedic Hospital has been
wonderfully worked out.
Children in the hospital all have
equal privileges in participating in the activities in order
to develop their creative ability, as well as to give them an
emotional outlet.
The Therapeutic Theatre has been of particular value
in the Hospital’s departmental educational activities.
The drama work has improved the doctors* and Hospital*s
influence in patients* lives; has supplied a normalizing
out-let for pent up reelings; has developed loyalty to
comrades and Institution through emphasis on the inherent
traditions of the theater, . * . Through the motor expres­
sion supplied by dramatics, they obtain a mental dis­
charge and catharsis, which results in a constant physical
and mental improvement.1
The drama covers every type of play, but the plays with
less action are best fitted.
Sometimes they have to write out
their own plays with limited actions, and with certain char­
acters whose personality would meet the emotional needs of a
certain group of children.
from their records.
They usually find the individuals
For those children who have an inferiority
they provide a part which is just opposite to himself,
so that it helps him to overcome his inhibition.
They have very beautiful costumes of various kinds, and
the costumes are listed in a card catalogue which provides a
very good system.
Besides the dramatics they have an Alumni
Homecoming Banquet, which is all planned and prepared by the
alumni themselves.
The visitor was invited to their banquet
on April 28, 1940.
It was a magnificent party.
wore their best formals and looked so happy.
The girls all
Some of them
were walking on crutches, or were in wheel chairs, but all of
them had a good time.
They gave a very good musical program
consisting of instrumental and vocal music.
The exhibitions
upstairs displayed their handiwork and finger paintings.
The Christmas party is given by the Hospital, and the
party for Out-Patient children is given by the Crippled Children*
The boys have Boys* Scout Troop, Boys* Club, orchestra,
^ C. L. Lowman, nThe Therapeutic Theatre,” pamphlet
published by the Orthopaedic Hospital.
minstrel shows and stage dances.
The girls have Girls1 Club,
chorus singing, music, and sewing work.
For both boys and girls
there is a stamp club, movies, dances, dramatics, finger paint­
ings, outings, such as, fishing, hiking, and tobogganing.
a whole,
the children in this hospital do not miss any of the
activities that ordinary children have.
The Crippled Children1s Guild,,
The Crippled Children1s
Guild was organized in 1913 to give volunteer service to crip­
pled children.
It was its initial effort which established
the clinic, which later developed into the present organization
directed by the Los Angeles Orthopaedic Foundation.
The Guild
now is in charge of the Social Educational Program.
The Guild
is divided into five departments, namely:
1. Orthopaedic Hospital Volunteer Service Corps— Clin­
ical service.
Motor service for transportation of patients,
and general errands.
Department of Educational Activities.
Social Activities— Hostesses familiar with the loca­
tion and function of the Hospital and of the various
buildings greet new patients.
Auxiliaries— sewing auxiliaries and gauze auxiliaries.
5. The Wardrobe--clothing for distribution through the
Social Service Department— making and mending garments
for distribution to Out-Patient Department.
Alumni Association.
All boys and girls over fifteen
years of age who have been patients of the Institution, and
who met the necessary requirements, are eligible to membership
in the Alumni Association, which was organized by Dr. Lowman
to provide opportunities for additional socializing and educa­
tional growth.
The alumni members are very active in volunteer
The Orthopaedic Hospital is dedicated to three distinct
serivces for the physically handicapped boy and girls
physical reconstruction and re-education;
tation; and (3) social adjustment*
(2) mental rehabili­
The Los Angeles Orphanage is located at 917
South Boyle Avenue, Los Angeles,
The Los Angeles Orphanage was estab­
lished in 1890 by the Catholic Church, and is an institution
for girls.
The approximate cost of establishment was as fol­
(1) Buildings, $265,350;
(2) Land, $75,000;
(3) Equip­
ment, $61,200.
The size of the campus is about 25 acres.
Physical plant. This is a very large institutional type
of building.
It has three stories above the basement.
main floor consists of the Administrative offices, the Chapel,
the Assembly Hall and the classrooms.
kitchen are in the basement.
The dining hall and
The dining hall is very attrac­
tively arranged with round tables seating six.
do not eat In the same dining room.
The sisters
The dormitory Is on the
second floor and each dormitory has twenty beds which are all
neatly made.
On top of each bed, there is a lovely doll.
sister in charge of the dormitory sleeps alone in a cabin at
the corner of the same room, with her door closed.
There are two nursery bedrooms with ten small beds in
An older girl sleeps with the nursery girls, rather than
a sister.
Her bed is at the corner of the room, surrounded
by a large curtain.
The dining room of the nursery children
is next to their bedrooms, so that the children may take naps
immediately after lunch.
The living quarters of the staff were not shown to the
visitor, and she was told that the lay staff members live out­
side the institution.
The playground is quite large with every kind of play
There is a doll house in the playground and the
children take turns playing in the house.
They also ride on
bicycles in the playground.
Administrative control.
The Board of Directors is com­
posed of the people of the community,
is the Sister Superior.
and the Superintendent
The staff membership is composed of
one superintendent, one secretary to the superintendent, one
sister acting as the principal of the school, five school
teachers and one nursery teacher, one social worker, three
clerical workers,
one chaplain, one physician, one dentist,
and one nurse.
The capacity of this institution is 172,
and the present population is 136.
Intake policy.
This institution takes the children from
indigent families, most of them being Catholics, but not all
of them orphans,
even though it is called an orphanage.
are referred to the institution by the County Bureau of Indigent
Relief (B.I.R.) or other agencies.
Every child must go through
a physical examination before admittance.
This includes a
Wassermann test, vaginal smear, and throat culture.
No x-ray
is required.
The per capita cost is $1.21 per day.
The children who
are referred by the county are paid for by the B.I.R., at the
rate of $20.50 per month each.
Those who come from other
counties pay $25 to $30 per month.
There are only a few free
cases, some of them are paid for in part by the parents or the
referring agencies.
They do not give allowances to the children, but the
parents provide spending money for their children.
The visiting hours are on Saturday afternoons from one
o 1clock and Sundays from 9 a.m.
During these periods the parents
may visit their children, or take them home to spend the week­
end, if they wish.
This institution has its own school, from
nursery up to the eighth grade.
Vi/hen the children finish the
eighth grade they are referred to other institutions, or go
back to their homes.
eighth grade.
Very few children can stay through the
All children must wear uniforms in class.
uniform is made by the institution, the cost being $5.00 a year,
which the parents are expected to pay, if they can afford It.
Music lessons are given to girls who wish them, at a
cost of 50 cents for one lesson.
There is no free instruction
in music.
Sources of income.
The chief source of income is the
Los Angeles Community Chest; the second source is from taxes;
the third source is from the county; and the fourth is from
the parents.
According to the figures given by the Community
Chest’s report, $>31,652. 10 was given to this institution for
For recreation there is radio, story read­
ing, music, dramatics, and weekly movies, in addition to the
outdoor activities.
Last Christmas, a gentleman gave them a
motion picture projection machine, so they have had a weekly
movie since then.
They get free films from M.G.M. Company and
the pictures are well selected, having an educational value to
the children,
such as, ■‘Boys’ Town'1 and Shirley Temple’s pic­
ture s ♦
The W.P.A. Federal Music Project once gave a musical
program for the children.
to give them entertainment.
Occasionally a magician has come
As a whole,
the children receive
entertainment rather than participating themselves in the recre­
ational program.
The institution has a bus which takes the children to
the beach.
During the summer, they try to arrange an oppor­
tunity for each child to be placed in a foster home, or to go
to a camp.
Medlcal care.
They have no hospital., but there is one
informary with a nurse.
A part-time physician comes to the
institution once a week and stays for half a day each time.
A dentist is also coming, once a week, to give half-day service.
Correctional works are given through community health agencies.
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